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MAY/JUNE 86 $3.00 
VOL.2 NO.4 


FOR ALL TIMEX AND SINCLAIR COMPUTERS 





EXPAND 


Your Sinclair’s Potential! _ 


*A floppy disc-like 
DIRECTORY for your 
cassettes 

*MC Tape Header Reader 

' *TS/ZX Program Chaining 


*Reader Tips 


*Much More! 











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While other computer companies 
talk about bringing the power of 
computing within reach of ordinary 
people someday soon, the Sinclair 
QL puts extraordinary power into 
their grasp, today. The power of the 


avail. on the IBM and 
retail for $695.00. 





The QL delivers up to 512 x 256- 
pixel full-color resolution or black- 
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with either a monitor or an ordinary 
TV. It has two RS-232C serial inter- 
faces and accepts joystick cursor 


Mie. = 
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define relationships, extract data 
and reorganize it, do statistical and 
accounting calculations, and more 
A spreadsheet program so simple 
to use you can do a complete 
“what-if” calculation in a single 


« 
32-bit architecture of the Motorola control. keystroke. And a graphics program 
i S f 12 with 32-bit speed to create spectac- : 
ee a ome ee Included with the QL are four | : P | P 
RAM, expandable to 640K. Of two ular and immediate effects for 
sophisticated, powerful and easy- f 


built-in Sinclair Microdrives for 
mass storage. Of networking. Of 
a full-size QWERTY keyboard. 
And of an operating system that 
accommodates windows and even 
multi-tasking. 


to-use programs. A word processing 
program with the power and sim- 
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256 data fields, in which you can 


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The price for all this power? That 


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NOW 
THE SINCLAIR QL 
HAS OUR” 
FULL SUPPORT. 

















A*+Computer Response proudly announces their 
complete American support for the Sinclair QL and 
these fully authorized dealers: 


¢ Russell Electronics * RMG Enterprises © T.E.J. Computer Products ¢ Sharp’s Inc. 


Red Mill Rd. 1419.5 Seventh St. 859 N. Virgil Ave. Route 10, Box 459 
Center Hall, PA 16828 Oregon City, OR 97405 Los Angeles, CA 90029 Mechanicsville, VA 23111 
814-364-1325 903-655-7484 213-669-1418 804-746-1644 

¢ Curry Computer ¢ Foundation ea Sunset Electronics ¢ SCAD/ware 
9344 Banff Lane 17620 26 Mile Rd. 2254 Taraval St. Route 16, Box 37 
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602-978-2902 313-781-5800 415-665-8330 301-228-7910 

¢ Pyramid Electronics © Harry S. Walters * Knighted Computers ¢ Brice Road Pharmacy 
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Sarasota, FL 33581 Trumbull, Ct. 06611 Fulton, NY 13069 Reynoldsburg, OH 43068 
813-922-9574 315-593-8219 614-861-3600 








A Computer esponse 


Prompt, Professional Sales & Service 


69-B Island St. ® Keene, N.H. 03431 © (603) 357-1800 





We have purchased the entire remaining 
stock from the publisher. When this 
great book Is gone, no more wil! be 
published. Reserve your copy today! 





Current! 
for $24. 















GET 
BOTH 
“‘Control 
Things” 
and 
té 7X8 l 95 
Package 
® For Only 

$10.00 


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5 


MORE RESOURCES FOR YOUR SINCLAIR 
FROM TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE COMPANY... 


Contol Things 
With Your 
Timex Sinclair 

By Robert L. Swarts 


1500 to work. Control al | 
sorts of things around the 
house: turn on IIghts and 
appliances remotely, mon- 
itor temperature in one or 
more locations. Build a 
programmable |/0 port. 
This book shows you how, 
plus many more projects. 
Also several chapters on 


"controlling things." 
While this book addresses 
the T/S 1000/2ZX81, many 
applications would be of 
interest To the 2068 user 
as well. 183 illustrated 


pages. Only 
$5.00 


Postage Paid 


ZX81: 
Programming For 
Real Applications 
By Randle Hurley 


Includes 12 Software Programs 
on a Cassette Tape 


Tired of zapping aliens? Want to 
really use your T/S 1000/1500 or 
ZX81? Then this book and soft- 
ware package Is for you. Many 
practical programs to use on the 
Sinclair, that will do "real" 
jobs In a variety of environ- 

| ments: data-base, educational 
m programs, financial programs, 
and a word processor. Book has 
164 pages. 


Book and Tape 
$6.00 


Postage Paid 


availlable at book stores 
+ Look at our low price... 





Send Check or M/O To: 
Sorry... No Credit Cards orders. 


TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE CO. 
29722 Hult Rd —. Colton, OR 97017 
Telephone: (503) 824-2658 


Put that spare T/S 1000 or J 


how to write software for | 


The Offical 


TIMEX SINCLAIR 
2068 TECHNICAL MANUAL 


Now in Stock! 


TECHNICAL 
MANUAL 


TIMEX SINCLAIR 
2068 

PERSONAL 

COLOR COMPUTER 





Published by The Time Designs Magazine Co. 


2nd Edition 
Features Many 
Improvements 


* Full Color Cover 
* Spiral Bound 


* More Readable 
Text 


* Reworked Diagrams 
and all ‘‘known’’ 
corrections are made. 


We have recently acquired the exclusive publishing 
rights to the 2068 TECHNICAL MANUAL from the Timex 
Corporation. This Is the same reference aia 
they offered for a short time. However 

edition is an improved product. The 2068 TECHNICAL 
MANUAL is for any T/S 2068 owner who Is Interested 
In hardware applications and advanced programming. 
Contains a wealth of information, diagrams, charts 
and a full-size schematic diagram of the 2068 PC 
board bound right in the book. Over 300 pages in 
all! We offer the 2068 TECHNICAL MANUAL for the 
same price that Timex did. This is not a photo- 
copied document, but a professionally printed 
book. Now In stock for immediate shipment. 


Only $25 Postage Paid 








| 


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att ama"e" teen ‘ 

‘en eet al ! 
. S| 












“a 2. fo 2 
oo ee ee | 
ane aT eta"a" 6! 
ise = " 
- - oe 








MAGAZINE 


MAY/JUNE 86 





TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE CO. 
29722 Hult Rd.e Colton, Oregon 97017 


(S03) 824-2658 


| 


TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE is published bi- 
monthly and is Copyright © 1986 by the Time 
Designs Magazine Company, Colton, Oregon 
97017. All rights reserved. 


Editor: Tim Woods 
Assistant Editor: Stephanie Woods 
Editorial Assistant/Production: D.L. Woods 


Photography: 

(unless otherwise noted): Thomas Judd 
Printing by; Toad’! Litho Printing and Comp., 
Oregon City, Oregon 97045 


SUBSCRIPTIONS: $15 a year for six issues (US 
funds only). No extra charge to Canadian 
subscribers. All other countries please write for 
information on air mail rates. 


CUSTOMER SERVICE: Customer satisfaction is 
our goal. For subscription service problems 
please write or call TIME DESIGNS. 


CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Write or call to prevent 
delay of sevice, 


Reproduction of this magazine in whole or in 
part by any means without written permission is 
prohibited by law 


TIIitTirity | 
TIT T TTT tT 
SSeS ebaeuugea 
SBS SB Seat 





“NOTICE: Contributors to TIME DESIGNS are independent 
of the TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE CO., and opinions ex- 
pressed in the contents of the magazine are not necessarily 
those of the management or its advertisers. Time Designs 
Magazine Co. will not be held liable for any damage or conse- 
quences resulting from instructions, assertions of fact, 
review of products or companies provided in the magazine's 
content." 














oe | 
| 


) / Editor’s 
Corner 


= Ps, HH. 
€ “a 


It's been a very busy two months. We 
went out on the road, embarked on a new sub- 
scription drive, went into the book pub- 
lishing business, and prepared to add an 
additional 850 square feet of storage and 
work space to our operations. 

I have especially enjoyed the letters 
we have received. Your suggestions and notes 
of encouragement have helped to decide the 
upcoming format of TIME DESIGNS. I think 
that you will welcome some of the planned 
improvements...more T/S 1000 info (continued 
coverage of the 2068/Spectrum and QL). There 
will be articles and columns for a variety 
of special interests like the operation of 
full-size printers, hardware modifications, 
and programming tricks. And let's face it, 
not everyone owns a floppy disk system. 
There are some very good alternatives like 
the Sinclair Microdrive, Rotronics Wafa- 
drive, A&J Micro Drive, and yes, even the 
Old reliable cassette (check out Michael 
Carver's excellent cassette utility in this 
issue). We want to offer tips on all types 
of mass-storage medium. 

Have you been following along in our 
Classified ad section? All subscribers can 
place one free personal ad in each issue. 
More details can be found in that section. 
Our Classifieds have been growing. In fact, 
we now have more Sinclair-related ads than a 
large popular "buy, sell, and trade" conm- 
puter tabloid. I recently obtained a program 
that is advertised in the Classifieds called 
the "Money Machine" by Herb Bowers. It is a 
word game similar to the "Wheel Of Fortune" 
TV game show. I was impressed with the de- 
tail that Mr. Bowers included in his’ game. 
Folks, there's treasure in them thar pages. 
Check out the Classifieds. 


Renewal Time? 


Keep America's foremost Sinclair magazine coming to your 
door (and help our overworked secretary too!). An early 
renewal Is appreciated. Simply send a check or MO for 
$15.00 and state that it is for a renewal. If you happen 
to have a label from the envelope your magazine came in, 
send it along too. Your subscription expiration date is | 
on this label. And just in case you forget, our sec- | 
retary will send you a reminder notice. Thanks for your 
continued support. 





“As I have a Spectrum +, Interface One, two Micro- 
drives, Beta Plus DDI (with Amdek III), a working 2050 
attached, a rather large assortment of Spectrum software 
and subscriptions to 4 UK Spectrum-dedicated magazines, I 
tend to regard myself to be a Spectrum buff. Therefore, I 
would like to offer this selection of my favorite 1985 
Spectrum favorites. The following programs are not in a 
specific order, they are all great.” 


. Artworx (Novelsoft/Zebra) 
Fairlight (The Edge) 

Tomahawk (Digital Integration) 

. Beta Basic 3.0 (BetaSoft) 

. Music Typewriter (Romantic Robot) 
. Dun Darach (Gargoyle Games) 

. Monepoly (Leisure Genius) 
Everyone's A Wally (Mikro-Gen) 
Frankie Goes To Hollywood (Ocean) 
Astronomy II (CP Software) 


7 


Ow my Ow & Ww pap = 


te 


Ian F. Robertson 
Islington, Ontario 
Canada 


Dear Sir: 


“I've just read your response to Byron DeFries on 
page 3 of the March/April issue. There mav be a bit more 
of a problem than you mention. You are right about’ the 
frequency difference (50 vs 60Hz) but that is minor, and 
most self-respecting transformers are specced from 47 to 
63 Hz to cover it. The need for a new transformer (or 
adaptor) arises because the British line runs about 230 
VAC compared to our 117. 

The big problem I forsee is that the British tele- 
vision uses a different scan pattern and frequency from 
the American one...625 lines by 50 frames. Also, without 
checking, the channel frequencies may be different. Thus 
plugging into a British TV won't work. Using a video 
monitor obtained in the U.K. may have a similar problem. 
Here, the monitors follow the U.S. 525 line 60 frame 
television pattern. (One likes to make the frame rate the 
same as the line frequency to reduce the demand for power 
filtering and isolation.) If the UK video monitor follows 
their TV standards, the 2068 won't work through that de- 
vice without modifications either. Now, I haven't torn 
into my 2068 and looked, but it's possible that there's a 
jumper change that will adapt the machine for the British 
(or other European) standards.” 


David Mc Lanahan 
Marlow, NH 


EDITOR: On, Ma. DeFades could try to hook-up his 2068 to 
a Sinclain Pocket TV. It'S compatible with both British 
and American standards. 1 understand someone has accomp- 
Lished this successfully...afthough they are wearing 
thacken Lenses now, 


“I purchased an FD-68 Disk Drive I/F from AERCO in 
December, 1985. The system disk they sent me was un 
readable, and it was returned to them in December for a 
replacement. I waited very patiently until the first of 
February, at which time I decided to call them (perhaps 
they had not received my letter?). 

I spoke to a Phil [at AERCO], and was very upset by 
his attitude. I was advised that he had been busy doing 
‘other more profitable projects’ and that he really did 
not want the Timex business. I was quite upset. After 
speaking with Rod Gowen of RMG Enterprises [an AERCO 
dealer in my area], I was advised to speak to Jerry at 
AERCO... 


The first of March I was again on the phone to 
AERCO. This time | was able to speak to Jerry, who was 
very accommodating. Jerry apologized and sent a new disk 
out the same day, Air Express. Unfortunately, it was also 
unreadable. 

I then spoke to Jerry again. He shipped me a 5.25" 
disk drive and disk, set up as drive C, for me to make my 
own copy. This was also sent Air Express! I ended up 
getting a copy from Jack Dohany, a programmer in Calif- 
ornia, and did not need to use the drives sent to me by 
AERCO. However, their efforts were extraordinary. 

I am writing [this letter], as I was very vocal 
about poor service and attitude, and aware of others 
having the same problem, 45s evidenced in our recent user 
group newsletter. However, I cannot say enough good 
things about how I was treated by Jerry. I therefore con- 
clude that AERCO is really concerned about our business 
as well as servicing us after the fact. I would however 
suggest anyone who has a problem with AERCO should talk 
to Jerry...not Phil! 

Unfortunately, a ‘comedy of errors' such as I[ ex- 
perienced can ruin a company's reputation. I have pur- 
chased other AERCO products in the past and will do so 
again. I felt after all my complaining, I should tell the 
whole story. Especially, the happy ending. 

I hope you chose to publish this as I feel we owe 
the companies supporting our computers some good words. 
It always seems easy to criticize, yet hard to praise.” 


Syd wyncoop 
Portland, OR 


EDITOR: Your fast sentence hit the "bulfseye". AS a con- 
sumer, there seems to be mo excuse 40% poor sevice and 
(gasp) mistakes. But as a small business owner, I know 
what goes on “behind the scenes". Often just a couple of 
empfoyees are weaning the hats of several dozen workers. 
The word "busy" <4 an understatement! I feel that the 
majority of our T/S vendors fake customer satisfaction 
serious£y. If mot, I don't think they would be dong 
buscness for Long...but remember, we all mess up once in 
awhile. 


“I have Found the Burglar Alarm program in the last 
[March/April] issue of TDM to be a useful addition to my 
TS 2068. However, I have found one problem. Generally 
speaking, when the program is loaded with the loop 
closed, the joystick port appears to be stuck in the l's 
position (pin 1 to pin 8 closure). The program fails to 
recognize when an open occurs. If the program is loaded 
with the loop open, the system functions correctly. This 
situation may be unique to my own computer. However, I 
suspect that this is a flaw in the software. 

The problem is that the closed loop indicator that 
{s written into Register 14 of the PSG during the load 
procedure, cannot be cleared when the loop is later 
opened. The solution is to either load the circuit with 
the loop open, or clear Register 14 when the program is 
executed. I chose the latter solution. In the enclosed 
program(s), line 35 is used to call the machine code 
routine that clears Register 14 of the PSG. Line 15 calls 
the routine that POKE's the routine into high memory 
(lines 200-250). I have also shown the mnemonic listing 
of the machine code routine. Addresses FFEOQ through FFE6 
enable Register 7 of the PSG and set bit 6 in the 
register. Setting bit 6 in Register 7 enables I/O Port A 
(Register 14) of the PSG for output. Addresses FFE8 
through FFED enables and zeros Register 14 of the PSG. 
The remainder of the routine re-addresses Register 7 and 
clears bit 6. This re-enables I/O Port A (Register 14) o* 
the PSG for input. 


0 EO —— ltt 


I have shown two versions of the program. The short 
program is a modified version of the program on page 20 
of the March/April issue of TDM. The long program is an 
auto~loading, user-friendly version. This version is de=- 
signed so that my wife and children can easily load and 
use the program. The last attachment provides a summary 
of my findings. If other readers have had a similar ex- 
periences with the program, perhaps this information will 
be useful.” 


a 


User Friendly Version 


3@ RES Time Cetrigrt Mer arr #£f 


18 GO SUE 2£0¢ 
ee INPUT “mit (En EF to acta. 











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TERRIFIC TIPS 





Tip #4- Substitutions: Many tokens on the ZX/TS computers 
have numeric values and will be interpreted as such while 
& program is running. Since tokens are usually stored in 
a single byte whiie numbers take up 6 bytes or so, this 
trick can save quite a bit of space at the expense cf 
slowing down the speed at which the program runs. For 


example, rather than “LET 2=0", LET Z= “NOT PI", “SIN 
a BY: ZXTS PI", or “TAN Pi”. Likewise, SGN PI = 1, INT PI = 3, COS 
Sonscecen| PI = -1, PEEK NOT PI = 211, PEEK PI = 255, PEEK PEEK PI = 





135, LEN STRS PI = 9, CODE STR$ PI = 3], INT EXP PI = 23, 
and PEEK PEEK RND = 209. No doubt there are plenty more 
of these, and for numbers such as ?, which 1 have not 


Quick Tip #l- Next time you have some epoxv mixed up, found an expression for yet, use the function VAL. In- 
take the time to giue the key into the slot on vour edge stead of LET X = 2, LET X = VAL "2". A whole equation can 
connectors (RAM Packs, ect.) by placing just a bit of also be surrounded by VAL, such as LET Z = VAL “2+ 
glue at the top and bottom end of the key. I've had a few (404/17)". You will be suprised at the memory saved by 
of these fall out and the results of misaligning a RAM utilizing this trick. 

| pack could be disastrous when you power up. (Sinclair Tip #5- Word Substitutes: In Print statements, strings 
Canada does this on all their 16K RAMs.) and prompts, use keywords and tokens to save memory also. 
Quick Tip #2- If you are using Radic Shack TP-10 Printer Instead of a line like- 20 PRINT “ENTER TODAY'S DATE”, 
Paper (Cat. No. 26-1332) in your 2040 printer, put two use- 20 PRINT “INPUT TODAY'S DATE”, which saves 4 bytes. 
pennies at each end of the roll to keep the smaller TP-10 Do this by using the keyword THEN after the first quote 
roll feeding evenly. (How's that for a cheap fix?) mark, typing the I key for INPUT, and then deleting the 
Quick Tip #3- If you are still experiencing RA™ pack THEN token. Since it is within the quote marks, the 
wobbie and the resulting “white-out", place some rubber computer simply prints it. AND, STOP, THEN, NOT, FAST and 
or felt “sticky pads” under the rear two feet of ycur RUN are also good candidates to use in this way. Ex- 
ZX/TS. This allows the RAM pack to hang off the edge periment with these and have fun. 
connector, thus not wiggling loose as you press the key- 
board. Anthony Willing 








Printer Tips 


Gorilla Banana 


“If I teld you that it was possible to get 100 
ribbons for your printer for the price of one, would you 
be interested? 

As most of you, I have been frustrated with the cost 
and availability of ribbons. The way my printer runs, I 
have been known to use up more than a ribbon a week. 
Sometimes I run them until the print is barely legible. 

I began to think that spending $7.95 on ai ribbon 
that is only about 24" long, was a real waste of money. 
Consequently, I began to experiment with alternative 
pessibilities. 

The outcome of my experimentation, is a simple, 
fast wav tc re-ink the fabric. And, since each re-inking 
takes only about four drops of ink, one bottle of ink car 
certainly re-ink more than 100 ribbons. However, the ink 
i used is not a standard office supply item that one can 
find at the corner stere, but a special ink designed only 
for inking ribbons. 


In order to buy the ink at a reasonable price, one 
Was Teguirec to buy gallen lots...hardly the thing most 
ef us want to de. 


After discussing my idea with Rod Gowen of RMG 
Enterprises (1419 1/2 *th St., Oregon City, OR 97045), 
Rec @greed te package a kit containing enough ink to do 
100 ribbons, applicator swabs, plastic “ageire 

c instructions for $7.95 plus §2.00 shipping 
the price of one store-bought ribbon). 

If you decide to try one of these kits, remeber that 
there are some tricks te getting the re-inking to work 
properly and evenly. Ss follow the instructions to the 
jetter. 

I'm sure that if vou own a Gorilla Banana or clone, 
you will find this kit to be the bargain of the year.” 


7 ao F 
i@a:® : ie 


Vincent Lyon 


GE TXP-1000 


“I recently solved the code for usine the GE 3-81004 
(TXP1000) Letter Quality Printer with the AERCO printer 
interface. You use the pr-= coder as described in the 
instructions, then do the POKES regeuired te use RAND USER 
64844 to COPY as the instructions svzresit, then use the 
following POKE's, and it will work grea:: 

POKE 64785,22 (Copy function Variable Line Spacing) 
POKE 64836,24 (Printer Reset) 


from Zebra Systems, Inc.) for this printer, the changes 
are as follows: 


I have also modified ZPRINI (‘rtrinter utility scftware 


use Epson Rx/Fx code (#5) 
POKE 64601,24 (Printer Rese*) 


POKE 64617,51 (Variable Line Spacing for wide screen 
POKE 64618,16 copy) 


POKE 64625,51 (Variable Line Spacing for regular copy) 
POKE 64626, 22 


POKE 64633,68 (Horizontal Tab for regular copy 17 is the 
POKE 64634,17 left margin so change as you desire) 
POKE 64636,9 


Also of interest, you can POKE 64801,76 and pet a 
width regular screen copy. This is mermaliv 75--75=466¢ 
bit graphics mode and /6=96C bit graphics r:< : 


half- 


Licvd C. Bowen Jr 


ss siaclliaslniiasliaciiaiiedieasiactasiadasiastatadiadedbeteteseiadatatakstad ttt k tt tt tt tet LLL TTT 


7h P woe i NG. THE 2. BRA GRAPH TES 


FG. F West 


inslinsMiaslicstiasinsMaiaestartetadadasieesiadidetadediadetetedatuabtatada ttt tt tt tte tt LLL TL 


Users of the Zebra Graphics Tablet will have neo 
doubt noticed the annoying behavior that I will term 
“Spray”. lf you don't press the stylus against the tablet 
very firmly, you get a wild spray of dots. 

You may have alse noticed that the “Spray” tends to 
be directed towards the center of the tablet. This is be- 
cause there are a pair of centering resistors which cause 
tablet readings to return to center when there is no con- 
tact with the graphics tablet. The “Spray” phenomena is 
essentially micro seperations of stylus contact. The 
duration of these micro seperations is very short but the 
cursor instantly centers on each seperation event, there- 
fore causing the “Spray”. 

By eliminating the instant centering of the tablet 
you wiil be eliminating the “Spray” phenomena. You can do 
this by removing two resistors and replacing them with 
0.1 uf capacitors. Te do this follow the instructions 
below... 

1) Place the tablet upside down and remove 7 screws. 

2) Carefully separate bottom of tablet from top. Un- 

plug two connections from the pc board inside. 

3) Unscrew the pe beard from bottom of the tablet. 

4) Desolder the two resistors indicated in the 

diarram. 

5) Selder two 0.1] uf ceramic disc capacitors inte 

the vacated resistor locations. 
Put your graphics tablet back together (this may be a bit 
tricky’ and try it out. You will notice a signigicant 
improvement in performance. 


a 
REeMeve avD 
REPLACE WITH 







COMPONENT 
SIDE 





Special Report: 


AMSTRAD BUYS SINCLAIR, 


On Tuesday, April 86th, the news was 
out...Sir Clive Sinclair had sold his home 
computer technology and company name to a 
one-time rival, Amstrad Consumer Electronics 
PLC. The transaction has been called the 
"end of an era in British Computers". 


While the sale was unexpected, close 
observers of the U.K. computer market were 
not completely suprised. Sinclair had been 
operating in the red for over a year, and 
just recently rescheduled its overdue debt. 
Major creditors included Barclays Bank and 
the Timex Corporation. Sir Clive, in recent 


interviews had expressed dissatisfaction in 
the marketing end of the computer business. 
"I always said I was an inventor," he said. 
"Once a product is developed, I want to get 
out." 

TIME DESIGNS had been investigating an 
unusual situation that was occuring at the 
Boston office of Sinclair Research, when the 
sale was announced to the press. No one _ had 
been anwering the telephone...and a rumor 
had it that the office had moved to New 
Hampshire. A call to the Boston telephone 
company confirmed that their phone lines had 
been disconnected. 

It is evident, that Amstrad, who has 
been having a successful year in the con- 
sumer electronics market, wanted an entire 
corner on the home computer market. The 
prime justification for the the $7.3 million 
acquisition of Sinclair. Alan Sugar, chair- 
man of Amstrad commented that the Sinclair 
line of computers, less-expensive models 
mainly designed for home use, would comple- 
ment Amstrad's line of business’ oriented 
computers and word processors (which are 
less entertainment oriented). 

The Sinclair deal includes the use of 
the Sinclair brand name and the world-wide 
rights to sell and make Sinclair computer 
products. These include the current Spectrum 
models, and some other computers that were 
scheduled for future release. At press time, 
the Sinclair QL was still up in the air. It 
has been widely published, Alan Sugar's dis- 
pleasure of the QOL. An Amstrad spokesperson 
told Time Designs that "the QL was never the 
success that Sir Clive had intended...our 
marketing department is taking a long, hard 
look at the QL...before any decision will be 
reached". It should be pointed out that 
Amstrad's own small business-type computer, 
the 128K PC, caters to the same market as 
the QL. A recent American deal with sears, 
will give the Amstrad models a big boost in 
sales. 


(eee = a 5 ee EE ee ee 


| oe | et || N S Ouwor 










Sir Clive, and 


has retained the rights 
interests to the Microdrive wafer technology 
and the C-5 experimental vehicle, among some 


other technologies. The flat-screen pocket 
TV marketing and manufacturing rights were 
given to Timex to pay-off an outstanding 
debt. When all of the transactions are 
complete, Sinclair Research "won't owe any 
money and will have some assets," Sir Clive 
has stated. 


A new company is being formed by sir 


Clive, which will do research for other 
companies on a contract basis. Most of Sin- 
clair's key engineers and researchers will 


go with Sir Clive. One project that had been 
previously hinted at before the sale to 
Amstrad, was an inexpensive portable tele- 
phone using cellular phone technology. Also, 
it is known that Sir Clive has privately ex- 
pressed interest in developing his very own 
revolutionary computer system...considering 
that his other computers had gone in other 
directions than intended. Haven't we heard 
this one before? 

As for Amstrad, they will continue to 
sell Spectrums (Plus and 128K models) until 
existing contracts with suppliers have ex- 
pired...then will shift manufacturing to 
their own factories. When Time Designs asked 
Amstrad recently, if they intended to bring 
the Spectrum to the U.S., a spokesperson 
replied, "Not at this time, but Amstrad has 
always had a policy of...if a market exists, 
we'll be there." It was then immediately 
pointed out that 100,000 or more Spectrum's 
were already in use in America...in the form 
of the Timex/Sinclair 2068. 

The British Sinclair market appears to 
be un-daunted for the time being. There are 
stock-piles of computers and related s/w and 
h/w in warehouses. Enough to keep the market 
going for some time. After that, it's up to 
Amstrad, or perhaps Sir Clive (?). 

“As a last note, the much discussed 
Sinclair C-5 electric three-wheel vehicle 
(sold for a short time in the U.S.), will 
briefly appear on American Network TV. The 
popular Late Nite With David Letterman Show 
on NBC will feature the high-tech "tricycle" 
in a futuristic comedy spoof called "The 
Regulator Guy". Actor/comedian Chris Elliott 
will drive the C-5 around the _ stage. 


=e we a SE ee Se SS 


QL GETS A* SUPPORT 


The American version of the Sinclair QL 
has been rescued. A Keene, New Hampshire 
firm, A+ COMPUTER RESPONSE, has purchased 
the entire U.S. inventory of QL's and will 
be distributing the computers to a network 
of 12 established T/S dealers. A+ Computer 
Response is a PC and small systems. sales, 
service and consulting company in the New 
England area. Close ties with Nigel Searle 
(former marketing director of Sinclair), 
brought the U.S. QOL market to the attention 
of A+ managers, George and Carol Whitham, 
which eventually led to the Sinclair deal. 

A+ Computer Response has announced to 
their OL dealers that there are adequate a | 
supplys of computers and peripheral support Carol Whitham, General Manager of A+ Computer Response | 
to last several years. They will also pursue of Keene, N.H., shakes hands with Terry Shurwood of 
the possibility of securing additional OL Sinclair Research Ltd., Cambridge, England after their 


: agreement was finalized for The purchase of the entire 
stock in the future. inventory of American QL's. 


MID-WEST TS COMPUTERFEST 


Reported by Tim Woods 








The Mid-West TS Computerfest held in 
Cincinnati, Ohio on May 3rd and 4th was a 
great success, and enjoyed by all those who 
attended. It was the largest assemblage of 
Sinclair dealers, services and nationally- 
known personalities ever. One individual 
commented that he had attended the Boston TS 
Celebration in 1983, and preferred the Mid- 
West show, as it was geared more to the user 
and after-market dealer (since the Timex 
Corporation had dominated the Boston event). 

The large Ramada Inn at I-75 and Sharon 
Rd. was the location of the TS Computerfest. 
Over twenty exhibitors were featured in the 
main convention room. Another smaller room 
was used for special guest speakers and 
displays. The official Hospitality Suite was 





open on Saturday for informal gatherings. Ray Payne and Joe Ayello of Knighted Computers were 
Good conversation, advice and computing tips very successful at The Computerfest, selling more new 
abounded. computers (QL's) than any other dealer present. Also 

There seemed to be a little something pis Re lg pig new software for the 2068 will be 


for everyone. The TS Connection had a table 
with surplus 2068 and ZX81 spare parts...for 
those who like to dabble with the soldering 
iron. The Zebra Systems booth was always 
crowded, since they had brought a van-load 
of TS computer merchandise (many items at 
great prices). There was a booth that had a 
home-brew banked-memory board for the 2068, 
with a reported 12 meg. bytes. A QL mouse 
was demonstrated at the Russell Electronics 
exhibit. Dave Maccarone of Damco Enterprises 
featured his excellent new Spectrum Rainbow 
Interface and the Wafadrive system. Some of 
the users groups were supplying free "public 
domain" software for the price of a cassette 
tape. 

. There was so much more at the Mid-West 
TS Computerfest...more than we have _ space 
for. I would like to thank the Computerfest 
committee for the fine job of sponsoring the 





ie 


, : Jerr Champk | f of AERCO ave an Informal demonstration 
event. I understand that another show is on oh disk trouble-shooting, shown here at the 
already being planned for next year. I can TS Computer fest Hospitality Suite. AERCO also demoed 


hardly wait! ; their new CP/M system for the 2068. 


qa we 


reat 2 








Host Gary Solomon of Brice Road Pharmacy (a OL dealer) A correspondent for the Wall Street Journal meets Mark 
introduces George and Carol Whitham of A+ Computer Fendrick, a correspondent for the U.K. magazine, ZX 
Response, who donated a complete QL package (computer, Computing Monthly. The Wall Street Journal will run 


monitor and printer) for a door prize...a $900 value. an article about the Computer fest. 









An attendee browses at the Time Designs booth. The new The gang from Zebra Systems, Inc. (left to right: pro- 
2068 Technical Manual (published exclusively by Time grammer Jeff Street, general manager Stewart Newfeld, 
Designs) was premiered at the Computerfest, and re- and Stewart's brother Bil! filled in for the weekend) 
ceived quite a bit of attention. sport their large and diversified product line. 





% Ls = 





These three smiling gents are members of The Greater 
Cleveland Sinclair Users Group. Several other groups 


from Ohio, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Indiana also had 
displays. 


Tom Woods demonstrates one of his new experimenter 
boards to a customer at the Syncware News booth. Tom 


also gave a talk on filing-type programs during one of 
Sundays small group sessions. 





Product/ Dealer News 


E. Arthur Brown Co., 3404 Pawnee Dr., 
Alexandria, MN 56308, (612) 762-8847; has 
secured the publishing rights to HACKER'S 


HANDBOOK in the U.S. This best-selling book 
from Great Britain is a resource and tech- 
nical reference guide to telecomputing. Only 
$12.95 plus $1.95 S&H. 

New Larken Disk Drive Interface Board 
for ZX-81/TS 1000/1500. Controller board is 


Similar to Larken 2068 Disk I/F, but has 
a custom DOS for the ZX-81, and is reported 
to be user friendly. Board requires double- 


sided 5.25" drive. Price: $95.00 (U.S.) for 
single drive board, or $99.00 for 2 drive 
capacity. $4.00 for drive cable (all other 


cables are supplied); plus $5.00 S&H. Larken 
Electronics, RR#2 Navan Ontario, Canada, 
K4B-1H9. 

Zebra Systems, Inc., 78-06 Jamaica Ave, 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 (718) 296-2385; intro- 
duced two new programs for the 2068 at _ the 
Mid-West TS Computerfest..."The Banner De- 
signer" and "The Sign Designer". Combined 
with the previously available Greeting Card 
Designer program, there are three members of 
to Zebra's Graphics Design Series. With a 
full-size dot matrix printer and a 2068, it 
is possible to design and create custom 84"x 
11" signs, banners and greeting cards. The 
programs are priced at $19.95 each (plus $3 
for total order S&H). Zebra Systems also in- 
formed TIME DESIGNS that they are extending 


the sale and special pricing featured in 
their yellow Anniversary Sale flyer, until 
the end of June. 

Weymil Corporation, Box 5904, Belling- 
ham, Washington 98227; has a comprehensive 
high-resolution graphics software package 
for the Timex Sinclair 1000, called THRUST. 
Thrust features both on-screen hi-res and 
2040 printer hi-res graphics. The package 
includes both "Sincartist 1.3" and "Sinc- 


artist HR" on one cassette tape for $20 ppd. 
The Thrust package comes with complete doc- 
umentation, and is compatible with Paul 
Hunter's memory board. 

New address, and new Sinclair catalog 
available from: Variety Sales, 325 W. Jersey 
St. #2D, Elizabeth, NJ 07027 (201) 289-5699, 

Free Sinclair QL software and hardware 
catalog (very nicely illustrated) available 
upon request. Write to: EMC (English Micro 





| South Eastern Michigan Computer Organization 
(SEMCO ) 

P.O. Box 02426 
Detroit, MI 48202 
Contact: 








| Amarillo, 


| c/o David Baulch 





| Hampton Roads T/S Users Group 
c/o David Alford 










Users Group Update 


Has your Timex Sinclair (or Sinclair Timex) Users Group 
been mentioned in a past [ssue of TIME DESIGNS? We have 
brought together both interested users and active users 
roups. Send information about your group to: TDM, 
9722 Hult Rd., Colton, OR 9/017. 


Liam Neary 





Chicago Area Timex Sinclair Users Group 
(CATSUG) 


| c/o Gary Lessenberry 


1885A Yorktown Ave. 
Great Lakes, IL 60088 
(312) 473-9415 

or contact: 

Mark Biery 


| 741 Dunbar 


Beecher, IL 60401 
(312) 946-6892 


Amarillo Timex Sinclair Users Group 
c/o Joe Jenkins 

| 3100 Mockingbird 
TX 79109 


T/SUG of Fort Worth, TX 


4424 Geddes Ave. 
Fort Worth, TX 76107 


112 Kohler Cres. 
Newport News, VA 23606 
Indiana Sinclair 
c/o Frank Davis 


Timex User Group 


| 513 East Main St. 


Peru, IN 46970 
(317) 473-4885 


Greater Cleveland Sinclair Users' Group 
c/o J. G. Dupay (newsletter editor) 
| 6514 Bradley Ave. 
OH 44129 


(dn) 
Parma, 


Misc. 


Connection), 15 Kilburn Ct., Newport, RI 
02840, (401) 849-3805. 
Everett Talavera of the G.U.T.S. DE 


MEXICO (TS Users Group in Mexico City) sends 
the report that Timex of Portugal is coming 
to the Mexican personal computer market. 
Timex representatives met with group members 
and discussed the computer models that will 
be introduced...the Timex 1500 computer (has 
a black case), the Timex 2048 (basically a 
Spectrum in 2068 clothes, with Kempston joy- 
stick I/F built-in, and no cartridge port), 
the Timex 2080 dot matrix printer, and _ the 


10 


with C/PM. 
"If things work out... 


Portuguese 3" Disk Drive System 
Talavera states that, 


they plan to bring the Timex 2068 and the 
[Sinclair] QL." He also added, "They [Timex/ 
Portugal] told us that the first shipment 


was for 10,000 units." Mr. Talavera welcomes 
any correspondence from other Timex Sinclair 
users and users groups. Write to: G.U.T.S5S. 
DE Mexico, Tlaloc #21, Col. Tlaxpana, 
11370, Mexico, D.F. 

























Conk | 


The Super—aQL. 
USING THE SINCLAIR QL WITH GYOK RaM 


by Mike de Sosa 


Used with additional memory, particularly a 512K RAM 
card, the Sinclair QL is transformed, as are its bundled 


software programs. Even though the JSU ROM and Psion goa 
software supplied with the North American version of the 
QL do not take the fullest advantage of additional RAM, 
use of the bundled software is profoundly improved, 
especially if RAMdisk software is employed. Both the 
memory card and various RAMdisk software systems are 


available for a combined price of about $150. 

The following tests were made using a standard North 
American version of the QL equipped with a PCML 512K 
Memory Expansion card. Three versions of RAMdisk software 
were tested, each with distinct advantages and dis- 
advantages: Eidersoft's I.C.E. ROM cartridge used with 
CHOice RAMdisk/multitasking software on Microdrive cart- 
ridge; QUJUMP's (Tony Tebby's) PCML Toolkit version 0.07 
complete on ROM Cartridge; and Qflash's RAMdisk Driver 
.5: 

The PCML RAMpack works excellently and would seem to 
have only two drawbacks: it is extremely difficult to in- 
Stall on the North American version of the QL whose 
peripheral expansion slot seems to have obstructions that 
the European version does not, and it takes considerably 
longer for the copyright screen to appear after "“power- 
on" or resetting the OL. 

I.C.E., for Icon Controlled Environment, is a ROM- 


cartridge program that is supposed to make operation of 
the Sinclair QL “simple and convenient", replacing the 
"mysterious commands" of the QL operating system or QDOS 


with an elaborate “point and click" sequence. The I.C.E./ 
CHOice combination attains full efficiency only when used 
with extra memory and an Ejidersoft "mouse" (hand con- 
troller) which plugs into the ROM Cartridge port. The 
latter is a new addition to the EFidersoft family, and its 
design necessitates that previous I.C.E. Owners return 
their ROM cartridge for credit towards an I.C.E. system- 
cum-mouse. The Eidersoft rodent (not available for test- 
ing) is a three button model, similar to that for the 
Atari ST. 

The CHOice s/w is sold separately on 
CHOice, which included a bonus Archive name 
database and a mailmerge system, may be used as a RAMdisk 
driver without I.C.£. but requires the latter--insofar as 
I could determine--for its currently unique multitasking 
system. This system permits suspending operation on one 
Psion software program, switching rapidly to another 
operating Psion software program (or to the I.C.E. 
facility), and returning to the original program at the 
exact point you left it, with any and a1] loaded files 
intact--a very valuable feature, indeed, but one that 
would be even more useful, if it required less (un- 
documented rigamarole to set it up and if it were some- 
what more flexible in use. 


Microdrive. 
and address 





——<———— 








Programs like I1.C.E. that override a 


computer 's 
basic operating system are sometimes referred to as 
“front end" programs. The I1.C.E. screen display format 
always comes on at “boot-up", regardless of the program 
cartridge used. This means that you can't set the com- 
puter clock or boot a program directly with the 1.C.E. 
cartridge in place. (An option should be given the user-- 


by keying F3 or F4, perhaps--to bypass I1.C.—., which 
slows entry into programs. ) 
The 1.C.E./CHOice documentation contains four or 


five egregious errors and omissions which add unnecessary 
hurdles to the process of learning and familiarizing 


one's self with an already complex and daunting system. 
Following is an abbreviated checklist for using I.C.E. 
“without tears". (Eidersoft technical writers could, no 


doubt, improve upon this checklist, but they should have 
done a lot better in the first place; the nearly uni- 
versal problem of poor documentation continues to plague 
the computer industry at all levels.) 


1. With power to the QL disconnected, 
the I1.C.— ROM-cartridge into the 
QL. 

é. Power up, and familiarize yourself with the 
1.C.E. as described in the I.C.£. User's Manual, 
after the TUM, 


3. Insert the CHOice Microdrive cartridge in Microdrive 1] 
and a blank formatted cartridge in Microdrive 2. (Format- 
ting a cartridge with I.C.E. is discussed on Pages 8-9 of 


insert 
of the 


carefully 
cartridge port 


use of 
here- 


the IUM). 

4. Put the small arrow in the MDV 1. icon (picture) and 
"click" the spacebar twice to bring up the CHOice direc- 
tory. (The IUM uses the word “directory” as a verb to 


describe this process. ) 
5. Put the arrow in the BACKUP area of the function strip 


and click once to prepare ai full backup copy of the 
CHOice cartridge. (This is your backup of the CHOice 
master cartridge which contains 31 files and uses 170 


sectors; this is not your working copy of CHOice.) 


6. Remove the CHOice master cartridge from Microdrive 1, 
store it with the crown jewels, and insert the backup 
master cartridge just prepared in Microdrive 1. Insert 
another blank formatted cartridge in Microdrive 2. Bring 
up the CHOice directory again, Put the arrow in the 
CLONE BAS icon, and click twice. (This copies 17 files 
from the backup master CHOice cartridge onto the RAMdisk/ 
multitasking working copy of CHOice, which you should 
further configure and add to meet your needs. ) 


7. Remove the backup master CHOice cartridge from Micro- 
drive 1 and insert your working copy of CHOice. (To 
instal] RAMdisk software, bring up the CHOice directory 
on MDV 1, put the arrow in the BOOT icon, and click 
twice; when the CHOice menu appears, click once.) 


8. To establish “multitasking” suites--using Psion 
ware or other programs--repeat the above procedure; when 
the CHOice menu appears, position the highlight bar on 
INSTALL TASKS, click once, and follow screen instructions 
as explained in the IUM. 

NOTE: To use RAMdisk with multitasking, the following 
steps must be followed in strict sequence. First, having 
previously installed and saved a multitasking suite of 
one or more Psion software programs and 1.C.E., and 
having reset the QL, (1) execute the BOOT program and 
follow instructions on "Install Ram Disk", (2) execute a 


soft- 


multitasking suite [a "T" file] and follow screen in- 
structions. Third, return to I.C.E. and format and load 
your RAMdisks. (Multitasked programs should not be in- 


cluded on RAMdisks used with multitasking suites; PRINTER 

DAT and HOB files are the only essential Psion software 
Subprograms.) Programs to be multitasked should be con- 
figured for use with RAMdisk using the CONFIG BAS program 
found on the Abacus Microdrive cartridge.) Finally, click 
the QUIT function to return to the Task Controller 
(multitasking) menu. 

Although all four Psion software programs may be 
multitasked simultaneously with I.C.E., only two--or, at 
most, three--can be used together practically. 

Following are a table listing the number of sectors 
required on RAMdisk for various Psion software programs 
and sub-programs, and a proposed scheme for using task 
suites composed of (1) QL Quill--Word Processor and QL 
Archive--Database and (2) QL Abacus--Spreadsheet and QL 
Easel--Business Graphics. (If task suites are not to be 
used, format RAMdisks for the higher value and copy 
essential elements of the Psion software programs on RAM- 
disk.) 

Quill CWP): 


52330 bytes, Sek, 104% sectors 


printer_dat: 142 bytes, 1/2K, 1 sector 


quil hob: 6128 bytes, BK, 16 sectors 


FORMAT RAM1_2@S or FORMAT RAM1_1e5 


Archive (DB): S2@3168 bytes, Sek, 104% sectors 


printer_dat: 76 bytes, 1/cK, 1 sector 


arch_hob: 312@3¢ bytes, 31K, Ge sectors 


FORMAT RAM2_6S5 or FORMAT RAM2_170 


Abacus (SS): 51784 bytes, S1K, 102 sectors 


printer_dat: 113 bytes, 1/cexK, 1 sector 


aba hob: 20992 bytes, 21K, 2 sectors 


config bas: 7995 bytes, 8K, 16 sectors 


FORMAT RANS_4S (61) or FORMAT RAMN3_165 


Easel (BG): 62684 bytes, 6eK, 1ec4% sectors 


gprint_prt: 5e0 bytes, eK, ‘% sectors 


easel hob: 17408 bytes, 17K, 34 sectors 


FORMAT RAMY _4O or FORMAT RAMY 170 


Establish a numbering convention for your Psion 
software programs and their respective datafiles so that 
you may configure the programs (using CONFIG BAS which is 
found on the Abacus [Spreadsheet] Cartridge) accordingly. 
If you can spare the cartridges, clone and configure 
another set of Psion software programs for use with the 
Microdrives when you do not wish to use RAMdisk. 


12 


If you wish to multitask Quill, Archive, and Abacus 
using CHOice, I recommend the following RAMdisk program 
and datafile sector lengths: 

Quill program 2S/data ©00 sectors; 


Archive program 66/date 100 sectors; 


Abacus program 47/data 60 sectors. 


In this case, I would configure Quill to read system and 
HELP information from RAM] and data from RAMS- and 
format RAM] 25 and RAMS 200. When installing the tasks, 


enter 50 sectors working space. This will leave about 10K 
free--a bare minimum for trouble-free operation. 

It is more practical to multitask only two Psion 
software programs at one time using CHOice. I have in- 
stalled Quill and Archive together and Abacus with Easel. 


Multitasking only two Psion software programs at a time 
permits the use of larger working spaces (100 sectors) 
for each program and larger datafile RAMdisks (240 sec- 


tors) with more free memory. 

The way I.C.E. and CHOice are set up precludes 
"automating" such things as the formatting and loading of 
RAMdisks which must always be done manually using the 
“point and click" system. 

Aside from its important virtue--unique at the time 
of writing--of permitting rapid switching between Psion 
software programs without losing your place, I.C.E. seems 
to have little merit. Other systems, employing such 
things as redefined keys, an effective screen calculator, 
additional SuperBASIC extensions, and one's own defined 
far more efficient to me. 

A system which permits all of those features 1s the 
PCML Toolkit, version 0.07, designed by Tony Tebby, 
author of QL Toolkit and the new QL SuperTOOLKIT é. 
Available now from CARE Electronics in the U.K. as a ROM 
cartridge EPROM or on Microdrive, this utility ROM in- 
cludes an efficient RAMdisk driver and 27 SuperBASIC 
extensions, including RAM USE (key in or program RAM USE 
ram or RAM USE mdv, as desired) and a very rapid Micro- 
drive-to-RAMdisk-to-Microdrive copying system (WCOPY). 
Additional SuperBASIC extensions provided by the utility 
are SPL, JOBS, RJOB, SPJOB, AJOB, STAT, WSTAT, WODIR, 
WDEL, WDEL F, VIEW, RENAME, TRUNCATE, CLOCK, DATA USE, 
SPL USE, EXTRAS, FLEN, FTYP, FDAT, FOPEN, FOP_IN, FOP_ NEW 
FOP | OVER and FOP DIR. 

Not directly compatible for simultaneous use with 
the original Qjump QL Toolkit, it is easily patched to do 
so. (Send 25 cents and a S.A.S.E. for a copy of Qjump's 
patch which will permit any version of QL Toolkit to 
operate properly with the PCML Toolkit.) 









Listing #1 is a boot program for 
Archive together on RAMdisk with the 
basic program and defined procedures and functions, 


and 
The 
some 
listing 


using Quill 
PCML Toolkit. 


of them utility functions, | 
are, for the most part, self-documenting. The machine 
code programs qdtg, mini_calc, and quill _key are the 
clock program listed on page 42 of the ' ‘Concepts" section 
of the Sinclair QL User Guide, Q CALC, and KEYDEFINE, 


which comprise the 


respectively, which are multitasked with the Psion soft- 
ware programs. The latter two are products of Psientific 
Software. 

Listing #1 may be easily modified to suit your needs 
and the type of RAMdisk software possessed. 

The Qflash RAMdisk Driver 2.5 is a no frills utility 
on Microdrive cartridge. It has three distinct ad- 
vantages over the other systems: it is by far the 
fastest--noticeable when using large files with RAMdisks; 
it is the most efficient in that RAMdisks do not have to 
be formatted and are flexible in length; and it is the 
most flexible, permitting any type of “automatic” system 
to be devised. It has two disadvantages, both of which 
are to be corrected in later versions: it has no RAM USE 
facility and no selective fast copy routine. No RAM | USE 
facility 1s a mixed disadvantage in that it permits more 
direct access to RAMdisk and Microdrive files. The Oflash 
RAMdisk Driver 2.5 is available directly from Qflash, 
Post box 10 21 21, D-2000 Hamburg 1, West Germany, tele- 
phonephone (Hamburg) 040-6512742 or 040-7650461, $27 ppd. 

Use of the Qflash RAMdisk Driver is quite straight- 
forward, and its documentation is excellent, factors 
which enable the user to employ RAMdisks readily in a 
variety of uses. 

The use of additional memory and RAMdisks might well 
fulfill all of your QL computer needs without resort to 
floppy disks. It seems to be working for me. 

NEXT TIME: “Games for the Sinclair QL: A Potpourri", 
and the results of the First Annual Thomas B. Woods Award 
Contest. 


Listing 1. PCML RAMdisk Boot Frogram 
1 CLEAR: g=0: w=0 
2 WINDOW 512,256,0,0: CSIZE 1,1: PAPER 2: IN 
K 7: CLS 
> AT 7,6: PRINT “LOADING QL QUILL-ARCHIVE" 
4 AT 9,2: PRINT " Do you wish to use RAMdisk 
? (y/n) " 
S IF NOT INKEY$(-1)=="y"; w=1: GO TO 29 
6 AT 9,40: PRINT “¥": AT 11,2: PRINT “ Key ” 
O° for QUILL only or *B’ for both QUILL and 
ARCHIVE" 
? IF INKEY$(-1)=="9": g=1: GO TO B 
6 AT 0,38: PRINT "“rami_ = "; 
9 FORMAT rami_210 
10 AT 2,38:PRINT “ramS_ = "; 


11 FORMAT ramS_240 

l12 IF q=1i: GO TO 17 

13 AT 4,56: PRINT “ram2_ = " 
14 FORMAT ram2_210 

15 AT 6,38: PRINT “ramé_ 
16 FORMAT ramé_250 

17 PAUSE 200: CLS 

16 PRINT “ COPY DESIRED MDV1i_ 


FILES TO FAMI 


19 WCOPY mdvi_,raml_ 

20 CLS: PRINT “ COPY DESIRED MDV2_ FILES TO 
RAMS_"™ 

21 WCOPY mdv2_,ram5_ 

22 IF qg=i: GO TO 26 


re as ee ies 












ou pesigns 
Sz| 2. 
aN 2 
26 pore: 
3S RENEWAL 
ONLY 4 
$15 year 
SIX ISSUES 


wae oe 


13 


22 CLS: PRINT " Insert ARCHIVE program cartr 
idge in Microdrive 1":FRINT “ and ARCHIVE 
datafile cartridge in Microdrive 2": PRINT 

vs then key and ENTER ’C"": STOF 

24 CLS: PRINT " COPY DESIRED MDV1_ FILES TO 
RAM2_" 

22 WCOPY mdvl_,ram2_ 

26 CLS: PRINT " COPY DESIRED MDV2_ FILES TO 
RAMé_" 

2? WCOPY mdv2_.ramé_ 

29 CLS: AT 5,2: PRINT “ Do you wish to set c 
lock? (y/n) F 

20 IF INKEYS(-1l)e=e"y": AT 7,0: FPRINT 
rm SDATE yyyy,mm,dd,hh,mm,ss": STOP 
~1 AT 8,0: PRINT " Key and enter QUILL or 
ARCH": PRINT " (I# not using RAMDisk, 
PRINT " insure correct cartridge in mdv 
1_)": STOP 


' Perfo 


7000 FEMark PROCEDURES & FUNCTIONS 

O02 DEFine FROCedure quill 

9007 IF weil: wt="mdvil_“: ELSE 

9004 WINDOW #0, 400, 20,3 soe2ilsS 

F006 IF wt>l: EXEC wth"mini_calc" 

7008 EXEC w$8"quill_key" 

7010 EXEC w$h"gdto" 

FOl2 EXEC W ws%"QLWP" 

9014 OPEN #1,con: OPEN #2, con 

7016 END DEFine 

9018 DEFine PROCedure arch 

7019 IF wel: w$="mdvi_": ELSE : w$="ram2_" 

9022 EXEC_W w$%"ARCHIVE" 

9023 OPEN #1,con: OFEN #2.con 

FO24 END DEFine 

90246 DEFine PROCedure SRAM 

sore CSIZE 0,1 

F030 CLS: AT 6,0: INK 2: PRINT “INSERT QU 
ILL DATA CARTRIDGES IN mdvl_ & mdv2_": PAUSE 
200; INK 4: CLS 

F034 WCOPY ramS_.mdv2_ 

F026 CLS: WDIR: PAUSE 7300 

F036 CLS: AT 6.0: PRINT “CHECK QUILL DATA 

CARTRIDGE IN MDVi_ OR KEY *Q’*": FAUSE Zoo 

7040 WCOFY mdvS_.,mdvi_ 

9042 WDIF mdvi _ 

7044 END DEFine 

9046 DEFine PROCedure reb 

9048 RAM_USE ram 

9050 INK 2: CLS: PRINT "Key and ENTER QUIL 

Lor ARCH" 

7052 END DEFine 

70354 DEFine PROCedure SRAM Z 

7056 CSIZE 0,1 

7058 CLS: AT 6,0: INK 2: PRINT “INSERT AR 
CHIVE DATA CARTRIDGES IN MDV1_ & MDV2_": PAU 
SE 300: INK 4: CLS 

7060 RAM_USE ram 

F062 WCOFY ramé_.mdv2_ 

F064 CLS: WDIR: PAUSE 300 

F046 CLS: AT 6,0: PRINT “CHECK DATA CARTRI 
DGE IN MDV1_ OR KEY *Q’*" 

9068 WCOPY ramé_,mdv1_ 

7O70 CLS: WDIR mdwi1_ 

97072 END DEFine 

9074 DEFine PROCedure C 

Fo76 CONT INUE 

9078 END DEFine 


wS="rami_ 


SAVE $3.00 Off Newstand Price. Send Coupon (or a copy) 
with Check or Money Order for $15 (U.S. Funds Only) to 
address posted below. We will start your subscription right 
away upon receipt of your order. 






TME DESIGNS MAGAJINE COMPANY 
29722 Hull cl. «Colton, Oregon 97017 
Name. 


Address. 
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Editor's Note: "Quick Look" is a new software review 
|column for the QL. The concept and graphics were de- 


Signed by TIME DESIGNS regular, Paul Bingham. The 


"scorecard" rating system will be used, and may bef 
adopted for the T/S 2068 and 1000 reviews as well. 





QSPELL 


A REVIEW 
by Paul Bingham 


The very reason this dedicated 208 owner bought a QL 
was because there was a spelling checker program avail- 
able for it--something I had been waiting in vain to see 
for the 2068. Spelling has always been a real problem, 
solved up until now with two spelling texts, four dic- 
tionaries, or using the PC and hard disk at work, with an 
80,000 word proof reader program. Now it would not be 
fair to compare QSPELL with a program for hard disk, so I 
won't. After all, the QSPELL dictionary fits withing 70K. 

QSPELL loads its thirteen sections (some of which 
are in BASIC) in just under on and a half minutes. The 
program is very professional, making good use of color 
and windows. All the menus are icon-driven, point-and- 
press easy. A mouse would work great! The instruction 
booklet appears to have been done on someone's type- 
writer. This is perfectly acceptable of course, except 
that the instructions are a little ambiguous in places 
including (believe it or not[!]) at least on spelling 
mistake. The help screens are almost verbatim what i5 
written in the booklet. 

The program itself has many procedures. One makes a 
QSPELL version of Quill with which is is compatible. 
Another allows access to the 25,000 word dictionary to 
add to it, delete from it, even erase it entirely and 
Start over. For puzzle buffs, QSPELL allows a word to be 
entered with question marks in place of one or many 
letters. QSPELL then quickly lists the word or words that 
fit the bill. Its almost like cheating for crosswords, 
but it can effectively be used to teach proper spelling. 
By entering a prefix followed by "*" the program almost 
instantaneously produces a list of al] the words be- 
ginning as such, QSPELL will also list all words possible 
from another word's letters or solve anagrams. 

But the real reason to buy a spelling checker is to 
check spelling. After taking the limits of 70K into 
account, I assumed they had put mostly small words in the 
list to reach 25,000. So I dug out my spelling texts and 
went to work. One book has a list of over 500 of the most 
commonly misspelled words from studying some 11,000 
business memos. I ran this list through and 812 were in 
QSPELL. I then ran through a list of “demons” (hard-to- 
spell words many of which no one uses) like crevasse, 
khaki, and larynx. Suprisingly 422 of these were there, 
too. With QSPELL’s Auto-Learn feature, such a list can be 
easily added to the dictionary and saved. 

Proofreading takes about 20 seconds per full page 
and will highlight on the scree or on a printout (in BOLD 
type) words QSPELL does not recognize. Puzzle mode can 
then be accessed to help find the correct spelling or you 
can resort to your old Webster's on the shelf. 

Overall], QSPELL is a marvel. It is sophisticated, 
professional, and very fast. Like Quill, QSPELL would 
benefit from some memory expansion. QSPELL at under $30 
is a must. Be sure to get the version for the U.S.--the 
British version DOES NOT work with our Quill (or QLWP as 
it is called). 


14 











WORDS NOT FOUND IN BSPELL AS TESTED: 


ee 
Se SS SSS Se BE BE EE EEE BESELED=S 


COMMON ERRORS: alluded annulled alueni affidavit agoravate 
aluginua analyze appropriation assessable bituairous 
bookkeeping borrower brokerage canceled capitalization 
cartage collatera! comecdity comaunity concession 
considerable consionee contesplatinc co veyance cooperate 
corroborate defray disbursements discernible distributor 
eabarrass endeavor foreclosure fundamental hoarse 
lapracticable inasmuch insolvency iteeized aanila eeaorandua 
percantile middleman aisrepresent isstate aicspelled 
@cistener eucilage notary notwithstanding obdstacle 
ordinance overdraw pavilion peculiarities: pecuniary 
pereissible perpendicular perusal ohotostat plaintiff 
Piausible precedence proginence promissory orospectus 
readjusteent rebate reconstruction regardless reiaburse 
relations reaedied resittance representative requisition 
respectfully respectively ridiculous salutation solvent 
speculate sublet subsidize suggestion  supertlwous 
susceptible syndicate systematize tangible tariff tickier 
transient treasurer triplicate tvoographical 

DEMONS: aberration aqueous arctic bacillus bassinet bestial 
bouillon calvy cancellation canvass caul cellar chancre 
clayey cole slaw colicky complaisance contractible 
cornucopia corollary corroborate councilor counsellor covey 
distensble dyspeptic ebullient ecstasy epheseral eskiaos 
excel expansible fluorescent fulsome garlicky genealogy 
harakiri hemorrhage hoeing inoculate istheus kilos labeled 
BNeMONics picnicking perfectible phlega rarefy receivable 
referrer sacrilegious sarsaparilla sesede shellacked 
supersede treadle wendible wriest 


User Friendliness 
Documentation 
Flexibility 
Compatability 
Lives up to Claims 
Use of QL Abilities 


3 Blank Cartridges Required 
© Blank Cartridges Included 
We Runs on U.S. T.V. mode 





CONTSENTRATION 
A 2-Player Memory Game For The T/S 1000 


rfrrrestestssee 
Saeaerrteatsa napa 
Sa 2822352828 


Sansseetee 
BES Ea BPS ae 


by Fred Nachbaur 





"CONTSENTRATION" is a TS1000 adaptation 
of the famous card memory game. Two players 
alternate turning over "cards", looking for 


cards that have been moved because they are 
put back slightly askew; this program simu- 
lates this by showing turned cards as in- 


a match. When a match is found, the cards verse "+" instead of inverse "0". At the end 
are removed and placed in the appropriate of the game, the winner is indicated. 
Player's "pile". Finding a match entitles Believe it or not, this program runs in 


the player to another turn. The player with 
the most cards in his pile after all cards 
have been removed, wins. 

The "cards" are actually the letters of 


a 2K TS1000. However, to save space, some of 
the variables are defined manually. Enter 
the program lines, then enter the following 
immediate commands: 


the alphabet. There are two of each letter, LET o=@ 

for a total of 52 cards. It is therefore LET P=1 
exactly like playing the game with a _  stan- LET Q=2 
dard deck of cards, where you match red or LET R=4 
black pairs. When you start the program, you LET S=13 
are prompted to enter the players' names LET L=21 
(maximum 8 characters). The program then LET M=3 
"shuffles" the deck, and lays out the cards DIM BS¢4,13) 
in a 4x13 matrix. The players' names are DIM NS(2,68) 


shown below, and a ">" cursor marks whose Start the program with GOTO 100, or GOTO 50 


turn it is. To turn over a card, enter the to SAVE to tape. Do not use RUN or CLEAR! 
row (1-4) followed by the column (A-M). For If you have 16K or more, add line 1 
instance, the card in the top left corner is GOTO 100, and put the immediate commands 
1A. If you enter an invalid input, it is re- into line numbers 100-109. If this is done, 
jected and the input prompt reappears. If it is OK to use RUN to start the program. 


the spot is empty, the program rubs it in 
and re-prompts. 

Ater turning over the second 
you have a match the cards are removed and 
placed next to your name. If no match, you 
have a few seconds to memorize what is there 
before the cards are turned over again. When 


In the listing, lower-case letters rep- 
resent inverse video. For example, line 450 
is inverse 0's separated by normal spaces. 
Line /00: "@" represents inverse "+", Sub- 
routine 4 is a “blinkless PAUSE". Like PAUSE 
it can be terminated prematurely with a key- 
press (as after turning the second card, or 


card, if 


playing with real cards, you can often tell during an error message). Enjoy the game! 
346 LET As=" " | 

4 FOR A=0 TO Ler aee CLS 62@ GOTO VAL "526" 
~ IF INKEY$<¢>"" THEN RETURN 418 DIM S<@) 638 IF H(P)=H(G) AND I¢(P)=17(0) 
é NEXT 4 42@ SLOW THEN GOTO VAL "520" 
7 RETURN F 648 GOSUB L 
: 43@ PRINT TAB M;"col";TAB R;"A z 
21 PRINT AT G#H(B)+P,Q#1(B)+0; Deel hii Hig Neg Mag ae 65@ NEXT B 

cs 440 FOR A=P TO R : 666 PRINT AT L,0;AS 
22 RETURN 


36 SAVE "CONTSENTRATI On" 
126 LET T=0 
136 PRINT AT F.R+R;"conTSentrat 
ion",,,,"BY F.NACHBAUR",,, 
148 GOSUB R 
15@ FOR A=P TO O 
168 PRINT "NAME-PLAYER °;4;"?" 
176 INPUT NS¢A) 
186 NEXT A 
266 LET As="ABCDEFGH! JKLMNGPGRS 
TUMAX 1 Zz * 
216 LET At=As+at 
2280 FAST 
2236 FOR @=F TO 545 
246 LET B=INT (RND#S#rk+P) 
258 LET C=INT (RND#*S#k+P> 
266 LET C#=A8(B> 
276 LET AS( Bd=A8(C) 
268 LET AS(C)=Cs 
276 NEXT A 
318 FOR 4&0 TO M 
326 LET BS(A+P)=AS(AeS+P TO > 
338 NEXT A 


456 PRINT AT A#G+P,0;" "“sA;" oOo 
©oocococ 0000000 0" 

478 NEXT 4 

486 PRINT AT S,@;NS¢(P);AT S+M,0 
sNS( QO) 

476 DIM HCQ@) 

266 DIM I¢Q@> 

31@ FOR B=P TO @ 

528 PRINT AT S#M#*#T,O;">":AT S+M 
NOT T,0;" ";8T L,O;"*ROW/COL ";6 


*= DD 


."= 
530 INPUT CS 

54¢@ IF LEN C#<>@ THEN GOTO VAL 
*536" 

278 IF C8¢P)<"1" OR COCP)>"4" OC 
R C#(Q)¢"A" OR C$(Q)>"M" THEN GO 
TO VAL "536" 

568 LET H(B)=VAL CS(P) 

778 LET 1¢8)=CODE C$(Q)-37 

786 LET C#=68(H(B),1¢B)> 

776 IF C#<>"* " THEN GOTO VAL "6 
36" 

666 PRINT AT L,O;"spot empty." 

6186 GOSUB R 


15 - 


676 IF BSCH(P) ,1¢P))=BS¢cH(@) ,1¢ 
Q@)) THEN GOTO VAL "768" 

666 GOSUB R 

676 LET T=NOT T 

760 LET C#="9" 

716 FOR B=P TO @ 

726 GOSUB L 

738 NEXT B 

7480 IF S¢P)+S¢(@)=S#@ THEN GOTO 
VAL "826" 

738 GOTO VAL “4976" 

766 LET SCT+P)=S(T+P)+P 

776 PRINT AT S#PeMeaT,P+S¢T+P) C 
HRS (CODE C#+128) 

786 LET C#=" * 

776 FOR B=P TO @ 

7975 LET BS(H(B),1¢B))=" * 

6866 NEXT B 

6816 GOTO VAL "716" 

6820 IF S(P)<>5¢(Q@) THEN PRINT AT 

L-@,0; "winner-"* ;NS(P+(5(0)>5¢(P) 
») 

856 PRINT AT L,0O;" GOTO 186 TO 
START NEW GAME" 


TS 1000/1500 PROGRAM CHAINING 
Part One 


by Earl V. Dunnington 


Program Chaining can, in effect, in- 
crease your RAM memory many times its actual 
size. It is one of the most neglected sub- 
jects of programming texts and instruction. 
There was an article published in SYNC, Jan/ 
Feb '84, but it was actually on merging a 
program on tape with one in the computer, 
not "Chaining" as defined below. Program 
Chaining is not just Linking unrelated pro- 
grams together. Linking can be as simple as 
saving several programs, by name, on one 
recording medium with the operator calling 
the program he wants with the direct LOAD 
"NAME" command. The programs can be _  self- 
running or not. In this case the operator is 
doing the Linking. Another form of Linking 
is to have one program load another. This is 
done simply by inserting as a line in the 
program, LOAD “PROGRAM NAME". If the program 
to be loaded is on a different tape, then a 
prompt and a pause should proceed the load 
line. For example: 


19% PRINT ''CHANGE TAPE, THEN PR 
ESS A KEY" 

110 PAUSE 32767 

120 LOAD "Two" 


Another common form of Linking is to have a 
Menu program which automatically loads the 
chosen self-running program. 

To make a program self running, add the 
line, SAVE “PROGRAM NAME". Unless it is the 
first line in the program, it must be pre- 
ceded by a command that will avoid an end- 
less loop and followed by a RUN or _ event- 
ually if not immediately by a GOTO. For 
example: 


9897 STOP 


9998 SAVE "Two" 
99993 GOTO 10 


You have to record the 
direct command: GOTO 9998 

Chaining is a specialized form of pro- 
gram Linking. It is a method of Linking 
dependent program modules together making 
them operate, in effect, like one large pro- 
gram, Similar to a GOTO, but using LOAD 
"NAME" instead. If an endless tape were used 
it might also be considered similar to a 
GOSUB and RETURN ina program. A dependent 
module is a program that operates using 
variables, strings, or text entered into the 
computer memory by a previous program. Why 
is there a need to Chain? One reason is to 
save memory so that more data or text can be 
stored. Another is that in some practical 
applications, the program simply becomes too 
large to fit into the available memory and 
the program must be broken into separate 
pieces that will work together as one pro- 
gran. 


program using the 





Subscribers who have read my series of 
articles "Adventures in the RAM Jungle and 


Other Mysteries" Sept/Oct '85 
Feb '86, have already been exposed to two 
examples of Chained programs with the op- 
erator doing the Linking. The first example 
consisting of the Flypaper program and Pro- 
gram One (Nov/Dec '85). The second example 
is the two programs Fig. No.3 and No.4 of 
the: Conclusion. 

Constant variables present no 
as they can be recorded in 


through Jan/ 


problem 
each program 


module. The variables referred to in this 
article are those computed by a previous 
module. There are four ways to pass vari- 


ables, ect., in Chained programs for the T/S 
1000 and 1500. The first is the VARS method, 
the second is the System Variables method, 
the third is the Safe area method, and the 
fourth is the above RAMTOP method. The pass- 
age of variables, strings, code, or text 
from one module to another using the VARS or 
Safe area methods is made possible because 
the LOAD, RUN, or GOTO commands do not clean 
the memory like NEW. Data stored above RAM- 
TOP is safe from all of these commands. 
CLEAR and RUN clean the VARS area of DIM 
Statements, arrays, variables, and strings. 
To protect data stored in the Safe Area, 
never use expanding undimensioned strings in 
a program. For example, DO NOT use: 


409 LET T$=""" 

e@ FOR N=18900 TO 19000 
38 LET T$=T$+CHRS PEEK N 
40 NEXT N 


In the VARS method, the first module 
must be the largest. The area in VARS, where 


14" data to be passed is stored in the first 


ab 


module, must be in the Safe area of the 
second module. The area in VARS of the sec- 
ond module, where the data is stored, must 
be in the Safe area of the next module, ect. 
In other words, the top of the Calculator 
stack during the program RUN of the succeed- 
ing module, must not enter the area occupied 
by the data in the VARS area of the pre- 
ceding module. (see Fig. No.1). The position 
of the area of VARS occupied by the data can 
be adjusted by enlarging the program using 
REM or DIM statements. 

Passing the text in a string from one 
module to the next is not difficult. Vari- 
ables however, are stored in the program and 
VARS area using a special floating point 
Sinclair format. Passing a variable in this 
format is much more complicated. Any good 
text on Assembly language or Machine Code for 
T/S computers, covers the Sinclair format 
for numerical data and is beyond the _ scope 
of this article. It is much easier to pass 
variables by converting them to ae string. 
For example, type the following into the 
computer and RUN it: 


10 LET A=12345678912345 

20 LET AS=STRG A 

30 PRINT A$ 
The result displayed should be: 
1.2345679E+13 
If you change line 1% to a negative value 
the result displayed should be: 
-1.2345679E+13 
To convert the string back to a variable 
add: 
49 LET A=VAL AS 
5@ PRINT A 
and ENTER: GOTO 4@ 


Lines 40 and 50 would be in the next module. 
As you can see, variables with over thirteen 
digits to the left of the decimal point are 
converted to the Scientific notation. The 
same thing applies to strictly decimal val- 
ues with more than four zeros to the right 
of the decimal point. 

If you want the string to be passed to 
be the first data in the VARS area, then use 
a DIM statement for the string before any 
other assignments are made, including loops. 
This reserves the space. Normally the string 
to be passed will be the last data in assign 
ment and a DIM statement is not required. 
The last character of the string will then 
be two addresses below E Line if undimen- 
Sioned or dimensioned with only one di- 
mension, like DIM A$(14). For string arrays 
(two or more dimensions), refer to Appendix 
of your Owner's Manual. 

To illustrate a Chained program using 
the VARS method, ENTER: NEW and type in the 
following module "ONE" 


109 LET A=12345678912 
20 DIM x$(990) 

30 LET A$=STRS A 

49 LOAD "Two" 

50 SAVE "ONE" 


6@ RUN 1] 


PROGRAM CHAINING (VARS METHOD) 













__RAMTOP_ 


if STACKS 


FIGURE NO. 





Line 10: Assigns a numerical 
variable A. 

Line 20: Makes a large increase in the size 
of the program by reserving space in the 
VARS area, raising the address where AS will 
be stored into the Safe area of the next 
module. This Safe Area was determined for 
module "TWO" using the methods described in 
the referenced RAM Jungle article. 


value to the 


Line 30: Converts the variable A, whose 
value is to be passed to the next module, 
into a string with a length of 11 digits. 


Line 40: Automatically loads the next module 
and prevents the program from going into an 
endless save loop. 

Lines 50 and 60: Make module "ONE" self- 
running when saved with a GOTO 50 and loaded 
with the direct command LOAD "ONE". 

Save this program on tape using the 
direct command GOTO 50. When the diagonal 
load lines are displayed, stop the tape. Do 
not rewind the tape as you now have the 
correct amount of tape from module "ONE" to 
record module "TWO". Use the BREAK key to 
return to the programming mode. Find the 
address of E Line by entering the direct 
command: “i 

PRINT PEEK 16494+256*PEEK 16495 


The result should be 18312 
17544 (2K RAM). The address 
character of string AS is this 
two. 


(16K RAM) or 
of the last 
value minus 


Enter NEW and type in module 
follows: 


TWO " as 


10 DIM A$(11) 

20 LET B=1 
For 16K RAM 

38 FOR N=18399 TO 18310 
For 2K RAM 

38 FOR N=17532 To 17542 
Both RAMs 





49 LET A$(B)=CHRS PEEK N 
50 LET B=B+1 


62 NEXT N 

70 LET A=VAL AS 
8@ PRINT A 

908 STOP 

190 SAVE "Two" 
110 RUN 


Line 10: Reserves space in the VARS area of 


program module "TWO" for the 11 digits of 
the string. 
Line 30: This is the address of the _ string 


passed from the VARS area of module 
the Safe Area of module "TWO", 


"ONE m" to 


Line 40: Converts the recovered decimal code 
to the character and stores it in its proper 
Place in the VARS area of module "TWO". 
Line /0: Converts the string to a variable. 
The other program lines are self explana- 
tory. 

save program module "TWO" on the 
using the direct command GOTO 100. When 
error report C/70 appears on the 
stop the recorder. Rewing the _ tape. 
NEW. To operate the chained programs, use 
the direct command LOAD "ONE". When the. 
diagonal load lines are displayed, start the 
tape. After module "ONE" loads and ~runs, 
diagonal load lines will again be displayed. 
After module "TWO" loads and runs the value 


tape 

the 
screen, 
Enter 


of the variable passed from module "ONE" to 
module "TWO" will be displayed. 





Beginning 280 Machine_Code 





Last discussed Hexidecimal 


machine 


issue we 
(Hex) numbers and I left you with a 


code (MC) hex loader. You should have no- 
ticed that these are very simple programs. 
That's to allow you to enter and debug them 


easily, as well as make whatever changes you 
desire. Please feel free to change them. 
We now need to explore the nature of 


MC. Since you are already familiar with 
BASIC, I will draw some comparisions. The 
first difference is that MC does not use 


program line numbers to tell the CPU (re- 
member him?) in what order to perform tasks. 
MC instructions are executed in the order in 
which they occur in memory. Even after a 


jump (Goto or Gosub), MC continues to ex- 

ecute the instructions sequentially as they 

are found at the address jumped to. 
secondly, there are about 700 MC in- 


structions for the Z80, as opposed to the 70 
or so available in Sinclair BASIC. Don't let 
this scare you off. All /00 instructions can 


be placed in about a dozen catagories and 
are, therefore, variations on a theme. We 
will confine each lesson to one of these 


catagories. 

The biggest difference is in how MC 
"crashes". Crash is a term used to describe 
the condition resulting from an involuntary 
exit of the program (i.e., stopping with a 
full screen error, undefined variable error, 
ect.). When MC crashes there are no error 
messages to aid us, due to the fact that we 


are not operating within the confines of the 
recovery 

again. 
I recommend you always Save 
it «Wii 


18 


BASIC interpreter. Often, the only 
is to pull the power plug and begin 
For this reason, 


your MC prior to execution. Saving 





by Syd Wyncoop 





Part Two 


not prevent a crash but, it does allow for 
easier recovery. 

There are two things to remember’ that 
will help prevent MC crashes. First, you 
cannot use the Break key to stop your MC 
routine unless it is reading the keyboard 
and accepting a Break instruction. (Not 
likely in most cases.) Second, MC will not 


stop executing unless it is instructed to do 
so. MC will continue executing instructions 
(remember all numbers are instructions), as 
they are found. The easiest way to solve 
both problems is to end your routines with a 
"return to basic" instruction. 

We need to determine where we will 
store our MC, as that is the first prompt in 
our MC Loader. MC can be stored almost any- 
where, although above RAMTOP is best in the 
T/S 2068, as it can save bytes as Code. RAM- 
TOP is a system variable which tells the 
BASIC operating system how much memory is 
available, and more specifically, what is 
the last available address in RAM. RAMTOP is 
not necessarily the very end of physical 
memory, however, for BASIC, it is the top of 
usable memory. Also, addresses above RAMTOP 
are unaffected by NEW. Therefore, your rou- 
tine cannot be earsed. 

The T/S 1000 presents’ some 
challenges. The best place is still usually 
above RAMTOP, however, the 1000 cannot Save 
bytes from high memory. We will therefore 
store our MC in a REM statement. There are 
other ways, but this is the easiest to Save 
and execute for now. Later, we will find 
that MC can still be most anywhere. 

The ease of execution from the 
REM statement results from our Knowing 
exact address at which the MC starts. Look- 
ing in the Sinclair manual's section on 
memory storage, reveals how a BASIC program 
line is stored: 


special 


first 
the 


high low low high 

. os a ee ee | i ii cole ok i i eee 

' 2bytes !' 2 bytes ! '1 byte! 

! ‘ : ! ' , ' . 

Line no. Length of Text Enter 
Text + 1 


The first two bytes are the line number 
and note they are in direct opposite order 
of the normal storage of two byte numbers. 
The next two bytes are stored as the 280 
would normally store numbers and represent 
the length of the text in the line plus the 
Enter (which is used by the Basic Inter- 
preter as an "end of line" marker). Next, 
follow the Basic text and finally the EOL 
marker. This makes the first byte after REM, 
the sixth byte in the line and in the pro- 
gram area if the line is the first line of 
the program. This address is 16514 in the 
T/S 1000, since the Basic program area be- 
gins at 16509. We will insure that we are 
working with the first line as_ follows. 
Type: 


i REM ENTER, POKE 146510,0 ENTER 


We have also insured that our first 
cannot be Edited even though it will 
Save. 

The next thing we need to do is make 
space in our REM statement to hold our MC. 
Refering to the chart above, the EOL marker 
is next after REM. We must never overwrite 
the EOL marker as we will cause an awful 
nasty crash. Type four lines of spaces after 
the REM (you can figure how to edit it) and 
Save your MC loader with your line 0O to 


line 
still 


avoid retyping it next time. This is very 
wasteful of memory, but will serve us well 
for now. Your REM statement need only con- 
tain the exact number of bytes you need, 
when working within a program. 

We now need to know how to execute 


(Run) our MC. This is accomplished with the 





USR function. The Sinclair user's manual is 
a little vague on its use. The proper syntax 
ome Command USR xX 
Where: Command=most Basic commands 
USR=USRF function 
XYeaddress to beain executing from 
Examples; RAND USR 14514 
FRINT USR 16514 
LET A=USR 146514 


Boy, this is sure good stuff but, "I 
ain't written no MC program yet!" Well hang 
in there, we will get to the actual instruc- 
tions next issue. Right now though, how 
about a "sneak preview"? 

You may have heard of such terms as op- 
codes, mnemonics, assembly and disassembly. 
Opcode is short for Operation Code, and is 
the Hex numbers we will be entering. They 
could just as easily be represented in dec- 
imal or binary, however, we have chosen Hex. 


Mnemonics are another shorthand which 
has been designed especially for us humans. 
The CPU understands a long list of numbers 


(opcodes), however, I don't. I do understand 
mnemonics as they are almost English (I did 


say “almost"). Look at the sample disa- 
ssembly below to see what I mean. 

Assembly is what we will be doing when 
we convert our MC programs to Hex. We will 


be "assembling" our MC. Assembly Language is 
another term for MC, and is usually used to 
refer to the Opcodes. 

Disassembly is the opposite of assembly 
and is usually used to refer toa "listing" 
of MC instructions. You will probably want 
to disassemble someone elses MC after you 
understand what the Opcodes mean. That can 
help your understanding of MC, as you will 
already know what the program does. You will 
be able to see how the task at hand was 
accomplished. As in BASIC...there is no 
"Single best way" to program in MC. We all 
develop our own style (or lack of it). 

I will end this lesson with a 
disassembly (the one we previously 
to). May we soon know what it means. 


sample 
refered 


Address Label Opcodes Mnemonics Comments 

16514 start SEOA Ld A,OAh sPut OAH in A register 
16516 0610 Ld B,10h sPut 10h in B register 
16518 BO Add A,B sAdd OAH & 10h and place 
16519 4F Ld C,A sresult in BC register 
16520 0600 Ld B,O 

16522 done Cc? - Ret sReturn to Basic 


WHAT'S COMING UP? 





JULY/AUGUST 86 


* Nationally-known Sinclair expert/writer, Wes BrzozowskI, joins TDM for 
a series of articles on a 
series Is called, “Mystery of the Missing 255". 


* Excerpts from the book "Highfalutin' Computin'" by Bob Orrfelt, will 
premier as a regular feature in TDM. Bob's book covers a 
ZX81 and TS1000 topics. 


* Two super 2068 graphics programs: UDG's by Paul 
SCROLL by 5.D. Lemke 


2068 memory bank-switching system. The 


varlety of 


Bingham, and POLY- 


MAGAZINE * All our regular stuff too. 





19 = _ 





I hope no one out there has the same problem I have. 
Over the years I have amassed lots of tapes containing 
saved programs and data for the T/S 2068. Though my _ in- 
tentions have been good, most of these tapes do not have 
a complete log of their contents. While writing and de- 
bugging programs a tape may have various versions and 
ae spread throughout both sides. Enter CASSETTE DIRECT- 

Vite 

One of the features of a floppy disc system is a 
directory containing information about files and programs 
on the disc (i.e., name, type and size). Many of us are 
quite content to live with tape storage, but that doesn't 
mean we must live with all of its disadvantages! The 
following program will allow you to play a tape, create a 
directory of the data stored on it, make hard-copies to 
your printer, or store to tape for future reference. As 
written, this program will only run on the T/S 2068, 
though it will make directories of Spectrum tapes. 


USING CASSETTE DIRECTORY 


The program is self-prompting and 992% crash-proof. 
Upon loading the program, you will be presented with a 
Menu. (see example 1) If you are starting a new direct- 
ory, choose option 1. You will be asked to provide the 
name of the tape and the side you wish to "read". You 
will then be told to play the tape. You may return to the 
Menu from almost any point in the program by pressing 
[BREAK/CAPS SHIFT]. Do not worry, this will not halt ex- 
ecution of the program. As the header information is 
read, it will be displayed on the screen. (see example 2) 

Option 2, "Printer Switch", will allow you to toggle 
on or off output to your T/S 2040 printer. If the printer 
Switch is on, all output concerning the directory will be 
printed to the printer and the screen. After choosing 
Option 2, pressing "P" will turn the printer “on” if it 
is “off", or "off" if it is "on". NOTE: During Options 5 
and 6, if the printer switch is on, all data from the 
directory will be sent to the printer before displaying 
it on the screen. There will be a small delay while the 
printer prints al) of the directory before any screen 
Output appears. You can halt the printer by pressing 
[BREAK/CAPS SHIFT], which will return you 
Then turn off the printer by using Option 2. 

A record of the directory can be saved or loaded to/ 
from tape by choosing Option 3 or Option 5. You will be 
prompted by the program on the particular steps to take. 

Option 4 will allow you to continue the directory 
from the last entry made. Choose this option if you have 
returned to the Menu after starting the directory (Option 
1) or have loaded a directory from tape and wish to add 
new data. The latter is in case you have added new pro- 
grams or data to your tape. 

Reviewing the directory, Option 6, will allow you to 
display or print the contents of a directory already com- 
piled. 


ENTERING THE PROGRAM 


The listing in Listing 1 contains the BASIC portion 
of the program and all of the Machine Code entering 
routines. Carefully type in the program. Before executing 
the program, make a back-up copy to tape by entering (as 
a direct command)--[SAVE "“dir.list"]. As an aid to typing 
this program, I have attempted to leave all variables in 


to the Menu. | 


Kina: 
DIRECTORY 


by Michael E. Carver 


Example i 


CASSETTE OIRECTORY 


CONTINUE DIRECTORY... .c2-cce8eee® 4 
LOAD FROH TAPE. : 
REVIEW OITRECTORY...22cee80880es 6 





lower case letters, thus commands in upper case should be 
Keyword entries. Letters contained within the " “" jin 
lines 9000 and 9050 must be in upper case. 

After you have made your back-up copy, enter as a 
direct command, [GO TO 9000]. The machine code jis com- 
piled into memory in three steps (lines 9000-9110). While 
the program compiles the code, checks will be made for 
possible errors in the lines containing code. If errors 
are detected, you will be advised where the error occurs 
and prompted to make corrections. 

When the machine code is compiled, the program will 
delete lines 9000-9988 and proceed to make a working copy 
of the program. By following the prompts, a copy of the 
BASIC program and the machine code will be saved and 
verified. The program will then go directly to the Menu. 
You are now ready to make order out of chaos! 


FOR THE CURIOUS 


The machine code routine first makes a copy of the 
“W_Bord" and "R Tape" portions of the EXROM. (see listing 
2) This routine selects the EXROM and opens the DOCK bank 
port to read the EXROM, 198 bytes are then copied from 
the EXROM (starting at OOE5h) to RAM (starting at 80E5h). 


Example 2 


Directory of Work Tape Side A 


BASIC: directory Bytes: 2521 
Autostart at 9996 


Code: directory Bytes: 222 
Loads at 4635252 


BASIC: dir_list 
No Autostart 


Bytes: 46564 


Array: test/A 
Variable bmi} 


Bytes: 364 


Array: data 2 
Variable 51) 


Bytes: 505 


Code: title page Bytes: 4912 
Loads at 1647364 





fooooocco00DDDDoDOooDD 20 coooDOoDDODOoOCoCoOOOOoOO 





The EXROM is then disabled and the DOCK port closed. The 
routine then copies the code contained at 80£5h to FEESh. 
For reasons unknown to the author, attempting to transfer 
the EXROM routine directly to FEE5h causes a few bytes to 
be copied as NOP's (i.e., 00h). In order to obtain a 
working copy, it is necessary to use this convoluted 
method. 

Line 9040 changes the high byte of al] CALL and JP 
addresses in W Borad and R Tape to conform with its new 
location. 

The final section of code (Line 9050) overwrites the 
previous transfer code with a routine to set up the 
registers and flags before calling the "“R Tape" routine 
to read “header" information from the tape. 

When either the T/S 2068 or Spectrum records data or 
programs to tape, a small “header” is recorded first. 
This header contains information on the program/data 
being saved. Byte 1 of this header contains the type (0 = 


BASIC program; 1 = number array; 2 = character string 
array; and 3 = code or bytes). Bytes 2-11 contain. the 
name of the program saved. Bytes 12 and 13 contain the 


number of bytes saved. Bytes 14 and 15 contain either the 
address at which the data is to place in RAM or the Line 
number for an autostart in BASIC programs. 





Before calling R Tape, the carry flag must be 
Signifying LOAD vs. VERIFY. Register A must be zero 


set, 

for 
header information and FF for program/data. The reg- 
ister points to the address in RAM where the data to 
be placed and DE contains the number of bytes to be read 
from the tape. After data has been read from the tape, 
address FFC3h is checked. If the data was from the header 
this address will contain a zero. If it doesn't, another 
attempt is made, 


The BASIC Program 


There are a couple of programming tricks in this 
program of note. The first is the use of ON ERR...To pre- 


1X 
is 


vent a program from crashing due to operator error or 
errors from input (i.e., tape), this little gem is of 
great value. It must be used with care. If no method of 


breaking out of a program is allowed (i.e., ON ERR RESET) 
a bug in the program can cause an error, leaving na 
choice but to turn off the computer and reload the pro- 
gram. If it is an autostart program, one wil] need to re- 
type it from scratch. 

The ON ERR command is activated by use, by the 
command “ON ERR GO TO x", where x is a line number. If an 
error occurs, for which a normal Error Report would be 


made by the system, the program will branch off to the 
specified line number. One could set up routines to 
correct this error (see Line 9990) or one can restart 


from another point in the program (i.e., ON ERR GO TO 
100 - Menu). The ON ERR routines in Directory watch for 
several “errors”. The R_TAPE routine, borrowed from the 
ROM, routinely checks the keyboard in case the operator 
has pressed BREAK to abort read. If a BREAK is detected, 
operation is directed from R TAPE to RST 08, thus print- 
ing Error Report Code D (see manual Appendix H, pg. 289). 
If the ON ERR has been initialized, operation will be 
directed to the specified Line number instead (i.e., 
100). 

Other errors could be caused by tape reading errors. 
In some cases commercial software may have "false" 
headers, These may contain unprintable characters within 
the name, Causing an error. The Directory also watches 
for tape loading errors while loading or verifying com- 
piled directories. In this case, program execution is 
directed to Line 9990, informing the user of the problem 
and allowing a renewed attempt. This is accomp)1shed 


OOOO0OO0O000000000000000 


Line 


Line 


Line 


Line 


Line 


Line 


without halting the execution of the program with Error 
Report Codes. The ON ERR RESET in Line 120 is needed to 
allow an escape hatch. Without it, the user would not be 
able to leave the program to correct any programming/ 
typing errors or make up-dates. 

Another programming trick, used by Directory, is the 
POKEs in line 70 and 600. At address 23692 (in the System 
Variables) is Scr Ct. This address contains the number of 
lines which will be automatically scrolled on the screen 
before the “scroll?” prompt appears. This number is alway 
1 more than the number of lines to be scrolled. If 23692 
contains 32, 31 lines will be scrolled before the user is 
prompted "scroll?" The PUKE in 70 will allow the program 
to continue scrolling the screen as the directory is 
being displayed. (Since 255 is the largest number one can 


represent in 8 bits, O-1 is like saying 256-1.) The POKE 
in 600 restores the scroll] count to 22 lines (1. tull 
screen). 
DEBUGGING TIPS 
Due to the use of the ON ERR command in this pro- 


gram, debugging can be quite a problem. If upon making a 
choice from the menu you find yourself right back in the 
menu, check for an error in lines 120 & 130. If you still 


find yourself back in the menu, break program execution 
by [BREAK/CAPS SHIFT] and as a direct command enter 
(PRINT k$]. If you do not get the results of your last 
Menu choice, check subroutine 400. 

If the above fails, there is probably an error in 
subroutine you are calling from the menu. While in the 
Menu, BREAK-out and remove the ON ERR GO TO x, from any 


lines in the suspected subroutine. Replace with ON ERR 
RESET. This will allow normal error report codes to 
appear, giving you the needed debugging clues. Once you 
have corrected the problem, re-insert the proper ON ERR 
GOTO x's. 
BONUS NUMBER ONE 

We can use the machine code contained in the Direct- 
ory program, with some minor alterations, to LOAD blocks 
of data from tape without using the normal LOAD command, 
Once you have a de-bugged version of Directory up and 
running and have saved a copy to tape, Break execution of 
the program and Enter as a direct command, "NEW". This 
will remove the BASIC portion of the program, leaving the 
machine code intact. Enter Listing 4. To use the program, 
enter the desired address you wish the data to be stored 
in RAM and how many bytes you want read. Bypass the 
header on tape, RUN program and start tape. (see Listing 
4a) 


BONUS NUMBER Two 


I can see the glint in the eyes of the more adven- 
turous hackers. One can transfer all of the EXROM to RAM, 
allowing a leisured view and disassembledge. Go back to 
Listing 1 and enter Lines 9000, 9010, 9100, and 9110. 
Insert Listing 5. This program will automatically trans- 
fer and save the EXROM to tape. A copy of the EXROM now 
Starts at 32768. 


PROGRAM NOTES 


10 Sets up newly created Directory. See Lines 500 - 
310. 

15- Calls machine code routine to read header infor- 

60 mation from tape. Reads data stored in memor y 
into string, according to type of data. Displays 
informatin to screen/printer. WOTE LINE 70: CHRS 
is forces a line-feed to String. PRINT #3 = LPRINT. 

100- Menu 

i3o 

200- Printer switch routine. NOTE LINE 230: IF print=1 

240 and "P" was pressed THEN print=0 or IF print=0O THEN 
printel. 

SOO- Saves Directory string to tape. NOTE: Since the 

360 computer will only save DIM’ed variables c® is DIMbd 
to length of b® before saving (see line 3230). 

400- Subroutine to read keyboard for input. 

420 


21 ooooo0D000D000000R000RR 


Line 500- Allows input of Directory title. NOTE: CHRS 255 is 


310 marker for end of title. 


Line 600- Loads a Saved Directory ¢#rom tape. 


Line 610- Prints compiled Directory to screen/printer. Lines 


Line %000- Compiles machine code into memory. Then deletes 


405 
670 610-630 searches string for title. 


7969 itself before saving and verifying program. 


Line 9990 Subroutine to handle "Tape Loading" errors. 
Line 9°96 Autostarts and loads machine code ¢rom tape. 
Line 9999 Saves and verifies program. 





The author will provide a copy of this program on tape for 


ie ee shih $4.00 (includes shipping). Please send a check or money 
order to: Michael Carver, 1016 NE Tillamook, Portland, OR 
RIES ie aie Beers igen sagt ben Seat 97212. Also available are T/S 2068 or T/S 1000 tapes for 
= rin o ho compile rectory : f . : p 
se bri‘ea 46 herd ee tar Saving to tape PABLO PIXEL-O (see Sept/Oct 1985 Time Designs). Price: 
nee eeeeners Cones $4.00 each or $6.00 for both 2068 and 1000 versions. 
n® ad Receives name to be saved or loaded by ; . | : 
| Contains code = BRIGHT 1 & BRIGHT 0 Please specify program and computer. 
ix = Points to RAM containing header data read from tape 
ke = Length of b® containing title of directory. 
print = Printer switch flag 
s 6 Holds possible autostart from header data 660 PRINT #1; "Preecs ""M"" ¢or Mm 
t = Holds type @ from header data ENU* 
670 GO SUB 400 
660 IF k@t>*M" AND k®t>*m" THEN 
LISTING 1 GO TO 670 
200 ON ERF GO TO 100: CLS : PR 470 GO To 100 
INT BRIGHT 1;AT 1,8; °PRINTER 5S 7000 CLEAR 65252: LET a®="F33E01 
WITCH* D3F4DBFFCBFFDIFFZ1ESO0OLIESSBOO0IC 
1 REM eee Se PERE REE ERP EEE EE 710 FPRINT AT 3,10) "PRINTER “jj; F S400E DBOAFDIFFDIF4FB71E5801 LESFE 
Cassette Directory LASH 153 ¢"0ON * AND print); ("OFF O1CSO00EDBOCS* 
i966 Michael E. Carver " AND NOT print); FLASH OF AT 20 7010 GO SUB 9100: IF LEN a®<>80 
Ce ee ,O! "Press ""P"" to toggle switc OR check¢>47235 THEN PRINT FLA 
10 ON ERR GO TO 100: CLS : 6O Hh"; TAB 6; °° "M"* for Menu" SH 11"Error in a® Line 9000 --- 
SUB SOO: LET zS=CHRS 19+CHRS 1 220 GO SUB 400 -- Please Correct": STOP 
+CHRS 19+CHR® O: CLS : IF print 230 IF k@="p*" OR k@="P" THEN L F020 LET address=4645451: GO SUB ? 
THEN PRINT #3; "Directory of * ET print=NOT print: GO TO 210 110; RANDOMIZE USR 65451 
ibs TO ki'* 240 GO TO 270-(120 AND (ks="m* 9030 DATA 14,15,7,15,10,47,11,14 
i353 CLS : ON EPR GOTO 100: PR OR ke=em")) : RESTORE 9FOIT0: LET data=0: FOR 
INT PAPER 2;AT 2,1; "BREAK/CAPS 300 ON ERR GO TO 100: CLS : PR x=1 TO @: READ y: LET data=dat 
will return to MENU"? PAPER 1; INT ""*Ready to save Directory: a+y: NEXT x: IF datat>133 THEN 
#1; "Start tape, then press any . PRINT FLASH 1j "Error in Line 
key.": GO SUB 400: cLS 310 PRINT * "| BRIGHT libs( 9030 ----- Please Correc 

20 RANDOMIZE USP 65451: LET ix TO k)§ BRIGHT O;7""to tape. * t": STOP 
=65475: LET t=PEEK (ix#l): LET 320 INPUT "Save as? “tne: IF LE 7040 RESTORE 9030: LET address=6 
aé=z8( TO 2)+("BASIC* AND NOT N n®>10 THEN LET n@=n®@i TO 10) S266: POKE address,254: FOR x=1 
ti¢(*Array" AND (t=1 OF t=2))+ 220 DIM cS(LEN b®): LET c®=b8: TO 6: READ y: LET address=addr 
("Code* AND tes)4": "+z8(3 TO D+ PRINT ***Saving ““*“jnej""*": SA ess+y: POKE address,255: NEXT x 
ree VE n® DATA csi) 

30 FOR n=ix+2 TO ix#1li: LET as 340 PRINT @1;) "Verity (y or ni?" F030 LET a®@="AFS700DDZ1C3FF11150 
=eS+CHR® (PEER ni: NEXT nt LET : GO SUB 400 OOBCDFFFEZACIFFYDFEOOCSBCIABFF" 
aSzas+" "#278 TO 2)4"Bytes: "+78 230 IF k#="n" OR kS="N" THEN G #060 GO SUE 7100: IF LEN ag@<>46 
{3 TO )+* "#+STRS (PEEK (ix4+12)+ oOo TO 100 OR check¢t>2687 THEN PRINT FLA 
PSGHPEEK (ix+i12)) 360 INPUT INKEYS: PRINT ** *Veri SH 1; "Error in aS Line 9040 --- 

40 LET s=(PEEK (ix4+14)+4+2354#PEE fying ""“"FnBp""""*F""* "Rewind tap -=- Please Correct": STOP 
EK Cix¢15)): LET att=aS+CHRS 134° e";Hl; "Start tape, then press a FO70 LET address=65451: GO SUB F 

"#¢(z8( TO 2)¢*Loads at"+z8( ny key.": GO SUB 400: INPUT INK 110 
3 TO )*#" "4STRS s AND t=e#3)+(z78( EYs: ON ERR GO TO 9890: VERIFY FoB80 GO TO F988 
TO 2)+( "Autostart at"+z8(3 TO n®@ DATA c@i): GO TO 100 $100 LET check=#0: FOR x=1 TO LEN 
)+" "#4STR® s AND (NOT t AND s<= 400 IF INKEYT®@<>""* THEN GO TO 4 aS: LET check=check+CODE a®tix) 
ooo) )) oo : MEXT X: FETURN 

50 IF NOT t AND 539999 THEN L 410 IF INKEYTS="" THEN GO TO 41 F110 FOR x=1 TO LEN aS@-1 STEP 2: 
ET aS=aS+78( TO 2)4+"No Autostar Oo FPOKE address+INT (tx-Lv2), (CO ‘ 
t*4+z8(3 TO ) 420 LET kS=INKETS: RETURN DE aSix)-(48 AND CODE aS(x)<S6) 

60 IF (t=1 OR t=?) THEN LET a 500 INPUT "Tape name? "jk®: LET -(35 AND CODE aSi«) >64))#146+COD 
S=ta~ahezTei TO 2)4+"*Variable*+ze(3 aS=k@: INPUT "Side? "jk®: LET E a@tx+1)-(46 AND CODE at®ixe#+ilj<¢ 
TO )*" "+#+CHR® (PEEK (ix#15)-(32 aS=aS+" Side "+k: LET bS=a8+CH 36)-(335 AND CODE aSix¢1)>64): WN 

AND t#1)-(946 AND t2#2))4(°S" AN F@ 255: LET k=LEN bS-1 EXT x: RETURN 
D teZzy¢" 0)" 510 RETURN 968 CLEAR : DELETE 7000,998e 

70 POKE 2236972,0: PRINT aS'*: L 600 POKE 23692,223: CLS : ON ERR Fe? GO TO FFo9 
ET bS=bS+aS+CHRS I34CHR®S 13: IF GO TO 100: INPUT “Load name? 97°90 ON ERR GOTO 100: CLS : PR 

print THEN PRINT @#3;as"" *“—n8:; PRINT "*"*Loading """in@y5* INT FLASH 1;AT 35,61 "Tape Loadi 

60 GO TO 70 *""iH1; "Start tape, then press ng Error"; FLASH eo 6; "Pl 

100 PAPER 1: INF 7: BORDER I: ¢€C any key.": GO SUB 400: INPUT IN @ase Attempt Again";#1j; "Press a 
LS : PRINT AT 2,6; BRIGHT 13 "CA KEY@: IF LEN n@>10 THEN LET n® ny key for Menu": GO SUB 400: G 
=} RECTORY" =en@i( TO 10) o TO 100 
"S56 Sane HE eer cmente DIRECT 605 ON ERR GO TO FFFO0: LOAD n® F796 CLEAR 65252: LOAD "director 
GRY pce even eecceces hd ™** "PRINTER DATA c®i): LET bS=c8 y"CODE 65253: LET print=0: GO T 
SWITCH.....-. Pee eee ee ee ce” * * FAY 610 ON ERR GO TO 100: CLS : FO o 100 
E TO TAPE sss sete tase e cetera” R j=1 TO LEN bS: IF bS(j)=CHRS 7799 CLS : PRINT "Saving directo 
**CONTINUE DIRECTORY... 58582s8 208 255 THEN GO TO 4630 hiding Te tela aS. ao 
~.@"*"*LOAD FROM TAPE.........- 620 NEXT j ; Ss “directory ’ 
sesseesa”** "REVIEW DIRECTORY... 630 LET k#j-1 2: CLS = PRINT “Ready to Verity 
seee eee eee es 6" 640 IF print THEN PRINT #3; "Di -- Please FewindTape -- Start 

i20 GO SUB 400: ON ERR RESET rectory of “jbS( TO kis** sbB(k+ Tape and Press anyKey*: GO SUB 
i30 GO TO 120-(110 AND k@="1")+ z TO ) 400: CLEAF : VERIFY "director,* 
(80 AND kS="2")+(160 AND k#=*3" 650 PRINT "Directory of “jbsi T : VERIFY “*directory"CODE : LET 
)-(103 AND kS="4"°)+4+(480 AND kS= O kis"*iobe(k+2 TO ) 


*S")+(49O AND KS="6") 


print=0: GO TO 100 


OOOOOODODODDOODOODODOOUOON 22 OOOOOOOOUOOOOOOOOOOO000 


LISTING 2 





ADDRESS OF CODE MNEMONICS NOTES 
Listinsa 4 
FFAE FS DI 
FFAC 3EO1 LD A,01 sels A pa ct Ah i lt 
FFAE D3F4 OUT (F4),A5 Activate chunk 0 of DOCK bank ee ee a eee oe 
FFBO DBFF IN A, (FF) ei: pian reer Sens See 
FFBD CEFF SET 7,A start after re-loading. 
FFB4 DIFF OUT (FFI,Ai Select ExROM | a = 
FFBS6 Z21E500 LD HL,OOES; Move from address OOES of EXROM ce ee a ee ee 
FFB? 116560 LD DE,80E5; Move to address SOES in RAM “> ON ERR RESET = INPUT “Load 
FFEC o1cé600 LD BC,O00Cé; Move Cé bytes icount) phe ieee wil 
FFEF EDBO LDIF ; Execute move and decrement count aint dpnieade inact ae “yee : 
FFCI AF YOR & len: IF eg ce alibi "65253 TH 
FFC2 DIFF OUT (FF),A; Select Home ROM ond cee aie gaat See Tae 
a Sag oe (FF), AS De-Activate DOCK bank 7 POKE VAL "65451"°,VAL “55°: 
FFC? Z1E360 LD HL,S0ES; Move from address 80ES5 eee — re ——s — 
FFCA LLESFE LD DE,FEES; Move to addrese FEES — ipeatiag dat a sate on = 
FFCD 01¢C600 LD BC,OOC6é; Move Cé bytes (count) i eee aes: ee ee. Cee ee 
# ¥ iv « aa Py " 
FFDO EDBO LDIR } Execute move and decrement count oe ee eee eee 
FFD? ce RET »VAL "201": POKE VAL °65456*,FN 
ltadd): POKE VAL "654357",FN ht 
add): POKE VAL "65459",FN ltlen 
LISTING 2 1: POKE VAL °635460°,FN Aileen) 
4 ON ERR GOTO 46: CLEAR (‘add 
ADDRESS OP CODE MNEMONICS NOTES “PI/PT): CLS § PRINT “play tape 
“; RANDOMIZE USR VAL "45451" 
FFAB AF XOR A i A= 0 & Reset flags -Read header = Sy Ene eset : STOP 
FFAC 37 Scr } Load not Verity vee. Seerees {5 i608 + re 
FFAD 00 NOP i Room for Bonus One “tert SO re 2 
FFAE DD21C3FF LD IX,FFC3; Read to address FFC3 * One “seater Suse : Go Tre 1 
FFEB2 111500 LD DE,OOIS; Read 15h bytes 
FFBS o8 EX AF,AF* § Required by R_Tape 6 SAVE "loader" LINE 7: SAVE 
FFB6 CDFFFE CALL FEFF ; “Gosub“ R_Tape + 3 “loader"CODE 65253,222 
FFB? Z2ACIFF LD HL, (FFCS) 
FFEC 7D LD A,L 
FFBD FEOO cP oO ; Was data header? LISTING 5 
FFBF ce RET Zz i Return if header data : 
FFCO CI3ABFF IP FFAB 5 Try again if not NOTE: To use program Enter <RUN> 
LISTING 4a 7015 LET aS(25 TO 246)="00": LET 
aS(31 TO 32)=2#"00": LET agit? To 
ADDRESS OF CODE MNEMONICS NOTES 40)2"0020": LET a®(S? TO S8)=" 
ce": LET a@=asi TO 356): LET add 
FFAB 37 Scr i Load not Verity ress=465451: GO SUB 9110 
FFAC SEFF LD A,FF ' Read Data F070 CLEAR 32767: RANDOMIZE USR 
FF AE DDZ1 LD Ix, ; Read to address _ 65451: GO To 9999 
FFE2 il LD DE,...... i Fead _ bytes 799 SAVE "“exrom"CODE 327468,68192 
FFBS Lala) NOP i Overwrite : PRINT “rewind tape to verify" 
FFB6 CDFCFE CALL FEFC : Gosub FR_Tape >: VERIFY “exrom*CODE 32766,81972 
FFE? cy RET i Done 


boooooooooooooocoouououo0uu0bg02020000gu0g02020000u0u02u02u2uzu00000 
All Caps, Please!!! by Earl V. Dunnington 


There have been many good programs pub- double IF statements such as: 
lished for the 2068 that I would have copied IF a$="Y" OR aS="y" THEN GOTO 10 
except for the fact that lower case was To do this you must insert a line into the 


used. This combined with reduced repro- program to poke the system variable FLAGS2 
duction, illegibility, and only fair eye- as follows: 
Sight presents too much of a problem, and I poxr 23658,8 


do not think that I am alone in this. The fhis prevents the use of lowe - eS 
2068 has a Caps-Lock key, and I use it when gan ys restored by: r case, whic 


programming. POKE 23658,0 


There is an added benefit to using all , . 
3 ? : Rr If you will co the followin rogram, 
caps in that you can save memory by avoiding save it es tape, ee it with a Bt to 


be listed for publication, run it using GOTO 
9910, it will change all lower case char- 
9710 LET APPEEK 236Rie2seereEx 203s Setar te Gopen.cases except fog double 17 
97920 LET E=PEEK 243627+256*PEEK £3628 added lines before LLISTing your program. 
9930 FOR N=A+5 TO E 
9940 IF PEEK N=36 OR PEEK N=166 AND PEEK (N+5)=197 THEN LET N=N+13 
9950 IF PEEK N=14 THEN LET N=N+6 
9960 IF PEEK N=13 THEN LET N=N+5 
9970 IF PEEK N>=97 AND PEEK N<=122 THEN POKE N,PEEK N-32 
9980 NEXT N 





9985 STOP 
9990 SAVE "ALL CAPS" LINE 9910 23 





Machine Language Program To Read T/S 2068 Tape Headers 


by Ed Shaughnessy 


The T/S 2068 program presented here 


reads the header of a program or code that 
is stored on tape, and tells what command 
was used to save it. Suppose you have a 


BASIC program on tape that was saved for 
automatic start. This program will tell you 
at what line number the program will begin 
execution when it is loaded. Or suppose, you 


have a machine language routine on tape. 
This program will tell you its length and 
what location it was saved from. In each 


case, the information is shown by displaying 
the complete command that was used when the 
SAVE was done. 


When the BASIC program shown in the 


listing is run for the first time, it 


saves 
itself and then saves machine language code 
it has created. You can then rewind the 
tape, and run the program so it will read 
the headers of its own two backups. In this 
way, the program demonstrates itself. 

Let's look at the program. Line 20 


calls the subroutine that POKE's the machine 
language program into RAM. Line 40 saves the 
BASIC program. Notice that it is saved so 
that it will automatically start at line 90 
when it is loaded. Line 60 saves the machine 
language code. Line 110 and 120 will re- 
peatedly execute the ML program that finds 
and reads header information. At this point, 
when you are running the program for the 
first time, rewind the tape and press the 
play button. Press any key to continue ex- 
ecution of the ML program. Soon you will see 
the familiar loading pattern on your screen. 
Eventually the following will be displayed: 
SAVE "HEADER" LINE 90 
SAVE "HEADER"CODE 40000,176 
Compare these lines with lines 40 and 60 in 
the program, the two lines that did the 
saves. Press BREAK to terminate or the pro- 
gram will continue to search for another 
header. 

You now have two versions of the pro- 
gram on tape; the BASIC program and the ML 
program. In the future, the quickest way to 
investigate a tape is to load just the ML 
program. 
LOAD "HEADER" CODE 
Since you are not specifying any location or 
length, it will be loaded into the location 
it was saved from. Execute the machine lang- 
uage code. 
RANDOMIZE USR 40000 
A message will prompt you to start playing 
the tape that contains the program you wish 
to investigate. Then press any key so the ML 
routine will continue execution. The program 
will read the tape until it finds the first 


header. It will display the command that was 
used to do the SAVE and then it will term- 


inate. The 17 bytes of the header area will 
be in a workspace in RAM, starting at loca- 
tion 40200. You may examine this area with 
HOT Z or PEEK into it with a BASIC program. 


24 


Page 237 of the T/S 2068 User's Manual 
Shows the different formats of the SAVE 
command. Notice on page 238, that the result 
SAVE filename CODE 16384, 6912 was actually 
accomplished with the command SAVE filename 
SCREENS. For a detailed explanation of what 
information is contained in the tape header, 
see P.H. Skipper's article in Vol.3 No.2 
issue of SyncWare News. 

As long as your computer is in T/S 2068 
mode, you can use this program to read 


Spectrum tapes as well as 2068 tapes. If you 


have the SOFTAID tape, try that. If you en- 
counter strange results, it is due to copy 
protection schemes. To search through an en- 


tire tape, you may find it more convenient 
to load the BASIC program, since it will 
continue reading successive headers on a 


tape until you press BREAK. 


1@ REM THIS TS2SGES PROGRAM TRE 
RITES AN ML ROUTINE TO READ TAFE 
HERDERS. IT WILL READ A TAPE CoN 
TAINING FR PROGRAM GR SODE AND TE 
Lit WHICH FORMAT OF THE "SRAUE ce 
MMAND tiPaScE 237 KF THE USERS Oo 
NURL I URS USED, 

2£@ GC SUB 202 
30 PRINT "Prepare t0 Save BASSI 
C program” 

4@ SAVE “HEADES= LINE «& 

S@ CLS : PRINT "“Prepere te £2 
€ ML code" 

60 SAVE “HEADER "CODE 480882 i7s 

7@ CLS : PRINT “Rewind thre =c 
€ afid Press PLAY. ' 

e8 GO TO i108 

9809 CLS : 6O BUS 202 

1@8@ PRINT * (\réeets BRE wRer 

Finished: “ 

14308 FANDOMIZE Usk <e<2028 == _ 
120 RANDOMIZE Use <8814 POTN 

GO Ta i122 

2e@O LET tsuUn=@ 

218 FOR T=4O0O0Q0 TO 48iTe 

e220 READ XK: POKE I. le oe Et Z 
CSUN4= 

2eo@ NEXT I 

240 DATA 62,253 .202,.453,.138,17,i2 
*,608,285.63 

es DATA 7,208,227 .327.2238.255,e 
03,2535 ,211,255 

26C@ DATA 219,244,530, 185 82,62 .:2 
,ea1,ec4¢4,.221 

arO- BHA Oa ,8., 257,221,225 2.17.37 
,8,4275;55 

28@ DATA 205 252.8 221,22 7.42.2 
42,585,155 ,8e2 

2806 DATA 211,244,218 ,2E55.28:.15 
1,212,255 ,62,25¢4 

SS DPHTR 2805 .48,.12.221,2223.22= 
126,254,¢2,4@€a 

310 DATA 14,.254,3,48,.27,17,18ée 
62,285,635 

320 DATA 7,205 ,iS2.252,201.293=5 
163,156 ,126,23@2 

338 CATR 392,182.82 .32,215.i7.i 
3,121,205 .215 


Program Continued Next Page... 


"Headers" (continued) 











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S222 RUSE 4g ; S@lé BEEP ,O04,F45 | 
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ME SUPER CHAMPION Irs “¢: BEEP S@27 PRUSE Se 
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Sa eeeeee  ae  ee 9972 RETURN — 
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USE 20: IF NWN=S THEN Go To Sssoaec SSG S55 354 48 64.25 S 4152 4 — 
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Seie FOR Fei TO 10. FOS Fei To i 55,7,255,252,38,2 a 
2 ag990 nara : 
S@1i5 PRINT AT VU,B; “PO” er 


1@ 
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OI OOO OOOO Oo 
MOVING AN AROS CARTRIDGE ONTO 


YOUR AERCO DISK SYSTEM 


413 


Als o———__1}\is27\, 8 SPOT SLIDE SWITCH GLUED 








te en eee ys gi 
, UN TOF 
° ' LSS52 WITH PINS 11 
‘2, 'S FOLDED BACK 
fil REMOVE PINS 


ORIGINAL 1 .2,3,4,5,6, 
| 89,10 
GLUE ON TOP 
OF LS27 


SOLDER PINS 7.14 






L527 WITH FIN 13 

FOLDED BACK 

ALL OTHER PINS 
ONTO HE ADER 





AROS MOD. 





REMOVE THE LS27 FROM THE SOCKET AT LOCATION 4-5 
ON THE FD-68 BOARD AND REPLACE WITH THIS ASSEMBLY 


+ 





Ra 4 . 
NF - i4 PIN DIF 


SET SWITCH TO CARTRIDGE AND MOVE “NAME.ARDO", ms | 13 + atte ial 
SET SWITCH TO NORM AND CAT “NAME.ARO", agen amen = dito Be. SF ie q 
é A-5 we " | 


ALTERNATIVES: YOU CAN BUY THIS ASSEMBLY FROM AERCO i er. < 
FOR 315 OP SEND YOUR CARTRIDGE AND $10 TO AERCOTO EXROMC 4308 ie 41 
HAVE IT PUT ON DISK (PRICES INCLUDE RETURN SHIPPING) 6 ae: pP | 





ADDING A JOYSTICK FOR THE SPECTRUM/ 2068 


by Jack Keene 


Having converted your 2068 to Spectrum 
mode of operation, you will find that most 
British software can be operated success- 
fully from the keyboard, but a joystick 
might make life a little easier. While the 
joystick ports may be successfully accessed 
by the appropriate IN commands, this is of 
little use for commercial software. 

A variety of joystick conventions are 
used with the Spectrum, and many programs 
offer the choice of several. The cursor key 
interface uses the cursor key lines + 0 for 
fire. The Sinclair Interface uses 6, 7, 8, 9 
and 0. However, the most common interface 
encountered is the Kempston style interface 
(Kempston is the trademark of Kempston Elec- 
tronics). 

The Kempston protocol interface is add- 
ressed to port 31 and may be accessed from 
BASIC via IN 31. The following simple pro- 
gram--10 PRINT IN 31;: GO TO 10--will return 







-DB9 
MALE 
CONNECTOR 


1N 4146 (3) 






1G 7 14 3.12 «bt 316 6s 
| 1K | vx | 7 


*ov FoRQ# ©3 Ff v1 F vO 
tSv 45y +5 





the following values for the appropriate 
joystick direction: 
RIGHT = 1 UP/RIGHT = 

LEFT 22 UP/LEFT = 10 

DOWN = 4 DOWN/RIGHT = 5 

UP = 8 DOWN/LEFT = 6 

FIRE ADDS 16 TO ALL VALUES 
This type interface may be constructed 


with a simple one chip circuit to plug in at 
the rear expansion connector, the cartridge 
port, or even wired in directly. Due to 
Simplistic decoding (A5 and IORQ), this 
device will respond to more than port 31. 
However, this works well with most other 
peripheral devices. 

If you are so inclined, the schematic 
in Fig.1 illustrates the interface from the 


wiring side view with the appropriate con- 
nection to the expansion connector labled. 
An expansion connector layout for the 2068 


is included for your reference. 


* 
- r 
« & § 
vaca BERHEEE 


Figure 2. 


BZ UUBUBBEBEIESESE SESH 2S cesses un- 





» 
‘ STUBS RPRCRBRTBERBTR SSS RACERS oEwewe sev eww 


i ipUngparagapeoagamaressessgecasy 


ge 


Adapting The TI Keyboard To The 2068 oy sichara ura 


I feel that as 2068 users, we have 
been supported very well, considering our 


fate. But still, I have longed for a pro- 
fessional keyboard...I decided to adapt 
one myself. I hope these notes will help 


anyone else wanting the same. 

This project is relatively easy, just 
time consuming. For myself, the results 
were well worth the time invested. 

Please note that there is an in- 
creased amount of interference if you are 


using a color television. Whenever a key Pte ideas on wiring. 


is pressed, it is similar to when PAUSE is 
on. This might be compensated by using a 


sheilded cable (13 strands...I don't know 
of any suppliers for this). I use a_ green 
Screen monitor, and do not have this in- 


terference problem. 

I purchased the Texas Instrument 994A 
keyboard from: Arnold Company, 214 Hill 
Lane, Red Oak, TX 75154 (214) 576-2291 for 
a total of $10.89 C.0.D. It came with two 
reprints of articles on adapting the TI 
keyboard to the T/S 1000, which had some 


Continued Next Page... 


WIRING THE TI KEYBOARD: 

I cut all traces just where they attach 
each pin. Two color, 24 gauge, stranded wire 
works well and it helps to keep the indi- 
vidual connections in order. A _ low-wattage 
soldering iron, Radio Shack's five piece set 
worked well for the project. Watch for 
solder bridges. Any bare wires should be 


taped to prevent shorts in the matrix. Take 
your time. Follow Fig.1 for the wire con- 
nections. 

EXTRA KEYS: 


There are six extra keys on the TI key- 
board, not found on the 2068. I removed five 
of them using de-soldering braid (I used 
less than a foot of braid). I decided to 
re-arrange the extra keys as a set of CURSOR 
keys. A welcome addition. I ran wire jumpers 
from the TI keyboard to connect then. 


Note: I left one of the extra keys on. I 
have plans to convert it to a single key 
delete (I haven't done this yet). Any sug- 
gestions? 
MAKING THE CONNECTION: 

I used an 18" piece of ribbon cable, 


stripped-down to 13 strands to make the con- 
nection. Fig.2 shows where the short ribbon 
cable from the 2068 keyboard attaches to the 
2068 PC board. The ribbon cable that has 
been added to the TI, attaches to the other 
end, at the original keyboard connection. It 
is also a good idea to unplug the _ short 
ribbon cable from the PC board when tackin 

on the new one. I removed my 2068 keyboar 

and disassembled it to find the wiring 
matrix (I never re-installed it). 

Plug the ribbon cable back in and test 
your new keyboard. Any problems? If so, 
power down and check your soldering con- 
nections. 


THE CASE: 
I used a piece of 1/2" plywood (17 1/4" | 


x 6"), cut out and routed to fit the TI key-| 
board. The holes for the CURSOR keys’ were 
drilled. The Cursor keys are held in place’ 


with a small amount of EPOXY glue. They have 
held up well. I hot-glued small pieces of 
plywood to the sides of the plywood top, 
making it a case. I also covered the case 
with contact paper, matching the color of 
the monitor. I built an open ended, open 
bottom cover with cutouts for peripherals, 
that sits on top of the 2068, and my monitor 
on top of that. You can use just about any 
materials to build your case. I would like 
to suggest that you use what you are famil- 
iar with. The extra length of my Case, is'| 
because I also added the HI-TEK 18-key-pad.. 
The keypad is also from Arnold Company. 
It is priced at $6.95. It is also just jump- 
ered wired to the TI keyboard. I would alsof 
like to mention that RMG Enterprises (1419] 
1/2 7th St., Oregon City, OR 97045) has re- 
placement key labels for the 2068. If you 


run into any problems, drop me a S.A.S.E at) 
OR 97146). 


P.O. Box 153, Warrenton, 


I'll try 
to help all I can. 





Fig. 2 





More On The Oliger Disc Interface 


by Dick Wagner 


My article on the Oliger 2068 Floppy 
Disc Interface in the March/April 86 issue, 
had an error that should be corrected. The 
next to last paragraph incorrectly stated 
the number of K bytes that an Amdek 3" disk 
will store. John Oliger set me straight on 
this. 

The number of bytes the system will 
store per side (single side, double density) 


is 195.5K. As mentioned in my review, a side 
will store 4 regular files plus 1 special 
file, 0. Correctly, a single file is always 
48.5 kbytes, and the special file is about 
1.5 kbytes. This comes about by the manner 


in which the system operates 
limits in the disc systen. 

John Oliger also has provided an expla- 
nation of "tracks" as used in a disc system. 


and not by 


A track is a stopping place or the position 
of the head. Thus my Amdek drive is defined 
as a 40 track system (1 disc side). This is 


a little different from my understanding of 
drive, 


the specifications provided with the 


which indicates it has 80 tracks. 
John's SAFE system has been _ used 
tensely since the review was written. There 
has been no problems with it other than I 
damaged the special controller IC by zapping 
it with static electricity. There have been 
updates and revisions, and I am ordering a 


e€x- 


new EPROM that will provide a MOVE, to copy 
a disc from one drive to another, MOVE n_ to 
m to copy a file from one disc to another, 


and VERIFY. I have not implemented his 
fantastic SAVE system, but will do so very 
shortly. This will SAVE any program that 
will load into the computer! Just a press of 
a switch button. No LOAD command is used. 

My apology to John, and I hope any 
reader turnedoff by my error will re-read my 
report plus others that are being printed. 


At least send for John's literature and 
quotes. (Write to: The John Oliger Company, 
11601 Whidbey Dr., Cumberland, IN 46229) 





SOFTWARE IN REVIEW 


EXTENSIONS 


Reviewed by Dennis Silvestri 


How do you improve ae great 
Easy, make it even better. That is 
what Robert Fischer did with Tom Woods's 
Pro/File 2068. It is called "Extensions". 
Extensions are three separate newsletters in 
which the user types in the improvements to 
Pro/File 2068. My review is a combined list- 
ing of all three Extension issues. 

A big feature is the use of variables 
using the VAL and CODE function which will 
Save approximately 2000 plus bytes. There is 
an improved Save-Verify function, as well as 
an improvement on making a back-up master. 
You can save everything as well as the MC, 
so you do not need a separate Master Tape to 
load in first, or you can save the Basic 
with data just as it is done on the original 
Pro/File 2068, or you can save just the data 
itself. There is also a more compact display 
and edit menu, allowing more commands to be 
seen at one time on one screen. 

There is a cursor wrap feature which I 
found extremely convenient. There are inm- 
provements to the Machine Code sort routine 


product? 
exactly 


even a 
transfer Ex- 


and the tally function. There is 
function that allows you to 
tentions improvements to any existing Pro/ 
File data you may have. Extensions also has 
a routine to make it Spectrum and Microdrive 
compatible. There are more improvements that 
I have not listed. In order to get the full 
benefits of Extensions you should have all 
three issues. 

Keep in mind that you do need Pro/File 
2068, and the machine code sort routine from 
Tom Woods Breakthrough Newsletter before in- 
puting the Extensions/improvements. Each 
issue of Extensions is $6.00 each and can be 
ordered from Robert C. Fischer, 221 Scoggins 


St., Summerville, GA 30747. There is also a 
version of all three Extension issues on 
tape, which can be merged with Pro/File 


2068. It is called Pro/File Plus Three, 
it costs $18.00. 


and 


With all the improvements offered by 
Extensions, you will still have all the ca- 
pacity of the original Pro/File 2068 for 


files. 


your 








Address Kook 


Reviewed by Duncan Teague 


MoOdres= Book 
2etra Sreteme. Inc. 
*S-06 Jamaica Avenue 
Woodhaven. Ny 11421 
¥73> 26681°S9 . 935 
Why should you buy a dedicated name, 
address, and telephone number file manager Either a screen listing or a hard copy 


when there are several general purpose pro- 
grams available to accomplish the same task? 
Does it have any special features that make 
it worthy of your ten bucks? Read on and 
find out the answers to these and other 
burning questions. 

"Address Book" has been developed by 
Mark Fendrick. Mr. Fendrick is a columnist 
for at least publications, including ZX Conm- 
puting and The Computer Shopper. 

The above fact does not give him in- 
stant credibility as a software developer. 
It does, however, offer a rare chance at an 
objective look at a program written by an 
individual who regularly writes critical 
reviews of others' software creations. 

I'll quote a comment from Fendrick's 
review of two programs in the January issue 
of The Computer Shopper. 

"..e-neither of these two 
extraordinary in and of itself." 

What's ironic about this comment is 
that one of the programs Fendrick is evalu- 
ating is a mailing list/address book program 
that offers more features than his own. 

Address Book first announces that you 
have the opportunity to load the machine 
code portion of your Aerco interface driver. 
If you don't have an Aerco Interface, then 
you may still use the T/S 2040 printer. I 


programs is 


do, I did, and it works. I did have to make 
some modifications to adapt the printer 
codes to my Prowriter. 

Data is entered into 6 fields: 1. Name, 


2. Address, 3. City and State, 4. Zip Code, 
5S. Area Code, and 6. Telephone Number. 

Sorting may be done by name, by zip, or 
by area code. My only criticism is that 
"name" should have been split into two 
fields, a first name field and a last name 
field. As the program is written, data must 
be entered as "last name, first name" for an 
alphabetical listing to be useful. 

The record and file handling chores are 
handled with ease. A record can be deleted 
or edited. When editing, a press of the 
ENTER key skips a field in which no change 
is to be made. The file can be searched to 
find a specific record. The search word does 
not have to be an exact match. The search 
routine finds the first record that starts 
with the characters entered. 





30 


printout of the file is available. These two 
options can be started at the beginning or 
at any point in the middle of the file. The 
hard copy can easily be formatted for the 
printing of mailing lables. Telephone num- 
bers can be printed or omitted as desired. 
The number of line feeds required between 
forms is also specified with this option. 


The program continuously reports how 
many records may still be added to the file. 
The screen information, however, doesn't 
agree with the documentation. While this is 
a minor flaw, there are some more _ serious, 
but correctable, programming flaws. 

The FOR...NEXT loop in which the number 
of line feeds between forms is specified is 


programmed incorrectly. One more line feed 
than the user specifies is sent to the 
printer. One printer code in the program 


actually calls for a form feed from my Pro- 
writer, instead of a line feed. Another 
problem, a little harder to trace, is in the 
screen listing of the file. 

After entering several records, if you 
request a screen listing of the file, the 
program returns to the menu. This is an 


ever-present annoyance caused by an ON ERR 
statement that sends the program back to the 
menu whenever any error situation is en- 


countered. The error in this routine is an 
undefined variable. The variable ZS is de- 
fined in the hard copy routine but not in 
the screen listing routine. Adding the line: 
2014 LET ZS = ES 

fixes the problem. 

The folks at Zebra Systems, Inc., who 
are distributing this program for Mark Fen- 
drick, have left themselves (and us) a 
safety valve whereby the program may be 
stopped (for tracing program errors, no 
doubt). At the main menu, typing "1" causes 
the string input prompt to be displayed in 
the editing area. Typing "zebra" at this in- 


put prompt executes an ON ERR RESET command 
and then STOPs the program. Neat, huh? 
Unfortunately, that is the cleverest 


part of this progrm. A general database will 
accomplish the same tasks, with greater 
speed, and with more flexibility. Don't 
waste your time with single purpose programs 
unless they offer some extraordinary fea- 
tures. Address Book does not. 
















When requesting catalogs, information, and making purchases, 
please mention that you saw the ad in TIME DESIGNS! 





Yes! We Have the 
QL MOUSE! 


The QL now has its own Mouse. The Mouse plus 
its special interface is available now and offers the 
best GEM-like system currently available for the 
QL. The package comes with E.A.S.E., a totally 
new user concept for the QL. E.A.S.E supports a 
desktop environment similar to GEM and includes 
pulldown menus, icons, scrollable windows, a cal- 
culator, and a game. E.A.S.E. gives easy access to 
all QDOS system functions. Also supplied is GIGA 
BASIC, an extension of SuperBASIC with over 70 
additional commands, a full-screen editor, sprites, 
and mouse control commands. Write or call for 
prices and catalog. 





English Micro Connection 
15 Kilburn Court — Newport, RI 02840 
401/849-3805 





ee 










Great New 
GRAPHICS 
DESIGN 
Program 
For The 2068 


an updated version of the original PS/GE 2068, with the same 
powerful graphic editor capabilities: Window COPY, ERASE, 
ROTATE, ZOOM, WIDE, MIRROR-IMAGE, PAINT, SHADE, 
INVERT, and DIGITIZE in the Standard and Extended Color 
video modes. Merge parts of two screens into one screen. Full use 
of 2068 attributes. Also uses the hi-res (64 col.) video for draw and 
print. NEW FUNCTIONS include: a CONNECT function to con- 
nect designated points. New TEXT mode includes for print fonts 
(standard, bold, modern, or italics), or load your own fonts. 
PLOT function is 2 to 3 times faster! PIXEL SKETCH AND 
GRAPHICS EDITOR 2068 version 2.0 is easy to use, menu 
driven, Joystick controlled, and comes with 20 page manual. Built 
in print driver for TASMAN CPI, but compatible with most full 
size printers and interfaces (documentation shows how to imple- 
ment your own print codes). PS/GE 2068 accesses special func- 
ions on Star and Epson type printers. Get your copy of the new 
PIXEL SKETCH AND GRAPHICS EDITOR 2068 version 2.0 
today! ONLY $19.95 ppd. (owners of original PS/GE can send 
Original tape as proof of purchase, and pay only $10.95 for new 
version 2.0) PS/GE is available from: 


posi me fh Lemke Software Development 
20K 2 mm / 2144 White Oak 
i—ortwarel! Witchita, KS 67207 
’ Send legal SASE for free catalog 


of top quality programs for 2068 


PRICE 
BREA. 























3REAKTHROUGH! 





Thanks toa MAJOR cost reduction, we can now offer the 
Rotronics WAFADRIVE (Less Rainbow Interface) for 
ONLY $99.95! The WAFADRIVE offers® TWO 128K 
high speed drives operating at almost 2K per 
second @ An RS232 (serial) and a Centronics (parallel) 
port that allow WAFADRIVE to run almost any full size 
printer @® Extended Basic operating system@A blank 
wafer@and the Spectral Writer word processor 
program. 


The WAFADRIVE is a Spectrum compatible device, and 
when used with the Rainbow Plus interface, your Timex 
2068 will run thousands of Spectrum programs. 


The Rainbow Plus Spectrum interface is both a 
spectrum emulator AND a spectrum hardware adaptor 
all in one compact case. For only $49.95 we will even 
throw in free Spectrum software to get you started! 


TO ORDER: DAMCO ENTERPRISES 
Send Check, Money Order 67 Bradley Ct. 
VISA or MASTERCARD to: Fall River, MA 02720 


or call (617) 678-2110 














SFPFESFESLELELLSLESSESEEPSTPSE SESS 


: ARE YOU USING A x 3 | 
i ORF TLL 4 | LAS EAY 
$ BAN AM eT? & | Le] 14 
¥$ 1S YOUR RIBBON WORN OUT & DRIED OUT? + PAS Ke LYE 
+ ARE YOU HAVING TROUBLE FINDING THEN? $ 
% WOW YOU CAN USE THAT OLD RIBBON AGAIN' # CONTROLLER BOARD FOR TS 2068 
$O0UR NEWGB RE-INKING KIT [5 NOW SPEC TRUPT EPTUL ATOR COMPA TIBLE 
# AVAILABLE' WITH THIS KIT YOU CAN RE-INK $ 
% REDO YOUR OLD RIBBON AT LEAST 188 TIMES: = $ - High speed : loads 32k bytes in 7.5 seconds 
$ THE KIT COSTS ABOUT THE SAME AS 1 NEW $ - commands are: LOAD SAVE DIRECTORY DELETE 
4 RIBBON----ONLY #7. 95+1.58 PH £ FORMAT COPY MOVE snd BADBLOCKS 
+ ORDER TODAY! STOP STRAINING TO READ: + - Uses IBMPC compatibleS 1/4” double sided 
+ & disk drives (SHUGART SA455 or compatible) 
NORTHWEST SINCLAIR HDQ@TRS! # - Disk capacity : 160 k bytes 
3 + i - Dos is on a bank switched 2K eprom 
+ JUST CALL OR WRITE: # | - Only 1 USR call is required 
F 3 + - Assembled and tested all cables and connectors 
$ RriGs £ supplied 
+ MITE Re rR SEs 3 - Single drive version is available now but 4 second 
¢ 1419 1/2 7TH STREET $ drive can be easily added (this mod will be available 
¢ OREGON CITY, OR 97045 #4 pare ere 86) 
$ (SOQ) 655-7484 £ - 60 day money back guarantee 
; - Made in CANADA , many already in use 
+ S.A.5.E. : orice: 
$ FOR FREE CATALOG + =, sli 
¢ SEND THIS AD OR COPY WITH # $95.00(US) + $6.00 shipping 
# ORDER-GET COUPON GOOD FOR # From:LARKEN ELECTRONICS 
¢ ¢5 OFF NEXT ORDER FOR #25 # RR#2 NAVAN ONTARIO 
; OR MORE : : CANADA K4B-1H9 


$FSESTHSLESSSSSSHSLSS SSS SSESS 







ON SALE! 


B QL Computer ..... Ae  . e 





Flatscreen Pocket VV 5 cise - cbse vi vicicie e ous 


C. W. Associates 


419 N. Johnson Street 
Ada, Ohio 45810 


a ee | 
ae ee ee ee ee ee 


ia tt #@ &t tee Pe Pe Pc hUh Cl hl RTCUcrhRhTChUrhhULrhhUchCUhThUhrChUrRTmhUh TC CUCU 


1000 Supertape........ Ue eWees tees ee 

| 2068 Diamond Mike ..... a anpaaneehice i Scultiee 

2068 Great Game and Graphics Show ....17.95 
NE LEE Oe Le Tee ee 9.95 


PROGR Tee CONGO? «vice ccc ccc cee cvecases 2.00 — 
Prices include shipping. 












Supporting the Sinclair QL 
JRC Software and Games 
P.O. Box 448 

Scottsburg, IN 47170 


For information and prices: 
Legol-size SASE 





* Send cashier's check or money order for QL 


Computer. Get $30 credit toward software. 11 C4192 634-4874 (E-00pm - 9:00pm) 





Indiana residents please include 5% for sales tax. 





| More QL and 2068 programs available later. 


LARKEN 
DISK DRIVE py-g7 


Controller Boards for : 
Features Common to Both. 4 CON 


- LDOS on Eprom supports Basic Programs, Code blocks and Arrays | 
Commands are-DIRECTORY,LOAD,SAVE,FORMAT, DELETE and EXIT 
- The Directory is maintained by the DOS, (no need for manual 
directory entrys as with some other disk drives) 
Up to 52 files per disk - Efficient use of disk space (no “pages”) 
Uses Shugart 455 or compatible 5.25” double sided drives 
Zx-81 version can be converted to 2068 version and 
vice versa (cable and Eprom required). Data is even compatible 
Capacity -160K per disk : Loads 32k bytes in 75 sec 
Assembled and tested :60 day money back guarantee 
ZX-81 1TS1000 features: 
- The most Powerful DOS for the ZX-81 : Very User Friendly 
i - Dos uses 12K - 16K area: 2k RAM on disk controller 
- Uses no ZX-81 RAM - No more ram pack wobble (ribbon cable) 
2068 Features : 
- Spectrum Emulator Compatible 
| - Disk with utility programs included 
| = Additional commands on disk 


Mind your own 


business... 
on a Sinclair QL! 


Announcing INTEGRATED ACCOUNTS, the first 
serious business accounting package for the Sin- 
clair QL. Designed for the small business person 
unfamiliar with computers but wanting or needing 
to computerize his bookkeeping and accounting 
functions, this package possesses many of the 
functions and capabilities of software normally 
found on much larger computer systems. Sales, 
Purchases, and Nominal Ledgers right through to 
Profit and Loss and Balance Sheets. Power and 
ease of use have been combined to provide a truly 
superior accounting package for your QL. 


Other serious business software also available 
such as Appointment Manager, Stock Control, QL 


| Prices: $95.00 (US) for single drive controller 


$99.00 for 1 or 2 drive controller 
$4.00 for drive cable (all other cables included) 
include $5.00 shipping 
Send certified cheque or M.0. To - LARKEN ELECTRONICS 
(specify ZX-81 or 2068) RR#2 NAVAN ONTARIO 
CANADA K4B-1H9 


Home Finance, QL Decision Maker, QL Project 
Planner, and Mailing List. Call or write for prices 
and a catalog. 


English Micro Connection 


15 Kilburn Court — Newport, RI 02840 
401/849-3805 


SHARP ’S INC. 

Rt. 10 Box 459 
Mechanicsville, Va. 23111 
(804) 746-1664 or 730-9697 


EFFECTIVE MAY 1,1986 


QL Computer with WAR IN THE EAST #289.00 

@L RGB Monitor #289.00 

QL Printer $289.00 

2 J6K Ram $179.00 

Microdrives $7.95 

War in the East $29.95 (with scenario 1 only? 
Write or call for our catalog. 


T/S 2068 or SPECTRUM 48K 
War in the East 

Fall af the Third Reich 
Ardennes 

Britain Invaded'! 


#19.95 each 
$34.95 any 2 programs 
$49.90 any 3 programs 


Visa & Master Card accepted. 3% surcharge for charge card orders. 
Free shipping by UPS or ist Class. Most orders shipped in 2 to 7 days. 





U 


TS 1000 | TS 1500 


The Rigerbals cee 
User's Magazine 


Hardware Projects ¢ Hardware Reviews 
Software Reviews * Product Comparisons 
Published Monthly ¢ Back Issues Available 

Free Personal Ads for Subscribers 





SUM Magazine is aimed at Sinclair and Timex users who 
want to learn what is available for their computers, how to 
do things no one else is doing, and what is just over the 
horizon. Examples of recent articles include: Reviewing 
the Portuguese Disk Drive System; Rotronics Wafadrive 
Review; Hi-Res Graphics for TS-1000; Build Your Own 
Printer Interface; & a series on Beginner's Programming. 


SUM Magazine invites articles, reviews, and projects for 
possible publication. We pay for articles published! 
Hardware and software producers are invited to submit 
their products for review. 


Annual Subscription/12 issues (U.S.) .............. $15 
Sample Copy—$1.00 


SUM Magazine 
3224 NW 30 Avenue — Gainesville, Florida 32605 
904/378-9000 or 462-1086 





QuarTerS 


A quarterly publication for 
Timex/Sinclair computer user. 


",..-Every issue has been full of helpful 
articles, great software reviews and new 
product information. Thanks for publishing 
a needed magazine for TS computer owners 
and for keeping it easy to read and 
understand. I have read other TS computer 
re but none have been as helpful to 

as QuarTerS...I'm really’ glad I 
pebaerbtiad to QuarTerS...''-C. Bower 


One year subs. only $8.00. Overseas 
only $11.00(US$). Check or MO to: 
WMJ DATA SYSTEMS, 4 Butterfly Dr, 
Hauppauge, NY 11/788. 


Fes FREE FIRST ISSUE SUM . 


* Send this capon to WJ Data Systems, 4 Butterfly ° 
. Drive, es NY 11788. You will receive oe * 
" free issue of QIS ard w will bill yu foraae - 
year subscription. If you do rot want to subscribe * 

* rite cancel on the bill and keep your free issve. ’ 


» NAME 
. STREET 


SS ee 


-STATE ZIP met 


ese eee eesesueseseseseseeseeseeseeseteeseseeseesente#ste#te#etseteneeeetss# 


the 


DIAMOND MIKE II 


NEW MACHINE CODE 
_ ARCADE AT! 


JRC SOFTWARE proudly announces a breakthrough in 
2068/Spectrum compatible games called DIAMOND MIKE 
ll. It is a true arcade quality game with brilliant graphics, 
color and sound. The object is to collect enough diamonds 
before time runs out, while avoiding falling rocks, ferocious 
amebas and killer butterflies. There are 22 different 
screens and 6 levels! DIAMOND MIKE II is sale priced at 
$17.95! Ten day money-back guarantee! Just $2.00 extra 
for C.0.D. Or mail check or money order to: 

JAC SOFTWARE 
P.O. Box 448 
scottsburg, IN 47170 
Phone (812) 752-5106 or 752-6071 
Diamond Mike II is 100% 16K Machine Code. 


Free "Electronic Catalog" with your order! 





ORDER OUR CATALOG! 
and get this . 

FREE Software ! 

on cassette... 


FOR THE TS2068 


JRC Softwerée and GCameft Cataicg. 


1. 3D Moving Display 

2. 3D Pyramid 

3. DIAMOND MIKE game demo 

4. 3D Tic-Tac-Toe demo 

5. Plus commentary by programmer 
John Coffey on 32-bit computers. 


Our unique product catalog and free 
software all on a quality tape only... 
$2.00 
Order Yours Today! 

JRC Software 


P.O. Box 448 
scottsburg, IN 47170 











HKHHKKKKKKAKHHKRHEKE CIOMDEL BROT SET AD ond 2 IMTS HEKRKKRKEEHHHRHERKRESE 


This collection of EIGHT "Mandelbrot art" prints was produced entirely on a TS 
computer. These lovely 16"x12" monochrome posters are "suitable for framing," 
but will enhance your computer space even if you simply tack them to the wall. 


SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY OFFER: 


Get EIGHT PRINTS for only USt 180.660 (Cdn@® 12.56) postpaid anywhere in North 
America. Send check or money order to: 


Fred Nachbaur 
C-i2, Mtn. Stn. Group Box 
Nelson, BC VIL SP1 
Canada 





Advanced Video Modes 
It’s here at last, software that supports all the advanced display 
modes of the T/S 2068! By sacrificing just 1K of memory look 
what you get: 
«normal, dual, extended colour, and 64 column modes 
«compatiblity with most printers including T/S 2040 
*a UDG replacement that’s like sprites 
*a full sized 12 page instruction manual 
*new features can easily be added because the code is in RAM 
* programs LISTable in any mode 


«loads in only 15 seconds 
All this for the low, low price of $20.00 Can/$15.00 US! 


Send cheque or money order for $1.50 for our complete catalogue with Demonstration 
AS Air _ Tape plus bonus programs. We pay the postage & handling costs on all orders! 


(2 (A$ = “neni. COMPUTE MeoDueTs 


$99 MUNROE AVENUE, WINNIPEG, MANITOBA, R2K 1J4 


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NN 


ty 
/ 


| —_—_ 


4 


an 
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FAST, EASY TO USE, MC routine to 
allow BASIC PRINTing on lower 2 
lines. ASCII & UDG. Printout-S$2; 
On your tape or wafer-$3; on my 
tape-S5. Send MO to: J K Paulsen 
250 Mason Ct. Sycamore, IL 60178 
For 2068. State 32 or OS64 use. 
FOR SALE: T/S 1000's. ..$10. OO ea. 
These have been tested and work. 

No manuals or power supplies. 

Dean Miller, 29324 Park St. 
Wickliffe, OH 44092 Tel. (216) 
944-8630 

MONEY MACHINE. Exciting new Racal 

game for the T/S 2068. May be 

habit forming. From ABBA Soft. 

Tape $10; Llist $3, ppd. Herb 

Bowers, 2588 Woodshire Circle, 
Chesapeake, VA 23323 

SOFTWARE for tHies Timex 2068. 

Send a S.A.S.E. for a free 

catalog to: TIMEWARE, 1907 1/2 

West Genesee St., Syracuse, NY 

13204 

DERBY DAY-2068. The nonpariel 

racing game. Unparalleled fun & 
excitement for ages 4 to won't 

tell. Prints tickets on TS-2040 

& can be used as a fund raiser. 

$10. Ron Ruegg, 37529 Perkins 

sista perms s Lite LA 70769. 

WANTED: T/S 1000, ZxX81l, 64K memory , 
also info about programs: "ZXAD" 
(assembler-—debugger), or ."MCODER". 
Will trade software. Send list and 
SASE. Write: R. Beier, 1 Darwin 
‘Drive, N. Spisiaisiams NY 11566 

IBM GRAPHICS PRINTER for —_ 
Same as Epson MX80. Like new, 
used for 6 months. Dot matrix, 
80 CPS, all Epson functions 
except Italics. $200 or best 
offer. (503) 760-7786 or (503) 
643-8444, ask for Syd. 





the Classifieds | G 

Do you have some equipment or a program that you would like to sell? Looking for something hard to find? Place an 
ad in THE CLASSIFIEDS! Subscribers can place one free personal ad in each issue. Ad size is 32 Col. wide (like 2040 
paper) and maximum of six lines. For additional lines - $3 each. NON-SUBSCRIBERS and DEALERS: $4 a line. 


DEADLINE FOR ALL CLASSIFIED ADS: Two weeks before publication date. Mail your ad to: 
_TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE, The Classifieds Dept., 29722 Hult Rd., Colton, Oregon 97017. 


36 





SUBSCRIBERS 


FOR SALE: Timex boxed 2068 Soft- 
ware. 6 titles. Quadra-Chart, 
VU-3D, Dragmaster, Crossfire, 
Fun Golf and Blind Alley. $130 
retail, new, ALL 6 FOR $25 to 
first caller at (218) 346-2129. 
p.m. only. 


DISK FILE MANAGER for AERCO 
FD-68. Detailed directory and 
tracks. Checks and copies files. 
$16 ppd. on 5.25" disk or tape. 
Chia-Chi Chao, 73 Sullivan Dr., 
Moraga, CA 94556. SASE for info. 


——_— sos ra a ee es ee a 


AERCO FD-68 $150; AERCO C/P $50; 
Timex 2068 $50; WS 2050 $50; 

T/S 1000 $10. D. Gustafson, P.O. 
Box 3/00, Pensacola, FL 32516 


T/S 2068 UTILITIES: Auto-line 
Number, Renumber (GOTOs, GOSUBs, 
ect.), Read Tape Header, Display 
Vars., Find String in Prog. $10. 
Michael Cover, 1405 Chevington 
Cir., Zanesville, OH 43701 


TS SS ee eee ee Ee SS ee OOO CC ee Oem ee Se ee Sc lc |: C060 Oe ee 


FOR SALE: 2068 Computer with two 
tapes, Spectrum Emulator, and 
Timex Printer. Best offer. John 
Coffey, PO Box 448, Scottsburg, 
IN 47170. (812) 752-6071. Tech 
Manual available. 


WOULD LIKE TO CONTACT MIDI I/F 
OWNERS who use 2068 or Spectrum 
and any keyboard. Professional 
musicians or amateur hobbyists. 
May start Sinclair MIDI users 
group/newsletter. Write to: Tim 
Woods c/o TIME DESIGNS, 29722 
Hult Rd., Colton, OR 97017 


——_—_———— i eee ee eee OS ee Oe es Oe nO Se a - - e- l  lc  C eI: Or ee Ss ee se a: ee a ws: n— nr ee 


COLLECTOR'S SPECIAL- Commodore 
VIC20 computer, 16K RAM, manuals, 
power supply, two games. Also 
includes adaptor to allow use of 
any cassette recorder. $50 takes 
it. Call Gary Walker, (604) 354- 
3858. 





WEYMIL CORPORATION 


...makes a serious commitment to the Timex user in the development of high-quality, in- 
novative, and user-friendly software, complete with layman-oriented documentation, and all 
at affordable prices. We are proud to offer you: 


* THRUST* 


Finally, real graphics power for your TS See 
1000! THRUST, the last word in cursor- = 
controlled hi-res graphics for screen or 








eee or SE. 

printer Output, is a software package —————— mit SEE at 
composed of SincArtist HR and SincAr- — a SERRE 

tist 1.3. Examine this sample for an idea —— = | RSS aS Sg 
of the powerful versitility of THRUST. © + REE ass 5 se) 
SINCARTIST 1.3 - The original! Fan- aaa eats a 
tastic hi-res graphics delivered to the 2040 wee TOR; EEE 
printer. SincArtist 1.3 boasts excellent Sees Boies Be 

332323 Het Htt 


user-group reviews and is simply the best Ha $3 
non-hardware system available. Note all Ree # 
these features: 

— 192 x 256 high-resolution file displayed in a 48 x 64 screen window 

— Circles, triangles, rectangles, quadrilaterals, rays, inversing, and more 

— 40 redifinable patterns and a variety of draw and fill modes 

— Cursor or joystick control 

— No system modifications required 


sesessssesesstes 


HE 


eeverve 
“ 
ee 
OOGe We eo 
oe 
Oars 


SINCARTIST HR - The last word in cursor-controlled high-resolution screen graphics. Copy 
artwork to the 2040 printer and save to tape. SincArtist HR requires a TS 1000 with a 
socketed 2K RAM, less than $10.00 in parts, and a few minutes with a soldering iron. Super 
user-friendly documentation and instructions included. All modifications are fully 
transparent to other peripherals. HUNTER BOARD OWENRS: All you need is the FREE 
hardware upgrade that we provide!!!!! 


THRUST includes SincArtist HR and Sinc-Artist 1.3 (these programs are not sold 
separately). The Ultimate Hi-Res Tape is available exclusively from Weymil Corporation for 
only $20. 


* MINI XMOD * 


MINI XMOD - Allows your Westridge or Byte-Back modem to up and download Timex pro- 
grams to any XModem protocol BBS. 

— Fully documented with easy-to-follow instructions for the layman 

— 16K and 64K versions included 


— Ideal for storage in Hunter Board 
— Produced on high-quality casette for the ZX 81, TS 1000, and TS 1500 


MINI XMOD is available from Weymil Corporation for only $20. Please specify Westridge 
or Byte-Back version. 


WEYMIL CORPORATION 
BOX 5904 
BELLINGHAM, WA 98227-5904 


(Write for a free catalogue of other TS 2068 and TS 1000 products) 













Now, you can build 

a QL system with 
Siicisir peripherals 
from Knighted Computers 


The o optimum partner for business = 
personal use. 100 cps (draft)/20 cps (NLQ). 
New technology Letter Quality, QL matching 
B with RS232 interface & cable. 


The Sinclair QL 
with FREE ICE! 


OR -- IF YOU DON'T WANT ‘ICE’ - TAKE YOUR PICK OF ANY ONE OF THE 19 TITLES Desi ned ton l form. 
BELOW - - ABSOLUTELY FREE WITH YOUR ORDER FOR A SINCLAIR QL I!!! 





a ed cal harper i 
QL MON/DISA CARTRIDGE DOCTOR = COSMOS the Sinclair Vision QL colour moniiot. 
QL TOOLKIT WD UTILITIES WEST ) Developed in conjunction with Sinclair 
QL CHESS SPACE PARANOIDS QSPELL Research, this nt ag sph pa = — -. 

- RAUDOON iv | 12” non-glare tube, 85 column text display an 
Oh CAVERNS aonb Sc debe high resolution colour graphics is the perfect 
QL TOUCH-N-GO BLAST BUGGY | partner to the Sinclair QL computer. Comes 
QL HOME FINANCE AREA RADAR CONTROLLER complete pe sae eee and connector for instant 

with the 
QL GARDENER QUAZIMODO ga 


GALACTIC INVADERS & STAR GUARD SB EXTRAS 


PACKAGE DEAL= QL COMPUTER & ABOVE MONITOR & PRINTER w/cables $799.00 


=== DELIVERED ANYWHERE IN CONTINENTIAL USA !!! 


TO SAVE YOU EVEN MORE S$SSS - WE OFFER YOU AN ADDITIONAL 10% OFF ON SOFTWARE 
WHEN YOU ORDER TWO OR MORE TITLES - - - WRITE FOR OUR FREE CATALOG 


HERE ARE JUST A FEW OF THE NEW TITLES WE'RE OFFERING : 





QL FLIGHT SIMULATOR S$. 29:95 QL HYPERDRIVE $ 19.95 

CITADELL ee 92 SPOOK §$ 19.95 BJ IN 3D LAND § 19.95 

QL HOME FINANCE $¢$ 24.95 QL GARDENER $24.95 PROJECT PLANNER § 40.95 
SUPERCHARGE BASIC COMPILER $ 79.95 TOOLKIT 22 98. 54.95 COSMOS $ 24.95 


VISA/MASTERCARD ACCEPTED SHIPPING & HANDLING CONT. USA $3.00 (TOTAL ORDER) 
SPECIAL - S&H FOR MONITORS & PRINTERS $7. 50. (TOTAL ORDER) CONT. USA