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Full text of "The Rainbow Vol. 01 No 1 - Vol 8 No 11"

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January 1989 









Canada $4.95 U . S, $3^95 






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Make Some Handy Tandy 

Connections. 



The largest group of Tandy® users in the world 
shares its problems and solutions online every day in 
CompuServes Tandy Forums. And you can join them. 

You'll find users of every kind of Tandy computer, 
who have worked the bugs out of any application 
you're likely to encounter — from CoCo games and the 
OS-9 operating system to the most advanced program- 
ming problems for MS-DOS® desktops and laptops. 

Tandy Forums are the first place youH hear 
about new products, sometimes even as they're being 
developed. Find out which software is best for your 



applications. And keep up with the latest information 
on upgrades as soon as they're available. There's no 
better way to get more out of your Tandy. 

To join CompuServe, see your computer dealer 
To order direct or for more information, call 800 
848-8199. In Ohio and Canada, call 614 457-0802. 
If you're already a member, type GO TANDYNFT 
at any ! prompt. 

CompuServe® 

An H&R Block Company 



after 



after 








BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL 

COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000 HX 1 Drive 256K 439.00' 

Tandy 1000 TX 1 Drive 640K 799.00* 

Tandy 3000 NL 1 Drive 51 2K 1 279.00 

Tandy 4000 1 Drive 1 Meg.Ram 1959.00 

Tandy 5000 MC 2 Meg. Ram 3799.00 

PRINTERS 

Radio Shack DMP-106 80 CPS 169.00 

Radio Shack DMP-132 120 CPS 245.00* 

Radio Shack DMP-440 300 CPS 549.00 
Radio Shack DWP-230 Daisy Wheei349.00 

Tandy LP-1000 Laser Printer 1899.00 

Star Micronics NX-1000 144 CPS 199.00 
Star Micronics NX-1000 Rainbow 269.00 

Panasonic P-1080i 144 CPS 199.00 

Panasonic P-1091i 194CPS 249.00 

Panasonic P-1092i 240 CPS 369.00 

Okidata320 300 CPS 369.00 

Okidata 390 270 CPS 24 Wire Hd 515.00 

NEC Pinwriter P-2200 170 CPS 399.00 

MODEMS 

Radio Shack DCM-6 52.00 

Radio Shack DCM-7 85.00 

Practical Peripheral 2400 Baud 229.00 

Practical Peripheral 1200 Baud 149.00 



COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



14.95 
119.00 
59.95 
26.95 
299.00 



COLOR COMPUTER MISC. 

Radio Shack Drive Controller 99.00 
Extended Basic Rom Kit (28 pin) 14.95 
64K Ram Upgrade Kit (2 or 8 chip) 39.00 
Radio Shack Deluxe Keyboard Kit 24.95 
HI-RES Joystick Interface 8.95 
Color Computer Deluxe Mouse 44.00 
Multi Pak Pal Chip for COCO 3 
PBH Converter with 64K Buffer 
Serial to Parallel Converter 
Radio Shack Deluxe Joystick 
Magnavox 8515 RGB Monitor 
Magnavox Green or Amber Monitor99.00 
Radio Shack CM-8 RGB Monitor 249.00 
Radio Shack VM-4 Green Monitor 99.00 
PBJ OK COCO 3 Upgrade Board 19.95 
PBJ512K COCO 3 Upgrade 159.00 
Tandy OK COCO 3 Upgrade Board 24.95 
Tandy 512K COCO 3 Upgrade 149.00 

COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

TAPE DISK 

The Wild West(CoCo3) 
Worlds Of Flight 
Mustang P-51 Flight Simul. 
Flight 16 Flight Simul. 



COCO Util II by Mark Data 39.95 
COCO Max III by Colorware 79.95 
Max 10 by Colorware 79.95 
AutoTerm by PXE Computing 29.95 39.95 
TW-80 by Spectrum (CoCo3) 39.95 
Telewriter 64 49.95 59.95 



Telewriter 128 
Elite Word 80 
Elite Calc 3.0 

CoCo3 512K Super Ram Disk 



79.95 
79.95 
69.95 
19.95 



25.95 
34.95 34.95 
34.95 34.95 
34.95 34.95 



Home Publisher by Tandy (CoCo3) 35.95 
Sub Battle Sim. by Epyx (CoCo3) 26.95 
Thexder by Sierra (CoCo3) 22.45 
Kings Quest III by Sierra (CoCo3) 31.45 
Flight Sim.ll by SubLogic (CoCo3) 31 .45 
OS-9 Level II by Tandy 71 .95 

OS-9 Development System 89.95 
Multi-View by Tandy 44.95 
VIP Writer (disk only) 69.95 
VIP Integrated Library (disk) 149.95 

Prices are subject to change without notice. 
Please call for shipping charges. Prices in our re- 
tail store may be higher. Send for complete 
catalog 



*Sale prices through 12/31/88 



CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 

• SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 






P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (508) 486-31 93 



TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 




Table of Cont e nts 



January 1989 
Vol. VII No. 5 




102 



^Features 



22 

The Flip Side ^ 

Keiran Kenny 

Use one sheet of paper to 

print a six-page pamphlet 

28 

Pixel Pictures 

Bill Bernico 
Create brilliant pictures 



34 

Co Co Clubs: 
Building a 
Great Foundation 

Ed Hathaway 

The club that plays together 
stays together 




44 

Chart Plotting ^ 
Made Easy 

Eric Wolf 

Slicing a piece of the pie 

50 

Do You 

Have a Question? 

Cray Augsburg 
Everything you ever wanted 
to know about the CoCo . . . 

An RGB 
Demonstration 

Dave Jenkins 

Ever wondered how your 

RGB monitor determines 

colors? 

78 

Learn to Walk 
Before You RUN 

Brian C. White 
Your new year's resolution 
was to start programming — 
now what? 



87 ^ 

We Have a Winner! 

Bill Bernico 
Results from July's 
programming contest 

90 ^ 

Around in Circles ^ 

William P. Nee 

Part VII: Machine language 

made BASIC 

102 m> 

Secret Codes ^ 

Clem Bedard 

Send messages without fear 
of discovery 

110 

Program a 
RAM Disk 

Daniel Jimenez 
Utilize all your CoCo 3's 
memory 




The cassette tape/disk synv 
bofs beside features and col- 
umns indicate that the program listings 
with those articles are on this month's 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAIN- 
BOW on disk. Those with only the 
disk symbol are not available on 
rainbow on tape. For details, 
check the rainbow on tape and 
rainbow on disk ad on Page 18. 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



N ovic e s N i ch e H 
58 

Now or Never 

John Musumeci 

59 

Bouncing off the Walls 

Etienne St. Jean 

60 

Like Pulling Taffy 

Tio Babich 

60 

Doodle Ditty 

Bill Bernico 

61 

Psychedelia 

Alex Abraham 

61 

All Things in 
Progression 

Keiran Kenny 

62 

255 Ways to Clear Your 
Screen 

Lee Deuel! 

62 

Counting the Words 

Rebecca Kastack 

63 

Hit the Slopes! 

Gary Osborne 

63 

CoCo Pong 

Brent Dingle 

64 

Who You Gonna Call? 

Tom Rochford 



D e partm e nts 

Advertisers Index 

Back Issue Info 

CoCo Clubs 

CoCo Gallery 

Corrections 



Letters to Rainbow 
One-Liner Contest 
Info 



.160 
.107 
_ 40 
. 26 
. 41 
_ 6 



Racksellers 



Rainbow Info 



_132 
-.158 

_ 16 

_134 

_ 94 

Scoreboard Pointers 96 

Submitting Material 

to Rainbow 144 



Received & Certified 
Scoreboard 



Columns 



Subscription Info 



.144 



84 

BASICally Speaking 

Bill Bernico 

BASIC problems solved here 

74 

BASIC Training 

Joseph Kolar 
Let's GET going 

98 

CoCo Consultations 

Marty Goodman 

Just what the doctor ordered 

114 

Delphi Bureau 

Don Hutchison 

Who has the time? 

and Don's database report 



72 

Education Notes 

Steve Blyn 

Give 'em an inch . . . 



"Dr. ASCII" and "Turn of the 
Screw" will return next month. 



10 

PRINT#-2, 

Lawrence C. Falk 
Editor's Notes 

Wishing Well 

Fred Scerbo 
Where's the logic? 



R a inbowt e ch 



152 

Accessible Applications 

Richard A. White 

OS-9 memory explorations 

145 

Barden's Buffer ^ 

William Barden, Jr. 
Hamming it up 

136 

KISSable OS-9 

Dale L. Puckett 
BASIC09: a great language 



Product Reviews 

Armchair Admiral/Eversoft Games, Ltd. 
Flight Simulator 
Scenery Dlsks/subLOGIC Corp 



Good Games Jr\o/ RCPierce Software 
Horse Sense/Western Hills Software _ 

KDSK3/Kenneth L. Wuelzer 

Max-1 Q/Colorware 



Mine Rescue/Game Point Software 
MJK-DOS/CoCo Connection 



PIA Extender Board/Fraser Instrument Co. 

Security Projects for the 

TRS-80 Color Computer/Brown's Enterprises 
U Itra-Base/Totf? ian Software 



.125 

.124 
.124 
.130 
.121 
.118 
.123 
.120 
.130 

.129 
.126 



the rainbow is published every month of the year by FALSOFT, Inc., The 
Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059, 
phone (502) 228-4492. the RAINBOW, RAINBOWfest and THE rainbow and 
RAINBOWfest logotypes are registered ® trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. • 
Second class postage paid Prospect, KY and additional offices. USPS N. 705- 
050 {ISSN No. 0746-4797). POSTMASTER: Send address changes to the 
rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. Authorized as second class 
postage paid from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 
• Entire contents copyright © by FALSOFT, Inc., 1988. the RAINBOW is intended 
for the private use and pleasure of its subscribers and purchasers and 
reproduction by any means is prohibited. Use of information herein is for the 
single end use of purchasers and any other use is expressly prohibited. All 
programs herein are distributed in an "as is" basis, without warranty of any kind 
whatsoever. • Tandy, Color BASIC, Extended Color basic and Program Pak are 
registered ® trademarks of the Tandy Corp. • Subscriptions to the rainbow 
are $31 per year in the United States. Canadian rates are U.S. $38. Surface mail 
to other countries is U.S. $68, air mail U.S. $103. All subscriptions begin with 
next available issue. • Limited back issues are available. Please see notice for 
issues that are in print and their costs. Payment accepted by VISA, MasterCard, 
American Express, cash, check or money order in U.S. currency only. Full 
refund after mailing of one issue. A refund of 10/12ths the subscription amount 
after two issues are mailed. No refund after mailing of three or more magazines. 



The Rainbow 



Editor and Pubiisher 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor Jutta Kapfhammer 

Associate Editor Sue Fomby 

Reviews Editor Lauren Wiiioughby 

Submissions Editor Tony Olive 

Copy Editor Beth Haendiges 

Technicai Editors Cray Augsburg, 
Ed Ellers 

Technical Assistant David Horrar 

Editorial Assistants Wendy Falk Barsky, 
Sue H. Evans 

Contributing Editors 

William Barden, Jr., Bill Bernico, 
Steve Blyn, Tony DiStefano, 
Richard Esposito, 
Martin Goodman, M.D., 
Joseph Kolar, Dale Puckett, 
Fred Scerbo, Richard White 

Art Director Heidi Maxedon 

Designers Sharon Adams, 
Teri Kays, Denise Webb 

Typesetters Linda Stone Gower, 
Renee Hutchins 

Falsoft, Inc. 



President Lawrence C. Falk 
General Manager Bonnie Frowenfeld 
Asst. General Mgr. for Finance 

Donna Shuck 
Admin. Asst. to the Publisher 

Sarah Levin 
Editorial Director John Crawley 
Asst. Editorial Director Judi Hutchinson 
Senior Editor T. Kevin Nickols 
Director of Production Jim Cleveland 
Chief Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Dealer Accounts Judy Quashnock 
Asst. General Manager For Administration 

Sandy Apple 
Word Processor Manager 

Patricia Eaton 
Customer Service Manager 

Beverly Bearden 
Customer Service Representative 

Carolyn Fenwick 
Development Coordinator Ira Barsky 
Chief of Printing Services Melba Smith 
Dispatch Michael Willis 
Business Assistants Laurie Falk, 

Vivian Turbeviiie 
Chief of Building Security 
and Maintenance 

Jessie Brooks 
Advertising Coordinator Doris Taylor 
Advertising Representatives 

Belinda Kirby, Kim Vincent 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 
(502) 228-4492 

For RAINBOW Advertising and 
Marketing Office Information, 
see Page 160 



Cover photograph copyright © 1968 
by Carl Maupin 

Art direction by Heidi Maxedon 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 5 



MEOW 



No Laughing Matter 

Editor: 

I must take issue with an attitude common 
among rainbow columnists. Some of these 
writers denigrate some of the more primitive 
CoCo systems. I find this shocking in such 
an eclectic community as ours. Certainly, 
some hardware is more powerful or of better 
quality than other hardware, but comments 
like Doctor ASCII's reference to one CoCo 
user's "anemic" FD 50 1 , ignore some impor- 
tant facts. 

Single-sided disks are limited, slow and 
clumsy in comparison to double-sided or 
hard disks. And when recommending new 
equipment, one should make these facts 
clear to help the consumer. But, hey, I own 
one single-drive FD 501. It has served me 
well, and it may be all 111 ever need. How- 
ever wonderful other hardware may be, I 
may never buy it. What I have suits my 
needs. 

You may have three double-sided disks, 
eight monitors and an ice-cream truck. 
That's fine if that's what you need. Another 
person may have a 16K CoCo with a tape 
drive and use the heck out of it. Great! That's 
what the CoCo Community is all about. 

Don't lay snobbish, wealthier-than-thou 
trips on financially-strapped CoCo users. 
It's beneath the dignity of the Community 
and your magazine to demean fellow CoCo 
users. In the words first painted on the back 
of a Model T, Don't laugh. It's paid for! 

David Smith 
Grand Portage, Minnesota 

REVIEWING REVIEWS 

Editor: 

I would like to comment on the review of 
my program Castle of Tharoggad (No- 
vember '88, Page 130). As the game's pro- 
grammer, I feel obligated to make a few 
observations. 

It is most unfortunate that the reviewer 
was neither a D&D fan nor familiar with the 
game's predecessor, Dungeons of Daggo- 
rath. His mention of a lack of graphics 
animation suggests that he did not manage 
to get far enough in the game to observe the 
Walls of Fire or other animated sequences 
scattered throughout the castle. Although 
these graphics do not stretch the CoCo 3's 
capabilities, they are more impressive graph- 
ics than can be found in CoCo 1 and 2 
games. 

The reviewer also mentions that the game 
interface seems slow. I disagree. Anyone 
who has played D&D games like Dungeons 
of Daggorath or The Bard's Tale knows that 
only a certain number of strikes are permit- 
ted to a player before an opponent strikes 

6 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



back. This keeps the game exciting. Dun- 
geons of Daggorath was notoriously slow in 
its keyboard interfacing technique, yet it is 
one of the most popular program packs 
written for the CoCo. 

The Icon and Menu system used in Castle 
of Tharoggad provides convenient access to 
every command normally found in Adven- 
tures and is probably one of the most 
striking things about the game. Yet this 
feature is dismissed as ordinary in the review. 
How often have you seen fully Icon- and 
Menu-driven games in a 16K program pack? 

Although the review of my program was 
fair, I do not think that it provided an 
informed discussion. I suggest that the 
reviewer play Dungeons of Daggorath for a 
few hours and compare the two games. I 
think that he will better appreciate Castle of 
Tharoggad feature. 

Scott Cabit 
West Melbourne, Florida 

INFORMATION PLEASE 

Editor: 

This is written in utter desperation. I 
bought a CoCo 3 about four months ago, 
and I am lost. I can't understand 98 percent 
of your magazine, and when I go to my 
Radio Shack store, I get more confused. I 
decided to get a modem (even though I don't 
know how you use one), so I talked to a man 
at Radio Shack. He said I would have to 
build my own cable and that an article in the 
November issue of the rainbow ("The 
Computer Connection," Page 28) would 
help. 

I drove 30 miles to get a magazine that I 
cannot understand. You need to run about 
two pages every month that offer the com- 
plete novice a basic foundation from which 
to build. (I mean, what is Delphi? Why do 
you poke and peek?) Thanks for listening. 

Ron Hengerer 
12412 Teal Run Ct. 
Jacksonville, FL 32258 

See "Do You Have a Question " by Cray 
Augsburg (Page 50, this issue) for the 
answers to some of your questions. 

Although we try to include helpful novice 
information in every issue of the rainbow, 
our January issues are strictly devoted to 
beginners. You might want to check out our 
back issue ad on Page 107 of this issue. 

Last year's Beginners Issue is one of the 
most informative. You might want to check 
out Lauren Willoughby's "Starting From 
Scratch "(Page 20), an abundance of tips for 
the new computer user and Lee Veal's 
"Glossary of Computer Terms" (Page 85), to 
get a handle on computer jargon. 

Don Hutchison's "Getting Started With 



Delphi" (November '87, Page 64) should 
answer your questions regarding Delphi and 
telecommunications. 

A Fix for the Home Publisher 

Editor: 

I own a CoCo 3, and I love the rainbow. 
I have confidence in your magazine, so when 
in April '88 your "Received and Certified" 
department (Page 140) certified Home 
Publisher from Tandy, I was sold on it. 
Unfortunately, according to Tandy, Home 
Publisher will not print on the DM P- 130 A 
as promised. I've telephoned the company 
about this problem. I've been told there is 
a bug in the program and that it won't work 
with the DM P- 130/ 130 A. 

The software is super; it just won't print. 
I really want to use the program, but I am 
not going to buy a new printer to do so. 

Will you please verify this complaint? If 
it is true, please let others know of this 
problem. Also, does Radio Shack plan to do 
anything about this problem? Please help. 

Melvin D. Hay den 
P.O. Box 477 
West Carrollton, OH 45449 

Tandy has fixed the Home Publisher's 
problem with the serial driver on the DM P- 
series printers. To get a copy of the fix at 
no charge, call Tandy's Computer Customer 
Service line at (817) 338-2395. 

Tandy has also made additional printer 
drivers available for use with Home Pub- 
lisher. The drivers are for the Epson MX-80, 
Okidata20, Panasonic KX-P1090, Star SG- 
10 and C.Itoh 85 JO A P printers. The pack- 
age (Cat. No. 90-0911) includes all seven 
printer drivers, retails for $19.95 and may be 
purchased by calling Express Order at (800) 
321-3133, or through any Radio Shack 
store. 

Welcome Back 

Editor: 

I bought the CoCo when my sons were 
quite young. Now that they are old enough 
to understand how to run programs, we have 
returned to the CoCo and have quite a bit 
of fun together. 

My interests in the CoCo are recreational. 
After looking over your October '88 issue, 
I see that CoCo is no longer as game- 
oriented as it was in '83. While I realize that 
computers are first and foremost "working 
tools" and that games are secondary, I have 
enough work to do at the office. At home, 
1 look forward to using my CoCo for fun. 

Back when I particularly enjoyed graphics 
Adventures, I had hours of fun with Sea- 
Quest from Mark Data Products. Now the 



- 




AUTOTERM 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLD'S f* 
SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING 

EXTRA FEATURES ON COCO 3 DISK 

80 char, screen, 2400 baud thru serial port, 
95,000 to 475,000 character buffer. 



EASY COMMUNICATION + WORD PROCESSING + TOTAL AUTOMATION 



Full prompting and error checking. 
Step-by-step manual has examples. 
Scroll text backward and forward. No 
split words on screen or printout. 
Save, load, delete files while on line. 
Print, save all or any part of text. 300 
or 1200 baud. All 128 ASCII 
characters. Works with D.C. Hayes or 
any modem. Screen widths of 32, 40, 
42, 51, 64. 

DISK VERSION SUPPORTS RS232 
PAK, XMODEM and SPLIT SCREEN 
FOR PACKET RADIO. 



Please hire the mentally retarded. 
They are sincere, hard working and 
appreciative. Thanks! ^ ^ 



Editing is super simple with the 
cursor. Find strings instantly too! 
Insert printer control codes. Specify 
page size and margins. Switch 
quickly between word processing 
and intelligent terminal action. Create 
text, correct your typing errors; then 
connect to the other computer, 
upload your text or files, download 
information, file it, and sign-off; then 
edit the receive data, print it in an 
attractive format, and/or save it on 
file. Compatible with TELEWRITER. 

CASSETTE $29.95 
DISKETTE $39.95 

Add $3 shipping and handling 

MC/VISA/C.O.D. 



Advanced system of keystroke 
macros lets you automate any 
activity, such as dial via modem, 
sign-on, interact, sign-off, print, save. 
Perform entire session. Act as 
message taker. At start-up, disk 
version can automatically set 
parameters, dial, sign-on, interact, 
read/write disk, sign-off, etc. Timed 
execution lets AUTOTERM work 
while you sleep or play. No other 
computer can match your COCO's 
intelligence as a terminal. 

PXE Computing 

11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson, Texas 75080 

214/699-7273 



rainbow seems almost devoid of such 
product ads. 

However, I did notice in the October issue 
that you have kept track of software rights 
after the original distributor has gone out of 
business (e.g., you explained what has 
happened to Glen Dahlgren since Prickly 
Pear Software closed). Is it possible to 
publish lists identifying who now distributes 
certain programs? I am particularly inter- 
ested in games once distributed by the 
following companies: Tom Mix Software, 
Datasoft, Inc., ColorQuest, Petrocci Free- 
lance Associates, Elite Software, Adventure 
International, Rainbow Connection Soft- 
ware, Mark Data Products, Computer 
Shack, Spectral Associates, Genesis Soft- 
ware, Saguaro Software and Aardvark Ltd. 

Finally, I live near Princeton, but 1 picked 
up the rainbow too late to go to the 
RAINBOWfest. Will RAlNBOWfest be in 
Princeton again next year? 

Art McTighe 
186 Maple Shade A ve. 
Trenton, N J 08690 

To the best of our knowledge, the major- 
ity of the software companies you mention 
went out of business years ago and are no 
longer marketing software for the Color 
Computer. However, Microeom Software is 
presently advertising some of the game 
software formerly marketed by Tom Mix, 
Mark Data and Spectral Associates; and 
Cinsoft is currently advertising products 



marketed previously by Tom Mix and Elite 
Software. Computer Shack is back in the 
Co Co market and is advertising its products 
under the company name MichTron. See its 
ads for more detail. 

Due to the need for more reasonable hotel 
accommodations, we have moved the Oc- 
tober 20 to 22, 1989, RAINBOWfest loca- 
tion from the Hyatt Regency in Princeton 
to the Somerset Hilton in Somerset, New 
Jersey, just 30 miles north of Princeton and 
closer to the Newark airport. 

KUDOS 

Editor: 

I am writing to thank everyone at Color- 
ware for the service I was provided. I wish 
1 had gotten the names of all the people 1 
spoke to so 1 could mention them specifi- 
cally, but 1 was remiss. 

My parents ordered both Max-10 and 
Co Co Max HI. However, when I tried to 
make the necessary backup copies, I could 
copy only parts of the disks. 

I was apprehensive when I called Color- 
ware for replacement because of my dealings 
with another company. It soon became 
obvious that my fears were unfounded. The 
person with whom I spoke was polite and 
helpful, and he promised to send me replace- 
ment disks by the end of the day. Today, less 
than one week later, I have received the 
replacement disks and successfully copied 
them both. 



I received outstanding service from Color- 
ware, and I want the people at Colorware 
and all rainbow readers to know. 

Charles F. Phillips 
Palms, California 

HINTS & TIPS 

Editor: 

When moving from the CoCo 2 to the 
CoCo 3, I learned that some favorite pokes 
were not supported in Extended Color 
BASIC. One of these, the "Wallpaper" poke, 
was especially missed. Pattern painting can 
be very useful and economical for back- 
grounds and shadows in basic pictures. 
Using POKE l?B,x (where jc is a number 
between one and 255) and the default PAINT 
command, PRINT [x,y) 0, the CoCo 2 
could paint and draw in a vertical patterns. 
CoCo 3s cannot do this without additional 
code. However, after disassembling the 
hpaint I found two pokes that could enable 
this vertical pattern. To use this poke, you 
will need an RGB monitor. The following 
short program uses these two pokes to paint 
a circle; the two pokes following the hpaint 
command restore the default value: 

0 'COCO 3 WRLLPRPER POKE 

1 'BY THDMRS J GEORGE 
10 H5CREEN 2 

20 HCLS:X=X+1 

30 HPRINT (12,5) ,X 

40 HCIRCLE (160,90) ,40,6 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 7 



50 POKE &HE79B,156 
60 POKE &HE79C,X 
70 HPRINT (160,90) , ,6 
80 POKE &HE79B,212 
90 POKE &HE79C,181 
100 GOTO 20 

Thomas J. George 
Huntingdon Valley, Pennsylvania 



PEN PALS 



• I am 17 years old and would like to have 
pen pals from anywhere in the world. 1 have 
a few CoCos, but 1 use my 5 1 2 K CoCo 3 with 
two double-sided drives, which includes a 
CM-8, CGP-115 printer/ plotter, a modem 
and other stuff. I enjoy programming and 
making hardware add-ons. 1 also run a BBS. 

Dave Osborne 
6533 Le Breton A ve. 
Montreal, PQ 
Canada HIM 1L4 

• I am 16 years old and have a CoCo, disk 
drive and printer. 1 prefer pen pals with close 
to the same setup, unless there's a girl 
looking for a good pen pal. I promise to 
write back to all letters. 

James Port 
Moose Club Park 
Goffstown, NH 03045 

• 1 am 26 years old and own a CoCo 3, CCR- 
8 1 and an FD 501 disk drive. I have had my 
CoCo since June, J988. 1 would enjoy 
hearing from anyone about writing pro- 
grams. I will answer all letters. 

Richard Butler 
702 North Cass 
Box 304 
Ml Ayr, I A 50854 

• 1 am 15 years old and would like to have 
some pen pals. I have a CoCo 2, one drive, 
a CCR-82 cassette recorder, DMP-105 
printer, a DC Pak modem and a Modem IB. 
I will respond to all letters. 

Chris Weiss 
8879 Fontaineblue Blvd., U202A 

Miami FL 33172 

• 1 am 20 years old and looking for pen pals 
who also have a strong interest in Tandy 
computers. I have four computers: CoCos 1 
and 2, a Tandy 1000, and a PC-6 hand-held. 
I work for Radio Shack and love to talk 
about the products. All letters will be 
answered. 

Paul Borninski 
27256 Palomino 
Warren, MI 48093 

• 1 am 14 years old and have a Tandy 128K 
computer and two joysticks. I would like pen 
pals from all over the world. I would like to 
learn more about computers. 

Delaina Ashcraft 
Route 1, Box 332 
New Edinburg, AR 71660 



• Vm 1 1 years old and looking for pen pals 
anywhere in the United States who are 
seriously interested in the CoCo. I have one 
disk drive, a Multi-Pak Interface, two CoCo 
2s and a modem. I will try to answer all 
letters. 

Gordon McLellan III 
412 Spruce St. 
Manistee, MI 49660 

• 1 would like a pen pal from anywhere. I 
have a CoCo 2 and 3, a disk drive, two 
printers, and a cassette recorder. 

Ken Cornlhworte 
P.O. Box 1473 
100 Mile House, BC 
Canada V0K2E0 

• I am 16 years old and own a CoCo 3, two 
disk drives and a cassette recorder. I am 
interested in CoCo 3 pictures and graphics. 
I will answer as many letters as possible. 

Taya Lee Brown 
2803 Pittsfield 
1 Ann Arbor, MI 48104 

• Tm 16 years old and have a CoCo 3 and 
disk drive. Anyone can write; I'll answer all 
letters. 

Heather Deila 
1140 Leeds St. 
Utica, NY 13501 

• I am 28 years old, have a CoCo 3 with a 
single-sided drive, and enjoy games and 
Adventures. I'm looking for some reliable 
pen pals. I know what it feels like to write 
and get no reply, so III answer all letters. 

Alan Wick wire 
1017 Quince 
Brainerd, MN 56401 

• I'ma 35-year-old tractor trailer driver who 
would like pen pals from anywhere in the 
world — any age. I will answer all letters. 
I love all games and graphics and work with 
OS-9 and utilities. 

Holloway S. Ferber 
98 Centerwood St. 
North Babylon, NY 11703 

• 1 am 42 years old and looking for pen pals 
in the United States and around the world. 
1 have a CoCo 3, disk drive, cassette recorder 
and D MP- 130 printer. 

Richard Duhaime 
8987 Verville 
Montreal, PQ 
Canada, H2N 1 Y2 

• 1 am 14 years old and looking for a pen 
pal between 10 and 16 years of age who likes 
playing games and Adventures on the CoCo. 
1 have a CoCo 2 and disk drive. 

Renaldo Radler de Aquino, Jr. 
Estrada do Carangola 249 
25.715 Petropolis, RJ, Brazil 

• I am looking for pen pals of all ages who 
would be interested in swapping informa- 
tion and discussing any problems that we 
might have. I have a CoCo 2 with disk 



drives. I am especially interested in letters 
from my old navy buddies who were in the 
CoCo Club at Lakehurst, New Jersey. 

Ronald Jalbert, Jr. 
P. O. Box 486 
Fort Fairfield, ME 04742-0486 

• I am a 20-year-old man looking for pen 
pals who have a CoCo 2 or 3. My system 
includes a CoCo 3, 501 disk drive, cassette 
recorder and DMP-105 printer. My other 
interests are sports, baseball-card collecting 
and photography. I will answer all replies. 

Charles Braude 
69-10 Yellowstone Blvd. 
Forest Hills, NY 11375 

• I am 22 years old and have a CoCo 2 (64K) 
with a cassette recorder and an Atari 130XE 
with a 1050 disk drive. I would like to 
contact anyone in any country who likes 
Adventure games, sci-fi and medieval fan- 
tasy, music, or anyone who wants to talk. 

Carlo R. DeShouten 
301 McNabb Rd. 
Cullman, AL 39055 

• I am 15 years old and looking for pen pals 
from Australia, New Zealand, the United 
States and Canada. I have a 128K CoCo 3, 
two double-sided disk drives, a CCR-81 
cassette recorder and a D MP- 106 printer. I 
would like to learn OS-9 and assembly 
language. 

Chris Rankin 
35 Birchwood Blvd. 
Deer Park, Victoria 3023 

Australia 

• I am a 16-year-old student currently 
working on my fourth year of Spanish. I 
would like to correspond with other CoCo- 
ists from around the world, especially ones 
who speak Spanish fluently. I have a CoCo 
3, disk drive and printer. 

Kevin A. Armalay 
586 Webster Ave. 
Penndel, PA 19047 

• I am 16 years old and interested in a pen 
pal. All letters will be appreciated. 

Christie Goedert 
Rt. 3 Box 265 
Stockton, MO 65785 

THE rainbow welcomes letters to 
the editor. Mail should be addressed 
to: Letters to Rainbow, The Falsoft 
Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. Letters should include the 
writer's full name and address. Letters 
may be edited for purposes of clarity 
or to conserve space. 

Letters to the editor may also be 
sent to us through our Delphi CoCo 
SIG. From the CoCo SIG> prompt, 
type RAI to take you into the Rainbow 
Magazine Services area of the SIG. At 
the RAINBO W> prompt, type LET to 
reach the LETTERS> prompt and 
then select Letters for Publication. Be 
sure to include your complete name 

and address. 



8 THE RAINBOW January 1 989 



Word 
Power 3.2 



More Versatile # More Powerful With 
Spooler # Calculator • Split-Screen • 2-Column Printing 



n ... friendly '...amazing execu- 
tion speed...much easier to use 
than VIP software & 2 other 
word processing systems I've 
tried...very user-friendly. ..mas- 
sive text storage capacity 
...highest among word proces- 
sors..^ - Rainbow Oct. 88 
Review for Word Power 



Unparalleled Power packed in this 100% ML Word Processor 
written from scratch for the CoCo 3! No other word processor 
offers such a wide array of features that are easy to learn & use. 



DISPLAY & SPEED 



niffiirTrTiivitiTiirvvfTii vi^vvvt? rrriTri iii ( ini mi 





Word Power 3,2 runs at double-clock speed 
and uses the true 80-column display with 
lowercase instead of the graphics screen. The 
result is lightning fast screen reformatting and 
added speed! All prompts are displayed in 
plain English in neat colored windows . The current column num- 
ber, line number, page number, percentage of free memory is dis- 
played at all times. Even the page break is displayed so you know 
where one page ends and the other begins. The Setup program 
allows you to change fore/background colors as well as (in) visible 
carriage returns. Word Power 3.2 can be used with RGB/Com- 
posite/Monochrome monitors as well as TV. 

MAXIMUM MEMORY 



T m » • m ■ • • • • • • • • • . • • • » » * • • • • • • * • • • • * • •••»*■■»»••***•■«*•»••■■»■»••»»*»"» . * . a + 

• •»•>! . ► * • • • »••••*»••♦»«•• » • • * • •••••• » * ► •♦»»••#•• 




Word Power 3.2 gives you over 72 K on 128K and over 
450K on 512K CoCo 3 for Text Storage - more 
memory than any other CoCo word-processor. 
Period. 



EFFORTLESS EDITING 

Word Power 3,2 has one of the most powerful and user-friendly 
full-screen editor with word-wrap. All you do is type. Word 
Power takes care of the text arrangement. The unique Auto-Save 
feature saves text to disk at regular intervals for peace of mind. 

Insert/Overstrike Mode (Cursor Style Changes to indicate mode);OOPS Recall 
during delete;Typc-ahead Buffer for fast typers;Key-Repeat (adjustable); Key- 
Click; 4-way cursor and scrolling; Cursor to beginning/end of text, beginning/end 
of line, top/bottom of screen, next/previous word; Page up/down; Delete charac- 
ter, previous/next word, to beginning/end of line, complete line, text before/after 
cursor, Locate/Replace with Wild-Card Search with auto/manual replace; Block 
Mark, Unmark, Copy, Move & Delete; Line Positioning (Center/Right Jus- 
tified); Set/Reset 120 programmable tab stops; Word-Count; Define Top/Bot- 
tom/Left/Right margins & page length. You can also highlight text 
(underline-with on-screen underlining, bold, italics, superscripts, etc.). Word 
Power even has a HELP screen which an be accessed any time during edit. 



Splits the screen in half so you can view one portion of your text 
while you edit another. You'll love it! 



MAIL-MERGE 









mmmmmmmmmmm 







Ever try mailing out the same letter to 50 different 
-^people? Could be quite a chore. Not with Word 
Power 3.2! Using this feature, you can type a letter, 
follow it with a list of addresses and have Word Power 
print out personalized letters. It's that easy! 



CALCULATOR feMBlM^l^liiy^; 

Pop-up a 4-function calculator while you edit! Great for tables! 




SAVING/LOADING TEXT 

Word Power 3.2 creates ASCII format files which are compatible 
with almost all terminal/spell-checking & other word-processing 
programs. Allows you to Display Free Space, Load, Save, Ap- 
pend & Kill files. The ARE YOU SURE? prompt prevents ac- 
cidental overwriting & deletion. You can select files by simply 
cursoring through the disk directory. Supports double-sided 
drives & step-rates. 



• " • '. r . V . WSS. 



PRINTING 

Word Power 3.2 drives almost any printer (DMP, EPSON, 
GEMINI, OKIDATA, etc). Allows options such as baud rates, 
line spacing, page/print pause, partial print, page number- 
ing/placement, linefeeds, multi-line headers/footers, right jus- 
tification & number of copies. The values of these parameters & 
margins can be changed anytime in the text by embedding Printer 
Option Codes. The WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET fea- 
ture allows you to preview the text on the screen as it will appear 
in print. You can view margins, page breaks, justification & more. 



PRINT SPOOLER 

Why buy a hardware Print Spooler? Word Power 3.2 has a built- 
in Spooler which allows you to simultaneously edit one document 
& print another. 



mm*™* 



'-■****-*** • •-■----■-•*- 



TWO-COLUMN PRINTING 

This unique feature allows you to print all or portion of your text 
in two columns! Create professional documents without hours 
of aligning text. 



SPELLING CHECKER! 



mm 




:< 


.• 








■.-X 












. .' 






. V V f V «V ' " 




I V 


.- ■: ■:■ .-: -i ^xm^t v ■:■ ■• ■:■ x ■■ :■ •■ 




Word Power 3.2 comes with spelling checker/dic- 
tionary which finds & corrects mistakes in your 
text. You can add words to /delete words from 
dictionary. 



mm* 



Sea 



PUNCTUATION CHECKER 

This checker will proofread your text for punctuation errors such 
as capitalization, double-words, spaces after periods/commas, 
and more. Its the perfect addition to any word processor. 

DOCUMENTATION 



Word Power 3.2 comes with a well-written instruction manual & 
reference card which makes writing with Word 
Power a piece of cake! Word Power 3.2 comes on an 
UNPROTECTED disk and is compatible with 
RSDOS. Only $79.95 

(Word Power 3.1 owners can get Word Power 3.2 Upgrade FREE by sending 
proof of purchase & $5.00 to cover S&H costs & instructions) 




i—H in 



DliCtVER 



JhJif MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

All Word Power 3.2 orders shipped by UPS Next Day Air at no extra charge within 
the Continental US. Offer good thru January 15, 1989. 

To Order & for info on FREE Gifts: Refer to Page 17 of our 6-page Ad series(Pgs. 9-17) 

Credit Card Toll Free Orderline 1-800-654-5244 (9am-8pm 7days/week) 

Order Status, Info, Technical Info: 716-383-8830 



i 




Starting the Year 
Off Right 

This being our January issue, it is time to welcome many new members of 
the CoCo Community to our ranks. Based on the sales projections Radio 
Shack has made for the CoCo this year (which, incidentally, have been very 
accurate over the years), there are tens of thousands of new CoCo owners who 
saw what we all know is the finest home computer waiting among their holiday 
presents. 

That's a big moment for lots of people. As many of you know, a CoCo can 
change your life, making things easier for you and bringing a great deal of 
enjoyment to every member of your family. But just how all this happens depends 
on people like you and me. 

It's time for a stop at the local Radio Shack store. Meet someone you don't 
know who has a CoCo. Offer some help if you can. If you have a user group, 
ask the store manager if you can post a meeting notice somewhere — or at least 
ask him or her to pass out some flyers. (And make those flyers fancy — it's a 
good chance to let your CoCo strut its stuff!) 

For our part, Radio Shack has for some time now. included a subscription 
envelope with all its new CoCo 3s, so new users have an opportunity to hear about 
and from THE RAINBOW. For the first time, this year there is an added incentive 
for new users to get involved with the CoCo Community, In cooperation with 
Radio Shack, we will be giving away one free copy of THE rainbow to each person 
who buys a new Color Computer 3. The form is included in the box — all the 
owner has to do is fill it out. This program is expected to continue throughout 
the year. 

I know many of you have encouraged your friends to buy Color Computers 
this year and have often loaned your copies of THE rainbow to them for a while. 
Now they can get their own — and of course we hope they will join the ranks 
of our subscribers. 

Obviously, there will be some delay in getting these magazines to new owners. 
The way the program works is that the cards will first have to be sent to Radio 
Shack in Fort Worth for processing. Then they'll come to us, and we will send 
out the magazines with the next available issue — which saves us some postage 
on the mailings. 

It is being done this way for a couple of reasons, and I thought you might like 
to know what they are. First, the offer of a free copy of THE RAINBOW is attached 
to the warranty card — and Radio Shack does want to encourage return of 
warranty cards. Our cooperation was asked as an incentive for new owners to do 
this. 

Second, this program is also being used with all of Tandy's MS-DOS and 
portable computers in cooperation with our sister publication, PCM, which covers 
those computers. So Tandy has to physically sort the cards in Fort Worth before 
sending them on to us. 





Best Desktop Publishing / Document 
Creator for the CoCo 3. Features Pull 
Down Menus, What You See Is What You 
Get , UNDO, integrated text & graphics 
capability , multiple fonts & more. 
Graphics can be imported from CoCo 
Max I,II,III, MGE, MGF, 5 Level DS-69, 
PMODE 4, HSCREEN 2/3 pictures. Sup- 
ports: DMP 105/130, EPSON 
MX/FX/RXLX/ Gemini 10 Series, CGP- 
220 and OKI-92. Only $79.95 




Create distinctive bright yellow diamond 
shaped car signs. Includes 2 resuable 
clear plastic sign holders with suction 
cups, and 50 sheets of bright yellow fan- 
fold paper. Printer Requirements are the 
same as for the CoCo Graphics Designer. 
Only $29.95 



Font Disk #1,#2 for CoCo Graphics 
Designer: $19.95 each 



COLOR 
SCHEMATIC 




By Prakash Mishra 

An excellent Circuit Schematic Design 
Software Package for CoCo 3. Features: 

* Runs in 640x192 at 1.8 Mhz 

* Pull Down Menus 

* Keyboard/Mouse/Joystck Support 

* RGB/ Composite/Monochrome 
Monitor Support 

* 72 Modifiable Symbols 

* Multiple Hi-Res Fonts 

* Multiple UNDO Command 

* Symbol Rotate/Line/Box Draw 

* Supports 3 Layers of Circuits 

* Powerful Screen Print Command 
DMP/Gemini/Epson Printers 

* Complete Documentation 



Only $39.95 



for 





r 




RSB 



A Revolutionary Program that allows 
you to use Basic Programs from OS9! 

OS9 Level 2 is the future of the CoCo. 
Unfortunately, most Basic Program- 
mers are "afraid" of using OS9 because 
it is completely different from Basic. 

Introducing RSB from Burke & 
Burke. It converts RS-DOS into an 
OS9 "shell" and allows you to program 
in Basic from under OS9! You can 
even take advantage of the OS-9 "built- 
in" windows to run several BASIC 
programs at once! And RSB always 
runs at the full 2 Mhz speed of the 
CoCo! 

If you're new to OS9 or you simply 
want to take advantage of the ad- 
vanced features of the OS9 operating 
system, RSB is for you. Req, OS9 L II. 
Only $39.95 



ULTRAPATCH SYSTEM 

by Randall Reid 

Patches the Superpatch EDTASM + ® 
for 80 columns, 47K Buffer (ap- 
proximately 3000 lines!) & more. Req 
CoCo 3. Only $19,95 



GAMES 

(Disk only) 

(CoCo 1,2 & 3 except where mentioned) 

WARRIOR KING (CoCo 3): $29.95 
IN QUEST OF STAR LORD( Animated Graphics Adventure 
for CoCo 3): $34.95 Hint Sheet: $3.95 
HALL OF THE KING 1,2,3: $29.95 Each Trilogy: $74.95 
FLIGHT 16: $34.95 

P-51 MUSTANG SIMULATION: $34.95 
WORLDS OF FLIGHT: $34.95 
PYRAMIX(Cubix for CoCo 3): $24.95 
KUNG FU DUDE: $24.95 CHAMPION: $19.95 

WHITE FIRE OF ETERNITY: $19.95 
QUEST FOR THE SPIRIT STONE (CoCo 3): $18 
WARGAME DESIGNER (CoCo 3): $29 
TREASURY PACK#1: Lunar Rover Patrol, Cubix, Declathon, 
Qix, keys of Wizard, Module Man, Pengon, & Roller Con- 
troller .Only $29.95 

TREASURY PACK #2: Lancer, Ms. Gobbler, Froggie, Mad- 
ness & Minotaur, Ice Castles, Galagon, Devious. Only $29.95 
SPACE PAC: Color Zap, Invaders, Planet Invasion, Space 
Race, Space War, Galax Attax, Anaroid Attack, Whirlybird, 
Space Sentry & Storm Arrows.Only $29.95 
WIZARD'S CASTLE: A hi-res graphics adventure game filled 
with traps, tricks, treasures. Only $19.95 
CLASSIC PAK: Treasury Pack 1, 2, Space Pac & Wizards 
Castle: Only $59.95 



XENOCOPY-PC 

An amazingly versatile program that allows you to Format/Duplicate / Read/ 
Write disks from over 300 different computers. For example you could trans- 
fer programs between CoCo, IBM, PC-DOS, TRS-80 Model 3, TRS-80 Model 
4, TRS-80 Model 100, Xerox 820, Zenith, Kaypro II, Novell , NEC DOS and 
much much more!! Send for FREE List. Requires an IBM Compatible with 2 
drives. Disk $79.95. 

512K BACKUP LIGHTNING 

(From Colorventure) 

The ultimate CoCo 3 disk copying utility! ! Reads your master diskette once 
and then makes as many copies as you want. It automatically formats an un- 
formatted disk while copying! Supports 35, 40 or 80 track drives with various 
step rates. A must for any disk user!! Only $19.95 

PRINTER LIGHTNING 

(From Colorventure) 

Never wait for your printer again!! This Print Spooler allows you to print to 
your printer and simultaneously continue with your programming. No need to 
wait for those long printouts! Disk Only $19.95 

BASIC FREEDOM 

A Full Screen Editor for Basic Programs! ! A Must for anyone who writes Basic 
Programs. Only $24.95 

VOCAL FREEDOM 

Turn your computer into a digital voice / sound recorder. Produces natural 
voices/ sound effects. Req. inexpensive RS Amplifier (#277-1008) & any 
microphone. Only $34.95 

HACKER'S PAC 

Allows you to incorporate voices created by Vocal Freedom into your own 
Basic and ML programs. Only $14.95 



MJF 




MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

To Order & for info on FREE Gifts: Refer to Page 17 of our 6-page Ad series(Pgs. 9-17) 

Credit Card Toll Free Orderline 1-800-654-5244 (9am-8pm 7days/week) 

Order Status, Info, Technical Info: 716-383-8830 





I hope you will encourage new 
owners in several ways. First, and most 
important, encourage them to become 
members of the CoCo Community, to 
learn, to participate and to see what a 
difference a CoCo will make to them 
and to every member of their families. 
You and I know the difference, but try 
to think back to the day you first opened 
the box of your Color Computer. Right 
now, today, there are thousands and 
thousands of people in exactly that 
same boat! 

Second, please encourage all the new 
CoCo owners to subscribe to THE RAIN- 
BOW. As our ranks become larger, we 
have more and more clout with a most 
important segment of the computer 
industry — the people who develop and 
write software and hardware. When 
these people look at a market, they have 
to see potential for profit; otherwise, 
they just look for another market. 

Third and very important, patronize 
our advertisers and be sure to mention 
the rainbow when you do. I know this 
sounds like a cliche, but you have no 
idea how important it can be. Yes, of 
course it is important to us — but it is 
also important to you, because in- 
creased advertising keeps us able to 
provide the level of support for the 
CoCo and the CoCo Community we 
always have. 

* * * 

All of us make resolutions at this time 
of the year, and we've made one here at 
THE rainbow, too. For all sorts of 
reasons, we have had some difficulties 
this year getting your copies of THE 

RAINBOW, RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAIN- 



BOW on DISK out to you as fast as we 
would like. 

One of those reasons involved a 
change in printers at midyear without a 
lot of notice to us. Our long-time printer 
was sold to another local firm. In the 
end, the result of this has mostly been 
good — we have been able to polybag 
(and protect) your issues better for 
about the same cost of the wrapper used 
in the past. On the bad side, our tran- 
sition, which was very sudden, took a 
while to accomplish. 

Because we needed to establish some 
new ways of doing things, which in- 
itially took longer, we ended up also 
pushing back our production of RAIN- 
BOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK, 

since these cannot be done until the 
magazine is "put to bed." Then, in 
addition, we had some difficulties with 
the people who duplicate our disks. We 
believe these problems are solved. 

Finally, we've had some real trouble 
in our typesetting area — primarily 
because of personnel. We're about to get 
those problems ironed out, for two 
reasons. The first of them is a simple 
one: merely training new people. It does 
take some time. 

But the second is more interesting. 
Although we have something like 
$100,000 worth of typesetting equip- 
ment, it is pretty outdated (although 
only a few years old). Just a few weeks 
ago, we signed a contract for new state- 
of-the-art laser typesetting equipment 
from a company called Linotype. It 
should be delivered by the time you read 
this. 

The new system will involve CoCos 
and Tandy PCs on the "front end." We 
expect to save some money on both 



supplies and maintenance — the former 
because we will be able to proof on plain 
paper instead of expensive photograph- 
ic typesetting paper, and the latter 
simply because the components of the 
new system are easier to keep in work- 
ing order. 

Yes, yes, I know: Conversion from 
one system to another takes time. We 
know this, but the truth of the matter 
is that much of what we do will be done 
the way we do it now — typing and 
transferring stories and doing editing on 
our CoCos and Tandy computers. The 
difference is that we'll then do most of 
our page layout electronically (at al- 
most 1,800 dots per inch), make all our 
corrections on plain paper, and output 
directly to film to send to our printer. 

It's an interesting and ambitious 
project that will, of course, have a 
learning curve. Our intent, however, is 
to continue improving THE RAINBOW 
and providing you with a high-quality 
magazine. Our New Year's resolution is 
to provide it and our magnetic products 
in a more timely manner. 

The really good news is that with the 
savings we will see from these changes, 
we do not anticipate having to raise 
subscription prices in 1989, at least in 
the United States. This is the third year 
we have been able to hold the line on 
them. Considering the postage increase 
this year, I think this says something not 
only for our dedication to you, but also 
for the dedication of all the people who 
work here in their efforts to bring you 
a quality product at a reasonable cost. 

So from all of us to all of you: Happy 
1989! 

— Lonnie Falk 



Introducing CoCo MIDI 3! The familiar MIDI sequencer is more powerful than ever! No other sequencer program for the Color Computer 
can rival the ease of use and powerful editing capabilities. In addition to high performance recording and playback, CoCo MIDI 3 has 
extensive editing capabilities. Such as block cut, copy, and paste. Quantize a block; scale velocities or a controller value; change the channel 
assignment of a block. Multipak or Y cable required. Includes a hardware MIDI interface and cables. $149.95 

Lyra Lybrary is an extensive collection of music to use with your MIDI synthesizer. There are over 13 disks you can choose from. Each is 
packed with 5-8 part music, and takes 50 to 80 minutes to play. A wide variety of music ranging from Bach and Chopin to Bing Crosby and 
the Beatles. Each disk $14.95. 

Lyra, a powerful yet easy-to-use MIDI music composition program, is now better than ever! Version 2.6 has almost all the features you might 
want, including on-screen transpose, programmable MIDI filter, and comprehensive support of the MIDI standard. Many professional 
musicians use Lyra as a part of their recording studio, and music teachers find it a great aid to teaching music theory in schools! Use Lyra to 
transcribe, arrange, or compose music and then play it back on your MIDI synthesizer. Comes with CoCo to MIDI cable. Only $59.95. 

FB-01 Calc is a program that creates event files for Lyra so you can set up custom 
configurations for your FB-01 from Lyra. Includes a manual packed with useful information 
about your FB-01. A must if you have an FB-01! $19.95. 

Ordering information: send check or money order. Sorry, no credit cards. COD is ok. 
Shipping and handling included in price. CA residents add 6% tax. 



i I I Rulaford Research 

1^ I J P.ti. Box 143 

7TY Imperial Beach, C A 92032 
|^i: J^. \j (i$i9) 690-3648 (evenings ^-lQiPT) 



1 2 THE RAINBOW January 1989 






(CoCo 2 Versions Included where specified) 



* Disk-to-Disk Copy * Tape-to-Disk Copy 

* Tape-to-Disk Auto Relocate 

* Disk-to-Tape Copy * Tape-to-Tape Copy 
Copies Basic/ML/Data Files. CoCo 1,2 or 3. 
Req. min. 64K Disk System. Disk Only $24.95 




COCO CHECKE 



Something possibly wrong with your CoCo? 
CoCo Checker is the answer. Will test your 
ROMs, RAMs, Disk Drives & Controller, 
Printer, Keyboard, Cassette, Joysticks, Sound, 
PIAs, VDG, Internal Clock Speed, Multi-Pak 
Interface and more! Only $24.95 



DISK UTILITY 2.1 A 



A multi-featured tool for USER FRIENDLY 
disk handling. Utilize a directory window to 
selectively sort, move, rename & kill file entries. 
Lightning fast Disk I/O for format, copy & back- 
up. Single key execution of Basic/ML programs. 
Thiswill become your MOST USED program !! 
CoCo 1,2 or 3. Req. Min. 64K. Disk Only $24.95 




MAILL1ST PRO 



The ultimate mailing list program. Allows you 
to add, edit, view, delete, change, sort (by zip- 
code or name) and print labels. Its indispen- 
sible!!Disk $19.95 (CoCo 2 version included) 



DISK LABEL MAKER 

Allows you to design professional disk labels! 
Allows elongated, normal and condensed for- 
mat for text. Double Strike, Border Creation, 
and multiple label printing. Its a MUST for any 
user with a disk drive. Supports DMP 
105/106/110/120/ 130/430, GEMINI, STAR, 
EPSON and compatibles. (CoCo 2 version in- 
cluded). Only $19.95 



COCO UTIL II coc£ r 




(Latest Version): Transfer CoCo Disk files to 
IBM compatible computer and vica-versa. Re- 
quires 2-Drive IBM Compatible. Disk $39.95 



RGB PATCH 



Displays most games in color on RGB monitors. 
CoCo 3 Disk $24.95 



COMPUTERIZED 
CHECKBOOK 




Why bother with balancing your checkbook? 
Let the CoCo do it for you. Allows you to add, 
view, search, edit, change, delete and printout 
(in a table/individual entry format) checkbook 
entries. Updates balance after each entry. Al- 
lows files for checking, savings, and other ac- 
counts. Disk $19.95. (CoCo 2 version included) 




BOWLING SCORE 
KEEPER 



An excellent utility to keep track of your bowl- 
ing scores. Allows you to save scores under in- 
dividuals or teams. You can edit change, delete, 
and compare scores. A must for anyone who 
wants to keep track of his or her bowling perfor- 
mance. Disk $19.95 (CoCo 2 version included) 



VCR TAPE ORGANIZER 




Organize your videotapes with this progxam. 
Allows you to index tapes by title, rating, type, 
play time and comments. Also allows you to sort 
titles alphabetically & view/print selected tapes. 
If you own a VCR, this program is a MUST!! 
Disk $19.95 (CoCo 2 version included) 



COCO 3 SCREEN DUMP 



32, 40, 80 column text dump, PMODE 4 
Graphics Dump. Single Keystroke Operation al- 
lows you to take snapshots of your screens even 
when programs are running! Works on DMP's, 
Epson, Gemini and compatibles. CoCo 1, 2 and 
3. Disk $24.95 



HOME BILL MANAGER 



-La. 



Let the CoCo keep track of your bills. Allows 
you to enter bills under various categories and 
reminds you when they are due. Disk $19.95 



CALENDAR MAKER . rT; ; i 

I w it • o H n 



_ a » * « « * 
n m m M tl m 



Generate monthly calendars on your printer for 
any year in the 20th century. Disk Only $19.95 
(CoCo 2 version included) 



ADOS 3 

Advanced disk operating system for CoCo 3. 
Comes on disk and is EPROMableU Disk 
$34.95. ADOS (for CoCo 1,2): $27.95 






OS 9 



Start OS9 

An Enjoyable, Hands-on Guide to OS9 Level II. In- 
cludes step-by-step tutorials, articles by OS9 ex- 
perts, free software disk includes examples & great 
OS-9 utilities! Req. 512K, OS9 Level II, 2 drives & 
monitor. The Hottest OS9 Package. Disk + Book: 
$32.95 



I he Zapper: Patch Disk Errors.$19.95 

Disk Manager Tree: Change, create & 
delete directories quickly. Req. 512K Lll. $29.95 

Level II Tools : Wildcards,tree commands, 
windowing & 22 more utilities. 128K Req.$24.95 

Warp One: Complete Lll Windowing Ter- 
minal. Auto dial, macros,file transfers.cap- 
ture,timer,chat, etc. 51 2K Req. $34.95 



WIZ 

Best LII Terminal Package with 300-19200 baud 
rate/windowing. Req. 512K & RS-232 Pack. $79.95 



DYNASTAR 

Best OS9 Editor/Word Processor. Has Macros, sup- 
ports terminals & windows simultaneously, con- 
figurable, auto-indent for C/Pascal programming, 
mail-merge. New Manual makes it easier than ever. 

Only $99.95. DynaSpell: $74.95. Both 
Dynastar and Dynaspell: Only $124.95 

DYNACALC Spreadsheet: $99.95 



OS9 LEVEL II BBS Rel 2.0 

BBS program that supports multiple users & sysop 
definable menus. Tsmon, Login, Chat, Message 
Retrieval, Mail Retrieval, Uloadx, Dloadx, and 
much more! Req.512K. New Version! Only $29.95 



GSC File Transfer Utilities 

Nowyou can transfer files to & from PC (MS DOS), 
RSDOS/FLEX disks into your CoCo (OS9) system. 
Options: Single/Double sided disks, 40/80 tracks, 8/9 
sectors & more! Req. OS9 (Level 2 for MultiVue 
version), 2 drives, SDISK/SDISK 3. Standard Ver- 
sion; $44.95; MultiVue Version: $54.95 



PC-Xfer UTILITIES 

Programs to format and transfer files to/from MS 
DOS diskettes on CoCo Under OS9 Level 1 and 2. 
Requires SDISK or SDISK 3. Only $44.95 

SDISK 3 

Standard disk drive module replacement allows full 
use of 40/80 track double-sided drives. Req. OS9 
Level II. Only $29.95. SDISK: $29.95 



OS9 LEVEL II RAMDISK 

Lightning Fast Ramdisk. A must for any OS9 Level 
II user, Req 512K, Only $2^9! 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

To Order & lor :bfb on FREE Gifts: Refer to Page 17 of our 6-page Ad series(Pgs. 947) 
Credit Card Toil Free Orderline 1-800-654-5244 (9am-8pm 7days/week) 



OWer Status, Info, Technical Info: 716-383-8830 




X a- 



.'•V 



(For 128K & 512K Computers) 

From the authors of Word Power 32, the best-selling Word Processor for CoCo 3, comes a revolutionary programming tool! 



Do you have a 128K or 512K CoCo 3? Are you being told that 
you could only use 22K from Basic?? Don't believe it!! 

Lets face it. You bought your CoCo 3 so you could get better 
graphics, more speed and more MEMORY, Unfortunately as it 
comes, the CoCo 3 only allows you to use 22K for Basic 
Programs. A big disappointment for Basic Programmers. 

Introducing the revolutionary 512 K Basic. It gives you up to 80K 
Basic program/variable space (64K for Basic Program/16K for 
variables) on a 128K CoCo and over 400K (384K Basic Program 
Space & 16K Variable Space) on a 512K CoCo! There are no 
new commands to remember and approximately 90-95% of the 
existing Basic Software will run without any modifications. 512K 
Basic is completely transparent to the user. You won't even know 
its there until you realize that you were able to type in a massive 
Basic program without the dreaded ?OM Error. And 512K 



Basic wiU even run at double clock-speed and automatically slow 
down for printer and disk operations. 

Step up to 512K Basic. It's the tool you need to tap the full poten- 
tial of your CoCo 3. 512K Basic Requires a 128K or 512K CoCo 
3 with a disk drive. OS9 is NOT required. Only $39.95 

51 2K Upgrades for CoCo 3. 

(Only $160 with purchase of 512K Basic) 

Fully assembled, tested and ready to be shipped now. Comes 
with $100 worth of 512K Software: 

• 512K Backup Lightning • 512K Print Spooler a dRl^fe 

• 512K Memory Test • 512K Ramdisk 

• OS9 Level II Ramdisk. 

No soldering. Comes with all instruction manuals. 90 day war- 
ranty. Only $188 
OK Upgrade Board: $39.95 



KEYBOARDS , ETC 



KEYBOARD EXTENSION CABLE: 
Move your keyboard away from the com- 
puter & type with ease. Use your existing 
keyboard with this * 
cable or leave your 1 
present keyboard in- 
tact and use a second * 
keyboard. Only L 
$39,95. 

Cable with CoCo 2 Keyboard: $49.95 
Cable with CoCo 3 Keyboard: $69.95 
CoCo 3 Keyboard (with free function 

KEYS software value $14.95) :$39.95 

CoCo 2 Keyboard: $19.95 

ACCESORIE 





COMMUNICATIONS 
EXTRAVAGANZA 

1) Avatex 1200e Modem: Fully Hayes 
compatible 300/1200 w/ speaker, Auto- 
Dial/ Answer/Redial. 

2) MODEM CABLE: 4 pin/DB 25 (Reg. 
$19.95) 

3) Autoterm Software: (Reg $39.95) 

4) FREE Compuserve Offer & Acess Time 

5) UPS 2nd Day Air Shipping 

Only $129.95 
With Avatex 2400e instead of 1200e: $229.95 

Avatex 1200e Modem Only: $85 
Avatex 2400e Modem Only: $18 9/C 





EPROM 



INTRONICS EPROM PROGRAMMER 

(for CoCo); Programs 2516-27512 & 
more! Includes software & complete 
documentation. Latest version. Lowest 
Price Anywhere! Only $137.95 
EPROM ERASER:Fast erase of 24/28 pin 
EPROMs. Only $49.95 
BOTH EPROM PROGRAMMER & 
ERASER: $179.95 
EPROMS: 2764-$8 27128-$9 
ROMPAK (w/ Blank PC Board 27xx 
Series): $12.95 

BLANK CARTRIDGE (Disk Controller 
Size): $10.95 




/• ? j? $ itwiwit ft ft a 

1 1 1 i 1 < 1 1 i : 1 1 1 ! 'it lL 



5 W DS/DD Disks: $.40 each 
3 VT DS/DD Disks: $1.49 each 
5 174" Disk Case (for 70 disks): $9.95 
31/2" Disk Case (for 40 disks): $7.50 



Curtis Printer Stand: $19.95 
Surge Supresser Strip w/6 
$14.95 

Curtis Static Mat: $24.95 



RIBBONS 



NX1000 Color Ribbon: $12.95 
NX1000 Black Ribbon: $8.50 
Seikosha, EPSON, . DMP, 
Panasonic, Okidata, Gemini Rib- 
bons: $8,50 each 




JftJF 



CABLES 

MAGNAVOX 8505/8515/8CM643 Analog RGB 
Cable: $24.95 

SERIAL-TO-PARALLEL INTERFACE: Use your 
parallel printer at high speed (300-9600 baud) with CoCo. Comes 
will all cables. No software compatibility problems. Only $44.95 
15* MULTIPAK/ROMPAK EXTENDER CABLE: 
$29.95 

VIDEO DRIVER: Use a monochrome/color monitor with 

your CoCo. Comes with audio/video cables. Specify CoCo 1 or 2. 

Excellent picture quality/resolution! $34.95 

RS232 Y CABLE: Hook 2 Devices to the serial port. Only 

$18.95 

Y CABLE: Use your disk system with Speech Pak,CoCo Max, 
DS69, etc. $27.95 

RGB Analog Extender Cable:$19.95 IV 
SONY Monitor Cable: $29.95 w 
VIDEO CLEAR:Reduce TV interference.$19,95 
MODEM CABLE:4 pin to DB2S.Only $19.95 
3-POSITION SWITCHER: $37.95 
HI-RES JOYSTICK INTERFACE: $11.99 





[MasterCard 1 



mm® 



CfflPS, ETC 

Disk Basic Rom 1.1 (Needed for CoCo 
3): $29.95 ECB ROM 1.1:$29.95 
68B09E or 6809E Chip: $14.95 
MtiltiPak PAL Chip for CoCo 3: 
$19.95 

PAL Switcher: Now you can switch tie* 
tween the CoCo 2 and 3 modes when using 
the Multi-Pak. You need the OLDER & 
NEW PAL chip for the 26-3024 MuJtipak. 
Only $39.95. With NEW PAL Chip: 
$49.95. 

UPGRADES 

64K Upgrade for CoCo I's, CoCo 
IPs with Cat #26-3026/27, 26-3134, 
26-3136: $29.95 

64K Upgrade for 26*3134 A/B 
CoCo II: $39.95 

(Free 64K Software incl. with 64K Upgr.) 



01/C#V£R 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

To Order & for info on FREE Gifts: Refer to Page 17 of our 6-page Ad series(Pgs. 947) 
Credit Card Toll Free Orderline 1-800-654-5244 (9am-8pm 7days/week) 

Order Status, Info, Technical Info: 716-383-8830 





Books That Can Launch A 1000 Programs!! 

Pokes, Peeks and Execs are your guides into the jungle of computer programming. These commands give you the power of 
Machine Language without leaving the security of BASIC. Each book is a collection of "inside" information, with explanations 
and examples to help you immediately put it to use. Everyone from the novice to the professional will find these handy books a 
wealth of information. BOO POKES 

PEEKS,'N EXECS 



300 POKES, 
PEEKS, 'N EXECS 
for COCO III 



*40/80 column Screen Text Dump 
*Save Text/Graphics Screen to Disk 

* Command/Functions Disables 

* Enhancements for CoCo3 BASIC 
•128K/512K RAM Test Program 
*HPRINT Character Modifier 




Only $19.95 



* Autostart your BASIC programs 
♦Disable Color BASIC/ECB/Disk BASIC 
commands 

♦Disable Break Key/ Clear Key/ Reset Button 
'Generate a Repeat-key 
♦Transfer ROMPAKs to tape 
•Set 23 different GRAPHIC modes 
•Merge two BASIC programs 
♦And much much more!!! 

For CoCo 1,2 and 3. Only $16.95 
ALL 3 BOOKS for $39.95 



SUPPLEMENT TO 500 
POKES,PEEKS, 'N EXECS 



200 additional Pokes,Peeks and Execs (500 

Pokes Peeks *N Execs is a prerequisite) 

♦ROMPAK transfer to disk 

♦PAINT with 65000 styles 

*Use of 40 track single/double sided drives 

♦High -speed Cassette Operation 

'Telewriter, CoCo Max enhancements 

* Graphics Dump (for DMP printers) /Text 

Screen Dump 



For CoCo 1,2 or 3. Only $995 




UNRAVELLED SERIES 




COCO LIBRARY 



An invaluable aid for Basic and Machine Language programmers, these 
books provide a complete disassembly and annotated listing of the 
BASIC/ECB and Disk ROMs. These listings give complete, unintcrupted 
memory maps of the four ROMs. Gain complete control over all versions of 
the color computer. 

EXTENDED COLOR BASIC UNRAVELLED: COLOR 
BASIC and EXTENDED BASIC ROM Disassembly: $39.95 
DISK BASIC UNRAVELLED: DISK BASIC ROM 1.1 and 
1.0 Disassembly : $19.95 

BOTH ECB AND DISK BASIC UNRAVELLED: $49.95 
SUPER EXTENDED BASIC UNRAVELLED: SUPER EX- 
TENDED BASIC ROM Disassembly for CoCo 3. $24.95 
COMPLETE UNRAVELLED SERIES (all 3 books): $59.95 



CoCo 3 Service Manual: $39.95 
CoCo 2 Service Manual: $29.95 
Inside OS9 Level II: $39.95 
Rainbow Guide To OS9 Level II: $19.95 
Rainbow Guide To OS9 II (disk): $19.95 
Complete Guide To OS9 (Level 1): $19.95 
Complete Guide To OS9 (2 Disk): $29.95 
CoCo 3 Secrets Revealed: $19.95 
Basic Programming Tricks: $12.95 
Assembly Language Programming(tepco): $18 

Addendum For CoCo3 (tepco); $12 
Color Computer Disk Manual (with ref card): $29.95 
Start OS-9 (Book & Disk): $32.99 




OTHER SOFTWARE 

COCO MAX III (with hi-res interface): $79.95 
COCO MAX II: Disk $77.95 Tape $67.95 
MAXFONTS #1,.#2,#3,#4: Disk $19.95 Each 
NX1000 Rainbow Driver for CoCo Max III: $19.95 
MAXPATCH: Run COCO MAX II on COCO 3. $24.95 

EDT/ASM 64D: Editor-assembler (specify 1,2,3) $59.95 
SOURCE: CoCo Disassembler $34.95 SOURCE III: $49.95 
CBASIC: Best Basic compiler $149.95 CBASIC III: $149.95 

TELEWRITER 64 (COCO 1&2) :Best Word Processor for 
CoCo 1 & 2. Disk $57.95 Tape $47.95 

AUTOTERM:Modem software Disk $39.95 Cas $29.95 
PRO-COLOR FILE *ENHANCED*: $59.95 

VIP DATABASE III 
Best Database for CoCo 3. Features 40/64/80 columns, size 
limited only by disk space, easy to understand menu system, 
LIGHTNING FAST in-memory sort, multiple search, built- 
in mail merge, built-in MATH PACKAGE, print spooler and 
report generator, unlimited print formats & more. $69.95 



MJF 



WINDOW MASTER 

The hottest program for your CoCo 3!! Imagine using Win- 
dows, Pull-Down Menus, Buttons, Icons, Edit Field, and 
Mouse Functions in your Basic Programs. No need to use 
OS9. It uses the 640x255 (or 320x255) hires graphics mode 
for the highest resolution. Up to 31 windows can appear on 
the screen at one time. Need extra character sets? Window 
Master supports 5 fonts in 54 sizes! How about an enhanced 
Editor for Basic? It gives you a superb Basic Editor which 
leaves the standard EDIT command in the cold. And don't 
forget that many existing Basic/ML programs will operate 
under Window Master with little or no changes. In fact, it 
does NOT take up any memory from Basic. Requires 1 Disk 
Drive, RS Hi-res Interface & Joystick or Mouse. Includes 
128K & 512K Version. $69. 95 Window Master & Hi-Res In- 
terface. Only $79.95 

FKEYS 111 

A user friendly, user programmable function key utility that 
creates up to 20 function keys. Includes EDITOR, DOS 
mods, DISABLE, and its EPROMable! Disk $19.95 

SIXDRIVE 

Allows the use of 3 double-sided drives from RSDOS or 
ADOS. Only $16.95 




"A MERICA! 

[EXP'RES -1 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

To Order & for info on FREE Gifts: Refer to Page 17 of our 6-page Ad series(Pgs. 9-17) 
Credit Card Toil Free Orderline 1-800-654-5244 (9am-8pm 7days/week) 



Order Status, Info, Technical Info: 716-383-8830 




How To Read Rainbow 



When we use the term CoCo, we refer to an affection- 
ate name that was first given to the Tandy Color 
Computer by its many fans, users and owners. 

The basic program listings printed in the rain- 
bow are formatted for a 32-character screen — so they 
show up just as they do on your CoCo screen. One easy 
way to check on the accuracy of your typing is to com- 
pare what character "goes under" what. If the charac- 
ters match — and your line endings come out the same 
— you have a pretty good way of knowing that your 
typing is accurate. 

We also have "key boxes" to show you the minimum 
system a program needs. But, do read the text before 
you start typing. 

Finally, the little disk and/or cassette symbols on the 
table of contents and at the beginning of articles 
indicate that the program is available through our 

RAINBOW ON DISK Or RAINBOWONTAPEService. 



Using Machine Language 



The easiest way to "put" a machine language program 
into memory is to use an editor/assembler, a program 
you can purchase from a number of sources. All you 
have to do, essentially, is copy the relevant instructions 
from the rainbow's listing into CoCo. 

Another method of putting an ML listing into CoCo 
is called "hand assembly" — assembly by hand, which 
sometimes causes problems with OR I E I N or EQUATE 
statements. You ought to know something about 
assembly to try this. 

Use the following program if you want to hand- 
assemble ML listings: 

10 CLEAR200,8.H3F00:I=&H3FB0 

20 PRINT "ADDRESS: ";HEX$( I) ; 

30 INPUT "BYTE";B$ 

40 POKE I, VAL("&H"+B$) 

50 I=I+1:GDTD 20 

This program assumes you have a 16K CoCo. If you 
have 32K, change the &H3F00 in Line 10 to 8.H7F00 
and change the value of I to &H7FB0. 



OS-9 and RAINBOW ON DISK 



The OS-9 side of rainbow on disk contains two 
directories: CMDS and source. It also contains a file, 
read . me . f i rs t, which explains the division of the 
two directories. The CMOS directory contains executa- 
ble programs and the SOURCE directory contains the 
ASCII source code for these programs, basicos 
programs will only be offere6 in source form so they will 
only be found in the SOURCE directory. 

OS-9 is a very powerful operating system. Because 
of this, it is not easy to learn at first. However, while we 
can give specific instructions for using the OS-9 



programs, you will find that the OS-9 programs will be 
of little use unless you are familiar with the operating 
system. For this reason, if you haven't "learned" OS-9 
or are not comfortable with it, we suggest you read The 
Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 by Dale Puckett and 
Peter Dibble. 

The following is not intended as a course in OS-9. It 
merely states how to get the OS-9 programs from 
rainbow on disk to your OS-9 system disk. Use 
the procedures appropriate for your system. Before 
doing so, however, boot the OS-9 operating system 
according to the documentation from Radio Shack. 

1) Type load di r list copy and press enter. 

2) If you have only one disk drive, remove the OS-9 
system disk from Drive 0 and replace it with the OS- 
9 side of rainbow on disk. Then type chd/d0 
and press enter. If you have two disk drives, leave 
the sytem master in Drive 0 and put the rainbow 
on disk in Drive 1. Then type chckdl and press 

ENTER. 

3) List the read . me . f i rs t f ile to the screen by typing 

list read. me. f irst and pressing ENTER. 

4) Entering dir will give you a directory of the OS-9 
side of rainbow on disk. To see what programs 
are in the CMDS directory, enter dir cmds. Follow 
a similar method to see what source files are in the 
SOURCE directory. 

5) When you find a program you want to use, copy it 
to the CMDS directory on your system disk with one 
of the following commands: 

One-drive system: copy /d0/cmds/ filename /d0/ 
cmds/fi/ename -s 

The system will prompt you to alternately place the 
source disk (rainbow on disk) or the destination 
disk (system disk) in Drive 0. 
Two-drive system: copy /dl /cmds/ filename /d®/ 
cmds/ filename 

Once you have copied the program, you execute it 
from your system master by placing that disk in Drive 
0 and entering the name of the file. 



The Rainbow Seal 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



The Rainbow Certification Seal is our way of helping 
you, the consumer. The purpose of the Seal is to certify 
to you that any product that carries the Seal has actually 
been seen by us, that it does, indeed, exist and that we 
have a sample copy here at the rainbow. 

Manufacturers of products — hardware, software and 
firmware — are encouraged by us to submit their prod- 
ucts to the rainbow for certification. 

The Seal is not a "guarantee of satisfaction." The 
certification process is different from the review 
process. You are encouraged to read our reviews to 
determine whether the product is right for your needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship between advertis- 
ing in the rainbow and the certification process. 
Certification is open and available to any product per- 



taining to CoCo. A Seal will be awarded to any com- 
mercial product, regardless of whether the firm adver- 
tises or not. 

We will appreciate knowing of instances of violation 
of Seal use. 



Rainbow Check Plus 



The small box accompanying a program listing in 
the rainbow is a "check sum" system, which is 
designed to help you type in programs accurately. 

Rainbow Check PLUS counts the number and values 
of characters you type in. You can then compare the 
number you get to those printed in the rainbow. 
On longer programs, some benchmark lines are given. 
When you reach the end of one of those lines with your 
typing, simply check to see if the numbers match. 

To use Rainbow Check PLUS, type in the program 
and save it for later use, then type in the command run 
and press enter. Once the program has run, type NEW 
and press enter to remove it from the area where the 
program you're typing in will go. 

Now, while keying in a listing from the rainbow, 
whenever you press the down arrow key, your CoCo 
gives the check sum based on the length and content 
of the program in memory. This is to check against the 
numbers printed in the rainbow. If your number is 
different, check the listing carefully to be sure you typed 
in the correct basic program code. For more details 
on this helpful utility, refer to H. Allen Curtis' article on 
Page 21 of the February 1984 rainbow. 

Since Rainbow Check PLUS counts spaces and 
punctuation, be sure to type in the listing exactly the 
way it's given in the magazine. 

10 CLS:X=2SG*PEEI<(35)+178 

20 CLEAR 25,X-1 

30 X=256*PEEI< (35)+178 

40 FOR Z=X TO X+77 

50 READ Y:W=UI+Y:PRINT Z,Y;W 

60 POKE Z,Y:NEXT 

70 IFW=7985THEN80ELSEPRINT 

"DPI TP ERROR":STOP 
80 EXEC X:END 

90 DATA 182, 1, 106, 167, 140, 60, 134 
100 DATA 126, 183, 1, 106, 190, 1, 107 
110 DATA 175, 140, 50, 48, 140, 4, 191 
120 DATA 1, 107, 57; 129, 10, 38, 38 
130 DATA 52, 22, 79, 158, 25, 230, 129 
140 DATA 39, 12, 171, 128, 171, 128 
150 DATA 230, 132, 38, 250, 48, 1,' 32 
160 DATA 240, 183, 2, 222, 48, 140, 14 
170 DATA 159, 166, 166, 132, 28, 254 
180 DATA 1B9, 173, 198, 53, 22, 126, 0 
190 DATA 0, 135, 255, 134, 40, 55 
200 DATA 51, 52, 41, 0 



16 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



COCO 3 



CoCo 3 Combo Package 

• 128K Color Computer 3 

• 500 Pokes Peeks 'n Execs Book 

• CoCo 3 Secrets Revealed Book 

• Basic Programming Tricks Book 

• Utility Routines Volume 1 Book 

• $10 off our Drive 0 system 

CoCo 3 Combo Package: $169 

(Please add $8 S&H in US/S20 in 

Canada) 



MULTIPAKS 

Allows you to hook up 4 rom- 
paks/controllers/RS232 Pack, etc. 
Needed for most hard drive systems* 

Multipak (26-3124) for CoCo 2: $89 
Multipak (26-3124) upgraded for 
CqCq 3: $99 

We have limited quantities of these hard-to- 
find multipaks. Order yours today. 
MPI Locking Plate (Specify Cat #): $8 



MAGNAVOX 8CM515 RGB 
MONITOR 

Razor-sharp picture 
quality for your CoCo! 
Has 14" screen, 
Analog/TTL RGB, 
Composite Inputs for 
CoCo 2/3, Speaker, tilt- 
stand & 2 year warranty! 
Only $265 (add $12 S&H/$40 in Canada) 

Magnavox RGB Cable for CoCo 3 and 
Composite Video / Audio Cable Set with 
purchase of monitor: $19>9S 




DISK DRIVES for CoCo 2 & 3 



There are a lot of dealers selling disk drives for the CoCo. Why buy from us? 
First, all our drives are Brand New and made by Fujitsu. They are sleek, 
quiet and have a reputation of superb reliability. Second, our Drive 0 sys- 
tems come with the acclaimed DISTO Controller - with gold-plated eon- 
tacts. Third, our Drive 0 systems come with the official 200 page Radio Shack 
Disk Manual with floppy disks; everything you need to get started. Fourth, 
you get $60 worth of our utility software (Disk Util 2.1A & Super Tape/Disk 
Transfer) & our DISKMAX software which allows you to acess BOTH sides 
of our drives. Our drive systems are head & shoulders above the rest. 

Drive 0 (With Disto Controller, Case, Power Supply, 1 Drive Cable, Manual, Software): 

$209 

Drive 1 (With Case, Power Supply & software): $129 Bare 5 1/4" Drive: $89 

2 Drive System (With Disto Controller, Case, Power Supply, 2 Drive Cable, Manual & 

Software): $309 

1 Drive Cable: $16.95 2 Drive Cable: $ 22.95 4 Drive Cable:$ 34.95 



HARD DRIVE SYSTEMS/ 
INTERFACES 



Complete w/ Hard Drive, Western Digital Con- 
troller, B&B Interface, Cables, Case, Power Supply, 
Software (HYPER IO) & Instruction manuals. As- 
sembled/tested/formatted. Just Plug'N'Riin. This is 
the best hard drive deal for the CoCo. 



Seagate 20 Meg System: $509 
Seagate 30 Meg System: $539 



CoCo XT: Use 2 5-120 Meg Drives with your CoCo. 
Only $69.95 w/ Real Time Clock; $99.95 
CoCo XT ROM: Boots OS9 from hard/floppy. $19.95 
HYPERIO: Allows Hard Drive Use with RSDOS. 
Only $29.95 HYPERIO: Disto Version:If you have a 
DISTO Controller w/ Hard Drive Interface, this 
program will allow you to use your Hard Drive from 
RSDOSU Only $29.95 




PRINTERS 



AH our Printer Systems include Serial-to-Parallel Interface. 

NX1000 Rainbow System: NX1000 Color Printer w/144 CPS draft • Friction/Trac- 
tor Feed • Epson/IBM Compatible * 1 Year Warranty. Only $289 



NX1000 System: NX1000 Printer w/ 144 cps Draft 

• Epson/IBM Compatible • 1 Year Warranty. Only 
$199 

Panasonic KX-P1080i II System: Panasonic Printer 
w/ 144 cps Draft •Tractor/Friction Feed 

• Epson/IBM Compatible • 2 Year Warranty. Only 
$189 



Panasonic KX-1592 System: Panasonic Printer 

w/216 cps Draft • 16.5" Wide Carriage • 2 Year Warranty: $399 



Friction/Tractor Feed 




DISTO PRODUCTS ... 



Disto Super Controller: $79.95 Disto 
Super Controller II: $129.95 

• Mini Eprom Programmer Add on: $54.95 
• Hard Disk Add On: $49.95 
• RT Clock & Parallel Interface: $39.95 
• MEB Adapter Add On: $24.95 

MULTI-BOARD ADAPTER Printer Port, 
Faster RT Clock & true RS-232 Serial Port. 
$59.95 

RS232 SUPER PACK: Here it is! True RS-232 
Port for your CoCo. Compatible with Tandy® 
Deluxe RS232 Pack. Includes DB25 Cable. Re- 
quires Multipak. Only $54.95 




DI/C#VER 



jUf MICROCOM SOFTWARE 2900 Monroe Avenue • Rochester, NY 14618 

To Order: All orders $50 & above (except Printers, Monitors, Drives, Computers) shipped by UPS 2nd Day Air in the Continental 
US. We accept Visa,MC, Amex,Discover,Check & MO. FREE GIFTS: AH Orders $99 & above also recieve a FREE 1989 Diary & 
X-MAS Card. Please add $3.00 for S&H (Drives/Printers add $10 S&H); foreign add 10% S&H (min $5). NYS Residents add sales 
tax. Our Australian Agent: Aust. Peripheral Development Ph: 07-208-7820 

Credit Card Toll Free Order line 1-800-654-5244 (9am-8pm 7 days/week) 

Order Status, Info, Technical Info: (716) 383-8830. FAX: 716-383-0026 



Still 



pounding away at that 

E^ms^^^^-J' 13,1,1 iht 



keyboard? 






4 


I 







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.raw ,„ 

the UW«" ate 





«j . l! ■ . i , , , !?. , i . i .J?i . i . i . ift I?. . i . i , ifti . i . i ■ I?l ■ I ^ll 



Fifth Law of Unreliability: To err is human, tot to realty Foul thugs 
uf requires t computer 

Hartley's First Lav: Tou can lead a hone to vater, but if you <an snake 
his float od hi: back you've jot roaethmg 

DllCharm'S Axiom: If one tievi bis protlem closely enough he vill 
rtcofoiie biotelf it part of the problem. 

Perussei's Law: There \i no job so simple that it cao't be done vrong. 



vjk ge: i 



Max-1 0 Font Set 

Regularly $29.95 

36 fonts on 2 disks. Can all be used 
easily and quickly with Max-1 0. 

JCoagAaad 24 



Frontier IB paint 

Athens 18 paint 

trvinz tz point 



Hilliv 11 pitit 

Rom* 9 point' 
Ram • 12 pa in I 

S.racil 111 point 

Futura 24 

Courier 12 point 

Erocktiaven 48 

^liames 18 point 

sa n Fra n cifco 18 

Century 24 
All these and 14 more! 



/rv/ne 24 

Jwart Jong 12 pojflf 
Ellesm ere 12 point 

Ellesmere 24 point 
Ellesmere Bold 24 

Digital iE point 



OesUtop 




Max-1 0+ 

Now with online 40,000 word 
spellchecker 

Regularly $79.95 

The latest in CoCo word processors 
and the only one with true 
WYSIWYG (What You See Is What 
You Get) output. Mix graphics with 
text. Max-1 0 is great for anything 
from greeting cards up to newsletters. 
Just turn the next page for a full list 
of Max-1 0's unbelievable features. 

File Edit Search* Layout Font Style | 



below 



CoCo Max III 

Regularly $79.95 

The ultimate graphics creation 
program. See the list of features on 
the next page. Also read the superb 
review in The Rainbow, April 1988. 

File Edit Options Colors Font Size Style V 



JJBJ1 








a 














o 










T 






3 




Fill 1 


Zoom 


Undo 






= 



This is the Coco Max. screen with 
its pull down menus (above), its 
too! box(ieft), its palette, (bet ow). 

You can dram with: 

5Mtf 





THE PENCIL -THE <« BRUSHES - THE SPRAY CAM OR DRAW: 




LINES RECTANGLES RAYS CIRCLES POLYGONS CUBES 



CHOOSE BORDER 
1 OPTIONAL FILL 



THEESE ARE JUST A FEW OF 
COCO MAK III BASIC functions: 



K3mm\mm i=»sr«niBxn ' 



CoCo Max Fonts 

Regularly $49.95 

Almost 100 fonts for incredible 
headlines and text Four disks full of 
fonts. Use CoCo Max styles (Bold, 
Italic, 3-D, Shadow ...), sizing and 
colors for absolutely wonderful 
effects. Thousands of combinations 
are possible. Here are some of the 
fonts: 



crtatlow 
Holoil 

pUsbbrbjbb 

PciqwoT LARqc 

pfocrhiti riEaiun 
PRDCFHITl LHFCE 

Vninvh llln«:U Nmnll 

I II 1 Hit A IILIC. MM 

UQUitl CRtJSTBL 
Mocno/i JIapre 
ami 

POI-1T OUT 

ppinruur lfirde 



hrge 



Digital Snail 

Digii-at fflnclkk-irn 

Digital Large 
Futura 

il'iir id Sn iinll 

eeiio 
m 

unni in amcBi Bfemnpu 

Victory 

lib) T..«k |rJ|I 

BABY TUTU 



Ca.rtwh.il 

Sarmanda Small 

Normande Medium 

NOHMAINDE LG. 

Piano 




30 DAY TRIAL OFFER 

AND OUR 
NO-RISK GUARANTEE 

We understand perfectly that you 
have no reason to believe anything 
you read. Including this ad. (Or the 
rave reviews) 

So we invite you to evaluate The 
Works yourself. Call and order it 
We'll send it with detailed, clear 
instructions. Use it with your own 
CoCo 3, on your own work, for 30 
days. Try it for brilliant presentation 
graphics, outstanding word proces- 
sing. Wring it out 

After 30 days, if it isn't for you, 
for any reason, we'll take it back 
and write you a check imme- 
diately for your full purchase 
price. 

The risk is all ours. But we urge 
you not to wait, this deal may end 
soon. We can guarantee this price 
only if you order now. 

Call today. You have 
nothing to lose. 

(203) 348-9436 

Order line open weekdays 9 to 5 Eastern time 
Sec next page for more ordering info. 



COLORWARE 



A division of Sigma Industries, Inc. 



iuWty;*:Wt 



REAL DESKTOP 





CoCo Max III is absolutely the best drawing package 
available for the CoCo 3, and it does more than just let 
you draw. CoCo Max III includes animation, text, color 
mixing and more features than you would think 
possible. It combines incredible speed with dazzling 
graphics and it is a joy to use even its most powerful 
features. 

Pictures, graphs, flyers, cards, signs, school projects, 
labels, buttons and anything else you might dream of 
creating is now possible with CoCo Max III. Is it any 
wonder that the majority of CoCo Gallery pictures in the 
last five months were created with CoCo Max? 

Thousands of CoCo users have found that you don't 
have to be an artist to have fun with CoCo Max. You'll 
wonder why you waited so long to get the incredible 
CoCo Max III. 



AND 



CoCo Max III is the best because it includes: 

- a huge picture area (two full hi-res 320x192 screens) - a large 
editing window - Zoom mode for detail work - 28 drawing tools 
which you just point and click on - shrink and stretch - rotation at 
any angle (1.5 degree steps) - 512K memory support (all features 
work with 1 28K too) - an Undo feature to correct mistakes - you 
can even Undo an "Undo" - Animation - special effects - color 
sequencing (8 colors, variable speed) - thirteen fonts (more 
available) - each font has eight different sizes - five style options 
(bold, italic, 3D, etc.) for thousands of font/size/style combination 
possibilities. - the CoCo Show "slide show" program - color 
editing of patterns - automatic pattern alignment - prints in single 
and double size - smart lasso (move text over a background...) 

- advanced tools: arc, ray, cube. etc. - select 16 of the 64 colors (all 
64 colors are displayed at once for selection!) - picture converter 
(CoCo Max II. MGE. BASIC) - extensive prompting - "glyphic" 
clipbook of rubber stamps - double click shortcuts - color mixing 
(additive/subtractive/none) - money back guarantee - sophisticated 
data compression saves disk space - pull down menus (no 
commands to remember) - forty paintbrush shapes - two color 
lettering - spray can - scrapbooks of pictures - error free 

- Y-cable or multipack not required - high speed hi-res interface 
included (plugs into joystick port) - disk is not copy protected 

- amazing "flowbrush" - RGB and composite monitor support 

- replace color - printing on black and white printers in five shades 
of gray - full color printing with optional drivers for the NX-1000 
Rainbow and CGP220 - entirely rewritten for the CoCo 3 



can 



do 



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CoCo Max III: $79.95 

Max- 10 owners: deduct $10 

System Requirements: 

CoCo 3 disk system and a Joystick 
or Mouse 

Printer drivers included: 

IBM/Epson and compatibles. GEMINI. 

DMP1 05/1 06/1 30.OKI1 82/1 92. CGP220 
(B&W). DMP110, DMP200 

Color printer drivers (prints 125 
different colors) Star NX-1 000. CGP- 
220, or Okimate 20 each $1 9.95 



For all CoCo Max Versions 

Max Edit Font Editor: A font is a set of 
characters of a particular style. With Max Edit you can 
create new fonts or modify the existing ones.$1 9.95 

Max Font disks (send for list) each $1 9.95 

Max Font Set (95 fonts on 4 disks) $49.95 

DS69/69B Digitizers: allows you to capture the 

image from a VCR or video camera and bring it into 

your computer CoCo Max will let you load digitized 

pictures and modify them. 

DS-69 (2 images per second. Requires 

murtipak) $99.95 

DS-69B (B images/second) $1 49.95 



CoCo 1 & 2 Owners 

Still Available: 

(See previous ads or 
write for information) 

CoCo Max II (works on 
ail disk CoCos) $69.95 
CoCo Max Tape 
(CoCo 1 & 2 only) $59.95 
Y-Cable $24.95 
CoCo Max II Picture 
Disk Set 

set of 3 disks: $29.95 



Guaranteed Satisfaction 

Use CoCo Max or Max-1 0 for a full month. 
If you are not delighted with either of them, 
we will refund every penny. 



COLORWARE 



A division of Sigma industries, inc. 




TO ORDER 

(203) 656-1806 M0N-FRI 9 to 5 EST^ 



Visa or Mastercard accepted. C.O.D. orders $3 extra 
Check or M.O. to: Cotorware, 242- W West Ave. Darien CT 
Add S3 per order for shipping ($5 to Canada. 10% to overseas) 
CT residents add 7.5% sales tax 



PUBLISHING 



[COLORWARE 




THE DAZZLING WORD PROCESSOR 

You probably already have a word processor, and you 
probably wish it had these features: 

► Fully menu driven (CoCo Max style) with point and 
click marking of text. You don't need the arrow keys! 

► True WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) 
including variable size fonts, styles (bold, italics, etc.) 
and graphics. 

► Can print multiple columns on a page. 

► Not limited by printer capabilities: fonts up to 24 
points (1 /3") high, superscripts, small print, etc. 

► Fully integrated spelling checker (incredibly fast), no 
need to exit program to check spelling. 

► Graphics can be imported from just about anything 
(CoCo Max: MGE; BASIC; even Macintosh pictures 
from a BBS) and resized to fit your document. 

► Full screen preview including graphics. 

Max-10 has all these unique features, plus all the 
features you are used to in your current word 
processor. Even with all this, you don't give up anything. 
Max-10 is easier to use, more intuitive, faster and more 
powerful than anything else. It's not just a word 
processor, it's a desktop publisher. 



Hi 



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CoCo 




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«».pi.t» « *£55, win » 

c.n <»o no kn0 , B tou « 

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Max-1 0: $79.95 

CoCo Max III owners: deduct $10 
Max-10 requires a CoCo 3. at least 1 disk, & joystick or mouse 
Printer drivers included: IBM/Epson and compatibles; DMP 
105, DMP106, DMP130; CGP220 (B&W); Gemini/Star 



TM 



FileEdit Search* Layout Font 



style 




✓ Plain TeHt 
Bold 



italics 



CP 

cB I 



Underlined \ cu 
superscript cH 
subscript cl 



Hniiiiitiiill 

liliiiiiiiiiiiiiilii 



ttUUUUULUU 



WYSIWIG adj. (wiz-ee-wig) 1. What 
You See Is What You Get (acronym) I 



a ukc choice if fui lftiif fonts and styles 




Some of the many features of Max-10: 

- Blinding speed - printing in multiple columns - online dictionary 

- spell checking - graphics can be mixed with text - full justification 
of proportionally sized characters * bold, italic, underline 
superscript and subscript type styles - superb file support, just point 
and click - "Undo" lets you correct mistakes - easy to use, no 
commands to remember - any graphics program can be used 

- pictures can be shrunk or stretched to fit - right and left alignment 

- centering - variable line spacing - page numbering - current 
page number displayed on the screen - variable tab stops - left and 
right margins - tabs and margins can vary in the same document 

- cut and paste text and graphics anywhere in the file - page break 
shows on the screen - pull down menus are quick and simple to use 

- lightning fast access to any point in the document with the scroll 
box - twenty fonts (styles and sizes), more available - any number 
of character sizes and styles can be mixed on the same line - up to 
more than 120 characters per line, depending on font size, style and 
letters - headers and footers, even with graphics - file compatibility 
with other word processors - right, left, bottom and top margins 

- word wrap - set starting page - type ahead - key repeat - key 
click - scroll up and down - ASCI! file output for compatibility 

- disk directory - kill files- block cut. copy and move - global 
search and replace - paragraph indent - clipboard - merge 

- show file (on disk) - free memory display - page count 

- paragraph count - word count - graphics can be resized and 
moved - multiple fonts - error recovery - true lowercase -512K 
memory support (all features work with 128K too) - complete point 
and click cursor control - moving, clearing and changing blocks of 
text is ridiculously easy, just point and click at each end of the text 
block - onscreen ruler - preview file before loading - search and 
replace - disk is not copy protected -* more than 35 pages of text 



CoCo Max III and Max-10 
Perfect Together 

You do not need CoCo Max III to insert and print 
graphics in Max-10. Max-10 works with any graphics 
creation program, and you can also use graphics 
downloaded from bulletin boards. 

Similarly, you do not need Max-10 to create graphics 
with text in CoCo Max III. There are tremendous 
lettering capabilities in CoCo Max III, with its many 
fonts, styles, and sizes. 

Together Max-10 and CoCo Max III are an unbeatable 
combination. This desktop publishing system is better 
than anything youVe ever seen on a CoCo. We are so 
confident that you will use, and enjoy using f he two 
software packages, that we offer an unconditional 
money back guarantee. Stop wasting your time and 
effort using inferior or obsolete products. Move up to 
the new generation of CoCo software now. 



1 F e atur e 



16K ECB 




Use one sheet of paper 
to print a six- page pamphlet 



The Flip Side 



By Keiran Kenny 




W'ould you like to print a six- 
page booklet with up to 27 
lines per page and 34 charac- 
ters per line (about 900 words — the 
length of this article)? You can create 
such work with my program, Booklet. 
The program should work using any 
printer with a 1/6-inch linefeed and 80 
characters per line. The program works 
fine on my Brother EP44 typewriter/ 
printer, which uses a ribbon and typing 
paper. 

To see how the program works, let's 
print a booklet. First, note that Line 80 
sets the baud rate at 2400. Change the 
rate to fit the needs of your computer. 
Feed the paper into your printer, mak- 
ing sure that the perforation is flush 
with the top of the ribbon. 

Now turn on your printer and run the 
program. After the title screen, you will 
be prompted to enter the number of 
lines per page. You can enter any 

Keiran Kenny started programming 
seven years after retirement. He is 
interested in Co Go's graphic and math 
capabilities and enjoys trying a variety 
of applications. 



i 

i 




number from one to 27. If you choose 
less than 27, the text will be centered on 
the page at the final printout. Once you 
have entered the number of lines, you 
will be prompted to type each line of 
text, one by one. You may enter char- 
acters until there is only one space 
before the line limit marker (]), but if 
you type over the marker, you must 
retype the entire line. When you have 
typed all six pages of text, the computer 
prompts you to enter three lines for the 
cover page. These three lines will be 
centered on the front page. 

If you run out of text before you have 
completed six pages, press SHIFT-up 
arrow and enter CHR$(95) in the line 
following the last line of text. This will 
print a left arrow on the screen and 
bring you to the cover-page prompt. 

Now you are ready to start printing. 
Begin by entering the number of copies 
to be made. We will begin by printing 
one copy. Press ENTER and watch how 
the printer prints the page numbers one 
and six in a single sweep. Next, the first 
line of pages one and six is printed, and 
so on, until all lines of these two pages 
have been printed. On the bottom half 




22 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 




•: •<'... •■ :V- • •• V 



Figure 1: Sample printout of The Booklet 



I' * 



PAGE 1 

With this proqram you Can print 
a six-page, pr of essi dnal -1 ooking 
booklet of up to twenty-seven 
lines peer page and thirty-four 
characters per line. That's about 
900 word* - the length of this 
article. The program should work 
on any printer with a 1/6 inch 
linefeed and an 80-character line. 
In fact it works well on my little 
Brother EP44 typewriter — printer 
(using a ribbon and plain paper ( ) . 
However, the comments below are 
based on the use of standard fan- 
fold paper. To see how it works, 
You will first have to have a 
tent to print. Put your text into 
DATA lines as in the examples in 
lines 1001-1023 below. These are 
numbered in steps of one starting 
with 1001 so that you can easily 
keep a count of your lines. You 
can have a maximum of 162 lines, 
<e x 27 i j and not nor* than 34 
characters per line. 

You can enter less than 162 
Unas, but if you enter less 



PAGE 6 

pages two and five will be prin- 
ted and vou are back at the pre- 
vi ous prnrap '. , You can then pr i nt 
more copies if you wish. Pressing 
'N" ends the program. 

Now save the program with an 
prooam title to identify the sub- 
ject of your bookette in case it 
is a big success and a reprint is 
called for. When you want to print 
another bookette, Just load the 
last program you saved and type 
a new cover title in lines 900-920 
and type your new text beginning 
with line 1001. If there are any 
lines left over from the previous 
program, delete them. But make 
sure that your last DATA line 
reads END as in line 2000. 

I'm sorry about all tho».e blank 
sheets, but I store them in a 
folder and use them for one-off 
letters and suchlike. I'd hate to 
have to admit how many I accum- 
ulated in my efforts to get this 
program working properly and run- 
ning efficiently! 



PAGE 3 

Type them in and then RUN the pro- 
gram. After the title screen you 
get a prompt to check the printer 
and input how many copies yuu 
want printed. For good reason let 
us print just one copy to start. 

Peed your paper into the prin- 
ter and wind the first sheet 
right through until the first per — 
f oration is exactly flush with 
the top of the ribbon. Press ENTER 
and the page numbers 1 and 6 wi 1 1 
be printed In a single sweep Df 
printhead and then line one of 
pages one and six. After pages one 
and six have been printed, pages 
three and four will 0c printed on 
the bottom half of the sheet. You 
then get a prompt to reverse the 
paper. Wind the paper through un- 
til you have a complete blank 
sheet following the printed sheet. 
Tear the three sheets off and turn 
them around so that the printed 
si do is facing upwards and the 
top of pages one and six is facing 
the printer. Turn the first sheet 



PAGE 4 

right through to the perforation 
again and then press ENTER. The 
cover title and pages two and five 
will then be printed, and you will 
be asked if you want any more. 

But here you have a chance to 
correct any errors in your text. 
So, if you have ten lines per page 
and there is a spelling error in 
the third line on page three, 
then that will be the 23rd DATA 
line (line 1023 in the listing). 
Retype or EDIT that line to cor- 
rect it and repeat the procedure 
for any other lines in which you 
discover textual errors. 

There is another check you can 
make now too. Separate the printed 
sheet from the two blank sheets, 
tear off the holey side strips, 
fold it over from top tp bottom, 
and slice it through with a sharp 
knife. Then fold the tuo halves 
Dver from side to side and place 
the half with pages three and 
four inside the half with pages 
one and six. Check if the left 



- 



PA BE S 

margins on pages three and four 
are equal. The TABs in lines 2B0 
and 4B0, which set the margins, 
cannot be changed but a slight 
movement of the paper to the right 
or left should suffice. Your book 
will be as you now see it and you 
can bind it by stapling along the 
crease between the pages. 

But line 380 is still waiting 
for you to INPUT how many more 
copies you want, so set up your 
printer as you did beforo - thus 
with a leading blank sheet and 
INPUT how many copies you want 
printed. Then press ENTER and tlie 
printer will then print out paqes 
one and six and three and four 
to whatever number you chase and 
you will be back at the prompt to 
reverse the paper. Follow the pro- 
cedure as before $nd wind the 
paper through until you have a 
full blank sheet at the end. Turn 
the paper and fe«d it into the 
printer to the first perforation, 
press ENTER, and the coyer and 



T 
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I 
I 
i 
I 

! 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 

i 
i 

~r 
i 
i 

i 
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t 
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*The Bciukette* 



by 



Kei ran Kenny 



PAGE 7. 

than 162 the lines will be dealt 
evenly over the first five pages 
and the remainder will appear on 
page six which will only be com- 
pletely filled if your text runs 
to a full 162 lines. If your text 
deals out at less than 27 lines 
per paga, it will he centured 
vertically on the printed page. 

Whan you type in your DATA 
lines, remember that any line in 
which there is a comma or a colon 
must he enclosed in double quotes. 
Also you cannot enclose titles in 
double quotes in a DATA line. But 
you can use the apostrophe instead 
if you wish. If you want, to indent 
to start a new paragraph, that 
line must be enlaced in double 
quotes too. Tho three DATA lines 
900 to <?20 are the title of the 
bookette. Those will oppoor on the 
cover centered vertically and 
hori zontal 1 y , 

There art* 23 DATA lines ««t the 
end fcf this listing, so lot's u>»e 
then to see how the progr am works. 



8 



View A 



View B 



View A shows the front side of the printed paper (which is printed first) and View 
put the booklet together, first cut the paper horizontally across the middle (solid line 
together, fold vertically (across the dotted lines) so that the pages are in order and 
in the middle, 



B shows the backside. To 
). Then, put the two halves 
the bookl et togethe r 











v. :"'ftV ' '• "• > , >4? >••;••''••••'{..,.. ,: ■ '1: '' 




1, ,„-, . 


, .,.„ , 




■ ■ . . .. ,*•> . - ?X tt$ Pi 


"■v-'-A i^>v^ ; .~:.,-. V.;'-:'':.;' :•:< 





of the paper, the printer prints the page 
numbers and all the text for pages three 
and four. :| | 

Once this is complete, you will be 
prompted to turn the paper over, so you 
may begin printing on the other side. 
Turn off the printer and remove that 
sheet as well as one blank sheet on either 
side of it. Turn these sheets over so that 
the printed side will face up. Feed in the 
leading blank page and align the paper. 
Press ENTER. The cover page will be 
printed on the first half of the sheet, and 
pages two and five will be printed at the 
bottom. You will then be asked if you 
want to print more booklets. 

Here you have an opportunity to 
correct any errors before continuing the 
printing. Tear off the printed sheet and 
check the pages for errors. Each line is 
M an array labeled A(T), with each 
array numbered sequentially. Thus, if 
you have 10 lines per page, and the third 
line from the top on Page 5 has a 
spelling error, the error is in Array 
fi$(43}i Press BREAK, to be placed in 



the direct mode. Type ?fi$(43) and 
press ENTER. The line will appear on the 
screen. To correct it, enter this: 



R$ ( 43 )=" corrected text 



The three cover lines are labeled C$ ( l) 
to C$(3), and they can be corrected in 
the same way. When you have finished 
your corrections, enter GQTQ710. This 
returns you to the earlier prompt. 

Before you print another booklet, 
check the one you have finished. Re- 
move the side strips from the printed 
sheet and cut the paper in half between 
pages one and six, and pages three and 
four. Then fold each half-sheet in half 
again, and check to see if the left mar- 
gins of pages one and six are equal. 
Although there is no way to change the 
margins in the program, you can move 
your paper farther to the right or left to 
correct such problems. 

To make your booklet, lay your two 
sheets of paper on top of each other with 
pages three and four on top and facing 



up. Fold the two sheets together so that 
the cover and a blank page are on the 
outside of the booklet. You can then 
bind the booklet by stapling the two 
sheets together. (See Figure 1;) 

Return to the program. Line 710 is 
still waiting for you to enter the number 
of copies you want printed. So now, as 
before, line up your paper and then 
enter the number of copies you want. 
The printer will print the appropriate 
number of pages one and six, and three 
and four. It will then prompt you to 
remove the paper and turn it over as you 



At the end of this series of copies, the 
program will ask if you would like to 
print additional copies. In this way, you 
can continue making corrections or 
modifications to your booklet until you 
are satisfied with the work. 

(Questions or comments about this 
program may be directed to the author 
at 2/45 Cremorne Rd. f Cremorne 
N.S. W., Australia 2090. Please include 
an SA SE when requesting a reply.) □ 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 23 



The listing: BOOKLET 



0 1 BOOKLET 1 by Keiran Kenny, 

Sydney, 1988. 
10 CLS 
20 GOTO800 

30 PRINT@104,CHR$(34)+"THE BOOKL 

ET"+CHR$ (34) 

40 PRINT@174,"BY" 

50 PRINT@233, "KEIRAN KENNY" 

60 PRINT@328 , "PRESS ANY KEY. " 

70 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" "THEN70ELSECL 

S 

80 POKE150,18 '2400 BAUD 
90 CLEAR5508 
100 DIMA$(162) 

110 PRINT@225,"";:INPUT"LINES PE 

R PAGE (MAX. 27) :";LP 

120 IFLP>27THENCLS:GOTO110 

130 LF=INT (ABS ( (LP-27 ) /2 ) ) 

140 CLS:PN=1 

150 P=32:PP=0 

160 FORT=lTOLP*6 

170 LN=LN+1 : PRINTOPP , "TYPE PAGE" 
PN;CHR$(8)", LINE"LN 
180 PRINT@P+34,"]" 
190 PRINT§P, "" ; :LINEINPUTA$ (T) 
200 IFA$(T)=CHR$(95)THENFORT=T T 
OLP* 6 : A$ (T) =" " : NEXT : GOT02 7 0 
210 IFLEN (A$ (T) ) >34THENPRINT"T00 
LONG 1 TYPE LINE"LN"AGAIN. ":PRIN 
T@P,STRING$(LEN(A$(T) ) ,32) : PRINT 
@P+34, "] ":GOTO190 
220 PRINT 

230 P=P+9 6:PP=PP+96 
240 IFLN=LP THENPN=PN+1:LN=0 
2 50 IFPP>=4 8 0THENCLS : P=3 2 : PP=0 
260 NEXT 

270 CLS:PRINT"TYPE 3 LINES FOR C 

OVER . " 

280 P=64 

290 F0RX=1T03 

300 PRINT@P,"LINE"X 

310 LINEINPUTC$ (X) 

320 IFLEN (C$ (X) )>34THENCLS: PRINT 
"LINE"X"TOO LONG!":PRINT@P, M "; :G 
OTO310 
330 P=P+9 6 
340 NEXT 

350 CLS: PRINTS 2 2 4, "PRINTER READY 
? HOW MANY COPIES DO YOU WANT T 
0 PRINT" ; : INPUTNC 

360 CLS: PRINTS 2 2 4, "PRINTING PAGE 

S 1 & 6 AND 3 & 4" 

370 FORCC=lTONC 

380 F0RNR=1T02 

390 IFNR=1THENQ=1:PX=1:PZ=6 

400 IFNR=2THENQ=LP*2+1:PX=3 : PZ=4 

410 PRINT#-2 : PRINT#-2 , TAB ( 3 ) "PAG 

E"PX;TAB(72) "PAGE"PZ 



420 PRINT#-2 

430 IFLP<27THENF0RX=1T0LF:PRINT# 
-2: NEXT 

440 FORT=Q TOQ+LP-1 

4 50 IFNR=1THENM=T+LP*5 
460 I FNR= 2 THE NM=T+ LP 

470 PRINT#-2 , TAB (3 ) A$ (T) TAB (46) A 
$(M) 

480 NEXT 

490 FORX=1TO30-(LF+LP) :PRINT#-2: 
NEXT 

500 NEXTNR 
510 NEXTCC 

520 CLS: PRINTS 128, "REVERSE PAPER 

. PRINTER READY? PRESS <ENTER> 
it 

530 K$=INKEY$:IFK$<>CHR$(13)THEN 
530 

540 CLS : PRINT@224 , "PRINTING COVE 

R AND PAGES 2 & 5." 

550 FORCC=lTONC 

560 FORX=1TO10:PRINT#-2:NEXT 

570 F0RX=1T03 

580 PRINT#-2,TAB(63-LEN(C$(X) )/2 
) C$ (X) 

590 F0RZ=1T05:PRINT#-2:NEXT 
600 NEXT 

610 F0RX=1T06:PRINT#-2:NEXT 

620 Q=LP*4+1:PX=5:PZ=2 

630 PRINT#-2,TAB(3) " PAGE " PX ; TAB ( 

72) "PAGE"PZ:PRINT#-2 

640 IFLP<27THENF0RX=1T0LF:PRINT# 

-2: NEXT 

650 FORT=Q TO Q+LP-1 
660 M=T-LP*3 

670 PRINT#-2,TAB(3)A$(T)TAB(46)A 
$(M) 

680 NEXTT 

690 FORX=1TO30-(LF+LP) :PRINT#-2: 
NEXT 

700 NEXTCC :TC=TC+NC 
710 CLS : PRINT@64 , "COPIES PRINTED 
="TC: PRINT: PRINT" DO YOU WANT MO 
RE? Y/N" 

720 PRINT: PRINT" (TO CORRECT LINE 

5 PRESS <BREAK>) 11 

730 K$=INKEY$:IFK$=""THEN730 
740 IFK$="Y" ORK$= " y " THENNR=0 : GOT 
0770 

750 IFK$="N"ORK$="n"THENCLS : END 
760 GOTO730 

770 PRINT@192:PRINT@192,"HOW MAN 
Y MORE"; : INPUTNC 

780 PRINT: PRINT "PRINTER READY? P 
RESS <ENTER>." 

790 K$=INKEY$:IFK$OCHR$(13)THEN 
790ELSE360 

800 PMODE0,1:PCLEAR1:GOTO30 



24 THE RAINBOW January 1 339 



VIP Writer III 2.0 

4 95 K Total Text Space » EASY 4 Color MENUS 



"In the beginning there was VIP Writer and users saw that it was good, But it's not the best anymore. There's a 
new word processor to claim the crown. ..VIP Writer III -Setting the Standard" -RAINBOW Sept, 1988 



MORE SCREEN DISPLAY OPTIONS 

VIP Writer III offers screen widths of 32, 40, 64 & 80 - all with 24 lines and actual lower 
case letters using the CoCo 3's hardware display. It runs at double clock speed and has 4- 
color menus making VIP Writer III FAST and EASY to use! You can choose foreground, 
background, hilite and cursor colors from up to 64 hues. Color can be turned ON or OFF 
for the best possible display using a monochrome monitor or TV set. VIP Writer III has a 
context sensitive help facility to display command usage in easy to read colored windows. 

CUSTOMIZE!* & PRINTER INSTALLER 

VIP Writer III comes with a configuration / printer installation program which lets you 
customize VIP Writer III to suit your own liking. You can set screen width and colors as well 
as margins and more. You can also install your own printer and set interface type (serial, 
parallel or J&M), baud rate, line feeds, etc. Once done, you never have to enter these 
parameters again! VIP Writer III will load n' go wilh your custom configuration every time! 

MORE TOTAL TEXT STORAGE 

VIP Writer III has 106K total text storage in a 128K CoCo 3 (495K in 51 2K). VIP Writer 
III creates ASCII text files which are compatible with all other VIP Programs as well as 
other programs which use ASCII files. You can use VIP Writer 111 to even type BASIC 
programs! There is a 48K text buffer (438K in a 51 2K CoCo 3) and disk file linking 
allowing virtually unlimited text space. VIP Writer III works with up to four disk drives and 
Sets you display directories and free space as well as rename or kill disk files. In addition 
VIP Writer III is 100% compatible with the RGB Computer Systems Hard Disk. 

POWERFUL EDITING FEATURES 

VIP Writer III has a full featured screen editor which can be used to edit text with lines up 
to 240 characters long with or without automatic word wrap around. You can select 
type-over mode or insert mode. There is even an OOPS command to recall a cleared text 
buffer. Other editing features include: Type-ahead • typamatic key repeat and key beep 
for flawless text entry • end of line bell • full four way cursor control with scrolling • top 
of textfite • bottom of textfile • page up • page down • top of screen • bottom of screen • 
beginning of line • end of line • left one word • right one word • DELETE character, to 
beginning or end of line, word to the left or right, or entire line • INSERT character or line 
• LOCATE and/or CHANGE or DELETE single or multiple occurrence using wildcards • 
BLOCK copy, move or delete with up to TEN simultaneous block manipulations • TAB key 
and programmable tab stops • word count • line restore • three PROGRAMMABLE 
FUNCTIONS to perform tasks such as auto column creation and multiple copy printing. 



AUTOMATIC TEXT FORMATTING 

VIP Writer HI automatically formats your text for you or allows you to format your text in 
any way you wish. You can change the top, bottom, left or right margin and page length. 
You can set your text flush left, center or flush right, you can turn right hand 
justification on or off. You can have headers, footers, page numbers and TWO auxiliary 
lines which can appear on odd, even or all pages. You can also select the line on which they 
appear! You can even change the line spacing! Parameters can be altered ANYWHERE I 

PREVIEW PRINT FORMAT WINDOW 

VIP Writer III features an exclusive format window which allows you to preview your 
document BEFORE PRINTING IT! You are able to move up, down, left and right to see 
centered and justified text, margins, page breaks, broken paragraphs, orphan lines etc. 

PRINTING VERSATILITY 

VIP Writer III prints TWICE as fast as any other CoCo word processor! It supports most 
serial or parallel printers using J&M JFD-CP or Rainbow interface and gives you the 
ability to select baud rates from 110 to 19,200. You can imbed printer control codes 
anywhere in your text file EVEN WITHIN JUSTIFIED TEXT! VIP Writer III also has 
TWENTY programmable printer macros which allow you to easily control all of your 
printers capabilities such as bold, underline, italics and superscript using simple key 
strokes. Other features include: multiple copy printing • single sheet pause • line feeds. 

BUILT IN PRINT SPOOLING 

VIP Writer III has a print spooler with a 57,000 character buffer which allows you to print 
one document WHILE you are editing another. You don't have to wait until your printer is 
done before starting another job! Some word processors DO NOT include this feature! 

50,000 WORD SPELLING CHECKER 

VIP Writer III includes VIP Speller (not FREEWARE) to check your text for misspelled 
words It has a 50,000 (not 20,000) word dictionary that can be added to or edited. 

QUALITY DOCUMENTATION 

VIP Writer III comes with a well written 125 page manual which is Laser printed, not dot- 
matrix like the competition. It includes a tutorial, glossary of terms and examples for the 
beginner as well as a complete index! VIP Writer III is truly the BEST you can buy. 

VIP Writer III includes VIP Speller 1 .1. DISK $79.95 

Available thru Radio Shack Express Order Cat. #900-0908 



Writer III or Library /W owners: Upgrade to the VIP Writer 
2.0 for $1 0 + $3 S/H. Send ORIGINAL disk and $13 total. 



VIP Writer owners: Upgrade to the VIP Writer III 2.0 for 
$49.95 + $3 S/H. Send ORIGINAL disk and $52.95 total. 



VIP Database III 

DATABASE • MATH PACKAGE • MAILMERGE 

VIP Database ill features selectable screen displays of 40, 64 or 80 characters by 24 
lines with choice of 64 foreground, background, hilite and cursor colors for EASY DATA 
ENTRY. It uses the CoCo 3's hardware screen and double clock speed to be the 
FASTEST database available! VIP Database III will handle as many records as will fit on 
your disks and is structured in a simple and easy to understand menu system with full 
prompting for easy operation. Your data is stored in records of your own design. All files 
are fully indexed for speed and efficiency. IN-MEMORY SORT of records is LIGHTNING 
FAST and provides lor easy listing of names, figures, addresses, etc., in ascending or 
descending alphabetical or numeric order. Records can be searched for specific entries 
using multiple search criteria. The built-in mail-merge lets you sort and print mailing lists, 
print form letters, address envelopes - the list is endless. The built-in MATH PACKAGE 
even performs arithmetic operations and updates other fields. VIP Database III also has a 
print spooler and report generator which uses print forms you create. DISK $69.95 



VIP Database owners: Upgrade to the VIP Database III for 
$39.95 + $3 S/H. Send ORIGINAL disk and $42,95 total. 



VIP Library /WDCE 

The VIP Library /WDCE combines all six popular VIP application programs - 
VIP Database III, VIP Writer III, VIP Speller, VIP Calc III, VIP Terminal and VIP 
Disk-ZAP - into one program on one disk! The program is called VIP Desktop. 
From the desktop you have instant access to word processing with a spelling 
checker always in attendance, data management with mail merge, spreadsheet 
financial analysis, telecommunications and disk maintenance. * DISK $1 79.95 
For VIP Library shipping please add $4 USA. $5 Canada. $10 Foreign. 



VIP Library owners: Upgrade to the VIP Library /WDCE for 
$99.95* + $3 S/H. Send ORIGINAL disk and $102.95 total. 



VIP Calc III 

FAST 4 color POPUP menus • PRINT SPOOLER 
32, 40, 64 and 80 Column HARDWARE display 
Runs VERY FAST at double clock speed! 

Now every CoCo 3 owner has access to a calculating and planning tool 
better than VisiCalc™, containing all its features and commands and 
then some. VIP Calc III allows a large worksheet with up to 512 columns 
by 1024 rows! In addition, VIP Calc III has up to 16 windows which allow 
you to compare and contrast results of changes. Other features include 
trig, functions • averaging • algebraic functions • column and row 
ascending and descending SORTS • locate formulas or titles in cells • 
block move and replicate ■ global or local column width • limitless 
programmable functions • works with ANY printer. Embed printer 
control codes for customized printing. Combine spreadsheet data with 
VIP Writer documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical and 
financial budgets and reports. DISK $69.95 



VIP Calc owners: Upgrade to the VIP Calc 111 for $29.95 + 
$3 S/H. Send ORIGINAL disk and $32.95 total. 



AW products run under RSDOS and are not copy protected. 



VISA* 



SID ]EoQii(gir[pir3s(gs 




* Future VIP Library upgrades available at reduced cost. 



;(5Q3) 663-2865 J^POB 1233 Gresham. OR 97030 

Non VIP Library orders add $3 tor shipping and handling in USA. Canada $4. Foreign 
$6. COD orders add an additional $2.25. Checks allow 3 weeks for delivery. All other 
orders are shipped the same day. 



1st Prize CoCo 3 




Dragon 
Eric Leblanc 

The graphic scene was created with CoCo 
Max III. A member of the CoCo group La 
Connection Cave, Eric lives in Repentigy, 
Quebec. He is 16 years old and plans to 
become a programmer. 



3rd Prize 

Mountain 
Filipe Mateus 

The impressionistic view of a mountain was 
created with CoCo Max III. Filipe, of St. 
Hubert, Quebec, studies computer science 
and loves to draw using his CoCo 3. 



26 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 







• ft 

V WJ 














2nd Prize 

Space Tavern 
Hal Katschke 



SHOWCASE YOUR BEST! You are 

invited to nominate original work for 
inclusion in upcoming showings of 
"CoCo Gallery." Share your creations 
with the CoCo Community! Be sure to 
send a cover letter with your name, 
address and phone number, detailing 
how you created your picture (what 
programs you used, etc.) and how to 
display it. Also please include a few 
facts about yourself. 

Don't send us anything owned by 
someone else; this means no game 
screens, digitized images from TV 
programs or material that's already 
been submitted elsewhere. A digitized 
copy of a picture that appears in a book 
or magazine is not an original work. 

We will forward two first prizes of 
$25, one for the CoCo 3 and one for the 
CoCo 1 and 2; one second prize of $15 
and one third prize of $10. Honorable 
Mentions may also be given. 

Please send you r entry on either tape 
or disk to the CoCo Gallery, THE RAIN- 
BOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059, Remember, this is a contest and 
your entry will not be returned. 



— Tony Olive, Curator 



Hal produced this alien bar scene using Color Max 3 
Deluxe. Hal resides in Frankfort, Illinois. 



Honorable Mention 

Dream State 
Richard Perreault 

Is this a dream or a nightmare? Richard 
uses Color Max 3 and enjoys refining the 
detail in his art. He is 21 , lives in Boucher- 
ville, Quebec, and presently works for a 
telecommunications firm. 





' <iP - » , ■ 





1st Prize CoCo 1 & 2 

Southern Belle 
Troy Graham 

Troy is sixteen years old. He produced 
this picture on a CoCo 2 using CoCo 
Max II. Troy lives in Arnold, Maryland. 



« n n w |i n ^pi ^ 'n. ..i i. w i nn i « iii .«j).i i . i i ii ' »n i iy"," i "^jfyMi !ii . » ji 




F j*n »t •» ** <m. tm *»■ •* m> tf* ««i **. i 

(we w m. . ~ m M> a* W *» -w, 

r *4 W^W* «* *M^_#IW »* 

I Uft «*> N» W _ **» _ _ *» *»*' I 

0M W H" #*. » *f •#» ** 



W <Mt <U aM 4* «MT a* ** «tt- <*» J* «W •» 

» ¥■« "W 4m 4» JM !■•-«■* «M •* *» «) <*k *M •*». J 

P& 4r •* M M* «M t»M*MiaV--«'.*«><4M4fw«M*»* 
^* ■» i J« aj*'" l »M* l, '«a> , *'.aa.'"* 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 27 



Use these graphics programs to create 
brilliant pictures 




By Bill Beraieo 




A few years ago, there was a toy on 
the market that let a person 
►insert tiny colored bulbs into a 
lighted grid. The bulbs were placed in 
the grid to form a picture or design. As 
they were inserted, the bulbs lit up. My 
program, Building Blocks, uses your 
computer screen to simulate that idea^ 
There are two versions of the pro- 
gram: BLQCK3 for the CoCo 3 and 
BLDCK2 for the CoCo 1 and 2. The main 
differences between the two versions are 
the available colors and the size of the 
squares. The CoCo 3 versions are the 
available colors and the size of the 
squares. The CoCo 3 version allows 16 
colors and has a grid with four-by-four- 
pixel squares. The red and blue colors 
are artificated. In other words, I had to 
use POKE 178, 1 for red and POKE 17B, 2 
for blue. Granted, the colors for the 
CoCo2 are limited, but you can still 
produce some nice pictures. 

Program operation is simple. The 
screen is filled with tiny squares, each 
four-by-four pixels on the CoCo 3 and 
each five-by-five pixels on the CoCo 1 
and 2. There are over one thousand of 
these squares on the screen. Move to 
any of these squares using the arrow 
keys. If you move off the left side of the 
screen, you'll reappear on the right and 
vice versa. The same wrap-around 



Bill Bernico is the author of over 200 
Color Computer programs and is a 
frequent RAINBOW contributor whose 
hobbies include golf writing music and 
programming. Bill is a drummer in a 
rock band and lives in Sheboygan, 
Wisconsin. 



28 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



Telewriter-128 

the Color Computer 3 Word Processor 



TELEWRITER: UNDISPUTED #1 



If you've read the other word processor ads, 
you've probably had your fill of cold lists of 
features, and claims of ultimate speed, power, 
and ease of use. So let's try to get past the 
overblown claims and empty buzz words— with 2 
simple facts: 

Fact 1: Telewriter is undisputedly the #1 most 
popular word processor on the Tandy Color 
Computers. 

Fact 2: Telewriter's exemplary ease of use and 
power have been acclaimed in numerous maga- 
zine reviews and in thousands of letters and calls 
from end users. 



THE OTHERS DON'T UNDERSTAND 



So why has Telewriter gained such a large and 
loyal following, while other Color Computer 
word processors have come and gone? Ironically, 
our competitors' ads tell you exactly why. 

For them, word processing is nothing more than 
features and numbers. The longer the list of 
features, and the bigger the numbers, the better 
the word processor. Or so they think. 

They just don't understand that power and ease of 
use are not gained by tacking on random features 
or throwing in freebie utilities or forcing you to 
use a cumbersome mouse. 

Real Power, true Ease of Use, and genuine Speed 
can only be attained through thoughtful, logical, 
intelligent design, attention to detail, and a com- 
mitment to the act and the art of writing. That's 
the Telewriter tradition, and that's the reason for 
Telewriter's phenomenal success. 



TELEWRITER— 128: INTELLIGENT 
DESIGN PERFECTED 



And now, Telewriter-128, the latest Telewriter, 
uses the added hardware power of the Color 
Computer 3 to bring this intelligent design to its 
logical perfection. 

Telewriter-128 adds unsurpassed speed and 
important new features to the already impressive 
arsenal of Telewriter-64. Not just speed for 
speed's sake, or features for the sake of 
advertising— but speed where it counts and fea- 
tures that make you a more efficient, more effec- 
tive writer. 

Rainbow magazine put it this way: "Tele- 
writer-128 will set the word processing standard 
for the Color Computer 3 because it is so simple 
and user friendly. . . . The 81-page tutorial/user's 
manual is nicely done. It is written in easy to 
understand language but the program itself is so 
easy. . . . Most people will be able to use the 
software right out of the package." 



TELEWRITER-128 OR DESKTOP 
PUBLISHING 



Desktop publishing is nice for adding pictures 
and fancy fonts to newsletters or business 
presentations— but its graphics orientation sacri- 
fices some important capabilities when it comes to 
working with words. 

If your main concern is expressing ideas through 
words (notes, letters, reports, papers, novels, 
etc.), the dedicated word processing power of 
Telewriter-128 still provides the most efficient tool 
for the job. Each tool has its place— desktop 
publishing for striking visuals, Telewriter-128, for 
effective writing. 



TELEWRITER-l 28 OR TELEWRITER-64 



You can no longer afford to be without the ease, 
power, and efficiency, that Telewriter brings to 
everything you write. 



Telewriter-128 for the Color Computer 3 costs 
$79.95 on disk, $69.95 on cassette. 

For the Color Computer 1&2, Telewriter-64 costs 
$59.95 on disk, $49.95 on cassette. 

To order by MasterCard or Visa, 

call (619) 755-1258 anytime, or send check to: 

COGNITEC 

704 Nob Avenue 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

(Add $2 S&H. Californians add 6% tax. To upgrade 
from TW-64 to TW-128 send original TW-64 disk and 
$41.95.) 

Telewriter is also available through your nearby 
Radio Shack Computer Center and participating 
Radio Shack stores and dealers— or order direct 
from Express Order by dialing 1-800-321-3133. 

Ask for: Telewriter-128 (disk) ... cat #90-0909 

Telewriter-64 (disk) cat #90-0254 

Telewriter-64 (cass) cat #90-0253 



FEATURES THAT MATTER: Telewriter's out- 
standing design and its complete set of features, put 
it in a class by itself, for smooth, efficient writing 
and letter perfect printed documents. Telewriter-128 
includes: 

Unbeatable SCREEN PERFORMANCE: lightning 
fast paging and scrolling, on-screen text that never 
lags behind your typing, and a response that is 
always instantaneous, no matter how much text is in 
the buffer, or where you are in the document. 

26 User definable MACRO KEYS type your often 
used phrases and titles with a single keypress— saving 
you time and freeing your concentration for writing. 
User settable DUAL SPEED CURSOR moves you 
anywhere on the line, on the page, or in the docu- 
ment, fast or slow— you decide, with the touch of a 
finger. Fast PRINT PREVIEW MODE shows you 
text as it will print: headers, footers, margins, page 
breaks, page numbers, justification— saves time and 
paper and guarantees perfect looking documents 
everytime. 

Instant, ON-LINE HELP summarizes all Tele- 
writer-128 commands and special symbols. The On- 
line OPTIONS MENU lets you instantly customize 
the writing environment at any time to suit your 
precise needs (Screen/character color, Monochrome 
on/off, Key repeat/delay rate, 2 Cursor repeat/delay 
rates, Case-sensitivity of search, Auto file backup 
on/off, and more). A SINGLE FUNCTION KEY 
takes you instantly to any menu, so you never have 
to stop and think. 

The 24, 25 or 28 LINE SCREEN DISPLAY option 
lets you see 16% more on-screen text (28), or wider 
line spacing (25). The auto-loading OPTIONS FILE 
stores all your Macros, Print Format settings, and 
Options Menu settings, so they are always there 
everytime you run Telewriter-128. 3 pop-up STATUS 
WINDOWS tell you cursor position, word count, 



free space, etc. 

The QUICK SAVE feature lets you instantly save 
your current document with just 2 keystrokes and 
without leaving the editor. CURSOR THROUGH 
DIRECTORY to Load, Append, Rename and Kill 
files— so you'll never type a filename after the first 
time. HANGING INDENTS help you organize ideas 
on the page more effectively. Also: Footers, Multiple 
Print, Print to Disk, Key Click, Key Repeat, 40/80 
Column Option, Overstrike, Word Delete, Nested 
Macros, Definable Foreign and Math Symbols and 
more. . . . 

And, of course, Telewriter-128 incorporates all the 
Features of TELEWRITER-64, like: Works with 
absolutely any printer that works with your Color 
Computer (1, 2, or 3). Uses simple Embedded Con- 
trol Codes so all intelligent features of your printer 
are easily accessed, including: Underlining, 
Boldface, variable Fonts, Sub-script, Super-script, 
Italics etc. 

Format commands allow dynamically changing 
Margins, Headers, Spacing, Centering, etc., any- 
where in the document. Format menu sets Margins, 
Spacing, Page numbering, Baud rate, Lines per 
page, Justification. Chain Printing means the size of 
your printed document is unlimited. Also Single 
page and Partial Print. 

Fast full-screen editor with wordwrap, text align- 
ment, block copy/move/delete, global search and 
replace, wild card search, fast 4-way auto-repeat 
cursor, fast scrolling, forward and backward paging, 
settable tabs, word and line counter, full error pro- 
tection. Insert or delete anywhere on screen. Simple, 
easy to remember, "mnemonic" Editor Commands. 
Load, Save, Append, Partial Save files to disk or 
cassette. Kill, rename and list disk files. ASCII file 
compatibility. 



feature applies to top and bottom 
movement, too. 

Once you've moved to the square of 
your choice, you can paint it any of 
sixteen colors on the CoCo 3 and four 
colors on the CoCo 1 and 2. Painting 
enough of these squares will produce a 
picture or design. On the CoCo 3 you 
paint by pressing the number keys (0 
through 9) and the first six keys of the 
bottom row (Z through N). Keys zero 
through eight will give you the standard 
color values: 0 is green, 1 is yellow, 2 is 
blue,etc. I've assigned gray as Key 9's 
color value. Tve also selected custom 
colors for keys Z through N. You can 
change these by substituting different 
values in the PRLETTE statements. On 
the CoCo 1 and 2, painting is done by 
pressing 1 for red, 2 for blue and 3 for 
black. To obtain a white square, simply 
leave it unpainted. 

Even when a square has been painted, 
you can paint over it by pressing a new 
color key. There is no need to erase that 



square first and repaint. The only 
exception to this rule is when a square 
is painted black. Then you'll have to 
press E to erase the black before you can 
paint the block another color. 

The other command keys are Q to 
quit and R to restart. Quit means just 
that — you'll exit the program by 
selecting Q. Pressing R will wipe the 
screen clean and give you a chance to 
start over with a new creation. If you 
press either of these keys, you'll be 
asked if you're sure you want to select 
that key, so that you won't accidentally 
destroy a lot of work. Simply press Y 
for yes or N for no. 

Pressing E will erase only the square 
that the cursor is on at the time. Pressing 
S will save your picture to disk, and L 
will load a picture from disk. These two 
options also have a safety feature built 
in. If you accidentally press S, L, Q or 
R you'll get a chance to verify (by 
pressing Y for yes or N for no) whether 
or not you're ready for that step. You 



wouldn't want to lose a lot of work 
before you're done. 

RAINBOW ON DISK subscribers can 
load either of the two sample picture 
files provided. When you press L, you'll 
be asked for a filename. There is no need 
to enter the extension. 5AMPLE1 is the 
sample file for BL0CKS3 while SAMPLE2 
works with BL0CKS2. 

The keys to Building Blocks are 
patience and a little artistic talent. I 
have the former, but lack the latter (as 
you can probably tell by the sample 
picture). If an untalented artist like me 
can create colorful pictures, imagine 
what you can do. Anyone who wants to 
send me a copy of the pictures he or she 
creates with this program is welcome to 
do so. I'd love to see what you can do. 

(Questions or comments about these 
programs can be directed to the author 
at 708 Michigan Ave., Sheboygan, WI 
53081. Please include an SASE when 
requesting a reply.) □ 



Listing 1: BL0CKS3 



10 'BUILDING BLOCKS 3 (C) 1988 
FROM BILL BERNICO SOFTWARE 

GRAPHICS SAVE/ LOAD ROUTINE 
COURTESY OF LARRY BOELDT 

LOADS FILES WITH /BB3 EXT 

2 0 RGB : A$="U4R4D4L4 " : H=j3 : V=4 : HSC 
REEN2 : HCLS4 : HCOLOR8 , 4 : ONBRKGOT03 
3J3 

3 0 PALETTE 7 ,52: PALETTE 9 ,56: PALET 
TE1J3 , 3 2 : PALETTE 11 , 2J3 : PALETTE 12 , 4 
0 : PALETTE 13 , 12 : PALETTE14 , 60 : PALE 
TTE15 , 48 : P0KE&HE6 , 2 : POKE&HE6C6 , 1 
8:POKE&HE6C7,18 
4J3 GOSUB48j3:GOSUB49j3 
10 HDRAW" BM=H ; , =V ; C4 "+A$ : HDRAW 
M=H; ,=V;C8"+A$ 
8j3 I$=INKEY$ 

9j3 IF I$=CHR$(8)THEN H=H-4 
1J3J3 IF H<j3 THEN H=312 
lip IF I$=CHR$(9)THEN H=H+4 
12)3 IF H>312 THEN H=J3 
13J3 IF I$=CHR$(lj3)THEN V=V+4 
14)3 IF V>156 THEN V=4 
15J3 IF I$=CHR$(94)THEN V=V-4 
16J3 IF V<4 THEN V=156 
17 fi IF I$="Z"THEN HPAINT (H+2 
),10,8 

18/21 IF I$="X"THEN HPAINT (H+2 
),11,8 



B 



V-2 



V-2 



19J3 IF I$="C ,, THEN HPAINT (H+2 , V-2 
),12,8 

2J3J3 IF I$="V"THEN HPAINT (H+2 , V-2 
) ,13,8 

21J3 IF I $= 11 B 11 THEN HPAINT (H+2 , V-2 
) ,14,8 

22J3 IF I$="N"THEN HPAINT (H+2 , V-2 
),15,8 

23J3 IFI$>"/"AND I$<":"THEN P=VAL 
(1$) : HPAINT (H+2, V-2) ,P,8 
24J3 IF I$="E"THEN 32j3 
25J3 IF I$="R"THEN HCOLOR8 : HPRINT 
(23,23) , "Hit R to restart" :HCOLO 
R9 : HPRINT (23, 23 ), "RESTART?? (Y/N 
) " : F0RX=1T09 : SOUND19 1 , 1 : NEXT 
26J3 IF I$="R"THENX$=INKEY$:IFX$= 
" Y " THEN 2 J3 E LS E I FX $ = " N " THENHCO LOR8 
: HPRINT (23, 23) , "RESTART?? (Y/N) 11 
:G0T06J3ELSE2 6J3 

27J3 IF I$="Q"THEN HCOLOR8 : HPRINT 
(23,21) , "Hit Q to quit":HCOLOR9: 
HPRINT (23,21)," QUIT? ? ( Y/N) " : FOR 
X=1T09 : SOUND19 1 , 1 : NEXT 
28j3 IF I$="Q"THENX$=INKEY$:IFX$= 
"Y"THEN3 3j3ELSEIFX$="N"THENHCOLOR 
8:HPRINT(23,21) , "QUIT?? (Y/N) " :G 
OT06j3ELSE28j3 

290 IF I$="S"THEN WIDTH4J3 : G0T034 
J3 

30J3 IF I$="L"THEN WIDTH40 : GOT042 
0 

210 GOTO 10 

320 HLINE(H,V)-(H+4,V-4) , PRESET, 
BF : HDRAW" BM=H ; , =V ; C4 "+A$ : HDRAW" B 
M=H; ,=V;C8"+A$:GOTO 80 



30 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



330 POKE65496,0:WIDTH32:CLS:RGB: 
END 

340 INPUT "NAME" ;N$ 
350 HSCREEN2 
360 POKE65497 / 0 

370 PT=3584:FOR Y=2 TO 158 STEP 
4 

3 80 FORX=2 TO 318 STEP 4 

390 Z=HPOINT (X, Y) :POKE PT,Z:PT=P 

T+l 

400 NEXTX,Y:POKE65496,j3:SAVEM N$ 
+".BB3", 3584, 6784 ,4453 7 
410 GOTO 80 

420 INPUT"NAME" ;N$ : LOADM N$+".BB 
3":PT=3584 

430 HSCREEN2:POKE65497 / 0:HLINE(0 

,J8)-(315,156) , PRESET ,BF:GOSUB4 80 

440 FOR Y=2 TO 158 STEP 4 

450 FOR X=2 TO 318 STEP 4 

460 HPAINT(X,Y) ,PEEK(PT) ,8:PT=PT 

+1:NEXT X, Y:POKE65496,0 

470 GOTO80 

480 FORX=0TO156STEP4:HLINE(0 / X)- 
( 3 15 , X) , PSET : NEXTX : FORX=0TO3 16ST 
EP4 :HLINE (X,0) - (X, 156) , PSET: NEXT 
X : RETURN 

490 HPAINT(318,1) , 8 , 8 : HCOLORJ3 : HP 
RINT(0,20) ,"Hit L to load":HCOLO 
R6:HPRINT(23 ; 20) , "Hit S to save" 



:HCOLOR2:HPRINT(0,21) , "Move with 
arrow keys" : HCOLOR1 : HPRINT (0,22 
), "Paint with keys (0-8) " :HPRINT 
(0,23), "OR row one (keys Z-N) " 
500 HCOLOR3:HPRINT(23,21) , "Hit Q 
to quit" :HCOLOR4: HPRINT (23, 22 ) , 
"Hit E to erase" :HCOLOR5 : HPRINT ( 
23, 23), "Hit R to restart": RETURN 



y 120 



120 


145 


290 


0 


410 


109 


620 


95 


800 


32 


END 


...224 



Listing 2: BLDCK52 



10 'BUILDING BLOCKS (FOR COCO 2) 
(C) 1988 FROM 
BILL BERNICO SOFTWARE 



RAINBOW 

Cf PTlllCATION 



For 
Your 
CoCo 

IgmardtfsPcnciC 1, 2, & 3 

(Reviewed in Oct. 87 RAINBOW) Makes programming sensa- 
tional-looking graphics as easy as moving a joystick! Converts 
precision drawings into "DRAW" commands which can be stand- 
alone BASIC programs or merged into other programs. Also 
includes "DEMO" and "PAINT" programs. Requires a spring- 
centered joystick or touch-pad. 32k ECB tape or disk $14.95 

? ENIGMA? 

Transform your computer into an ultra-secret code machine cap- 
able of enciphering and deciphering in over 12 million virtually 
unbreakable codes! (not simple substitution codes). Print hard 
copy or store & retrieve coded data on tape or disk. Only the per- 
son who has the password can read it! 32k ECB tape or disk $12.95 

Just answer the prompts & type your message; "EZ WRITER" will 
put it into perfect letter form and send it to your DMP or DWP. 
Professional-quality, 1 to 4 page letters every time! Do one letter 
or multiple copies for "personalized" mailings. Saves letters and 
mailing lists. Even does labels. Menu-driven. Undoubtedly the 
EZ-est letter writing system available! Free sample on request! 
32k ECB tape or disk $19.95 

FOUR superior educational ■"games 1 ': RACEWAY", "GO TO THE 
TOP" (multiplication tables drill), "WORD PROBLEMS", & "PYRA- 
MID". Covers addition, subtraction, multiplication, & division. 
Different levels of difficulty. Exciting graphics & sounds. EZ and 
fun! 32k ECB tape or disk $19.95 

Probably the most exciting typing tutor available for your CoCo. 
You are the commander of. a space ship & it's your job to shoot 
down alien letters & words as they speed toward you & attack your 
spaceship. Exciting Hi-Res action! 32k ECB tape or disk $24.95 

E.Z. FRIENDLY SOFTWARE 

118 CORLIES AVE. • POUGHKEEPSIE, NY 12601 • (914) 485-8150 
(Add $1.50 s/h to all orders. NY residents add state sales tax.) 



.^VV VVVN V\ V NX \ S \ \ X N N N SWA XNNSXNXNNX \ V N-N 



@lS(fillF5^@ TO by Vidicom Corp 



to 



a ramdisk 




that doesn't forget! Fully 
Static, batterg backed CITlos 
ram makes SolidDrive™ 
ready to use instantly. You 
can forget formatting and 
copying mork files to 
ramdisk then copying back 
your changes to floppy. You 
can forget fear of poiuer 
failures. The instant poiuer 
loss occurs, !®Ha(°lE)s s ift7@ 1M 
write-protecls itself and 
your valuable work. 
IeMM^s™ yives you 
state-of-the-art surface 
mount technology. Thafs 
why tue have the best 
guarantee in the industry - 
Two years limited repair or 
replacement! i®3afflfffl^© M 
is compatible roith ITlulli- 
Pak® and comes complete 
with GS9® Level 1 or IS 
device driver, formatter and self-test software, available in 512K 
and 1 megabyte versions. Factory upgrades available for 512K 
version. RSDos Driver now available, treats Mflfflffito©™ as 3 or 6 

SSSD RS devices (4-6.4-9), Disk 
loaded version free on request! 
27C64 EProm version $19.00 

IsMM^©" is the fastest , most 
reliable long-term storage available 
to the small computer user! 

Vid^om Corp 20 £. ITlain St. Suite 710 
Ulesa.flZ B5201 (602) 827-0107 
Hours m-F 9:00 am - 5:00 pm HIST 



by Vidicom Corp 

512K (521288 byles) $395.00 

1 meg (1.048.576 bytes) $695.00 
Please add $4.00 shipping 
Arizona Residients add 5.5% Sales tax 
Visa masterCard orders welcome 



E 



I 



I 



OS9 is the trademark of Microware 
Systems Inc and Motorola Inc. 
Multi-pak is the trademark of 



Tandy Corp. 




January 1989 THE RAINBOW 31 



- 



20 B$="U5R5D5L5 " : H=0 : V=5 : PM0DE4 , 
1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 : PCLS 1 : COLORS , 1 : GOSUB 
410 

30 FORX=0TO155STEP5:EINE(0,X)-(2 
55, X) ,PSET:NEXTX:FORX=0TO255STEP 
5:LINE(X,0)-(X,155) ,PSET:NEXTX 
40 DRAW'BMl , 158" : A$="L=LOAD" :GOS 
UB1010 : DRAW'BMl, 170" :A$="S=SAVE" 
:GOSUB1010 : DRAW'BMl, 182" :A$="Q=Q 
UIT" : GOSUB1010 : DRAW"BM70 , 158" : A$ 
="R=RESTART" : GO SUB 10 10 : DRAW"BM70 
, 170" : A$="E=ERASE" : GOSUB1010 : DRA 
WBM65, 191NH2NE2U10NG2NF2D5L7NE2 
NF2R14NH2NG2L5C1L4R2UD2C0 
50 DRAW"BM78,182":A$="=MOVE CURS 
OR" : GOSUB1010 : DRAWBM195 , 158" :A$ 
="1=RED" :GOSUB1010:DRAW"BM195,17 
0" :A$="2=BLUE" :GOSUB1010:DRAW"BM 
195 , 182 " : A$=" 3=BLACK" : GOSUB1010 
60 DRAW"BM=H; , =V;C1"+B$ : DRAW" BM= 
H; ,=V;C0"+B$ 
70 I$=INKEY$ 

80 IF I$=CHR$(8)THEN H=H-5 

90 IF H<0 THEN H=250 

100 IF I $=CHR$ ( 9 ) THEN H=H+5 

110 IF H>250 THEN H=0 

120 IF I$=CHR$(10)THEN V=V+5 

130 IF V>155 THEN V=5 

140 IF I$=CHR$(94)THEN V=V-5 

150 IF V<5 THEN V=155 

160 IFI$="l"THENPOKE178 ,1: PAINT ( 

H+2,V-2) , ,0:POKE178 ; 0 

170 IFI$="2"THENPOKE178 , 2 : PAINT ( 

H+2,V-2) , ,0:POKE178,0 

180 IFI$="3"THENPAINT(H+2,V-2) ,0 

,0 

190 IFI$="E"THEN250 

200 I FI $= " R" THENGOSUB3 7 0 : GOTO 3 8 0 

2 10 IFI $= " Q " THENGOSUB3 7 0 : GOTO 3 40 

220 IFI $=" S "THENGOSUB3 7 0 : GOT02 6 0 

230 I FI $= " L" THENGOSUB3 70 : GOT03 0 0 

240 GOTO 60 

2 50 LINE (H , V) - (H+5 , V-5 ) , PRESET , B 



*z A to Z Unlimited 



Soflwaro Development Wv. 



♦ THE CHEMISTRY TUTOR - $4200 + $3.00 S&H 



* IRA ANALYSIS 

* BTU ANALYSIS 



$17.00 + $3.00 S&H 
$27.00 + $3.00 S&H 



AtoZ Unlimited 901 Fertidale Blvd. 
High Point, NC 27260 (919) 882-6255 



F : DRAW" BM=H ; , =V; Cl"+B$ : DRAW"BM=H 

; ,=V;C0"+B$:GOTO70 

260 LINE(0,169)-(53,180) ,PSET,BF 
: DRAWBM3 , 170C1" : A$="SAVE ?" :GOS 
UB1010 

270 S$=INKEY$ : IFS$="Y"THEN290ELS 

EIFS$="N"THEN280ELSE270 

280 LINE (0 , 169) - (53, 180) , PRESET , 

BF : DRAW'BMl , 170C0 " : A$="S=SAVE" : G 

OSUB1010:GOTO70 

290 LINE (0,169) -(53, 180) , PRESET, 
BF : DRAW'BMl , 170C0 " : A$="S=SAVE" : G 

OSUB1010 : CLS : INPUT "FILENAME" ;N$ : 

SCREEN1,1:SAVEMN$, 3584, 9727, 3584 
: GOTO 70 

300 LINE (0,157) -(53, 168) ,PSET,BF 
:DRAW"BM3 , 158C1" : A$="LOAD ?•• :GOS 
UB1010 

310 L$=INKEY$:IFL$="Y"THEN330ELS 

EIFL$="N"THEN3 2 0ELSE3 10 

320 LINE(0, 157) -(53,168) , PRESET, 

BF: DRAW'BMl , 158C0" : A$="L=LOAD" :G 

OSUB1010IGOTO70 

330 CLS :INPUT"FILENAME";N$: SCREE 

Nl , 1 : LOADMN$ : GOTO70 

340 LINE(0,180)-(53,191) ,PSET,BF 

: DRAWBM4 , 181C1" : A$="QUIT ?" :GOS 

UB1010 

3 50 Q$=INKEY$ : IFQ $= " Y " THENCLS : EN 

DELSEIFQ$="N"THEN360ELSE350 

360 LINE (0,180) -(53, 191) , PRESET, 

BF: DRAWBM2 , 182C0" : A$="Q=QUIT" :G 

OSUB1010:GOTO70 

370 PLAY"O5T60BCBCBCBCBCBCB":RET 
URN 

380 LINE(68,157)-(150,168) ,PSET, 
BF:DRAW"BM70,158C1" : A$="RESTART 
?":GOSUB1010 

390 Q$=INKEY$:IFQ$="Y"THENRUNELS 

EIFQ$="N"THEN400ELSE390 

400 LINE(68,157)-(150,168) ,PRESE 

T,BF:DRAW'BM70, 158C0" :A$«"R=REST 

ART" : GOSUB1010 : GOTO70 

410 DIMA$(90) :A$(32)="BR6 

420 A$(33)="D5BD3NDBU8BR4 

430 A$(34)="DBR2UBR4 

440 A$(35)="BD3R7BD3L7R2D2U7BR3D 

7BU8BR6 

450 A$(36)="BR3D9UL2NHR4EUH2L2H2 
ER4FBU2BR4 

460 A$(37)="NR2D2R2UBR3G6BR3DR2U 
2L2BU6BR6 

470 A$(38)="BR4LGDFDLG2DFR2ERNFU 

NEH2E2UHBR6 

480 A$(39)="DEBR4 

490 A$(40)="BR2G2D4F2BU8BR4 

500 A$(41)="F2D4G2BU8BR6 

510 A$ (42) ="BD2F3NF3NG3NL3NR3E3B 

U2BR6 

520 A$(43)="BD2D6U3L3R6BU5BR4 
530 A$(44)="BD7RGRDGBU10BR5 



32 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



540 A$(45 
550 A$(46 
560 A$(47 
570 A$(48 
R3 

580 A$(49 
590 A$(50 
6j30 A$(51 
U7BR9 
610 A$(52 
620 A$(53 
630 A$(54 
R3 

640 A$(55 
650 A$(56 
2HEU2HBR4 
660 A$(57 
R4 

670 A$(58 
680 A$(59 
690 A$(60 
700 A$(61 
710 A$(62 
720 A$(63 
730 A$(64 
L2R4NFBR4 
740 A$(65 
750 A$(66 
8 

760 A$(67) 



="BD5R6BU5BR4 
="BD7RGRBU8BR4 
="BR6DG6DBU8BR10 
="BRNR4GD6NE6FR4EU6BUB 

="BR2BD2E2D8L2R4BU8BR3 

■"BDER4FDG6R6BU8BR3 

="BDER4FD2GNL2FD2GL4HB 

="BD5NR6E5ND8BR4 

="BD7FR4EU2HL5U4R6BR3 

="BD4R5FD2GL4HU6ER4NFB 

="BD8BRUE5U2NL6BR3 

=*' BRNR4GD2FNR4GD2FR4EU 

=" BD7 FR4 EU6D3 L5HU2 ER4 B 

="BD3RGRBD2LDRBU7BR3 

= " BD 3 RGRBD2 LDRDGBU9 BR4 

="BR4G4F4BU8BR3 

="BD2NR6BD2R6BU4BR3 

=»F4G4BU8BR7 

="BDER4FDG3BD2NDBU7BR6 

=" BD2D6FR4EU2HL2GDFBU7 

="BR3G3DND4R6D4U5H3BR6 
="R5FD2GNL4FD2GL5RU8BR 

=" BR5NFL4GD6FR4EBU7BR3 



="RD8LR5EU6HL4BR8 
="D8NR6U4NR5U4R6BR3 
="D8U4NR5U4R6BR3 
="BR5NFL4GD6FR4EU2L2BU 

="D8U4R6D4U8BR3 
="R2D8L2R4L2U8R2BR3 
= " BR2R4 L2D7GL2 HBU7 BR9 
="D8U4R2NF4E4BR3 
="D8R6BU8BR3 
="ND8F3E3ND8BR3 
="ND8DF6DU8BR3 
="BR5L4GD6FR4EU6HBR4 
="NR5D8U4R5EU2HBR4 
=" BR5L4GD6FR3EF2H4F2EU 

="NR5D8U4R2NF4R3EU2HBR 

="BR5NFL4GD2FR4FD2GL4H 

="R6L3ND8BR6 
="D7FR4EU7BR3 
="D5F3E3U5BR3 
="D8E3F3U8BR3 
=" DF6NDH3 G3NDE 6UBR3 
="D2F3ND3E3U2BR3 
="R6DG6DR6BU8BR3 
1000 RETURN 

1010 F0RX=1T0LEN(A$) :Y=ASC(MID$( 
A$,X,1) ) :DRAWA$(Y) : NEXT : RETURN /» 



770 


A$ 


(68 

L ^ar 


780 


AS 


r 69 


790 


A$ 




800 


A$ 


(71 


5BR5 




810 


A$ 


f 72 

l § mat 


820 


A$i 


73 

l w *ar 


830 


A$i 


[74 


840 


A$i 


[75 

. V ^aw 


850 


A$i 


'76 


860 


A$l 


f 77 


870 


A$l 


[78 

w ^ar 


880 


A$l 


[79 


890 


A$| 


r 80 


900 


A$| 


'81 


5HBR4 




910 


A$| 


'82 


4 






920 


A$( 


'83 


BU7 BR9 




930 


A$( 


r 84 


940 


A$( 


'85 

\af +af 


950 


A$( 


'86 


960 


A$( 


'87 


970 


A$( 


'88 


980 


A$( 


[89 


990 


A$( 


[90 




/?ea/ BASIC for 
OS9! 

R.S.B. Is a complete, OS9-compatible version of Disk Extended 
Color BASIC. Burke & Burke has added new software to give you 
OS9-styk» graphics, sound, printer, and disk I/O. The BASIC you 
know end love is now running under Level 2 OS 9 windowsl 

R.S.B. losds and saves files using OS9's file format. The R.S.B. 
package includes utility programs that let you transfer BASIC 
programa and data files between OS9 and BASIC disks. Of 
course, you can't uae R.S.B. to run machine language programs, 
snd some BASIC commands work slightly differently under R.S.B. 

Your BASIC programs can take full advantage of great OS9 
features like hard disks, no-halt floppies, multMaaking, and 2 
MHz operation. 

R.S.B. requires s CoCo 3 with at least 128K RAM, a floppy disk 
controller with either Tandy Disk Extended Color BASIC or 
0ISTO CoCo 3 COOS ROM, and Level 2 OS9. 



RAINBOW 

CERTinCAnON 
SEAL 



Works with a// hard & floppy disk systems t 



#uns in 126K; 5I2K preferred. 




HP 



fttto g ear'* 
ttsolutiong 

I) learn 
Z) Vup a J)avS 
ftfsft 

3) Clean Garage 




r 



CoCo XT Facts 

Answers to common ques- 
tions about the CoCo XT 



Hard Disk Interfaces 

We've sold hundreds of our 
affordable, high-performance hard 
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enthusiaata worldwide! 



RAINBOW 

CERTF1CATION 
SEAL 



A true "NO HALT hard disk 
system 

Controls 1 or 2 hard drives > 
Full ECC / CRC error correction 
Average acceaa 30% faster than SAS1 
Uses PC-type hard disk controllers & 
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Does not use or disable interrupts 
Compatible with moat RS-232 
interfaces 

20 Meg system cost: under $450 
Requires Muftl-PAK or "electric" Y-cableV, 



Each includes sn snodized housing, 100 page 
user manual, and software for use with OS9. 
The CoCo XT-RTC adds s battery-powered 
real time clock / calendar for OS9 and BASIC. 

CoCo XT $69.95 
CoCo XT-RTC $99.95 

XT-ROM: Install XT-ROM in your hard disk 
controller's BIOS ROM socket. It 
automatically boots and reboots OS9 from 
your hard disk. $19.95 



Buy a drive, Western Digital 
controller, and case from the PC 

dealer of your choice. Plug 
them into the CoCo XT, ptug the 
CoCo XT Into your Muiti-PAK, 
and install the OS9 or BASIC 
: software; Preatot 



Wild & MV Version 2.1 



Use "wildcards" with most OS9 
commands, or rearrange your 
directory tree. Features recursive 
directory searches. A hard disk 
must! $19.95 

CS9 Utilitie s 



EZGen Version 1.04 

Powerful OS9 bootfile editor. 
Change module names, add or 
delete modules, patch bytes, or 
rearrange modules. Works on 
other files, too. $19.95 




SBurfc* & 3Bwk* 

P.O. Box 1283 Palatine, IL 60078-1283 (312) 397-2898 



UYPF R-l /D Now BASIC runs hard drives* 
£2 1 * £ n m 9/\s big floppies, and more! 

HYPER-l/O modifiea the RS-DOS BASIC in your CoCo 1, 2, or 3 to 
provide a "Dynamic Disk Interlace". Use your existing BASIC and 
RS-DOS software with hard disk interfacea (CoCo XT, DISTO, LR), 
RAM Disks, and any mix of floppy drives from 160K to 720K esch. 
Fully RESET protected, user configurable, expandable, EPROM- 
abk? HYPER-l/O V2.6 is the moat versatile hard / floppy disk DOS 
available. Please specify HYPER- I/O, DISTO HYPER-l/O, or 
LR HYPER-l/O when ordering. 

HYPER-HI (Adds RAM Disk snd Print Spooler to 
HYPER-l/O on the CoCo 3) $12.95 



ILLINOIS RESIDENTS PLEASE ADD 7% SALES TAX. COD'm add $2.20. Shipping (within tha USA) $2.00 par CoCo XT; $1.50 par disk or ROM, 
Ptaaaa allow 2 waaka lor dallvary (ovarnlght dallvary alao avallabta lor In-atock llama). Talaphonm ordara aooaptad (312) 397-2898. 




January 1989 THE RAINBOW 33 



The club that plays together stays together 



CoCo Clubs: 
Building A Great F 




By Ed Hathaway 

— 





can still remember the day my wife 
;md I bought our first CoCo. Just 
before Christmas of 1980, a Radio 
fiShack television advertisement con- 
vinced us that our household wasn't 
complete without this new, affordable 
humii computer. Although neither one 
6f us had any experience with a com- 
puter, $500 seemed like a good deal for 
a 16K non-extended something-or- 
another gray box called aTRS-80 Color 
Computer. Soon after our pilgrimage to 
feiidio Shack, we had our CoCo playing 
Single Bells" and were trying to figure 
out what a CLOfiD did. 

I sometimes wonder how we survived 
that first year of CoCo ownership. 
Every attempt to purchase software was 
liji adventure in perseverance and con- 
sumer ignorance. It did not take us long 
tp realize system support meant reading 
the manual or creating our own means 
of support. We chose to create our own 
form of CoCo support group. 

By this time I had met two other 
CoCo owners who, like me, were wan- 
fiifiering aimlessly about the Radio Shack 
j^olor Computer shelves. All three of us 
had some experience working with and 
^belonging to local civic groups, and we 
all needed some help in learning about 
:Our CoCos and finding the best soft- 
: ware for our beloved home computers. 
Glenside Color Computer Club was 
bora 

Why Start a Club? 

We CoCo users are in a difficult 
Situation. Most new users are new to 
computing, and often our knowledge of 
Spmputers is limited. Although many of 
% ^re complete novices, we are thrown 
irttp a world of upgrades, software and 
technical jargon. How can we find the 

Ed Hathaway is the current president 
a ^founder of Glenside Color 
( 'ompuier Club of Illinois. He has just 
'slatted his own publishing company, 
SCS ^publishing, and is a partner in 
Second Ifeity Software. He lives in 
Chicago witty wife, Ruth, and son, 

Si -OH. 



best software and learn more about 
programming our computers without 
some form of support? 

Most of us first turn to our Radio 
Shack personnel. (After all, these peo- 
ple helped us choose our CoCos. 
Shouldn't they help us gain computing 
experience?) Unfortunately, most of us 
learned that our Radio Shack personnel 
could not help us with many of our 
problems. They were not hired to teach 
us; they were hired to sell. We CoCoists 
must make our own purchasing deci- 
sions and we must learn about our 
computers through the manual and 
through experience. 

Learning about our computers can be 
a lonely process. We learn through trial 
and error, and often we must guess 
when choosing the right software for 
our needs. Even brave CoCo users may 
choose not to upgrade or use their 
CoCos for more than a few "safe" 
applications — the struggle isn't worth 
it. However, by forming support 
groups, we can avoid many computing 
worries without limiting ourselves or 
our computers. 

There are several forms of support 
available to Color Computer users. You 
already know about one of them be- 
cause you're reading THE RAINBOW. 
This magazine offers all CoCo users 
program reviews and helpful articles 
that can eliminate our concerns and 
help us make intelligent software pur- 
chases. No matter how good the mag- 
azine, however, many of us need per- 
sonal contact with other CoCo users. 
That is where a Color Computer club 
can help. 

Is There Anybody Out There? 

A CoCo Club gives users a chance to 
meet others who share the same interest 
— Color Computers. The club offers 
novices a chance to learn and expe- 
rienced users a chance to help newcom- 
ers, swap stories, and learn something 
as well. 

A CoCo Club is more than just a rap 
session, however. The club can offer 
other CoCoists a chance to test new 



software, and to see evaluations and 
demonstrations of new products. It can 
be a reference library, housing any or all 
publications about the Color Comput- 
er. The club can also let CoCo users join 
together for special projects that can be 
both fun and profitable. Finally, the 
CoCo Club unites a group of consumers 
who are sometimes ignored by the 
computer market. 

Starting a Club 

Last January, Mark Haverstock 
wrote an excellent article about starting 
a CoCo Club ("The Care and Feeding 
of a CoCo Club," Page 67, RAINBOW). 
His article covers the clubs basics — 
membership, meetings, newsletters, etc. 
Anyone interested in starting a club 
would benefit from reading his article. 
However, I would like to offer a few tips 
on starting a CoCo Club here. 

First, you need to know what a CoCo 
Club does. Although reading my sug- 
gestions and considering your own 
needs will help, one of the best ways to 
understand what CoCoists expect from 
a club is to visit an established club. 
Such visits will help you decide how you 
want (and don't want) your club to run. 
(See Page 40 of this issue for a list of 
active CoCo Clubs in your area.) 

You will need to decide what you and 
your members want from the club. Such 
goals will need to be considered while 
you plan your club's activities and 
meeting format. A Color Computer 
Club's main function is to gain product 
support for the CoCo. Our club's main 
goals were to lend new users support 
and to address the problems involved in 
purchasing hardware and software for 
our computers. To do this, we needed 
to be recognized by the community; we 
needed to promote our club and in- 
crease our membership. 

Although you can start a club with 
just a few friends, the benefits of a CoCo 
Club are most noticeable when your 
club grows beyond those first few 
members. In order to gain members, 
you will need to promote your club. At 
first, this can be limited to word of 




Jar^sr? 1989 THE RAINBOW 35 



mouth and possibly a flier posted at 
your local Radio Shack store. However, 
to really get things going, you need to 
send advertisements announcing your 
club to magazines like THE rainbow. 
Distribute your newsletter and let 
would-be club members see the benefits 
of such a support group in action. In 
addition, get a local BBS involved in the 
recruiting. Both you and the BBS 
SysOp can benefit from such a union. 
(For a list of local BBSs, see "BBS 
Listings" November '88, Page 106.) 



"If you are currently 
without a CoCo Club 
in your community, 
there is no better 
time than the present 
to get one going. 




Next you need to decide what format 
your meetings should use. Club meet- 
ings should include question and 
answer sessions, product presentations 
and time to socialize. Members will 
come to meetings and guests will join if 
you include these three things in your 
meetings. Opening up the meeting with 
a question and answer (or announce- 
ment) session provides time for an 
informative exchange and will break the 
ice for your presentations. Product 
presentations are the lifeblood of any 
computer club. Vary your schedule of 
presentations so that each meeting 
covers a different subject. Additionally, 
always allow for socializing at the close 
of the meeting. More problems are 
resolved during this contact time than 
at any other time. 

You will also need to include guide- 
lines for appropriate behavior, mem- 
bership dues, election of club officials. 
All these policies should be stated in 
your club's bylaws. 

Play by the Rules 

When we were doing our Chicago 
RAINBOWfest seminar, the most re- 
quested piece of information was a hard 
copy of our club's bylaws. While setting 
up and running a CoCo Club was not 
a problem for most in attendance, 
generating bylaws seemed to be a major 



Bylaws for the Glenside Color Computer Club 

Objective: The Glenside Color Computer Club of Illinois is a not-for-profit 
computer club established to assist its members In learning and to better 
understand Tandy's Color Computer. 

1. Meetings: 

A. Meetings shall be held on the second Thursday of each month. 

B. Meetings shall be held at a public establishment unless otherwise 
announced 30 days in advance of said meeting. 

C. Meeting time will be between the evening hours of 7:30 to 9:30. Start 
and ending times may vary at the discretion of the President and/or the Board 
of Directors. 

D. Subject matter covered during meetings will be decided by the President 
and/or the Board of Directors. 

E. Board of Directors meetings shall and can be called on an as needed 
basis, providing a majority can be assembled. No actions shall be taken 
without receiving a majority vote and/or receiving majority support of 
attending Directors. 

2. Membership Dues: 

A. Membership dues must be paid upon filing an application form. 

B. Membership dues will be decided upon by the elected officers at a board 
meeting and will remain in effect for no less then 12 months. At that time, 
an increase and/or decrease in the annual dues may be requested by the 
Board of Directors. 

C. At no time shall the membership dues be increased and/or decreased 
without a 30-day written notice to the currect membership. 

D. At no time shall the membership dues be increased and/or decreased 
without receiving a majority approval vote by the membership in attendance 
of a previously-announced meeting, providing Sections 2B and 2C of Club 
Bylaws have been followed. 

E. To continue membership, dues must be paid annually on or about the 
time of filing original application form. 

F. Notice to renew membership shall be issued by the Club Secretary and/ 
or Treasurer no less than 30 days in advance of member's anniversary date. 

G. Failing to renew annual membership dues will forfeit said member from 
receiving any and all Club benefits and/or services. Members shall be granted 
60 days after receiving dues notice to arrange for payment before being 
released as a member in good standing. 

3. Elected Officers: 

A. Elected officers and Board of Directors are as follows: 

President (1), Vice President (2), Vice President-Telecommunication* and 
Treasurer/Secretary (1) 

*The Vice President-Telecommunication position is a position appointed 
by the President. Appointments will be granted to members who maintain a 
Club BBS. Said appointments must be approved by the Board of Directors. 

B. Elections shall take place each year in or about the month of September. 

C. Members seeking elected office may do so providing they are nominated 
by two other members in attendance on election night. 

D. Elected officers shall remain in office for a term no less than one year. 

E. If an elected officer is unable to complete his/her term, a replacement 
shall be appointed by the Board of Directors. Said appointment will assume 
set duties until the next election is held, 

F. Elected officers may choose to succeed themselves providing a majority 
vote is given by the attending members on election night. 

G. In the event that the President is unable to complete said term, the Board 
of Directors will appoint a replacement from their ranks. This appointment 
must be voted on by the attending members at the next available monthly 
meeting. 

H. Elected officers can and shall be asked to step down from their positions 
if so requested by the Board of Directors. In order for said action to take place, 
it must be clearly shown that the officer is unable or incapable of performing 
the duties of that office. 

4. Communications: 

A. A monthly notice, newsletter and/or publication will be mailed to the 
membership announcing time, date and location of each meeting. 

B. Cost for said mailing will be paid from Club funds. 

C. An annual fee can be charged to non-members who wish to receive a 



36 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



copy of the Club's monthly notice, newsletter and/or publication. Said fee 
shall not exceed $2 more than the annual membership dues rate set from 
Section 2, Other arrangements and fees can be made with the approval of 
the Board of Directors regarding said notice, newsletter and/or publication. 

D. There will be only one (1) official Club notice, newsletter and/or 
publication authorized. Any other such notice, newsletter and/or publication 
using the name Glenside that is provided to the active members of the 
Glenside Color Computer Club of Illinois shall be deemed an unauthorized 
notice, newsletter and/or publication. 

E. An authorized Club BBS may be established by its membership providing 
the following rules be met: 

1. The name of said BBS must include the word Glenside at the log-in 
screen. 

2. Meeting announcements and other Club activities must be posted for all 
callers to read after establishing their names and/or passwords. 

3. At no time will the BBS or its operator provide for or use said BBS to 
distribute any copyrighted material whatsoever. 

4. If it is found that said BBS is providing and/or distributing copyrighted 
material, that system shall be dropped as an authorized Club BBS. In addition, 
the system operator will lose the appointed Vice President position. A notice 
of such action will be mailed to all current members, selected Color Computer 
vendors and supported publications. 

F. The system operator can charge an additional user fee to Club members 
and non-members providing said fees do not exceed $2 more than the 
membership dues rate set from Section 2. 

G. The Club can provide money support to the system operators from 
general membership funds as available or deemed necessary. The amount 
cannot exceed more than $50 per calendar year per BBS system. 

H. It is the duty of the system operator to police his/her own system. This 
includes deleting messages that contain unaccepted social conduct and 
words. The system operator may establish his/her own code of conduct 
regarding non-member users, providing said code of conduct is given to the 
current Board of Directors. 

5. Membership: 

A. Membership to the Glenside Color Computer Club of Illinois is open to 
anyone that owns and/or uses a Tandy Color Computer 1, 2 or 3. 

B. No restrictions shall be placed on membership that is in conflict with 
local, state or federal laws. 

C. Members are considered in good standing as long as they maintain their 
annual dues and abide by a basic code of conduct established by current 
society rules, and they are entitled to all Club benefits and services offered 
by the Club. 

D. Membership benefits and/or services may not change without 30-day 
advance notice. The only exception to this policy is if a benefit or service is 
found not to be in the best interest of the Club as a whole. 

E. Members can and will lose their Club rights and forfeit their dues if found 
in violation of these bylaws and/or the code of conduct established by current 
society rules. A 30-day notice must be issued from the Board of Directors 
to the member in question, informing him/her of the actions being brought 
against said member. Such actions will not be taken without a careful and 
complete review by the Board of Directors. 

F. Members can bring to Club meetings friends and/or other family 
members. However, if young children are brought, it is the responsibility of 
the member to watch over said children at all times. 

6. Club Policy: 

A. The Glenside Color Computer Club of Illinois does not in any way 
condone the duplication of any copyrighted material. The computer system 
provided at Club meetings is for the express use of meeting presentations. 
Any member or non-member found using this system for the duplication of 
any copyrighted material shall be subject to Club dissociation with or without 
advance notice. 

B. In the event of Club dissociation, the member in question forfeits annual 
dues and will not be allowed to receive any further Club benefits or services. 

C. In the event of Club dissociation, the non-member in question shall not 
be allowed to join Glenside. In addition, said non-member will not be allowed 
to enter into any Club-supported activity as a guest of another member. □ 



undertaking. Indeed, creating bylaws is 
no small project. When setting up your 
bylaws, you take into account the 
various needs and wants of the club, 
officers and members. When we drafted 
Glenside's bylaws, we had little outside 
information to go on. Only two of us 
had any idea of the format and infor- 
mation needed to put bylaws into effect. 
It took us almost six months to create 
a draft to present to the members. (I can 
tell you now, it was a long six months. 
The best way I can explain how to create 
your club's own guidelines is to present 
my club's bylaws; I think they are pretty 
self-explanatory.) 

It took us about a year to get to this 
level, and all the early planning paid off. 
With bylaws, club objectives, meeting 
format and location all chosen, we were 
able to handle and accept new members 
as if we had been in existence for years. 
The plan of action formed during our 
early gatherings is still in place and still 
working. The Glenside Color Computer 
Club is one of the largest exclusive 
Color Computer Clubs today because 
we established objectives and goals that 
have stood the test of time. 

Conclusion 

Starting a CoCo Club can be hard 
work if you do not plan ahead. As with 
any club, you must know what you and 
your members want, and you must 
follow an appropriate code of conduct. 
The bylaws created by the Glendale 
Color Computer Club have helped our 
club to run smoothly and have guaran- 
teed that our members can gain from 
their association with the club. If you 
are thinking about starting a CoCo 
Club, start with a pencil and paper and 
outline the club's objectives and goals. 
This will give you a great foundation on 
which to build. 

Without Glenside, a large number of 
our members would have given up on 
the Color Computer years ago. We all 
know how special our CoCos are to us. 
We also know how lonely being a CoCo 
owner can be without a user support 
group. If you are currently without a 
CoCo Club in your community, there is 
no better time than the present to get 
one going. All it takes is a desire to share 
information and support with another 
CoCo owner. 



(Questions or comments about this 
article may be directed to the author in 
care of Glenside Color Computer Club, 
8W. Stevenson Dr., Glendale Heights, 
IL 60139, Please include an SASE when 
requesting a reply.) /Rv 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 37 



Frank Hogg Laboratory 

J 2 Years of Service, Support, and Friendly Help! 

Christmas SALE 



THE ELIMINATOR ™ 

HEW! II MULTI I/O CARD FOR THE COCO 
2 Serial Ports, 1 Parallel, Clock, Disk Interface! 

This muld I/O card is called the "Eliminator" because it provides 
all the I/O capability under OS-9 that most people want wiihout the 
need for a Multi-Pak Interface. If desired, it is possible to use one or 
more Eliminators in a M PI or other bus expander, with or without 
other hardware. 

The Eliminator is completely address decoded, and does not depend 
on any of the slot select capabilities of the MPI for device selection. 
The typical power consumption is well within the 300 mA at +5 
VDC rating of all COCO models. Other voltages (+/- 12 VDC) are 
not required by the Eliminator. 
2 Serial (RS-232C) Ports 

- 15 software selectable baud rates from 50 to 38,400 baud - with al- 
ternate crystal can function as dual MIDI ports (31.25 KHz) 
1 Parallel Printer Port 
Real Time Clock 

- built in battery backup (10 years) 

- 100 year clock (automatically compensates for leap year) 

- 50 bytes of battery backed scratchpad RAM 
WD 1002-05 HD/FD Interface 

- high speed (fastest COCO HD interface) 

- WD 1002-05 supports up to 3 HDs and/or 4 FDs 

- runs both HDs and FDs in "no-halt" mode (no lost keystrokes) 

- new WDDisk OS-9 driver allows non OS-9 (MS DOS, RSDOS) 
disk access 

EPROM - OS-9 auto-boot EPROM 

Reg 199.95 Special Offer 179.95 

Clock Chip add 30.00 

Auto-boot EPROM with software add 30.00 

(HCA users contact FHL for special low upgrade price.) 



FHL High Speed Hard Drive Kits 
Featuring The Eliminator™ 99 

Our top of the line system features Bruce Isted's new interface The 
Eliminator' for the Western Digital WD 1002-05 high speed 
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and 3 hard drives, type ahead for both floppy and hard disk, 
autoboot OS9 LI or L2 from hard or floppy disk, 2 serial ports, 1 
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support DECB. This is the system for the serious OS9 user. 

KIT INCLUDES: The Eliminator', Hard drive with WD 1002-05 controller, ST506 
cable set, 3 fool 40 pin cable. Hard Drive Case with 60 wan power supply and fan . OS9 
software for LI and LII with source . Complete instructions. Easy one evening assembly. 

1 YEAR MANUFACTURES WARRANTY ON ALL SYSTEMS! 



20 Meg High Speed Kit Complete 
40 Meg High Speed Kit Complete 
70 Meg High Speed Kit Complete 

Assemble & Test any of the above add 

OPTIONS: 

Real Time Clock chip 

Serial cable set (2 DB25) 

Parallel cable (Centronics) 

Floppy Drive (Mounted in case) 

Floppy Cable Int & Ext 

FBU Fast Hard disk Back Up 

R.S.B. RS Disk Basic Under OS9 



*799.00 
♦899.00 
* 1335.00 

60.00 

30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
128.00 
25.00 
75.00 
39.95 



Burke & Burke Hard Drive Kits 

This system features the Burke & Burke XT or XT RTC interface. 
The hottest selling hard disk interface! It uses popular and 
inexpensive IBM PC type drives and controllers. The drives and 
controller can be used in a PC at a later date if you want. For this 
reason it is the least expensive hard disk system available today. 
Not as fast as the Eliminator system but faster than any other 
system available. Note: Disk Extended Color Basic support and 
other software options are listed below. Disadvantage; requires a 
multi-pak. 

KIT INCLUDES: Burke & Burke (B&B) XT PC interface. Hard drive with controller, 
3 foot ST506 cable set. Hard Drive Case with 60 watt power supply and fan. Includes 
OS9 LI and LII software. 1 megabyte transfer in 45 seconds! Type ahead under OS9. 
Complete instructions. Easy one evening assembly. 

1 YEAR MANUFACTURES WARRANTY ON ALL SYSTEMS! 



20 Meg Kit Complete 60MS 

30 Meg Kit Complete 60MS RLL 

40 Meg Kit Complete 60MS 

Assemble and test any of the above add 

OPTIONS: 

B&B Real Time Clock (add to above) 
B&B XT ROM Auto Boot from hard disk 
B&B Hyper I/O run DECB on hard drive 
B&B Hyper HI Ram disk/spooler for above 
FBU Fast Hard disk Back Up 
R.S.B. RS Disk Basic under OS9 



♦498.00 
*548.00 
*618.00 
50.00 

30.00 
19.95 
29.95 
19.95 
75.00 
39.95 



Hard Drive Bits and Pieces 

B&B XT PC style interface 69.95 

B&B XT RTC interface w/clock/calendar 99.95 

WD 1002-05 High Speed ctrler for the Eliminator * 199.95 

(Supports both Hard and Floppy drives) 

Hard Drive case with 60W P/S and Fan *99.95 

SPECIFICATIONS: size 16" deep, 5.5" high, 7" wide. 60 Watt power supply 
with 3 drive type power connectors, quiet 12 volt DC fan, LED power 
indicator, color matches CoCo. Holds 2 1/2 height hard or floppy drives and has 
card guided space for a PCB the size of a drive (like the WD1 002-05 controller) 

Floppy Drives (525" and 3.5" FLOPPY DISKS) 
TEAC High Quality Drives - 1 Year Warr. 
FD55B 360K 40 Track DS 5.25" 118.00 
FD55F 720K 80 Track DS 5.25: 151.00 
FD35F 720K 80 Track DS 3.5" 147.00 
(Bare drives, requires case and power supply) 



ORDERING INFORMATION VISA and M/C. NY residents add 7% sales tax. US 
shipping add $3.50 for software. Hardware is more. Please call for Air Express shipping. 

Call or send for FREE FHL NewsLetter and catalog. 
♦♦Most of our software requires OS9 LII and 512K. 
* New LOWER PRICES!!! 

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Since 1976 

770 James Street - Syracuse, NY 13203 

Fax 315/474-8225 

Call 315/474-7856 



' ' 1 1 — •'■ ■ " ' - ■■■■■■■ - , ■- | - ■ ■■• ■ ■ 11n|| <. *■ 



Frank Hogg 

J 2 Years of Service, Suppoi 

Christmas S, 



ams>rtiAg> 



Inside 0S9 Level II 

The Book by Kevin Darling 
$39.95 




Are your tired of playing games with Level II? Do you want to find out what's going on 
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DynaStar 



Used by more OS9 users than any other! 



FEATURES: Best OS9 editor/word process orAcxt formatter, has everything you would 
expect and more, supports terminals and windows simultaneously, auto-configurable, 
auto-indent for C and Pascal programming, mail merge for form letters, bug free, solid. 
New manual makes it easier to use than ever. Most popular word processor since 1982! 
Uses CoCo 3's windows for pop-up help menus, can be disabled. Two key sequence to 
move from anywhere to anywhere in your text. WordStar command style. Will work 
with files larger than memory. Merge function allows stringing many files together at 
print time. Full block manipulation, mark, move, copy, delete, read from disk, write to 
disk. Keyboard Macros: Define or redefine any control key (up to 29) to reproduce any 
key sequences, including commands! Macros can be read in at startup automatically or 
created on the fly as needed. Printer Control: Supports multiple printers via a print 
control file that transforms imbedded control characters to printer control characters. 
Changing printers is easy. Formatting Commands: Justification, word wrap, centering, 
headers, footers, macros, odd and even support, multiple index generation, multiple 
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DynaStar word processor/formal u;r 



150.00 



Christmas SPECIAL ONLY 99.95 



DynaSpell 

by Dale Puckett 

102,000 and 20,000 word dictionaries included. Supports both Level I and II. Fast, slick, 
the best available for OS9. Written by Rainbowlech columnist Dale Puckett. 



DynaSpell spelling checker 
SPECIAL WHEN PURCHASED WITH DYNASTAR 



75.00 
25.00 



The WIZ 



Did you ever wonder why there is only one really good communications package for 
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market! Simply the best package there is for OS9 and the CoCo III. 
FEATURES: Mac-Like interface with windows, text and binary upload/download with 
x mod em, kermit, on line HELP, 

AUTOLOGG1NG lets you dial up and log on to your favorite service, Macros, VT52 
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The Wiz requires a RS232 Pak or similar device, LII and 512K. 
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The WIZ 




Disto RS232 Pak 



49.95 




QT K-System 

68000, 68010, 68020, 68030 Computer 

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68000/1 0 CPU 1 0, 12 or 16Mhz with 2 ROM sockets. Supports full range of 68000 bus 
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of interrupts arc selectable. Fully addressable. 8 software readable DIP switches. 

K-FDC 129.95 

Floppy disk controller (4 drives to 720K) using WD1772. Fully addressable, 16 DIP 
switches. 0 to 15 wait sutes. 

Buy all five boards, a $719.75 value, for $649^5, save $69.80! 
Call for complete system prices with case P/S and drives. 

68000 OS9 300.00 
Boot EROMS 50.00 



The following boards will be available 'real soon now* 
K- WIRE-WRAP 59.95, K-SCSI 149.95, K-TIMER 
K-MEM-2MEG-DY-0K (no memory) 99.95, K-DMA 
K-CPU-68020 599.95, K-CPU-68030 799.95 
K-MATH-881 (less MC6888 1) 99.95, and others 



129.95 
199.95 



ORDERING INFORMATION VISA and M/C. NY residents add 7% sales Ux. US 

software shipping add $3.50. Please call for Air Express shipping. 

Send for FREE FHL NewsLetter and catalog. 
♦♦Most of our software requires OS9 LII and 512K. 

Frank Hogg Laboratory, Inc. 

Since 1976 

770 James Street - Syracuse, NY 13203 

Fax 315/474-8225 

Call 315/474-7856 



v'Jv-:* 




We have compiled a list of 
Color Computer Glubs 
because of the many re- 
quests we have received. CoCo 
Clubs may wish to exchange 
newsletters, share ideas for top- 
ics of discussion a| monthly 
meetings, etc. 

Please let us know if we have 
omitted any clubs and send us 
complete up-to-date addresses. 
Only those clubs that have signed 
our non-piracy "agreement form" 
will appear in this listing of CoCo 
Clubs. Also, please notify us if 
you wish to add or delete any 
names on this list. Send your 
information to: 

CoCo Clubs 
THE RAINBOW 
The Falsoft Building 

P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

— Sue Evans 

ARIZONA 

Tucson Color Computer Club, Bruce Smith, 
3030 Mustang Dr., Tucson, 85708, (602) 
747-7859 

CALIFORNIA 

Color America Users Group, Jack W. Ei- 
zenga, 381 1 N. Foster Ave., Baldwin Park, 
91706, (818) 960-8010 

Los Angeles-Wilshire Color Computer Users 
Group, Milton Wolfe, P.O. Box 11151, 
Beverly Hills, 90213, (213) 558-4909 

United Computer Federation, (San Fernando 
Valley Chapter and Headquarters), Pete 
Ellison, P.O. Box 11332, Burbank, 91510, 
(818) 843-4156 

The Davis CoCoNuts, Shneor Sherman, 1818 
Haussler Dr., Davis, 95616, (916) 758-3195 

South Bay Users Group (S-Bug), Bill Tiller- 
son, 73 Alamitos Ave., Suite #2, Long 
Beach, 90802, (213) 432-3037 

COLORADO 

Colorado Color Computer Club, Lloyd Car- 
roll, 6651 Bellaire Street, Commerce City, 
80022, (303) 288-6369 

The ESCO Computer Club, David E. Schulz, 
1299 Harrison Street, Denver, 80206, (303) 
388-6988 

CONNECTICUT 

The Southeast Connecticut Color Computer 
Users Group, Bill Gross, 30 Sycamore 
Lane, Groton, 06340, (203) 448-1388 

FLORIDA 

Color Computer Club of Brandon, Richard 
Steinbrueck, 2913 John Moore Road, 
Brandon, 33511, (813) 681-1526 

Northwest Florida CoCo Nuts, Victor T. 
Majko, P.O. Box 1032, Fort Walton Beach, 
32549, (904) 651-5638 

Alachua County Color Computer Club, Jeff 
Mercer 1654 N.W. 14th Ave., Gainesville, 
32605, (904) 372-5771 



FLORIDA (cont'd) 

Jacksonville Color Computer Club, William 
H. Brown 111, 2454 San Sago Ln., Jackson- 
ville, 32216, (904) 721-0282 

Color-6809 Users Group, Kathie Lamb, 6995 
29 Terr. No., St. Petersburg, 33710, (813) 
345-8522, 

GEORGIA 

The CoCo Cartel, Tory Torres, 1345 Sturkie 
Drive, Columbus, 31907, (404) 561-1062 

The Northeast Atlanta Color Computer Club, 
Alan R. Dages, 4894 Candlewood Ln., 
Stone Mountain, (404) 469-5111 

IDAHO 

Snake River Color Computer Club, Emil 
Franklin & Robert Kitchen, 1750 Carmel 
Drive, Idaho Falls, 83402, (208) 522-0220 

ILLINOIS 

Illinois Color Computer Club of Elgin, Tony 
Podraza, 119 Adobe Circle, Carpenters- 
ville, 60110, (312) 428-3576 

Capital CoCo Club, Kevin L. Adair, 5753 S. 
Laflin, Chicago, 60636, (312) 737-5716 

Chicago OS-9 Users Group, Roger Hal- 
vorsen, 1598 Ardmore. Ave., Glendale 
Heights, 60139, (312) 469-8174 

Glenside Color Computer Club, Ed Hatha- 
way, 8 W. Stevenson Drive, Glendale 
Heights, 60139, (312) 462-0694 

Kitchen Table Color Computer Group, Rob- 
ert Mills, P.O. Box 464, Hanover, 61041, 
(815) 591-3377 

Motorola Microcomputer Club, Steve Adler, 
1301 Algonquin Rd., Schaumburg, 60196, 
(312) 576-3044 

INDIANA 

Indianapolis Color Computer Club, Scott 
Griepentrog, P.O. Box 24285, Speedway, 
46224, (317) 241-6401, BBS (317) 244- 
3159 

Michiana CoCo Club, Clay Howe, 310 S. 
Jefferson St., Sturgis, Ml 49091 , (616) 651- 
4248 

IOWA 

Metro Area Color Computer Club (MACCC), 
Joseph Callavaro, 2425 Ave. A, Council 
Bluffs, 51501, (712) 322-2438 

Mid Iowa CoCo, Terry G. Simons, 1328 48th 
Street, Des Moines, 5031 1 , (515) 279-2576 

KANSAS 

Hutchinson Color Computer Club, John 
Collicott, 201 E Morgan, Inman, 67546, 
(316) 585-2320 

KC CoCo Club, Gay Crawford, P.O. Box 
1 1 1 92, Kansas City, 661 1 1 , (913) 764-941 3 

KENTUCKY 

Perry County CoCo Users Group, Keith W. 
Smith, Box 482 Bulan, 41722 (606) 439- 
4209 

LOCO-COCO, Jerry Yates, 3005 Bob White 
Ct., Louisville, 40216, (502) 448-3746 

Hardin County Color Computer Club, Paul 
W. Urbahns, 2887 Republic Ave., Radcliff, 
40160, (502) 351-4757 

LOUISIANA 

The CoCo Sig, Christopher Mayeux, 20 
Gibbs Drive, Chalmette, 70043, (504) 277- 
6880 

MASSACHUSETTS 

CLUB 6809, Jean Salvas, 204 East Street, 
Springfield, 01104, (413) 734-5163 



MICHIGAN 

Greater Kalamazoo Color Computer Club, 
Jim Rix, 1835 Chevy Chase Blvd., Kalama- 
zoo, 49008, (616) 344-7631 

Greater Lansing Color Computer Users 
Group, E. Dale Knepper, P.O. Box 14114, 
Lansing, 48901, (517) 626-6917 

Michiana CoCo Club, Clay Howe, 310 S. 
Jefferson St., Sturgis, Ml 49091 (616) 651- 
4248 

Color Computer Owners Group, Bernie Pat- 
ton, 388 Emmons, Wyandotte, 48192, 
(313) 283-2474 

MINNESOTA 

Gallifrean Recall Circuit, Dr. Who Fan Club/ 
Newsletter, Robert Hermanek, 216 Cardi- 
nal Ct., Chaska, 55318, (612) 448-7911 

Northern. Minnesota CoCo Community, 
David B. Smith, c/o Grand Portage Lodge, 
P.O. Box 307, Grand Portage, 55605 (218) 
475-2520 

MISSISSIPPI 

Singing River C.C. Club, James F. Wilson, 
2619 Wilson Ave., Pascagoula, 39567, 
(601) 762-4318 

MISSOURI 

KC CoCo Club, Gay Crawford, P.O. Box 
11192, Kansas City, KS 66111, (913) 764- 
9413 

Coconuts, Tom Colston, 1610 N. Marian, 
Springfield, 65803, (417) 865-8015 

NEBRASKA 

Siouxland Color Computer Club, Alan Pe- 
dersen, 611 D Street, South Sioux City, 
68776, (402) 494-2284 

NEW JERSEY 

Mercer County Color Computer Users 
Group, Richard C. Kelly, 1904 Country 
Lane, W. Trenton, 08628, (609) 883-9270 

NEW YORK 

Kings Byte CoCo Club, Morty Libowitz, 1063 
East 84th St., Brooklyn, 11236, (718) 763- 
4233, BBS (718) 837-2881 

Twin Tiers CoCo Club, William Cecchini, 319 
Irvine Place, Elmira, 14901 , (607) 734-0065 

The Island CoCo Club, D.K. Lee, P.O. Box 
426, Massapequa Park, 11762, BBS (516) 
277-1285 

Olean Area CoCo Users Group, Herman L. 
Smith, P.O. Box 216, Olean, 14760, (716) 
933-7488 

Broome CoCo Club, Lloyd Shotwell, 18 
Adaline Street, Owego, 13827, (607) 687- 
3231 

OHIO 

Color Computer Club, Inc., Larry Cadman, 
P.O. Box 478, Canfield, 44406 

The Columbus and Central Ohio Color Com- 
puter Club, Frank J. Piper, P.O. Box 
322423, Columbus, 43232, (614) 868-5316 

The Utopia Network, Bruce Uher, 145% Park 

Ave., Coshocton, 43812, (614) 622-4061 
Dayton Color Computer Users Group, Steven 

E. Lewis, 4230 Cordell Dr., Dayton, 45439, 

(513) 299-3060 
Tri-County Computer Users Group, William 

J, Loeffler, 2612 Dale Avenue, Rocky 

River, 44116, (216) 356-0779 
Greater Toledo Color Computer Club, Robin 

Jackson, 2053 Eileen Road, Toledo, 

43615, (419) 531-4549 



40 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



OKLAHOMA 

Central Oklahoma Computer Organization, 
Inc., Mark Bosley, 6440 N. Peniel, Okla- 
homa City, 73132, (405) 721-3691 

OREGON 

Computron Research Users Group, Tom 
Sanders Blair, Jr., P.O. Box 370, Clacka- 
mus, 97015, (503) 668-8397 

PENNSYLVANIA 

HUG-A-CoCo, George Lurie, 2312 Wingfield 
Ct., Harrisburg, 17112, (717) 657-2789 

The Hollidaysburg Area Color Computer 
Club, Victor Ricker, 511 Spruce St., Hol- 
lidaysburg, 16648, (814) 695-2792 

Skyline Color Computer User Group, Lewis 
F. Brubaker, 3100 Kutztown, Rd., Lauder- 
dale, 19605, (215) 921-3616 

Pittsburgh Color Group, Ralph Marting, 309 
Frazier Dr., Pittsburgh, 15235, (412) 823- 
7607 

RHODE ISLAND 

New England COCONUTS, Arthur J. Men- 
donca, P.O. Box 28106, North Station, 
Providence, 02908, (401) 456-9394 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

LoCo CoCo Club, Larry Coyle, 4334 Flynn 
Dr., Charleston, 29405, (803) 747-0802 

Spartanburg CoCo Club, Jesse W. Parris, 152 
Bon Air Ave., Spartanburg, 29303, (803) 
573-9881 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Empire Area Color Computer Users Group of 
South Dakota, Carl Holt, 401 3rd Ave., 
Brandon, 57005, (605) 582-3862 

TENNESSEE 

Bradley County Personal Computer Users 

Group, Cynthia Pofeet, P.O. Box 2611, 

Cleveland, (615) 476-7274 
Memphis Color Computer Users Group, 

Logan R. Ward, P.O. Box 1 1736, Memphis, 

38111, (901)685-0009 

TEXAS 

The Codis CoCo Symphony, William C. 

Garretson, 828 Gregory Avenue, Bedford, 

76022, (817) 283-8571 
UTAH 

Salt City CoCo Club, Jim Shoop, 1900 Leis- 
ure Ln., Salt Lake City, 84107, (801) 968- 
3600 



VIRGINIA 

Southwestern Va., Color Computing Club, 
Richard Sutphin, Rt. 1 Box 20, Henry, 
24102 (703) 365-2018 

Richmond Area Color Computer Organiza- 
tion, William Mays, 6003 Westbourne 
Drive, Richmond, 23230, (804) 282-7778 

Northern Virginia C.C. Club, William Thomp- 
son, 1300 Kolman Court, Woodbridge, 
22193, (703) 590-5870 

WASHINGTON 

Northwest CoCo Club, Dennis Mott, N. 4103 
Whitehouse, Spokane, 99206, (509) 325- 
3399 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Huntington Area Color Computer Sympo- 
sium, Jim Bush, P.O. Box 391, Lesage, 
25537-0391, (304) 736-5314 

WISCONSIN 

Southern Wisconsin CoCo Club, David C. 
Buehn, 24607 67th Street, Salem, 53168, 
(414) 843-3830 

WYOMING 

Cowboy Color Computer Club, Craig Sulli- 
van, 4601 Hill Top Ave., #C2, Cheyenne, 
82009 (307) 778-8526 




ALBERTA 

The Calgary Color Computer Club, P.O. Box 
22, Station M, Calgary, Alberta, T2P 2G9, 
(403) 288-9696 

BRITISH COLUMBIA 

Vancouver Colour Computer Club, Box 
76734, Stn S, Vancouver, British Colum- 
bia, VSR 5S7 

Salmon Arm CoCo, David Coldwell, RR #4, 
Site 26 Comp. 13, Salmon Arm, British 
Columbia, V1E4M4 

ONTARIO 

London CoCo Nuts Computer Club, Mark 
Watts, 36 Nottinghill Cres., London, On- 
tario, N6K 1R1, (519) 471-1345 

ESSA Color Computer Club, Lorraine 
Shantz, RR #2, Minesing, Ontario, L0L 
1Y0, (705) 726-5694 



ONTARIO (cont'd) 

Ottawa 6809 Users Group, Norm Shoihet, 
1497 Meadowbrook Road, Ottawa, Ontar- 
io, K1B5J9, (613) 741-1763 

Durham 80-C Computer Club, Rick Gibson, 
P.O. Box 95, Whitby Ontario, L1N 5R7, 
(416) 434-2886 

QUEBEC 

Club d'Ordinateur Couleur du Quebec, Inc., 
L. Rochon, Centre de Loisirs St-Mathieu, 
7110- 8e Ave., St-Michel, Montreal, Que- 
bec, H2A 3C4, (514) 682-9789 

LesCoCophiles, Yves-Denis Girard, 17 Bord- 
de-l'eau, Repentigny, Quebec, J6A 3K2, 
(514) 581-1385 




AUSTRALIA 

CoCoHUG (Color Computer Hobart Users 
Group), Jim Shaw, 20 Greenacres Rd., 
Geilston Bay, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia 
7005, (002) 43-9722 

Pine Rivers/Peninsula User Group, T. Kerr, 
C/-31 Brooks Rd., Bray Park, Queensland, 
Australia, 4500, (07) 205-4879 

Australian Christian Users Group, Captain 
Raymond L. Isaac, 90 Fowler St., MOE, 
Victoria, Australia 3825, (051) 27-2695 

COLOMBIA 

CoCoByte, Fabian A. Rodriguez, Avenida 4A 
#49N-60 or A.A. 5976, Cali, Colombia, 51- 
923-640705 or 51-923-649165 

ENGLAND 

National Dragon Users Group, Paul R. Grade, 
6 Navarino Rd., Worthing, Sussex, Eng- 
land, 0903-207585 

ISRAEL 

The Mid-East CoCo Club, J. Yosef Krinsky, 
526/11 Kiryat Kaminitz — Neve Yaacov, 
P.O. Box 27355 Jerusalem, Israel 

WEST GERMANY 

The Greatest German CoCoCooks, Michael 
Herbes, Dorfstr 23, 4320 Hattingen, West 
Germany 

S2\ 



CORRECTIONS 



"Warped Animation" (October 1988, Page 102): The 

author of Gravitational Grid has written to give his 
current address for those wanting to correspond with 
him. The address given in the article is now out of date. 

Patrick D. Grengs II 

Box 259 / Graduate Center 

Pullman, WA 99163 

"Showing Off Random Graphics" (Novices Niche, 
November 1988, Page 75): Line 230 of Listing 2, Ellipse, 
is incorrect as listed. Replace Line 230 as follows: 

230 PCLS1:G0T0 100 



"Quick Fixes" (October 1988, Page 58): A correction 
to Figure 2 of this article appeared in the November 
1988 issue. That correction was not needed. The figure 
in question is correct as published. The designation of 
IC4 Pin 3 is correct. 



For quicker reference, Corrections will be posted on 
Delphi as soon as they are available in the Info on 
Rainbow topic area of the database. Just type DATA 
at the CoCo SIG> prompt and INFO at the TOPIC> 
prompt. 



January 1969 THE RAINBOW 41 




CHICAG 



Aoril 14-16 




0 



AINBOWfest is the only computer show dedicated 
exclusively to your Tandy Color Computer. 
Nowhere else will you see as many CoCo-related 
products or be able to attend free seminars conducted 
by the top Color Computer experts. It's like receiving the 
|latest issue of the rainbow In your mailbox! 

RAINBOWfest is a great opportunity for commercial 
programmers to show off new and innovative products 
for the first time. Chicago is the show to get information 
on capabilities for the CoCo, along with a terrific 
selection of the latest CoCo software. In exhibit after 
exhibit, there will be demonstrations, opportunities to 
experiment with software and hardware, and special 
iRAINBOWfest prices. 

Set your own pace between visiting exhibits and 
ittending the valuable, free seminars on all aspects of 
'your CoCo — from improving basic skills to working with 
the sophisticated OS-9 operating system. 

Many people who write for the rainbow — as 
well as those who are written about — are there 
to meet you and answer questions. You'll also 
meet lots of other people who share your interest 
in the Color Computer. It's a person-to-person 
event and a tremendous learning experience in 
a fun and relaxed atmosphere. 

A special feature of RAINBOWfest is the 
CoCo Gallery Live Showcase, where 
CoCo artists enter their own graphics 
creations for display at the show. Cash 
prizes are presented and winning 
entries are decided by 
votes from RAINBOWfest attendees. 
(See the following page for more. 



details.) As an additional treat for CoCo Kids of all ages, 
we've invited frisky feline CoCo Cat to join us for the show. 
RAINBOWfest has something for everyone in the family 

If you missed the fun at our last RAINBOWfest in Princeton, 
why don't you make plans now to join us in Chicago? 
For members of the family who don't share your 
affinity for CoCo, there are many other attractions in 
the Chicago area. 

The Hyatt Regency Woodfield — Schaumburg, 
Illinois offers special rates for RAI NBOWfest. The show 
opens Friday evening with a session from 7 p.m. to 10 
p.m. It's a daytime show Saturday — the CoCo Com- 
munity Breakfast (separate tickets required) is at 8 
a.m., then the exhibit hall opens promptly at 1 0 a.m. and 
runs until 6 p.m. On Sunday, the exhibit hall opens at 
1 1 a.m. and closes at 3 p.m. 

Tickets for RAINBOWfest may be obtained d 
from the rainbow. We'll also send you a reserva- 
tion form so you can get a special room rate. 

The POSH way to go. You can have your travel 
arrangements and hotel reservations handled 
through rainbow affiliate, POSH Travel Assist- 
ance, Inc., of Louisville. For the same POSH 
treatment many of our exhibitors enjoy, call POSH at 
(502) 893-331 1 . All POSH services are available at no 
charge to RAINBOWfest attendees. 



irectly 




3L THLRt? 




P 



. * V 






0 



1 






COCO GALLERY LIVE 
SHOWCASE YOUR BEST AT RAINBOWFEST 

We are taking the popular "CoCo Gallery" on the road to RAINBOWfest Chicago 
— and we'd like you to submit your own graphics creations to be exhibited at the 
show! 



RULfeS 



• You can enter color or black-and-white photographs or printouts of your original artwork 
produced on the CoCo 1, 2 or 3. Entries must be framed, mounted or matted, and may 
not be smaller than 5-by-7 inches or larger than 11-by-14 inches. 

• Don't send us anything owned by someone else; this means no game screens, digitized 
images from TV programs or material that's already been submitted elsewhere. A digitized 
copy of a picture that appears in a book or magazine is not an original work. 

• Along with your entry, send a cover letter with your name, address and phone number, 
detailing how you created your picture (what programs you used, etc.). Please include a 
few facts about yourself, too! 

• Your name, address and phone number, along with the title of your work, must be clearly 
marked on the back of each entry, and a disk copy of each piece must also be included. 

• Entries must be mailed to the rainbow before March 31, 1989, or brought to the 
RAINBOWfest registration booth by 10 a.m., Saturday, April 15th. 

• All entries to CoCo Gallery Live become the property of Falsoft, Inc., all rights are reserved. 

There will be two categories: one for graphics produced on the CoCo 1 and 2, and one for 
CoCo 3 graphics. Several awards will be made in each category. Winners will be determined 
by votes from RAINBOWfest attendees. In case of any ties, winners will be determined by 
our chief judge, CoCo Cat. 

Prizes and ribbons will be presented Sunday, April 16, 1989, and winning entries will be 
published in the August '89 issue of THE RAINBOW. Send your entry to "CoCo Gallery Live," 
THE RAINBOW, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, Prospect, KY 40059. 

YES, I'm coming to Chicago! I want to save by buying tickets now at the special 
advance sale price. Breakfast tickets require advance reservations. 

Please send me: 



Three-day ticket(s) at $9 each total . 

One-day ticket(s) at $7 each total 

Circle one: Friday Saturday Sunday 



Name 

(please print) 

Address 



Saturday CoCo Breakfast 
at $12 each 

RAINBOWfest T-shirt(s) 

at $6 each 

Specify size: 

S M L _ 



City 



State 



total 



total 



Telephone 
Company . 



ZIP 



XL 



(T-shirts must be picked up at the door) 
Handling Charge $1 

TOTAL ENCLOSED 

(U.S. Currency Only, Please) 



□ Payment Enclosed, or Charge to: 
□ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

V 

Account Number 




Exp. Date 



□ Also send me a hotel reservation card for the 

Hyatt Regency Woodfield ($66, single or double oj Qnatu 
room). 9 



re 



Advance ticket deadline: March 31, 1989. Orders received less than two weeks prior to show opening will be held for you 
at the door. Tickets will also be available at the door at a slightly higher price. Tickets will be mailed six weeks prior to show. 
Children 4 and under, free; over 4, full price. 

Make checks payable to: The RAINBOW. Mail to: RAINBOWfest, The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. 
Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. To make reservations by phone, in Kentucky call (502) 228-4492, or outside Kentucky 
(800) 847-0309. 



CoCo 3 Disk Tape Mod. 





0 



■ 



n 
■ 



IV 



4 




f 



4t 



f 



Eric Wolf is a 15-year-old 
student who has been progr 
the Co Co for three years, i 
ments include F-I5 Assaul 
and CoCo Newsroom. 

W January 1989 



school 
'ngfor 
hieve- 
ulator 



toggled to yes, the graph will have a gray 
shadow behind it when drawn on the 
screen. If toggled to no, no shadow will 
appear when the graph is drawn. 

• Modify Entry: Pressing M gives you 
the chance to alter the data in one of the 
fourteen data slots in the data column. 
After pressing M, enter the number of 
the slot you wish to modify (1 to 14). 
After entering an appropriate slot, enter 
the data value. Any number, zero to 
9,000, will work. Now enter the label for 
the data. The data will be entered into 
the data column accordingly. To exit the 
Modify menu, enter 333. 

• Plot Chart: Press P to plot the data 
on the screen on a pie chart. The screen 
will clear, and the graph, percentages, 
labels and graph title will be drawn. 
After the chart has been drawn, press 
any key to return to the main menu. The 
graph is plotted according to the rela- 
tion of a specific number to other 
numbers in the data table (standard for 
the pie graph), and uses sine and cosine 
ratios to determine line placement. 

• Clear Graph Data in Memory: Press- 
ing C clears data from memory. You will 
be asked if you want to clear the data. 
Press Y to clear the data or N to abort 
the clearing process. 



• Degree of Rotation: Pressing D in the 
editor will increase this number by 2 
degrees. The degree of rotation signifies 
the degree number at which the first line 
of the graph will be drawn. Usually, you 
can keep this value at 0, but other values 
will tilt your graph for added effects. 

• Title: Pressing T allows you to enter 
a new title for your graph. Type the new 
title and press ENTER. A title can be no 
longer than 30 characters. The title will 
appear at the top of the screen when the 
chart is displayed graphically. 

• Input/ Output: Pressing I at the first 
screen will take you to the Input/ 
Output control menu. From this menu, 
you have the following options: 

1. Clear: Entering 1 will clear the 
graph currently in memory. 

2. Load: Press 2 to load a pre- 
viously saved graph from disk. 
Enter the filename or enter DIR 
for a disk directory. The graph will 
now load and be displayed. Press 
any key to continue. 

3. Save: Pressing 3 enables you to 
save the graph in memory to disk. 
Enter the filename you want to use 
to save the graph or enter DIR for 
a disk directory. After the graph is 



saved, you will return to the 
Input/ Output menu. 

4. Display: To draw the chart you 
currently have defined from the 
control editor, press 4. (See the 
Plot chart option for more infor- 
mation.) 

5. Demographics to Screen: Press 
5 to see the demographics of the 
data you have selected on the 
screen. This will display the chart 
title, percentages, labels and units 
for the data in memory, and will 
display the amount of data ac- 
counted for pictorially in the 
graph. Press any key to continue. 

6. Demographics to Printer: If you 
press 6, the graph data is sent to 
the printer. 

7. Exit: Press 7 to return to the 
Control Editor. 

Monitor Selection 

Due to a flaw in the CoCo 3 system 
design, you cannot use the same color 
values to drive both an RGB-A and 
Composite monitor. Tell Pie Plotter 
which type of monitor you are using in 
Line 10. Change the variable to equal 
1 if you are using a composite monitor 
or color TV, or leave the variable set at 



MLBASIC 2.0 - BASIC Compiler 

If you want your BASIC programs to run up to 50 times faster, or want more 
programming features without learning another language, MLBASIC is for you. 

MLBASIC Is the most compatible BASIC compiler available for the Color Com- 
puter. WHY? Because MLBASIC fully supports: 

- Low- and high-resolution graphics 

- All types of I/O (disk, screen, printer, RS232) 

- All available commands offered with BASIC 
- Floating point functions and expressions 

• Integer, floating point and string type variables and arrays 

- Use of all available 51SK BAM in the COCO 3 

- 80,40 or 32 column text displays 

MLBASIC not only contains everything that you would expect a BASIC pro- 
gramming language should contain, MLBASIC has features that offer flexibility 
of other languages like C, Pascal, FORTRAN and even assembly language. These 
features will allow programmers to directly access the CPU registers on the 
COCO, produce modular program code with SUBROUTINES, manipulate memory 
in blocks, and even call ROM routines in other areas of memory. 

MLBASIC revision 2.0 has incorporated all enhancements that were 
suggested by MLBASIC 1.0 users and more. Revision 2.0 did away with all the in- 
compatibility problems that existed with revision 1.0. 

MLBASIC allows for the first time user to quickly compile a program using 
default compiler settings. The advanced user has the capability of controlling 
over a dozen settings which control where the program is compiled, which 
medium to compile to (memory or disk), string space, compiler listings and 
more. 

With all thiB going for MLBASIC, your might expect the cost to be a little out 
of your budget. Alter looking at prices of other BASIC compilers for the COCO 3 
you might be correct. But look again at this ad; for only $59.95, you can have a 
programming language that will spark your interest once again in the COCO. 

Before you buy another BASIC compiler for the COCO, find out if it supports 
everything MLBASIC supports. Then look at the price tag. We feel that it won't be 
long before you place an order for MLBASIC. 

"MLBASIC is a Rne program for any serious programmer, " 
said David Gerald In the December 1 987 RAINBOW. 



ONLY $ 59 98 

COCO 3 WITH DISK REQUIRED -Add S4.00 Postage 
Check, Money Order or COD accepted 
Foreign orders use U.S. MONEY ORDERS only. 



WASATCHWARE 

7350 Nutree Drive 
Salt Lake City, Utah 84121 
Phone (801) 943-1546 



"I cannot imagine the CoCo 3 without ADOS-3; 
it would not be a complete machine." 

The RAINBOW, July 1987 

You've moved up to a CoCo 3. A powerful new machine. Now, it's time to 
give BASIC a shot in the arm, with ADOS-3. Wouldn't it be nice to turn on your 
machine and be greeted by an 80-column display, in the colors of your 
choice, with your own custom startup message? To run routinely at 2 MHz 
(double speed) without having to slow down for disk and printer operations? 
This and much, much more Is possible with ADOS-3, our CoCo 3 adaptation 
of the acclaimed original ADOS, which shares the original's virtual 100% 
compatibility with commercial software. After customizing ADOS-3 using the 
provided configuring utility, you can have it burned into an EPROM that plugs 
into the Disk BASIC ROM socket, or just use it in RAM as a disk utility. (EPROM 
+ burning will cost SI 5-20; we provide information concerning how you can 
have this done.) Supports double-sided drives (35, 40, or 80 tracks). FAST and 
SLOW commands, auto line number prompts, RUNM command, keystroke 
macros, arrow-key scroll through BASIC programs, auto-edit of error line, and 
many more valuable features. 

"ON A SCALE OF 1 TO 10, I RATE ADOS-3 A SOLID 15." RAINBOW, 7/87 

Disk , . . S34.95 Original ADOS for CoCo 1 or 2 . . . S27.95 (See 6/87 RAINBOW review) 

Original ADOS plus ADOS-3 $50.00 

THE PEEPER 

ML program tracer that multitasks with the target program, An excellent 
learning tool for the ML novice; an invaluable debugging aid for the expert. 
CoCo 1, 2, or 3 compatible. 

Disk . . . $23.95 Assembler source listing . . . Add S3.00 



MONITOR CABLES for CoCo 3 

Magnavox8CM515/8CM505/8CM643 . 



$19.95 SonyKV1311CR 



$29.95 



SPECTROSYSJEMS 




11 111 N. Kendall Drive, 
Suite A 108 
Miami, Florida 33176 
(305) 274-3899 Day or Eve. 



No delay on personal checks •Please add $2 00 shipping • Sorry no credit cards or COD's, h 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 45 



0 if you are using a black and white 
television or an RGB-A monitor. 

Sample Session 

To get started, pretend you are writ- 
ing a report about how people spend 
their time on the weekends. You have 
sampled several groups of people and 
have 487 responses covering all ages. 
You now need a way to effectively 
communicate this information to your 
reader. With my program, you can plot 
a pie graph of this information. To 
begin, start the program with no infor- 
mation in the editor. 

Through your study, you have deter- 
mined that 120 of the people polled 
spend their weekends shopping. Press 
M to modify a slot in your graph, and 
enter 1 to modify the first blank in your 
graph. Now enter 120 to signify the 
number of people represented by this 
slot. Next enter the label to go along 
with this: SHOPPING. 

Next you have 54 people who like to 
travel on the weekend. Again, press M 
and enter 2 to alter the second slot. 



(Remember, Slot 1 has been filled.) 
Enter 54 to signify the number of people 
traveling and enter TRfiVEL for the label. 

Now you have 87 people who like to 
go to the beach for the weekend. Press 
M and enter 3. Now enter 87 for the 
number of people and RT BERCH for the 
label. 

You have a majority of your survey, 
98 people, who like to stay at home, 
watch TV, or do things around the 
house all weekend. Press M and enter 
4. Enter the number 98 for this group 
and label them 5TRY5 HOME, You also 
have a group of people who work on the 
weekend. Press M and the number 5 to 
modify Slot 5. Now enter the number 
90 and label this group WORK. Finally, 
to round off your survey, you have 38 
people who don't fit into any specific 
category. Press M and enter 6. Now 
enter the number 38 and then label the 
group MISC. 

To title your graph, press T, type 
What People do on a Weekend and 
press ENTER. Your graph is now com- 
plete. To view it, press P. The graph will 



be drawn and displayed. Press any key 
to return. 

Now you can save, change, or do 
whatever you want with your graph. 
That should help you get started. Have 
fun and happy graphing. 

A Note to Tape Users 

A final note to CoCo 3 tape users: It 
is possible to change the program to 
allow tape saving and loading. All you 
have to do is change all Is in the pro- 
gram to negative 1 s. These will be found 
only in the save and load portions of the 
program, which are set off by REM 
statements. 

In addition, you must delete any 
portion of the program dealing with 
disk usage (Ex: directory viewing). This 
is all listed at the end of the program 
listing. 

(Questions or comments about the 
program may be directed to the author 
at 1630 N. Johnson Street, South Bend, 
IN 46628. Please include an SASE if 
requesting a reply.) □ 




6 17 

40 20 

58 45 

92 173 

110 54 



140 114 

170 195 

196 105 

END 55 



The listing: PIECHRRT 

j3 ****************************** 

2 '* PIE CHART DISPLAY UTILITY * 

4 '* WRITTEN BY ERIC A. WOLF * 

6 1 * FOR A 12 8K TANDY COCO 3 * 
8 ****************************** 

lp MN=J3 1 i 0=RGB / 1=CMP 

12 IF MN=J3 THEN RGB:MN$="j3j311223 

654244J3482644575259606356" ELSE 

CMP :MN$="j3j313 114507392 1543 602 173 

416326332" 

14 FORY=0 TO 15: PALETTE Y,VAL(MI 

D$(MN$, Y*2+l,2) ) : NEXTY 

16 POKE65497,0:ATTR0,4:PCLEAR1:C 

LEAR3200:DIM D ( 15) , D$ ( 15) : GOSUB6 

8 

18 AD=&HF09D:FORY=AD+256 TO AD+2 
62: POKE Y, 255: NEXTY: POKE Y,0:FOR 
Y=AD+216 TO AD+223:POKE Y,255:N 
EXT:Y=AD+216:POKE Y,0:POKE Y+2,J3 
:POKE Y+7,0:POKE ¥+5,j3:AD=p 
2J2J ATTR0,0:WIDTH40:CLS1:ATTR6,0: 
PRINT" The Color Computer 3 P 
ie Plotter" : ATTR5,J3 :PRINTTAB (9) ; 
"Written by Eric A. Wolf":ATTR4 / 



0:PRINTTAB(3) ;"For a 128k TANDY 
Color Computer 3" :ATTR5,0: PRINTS 
TRING$ (40, "-") ; :LOCATE12,5:ATTR5 

22 PRINT "CONTROL SETTINGS"; 

2 4 ATTR0,0:T=0:FORY=1TO14:T=T+D( 

Y) : NEXTY: IF T=0 THEN T=.01 

2 6 FORY=l TO 14 : LOCATE0 , 6+Y : PRIN 
TSTRING$(2 6,32) ; : LOCATE3-LEN(STR 
$(Y) ) , 6+Y:PRINTY; : LOCATE 3 , 6+Y: PR 
INT" ) " ; : LOCATE 4 , 6+Y : PRINTD (Y) ; : L 
OCATE10,6+Y:PRINTD$(Y) ; : Z=INT ( (D 
(Y)/T)*100) 

28 Z$=STR$(Z) :Z$=RIGHT$(Z$,LEN(Z 
$)-l)+"%": LOCATE 25-LEN(Z$) ,6+Y: 
PRINT Z $ ; : NEXTY : ATTR5 , 0 : LOCATE 2 6 , 
8: PRINT" (S)hadow Pie?"; 
30 LOCATE2 6 / ll:PRINT"(M)odify En 
try" ; : LOCATE 2 6 , 13 : PRINT" (P) lot C 
hart" : LOCATE 2 6 , 15 : PRINT" (I) nput/ 
Output" ; : LOCATE 2 6 , 17 : PRINT" (C) le 
ar data" : LOCATE 2 6 , 19 : PRINT" (D) eg 
ree start" ; 

32 IF SH THEN A$="YES" ELSE A$=" 
NO" 

3 4 ATTR6,0:LOCATE30,9:PRINT"- "; 
A$ : LOCATE 30 , 18 : PRINTSTRING$ (8,32 
) : LOCATE 3 2,20: PRINTAD : ATTR5 , 0 

3 6 B$=STRING$ (40,32): ATTR6 , 0 : LOC 
ATE0 , 21 : PRINTB$ : LOC ATE 0 ,22: PRINT 
" (T) ITLE> " ; : ATTR2 , 0 : PRINTT$ : ATT 
R5,0 

38 LOCATE3 3,23:FL=0 



46 THE RAINBOW January 1989 




ECTOR 
S-69B 

VIDEO 
DIGITIZER 
FOR THE 
COCO 3 

(AND ALL OTHER COCOS . . .) 

'''''' 




COCO 3 SCREEN 



USE YOUR COCO 3 TO ITS FULL POTENTIAL! 

Use The Micro Works' DIGISECTOR™ DS-69 or 
DS-69B and your COCO 3's high resolution graphics 
to capture and display television pictures from your 
VCR or video camera. The DIGISECTOR™ systems are 
the only COCO video digitizers available that 
accurately capture and reproduce the subtle shades of 
gray in TV pictures! 

• COLOR: Add color to your screen for dramatic 

special effects. 

• HIGH RESOLUTION: 256 by 256 spatial resolution. 

• PRECISION: 64 levels of grey scale. 

• SPEED! 8 images per second on DS-69B, 

2 images per second DS-69. 

• COMPACTNESS: Self contained in a plug-in 

Rompack. 

• EASY TO USE: Software on disk will get you up and 

running fast! 

• COMPATIBLE: Use with a black and white or color 

camera, a VCR or tuner. 

• INEXPENSIVE: Our low price puts this within 

everyone's reach. 

POWERFUL C-SEE 3.3 SOFTWARE 

This menu-driven software 
will provide 5 and 16 shades 
of gray to the screen and to 
the printer with simple 
joystick control of 
brightness and contrast. 
Pictures taken by the 
DIGISECTOR™ may be 
saved on disk by C-SEE 3.3 
and then edited by our 
optional MAGIGRAPH, or by COCO MAX or 
GRAPHICOM. This versatile new software is included 
in both DIGISECTORS™ 




DS-69B and C-SEE 3.3 
DS-69 and C-SEE 3.3 



$149.95 
$ 99.95 



TRADE IN YOUR OLD DIGISECTOR™ 

If you already have one of The Micro Works' DS-69 or 
DS-69A DIGISECTORS™, you may return it to us and 
we will upgrade your unit to a DS-69B. 



UPGRADE DS-69A to DS-69B 
UPGRADE DS-69 to DS-69B 



$49.95 
$69.95 



The DS-69B comes with a one year warranty. Cameras 
and other accessories are available from The Micro 
Works. DS-88 version available for IBM PC. 

NO RISK GUARANTEE 

If you are not completely satisfied with the performance of your new 
DS-69B, you may return it, undamaged, within ten days for a full 
refund of the purchase price. We'll even pay the return shipping. If 
you can get any of our competitors to give you the same guarantee, 
buy both and return the one you don't like. We know which one 
you'll keep. 



Terms: Visa, Mastercard, Check or C.O.D. 



Purveyors of Fine Video Dlgiltzers Since 1977. 



P.O. Box 1110 Del Mar, CA 92014 (619) 942-2400 



40 A$=INKEY$:IFA$="S" THEN FL=1: 
IF SH=1 THEN SH=0:GOTO32 ELSE SH 
=1:GOT032 

42 IFA$="T" THEN L0CATE9 ,22: ATTR 
6,0:PRINT STRING$(60,32) ;: LOCATE 
9 ,22: LINE INPUT T$:T=LEN(T$) :T$=L 
EFT$(T$,28) :IF T>28 THEN 20 ELSE 
36 

44 IF A$<>"M" THEN 50 ELSE LOCAT 
E0 , 2 2 : PRINTSTRING$ (40,32);: LOCAT 
E0,22:LINEINPUT"Modify what unit 
(1-14/999 = exit) >";M$:M=VAL(M 
$):IF M=0 OR M>14 THEN 50 
4 6 ATTR 6 , 0 : LOCATE 0,22: PRINTSTRIN 
G$ ( 40 , 3 2 ) ; : LOCATE0 ,22: INPUT"Ente 
r new unit VALUE ";D(M):IF D(M)> 
9999 THEN 46 

48 LOCATE0,22:PRINTSTRING$(40,32 
) / : LOCATE0 , 22 : INPUT"Enter new un 
it LABEL ";D$(M):IF LEN(D$(M))>1 
1 THEN 48 ELSE 24 

50 IF A$="D" THEN AD=AD+2 : FL=2 : I 

F AD>359 THEN AD=0 

52 IF A$="I" THEN 108 

54 IF A$="C" THEN LOCATE0 , 22 : PRI 

NTSTRING$(40,32) ; : LOCATE0 , 22 : INP 

UT"Sure you want to clear this ( 

Y/N) ";A$:IF LEFT$(A$,1)=»Y" THE 
N GOSUB68:GOTO20 ELSE 32 
56 IF A$="P" THEN C2=CO:GOSUB 78 
: EXEC4 4539: HSCREEN0 : CO=C2 : GOTO20 
58 IF FL=1 THEN 20 ELSE IF FL=2 
THEN 32 ELSE 40 
60 GOTO 60 
62 • 

64 REM ** CLEAR DATA TABLES ** 
66 ' 

68 B$=STRING$ (11,46) :F0RY=1T014: 

D$(Y)=B$:D(Y)=0:NEXT:D(15)=9999: 

SH=1 : SC=1 : MC=14 : C0=1 : T$="NO TITL 

E":AD=0:ST=1 

70 RETURN 

72 1 

74 REM ** PLOT PIE CHART ** 
76 ' 

78 HSCREEN2:X1=77:Y1=100:RD=77:C 
O=ST:R1=RD/2:R2=5:T=0:C=0:IF SH 
THEN HCIRCLE(X1+R2-2,Y1+R2) ,RD,1 
5 : HPAINT (Xl+4 , Yl+4 ) , 15 , 15 : C1=0 
80 C=C+1:IF D(C)=9999 THEN 86 EL 
SE T=T+D(C) :GOTO80 
82 IF D(C) THEN C1=C1+1 
84 GOTO80 

86 IF T=0 THEN T=.0001 

88 TX=10-INT(Cl/2) 

90 C=C-l:AO=AD/3.6:FOR Y=l TO C: 

HCOLOR C0:HCIRCLE(X1,Y1) ,RD:IF F 

IX((D(Y)/T) *100)=0 THEN 98 ELSE 

AN=AO : Al=AO : GOSUB100 : HLINE ( XI , Yl 

)-(X2,Y2) ,PSET 

92 AN=100* (D(Y)/T)+AO:AO=AN:A2=A 



N : : GOSUB100 : HLINE (XI , Yl ) - (X2 , Y2 ) 

, PSET : AN=A1+ ( A2 -Al ) /2 : RD=RD-R1 : G 
OSUB100: HPAINT (X2,Y2) :RD=RD+R1 
94 A$=STR$(FIX(D(Y)/T*100) ) :A$=R 
IGHT$ ( A$ , LEN (A$ ) -1) I A$=STRING$ ( 3 
-LEN(A$) , " ")+A$:A$=A$+"% @@ "+D 
$(Y) :HPRINT(19,TX) ,A$:TX=TX+1 
96 CO=CO+l:IF CO=MC+l THEN CO=ST 
98 NEXTY:HCIRCLE(X1,Y1) ,RD,0:HCO 
LOR15:A$=STRING$( (40-LEN(T$) )/2- 
1,59)+" "+T$+" "+STRING$( (40-LEN 
(T$) j/2-1,59) :HPRINT(0,0) , A$ : RET 
URN 

100 A=AN/57.141*3.6:X2=X1+SIN(A) 
*RD : Y2=Yl-COS (A) *RD : RETURN 
102 ' 

104 REM ** INPUT/ OUTPUT 
106 • 

108 HSCREEN0 : CLS : ATTR6 ,0 : PRINTTA 
B(3);"PIE CHART INPUT/ OUTPUT CON 
TROL MENU" : ATTR 5 , 0 , U : PRINTSTRING 
$ ( 40 , 3 2 ) / : ATTR6 , 0 : PRINT : PRINTTAB 

(9) "Please select a choice" :ATTR 
5,0 : PRINT: PRINTTAB (42) "1. Clear 
the data in memory" : PRINT 
110 PRINTTAB ( 2 )" 2 . Load in a cha 
rt from disk" : PRINT: PRINTTAB (2) " 
3. Save a chart to disk" : PRINT: P 
RINTTAB (2 ) "4 . Display the chart 
in memory" : PRINT: PRINTTAB (2) "5. 
Print chart demographic (Screen) 
" : PRINT 

112 PRINTTAB ( 2 )" 6 . Print chart d 
emographic ( Printer) " : PRINT : PRIN 
TTAB(2)"7. Exit back to the Sett 
ings Control" 

114 ATTR6,0:LOCATE10,21:INPUT"Yo 

ur Choice > ";CH:IF CH<1 OR CH>7 

THEN 114 
116 IF CH=1 THEN GOSUB68 : GOTO20 
118 IF CH=4 THEN C2=CO : GOSUB78 : E 
XEC44539 : C0=C2 : GOTO 10 8 
120 IF CH=5 THEN D=0:GOTO138 
122 IF CH=6 THEN D=-2:GOT0138 
124 IF CH=7 THEN 20 
126 IF CH=3 THEN 178 
128 IF CH=2 THEN 196 
130 STOP 
132 1 

134 REM ** PRINT DEMOGRAPHIC 
136 ■ 

138 CLS: IF D=-2 THEN LOCATE0,12: 

PRINT"Ready printer and press an 
y key to begin" ; :EXEC44539 :POKE6 
5496,0 

140 V=0 : CLS: PRINT # D, " TITLE: ";T 
$:PRINT#D: PRINT #D," PERCENT LA 
BEL"+STRING$ (11,32) +"UNITS " : PRIN 



48 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



T#D," ";STRING$(35,"-") :F0RY=1T0 
14: IF D(Y)=j3 THEN 148 ELSE PRINT 
#D,» »;:PRINT#D,USING(»##.##") ; ( 

D(Y)/T*100) ; :V=V+INT(D(Y)/T*100j3 

0)/100:P$=" % - » 

142 P$=P$+D$(Y)+STRING$(16-LEN(D 
$(Y)) ,32)+"(« 

144 P1$=STR$(D(Y) ) :P1$=RIGHT$ (PI 
$ / LEN(Pl$)-l) :P$=P$+P1$+") " 
146 PRINT #D,P$ 
148 NEXTY 

15)3 PRINT#D, 11 " ;STRING$(35,' 1 -") : 
PRINT#D, USING ("###.##") ;V; : PRINT 
#D," % accounted for in graph" :P 

RINT#D: PRINT#D 
152 IF D=0 THEN EXEC44539 
154 POKE65497,0:GOTO 108 
156 • 

158 REM ** INPUT A FILENAME 
160 1 

162 ATTR5,j3 : LOCATE^, 3 : PRINT "Ente 

r the filename of the graph in w 
hichyou want to load or type DIR 

and enter to view the disk dir 
ectory of a drive orenter EXIT t 
o exit back to the menu " : ATTR6 , 0 
164 LOCATED , 8 : LINEINPUT"Filename 

(or DIR)=-> " ;F$:IF F$o"DIR M T 
HEN RETURN 

166 ATTR5 ,0 : LOCATE j3 , 9 : LINEINPUT" 

Directory of what drive (0-3) >" 
;D$:DR=VAL(D$) 

168 IF DR<0 OR DR>3 THEN 166 ELS 
E PRINT: :ATTR6,0: POKE65496,0: DIR 
DR: PRINT: PRINT "Free Gans= " ; FRE 

E(DR) :EXEC44539:POKE65497,j3 
170 RETURN 
172 • 

174 REM ** SAVE A FILE 
176 ' 

178 ATTR6 , 0 : CLS : LOCATE 3 , 1 : PRINT" 

- Save in a pie graph to disk -" 
:GOSUB162 

180 IF F$="EXIT" THEN 108 
182 IF F$="DIR" THEN 178 ELSE AT 
TR6 , 0 : CLS :A$=" Save the file "+F$ 
: LOCATE2 j3-LEN ( A$ ) / 2 , 5 : PRINTA$ : LO 
CATEj3 , 10 : ATTR5 , 0 : PRINT"Press SPA 
CEBAR to save the file or pressa 
ny other key to exit back to the 
Input/Output Menu . . " 

184 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=" " THEN 186 
ELSE IFA$<>"" THEN 108 ELSE 184 
186 ATTR6 , 0 1 LOCATE 10 ,15: PRINT "Sa 
ving Graph Now. . . . " : POKE65496 , 0 : 

0PEN"0",#1,F$ 

188 PRINT#1,SC:PRINT#1,ST:PRINT# 



1 , MC : PRINT # 1 , SH : PRINT # 1 , DG : PRINT 
# 1 , AD : PRINT# 1 , T$ : F0RY=1T015 : PRIN 
T#1,D(Y) :PRINT#1,D$(Y) :NEXTY:CLO 
SE#1:POKE65497,0:GOTO108 , 
190 ' 

192 REM ** LOAD A FILE 
194 1 

196 ATTR6 , 0 : CLS : L0CATE4 , 1 : PRINT" 

- Load a pie graph from disk -": 
GOSUB162 

198 IF F$="EXIT" THEN 108 
200 IF F$="DIR" THEN 196 ELSE AT 
TR6,0:CLS:A$="Load the file "+F$ 
: LOCATE 20 -LEN (A$ ) /2 , 5 : PRINTA$ : LO 
CATE^f , 10 : ATTR5 , 0 : PRINT"Press SPA 
CEBAR to load the file or pressa 
ny other key to exit back to the 
Input/Output Menu . . " 

202 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=" " THEN 204 
ELSE IFA$<>"" THEN 1J38 ELSE 202 
204 ATTR6 ,0 X LOCATE 10 , 15 : PRINT "Lo 

ading Graph Now. . .":POKE65496,0: 
0PEN"I",#1,F$ 

206 INPUT#1 , SC : INPUT#1 , ST : INPUT# 
1 , MC : INPUT* 1 , SH : INPUT* 1 , DG : INPUT 
# 1 , AD : INPUT # 1 , T$ : FORY= 1T0 1 5 : INPU 
T#1,D(Y) :INPUT#1,D$(Y) :NEXTY:CLO 
SE#l:POKE65497,0 

208 C2=CO:GOSUB78:EXEC44539:HSCR 
EEN0 : C2=C0 : GOTO108 
210 • 

212 REM ** TAPE CONVERSION 
214 
216 
218 
220 
222 
224 
226 
228 
230 



To convert this program to 
work on a tape system, you 
must change all the #1 in 
the lines above to #-1 and 
delete the portion on disk 
directory viewing. 

« END OF PROGRAM » 



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January 1989 THE RAINBOW 49 



F e ature 



Everything you ever 
wanted to know about the Co Co 
but were afraid to ask 

Do You Have a Question? 



You have bought your CoCo; you 
have all the necessities — monitor, 
cassette player or disk drive, and 
RAINBOW magazine. YouVe all ready to 
start using your Color Computer. Or are 
you? 

If you are like most new computer users, 
you have some questions about equipment, 
general computer care, and typing in, load- 
ing, saving and running programs. There- 
fore, we at THE RAINBOW would like to 
take this opportunity in the Beginner's issue 
to answer some of the more commonly- 
asked questions about the CoCo. 



CoCo Differences 



Why does THE RAINBOW refer to differ- 
• ent models of the Color Computer? 

There are three versions of the Color 
Computer, or CoCo: CoCo I, CoCo 2 and 
CoCo 3. The newer the model, the more 
power and capabilities it has available. The 
CoCo 3 is the most powerful and versatile, 
with 128K (128 kilobytes of memory, but 
expandable to 5 12K) and the option of using 
OS-9 Level II. (OS-9 is a sophisticated and 
powerful computer operating system). 

The first CoCo, which we now refer to as 
the CoCo 1, started with 4K RAM (Random 
Access Memory). It wasn't long before ways 
were found for these machines to access 
64K, with 32K available to the user for 
BASIC programs. All CoCos contain ROM 
in addition to RAM. The ROM (Read-Only 
Memory) contains the BASIC language you 
can use for writing your programs. ROM 
interprets these programs by explaining to 



Cray Augsburg is RAINBOW'S technical 
editor and has an associate's degree in 
electrical engineering. He and his wife, Ruth 
Ann, have two children and live in Louis- 
ville, Kentucky. 



By Cray Augsburg 

Rainbow Technical Editor 

the computer what the program wants to do. 

The CoCo 2 offers few capabilities over 
its older brother. The most notable 
differences include a smaller, sleeker case 
design and a completely revamped circuit 
board layout. A major difference is the lack 
of 12-volt supply inside the machine. 

The CoCo 1 and 2 are able to use two 
different BASIC interpreters: Color BASIC 
and Extended Color BASIC. Extended 
Color BASIC offers several powerful fea- 
tures not included in the plain vanilla Color 
BASIC. These added features include math 
functions and, perhaps more important to 
many users, high resolution and graphics 
capabilities. 

The CoCo 3 uses only one ROM chip. 
This chip contains "patched" versions of 
Color BASIC and Extended Color BASIC, in 
addition to new programming for the many 
enhancements in the machine. This added 
programming for colors, graphics, etc., is 
often referred to as "Super" Extended Color 
BASIC. It is because of these additions that 
most CoCo 3 programs won't operate on a 
CoCo I or 2. However, most programs 
written for the CoCo I and 2 will run on the 
CoCo 3. 

C^How much memory is available in CoCos 
% I, 2 and 3? How do I find out how much 
memory is available in my machine? 

The CoCo 1 and 2 can hold 4K, 16K, 32K 
or 64 K of memory. The CoCo 2 was mar- 
keted only in 16K and 64K varieties. To find 
out how much memory you have, enter 
?MEM and see what value is returned. In a 
1 6K machine with Extended BASIC, you will 
have just over 8K for BASIC programs. (A 
disk drive will reduce this value by 2K.) On 
a 32K or 64K CoCo 1 or 2 without a disk 
drive, you will have exactly 24,871 bytes for 
BASIC programs. A disk system will reduce 
this value to 22,823 bytes. Keep in mind you 
can gain an extra 4.5 K for BASIC programs 



on any CoCo by entering PCLERR1. Of 
course, this means you won't be able to use 
graphics. 

The CoCo 3 is sold as a 128K machine. 
An upgrade is available to increase this value 
to 512K. Entering ?MEM on a CoCo 3 will 
return a value of 22,824 bytes (non-disk 
systems return 24,872 bytes) regardless of 
whether the machine is set for 1 28K or 5 1 2K. 
This is confusing to many people — you 
have only one byte more for BASIC pro- 
grams on a CoCo 3 than on a CoCo I or 
2. 

The 6809 microprocessor in the CoCo can 
address only 64K at any one time. 32K of 
this 64K address space is taken up by the 
programming in the machine (the BASIC 
language and Disk BASIC). Of the other 
32K, some is set aside for graphics. In 
addition, the disk controller "eats" another 
2K, and there is some system overhead. The 
extra memory in a 128K CoCo 3 is used for 
graphics and for Hi-Res (40- and 80-column 
text). The memory above this in a 512K 
CoCo 3 is not accessible by BASIC in ordi- 
nary terms. In most cases, it isn't even 
supported by third-party software. This 
memory is intended for use with OS-9 Level 
II. OS-9 Level II, through the use of fancy 
memory management routines, gives you 
access to the full 512K in such a machine. 

What are artifact colors? 

• 

On a standard PM0DE4 screen, you can 
use two colors. The CoCo gives us the option 
of using a black and green set or a black and 
buff (white) set depending on the values we 
include with the SCREEN command. 
SCREEN1 , 0 selects the black/ green set and 
5CREEN1 , 1 selects the black/ buff set. If we 
are using 5CREEN1,1, we can trick the 
system into allowing us to use red and blue 
as well — we have access to four colors. As 
the name implies, artifact colors are false. 
We can generate them because of a fault in 



50 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



the composite viewing part of the system. In 
other words, artifact colors work only on 
composite color monitors and televisions. 
We cannot trick the RGB monitor in the 
same way. Perhaps the best way to show you 
what I am talking about is to illustrate the 
point. Enter and run the following program. 

10 PCLS 

20 PM0DE4,1 

30 SCREEN1,1 

40 LINE(100,0)-(100-191) ,P5ET 
50 LINE( 101,0) - (101-191) , PSET 
60 LINE( 110,0) - (110,191) , PSET 
70 LINE(115,0)-(115,191) ,PSET 
80 GOTO B0 

After running this program, you will 
notice the two side-by-side vertical lines 
created by Lines 40 and 50 combine to form 
the foreground color. The vertical line 
generated by Line 60 will be either red or 
blue and the line generated by Line 70 will 
be the opposite. The key is to remember that 
alternating vertical lines will generate the 
opposite artifact color. Note that I cannot 
tell you exactly which color will be in which 
place. This is the catch to artifact colors and 
is the reason many CoCo 1 and 2 programs 
instruct you to press the Reset button until 
a certain color is achieved. Pressing Reset 
allows the computer another chance to 
"come up" with the correct color. Note that 
this is not the case with the CoCo 3. Its 
artifact set is predictable. If the colors don't 
appear right, press and hold Reset, then 
press and hold Fl. Now release the Reset 
button followed by the Fl key. 

C^Whats the difference between RGB and 
• color composite video? 

To achieve a composite color signal from 
the computer, several different signals in the 
CoCo are combined and then sent out to the 
monitor over one wire. In an RGB (Red- 
Green-Blue) system, information for each of 
the three colors is sent to the monitor on a 
separate wire. RGB display is generally 
much clearer and crisper than that of a 
composite monitor or TV. For more com- 
plete information on monitors, see "A Guide 
to RGB Analog Monitors for the CoCo 3" 
(August 1987, Page 68) and "Monitor Up- 
dates" (November 1987, Page 33), both by 
Marty Goodman. 

cpWhat are the differences among the 



PMODE screens? 



The Color Computer offers five different 
PMDDEs in which to create graphics. As the 
PMODE number moves from 0 to 4, the 
resolution of the graphics screen increases. 
In other words, PMODE0 uses large blocks 
while PM0DE4 uses small dots (pixels) for 
graphics. Some modes allow four colors 



OLl tvll 


R pcnliitinn 
rvcouiiiijuii 


I^UIIImCI Ui. 




PMODE0 


128-by-96 


Colors 
2-color 


1 page 


PM0DE1 


128-by-96 


4-color 


2 pages 


PM0DE2 


I28-by-192 


2-color 


2 pages 


PM0DE3 


128-by-l92 


4-color 


4 pages 


PM0DE4 


256-by-l92 


2-color 


4 pages 






Table 1 





while others allow the use of only two colors. 

The smaller the dots are, the more mem- 
ory is required to store the picture. Memory 
for graphics is allotted in pages. One page 
of graphics memory equals 1,536 bytes. 
Table 1 shows the five PMODEs, their reso- 
lutions and the number of graphics pages 
required for each. 

The Color Computer 3 offers Hi-Res 
graphics modes in addition to the PMODE 
screens described. These modes are as 
follows: 



Screen 

H5CREEN0 
HSCREEN1 
H5CREEN2 
HSCREEN3 
H5CREEN4 



Resolution 

low resolution 

320-by-I92 

320-by-192 

640-by-192 

640-by-I92 



Colors 

4-color 
16-color 
2-color 
4-color 



These H5CREEN modes require more 
memory than the PMODE screens. However, 
because of the memory management on the 
CoCo 3, the memory used isn't taken from 
the memory you use for your BASIC pro- 
gram, as is the case with PMODE screens. 

What languages can I use with my CoCo? 
• What is a compiler? 

Obviously, BASIC is the native language 
of your CoCo. The machine is "born" with 
it in ROM. In the past, you could run Logo 
and Pascal (using the Deft Pascal compiler) 
under Disk BASIC. Currently, you must 
move to OS-9 in order to take advantage of 
other languages. Radio Shack sells a C 
compiler and a Pascal Compiler. In addition, 
it offers D.L. Logo for the educational 
market. Finally, OS-9 offers BASIC09. This 
version of the BASIC language offers data 
structures similar to Pascal and I/O format- 
ting similar to FORTRAN, yet BASIC09 is 
flexible and easy to use. 

When you run a program in Disk BASIC, 
each line of the program is interpreted by the 
computer as the program is run. While 
BASIC programs appear to work fast, this 
method is actually fairly slow. A compiler 
turns a source file — an ASCII text file — 
into machine code. This machine code is 
then run directly, or nearly so, by the 
computer without the need for translating 
each instruction during execution. 



Typing in Programs 



•J What do the numbers in the boxes shown 
before RAINBOW'S listings represent? 

The box you refer to is called the Check 
Plus box. For longer listings printed in THE 
RAINBOW, we provide this box of check- 
sums to help you locate typographical errors 
when typing in programs. The numbers in 
the left-hand columns are line numbers in 
the program, and the right-hand numbers 
are the actual checksum values. Refer to 
Rainbow Info on Page 16 of this issue, and 
type in the Check Plus program you see 
there. Save the program and then run it. 
After it has run, start typing at the beginning 
of the program you want from THE RAIN- 
BOW Immediately after you completely 
enter a line whose line number appears in the 
Check Plus box, press the down arrow key. 
A number will appear on the screen. This 
number should match that given in the box. 
If not, you know you have made a typing 
error somewhere in the lines between the last 
and current Check Plus line numbers. 

cpWhat is a "packed" line? 
• 

When typing in a line of BASIC code, you 
can enter up to 249 characters. However, 
some programmers find that they need a few 
characters more in certain complex lines. 
These programmers discovered they could 
add a couple of extra characters to the end 
of the line using Extended BASIC'S EDIT 
command. 

To do this, type the line as far as you can. 
When the cursor won't go any farther, press 
ENTER. Then edit the line by entering EDIT, 
followed by the line number in question. 
Now, press X to initiate EDIT's extend 
option; you will be able to enter three more 
characters. 

RAINBOW does not condone the use of 
packed lines for two reasons: First, users 
unfamiliar with the technique are left at a 
loss as to how to add the last characters. 
Second, if such a listing is saved in ASCII 
format, the extra characters will be lost. For 
these reasons, we suggest you refrain from 
using the packing technique. Always check 
your listings for packed characters. We do 
our best to ensure there are no packed lines 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 51 



the magazine. Sometimes a line will slip 
jy, though, and it is important to know how 
to handle the situation. 

C^What is that upside-down, lowercase V/ 
• see in some program listings? 

The upside-down V is called a caret{^). 
In the computer world, this symbol is used 
to denote exponentiation — the mathemat- 
ical process in which a number is raised to 
a power (multiplied by itself a given number 
of times). The phrase X^2, which simply 
means X*X, is commonly seen in listings. 
The caret does not appear on the CoCo 
keyboard. In order to generate it while 
entering a listing, press the up-arrow key. 
The screen will show an up arrow, but the 
CoCo will interpret the character as a caret. 
Printed listings will show the caret instead 
of the arrow. 

The caret is one of several special charac- 
ters that can be generated from the CoCo 
keyboard. Other characters available on the 
CoCo keyboard, and the method used to 
produce them, are as follows: 



Character: 
left bracket ([) 
right bracket (]) 
underscore (_) 
backslash (\) 



Press: 
SHiFT-down arrow 
SHlFT-right arrow 
SHiFT-up arrow 

SHIFT-CLEAR 



Cpfs there a way to make my keys click as 

• they are pressed? 

There is a way to get an audible indication 
that you have pressed a key. The following 
program will cause a tone to be played 
through the monitor speaker every time a 
key is pressed. Just run the program, type 
NEW and start typing with sound. The 
frequency of the tone can be changed using 
the SOUND command (i.e., type SOUND 
225,1). 

1 REM KEYT0NE5 

2 REM BY JRME5 PROVOST 
10 FOR X=1536 TO 1551 
20 READ A : POKE X,A 

30 NEXT 

40 POKE 360,6:POKE 361,00 
50 DATA 52,a6,19B,l 
G0 DATA 134,4,61,253 
70 DATA 0,41,1B9,169 
B0 DATA B6, 53, 86, 57 

C^I get an SN (Syntax) Error in a specific 

• line that I have typed in. I have checked 
the appropriate line and it contains no 
typing errors. What is the problem? 

As stated in Brian White's article, "Learn 
to Walk Before You RUN" (Page 78 of this 
issue), a syntax error only occurs in the line 
where the error exists. This does not mean 
the error will be readily apparent. In some 
cases, a glitch will cause an invisible error. 
Simply retyping the line should clear this up. 
Also, some CoCos will allow certain spacing 



to be left out by the original programmer. 
Other CoCos will balk at this lack of spac- 
ing. Therefore, you might want to add some 
spaces, following guidelines presented in the 
CoCo manuals. 

The other most frustrating error on the 
CoCo is the FC (Function Call) Error. It 
usually does not occur in the line the CoCo 
reports to you. Let's say you have a line as 
follows: 

90 SOUND 263,5 

The SOUND command cannot accept a 
value greater than 255, so an FC Error is 
generated when this line is executed. Now, 
let's say you decided to use a variable in 
place of the actual value and your program 
goes something like this: 

70 A=263 

B0 PR I NT "HELLO" 

90 SOUND A, 5 

The computer would give you an FC 
Error in Line 90, but the problem is not in 
Line 90. That line is where the computer 
figured out you made a mistake. The actual 
error occurs in Line 70. Tracking down FC 
and other errors can be difficult and frustrat- 
ing. You can gain some tips and techniques 
on this by reading "Don't String Me Along" 
(October '86, Page 100) by Ellen and George 
Aftamonow and "Escape From the Bug 
Zone" (January '87, Page 59) by Eugene 
Vasconi. 

C^How can I stop a listing from scrolling by 

• when I enter LIST? 

You can stop the scrolling by holding 
down the SHIFT key and simultaneously 
pressing the k @' key. To start scrolling again, 
press any key on the keyboard. This will also 
stop execution of a BASIC program. 

C^Why must I enter RUN twice to execute 

• some programs? 

Because of a bug the BASIC ROM rou- 
tines, use of the PCLEAR1 command from 
within a program will sometimes cause an 
FC (Function Call) Error. If this is the case, 



enter RUN a second time. The program 
should run normally. Many programmers 
"defeat" this bug by putting the command 
at the end of the program and writing their 
programs to work in the following manner: 

10 GOTO 999 

20 rest of program starts here and continues 
999 PCLEAR1:G0T0 20 

C^How do I type in machine language 
• programs — with or without an as- 
sembler? 

Figure 1 shows how an assembly language 
program appears in THE RAINBOW. This 
example was taken from the October '88 
installment of "Barden's Buffer" (Page 132). 
Notice how the listing appears to be in col- 
umns. While the first column shows the 
addresses at which the program parts are 
stored in memory, the second and third 
columns are the actual machine code values. 
The fourth column contains the line 
numbers used in the source listing, and the 
fifth column (the one with HUNDRD in it) is 
the label field. The sixth column shows the 
assembly mnemonics — instructions — used 
in the source file. The seventh column has 
the operands for the instructions, and the 
last column is the comments column. 

If you are going to use an assembler to 
enter the program, you need to be concerned 
with the fourth through eighth columns. 
This is the actual source code used by the 
assembler. The first three columns are the 
resultant machine language code after 
assembly. At this point, consult your as- 
sembler manual to determine how it expects 
you to type in the source code. Then carry 
through the assembly process, and you will 
be on your way. 

Those without an assembler can enter the 
machine language information in the first 
three columns to get a working copy of the 
program. You can do this with single values 
as shown in Rainbow Info on page 16 of this 
issue, or you might put together a BASIC 
listing in the following manner: By looking 
at the listing (keep in mind, we are concerned 
with only the first three columns) we can 
determine that the ML program occupies 



3F00 




99m 




ORG 


$3F00 




3F00 8E 


9m 


99U9 


HUNDRD 


LDX 


#$400 


POINT TO SCREEN 


3F03 108E 


9999 


99V19 




LDY 


#0 


SET CHANGE FLAG TO 0 


3F07 A6 


80 


991*9 


ONE10 


LDA 


,x+ 


GET FIRST ENTRY 


3F09 Al 


84 


99^9 




CMPA 


»x 


COMPARE TO 1+1 


3F0B 23 


PA 


99159 




BLS 


ONE70 


GO IF ENTRY I GE ENTRY 1+1 


3F0D E6 


84 


00160 




LDB 


,x 


GET SECOND ENTRY 


3F0F E7 


IF 


00170 




STB 


-i.x 


SWAP B TO A 


3F11 A7 


84 


00180 




STA 


,x 


SWAP A TO B 


3F13 108E 


9991 


00190 




LDY 


#1 


SET "CHANGE" 


3F17 8C 


05FF 


00200 


ONE70 


CMPX 


#$5FF 


TEST FOR SCREEN END 


3F1A 26 


EB 


00210 




BNE 


ONE10 


GO IF NOT ONE PASS 


3F1C 108C 


9999 


00220 




CMPY 


#0 


TEST CHANGE FLAG 


3F20 26 


DE 


00230 




BNE 


HUNDRD 


GO IF CHANGE OCCURED 


3F22 39 




00240 




RTS 




RETURN TO BASIC 




9999 


00250 




END 














Figure 1 







52 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



memory locations $3F00 through $3F22. 
And we know that each of these 35 locations 
can hold one byte (two hexadecimal digits). 
Therefore, the BASIC listing we would 
create, along with a means to save the ML 
program to disk, would look like this: 

10 CLEAR200 1 &H3EFF 

20 FOR X=&H3F00 TD &H3F22 

30 READ A: POKE X,A 

40) NEXT 

50 5RVEM"EXAMPLE/BIN'\&H3F00,&H3F22,&H3F00 

G0 DATA &H8E, &H04, &H00, &H10, &H8E 

70 DATA &H00, &H00, &HA6, &HB0, &HA1 

B0 DATA &H84, &H23, &H0A, &HE6, &H64 

90 DATA &HE7, &H1F, &HA7. &H84, &H10 

100 DATA &HBE, &H00, &H01, &H8C, &H05 

110 DATA &HFF , &H2G, &HEB, &H10, &H8C 

120 DATA &H00, &H00, &H26, &HDE, &H39 

Ols it possible to prevent the use of the 
• BREAK key? 

The following program will prevent the 
BREAK key from working on the CoCo 1 
and 2 except where commands such as 
LINEINPUT and INPUT are looking for 
input from the keyboard: 

10 REM BREAK DISABLE 
20 FOR X-&H14A TO &H150 
30 READ A: POKE X,A 
40 NEXT 

50 FOR X=&H19A TO &H19C 
60 READ A: POKE X,A 
70 NEXT 

B0 DATA 50, 98, 2B, 175, 126, 173, 165 
90 DATA 126,1,74 



On the CoCo 3, just enter the following two 
pokes 

POKE&HE414,0 
POKE&HE42A,0 



The Trials of Tape 



cywhat can I do to prevent I/O (Input/ 
• Output) Errors when loading programs 
on a tape system? 

The most common cause for an I/O Error 
when loading a tape-saved program is that 
the user is starting the load process in the 
middle of a recorded file. Make sure the tape 
is positioned to the silent spot just before the 
program you are trying to load. The quick- 
est way to do this is using the AUDIODN: 
N0T0R0N command. Simply type the com- 
mand and press ENTER. At the OK prompt, 
press the Play button on the recorder and 
fast-forward or rewind the tape to the 
approximate location before the file. Where 
a program is recorded, you will hear a high- 
pitched sound; a place of silence indicates 
where the tape is blank — between pro- 
grams. Quickly stop the tape during a silent 
period, either by stopping the recorder or by 
pressing any key on the keyboard and 



ENTER. You can then type CLOAD to load 
the next program on the tape, or you can 
type CLOAD "filename" to have the comput- 
er search for a specific program. That is why 
it is important to leave a blank spot between 
programs when saving more than one file on 
a cassette. 

Another cause for I/O Errors is an incor- 
rect volume setting. Finding the right setting 
for a specific tape sometimes takes some 
effort. I suggest starting at a setting of 2 or 
3. Then try to load the program. If it doesn't 
load, try again after increasing the setting by 
one half-step. Continue this process up to a 
setting of about 8. 

If the load still won't work, the alignment 
of your recorder's playback head may differ 
greatly with the alignment of the head on the 
machine that recorded the tape. You can 
alter the alignment with a jeweler's cross- 
point screwdriver. To do this, disconnect the 
recorder from the computer and set the 
volume at a comfortable listening level. Play 
the tape in question. With the tape playing, 
put the screwdriver in the hole in the re- 
corder's front panel. When you feel the 
screwdriver "seat" in the screw, you can turn 
it in either direction to change the head 
position. As you turn the screwdriver, listen 
for the crispest, brightest sound possible. 
When you reach this setting, reconnect the 
recorder to your CoCo and the program 
should load with no problem. The drawback 
to this method is that you will have to 
readjust the heads for subsequent tapes. 




METRIC INDUSTRIES, INC 






Model 101 

Serial to Parallel Printer Interface 

* Works with any COCO 

* Compatible with "Centronics" Parallel Input Printers 

* Just turn the knob to select any one of 6 baud rates 300-9600 

* Comes complete with cables to connect to your printer 
and computer 

* Can be powered by most printers 

Model 104 Deluxe Interface 
with "Modem Switch" 

* Same Features as 101 Plus 

* Built in Serial Port for your Modem or other serial device 

* Switch between Serial Output and Parallel Output 

* Comes with cables to connect to your computer and printer 

* Can be powered by most printers 

Model 105 Serial Switch 

* Connects to your COCO to give you 2 switch selectable 
Serial Ports 

* Comes with a 3 foot cable to connect to your computer 
it Now you can connect your Printer (or printer interface) 

and your Modem (or other serial device) to your COCO 
and flip the switch to use either device 

* Does not require power 

Cassette Label Printing Program 

* New Version 2.1 prints 7 lines of information 
on Cassette labels 

* Comes on Tape with instructions to transfer to disk 

* Menu driven, very easy to use 

* Save and Load Labels from Tape and Disk 

* Uses the features of your printer to print standard, 
expanded, and condensed characters 

* Automatically Centers Each Line of Text 

* Allows editing of label before printing 

* Program comes with 24 labels to get you started 

* 16KECB required 



Some of the Printers 
That Can - 

Supply power for the 101 and 
1 04 are Radio Shack, Star, 
Okidata, Brother, Juki, and 
Smith Corona. 

Some of the Printers 
That Cannot - 

Supply power for the interfaces 
are Epson, Seikosha, 
Panasonic, Silver Reed and 
NEC. If your printer cannot 
supply power to the interface 
you can order your interface 
with the "P" option or you can 
supply your own AC adapter. 
We recommend the Radio 
Shack 273-1 431 AC adapter 
with a 274-328 connector 
adapter. 

Write or call for more 
information or for technical 
assistance. 



Price List 



Model 101 

Model 1 01 P 
Model 104 
Model 104P 
Model 105 

Cassette Label Program 
Pin Feed Cassette Labels: 
White 3.00/100 
Colors (specify) 3.60/C 
Red-Blue- Yellow-Tan 



35.95 

41.95 
44.95 
51.95 
14.95 
6.95 



4 Pin Din Serial 
COCO Cables: 

Male/Male 6 foot 
Male/Female 6 foot 
Female/Female 6 foot 
Other Lengths Available, 

All items covered by a 
1 year warranty 



4.49 
4.49 
4.49 



Ordering Info 



Free Shipping in the 

U.S.A. (except AK and HI) 
on all orders over $50 
On orders under $50 
please add $2.50 for 
shipping and handling 
On orders outside the 
U.S.A. please write or call 
for shipping charges 



You Can Pay By: 

* VISA or MasterCard 

* C.O.D. -add $2.25 

* Or send check or money 
order payable in U.S. funds 



Metric Industries Inc. 
P.O. Box 42396 
Cincinnati, OH 45242 

(513) 677-0796 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 53 



However, I find this to be more convenient 
than spending several minutes trying to load 
a tape using other methods. 

One final note: Whenever you are not 
actually saving or loading a file from tape, 
make sure the recorder's Play button is not 
depressed. Leaving the Play button down 
causes a crimp in the tape and I/O Errors 
that cannot be corrected. 

f^How can I verify a program save to 

• cassette? 

Rewind the tape to the silent spot just 
before the newly saved program. Then enter 
SKIPF "filename" '. This will cause the 
system to "read through" the saved file. If 
you don't get an error message, it's a safe bet 
you have a good save of the program. Note 
that this does not verify the program will run 
(who knows what errors lurk within the 
program?), but it will ensure there are no 1/ 
O errors where the program is saved. 

C^What is ASCII, and how can I save a 

• program in ASCII format? 

ASCII (American Standard Code for 
Information Interchange) is a text format in 
which each byte holds one single character. 
When you enter CSfWE" filename" or 
SAVE" filename" , the program is saved in 
tokenized format. In this format, BASIC 
keywords are saved as one-byte tokens. For 



example, the PRINT command is saved as 
one byte instead of five (as would be the case 
if the program were saved in ASCII). This 
tokenized format, sometimes referred to as 
binary or compressed format, saves space on 
the tape or disk. To save a program in 
ASCII, which is necessary in some cases (i.e. 
for use with the Disk BASIC MERGE com- 
mand), put , fl after the (C)SA VE command 
(i.e., (C) SmZl"filename" ,f\). 



Disk and Drive Dilemmas 



(%What are the differences in DOS versions 
Z (RS-DOS, ADOS, J DOS, etc.)? Why 
does RAINBOW call RS-DOS Disk BASIC? 

Let's look at the second question first. RS- 
DOS is somewhat a misnomer. It is not a 
true operating system that controls and 
monitors the operation of the Color Com- 
puter. Rather, it is a group of simple routines 
that allow the user to save and load pro- 
grams with a disk system. Therefore, RAIN- 
BOW will refer to this pseudo-operating 
system by its real name, Disk Extended 
Color BASIC, or Disk BASIC for short. 

Each alternate DOS for the Color Com- 
puter offers features not found in standard 
Disk BASIC. For instance, ADOS, the most 
popular alternative, lets you customize your 
CoCo by allowing you to more fully utilize 



40-track drives. It can be set up to allow 
command entry in lowercase, and it does 
quite a bit more while allowing maximum 
compatibility with Disk BASIC. I find that 
most people will' try several alternatives 
before finally choosing the DOS they feel 
most comfortable with. 



Which disk controller works with which 
• Co Co and which disk drives? 



In general, any disk drive will work with 
any controller. Of course, when you buy a 
Drive 0 system, you will receive a controller 
with a matched drive. The earlier Radio 
Shack controllers (Cat. No. 26-3029) will 
work on the CoCo 1. They will also work 
on the CoCo 2 and 3 if you use a Multi-Pak 
Interface to supply the 12-volts required by 
these controllers. However, using them on 
the CoCo 3 is not recommended because 
they are not entirely reliable at the higher 
clock speeds used by some software, most 
notably OS-9 Level II. 

For general purposes, later revisions of 
the Radio Shack controller work equally 
well on any CoCo. In addition to Radio 
Shack's products, there are many third- 
party disk controllers on the market, like 
Disto, Performance Peripherals, Sardis 
T echn ologies, Hard Drive Specialists and 
In general, these controllers will 
*ine on any CoCo. Most incompatibil- 




ity problems arise out of the differences in 



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c. COMPLETE 20Meg SYBTEM • 350. 00 

Svstem consists of 20Meq CMI drive, 
WD1002-SHD controller. DIBTO HD INTERFACE 
sower supply and all cables. Formatted 
with 0s9. 

6) COMPLETE LINE OF DISTO PRODUCTS. 

7) 0S9 DRIVERS AND DESCRIPTORS INSTALLED ON YOUR BOOT DISK 

A service to our customers that enables them to start 
using their new devices as soon as they get them. 

6) COLOR COMPUTER AND PERIPHERAL REPAIR. 

We have complete reoair facilities including a class 100 
clean area for reoair of hard drives, a hard drive 
diagnostic tester, floppy drive test station and a 
technical staff with over 100 years experience. 

9) WARRANTY. 

All product is sold with a 180 dav reDair/reol acenwnt 
warranty. 



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MULT I -PLAYER STRATEGY GAME! 
Try to take over the planet o-f YCNAN. Battle 
other players armies to take control o-f their 
provinces and de-fend yours- Play on a Hi-res map 
of the planet. Take the "RISK" and be a 
planet— lord today!!! Requires Coco 3 1 disk and 
joystick or mouse. See Rainbow Review JULY 88 




MYD05 *15.00 SSS 

CUSTOMIZABLE! EPROMABLE ! ! ^SSP 
The commands Tandy left out! 
MYDQS is an enhancement to Disk Extended Basic 2.1 
on the CoCo 3. One command loadm and execute -for 
M/L programs. Lowercase command entry and display 
on ALL screens. Screen echo and SAY command -for 
RS Speech Pak. Paint and click mouse directory. 

NEW FEATURES ! ! ! ! ! 
Supports double— sided and 40 track drives. Set 
any palettes you want an power — up (RGB or CMP). 
Power— up in any screen width and colors (or 
monochrome) you wish! More options than you can 
shake a joystick at!!! See Rainbow Review JUNE 87 



HAWKSo-ft KEYBOARD CABLE 425.00 

UNCHAIN YOUR KEYBOARD! 
Five foot extender cable for Coco II and 3. Move 
your keyboard "where you want it! Installation 
instructions and tips included! Custom lengths 
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Elgin, II. 60121-7112 
312-742-3084 



SfcH always included. II. orders add 77. sales tax 
Checks Money-orders or COD No credit cards. 



54 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



the DOS used in the controller. For 100 
percent compatibility, request the controller 
with Disk BASIC 1.1. Then choose alternate 
ROMs as you deem desirable. 

?p What are the differences between 35-, 40- 
• and 80~track drives? Can you mix and 
match them on a CoCo system? 

From a user standpoint, the difference 
between these drives is the amount of 
information they can store on one disk. A 
35-track, single-sided (SS) disk can store 
approximately I56K. A 40-track, double- 
sided (DS) disk will hold 360K, and an 80- 
track DS drive will give you about 720K of 
storage. Only 35-track drives are supported 
under standard Disk BASIC. ADOS, a 
popular third-party alternate DOS, allows 
40-track DS drive use. However, its use is 
limited even under this system since each 
side of the drive is accessed separately. In 
order to use a 40- or 80-track drive as a 
contiguous storage device, you need to 
operate in the OS-9 environment. OS-9's 
disk routines allow the full use of any drive 
system you have, and because of OS-9*s 
modularity, you can mix and match drives 
on one system quite easily* You simply need 
to include a descriptor module for each drive 
on your system. 

1 suggest users purchase 40-track DS 
drives. This allows what 1 consider to be the 
greatest flexibility currently available. 



Under Disk BASIC, you may be able tb use 
only 35 tracks on one side of the drive. 
However, these drives give you a head start 
if you decide to go on to OS-9. Note that 
while 40-track SS drives are still available, 
to the best of my knowledge they are no 
longer being manufactured. 

*JDo I really need to buy a disk drive? What 

• are the benefits? 

No, you don't have to buy a disk drive. 
Many users choose not to advance beyond 
a tape-only system, and a disk drive is a big 
purchase. However, owning a disk drive will 
make your computing life much easier and 
more enjoyable. A disk system is much less 
prone to I/O Errors, and it does not take as 
long to save and load programs. It is easier 
to keep a system of backups for important 
data and programs, and a disk offers a great 
deal of storage capacity, with data quickly 
retrievable. Finally, many commercial 
software products are not available for tape- 
only systems. The flexibility offered by disk 
drive systems is nearly a must for any serious 
use of the CoCo. 

^ Why do I need to format a disk before I 

• use it? How do I do this? 

When you buy a blank floppy disk for 
your CoCo, it is really just a piece of plastic 
coated with a magnetic material. If you tried 



to save data on this disk, the CoCo would 
not know where to save that data. It needs 
an organized way to store information on 
the disk. The formatting process aligns the 
magnetic particles in the disk's coating in 
such a way as to divide the disk into con- 
centric circles called tracks. Each of these 
tracks is the same size and will hold the same 
amount of data. Now the CoCo has a way 
to organize the data it saves to disk. Using 
information saved along with the data, the 
CoCo can then load the data back in very 
quickly. 

To format a disk using the CoCo, place 
the disk in Drive 0 (the only drive slot if you 
have only one, or the first slot on the left or 
the bottom slot if you have dual drives) and 
enter D5KINI0. (To format a disk in the 
second drive (Drive 1), type DSKINI1. After 
a few seconds, the format will be complete 
and you will be ready to save programs. One 
note of caution is in order here: The format 
process erases any programs you might have 
in memory. Therefore, make sure you have 
a formatted disk ready to receive your 
program before you start typing it in. 

C\How do I back up a disk and why do I 
• need to? 

Let's look at how to make a backup copy 
of a disk. First you will need to format a 
destination disk using the D5KINI com- 
mand. The original disk that you want to 




The COCO hardware store 



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$130. 



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M.E.B. lets you add Disto incredible Super Add-ons. 




1 




Multi-Board 
Adapter 





^■.■^•^R■^;■x*:■;^ 



Mini Contr 



Radio Shack/Tandy controller compatible 
Works on all COCOs with or without Multi-Pack 
2 DOS switcher 
Accepts 24 or 28 pin EPROMs 
Low power draw and Gold plated edge connectors 



This Muti-Board is an adapter that plugs 
In any Dlsto Super Controller, Ramdisk or MEB Adapter. 

It Includes a new and improved Printer Port (Centronics compatible), 

a faster Real Time Clock (works at 2MHl) and a true RS-232 

Serial Port (external 12 volt AC adapter required). DB25 cable included 

It fits neatly inside the metal case and is still within Tandy's power 
limits. It also works with or without a Multi-Pak 



• Under OS-9: 

• Buffered Read/Write sector achieved without halting the CPU, 

• Continual use of keyboard even while reading or writing to disk. 

• System's clock no longer looses time during Read & Write. 

• NMI is blocked and transferred to IRQ in software for low CPU overhead. 

• Completely Interrupt driven for fast & smooth Multi-Tasking operations. 

• Drivers written by KEVIN DARLING 

• Now Available at your Local Radio Shack store PN 90-2009 







RS-232 SuperPack 

A Stand-Alone (Multi-Pak required) adapter 
that gives the user a true RS-232 Serial Port. 
Completely compatible with 0S9'$ ACIA software. 
Compatible with software that requires 
the Tandy Deluxe RS-232 Pack. 
DB-25 cable included. 



SUPER ADD-ONS 

Real Time Clock 
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Mini EPROM Programmer 

Hard Disk Interface 

Hard Disk Interface 
with RS-232 

Super RAM 3 ZeroK Board 
MEB Adapter 





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We accept phone orders • Call for Canadian Prices 
Include S&H of $4 or $8 if order exceeds $75 

Sorry: No personal cheques 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 55 



back up is referred to as the source disk. If 
you have only one drive, place the source 
disk in the drive and enter BACKUP 0 TO 
0. The drive will start, and soon you will be 
prompted to place the destination disk in the 
drive. Wait for the red light on the drive to 
go out before switching the disks in the 
drive. As the backup process continues and 
information is copied from one disk to the 
other, you will be prompted to alternately 
place the source, and then the destination 
disk, in the drive. When you see the OK 
prompt, the backup is complete. Now you 
should have two copies of the original disk. 

With a two-drive system, place the source 
disk in Drive 0 and the destination disk in 
Drive 1. Then enter BACKUP 0 TO 1. The 
backup will begin. You will not be asked to 
switch the disks in the drives. Note that you 
could have placed the source disk in Drive 
1 and the destination disk in Drive 0 and 
entered BACKUP 1 TO 0. It is just a matter 
of preference and convenience. 

As our society places more and more trust 
in the reliability of computer systems, more 
people succumb to disk crashes and are 
forced into the realization that backing up 
of data is very important. Something as 
minor as an electronic glitch can render 
thousands of bytes of data useless almost 
instantly. And, as with lightning, we never 
know when disaster will strike. It is good 
insurance to back up any disks on which you 
have important programs and data. Always 
have at least two copies of these important 
files and store them in separate places. The 
exceptions to this rule are copy-protected 
third-party programs and quick scrap pro- 
grams you write. In most cases, no provision 
is made for backup of copy-protected soft- 
ware. In addition, 1 usually have several junk 
disks with bits and pieces of programs on 
them. However, I back up any disk that is 
important or that I want to keep. 

On a related matter, I suggest using write- 
protect tabs whenever possible. These are 
just little pieces of tape that cover the notch 
on the side of a disk. But they are important 
— they make the disk so that it cannot be 
written to. (If you attempt to format or save 
data to a disk which has been "write- 



protected", you will get a WP [Write Pro- 
tect] Error.) 1 have on several occasions 
formatted the wrong disk and lost important 
data. Always be conscious of the safety of 
your data and programs. 

*^Is there a simple way to transfer my 
• programs from tape to disk? 

For BASIC programs, all that should be 
necessary is to CLOAD the program from 
tape and then save it to the disk using the 
5f\\fE"filename" command. Machine lan- 
guage programs are more challenging. If you 
know the start, end and execution addresses 
of the ML program, just CLOADM the 
program and then save it to disk by entering 
5AVEM "filename ", start address, end 
address, execution address". If you donH 
know the addressas, you can find them by 
CLDADMing the file and entering the follow- 
ing pokes to determine each address: 

Start AddresS: 

PRINT PEEK(4B7)*25G + PEEK ( 4BB ) 
End Address: 

PRINT PEEK ( 12G ) *25G + PEEK ( 127 )-l 
Execute Addressr 

PRINT PEEK(157)*25G + PEEI<(158) 

Once you have found this information, 
save the program to disk as described above. 



Magnetic and Electrical 
Disturbances 



^ What magnetic fields should I avoid with 
• my disks and tapes? 

The idea of a computer disk — a simple 
piece of material capable of holding quite a 



bit of information — is somewhat magical. 
But the same magic that allows us to save 
information, magnetism^ can also destroy 
that data. Care must be taken when storing 
and handling tapes and disks to ensure they 
do not come into contact with magnetic 
fields. The following guidelines will help 
keep your data safe from this hazard: 

• Set your equipment up so that the re- 
corder, drives and tape and disk storage 
boxes are placed away from the left side of 
the monitor. The flyback transformer is 
located there. Since it puts out a lot of 
interference, it can cause I/O Errors. 

• Never place a tape or disk on top of the 
monitor. (Keep at least six inches away.) 

• Always keep disks in their sleeves and in 
an upright position in a covered case. 
Cassettes should be kept in their boxes when 
not in use. 

• Never touch the tape within a cassette or 
the actual disk media through the small oval 
hole in the jacket. 

• Write on your disk labels before placing 
the label on the disk. 

• Don't store tape and disk cases on or near 
the floor (vacuum cleaner motors induce 
magnetic fields that love to erase disks.) 

• Those cute little refrigerator magnets for 
holding notes are wonderful, but keep them 
away from your computer area. It is easy to 
put a tape or disk on a messy desk only to 
find you laid it on one of those magnets. 

The best way to send tapes and disks 
through the mail is by sandwiching them 
between two stiff pieces of cardboard and 
putting them inside a manila envelope. 
Some people choose to wrap the disks and 
tapes in aluminum foil to bounce off rays. 
While the appropriate people may not notice 
it, it sometimes helps to write "Magnetic 
Media — Do Not X-Ray" in bright letters 
on the package. 

Speaking of X-rays, always ask the at- 
tendant to hand-check tapes and disks when 
you come to the X-ray machines at the 
airport. This will help you avoid any unplea- 



ARE YOU READY FOR CHRISTMAS ? 
IS YOUR CoCo READY FOR CHRISTMAS ? 

WITH ALL THOSE CARDS & LETTERS TO WRITE YOU SHOULDN'T HAVE TO SPEND YOUR TIME ADDRESSING ENVELOPES. 
LET YOUR CoCo DO IT. NOT JUSTTHIS YEAR BUT EVERY YEAR & ALLTHRU THE YEAR- USE 

THE CoCo fijr^ ADDRESS BOOK 

THE CoCo ADDRESS BOOK KEEPS TRACK OF RAINBOW NAMES & ADDRESSES I & PHONE NUMBERS 

IN CASE YOU WANT TO CALL) PRINTS LABELS cenwrajTic* BY THE FILE FULL OR SINGLY AS YOU SELECT 

THEM, YOUR CHOICE. THIS YEAR GIVE YOURSELF, YOUR FAMILY * YOUR COMPUTER - - A XMAS GIFT 

THE CoCo ADDRESS BOOK 

RUNS ON 32K CoCo 1,2 or 3 REQUIRES 1 DISK DRIVE & PRINTER 
SENDASASE FOR MORE INFORMATION OR $20.00 + $2.50 S&H FOR THE PROGRAM 

BOB'S SOFTWARE 

P- O. Box 391 Cleveland, Ohio dd1Q7-Q391 



56 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



sant surprises when you arrive at your 
destination. 

Finally, always keep backups — just in 
case. A little care and common sense goes 
a long way toward ensuring your computing 
enjoyment. 

yCan / use a Co Co with a 220-volt power 
• source, like those in foreign countries? 

Strictly speaking, no. The Color Compu- 
ter produced for the American market is 
designed to run on 120 volts AC at a fre- 
quency of 60 Hz. While voltage converters 
are readily available that will allow the 
operation of 120 VAC devices on 220 VAC 
circuits, the frequency of the supplied power 
in most foreign countries is 50 Hz, and 
frequency converters are far less common 
and relatively expensive. The frequency 
difference may not present that great a 
problem, but using the CoCo at the lower 
frequency may cause the machine to run 
much hotter. While I don't recommend 
using an American CoCo in foreign coun- 
tries, there are guidelines that may allow you 
to do this in a safe manner. For more 
information on the subject, refer to "CoCo- 
ing Abroad" (November '87, Page 32) by 
Marty Goodman and Don Hutchison. 



Hardware for Your CoCo 



yHow many different types of printers are 
• available for the CoCo? 

Printers currently come in three basic 
types: dot-matrix, daisy-wheel and laser. 
Most flexible for CoCo users is the dot- 
matrix printer. It prints both graphics and 
text, and most newer dot-matrix printers 
offer letter-quality modes that give excellent 
printouts. The daisy-wheel printers are 
limited because they do not offer bit-image 
graphics. Laser printers are priced out of 
range for most CoCo users, and while they 
offer excellent text output in a variety of 
fonts, there are no commercial graphics 



packages available for use with the CoCo. 

The discontinued Color Graphic Printer 
(CGP-220) from Radio Shack was great for 
anyone interested in graphics. It worked well 
with the new graphics packages for the 
CoCo 3. The CGP-220 was an offshoot of 
dot-matrix technology. Rather than driving 
a pin onto an inked ribbon to print a dot, 
this printer shoots jets of different colored 
ink to form dots on the page. Many newer 
dot-matrix printers offer color capability 
through the use of special ribbons. For more 
information about the different types of 
printers, see Ed Ellers' "Printer Overview," 
(May '88, Page 110). 

cpHow can I figure out the printer baud rate 
• for a program? 

When the Color Computer is turned dn, 
the internal setting for printer baud rate is 
automatically set to its default value of 600 
baud* Most CoCo-compatible Radio Shack 
printers have D IP-switch settings for higher 
values, allowing quicker printing times. It is 
possible, for instance, to set the Tandy 
DM P- 130 printer to receive data at 2400 
baud. In order for this to work, however, 
you must also set the computer's internal 
sending rate to 2400 baud. Failure to do this 
will result in garbage printouts. A similar 
situation will occur if you are using a serial- 
to-parallel converter and it is set to some- 
thing other than 600 baud. To change the 
CoCo's sending rate, issue the appropriate 
poke from the following: 

POKE 150,1 9600 baud 

POKE 150,7 4800 baud 

POKE 150,18 2400 baud 

POKE 150,41 1200 baud 

POKE 150,87 600 baud 

These pokes work equally well from within 
a BASIC program or entered directly from 
the keyboard. Some programmers use these 
pokes in their programs published in THE 
RAINBOW. We try to make a reference to 
these pokes in accompanying articles. In 
some cases, however, you might have to 



search through the program for pokes to 
memory Location 1 50. When you find them, 
just change the poked value to the approp- 
riate value listed. For more information on 
printers and how they can be used, see my 
article "Printer Diversions and Conver- 
sions" (August '88, Page 142). 

*%What is an EPROM, and how do you 
• "plug it in " and use it? Do I need to be 
a hacker to work with E PRO Ms? 

The Color Computer uses two kinds of 
memory for its operation: RAM and ROM. 
RAM (Random Access Memory) can be 
read from as well as written to. This is the 
area of memory that holds the programs you 
type or load into the CoCo. ROM (Read 
Only Memory) is programmed at the fac- 
tory. It holds the routines necessary for your 
CoCo to recognize the commands you give 
it. The contents of a ROM cannot be 
changed. 

On the other hand, an EPROM (Erasable 
Programmable ROM) works just like a 
ROM except that its contents can be 
changed. An EPROM is an integrated 
circuit chip that can be burned with a 
program and then erased and repro- 
grammed later. Many CoCo hackers alter 
the contents of the original CoCo ROM, and 
program the new routines into an EPROM. 
Then they replace the original ROM in the 
machine with the new EPROM chip, mak- 
ing their changes permanent. 

You don't really have to be a hacker to 
replace a ROM with an EPROM. Basically, 
all you do is pull one chip out of a socket 
and put in the new chip. On the CoCo 3, this 
is a little more difficult because the ROM is 
soldered to the circuit board. In this case, 
first desolder the ROM, replace it with a 
socket and then plug in the new chip. In any 
event, while such replacement does not 
require that you be a hacker, some knowl- 
edge of electronic equipment is most helpful. 
You should also be familiar with the precau- 
tions used to make sure you don't damage 
the chips. Novices would be well advised to 
have knowledgeable friends show them how 
to make the change. 



rtvife I n -f 



Not just another checkbook program but a user -friendly, menu driven, disk based 
information system. Keep track of deposits, checks, ATM withdrawals and other 
account transactions. De-fine up to 36 categories to monitor expenses. Set up 
automatic transactions -for such items as direct deposits and deductions. Balance 
your account(s) in minutes! Other -features include multi-drive capability, display 
and print options, check search on any -field, edit and delete capability and more. 



CoCo 3 compatible 
Printer optional 



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CERTIFICATION 
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P.O. Box 210975 
Columbia, SC 29221-0975 
(803) 788-5995 



Send check or M.D. for 
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COD orders: add $2.00 
(SC res. add 57. sales tax) 



Reviewed in RAINBOW, February 1988. 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 57 



the rainbow is a teaching environment and we realize that the 
majority of our readers will always be beginners. In our 
continuing effort to always keep the new user in mind, and in 
addition to the many beginner feature articles and programs 
published in every issue, "Novices Niche" contains shorter 
basic program listings that entertain as well as help the new 
user gain expertise in all aspects of the Color Computer: 
graphics, music, games, utilities, education, programming, etc. 



Now or Never 

By John Musumeci 




You'll think you've been transported to romantic Venice, 
Italy, when you load and run Mando. The program sketches 
a lovesick Romeo standing in a gondola and clutching a 
mandolin. After the scene is drawn and painted, the serenade 
begins. CoCo imitates the sound of a mandolin — you can 
actually hear the tremolo. 

The listing: MflNDO 

0 'MANDO 

2 ****** MANDO ***** 

3 i ***************** 

4 ***** WRITTEN **** 

5 i ****** BY ******* 

6 ' ***************** 

7 ■* JOHN MUSUMECI * 
S 1 ***************** 

9 CLEAR500:CLS 

10 PMODE3,1:PCLS:SCREEN1,0 

11 B$="BM42,92;C4G8L5H5U5E5R15F5 
M65 , 125 ;R90E50R10D10L10D5R5D10L2 
0D5G30L25H5L5G5L10H5L5G5L10H5L5G 
5L5M42,92" 

12 P$="BM63 , 83 ; C4H3M77 , 77 ; F3M63 , 
83 ;BM66,82;M85,150;E3F3R4M74,80; 
BM68,93 ;M75, 84 ;BM70 , 97 ;M77 , 90 ;BM 
73 , 108 ;M80 , 100 ; BM75 , 115 ;M82 , 108 ; 
BM77 , 122 ;M84 , 113 ;BM80 , 132 ;M87, 12 




4 ; BM82 , 140 ;M88, 130 ;BM85 ,146;M91, 
138 7" 

13 W$= ,, BM0 / 137;C4R25U2E5R5F10R5E 
10BR105;R15F5R5E5R10F5R10E5R30" 

14 M$="BM105 , 125 ;M115 , 90 ;U20G5R1 
0BM115 , 65 ;G10D3R15BM115 , 65 ;R17BD 
5D20NL17D35BM132 , 65 /R8F3BM132 , 65 
; BD5R10BM118 , 78 ;E3R7G3L5M118 , 78 ; 
F4R3E7M150 , 67 ; F2E5H6G5F2M12 9 , 75 ; 
BM110, 125;M125,100;D25" 

15 DRAW B$ 

16 DRAW P$ 

17 CIRCLE (69, 74) ,8,4 

18 DRAW W$ 



58 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



19 DRAW M$ 

2J3 CIRCLE (12 4, 60) , 8 , 4 : PSET ( 122 , 5 
7,4) :PSET(126,57,4) 

21 CIRCLE (124 ,62) ,4,4, .12:DRAW"B 
M117,6p;F3R3E2RF3R2E2" 

22 DRAW"BMllp,55;R2pNR7U4Ll^D4" 

23 PAINT (2 , 140) ,3,4: PAINT (210 , 8,0 
) ,4, 4: PAINT (60, 125) ,4,4 

24 PAINT (2, 2) ,2, 4: PAINT (120, 120) 
,2, 4: PAINT (70, 85) ,4,4 

25 PAINT (75, 100) ,4, 4: PAINT (80, 11 
5) ,4, 4: PAINT (70, 75) ,4,4: DRAWBMl 
14,93;R19":PAINT(117,91) ,4,4 

26 PLAY"T1203" 

27 1=1 



28 READ I$,Z 

29 IF I$="ZZ"THEN 37 

30 FOR X=l TO Z 

31 PLAY 1$ 

32 NEXT X 

33 1=1+1 

34 GOT028 

35 DATA 04D,4,D,4,C#,4,03A,8,A,1 
2,O4C#,4,C#,4,O3B,4,G,20,O4C#,4, 
C#,4,03B,4,G,8,G,12,E,4,F#,4,G,4 
,A,28,A,4,B-,20,G,4,O4D,4,O3B-,4 
,A,20,F+,4,E,4,D,4,A,20,F+,4,E,4 
,D,4,D,20 

36 DATA ZZ,1 

37 FORX=1TO3000:NEXTX:END 



Bouncing off the Walls 

By Etienne St Jean 



CoCo3 



This short program uses the PRLETTE command to 
demonstrate all 64 colors on the CoCo 3. It animates a 
bouncing ball that careens off the borders of the CoCo 3 
screen, leaving a patterned trail behind it. The ball changes 
colors at each move and the background changes color when 
the ball touches the border. 

The listing: BflLLDEMO 



BALL DEMO 
BY 

ETIENNE ST-JEAN 



P 1 
10 1 

20 1 

30 1 

40 POKE65497,0 
50 CLEAR1000 
60 D=2:X=50 

70 PALETTECMP: PALETTE 1,0 

80 HSCREEN2:HCIRCLE(100,100) ,30, 

1:HPAINT(100,100) ,1 

90 HBUFF1,1890 

100 HGET(70,70)-(130,130) ,1:HCLS 
110 M=M+1:IFM=63 THENM=0 : ELSE PA 
LETTE0 ,M 

115 IFI=0 ANDD=2 THEN GOTO140 EL 
SEIF 1=0 ANDD=4 THEN GOTO240 ELS 
EIF X=0 ANDD=1 THEN GOTO240 ELSE 
IF X=0 ANDD=2 THEN GOTO 2 90 
120 IF I=255ANDD=1THEN GOTO190 E 
LSEIF 1=2 55ANDD=3 THEN GOTO290 EL 
SEIF X=130ANDD=4THEN GOTO190 ELS 
EIF X=130ANDD=3THENGOTO140 
140 Z=255 

150 HPUT(I,X)-(I+60,X+60) ,1,PSET 
155 D=l:X=X-4: 1=1+6 : IFX<0 THEN X 




=0:ELSE IFI>255 THEN 1=255 
160 IFI>250 THENI=255:GOTO110 
170 IFX<5 THENX=0:GOTO110 

180 Z=Z-5:POKE140,Z:EXEC43345:Q= 
Q+1:IFQ=63 THEN Q=0:ELSE PALETTE 
1,Q:ELSE GOTO150 

181 GOTO150 
190 Z=255 

200 HPUT(I,X)-(I+60,X+60) ,1,PSET 

205 D=2:X=X-5: 1=1-7 :IFX<0 THEN X 

=0ELSE IFK0 THEN 1=0 

210 IF I<5 THENI=0:GOTO110 

220 IF X<5 THENX=0:GOTO110 

230 Z=Z-5:POKE140,Z:EXEC43345:Q= 
Q+l : IFQ=63THENQ=0 : E LSE PALETTE 1 , Q 
:ELSE GOTO200 

231 GOTO200 
240 Z=255 

250 HPUT(I,X)-(I+60,X+60) ,1,PSET 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 59 



255 D=3:X=X+8: 1=1+9 :IFX>13p THEN 

X=130 ELSE IFI>255 THEN 1=255 
260 IFI>250 THENI=255:G0T011J3 
270 IFX>124 THENX=130:GOTO110 

280 Z=Z-5:POKE140,Z:EXEC43345:Q= 
Q+1:IFQ=63 THEN Q=0 : ELSEPALETTE1 
,Q:ELSE GOTO250 

281 GOTO250 
290 Z=255 



3pj3 HPUT(I,X)-(I+60,X+60) ,1,PSET 
305 D=4:X=X+8: 1=1-7 :IFX>2 60 THEN 

D=260: ELSE IFK0 THEN 1=0 
310 IFK5 THENI=0:GOTO110 
320 IFX>124 THENX=130:GOTO110 
330 Z=Z-5:POKE140,Z:EXEC43345:Q= 
Q+1:IFQ=63 THENQ=0 : ELSEPALETTE1 , 
Q: ELSE GOTO300 
340 GOTO300 



Like Pulling Taffy 



CoCo 3 



By Tio Babich 



Despite its apparent simplicity, this program, Taffy Ball, 
will create a very smoothly animated bouncing ball — that 
bounces as if it's made of sticky taffy. Actually, the program 
gives you two options: In addition to watching the taffy ball 
bounce, you can watch two taffy balls revolve around each 
other. For fun, experiment with the "speed" valve in Line 5. 
The higher the number, the faster the animation. Taffy Ball 
operates via timing idiosyncrasies in the CoCo 3, but it can 
work on CoCos 1 and 2 (although you won't get a bouncing 
ball) by changing Line 60 to this: 

60 IF fi$="2" THEN POKE 65494,0 ELSE POKE 65495,0 
The listing: TAFFYBAL 

5 SPEED=2 
10 CLS0 

2 J3 PRINT " TAFFY - BALL- BOUNCE - CO CO 3 



it 



3j3 PRINT : PRINT "SELECT : " : PRINT" 1 . 

TAFFY BALL BOUNCE 
4j3 PRINT" 2. REVOLVING BALLS" 
5j3 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN50 
6J3 IF A$="2" THEN POKE 65496,0 E 
LSE POKE 65497,0 

7J3 SCREEN1,1:PMODE4:PCLS1:COLOR0 
90 FOR G=0 TO 1 STEP .1 
100 CIRCLE (128,70) ,40, G,G 
110 NEXT G 

120 POKE 140, SPEED 'BOUNCE SPEED 

130 PM0DE1:SCREEN1,1 

140 EXEC43345 

150 PMODE3:SCREENl,l 

160 GOTO 130 



Doodle Ditly 

By Bill Bernico ' 1 

DoodlerS is a fun, menu-driven CoCo 3 program to take 
your mind off databases, spreadsheets and other seriousness 
for a while. Just load and run — you need no instructions. 
Kids will like this. 

The listing: DD0DLER3 



1 'COLORFUL GRAPHICS DOODLER 

(C) 1988 FROM 
BILL BERNICO SOFTWARE 

2 1 A COLORFUL BREAK FROM THE 

SERIOUS SIDE OF COMPUTERS 

3 ON BRK GOTO 19 : RGB : HSCREEN2 : HC 
LS8 : HCOLOR6 , 8 : HPRINT (15,2), "THE 
DOODLER" : HCOLOR4 , 8 : HPRINT (15,5), 
"(1) CIRCLES": HPRINT (15, 7) ,"(2) 
SQUARES " : HPRINT ( 15 , 9 ) , " ( 3 ) DOTS " 
:HPRINT(15,11) ,"(4) PLUSES" :HPRI 
NT (15, 13) ,"(5) END 



4 HCOLOR2:HLINE(llj3,10)-(220,140 
) ,PSET,B:HLINE (105,5) -(225,145) , 
PSET , B : HPAINT (107,7) ,1,2: F0RV=1T 
0300 : NEXT : PLAY"O4T60B" : HCOLOR3 , 8 
:HPRINT(15, 16) , "SELECT (1-5) 

5 S$=INKEY$:IF S$=""THEN 5 

6 IF S$="5"THEN19 

7 S=VAL(S$) :X=10:Y=10:Y=8:Z=2:HS 
CREEN2 : HCLS8 : HCOLOR4 , 8 

8 ON S GOSUB15,16,17,18 

9 Q=Q+1:IFQ=84 THEN 14 

10 X=X+2 6:IFX>299THENX=10 

11 Y=Y+2 6:IFY>180THENY=8 

12 Z=Z+1:IF Z>7THENZ=0 

13 0=RND ( 5 ) : N=RND ( 12 ) : PLAY STR$ ( 
0) : PLAY" V30T60" : PLAY STR$(N):GOT 
08 

14 FORT=1TO1000:NEXTT:RUN 

15 HCIRCLE(X,Y) , 19 :HPAINT (X, Y) ,Z 
, 4 : RETURN 

16 HLINE(X,Y)-(X+26,Y+26) ,PSET,B 
: HPAINT (X+2,Y+2) ,Z,4:RETURN 

17 HCIRCLE(X,Y) ,1,Z: RETURN 

18 HCIRCLE(X,Y) ,2, Z: RETURN 

19 WIDTH32 : END 



60 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



Psychedelia 

By Alex Abraham 



CoCo 3 



Let Psycho hypnotize you with its ever-changing tapestry 
of Hi-Res graphics. Psycho pokes the memory of the CoCo 
3 into random and colorful lines. But give the program about 
five minutes to compose itself — first it draws itself line-by- 
line and then begins the metamorphosis. 

The listing: PSYCHO 

10 1 The Psychedelic Screen 
20 1 By Alex Abraham 



30 PALETTE 0,0 
40 CLS 
50 ATTR3 , 0 
60 HSCREEN 2 

70 FOR X=&H60000 TO &H67FFF 

80 Y=RND(255) 

90 LPOKE X,y 

100 NEXT X 

110 FOR X=0 TO 15 

120 Y=RND(63) 

130 PALETTE X,Y 

140 NEXT X 

150 GOTO 110 



All Things in Progression 

By Keiran Kenny 




Progressive Quizzer is a quizzing program that works on 
the Charade principle: You are given clues on a person, place 
or thing. If you guess the answer on the first clue, you earn 
the top score. If you give an incorrect answer or just press 
ENTER to pass, you are given another clue. This goes on until 
either you answer correctly or all the clues have been given. 
The value of the score is one more than the number of clues 
remaining after you guess correctly. 

To mount your own quiz with subjects of your own 
choosing, follow my examples in the DfiTfi lines 1000 through 
2000. The identity of the first subject, Paderewski, is in Line 
1000. Four clues follow, and in Line 1050 the DfiTfi X flag 
marks the end of the subject. Lines 1060 through 1100 and 
lines 1110 through 1 160 are the DfiTfi lines for the second and 
third subjects. 

You can have as many subjects or question "clusters" as 
you want. Just make sure that each block of clues is followed 
by DfiTfi X, as in Line 1050, and that your final DfiTfi line reads 
DfiTfi ZZ. And, to be fair, your first clue should contain 
sufficient information to permit a correct guess first time up. 

The listing: PROGQUIZ 

0 1 PROGQUIZ 1 by Keiran Kenny, 

Sydney, 1988. 
10 CLS 

20 QZ=QZ+1 : READA$ : IFA$="ZZ"THEN1 
60 

30 PRINTS 2 2 8, "PROGRESSIVE QUIZ , 
NO. "QZ;CHR$(8) "." 

40 PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 8 ) "PRESS ANY K 
EY. " 

50 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" "THEN50ELSECL 
S 

60 READB$ : IFB$="X"THENPRINT"ANSW 
ER: "A$" . " : GOTO130ELSEN=N+1 : PRIN 



TB$ 

70 INPUTC$ 

80 IFC$=" " THENPRINT " PAS S . " : GOT06 
0 

90 IFC$=A$THENPRINT"RIGHT! ":M=N: 
GOTO100ELSEPRINT"WRONG" : GOTO60 
100 READB$ ; IFB$="X"THEN110ELSEN= 
N+1:GOTO100 

110 IFM=N THENP=1ELSEP=N-M+1 

120 Q=Q+P: PRINT "THERE WERE"N"CLU 

ES. YOU GUESSED", "THE RIGHT ANSW 

ER IN"M;CHR$(8) "." 

130 PRINT " S CORE : " P ; CHR$ ( 8 )".",, " 

TOTAL SCORE:"Q;CHR$(8) "." 

140 PRINT@488, "PRESS ANY KEY."; 

150 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" " THEN 1 50 ELS E 

CLS : N=0 : M=0 : P=0 : GOT02 0 

160 PRINT@192,"END OF QUIZ. TO R 

EPEAT PRESS <R>OR END PRESS <E>. 
ii 

170 K$=INKEY$:IFK$=""THEN170 

180 IFK$="R"THENRUN 

190 IFK$="E"THENCLS : END 

200 GOTO170 

1000 DATA PADEREWSKI 

1010 DATA I WAS BORN IN POLAND I 

N 1860 ANDBECAME A FAMOUS PIANIS 

T. 

1020 DATA I LIVED IN FRANCE FOR 
MUCH OF MYLIFE BUT RETURNED TO P 
OLAND AFTER WORLD WAR 1. 

1030 DATA I BECAME PRESIDENT OF 
POLAND IN 1919. 

1040 DATA I DIED IN 1941 AND HAV 
E BECOME A SYMBOL OF THE POLISH 
PEOPLE'S STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDA 
NCE. 

1050 DATA X 

1060 DATA ALEXANDER 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 61 



DATA I THOUGHT I HAD CONQUE 
HE WORLD AND I WEPT BECAU 
ERE WERE NO MORE WORLDS TO 
UER. 

1080 DATA 11 1 WAS EDUCATED BY ARI 
STOTLE AND I CONQUERED PERSIA, E 
GYPT AND INDIA. 
1090 DATA LEGEND SAYS I CUT THE 
GORDIAN KNOT . 
1100 DATA X 
1110 DATA WASHINGTON 
1120 DATA I WAS BORN IN VIRGINIA 
IN 1732 AND PLAYED A DECISIVE 




ROLE IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF T 
HE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 
113 0 DATA I LED THE AMERICANS TO 
VICTORY AT TRENTON AND YORKSTO 
WN. 

114 0 DATA I WAS TWICE ELECTED PR 
ESI DENT OFTHE UNITED STATES. 
1150 DATA I RETIRED IN 1793 AND 
LIVED IN VIRGINIA UNTIL MY DEAT 
H IN 1799. 
1160 DATA X 
2000 DATA ZZ 



CoCo 3 



255 Ways to Clear Your Screen 

By Lee Deuell 

CLS255 uses a special poke (POKE &HF6BC,255) to allow 
CoCo 3 owners to customize their 40-column screens in 255 
ways. It cycles through foreground-background color 
combinations and even a "notebook" mode (the screen looks 
like a page of ruled paper). On running, just press a key to 
change the combinations. The listing is annotated with 
remark (REM or ') lines; if you want, you can delete these 
lines to shorten the program. 

The listing: CLS255 

2 'CLS 255 By Lee Deuell, (C) 

8-12-88 
12 RGB: WIDTH 40 



16 

20 
24 

28 
32 
36 
40 
44 



Y=l 

ON BRK GOTO 44 
POKE &HF6BC,2 55 
FOR X=Y TO 2 55 
CLS X 
EXEC 44539 
NEXT X 

LOCATE 13 ,10: PRINT 
CLS" X;: PRINT CHR$(8); 
LOCATE 1,21: 
C to continue 



or 



"This is 
PRINT".": 
PRINT "Press 
any key to end 



48 EXEC 44539 :I$=INKEY$: IF I$= 

"" THEN 48 

54 IF I$= "C" THEN Y=X + l:GOTO 

28 



Counting the Words 

By Rebecca Kastack 




Word Counter is a utility that counts the number of words 
(groups of letters bordered by spaces) in any data file you 
specify — for cassette users only. This program comes in 
handy for those times when you are required to write a paper 
with a word limit. If you hate counting words as much as 
I do, you will appreciate its talents! I designed Word Counter 
to handle data files created by Color Scripsit II, but it should 
work just as well with any other CoCo word processing file, 
as well as with data files you create yourself. Just type in and 
run the program — it works on all CoCos. It will ask you 
for a filename and then request that you position the tape, 
press Play and then ENTER. CoCo displays the contents of 
the files while counting the words, and then displays the total. 
If the program breaks with an error message, type GOTO 60 
and press enter. This will usually fix it. But you may run 
across some errors that can't be fixed that way. An FM Error 
means the CoCo is trying to load the wrong file. On an AO 
Error, type CLOSE tt-1 and start over. On an IE Error, type 



GOTO 150 for a fix. With I/O Errors, you probably have a 
bad tape, so try turning up the volume. 



The listi 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



ng: WORDCNT 

************************** 

*<WORD COUNTER> 
*BY REBECCA KASTACK 

* BOX 47, SOUTH LANCASTER 

* ONTARIO, CAN, K0C 2C0 
************************** 

10 CLS : LINEINPUT" FILENAME : 11 ;F$ : I 
F LEN(F$)>8 THEN 10 
20 PRINT M POSITION TAPE; PRESS PL 
AY 11 

30 PRINT"PRESS ENTER WHEN READY" 

40 INPUT A 

50 OPEN "I",#-1,F$ 

60 IF EOF (-1) THEN 150 ELSE INP 

UT #-l,A$:A$=A$+" " 

70 PRINTA$;CHR$(255) ; 

80 IF LEFT$(A$ / 1)=".» OR A$= M " T 

HEN 60 

90 L=LEN(A$) :P=1 



62 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



100 I=INSTR(P,A$," ») 
110 IF 1=0 THEN 140 
120 IF I-P>0 THEN N=N+1 
13 j3 P=I+1:G0T0 100 



14 j3 GOTO 6j3 

150 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT "CONTAINS" 
;N;" WORDS," 
160 CLOSE #-1 



$0* 



Hit the Slopes! 

By Gary Osborne 




Downhill Racer is a nifty piece of "minimalist" program- 
ming that shouldn't take you long to type in. In this game 
you will become a skier and take on the treacherous slopes. 
Use your right joystick to maneuver left and right, and press 
the firebutton for a little "lift." 10 is a perfect score. 

Downhill Racer was written on a CoCo 3 and uses the 
BUTTON command. On a CoCo 2 you will have to change Line 
5 to read: 

5 U=U+4: IF(PEEK(65280)OR12B)=254 THEN U=U-4 

If you don't like the green/ black screen, then change the 
SCREEN 1,0 statement to SCREEN 1,1 in Line 3. 

Yes, it is possible to make a "perfect 10" — but it's not easy. 
Then again, perfection is never easy! See ya at the bottom! 

The listing: DOWNHILL 

1 PCLEAR8:CLS0:PRINT@2 34,"downhi 
11"CHR$(128) "racer" ;: DIME (9) :FOR 



Z=1T08:A(Z)=RND(195) :PLAY M T20ECV 
-":NEXT:T=p 

2 FORV=lT08:POKE1393,57-V:PMODEj3 
,V:PCLS:B=RND(195) :C=RND(195) :D= 
RND(19 5) :FORZ=j3T06j3STEP6j3:LINE(A 
(V) +Z , $ ) - (B+Z , 64 ) , PSET: LINE- (C+Z 
,128) , PSET: LINE- (D+Z, 191) ,PSET:N 
EXT: PAINT (A (V) +5,0) , 1, 1:NEXT: V=l 

3 PLAY"T6V15A" :U=0 : PMODE0 , V: SCRE 
ENl,j3:K=A(V) 

4 F0RZ=1T02:PUT(K+2J3,U)-(K+26,U+ 
9) ,E, NOT : NEXT : X=JOYSTK (0 ) : G=U : Y= 
K : I FX> 4 4 THENK=K+ 5ELSEIFX<22 THENK 
=K-5 

5 U=U+4 : IFBUTTON ( 0 ) =lTHENU=U-4 

6 IFU>191THENV=V+1:IFV=9THENCLS: 
PRINT"SCORE" (100-T)/lj3:EXEC44539 
:RUNELSE3 

7 IFPPOINT(K+17,U)=j30RPPOINT(K+2 
7,U)=j30RPPOINT(K+17,U+9)=j30RPPOI 
NT ( K+ 2 7 , U+9 ) =j3THENK= Y : U=G : PLAY " T 
25501V3P" : FORZ=lT03j3 : PLAY"V-AAA" 
: NEXT : T=T+5 : GOT04ELSE4 




CoCo Pong 

By Brent Dingle 

Here it is at last, a pong-type game for the CoCo 2 or 3. 
Press a key at the title or demo screen, grab a joystick, then 
grab a friend to compete against — or prepare for a grueling 
one-player match against the computer. The first one to nine 
wins! 

The listing: COCOPONG 



10 CLS : PRINT @10 7, "COCO PONG":PRI 
NT@142 , "BY" : PRINT@169 , "BRENT DI 
NGLE" 

20 FOR Q=*l TO 1000 : A$=INKEY$ : IF 
A$O flM THEN 40 ELSE NEXT Q 
30 PN=0:GOTO 90 

40 PRINT@28 8,"1 OR 2 PLAYER" ; : IN 
PUT PN:IF PN<0 OR PN>2 THEN 40 
50 PRINTS 2 8 8, "SPEED-UP POKE";: IN 
PUT A$:IF LEFT$(A$,1)<>"Y" THEN 
90 



60 INPUT"COCO 2 OR 3";A:IF A<2 0 
R A>3 THEN 50 ELSE IF A=3 THEN 8 

70 POKE 65495,0 :GOTO90 
80 POKE 65497,0 

90 N$ (0) ="D10R5U10L5" :N$ (1) ="R3D 
10L3R5 " : N$ ( 2 ) ="R5D4L5D6R5" : N$ ( 3 ) 
="R5D4L5R5D6L5 " : N$ ( 4 ) ="D4R5U4D10 
" :N$ (5) ="R5L5D4R5D6L5" :N$ (6) ="R5 
L5D4R5D6L5U6 " : N$ ( 7 ) = "R5D10 " : N$ ( 8 
) ="R5D4L5U4 D10R5U6 " : N$ ( 9 ) ="R5L5D 
4R5U4D10" 

100 PMODE0,1:SCREEN1,1:PCLS 

110 LINE (0 , 153 )- (254 , 170) ,PSET,B 

F:LINE (0,0) -(254,10) ,PSET,BF 

120 IF PN=0 THEN DRAW" BM108 , 157 ; 

C0;D10R3E2U6H2L3BR8R5L5D4R5L5D6R 

5BR3U10R4D4U4R4D10BR4BU2U6E2R2F2 

D6G2L2 ": COLORS 

130 DRAW"BM10,174;"+N$(0) :DRAW"B 

M238,174;»+N$(0) 

140 PCOPY 1 TO 2 

150 X=140:Y=RND(130)+19:MX=8:MY= 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 63 



3 : Vl= 2 J3 : S 1=J3 : S 2 =0 : V2 » 15)3 
16j0 J^=J0YSTK(j3) :J1=J0YSTK(1) 
17)3 J2«JOYSTK(2) :J3-JOYSTK(3) 
18J3 IF PN=J3 THEN 25)3 
19)3 V1=J1*2+1)3 

2)3)3 LINE(6,V1) -(15,V1+15) ,PSET,B 
F 

21) 3 IF PN=1 THEN 25)3 

22) 3 V2=J3*2+1)3 

23) 3 LINE(238,V2) -(247,V2+15) ,PSE 
T, BF 

24) 3 GOT03)3)3 

25) 3 IF Y<V2+3 AND V2>14 THEN V2= 
V2-5:ELSE IF Y>V2+3 AND V2<133 T 
HEN V2=V2+5 

26) 3 LINE(238,V2) -(247,V2+15) ,PSE 
T,BF 

27 p IF PN=1 THEN 3)3)3 

280 LINE(6,V2) -(15,V2+15) ,PSET,B 

F 

290 A$=INKEY$:IF A$<> ,M » THEN RUN 




3)2)3 PSET(X,Y,1) 

31) 3 IF PP0INT(X+MX,Y)=5 THEN MX= 
-MX 

32) 3 IF PP0INT(X,Y+MY)=5 THEN MY= 
-MY 

33) 3 IF X<15 OR X>238 THEN GOSUB 
35)3 

34) 3 X=X+MX : Y=Y+MY : PCOPY 2 TO 1:G 
OTO 16)3 

35) 3 PCOPY2 TO It IP X<15 THEN S2= 
S2+1:DRAW"BM23 8, 174 ; CfS ; "+N$ (S2-1 
) :DRAW"BM23 8,174;C1;"+N$(S2) 

36) 3 IF X>238 THEN Sl-Sl+1 : DRAW'B 
M1J8 , 174 ; C)3 ; H +N$ (Sl-1) : DRAW"BM1)3 , 
174;C1;"+N$(S1) 

37) 3 IF Sl-9 OR S2=9 THEN 39)3 

38) 3 PCOPY 1 TO 2: SOUND 1)3)3, 5 :SOU 
ND1 , 4 : X=14)3 : Y=RND ( 13 1) +19 : MX=-MX 
: MY=-MY : RETURN 

39) 3 IF PN=)3 THEN RUN ELSE A$=INK 
EY$:IF A$= ,MI THEN 3 9)3 ELSE 9)3 



Who You Gonna Call? 

By Tom Rochford 




Tele-Dir will run on any CoCo to keep track of your family, 
friends and acquaintances and all their telephone numbers. 
While it may be primitive programming, I find it delightfully 
simple and effective. The pokes in Line 10 create a borderless 
screen and give true lowercase in the CoCo 2. Just replace 
my dummy names and numbers in the DfiTfi statements with 
your own names and numbers. Be sure to make your last 
DflTfi statement read XXX, as this is a dummy statement to 
return a "not found" message if the name is not in your 
program. 

The listing: TELE-DIR 

1 REM TOM ROCHFORD 

2 REM 7101 CLARENDON RD #3 

3 REM BETHESDA, MD 20814 
10 POKE359 / 57:POKE65314 / 85 
20 CLS 

30 PRINT: PRINT 

40 PRINT" TELEPHONE DIRECTO 

RY" 

50 PRINT: PRINT 

55 SOUND100,1 

60 INPUT 11 ENTER NAME" ;N$ 

70 CLS 

80 PRINT: PRINT 
90 RE ADA $ 

100 IFA$="XXX"THENGOTO150 
110 IFA$ON$THEN90 



120 PRINT@128, STRING? (32, CHR$ (17 
5)) 

130 PRINTA$ ,M S NUMBER : " : RE ADA $ : P 
RINTA$ 

140 PRINTSTRING$(32 / CHR$(175)) :G 
OTO160 

150 PRINTN$" NOT FOUND—TRY AG A I 
N" : FORT=1TO1000 : NEXTT : CLS : RESTOR 
E:GOT055 
160 RESTORE 

165 PRINT 11 PRESS <ENTER> FOR NEXT 

INQUIRY" 
170 EXEC44539 
180 GOT055 

190 DATA POPE JOHN, VAT-6900, MICK 
EY MOUSE, 543-1234, DONALD DUCK, 56 
6-4321, JACK RIPPER, 123-4567 
200 DATA HARRY HOUDINI ,000-0000 , 
QUEEN VICTORIA, 765-43 21, GEORGE W 
ASHINGTON, (202)555-9999 
500 DATAXXX 

Submissions to "Novices Niche" are welcome from everyone. We 
like to run a variety of short programs that can be typed in at one 
sitting and are useful, educational and fun. Keep in mind, although 
the short programs are limited in scope, many novice programmers 
find it enjoyable and quite educational to improve the software 
written by others. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk. We're sorry, but 
we cannot key in program listings. All programs should be 
supported by some editorial commentary, explaining how the 
program works. If your submission is accepted for publication, the 
payment rate will be established and agreed upon prior to 
publication. 



64 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



1 F e atur e 



CoCo 3 




Ever wondered how your RGB 
monitor determines colors? 



An RGB 

Demonstration 



By Dave Jenkins 




This program lets CoCo 3 owners 
see how colors are determined 
for their RGB monitors. The 

colors for CoCo 3's composite monitor, 
or television screens, are different from 
the colors for the RGB monitor. These 
colors vary because the screens have 
different hardware. This program is 
designed for the RGB monitor. While it 
will work with a composite monitor or 
TV, the colors will not be correct. 

The RGB monitor uses 64 different 
colors, 0 to 63. Six digital bits contain 
this information. The RGB hardware 
looks at these six bits and determines 
which colors are on (bit = 1) or off (bit 
= 0). There are two bits for each of the 
primary colors* red, blue and green. For 
each color, the high-order bit represents 
a light shade and the low-order bit, a 
dark shade. All 64 available colors are 
created by mixing these various shades. 

RGB Demo displays a block at the 
top of the screen that shows the number, 
decimal value and color represented by 
the bit. The color of a second block 
indicates whether the bit is off (a red 
block) or on (a white block). 

Dave Jenkins, an engineer at WNIN 
FM/TV, has been using his Color 
Computer for six years. 

January 1989 THE RAINBOW 65 




HOWARD MEDICAL COMPUTERS 



I: 1690 N. Elston • Chicago, IL 60622 • orders (800) 443-1444 • inquiries and order status (312) 278-1440 

Showroom Hours 8-5 M-F. 10-3 SAT 



< 



0 



I*' 



★ 5 STAR FINAL 



JANUARY '89 



VERY COLD 



HMC CUTS 515 to ®266 



»• » 



Hundreds of $ off Monitors sighted as Major Factor. HMC is reported to 
have made a special purchase on Magnavox monitors. These items, listed, 
are being offered at remarkable savings. 

MAGNAVOX 7622 12" Amber Screen offers 900 dots x 350 lines resolu- 
tion at 20 MHz on a dark glass anti-glare CRT with built-in audio and 1 year 
warranty. ($7 shipping) $ 88 7652 green screen also available $88 

MAGNAVOX 8 CM 515 has analog RGB for CoCo 3, TTL RGB for 
Tandy 1000 or IBM PC's, and composite color for CoCo 2 and 3. Built-in 
speaker. 14" screen with 640 dot x 240 line resolution. Plus 2 years parts 
and labor warranty, reg. list $499 was $298 $266 + $14 Shipping 

CC-3 Magnavox RGB cable only $ 19.95 with Magnavox Monitor 
order. $29.95 w/o monitor. 






7622 8CM515 123A 

123A 12" This 12" green screen high resolution monitor offers 80 column 
capability, Zenith quality and a 90-day warranty valid at any of Zenith's 1200 
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VA-1 for monochrome and color monitors delivers video interface for CoCo's 
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DRIVE 0 +. Howards Drive 0 
gives you a DD-3 MPI drive, a CA-1 
cable and a HDS DC-5 Disk Control- B 
ler for only $ 178. 45. Double sided 
double density 360K. ($5 shipping) 

No charge for Disto DC-3 upgrade 




HMC's Guarantee— 
A Promise you can take to the Bank. 



• ■ 

m • 



Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee 
is meant to eliminate the uncertainty 
of dealing with a company through 
the mail. Once you receive our hard- 
ware, try it out; test it for compat- 
ibility. If you're not happy with it for 



any reason, return it in 30 days and 
we'll give you your money back (less 
shipping.) Shipping charges are for 
48 states. APO, Canada and Puerto 
Rico orders are higher. 



Price Break on DISTO 
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Includes controller and C-DOS 4.0 
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DC-3P Mini Eprom programmer 
includes all software to program 
2764 or 27128 chips [5] $ 55 
DC-3C Clock Calendar and parallel 
printer port[C] $ 40 




RS-232 $49.95 

Replaces R.S. RS-232 board. Plugs in 
drive port or multi pack. 2 MHz 
operation works with OS~9.($2 ship) 

3 in 1 Board $59.45 

Clock calendar at 2 MHz parallel 
printer port pack requires DISTO 
Controller or MEB($2 ship) 

MEB $30 ($2 ship) 

Plugs into multi pak to expand 
DISTO DC-3 bus. Use clock in DC- 
3 and eprom programmer in MEB. 

24 HOUR ORDER LINE 

DON'T MISS OUT. 4 
D0NT MISS OUT, ORDER T6DAY! j 

800 / 443-1444 

WE ACCEPT VISA . MASTERCARD 
• AMERICAN EXPRESS . C.O.D. OR 
CHECKS . SCHOOL P.O. 
NEW - DISCOVER CARD 



1 1 



■te 



Wk \mrw% 



Use our 800 number! 



For credit card orders, you may want to phone in your subscription. Our 

credit card order number is (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. All other 

inquiries please call (502) 228-4492. 

We accept VISA, MasterCard and American Express. 

Subscriptions to the rainbow are $31 a year in the United States. Canadian 

rate is $38 (U.S. funds only). Surface rate elsewhere is $68 (U.S.). Airmail 

is $103 (U.S.). All subscriptions begin with the current issue. Please allow 

6 to 8 weeks for the first copy. Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax. 

In order to hold down non-editorial costs, we do not bill. 



Send Me Rainbow Magazine! 

Here's your chance to have a Pot O' Gold full of programs, articles and information about 
CoCo every month of the year! 

As the premier magazine for the Tandy Color Computer, THE RAINBOW has more of 
everything — and greater variety, too. Do yourself and your CoCo a favor and subscribe to 
THE RAINBOW today! 

YES! Sign me up for a year (12 issues) of THE RAINBOW. 

□ NEW □ RENEW (attach label) 

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Address , 

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□ Payment Enclosed (payment must accompany order) 
Charge: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

Account Number 

Signature - Card Expiration Date 



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RAINBOW ON TAPE or RAINBOW ON DISK! 

Just call (800) 847-0309 anytime from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. Credit card orders only. 
Subscriptions to rainbow on tape are $80 a year In the United States, $90 (U.S. 
funds) in Canada and $105 (U.S.) in all other countries. 

rainbow on disk is $99 a year in the United States, $1 1 5 (U.S.) in Canada and $1 30 
(U.S.) in all other countries. 

Individual issues of rainbow on tape are $10 in the U.S., $12 (U.S.) in Canada and 
all other countries. Individual issues of rainbow on disk are $12 in the U.S., $14 
(U.S.) in Canada, and $16 (U.S.) in all other countries. Kentucky residents please 
add 5% sales tax. 

rainbow on tape and rainbow on disk are not stand-alone products; you need the 
magazine for loading and operating instructions and the necessary documentation. 
the rainbow magazine is a separate purchase. 



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YES! Sign me up: □ NEW □ RENEW (attach label) 

□ RAINBOW ON TAPE □ RAINBOW ON DISK 

(Available beginning with the October 
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Address __________ 

City State ZIP 

□ Payment Enclosed (payment must accompany order) 
Charge: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

Account Number 

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The Biggeft 
The Best 
The indispensaWe 




The 

THE CaOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



THE RAINBOW is the biggest, best, brightest and 
most comprehensive publication a happy CoCo 
ever had! THE RAINBOW features more programs, 
more information and more in-depth treatment of 
the Tandy Color Computer than any other source. 

A monthly issue contains nearly 200 pages and 
up to two dozen programs, 14 regular columns and 
as many as 12 new product reviews. And advertise- 
ments: THE RAINBOW is known as the medium for 
advertisers — which means every month it has a 
wealth of information unavailable anywhere else 
about new products! Hundreds of programs are 
advertised in its pages each month. 

Every single issue of THE RAINBOW covers the 
wide spectrum of interests in the Tandy Color 
Computer — from beginners' tutorials and arcade 
games to telecommunications and business and 
finance programs. Helpful utilities and do-it- 
yourself hardware projects make it easy and fun to 
expand your CoCo's capabilities. And, monthly 
reviews by independent reader reviewers take the 
guesswork out of buying new software and hard- 
ware products. 

Join the tens of thousands who have found THE 
RAINBOW to be an absolute necessity for their 
CoCo. With ail this going for it, is it surprising that 
more than 90 percent of THE RAINBOW subscrib- 
ers renew their subscriptions? We're willing to bet 
that, a year from now, you'll be doing the same. 



Rainbow On Tape 

& Rainbow On Disk! 



— great ways to bring THE RAINBOW into your life. 
Each month, ail you do is pop the tape into your 
cassette player or the disk into your drive. No more 
lost weekends. As soon as you read an article about 
a program in THE RAINBOW, it's ready to load and 
run. No work. No wait. 

Just think how your software library will grow. 
With your first year's subscription, you'll get almost 
250 new programs: games, utilities, business 
programs, home applications. And, with RAINBOW 
ON DISK, you'll also get all the OS-9 programs. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK — 
they're the "meat" of THE RAINBOW at a price that's 
"small potatoes." And now you even have a choice 
about how it should be served up to you. 

To get your first heaping helping, just fill out and 
return the attached reply card. No postage neces- 
sary. 



The center of the screen shows the 
selected color. At the beginning of the 
program, the screen's center is black. 
All the bits for that palette are set to 
zero, or off. 

You may enter a decimal color code 
(0 to 63), manipulate the bits or scan the 
64 colors. To enter the decimal color 
code, press C and the number of the 
desired color. The center of the screen 
will change to that color. If you would 
prefer to manipulate the bits, press B 



and the number of the bits you want on. 
Therefore, to turn on bits three, four 
and five, type B 345 and press ENTER. 
Bits three, four and five will be set high, 
and the other bits will be set low. Once 
again, the screen will change to the 
selected color. The scan mode simply 
displays all 64 colors in order in one 
second intervals. To use the scan mode, 
press S. 

RGB Demo displays the variety of 
colors available on an RGB monitor. In 



addition, the program allows CoCo 
owners to manipulate these colors and 
better understand how the monitor 
creates them. 



(Questions or comments regarding 
this program may be directed to the 
author at 1418 East Illinois St., Evans- 
ville, IN 47711. Please enclose an SASE 
when requesting a reply.) □ 



The listing: RGBDEMD 


6J3 PALETTE 7 , CL 






7j3 CLS 






8j3 GOSUB 90: GOTO 2 80 




lj3 CLEAR3J3J3 


9j3 PRINTTAB(13) ;CHR$(191) ; 


»=:OFF 


20 ON BRK GOTO 5j3 


";CHR$(207) ;"=ON" 




3j3 RGB : WIDTH3 2 : PALETTE 12,54:PAL 


100 PRINTTAB(5) ; "BIT # 5 


4 3 


ETTE 13,0 


2 1 0" 




4J3 TEST$=STRING$ (192,255) 


110 PRINTTAB(5) ; "VALUE 32 


16 8 


5j3 CL=j3 


4 2 1" 





MUTANT MINERS 

Battlt mutant uranium mintrs in a run for your lift, »ct ion-pick td, arcad* 
stylt gama. 10 Ifvals with 10 sortans par ltvall 
100% Machint Language- [CoCo 1, 2 or 3 and Jogstick) £19.95 

BURIED BUXX # 

Fig your halicopttr into anamg ttrritorg, dig up tna loot and raturn to baia. 
Wateh out for the tvtr-prtstnt patrol aircraft and ground basad missilss. 
100% Machine Language (CoCo 1, 2 or 3 and Joyttick) £19.95 

MILESTONES 

Usi hazards and safatg ttchnlquts to outsmart tha computar In this 
long-distanca road rally simulation. Attempt to be the first to complete a 
1,000 mile race. Joystick or kegboard. 100% BASIC. (CoCo 3 onlg) £19.95 

FONTGEN # 

Using the HIRES graphics modes (HSCREENS 1-4) create standard, medium and 
LARGE sized fonts, borders and unique icons. Use up to 4 fonts in BASIC!! 
Also customize palatta colors. All supporting software provided. 
100% Machine Language (CoCo 3 onlg) $24.95 

DISKEASE 5§ 

COPY, KILL and RENAME multiple files with one keystroke! Backup and restore 
directories. Print a directory map. Use maps to reconstruct damaged 
directories. BASiC/Machine Language hybrid. (CoCo 3 onlg) $24.95 

' PICTURE PUZZLES ^ 

The ultimata in puzzladom. The computer scrambles 'em and gou gotta put 'am 
back together. 10 puzzles with varging degrees of difficulty. 
100% Machine Language. (CoCo 3 onlg) $19.95 



QUANTUM LEAP §3 



A fast-paced spin off from YAHTZZZ, Six dice and unique roll combinations 
make for a highly addictive game. 1-4 players. . .joystick or kegboard. 
100% Machine Language. (CoCo 3 onlg) $19.95 



VISA i JR & JR SOFTSTUFF 

• gWT^ zryg P.O. BOX 118, L0MPOC, CA 93438 (BOJ) 733-3B89 




ORDERS ACCEPTED 24 HOURS A 0 A Y. ALL PR0ORAMS ON DISKETTE ONLY. 

MONEY ORDERS, CERTIFIED & PERSONAL CHECKS, C.O.D., VISA AND MASTER CARD 
ACCEPTED. (PERSONAL CHECKS MUST CLEAR BEFORE PRODUCT IS SHIPPED). 
ALL ORDERS ADD S3. 00 SHIPPING. C.O.D. DRDERS S3. 00 ADDITIONAL. 

YOU CAN USUALLY GET US IN PERSON FROM S:0D - 9:00 P.M. PST. IF YOU GET 
THE MACHINE, LEAVE A MESSAGE AND WE WILL CALL BACK AT YOUR CONVENIENCE . 

CALL OR WRITE FOR A COMPLETE LIST OF AVAILABLE PROGRAMS. 



NIGHT OF THE 
LIVING MAD 



AN INTERACTIVE 
NIGHTMARE 




Est- ^"^-^m 



A 



ftDUEriTURE nOUEL SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 8176, SPARTANBURG, SC 29305 /J^^\ 

24 hr. order HOTLINE 
(803) 578-7421 



If^ci'.li'if <inl I 



C.O.D. ADD $5 




RAINBOW 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 67 



120 PRINTTAB ( 5 ) ; " COLOR RGB 

R G B M 
130 PRINTTAB (13) ; 

140 IFCL AND3 2THENPRINTCHR$ (207) 
;ELSEPRINTCHR$(191) ; 
150 PRINT" "; 

160 IFCL AND16THENPRINTCHR$ (207) 
;ELSEPRINTCHR$ (191) ; 
170 PRINT 11 

180 IFCL AND8THENPRINTCHR$ (207) ; 
ELSEPRINTCHR$ (191) ; 
190 PRINT" "; 

200 IFCL AND4THENPRINTCHR$ (207) ; 
ELSEPRINTCHR$(191) ; 
210 PRINT" "; 

220 IFCL AND2THENPRINTCHR$ (207) ; 
ELSEPRINTCHR$ (191) ; 

2 30 PRINT" "; 

240 IFCL AND1THENPRINTCHR$ (207) ; 

ELSEPRINTCHR$ (191) ; 

250 PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 13 ); "CURRENT 

COLOR="CL 

260 PRINT@224,TEST$; 
270 RETURN 

280 PRINT<§416, "<C>ODE <B>ITS <S> 

CAN <H>ELP" : PRINT" <E>ND" ; 

290 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN2 90 

300 PRINT@416,STRING$(64,32) ; 

310 IFA$="S"THEN 820 

320 IFA$="C"THEN 370 

330 IFA$="B"THEN 400 

340 IFA$="E"THENCLS : RGB : END 

350 IFA$="H"THEN480 

3 60 GOTO2 80 

370 PRINT® 4 16 , "ENTER COLOR CODE" 
; : INPUTCL 

380 IFCL<0ORCL>63ORCLOINT(CL)TH 
EN390ELSE60 

3 90 S0UND1 / 5:PRINT@416 / STRING$ (3 
2,32) ; :GOTO370 

400 CL=0 : PRINTS 4 16 , "ENTER BIT NU 
MBER TO SET HIGH" 

410 PRINT "PRESS ENTER WHEN DONE" 
420 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN420 

4 30 IFA$=CHR$ (13)THEN60 
440 IFA$<"0"ORA$>"5"THEN420 
450 PRINTA$; 

460 B=2^VAL(A$) :CL=CL OR B 
470 GOTO420 
480 CLS 

490 PRINT"THIS PROGRAM WILL DEMO 
NSTRATE" 

500 PRINT "THE WAY THE COCO 3 DET 
ERMINES" 

510 PRINT "THE RGB COLORS. EACH C 
OLOR CON-" 

520 PRINT"SISTS OF 6 BITS, TWO B 
ITS FOR" 

530 PRINT "EACH PRIMARY COLOR OF 



<R>ED, " 

540 PRINT" <G>REEN AND <B>LUE. BY 
TURNING" 

550 PRINT ,f A BIT ON OR OFF, YOU T 
URN THE" 

560 PRINT"ASSOCIATED COLOR ON OR 
OFF." ' 

570 PRINT "THE PURE R G OR B COLO 
R IS" 

580 PRINT " CREATED BY TURNING BOT 
H COLOR" . 

590 PRINT"BITS ON WITH THE OTHER 
S OFF." 

600 PRINT "BY TURNING ON OR OFF D 
IFFERENT" 

610 PRINT"COMBINATIONS OF BITS, 
YOU CAN" 

620 PRINT "CREATE ALL 64 COLORS A 
VAILABLE." 

630 PRINT :PRINT"PRESS A KEY"? 
640 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN640 
650 CLS 

660 PRINT "YOU CAN EITHER ENTER T 
HE COLOR" 

670 PRINT"CODE DIRECTLY BY PRESS 
ING <C>" 

680 PRINT "OR ENTER THE BITS YOU 
WANT ON" 

690 PRINT "BY PRESSING <B>. THE B 
LOCK IN" 

700 PRINT "THE MIDDLE OF THE SCRE 
EN WILL" 

710 PRINT"SWITCH TO THE COLOR YO 
U SELECT." 

720 PRINT" IN THE <C> MODE, SIMPL 
Y ENTER A" 

730 PRINT "NUMBER FROM 0 TO 63. I 
N THE <B>" 

740 PRINT"MODE, PRESS 0-5 TO TUR 
N ON BIT" 

750 PRINT "0 TO 5. PRESS ENTER W 
HEN YOU" 

760 PRINT "ARE DONE AND THE COLOR 

WILL BE" 
770 PRI NT " D I S PLA YE D . THE <S>CAN 
MODE WILL" 

780 PRI NT " DI S PLAY ALL THE COLORS 

IN ORDER." 
790 PRINT "PRESS A KEY" 
800 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN800 ELS 
E60 

810 RGB: CLS: END 

820 FOR CL=0 TO 63 

830 PALETTE 7 , CL: PRINT@0 , " " ; 

840 GOSUB 90 

850 FOR DLAY=1 TO 500: NEXT 
8 60 NEXT CL 
870 CL=0 

880 GOTO 50 /«\ 



68 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



Announcing a Great New Floppy Drive System for the Color Computer: 




llliiili 



DISK 
CONTROLLER 

We at OWL-WARE are 
pleased to announce that we 
have purchased the rights to all 
of the Color Computer 
Products of J&M Systems. 
J&M has had more experience 
with CoCo controllers than any 
other supplier (except for 
Radio Shack® itself) and we 
are proud to add them to our 
nest! OWL-WARE will now be 
producing J&M controllers 
under the OWL brand. These 
controllers all use J&M's 
proven designs, with some 
minor improvements, and they 
will serve you for years to come. 

• All gold contacts 

• Works with all CoCo 
models (1,2,3) 

• Holds 2 switchable ROMS 

• Positive switching by 
simple jumper or optional 
external switch (No erratic 
software or pokes re- 
quired) 

• Buffered I/O lines to help 
prevent burn-out if unit 
accidentally pulled out 
with the system on 

• Latching chips are sock- 
eted to speed repairs 

• Does not use the WD 1773 
chip which caused 
problems with many CoCo 
3 systems and is now dis- 
continued 

• Attractive all metal case 

• Dealer inquiries now in- 
vited 



CONTROLLER only $69. 
(wfttiout ROMs) 

llillllllor RSDOS 

lililiiiiii 



See the next 2 oages for more 
drive and software specials 
from OWL-WARE 





Disk drives are not our only business, but they sure are our 
main business! We have been selling hard and floppy drives for 
the CoCo longer than any other Rainbow advertiser. Our double 
sided drives are brand new, half-heights with a full one year 
warranty! The full-height drives offered cheap by our competi- 
tion are used or surplus! 





NEW! 

lllllllp 

11^^ 

illltM 

i^llllllllll^ 



CASE AND 
POWER 
SUPPLY 

In recent months it has be- 
come very difficult to obtain de- 
pendable, safe power supply 
and cases for floppy drive sys- 
tems. They just couldn't pass 
our quality control. OWL- 
WARE has now produced a 
case and power supply that you 
can be proud to own and use. 
We believe that this is the best 
and most attractive drive case 
available for any computer. 

• Built in surge protector! 
(we believe that this fea- 
ture is unique in CoCo 
drive cases) 

• Sleek, modern design 

• Heavy-duty power supply 

• Fully shielded data cable 

• Modular power supply 
construction for ease of 
repairs 

• Stackable case design 

• Dealer inquiries now in- 
vited 




Drive 1 




More 




P.O. Box 116-A 
Mertztown, PA 19539 
— ORDER LINES (only) — 
(800) 245-6228 
(21 5) 682*6855 (PA) 




Pro ven 

On the Razor's Edge of 



Basic and OS-9 Hard 
Drive Systems 

Proven Performance for Demanding Home or 

Business Users 



Every hard drive which has been 
produced by OWL- WARE during the 
last 3 years is complete. A system con- 
sists of software, hard drive, controller, 
heavy-duty power supply, and LR Tech 
Interface. There are no hidden costs for 
assembly or testing. When a drive sys- 
tem is ordered, we fully assemble, test, 
and burn-in the system for 3 full days. 
This ensures dependability and op- 
timum performance. 

We have now been supplying CoCo 
hard drive systems and parts for more 
than 3 years. This is the longest history 
in the CoCo market of any system. 
Some other advertisers are stating that 
they have one of the most reliable sys- 
tems for the CoCo with all of 4 months 
history in the CoCo hard drive market] 
We have reached our position in the 
hard drive market by providing our cus- 
tomers with a quality product that they 
(and we) can be proud to own and use. 



Because of many requests for a lower 
price system in kit form, we are now 
selling a kit of all parts at a significant 
discount compared to our regular 
prices. We recommend this kit (or any 
kits offered by any other supplier) only 
to those who have experience in 
electronic assembly and OS-9. 

We have LR Tech and Burke & Burke 



For OS-9 
Levels l 
and 2 







^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

II pri^ 













Kit Prices: (As above but usmg Burke & Burke bus adapter) 










OWL Hard Drive BASIC 3 

There have been several ads in this 
magazine about BASIC for Color 
Computer hard drive systems. These 
ads sometimes only tell a part of the 
story. Our BASIC system price in- 
cludes assembly, testing, and 3-day 
burn-in period. We do not require a 
Multi-pak to operate. 

Our hard drive systems are fast, reli- 
able, and reasonable in price. This has 
been proven by hundreds of users over 
the past 3 years. We do not have to turn 
off error checking for speed. We 
achieve high speed BASIC from a uni- 
que indexing method. 

The table below will summarize some 
of the key points about our BASIC hard 
drive system and the B&B system. We 
believe that we have the best BASIC in- 
terface for CoCo hard drives available. 



BASIC Hard Drive Systems 

Feature OWL B&B 



Drive Portion 
Available at 
One Time 



Entire Partial (4 
sections) 



User Sets 

BASIC/OS-9 

Partitions 



YES 



Yes 



Add to Exist- 
ing OS-9 
Drive Without 
Reformat 



YES 



No(?) 



Drives 0-3 
Hard/Floppy 



YES 



No 



Built in Park 



YES 



No 



Speed 



FAST 



Fast 



All feature details are believed to be 
true at time of writing and are subject 
to change. We believe that our BASIC 
hard drives are the fastest due to our in- 
dexing method, but both systems are 
fast and we sell both. On ours all 
BASIC commands work including 
DSKINI, DSKI$, and DSKO$. 



Prices: With/Without Hard 

Drive 

$35./$79. 



Technology 



the Color Computer Frontier 




Bonus! 

Special 

Bundled 

Software 

with any 

Disk Drive 

Purchase! 




Floppy Drive Systems 

The Highest Quality for Years of Service 

(We have located a number of unused, surplus single sided drives for 
those who wish a quality, inexpensive system.) 

Drive 0 Systems (Half Height, Double Sided, Direct 

Drives) $199. (Same but Single sided) $185 

Drive 0 systems complete with drive, controller, legal DOS, 

cable, case, power supply, and manual 

Drive 1 Systems (Half Height, Double Sided, Direct 

Drives) $129. (Same but Single sided) $115. 

New 3.5", 720K Drives for OS-9 with case & 

Power Supply $179. 

Drive 1 Systems have drive, case, power supply. (You may 
require optional cable and/or DOS chip to use) 

Special for 0/1 Combos (Drives 0,1 ,2,3) $295. 



liiiiliiiiiiiiiii 



HORIZONTAL CASES 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 





.Mode! 



All drives are new and fully assembled. 
We ship only FULLY TESTED and 
CERTIFIED at these low prices. We 
use Fuji, YE Data, and other fine 
brands. No drives are used or surplus 
unless otherwise stated to you when 
you order. We appear to be the one of 
the few advertisers in Rainbow who 
can truly make this claim. We have 5 
years experience in the CoCo disk 
drive market! We are able to provide 
support when you have a problem. 



Drives 1 Year Warranty 





1 -215-682-6855 

Technical Help 



OWL WARE Software Bundle 



Disk Tutorial/Utilities/Games 
DISK TUTOR Ver 1.1 

Learn how to use your disk drive from 
this multi-lesson, machine language 
program. This tutor takes you through 
your lessons and corrects your mistakes 
for a quick, painless disk drive introduc- 
tion. (This professionally written tutor 
is easily worth the bundle's total price.) 

OWL DOS 

An operating system that gives faster 
disk access and allows the use of 
double-sided drives. Corrects a floating 
point number error on early CoCo sys- 
tems. 

COPY-IT 

Quickly copies selected programs be- 
tween disks. A wild card option selects 
groups of programs to copy. 

VERIFY 

Verifies reading of each sector. Bad 
sectors are listed on the screen. 

2 GAMES 

We will select 2 games from our stock. 
These sold for more than $20 each. 

If sold separately this is more than $125 
worth of software!! 

Do not mistake this software with 
cheap, non-professional "Public 
Domain" software which is being of- 
fered by others. All of this software is 
copyrighted and professional in quality. 
The tutor is unique with us and has 
helped thousands of new users learn 
their disk drive. 

only $27,95 
(or even better) 
only $6.95 with 
any Disk Drive Purchase!! 

Our t prices. include &. discount for cash 
But do not include shipping. 

OWL-WARE has a liberal warranty policy. During the warran- 
ty period, all defective items will be repaired or replaced at our 
option at no cost to the buyer except for shipping costs. Call 
our tech number for return. Return of non-defective or un- 
authorized returns are subject to a service charge. 



OWL-WARE 



Mertztown, PA 19539 



This month's article presents one of 
the many math skills taught in the 
middle elementary grades. Unfortu- 
nately, this particular skill is often only 
partially mastered by students, who 
must then learn it again later. Presenting 
this skill via a computer program 
should give some additional reinforce- 
ment to those who need practice to 
master this math problem. 

The skill is to convert a number of 
inches into the proper number of yards, 
feet and inches. We encounter this skill 
in real life when we need to purchase 
material for draperies, wood for shelv- 
ing or linoleum for flooring. These 
goods are generally sold by the foot or 
yard. We often measure these items in 
inches and then convert this measure- 
ment to yards. This program goes 
further by requiring that the student 
compute the exact number of yards, feet 
and inches needed from a given number 
of inches. 

It is interesting that we are still 
teaching these units of measure. The 
metric system was supposed to become 
the dominant system years ago. How- 
ever, it has yet to replace our familiar 



Steve Blyn teaches both exceptional 
and gifted children, holds two master's 
degrees and has won awards for the 
design of programs to aid the handi- 
capped. He owns Computer Island and 
lives in Staten Island, New York. 



Converting inches to feet 
and yards 

Give 'Em 
an Inch 

By Steve Blyn 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 

system of measurement. Meters and 
centimeters have not had the predicted 
impact on our system. 

Our program asks the student to 
convert a specific number of inches into 
yards, feet and inches. Each example is 
in the form of a verbal problem because 
this is the most common way the lesson 
will be presented in school. To maintain 
interest in the task, the names, materials 
and amounts of material are chosen 
randomly. The random elements are 
selected on lines 30 to 80. 

The student reads the problem and is 
asked to compute the number of yards 



included in the total amount of inches 
given. This is done on Line 110, as is 
error trapping for obviously incorrect 
answers. Some students will try to 
bomb or expose a program by entering 
outlandish answers. It is part of an 
educational programmer's job to error 
trap for such answers. 

The student's answer is evaluated, 
and a correct answer is congratulated. 
The computer displays the correct 
answer and identifies the number of 
inches remaining after the yards are 
removed. The student is then asked to 
convert the remaining inches into feet. 

The computer will again congratulate 
a correct answer and display the re- 
maining number of inches. This is done 
to reinforce the student's understanding 
of the concepts. The last line displayed 
on the screen presents a summary for 
the child: The total amount of inches is 
converted to its corresponding amount 
of yards, feet and remaining inches. The 
child can then press ENTER to see a new 
example or E to end the program. 

No scorecard was included in this 
program. To add a scorecard to the end 
of the program, set a constant counter 
at the beginning of each example and a 
variable counter for each correct 
answer. To make the program more 
personal for your own students, change 
the names or items used. As always, the 
Computer Island staff hopes that your 
children or students enjoy and benefit 
from our programs. □ 



The listing: CONVERT 



10 REM" CONVERTING INCHES TO FEET 

AND YARDS" 
20 REM" STEVE BLYN , COMPUTER ISLAN 
D, STATEN ISLAND, NY, 1988 
30 CLS5:C=36+RND(200) 
40 A=RND(5):IF A=l THEN A$=»RAND 
Y" ELSE IF A=2 THEN A$="JUAN" EL 
SE IF A=3 THEN A$= S "FRED" ELSE IF 

A=4 THEN A$= ,, CHER" ELSE A$="MAR 
IE" 

50 B=RND(5):IF B=l THEN B$="CL0T 
H" ELSE IF B=2 THEN B$="WOOD" EL 
SE IF B=3 THEN B$="ROPE" ELSE IF 
B=4 THEN BS 35 " TRIMMING" ELSE B$= 
"WIRE" 

60 PRINTA$" IS DOING A SCHOOL PR 
OJECT" 



70 PRINT"WHICH REQUIRES EXACTLY" 
/C 

80 PRINT"INCHES OF "B$"." 
90 PRINT@160,"":PRINT§128,"HOW M 
ANY YARDS ARE CONTAINED IN"C"INC 
HES" ? 

100 INPUT X 

110 XX=INT(C/36) :IF X<1 OR X>9 T 
HEN 90 

120 IF X=XX THEN PRINT@175," CO 
RRECT" : PLAY " L200 CDEFGGG " 
130 IF XoXX THEN PRINT(§174 , "SOR 
RY, "XX"IS RIGHT. "; :PLAY"L4D" 
140 FT=C-(XX*3 6) 

150 IF XX=1 THEN Y$="YARD" ELSE 
Y$=" YARDS" 

160 PRINT@192,C"-"XX;Y$" LEAVES" 
FT "INCHES" 

170 PRINT C"-"XX*36"="FT"INCHES" 
180 PRINTG3 20 , " " : PRINT@288 , "HOW 
MANY FEET ARE CONTAINED IN »FT"I 



NCHES"; 

190 INPUT Y 

200 IF Y>2 OR Y<0 THEN 180 
210 YY=INT (FT/12) 

220 IF Y=YY THEN PRINT@335 , '» CO 

RRECT" : PLAY" L200CDEFGGG" 

230 IF YOYY THEN PRINT@334 , "SOR 

RY, "YY"IS RIGHT. " ; :PLAY"L4D" 

240 LT=FT-(YY*12) :IF YY=1 THEN F 

$="FOOT" ELSE F$="FEET" 

250 IF LT=1 THEN N$="INCH" ELSE 

N$="INCHES" 

260 PRINT@352 / FT"-"YY;F$;" LEAVE 
S"LT?N$ 

270 PRINT FT"-"YY*12"="LT;N$ 

280 PRINT(§448,C"IN.="XX;»YD. , "YY 

"FT.&"LT"IN." 

290 EN$=INKEY$ 

300 IF EN$=CHR$(13) THEN RUN ELS 
E IF EN$="E" THEN 310 ELSE 29$ 
310 CLS : END 



72 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



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You have learned how to make some 
animated drawings using both DRAW 
and PRINT, and DRRW and LINE state- 
ments. In other words, you have created 
a picture with DRAM and erased it with 
either PAINT or LINE statements. For 
this tutorial, we will try a more elegant 
but complicated technique that uses 
GET and PUT statements to accomplish 
this same task. 

Let's begin this session by loading our 
faithful Graph Paper utility. I have 
decided to modify the woman's pair of 
shoes by making them more pointed at 
the tips. If you have developed your 
own shoe style, substitute your prints 
for mine in the appropriate lines of 
Listing 1 . The shoe sizes should be 8-by- 
19 for the man's shoes and 6-by- 1 5 for 
the woman's shoes. Use the same tech- 
niques that you used last time to make 
the modifications. 

Using real graph paper, sketch the 

woman's right shoe. Use the data in 
Line 40 of the last tutorial as your guide. 
For my sketch, I decided on the follow- 
ing changes: 

Instep: changed from fl+2,4 to 
M+2,3D 

Outside of shoe: changed from L2M- 
2,5 to LM-3,-5 



This new right shoe was drawn on the 
screen. To see the print, add the follow- 
ing lines: 



6 GOTD 400 

400 PMOOE4,1:PCL5:5CREEN1,0 
410 GOTO 100 



Then enter the data in Line 40 of Listing 
1. (Notice that the graphics data for the 
shoe is not in a string variable.) Run the 
program. 

To create the left shoe, flip over the 
graph paper. Add the data from lines 50 
to 100 of Listing 1. After entering the 
data for both shoes, run the program. 

We no longer require Graph Paper, so 
we will strip away everything, leaving 



Florida-based Joseph Kolar is a veter- 
an writer and programmer who special- 
izes in introducing beginners to the 
powers of the Color Computer. 



Simplify last 
month's animation 
with GET and 
PUT statements 

Let's GET 
Going 

By Joseph Kolar 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



only the pair of shoes, by entering the 
following: 

DEL 0-95 
DEL300- 

RENUfl 40,100,10 
RUN 

Now type in lines 10, 20, 30 and 1000 
from Listing 1. Save those lines to tape 
or disk. We now have all the raw mate- 
rial for our Box Step program, and we 
are ready to dance. 

Before we begin the animation, let's 
take a look at the elements involved 
when using GET and PUT for animation: 

• We need a Hi-Res screen. The screen 
line should include SCREEN1,0 to im- 
plement the appropriate screen. 

• Every picture in the program series 
must be dimensioned near the begin- 
ning of the program. In other words, an 
array area must be reserved so CoCo 
will keep the specific, completed draw- 
ing in memory. 

• We need a DfiTfi statement that de- 
scribes the finished form of the drawing 
and its screen location. 

• Each drawing must be placed in a GET 
statement. This statement's format is 
similar to the LINE statement. The GET 
statement also assigns an identification 
variable to the drawing. 

• Also similar to the LINE statement, 
PUT chooses a drawing by calling its 
variable, locates the drawing and places 
it on the screen. PUT is also used to erase 
the drawing. 

Mask lines 30, 40 and 50 with a REM 
statement to get them out of the way, 



and run the program. 

We must reserve a location for the 
man's left shoe print that is at least 16- 
by-38 units. It is a good practice to begin 
the first drawing at the coordinates 
(0,0). Since we began all our drawings 
in the upper-left corner, we are follow- 
ing this practice. All succeeding draw- 
ings will be made to the right of the 
initial drawing. 

We must change the coordinates in 
Line 20 to (0,0). To do this, type EDIT20 
and press ENTER. Now use the space bar 
to move the cursor under the '1' in 126. 
Type 2D to delete two characters, and 
type C0 to change the number 6 to 0. Use 
the space bar to move the cursor past 
the comma, and then type 2DC0 and 
press ENTER. Now run the program. 
Remember that the print must be drawn 
in the size you want shown on the 
screen. 

Now we will paint the shoe. Use 
P5ET ( x , y , z ) to get a location. For this 
tutorial, we will paint the sole of the 
shoe. The coordinate (4,4) is a good 
location, so we will add :PRINT(4, 
4), 1,1 to the end of Line 20. If you 
chose the coordinates (4,2) instead of 
(4,4), nothing would happen when you 
ran the program. (This is a clue that you 
are on the border of the area to be 
painted.) Add one to each of your 
coordinates to move into the area in the 
drawing you will paint. 

It is best to paint coordinates in the 
upper area of your drawing. That way, 
you know the general area in which 
your PRINT statements are located 
when you are debugging your program. 

The GET and PUT technique requires 
that the shoe be painted only once. It 
is then moved as if on a wash line from 
one location on the screen to another. 
Consider our earlier attempts at anima- 
tion. When using our DRRW concatena- 
tion system, every DRRW statement 
required a PRINT statement as well. 

Now let's unmask Line 30 and locate 
the man's right foot. We will place the 
right foot next to the left foot. We are 
using Size 58 for our prints, so our 
entire screen area should be 16-by-38. 
Remember that when we use Size 58, we 
must multiply each coordinate by two 
to get its true screen size. 

To place the man's right foot next to 
his left foot, we will need to unmask 
Line 30 and then edit it in the following 
manner: Use the space bar to move 
under B, press I and type 58C1. Next 
press SHlFT-up arrow, and use the space 



74 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



bar to move the cursor under the T in 
150. Type D2C to delete one character 
and change two others, and then type 
20. Use the space bar to move the cursor 
one character beyond the comma, type 
2DC0 to delete two characters and 
change 6 to 0. Now press ENTER and run 
the program. 

The shoes are nearly touching. Let's 
add a little more space between the two 
by beginning the right shoe at the 
coordinates (30,0). To do this, type 
EDIT30 and press ENTER. Use the space 
bar to move the cursor under 2, type C3 
and ENTER, Now run the program. 

The right shoe begins at (30,0) and 
ends at (46,38). Now let's paint its sole. 
To do this, pick a set of coordinates. I 
chose (34,4). My decision was based on 
the positive 4,4 offset on the other foot. 
If you add four to the starting coordi- 
nates, you get the coordinates (34,4). 
Because the shoes may not be quite 
symmetrical, these coordinates may not 
work, but they will put you in the ball 
park. 

Where shall we locate the woman's 
right foot? Our man's footprints are 
located at (0,0) and (30,0). We will 
maintain the same interval for our 
woman's prints. That would locate the 
right footprint at the coordinates (60,0). 
Although the woman's feet are a little 
smaller than the man's, we will use 
corresponding coordinates to make our 
program easier to follow. 

To place our woman's shoe at the 
appropriate location, we must edit Line 
40. To do this, we must do the following: 
Type EDIT40 and press ENTER. Press D 
to unmask the line, and use the space 
bar to move the cursor under the T of 
129. Type D2C60 to delete one charac- 
ter, and change the next two characters 
to 60. Use the space bar to move the 
cursor beyond the comma, and type DC0 
to delete one character and change the 
next one to 0. Finally, press ENTER and 
run the program. 

Instead of painting the soles of the 
woman's shoes, let's paint the heels. 
After a few false starts, I chose the 
coordinates (66,2) to use in my PRINT 
statement. Before I chose the right 
coordinates, I tried the coordinates 
(63,2) and (64,2). Both resulted in wash- 
outs. Try these coordinates to see how 
I inched into the target area. 

Since we are keeping the interval of 
+30 for both sets of shoes, our last shoe 
will be located at (90,0). To form the 
woman's left shoe, we must edit Line 50 
in the following manner: Type EDIT50, 
press ENTER and press D to unmask the 
line. Use the space bar to move the 



cursor under B, press I to insert char- 
acters, and type SBC1 to add size and 
color. Now press SHlFT-up arrow, and 
use the space bar to move the cursor 
under the T of 147. Now type D2C90 
to delete one character and change 47 
to 90. Next use the space bar to move 
beyond the comma, and type DC0 to 
delete one character and change the 
next to 0. Now press ENTER and run the 
program. Now let's paint the heel. I 
chose the coordinates (96,2) for my 
PRINT statement. Run the program to 
see what we have accomplished. 

Now we have come to the GET state- 
ments. We must place each shoe in a GET 
statement. First enter Line 60 from 
Listing 1 and look at it. It looks similar 
to a LINE statement. The first set of 
coordinates are those of the upper-left 
corner of a specific drawing — the 
man's left footprint. Since we are using 
SB to define the size of the drawing, the 
lower-right corner of the drawing is 
located at the coordinates (16,38). I've 
added a small blank space because I am 
lazy and 40 is easier to use for calcula- 
tions than 38. This 16-by-2 space will 
not affect our program adversely, but 
we must make sure one drawing does 
not overlap another. It could distort or 
blank out a portion of an adjacent 
picture. 

We will assign Variable R to the left 
foot, and add G to the end of the state- 
ment to show that this picture must be 
stored in full graphic detail. 

Now enter Line 61 of Listing 1. 
Variable B identifies the man's right 
shoe. This picture began at the coordi- 
nates (30,0) and ended at (46,38). How- 
ever, don't forget that we are rounding 
the ending coordinates to (46,40), and 
remember to add G to the end of the line. 

Enter Line 62 of the listing. I have 
assigned Variable C to the woman's right 
shoe print. The drawing began at (60,0) 
and extended down to the lower-right 
corner at (72,30). The shoe's area is 6- 
by-15, but because we chose SB for our 
size, we double the area space (12-by- 
30). Therefore, our end coordinates are 
(72,30). Don't forget to add G to the end 
of Line 62. 

Finally, enter Line 63. We will assign 
the woman's left shoe to Variable D. 
Let's go over this line briefly. The 
beginning coordinates are (90,0), and 
the end coordinates are (102,30). Add 
you-know-what to the end. 

At this point in our programming, we 
need to put in a temporary DIM state- 
ment. If you have a 32K CoCo, your 
machine should have enough memory 
to fully dimension each in a two-DIM 




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January 1989 THE RAINBOW 75 



array, such as R( 16,40). You must 
dimension the same area allocated in 
the GET statements. In Line 60, the 
dimensions saved for Variable A are 16- 
by-40. Line 61 hold the same dimen- 
sions for Variable B. Lines 62 and 63 
contain the dimensions 12-by-30 for 
variables C and D. 

Type in Line 15.1 usually place a trial, 
single-array DIM statement after all the 
GET lines are set. At that time, it's still 
fresh in my mind. However, before we 
do that, let's draw the blank area that 
will erase the shoes. We will begin by 
typing in Line 55. We'll use this line as 
an all-purpose erase line because it is 
large enough to erase all the shoes. 

We will use the background color C0 
on a two-color PM0DE4 screen. We will 
use (120,0) as starting coordinates for 
our "erase screen." The largest item to 
be erased will be the man's 16-by-40- 
unit shoe. Next add (16,40) to (120,0) to 
find our ending coordinates, (136,40). 
Use P5ET to put the coordinates on the 
screen, and BF to box in and paint the 
figure in the background color C0. 

If you have a 16K CoCo and run the 
program now, you will get an OM Error 
in Line 15. We've reserved too much 
space in memory. For the moment, 
however, don't run the program. Let's 
just continue. 

Type in Line 64. Copy the pairs of 
coordinates from Line 55 and put them 
in a GET statement. In this line, we have 
assigned Variable ZZ as the "erase 
variable," and we have ended the line 
with G to store all screen details in 
memory. 

Now let's edit Line 15. Type EDIT15, 
and press ENTER. Now press X to go to 
the end of Line 15, and type 
X,ZZ(16,40). Press ENTER, run the 
program, and watch what happens. The 
program crashes. 

Let's return to the problem line. 
There is a long formula that allows the 
use of a one-dimensional array in the 
place of the customary two-dimensional 
array. Being creative (and lazy), I will 
make an educated guess. 

List Line 15. I chose the number 24 
by random, and changed all five arrays 
to that single number. Retype Line 15 
and replace all arrays with an array size 
of 24. The program line should now 
look like this: 

15 DIM A(24),B(24),C(24),D(24), 
ZZ(24) 

Now run the program. If I got an FC 
Error in Line 100, I would know that 
my value was too low, and I would try 

76 THE RAINBOW January 1 989 



another value. However, this value did 
work, so for now I will use it. 

We can now add PUT statements to 
our first set of feet. To do this, we must 
first delete : SCREEN1 , 0 from Line 10 in 
the following manner: Type ED IT 10 and 
press ENTER. Next, press X to move to 
the end of the. line, and use the left arrow 
to move under the colon in Line 10. 
Press ENTER and run the program. Now 
press BREAK. We broke in Line 1000. 
Although CoCo may have drawn our 
prints, this is the default text screen so 
nothing is happening here. We will 
follow our program's GET statements 



" The rule for 
determining array 
values is simple: Try 
a value. If it works, 

continue trying 
lower values until 
you find the lowest 

value that won't 
crash the computer 

— or stop at a 
usable value that 
you prefer. " 



(lines 60 to 64), with Line 80, 
PCLS:SCREEN1,0. After all, we don't 
want to see a jumbled mess; we only 
want to see what we call in the PUT 
statements. 

Now enter Line 100. This line tells 
CoCo to put Shoe B next to Shoe A. 
Note that the difference between the 
starting and ending coordinates is 
16,40. Run the program to see the 
results. 

Now enter lines 120 and 130, the 
variables for the woman's shoes, and 
run the program. There's a problem. 
Don't worry. Just change C to D in Line 
120, and change D to C in Line 130. (I 
have been known to make mistakes.) 

. Now that I have a representative set 
of PUT statements, 1 can experiment 
with the DIM statements to see the 



lowest array values CoCo will accept. 

In Line 15, I replaced A (24) with 
A (20 ) , and it didn't work (FC Error in 
Line 100). So I tried a higher value, 
A (22). That value worked. The value 
A ( 21 ) worked as well. That means that 
arrays B and ZZ, which have the same 
area, can use 21 as well. 

Because the woman's shoes have a 
smaller area than the man's shoes, I first 
tried the array C ( IB ) . It worked. I then 
began trying the following values in 
succession: C(14), D(12), C(ll) and 
D(10). All these values worked. Fi- 
nally, I tried C ( 9 ) , but this value didn't 
work. (I got an FC Error in Line 62.) 

Now that you know the lowest value 
for each pair, use those values in Line 
15. (Remember: You could have used 24 
for your array value and encountered 
no problems.) 

The rule for determining these values 
is simple: Try a value. If it works, 
continue trying lower values until you 
find the lowest value that won't crash 
the computer — or stop at a usable 
value that you prefer. 

Now enter Line 135, which is a rou- 
tine that makes the program pause until 
you press a key. Lines 140 and 150 erase 
two shoes. To determine the values to 
put in the erase line, list the line you 
want to erase (e.g., enter LI5T130). 
Type the line number for your erase line 
(in this case, 140), copy the first line 
exactly, but substitute ZZ for«A. Now 
run the program. Don't forget to press 
a key, or you will wait forever. 

You should now have a good idea 
how the program should be con- 
structed. Without referring to Listing 2, 
try to complete the program. Place or 
remove each item — program line — 
one at a time, and run the program to 
check your progress after you enter each 
line. 

You might want to make a diagram 
that includes both sets of prints in each 
of the four dance positions for the box 
step. Divide the areas for each of the 
four positions into four boxes, and 
write the coordinates for each foot in 
one of these boxes. This should help you 
to keep the feet in perspective. 

If you are unable to get your shoes to 
dance, type in Listing 2,' debug it and see 
how it works. Compare this listing to 
last month's program. Now you know 
two ways to animate a drawing. I think 
you will find the GET and PUT routine 
easier to use because this routine uses 
only the PUT command to do the work. 

Well, that's it for this month. Prepare 
yourself for a home-grown animation 
project next time out. □ 



Listing 1: 

0 'LISTING1 

10 PMODE 4, 1:PCLS: SCREEN 1,0 

15 DIM A(21) ,B(21) ,C.(10) ,0(10) ,Z 

Z(21) 

20 DRAW"S8ClBM126,13 6BR3R2FM+2,6 
DG3M+1, 4DNL4D3GL2HU4M-2 , -6U2M+2 , 
-6E" 

30 DRAW"BM150,136BR2R2FM+2,6D2M- 
2 , 6DNL4D3GL2HU4M+1 , -4H3UM+2 , -6E" 
40 DRAW"S8C1BM129,96BR3RFDNL3D2M 
-1, 3M+2 , 3DM-2 , 4LM-3 , -5UM+2 , -4U4E 

50 DRAW"BM147,96BR2RFDNL3D3M+2,4 
DM-3 , 5LM-2 , -4UM+2 , -3M-1 , -3U3E" 
55 COLOR0:LINE(120,0)-(136,40) ,P 



SET, BF 

60 GET (0,0) -(16,40) ,A,G 

61 GET (30,0) -(46, 40) ,B,G 

62 GET(60,0)-(72,30) ,C,G 

63 GET(90,0)-(102,30) ,D,G 

64 GET(120,0) -(136,40) ,Z2,G 
80 PCLS : SCREEN 1 , 0 

100 PUT (128, 96) -(144, 146) , A, PSET 
110 PUT(148, 96)-(164, 136) ,B, PSET 
120 PUT(148,56)-(160,86) ,C,PSET 
130 PUT(130,56)-(142,86) ,D,PSET 
135 EXEC44539 

140 PUT(130,56)-(142,86) ,ZZ,PSET 
150 PUT(128,96)-(144,146) ,ZZ,PSE 
T 

160 PUT(130,16)-(142,46) ,C,PSET 
1000 GOTO1000 



Listing 2: 



0 ' LISTING2 

10 PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS 

15 DIM A(21) ,B(21) ,C(10) ,D(10) ,Z 
Z(21) 

20 DRAW"S8C1BM0,0BR3R2FM+2,6DG3M 
+1 , 4DNL4D3GL2HU4M-2 , -6U2M+2 , -6E" 
:PAINT(4,4) ,1,1 

30 DRAW"S8C1BM30,0BR2R2FM+2,6D2M 
-2 , 6DNL4D3GL2HU4M+1 , -4H3UM+2 , -6E 

PAINT (34, 4) ,1,1 
40 DRAW"S8C1BM60,0BR3RFDNL3D2M-1 
, 3M+2 , 3DM-2 , 4LM-3 , -5UM+2 , -4U4E" : 
PAINT(66,2) ,1,1 

50 DRAW'S 8 ClBM90,0BR2RFDNL3D3M+2 
, 4DM-3 , 5LM-2 , -4UM+2 , -3M-1 , -3U3E" 
:PAINT(96,2) ,1,1 

55 COLORS: LINE (12j3,j3) -(136,40) ,P 
SET, BF 

60 GET (0,0) -(16, 40) ,A,G 

61 GET(30,j3)-(46,40) ,B,G 

62 GET (60,0) -(72, 30) ,C,G 

63 GET(90,j3)-(102,30) ,D,G 

64 GET(12J3,0)-(136,40) ,ZZ,G 
80 PCLS: SCREEN 1,0 

100 PUT(128,96)-(144,136) , A, PSET 
110 PUT(148, 96)-(164, 136) ,B, PSET 
120 PUT(148, 56) -(160,86) ,D, PSET 
130 PUT(130,56)-(142,86) ,C,PSET 
135 EXEC44539 

140 PUT(130,56)-(142,86) ,ZZ,PSET 
150 PUT(128,96)-(144,136) ,ZZ,PSE 
T 

160 PUT(130,16)-(142,46) ,C,PSET 
170 PUT(128,56)-(144,96) , A, PSET 
175 EXEC44539 



180 PUT (148, 56 
190 PUT (148, 16 
200 PUT(148,96 
T 

210 PUT (148, 56 
220 PUT (148, 16 
230 PUT(188,16 
240 PUT(148,56 
250 PUT(190,56 
255 EXEC44539 
260 PUT(130,16 
270 PUT(128,56 
280 PUT (172, 16 
290 PUT (170, 56 
295 FOR Q=l TO 
300 PUT (190, 56 
310 PUT(190,96 
320 PUT(188,16 
330 PUT(188,56 
335 EXEC44539 
340 PUT(170,56 
350 PUT (170, 16 
360 PUT(170,56 
370 PUT(170,96 
375 FOR Q=l TO 
380 PUT(170,96 
T 

390 PUT(128,96 
400 PUT(170,56 
410 PUT (130, 56 
415 EXEC44539 
420 PUT(190,96 
T 

430 PUT(148,96 
440 PUT(188,56 
450 PUT(148,56 
460 EXEC44539: 
1000 GOTO1000 



-(160,86) 
-(160,46) 
-(164,136 

-(164,96) 
-(160,46) 
-(200,46) 
-(164,96) 
-(206,96) 

-(142,46) 
-(144,96) 
-(184,46) 
-(186,96) 
100: NEXT 
-(206,96) 
-(206,136 
-(200,46) 
-(200,86) 

-(186,96) 
-(184,46) 
-(182,86) 
-(186,136 

100: NEXT 

-(186,136) , ZZ,PSE 



ZZ,PSET 

D,PSET 

,ZZ,PSE 

B,PSET 
ZZ,PSET 
D,PSET 
ZZ,PSET 

B, PSET 

ZZ,PSET 
ZZ,PSET 

C, PSET 
A, PSET 

ZZ,PSET 
,B,PSET 
ZZ,PSET 

D, PSET 



ZZ,PSET 
ZZ,PSET 
C,PSET 
) , A, PSET 



-(144,136 
-(182,86) 
-(142,86) 



) , A, PSET 
,ZZ,PSET 
,C,PSET 



-(206,136) ,ZZ,PSE 



-(164,136 
-(200,86) 
-(160,86) 
GOTO140 



) ,B,PSET 
,ZZ,PSET 
,D,PSET 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 77 



- F ea tur e 



If your new year's resolution is to start 
programming, this is a good place to start 



Learn to Walk Before You RUN 



By Brian C. White 



Most newcomers to computer 
programming look at the pro- 
grams published in maga- 
zines like THE RAINBOW and wonder if 
they could ever write programs like 
those. Many people get discouraged at 
such marvels and give up programming 
altogether. This article will help you 
overcome some of your fears and will 
present a secret for which some people 
search for years. 

Starting Out 

If you are just beginning to program 
your lovable CoCo, start at the begin- 
ning. Find some small program that 
sounds interesting and type it in. A good 
place to look first is in the "Novices 
Niche" of each month's RAINBOW. 

When you type in a listing, don't just 
copy straight from the magazine. Read 
each line and try to figure out what it 
does. If you understand what the line 
does, you should be able to type almost 
the whole line from memory. If you 
cannot figure out a line, watch the 
program in action and try to relate what 
is happening to what you just typed. 
This will help you learn more about the 
language in which you are program- 
ming. Once you feel confident with 
small programs, move up to a larger 
program. Keep moving up until you can 
tackle even the largest programs. 

Remember, no matter how good you 
are as a programmer, you will always 

Brian White currently studies electrical 
engineering at the University of Water- 
loo. He has been programming for the 
Color Computer for six years and 
teaches a local computer class. 



make mistakes. After all, you're only 
human. Your computer, on the other 
hand, is not human and will faithfully 
catch every typo you make. The best 
way to minimize errors is to understand 
what you are typing. That way, you are 
less likely to type a wrong character, 
because you will understand the line 
well enough to know what character 
belongs in that spot. Once the program 
is typed in and saved, run it Unless you 
are some kind of super-programmer, 
you will get an error. (This brings us to 
the next section.) 

Syntactic Errors 

There are two types of errors that 
plague programmers. The first is the 
syntactic error. The syntactic error 
causes the familiar "Break in xxx" 
message. These errors occur because the 
computer has been instructed to do 
something it is incapable of doing. The 
largest problem associated with this 
type of error is determining where the 
error is located. When some people see 
a message like "Break in 90," they 
immediately list Line 90 and check it 
against the printed listing for errors. If 
they are unable to find a mistake in this 
line, they assume there is something 
wrong with the computer or the pro- 
gram and quit. Something is wrong, but 
it is not in Line 90. The only error that 
always occurs in the line given is the 
Syntax Error (?SN Error). All of the 
other errors can, and quite often do, 
originate in another line. 

You may wonder how to find that 
line. The answer is simple: Look for it. 
I know, easier said than done. The best 
way to simplify your search for the 



problem is to understand what you 
typed. If you did that, you should have 
a good idea where to locate the error. 

The first thing to do is to list the line 
giving the error and to print the values 
of all the variables in it. Once you find 
the variable that is out of range (or 
something like that), trace the program 
back to where that variable was last 
modified. Check for an error there. If 
it's not there, trace the variable back 
farther. Remember that variables are 
sometimes modified differently, de- 
pending on the values of other varia- 
bles. Sometimes, you end up tracing a 
large number of variables around. You 
should not have to trace back too far 
because an incorrect value will usually 
cause an error soon after it becomes 
incorrect. (Remember that I said "usu- 
ally," not "always.") Also, if errors 
based on a similar problem occur in 
different places, look for a subroutine 
called shortly before the location of 
error-reporting lines. 

Semantic Errors 

The hardest errors to track down are 
semantic errors. These are caused by 
algorithm mistakes. An algorithm is a 
step-by-step procedure for solving a 
problem in a finite amount of time. 
Semantic errors become evident during 
the execution of the program and are 
indicated by an incorrect result. 

The best way to simplify the search 
is to understand the program as you 
type it in. (Funny how that last point 
keeps popping up, isn't it?) Again, find 
the variable that is giving the wrong 
answer and trace it back through the 
program. If you can figure out how the 



78 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



answer is different from the correct 
result, you might remember a routine 
that modified the variable in a similar 
or even opposite way. By checking that 
routine, you might find a wrong sym- 
bol, number, etc. that causes the prob- 
lem. Sometimes more than one error is 
causing problems in the variable. 

Only time will help you solve this type 
of problem. If the problem is in your 
own program, and you have narrowed 
it down to a specific equation, try 
printing the equation from the direct 
mode (the OK prompt) in small parts. 
This will help you find the part of the 
equation that isn't working properly. To 
use this method, it is essential to know 
what you are looking for and to under- 
stand what the equation is doing. 

Programming Languages 

If you have ever taken a second 
language — French, Spanish, Japanese 
or English — you have probably been 
told that the second language is the 
hardest to learn because you have no 
idea what similarities and differences 
there are among all languages. The 
same is true for programming lan- 
guages. 

Once you have learned BASIC, you 
will probably find that a second lan- 
guage will be harder to learn. Again, 
you have no idea what similarities and 
differences there are between the two 
languages, and you are tempted to try 
many of the things you learned in BASIC. 

Read the manual on any new lan- 
guage before you try anything. It is the 
only way to really learn the new com- 
mands. You must remember commands 
for each language, and keep these 
separate from the commands of other 
languages because they are not inter- 
changeable. Few commands will be the 
same in different languages. For in- 
stance, you are probably familiar with 
the PRINT statement in BASIC; but are 
you familiar with the WRITELN state- 
ment of Pascal, or the PR I NTF statement 
of G? All three of these statements send 
text someplace, usually to the screen. 

Once you have learned two lan- 
guages, you will begin to find a common 
ground for all languages. The more 
languages you learn, the easier they will 
seem, and the more defined your com- 
mon ground will become. It is also 
important to note that the languages I 
have described (BASIC, Pascal, and CJ 
are similar because they are all high- 5 
level languages. You will find a low-level 
language, like assembly language, very 
different from the high-level languages, 
but very similar to other low-level 



languages. Each category of languages 
has its own similarities, differences and 
common ground. 

The Envelope Please... 

After all the talk of understanding 
what you are typing, you are probably 
wondering how to do it. That question 
i$ synonymous with the secret of pro- 
gramming. There is no magic POKE 
statement, or even a one-line program. 
The answer is both simpler and more 
complex than either of these. The 
answer is: do it. 

Disappointed? Nobody said the 
answer would be easy, just simple. The 
secret of becoming a good programmer 
is to program. The next time you see an 
interesting program listed in RAINBOW, 
take some time and type it in. I suggest 
that you start small and work your way 
up. It doesn't really matter what you are 
typing, as long as you type it and 
understand what you are typing. Read- 
ing the listing in the magazine will not 
achieve the same results. 

The next time you see a neat little "I 
need that" program, don't load it off 
RAINBOW ON TAPE or DISK or call up 
Delphi for a quick download. Sit down 
for a couple of minutes, hours, or days 
(depending upon the program's size) 
and type it in. That is how to start 
learning. The best part is that once you 
start learning and realize how enjoyable 
and rewarding it can be, you won't want 
to stop. You will find another "I want 
that" program and type it in, As long 
as you try to understand each line and 
routine as you type it in, you will find 
programming is not the complicated 
behemoth you thought it was. Rather it 
is a simple way of expressing yourself. 



Going Beyond 

If, all of your life, you learned only 
what your teachers told you, you would 
eventually know as much as your 
teachers, but no more. When you type 
in a program, you are the student, and 
the original programmer is the teacher. 
Sure, you learn some great program- 
ming tricks far more efficient than 
anything you have ever dreamed of 
trying. That's okay. Next time you write 
a program, you will know a better way 
to do something than you did before. 

:T6 go beyond this, however, you 
must take a hard look at the pro- 
grammer's algorithms and find ways to 
do the same thing, better, faster and 
more efficiently. I'm not saying you 
should alter that program, but the next 
time you write a program of your own, 
ypu will remember the algorithm and 



put it in. Then, when you think your 
programs are good enough to be pub- 
lished, you become the teacher and the 
people typing in your program are your 
students. Look at all the ideas you can 
share through your programs at that 
point. Wouldn't it be disappointing to 
think that your knowledge couldn't be 
passed on to others who could take your 
ideas and improve upon them further? 

Summary 

Becoming a good programmer does 
not happen overnight. It takes years of 
dedication and a tremendous amount of 
time. Some of you may think you don't 
have the time. Maybe not, but you have 
enough time to learn a little. Then, you 
might have time to learn a little bit 
more. Who knows, over the course of 
years, you might have the time to write 
a best-selling program. 

Programming is not as difficult as it 
sounds. True, it is easier for some 
people than for others, but you can 
never improve unless you try. Even the 
longest journey begins with one small 
step. 

(Questions or comments about this 
article may be directed to the author at 
P.O. Box 1565, 1124 Kaposvar Dr., 
Esterhazy, SK, Canada SOA 0X0. 
Please include an SASE when request- 
ing a reply.) □ 

For additional information on typing 
and debugging program listings, see the 
following tutorials and utilities, which 
can be found in back issues of THE 
RAINBOW: 

• "RainbowCheck Plus" by H. Allen 
Curtis (February '84, Page 21 and 
RAINBOW Info located on Page 16 of 
this issue), a "check sum" system which 
takes a byte count of a specified 
number of lines of BASIC program- 
ming and then compares the byte count 
to the number of values assigned to the 
characters you type in. 

• "Don't String Me Along" by Ellen and 
George Aftamonow ( October 1 86, Page 
1 00), uses a technique to track down FC 
(Function Call) Errors. 

• "Escape From the Bug Zone" by Eu- 
gene Vasconi (January '87, Page 58), 
minimizes various programming bugs 
due to typing errors and increases 
programming expertise. 

• "Yakety-Yak the CoCo Talks Back" by 
Bob Roberts (October '87, Page 106), a 
debugging utility that uses the Speech/ 
Sound Cartridge to read BASIC pro- 
gram listings. 

• "Starting From Scratch" by Lauren 
Willoughby (January '88, Page 20), tips 
for the new Color Computer user 
typing in BASIC program listings, 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 79 



1 W i sh i ng Well 




If you have an idea for the -Wishing 
Well" submit it to Fred cfo the 
RAINBOW. Remember, keep your 
ideas specific, arid don't forget this is 
BASIC. All programs resulting from 
your wishes are for your use, but 
remain the property of the author. 

Recently, educational critics have 
placed a great deal of emphasis on 
standardized test scores. Students going 
through high school today must face 
PSATs, SATs, ACTs, CATs and a 
multitude of other T's. One thing all 
these tests have in common is their use 
of analogy. 

Unfortunately, analogies are not that 
easy to teach. They are more a testing 
mechanism that measures reasoning 
and logic skills than a tool you can use 
in your everyday life. Still, the politi- 
cians demand that teachers prepare 
students to make high scores on the 
tests, for funding depends on student 
scores. 

To help us deal with this pressure, I 
have written Analogies, a basic pro- 
gram that will help to both train and test 
a student in the use of analogies. 

What Is an Analogy? 

At some point in your education, you 
must have faced an analogy test of some 
kind. An example of an analogy might 
appear like the following: 

Dog is to cat 

as 

Cat is to mouse 

The relationship between a dog and cat 
is the same as the relationship between 
a cat and mouse. Both involve a super- 
ior enemy and its prey. 

The following is an an example of 
another analogy, which is more difficult 
to identify because it links a concept 
with an individual: 

Knowledge is to genius 
as 

Ignorance is to idiot 



Fred Scerbo is a special needs instructor 
for the North Adams Public Schools in 
North Adams, Massachusetts. HeViolds 
a master's in education and hasipub- 
lished some of the first software avail- 
able for the Color Computer through 
his software firm, Illustrated Memory 
Banks. 



Comparisons made easy 



Where's 
the Logic? 



By Fred B. Scerbo 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



We may wonder how we can teach 
such concepts. The only way to teach 
analogies is through examples. Vocab- 
ulary terms can be listed and compared 
in analogies. What is needed is an easy 
way to present these concepts. 

Enter Analogies: The Program 

The program Analogies will run on a 
16K Extended Color BASIC machine. It 
is designed to come up with a multitude 
of analogies and false comparisons. 
There is no limit to the different com- 
binations it can generate, since the 48 
examples can be paired in any number 
of random ways. 

Although the program is quite sim- 
ple, the subroutines have a bit of style 
to them. I have even included a subrou- 
tine that recognizes a beginning vowel 
or vowel sound, and the appropriate use 
of an, rather than a as the article. 

There are six categories of analogies 
from which the program will choose 
questions. They are as follows: 

Object and Action 

Tenses 

Homonyms 

Parts and Whole 

Synonyms 

Antonyms 

Let me give you some examples. In 
the Object and Action category, we are 



told that "button is to push" as "lever 
is to pull." A button (object) is pushed 
(action), and a lever is pulled. 

In the Parts and Whole category, we 
see that "minute is to hour" as "month 
is to year." The first word is a part of 
the larger whole, represented by the 
second word. 

I am sure you are beginning to see 
what I mean. 

Running the Program 

When you use this program, type RUN 
to get the title screen. Start the program 
by pressing ENTER. You will be pre- 
sented with the first example and four 
possible answers, A through D. Simply 
press the letter of your choice. 

Once you have made your choice, the 
program will indicate whether you were 
correct or incorrect. In either case, a 
flashing arrow will appear next to the 
correct choice. 

Pressing ENTER again will bring up 
the next screen. If your choice was 
incorrect, the program explains why the 
answer was incorrect and shows you an 
explanation of the correct analogy. A 
correct response shows only an expla- 
nation of the correct relationship be- 
tween the two statements. 

Any time you are in an example, you 
can go to the score card by pressing @. 
As with all my other educational pro- 
grams, you can continue where you left 
off by pressing C to continue. 

That's all there is to it. 

Changing the Program 

All the examples are listed in the data 
at the end of the program. There can 
only be eight sets in each of the six 
categories. You can change anything in 
the set by typing your own examples, 
making them easier or more difficult. 

You can create a new category, but 
then you must change the data in Line 
85 affected by this change. (For exam- 
ple, if you wanted to delete the homo- 
nyms category, you would have to 
change the data SDUNDS JUST LIKE.) 

Conclusion 

This program opens up a new world 
of educational opportunities for your 
CoCo. If you have an idea that is 
educational in nature, feel free to con- 
tact me with your suggestion. It may 
provide the spark that helps me create 
a whole new type of software. See you 
next month. □ 



80 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 




50 6 

120 191 

240 149 

325 72 



410 29 

1030 60 

4020 209 

END 26 



The listing: ANALOGY 



1 REM*************************** 

2 REM* 

3 REM* 

4 REM* 

5 REM* 

6 REM* 



* 
* 

* 



QUIZ ON ANALOGIES 
QUICK WRITING AID 
BY FRED B. SCERBO 
60 HARDING AVENUE 
NORTH ADAMS, MA 01247 

7 REM*************************** 

8 CLEAR2000 

9 CLSJ3 

lj3 PRINTSTRING$(32,140)STRING$(3 
2 / 156)STRING$(32 / 188) ; 
15 F0RI=1T016J3 ;READ A:PRINTCHR$ 
(A+128) ; : NEXT 

2 0 PRINTS TRING $ (32,179) STRING$ ( 3 
2 ,147) STRING$ (32 ,131) ; 
25 DATA46,44,44,42,43, ,45,37,44, 
44,45,3 6,46, , ,37,44,44,45,37,44, 
44,42,45,40,45,44,44,42,46,44,45 
30 DATA42, , ,42,46,43,37,37, , ,37, 
/ 42 , , ,37, , ,37,37, , ,32,37, , 37, , , , 
42,, 

35 DATA46,44,44,42,42,36,47,37,4 
4,44,45, ,42,,, 37, ,,37, 37,, 44, 42, 



37, ,37,44 
40 DATA42 
2, ,33,37, 
,34,34, ,37 
45 DATA4 4 
,44,36,44 



40, ,44,44,45 
,,42, 42, ,37, 37, ,,37, ,4 
,37,37,32, ,42,37, ,37, , 



,36,40,44,32,44,36,40, 
44,44,3 6,44,44,44,36,4 
4,44,40,44,40,44,44,44,40,44,44, 
44 

50 PRINT@390," QUIZ ON ANALOGIES 



it 



55 PRINT@422," BY FRED B. SCERBO 
"; :PRINT@454," COPYRIGHT (C)198 
8 "; 

60 X$=INKEY$ : IFX$OCHR$ ( 13 ) THEN 6 
65 CLS0 

70 DIM A$(8,2,6) ,B(4) ,S(4) ,C(8) , 
D(4),R$(7) 

75 FORI=lT07:READ R$(I):NEXT 

80 F0RI=1T06:F0RZ=1T08:F0RY=1T02 

:READ A$(Z,Y,I) :NEXTY,Z,I 




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January 1989 THE RAINBOW 81 



85 DATA IS SOMETHING YOU, IN THE 


295 LL$=A$(X, 2,Y) :IFY<>4THENQ=0: 


PAST TENSE IS, SOUNDS JUST LIKE, I 


GOTO305 


S PART OF A, MEANS THE SAME AS, IS 


300 GOSUB395 


THE OPPOSITE OF, IS PART OF AN 


305 PRINTTAB (7 ) R$ (Y+Q) : PRINTTAB ( 


90 X=RND(8) 


12)A$(X,2,Y) 


95 Y=RND(6) 


310 PRINT: PRINTTAB (12) "WHILE": PR 




FX=0 : GOSUB105 : GOT012 0 


INT 


105 


CLS:PRINT@64," CHOOSE THE LE 


315 LL$=A$(D(XX) ,2,B(S(XX) ) ) :IFB 


TTER WHICH BEST COMPLETES THE 


(S(XX) )<>4THEN325 


ANALOGY BELOW PRINT 


320 GOSUB395 


110 


PRINT" "A$(X,1,Y)" IS TO 


325 PRINTTAB ( 12 )A$(D (XX) ,1,B(S(X 
X) ) ) :PRINTTAB(7)R$(B(S(XX) )+Q) :P 


H A$(X,2,Y) ". . .AS":PRINT 


115 


RETURN 


RINTTAB(12)A$(D(XX) ,2,B(S(XX) ) ) 1 


120 


F0RI=1T03 : B ( I ) =0 : NEXT : FORI=l 


330 PRINT: PRINT" PRESS «ENTER» 


TO 3 




TO CONTINUE !" 


125 


YZ=RND ( -TIMER) :B(I)=RND(6) :I 


33 5 X$=INKEY$:IFX$<>CHR$(13)THEN 


F B(I)=Y THEN125 


335 


130 


NEXTI:B(4)=Y 


340 CLS:PRINT@32, " IN THIS CORR 


135 


F0RI=1T08 : C (I) =0 : NEXT 


ECT ANALOGY ....": PRINT : PRINT@108 


140 


F0RI=1T04 


,A$(X,1,Y) 


145 


S(I)=RND(4) :IF C(S(I) )=1THEN 


345 LL$=A$(X,2,Y) :IFYO4THENQ=0: 


145 




GOT0355 


150 


C(S(I) )=1:NEXT 


350 GOSUB395 


155 


F0RI=1T08 : C ( I ) =1 : NEXT 


355 PRINTTAB ( 7 ) R$ ( Y+Q ) : PRINTTAB ( 


160 


F0RI=1T04 


12)A$(X,2,Y) 


165 


D(I)=RND(8) :IFC(D(I) )=0THEN1 


360 PRINT: PRINTTAB (12) "WHILE": PR 


65 




INT 


170 


IF D(I)=X THEN165 


3 65 LL$=A$(D(W) ,2,Y) :IFY<>4THENQ 


175 


C(D(I) )=0:NEXT 


=0:GOTO375 


180 


GOSUB185:GOTO205 


370 GOSUB395 


185 


F0RI=1T04 


375 PRINTTAB ( 12 ) A$ ( D (W) ,1,Y) :PRI 


190 


PRINTTAB ( 4 ) ;CHR$(64+I) ") "A$ 


NTTAB(7)R$ (Y+Q) : PRINTTAB ( 12 ) A$ (D 


(D(I) ,1,B(S(I)))" IS TO »A$(D(I) 
,2,B(S(I))) 


(W) ,2,Y) 


380 PRINT: PRINT" PRESS «ENTER» 


195 


NEXT 


TO CONTINUE !" 


200 


RETURN 


385 X$=INKEY$:IFX$OCHR$(13)THEN 


205 


X$=INKEY$ : IFX$=" "THEN 20 5 


385 


210 


IF X$="@"THENGOSUB435 


390 GOTO90 


215 


XX=ASC(X$) :XX=XX-64:IFXX<1TH 


395 LF$=LEFT$(LL$,1) : IF LF$="A"T 


EN205 


HEN430 


220 


IFXX>4THEN205 


400 IF LF$="E"THEN430 


225 


IFB(S(XX))=Y THEN 240 


405 IF LF$="I"THEN430 


230 


IR=IR+1 : PRINT : PRINT" SORRY , B 


410 IF LF$="O"THEN430 


UT THAT IS NOT CORRECT!" 


415 IF LF$="U"THEN430 


235 


GOT0245 


420 LF$=LEFT$(LL$,2) :IF LF$="HO" 


240 


CR=CR+l: PRINT: PRINT" VERY GO 


THEN4 3 0 


OD, 


YOU ARE CORRECT !" 


425 Q=0 : RETURN 


245 


PRINT: PRINT" PRESS «ENTER» 


430 Q=3: RETURN 


TO 


CONTINUE !" 


435 CLS : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT 


250 


F0RK=1T04:IFS(K)=4 THEN W=K 


440 PQ=CR+IR:IF PQ=0THEN PQ=1 


255 


NEXTK 


445 PRINT" NUMBER CORRECT = " 


260 


PRINT@192+(W*32) ," =>" ; 


CR 


265 


FORKK=1TO100 : NEXTKK 


450 PRINT 


270 


X$=INKEY$ : IFX$=CHR$ ( 13 ) THEN2 


455 PRINT" NUMBER WRONG = " 


85 




IR 


275 


PRINT@192+(W*32) ," " ; 


460 PRINT: PRINT" STUDENT SCOR 


280 


FORKK=1TO100 : NEXTKK: GOT02 60 


E- = ";INT(CR*100/PQ) ;"%" 


285 


IF B(S(XX))=Y THEN340 


465 PRINT: PRINT" ANOTHER TRY 


290 


CLS:PRINT@32," IN THE FOLLOW 


(Y/N/C) "; 


ING 


ANALOGIES ....": PRINT : PRINT @1 


A 1 fX TJ<£ — TMVTTVC • TIT LJ£ If II rnTJT?M/ *7 (% 

**/)£) ri 9 — ±JS iVL i 9 • J.T W Z?— lxlHiJN % / p 


08,A$(X,1,Y) 


475 IF W$="C ,f THEN FX=1 : GOSUB105 : 



82 THE RAINBOW January 1969 



G0SUB18 5: RETURN 


3070 


DATA 


PEACE, PIECE 


480 IF W$="Y" THEN RUN 


3080 


DATA 


EIGHT, ATE 


485 : 


EF W$«"N" THEN CLS : END 


4000 
~ ~ ~ 


REM PARTS & WHOLE 


490 GOTO470 


4010 


DATA 


MINUTE , HOUR 


1000 


REM OBJECT-ACTION 


4020 


DATA 


HOUR , DAY 


1010 


DATA HORSE, RIDE 


4030 


DATA 


DAY , WEEK 


1020 


DATA CAR. DRIVE 


4040 


DATA 


WEEK, MONTH 


1030 


DATA PLANE. FLY 


4050 


DATA 


MONTH , YEAR 


1040 


DATA BUTTON, PUSH 


4060 


DATA 


SLICE, PIE 


1050 


DATA LEVER. PULL 


4070 


DATA 


TREE, FOREST 


1060 


DATA SPOON. STIR 


4080 


DATA 


CELL, ORGANISM 


1070 


DATA BALL. BOUNCE 


5000 


REM SYNONYMS 


1080 


DATA BOOK. READ 


5010 


DATA 


HAPPY , GLAD 


2000 
~ ~ ~ 


REM TENSES 


5020 


DATA 


DULL, BORING 


2010 


DATA COME, CAME 


5030 


DATA 


SILLY, FOOLISH 


2020 


DATA SING, SANG 


5040 


DATA 


LOUD, NOISY 


2030 


DATA SPEAK, SPOKE 


5050 


DATA 


FAR, DISTANT 


2040 


DATA SEE, SAW 


5060 


DATA 


SAD, DEPRESSED 


2050 


DATA DIG, DUG 


5070 


DATA 


WASH, CLEAN - 


2060 


DATA RUN, RAN 


5080 


DATA 


DIRTY, SOILED 


207)3 


DATA FLY , FLEW 


6000 
~ ~ ~ 


REM ANTONYMS 


2080 


DATA WASH, WASHED 


6010 


DATA 


NIGHT, DAY 


3000 


REM HOMONYMS 


6020 


DATA 


UP , DOWN 


3010 


DATA HEAR, HERE 


6030 


DATA 


RIGHT, LEFT 


3020 


DATA SEE, SEA 


6040 


DATA 


PEACE , WAR 


3030 


DATA TEA, TEE 


6050 


DATA 


EMPTY , FULL 


3040 


DATA BUY, BY 


6060 


DATA 


DIRTY , CLEAN 


3050 


DATA TWO, TOO 


6070 


DATA 


LONG, SHORT 


3060 


DATA ONE, WON 


6080 


DATA 


FAST, SLOW 



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COD IS COCO COMEDIAN — Thle all-new MASAZINE specialties 
In the humoroua aide of life with our llluetrloua CoCo 

— from currant world eventa to proframa that mock 
theml from reader anecdotea to toneue-in-cheek produet 

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January 1989 THE RAINBOW 83 



' BAS I Cally Sp e aking 



Saving Graphics 

Dear Bill: 

How can I save a Co Co 3 picture to 
disk? 

Bernard Robichaud 
Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan 

Graphics is my favorite part of com- 
puting. Let's begin with saving CoCo 3 
graphics files to disk. I know two 
methods; perhaps other readers can 
offer alternative solutions. 

We have an interesting trade here. 
One method is much faster — the whole 
process takes two or three seconds — 
but takes up four 4-gran files (16 grans 
total) to save a single screen. The other 
method, on the other hand, takes al- 
most two minutes but needs only two 
grans to save and load the screen. 

The first method, discussed by Rich- 
ard Esposito in his January '87 column 
(Page 167), uses the following two 
routines: 



Save Routine 

10 INPUT"NAME:";N$ 

20 FDR I=&H70 TO &H73 

30 POKE &HFFA2,I 

40 F$=N$+'VHR"+CHR$(I-64) 

50 SAVEM F$,&H4000,&H5FFF, 44539 

60 NEXT I 

70 POKE &HFFA2,&H7A 

Load Routine 

10 INPUT"NAME:";N$ 

20 INPUT"HSCREENtt";H 

30 H5CREEN H 

40 FOR I=&H70 TO &H73 

50 POKE &HFFA2, 1 

B0 F$=N$+'VHR"+CHR$( I-G4) 

70 LOADM F$ 

80 NEXT I 

90 POKE &HFFA2, &H7A 

This procedure will make four saves, 
each one saving one-fourth of the screen 
with the extensions /HR1, /HR2, /HR3 
and /HR4. The procedure is effective 
and fast, but it is memory-consuming. 



Bill Bernico is the author of over 200 
Color Computer programs and is a 
frequent RAINBOW contributor whose 
hobbies include golf writing music and 
programming. Bill is a drummer in a 
rock band and lives in Sheboygan, 
Wisconsin. 



BASICally 




Speaking 

By Bill Bernico 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



The second — slower — method is 
the one I use in my Building Blocks 
program (see Page 28). It looks like this: 

Save Routine 

10 INPUT"NAME: ";N$ 
20 HSCREEN 2 

30 OPEN"D'\ttl,N$+'VB83",80 
40 FIELDttl,80 , AS, L$ 
50 PT=1:F0R Y=2 TD 158 STEP 4 
60 D$=" : 'TOR X=2 TO 319 STEP 4 
70 D$=D$+CHR$(HPOINT(X,Y) ) 
80 NEXT X:LSET L$=D$:PUTttl , PT 
90 PT=PT+1:NEXT Y:CLOSE 

Load Routine 

10 INPUT"NAME:";N$ 
20 HSCREEN 2 

30 OPEN"D", 81,N$+"/BB3" , 1 

40 FIELDttl , 1 AS L$ 

50 PT=1:F0R Y=2 TO 158 STEP 4 

60 FOR X=2 TO 319 STEP 4 

70 GETB1,PT:PT=PT+1 

80 HPAINT(X,Y),ASC(L$),8 

90 NEXT X, Y: CLOSE 

In this particular example, I've used 
/BB3 as my extension. Use something 
else if you like. Also, in my load routine, 
Line 80 paints in to a black border by 
specifying an '8' at the end. Building 
Blocks has a screen full of small black 
lines that make up the picture. This is 
why Line 80 uses PAINT instead of HSET 
for those areas. If you want, you could 



modify the save and load portions, 
omitting the STEP 4 line endings, and 
changing HPAINT to HSET to save a 
screen without the black boxes. 

Easy as ABC 

Dear Bill: 

I'm working on a program that has 
26 possible menu choices (one for every 
letter of the alphabet). I'm including 
program lines for every possible out- 
come, but it's taking up a lot of space. 
I have 26 lines that read as follows: 

200 IF A$="A" THEN 300 

201 IF A$="B" THEN 310 

(And so on, and so on.) It's getting 
awfully long and tiresome. There has to 
be an easier way. Can you help? 

Leon Danby, 
Natick, MA 

I think I can save you some room, 
Leon, if you'll use one of the two 
methods described here. A command 
that you don't see used very much, 
called INSTR, is used to locate a sub- 
string within a larger string. Let me 
explain how you can use it. If the place 
in your program where the user chooses 
one of the letter options begins at Line 
200, the INSTR command would be used 
in this manner: 

200 PRINT'THDOSE A LETTER (A-Z) 
210 A$=INKEY$: IF A$=""THEN 210 
220 AL="ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRST 
UVWXYZ" 

230 ON INSTR(AL$,A$) GOTO 300,310,320, 
330, 340,350,360 ,370,380,390 , 
400,410 ,420,430,440,450,460, 
470,480,490,500,510,520,530, 
540,550 
240 GOTO 210 

300 (outcome of Answer A here) 
310 (outcome of A nswer B here) 
320 (outcome of Answer C here) 
(etc.) 

If, when using this method, the user 
presses C, the program branches off to 
Line 320. It's much shorter and more 
efficient than having 26 separate lines to 
handle 26 different answers. 

Look at Line 210 in this example. The 
statement A$=INKEY$ temporarily 
stores the answer to the key that is 
pressed in A$. When the program gets 
to the INSTR command in Line 230, it 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 





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Submitting 

Material 
To Rainbow 



Contributions to the rainbow 
are welcome from everyone. We 
like to run a variety of programs 
that are useful/helpful/fun for 
other CoCo owners. 

WHAT TO WRITE: We are inter- 
ested in what you may wish to tell 
our readers. We accept for consid- 
eration anything that is well- 
written and has a practical appli- 
cation for the Tandy Color Com- 
puter. If it interests you, it will 
probably interest lots of others. 
However, we vastly prefer articles 
with accompanying programs 
which can be entered and run. The 
more unique the idea, the more the 
appeal. We have a continuing need 
for short articles with short list- 
ings. These are especially appeal- 
ing to our many beginners. 

FORMAT: Program submis- 
sions must be on tape or disk, and 
it is best to make several saves, at 
least one of them in ASCII format. 
We're sorry, but we do not have 
time to key in programs and debug 
our typing errors. All programs 
should be supported by some ed- 
itorial commentary explaining 
how the program works. We also 
prefer that editorial copy be in- 
cluded on the tape or disk using 
any of the word processors cur- 
rently available for the Color Com- 
puter. Also, please include a 
double-spaced printout of your 
editorial material and program 
listing. Do not send text in all 
capital letters; use upper- and 
lowercase. 

COMPENSATION: We do pay 
for submissions, based on a 
number of criteria. Those wishing 
remuneration should so state 
when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who 
wish more detailed information on 
making submissions, please send 
a self-addressed, stamped enve- 
lope (SASE) to: Submission 
Guidelines, the rainbow, The Fal- 
soft Building, P.O. Box 385, Pros- 
pect, KY 40059. We will send you 
comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit material 
currently submitted to another 
publication. 




searches the longer string (in this case 
RL$) for the contents of fl$. When it 
finds that string, it branches off accord- 
ingly. 

There is a second method, just as 
effective and just as short. Just choose 
the one you prefer. To make this second 
method effective, you must work with 
ASCII values in the menu selection. The 
example I used earlier would now look 
something like this: 

200 PRINT-CHOOSE R LETTER (R-Z) 
210 R$=INKEY$:IF R$=""THEN 210 
220 R=R5C(R$) 

230 IF R<G5 OR R>90 THEN 210 

240 ON R- 64 GOTO 300 , 310 , 320 , 330 , 

340,350,360,370,380,390,400, 

410,420,430,440,450,460,470, 

480,4 90,500,510,520,530,540, 

550 

250 GOTO 210 

300 (outcome of Answer A here) 
310 (outcome of Answer B here) 
320 (outcome of Answer C here) 
(etc.) 

Let me explain what's happening 
here. Lines 200 and 210 are identical to 
the IN5TR example. However, since 
each character has an ASCII value, we 
need to transfer the contents of R$ into 
a numerical ASCII value. That's done 
in Line 220. Now, whenever you press 
one of the letter options, its ASCII 
value is put into Variable R, For exam- 
ple, if you choose B from the menu, the 
number 65 (the ASCII value of B) is put 
into Variable R. 

Line 230 checks to see if you press any 
key other than a letter. Since A has a 
value of 65 and Z, a value of 90, any 
selection less than A or greater than Z 
will not be accepted. Line 240 subtracts 
64 from your value and goes through 
the list, branching off to the appropriate 
line number. We subtract 64 from the 
selected value so that your 0N-G0T0 
routine can count from one to 26, 
instead of from 65 to 90, when looking 
for the correct branch. 



Automatic Repeat 

Dear Bill: 

I know how to use the INKEYS com- 
mand by itself but is there a way to 
make it repeat itself without constantly 
pressing a key? 

Matt Clayton, 
Cleveland, OH 



Good question, Matt. I know of two 
ways to accomplish this task. I hope one 
of them works the way you want in your 
program. Both procedures involve 
poking values in order to make the 
computer do something it wouldn't 
otherwise do. To get the INKEYS func- 
tion to repeat itself, you'll have to do 
something like the following: 

10 CLS 

20 fl$=INKEY$: IF R$""THEN 20 

30 FOR X=33B TO 345: POKE X,255: 

NEXT X 

40 PRINT R$; 

50 GOTO 20 

Without Line 30, the INKEYS func- 
tion will work as usual. Line 30 convin- 
ces the computer that the key has been 
pressed again for as long as you hold it 
down. If you hit the key very quickly 
and let it up again, you may be able to 
get just one character to display, but the 
repeat function is almost immediate. 

The second way to accomplish this 
same task is to poke two values into the 
computer before the INKEY$ command. 
The routine would look like this: 

10 CLS 

20 POKE 341, 255: POKE 342,255 
30 fl$-INKEYS: IF R$=""THEN 20 
40 PRINT R$; 
50 GOTO 30 

You'll notice that Line 30 goes back 
to Line 20 instead of the INKEYJ com- 
mand in Line 30. In other words, you 
have to poke those values each time you 
want the repeat feature. If you incorpo- 
rate this technique into a graphics 
program, you can use it to make a gun 
shoot repeating shots, use it to advance 
numbers on the screen, or perhaps use 
it to speed up your graphics screen 
cursor and move objects all over the 
screen much faster. 

Questions about specific basic program- 
ming problems can be addressed to BASIC- 
ally Speaking, the rainbow, P.O. Box 385, 
Prospect KY 40059. 

We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit for 
brevity and clarity. We are unable to answer 
letters individually, 

For a quicker response, your questions 
may also be submitted through rainbow's 
Co Go SIG on Delphi. From the CoCo 
SIG>prompt, type ASK for "Ask the Ex- 
perts." At the EXPERTS>prompt, select 
the "BASICally Speaking" online form, 
which has complete instructions. 



86 THE RAINBOW January 1989 




Results from July's programming contest 



We Have a Winner! 



By Bill Bernico 

Contest Judge 



A programming contest was an- 
nounced in the July '88 anniver- 
sary issue ("Set Your Wheels to 
Spinning," Page 48), which gave RAIN- 
BOW readers a chance to finish a pro- 
gram I started. My original "core pro- 
gram" contained three spinning dials, 
numbered from one to eight. While the 
"core" stopped the dials on random 
numbers, the objective was to add to the 
program, making it more complete. 

All the entries are in, and the winners 
have been selected. Although deciding 
who would take second, third, and 
fourth through tenth places was diffi- 
cult, selecting the first-place winner was 
a snap. 

Well, maybe not a snap. I had a 
problem there, too. The winning entry 
was submitted by Don Stickles from 
Northboro, Massachusetts, who sent in 
four entries, each one a winner in its 
own right. The hard part was deciding 
which of his four entries would be the 
grand prize winner. 1 was delighted by 
each one of his four entries, but I chose 
Ring the Bell as the winner. Don will 
receive a subscription to both THE 

RAINBOW and RAINBOW ON TAPE or 



Bill Bernico is the author of over 200 
Color Computer programs and is a 
frequent RAINBOW contributor whose 
hobbies include golf writing music and 
programming. Bill is a drummer in a 
rock band and lives in Sheboygan, 
Wisconsin. 



DISK. Don's program is included with 
this article. 

Second place was captured by Milt 
Poulos of Bound Brook, New Jersey, 
for his entry Times Table. For his 
efforts, Milt wins a year's subscription 
to RAINBOW Magazine. Congratula- 
tions, Milt. 

Third place goes to a fellow Wiscon- 
sinite, Kathy Rumpel of Arcadia, for 
her entry CoCo Lotto. Kathy's prize is 
a collection of 150 of my best programs 
called Special Pack. Every one of these 
winners presented fine entries. 

The following readers placed fourth 
through tenth in the contest and will 
receive a disk with 25 of my best pro- 
grams: 

Derek Snider of Scarborough, On- 
tario, for Spinning CoCo Slots 
Brent Dingle of Norwalk, Iowa, for 
Chance Addition 

Hollen Seay of Dacatur, Alabama, 
for Crazy Ball 

Domingo Martinez of Miami, Flor- 
ida, for Roman Numeral 
* Frank Sanders, for Spokes of For- 
tune 

Daniel and Maurice LeDuc of St. 
Antoine des Laurentides, Ontario, 
for Dial a Buck 

*Patrick Uzan, for Tri-Dial Nomial 

♦Frank and Patrick, please contact 
THE rainbow. We need your addresses 
in order to send your prizes. 



Congratulations to all of you. Your 
efforts made my task both difficult and 
rewarding. 

Let me tell you a little about the 
winning program. It is a simulation of 
the carnival game in which you try to 
ring the bell by pounding a fulcrum with 
a mallet. As in my original — core — 
program, you are presented with three 
dials. Pressing 1 will stop the first dial 
from spinning. Pressing 2 stops the 
second dial, and pressing 3 stops the 
third dial. Each dial will stop on a 
random number from one to eight. 



1 

V ) 3 

5 


«■ 

5 


1 

By — X 2 

7 At 

5 


f 


CD <J| 1 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 1 


2 



These three numbers are then displayed 
on the graphics screen. They represent 
the strength with which you have swung 
your mallet when trying to ring the bell. 
Pressing the space bar after each at- 
tempt allows you to try again. Although 
simple, the program is entertaining. 

Congratulations to all of you for 
some fine programming. I offer my 
thanks to all those who entered. □ 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 87 




130 


137 


250 


249 


360 


.195 


480 


4 


580 


180 


END 


....40 



The listing: RINGBELL 

10 'BASIC PROGRAMMING CONTEST 

WINNER . . . "RINGBELL" 
20 'by Bill Bemico 
30 'AND Don Stickles 

50 CLEAR1000:DIM A (12 ,12) 
6 0 D$= " BM=H ; , =V ; '• : X$= " BM=X ; , =Y ; » 
70 N1$="BR3R2U6NGD6R2":N2$="BR3B 
U5ER2FDGL2GD2R4 " : N3 $="BR3BU5ER2F 
DGNLFDGL2NH" : N4 $="BR6U6G3R4 " : N5 $ 
="BR3BUFR2EU2HL3U2R4":N6$="BR3BU 
3R3 FDGL2HU4 ER2 " : N7 $= " BR3 BU6R4 DG3 
D2 " : N8 $= " BR4HUER2 EUHL2 GDFR2 FDGNL 
2" 

80 AA$="BR6U2NR3U3ER2FD5" : BB$="B 
R6NLU3NR2U3NLR2FDBD1D2GNLBR" : CC$ 
= " BR6BR4 BU1GL2 HU4ER2 FBD5 " : EE$="B 
R6BR4L4U3NR3U3R4BD6" : PP$="BR6U6R 
3 FDGL2 BR3 BD3 " 

90 RR$="BR6U6R3FDGL2F3BR":SS$="B 

R6NHR2 EUHL2 HUER2 FBD5 " : LT$="BR2H4 

E4BD7" :GT$="BR3BDE4H4" :NO$="BR12 

U2NLNR3U2NLNU2R2NU2NRD4 " 

100 PMODE4,1:PCLS1:SCREEN1,1:COL 

OR0,1:ON BRK GOTO800 

110 DRAW"BM8,0R80D73L80U73" 

120 CIRCLE (48, 36) ,25 

130 DRAW"BM42,8"+N1$+"BM64, 17"+N 

2$+"BM74,39"+N3$+"BM65,59"+N4$+" 

BM43,70"+N5$+"BM21,59"+N6$+"BM12 

, 3 9 "+N7 $+ " BM2 2 , 18 "+N8 $ 

140 GET(8,0)-(88,73) ,A 

150 PUT(88,0)-(168,73) ,A:PUT(168 

,0)-(248,73) ,A 

160 DRAW"BM8,0R240D191L240U191 
170 RI$=D$+"R20NH2G2":LE$=D$+"L2 
0NE2F2" :UP$=D$+"U20NG2F2":DO$=D$ 
+"D20NH2E2":UR$=D$+"E14NL3D3":LR 
$=D$+"F14NU3L3 " : LL$=D$+"G14NR3U3 
" :UL$=D$+"H14NR3D3 
180 CIRCLE (125, 92) , 5 : DRAWBM115 , 
97R20D80L20U80" : DRAWBM123 , 107NR 

4BD10NR4BD10NR4BD10NR4BD10NR4BD1 
0NR4BD10NR4 " 

190 DRAW"BM125,177D4R20G4R6H4R19 
U3R3 D3 L3 " : PAINT (145, 184), 0,0: PAI 



NT(164,180) ,0,0 

200 CIRCLE (187, 168) , 4 : DRAW"BM186 
,167R1BL2BD4E2" :DRAW"BM187 , 172D1 
2NG7F7L1H6G6" 

210 DRAW"BM187,175NE8BD2E8BU1BG2 
E8H2E3F4G3H2": PAINT (202, 160) ,0,0 
220 DRAWC0BM20, 130"+PP$+RR$+EE$ 
+SS$+SS$+NO$ 

230 H=48:V=36:DRAW"C0BM90,130"+N 
l$:GOSUB 600 

240 IF INKEY$<>"1"THEN 230 

250 COLOR1,0:LINE(90, 122) -(100,1 

32) ,PSET,BF 

260 X=110:Y=82:GOSUB 700:J=S 

270 H=128:V=36:DRAW"C0BM90,130"+ 

N2$:GOSUB 600 

280 IF INKEY$<>"2" THEN 270 

290 COLOR1,0:LINE(90,122)-(100,1 

32) ,PSET,BF 

300 X=120:Y=82:GOSUB 700:K=S 

310 H=208 :V=36:DRAW"C0BM90, 130"+ 

N3$:GOSUB 600 

320 IF INKE Y $ <> " 3 " THEN 310 
330 X=130:Y=82:GOSUB 700:L=S 
340 IF J=l THEN M=3 ELSE IF J=2 
THEN M=5 ELSE IF J=3 THEN M=7 EL 
SE IF J=4 THEN M=l ELSE IF J=5 T 
HEN M=2 ELSE IF J=6 THEN M=4 ELS 
E IF J=7 THEN M=6 ELSE IF J=8 TH 
EN M=8 

350 IF M=l THEN P=167 ELSE IF M= 
2 THEN P=157 ELSE IF M=3 THEN P= 
147 ELSE IF M=4 THEN P=137 ELSE 
IF M=5 THEN P=127 ELSE IF M=6 TH 
EN P=117 ELSE IF M=7 THEN P=107 
ELSE IF M=8 THEN P=97 
360 COLOR1,0: LINE (20, 122) -(100,1 
32) ,PSET,BF 

370 FOR T=l TO 200: NEXT :COLOR1,0 
:LINE(182,152)-(206,178) ,PSET,BF 
380 CIRCLE (187, 168) ,4,0: DRAW"C0B 
M186 , 167R1BL2BD4NE2F1E2" : DRAW" BM 
187,172D12NG7F7" 

390 DRAW"BM187,177BL2NU5R4U5BL2B 
U8U8L3U4R5D4L5": PAINT (187, 154) ,0 

,0 

400 COLOR1,0:LINE(180,152)-(193, 
178) ,PSET,BF 

410 CIRCLE (187, 168) ,4,0: DRAW"C0B 
M18 6 , 1 6 7R1 BL2 BD4 E 2 " : DRAW" BM1 8 7 , 1 
72D12NG7F7" 

420 DRAW"BM187 , 177NH8BU2H8BD1BF1 
H8G2H3 E4 F3 G2 " : PAINT (171,160),0,0 
430 COLOR1,0:LINE(166,152) -(193, 
178) ,PSET,BF 

440 CIRCLE (187, 168) , 4,0:DRAW"C0B 



88 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



M186 , 167R1BL2BD4E2" : DRAWBM187 , 1 
72D12NG7F7" 

45j3 DRAW M BM187,175NL10D2L10BR1BU 
1L12ND2U2L5D4R5":PAINT(164,176) , 

46j3 LINE (125 ,177)- (125 , P) ,PSET 
470 IF M<8 THEN 48^0 ELSE IF M=8 
THEN 5pp 

480 IF M<3 THEN SOUND80,2 ELSE I 
F M>2 AND M<6 THEN SOUND150,2 EL 
SE IF M>5 AND M<8 THEN SOUND220, 
2 

490 GOTO570 

500 PAINT (125 ,92) ,0,0: DRAW"C0BM1 

17,92R8BH6F6U8D8E6G6R8 11 

510 DRAW H BM50, 120U4H3UF3RE3DG3D4 

":DRAW"BM60,120H2U4E2R3F2D4G2L3U 

HU4ER3FD4GL2 11 : DRAWBM70 , 112D6F2R 
2E2U6LD6GL4HU6" 

520 DRAW"BM4 8,140RNU8R3E2U4H2L4D 
R2ND6R2 FD4GL4 11 : DRAW" BM6 1 , 140U8RD 
8":DRAW"BM70,140RNU8R3E2U4H2L4DR 
2ND6R2FD4GL4 " 

530 DRAW" BM5 5 , 1 60U8RD8 " : DRAW" BM6 

5,160U8NR4L3R4NR3D8" 

540 PLAY" 04 ; V2 4 ; L8 ; C ; C ; 0 3 ; LI 6 ; A # 

; A ; L4 ; A ; V2 4 ; L8 ; G # ; A ; L2 ; A" 

550 COLOR1,0:LINE(117,84)-(133,9 

6) ,PSET,BF: CIRCLE (125, 92) ,5,0 



560 FOR TI=1 TO 1000 : NEXT : C0L0R1 
,0:LINE (45, 110) -(78,162) ,PSET,BF 
570 DRAW"C0BM35,130"+PP$+RR$+EE$ 
+SS$+SS$ : DRAW"C0BM20 , 150"+LT$+SS 
$+PP$+AA$+CC$+EE$+BB$+AA$+RR$+GT 
$ . . 

580 I$=INKEY$:IF I$=CHR$(32) THE 
N 590 ELSE 580 
590 GOTO100. 

600 DRAW"C0"+RI$+"C1"+RI$ 
610 DRAW"C0"+LR$+"C1"+LR$ 
620 DRAW"C0"+DO$+"C1"+DO$ 
630 DRAW"C0"+LL$+"C1"+LL$ 
640 DRAW"C0"+LE$+"C1»+LE$ 
650 DRAW"C0"+UL$+"C1"+UL$ 
660 DRAW"C0"+UP$+"C1"+UP$ 
670 DRAW"C0"+UR$+"C1"+UR$ 
680 RETURN 

700 S=RND(8):0N S GOSUB710,720,7 
30, 740, 750, 760, 770, 780: RETURN 
710 DRAW" C0 "+RI $+X$+N3 $: RETURN 
720 DRAW"C0"+DO$+X$+N5$ 
730 DRAW"C0"+LE$+X$+N7$ 
740 DRAW"C0"+UP$+X$+N1$ 
750 DRAW"C0"+UR$+X$+N2$ 
760 DRAW"C0"+LR$+X$+N4$ 
770 DRAW"C0"+LL$+X$+N6$ 
780 DRAW"C0"+UL$+X$+N8$ 
800 CLS 



RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 




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January 1989 THE RAINBOW 89 



1 F e atur e 



The seventh in a series of tutorials 
for the beginner to intermediate machine 

language programmer 



9 

Machine Language Made BASIC: 

Part VII: Around in Circles 



By William P. Nee 



The circle routine in ROM is cer- 
tainly one of the most difficult to 
understand and use. The routine 
keeps alternating between its BASIC 
check for syntax, format, etc., and short 
subroutines required as set-up for the 
main routine. Since the BASIC checks 
would interfere with a machine lan- 
guage program, we must bypass them 
and implement the subroutine on our 
own. The following locations are used 
in the circle routine: 

Location 

$B5 color 
** SCB/CC horizontal center of 

circle (X) 
**$CD/CE vertical center 

of circle (Y) 
** $CF/ DO radius 
** $D 1 / D2 height to width ratio 
** $D3/ D4 maximum horizontal 

coordinate 
** $D5/ D6 maximum vertical 

coordinate 
$D8 circle/ line flag I: 

= circle, 0 = line 
SD9/DA arc end 

The locations marked with two aster- 
isks (**) must be scaled for locations, or 
dimensions, in any PMDDE other than 



Bill Nee bucked the "snowbird" trend 
by retiring to Wisconsin from a banking 
career in Florida. He spends the long, 
cold winters writing programs for his 
Co Co. 



PMDDE 4. The CIRCLE routine may be 
executed from three different addresses, 
depending on how much of the CIRCLE 
command you use. 

The first step is to load the maximum 
coordinates into SD3/D4 and SD5/D6 
by using the subroutine at Address 
$9522. This routine not only loads the 
correct numbers according to the 
PMDDE, it also scales them. Next, enter 
the coordinates of the circle's center. 
This is usually done by loading Register 
D with the X,Y locations (i.e., #$8060 
would be the center of the screen), then 
storing Register A in $0CC and Register 
B in $CE. We must show Location $CC 
as $0CC because EDTASM+ requires a 
zero in front of any number that could 
also be a register, such as A, B, CC, or 
D. 

These locations are scaled by loading 
Stack U with tt$CB (start of X location) 
followed by JSR $9320. Next, load 
Register A (LDR) with the radius, and 
store it in Location $D0. Scale it by 
loading Stack U with tt$CF followed by 
JSR $9320. Load Register B with the 
desired color byte and store it in $B5. 

The height-to-width subroutine at 
S9EC9 converts the desired height/ 
width ratio to a two-byte number and 
stores it in Location $D1/D2. The 
following chart identifies the number to 
be placed in Location $D1 /D2 for each 
height-to-width ratio and possible 
PMDDE screen. The numbers for PMDDE 
3 and 2 are twice those of PMDDE 4, 1, 
and 0. 



Height-to- 
Width Ratio 

.1 

.2 

.3 

.4 

.5 

.6 

.7 

.8 

.9 
L0 
1.5 
2.0 
2.5 



PMODE 4, 1 
or 0 

#$0019 

#$0033 

#$004C 

#$0066 

#$0080 

#$0099 

#$00 B3 

#$00CC 

#$00 EC 

#$0100 

#$0180 

#$0200 

#$0280 



PMODE 3 
or 2 

#$0032 

#$0066 

#$0098 

#$00CC 

#$0 1 00 

#$0132 

#$0 1 66 

#$0198 

#$0 1 D8 

#$0200 

#$0300 

#$0400 

#$0500 



If you want your program to run in 
any PMDDE, include the subroutine, 
which checks the PMODE and doubles the 
height-to-width ratio when necessary: 



LDX 


«$ ** 


** use two-byte 






number from chart 


LDR 


$B6 


get PMODE 


BITPI 


82 


register PI AND 2 


BEQ 


NEXT 


PMODE 4, 1, 






or 0 mil 1 equal 0 


TFR 


X,D 


height- to-width 






ratio to Register D 


LEAX 


D,X 


double it 


5TX 


$D1 





NEXT 



Store the number J in Location $D8 
to indicate that no lines should be 
drawn. Try clearing this location in a 
program and see what happens. 

The arc subroutine at $9FED con- 
verts an arc decimal to a two-byte 
number stored in Location SD9/DA. 



90 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



JSR S9EC2 J5R S9EDF J5R $9EFD 

SETMRXX,Y PLUS - PLUS - 

SET CENTER/SCALE SET COLOR STORE "1" IN $DB 
SET RADIUS/SCALE SET hkW RATIO SET ARC END 

SET ARC START 



Figure 1: Routines for Drawing Circles or Arcs 



Many of these arcs and their two-byte 
equivalents are in the following chart: 



Arc in Degrees 


Arc in 

L \- 1 W 111 


DppTppc 


0 


= #$0600 

TT tJJ vJ \J \J \J 


210 = 


#$0205 


30 




225 = 


#$0300 


45 


= #$0700 


940 = 


#$0309 


60 


= #$0702 


270 = 


#$0400 


90 


= #$0000 


300 = 


#$0405 


120 


= #$0005 


315 = 


#$0500 


135 


= #$0100 


330 = 


#$0502 


150 


= #$0102 


360 = 


#$0600 


180 


= #$0200 







Load Register D with the desired arc 
end two-byte equivalent, and store it in 
Location $D9/DA. Then load Register 
D with the arc-start two-byte equivalent 
and JSR S9EFD. Be sure to save what- 
ever is in registers A or B prior to 
executing this routine if you will need 
them again. 

Listing 1 begins by drawing a circle 
in the center of the screen. It continues 
drawing circles — each two steps larger 
than the previous one — until the radius 
reaches 90. Instead of using the stand- 
ard start-up assigned by the computer, 
COLOR 3,0, this program uses COLOR 
0,3, which sets a buff background and 
draws black circles. 

If the height-to-width ratio is 1 and 
the routine draws a full circle with no 
arcs, you can stop after scaling the 
radius and JSR $9EC2. Again, be sure 



Listing 1: CIRCLES 



that you have already saved registers A 
and B. This routine also checks Loca- 
tion $C2 for a PSET or PRESET, stores 
a T in Location $D8 (which indicates 
that no lines will be drawn), and assigns 
the foreground color to Location $B5. 

If you want to specify a height-to- 
width ratio other than 1, load that 
ratio's two-byte equivalent into Register 
X, the desired color into $B5, and then 
load JSR S9EDF. Using this address, the 
height-to-width ratio will automatically 
be scaled (doubled) for PMODE 3 or 2. 
The routine also checks Location $C2 
for a PSET or PRESET and stores a T 
in Location $D8. 

Assigning arc starts and arc ends will 
require that you use the height-to-width 
ratio chart described earlier in this 
article. Store the correct two-byte 
height-to-width ratio (according to the 
PMODE) in SD1/D2; store the two-byte 
arc end in SD9/DA; load Register D 
with the two-byte arc start, then with 



JSR $9EFD. 

More than one arc can be drawn by 
repeating the arc portion of the pro- 
gram as often as desired. Color changes 
can be made by putting the desired color 
into Location $B5 prior to executing the 
routine. Listing 2 is a program that 
draws different colored arcs of 60 
degrees at increasing radii. 

Since the first program is in PMODE 4, 
I didn't need to scale any of the 
numbers, but I did so to show how it 
is done. It is good practice to always 
scale since you may want to change the 
PMODE later. 

The routines for drawing circles or 
arcs are found in Figure 1 . 

Before assembling either program, 
set Location $FF/ 100 to tt$2000 and 
execute GC006. If you run the as- 
sembled programs from BASIC, clear 
enough memory by entering CLEAR 
200, &H3000-1, and change the SWT in 
Line 670 to RT5. □ 









00100 


*$FF/100=#$2000 






3000 






00110 


ORG 


$3000 




3000 


C6 


04 


00120 


START LDB 


#4 


PMODE 4 


3002 


BD 


9628 


00130 


JSR 


$9628 




3005 


C6 


01 


00140 


LDB 


#1 


PAGE 1 


3007 


BD 


9653 


00150 


JSR 


$9653 




300A 


0F 


B2 


00160 


CLR 


$B2 


CLEAR FOREGROUND 


300C 


C6 


03 


00170 


LDB 


#3 




300E 


D7 


B3 


00180 


STB 


$B3 


BACKGROUND COLOR 


3010 


BD 


9542 


00190 


JSR 


$9542 


COLOR 0,3 


3013 


C6 


01 


00200 


LDB 


#1 


GRAPHICS SCREEN 


3015 


BD 


95AA 


00210 


JSR 


$95AA 




3018 


C6 


01 


00220 


LDB 


#1 


COLOR SET 1 


301A 


BD 


9682 


00230 


JSR 


$9682 




301D 


BD 


9522 


00240 


JSR 


$9522 


SET MAXIMUM X,Y AND SCALE THEM 


3020 


CC 


8060 


00250 


LDD 


#$8060 


CENTER OF THE CIRCLE(128 , 96) 


3023 


97 


CC 


00260 


STA 


$0CC 


X LOCATION 


3025 


D7 


CE 


00270 


STB 


$CE 


Y LOCATION 


3027 


CE 


00CB 


00280 


LDU 


#$CB 


START OF X LOCATION 


302A 


BD 


9320 


00290 


JSR 


$9320 


SCALE X,Y 


302D 


C6 


02 


00300 


LDB 


#2 


SIZE OF FIRST RADIUS 


302F 


34 


04 


00310 


LOOP PSHS 


B 


SAVE RADIUS 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 91 



3031 


D7 


D0 


00320 


STB 


$D0 


RADIUS LOCATION 


3033 


CE 


00CF 


00330 


LDU 


#$CF 


START OF RADIUS LOCATION 


3036 


BD 


9320 


00340 


JSR 


$9320 


SCALE RADIUS 


3039 


BD 


9EC2 


00350 CIRCLE 


JSR 


$9EC2 


CIRCLE(X,Y) ,R 


303C 


35 


04 


00360 


PULS 


B 


GET THE RADIUS 


303E 


CB 


02 


00370 


ADDB 


#2 


INCREASE IT 


3040 


CI 


5A 


00380 


CMPB 


#90 


MAXIMUM RADIUS YET? 


3042 


23 


EB 


00390 


BLS 


LOOP 




3044 


BD 


ADFB 


00400 DONE 


JSR 


$ADFB 


WAIT FOR INPUT 


3047 


5F 




00410 


CLRB 




TEXT SCREEN 


3048 


BD 


95AA 


00420 


JSR 


$95AA 


• 


304B 


3F 




00430 


SWI 




RTS IF IN BASIC 






3000 


00440 


END 


START 





00000 TOTAL ERRORS 



Listing 2: ARCS 









00100 


* $FF/100=#$2000 




3000 






00110 




ORG 


$3000 




3000 


C6 


03 


00120 


START 


LDR 


#3 




3002 

•J V V 


BD 


9628 


00130 




JSR 


$9628 




3005 


C6 


01 


00140 




LDR 


#1 


PAGF 1 

x avj lit x 




D U 


7U J J 


00150 






£965^ 






RD 


7 Jti 


00160 




«J OJA. 


y y JHZ. 


PPT Q 


man 

jyiyiU 


00 




00170 




L.JJD 






J00F 


D T"\ 
DU 


Q R A A 

y jAA 


00180 




TCD 


y y 3AA 






Go 


01 


00190 




LDB 


#1 


COLOR SET 1 


3014 


BD 


9682 


00200 




JSR 


$9682 




3017 


BD 


9522 


00210 




JSR 


$9522 


SET MAXIMUM X,Y AND SCALE THEM 


301A 


CC 


8060 


00220 




LDD 


#$8060 


CENTER OF CIRCLE(128 , 96) 


301D 


97 


CC 


00230 




STA 


$0CC 


X LOCATION 


301F 


D7 


CE 


00240 




STB 


$CE 


Y LOCATION 


3021 


CE 


00CB 


00250 




LDU 


#$CB 


START OF X LOCATION 


3024 


BD 


9320 


00260 




JSR 


$9320 


SCALE X,Y 


3027 


C6 


02 


00270 




LDB 


#2 


SIZE OF FIRST RADIUS 


3029 


34 


04 


00280 


LOOP 


PSHS 


B 


SAVE THE RADIUS 


302B 


D7 


D0 


00290 




STB 


$D0 


RADIUS LOCATION 


302D 


CE 


00CF 


00300 




LDU 


#$CF 


START OF RADIUS LOCATION 


3030 


BD 


9320 


00310 




JSR 


$9320 


SCALE THE RADIUS 


3033 


8E 


0100 


00320 




LDX 


#$0100 


HEIGHT TO WIDTH RATIO = 1 


3036 


96 


B6 


00330 




LDA 


$B6 


PMODE 


3038 


85 


02 


00340 




BITA 


#2 


PMODE 4,1, OR 0 WILL = 0 


303A 


27 


04 


00350 




BEQ 


NEXT 




303C 


IF 


10 


00360 




TFR 


X,D 


REGISTER X TO REGISTER D 


303E 


30 


8B 


00370 




LEAX 


D f X 


ADD REGISTER D TO REGISTER X 


3040 


9F 


Dl 


00380 NEXT 


STX 


$D1 


HEIGHT TO WIDTH RATIO LOCATION 


3042 


CC 


0155 


00390 




LDD 


#$0155 




3045 


97 


D8 


00400 




STA 


$D8 


NO LINES, JUST CIRCLES 


3047 


D7 


B5 


00410 




STB 


$B5 


COLOR 


3,049 


CC 


0702 


00420 




LDD 


#$0702 


END OF ARC 1-60 DEGREES 


304C 


DD 


D9 


00430 




STD 


$D9 


END OF ARC LOCATION 


304E 


CC 


0600 


00440 




LDD 


#$0600 


START OF ARC 1-0 DEGREES 



92 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



3051 


BD 


9EFD 


00450 


JSR 


$9EFD 


DRAW THE ARC 


3054 


CC 


01AA 

r 


00460 


LDD 


#$01AA 




3057 

r 


97 


D8 


00470 


STA 


$D8 


NO LINES 


3059 


D7 


B5 


00480 


STB 


$B5 


COLOR 


305B 


CC 


0200 


00490 


LDD 


#$0200 


END OF ARC 2 - 180 DEGREES 


305E 


DD 


D9 


00500 


STD 


$D9 


END OF ARC LOCATION 


3060 


CC 


0005 

r r r 


00510 


LDD 


#$0005 


START OF ARC 2 - 120 DEGREES 


3063 


BD 


9EFD 


00520 


JSR 


$9EFD 


DRAW THE ARC 


3066 

r 


CC 


01FF 


00530 


LDD 


#$01FF 




3069 


97 


D8 


00540 


STA 


$D8 


NO LINES 


306B 

r 


D7 


B5 


00550 


STB 


$B5 


COLOR 


306D 


CC 


0405 


00560 


LDD 


#$0405 


END OF ARC 3 - 300 DEGREES 


3070 


DD 


D9 


00570 


STD 


§D9 


START OF ARC LOCATION 


3072 


CC 


0302 


00580 


LDD 


#$0302 


START OF ARC 3-240 DEGREES 


3075 


BD 


9EFD 


00590 


JSR 


$9EFD 


DRAW THE ARC 


3078 


35 


04 


00600 


PULS 


B 


GET THE RADIUS 


307A 


CB 


02- 


00610 


ADDB 


#2 


INCREASE IT 


307 C 


CI 


5A 


00620 


CMPB 


#90 


MAXIMUM RADIUS YET? 


307E 


23 


A9 


00630 


BLS 


LOOP 




3080 


BD 


ADFB 


00640 DONE 


JSR 


$ADFB 


WAIT FOR INPUT 


3083 


5F 




00650 


CLRB 




TEXT SCREEN 


3084 


BD 


95AA 


00660 


JSR 


$95AA 




3087 


3F 




00670 


SWI 




RTS IF IN BASIC 






3000 


00680 


END 


START 





00000 TOTAL ERRORS 



HOLIDAY SPECIALS from SPORTSware 

Offer good thru 31 Jan 89. Previous orders excluded. 

WARGAME DESIGNER: The LAST wargame you will ever need to buy. Play the 
4 scenarios included. Modify them. Create your own 1 and 2 player simulations! 
Perfect for wargamers, adventurers, and science fiction addicts. See the RAIN- 
BOW AUGUST 88 review. You get 2 flippy disks & 23 page manual. Requires 
COCO 3 w/ 1 drive & RGB, CMP monitor or TV. Works great with ram disk. 
Regular $29.00 Sale ONLY $25.00. 

STAND ALONE WGD SCENARIOS 

INVASION NORTH: lead your modern forces across the river & capture 9 enemy 
held objectives. 

ATTACK ON MOSCOW: Relive the WW2 German assault on Moscow. 

ROBOT COMMAND: Enter the command post. Fight your way to the central 
computer and disable it. 

DUNGEON WARRIOR: Rescue Jamie from her cell deep in Zarcon's dungeon. 

GHOST HUNTERS: You and your team must clear the mansion of ghosts or die 
trying. 

DESERT RATS: A free for all tank battle in the wastelands of North Africa. 

ZULU REVENGE: A few hundred British soldiers face repeated assault by 
thousands of Africa's most feared warriors? You command! 

All of the above are for 1 & 2 players. WGD is not necessary to play. WGD owners 
can modify these games with the WGD system. 

Each of the above scenarios is only $15.00 and comes w/ manual. Requires 
COCO 3 & 1 disk drive. 

WGD ICON SETS: One disk full of Unit and Terrain Icon sets for use with the 
WGD System. Just $10.00 

GRIDIRON STRATEGY: The BEST football strategy game ever written for the 
COCO 3. See the AUGUST 87 RAINBOW review. RGB CMP or TV. For two 
players. Unique playing system keeps the tension high! COCO 3 w/ 1 disk drive. 
Was $21.00 NOW $18.00 Set, Hut, Order! 

BY POPULAR DEMAND; WEEKLY WINNER 2.0 our innovative lotto player's 
best friend is now available on disk and tape for both COCO 3 and COCO 2. 
Enhance your chances of winning your State lottery. For 3, 4, and 6 citgii lottos 
with 1 to 50 number variations. All versions, tape or disk, ONLY $15.00 

All orders shipped FIRST CLASS FREE within 24 hours of receipt. ORDER YOUR 
FUN TODAY! 

SPORTSware 1251 S. Reynolds Rd. Suite 414, Toledo, OH 43615 (419) 389-1515 

FREE Catalog on disk (COCO 3 only) Send $3.00 to cover cost of disk & mail. 
SEE before you BUY. Deduct $3.00 from any product ordered from the flippy 
disk! Both sides full of value. 





V 




NEW YEAR S SALE 
All Software Listed Below 
#15.°°each until Jan. 31,1989 





PROGRAM TITLE 


GRADES 


MEMORY price 


————— - - - - ——————— — - - -— - - - — — — - — - ^— — 

LANGUAGE ARTS 








Beyond Words 1-3 parts 


3-5 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Beyond Words 2-3 parts 


6-8 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Beyond Words 3-3 parts 


9-12 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Vocabulary 1-1000 words 


3-5 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Vocabulary 2-1000 words 


6-8 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Vocabulary 3-1000 words 


9-12 


3§K-Ext. 


19.95 


Context Clues 


4,5,6,or 7 


16K-Ext. 


17.95 


Reading Aids - 4 parts 


2-4 


16K-Ext. 


19.95 


King Author - writing tool 


2-6 


16/32 Ext. 


29.95 


Cocowheel of Fortune 


4-up 


32K- 


19.95 


CRITICAL THINKING PROBLEMS 






Factory by Sunburst 


4-up 


32K-disk 


44.95 


Pond by Sunburst 


2-up 


32K-disk 


44.95 


Teasers by Tobbs-Sunb 


4-up 


32K-disk 


44.95 



Computeryrlsland 



(718) 948-2748 
227 Hampton Green, 
Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 



>'leate add II 00 per order lor pottage. N.Y. rendents, pie ate add proper lai 



n 

X 1 



f. 




January 1989 THE RAINBOW 93 




s 



Give us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists in showing the Color Computer world your 
high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in the rainbow's 
"Scoreboard" column. All entries must be received 60 days prior to publication. Entries should be printed — 
legibly — and must include your full name, address, game title, company name and, of course, your high score. 
Each individual is limited to three score entries per month. Send your entries to Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. 

For greater convenience, your high scores may also be sent to us through the MAIL section of our Delphi 
CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then type SEND and address to: EDITORS. 



ADVANCED STAR*TRENCH (THE RAINBOW, 7/86) 
4,750 ★Stephane Martei, Laval, Quebec 
4,475 David Schaller. Clarkston, WA 
4,500 Frankie DiGiovanni, Olney, MD 
4,300 Jeffrey Warren, Waynesvilie, NC 
3,960 Maurice MacGarvey, Dawson Creek, 
British Columbia 
ASTRO BLAST (Mark Data) 

48,825 *Tony Bacon, Mt. Vernon, IN 
BASH (SRB Software) 

744,900 ★Andy Carter, North Charleston, SC 
BEE ZAPPER (THE RAINBOW, 9/87) 



* Current Record Holder • Shutout 

THE CONTROLLERS (THE RAINBOW, 2/88) 

204 ★Sylvie Smith, Courtenay, British 

Columbia 
148 Phil Holsten, Moraga, CA 
188 Frederick Lajoie, Middleton, Nova 

Scotia 

DALLAS QUEST (Radio Shack) 



28,275 
15,785 

12,825 

12,350 
12.175 



★William Currie, Bryans Road, MD 
David Hartmann, Osoyoos, British 

Columbia 
Frederick Lajoie, Middleton, Nova 
Scotia 

Tom Carpenter, Palenville, NY 
Sara Mittelstaedt, Kiel, Wl 
BIOSPHERE (Radio Shack) 

64,000 *Ty Stocksdale, Racine, Wt 
BLITZ (THE RAINBOW, 6/88) 

32.440 ★Joel Klein, Indianapolis, IN 
BOUNCING BOULDERS (Diecom Products) 

10,930 ★Patrick Garneau, Ste-Croix, Quebec 
BREWMASTER (NOVASOFT) 

51,925 *Wendy Staub, Moundsville, WV 
CANYON CLIMBER (Radio Shack) 



81 
85 
85 

86 
86 



★Brad Wilson, Lithia Springs, GA 
Paul Summers. Orange Park, FL 
David and Shirley Johnson, Leicester, 
NC 

Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 
Melanie Moor, Florence, AL 



****** A* * A* * * * * A****************** 

t 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 

************************************* 



★John Guptili, Columbia, MO 
Matthew Fumich, Munford, TN 
Alan Kramer, Cooksville, MD 
Nathan Woods. Syracuse, NY 
Sara Mittelstaedt, Kiel, Wl 
David Brown, New Watertord, Nova 
Scotia 

Richard Galinowski, Pittsburg, PA 
Janine Christopher, Pittsburg, PA 
CASHMAN (MichTron) 

9,870 ★Martin Parada, Arcadia, CA 
CAVEWALKER (Radio Shack) 

27,380 ★William Currie, Bryans Road, MD 
CLOWNS & BALLOONS (Radio Shack) 



1,725,100 
1,627,500 
301 ,600 
230.200 
213,400 
202,000 

168,000 
76,000 



DEF MOV (THE RAINBOW, 1/87) 

50,566 ★Frankie DiGiovanni, Olney, MD 
43,806 Domingo Martinez, Miami, FL 
35.331 David Schaller, Clarkston, WA 
31,673 Douglas Bacon, Middletown, CT 
30.753 Pasha Irshad. Silver Spring, MD 
DEMOLITION DERBY (Radio Shack) 

100.500 ★Richard Winkelbauer, Bronx, NY 
DEMON ATTACK (Imagic) 

279,435 *Jon Hobson, Plainfield, Wl 
202,260 Tom Briggs, Hillsdale, NY 
89,285 Upton Thomas, Arnold, MD 
72,410 Glenn Hodgson, Aberdeenshire, 
Scotland 

67,760 Jim Davis, Sandwich, IL 
DESERT PATROL (Arcade Animation) 

234,300 ★Steven Turcotte, Matane, Quebec 
DESERT RIDER (Radio Shack) 



80,703 
65,351 
64,789 
63,014 

62,702 



DEVIL ASSAULT ( Tom Mix) 



★Thomas Payton, Anderson, SC 
Jason Hackley, Clinton, CT 
Roby Janssen, Clear Lake, lA 
Rebecca Henderson, Ballston Spa, 
NY 

William Currie, Bryans Road, MD 



688,960 
217,500 
70,180 
57,120 

52,180 
36,650 
34,950 
33,710 
31.840 



★Faye Keeter, Augusta, GA 
Frankie DiGiovanni, Olney, MD 
Charles Andrews, Delta Jet, AK 
Sylvie Smith, Courtenay, British 

Columbia 
Jesse Cogdell, Willmington, DE 
Melody Webb, Lakeport, CA 
Eric Mellon, Newark, DE 
Timm Cappell, Freeland, Ml 
Janine Christopher, Pittsburg, PA 



1,866,100 
623,550 

75,000 
40,800 



COLOR BASEBALL (Radio Shack) 

596-0 ★•Frank C. D'Amato, Brooklyn, NY 
595-0 •Tom Cherubino, Brooklyn, NY 
387-0 •Joel Stocksdale, Racine, Wl 
276-0 •Kevin Wannemacher, Payne, OH 
238-0 •John Valentine, Marlborough, CT 
172-0 «Ryan Murray, Herrin, IL 
149-0 «John Breckel, Wilmington, OH 
137-0 •Scott Galvao, Tiverton, Rl 
137-0 •Jennifer Johnson, Meriden, CT 
130-0 ©Matthew Snider, Pinehurst. TX 
130-2 Greg Alien, Atwater, CA 

COLOR CAR (NOVASOFT) 

343,075 ★Duncan Cameron, Chippewa Falls, 
Wl 

316,550 Alan Martin, Cornwall, Ontario 
113,970 Chad Blick. Irwin. PA 
1 10,870 Martin Parada, Arcadia, CA 
COLOR POKER (THE RAINBOW, 4/83) 
60,150,600 ★Earl Foster, Lynchburg, VA 



★Stephane Martei, Laval, Quebec 
Dale Krueger, Maple Ridge, 

British Columbia 
Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
Benoit Landry, Drummondvilte, 
Quebec 
DONPAN (Radio Shack) 

53,100 ★Jim Davis, Sandwich, IL 
52,600 Eric Olson, Wheaton, IL 
DOWNLAND (Radio Shack) 

125,450 *Pat Norris, O'Fallon, MO 
99,982 Eric Mellon, Newark, DE 
99,980 Danny Wimett, Rome, NY 
98,985 Karl Guiliford, Summerville, SC 
97,740 Stephane Deshaies. Beloeil, Quebec 
DRACONIAN (Tom Mix) 

114,470 ★Donna Ashby, Annandale, VA 
DRAGON FIRE (Radio Shack) 

160,835 ★Eric Olson, Wheaton, IL 
146,325 Stephane Martei, Laval. Quebec 
14,856 Jesse Cogdell, Wilmington, DE 
1 1 ,726 Marcos Rodriguez, New York, NY 
9,861 Michael Adams, Columbia, SC 
ENCHANTER (Iniocom) 

400/223 ★Konnie Grant, Toledo, OH 
ESCAPE 2012 (Computerwara) 

202 *Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 
199 Milan Parekh, Anaheim, CA 
FIRESTORM (THE RAINBOW, 1/86) 

22,505 ★Chad Presley, Luseland, 

Saskatchewan 
1 1 ,250 Stephane Martei, Laval, Quebec 
5,680 Kathy Rumpel, Arcadia, Wl 



FIRESTORM (continued) 

3,760 Rick Beevers, Bloomfield, MN 
3,505 Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
GALACTIC ATTACK (Radio Shack) 

31 ,100 ★Upton Thomas, Arnold, MD 
29,030 David Czarnecki, Northhampton, MA 
26,370 Jeff Remick, Warren, Ml 
22,250 Dave Staub, Moundsville, WV 
11,830 Sheldon Penney, Green Bay, 
Newfoundland 
GALAGON (Spectral Associates) 

751,020 ★Sofia Giorgi, Brasilia, Brazil 
357,890 Jason Clough. Houston, TX 
328,820 Bernard Burke. Lee's Summit. MO 
249,960 Matthew Fumich, Munford, TN 
169,410 Danny Dunne, Pittsfield, NH 
GANTELET (Diecom Products) 
45,235,820 *Ken Hubbard, Madison, Wl 
23,643,720 Geran Stalker, Rivordalo, GA 
20,921 ,490 Randall Edwards, Duntap, KS 
10,222,940 Clinton Morell, Sacramento, CA 
7.493,340 Stirling Dell, Dundalk, Ontario 
GANTELET If (Diecom Products) 
17,701,060 ★Bryan Bell. Manassas. VA 
GATES (THE RAINBOW, 8/86) 

600 ★Brian Matherne, Gretna, LA 
GHANA BWANA (Radio Shack) 
2,350,750 ★Michael Heitz. Chicago, IL 
702,520 Joseph Delaney. Augusta, GA 
282.070 Kelly Jones, West Salem, OH 
174,410 Caraann Jentzsch, Dufur, OR 
105,820 David Reash, Hadley. PA 
GIN CHAMPION (Radio Shack) 

1 ,602-0 ★•Jimmy Garner, Ft. Worth, TX 
1,120-0 •Kim Johns, Port Cog., British 
Columbia 
GOLD RUNNER (NOVASOFT) 

2,031,800 *Gary Grant, Exeter, Ontario 
GRANDPRIX CHALLENGE (Diecom Products) 

67,710 *H. Dingweli, Litchfield, CT 
GROBOT (Children's Computer Workshop) . 
9,665 *Wendy Staub. Moundsville, WV 
8,090 Curt Lebel, Louisville, KY 
HELICOPTER HERO (THE RAINBOW, 3/88) 

103 ★Phil Holsten. Moraga, CA 
HITCHHIKER'S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY (Infocom) 
400/359 *Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 
400/422 Jeff Holtham, Waterloo, Ontario 
400/510 Brad Wilson, Lithia Springs, GA 
INTERBANK INCIDENT (Radio Shack) 

4,861 *Shara and Chris Euton, Lilburn, GA 
IRON FOREST (Diecom Products) 
3,631.600 ★Douglas Paulson, Richfield, ID 
3.173,200 Charles Boyd, Amarilio, TX 
2.676,300 Janet Boyd, Amarilio, TX 
1,335,500 Jack Faircloth. Nashville, TN 
1,141,650 Craig Pennell, Amarilio, TX 
790,850 Scott Godfrey, Nashua, NH 
JOKER POKER (THE RAINBOW. 3/87) 
62,067,906 ★Carole Rueckert, Mansfield, OH 
21,733,284 Jon Fogarty, Yale, Ml 
8,179,710 Brenda Kim, Athens, OH 
3,796,898 Curtis Trammel, Murphysboro, IL 
2,793,285 Blain Jamteson, Kingston, Ontario 
JUNIOR'S REVENGE (Computerware) 
2,503,000 ★Stephane Martei. Laval, Quebec 
257,600 Keith Cohen, Rocky Mount, NC 
JUNKFOOD (THE RAINBOW. 11/84) 

535,760 ★Charlie Ginn, Augusta, GA 
18,990 Joel Klein, Indianapolis, IN 
KING PEDE (T & D Software) 

83,855 *Mike Snyder, Allen, OK 



THE RAINBOW 



January 1989 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 




KNOCK OUT (Diecom Products) 

472,995 ★Frank D'Amato, Brooklyn, NY 
183,675 Rush Caiey, Port Orchard, WA 
162,555 Martin Parada, Arcadia, CA 
147,235 Mike LeBrun, Cornwall, Ontario 
KORONIS RIFT (Epyx) 

186,710 *Tony Harbin, Cullman, AL 
184,180 Russell Johnson, Sarnia, Ontario 
184,120 John Farrar, Lebanon, TN 
174,810 Donald Cathcart, Halifax, Nova Scotia 
133.990 Paul Blessing, Spring, TX 
KUNG-FU DUDE (Sundog Systems) 

32,000 ★Tony Geitgey, University Park, PA 
14,305 David Schulze, San Antonio, TX 
12,150 Cody Deegan, Fallon, NV 
THE LAIR (Freebooter Software) 

112,940 ★James Walton, Pittsburgh, PA 
LANDER (T&D Software) 

780 ★Ari Enkin, Neapen, Ontario 
LASER SURGEON: THE MICROSCOPIC 
MISSION (Activision) 

42,767 ★Joe Stanley, Harrisburg, IL 
LUNAR-ROVER PATROL (Spectral Associates) 
45,700 ★Kameron Pence, Little Rock, AR 
37.890 Dave Staub, Moundsville, WV 
30,000 Vincent Tremblay, Matane, Quebec 
MARBLE MAZE (Diecom Products) 

353,220 ★David Boland, Dubuque. IA 
1 7,530 Dave Staub, Moundsville, WV 
A MAZING WORLD OF MALCOLM MORTAR (Radio Shack) 
6,125 ★Stephen McJohnathan, Keymar, MD 
5,030 Jeanne Henning, Quincy, IL 
MEMOCARDS {THE RAINBOW, 8/87) 

3,120 ★Lise Gagne, St-David, Quebec 
1,596 Brian Willwerth, Hingham, MA 
1,470 Jan Walotklewicz, Two Rivers, Wl 
1,418 Edward Kavanaugh, North Easton, 
MA 

1,414 Sara Mittelstaedt, Kiel, Wl 
MINIGOLF (THE RAINBOW, 5/86) 

29 ★John Guptill, Columbia, MO 
43 Brian Matherne, Greta, LA 
MISSION: F-16 ASSAULT (Diecom Products) 
468,750 ★Karen Jessen, Cleveland, OH 
355,570 Stirling Dell, Dundalk. Ontario 
318,160 Jeremy Pruski. Sandwich, IL 
144,510 Donald Cathcart, Halifax, Nova Scotia 
137,920 Mike Grant, Fresno, CA 
MISSION: RUSH'N ASSAULT (Diecom Products) 
361 .750 *Clay Jones, Wooster, OH 
195.250 Kelly Jones, West Salem, OH 
MONSTER MAZE (Radio Shack) 

12,950 ★Paul DeVita, ValSejo, CA 
MOON SHUTTLE (Datasoft) 

16,220 ★Christopher Cromwell, Monur 
CO 

ONE-ON-ONE (Radio Shack) 



PYRAMID (continued) 

100 Peter Amonacopoulos, Toa Baja, 
Puerto Rico 
PYRAMIX f Color Venture) 

68,550 *Andy Freeman, Turtle Lake, Wl 
67,850 Richard Winkelbauer, Bronx, NY 
56,970 Andy Freeman, Turtle Lake, Wl 
37,500 Matthew Smith, Courtenay. British 
Columbia 

26,900 Todd Kopke, Glendale Heights, IL 
QUIX (Tom Mix) 
8,407,772 ★John Haldane, Tempe, AZ 
1,404,000 Curtis Goodson, Sao Paulo, Brazil 
1,201,383 Milan Parekh, Anaheim, CA 
1,003,104 Elisa Goodson, Sao Paulo, Brazil 
326,192 Martin Parada. Arcadia, CA 
RADIO BALL (Radio Shack) 
1 ,780,870 ★Jocelyn Gagne, St-David, Quebec 
1 ,761 ,030 Eric Mellon, Newark, DE 
1 ,666,670 Lise Gagne, St-David, Qeubec 
1,116,050 Richard Winkelbauer, Bronx, NY 
1,062,190 Eric Mellon, Newark, DE 
996,750 Steve Slaven, Yakima, WA 
800,1 50 Mike Snyder, Allen, OK 
760,380 Jake Runge, Franklin, OH 
612,800 Jesse Cogdell. Wilmington, DE 
RED ALERT (Ark Royal) 
Ensign- 
Class 4 ★Richard Kelton, Newport News, VA 
RESCUE ON FRACTALUS (Epyx) 

1,000,948 ★Steven Ujvary, Calgary, Alberta 
323,167 Kenneth Hill, Severna Park, MD 
292.633 David Richards, Huntington, WV 
288,084 Donald Cathcart, Halifax, Nova Scotia 
270,000 Russell Johnson, Sarnia, Ontario 
RETURN OF JUNIOR'S REVENGE (Cotorware) 
1,792,800 ★Chad Presley, Luseland, 
Saskatchewan 

ROGUE (Epyx) 

71,833 *Jon Fogarty, Yale, Ml 
65,529 Joseph H. Campbell, Norfolk, VA ? 
63,934 Marshall Weisenburger, Quincy, iL 
43,222 Hans Lutenegger, Madison, IA 
27,542 Melanie Lapoint, Fitchburg, MA 

RUSH'N ASSAULT (Diecom) 

28,600 ★David Morrison, Jr.; Brewer, ME 



SAILOR MAN (Tom Mix) 

427,700 *Marnie Schajm, Edson, Alberta, 
231 ,900 Jessica Wilkins. Seymour, TN 
231,700 Luis Camino, Lima, Peru 
SANDS OF EGYPT (Radio Shack) 



SPEED RACER (continued) 

94,430 Christopher Cromwell, Monument, 
CO 

SPEEDSTER (THE RAINBOW 8/87) 

21 1 ,300 ★Paul Robbins, Picayune, MS 
117,080 Bill Millington, Meriden, CT 
103.140 Richard Winkelbauer, Bronx, NY 
88,090 Jason Landreth, Texico, IL 
60,430 Jennifer Johnson, Meriden, CT 
44,540 Kevin Pereira, Corsicana, TX 
15,770 Jesse Cogdell. Wilmington, DE 
SPIDERCIDE (Radio Shack) 

27,730 ★Mike LeBrun, Cornwall, Ontario 
3,460 David Morrison, Brewer, ME 
2,500 Wendy Staub, Moundsville, WV 
1 ,840 Dave Staub, Moundsville, WV 
1 ,650 Philip Salathe, South Sutton, NH 
SPRINGSTER (Radio Shack) 

303,520 ★Mavis Hartmann, Osoyoos, British 
Columbia 

200,670 Denise Root, Thorndale, PA 
STAR BLAZE (Radio Shack) 

6,550 ★Flint Weller, Swarthmore, PA 
STRATA (THE RAINBOW, 5/88) 

2,888 ★Paul Robbins, Picayune, MS 
2,768 H. Dingwell, Litchfield, CT 
TEMPLE OF ROM (Radio Shack) 

604,000 *Troy Graham, Arnold, MD 
507,700 Adam Broughton, Morris, PA 
303,600 Tim Hennon, Highland, IN 
138,400 Gary Budzak, Westerville, OH 

125.200 Michelle Murray, Salem, IN 

119.201 Jeffrey Ryan Horstman, Ospray, FL 
THEXDER (Sierra On-Line) 

2,033,000 ★Frankie DiGiovanni, Olney, MD 
1,823,900 Tom Gauwitz, Roanoke, IL 
1,411,700 Steve Hallin, Biioxi, MS 
531,400 David Morrison, Jr., Brewer, ME 
312,300 Timothy DeJong, Rock Valley, IA 
TIME BANDIT (MichTron) 

76,030 ★Brent Morgan, Centerville, OH 
59,020 Stephanie Morgan, Centerville, OH 
TREKBOER (Mark Data) 

123 *Roy Grant. Toledo, OH 
132 Matthew Fumich, Munford, TN 
TRIG ATTACK (Sugar Software) ^ 
196,000 ★Cassaundra Stewart, Sacramento, CA^^ 
TUT'S TOMB (THE RAINBOW, 7/88) 

53,280 ★William Currie, Bryans Road, MD 
VARLOC (Radio Shack) 



67 
82 
85 
86 
87 



1,310-0 
1,302-0 
1,276-0 
1,260-0 
1 ,242-0 



★•Jon Breckel, Wilmington, OH . 
•Thomas Payton, Anderson, SC 
•Jonathan Dorris, Indianapolis, IN 
•Brandon Reece, Chickamauga, GA 
•William Currie, Bryans Road. MD 
OUTHOUSE (MichTron) 

59,641 ★Sam Zehel, Coal Center, PA 
3B.640 Dave Staub, Moundsville, WV 
PAC PANIC (CouparJ 

34,950 ★Heather Hamblen, Bar Harbor, ME 
PITFALL II (Activision) 

197,048 ★Keith Catrett. Montgomery, AL 
164,088 John Akan, Chippewa Falls, Wl 
159,400 David Cornette, Green Bay, Wl 
104,479 David Stewart, Kent, OH 
POLTERGEIST (Radio Shack) 

3,300 *Jon Breckel, Wilmington, OH 
POOYAN (Datasoft) 



★Tristan Terkuc, Richmond, Ontario 
Edward Rocha, Cobleskill, NY 
Paul Summers, Orange Park, FL 
Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 
Neil Haupt, Elyria, OH 
SAUCER DEFENSE (THE RAINBOW, 4/87) 

40,000 ★David Hartmann, Osoyoos, British 
Columbia 

4,000 Frankie DiGiovanni, Olney, MD 

SHAMUS (Radio Shack) 

30,515 ★Scott Galvao, Tiverton, Rl 
29,850 Doug Burns, Moscow, OH 
28,150 Greg Allen, Atwater, CA 
25,450 John Garness, Newell, SD 

SHOOTING GALLERY (Radio Shack) 

27,270 ★Jocelyn Hellyer, Montgomery, IL 
25,510 Donald Knudson, Minot, ND 
20,480 Kevin Pereira, Corsicana. TX 

SHOOT'N RANGE (THE RAINBOW, 8/87) 



★ Frank D'Amato. Brooklyn, NY 
Tony Harbin, Cullman, AL 
Edward Rocha, Cobleskill, NY 
Ryan Grady, Newbury Park, CA 
Antonio Souza III, North Dartmouth, 
MA 

VICIOUS VIC (THE RAINBOW, 7/86) 



2,502 
2,032 
2,032 
2,013 
2,011 



18,813 
15,063 
14,613 
11,902 
10,489 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 



566,850 
373,900 



236,650 
111,600 



★Lois Crowson, East Alton, IL 
Duncan Cameron, Chippewa Fails, 
Wl 

Jeff Mrochuk, Edmonton, Alberta 
William Cathey, Kings Mtn., NC 
PROSPECTOR (THE RAINBOW, 12/88) 
15,150 *Cray Augsburg 
4.050 Jutta Kapfhammer 
3,550 Lauren Willoughby 
PYRAMID (Radio Shack) 

220 ★ Jason Ebbeling, Berkshire, MA 
PYRAMID 2000 (Radio Shack) 

220 ★Darren King, Yorkton, Saskatchewan 
220 *Mike Snyder, Allen, OK 
125 Chris VanOosbree, Emmetsburg. IA 



55,623 
14,702 
13,794 
6,082 
5,433 



if" ' 



■Xci : 



2 X:. 



★Paul Robbins, Picayune. MS 
Richard Winkelbauer, Bronx, NY 
Phillip Holsten, Modesto, CA 
David Morrison, Brewer, ME 
Benoit Landry, DrummondviUe, 
Quebec 

SLAY THE NERIUS (Radio Shack) 

73,091 ★Jeff Remick, Warren, Ml 
SNEAKY SNAKE (THE RAINBOW, 8/87) 

63 ★Matthew Smith, Courtenay, British 
Columbia 

SPACE INVADERS (Spectral Associates) 

3,920 *Ari Enkin. Neapen, Ontario 
SPACE ASSAULT (Radio Shack) 

13,110 ★Jeff Remick, Warren, Ml 
7,280 Jason Kopp. Downs, IL 
6,200 John Weaver, Amsterdam, NY 
SPEED RACER (MichTron) 

95,640 ★David Morrison, Brewer, ME 



★Talib Khan, Bronx, NY 
John Conley, Everett, WA 
Carolyn de Lambert, Everett, WA 
Martha James, Swarthmore, PA 
Karl Guitiford, Summerville, SC 
WILD WEST (Tom Mix) 

35 ★Paul Summers, Orange Park, FL 
WISHBRINGER (7rtfocom,l 

400/201 ★Brad Wilson, Lithra Springs, GA 
WIZARD'S DEN ( Tom Mix) 

593,950 ★Richard Winkelbauer, Bronx, NY 
425,350 Leif Smedberg, Columbia City, IN 
195,050 Mark Touchette, Preston, CT 
WRESTLE MANIAC (Diecom) 

956,971 *Marc Reiter, Cincinnati, OH 
546,315 Louis Bouchard, Gatineau, Quebec 
45,483 Tony Bacon, Mt. Vernon, IN 
42,105 David Brown, New Waterford, Nova 
Scotia 

Doug Burns, Moscow, OH 
ZONERUNNER (Radio Shack) 

5,918 ★Sam Zehel, Coal Center, PA 
ZONX (THE RAINBOW, 10/85) 

12,000 ★Adam Broughton, Morris, PA 
ZORK l(lnfocom) 



41,125 



350/328 
350/587 



★ Konnie Grant, Toledo, OH 
Matthew Yarrows, Easthampton, MA 



— Sue Evans 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 95 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^ 

SCOREBOARD POINTERS 



In conjunction with the rainbow's Scoreboard, we offer this column 
of pointers for our game-playing readers' benefit. If you have some 
interesting hints, tips or responses to questions, or want help yourself, 
we encourage you to write to the Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. 



In response to questions from: 

• Ted Klug: In Sands of Egypt, go east 
three times from the dead snake to get the 
canteen. Go down from the top of the 
cliff, south and dig for the magnifier. Use 
the objects in the upper right corner to 
"climb" out of the pool. 

• Joan Laansoo: In Sands of Egypt, go 
south twice from the top of the cliff and 
dig to find the torch. 

Phil Holsten 
Moraga, CA 

• Jamin Dorward; In Vortex Factor, to 
start the time machine get the lime from 
the back room and cut it with the saw. 
Squeeze lime into the vile, pour the vile 
into the battery, place the cartridge and 
press the button. 

How do you light up the caverns in the 
Cairo Moon (while travelling with the 
cartridge)? 

In Major Istar how do you move the 
boulder from the undersea caverns. How 
do you make the vaccine and how many 
ingredients do you need? 

Eurik Perez 
New: York, NY 

• John Riddle: In Robot Odyssey, to 
rewire the robots use the subway token 
detector. 

I'm. on the last level at the sonic rock, 
but how can I get past it? 

Kelly Jones 
West Salem, OH 

• Jim Forster: In the Interbank Incident, 
the back rooms of the Louvre and the 
Seattle museum can be opened using the 
smaller key to reveal security stations. 

What do you do after finding the code 
book? What are the transmitter and rod 
used for? How do you get through the 
wall panel on the boat? (There is a slot 
for something there, but I don't know 
what.) And how do you get on the army 
base? 

Eric Stork 
Staten Island, NY 



Bedlam 

Scoreboard: 

In Bedlam, how do you get past the 
dog and how do you get the green key 



from the shock room? After opening the 
secret door, how do you go through it? 

To get the red key out of the cabinet, 
use the hook from the maintenance 
room. 

Alan Lindabery 
Thorndale, PA 



Dungeons of Daggorath 

In Dungeons of Daggorath, the re- 
sponse time on Level 2 is very slow and 
I get killed before my commands are even 
executed. Is there anything I can do to 
stop this? How do I kill the knights and 
the stone giants without the ring? I have 
attacked over 20 times with the iron 
sword with no success. 

Alan Lindabery 
Thorndale, PA 

Scoreboard: 

In Dungeons of Daggorath, I came 
across a knight, with a shield on Level 3. 
What does the knight carry and what is 
the best way to kill him? 

Kevin Pereira 
Corsicana, TX 

Scoreboard: 

In Dungeons of Daggorath, to kill the 
wizard on the sixth level, you have to get 
the mirthil shield and elvish sword. Then 
get the wizard in a hallaway and hit him 
with the shield four times. Type M and run 
away. Keep hitting and running for about 
20 minutes. Then get away from him and 
rest. When he comes back attack him 
with the joule ring (incant energy). Move 
away and rest, then attack with your ring 
again. If he does not die, run away and 
rest until he comes back and fire again 
with the energy ring. 

To incant the supreme ring, type IN- 
CRNT FINRL 

Robbie Davis 
Nackawic, N.B. 

Gates of Delirium 

Scoreboard: 

In Gates of Delirium, how do you get 
your man's strength, dexterity, intelli- 
gence and wisdom up? Where are the 
people that will join you? 

Jonathan Wanagel 
Freeville, NY 



Interbank Incident 

Scoreboard: 

Here are some hints for the Interbank 
Incident. The bartender on the train in 
Paris has the key to the train's baggage 
room door and to the Louvre security 
room door. In examining the far right 
side of the living quarters' roof, I saw a 
roof entry way. When in the baggage car, 
examine the mailbag. 

Does anyone know how to reach the 
roof entry way in the living quarters in 
Seattle? How do you enter the storage 
rooms in the Eiffel Tower or the Space 
Needle? How do you enter the submarine 
and the jet fighter in Munich? 

Frankie DiGiovanni 
Olney, MD 

Kung-Fu Dude 

Scorecard: 

In Kung-Fu Dude, when you get to the 
Dark Temple and reach the first gunman, 
don't attack him after he fires all four 
bullets. He'll just keep firing if you do. 

The barrels are tough. I don't know if 
there's any special technique of getting 
over all the barrels unscathed, but if 
anybody knows, please let me know. 

Cody Deegan 
Fallon, NV 

Lansford Mansion 

Scoreboard: 

In Lansford Mansion, how do you get 
rid of the guard for good? Where are the 
treasures? 

Jason Andrew 
Madison, WI 



To respond to other readers' inquiries 
and requests for assistance, reply to 
"Scoreboard Pointers," c/o THE RAIN- 
BOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 
We will share your reply with all "Score- 
board" readers in an upcoming issue. 

For greater convenience, "Scoreboard 
Pointers" and requests for assistance may 
also be sent to us through the MAIL 
section of our Delphi CoCo SIG. From the. 
CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then 
type SEND and address to: EDITORS. Be 
sure to include your complete name and 
address. 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^ 



96 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



Ml 
) 1 1 
I II 




ffir. $rebU f 0 programs 

For Color Computer Software 
Since 1983 




1 1 * 
1 1 1 
1 1 1 




Pyramix 

This fascinating CoCo 3 game 
continues to be one of our best 
sellers. Pyramix is 
machine language written 
exclusively to take 
advantage of all the 
power in your 
128K CoCo 3. The 
Colors are bril- 
liant, the graphics 
sharp, the action fast. Written by 
Jordon Tsvetkoff and a product of 
ColorVenture. 

The Freedom Series 
Yocal Freedom 

I've got to admit, this is one nifty 
computer program, Yocal Free- 
dom turns your computer into a 
digital voice recorder. The 
optional Hacker's Pac lets you 
incorporate voices or sounds that 
you record into your own 
BASIC or ML programs. 
This is not 
a synthe- 
sizer. Sounds 
are digi- 
tized dir- 
ectly into computer memory 
so that voices or sound effects 
sound very natural, 
"off - 1 he - s hel f " a p pi i cati o n 
Vocal Freedom is an automatic 
message minder. Record a message 
for your family into memory. Set 
Vocal Freedom on automatic. When 
Vocal Freedom "hears" any noise in 
the room, it plays the pre- 
recorded message! Disk operations 
are supported. VF also tests 
memory to take advantage of from 
64K up to a full StZK 
Requires low cost 
amplifier (RS cat. 
*277-1008) and 
any microphone. 

Mental 
Freedom 

Would your friends be 
impressed if your 




One 
for 




computer could read their 
minds? Mental Freedom 

uses the techniques of 
Biofeedback to control video 
game action on the 
screen. Telekinesis? 
Yes, you control the 
action with your 
thoughts and emotions. 
And, oh yes, it talks in a perfectly 
natural voice without using a 
speech synthesizer! Requires 
Radio Shack's low cost Biofeedback 
monitor, Cat. # 63-675. 

BASIC Freedom 

Do you ever type in BASIC 
programs, manually? If you do, 
you know it can be a real chore. 
Basic Freedom changes all that. 
It gives you a full screen editor 
just like a word processor, but for 
BASIC programs. Once loaded in, it 
is always on-line. It hides 
nvisibly until you call it 
forth with a single 
keypress! This program 
is a must for 

progra 
mers or 
anyone 
who types 
in 

programs. By Chris Babcock and a 
product of ColorVenture. 

Lightning Series 

These three utilities give real 
power to your CoCo 3. 

Ramdisk Lightning 

This is the best Ramdisk available. 
It lets you have up to 4 mechanical 
disk drives and 2 Ram drives 
- on-line and is fully 
I ^compatible with our printer 

spooler below 

Printer 
Lightning 

\Load it and forget 
it- -except for the 
* versatility it gives you. 
Never wait for your printer again! 





Printer runs at high speed while 
you continue to work at the 
keyboard! 

Backup Lightning 

This utility requires 51 2K. Reads 
your master disk once and then 
makes superfast multiple disk 
backups on all your dirves! No 
need to format blank disks 
first! Supports 35, 40 
or 80 track drives. 

COCO Braille 

Produce standard grade 2 Braille 

on a Brother daisy wheel printer. 

Easy to use ■ ■ . 

for sighted ■ ■ ■ ■ 
■ ■ ■ ■ 

or blind user. No knowledge of 

Braille is necessary. Call for free 

sample. 

Prices 

CoCo 3 only 

Ram Disk Lightning, Disk $19.95 

Printer Lightning Disk....... :....$ 19.95 

Backup Lightning, Disk $19.95 

All three, Disk $49.95 

Pyramix, Disk $24.95 

CoCo 1,2, or 3 

Vocal Freedom, Disk $34.95 

Vocal Freedom Hackers Pac. ...$14.95 
COCO Braille $69-95 

CoCo 2 or 3 only 

Mental Freedom, Disk $24.95 

Basic Freedom, Disk $24.95 

CoCo 1 or 2 only 

VDOS, The Undisk, ramdisk for the 

CoCo 1 or 2 only, Tape $24.95 

VDUMP, backup Undisk files to single 

tape file, Tape $14.95 

VPRINT, Print Undisk directory, 
Tape : $9.95 

Add $2.50 shipping/handling 

in USA or CANADA 

Add $5 00 to ship to other 

countries 



Dr. Preble's Progrems 
6540 Outer Loop 

Louisville, KY 40228 
24 Hour Hot Line 
(502) 969-1 81 S 

Visa, MC, COD, Check 



CoCo Con s u l tat i ons 



MS 



> 



C 




CONSULTATIONS 



Joystick Repairs 

My joystick plug fell apart. I need to 
know what wire goes to what so I can 
solder on a new plug. 

Brian Ma If ant 
Largo, FL 

If you plan to do your own CoCo 
hardware repairs, it is essential that you 
own a copy of the Tandy Service Man- 
ual for your computer. It will give you 
all the information necessary to com- 
plete such repairs. It is available 
through any Radio Shack, from Na- 
tional Parts. 

To replace your joystick, look at the 
solder lugs on the plug for your CoCo 
3 joystick. (See Figure 1.) The pin 
assignments are as follows: 



Pin 1 


X axis potentiometer 




wiper 


Pin 2 


Y axis potentiometer 




wiper 


Pin 3 


ground 


Pin 4 


fire button number 1 


Pin 5 


+ 5 volts 


Pin 6 


fire button number 2 




3 



Figure Is CoCo 3 Joystick Plug 



(Note that one side of each of the 
joystick's two potentiometers is con- 
nected to ground and the other side of 
each is hooked to +5 volts.) 

Connector Alterations 

How can I hook a CM-8 RGB monitor 
to an Amiga 500? 

Danny Hale 

(DANNYHALE) 

Joplin, MO 



Martin H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics tinkerer and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Cose 1 1 of the CoCo world. On 
Delphi, Marty is the SIGop of rain- 
bow's CoCo S1G and database man- 
ager of OS-9 Online. 

98 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



By Marty Goodman 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



To do this, convert the down-going 
(negative) sync pulses from the Amiga 
into the up-going (positive) sync pulses 
needed by the CM-8. The rest is just 
cable hook-up. Look at your reference 
on the Amiga Video connector. An 
Amiga video cable requires a DB-23 
female connector for its video output. 
DB-23s are hard to come by, but you 
can make one by sawing off a little piece 
of a standard DB-25 female connector. 
Pins 3,4 and 5 on that connector are 
R,G and B respectively. Hook those to 
the R,G and B lines on the CM-8 mon- 
itor (pins 3,4 and 5 of the CM-8's 10- 
pin connector). Pins 13, 16, 17, 18, 19 
and 20 of the Amiga connector are 
ground. Connect them to pins 1 and 2 
of the CM-8's connector. 

You need a 74LS04 chip. Hook its +5- 
volt pin (Pin 14 on the chip, also called 
Vcc) to the +5-volt line on the Amiga 
(Pin 23). Hook up that chip's ground 
pin (Pin 7) to the Amiga's ground pins. 
Solder a .1-mfd capacitor between pins 

7 and 14 of the 74LS04 chip. Now run 
the Amiga's H and V sync lines (pins 1 1 
and 12 on the Amiga video connector) 
into each of two inputs for the chip's 
inverter gates. Hook Pin 11 of the 
Amiga to Pin 1 of the LS04 chip and 
Pin J 2 of the Amiga to Pin 3 of the LS04 
chip. Then take the inverted outputs of 
those gates and feed them into the CM- 
8's H and V sync input connection (pins 

8 and 9, respectively, on the CM-8 
connector). 



Modifying Inputs 

Can I use my CM-8 monitor with a 
Tandy 1400 portable computer? Tandy 
says it cannot be done. 

George E. Leonhard 
Woodstock, GA 

The Tandy 1400 portable computer 
does have an RGB video output. Unfor- 
tunately, that output only provides an 
RGB digital signal. The CM-8 is de- 
signed to accept only an RGB analog 
signal. So the CM-8 and the 1400 really 
are not compatible. 

To some extent, you can fake it by 
making a cable that feeds the R,G and 
B signals from the T1400 into the R,G 
and B inputs on the CM-8. Next, hook 
up H and V sync and ground, and 
ignore the T line from the T1400. This 
should result in a reasonable image on 
the CM-8. Please note that you will get 
only eight colors (including black and 
white), rather than the 16 normally 
available with IBM-type RGB I CGA 
signals. 

Although you may get readable text, 
you will be over-driving the R, G and 
B inputs on the CM-8 and could injure 
that monitor's circuitry. Remember that 
the .51-dot pitch of the CM-8 is, at best, 
marginal for 80-column text displays. 
Refer to your CM-8, CoCo 3, and 
T1400 manuals for the exact pin outs of 
the CM-8 and TJ400 RGB I video 
connectors. 

Tandy OS-9 Games Patch 

Marty, using the tip you gave me on 
Delphi, I wrote a simple patch program 
that will allow Trivia Fever and all other 
Tandy game programs that boot up 
under OS-9 Level 1 Version 1.1 to be 
played on the CoCo 3. As you pointed 
out, the fix does cause a crash or cold 
start if you press the reset button instead 
of rebooting. However, this is not a 
problem in actually running the game. 
Owners of Trivia Fever and other OS- 

9 Level I Version 1.1 games who wish 
to run them on their CoCo 3 should 
complete the following steps. First, type 
in the following five-line BASIC pro- 
gram, and save it to disk as TRIV- ] 
FIX.BflS: j 

10 D/<$I$0,34,1,UH$,LH$ 

20 MID$(UH$,74,1)=CHR$(239) j 
30 MID$(UH$,B5,1)=CHR$(239) \ 
Aid DSKO$0,34,1,UH$,LH$ 

50 END 



Put that disk aside. Now, make a 
backup of the game disk that you want 
to fix* For games that have more than 
one disk, use the disk that you use to 
boot the game (the one that you nor- 
mally insert in Drive 0 before typing 
DOS in order to start the game). Next, 
load Trivia Fix into memory, and put 
the backup of your game boot disk in 
Drive 0. Run. The drive will spin for a 
bit, and its light will come on. When you 
get the OK prompt again, your disk will 
be ready for operation on a Co Co 3. 
Note that this fix can be completed on 
a CoCo 3, so an earlier model CoCo is 
not needed to fix these games to run on 
the CoCo 3. 

Lee Maice, Jr. 

(MA1CE) 

Washington, DC 



Nice work, Lee! The problem with 
Trivia Fever and all OS-9 Level 1 
Version 1.0 and 1.1 games is that the 
boot program block moves itself over 
the 256 bytes at $FE00 through SFEFF, 
smashing the interrupt vectors on the 
CoCo 3. Your fix changes the boot 
program location, so it will not trample 
the CoCo 3 interrupts. The fix will work 
on all games using OS-9 Level 1 Version 
1.1. (This includes most of Tandy's 
older OS-9 programs that are incom- 
patible with the CoCo 3.) Most pro- 
grams written using an OS-9 Level 1 
Version 1.0 boot will work with this fix. 

Assembly language tinkerers can fix 
the Level 1 Version 1.0 boot program by 
transferring the contents of Track 34 of 
the game disk (the boot file) to CoCo 
memory starting at $2600. Disassemble 
the code there, look for a block move 
in the first 256 bytes and a subsequent 
jump to the code that was moved. The 
target address for the block move, and 
for the subsequent jump, need to be 



lowered by Hex 100 — probably by 
changing the target address and the 
corresponding jump from $F000 to 
$EF00. 

No Dual Printing 

Can I run two printers (such as a 
DWP230anda DM P BOA) simultane- 
ously, feeding them data from a single 
computer? 

Charles N. Shew 
SHEW 

For most practical purposes, you 
cannot run two printers simultaneously. 
The computer sends data to the printer, 
but the printer also tells the computer 
(via a handshake line) when to stop 
sending data because its buffer is full. 
If you hook up two printers on the same 
serial line, the buffer full handshake will 
not work properly for either. Also, the 
DMP 130A and the DWP 230 use 
different control codes. Therefore, you 
couldn't use even the more common 
special features, like underline and 
boldface. 

Although you could use TTL and 
Level converter chips to do a logical OR 
to the two busy signals and halt the 
computer when either printer's buffer is 
full, this decreases efficiency. It would 
be better to use a printer switch and 
print first from one and then from the 
other printer. Most users who have both 
types of printers use their serial printer 
to print out draft copies, use those 
copies for editing and then use the daisy 
wheel printer for the final copy. In such 
use, it makes little sense to have both 
printers printing out the same file at the 
same time. 

Baud-Rate Changes 

I'd like to pass along the following to 
CoCo 3 users: If you are running your 



CoCo 3 at double speed (POKE &H 
FFD9,0J, and want to send data to the 
printer using the internal serial port, 
change the baud-rate constant of BASIC 
to the one used at slow CPU speed for 
the next lowest baud rate. The following 
table shows the constants to poke into 
Address 150 to adjust the baud rate of 
a CoCo 3 running at double speed: 



Baud 

600 

1200 

2400 

4800 

9600 



Constant 

180 

87 

41 

18 

6 



To run the internal serial port at 300 
baud when the CoCo is operating at 
double speed, you will have to poke a 
1 into A ddress 149 and then experiment 
with the correct value for Address 150. 
This value will be a number a little less 
than 200. All addresses and constants 
given concerning these baud-rate 
changes are in decimal notation. 

Art Flexser 

(ARTFLEXSER) 

Author of ADOS-3 
Miami, FL 

Your technical questions are wel- 
comed. Please address them to CoCo 
Consultations, THE rainbow, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. 

We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit 
for brevity and clarity. Due to the large 
volume of mail we receive, we are unable 
to answer letters individually. 

Questions can also be sent to Marty 
through the Delphi CoCo SIG. From the 
CoCo SIG> prompt, pick Rainbow 
Magazine Services, then, at the RAIN- 
BOW> prompt, type R5K (for Ask the 
Experts) to arrive at the EXPERTS> 
prompt, where you can select the "CoCo 
Consultations" online form which has 
complete instructions. 




"Assembly Language Programming for the CoCo" (The Book) and the CoCo 3 (The Addendum). 
Professionally produced (not just skimpy technical specifications). THE CoCo reference books. 



THE BOOK - 289 pages of teaching 
assembly language for the CoCo 1 & 2. 
It's used as a school text and is an 
intro to Computer Science. It describes 
the 6809E instructions, subroutines, 
interrupts, stacks, programming 
philosophy, and many examples. Also 
covered are PIAs, VDG, SAM, kybd, 
jystk, sound, serial port, and using 
cassette and disk. $18.00 + $1.50 s/h. 



THE ADDENDUM - Picks up 

where the BOOK left off. Describes 
ALL the CoCo 3 enhancements & how 
to use them with assembly language. 
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January 1 989 THE RAINBOW 99 



The Fourth Rainbow Book of Adventures 



Fourteen fascinating new Adventures from the winners of our fourth Adventure competition, Rely on your wits 
to escape a hostile military installation, try to $top the Nazi plan to invade Great Britain, or manage to reinstate 
our defense system before the enemy launches a massive missile attack — and that's only the beginning! 



The Park of Myst 

discussing where 
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Ve hidden their loot Can you find 
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Superspy — You awaken from a horrifying nightmare 
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Term Paper — A real nightmare: Someone's stolen your 
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Life: An Everyday Adventure — Just getting up in the 
morning in time to do last-minute chores before 
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The Earth's Foundations — A mysterious maze inside 
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effect on the entire area. You've been chosen to 
investigate, and promised great riches — //you survive! 



Experience other traditional and contemporary challenges 
Babich, David Bartmess, Stephen Berry, Eugene Carver, 
Kottke, Kerr Lie, Andre Needham, Fred Provoncha, Paul Ruby Jr. and 



these winning authors: 
Farris, Jeff Hillison, 
Eric Santanen. 



Mike Anderson, Tio 
Johnson, Richard 



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u^e ^is cryptological key 





year o 



«3 



I 

I^^ML— ..,., „ ,.,.,,.,., — - 



'Ty- : .*- : 



By Clem Bedard 

i r 




A cipher is defined in the ^iiBtionary as a secret 
method of writing, which transposes or 
substitutes letters of the alphabet. To encrypt 
(encode) a message, you must use one of the many 
transformation systems on the message. To decipher 
(decode) it, the reverse procedure is applied. One 
such system of transformation uses a random non- 
repeating additive key and is known as the one-time 
pad system. The program Cipher simulates this 
system while reducing a problem known as the key 
distribution problem, g |5 



■M&m^m. <i^.r|^^^|&- '^####fe.^. 

' lin text to 



give us the following numerical text: 

75-69-69-80-65-76-76-77-69-83-83-65-71^9-83-83- 
69-67-82-69-84 



An Additive Key System 

The one-time pad system is considered unbreak- 
able in both theory and practice. Although it is 
beyond the scope of this article to fully analyze this 
system, we will encrypt a short message to show the 
different steps involved in transforming ordinary 
text into ciphered text when using an additive key 
system. To demonstrate how the program Cipher 
works, let's manually encode the following phrase: 

Keep all messages secret. 



First, it is necessary to convert the plain text into 
numerical text There are many ways in which this 
can be done, but for this example, we will substitute 

Clem Bedard is an electronic technician for the 
Canadian Department of National Defense. His 
hobbies include amateur radio, programming and 
more recently, cryptology. 



At this point, the message is not encrypted; ^t is 
written simply as a computer might represent it It 
would be easy for a cryptanalyst (spy) to reconstruct 
the original message from the numerical text. 

To make life more difficult for the cryptanalyst, 
let's generate a series of random numbers. This string 
of numbers is called the key and should be at least 
equal in length to the numerical text in order to avoid 
repetition of the random sequence. The following 
string meets our requirements: 

8-5-12-10-14-9-6-13-2-15-10-4-8-15-12-6-9-2-11-7-1 

Now we proceed to the final step of our encryption 

and add the random key to the numerical text to 

produce the Cipher text. Our example text would 

then look like Figurfe '% 
In comparing the numerical text to the plaia text, 

we see that every time a letter is repeated in the plain 

text, the corresponding number in the numerical text 

is also repeated. This is a simple substitution and 

offers little security to the exchange of confidential 

information. In contrast, the cryptanalyst trying to 

analyze the Cipher text has no way of knowing how 

a number was derived. Is 83 the sum of 41 plus 42, 

W is it the result of adding 1 to 82? Each number 

of the cipher text becomes an equation with two un- 




102 



THE RAINBOW Jan uary p89i 



b'' 



" — ' >: ^^'^'l/A^fe^ v : > '/..V, ^'; ; c 



32KECB 16KMod 



;# i liS-" '*•*< - v ;: ; 



(Plain text: Numerical text + Random key = Cipher text) 

Keep All Messages Secret 

75-69-69-80 65-76-76 77-69-83-83-65-7 1 -69-83 83-69-67-82-69-84 
+ 08-05-12-10 14-09-06 13-02-15-10-04-08-15-12 06-09-02-11-07-01 

= 83-74-81-90 79-85-82 90-71-98-93-69-79-84-95 89-78-69-93-76-85 

Figure 1: Creation of Cipher text 



kriSMSijSj; : ;l6^ : ^|Sch there is no unique solution. Without a 
cofiy of the original random key, theoretically it is impossible 
to decode the text. 



^•si : :s.';''.-.. 




The One-Tiitie Pad . .. 

t;5:Kipdom : '|^ for this system are distributed in the fortii 
6f pads. Each pad contains a predetermined number of 
sheets. Eaetf$|eet is filled with randomly generated numbers, 
arid! rio two sKeets have the same number sequence. Each pad 
has an exact duplicate, both forming a pair, and no pair 
duplicates any other pair. Two people who share a pair of 
identical pad? can communicate secretly with each other by 
usii0idi|||r^nt sheet for every message, tearing off that sheet 
when thfey ;^^iphed, and never using that same sheet again 
(thus the name one-time pad). \ s . 

tJrifortunately, the one-time pad system creates a key 
distribution problem. In other words, if you wanted to send 
confidential information to your friend through the mail but 
felt this ^a^fhot private enough, you would encrypt the 
j^fb|^ationf§r$t. But how do you get the key to yc^|friend^ 
You can't use the mail service; it's not private enough. You 
could pay him a Visit, but this could become expense and 
time-consuming. If you are paying him a visit, why not simply 
giv^lfiim the confidential information and save the hassle of 
encryption and decryption? You are faced with the key 
distribution problem inherent to the one-time pad system. 




A S&iiitioii 

Cipher is an encoding/ decoding program that Mimiil^tes 
the key distribution problem. The same random key 



Ik 




#21 




generated by the encoding computer, is duplicated by the 
decoding computer. All that is needed is a password 
previously agreed upon by the corresponding parties. The 
password, or keyword as it is referred to in the prograiii; can 
be any word or phrase of no more than 245 characters, 
including spaces. Every time the keyword is changed, the 
computer generates a new random number sequence. 
Changing only one character of the keyword will produce an 
entirely different Random key. 



Program Operation 

Cipher will operate on CoCos 1, 2 and 3, with 16K or more 
memory, on either tape or disk systems. Although a printer 
is not a necessity, it can be useful. After typing the listing, 
^ve it by using the command CSftVE "CIPHERS for tape or 
;Sf3^||i|lPHEl|^r disk. If you are using a 16K tape system, 





January 1989 THE RAINBOW 103 



bef o re you Aeed t o PCLERR 0 by typing Copy down the numbers that were genera^|i screen*;^ 

PPKE25^^ Also after the program turn the computer off for another ten seconds, and repe#t 

is loaded, change Line 130 to CLEAR 4000 instead of 8000 the procedure. The same six numbers are generated m the 

and D I MPS (109 ) instead of ( 217 ). In Line 350, change same sequence, 

1=3456 to 1=1728, and in Line 1730, change 1=6912 to Every time your computer is turned on from a cold start, 

If 3456; You are now ready run the program. the random generator is automatically seeded with the same 

At the start of the program, you will be presented with the numbers, causing the same sequence to be repeated. This seed; 

title page |sked if you want to encode or decode, occupies four bytes and can be peeked at locations 278 tiofe 

Answer^^lhi^aidou takes you through a series 281. If we poke those locations with integers of fi#hoofeg 

of easUy^ilQ^ed menus i^ff^ti have completely encoded (0 to 255), the random generator should gerieratd a certain 

or decoded a message. The final work can be sent to the sequence of numbers that could be duplicated on demand, 

screen, recorded on tape or clisfe, or sent to the printer. This random sequence would then become the random key 

If you ^cft^i& : :.to encode a message, you will be placed in needed to encode and decode our messages. || 
iht word^^^ssing mode, which allows you to type the Instead of poking four separate locations m^^pvy, ^: 
uncoded te^t|iines 3507tO;540). A num appearing in the same results can be obtained by randomizing a negative 
upper-right corner of your ffeieen indicates the amount of integer in the form R=RND( -n). The following one-line 
memory left in the buffer. When you type your text, only the program demonstrates this: 
alphabet (ASCII 65-90), comma, period, space and apos- 
trophe are ^^gnized asvalid characters. If you need to enter 10 R=RND( - 1234 ) : FOR X=l|Ttt6: PR I NT RNPX2S|.; : 
nutiibersi ^ out as you do when writing NEXT X 
a check. 

When you finish entering the text, press the percent sign Every time you run this program, the same si^t numbers will 

(%), and you will be prompted to enter a keyword of your appear on the screen. Change the negative integer, and you 

choice. This will seed the computer's random generator, prior get six new numbers. Changing the negative integer puts new 

to generating the random key. values at locations 278 to 281, forcing the random generator 

Whether you want to send the cipher text to screen or to to generate a new sequence of numbers, 

another option, the encoding procedure is the same. Let's Line 2640 asks you for the keyword that you and yo^ 

examine lines 760 to 970 for a description of how the plain friend have agreed upon. Lines 2660 to 2680 add up all the 

text is changed into cipher text. ASCII values of the keyword and put that value in Variable 

As demonstrated in our example, plain text must be F. Variable F becomes the seed required to generate the 

transformed into numerical text. To do this, every letter of random key (lines 580 and 2180). 
the plaintext is converted to its ASCII equivalent (Line 770). 

Then the alphabet is separated from the punctuation marks Conclusion 

(Line 780). For convenience and protection, the alphabet is Because I am not an expert in cryptology, it is difficult ft*f ! 

inverted and moved down to the punctuation marks (Line me to assess the level of security offered by this program. 

790). In this manner, the letter Z (ASCII 90) becomes number Nevertheless, I am confident that all unauthorized persons 

47 and A (ASCII 65) becomes 72. trying to read your secret correspondence will have to spend 

After each conversion of a plain text letter into a numerical many hours — perhaps days — before they can crack your - 

equivalent, the result of RND(27) is added to it in Line 800. code, Messages will be better protected if you change your 

This process is repeated until every letter of the plain text keyword often. Remember that in the one-time pad system, 

is transformed into cipher text. The number 27 was chosen a key is never used more than once. 

because when added to 72 (the highest numerical equivalent), This program should prove interesting if used on your 

it will not exceed 99, which keeps the cipher text in a two- favorite BBS, for it is very unlikely that anybody but your 

digit number format. intended friends could read your mail. Although other people 

.^ v . Lines 810 to 880 assemble the cipher text into groups of might have a copy of this program, your keyword makes 

Sllye digits for presentation on the screen, Lines 890 and 900 yours a unique version. If in the process of playing with 

are used to toggle the screen on and off. Lines 920 and 930 Cipher, you should become a crypto-nut, I recommend that 

simply ensure that the cipher text will always end with a five- you read David Kahn's The Codebreakers (MacMillan, 1967) 

digit group. available in most public libraries. 

Decoding Jhe cipher tex^ requires that the reverse proce- To those interested in experimenting with the principle of 

dtire be applied. Study lines 2320 to 2380 to understand the seeding, there are many open avenues such as encryption of 

mechanics of decoding.;; ^ data* games requiring preset randomization, educational^ 

^ % : : --^;$t'' : programs where a randomized order of presentations has to 

The Random Key be repeated for learning or checking purposes, etc. The rest 

Since computers have to rely on mathematical formulas is up to you. I'm looking forward to see programs making 

to generate ;#&dom numbers, the results can only mimic a use of the seeding feature in coming issues of the rainbow 
true randpna Sequence. Because of this shortcoming, a 

pseudo-rand^; -sequetice can be duplicated on demand _ 

simply by ^|idB| the ffendom generator. ... 

If you wotfp like to pirpve this to yourself, turn off your (Questions or comments about this program may be 

computer, wait ten seconds, turn it on and enter the following directed to the author at 3220 Quadra, Apt. 106, Victoria, 

line: BC> Canada V8X 1G3. Please include an SASE when 

FOR **A -T0 £ : mm RND(100); : NEXT X requesting a reply. & 



1 04 THE RAINBOW JMum 1989 




230 


218 


1730 , 


145 


450 


, . .117 


1940 . . 


3 


680 


. . 234 


2130 


4 


920 


. . , .64 


2370 


.87 


1110 , , 


. . 228 


2560 . . 


...157 


1300 


189 


2830 . . 


...247 


1510 


. 44 


END 


...214 



The listing: CIPHER 

10 • ********************** 

20 1 * C-I-P-H-E-R * 

30 1 * BY C.BEDARD * 

40 ' * 106-3220 QUADRA * 

50 1 * VICTORIA B.C. * 

60 1 * CANADA V8X 1G3 * 

70 1 * COPYRIGHT (C) 1986 * 
80 1 ********************** 

90 1 

ljjj3 i 

110 1 ***INITIALIZATION*** 
12 0 i 

130 CLEAR8000:DIMP$(217) :Y=1:H=1 
184:C$= n DI5K SYSTEM NOT OPERATI 
ONAL" : E$="THE PRINTER IS OFF LIN 
E" 

14 j3 i 

150 1 ***FIRST MENU*** 

16 0 i 

170 CLS:PRINT@39,CHR$(43)+STRING 

Tele communication made simple. 

"TsLsRdk 9 "TeEL 

6c p I M 

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Autoterm From PXE computing $39.95 

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OS-9 Level II BBS $29.95 

OS-9 Level II terminal package $29.95 

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XTERM - OS-9 Terminal package $49.95 

f= i-om SD E n te r p r 1 so&s ; 

V . I . J=» . Writer- III * Y 9 _ 9 B 

V.X.R. Database XXX $69. 9 B 

V.I.R. CalC III ^69.96 

From Fr-amK Hogg l_afc»s: 
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10% discount on TELEPAK or TELBPAK PLUS with software orderl 

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wilh ' V-TEKM emulilor- M1KEVTERM * Grcg-E-Term" Rickeylerm^UUiiinlenn. 



$(15,CHR$ (45) )+CHR$(43) 

18/3 PRINT@71,"+ CIPHER +" 

19/3 PRINT§lj33 ,CHR$ (43) +STRING$ (1 

5,CHR$ (45) )+CHR$ (43) 

20J3 PRINT@17^f, "THE PSEUDO" 

21/3 PRINTS 2^/3, CHR$ (34) "ONE-TIME 

PAD"CHR$ (34) 
22/3 PRINT© 2 61, STRING $ (21,CHR$ (42 

)) 

230 PRINT© 3 2 5, "WOULD YOU LIKE TO 



• * 



240 PRINT@395 , " (E) NCODE" 

250 PRINT@427 , " (D) ECODE" 

260 PRINTQ459 , " (Q) UIT" 

270 EXEC44539:A$=INKEY$ 

280 IFA$<> ,, E"ANDA$<> lf D"ANDA$<> fl Q 

"THEN270 

290 IFA$= M D"THEN1580 

300 IFA$="Q"THENCLS:NEW 

31 j3 i 

320 1 ***INPUT PLAINTEXT*** 

3 30 1 *** FROM KEYBOARD *** 
340 i 

350 CLS : 1=3456 : PRINTQ3 6 , "ENTER 
PLAIN TEXT AND" 

360 PRINTS 58, 11 PRESS <%> WHEN FIN 
ISHED" 

370 PRINT@I00,STRING$(23,CHR$(45 
) ) : PRINT 

380 M=PEEK(13 6) :L=PEEK(137) :PRIN 







H©w §©fltwaar@Q[l 

V£T)OS From ESP 

Eiciting new DOS enhancements for your CoCo III. 
NEW hl-res graphics cmnds-Auto boot Baslc/ML/or OS-9 
Easy to use text editor-M/L config program 
Compatible with RSDOS- EPROM-able 





Viease. add $3.00 sbpg./fuffg 

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January 1 989 THE RAINBOW 105 



It2'i6 # I;-:PORE^;3'6 # M«POKE137 / L 


880 IFV=5THENPRINT" " ;:V=0 


390 F0RX=1T015:A$=INKEY$ 


890 B$=INKEY$!IF(B$) <>CHR$(32)TH 


400 I F A $ = " " THENNEXTELSE 4 5 0 


EN910 


410 POKE(H) ,95 


900 B$="":B$=INKEY$:IF(B$)<>CHR$ 


420 F0RX=1T05:A$=INKEY$ 


(32)THEN900:B$="" 


430 IFA$ = 11 rt THENNEXTE LSE 4 5 0 


910 NEXTZ :NEXTX 


440 POKE (H) ,96:00103 90 


920 IFW=0ORW=5THEN940ELSEA$=STR$ 


450 IFASC(A$)=8THENGOSUB2730:GOT 

¥ % 9 w V 


(RND (9 ) ) 


0380 


930 PRINTMID$(A$,2,1) ; :W=W+1:G0T 


4 60 IFASC(A$)=320RASC(A$)=390RAS 


0920 


C (A$) =440RASC (A$ ) =46THEN490 


940 PRINT: PRINT: PRINTSTRING$ (7 , C 


470 IFASC(A$)=37THENP$(Y)=P$(Y)+ 


HR$(32) )+STRING$(17,CHR$(45) ) 


A$:GOTO540 


950 PRINT" TO RETURN TO ME 


480 IFASC (A$) <650RASC (A$) >90THEN 

¥ \ 9 W \ * 0 / 


NU" 


390 


960 PRINT" PRESS ANY KEY 


49 p PRINTA$ ; : 1=1-1 : H=H+1 : IFH=15 3 


":EXEC44539 


6THENH=1504 


970 GOTO580 


500 P$(Y)=P$(Y)+A$:C=C+1 




510 IFC=32THENY=Y+1:C=0 


990 1 ***CUTPUT CIPHERTEXT*** 


520 IFIO0THEN380 


1000 1 *** TO TAPE *** 

/ / / 


530 M=PEEK(13 6) :L=PEEK(137) :PRIN 




T@26,I; :POKE13 6,M:POKE137,L:A$=C 


1020 CLS : PRINT@34 , "INSERT CASSET 


HR$(37) :GOTO470 


TE IN RECORDER" 


540 GOSUB2630 


1030 PRINT@69, "PRESS <RECORD> BU 


550 i 


TTON" 


560 • ***SECOND MENU*** 


1040 PRINT@99 , "PRESS ANY KEY TO 


570 i 


CONTINUE" 


580 CLS:G=RND(-F) 


1050 PRINT§131 / STRING$(25 / CHR$(4 


590 PRINTS 36, "OUTPUT CIPHERTEXT 


5) ) :EXEC44539 


TO. ..." 


1060 GOSU32 810:GOSUB3000:W=0:OPE 


600 PRINT@68,STRING$(24,CHR$(45) 


N"0", #-l,F$ 


) 


1070 F0RX=1T0Y:F0RZ=1T0LEN(P$ (X) 

WW \ i \ W 


610 PRINT(3139,"(S)CREEN" 


) 


620 PRINT@203,"(D)ISK" 


1080 P=ASC(MID$(P$(X) ,Z,1) ) 


630 PRINT§267,"(T)APE" 


1090 IFP=320RP=370RP=390RP=440RP 


640 PRINT@331,"(P)RINTER" 


=46THEN1110 


650 PRINTS 3 9 2, "OR (E)ND SESSION" 
660 EXEC44539:A$=INKEY$ 


1100 P=137-P 


1110 P=P+RND(27) 


670 IFA$<>"D"ANDA$<>"T"ANDA$<>"P 


1120 T$=T$+RIGHT$(STR$(P) ,2) :W=W 


" ANDA$ <> " S " ANDA $ <> " E " THEN 6 60 


+1 


680 IFA$="T"THEN1020 


1130 IFW=16THENPRINT#-1,T$:W=0:T 


690 IFA$="D"THEN1210 


$ = "»» 


700 IFA$="P"THEN1370 


1140 NEXTZ :NEXTX 


710 IFA$="E"THENCLS : RUN 


1150 PRINT#-1,T$ 


720 i 


1160 CLOSE#-1:GOTO580 


730 • ***0UTPUT CIPHERTEXT*** 


1170 ■ 


740 • *** TO SCREEN *** 


1180 1 ***OUTPUT CIPHERTEXT*** 


750 i . 


H9J3 i *** TO DISK *** 


760 GOSUB2920: PRINT" 11 ; :V=0 : W=0 : 


12 00 i 


F0RX=1T0Y:F0RZ=1T0LEN(P$ (X) ) 


1210 CLS :IFPEEK( 49152 )<>68THENFO 


770 P=ASC(MID$(P$(X) ,Z,1)) 


RA=1T06 : PRINT@2 2 6 , C$ : FORB=1TO300 


780 IFP=320RP=370RP=390RP=440RP= 


: NEXTB : PRINT @ 2 2 6 , " " : F0RB=1T01 0 0 : 


46THEN800 


NEXTB : NEXTA : GOTO 5 8 0 


790 P=137-P 


1220 GOSU32960:GOSUB2810:GOSUB30 


800 P=P+RND(27) 


00 : W=0 : OPEN"0" , #1 , F$+"/CFR" 


810 A$=MID$(STR$(P) ,2,1) 


1230 F0RX=1T0Y:F0RZ=1T0LEN(P$(X) 


820 PRINTA$; :W=W+1 


) 


830 IFW=5THENPRINT" " ; :W=0:V=V+1 


1240 P=ASC(MID$(P$(X) ,Z,1)) 


840 IFV=5THENPRINT" ";:V=0 


1250 IFP=320RP=370RP=390RP=440RP 


850 A$=RIGHT$(STR$(P) ,1) 


=46THEN1270 


860 PRINTA$ ; :W=W+1 


1260 P=137-P 


870 IFW=5THENPRINT" " ; :W=0 : V=V+1 


1270 P=P+RND(27) 



106 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



1280 D$=D$+RIGHT$(STR$(P) ,2) :W=W 
+1 

1290 IFW=16THENPRINT#1,D$:W=0:D$ 
—ii it 

1300 NEXTZ : NEXTX 
1310 PRINT=1,D$ 
1320 CLOSEsl:GOTO580 

1330 • 

1340 • ***CUTPUT CIPHERTEXT*** 
1350 1 *** TO PRINTER *** 

1360 ' 

1370 CLS : IFPEEK (65314) AND1THENFO 

RA=1T06 : PRINT@228 , E$ : FORB=1TO300 

:NEXTB: PRINT@228 , " " : FORB=1TO100 : 

NEXTB : NEXTA : GOTO 580 

1380 GOSUB2880 :GOSUB3 000: PRINT #- 

2 : PRINT#-2 , " » ; : V=0 : W=0 : FORX=lTO 

Y:FORZ=lTOLEN(P$(X) ) 

1390 P=ASC(MID$(P$(X) ,Z,1) ) 

1400 IFP=320RP=370RP=39ORP=44ORP 

=46THEN1420 

1410 P=137-P 

1420 P=P+RND(27) 

1430 A$=MID$ (STR$ (P) , 2 , 1) 

1440 PRINT=-2 , A$ ; :W=W+1 

1450 IFW=5THENPRINT#-2," ";:W=0: 

V=V+1 

1460 IFV=13THENPRINT#-2," ";:V= 
0 

1470 A$=RIGHT$(STR$ (P) ,1) 
1480 PRINT=-2,A$; :W=W+1 

1490 IFW=5THENPRINT#-2," ";:W=0: 
V=V+1 

1500 IFV=13THENPRINT#-2," ■ ;:V= 
0 

1510 NEXTZ: NEXTX 

1520 IFW=0ORW=5THEN1540ELSEA$=ST 
R$(RND(9) ) 

1530 PRINT=-2,MID$(A$ / 2,1) ;:W=W+ 
1:GOTO1520 

1540 PRINT*-2:PRINT#-2:GOTO580 
155^ i 

1560 ' ***THIRD MENU*** 
157^ i 

1580 CLS : PRINT@ 3 6 , "INPUT CIPHERT 
EXT FROM. . ." 

1590 PRINT§68,STRING$(24 / CHR$(45 
)) 

1600 PRINTS 17 1, w (K) EYBOARD" 

1610 PRINT@235, " (D) ISK" 

1620 PRINT§299, " (T) APE" 

1630 PRINTS 3 60, "OR (E)ND SESSION 
ii 

1640 EXEC44539:A$=INKEY$ 

1650 IFA$<>"K"ANDA$<>"D"ANDA$<>" 

T " ANDA$ <> " E " THEN 16 4 0 

1660 IFA$="T"THEN1970 

1670 IFA$="D"THEN2090 

1680 IFA$="E"THENRUN 

1690 • 

1700 ' ***INPUT CIPHERTEXT*** 
1710 • *** FROM KEYBOARD *** 



The 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



Back Issue 
Availability 




BACK ISSUES STILL AVAILABLE 

Have you explored the wealth of informa- 
tion in our past issues? From our very first, 
four-page issue to many with more than 300 
pages of material, it's all just for CoCo users 
— a great way to expand your library! 

A WORLD OF INFO AT A BARGAIN PRICE 

All back issues sell for the single issue 
cover price. In addition, there is a $3.50 
charge for the first issue, plus 50 cents for 
each additional issue for postage and han- 
dling if sent by United Parcel Service. There 
is a $5 charge for the first issue, plus a $1 
charge for each additional issue on orders 
sent by U.S. Mail. UPS will not deliver to a 
post office box or to another country. 

MOST ISSUES STILL AVAILABLE 



Issues July 1981 through June 1982 are 
available on white paper in a reprint form. All 
others are in regular magazine form. VISA, 
MasterCard and American Express ac- 
cepted. Kentucky residents please add 5 
percent state sales tax. I n order to hold down 
costs, we do not bill, and no C.O.D. orders 
are accepted. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you 
order the back issues you want now while 
supplies last. 

To check availability and order, review and 
fill out the form on the next page and mail 
it with your payment to: 

THE RAINBOW 

The Falsoft Building 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 107 



BACK ISSUE ORDER FORM 

(See overleaf for instructions.) 

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□ 










JAN '89 


Beginners 


$3.95 


□ 



RAINBOW INDEX A complete index to the first three years, July 1981 through June 
1984, is printed in the July 1984 issue. Separate copies are available for $2.50 □ 

The Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Year Indexes including RAINBOW ON tape are printed 
in the July 1985, 1986 and 1987 issues, respectively. The Seventh Year Index is 
printed in the July 1988 issue. 

TOTAL 



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1720 1 

1730 CLS : 1=69 12 : PRINTS 3 6 , "ENTER 

CIPHER TEXT AND" 
1740 PRINT® 6 8 , 11 PRESS <%> WHEN FI 

NISHED" 

1750 PRINT§100,STRING$(23,CHR$(4 
5) ) : PRINT 

1760 M=PEEK(13 6) :L=PEEK(137) :PRI 

NT@26,I; :POKE136,M:POKE137,L 

1770 FORX=lT015:A$=INKEY$ 

1780 I FA $ - " " THENNEXTE LS E 1 8 3 0 

1790 POKE(H) ,95 

1800 FORX=lT05:A$=INKEY$ 

1810 IFA$= IM, THENNEXTELSE1830 

1820 POKE(H) ,96:GOTO1770 

1830 IFASC(A$)=8THENGOSUB2730:GO 

TO1760 

1840 IFASC(A$)=32THENPRINTA$; :H= 
H+1:GOTO1770 

1850 IFASC(A$)=37THENP$(Y)=P$(Y) 
+A$:GOTO1920 

1860 IFASC(A$)<480RASC(A$)>57THE 
N1770 

1870 PRINTA$;: 1=1-1 :H=H+1:IFH=15 
36THENH=1504 

1880 P$(Y)=P$(Y)+A$:C=C+1 

1890 IFC=32THENY=Y+1:C=0 

1900 IFIO0THEN1760 

1910 M=PEEK(136) :L=PEEK(137) :PRI 

NT@26,I; :POKE136,M:POKE137,L:A$= 

CHR$(37) :GOTO1850 

1920 GOSUB2 630:GOTO2180 

1930 1 

1940 1 ***INPUT CIPHERTEXT*** 

1950 1 *** FROM TAPE *** 
196 j3 i 

1970 CLS : PRINT© 34," INSERT CASSET 
TE IN RECORDER" 

1980 PRINT970, "PRESS <PLAY> BUTT 
ON" 

1990 PRINT@99, "PRESS ANY KEY TO 
CONTINUE" 

2000 PRINT@131,STRING$(25,CHR$(4 
5) ) :EXEC44539 

20 10 GOSUB2 8 10 : GOSUB3000 : OPEN " I " 
,#-1 F$ 

2020 ' IFEOF ( -1) =-lTHEN2040 

2030 INPUT#-1,P$(Y) :Y=Y+l:GOTO20 

20 

2040 CLOSE#-1:GOSUB2630:GOTO2180 

2050 1 

2060 1 ***INPUT CIPHERTEXT*** 
2070 1 *** FROM DISK *** 

2080 1 

2090 CLS :IFPEEK (49152) O68THENF0 
RA=1T06 : PRINT© 2 2 6 , C$ : FORB=1TO300 
: NEXTB : PRINTQ22 6 , " " : FORB=1TO100 : 
NEXTB: NEXTA : GOTO 1580 
2100 GOSUB2960:GOSUB2810:GOSUB30 
00 : OPEN" I ■ , # 1 , F$+ "/CFR" 
2110 IFEOF(1)=-1THEN2140 
2120 INPUT#1,P$(Y) :Y=Y+1 



108 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



2130 GOTO2110 

2140 CLOSE#1:GOSUB2630 

2150 ' 

2160 • ***FOURTH MENU*** 

2170 1 

2180 CLS:G=RND(-F) 

2190 PRINTi 37, "OUTPUT PLAINTEXT 

TO. . ." 

2200 PRINT@69,STRING$(22,CHR$(45 
)) 

2210 PRINT§171,"(S)CREEN" 

2220 PRINT@235,"(P)RINTER" 

2230 PRINT@296, "OR (E)ND SESSION 
it 

2240 EXEC44539:A$=INKEY$ 

2250 IFA$<> ,, P I, ANDA$<> , •S ,, ANDA$<> , • 

E"THEN2240 

2260 IFA$="P"THEN2500 
2270 I FA$=" E " THENRUN 

2280 • 

2290 • ***OUTPUT PLAINTEXT*** 
2300 ' *** TO SCREEN *** 
2310 • 

2320 GOSUB2920:FORX=1TOY:FORZ=1T 
OLEN(P$(X) )STEP2 
2330 P=VAL(MID$(P$(X) ,Z,2)) 
2340 P=P-RND(27) 

2350 IFP=3 2 ORP=3 90RP=4 40RP=4 6 THE 
N2380 

2360 IFP=37THEN2420 

2370 P=137-P 

2380 PRINTCHR$(P) ; 

2390 B$=INKEY$:IF(B$)<>CHR$(32)T 
HEN2410 

2400 B$="":B$=INKEY$:IF(B$)OCHR 
$(32) THEN 2 400 : B$=" " 
2410 NEXTZ : NEXTX 

2 4 20 PRINT : PRINT : PRINTSTRING$ ( 7 , 
CHR$(32) )+STRING$(17,CHR$(45) ) 
2430 PRINT" TO RETURN TO M 

ENU" 

2440 PRINT" PRESS ANY KE 

Y":EXEC44539 

2450 GOTO2180 

2460 • 

2470 ' ***OUTPUT PLAINTEXT*** 
2480 ' *** TO PRINTER *** 

2490 ' 

2500 CLS:IFPEEK(65314)AND1THENF0 

RA=1T06 : PRINT§228 ,E$ : FORB=1TO300 

: NEXTB : PRINT 9228,"": FORB= 1TO 100 : 

NEXTB : NEXTA : GOT02 180 

2510 GOSUB2 880: GOSUB3 000 : PRINT # - 

2 : FORX=lTOY : FORZ=lTOLEN (P$ (X) ) ST 

EP2 

2520 P=VAL(MID$(P$(X) ,Z,2) ) 
2530 P=P-RND(27) 

2540 IFP=320RP=390RP=440RP=46THE 
N2570 

2550 IFP=37THEN2590 

2560 P=137-P 

2570 PRINT#-2,CHR$(P) ; 



2580 NEXTZ: NEXTX 

2590 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2:GOTO2180 

2600 ' 

2610 1 ***SEED SUBROUTINE*** 

2620 • 

2630 SOUND175,3 

2640 PRINT: PRINT: INPUT" ENTER KE 
YWORD";K$ 

2650 IFK$=""GOTO2640 
2660 FORX=lTOLEN(K$) 
2670 F=F+ASC(MID$(K$,X,1) ) 
2680 NEXTX: RETURN 

2690 ' 

2700 1 ***LEFT ARROW*** 
2710 ' ***SUBROUTINE*** 

2720 ' 

2730 IFC=0ANDY=1THENRETURN 
2740 IFC=0THENY=Y-1:C=32 
2750 POKE(H) , 96 : C=C-1 : H=H-1 : PRIN 
TAS ; 

2760 P$(Y)=LEFT$(P$(Y) ,C) : 1=1+1: 
RETURN 

2770 ' 

2780 1 *** SCREEN *** 

2790 ' ***SUBROUTINES*** 
2800 • 

2810 CLS : PRINT @ 3 8 , " ENTER DATA FI 
LE NAME" 

2820 PRINT© 70, "8 -CHARACTERS OR L 
ESS" 

2830 PRINT@102,STRING$(20,CHR$(4 

5) ) : PRINT :INPUTF$ 

2840 IFLEN(F$)>8THEN2810 

2850 IFF$=""THENF$="CIPHER" 

28 60 RETURN 

2870 1 

2880 PRINT© 3 6 , "READY PRINTER AND 
PRESS" 

2890 PRINTQ68 , "ANY KEY TO CONTIN 
UE " 

2900 PRINT@100,STRING$(2 3,CHR$(4 

5) ) :EXEC44539: RETURN 

2910 • 

2920 CLS: PRINT© 3 5, "PRESS SPACE B 
AR TO TOGGLE" 

2930 PRINTQ67 , "SCREEN WRITING ON 
AND OFF" 

2940 PRINT@99,STRING$ (25,CHR$ (45 
) ) : PRINT : RETURN 

2950 1 

2960 PRINT@35 , "INSERT WORK DISK 
IN DRIVE" 

2970 PRINT© 67 , "PRESS ANY KEY TO 
CONTINUE" 

2980 PRINT@99,STRING$(25,CHR$(45 

) ) :EXEC44539:RETURN 

2990 i 

3000 PRINT@2 67, "WORKING. .." :RETU 
RN 

i 

3020 • ***END OF PROGRAM*** 

3j330 i &S 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 109 



1 Feature 



CoCo 3 Disk 




Utilize all of your CoCo 3's memory 
with these programs 




When you got your CoCo 3, you 
may have been disappointed 
to find that you still only use 
30K of memory from BASIC. You prob- 
ably wondered about the usefulness of 
128K if you can't access it easily. You 
can easily use all that memory like a disk 
drive though, by using a RAM disk. 

A RAM disk uses your computer's 
extra memory as if it were another disk 
drive. It uses your extra RAM (Ran- 
dom Access Memory) instead of floppy 
disks. With a RAM disk, you can OPEN, 
CLOSE, KILL, DIR, PRINTtt, INPUT — 
and almost anything you would nor- 
mally do with a floppy disk drive. RAM 
disks are also faster than floppies be- 
cause the computer doesn't have to turn 
on a disk drive and search for the right 
place on the disk before information 
can be exchanged. 

Most RAM disks are only available 



Daniel Jimenez is a computer science 
major at the University of Texas at San 
Antonio. His favorite hobby is doing 
systems programming on the CoCo. He 
is especially interested in memory 
management-type programs, such as 
the RAM Disk. 



for 512K CoCos at a high price (higher 
than you paid to read this article). I 
offer an alternative. 

RAM Disk installs a RAM disk in 
your 128K CoCo 3. To use it, you need 
a 128K CoCo 3 with at least one floppy 
disk drive and Disk BASIC. Type in and 
run Listing 1, RRMDISK. If "Checksum 
Error" is printed while running, go back 
and check the program's DRTR state- 
ments. If the program is correct, you 
will be prompted for the drive number. 
For now press 1 and ENTER. You can 
choose any of the possible CoCo drive 
numbers (zero through three), but you 
will still want to be able to use your disk 
drive(s). When choosing a number for 
your disk, choose a drive number you 
don't have. After you type the appro- 
priate drive number and press ENTER, 
the program will install and format a 
RAM disk and report which drive 
number is being used for it. 

Now type DIR1 and press enter. As 
no files exist on the RAM disk, you 
should see a blank line. Type SRVE 
"RRMDISK : 1" and press ENTER. You 
have just saved a program on your 
RAM disk. Type DIR1, and the pro- 
gram will appear in a directory listing. 



Experiment with it. You can use 
almost any of the commands available 
to Disk BASIC with your RAM disk. 

What's the catch? A floppy disk can 
hold 160K of information, RAM Disk 
cannot. Of the 128K in your CoCo, 64K 
is taken up by basic and any variables 
or programs you have loaded into 
memory. RAM Disk uses the other 64K. 
This means that it can only hold 27 
granules (64 times 1,024 bytes divided 
by 2,304 bytes per granule, minus about 
4,000 bytes for the directory) in files. 
You can check this by using the FREE 
function. (For example, if you chose 
drive 1, type PRINT FREE ( 1 ) and press 

ENTER.) 

If you have a 128K computer (as 
opposed to 512K), RAM Disk will use 
the memory that BASIC uses for WIDTH 
40, WIDTH B0, and any of the HSCREEN 
graphics. Try not to use these features 
when the program is installed, or you 
may run into some major problems (like 
losing everything on the RAM disk). 
These limitations do not apply to 512K 
CoCos, but if you have a 512K CoCo, 
you ought to buy a RAM disk that can 
take advantage of all the memory. 

Since RAM Disk does not have the 



110 THE RAINBOW January 1989 




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16 New Programs now available in Basic Spanish 




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Interactive Tutorial Programs for Home or Classroom Use 

Over 1000 programs for your selection with 32 now available on disk for the Color 

Computer and 500 now available for the Tandy 1000. 



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Reading Development 256 (4 on disk) 
Reading Comprehension 48 (4 on disk) 

Mathematics 128 

Algebra 16 (16 on disk) 

History 32 (4 on disk) 

Spelling 16 

Government 16 

Physics 16 (4 on disk) 

16 Programs in each 
of the following: 

Children's Tales - Carpentry - Electronics 
Health Services - Office Skills - Statistics 
First Aid/Safety - Economics - Business 
Accounting - Psychology - MUCH MORE! 

Send for our free catalog of over 1000 Dorsett educa- 
tional programs for Atari, TRS 80. Apple, IBM PC Jr., 
Commodore. Tandy 1000. etc. 



Apple II, TRS 80 I, III, & 4, and 
Commodore 64 computers require 
respective conversion kits (plug-in board 
and stereo cassette player), $99.00. Atari 
400/600/800/1200 computers require the 
Atari cassette recorder and the Dorsett 
4001 Educational Master Cartridge, 
$9.95. For the IBM PC Jr. a cassette 
adapter cable and a good cassette 
recorder are required. The Tandy 1000 
requires the Dorsett M1001 speaker/PC 
board kit, $69.00, and a standard 
cassette recorder. A Radio Shack 
CCR-81 or CCR-82 is recommended. 

CASSETTES: $59.50 for an album con- 
taining a 16-program course (8 cassettes 
with 2 programs each); $9.95 for a 
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disks. All disks come in a vinyl album. 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



Dorsett Educational Software lealutes; 

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i User Friendly 

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i Self-Paced Study 

i High Resolution Graphics 

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For more information, or to order call: 

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IN OKLAHOMA CALL (405) Ztt-2301 



f A N 
MasterCard 



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mm^^r Educational Systems, Inc. 

Box 1226, Norman, OK 73070 




memory of a normal disk, do not use the 
commands BACKUP or DSKINI. Of 
course, BACKUP and DSKINI will work 
with any drive number not being used 
by the program. You can use D5K0? and 
D5KI$, but don't specify any track 
number higher than 31 or lower than 17. 
The RAM disk doesn't have these, but 
it may look for them, which will cause 
problems. You can examine the direc- 
tory and file allocation table sectors on 
Track 17 just like you would normally. 

Since you can't use the BACKUP com- 
mand with this program, I have in- 
cluded a program called Copy (Listing 
2), which will copy all the files from one 
disk drive to another. It will work 
whether or not RAMDisk is installed 
(as long as you have two disk drives) but 
is quite useful. You can copy a complete 
disk into the RAM disk, work with the 
programs and files now on the RAM 
disk faster than you would with a 
floppy, and use it to copy all the files 
onto another floppy when you are done. 

Because RAMDisk is completely in 
RAM memory, turning off your com- 



puter will erase everything on the RAM 
disk. Pressing RESET will not affect the 
program's operation. 

Remember the high-speed poke 
(POKE 65497,0) for the CoCo 3, and 
how using it sometimes garbles your 
disks? When using the program, you 
can use the high speed poke with no 
change in operation except that the 
RAM disk will work twice as fast. 
Remember to go back to normal speed 
(PDKE 65496,0) when working with 
any other drive. 

For you hackers, here is some tech- 
nical information: The RAM disk occu- 
pies virtual memory from address 
$60000 to S6FFFF ($0 to $FFFF for a 
512K CoCo). It has 14 tracks numbered 
from 17 to 31, with 18 sectors per track 
and the directory and file allocation 
table on Track 17, just like a regular 
floppy. Sector 1 of Track 17 starts at 
virtual address $60000; so Sector 2 of 
Track 17 is at $60100; Sector three at 
$60200, etc. Therefore, you can modify 
these sectors byte by byte with the 
LPDKE command. The RAMDisk pro- 



gram resides in memory from $7EOO to 
S7F57, and hooks into the DSKC0N 
subroutine at $C004, so you can use it 
from machine language by calling 
DSKCDN just like you would in any other 
drive. 

RAMDisk should work with all the 
CoCo 3 programs that play by the 
above rules; don't use memory from 
$7E00 to $7F57; don't modify the 
DSKCDN subroutine; and don't use vir- 
tual memory. It would be perfect for 
programs written for the CoCo 2 run- 
ning on the CoCo 3. 

Til leave you with this thought: Try 
to think of the RAM disk as a tempo- 
rary storage device, like a variable, 
where you can do a large amount of 
work quickly and then copy your final 
result to floppy disk. 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this program may be directed to the 
author at 3600 Falls Creed, San Anto- 
nio, TX 78230. Please include an SASE 
when requesting a reply.) □ 



Listing 1: RAMDISK 



10 'RAMDISK. BAS 

20 1 COPYRIGHT (C) 1988 

30 'BY DANIEL JIMENEZ 

40 '3 600 FALLS CREEK 

50 1 SAN ANTONIO, TX 78230 

60 CLEAR 200,&H7DFF 

70 C=0 

80 FOR X=&H7E00 TO &H7F75 

90 READ A$ 

100 A=VAL("&H"+A$) 

110 C=C+A 

120 POKE X,A 

130 NEXT X 

140 IF CO41025 THEN PRINT "CHECK 

SUM ERROR.": END 

150 DEF USR0=&H7E00 

160 INPUT"DRIVE NUMBER" ;B 

170 A=USR0(B) 

180 END 

190 DATA 9E,72 / 8C / 7E / 7A / 26 / E / 8E / 
7F,3A 

200 DATA A6 , 80 ,27 , 6 , AD , 9 F , A0 , 2 , 2 
0,F6 

210 DATA 39,BD / B3,ED / C4 / 3,F7 / 7E, 
8 A, BE 

220 DATA C0,4,86,7E,A7,84,CC,7E, 
8C,ED 

230 DATA 1,30,4,BF,7E,99,B6,FF,A 
1,34 

2 40 DATA ;2 /7F , f F, Al , 8E , 2 1 , 0 , 6F , 8 
0,8C 



250 DATA 
FF, A7 
260 DATA 
,0/A7 
270 DATA 
B7 , FF 
280 DATA 
,7A,9F 
290 DATA 
7E,8A 
300 DATA 
73, 7E 
310 DATA 
7,84 

3 20 DATA 
0,0 

330 DATA 
4,76 

340 DATA 
0/10 

350 DATA 
27,9 

360 DATA 
1,10 

370 DATA 
10 , 8E 
380 DATA 
,8B 

3 90 DATA 
,80,34 
400 DATA 
7,C0 

410 DATA 
,8D,26 



22,0,25,F9,8E, 21,21,86, 
80, 8C,21,3C,25,F9,8E,22 
80 , 8 C , 3 F , FF , 2 5 , F9 , 3 5 , 2 , 
A1,9E,72,BF,7E,88,8E,7E 
7 2, 8E,7F,56,BD,7E,A,B6, 
8B, 30,AD,9F,A0,2,8E,7F, 
7E , A, 12 , BE,C0,4,86, 7E, A 
CC,7E,8C,ED,1,7E,AB,CD, 
B6,0,EB,B1,7E,8A,27,7,3 
8 6,5,7E,D7, 63 ,34,76, F,F 
DF , 0 , 10 , CE, FE, F0,96 , EA, 

4A,27,6,4A,27,8,4A,27,3 
DE , 0 ,35,F6,8D,52,DE, EE , 
1,0,FC,FF,A1,34,6,F6,7E 
F7, FF , Al ,5C, F7 , FF , A2 , A6 
2,EC,61,FD,FF,A1, 35, 2, A 
31/3F,2 6,E5 , 32,62,20 , CF 



112 THE RAINBOW January 1 989 



42J3 DATA DE, EE, 10, 8E, 1 , J3 , FC, FF, A 
1,34 

430 DATA 6 , A6 , C0 ,F6 , 7E , 8B, F7/FF , 
A1,5C 

44J3 DATA F7 , FF,A2,A7 , 80 , EC , E4 , FD 
FF Al 

45J3 DATA 31 , 3 F , 2 6 , E9 , 3 2 , 62 , 20, A7 
,8E,0 

460 DATA 0,96, £0,80,11,27, 7, 30, 8 
9,12 

470 DATA 0,4A,20,F7,34,10,96,ED, 
80,1 

480 DATA 5F,E3,E1,34,2,44,44,44, 
44,44 

490 DATA B7,7E,8B,35,2,84,1F,1F, 
1,30 

500 DATA 89,20,0,39,52,41,40,20, 
44 ,49 



510 DATA 53 , 4B, 20 , 41 , AC, 52 , 45,41 
,44,59 

520 DATA 20,49, 4E, 53, 54,41, 4C,4C 
45 44 

530 DATA 2 E , 0 , 5 2 ,41,4D,20 ,44,49, 
53, 4B 

540 DATA 20 / 49,4E,53,54,41,4C,4C 
,45,44 

550 DATA 20,41,53,20,44,52,49,56 
, 45 ,20' 

560 DATA 0,2E,D,0 



Are you having trouble learning machine language? 
Are you tired of depending on Basic subroutines? 
Then this program is for you: 
ROOTS is a machine language source file with over 100 
subroutines. You can easily append it to your own source 
files and be free of Basic. You can send characters to the 
screen or printer, read and write sectors to disk, convert 
registers into ASCII numbers, generate sound, create and 
read disk files, read joysticks, INPUT strings and numbers, 
use 32/40/64/8U columns, and many more. On the CoCo III 
you can use the extra keys, speed, graphics, and memory. 
Best of all, you can change it to fit your needs and learn 
more about machine language. Most routines work on a CoCo 
II. Disk only. $25 




DIASM 

A powerful disassembler that can disassemble files even if 
they overlap Diasm or Basic. Supports printer. Many 
editing features. CoCo I, II, or III. Disk only. $20 



OMNI UTILITY 

An on-screen directory ailov/s you to copy, kill, list, 
execute, and rename files at the touch of a key. Includes a 
full featured sector editor. Many other features. $20 

GAT BACKUP 

The ultimate CoCo III backup utility that can backup the 
granules in use, a section of the disk, make multiple copies, 
and copy 35 tracks in two passes -- fast. $15 



JUBILEX 



A fast paced arcade game that requires skill and quick 
thinking. You can modify and improve your weapon system. 
Requires joystick, CoCo III, and disk drive. $25 



All programs are 100% machine language. For an extra $5 
you can get the source file with the program (price of 
ROOTS includes source file). We pay shipping and sales 
tax. Write for more information, or send check or money 
order to: 

GSW Software 
8345 Glenwood 
Overland Park, KS 66212 



Listing 2: COPY 



10 CLEAR 2000 

20 INPUT" SOURCE DRIVE" ; SO 

30 INPUT " TARGET DRIVE";OB 

40 SC=3 

50 FL=0 

60 F=-l 

70 IP F=0 THEN 190 

80 DSKI$ SO,17,SC,A$(l) ,A$(2) 

90 FOR X=l TO 2 

100 A$-A$(X) 

110 FOR Y=l TO 128 STEP 32 

120 T$=MID$ ( A$ i t , 8 ) +» * "+MID$ ( A$ , 

Y+8,3) 

130 IF MID$(T$,1,1)=CHR$(255) TH 
EN F=0:GOTO 150 

140 IF MID$(T$,1,1)<>CHR$(0) THE 
N PRINT"COPYING fl ;T$:COPY T$+":" 
+MID$(STR$(SO) ,2) TO T$+":"+MID$ 
(STR$ (OB) ,2) :FL=FL+1 
150 NEXT Y 
160 NEXT X 
170 SO=SC+l 
180 GOTO 70 

190 PRINT FL; "FILES COPIED." 



MJK & MJK3 DOS 

REVIEWED JAN 1989 

WHY BUY ADOS 3 



WHEN YOU CAN HAVE THIS! 



RrVIFhJCO 

JAM 1111 



RAINBOW' 



MJK DOS for COCO l.A I 
MJI.3 DOS foi COCO 3 
Most powerful operating system 
up to 3 DS-80 track drives or 
drives are software 




w no 

tf£ CoCq 



$29 95 
$39 95 

for tfi/P CoCo ever' Ailovr 
35/iOT drive? The DS 80 

configurable to 
Standard Radio Shack* 35T format in ntHnr to 
maintain compatibility Wildcard DIR. COPY & CILL in noe run or 
one at a time upon user prompt Alt the files can be displayed 
alphabetically including the date that the file vnz saved Use 
the powerful CHAIN command to use programs of any length 
Ore the built in FULL SCREEN EDITOR to allov fast and easy 
program modification Fully spelled out error names Hit one 
key to repeat the last command 

40 NEW COnn»4JNDS & FUNCTIONS^ chain. aOTO date 
CAT (tvo columns of directory vitb only the filenames & 
extensions) VAIT. EUKM. BA0D. HN D, OLD. DATE*, (string in 
baste program). LCOPY (groups of basic liner). REPL (to 
replace a string). TYPE (list a tent file on icr Reo/pripter) 
SPLIT or JOIN basic lines. SAY for real spoken test, vord peek 
& poke and many more 

♦ALLOVS YOU TO R E A D/ VB I T E/FOfi M A T 35/40 DISKS ON A RUT DRIVE* 
+ EPROMABLE ****** •* + + TREE OPDATES FOE 1 YEAR »»* ' . 

niK512 DOS(COC03 5121C) $49 95 

BUILT IN RAM DISK AND RAM TEST COMMANDS 

Monitor-Disassembler (COCO 1. 2&,3) $29 95 

Source-Code Generator /La bel Genera tor (COCOI .£& ,3) $39 95 

JB REMOTE rs-232 pack driver for bbs etc. (C0C01. 2. A3) $19 95 
NEVKEY (COC03) new key sean--gtves you true ALT & CTRL $15 00 

NEVKEY232(C0C03) — JB REMOTE and NEVKEY in one package $25 00 

fiTC -real time hardware clock for the coco 1.2. A3 $35 00 

cxhxted Tint otter* 

K.ETUB.N yOUft OCD ,4DOS3 DTSK -4ND DOCS *4 NTJ 

get $1500 off youn. niic5i2 dos t G\vt you 

CJlEDXT TOU THETB. DOS. DO THEy DO the s^nt? 
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CALL OR VRIT E (COD ORDERS 01) 

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PHONE= 215 457 1809 VOICE ^ND DATA 
COnPUSEJtVE ID- 72317, 437(LE.4l>E PHONE*) 
DELPHI XD : COCOCONNECT 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 113 



Delphi Bureau 



Starting a new year is always exciting. 
It's a time for figuring out what we did 
right or wrong during the year, and 
deciding what we can do to make things 
better during the new year. Many peo- 
ple find that the areas of time scheduling 
and time management usually need 
improvement. All of us want extra time 
to do the things that we must do and do 
the things that we want to do. Let's take 
a quick look at a few ways Delphi can 
help you use your time more efficiently. 

Scheduler and Diary Software 

Many people have asked about the 
Diary and Appointment-Scheduler 
features of the conference software. The 
Diary feature is fairly self-explanatory, 
but the Appointment Scheduler de- 
serves some mention. I use the scheduler 
to remind me about family members' 
birthdays, dentist appointments, car 
maintenance items and other important 
dates. I just enter the date, a time and 
some sort of a memory jogger. The 
system will do the rest — it will re- 
member the important dates for you. 

When I log onto Delphi, the Appoint- 
ment Scheduler will tell me if 1 have 
appointments that day. This happens in 
much the same way that a user is no- 
tified about waiting Mail. Just enter the 
Conference area to check your personal 
appointment scheduling system. 

To get to the appointment scheduler, 
type /DI from the conference prompt, 
and type RPPOINT at the scheduler 
prompt to get to your personal appoint- 
ment scheduler. Follow the menus to 
add, delete or list your personal ap- 
pointments. You may even create ap- 
pointment entries for the next few years 
if you want. 

To access the diary portion of the 
scheduler, type DIRRY at the scheduler 
prompt. From there, you may add, 
delete or list diary entries just as you 
would do in a written diary. The diary 
software will ask for a date and then 
allow you to type in the diary entry. 
When finished, press CTRL-Z; the system 
tells you that your entry was successful. 

To list a diary entry, enter LIST at the 



Don Hutchison is an electrical engineer 
and lives in Atlanta, Georgia. He works 
as a senior project engineer involved in 
the design of industrial control systems. 
On Delphi, Don is the Database Man- 
ager of the rainbow Co Co SIG. His 
Delphi username is DONHVTCHISON. 



Features, guides and 
games on Delphi 

Who Has 
the Time? 

By Don Hutchison 

CoCo SIG Database Manager 



diary prompt. You'll be asked for a date, 
then the diary entry for that date will be 
displayed on your screen. 

The data files for both the scheduler 
and diary functions of the SIG software 
are stored in your private workspace, 
making them accessible only to you. 
You may use Delphi's Mail feature to 
send these files to another person, but 
they remain private and inaccessible 



unless you choose to reveal their con- 
tents to another. 

Ordering Delphi Information 

Delphi offers two primary references 
for its users: a complete, bound guide 
to the service, and a command card. To 
order either one of these references, 
type: Go Using Manuals. You'll be able 
to choose between either of the two 
sources from the menu there. 

Delphi: The Official Guide, by Mi- 
chael A. Banks (KZIN) is a hard-bound, 
500-page book designed to get you "up 
and running" on Delphi and to serve as 
a reference source. In its pages, you'll 
find everything you need to know to get 
the most from your time on Delphi. 
Delphi: The Official Guide, is a Brady 
Book, published by Prentice Hall Press. 
It is a complete resource for Delphi 
services. The manual includes descrip- 
tions of menus, time-saving tips for the 
advanced user, an index of Delphi 
services, a Dial-Up Guide, a technical 
reference section, a trouble-shooting 
guide, a glossary of terms and a Com- 
mand Reference Card. 

You can order this reference book for 
$19.95 plus $3 S/H. You may also 



Database 



This was an interesting month for us 
online in the RAINBOW CoCo SIG. If 
RAINBOWfest weren't enough, we also 
began developing our own CoCo virus 
online. Join us online as we playfully 
generate our own, special benign version 
of a Trojan horse. It promises to be 
interesting. 

Let's take a look at the programs and 
information uploaded to the RAINBOW 
CoCo SIG this month: 

OS-9 Online 

In the General topic area, Roger 
Krupski (HARDWAREHACK) posted an 
overview of the SCSI standard for hard 
drive systems. Marty Goodman (MAR- 
TYGOODM AN) posted a reply from the 
RAINBOW SIG staff on Delphi to some 
statements made in Dale Puckett's Oc- 
tober RAINBOW column (Page 14) re- 
garding the use of CoCoBin on Delphi. 

Steve Clark (STEVECLARK) posted 




some she 11 scripts in the Applications 
topic, and Marc Genois (M ARCGENOIS) 
uploaded Version 2.0 of Shell*. 

In the Utilities topic, Roger Smith 
(SMUDGER) sent us his utility for delet- 
ing files from a directory without deleting 
the directory itself. While Mike Huskey 
(KINGTRENT) uploaded a set of fast 
RAM disk utilities, Bruce Isted (BRU CE- 
ISTED) uploaded revised versions of Bob 
Santy's PC-to-OS-9 file transfer utilities. 
Bruce also posted a file descriptor editor, 
a disk sector tester and a boot file link 
utility. Jim Hollier (PGJIM) uploaded a 
set of utilities to aid aspiring pro- 
grammers in conceptual programming. 
Merle Kemmerly (TOOK3) sent us his 
text file dump utility and a program 
similar to PROCS, which gives informa- 
tion about a process. Finally, Eric Crich- 
iow (HYPERTE) posted Shell Mate , & 
directory utility. 

The Patches topic includes Roger 



114 THE RAINBOW January 1 989 



purchase The Guide at many fine book- 
stores including B. Dalton, Coles and 
Waldenbooks. The book will quickly 
pay for itself in reduced online charges 
since youll be able to research most 
items offline, then go directly to the 
places of interest to you. 

In addition to The Guide, another 
reference source, the Delphi Command 
Card, is available for $2 from Delphi. 
This card is a handy reference for 
getting around on Delphi. The com- 
mand card lists the major features and 
services of Delphi in a condensed for- 
mat. While the card is intended as a 
quick reference vehicle for experienced 
users, it is an ideal tool for all Delphi 
telecommunicators. 

Playing Scramble 

The Scramble word game, intro- 
duced in the conference area of Delphi 
a few months ago, has proved to be a 
very popular real-time, multiuser game. 
Masquerading under the username of 
GAME in the conference area of the 
CoCo SIG, the Scramble game is in- 
stantly available to all CoCo SIG users. 
Enter the conference area, then join the 
group containing user GAME. You'll be 



greeted with a short introductory mes- 
sage about the main features of the 
game software, then told that entering 
the command GO will activate a 90- 
second round of Scramble. 



■ * A' 




■ y '- ■' 5" V 





u The 

word game 
proved to be a 
very popular real- 
time, multiuser 
game. " 



Once you start a game, you'll have 90 
seconds to make as many words as you 
can out of the 16 letters provided. Press 
RETURN to rescramble the same letters 



or to see them again if they scroll off the 
screen. Doing this usually results in 
more exciting games since the available 
letters are displayed in a different order, 
so users are allowed to gain a fresh 
perspective on available letter combina- 
tions. The longer the length of your 
words, the higher their point value. For 
example, three-letter words are worth 
nine points, five-letter words are valued 
at 25 points, eight-letter words are 
valued at 64 points, and so on. 

Use the /TOP command to see the top 
scores and /RECENT to see the recent 
scores. Be wary of SIG members like 
manager Jim Reed (J1MREED), Belinda 
Kirby (kirby), John Lancas (DUSTIN), 
Art Flexser (ARTFLEXSER) and Bob 
Fried (FRIED). These people are walking 
dictionaries with high Scramble scores 
to prove it. 

When you have finished playing 
Scramble, press CTRL-z to exit from the 
game area. 1 think you'll enjoy Scram- 
ble, so please give it a try. In addition 
to increasing your word power, Scram- 
ble is an outstanding way to meet other 
Delphi users. 

Season's Greetings from those of us 
on Delphi. □ 



Smith, who uploaded a patch for the 
DCheck module and Chris Burke (CO- 
COXT), who posted the details of some 
improvements in the CLS and PfiLETTE 
commands for RSB users. 

Tim Koonce(TlMKOONCE) presented 
an interesting history of the evolution of 
file transfer protocols in the Telcom 
topic. Bill Brady (OS9UGED) posted 
WIZ Professional as well as some up- 
dates to it. 

In the Graphics & Music topic, Glen 
Hathaway (HATHAWAY) uploaded three 
archived pictures, and Ken Groen (4GIL- 
LIGAN2) posted a collection of several 
VEF pictures. 

Finally, in the Programmers Den 
tSpic, Chris Burke uploaded an experi- 
mental source archive program. 




CoCo SIG 

In the General topic area, .lames Wil 
cox (2USER) provided a humorous text 
file describing the results of a "hairy" 
census, and Joe M. Villarreal (VILLAR- 
REAL) uploaded his thoughts on the 
Commodore computer, 

David Mills (DAVIDM1LLS) posted 
another nude freehand drawing from 



Brad Bansner in the CoCo 3 Graphics 
topic area. James Farmer (MODEM- 
MASTER) posted many digitized shots of 
the successful launch and landing of the 
space shuttle Discovery. I (DON HUTCHI- 
SON) uploaded the October '88 CoCo 
Gallery pictures, and Bob Wharton 
(BOBWHARTON) sent us more of his 
popular rock art drawings. 

The Utilities & Applications topic area 
gave us Zack Sessions (ZACKSES- 
SIONS), who posted a very complete 
mailing list manager for all CoCos. In 
addition, Jim Hickle (JIMHICKLE) sent 
us a driver for using a DMP-132 printer 
with Erik Gavriluk's Macintosh picture 
viewer. 

In the Hardware Hacking area, Marty 
Goodman uploaded a set of new fonts for 
the Word Pack 1. Marty also posted 
some valuable information about 28- and 
32-pin chip pin-outs. In addition, Donald 
Ricketts (STEVEPDX) uploaded a text 
file containing some comments about the 
causes of certain disk crashes. 

Kurt Stecco (HIGHRAILER) uploaded 
a patriotic program that draws an Amer- 
ican flag in the Classic Graphics area. 

The Music and Sound topic area gave 



us Mike Stute (GRIDBUG), who sent us 
sl Lyra file called Rlchemy, and Mike 
Carey (SPOOLFRAME), who posted his 
version of "Blue Tango." 

In the Product Reviews and An- 
nouncement topic, Donald Ricketts 
uploaded a comparison of VIP Writer 3 
and Version 3.2 of Word Power, Roger 
Krupski provided us with a file contain- 
ing commonly-asked questions about the 
RGB hard-drive system. 

Finally, in the Data Communications 
area, Jim Harrison (JIMHARRISON) 
posted a customizing file to convert 
Auto Term for use with RGB monitors. 
Tim JCoonce posted the protocol specifi- 
cations for the Zmodem and WXmodem 
protocols. Tim also provided us with his 
own version of the evolution of file 
transfer protocols in general. (Tim if a 
graduate student in computer science at 
UC-Berkeley.) Ken Halter (KEN HAL- 
TER) uploaded a file containing some 
useful patches and KSMs for Version 
6.1 D oiAutoTerm. Daniel Poirier (DIG- 
ITIZER) posted some WEFAX pictures 
of the earth as seen from a satellite. 

That's it for this month. See you online 
on Delphi! 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 115 




«< GIMMESOFT »> 

A new generation of Color Computer products 




-..< v. •? .-j-yy.W . y 



%*■</ ■ >«* .-, f.i 5. 




RAINBOW 





r 



Digital Audio Sampler and Sequencer 

into a REAL digital audio sampler with HIGH quality audio reproduction. Easily 
add exotic effects, £CHO T stuttering, speed shifting, sequencing, and reverse audio to BASIC or ML 
programs or GRAPHICS! Now includes Data Compression. Imagine recording any Voice, Music, or 
Sound effect and being able to use these DIGITAL recordings in your own programs! 3 disk sides 
includes: INTERFACT for sound effects. G&M/BAS • Adds sound effects to 
Graphics. SHOWTIME and DEMO disks. SCOPE/BAS * Turns CRT into a Digital Oscilloscope to 
look at MAXSOUND waveforms. Version 3.0 upgrade (Includes improved ECHO and the ability to 
print NAMETAGS and locations to the screen and/or printer) $6.95 + Shipping & Handling 



4J t ,/ -SuVrt 



"Maxsound. . .bringing a new era to the CoCo Community" 
-Cray Augsburg, June '88 Rainbow Review 

•OVER THE PHONE* DEMO (128k or 512k CoCo HI only) SALE $49.95 



Maxsound Soundtracks & Graphics 

These exciting disks are samples of what can be created with MAXSOUND and CoCo Max III! 
These unbelievable soundstracks w/graphics DO NOT require the MAXSOUND program to run. 



Airwolf 128k $5.95 JtoSff^ War of the Worlds 512k $5.95 

Knight Rider 128k $5.95 ^jjfMMp**- Warrior King Demo 512k $5.95 

Startrek 128k $5.95 ^ Probe 512k $5.95 

5 in 1 Demo (Airwolf, Startrek, Knight Rider, Probe, Other World) 512k $9.95 



■ - -■ 







RAINBOW 

CSKTIFXCATIUH 
UN- 



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Communicate with VAX, UNIX, Mainframe, and BBS Systems! 

VT-100, VT-52, Vidtex (includes RLE graphics display), and standard CRT emulations. 
-Developed and tested on a UNIX system using the EMACS and VI full-screen editors. 
-All 128 ASCII characters accessible from the keyboard. 

-Uses a high-resolution graphics screen to implement a highly readable 80-column screen. 
-Menus can be operated concurrently with other terminal functions. (Disk Basic!) 
•Full 28 line by 80 column screen, with 3 bottom lines protected for menus. 
-Serial port up to 2400 baud, RS-232 Pak up to 9600 baud, DCModem Pak at 300 baud. 
-X Mod em, XModem-CRC, Y-Modem, and ASCII file transfers directly to disk or memory. 
-Prints disk or buffer files with settable margins, baud rate and word wrap. 
-Full 128k or 512k support with a RAMDISK like buffer. Monochrome monitor support. 
-Capture buffer, Snapshot, Conference mode, 35/40/80 Tracks, and over 56 pages of docs! 

the most versatile and full featured terminal emulators for the CoCo 3." 
-Bryan Gridley, November '88 Rainbow Review 

Vcreion 02.00.00 upgrade $6.95 + S&H Disk (128k or 512k CoCo m only) ...... $39.95 



* 



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Toll Free 



1-800-441-GIME 



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Technical assistance: 7pm to 9pm 
Orders: 9am to 9pm Eastern time 
On-line orders and up to date 
information: Delphi's CoCo 5 Kg 



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P.O. Box 421 
Perry Hall, MD 21128 
301-256-7558 or 301-256-2953 



Add $3.00 for shipping and handling 
Add $2.50 for COD (USA only) 
MD residents add 5% sales tax 
VISA/ /Check/ Money Order /COD 




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A new generation of Color Computer products 




,k 



TdePak + t 0 * 00 1/n/n, > A TRULY COMPATIBLE RS-232 INTERFACE! 

Now, from Orion Technologies, comes the answer to the continuing demand for an RS-232 interface. No 
compatibility hassles) Uses standard DB25 cable. Compatible with RS-DOS & OS-9 software. Baud rates up to 19,2001 
Enhances the Multi-tasking capabilities of the V-Term Terminal Emulator found on the opposite page. Only $49.95 



CoCo Max III < CoCo 1,1 4S£$^ MAX-1 0 (CoCo 111 onIy) 



THE BEST Graphics Package ^^^^^ THE DAZZLING Desktop Publisher 

See April '88 review. Disk ... $69.95 Holiday Sale Ends January 15th! CM3 owners -$10 Disk ... $69.95 



fZ I? A Pf-ffl^ C < 512k 0000 1,1 onJ y) Great with MAXSOUND and/or CoCo Max HI! 

Ullfir nJI^J*4u ijp to 25 ONBOARD HIRES SCREENS! Six new BASIC commands. Fast & Smooth 
Graphics animation. Save and Load graphics screens to and from disk. See September 1988 Rainbow review. Disk $19.95 



MULTI-LABEL JH (CoCo 111 only) See July 87 review. An easy to use, versatile label creating program 
including many new CoCo 111 features. Print multiple fonts on each label! This one's a MUST for the CoCo HI!! Disk .... $16.95 



JfJvIS Y 111 (CoCo I/I1/11I) See April '87 review. A user friendly, programmable function key utility that creates up to 20 
function keys. EDITOR, DOS mods. Single or Double sided, 35/40 tracks, DISABLE, and it's EPROMable!. Disk $19.95 

S1XDRIVE (CoCo 1/U/lH) This machine language utility modifies DECB 1.0, 1.1, FKEYS HI, or ADOS to allow the 
use of 3 double-sided drives (or 2 D/S drives and J&B's RAM DISKS) as 6 S/S drives. Disk $16.95 

AUTO DIM! (Co Co HI only) See Jan. '88 review. This hardware device protects your monitor, or TV from IMAGE 
BURN after a few minutes of inactivity from your keyboard. Illustrated and easy to install. Hardware $29.95 

MPI-CoCO Locking Plate (CoCo 111 only) See Sept '88 review. Protects your CoCo 111 and Multi 
Pak Interface from destroying each other! Please specify MPI number 26-3024 or 26-3124 when ordering! SALE $7.95 



TP P T^cro 



Warrior King (CoCo HI only) Become Rastann, Warrior King, on the quest to regain his rightful 



crown hidden deep within a sinister land. Battle monsters, gain magic & weapons, and travel thru harsh wilderness & 
dark castle dungeons in this medieval realm. From the creator of Kung-Fu Dude comes this awesome arcade game for the 
CoCo HI! Uses the most detailed 320 x 200 16 color graphics & high speed ML code to vault you into a world of fantasy! Dare 
ye challange the many perils ahead to become Warrior King? Requires 128k CoCo HI, Disk drive, and Joystick .... $29.95 



HALL OF THE KING TRILOGY (CoCoI/U/Ul) See December 1988 Rainbow review. The epic 
adventure is back! The largest adventure campaign ever seen for the CoCo is again available. A total of 6 DISK SIDES of 
intense graphics adventure will have you playing for weeks! Each section is a 2 disk stand alone adventure, but all 3 together 
form an epic saga! Quest for the legendary Earthstone in the ancient dwelling of the dwarves while you enjoy the classic 
graphics that made this trilogy famous! Each adventure can be purchased separately for only $29.95, the lowest price ever , or 
you can SAVE and purchase the entire set for only $74.95. Requires 64k, Disk drive, (and composite monitor for the CoCo HI). 
Please specify HALL of the King I, H, or 111 $29.95 each or the entire 6 DISK Trilogy for only $74.95 



In Quest of the Star Lord (CoCo HI only) See Aug '88 review. This is THE graphics 

adventure for the CoCo HI! Unparalleled 320 x 200 animated graphics will leave you gasping for more! You quest for the 
Phoenix Crossbow in this post-holocaust world of science and fantasy. Full 4 Disk sides of mind-numbing adventure! 
Requires 128k CoCo HI and Disk drive. HINT SHEET $3.95 (+ $1.00 S&H by itself) Disk $34.95 



KUNG-FU DUDE (CoCo I/ll/III) See Feb. '88 review. An exciting arcade game. The BEST karate game ever for 
the CoCo! Destroy opponents and evade obstacles as you grow ever closer to your ultimate objective! Spectacular graphics, 
sound effects, and animation! Requires 64k, Disk drive, and Joystick. Now displays color on CM 8. Disk $24.95 

PYRAMIX (CoCo HI only) See Dec. '87 review. Brilliant colors, sharp graphics, and hot action in this 100% ML arcade 
game. You'll enjoy hopping Kublx around the pyramid, avoiding Kaderf, Smack, Smuck, & the Death Square! Disk .. $19.95 



JbisZLAD&D Character's Como aniOfl (CoCo 1/U/m) This great tlmesaving 

^P^^ utility helps create compatible AD&D characters. Includes aice rolling routine, pick ability, race & class. Buy from 
the Players Handbook, magic items & spell materials. Save, load, and print character info. 3 Disk sides .... $24.95 



White Fire of Eternity (CoCo 1/U/HI) See Dec '86 review. Enter the era of monsters & magic. Search for the 
legendary power of White Fire throughout the Forbidden Wood & Dark Caverns in this 64k animated adventure! Disk.. $19. 95 

Champion (CoCo I/II/IU) See May '87 review. Become a superhero in this action adventure! Disk.. $19.95 
DragOn Blade (CoCo l/ll/lll) See Nov '86 review. Slay evil dragon in this 64k animated adventure! Disk.. $19,95 




1 Softwar e 
Max-10 



Don't bother reading the last line of 
this review first* I'll tell you up front: If 
word processing is any measurable frac- 
tion of your usage of your Color Com- 
puter, give some serious consideration to 

■ buying Max-10 y the only true "what you 
see is what you get" word processor avail- 
able for the CoCo 3, Dave Stampe and 

IColorware have done an incredible job of 
providing power, flexibility and speed in a 
program that is as easy to use as it is to 
pronounce! 

I have been using a wide arsenal of 
personal computers for many years, and 
what I do more of than anything else is 
prepare text. Memos, programs, training 
manuals, reviews for RAINBOW, and my 



CoCo 3 



feeble attempts at the Great American 
Novel have dribbled off my fingertips 
through a variety of word processors and 
text editors. Max-10 takes a back seat to 
none, and is beyond comparison with most. 

Max-10 operates through a combina- 
tion of keyboard control and pull-down 
menus. This is not an easy combination to 
pull off. A good word processor should be 
easy to use, but I have found that if I can 
instinctively use every feature in a pack- 
age, it is either inflexible, terribly light on 
features, or abysmally slow; sometimes all 
three. It is somehow comforting, then, to 
be able to use a new program extensively 
(and productively) without bothering with 
the manual, but knowing that some of its 



capabilities will remain a mystery without 
at least a little reading. Max-10 succeeds 
in striking that balance. 

To begin using Max-10* it is first nec- 
essary to install two special pieces of hard- 
ware that come with the package. The 
first of these is a Hi-Res joystick module, 
which plugs into the right joystick port. 
The joystick then plugs into the Hi-Res 
module. Once installed, it is easily forgot- 
ten, until you tum off Max-10 and try to 
play a video game! Fortunately it is in- 
stalled (or removed) in seconds, and pro- 
vides for smooth and rapid cursor move- 
ment. 

The other piece of hardware is the 
Clicker, which plugs into the cassette port. 
The Clicker serves as a hardware key, 
without which the program will not load. 
This enables the disk itself to be left free of 
annoying copy protection, which prevents 
the user from making a backup copy for 
personal use. The Clicker can be left in- 
stalled as long as you don't need to use the 



118 THE RAINBOW January 1 969 



cassette port; it has no effect on the opera- 
tion of other software. 

With the hardware in place and a backup 
copy of the masterAfa-t-JO disk made, the 
next step is to run the CONFIG program in 
order to tailor Max- 10 to your hardware. 
This program can be run at any time, easily 
making changes to accommodate your 
hardware. The information requested in- 
cludes monitor type, color set, clipboard 
drive, dictionary drive, printer baud rate 
and printer type. 

The monitor type you enter can be 
either composite, RGB or monochrome. I 
tm Max-10 with all three (simultaneously!) 
and found the display clear and readable 
with each. After entering the monitor type, 
you are shown the default screen colors 
and given the opportunity to adjust them to 
your own tastes. The actual palette values 
for both foreground and background colors 
are displayed on a corner of the screen; 
using the arrow keys, you can experiment 
with every possible combination. As you 
scroll through the numbers from 0 to 63, 
the screen display changes colors right 
along with you. I had lots of fun experi- 
menting with this before finally deciding 
that the default black on white suits me 
best! 

When editing text with Max-10 , mate- 
rial can be "cut" from one part of a docu- 
ment and then "pasted" into another. When 
text is cut, it is stored on the "clipboard." 
The clipboard is in RAM when you're 
using a 512K CoCo 3 and on disk when 
system memory is 128K. The CONFIG 
program enables you to specify which disk 
drive will hold any material cut from the 
text. Even on a 5 1 2K system this is signifi- 
cant, as you can save the clipboard perma- 
nently, enabling you to paste it into any 
document at any time. 

Similarly, the spelling checker allows 
you to permanently store personal diction- 
ary files, and CONFIG asks which drive 
these should be on. Printer baud rate is 
prompted for next, followed by type of 
printer. Max-10 has drivers for IBM/Ep- 
son compatible printers, DMP-105, 106 
and 130, CGP-220, Gemini/Star and OKI92. 

Once the CONFIG program is run, 
enter RUN"MAX" and immediately start 
entering text. Across the top of the screen 
is a menu bar, giving access to the follow- 
ing categories of commands: File, Edit, 
Search+, Layout, Font and Style. 

The File menu provides a variety of 
functions for file manipulation. A new 
document can be initiated, an existing one 
loaded, or the current one saved Straight 



ASCII saves and loads are supported, 
making it very easy to import any existing 
file into Max-10* 

Also provided in the File menu are 
commands for seeing a directory of the 
current file drive (the drive being used to 
store documents), changing the file drive, 
printing the current document, and delet- 
ing a file from the file drive. This last 
function is one that is enormously useful — 
and painfully absent from many other word 
processors* 




A number of the menu selections re- 
sult in a "dialog box" appearing on the 
screen, which enables you to enter addi- 
tional information required by that com- 
mand. The print command is an example 
of this, as it asks you to indicate what print 
mode to use. Having only one type of 
printer, I don't know if this particular 
dialog box looks different for other system 
configurations, but with my DMP-130 it 
gives me a choice of four different print 
modes, from draft to full graphic output. 
All modes functioned beautifully. 



The Edit menu gives access to cut, 
copy and paste functions, as well as sev- 
eral commands for accessing and manipu- 
lating the clipboard. Also provided is the 
ability to paste an entire existing file into 
the current file. 

The Search+ menu includes search- 
ing and replacing commands, along with 
access to the spelling checker, key click 
enable/disable, and page preview, among 
others. Page preview is one of the most 
significant features of Max-10* It enables 
you to see each page as it will look when 
printed, prior to actual printing. The text 
itself is even legible in page preview when 
using some of the larger fonts. Even with 
small fonts it is easy to make out the 
context of the pages. Page preview is a tool 
that results directly in a great deal of saved 
paper and reduced frustrations, because it 
is not necessary to print the document to 
see what it looks like in total. 

Another very nice feature accessed 
through the Search* menu is called "About 
..." It displays information about the size 
of the document being edited, in bytes, 
words, paragraphs and pages, and also 
indicates how much free RAM remains. 
This is another of those features I so often 
wish I had when using the Macin ... er, the 
computer I use at wodc. 

The Layout menu contains commands 
pertaining to the physical orientation of 
the document. Page breaks can be in- 
serted, page numbering specified and page 
headers and footers displayed and edited 
Your document can be printed in one, two 



From Joysticks to Word Processors 



Founded some 12 years ago, Alpha 
Products came into being to fill a needed 
niche in the blossoming personal computer 
market, in the area of input and output 
devices. It was Alpha Products who devel- 
oped and marketed the first (and for several 
years, the only) joystick for the TRS-80 
Model I computer. From voice synthesizers 
to xelay cards, the products have kept coming, 
and the "Amazing A-Bus" is among many 
currently offered for IBM, Apple, and, of 
course, Tandy computers. 

It was with CoCo Max that the com- 
pany made the leap to software, and Color- 
ware was formed. Despite the success of 
CoCo Max I, II and ///, there were origi- 
nally no plans to pursue the software side of 
the business much further. But the concept 
of Max-10 was a challenge, and the Color- 
ware team took it up. 

It was Dave Stampe, though, who 



carried the bulk of the project through many 
long nights, and over three years of devel- 
opment. Although similar in appearance, 
there was very little portable code that 
cou Id be moved from CoCo Max III to Max- 
10 , and almost everything had to be rewrit- 
ten from scratch. Integrating the menus 
from the various modules was a major 
headache, and speed was constantly a con- 
cern. With the entire display done with bit- 
mapped graphics, every millisecond has 
meaning. Many perfectly good sections of 
code were rewritten to shave off excess 
execution time. 

It is said that hard work is its own 
reward, but in this case, anyway, the re- 
wards go beyond the feeling of accom- 
plishment.Afox-./0 is yet another example 
of the power and capabilities inherent in 
the Color Computer — provided there are 
talented people to draw them out. □ 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 119 



or three columns using the Define Col- 
umns command in the Layout menu. Set- 
ting up a multi-column document is quite 
simple, and it is lots of fun watching it 
come up in Page Preview. 



"The Style menu 
lets you assign 
specific letter signs, 
such as bold, italics, 
or underlining, to 
selected areas 
of text 99 





Another significant feature of Max- 
10 , found in the Layout menu, is the "raler." 
While editing text, a graphic ruler can be 
displayed above any selected position in 
the text. The ruler is used to specify things 
like line spacing, side margins, tab posi- 
tioning and justification for all text imme- 
diately below the ruler to the end of the 
document, or to the next ruler. New rulers 
can be inserted as often as needed in order 
to have different structures in different 
paragraphs. 

The Font menu presents a choice of 
six available fonts. For those of you new to 
word processing, a font is "a specific style 
in which letters, numbers and punctuation 
marks are drawn," according to the glos- 
sary in the Max-10 manual. Additional 
fonts are available from Colorware and 
can easily be loaded into Max-10. 

The Style menu lets you assign spe- 
cific letter styles, such as bold, italics, or 
underlining, to selected areas of the text. 

The features I've described so far are 
certainly sufficient to have earned Max- 10 
a spot in the Word Processing Hall of 
Fame. However, the folks at Colorware 
were not content to stop there. They took it 
an extra step and built in the capability to 
paste graphics into the body of a docu- 
ment. A separate program on the Max-10 
disk is used to translate a picture from 
CoCo Max /, // or ///, MSG, BASIC 
PMODE 4, or HSCREEN2 or 3 format 
into a file that can then be inserted in your 
document with the Paste File command. 

The picture translation program pro- 
vides abundant onscreen explanation of 
the process, and enables you to resize the 
picture, if you want, in order to fit it into 
the document. 

I did have some difficulty in attempt- 



ing to import a PMODE4 picture into 
Max-10, but the folks at Colorware were 
very helpful in putting me back on the 
right track. Once in the document, the 
picture can again be resized, and there is 
even a menu command that compensates 
for the difference in how graphic pixels are 
displayed and how they are printed, ena- 
bling you to see onscreen exactly what 
you'll see on paper. 

My review copy of Max-10 came with 
an older version of the manual and an 
addendum explaining the most recent fea- 
tures, the spelling checker and multi-col- 
umn printing, as well as some minor changes 
in the menus. The updated manuals are 
now available and will be included in all 
packages sold, but alas, too late for me to 
look at before this review goes to press. 
The older manual is quite clear and easy to 
use. I did find a couple of goofs in it (like 
one section that ends in mid-sentence), but 
I am told these are being corrected in the 
new version. 

The only complaints I can come up 
with regarding this delightful package are 
quite minor. The program always comes 
up with key-click enabled. While it is 
simple to turn off, it is a pain to have to do 
so every time, and I can't stand key click. 
The *+' in the Search+ menu appears to 
be a license to dump everything in there 
that doesn't have a home of its own. This 
is annoying for a while, then forgotten as 
you simply get used to it. 




The spelling checker, while very 
powerful and flexible, displays every word 
on the screen as it checks it. This lets you 
see that the program is actually working, 
but it also slows down what is already by 
necessity a slow process. Finally, in the 
picture translation program, there is no 
option in the main menu that takes you 
back to BASIC. Menus that won't let you 
out are a personal pet peeve of mine. 

Despite these few little gripes, the 
bottom line on Max-10 is this — buy it, 
you'll like it! 

(Colorware, 242- W West Ave, Darien, CT 
06820, 203-656-1806; $79.95) 

— Jim K. Issel 



1 Softwar e 



CoCo 1.2&3 



MJK-DOS 
A Different 
Environment 



»3 



As we all know, OS-9 has become the 
reigning king of the CoCo 3, but let's not 
forget that Disk BASIC is out there for us 
basic BASIC nuts and beginners. If you 
fall into either one of these categories, 
MJK-DOS for the CoCo 1 , 2 or 3 is just for 
you. It has eveiything you will need, whether 
you have a Color Computer 1 or a CoCo 3 
with 512K, and it is an essential tool to 
help tame the CoCo beast. 

MJK-DOS is provided with a well- 
written and easy-to-understand manual, 
though a complete list of commands can 
be obtained from within the program itself 
by typing HELP and pressing ENTER; 
this will provide you with a list of all the 
new commands and functions. I've fooled 
around with other disk operating systems 
since I've used CoCos, but none impressed 
me as much as MJK-DOS did — it takes 
your CoCo to a new level of versatility. 

You can configure MJK-DOS to suit 
your system's needs, whether you have a 
CoCo 2 with a single-sided 35-track drive 
or a CoCo 3 with 5 12K and three double- 
sided 80-track drives. And with the 512K 
RAM disk installed, you could have up to 
a possible 2 Meg of online storage. With 
Global Kill, Copy and Wildcard directo- 
ries, managing any disk system is a breeze. 

The program is provided on a non- 
protected disk and is priced a little bit 
higher than competitive products, but not 
much higher. It's a small price to pay for 
the quality offered. As of right now, MJK- 
DOS is too large for any conventional 
EPROM, but the programmer is working 
on a board to put in the Multi-Pak Interface 
that will contain MJK-DOS. (If you send 
him a 24-pin or 28-pin EPROM, the pro- 
grammer will send it back bumed in with 
a small program that will auto-boot MJK- 
DOS from Drive 0 every time you turn on 
your machine.) 

If you own a Color Computer 3 with 
512K, count yourself lucky, because you 
get the best deal of them all. MJK-DOS for 
the CoCo 3 with 512K lets you use your 
extra memory as a RAM disk; it also has 
a very fine RAM test program installed 
within. But even if you don't have a CoCo 
3, be satisfied, because there is plenty of 
great stuff in there for you. 

The CHAIN command allows you to 
carry variables from one program to an- 
other, a feature excellent for running a 
BBS that uses several programs. The JOIN 



1 20 THE RAINBOW January 1 969 



command allows you to join two or more 
lines within a program. A full-screen edi- 
tor makes line editing easy, and a modified 
EDIT command makes line editing a simple 
chore. 

But wait — there's more. A baud 
command allows a user-definable com- 
mand to set the printer baud rate instead of 
your having to type POKE 150,jpt. Auto 
line-numbering helps us BASIC program- 
mers to write with ease. Also, a command 
has been added to view ASCII text files 
with just one simple command. Another 
new feature not found in the competition is 
the DATE$ command, which will support 
the MJK real-time hardware clock as ad- 
vertised in the October '88 issue of THE 
RAINBOW. 

Though instructions are not provided 
in the manual, the configuration program 
is well-written and fairly simple to use. 
You will be prompted with a brief set of 
instructions after running the program. If 
you have two double-sided drives awl would 
tike to make another device (Drive 4) as 
space for a RAM disk, it allows you to. 
You are also asked to specify a boot-up 
string that will be executed upon loading 
and executing MJK-DOS. 

After receiving MJK-DOS, my Color 
Computer hasn't been quite the same. It's 



more powerful, has more features andnow 
is easily more comparable to some IBM 
machines. Isn't that fantastic — our little 
Color Computers playing with the big boys! 
I cannot recommend this product strongly 
enough — especially if you have aCoCo 3. 

(CoCo Connection, 5003 B St, Philadelphia, 
PA 19120, 215-457-1809; $49.95: First prod- 
uct review for this company appearing in 
THE RAINBOW.) 

— Ed McCue 



Upon loading, you are greeted with a 
title page that displays the purchaser's 
name and registration number. After press- 
ing ENTER, you are presented with the 
main menu, which lists 24 choices. Selec- 
tions are made by pressing the appropriate 
letter of your choice. Most functions work 
withUistBASIC, Flex or MS-DOS disks, 

Here 's an almost A to Z 




Softwar e 



CoCo 1,2&3 



KDSK3 — 

CoCo 3 All-In-One 

Disk Utility 

KDSK3 is everything you could want 
in a CoCo disk utility. It's a "menu-driven 
collection of disk utilities written exclu- 
sively for the Color Computer 3." From 
editing sectors to recovering crashed 
directories, KDSK3 can do it. In addition 
to a CoCo 3, it requires at least one disk 
drive. An RGB monitor is highly recom- 
mended, as is a printer. 



ASCII Dump — prints the contents of a 
specified sector to the screen in ASCII; 
non- ASCII characters are blanked out for 
easier reading. This option can be used to 
find keywords and commands in a file. 

Backup — performs a complete or par- 
tial backup. The program will stop when it 
encounters I/O Errors, allowing you to 
note bad tracks and sectors. Backup can 
also be used to test disks for bad sectors. 

Copy — makes copying multiple files a 
snap, and copies to "contiguous granules 
whenever possible." It works with single 
or multiple drives. 

Dump Sector — displays a sector in 
ASCII and hexadecimal. Again, non-ASCII 
characters are blanked out. 



BASIC UTILITY DISKETTE 

A real time saver for the person who develops 
software using COCO Basic. 

— DUMPDIR: Prints a hard copy of a disk's 
directory. No more searching one disk after 
another looking for a lost file. 

— DUMPCRT: Copies text from the screen to the 
printer. Versions included for 40 and 80 column 
COCO 3 text screens. 

— DUMPFILE: Dumps any disk file to the printer. 
Printout can be in either decimal or in hex values. 

— CROSSREF: Prints cross reference of source 
and destination line numbers for basic jump 
instructions (GOTO, GOSUB, etc.). 

— COMPARE: Reads two BASIC Programs from 
diskette and compares them line by line. Lists all 
lines that are not identical. 

Requires COCO 2 or 3, disk and printer. 
Order at $19.95 plus $2 p&h. 
Calif, residents add $1.20 tax. 

T.E.M. of California 

Box 4311 RAINBOW 

i- ., . ~ - . . _ . ^ CERTIFICATION 

Fullerton, CA 92634-4311 seal 



( COCO Stuff ) 

Hardware & Software 

Specia l - Bare SSDD Half Height Drives - $69.95 
Drive 1 Upgrades (26-3129 or 31 31) - $99.95 
2 Drive System* (2 DSDD, 6ms) - $299.95 
COCO 1 & 2 64K Upgrade - $19.95 
Serial to Parallel Interface - $54.95 
COCO 3 51 2K Upgrade - $1 89.95 
ADOS - $29.95 ADOS 3 - $39.95 
In Quest of the Star Lord - $34.95 
Gauntlet - $28.95 Pyramix - $24.95 
Art Deli (440 Pix on 10 Disks) - $99.95 
Art Deli II (220 Pix on 5 Disks) - $49.95 
Coco Max III - $79.95 Max 10 - $79.95 
Dragonblade - $19.95 Sixdrive - $19.95 
Kung Fu Dude - $24.95 Telewriter 64 - $59.95 



"Drive System furnished with Disto Controller I 
and carries a 90 day warranty. | 

The Computer Center 

551 2 Poplar Ave. Memphis, TN 381 1 9 

901-761-4565 

Add $4.90 for Shipping. Visa, Master Card, and Money Orders Accepted. 
Allow 3 Weeks for Personal Checks. Prices may change without notice. 
NO CODS. Orders outside 48 States please double Shipping Charge. 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 1 21 



Edit Sector — allows easy editing (in 
hexadecimal). Users make changes by plac- 
ing the cursor and typing in new data; the 
changes may be written to disk. 

File Sort — sorts directory alphabeti- 
cally and writes it back to disk; it supports 
Disk BASIC format only. 

Granule Table — displays the granule 
allocation table in granules or tracks, and 
also shows the amount of free space re- 
maining on the disk. 

Hex Dump — prints a sector's contents 
to the screen in hexadecimal. 

Initialize — initializes a disk, track or 
sector. It's useful in repairing a single 



sector, without rebuilding the rest of the 
disk. 

Job — toggles among Disk BASIC, 
Flex or MS-DOS formats, for single- and 
double-sided disks. (KDSK3 uses a unique 
drive numbering scheme to access the 
back side of a disk. Just add 4 to the 
physical drive number. For example, Drive 
4 is the back side of Drive 0.) 

Kill — allows easy deletion of one or 
more files. 

Library — keeps track of all your files 
and information about those files (file- 
name, extension, size, disk ID, write-pro- 
tected status, ML addresses, etc.) in a 
master file, which can be sorted by disk, 




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filename or extension. It includes a quick- 
find feature and can send results to the 
screen or the printer. 

Mapped Directory — displays each 
file and its granule information. 

Number Find — searches screen dis- 
play for selected hexadecimal numbers 
(for use with Dump Sector, Edit Sector and 
Hex Dump). 

Options — allows modifications to be 
made to screen colors, printer baud rate, 
disk drive step rate, regular or double 
speed, verify on/off, etc. 

Password — encrypts and decrypts files 
with a keyword you provide. 

Quit — returns the user to BASIC and 
removes the program from memory. 

Recover Directory — recovers crashed 
directories (if first saved with the Save 
Directory option) and restores it to origi- 
nal location (Disk BASIC format only). 

Save Directory — saves the directory 
in the upper half of the directory track. 

Tracks — sets the maximum tracks and 
sectors that can be accessed by the disk 
drive. 

Upload — transfers machine language 
or BASIC programs from tape to disk, 
displaying addresses. 

View Directory — displays a disk di- 
rectory five files across (Disk BASIC only). 

Flex to RS — converts Flex files to Disk 
BASIC format. 

Examine Track — displays an entire 
track of data, including control data. 

In addition to the options that can be 
invoked from the main menu, KDSK3 has 
some other commands: By using the SHIFT- 
CTRL combination, you can print what- 
ever is on the screen; a press of the SHIFT- 
Fl combination will send a memo of up to 
512 characters to the printer. Fl saves the 
current defaults of drives, baud rate, printer 
control codes, disk access rate, etc. F2 
displays help screens that users can page 
through. On 512K CoCos, the help file 
will stay resident in memory after it is first 
loaded. 

Also, KDSK3 uses windows and is 
reset-protected. The program is set up ini- 
tially for Star printers, but codes can easily 
be changed for any printer. Practically 



122 



THE RAINBOW January 1 989 



everything can be modified: the screen 
colors, printer baud rate, disk drive step 
rate, sides per disk, number of tracks per 
disk and clock speed. KDSK3's manual is 
included on-disk. It's very helpful and 
easy to understand, taking the user step- 
by-step through each of the program's 
features. 

Perhaps the best news about KDSK3 
is its price — only $15. Also, the program 
is distributed to registered owners of pre- 
vious versions free of charge. KDSK3 is 
my most-used utility. I think it will be 
yours, too. 

(Kenneth L. Wuelzer, 8535 Hwy. 291, Sal- 
ida, CO 81201, 719-539-4724; $15: First 
product review for this company appearing 
in THE RAINBOW.) 

— Lee Deueli 

1 Software CoCo3 ' 

Mine Rescue — 
Mission of Mercy 

In Mine Rescue, an arcade game writ- 
ten by Steve Bjork, you are a rescuer and 
the last hope for miners who were over- 
come by poisonous air that leaked into the 
tunnels. The mission is to get a tank of 
fresh air to each of the trapped miners in a 
total of five mines. Each new mine you 
enter is more difficult to negotiate than the 
last. 




You face a variety of obstacles, in- 
cluding bats, snails, falling icicles and 
acid, spiders, a banshee, and something 
that looks like a sloshy blue mop. Some of 
these creatures seem to have a homing 
signal on you and will track you down. The 
icicles hang quietly until they sense your 
presence, then they begin to loosen and 
fall — just make sure you*re not under 
them when they do. Your defense consists 
of a miner's pike that you can throw. 

Mine Rescue is booted by typing 
RUN"*". The screen prompts you for your 
monitor type, RGB or otherwise, then the 
title screen pops up. 



In an options screen you can opt for 
the number of players (one or two), the 
level of difficulty (novice or expert) and 
the "controller type" (keyboard or left/ 
right joystick). If you do not choose to 
either start the game or decide on some 
options, the program jumps into demo 
mode, from which it can be recalled with a 
key press. 

You start the game by the mine shack, 
which is also your ending point — the 
place to which you will return when you 
have "rescued" all the miners in that level. 
If you attempt to go into the shack before 
you have rescued them all, you are told in 
no uncertain terms that you need to get 
back out there and finish the job. Don't 
think you'll get any sympathy — or extra 
air tanks. 



You proceed into the mine tunnels 
using the joystick (or arrow keys) to ma- 
neuver the rescuer up and down ladders, 
over pits and other hazards. As you find 
the miners, you give them a bottle of air 
and continue the search until all of them 
are found. You then return to the mine 
shack before your own air runs out. You 
will find more bottles of air as you move 
about the tunnels, and you can use them to 
replenish your air supply. 

The graphics are very sharp and action 
is smooth with joystick or keyboard. As 
you would expect, the joystick takes you 
left and right when you move it left and 
right. The rescuer jumps when you press 
the firebutton, and he crouches when you 
pull the joystick down (all the better to 
avoid flying bats). The playing screen 



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OHIO RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX • C.O.D. ADD $2.00 



January 1 989 THE RAINBOW 1 23 



appears as a window, which doesn't seem 
to take away anything from the game, but 
I personally prefer the playing area to be as 
large as possible. 

I have been playing arcade-style games 
for many years and still do not consider 
myself an expert, but I had no trouble 
completing all five levels (mines) in the 
first few days on both novice and expert 
levels. With this in mind, I think the game 
probably would not be very challenging to 
the more advanced player. It would be 
excellent for beginning to intermediate 
level arcaders, however. 

The documentation consists of a single, 
double-sided typewritten page. It does a 
fine job of explaining the features and 
operation of the game. 

The style of the game seems very 
reminiscent of another program Bjork wrote 
recently for Activision, Super Pitfall, The 
goals of the two games are not the same, 
but both are very similar — hopping around 
in caverns, picking up "treasure," avoid- 
ing ugly monsters. The joystick action is 
similar. If you like the Pitfall-type pro- 
grams, you should like Mine Rescue. 

(Game Point Software, P.O. Box 6906, Bur- 
bank, CA 91510, 818-566-3571; $24.95 in- 
troductory special: First product review for 
this company appearing in THE RAINBOW.) 

— Barry Pottinger 



1 Softwar es 



CoCo 1,2&3 



Good Games Trio 
Computerized 
Board Games 

As its name implies, Good Games 
Trio is a trio of games for the CoCo: ADJ, 
Othello and Connect Five . You '11 need an 
opponent, because these are two-player 
games. All are written in BASIC and can 
be backed up for safekeeping. 32K ECB is 
required to play. 

AD I, an age-old game made popular 
in the African desert, was played origi- 
nally with hardenedchunks of camel dung! 
Fortunately, the author decided to clean up 
the game by providing what look like 
poker chips as viewed from the side. The 
Hi-Res playing screen is divided into six 
compartments, each containing four to- 
kens. ADI is played by two people who 
take turns selecting any one compartment 
with the idea of distributing the chips in a 
clockwise direction around the board, 
placing one chip at a time until all are 
distributed 



In many cases, the last chip placed 
will land on your opponent's side of the 
board. If this compartment contains two or 
three chips once yours is added, then you 
get to capture the compartment. If the 
compartment counter-clockwise to the one 
you just captured contains two or three 
chips, it will be captured, as well. This 
continues until no more captures can be 
made and play is passed to your opponent. 











o 




IS 








• 


• 




o 


H 


□ 








• 


o 


o 


□ 


o 






• 


o 


o 


• 


□ 






o 






o 

MM 


o 




o 














□ 


















□ 














n 





B C D E F G H 



Othello might be a little more familiar 
to CoCoists, as it is probably indigenous 
more to the closets of American (and 
Canadian) households than to the African 
desert. Othello is a two-player game in 
which opposing players place "tokens" 
on a grid in such a way as to "capture" 
their opponent's pieces. 

Player 1 is assigned the white tokens, 
and Player 2 the black. The game begins 
with four tokens already placed in the 
center on an eight-by-eight grid, whose 
columns are lettered on the bottom and 
rows numbered on the side. Player 1 starts 
by pressing a letter (A through H) and then 
a number (1 to 8) to place a taken so that it 
is adjacent to an opposing token and in line 
with another of its own. When those con- 
ditions are met, any tokens of opposing 
color sandwiched between two of the cur- 
rent player's tokens are "captured." The 
captured tokens then take on the color of 
the tokens of the player who just did the 
capturing. Sound confusing? It's not. 

The game is over when all the game 
pieces are converted to either one color or 
another, or when no more tokens can be 
placed. The player who conquered more 
squares wins. 

The programmer states in the docu- 
mentation that by making the game board 
smaller than "regulation" (eight-by-eight 
as opposed to 12-by-12), the game is shorter, 
more appropriate for tournaments, and left 
with "little or no room for mistakes." 
Also to help prevent mistakes is a nice bit 
of error-trapping: You cannot make an 
illegal move — cute sound effects advise 
you if you try. 

Connect Five, the third and final in- 
stallment to this trilogy, should be equally 
as familiar to CoCoists — especially those 
who were bored in school and frequently 



played the paper-and-pencil version. This 
computerized version saves you from having 
to draw the dots. 

When you run CONNECTS, a 10-by- 
10 grid pops up, labeled on the bottom 
with the letters A through J. Press a letter 
key and a token of your color glides down, 
filling in the next available slot in that 
column. The player who succeeds in plac- 
ing five of his or her tokeas in a row diago- 
nally, horizontally or vertically, wins. 

Documentation on the trio is supplied 
on a single page, folded into a handy 
booklet. Also, there's a program called 
LOGBOOK on the disk, and it contains 
similar instruction, which can be LISTed 
on the screen or LLISTed to your printer. 

Good Games Trio is a fine collection 
of games that runs nicely on my 64K CoCo 
2 and on my 128K and 512K CoCo 3s. 

(RCPierce Software, P.O. Box 1787, Main 
Post Office, Edmonton, AB, Canada T5J 
2P2, 403-474-8435; $19.95) 

— David Gerald 



1 Softwar e 



CoCo 3 



Flight Simulator 
Scenery Disks — 
Expanding 
Your Horizons 

For those of you who have purchased 
subLOGlC's Flight Simulator II (Tandy 
Cat. No. 26-3242), you will be glad to 
know that your horizons have been ex- 
panded — literally. subLOGlCis offering 
two new scenery disk packages for your 
CoCo flying pleasure: East Coast and 
Western Europe scenery disks. 

Each disk package includes enough 
radio-navigation aids and visual scenery 
to allow the user to navigate anywhere in 
the sectional areas covered A typical scenery 
disk covers three aeronautical sections and 
includes approximately 100 airports and 
100 radio-NAV aids. Instructions are pro- 
vided in the documentation on how to read 
a sectional directory, which provides the 
user with a description of available air- 
ports and radio-NAV aids, etc. 

The East Coast package covers the 
U.S. eastern seaboard, including Wash- 
ington D.C., Charlotte, North Carolina, 
and Jacksonville and Miami, Florida. The 
Western European Tour covers the south- 
em United Kingdom, northern France and 
southern West Germany. Both of these 
scenery disk packages are ready to run on 



1 24 THE RAINBOW January 1 989 



your CoCo 3 with a minimum of 1 28K and 
the subLOGIC Flight Simulator II soft- 
ware. 

On single-drive systems, the flight 
simulator is loaded in the usual way; but 
after the program has loaded and you are in 
the flight mode, you press F2 on the CoCo 
3. At that point you remove the FS2 disk 
and insert the appropriate scenery disk. 
You then press the left arrow key and 
ENTER. If necessary, position the right 
arrow to point at the desired scenery area 
of interest. After a very short time, the new 
scene will be loaded into memory and you 
press F2 again to get back to the flight 
mode. A similar method is used with dual- 
drive systems, but disk swapping is not 
necessary. 

I found these scenery disks to be a 
very good complement to an already 
delightful Flight Simulator II package. In 
the Western European package, for in- 
stance, one is able to fly over such famous 
landmarks as Parliament, Buckingham 
Palace and Westminster Abbey. Other 
similar interests are provided in the por- 
tion for France and West Germany. You 
can even fly over Red Square in Moscow 
without getting arrested! 

These scenery disks from subLOGIC 
are an excellent value for your money if 



you are really interested in flying. I showed 
these packages to a pilot friend of mine 
and he was impressed with the maps and 
navigational aids provided. These scenery 
disks, in conjunction with Flight Simula- 
tor II y provide flying opportunities that 
many small-plane pilots may never have. 

(subLOGIC Corp., Champaign, IL: Avail- 
able in Radio Shack stores nationwide; West- 
ern Europe and U.S. East Coast disks, $24.95 
each) 

— Jerry Semones 

1 Software CoCo3 1 

Armchair Admiral — 
Battleship Played 
Admirably 

What naval battle game has withstood 
the test of time on toy store shelves longer 
than any other? I'm not sure, but I know 
that Battleship by Milton Bradley has been 
around about as long as I can remember. 
As it happens, I can remember a ways 
back. 



Armchair Admiral, a first product from 
Eversoft Games, Ltd., brings a Battleship- 
style game to the CoCo 3, It comes on a 
single unprotected disk and consists of an 
eight-granule BASIC program . From the 
advance package and the Eversoft adver- 
tisement, it appears this game may be for 
disk owners only. My quick listing of the 
program did not immediately disclose any 
disk-specific commands, so you may want 
to contact Eversoft to see if it could be 
made available to cassette-based CoCoists. 

A letter enclosed with the disk ex- 
plained that the two-page, single-spaced 
printout of the rules was intended as a 
rough draft. Eversoft promises that a pro- 
fessionally rewritten and printed set of 
rules is expected soon. Armchair Admiral 
is easy and familiar, so I don't feel game 
play wouldbestymiedeitherway. Perhaps 
Eversoft will consider leaving the instruc- 
tions as an ASCII text file on the distribu- 
tion disk. [Editor's note: The documenta- 
tion is finished and available now.] 

Armchair Admiral permits play for 
from two up to eight players. The way it is 
designed, it can be played as a single- 
player game also because it permits any or 
all of the selected eight players to be 
managed by either a person or the com- 
puter. I wondered what would happen if 1 



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January 1989 THE RAINBOW 1 25 



selected the two-player game and let the 
computer move for both players. A sailin' 
it went, playing the entire game by itself. 
It was at that time I noticed that Armchair 
Admiral was not taking potshots. It was 
evident the computer was making intelli- 
gent moves in an attempt to win the game. 
A cute narrative accompanies the game 
board action. 



"1 wondered what 
would happen if I 
selected the two- 
player game and let 
the computer move 
for both players. 
A sailin 9 it went y 
playing the entire 
game by itself" 



Just in case you've never played this 
style game before, Armchair Admiral's 
rules are simple. Each player hides four 
ships on his map, which is composed of a 
10-by-10 grid When all players' ships are 
placed, each player takes turns calling out 
grid locations on another player's map. If 
the calling player is lucky enough to "fire" 
on a location where the other player has 
hidden a ship, the hidden ship sustains 
damage by taking a hit. Each player has 
four types of ships (sloop, caravel, brigan- 
tine and galleon), which can sustain dam- 
age ranging from two to five hits before 
being sunk. You win when all of the oppo- 
sition's ships are sunk. About the only 
substantial change from the traditional 
format is that Armchair Admiral permits 
three shots per turn instead of one. This 
gives it a neat, broadside feel. 

As Armchair Admiral is written for 
the CoCo 3, it's naturally got a lot of con- 
veniences. For example, the computer will 
take the work out of hiding your ships by 
hiding them for you. And on any of your 



turns, you can call up a tally of hits or 
review the coordinates of previous hits. 
You can even drop out of the game at any 
time, letting the computer take over. 

Armchair Admiral does not utilize 
graphics, but Eversoft has still added m any 
niceties to the standard game. The ships 
are represented by letters (S for sloop, for 
example) and the map grid points by peri- 
ods. The game screen is filled with pleas- 
ant, colorful windows that summarize the 
13 available key commands or give status 
reports. Because Armchair Admiral uses 
80 columns, high resolution and is exclu- 
sively text, it would be wise to consider 
how well your monitor can handle this type 
of display. 

Overall, Armchair Admiral is a genial 
update of an old genre. The Battleship- 
type games are usually recommended as 
being for ages 8 through adult, and I would 
agree. Armchair Admiral is being offered 
for $14.95, and at that price it certainly 
makes an inexpensive addition to the Color 
Computer 3's available game software 
market and a swell gift foryoung admirals. 

(Eversoft Games, Ltd, P.O. Box 3354, Ar- 
lington, WA 98223, 206-653-5263; $14.95 
plus $2 S/H: First product review for this 
company appearing in THE RAINBO W*) 

— Ernest F. Zore 



I Softwar e SSulI 

Ultra-Base — 
A Database 
for All CoCos 

Ultra-Base is a database program. And 
databases, as you know, provide a very 
versatile and easy way to keep track of 
information — names, addresses and tele- 
phone numbers are good examples of what 
can be stored. Databases can also be useful 
to keep track of information concerning 
items in an inventory or a household. 

Ultra-Base can store up to 32K of 
information and works on all models of the 
CoCo, including the CoCo 3. The program 
is supplied on either disk or cassette and 
requires at least 64K of RAM. The pro- 
gram is written in BASIC but uses ma- 
chine language routines to improve speed 
during sorting, searching and alphabetiz- 
ing. The software is not copy-protected, so 
you can make some backup copies for 
safekeeping. 

After the program loads, you are pre- 
sented with the main menu, which dis- 
plays a list of numbered commands that 



allow you to not only create your own 
customized database but to edit and main- 
tain it, as well. A demo file included can be 
loaded and manipulated to your heart's 
content. 

The first command, Search, lets you 
search your database to find out some 
particular item of interest. Edit Review is 
used to add or change entries, or just to 
quickly scan through a file in memory. (A 
couple of handy keys to use here are the 
*@ 9 key to scan forward and the 4 : ' key to 
scan backward. The key is used to jump 
back and forth between the beginning and 
end of the file.) 

Print provides a submenu from which 
you can dump an entire file or just selected 
parts to the printer. You can also select 
one-up mailing labels if you need to print 
them. Command 4, Load/Save, results in a 
submenu that provides for loading and 
saving to disk or tape. 

The Append command lets you merge 
files. Assuming you have some data in 
memory, this command lets you combine 
files to create one long, single file. You 
can tell if you have enough room in memory 
by watching the free space indicator at the 
bottom of the main menu screen. The 
Alphabetize command does just what you'd 
think. You can alphabetize each entry by 
either the first or last word; this would be 
useful for names and cities and so forth. 
Positive Number Sort sorts by any of the 
categories you have previously established 

The eighth command, Edit Headings, 
lets you change the names of the catego- 
ries, but Create File is where it all begins. 
It 's simple to set up a database — you just 
answer prompts that establish the various 
categories. 

Command 10, dear Memory, clears 
memory of data but retains the latest cate- 
gory names. Delete Catalog erases all entries 
within the specified category, and Com- 
mand 12, Quit, quits. 

Ultra-Base incorporates another nice 
feature — BREAK recovery. Should you 
accidentally break out of the program, you 
can restart it without losing any of the data 
in memory by typing GOTO 7000. This 
can be a lifesaver for tumble-finger typists 
like myself. 

Ultra-Base is a nice addition to any 
CoCo enthusiast's software library. It is 
user-friendly and easy to use once you 
master the program structure and the logic 
of the various commands. The price is 
very reasonable for a program of this cali- 
ber, and the program is sure to fit most 
user's applications. 

(Tothlan Software, Inc., Box 663, Rimers- 
burg, PA 16248; $24.95) 

— Jerry Semones 



1 26 THE RAINBOW January 1 989 



Radio Shack Has the Best in Color Computer Software* 




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1 Book — — ' 

V 

Security Projects 
for the TRS-80 
Color Computer — 
CoCo Becomes 
Watchdog 

Does your CoCo sit in silence most of 
the time? You know, after you're tired of 
playing the games and have finished all 
the word processing chores, does it just sit 
there gathering dust? Well, there may be 
something it can be doing while you're on 
vacation or at work or doing the household 
chores. How about turning your computer 
into a CoCo watchdog? Give your com- 
puter some teeth to do tedious chores like 
turning lights on and off at certain times, 
or setting off an alarm if someone enters a 
room or breaks into your home. 

A new booklet on the market called 
Security Projects for the TRS-80 Color 
Computer explains how you can build the 
hardware interfaces for four security proj- 
ects: a vacation light that monitors ambi- 
ent light levels and turns a light source on 



or off according to detected levels; a tem- 
perature alarm that monitors temperature 
and sounds a buzzer when the preset tem- 
perature is reached; a sound-activated alarm 
that activates a local alarm when a sound is 
detected at a remote location; and an intru- 
sion alarm that monitors doors and win- 
dows using magnetic switches to detect 
openings. 

The booklet contains 21 pages of in- 
formation, schematics and programs to 
develop these projects. The author assumes 
you are a hardware hacker — that is, that 
you know how to read schematics and 
build circuits from them correctly. 

The booklet is easy reading and the 
programs all seem to woik properly. Though 
I did not actually build any of the circuits, 
I did test all the programs included. The 
author makes use of the joystick ports as 
inputs and the cassette start/stop relay as 
the output. 

With the exception of the intrusion 
alarm, the other projects are fairly simple 
and use only a handful of commonly avail- 
able parts (e.g., resistors, capacitors, bridge 
rectifiers, etc.). If you have a pretty good 
junk box, you may already have these 
parts. If your resources are low or nonex- 
istent, you can order most of the parts from 
your local Radio Shack store and the oth- 



ers from two mail order suppliers listed in 
the booklet. 

All the projects use a step-down trans- 
former to power them. If you're a fairly 
new hardware hacker, make sure you know 
how to safely handle 117 volts AC, and 
make darn sure you test the circuit fully 
before connecting anything to your CoCo. 

I checked some of the schematics for 
accuracy, looking for things like the cor- 
rect pinout on the ICs, polarities of the 
power supplies, etc., and they seem to be 
accurate. Since I didn't actually build the 
circuits (because my junk box is empty), I 
can't verify that each circuit is absolutely 
perfect. But an analysis of the circuits 
showed them to be reasonable, and they 
should work as shown. 

The program listings are written in 
BASIC and, therefore, are easily modifi- 
able to your special needs. They are very 
straightforward and have adequate com- 
ments. The longest program is only about 
30 lines long and should fit in any CoCo 
configuration. I tested these programs on a 
CoCo 3. 

If you are looking for some simple 
hardware projects to keep yourself busy 
this winter, you might want to buy Secu- 
rity Projects for the TRS-80 Color Com- 
puter and build a couple of these projects. 



If you write checks, use credit cards, have a bank account or pay taxes, then.... 

You Need CoCo-Accountant III 



Since 1983, CoCo-Account- 
ant has been leading the pack in 
home and small business financial 
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CoCo-Accountant III answers the big three ques- 
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money come from? Where did it go? And what can I 
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CoCo-Accountant III doesn't require any knowledge 
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way you do. Just set up a list of accounts and start 
entering your transactions. Checks, credit cards, cash 
receipts, payroll stubs, electronic fund transfers, whatever. 
You toss it in and CoCo-Accountant sorts it out. Here's 
what CoCo-Accountant does: 

• Lists and totals all transactions for any calendar 
period. 

• Lists and totals transactions by account, payee or 
income source for any calendar period. 

• Instant account and monthly summaries with net cash 
flow. 



NEW for the CoCo 3 



•Tracks, lists and totals 
deductible expenses . 
• Tracks uncleared checks 
and balances your check- 
book. Makes that monthly chore a breeze! 
• Produces a printed spreadsheet showing transactions by 
month and account for the whole year! Seeing this one is 
believing. 

CoCo-Accountant III stores up to 2,000 transactions and 72 
accounts (depending on disk space). Almost every feature has 
been improved. It will run on any CoCo 3 with a disk drive. And 
best yet, it's only $39.95. 

You say you don't have a CoCo 3? You can still order our 
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301-521-4886 
Toll-free Orders 800-628-2828 Ext. 850 



January 1 989 THE RAINBOW 1 29 



Remember, though, the directions assume 
a working knowledge of electronic circuit 
construction. You neophytes might want 
to start at your local library to get the 
basics of electronics before you attempt 
these projects. 

(Brown's Enterprises, 119 Skyline Drive R.H., 
Granbury, TX 76048, 817-573-0037; $7.50: 
First product review for this company ap- 
pearing in THE RAINBOW,) 

— C.L. Pilipauskas 



1 Qriftm/nrn cocoi,z&3 | 

Horse Sense — 
Help in Picking 
a Horse 

"Which horse should I bet on?" Go to 
a thoroughbred racetrack and ask 10 dif- 
ferent bettors — you're bound to get at least 
tliree different answers. Ask why and you'll 
probably get 10 different reasons. Some 
will talk about a horse 's speed or a change 
in its equipment* Others will tell you about 
a change in trainers or how it raced last 
time (or the time before that). Still others 
may point to the horse's name, color or 
jockey. 

All of these "systems" will occasion- 
ally choose the winner — and some will do 
better than others. If you get beyond making 
a bet based upon the horse 's color, number 
or name, you will probably need to look at 
The Daily Racing Form, a newspaper-like 
publication that contains a detailed de- 
scription of each horse on the racing pro- 
gram. Your first reaction to this seemingly 
endless amount of data might be this ques- 
tion: "Wouldn't it be great to put all this 
information into a computer and let it 
choose the winner?" 

Computer programs that supposedly 
pick winners have been around almost as 
long as the computer itself. ("Hey, why 
don'tcha tell dat ting ta pick da winners?" 
as a Damon Runyon character might have 
put it. Not surprisingly, novelist Dick 
Francis, who often uses the racetrack as a 
backdrop for his best-selling mysteiy books, 
used a computer racing program as the 
focus of his 1 98 2 novel Twice Shy . ) To the 
list of racing computer programs, we can 
now add one designed for the Color Com- 
puter owner — Horse Sense by Western 
Hills Software. 

The disk program loads easily and the 
instructions are clear, concise and helpful. 
After a simple graphic, the main menu lets 
you choose from Basic Instructions, Handi- 
capping and Betting Tips or At the Post 



(where most of the work is done). "Basic 
Instructions" and written instructions 
explain how to enter data from The Daily 
Racing Form in the At the Post part of the 
program. (The instructions also explain 
how to read the form.) 

The inputs in the At the Post section 
include two inputs that set up the race and 
at least 13 inputs for each horse. (The 
instruction sheet suggests, and my experi- 
ence confirms, that you should use at least 
two races for each horse — thus you will 
enter at least 26 items for each horse.) 
Most of what you enter relates to the speed 
of the horse at various times in the its pre- 
vious races. Based upon this data, the pro- 
gram computes a final rating. The instruc- 
tions suggest that you bet the horse with 
the best rating. 

How well does the program work? 
Most importantly, does it pick winners? I 
tried the program on a couple of racing 
programs at Philadelphia Park in early 
September. (The input of data does require 
a certain amount of time — it took me at 
least 15 minutes for each race. Since I am 
not quite ready to give up my regular job 
for either a life of gambling or reviewing 
software, my sample was limited by time 
constraints — an accurate test would have 
to include not only many more races but 
also different track conditions at different 
times of the year. It also would need to be 
tested at different racetracks.) 

In my small sample, the program did 
choose some winners. Most of the win- 
ners, however, were among the betting 
favorites. A likely reason would be that the 
speed factors that would make a horse the 
computer's choice were also identifiable 
to any careful reader of The Daily Racing 
Form . (After a few races, I was often able 
to predict which horse the program would 
choose.) 

Because a noise's speed as documented 
in its previous races is a major factor for 
many handicappers, it is not surprising 
that the program's choice was almost always 
one of the public's betting favorites. Bet- 
ting on favorites, according to a number of 
statistical studies, is not a bad system to 
follow. Monetarily, you should lose less 
than if you consistently bet longshots or 
horses with funny names or whatever catches 
your fancy. 

Showing a profit, however, will re- 
quire a high success rate — something this 
program, by itself, may not be able to 
achieve. (The program's only guarantee is 
that "the program will load and run.") 
Horse Sense is dependent upon a horse's 
most recent races for its information. For 
some horses, that race may have occurred 
three or four months ago. The numbers 
from that race probably tell us very little 



about the horse 's current condition. To use 
computer jargon — garbage in, garbage 
out. 

Additionally, the program ignores other 
handicapping factors such as jockey, post 
position and track condition. For example, 
last week our horse had as his jockey a 
rider who hasn't won a race in two years. 
Today, the best jockey at the track is 
aboard. I think the horse's chances have 
greatly improved, yet the program 's rating 
for the horse will stay the same. 

For someone who is overwhelmed by 
the racing form or who seldom if ever 
picks a winner, this program might not be 
a bad investment. The speed ratings might 
also be of some interest to the experienced 
gambler as one more factor to consider in 
making a race choice. If you like thor- 
oughbred racing, you may find this pro- 
gram of some value. 

« 

(Western Hills Software, 6133 Glenway Ave., 
Cincinnati, OH 45211, 513-662- 3999; $24.95 
— specify tape or disk when ordering: First 
product review for this company appearing 
in THE RAINBOW.) 

— John Matviko 

L-H ardware 

PIA and Extender 
Boards — 
The CoCo Real 
World Interface 

Did you ever want to try your hand at 
interfacing your CoCo to the outside world? 
You know what I mean — build a parallel 
printer port, analog-to-digital converter, 
or some other more exotic device? 

I've wanted to try my hand at interfac- 
ing for several years now and have been 
stopped more times than I want to admit. 
The usual hang-up is connecting the proj- 
ect to the CoCo. I've used extender cables 
and interfaced devices to the cassette and 
joystick ports, but the really interesting 
projects require that you build an exten- 
sion of the 40-pin bus used by cartridges 
and program packs. Each time I started on 
such a project, I stopped short of comple- 
tion either because I was afraid of damag- 
ing my computer or because I lost interest 
in all the required soldering. 

If you're like me, you'll appreciate 
two products available from Fraser Instru- 
ments that ease the task of interfacing the 
CoCo to the real world. The Extender 
Board eliminates the problem of getting 
signal lines out of the CoCo where you can 
connect to them. The PIA Board gives you 
a fully functional Peripheral Interface 



1 30 THE RAINBOW January 1 989 



The Coco Graphics Designer Plus $29.95 




SOUflRE 
DRHCE 



I GH SCHOOL 





NEU 
VERB 



Makes Signs, Banners, Greeting Cards 



Super easy-to- 
use point and 
click graphical 
interface, fea- 
tures windows, 
scroll bars, radio 
buttons, and joy- 
stick or mouse 
control. 



COCO SIGN DESIGNER 



' I PLftCt 

K*.; ■ u .- : - '.- - 1 ■ J .' 



^ SELEC 



ED 



PREU 



fTl":;:::ii : i::::i!:pPICSETi; 




TS 



LOAD SIGN 



Picture Disks Now> 

CoCoMAX 
&MAX-10 

Compatible 

In response to the many requests' 
we received, our picture disks now 
include a simple format conversion 
utility making them easy to use 
with Colorware's MAX-10 and 
CoCo MAX II and III. 



Samples Rom 

Picture Disk #2 



The CoCo Graphics Designer Plus (CGDP) is CoCo 2 and 
3 Compatible. It allows pictures, and text in up to 4 sizes 
and 16 fonts, per page or banner. The cards & signs fea- 
ture hi-resolution borders and complete on-screen pre- 
views. The CGDP comes with 16 borders, 5 fonts, and 32 
pictures. It f s 100% machine language for fast execution. 

Printer Support Radio Shack DMP105, 106, 110,120, 130, 132, 200, 400, 420, 430, 
440, 500, Epson FX/RX/LX/EX, LQ, Star 10X, SG10, NX10, NX1000, Panasonic 
KXP1080, 1090, 1091, 1092, Prowriter, C. Itoh 8510 & more.. Call for complete list. 

Requirements: 64K CoCo ll or III, disk drive with RSDOS, mouse or joystick. 



Samples Prom 

Picture Disk #4 



Samples From 

Picture Disk #3 




Offl 




Travel 




Christmas, Eaatar, Thanksgiving, 
Jawlsh Holidays, Maw Yaars, July 
4th, Hallowaan, Parades, Saint 
Patrick's, Sslnt Valantlnaa Day 



These two optional font col- 
lections supplement the 
fonts built into the CGDP. 
Font Disk A 10 fonts $14.95 
Font Disk B 10 fonts $14.95 




B0LD3 

uUjU i l <L 

mom 

5TE1CU 

5 I n i TtS 

TYPE 

VARIETY 

HESTEBH 



Font Disk B 



RRCRDE 

ALIEH 

Gf\aoaue 

6f\A0QU£2 

QDDQD 

cociputeh 

©®®©©d) 

8008009 



00000 



DIE CO 
GRflV 



GREAT COCO CLIP-ART! Picture disks 2, 3, and 4, sup- 
plement the pictures that come with the CGDP. Each disk 
has 120 pictures arranged by subject. A few samples are 
shown above. The disks are priced at $14.95 each. 

CoCo II 
Only 

$49 95 

Color Computer II w/64K Ext. BASIC 

We just purchased 500 CoCo II's directly from Radio 
Shack. These are new units, in original boxes, each 
with BASIC manual, switch box, and video cable. 30 
Day money back guarantee. Hurry while supply lasts! 

*An upgrade from our old CGD to the new CGDP Is available 
by returning your original serial numbered CDG disk plus $20. 



Ordering Instructions: All orders add $3.00 Shipping & Handling. UPS COD add $3.00. VISA/MC Accepted. NY residents add sales tax. 
Zebra Systems, Inc., 78-06 Jamaica Ave., Woodhaven, NY 11421 (718) 296-2385 



About 
The One-Liner 
Contest . . . 

the rainbow's One-Liner 
Contest has now been ex- 
panded to include programs 
of either one or two lines. 
This means a new dimen- 
sion and new opportunity 
for those who have "really 
neat" programs that simply 
just won't fit in one line. 

Here are the guidelines: 
The program must work in 
Extended basic, have only 
oneortwo line numbers and 
be entirely self-contained — 
no loading other programs, 
no calling ROM routines, no 
poked-in machine language 
code. The program has to 
run when typed in directly 
(since that's how our read- 
ers will use it). Make sure 
your line, or lines, aren't 
packed so tightly that the 
program won't list com- 
pletely. Finally, any instruc- 
tions needed should be very 
short. 

Send your entry (prefera- 
bly on cassette or disk) to: 

THE RAINBOW 

One-Liner Contest 

P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 




1 32 THE RAINBOW January 1 989 



Adapter (PIA) chip on a printed circuit 
card ready for your experiments and cir- 
cuit designs. Either board will save count- 
less hours of soldering and searching for 
proper parts. 

The simpler of the boards is the Exten- 
der Board, which, as its name implies, 
extends the signal lines out of the cartridge 
port so that they are easy to reach. Unless 
you are equipped to make your own circuit 
boards at home, making a cartridge port 
extender requires an awful lot of soldering 
or some delicate crimping of connectors. 
Fraser Instruments' Extender Board lets 
you start on your circuit rather than having 
to build the extender first. 

The board contains three sockets for 
project boards and a single in-line connec- 
tor for connection to a logic probe. The 
logic connector supplies all data lines, a 
ground line and the E-clock line. The three 
main connectors supply all of the cartridge 
port lines. The end connector is a simple 
extension of the CoCo's bus lines; the two 
top connectors are supplied with jumpers 
on the SCS and CTS lines so that the 
connectors can be individually selected. 
The instruction sheet briefly describes the 
available signal lines, as well as the loca- 
tions of and uses for the jumpers. Legs are 
included to allow the card to be supported 
without pu tting undue strain on the CoCo ' s 
cartridge port. 

The Extender Board is well-constructed, 
sturdy and useful. The instruction sheet is 
complete but terse and could use some 
expanding. There are several books and 
many articles available (but not from Fraser) 
describing the signal available at the car- 
tridge port, so the shortage of information 
on the instruction sheet is not a real handi- 
cap. 

The more interesting of the boards is 
the PIA Board, which connects a 6821 PIA 
chip to the CoCo. In addition, the card 
contains a jumper for the non-maskable 
interrupt line and a breadboard-type con- 
nector for all of the PIA input and output 
lines and a few of the cartridge port lines. 
The 6821 is the same PIA usedin the CoCo 
1 and is similar to the 6822 used in the 
CoCo 2 and 3. It is also the backbone of 
many interfacing projects described in 
hardware articles and books. The PIA Board 
can save you a great deal of time when you 
are designing and testing a project based 
on the 6821. 

The instructions that come with the 
PIA Board are barely enough to help you 
get started using the 6821 PIA. If you 
already have a project in mind, you proba- 
bly won't need to read them more than 
once. If, however, you want to use the PIA 
Board to learn about interfacing techniques, 
you must get some additional information. 



Fraser Instruments supplies two pho- 
tocopied data sheets from Motorola de- 
scribing the 6821 PIA and also a short 
BASIC program listing that will allow you 
to test the PIA Board. Very little additional 
information is supplied. Basically, you are 
given the bare basics and left on your own. 
This isn't as bad as it seems at first; a 
complete tutorial would require a book. 
Such books are available, as are numerous 
articles dealing with CoCo interfacing using 
a 6821. Perhaps your best sources of infor- 
mation are hardware articles in back issues 
of THE RAINBOW. 

1 see the PIA Board as a timesaver. It 
would take quite a bit of time to build this 
board from scratch. Using it , you can ei- 
ther experiment with a PIA or begin con- 
struction of a particular project, knowing 
that much of the boring work is already 
done correctly. Combined with some good 
tutorial material and/or circuit diagrams, 
the PIA Board will allow nearly anyone to 
learn how to use a 6821 PIA to connect a 
CoCo to the outside world. 

Both the PIA Board and Extender 
Board are well- constructed and have gold- 
plated connectors for a long and trouble- 
free life. Both have the potential to save 
active experimenters time and to help 
novices enter the world of computer inter- 
facing in a painless way. Both boards 
should, of course, be used with caution — 
as should any device that connects to the 
CoCo's cartridge port. 

The PIA Board could use additional 
technical information and perhaps some 
suggestions for books and articles dealing 
with the 6821. Fraser Instruments also 
produces PIA boards using other PlAs, 
including the 6822, 6522 and 8522 chips. 
These may also be of interest to some 
CoCo users. 

I haven't mentioned how well either 
board functions, and there is a reason for 
that. Unlike a program, these boards either 
work correctly or they don 't , and my opin- 
ion of their functionality is less than use- 
ful. I tested both boards on all three of my 
CoCos, and each board did exactly what it 
was designed to do. There is really nothing 
more to say about them other than that they 
perform as advertised. If you've been 
postponing your interfacing creativity 
because of the work required, now is the 
time to slop postponing and start working. 
Fraser Instruments has what you need to 
get started without the usual hassle. 

(Fraser Instrument Co., P.O. Box 712, 
Meridian, ID 83642, 208-888-5728; $45 each 
plus $3.50 S/H: First product review for this 
company appearing in THE RAINBOW.) 

— Donald L. McGarry 



The Rainbow Bookshelf 



Fill out your Co Co library 
with these selections 



The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 

Authors Dale Puckett and Peter Dibble show how to take 
advantage of OS-9's multitasking and multiuser features. An easy- 
to-read, step-by-step guide packed with hints, tips, tutorials and free 
software in the form of program listings. 
Book $19.95, Disk Package $31 (2 disks, book not included) 



The Rainbow Book of Simulations 

20 award-winning entries from THE RAINBOW'S first Simulations 
contest. You are a Civil War Commander, an air traffic controller, 
a civil defense coordinator, or a scientist on Mars . . . your wits are 
on the line. 

Book $9.95, Tape $9.95 



The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Level II 
Vol. I: A Beginners Guide to Windows 

Puckett and Dibble have done it again! They uncover the 
mysteries of the new windowing environment and demonstrate 
clever new applications. More hints, tips and plenty of program 
listings. Book $19.95, Disk $19.95 



The Rainbow Introductory Guide to Statistics 

Dr. Michael Plog and Dr. Norman Stenzel give a solid introduction 
to the realm of statistical processes and thinking for both the 
beginner and the professional. (80-column printer required.) 
Book $6.95, Tape or Disk $5.95, Package $1 1.95 



The First Rainbow Book of Adventures 

Contains 14 winning programs from our first Adventure contest. 
Includes Sir Randolph of the Moors, Horror House, One Room, Dr. 
Avaloe and more. Plus hints, tips on solving Adventures. 
Book $3.50, Tape $3.50 



The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures 

Featuring 24 of the most challenging Adventure games ever 
compiled. Meet the Beatles and battle the Blue Meanies, find a 
hidden fortune, or win the heart of a mysterious princess. Ring 
Quest, Secret Agent Man, Dark Castle, Curse of Karos and more! 
Book $13.95, Tape $13.95 



The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures 

The excitement continues with 19 new Adventures. Discover 
backstage intrigue at the London Theatre, attempt a daring space 
rescue, or defeat evil in the year 2091 as a genetic android. Evil 
Crypt, Spy master, Time Machine, The Amulet, and that's only the 
beginning! Book $1 1 .95, Tape $9.95, Two-Disk Set $14.95 



The Fourth Rainbow Book of Adventures 

Fourteen fascinating new Adventures from the winners of our 
fourth Adventure competition. Rely on your wits to escape a hostile 
military installation, try to stop the Nazi plan to invade Great Britain, 
manage to reinstate our defense system before the enemy launches 
a massive missile attack, and morel 
Book $10.95, Tape $9.95, Tv^o-Pisl^Set $1 4.95 

1 ' \! ■ • • . * * ■ 'V v.: ,? * , i 



The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations 

The 16 winners from our second Simulations contest. Fly through 
dense African jungle, bull your way down Wall Street, lead a bomb 
squad, or try your hand at Olympic events. Test your skills and 
talents. Book $9.95, Tape $9.95, Disk $10.95 



1; 



/ want to start my own Rainbow Bookshelf! 

Name 

Address 

City 

State 



ZIP 



j □ Payment Enclosed, or □ Charge to: 

\\ □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

I Account Number 

I 



I 



Card Expiration Date 



| Signature 



Please send me: 

□ The Rainbow Book of Simulations 

□ Rainbow Simulations Tape 

□ The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations 

□ Second Rainbow Simulations Tape 

□ Second Rainbow Simulations Disk 

□ The Complete Rainbow Guide to 0S-9 (book only) 

□ Rainbow Guide to 0S-9 Disk Package (2 disks) 

□ The Windows & Applications Disk for 
The Complete Rainbow Guide to 0S-9 Level II, Vol. I 

□ The Rainbow Book of Adventures (first) 

□ Rainbow Adventures Tape (first) 

□ The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures 

□ Second Rainbow Adventures Tape 

□ The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures 

□ Third Adventures Tape 

□ Third Adventures Disk Set (2 disks) 

□ The Fourth Rainbow Book of Adventures 

□ Fourth Adventures Tape 

□ Fourth Adventures Disk Set (2 disks) 

□ Introductory Guide to Statistics 

□ Guide to Statistics Tape or Disk (indicate choice) 

□ Guide to Statistics Package (indicate choice of tape or disk) 
*Add $2 per book Shipping and Handling in U.S. 
•Outside U.S., add $4 per book 

'Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax 

(Allow 6 to 8 weeks for delivery) Total 



$ 9.95 . 
$ 9.95 . 
$ 9.95 . 
$ 9.95 . 
$10.95. 
$19.95 
$31.00 

$19.95 
$ 7.95 
$ 7.95 . 
$13.95. 
$13.95 
$11.95. 
$ 9.95 
$14.95 
$10.95 
$ 9.95 
$14.95. 
$ 6.95 
$ 5.95 
$11.95 



I Mail to: Rainbow Bookshelf, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, 
| Prospect, KY 40059 

j To order by phone (credit card orders only) call (800) 847- 
I 0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. For other inquiries call (502) 
J 228-4492. 

I Please note: The tapes and disks offered by The Rainbow Bookshelf are not stand-alone products, 
j That is, they are intended to be an adjunct and complement to the books. Even if you buy the tape 
or disk, you will still need the appropriate book. OS-9® is a registered trademark of the Microware 
I Systems Corporation. 




The following products have recently been received by THE RAINBOW, examined 
by our magazine staff and issued the Rainbow Seal of Certification, your assurance 
that we have seen the product and have ascertained that it is what it purports to be. 



The Aussie Collection, a set of six public 
domain disks from Australia. Disk 1 is full of 
music programs, both in BASIC and in multi- 
part machine language. Disk 2 contains math/ 
graphing programs, and Disk 3 has "mini- 
pics" for DMP printers. Disk 4 is mostly 
games while Disk 5 is a mix of utilities and 
games. Disk 6 is a geography lesson on Austra- 
lia. For the CoCo 1,2 and 3. The Public Domain 
Software Copying Company, 33 Gold St., Suite 
L3 t New York, NY 10038, (800) 221-7372; 
$39.95 for the set, or $10 each, $4.50 SIH. 

Chess Nuts, a two-player chess game "de- 
signed with both the amateur and the serious 
player in mind." Requires a CoCo 3 and a disk 
drive. Mousesoft Software, P.O. Box 18058, 
Milwaukee, Wl 53218, (414)466-3617; $20. 

DaVinci3, a graphics program for the CoCo 3 
that supports a joystick, mouse or X-pad. Fea- 
tures include Draw, Erase, Selective Erase 
(one color), Box, Circle/Ellipse, Spray Can, 
Zoom, Line, Text & Fonts and Cut/Paste 
commands. Also, there is the capability to save 
and load pictures and palettes, print to Tandy 
printers (including the CGP-220), maintain 
"dynamic, instant control of all 16 colors," 
convert PMODE 3/PMODE 4 pictures to the 
Hi-Res 16-color format, and to capture and edit 
Hi-Res pictures from other programs and games. 
Requires 128K Color Computer 3, one disk 
drive, input device, and TV or color monitor 
(color recommended; composite and RGB 
supported). Owl-Ware, P.O. Box 116-A, 
Mertztown, PA 19539, (800) 245-6228; $37.95. 

< ^ > DIASM, a disassembler with six options: 
Clear Buffer, Directory, Disassemble File 
Onscreen, Disassemble File to Printer, Disas- 
semble Range to Printer and Disassemble 
Memory Onscreen. You can view memory in 
its ASCII representation and toggle between 
decimal and hexadecimal. For the CoCo 1, 2 
and 3. GSW Sofin>are, 8345 Glenwood, Over- 
land Park, KS 66212; $20. 

Digitizer 3, a joystick-/menu-driven CoCo 
3 program for digitizing and playing back 
sound. It comes with several sample sounds, 
including a guitar riff, allows you to digitize 
your own samples "using any source that can 
be connected to the black wire of the cassette 
cable," and includes a preview feature that lets 
you to hear what a sample will sound like 
digitized, without having to digitize the sound. 
DSD Software, 12 Under cliff Drive, Scarbor- 
ough, Ont. M1M1A5, (416)267-8920; $12.99 
US, $15 CDN. 

134 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



Dino Data Base, a menu-driven educational 
database listing 200-plus dinosaurs in the two 
mainclassifications, Ornithischianand Sauris- 
chian. The program will draw the dinosaur, list 
the derivation of its name (e.g., Tyrannosaurus 
means "tyrant lizard")* and on a flat map of the 
world indicate where the dinosaur lived. It 
comes on disk for the CoCo 3. RAM Electron- 
ics, 814 Josephine, Monmouth, OR 97361, 
(503) 838-4144; $29.95. 

Floppy Filer, a diskette organization pro- 
gram for keeping track of files stored on floppy 
disks. It creates an alphabetized cross-refer- 
ence between filename and disk identifier. The 
cross-reference is then printed in a three-col- 
umn form suitable for notebook use. Floppy 
Filer can handle a maximum of 1 , 150 files. For 
the CoCo 1, 2 and 3 disk drive system. Gregory 
Software, Box 573, Kirkland, IL 60146, (815) 
522-3593; $8. 

FontGen, a program that lets users design 
custom fonts, borders and icons for their CoCo 
3s. A font may have characters that are two or 
three times the size of standard characters. 
Also, fonts can be saved to disk and loaded 
upon demand. A machine language subroutine 
included allows users to have up to four differ- 
ent fonts resident in memory at all times. JR & 
JR Softstuff, P.O.Box 118,Lompoc, CA 93438, 
(805) 735 -3889; $24.95. 

^GAT Backup, a disk utility that will do 
backups of an entire disk or of a section, for a 
user-specified number of copies. It will also 
format disks and call up disk directories within 
itself. GSW Software, 8345 Glenwood, Over- 
land Park, KS 66212; $15. 

I Chlng, the ancient Chinese Book of Changes 
put on disk and tape for the CoCo; I Ching was 
the Chinese way of trying to discover "the 
underlying patterns that could explain how the 
events in our lives come about as they do." 
Requires a 32K CoCo 1 , 2 or 3 and either a tape 
or disk system. Tothian Software, Inc., Box 
663, Rimcrsburg, PA 16248; $24.95. 

J.A.C., a Joystick Alternative Controller that 
allows "arcade-type action control using your 
Atari-type joystick." Includes a rapid-fire op- 
tion. A nine-pin Atari/Commodore joystick 
plugs into the controller, which plugs into a 
CoCo joystick port. 4-TECHS, P.O. Box 2575, 
Merrifield, VA 22116; $1830 plus $2.50 SIH. 

The KJV on Disk No. 34, The Book of John, 
the Book of John from the King James version 



of the Bible, in ASCII files. The files can be 
called up within a word processor for viewing. 
Requires a disk drive and a CoCo 1 , 2 or 3 with 
32K, and a word processor that leaves at least 
24K of free memory for documents. An info 
sheet is available for $1. BDS Software, P.O. 
Box485,Glenview,IL60025, (312)998-1656; 
$3. 

Leonardo's Paintbox, an expanded version of 
Leonardo's Pencil allowing you to translate 
drawings made with Paintbox to BASIC pro- 
grams that will reproduce the pictures when 
run. These programs can be saved to disk and 
merged as routines into other programs. Re- 
quires a CoCo 3 with a disk drive. A two- 
button, self-centering joystick is recommended. 
On disk for the CoCo 3. E.Z. Friendly, 118 
CorliesAve., Poughkeepsie, NY 12601, (914) 
485-8150; $29.95 plus $1.50 SIH. 

Memory, a "Concentration"-type game in which 
you try to match up pairs of objects, turning 
over tiles all over the board. The grid contains 
18 pairs of objects, which are different for each 
game. The joy stick is used to point to a tile, and 
the firebutton is pressed to flip it. The program 
comes on disk for the CoCo 3. RAM Electron- 
ics, 814 Josephine, Monmouth, OR 97361, 
(503) 838-4144; $29.95. 

Picture Puzzles, a program based on the "tile" 
puzzles (in which one tile is missing from a 
grid, and you solve the puzzle by sliding the 
tiles and arranging them in the proper order). 
On disk for the CoCo 3. JR <6 JR Softstuff, P.O. 
Boxll8,Lompoc, CA 93438, (805) 735-3889; 
$19.95. 

Printer Drivers for Home Publisher, a pack- 
age of additional printer drivers for the CoCo 3 
Home Publisher desktop publishing program 
The drivers support the following seven print- 
ers: Tandy CGP-220, Tandy DMP- 1 1 0, C. Itoh 
8510 AP, Epson MX-80, Okidata 20, Panasonic 
KX-P1090 and the Star SG-10. The appropri- 
ate driver must be copied to the CMDS direc- 
tory of Side B of the Home Publisher disk 
Requires a CoCo 3, a disk drive, a printer, and 
a copy of Home Publisher. Tandy Corpora- 
tion; $19.95: Available in Radio Shack stores 
nationwide, Cat. No. 90-0911; also available 
by calling Express Order at (800) 321-3133. 

Quantum* *Leap, a "dice" game for the CoCo 
3 that has players rolling six ivories for four-of- 
a-kinds, five-of-a-kinds, ''triple doubles," small 
and large straights, and the Quantum**Leap — 
six dice of the same number, worth 250 points. 





Requires CoCo 3 and a disk drive. Joystick 
supported. JR & JR Softstitff, P.O. Box 118, 
Lompoc, CA 93438, (805) 735-3889; $19.95. 

^Revenge of the Germs, a graphics Adven- 
ture game that "requires clear, logical thinking 
and a little creativity to solve." When the game 
begins, you find your self in a hospital bed, and 
the only thing you can see besides your two feet 
is a broken door. For the CoCo I, 2 and 3 and 
a disk drive. [Note: "25 percent of all profits 
from Revenge of the Germs will be donated to 
the Nature Conservancy, a non-profit organi- 
zation dedicated toward the preservation of 
natural land."] The Software System, 5576 Oak 
Vista Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45227; $9.95. 

Roots, a program designed for "engineers, 
engineering students and those studying mathe- 
matics" that locates roots of equations. A short 
tutorial is enclosed. Available on cassette only 
for the CoCo 1, 2 and 3. Lee Sullivan , P.O. Box 
8718, Penacook, NH 03303, (603) 753-4497; 
$4 for printout of listing, $8 for program on 
cassette. 

Rupert Rhythm, an arcade game in which 
Rupert Rhythm, songwriter extraordinaire, has 
had Ins music stolen by Hardrock Harry, manager 
of Music Box Records. Unless Rupert can get 
his manuscripts back, Harry will release all the 
songs under his name. Rupert must infiltrate 
Music Box Records and collect all his stolen 
notes, which are scattered throughout 17 rooms. 
Hie game features 16-color graphics screens, 
animation and "some of the hottest digitized 
percussion music you've ever heard on your 
Tandy Color Computer 3." Requires a CoCo 3 
and a disk drive. Game Point Software, P.O. 
Box 6907, Burbank, CA 91510, (818) 566- 
3571; $24.95. 

SHpheed, an arcade-type game that outfits you 
with a "super space age dogfighter" rigged for 
combat in an intergalactic war. You can infil- 
trate a multitude of fortresses and encounter 
increasingly vicious enemies in 15 levels against 
more than 20 varieties of computerized oppo- 
nents. Comes on a ROM pack for the CoCo 2 or 
3. Sierra On-Line, dist. by Tandy; $29.95: 
Available in Radio Shack stores nationwide. 

Start OS-9, "an enjoyable hands-on guide 
to OS-9 Level II on the Color Computer 3" that 
features 10 tutorials (disk included) and 14 
chapters covering boot creation, multitasking, 
RAM disks, process priority, command inter- 
pretations, formatting disks, the SYS direc- 
tory, file handling, loading and unlinking 
commands, windows, etc. The book also fea- 
tures seven appendices, which are written by 
such CoCo luminaries as Marty Goodman, 
William Brady, Kevin Darling, Dale Puckett, 
Stephen Goldberg and Paul Ward. Requires a 
5 12K CoCo 3, two disk drives and an RGB or 



monochrome monitor capable of displaying 80 
columns of text. An 80-column printer is rec- 
ommended, along with 40- or 80-track double- 
sided drives, RAM disks or hard disks, and a 
cooling fan, "because some CoCo 3s run hot." 
Kenneth-Leigh Enterprises, 1840 Biltmore St. 
NW, Suite 10, Washington, DC 20009, (202) 
232-4246; $32.95 plus $2.50 SIH. 

Tailyn Communications 2400 Baud Mo- 
dem, an external Hayes-compatible 2400-baud 
modem with RS-232 interface, synchronous/ 
asynchronous operation, eight LED status 
indicators, auto-redial, and storage for 10 tele- 
phone numbers. An internal version is avail- 
able ($144), as are 1200-baud models ($89 for 
external and $79 for internal). Tailyn Commu- 
nications Co., Inc. , 6100 Southwest State Road 
200, Suite 6118, Ocala, FL 32674, (800) 282- 
4596; $159. 

^TelePak/TelePak+, two versions of an RS- 
232 interface designed as a direct replacement 
for the Tandy Deluxe RS-232 Pak. The Tel- 
ePak requires the Tandy Multi-Pak Interface or 
gray Color Computer 1, taking advantage of 
the built-in 12 -volt power supplies. TelePakf 
can be used with any Color Computer, Multi- 
Pak or Y cable. A standard DB25 cable is 
required. The TelePak uses data transmission 
rates of from 50 to 19,200 baud, and is compat- 
ible with Disk BASIC and OS-9 software using 
the standard address scheme for RS-232 
cornmunication. Orion Technologies, P.O. Box 
63196, Wichita, KS 67203, (316) 946-0440; 
$44.95 for TelePak, $49.95 for TelePak+. 

Try-O-Menu, a program that allows single- 
key loading and execution of BASIC and bi- 
nary programs (protected programs accepted) 
from disk. When run, the program lists seven 
items from the directory; pressing the N key 
reveals seven more, etc. On disk for the CoCo 
1, 2 and 3; a CoCo 3 mode is included. Try-O- 
Byte, 1008 Alton Circle, Florence, SC 29501, 
(803) 662-9500; $19.99 plus $3 SIH. 

Try-O-Tax, 6th Ed., a user-prompting pro- 
gram to assist the individual with federal in- 
come taxes. *The extensive changes for 1988 
have been included and the program reworked 
completely for improved interaction with the 



user." It calculates and prints schedules A, B, 
C, D, E, F and SE, as well as forms 1 040, 1040A 
(with Schedule 1 ), 2 106, 244 1 and 6252. Color 
Disk BASIC is required. Upgrades from the 
1987 version are available for $30 plus $3 S/H. 
Try-O-Byte, 1008 Alton Circle, Florence, SC 
29501 , (803) 662-9500; $44.99 plus $3 SIH. 

^ Vehicle Cost Printout, a BASIC printer 
program designed to track all vehicle expenses 
over a multi-year time period. Printouts are 
available for any time period within a one-year 
span, showing monthly fuel purchased, fuel 
used, miles driven and repairs made. The pro- 
gram calculates expense data, determining total 
vehicle cost per mile. Available on tape or disk 
for the CoCo 1, 2 and 3. Requires Extended 
BASIC and a printer capable of condensed and 
elongated type. Alan Hanusiak, 37 Grand Ave., 
Rockville, CT 06066, (203) 875-2027; $18. 

VIP Writer IH, Version 2, a new version of 
the CoCo 3 word processor that adds support 
for 512K memory, four-color pop-up win- 
dows, a backspace key, and a new configura- 
tion program. The DS command now saves the 
entire text buffer, regardless of cursor position; 
the PS (Partial Save) command replaces the old 
DS command. VIP Writer III owners can up- 
grade for $10 plus $3 S/H. VIP Writer owners 
can upgrade for $49.95 plus $3 S/H. Those 
upgrading must send their original disk. SD 
Enterprises, P.O. Box 1233, Gresham, OR 
97030, (503) 663-2865; $79.95. 

Warp One, a menu-driven telecommunications 
program for OS-9 Level II. Features include 
Auto-Dial, Auto-Macro, Auto-Buffer, ASCII 
file output, Xmodem file transfer and directory 
functions. Requires a 5 12K CoCo 3, at least 
one disk drive, OS-9 Level II, an RS-232 pack 
and a modem. Alpha Software Technologies, 
P.O. Box 16522 , Hattiesburg, MS 39402, (601 ) 
266-2773; $34.95. 

Yahtzzz, a "dice" game in which each player 
rolls five dice three times per turn in order to 
come up with four-of-a-kinds, three-of-a-kinds, 
full houses, small straights, etc. Requires 32K 
CoCo and one disk drive; a joystick is supported. 
JR & JR Softstujf, P.O. Box 118, Lompoc, CA 
93438, (805) 735-3889; $14.95. 



First product received from this company 



The Seal of Certification is open to all manufacturers of products for the Tandy 
Color Computer, regardless of whether they advertise in THE RAINBOW. 

By awarding a Seal , the magazine certifies the program doesexw* — that we have 
examined it and have a sample copy — but this does not constitute any guarantee 
of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these hardware or software items will be 
forwarded to THE RAINBOW reviewers for evaluation. 

—Lauren Willoughby 





January 1989 THE RAINBOW 135 



RAINBOWTE CH 

CCGSSslbDs ©S=i 



BASIC09: 

A Great Language 



Ml ost of us take a moment to 
reflect on the meaning of life or 
I some equally esoteric subject 
in those seconds between the time we 
take down last year's calendar and put 
up the new, unblemished model. I owe 
you that moment here, too, and so I 
would like to share a few thoughts 
about where I have been and where I am 
trying to go with this column. 

We have had an exciting year. OS-9 
Level II moved to the front of the stage 
early in '88, and Multi- Vue was finally 
released to an eager crowd. By the 
middle of the year, some notable 
hackers in our community were giving 
some interesting demos. 

My goal throughout the year was to 
show you how to harness OS-9 Level 
IPs power for your own computer. I 
started with the KISSDraw series be- 
cause I had always wondered how those 
magic drawing programs worked. After 
entering a few lines of code, I was 
hooked. I wanted to show you that each 
of us can break down a complicated 
process — like using a mouse to draw 
on the screen — into small enough parts 



Dale L. Puckett, a freelance writer and 
programmer, serves as director-at-large 
of the OS-9 Users Group and is a 
member of the Computer Press Associ- 
ation. His username on Delphi is 
DALEP: on packet-radio, KOHYD @ 
N4QQ; on GEnie, D.PUCKETT2; and 
on CIS, 71446,736. 



By By Dale L. Puckett 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 

to understand the process and solve the 
problem. 

I have tried to give you the big picture 
by explaining the philosophy behind a 
process and tried to comment my source 
listings enough that you could read the 
theory of operation in the program 
listing. I hope it has worked and you 
have been able to put some of the 
information to work on your own 
problems. 

We've got a long way to go — there 
are too many things to do with the 
Color Computer 3 (and its fantastic 
windowing environment) and not 
enough hours to do them. However, I 
hope to introduce you to more exciting 
concepts during the next year. Since I 
am fascinated by the Multi-Vue envi- 
ronment and the powerful Wind in t 
manager built into OS-9 Level II, I hope 
to continue the DoMenu series with 
more code you will find exciting and 
useful. 

I hope you will use the examples as 
a jumping-off place for your own appli- 
cations. That's what computing is all 
about. If you have a particular interest 
you would like for me to pursue, please 
let me know. It will make writing this 
column easier. In the meantime, tradi- 
tion dictates that January be dedicated 
to the beginner. I hope I can encourage 
you to start the new year by working 
with a new language that's easy to 
understand and fun to use. Enjoy. 

Starting BASIC09 

When Start OS-9 author, Paul Ward, 
called recently, he presented an oppor- 



tunity I couldn't refuse. The call re- 
minded me that the annual rainbow 
beginners' issue would be a great time 
to introduce you to one of the best-kept 
secrets in the microcomputer world 
today — BASIC09. For the beginner, 
Microware's BASIC09 has to be the best 
language going. I hope the words that 
follow will inspire you to jump into 
BASIC09 and help remove the fear of the 
unknown. 

The inspiration for this short piece 
was created nine years ago (an eternity 
in the computing arena). If you survey 
the magazines that serve the competi- 
tive personal computing world today, 
you'll find more than one rave review of 
True BASIC or Z BASIC, as packaged 
for the IBM and Macintosh computers. 
Writers are heralding these new BASIC 
programs and proclaiming the birth of 
a new generation of programming tools. 
Yet, the features being strutted before 
an unsuspecting audience are nothing 
new to seasoned OS-9 enthusiasts. They 
found these features in a revolutionary 
language from Microware Systems 
Corporation in 1979 and have been 
taking advantage of them ever since. 
After you read this, I hope you will be 
inspired enough to start BASIC09. Then 
you, too, can take advantage of this 
language's state-of-the-art features. 
After all, the price is right. Tandy 
includes BASIC09 in every OS-9 Level II 
package it sells. 

I often hear people with Color Com- 
puters say that they don't use BASIC09 
because it's too difficult to learn, but 
these people have never tried it. To these 



1 36 THE RAINBOW January 1 989 



fUNDOG VVSTFMS* 



Warrior King 





Become RASTANN, Warrior King, on the quest 
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sinister land. Battle monsters, gain magic and 
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and dark castle dungeons in this medieval realm. 
From the creator of Kung-Fu Dude comes this 
awesome arcade game for the CoCo III) Warrior 
King uses the most detailed 320x200 16 color 
graphics and high speed machine code to vault 
you into a world of fantasy. Dare ye challenge 
the many perils ahead in order to become WAR- 
RIOR KING? Req, 128K CoCo III, disk drive, and 
joystick. Only $29.95. 



In Qliest of ttie S^ r *T ord 




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Kuny-ru Dude 



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Spectacular graphics, sound effects, and 
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"The CoCo karate gap has been filled 
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All programs CoCo 1,2,3 compatible, unless otherwise stated 



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(412) 372-5674 




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people, 1 say that BASIC09 is not diffi- 
cult. Rather, it's different. After you run 
your first BASIC09 program (and look 
back at your first modern BASIC code), 
I think you'll agree that BASIC09 is easier 
to understand and use than the Micro- 
soft BASIC interpreter built into the 
Color Computer 3. 

If you are looking for a plain lan- 
guage introduction to BASIC09, I hope 
you'll pick up a copy of the book, The 
Official BASIC09 Tour Guide, at your 
local Radio Shack store. In it, you'll 
find a friendly, plain-language intro- 
duction to this fantastic language, and 
many examples. 1 also invite you to 
check out the many contemporary 
CoCo 3 BASIC09 programming exam- 
ples published in this column every 
month. 

BASIC09 Advantages 

You'll discover BASlC09's many ad- 
vantages when you write your first 
program. But since I don't want to keep 
you in suspense, I'll give you a sneak 
preview. 

First and foremost, BASIC09 is not the 
same old line-number encumbered 
BASIC you learned in school. Rather, it 
is a modern programming language that 
closely resembles Pascal. In fact, you'll 
find that translating most Pascal pro- 
grams to BASIC09 is a rather easy chore. 
However, while BASIC09 delivers Pas- 



cal's outstanding structural qualities, it 
is less rigid. 

Since BASIC09 lets you create well- 
structured programs without line 
numbers, your programs will be easier 
to understand. You won't get lost fol- 
lowing 15 GoTo statements to meaning- 
less line number locations during your 
debugging sessions. 

"There are too many 
things to do with the 
Color Computer $ 
(and its fantastic 
windowing environ- 
ment) and not 
enough hours to do 
them. " 



You will also find BASIC09 programs 
very readable. While this may not seem 
important to you now, it will be six 
months from now, when you need to 
change your program to incorporate 
new data. Additionally, while you're 
writing — or running — these pro- 
grams, you'll still have all the power of 
OS-9 Level II at your fingertips. For 



example, if you forget the name of a file 
stored earlier, you need only type $ di r 
and then press ENTER to receive a listing 
of all the files in your current data 
directory. You can do this from BA- 
SlC09's command and debug modes, and 
Dir isn't the only command you can 
summon in this manner — you can run 
every OS-9 command in your current 
execution directory. 

You can also press CLEAR on your 
keyboard to be taken to another win- 
dow, where you'll find an OS-9 prompt 
waiting for you. The prompt will be 
there because you started an immortal 
Shell in that window earlier. 

I can almost hear you object that a 
programming language this easy to use 
can't be very powerful, but this is not 
true. An example of BASlC09's power 
can be seen in Bill Brady's Wiz Profes- 
sional* This communications environ- 
ment competes admirably with Macin- 
tosh's Red Ryder communications 
program. And while the CoCo 3 costs 
$159, the Macintosh Plus costs 10 times 
as much. Wiz Professional also com- 
petes well with ProComm on an IBM 
PC, and it is written in BASIC09. 

You can also look at KISSDrawPut. 
I think this short experiment from a 
tutorial series in this column has much 
of the functionality and a much nicer 
user interface than the commercial 
drawing program sold by Tandy. It runs 
just as fast too. More importantly, it 
was written in BASIC09 in the course of 
three or four weekends. 

Look closely at a few of the commer- 
cial OS-9 Level II software packages 
you've purchased. You may notice that 
several of them are stored in BASIC09 I- 
Code modules. This means they were 
generated with BASIC09. You have access 
to the same programming language as 
the commercial programmer, and you 
received it free with your OS-9 Level II 
system software. 

BASIC09 Proof 

I'm running out of room for this 
commercial, and I haven't even men- 
tioned BASiC09's data typing capability. 
You can learn more about this subject 
in The Official BASIC09 Tour Guide. 
And since I wouldn't want to tease you 
too much, I'll throw in a short example 
here. 

But first, let me come up with a few 
lines of code that reinforce what I've 
said about this programming language. 
Let's start with BASiC09's readability. 
(Remember, you may need to under- 
stand your stroke of genius many 
months after the light bulb pops on.) 



PROCEDURE GurWay 

(* Show how Basic09 control structures can make 

(* your programs easy to read and understand. This 

(* program will produce the same results on your 

(* Color Computer screen as the program above. 

DIM number: INTEGER 

INPUT "Type a number:" , number 

PRINT 

IF number > 0 THEN 

PRINT "Your number is positive." 

ELSE 

IF number < 0 THEN 

PRINT "Your number is negative." 
ELSE 

PRINT "Your number is zero." 
ENDIF 
ENDIF 
PRINT 
END 



Figure 1 



138 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



Compare this BASIC listing with the 
BASIC09 listing shown in Figure 1: 

10 REM THIS 15 THE OLD WAY 

100 INPUT "PLEASE TYPE A NUMBER: " 

110 IF X > 0 THEN 150 

120 IF X < 0 THEN 170 

130 PRINT "THE NUMBER IS ZERO - " 

140 GDTD 180 

150 PRINT "THE NUMBER IS POSI- 
TIVE," 
160 GDTD 180 

170 PRINT "THE NUMBER IS NEGA- 
TIVE- " 
1B0 END 

111 bet you love BASIC09 already. 
However, if you can still say that the 
basic listing is easier to understand 
after reading both, perhaps BASIC09 isn't 
for you. 

If I may be allowed another commer- 
cial break, I typed the BASIC09 listing 
with all lowercase letters. Later, when 
I listed it, BASIC09 automatically typed 
its keywords in all uppercase letters. It 
also automatically indented its control 
structures. All this is a bonus you get 
every time you write a program with 

BASIC09. 

I mentioned BASIC09's powerful data 



typing ability. Now, let's see if we can 
come up with a simple example that 
shows why this feature is something to 
rave about. BASIC09 knows about five 
data types — BYTE, INTEGER, REAL, 
STRING and BDDLEAN. I know, almost 
every BASIC interpreter today knows at 
least three of these data types. However, 
BASIC09 revolves around another key- 
word: TYPE. 

In review, a BYTE is a data type that 
can be stored in a single memory cell in 
your computer, exactly eight bits (one 
byte) wide. Likewise, an INTEGER var- 
iable is stored in a memory cell 16 bits 
(two bytes) wide, floating-point num- 
bers are stored in a series of memory 
cells designed to hold them (five bytes 
in BASIC09), and English language char- 
acters and words that you can read on 
the screen are stored in STRING varia- 
bles. In BASIC09, strings can be any 
length — if you have enough memory. 
You assign the amount of memory each 
STRING variable will use with a DIM 



statement. Finally, a BOOLEAN variable 
is stored in a single byte that can have 
only one of two values. A BOOLEAN 
variable must be either true or false. 

If you could work with data in just 
one of these five shapes, your universe 
would have a narrow scope, and you 
would find it difficult to get anything 
done. No wonder many people hate 
BASIC. However, you have BASIC09 with 
its unique TYPE statement on your side. 
Let's look at an example of a few 
homemade BASIC09 data types. Imagine 
that you are the secretary of a local 
Lions' Club and you must set up a 
mailing list you can use to print mailing 
labels and maintain information about 
everyone in the club. 

First, you must tell BASIC09 the kind 
of information you want to print on 
your mailing labels. Of course, the best 
— and one of the easiest — ways to do 
this is to use a BASIC09 TYPE statement. 
Something like the program shown in 
Figure 2 should work. 



PROCEDURE LionsLabels 

(* Show how to use a Basic09 TYPE statement 

TYPE label=f irstname:STRING[14 ] ;middleinitial:STRING[l] ; 
lastname:STRING[20] ; street , ci ty: STRINGf 24 ] ; state :5TRING[2] ; zip: REAL 

Figure 2 



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COMPANY COMMANDER SCENARIO CREATOR (32K) . . $12 

OKINAWA (64K Disk) WWI Marine Invasion $12 

LUFTFLOTTE (32K) Battle of Britain $14 

FIRE ONE! (CoCo 3 Disk) Sub Warfare in WWII $15 

PRO FOOTBALL (CoCo 3) 1 or 2 players $12 

BATAAN (64K Disk] Two games in one $10 

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Include 50 cents per program shipping and handling. 
Florida residents add 6% sales tax. 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 139 



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In that TYPE definition, we told 
BASIC09 to reserve 14 bytes to hold a 
member's first name, one character for 
a middle name, and 20 characters for a 
last name. Then we set aside 24 bytes for 
the first two lines of our member's 
address, two characters for the state and 
five bytes for a real number to store the 
ZIP code. In this particular example, we 
have reserved 90 bytes of memory for 
each member of the club. However, 
with BASIC09's TYPE statement, you can 
have your labels your way. 

Once we defined our new data type, 
we must set aside the memory needed 
to use it inside our Color Computer. Do 
this with the DIM statement. For exam- 
ple, if we have between 90 and 100 
members in our Lions' Club, we will 
probably want to reserve enough mem- 
ory to hold the names and and addresses 
of at least 100 members. The following 
should do the trick: 

DIM Lionl_ist(100) -label 

Here we have set aside 9,000 bytes of 
memory to hold the information needed 
to print up to 100 mailing labels. To 
store our names and addresses in the 



array of 100 mailing labels, we can use 
a number of techniques. In all cases, we 
start with the knowledge that the name 
of our array isLionList. We also know 
that each element (or member) in our 
array has a number of fields. We defined 
these fields in our TYPE statement. This 
means that the first mailing label in our 
list can be initialized with the following 
information: 

LionList(l) . firstname:=Dale 
LionList(l) .middleinitial:=L 
LionList(l) .lastname:=Puckett 
L i onl_ i s t ( 1 ) . s t ree t : =805 West 
Edmonston Drive 

LionList(l) .city:=Rockv/ille 
LionList(l) . state :=MD 
LionList(l) - zip : =20B52 



Your array can be initialized with 
assignment statements like those de- 
scribed, or you can use a standard loop 
structure to write information about all 
of your club members to the list at the 
same time. The loop can get the infor- 
mation from your keyboard or another 
disk file. 

Once you have entered your data, 



you'll be in mailing-label heaven. You'll 
also be able to take advantage of BAS- 
IOW's GET and PUT statements. (Ex- 
tended Color BASIC, eat your heart out.) 
To print the first mailing label in your 
array to the screen, simply use the 
following line: 



PUT 81, LionList(l) 

If you've entered all the names and 
you want to print a hard copy of your 
entire mailing list, all you need is this 
code: 



DIM printer:BYTE 
□PEN Bprinter,'Vp" 

PUT ttprinter, LionList 

CLOSE ttprinter 



While developing my KISSDraw 
tutorial series, I used a similar technique 
with BASIC09 TYPE and PUT statements 
in a drawing program. I called it KISS- 
DrawPut. I was able to increase the 
speed of the program and have a place 
to store the pictures, so I could save 



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January 1989 THE RAINBOW 141 



*** *** *** *** COLOR COMPUTER III SOFTWARE *** *** *** *** 



CBASIC III EDITOR/COMPILER 

The ULTIMATE Color Computer HI BASIC COMPILER!!! 

If you want to write fast efficient machine language programs and you don't 
want to spend the next few years trying to learn how to write them in Assembly 
language or with a cheap compiler, then CBASIC III is the answer!!! 

CBASIC HI is the only fully integrated Basic Compiler and Program Editing 
System available for the Color Computer 3. It will allow you to take full advantage 
of all the capabilities available in your CoCo-3 including 512K RAM, without 
having to spend years trying to learn assembly language programming. CBASIC 
III allows you to create, edit and convert programs from a language you are 
already familiar with Enhanced Disk Color Basic, into fast efficient machine 
language programs easily and quickly. CBASIC III supports all the enhanced 
hardware available in the CoCo-3, including Hi-Res Graphics, & Screen displays, 
Extended Memory and Interrupts (Keyboard, Timer, Serial & Clock). We even 
added advanced commands not available in Basic to give you a level of control 
only avialable to very advanced Machine Language Programmers. Plus we made it 
exceptionally easy to use, not like some other compilers. CBASIC III is the 
friendliest and easiest compiler available for the Color Computer III. 

CBASIC III is a powerful tool for the Beginner as well as the Advanced Basic 
or Machine Language programmer. You can write programs without having to 
worry about the Stack, DP Register, memory allocations and so on, because 
CBASIC III will handle it for you automatically. For Advanced users, CBASIC III 
will let you control every aspect of your program, even generating machine code 
directly in a program easily. 

CBASIC III features well over 150 Compiled Basic Commands and Functions 
that fully support Disk Sequential and Direct access files, Tape, Printer and 
Screen I/O. It supports ALL the High and Low Resolution Graphics, Sound, Play 
and String Operations available in Enhanced Color Basic, including Graphics 
H/GET, H/Put, H/Play and H/DRAW, all with 99.9% syntax compatibility. 
CBASIC III also supports the built in Serial I/O port with separate programmable 
printer & serial I/O baud rates. You can send and receive data with easy to use 
PRINT, INPUT, INKEY, GETCHAR and PUTCHAR commands. 

CBASIC makes full use of the powerful and flexible GIMI chip in the Color 
Computer 3. It will fully utilize the 128K of RAM available and install 2 Ultra 
Fast Ramdisks if 512K is available, for program Creation, Editing and 
Compilation. You can easily access all 512K of memory in a Compiled program 
thru several extended memory commands that can access it in 32K or 8K blocks 
and single or double bytes. 

CBASIC has its own completely integrated Basic Program Editor which allows 
you to load, edit or create programs for the compiler. It is a full featured editor 
designed specifically for writing Basic programs. It has block move and copy, 
program renumbering, automatic line number generation, screen editing, printer 
control and much more. 

The documentation provided with CBASIC III is an 8 1/2 by 11 Spiral Bound 
book which contains approximatly 120 pages of real information. We went to 
great lengths to provide a manual that is not only easy to use and understand, but 
complete and comprehensive enough for even the most sophisticated user. 

CBASIC in is the most expensive Color Basic Compiler on the market, and 
well worth the investment. You can buy a less expensive compiler for your 
CoCo-3, and then find out how difficult it is to use, or how limited its features are. 
Then you'll wish you had bought CBASIC III in the first place. Dollar for dollar, 
CBASIC III gives you more than any other compiler available. If you can find a 
better CoCo-3 Basic Compiler then buy it!!! 

Requires 128K & Disk $149.00 

DATAPACK III PLUS V1.1 

SUPER SMART TERMINAL PROGRAM 

AUTOPILOT & AUTO-LOG PROCESSORS 
X-MODEM DIRECT DISK FILE TRANSFER 
VT-I00 & VT-52 TERMINAL EMULATION 

• No lost data even at 2400 Baud on the COCO-3 Serial I/O port. 

• 8 Display Formats, 32/40/64/80 columns at 192 or 225 Res. 

• SOKText Buffer when using the Hi-Res Text Display & Disk. 

• ASCII & BINARY disk file transfer support via XMODEM. 

• Directly record receive data to a disk file (Data Logging). 

• VT-100 terminal emulation for VAX, UNIX and other systems. 

" VT-100/52 cursor keys, position, insert /delete, PF & Alt. keys. 

• Programmable Word Length, Parity, Stop Bits and baud rates. 

• Complete Full and Half Duplex operation, with no garbled data. 

• 9 Variable length, ProgrammableMacro Key buffers. 

• Programmable Printer rates from 110 to 9600 baud. 

• Send Files directly from the Buffer, Macro Keys or Disk. 

• Display on Screen or Print the contents of the Buffer. 

• Freeze Display & Review information On Line with no data loss. 

• Built in Command Menu (Help) Display. 

" Built in 2 Drive Ramdisk for 512K RAM support and much more. 

Supports: R.S, Modem- Pak & Deluxe RS-232 Pak, even with Disk. 
Requires 128K & Disk, $59.95 

EDT/ASM III 

128/512K DISK EDITOR ASSEMBLER 

EDT/ASM III is a Disk based co-resident Text Editor & Assembler. It is 
designed to take advantage of the new features available in the CoCo-3 with either 
128K or 512K of memory. It has 8 display formats from 32/40/64/80 columns by 24 
lines in 192 or 225 Resolution, so you use the best display mode whether you are 
using an RGB or Composite monitor or even a TV for your display. Plus you can 
select any foreground or background colors or even monochrome display modes. 
It will even support 512K by adding an automatic 2 drive Ultra Fast Ramdisk for 
lightning fast assembly of program source code larger than memory. There is also 
a free standing ML Debug Monitor, to help you debug your assembled programs. 
EDT/ASM III has the most powerful, easy to use Text Editor available in any 
Editor/Assembler package for the Color Computer. 

• Supports Local and Global string search and/or replace. 

■ Full Screen line editing with immediate line update. 

• Easy to use Single keystroke editing commands. 

• Load & Save standard ASCII formatted file formats. 

• Block Move & Copy, Insert, Delete, Overtype. 

• Create and Edit files larger than memory. 

The Assembler portion of EDT/ASM III features include: 

• Supports the full 6809 instruction set & cross assembles 6800 code. 

• Supports Conditional IF/THEN/ELSE assembly. 

■ Supports Disk Library file (include) up to 9 levels deep. 
" Supports standard Motorola assembler directives. 

• Allows multiple values for FCB & FDB directives (unlike R.S. EDT/ASM) 

• Allows assembly from the Editor Buffer, Disk or both. 

Requires 128K & Disk $59.95 



TEXTPRO IV 

The ADVANCED COCO-3 Word Processing System" 

• 9 Hi-Res Displays from 58 to 212 columns by 24 lines in 225 Res. 

• On Screen Display of Bold, Italic, Underline & Double Width print. 

• Up to 8 Proportional Character Sets Supported with Justification. 

• Up to 80 Programmable Function Keys & Loadable Function key sets. 

• Fully Buffered keyboard accepts data even duiring disk access. 

• Autoexecute Startup files for easy printer & system configuration. 

• 8 Pre-Defined Printer function commands & 10 Programmable ones. 

• Supports Library files for unlimited prinling & configurations. 

• Disk file record access for Mail Merge & Boiler Plate printing. 

• Completely Automatic Justification, Centering. Flush left & right. 

• Change indents, margins, line length, etc. anytime in the text. 

• Create and Edit files larger than memory, up to a full disk. 

" Easily imbed any number of printer format and control codes. 

• Built in Ultra Fast 2 drive RAMDISK for 512K support. 

TEXTPRO IV is the most advanced word processing system available for the 
COCO-3, designed for speed, flexability and extensive document processing. It is 
not like most of the other word processing programs available for the Color 
Computer. If you are looking for a simple word processor to write letters or other 
short documents, and never expect to use multiple fonts or proportional spacing, 
then most likely you'll be better off with one of the other simpler word processors. 
But, if you want a powerful word processor with extensive document formatting 
features to handle large documents, term papers, manuals, complex formatting 
problems and letter writing, then TEXTPRO IV is what your looking for. It works 
in a totally different way than most word processing programs. It uses simple 2 
character abbreviations of words or phrases for commands and formatting 
information that you imbed directly in your text. There are over 70 different 
formatting commands you can use without ever leaving the text your working on. 
There are no time comsuming, and often frustrating menu chases, you are in total 
control at all times. You can see what the formatted document will look like 
before a single word is ever printed on your printer. Including margins, headers, 
footers, page numbers, page breaks, column formatting, justification, and Bold, 
Italic, Underline, Double Width, Superscript and Subscript characters right on the 
screen. 

TEXTPRO IV can even support LASER PRINTERS with proportional fonts. 
take a good look at this AD? It was done with TEXTPRO IV on an OKIDATA 
LASERLINE-6 laser printer!!! All the character sets used on this AD are 
proportional spaced characters, all centering, justification, and text printing was 
performed automatically by TEXTPRO IV. 

Requires 128K & Disk $89.95 

HI-RES III Screen Commander 

The DISPLAY you wanted but didn't get on your CoCo-3 

• 54 Different Character Sizes available from 14 to 212 cpl. 

• Bold, Italic, Underline, Subscript, Superscript and Plain character styles. 

• Double Width, Double Height and Quad width characters. 

• Scroll Protect form 1 to 23 lines on the screen. 

• Mixed Text & Graphics in HSCREEN 3 mode. 

• PRINT @ is available in all character sizes & styles. 

• Programmable Automatic Key repeat for fast editing. 

• Full Control Code Keyboard supported. 

• Selectable Character & Background color. 

• Uses only 4K of Extended (2nd 64K) or Basic RAM, 

• Written in Ultra Fast Machine Language. 

HI-RES III will improve the standard display capabilities of the Color 
Computers, even the 40 and 80 column displays have several features missing. 
For example, you can't use PRINT @ or have different character sizes on the same 
screen, even when mixing text and graphics with the HPRINT command. Hi-RES 
III can give you the kind of display you always dreamed about having on your 
CoCo-3, with a wide variety of display options that you can easily use with your 
Basic or ML programs. 

HI-RES III is totally compatible with Enhanced Color Basic and its operation 
is invisible to Basic. It simply replaces the normal screen display with an 
extremely versatile display package. With the full control code keyboard, you can 
control many of HI-RES III extended functions with just a couple of simple 
keystrokes. 

Requires 128K Tape or Disk $34.95 

512K RAMDISK & MEMORY TESTER 

RAMDISK is an ALL Machine Language program that will give you 2 ULTRA 
High Speed Ram Disks in you CoCo-3. It does not need or require the OS-9 
operating system. It works with R.S. DOS Vl'.O or VI. 1 and it is completely 
compatible with Enhanced Color Disk Basic! Plus it allows your CoCo-3 to run at 
double speed all the time even for floppy disk access!!! It will not disappear when 
you press reset like some other ramdisk programs. The MEMORY tester is a fast 
ML program to test the 512K ram. It performs several bit tests as well as an 
address test so you know that your 512K of memory is working perfectly. 

Requires 512K & Disk $19.95 

The SOURCE ill" 

DISASSEMBLER & SOURCE CODE GENERATOR 

The SOURCE III will allow you to easily Disassemble Color Computer 
machine language programs Directly from Disk and generate beautiful, Assembler 
compatible Source code. 

■ Automatic label generation and allows specifying FCB, FDB and FCC areas. 

• Disassemble programs Directly from disk, unlike other disassemblers. 

• Automatically locates Begin, End and Execution address. 

" Output Disassembled listing with labels to the Printer, Screen or both, 
" Generates Assembler source files directly to disk or printer. 

• Built in Hex/Ascii dump/display to locate FCB, FCC & FDB areas. 

• 8 Selectable Display formats 32/40/64/80 columns in 192 or 225 Res. 

• Selectable Foreground & Background colors & Printer Baud rates. 

• Built in Disk Directory an Kill file commands. 

• Menu display with single key commands for smooth, Easy operation. 

• Written in Ultra Fast Machine Language. 

Requires 128K & Disk $49.95 

To order products by mail, send check or money order for the amount of 

purchase, plus $3.00 for shipping & handling to the address below. 
To Order by VISA, MASTERCARD or COD call us at (702) 452-0632 
(Monday thru Saturday, 8am to 5pm PST) 

CER-COMP LTD. 

5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 
(702) 452-0632 




n 




w 



Ms s ter 11 





lelete Key 
Display Keys 

Save Keys 
Load Keys 



ojrai Keys Used = 



BUTTON 
OPEN 255,7 



Window Master Features 



0NHENU1 B AS 

CONFIG B AS 

CHECK B AS 

AUTOEXEC B AS 

CONFIG SYS 



DRIVE 1 

6 B 2 

6 B 2 

9 B 1 

0 B 1 

1 A 1 



DRIVE 3 



Uindov Hasten 
Finder V1.0 

Unit ten by Bill Veryona 
Copyright CcJ 1SS3 by C&r-Comp Ltd 



Screen Display Fonts 



Window Master supports up to 54 different character sizes on 
the screen with 5 different character styles. You can have Bold, 
Italic, Underlined, Super-Script, Sub-script or Plain character 
styles or any combination of them in any character size. You 
can also change the text color and background at any time to get 
really colorful displays. 

Fully Basic Compatible 

Window Master is fully compatible with Enhanced Color 
Disk basic with over 50 Commands & functions added to fully 
support the Point & Click Window System. Window Master 
does not take any memory away from Basic, so you still have all 
the Basic Program memory available. 

Hi-Resolution Displays 

Window Master uses the full potential of the Color 
Computer 3 display by using the 225 vertical resolution display 
modes instead of the 192 or 200 resolution modes like most 
other programs. It uses either the 320/16 color mode or the 
640/4 color display to give you the best display resolution 
possible, and can be switched to either mode at any time. 

Mixed Text & Graphics 

Window Master fully supports both Text & Graphics displays 
and even has a Graphics Pen that can be used with HLINE, 
HCIRCLE, HSET and more. You can change the Pen width & 
depth and turn it on or off with simple commands. We also 
added Enhanced Graphics Attributes that allow graphics 
statements to use And, Or, Xor and Copy modes to display 
graphic information. With the Graphics enhancements added 
by Window Master, you could write a "COCOMAX" type 
program in Basic! In fact we provide a small graphics demo 
program written in Basic. 

Event Processing 

Window Master adds a powerful new programming feature to 
Basic that enables you to do "Real Time" Programming in Basic. 
It's called Event Trapping, and it allows a program to detect and 
respond to certain "events" as they occur. You can trap Dialog 
activity, Time passage, Menu Selections, Keyboard activity and 
Mouse Activity with simple On Gosub statements, and when the 
specified event occurs, program control is automatically routed 
to the event handling routine, just like a Basic Gosub. After 
servicing the event, the sub-routine executes a Return statement 
and the program resumes execution at the statement where the 
event occured. 

Enhanced Editing Features 

Window Master adds an enhanced editor to Basic that allows 
you to see what you edit. It allows you to insert & delete by 
character or word, move left or right a word or character at a 
time, move to begin or end of line, toggle automatic insert 
on/off or just type over to replace characters. The editor can 
also recall the last line entered or edited with a single key stroke. 
You can even change the line number in line to copy it to a new 
location in the program. 



Multiple Windows 



Window Master supports multiple window displays with up to 
a maximum of 31 windows on the screen. Overlapping windows 
are supported, and any window can be made active or brought to 
the top of the screen. Windows can be picked up and moved 
anywhere on the screen with the mouse. TTiere are 6 different 
Window styles to choose from and the window text, border and 
background color is selectable. 



Pull Down Menus 



Menus are completely programmable with up to 16 menus 
available. They can be added or deleted at any time in a 
program. Menu items can be enabled, disabled, checked or 
cleared easily under program control. Menu selection is 
automatically handled by Window Master & all you have to do 
is read a function variable to find out which menu was selected. 

Buttons, Icons & Edit Fields 

Each Window can have up to 128 buttons, Icons or Edit fields 
active, if you can fit that many. Buttons, Icons and Edit field 
selection is handled automatically by Window Master when the 
mouse is clicked on one. All you have to do is read a Dialog 
function to find out which Button, Icon, or Edit field was 
selected, its very simple. 

Mouse & Keyboard Functions 

Window Master automatically handles the Mouse pointer 
movement, display and button clicks. It will tell you the current 
screen coordinate, the local window coordinate, window number 
the mouse is in, the number of times the button was pressed, 
which window number it was clicked in and more. The 
Keyboard is completely buffered, and supports up to 80 
programmable Function keys that can contain any kind of 
information or command sequences you can imagine. You can 
load and save function key sets at any time. So, you can have 
special sets of function keys for different tasks. The "Ctrl" key is 
supported so that you have a full control code keyboard 
available. 

Window Master Applications 

Window Master pushs the Color Computer 3 far beyond its 
normal capabilities, into the world of a "User Friendly" 
operating enviornment. We are already planning several new 
programs for use with Window Master. So you don't have to 
worry about having to write all your own programs. And don't 
forget that many existing Basic and M.L. programs will run 
under Window Master with little or no changes. The 
Possibilities for Application programs are endless: Spread 
Sheets, Word Processing, Communications, Education, Games, 
Graphic Design, DeskTop Publishing and on and on. 

Hardware Requirements 

Window Master requires 512K of memory, at least 1 Disk 
Drive, a Hi-Res Joystick Interface and a Mouse or Joystick. 

Technical Assistance 

If you run into difficulty trying to use some of Window 
Master's features, we will be happy to assist you in any way 
possible. You can write to us at the address below or call us 
between 10am and 2pm Pacific Standard Time for a more timely 
response. Sorry, no collect calls will be accepted. 

Ordering Information 

To order WINDOW MASTER by mail, send check or money 

order for $69.95, plus $3.00 for shippi ng & handling to the 
address below. To order by VISA, MASTERCARD or COD 

call us at (702)^52-0632 
(Monday thru Saturday, 8am to 5pm PST) 

CER-COMP Ltd. 

5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 
(702)-452-0632 




About 
Your 
Subscription 

Your copy of the rainbow is 
sent second class mail. You 
must notify us of a new address 
when you move. Notification 
should reach us no later than 
the 15th of the month prior to 
the month in which you change 
your address. Sorry, we cannot 
be responsible for sending 
another copy when you fail to 
notify us. 

Your mailing label also 
shows an account number and 
the subscription expiration 
date. Please indicate this ac- 
count number when renewing 
or corresponding with us. It 
will help us help you better and 
faster. 

For Canadian and othernon- 
U.S. subscribers, there may be 
a mailing address shown that is 
different from our editorial of- 
fice address. Do not send any 
correspondence to that mail- 
ing address. Send it to our edi- 
torial offices at Falsoft, Inc., 
The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. This 
applies to everyone except 
those whose subscriptions are 
through our distributor in Aus- 
tralia. 




144 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



them to a disk file and reload them later. 
Much of the increased speed came from 
the BAS1C09 GET and PUT statements. 
With the GET and PUT statements, no 
data conversion was needed. An exact 
copy of the bytes in your structure is 
written to the screen. 

What Is a Line? 

To show you how we can apply the 
techniques used in the mailing list to a 
drawing program, we must define and 
draw a line. To draw an object that 
looks and acts like a line, we need a tool 
— a pen perhaps. For now, we'll assume 
the line starts where the pen is resting 
and runs to another location on the 
screen defined by horizontal and verti- 
cal pixel address. The first thing we need 
is a data-type definition for our line. 

Since we will also want to draw bars, 
boxes and circles, etc., let's keep our 
definition generic. We will define a data- 
type-named object in the following 
manner: 



TYPE object = DCode, HorP., VerP: 
INTEGER 



Then, we will reserve a place in 
memory to store it with a DI M statement 
and name our new variable pen. 



DIM penrobject 



We now have a place to store the pen 
we could use to draw a line. To use it, 
we must define our line and initialize it 
in memory. Within OS-9, all drawing 
primitives are defined by the escape 
code, $1B, followed by an additional 
byte. To put a line on the screen, send 
$1B followed by $44. That means 
S1B44, followed by a coordinate pair, 
is a line: 

pen.DCode:=$lB44 

pen.HorP:= : 100 

pen.VerP:=50 

We now have a line stored in Memory 
Variable pen that is waiting to happen. 
To make it happen, we must PUT it on 
the screen: 

PUT ttl, pen 

Since we will want to redraw that line 
later, we need to save a starting loca- 



tion. We will name a new data type 
□ rgin to complete the mission. We will 
name our variable handle. 

TYPE orgin=DPSCode,HanX,HanY: 
INTEGER 

DIM Handlerorgin 

The data field named DPSCode holds 
the OS-9 code required to position the 
data pointer on your screen, S1B40. The 
fields, HanX and HanY, store the starting 
location of our line. After we have 
reserved a place in memory, we can 
store the starting point for our new line: 

Hand 1 e . DPSCode : =$1B40 
Handle_HanX:=0 
Handle. HanY:=0 

We can then draw our line with two 
lines of code: 

PUT ttl, handle 
PUT ttl, pen 

Since that is too complicated, we can 
design a new data type to hold the 
starting location, the pen and the end 
point of our line. Since the two lines 
above will draw a line on the screen, 
when we run them, Drawing seems like 
a natural name for our new data type: 

TYPE Drawing=Loc : orgin ; tool: 
□bj ect 

We will name the field containing the 
starting point Loc (short for location) 
because that what it contains. Likewise, 
we will call the field that holds our pen 
tool. Think of it this way: a pen in 
motion (at least in the right hands) is a 
tool. After we have defined the objects 
we will draw, we need a place to store 
our artwork. We will call our work 
Picture (although it is really an array 
of drawings). This statement reserves 
1,200 bytes of memory for a picture 
made up of up to 100 individual objects: 

DIM Picture(100) :Drawing 

Now, here's the magic. To draw your 
picture, all you need to type is the 
following: 

PUT ttl, Picture 

What youVe read here only scratches 
the surface of BASIC09. It is easy to use 
and fast. I hope you'll join us. /55\ 




Hamming It Up 



By William Barden, Jr. 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Lots of CoCo nuts and computer hobbyists also enjoy 
a hobby called amateur (or "ham") radio. If you picture 
a trucker tooling down Interstate 20 with cab-mounted 
twin antennas flying, you're on the wrong track. Ham radio 
is not that. Ham radio is also not represented by those 
interference bars on your television, or the mysterious voice 
that occasionally comes out of your stereo talking about 200 
watts into a tri-band beam. And, although my cynical spouse 
might disagree, ham radio is not characterized by overweight 
individuals who wear "handie-talkies" on their belts and step 
on their too-long pants cuffs as they smoke Camel cigarettes 
and eat pastrami sandwiches. 

The New Amateur Radio 

In the past, ham radio may have been characterized by 
some of these things. However, that trucker was operating 
a CB radio, the stereo interference was probably the fault of 
the electronics manufacturer, and there are thin, well-dressed 
yuppie hams. There has been a resurgence of interest in ham 
radio, and here are some of the fascinating things ham radio 
lets you do today: 

• Packet radio communications allow communication with 
other hams over hundreds of miles using a computer 
keyboard and screen. 

• Store and forward messages sent around the world by 
amateur satellites. 

• Slow-scan television enables you to send facsimile pictures 
anywhere in the world. 



Bill Barden has written 27 books and over 100 magazine 
articles on various computer topics. His 20 years' experience 
in the industry covers a wide background: programming, 
systems analysis and managing projects for computers 
ranging from mainframes to micros. 



• Fast-scan local television enables you to transmit standard 
television pictures, even color, over dozens of miles. 

• Bulletin Board Systems nationwide can be accessed just as 
easily as Delphi and CompuServe, but without charges. 

• Autopatch capability allows you to use telephones lines 
from your car without a cellular telephone. 

• Radio teletype communication with other hams, nationwide 
or worldwide. 

• Computer decoding and transmission of Morse code and 
radio teletype transmissions. 

• Reception and display of NOAA and foreign weather 
service satellite pictures displaying many parts of the earth 
from space. 

• Reception of voice and live television from shuttle flights 
— un-edited by the networks. 

In addition to these new activities, there are still the 
mundane activities that have been around for years — 
bouncing signals off the moon for communication, using 
meteor trails for communication with "line-of-sight" 
equipment, reliable voice communication around the world, 
contests, rag-chewing and local clubs. 

The nice thing about ham radio these days is that 
computers are becoming integrated into the hobby. Whereas 
in the old days hardware experts ruled the clubs, today you're 
likely to find a programmer giving a club presentation on a 
new packet radio protocol. The CoCo is right in there, being 
used for a variety of purposes. It's a friendly companion for 
ham radio because it generates little interference. 

The Equipment Youll Need 

Since you already have the computer, you're about half- 
way there with amateur radio hardware. Of course, you don't 
really need a computer to do basic voice communication with 
other hams, but I'm assuming that you'll want to be involved 
in some of the activities that I already mentioned — most 



January 1989 THE RAINBOW 145 



N 

o 

c i* 

D -.. 0 

F S 
G --• T 
H .... V 

I .. v 
J w 

K -.- X 

l ... y 

M -- Z 



I I I I 1 1 " f 



1 .-— period 

2 commti 

h T ... . 

4 error 

-*h" wait (AS) 

7 ■*> ■ » end msj; .-.-*{ A H ) 

8 — transmit - + - (K) 

9 — , sign off (SK) 
0 - — 



Tsible hilt nictfiuiiul Morse Code 



of which do require a computer. Here's a thumbnail sketch 
of what you'll require in addition to your CoCo system: 

• A radio transceiver for the high-frequency amateur bands. 
Known as a "rig," this device is not only a short-wave radio 
receiver, it also contains a transmitter (hence, transceiver). 
Transceivers are high-quality radios that receive Morse code 
and voice. Typical cost for older equipment is $300 to $1000. 
Typical cost for new equipment is $500 to $2000. With this 
rig, you can operate world-wide. Forget the transceiver if 
your interests are only in local (50-mile radius) communica- 
tions — see the next item. 

• A radio transceiver for very-high and ultra-high frequency 
amateur bands. This device is similar to the high-frequency 
rig, but is typically lower power (five to ten watts versus 
hundreds of watts for the hf rig), smaller (half the size of a 
small book), and easier to use. Since these devices can be held 
in your hand, they are known as handie-talkies or hts. With 
this rig, you can communicate locally, using voice, packet 
radio or other modes. Typical cost for new equipment is $200 
to $800. 

• An antenna. For high-frequency rigs, the antenna must be 
physically large — typically 70 feet of a single wire strung 
between your house and a tree, a vertical pole (like a flagpole), 
or a beam (like a large television antenna with fewer 
elements). Typical costs — $10 to hundreds of dollars. For 
VHF and UHF handie-talkies, you'll have a built-in whip 
antenna, although you might want to add a small outside 
antenna for $20 or so. 

That's all you need for the basic amateur station. However, 
for other activities you may want to get the following: 

• A packet radio. This is a device like a computer, but without 
a keyboard, that sends bursts of text data. It's most often used 
on the VHF and UHF frequencies. Your computer is used 
primarily as a "dumb terminal" to receive and transmit the 
text. It will cost about $200 to $400 new. 

• Radio teletype and code equipment. This equipment 
interfaces to your computer so that you can send and receive 
radio teletype. You can send and receive Morse code without 
this equipment, but it's necessary for radio teletype work. 
Software is included with the equipment. The package costs 
about $80 to $200. 

• Special antennas for satellite communication. If you're 
interested in this phase of amateur radio, you'll need to have 
a special purpose antenna. More elaborate systems even track 
the satellite automatically. The prices range from $20 to $300. 

• Slow-scan television equipment. Not as costly as you might 
think — your computer can be utilized to display the pictures, 
and about the only thing that's needed is an interface between 
the transceiver and computer. The cost is about $50 to $200. 

• Fast-scan television equipment. Although television 
cameras will cost about $200 to $1000, the remaining 
equipment is not that expensive — about $200 to $400. The 
additional equipment converts the camera output into a 
miniature television station. 

• Other special-purpose equipment — from $.99 to $50,000. 

A hint about equipment: Many hams buy off-the-shelf 
equipment; other hams make their own. There are many 
magazines devoted to ham radio that offer equipment 
designs, even to the extent of providing kits of parts. It's 
possible to build a fully functioning ham station with receiver 
and transmitter that can use Morse Code to communicate 
world-wide — all for under $100! 



And Now the Catch . . . 

Ah, government red tape. The radio spectrum, like other 
resources, is finite. There's intense competition among the 
broadcast industry, commercial radio services, radio 
equipment manufacturers, the cellular phone industry and 
others to carve up that spectrum into usable parts. Because 
of this, amateur radio is allocated ham bands. To operate in 
these ham bands, you'll need an amateur radio license. And 
to get that license, you must pass a test to prove that you 
know how to use the ham bands responsibly. 

A little history: For years hams were policed by the Federal 
Communications Commission for purity of signals, proper 
operating procedures, and proper language. (While you could 
say,"Frankly, Scarlett, I don't give a darn," the movie version 
would not be permitted.) When the CB band was established 
for the general public, policing was discarded and chaos 
ensued — foul language, illegal power limits, interference to 
other stations, and the like. Because of this debacle (and FCC 
budgets), amateur radio today is less stringently policed, and 
qualifying tests are easier. You can learn enough in a weekend 
to get a Novice license — the lowest level of amateur radio 
license. All of the 1 10 possible questions for this 30-question, 
multiple choice test are published. In fact, though it's not the 
right way to do it, many aspiring hams memorize the correct 
answers to the pool of all 1 10 questions. 



146 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



And Now for Another Catch . . . 

The FCC recently extended Novice privileges so that voice 
is permitted on some high-frequency bands (previously only 
code was allowed on these bands). Therefore, with a weekend 
of work, you can have your Novice license and be ready to 
operate world-wide or locally. However, there's a catch. 

When amateur radio was first initiated, the FCC required 
the knowledge of Morse code. In those days, Morse code 
communication was used extensively and was the most 
reliable form of communication when faced with static and 
noise. Also, the FCC thought a pool of code-trained 
operators would be a boon during war time, and indeed, that 
turned out to be the case during World Wars I and II and 
the Korean War. 

Today, Morse code is still widely used on ham bands. Using 
code under the right conditions, it's possible to contact other 
hams anywhere in the world with as little as five watts of 
power. However, while more sophisticated equipment 
probably eliminates the need for a pool of highly-trained 
Morse code operators, the Morse code requirement remains 
a part of the licensing test. Not only does an aspiring Novice 
have to pass the written test, he or she must receive code at 
five words per minute. The next level, General class, of license 
requires reception of code at 13 words per minute. The 
highest amateur radio license, Amateur Extra Class, requires 
reception of plain text code at 20 words per minute. 

Believe it or not, it is possible to learn to decipher Morse 
code in a weekend — well enough to pass the Novice test, 
anyway. The rest of this column offers you a program that 
teaches Morse code. 



The Parameters of Morse Code 

The International Morse code used on ham bands and 
given in the tests is a modification of the original code used 
by Samuel Morse of telegraph fame. As you're aware from 
watching the Late Movie, telegraph code is a series of clicks. 
Ham-band Morse, though, consists of a series of long and 
short tones. While a short tone is called a dot, a longer tone 
is called a dash. The basic dot length is the standard unit used 
for timing. A dash is three times the length of a dot. The 
spacing between a dot and dash is one dot length. The spacing 
between individual characters is one dash length, or three 
dots. The spacing between words or groups is seven dots. 

The code for alphabetic characters, digits and commonly 
used punctuation is given in Table I. 

Note that all alphabetic characters are uppercase only. 
There are many more special characters, but these will handle 
almost all text received and will suffice for the FCC code tests. 
The code test is a multiple choice test about the text received 
(i.e., the amateur's name, location, etc.). A typical text might 
look like the this: 

WD6CTY DE K9BCA — HELLO, JOHN. NAME HERE 
IS FRANK. 

WE ARE LOCATED IN INDIANAPOLIS. RUNNING 
100 WATTS 

WITH AN END FED ZEPP. THE WEATHER HERE 
IS RAINY. 

BACK TO YOU, JOHN. AR WD6CTY DE K9BCA. K 
A typical sentence (such as The quick brown fox jumped 



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January 1 989 THE RAINBOW 1 47 



over the lazy dog's back,) would be encoded with the spacing 
shown in Figure I. 

Note that the Morse code is a very efficient code. The most 
commonly used characters are the shortest. For example, the 
letter E is the most commonly used letter in the English 
language, and it is only one dot in length. The infrequent Z 
is allocated 1 1 dot lengths. 

The following equation explains the relationship between 
the number of words per minute (WPM) and the number of 
dots per minute: 

speed (WPM) = dots per minute / 25 = 2.4 x dots per second 

In Figure 1, for example, the total time to complete all 
characters — not counting the period — is 232 dot times 
(assuming each dot is a dot and space) and there are 10 words. 
If this text is sent at five words per minute, then a minute's 
worth of text is 232 divided by 2 (1 16) dot times. If we divide 
1 16 dot times by 25, we get 4.6 words per minute — fairly 
close to the formula. 

In fact, if text is sent at a slow speed, such as five words 
per minute, it's difficult to keep these proportions — the dot 
and dash sound much too long. (A dot is about one-half 
second at this speed.) Therefore, code transmission at this 
speed is often adjusted for a quicker dot and dash, while 
keeping the total number of characters per second the same 
(i.e., there are longer spaces between characters). This works 
to the benefit of new code students, as they have a longer 
time to search their memories for the character. 

A Morse Code Program 

A program to send code groups is easy to implement in 
BASIC. (See Listing 1). The SOUND statement outputs a sound 
for a duration equal to multiples of about one-sixteenth 
second. Since a dot would require ] /\6+ 1 / 16 or l /%th second, 
the top code speed in BASIC is about 2.4 x 8, or 19.2 words 





dot I I ** 1 unit 




dash j | «- 3 units 


T 


h ; . " : q . U r ' , I 

- 3 3 5 ! 3 k ~rr* : .^ 3 3 


c 


K B v; R 0 
. 3 • 5 — 3 Sfj 3 


w 


3 5 3 Y 3 5 


J 


U _ M . P * E w D , ., „ 
3. - t - ■ . 3 3 — 3 — 3,- • — 5 


o 


1 ^ « E R w T H E 
- 3 «■* - — fe- 3 — 3 — — — — 5 3 — — — — 3—5 


L 


• 1 - 1 3 z 3 -X . 5 3 


0 


• 3 3 S 5 ^ — 3 — — r 3 C 3 


K 

. , - 


(PERIOD) 

Figure 1: Spacing for Typical Morse Code Text 



per minute. However, with the overhead of a larger program, 
the effective code speed drops to about 15 words per minute. 
This is enough to get by even the amateur General class code 
test. (CoCo 3 users can use the clock speed up to get about 
70 percent faster code, but I haven't calibrated this .) 

Characters can be encoded in the BASIC program as strings 
of dots and dashes. To make the access time equal for all 
characters, these strings are put into an array called CHS. (See 
lines 330 to 470 in the listing.) 

The first string group represents alphabetic characters. The 
second group of strings represents the numeric digits. A third 
group of characters are the special characters shown in Table 
1. The special characters can be accessed from the keyboard 
as follows: 

Key Character Meaning 

normal period 
, , normal comma 

? ? normal question mark 

normal dash 

! error character — disregard last 

character sent 

AS — wait 
# AR — end message 

$ SK — signing off 

space space normal space 

The CH$ array has a one-to-one correspondence with the 
ASCII characters. For those ASCII characters that do not 
have a representation in Morse code, a null (empty string) 
is stored. The output character subroutines are found in lines 
710 to 820 in the listing. The output character subroutine is 
entered with the ASCII character in R$. This character is 
converted to an index value by RSC(fl$) and then used to 
access the CH$ table, which holds the string of dots and 
dashes. If a null string is found, there is no equivalent dot/ 



1 48 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



dash string, and nothing is done. If the string is the 
character is a blank, and a five-dot pause is performed. If 
a valid string is found, the string is output by using SOUND 
statements. The SOUND command is used to generate either 
a dot or a dash at a specified frequency value. The Frequency 
Value F does not affect the duration of the sound. A one- 
dot pause is performed after each dot or dash, and a three- 
dot pause is done after each complete character. 

Because there is some overhead in the BASIC program, 
which affects the timing, individual values are used for the 
one-dot pause, three-dot pause, five-dot pause, dot-sound 
duration, and dash-sound duration. These values are 
initialized based upon the code speed required. Arrays Dl, 
D3, D5, SI and S3 hold 12 values, corresponding to code 
speeds of three to 15 words per minute. Variables LI, L3, L5, 
Tl and T3 are set to proper values from the arrays through 
the use of the code speed as an index value. 

Using the Morse Code Program 

Morse Code Trainer is easy to use. Running the program 
clears the screen and prints a title message. The program then 
asks for the SOUND frequency value. Pick a value that sounds 
comfortable to you. If you pick none, a default value of 97 
is used. Following is an example of the title screen and the 
possible responses: 

Morse Code Trainer 
Frequency: 90 
Speed in WPM (3 -15): 15 
Random Groups (R) or Text (T): 



The program next asks for the code speed to be used. Code 
speeds of three to 15 words per minute may be entered. Next, 
the program asks for the type of code to be sent. If you select 
T, for text, the program will ask for the text to be set. Enter 
any string of characters up to 255 characters: 

Text:?THE QUICK BROUN FOX JUMPED OVER THE LAZY DOG'S 
BACK. 

The program will send the text and display the dots and 
dashes used as it does so: 

Text:? THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPED OVER THE LfiZY DOG'S 
BfiCK. 



The prompt for random groups or text will then be 
repeated. If you choose the random groups option, random 
characters from all permissible characters will be sent, in 
eight-letter groups. The characters will display on the screen 
as they are -being sent, so you can verify them after receiving 
a page or so of text. These characters will include the special 
characters such as Error and End Message, which will display 
as the characters !, ", #, $, and %. Thus, if you press R when 
prompted to choose between random groups and text, your 
computer will generate a series of letters and numbers similar 
to the following: 

4X5I76E9 . GE JOBti - 9DZBK0LFI B1WCR7P4 MYE-S3XP 
JUEG.GFU WYG!,Z!, OL0TIZM3 






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January 1 989 THE RAINBOW 1 49 



More on How to Become a Ham 

The program should help you overcome that five-word- 
per-minute FCC code test. Together with some intensive 
study of the test questions, you could pass your Novice-class 
license in a matter of days. As a matter of fact, I'm so bullish 
about amateur radio and computers that I'd be willing to 
help. As a holder of an Amateur Extra license (AA6CM), 
another examiner and I can administer the test. If you live 
in the Los Angeles/ Orange/ Riverside county area in 
Southern California, drop me a line at P.O. Box 3568, 
Mission Viejo, CA 92692. Ill be happy to help. 

There are a number of publications devoted to Amateur 
Radio that will also be of interest. The unofficial organization 
for hams is the American Radio Relay League (ARRL), 
Newington, CT 061 11. Contact it for general information. 
Magazines that might be of interest include the following: 



CQ 



73 Magazine 



Available from CQ Publishing 
Company, a monthly publica- 
tion — available at many news- 
stands. 

Available from WGE Publish- 
ing, a monthly publication — 
available at many newsstands 



QST, ARRL 



Monthly publication — availa- 
ble by subscription or in librar- 



Books and courses of interest include the following: 

Shortwave Listening Guide, William Barden, Jr., Radio 
Shack, Cat. No. 62-1332 — Contains several sections on 
amateur radio. Packet Radio: Digital Communications with 
Amateur Radio, Radio Shack, Cat. No. 62-1084 — Discusses 
new radio technology. Novice Voice Class FCC License 
Preparation, Radio Shack, Cat. No. 62-2402 — manual and 
code cassette tapes. Technician Class Amateur Radio 
Manual, Radio Shack, Cat.No. 62-2403 — Manual for 
Technician class license. General Class FCC License 
Preparation, Radio Shack, Cat. No. 62-2404 — Manual and 
code cassette tapes. 



les. 



See you next month with more CoCo topics. 



□ 



LI 
Tl 



) 



= fix 
= fix 



L3 
T3 



= f 
= % 



The listing: MORSE 

Ififi 1 MORSE CODE TRAINER. 
llfi • SENDS MORSE CODE AT RATES 
OF 3 TO 15 WORDS PER MINUTE. 
120 1 COPYRIGHT 1988 WILLIAM BAR 
DEN, JR. 
130 1 

14J3 K - fix L =? fix 
: L5 = fix L7 = fix 
150 DIM CH$( 127 
160 DIM Dl( 15 ) , 
15 ) 

170 DIM Sl( 15 ) , 
180 1 SET SPEED PARAMETERS 
190 FOR I = 3 TO 15: READ Dl ( 
), D3( I ), D5( I ), Sl( I ), 
( I ) : NEXT 

870, 
538, 
366, 
300, 



D3( 15 ) , D5( 
S3( 15 ) 



DATA 70, 168, 270, 2, 6 
DATA 66, 156, 250, 2, 5 
DATA 63, 144, 228, 2, 5 
DATA 40, 92, 144, 2, 5 
DATA 53, 118, 182, 1, 4 
DATA 48, 106, 158, 1, 4 
DATA 44, 93, 136, 1, 4 
DATA 40, 80, 112, 1, 3 
1 CLEAR CHARACTER ARRAY 
FOR I = 0 TO 127: CH$( I ) = 
NEXT 

1 READ IN ALLOWABLE CHARACTE 



_ ii it it 



ii _ ii 



ii.. ii ii ti 
■ , • • . • 



I 

S3 



370 DATA 11 . ", ». 



_ ii 



ii— —ii ii. ii 
/ • / 



ii— ——ii ii — — it 
/ • • 



380 DATA " — » 



200 DATA 290, 
210 DATA 181, 
220 DATA 12 6, 
230 DATA 110, 



1450, 3, 9 
891, 3, 8 



_n ti _ ii ii 



ii ii 



ti _ _ ii 



390 DATA "-. — ", " — . 



612 



460, 



3, 
2, 



8 
7 



240 DATA 80, 214, 338, 2, 7 



400 DATA " 
_n ii > __ 

410 DATA " 



PREMIUM COC03 51 2K UPGRADE 



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OR call (301) 987-906 7-Jesse or (301) 788-0861 -Ray 



fl II II ll 

/ • / • • 

_ II II II II .11 

/ • • • / •••• 

II II _ II M __ 

• *•«/ • • • • i 

t II f II " 

420 FOR I = 65 TO 90: READ CH$ ( 
I ) : NEXT 
•A-Z 

430 FOR I = 48 TO 57: READ CH$ ( 
I ) : NEXT 
•0-9 

440 1 ADD SPECIAL CHARACTERS 

450 CH$( 46 ) = ".-.-.-": CH$( 4 

4 ) = " — ..--'•: CH$( 63 ) = 
_ ii 

460 CH$( 45 ) = -": CH$( 3 

3 ) = " ": CH$( 34 ) = ". 



• t 



II 



470 CH$( 35 ) m C H$ ( 36 



150 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



II 



CH$( 32 ) = » » 



OR 



) = 
480 CLS 

490 PRINT "MORSE CODE TRAINER" 

500 PRINT: PRINT 

510 INPUT "FREQUENCY:"; F 

520 IF F = 0 THEN F = 97 

530 INPUT "SPEED IN WPM (3 - 15) 

540 IF S < 3 OR S > 15 THEN GOTO 
530 

550 LI = Dl( S ): L3 = D3 ( S ): 
L5 = D5( S ) : L7 = L5 * 1.4 
560 Tl = Sl( S ) : T3 = S3 ( S ) 
570 INPUT "RANDOM GROUPS (R) 
TEXT (T) : "; RT$ 
580 ■ TEXT HERE 
590 IF RT$ <> "R" AND RT$ <> 

THEN GOTO 570 
600 IF RT$ = "R" THEN GOTO 650 
610 IF RT$ = "T" THEN INPUT "TEX 
T: " ; TX$ 

620 FOR 1= 1 TO LEN ( TX$ ) : A$ = 
MID$( TX$, I, 1 ): GOSUB 720: N 
EXT 

630 PRINT 
640 GOTO 570 

650 1 RANDOM GROUPS HERE 
660 CT m -1 

670 CT = CT + 1: IF ( ( CT AND & 



it ii 



PRINT 



lirpM 



_ II II 



H7 ) = 0 ) THEN A$ = 
» 11 ; : GOSUB 720 

680 A = RND ( 127 ): IF CH$ ( A ) 
THEN GOTO 680 
IF A = 32 THEN GOTO 680 
A$ - CHR$( A): PRINT A$;: GO 
720: GOTO 670 

1 OUTPUT CHARACTER SUBROUTIN 



690 
700 
SUB 
710 
E 

720 



n ii 



A$ = CH$( ASC( A$ ) ) : IF A$ 
»" THEN GOTO 760 ELSE IF A$ = 
THEN GOSUB 820: G 

OTO 760 

730 IF RT$ = "T" THEN PRINT A$ + 
ii ii • 



740 FOR L = 1 
ID$( A$, L, 1 
F, Tl: GOSUB 
SE SOUND F, T3: 
750 GOSUB 800 
760 RETURN 
770 
780 
N 



TO 
) 



LEN ( A$ ) : IF M 
= "." THEN SOUND 
780: NEXT EL 
GOSUB 780: NEXT 



790 
800 
810 
820 
N 



PAUSES ONE DOT WORTH 
FOR K = 0 TO LI: NEXT: RETUR 



1 PAUSES THREE DOTS WORTH 
FOR K= 0 TO L3: NEXT: RETURN 
1 PAUSES FIVE DOTS WORTH 
FOR K = 0 TO L5: NEXT: RETUR 



Armchair Admiral 

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I gives the word, give 'em a Broadside!" 
!As (Blac&eard's flotilla doses upon 
its prey, a lookout suddenly cries, 
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$2 S&H. WA residents please add 7.6% sales tax. 



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Arlington, Wa 98223-3354 
(206) 653-5263 
10 am to 6 pm PST 




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welcome. 
GEnie mailbox: EVERSOFT 





< 

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"MORE USEABLE FEATURES" 

FEBRUARY 1985 "RAINBOW" 

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commands and then some. VIP Calc displays 32, 51, 64 or 85 
characters by 21 or 24 lines right on the screen. VIP Calc allows up 
to a 33K worksheet with up to 512 columns by 1024 rows! In 
addition, VIP calc has multiple windows which allow you to 
compare and contrast results of changes. Other features include 
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functions • column and row ascending or descending SORTS • 
locate formulas or titles in cells * block move and replicate • global 
or local column width • limitless programmable functions • works 
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INCLUDES 50,000 WORD DICTIONARY 

VIP Speller works with ANY ASCII file created by 
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It automatically checks text files for words to be 
corrected, marked for special attention or even 
added to the 50,000 word Dictionary. You can even 
view the word in context. Words can be added to or 
deleted from the dictionary or you can create your 
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January 1989 THE RAINBOW 151 



RAINBOWTECH 



OS-9 




OS-9 Memory Explorations 



By Richard A. White 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



The CoCos 1 and 2 support only 
64K of memory, which is all OS- 
9 Level I is designed to use. The 
Level I Kernel and DS9Boot load in 
from the top of this memory, and 
necessary system data space is allocated 
from the bottom of memory. The free 
memory in between is available for 
program modules and their data spaces. 
With a fairly small system, about 45 K 
is available for your applications. That 
isn't much these days, even for some 
single-tasking programs, so the dream 
of multitasking was not realized under 
Level I. 

With the arrival of the CoCo 3 with 
128K (expandable to 512K), multitask- 
ing hopes bloomed, and these hopes 
have been realized to various degrees. I 
qualify this statement because there are 
limits. You can do only so much under 
Level II with 128K of memory; 512K, 
however, opens most of the doors and 
allows multitasking undreamed of in 
the MS-DOS world. (That's probably 
why MS-DOS machine owners don't 
believe anything we say about OS-9.) 
But even here there are limits. 

First, a 6809 microprocessor has only 
a 16-bit memory bus; it can address only 
64K of memory at a time. That means 
that it can directly specify only 65,535 

Richard White lives in Fairfield, Ohio, 
has a long background with microcom- 
puters and specializes in BASIC pro- 
gramming. With Don Dollberg, he is 
the co-author of the TIMS database 
management program. 



separate memory addresses. To use 
128K or 512K of RAM, there must be 
some game going on in the CoCo 3. The 
game is memory management, and the 
manager is the GIME chip. 

Memory Management 

The GIME switches 8K blocks of 
memory in and out of the microproces- 
sor's memory space at the instruction of 
the 6809 chip. Let's try to explain this 
more simply. When we consider the 
CoCo 1 and 2, we should think of the 
16 memory leads from the 6809 as 
connecting directly to the memory 
chips. By choosing which leads have a 
high voltage (about 3V+), the micro- 
processor defines which of the 65,535 
available memory locations it will read 
or write to. 

When considering the CoCo 3, think 
of the microprocessor memory leads as 
connected to the GIME chip rather than 
directly to the memory chips. There- 
fore, the GIME chip connects to the 
memory chips and can select any of the 
128K or 512K addresses, depending on 
the machine's memory. The GIME chip 
does this by dividing memory into 8K 
blocks and mapping eight of these 
blocks at one time into the microproces- 
sor's memory space. The chip can map 
any 8K block into any 8K portion of the 
microprocessor's memory space. When 
the microprocessor addresses a memory 
location, the GIME knows the memory 
block's location and addresses that 
memory location for the microproc- 
essor. 



Actually, the GIME chip is not all- 
seeing. OS-9 manages what blocks will 
be used when a module is loaded and 
keeps track of these memory assign- 
ments. When OS-9 starts a particular 
application, it tells the GIME which 
blocks to map into the microprocessor's 
memory space, and it tells the 6809 
which address to load for its next 
instruction. 

There Are Limits 

This procedure has much value in 
OS-9 Level II's operation on the CoCo 
3. First, an application and its directly 
addressable data space must use less 
than 64K. This space does not include 
screen memory. Because 6809 code is 
very space-efficient, the limit is not 
serious. However, it does mean that 
large programs with many bells and 
whistles (typical in the MS-DOS world) 
will not be created for the CoCo. 

The 64K limit applies to the OS-9 
system code as well. When you use a 
system function (like making disk ac- 
cess to save or load), all of the Kernel, 
OS-9's boot and varying amounts of 
data space must be mapped into the 
microprocessor's 64K space. Further, 
certain utilities, like Format, use several 
blocks in the system's 64K space to run. 

Those who sharpened their teeth on 
Level I on a CoCo 1 or 2 may ask, so 
what? Just as work expands to fill the 
time available, so code expands to fill 
the memory available. DS9Boot seems 
to want to grow like a puppy, and many 
of us with 5 1 2K have gotten the dreaded 



152 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



Memory Full error when we thought we 
had memory to spare. 

The root of the problem is our desire 
to make a boot all things to all pro- 
grams. Because of this desire, we in- 
clude most of the drivers and descrip- 
tors known to mankind. Often, a game 
will come with one or two special 
modules that must be in the system 
space if not actually in []S9Boot. Mem- 
ory economy suggests that these mod- 
ules be in DS9Boot, which grows with 
each new game until a Memory Full 
error signals that enough is enough. 
There are limits. We cannot use memory 
indiscriminately forever, but with some 
smarts and discipline we can get along 
comfortably. 

The total-memory limit is very real in 
a 128K machine. Indeed, multitasking 
with major applications is not practical, 
and Hi-Res graphics application is 
tight. Multiple windows under 128K eat 
substantial amounts of memory before 
you can even load multiple applica- 
tions. Radio Shack's OS-9 games and 
applications, such as Home Publisher, 
show that graphics-based programs can 
be run in 128K with careful program- 
ming and compromises. In the case of 
Home Publisher, speed is compromised 



to fit 128K. Still, it is better to do 
something slowly than not do it at all. 

512K of memory seems inexhausti- 
ble. Not so. Most of us are guilty of 
thinking that since things run faster if 
already in memory, we should load 
them on boot and have them there when 
needed. While this is good to a point, 
things start getting scary when MF ree 
tells you there is only 48K left of the 
original 512K. I found that with Multi- 
Vue, I could devour 200K without 
breathing hard. Even at 512K, some 
discipline and memory-conservation 
strategies are needed. 

Let's return to the 8K-block memory 
organization imposed by the GIME 
chip. When OS-9 loads an executable 
module, it loads the code at the begin- 
ning of an unused 8K block and uses as 
many blocks as needed. All blocks that 
are used, even one using just one byte, 
are unavailable for any other use as long 
as that module remains in the machine. 
When the module is unlinked, those 
blocks are returned and can be used for 
something else. 

All, of the utility modules provided 
with OS-9 — such as Copy, Dir, For- 
mat, etc. — are smaller than 8K. (Some 
are smaller than 100 bytes.) OS-9 



hackers love to write and rewrite util- 
ities, so there are many utilities smaller 
than 8K available. Many of these are 
useful enough to merit loading onto the 
boot, but if you load your utilities 
individually, each will take an 8K block. 

Earlier, I said that when OS-9 loads 
an executable module, it starts with a 
new 8K block. I should have said exe- 
cutable file, which can contain more 
than one module. 

Save Memory With Merge 

I have described the Shell file that 
comes with OS-9 Level II. The tech- 
nique used in the file is the key to major 
memory savings in a Level II system. 
The Shel 1 file contains Shell itself and 
19 other frequently used utilities. It is 
7,741 bytes long. Therefore, it will fit 
comfortably into an 8K block, and OS- 
9 will load it into only one 8K block. 
This file was made using Merge by 
entering the following at the OSS: 
prompts: 

chd WORKING 

merge shel 1 copy ... >shell . temp 

del /d0/CMDS/shell 

copy shell -temp /d0/CMDS/shell 



FILE TRANSFER UTILITIES 

XXX: Reviews - December Rainbow Dale Puckell - November Rainbow. XXX 

The GCS File Transfer Utilities provide a simple and quick method to transler 
text and binary tiles from and to a variety of floppy disk formats. 



Need to transfer files to and from FC (MSDOS), RSDOS, FLEX and MINI-FLEX 
disks on your OS-9 system? Have text files on a PC (MSDOS) system at work 
and want to work on them at home? Have source programs (BASIC, C, Pascal, 
etc.) which you wish to port to ano:ner system? 

With GCS File Transfer Utilities, just place the PC (MSDOS), RSDOS, FLEX or 
MINI-FLEX disk into you disk drive - enter a simple command and the file is 
copied into a OS-9 file. File transfer back is just as simple. With Multi-Vue 
version, just select command from one of three menus. 



PCDIR 
PCDUMP 
PCREAD 
PCWR1TE 



directory of PC disk 
display PC disk sector 
read file from PC disk 
write file to PC disk 



PCRENAME rename PC file 
PCDELETE delete PC file 
PCFORMAT format PC disk 



RSDIR 
RSDUMP 
RSREAD 
RSWR1TE 

FLEXDIR 
FLEXDUMP 
FLEXREAD 
FLEXWRITE 



directory of RSDOS disk 
display RSDOS disk sector 
read file from RSDOS disk 
write file to RSDOS disk 

directory of FLEX disk 
display FLEX disk sector 
read FLEX file 
write file to FLEX disk 



Extensive Single, double sided disks. Single, double density disks. 35, 40 
options or 80 track floppy drives. 8 or 9 sectors (PC). First level sub- 

directories (PC). Binary flies. Use pipes tor direct and multiple 
transfers. 

Requires OS-9. 2 drives tone can be hard or ramdisk). Multi-Vue for Multi-Vue 
version. SDISK (SD1SK3 for COCO III). 

GCS File Transfer Utilities for CoCo - Multi-Vue version $54.95 

- Standard version $44.95 



SDISK or SDISK 3 



$29.95 



Standard diskettes are OS-9 lormi! - add 52 50 lor 3.5". Orders must be prepaid or COD. 

VISA/MC accepted. Add $1.75 S&H. COD is addKional. 

GRANITE COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

Route 2 Box 445 Hillsboro, N.H. 03244 
(603) 464-3850 

05-9 Is a t-ademark ol Mtcroware Systems Corporation and Motorola Inc. 
M S-OOS is a trademark of Maosoft Corp. FLEX is a trademark of TSC, Yyc. 




> 

m 



VIP Database 1.1 

"ONE OF THE BEST" JUL '84 "RAINBOW"| 

VIP Database has all the features of VIP Database III 
described elsewhere in this magazine except the 
screen widths are 51, 64 & 85. Screen colors are 
black, green and white, double clock speed and 
Spooler are not supported. Even so, VIP Database is 
the most complete database for the CoCo 1 & 2! 
Version 1.1 has FASTER and more RELIABLE disk 
access and single spaced reports. DISK $49.95 

VIP Database owners: upgrade to VIP Database 1.1 
for $5 + $3 S/H. Send only original disk and $8 total. 



VIP Writer 1.1 

RATED "BEST" IN SEPT '88 "RAINBOW" 

VIP Writer has all the features of VIP Writer III 
described elsewhere in this magazine except the 
screen widths are 32, 51 , 64 & 85. Screen colors are 
black, green & white, double clock speed is not 
supported, Spooler and menus iare unavailable 
because of memory limitations. Even so, VIP Writer 
is the BEST word processor for the CoCo 1 & 2! 
Version 1.1 includes the configuration/ printer 
installation program and RGB Hard Disk support. 
Available thru Radio Shack Express Order #90-141. 

Includes VIP Speller 1 .1 DISK $69.95 




V3 



VIP Writer owners: upgrade to VIP Writer 1 . 1 for $1 5 
+ $3 S/H. Send only ORIGINAL disk and $18 total. 




January 1 989 THE RAINBOW 1 53 



HeTe we start assuming that the 
modules you want to merge are copied 
to a directory different than your CMDS 
directory. Begin by changing your cur- 
rent data directory to WORKING. Then 
use Merge to combine Shell and the 
other modules you want to include into 
a new file named Shell - temp. (You 
already have Shel 1 in the directory and 
cannot use that name again.) You would 
do this if you wanted to remove some 
modules that come in the original shell 
file, like Deiniz, Merge, etc. Next, 
delete the shell file presently in your 
CMDS directory, and move your new file 
to that directory. Remember that your 
new file must be named Shell in the 
CMDS directory, so OS-9 can find it 
when booting. 

We've done everything except some 
picky little details that the computer will 
think are vital. First, we forgot to set the 
e and pe attributes on the new shell file 
(a small but fatal error). That disk won't 
boot again until those attributes are set. 

Want a laugh? I did just that last 
week, but the shell in question was on 
my hard disk. At that point, I couldn't 
use my hard-disk driver and /h0 de- 
scriptor to boot OS-9 with a disk having 
an 0S9Boot file. So I couldn't access the 
hard drive to set the attributes on 
Shell, and without the attributes set, 
I couldn't get a boot that would access 
the hard disk, and so on, and so on ... . 
Things began to look serious. The 
solution was to find a disk with a 
floppy-only boot file. (Moral: Keep 
copies of old boot disks in an archive 
somewhere.) Then I had to load the 
hard-drive driver and its descriptor 
separately. Of course, I could not find 
the floppy I used in making the original 
descriptor, so I had to make a new 
descriptor and hope I could get it right 
without too much trouble. Maybe picky 
little details aren't that little. 

Setting attributes is simple enough. 
Make sure that fit tr is in your current 
CMDS directory. Then enter the follow- 
ing at the 0S9: prompts: 

end /d^CMDS 
attr shel 1. m pe 

The computer will respond with the 
following: 

This procedure changes your current 
data directory to CMDS, and issues the 
fittr command with the e and pe 
parameters, fittr reports the new at- 
tribute settings with the --e-reur 



Blk Begin 



e imm 



□59: 



Bl< 


Ofst 


Size 


Ty At 


Link 


Module Name 


— 
-3F 


-. _ _ * 




i2R 


_ — 

ci ai 




REL 


3F 


E30 


1D0 


Cl 81 


1 


Buz} t 


3F 


mm 


ED9 


C0 B3 




□S9pl 


- 1 


300 


CAE 


CS B2 


i 


□S9p2 1 


1 


FfiE 


2E 


C0 Bl 


!&'.' j 


Inlt 


1 


FDC 


SF3 


Cl Bl 


1 


lOMan 


1 


13CF 


122E 


01 Bl 


t B ! 


RBF 1 


2 


BFD 


454 


El Bl 


U 


CC3Disk 


2 


1051 


m 


Fl Si 


B 00 


2 


10B1 


3© 


fi ai 


a 


Dl 


2 


1001 


30 


ri si 


V 




2 


10E1 


SE3 


Dl 81 


2 


SCF 


2 


1EC4 


C36 


El Bl 


2 
■ - 


CC3I0 


3 


2FR 


CE5 


Cl Bl 


1 


VDGInt 

U 1 .■ . . J 1 1 _ 


3 


FDF 


D3D 


Cl Bl 


0 


GrFInt 


3 • 


1D1C 


45 


Fl Bl 




TERM 

I 1— IV 1 1 


■Sis! 

3 


1D61 


42 


Fl Bl 


>o 


U 




1DB3 


43 


Fl Bl 


Cl 






1DE6 


43 


fi ai 




y 7 


w 


1E29 


43 


Fl Bl 


fl 




3 

. -v.v:, * 


1E6C 


43 


Fl ai 




Ud 


3 


lEflF 


43 


Fl SI 




U R 


3 


1EF2 


43 


Fl Bl 


fi 

VJ 


W D 


3 


IF 35 


43v 


Fl Bl 


Pi 


l.l 


3 


1F78 


3B5 


El Bl 




ML, LnrnlS 


3F 


32D 


3F 


Fl Bl 




T2 


3F 


36C 


17ft 


El Bl 


0 


PRINTER 


3F 


522 


IBS 


El Bl 




sin 
_ i j. i_i 


3F 




33 


Fl Bl 


0 


Tl 


3F 


6E0 


219 


Dl Bl 


0 


Pipeilan 


3F 


8F9 

* ' ^v 1 • vat 


20 


El 01 


0 | 


Piper 


3F 


921 


2fi 


Fl Bl 


0 


Pipe 


3F 




1EE 


Cl Bl 


2 ^ 


Clock 


3F 


B3SSK 


lflE 


11 1 


1 


CC3Ga 


- 6 




3FC 


11 81 




Shell 


E 




2E7 


11 Bl 


: * 


Cddlj 


e 


, 


FD 


11 Bl 


0 


Da tu 




9E0 


R5 


11 Bl 


0 


Del 


£ 




@ 4 


11 Bl 




Disciay 


S 


B09 


22 


11 Bl 


a 


Echo 


6: 


B2B 


7fi 


11 Bl 


a 


Iniz 


6 


BR5 


2C 


11 Bl 


0 


Link 


G 


BD1 


4F 


11 ai 


0 


List 


£ 


G20 


24 


11 61 




Load 




C44 


1EB 


11 ai 


0 


Mf ree 


G 


E2F 


11B 


11 Bl 


0 


Se t i me 


B 




101 


11 ai 


! 




h 


10FB 


1«7 


11 81 


: % 


DlrH 


G 


129F 


2EC 


11 81 


0 


Paths 


G 


150B 


201 


11 Bl 

Table 2 


0 


PMap 



End Blks Size 

1DFFF ? 56k 

Total: 7 SGk 

Table I 



1 54 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



string. This means permissions are 
granted for public execute and read, 
and owner execute, write and read. 

Next, make sure that when you merge 
a number of modules together, the final 
file length does not pass an 8K — or 
8,192-byte — boundary. The shell file 
that comes with OS-9 Level II is 7,741 
bytes long, so it will only use one 8K 
block. If the file had been more than 
8,192 bytes long, it would have used two 
blocks, and the second block would 
contain only a few bytes. The rest would 
be wasted. 

How OS-9 Uses Memory 

About two years ago, Kevin Darling 
wrote some utilities to help him dissect 
Level H and find out exactly how it 
worked. These are available on the 
Delphi OS-9 SIG database and on other 
bulletin board and information sys- 
tems. I will use a few of these utilities 
to illustrate how OS-9 uses memory. For 
these examples, I will use the boot that 
comes with the OS-9 distribution pack- 
age from Radio Shack. I have changed 
only the shell file, where I eliminated 
modules I would not need and added 
some of Darling's utilities. The new 
shell file is still less than 8K, and all 



these examples were run in a 128K 
machine. 

The first example is produced by 
MMap. Like MFree, MMap also re- 
ports free memory. However, in addi- 
tion, this utility produces a map of 
memory and identifies which blocks are 
in use and which are free. At the 053: 
prompt, I entered mmap, and my com- 
puter generated the following informa- 
tion: 

012345G7B9ABCDEF 

0UUUUUUMU . 

1 

2 

3 U 

Number of Free Blocks: 7 
RAM Tree in KBytes: 56 
□S9: 

The memory blocks are numbered in 
hex and range from 00 to 3F. In the map 
above, the blocks marked with a period 
(.) have no memory installed since it is 
a 128K machine. The block numbered 
3F is always assigned to the Kernel. The 
top two 256-byte pages of this block 
contain GIME registers and I/O and 
system interrupts; they are always 



mapped into the microprocessor's 64K 
memory space. All applications use 
certain addresses in these pages to 
communicate with the operating sys- 
tem, which is not mapped in at this time. 

An executable module starts in any 
block marked with M. The 'M'in Block 
06 represents the shell file's location. 
Blocks marked with a 'IT are used for 
the operating system, data or the con- 
tinuation of module files. Finally, the 
blocks marked with an underscore (_) 
are free. 

This is a minimal Level II boot, using 
only the 32-character-by-16-line 
Term.vdg display and no other win- 
dows. Only 56K remain for applications 
and graphics. MFree, which comes with 
OS-9, gives the same report given by 
MMap, but without the map. When I 
entered mf ree at the 0S9: prompt, my 
computer generated the information 
shown in Table 1. 

Darling's DirM utility gives a fully 
detailed listing of module locations in 
memory, similar to that which MDir e 
yields, but with a few added features like 
the link count. (See Table 2.) 

From this table, we can learn how 
Level II loads when booting. The Ker- 




roke f r Broker 



by Roy C. Pierce 



(c) 1986 



Buy & Sell your way to Power in this Exciting Stock Market Simulation. 

2 - 6 Players Ages 10 & Up. 

Wot since Stock Vcker^have I had so much Funf F.G. Dawson 
"Easy to Lsan\ Fun to Playr A.R Fazackerley 

128 KCoCo Required, Disk or Cassette. $23.95 

Challenging Two Player Games by Roy C. Pierce Jc) 1988 

ADI OTHELLO CONNECT 5 

FAST AND FUN FOR ALL AGES 
EASY TO RUN 

ALL BASIC OONPLBRY USTABLE $19.95 




©©© 




RAINBOW 





Disk Directory Utility 

(See September & October Rainbow) 

"...One Professional Looting, WeS Behaved...and User Fnendy U&ty for BASC Progmmsr 

Vo your Fingers a Favor and Intoduce tie CoCo in your Life to HELLO/SAS." October Rainbow 

Review " T _ _ _ $19.95 

Prices Shown aie In U.S. Funds. 

Include Cheque or Money Order 'when Ordering. 
On Orders of 2 or more Programs Deduct 10% from Total Price. 

We Ray the Freight 
In Canada Please Phone for Prices. 
ALL Foreign Orders Add $5.00 

Sony No C.O.D. P.OJ30X 1787, 

Main Post Office, 
Edmonton, AB. Canada 

T5J-2P2 

SOFTWARE PH: (403) 474-8435 



RCPlERCE 




The VIP Integrated Library 1 .1 combines all six popular VIP programs - Writer 
1.1, Speller 1.1, Calc, Databasel .1 , Terminal and Disk-Zap 1 .1 • into one program 
on one disk. The program is called VIP Desktop. From the desktop you have 
instant access to word processing with a spelling checker always in attendance, 
data management with mailmerge, spreadsheet financial analysis, telecommuni- 
cations and disk maintenance. Just move the hand to the volume on the bookshelf 
and the application is there. 64K req'd. $149.95 + $4 S/H US, $5 Canada, 
$10 Foreign.VIP Library is available thru Radio Shack Express Order #90-213. 



VIP Integrated Library owners: upgrade to the VIP Integrated Library 
1.1 for $25 + $3 S/H. Send only ORIGINAL disk and $28 Total. 



SD ENTERPRISES HH 



(503) 663-2865 P.O. BOX 1233. Gresham, OR. 97030 
Non VIP Library orders add $3 for shipping in USA, Canada $4, 
Foreign $6. COD orders add an additional $2.25. Personal checks| 
allow 3 weeks for delivery. All other orders shipped the same day. 



January 1 989 THE RAINBOW 1 55 



ID 


01 


23 4S 

X. v V-V -3- >"■ ■' * \ 


B9 


FIB 


CD 


EF 


Program 




— ■ ' ♦ 

00 


,,<'' ""-■! '>*:;■: .-" . ■■■ " 

.. ;..:■> 04 


01 


02 


03 


3F 


SYSTEM 


,M 


05 


t » •»■ ,- * '^vs •%;.•>■: 

■ -,-'"■■■•<. f-"V'>Vr-J&*#- A-.-;;*''-' 


• * 


• « 


m-'-.w':: 


0G 


Shell 




07 


. ■ '■. : S-:^:>^?'-;* : . '+• .:; 

■ . : ^^4:^*>"* > 

<■ ■ . ■ ■ . y * V. w ■ vvJ. "M '■ * • " 
■■■■ * -\x V.- •>■. A; :>*•.£«>• >, ', 






■■ ■ 


06 

** •* • : 


PMap 






... .. v V V ■'.*' + -' .-^ ' 

<>■ .v;^*^:y*^^- { <. 

..... . :. ^•Ty^^^^^.\'\\' t .\ 

- J , V 'v. v > :vi*. V ' ' ? 


Table 3 






o.. : i*; >s yi 





ID 


01 


23 


m 


67 


B9 


RB 


CD 


EF 

>■» 


Program 


1 


00 


m » 




©1 


02 


03 


04 


3F 


SYSTEM 


2 


06 


'" 


■ 


- - 


■■ 


« « 




0? 


Shell 




03 

IF:: 


ll 

■ . A 


■ ■ 


ID 

■ 


■$£. 

w m 


a ■ 

1R 


■ 


08 

■ 


f load 
PMap 


5; 

i.6 


0fl 

0E 


■ 


■■ ■ 

- - 


- — 

■ 


* 


• - « 




07 
07 


Shell 
She! 1 


7 


0F 


- ' s 

M * 


■ .■ 


■ 






* ■ 


07 


Shell 


B 


10 








« • 


« ■ 




07 


Shell 


11 


16 


17 




19 


12 

Table 4 


13 


14 


15 


ds 



nel is shown at the top using part of 
Block 3F. Next, OSSBoot is loaded, 
starting in Block 0 1 , co ntinuing through 
blocks 02 and 03 and ending in Block 
3F. Finally, our merged shell file is 
loaded in Block 06. 

Although DirM shows no modules in 
blocks 00, 04, 05 or 07, we can see how 
these are used in the PMap report. When 
I entered pmap at the 059: prompt, the 
computer generated the information 
seen in Table 3. 

PMap identifies active processes and 
the blocks used by each. The 8K blocks 
of each 64K memory space are shown 
from left (low memory) to right (high 
memory). The following three processes 
are active: System, Shell (which is 
running Term) and PMap (which is 
generating the above output). System is 
shown in low memory, so it uses Block 
00 as a data block. System uses five 
blocks, including Block 4. If we return 
to the DirM report, we see that RCIR- 
PRK starts at Byte hex 1F78 in Block 03 
and is hex 3B5 bytes long. Since decimal 
8K is hex 1FFF, flCIRPflK must overlap 
a block boundary into another block — 
obviously Block 04. Actually, RCIRPRK 
uses only 8 14 decimal bytes of Block 04, 
leaving over 7000 bytes free for 0S- 
9Boqt's expansion. 

We know from DirM that Shell is 



in Block 06, but now we see that it uses 
Block 05 for its data. Note that PMap is 
also in Block 06, sharing that block with 
Shell. However, PMap needs a data 
space — Block 07. When PMap com- 
pletes its task, it will return Block 07 to 
OS-9 for other uses, so there is really 
64K available to run some other appli- 
cation. Naturally, in a 512K machine 
there will be more room. 



"The very top of the 

64K space must 
have somewhat over 
256 bytes for GIME 
registers, 1/ O and 
interrupts mapped. 99 



System Growth 

Following the General Law of Space 
Availability, the system will grow. We 
will add more modules to 059Boot and 
use windows, so OS-9 must load 
GrfDrv when it sees Term_uiin rather 
than Term vdg in 0S9Boot. 



The following is a MMap report of 
memory usage in my machine at the 
time I write this: 

01234567B9RBCDEF 
B = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 

0 UUUUUMUMMUUMUUUU 
1 UUMMMMUUUUMMUUUU 

3 UUUUUUU 

Number of Free Blocks: 25 
RRM Free in KBytes: 200 

As we move up from the bottom of 
memory, we see that modules and their 
data blocks are assigned to 8K blocks 
of memory. Block 3F is a system block 
like one in a 128K machine. Blocks 39 
through 3E are window memory. I have 
three text windows, one graphics win- 
dow and Term currently active. Table 4 
shows the process map that PMap would 
report in the situation I have described. 

Notice that System has grown. My 
hard-drive system needs over 6K of 
space in OSSBoot. The new and differ- 
ent drivers I introduced into System 
have made a definite difference. Notice, 
too, that there are five shells, one for 
each window and one for Term. PMap 
has been merged with another module 
that takes over 8K. That whole file takes 
two blocks, both of which are mapped 
into the 64K memory space. 

FLoad is the loader file for D.P. 
Johnson's Forth09, The rest of the 
language and data spaces are found in 
the lower part of the memory space. DS 
is my word processor and its data 
blocks. 

One other little detail can be seen in 
my PMap." Note that the two blocks 
containing PMap itself are not mapped 
at the top of the 64K memory space. The 
very top of the 64K space must have 
somewhat over 256 bytes for GIME 
registers, I/O and interrupts mapped. 
Because the file containing PMap is 
within a few bytes of 16K, there would 
be no room for the required system 
addresses if that file were placed in the 
upper two blocks of the 64K space. In 
this situation, this makes no difference, 
but if you want to maximize the data 
space available for a program, make 
sure that the last 8K block used by 
executable code in a file has nothing in 
the last 512 bytes. 

We have seen the value of merging 
files and limiting boot. Memory man- 
agement plays a vital role in the effective 
use of OS-9 Level 11. Use the utilities I 
have described to monitor your system's 
memory use. 

See you next month. 



156 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



ftware 



O" Special Half-price Offer 13 

For each item purchased at the regular price, you may purchase an 
additional item of equal or lesser price at 50% off its regular price. 
This special offer is good through January 31, 1988. 



CALLI GRAPH ER 

CoCo Calligrapher - Turn your 
CoCo and do matrix printer into 
a calligrapher's quill. Make beau- 
tiful invitations, flyers, 
certificates, labels and more. In- 
cludes 3 fonts: Gay Nineties, Old 
English and Cartoon. The letters 
are % inch high and variably 
spaced. Works with many 
printers such as Epson, Gemini 
and Radio Shack. Additional 
fonts are available (see below). 
Tape /Disk; $24*95. 

OS9 Calligrapher - Prints all the 
same fonts as the CoCo Calligra- 
pher. It reads a standard text file 
which contains text and format- 
ting codes. You may specify the 
font to use, change fonts at any 
time, centering, left, right or full 
justify, line fill, margin, line 
width, page size, page break and 
indentation. Similar to troff on 
UNIX systems. Includes the 
same 3 fonts and additional fonts 
are available (see below). Disk 
only; OS9 Level I or II; $24.95. 

Calligrapher Fonts - Requires 
Calligrapner above. Each set on 
tape or disk; specify RSDOS or 
OS9 version* $14.95 each. Set 
#1 (9 fonte) Reduced and re- 
versed versions of Gay Nineties, 
Old English and Cartoon; Set #2 
(8 fonts) Old Style and Broadway; 
Set #3 (8 fonts) Antique and 
Business; Set #4 (8 fonts) Wild 
West and Checkers; Set #5 (10 
fonts) Stars, Hebrew and Victori- 
an; Set #6 (8 fonts) Block and 
Computer: Set #7 (5 small fonts) 
Roman, Italics, Cubes, Digital 
and Old World, cr NEW: Set 
#10 (8 fonts) several Roman 
styles- -Set #11 (10 fonts) Gothic 
and Script; Set #12 (10 fonts) 
more Roman and Italic. 

Economy Font Packages on 

disk; specify RSDOS or OS9; 
29.95 each or $59.95 for all 
three: Font Package #1 - Above 
font sets 1, 2 and 3 (25 fonts). 
Font Package #2 - Above font 
sets 4, 5 and 6 (26 fonts). Font 
Package #4 (also known as the 
Hershey fonts) - Above font sets 
10, 11 and 12 (28 fonts). 



Calligrapher Combo Package - 

and Economy Font Packages 4 
$69.95, or $84.90 to also includ 


■ Includes the Calligrapher 
£l and #2, 54 fonts in all 
ie Package #4 (82 fontsl. 





Sample Calligrapher Hershey Fonts 



NEW! OS9 Font Massaeer - 

This OS9 utility program allows 
you to do all sorts of things to 
Calligrapher font files. You may 
create new fonts, modify exist- 
ing fontSj invert fonts, 
compress fonts, double the 
height and/or width, halve the 
height and/or width and con- 
vert between OS9 and RSDOS 
formats. $19.95 (or only $14.95 
if ordered with any other Calli- 
grapher item). A listing of the 
C source code for the Font 
Massage r is available for an ad- 
ditional $14.95. 



EDUCATIONAL 

Trig Attack - Ages 9 and up. An 
educational arcade game where 
players learn important math 
concepts as they play. Sound 
effects, colorful graphics. Excel- 
lent manual includes an introduc- 
tion to trigonometry. Tape/Disk; 
$19.95. 



INFORMATION MGT. 

TIMS (The Information 
Management System) - Tape or 
disk, last and simple general data 
base program. Create files of 
records that can be quickly sortr 
ed, searched, deleted and updatr 
ed. Powerful printer formatting. 
Up to 8 user fields, sort on up to 
3 fields. Tape/Disk; $19.95. 

TIMS Mail - Tape or Disk based 
mailing list management pro- 
gram . Fi 1 e s are c o m patib le with 
TIMS. Fast and simple to use. 
Supports labels 1, 2 or 3 across, 
2% to 4 inches wide. Tape /Disk; 
$19.95. 

TIMS Utility - Utility compan- 
ion for TIMS'and TIMS Mail for 
multi-term search (AND and OR 
1°S} C )) global change and delete, 
split large files and more! 
Tape/Disk; $14.95. 



The Educational Combo - The 

Combo includes these educa- 
tional (and entertaining) games: 

Silly Syntax (ages 5 and up) 
story creation game with 2 
stories 

Galactic Hangman (ages 7 and 
up) animated graphics, with a 
700 word vocabulary 
The Presidents of the USA 

(ages 10 and up) a presidential 
trivia game 

The Great USA faces 9 and 
up) a trivia game of the states 
Trig Attack (ages 9 and up) 
Zap those Trigs 

All five programs on one disk; 
$49.95 (save $50!). 



TIMS Combo Package - All 

three of the above programs: 
TIMS, TIMS Mail and TIMS 
Utility on one disk - $34.95. 



SPECIAL INTEREST 

Rental Property Income and Ex- 
pense Management Package - 
Maintain rental property income 
and expense records and print re- 
ports. 28 expense categories. This 
program may be tax deductible. 
Disk only; $29.95. 

CoCo Knitter - Easy to use pro- 
gram to display or print instruc- 
tions to knit a sweater: Cardigan 
or Pullover; Round or V-neck; 
Raglan or Set-in Sleeve: 3 
weights of yarn; 8 sizes from 
baby to man. Tape /Disk; $19.95. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



*TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 7446 
Hollywood, Florida 33081 
(305) 981-1241 



All programs run on the CoCo 1, 2 and $, 32K 
Extended Basic, unless otherwise noted. Add 
$1.60 per tape or disk for shipping and han- 
dling. Florida residents add 6% sales tax. COD 
orders add $5. Dealer inquiries invited. Orders 
generally shipped in 24-48 hours. No refunds 
or exchanges without prior authorization. 



Racksellers 



The retail stores listed below carry THE RAINBOW on a regular basis and 
may have other products of interest to Tandy Color Computer users. We 
suggest you patronize those in your area. 



ALABAMA 

Birmingham 

Brewton 

Florence 

Greenville 

Madison 

Montgomery 

Tuscaloosa 

ALASKA 

Fairbanks 

ARIZONA 

Cottonwood 
Lake Havasu 

City 
Phoenix 
Tempe 

Tucson 

ARKANSAS 

Fayetteville 
Ft Smith 
Little Rock 

CALIFORNIA 

Berkeley 
Citrus Heights 
Hollywood 

La Jolla 

Los Angeles 

Marysville 

Napa 

Oakland 

Rancho 

Murieta 
Sacramento 

San Francisco 



Santa Monica 
San Jose 
Santa Rosa 
Stockton 

Sunnyvale 
Torrance 

COLORADO 

Aurora 
Colorado 

Springs 
Denver 
Glenwood 

Springs 
Grand 

Junction 
Longmont 

DELAWARE 

Mlddletown 

Newark 

Wilmington 



Jefferson News Co. 
McDowell Electronics 
Anderson News Co, 
M & B Electronics 
Madison Books 
Trade W Books 
Injun John's, inc. 

Arrow A|^lbilr;r>/ncidi& ShOPk 

A##Graphics C|f 

Book Nook 
TRl-TEK Computers 
Books, Etc, 
Computer Library 
Anderson News Co. 

Vaughn Electronics/Radio Shack 
Hot Off the Press Newsstand 
Anderson News Co. 

Lyon Enterprises 
Software Rus 
Levity Distributors 
Stef-Jea Inc. 

Butler & Mayes Booksellers 
Circus of Books (2 Locations) 
Bookland 

Bookends Bookstore 
DeLauer's News Agency 

Software Plus 
Deiberfs Readerama 
Tower Magazine 
Booksmith 
Bookworks 
Castro Kiosk 

Midnight Special Bookstore 
Computer Literacy Bookshops 
Sawyer's News, Inc. 
Harding Way News 
Paperbacks Unlimited 
Computer Literacy 
El Camino College Bookstore 

Aurora Newsstand 

Hcrthaway's 
News Gallery 

The Book Train 

Readmore Book & Magazine 
City Newsstand 

Delmar Co, 
Newark Newsstand .? 
Normar, Inc. —The Smoke Shop 



GEORGIA 

Atlanta 
Bremen 
Forest Park 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Washington, 



DC 



FLORIDA 

Boca Raton 

Clearwater 

Cocoa 

Danta 

Davie 

Ft. Lauderdale 



Gainesville 
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North Miami 

Beach 
Panama City 
Pensacola 
Pinellas Park 
South 

Pasadena 
Starke 

Sunrise 
Tallahassee 

Titusville 



Chronichles 
News Room 
World News, inc. 



Great American Book Co. 
The Avid Reader 
The Open Door 
Dania News & Books 
Software Plus More 
Bob's News & Bookstore 
Clarks Out of Town News 
Mike's Electronics Distributor 
Paper Chase 
Book Co. 

Almar Bookstore 
Boyd-Ebert Corp, 
Anderson News Co. 
Wolf s Newsstand 

Poling Place Bookstore 
Record Junction, inc. 
Radio Shack Dealer 
Sunn/s at Sunset 
Anderson News Co. 
DuBey's News Center 
Computrac 



Thomasvflle 
Toccoa 

IDAHO 

Boise 
Moscow 

ILLINOIS 

Belleville 
Champaign 
Chicago 
Decatur 



East Moline 
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Springfield 



Sunnyland 
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INDIANA 

Angola 

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Lebanon 
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KENTUCKY 

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LOUISIANA 

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MAINE 

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MARYLAND 

College Park 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Boston 
Brockton 
Cambridge 
Ipswich 



Border's 

Bremen Electronics/Radio Shack 
Ellers News Center 
Radio Shack 
Smokehouse Newsstand 
Martin Music Radio Shack 

Book Shelf, Inc. 
Johnson News Agency 

Software or Systems 
Bookmark 

B. Dalton Booksellers 
Book Emporium 

K-Mart Plaza 

Northgate Mall 
Book Emporium 
Norris Center Bookstore 
Book Emporium 
Book Nook 
Empire Periodicals 
Bill's TV Radio Shack 
Book Emporium 
Book Emporium 

Sheridan village 

Westlake Shopping Center 
Illinois News Service 
Book Emporium 

Sangamon Center North 

Town & Country Shopping Ctr. 
Book Emporium 
Paper Place 
North Shore Distributors 

D & D Electronics 
Radio Shack 

White Cottage Electronics 
Book Corner 

Micro Computer Systems, trie. 

Koch's Books 

Miles Books 

Gallery Book Shop 

Michiana News Service 

Finn News Agency, Inc. 

Bookland, Inc. 

Borders Bookshop 

Indiana News 

Southside News 

Gallery Book Shop 

Radio Shack 

Voyies News Agency, Inc. 

Mitting's Electronics 

Interstate Book Store 
Thackery's Books, Inc. 
Kramers Books & Gifts 

Crossroads. Inc. 

PaJmer News, Inc. 

Town Crier of Topeka, Inc. 

Dandy's/Radio Shack Dealer 

Lloyd's Radio 

Daniel Boone Gulf Mart 
Matf s News & Gifts 
Hobby Shop 

Hawley-Cooke Booksellers (2 Locations) 
Software City 
Radio Shack 

City News Stand : 
TV Doctor/Radio Shack 
Sidney's News Stand Uptown 
The Book Rack 



Magazines, Inc. 
Voyager Bookstore 
Radio Shack 
Books-N-Tnings 
Radio Shack 



MASSACHUSETTS (cont'd) 

Littleton Computer Plus 



Lynn 

Swansea 

MICHIGAN 

Allen Park 

Birmingham 

Durand 

E. Detroit 

Hillsdale 

Holland 

Kalamazoo 

Lowell 

Muskegon 

Niles 

Perry 

Riverview 
Roseville 

MINNESOTA 

Burnsville 

Crystal 

Edina 

Minneapolis 
Minnetonka 
Roseville 
St. Paul 



Will mar 

MISSOURI 

Farmington 
Flat River 
Florissant 
Jefferson City 
Klrksville 
St. Louis : 

MONTANA 

Butte 

NEBRASKA 

Lincoln 
Omaha 

NEVADA 

Carson City 
Las Vegas 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Keene 
Manchester 
West Lebanon 

NEW JERSEY 

Atlantic City 
Cedar Knolls 
Clinton 
Pennsviile 
Rockaway 

NEW MEXICO 

Alamogordo 
Albuquerque 
Santa Fe 



NEW YORK 

Amherst 
Brockport 
Brooklyn i 
Elmira Heights 
Fredonia 
Hudson Falls 
Huntington 
Johnson City 
New York 



North Shore News Co. 
Newsbreak, Inc. 

Book Nook, inc. 

Border's Book Shop 

Robbins Electronics 

Merit Book Center 

Electronics Express/Radio Shack 

Fris News Company 

The Book Raft 

Lowell Electronics 

The Eight Bit Corner 

Michiana News Service 

Perry Computers 

Riverview Book Store 

New Horizons Book Shop 

Shinder's Burnsville 
Shinder's Crystal Gallery 
Shinder's Leisure Lane 
Shinder's (2 Locations) 
Shinder's Ridge Square 
Shinder's Roseville 
Shinder's Annex 
Shinder's Maplewood 
Shinder's St. Pauls 
The Photo Shop 

Ray's TV & Radio Shack 
Ray's TV & Radio Shack 
Book Brokers Unlimited 
Cowley Distributing 
T&R Electronics 
Book Emporium 

Pjaza Books 

Nebraska Bookstore 
Nelson News 

Bookcellar 
Hurley Electronics 
Steve's Books & Magazines 



University Bookstore 

Eastern Newsstand 
Voyager Bookstore 
Out Of Town News 
Ipswich News 



F'awllmg 
I^k healer 



Radio Shack Associate Store 

Bookwrights 

Verham News Corp. 

Atlantic City News Agency 
Village Computer & Software 
Micro World II 
Dave's Elect. Radio Shack 
Software Station 

New Horizons Computer Systems 
Page One Newsstand 
Downtown Subscription 



Village Green-Buffalo Books 

Lift Bridge Book Shop, Inc. 

Cromland. Inc. 

Southern Tier News Co., Inc. 

On Line: Computer Access Center 

GA West & Co. 

Oscar's Bookshop 

Unicom Electronics 

Barnes & Noble— Sales Annex 

Coliseum Books 

Eastern Newsstand 

Grand Central Station, Track 37 

200 Park Ave., (Pan Am #1 ) 

55 Water Street 

World Trade Center #2 
First Stop News 
Idle Hours Bookstore 
International Smoke Shop 
Jonil Smoke 
Penn Book 
Software City 
State News 
Walden Books 
World Wide Media Services 
Universal Computer Service 
Mlcrocom Software 
Village Green 
World Wide News 



158 



THE RAINBOW January 1989 



NQHIMCAflOUNA 

Chops* dill 
Chmlotlo 

JackECfiwils 
Kerne? svllle 
Mailan 

Wlnston-Saieo*! 



OHrO 

CarilDTi 

Chakten 

CinCfUtOtl 

Demand 

Columbia na 
C - jpKjinl>.is 



□utjVi 

Kuril 
LlrT.n 

MkimibijiQ 
Ftrrrn 

'A^HT^l 

Iftinia 

V-rjijreaElnwi 

OKLAHOMA 

Okkjhcmo 

Tulsa 
OREGON 

Pitfirind 



-Sotem 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Ailccna 

IV vn HAaiAf 
Corf/ 
Fqojre/vllle 
Kinq n' I -i .. 

Mo I ram 

lemole 
Weu Chester 
'iflilnaGaa 

FWODC I5lANJJ 

Ne*port 



News Center It. Can VlHsi^i 
Untversi^Y Me^i 1 Sundry 
Newsstand infl 
D" BookE- & Comes 
Uchate □. Inc. 
\ i* S Newsstand 
fecofneft EJ^ylfifii Center 
r£&5 Nswwkand (3 LqccilDns) 
IMrbtrtw N^iws L'rj. 



Church* & Tcbacco 
Li HI i s FMfW Rook Center 
T^fcirJ-'ui RodoS TV 
CWI 

f rioview f-few? 

nidnlity Sound A Bee fronts 

Software. 
Mbjp Confer 
The Ne¥ras*ond 
Socks A Co 
Muter Heiahli 

Eicon & Card 

Wife* Nitote 
took ?cp 

Novifl-Jteaders 

Wdke's Untver»ty Shoppe 

Open Boose 

The Shop 

Lakfiwood tilerrpriorKil M**l 

EduCaierefi 

Mb r^ews 

Bookmaik NewsceMei 
Leo's Book & V^me Shoo 
Ftook Nook. Inc> 
HneRlnt Books 
Plcia Book A Smoke Sme 



Wert Micro Software 

[V^ai- Safe. Inc dba PacfcShofl^ 

Slaved Sock Store 

Lwra Books — fiooi; Man. 
Fifa Avenue tofjvb 
fUcfl Cigar Store, l-vi 
Swfh Jc VtasNngton. Newis 
CapirolfrJewsCanta 
Checkmate Book 

Owl Services 
Newborn Emorprtse* 
rVvn Ma*r News 
C&rv Hoaki A Co^lt 

kene'i Ekkms 
Pe«anot Scdiwars 
SmEh's, Nwi^ S CO id Genlo* 
?jrj1tdvti« Conor 
Chaitoi GcmilrV Book Co. 

Thp r^rTgSUter Center Qf 
Mijtalc fcxtfc&HB 

c&llw.un NffjuS 



50LHH CAJJOUWA 

Charleston HtE, Softer* i o i*, In- 

Rct^s * 1 

PSlrrtGrilG- iVgws Co 

!k^1wqn?Clry 



Cle^nion 
Nub nee 
GneenuHe 
SpprlanUjrQ 



TENNESSEE 

Rmr.ltannd 
OwHanoooa 

Me^t'lJ'iii 

Novella 



Smyrna 

1IXAS 

ug spiing 
. ■■<oia 
Egn 
: - Wwth 
HdlllnQlon 



A:iu«iWL;i i r^Wi Co. 

Cuild EkKrTs & MeilMicais, 
H ;.ininrd Uiedroni^t 
AhoerKn Nff^tCo 
&7viE-Kidd Bookseller 
'Ctrnpwlr)r CentHr 
O&tte kxld BookseHere 
MOdky's Rcro? 
R.M Miis Btc^^ro:^ 
D\-\\Ia.u "V^-lroncs 

Ftsnd-iri'i WiMri, 
MaavBl iloukii 
'he Horrtrg PiQWi 
Mnify News 
bock Mork 



WTAH 

rjr^niflllB 
rlnmolch 

f*]ffbrk 

I^Gnmofijd 

WASHINGTON 

f^on Anpeles 
Seatt^ 

f acorn a 

WEST VIRGINIA 
HuntTglon 
jogan 
Maoison 
Parkersbuig 
Saurn 
CftotSejriWi 

W1SC0442IN 

c;uck+-.v 
KerfOshn 
M:idiii;^. 

rVHwiiM^m ■ 
WTlli^hti 

ARGENTINA 

AUSTTfALlA 

Angaraid 

CAMADA: 
MttLBTA 

Bar.lr 

BCflPrpMllte 

Hrool^t 

Ccigmy 

CSareshoHr* 

Dfuylon VaJtiy 

Edrnoiircn 

CdipTi 

rTOrCTrtek 
H. BcakCilcrpii- 

COc-he 
Gronde 

Centra 
Hinlon 
LnnlEfall 
ijecompe 
teduc 
uethPfiidge 
LloydmlnSilEr 
OkoroAE. 
I^eace Fh¥ar 

St. ^ul 

Stenier 
Strarttvri.ore 

Tabftr 

Wfefi!l:X:k 
■AWikari<r^ln 



Vclley bock Cftfilnt 
Beodara 

Sari S«ve Scrrwc^j 
l-O- Cornpulur? 
kirn the P&\jt.\ 

l^on Etcoh & Nhu.3 
/■dams News kic, 

Nyti^'NBVlFB 
3rsirVs.El6chwiiw& Rodto Shack 

i&TiftlMi ijfnliiSn^ LTD 
Votlay r-krv/5. Sorvice 

^SfTfid Hlh t-icJAS 
Rcirigyr rnnonJlc^ls 

Ciidoiw rvkv^ A Not±iv 
R.K, Now. Ino. 
Pjd A Boo* 

Bookpore 
Juneau VUlaae l^eader 
HoH Vdrrety 



lutgr n-icilion Ta<rco*7i*n«unlear ones 

tMqkjQJici OSnput^'s 
Pdrlfi Ri>:1io ElraJroncTi 



Banff RLidiO £hc:r;k 
r->aul TftteJti 

□cruLJ^ r p M A5.C, Rarfc Shactc 
[ink's ^o>w5 

r?odh .^ux57 Attodofed Stores 

LlXnQOrd Ek^ lr rciriic5 
CMD^idO 
Radkj5hdbk rsvj 
D.N.R. FuinltureATV 
toicCHvCakjr A Sound 
AH.r ftaoiD Shu-h 

Fl Ufth R^db Shook. ASC 

The Stereo Hut 

The ficok Nook 

J,rr, Cooper 

L&SSterec 

Brian's EleclronrCJ 

JJOdlO ETraik ASfiCK^t^J Sio-nr. 

"Lalalron 

Uo-^htJ RvjiIjlj 3htxJc 

GHarQi:* FfQClO jI-kx^ 

i^adio Associated SloreE 

■jVUIufs EksCtKMlies 
Slelllei fiocJici flhrx-.i; 
"iVlRitilltirri Beiolronio& 
Pvnnwood SiaN A Sound 
'Aig 5 s loo it. Stereo 
Radb Shock 



BBintiH coLUUiiiAtwmy) 



ER;n&N COLUMBIA 

Lluinaby Ccimr^dii 
turns Lake VT Vkieo Wflfkt 
Campbdl 

H^S tlec-rcnlcfi 



Chlllr^CrLlk 

Ccqdiirdm 

Cocrl&'Ov 

Da^wson Cifi^w 

Redden 

Kekwyi 

LCHTTflloy 1 

r-Ht: j rt lA^i^ 
rtHh^Of 
FfDrKwille 
Pon'cton 

Smith* rs 

SquomlEh 

Vb^oou^ier 



■"00 Vile 
Hjjse 

MANITOBA 

r*Jlona 
Lunaar 

he Pai 
Seikiik 
Vlrdefl 
'i^lnnlofltj 

NEW BflUN&WICfc 

Moncron 

NIWOUNDLAND 

Botwaod 
Oofloonecir 

NO/A5COTIA 
Nalllai 

ONIAWO 

AjTOUS 

.Ajjoio 

Ctncoid 

^Koetef 

Hanover 

Hunteville 

^erora 

Kinoaton 

Utfoi^er 

5out*i firyer 

Toronra 

QUEBEC 

La Sale 
'•'oril flauge 

SASKATCHEWAN 

AsslnEocia 
tEpe^an 
tfAoob* JOrW 
Npl^n 

S-jEliartjcn 
STelbiOflke 
l-SiOalB 
LJnJTy 

VUKDN 

Wi?1ehfyjr: 

JAPAN 

fckyo 

PUEETa MOO 



Qxira; Farmer 
Cody Baow LTD 
Rt^'iMu^SSereQ 
fiflll Efadk> A TV 
r ok.5 Home FurruJTings 
Toteson Marketing; 
, .o!>^^le , ^ , Radio S^ack 
diver's Books 

CooV Books LTD" 
Pg&pAWb IV 

Four Corr-fif ''^rccen,' 
Sdne - ^ Fjectronics 
'AtiN's Home hijrnilLM& 
KoV< QeetrofiiCi 
AonvQ Oorrftcnenls 
Friendryware Ccfl^puteis 
Granville Book Co. 
Silcannedlona BocftstTD 

Vp top Rao'io ft TV 

LA "AfeAjf Lid- 
OcrfflhSumiec, 
Cflnlrd .^ound 
Jofii'&Skjt-'t A Sound 
Sl tnns-Elec. 

A.: M[ir En!erprlEBS 

1^ JBocdTonrOS-Lttf. 

jAflii^s EnSerprieas 
Oirtwtl Nnc 



SeqprjrtE*^: 
Rrapllins 



AlianlicNrjw^ 

Wcro Can^cuifli SiiiVideS 

OofF-pU ViSCfl 

Ingram ^othhuruk 
J. VIocl&OTsO i Sons 
Modetn Ap| JiaiXg Centre 
I lunlfiwdlh 5k&o. 
Danny "ET 

T.M- CarfqSL|1rth( 
Woctefn Apfllkycp( OsTitro 
Mci TV 
Denri€ TV 

Gofdirr- grid Crotch 

tv^ssfjyofigfs do FVesse Benlarrjn fnr. 
Boy r>quEf Cftjrio Loroche 

Te4£lud 

K;jIy*< Fjootronics' 
D^S-Compulof Race 

Cia^rsrloTO Souna 

Rnfliro a?Oo Club 
Software Supermarket 
Ev^MjoV's Sotware Lbfdiy 
S??t. labecae Rode Shack 
P&> v 5 Service 
Sn^ni'ir House of Saunc 

H*0+toldLnfl 6 



Rw i^rMc* Computar Silaii r 
Sottwoie Cltv 



Also available at all B. Dalton Booksellers, and 
selected Coles and W.H. Smith in Canada, 
Waldenbooks, Pickwick Books f Encore Books, 
Barnes & Noble, Little Professors, Tower Book & 
Records, Kroch f s & Brentano's, and Community 
Newscenters. 



JamiHfV 1989 THE RAINBOW 159 




Advertisers Index 



We encourage you to patronize our advertisers — all of whom support the Tandy Color 
Computer. We will appreciate your mentioning the rainbow when you contact these firms. 



A to Z Unlimited ... : .t.;>,, , ... .32 

Adventure No vaivSof twar^ * , . ,67 

After-Five Software ,. 57 

Alpha Software Technologies 149 
Arizona Small Computer 

Company ♦ ... . ..54 

Ark Royal Games .............139 

Bob's Software. 4. ..... . .56 

Burke & Burke y ;/;^ , . .33 

Cer-Comp . . . t , * . , . . . ..... , .142, 1 43 

^^inSOft ........ « .» . . » . * *.-;»:'iV^».. 0 «.. » »81 

C0C0 Connectidn. - ♦ 113 

Codis Enterprises . . . . , + + + - . .83 

Cognitec ...... 29 

Colorware .,, * . > + . 19, 20, 21 

CompuServe . . . . , . , . IPC 

Computer Center # ^ . , . .121 

Computer Island ,-. , . . . .93 

Computer Plus || . . * ... , . . . .3 

CRC/Disto ....... » . . . . * y 1 » r . . . . 55 

D.P.Johnson , 147 

Dayton Associates of 

W. R. Hall, Inc. 122, 123 

Dorsett Educational 

Systems ........... • . . » .11 

Dr. Preble's Programs . .... .97 

E~Z Friendly Software . . ... .31 

EvGrsof t ....... . ... ...«.»«. . '. .... 1 51 

Federal Hill Software . . * * * < . . . .129 

Frank Hogg Laboratories 38, 39 

Game Point Software . . . . . . . 1 25 

Gimmesoft . . . . , , .. . . .^ . .116, 117 

Granite Computer Systems . . . .153 

GSW Software .113 

HawkSoft, Inc. . ... 54 

Howard Medical ...v ;(f . + + 1 + + , .66, 162 

J & R Electronics ..... + + , ,,150 

JR & JR Softstuff ........ . . . .67 

Kenneth Leigh Enterprises 125 

Metric Industries .... . . ; ... . .53 

Michtron . . . *>* «h * ♦ ... . . ..... . BC 

Micro Works, The .47 

M icrocom Software ..... .9, 11,13, 

14, 15, 17 

Microtech Consultants 

Inc 85 



MicroWorld ..... 


. . * . 1 dO 


Orion Technologies .... > 


» . . * . . 1 05 




69, 70, 71 


Performance Peripherals 


. 1 .,.»:* 1 41 


Perry Computers. . ,,. .... .* 


«./ >. . «•♦..-. . 75 


Public Domain ........ . . 


49 




.. 7 


RC Pierce Software . . . ... 


> . . .* ■■»' . 1 55 


Rainbow Adventures 




Book IV 


.% 100 


Rainbow Bookshelf . 


. ... . » . 1 33 


Rainbowfest ... , , ... 


....42,43 


Rainbow Gift Subscription . . . .IBC 


Rainbow on Tape & Disk 


18 


Renco Computer Printer 




Supplies ......... 


... ... 1 39 


Rulaford Research 


12 

........ 1 C— 



SD Enterprises . , . 25, 149, 151, 

153, 155 

Second City Software ... 161 



Call: 

Belinda Kirby 
Advertising Representative 
(502) 228-4497 



□ Call: 

Kim Vincent 

Advertising Representative 
(502) 228-4492 



SpectroSystems + + .. 
SPORTSware ....... 

Sugar Software .... . 

Sundog Systems , ... 

T & D Software. 

T.E.M. of California . 
Tandy/Radio Shack . 
Tepco . . t...» . . h « ... 
True Data Products . 

Try-O-Byte 

Vidicom Corporation 
Wasatchware 
Woodstown Electronics 
Zebra Systems . . . . 



:•' ..... 



... '».. • :»' 



45 

F F - ♦,••» ♦ » 93 

..157 
..137 
.89, 101, 140 
121 

......... 1 c 1 

1 27 

...... I f 

ni, » • * t * . 99 
7^ 

K I / .: I .... \J 

..... . \JS4 

31 

45 

. + . . 1 05 

...... 1 31 



The Falsoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

FAX (502) 228-5121 




160 THE RAINBOW January 1989 



MasterCard VISA CCD. CHECKS 




ORDER 



CoCo CALENDER DELUXE : 
Organize all of your appointments with this 365 day 
Calender. Now with Hi-Res print driver for the 
DMP, CGP, Epson MX-80 and Star Gemini 10X 
printer. Please specifyprinter. 64k DISK $19.95 

BLACKJACK ROYALE: 
Even your casino odds with this Blackjack card 
simulation and tutor! Program can be edited for 
different house rules. 64k DISK $16.95 

BSE - BASIC SCREEN EDITOR: | 
Gives Basic a full-screen editor to supplement the 
regular EDIT commands. Works on the CoCo 1 &2 
and with the CoCo 3, WIDTH 32, 40 or 80 is sup- 
ported! Complete screen cursor control with the 
arrow keys plus features to make EDITing Basic 
programs a snap! BSE, a must have CoCo utility. 
Our low price was the only corner that was cut on 
thisqualityprogram.64kDISK ...$19.95 

CHECK-09MV - Version 2.0 : 
Finally, a program that interacts with MultiVue for 
FAST and EASY check balancing. CHECK-09MV 
and you can now take control of your bank checking 
account. No more waiting on your bank statement 
for an ending balance. CHECK-09MV will provide 
a check-by-check balance in an easy to use format 
that eliminates those monthly surprizes! Bringyour 
money and you closer together and have the buck 
STOP HERE! Featuring an all new EDITING 
command. 512k DISK [ $25.95 

CoCoMAX II : By Colorware 
The 'CLASSIC CoCo graphic program. Draw great 
works of art with the program that set a standard for 
aUothers to follow. Supported by a Hi-Res interface 
and numerous printer drivers for complete set-up. 
64k DISK. $78.45 

CoCoMAX III : By Colorware 



[Turn Telewriter 64 into the best Word Proces- 
sorfor the CoCo 1&2! TELEPATCH is compat- 
ible with all CoCo's. Comes with complete docu- 
mentations for easy upgrading and changes. 
64kDISK $24.95 

[SCHEMATIC DRAFTING PROCESSOR: 
U 'FAST and 'EASY TO USE* ELECTRONIC 
DRAFTING PROCESSOR. Create pro-look- 
ing diagrams using a48Qx54Q pixel screen with 6 
[viewing windows! Over '30* electronic symbols 
[with 10 definable symbols. Even supports Logic 
[gates & Multipin chips! Prin| hardcopy or save 
to disk for later editing. NOW CoCo 3 COM- 



PATIBLE . 64k DISK. $22.95 

|OS-9 SOLUTION : 

Tame the hostile environment of OS-9with OS 
(9 SOLUTION! Replaces 20 of the command 
calls with single keystroke, menu driven com- 
Imands. No more long and complex pathnames 
lorsyntaxes to remember! Works with cither OS- 
|9 Level OneorTwo. . $24.95 

[TAPE/DISK UTILITY : 
L\ utility package that transfers TAPE to DISK 
pr DISK to TAPE automatically. If you just got 
krour first disk drive, TAPE/DISK is a MUST 
III AVE program. Will print tape & disk directo- 
|ries to any supported printer. 64kDISK....$19.95 

DISCOUNT SOFTWARE By ColorVenture 

IRAM DISKLIGHTNING DISK. $16.95 

PRINTER LIGHTNING $16.95 

BACKUP LIGHTNING $16.95 

BUY ALLTH REE FOR ONLY $42.95 

HI-RES JOYSTICK DRIVER. $19.95 

MAX PATCH $19.95 

BUY BOTH FORONLY..... .....$34.95 



All new program based off the 'CLASSIC CoCo- 
Max II software. Allows for full animation, select 16 | 
colors from a 64 color palette, fast & easy to use w/ 
pull down menus in a point-and-click environment. 
128k or512k DISK. $78.45 



Produce hardcopy graphic files with your DMP 
and CGP (B&W) printer. CoCo 1,2 &3 compat- 
ible. 64k DISK $19.95 



DISK UTILITY 2.1A PLUS : 
Acomplete disk utility package for all CoCo's. Full 
Disk I/O for FORMAT, COPY, and BACKUP. 
Supports single or double sided 35 or 40 track 
drives. With DISK UTILITY 2.1A PLUS from 
SCS, you get TWO programs for ONE low price. 

d DISK 
Efl this 



MULTI-PAK CRACK : 

LmIows you to save your ROM-PAK programs 
over to disk...WHERE THEY BELONG! In- 
cludes POKES for problem PAKs and the new 
16k PAKs. 64k DISK. 



$2495 



DISK UTILITY for the CoCo 
UTILITY for the CoCoJ^-" 
magazine for1e j £^^T^' 



1 



MAX-10 : By Colorware 
[The 'Dazzling Word Processor & Document 
Creator for the CoCo3\ You asked for it and 
now it is available at an SCS special price. 
128k DISK. ..$78.45 



ft 3 



I 



SECOND CITY SOFTWARE 



i^ tc r:, cot*? 



.ft* 



tat 



ft IS 



[toft 



caft 



\0' 



Accepts MasterCard, Visa, C.O.D. and 
Check orders. Please add $2.50 for ship- 
ping{$*l.50 fo r Canada orders) & allow 1 to 
weeks for delivery. C.O.D. orders, add 
additional $2.50. 



P.O. Box ii i m 
Roselle, IL 60172 
Voice: 312-653-5610 
_ BBS: 312-307-1.519 

AiJ lT lA new d \sk command ttWL3 h 1 L t i- lie v S. - ru j n ■■; ! 
Supports 40 track & Double Sided drives, 6ms 
stepping, auto disk search, error trapping and 
burnable into an EPROM. 64k DISK S24.95 



MY DOS : By Chris Hawks 
Supports accesses to double sided drives, able to 
use the J&M Controller with the CoCo 3, DIR 
commands simplified and a host of other special 
features. 64k DISK. $14.95 

A-DOS 3 : 

The popular Disk Operating System from Spec- 
troSystems for the CoCo 3. 128k DISK $34.95 

SCS can custom 'burn' your purchased DOS pro- 
gram for only $15.00! This includes the price of the 
EPROM chip and the BURN charge. Call orwrite 
for details. 

VIP LIBRARY : 

This popular 'inlergraded' package includes, VIP 
Writer, Terminal, Data Base, Calc and Disk Zap 
which can fix a diskette with I/O errors. SCS 
special price. 64k DISK. S 1 25.00 

VIP WRITER III w/SPELL CHECKER: 
All new and completely up-graded with expanded 
memory and pull down menus. Settle for only the 
best 100% ML word processor. 128k DISK..S79.95 

VIP DATABASE I II $69.95 

THE NEWSPAPER PLUS : 
DeskTop Publishing for the CoCo 3? With the 
ALL NEW NEWSPAPER PLUS, you now can 
create complete and sophisticated Banners, 
Headlines alongwith Text Columns and Graphics. 
THE NEWSPAPER PLUS allows for importing 
different pictures, fonts and fill patterns from disk 
for that pro-look. Comes complete with 22 fonts 
and 50 clip art pictures. THE NEWSPAPER 
PLUS is an all new upgraded program based on 
the original NEWSPAPER program. SCS is the 
ONLY company authorized to handle THE 
NEWSPAPER PLUS program. Why buy the old, 
overpriced and outdated program when you can 
get the newest release for less! 
128k DISK ; $48.95 

THE NEWSPAPER GRAPHICS DISK I : 
The FIRST OFFICIAL supplementary program 
disk for THE NEWSPAPER. Contains '50' NEW 
PICTURE FILES, '10' NEW FILL PATTERNS 
and «3» ADDITIONAL FONT SETS! GRAPH- 
ICS DISK I is available only from Second City 
Software for $19.95 

NEW FROM SECOND CITY SOFTWARE 

WARRIOR KING : By Sundog Systems 
Battle monsters, gain magic & weapons, and travel 
through harsh wilderness and dark castle dun- 
geons in this medieval realm. An outstanding ar- 
cade game for the CoCo 3! 128k DISK $29.95 



c ot* 



,.o 



> 



• 



t 



- • * 




HOWARD MEDICAL COMPUTERS 



1690 N. Elston • Chicago, IL 60622 • orders (800) 443-1444 • inquiries and order status (312) 278-1440 

Showroom Hours 8-5 M-F. 10-3 SAT _ 

★ 5 STAR FINAL JANUARY '89 COLD 

24 HOUR ORDER LINE 




DC-5 CONTROLLER 

from Hard Drive Specialist gives 
great Radio Shack compatability 
and double sided access to DSDD 
Drives like Howard's DD-3. Two 
ROM sockets, one 24 pin and one 
28 pin allows use of RS 1.1 ROM 
by jumper selection. Gold plated 
contacts reduce I/O Errors. 
$75 ($2 Shipping) 

NX- 1000 STAR printer 

• forward and backward tractor 

. 4K input buffer $189 
. 144 CPS 

NX- 1000 RAINBOW 
color printer $289 

• four-color ribbon 

. front panel font select 
. single sheet and tractor feed at 
same time 

Howard SP-C $68.45 

• serial-to-parallel converter 
. 300 - 9600 baud 

Howard introductory 
special 

.good until 2/16/89 
. SP-C $29.95 with printer order 
. Free coupon for newspaper plus 
($48.95) with any other $15 
order from Second City Soft- 
ware 

• FREE shipping 



are lost when disk is reading or writ- 
ing. Especially useful with OS-9, but 
also works with BASIC. 

MONITOR 

Sony KV-1311CR $ 499 

Regular $625 ($15 shipping) 

• Vivid Color • Vertically flat 13" 
screen • Monitor/Trinitron TV with 
remote control • 640 x 240 reso- 
lution at 15MHZ .37 mm Dot pitch 

• RGB analog & digital; TTL; and 
composite inputs • VCR inputs 

• Cable to CoCo 3 $36 




HARD DRIVE ACCESSORIES 

3' Hard Drive Cable *20 
Burke & Burke Interface 78.45 
Clock Upgrade $20 
RSB S39.95 
TEAC 556*118 
Hard Drive ROM Boot *20 



Guarantee" As 



* 4 
I 

* 



Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee 
is meant to eliminate the uncertainty 
of dealing with a company through 
the mail. Once you receive our hard- 
ware, try it out; test it for compat- 
ibility. If you're not happy with it for 




good as Gold. 

any reason, return it in 30 days and 
we'll give you your money back (less 
shipping.) Shipping charges are for 
48 states. APO, Canada and Puerto 
Rico orders are higher. 




Hard Drive— Ready to Run! 

20,000,000 Bytes or the equivalent to 
a 125 R.S. 50 Ts on line are packed ' 
into this hard drive, pre installed and 
ready to run. All you need to do is 
plug it in and go! This complete easy 
to use package includes a Seagate 20 
Meg Hard Drive, a Western Digital 
WD 1002-WX 1 Controller and 
interface* that plugs into slot #3 of 
multipack interface, plus the case & 
power supply. You even get a 1 year 
warranty. This 20 meg Hard Drive 
will work with IBM & clone. Basic 
driver, $29.95, lets you access this 
hard drive without need for OS-9. 

HD-1 *499 

* Burke & Burke ($9 Shipping) 
Four free coupons from T & D subscrip- 
tions with hard drive order. 
Offer ends 2/16/89 

PAL UPGRADE 
FOR MULTI-PAK 

■ 

specify for 26-3024 or 26-3124 
14.95 ($2 ship) 

24 HOUR ORDER LINE 

800 / 443-1444 

WE ACCEPT VISA • MASTERCARD 
. AMERICAN EXPRESS . C.O.D. OR * 
CHECKS . SCHOOL P.O. 
NEW - DISCOVER CARD 



! 



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HOW DO Y00 GIVE A RAINBOW? 



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It's simple — Give a rainbow gift certificate . 

Let a gift subscription to the 
rainbow carry the premier Color 
Computer magazine right to 
your friend's doorsteps, the 
rainbow is the information 
source for the Tandy Color Com- 
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Each month, your friends will 
enjoy the intelligent programs, 
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First, your gift will be an- 
nounced in a handsome card. 
Then, all year 'round, they'll re- 
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fulness when they get each edi- 
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loaded with delightful programs, 
regular columns and plenty of 
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Generosity benefits the giver, 
too. There'll be no more tracking 
down borrowed copies of the 
rainbow. Your collection will be 
safe at home. 

Give a rainbow gift certificate 
and let your friends in on the fun. 
the rainbow is the perfect com- 
panion for the Color Computer! 



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Subscriptions to the rainbow are $31 in the United States; U.S. $38 in Canada, The surface rate 
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delivery. In order to hold down non-editorial costs, we do not bill. 



Speed Racer 





I • *- j z j 



t 

As the checkered flag drops your pulse rises in this lively arcade 
game. The road twists to the horizon on the 3-D panorama that sets 
the stage for exciting racing. Vie for time as you glide through the 
curves at incredible speeds. Step through the gears to stay ahead of 
the pack, but be quick! Some will stop at nothing to see the end of 
the race, or the end of you! Four challenging raceways, complete 
with obstacles and colorful 3-D scenery test your skills in this Pole 
Position™ type game. 



32K Color Computer required... $34.95 



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■** ■ /rv. f *. 



0 HPH 





PINBALL 

FACTORY! 




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PUWER 1 PtAVER 2 



j PLAYER 3 PLAYER ^ 

I88 < ffl88> 16286581 



Pinball Factory 

Video games come full circle in this tribute to the original arcade 
game, Pinhall. Classic pinball springs to life as never before, with 
fresh new angles that only a computer can offer. Crisp graphics, 
sound, and fast smooth action give this machine-language arcade 
game a realistic, responsive feel you'll hardly believe. There are ; 
even "tilt" buttons that let you "bump" the machine. In addition to 
playing a great game of pinball, you can enjoy hours of creative 
pleasure as you design, build, edit, and play your own screens. 

64K Color Computer required. . .$34.95 



Demon Seed 



The first waves of flying, diving, bloodthirsty bats are arriving. 
Move, fire, and move again. It's a never ending battle. If you are 
lucky enough to defeat the bats, be ready for a much greater 
challenge, The Evil Demons themselves. Destroy a wing and 
another takes its place. Only a direct hit can save you now. It will 
take great skill to triumph. If you do, then you better be ready for 
the End. The Demon Flag Ship descends to destroy your remaining 
ships. Your only hope is to penetrate the hull, break through the 
shield, and destroy the dreaded Gargoyle. 



32KO)lor Computer required... $19.95 




ansia 




MichTron is always looking for programmers and programs. If you are interested in working with one 
of the most respected company's in the computer software field please give us a call. 





For more information 
{ on these or other fine products 
)\ call our knowledgeable staff! 



Michfron 

576 S. Telegraph 
Pontiac, MI 48053 
(313) 334-5700 



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Visa and Mastercard accepted.