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Full text of "The Rainbow Vol. 01 No 1 - Vol 8 No 11"

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Canada $4.95 U.S. 





The Road to CoCo Wizar 



Predict the Outcome of 
the Political Conventions 

Master ML Programming a 
Cartooning CoCo-Style 

Magically ■ 
Disconnect 

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Games, 
, and 
ot More! 



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uter Plus to 




after 



after 





Tandy 1000 HXS539 
Tandy 1000 TX$889 






BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000 HX 1 Drive 256K 539.00 
Tandy 1000 TX 1 Drive 640K 889.00 
Tandy 1000 SX 1 Drive 384K 499.00* 
Tandy 3000 HL 1 Drive 512K 1 129.00 
Tandy 4000 1 Drive 1 Meg. Ram 1959.00 

PRINTERS 

Radio Shack DMP-106 80 CPS 169.00 
Radio Shack DMP-130A 120 CPS 269.00* 
Radio Shack DMP-440 300 CPS 549.00 
Radio Shack DWP-230 Daisy Wheel349.00 
Tandy LP-1000 Laser Printer 1699.00 
Star Micronics NX-1000 144 CPS 229.00 
Star Micronics NX-15 120 CPS 359.00 
Panasonic P-1080i 144 CPS 199.00 
Panasonic P-1091i 194 CPS 249.00 
Panasonic P-1092i 240 CPS 349.00 
Okidata 182+ 144 CPS 259.00 
Okidata 192+ 200 CPS 359.00 
Okidata 292 240 CPS 479.00 



MODEMS 

Radio Shack DCM-6 52.00 

Radio Shack DCM-7 85.00 

Practical Peripheral 2400 Baud 229.00 

Practical Peripheral 1200 Baud 149.00 

CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 

• SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 



COLOR COMPUTER MISC. 

Radio Shack Drive Controller 99.00 
Extended Basic Rom Kit 14.95 
64K Ram Upgrade Kit 39.00 
Radio Shack Deluxe Keyboard Kit 24.95 
HI-RES Joystick Interface 8.95 
Color Computer Deluxe Mouse 44.00 
Multi Pak Interface 89.00 
Multi Pak Pal Chip for COCO 3 14.95 
CM-8 6' Extension Cable 19.95 
Serial to Parallel Conv. 59.95 
Radio Shack Deluxe Joystick 26.95 
Magnavox 8515 RGB Monitor 329.00 
Radio Shack CM-8 RGB Monitor 229.00* 
Radio Shack VM-4 Green Monitor 99.00 
PBJ 51 2K COCO 3 Upgrade 139.00 
Tandy 512K COCO 3 Upgrade 149.00 
Mark Data Universal Video Driver 29.95 

COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

TAPE DISK 

The Wild West (CoCo3) 25.95 

Worlds Of Flight 34.95 34.95 

Mustang P-51 Flight Stmul. 34.95 34.95 

Flight 16 Flight Simul. 34.95 34.95 

COCO Util II by Mark Data 39.95 



COCO Max II by Colorware 79.95 
COCO Max 111 by Colorware 79.95 
AutoTermbyPXEComputing29.95 39.95 
TelePatch IK by Spectrum 29.95 
TW-80 by Spectrum (CoCo3) 39.95 
Telewriter 64 49.95 59.95 

Elite Word 80 79.95 
Elite Calc 3.0 69.95 
CoCo3 512KRamDiskbyCerComp 19.95 
Home Publisher by Tandy (CoCo3)35.95 
Sub Battle Sim, by Epyx (CoCo3) 26.95 
Thexder by Sierra (CoCo3) 22.45 
Kings Quest III by Sierra (CoCo3) 31.45 
Flight Sim. I! by SubLogic (CoCo3)31.45 
OS-9 Level II by Tandy 71 .95 

OS-9 Development System 89.95 
Multi-View by Tandy 44.95 
VIP Writer (disk only) 69.95 
VIP Integrated Library (disk) 149.95 

'Sale prices through 6/30/88 
Prices are subject to change without 
notice. Please call for shipping charges. 
Prices in our retail store may be higher. 
Send for complete catalog. 




■ 





P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 

i 



I 




Tabl e of Cont e nt j 




: _1 




16 

4 We iv 

Outlook for OS-9 

Mark Roseman 
L/s/ngi subdirectories and 
shell scripts to build an OS-9 
menu system 

28 

One of Our Pool ^ 
Balls Must Be Crazy! 

Bruce W. Ronald 
A logic problem tester 




34 ^ 

CoCo's 

Current Companion 

Marc Campbell 
>A program editor for 
the Co Co 3 

48 _ 

Set Your % 
Wheels to Spinning 

Bill Bernico 

Brus/7 up your programming 
creativity and show us 
the result! 

50 

Cartooning 
With Co Co 

Logan Ward 
A tutorial on creating 
CoCo comics, and the 
announcement of an ongoing 
cartoon-drawing contest 

58 ^ 

Escape *w 
From Tut's Tomb 

Chris McKernan 
An action-packed arcade 
game written in 
machine language 



93 

Get the Picture? ^ 

Al Elmer 

A program enabling you to 
view MacPaint picture files 
on your CoCo 

96 

Write III Plus % 

Larry E. Bates 
Add embedded printer 
commands to 
Write Ml 



July 1988 
Vol. VII No. 12 

98 

CoCo Mobile 

The RAINBOW Staff 
Our birthday present 
— to you! 

100 

Machine 
Language Made 
BASIC 

William P. Nee 
First in a series of tutorials 
for the beginner to 
intermediate machine 
language programmer 

110 

Convention! % 

Leonard Hyre 
A program to help you keep 
track of voting at this year's 
political conventions 

118 

Erase All Trace! % 

Jeremy Spiller 
Free up more memory to run 
long programs without 
unplugging your disk drive 

133 

The Seventh 
Year of Rainbow 

Leslie A. Foster 
An index to the articles, 
programs, reviews and 
authors of the past year 




THE RAINBOW July 1988 



I Nov i c e s N i ch c fo 
80 

Cryptologist's Sidekick 

Donald Kyllo 

80 

Novices Niche 
Addendum: Cryptogram 
Contest Results 

82 

Here Eagles Dare 

Steve Caldwell 

82 

ML Addresses 

Bill Bernico 

83 

CoCo 3 Green Screen 
Blues 

Charles F. Phillips 

83 

Guess Who? 

Keiran Kenny 

84 

Looking for a Heartbeat 

Wilmer B. Maxwell 

85 

May the Force Be With 
You? 

Travis Halbrook 



Co l umns 



86 

BASIC Training 

Joseph Kolar 
"Thirty Days Hath 
September'* 

146 

CoCo Consultations 

Marty Goodman 

Just what the doctor ordered 

150 

Delphi Bureau 

Cray Augsburg 
Downloading problems, 
Part 3 and Hutchison's 
database report 

154 

Doctor ASCII 

Richard Esposito 
The question fixer 

Education Notes 

Steve Blyn 

Practice in solving verbal 
math problems 

12 

PRINT#-2, 

Lawrence C. Falk 
Editor's notes 



1 Product R e v ie ws 



Bix Pix Z/Tothian Software, Inc 

Carioonamator/CoCotronics Software 



124 

123 

Computer Dictionary/Howard IV. Sams & Co., Inc. 128 

Domination/ HAWKSoft 124 

EZWriter/E. Z.Friendly Software 127 

Home Publisher/ Tandy Corporation 122 

Hyper MO I Burke & Burke 130 

Mr. Corey/ Valkyrie Software 131 

Stylograph/Sfy/o Software, Inc 126 

System5/Sun Products 129 



THE RAINBOW is published every month of the year by FALSOFT, Inc., The 
Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059, 
phone (502) 228-4492. THE RAINBOW, RAINBOWfest and THE RAINBOW and 
RAINBOWfest logotypes are registered ® trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. • 
Second class postage paid Prospect, KY and additional offices. USPS N. 705- 
050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797). POSTMASTER: Send address changes to THE 
RAINBOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. Authorized as second class 
postage paid from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 
• Entire contents copyright © by FALSOFT, Inc., 1 988. THE RAINBOW is intended 
for the private use and pleasure of its subscribers and purchasers and 
reproduction by any means is prohibited. Use of information herein is for the 
single end use of purchasers and any other use is expressly prohibited. All 
programs herein are distributed in an "as is" basis, without warranty of any kind 
whatsoever. • Tandy, Color BASIC, Extended Color basic and Program Pak are 
registered ® trademarks of the Tandy Corp. • Subscriptions to THE RAINBOW 
are $31 per year in the United States. Canadian rates are U.S. $38. Surface mail 
to other countries is U.S. $68, air mail U.S. $103. All subscriptions begin with 
next available issue. • Limited back issues are available. Please see notice for 
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American Express, cash, check or money order in U.S. currency only. Full 
refund after mailing of one lasue. A refund of 10/I2ths the subscription amount 
after two issues are mailed. No refund after mailing of three or more magazines. 



148 

Turn of the Screw 

Tony DiStefano 
A project to fit two adapters 
into your controller at the 
same time 

Wishing Well ▼ 

Fred Scerbo 

Training in correct comma 
sense 



|§» The cassette tape/disk sym- 
bols beside features and col- 
umns indicate that the program listings 
with those articles are on this month's 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAIN- 
BOW on disk. Those with only the 
disk symbol are not available on 
rainbow on tape. For details, 
check the rainbow on tape and 
rainbow on disk ad on Page 104. 



1 Rainbowtech 



160 ^ 

Barden's Buffer ^ 

William Barden, Jr. 
Can the CoCo learn? 

174 A 

KISSable OS-9 V 

Dale L. Puckett 
Sending the right signals 



D e partm e nts 



Advertisers Index 
Back Issue Info _ 
CoCo Cat 



CoCo Gallery 

Corrections 

Hint 



Letters to Rainbow 
Maxwell Mouse 



.192 

.171 

_ 50 
. 26 

.159 

.189 

. 6 

. 12 



One-Liners 12, 94, 95, 131 

Racksellers 190 

Rainbow Info 14 

Received & Certified 132 

Scoreboard 90 

Scoreboard 

Pointers 92 

Submitting Material 

to Rainbow 187 

Subscription Info 188 



The Rainbow 



Editor and Publisher 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor Jutta Kapfhammer 

Associate Editor Jody Gilbert 

Reviews Editor Lauren Willoughby 

Submissions Editor Angela Kapfhammer 

Copy Editor SueFomby 

Technical Editors Cray Augsburg, 
Ed Filers 

Editorial Assistants Sue H. Evans, 
Wendy Falk, Carolyn Fenwick 

Contributing Editors 

William Barden, Jr., 
Steve Blyn, Tony DiStefano, 
Richard Esposito, 
Martin Goodman, M.D., 
Joseph Kolar, Dale Puckett, 
Fred Scerbo, Richard White 

Art Director Heidi Maxedon 

Designers Robert Hatfield, Jr >v 
Oenise Webb 

Typesetter Jody Doyle 

Falsoft, Inc. 

President Lawrence C. Falk 
Generai Manager Bonnie Frowenfeld 
Asst. General Mgr. for Finance 

Donna Shuck 
Admin. Asst. to the Publisher 

Sarah Levin 
Editorial Director John Crawley 
Asst. Editorial Director Judi Hutchinson 
Executive Editor James E. Reed 
Senior Editor T. Kevin Nickols 
Production Coordinator 

Jim Cleveland 
Chief Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Dealer Accounts Judy Quashnock 
Asst. General Manager For Administration 

Sandy Apple 
Word Processor Manager 

Patricia Eaton 
Customer Service Manager 

Beverly Beardon 
Customer Service Representative 

Monica Wheat 
Development Coordinator Ira Barsky 
Chief of Printing Services Melba Smith 
Dispatch Tony Olive 
Business Assistant Laurie Falk 
Advertising Coordinator Doris Taylor 
Advertising Representatives 

Belinda Kirby, Kim Vincent 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 
(502) 228-4492 



For RAINBOW Advertising and 
Marketing Office Information, 
see Page 192 

Cover illustration copyright © 1988 
by Fred Crawford 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 5 



l 



the 







MD 














BOW 





Editor: 

1 would like to caution the CoCo Com- 
munity about Trojan Horse, or virus, soft- 
ware. Virus software is designed to be 
unnoticeable when it is loaded from cassette 
or disk into a computer, while it slowly 
destroys the computer system. Viruses 
automatically start to change the data inside 
the computer. If a virus is in the computer 
system when someone saves a program to 
tape or disk, the virus "reproduces" by 
copying itself with the program, leaving just 
enough of itself to wreck the system. 

Anyone with a computer at home, school 
or office is at risk, as are the nation and the 
world. Whole computer networks have been 
terminated because of virus software. Imag- 
ine what could happen if just one bank in 
the U.S. became a victim to virus software! 

One way to check for a virus intrusion is 
to look at the time and date tables for each 
program on a disk (if these tables are 
available to you). A virus will instantly 
attack the time and date a program was 
saved to disk. 

1 certainly hope that the CoCo Commu- 
nity will be on the lookout for virus soft- 
ware. If the Community can pull together, 
maybe we can put an end to Trojan Horse 
software. 

Jamie Stafford 
Norton, OH 

HINTS & TIPS 

Editor: 

My CoCo 3 had an overheating problem 
after 1 installed the 512K upgrade board. 
First I was told to use a fan to cool the 
computer. This seemed to solve my problem. 
Then one day I turned on my computer and 
got only a green screen. There was no sign- 
on message and no keyboard response. 
Pressing the reset button had no effect, 
either. 

I took the cover off and removed the 5 1 2K 
RAM board, turned it over and noticed all 
the joints were cold-soldered. I resoldered all 
joints on the board, replaced it, and all is 
well. 1 don't even need a fan anymore. 

Brad Stein 
Winnipeg, Manitoba 

A Subroutine Change 

Editor: 

I have tested the Hi-Res Joystick Interface 
ML subroutine [February 1988, Page 122] 
on my CoCo 2. It works very well with a 
simple one-byte change. 

The first instruction is equivalent to the 
high-speed poke. It doubles the clock speed 
to make the routine more responsive. How- 
ever, it is programmed for the CoCo 3, 
which goes high-speed when poked at 
&HFFD9. You must change it to &HFFD7. 
Simply POKE &H7FG2,&HD7 after the ML is 
in memory. If you are loading from DRTfi 
statements, change the third byte to D7. 



Of course, the values returned are the 
coordinates for the CoCo 3 Hi-Res screen, 
which has 640 dots horizontally. To change 
the X-value to correspond to a 256-dot 
resolution, divide by 2, then set the result to 
255 if it is greater. 

If the high-speed clock causes any prob- 
lems in your program (for example, if you 
are using the printer), simply POKE 
&HFFD6,0 after the subroutine call. 

Duane M, Perkins 
Mt. Gretna, PA 

Text Fix 

Editor: 

I've noticed that TW-80 (my version 
anyhow) won't load anything other than an 
ASCII text file. This means it wont load an 
ASCII basic program or anything else 
without that filetype attribute. 

I require this capability since I often 
include samples of basic code in my corre- 
spondence. I also consider it an annoying 
restriction. 

Here's a fix in case you have that problem, 
too. Do this with a backup copy of your 
configured TW-80 disk: 

LOfiDM "DI5KMENU" 

PRINT (HEX$(PEEK(&H22B5) ) 

If the computer returns a 27, continue on: 
Otherwise, stop now, since your version isn't 
the same as mine. 

If it returns 27 then 

POKE &H2285,&H20 

5RVEM "DI5KMENU",&H2000, 

&H3B1B,&H2000 rt , , 

Mike Ward 

Coral Gables, FL 
Converting the CM-4 RGB 

Editor: 

Your readers should be aware that many 
Radio Shack products are discontinued 
each year and that these SOWG (Sold Out 
When Gone) items are offered at incredibly 
reduced prices. For example, I bought a CD 
player (Model 2200) for $79! 

I also picked up a CM-4 RGB monitor for 
$59. This unit originally sold for $299, and 
there may still be some around. 

To convert it to a CoCo 3, you need to 
order the CM-8 monitor cable from Tandy 
National Parts (about $8). You also need the 
nine-pin female connector 276-1538 ($2.49) 
and hood 276-1539 ($1.99). 

Hook up as follows: 



CoCo 3 

7 
1 

2 
3 
5 
6 



to CM-4 

2 
3 
4 
5 
8 
9 



Ground 
R 
G 
B 

Vertical sync 
Horizontal sync 



The CM-4 doesn't have audio, but for 60 
bucks, who cares! The picture looks great! 

Bob Ocean 
Santa Rosa, CA 



KUDOS 

Editor: 

Thanks to James A. Upperman for pro- 
viding the excellent child protection pro- 
gram in the April 1988 issue of the rainbow. 
Such a program is desperately needed in the 
world in which we live. 

Using his example, the pediatrician for 
whom my wife works has implemented just 
such a standardized form. I'm sure that 
minor children everywhere will benefit. 

Don Hutchison 
Atlanta, GA 



Support for the End User 

Editor: 

1 recently had problems with two pro- 
grams in your magazine. One was VCR 
Tapes, by Randy Mayfield, from the De- 
cember 1987 rainbow (Page 92). The other 
was "Appointment Calendar" by Bill Hol- 
dorf (January 1988, Page 100). In both cases, 
I was able to contact the authors and explain 
my problems. Mr. Mayfield not only helped 
correct the problem, he sent a copy of an 
update. Mr. Holdorf also was very helpful; 
he, too, sent a copy of an update. 

1 recently sent for a program reviewed in 
one of your earlier issues — TOMELA*Co's 
Bowling League Secretary by Tom Bennett. 
I was having trouble getting it to print on 
my DMP-105 and contacted him. He 
worked with me and now it prints just fine. 

I am sure you receive many letters from 
people saying the same things about other 
authors. It seems that just about all who 
publish or advertise a program in your 
magazine, whether individual or small 
company or large, seem to go the extra 
couple of miles to be of help. 

Lastly, thank you for a very "user- 
friendly" magazine. I seem to go through my 
copy each month faster and faster. I then 
chomp at the bit until the next copy arrives. 
Thank you, Mr. Mayfield, Mr. Holdorf, Mr. 
Bennett and RAINBOW, for "making my 
months." 

Richard Mullicane 
Rancho Cordova, CA 

INFO PLEASE 

Editor: 

1 am a legally blind man with a cassette- 
based CoCo 2, which I purchased for use 
here at AEB (Arkansas Enterprises for the 
Blind). I have bought the Speech/ Sound 
Pak to help me enter programs, with the 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



i 



i 




AUTOTERM 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLD'S 
SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING 

EXTRA FEATURES ON COCO 3 DISK 

80 char, screen, 2400 baud thru serial port, 
95,000 to 475,000 character buffer. 



EASY COMMUNICATION + WORD PROCESSING + TOTAL AUTOMATION 



Full prompting and error checking. 
Step-by-step manual has examples. 
Scroll text backward and forward. No 
split words on screen or printout. 
Save, load, delete files while on line. 
Print, save all or any part of text. 300 
or 1200 baud. All 128 ASCII 
characters. Works with D.C. Hayes or 
any modem. Screen widths of 32, 40, 
42, 51, 64. 

DISK VERSION SUPPORTS RS232 
PAK, XMODEM and SPLIT SCREEN 
FOR PACKET RADIO. 



Please hire the mentally retarded. 
They are sincere, hard working and 
appreciative. Thanks! ^ ^ 



Editing is super simple with the 
cursor. Find strings instantly tool 
Insert printer control codes. Specify 
page size and margins. Switch 
quickly between word processing 
and intelligent terminal action. Create 
text, correct your typing errors; then 
connect to the other computer, 
upload your text or files, download 
information, file it, and sign-off; then 
edit the receive data, print it in an 
attractive format, and/or save it on 
file. Compatible with TELEWRITER. 

CASSETTE $29.95 
DISKETTE $39.95 

Add $3 shipping and handling 

MC/VISA/C.O.D. 



Advanced system of keystroke 
macros lets you automate any 
activity, such as dial via modem, 
sign-on, interact, sign-off, print, save. 
Perform entire session. Act as 
message taker. At start-up, disk 
version can automatically set 
parameters, dial, sign-on, interact, 
read/write disk, sign-off, etc. Timed 
execution lets AUTOTERM work 
while you sleep or play. No other 
computer can match your COCO's 
intelligence as a terminal. 

PXE Computing 

11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson, Texas 75080 

214/699-7273 



hopes that it would allow me to type in lines 
of a program and have it echo text and error 
messages back to me. I am not able to read 
listings of long programs and type at the 
same time. Is there a machine language 
program that will work like Echo on the 
Apple? 

I would also appreciate more information 
on machine language programming and any 
machine language projects to help me get 
started on the 6906E microprocessor. Radio 
Shack has no books available on the subject. 
I am ordering an assembler, but I need more 
than that. I need to see some ideas for 
programs and possibly more tips and tricks. 

Mike Dalene 
28 11 Fair Park Boulevard 
Little Rock, AR 72204 

While it isn 7 exactly what you are 
looking for, Mike, check out "Yakety- 
Yak the CoCo Talks Back" (October 
1987, Page 106). For assembly lan- 
guage, we refer you to the TEPCO 
advertisement for Assembly Lan- 
guage Programming for the TRS-80 
Color Computer and William Nee's 
series on assembly language which 
begins on Page 100 of this issue. 



Patch Needed 

Editor: 

A couple of years ago I purchased a 
graphics draw program called VIZIDraw 
that was a fine value for its cost. It was sold 



by GRAFX, P.O. Box 254-W, Mifflin, PA 
15122. Since purchasing the CoCo3, 1 have 
not been able to run the program. I have 
many important graphics pages saved and 
would like to see them again. Does anyone 
know of a patch for this program? 

I have not had any success contacting the 
parent company. Perhaps it is no longer in 
business. Any help would be appreciated. I 
would very much like to buy the new CoCo 
Max, but I just don't want to forget all the 
graphics I have saved now. 

Richard W. Zawatzke 
6331 Taylor Ave. 
Racine, Wl 53403 

Converting the Stick 

Editor: 

Where can I get an Atari-to-Color Com- 
puter joystick adapter and how much will it 
cost? 

Clifford Lingle 
7125 Glennwood 
Overland Park, KS 66204 

Copying Problems 

Editor: 

For some time now I have been looking, 
with no success, for a way to print out a hard 
copy of my Micro Illustrator files. One of 
my biggest difficulties is having almost no 
experience with OS-9. Is there any help for 
me, or am I just out of luck? 

Also, just this year I purchased a disk 



drive; while converting my files to disk, I 
encountered a few problems. I can't seem to 
save Madness and the Minotaur, Raaka-Tu 
or Pyramid. When 1 try, 1 get an error. IVe 
tried to save them with a terminal program, 
but when I try to load each program back 
to run it I get an FS Error. What do you 
suggest? 

Also, I'm having trouble copying some of 
my ROM packs. I've followed the instruc- 
tions from an older issue, but they don't 
seem to work on Roman Checkers, Personal 
Finance II and a few others. Is there any 
other way? 

Paul A. Pritchett 
Pleasure Bay, Apt. 6 
Long Branch, NJ 07740 

CoCo Record-Keeping 

Editor: 

I own a small exterminating company 
with about 75 customers. I would like some 
information or help in getting a program like 
some other exterminators' that is compati- 
ble for my Color Computer. 

I have the CoCo 3 with 512K memory, 
two disk drives and a DM P- 100 printer. I 
like this computer and don't want to get rid 
of it to get an IBM compatible, but due to 
the amount of writing 1 do to keep records 
and to fill out invoices and work orders, I 
may have to go this route. 

I really hope you can help me. 

Michael S. Richman 
107-67 92nd Street 
Ozone Park, NJ 11417 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 



To BBS or not to BBS 

Editor: 

I am considering a hard disk and an auto- 
answer multi-baud modem for my 5I2K 
CoCo 3. 1 would like to set up my system 
as a 24-hour BBS, running under OS-9 Level 
II, but 1 do not want to lose the use of it for 
other things under OS-9. Also, I would like 
to be able to tailor the BBS to my needs and 
change it as I see the need. 1 would appre- 
ciate any comments, suggestions and infor- 
mation about software and hardware to 
accomplish this. 

Andrew Cazier 
10213 19th S. W. 
Seattle, WA 98146 




• 1 am 10 years old and looking for a pen 
pal aged 7 through 15 who likes sports or 
playing games on the computer. I have a 
CoCo 3 and two disk drives. 

Eddie Roginski 
RD #/, Box 216 
Mertztown, PA 19539 

• 1 have a CoCo 3, FD-501 disk drive, 
DMP-130 printer and a cassette recorder. I 
am 14 years old and would welcome letters 
from all over the world. 

Frank Ferrara 
27200 Santa Ana 
Warren, Ml 48093 

• I am 21 years old, have a CoCo 3, DMP- 
106 printer and CCR-8I cassette recorder. I 
am a Mexican student and would like to 
have pen pals from anywhere in the world. 

Ubaldo Jimenez Yee 
1933 D. Ave. 
National City, CA 92050 

• I would like to get to know some nice 
people who want to be my pen pal. I have 
a CoCo 3 with a Radio Shack disk system. 
I am 16 years old and I speak more French 
than English. 

Laurent Toulet 
3655 Ridgwood 
Apt. 406 
Montreal, Canada 
H3V1B4 

• I'm 10 years old and have a CoCo 3 with 
printer and disk drive. I would like to have 
pen pals from all over the world. 

Andrew Pinckston 
Box 1228 
Blind River, Ontario 
Canada POR 1 BO 

• I am basically a game and sports fanatic, 
not much interested in technical or program- 
ming stuff. I'm in my 30s and love to play 
with my CoCo 2 and disks. I need some help 
with some Adventures and will help you 
with improving game scores. Write soon. 

J.K. Glass 
410 E. Park Ave. 
Long Beach, NY 11561 



• I'm 15 and have a CoCo 3 with a disk 
drive, and Vm looking for pen pals (with a 
CoCo 3 and disk drive) all over the world 
(especially Canada). I love music, graphics 
and Simulations! Also, Til answer all letters. 

Roderick Clark 
15215 Chaseridge 
Missouri City, TX 77489 

• I would like to have some pen pals any- 
where in the U.S. I am 14 years old and have 
a 64K CoCo 2, a printer and a disk drive. 

Andrew Cooper 
311 Fern Drive 
At co, N J 08004 

• I am 16 years old and would like pen pals. 
I own a 64K CoCo 2, a 128K CoCo 3, two 
FD-500 drives, a CM-8 monitor, Multi-Pak 
Interface and DMP-105. I am interested in 
OS-9. Oh, one thing: Piraters, don't waste 
your slamps! 

Heath DingVi>ell 
RR #2, Box 230 
Litchfield, CT 06759 

• I am 36 years old and have the CoCo 2 
with tape system. I just sent for the 64K 
upgrade. This is all new to me, but I love it. 
I would love to hear from pen pals of any 
age. 

Freda Finch 
RFD #2, Box 140B1 
Ellsworth, ME 04605 

• Tm 42 years old and enjoy horsing around 
with my computers, a Model III and a 64K 
CoCo with two drives, a graphics pad, 
DMP-105 and a Multi-Pak. I've done just 
about everything to these puppies but paint 
a sports stripe down the side of them. I know 
some German and Spanish and a micro- 
scopic bit of Russian and would like to 
correspond with anybody anywhere in any 
of these languages. No parameter/ limits on 
age. 

Richard Overstreet 
3724 Broadway. Apt. 605 
Kansas City, MO 641 11 

• 1 am 27 years old and have a CoCo 3. I 
am interested in pen pals who would like to 
develop strategy games for the CoCo 3. I 
work as a graphics design artist. 

David Rubright 
1015 Muscatine Ave. 
Iowa City, IA 53340 



BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS 



• You're standing at a guarded bridge. In the 
distance you see an open market and beyond 
that the walled city of Karian. As you stand 
there a guard steps up and says, "What is thy 
name?" That's how The Realm Adventure 
System opens up. The Realm is a true 
fantasy role-playing Adventure board using 
software written specifically for this type of 
board. You'd have to see it to appreciate the 
uniqueness of the system. All users are given 
instant access to all features. The hours are 



10 p.m. to 10 a.m. each day, plus additional 
hours posted on the board. The system 
supports 300 and 1200 baud and can be 
reached at (513) 251-4472. 

Floyd Resler 
2834 Lehman Rd. 
Cincinnati, OH 45204 

• I am happy to announce the arrival of my 
board, CoCo Brothers BBS (CBBBS Ver- 
sion 2.1 A). It is currently running at 8-N-l, 
300/ 1200 baud. Call between 9 p.m. and 9 
a.m., CS.T at (501) 562-4312. 

Chris Bagnor 
8701 1-30 
Little Rock, A R 72209 

• I would like to announce a new BBS in 
the Marysviile and Yuba City calling area. 
09- Online BBS is my own BBS software 
running under OS-9 on a 512K CoCo 3. It 
is up 24 hours a day, 7 days a week at (916) 
742-6835. The parameters for calling are 300 
baud only with 8 bit, no parity and 1 stop 
bit. 

Jim Vestal 
1100 E. 17th St. mi 
Marysviile, CA 95901 

• I am running a CoCo BBS whose hours 
are 9 p.m. to 6 a.m. seven days a week. Baud 
rates are 300/ 1200, and the phone number 
is (718) 335-4874. 

Bob Zuckerman 
P. O. Box 368 
Jackson Heights, NY 11372-0368 

• My system has been online since No- 
vember 1985. System protocol includes a 
baud rate of 300/ 1200/2400, 24 hours at 8- 
N-I; 65.5 Mb disk space. Phone (608) 655- 
3806 or (608) 274-6922. 

The system operates on a Tandy 1000 and 
supports all Tandy operating systems, 
including the Color Computer. 

The system also supports a very large 
Ham Conference and is open to the public. 

Francis Selje (SysOp) 
P.O. Box 514 
Marshall WI 53559 

• Announcing the birth of a new CoCo SIG 
on Starbase BBS, featuring a CoCo confer- 
ence, large upload/ download base, online 
games and CoCo support! Call (806) 745- 
9167. 

Lance Johnston 
3510 27th St. 
Lubbock, TX 79410 

the rainbow welcomes letters to the 
editor. Mail should he addressed to: Letters 
to Rainbow, The Fateoft Building, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. Letters should 
include the writer's full name and address. 
Letters may be edited for purposes of clarity 
or to conserve space. 

Letters to the editor may also be sent to 
us through our Delphi CoCo SIG. From the 
CoCo SIG> prompt, type RAI to take you 
into the Rainbow Magazine Services area of 
the SIG. At the RAlNBOW> prompt, type 
LET to reach the LETTER S> prompt and 
then select Letters for Publication. Be sure 
to include your complete name and address. 



8 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



i 



< 




Word 
Power 3 





(The Ultimate Word Processor for the CoCo 3) 



Power Unleashed! Unlike other word- processors, Word Power 
3.1 is written from scratch for the CoCo3. It bridges the gap between 
"what is" and" what should be" in word- processors No other word 
processor offers such a wide array of features that are so easy to 
learn and use. 

DISPLAY 

The 80* column display with true lowercase lets you view the full 
width of a standard page All prompts are displayed in plain 
English in neat colored windows (see display above) ♦ The 
current column number, line number, page number and percentage 
of free memory is displayed on the screen at all times. The program 
even displays the bottom margin perforation so you know where 
one page ends and the other begins. You can also change foreground/ 
background color of screen and select menu and carriage return 
colors to suit your needs! Carriage returns can be visible or invisible 
Word Power 3.1 runs at double clock speed and can be used with 
RGB/ composite/ monochrome monitors as well as TV. 

AVAILABLE MEMORY 

No other word processor gives you so much memory. Word Power 
3.1 gives you over 72K on a 128 K machine and over 450K on a 
51 2K machine to store text 

EDITING FEATURES 
Word Power3.1 has one of the most powerful and user- friendly 
full- screen editors with word- wrap. All you do is type Word 
Power 3.1 takes care of the text arrangement It even has a built-in 
Auto- Save feature which saves the current text to disk at regular 
intervals; so you know that your latest version is saved to disk. Here 
are some of the impressive editing features of Word Power 3.1: 

Insert/ Overstr ike Mode (Cursor style changes to indicate mode); 
OOPS recall during delete; Type- ahead buffer for fast typers; Key- 
repeat (adjustable) and Key- click; Four- way cursor control and 
scrolling; Cursor to beginning of text, end of text, beginning of line, 
end of line, top/ bottom of screen, next/ previous word; Page up/ 
down; Delete character, previous/ next word, beginning/end of 
line, complete line, text before and after cursor; Locate/ Replace 
with wild- card search with auto/ manual replace; Block Mark, 
Unmark, Copy, Move and Delete; Line Positioning (Left/Cento/ 
Right); Set/ Reset 120 programmable tab stops; Word count. Define 
left, right, top and bottom margins and page length. You can also 
highlight text (underline- with on-screen underlining, bold, 
italics, superscripts, etc). Word Power 3.1 even has a HELP screen 
which can be accessed any time during edit 



Mjr 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 
RO. Box 214 
Fairport, NY 14450 
Phone (716) 223-1477 



MAIL MERGE 

Ever try mailing out the same letter to 50 different people or sending 
out several resumes? Could be quite a chore Not with Word Power 
3.1. Using this feature, you can type a letter, follow it with a list of 
addresses and have Word Power 3.1 print out personalized letters. 
It 1 s that easy! 

SAVING/LOADING TEXT 
Word Power 3.1 creates ASCII format files which are compatible 
with almost all terminal, spell- checking and other word- processing 
programs. It allows you to load, save, append and kill files and also to 
create and edit Basic, Pascal, C and Assembly files You can select files 
by simply cursoring through the disk directory. Supports double- 
sided drives and various step rates. 

PRINTING 

Word Power 3.1 drives almost any printer (DMP series, EPSON, 
GEMINI, OKID ATA, etc) . Allows print options such as baud rates, 
line spacing page pause, partial print, page numbers, page number 
placement, linefeed option, multi-line headers/ footers, right 
justification and number of copies (see display above). The values 
for these parameters and the margins can be changed anytime in the 
text by embedding Printer Option Codes. Word Power 3.1 has the 
WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET feature which allows you 
to preview the text on the screen as it will appear in print You can see 
margins, page breaks, justification and more 

SPELLING CHECKER 

Word Power 3.1 comes with a 50,000 word spelling checker/ 
dictionary which finds and corrects mistakes within your text. You 
can add words to or delete from the dictionary or create a dictionary 
of your own. 

PUNCTUATION CHECKER 
This checker will proofread your text for punctuation errors such 
as capitalization, spaces after periods/ commas, double words and 
much more It's the perfect addition to any word processor 

DOCUMENTATION 
Writing with Word Power 3.1 is a breeze Word Power 3.1 comes 
with a well- written, easy- to- comprehend instruction manual which 
will lead you step- by- step through the program. 

Word Power3,l comes on an UNPROTECTED disk and is compatible 
with RS DOS 1.0/1.1 and ADOS Only $79.95. 

(Word Power 3 owners can get the 3.1 version by sending proof of 
purchase and $10.00 to cover the cost of shipping and the manual) 

/ purchased your Word Power. It arrived in time for my 
13 year old daughter to process her history fair project. 
Word Power was easy to use and the features beat the 
heck out of the other word processors we were using. 

KEG Tallahassee / Florida 



To Place Credit Card Orders Call Toll Free 1-800-654-5244 9 AM- 9 PM EST 7 days a week 

NY, Canada, Foreign Orders, Information, Technical Advice and Order Status call 1-716-223*1477 
All orders within Continental US shipped by UPS 2 nd Day Air at no extra charge. 
VISA, MC AMEX, Check, MO. No CODs Please add $3.00 S&H (USA & Canada), other countries $5.00 S&H. NYS residents please add sales tax. 




The 

Dream 

Machine 



This is the 85th issue of THE RAINBOW. Seven years! What started out 
as a part-time venture has, as you all know, become a more-than- 
full-time business. | 
And, yes, as a business we have to do all the things that businesses do 
— prepare budgets, meet deadlines, set up policies and the like. But 
somehow, THE RAINBOW is different. 

Someone once told me at a RAINBOWfest that it was a shame I could 
run a business and still enjoy playing with my CoCo. I guess he was right, 
and that is what makes this "different." 

But there is something else, too. My mail will, I think, give you some 
insight to what I'm talking about. 



* * * 



The first letter comes from Massachusetts and contains a clipping of a 
newspaper article from The Berkshire Eagle of Pittsfield. It features a 
picture of Fred Scerbo and announces that Fred has been named a recipient 
of one of only seven statewide Distinguished Service Awards from the 
state's Interscholastic Athletic Association. 

Fred, you see, is an assistant wrestling coach. That is a volunteer job 
at Drury High School, where Fred is a special needs teacher. As most of 
you know, he is one of our regular columnists and has been for years. 

We've visited by phone many times. Often, he has mentioned that he's 
been working with this student or that on the CoCo ? and how the computer 
provided an interest in something other than "trouble" for scores of 
youngsters in his area. | 

Indeed, it was the Color Computer that contributed to Fred's award. 
He set up a program to do the time-consuming job of setting pairings for 
wrestling tournaments. A number of associations in his area use those 
pairings. 



A 




COCO 3 UTILITIES GALORE 

(All utilities support 40/80 columns for CoCo3) 
(CoCo2 versions are available for most utilities) 




SUPER TAPE/DISK TRANSFER 

Disk-to-Disk Copy (1-3 passes) • Tape- to- Disk Copy • Tape- to- Disk Automatic Relocate • Disk- 
to- Tape Copy • Tape- to- Tape Copy 

Copies Basic/ ML programs and DATA files CoCo 1, 2 & 3. 32 K Disk System (Disk to Disk Copy requires 
64 K). Disk Only $24.95 



CoCo CHECKER 

Something possibly wrong with your CoCo? CoCo Checker is the answer! Will test your ROMs, RAMs, Disk 
Drives & Controller, Printer, Keyboard Cassette, Joysticks, Sound PIAs, VDG, Internal Clock Speed Multi- 
pak Interface and more! $24.95 



DISK UTILITY 2.1 A 

A multi-featured tool for USER FRIEN DLY disk handling Utilize a directory window to selectively sort, move; 
rename& kill file entries Lightning fast Disk I/O for format copy & backup. Single execution of both Basic& 
ML programs 64 K DISK $29.95 NOW also CoCo III compatible! Upgrade only $1 5 w/proof of purchase. 



COCO NEWSROOM 

Now available for the CoCo 1 1 1! You can design your own newspaper with Banner Headlines/6 articles using 
sophisticated Graphics, Fonts and Fill Patterns Comes with22 fonts&50 pictures! Over 1 40 K of coda Disk 
only $49.95 



MAILLIST PRO 

The ultimate mailing list program Allows you to add edit, view, delete, change, sort(byzipcodeor name) and 
print labels Its indispensible! Disk Only $19.95 (CoCo 2 version Included) 



DISK LABEL MAKER 

Allows you to design professional disk labels! Allows elongated, normal and condensed format for text, 
double-strike, border creation and multiple- label printing Its a MUST for any user with a disk drive Disk 
Only $19.95. Supports DMP 105/1 10/1 20/130/430, GEMINI, STAR, EPSON and compatibles. (CoCo2 
version included) 



COMPUTERIZED CHECKBOOK 

Why bother with balancing your checkbook? Let the CoCo do it for you! Allows you to add, view, search, edit, 
change, delete and printout (in a table or individual entry format) checkbook entries Updates balance after 
each entry. Allows files for checking saving and other accounts Disk Only $19.95 (CoCo 2 version 
included) 



BOWLING SCORE KEEPER 

An excellent utility to keep track of your bowling scores Allows you to save scores under individuals or 
teams You can edit, change; delete and compare scores. A must for anyone who wants to keep track of his or 
her bowling performance Disk $19.95 (CoCo 2 version included). 



VCR TAPE ORGANIZER 

Organize your videocassettes with this program! Allows you to index cassettes by title, rating type; play 
time and comments Also allows you to sort titles alphabetically and view/print selected tapes If you own a 
VCR, this program is a must Disk Only $19.95 (CoCo 2 version included). 



SCREEN DUMP 

32, 40, 80 column text dump PM0DE4 Graphics Dump. Single Keystroke Operation allows 
you to take snapshots of screens even when programs are running! Works on D MP's, Epson 
and Gemini. CoCo 1,2 and3. Disk Only $24.95 




HOME BILL MANAGER 

Let the CoCo keep track of your bills Allows you to enter bills under various categories and 
reminds you when they are due Disk Only. $19.95 




All orders$5Q and above shipped fay U PS2 nd Day Air within Continental US at no extra charga No 

CODs We accept Visa, MC, Amex, Check or MO. Please add $3.00 S&H 
(USA/Canada). Other countries $5.00 S&H. NYS residents please add sales tax 

To Place Credit Card Orders; Call Toll Free 1 

NY, Canada, Foreign Orders, Information Technical Advice and 



CALENDAR MAKER «K. 

Generate monthly calendars on your printer tor any year in the 20th century. Disk Only. 
$19.95 


COCO UTIL II 

(Latest Version): Transfer CoCo Disk files to IBM 
compatible computer. Transfer MS-DOS files to 
CoCo Req 2- Drive IBM compatible $39.95 




AD0S3 

Advanced Disk Operating System for CoCo 3. 
$34.95 ADOS $27.95 


RGB PATCH 

Displays most games in color on RGB monitors 
For CoCo 3 Disk $24.95 


SPUN IMAGE 

Makes a BACKUP of ANY disk $32.95 



OS 9 PRODUCTS 




OS 9 LEVEL II 
OPERATING SYSTEM 

Supports 51 2 K RAM dual speed multi-tasking 
multiple windows and more! Comes with disk and 
complete documentation. Only $89.95 



MULTI-VUE 

User friendly graphics interface with multiple 
"window" applications for Level II. Only $54.95 



WIZ 

0S9 Level II Terminal Package with 300-19200 
baud rate and windowing capability. Requires 51 2 K 
and RS-232 Pack Only $79.95 



SCREEN STAR 

Best OS9 Word Processor. Implements WordStar 
(R) editing capabilities Even has a built in spelling 
checker. Use with OS-9 Text Formater to get 
beautiful printouts ForOS9 Levell and2. Disk Only 
$49.95. OS-9 Text Formatter: Printout beautiful docu- 
ments from any ASCII file Only $34.95. Both Screen Star 
and OS-9 Text Formatter: $74.95 



DATA MASTER 

Excellent database for 0S9. Features include: 
windows, pull down menus, sorting eta Requires 
0S9 Level II&512K Only $64.95 




PC-Xfer UTILITIES 

Programs to format and transfer files to/from MS- 
DOS diskettes on CoCo Under OS9 Level 1 or 2 
Requires SDISK or SDISK3. Only $44.95 




SDISK3 

Standard disk drive module replacement allows full 
use of 40/80 track double sided drives Req. OS9 
Level II. Only $29.95 




SDISK 

Same as SDISK 3 except for 0S9 Level I. Only 
$29.95 



0S9 LEVEL II RAMDISK 

Lightning Fast Ramdisk with Auto Formatting A 
must for any 0S9 Level II User. Req 51 2 K $29.95. 
(Only $14.95 with purchase of 512K Upgrade & 
Ramdisk!!). 



BOOKS 

Inside 0S9 Level II: $39.95 

Rainbow Guide To 0S9 Level If: $19.95 

Rainbow Guide To 0S9 Level II Oisk: $19.95 

OS9 is a trademark of Microware and Motorola 
Inc. 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 21 4 
Fairport, N.Y. 14450 
Phone (71 6) 223-1477 



-800-654-5244 

Order Status call 1 -716-223-1477 



Please stop for a moment and think 
of the number of lives Fred Scerbo has 
touched through his work with his 
CoCo. Of course, there are so many of 
you who use his programs month in and 
month out from these pages. There are 
all those youngsters who found a com- 
puter was just as interesting as "trou- 
ble." And there are all those young 
people who have benefited through his 
coaching and his pairings program. 

* * * 

My other letter comes from someone 
who started into the CoCo business 
with a small advertisement in THE 
RAINBOW back in December and then 
repeated the ad in February of this year. 

"Just when I thought I'd exhausted 
my buying audience I decided to give it 
one more shot and put an ad in the May 
issue," he wrote. "Now I'm so swamped 
with orders I don't have time to do any 
new 'recreational computing.' It's both 
a blessing and a curse." 

The letter ends: "I guess what I'm 
getting at is this: I've been poor and 
unknown and I've been rich and famous 
(at least in CoCo circles). I prefer the 
latter. Thanks." 



jjt 3fc Sft 



I am not going to identify this writer 



— or the first one who tipped me off to 
Fred Scerbo's latest accomplishment — 
because the names are not necessary. 
Rather, I think I want to spend just a 
moment of your time before you wade 
into everything in this issue (or set out 
to construct the CoCo mobile, our 
Anniversary gift to you) to think about 
both these letters and what they mean. 

To both Fred and our newly famous 
advertiser, the CoCo has become the 
dream about which stuff is made. 
Whether it is a way to help youngsters 
or to help make a profit, this wonderful 
little machine is, in reality, a great big 
dream machine. 

Forget the letters. Think about your- 
self. I'll bet CoCo has opened doors for 
you, too. Isn't that marvelous? I think 
so. 

Our cover this month is a takeoff on 
a well-known motion picture. Is that a 
Color Computer along with Dorothy 
and her friends on the Yellow Brick 
Road? They seem to be traveling some- 
where over the Rainbow to the land 
where wishes and dreams come true. 

We are all traveling that same road. 

Thank you for letting us be with you 
for seven years now. And wish us at least 
seven more! _ Lonnie Falk 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . 



■AS? 



turn your 
CoCo and printer into a typewrit- 
ing team. A restriction: The text 
strings you give the program must 
be in chunks of 80 characters or 



v '---:-tS:-x.-;.S: .. ' 



CLS J CLEAR tppfl : PRI N$ §0+9 , "MIN 
I SCRISrT M :PRINT"WHft*? WODLD* YOU 
LIKE TO BE PRINTED 1 * ? IHPUTA$ 5 PRIM 
T$354+I2, "PRINTING. . , . , ,«!PRINT# 
-2 , A$ : PRINTS 3 5 $+8 , "««PRINTED» 
»* J PRINT3384+16, "AGAIN* ! PRINTS 4 
16+12> " (Y»¥BS/N~NO) »YlNFUTB$ l IFB 
$~« Y»THENCZ,S : IFB$~ W Y"THEN1#5 5 



;-\-w^vV..-.'t 



Chicago, ft 



,V s .•■{«%•?• : .VV- • • • .:-V,. ; ^'V . - • «• v . . 

(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the 
author has been sent copies of both The Third 
Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion 
The Third Rainbow Adventures Tape. ) 



RAINBOW 




CERTIFICA TlOta 
SEAL 



For 
Your 
CoCo 



J^nankfs^hnciC 1, 2, & 3 

(Reviewed in Oct. 87 RAINBOW) Makes programming sensa- 
tional-looking graphics as easy as moving a joystick! Converts 
precision drawings into "DRAW" commands which can be stand- 
alone BASIC programs or merged into other programs. Also 
includes "DEMO" and "PAINT" programs. Requires a spring- 
centered joystick or touch-pad. 32k ECB tape or disk $14.95 

? ENIGMA? 

Transform your computer into an ultra-secret code machine cap- 
able of enciphering and deciphering in over 12 million virtually 
unbreakable codes! (not simple substitution codes). Print hard 
copy or store & retrieve coded data on tape or disk. Only the per- 
son who has the password can read it! 32k ECB tape or disk $12.95 

May/ S^m^ 

Just answer the prompts & type your message; n EZ WRITER" will 
put it into perfect letter form and send it to your DMP or DWP. 
Professional-quality, single-page letters every time! Do one letter 
or multiple copies for "personalized" mailings. Saves letters and 
mailing lists. Even does labels. Menu-driven. Undoubtedly the 
EZ-est letter writing system available! Free sample on request' 
32k ECB tape or disk $19.95 

EZ MATH PACKAGE 

FOUR superior educational "games": "RACEWAY", "GO TO THE 
TOP" (multiplication tables drill), "WORD PROBLEMS", & "PYRA- 
MID". Covers addition, subtraction, multiplication, & division. 
Different levels of difficulty. Exciting graphics & sounds. EZ and 
fun! 32k ECB tape or disk $19.95 wlgrwd 1 

KEYBOARD COMMANDER ^JSS- 5 
Probably the most exciting typing tutor available for your CoCo. 
You are the commander of a space ship & it's your job to shoot 
down alien letters & words as they speed toward you & attack your 
spaceship. Exciting Hi-Res action! 32k ECB tape or disk $24.95 

E.Z. FRIENDLY SOFTWARE HB9 

HUTTON & ORCHARD STS. • RHINECLIFF, NY 12574 • (914) 876-3935 
(Add $1.50 s/h to all orders. NY residents add state sales tax.) 



Mouse Tales 




By Logan Ward 



1 2 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



500 
POKES, 

PEEKS, 
EXECs 

FOR THE TRS-80 COCO 

NEVER BEFORE has this infor- 
mation of vital significance to a 
programmer been so readily 
available to everyone. This book 
will help you GET UNDERNEATH 
THE COVER' of the Color Com- 
puter and develop your own HI- 
QUALITY Basic and ML pro- 
grams. SO WHY WAIT?? 
This 80-page book includes 
POKEs, PEEKs and EXECs to: 

* Autostart your basic programs 

* Disable Color Basic/ECB/Disk 
Basic commands like LIST, 
LLIST, POKE, EXEC, CSAVE(M), 
DEL, EDIT, TROM, TROrT, 
PCLEAR, DLOAD, REMUM, PRINT 
USINQ, DIR, KILL, SAVE, LOAD, 
MERGE, RENAME, DSKIMI, 
BACKUP, DSKI$, and DSKO$. 

* Disable BREAK KEY, CLEAR KEY 
and RESET BUTTON. 
Generate a Repeat-key. 
Transfer ROMPAKS to tape (for 
64K only). 

Set 23 different 
QRAPHIC/SEMIQRAPHIC modes 
Merge two Basic programs. 

AND MUCH MUCH MOREIN 
COMMANDS COMPATIBLE WITH 
16K/32K/64K/COLOR BASIC/ ECU/ DISK 
BASIC SYSTEMS and CoCo 1, 2, Se 3. 

ONLY $16.95 



★ 
★ 



★ 

★ 



SUPPLEMENT to 

500 POKES, 
PEEKS 'N EXECS 

ONLY$9.95 

tUU additional Pokes, Peeks' n Execs to 
give you MORE PROGRAMMING POWER 
Includes commands for 

• Rompak Transfer to disk 

• PAINT with 65000 styles! 

• Use of 40 track single/double sided drives with variable 
step- rates 

• High-Speed Cassette Operation 

• Telewriter 64®, Edtasm+® and CoCo Max® 
Enhancements 

• Graphics Dump (for OMP printers) & Text Screen Dump 

• AND MUCH MUCH MORE! 

• 500 POKES, PEEKS N EXECS is a prerequisite 



300 POKES 
PEEKS 'N EXECS 

FOR THE COCO III 

Get more POWER for your CoCo III. Includes 
commands for 

• 40/BO Column Screen Text Dump 

• Save Text/ Graphics Screens to Disk 

• Command/ Function Disables 

• Enhancements for CoCo 3 Basic 

• 128K/512K Ram Test Program 

• HPRINT Character Modifier 

• AND MANY MORE COMMANDS ONLY $1 9.95 







"MUST" BOOKS 

UNRAVELLED SERIES: These books provide a 
complete annotated listing of the 
BASIC/ECB and DISK ROMs. 

EXTENDED COLOR BASIC UNRAVELLED: $39.95 
OISK BASIC UNRAVELLED: $19.95 
BOTH UNRAVELLEO BOOKS: $49.95 
SUPER ECB (CoCo3| UNRAVELLED: $24.95 
ALL 3 UNRAVELLED BOOKS: $59.95 
COCO 3 SERVICE MANUAL $39.95 
COCO 2 SERVICE MANUAL: $29.95 
INSIDE 0S9 LEVEL II $39.95 
RAINBOW GUIOE TO 0S9 LEVEL II ON COCO 3: $19.95 

RAINBOW GUIDE TO 0S9 II OISK: $19.95 
INSIDE 0S9 LEVEL II OISK: $20.00 

COCO 3 SECRETS REVEALEO: $19.95 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING*: $18.00 

AODENDUM FOR COCO 3: $12.00 
UTILITY ROUTINES VOL 1 BOOK: $19.95 

GAMES(Disk Only) (CoCo 1, 2, & 3 
except where mentioned) 
WILD WEST (CoCo 3 Only) $24.95 
VEGAS SLOTS (CoCo 3 Only) $29.95 
VEGAS GAME PACK: $24.95 
FLIGHT 16: $34.95 
IN QUEST OF STAR LORD 

(Animated Graphics Adventure 
CoCo 3): $34.95 

WHITE FIRE OF ETERNITY: $19.95 
PYRAMIX(Cubix for CoCo 3): $24.95 
P-51 MUSTANG SIMULATION: $34.95 
WORLDS OF FLIGHT: $34.95 
KUNG FU DUDE: $24.95 




m 




APPROACH CONTROL SIMULATION: $34.95 
TREASURY PACK#1: Lunar Rover Patrol, 
Cubix, Declathoa Qix, Keys of Wizard, 
Module Man Pengon, Space Wrek and 
Roller Controller. Only $29.95 

TREASURY PACK #2: Lancer, Ms Gobbler, 
Froggie,MadnessandMinotaur, Ice Castles, 
Galagon, Devious and Syzygy. Only $29.95 
SPACE PACK: Color Zap Invaders, Planet 
Invasion Space Race; Space War, Galax 
Attax, Anaroid Attack, Whirlybird, Space 
Sentry & Storm Arrows. Only $29.95 



COCO 

GRAPHICS OESIGNER 

Signs Greeting Cards Banners 




MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 21 4 
Fairport, N.Y. 14450 
Phone (7 16] 223-1477 



The CoCo Graphics Designer allows you 
to create beautifully designed Greeting 
Cards, Signs and Banners for holidays, 
birthdays, parties, anniversaries and other 
occasions Comes with a library of pre- 
drawn pictures Also includes utilities 
which allow you to create your own 
character sets, borders and graphic 
pictures. Requires a TRS-80 COLOR 
COMPUTER I, II OR III OR TDP-100 with 
a MINIMUM 0F32K ONE DISK DRIVE 
and a PRINTER compatible with DISK 
BASIC 1.0/1.1, ADOS 1.0/1.1 AND JDOS. 

Supports the following printers: DMP 

100/105/110/130/430, CGP220, 

EPSON RX/FX, GEMIN1 10* SG-10, 

NX-10 & OKI DATA DISK $29.95 

PICTURE DISK #1: 100 more pictures for 

CGD: $14.95 

FONT DISK #1: 10 extra fonts! $19.95 

FONT DISK #2: 10+ extra fonts $19.95 
CAR SIGN DESIGNER 

Create distinctive bright yellow diamond 
shaped car signs Includes2 resuable clear 
plastic sign holders with suction cups; and 
50 sheets of bright yellow fanfold paper. 
Disk Only $29.95 

COLORED PAPER PACKS $24.95 

COCO MAX III (with hi res interface): $79.95 

COCO MAX II: Disk$77.95 Tape $67.95 

MAX PATCH An excellent software patch to run 
COCO MAX II on COCO III. Req. RS Hi-res 
Joystick Interface No chip replacements or 

soldering Disk only $24.95 

COLOR MAX 3 DELUXE: $69.95 

COLOR MAX 3: $59.95 

Telewrlter-64: Best Word Processor for CoCo 1 & 
2 (Cas) $47.95 (Disk) $57.95 
TW-80: 80 Column Display & more features for 
TW-64. CoCo 3 Disk $39.95 
TELEFORM: Mail Merge & Form Letters for TW- 
64. $1 9.95 

Autoterm: Superb Terminal Program Works with 
any modem! (Cas) $29.95 (Disk) $39.95 
Pro Color File* Enhanced*: Multi-feature 
Database $59.95 Sidewise: $24.95 
Pro- Color Dir: $24.95 
EOT/ ASM 64 D: Best Disk Based Editor- 
Assembler for CoCa$59.95 (Specify CoCo 1, 2 or 3) 
THE SOURCE: Best Disassembler tor CoCc$3 4 h 95 
THE SOURCE III : $49.95 
CBASIC: Most powerful Basic Program Compiler 
$149.95 (Specify CoCo 1,2 or 3) 
DYNACALC(C0C01, 2 & 3): $99.95 



All orders$50 and above shipped by UPS2 nd Day Air within Continental US at no extra charga No 

CODs. We accept Visa MC, Amex, Check or MO. Please add$3.00 S&H(USA/Canada). 
Other countries $5.00 S& H. NYS residents please add sales tax 



To Place Credit Card Orders, Call Toll Free 1-B0G-6 54-5244 9 AM - 9 PM EST 7 days a week 
NY, Canada Foreign Orders, Information, Technical Advice and Order Status call 1-716-223-1477 



Mullf if Jti 




Dodvo 



How To Read Rainbow 



When we use the term CoCo, we refer to an affection- 
ate name that was first given to the Tandy Color 
Computer by its many fans, users and owners. 

The basic program listings printed in the rain- 
bow are formatted for a 32-character screen — so they 
show up just as they do on your CoCo screen. One easy 
way to check on the accuracy of your typing is to com- 
pare what character "goes under" what. If the charac- 
ters match — and your line endings come out the same 
— you have a pretty good way of knowing that your 
typing is accurate. 

We also have "key boxes" to show you the minimum 
system a program needs. But, do read the text before 
you start typing. 

Finally, the little disk and/or cassette symbols on the 
table of contents and at the beginning of articles 
indicate that the program is available through our 
rainbow ON DlSKor rainbow ON tape service. 



Using Machine Language 



The easiest way to "put" a machine language program 
into memory is to use an editor/assembler, a program 
you can purchase from a number of sources. All you 
have to do, essentially, is copy the relevant instructions 
from the rainbow's listing into CoCo. 

Another method of putting an ML listing into CoCo 
is called "hand assembly" — assembly by hand, which 
sometimes causes problems with ORIGIN or EQUATE 
statements. You ought to know something about 
assembly to try this. 

Use the following program if you want to hand- 
assemble ML listings: 

10 CLEAR200,&H3F00:I=&H3FB0 

20 PRINT "ADDRESS : " ; HEX$ ( I ) ; 

30 INPUT "BYTE";B$ 

40 POKE I, VAL("&H"+B$) 

50 I = I+l:GOTD 20 

This program assumes you have a 16K CoCo. If you 
have 32K, change the &H3F00 in Line 10 to &H7F00 
and change the value of I to &H7F80. 



OS-9 and RAINBOW ON DISK 



The OS-9 side of rainbow on disk contains two 
directories: cmds and source. It also contains a file, 
read .me. firs t, which explains the division of the 
two directories. The cmds directory contains executa- 
ble programs and the SOURCE directory contains the 
ASCII source code for these programs. BASIC09 
programs will only be offered in source form so they will 
only be found in the SOURCE directory. 

OS-9 is a very powerful operating system. Because 
of this, it is not easy to learn at first. However, while we 
can give specific instructions tor using the OS-9 



programs, you will find that the OS-9 programs will be 
of little use unless you are familiar with the operating 
system. For this reason, if you haven't "learned" OS-9 
or are not comfortable with it, we suggest you read The 
Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 by Dale Puckett and 
Peter Dibble. 

The following is not intended as a course in OS-9. It 
merely states how to get the OS-9 programs from 
rainbow on disk to your OS-9 system disk. Use 
the procedures appropriate for your system. Before 
doing so, however, boot the OS-9 operating system 
according to the documentation from Radio Shack. 

1) Type load dir list copy and press ENTER. 

2) If you have only one disk drive, remove the OS-9 
system disk from Drive 0 and replace it with the OS- 
9 side of rainbow on disk. Then type chd/d0 
and press enter. If you have two disk drives, leave 
the sytem master in Drive 0 and put the rainbow 
on disk in Drive 1. Then type chd'di and press 

ENTER. 

3) List the read .me. First file to the screen by typing 
list read. me. First and pressing ENTER. 

4) Entering dir will give you a directory of the OS-9 
side of rainbow ON DISK. To see what programs 
are in the CMDS directory, enter dir cmds. Follow 
a similar method to see what source files are in the 
SOURCE directory. 

5) When you find a program you want to use, copy it 
to the cmds directory on your system disk with one 
of the following commands: 

One-drive system: copy /d0/cmds/ filename '6%/ 
cmds /filename -s 

The system will prompt you to alternately place the 
source disk (rainbow on disk) or the destination 
disk (system disk) in Drive 0. 
Two-drive system: copy/dl/cmds/ filename /d0/ 
cmds/ filename 

Once you have copied the program, you execute it 
from your system master by placing that disk in Drive 
0 and entering the name of the file. 



The Rainbow Sea 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

The Rainbow Certification Seal is our way of helping 
you, the consumer. The purpose of the Seal is to certify 
to you that any product that carries the Seal has actually 
been seen by us, that it does, indeed, exist and that we 
have a sample copy here at the rainbow. 

Manufacturers of products — hardware, software and 
firmware — are encouraged by us to submit their prod- 
ucts to the rainbow for certification. 

The Seal is not a "guarantee of satisfaction." The 
certification process is different from the review 
process. You are encouraged to read our reviews to 
determine whether the product is right for your needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship between advertis- 
ing in the rainbow and the certification process. 
Certification is open and available to any product per- 



taining to CoCo. A Seal will be awarded to any com- 
mercial product, regardless of whether the firm adver- 
tises or not. 

We will appreciate knowing of instances of violation 
of Seal use. 



Rainbow Check Plus 




The small box accompanying a program fisting in 
the rainbow is a "check sum" system, which is 
designed to help you type in programs accurately. 

Rainbow Check PLUS counts the number and values 
of characters you type in. You can then compare the 
number you get to those printed in the rainbow. 
On longer programs, some benchmark lines are given. 
When you reach the end of one of those lines with your 
typing, simply check to see if the numbers match. 

To use Rainbow Check PLUS, type in the program 
and save it for later use, then type in the command run 
and press enter. Once the program has run, type new 
and press enter to remove it from the area where the 
program you're typing in will go. 

Now, while keying in a listing from the rainbow, 
whenever you press the down arrow key, your CoCo 
gives the check sum based on the length and content 
of the program in memory. This is to check against the 
numbers printed in the rainbow. If your number is 
different, check the listing carefully to be sure you typed 
in the correct basic program code. For more details 
on this helpful utility, refer to H. Allen Curtis' article on 
Page 21 of the February 1984 rainbow. 

Since Rainbow Check PLUS counts spaces and 
punctuation, be sure to type in the listing exactly the 
way it's given in the magazine. 

10 CLS:X=256*PEEK(35)+178 

20 CLEAR 25,X-1 

30 X=256*PEEI< (35) + 17B 

40 FDR Z=X TO X+77 

50 READ Y:U=U+Y:PRINT Z,Y;W 

60 POKE Z,Y:NEXT 

70 IFW=7985THENS0ELSEPRINT 

"DATA ERROR": STOP 
B0 EXEC X: END 

90 DATA 182, 1, 10G, 167, 140, 60, 134 
100 DATA 126, 183, 1, 106, 190, 1, 107 
110 DATA 175, 140, 50, 48, 140, 4, 191 
120 DATA 1, 107, 57, 129, 10, 3B, 38 
130 DATA 52, 22, 79, 158, 25, 230, 129 
140 DATA 39, 12, 171, 12B, 171, 128 
150 DATA 230, 132, 38, 250, 48, 1, 32 
160 DATA 240, 183, 2, 222, 48, 140, 14 
170 DATA 159, 166, 166, 132, 28, 254 
180 DATA 189, 173, 198, 53, 22, 126, 0 
190 DATA 0, 135, 255, 134, 40, 55 
200 DATA 51, 52, 41, 0 



1 4 THE RAINBOW July 1 988 



SUPER 88 UTILITIES 

For Only $88 



40K FOR CASSETTE PROGRAMS: #200 

40K FOR DISK BASIC PROGRAMS: #201 

ALPHA-DIR.-Alphabetize DIR's #202 

APPOINTMENT CALENDAR: #203 

ASCII FILE UTILITY: #204 

AUTOMATIC DISK BACK-UP:Req. 2 drives #205 

AUTOMATIC 5 MIN. CASSETTE SAVE: #206 

AUTOMATIC 5 MIN. DISK SAVE: #207 

AUTO DIR BACK-UP:No more FS errors #208 

BASE CONVERTER :#209 

BANNER MAKER: 7" high letters #210 

BASIC SEARCH: Search for a string #211 

BORDER MAKER: 255 border styles #212 

CASSETTE LABEL MAKER :DMP ' s only #213 

CLOCK: Keeps time as you program #214 

COMMAND KEYS:Shorthand for BASIC #215 

COMMAND MAKER: Design own commands #216 

COMMAND SAVER: Saves/ recalls commands #217 

CALCULATOR :0n-screen calculator #218 

CURSOR STYLES:65535 cursor styles #219 

DISK CATALOGERiDIR's into master DIR #220 

DISK ENCRYPT: BASIC password protection #221 

DMP CHARACTER SET EDITOR:#222 

DMP SUPERSCRIPTS: Great for term papers #223 

DOS COMMAND ENHANCER : #224 

DOUBLE BANK:64K only #225 

ENHANCED KILL:#226 

ENHANCED LLIST :Beaut iful LLISTings #227 
ENHANCED TRON: #228 
ERROR LOCATOR: #229 
E-Z DISK MASTER: #230 
FAST SORT:100 strings in 3 seconds #231 
FILE SCRAMBLER: Hide your private files #232 
FULL ERRORS: English error messages #233 
FUNCTION KEYS: Speeds prog time #234 
GRADE BOOK:Great for teachers #235 
GRAPHICS SCREEN COMPRESSION: #236 
GRAPHICS SHIFTER: #237 

GRAPHICS TYPE SETTING:2 letter sizes #238 
GRAPHICS ZOOM:Magnify/edit graphics #239 
INPUT/OUTPUT DATA MONITOR: #240 
KEY CLICKER :Ensures input accuracy #241 
KEY SAVER:Save/recall keystrokes #242 
LAST COMMAND REPEATER: #243 



LINE COPY: Copy BASIC lines #244 

LINE CROSS-REFERENCE: #245 

LIST/DIR PAUSE: No more fly-bys #246 

LOWER CASE COMMANDS: #247 

MASS DISK INITIALIZATION: #248 

MESSAGE ANIMATOR: Great billboard #249 

METRIC CONVERSION: #250 

ML/BASIC PROGRAM MERGE: #251 

ML TO DATA CONVERTER: #252 

MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST MAKER: #253 

NUMERIC KEYPAD: #254 

ON BREAK GOTO COMMAND: #255 

ON ERROR GOTO COMMAND: #256 

ON RESET GOTO COMMAND: #257 

PHONE DIRECTORY: #258 

PAUSE CONTR0L:Put progs on hold #259 

PRINTER TO SCREEN: #260 

PRINTER TUTORIAL: #261 

PROGRAM PACKER: For BASIC progs #262 

PURCHASE ORDER MAKER: #263 

RAMDISK:In-memory disk drive #264 

REPLACE/FIND STRINGS: #265 

REVERSE VIDEO (GREEN): #266 

REVERSE VIDEO (RED): #267 

RAM TEST: Checks your RAM #268 

ROM SWITCHER: #269 

SIGN MAKER: Runs on any DMP #270 

SINGLE STEPPER:Great de-bugger #271 

SPEEDUP TUTORIAL: #272 

SPOOLER: Speed up printouts #273 

SUPER INPUT/LINE INPUT: #274 

SUPER COMMAND KEYS: #275 

SUPER COPY:Copy multiple files #276 

SUPER EDIT0R:Scroll BASIC progs #277 

SUPER PAINT:65535 patterns #278 

SUPER REPEAT: Repeat key #279 

SUPER SCROLLER: View scrolled lines #280 

TAB/SHIFT LOCK KEYS: #281 

TAPE ENCRYPT Password protect BASIC #282 

TAPE INDEX SYSTEM: For tape progs #283 

TEXT SCREEN SCROLL LOCK: #284 

TITLE SCREEN CREATOR: #285 

UNK ILL: Recover KILLed disk progs #286 

VARIABLE CROSS-REFERENCE: #287 



All Above Utilities Only $88, Or 
1 Program $9 2 Programs $16 3 Programs $21 

4 Programs $24 5 Programs $5 each. 
All Programs On Disk. More Than One Program 

On Same Disk. Documentation Included 



HARD DRIVES 

ST225 20MB l/2ht w/cont. 
ST238R 30MB l/2ht w/cont. 
ST251 40MB l/2ht (40ms) 

(Includes Disk Partitioning Software) 



$289 
S309 
$371 



COLOR 

(SCHEMATIC 
DESIGNER 



By Prakash Mishra 

An Excellent CACD Software 
Package for CoCo 3. Features: 



* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 



Runs in 640x192 at 1.8Mhz 
Pull Down Menus 
Keyboard/ Joystk/Mouse Support 
RGB/Comp/Monochrome Monitors 
72 Modifiable Symbols 
Multiple Hi-Res Fonts 
Multiple UNDO Command 
Symbol Rotate/Line/Box Draw 
Supports 3 layers of circuits 
Complete Window Scrolling 
Powerful Screen Print Command 
Complete Documentation 



Disk Only $39.95 




MUL TI-FONT PRINTER 

NX-1000 




NX-1G0G Rainbow System 

* Star NX^ 1000 Color Printer 

* Serial To Parallel Interface 

* Free Software: Screen Dump 
& Signs W Banners Program 

ONLY $299 

(Include $10 Shipping) 



JhJF 



MIPROPOM SOFTWARE All ordersS5D aivd above | except Disk Drives) shipped by UPS 2nd Day Air within Continental US 

PO Box 21 4 at no extra charge: NoC0D& We accept Visa MC. Amex, Check or MQ Please add $3.00 S&H 

P airport, N.Y. 14450 (USA/Canada). Other countries $5.00 S&H. NYS residents please add sales tax 

Phone{7i6) 223-1477 No Free 2nd day shipping for Printer, 



VfSA 



MosltfCord 



■ i 



To Place Credit Card Orders, Call Toll Free 1-800-654-5244 9 am- 9 pm est i days a week 

NY, Canada Foreign Orders, Information Technical Advice and Order Status call 1-716-223-1477 



Using subdirectories and shell scripts 
to build an OS-9 menu system 










icroware's OS-9, like the 
Unix operating system on 
which it is based, is a very 
powerful and advanced system. It 
shares one other similarity with Unix — 
it can be extremely difficult to use. 

While OS-9's commands are some- 
what more readable than Unix's — Dir 
rather than Ls, or Lis t rather than Cat 
— they are still cryptic enough to 
intimidate most users at first. And what 
was your own first reaction at seeing 
that OS9: prompt alone on the screen 
the first time you booted up? 

This article presents a remarkably 
simple but effective solution to the 
problems of OS-9's user-unfriendliness 
by using user-configurable menus that 
give a clear indication of options avail- 
able to the user, yet at the same time do 
not restrict the so-called "power user. 1 ' 
The examples used here presuppose the 
use of a hard disk, as the system is most 

Mark Roseman is currently studying 
computer science at the University of 
Manitoba and has been involved with 
computers for many years. He is a co- 
owner of and programmer for TRI-C 
Computing, 




effective with a hard disk. However, the 
identical concepts and techniques can 
be used on systems having only floppy 
disks. 

Shell Programs 

There are several programs on the 
market that are designed to make OS- 
9 easier to use. These work by creating 
a shell that replaces the OS-9 command 
line, allowing you to copy files, execute 
programs, etc., without using OS-9 
directly. The OS-9 Solution by Comput- 
erware is an excellent example of such 
a "shell program." 

The advantages of programs like this 
are fairly obvious. You can manipulate 
your files efficiently, and there is no 
worry about typing an incorrect com- 
mand line or filename. Having a list of 
files available in your current directory 
makes life easier by allowing you to 
refer to files by a number or letter in the 
list, rather than by a (sometimes quite 
long!) filename. 

However, these shell programs have 
their downside, too. Because they essen- 
tially hide the OS-9 command line from 
the user, they limit your options by 
being less flexible. These programs 



DISK DRIVES 




Double Sided Double Density 360 K40 Tracks Ht Disk Drives for CoCo2 and3. Buy from someone else and all you get is a disk drive Buy from us 
and not only do you get a quality disk drive but also $60 worth of disk utility software ( Super Tape/ Disk Transfer and Disk Tutorial) and our 
DISKMAX utility which allows you to use BOTH sides of our disk drives Its like buying TWO disk drives for tbe price of ONE!! 

Drive 0 (with J & M Controller & Cable): $229.95 Drive 1 ^$149.00^. 
TWO Vz ht Drives in one case with cable & contr6ller: $3j)9.95 r 
Single Power- Supply & Case: $59.95 Disk Drive Power Supply T' Cables: $8.95 

(90 day warranty on all drives) 
J&M Controller (with RSDOS): $79.95 DISTO Super Controller: $99.95 
Mini Eprom Programmer Add-On: $54.95 Real Time Clock & Parallel Printer Interface Add-on: $39.95 

DISTO Super Controller II: $1 29.95 
1 Drive Cable: $19.95 2 Drive Cable: $24.95 4 Drive Cable: $39.95 

(For Drives, add $7.00 S&H in USA/Canada) 

HARD DRIVES 

Finally! Hard Drive Interface for Basic and OS9 from Burke & Burke!! 

CoCo XT: Use up to2 5-1 20 Meg Hard Drives You buy WD1 002- WX1 or WD1 002-27 X Controller, Case and drive from your PC dealer and use CoCo 
XT to hook the drive up to your CoCq Includes drivers for OS9/ Basic and complete documentation $69.95. 

HYPER I/O: Modifies RSDOS to allow use of floppy and hard drives If you are using hard drives from Basic, you will need HYPER I/O to access the 
hard drives Disk Only $24.95. 

COCO XT ROM: Installs In hard disk controller. Boots OS9 from hard/floppy drive $19.95. 

CoCo XT-RTC: Same as CoCo XT with Real Time Clock/ battery backup: $99.95. Please note you need a 64 K CoCo or CoCo 3 and Multipak for all 
versions 



MONOCHROME 
MONITOR $99 (Cable Extra) 

COMMUNICATIONS 
_ EXTRAVAGANZA 



MAGNUMOX 8CM515 RGB Monitor 80 

v inw 1 7% |arger screen than standard 1 2 " monitors 

RGB TTL, RGB Analog Composite inputs 
Green raster display switch Etched faceplate 
ONLY $294.00 Include $12 shipping 
FREE Magnavox cable for COCO 3 with the 
_^ purchase of the monitor. 




EPROM 



1) AVATEX 1200e MODEM: Fully Hayes 
compatible 300/1 200 Baud, Auto- Dial/ 
Answer/ Redial (Reg $129.95) 

2) MODEM CABLE (Reg $19.95) 

3| AUTOTERM TERMINAL SOFTWARE 

4) FREE COMPOSERVE OFFER end Access Time 

5) OPS 2nd DAY AIR Shipping. 

only $i 49 95 

(With AVATEX 1200 he instead of 
AVATEX 1200: $174.95) 
AVATEX 2400: $229.95 




CABLES/INTERFACE 



UPGRADES 



uineniduuii dm 



512K UPGRADE FOR COCO III 

Fast 120ns chips Fully tested Easy installation. No 
soldering Comes with complete documentation and 
RAM test program on disk. 

Afll ONLY $ CALL 
(With purchase of our 51 2 K RAMDISK program below) 

51 2 K Upgrade without chips $44.95 

512K RAMDISK $24.95 

Have 2 superfast RAMDISKs & a print spooler. 

64 K Upgrade for 26-3 1 34 A/ B CoCo ll:$39.95 
64K Upgrade for CoCo fs, CoCo ITs with Cat 
#26-3026/7. 26-3134 & 26-3136: $29.95 



RS232 Y CABLE: Hook 2 devices to the 

serial port ONLY $18.95 

Y CABLE: Use your Disk System with 

CoCo Max, DS69, etc ONLY $24.95 

15' PRINTER/MODEM EXTENDER CABLE: 

ONLY$16.95 

MODEM CABLE: 4 pin to DB 25: $1 9.95 
15" MULTIPAK/ROMPAK EXTENDER 
CABLE: $29.95 

3- POSITION SWITCHER: $37.95 
WICO TRACK BALL: $34.95 

RS HI-RES JOYSTICK INTERFACE: $1 1.99 
MAGNAV0X8505/8515/8CM643 Analog 
RGB Cable: $24.95 

CM-8 RGB Analog Ext. Cable: $19.95 
SONY Monitor Cable: $39.95 

VIDEO DRIVER: For Monochrome or Color. 
Specify CoCo 1 or 2. $34.95 

VIDEO CLEAR: Reduce TV interference. 
$1 9 95 

SERIAL TO PARALLEL INTERFACE: With 6 
switch selectable baud rates (300-9600) 
Comes with all cables $44.95 



INTRONICS EPROM PROGRAMMER: Best 

EPROM Programmer for the CoCa 

Lowest Price Anywhere $137.95 

EPROM ERASER (Datarase): Fast erase of 

24/28 pin EPROMs. $49.95 

EPROMS: 2764 -$8.00, 271 28 -$9.00 

Call for other EPROMs. 

BOTH EPROM PROGRAMMER and ERASER: 

$179.95 

ROMPAK w/Blank PC Board 27xx Series 
$12.95 



KEYBOARDS/ ACCESSORIES 

KEYBOARD EXTENSION CABLE: Our keyboard 
extender cable allows you to move your keyboard 
away from the computer and type with ease You 
can use your existing keyboard with this cable or 
leave your present keyboard intact and use a second 
keyboard A MUST for all CoCo Users Only $39.95. 
Cable with CoCo II keyboard: $49.95 COCO 3 
KEYBOARD (includes FREE FUNCTION KEYS 
software value $19.95) $39.95 
CoCo II keyboard: $19.95 



CHIPS, ETC 



Disk Basic Rom 1.1 (Needed for CoCo III) $29.95. 
68B09E Chip: $14.95 ECB Rom 1.1: $29.95. Multi- 
Pak PAL Chip for CoCo3 $19.95 PAL Switcher: Now 

you can switch between the CoCo II and CoCo 111 
modes when using the Multi-Pak You need the 
OLDER and NEW PAL chip for the 26-3024 
Multipak Only $39.95 With NEW PAL Chip $49.95 
W DS/DD Disks: $0.45 each. 



AJF 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE Allorders$50 and abovefexcept Disk Drives) shipped by UPS 2nd Day Air within Continental US 
P.O. Box214 at no extra charga No COD s We accept Visa, MC t Amex, Check or MO. Please add $3.00 S&H 

Fairport, N. Y. 1 4450 (USA/Canada). Other countries $5.00 S&H. NYS residents please add sales tax 

Phone(7i6) 223-1477 No Free 2nd Day Shipping tor Monitors. 



MatfvrCord 




To Place Credit Card Orders; Call Toll Free 1-800-654-5244 9 AM - 9 PM EST 7 days a week 

NY, Canada, Foreign Orders, Information, Technical Advice and Order Status call 1-716-223-1477 



BUNDING SPEED 

Max-10 is entirely written in 
machine language. Its speed wi 
amaze you. 



SLEEK 

A lot of word processors "do the 
job", but Max-10 makes word 
processing fun. 




INTUITIVE 

Max-10 is so well designed you 
can use it without reading the 
manual. 




FORMAT 

Unlimited choice of right or left 
alignment, centering, and line 
spacing. Screen is updated 
immediately to show exact effects 
of changes. 



PAGE NUMBERING 

On-screen page number helps 
you find your place. 




QLORWAREl 



FILE COMPATIBILITY 

Max-1 0 can import files from 
your outmoded word processor. 



GRAPHICS 

Mix text and graphics on your 
page. Pictures can be created by 
CoCo Max, the DS-69 Digitizer, 
or any graphics editor. 



File Edit searcn+ 




FIT IT IN 

Pictures can be shrunk and 
stretched in both directions to fit 
the page and text. 



/WYSIWIG adj. ( 
You See Is What 

a lame ch oice litiiij font; 



P>I G E 



t 




TAB STOPS & MARGINS 

The rulers make tabs and margins 
easy to see, use, and change. 




I 

L 



CUT AND PASTE 

Move anything (even graphics) . 
anywhere in the document 



Max-1 0 Specifications; variable lf##Jf^ 

wrap; undo; page numbering; set starting page^ ;^ centering; marginal;; 

and centering can be changed anywhere ^ line spacing; 

programmable headers and footers (with centering, graphics, etc); type ahead; key repeal? k®f 
Mick; scroll up and down; jump to any point in document, ASCII file ouput for compa8yjijty£ 
Bisk directory; kill files; bold, italic, underline, superscript and subscript tyjpe styles; wordwraps 

block cut, copy, move; global search and replace; paragraph rndent, ctipooara; merge, show 
;; Ql;e J ^o^c^II#^ll^^*^^^- o 0^v^ '^P '.^y> P a S G count, paragraph count, word courit; § r^phics;;ic : ari;ii|J| 

resized and moved; multiple fonts; error recovery and morel j 



PRINTERS 

Max-10 currently works with the following printers: 
DMP-105, DMP-106, DMP-130, Epson MX,RX,FX,LX 
and compatible, Gemini 10 series, CGP-220, and OKI-92. 




BY DAVE STAMP E 

Author of CoCo Max III, the best 
and most acclaimed CoCo 3 
Graphics Editor. 




| GRAPHICS 

Max-10 can import pictures stored in the following 
formats: CoCo Max j f ll,III, MCE, MGF, 5 level DS-69, as 
well as any standard PMODE 4, HSCREEN 2 or 3 picture. 



J 



THE DAZZLING WORD PROCESSOR 

AND DOCUMENT CREATOR FOR THE COCO 3 



PULL DOWN MENUS 

All Max-10 Functions can be 
easily accessed through the six 
pull-down menus. There are no 
commands to learn. 



WYSIWYG! 

What You See Is What You Get 
Max-1 0 is the only CoCo word 
processor with graphics where the 
printout looks exactly like the 
screen (Macintosh style). 



i gout Font 



style 



✓ Plain Tent 
Bold 



italics 



underlined \ cu 
Superscript cH 
Subscript cL 



UUUUUUUUU 



z-ee-wig) L What I 



)u Get (acronym) -J 





PAGE BREAK 

Dotted lines on the screen show 
where pages begin and end. No 
more surprises at printing time. 




FULL JUSTIFICATION 

Proportionally spaced characters 
let you create text that looks 
really nice. No more squished 
"M"s and oversized T's, 



SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 

Any CoCo 3 (1 28K or 51 2K) with at least 1 Disk Drive. 
Mouse or joystick 
Monochrome, RGB or Composite monitor. 



UNDO 

The undo feature lets you change 
your mind even AFTER you make 
a drastic change, such as a "block 

delete". 



SCROLL BOX 

Point and click for lightning fast 
access to any point in the entire 
document. 



MORE FONTS 

Max-10 features 20 different 
fonts (styles and sizes). It goes 
well beyond your printer's built in 
character sets. 




TOTAL CONTROL 

Any number of available 
character styles and sizes can be 
mixed on the same line. 




HEADERS & FOOTERS 

These are super easy to add and 
edit. They can even include 
graphics and pictures! 





Max- 



Most of you already have an 
"adequate 0 wofd processor 
mm why did we spend 
considerable time and effort 
to create Max- 1 0 ? 
Because you asked for it. 
CoCo Max made graphic 
creation fun. It is fast and 
feature loaded, yel amazingly 
easy to use. You wanted your 
word processor to be as 
friendly, for giving, and 
amazing as CoCo Ma*. We 
couldn't do it on the CoCo 1 
or 2 r but with the adv3nGj||j 
CoCo 3 graphic*, the word 
Drocessor you always wanted 
s here: O^^^B 
Max-10 \i not just a word 
processor. It jjives you letter 
styles and si^es tnat your 
printer doesn't have. It !eU 
you mix graphic and pictures 
in your text for p professional 
■Ptirtg output. 

Additionally, the screen shows 
exactly what your output will 
look Tike. Text is in the size 
and style that \t will prtjlfl 
Page breaks, line ^"S^^^H 
spacing are dearly shown. No 
more hoping that the text will 
R.no more guessing at type 
styles, no more messing with 
printer codes, no more cryptic 
commands to memorize, ffl 
best of all, the undo feature 
lets you make a mistake and 
still recover your text. 
Mas^1t> makes typing ea^ 
|||) you'fl love the new things 
Hit can do with r,he Ipest word 
processor ever created for Ihe 
CoCo. 



PRICE: $79.95 



mi 



CoCo Max 111 OWNERS 

If you already own CoCo Max III, 
deduct $10 from your order. 



COLORWARE 



A division of Sigma Industries Inc. 



^£ TO ORDER 

^^Call (203) 656-1 806 9 to 5 Eastern time 

Visa or Mastercard accepted CO.D orders S3 extra 
Send check or M.O. to: Coiorware, 242-W West Ave, Darien CT 06820 
Add $3 per order for shipping (55 to Canada, 1 0% to overseas). 
Q residents add 7.5% sales tax 




/HO 



^WORDPROCESSOR 



— SPREADSHEET 



— TERMINAL 



— PROGRAMMING 



DISKUTILITIES 



scribble 

letter.txt 

essay.txt 

fabcalc 
budget. calc 

phone 



— PASCAL 



BASIC09 



free 

format 
backup 



— cc 
1 — stdio.c 



pascal 



basic09 
program.b09 



Figure 3: A typical disk organization 



usually contain an option to escape to 
the OS-9 command line, but again, this 
only hampers the user. 

One other note about these pro- 
grams: While they do allow you to 
execute a program by "pointing" to it, 
they don't actually tell you anything 
about the program other than the file- 
name. Wouldn't it be nice, especially for 
new users, if they could tell at a glance 
what a program actually did? 

The menu system described in this 
article has the advantages of being 
extremely efficient, user-friendly and 
easy to implement, yet does not give up 
any of the power of having the com- 
mand line available at all times. When 
the system first boots up, a menu that 
looks like Figure 1 appears on the 
screen. A list of the available applica- 
tions is spelled out for the user, and a 
short abbreviation is given. Typing the 
abbreviation will execute the given 
program, or perhaps display a compar- 
able menu, showing other options (Fig- 
ure 2). At the same time all these de- 
scriptive menus are being displayed, 
you can type any OS-9 command you'd 
like. 



* Welcome to 

* «< THE MACHINE »> 

* MAIN MENU 
* 

* WP Scribble WordPro 

* SS .. FabCalc Spreadsheet 

* PT . . Phone Terminal 

* PM . . Programming Menu 

* DU Disk Utilities 

* Enter ODtion or 0S9 cmnd 



Figure 1: The main Menu. da t file 



* <« THE MACHINE »> * 

* * 

* PROGRAMMING MENU * 
» * 

* CC . . C Compiler * 

* BAS . . Basic09 * 

* PAS . . Pascal * 

* MM . . Back to Main Menu * 

* Enter option or 0S9 cmnd * 
******************************* 

Figure 2: The Menu. da t file for 
the PROGRAMMING subdirectory 



How it Works 

This system is not terribly compli- 
cated or difficult to understand, but it 
does require a solid understanding of 
two fundamental concepts in OS-9: the 
hierarchal directory structure and OS- 
9 shell scripts. The hierarchal directory 
structure — in other words, the use of 
subdirectories — is a subject that is 
explained fairly well in the OS-9 man- 
uals. There have also been several 
articles in previous rainbows that have 
done an excellent job of explaining this 
concept. Shell scripts are also explained 
in the manuals. Briefly, they are text 
files containing a series of OS-9 com- 
mands. When one of these scripts is 
executed (by typing its filename), the 
commands in the file are executed by 
OS-9 just as if you had typed them in 
one at a time by hand. These shell 
scripts can be created using Build, 
Edi t or any other text editor. 

The menuing system first requires 
your disk drive be set up in an organized 
and logical manner (see Figure 3 as an 
example). Each application program 
you have should be placed in its own 
subdirectory, and all the files associated 



with that application should be in that 
same subdirectory. Give the subdirecto- 
ries logical names, such as WORDPROC- 
ESSOR, SPREADSHEET, etc. If you 
happen to have a number of similar 
types of programs, you might group 
them together. For example, you might 
have a subdirectory PROGRAMMING, and 
inside that subdirectory have other 
subdirectories called C, PASCAL and 
BASIC09. 

You'll have to create two things in 
your main directory, as well as in any 
subdirectories contianing other subdi- 
rectories (such as the PROGRAMMING 
subdirectory mentioned above). These 
two things are a help menu and a set of 
script files. 

What About Those Menus? 

You've seen examples of these menus 
already. Figure 1 is an example of a 
typical menu found in the root (start- 
up) directory > while Figure 2 illustrates 
a possible menu found in our PROGRAM- 
MING subdirectory. 

There is nothing very special about 
the format of these menus. They are just 
regular text files and can contain any- 



20 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



The Amazing A-BUS 




An A* BUS system with two Motherboard* 
A-BUS adaptor In foreground 

The A-BUS system works with tha or I g I n al C dC o , 

the CoCo 2 and the CoCo 3- 

About the A-BUS system : 

• All the A-BUS cards are very easy to use with any language that can 
reader write to a Port or Memory. In BASIC, use INP and OUT (or PEEK and 
POKE with Apples and Tandy Color Computers) 

• They are all compatible with each other. You can mix and match up to 25 
cards to tit your application. Card addresses are easily set with jumpers. 

• A'BUS cards are shipped with power supplies (except PD-123) and 
detailed manuals (including schematics and programming examples). 



Relay Card re i4o: $1 39 

biduftis eight industrial relays. (3 amp contacts, SPST) individually 
controlled and latched. 8 LEO's show status. Easy to use (OUT or POKE in 
BASIC). Card address is jumper selectable. 

Reed Relay Card re-156: $99 

Same features as above, but uses 8 Reed Relays to switch low level signals 
(20mA max). Use as a channel selector, solid state relay driver, etc. 

, r ■ ■ 

Analog Input Card ad-i42:$129 

Eight analog inputs. 0 to 4-5V range can be expanded to 100V by adding a 
resistor. 8 bit resolution (20mV). Conversion time 120us, Perfect to 
measure voltage, temperature, light levels, pressure, etc. Very easy to use. 

12 Bit A/D Converter an-i46: $139 

This analog to digital converter is accurate to .025%, Input range is ~4V to 
Resolution: 1 millivolt The on board amplifier boosts signals up to 50 
times to read microvolts. Conversion time is 1 30ms, Ideal for thermocouple, 
strain gauge, etc. 1 channel. (Expand to 8 channels using the RE-t 56 card) 

Digital Input Card in-i41: $s$ 

Tho eight inputs are optically isolated, so it's safe and easy to connect any 
M en/off" devices, such as switches, thermostats, alarm loops, etc?, to yqur 
computer, To read the eight inputs, simply use BASIC INP or PEEK), 

24 Line TTL I/O dg-i4b- $65 

Connect 24 input or output signals (switches or any TTL device) to your 
computer. The card can be set for: input, latched output, strobed output, 
strobed input, and/or bidirectional strobed I/O. Uses the 8255 A Ghip. 

Clock with Alarm cl-144: $89 

Powerful clock/calendar with: battery backup for Time, Date and Alarm 
setting (time and date): built in alarm relay, led and buzzer: timing to 1/100 
second. Easy to use decimal format. Lithium battery Included. 

Touch Tone® Decoder PH-145; $79 

Each tone is converted into a number which is stored on the board* Simply 
• read the number with INP or POK& Use for remote control projects, etc, 

A-BUS Prototyping Card pr-152: $is 

3te by "4% in. with power and ground bus, Fits up to 10 |.C,s 




ST-143 



T 1 1 1 1 V 



Plug into the future 

With the A^BUS you can plug your PC (IBM, Apple, 
TRS-80) into a future of exciting new applications in the fields 
of control, monitoring, automation, sensing, robotics, etc. 
; ^ 'Aljlha^ modular A-BUS offers a proven method to build your 
"custom" system today. Tomorrow, when you are ready to take 
another step, you will be able to add more functions. This is ideal for 
first time experimenting and teaching. 

A-BUS control can be entirely done in simple BASIC or Pascal, 
and no knowledge of electronics is required! 

An A-BUS system consists of the A-BUS adapter plugged into 
your computer and a cable to connect the Adapter to 1 or 2 A-BUS 
cards. The same cable will also fit an A-BUS Motherboard for 
eikpansiOtl up to 25 cards in any combination. 

The A-BUS is backed by Alpha's continuing support (our 11th 
year, 50000 customers in over 60 countries). 

The complete set of A-BUS User's Manuals is available for $10, 



Smart Stepper Controller soi49:$299 

World's finest stepper controller. On board microprocessor controls 4 
motors simultaneously. Incredibly, it accepts plain English commands like 
"Move arm 1 0.2 inches left" Many complex sequences can be defined as 
"macros" and stored in the on board memory. For each axis, you can control: 
coordinate {relative or absolute), ramping, speed, step type (halt, full, wave), 
Scale factor, units, ..holding power, etc. Many inputs: 8 limit & "wait until" 
switches, panic button, etc. On the fly reporting of position, speed, etc. On 
board drivers (350m A)for small steppers (MO- 1 03). Send for SC-1 49 flyer. 
Remote Control Keypad Option RC-1 21 : $49 

To control the 4 motors directly, and "teach*' sequences of motions. 
Power Driver Board Option PD-1 23: SB9 

Boost controller drive to 5 amps per phase. For two motors (eight drivers). 
Breakout Board Option BB*1 22: $1 9 

For easy connection of 2 motors. 3 ft. cable ends with screw terminal board. 

Stepper Motor Driver st-1 43: $79 

Stepper motors are the ultimate in motion "control. The Special package 
(below) includes everything you need to get familiar with them, Each card 
drives two stepper motors (1 2V, bidirectional. 4 phase. 350mA per phase). 
Special Package; 2motors{MO-t03) + ST-l43: PA-181: $99 

Steppe r Motors mcm 03: $1 5 or4 for$39 

Pancake type, 2 1 /4" dia, %" shaft 7.5°/step, 4 phase bidirectional, 300 
step/sec, 1 2V, 36 ohm, bipolar, 5 oz-in torque, same as Ajrpax K82701-P2, 

Current Developments 

Intelligent Voice Synthesizer, 1 4- Bit Analog to Digital converter, 4 Channel 
Digital to Analog converter. Counter Timer, Voice Recognition. 

A-BUS Adapters for: 

IBM PC, XT, AT and compatibles. Uses one short slot. 
Tandy 1 000, 1 000 EX&SX.1 200, 300Q. Uses one short slot 
Apple II, II+, He, Uses any slot 
TRS-80 Model 102, 200 Plugs into 40 pir> "system bos" 
Model 1 00. Uses40pinsocket (Socket isduplicated on adapter), 

TRS-80 Mod 3.4 40 Ris 50 plii DOS- (WHhharcldis^ij^^-feablel Afl-132 $49 
TRS-80 Model 4P/lnciuies^f^cabl& (50 pin bus isn**^ • ' 0fm$W 

TRS^O Model I. PtatfStfWi Pirt Sfeis m'-W or E/l. AR-t3i~,S3flt 

Color Computers (Tandy).Fits ROM slot. Multipak. or Y-cabie AR-138...S49 

A-BUS Cable (3 ft, 50 cond.) ca-i&3: $24 

Connects the A-BUS adapter to one A-BUS card or to first Motherboard. 
Special cable for two A-BUS cards: CA-1 62: $34 

A-BUS Motherboard mb*i2o:$99 

Each Motherboard holds five A-BUS cards. A sixth connector allows a 




CL-144 




RE-140 




JN-141 



AR-133...$69 
AR-133,.,569 
AR-134...$49 
AR-136...S69 
AR-135...S69 




^'SFw * second Motherboard to be added to the first (with connecting cable CA- 
tWIJIJJmi y * J\ 161: S1 2), Up to five Motherboards can be joined this way to a singfe A* 



AD-142 



i 



BUS adapter. Sturdy aluminum frame and card guides included. 
The A-BUS is not a replacement for the Multi-pak 



Add S3.00 per order for shipping. 
Visa, MC. checks, M.O, woicome. 
CT & NY residents edd sales tax. 
C.O.D. add $3.00 extra. 
Canada: shipping is $5 
Overseas add 10% 



jffiy alpha imo 



0 



a S<gma Ihdusifi&S Company 242- W West Avenue, Darien, CT 06820 



Technical info: (203) 656-1806 

SM y 800 221-0916 

Connecticut orders: (203) 348-9436 
All lines open weekdays 9 to 5 Eastern time 






- FREE DEMO DISK 
-FREE COCOSHOW PROGRAM 



FREE EXTRA FONTS DISK 





*:TM 



II 




must be the most enjoyable, useful, 
and awesome program you've ever 
seen or your money back. 





TOLL FREE 1-800 221 



Mon-Fri 
9 to 5 



iSSSfc hwS color, ver, easy 



and again as 



Instantly, 

no ^^oi^ii^ii 



AND LET THE FUN BEGIN 

>;.'>7'^^-.,! ! :;-- ; . ■. •• . . _ 

anyttuim Lggf jarft a single 
screen. T J ®I e r ernetnber. Even 
1 command to rem draW mg . 
a person who has no te a 
ability llKe myse K £ * spent] 
, presentable P»g enjoying 

' * oU L s VwntiSSS sl»y ^ the 
all the things w 



Note: There \s only one CoCo Max III. Do not confuse jcoioRWAnE 's CoCo Max with similar sounding imitations. 



I 



S5c£ 





B oW ,i0 " 



tit* 






'Tfie l»esf program ever written for the Color Computer 9 ' 



Thafs how thousands of enthusiastic users rated 
theCoCo Max II drawing program. With CoCo Max 
III we are ready to amaze them again. Instead of 
"patching" CoCo Max 1 I, v\te rewrote it frorii scratch" 
to take advantage of the CoCo Max III hardware, 
The results will knock your socks off ! Below is a 
brief list of some of the new features, but some, 
such as animation, color sequencing, or the slide 
show, have to be seen. Send for the Demo Disk, an<| 
see for yourself. 

i * ■ jir.' ■• -. v ■ : "<"■. '> ■ \. -v- 

■■■ ' ' ... .. : w r '*" : ' ■' * " : ;- ' ■.- *>> ^ - ''' " ' 

Everybody's favorite drawing package features: 

- A 50% larger editing window, - Zoom area 400% 
larger. - New drawing tools: rays, 3D cubes, arcs,... g 
New editing tools: shadow,text size,... - Rotate by 1.5 6 
steps - Select any 16 of the 64 pd^ible colors (all 64 
colors displayed at once!) -ll^erfuljcolor mix: additive, 
subtractive r overlay,... - Fiilllfcolor Siting of patterns 
and color changing patterns. - Incredible special eff- 
ects with color cycling up to 8 colors with ^ariabtS 
speed. -Animation adds the dimension of motion to 
your image. (Must be seen.) - Sophisticated data com- 
pression saves up to 70%: pf disk space when saving 
pictures. 

In addition, there are doz0fi§ of enhancements to the 
multitude of features that ma# CoCo tylax II a best selfefS, 

More about*5oCo Max II! 

• CoCo Max ill is not an upgrade of CoCo Max II. It is entirely 
rewritten to take advantage of the new CoCo 3 hardware 
(More memory, resolution, colors, speed;...) 

• The new CoCo Max Hi Hi-Res interface and the CoCo Max ll 
Hi-Res Pack are not interchangable. 

• The new interface plugs into the joystick to 

• The CoCo Max III disk is not copy protected. 

• CoCo Max III only works with the CoCo 3. 

• A Y-Cable or Multi-pak is not necessary. 

• Colors are printed in five shades of gray. 

• CoCo Max ill can read CoCo Max II pictures. 



Note: CoCo Max II (for the CoCo 2) is still available on disk 
($79.95). CoCo Max I is still available on tape ($69.95). For 
details, refer to our double page ad in any Rainbow from 
January '86 to July '87 



Toll Free operators are for orders only. If you need precise answers, call 
the tech fine. (Detained CoCo Max specs are included with the Demo Disk.) 



Add $3.00 per ardor for shipping. 
Visa. MC. checks, M.O. welcome. 
CT residents add sales tax. 
C.O.D. add $3.00 extra. 
Canada: shipping Is $5 
Overseas add 10% 



I Technical info: 
Orders only 



II 



(203) 656-1806 

800 221-0916 

Connecticut orders: (203) 348-9436 
AH lines open weekdays 9 to 5 Eastern time 



Except tn CT 



* Beware of inferior imitations that DO NOT include a Hi-Res Interface 
or charae extra tor each utility. 



File Edit Options Colors Font Size Style 




• :> :< * HDD ^i-^'lh ; *£■ i HH Ikfe? 



imagine this picture in sixteen colors ! 



Guaranteed Satisfaction 

Umm CoCo Max for a full month. 
If you are not delighted with It, 
we will refund every penny. 




System Requirements: 

Any CoCo 3 disk system with a Joystick or a Mouse. 

We apologize to tape users, CoCo Max HI needs the flexibility of e disk. 

The CoCo Max HI system includes: • The special Hi-Res 
interface(foryourmouseorjoystick) • The CoCo Max III disk • Many 

Uttlities:(Toconvert Max II pictures, Max colors, etc.) • Adetdif-fed User's 
Manual. Complete system; nothing else to buy. CoCo Max HI: $79.95* 

I' 
I 
I 
I 



WfTH COUPON ONLY 



FREE DEMO DISK 




Name 
Street 

City 
State Zip 



Printer used: 



■ una** 



I 
I 
I 
I 



Please include $2 to help defray Processing and Shipping 
costs. (Check, Money Order, etc. Sorry, no COD or Credit 
Cards). Coupon (or copy) must be maifled to: 



COLORWARE 



A division of Sigma Industries, tnc. 



COLORWARE 

242-W West Avenue 
Darien, CT 06820 



thing you'd like. You can create them 
using Build, Edit or any other editor. 
What they should contain, however, is 
a list of the different applications (word 
processor, etc.) available and the abbre- 
viations used to access them. These 
abbreviations can be anything you'd 
like; however, they should not be the 
names of other OS-9 commands, except 
under special circumstances where you 
actually want that command executed 
(as would be the case in a DISKUTIL- 
ITIES subdirectory containing the 
Free or Format commands). Aside 
from that, put anything you like in the 
menu files — borders, titles, or anything 
else. You can personalize these as much 
as you want. 

These menu files have one restriction: 
They have to be named Menu. da t, so 
that the system will be able to recognize 
them as menus. (You will have several 
files on your disk drive called 
Menu, da t, but each will be in a different 
subdirectory.) 



"You can 


; v ,; : r. : ,y r.v-: y« ;.\ ;'. :,?.:,.., y:/*;: 1 \ ; < : \: K. • 

• 


manipulai 


jour 


files efficu 


ew^fy, and 


there is nt 
about typi 


) worry 
ing a n 


incorrect, 


command 
'name. " 


line or file 

•. >. ••• •* ; : " '• ' ipi '■ ' 





Creating Your Own Commands 

What we now want to do is use shell 
scripts to create some new commands of 
our own. The first one will be a com- 
mand to print the menu for whatever 
subdirectory in which you happen to be 
located at the moment. Because we 
want this command (which will logi- 
cally enough be called Menu) to work no 
matter what subdirectory we are in, 
we'll create it in the standard "current 
execution directory," /H0/CMDS if you 
are using a hard disk, or /C0/CMD5 for 
a floppy system. (If you're not sure why 
the file must be in this special directory, 
refer to the OS-9 manuals,) 

The Menu command is fairly short, 
containing only two commands, Cls 
and List Menu . da t. To create this file 
using Build, type build /h0/cmds/ 
menu, followed by the two commands 



above, and then enter a blank line to 
end. Now, whenever you type menu, 
you'll get a list of the menu file in the 
directory you're currently in. If you 
happen to do this in a subdirectory 
without a Menu. da t file, you'll get an 
error telling you that the file was not 
found. However, as you'll see, you 
won't normally encounter this. 

Remember that we wanted such a 
menu displayed when the system was 
first booted up? This can be easily done 
at this point. In the root directory there 
is a special shell script named Start- 
up that is executed when you first boot 
OS-9. It normally will do things like set 
the system clock, but you can add 
(again, with an editor) at the end a line 
containing only the command Menu. 
You'll then get the menu displayed each 
time you boot up. 

Executing Your Applications 

Only one piece of this whole system 
is left to be discussed: How do we get 
those application programs started by 
just typing the abbreviations we've 
decided to use for them? It should come 
as no surprise that more shell scripts are 
used. In particular, we have to create 
one shell script per application. The 
filename of the script must be the same 
as the abbreviation used in the menu, 
and the script must be in the same 
directory as the Menu. da t file describ- 
ing it. 

What should these shell scripts do? 
Well, exactly what you would do your- 
self to execute the application! First, 
you'd have to change directories so that 
you are in the same directory as the 
application. You'd then execute the 
program by typing its filename. When 
it was done, you'd change back to your 
previous directory, and then redisplay 
the menu. 

Figure 4 is an example of such a 
script, used to call a word processing 
program called Scribble, which is in the 
subdirectory WORDPROCESSOR. The 
script would be called Up, in accordance 
with the menu in Figure 1. Note the use 
of Chd . . to return to the previous 
directory. 

Recall the earlier example of the 
PROGRAMMING subdirectory. In this 
case, we want the shell script on the 
main menu to merely go to the new 
directory and display that menu. This is 
accomplished with a script containing 
the two lines Chd Programming and 
Menu. You also want an option on the 
PROGRAMMING menu that returns to the 
main menu. This script contains the two 
lines Chd . . and Menu. 



* S*r« is d.i oxaaiplfl shtll 

* script ffhieh Mil e^ecut* 

* 4 program called r scribble * 

* in tha '■wordpro ceasing' 

* directory, 

- EToti that the Unas irfcicfc 

* StOXt Vitk 4 ' tJ B-Tfi just 

H comma-nt s ffhieh sari ba left 

* out . 
* 

* If & program requires a_ny 

* p&ramat ers F they should ha 

* Included in the sacord Lina 

* Lcnr . Fax inst ajica , jqm 
+= sight h««d to chfljkg* tfce 

* iina to d ae-ihhl,a -= ■' if 

■ tha program required this, 

chd ffcrdpirs e a a e ir; g 

icribbl* 

chd . h 

tnanu 

Figure 4: The Hp shell scrip I 



You've now seen the complete system. 
No "sneaky tricks" were used — every- 
thing was impieirieiHed using the stand- 
ard ideas of subdirectories and shell 
scripts. Again, note that even with all 
the menus Emd abbreviations available, 
you were still always using the OS-9 
command line. 

When you install new programs on 
your system, you will need to do two 
things — add to one of your Menu . dat 
files a line describing the new program, 
and create a new script file to call your 
program. | 

It should be apparent why a hard disk 
would be move appropriate than floppy 
disks for a system such as this one. 
Generally, all the applications would 
reside on a single disk. A hard disk, 
having much more space, would be able 
to hold many more applications. 

This system can actually be imple- 
mented on any machine using an oper- 
ating system thai supports subdirecto- 
ries and shell sL-jipis (often called "batch 
files"). Wouldn't you love to tell your 
boss that the menuing system you've 
installed on the company's IBM PS/2 
Model 80 is an adaptation of something 
on your "wimpy CoCo" he keeps laugh- 
ing at? [ 

(Questions and comments concern- 
ing this futorial may be directed to the 
author at 736 Queenston St., Winnipeg, 
Man., Canada R3N 0X7. Please enclose 
an SASEwfoeti requesting a reply.) /R\ 



24 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



VIP Writer III 

VIP Writer has ALWAYS led the pack with features and now VIP Writer III still leads the 
way) The chart below illustrates this fact Telewriter 128 only gives you 48K for text 
Why is it called Telewriter 128? Word power 3 gives only 72KI VIP Writer HI makes use 
of over 106KI VIP Writer III is the ONLY CoCo 3 word processor worthy of irs name! 



WORD PROCESSOR COMPARISON CHART 


CoCo3 with 128K 


VIP Writer DDL 


Telewriter 128 


Word Power 3 


Text Storage 


OVER 4§,M0 


48.000 


72,000 


Print Soooier 


VLS 57,0M 


NONfc 


NONE 


Total Storage 


106,000 


48,000 


72,000 


Soeilinq ChecKer 


VIP Soeiler 


NUNfc 


l-nfcfcWAHfc 


RGB HD Support 


VttL 


WNE 


NONE 


Screen Display 


32/40/54/80 


40/80 


SO 



SCREEN DISPLAY OPTIONS 

As the chart above shows - VIP Writer til offers mora screen width options -all with 24 
lines and actual lower case letters, tt uses the CoCo 3*s hardware display and double dock 
speed and is VERY VERY FASTI You can choose fore and background colors from up to 
64 different hues. Color can be turned ON or OFF for the best possible display using a 
color or monochrome monitor or TV set VIP Writer III has a built in on-line context 
sensitive help facility which displays command usage in easy to read colored windows. 

CUSTOMIZER & PRINTER INSTALLER 

VIP Writer (II comes with a configuration / printer installation program which lets you 
customize VIP Writer III to suit your own liking. You can set screen width and colors as well 
as margins and more. You can also install your own printer and set interface type (serial, 
parallel or J&M), baud rate, line feeds, etc. Once done, you never have to enter these 
parameters again! VIP Writer III will load n 1 go with your custom configuration every timet 

TEXT FILE STORAGE 

VIP Writer 111 creates ASCII text files which are compatible with all other VIP Programs 
as well as other programs which use ASCII file format You can use VIP Writer 111 to even 
create BASIC programs I There is a 49K text buffer and disk or cassette file linking 
allowing virtually unlimited text space. VIP Writer ill works with up to four disk drives and 
lets you display disk directories and free scace as well as rename or kill disk files. In 
addition VIP Writer 111 is 100% compatible with the RGB Computer Systems HARD DISK. 

EDITING FEATURES 

VIP Writer lit has a full featured screen editor which can be used to edit text with lines up 
to 240 characters long with or without automatic word wrap around. You can select 
type-over mode or insert mode. There is even an OOPS command to recall a cleared text 
buffer. Other editing features include: Type-ahead • typamatic key repeat and key beep 
for flawless text entry • end of line bell • full four way cursor control with scrolling • top 
of textfile • bottom of textfile • page up » page down * top of screen • bottom of screen • 
beginning of line 1 end of line ■ left one word • right one word • DELETE character, to 
beginning or end of line, word to the left or right, or entire line • INSERT character or line 
* LOCATE and/or CHANGE or DELETE single or multiple occurrence using wildcards • 
BLOCK copy, move or delete with up to TEN simultaneous block manipulations * TAB key 
and programmable tab stops • word count • line restore • three PROGRAMMABLE 
FUNCTIONS to perform tasks such as auto column creation and multiple copy printing. 

TEXT FORMATTING 

VIP Writer III automatically formats your text for you or allows you to format your text in 
any way you wish. You can change the top, bottom, left or right margin and page length. 
You can*set your text flush left, center or flush right. You can turn right hand 
justification on or off. You can have headers, footers, page numbers and TWO auxiliary 
lines which can appear on odd, even or all pages. You can also select the line on which they 
appear! You can even change the line spacing! Parameters can be altered ANYWHERE! 

PREVIEW PRINT WINDOW 

VIP Writer ill features an exclusive format window which allows you to preview your 
document BEFORE PRINTING IT) You are able to move up, down, left and right to see 
centered text, margins, page breaks, orphan lines etc This makes hyphenation a snap! 

PRINTING 

VIP Writer III prints TWICE as fast as any other CoCo word processor I It supports most 
serial or parallel printers using J&M JFD-CP or Rainbow interface and gives you the 
ability to select baud rates from 110 to 19.200. You can imbed printer control codes 
anywhere in your text file EVEN WITHIN JUSTIFIED TEXT I VIP Writer III also has 
TWENTY programmable printer macros which allow you to easily control all of your 
printers capabilities such as bold, underline, italics and superscript using simple key 
strokes. Other features include: multiple copy printing - single sheet pause * line feeds. 

PRINT SPOOLING 

Save up to $150 on a print spoo\ar because VIP Writer III has a built in print spooler with 
a 57,000 character buffer which allows you to print one document WHILE you are editing 
another. You don't have to wait until your printer is done before starting another jobl 

DOCUMENTATION 

VIP Writer III is supplied with a 125 page instruction manual which is well written and 
includes many examples. The manual has a tutorial and glossary of terms for the beginner 
as well as a complete index! VIP Writer III includes VIP Speller. DISK $79.95 

Cassette version does not include VIP Speller. TAPE $59.95 



VIP Writer owners: Upgrade to the VIP Writer 111 Disk for $49.95 
or Tape for $39.95. Send original disk or tape. Include $3 S/H. 



It's Word Processor Trade In Time 

For a limited time you can trade in your old software for the VIP Writer I or 111 and save up 
to $201 Send in your old disk or tape and manual. VIP Writer tape $34.95, disk $49.95. 
VIP Writer III tape $44.95, disk $59.95. Include $3.00 shipping. Offer expires 8/31/88 



VIP Database III 

The VIP Database 111 features selectable screen displays of 40, 64 or 80 characters by 
24 lines with chose of 64 foreground and background colors for maximum utility, tt uses 
the CoCo 3's hardware screen and double dock speed to be the FASTEST database 
available! VIP Database III will handle as many records as will fit on your disks and is 
structured in a simple and easy to understand menu system with full prompting for easy 
operation. Your data is stored in records of your own design. All files are fully indexed for 
speed and efficiency. Full sort of records is provided for easy listing of names, figures, 
addresses.etc., in ascending or descending alphabetical or numeric order. Records can be 
searched for specific entries using multiple search critena. With Database 111 mail-merge 
you may also combine files, sort and print mailing lists, print form letters, address 
envelopes - the list is endless. The built-in MATH package even performs arithmetic 
operations and updates other fields. VIP Database 111 also has a print spooler and report 
generator with unlimited print format capabilities including embeddable control codes for 
use with All pnrrters. ' DISK $69 

VIP Database owners: Upgrade to the ViP Database III Disk for 
$39.95. Send original disk. Include $3 shipping. 



VIP Integrated Library 

The VIP Integrated Library combines all six popular VIP application programs • VIP 
Writer*, Speller, Calc, Database', Terminal and Disk-ZAP - into one program on one disk! 
The program is called VIP Desktop. From the desktop you have instant access to word 
processing with a spelling checker always in attendance, data management with mail 
merge, spreadsheet financial analysis, telecommunications and disk maintenance. 64K. 
required . Include $4.00 shipping for this product. DISK $149.95 

•CoCo 3 owners: Purchase the VIP Integrated library /WDE {Writer & Database 
Enhanced) which has the VIP Writer 111 and VIP Database III in place of the VIP Writer and 
VIP Database. Include $4.00 shipping for this product. DISK $1 69.95 



Previous VIP Library owners: Call or write for upgrade pricing. | 



VIP Writer 



VIP Writer is also available for CoCo 1 and 2 owners and has all the features found in the 
VIP Writer 111 including VIP Speller except for the following: The screen display is 32, 51, 
64 or 85 columns by 21 or 24 rows. Screen colors are green, black or white. Help is not 
presented in colored windows. Double clock speed is not supported. Parallel printer 
interface is not supported. Print spooler is not available. Hard disk is not supported. 
Even so, VIP Writer still out-features the restl tfs a CoCo 1 or 2 owners best choice in 
word processors. Includes ViP Speller. DISK $69.95 

Cassette version does not include VIP Speller. TAPE $49.95 



VIP Speller 



VIP Speller works with ANY ASCII file created by most popular word processors. It 
automatically checks text files for words to be corrected, marked for special attention or 
even added to the dictionary. You can even view the misspelled word in context! VIP 
Speller comes with a specially edited 50,000 word dictionary, and words can be added to 
or deleted from the dictionary or you can create your own. DISK $34.95 

VIP Database 

VIP Database has all the features of VIP Database ill except the screen widths are 51, 64 
and 85. Screen colors are green, black and white, double speed is not supported, spooler 
is not available. Still VIP Database is the best database for the CoCo 1 & 2! DISK $49.95 



VIP Calc 



Now every CoCo owner has access to a calculating and planning tool better than 
VisiCalc™, containing all its features and commands and then some. VIP Calc displays 32, 
51 , 64 or 85 characters by 21 or 24 lines right on the screen. VIP Calc allows up to a 33K 
worksheet with up to 512 columns by 1024 rows! In addition, ViP Calc has multiple 
windows which allow you to compare and contrast results of changes. Other features 
include 16 DIGIT PRECISION • trig, functions • averaging • algebraic functions * column 
and row ascending, and descending SORTS ■ locate formulas or titles in cells • block move 
and replicate * global or local column width • limitless programmable functions • works with 
ANY printer. Embed printer control codes for customized printing. Combine spreadsheet 
data with VIP Writer documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical and financial 
budgets and reports. Requires 64K. DISK $59.95 

VIP Terminal 

For your important communications needs you've got to go beyond software that only lets 
you chat. You need a smart terminal so that you can send and receive programs and 
messages and pnnt theml The VIP Terminal features 32, 51, 64 or 85 characters by 21 
or 24 lines on the screen and has a 43K byte buffer to store information. DISK $39.95 

VIP Disk-ZAP 

VIP Disk-ZAP is the ultimate disk repair utility for simple and quick repair of most disk 
errors. Designed with the non-programmer in mind, the VIP Disk-ZAP wilt let you retrieve 
all types of bashed files, BASIC and Machine Language programs. It even works with 40 
track drives! The 50 page tutorial makes the novice an expert. DISK $24.95 

All disk products are unprotected and run under RSDOS. 

SID Enterprises 

©(503) ft83-2865 ^POB 1233 Gresham. OR 97030 

Please add $3 tor shipping and handling. Ouisde cora mental US add U S/H. COD orders add an 
additional S2.25. Checks allow 3 weeks for delrvery. All other orders are shipped the same day. 
TetowTUar 128 ■ a rademartt 3 Cognuc Wad Pom« 3sa radamaft c* Uaocom Sort***. 





eft 



(t 



Sandstone 

lVa//y Mayes 

Wally, of Hamilton, Ohio, 
used CoCo Max III to 
design this graphic. He 
enjoys country music, oil 
painting and computers. 





z 




Setup 

Pete Hagemeyer 

Pete used CoCo Max III to 
display his computer setup. He 
lives in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 
and enjoys model railroading, 
drawing and working with the 
CoCo. ' 



tmsa 



HE *4INB 0W 



J °'y 7988 



#^&S&& mo^ em a A i se - this 

ho*to* spW art bv someone f^iu 





HONORABLE MENTION 



King Tut 

Jerry Suchman 

CoCo Max III was 
used to create this 
scene of this ancient 
time. Jerry is an 
accountant, lives in 
Manchester, 
Missouri, and uses 
the CoCo as a form 
of relaxation. 




Woodpecker 

Domingo Martinez 

Domingo, of Miami, Florida, used BASIC 
and the CoCo 2 to develop this view of 
the tree-climbing bird. He enjoys sports, 
movies and his CoCo. 




ill 



1 



Help is on the way 

Carl Johnson 

CoCoDraw was used to 
develop this scene of rescue. 
Carl is a firefighter in Sioux 
Falls and lives in Brandon, 
South Dakota. 




1988 



THE 



A logic problem tester 






O 





■ ■ ■ > 



s r 

L J 



"J 








Q 



Bjy Brae® W. Ronald 





bu're a pool ball salesman, and 



your best customer is irate. The 
last set of 12 balls you sold him 
has one defective ball. He tells you to 
find out which of the balls, numbered 
1 through 12, is the culprit — and if it 
is heavier or lighter than the others. 

He tells you that you have three 
weighings only, on a simple balance 
scale. Your job is to figure out a weigh- 
ing technique capable of finding the 
rogue ball every time -— the algorithm, 
in computer talk. It must work in every 
case, no matter which ball is the deviant, 
and it must tell if the deviant is either 
heavy or light. 

One final point. A simple balance 
scale doesn't weigh anything. It can only 
show you if one side is heavier (or 
lighter) than the other. If the left-hand 
side drops, it is either because there's a 
heavy ball on the left side or a light ball 
on the right. 

Bruce Ronald, an advertising copywrit- 
er, holds a bachelor's degree in speech. 
He has written a science fiction thriller, 
Our Man in Space, and the book of the 
musical Dracula, Baby. He and his wife, 
Virginia, coauthored two prize-winning 
local histories of Dayton and its suburb, 
Oakwood -~ the latter on the Co Co. 



It took me hours to find the trick (and 
if yo u figure it out in 15 minutes, 1 don't 
want to know). I have prepared a pro- 
gram that will select a deviant ball for 
you, determine if it is light or heavy, and 
conduct any three weighings (such as 1, 
2 and 3 versus 4, 5 and 6) you choose. 




There are two versions of the pro- 
gram — one fort he CoCo $ and one for 
the CoCos 1 and 2, CoCo 3 owners 
should type in Listing 1; CoCo 1 and 2 
owners should type in Listing 2. The 
CoCo 3 version uses the computer's 
ability to handle 16 colors at once to 
more or less match the yellow, blue, red, 
purple, green, orange, maroon, black 
pool ball sequence. The CoCo 1 and 2 
version uses red and blue on a Pf1DDE3 
screen. 



Telewriter-128 

the Color Computer 3 Word Processor 



For over 5 years now, Telewriter has been 
the #1 Color Computer word processor, 
both in popularity and in performance. 
Telewriter's near perfect mix of sophisti- 
cated professional features and a very natu- 
ral user interface, has earned it the highest 
praise in numerous magazines, and an in- 
tensely loyal following among tens of thou- 
sands of Color Computer users all over the 
world. 



HISTORY 



Throughout the history of the Color Com- 
puter, Telewriter has pioneered software 
breakthroughs that set the standards. 

In 1981, it was Telewriter 1 .0 that first took 
the Color Computer's inadequate 32X16 all- 
uppercase display, and replaced it with a 
graphics-based 51X24 upper and lowercase 
display. 

A few years later, Telewriter-64 added high 
density 64X24 and 85X24 displays and ac- 
cess to the full 64K of the newer Color 
Computers. 



THE NF,W AGfc 



Today, Telewriter-64 is recognized as the 
standard Color Computer word processor. It 
runs on all Tandy Color Computers — from 
the original Color Computer 1, to the Color 
Computer 2, and 3. 

But the Color Computer 3 brings a whole 
new level of power to low cost computing 
and, so, a new Telewriter is here to put that 
power to work for you . We call it Tele writer- 
128. 



TIUJiWKITRR-128 



You don't mess with a good thing, so 
Telewriter-128 is still Telewriter-64 at heart. 
The commands, and the user interface are 
essentially the same. If you know 
Telewriter-64, then you already know 
Telewriter-128. And, if you don't know 
Telewriter-64, you'll still have an easy time 
learning and using Telewriter-128. 



80 COLUMNS 



But there are major differences as well. First, 
Telewriter-128 uses the Color Computer 3's 
new 80 column screen display. 

This means, simply, that using Telewriter- 
128onalow cost ColorComputer 3 will look 
a lot like using a more expensive word 
processor on a much more expensive IBM 
PC, PS/2, or clone. 



Second, Telewriter-128 is lightning fast. 
Telewriter-64 was fast in its own right, but, 
by accessing the Color Computer 3's video 
hardware directly, and by running the 
machine in double speed mode, Telewriter- 
128 is able to provide extremely fast scroll- 
ing and instant paging — functions whose 
speed is crucial to serious word processing. 

In this department, Telewriter-128 doesn't 
simply keep up with IBM-based word proc- 
essors — it generally surpasses them! 



EASE 



Third, Telewriter-128 adds a host of new 
features big and small, that make it even 
easier to use. 

Features like: Quick function key access to 
the editor or the menus — an instant on-line 
help screen summarizing all Telewriter 
commands and special characters — an 
option file where you store your personal set 
of format and screen settings so you only 
have to set them once! 

Then, there's a quick save feature which 
allows you to save all your current work 
without leaving the editor. There's a simple 
way to cursor through the disk directory and 
read in a file by just hitting ENTER. And 
there's more. 



NEW POWFR 



Telewriter-64 always had the power to 
handle any kind of serious writing, from 
letters to textbooks. But, here too, 
Telewriter-128 adds major features. 



Like Macros — which let you insert whole 
words or phrases (even sets of control codes- 
or format commands) into your text, with a 
single keypress. And every time you power 
up Telewriter-128, the macro definitions.are 
automatically loaded*, so they're always 
there. 

Then there's a Print Preview feature that 
shows you, on-screen, the way your printed 
text will look — with margins, headers, 
centering, justification, page numbering, 
and page breaks. This guarantees letter 
perfect documents every time, and makes 
tasks like widow/orphan line elimination, a 
breeze. 



TELEWRITER-64 or TELEWRITER 128 



We could go on listing features, but the point 
is this: If you own a ColorComputer, you al- 
ready have the hardware for the most 
powerful, low cost word processor in town. 
All you need now is to add the heart and 
soul: 

Telewriter-64, for the Color Computer 1 
and 2, costs $59.95 on disk, $49.95 on 
cassette. 

Telewriter-128 for the Color Computer 3 
costs $79-95 on disk, $69.95 on cassette. 

To order by Mastercard or Visa call (619) 
755-1258 anytime, or send check or money 
order plus $2 shipping (Californians add 6% 
sales tax) to: 

COGNITEC 

704 Nob Ave. 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

To upgrade from Telewriter-64 to 
Telewriter-128, return your original disk or 
cassette with $39.95. (Add $10 if you're also 
upgrading from cassette to disk. Deduct $10 
with proof of Oct '87 - Feb '88, purchase of 
Telewriter-64.) 

When [first got Telewriter-64 last year, 
I was in heaven. I couldn't believe the 
program's versatility and ease of use. 

-The RAINBOW, Oct. 1985 



TELEWRITER-64 FEATURES: Compatibility with ariy printer that works with 
the Color Computer; embedded control codes for underlining, boldface, sub/ 
superscript, variable fonts; format commands for headers, centering, margin and 
spacing changes anywhere in the document; Format menu to. set margins, 
spacing, page numbering, BAUD rate, lines per page, justification; Chain 
printing for one shot printing of multi-file documents. Fast, full-screen editor 
with wordwrap, block copy/move/delete, global search and replace, wild card 
search, fast 4-way auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, forward and backward 
paging, text alignment, tabs, error protection, word and line counter. Insert or 
delete text anywhere on the screen. Simple, easy to remember commands. 
Optional ASCII fites for compatibility with spell checkers, terminal programs, 



and BASIC. Load, save, append, partial save files to disk or cassette. Kill, rename 
and list disk files. Cassette verify and auto-retry on error, 
TELEWRITER- 1 28 - ADDITIONAL FEATURES: Print preview from editor; 
multiple copy print; footers; hanging indents; cursor thru dij>k directory to load, 
append, rename and kill files; quick file save from editor; keyclick; key repeat; fjfSxk 
true block move; 24, 25, or 28 line screen; 40 or 80 column screen; dual speed ■** 
cursor; on-line help; overstrike mode; word delete; wordwrap at margin; user RAINBOW 

r r CERTIFICATION 

definable macros; nested macros; instant status window for information on 
cursor position, word count, etc.; instant function key access to menus or editor; 
options menu for setting character and screen colors, key repeat and delay rates, 
definable foreign symbols. 



SEAL 



IBM and PS/2 are trademarks of International Business Machines Inc. *disk version only 



The only tricky part of the program 
is the array-in/ array-out routine that 
allows input on a text screen and output 
for the graphics screen. The CoCo 3 
version is written for an RGB monitor, 



and you may have to adjust the colors 
for a TV set or a composite monitor. 
Next month I'll give you the solution, 
if you haven't mastered the problem by 
then. 



(Questions or comments regarding 
this program may be directed to the 
author at 101 Forrer Blvd., Dayton, OH 
45419. Please enclose an SASE when 
requesting a reply.) □ 




780 119 

960 23 

END 83 



Listing 1: BRLL3 



5 
10 



REM BALL3 BY BRUCE W. RONALD 
_,3 DIM LH(6):DIM RH(6) 
20 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
30 HBUFF 1,3618:HBUFF 2,3618 
40 X=RND (-TIMER) 
50 X=RND(12) :Y=RND(1000) 
60 IF Y>=500 THEN Yl=l 
70 IF Yl=l THEN Y$= "HEAVY" 
80 IF Y<500 THEN Yl—1 
90 IF Yl=-1 THEN Y$="LIGHT" 
100 PALETTE RGB : WIDTH 40:CLS3:AT 
TR3 , 2 : REM CHANGE THIS FOR COMPOS 
ITE MONITOR 

105 PALETTE 6 , 40 : PALETTE 7 ,38: PALE 
TTE5,45 

110 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT 

120 PRINT" The Case of the Dev 

iant Pool Ball" 

130 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT : PRIN 

T"One ball is either" ; :ATTR3 , 2 , B 
: PRINT" HEAVIER"; 

140 ATTR3 , 2 : PRINT " or " ; : ATTR3 , 2 

,B: PRINT" LIGHTER" 

150 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT 

160 ATTR3,2:PRINT:PRINT l, YOU HAVE 

3 WEIGHINGS TO DETERMINE WHICH 
it • 



ii 

163 PRINT " BALL AND IF IT IS HEAV 
IER OR"; 

165 PRINT" LIGHTER THAN THE 0 
THERS " 

170 FOR T=l TO 1900:NEXT T 

180 LOCATE26,20:PRINT"HERE WE GO 
ii 

190 FOR T=l TO 800: NEXT T 

200 CLS:FOR C=l TO 4 

210 WIDTH40:CLS3:ATTR3,2 

220 IF C=l THEN A$=" WE 

IGHING ONE" 

230 IF C=2 THEN A$=" WE 
IGHING TWO" 

240 IF C=3 THEN A$=" WE 

IGHING THREE" 

245 IF C=4 THEN GOTO 500 

250 R=0:L=0:FOR W=l TO 6: READ L 

H(W) :NEXT W 

260 FOR U= 1 TO 6: READ RH(U) :NE 



XT U 

2 70 PRINT : PRINT : PRINTA$ 

280 PRINT: INPUT "TOTAL NUMBER OF 

BALLS ON each SIDE";N 

290 FOR E=l TO N 

300 PRINT: INPUT "NUMBER OF BALL 0 
N LEFT SIDE";B 
310 GOSUB 620 
320 IF B=X THEN L=Y1 
330 LH(E) -B 
340 NEXT E 
350 FOR E=l TO N 
360 PRINT: INPUT "NUMBER OF BALL O 
N RIGHT SIDE";B 
370 GOSUB 620 
380 IF B=X THEN R=Y1 
390 RH(E)=B 
400 NEXT E 
410 H=144 :V=80 
420 GOSUB 640 . 
430 HGET(10, 61) -(155, 108) , 1:HGET 
(165,61)-(310 / 108) ,2 
440 V1=61:V2=61 
450 IF L>R THEN GOSUB 1010 
460 IF L<R THEN GOSUB 1080 
470 IF L=R THEN HPRINT (11,23)," 
THE SCALE BALANCES" ' 
480 FOR LA=1 TO 600: NEXT LA 
490 NEXT C 

500 CLS 3 : ATTR3 , 2 : PRINT : PRINT : PRI 
NT : PRINT 

510 PRINT" WHAT IS YOUR ANS 

WER? " 

520 INPUT" WHICH BALL IS DE 

VI ANT" ; J 

530 IF J=X THEN PRINT "CONGRATULA 
TIONS" ELSE IF J<>X GOTO 570 

540 PRINT" Is it Heavier or 

Lighter? 

550 INPUT" ENTER H OR L";J$ 

560 IF J$=LEFT$ (Y$ , 1) THEN PRINT 
"RIGHT AGAIN": GOTO 590 
570 PRINT "SORRY, IT WAS" ;X;" AND 

IT WAS ";Y$:GOTO 590 
580 PRINT "SORRY. IT WAS ";Y$ 
590 INPUT "ANOTHER EXAMPLE" ;K$ 
600 IF K$="Y" THEN PRINT "TYPE 'R 
UN' (AVOIDS DD ERROR IN 10) 
605 IF K$="N" THEN PRINT "THAMKS , 

POOL BALL FANS" 
610 END 

620 IF B<1 OR B>12 THEN PRINT" BA 
LL MUST BE NOT < 1 NOR > 12" 
625 IF B<1 OR B>12 THEN PRINT "P 
RESS BREAK AND RUN AGAIN" 
630 RETURN 



30 THE RAINBOW July 1988 





64J3 


REM GRAPHICS 


880 


IF 


B=l 


THEN 


HPAINT(H-8,V) ,1, 




650 


HSCREEN2 


12 










660 


HCOLOR 12,11 


890 


IF 


B=2 


THEN 


HPAINT(H-8,V) ,2, 




670 


HDRAW" BM10 , 92 ; C12 ;R146 ;U74 ;R 


12 










8 ; D74 ;R146 ;D8 ;L146 ;D74 ;L8 ;U74 ;L1 


900 


IF 


B=3 


THEN 


HPAINT(H-8,V) ,3, 




46;U8" 


12 














910 


IF 


B=4 


THEN 


HPAINT(H-8,V) ,6, 








12 










'PIP 


"RsT.TTfPM • r^OQTT'R ft 00 
-D — i_ai ^ r y • uUjUD op p 


920 


IF 


B=5 


THEN 


HPAINT(H-8,V) ,7, 

» W t ¥ W 




710 




12 












7^0 




930 


IF 


B=6 


THEN 


HPAINT(H-8,V) ,9, 




7^ 0 
/op 


n— x / o 


12 












74 0 

1 Hp 


FOP cz=l Tn M • "R — du t cl\ »rncnn a 


940 


IF 


B=7 


THEN 


HPAINT(H-8,V) ,5, 

» ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ 




00 


12 












760 
/ Op 


xr o^n xnxLn ri — rL m rZ't • JMIjAx vjt 


950 


IF 


B=8 


THEN 


HPAINT(H-8,V) ,12 

» www 




7Q 0 
/op 


"PTPCnYVPT? • "RFTTTPTsI 

XVCjD IUXUj • xvJLi X UJkvLi 


,13 












ft 00 
opp 


xr o — o xrnjiN nwxxxv*XiJ!i ^ n / v ) , xx / 


96)3 


IF 


B=9 


THEN 


HPAINT(H,V) ,1,12 




lJ 




970 


IF 


B=l£ 


1 THEN HPAINT(H,V) ,2,1 




ft 1 0 
o ±p 


TTT R— ft TTTTTM Vtr'T'DCT T? fV \7\ A 1 

xr d— o xriijjM rxwXJXviaiii ^ ri / v ^ , *± , J. 


2 












3 




980 


IF 


B=ll THEN HPAINT(H,V) ,3,1 




820 


IF B<>8 THEN HCIRCLE (H, V) , 11 


2 












,12 




990 


IF 


B=12 


! THEN HPAINT(H,V) ,6,1 




830 


IF B<8 THEN HCIRCLE (H,V) , 4 , 1 


2 












2 




1000 


RETURN 






840 


IF B>8 THEN HLINE (H-3 , V-ll) - 


1010 


FOR M= 


=1 TO 


10 




(H-3 


!,V+11) ,PSET 


1020 


V1=V1+4:V2= 


=V2-4 




850 


IF B>8 THEN HLINE (H+3 , V-ll) - 


1030 


HPUT(10,V1) 


-(155,Vl+47) ,1,P 




(H+3,V+11) , PSET 


SET 










860 


GOSUB 88j3 


1040 


HPUT (165,72)- (310, V2+47) ,2, 




870 


RETURN 


PSET 









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July 1988 THE RAINBOW 31 



1050 NEXT M 

1060 HPRINT (1,23) , "LEFT SIDE HEA 

VIER OR RIGHT SIDE LIGHTER" 

1065 FOR LA=1 TO 600: NEXT LA 

1070 RETURN 

1080 FOR M=l TO 10 

1090 Vl=Vl-4:V2=V2+4 

1100 HPUT(10,Vl)-(155,Vl+47) ,1,P 

SET 

1110 HPUT(165,V2)-(310,V2+47) ,2, 
PSET 

1120 NEXT M 

1130 HPRINT (1, 23) , "RIGHT HAND HE 
AVIER OR LEFT HAND LIGHTER" 
1135 FOR LA=1 TO 600: NEXT LA 
1140 RETURN 




90 


168 


260 


, , ,240 


1340 


, . 231 


END 


....57 



Listing 2: BRLL2 

3 X=RND( -TIMER) 

5 DIM LH(0,175) :DIM RH(0,175) 



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7 PRINT: PRINT I 

10 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT " THI S 
IS A TOOL TO DETERMINE IF" 

11 PRINT"YOUR TECHNIQUE CAN SOLV 
E THE 12" j 

12 PRINT"POOL BALL PROBLEM" 

15 PRINT"IT WILL ALLOW YOU TO WE 
IGH UP" 

16 PRINT"TO SIX BALLS ON EITHER 
SIDE" ' I 

17 PRINT" (SILLY, BUT ALLOWED) 

2/3 PRINT "THE RESULTS OF EACH WEI 

6HIN6 WILL BE DISPLAYED." 

25 PRINT "CAN YOUR TECHNIQUE SOLV 

E every POSSIBILITY?" 

30 INPUT "READY (Y/N)";A$ 

35 IF A$="Y" THEN CLS 

40 X=RND(12) :Y=RND(1000) 

45 IF Y>501 THEN Y$= "HEAVY" 

48 IF Y<500 THEN Y$="LIGHT" 

50 IF Y$="HEAVY" THEN Z=l 

55 IF Y$="LIGHT" THEN Z»-l 

60 FOR W=l TO 4 I 

65 IF W=l THEN W$="ONE" 

70 IF W=2 THEN W$="TWO" 

75 IF W=3 THEN W$=" THREE" 

80 IF W=4 GOTO 240 j 

90 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" WE 

IGHING ";W$ 

95 L=0:R=0 

100 PRINT: INPUT "HOW MANY BALLS 
DO YOU WISH ON each SIDE OF TH 
E FULCRUM" ;N1 

105 PRINT 

106 FOR E=l TO Nl 
110 INPUT "NUMBER OF BALL ON LEF 
T";LB 

120 GOSUB 1600 
130 NEXT E 
160 PRINT: FOR F=l TO Nl 
170 INPUT "NUMBER OF BALL ON RIG 
HT SIDE";RB 
180 GOSUB 1650 
190 NEXT F 
221 PRINT 
225 GOSUB1000 
230 NEXT W , 
2 40 CLS : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT : INPUT 
"WHICH BALL IS DIVIANT";A1 
245 IF A1XX THEN PRINT" SORRY . T 
HE BALL WAS"; X; "AND IT WAS " ; 
Y$: INPUT"TRY AGAIN ( Y/N) " ; 1$ : GOT 
O 270 

250 IF A1=X THEN INPUT "RIGHT. H 
eavy or Light" ;A1$ 

260 IF A1$=LEFT$(Y$,1) THEN PRIN 
T "RIGHT AGAIN" 

261 IF Al$="" THEN 260 

262 IF A1$<>LEFT$(Y$,1) THEN PRI 
NT" SORRY. IT WAS";Y$ 

265 INPUT "ANOTHER EXAMPLE? (Y/N) 



32 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



" > 1$ 

27J3 IF I$= m Y" THEN GOTO 40 
280 IF I$=" ■ THEN GOTO 280 
290 IF I$="N" THEN PRINT "END" 
295 END 

1000 PMODE 3,1:PCLS 

1010 SCREEN 1,1: COLOR 2,1 

1020 DRAW "C3;BM 0 , 96 ;D8 ;R123 ;D6 

0 ; R8 ; U60 ; R12 3 ; U8 ; L12 3 ; U8 4 ; L8 ; D8 4 

;L123" 

1030 PAINT (4, 100) ,4,3 

1040 V=84:H=106 

1050 FOR G=l TO Nl 

1060 CIRCLE (H,V) ,11,3 

1070 H=H-20:IF N1=G THEN GOTO 12 
00 

1080 NEXT G 

1200 H=148:FOR G=l TO Nl 

1210 CIRCLE (H,V) ,11,3 

1220 H=H+20:IF N1=G THEN GOTO 13 
00 

1230 NEXT G 

1300 REM FILLS IN MISSING LINE 
1310 GET (0, 66) - (123 , 114) ,LH,G 
1320 GET (133 , 66) - (256 , 114) ,RH,G 
1325 Vl=64:V2=64:Hl=0:H2=a23:H3= 
133:H4=256 

1330 IF L=R GOTO 1340 ELSE 1350 



1340 FOR T»l TO 300:NEXT T : PRINT 

§480, "THE SCALE BALANCES" 

1345 FOR U= 1 TO 800: NEXT U 

1350 IF L>R THEN GOSUB 1400 

1360 IF L<R THEN GOSUB 1500 

1370 RETURN 

1400 FOR M-l TO 7 

1410 Vl=Vl+8:V2=V2-8 

1430 PUT(Hl,Vl)-(H2,Vl+48) ,LH,PS 

ET 

1440 PUT(H3,V2)-(H4,V2+48) ,RH,PS 
ET 

1450 NEXT M 

1480 PRINT@448,"LEFT HAND SIDE H 

EAVIER" : FOR T= 1 TO 800: NEXT T 

1490 RETURN 

1500 FOR M= 1 TO 7 

1510 Vl=Vl-8:V2=V2+8 

1520 PUT (HI, VI) -(H2,Vl+48) ,LH,PS 

ET:PUT(H3,V2)-(H4,V2+48) ,RH,PSET 

1530 NEXT M 

1560 PRINTQ448, "RIGHT HAND SIDE 
HEAVIER": FOR T= 1 TO 800: NEXT T 
1570 RETURN 
1600 IF LB=X THEN L=Z 
1610 RETURN 
1650 IF RB=X THEN R=Z 
1660 RETURN 



3 



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■ 



A program editor for the Co Co 3 



: 



Curr 




CoCo s 

tComp 



By Marc Campbell 





ince the entry of the CoCo 3 into 
the world of microcomputing, the 
capabilities of amateur pro- 
grammers have increased significantly. 
Every Joe Average Hacker with access 
to a Color Computer can now utilize 
640-by-192 resolution graphics, 64 
colors, 80-column screens, and error- 
trapping techniques without ever learn- 
ing assembly language. For all CoCo's 
strong points, however, its 3 users are 
still plagued with the antique Color 
BASIC 1.0 program editor. How many 
times have you muttered curses after 
keying in a long line of hexadecimal 
DflTfi statements only to press clear 
instead of enter? How many times 
have you irrevocably lost valuable bytes 
of code with the clumsy EDIT com- 
mand? How many times have you 
dreamed of full-fledged cursor control 
with auto-key repeat? 

Buddy is a program editor worthy of 
the Color Computer 3. Don't be fooled 
by its juvenile name or cartoon-like title 
screen; Buddy is quite a powerhouse. It 
supports 40- and 80-column text, disk 
and tape systems, and 128K or 512K 
machines. With 49,000 bytes (I28K) or 
442,250 bytes of workspace (512K), you 
will be limited only by the amount of 
memory the computer allocates to 
BASIC (usually 24,872 bytes). In addi- 
tion, Buddy possesses many of the 

i ^ ■ — * 

Marc Campbell, a self-taught pro- 
grammer, is a senior in high school, 
where he participates in drama and is an 
editor and award-winning writer for the 
school newspaper. 



advanced editing features of expensive 
word processors. Simply key in Listing 
1 (knowing that it may be the last time 
you will ever need to use the original 
BASIC editor) and save it to tape or disk. 

To execute the program, type RUN and 
press ENTER. You will be greeted by a 
colorful title screen in 320-by-192 reso- 
lution graphics. Press any key to begin. 
You are asked to press 1 if your CoCo 
has 128K or 2 if it has 512K; respond 
appropriately You are now ready to use 
Buddy. 

The top line on the screen is known 
as the memory bar. The first number 



displayed is the number of 250- 
character lines that may be entered into 
memory. The second number tells you 
how many more characters may be 
entered on the current line. The various 
letters you will find on the memory bar 
will be explained later. 

Entering Text 

Buddy allows you to enter program 
lines as you normally would using the 
CoCo's built-in editor. Lines may be 
entered in any order; the computer will 
arrange them in numerical order when 
you load the program into BASIC. No 






R$ 
C$ 
CL$ 

E$ 

L$ 

LN$ 

LT$ 
NBS 

P$ 

05 



Contains character of 
key pressed 

Name of the com- 
mand being executed 

Line that has been cut 
and pasted 

play string for error 
tone 

Line currently being 
edited 

Line being manipu- 
lated by a command 

Left portion of a line 

Line number being 
searched for 

PLAY string for key 
click tone 

Dummy variable 



R$ 

T$ 
AL 



A2 
Bl< 

C 

CH 
CP 
CW 
DV 



Replacement string 

Right portion of a line 

Target string 

Returns a 1 if auto- 
matic line numbering 
is on 

Dummy variable 

Background palette 
color 

Printout width 

Character's palette 
color 

Returns a 1 if cut and 
paste is on 

Command window 
palette color 

Input/output device 
number 



34 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



CoCo 3 



SSL!, 



two lines may have the same number; 
although Buddy will recognize them as 
separate lines, BASIC will not. 

For now, type in a line of BASIC code 
(you must include a space after the line 
number), but do not press ENTER just 
yet. Buddy allows for four-directional 
cursor control. Move the cursor left, 
right, up, and down by pressing the 
appropriate arrow key. (The CLEAR key 
generates an up-arrow character.) 
Holding down an arrow key speeds the 
cursor through your text automatically. 
You may edit any portion of the line 
simply by positioning the cursor and 
typing over the old text. (Since the 
LOCRTE command wipes out the char- 
acter under the cursor, some of your line 
may seem to vanish. Press SHIFT and the 
left arrow key to reprint the line in its 
entirety.) 

Suppose you want to delete a char- 
acter in your line. Position the cursor 
under the character you want erased 
and press Fl. VoilalTht character never 
knew what hit it. (Notice how the rest 
of the line moves over one space to the 
left to fill the gap.) To insert a space in 
the line, position the cursor under the 
character you want the space to precede 
and press F2. 

If you want to lop off part of the line 
you're entering, press SHIFT-F2. The 
character under the cursor and every- 
thing after it are deleted. 

At the moment, Buddy is operating 
in overstrike mode, which means char- 



acters that are typed over are replaced. 
By pressing ALT, you may enter the 
insert mode. (The O for overstrike on 
the memory bar turns to an I for insert.) 
Position the cursor under a character in 
your line, enter insert mode, and type 
several characters. Notice how insert 
mode works; the rest of the line is 
pushed one space to the right to make 
room for the new characters. The key- 
board does not respond as quickly in 
insert mode as it does in overstrike, so 
take your time when typing. You may 
not begin a line in insert mode; return 
to overstrike mode by pressing ALT 
again. 

As you know, the CoCo 3 is capable 
of producing true lowercase letters. 
Press SH1FT-0 to toggle between upper- 
case mode (all caps) and lowercase 
mode (mixed). The memory bar returns 
a U for uppercase or L for lowercase, 
depending on the mode you are in. 

If you have ever typed in a program 
from THE RAINBOW, you know that the 
magazine formats program listings in 32 
columns. This way, you can check to see 
if the position of the character at the far 
right of your 32-column screen matches 
the position of the one in the magazine 
as a method of proofreading your own 
work. Press SHIFT-CTRL to see the line 
you are currently typing on a 32-column 
screen. You may not edit on the 32- 
column screen; press any key to return 
to the editor. 

Now that you have experimented 



with some of the program's features, 
position the cursor wherever you want 
the line to end and press ENTER. You are 
asked if you are finished with the cur- 
rent line; press Y for yes or N for no. 
If you choose no, you will be returned 
to the line. Press SHIFT and the left 
arrow key to restore any erased charac- 
ters, and continue editing. If you select 
yes, the line is sent to memory. After a 
moment's wait, the screen will clear and 
you may enter another line. 

Commands 

Press CTRL and you will be sent into 
command mode. A portion of the 
screen called the command window is 
blocked off, and you will be prompted 
to enter a command. There are nineteen 
commands recognized by Buddy. At 
any time during a command, press ESC/ 
BREAK to return control to the editor. 
(The proverb made famous by Telewrit- 
er, "When in doubt press BREAK," 
applies.) All of the command proce- 
dures are well-prompted in plain Eng- 
lish messages for maximum user- 
friendliness. 

(Automatic Line Numbering): This 
command toggles the automatic line 
numbering feature. Specify the starting 
line number and the interval of increase, 
and Buddy takes care of the rest. For 
instance, if you define the starting line 
as 10 and the interval as 20, the com- 
puter would number your program's 




ED 


Returns a 1 if edit 


LL(x) 


Array containing the 


Q 


Dummy variable 




mode is on 




length of Line X 


QQ 


Dummy variable 


EE 


Length of line being 
cut and pasted 


LN 


Line number being 
searched for 


5 


First address editor 
may LPOKE to 


EL 


End position of line 


LP 


Position of cursor in 


SR 


Starting line of auto- 




being edited 


line 




matic line numbering 


EN 


End position of por- 
tion being cut 


LU 


Number of lines used 


ST 


Start of portion of line 
being cut 




LX 


Line being edited 


W 


Width of editing 


I 


Returns a 1 if insert 
mode is on 


MU 


Bytes of memory used 




screen 




MX 


Dummy variable 


X 


Horizontal position of 


IC 


Increment of auto- 


MY 


Dummy variable 




cursor 




matic line numbering 


NC 


Total number of oc- 


XQ 


Dummy variable 


IR 


Returns a zero if no 




currences of target 


XX 


Dummy variable 




occurrences of target 


PL 


Position in line being 


Y 


Vertical position of 




found 




searched 




cursor 


L 


Maximum number of 
lines 


P5 


Memory position of 
search 


2 


Returns a zero if line 
numbering was just 


LC 


Number of occurren- 


PT 


Position of editor in 




turned on 




ces of target in line 




the program 


ZZ 


Dummy variable 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 35 



lines as follows: 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, etc. 

B (Return to BASIC): This command 
sends you back to BASIC. 

(Cut & Paste): This command lets 
you take part of a line and move it to 
another location. Upon executing this 
command, position the cursor at the 
beginning of the portion you want to 
cut, and press S for start position. Move 
the cursor to the end of the portion you 
want to cut and press E. Finally, posi- 
tion the cursor at the spot you want the 
cut portion to move and press M. After 
verification, the line will be cut and 
pasted. 

u (Disk Directory): This command 
does a disk directory and displays the 
number of free granules remaining. 
Press any key to return to the editor. 

E (Edit Line): This command allows 
you to edit a line you previously typed 
in. An E for edit mode will appear on 
the memory bar. You may not execute 
another command while in edit mode. 
Press ENTER to return to the normal 
mode of operation. 

r |(Find Text): This command causes 
the computer to search through mem- 
ory for a target string. When it finds the 
string, it displays the line that contains 
the string and asks you if you want to 
continue the search. Press Y or N. The 
search continues until you abort by 
pressing N or no more occurrences can 
be found. If you do press N, you will be 
sent (in edit mode) to the line that 
contains the target string. 

G (Global Replace): This command 
works like Find Text above, but the 
computer will change every occurrence 
of the target string it finds to a replace- 
ment string. If the replacement string 
plus the original line take up more than 
250 characters, none of the occurrences 
in the line will be changed. 

H (Alter Colors): This command 
changes the colors of the display. Input 
the palette color (0-63) for the charac- 
ters, background and command win- 
dow. 

K (Kill Disk File): This command 
kills a file saved to disk. 

L (Disk Load): This command loads 
any ASCII-saved program with the 
extension .BAS into memory so that 
Buddy may edit it. The loading process 

36 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



Lines 


Description 




1-19 


Draw the title screen. pdke&HE67B,&H39 


: H5CREEN2 : POKE- 




&HE6B7,&H20 prevents the computer from switching to the Hi-Res 




screen while the actual drawing and painting is taking place. The line 




PDKE&HE6E4 , &HE6 : HSCREEN2 : P0KE&HE6 


:4,&HE7 undoes the 




previous poKes. 




13-15 


Initialize the program. 




16-17 


Prepare the computer for the incoming line. 




18 


Checks to see if a key is being pressed. 




19 


Generates an up arrow if clear is pressed. 




20 


Hacks line at cursor if shift-F2 is pressed. 




21 


Follows a routine if enter is pressed. 




22 


Deletes the character under the cursor if fi is pressed. 


23 


Inserts a character at the cursor if F2 is pressec 


I. 


24 


Jumps to command mode if ctrl is pressed. 




25 


Toggles between insert and overstrike modes if alt is pressed. 


26 


Controls the cursor if the left arrow key is pressed. 


27 


Controls the cursor if the right arrow key is pressed. 


28 


Controls the cursor if the down arrow key is pressed. 


29 


Controls the cursor if the up arrow key is pressed. 


30 


Rewrites a line if smFT-left arrow is pressed. 




31 


Prints a line on 32-column screen if shift-ctrl is pressed. 


32 


Sounds the error tone if an illegal key is presse 


d. 


33 


Stops the computer from accepting any characters if the workspace 
is filled. The computer jumps to Line 35 if it is in insert mode; otherwise, 




the character is added to the line. 




34 


Stops the computer from extending a line past 250 characters. 


35 


Prints the character of the key that was presset 


i 


36 


Adds the character to the line if the computer is in insert mode; 
everything following it is shifted one space to the right. 


37-38 


Call a subroutine to prevent the computer from locating an illegal 




position. 




39-41 


Call a subroutine when enter is pressed. 




42-47 


Call a subroutine for auto-key repeat of cursor 


control. 


48-53 


Call an error-trapping routine. 




54-58 


Call a subroutine to print the memory bar. 




59 


Calls a routine for entering command mode. You are asked to select 




a command, provided you are not in edit mode 




60-78 


Contain various commands; check the value 
determine which command the line controls. 


of cs in each line to 


79 


Sounds the error tone if an illegal commam 
computer returns to Line 57. 


i is selected, and the 


80-88 


Contain the global find and replace subroutine 




89-95 


Contain the single-line find and replace subroutine. 


96 


Calls a subroutine to center the command name on the screen. 


97-103 


Find the text subroutine. 




104 


Reformats the editor screen and closes any open devices. Pressing 




esc/break sends you to this line. 




105 


Erases the command window and returns to the line being edited. 


106-107 


Contain an initialization routine for the automatic line numbering 




command. 




108-111 


Search for a particular line number. 




112-113 


Contain the output to printer routine. 




114-115 


Call a subroutine to generate a "Press any key to continue" prompt. 


116-117 


Call a subroutine to generate an "Are you sure? (Y/N)" prompt. 


118-119 


Contain the Save routine. 




120-127 


Contain the Load routine. 




128-146 


Contain the Cut and Paste routine. 




H A "7 

147 


Calls a subroutine to bypass the clqsehi command on non-disk 
systems, which would otherwise generate a DN Error. 



will stop after the program is completely 
in memory or after the workspace is 
filled (whichever comes first). 



(CTRL-S) above, but output is to the 
cassette recorder. 



(Memory Used): This command 
displays the number of bytes your 
program consumes. 



(Erase Memory): This command 
clears the workspace, as the NEW com- 
mand of BASIC. 

P (Output To Printer): This com- 
mand sends the program to your prin- 
ter. You may specify the width of the 
printout. 



# (Key Click): This command toggles 
the key click feature. 



(Replace Text): This command 
works identically to Global Replace 
(CTRL-G) with one exception. Occurren- 
ces of the target string in the current line 
only will be replaced. 



1 1 



(Disk Save): This command saves 
your program to disk under the exten- 
sion .BPS. 



^ (Cassette Load): As Disk Load 
(CTRL-L) above, but the computer re- 
ceives input from the cassette recorder. 

^ (Alter Width): This command 
toggles between 40 and 80 columns of 
text. 

Error Messages 

Using the ON ERR GOTO command, 
Buddy makes use of error-trapping for 
crash-free operation. The computer 
reports errors above the memory bar by 
printing WARNING: and the appro- 
priate error message, 

Out Of Range: You have input a 
number or string that is out of the 
computer's range (i.e., attempting to 
change the background to Color 100). 

Overflow: More commonly called the 
"Wise Guy Error." You cause an over- 
flow if you input a number that the 
computer cannot handle (anything 
larger than nine digits). 



(Cassette Save): As Disk Save Input/ Output Error: The computer is 



having difficulty reading or writing to 
your tape or disk. Check to make sure 
the device has been turned on. 

Disk Error: Any number of things 
may be going wrong: the disk may not 
be formatted, the file you specified may 
not exist, the disk may have write- 
protection tabs on it, the disk may be 
garbled, etc. Physically examine your 
disk, or experiment with it in BASIC, to 
get to the source of the problem. 

If the computer encounters an error 
that does not fit into any of these 
categories, you will be returned to the 
standard 32-column screen. On the top 
line you will find the error number and 
the line that is generating the error. 
There is probably a typographical error 
in the line somewhere, but more serious 
errors may be the result of an oversight 
on my part. Write me if you discover a 
chronic bug that you just can't squash. 

Shortcomings 

Since Buddy was written in BASIC, 
there are certain features of the built-in 
editor that my program cannot dupli- 
cate. For example, no matter if each line 
contains two or 200 characters, you'll 



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July 1988 THE RAINBOW 37 



never fit more than 196 lines (1769 lines 
with 512K) into memory. If the program 
you are keying in contains more than 
the maximum number of lines, save the 
first part to either tape or disk and erase 
memory (CTRL-N). Continue typing in 
the program until you are finished or 
until you fill the workspace again, 
saving each section under a different 
filename. When you have completed the 
program and all its components are 
saved, return to basic (ctrl-b). Load 



the first portion into memory. For disk 
systems, type MERGE "filename - BR S " 
for each additional component. Tape 
users should input the command OPEN 
U-l, "filename" zPQKE 111,255:EXEC 
&HRC7C for each additional component. 
When the entire program is safely 
tucked away into memory, resave it to 
tape or disk. 

If you ever want to delete a line that 
you have already sent to memory, I 
recommend you execute the Edit Line 



command (ctrl-e), position the cursor 
after the space that follows the line 
number, and press ENTER. This way, if 
you need room for another line, you 
may edit the "empty" line and change 
its line number. 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this program may be directed to the 
author at 266 Riverview Drive, Eph- 
rata, PA 17522. Please enclose an S AS E 
when requesting a reply.) □ 




24 78 217 

52 89 78 

129 101 253 



111 . 
122 . 
131 . 
138 . 
END 



.26 
167 
.71 
120 
102 



The listing: BUDDY 

1 PCLEAR1:HSCREEN0:WIDTH32: PRINT 
@202 , "INITIALIZING" : POKE&HE6B7 , & 
H39 : HSCREEN2 : POKE&HE6B7 , &H20 

2 POKE&HFFD9,0:ONBRKGOTO1:CMP:PA 
LETTE9 ,15: HCLS5 : HCOLOR8 : HDRAW" BM 
100 , 40R120F5D80G5L120H5U80E5" :HD 
RAW"BM110 , 50R100F5D60G5L100H5U60 
E5" :HDRAW"BM120,65E5R15BR40E5F10 
" :HDRAW"BM13 5 / 65G5F5R5U5" : HDRAW" 
BM180, 70D5R5E5H5" :HDRAW"BM165, 65 
D25L5" 

3 HCIRCLE(160,93) ,35, , .15,0, .5:H 
CIRCLE (160, 93) ,35, , .5,0, .5 

4 HPAINT(120,70) ,0 , 8 : HPAINT ( 160 , 
108) ,4,8:HPAINT(97,70) ,4,8 

5 HLINE(100,130)-(85,145) ,PSET:H 
LINE - ( 2 3 5 , 1 4 5 ) , PS ET : HLINE -(220,1 
30) ,PSET:HLINE(100,135)-(95,140) 
, PSET : HLINE- ( 2 2 5 , 140 ) , PSET : HLINE 
-(220,135) ,PSET:HLINE-(100,135) , 
PSET 

6 HPAINT(101,132) ,4,8:HPAINT(106 
,138) ,9,8:HCOLOR3:HLINE(101,133) 
- ( 120 , 13 3 ) , PSET : HCOLOR8 : HLINE (85 
,145) -(235,150) ,PSET,B:HPAINT(86 
,146) ,4,8 

7 HPRINT (4 , 20) , "THE FRIENDLY PRO 
GRAMMING UTILITY" 

8 HCOLOR4 : HPRINT ( 4 , 2 2 ) , " (C) MCML 
XXXVIII BY MARC CAMPBELL" 

9 HCOLOR8:HDRAW"BM35,10D20R50U5H 
5E5U5NL50D20R50U20L20D10L10U10L2 
0" :HDRAW"BM135 , 10D20R45E5U10H5L4 
5 " : HDRAW"BM185 , 10D20R45E5U10H5L4 
5":HDRAW"BM235,10D10R20D10R10U10 
R20U10L20D5L10U5L20" 



10 HPAINT(36,11) ,1,8:HPAINT(86,1 
1) ,1,8:HPAINT(136,11) ,1,8:HPAINT 
(186,11) ,1,8:HPAINT(236,11) ,1,8 

11 POKE&HE6E4 , &HE6 : HSCREEN2 : POKE 
&HE6E4, &HE7:A$=INKEY$:A$=" " 

12 IFINKEY$=" " THENPALETTE 1 , Q : Q=Q 
+1 : IFQ=64THENQ=0 : GOT012ELSE12 

13 ATTR0,0:WIDTH40:CMP:CLS1:CLEA 
R2 500 :LOCATE2, 10 : PRINT" Are you u 
sing (1) 128K or (2) 512K?":ONBR 
KGOT013 

14 EXEC44539 : A$=INKEY$ : IFA$="1"T 
HENL=19 6 : S=393216ELSEIFA$="2 "THE 
NL=17 69 : S=0ELSEPLAY"V3 1L3501C" : G 
0T014 J 

15 PLAY"L30O3C":DIMLL(L-1) :PT=S: 
W=40:E$="V31L35O1C":P$="V31L255O 
1C" : POKE&HFFD9 ,0 : ONERRGOT048 : VER 
IF YON : CH=0 : BIO 18 : CW=63 : ONBRKGOTO 
104 

16 ATTR0,0:PT=S+(250*LU) :L$=STRI 
NG$ ( 2 50 , 0 ) : EL=1 : LP=1 : X=0 : Y=3 : WID 
THW:GOSUB54 : IFAL=1ANDZ=0THENZ=LU 
+1 : L$=STR$ (SR) ELSEIFAL=1ANDZ>0TH 
ENL$=STR$(SR+IC*( (LU+1)-Z) ) 

17 IFAL==1THENL$=RIGHT$(L$,LEN(L$ 
)-!)+" " :E L=LEN ( L$ ) + 1 : LP=EL : LOCA 
TEX , Y : PRINTL$ ; : HSTATQ$ , Q , X , Y : L$= 
L$+STRING$(250-LEN(L$) ,0) 

18 LOCATEX , Y : A$=INKEY$ : IFA$=" " TH 
EN18ELSEPLAYP$ : IFASC (A$) >31ANDAS 
C ( A$ ) <12 3 ANDA$<> " A " ANDPEEK ( 343 ) < 
>19 1 ANDPEEK ( 3 4 1 ) <>19 1THEN3 3 

19 IFA$=CHR$ ( 12 ) THENA$=" A " : GOT03 
3 J 

20 IFA$=CHR$ (214) ANDLP<EL THENPR 
INTSTRING $(7,13):MID$(L$,LP,250- 
LP) =STRING$ ( 2 50 , 0 ) : EL=LP : IFED=0T 
HENLL ( LU ) =EL : GOTO 1 8 ELS E LL ( LX) =E L 
:GOT018 ] 

21 IFA$=CHR$ ( 13 ) THENPRINTSTRING$ 
(6,13): LOCATE (W-40 ) /2 , 11 : PRINT" A 
re you finished editing this lin 
e (Y/N) " : EXEC44539 : A$=INKEY$ : IFA 
$="Y"ORA$="y"THEN39ELSELOCATE (W- 
40 ) /2 , 11 : PRINT : A$=" " : GOTO 18 

22 IFA$=CHR$(103)ANDEL>1ANDLP<>E 
L ANDLP<249THENLF$=LEFT$ (L$,LP) : 
RT$=MID$(L$,LP+1,250) :L$=LEFT$ (L 



38 THE RAINBOW July 1 988 



F$,LP-1)+RT$+CHR$ (p) : LOCATE^ , 3 : P 
RINTL$ : EL=EL-1 : GOSUB54 : GOTO 18 ELS 
EIFPEEK (343) =19 1THENPLAYE $ : GOTOl 
8 

23 IFA$=CHR$(4) ANDEK249ANDLPOE 
L THENLF$=LEFT$(L$,LP-1) :RT$=MID 
$(L$,LP,250) :L$=LF$+" "+RT$:L$=L 
EFT$(L$,25j3) : LOCATEJ3 , 3 : PRINTL$ : E 
L=EL+1 : GOSUB54 : GOT018ELSEIFPEEK ( 
344 ) =19 1THENPLAYE$ : GOT018 

24 IFA$=CHR$(189)THEN59 

25 IFPEEK(341)=191ANDI=^THENI=1: 
GOSUB54 : GOT018ELSEIFPEEK (341) =19 
lANDI=lTHENI=j3:GOSUB54:GOT018 

26 IFA$=CHR$(8)THENLP=LP-1:IFLP< 
1THENLP=1 : PLAYE$ : GOTO 18 ELSEGOSUB 
54 : X=X-1 : IFX<0THENX=W-1 : Y=Y-1 : GO 
T042ELSE42 

27 IFA$=CHR$(9)THENLP=LP+1:IFLP> 
EL THENLP=EL: PLAYE$ : GOT018ELSEIF 
LP=251THENLP=25J3 : PLAYE$ : GOT018EL 
SEGOSUB54:X=X+l:IFX>W-l THENX=j3 : 
Y=Y+l:GOT042ELSE42 

28 IFA$=CHR$(lj3)THENLP=LP+W:IFLP 
>EL THENLP=LP-W:PLAYE$:GOT018ELS 
EIFLP=2 51THENLP=25j3 : PLAYE$ : GOTOl 
8ELSEGOSUB54 : Y=Y+1 : 1 FY> 2 4THENY=2 
4:GOT042ELSE42 

29 IFA$=CHR$(94)THENLP=LP-W:IFLP 



<^THENLP=LP+W: PLAYE$ : GOT018ELSEG 
0SUB54 : Y=Y-1 : IFY<J3THENY=^ : GOT042 
ELSE4 2 

3jd IFA$=CHR$ (21) THENLOCATEp ,3:PR 
INTL$:GOT018 

31 IFA$=CHR$ (1) THENWIDTH3 2 : PRINT 
L$:EXEC44539:A$=INKEY$:A$=" M :WID 
THW : G0SUB54 : PRINT : PRINTL$ ; : GOTOl 
8 

32 PLAYE$:GOT018 

33 IFLU+1>L THENPLAYE$ : GOT018ELS 
EIFI=1THEN3 6ELSEMID$ (L$ , LP, 1) =A$ 
: LP=LP+1 : IFLP>EL THENEL=LP 

34 IFLP=251THENPRINTA$; :PLAYE$:L 
$=LEFT$(L$ / 250) : LP=25j3 : GOT018 

35 PRINTA$ ; : HSTATQ$ , Q , X , Y : LOCATE 
j3 , p : ATTR0 , j3 , U : PRINT : GOSUB54 : GOTO 
18 

36 IFEL<249ANDLPOEL THENLF$=LEF 
T$(L$,LP-1) :RT$=MID$(L$,LP,250) : 

L$=LF$+A$+RT$:L$=LEFT$(L$,25J3) :L 
OCATEJ3 , 3 : PRINTL$ : EL=EL+1 : MU=MU+1 
: X=X+1 : LP=LP+1 : GOSUB37 : GOSUB54 : G 
OT018ELSEPLAYE$ : GOT018 

37 IFX>W-1 THENX=0:Y=Y+1 

38 RETURN 

39 IFED=lTHENED=j3:LL(LX)=LP:LX=0 
ELSELL ( LU) =LP : LU=LU+1 

4j3 MID$(L$,LP,25j3)=CHR$(13)+STRI 




Happy 

Independence Day 
1o all of our UQ 
Cusiomersl 



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R. S. B. 

We broke out the champagne. It was revolutionary! Who ever thought you 
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Everyone knows that BASIC and OS9 are Incompatible. The commands are completely 
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Future Shock 

Some people say that they "hate" OS9. Many people who buy OS9 don't use it, because 
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RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 39 



NG$(25J3-LP,J3) : F0RQ=1T025J3 : LPOKEP 
T,ASC(MID$(L$,Q,1) ) : PT=PT+1:NEXT 

41 GOT016 

42 LOCATEX,Y:PLAYP$ 

43 IFPEEK(343)=247THEN2 6 

44 IFPEEK(344)=247THEN27 

45 IFPEEK(342)=247THEN28 

46 IFPEEK(341)=247THEN29 

47 GOT018 

48 GOSUB147:CLOSE#-l:POKE&HFFD9, 
J3 : ATTRj3 , J3 , U : LOCATE^ , j8 : PRINT" WARN 
ING: " ; :IFERNO=4THENPRINT"Out of 

Range" :G0T01J35 

49 IFERN0=5THENPRINT"0verf low" :G 
OTO105 

50 IFERNO=20THENPRINT"Input/Outp 

ut Error" : GOTO 1)3 5 

51 IFERNO=23THENPRINT"Not in ASC 

II Format" :G0T01J3 6 

52 IFERN0>25ANDERN0<38THENPRINT" 
Disk Error" :G0T01J85 

53 WIDTH 3 2 : PRINTERNO , ERLIN : END 

54 L0CATEJ3 , $ : ATTRJ3 , j3 , U : PRINT : LOC 

ATE0 , 1 : PRINT "BUDDY " ; L-LU ; 25J3-LP 
• 

55 IFPEEK (282) =0THENPRINT"L" ; ELS 
EPRINT"U"; 

56 IFI-1THENPRINT" I" ; ELSE PRINT" 

o"; 

57 IFED=1THENPRINT" E"ELSEPRINT 

58 ATTRJ3 , fi : RETURN 

59 IFED=1THENPLAYE$ : G0T018ELSEL0 
CATEJ3 , 11 : ATTRJ3 , 4 : PRINTSTRING$ ( 12 
,13) ; : LOCATE ( W-19 ) /2 , 11 : PRINT"Se 
lect a command: " ; :EXEC44539 : A$= 
INKEY$:PRINTA$ 

6J3 IFA$="W"ORA$="w"THENC$="Alter 
Screen Width" : GOSUB96 : INPUT "Wou 
Id you like 4j3 or 80 columns" ;Q: 
Q=INT (Q) :IFQ=40THENW=4J3:GOTO1J34E 
LS E I FQ= 8 j3THENW= 8 j3 : GOTO 10 4 

61 IFA$="H"ORA$="h"THENC$="Alter 
Colors" : GOSUB96 : PRINT"Current C 

olors : "CH ; BK ; CW : INPUT "Characters 
, background, command window" ;CH 
,BK,CW:CH=INT(CH) :BK=INT(BK) :CW= 
INT(CW) : PALETTE 0 , BK : PALETTE 8 , CH : 
PALETTE4 , CW: GOT01J34 

62 IFA$= M Q"ORA$="q"THENC$="Key C 
lick":G0SUB96:INPUT"Key click (1 
) on or (2) off";Q:Q=INT(Q) :IFQ= 
1THENP$="V31L25501C" :GOTO105ELSE 
IFQ^2THENP$=" " : GOTO105 

63 IFA$="E"ANDLU>j30RA$="e"ANDLU> 
0THENC$="Edit Line" : G0SUB9 6 : GOTO 
108 

64 IFA$="B"ORA$="b"THENC$="Retur 
n to BASIC" :G0SUB96: PRINT "Are yo 
u sure you want to exit? (Y/N) " ; 
:EXEC44539 : I$=INKEY$ : IFI$="Y"0RI 
$-="y"THENWIDTH3 2 : POKE&HFFD8 ,p : AT 



TRJ3 , J3 : CMP : ENDELSE105 

65 IFA$="M"0RA$="m"THENMR=j3 : C$=" 
Memory Used" :GOSUB96 : FORQ=0TO195 
:MR=MR+LL(Q) : NEXT: PRINT "The prog 
ram uses"MR"bytes . " : G0SUB114 : GOT 
01J35 

66 IFA$="S"ANDLU>(30RA$="s"ANDLU> 
j3THENIFPEEK (188) =14THENLN$=" 11 : XX 
=0 : C$=" Disk Save" : G0SUB9 6 : DV=1 : G 
0SUB118:G0T01J34 j 

67 IFA$="T"ANDLU>j30RA$="t"ANDLU> 
0THENLN$="" : XX=0 : C$=" Cassette Sa 
ve" : GOSUB96 : DV=-1 : G0SUB118 : G0T01 
J34 

68 IFA$="L"0RA$="1"THENIFPEEK(18 
8 ) -14THENLN$= ! " " : XX=j3 : C$="Disk Lo 
ad" : G0SUB96 : DV=1 : GOSUB120 : GOTO10 
4 

69 IFA$="U"ORA$="u"THENLN$=" " : XX 
=j3 : C$=" Cassette Load" : G0SUB96 : DV 
=-1 : G0SUB12 j3 : GOT01J34 

7j3 IFA$="K"0RA$="k"THENIFPEEK(18 
8)=14THENC$="Kill Disk File":G0S 
UB96:LINEINPUT"What is the filen 
ame? " ; F$ : F$=LEFT$ ( F$ , 8 ) +" . BAS " : 
P0KE&HFFD8 , j3 : KILLF$ : GOTO104 

71 IFA$=*"G"ANDLU>j30RA$="g"ANDLU> 
0THENC$="Global Replace" : GOSUB9 6 
: HSTATQ$ , Q , MX , MY : LINEINPUT "Targe 
t text : " ; T$ : LOCATEMX , MY : PRINTST 
RING$ (7,13): LOCATEMX , MY : LINEINPU 
T"Replacement : " ;R$ :GOT08j3 

72 IFA$="D"0RA$="d"THENIFPEEK(18 
8)=14THENC$="Disk Directory" :GOS 
UB96 : G0SUB114 : ATTRJ3 , 0 : WIDTHW : POK 
E&HFFD8 ,j3: DIR: PRINT" Free granule 
s : "FREE (J3) : P0KE&HFFD9 , j3 : G0SUB115 
:G0T01J34 I 

73 IFA$="C"ORA$="c"THENC$="Cut & 
Paste" : G0SUB96 : CP=1 : GOSUB1J38 : EE 

=LL( (Q-S)/249) - 1 : PRINT " Line " LN " f 
ound. ":LN$="":F0RQQ=Q TO Q+249:L 
N$=LN$+CHR$ (LPEEK(QQ) ) : NEXT: GOTO 
128 

74 IFA$="R"ANDLU>pORA$="r"ANDLU> 
j3THENC$="Replace Text" : G0SUB9 6 : G 
0T089 

75 IFA$-"F" ANDLU>j30RA$= s " f "ANDLU> 
j3THENC$="Find Text" :G0SUB96 : LINE 
INPUT"Target text: ";T$:G0T097 

76 IFA$^"N"ORA$="n"THENC$="Clear 
Memory" : GOSUB9 6 : LOCATE ( W-2 J3 ) / 2 , 

22:PRINT"Are you sure? (Y/N)";:E 
XEC44539:A$=INKEY$:IFA$="Y"0RA$= 
"y "THEN 13 1 

77 IFA$="A"ORA$="a"THENC$="Autom 

atic Line Numbering" :G0SUB9 6 : INP 
UT" Would you like it (1) on or ( 
2) off";Q:Q=INT(Q) : IFQ=1THENAL=1 
: GOTO 10 6 E LS E I FQ= 2 THENAL=J3 : G0T01J3 
5 



40 THE RAINBOW July 1988 




fbmre 



Just For the Fun of It XS 

Order any item by August 31, 1988 and you may have your choice of 
either the Silly Syntax story creation game (including two stories) or the 
Flying Tigers arcade game for only $2.95! 



CALLI GRAPH ER 

CoCo Calligrapher (Hybrid 
BASIC/ML) Turn your CoCo and 
dotrmatrix printer into a 
calligrapher^ quill. Make beauti- 
ful invitations, flyers, certificates, 
labels and more. Includes 3 
fonts: Gay Nineties, Old English 
and Cartoon. The letters are ft 
inch high and variably spaced. 
Works with many printers includ- 
ing Epson, Gemini, Radio Shack, 
Okidata 92A, Banana and Pro- 
writer. Additional fonts are avail- 
able (see below). Tape /Disk: 
$24.95. 

OS9 Calligrapher - (C) Although 
a different program from the 
CoCo Calligrapher, the OS9 Cal- 
ligrapher prints all the same 
fonts. It reads a standard text file 
which contains text and format- 
ting directives. You may specify 
the font to use, change fonts at 
anv time, centering, left, right or 
full justification, line fill, margin, 
line width, page size, page break 
and indentation. Similar to troff 
on UNIX systems. Includes Gay 
Nineties, Old English and Car- 
toon fonts. Additional fonts are 
available (see below). Disk only; 
OS9 Level I or II; $24.95. 

Calligrapher Fonts - Requires 
Calligrapher above. Each set on 
tape or disk; specify RSDOS or 
OS9 version; $14.95 each. Set 
#1 - (9 fonts) Reduced, reversed 
and reduced-reversed versions of 
Gay Nineties, Old English and 
Cartoon; Set #2 - (8 fonts) Old 
Style and Broadway; Set #3 - (8 
fonts) Antique and Business; Set 
#4 - (8 fonts) Wild West and 
Checkers; Set #5 - (10 fonts) 
Stars, Hebrew and Victorian: Set 
#6 - (8 fonts) Block and Com- 
puter; Set #7 - (5 small fonts) 
Roman, Italics, Cubes, Digital 
and Old World. 

Economy Font Packages on 

disk; specify RSDOS or OS9; 
29.95: Font Package #1 - 
Above font sets 1, 2 and 3 (25 
fonts) on one disk. Font Pack- 
age $2 - Above font sets 4, 5 
and 6 (26 fonts) on one disk. 
Both Packages #1 and #2 (51 
fonts) on one disk; 49.95. 



Calligrapher Combo Package - Includes the Calligrapher 
and both Economy Font Packages, 54 fonts in all; speci- 
fv RSDOS or OS9: $69.95. 



Sample Calligrapher Fonts 



INFORMATION MGT. 

TIMS (The Information 
Management System) - (Hybrid 
BASIC/ML) Tape or disk, fast and 
simple general data base pro- 
gram. Create files of records that 
can be quickly sorted, searched, 
deleted and updated. Powerful 

Erinter formatting. Up to 8 user 
elds, sort on up to 3 fields. 
Tape/Disk; $19.95. 

TIMS Mail - (Hybrid BASIC/ML) 
Tape or Disk based mailing list 
management program. Files are 
compatible with TIMS. Fast and 
simple to use. Supports labels 1, 
2 or 3 across, 2ft to 4 inches 
wide. Tape/Disk; $19.95. 

TIMS Utility - (Hybrid BASIC /ML) 
Utility companion for TIMS and 
TIMS Mail for multi-term search 
(AND and OR loeic), global 
change and delete, split large files 
and more! Tape /Disk; $14.95. 



TIMS Combo Package - All 

three of the above programs: 
TIMS, TIMS Mail and TIMS 
Utility on one disk - $34.95. 



UTILITIES 

OS9 Patcher - (C) Display and 
modify the contents of a file or 
memory module. Calculates 
module CRCs; Disk only; OS9 
Level I or II; $19.95. 

Color Disk Manager - (100% ML) 
Disk utility with these features: 
Disk repair, selective track ini- 
tialization, verify sectors, back- 
ups, tape to disk transfer, ROM 
Pak execution from disk, much 
more! Tape /Disk; CoCo 1, 2, 3 
(except for 64K mode); $24.95. 



EDUCATIONAL 

Trig Attack - (100% ML) Ages 9 
and up. In this educational arcade 
game, enemy trigs travel along 
math curves. Players learn im- 
portant mathematical concepts as 
they play. Sound effects, colorful 
graphics. Excellent manual in- 
cludes an introduction to tri- 
gonometry. Tape 16K CB/Disk 
32K ECB; CoCo 1, 2, 3; $19.95. 



The Educational Combo - The 
Combo includes these educar 
tional (and entertaining) games: 

Silly Syntax (ages 5 and up) 
story creation game with 2 
stories 

Galactic Hangman (ages 7 and 
up) animated graphics, with a 
700 word vocabulary 
The Presidents of the USA 
(ages 10 and up) a presidential 
trivia game 

The Great USA fazes 9 and 
up) a trivia game of the states 
Trig Attack (ages 9 and up) 
Zap those Trigs 

All five programs on one disk; 
$49.95. 



SPECIAL INTEREST 

Rental Property Income and Ex- 
pense Management Package - 
Maintain your rental property in- 
come and expense records. Print 
output supported. 28 expense 
categories. This program may be 
tax deductible. Disk only; $29.95. 

CoCo Knitter - Easy to use pro- 
gram to display or print instruc- 
tions to knit a sweater: Cardigan 
or Pullover; Round or V-neck; 
Raglan or Set- in Sleeve- 3 
weights or yarn; 8 sizes from 
baby to man. Tape /Disk; $19.95. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 7446 
Hollywood, Florida 33081 
(305) 981-1241 



All programs run on the CoCo 1, 2 and 8, S2K 
Extended Basic, unless otherwise noted. Add 
$1.50 per tape or disk for shipping and han- 
dling. Florida residents add 6% sales tax. COD 
orders add $5. Dealer inquiries invited. Orders 
generally shipped in 24-48 hours. No refunds 
or exchanges without prior authorization. 




RAINBOW'S 
BROADENING ITS 
SPECTRUM 

the rainbow and the Delphi Infor- 
mation Utility have joined together 
to allow CoCo owners all over the 
world to connect with one another! 

Delphi is a full-service information 
utility. It offers everything from up- 
to-the-minute news stones from The 
Associated Press to electronic mail 
services. But, best of all, it now has 
a special forum for Color Computer 
owners, and it's operated by the 
people who bring you the rainbow 
each month. 

The CoCo Special Interest Group 
(SIG) features a variety of services, 
including an open forum where you 
can send and receive messages 
from Color Computer owners all 
over the world. It also has several 
databases to which you can upload 
your favorite programs and from 
which you can download programs 
written by other CoCo enthusiasts. 
Some of these databases are basic 
programming, OS-9 and home ap- 
plications. 

When setting up your account with 
Delphi, if you do not have a credit 
card or prefer not to use it, Delphi 
requires that you send $25 to give 
your account a positive balance. 
This will be refunded after your first 
free hour if you choose to no longer 
use the system or it will be applied 
to future connect charges. If you do 
not maintain a positive balance, you 
will be charged $3.50 each month 
for direct billing. 



PEEK INTO THE 
RAINBOW 

The CoCo SIG's conference feature 
allows you to meet efectronically 
with other members of the CoCo 
Community. You can join conferen- 
ces with notables such as Dale 
Puckett, Cray Augsburg, Marty 
Goodman, Don Hutchison, Jim 
Reed, Lonnie Falk and others — on 
a regular basis. Conference sched- 
ules will appear in the rainbow 
each month. Be sure to check online 
announcements for changes and 
additions. 

THE OTHER SIDE 
OF THE RAINBOW 

On Delphi, you also are able to buy 
rainbow on tape — order a whole 
set, or download an individual pro- 
gram immediately. You can also 
renew your rainbow subscription, 
make a fast and easy order for soft- 
ware or hardware from a multitude 
of vendors, or inquire about prod- 
ucts on the CoCo SIG. 

We also have a number of programs 
that you can download and use, just 
for the cost of the time you spend 
transferring them. There'll also be 
corrections for rainbow articles, 
helpful hints and many other useful 
features. 



FREE LIFETIME 
MEMBERSHIP 

the rainbow is offering subscribers 
a free Fife time subscription to Delphi 

— a $24.95 value — and a free hour 
of connect time — a $7.20 value at 
either 300, 1200 or 2400 Baud — so 
you can sample Delphi and the rain- 
bow CoCo SIG. That's right. Your 
subscription to the rainbow entitles 
you to this $32. 15 value as a free 
bonus! 

If you're nol a rainbow subscriber, 

just enter your order when you sign 
on with Delphi and you'll get the 
same great deal! For our $31 sub- 
scription fee, you'll get the finest 
Color Computer magazine ever, a 
free lifetime subscription to Delphi 
and a free hour of connect time. 

SAVE EVEN MORE 

Want to save even more? While 
you're onfirte you can order, for only 
$29.95, a deluxe package which in- 
cludes the Delphi membership, the 
Delphi Handbook and Command 
Card ($21.95) and a total of three 
hours of connect time ($21.60). 

Delphi provides us all with 
Immediate CqCq Community. 
Check it out today. After all, you can 
sample it for free! 



Problems? Call Delphi: 

(800) 544-4005 
(617) 491-3393 



DELPHI 



TYPE: 

GROUP COCO 



COMMUNITY TOGETHER 



How to reach RAINBOW'S Color Computer SIG . . . 



There are several ways to connect to Delphi and THE 
rainbow's CoCo SIG. In most cities you will not even have 
to pay long distance charges; you can use special data 
communications networks like Telenet, Tymnet and the 
Canadian Datapac network. 

First, set your terminal program to operate at either 300 
or 1200 Baud (depending on the modem you have), and 
also select either 7 bits with even parity or 8 bits with no 
parity, and one stop bit. (If one combination doesn't work, 
try another.) 

Decide which network you should use. There is no 
surcharge for Telenet or Tymnet. Canadian residents using 
Datapac will be charged an additional $10.80 (U.S.) per 
hour. 

On Telenet: Uninet network has merged with Telenet. 
To get the Telenet number for your area, call (800) 336- 
0437. After you call the local access number and make 
connection, press enter twice. When the "TERMINAL^" 
prompt appears, press enter again. When the "@" prompt 
appears, type C DELPHI and press ENTER. 

On Tymnet: Call (800) 336-0149 to get the Tymnet 
number for your area. After you dial your designated 
number and connect, you will see either "garbage" or a 
message saying "please type your terminal identifier." At 
this point, even if the screen is garbled, simply press *AV 
When "please log in:" appears, type DELPHI and press 

ENTER. 

From Canada (on Datapac): Call Delphi Customer 
Service at (617) 491-3393 to get the Datapac number for 
your area. After you connect, press the period key (.) and 
ENTER (use two periods if you're using 1200 Baud). Type 
SET 2:1, 3:126 and press ENTER, Now type p 1 3106, 
DELPHI; and press ENTER. Delphi's new rates indicate an 
additional $10.80 hourly surcharge for evening use of 
Datapac, which means a total of $18 (U.S.) for connect 
time. 

From other countries: Many countries have their own 
data networks that can connect to either Telenet or 
Tymnet. Check with the telephone authorities in your 
country for details on how to sign up for this service. When 
you have an account set up, you can reach Delphi with 
a "host code" of 3110 6170 3088 through Telenet, or 3106 
90 6015 through Tymnet. (Youll have to pay the toll 
charges for this connection.) 
Type in Your Username 

If you're already a subscriber to THE rainbow, at the 



"USERNAME:" prompt, type JQINDELPHI and press 
enter. At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type RAINBOW. 
Then, at the "NUMBER:" prompt, type your individual 
subscription number from the mailing label of your latest 
issue of the RAINBOW. (If there are one or more zeros at 
the beginning of this number, include them.) 

If you dont already have a subscription, at the "USER* 
NAME:' 1 prompt, type JQINDELPHI and press ENTER. At 
the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type SENDRRINBOW and press 
ENTER. Have your MasterCard, VISA or American 
Express card ready, because you'll be led through a series 
of questions that will enable us to put your RAINBOW and 
Delphi subscriptions into effect. In an effort to hold down 
non-editorial costs, we do not bill for subscriptions. 

If you make a typing error, just use Control-X and start 
over. Remember that at any point, when you're on Delphi, 
you can type HELP to get help on how to use the system. 
To get off the system just type BYE. 

If you find that you Ye unable to log on to Delphi and 
enter the CoCo SIG after following these instructions, call 
us during afternoon business hours at (502) 228-4492. We'll 
be glad to offer assistance. 

Come Visit Us! Type: GROUP COCO 

After you sign in, you 11 be prompted to set up your own, 
personal "user name" — Delphi is a friendly service, no 
numbers to remember — and youll be asked a number 
of questions so Delphi can set up your account. Youll also 
be assigned a temporary password. 

Delphi will tell you that your account will be ready after 
6 p.m. the same day if you sign up before noon (Eastern 
time zone.) If not, your account will be ready at 6 p.m. 
the next day. Once an account is verified and opened, each 
rainbow subscriber will be credited with an hour of free 
time! ''-tf-^y. 

When you log back in, use your chosen username and 
your temporary password to access the system. At that 
point, you will meet Max, who will help you configure 
things and will change your temporary password into your 
own personal password. This is the password you will use 
for subsequent sessions — or until you change it. 

After Max bids you goodbye, you'll wind up at the 
Delphi Main Menu; type in GROUP COCO and join us on 
the CoCo SIG! 




HOW DO YOO OIVE A RAINBOW? 



It's simple — 



a rainbow gift certificate 



Let a gift subscription to the 
rainbow carry the premier Color 
Computer magazine right to 
your friends' doorsteps, the 
rainbow is the information 
source for the Tandy Color Com- 
puter. 

Each month, your friends will 
enjoy the intelligent programs, 
reviews and articles written ex- 
clusively for their CoCo. 

First, your gift will be an- 
nounced in a handsome card. 
Then, all year 'round, they'll re- 
member you and your thought- 
fulness when they get each edi- 
tion of the rainbow — more than 
200 pages loaded with as many 
as 24 programs, 15 regular col- 
umns and lots of helpful hints 
and tips. 

Generosity benefits the giver, 
too. There'll be no more tracking 
down borrowed copies of the 
rainbow. Your collection will be 
safe at home. 

Give a rainbow gift certificate 
and let your friends in on the fun. 
the rainbow is the perfect com- 
panion for the Color Computer! 

Get your order to us by July 25 
and we'll begin your friends' 
subscriptions with the Sep- 
tember issue of RAINBOW. 



Please begin a one-year (12 issues) gift subscription to 

THE RAINBOW for: 



Name 



Address 

City 



State 



ZIP 



j From: 

! Name 



Address 
City 



Btate 



ZIP 



□ My payment is enclosed. 

Bill to: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 
Acct. # Exp. date 

i Signature 



Mail to: 

Rainbow Gift Certificate, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, 
KY 40059 

For credit card orders call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. 
All other inquiries call (502) 228-4492. 



Subscriptions to THE rainbow are $31 in the United States; U.S. $38 in Canada. The surface rate 
to other countries is U.S. $68; the air rate, U.S. $103. Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax. U.S. 
currency only, please. All subscriptions begin with the current issue. Please allow 6 to 8 weeks for 
delivery. In order to hold down non-editorial costs, we do not bill. 



78 IFA$="P"ANDLU>0ORA$="p"ANDLU> 

0THENC $ = " Output to Printer" :GOSU 
B96: INPUT "What is your printer's 
width" ; C : C-INT (C) : IFC<1THEN79EL 
SEGOSUB112 : GOTO105 

79 PLAYE$:GOT059 

80 NC=0:PS=S:FORQ=S TO S+(250*LU 
)-250STEP250 

81 LN$«"":FORQQ=Q TO Q+LL((Q-S)/ 
250)-l:LN$=LN$+CHR$(LPEEK(QQ) ) :N 
EXT : P=l : LC=J3 

82 IR=INSTR(P,LN$,T$) :IFIR=0THEN 
84 

83 LC=LC+1:LT$=LEFT$(LN$,IR-1) :R 
T$=MID$(LN$,IR+LEN(T$) ,250) : IFLE 
N ( LT $ ) +LEN ( R$ ) +LEN ( RT$ ) >2 50THENP 
S=PS+250 : LC=0 : GOT087ELSELN$=LT$+ 
R$+RT$:P=IR+LEN(R$) :GOT082 

84 LL( (Q-S)/250)=LEN(LN$) :IFLEN( 
LN$)=250THEN8 6 

85 LN$=LN$+STRING$(250-LEN(LN$) , 

86 FORZZ=1TO250:LPOKEPS,ASC(MID$ 
(LN$,ZZ,1) ) :PS=PS+1:NEXT 

87' NC=NC+LC:NEXT 

88 PRINT"Number of occurrences c 
hanged: "NC:G0SUB114 :GOTO104 

89 HSTATQ$,XQ,MX,MY:CP=1:GOSUB10 
8 : PRINT " Line " LN" found . " : LN$=" " : F 
ORQQ=Q TO Q+LL( (Q-S)/250) -1:LN$= 
LN$+CHR$ (LPEEK(QQ) ) : NEXT : LOCATE0 
, 3 : ATTR0 , 0 : PRINTS TRING$ (7 , 13 ) : LO 
CATE0,3:PRINTLN$ 

90 LOCATEMX , MY : ATTR0 , 4 : PRINTSTRI 

NG$ ( 7 , 13 ) : LOCATEMX, MY : LINE IN PUT" 
Target text: " ;T$ : LOCATEMX, MY: PR 
INTSTRING$ (7,13) : LOCATEMX, MY : LIN 
EINPUT"Replacement : " ;R$ : P=l 

91 IR=INSTR(P,LN$,T$) :IFIR=0THEN 
93 

92 LT$=LEFT$(LN$,IR-1) :RT$=MID$( 
LN$ , IR+LEN (T$) ,250) : IFLEN (LT$) +L 
EN (R$) +LEN(RT$) >250THEN93ELSELN$ 
=LT$+R$+RT$:P=IR+LEN(R$) :GOT091 

93 LL( (Q-S)/250)=LEN(LN$) : IFLEN ( 
LN$)=250THEN95 

94 LN$=LN$+STRING$(25J3-LEN(LN$) , 
0) 



PREMIUM COC03 512K UPGRADE 

•Made in USA by J&R Electronics •Memory chips socketed, user replaceable 

•Rugged, long life conslruction •Top mounted Memory for cooling 

•Heavy duty POWER and GROUND planes to minimize memory errors due to noise 

•High performance design, permits use of less expensive 150ns memory chips 

•We supply Prime memory chips, not inferior pulls or fallouts* 

•Includes RAMDISK, Spooler and Memory Test software on disk with 28 page User's 
Manual (We set the standard for 51 2K support software. We believe our software 
is uniquely powerful, as opposed to those "Me, too' companies that charge extra 
for software with much less power!) 

SPECIAL PRICES 

#1010-29.95 JramR bare board plus connectors and software 

#1014-39.95 JramR assembled & tested 0K (No memory chips) and software 
'CALL (for latest price of #1014 with memory chips and other products) 

To place an order, write to: J&R Electronics, P.O. Box 2572, Columbia, MO 21045, 
OR call (301) 987-9067-Jesse or (301) 788-0861-Ray 



95 FORZZ=1TO250:LPOKEQ,ASC(MID$( 
LN$,ZZ,1) ) :Q=Q+l:NEXT:GOSUB114:G 
OTO104 

96 LOCATE (W-LEN (C$) )/2, 12: PRINTC 
$: PRINT : RETURN 

97 FORQ=S TO S+ (250*LU) -250STEP2 
50 

98 L$="":FORQQ=Q TO Q+LL((Q-S)/2 
50)-l:L$=L$+CHR$(LPEEK(QQ) ) :NEXT 
: IFLEN ( L$ ) =2 5 0THEN9 9ELSEL$=L$+ST 
RING$ (250-LL( (Q-S)/250) ,0) 

9 9 IR=INSTR ( 1 , L$ , T$ ) : IFIR=0THEN1 
03 

100 ATTR0 , 0 : LOCATE0 , 3 : PRINTSTRIN 
G$ (7 , 13 ) : LOCATE0 , 3 : PRINTL$ : ATTR0 
, 4 : LOCATE ( W-30 ) /2 , 2 2 : PRINT" Do yo 
u want to continue? (Y/N)"; 

101 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN101ELSE 
IFA$="Y"ORA$="y"THEN103 

102 ED=1:EL=LL( (Q-S)/249) :PT=Q:G 
OTO104 

103 NEXT ;ATTR0,0: GOTO 16 

104 POKE&HFFD9,0:CLOSE#-1:GOSUB1 
47 : CLS 1 : ATTR0 , 0 : LP=1 : X=0 : Y=3 : WID 
THW : GOSUB54 : LOCATEX , Y : PRINTL$ : GO 
T018 

105 LOCATE0, 11: ATTR0,0: PRINTSTRI 
NG$ (12 , 13) ; :GOT018 

106 INPUT" Start, increment" ;SR, I 



$rts /V' ^> rts H*« (]^ rtN dt> (fc tf- 

$ $ 

$ IF YOU PLAY LOTTO TO WIN $ 

$ THEN YOU NEED $ 

$ LOT— PRO $ 

$ $ 

$ LOT-PRO IS SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED $ 

$ FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER $ 

$ and features: $ 

$ $ 

$ -A handicapping system for any $ 

$ pick-6 lotto $ 

$ $ 

$ -Choice of 6 wheeling systems to $ 

$ increase your winning probabilities $ 

$ $ 

$ -LOT-PRO SYSTEM 60 number selection $ 

$ routine option $ 

$ $ 

$ ONLY $25.95 (specify disk or tape) $ 

$ (Ca. residents add 6% sales tax) $ 

$ $ 

$ CJN Enterprises $ 

$ P.O. Box 40487 $ 

$ Bakersf ield, CA. 93384-0487 $ 

$ (805) -836- 1323 $ 

* RAINBOW $ 

$ «»™ N Invest in LOT— PRO. $ 

$ It might make YOU RICH! $ 

$ (printer needed) $ 

d*> ^ ^ rf> ^ ^ tf 1 tf> ^ <T> rf^ 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 45 



C:SR=INT(SR) :IC=INT(IC) 

107 IFSR+IC*L>63999THENPLAYE$:GO 
TO106ELSE16 

108 NB$="":INPUT"What is the lin 
e number" ;LN:LN=INT(LN) :LN$=STR$ 

(LN) :LN$=RIGHT$(LN$,LEN(LN$)-1)+ 
ti ii 

109 FORQ=S TO S+(250*LU)STEP250: 
FORQQ=Q TO Q+LEN(LN$) -1:NB$=NB$+ 
CHR$ (LPEEK(QQ) ) :NEXT: IFLN$=NB$ T 
HEN111ELSENB$=" " : NEXT 

110 ED=0 : CP=0 : PRINT " Line "LN" does 
not exist. " :GOSUB114 :GOTO105 

111 IFCP=1THENCP=0:RETURNELSEED= 
1:LX=(Q-S)/249:EL=LL(LX) :PRINT"L 
ine"LN" found . " : PT=Q : L$=" " : FORQQ= 

Q TO Q+249:L$=L$+CHR$(LPEEK(QQ) ) 
: NEXT: GOTO 10 4 

112 POKE&HFFD8,0:PRINT#-2:FORQ=S 
TO PT-1:IFLPEEK(Q)=0THEN113ELSE 

PRINT#-2,CHR$(LPEEK(Q) ) ;:IFPOS(- 
2)=C THENPRINT#-2 

113 NEXT: POKE &HFFD9,0: RETURN 

114 LOCATE (W-26)/2 , 22 : PRINT" Pres 
s any key to continue."? 

115 IFINKEY$=" "THEN115ELSERETURN 

116 LOCATE (W-20)/2, 22 :PRINT"Are 

you sure? (Y/N) " ; 

117 IFINKEY$="Y"ORINKEY$="y"THEN 
RETURNELSEIFINKEY$="N"ORINKEY$=" 
n"THEN105ELSE117 

118 LINE IN PUT "What is the filena 
me? " ; F$ : P0KE&HFFD8 , 0 : F$=LEFT$ (F 
$, 8) : IFDV=1THENF$=F$+" . BAS" 

119 OPEN"0" , #DV , F$ : ATTR0 , 0 : WIDTH 

W:PRINT"File being saved: "F$:FO 

RQ=S TO S+(250*LU) -250STEP250 : LN 
$="":FORQQ=Q TO Q+LL( (Q-S)/250) : 
LN$=LN$+CHR$ (LPEEK(QQ) ) :NEXT:PRI 
NTLN$ ; : PRINT#DV, LN$ : NEXT : GOSUB14 
7 : CLOSE#-l : P0KE&HFFD9 ,0: RETURN 

120 LINEINPUT"What is the filena 
me? " ; F$ : POKE&HFFD8 , 0 : F$«LEFT$ ( F 
$ , 8 ) : IFDV=1THENF$=F$+" . BAS" 

121 FORQ=0TO LU:LL(Q)=0:NEXT:PT= 
S : OPEN" I" , #DV, F$ : ATTR0 , 0 : WIDTHW : 
PRINT "File loading: ";F$ 

122 POKE&HFFD8,0:IFEOF(DV)=-1THE 
N127ELSELINEINPUT#DV, LN$ : POKE&HF 
FD9,0 

123 IFLN$=""THEN122 

124 LN$=LN$+CHR$(13) :LL(XX)=LEN( 
LN$) :IFLEN(LN$)=250THEN125ELSELN 
$=LN$+STRING$(250-LEN(LN$) ,0) 

125 PRINTLN$ ; : FORQ=1TO250 : LPOKEP 
T,ASC(MID$(LN$,Q,1) ) :PT=PT+1:NEX 
T 

126 XX=XX+1:IFXX<L THENGOTO 1 2 2 E L 
SEXX=XX-1 : GOT0127 

127 LU=XX:POKE&HFFD9,0:EL=LL(XX) 
: RETURN 

12 8 ATTR0 , 0 : WIDTHW: ATTR0 ,0 ,U: PRI 



NT : PRINT : LOCATE (W-ll) /2 , 1 : PRINT" 
Cut & Paste" :ATTR0,0:PL=1:X=0:Y= 
3 : LOCATEX , Y : PRINTLN$ : ST=1 : EN=EE : 
LOCATE (W-30) /2 , 12 : PRINT "Position 
"PL"Start"ST" End "EN 

129 EXEC44539:A$=INKEY$ 

130 IFA$=CHR$ (8)THENPL=PL-1:IFPL 
<1THENPL=1: PLAYE$ : GOT0129ELSEX=X 
- 1 : IFX< 0THENX=W- 1 : Y= Y- 1 : GOT014 2 E 
LSE142 

131 IFA$=CHR$(9)THENPL=PL+1:IFPL 
>EE THENPL=EE : PLAYE$ : GOT0129ELSE 
IFPL=251THENPL=250 : PLAYE$ : GOT012 
9 ELS EX=X+ 1 : 1 FX> W- 1 THENX=0 : Y= Y+ 1 
:GOT0142ELSE142 

132 IFA$=CHR$(10)THENPL=PL+W:IFP 
L>EE THENPL=PL-W:PLAYE$:GOT0129E 
LSEIFPL=251THENPL=2 50 : PLAYE$ : GOT 
0129ELSEY=Y+1 : IFY>2 4THENY=24 : GOT 
0142ELSE142 1 

133 IFA$=CHR$(94)THENPL=PL-W:IFP 
L<0THENPL=PL+W: PLAYE$ : GOT0129ELS 
EY=Y-1 : IFY<0THENY=0 : GOT0142ELSE1 
42 I 

134 IFA$="S"ANDPL<EN ORA$="s"AND 
PL<EN THENP LAY " L2 50 3 C " : ST=PL 

135 IFA$="E"ANDPL>ST ORA$="e"AND 
PL>ST THENPLAY"L2503C" :EN=PL 

13 6 IFA$="M"ANDPL>=EN ORA$="M"AN 
DPL<ST ORA$="m"ANDPL>=EN ORA$="m 
"ANDPL<ST THEN138 

137 GOT0129 

138 PLAY"L2503C":MV$=MID$(LN$,ST 
,EN-ST+1) :IFPL>=EN THENLT$=LEFT$ 
(LN$,ST-1) :MD$=MID$(LN$,EN+1, PL- 
EN) :RT$=MID$ (LN$ , PL+1, EE-EN) :CL$ 
=LT$+MD$+MV$+RT$ ELSELT$=LEFT$ (L 
N$,PL) :MD$=MID$(LN$,PL+1,ST-PL-1 
) :RT$=MID$(LN$,EN+1, EE-EN) :CL$=L 
T$+MV$+MD$+RT$ 

139 LOCATE0,3:PRINTCL$:LOCATE0,1 
2 : PRINT : LOCATE (W-14 ) /2 , 12 : PRINT" 
Like so? (Y/N) ":EXEC44539:A$=INK 
EY$ : IFA$=" Y"ORA$="y"THENLN$=CL$ 
ELSEA$=" " : LOCATE0 , 12 : PRINT : LOCAT 
E0 , 3 : PRINTLN$ : GOT0142 

140 LN$=LN$+CHR$(13) :IFLEN(LN$)= 
250THEN141ELSELN$=LN$+STRING$ (25 
0-EE,0) :LN$=LEFT$(LN$,250) 

141 AZ=Q:FORQQ=1TO250:LPOKEAZ,AS 
C(MID$(LN$,QQ,1) ) :AZ^AZ+1:NEXT:G 
OTO104 

142 LOCATE (W-30 )/2, 12 :PRINT"Posi 
t ion " PL" S t a rt " ST " End " EN : LOCATEX , 
Y : PLAYP$ : IFPEEK (343) =2 4 7THEN130 

143 IFPEEK(344)=247THEN131 

144 IFPEEK(342)=247THEN132 

145 IFPEEK(341)=247THEN133 

146 GOT0129 J 

147 IFPEEK(188)=14THENCLOSE#l:RE 
TURNELS ERETURN 



46 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



CoCo CALENDER 

Organize all of your appointments with this 365 
day CpCo Calender. 64k DISK $9.95 

BLACKJACK ROYAL E 

Even your casino odds with this Blackjack card 
simulation and tutor! Program can be edited for 
different 'house rules 1 . 64k DISK $16.95 

BSE - BASIC SCREEN EDITOR 

Gives Basic a full -screen editor to supplement 
the regular EDIT commands. Works on the CoCo 1 
2 and with the CoCo 3, width 32, 40 or BO is 
supported! Complete screen cursor control with 
the arrow keys + features to make EDI Ting Basic 
programs a snap! BSE, a must have CoCo utility. 
Our low price was the only corner that was cut 
on this quality program. 64k DISK $19.95 

CHECK-09 

Finally, a program that interacts with MultiVue 
for FAST and EASY check balancing. CHECK-09 and 
you can now take control of your bank checking 
account. No more waiting on your bank statement 
for an ending balance. CHECK-09 will provide a 
check- by- check balance in an easy to use format 
that eliminates those monthly surprizes! Bring 
your money and you closer together and have the 
buck STOP HERE. 128k DISK w/MultiVue $22.95 

CoCoMAX II by Colorware 

The 'CLASSIC* CoCo 1 & 2 graphic program. Draw 
great works of art with the program that set a 
standard for all others to follow. Supported by 
Hi -Res interface and numerous printer drivers 
for complete configuration. 64k DISK $78.45 

CoCoMAX III by Colorware 

All new program based off the •CLASSIC* CoCoHax 
II software. Allows for full animation, select 
16 colors from a 64 color palette, fast & easy 
to use w/pull down menus in a point-and-click 
environment. 128k DISK $78.45 



CoCo KEYBOARD 

Program allows the user to utilize the function 
keys on the HJL,-57 Professional, Deluxe CoCo, 
and Micronix keyboard. 32k DISK $6.95 

TELEPATCH 

Turn Telewriter 64 into the best word Processor 
for the CoCo! TELEPATCH is compatible with all 
CoCo's. Comes with complete documentations for 
easy upgrading. 64k DISK $24.95 

HI -RES FONT MODIFIER 

Create, modify, save and re-use as many CoCo 3 
fonts that you can imagine. 128k DISK.... $14. 95 

COLOR MAX III FONT EDITOR 

Allows you to custom create your own special 
ColorMax 3 fonts. Program and manual is easy to 
use for outstanding results! 128k DISK. . .$19.95 

SCHEMATIC DRAFTING PROCESSOR 

A 'FAST* and 'EASY TO USE* ELECTRONIC DRAFTING 
PROCESSOR. Create pro- looking diagrams using a 
480 x 540 pixel screen with 6 viewing windows! 
Over *30* electronic symbols with 10 definable 
symbols. Even supports Logic gates & Multipin 
chips! Print hardcopy or save to disk for later 
use. 64k DISK $22.95 

OS-9 SOLUTION 

Tame the hostile environment of OS-9 with OS-9 
SOLUTION! Replaces 20 of the command calls with 
single keystroke, menu driven commands. No more 
typing in long and complex pathnames or comp- 
licated syntaxes to remember! Works with either 
OS-9 Level One or Two $24.95 

TAPE/DISK UTILITY 

A utility package that transfers TAPE to DISK 
or DISK to TAPE automatically. If you just got 
your first disk drive, TAPE/DISK is a MUST HAVE 
program. Will print tape & disk directories to 
any supported printer.. $19.95 



MIKEY-DIAL - THE MikeyTerm Enhancer 
Enhance you MikeyTerm program with MIKEY-DIAL. 
Will configure up to 20 autodial numbers each 
with it*s own set of macro key strings. You no 
longer need a different copy of MikeyTerm for 

FAST DUPE 2 

Backup & Format as many copies of your original 
disk that you need. FAST DUPE 2 reads source 
into memory for fast and realible disk transfer 
Supports up to 4 disk drives! 64k DISK... $19. 95 

MY -Dos by Chris Hawks 

Supports accesses to double sided drives, able 
to use the J&M controller with the CoCo 3, DIR 
command simplified and a host of other special 
features. 64k DISK $14.95 

VIP LIBRARY 

This popular 'integrated* package includes, VIP 
writer. Terminal, DataBase, Calc and Disk Zap 
which can fix a diekette with I/O errors. SCS 
special price. 64k DISK $125.00 

SOFTWARE SPOOLER & RAM DISK 
Quick response or no disk swapping drive back- 
ups for 1 drive system and printer spooler to 
free computer during printing. For CoCo 3 with 
512k DISK $19.45 

THE NEWSPAPER 

Use your CoCo 3 for 'Desk Top Publishing 1 ! The 
Newspaper is a complete & sophisticated program 
for creating Banners, Headlines & Text columns. 
Allows for importing different pictures, fonts 
& full patterns from disk for that professional 
look! Includes 22 fonts and 50 pictures. This 
one of a kind program has over 140k of program 
code! 128k DISK $39.95 

SECOND CITY SOFTWARE excepts Master Card, VISA 
C.O.D. and CHECK orders. Please add $2.50 for 
shipping. Allow 2 to 4 weeks for delivery. 




^f 1 



vo 



1 F e atur e 



16K.ECB 




Brush up your programming creativity 
and show us the result! 



Set Your 



Wheels to Spinning 



By Bill Bernico 



Everybody likes contests. Every- 
body likes prizes. Come to think of 
it, everybody likes a good chal- 
lenge, too. Here's something that has all 
three. It's a programming contest where 
you, the readers, get a chance to finish 
a BASIC program I've started. There is 
no right or wrong way to complete my 
"core program." Each contestant may 
have a different idea of what this pro- 
gram should eventually do. Maybe your 
idea will win you a prize, so give it a try! 



i 

\ \) 3 

5 


i 

?( I J3 
5 


i 

?U }3 

5 


■i . — ..— -. 



So far, here's what the program does. 
Three squares appear on the Hi-Res 
graphics screen. Each of those squares 

Bill Bernico is the author of over 200 
Color Computer programs and is a 
frequent RAINBOW contributor whose 
hobbies include golf writing music and 
programming. Bill is a drummer in a 
rock band and lives in Sheboygan, 
Wisconsin. 



has a dial within it, numbered from one 
to eight. As you run the program, the 
pointer on the first dial starts spinning. 
To stop that first dial on a random 
number, press 1. Once you do, the first 
digit of a three-digit number appears 
and Dial 2 starts spinning. To stop that 
dial on a random number, press 2; the 
second digit will appear below. Last, the 
third dial begins spinning. Press 3 to 
stop it, and the third digit of that three- 
digit number is displayed. The screen 
holds in this position until you press the 
space bar, starting the procedure all 
over again. 

That's all there is to it. Run it a few 
times and picture in your mind what 
you think the finished program should 
do. Maybe you have a Simulation in 
mind. Maybe you see it as some sort of 
utility. Or perhaps your finished pro- 
gram will be an educational learning 
tool, or even a game of chance. Submit 
anything. What you might think is not 
so great, I might feel is a winner. 

Contest Rules 

1. Programming is restricted to 
BASIC, including pokes or anything that 
can be typed in directly from the key- 
board without help from other pro- 
grams. 

2. All entries must be submitted on 
either tape or disk. Include several saves 
and a brief explanation of how your 
entry works and what it does. 

3. All entries must be based on the 



"core" provided here. That is, I want to 
at least see three spinning dials in the 
finished program. From there youVe on 
your own. 

4. Contest deadline is October 1, 
1988, so get your entries in before then. 
The winning program will be published 
in a future issue of the rainbow, 

5. All entries become the property of 
Falsoft, Inc., publisher of THE RAINBOW. 

Contest Prizes 

First prize is a year's subscription (or 
extension) to THE rainbow and a year's 
subscription (or extension) to either 

RAINBOW ON TAPE or RAINBOW ON 
DISK. 

Second prize is a year's subscription 

to THE RAINBOW. 

Third prize is Special Pack, a collec- 
tion of approximately 150 of my best 
programs.. 

Fourth through 10th prize winners 
will receive a package containing 25 of 
my best programs. 

I'll be judging all entries, looking for 
that special talent from someone who 
may want to eventually co-author fu- 
ture programs with me. It could really 
be fun, so get your entries in now Send 
all entries to: 

THE RAINBOW Programming Contest 
The Falsoft Building 
9509 U.S. Hwy. 42 
P.O. Box 385 

Prospect, ICY 40059 □ 



48 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



The listing: CONTEST 

10 'BASIC PROGRAMMING CONTEST 

20 'by Bill Bernico 

30 'AND (YOUR NAME HERE) 

40 ■ 

50 CLEAR1000:DIM A (12,12) 

60 D$="BM=H ; , =V; " ; X$="BM=X ; , =»Y ; 

70 N1$= II BR3R2U6NGD6R2 ,, :N2$~"BR3B 

U5ER2FDGL2GD2R4 11 : N3 $=»"BR3BU5ER2F 

DGNLFDGL2NH":N4$=> ,, BR6U6G3R4 ,, :N5$ 

="BR3BUFR2EU2HL3U2R4 11 : N6$="BR3BU 

3R3FDGL2HU4ER2":N7$="BR3BU6R4DG3 

D2 " : N8 $=" BR4 HUER2 EUHL2 GDFR2 FDGNL 

2" 

80 PMODE4,l:PCLSl:SCREENl / l:COLO 
R0,1 

90 DRAW"BM8,0R80D73L80U73 ff 

100 CIRCLE (48, 36) , 25 

110 DRAW"BM42 , 8"+Nl$+ lf BM64 , 17 W +N 

2 $+ " BM7 4,39" +N3 $+ M BM6 5,59" +N4 $+ " 

BM43 , 70"+N5$+"BM21 , 59"+N6$+"BM12 

, 39"+N7$+"BM22 , 18"+N8$ 

120 GET(8,0)-(88,73) ,A 

130 PUT(88,0)-(168,73) ,A:PUT(168 

,0)-(248,73) ,A 

140 DRAW"BM8,0R240D191L240U191 
150 RI$=D$+"R20NH2G2":LE$=D$+"L2 
0NE2F2 " : UP$=D$+"U20NG2F2 " : DO$=D$ 
+ "D20NH2E2":UR$^D$+"E14NL3D3 fl :LR 
$=D$+»F14NU3L3 " : LL$=D$+»G14NR3U3 



" :UL$=D$+"H14NR3D3 

160 H=48:V=36:GOSUB 270 

170 IF INKEY$<>"1" THEN 160 

180 X=ai0:Y=90:GOSUB 360 

190 H»128:V«3 6:GOSUB 270 

200 IF INKEY$o"2"THEN 190 

210 X=120: Y«90:GOSUB 360 

220 H=208:V=*3 6:GOSUB 270 

230 IF INKEY$<> " 3 "THEN 220 

240 X=130:Y=90:GOSUB 3 60 

250 IF INKEY$<>CHR$ (32) THEN 250 

260 GOTO 80 

270 DRAW"C0"+RI$+"C1"+RI$ 
280 DRAW"C0"+LR$+"C1"+LR$ 
290 DRAW"C0"+DO$+"C1"+DO$ 
300 DRAW"C0"+LL$+"C1"+LL$ 
310 DRAW"C0"+LE$+»C1"+LE$ 
320 DRAW"C0"+UL$+"C1"+UL$ 
330 DRAW"C0"+UP$+ fl Cl"+UP$ 
340 DRAW"C0"+UR$+ ,f Cl"+UR$ 
350 RETURN 

360 S=RND(8) :ON S GOSUB370 , 380 , 3 
90, 400, 410, 420, 430, 440: RETURN 
370 DRAW"C0"+RI$+X$+N3$: RETURN 
380 DRAW"C0"+DO$+X$+N5$: RETURN 
390 DRAW" C0"+LE$+X$+N7$: RETURN 
400 DRAW"C0"+UP$+X$+N1$: RETURN 
410 DRAW"C0"+UR$+X$+N2$: RETURN 
420 DRAW"C0"+LR$+X$+N4$: RETURN 

430 DRAW"C0"+LL$+X$+N6$: RETURN 
440 DRAW"C0"+UL$+X$+N8$ -.RETURN 




CURRILLIAN CRwsrR co^bints 41* 
fiction <* f U cjam«a wHh "f^e 
possibilities *T a <*vch+i/»-« parties- 
in ah experience +ha+ cvowcIr <^ 
J^'l disk w"f*K owy- 30 <fifUre„+ 

msti only */9, 

TO ORDETRl 
Scn^i C^etV money 
rt^e** — CQp add 
tX.QO 

*o\ ME Gene DCST/f\//£;s 
S4 OA X 3T R EST 
NORTH POflT, WY 

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top coco t.h.ik. 



C owning SoOh from Heroic Deft-Viniff** V/AUl 




Sun Products 



Offering the widest selection 
of products for the Tandy/ 
Radio Shack Color Computers 
1, 2, & 3 



Sun 



Products is your one 
stop shop for CoCo Products. 
We are America's largest 
distributor of high quality 
Color Computer hardware and 
software. For our free 
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and we'll send one out to 
you that day! 



Systems- Graphics editor: $12. 95 



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Sun Products, because we're 
here, after the sale! ! ! ! ! 1 ! I I i 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 49 



A tutorial on creating CoCo comics, and the announcement 

of an ongoing cartoon-drawing contest 



WITH COCO 





Cartoons are drawings that depict 
everyday situations in a comical 
manner. They express ideas, 
inform us on current events, teach 
lessons and, most importantly, they 
entertain. 

Everyone can identify with cartoons. 
They are a twist on everyday life. You 
see them taped to desks, stuck on 

Logan Ward has been a Co Co nut since 
1982 and enjoys creating all types of 
graphics on his Color Computer. His 
interests include baseball card collect- 
ing and following Nascar races. Logan 
creates the Maxwell Mouse and Co Co 
Cat cartoons for THE RAINBOW and is 
president of the Memphis Color Com- 
puter Users Group. 





gan 



refrigerators and pinned to bulletin 
boards. Cartoons are usually the first 
things people look for upon opening the 
paper or browsing through a magazine. 

Some of the earliest cartoons date 
back to the mid- 1700s. These cartoons 
depicted oppression and taxes, which 
were the main issues of the time. Ben 
Franklin and Paul Revere drew car- 
toons urging the colonists to revolt 
against England. But it wasn't until the 
mid-I800s that cartoons became a 
staple in magazines and newspapers. 

Political cartoons did not become 
popular until the late 1 800s. By the early 
1900s, however, cartoons were a firmly 
entrenched piece of Americana. 

Through the years, cartoons have 
been produced using a variety of tools. 




Pens, ink, pencils, erasers, charcoal, 
paint, rulers and drawing boards have 
been employed by cartoonists in creat- 
ing their work. But now, with the advent 
of the personal computer, anyone can 
create cartoons digitally. Modern car- 
toon artists can now use a computer, 
mouse and printer as their tools. 

Five Types of Funnies 

Cartoons can be categorized into five 
general types; all varieties are distinc- 
tive, and each conveys a different type 
of story. First of all and probably most 
important is the comic strip, which 
appears mainly in newspapers and 
magazines. This type of cartoon is 
usually a standard feature, and you'll 
likely find several strips on one or more 





y 

CAT 
LOVER OH 
BOARD/ 




uu tii. i wwjM Wi .w-Ui uj I » w« m m u m ir ff>T i T i r ^nffi^ i 'ffiPM^^ ,1" ' ' "" ' ' "" 



.t. ^ ' 



I 




• wan 



50 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



Attention, Cartoonists! 



As you skim through the magazine 
each month, you've probably no- 
ticed "Mouse Tales," starring Maxwell 
Mouse. Logan Ward is the cartoonist 
responsible for Maxwell Mouse, and he 
sends us the cartoon every month in 
living color — thanks to his CGP-220. 
Starting with this issue, Logan will be 
responsible for bringing CoCo Cat 
back to the pages of the rainbow. 

We here at THE RAINBOW are pretty 
excited about the new graphics pro- 
grams and their capabilities! Just 
imagine with a little creativity, a 
printer and graphics programs that 
rival (and beat) the "big boys," CoCo- 
ists can unleash their creative potential! 
With word processing and desktop 
publishing programs, CoCoists rou- 
tinely publish their own newsletters. 
Now with the enhanced graphics that 
programs like Color Max Deluxe and 
CoCo Max HI allow, not only are 
cartoons like Logan's possible, but so 
are whole comic books! Add the impli- 
cations of video digitizers, sound digi- 
tizers (like Gimmesoft's Maxsound) 
and laser printers, and the possibilities 
are mind-blowing! 




SHATTER, from First Comics Inc.™, 
is drawn on the Macintosh. 



Did you know that there are already 
commercial comic books drawn on 
computer? The computer is the Macin- 
tosh, not the CoCo, unfortunately, but 
we know anything a Mac can do. . . . 
SHATTER, from First Comics, Inc.™, 
was probably the first comic drawn on 
computer. It's a science fiction por- 
trayal of the world a few decades into 
the future, when the globe is divided 
into corporate, not political, states; 
having been enhanced with RN A trans- 
plants, animals are able to take over 
human tasks. The drawing's digitized 
look and the "computer" fonts used for 
dialogue and narration all contribute to 
the futuristic atmosphere. Even Marvel 
Comics is "going computer" with its 
Iron Man graphic novel. 

What does this mean for CoCoists? 
Take a look at the pictures that fill the 
pages of "CoCo Gallery" - - the quality 
of our graphics just screams for the 
CoCo to get into the act. Our machine 
can hold its own! 

We are so enthused about what the 
CoCo can do, in fact, that we are 
planning an ongoing cartooning con- 
test, something like the "CoCo 
Gallery." If you've had an idea for a 
CoCo cartoon gnawing at you, put it 
onscreen, print it out (you don't have 
to use a color printer) and send it in. If 
we like it, we'll publish it and pay you 
for your creative talents. 

For a guide on what we're generally 
looking for, examine Logan's cartoons 
and follow the advice he gives in this 
article. But be creative — we're break- 
ing new ground here! If you like to draw 
cartoons by hand and your subject is 
Color Computer related, we're inter- 
ested in your work, too (check out Kelly 
Taylor's "Dr. Nibble" on Pages 1 16 and 
120, this issue). 

The best thing about this contest is 
that there is no deadline, and there's no 
limit to the number of cartoons you can 
submit. Just tell us what graphics 
program you used to create your car- 
toon and send us a printout and a disk 
copy of your cartoon panels. Include 
your name, address and phone number, 
and help us take CoCo applications to 
exciting new heights! 



pages of a newspaper. These comic 
strips, such as "Peanuts" and "Blondie," 
contain a series of panels linked to- 
gether to tell a story or achieve a humor- 
ous climax. 

Another popular form of cartooning 
is called the gag cartoon. This consists 
of a single panel with a clever one-line 
caption. The gag cartoon is usually an 
instant transfer of humor. It can feature 
a continuing character or be diverse, 
showing different characters each time 
(think of Gary Larson's "The Far 
Side"). Gag cartoons poke fun at every- 
day life and create humorous situations 
out of everyday occurrences. This is a 
type of cartoon popular with maga- 
zines. 

Editorial cartoons are another favor- 
ite brand of cartooning. Like the gag 
variety, the editorial cartoon is a single- 
panel cartoon that covers a multitude of 
subjects. However, it is a pictorial 
opinion conveyed by the artist to sway 
the reader's judgment. Editorial car- 
toons deal with current events or social 
issues and make fun of people in the 
spotlight. 

Another visually humorous type of 
cartoon is the animated cartoon. This 
type of cartoon takes the longest time 
to create but is usually the most pleas- 
ing. Each animated cartoon starts as a 
sketch, which is later turned into a 
completed drawing and then painted. 
More drawings are made similar to the 
first, with the exception of a small 
change in placement of a hand, eye or 
other body part. 

After several drawings are made, they 
are quickly shown in sequential order, 
taking on the illusion of movement. 
Background scenes are added later to 
complete the work. Animated cartoons 
can take from a couple of minutes to a 
couple of hours to tell their stories. 
Subject matter for this style of cartoon- 
ing is very broad; material can range 
from the informative, such as safety 
guides for workers, to the humorous, 
showing Bugs Bunny making a fool of 
Daffy Duck. 

Finally, there's illustrative cartoon- 
ing. This type is found in advertise- 
ments, school books, promotional 
materials, etc. Most illustrative car- 
toons draw attention to or help tell the 
story of the idea they are promoting. 
Sometimes illustrative cartoons use 
famous comic strip and gag characters. 
For example, Garfield is currently used 
to promote libraries. 

Coming Up with Ideas 

Consistently developing good ideas is 



probably the hardest part of being a 
cartoonist. Whether you create car- 
toons on a daily basis or draw only one 
a month, you must be on the lookout 
for fresh ideas and new roads to travel. 
A cartoonist must have the ability to 
picture an entire cartoon in his mind 
and then transfer it to the computer or 
paper. 

Cartoonists get their material in a 
variety of ways. Some observe gestures, 



others listen. Some lock themselves in 
their rooms, while others stare into 
space. Do not try to force ideas — let 
them come to you. Even a simple sound 
can trigger a great idea. 

My ideas come when I'm not even 
thinking about cartoons. I can be wash- 
ing the car or cutting the grass when I 
am struck with a good idea. However, 
my best ideas come right before I fall 
asleep, when I am kind of in the twilight 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 51 




TIRED WINKING FEAR DISBELIEF 



Figure 1 



zone. I keep a note pad by my bed to 
write them down. If I don't record them 
when they are conceived, my ideas are 
forgotten by morning. Use whatever 
works for you to get ideas, but do write 
them down. It can be surprising what 
you'll find on a look back through your 
notebook. 

What YouH Need 

In order to create cartoons on your 
CoCo, you need several tools. First, of 
course, you need a CoCo with TV or 
monitor — any model will do fine. 
Second, you need a mouse. I do not 
recommend joysticks, as they lack the 
precision necessary to create detail in 
pictures and cartoons. 

Most importantly, you need a good 
graphics editor. I recommend using 
CoCo Max //, CoCo Max HI or Color 
Max Deluxe. These packages have the 
features needed to draw and manipulate 
cartoons on a CoCo (like flip, rotate, 
cut and paste). Lastly, you need a 
printer; however, this can be optional — 
but always nice to have if you want a 
hard copy to show friends. If you can 
find one, I suggest getting a CGP-220. 
It does agoodjobona CoCo 1 or 2 and 
an unbelievable, eye-popping job on the 
CoCo 3. A cartoon printed out with this 
color printer looks like it belongs in the 
Sunday comics. If you have a CGP-220 
and would like to use it with graphics 
drawing programs that don't support it, 
see the May '88 RAINBOW: Page 42, for 
Duane M. Perkins' CoCo 3 Color 
Dump, and Page 58, for Tracy L. 
Skaggs' PMODE Polychrome for 
CoCos 1 and 2. These programs dump 
CoCo graphics screens in color. 

Tricks of the Trade 

As with anything in life, you must be 
original to be successful. This holds true 
in cartooning. Developing original 
techniques and ideas is the key to being 
a popular cartoonist. Try not to copy or 
mimic someone's technique. Whether 
your style is serious or sarcastic, do 
what feels good to you. There is always 

52 THE RAINBOW July 1988 




an audience, and you will be a success. 

In cartooning, things tend to be a 
little exaggerated. Large eyes, elongated 
noses, four fingers, swollen heads, silly 
hairstyles and big feet all seem to be the 
norm. The nicest aspect of cartooning 
is the freedom to draw anything in any 
way possible. There are no boundaries, 
and the ideas are limited only by your 
own imagination. 

Facial expressions play an important 
role in how a drawing is interpreted. 
Almost any type of mood or feeling can 
be illustrated by the expression of the 
character's face (see Figure 1). A slight 
slant of the eyebrows can mean the 
difference between a frown and a sneer. 
A change in the curvature of the mouth 
can turn a somber expression into a 
cheery grin. 

Conveying the senses plays a huge 
part in the creation of a cartoon. Smell, 
sound, taste, sight and touch can all be 
illustrated in cartooning (see Figure 2). 
Used properly, the senses can express 
your ideas better than words and add 
depth to your cartooning abilities. 

Getting a character into the proper 
pose can be critical to your cartoon. For 
example, if your main character is 
talking to a support character, show 
him in front with the support charac- 
ter's back turned. This way everyone 
spots the center of attention, and your 
gag goes over immediately. 

It is always best to envision your 
character's positions in your mind in 
order to create the appropriate setting. 
Try to think of the scene in terms of 
"camera angles," where you want the 
star to be the center of attention. Some 
scenes require close-ups; others take 
wide-angle shots. Some are action shots 
that require movement (see Figure 3). 
Remember, you are the producer and 
your computer is the camera. It is up to 
you to develop the perfect scene. 

Getting the proper perspective goes 
hand-in-hand with posing. In real life, 
objects that are far away seem smaller 
than objects that are closer to us (see 
Figure 4). This holds true in cartooning, 




Figure 3 



also. If your character is walking to- 
ward a door, for example, then natu- 
rally the door must be taller than the 
character. Creating the right depth 
greatly enhances the cartoon's attrac- 
tion to the reader. 

Creating a CoCo Cartoon 

Once you have your cartoon clearly 
thought out, it's time to boot up your 
favorite graphics program and get to 
work. First, draw a box on the screen 
— this is what your cartoon will be 
drawn in. There are approximately 80 
pixels per inch horizontally and 74 
pixels per inch vertically in the regular 
print mode of CoCo Max. It is up to you 
to determine the size. I use a 254-by-182 
pixel box to create my drawings. I 
recommend making the box only one 
line thick to draw no attention to it. 
Now save your box to a separate file so 
that you can use it for future cartoons. 

After your box is complete, it's time 
to start drawing the cartoon. It is best 
to create your characters first. For the 
time being, keep all your sketches in 
black-and-white. I recommend using a 
one-pixel black paint brush. This works 
better than using the pencil icon because 
the pencil sometimes gets in the way of 
seeing where you want to draw, and it 
can also erase part of your drawing if 
you let off your mouse button and then 
click it again. 

At this stage, it is best just to get a 
rough outline of your character. Draw 
several different variations and choose 
the one you like most. Once you have 
picked the pose you want to use, erase 
the others. Use Zoom or Fat Bits to 
clean up the picture and smooth out 
rough areas. It is easiest to do facial 
expressions and hand movements under 
Fat Bits. 

As when drawing anything on the 
CoCo, it is best to make saves before 
you do a lot of editing. If you do 
something you don't like, you can 
always reload the drawing from an 
earlier stage. 

When you ate drawing front views of 



VANISHING 
POINT 




/ 



1 X '■ 



\ 



\ 



Figure 4 



your character, you might find it easier 
to draw only half of the character and 
then use the editing box to make a copy. 
Use the Horizontal Flip feature on the 
copy to make a mirror image of it. Click 
out of the editing box, lasso the flipped 
copy and join it side-by-side to the 
original — you now have a complete 
character by doing half the work. This 
technique can be used for any symmet- 
rical shape. 

Once you finish drawing your char- 
acter, use a formatted disk to save 
character clips. As you go along, save 
each pose of every character to your clip 
disk. Use the lasso icon to copy your 
characters. This way you can recall 
characters at any time and manipulate 
them for use in another scene. 

When your collection of characters 
has grown large, take several formatted 
disks and make clip disks of hands, 
arms, bodies, legs, feet and heads. These 
can be copied from your character clip 
disk. You will then have the ability to 
mix and match body parts to create new 
characters — just like Dr. Frankenstein. 

After your characters have been 
drawn, it's time to draw the back- 
ground. First, draw the horizon. Use the 
rubber band line function to do this. If 
this line intersects your character, go 
ahead and let it go through the charac- 
ter. This will keep the horizon level on 
both sides of the pose. Remember, you 
can always paste the character back to 
the screen from the clip disk if you have 
to draw through it to create background 
objects. 

Make your background relate to your 
gag. Keep background objects from 
interfering with your characters, and 
make sure the scene is proportional. 
When you are drawing buildings and 
houses, it is best to use rectangles and 
rubber band lines. Trees can be 
sketched with a single-pixel paintbrush, 
using jagged lines for branches. Clouds 
can be drawn with a one-pixel brush; 
they can also be created with a larger 
round brush, then circled with the Edit 
box using the Trace Edges function. 



THI5 IS A SAMPLE 0F^\ 
NORMAL TEXT USING THE 



A 



USIN O THE J 



^WOWK 



Figure 5 




If you want to draw the sun, moon 
or planets, use the circle icon. A crescent 
moon can be drawn using two circles 
spaced 15 to 25 pixels apart, with the 
center point staying on the same ho- 
rizon line. Erase unwanted curves once 
you have your circles in place. Stars are 
drawn using the one-pixel paintbrush. 

Consecutive patterns like bricks, 
shingles or floor patterns can be created 
easily by using the Edit Pattern func- 




"Developing original 
techniques and ideas 
is the key to being a 

cartoonist*' 





tion. Be sure to make these patterns 
simple so they won't distract from your 
character and gag. As with drawing 
characters, you can create symmetrical 
objects by drawing only half of an 
object, then copying and flipping it to 
match the other side. As always, use the 
Zoom function to clean up background 
objects and get a clear, crisp scene. 

Although some cartoon gags can be 
expressed without words, most require 
some type of dialogue. When you are 
adding text to your cartoon, it is best 
to create a balloon or dialogue box 
outside the cartoon itself and then 
incorporate it later. 

To create your balloon, you must first 
decide what text font you want to use. 
I recommend using a small font for 
normal text situations. If you want to 
emphasize a particular word, use a bold 
or shadow style on it. For one-word 
expressions like "Boing," "BANG!" or 
"Wow," use a large text font with any 
style you prefer. Bring in the lasso to 
manipulate and center the text. After 



you have positioned the text, put the 
balloon border around it. There are 
several ways to accomplish this: You 
can use the one-pixel paintbrush and 
draw a circle around the text, cleaning 
it up with Fat Bits; you can use a 
rounded rectangle to place a border 
around the text; or you can use a rubber 
band line to express text in a dynamic 
manner (see Figure 5). 

Once the border is the way you want 
it, circle it with the lasso and cut it out. 
Position the cartoon in the window and 
paste the text balloon back onto the 
cartoon. At this point, you can position 
the balloon anywhere you want. Click 
to make your selection permanent. Next 
you must direct the text to the character 
that is speaking. Use the one-line brush 
or rubber band line to make the cone 
point to your character. Use Fat Bits to 
clean up. If a character is thinking 
instead of speaking, simply draw small 
circles going from the character to the 
balloon. 

At this point, if you are doing a gag 
cartoon, you are finished. If you are 
doing a strip, repeat the process for 
every panel. 

When you're finished with your car- 
toon, you will want to print it out. If you 
are using a dot matrix printer, I recom- 
mend using double-strike if possible: 
This will give your printed cartoon that 
professional look. You can print in any 
size you like, but the smaller the print- 
out, the more detailed the drawing 
looks. 

If you are fortunate enough to have 
a CGP-220, you can print out a color 
version of your cartoon. In my opinion, 
this is the only way to print cartoons. 
Personally, I prefer to create my car- 
toons on my CoCo 2 in biack-and-white 
and then transfer them to the CoCo 3 
for coloring. This way, I have the 
cartoon available on both Color Com- 
puters, which gives me the ability to 
print it out in any style using any 
printer. 

CoCo cartooning is an entertaining 
and creative aspect of graphics applica- 
tion on the Color Computer. No partic- 
ular style is required, and any CoCo 
user can get involved with this newest 
aspect of computer graphics. All it takes 
is a little imagination and original 
thought to produce wonderful cartoons 
just like the pros. 

(Questions or comments regarding 
this tutorial may be directed to the 
author at 2774 Lakeside Drive, Mem- 
phis, TN 38134. Please enclose an 
SASE when writing for a reply.) /55v 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 53 



'-Ed ucation Not e s 

This month's article presents one 
example of the many verbal 
math problems that middle and 
upper division school children study. 
Verbal problems contain a short written 
story that the student must interpret 
before the math computation can be 
done. Verbal problems come in many 
types: Motion, interest and measure- 
ment problems are just a few. This 
month's program concerns computing 
the cost of various amounts of three 
grades of gasoline. 

This topic can lead to learning in 
subject areas other than math. Students 
in social studies, for example, may be 
interested in tracing the cost of gasoline 
over the past 15 years. The oil crisis of 
the 70s made the public acutely aware 
for the first time of its vulnerability to 
the price of this commodity. I can 
vividly remember the high prices and 
especially the long lines at gas stations 
in those times. Children might enjoy 
learning about the reasons for the gas 
crisis and the likelihood of its return. 

Almost every student has access to 
and is familiar with the family car. 
Several science lessons can be given on 
the topic of what makes the cars go. An 
explanation of gasoline grades — reg- 
ular, premium, leaded and unleaded — 
should be given to the student before 
beginning this program, although I 
often find that many children know as 
much as adults do about types and 
brands of cars and gasolines. 

Our program has an illustration of 
three gas pumps, which contain regular, 
no-lead and premium gas, respectively. 
A price for each appears under each 
pump. The prices appear randomly 
from example to example, always in 
ascending order with the premium gas 
priced highest. These prices, while not 
always totally realistic, tend to offer a 
fairly wide variety in practicing the 
particular math computation needed to 
solve these problems. 

The prices will always be in integers 
such as $1.24. To put this program on 
a level for older students, you may 
readjust the gas prices to fractional or 
decimal values as they usually occur in 
reality. In this case, be sure to tell the 



Sieve Blyn teaches both exceptional 
and gifted children, holds two master's 
degrees and has won awards for the 
design of programs to aid the handi- 
capped. He owns Computer Island and 
lives in Staten Island, New York. 

54 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



Practice in solving verbal 
math problems 



Motor Math 



By Steve Blyn 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



students to round off to the nearest 
whole cent. 

The student is asked to compute the 
price of a certain number of gallons of 
one of the three types of gasoline. The 
student must be careful to read the 
question and select the type of gasoline 
that the question refers to. This is a skill 
in and of itself — carefully reading the 



16K ECB 




question and deciding just what is being 
asked for. Too often, students will 
assume that they can predict the next 
question and fail to read it carefully. 

Lines 50 through 120 draw the three 
gas pumps. Lines 140 through 190 
choose the three current prices. Line 190 
ensures that the price of regular gas is 
at least $1, with the other two prices 
always somewhat higher. Line 210 
selects the number of gallons currently 
purchased, represented by variable Q. 
Line 220 selects the type of gas currently 
purchased, represented by variable R. 
The true price is therefore Q times either 
A, B or C, depending on whether var- 
iable R chooses 1, 2 or 3. 

Lines 260 through 290 ask for and 
evaluate the student's answer. The 
student is informed whether the answer 
was correct. If incorrect, the correct 
answer is displayed. When the enter 
key is pressed, the next example is 
displayed. After 10 examples, the stu- 
dent receives a scorecard. The student 
may then press B to begin again or E 
to end the program. 

As always, we at Computer Island 
hope that your child or students enjoy 
and learn from this program. □ 



The listing: GASQUIZ 




10 REM" BUYING GASOLINE" 




20 REM" STEVE BLYN , COMPUTER ISLAN 


D, STATEN ISLAND, NY, 1988" 




30 CLS0 




40 REM" DRAW THE THREE GAS PUMPS" 


50 PRINT@35,"REG.";:PRINT@44 " N 


0 " ; : PRINT@53 , "PREM" ; 




60 PRINT@67," ";:PRINT@76,"LE 


AD";:PRINT@85," " ; 




70 FOR X=6 TO 13: FOR Y=6 


TO 14 :S 


ET(X,Y,4) :NEXT Y,X 




80 FOR X=24 TO 31: FOR Y= 


6 TO 14: 


SET(X,Y,3) :NEXT Y,X 




90 FOR X=42 TO 49: FOR Y= 


6 TO 14: 


SET(X,Y,2) :NEXT Y,X 




100 FOR Y=4 TO 12: SET (14 


,Y,5) :SE 


T(32,Y,5) :SET(50,Y,5) :NEXT Y 


110 SET(15,13,5) :SET(33, 


13,5) :SE 


T(51,13,5) 




120 FOR T=1344 TO 1535 : POKET, 143 


:NEXT T 




130 REM" CHOOSE THE CURRENT PRICE 


S" 





14J3 J=J+1 

150 A=RND(lj3j3)+5j3:B=A+RND(2j3) :C= 
B+RND(2j3) 

16J3 A=A/lj30:B=B/10j3:C=C/lj3j3 

170 PRINT §3 2 0 , " " : PRINT ©352 , " " : PR 

INT@416 / ,I ":PRINT@448,' I • , 

180 IF J>10 THEN 340 

190 IF A<1 THEN 150 

200 PRINT @ 2 5 9 , US I NG # . # # " ; A ; : PRI 

NT§2 68 , USING" # . ##" ;B; : PRINT @ 2 7 7 , 

USING" #. ##" ;Cj 

210 Q=RND ( 7 ) + 2 : REM" THE # OF GALL 
ONS" 

220 R=RND(3):IF R=l THEN N=A:A$= 
"REGULAR" 

230 IF R=2 THEN N=B:A$="NO LEAD" 
24)3 IF R=3 THEN N=C:A$=" PREMIUM" 
250 AN=N*Q 

260 PRINT§320, "WHAT IS THE PRICE 
OF"Q"GALLONS OF "A$" GAS TODAY 
? $" * 

270 LINEINPUT W$:W=VAL(W$) 

28)3 IF INT(W*100+.05)=INT(AN*100 

+ .05) THEN PRINT§426, "CORRECT" :R 

R=RR+l:PLAY"A":GOTO 300 

290 PRINT@418, "SORRY, THE ANSWER 

IS $";AN 

3J3J3 PRINT@453, "PRESS ENTER TO GO 

ON" ; 
310 EN$=INKEY$ 

320 IF EN$=CHR$(13) THEN 13J3 ELS 
E 310 

33J3 GOTO 330 

340 PRINT@326 , "THIS SET IS OVER. 



ii 



35J3 PRINT@ 3 5 7, "YOUR SCORE WAS"RR 
*10;"%" 

360 PRINT@4 48, "PRESS 'B' TO BEGI 
N OR 'E' TO END"; 
370 EN$=INKEY$ 

380 IF EN$="B" THEN RUN ELSE IF 
EN$="E" THEN CLS : END 
390 GOTO 37j3 



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Tomb 




an 




your head in it this time. Crawling into 
this hole in the ground got you lost in 
these dark catacombs. Realizing that 
you have stumbled across the elusive 
tomb of King Tut is little comfort, at 
least not as long as those uglies keep 
trying to kill you. Your feeble musket 
fire is just barely able to hold them off. 
Every time you manage to grab some 
treasure and escape from one room into 
what must surely be a safe place to stop, 
relax and count your riches, more of 
those horrible beasts begin chasing you 
all over again! It's almost enough to 
make you give up exploring . . . Naw! 

Tuts Tomb is a machine language 
arcade game comprised of three separ- 
ate parts, each of which contains five 
mazes. Four basic programs make up 
the machine language program of Part 

1, TUT1; two BASIC programs make up 
the machine language program of Part 

2, TUT2; and two BASIC programs make 
up the machine language program of 
Part 3, TUT3. 

Due to space limitations, only the 
BASIC listings that generate the machine 
language program of Part 1, TUT1, are 
presented this month. TUT2 and TUT3 
cannot be loaded or run until you 
complete the fifth maze of TUT1. [You 
may need more than a month to get 
through the first five mazes of Tut's 
Tombl] Onscreen loading instructions 
for Part 2 are presented at this time, 
along with a clue for solving the final 
maze of Part 3. The computer will 
appear to lock up. Simply press RESET 
and load the next part according to the 
instructions. The BASIC listings that 
create Part 2 and Part 3 will appear next 
month. 

Use the following procedure to create 
Part 1 of Tut s Tomb: 

1) Enter POKE 113,0 and reset the 
computer to do a cold start; 

2) Type in listings 1 through 4 and 



save them to tape or disk using the 
filenames ONE, TWO, THREE and 
FOUR, respectively; 

3) Load and run each BASIC program 
in order; 

4) At the final OK prompt, save the 
machine language program, TUT1, 
to tape or disk (tape users type 
C5RVEM) using the following com- 
mand: (C)Sfl\/Er<rTUTl'\ 20479, 
26405,26405. 

To move the machine language pro- 
gram, TUT1, to its proper memory 
location, follow these steps: 

1) Enter POKE113,0 and reset the 
computer to do a cold start; 

2) Enter (C)L0ADM"TUT1 " ,49152 
(tape users type CLOflDM); 

3) Resave the file by entering 
(C)5nVEM"TUTl",4095, 10021, 
10011; 

4) Enter EXEC10011. 

In the future, if you followed Step 3 
above, you need only load the file and 
enter EXEC. 

Game Play 

Use the right joystick to move the 
explorer up, down, left and right. Press 
the firebutton on the joystick to begin 
each level of play. To shoot the musket, 
press the firebutton while pointing the 
joystick in the desired direction (it will 
only fire right and left). 

There are five types of creatures that 
will menace you, and you can score a 
variable amount of points by killing 
them: 



Creature Points 

Scorpion-tailed bats 10 
Blue serpents 20 
Giant spiders 40 
Disembodied dragon heads 60 
Curses 80 



Also, there are five types of treasure 
with variable point values: 



Treasure Points 

Diamond rings 1,000 

Priceless vases 2,000 

Jewel boxes 3,000 

Red sapphire pots 4,000 

Gold crown 5,000 



To exit a maze you must first obtain 
the key contained in that maze. To get 
a key, all you have to do is move up 
beside it. The key will disappear and be 
displayed at the top of the screen (under 
your score). You may then exit by going 
to the end of the maze, avoiding or 
killing the creatures along the way. Note 
that your feet must be touching the 
ground in order to exit. 

Hints 

• You can kill the creatures only by 
shooting them in the upper part of 
their bodies. 

• Every time a creature is killed near its 
lair (the hole in the wall surrounded 
by red bricks), a new one appears in 
its place. New creatures either dupli- 
cate or exit the lair, so don't stand 
near it while shooting. 

• Creatures are not always fatal when 
touched. In some cases, they can be 
bounced off the explorer's head. 

• After completing the five mazes 
presented in Part 1, a clue is given 
describing how to escape the last 
maze of Part 3, TUT3. 

• In some of the mazes, the explorer 
has the ability to fire through bricks 
(one of the handy bugs 1 purposely 
left in the program). 
(Questions or comments regarding 

this program may be directed to the 
author at 2369 Madison #9, Montreal, 
Quebec, Canada H4B 2T5. Please en- 
close an SASE when requesting a 
reply.) □ 




"Assembly Language Programming for the CoCo H (The Book) and the CoCo 3 (The Addendum). 
Professionally produced (not just skimpy technical specifications). THE CoCo reference books. 



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assembly language for the CoCo 1 & 2. 
It's used as a school text and is an 
intro to Computer Science. It describes 
the 6809E instructions, subroutines, 
interrupts, stacks, programming 
philosophy, and many examples. Also 
covered are PIAs, VDG, SAM, kybd, 
jystk, sound, serial port, and using 
cassette and disk. $18.00 + $1.50 s/h. 



THE ADDENDUM - Picks up 

where the BOOK left off. Describes 
ALL the CoCo 3 enhancements & how 
to use them with assembly language. 
The most complete GIME spec. 
WOW - Super-Res Graphics, 
Virtual Memory, New Interrupts, 
and more information not available 
elsewhere. Find out what the CoCo 3 
can really do. $12.00 + $1.00 s/h. 



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add 6% sales tax 



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July 1988 THE RAINBOW 59 



Editor's Note: For your convenience, the machine 
language files for TUT2 and TUT3 will be included 
on this month's RAINBOW OX TAPE and DISK, 
immediately following TUT1* The BASIC listings 
that make up these two machine language pro- 
grams will be printed in next month p s issue. 



1 












L/ 140 


149 


1270 . , 


58 




290 . 


. . 21 


1410 


125 




510 


128 


1600 . . 


207 




680 


, . . .91 


1760 , . 


161 




890 , , 


214 


END 


135 




1060 


. . .103 







Listing 1: ONE 

5 CLEAR 1000,&H4FFE 

10 REM %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
%%% PART #1 TUT %%% 

%%% RUN THEN LOAD #2 %%% 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 

15 FOR X=20479 TO 2 1959: READ DT: 

POKE X , DT : NEXT X 

20 DATA 189,18,118,189,23,112,18 
9,23 

30 DATA 135,189,38,229,189,23,17 
4,189 

40 DATA 23,220,189,24,5,189,24,9 
3 

50 DATA 127,30,250,134,1,183,31, 
54 

60 DATA 183,31,55,134,240,183,31 
,24 

70 DATA 189,25,3,189,24,112,189, 
25 

80 DATA 200,189,27,14,189,27,90, 
189 

90 DATA 18,92,182,255,0,129,254, 
39 

100 DATA 4,129,126,38,245,189,37 
,76 

110 DATA 189,37,164,189,38,82,18 
9,38 

120 DATA 125,79,177,30,237,38,19 
,189 

130 DATA 20,10,182,255,0,129,254 
,16 

140 DATA 39,255,157,129,126,38,2 
43,126 

150 DATA 15,255,189,26,190,189,3 
7,206 

160 DATA 189,28,110,189,29,35,18 
9,16 

170 DATA 162,189,16,152,189,30,1 
24,189 

180 DATA 25,200,189,23,174,189,3 
6,235 

190 DATA 16,142,0,0,49,33,16,140 



200 DATA 9,196,39,2,32,246,126,1 
6 

210 DATA 68,79,189,25,228,57,128 
,184 

220 DATA 255,15,57,182,39,116,12 
9,180 

230 DATA 36,7,139,60,183,39,116, 
32 

240 DATA 3,127,39,116,189,29,109 
,57 

250 DATA 57,255,255,255,255,255, 
255,255 

260 DATA 255,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
270 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,134,128,184 
280 DATA 255,15,182,255,15,183,4 

,P 

290 DATA 32,243,0,0,0,0,0,0 

300 DATA 0,0,0,0,4,0,0,0 

310 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

320 DATA 4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

330 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

340 DATA 83,251,255,255,255,255, 

255,255 

350 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,255 
,255,255 

360 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,255 
/ 255 ,255 

370 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,255 
,255,255 

380 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,255 
, 255 ,255 

390 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,255 
,255,255 

400 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,255 
,255,255 

410 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,255 
,255,255 

420 DATA 255,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

430 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

440 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

450 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

460 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

470 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

480 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

490 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

500 DATA 35,255,255,255,255,255, 

255,255 

510 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,255 
, 255 , 255 

520 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,189 
,21,224 

530 DATA 189,21,224,189,21,224,1 
27,255 

540 DATA 201,127,255,34,127,255, 

202,127 | 

550 DATA 255,206,127,255,192,127 

,255,194 

560 DATA 127,255,196,142,17,248, 
16,142 

570 DATA 4,0,95,166,128,167,160, 
92 



60 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



58J3 DATA 
3j3 

590 DATA 
21,183 
6J30 DATA 
5,163 
610 DATA 
82,30 
620 DATA 
83,15 
630 DATA 
640 DATA 
650 DATA 
660 DATA 
670 DATA 
680 DATA 
690 DATA 
700 DATA 
710 DATA 
720 DATA 
730 DATA 
740 DATA 
750 DATA 
760 DATA 
770 DATA 
780 DATA 
3,198 
790 DATA 
83,43 



193,78,3 9,2,3 2,245,182, 

220, 183 , 15, 161, 182,30,2 

15,162,182,30,222,183,1 

182,30,2 23,183,15,164,1 

224,183,15,165,134,56,1 

160,57,4,4,4,4,4,4 

4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

0,3,12,21,5,32,14,15 

20,8,9,14,7,32,5,17 

21,1,12,19,32,19,15,13 

5,20,8,9,14,7,32,32 

32,3,15,14,7,18,1,20 

21,12,1,20,9,15,14,19 

32,6,9,14,9,19,8,5 

4,32,16,1,18,20,15,14 

5,12,15,1,4,32,14,5 

24,20,32,16,1,18,20,0 

0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0,0,134,255,183 

43,196,183,43,197,183,4 

183,43,199,183,43,164,1 



800 DATA 
67,189 
810 DATA 
1,224 
820 DATA 
4,42 

830 DATA 
,231 

840 DATA 
177 

850 DATA 
30 

860 DATA 
,40 

870 DATA 
4,2 

880 DATA 
,230 

890 DATA 
82,30 
900 DATA 
23,183 
910 DATA 
0,234 
920 DATA 
930 DATA 
940 DATA 
950 DATA 
960 DATA 



165,183,43,166,183,43,1 

21,224,189,21,224,189,2 

182,30,220,177,30,230,3 

37,70,182,30,221,177,30 

34,32,37,60,182,30,222, 

30,232,34,22,37,50,182, 

223,177,30,23 3,34,12,37 

182,30,224,177,30,234,3 

3 2,30,182,30,220,183,30 

182,30,221, 183,30,231,1 

222,183,30,23 2,182,30,2 

30, 23 3 ,'182,30,224,183, 3 

189,27,66,57,0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0,4,0,0,0 

0,0,4,0,4,0,4,0 

4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 



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July 1988 THE RAINBOW 61 



970 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

980 DATA 194,251,255,255,255,255 

,255,255 

990 DATA 255,187,185,197,161,222 
,7,255 

1000 DATA 82,161,197,11,0,0,171, 
238 

1010 DATA 161,181,1,2,221,161,16 
1,2 

1020 DATA 4,160,240,0,255,66,89, 
32 

1030 DATA 67,72,82,73,83,32,77,6 
7 

1040 DATA 75,69,82,78,65,78,255, 
255 

1050 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 
5 255 255 

1060 DATA 255,3,1,13,0,0,0,0 

1070 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1080 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1090 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1100 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1110 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1120 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1130 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1140 DATA 193,255,255,255,255,25 

5,74,32 

1150 DATA 32,255,255,255,255,255 
,255,255 

1160 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 
5,255,255 

1170 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 
5,255,255 

1180 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 
5,255,255 

1190 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 
5,255,255 

1200 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 
5,255,255 

1210 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 
5,255,255 

1220 DATA 255,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
1230 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,28,185 
1240 DATA 187,185,197,162,30,13, 
185,236 

1250 DATA 187,185,197,189,51,177 
,106,0 

1260 DATA 188,225,183,77,174,84, 
173,45 

1270 DATA 173,196,0,0,0,0,0,85 
1280 DATA 85,85,85,85,85,85,85,8 
5 

1290 DATA 85,85,85,85,85,85,85,8 
5 

1300 DATA 85,85,85,85,85,85,85,8 
5 

1310 DATA 85,85,85,142,42,77,134 
,13 

1320 DATA 189,23,148,142,42,78,1 
34,19 

1330 DATA 189,23,148,142,42,79,1 



34,20 

1340 DATA 189,23,148,142,42,80,1 
34,21 

1350 DATA 189,23,148,142,42,82,1 
34,22 

1360 DATA 189,23,148,142,42,83,1 
34,23 

1370 DATA 189,23,148,142,42,84,1 

34.24 j 

1380 DATA 189,23,148,142,42,85,1 

34.25 J 

1390 DATA 189,23,148,57,70,68,32 

' 13 J 

1400 DATA 0,198,30,247,20,179,13 

4,255 

1410 DATA 16,142,0,15,189,23,51, 
246 

1420 DATA 20,179,90,193,1,39,5,2 
47 

1430 DATA 20,179,32,234,57,0,0,0 

1440 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1450 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1460 DATA 0,118,255,255,255,255, 

255,255 

1470 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 
5,255,255 

1480 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 
5,255,255 

1490 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 

5,255,255 } 

1500 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 

5,255,84 

1510 DATA 85,84,84,69,84,85,84,6 
6 

1520 DATA 13,13,13,32,2,191,21,2 

2 1 

1530 DATA 142,36,14,16,142,0,2,1 

34 

1540 DATA 255,230,132,189,23,51, 

48,1 j 

1550 DATA 140,36,33,46,2,32,236, 

190 I 

1560 DATA 21,22,57,0,0,0,0,0 

1570 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1580 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1590 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1600 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1610 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

1620 DATA 0,25,255,255,255,255,2 

55,255 

1630 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 

5,255,255 I 

1640 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 

5,255,59 1 

1650 DATA 235,16,142,0,0,49,33,1 

6 

1660 DATA 140,15,160,38,248,57,1 

98,50 j 

1670 DATA 16,142,0,40,189,23,51, 

134 

1680 DATA 255,198,30,16,142,0,20 



62 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



,189 

1690 DATA 
9,90 

1700 DATA 
/32 

1710 DATA 
189 

1720 DATA 
1730 DATA 
1740 DATA 
5,82 

1750 DATA 
,161 

1760 DATA 
4 

1770 DATA 
1780 DATA 
,255,255 
1790 DATA 
,84,69 
1800 DATA 
4 

1810 DATA 
7 

1820 DATA 
7 

1830 DATA 
134 

1840 DATA 



23,51,57,120,246,21,11 
193,30,37,5,247,21,119 
223,57,0,16,142,31,49, 

37,37,57,0,0,0,0,0 

0/0/0/0/0/0/0/0 
5,185,161,161,222,7,25 

161,197,11,0,0,171,238 

181,1,2,221,161,161,2, 

30,0,79,0,0,0,0,0 
27,255,255,255,255,255 

255,255,255,255,255,83 

83,84,70,70,70,70,70,8 

85,84,66,65,83,73,67,6 

67,67,67,67,67,67,67,6 

67,67, 67, 67, 67, 67,255, 

255,198,50,16,142,0,23 



0,189 

1850 DATA 23,51,134,255,198,25,1 
6,142 

1860 DATA 0,115,189,23,51,134,25 
5,198 

1870 DATA 50 




230 1090 168 

226 1230 73 

123 1410 147 

.99 1540 115 

198 1690 96 



930 43 END 



189 



Listing 2: TWO 

10 REM %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
%%% PART #2 TUT %%% 
%%% RUN THEN LOAD #3 %%% 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 

15 FOR X=21960 TO 23400 :READ DT: 

POKE X , DT : NEXT X 

20 DATA 16,142,0,230,189,23,51,5 
7 

30 DATA 171,67,67,67,67,67,67,67 

40 DATA 67,67,67,67,67,67,67,0 

50 DATA 134,255,198,30,16,142,0, 
100 



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July 1988 THE RAINBOW 63 



60 DATA 189 , 23 ,51 ,13 4 ,200,198,30 
,16 

70 DATA 142,0,90,189,23,51,134,2 
55 

80 DATA 198,30,16,142,0,90,189,2 
3 

90 DATA 51,134,200,198,25,16,142 
,0 

100 DATA 110,189,23,51,134,200,1 
98,30 

110 DATA 16,142,0,110,189,23,51, 
57 

120 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,255 
,255,255 

130 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,255 
,255,13 

140 DATA 78,85,82,67,67,67,67,67 
150 DATA 67,67,67,67,67,67,67,67 
160 DATA 67,67,67,67,67,67,67,67 
170 DATA 67,67,67,13,190,39,214, 
189 

180 DATA 27,112,190,31,6,188,39, 
214 

190 DATA 38,6,204,0,0,253,31,6 
200 DATA 190,31,8,188,39,214,38, 
6 

210 DATA 204,0,0,253,31,8,190,31 
220 DATA 10,188,39,214,38,6,204, 

0 

230 DATA 0,253,31,10,190,31,12,1 
88 

240 DATA 39,214,38,6,204,0,0,253 
250 DATA 31,12,190,31,14,188,39, 
214 

260 DATA 38,6,204,0,0,253,31,14 
270 DATA 190,31,16,188,39,214,38 
,6 

280 DATA 204,0,0,253,31,16,189,2 
1 

290 DATA 24,190,39,214,189,27,13 
7,57 

300 DATA 38,52,182,40,161,129,0, 
38 

310 DATA 45,182,58,61,129,0,38,3 
8 

320 DATA 182,58,33,129,0,38,31,1 
82 

330 DATA 30,235,129,9,44,24,76,1 
83 

340 DATA 30,235,189,25,37,134,85 
,183 

350 DATA 40,189,183,40,161,183,5 
8,61 

360 DATA 183,58,33,189,21,202,57 
,0 

370 DATA 0,0,0,0,231,137,255,65 
380 DATA 231,136,161,57,0,0,182, 
30 

390 DATA 223,129,10,37,8,128,10, 
183 

400 DATA 30,223,124,30,222,182,3 



0,222 
410 DATA 
30 

420 DATA 
21,129 
430 DATA 
21 

440 DATA 
29,10 
450 DATA 
,182 

460 DATA 
3 

470 DATA 
2,255 
480 DATA 
,255 

490 DATA 
,8 

500 DATA 
6,191 
510 DATA 
2,30 

520 DATA 
,252 

530 DATA 
,228 

540 DATA 
57 

550 DATA 
55/195 
560 DATA 
,183,255 
570 DATA 
57,134 
580 DATA 
64 

590 DATA 
4 

600 DATA 
66 

610 DATA 
2,193 
620 DATA 
630 DATA 
,142 

640 DATA 
148 

650 DATA 
,23 

660 DATA 
,189 

670 DATA 
224 

680 DATA 
,134 

690 DATA 
,134 

700 DATA 
,134 

710 DATA 



129,10,37,8,128,10,183, 
222,124,30,221,182,30,2 
10 , 37 , 8 , 128 , 10 , 183 , 30 , 2 
124,30,220,182,30,220,1 
37,16,128,10,183,30,220 
30,237,76,129,9,46,3,18 
30,237,57,183,30,225,18 
3,132,247,183,255,3,182 

I, 132,247,183,255,1,134 

186,255,35,183,255,35,1 

30, 228', 16, 190, 30, 228, 18 

225,183,255,32,49,63,38 

79,183,255,32,16,190,30 

49,63,38,252,90,38,227, 

134,0,183,255,197,183,2 

183,255,203,183,255,207 

200,134,255,183,255,34, 

0,142,40,0,167,128,140, 

0,38,249,57,16,142,31,6 

198,7,61,49,171,198,0,1 

160 , 167 ,132,48,136,32,9 

7,39,2,32,242,57,142,41 
2,182,30,220,189,23,148 

41,3,182,30,221,189,23, 
142,41,4,182,30,222,189 
148,142,41,5,182,30,223 
23,148,142,41,6,182,30, 
189,23,148,57,142,40,13 

II, 189,23,148,142,40,14 
12,189,23,148,142,40,15 
13,189,23,148,142,40,16 



64 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 




Retrieve more online 
for less with GEniel M 

**IVe really tracked down superior selection and service 
with GEnie. I always knew GEnie was ahead of the pack 
with theTandy + RoundTable™ Special Interest Group, 
featuring over 2500 software files, dynamic bulletin 
boards, lively discussions and "tips" from the experts. 
And now I can sink my teeth into valuable information 
services like American Airlines EAASY SABRE™ 
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games and access to Dow Jones News/Retrieval? 
And those GEnie people are so dog-gone friendly! 

You're barking up the wrong tree if you y^J 
don't look to GEnie for value, service 
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GEnie offers you so much online, . 
for less." /L ft* 




Services Available 


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4. At the U#= prompt enter ?gMU787,GEiile then RETURN. 

Need help or more information? No modem yet? We can help. 
In U.S. or Canada call 1-800-638-9636 or write GEnie, 
401 N. Washington Street, Rockville, MD 20850. 




We bring good things to life. 



**Banc rata and services in effect 1/88 apply in UiL only. fNon-primc rime rates apply Mon.-Fri. 6PM-8AM total rime and all 
day Sat, Sun, and natl. holidays. Subject to service availability. Some services offered on GEnie may include additional charges. 
Dow Jones News Retrieval is a registered service mart of Daw Jones & Co., inc. flandy » a registered trademark nf Tandy 
Corporation. *%10 credit applies. Offer good for SO days from sign-up, 
0 1988 General Electric Company, USA 



HOWARD MEDICAL COMPUTERS 

1690 N. Elston • Chicago, IL 60622 • orders (800) 443-1444 • inquiries and order status (31 2) 278-1440 



★ 5 STAR FINAL 



JULY '88 



CLEAR 



HMC SAVES BUDGET 



Hundreds of $ off Monitors sighted as Major Factor. HMC is reported to 
have made a special purchase on Magnavox monitors. These items, listed, 
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MAGNAVOX 7622 12" Amber Screen offers 900 dots x 350 lines resolu- 
tion at 20 MHz on a dark glass anti-glare CRT with built-in audio and 1 year 
warranty. ($7 shipping) $ 88 7652 green screen also available $88 

MAGNAVOX 8 CM 515 has analog RGB for CoCo 3, TTL RGB for 
Tandy 1000 or IBM PC's, and composite color for CoCo 2 and 3. Built-in 
speaker. 14" screen with 640 dot x 240 line resolution. Plus 2 years parts 
and labor warranty, reg. list $499 SAVE $200 $ 298 + $14 Shipping 

CC-3 Magnavox RGB cable only $ 19.95 with Magnavox Monitor 
order. $29.95 w/o monitor. 






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capability, Zenith quality and a 90-day warranty valid at any of Zenith's 1200 
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VA-1 for monochrome and color monitors delivers video interface for CoCo's 
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DRIVE 0 +. Howards Drive 0 
gives you a DD-3 MPI drive, a CA-1 
cable and a J&M DC-4 Disk Control- 
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Add $34 for a Disto DC-3. 




HMC's Guarantee— 
A Promise you can take to the Bank. 



Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee 
is meant to eliminate the uncertainty 
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any reason, return it in 30 days and 
we'll give you your money back (less 
shipping.) Shipping charges are for 
48 states. APO, Canada and Puerto 
Rico orders are higher. 



Buyout on DISTO 
Disk Controllers 

Includes controller and C-DOS 4.0 
ROM Chip. DISTO $ 98 DC-3[A] 
($2 shipping on all DISTO products) 

ADD-ON BOARDS 

DC-3P Mini Eprom programmer 
includes all software to program 
2764 or 27128 chips [R] $ 55 
DC-3C Clock Calendar and parallel 
printer port[C] $ 40 




Items featured as evidence 
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INVESTIGATION OF "LOWEST 
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The Bigge sl 
The Best 
Th e indispensable 




THE RAINBOW is the biggest, best, brightest and 
most comprehensive publication a happy CoCo 
ever had! THE RAINBOW features more programs, 
more information and more in-depth treatment of 
the Tandy Color Computer than any other source. 

A monthly issue contains nearly 200 pages and 
up to two dozen programs, 14 regular columns and 
as many as 12 new product reviews. And advertise- 
ments: THE RAINBOW is known as the medium for 
advertisers — which means every month it has a 
wealth of information unavailable anywhere else 
about new products! Hundreds of programs are 
advertised in its pages each month. 

Every single issue of THE RAINBOW covers the 
wide spectrum of interests in the Tandy Color 
Computer — from beginners' tutorials and arcade 
games to telecommunications and business and 
finance programs. Helpful utilities and do-it- 
yourself hardware projects make it easy and fun to 
expand your CoCo's capabilities. And, monthly 
reviews by independent reader reviewers take the 
guesswork out of buying new software and hard- 
ware products. 

Join the tens of thousands who have found THE 
RAINBOW to be an absolute necessity for their 
CoCo. With all this going for it, is it surprising that 
more than 90 percent of THE RAINBOW subscrib- 
ers renew their subscriptions? We're willing to bet 
that, a year from now, you'll be doing the same. 




Q 

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Rainbow On Tape 

& Rainbow On Disk! 



— great ways to bring THE RAINBOW into your life. 
Each month, all you do is pop the tape into your 
cassette player or the disk into your drive. No more 
lost weekends. As soon as you read an article about 
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Just think how your software library will grow. 
With your first year's subscription, you'll get almost 
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For credit card orders, you may want to phone in your subscription. Our 

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rainbow on tape and rainbow on disk are not stand-alone products; you need the 
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the rainbow magazine is a separate purchase. 



Give Your Fingers A Break! 



Send Me Rainbow Magazine! 

Here's your chance to have a Pot O' Gold full of programs, articles and information about 
CoCo every month of the year! 

As the premier magazine for the Tandy Color Computer, THE RAINBOW has more of 
everything — and greater variety, too. Do yourself and your CoCo a favor and subscribe to 
THE RAINBOW today! 

YES! Sign me up for a year (12 issues) of THE RAINBOW. 

□ NEW □ RENEW (attach label) 

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,134 

720 DATA 14,189,23,148,142,40,17 
,134 

730 DATA 15,189,23,148,57,142,41 
,13 

740 DATA 182,30,230,189,23,148,1 
42,41 

750 DATA 14,182,30,231,189,23,14 
8,142 

760 DATA 41,15,182,30,232,189,23 
,148 

770 DATA 142,41,16,182,30,233,18 
9,23 

780 DATA 148,142,41,17,182,30,23 
4,189 

790 DATA 23,148,57,142,40,108,13 
4,16 

800 DATA 189,35,115,142,40,109,1 
34,17 

810 DATA 189,35,115,142,40,110,1 
34,18 

820 DATA 189,35,115,142,40,111,1 
34,19 

830 DATA 189,35,115,142,40,112,1 
82,30 

840 DATA 235,189,35,115,57,142,4 
0,20 

850 DATA 182,30,236,189,23,148,1 
42,40 

860 DATA 21,182,30,237,189,23,14 
8,57 

870 DATA 182,30,250,198,64,61,14 
2,32 

880 DATA 8,48,139,191,39,215,79, 
95 

890 DATA 16,142,43,224,16,191,39 
,213 

900 DATA 189,24,200,166,132,189, 
24,216 

910 DATA 189,24,184,189,24,184,1 
89,24 

920 DATA 184,189,24,184,189,24,1 
84,189 

930 DATA 24,184,189,24,184,92,19 
3,8 

940 DATA 39,45,189,24,200,49,169 
,2 

950 DATA 100,48,1,189,24,208,32, 
208 

960 DATA 189,24,200,48,1,49,36,1 
66 

970 DATA 132,189,24,208,189,24,2 
16,57 

980 DATA 190,39,215,16,190,39,21 
3,57 

990 DATA 191,39,215,16,191,39,21 
3,57 

1000 DATA 247,39,212,198,80,61,1 
42,33 

1010 DATA 72,48,139,79,95,166,12 
8,167 



1020 DATA 164,166,128,167,33,166 
,128,167 

1030 DATA 34,166,128,167,35,92,1 
93,20 

1040 DATA 39,5,49,168,32,32,230, 
246 

1050 DATA 39,212,57,182,30,250,1 
98,2 

1060 DATA 61,253,39,214,142,34,2 
50,48 

1070 DATA 139,236,132,253,30,248 
,252,39 

1080 DATA 214,142,35,4,48,139,23 
6,132 

1090 DATA 253,31,2,252,39,214,14 
2,35 

1100 DATA 14,48,139,236,132,253, 
30,255 

1110 DATA 252,39,214,142,35,24,4 
8,139 

1120 DATA 236,132,253,30,253,252 
,39,214 

1130 DATA 142,35,34,48,139,236,1 
32,253 

1140 DATA 31,4,182,30,250,183,31 
,1 

1150 DATA 183,31,18,204,0,0,253, 
31 

1160 DATA 6,253,31,8,253,31,10,2 
53 

1170 DATA 31,12,253,31,14,253,31 
,16 

1180 DATA 252,30,248,253,30,251, 
57,190 

1190 DATA 30,251,48,136,224,140, 
43,224 

1200 DATA 37,17,190,30,251,95,22 
5,136 

1210 DATA 192,38,8,225,136,193,3 
8,3 

1220 DATA 134,1,57,79,57,190,30, 
251 

1230 DATA 95,225,137,2,64,38,9,2 
25 

1240 DATA 137,2,65,38,3,134,1,57 
1250 DATA 79,57,190,30,251,95,22 
5,31 

1260 DATA 38,9,225,137,1,255,38, 
3 

1270 DATA 134,1,57,79,57,190,30, 
251 

1280 DATA 95,225,2,38,9,225,137, 
2 

1290 DATA 2,38,3,134,1,57,79,57 
1300 DATA 190,30,251,16,142,34,2 
16,79 

1310 DATA 95,166,160,167,132,166 
,160,167 

1320 DATA 1,92,193,17,39,5,48,13 
6 

1330 DATA 32,32,238,57,190,30,25 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 67 



1 95 

1340 DATA 
7,39 

1350 DATA 
189 

1360 DATA 
,16 

1370 DATA 
192,191 
1380 DATA 
89,25 
1390 DATA 
,152 

1400 DATA 
91,30 
1410 DATA 
25,162 
1420 DATA 
,190 

1430 DATA 
1,189 
1440 DATA 
29,0 

1450 DATA 
0,251 
1460 DATA 
,200 

1470 DATA 
98,255 
1480 DATA 
29,0 

1490 DATA 
9,20 

1500 DATA 
1,49 

1510 DATA 
4,16 

1520 DATA 
0,32 

1530 DATA 
30,251 
1540 DATA 
1,166 
1550 DATA 
,48 

1560 DATA 
5,18 

1570 DATA 
,191 

1580 DATA 
9,214 
1590 DATA 
240 

1600 DATA 
3,159 
1610 DATA 
,37 

1620 DATA 
39,50 
1630 DATA 
9,57 



167,132,167,1,92,193,1 

5,48,136,32,32,242,57, 

25,111,129,0,39,15,189 

152 , 190 , 30 , 251,48 , 13 6 , 

30,251,189,25,200,57,1 

141,129,0,39,15,189,16 

190,30,251,48,136,64,1 

251,189,25,200,57,189, 

129,0,39,14,189,16,152 

30,251,48,31,191,30,25 

25,200,57,189,25,181,1 

39,14,189,16,152,190,3 

48,1,191,30,251,189,25 

57,137,190,30,251,79,1 

48,137,0,194,166,132,1 

38,4,231,128,32,246,18 

180,95,18,16,190,30,25 

169,0,194,95,191,39,21 

188,39,214,39,4,231,16 

242,189,27,192,57,190, 

79,198,255,48,137,0,19 

132,129,0,38,6,231,132 

31,32,244,189,20,180,9 



95,191,39,214,16,188,3 
39,6,231,164,49,63,32, 
48,31,189,27,192,57,17 
160,10,182,1,90,129,59 

15,189,26,254,129,254, 
129,126,39,46,189,26,5 



1640 DATA 

129 
1650 DATA 
2,189 
1660 DATA 
59 

1670 DATA 
2 

1680 DATA 
2,255 
1690 DATA 
9 

1700 DATA 
82,30 
1710 DATA 
0,48 

1720 DATA 
89,27 
1730 DATA 
64,166 
1740 DATA 
9 5 

1750 DATA 
2,36 

1760 DATA 
9,27 

1770 DATA 
,127 

1780 DATA 
30,222 
1790 DATA 
127,30 
1800 DATA 
6 

1810 DATA 
,31 

1820 DATA 



129,2,46,15,189,26,254 
254,39,36,129,126,39,3 
2 6,37,57,182,1,91,129, 
37,4, 189 , 26 , 14 , 57 , 129 , 
46,16,189,25,247,57,18 
0,57, 189 ,26,82,32,3,18 
26,133,189,25,200,57,1 
250,198,20,61,142,35,5 
139,95,16,190,30,255,1 
35,32,19,166,128,167,1 
128,167,33,92,193 ,10,3 
49,168,32,32,238,57,14 
14,16,190,30,253,95,18 
35,57,134,3,183,30,237 
30,220,127,30,221,127, 
127,30,223,127,30,224, 
250,57,204,0,0,253,31, 
253,31,8,253,31,10,253 



12 




.91 1150 54 

.57 1320 182 

.49 1470 240 

124 1750 30 

136 END 65 

196 



16 , 190 , 30 , 251 , 49 , 169 ,0 Listing 3: THREE 



10 REM %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
%%% PART #3 TUT %%% 

%%% CONTAINS MAZE DATA%%% 
%%% RUN THEN LOAD #4 %%% 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 

15 FOR X=23401 TO 24921: READ DT: 

POKE X , DT : NEXT X 

20 DATA 253,31,14,253,31,16,57,1 

6 

30 DATA 142,35,250,79,95,166,160 
,167 

40 DATA 132,166,160,167,1,92,193 



68 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



Proven Technology 

New CoCo 3 Utilities 

Great for 512K Systems! From Color Venture and OWL-WARE 



PRINTER LIGHTNING 

A great print spooler which gives you 
44K print buffer from a 128K CoCo and 
up to 438K (200 pages!) from a 512K 
CoCo. With this spooler you can run a 
program while you are printing a file. 
The spooler does not slow down the 
computer to any noticeable extent while 
you are running a second program and 
no lost characters arise. Baud rates 
selectable. Printer Lightning can reside 
in memory along with RAMDISKl 




NEW NEW 



Using 512K CoCo 3 you have access to 
2 additional disk drives in RAM. All 
disk commands are supported, and the 
data are Reset button protected. You 
can now have up to 5 disk drive capa- 
cities on line at once and can assign the 
ram disks to any drive number. By 
making the ramdisk Drive 0, all pro- 
grams which require a lot of drive 
access will run much faster. You can 
have the RAMDISK in memory at the 
same time as the Printer Lightningl 



BACKUP LIGHTNING 

This program is the fastest way to make 
backup copies of your files using a 512K 
CoCo. You can backup 35, 40, or 80 
track disks single or double sided. Both 
RS and OS-9 disks may be backed up. 
The original disk is saved to memory 
and a copy can be made on an 
unformatted disk every 45 seconds! The 
lightning read, write, format, and verify 
routines that were developed make this 
program much quicker that RSDOS or 
OS-9 for backups. This will become one 



of your most used programs! 

Only $19.95 each. 3 for $39.95. 

SPECIAL With our 51 2K Upgrade (Next page) only $2. each Of 3 for $5! 



Announcing: 



The finest graphics/drawing program for the COCO 3! 



Da Vinci 3 




16 colors on screen at one time 

Modify each color from 64 available colors 

Use composite or RGB monitor 

Draw with custom paintbrushes 

Full resolution 320 X 192 

Picture converter for conversion of 

COCO 2 pictures to COCO 3 
Multiple text fonts 
Accepts input from joystick, X-pad, 

mouse, or touch-pad 
Boxes, circles, line, paint generation 
Screen dump for Tandy mono and color ink-jet 

printers, (NX- 10 and others pending) 
Sensible price 

No additional hardware required because of 

course/fine joystick movement modes 
Zoom mode for individual pixel editing 
Great on screen menu which is removable at 
the touch of a key to allow full screen edit 



Super I/O Board for OS-9 

Each Board Provides 2 Serial Ports and Centronics Parallel Port 

First Board has Real Time Clock and Beeper... With Second Board up to 5 Users 

2 Serial Porte 



More 



The serial ports are usable up to 19,200 Baud, and 
the parallel port is a true Centronics standard. 
Plug into your multi-pak. On CoCo 3, multi-pak 
must be upgraded. You will have a multi-user 
system with additional computers or terminals 
plugged into the serial ports. An OWL hard drive 
and 512K upgrade are stronelv recommended for 
multi-user systems. 

Intro Price. 

BOARD 2. ..$145. 



(up to 19,200 BAUD) 



$169. 



Plug* 
into 
MULTI PACK 









CENTRONICS 
PARALLEL 
PORT 



P.O. Box 116-A 
Mertztown, PA 19539 
ORDER LINES (only) — 
(800) 245-6228 
(215) 682-6855 (PA) 



nans 




Pro ven 

On the Razor's 




Basic and OS-9 Hard 
Drive Systems 

Proven Performance for Demanding Home or 

Business Users 



Every hard drive which has been 
produced by OWL-WARE during the 
last 3 years is complete. A system con- 
sists of software, hard drive, controller, 
heavy-duty power supply, and LR Tech 
Interface. There are no hidden costs for 
assembly or testing. When a drive sys- 
tem is ordered, we fully assemble, test, 
and burn-in the system for 3 full days. 
This ensures dependability and op- 
timum performance. 

We have now been supplying CoCo 
hard drive systems and parts for more 
than 3 years. This is the longest history 
in the CoCo market of any system. 
Some other advertisers are stating that 
they have one of the most reliable sys- 
tems for the CoCo with all of 4 months 
history in the CoCo hard drive marketl 
We have reached our position in the 
hard drive market by providing our cus- 
tomers with a quality product that they 
(and we) can be proud to own and use. 



Because of many requests for a lower 
price system in kit form, we are now 
selling a kit of all parts at a significant 
discount compared to our regular 
prices. We recommend this kit (or any 
kits offered by any other supplier) only 
to those who have experience in 
electronic assembly and OS-9. 



For OS-9 
Levels 1 
and % 







llllill 



1^1 j||e$ : tttn3 . Orive, GdntroH«i> LB Tech Interlace, 












l^ll^lili^lllis above but using Burke & Burke bus idapt«r| 








'.Vi".V«W.Vl*.W. 



OWL Hard Drive BASIC 3 

There have been several ads in this 
magazine about BASIC for Color 
Computer hard drive systems. These 
ads sometimes only tell a part of the 
story. Our BASIC system price in- 
cludes assembly, testing, and 3-day 
burn-in period. We do not require a 
Multi-pak to operate. 

Our hard drive systems are fast, reli- 
able, and reasonable in price. This has 
been proven by hundreds of users over 
the past 3 years. We do not have to turn 
off error checking for speed. We 
achieve high speed BASIC from a uni- 
que indexing method. 

The table below will summarize some 
of the key points about our BASIC hard 
drive system and two other systems. We 
believe that we have the best BASIC in- 
terface for CoCo hard drives available. 

BASIC Hard Drive Systems* 

Feature OWL B&B RGB 



Drive Portion Entire Entire(?) Entire 
Available 



User Sets YES 

BASIC/OS-9 

Partitions 



Yes 



No 



Add to Exist- YES 
ing OS-9 
Drive Without 
Reformat 



Yes(?) No 



Drives 0-3 YES 
Hard/Floppy 



No 



Yes 



Built in Park YES 



No 



Speed 



FAST Fast 



Fast 



*All feature details are believed to be 
true at time of writing and are subject 
to change. We believe that our BASIC 
hard drives are the fastest due to our in- 
dexing method, but all three systems 
are fast. On ours all BASIC commands 
work including DSKINI, DSKI$, and 
DSKO$. 



Prices: Wigi^gthout Hard 

$35./$79. 



mm. 



' 1 1 1 



Technolog y 



the Color Computer Frontier 




Bonus! 
Special 
Bundled 
Software 
with any 
Disk Drive 
Purchase! 






Floppy Drive Systems 

The Highest Quality for Service Now and for Years to 

Come 

Use our WHISPER DRIVE for the finest, quietist drive 
Drive 0 Systems (Half Height, Double Sided, Direct 

Drives) $219. 

Drive 0 systems complete with drive, controller, legal DOS, 

cable, case, power supply, and manual 

Drive 1 Systems (Half Height, Double Sided, Direct 

Drives) $129. 

New 3.5", 720K Drives for OS-9 with case & 

Power Supply $179. 

Drive 1 Systems have drive, case, power supply. (You may 
require optional cable and/or DOS chip to use) 

Special for 0/1 Combos (Drives 0,1 ,2,3) $315. 



iiililljiiliiiiil 






501 or 502 



All drives are new and fully assembled. 
We ship only FULLY TESTED and 
CERTIFIED at these low prices. We 
use Fuji, YE Data, and other fine 
brands. No drives are used or surplus 
unless otherwise stated to you when 
you order. We appear to be the one of 
the few advertisers in Rainbow who 
can truly make this claim. We have 5 
years experience in the CoCo disk 
drive market! We are able to provide 
support when you have a problem. 



Drives 1 Year Warranty 





iiiiiiiM 



1 OWL WARE Software Bundle 

Disk Tutorial/Utilities/Games 
DISK TUTOR Ver 1.1 

Learn how to use your disk drive from 
this multi-lesson, machine language 
program. This tutor takes you through 
your lessons and corrects your mistakes 
for a quick, painless disk drive introduc- 
tion. (This professionally written tutor 
is easily worth the bundle's total price.) 

OWL DOS 

An operating system that gives faster 
disk access and allows the use of 
double-sided drives. Corrects a floating 
point number error on early CoCo sys- 
tems. 

COPY-IT 

Quickly copies selected programs be- 
tween disks. A wild card option selects 
groups of programs to copy. 

VERIFY 

Verifies reading of each sector. Bad 
sectors are listed on the screen. 

2 GAMES 

We will select 2 games from our stock. 
These sold for more than $20 each. 

If sold separately this is more than $125 
worth of software!! 

Do not mistake this software with 
cheap, non-professional "Public 
Domain" software which is being of- 
fered by others. All of this software is 
copyrighted and professional in quality. 
The tutor is unique with us and has 
helped thousands of new users learn 
their disk drive. 

only $27.95 
(or even better) 
only $6.95 with 

Our prices, include discount tor cash 
But cro not include snipping. 

OWL-WARE has a liberal warranty policy. During the warran- 
ty period, ail defective items will be repaired or replaced at our 
aption at no cost to the buyer except for shipping costs. Call 
our tech number for return. Return of non-defective or un- 
authorized returns are subject to a service charge. 



iiiwliliiillill 



,10 

50 DATA 39,5,48,136,32,32,238,57 
60 DATA 79,95,167,132,167,1,92,1 
93 

70 DATA 10,39,5,48,136,32,32,242 
80 DATA 57,189,36,44,57,0,38,4 
90 DATA 134,1,32,26,129,1,38,4 
100 DATA 134,2,32,18,129,2,38,4 
110 DATA 134,4,32,10,129,3,38,4 
120 DATA 134,6,32,2,134,8,187,16 
130 DATA 190,31,6,189,27,235,16, 
190 

140 DATA 31,8,189,27,235,16,190, 
31 

150 DATA 10,189,27,235,16,190,31 
,12 

160 DATA 189,27,235,16,190,31,14 
,189 

170 DATA 27,235,16,190,31,16,189 
,27 

180 DATA 235,57,16,140,0,0,39,24 
9 

190 DATA 140,0,0,39,244,31,32,18 
9 

200 DATA 28,29,189,28,41,189,28, 
29 

210 DATA 189,28,41,189,28,29,189 
,28 

220 DATA 41,189,28,29,189,28,41, 
189 

230 DATA 28,29,189,28,41,189,28, 
29 

240 DATA 189,28,41,57,16,191,39, 
214 

250 DATA 188,39,214,39,16,49,33, 
57 

260 DATA 16,191,39,214,188,39,21 
4,39 

270 DATA 4,49,168,31,57,253,39,2 
14 

280 DATA 190,39,214,189,27,112,1 
90,39 

290 DATA 214,189,27,137,189,27,1 
54,189 

300 DATA 22,68,142,0,0,57,182,30 
310 DATA 250,198,20,61,16,142,35 
,150 

320 DATA 49,171,95,166,160,167,1 
32,166 

330 DATA 160,167,1,92,193,10,39, 
5 

340 DATA 48,136,32,32,238,190,31 
,6 

350 DATA 16,142,31,6,134,42,189, 
28 

360 DATA 183,190,31,8,16,142,31, 
8 

370 DATA 134,84,189,28,183,190,3 
1,10 

380 DATA 16,142,31,10,134,126,18 
9,28 



390 DATA 
,12 

400 DATA 
31,14 
410 DATA 
9,28 

420 DATA 
,16 

430 DATA 
40,0 

440 DATA 
31 

450 DATA 
64 

460 DATA 
1,24 

470 DATA 
,40 

480 DATA 
,4 

490 DATA 
,31 

500 DATA 
510 DATA 
520 DATA 
530 DATA 
38 

540 DATA 
1 

550 DATA 
8 

560 DATA 
570 DATA 
580 DATA 
590 DATA 
600 DATA 
9 

610 DATA 
8 

620 DATA 
1 

630 DATA 
640 DATA 
98 

650 DATA 
134 

660 DATA 
8 

670 DATA 
1,6 

680 DATA 
690 DATA 
700 DATA 
31 

710 DATA 
1 

720 DATA 
4 

730 DATA 
39 

740 DATA 



183,190,31,12,16,142,31 

134,168,189,28,183,190, 

16,142,31,14,134,210,18 

183,190,31,16,16,142,31 

134,252,189,28,183,57,1 

0,38,250,124,31,24,177, 

24,34,19,190,31,4,175,1 

189,28,79,134,240,177,3 

38,227,127,31,24,57,128 

177,31,24,34,216,190,31 

189,27, 112 ,57,79,95, 161 

38,8,161,137,1,31,38,2 
198,1,57,79,95,161,2,38 
8,161,137,1,34,38,2,198 
1,57,79,95,161,136,192, 

7,161,136,193,38,2,198, 

57,79,95,161,137,1,96,3 

8,161,137,1,97,38,2,198 

1,57,190,31,4,79,188,31 

6,38,3,189,29,98,134,1 

188,31,8,38,3,189,29,98 

134,2,188,31,10,38,3,18 

29,98,134,3,188,31,12,3 

3,189,29,98,134,4,188,3 

14,38,3,189,29,98,134,5 
188,31,16,38,14,189,29, 

57,16,142,31,44,49,166, 

5,167,164,57,190,31,4,4 
137,254,128,79,16,190,3 

188,31,6,39,56,134,1,16 
190,31,8,188,31,8,39,45 
134,2,16,190,31,10,188, 

10,39,34,134,3,16,190,3 

12,188,31,12,39,23,134, 

16,190,31,14,188,31,14, 

12,134,5,16,190,31,16,1 



72 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



88 

750 DATA 31,16,39,1,57,142,31,44 
760 DATA 48, 134, 16, 188, 3J3, 251, 34 
,6 

770 DATA 198,2,231,132,32,4,198, 

f> 

780 DATA 231,132,182,39,116,129, 
180,38 

790 DATA 1,57,166,132,139,1,167, 
132 

800 DATA 57,190,39,214,189,28,22 
9,193 

810 DATA 0,39,14,189,27,137,190, 
39 

820 DATA 214,48,31,191,39,214,18 
9,28 

830 DATA 79,57,190,39,214,189,28 
,244 

840 DATA 193,0,39,14,189,27,137, 
190 

850 DATA 39,214.-,48,1,191,39,214, 
189 

860 DATA 28,79,57,190,39,214,189 
,29 

870 DATA 18,193,0,39,15,189,27,1 
37 

880 DATA 190,39,214,48,136,64,19 
1,39 

890 DATA 214,189,28,79,57,190,39 
,214 

900 DATA 189,29,3,193,0,39,15,18 

9 

910 DATA 27,137,190,39,214,48,13 
6,192 

920 DATA 191,39,214,189,28,79,57 
,140 

930 DATA 43,224,37,54,191,39,214 
,129 

940 DATA 0,38,7,189,29,243,189,3 
0 

950 DATA 38,57,129,1,38,7,189,29 
960 DATA 218,189,30,38,57,129,2, 
38 

970 DATA 7,189,29,243,189,30,12, 
57 

980 DATA 129,3,38,7,189,29,218,1 
89 

990 DATA 30,12,57,129,5,38,3,189 
1000 DATA 30,38,57,190,31,6,182, 
31 

1010 DATA 44,189,30,64,190,39,21 
4,191 

1020 DATA 31,6,190,31,8,182,31,4 
5 

1030 DATA 189,30,64,190,39,214,1 
91,31 

1040 DATA 8,190,31,10,182,31,46, 
18 9 

1050 DATA 30,64,190,39,214,191,3 
1,10 

1060 DATA 190,31,12,182,31,47,18 



9,30 

1070 DATA 64,190,39,214,191,31,1 
2,190 

1080 DATA 31,14,182,31,48,189,30 
,64 

1090 DATA 190,39,214,191,31,14,1 
90,31 

1100 DATA 16,182,31,49,189,30,64 
,190 

1110 DATA 39,214,191,31,16,57,0, 
0 

1120 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
1130 DATA 255,255,0,0,2,0,0,0 
1140 DATA 0,0,3,0,3,48,175,2 
1150 DATA 40,1,40,28,57,129,57,4 
4 

1160 DATA 37,0,59,58,59,156,49,1 
42 

1170 DATA 0,53,223,56,117,47,122 
,47 

1180 DATA 51,46,245,51,108,53,25 
1,52 

1190 DATA 177,0,255,255,255,255, 
255,240 

1200 DATA 0,13,53,17,67,34,255,2 
55 

1210 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,25 
5,255,255 

1220 DATA 255,255,255,2,1,1,2,0 
1230 DATA 2,255,255,255,255,1,0, 
255 

1240 DATA 255,255,255,255,5,1,25 
5,84 

1250 DATA 68,68,68,68,68,84,16,8 
0 

1260 DATA 16,16,16,16,84,84,68,4 
1270 DATA 84,64,68,84,84,68,4,84 
1280 DATA 4,68,84,68,68,68,84,4 
1290 DATA 4,4,84,68,64,84,4,68 
1300 DATA 84,84,68,64,84,68,68,8 
4 

1310 DATA 84,68,4,4,4,4,4,84 
1320 DATA 68,68,84,68,68,84,84,6 
8 

1330 DATA 68,84,4,68,84,153,102, 
153 

1340 DATA 102,153,102,153,136,13 
6,136, 168 

1350 DATA 136,136,136,168,32,32, 
32,32 

1360 DATA 32,168,168,128,128,138 
,136,136 

1370 DATA 168,136,136,136,168,13 
6,136,136 

1380 DATA 0,32,32,0,32,32,0,168 
1390 DATA 136,128,168,8,136,168, 
168,32 

1400 DATA 32,32,32,32,32,168,136 
,128 

1410 DATA 128,128,13 6,168,16,68, 
68,84 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 73 



1420 DATA 68,68,68,136,168,136,1 
36,136 

1430 DATA 136,136,84,68,64,80,64 
,68 

1440 DATA 84,32,136,136,136,136, 
136,32 

1450 DATA 68,68,68,68,68,16,16,1 
68 

1460 DATA 136,128,168,128,136,16 
8,80,68 

1470 DATA 68,80,68,68,68,130,130 
,136 

1480 DATA 160,136 
8,168 

1490 DATA 128,130 
2,138,4 

1499 REM PART ONE 



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130,130,0,0,12 
170,130,162,16 



S MAZE DATA 




242 1330 45 

246 1470 144 

207 1620 234 

171 1760 133 

105 END 45 

148 



Listing 4: FOUR 

10 REM %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
%%% LAST PART TUT %%% 
%%% RUN THEN LOAD &RUN%%% 
%%% COPY PROGRAM %%% 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
15 FOR X=24922 TO 26405 :READ DT: 
POKE X , DT : NEXT X 
20 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
30 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
40 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
50 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
60 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
70 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
80 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
90 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0, 62, 0 
100 DATA 0,250,58,0,0,171,42,0 
110 DATA 0,163,58,0,0,135,54,0 
120 DATA 0,147,50,0,0,167,58,0 
130 DATA 0,171,58,0,0,170,62,0 
140 DATA 0,171,0,0,0,160,254,170 
150 DATA 170,250,70,170,170,164, 
19,168 

160 DATA 170,177,71,33,42,180,19 
,52 

170 DATA 74,49,71,49,18,52,19,52 
180 DATA 71,49,71,33,19,52,255,4 
2 

190 DATA 255,63,0,0,0,0,85,85 
200 DATA 87,234,253,87,212,70,25 
5,87 

210 DATA 245,18,255,223,244,70,2 
55,255 

220 DATA 245,19,0,0,52,71,0,0 
230 DATA 53,19,0,0,52,71,0,0 
240 DATA 55,255,0,0,52,0,0,0 
250 DATA 55,63,0,0,55,52,0,0 
260 DATA 55,49,0,0,55,52,0,0 
270 DATA 55,49,0,0,247,52,247,25 
5 

280 DATA 215,49,213,255,215,52,8 
5,127 

290 DATA 87,63,85,85,84,0,43,21 
300 DATA 85,85,33,21,253,87,55,2 
3 

310 DATA 255,87,51,23,255,223,52 
,23 

320 DATA 255,255,17,20,0,0,52,20 
330 DATA 0,0,49,20,0,0,63,20 
340 DATA 0,0,0,20,0,0,254,20 
350 DATA 0,0,70,20,0,0,18,20 
360 DATA 0,0,71,20,0,0,19,20 



74 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



37j3 DATA 0 , j3, 71, 23 , j3 ,0 , 18 , 23 
380 DATA 247,255,70,21,213,255,2 
34,21 

39J3 DATA 85 , 127 , j3 , 2 1, 85 , 85 , 43 , 25 
P 

4j30 DATA 62, 191, 33, 21J3, 52, 71,55, 
70 

410 DATA 49/19,51,18,52,71,52,69 
420 DATA 49,19,17,17,20,69,52,69 
430 DATA 33,17,49,18,36,70,63,17 

P 

440 DATA 43,250,0,0,0,0,254,42 
450 DATA 191,63,70,49,19,52,18,5 
2 

460 DATA 71,49,71,17,19,52,19,20 
470 DATA 207,49,71,17,55,52,18,3 
6 

480 DATA 118,49,70,33,210,36,234 
,47 

490 DATA 254,42>0,0,0,0,2,128 
500 DATA 10,160,170,170,255,240, 
63,48 

510 DATA 63,252,31,255,23,240,87 
,224 

520 DATA 85,84,21,85,85,85,170,1 
70 

530 DATA 40,40,40,40,40,40,42*42 
540 DATA 44,37,53,224,56,96,48,2 
24 

550 DATA 58,224,53,223,58,223,48 
,223 

560 DATA 58,223,46,95,49,142,47, 
8 

570 DATA 47,2,47,14,52,2,59,156 
580 DATA 47,28,54,148,54,130,52, 
20 

590 DATA 56,117,51,113,48,237,61 
,101 

600 DATA 61,113,255,255,255,255, 
255,255 

610 DATA 0,0,63,252,31,244,19,19 
6 

620 DATA 6,144,8,32,32,8,32,8 
630 DATA 8,32,6/144,0,0,21,4 
640 DATA 5,17,1,65,10,161,42,168 
650 DATA 170,170,42,168,10,160,1 
,64 

660 DATA 0,0,2,128,255,255,61,12 
4 

670 DATA 61,124,182,158,189,126, 
63 ,252 

680 DATA 63,252,255,255,4,16,1,6 
4 

690 DATA 3,192,1,64,5,144,86,165 
700 DATA 85,84,21,80,5,64,1,64 
710 DATA 42,168,170,170,157,222, 
42,168 

720 DATA 10,160,255,255,36,24,36 
,24 

730 DATA 36,24,255,255,160,10,16 
8,42 



740 DATA 
750 DATA 
760 DATA 
770 DATA 
780 DATA 
790 DATA 
93 

800 DATA 
810 DATA 
820 DATA 
87,20 
830 DATA 
840 DATA 
,194 

850 DATA 
860 DATA 
870 DATA 
126,224 
880 DATA 
890 DATA 
900 DATA 
910 DATA 
,255,255 
920 DATA 
0,38 

930 DATA 
940 DATA 
950 DATA 
960 DATA 



41,104,43,232,9,96,9,96 

0,64,0,16,4,64,1,0 

5,80,31,244,7,253,1,244 

0,80,1,66,5,3,1,65 

1,69,0,85,4,16,17,132 

67,193,7,208,17,68,67,1 

7,208,17,68,66,33,0,0 
0, 20,0, 85, 0,li7, 0,85 
21,85,172,213,170,165,1 

21,80,5,64,168,21,8,17 
40,80,32,64,131,234,171 



HORSE SENSE 



^^^0^ HORSE SENSE is a new ap- 
^^9^tL proach to Thoroughbred handi- 

capping. After purchasing many 
^ handicapping programs and get- 

ting few results, we figured there must be a better 
way. We believe we have found it! Makes sorting 
through the horses easy. We believe it is the best 
product on the market. If you tried the rest, now 
try the best! Watch for the RAINBOW REVIEW. 

Disk or Cassette only $24.95 
CoCo 1, 2 and 3 



Add $2.00 for C.O.D. 
Please Specify TAPE OR DISK 
(OH Orders Add 5.5% Sales Tax) 
To order by mail send $24.95 Check/ 
M.O./Visaor M.C.# to: 



Western Hills Software 

6133 GLENWAY AVENUE 
CINCINNATI, OH 45211 

Phone Orders «wi 
(513)662-3999 Wtm 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 





July 1988 THE RAINBOW 75 



970 DATA 30, 223, 183, 3)3,223,189, 2 
2,238 

980 DATA 57,189,28,244,193,0,38, 
28 

990 DATA 189,29,3,193,0,38,21,18 
1000 DATA 18,18,18,18,18,18,188, 

30 

1010 DATA 251,34,5,134,3,167,164 
,57 

1020 DATA 134,1,167,164,57,189,2 
8,229 

1030 DATA 193,0,38,28,189,29,3,1 
93 

1040 DATA 0,38,21,18,18,18,18,18 
1050 DATA 18,18,188,30,251,34,5, 
134 

1060 DATA 2,167,164,57,134,0,167 
,164 

1070 DATA 57,189,28,244,193,0,38 
,28 

1080 DATA 189,29,18,193,0,38,21, 
18 

1090 DATA 18,18,18,18,18,18,188, 
30 

1100 DATA 251,34,5,134,1,167,164 
,57 

1310 DATA 134,3,167,164,57,189,2 
8,229 

1120 DATA 193,0,38,28,189,29,18, 
193 

1130 DATA 0,38,21,18;18,18,18,18 
1140 DATA 18,18,188,30,251,34,5, 
134 

1150 DATA 2,167,164,57,134,0,167 
,164 

1160 DATA 57,190,31,6,16,142,31, 
44 

1170 DATA 189,37,37,190,31,8,16, 
142 

1180 DATA 31,45,189,37,37,190,31 
,10 

1190 DATA 16,142,31,46,189,37,37 
,190 

1200 DATA 31,12,16,142,31,47,189 
,37 

1210 DATA 37,190,31,14,16,142,31 
,48 

1220 DATA 189,37,37,190,31,16,18 
9,21 

1230 DATA 74,18,57,140,43,224,37 
,33 

1240 DATA 166,164,129,0,38,4,189 
,36 

1250 DATA 91,57,129,1,38,4,189,3 
6 

1260 DATA 127,57,129,2,38,4,189, 
36 

1270 DATA 163,57,129,3,38,3,189, 
36 

1280 DATA 199,57,182,31,54,129,0 
,39 



1290 DATA 45,190,30,255,48,136,1 
58,188 

1300 DATA 30,251,39,8,48,4,188,3 
0 

1310 DATA 251,39,1,57,190,30,255 
,189 

1320 DATA 27,137,127,31,54,182,3 
0,250 

1330 DATA 139,1,187,30,221,183,3 
0,221 

1340 DATA 189,22,238,189,21,224, 
57,182 

1350 DATA 30,250,198,2,61,142,42 
,34 

1360 DATA 48,139,16,142,36,14,95 
,166 

1370 DATA 160,167,132,166,160,16 
7 i 92 

1380 DATA 193,10,39,5,48,136,32, 
32 

1390 DATA 238,57,182,31,55,129,0 
,39 

1400 DATA 34,190,30,253,48,136,1 
58,188 

1410 DATA 30,251,39,8,48,4,188,3 
0 

1420 DATA 251,39,1,57,190,30,253 
,189 

1430 DATA 27,137,127,31,55,189,3 
7,129 

1440 DATA 189,21,174,57,182,31,5 
5,129 

1450 DATA 0,38,56,190,31,2,48,13 
6 

1460 DATA 95,188,30,251,38,45,18 
2,30 

1470 DATA 250,76,129,5,39,29,183 
,30 

1480 DATA 250,189,24,112,189,25, 
3,189. 

1490 DATA 27,14,189,27,90,134,24 
0,183 

1500 DATA 31,24,134,1,183,31,54, 
183 

1510 DATA 31,55,57,126,17,148,12 
7,30 

1520 DATA 250,32,222,57,190,30,2 
51,95 

1530 DATA 172,164,39,16,48,1,172 
,164 

1540 DATA 39,10,92,193,17,39,42, 
48 

1550 DATA 136,31,32,236,190,30,2 
51,189 

1560 DATA 27,112,189,21,24,189,2 
0,80 

1570 DATA 189,25,228,190,30,248, 
191,30 

1580 DATA 251,189,38,181,189,27, 
90,182 

1590 DATA 30,237,74,183,30,237,1 



76 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



89,24 
1600 DATA 
7,57 

1610 DATA 
16 

162)3 DATA 
142 

1630 DATA 
,31 

1640 DATA 
,14 

1650 DATA 
,189 

1660 DATA 
,5 

1670 DATA 
39 

1680 DATA 
22 

1690 DATA 
182 

1700 DATA 
1 

1710 DATA 
55 

1720 DATA 
23 

1730 DATA 



93,134,240,183,31,24,5 
16,142,31,6,189,38,14, 
142,31,8,189,38,14,16, 
31,10,189,38,14,16,142 
12,189,38,14, 16,142,31 
189,38,14,16,142,31,16 
38,14,57,182,31,44,129 
39,36,182,31,45,129,5, 
29,182,31,46,129,5,39, 
182,31,47,129,5,39,15, 
31,48,129,5,39,8,182,3 
49,129,5,39,1,57,134,2 
198,20,16,142,0,2,189, 
51,57,255,189,24,112,1 



82,31 
1740 DATA 
250 

1750 DATA 
, 139 

1760 DATA 
7,35 

1770 DATA 
142 

1780 DATA 
,189 

1790 DATA 
1 

1800 DATA 
4,16 

1810 DATA 
4,17 

1820 DATA 
134,18 
1830 DATA 
134,19 
1840 DATA 
134,20 
1850 DATA 
255,255 
1860 DATA 
7,208 
1870 DATA 



54,129,1,38,19,182,30, 
198,20,61,142,35,50,48 
95,16,190,30,255,189,2 
182, 31,55,129,1,38,11, 
3 6,14,16,190,30,253,95 
27,35,57,142,40,3,134, 
189 , 23 , 148 , 142 , 40 , 4 , 13 
189,23,148,142,40,5,13 
189,23,148,142,42,123, 
189,23,148,142,42,124, 
189,23,148,142,42,125, 
189,23,148,57,255,255, 
255,206,11,184,16,206, 
126,15,255,63 







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THAT YOU NEED OS-9 TO RUN A 

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If 




ndow Master 



if 



Point & Click Uindow System 

for the rest of us fff 

Fully Compatible with ff.S. Dos 
Enhanced Basic § it does not need 

Dr use QS-S 9 and you don 5 1 have to 
be a Rocket Scientist or a P.H.D. 
to use Windows, Pull Down Menus, 
Buttonsi Iconsi Edit fields or 
Mouse Functions in your Programs f 




□ 



leleie Key 
lisplay Keys 

Save Keys 
Load Keys 



BUTTON 
OPEN 255,7 



ONHENUi BAS 

CONFIG BAS 

CHECK BAS 

AUTOEXEC BAS 0 B 1 

CONFIG SYS 1 A 1 



DRIVE 1 

0 B 2 
0 B 2 
9 B 1 



DRIVE 3 



Ui ndov Master 
Finder VI . 9 

Mr it ten by Bill V&rgtona 
Copyright fc> 13S8 by Cer-Comp Ltd 



Screen Display Fonts 



Window Master supports up to 54 different character sizes on 
the screen with 5 different character styles. You can have Bold, 
Italic, Underlined, Super-Script, Sub-script or Plain character 
styles or any combination of them in any character size. You 
can also change the text color and background at any time to get 
really colorful displays. 

Fully Basic Compatible 

Window Master is fully compatible with Enhanced Color 
Disk basic with over 50 Commands & functions added to fully 
support the Point & Click Window System. Window Master 
does not take any memory away from Basic, so you still have all 
the Basic Program memory available. 

Hi-Resolution Displays 

Window Master uses the full potential of the Color 
Computer 3 display by using the 225 vertical resolution display 
modes instead of the 192 or 200 resolution modes like most 
other programs. It uses either the 320/16 color mode or the 
640/4 color display to give you the best display resolution 
possible, and can be switched to either mode at any time. 



Window Master Features 

Multiple Windows 

Window Master supports multiple window displays with up to 
a maximum of 31 windows on the screen. Overlapping windows 
are supported, and any window can be made active or brought to 
the top of the screen. Windows can be picked up and moved 
anywhere on the screen with the mouse. There arc 6 different 
Window styles to choose from and the window text, border and 
background color is selectable. 

Pull Down Menus 

Menus are completely programmable with up to 16 menus 
available. They can be added or deleted at any time in a 
program. Menu items can be enabled, disabled, checked or 
cleared easily under program control. Menu selection is 
automatically handled by Window Master & all you have to do 
is read a function variable to find out which menu was selected. 

Buttons, Icons & Edit Fields 

Each Window can have up to 128 buttons, Icons or Edit fields 
active, if you can fit that many. Buttons, Icons and Edit field 
selection is handled automatically by Window Master when the 
mouse is clicked on one. All you have to do is read a Dialog 
function to find out which Button, Icon, or Edit field was 
selected, its very simple. 

Mouse & Keyboard Functions 

Window Master automatically handles the Mouse pointer 
movement, display and button clicks. It will tell you the current 
screen coordinate, the local window coordinate, window number 
the mouse is in, the number of times the button was pressed, 
which window number it was clicked in and more. The 
Keyboard is completely buffered, and supports up to 80 
programmable Function keys that can contain any kind of 
information or command sequences you can imagine. You can 
load and save function key sets at any time. So, you can have 
special sets of function keys for different tasks. The "Ctrl" key is 
supported so that you have a full control code keyboard 
available. 



I 



CLEAR SCREEN 

DOTS 

BOX 

CIRCLE 

LINE 

QUIT 

LOAD 



SAVE 



16, 1 ,90, 1,0,3,2,0 



fcPHICS DEHO — 

IONS", "CLEAR SCR 
" , "CIRCLE" , "LINE 
OAD" , "SAVE" 



38 WINDOW OPEN 1,44,16,1,00,1,0, 
3,2,0, "WINDOW GRAPHICS DEMO" 
48 MW=1 : ' MY WI NDOW * = 1 
58 ON MENU GOSUB 540 
79 MENU ON 
89 PROTECT 3 

30 ON DIALOG GOSUB 630: DI ALOG 0 
N 



BREAK 

OK 

RUN 



UIHDOU GRAPHICS DEMO 



FOREGROUND 
COLOR 




ENTER FILE TO SAVE 



CAVE FILE 



GFXTEST.PIC:£ 



Mixed Text & Graphics 



Window Master fully supports both Text & Graphics displays 
and even has a Graphics Pen that can be used with HLINE, 
H CIRCLE, HSET and more. You can change the Pen width & 
depth and turn it on or off with simple commands. We also 
added Enhanced Graphics Attributes that allow graphics 
statements to use And, Or, Xor and Copy modes to display 
graphic information. With the Graphics enhancements added 
by Window Master, you could write a "COCOMAX" type 
program in Basic! In fact we provide a small graphics demo 
program written in Basic. 



Event Processing 



Window Master adds a powerful new programming feature to 
Basic that enables you to do "Real Time" Programming in Basic. 
It's called Event Trapping, and it allows a program to detect and 
respond to certain "events" as they occur. You can trap Dialog 
activity, Time passage, Menu Selections, Keyboard activity and 
Mouse Activity with simple On Gosub statements, and when the 
specified event occurs, program control is automatically routed 
to the event handling routine, just like a Basic Gosub. After 
servicing the event, the sub-routine executes a Return statement 
and the program resumes execution at the statement where the 
event occured. 

Enhanced Editing Features 

Window Master adds an enhanced editor to Basic that allows 
you to see what you edit. It allows you to insert & delete by 
character or word, move left or right a word or character at a 
time, move to begin or end of line, toggle automatic insert 
on/off or just type over to replace characters. The editor can 
also recall the last line entered or edited with a single key stroke. 
You can even change the line number in line to copy it to a new 
location in the program. 



Window Master Applications 

Window Master pushs the Color Computer 3 far beyond its 
normal capabilities, into the world of a "User Friendly" 
operating enviornment. We are already planning several new 
programs for use with Window Master. So you don't have to 
worry about having to write all your own programs. And don't 
forget that many existing Basic and M.L. programs will run 
under Window Master with little or no changes. The 
Possibilities for Application programs are endless: Spread 
Sheets, Word Processing, Communications, Education, Games, 
Graphic Design, Desk Top Publishing and on and on. 

Hardware Requirements 

Window Master requires 512K of memory, at least 1 Disk 
Drive, a Hi-Res Joystick Interface and a Mouse or Joystick. 

Technical Assistance 

If you run into difficulty trying to use some of Window 
Master's features, we will be happy to assist you in any way 
possible. You can write to us at the address below or call us 
between 10am and 2pm Pacific Standard Time for a more timely 
response. Sorry, no collect calls will be accepted. 

Ordering Information 

To order WINDOW MASTER by mail, send check or money 

order for $69.95, plus $3.00 for shipping & handling to the 
address below. To order by VISA, MASTERCARD or COD 

call us at (702)-452-0632 
(Monday thru Saturday, 8am to 5pm PST) 

CER-COMP Ltd. 

5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 
(702)-452-Q632 



FILES 





CALENDER V 2 

May 1988 



MQN 



TUE 



1 0 



WED 



1 1 



THU 



1 £ 



FRI 



1 3 



SAT 



1 4 



1 5 



1 & 



% 7* 



i e 



1 -3 



S 0 



£ 1 



£ 4 



3 0 



3 1 



Call for availability of 128K version! 



the rainbow is a teaching environment and we realize that the 
majority of our readers will always be beginners. In our 
continuing effort to always keep the new u ser in mind, and in 
addition to the many beginner feature articles and programs 
published in every issue, "Novices Niche" contains shorter 
basic program listings that entertain as well as help the new 
user gain expertise in all aspects of the Color Computer: 
graphics, music, games, utilities, education, programming, etc. 



Cryptologist's Sidekick 

By Donald Kyllo 




When 1 started working on the encrypted message in the 
Cryptogram Contest, I took out a piece of paper and began 
using substitution. Then it occurred to me that I could write 
a program that would do this automatically — thus Crypt Aid 
was born. Just run the program and type in the coded 
message. 

Crypt Aid creates a series of blanks, which will be filled in 
as you try different letter combinations. It asks you to enter 
an encoded letter and then the letter you think the encoded 
letter is substituting for. For example, if the encoded message 
is MPTYJ NU MPTYJERDY, the program creates this: 

— Then it asks you to "give code letter." You 

might start with the first code letter, M. The program would 
then ask you to give it a substitute letter — try N. The letter 
N would then show up in every occurrence of the letter M: 
N N . 

If you change your mind about that substitution, you can 
try another letter for M. (N is the correct substitution for M, 
by the way. This three-word cryptogram is a movie title.) 
Continue substituting letters until you decode the message. 
You'll find that solving a cryptogram on computer is a lot 
easier than solving one on paper. 

The listing: CRYPTAID 
IP CLEAR1J3J30 

2p C$^" ! I, +CHR$(34)+' I #$%& , ()*+,- 
./0123456789: ;<=*>?@"+STRING$ (26 , 

3P PRINT "TYPE IN CODED MESSAGE" 

40 LINEINPUTBS 

5p CLS:PRINTB$ 

ep FORI=lTOLEN(B$) 

7j8 PRINTMID$(C$,ASC(MID$(B$,I,1) 

)-3i,i) ; 

BP NEXT 
9J3 PRINT 

ipp INPUT"GIVE CODE LETTER" ?C1$ 
11J3 INPUT"GIVE REPLACEMENT LETTE 

R" ; C2 $ 

120 MID$(C$,ASC(C1$)-31,1)=C2$ 
13J3 GOT05J2J 




Novices Niche Addendum 



Cryptogram Contest Results 



The solution to the cryptogram contest that appeared 
in the April '88 issue is as follows: 



Follow THE RAINBOW to a GoCo "pot of gold." THE 
rainbow is the only magazine just for your Tandy CoCo 
1, 2 and 3 and will meet your computing needs for business 
and pleasure. Be sure to tune in next month for our printer 



issue. 



The notice read, "In case of a tie, we will hold 
drawing," What an understatement! We had a 585-way tie. 
Any Trekkie will know what we mean when we say we had 
"Tribble" trouble. The responses never stopped multiply- 
ing! 

Lonnie Falk did the honors of wading into the sea of 
entries and netting the winner and that winner is 
Richard Osborne of Nickels ville, Virginia. Congratula- 
tions, Richard, on winning The Third Rainbow Book of 
Adventures and its companion disk! The rest of you 
entrants take heart — more contests (more difficult oiie^ 
too) are coming your way We wish we could give every 
successful cryptologist a copy of the Adventures book, but 
we can't, so we Ye offering the consolation of seeing your 
name in print (as promised in the May issue, before we 
knew we'd get 585 entries — but, hey, we keep our 



promises!): 



Betty Abrecht, Elloree, SC; Jon Adamowicz, Paramus, NJ; Bill Adams, Pasadena, TX; Robert 
Adams, West Lawn, PA; Ellen Aftamonow, Milford, CT; Roselyn Agosto, Los Angeles, CA; 
M. Allaston, Tracy, Quebec; Leon Albin, Glen Echo, MD; Warren Albright, Grand Rapids, Ml; 
Frank Allen, Arkadelphia, AR; Robbie Allen, Charlestown, NH; Tommy Allen, Jr., Anderson, 
SC; Jeffrey Allmond, Pocatello, ID; Kathleen Alston, Madera, CA; John Anderson, Baton 
Rouge, LA; Sandi Arhart, Mason City, IA; Dean Arnali, Uvalde, TX; Mike Arvan, Youngstown, 
OH; Bryan Ayriss, Baldwin, Ml; Sol Azar, N. Massapequa, NY; Tom Bair, Boring, OR; Eugene 
Baker, Greston, B.C.; Jeff Baker, Prudenville, Ml; Frank Baldwin, Jr., Drexel Hill, PA; Tom 
Baleno, Bolton, MA; Gilbert Barr, Austin, TX; John Bartlett, Penacook, NH; Donna Bartley, 
Cerritos, CA; Margaret Bartley, Clifton Park, NJ; William Batten, Pittsburg, KS; Keith Bauer, 
Menominee, MI; Robert Beasley, Ft. Lupton, CO; Clem Bedard, Victoria, BC; Gary Beeley,^ 
Tucker, GA; Darrel Behrmann. Napoleon, OH; Robert Benson, Niceville, FL; Chris Bergerson,|* 
Getzville, NY; Steven Berman, Encino, CA; Ray Berney, Okanogan, WA; Karl Beyer, 
iMarengo.IL; Conrad Biller, Louisville, KY; Paul Bisnett, Sackets Harbor, NY; Ivan Blackwell; 
|P.B. Blackwell, Decatur, IL; Edward Blend, Jr., Victorville, CA; Martin Boisen, Carpenlersville, 
[| IL; David Bonito, Mashpee, MA; Tony Boring, Armagh, PA; Gaetan Bosse, Montreal, Quebec; 
£ Eric Bower, Ossian, IN; Greg Boyko, Bonning, CA; Walter Bowman, Radcliff, KY; Mark Boyt, 
fj Warner Robins, GA; Pat Brands, Chatsworth, CA; Richard Bresnahan, Leominster, MA; Errol 
j^Brister, Philadelphia, PA; Alfred Brown, Racine, WI; Charles Brown, Columbus, NM; Philip 

1 Brown, San Rafael, CA; James Bruce, Ackerman, MS; Robert Bruhl, Oak Park, IL; Matia,, 
Bryson, Woodstock, G A; Jason Bucata, Ferndale, MI; Christopher Buchanan, Maroa, IL; Harry--! 
„ * 



80 THERAfWBOW July 1988 



Washington, D.C.; Ron and Nancy Burgin; William Bushby, 
Hershcy, PA; Kenneth Byram, Ft. Knox, KY; Christi Cadek, 
Ingleside, IL; Adam Caldwell, Middlefield, OH; Gloria 
Camarda, Mamaroneck, NY; Jerome Camarda, Maniaro- 
neck, NY; Don Campbell, Belton, SC; Lawrence Carboni, 
Floral Park, NY; Lou Cass, Sebring, FL; Randy Cassel, 
Middletown, PA; Glenn Chagnot, Tolland, CT; Wellie Chao, 
Tampa, FL; Lee Chapel, Springfield, IL; Brian Chase, North 
Ft. Lauderdale, FL; Robin M. Cheeseman, Middletown, DE; 
John Clemons, Bland, VA; Bill Cleveland, Hamlet, NC; C.C. 
Coffey, Gautier, MS; Paul Cole, Lynn, MA; Barbara Collins, 
Moorestown, NJ; David Compton, Suffield, CT; Aland 
Coons, Roseburg, OR; Norman Coots, Wabash, IN; Robert 
Corbett, Schuyler Falls, NY; Paul Cords, Cairo, NY; Lee 
Crandell, Duarte, CA; Dan Crosby, Eagle, ID; William 
Cross, Warren, OH; Worthy Cumberland, Philadelphia, PA; 
Arthur Cummings, Athol, MA; VailCummings, Beachwood, 
OH; Ted Curtis, E. Holden, ME; Chris Cuthill, Tork. Ont.; 
Anthony Czapracki, Glen Lyon, PA; H.A. Dailey, Columbus, 
OH; Charles Dale, Lancaster, PA; Lois Daly, Madison, FL; 
Thomas Daly, Waukegan, IL; Don Davidson, Barberton, 
OH; Norman Davics, Hendersonville, NC; Joe Davignon, N. 
Augusta, SC; Billy Davis, O'Fallon, IL; Tim Davis, Schaum- 
burg, IL; Darren Day, Whitesburg, KY; Adolph Degaetano, 
Ft. Lauderdale, FL; Andy DePue, Climax, MI; Lee Deueil, 
Shell Rock, IA; Joel De Young, Manson, Manitoba; Bruce 
Dinger, St. Paul, MN; Jill Dingess, Chapmanville, WV; Brent 
Dingle, Norwalk, 1A; Jim Dittom, Thermal, CA; Jack 
Dobiashi, Dallas, OR; Leslie Donaldson, Poplarville, MS; 
O.L. Douthitl, Mineola, TX; Louis Draucker, Jr., Seaford, 
DE; Richard Doxtater, Warner Robins, GA; Chris Dunham, 
Portsmouth, OH; William Dwyer, Salisbury, NB; Jeremy 
Echols, Tucson, AZ; Eugene Eck, Jr., South Williamsport, 
PA; John Eckertson III, APO NY; Kevin Efram, Ramsey, 
MN; Donald Eisenbarth, Corbin, KY; Peter Ellis, Evanston, 
IL; Tim Ellsworth, Bramalea, Ont.; Robert Emmett, St. 
Catharines, Ont.; Michael Emory, Campobello, SC; Roger 
Emory, Groton, CT; Vivian Ernsberger, New Bern, NC; Jo 
Ernst, APO NY; Jamie Estill, Augusta, KY; Tom Evans, 
McKees Rocks, PA; Dean Fadden, N. Vernon, IN; Steve 
Fahy, North Haven, CT; Steve Farwell, Giddings, TX; R. 
Fastershank, Manitoba; Gene Fillius, Gulfport, MS; Fred 
Findley, Orlando, FL; Steve Flock, Spokane, WA; Bill Flo 
ers, Westerville, OH; Peggy Flowers, Westerville, OH; Shane 
Foret, Lockport, LA; Herb Forger, Norwalk, CT; Jim 
Forster, Medina, OH; Joe Forster, Howard, OH; Lewis 
Fortwangler, Connellsville, PA; Stan Fox, Danielson, CT; Bill 
TJ. Fraley, Freeport, TX; Franken, San Bernardino, CA; 
Ernie French-Holt, Benton, KY; Ivan Freyman, Brooklyn, 
NY; Burton Fry, Floral City, FL; Rita Gabriel, Mansfield, 
OH; Chris Gallagher, Chino, CA; Gerald Galland, Sea, WA; 
Nelinda Garbacki, Spring Hill, FL; Harold Garien, Jr., Mt. 
Hotly, NJ; Richard Geib, Fremont, CA; Alvin Gellert. 
Chalfont, PA; Mike Gemsa, Kamloops, BC; A.F. Gibson, 
Vinlon, OH; Frank Gibson, Hampton. NB; Gary Giles, 
Virginia Beach, VA; Scottie Gilliam, Tracy, CA; Tim 
Gilliland, Hixson, TN; Greg Gingerich, Lyndhurst, VA; Joel 
Glaser, Spalding, NE; Robert Glass, Vinton, VA; Virgie Goen, 
Medora, IN; Calvin Goodwin, Thomaston, CT; George 
Grabel, New London, CT; Herbert Greenberg, N. Miami, FL; 
Bobby Greene, Jr., Lenoir, NC; Frederick Greene, Rogers 
City, MI; Kay Greenwood, Crystal Springs, MS; Alice 
Griffin, Cordele, GA; John Grubb, Gallipolis, OH; Leroy 
Guse, Greenleaf, Wl; John Groz, Peabody, MA; Truman 
Gustafson, Terryville, CT; Tom Guyette, Manchester, NH; 
Alex Hahn, Montclair, NJ; David Hall, Jacksonville, FL; 
Greg Hall, Columbus, NE; Jeffery Hall, Newport, ME; 
Stephen Hallin, Biloxi, MS; Larry Harris, Flemington, NJ; 
Robert Hart, Boynton, FL; Aaron Hartzler; Brent Heaton, 
Anderson, SC; Thomas Hensel, Glastonbury, CT; Dale 
Herbert, Camrose, AB; B.J. Helloms; Scott Henderson, 
Jacksonville, FL; Sam Herrin, Beebe, AR; Andrew Hildreth; 
Bryan Hill, Crawfordsville, IN; Daniel Hill, Seven Springs, 
NC; Edward Hill, Brentford, Ont.; Jim Hillwig, Hereford, 
TX; Ron Hinton, East Liverpool, OH; Myron Hobizet, 
Weimar, TX; Jon Hobson, Plainfield. Wl; Jacob Hoekstra, 
Drayton, Ont.; David Hollar, Kingfisher, OK; Scott Hop- 
man, Houston, TX; Gary Hough, Stephens City, VA; Beatrice 
Hout, Ashland, OH; Doug Hoyt, Stockton, CA; Jim Hrubik, 
Norton, OH; Dale Hubbard, Lynn, MA; Wayne Hufford, 
Kincardine, Ont.; Charles Hulen, Lawrenceburg, TN; Levi 
Hunt, Baltimore, MD; Malcolm Ingiis, Ottawa, Ont.; John 
Ivory, Scarborough, Ont.; Steven Jacobowitz, Bronx, NY; 
Louise James, Chattanooga, TN; James Jones, Fort Ann, NY; 
A.L. Johnson, Clearwater, FL; Don Johnson, Florissant, 
MO; Neil Johnson, Walnut Creek, CA; Roberta Johnson, 
Clover, SC; William Johnson, Petersburg, VA; Patrick Jolly, 
Carson City, NV; Kathy Jones, Pittspond, MI; David Joseph; 
Veda Jury, Greenville, SC; Joe Justman, Holbrook, AZ; 



Daniel Kaminsky, San Francisco, CA; Derrick Kardos, 
Colonia, NJ; Susan Karnesky, Richland, WA; Timothy 
Kaylor, Cape Canaveral, FL; Peter Kazmir, Plaquemine, LA; 
James Kelly, Woodbury, NJ; Daniel Kennedy, S. Burlington, 
VT; Robert Kepp, Littleton, CO; Johnie Kitgore, Lynchburg, 
VA; Bill Kimbler, Ironton, MN; Clark King, Tulsa, OK; 
Thomas Kokourek, Emerson, GA; Mark Koester, Logan 
Lake, BC; Wayne Kopke, Glendale Heights, IL; Rory 
Kostman, Hershey, NE; William Knight, Irma, SC; Roy 
Knull, Lion, IL; Terry Kreizl, Largo, FL; Clay Kunz, 
Colorado Springs, CO; Donald Kyllo, College Place, WA; 
Frank Lamondie, Groton, NY; Josh Langley, McLean, IL; 
Curt Lawson, Chattanooga, TN; Jeff Lawrence, Cambridge, 
Ont.; Thomas Lawrence, Middlesex, NJ; Andrew Leary, N. 
Stonington, CT; Denise LeBlanc, Grande-Digue, NB; Dave 
Ledson, North Bay, Ont.; Rick Lee, Bangor, ME; Dale 
Leistico and family, Lompoc, CA; Austin Leo, Skillman, NJ; 
Judy Leo, Skillman, NJ; Marius Lemire, Montreal-Nord, 
Quebec; Barbara Lethbridge, Cartwright, NFD; Bernie 
Lickteig, Milford, CT; Jeffrey Under, Lake Carmer, NY; 
Timothy Lindow, Cocoa, FL; Kimberly Lindquist, Eugene, 
OR; Ivan Liu, Woodstock, Ont.; Clyde Lloyd, Springfield, 
MO; Larry Ljoyd, Jamestown, CA; Gregory Long, Walnut 
Creek, CA; Randy Longshore, Chesterfield, MO; Carsten 
Losse, Jersey City, NJ; John H. Lowry, Jr.; Jeff Lucas; Mike 
Lynes, Eglin AFB, FL; David MacGarvia, Blairmore, AB; 
Wm. T.C. Maine, Blind River, Ont.; Brian Mangin; Robert 
Manning, Phoenix, AZ; William Manning, Tracy, Quebec; 
Maurice Marion, Delta, B.C.; Stephen Marlow, San Marcos, 
TX; Marco Marrero, Arroyo, PR;. Kevin Marsh; John 
Marshall, Willits, CA; Laura Marshall, Surrey, BC; Shuman 
Martin, Chester, IL; Herbert Masch, Melbourne, FL; Jason 
Matheny, Louisville, KY; Roger Maxwell, Kilgore, TX; 
Wilber Maxwell, Carlisle, PA; Tom McArthur, Lindenhurst, 
NY; Mike McCanney, Camden, NY; Shawn McCarthy, 
Burke, VA; Eric McCiaren, Linclon Park, Ml; Theresa 
McCollor, Altoona, PA; Roben McCoy III, Elkton, VA; 
James McDonald, Roselle Park, NJ; Colin McKay, Glouces- 
ter, Ont.; Robert McKean, Panama, NY; John McMasters, 
Jackson, MO; AJ. McNabb, Orange, TX; M.S. McPherson, 
Dallas, TX; Ronald McQueen, Decatur, IL; Pat McWhinney, 
Key Largo, FL; Billie McWilliams, Falling Water, WV; Walter 
Medak. Edmonton, AB; Jason Medd, Hr. Breton, NF; 
George Meissner, Islip, NY; Frederick Merrin, Gibsonia, PA; 
David Meyer, Wyoming, MI; Laura Michaels, Arlington, 
TX; Esther Millard, Camden, NC; Merle Miller, Albu- 
querque, NM; Richard Miller, Knox, IN; Louis Mills, 
Somerviile, NJ; Harvey Minner, Wilmington, DE; Bob 
Mischler, Glendale Heights, IL; Renita Mischler, Addison, 
IL; Matt Moaks; James Moccia, Boston, MA; Jason Monds, 
Cantonment, FL; Thomas Montgomery, Portsmouth, VA; 
D.E. Moore, Mustang, OK; R.W. Morris, Leura, Australia; 
David Morrison, Brewer, ME; Brenda Moseley, Sanford, 
ME; Dorcas Moseley, Winter Park, FL; Billy Moss, Hyde 
Park. MA; Thomas Mott, Poway, CA; Charles Muisener, 
Newington, CT; John Musumeci, Ozone Park, NY; Sue 
Myers, Elmhurst, IL; Paul Myles, Coraopolis, PA; Raymond 
Naquin, Marrero, LA; Joseph Narsh, Jr., St. Louis County, 
MS; Jon Nedelga, New Hartford, CT; Andre Needham, 
Renton, WA; C.W. Needham, Sherman, TX; Tina Neff, 
Willow Street, PA; Cliff Nelson, St. Charles, MO; Kent 
Nelson, CHfton, CO; John Neuhaus, Pueblo, CO; Chris- 
topher Newby, Lexington. IL; Louis Nickens, Brooklyn, NY; 
Terry Nicoulin, Naples, FL; Charles Nolan, Van Buren, AR; 
W.C. Nottingham, Englewood, FL; James Novak, Chicago, 
IL; Chris Nuwer, Lockport, NY; Scott Oaks, Old Town, ME; 
Sean Oberer, Huber Heights, OH; Eddie Offerman, Orlando, 
FL; Dale Olschowka, Hollister, CA; Hank Olsen, North- 
glenn, CO; Henry Oraschuk, Willowdale, Ont.; Pam Osmun, 
Osseo, Ml; Ken Ostrer, Vancouver, WA; Barbara Ower, 
Pasadena, CA; Neil Edward Parks, Beachwood, OH; Mike 
Partridge, Comstock Park, Ml; Brett Patrick, Shallotte, NC; 
Leslie Patrick, Junction City, KS; Jim Perkins, Curran, Ont.; 
Wesley Perkins, Austin, TX; Alan Peterson, Brooklyn Park, 
MN; Pamela Peterson, Adamstown Heights, Australia; Ora 
Pettit, Wilson. NY; Troy Phetps, Baraboo, Wl; Dale Phillips, 
Schroon Lake, NY; Dean Phillips, Jr., Richmond, VA; 
Matthew Piechota, Green Bay, Wl; Charles Ptez, Perrysburg, 
OH; Ralph Pike, Kalamazoo, Ml; Rodger Pille, Cincinnati, 
OH; Penny Pittenger, Long Beach, CA; Larry Pittman, 
Fenton, Ml; Dennis Poffenberger, Ames, IA; Suzanne 
Poirier, Lachine, Quebec; Ed Porter, Cherry Hill, NJ; Shawn 
Porter, Cargill, Ont.; James Posporelis, Troy, NY; Milt 
Poulos, Bound Brook, NJ; Eduardo Prado, Jr., Sao Paulo, 
Brazil; Kalhy Puckett, Eva, AL; Walter Pullen, Kent, WA; 
Don Quails. Seattle, WA; Rod Quibell, Pefferlaw, Ont.; Tony 
Rademaker, Burlington, Ont.; Doug Raggett, Galveston, TX; 
Anthony Rapson, Tulsa, OK; Jeanne Rayner, Ford, WA; Eli 
Rarey, Santa Rosa, CA; Gary Rees. Jackson, Ml; Steve 



Reeves, Phoenix, AZ; Richard Reid, Boucherville, Quebec: 
Mark Reiter, Cincinnati, OH; Tom Remakel, Dubuque. IA; 
Jeff Remick, Warren, Ml; Ian Renauld, Rasiniere, Quebec; 
Brandon Rhodes, Andober, MA; Thomas Riley, Johnson- 
ville, NY; Richard Robert. He Perrot, Quebec; Ronald 
Roberts, Brandon, Wl; Andrew Robinson, Pleasant Mount, 
PA; Larry Robinson, Bloomington, IN; Richard Robinson, 
Colorado Springs, CO; James Rogers, Potomac, MD; Ken 
Rogers, Leamington, Ont.; Linda Rodman, Anchorage, AK; 
Marjorie Rose, Johnson City, TN; David Ross, Aurora, IL; 
Stan Ross, Alma, AR; Raul Rossy, Bogueron, PR; Reina 
Roy, Carleton, Quebec; Sheila Royal, Shelby vtlte, IN; 
Cbinarut Ruangchotvit, Ramsey, NJ; Jean Rud, Bluemont, 
VA; Kathy Rumpel, Arcadia, Wl; BJ Russel, London, KY; 
James Ruth, Neward, NH; Jerry Ryan, Little Rock, AR; 
Nicole Sauriol, Laval, Quebec, H.J. Schimmelfennig, West 
Vancouver, BC; Rich Schmitz, Sioux City, I A; Fred Schubert, 
Cairo. IL; John Schulz, Merritt Island, FL; David Schwar- 
zen, Festus, MO; Joseph Scinta, Jr., Tonawanda, NY; Merrill 
Scott, Bethany, OK; Ron Scott; Robert Seabridge, Reno, N V; 
Ivan Sealey, Nassa u, Bahamas; Anthony Sears, Spartanburg, 
SC; Emory Secosky, Gbg., PA; Chris Serino. Columbia. MO; 
Richard Seyfried, Salem, NH; John Shannon, Albion, NJ; 
Tom Shaull, Littleton, CO; Mike Shay, Lebanon, PA; 
Margaret Shively, Westerville, OH; Bernice Shoobs, Clifton. 
NJ; H.P. Sinnett, Roseburg, OR; Mike Sipes, Escondido, 
CA; Tony Skraba, McKees Rocks, PA; Colin Smerk, 
Lakewood, OH; Albert Smith, Durham, NC; Colin Smith, 
Ada, OK; Heather Smith, Queensland, Australia; Kirby 
Smith, York, PA; Michael Smith, La Marque, TX; Roger 
Smith, Peabody, MA; Diane Snider, Westerville, OH; Queen 
Snider, Cambridge, OH; Allen Snook, Oxon Hill, MD; Don 
Soehngen, Florissant, MO; Allen Solid, Montevideo, MN; 
Jeff Stall, Naperville, IL; Willis Stanley, Bowie, MD; Terry 
Steen, Langley AFB, VA; Robert Steeves, Toronto, Ont.; 
Terry Steffen, Fostoria, OH; Bree Stegman, Orleans, Ont.; 
Vickie Stepp, Huber Heights, OH; Harry Stern, Miami, FL; 
Bruce Stevens, Rochester, NH; David Stewart, Kent, OH; 
Fred Stewart, Camdenton, MO; Brian Stiewing, West Haven, 
CT; Curt Stout, Sumner, VA; Ken Stranger, Coeur dWlene, 
ID; Werner Streidt, Bonn, West Germany; Scott Stuart, 
Walnut Creek, CA; Brenda Stump, Laureldale, PA; Aaron 
Sumner, Godfrey, IL; Ray Sumrall, West Monroe, CA; Lloyd 
Svedersky, Port Lavaca, TX; Bob Swaden; Johnni Swaim, 
Imperial, CA; Wally Swaim, Ottawa, Ont,; Russell Sweet, 
Blue Ridge, GA; John Tansy, New Market, AL; Adam Tate, 
Baton Rouge, LA; Jack Taylor, Palm Bay, FL; Phil Taylor, 
Corbin, K Y; Richard Taylor, Toms River, NJ; Stephen Terry, 
Chapel Hill, NC; Richard Testrake, Erie, PA; Eric Thompson, 
Cape Girardeau, MO; William Thompson, Woodbridge, VA; 
Robert Thorpe, Cedar Rapids, IA; Donald Tidd, Vallejo, CA; 
Rita Tidwell, Granbury, TX; Ben Tiller, Trois-Rivteres, 
Quebec; John Tindall, Plainsboro, NJ; Phillip Tkachuk, 
Edmonton, AB; Chris Trotter, Esconaba, MI; Michael 
Toepke, Oak Harbor, WA; Dorothy Topping, Okeechobee, 
FL; Bill Torrence, O'Fallon, MO; Donald Turowski, Natrona 
Heights, PA; Spencer Twyman, Mt, Clemens, MI; John 
Valentine, Marlborough, CT; Wally Vance, Meridian, MA; 
H.D. Vaughn, Virginia Beach, VA; W.E. Veenschoten, 
Birmingham, AL; Donald Villiard, Starkville, MS; Greg 
Vincent, Orillia, Ont.; Michael Vogt, Hayes, VA; Kyle von 
Talge, St. Louis, MO; J.R. Waggoner, Stuttgart, AR; Beth 
Walker, Flint, TX; Mathys Walma, Paisley, Ont.; John 
Wanless, Ridgeway, Ont.; James Ward, Canton, OH; Ann 
Warfel, Chesilhurst, NJ; Nancy Washer, Midwest City, OK; 
Daniel Weaver, Amsterdam, NY; Jeremiah Weeks, College- 
dale, TN; Bruce Wehner, Portsmouth, NH; Ken Weiland, 
North Plainfield, NJ; Max Weinstein, Flemington, NJ; Bruce 
Wells, Madison, Wl; Robert Wells, Meriden, CT; Terrence 
Werth, Victoria, KS; Paul Wheelock, Mingo, I A; K. White- 
sell, Waterloo, IA; Duane Whitlock, North East, MD; John 
and Reed Wiedower, Winchester, VA; Joseph Wiemers, 
Asheville, NC; Roger Wilkins, Sexsmith, AB; Barbara 
Williams, Swayzee, IN; Barry William, Tallahassee. FL; Brian 
Willwerth, Hingham, MA; Geoffrey Wilson, Iroquois, Ont.; 
Nedra Wilson, Rifle, CO; Chuck Wiltgen; Gerald Winans, 
Matamoras, PA; Darnell Windham. Flint, MI; Richard 
Winkelbauer, Bronx, NY; Matt Winright. Eaton Rapids, MI; 
Fred Wise, Clarion, PA; Scott Wisely, Benton, AK; Dave 
Wiswell, Victoria, BC; George Witruke, Olean, NY; Paul 
Wolf, Hanover, PA; Edward Wolfe, Ridgewood, KY; Thomas 
Wong, Red Deer, AB; P.W Wood, Laval, Quebec; Mark 
Woods, Batavia, IL; Colleen Woodward, North Cape May, 
NJ; Mark Wooldrage, Milwaukee, WL Don Wyzanowski, 
Mineral Springs, NC; Raymond Wynn, Leola, PA; Curtis 
Young, Ashland, OH; Harold Yost, Garden Grove, CA; Dan 
Yowell, Lincoln, NE; Daniel Zacharias, Lehighton, PA; 
Martha Zebley, Uniontown, PA; Deborah Zeitler, Bridge- 
port, ML 



Here Eagles Dare ™ 

By Steve Caldwell 

Display your patriotism with this short program, which 
draws an American eagle on the PMDDE 4 screen. From Steve 
Caldwell, Stonewell Ent., P.O. Box 9357, Canton, OH 44711. 

The listing: EAGLE 

10 PMODE4,l:SCREENl,l:PCLS(l) 
20 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,7,2,1, .95, .55: 
CIRCLE (128,96) ,3,2,1, .999, .5/3: CI 
RCLE(128,96) , 6 , 2 , 1, . 98 , . 53 : CIRCL 
E(128,88) ,16,2, . 5 , . 15 , . 40: PAINT ( 
128,97) ,2, 2: CIRCLE (114, 96) ,6,2, . 
5, .55, .80: CIRCLE (142, 93) ,4,2, .8, 
.50, .85 

30 CIRCLE (170, 112) ,38,2, .7, .75, . 
05: CIRCLE (196, 120) , 10 , 2 , 1, . 75, . 9 
99:CIRCLE(176,120) ,30,2, .4, .70, . 
87:LINE(169,109)-(132,113) ,PRESE 
T: CIRCLE (17 2, 108) , 30 , 2 , . 4 , .07 , . 3 

0 

40 CIRCLE (172, 94) ,8,2,1, .50, .83: 
CIRCLE (158, 94) , 8 , 2 , 1, . 99 , . 25 : CIR 
CLE(160,96) ,3,2:PAINT(160,96) ,2, 





2 

50 CIRCLE (146, 105) ,40,2, .7, .78, . 
87: CIRCLE (142, 78) ,10,2, .77, .70, . 
0: CIRCLE (136, 86) ,10,2, .77, .70, .0 
60 LINE(138, 72)-(120, 72) , PRESET: 
CIRCLE (120, 80) ,10,2, .9, .65, .75:C 
IRCLE(180,140) ,180,2, .4, .60, .70 
70 FORX=163T0136STEP-3:LINE(X,12 
0 ) - (X-3 , 123 ) , PRESET : NEXT : X=130 : F 
ORY=123TO170STEP3 : LINE (X, Y) - (X, Y 
+4) , PRESET :X=X-3: NEXT 
80 X=158:FORY=101TO111STEP1.1:LI 
NE(X,Y)-(X-l,Y+2) , PRESET :X=X-3:N 
EXT 

200 GOTO200 



ML Addresses 

By Bill Bernico 




This program scans a disk directory for ML files and lists 
only these files and their start, end and EXEC addresses. The 
program is self-explanatory and will work on a CoCo 2 or 
CoCo 3 in 32, 40 or 80 columns. 

The listing: SCRNLIST 

1 CLEAR1500:DIMZ(68) :H$-"#####": 
CLS : PRINT" INSERT DISK AND HIT AN 
Y KEY FOR START, END & EXEC ADD 
RESSES OF BINARY FILES" : EXEC445 
39 : CLS : PRINT"FILENAME/EXT START 

END EXEC" : PRINT :DSKI $0,17, 2, 
A$,B$ 

2 G$=LEFT$(A$,68) :F0RI=1T068:Z(I 
-1)=ASC(MID$(G$,I,1) ) :NEXTl:FORX 



=3T011 : DSKI$0 , 17 , X , AA$ , BB$ : AA$=A 
A$+LEFT$(BB$,120) : FORN=0TO7 : F$=M 
ID$(AA$,N*32+1,8) :E$=MID$ (AA$,N* 
32+9,3) :Z=ASC(MID$ (AA$,N*32+14 , 1 
) ) :Y=Z:C$=MID$(AA$,N*32+12,1) :D$ 
=MID$ (AA$ ,N*32+13 , 1) 

3 IFLEFT$(F$,1)=CHR$(0)THEN9 

4 IFLEFT$(F$,1)=CHR$(255)THEN10 

5 W=ASC(D$)AND 1:F0RI=1T068 

6 IFZ(Z)<128THENZ=Z(Z) :NEXTI 

7 GOTO 11 

8 IFASC(C$)=2THENPRINTF$;"/BIN 

" ; : PRINTUSINGH$ ;V; : PRINT" , " ; : PRI 
NTUSINGH$ ;U; : PRINT" , " ; : PRINTUSIN 
GH$,'T 

9 NEXTN , X 

10 PRINT: END 

11 LG=Z (Z) :S=LG AND 31:R=Z:Q=ASC 
(MID$(AA$,N*3 2+16,1) ) 

12 IFY<34THENP=INT(Y/2)ELSEP=INT 
(Y/2)+l 



82 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



13 M=1+(Y AND 1) *9:DSKI$J3,P,M,A$ 
,B$:V=ASC(MID$ (A$,4,l) ) *256+ASC( 
MID$(A$,5,1)) 

14 U=V+ASC(MID$(A$,2,1) ) *256+ASC 
(MID$(A$,3,1))-1 

15 IFR< 3 4THENP=INT (R/2) ELSEP=INT 



(R/2)+l 

16 M=(R AND 1) *9+S:DSKI$0,P,M,A$ 
,B$:A$=A$+LEFT$(B$,127) :T=ASC(MI 
D$ (A$,Q-1,1) ) *256+ASC(MID$(A$,Q, 
1) ) :G0T08 



CoCo 3 



CoCo 3 Green Screen Blues 

By Charles F. Phillips 



Picture this: After months of anticipation I finally bought 
a CoCo 3, connected it to my green screen monochrome 
monitor (I couldn't yet justify the price of a CM-8 to my wife), 
powered up and saw ... a screen full of garbage! To those 
of you who use a color monitor adapter with your CoCo 2, 
this would be no surprise. To those of us who use a 
monochrome adapter, this is a near-fatal shock! 

To make life with CoCo 3 and a monochrome monitor 
more bearable, 1 borrowed some hints and pokes from THE 
RAINBOW and wrote this menu-driven program. Mono3 kills 
the color burst and sets the PALETTEs to a white foreground 
with black background. 

The menu gives you seven options, allowing you to set your 
screen to black on green or green on black in 32, 40 or 80 
columns. Lines 40 through 110 provide the menu; lines 120 
through 190 are a keyboard input routine. Lines 230 through 
280 set the width, kill the color burst, set the PRLETTEs and 
go to the main menu so that you can try out all the options. 
Option 7, End Program, clears the menu from the screen and 
wipes the memory to prevent interference with the next 
program. Just break out of the program if you want to leave 
the settings in effect. 

If the 80-column, green on black option looks strange, try 
increasing the brightness a bit. If you have an amber monitor, 
simply edit lines 50 through 100, swapping the word amber 
for green. 

The listing: MDN03 

5 1 MONOCHROME COC03 

10 • BY CHARLES F. PHILLIPS 

15 1 11 GASTON PLACE 

20 1 HAVE LOCK, N.C. 28532 

25 1 



30 WIDTH32:POKE&HEj33 3,16:PALETTE 
12 , 63 : PALETTE 13 , 0 : CLS 
40 PRINT: PRINT" 
OF DISPLAY" 



SELECT A STYLE 



50 PRINT: PRINT" 1. 32 COLUMNS , GR 
EEN ON BLACK" 

60 PRINT" 2. 32 COLUMNS, BLACK ON 
GREEN" 

70 PRINT" 3. 40 COLUMNS, GREEN ON 
BLACK" 

80 PRINT" 4. 40 COLUMNS, BLACK ON 
GREEN" 

90 PRINT" 5. 80 COLUMNS, GREEN ON 
BLACK" 

100 PRINT" 6. 80 COLUMNS, BLACK O 
N GREEN" 

110 PRINT" 7. END PROGRAM" : PRINT 

120 INPUT C$ 

130 IF C$="l" THEN 230 

140 IF C$="2" THEN 240 

150 IF C$="3" THEN 250 

160 IF C$="4" THEN 260 

170 IF C$="5" THEN 270 

180 IF C$="6" THEN 280 

190 IF C$="7" THEN 290 ELSE 40 

230 GOTO 30 

240 WIDTH32:POKE&HE033,16:PALETT 
E12 ,0 : PALETTE 13 , 63 : CLS : GOTO 40 
250 WIDTH40:POKE&HE03C,19:PALETT 
E0 , 0 : PALETTE 8,63: CLS 1 : GOT04 0 
260 WIDTH40:POKE&HE03C,19:PALETT 
E0 , 63 : PALETTE 8 ,0 : CLS 5 : GOTO40 
270 WIDTH80:POKE&HE045 # 19:PALETT 
E0 , 0 : PALETTE 8 , 63 : CLS1 : GOTO40 
280 WIDTH80:POKE&HE045,19:PALETT 
E0 , 63 : PALETTE 8 , 0 : CLS 5 : GOTO40 
290 CLS: NEW 





Guess Who 

By Keiran Kenny 

Gather your guests around the CoCo and let them guess 
the names of well-known people, places or events from letters 
scattered randomly over the screen. You are the Quiz Master 
who can bring enlightenment from confusion by pressing the 
space bar to reveal the answer. 

The display time can be varied from 1 (fairly short) to 9 
(long). You can enter your own choice of categories and 



names in the DATA lines beginning with Line 220, but you 
will need many more than my few examples to make the game 
interesting. The first DATA item is the category (like 
"Presidents" in Line 220). Enter as many names and DflTR 
lines as you want for each category, but note that each DATA 
category must end with "", and also that the very last DATA 
entry must read END (as in Line 1000). 

The listing: GUESSWHO 

0 "GUESSWHO 1 BY KEIRAN KENNY, 

SYDNEY, 1987 
10 CLS:GOTO170 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 83 



20 READT$:IFT$="END"THEN150ELSEP 

RINT@240-LEN(T$) /2,T$ 

30 PRINT@458 , "PRESS <ENTER>" 

40 K$=INKEY$:IFK$OCHR$(13)THEN4 

0ELSECLS 

50 RE ADA $ : IFA$=" "THENCLS : GOTO20 

60 F0RT=1T0LEN(A$) 

70 IFINKEY$=CHR$(32)THEN130 

80 P=1151+RND(256) 

90 IFPEEK(P)<>9 6THEN80 

100 IFMID$(A$,T,1)=CHR$(32)THENP 

OKEP , 9 6ELSEPOKEP , ASC (MID$ (A$ ,T, 1 

)) 

110 NEXT 

120 FORD=1TODL*100:IFINKEY$=CHR$ 
(32 ) THEN130ELSENEXT : CLS : GOTO60 
130 CLS:PRINT@240-LEN(A$)/2,A$:G 
OTO30 

140 GOTO140 

150 CLS:PRINT@2 37,T$ 



160 GOTO160 

170 PRINT@104, "<«GUESS WHO>»" 
180 PRINT@19 3 , "BY KEIRAN KENNY, 
SYDNEY, 1987." 

190 PRINT@289, "DISPLAY TIME (1-9 
) : " ; : INPUTDL 

200 IFDL< 10RDL>9THENPRINT@ 2 8 9 , "" 

:GOTO190 

210 CLS:GOTO20 

220 DATA PRESIDENTS, GEORGE WASHI 
NGTON , KENNEDY , MADISON , JOHNSON , RO 
NALD REAGAN,"" 

230 DATA FILM STARS , MARYLIN MONR 
OE, BILL COS BY, JOAN COLLINS , AUDRE 
Y HEPBURN,"" 

240 DATA CITIES, COPENHAGEN, BUENO 
S AIRES , JAKARTA , MONTREAL , MELBOUR 
NE,RIO DI JANIERO, " " 
1000 DATA END 



Looking for a Heartbeat 

By Wilmer B. Maxwell 




Did you know that your heart beats more than 100,000 
times each day — about 36 million times a year? 

Pulse Beat counts your pulse rate. When you are resting and 
relaxed, the pulse beat rate should be in the range of 60 to 
75. Keep in mind that a child's pulse rate tends to be faster 
than an adult's. 

Just type in, save, load and run the program and follow 
the onscreen prompts to get an estimate of your pulse rate. 

The listing: PULSBERT 

100 REM: CLOAD " PULS BEAT " 

110 CLS4:L=227 

120 FOR X=l TO 9 

130 H=32 : READ T$ 

140 FOR T=1T06:S0UND2 / 1 

150 PRINT@L,CHR$(191) ; :GOSUB440 

160 PRINT@L,T$; :GOSUB440 

170 IFX=10RX=9THENH=H+32:IFH=>64 

THENH=64 

180 IFX=20RX=8THENH=H+32:IFH=>16 
0THENH=160 

190 IFX=30RX=7THENH=H+32:IFH=>19 
2THENH=192 

200 I FX=4 ORX= 6 THENH=H+ 3 2 : IFH=>16 



0THENH=160 

210 IFX=5THENH=H+32:IFH=>128THEN 
H=128 

220 NEXT T 

230 L=L+3:NEXT X 

240 FOR D=1TO1800:NEXT D 

250 DATA P,U,L,S,E,B,E,A,T 

260 CLS4:PRINT@32," THIS PROGR 

AM RECORDS YOUR" 

270 PRINT" PULSE IN BEATS PER 
MINUTE . " ; : PRINT 

280 PRINT" WITH YOUR LEFT HAND, 
FIND YOUR" 

290 PRINT"PULSE ON THE RIGHT SID 
E OF YOUR" 

300 PRINT "NECK, DIRECTLY UNDER Y 
OUR JAW. .": PRINT 

310 PRINT" WITH YOUR RIGHT HAND, 
TAP ANY" 

320 PRINT"KEY EVERY TIME YOUR PU 
LSE BEATS!" 

330 PB=0: PRINT" start any 

time " 

340 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 340 
ELSE 350 

350 TIMER=0 : PB=1 : SOUND 200,1: GOT 
O 380 

360 A$=INKEY$:IF A$=""THEN 360 E 
LSE 370 

370 PB=PB+1 : SOUND 180,1 



84 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



380 SV=TIMER:IF SV=>505 THEN 390 
ELSE 360 

390 PRINTS 4 16," YOUR PULSE RA 
TE IS";PB*6 

400 SOUND 150/ 8: FOR P=1TO1000:NE 
XT P 

410 PRINT" PLAY AGAIN <Y/N > 

• 

420 A$=INKEY$ : IFA$=" "THEN 420 
430 IF A$="Y" GOTO 260 ELSE 500 
440 FOR D=1TO50:NEXT D 
450 PRINT @L-H, CHR$ ( 128 ) ; : PRINT §L 



+H,CHR$(128) ; 

460 IFX=4THEN PRINT@428 , CHR$ (128 
) ; :PRINT@460,CHR$(128) ; 
470 IFX=5THEN PRINT@399 , CHR$ (128 
) ;:PRINT@431,CHR$(128) ;:PRINT@46 
3,CHR$(128) ; :PRINT@495,CHR$(179) 

• 

480 IFX=6THEN PRINT@434 ,CHR$ (128 
) ;:PRINT@466,CHR$(128) ; 
490 RETURN 
500 CLS : END 

510 REM: BY W.MAXWELL, CARLISLE, PA 



CoCo 3 



May the Force Be with You? 

By Travis Halbrook 



Not too long ago I saw a TV advertisement for a game that 
was supposed to increase a person's psychic ability. The game 
had four lights that came on at random, and the object was 
to guess which light would come on next. Users said they 
experienced increased intuition by playing the game. I 
modeled my program, Psychic Intuition Developer (PID), 
after this game. 

When you load and run PID, you will see four boxes on 
the screen, numbered 1 through 4. You are to guess (with 
psychic intuition) which box will light up by pressing the 
appropriate number key. The computer will tell you if you 
are right or wrong. Every correct guess adds a point to your 
score. 

There are 24 guesses in a game; the statistical norm for 
correct guesses is six. If you routinely rate scores of nine or 
more, perhaps the force is with you! 

The listing: PSYCHIC 

0 i ***************************** 

* PSYCHIC INTUITION * 

* DEVELOPER * 

* "BY TRAVIS HALBROOK" * 
***************************** 

10 WIDTH32:X=RND (-TIMER) :RGB:CLS 
0:FOR C=l TO 4 : L$ (C) =STRING$ (5 , 1 
28+16*(C-l)+15) :NEXT C:FOR Y=193 

TO 321 STEP 32: FOR C=0 TO 3:PRI 
NT@Y+(C*8) ,L$(C+1) ; : NEXTC : NEXTY : 
C=l:FOR A=259 TO 290 STEP 8: POKE 

1024+A, C+48:C=C+1:NEXT A: FOR T= 

1 TO 20:L=RND(4)-1 

20 S=RND (255) : PALETTE L,63:SOUND 
S , 1 : RGB : NEXT T : A$=" intuition"+C 
HR$ ( 12 8 ) +"developer "+CHR$ ( 12 8 ) : F 
OR B=127 TO 102 STEP-1 : PRINTQB , L 
EFT$(A$,127-B) ;:FOR DLAY—1 TO 30 
:NEXT DLAY : NEXT B 

30 FOR T=l TO 24: PRINT© 4 58, "choo 
se"+CHR$ ( 12 8 ) + " one" ; : L=*RND ( 4 ) -1 : 



W=L+1 

40 A$=INKEY$:IF A$=»" THEN 40 
50 A=VAL(A$) :IF A<1 OR A>4 THEN 
40 

60 POKE 1518, A+48: PALETTE L,63:I 
F A=W THEN GOSUB 110 ELSE GOSUB 
130 

70 NEXT T 

80 PRINT@427,"YOU GOT ";SC;:PRIN 
T@457,"OUT OF 24 RIGHT" ; : PRINT@4 
88, "PLAY AGAIN (Y/N) " ; 
90 A$=INKEY$:IF A$<>"Y» AND A$<> 
"N" THEN 90 

100 IF A$="Y" THEN 160 ELSE IF A 

$="N" THEN END 

110 "RIGHT SUBROUTINE 

120 SOUND 150 / 5:PRINT@396 / "right 

" ; : SC=SC+1 : PRINT@10 , "score="SC ; : 

FOR DLAY=1 TO 500: NEXT DLAY : PRIN 

T@396 / STRING$(5 / 128) ;:RGB:POKE 1 

518,128^1^^1 

130 'WRONG SUBROUTINE 

140 PRINTQ39 6, "wrong"; : SOUND 1,5 

:FOR DLAY=1 TO 500: NEXT DLAY : PRI 

NT@396 / STRING$(6 / 128) ; : RGB : POKE 

1518,128^!^^ 

150 'PLAY AGAIN 

160 PRINT@416 / STRING$(95, 128) ;:P 
OKE 1535 / 128:PRINT@0 / STRING$(32 / 
128) ;: CLEAR: GOTO 30 



Submissions to "Novices Niche" are welcome from everyone. We like 
to run a variety of short programs that can be typed in at one sitting 
and are useful, educational and fun. Keep in mind, although the short 
programs are limited in scope, many novice programmers find it 
enjoyable and quite educational to improve the software written by 
others. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk. We Ye sorry, but we 
cannot key in program listings. All programs should be supported by 
some editorial commentary, explaining how the program works. If your 
submission is accepted for publication, the payment rate will be 
established and agreed upon prior to publication. 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 85 



1 BASIC Tra i ning 



16K ECB | 



A teacher at Lakeview School in 
Hernando, Fla., wondered if I 
could make up a program to 
teach students the names and sequence 
of the months of the year and give them 
a little workout at the keyboard, copy- 
ing the months from the screen. A 
challenge is a challenge; overjoyed at 
having a specific problem to attack, 1 
snapped at the opportunity to show off 
my skills. 

The first thing to be done was a 
simple expedient. Our old faithful Race 
program of previous tutorials, which 
should be in your library, was chosen to 
give the program some graphics en- 
hancements. Load Race, type RENUM 
500 ,0,10) and run; type 499 G0T0499 
then LIST. 

We moved our graphic out of the way 
by renumbering it and checking it out. 
We added a perpetual loop in front of 
it so that, unless we deliberately intend 
to change it, our graphic is out of harm's 
way. We listed and noted the last line. 
We can add subroutines beginning at 
Line 1000 and bypass the graphic. Our 
creation will be developed between lines 
0 and 499 and from 1000 onward. 

In Line 0 type 12M0NTHS. For the 
time being, I will hold the space between 
Lines 10 and 19 for the student's name. 
Line 20 begins the program proper. 

The plan is that each month will be 
enclosed in a string variable from fi$ 
through L$. Copy Line 20 from listing 
12MDNTH5 and run. You should get a 
blank screen. So far, nothing has been 
written. We ran the line to see if CoCo 
picked up any SN, TM or other errors 
that are commonly made and a nuisance 
to locate. We will verify for correct 
spelling when we print the months on 
the screen. 

Type and run 30 PRINT: PRINT 
07, "MONTHS OF THE YERR". What is 
wrong with this line? The PRINT doesn't 
print an empty top row. The PRINT07 
prints at Location 7 on the text screen, 
which is on the top row. Fuzzy thinking 
on my part. Spaces 0 through 3 1 are on 
the top row. Since 32+7=39, seven 
spaces from the left margin will be on 
the second, or target, row. Type and run 
31 PRINT@39,"M".The M falls directly 
below the M in MONTH. Delete Line 31. 

Florida-based Joseph Kolar is a veter- 
an writer and programmer who special- 
izes in introducing beginners to the 
powers of the Color Computer. 



A tutorial to teach 
students the months of 
the year 



"Thirty Days 

Hath 
September" 



By Joseph Kolar 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



The line I was looking for was 30 
PRINT039, "MONTHS OF THE YEAR". 

This is not to impute that the other 
construction is no good. So long as the 
mission is accomplished and you are 
satisfied with the result, then rest on 
your laurels. Who cares what your 
listing looks like? The students will 
never suspect that you have a sloppy 
construction. 

We plan to skip a line and print two 
columns. Copy Line 40. The actual, 
repeating format for each entry is a 
repetition of " 1. "X$,, where X$, is 
the month in Line 20 that matches the 
number. Double-digit numbers will not 
have a blank space after the opening 
quote. 

You may prefer to present the first 
and second months, side by side, paired 
on the top row and continue in this 
format. Rewrite the line, if you find that 
list more appealing. Double-check the 
spelling. Note that a comma separates 
each entry and locates the next column. 
We are into the meat of the program. 

The idea is to do the months in 
sequence. We will require a FOR -NEXT 
loop, FOR X=l TO 12. It seemed logical 
to begin the loop next. 

50 PRINT: FOR X=l TO 2. This line 
supports only January and February. 
The plan is to make a workable two- 



month program. Then, if all goes well, 
we will expand it to a full year. 

Copy Line 60 from the listing. This 
line orders CoCo to go to Line 70 when 
X=l and hop over to Line 71 when X=2. 
Line 70 will settle January, and Line 71 
will handle February. 

Copy lines 70 and 71 from the listing. 
LIST70. Why use LINEINPUT instead of 
INPUT? It omitted the annoying ques- 
tion mark prompt. Within quotation 
marks and with a two-space indent, the 
keyboard operator, (high-class name 
for student), is to type in the first month. 
He is to refer to Month #1 in the table 
for proper selection and spelling. X$ is 
what he types in. If he does this task 
correctly and it is exactly the same as 
fi$ in Line 20, CoCo is directed to Line 
90. C=C+1 counts how many months are 
successfully typed. Since it has to be all 
12, this line is useless, but it doesn't cost 
anything. 

After typing all 12 months, CoCo is 
told to clear the display, put on a fresh 
table and go to the next month. The 
only problem is that if the table is 
included in the loop, the true loop 
should be in front of Line 30. 

25 FOR X=l TO 12. We need to print 
the empty row in Line 50 for aesthetic 
value. Lop off the FOR-NEXT statement. 

Enter EDIT50. Use the space bar to 
position the cursor over the colon, press 
H and ENTER. Run. If you spelled the 
months correctly a U L error popped up, 
suggesting more lines be created. In the 
event that the word was misspelled or 
the wrong word typed in, Line 70 directs 
CoCo to GOSUB300 and then return. 

Key in Line 300 from the listing. This 
is the boo-boo calculator, F=F+1, just 
in case we want the sum total of the bad 
spellings. A line is skipped. A message 
gives the bad news and returns. Note the 
unused variable, N$. Make a deliberate 
typing error to check this line out. If the 
student is a real klutz, after the third bad 
news report, the table will scroll up, up 
and away. We counted the number of 
attempts, T, to do a particular month. 
If T=3, give up, clear the screeen, reset 
C for a fresh start and begin from the 
beginning. 

At this point, we put in Line 26, 26 
T=0, inside the loop to reset it to 0. 

24 C=0:F=0. We are not likely to use 
these reset counters. When the program 
is recycled, Line 24 is the first line to be 
repeated after a successful run-through. 
Copy all lines from 72 through 8 1 . Upon 



86 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



completion, CoCo jumps back to the 
beginning. 

Copy lines 90 and 95. After De- 
cember is typed in correctly, we zoom 
over to our graphic. The three-line text 
will be changed: 

530 PRINTTAB(ll) "GOOD WORK," 
550 PRINTTRB(12)N$"»" 
560 PRINT:PRINTTRB(G)"YOU 
HfiVE ALL-TWELVE: "PRINTTflB(B) 
"MONTHS CORRECTLY." 

This is great, but we are hung up with 
no end in sight. Notice the exclamation 
point. The name, N$, should go there. 
It is high time to give the student an 
opportunity to personalize his or her 
work. 

Key in lines 10 to 14. Line 10 is 
familiar, creating five blank rows. A 
name is requested. Line 12 gives instruc- 
tions. I didn't know how to add PRESS 
<ENTER> to Line 12. First, I located the 
message so that it would be tastefully 
located and visible even though it came 
after the Type Prompt. Then I found 
that the seventh row began at 192 and 
printed nothing there but reserved the 
line. Now, the LINEINPUT would fall 
where it was expected. Line 14 moved 



us along with a time-waster. The name 
was printed, stored in memory and 
CoCo was told to keep working. 

Running through all the colors over 
and over again in effect hangs us up. We 
decided to use just three colors. The first 
one would race around the text. When 
the second color came up, we went to 
a subroutine at Line 1000 that inquires 
whether or not we want to repeat the 
exercise. When the third color comes up 
we wipe out the window, all except the 
name, and then jump back for a new 
exercise, bypassing the name routine. 

570 FOR C=3T07 5TEP2 

575 IF C=5 GOSUB1000 

576 IF C=7 GOTO790 

780 NEXTC : IF C=7 GOTO 790 

This breaks out of the maddening 
loop. 

For some reason or other I have the 
same instruction twice: IF C = 7 
GOTO790. What happened was that I 
destroyed this program and had to redo 
it from memory. 

Type and enter the following: 

800 NEXTC: FOR Z=1TO1000: 
NEXT:CLS:GOTO20 



Copy lines 1000 through 1050 from 
the listing: 

B90 5CREEN0,1 

EDIT1000 <I> <SCREEN0,1:> 

These last two changes show us that we 
can change the color of our window 
without disturbing the overlying graph- 
ics. It also adds a bit of interest. 

Mask Line 890 after the first state- 
ment. This line leaves the name on the 
screen till the last second. Line 1012 
ended with a proper question mark. The 
question mark is inappropriate only 
when the name is showing. Line 885 
prints the name in the exact location 
and blanks out the question mark. 

Compare initial location positions of 
Line 1012, (197+64=261) and Line 885, 
(264). The white border ends eight 
spaces to the left of the first letter of the 
name. The purple border ends five 
spaces to the left of the first letter of the 
name. We considered the first letter of 
the name as our reference point in 
doping out these two lines. 

Line 1000 turns the screen to the 
alternate color. Line 1005 blanks out the 
top line, GOOD WORK,. Line 1010 prints 
a question. Note that the PRINT0 loca- 
tion is in the sixth column, at the left 



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RAINBOW 



QUEST 

FOR THE RING 
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Area Code changes to 
(508) after July 16th 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 87 



border of the text window. If you want 
to see where it is changed, change Line 

10 10 to 136 temporarily and run. Lines 

101 1 through 1014 all begin in the same 
column. The added value +32 to each 
succeeding line drops the location down 
a row while still remaining in the proper 
column. The spaces after the opening 
quote were designed to obliterate the 
previously existing text. 

If you look carefully, you will see a 
remnant on the screen. Do you see the 
period left after Line 1020 does its 
work? It is about five spaces after NO on 
the screen. Enter EDIT1020 and type 
18; press the space bar into the blank 
area after text. Press I and the space bar, 
enter and run. We added just one space 
to do the job. If we had added them 
indiscriminately, we might have crashed 
through the right border. If we had left 
off the semicolon, we would have gone 
clear to the end of the row, ruining our 
carefully crafted graphic. 

Line 1005 begins at 170. This location 
was before the GOOD WORK, line. 
Enough blank spaces were set to blank 
out the line. What would happen if 1 
used 197-32 instead of 170? Think! 
Now, try it and see! 

Lines 1014 and 1020 could have easily 
been combined into a single line. Mask 



lines 1014 and 1020. This leaves MONTHS 
CORRECTLY, exposed in the text win- 
dow. 

Enter and run 1015 PRINT@197 
+12B"12345G7BYES/N012345G7B";. 
Pretend the numerals are blank spaces. 
That pesky dot is under one of the 
numbers after NO. You can see that the 
eight numbers on each side center the 
text correctly. This technique is a lot of 
work but it is a good tutorial device to 
help you in locating the exact starting 
position. 

Line 1015 begins printing at 
197+128= (325). Add the three blank 
spaces to the left of MONT and you find 
where the M is situated (328). Five blank 
spaces follow the opening quote, and 
the centered text follows. We need six 
blank spaces to cover the pesky dot and 
then we can close out, allowing us to 
finalize the line: 

1015 PRINT32B, " YES/NO "; 

You have three choices: Unmask lines 
1014 and 1020 and mask Line 1015; 
leave it as it is; or leave Line 1015 
unmasked, deleting lines 1014 and 1020. 

Save 12MDNTH5. 

You can see programming takes lots 
of planning. It takes a lot of trial and 



error before you and CoCo are of one 
mind. Lots of mistakes or poor logic 
add spice to the ultimate success. This 
tutorial was presented from my frame 
of reference, the sum total of my CoCo 
knowledge, and my faulty logic. Cer- 
tainly there are other ways to approach 
each problem. 

If you work along with me and at 
times say to yourself, "I would have 
done this in such and such a way. I know 
an easier way. Kolar isn't so smart," I 
congratulate you. You are doing your 
own thinking and imprinting your 
personality on your work. You are 
healthily skeptical of so-called experts 
and allow your creative side to assert 
itself. I hope you remain flexible in your 
approach to CoCo's quirks and develop 
your own bag of tricks. Make mistakes 
— and brag about them, for we all learn 
from mistakes. But go back to the 
keyboard for a creative session that will 
lead into the vast unknown. 

Our next project will involve the 
opening frame of 12M0NTHS. With all 
the Lo-Res graphics under our belt, 
don't you think you could dress up the 
opening segment? Create something 
neat, in case I wander off onto some 
unrelated subject. 

See you next month! □ 




73 11 

81 118 

650 186 

780 239 

900 244 

END 47 



The listing: 



J3 ! <12MONTHS> 

1)3 CLS: FOR X= 1TO 5 : PRINT: NEXT 

11 PRINT@2 58, "PRESS <ENTER>":PRI 
NT@192,""; 

12 LINE INPUT 11 TYPE IN YOUR NAME 

14 FOR Z=l TO 5j3j3:NEXT 
2j3 CLS :A$=" JANUARY" :B$="FEBRUARY 
" : C$="MARCH" : D$=" APRIL" : E$="MAY" 
: F$=" JUNE" : G$=" JULY" :H$="AUGUST" 
: I $=" SEPTEMBER" : J$=" OCTOBER" :K$= 
"NOVEMBER" : L$= " DECEMBER" 

24 C==0 : F=j3 

25 FOR X=l TO 12 

26 T=j3 

3j3 PRINT@39 , "MONTHS OF THE YEAR 
4)3 PRINT : PRINT" 1* "A$," 7. "0$, 
" 2. "B$," 8. "H$," 3. "0$," 9. 
"I$," 4. "D$,"lj3, "J$," 5. "E$, 



II 



11 • "K$," 6. "F$ / "12. "L$ 
5j3 PRINT 

6j3 ON X 00107)3,71,72,73,74,75,76 
,77,78,79,8)3,81 

7J3 LINE INPUT" TYPE IN MONTH 1. 
";X$:IF X$=A$ THEN GOT09J3 ELSE G 
OSUB3j3j3:GOT07j3 

71 LINE INPUT" TYPE IN MONTH 2. 
";X$:IF X$=B$ THEN GOTO90 ELSE G 
OSUB3^:GOT071 

72 LINEINPUT" TYPE IN MONTH 3. 
";X$:IF X$=C$ THEN GOTO90 ELSE G 
OSUB3j3j3:GOT072 

73 LINEINPUT" TYPE IN MONTH 4. 
";X$:IF X$=D$ THEN GOT09j3 ELSE G 
OSUB3j3j3:GOT073 

74 LINEINPUT" TYPE IN MONTH 5. 
";X$:IF X$=E$ THEN GOTO90 ELSE G 
OSUB3J3j3:GOT074 

75 LINEINPUT" TYPE IN MONTH 6. 
";X$:IF X$=F$ THEN GOT09j3 ELSE G 
OSUB300:GOTO75 

76 LINEINPUT" TYPE IN MONTH 7. 
";X$:IF X$=G$ THEN GOT09j3 ELSE G 
OSUB3j3j3:GOT076 

77 LINEINPUT" TYPE IN MONTH 8. 
";X$: IF X$=*H$ THEN GOT09j3 ELSE 
G0SUB3j3j3:G0T077 

78 LINEINPUT" TYPE IN MONTH 9. 



88 THE RAINBOW Jufy 1988 





";X$:IF X$=I$ THEN GOTO90 ELSE G 


730 FOR V=23 T06 STEP-2: SET ( 6, V, 




OSUB300:GOTO78 


C) : NEXTV 




79 LINEINPUT" TYPE IN MONTH 10. 


740 FOR H=8T055STEP2:SET(H,8,C) : 




«;X$:IFX$=J$ THEN GOTO90 ELSE GO 


NEXTH 




SUB300:GOTO79 


750 FOR V=8 T023 STEP2 : SET (55, V, 




80 LINEINPUT" TYPE IN MONTH 11. 


C) : NEXTV 




»;X$:IF X$=K$ THEN GOTO90 ELSE G 


760 FOR H=53 T08STEP-2 : SET (H, 23 , 




OSUB300:GOTO80 


C) : NEXTH 




81 LINEINPUT" TYPE IN MONTH 12. 


770 FOR V=21 TO 8STEP-2:SET(8,V, 




";X$:IF X$=L$ THEN GOTO 90 ELSE 


C) : NEXTV 




GOSUB300 :GOT081 


780 NEXTC:IF C=7 GOTO790 




90 C=C+1: IF C<13 THEN CLS 


790 FORH=10TO53STEP2:SET(H,10,C) 




95 IF C=12 THEN 500 ELSE NEXT 


: NEXTH 




300 F=F+1: PRINT: PRINT" WRONG! 


800 FOR V=10 T021STEP2:SET(53,V, 




TRY AGAIN, "N$ ; , :T=T+1:IF T=3 T 


C): NEXTV 




HEN CLS:GOT024 ELSE RETURN 


810 FOR H=51 TO10STEP-2:SET(H,21 




490 NEXT 


,C) : NEXTH 




499 GOT0499 


820 FOR V=19 TO 12STEP-2 : SET ( 10 , 




500 '<RACE> 


V,C) : NEXTV 




510 CLS 


830- FORH=12 T051 STEP2 : SET (H, 12 , 




520 FOR X=l TO 5:PRINT:NEXTX 


C) : NEXTH 




530 PRINTTAB(ll) "GOOD WORK, " 


840 FOR V=12 T019 STEP2 :SET(51,V 




540 PRINT 


,C) : NEXTV 




550 PRINTTAB(12)N$"! H 


850 FORH=49 T012 STEP-2 : SET (H, 19 




560 PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 6 ) "YOU TYPED 


,0): NEXTH 




ALL TWELVE" : PRINTTAB ( 8 ) "MONTHS C 


860 FOR V=17 T014 STEP-2 : SET (12 , 




ORRECTLY . " 


V,C) : NEXTV 




570 FOR C=3 T07 STEP2 


870 FORH=14T049STEP2:SET(H, 14, C) 




575 IF C=5 GOSUB1000 


: NEXTH 




576 IF C=7 GOTO790 


880 SET(49,16,C) 




580 FOR H=0 TO 63STEP2 :SET(H,0,C 


885 PRINT§2 64," ";N$" " ; 




) : NEXTH 


890 SCREEN0 , 1 : 1 FOR H=47 T014STEP 




590 FOR V=0 TO 31STEP+2 :SET(63,V 


-2:SET(H,16,C) : NEXTH 




,C) :NEXTV 


900 NEXTC:FORZ=1TO1000: NEXT: CLS: 




600 FOR H=63 TO 0 STEP-2 : SET (H, 3 


GOTO 20 




1,C) : NEXTH 

610 FOR.V=31 TO 2 STEP-2: SET (0,V 


910 GOTO910 




1000 SCREEN0,1: FOR Z=1TO2000:NE 




,C) :NEXTV 


XT 




620 FOR H=2 TO 61 STEP2 :SET(H,2, 


1005 PRINT@170," "; 




C) : NEXTH 


1010 PRINT§197," DO IT AGAIN 




630 FOR V=2 TO 29 STEP2 : SET (61, V 


it • 

1011 PRINT§197+32," 




,C):NEXTV 




640 FOR H=59 TO 2 STEP-2 : SET (H, 2 


ii • 




9,C) : NEXTH 

650 FOR V=27 TO 4 STEP-2 : SET (2 ,V 


1012 PRINT (§19 7+ 6 4," ";N$"? 




ii • 




,C) :NEXTV 


1013 PRINT@197+96," 




660 FOR H=4T059 STEP2 : SET (H, 4 , C) 


ii • 




: NEXTH 


1014 PRINT0197+128," " ; 




670 FOR V=4T027 STEP2 : SET (59 , V, C 


1015 , PRINT@328," YES/NO 




) : NEXTV 


ii • 

r 




680 FOR H=57 T04STEP-2 : SET (H, 27 , 


1020 PRINT" YES/NO " ; 




C): NEXTH 


1025 Z$=INKEY$:IF Z$="" GOTO1025 




690 FOR V=25 TO 6 STEP-2 : SET (4 ,V 


1030 IF LEFT$(Z$,1)="Y" THEN RET 




,C) : NEXTV 

700 FOR H=6T057 STEP2 : SET (H, 6 , C) 


URN 




1040 IF LEFT$(Z$,1)="N" THEN CLS 




: NEXTH 


2:PRINT@198," BYE , BYE , ";N$" "; 




710 FOR V=6T025 STEP2 : SET (57 , V, C 


1050 GOTO1050 




) : NEXTV 




720 FOR H=55 TO 6 STEP-2 : SET (H, 2 




5,C) : NEXTH 





July 1988 THE RAINBOW 89 




Give us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists in showing the Color Computer world your 
high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in the rainbow's 
''Scoreboard" column. All entries must be received 60 days prior to publication. Entries should be printed — 
legibly — and must include your full name, address, game title, company name and, of course, your high score. 
Each individual is limited to three score entries per month. Send your entries to Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. 

For greater convenience, your high scores may also be sent to us through the MAIL section of our Delphi 
CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then type SEND and address to: EDITORS. 



* Current Record Holder 



Shutout 



A .1/3 
4,500 
4,300 
3,960 



* 
* 

* 

★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^ 



12,825 

12,350 
11,675 

10,850 



1.627,500 
202,000 

178,200 
169,000 



ADVANCED STAFTTRENCH (THE RAINBOW, 7/86) 
4.750 ★Stephane Martel, Laval. Quebec 
David Schaller, Clarkston, WA 
Frankie DiGiovanni, Olney, MD 
Jeffrey Warren, Waynesviile, NC 
Maurice MacGarvey, Dawson Creek, 
British Columbia 
ASTRO BLAST (Mark Data) 

48,825 *Tony Bacon, Mt. Vernon, IN 
BALLOON (THE RAINBOW, 5/B7) 

7,000 *Jon Hobson, Plainfield. Wl 
BEE ZAPPER (THE RAINBOW, 9/87) 

15.785 *David Hartmann, Osoyoos, British 
Columbia 
Frederick Lajoie, Nova Scotia, 

Canada 
Tom Carpenter, Paienville, NY 
Daniel Hartmann. Osoyoos. British 

Columbia 
Matthew Yarrows, Easthampton, MA 
BOUNCING BOULDERS (Diecom Products) 

10,930 ★ Patrick Garneau, Ste-Croix, Quebec 
BUZZARD BAIT ( Tom Mix) 
22,931 .850 ★Skip Taday, East Lyme. CT 
763,550 Geran Stalker, Rivordalo, GA 
187.750 Keith Janas, Kitwanga, British 
Columbia 
CANYON CLIMBER (Radio Shack) 
1,725.100 ★John Guptill, Columbia, MO 

Matthew Fumich, Munford, TN 
David Brown, New Waterford, Nova 
Scotia 

Darren King, Yorkton, Saskatchewan 
Gregory Speer, Emporia, KS 
C ASHMAN (MichTron) 

9,870 *Martin Parada, Arcadia, CA 
CLOWNS & BALLOONS (Radio Shack) 
688.960 *Faye Keefer, Augusta, GA 

Frankie DiGiovanni, Olney, MD 
Charles Andrews, Delta Jet, AK 
Melody Webb, Lakeport, CA 
Ttmm Cappell, Freeland, Ml 
COLOR BASEBALL (Radio Shack) 

119-0 ★•Adam Silverstein, Chicago, IL 
111-2 David Czarnecki, Northhampton, MA 
43-0 •Jason Kopp, Downs, IL 
COLOR CAR (NOVASOFT) 

252,928 ★Alan Martin, Cornwall, Ontario 
110,870 Martin Parada, Arcadia, CA 
COLOR POKER (THE RAINBOW, 4/83) 
38,01 1 ,600 ★Earl Foster, Lynchburg, VA 
THE CONTROLLERS (THE RAINBOW, 2/88) 
188 ★Frederick Lajoie, Nova Scotia, 
Canada 

CRYSTAL CASTLES (ThunderVision) 

381,138 ★Jason Trammel, Murphysboro, IL 
DALLAS QUEST (Radio Shack) 

81 ★Brad Wilson, Lithia Springs. GA 
Paul Summers, Orange Park > FL 
David and Shirley Johnson, Leicester, 
NC 

Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 
Melanie Moor. Florence. AL 
Andrew Yarrows, Easthampton, MA 
Douglas Bell, Duncan, OK 
Hugh Flournoy, Jr. Spanaway, WA 
DECATHALON (Spectral Associates) 

9,408 *Martin Parada, Arcadia. CA 
DEFENSE (Spectral Associates) 

16,305 ★Patrick Martel, Laval, Quebec 



35.331 
31,673 
30,753 
30,326 



202,260 
89,285 
72,410 

67.760 



65,351 
63,014 
62,702 
50,797 
47,677 



623,550 

75,000 
40,800 



217,500 
70,180 
36,650 
33,710 



85 
85 

86 
86 
87 
87 
102 



DEF MOV (THE RAINBOW, 1/87) 

43,806 ★Domingo Martinez, Miami, FL 
David Schaller, Clarkston. WA 
Douglas Bacon, Middletown, CT 
Pasha Irshad, Silver Spring, MD 
Frederick Lajoie, Nova Scotia, 
Canada 

DEMON ATTACK (Imagic) 

279,435 *Jon Hobson. Plainfield, Wl 
Tom Briggs. Hillsdale, NY 
Upton Thomas. Arnold, MD 
Glenn Hodgson, Aberdeenshire, 

Scotland 
Jim Davis, Sandwich, IL 
DESERT RIDER (Radio Shack) 

80,703 ★Thomas Payton, Anderson, SC 
Jason Hackley, Clinton, CT 
Rebecca Henderson, Ballston Spa, NY 
William Currie, Bryans Road, MD 
Patrick Devitt. Lombard, IL 
Thomas Beall, Odenton, MD 
DEVIL ASSAULT (Tom Mix) 
1 ,866,100 *Stephane Martel, Laval, Quebec 
Dale Krueger, Maple Ridge, 

British Columbia 
Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
Benoit Landry, Drummondville, 
Quebec 
DONPAN (Radio Shack) 

53,100 ★Jim Davis, Sandwich, IL 
52.600 Eric Olson, Wheaton, IL 
DOUBLE BACK (Radio Shack) 

207,860 ★Upton Thomas, Arnold, MD 

Richard Winkelbauer, Bronx, NY 
Don Mullis, Delavan, Wl 
Betty Mullis, Delavan, Wl 
Tristan Terkuc, Richmond, Ontario 
DOWN LAND (Radio Shack) 

99,980 *Danny Wimett, Rome, NY 

Karl Gulliford, Summerville, SC 
Stephane Deshaies, Beioeil, Quebec 
Neil Edge, Williston, FL 
Tom Audas, Fremont, CA 
Jean-Francois Morin, Loretteviile, 
Quebec 

Chris Goodman, Baltimore, MD 
Cooper Valentin, Vavenby, 

British Columbia 
Keith Yampanis, jaffrey, NH 
Eddie Lawrence, Pasadena, 

Newfoundland 
Patrico Gonzalez, Buenos Aires, 

Argentina 
Danny Perkins, Clifton Forge, VA 
Kevin Pater, Port Alberni, British 

Columbia 
David Brown, New Waterford, Nova 

Scotia 
Mike Ells. Charlotte, Ml 
Antonio Hidalgo, San Jose, 

Costa Rica ? 
Jesse Binns, Phoenix, AZ 
Adam Broughton. Morris, PA 
DRAGON FIRE (Radio Shack) 

160,835 *Eric Olson. Wheaton, IL 

Stephane Martel, Laval, Quebec 
Marcos Rodriguez, New York, NY 
Michael Adams, Columbia, SC 
Jesse Cogdell, Wilmington, DE 



172,320 
136,510 
51.470 
50,700 



98.985 
97,740 
89.490 
77,254 
73,346 

70,142 
68,142 

67,721 
62,442 

55,300 

49,500 
49,441 

49,254 

43,502 
41,896 

40,360 
35,611 



146.325 
11,720 
9.B61 
9,200 



ENCHANTER (tnfocom) 



400/223 ★Konnie Grant, Toledo, OH 
ESCAPE 2012 (Computerware) 

202 ★Roy Grant, Toledo. OH 
199 Milan Parekh, Anaheim, CA 
FANGMAN (Tom Mix) 

21 7.650 ★Martin Parada, Arcadia, CA 
FIRE COPTER (Adventure International) 

77,030 *Mike LeBrun, Cornwall, Ontario 
56,840 Michael Adams, Columbia, SC 
FIRESTORM (THE RAINBOW, 1/86) 

22,505 *Chad Presley, Luseland. 
Saskatchewan 
Stephane Martel, Laval, Quebec 
Kathy Rumpel, Arcadia, Wl 
Rick Beevers, Bloomfield, MN 
Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
GALACTIC ATTACK (Radio Shack) 

31,100 ★Upton Thomas, Arnold, MD 

David Czarnecki, Northhampton, MA 
Jeff Remick, Warren, Ml 
Dave Staub, Moundsville, WV 
Sheldon Penney, Green Bay, 
Newfoundland 
GALAGON (Spectral Associates) 

751 ,020 ★Sofia Giorgi, Brasilia, Brazil 
Jason Clougb, Houston, TX 
Bernard Burke, Lee's Summit, MO 
Matthew Fumich, Munford, TN 
Danny Dunne, Pittsfield, NH 
GANTELET (Diecom Products) 
23,643,720 *Geran Stalker, Rivordalo, GA 
Randall Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
Clinton Morell, Sacramento, CA 
Ken Hubbard, Madison, Wl 
Stirling Dell, Dundalk, Ontario 
GHANA BWANA (Radio Shack) 
2,350,750 ★Michael Heitz, Chicago, IL 
702,520 Joseph Delaney, Augusta, GA 
105.820 David Reash, Hadley, PA 
GOLD FINDER (Tom Mix) 

100.775 ★Jesse Collicott, Inman, KS 
GONE FISHING (THE RAINBOW, 1/84) 

7 ★Benoit St-Jean, Gatineau, Quebec 
GROBOTfC/7/7oVen's Computer Workshop) 

B.090 ★Curt Lebel. Louisville, KY 
HITCHHIKER'S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY (Infocom) 
400/359 *Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 
400/422 Jeff Holtham, Waterloo, Ontario 
400/510 Brad Wilson, Lithia Springs, GA 
INTERBANK INCIDENT (Radio Shack) 

4,861 ★Shara and Chris Euton, Lllburn, GA 
IRON FOREST (Diecom Products) 
3,1 73,200 ★Charles Boyd, Amarillo, TX 
Janet Boyd, Amarillo, TX 
Craig Pennell, Amarillo, TX 
William Weller, Kailua, HI 
Daniel Wibier, Santa Rosa. CA 
JOKER POKER (THE RAINBOW, 3/87) 
43,616,750 ★Carole Rueckert, Mansfield, OH 
Brenda Kim, Athens, OH 
Curtis Trammel. Murphysboro, IL 
Btain Jamieson, Kingston, Ontario 
Paul Dykes, Baton Rouge, LA 
JUNIOR'S REVENGE (Computerware) 
2,503,000 ★Stephane Martel, Laval, Quebec 
257,600 Keith Cohen, Rocky Mount, NC 
KARATE (Diecom Products) 

31,000 ★Wayne Hufford. Kincardine, Ontario 
21,800 Daniel Hartmann, Osoyoos, British 
Columbia 



11,250 
5,680 
3,760 
3,505 



29,030 
25,370 
22,250 
11,830 



357,890 
328,820 
249,960 
169,410 



20,921,490 
10,222,940 
10,020.500 
7,493,340 



2,676.300 
1,141,650 
1.013,100 
595,700 



8,179,710 
3,796,898 
2,793,285 
205,239 



THE RAINBOW July 19BB 





11,600 Jonathon Ross, Pocomoke City, MD 
6,300 David Darling, Longlac. Ontario 
KNOCK OUT (Diecom Products) 

162,555 ★Martin Parada, Arcadia, CA 
147.235 Mike LeBrun, Cornwall, Ontario 
KORONIS RIFT (Epyx) 

186,710 ★Tony Harbin, Cullman. AL 
184,180 Russell Johnson, Sarnia, Ontario 
184,120 John Farrar. Lebanon, TN 
174,810 Donald Cathcart, Halifax, Nova Scotia 
133,990 Paul Blessing, Spring, TX 
KUNG-FU DUDE (Sundog Systems) 

32,000 *Tony Geitgey, University Park, PA 
12,150 Cody Deegan, Fallon, NV 
THE LAIR (Freebooter Software) 

112,940 ★James Walton, Pittsburgh, PA 
LUNAR RESCUE (THE RAINBOW 8/87) 
260,427 ★Tom Beeker, Gracey, KY 
259,493 Cody Deegan, Fallon, NV 
255,625 John Valentine, Marlborough, CT 
246,668 Phillip Holsten, Modesto, CA 
175,771 Jim Davis, Sandwich, IL 
LUNAR-ROVER PATROL (Spectral Associates) 

37,890 *Dave Staub; Moundsville, WV 
MAGIC OF ZANTH (Computerware) 

31 ★Paul Summers, Orange Park, FL 

44 Matthew Smith, Courtenay, British 

Columbia 

45 Michael Green, Ware, MA 

47 Robert Williams, Yellowknife, 
Northwest Territory 
MEGA-BUG (Radio Shack) 

9,016 *Heather Richwalski, Medford, Wl 

8,199 Eric Mellon, Newark, DE 

6,404 David Hartmann, Osoyoos, British 

Columbia 
5,960 Mary Jensen, El Cajon, CA 
5,528 Douglas Bacon, Middletown, CT 
MEMOCARDS (THE RAINBOW, 8/87} 

1 ,418 *Edward Kavanaugh, North Easton, 
MA 

MICROBES (Radio Shack) 

153,790 *Jeff Spiller, Sinclairville, NY 
MINIGOLF (THE RAINBOW, 5/86) 

29 ★John Guptill, Columbia, MO 
MISSION: F-16 ASSAULT (Diecom Products) 
468.750 ★Karen Jessen, Cleveland, OH 
355,570 Stirling Dell, Dundalk, Ontario 
318,160 Jeremy Pruski. Sandwich, IL 
144,510 Donald Cathcart, Halifax, Nova Scotia 
137,920 Mike Grant, Fresno, CA 
MUNCHKIN BLASTER (THE RAINBOW, 8/87) 
11,950 ★Jim Davis, Sandwich, IL 
10,420 Gabe Emerson, Baraboo, Wl 
9,760 Tom Beeker, Gracey, KY 
9,270 Edward Kavanaugh, North Easton, 
MA 

9,080 John Weaver, Amsterdam, NY 
8,720 Jacob Carpenter, Palenville. NY 
5,670 Clara Smith, Courtenay, British 
Columbia 

ONE-ON-ONE (Radio Shack) 

1,302-0 ★•Thomas Payton, Anderson, SC 
1,276-0 •Jonathan Dorris, Indianapolis, IN 
1 ,260-0 •Brandon Reece, Chickamauga, GA 
1,242-0 •William Currie, Bryans Road, MD 
1,210-0 •Gregg Thompson, Chesterfield, VA 

OUTHOUSE (MichTron) 

38,640 ★Dave Staub, Moundsville, WV 

PAPER ROUTE (Diecom Products) 

150,560 *Heather Hamblen, Bar Harbor, ME 

PEGASUS AND THE PHANTOM RIDERS (Radio Shack) 
329,000 ★Joseph Delaney, Augusta, GA 
303,100 Mike Grant, Fresno, CA 
261,000 Domingo Martinez, Miami, FL 
225,300 Richard Adams, Jr., Alvarado, TX 
114,100 Kreig Bryson, Woodstock, GA 

PtNBALL (Radio Shack) 
1,139,450 ★Benoit Landry, Drummondville, 
Quebec 

399,350 Troy Stoll, Washington, IN 
389,463 Thomas Payton, Anderson, SC 
213,300 Patrick Martel, Laval, Quebec 
142,400 Thomas Payton, Anderson, SC 

PITFALL II (Activision) 

159,400 *David Cornette, Green Bay, Wl 
104,479 David Stewart, Kent, OH 

PITSTOP II (Epyx) 

54 ★Rusty Breitbach, Rickardsville, IA 
54 *Jeff Coburn, Easton, PA 



54 ★Walter Hearne, Pensacola, FL 
54 ★Sean Noonan, Green Bay, Wl 
54 ★Thomas Payton, Anderson, SC 
54 ★Jeff Szczerba, Sturtevant, Wl 
54 *Brad Wilson, Lithia Springs, GA 
51 Christian Grenier, Valleyfield, Quebec 
49 Randy Venable, Coal City, WV 
14 Eric Mellon, Newark, DE 
9 Laundre Clemon, Sacramento, CA 
POPCORN (Radio Shack) 

105,560 ★Heather Condit, Grafton, ND 
20,800 Kristopher Santos, Laurel, MD 
PYRAMID (Radio Shack) 

220 ★Jason Ebbeling, Berkshire, MA 
PYRAMID 2000 (Radio Shack) 

220 ★ Darren King, Yorkton, Saskatchewan 
100 Peter Antonacopoulos, Toa Baja, 
Puerto rtico 
PYRAMIX ( Color Venture) 

67,850 ★Richard Winkelbauer, Bronx, NY 
56,970 Andy Freeman, Turtle Lake, Wl 
37,500 Matthew Smith, Courtenay, British 
Columbia 

26,900 Todd Kopke, Glendale Heights, IL 
20,120 Lori Curran, La Porte City, IA 
OUIXfTom Mix) 
8,407,772 ★John Haldane, Tempe, AZ 
1 ,404,000 Curtis Goodson, Sao Paulo. Brazil 
1,201,383 Milan Parekh, Anaheim, CA 
1,003,104 Elisa Goodson, Sao Paulo, Brazil 
326,192 Martin Parada, Arcadia, CA 
RADIO BALL (Radio Shack) 

760,380 *Jake Runge, Franklin, OH 
399,999 Eric Mellon. Newark, DE 
RESCUE ON FRACTALUS (Epyx) 
1,000,948 *Steven Ujvary, Calgary, Alberta 
323,167 Kenneth Hill. Severna Park, MD 
292,633 David Richards, Huntington, WV 
288,084 Donald Cathcart, Halifax, Nova Scotia 
270,000 Russetl Johnson, Sarnia, Ontario 
RETURN OF THE JET-I (ThunderVision) 

336,563 ★Jesse Collicott, Inman, KS 
RETURN OF JUNIOR'S REVENGE (Coiorware) 
1,792,800 *Chad Presley, Luseland, 
Saskatchewan 

ROGUE (Epyx) 

63,934 ★Marshall Weisenburger, Quincy, IL 
43,222 Hans Lutenegger, Madison, IA 
27,542 Melanie Lapoint, Fitchburg, MA 
21,682 Paul Blessing, Spring, TX 
17,651 Yvan Langlois, Laval, Quebec 
ROLLER CONTROLLER (Spectral Associates) 

35,950 ★Matthew Smith, Courtenay, British 
Columbia 
SANDS OF EGYPT (Radio Shack) 

67 ★Tristan Terkuc, Richmond, Ontario 
82 Edward Rocha, Cobleskill, NY 

85 Paul Summers, Orange Park, FL 

86 Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 

87 Neil Haupt, Elyria, OH 
SAUCER DEFENSE (THE RAIN80W, 4/87) 

40,000 ★David Hartmann, Osoyoos, British 
Columbia 

4,000 Frankie DiGiovanni, Olney, MD 
SHOCK TROOPER {Mark Data) 

78,575 *Mike LeBrun, Cornwall. Ontario 
SHOOTING GALLERY (Radio Shack) 

27,270 ★Jocelyn Hellyer, Montgomery, IL 
20,480 Kevin Pereira, Corsicana, TX 
SHOOTN RANGE (THE RAINBOW, 8/87) 
55,623' *Paul Robbins, Picayune, MS 
14,702 Richard Winkelbauer. Bronx, NY 
13,794 Phillip Holsten, Modesto, CA 
5,433 Benoit Landry, Drummondville, 
Quebec 

SLAY THE NERIUS (Radio Shack) 

73,091 ★Jeff Remick, Warren. Ml 
8PACE ASSAULT (Radio Shack) 

13,1 10 *Jeff Remick, Warren. Ml 
7,280 Jason Kopp, Downs, IL 
6,200 John Weaver, Amsterdam, NY 
SPEEDSTER (THE RAINBOW 8/87) 

103,140 *Richard Winkelbauer, Bronx, NY 
88,090 Jason Landreth, Texico, IL 
37,970 Frederick Lajoie, Nova Scotia, 
Canada 

35,040 John Valentine. Marlborough, CT 
32,1 10 Lisa Williamson, Watauga, TX 
SPIDERCIDE (Radio Shack) 

27,730 *Mike LeBrun, Cornwall, Ontario 



1,840 Dave Staub, Moundsville, WV 
SPRINGSTER (Radio Shack) 

303,520 *Mavis Hartmann, Osoyoos, British 
Columbia 

SUPER ROOTER (THE RAINBOW, 5/86) 

19,090 ★Frederick Lajoie, Nova Scotia, 
Canada 

15,180 Richard Donneil, Penns Grove. NJ 
3,910 Daniel Bradford, Birmingham, AL 
TEMPLE OF ROM (Radio Shack) 

604,000 *Troy Graham, Arnold. MD 
507.700 Adam Broughton. Morris, PA 
303,600 Tim Hennon, Highland, IN 
1 38,400 Gary Budzak. Westerville, OH 
125.200 Michelle Murray, Salem, IN 
THEXDER (Sierra On-Line) 

1,314,100 *Frankie DiGiovanni, Olney, MD 
195,000 Emmett Keyser, Napa, CA 
TREASURE QUEST (THE RAINBOW, 11/86) 
68,760 ★Clara Smith, Courtenay, British 
Columbia 

29,340 Matthew Smith, Courtenay, British 
Columbia 
TREKBOER (Mark Data) 

123 *Roy Grant. Toledo, OH 
132 Matthew Fumich, Munford, TN 
TUFS TOMB (Mark Data) 

1 18,720 *Reina Roy. Carleton, Quebec 
74,780 Mack Haynes, Nice, CA 
72,000 Chad Presley. Luseland, 

Saskatchewan 
60,020 Don Siler, Muncie, IN 
45,000 Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
VARLOC (Radio Shack) 

2,032 *Tony Harbin, Cullman, AL 
2,032 *Edward Rocha, Cobleskill, NY 
2,008 Philip Puffinburger, Winchester, VA 
1,995 Denise Rowan. Minneapolis, MN 
1,991 Ryan Grady, Newbury Park, CA 
1,986 Randall Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
VICIOUS VIC (THE RAINBOW, 7/86) 
18,813 ★Talib Khan, Bronx, NY 
1 1 ,902 Martha James, Swarthmore, PA 
10,489 Karl Guiiiford, Summervilte, SC 
6,294 Pat O'Neill, Nepean. Ontario 
4,643 Martha James, Swarthmore, PA 
THE VORTEX FACTOR (Mark Data) 

100/276 ★Tommy Crouser, Dunbar, WV 
100/483 Rick & Brenda Stump, 
Laureldale, PA 
210 Paul Maxwell, Vancouver, 
British Columbia 
WARP FACTOR X (Prickly-Pear) 
10,577,051 ★Doug Lute, Clymer, PA 
WILDWEST (Tom Mix) 

35 *Paul Summers, Orange Park, FL 
WISHBRINGER (Infocom) 

400/201 *Brad Wilson, Lithia Springs, GA 
WIZARD S DEN (Tom Mix) 

195,050 *Mark Touchette, Preston, CT 
WRESTLE MANIAC (Diecom) 

956,971 ★Marc Reiter, Cincinnati, OH 
546,315 Louis Bouchard. Gatineau, Quebec 
45,483 Tony Bacon, Mt. Vernon, IN 
42,105 David Brown. New Waterford, Nova 
Scotia 

39,086 Billy Helmick. Independence. KY 
ZAKSUND (Elite Software) 

357,550 ★Martin Parada, Arcadia, CA 
268,350 Tony Bacon, Mt. Vernon, IN 
44,900 Michael Adams, Columbia, SC 
39,950 Walter Hearne, Pensacola, FL 
ZAXXON (Datasoft) 
2,061 ,000 ★ Byron Alford. Raytown, MO 
1,950,000 Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
1,300,500 Dan Brown, Pittsford, NY 
1,100,600 Andrew Urquhart, Metairle, LA 
376,600 Matthew Yarrows, Eaathampton, MA 
ZEUS (Aardvark) 

4,500 ★Benoit St-Jean, Gatineau, Quebec 
3,380 Martin Kertz, Forrest City, AR 
ZORK I (Infocom) 

350/328 ★Konnie Grant, Toledo, OH 
350/587 Matthew Yarrows, Eesthampton, MA 
ZONX (THE RAINBOW, 10/85) 

12,000 ★Adam Broughton, Morris, PA 



— Jody Doyle 

^★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^ 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 91 



* * * * * ** * * * ******** 






n conjunction with the rainbow's Scoreboard, we offer this column 
of pointers for our game-playing readers' benefit. If you have some 
interesting hints, tips or responses to questions, or want help yourself, 
we encourage you to write to the Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. 



In response to questions from: 

• Mike Snyder: In Dungeons of Daggo~ 
rath, to get the iron sword and the ring 
on the first level, you must kill both 
blobs. To incant the ring, type I FIRE* 

Vick Mishra 
Newington, CT 

• Sean Noonan: You need the diamond 
ring hidden in the grassy meadows atop 
the steps in Sea Search. You will need the 
shovel for this. 

• Jimmy Munroe: The thing you 
stumbled over in the cavern behind the 
falls in Sea Search is the shovel. Simply 
type GET SHOVEL. If you haven't found 
the metal detector, it's in the meadows 
atop the steps. 

To find the mermaid, get in the boat 
and go north twice. Go into the ocean 
(you must have the filled air tanks) and 
give her the mirror. The mirror is found 
by going east once past the steps on the 
beach and digging. Any clear liquid you 
find will be the shark repellant; 

Laura Kaplan 
Niceville, FL 

• John Anderson: In Sir Randolf of the 
Moors, type PULL CHAIN and WIPE 
WALLS to reveal the exit from the pit. 

There is one key that I have never been 
able to find, despite mapping the entire 
surrounding area. How do I get this 
elusive key? 

Douglas Bacon 
Middletown, CT 

• John Peavy: In Caladural Flame of 
Light, you must have the amujet to get 
by the spears. 

How do you get through the castle? 

Mason Taylor 
Cedar Falls, I A 

Scoreboard: 

How do you get to the fourth level in 
Dungeons of Daggorathl 

John Sprinkle 
Caneler, NC 

Scoreboard: 

In Dallas Quest, it is almost impossible 
to get through the wheat field. When I 
ask for a clue, I am told to solve the 
pasture mystery. Please hclpi 

Tommy Upton 
Rossviile, GA 



Scoreboard: 

In Sands of Egypt, I am having trouble 
finding the canteen. Where is the magni- 
fying glass to light the torch? How do you 
get out of the pool? 

Ted Klug 
Fennville, MI 

Scoreboard: 

In the Interbank Incident, to open the 
locker at the train station in Seattle, put 
a quarter in the locker and search it. 

How do you open the apartment doors 
and where do you get the keys? How do 
you know when it's time for the video 
tournament? 

Lori Morrish 
Toronto, Ontario 

Scoreboard: 

In Raaka-Tu, does the rug mean any- 
thing and if it does, how do you cross it 
to open the door? What do you do when 
you get out of the temple through the 
secret passage way? 

In Pyramid 2000, how do you find the 
treasure in the maze? 

Mike Abballe 
Rochester, NY 

Scoreboard: 

In Raaka-Tu, I have gotten out, but 
what do I do next? 

John Mahan 
Cape Coral, FL 

Scoreboard: 

When you get to the pub in Shenan- 
igans, you have to order O'Shaunasee 
beer, then go W, Sy W and W. 

To get rid of the snake, you drop the 
shamrock at the cave entrance. 

When you get to the ravine in the cave, 
type SAY SEAN. 

I got to the rainbow, but 1 can't get 
near it without the pole, and the pole 
won't fit in the cave. How do I find the 
trap door in the cabin? 

Annette Clear 
San Diego, CA 

Scoreboard: 

I have the gem, the amulet and the 
circlet in Caladuril Flame of Light, but 
now I am stumped. Where do I find 
Sarazin so I can place the circlet on his 
head? 

In Wild West, I have the treasure map 



from Black Bart's girlfriend, but where 
do I go from there? 

In Mythology, how do you distract 
Atlanta so you can win the foot race and 
win her hand in marriage? 

Floyd Keirnan 
Orange, CA 

Scoreboard: 

In Pyramid 2000, to get the bird, you 
must first get the statue box. To pick up 
the bird you must drop the scepter. To get 
a gold nugget you must go around a great 
hall. To scare the serpent, throw the bird. 

When you get to the plant begging for 
water, how do you get the water to the 
ground without breaking the vase? Is 
there something to drop it on? If so, 
what? 

David Czarnecki 
Northampton, MA 

Scoreboard: 

In Sir Randolf of the Moors, type 
WIPE SLIME, LOOK WALL, LOOK OUTLINE 
and PULL RING to get out of the pit. ' 

In the Interbank Incident, search the 
water fountain in Rio and you will find 
a ring. 

In the Lighthouse Adventure, how do 
you get past the guard? 

In Escape from Sparta, where do you 
find the chips that give you access to the 
computer? 

Charles Bell 
Clinton, NJ 

Scoreboard: 

How do you navigate the mine room 
in Robot Odyssey II 

Andrew Irwin 
Port Huron, MI 

To respond to other readers' inquiries 
and requests for assistance, reply to 
"Scoreboard Pointers," c/o THE RAIN- 
BOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 
We will share your reply with all "Score- 
board" readers in an upcoming issue. 

For greater convenience, "Scoreboard 
Pointers" and requests for assistance may 
also be sent to us through the MAIL 
section of our Delphi CoCo SIG. From the 
CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then 
type SEND and address to: EDITORS. 
sure to include your complete name and 
address. 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^ 



92 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



A program enabling you to view 
MacPaint picture files on your Co Co 



Get the Picture? 

By Al Elmer 



Although several MacPaint view- 
ers are available for the CoCo 
3, it is more difficult to find one 
for the CoCo 2. I have written this 
program specifically for the CoCo 2, 
but it is compatible with the CoCo 3. 
The program requires 64K Extended 
Color BASIC and a disk drive to run. 
With a few minor modifications that are 
explained later, it will also work on 
cassette-based systems, although not 
too well. 

First of all, what is MacPaint? Mac- 
Paint is a drawing program for the 
Apple Macintosh computer. Files 
generated by MacPaint usually have the 
extension -MfiC, although -PIC and 
. PNT are also common. In order to view 
MacPaint picture files on your CoCo, 
the problem of different screen resolu- 
tions between the Macintosh and CoCo 
must be solved. MacPaint (Mac for 
short) pictures have a resolution of 576- 
by-720 while the highest resolution of 
the CoCo 2 is 256-by-192. Thus only a 
portion of a Mac image can be dis- 
played on the CoCo's highest resolution 
screen. To solve the problem, this 
program allows you to scroll around the 
entire Mac image by pressing the arrow 
keys. Also offered is the ability to 
compress the image both horizontally 
and vertically by a factor of two. This 
"shrink" mode is useful when you want 

Al Elmer is a physics student at Mc Mas- 
ter University. In his spare time he 
enjoys tinkering with electronics and 
programming the CoCo, for which he 
is especially interested in making graph- 
ics applications. 



to see a larger part of the image at once. 
One drawback of shrinking the image 
like this is that some detail is lost. 

To load a new Mac file, press L at the 
menu. You will then be prompted for a 
filename. If you do not specify an 
extension, .MfiC will be used automat- 
ically. The file will then be loaded into 
memory. Once loaded, the upper left 
corner of the picture will be displayed. 
At this point the arrow keys can be used 
to scroll around the entire Mac image. 
The CLEAR key can be used to toggle 
between the present display mode and 
the shrink mode. This is useful if you 
want to see the image from a broader 
perspective. The compressed image will 
begin from the same position as the 
uncompressed image. Although the 
arrow keys will still function in the 
shrink mode, it takes much longer to 
update the screen in this mode. For this 
reason it is recommended that you 
position the image while in the full size 
display mode and then switch to the 
shrink mode when you want to see the 
compressed view. While in the shrink 
mode, pressing the number keys 1 
through 4 will alter the contrast of the 
image. Whenever a new file is loaded 
this value is reset to 2. 

At some point you may find yourself 
with a Mac file that has been shifted 
horizontally, perhaps to align it with the 
right-hand border of another computer 
with a higher resolution screen. As a 
result the left and right borders of the 
image will appear to meet at some point 
in the middle of your viewing area. By 
pressing the SHIFT and left arrow or 
SHIFT and right arrow keys, you may be 



able to shift this discontinuity until it 
disappears. 

Pressing the space bar at any time will 
return you to the menu. You can use the 
space bar to toggle between the menu 
and the picture. If you want to save 
whatever is on the current PM0DE4 
screen, you can press S at the menu. You 
will be prompted for a filename, and the 
graphics screen will be saved to disk as 
a standard binary file. If you do not 
specify an extension, -BIN will be used 
automatically. 

You can call up a directory by press- 
ing D at the menu. After the directory 
is displayed, the computer will pause for 
you to press any key and then return to 
the menu. To quit the program, press Q. 
Ending this way is recommended; the 
computer's memory will be freed up, 
allowing you to load in another pro- 
gram without crashing the computer. 
Also, the drive head will be returned to 
Track 0 for those drives that suffer from 
the "head-banging" problem. 

Mac View can be used on cassette- 
based systems with a few minor mod- 
ifications. These mostly involve chang- 
ing the device number from '1' to W -I." 
The EXEC in Line 880 should be elim- 
inated, and Line 1040 should be 
changed to 1040 EXEC E,-l. Of course 
the usual modifications, like changing 
SAVE to CSAVE and so on, should be 
made. Also, the cassette files of Mac 
data should be in segmented format to 
work properly with this program. Al- 
though cassette operation is possible, it 
is not very practical due to the large size 
of Mac files. Disk operation is recom- 
mended. □ 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 93 



Editor's Note: Due to the size of Macintosh files, 
we are unable to include samples on this months 
RAINBOW ON TAPEand DISK. However, severalfiles 
are available in the Graphics Database in the Co Co 
StG on Delphi. Simply download the files and save 
them to disk. Then run Mac View. 




50 217 590 232 

300 193 870 3 

450 233 END 63 



The listing: MAC VIEW 

1 'macpaint file viewer 

2 • for the coco ii 

3 • (c) al elmer 

4 • J33-11-88 

10 DATA 34, 1, BD,B2 , 23 ,BD,B3 ,ED 
20 DATA D7, 6F, 30,80, 1,CA,9F,F3 
30 DATA 8E,2,80,8D,39,30,1F,26 
40 DATA FA,8D,33,81,7F,22,17,4C 
50 DATA 97,FB,9E,F3,8D,28,43,A7 
60 DATA 80,8C,FE,0,24,2C,A,FB 
70 DATA 26,F2,9F,F3,20,E3,40,4C 
80 DATA 97,FB,8D,12,43,9E,F3,A7 
90 DATA 80,8C,FE,0,24,14,A,FB 
100 DATA 26,F5,9F,F3,20,CB,B7,FF 



110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
360 
370 
380 
390 



DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 



DE, BD,A1 

DF, 39,7F 
F7,B7,FF 
86,42,97 
F,FD,35, 
B7,FF, DF 
DE, CC,FF 
1,57, AD, 
81,5E,26 
A,F7,20, 
96,F7,91 
20,CE,81 
27,CF,A, 
26, A, 96, 

C, F6,20, 
35,81,81 
86,28,97 

D, FD,27, 
86,2A,97 
23,8E,86 
81,15,26 
8D,0,DD, 
EF,81,83 
IE, 20, 17 
FF,DF,30 
40, EE, 83 
26,F7,86 
4F,81,31 
34,10,22 



,76,1A,50,B7,FF 

,FF,40,F,F6,F 

,DE,86,FE,97,FC 

,77,86,28,97,76 

81,34,1,1A,50 

,17,0,BF,B7,FF 

,FF,FD,1,55,FD 

9F,A0,0,27,FA 

,8,96,F7,27,E9 

DC, 81, A, 26, A 

,77,24,DB,C,F7 

,8,26,8,96,F6 

F6,20,C2,81,9 

F6, 91, 76, 24, CI 

B4, 81, 20, 26, 2 

,C,26,22,3,FD 

,76,86,42,97,77 

9C, 86, 4, 97, 76 

,77,96,F7,81,2A 

,2A,97,F7,20,88 

,17,B7,FF,DF,30 

CC,65,40,EE,1 

,0,1,26,F7,30 

,81,5D,26,1A,B7 

,8D,CB,41,CC,65 

,EF, 1,83, 0,1 

,FF,A7,1,16,FF 

,10,25,FF,52,81 

,FF,4C,84,7,40 



Jt 



f 



1 

1 
I 



present 



9m* 



rib X* C dli 'l3 



gcuU 
W 



ling 



s t 



ITS 

1 
ii; 




an 



fire Control ! 

use irtori type joysticks with 
your coCo. JflC comes- with 
our unique rapid fire controil 
switch, great for Pegasus &| 
ZaKKon. Worses with majoritya 



i 

mi 

| 

tw 



| 

of joystick controlled games,! 
New from 4-TECHS ,go 
Introductory Price Jp^*-i 

4-TECHS -4-TEOHS 4-TEOH5 4-TECHS 4 '-TECHS 

T Q p Save Time 

On Pause. 

CoCo users, now Pause any 1 
program} at the touch of a 1 
button, then resume when 
you're r e a d y « now d* 1 4. .95 

ONLY! ™ 



:i' T t. r.nt .4* A a ra 



Hil f ^ r*~* 1 

§ i 



fg.E-fl P.-H COVERS ENTIRE ORDER 1 

■ m 



EL 



PLEASE 
ALLOW 

~»=. WKS 

P E L ! V E RYU 



1 P.O. BOH 2575 

| Merrifield, Ufl 22116 

94 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



Pi 



One* Liner Contest Iffimjer *!: I 



"■■» T" 



Here's one for SF iaitlS >THis one-liner draws a 3- 
D image on a backgroUtti ^ t^ s an< l plays the intro 
to the movie 2001. 



sc. 



The listing: 



I A»RND(256) :B=RND(191) :PMODE4 :S 
CREEN1 : PSET ( A , B) : LINE Q8 , 0 ) - (0 , 19 
1) , PSET: LINE- (256,191) , PSET : IFX> 
254ORY>190THENPLAY M O2L2B-O3FL2 . B 
-04L16DL1D-P8P4P202L2B-03FL2 . B-0 
4 LI 6 DL1D-P8 P4 P2P102 L2 B-03 FL2 . B-0 
4L16DL1E- M ELSELINE (J3 , Y) - (X, 191) , 
PSET : Y-Y+10 : X=X+lj3 ; G0T01 



Kevin $ Gro$s 
Akron, PA 



(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion The 
Third Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



4J3J3 DATA 97 
410 DATA FA 
42J3 DATA 58 
43J3 DATA 3J3 
44j3 DATA 26 
450 DATA 32 
460 DATA 37 
47J3 DATA 34 
48J3 DATA 32 
49J3 DATA ED 
5j3j3 DATA FA 
51J3 DATA BA 
52J3 DATA F3 
530 DATA C6 
540 DATA 48 
550 DATA FE 
560 DATA EB 
570 DATA FB 
580 DATA 26 
590 DATA AD 



FC,16 / FF,3B / 86,C0,97 

96,F7,C6,48,3D,58,49 

49, 58, 49, 30, 8D, 0,88 

8B,96,F6,33,86,D,FD 

35,10,DF,F8,10,DE,BA 

66, 37, 36, 34, 36, 32, 6C 

36, 34, 36, 32, 6C, 37, 36 

36,32,60,37,36,34,36 

6C,37 / 36,34 / 36,EC,C4 

66,32,6E,33,C8,2A,A 

26,D7,10,DE,F8,39 / 9E 

86, 20, 97, FB, 86, 2, 97 

A6 , C0 , 97 , FE , A6 , C8 , 47 

4,D7,F4,5F,48,C9,0 

C9,0,8,FE,C9,0,8 

D9,FC,69,84,A,F4,26 

A, F3, 26, DC, 30,1, A 

26,D2,33,C8,50,A,FA 

C7,39 / BE,C0 / 6,6F,84 



9F,C0,4,7F,FF,40,39 
700 PCLEAR4 : PM0DE4 : FILES 1,0 
710 CLEAR 50,12689:E=12690 
720 CLS: PRINT "just a sec...":C=0 
730 FOR K=E TO E+471 
740 READ A$:A=VAL("&H"+A$) : POKEK 
,A:C=C+A 
750 NEXT K 

760 IF C056331 THEN PRINT"bad n 

ews - this copy is no good" : END 
770 CLS:PRINT@8 , "macpaint viewer 
•« : PRINT§47 , "by" : PRINT@76 , "al elm 
er" 



file" 
pmode 



780 PRINT@166,"(L)oad a 
790 PRINT@230," (S)ave a 

screen" 

800 PRINT@294,"(D)ir" 

810 PRINT@358, " (Q)uit" 

820 PRINT§453, "<space> to view s 

creen" 

830 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 830 



One-Liner Contest Winner . , , 

This short program is a random graphics generator 
thai creates geometric patterns with DRAW strings. 

The listing: 



0 DATAU ,D,L,R,E, F,6,H: F0RO1T09 : 
READC$ (C) : NEXT : F0R2=1T019 : S$»S$+ 
C$ (RND (8) ) +STR$ (RND (4) ) :NEXTZ : PM 
ODE3 , 1: SCREEN1 , 0 : C$»STR$ (RND ( 3 ) + 
1) : DRAW"C"+C$ : FORS-1TO60STEP2 : FO 
RA-0TO3 : DRAW"BM127 , 95 ;A"+STR$ (A) 
+"S"+STR$ (S)+S$ : NEXTA, S :S$»"*.KU 



Mike Sims 

f. .V; V Nanuet, NY 

this winning one-Uner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
^-^$»oth The ^ it* conipariiop The 

Third Rainbow Adwntures Tape.) 



840 IF A$="L" THEN GOSUB 1000 
850 IF A$="S" THEN GOSUB 2000 
860 IF A$=» " THEN GOSUB 3000 
870 IF A$="D" THEN CLS:DIR:EXEC4 
4539:A$=INKEY$:GOTO 770 
880 IF A$="Q" THEN EXEC E+459:CL 
EAR200 , 3 2000 : CLS : PRINT" »burp ! « 
" : END 

890 GOTO 770 

1000 CLS: INPUT "load filename" ;F$ 
1010 IF INSTR(F$,". ")=0 THEN F$= 
F$+".MAC" 

1020 CLS: PRINT "uncrunching ";F$ 

1030 0PEN"I",#1,F$ 

1040 EXEC E,l 

1050 CL0SE#1:SCREEN1,1 

1060 EXEC E+116 

1070 RETURN 

2000 CLS: INPUT "save filename" ;F$ 
2010 IF INSTR(F$,".")=0 THEN F$= 
F$+".BIN" 

2020 CLS: PRINT "saving pmode4 fil 
e ";F$ 

2030 S=256*PEEK(186)+PEEK(187) 
2040 SAVEM F$ , S , S+6143 , 44539 
2050 RETURN 
3000 SCREEN1,1 
3010 EXEC E+116 
3020 RETURN 



to 



NEW FROM K-SOFT 



FROGDAY AFTERNOON 



It ain't easy being a Frogman, and 
somebody's gotta keep the subs and 
torpedos and squids off his back. 
That's you! 

You won't want to quit! 

8 Levels - Disk only 
Not Protected - Coco 3 only 



ZANDAR 

(See Feb. and March Ads in Rainbow) 



$24.95 each 
Spring Special 
Save $15 - Both for $34.90 

WA State residents add 7.5% sales tax 
Overseas send U.S. Money Order 

Check - Money Order - C.O,D. 
Phone (509) 884-0338 

K-Soft 
300 13th N.E. 



0 
2 



VISA' 



MortcrCcwdl 



E. Wenatchee, WA 98802 

nb^froSHSofT 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 95 



Add embedded printer commands 

to Write III 




bered so that they will merge without 
renumbering the original. To center 
text, type ;CT and then your text. To 
make the l|xi elongated, type ;CE 
instead. All other printer commands 
can be made by pressing the SHIFT and 
clear keys, followed by the appro- 
priate number below: 

0* Underline On I = Underline Oi i 

%* Bold On 3- Bold Of f 

4« Elongate On 5- Elongate Off 

Bl= italics On B0= Italics Off 

These codes are for a DMP-130. If 
you have another kind, just change the 
CHR$ codes to match your printer, Once 
the changes have been made, run the 
program as usual. 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this program may be directed to the 
author at 5348 Queens Ave. NE t Keizer, 
OR 97303* Piemen mehse an BASE 
when request ingti reply.) □ 



96 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



When I saw $($ ! CoCo 3's 80- 
column screen, 1 instantly 
thought of word processors 
and began to look for one that would 
use 80 columns. Everything on the 
market, though, was at least $80; after 
just buying a new computer, I couldn't 
afford that. Then 1 found the April "87 
issue of rainbow, which featured Write 
///, a word processor written in BASIC. 
Bill Cook's program was great for most 
uses, but it didn't allow embedded 
printer commands. With a few changes, 
it can compete with commercial pro- 
grams. 

Load or type in WWte /// [April '87, 
Page 156], an4 tte make the changes 
shown in Listing I. The lines are num- 



&ariy : Bates is ah electronic technician 
who has been programming for six 
yearsi He and his wife have two children 
who love their vd&4% new CoCo, 



Editor's Note: The complete modified version of 
Write III will be presented on this month's rain- 
bow on TAPE and DISK. : % ; 
The listing: WRITE3+ 

6 ' PRINTER CODES: \fi & \1=UNDE 
RLINE ON & OFF \2 & \3=BOLD O 
N & OFF 

\4 & \5=ELONGATE ON & OFF 
\B1 & \B0=ITALICS ON & OFF 

7 ' ;CT WILL CENTER A LINE OF TE 
XT. ;CE WILL CENTER OF LINE OF 
ELONGATED TEXT. ; LM=LEFT MAR 
GIN ;RM=RIGHT MARGIN ;SP=SPACI 
NG ;LP=LINES/PAGE 

8 • ;N=NEW PAGE 

9 CT$=STRING$(8J3,CHR$(32) ) 

4171 A$=L$(NO) :Z1$= M !#$%«t'{)*=l 
23456789/3 : -@+ ; ?/> . < , ABCDEFGHIJKL 
MNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdef ghi j klmnopqr 
stuvwxyz\ H : LOCATE 1 , V: ATTR1 , 1 : PRI 
NTA$ ; : IFH=0THENH=1 : GOSUB37 ELSE 
GOSUB37 

50J34 LM=lj3:RM=lj3:LG=8j3-LM-RM:LP= 
55 : PG=J3 : Ll=j3 : SP=1 : BF=j3 : B$=" " : LF= 
J3:UL=0 

5021 Xl«INSra(A$,"\") :IFXl=j3THEN 
5030 

5022 IF MID$(A$,X1+1,1)= H 0 M THEN 
MID$ ( A$ , XI , 2 ) =CHR$ (0 ) +CHR$ ( 15 ) 



ELSE IF MID$(A$,X1+1,1)= M 1" THEN 
MID$ ( A$ , XI , 2 ) =CHR$ (0 ) +CHR$ ( 14 ) 
' UNDERLINE ON & OFF 

5023 IF MID$(A$,X1+1,1)="4" THEN 
MID$ (A$,X1,2)=CHR$(27)+CHR$(14) 
ELSE IF MID$(A$,X1+1,1)="5" THE 

N MID$(A$,X1,2)=CHR$(27)+CHR$(15 
) • ELONGATE ON & OFF 

5024 IF MID$(A$,X1+1,1)="2" THEN 
MID$ ( A$ , XI , 2 ) =CHR$ ( 27 ) +CHR$ (31) 
ELSE IF MID$(A$,X1+1,1)= M 3 M THE 

N MID$(A$,X1,2)=CHR$(27)+CHR$(32 
) • BOLD ON AND OFF 

5025 IF MID$(A$,X1+1,1)= M B" THEN 
MID$(A$,X1, 1)=CHR$(27) • ITALIC 

S ON & OFF 
5029 GOTO5021 

5057 IF LEN(B$) >LG THEN A$=B$:B$ 
="":GOTO5030 

5555 X=INSTR(A$,";CL") :IF X=0THE 
N 5560 

5556 IFLEN(A$)-3>=LG THENA$=MID$ 
(A$,4) :GOTO5030 ELSE C=(LG-LEN(A 
$ ) +4 ) /2 : A$=MID$ (CT$ , 1 , C) +MID$ (A$ 
,4) :GOTO5030 

5560 X=INSTR(A$, M ;CE") :IF X=0THE 
N5570 

5561 IF LEN(A$)-3>=LG/2 THENA$=M 
ID$(A$,4) :GOTO5030 



SPECIAL DEAL ON 500 
PROGRAMS IS BACK! 



BACK BY POPULAR DEMAND! GET OUR LATEST 
50 DISKS OR TAPES FULL OF OVER 500 PROGRAMS. 
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programs and receive a free 
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RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



COOL DOWNTO OUR SUMMER PRICES 
ON SUBSCRIPTION SOFTWARE 



THERE IS NO BETTER WAY TO ENJOY THE SUMMER THAN 
TREATING YOUR COLOR COMPUTER TO 10 READY-TO-RUN 
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NO, WE ARE NOT THE SAME AS THE RAINBOW ON TAPE. IN 
FACT, MANY SUBSCRIBERS HAVE WRITTEN IN AND SAID THAT 
WE ARE MUCH BETTER THAN RAINBOW ON TAPE! 




1 YEAR (12 Issues) 
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★ AvailableonCOC01,2,and3 

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FOR A COMPLETE LISTING 



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T&D SUBSCRIPTION SOFTWARE, 2490 MILES STANDISH DR., HOLLAND, Ml 49424 (616) 399-9648 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 97 



1 Ann i 





\ K k "\ /'V, v 






o r 


V A / 7 






o) 






t's the July issue again, and do you 
know what that means? Yes, it's our 
birthday! And as usual when it's our 
birthday, we give you a present. This 
year it's a mobile to hang in your com- 
puter corner — a CoCo Mobile, starring 
our favorite feline, CoCo Cat. 

It's easy to assemble. Just cut 
out the seven items and punch 
small holes where indicated. Use an 
X-acto knife for cutting out the 
figures if you're not very handy with 
scissors, because extracting CoCo 
Cat from the page requires some delicate 
surgery. You don't need to cut out inner 
spaces, like the area inside CoCo Cat's 
arms or inside Maxwell Mouse's tail; 
doing so might disturb the balance and 
give you a lopsided mobile — very 
embarrassing. 

You'll need six pieces of string to 
tie it all together: a 7-inch, a 4-inch, 
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98 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



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64K ECB EDTASM+ 




The first in a series of tutorials for the beginner 
to intermediate machine language programmer 



Machine Language Made BASIC 

Part I: General Math 
By William P. Nee 



When I first started to learn machine language, 
setting up graphics seemed like a very complicated 
procedure. All those VDGs and SAMs were really 
discouraging. But then I realized that when you type in 
commands such as PMODE 4 or PCL5 2 or SCREEN 1,1, the 
computer must do something with those commands and 
numbers. 

Why not find those same routines in ROM so you can just 
enter, for example, the PMDDE numbers you want and then 
let the computer do all the work of setting the VDGs and 
SAMs? This series of articles is the result of several months 
of studying ROM routines to see where you can enter them, 
and it should help to make machine language programming 
a little more basic. These programs have been assembled 
with the EDTASM+ cartridge. 

In the next 13 articles, we'll use machine language for basic 
math functions: RND, PRINT, PRINT USING, PMODE, PSET, 
LINE, PLAY, etc. We'll make a "dump" program for a seven- 
dot printer, create music with six voices and wind up with 
a 3-D rotation program that includes perspective. Most of 
the machine language programs will have either an explana- 
tion or a BASIC program listing for comparison. 

Many of these programs are written for ease of understand- 
ing rather than for maximum speed. You will find places 
where you can cut down on the number of commands and 
refine the program. Just be sure you understand how the 
whole program works before modifying it. Thanks to Adrian 
Kotik for debugging the programs and proofreading and 
assembling the articles. 

Machine language is not a complicated language, just 
different. Commands are written in an abbreviated format 
such as LD for Load, ST for Store, SUB for Subtract, etc. Most 
numbers are written in Hex format, using the numerical Base 
16; however, EDTASM+ lets us use the more familiar Base 
10, which we will be using in most of the programs. The $ 
prefix will indicate an address or location in Hex; #$ indicates 
a Hex number; # indicates a Base 10 number. 



Bill Nee reversed the "snowbird" trend by retiring to 
Wisconsin from a banking career in Florida. He spends the 
long, cold winters writing programs for his Co Co. 

1 00 THE RAINBOW July 1 988 



All examples and methods are based on using EDTASM+. 
Be sure the computer is turned off before inserting the 
cartridge. Examples will usually originate (ORG) at Hex 
Location $3000 for compatability with either a 16K or 32K 
computer. Each example will end with SWI, although to avoid 
the End Error message, you may add an extra line by pressing 
TAB, typing END, pressing TAB again and typing START. If you 
do, the line after the ORG line should begin with something 
like START. Any listing you want to save on tape should have 
END START as the last line of the program. 

The following examples will show how to add, subtract, 
multiply, and divide using machine language. 

Example 1: Put the number 5 into Register A. Store the 
contents of Register A in Location $D0. Increase the contents 
of Location $D0 by 1. Load Register A with the contents of 
Location $D0. To put the program into memory, type A/IIV 
AD and let the program list to check for any errors; press Z 
to go to ZBUG, then type G3000. To check the result, press 
R to examine the registers. Register A now contains 6. The 
command INC can be used to add the number 1 to registers 
A, B or a memory location. 

Example 1 A: In this example, we load Register A with the 
number 5 and add to Register A (ADDA) the number 4. After 
running the program, examine the registers to see the result 
of 9 in Register A. 

Example 2: This time the DEC command is used. The results 
show that DEC can be used to subtract the number 1 from 
registers A, B or a memory location. The commands INC and 
DEC are useful for the counting portion of your programs; 
however, most math problems are a little more complicated 
than 1 + I. 

Example 2A: The SUB command will subtract a number 
from Register A or Register B. In many cases, however, both 
registers A and B may contain numbers we need to use later. 

The next six examples illustrate how to add, subtract, and 
multiply these two registers together. 

Example 3: Load registers A and B with different numbers, 
save Register B in the S stack (PSHS B), add to Register A 
the contents of the S stack and increase the S stack pointer 
by 1 back to its original location (ADDA ,S+). When we look 
at Register A we see that it contains F instead of 15. This 



is the computer's way of displaying numbers in Base 16, or 
Hex. In Base 16, 10=A, 11=B, 12=C, 13=D, 14=E, 15=F and 
16=10. So our answer of "F" is correct. 

Example 4: The same procedure is used to subtract Register 
B from Register A. 

Example 5: Another subtraction problem, but now when 
we look at Register A we see FB, not -5. The computer 
doesn't recognize negative numbers, it merely counts 
backwards from zero. The highest number that can be put 
into registers A or B is 255, or #$FF. Counting backwards 
from zero in Base 16 you, get #$FF, #$FE, #$FD, #$FC, 
#$FB, #$FA, etc. The fifth number counting backwards from 
zero is #$FB, so -5=#$FB. 

Wait a minute — isn't #$FB also a positive number? Yes, 
in Base 10 it is (F*16)+B, or (15*16)+1 1=251. How does the 
computer — or operator — know which number is correct? 
In most math operations the computer will use "signed" 
numbers. If the left-most bit of an 8- or 16-bit number written 
in Base 2 is a 1, the number is considered to be negative; if 
it is a zero, the number is positive. So in registers A or B, 
numbers that appear to be greater than 127 may actually be 
negative numbers for math purposes. 

In Example 5 our answer was #$FB. Since #$FB is greater 
than 127, we know the answer is actually a negative number. 
To use the "signed number check" you must convert #$FB 
in Hex to 11111011 in Base 2. (An easy way to convert Hex 
numbers to the Base 2 is to convert one Hex digit at a time. 
#$F equals 15, or 1 1 1 1 in the Base 2; #$B equals 1 1 or 101 1 
in the Base 2, so #$FB= 11111011.) 

To prove that #$FB as a "signed" number is the same as 
-5, use the "Two's Compliment" procedure. Write the 
number in Base 2, reverse all the 0s to Is and all the Is to 
0s, then add 1 . In doing so, 1 1 1 1 101 1 becomes 00000100, and 
adding 1 gives us a result of 00000101. This equals 5, so our 
answer is -5! 

Example 6: This time we loaded registers A and B each 
with a number and used MUL to multiply them. Since the result 
could be greater than the space available in just one register, 
we must read registers A and B together all as one number. 
Registers A and B together are called Register D, although 
the D does not appear on the screen. Examine Register D 
(A and B) to find the answer $32, which is 3*16+2, or 50. 

Example 7: In this example, we have to read all of Register 
D to find an answer of $2710, which is (2*16)**3 + (7*16)**2 
+ 1*16 + 0, or 10000. (** is used here as a symbol for 
exponential.) 

Example 8: Before we check the answer, an important 
point to remember is that MUL does not use "signed" numbers. 
So when we try to put in -100 or #$9C, the computer uses 
#$9C=156 and multiplies that by 100. The answer of Hex 
3CF0 in Register D is 15600. Even larger numbers can be 
multiplied by using a ROM subroutine at Address $9FB5. 

Example 9: Load Register D with a Hex number and 
Register X with another Hex number. Jumping to the 
subroutine at $9FB5 (JSR $9FB5) will put the product of 
Register D times Register X in Register Y and Register U. 
If we read Register Y and Register U together, the product 
is $06260060. You can check the result this time by converting 
the answer to the Base 10. Does this subroutine work with 
negative numbers? 

So far, we've been working only with whole numbers, but 
that rarely occurs in math. The computer has two locations 
where it stores numbers up to nine digits long, including 
positive and negative numbers. These locations are called 
Floating Point Accumulator 1 and 2, or FP1 and FP2. To 



1 

Example 1 


Example 1A 


Example 2 


ORG $3000 


ORG 


$3000 


ORG $3000 


LDR 85 


LDR 


85 


LDR 85 


STfi $D0 


ADDA 


UA 


STR $D0 


INC $D0 


SWI 




DEC $D0 


LDR $D0 






LDR $D0 


SWI 






SWI 


Example 2A 


Example 3 


Example 4 


ORG $3000 


ORG 


$3000 


ORG $3000 


LDR 85 


LDR 


810 


LDR 810 | 


5UBR 84 


LDB 


«5 


LDB 85 


SWI 


PSHS 


B 


PSHS B 




RDDfl 


Sift 


SUBR ,5+ 




SWI 




SWI 


Example 5 


Fx ample 


Example 7 1 


ORG $3000 1 


ORG 


$3000 


ORG $3000 


LDR 85 


LDR 


85 


LDR 8100 


LDB 810 


LDB 


810 


LDB 8100 


PSHS B 


MUL 




MUL , 


SUBfl ,5+ 


SWI 




SWI , 


SWI 








| Kx ample 8 




| 


Kx am pie 9 


ORG $3000 


ORG $3000 


LDR 8-100 


LDD 8$1234 | 


LDB 8100 


LDX 8$5678 


MUL 




JSR $9FB5 


SWI 




SWI 

1 



get a "signed" number from Register D to FP1, use the ROM 
routine at Address $B4F4; to get a number from FP1 back 
to Register D, use the routine at $B3ED. Remember, Register 
D can only hold a whole number. 

Certain numbers already stored in the computer's memory 
that are used to perform internal calculations and their 
locations are: 

Number Location 

-0.50 S843C 

0.25 SBFC2 

0.50 $BEC0 

1.00 SBAC5 
10.00 SBB7D 

Each number is five bytes long and is in floating point format. 

To handle internal calculations, the computer has five 
ROM routines that add, subtract, multiply, or divide. The 

July 1988 THE RAINBOW 101 



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and editing program. Text per- 
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merge, and block select, copy and 
delete. Ledger is a simple spread- 
sheet which includes an easy-to- 
use menu and automatic column 
formatting. Index Cards filing 
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Index Cards also allows you to en- 
ter and edit data and perform sorts 
and searches. Using Paint, you 
can create colorful charts, graphs 
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Name — 
Address 



symbol X means "the number at Location X." These routines 
are: 



Function 
FP1=(X)+FP1 

FP1=(X)-FP1 
FP1=(X)*FP1 
FP1=(X)/FP1 
FP1=FP2/(X) 



Address 

$B9C2 

SB9B9 

SBACA 

SBB8F 

SBB88 



Example 10: Load Register D with the number 6, put that 
in FP1 (JSR $B4F4); load Register X with the location of 
the number 10 (LDX #$BB7D), add the number at the 
location in Register X to FP1 (JSR $B9C2). Transfer the 
result back to Register D (JSR SB3ED). Examine the register 
to find Register D is Hex 10, or 16. 

Example 11: Use the routine at $B9B9 to subtract FP1 
from the number at the location in Register X. 

Example 12: The routine at SBACA is used to multiply the 
number at the location in Register X by FP1. The answer 
of 3C in Register D is 60. 

Example 13: The routine at SBB8F divides the number at 
the location in Register X by FP1. Since Register D can only 
hold whole numbers, it shows a 1. The complete answer is 
in FP1, so we need a routine to display the entire answer 
instead of rounding it off to Register D. By using a 
combination of ROM routines, we can display the complete 
answer, including negative numbers, up to nine digits. 
(Putting a number back into Register D will lose the number 
in FP1.) 

Example 13 A: Type and run this example to see the entire 



* w ' ill 

Example 10 



$3000 
86 

$B4F4 
8$BB7D 
$B9C2 
SB3ED 



Example 1 1 



ORG 
LDD 
JSR 
LDX 
JSR 
JSR 
SWI 



$3000 
86 

$B4F4 
8$BB7D 
$B9B9 
$B3ED 



Example 13 







Example 12 



□ 



ORG 
LDD 
JSR 
LDX 
JSR 
JSR 
SWI 



$3000 
86 

$B4F4 
8SBB7D 
$BflCfl 
$B3ED 



Example 13 A 



ORG 


$3000 


ORG 


$3000 


LDD 


86 


LDD 


86 


JSR 


$B4F4 


JSR 


$B4F4 


LDX 


8SBB7D 


LDX 


8$BB7D 


JSR 


$BBBF 


JSR 


$BB8F 


JSR 


$B3ED 


JSR 


$BDD9 


SWI 




LEflX 


-1,X 






JSR 


B99C 






JSR 


$B958 






SWI 






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answer displayed with all nine digits (and in the Base 10). The 
following routines are used in this example: 



Function 

Transfer FP1 to a buffer at $3DA 
Decrease location for sign 
Print buffer contents 
Print a carriage return 

The main FP routines are: 



Address 

$BDD9 
LEAX-1.X 
$B99C 
SB958 



The $B4F4 routine is used in most function commands. 
Once a number is in FP1, you can jump to the routine for 
any of the following: 



Function 

Transfer FP1 to FP2 (and FP1) 
Transfer FP2 TO FP1 (and FP2) 
Register B (-128 to +127) to FP1 
Register B (-128 to +127) + FP1 
Register D (-32768 to +32767) to FP1 
(X) to FP1 
(X) to FP2 
FP1 to (X) 
10*FP1 
-1*FP1 
FP1/10 
FP2/FP1 

Some other numbers stored in the computer's memory are: 



Address 

$BC5F 

$BC4A 

SBC7C 

SBD99 

$B4F4 

SBC14 

SBB2F 

$BC35 

$BB6A 

SBEE9 

$BB82 

$BB91 



Function 


Location 


SIN 


$BF78 


COS 


$8378 


TAN 


$8381 


SQR 


$8480 


EXP 


$84F2 


LOG 


$8446 


RND 


$BF1F 


INT 


$BCCE 



Number 

-32768 

PI/2 

2*PI 

SQR(2)/2 

SQR(2) 

LOG(2) 



Location 

SB3DF 
S83AB 

SBFBD or $BFE1 

$8432 

$8437 

$8441 



You can print the results in FP1 or use the routine at $B3ED 
to put the results back in Register D, but only as a whole 
number. For practice, develop a machine language program 
that will print the SIN of any angle you load into Register 
D. Remember, angles must be converted to radians, since 
trigonometric functions in the Color Computer are in 
radians. (Hint: one degree = 2*PI/360 radians.) 

Now for our comparison programs. Both will perform a 
sort of numbers and graphics from screen locations &H400 
to &H5FF. You may want to time each program. Is there a 
difference in the random portion? Is there much difference 
in the sorting portion? We will review these programs in the 
next article. Meanwhile, try making up your own programs 
using the ROM routines we've discussed. 

(Questions or comments concerning this tutorial may be 
directed to the author at Route 2, Box 216C, Mason, WI 
54856-9302. Please enclose an SASE when requesting a 
reply.) □ 



Listing It S 


QRTBflS j 


250 


IF A<=»B THEN 300 


110 


CLS 


270 


TEMP-A : A=B : B=TEMP 


120 


FOR X=&H400 TO &H5FF 


280 


POKE X, A: POKE X+1,B 


13 0 


POKE X,RND(255) 


290 


FLAG=0 


180 


NEXT 


300 


NEXT 


20f3 


FLAG=1 


320 


IF FLAG=0 THEN 200 


220 


FOR X=&H400 TO &H5FE 


340 


A$=INKEY$ : IF A$="" THEN 340 


230 


A=PEEK(X) :B=PEEK(X+1) 


370 


END 



Introducing the FOCUS™ software system for 0S-9™ Level II— serious business for your CoCo3! 



FOCUS Applications Hub 

A multi-tasking /multi user systems of I/O functions 
and utilities which features: 

• Two level menu system with company code 
and access code protection. 

• Unique filing, sorting, searching and record 
locking routines. 

• Works with most printers, floppy/hard 
drives and terminals. 

• Similar keys and screen formats for all 
FOCUS-MATE programs. 

• Routines for file maintenance, data backup 
and setup. 

• Context-sensitive help screens. 



FOCUS-MATE Correspondence 
Module 

An integrated Text Editor, Text Formatter and 
Mailing List Database: 

• Import text or database files for mail merge 
facilities. 

• Control all printer functions, change 
formats anywhere in text save formats. 

• Preview final text on screen . 

• Print with left, right, full or centered 
justification, tabs, auto headers/footers, 
page numbering and dictionary lookup. 

• Multiple text column capability. 



FOCUS-MATE General Ledger Module 

A sophisticated General Ledger package for small 
business. 

• All features integrate with other 
FOCUS-MATE modules. 

• Number of accounts and transactions 
limited only by disk space. 

• Auto balance checking, flexible period and 
year-end procedures, profit/cost center 
consolidated ledger and batching 
capabilities. 

• Reports: Balance Sheet, Trial Balance, P&L 
Statement, Transaction Journal, 
Transaction Aging. 



FOCUS 

Correspondence Module 
General Ledger Module 
FOCUS Technical Manual 



0S-9 Programmers: FOCUS is a great tool-box for system developers! 

with purchase of 0S-9 Level II and FOCUS, boot file is free, multi-task on 128K! OS-9 Level II $64.95 

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(303) 440-4767 



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Min. Sys. Req.: CoCo3, OS-9 Level II, 360K disk drive, 80 col. display 



OS-9 is a trademark of Microware and Motorola Inc. 



106 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



Listing 2: SORTBIN 












W9 




00100 


ORG 


$3000 






3pW BD 


A928 


00110 START 


JSR 


$A928 


110 


CLS 


3003 108E 0400 


00120 


LDY 


#$400 


120 


FOR X-&H400 TO &H5FF 


3007 CC 


00FF 


00130 LOOP1 


LDD 


#255 


130 


POKE X,RND(255) 


300A BD 


B4F4 


00140 


JSR 


$B4F4 






300D BD 


BF1F 


00150 


JSR 


$BF1F 






3010 BD 


B3ED 


00160 


JSR 


$B3ED 






3013 E7 


A0 


00170 


STB 


,Y+ 






3015 108 C 


05 FF 


00180 


CMPY 


#$5FF 


180 


NEXT 


3019 23 


EC 


00190 


BLS 


LOOP1 






301B 86 


01 


00200 SORT 


LDA 


#1 


200 


FLAG»1 


301D B7 


3040 


00210 


STA 


FLAG 






3020 8E 


0400 


00220 


LDX 


#$400 


220 


FOR X~&H400 TO &H5FE 


3023 EC 


80 


00230 LOOP2 


LDD 


,x+ 


230 


A«PEEK(X) : B-PEEK(X+1) 


3025 34 


04 


00240 


PSHS 


B 






3027 Al 


E0 


00250 


CMPA 


,s+ 


250 


IF A<-B THEN 300 


3029 23 


07 


00260 


BLS 


CONT 






302B IE 


89 


00270 


EXG 


A,B 


270 


TEMP=A : A«B : B=TEMP 


302D ED 


IF 


00280 


STD 


-i,x 


280 


POKE X, A: POKE X+l.B 


302F 7F 


3040 


00290 


CLR 


FLAG 


290 


FLAG«0 


3032 8C 


05FE 


00300 CONT 


CMPX 


#$5FE 


300 


NEXT 


3035 23 


EC 


00310 


BLS 


LOOP2 






3037 7D 


3040 


00320 


TST 


FLAG 


320 


IF FLAG-0 THEN 200 


303A 27 


DF 


00330 


BEQ 


SORT 






303C BD 


ADFB 


00340 


JSR 


$ADFB 


340 


A$-INKEY$:IF A$= ,,M THEN 340 


303F 3F 




00350 


SWI 








3040 




00360 FLAG 


RMB 


1 








3000 


00370 


END 


START 


370 


END 


00000 TOTAL ERRORS 










/at 



Hardware 




Communications 




300/120D baud Fully Hayes 

compatible 
Modem - 1 Year Warranty 

$1 09.00 

[Modem & Cable] 

30D/1200/2-400 baud 
Fully Hayes 
Compatible Modem - CCITT 
1 Year Warranty 

$1 79.00 

[Modem & Cable] 



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PO Box H 

Logan Utah 84321 



'KEEP TRAK' General Ledger Reg. $69.95— Only $39.95 

"Double-Entry" General Ledger Accounting System for home or business: 16k, 
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32k & 64k [710 accounts & entries on 1 6k] [disk only]. Version 1 .2 has screen printouts. 

Rainbow Review 1.1- 9/84 : 1 .2-4/85 

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Rling data base. Rle any information with Omega Rle. Records can have up to 1 6 fields 
with 255 characters per field [4080 characters/record]. Sort, match & print any field. 
User friendly menu driven. Manual included [32k/64k disk only]. 

Rainbow Review 3/85. Hot CoCo 10/85 

BOB'S MAGIC GRAPHIC MACHINE 

Can generate BASIC code to use in your programs. Easy drawing and manipulation of 
circles, elipses, boxes, lines and ARCS. Single joystick operation with on line HELPS at all 
times. Allows text on the graphics screen & movement of objects on the screen. Can be 
used as a stand-alone graphics editor. Instruction Manual. GRAPHICS EDITOR. REG. 
$39.95 — ONLY 524.95 for disk or tape. 64k ECB. 

Rainbow Review 7/85, Hot CoCo 9/85 "The graphics bargain of the year" 

'KEEP-IRAK' Accounts Receivable. 

Features: auto interest calculation, auto ageing of accounts, installment sales, total due 
sales, explanation space as long as you need, detailed statements, 'KEEP-TRAK* General 
Ledger tie in, account number checking, credit limit checking & more. User friendly/menu 
driven. Includes manual. $39.95 or $49.95 General Ledger & Accounts Receivables. 

Psk Only] 'COCO WINDOWS' 

With hi-res character display and window generator. Features an enhanced key board 
[klicks] and 1 0 programmable function keys. Allows the user to create multiple windows 
from basic. Includes menu driven printer setup and auto line numbering. Four function 
calculator, with mDmory. The above options can be called anytime while running or writing 
in BASIC. APPLE PULL YDUR ORAPES. YOU DON'T WANT TO SEE THIS. $24.95 [disk 
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(BOO) 942-9402 



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C.O.O., Money Order, Check in U.S. Funde [Pleeee epecif y if J&M 

controller] 



I 
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* 

I 

# 

I 

# 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 107 



T & D SUBSCRIPTION SOFTWARE CELEBRATES 6 YEARS 



ISSUE #1, JULY 1982 


ISSUE #7, JAN. 1983 


ISSUE #13, JULY 1983 


COVER 1 


NEW YEARS COVER 


THIRTEENTH COVER 


RACE TRACK 


1 1 AT Hi II f ft ||Af"A 

LIST ENHANCER 


P" 1 1 Al 1 /S ft rs PA 

FLASH CARD 


HANGMAN 


smt 1 i mm •** mm P^ ft - Mm. V . /h » | BBk | * ■ 

SUPER PRECISION DIV. 


i ni a Al/ 

ICE BLOCK 


MUSIC ALBUM 


BOMB DIFFUSE 


COSMIC FORTRESS 


1 tlTn P™ m P P^ P 1 * ^» 4\ P. I >^ V ^ 

LIFE EXPECTANCY 


SPACE STATION 


ft ft ft 11 1 *rtT 

MAIL LIST 


WORD TESTS 


ML TUTORIAL PT. 2 


P^ P^ lift J*l 3t 3m. ^A P~ ft 1 

DOLLARS & CENTS 


KILLER MANSION 


SHOOT OUT 


A At ^P" * ITrilAt ft I p«. 

ML TUTORIAL PT.8 


BARTENDER 


FIND UTILITY 


3m ftm 1 3 in ■ - 1 ■ ^ 

SDSK COPY' 


CALENDAR 


Aft /ML r% >% r ■ ■ /« 

CYBORG INS. 


ft J k • m «^ #^ l ■ ft k ^P* ft ■ ft<ft~«^ a *mt pjr ftftv 

MUSIC SYNTHESIZER 


ROBOT WAR 


CYBORG FACES 


Mm* ft ■* d mt P 1 ^ 

CRAWLER 


ISSUE #2, AUG, 1982 


ISSUE #8, FEB., 1983 


ISSUE #14, AUG. 1983 


UFO COVER PT. 1 


COVER 8 


MYSTERY COVER 


8I0RYTHM 


DEFEND 


»>-% «^ 1 ft t ft 

ROW BOAT 


BOMBARDMENT 


n F\ i ft in i t #^ ft i ft. 1 ■ ■ ft i 

3 DIMENSIONAL MAZE 


••k #A ft ft p^ 1 i "*P* p^ ~P" ft t-^p ■ p^^ft j 

COMPUTER TUTL PT. 1 


BLACK JACK 


COCO CONCENTRATION 


1 ft 1 P^ V # ft ^PV ft P^ ft 3M p. 

INDEX DATA BASE 


COST OF LIVING 


ft 1 f~\ ■ i ft i ** ft ■ i aft ft n r~ pa iki 

AUTO LINE NUMBERING 


P*k 1 ft ^ ft ft4h P^ •* ft^ 

DISK ZAPPER 


FRENZY 


ft ft 1 *V" t ■*** ^fc ft ft ■ P«L^»> ■ 

ML TUTORIAL PT.3A 


3*m 3**. 3^ ■ ■ M . ■ ^p> 3*1 

COCO-MONITOR 


BUSINESS LETTER 


ft. ft 1 ^P" 1 l^ft* ^4 P« ^ ft 1 ^P* #ftf 

ML TUTORIAL PT.3B 


3^ 3*m 3*^ 3^ ft P^ mm-- i 3m. mm* 

COCO-ARTIST 


A| IIAlf Tl lift * 1 / 

QUICK THINK 


Ati • r\ 1 ft pa rsAi « * p™ pa i ft ft I ^* 

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT 


P^ tm. p» 3^ m ft A ft ft ft ■ 

ROBOT COMMAND 


QUEST INSTRUCTIONS 


Pa i i a i r\ ft nnir* pa 

DUAL BARRIER 


A^ft*»AT a A AlMMki nrsu iv 

TEST SCREEN PRINT 


QUEST FOR LENORE 


PA PAi/AI /O 

BRICKS 


1 II At ■ AP* A Al I 1 T 1 1 /A ft 1 vpijv 

HIGH RESOLUTION TEXT 


ISSUE #3, SEPT. 1982 


ISSUE #9, MARCH 1983 


ISSUE #15, SEPT. 1983 


UFO COVER PT.2 


TIME MACHINE COVER 


MYSTERY COVER PT.2 


n a A iy prn a i i 

BASKETBALL 


TTSi/S PA P* ft ft /S 

TRIG DEMO 


PAipA 1 PA « ■ ft | i (r PA 

GOLD VALUES 


/si 11 fc/\t/i t i/i i / 

CHUCKLUCK 


PYRAMID OF CHEOPS 


^P* Wmt i" 4 3 ' 4 ft I 3m\ A* P^ 1 1 ft ■ ■ 3m± 

TREK INSTRUCTIONS 


i at ■ j ■ a * lit i r 

SLOT MACHINE 


•APA/ft/S PA A ft ft PA ft /S 1 /f~PA 

PROGRAM PACKER 


TREK 


ALPHABETIZER 


nt i Art rT 

BUDGET 


111 d*^ t 1 mm * J^p> ■ a n t r* t W ft ft ^ft ft ■ 

HIGH TEXT MODIFICATION 


NFL PREDICTIONS 


4" 1 fATAAftll A PA i¥h n AAI4 

ELECTRONIC DATE BOOK 


ASTRO DODGE 


FLAG CAPTURE 


■ '■I Ar*l IT A At A 1 f^T ft 

ML TUTORIAL PT.4 


»— mm. A AAA 

DR. COCO 


nAHAT n /sft irir n 

R0BO1 BOMBER 


T A PA f* PA 1 AP*AT PA ft 3 

TAPE DIRECTORY 


1 m pv ^ft • ft i| ■ pk 

PEG JUMP 




BLOCK-STIR 


ft ft #A PA A p~" A^S/A^ 

MORSE CODE 




* .PfiHt M f% ' A J*\ fA> 4 A 1 X% ft ft ft A 1 Til ft 1 P" 

COCO ADDING MACHINE 


PAI 1 fA P* 1 |Ti t |T1/ 

PURGE UTILITY 


ISSUE #4, OCT. 1982 


ISSUE #10, APRIL 1983 


ISSUE #16, OCT. 1983 


UFO RESCUE 


TENTH COVER 


MYSTERY COVER 


T ft ft. I 1 1 PA ft ^"^f ■ r™ 

TANK BATTLE 


*A* J P^ A ft ft 1 PA ^% P" fft A ft 1 r~~ PA 

PYRAMID OF DANGER 


jm, a m^vA ^A ft l 

BOP0TR0N 


DRIVEWAY 


Tft JtAf A 1 /^ Ti ITA A 

TYPING TUTOR 


P^ 1 PA P™ A A* PA P^ 1 ft n P* ^ All 

DIRECTORY RECALL 


SOUNDS 


| || T 1 \ T /S PA 1 A • ' AT ■" P*- i'J 

ML TUTORIAL PL5 


• /p— 'AA-A A A A AAlllAA 1 ft 1 AT 

VECTOR GRAPHICS INST, 


n a 1 i /soft i rsrsrsrs 

BALLOON DROP 


Til ll/A A 1 PA 

TINYCALC 


ft ft p^ 3m^ «Y* ^% PA PA ft A III A A 

VECTOR GRAPHICS 


ft 1 1 ft i m noooir" 

MIND BOGGLE 


ATAAW ft ft A AliPf AAl ft 

STOCK MARKET CDMP 


A 1 /I < Alt IP* PA 

SKYDIVER 


COCO-TERRESTRIAL ADV. 


> j ft ■ ft || rtm «h 

YAH-H00 


ft ft ft PB pmft J pj ft ft P ft^ Ik ■ ■_ 

SWERVE AND DODGE 


CALORIE COUNTER 


■ ■ * ■ i ** a ft ^ft> i ■ 

MISSILE ATTACK 


k • ft ft ft ft« ft« Ah ft ^PI^B* ft f- 

NIMBO BATTLE 


JACK-Q-LANTERN 


P^ P - " P™" ft I P*fl t ft 1 w 

SCREEN PRINT 


■V ft p» ft ft ■ ft ■ > ft tf-x ft am ft ft ^p- ft > ft m3m\ m 

TAPE ANALYSIS UTILITY 




BRIKPONG 


LIFE GENERATIONS 


ISSUE #5, NOV. 1982 


ISSUE #11, MAY 1983 


ISSUE #17, NOV. 1983 

•J ^P» ^Pft ft ■ PJ ft ■ w mmw v ft V *W ^tw^Mr 


CATALOG COVER 


ELEVENTH COVER 


THANKSGIVING COVER 


BOWLING 


ARCHERY 


3-D TIC-TAC-TOE 


PROGRAM INVENTORY 


FROG JUMP 


INDY 500 


PROMISSORY-LOANS 


ML TUTORIAL PT.6 


COLLEGE ADVENTURE 


CHECKBOOK BALANCER 


MLT DICTIONARY 


MEMORY GAME 


TRIGONOMETRY TUTOR 


BASIC SPEED UP TOT 


DUNGEON MASTER 


CONVOY 


METRIC C0NVERT0R 


WEATHER FORECASTER 


BAG-IT 


GRAPHIC QUAD ANTENNA 


GRID FACTOR INST. 


SPECTRA SOUND 


GRAPHICS PROGRAM 


GRID FACTOR 


CONVEYOR BELT 


CATERPILLAR CAVE 


DRAW 






icciic mo ncn ^noo 
looUc ff ill, Utb. lSoo 


CHRISTMAS COVER 


TWELFTH COVER 


CHRISTMAS COVER 


RAINDROPS 


SHOOTING GALLERY 


CLIMBER 


STOCK MARKET 


BOMB STOPPER 


GALACTIC CONQUEST 


ADVANCE PONG 


VALLEY BOMBER 


WAfiLORDS 


DESTROY 


STAR FIGHTER 


STATES REVIEW 


SOUND ANALYZER 


WHEEL OF FORTUNE 


MATH TUTOR 


CREATIVITY TEST 


ML TUTORIAL PT.7 


MACHINE LANGUAGE DATA 


VOICE DATA 


MERGE UTILITY 


PRINTER UTILITY INST. 


ML TUTORIAL PT, I 


RAM TEST 


PRINTER UTILITY 


LQONY LANDER 


LANDER 


MUTANT WAFFLES 




ISSUE #19, JAN. 1984 

BANNER 
PROBE 

DISK DIR. PROTECTOR 
OPTICAL CONFUSION 
WORD PROCESSOR 
WORD SEARCH 
ASTRONAUT RESCUE 
STAR TRAP 
PIE CHART 
FORCE FIELD 

ISSUE #20, FEB. 1984 

INTRODUCTION 
HINTS FOR YOUR COCO 
ESCAPE ADVENTURE 
SEEKERS 
MASTER BRAIN 
LIST CONTROLLER 
DISKETTE CERTIFIER 
ROM COPY 
BASIC RAM 
SNAFUS 

ISSUE #21, MAR. 1984 

BASIC CONVERSIONS 
FINANCIAL ADVISE 
CASTLE STORM 
DOS HEAD CLEANER 
COCO TERMINAL 
SNAKE CRAWLER 
WAR CASTLE 
SKY FIRE 
EASY BASIC 
DOTS 3-D 

ISSUE #22, APRIL 1984 
HEALTH HINTS 
GLIBLlBS 
CLOTHER SLl 
BIBLE 1 & 2 
BIBLE 3 & 4 
CATCH ALL 
INVADER 
ALIEN RAID 
MOON ROVER 
10 ERROR IGN0RER 

ISSUE #23, MAY 1984 
MONEY SAVERS 1 & 2 
STOCKS OR BOMBS 
WALL AROUND 
COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PT;1 
NUCLEAR WAR INST. 
THERMONUCLEAR WAR 
CIRCUIT BREAKER 
MOUSE RACES 
SUPER SQUEEZE 
DATA FALL 

ISSUE #24, JUNE 1984 

DIR PACK & SORT 
BRICK OUT 

COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PT. 2 
USA SLIDE PUZZLE 
51 *24 SCREEN EDITOR 
51 *24 SCREEN EDITOR 
CITY INVADERS 
PRINTER SPOOLER 
STEPS 
SNAKE 



ISSUE #25, JULY 1984 

CLOCK 

COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PT.3 
SKID ROW ADVENTURE 
MONEY MAKER 
PIN-HEAD CLEANING 
LINE EDITOR INST. 
LINE EDITOR 
BOOMERANG 
BUBBLE BUSTER 
R0C0CHET 

ISSUE #26, AUG. 1984 

PEEK POKE & EXECUTE 
SAUCER RESCUE 
YOUNG TYPER TUTOR 
b-TEL'O 

OLYMPIC EVENTS 
DOUBLE DICE 
COCO DATABASE 
BATTLE STAR 
COCO-PIN BALL 
MONTEZUMAS DUNGEONS 

ISSUE #27, SEPT. 1984 
COCO TO COM 64 
GALACTIC SMUGGLER 
INDY RACE 
ACCOUNT MANAGER 
CASSETTE MERGE UTILITY 
STRING PACKING TUTORIAL 
SPACE DUEL 
BUGS 

TRAP-BALL 
BALLOON FIRE 

ISSUE #28, OCT. 1984 

HANGING TREE 

CHECKERS 

FOOTBALL 

MORE PEEKS & POKES 
SPELLING CHECKER 
SOUND DEVELOPMENT 
WORD GAME 
SCREEN REVERSE 
AUTO COPY 
RAT ATTACK 

ISSUE #29, NOV. 1984 

DISK ROLL OUT 
ROBOT ON 
MULTIP0NG 

ADVENTURE GENERATOR 
QUEST ADVENTURE 
QUARTER BOUNCE 
DUAL OUTPUT 
KEY REPEAT 
FULL EDITOR 
METEOR 

ISSUE #30, DEC. 1984 

MATH HELP 

ZECT0R ADVENTURE 

WORLD CONQUEST 

DRAG RACE 

MINE FIELD 

T-NOTES TUTORIAL 

T & D PROGRAM INDEXER 

SYSTEM STATUS 

ERROR TRAP 

DROLL ATTACK 



ISSUE #31, JAN. 1985 

TREASURES OF BARS0OM 
BATTLEGROUND 
STRUCT. COMPILED LANG. 
MINIATURE GOLF 
STAR DUEL 
ARITHMETIC FOOTBALL 
GRID RUN 
SPIRAL ATTACK 
FAST SORT 
MUNCHMAN 

ISSUE #32, FEB, 1985 

DR. SIGMUND 
ICE WORLD ADVENTURE 
LOTTERY ANALYST 
BASIC COMPILER 
MUSIC CREATOR 
MEANIE PATROL 
TRI-C0L0R CARDS 
SHAPE RECOGNITION 
DISK BACKUP 
SPACE PROTECTOR 

ISSUE #33, MAR. 1985 

LIGHT CYCLE 

PAINT 

SKEET SHOOTING 
GUITAR NOTES 
Ml DISK ANALYZER 
PERSONAL DIRECTORY 
NAUGHA ADVENTURE 
EGGS GAME 
DISK DIRECTORY PRINT 
SPEED KEy 

ISSUE #34, APRIL 1985 

HOVER TANK 
POWER SWORD 
TERMITE INVASION 
SPELLING CHECKER 
DOS BOSS 
NINE CARD CHOICE 
MUSIC GENERATOR 
FYR-DRACA 
DRIVE TEST 
GRAPHIC TOUR 

ISSUE #35, MAY 1985 
SELECT A GAME 1 
TAPE PROBLEMS 
STROLL TRIVIA 
SOFTBALL MANAGER 
FONTS DEMO 
CLOWN DUNK MATH 
ALPHA MISSION 
DOS ENHANCER 
KNOCK OUT 
HAUNTED HOUSE 

ISSUE #36, JUNE 1985 

SELECT A GAME 2 
VIDEO COMPUTER 
SPEECH SYNTHESIS 
SPEECH RECOGNITION 
SPACE LAB 
AUTO COMMAND 
COMPUTER MATCHMAKER 
KNIGHT & THE LABYRINTH 
STAR SIEGE 

TALKING SPELLING QUIZ 



VISA 




SUPER SAVINGS 
Single Issue $8.00 

2-5 Issues $6.00 ea. 

6-10 ISSUES $5.00 ea. 

11 or more Issues . $4.50 ea. 

All 72 Issues $199.00 

Purchase 20 or more issues and 
receive a free 6 month 
subscription. 



Every Issue Contains 
10 or More Programs 
Many Machine Language 
Programs 

Available for COCO I, II and 
All Programs Include 
Documentation 



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AND OVER 720 PROGRAMS WITH A BACK ISSUE SALE! 



IQQIiF MT7 II II V 1 URC; 
IdwlIC rfo/f JULT IM03 


IQ<tltC it At 1AM 1QHR 
looUC UflW* I5HJQ 


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IOOUC ff«#3j JULY laDu 


IQQMF JiV% IAN 10H7 
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IQCIIC uR-i llll V 1007 

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CHESS MASTER 


DUELING CANNONS 


COMPUTER 1,0,0. 


GRADE BOOK 


EZ ORDER 


AUDIO LIBRARY 


BIBLE 57 


WATER COST 


DISK DISASSEMBLER 


MAIL LIST 


SUBMISSION WRITER 


SAVE THE EARTH 


SHIP WREK ADVENTURE 


ZIGMA EXPERIMENT 


BAKCHEK ' 


DOWN HILL 


KEYS ADVENTURE 


WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 


FILE TRANSFER 


MUSICAL CHORDS 


PACHINKO 


FIRE FOX 


WALLPAPER 


LOW RES PICTURES 


FOUR IN A ROW 


SAFE PASSAGE 


STOCK CHARTING 


JETS CONTROL 


,. CHOPPER COMMAND 


WORD COUNTER 


MARSHY 


PASSWORD SCRAMBLER 


HAUNTEO STAIRCASE 


GALLOWS 


UNDERSTANDING OPPOSITES 


BACARAT 


TAPE CONTROLLER 


GUNFIGHT 


dANYON BOMBERS 


DIR MANAGER 


BIT CODE PLOTTING 


BATTLE SHIP 


CATACOMB 


KEYPAD ENTRY 


DRAGONS 1 & 2 


FIRE RUNNER 


ELECTRONICS 4 


ELECTRONICS 10 


AUTO TALK 


STYX GAME 


GRAPHIC SCROLL ROUTINE 


GRAPHICS BORDER 


king pede 


TAPE CONVENIENCE 


SGR8PAK 


PRINTER DIVERT 


AUTO BORDER 


COSMIC RAYS 


RAIDER 


PENQUIN 


K^IIF AMR 1Qfl*> 

IOOUC ffuO, HUU, laOu 


IS SI IP MM FFR IQfifi 

IOOUC ff»rH, "CO, 1900 


KRIIE &*\t\ Allfi 1QRfi 
IOOUC rfuu, HUU, laOU 


IC.3MF 45ft FFR 1QR7 
IOOUC ffuU, rCD. ISfOf 


KCIIC MRO Allfi 10B7 
IOOUC ffoi, ftUll, 190/ 


ICCIIC M£0 CCD iOOO 

looUc ffDo, rcD. laoa 


GOLF PAR3 


HOME INVENTORY 


BUSINESS INVENTORY 


CALENDAR PRINT 


PENSION MANAGEMENT 


COINFILE 


WIZARD ADVENTURE 


NINE BALL 


0 '& D ARENA 


CRUSH 


HERB GROWING 


WORD COUNTER 


KITE DESIGN 


PRINTER REVIEW 


DISK CLERK 


GALACTA 


CATOLOGER UTILITY 


SQUIRREL ADVENTURE 


ROBOTS 


EXPLORER ADVENTURE 


PC SURVEY 


OCEAN DIVER 


RAIDERS 


AREA CODES 


GOMOKU 


SPANISH LESSONS 


TREASURE HUNT 


CLUE SUSPECT 


ALPHABETIZING 


DRAW POKER 


AMULET OF POWER 


CROSS FIRE 


SCREEN GENERATOR 


Word editor 


u:f.o. 


TURTLE RACES 


LINE COPY UTILITY 


RAM SAVER 


ASTRO SMASH 


ALIEN HUNT 


ELECTRONICS 5 


ELECTRONICS 1 1 


DISK PLUMBER 


GRAY LADY 


NFL SCORES 


DEMON'S CASTLE 


RAMBO ADVENTURE 


MULTISCREEN 


SUPER RAM CHECKER 


JOYSTICK INPUT 


BARN STORMING 


PICTURE DRAW 


BLOCKS 


CANON PRINT 


GRAPHIC HORSE RACE 


COSMIC SWEEPER 


SMASH GAME 


DIG 


MULTI SCREEN CAVES 


COCO TENNIS 


IOOUC frOa, Our I « I9Q3 


1 CCI 1 C HA* MAR -tQftfi 

ioouc #*#□, ifiHn. isfoo 


IS<5IIF QFPT IQfifi 
ioouc Wut t ocri« isou 


l<?QHC ilH7 MAR 
IOOUC #0/, IVlfWt, ijJof 


ICCIIC HM CCDT 10Q7 

looUc ffM, otrl. l5*o/ 


ICCIIC liCn MAD 4flOO 

looUc #09, MAR- 19oo 


DRUNK DRIVING 


INCOME PROPERTY MGMT. 


ASSET MANAGER 


THE BAKERY 


GENEOLOGIST HELPER 


POLICE CADET 


CAR MANAGER 


ELECTRONIC BILLBOARD I 


MONEY CHASE 


ENCHANGED VALLEY APV, 


SMART COPY , 


STAMP COLLECTION 


SQUEEZE PLAY 


MOUNTAIN BATTLE 


FISHING CONTEST 


SAFE KEEPER 


MAINTENANCE REPORTING 


BARRACKS ADVENTURE 


SUPER BACKUP 


THE FIGHT 


RIP OFF 


WAR 1 


C0C03-C0C0 2 HELPER 


CITY/TIME 


RECIPE MACHINE 


COCO KEENO 


HAND OFF 


BOMB DISABLE 


DIRECTORY PICTURE 


HI-LO/CRAPS 


ANTI-AIRCRAFT 


HOCKEY 


BUDGET 51 


PIANO PLAYER 


SUB ATTACK 


OLYMPICS 


UNREASON ADVENTURE 


LOGICAL PATTERNS 


VAN GAR 


SPREAD SHEET 


SAVE THE MAIDEN 


HI-RES CHESS 


TALKING ALPHABET 


ON SCALE SCREEN 


DOS EMULATOR 


SLOT MANEUVER 


CAVIATOR 


ELECTRONICS 12 


SUPER VADERS 


LIBERTY SHIP 


MEM DISK 


LIVING MAZE 


ELECTRONICS 6 


DOUBLE EDITOR 


AUTOMATIC EDITOR 


SINGLE STEP RUN 


VARIABLE REFERENCE 


GEM SEARCH 


MONKEY SHINE 


DOUBLE BREAKOUT 


1 331 IF SAt\ HPT tflftfi 
IOOUC 7r*IU t Uul, IsJQu 


iidfl APRII loft A 
IOOUC W*%t t HrniU l«fOQ 


IF &*& ftPT 10HK 
IOOUC Wu$%, UUI. 1JJ0D 


|OOI |C #K0 APRII 10A7 

ioouc #00, hi nil ma/ 


ICCIIC iffiX flPT 1Qfi7 

Ioouc WQQy UVl. ISp/ 


ICCIIC uin addii moo 

ioouc #70, ArnIL 19oo 


STAR TREK 


SPECIAL EVENTS REMINDER 


v ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 


ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 


GARDEN PLANTS 


BLOTTO DICE 


HAM RADIO LOG 


DISK LOGIC 


WORKMATE SERIES 


PRINTER GRAPHICS 


FORT KNOX 


SUPER COM 


COCO WAR 


SMALL BUSINESS MANAGER 


CALENDAR 


SIMON 


ELECTRONICS FORMULAS 
SNAKE IN THE GRASS- 


GENESIS ADVENTURE 


DISK LABELER 


BOMB RUN 


INVASION, 


PANELING HELPER 


PLANETS 


SHIP WAR 


TANKS 


TH£ TRIP AOVENTURE 


MULTI CAKES 


CYCLE JUMP 


PHK/WAR 


ELECTRIC COST 


TAR PITS 


FOOT RACE 


€AR RACE 


GEOMETRY TUTOR 


SIGN LANGUAGE 


MULTIKEY BUFFER 


BASEBALL 


FLIPPY THE SEAL 


ELECTRONICS I 


WIZARD 


ARX SHOOTOUT 


NUKE AVENGER 


NUMBER RELATIONSHIPS 


SCREEN CALCULATOR 


BATTLE TANK 


GAME OF LIFE 


ELECTRONICS 13 


CURSOR KING 


ROULETTE 


ABLE BUILDERS 


DISKETTE VERIFY 


ELECTRONICS * 


MAGIC KEY 


SAND ROVER 


GLOBAL EDITOR 


SUPER ERR0R2 


WEIRDO 


FLIGHT SIMULATOR 


SNAP PRINT 


iQCIIC UA-i MAtf 1QQt; 

looUc #41, NUV. 1303 


ICCfJC MAVf MAV 10flfi 
tootle §*fi foftT iSau 


ICQ] IE WOW 10flfi 
IOOUC rrDO, NUV, lUou 


ICCIIC -tfKQ MJIV 10Q7 

IOOUC TfOg, MAY 190/ 


ioouc ffOD, NUV. lUo/ 


ICCIIC nt taut/ -i non 

ISSUE #71, MAY 1988 


GRUMPS 


CHRISTMAS LIST 


CORE KILL 


GENEOLOGY 


TAXMAN 


SUPER LOTTO 


DISK DRIVE SPEED TEST 


BLACK HOLS 


LUCKY MONEY 


HOME PLANT SELECTION 


DAISY WHEEL PICTURES 


ROBOT ADVENTURE 


SOLAR CONQUEST 


PITCHING MANA»1 v:^- 


COOKIES ADVENTURE 


CHECK WRITER 


CHILDSTONE ADVENTURE 


MAZE 


GAS COST 


Sl^Llfi^l-^^St 


NICE LIST 


HELIRESCUE 


SIR EGGBERT 


YAHTZEE 3 


RIME WORLD MISSION 




SPANISH QUIZZES 


KABOOM 


CROWN QUEST 


PHASER 


WUMPUS 


OWARE CAPTURf ' ^ 


PMHl EDITOR 


NEW PONG 


GYMKHANA 


SHAPES & PLATES 


CHARACTER EDITOR 


EASY GRAPHICS 


CARVERN CRUISER 


CROQUET 


COCO 3 DRAWER 


STAR WARS 


GRAPHIC TEST 


DESERT JOURNEY 


SNAPSHOT 


FUNCTION KEYS 


FOOTBALL 


ELECTRONICS 14 


GRAPHIC LOOPY 


SCREEN CONTROL ; 


MEGA HtfB 


ZOOM 


ELECTRONICS 8 


PRINTER CONTROL 


BOLD PRINT 


FULL ERROR MESSAGE 


; KICK 00 Y 


ELECTRONICS. 2 


CHOP 


MAZE 2 


ISSUE #42, DEC. 1985 


ISSUE #48, JUNE 198« 


ISSUE #54, DEI.. 1986 


ISSUE #80, JUNE 1987 


ISSUE #66, DEC. 1987 


lAAlll* j<«v* ii ikip jikflA 

ISSUE #72, JUNE 1988 


HOME PRODUCT EVALUATION CHESTER 




JOB COSTING 


ONE ROOM ADVENTURE 


FLYING OBJECTS 


YAHTZEE 


TV SCHEDULE 


Wegs 

digital sampling 


LABELS 


0S9 TUTORIAL 


THREE STOOGES 


DISK UTILITY 


BASE RACE 


CATCH A CAKE 


RIVER CAPTAIN 


HOSTAGE 


MACH II 


ROMAN NUMERALS: 


JUNGLE ADVENTURE 


COCO MATCH 


SOUND EFFECTS 


PROGRAM TRIO 


ELECTRONIC BILLBOARD 


ASTRO DODGE 


PAINT COCO 3 


ROBOTS 


BETTING POOL 


GLADIATOR 


CAR CHASE 


HIRED AND FIRED 


CONVERT 3 


STREET RACERS 


ADVANCE 


US & CAN QUIZ 


SUPER MANSION ADVENTURE 


MULTI COPY 


COMPUTER TYPE 


BOWLING 3 


MATH TABLES 


JEOPARDY 


SLOT MACHINE GIVE AWAY 


AUTO MATE 


PANZER TANKS 


ELECTRONICS 3 


ELECTRONICS 9 


ELECTRONICS 15 


TEXT BUFFER 


SCROLL PROJECT 


MBS PAC 


GRAFIX 


LOWER TO UPPER 


COCO 3 PRINT 


TUNNEL RUN 


NOISE GENERATOR 


M NUM 


mm 


NOIOS 


CTTY COMMUNICATOR 



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2 10 18 26 34 42 

3 11 19 27 35 43 

4 12 20 28 36 44 

5 13 21 29 37 45 

6 14 22 30 38 46 

7 15 23 31 39 47 

8 16 24 32 40 48 



49 57 65 

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51 59 67 

52 60 68 

53 61 69 

54 62 70 

55 63 71 

56 64 72 



PLEASE CIRCLE 

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B Modification 




















TT T npack the bunting, inflate the balloons, shred the confetti 
M / and rehearse the music for "Happy Days Are Here Again 
% tm J and "Hail to the Chief! Post the No Vacancy signs, tidy 
the public areas and lower the air conditioner thermostats! A tlanta 
and New Orleans are checking off these and countless other items 
on their things-to-do lists as the Democratic and Republican 
National Conventions head south. 

Amid the hype and hoopla — not to mention the fun of watching 
convention delegates from across the United States and its 
territories and possessions revert to silly behavior they probably 
haven't practiced since they were teenagers — Americans will 
gather in front of their television sets to witness that quadrennial 
rite of presidential politics: choosing the nominees. This convention 
season promises to be the most exciting one in years, with the 
identity of at least one of the nominees, as well as both running 
mates, still uncertain as we go to press. 

In anticipation of the Democrats' meeting July 18th through 21st 
and the Republicans' from the 15 th until the 18th of August, THE 
RAINBOW is pleased to present Leonard Hyre's program Conven- 
tion. We think you'll find it not only an intriguing way of testing 
your own predictive powers but also a means of involving the 
members of your family in a project that's fun as well as 
educational For example, prior to the conventions each family 
member might predict state-by-state the number of votes a 
particular candidate will garner; these predictions could be printed 
out and used for comparison with the actual outcome of the 
convention voting, with some sort of prize for the winning political 
prognosticator. Or, on a more elementary level, you might want 
to use the program's delegate count as a tool for teaching younger 
family members something about state sizes in terms of population. 

However you choose to use it, Convention is guaranteed to 
stimulate your own and your family's interest in the selection of 
each party's nominees for the 41st president and vice president of 
the United States. And be sure to watch for the November 
RAINBOW, where we'll feature a follow-up article and another 
timely Hyre program — Election/ 





July 1988 THE RAINBOW 111 



Wild, unpredictable, exasperat- 
ing, exhilarating, and one 
thing for sure — it's an Amer- 
ican original. We can only be talking 
about one thing, the political conven- 
tion. Not perfect, to be sure, but as- 
suredly the best way of picking a leader 
that this nation has come up with so far! 

Comes the Republican or Demo- 
cratic convention, many of you, like me, 
will find yourselves glued in front of the 
television, immersed in American poli- 
tics. This program, Convention, is 
written with the thought of adding some 
extra enjoyment to that viewing. 

First and foremost, Convention 
keeps track of the votes. After all, that 
is the name of the game. A state's vote 
for each candidate is entered during the 
state roll calls. The program keeps track 
of total votes per candidate and votes 
per state per candidate, prints out 
detailed round-by-round reports, saves 
the data at any point and allows reload- 
ing of previously saved files. 

After the title screen, the user selects 
either Democratic or Republican party, 
then is presented with the main menu. 
Three options are given the user. 

The first option is Enter Votes; nat- 
urally, this is the heart of the whole 
program. You will be asked to enter a 
state or territory by abbreviation. Can- 
didates' names are constantly displayed 
down the left side of the screen. When 
a state is selected, votes for each candi- 
date are shown in the middle column as 
a grand total and to the right as his votes 
from this state. As state votes change, 
both columns will be updated. To exit 
the voting section, just enter XX at the 
state prompt. You will be returned to 
the main menu. 

Output to the printer is the subject of 
the second option on the main menu. 
Two choices are given. The first choice 
is for a complete detailed report. This 
printout will list all of the states and 
territories and show votes given for each 
candidate across the sheet. After all 
states and territories are listed, a vote 
total is printed, followed by a legend 
relating candidate numbers to specific 
candidates. In addition, a printout of 

Leonard Hyre is the author of Federal 
Hill Software s Handicapper series and 
a number of articles for RAINBOW. He 
also published several articles in RAIN- 
BOWS sister publication, PCM, and is 
the author o/Sanyopoly, a new Sanyo 
game from Michigan Software. 



the states and territories with their 
proper abbreviations is included. The 
other printer option is strictly for a list 
of states and abbreviations. This will 
likely be used only once, to print your- 
self a handy reference to work with. 
Choice 3 will again return you to the 
main menu. 



Prior to the conventions 
each family member 
might predict 
state-by-state the number 
of votes a particular 
candidate will garner; 
these predictions could 
be printed out and used 
! for comparison with the 
| actual outcome of the 
! convention voting, " 

i 

File saving and retrieving is the third 
choice offered. It might be interesting to 
save the voting status at various points 
in the proceedings — for example, after 
each roll call is completed. You may 
choose to save the file at any point, 
however. Data saved includes title, 
party choice and all votes per candidate 
per state. At any time you want, you can 
load the data back into memory for 
further rounds of voting, or for reports. 

I have included lists with all the 
contending Republican and Demo- 
cratic leaders. If you would like to 
follow along with the vice presidential 
selection process, simply change the 
DfiTfi lines listing candidates to reflect 
the new contenders. For ease of mod- 
ification, make sure each list contains 
six entries, even if some are "None" or 
"Other." My suggestion is that you put 
copies of the program on two separate 
disks, Democrat and Republican. 

The program structure of Conven- 
tion revolves around the basic problem 
of controlling "who has how many votes 
and from which state did they come." 
The two-dimension array V(6,53) 
represents votes (candidates, states and 
territories), and is the key to the whole 
program. For those of you new to 
computing and interested in learning 



programming in BASIC, the manipula- 
tion of this array in the program offers 
a practical example of usage of multi- 
dimensional arrays. 

To make understanding the program 
easier, I have tried to provide explan- 
atory REM statements within the listing. 
A red, white and blue title screen 
seemed appropriate, so the first few 
lines of the program handle that task. 
All necessary DfiTfi statements are then 
read into computer memory. The 
"working" screen is then created (lines 
700 through 800) and a menu presented 
(lines 830 through 900). A small but 
important subroutine to clear the input 
and menu areas is located at lines 930 
through 940. 

Printer routines are very generic and 
should run on most any printer without 
causing problems. Lines 980 through 
1380 encompass all printer functions. 
These lines are self-explanatory and 
should be easy to follow in the listing. 

Vote entry and processing is handled 
by two routines, the first being state 
selection. Lines 1420 through 1490 get 
the state abbreviation, check it for 
validity and update that state's vote per 
candidate column. Vote entries are 
controlled with lines 1530 through 1610. 
The candidate's "old" number of votes 
from the current state is subtracted 
(Line 1550) prior to adding the "new" 
vote (Line 1590). 

Very simple load (lines 1750 through 
1850) and save (lines 1890 through 
1960) routines handle all of the input/ 
output of voting data. [See the Editor's 
Note that appears before the listing for 
modifications for cassette use.] You 
may assign filenames of your choice, 
but do not include an extension. Line 
1810 in the load routine makes sure you 
are not loading a Republican data file 
into a Democratic convention, and vice 
versa. 

Typing in Convention should not 
present too much of a challenge for you. 
Be very careful with the DfiTfi state- 
ments, as errors here are often tricky to 
locate. Don't forget, the program is also 
available through Delphi and on rain- 
bow ON TAPE and DISK. 

Enjoy using Convention — I hope 
"your" candidate wins! 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this program may be directed to the 
author at P.O. Box 403, Cambridge, 
MD 21613. Please enclose an SASE 
when requesting a reply.) □ 



112 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



Editor's Note: In order to run CONVE^||gm a 
cassette-based system, clMete lines 1770 and 1910 
and substitute the following lines for those shown 
in Listing L For your Convenience, the modified 
cassette version of CONVENTN will be included on 
this month's rainbow tape. 



179fl OPEN "I", #-1, NM$ 

18j3j3 INPUT #-1, SVFLAG 

181j3 IF SVFLAG <> FLAG THEN CLOS 

E #-1: GOSUB 93j3:PRINT§96,"WRONG 
PARTY. •.LOAD ABORTED" ;: FOR DL=1 
TO 12J3J3:NEXT DL: SOUND 15)8,1: GOT 

0 8J3J3 

182j3 FOR CAND = 1 TO 6: FOR PL = 
1 TO 53: INPUT #-1, V(CAND, PL) 
: CT (CAND) = CT (CAND) + V(CAND, 
PL) : NEXT PL: NEXT CAND 
183)3 CLOSE #-1 
192j3 OPEN "O", #-1, NM$ 
193j3 SVFLAG = FLAG: PRINT #-1, S 
VFLAG 

1940 FOR CAND=1T06:F0RPL=1T053:P 
RINT #-1, V(CAND,PL) : NEXTPL: NEXTC 
AND 

195J3 CLOSE #-1 




175 218 

350 200 

590 87 

770 34 

1000 81 

1120 96 



1290 160 

1350 108 

1540 165 

1670 117 

1820 22 

END 128 



The listing: CONVENTN 



1J3 
2J3 
3J3 
4J3 
5J3 
6j3 
7J3 
8J3 
9j3 

11^ • 

12)3 DIM LS$(53) / S$(53), S(53), 
C$(6), C(6), V(6, 53), RC$(6), D 
C$(6) , TEST$(53) 
130 FLAG = 0 
139 ■ 
141 1 

150 CLS5:PRINT STRING$ (64 , 175) ; 



************************** 

* CONVENTION- * 

* AN AMERICAN ORIGINAL * 

* (C) 1988 BY L. HYRE * 

* CAMBRIDGE, MD, USA * 
************************** 

****** COCO VERSION ****** 
•*** PROGRAM INITIALIZE *** 



ALPHA 



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RAINBOW 

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Plak Hanaaar Trw: Takes .the labor out of managing your 

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Tha Zaooar: Edit files and entire disks with this versatile 

utility. Allows editing in hexadecimal and ascii formats. 
Patch commands directly on the disk and fix CRC's 
automatically! Retrieves lost or crashed disks! 
(Requries 64k 0S9 Level I or II) .-...$19.95 

Multi-Menu : Create your own Multi-View compatible menus, 
then run them by clicking on an ICON! 

(Requires 512k OS9 Level II and Multi-View) $19.95 

nsgt,2aBS . aBS program that supports multiple users and 

sysop definable menus. Includes: Tsmon, Login, Chat, 
message retrieval, mail retrieval, Uloadx, Dloadx, and 
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(Requires S12k OS9 Level II) .$19.95 

as9 Toolkit;; includes: Wmatch, Wcopy, Wdel, Wattr, 

Otree, Dtree, Pause, Goto, Ascii, Convert, Devname, Dirsort, 
Upcase, Locase, Oislex, and Calendar. 

(Requires 64k OS9 Level I or II) $19.95 

T.Qval ii Too la; Includes all of the above plus: Bcolor, 

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PRINTER RIBBONS 

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COLORS R-BR-BL-6R-PUR $3.00 EA 5/112.00 
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OTHER RIBBONS IN STOCK-CALL OR WRITE FOR QUOTE 



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Add $2.50 S/H in U.S.A. • Canada Add $3.50 + $ 1.00/LB 
Michigan Residents Add 4% Sales Tax 
Send Check/Money Order Payable to: 

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Send Card Number & t:xf> Dat e ^ ^ Min.^^gfrjOrde r SJQOD 

July 1 988 THE RAINBOW 113 



160 RD$=CHR$(159)+CHR$(159) :WH$= 
CHR$ ( 207 ) +CHR$ ( 207 ) 
165 BN$=RD$+WH$+RD$+WH$+RD$+WH$+ 
RD$+WH$ : BN$=BN$+BN$ 
170 FOR X=l TO 13: PRINT BN$;:NEX 
T 

172 GR$=STRING$ ( 12 , " ") 

174 PRINTS170,GR$; : PRINTS 202 , GR$ 
; CHR$ ( 12 8 ) ; : PRINTS2 3 4 , GR$ ; CHR$ ( 1 
28) ; :PRINT@266,GR$;CHR$(128) ;:PR 
INT@298,GR$;CHR$(128) ; 

175 PRINT@331,STRING$(12,128) ; 

176 PRINTS203 , "CONVENTION" ; : PR™ 
TS239 , "AN" ; : PRINTS268 , "AMERICA! 
; : PRINT@ 300 , "ORIGINAL" ; 

177 PRINTS496,"<PRESS ANY KEY> 

178 AK$=INKEY$ : IF AK$=" "THEN I 
250 ' 

260 '** READ IN STATES ETC ** 
270 ' 

280 DATA ALABAMA, AL,1, ALASKA, AK, 
2, ARIZONA, AZ, 3 

290 DATA ARKANSAS, AR, 4, CALIFORNI 
A, CA, 5 , COLORADO , CO , 6 , CONNECTICUT 
,CN,7 

300 DATA DELAWARE , DE , 8 , DIST of C 
OLUMBIA , DC , 9 , FLORIDA, FL , 10 , GEORG 
IA,GA,11 

310 DATA HAWAII, HI, 12, IDAHO, ID, 1 
3 , ILLINOIS, IL, 14 

320 DATA INDIANA, IN, 15, IOWA, 10,1 

6 , KANSAS , KS , 17 , KENTUCKY , KY , 18 , LO 
UISIANA,LA,19 

330 DATA MAINE, ME, 20, MARYLAND, MD 
,21, MASSACHUSETTS , MA , 22 , MICHIGAN 
,MI,23 

340 DATA MINNESOTA, MN, 24, MISSISS 
IPPI , MS , 25 , MISSOURI , MO , 2 6 , MONTAN 
A,MT,27 

350 DATA NEBRASKA, NE, 2 8, NEVADA, N 

V, 29, NEW HAMPSHIRE, NH, 30, NEW JER 
SEY,NJ,31 

360 DATA NEW MEXICO, NM, 32 , NEW YO 
RK, NY, 33, NORTH CAROLINA , NC , 3 4 , NO 
RTH DAKOTA, ND,35 

370 DATA OHIO, OH, 3 6, OKLAHOMA, OK, 
37, OREGON, OR, 38 

380 DATA PENNSYLVANIA,PA,42,PUER 
TO RICO, PR, 4 3, RHODE ISLAND, RI, 44 
390 DATA SOUTH CAROLINA, SC , 42 , SO 
UTH DAKOTA, SD, 43, TENNESSEE, TN, 44 
, TEXAS, TX, 45 

400 DATA UTAH , UT , 4 6 , VERMONT , VT , 5 

7, VIRGINIA,VA,48,VIRGIN ISLANDS, 

VI, 49 

410 DATA WASHINGTON, WA, 50, WEST V 
IRGINIA , WV , 5 1 , WISCONSIN , WI , 5 2 , WY 
OMING,WY,53 
420 • 

430 i*** CANDIDATES *** 
440 ' 



n . 



178 



CANDIDATES 

READ LS$(X) 

READ DC$ (X) : 
6: READ RC$( 



450 DATA DUKAKIS, JACKSON, GEPHARD 

T , GORE , S IMON , OTHER 

460 DATA ROBERTSON, BUSH, DOLE, KEM 

P,HAIG, OTHER 

470 1 

480 •*** SETUP SCREEN HERE *** 
490 • 

500 PMODE 0:CLS 
510 1 

570 1 READ STATES & 
580 1 

590 FOR X = 1 TO 53 
, S$(X) , S(X) : NEXT 
600 FOR X = 1 TO 6: 
NEXT: FOR X = 1 TO 
X) : NEXT 
610 • 

650 PRINT@6,"C ONVENTION 
": PRINT STRING$(32,175) ;:PRINT@1 
60,STRING$(32,159) ; 
680 ******* CHOOSE CONVENTIONS 
690 1 

700 PRINTS64 , "CHOOSE PARTY ....": 
PRINT "<D>EMOCRAT OR <R>EPUBLIC"; 
: INPUT PR$ 

710 IF PR$ = "D" OR PR$ = "d" TH 
EN FLAG = IS GOTO 740 
720 IF PR$ «■ "R" OR PR$ = "r" TH 
EN FLAG ■ 2: GOTO 750 
730 GOTO 700 

TO 6 
NEXT 
TO 6 

.., . _ x „, ... NEXT. . .,. 

760 PRINTS 19 3 , "CANDIDATE" : PRINTS 
208 , "TOTAL" : PRINTS 2 19 , "STATE" : SS 
=224: FOR X=l TO 6 : PRINTSSS , C (X) ; 
">";C$(X) :SS=SS+32:NEXT 
770 IF FLAG=1 THEN PRINTS 4 80 , "TO 
TAL=4162 NEEDED=2 082"; 
780 IF FLAG=2 THEN PRINTS480 , "TO 
TAL=2277 NEEDED=1139" ; 
800 FOR DL=1 TO 4 90 : NEXT : GOSUB 9 
30 
810 
820 
821 



740 
X) : 
750 
X) 



FOR X - 1 
C(X) = X: 
FOR X = 1 
C(X) - X: 



C$(X) = DC$( 
GOTO 760 
C$(X) = RC$( 
GOTO 760 



• *** 



MAIN MENU *** 



830 PRINTS64, "SELECTION MENU. . . " 
840 PRINT"1>V0TES 2>PRINTER 3> 
SAVE/ LOAD" 

850 AK$ = INKEY$: IF AK$ = 
EN 850 



n ii 



TH 



THEN 1420 
THEN 980 
THEN 1650 



860 IF AK$ = "1" 
870 IF AK$ = "2" 
880 IF AK$ = "3" 
890 GOTO 850 
900 GOTO 900 
908 ■ 

910 i*** CLEAR INPUT AREA *** 
920 • 

930 FOR WP=64 TO 128 STEP 32:PRI 



114 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



NT@WP, STRING$(32," ");:NEXTWP 
940 RETURN 
950 ■ 

960 »*** PRINTER ROUTINES *** 
970 1 

980 GOSUB 930 

990 PRINT@64,"PRINTED INFORMATIO 
N AVAILABLE. 

991 1 

1000 PRINT@96, "<make sure printe 
r is on>" :PRINT§128 , "1>REP0RT 2 
>ST . ABBREV . 3 >MENU" 

1001 • 

1010 AL$ = INKEY$: IF AL$ m "» T 
HEN 1010 

1020 IF AL$ = "1" THEN 1190 
1030 IF AL$ « "2" THEN 1090 
1040 IF AL$ = "3" THEN 800 
1050 GOTO 1010 
1060 • 

1070 f * PRINT OUT STATES * 
1080 ■ 

1090 GOSUB 930: PRINT #-2, "Abbr 

eviations Of States, Territories 
, and District Of Columbia. M : PR 

INT #-2, STRING$(80, "_") 
1100 FOR P = 1 TO 27 
1110 IF P < 10 THEN PRINT #-2, 
0"; RIGHT$(STR$(S(P) ) , 1); "> 



ii 
ti . 



S$(P); »-»; LS$(P); : PRINT #-2 
, TAB(40); S(P + 27); ">'■; S$(P 
+ 27); »-»; LS$(P + 27): GOTO 11 
30 

1120 PRINT #-2, RIGHT$(STR$(S(P) 

), 2); "> »; S$(P); "-»; LS$(P); 

: IF (P + 27) = 54 THEN PRINT # 
-2,"": ELSE PRINT #-2, TAB(40) ; 
S(P + 27); ">"; S$(P + 27); "-»; 

LS$(P + 27) 
1130 NEXT P 

1140 IP TP * 1 THEN GOTO 1380 
1150 GOTO 800 
1160 1 

1170 •*** PRINTER REPORT **** 
1180 1 

1190 GOSUB 930 : PRINT@64 , "PRINTER 

OPERATIONS " : PRINT§9 6 , "IS P 

RINTER READY <Y/N>" ;: INPUT YN$ 
1200 IF YN$ = "Y" OR YN$ - "y" T 
HEN 1220 

1210 SOUND 200 / l:GOSUB 930:GOTO 
830 

1220 PRINTS 12 8 , "ENTER TITLE ";:I 
NPUT RT$ 

1230 IF FLAG = 1 THEN PT$ = "DEM 
OCRATIC PARTY" ELSE PT$ = "REPUB 
LI CAN PARTY" 

1240 SR = 40 - INT (LEN (RT$) / 2) 



HAWKSof t HAWKSo-f t HAWKSo-f t 



HAWKSo-f t HAWKSo-f t 



DOMINATION . »1B.M 

MULT I -PLAYER STRATEGY GAME ! 
Try to take over the planet of YCNAN. Battle 
other players armies to take control of their 
provinces and de-fend yours. Play an a Hi -res map 
of the planet. Take the "RISK" and be a 
planet-lord today!!! Requires 1 disk and joystick 
or mouse. See Rainbow Review JULY 88 



MYDOS »13.M 

CUSTOMIZABLE! EPROMABLE ! ! 
The commands Tandy left out! 
MYDOS is an enhancement to Disk Extended Basic 2.1 
on the CoCo 3. One command loadm and execute far 
M/L programs. Lowercase command entry and display 
on ALL screens. Screen echo and SAY command for 
RS Speech Pak. Point and click mouse directory. 

NEW FEATURES ! ! ! ! ! 
Supports double-sided and 40 track drives. Set 
any palettes you want on power-up (RGB or CMP) • 
Power— up in any screen width and colors (or 
monochrome) you wish! More options than you can 
shake a joystick at!!! See Rainbow Review JUNE 87 



HAWKSof t KEYBOARD CABLE S25.00 

UNCHAIN YOUR KEYBOARD ! 
Five foot extender cable for Coco II and 3. 
your keyboard where you want it! Installation 
instructions and tips included! Custom lengths 
avail i abl e. 




HAWKSof t P.O. Box 7112 
Elgin, II. 60121-7112 
312-742-3084 



SfcH always included* II. orders add 7X sales tax 



TOTHIAN 
SOFTWARE 



TMO GREAT HEM PROGRAMS ! 

ULTRA-BASE 8 A 64K COCO 
DATA BASE THAT IS SO 
EASY TO USE THAT YOU 
HAY UONDER HHY IIE SEND 
INSTRUCTIONS! ON DISK 
OR TAPE, ONLY 924.95. 



PEE P1X 



A 64K COCO 



GRAPHICS PROGRAH THAT 
MAKES PICTURES UP TO 
436 BY 56S PIXELS! USES 
RS PRINTER. COMPATIBLE 
HITH MOST POPULAR PMODE 
4 GRAPHICS PROGRAMS. 
ON DISK, ONLY $24.93. 



TOTHIAN SOFTWARE, INC. 

BON 663 
RIMERSBURG* PA. 16248 



(SINCE 1985> 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 115 



: PRINT #-2, STRING$(SR, " ") ; R 
T$: PRINT #-2, STRING$(80, "_") 
1250 PRINT #-2, PT$; "-Current C 
ONVENTION Status Report-" : PRIN 

T #-2, STRING$(80, "_«) 
1260 PRINT #-2," CANDIDATES:"; :T 
B=15:FOR X=l TO 6: PRINT #-2,TAB( 
TB+(9-LEN(C$(X) ) ) ) ;C$(X) ; :TB=TB+ 
10: NEXT X: PRINT #-2 
1270 PRINT #-2, STRING$(80, "_") 
1280 FOR REPORT = 1 TO 53 
1290 PRINT #-2, LS$ (REPORT); : P 
RINT #-2, TAB (18) ; : PRINT #-2, 
USING "####.#"; V(l, REPORT); : 
PRINT #-2, TAB(28); : PRINT #-2, 
USING "####.#"; V(2, REPORT); : 
PRINT #-2, TAB (38); : PRINT #-2 
, USING "####.#"; V(3, REPORT); 
1300 PRINT #-2, TAB(48) ; : PRINT 
#-2, USING "####.#"; V(4, REPOR 
T) ; : PRINT #-2, TAB(58) ; : PRIN 
T #-2, USING "####.#"; V(5, REPO 
RT) ; ; PRINT #-2, TAB (68); : PRI 
NT #-2, USING "####.#"; V(6, REP 
ORT) 

1310 IF REPORT=45 THEN FOR SK=1 
TO 15: PRINT #-2,"": NEXT SK 
132)3 NEXT REPORT 

1330 PRINT #-2, STRING$(80, "_") 
1340 PRINT #-2, "TOTAL VOTES=" ; 
: PRINT #-2, TAB (18) ; : PRINT #- 

2, USING "####.#"; CT(1); : PRIN 

T #-2, TAB(28); : PRINT #.-2, USI 

NG "####.#«; CT(2); : PRINT #-2, 

TAB(38) ; : PRINT #-2, USING "## 
^ £ n . Qfjt ( 3 ) ; 

1350 PRINT #-2, TAB(48); : PRINT 

#-2, USING "####.#"; CT(4); : P 

RINT #-2, TAB (58) ; : PRINT #-2, 

USING "####.#"; CT(5); : PRINT # 

-2, TAB ( 68 );: PRINT #-2, USING "## 

## . #" ;CT (6) : PRINT#-2 , STRING $ (80 , 
it ii \ 

1370 PRINT #-2, STRING$(80, "_") 
: TF = 1: GOTO 1090 



1380 TF = 0: FOR X=l TO 26:PRINT 
#-2,"":NEXT:GOSUB 930: GOTO 830 
1390 • 

1400 ******** GET STATE/TERRITOR 
Y FROM USER 
1410 ' 

1420 GOSUB 9 30: PRINT© 64, "VOTE IN 
PUT . . " : PRINT© 8 5 , "XX=MENU" ; : PRINT 
@ 9 6, "INPUT STATE ABBREVIATION:"; 
: INPUT ST$ 

1440 IF ST$ = "XX" THEN GOSUB 93 
0: GOTO 830 

1450 FOR TEST = 1 TO 53 : IF ST$ 
= S$(TEST) THEN 1480 
1460 NEXT TEST 

1470 PRINT© 12 8, "INCORRECT ABBREV 
IATIONI-SEE LIST";: FOR DL=1 TO 1 
500: NEXT: SOUND 100,1: GOTO 1420 
1480 GOSUB 930 :PRINT@64, "VOTES F 
ROM " ; LS$ (TEST) : S=TEST 
1490 SS=250:FOR PRIOR=l TO 6: PRI 
NT@SS ,;: PRINT USING"####.#";V(PR 
IOR,S) ; :SS=SS+32:NEXT PRIOR 
1500 • 

1510 •*** GET VOTES *** 
1520 ' 

1530 SS=241:FOR PASS = 1 TO 6 
1540 PRINT@96,STRING$(32," ");:P 
RINT@96,"VOTES FOR CANDIDATE ";C 
$(PASS) 

1550 CT(PASS) = CT(PASS) - V(PAS 

S m S) 

1560 PRINT @ 12 8, ;: INPUT "INPUT VO 
TES:"; V(PASS,S) 

1570 REM: IF VAL(STR$(V( PASSES) ) ) 
=0 AND STR$(V(PASS,S))<>"0" THEN 

SOUND 100,1: GOTO 1560 
1590 CT ( PASS ) =CT( PASS )+V( PASS, S) 
: PRINT@SS , ; : PRINT USING" ####.#" ; 
CT(PASS) ; :SX=SS+9 :PRINT@SX, ; :PRI 
NT USING"####.#";V(PASS,S) ; :SS=S 
S+32 

1600 PRINT@128,STRING$(32, " ");: 
NEXT PASS 
1610 GOTO 1420 



Dr. Nibble By Kelly Taylor 




IT'S NOT FAR OH 
N\fi«A£.\Gfll 10 POINTS 



m wa foi\ having 




IN COMPTER UNGUK*;PUHtfUKUCm \S Aft 

IMPOWAMT AS \AJOP05, V/HY, \N1HE MIX 
D/KS C* COMPUTING^ A PROBE TO VENUS 

WAS CONmOUID feY A FWfctoN. BECAUSE 

[THE PRDWWlEft \NSEKIED A 9tm-C0im\HST£AO 

~2T~ 





r \ THINK m 




116 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



*** 



THEN 175)3 
THEN 1890 
THEN GOTO 800 



16'20 ' 

1630 '*** SAVE/ LOAD ROUTINE 
1640 • 

1650 GOSUB 930: PRINT@64, "DATA 
SAVE/RETRIEVE MENU. ..." 
1660 PRINT@96, "1>L0AD FILE 2>SAV 
E FILE 3>MENU" ; 

1670 LS$ = INKEY$: IF LS$ = »« T 
HEN 1670 

1680 IF LS$ = "1" 
1690 IF LS$ - "2" 
1700 IF LS$ = "3" 
1710 GOTO 1650 
1720 ' 

1730 i*** READ IN FILE *** 
174j3 • 

1750 GOSUB 930 :PRINT@64, "FILE LO 

AD ROUTINE ....": PRINTQ9 6 , "ENTER 

FILE NAME"; : INPUT NM$ 

1760 IF LEN(NM$) > 8 THEN NM$ = 

LEFT$(NM$, 7) 

1770 NM$ = NM$ + ".CNV" 

1780 FOR CAND = 1 TO 6 : CT(CAND) 

= 0: FOR PL = 1 TO 53: V(CAND, 
PL) =0: NEXT PL: NEXT CAND 
1790 OPEN "I", 1, NM$ 
1800 INPUT #1, SVFLAG 
1810 IF SVFLAG <> FLAG THEN CLOS 
E 1: GOSUB 930: PRINT @9 6, "WRONG P 



ARTY . . . LOAD ABORTED" ; : FOR DL=1 T 

0 1200: NEXT DL: SOUND 150,1: GOTO 
800 

1820 FOR CAND = 1 TO 6: FOR PL = 
1 TO 53: INPUT #1, V(CAND, PL): 
CT (CAND) = CT (CAND) + V(CAND, P 

L) : NEXT PL: NEXT CAND 

1830 CLOSE 1 

1840 REM SS=224:FOR WP=1 TO 6: PR 
INT@SS , STRING$ ( 15 , " " ) ; : SS=SS+3 2 
:NEXT 

1850 GOTO 800 
1860 • 

1870 '*** SAVE FILE *** 
1880 • 

1890 GOSUB 930 :PRINT@64, "FILE SA 

VE ROUTINE ....": PRINT996 , "ENTER 

FILE NAME";: INPUT NM$ 

1900 IF LEN (NM$) > 8 THEN NM$ = 

LEFT$(NM$, 7) 

1910 NM$ = NM$ + ".CNV" 

1920 OPEN "0", 1, NM$ 

1930 SVFLAG = FLAG: WRITE #1, SV 

FLAG 

1940 FOR CAND=1T06:F0RPL=1T053:W 
RITE #1,V(CAND, PL) : NEXTPL : NEXTCA 
ND 

1950 CLOSE 1 
1960 GOTO 800 



MLBASIC 2.0 - BASIC Compiler 

If you want your BASIC programs to run up to 50 times faster, or want more 
programming features without learning another language, MLBASIC is for you. 

MLBASIC is the most compatible BASIC compiler available for the Color Com- 
puter. WHY? Because MLBASIC fully supports: 

- Low- and high-resolution graphics 
- All types of I/O (disk, screen, printer, RS232) 

- All available commands offered with BASIC 
- Floating point functions and expressions 

- Integer, floating point and string type variables and arrays 

- Use of all available 512K RAM in the COCO 3 

- 80,40 or 32 column text displays 

MLBASIC not only contains everything that you would expect a BASIC pro- 
gramming language should contain, MLBASIC has features that offer flexibility 
of other languages like C, Pascal, FORTRAN and even assembly language. These 
features will allow programmers to directly access the CPU registers on the 
COCO, produce modular program code with SUBROUTINES, manipulate memory 
in blocks, and even call ROM routines in other areas of memory. 

MLBASIC revision 2.0 has incorporated all enhancements that were 
suggested by MLBASIC 1.0 users and more. Revision 2.0 did away with all the in- 
compatibility problems that existed with revision 1.0. 

MLBASIC allowB for the first time user to quickly compile a program using 
default compiler settings. The advanced user has the capability of controlling 
over a dozen settings which control where the program is compiled, which 
medium to compile to (memory or disk), string space, compiler listings and 
more. 

With all this going for MLBASIC, your might expect the cost to be a little out 
of your budget. After looking at prices of other BASIC compilers for the COCO 3 
you might be correct. But look again at this ad; for only $59.95, you can have a 
programming language that will spark your interest once again in the COCO. 

Before you buy another BASIC compiler for the COCO, find out if it supports 
everything MLBASIC supports. Then look at the price tag. We feel that it won't be 
long before you place an order for MLBASIC. 

"MLBASIC is a fine program for any serious programmer, " 
said David Gerald in the December 1 98 7 RAINBOW. 

<< ONLY s 59 98 :> > 

COCO 3 WITH DISK REQUIRED -Add $4.00 Postage. 
Check, Money Order or COD accepted 
Foreign orders use U.S. MONEY ORDERS only. 



WASATCH WARE 

7350 Nutree Drive 
Salt Lake City, Utah 84121 
Phone (801) 943-1546 



BASIC UTILITY DISKETTE 

A real time saver for the person who develops 
software using COCO Basic. 

— DUMPDIR: Prints a hard copy of a disk's 
directory. No more searching one disk after 
another looking for a lost file. 

— DUMPCRT: Copies text from the screen to the 
printer. Versions included for 40 and 80 column 
COCO 3 text screens. 

— DUMPFILE: Dumps any disk file to the printer. 
Printout can be in either decimal or in hex values. 

— CROSSREF: Prints cross reference of source 
and destination line numbers for basic jump 
instructions (GOTO, GOSUB, etc.). 

— COMPARE: Reads two BASIC Programs from 
diskette and compares them line by line. Lists all 
lines that are not identical. 

Requires COCO 2 or 3, disk and printer. 
Order at $19.95 plus $2 p&h. 
Calif, residents add $1.20 tax. _ 



T.E.M. of California 
Box 4311 
Fullerton, CA 92634-4311 



RAINBOW 

CEff T7RC4T70N 
SEAL 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 117 



Feature 



64K Disk 




Free up more memory to run long 
programs without unplugging your disk drive 



Erase 

All Trace ! 



By Jeremy Spiller 




Some of the finest programs cannot 
be run with a disk controller 
plugged in. Some are simply too 
long; others, written on systems without 
a drive, use memory locations normally 
reserved for disk-operation storage of 
binary subroutines or data. This means, 
of course, that the program must be 
loaded from cassette, a rather tedious 
process if you bought a disk drive in 
order to avoid all the little inconven- 
iences of loading from tape. Well, fret 
no more! If you have a 64K CoCo you 
no longer have to unplug your disk 
drive controller in order to load and run 
these programs. They can be loaded 
from disk directly into memory and 
then run with the disk drive still in place. 
One note is in order here: because of the 
vectors used, this program will only 
work with CoCo 1 and 2. It will not 
work on a CoCo 3. 

Using the Program 

After keying in the program, be very 
sure to save it before you run it. Disk- 
Off 'kills itself after running. 

Assume that the long program you 
want to run is stored on disk. Most of 
these programs are too long to actually 
run with the disk controller plugged in, 
but there is usually enough room in 
memory to at least store them. There- 
fore, before you run DiskOff load your 
long program into the computer (you 
may need to PCLERR 1 first), and then 
store it on disk. 

Now run DiskOff. At the prompt, 
type in the filename of your long pro- 
gram and press ENTER. The disk drive 
will turn on for one last time and load 
your long program into memory. When 
the cursor reappears, the computer has 
been fooled into thinking that disk 
BASIC does not exist. Type RUN and 
press ENTER; your program should run 
just as if the disk controller were not in 
place. 

Jeremy Spiller is a high school junior 
who has been programming his CoCo 
for three years. He began using assem- 
bly language a year ago and learned the 
information needed for this program by 
disassembling parts of ROM. 



118 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



How the Program Works 

This program takes advantage of the 
fact that the computer allocates low 
memory for such things as graphics 
pages and disk buffer space at the time 
the computer is first turned on. The 
startup routine in ROM includes peeks 
in various locations to see what hard- 
ware is in place. If the disk controller 
card or a ROM pack is in the port, then 
locations &HC000 and &HC001 con- 
tain specific values. If the numbers in 
these locations are correct during the 
startup routine, the computer then 
assumes that a ROM pack or the disk 
drive controller is in place and executes 
the program contained in cartridge 
memory (&HC000 through &HFEFF). 
If the system is disk-based, then that 
program is Disk BASIC and includes 
reserving 2,048 bytes in low memory for 
use by the disk drive. These 2,048 bytes 
are located directly after the text screen 
memory and before the first graphics 
page reserved by Extended BASIC It is 
the availability of these 2,048 bytes that 
makes it possible to run some programs 
only with the disk controller out of its 
slot. With no disk drive in place, the first 
graphics page starts directly after the 
text screen memory, leaving more room 
above the graphics pages for BASIC to 
operate and freeing up memory between 
&H600 and &HE00 for the user. 

If, on the other hand, either of the 
first two bytes of the cartridge ROM is 
incorrect, the computer assumes there is 
no disk program to run; the startup 
routine goes on to initialize memory 
without making provisions for setting 
aside that critical 2,048 bytes in low 
memory. If it were somehow possible to 
load your basic program off disk into 
the correct position in memory, poke a 
zero into ROM Location &HC000 and 
then execute a cold start without losing 
your program, you could fool the com- 
puter into thinking that there was no 
drive controller in place. No space 
would be allocated to disk drive use, 
and more room would be made avail- 
able to the user. 

Unfortunately, it is impossible to 
poke anything into a ROM location 
other than what is already written there. 
On top of that, if you execute a cold 
start, you lose the BASIC program that 
you loaded off disk, right? Wrong! 

If you have a 64K CoCo, you can in 
effect write into ROM. The trick is to 
copy ROM into high memory RAM 
and then revise it to your heart's con- 
tent. The real problem comes when you 
try to run a cold start. Under normal 
circumstances, you may be operating in 



64K mode with your revised software 
"ROM-twin", but as soon as you POKE 
113,0 and then press the reset button 
as you would to produce a cold start, 
something nasty happens. The reset 
routine automatically switches the 
machine out of 64K mode (and your 
modified software ROM-twin) back 
into 32K (and the computer's hardware 
ROM) instead. (If you try to execute 
&HR027 with your software ROM-twin, 
your computer goes west and you'll 
have to power down to regain control.) 
A large part of DiskOff is devoted to 
overcoming this obstacle, as well as to 
restoring the BASIC program after the 
cold start is executed. 

Program Nitty-Gritty 

The data in lines 30, 50 and the last 
1 1 bytes in Line 80 are three short 
machine language routines that are 
loaded into protected graphics memory 
in lines 40, 60 and 120. The first to be 
executed (Line 70) is the ever-popular 
program that transfers ROM into high- 
memory RAM two bytes at a time. 
After it accomplishes this task, it 
transfers control from the hardware 
ROM to its software twin in RAM 
before returning to DiskOff. Line 70 
goes on to poke a zero into the first 
location in the ROM-twin. If a peek of 
that location returns a zero, then it is 
assumed that the transfer was successful 
and the original value is restored. If not, 
then it is assumed that you are still in 
hardware ROM, and that the computer 
is not equipped for 64K operation. 

The next ML program stored in 
graphics memory is a routine that will 
restore the long BASIC program which 
will be loaded from disk just before the 
cold start. Bear in mind that while a cold 
start generally wipes out user access to 
BASIC programs previously stored in 
memory, the program itself remains 
largely intact provided the computer 
was not powered down. What does get 
destroyed are all references to the 
program in the lower 256 bytes of 
memory, namely memory locations 27 
through 32 along with the first two bytes 
of the program itself. All of this infor- 
mation can be obtained by close inspec- 
tion of the remains of the program after 
the cold start. RESTORE is designed to 
do this and to plug the correct values 
back into the correct memory locations. 

Before covering the third ML routine 
poked into protected memory, we will 
look at the actual revisions that Disk- 
Off makes in our software ROM-twin. 
(Please note that the only ML routine 
actually executed so far has been the 



one that copied ROM into RAM. None 
of the other code is executed until after 
the disk drive has loaded the program 
that ordinarily cannot be run with the 
drive in place.) 

Line 90 pokes a short bit of code into 
our ROM-twin, preventing the micro- 
processor from poking zeros into the 
last page in ROM. While this is part of 
a normal cold start, poking anything 
into some of these locations would 
switch the computer back to the hard- 
ware ROM, a situation we want to 
prevent. 

Line 100 similarly pokes code to 
divert the microprocessor around other 
ROM instructions that would prevent 
basic from working properly if exe- 
cuted. 

Line 1 10 plugs in a patch that diverts 
the microprocessor to the RESTORE 
routine stored in protected memory. 
RESTORE is executed after the cold 
start. Line 1 10 pokes code replacing the 
normal jump to the cursor routine in 
ROM. 

Line 130 pokes 113,0, which flags 
for a cold start on a reset. It goes on to 
poke a zero in Location &HC000, 
tricking the computer into believing 
that there is nothing in the ROM port. 
Finally, it pokes 30 into Location 25, 
setting the start of BASIC to where it 
should be with no disk controller in 
place (2,048 bytes lower). 

Lines 140 and 150 poke another 
message into the ROM locations that 
ordinarily code for the Microsoft copy- 
right message appearing whenever you 
power up or run a cold start. 

Now the fun begins. We have trans- 
ferred ROM into high RAM, modified 
its cold start routine to protect its 
integrity during the cold start and to 
trick it into believing that there is 
nothing in the ROM pack port, and 
added patches that will automatically 
divert the microprocessor to the RE- 
STORE routine in low memory. The 
machinery is in place, but it hasn't been 
activated yet; and Disk BASIC is still in 
operation. We are still free to load our 
non-disk program off the disk. 

Line 170 is the key to the auto- 
execution of the cold start. Note the two 
pokes. BASIC keeps a jump vector stored 
in locations &H 168 and &H 169. When- 
ever you load a program off disk, Disk 
BASIC first fetches the disk directory 
entry and then prints a carriage return 
(CHR$(13)). It then loads the program 
(remember that Line 130 causes it to 
load 2,048 bytes lower than normal) and 
finally prints an "OK." Before each 
screen print, Disk BASIC looks at loca- 

July 1988 THE RAINBOW 119 



tions &H168 and &H169 to determine 
where its next set of instructions lie. 

DiskOff changes the jump vector held 
in these locations and, in so doing, 
diverts the microprocessor to the 
COLD START TRIGGER, the third 
routine loaded by Line 120 into low 
memory. This program checks to see if 
the character to be printed is the car- 
riage return. If it is, it sends the micro- 
processor back to load the program into 
memory. If the character is the "O" (in 
"OK"), then the program is assumed to 
be loaded; TRIGGER turns off the disk 
drive motor by poking a zero into 



&HFF40, then diverts the microproces- 
sor to our modified cold start by calling 
a jump to &HA027. 

Now all the machinery that we put 
into place earlier is activated. Extended 
BASIC checks to see if there is anything 
in the cartridge slot. (Our zero in Lo- 
cation &HC000 tricks it into believing 
that there is not.) It then initializes 
RAM, jumping around the areas that 
would damage our ROM-twin. When it 
is finished, it is diverted to the RE- 
STORE program, which scans the 
remains of our BASIC program to re- 
place the missing information in low 



memory. Finally, RESTORE returns 
control to BASIC by jumping to 
&HA0E2 (the cursor), and voila\ 

We are now back in Extended BASIC, 
with the program loaded into memory. 
At this point Disk BASIC is totally 
disabled, and any disk commands re- 
turn a syntax error. Type RUN and play 
the game without having to remove the 
disk drive controller. 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this program may be directed to the 
author at RFD 1, P.O. Box 1094, 
Townsend, MA 01469. Please enclose 
an SASE when requesting a reply.) □ 



The listing: DISKOFF 

1 ***************************** 

3 '* DISKOFF * 

5 '* BY JEREMY SPILLER * 

7 '* 1985 * 

9 ' **************************** 

10 CLS : PRINT "THIS PROGRAM WILL A 
LLOW YOU TO LOAD AND RUN PROGRA 
MS OFF YOUR DISK DRIVE WHICH NO 
RMALLY &CANNOTBE RUN WITH THE DIS 
K CONTROLLER PLUGGED IN." 

20 PRINT @ 17 2 , "thinking" 

25 'PATCH 1 RESTORE ROUTINE 

30 DATA 5F,9E,19,1F,12,30,4,A6,8 
0,26,FC,C1,0,26,3,AF,A4,5C,A6,84 
,26,EF,30,2,9F,1B,9F,1D,9F,1F,7E 
,A0,E2 

40 C=0:FOR X=4000 TO 4032:READ A 
$:A=VAL("&H"+A$) :POKE X,A:C=C+A: 
NEXT: IF C03329 THEN PRINT" ERROR 
IN PATCH l":STOP 

45 'PATCH 2 ROM TO RAM ROUTINE 

50 DATA 1A,50,8E,80,0,B7,FF,DE,E 
C,84,B7,FF,DF,ED,81,8C,FF,0,26,F 
1,1C,AF,39 

60 C=0:FOR X=&HFC8 TO &HFDE : READ 
A$:A=VAL("&H"+A$) :POKE X,A:C=C+ 
A: NEXT: IF C03365 THEN PRINT "ERR 
OR IN PATCH 2" 

70 EXEC &HFC8:A=PEEK(&H8000) :P0K 
E &H8000,0:IF PEEK(&H8000)=0 THE 
N POKE &H8000,A ELSE PRINT" YOU M 
UST HAVE 64K":STOP 



75 'PATCH 3 — ROM PATCHES & COLD 
START TRIGGER 

80 DATA E0,5F,7E,A0,5B,8E,7F,FF, 
20,A,7E,F,A0,81,D,26,1,39,7F,FF, 
40,7E,A0,27 

90 C=0:FOR X=&HA053 TO &HA057:RE 
AD A$ : A=VAL ( " &H" +A$ ) : POKE X , A : C= 
C+A:NEXT 

100 FOR X=&HA084 TO &HA088 :READ 
A$ : A=VAL ( " &H » +A$ ) : POKE X , A : C=C+A 
tNEXT 

110 FOR X=&H80BD TO &H80BF:READ 
A$:A=VAL("&H"+A$) :POKE X,A:C=C+A 
:NEXT 

120 FOR X=&HFFA TO &H1004:READ A 
$:A=VAL("&H"+A$) :POKE X,A:C=C+A: 
NEXT: IF C<>2572 THEN PRINT "ERROR 

IN PATCH 3": STOP 
130 POKE 113,0:POKE &HC000,0:POK 
E 25,30 

140 A$="YOU ARE NOW IN EXTENDED 
BASIC WITH YOUR PROGRAM IN THE 
MEMORY. " :A$=A$+STRING$ (81-LEN(A 
$) / 32 ) 

150 P=&H80E8:FOR X=l TO LEN(A$): 
POKE P,ASC(MID$(A$,X,1) ) :P=P+1:N 
EXT 

160 FOR X=l TO 20:PRINTCHR$(8) ;: 
NEXT: PRINT: INPUT "ENTER PROGRAM N 
AME";A$:CLS:PRINT"ONE SECOND PLE 
ASE" 

170 POKE &H168,&HF:POKE &H169,&H 
FA: LOAD A$ 



Dr. Nibble 

By Kelly Taylor 




I BOU&HT Mi FOLKS ONE OF TM3T\ 
OTUTER BASED HDMf PROTECTION 

smS.YKNW THE WHO THAT 
fiSSOfc^E W HBMNERQE P EACE! 





1 20 THE RAINBOW July 1988 







I All of our OS-9 products £ 
* work with: 4 



OS-9 version 1 
OS-9 version 2 
OS-9 Level 2 



XTERM 

OS-9 Communications program 



• Menu oriented 

• Upload/download Ascii 
or XMODEM protocol 

• Execute OS-9 commands 
from within XTERM 



• Definable macro keys 

• Works with standard serial port, RS232 
Pak, or PBJ 2SP Pack, Includes all drivers 

■ Works with standard screen, Xscreen 
WORDPAK or DISTO 80 column board 



$49.95 with source $89.95 



XDIR & XCAL 

Hierarchial directory OS-9 calculator 

• Full sorting • Decimal, Hex, Binary 

- Complete pattern matching - +,-,*,/,AND,OR,XOR,NOT 

$24.95 with source $49.95 



XDIS 

OS-9 disassembler 

$34.95 with source $54.95 



HARDWARE 


512k memory upgrade 


$80.00 


Ram Software 




Ram Disk 
Print Spooler 


All three for only 
$19.95 


Quick Backup 


•Software by ColarVentiire 



XWORD 

OS-9 word processing system 

• Works with standard text screen, XSCREEN, WORDPAK, or DISTO 

• True character oriented full screen editing 

• Full block commands 

• Find and Replace commands 

• Execute OS-9 commands from within 

• Proportional spacing supported 

• Full printer control, character size, emphasized, italics, overstrike, 
underline, super/sub-scripts 

• 10 header/footers 

• Page numbering in decimal or Roman numerals 

• Margins and headers can be set different for even and odd pages 

$69.95 with source $124.95 

XMERGE 

Mail merge capabilities for XWORD 

$24.95 with source $49.95 

XSPELL 

OS-9 spelling checker, with 20000 and 40000 word dictionaries 

$39.95 

XTRIO 

XWORD/XMERGE/X SPELL 
$114.95 with source $199.95 

XED 

OS-9 full screen editor 
$39.95 with source $79.95 




SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUTING 

This sales-based accounting package is de- 
signed for the non-accountant oriented busi- 
nessman. It also contains the flexibility for 
the accounting oriented user to set up a double 
entry journal with an almost unlimited chart 
of accounts. Includes Sales Entry, transaction 
driven Accounts Receivable and Accounts Pay- 
able, Journal Entry, Payroll Disbursement, 
and Record Maintenance programs. System 
outputs include Balance Sheet, Income State- 
ment, Customer and Vender status Reports, 
Accounts Receivable and Payable Aging Re- 
ports, Check Register, Sales Reports, Account 
Status Lists, and a Journal Posting List. 

$79.95 

INVENTORY CONTROL/SALES ANALYSIS 

This module is designed to handle inventory 
control, with user defined product codes, and 
produce a detailed analysis of the business' 
sales and the sales force. One may enter/update 
inventory data, enter sales, run five sales anal- 
ysis reports, run five inventory reports, set up 
product codes, enter/update salesman records, 
and update the SBAP inventory. 

$59.95 





mmm 



PAYROLL 

Designed for maintaining personnel and 
payroll data for up to 200 hourly and salar- 
ied employees with 8 deductions each. Cal- 
culates payroll and tax amounts, prints 
checks and maintains year-to-date totals 
which can be automatically transferred to 
the SBA package. Computes each pay peri- 
od's totals for straight time, overtime and 
bonus pay and determines taxes to be with- 
held. Aditional outputs include mailing list, 
listing of employees, year-to-date federal 
and/or state tax listing, and a listing of cur- 
rent misc. deductions. Suited for use in all 
states except Oklahoma and Delaware 

$59.95 



PERSONAL BOOKKEEPING 2000 
Handles 45 accounts. Enters cash expenses as 
easily as checks. Handles 26 expense catego- 
ries. Menu driven and user friendly. 

$39.95 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Includes detailed audit trails and history 
reports for each customer, perpares in- 
voices and monthly statements, mailing la- 
bels, aging lists, and an alphabetized cus- 
tomer listing. The user can define net 
terms for commercial accounts or finance 
charges for revolving accounts. This pack- 
age functions as a standalone A/R system or 
integrates with the Small Business Accting 
package. 

$59.95 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Designed for the maintenance of vendor 
and A/P invoice files. The system prints 
checks, voids checks, cancels checks, de- 
letes cancelled checks, and deletes paid A/P 
invoices. The user can run a Vendor List, 
Vendor Status report, Vendor Aged report, 
and an A/P Check Register. This package 
can be used either as a standalone A/P sys- 
tem or can be integrated with the Small 
Business Accounting Package. 

$59.95 





Ordering Information 

Add $3.00 shipping & handling, MN residents add 6% sales tax. 
Visa, Mastercard, COD (add $3.50), personal checks. 



(612) 633-6161 




^"Mi'.Wonts ftttr Options 



lliw Pas 



ftpprove 



Define Block 
Paraiteters 
Save Page 
load Page 
Head Text 
luage 
Delete 
boundaries 



mum 

I ' ' 

The Hansaponna Tims 

A fipjitii #/ fairjlaitf Pwsf 



Taies 1p 



Clear Page 
Print Page 

'' TvnrrrrHgWtt w l It's CtStllf MP? 

ui mm to run a business; or so 
cUims selftiade Millionaire Robin T, 
Hood, Contenting on the official 
release of his tax statement, Hood 
said, 'It seew like the wore Money we 
get the sore m need to 



Wizard Denies i 
Secret "Hitch Hunt": 

<Ih* £*e?*li Citi) The Hisart if 

Oi bitterly denied that ^r- 

he dispatched hit squads 
after the Kicked Hitch of 
l ^-s" r the West as 



[ Softwar e 



CoCo 3 



Home Publisher — 

Getting the Word out on the CoCo 3 



Tandy's Home Publisher is a desktop 
publishing program written especially 
for your CoCo 3. By combining detailed 
graphics and different sizes and styles of 
text on one page, you can produce high- 
quality newsletters, announcements, or 
any other type of small document using 
your computer and printer. 

Written in OS-9 Level II (but you 
don't need OS-9 Level II to run it), the 
program requires at least one disk drive. 
A joystick or mouse would be a worth- 
while addition, but is not required to 
run the program successfully. The disk 
is not copy-protected, so it's easy to 
make a backup for your own protec- 

122 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



tion. You can also install the program 
on a hard disk. 

The program loads with some rather 
complex instructions, having you type 
a few OS-9 commands, but the screen 
tells exactly what to do: 

CHX /D0/CMD5 ENTER 
CHD /D0 ENTER 
EX PUBLISH >/TERM </TERM 
»/TERM ENTER 

512K users have a shortcut in that they 
can type EX PUBLISH as the last instruc- 
tion, but I28K users must type the 
whole line each time they boot up. In 



my opinion, a program of this caliber 
should be easier to access, having a 
configure program to create a boot file. 
More advanced programmers will likely 
develop their own boot files to prevent 
this extra typing. 

If your disk controller is equipped 
with DOS 2.0 or earlier, you will not be 
able to start the program with the DOS 
command. However, the instruction 
book provides a short BASIC loader 
program that will boot the program. 

Once the program has been loaded, 
you will see the high resolution work 
screen headed by a command line at the 
top. Here are some of the commands 
available: View Page; Define Block, 
which determines how your composi- 
tion will be laid out; Parameters, which 
sets block and margin locations, font 
sizes, spacing and justification; Save/ 
Load Page; Read Text, allowing you to 
read in standard ASCII text files; 
Image, which provides 37 drawings that 



can be incorporated into your work; 
Delete; Boundaries; Edit Image; Quit; 
Clear Page; and Print Page. 

The Fonts command yields a direc- 
tory of 14 fonts; the ATTR command 
changes font styles (you can select from 
bold, outline, italics or shadowed let- 
ters). Under the Options command you 
define or change your system configu- 
ration for the following: printer double- 
strike mode, Hi-Res Joystick, RGB or 
composite monitor, foreground and 
background colors, system setup (initial 
block format in either one, two or three 
columns), default drives and directory, 
justification and printer (Tandy DMP 
or Epson RX-80). 

Only half of the page is visible on- 
screen even though the entire page is 
kept in memory. To see the other half, 
you must position the cursor to the 
extreme left of the workspace screen 
and press the joystick or mouse button. 
It is possible to see the entire page at any 
time through a previewing feature, but 
the page will not be completely read- 
able. Previewing is useful because it 
allows you to see how your page looks 
before you commit to printing. 

The use of multiple pop-up windows 
and menus makes Home Publisher very 
user-friendly. After about 30 minutes of 
computer use, 1 was able to create some 
pretty neat-looking newsletters. 1 do 
recommend the use of the Tandy Hi-Res 
Joystick Interface; it makes cursor 
operation smoother and is a must if you 
intend to edit any of the graphic images 
supplied on the disk. Although the 45- 
page instruction manual is well-written 
and easy to follow, most users will catch 
on quickly and not need the book other 
than for minor referencing. 




I was disappointed that the program 
does not contain printer drivers for 
many of the other popular printers on 
the market, such as Star, Okidata and 
other models of Epson. 1 guess Tandy 
thinks that just because we own CoCo 



3s, we must also own its DMP printers. 
My other complaint, as stated at the 
beginning of this review, is the complex 
way in which the program has to be 
loaded. 




But, all in all, Home Publisher does 
what it is advertised to do, and it does 
it well. The price is reasonable and the 
results are gratifying. 

(Tandy Corporation, 1700 One Tandy 
Center, Fort Worth, TX 76102; $39.95: 
Available in Radio Shack stores nation- 
wide.) 

— Robert Gray 




Cartoonamator — 
A Moving 
Experience 

Patience isn't one of my numerous 
virtues — neither is programming 
graphics. The thought of typing in 1 ,373 
DRAW statements appeals to me at about 
the same level that gum surgery does. 

Cartoonamator, however, allows me 
to exercise my previously well-hidden 
talent for animation without the accom- 
panying frustration. The creators ob- 
viously knew that human beings would 
be using it; one piece of practical advice 
in the excellent instructions reads: "If 
you mess up, just press BREAK and 
rerun the program. Your animation will 
not be lost, and your previous cell will 
remain unaffected." How about that? 

The instructions complement the 
screen menus perfectly. Even people like 
me have a hard time making mistakes. 

The basis for the whole operation is 
the "cell," a rectangular area in which 
you can put nine different colored 
blocks. By combining cells into a se- 



quence of frames (which includes the 
capability to load more than one cell 
into a frame), you create animation. 
The results are a bit blocky, since you 
are using blocks, but so what? Let the 
Disney Studios take care of the involved 
stuff. You just have to realize that curves 
aren't really possible, so make designs 
that don't involve them. 

Hint: Take notes on which cell is 
which — even though you can review 
them — so you don't get sudden 
changes you hadn't planned on. The 
same applies to the backgrounds, which 
you design separately. You combine the 
two in the frames. 

You can also store favorite back- 
grounds and cells on the disk for later 
use in other animation projects. Ob- 
viously, you can store a complete ani- 
mation sequence also — thus you could 
build part of it, store it, add some things 
later after a reload and keep building. 
The program advises you of how much 
memory you have remaining. 

Operating under the theory that you 
just might make a mistake now and 
then, the program is loaded with 
prompts to help you escape before you 
insert something you'll regret later. 
When you put more than one cell in a 
frame, each one is displayed so you can 
check spacing. In addition, you can edit 
individual cells; once done, the changes 
you made automatically overlay that 
cell number wherever it shows up in the 
sequence. 

It takes a while to use the joystick 
properly for cell placement. The in- 
structions are clear enough; the reac- 
tions (mine) take a little more work. 

The Display menu allows you to 
review the entire animation set you 
created step-by-step, in slow motion, or 
in regular motion or high speed. If you 
select high-speed, the program asks 
what type of CoCo you have, 1, 2 or 3. 

Other than the animation you'll start 
producing within half an hour after 
making your backup copy, Cartoon- 
amator is just fun to play around with. 
You can start with simple animation 
and work your way up to darkening 
skies and stellar explosions. A heck of 
a product for the price. Warning: It can 
be addicting. 

(CoCotronics Software, 51 Briarwood, 
Irvine, CA 92714, 714-651-0283; $14.95 plus 
$1.50 S/H) 

— John M. Hehert 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 123 



1 Software 



CoCo3 



Domination — 
Surround the World 
in 80 Plays 



HAWKSoft's Domination is a "Risk" 
board-type game that two to six players 
can play on the CoCo 3. The object of 
the game is to dominate the planet by 
using armies to defeat those of another 
player. 

When the game starts, it randomly 
divides the world among the players. 
Then it goes through a series of rounds 
that allow the players to place their 
remaining armies, five at a time, on their 
countries. Each player must concen- 
trate armies where they will provide the 
best offensive and defensive position. A 
lot of strategy is required with Domina- 
tion^ because you cannot randomly 
place your armies just anywhere. 

When a player decides to attack 
another, he needs to take into account 
how many armies he can deploy for 
offense and how many the opponent 
can use for defense. At each turn a 
player may attack, move armies or pass 
to the next player. There is also the 
option of stopping the game and saving 
the board to continue later. 

4 




If a player decides to attack, he must 
pick which of his countries he will 
attack from, who to attack and how 
many armies to attack with. Then the 
defending player gets the chance to pick 
the number of armies he wishes to 
defend with. After the battle is decided, 
the defeated army is reduced. If the 
attacking army has defeated all the 
available armies of his opponent, he 
takes control of the country and 
transfers one of his armies to his new 
country. The process of attack and 

124 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



defense goes on until one player has 
domination over the entire planet, or 
everyone decides to quit. 

Domination is an entertaining game 
worth its price tag, but 1 have a "wish 
list" of features 1 think would make it 
even better. When playing with young 
players, I noticed they usually attack so 
often that everyone ends up with only 
one army per country. This means that 
no one can attack anyone because you 
must have at least two armies to attack 
(in case you win). The only thing anyone 
can do in this situation is pass. It would 
be nice if the program could detect this 
situation and force a "draft" to create 
more armies for the players. Also, it 
would be nice to be able to use the arrow 
keys as an option. While 1 have joy- 
sticks, 1 usually must go dig for them. 

Overall, 1 enjoyed Domination and 
was very happy to see an entertaining 
game below the $20 barrier. I must warn 
people, though, that this is not a game 
you can play in a few minutes. 1 have 
been involved in games of Risk that 
have gone on for days. 

(HAWKSoft, P.O. Box #7112, Elgin, IL 
60121, 312-742-3084; S18) 

- Dale Shell 



* Softwar e 



CoCp 1, 2 & 3 



Big Pix 3 — 
Seeing the Big 
Picture 

Have you ever wanted a graphics 
program that would fill an 8Vi-by-ll 
inch page? Well, Big Pix 3 can both 
draw and print pictures up to 456 by 565 
pixels — this is about six times the 
overall size of the normal PMDDE 4 
graphics screen. 

Two joysticks and 64 K are required 
to operate the program. The right 
joystick controls cursor movement. 
When you move the joystick, the cursor 
creeps across the screen, pixel by pixel. 
Holding down the firebutton makes the 
cursor move even faster. The left joy- 
stick controls the window or work- 
space. Even though one Hi-Res screen 
is displayed at a time, there is plenty of 
extra space left to the sides, top and 
bottom of the displayed screen. 

Big Pix includes most of the standard 



drawing commands, such as Circle, 
Box, Line, Draw, Erase, Paint, Ray and 
others. In addition, Get, Put and Invert 
are available for manipulation of pic- 
tures. Zoom provides a greatly magni- 
fied view of sections of the screen. Also, 
10 different fonts are available for 
writing text to the screen. 

In some ways, Big Pix 3 is much like 
many of the drawing programs cur- 
rently on the market, less the icons and 
pull-down menus. Its features are ac- 
cessed by pressing one or more keys. 
One feature, Move Cursor, actually lets 
you enter the x and y coordinates 
manually for more precise cursor move- 
ment. 

Files from other CoCo graphics pro- 
grams such as CoCo Max and Graph- 
icom can be loaded and edited. 1 tried 
several picture files from CoCo Max 11 
and found that they loaded without 
problem. If you have Graphicom Part 
2, you can use the Big Pix font editor 
to change Graphicom 2 fonts into Big 
Pix fonts. This same font editor will also 
allow you to create and save custom 
fonts. 

Program documentation is complete 
and well-written. Included on the pro- 
gram disk is a printable documentation 
file, just in case you misplace the orig- 
inal instructions. 

On the down side, 1 found that using 
joysticks to manipulate the graphics 
gets to be somewhat tedious. Screen 
movement can be jerky in the Zoom 
function, because of the limits of the 
standard joystick ports. A routine to 
incorporate the Hi-Res joystick adapter 
would be a blessing. 

The printer dump for both large and 
small picture sizes is set up for Radio 
Shack dot matrix printers only. Owners 
of other brands of printers need to 
provide their own printer dumps, and 
are limited to a standard 256-by-192 
screen. 1 think the program should 
include provision for other popular 
printers, such as Epson and compati- 
bles. It is a fact that a large number of 
CoCo owners have these brands of 
printers, and they will not be able to 
utilize one of the most useful features of 
the program. 

Big Pix3's strength lies in its graphics 
editing and full-page printing capabili- 
ties. For owners of Radio Shack DMP 
printers who want these features, this is 
an excellent product. 

(Tothian Software, Inc., Box 663, Rimers- 
burg, PA 16248; $24.95) 

— Mark Haverstock 



VI 




BEYOND WORDS 



32K Ext. - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
These Language Arts programs cover 
common misspellings, and synonyns/ 
antonyms on each level. Additionally, 
Level i tests contractions and abbre- 
viations, Level 2 tests homonyms, 
and Level 3 tests analogies. Each 
program has three parts and con- 
tains over 400 questions and uses 
over 800 words. All tests are grade 
appropriate. User modifiable (direc- 
tions included). Printer option, Speci- 



Level 1 Grades 3-§ 
Level 2 Grades 6-8 
Level s Grades##2 



, ••,v • 
'■■4: ':< ■■ 




VOCABULARY BUILDER 

32K. Ekt - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
200 Vocabulary questions on appro- 
priate grade levels in a 4 part multiple 
choice format. 1000 words used. Ex- 
tensive research has provided chal- 
lenging words on all levels. When 
mastered, the words may be changed 
by the user (full directions included). 
Printer option. Specify Level. 

Level 1 Grades p> 

Level 2 Gradese-8 

Level 3 Grades 9- 12 



Educational Software 




:■:»:'.■ V,..-. 

i-V :■(■':. ■ 
■■\. » 



CONTEXT CLUES - 4, 5, 6, 7 
16K Ext. - $17.95 %e/$22.95 disk 
Each reading ^jpgram contains 
about 50 situational paragraphs with 
one key word missing. Child uses 
context clues to ffril correct answer 
in multiple choice format. Random 
selection of readings each rourick 
Specify 4th, 5th, 6th, or 7th grade. 



CONTEXT CLUES - 2-3 

32K Ext. - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
& reading program wherein the child 
ti$es the context to choose the coH 
rect answer. Multiple choice format, 
hkes screen. Grades 2-3. 

TRIGONOMETRY TUTOR 

32K Ext - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
A step by step tutorial for learning to 
compute the sides and angles of right 
triangles. All examples have graphic 
representation. Help commands and 
cursor aids assist throughout. 




OPENING A BANK ACCOUNT 

32K Ext. - $24.95 disk only 
A set o( programs designed to intro- 
duce and provide practice in the skilli 
of filling out bank applications, deposit 
and withdrawal slips, and computing 
bank account balances. Loaded with 
graphip presentations. Grades 3-6. 



EQUATIONS TUTOR ||S§ 
32K Ext. ■ $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
Elementary-Intermediate algebra. 
Step by step tutorials. Multi-level. 



PECIFY Linear or 



••;<j.,yg 




AREA & PERIMETER 

32K Ext. - $19;95 tape/$24.95 disk 
Triangles, rectangles, and circles 
andll^eredliifthis Hi-res text and 
progrfnrtfl 



COCO WHEEL OF FORTUNE 

32K Ext. - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
Hi-res graphics and screen in this 
version of the popular TV show. One 
to six players. Spin the wheel for 
points and guess a letter to solve the 
puzzle. Over 200 puzzles. Have fun 
while strengthening language arts 
skills. 

MATH INVADERS 

32K Ext. - $17^95 tape/$22.S5 disk 
A multi-level "Space Invaders" type 
game to reinforce the 4 basiojrriath 
operations (addition , subtraction , 
multiplication and division). Prob- 
lem^ Become more difficult as your 
progress, Hi^res graphics. Joystick 

required. 

;:: ■ > s « - ; . - - j& If 1 ; 

: ; |:=4>:>:/. : ':!i?:,a.;-,.':{ . -■■ ■ .^.-:V' ••. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Compute^ 




(718) 948-2748 
Dept. R 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 

Send for catalog with complete descriptions. 



Please add $1.00 per order for postage. N.Y. residents, please add proper tax. FREE set of BINARY DICE, including full directions, with 
orders of 2 or more items. 




Dealer Inquiries Invited. 



TRS-80 Color Computer 



All Payments in U.S. Funds. 




Cocoa 



Stylograph — 
Power User's Word 
Processing Package 

Our little Color Computer has grown 
a lot since its introduction as a 4K RAM 
machine, but many people still seem to 
think of it as a game machine. When 
serious work needs to be done, they 
think an MS-DOS machine is required 
to do the job. 

Well, the Color Computer has some 
very powerful software available, and 
computer salespeople need to learn this 
fact. Take, for example, Stylograph, an 



OS-9 Level II word processing system, 
I would put this program up against just 
about anything in the MS-DOS world 
that is within three times its price range. 
And this is for a game machine? Gimme 
a break! 

Stylograph III uses the power of OS- 
9 Level II to advance our Color Com- 
puter even closer to the no-longer- 
better-but-more-expensive machines. 
The Stylograph HI package comes with 
the Stylograph word processing system, 
the Stylograph III Mail Merge and the 
Stylograph II Spelling Checker. In- 
cluded is a comprehensive manual with 
a three-lesson tutorial. As an upgrade 
from the OS-9 Level I version, Stylo- 
graph is very versatile — this flexibility 
means there are a lot of features to 
learn, so I highly recommend going 
through the tutorial at least once. After 



you become familiar with Stylo, you 
can easily do just about anything you 
want. 

There are a few small differences 
between the standard OS-9 version and 
the new version. The two I think most 
important are the different keystroke 
combinations used for the tab function 
and the escape sequence. I did not find 
a reference to the delete key, but I am 
sure it is in the manual somewhere. But 
these differences will give you very little 
heartache when compared to the power 
and versatility you will gain. 

Just like earlier incarnations of Stylo, 
the new OS-9 Level II version can be 
configured to just about any hardware 
setup you can think of. It already has 
a large list of supported printers; if you 
do not find yours or a compatible listed, 
you can modify the drivers for your 
printer. This is not hard. The program 
takes you through a menu and asks 
questions about your printer; if you 
have your printer manual handy, you 
should not have a problem. In most 
cases you will find that your printer or 
one that is compatible will be listed. 

You can also configure your terminal, 
but this feature will probably only be 
used by those people who use the re- 
mote terminal feature of OS-9. Stylo 
even supports hard drives. As I said 
earlier, you can configure Stylo just 
about any way you want. 



"/ think Stylograph 
has taken the CoCo, 
under OS-9 Level II, 
another giant step 
forward. " 



Stylo uses three main modes. The 
Supervisor mode is well-named. It does 
not do much of the real work, but you 
go from there to the other menus where 
the real work is done. The Supervisor 
menu allows you to choose the options 
of editing, printing, saving, loading, 
appending, erasing or spooling a file to 
another file to be printed later. 

The Insert mode is used to enter the 
text. This mode actually contains three 
modes: Insert, Overwrite and Pro- 
grammers. The first two should be fairly 
clear by their names. The Programmers 
mode is new, but not to old users of 
Stylo. It can be invoked from either the 




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n/216" Line Feeds, Absolute or Relative Vert. & Hon. Tabs, Left, 
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(513) 236-1454 

Visa & MasterCard 
within the continental U.S. 



126 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



Insert or Overwrite mode and is similar 
to those two except that it adds a feature 
to aid people who do programming, 
Using the tab stops, the cursor will 
return to the last tab used after each 
return (sort of resetting the left margin 
temporarily). This helps if you indent a 
section of your file. 

The third mode is the Escape mode, 
for cursor control. It allows you to 
move around the screen and to scroll the 
screen. It is also used for finding, 
replacing, moving, erasing or duplicat- 
ing text strings. This is where block 
manipulations are done. 

Stylo is also extremely comprehen- 
sive in its ability to format text. It 
includes all the things a printer can do 
to text, i.e., make it bold, enhanced, 
expanded, underlined, overlined, etc. 
But, for me, Stylo's best feature is its 
dynamic formatting. As soon as you 
enter a format code, you see the effects 
on the screen. Centering, left and right 
justification and even underlining is 
shown right on the screen. Footers and 
headers are shown on each page along 
with the page breaks. These along with 
the status line let you know just where 
you are on a page — and you will know 
exactly how the output will look. The 
status line tells you the column, line and 
page number of the cursor. 

Now, Stylo cannot duplicate all the 
special effects on the screen that your 
printer can on paper (like boldface and 
overlines), but a view command is 
available that shows all the words that 
have special effects on them, and the 
effects are coded so that you will know 
at a glance exactly what they are. Stylo 
even includes a math package to allow 
manipulating numbers in the text, both 
by row and by column. There are many 
other features too numerous to men- 
tion. 

Stylo has finally brought all the 
features of a professional "big comput- 
er" word processor to the Color Com- 
puter. You will have to see it to fully 
appreciate all the features. But as al- 
ways, I would like to see an addition. 
The current modes are displayed above 
the status line, all but for the Pro- 
grammers mode; I would like to see this 
included. Also, Stylo comes with a 
template of the keyboard to illustrate 
the special keys. The template I received 
was for the CoCo 2, which has a key- 
board layout different from that of the 
CoCo 3. The company is, however, 
working on a new template. 

My final criticism concerns the spell- 
ing checker; it does not correct mis- 
spelled words for you. It will flag the 



word, but you still have to look up the 
spelling yourself. When I misspell some- 
thing, I want a program to tell me how 
to fix it, or at least make a suggestion. 
I have this complaint with most spell 
checkers. To be fair, I must add that 
while the spelling checker does not do 
all I would like it to, it does what it does 
do very fast. 

Overall, I think Stylograph has taken 
the CoCo, under OS-9 Level II, another 
giant step forward. And while it works 
with 128K, it really needs 512K to soar 
like an eagle. I highly recommend 
Stylograph to anyone who does serious 
word processing or wants to take ad- 
vantage of all the features the CoCo 3 
has to offer. Now, if we could just 
convince "some people" to take the 
Color Computer seriously, showing 
them it is not a game machine but the 



most powerful eight-bit computer 
money can buy, well, we could really fly. 

(Stylo Software, Inc., P.O. Box 916, Idaho 
Falls, ID 83402, 208-529-3210; $199.95) 

— Dale Shell 

1 Software CoCo1 > 2&3 I 

EZ Writer — 
User-Friendly Letter 
Writer 

No matter how many times I label 
myself the "world's worst correspond- 
ent" I always feel that surely I have some 
stiff competition for the title. Are you 





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system superimposes 4 graphic screen dumps (black, blue, yellow & red). The 
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(513) 236-1454 

Visa & MasterCard 
within the continental U.S. 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 127 



one of those people who, like me, just 
can't seem to get around to writing 
letters, no matter how good you feel 
when you actually drop that envelope 
into the mailbox? If so, EZ Writer, 
available on tape or disk from E.Z. 
Friendly Software, may be of interest to 
you. 

EZWriter enables you to compose a 
short (one page maximum) letter, save 
it to disk or tape and print out one or 
more copies, without the struggle of 
learning a full-featured word processor. 
It also provides the capability of storing 
a mailing list, which can be used to print 
mailing labels. 

A separate copy of your letter can be 
printed for each person on the mailing 
list, complete with personalized address 
and salutation on each. This is an 
extremely nice feature and would have 
immediate value to small businessmen, 
club secretaries, and people who send 
out those "state of the household" 
letters in their Christmas cards! Once a 
letter or mailing list is stored, it can be 
retrieved and updated as necessary. 

EZWriter is intended to be simple to 
use and attractive to people who do not 
care to invest the necessary hours to 
learn word processing. In that intent it 
succeeds admirably. I was able to begin 
typing a letter within minutes of open- 
ing the package, with only the barest 
glance at the documentation, which is 
clear and readable. The screen displays 
are largely self-evident, and there are no 
confusing inconsistencies. If you find 
word processing intimidating, you'll 
love EZWriterl 

On the other side of the commentary, 
however, the program is written entirely 
in BASIC, and is therefore quite slow. 1 
am not a great typist, but EZ Writer was 
consistently unable to keep up with me. 
Another irritant involves mailing labels. 
There is no provision for checking 
alignment of the label paper before 
printing commences, nor can you sus- 
pend printing in the case of a printer 
jam. 

Some of my complaints about this 
package are a matter of design trade- 
offs: Should the program be easy, or 
more flexible? In each case, the author 
went for ease of use. The text you enter 
can only be edited by replacing individ- 
ual lines with new ones, and the new 
lines must be very nearly the same 
length as the old ones. You have no 
choice as to the wording of the saluta- 
tion ("Dear") or the closing ("Sin- 
cerely"), nor do you have control over 
such things as page size, line length, 
margins, etc. The author's stated goal is 

1 28 THE RAINBOW July 1 988 



one of relieving the user of having to 
deal with technical clutter. 

I found one error in the program. 
Prior to printing a letter, it asks if you 
want to change the printer baud rate. If 
you do, and respond with 2400, as in 
my case, the program does not reset the 
baud rate. Instead it returns to "Do you 
want to change the baud rate?" It 
continues to ask this until you respond 
with Y and give it a value other than 
2400. 

You can fix this error by replacing 
lines 765 and 766 with a line in which 
you simply do a POKE ( 150, jcjc), where 
xx is the appropriate value for your 
baud rate. If you don't care to mess with 
the program, you should set your baud 
rate before running the program, then 
answer N when asked if you want to 
reset it. 

EZWriter is a great program for 
someone who wants the minimum nec- 
essary to write and print a single-page 
letter. 

(E.Z. Friendly Software, Hutton & Orchard 
Streets, Rhinecliff, NY 12574, 914-876-3935; 
$19.95 plus $1.50 S/H) 

— Jim K. Issel 



1 B ook 1 

Computer 
Dictionary — 
From A Bus 
to Zone, Plus 

Shortly after I joined the editorial 
staff of rainbow, I was given the task 
of compiling an in-house dictionary/ 
stylebook to help the editors deal con- 
sistently with "Computerese." I pre- 
pared a formidable list of the terms, 
abbreviations and acronyms we regu- 
larly encounter, then began to search 
for standard spellings and definitions. 
The effort was only partly successful, 
however, because I soon discovered that 
computer vocabulary is a vast conglom- 
eration of specialized terminologies and 
a sort of high-tech patois that seems to 
change, along with the technology, by 
the nanosecond. 

Fortunately, I was relieved of my 
duties as company lexicographer when 
we acquired the fourth edition of 
Charles Sippl's Computer Dictionary, 
which has become an indispensable 



resource for all of us here at THE RAIN- 
BOW. Although we use it professionally 
in a variety of situations (from verifying 
spelling to clarifying terms and con- 
cepts), this would be a valuable refer- 
ence book for anyone who spends any 
time at all around computers. It is easy 
to use and covers an impressive number 
of subjects in a thorough, straightfor- 
ward way. 

As in a normal dictionary, the entries 
in Computer Dictionary are alphabet- 
ized (abbreviations are alphabetized 
right along with the words rather than 
grouped together at the beginning), and 
the first and last entry on each page 
appear as headings to let you know 
what you will find on that page. There 
are also numerous cross-references to 
simplify your search for items that 
could have more than one location — 
for example, the entry "primitives" says 
"See graphics primitives." This is an 
important timesaver, because there are 
so many computer terms that mean 
essentially the same thing but are re- 
ferred to in different ways. 

Since this is a dictionary, the infor- 
mation you need is quickly accessible 
and presented in manageable propor- 
tions — but it is by no means limited 
to minimal definitions. Computer Die- 
tionary is billed as a "browsing diction- 
ary"; the entries contain enough detail, 
description, historical background, and 
even diagrams and photographs to 
provide a clear explanation of each 
subject. 

Computer Dictionary contains more 
than 12,000 entries dealing with 
micro-, mini- and mainframe computer 
technology. The entries range from 
elementary (bit, disk, garbage) to eso- 
teric (econometrics, silicon compila- 
tion, zatacode indexing) and cover a 
wide selection of computer-related 
topics. 

The publishers are apparently com- 
mitted to keeping this book as current 
as possible, too, revising it as the com- 
puter industry grows and changes. This 
edition has been updated and contains 
over 1,000 new entries, with an empha- 
sis on robotics, artificial intelligence 
and factory automation. In his preface, 
the author suggests 20 areas of techno- 
logical advancement that may bear 
watching in the future. They include 
developments in such areas as office 
automation, operating systems, voice 
recognition and synthesis, and 
computer-controlled video systems — 
developments that will presumably be 
included in future editions of Computer 
Dictionary. Such concern with the 



evolution of computer technology is a 
measure of the reliability and usefulness 
of this book. 

These days, the volume and complex- 
ity of computer-related subjects can be 
intimidating and confusing. But, to 
borrow from an old adage, you don't 
need to know everything, as long as you 
know where to look it up. And that's 
easy — just reach for your Computer 
Dictionary. 

(Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., 4300 West 
62nd St., Indianapolis, IN 46268, 800-428- 
3602; $24.95) 

— Jody Gilbert 



1 Software 



CoCo 3 



SystemS — 
CoCo 3 Graphics 
Package 

System5 is a Hi-Res graphics gener- 
ator written for your 512K CoCo 3, 
requiring at least one disk drive, a 
monitor and Radio Shack's Hi-Res 
Interface (Cat. No. #26-3028). 

You can use the program with a 
joystick or touch pad, but a mouse is 
recommended. The disk is not copy- 
protected, so you can make a backup 
copy for safekeeping. Although I did 
not try the program on a color compos- 
ite monitor, the 20-page instruction 
booklet explains how to merge a com- 
posite routine available on the disk. 

The program boots with a simple RUN 
"SYSTEM5", but loading takes about 30 
seconds. The main program is written 
in machine language — once it's loaded, 
the program is fast and smooth. 

The main menu presents 20 icons 
ready for action. You use your mouse 
or joystick to point to the desired icon, 
and then press the button to select it. 

The drawing icons include Box, Cir- 
cle, Line and Freehand. You can make 
any size rectangle or circle you want. 
Line lets you draw lines using the 
"rubber band" method, while Freehand 
allows you to draw at will. There are five 
cursor sizes in cursor control mode, 
comparable to the range from a fine- 
tipped pen to a piece of chalk. 

You can choose foreground and 
background colors and fill in your 
drawings by choosing the Paint icon, 
and with Text you can add words to 
your artwork. Spray Paint is a little like 



doing graffiti — you actually "spray" 
color on the screen. Another interesting 
effect is Radi, which makes four mirror- 
image freehand patterns on the x and y 
axes. You have to see this function to 
appreciate it. 

Editing icons include Palette, Big 
Pixels, Copy, Erase, Block Erase and 
Clear. Palette lets you use all of CoCo 
3's 64 available colors in your pictures. 
The settings are saved and loaded with 
your pictures automatically. Big Pixels 
enlarges an area of the screen for precise 
editing; this helps you achieve detail. 
With Copy you can duplicate an entire 
image or part of an image on another 
part of the screen. Erase and Block 
Erase let you wipe away a little or a lot 
of your work. If you're really unhappy 
with your drawing, you can use Clear 
to wipe the whole screen and start again. 

The other icon options are Print, 
Load, Save and Exit, which are self- 
explanatory. The programmer blessed 
the Exit function with an "Are you 
sure?" feature, which might save a 
careless CoCoist hours of work. 

At any time during your drawing 
exercises you can press the Fl key. This 
results in a drop-down menu that has 
the options of Undo, All Undo, Insure 
and Redraw. Undo lets you erase or 
delete your last activity. If you don't like 
the size of the last square you drew, just 
Undo it. You can even erase a series of 
activities. 




Insure/ Redraw is a novel feature. 
With these two commands you can save 
an image temporarily in memory and 
then recall it. This is useful if you are 
not quite satisfied with your work and 
keep modifying it only to realize later 
that you should have left it alone in the 
first place! When you have reached a 
turning point in your drawing and are 
unsure about how to proceed, select 
Insure and try out some different ways. 
If you dont like the changes, just select 
Redraw and your original picture will 
appear. Although you can do the same 




Reviewer 

information 



In order to continue to bring 
Tandy Color Computer users 
alt the best information about 
new hardware and software 
products each month, we are 
expanding our independent 
review staff. Therefore, we in- 
vite you to join the rainbow'! 
elite fleet of reviewers. 

You read the rainbow be- 
cause you love your Tandy 
Color Computer, so if you wait 
a creative outlet and a ehanc# 
to examine quality hardware 
and software, with your observ 
vations published nationwide, 
we want to hear from you. 

Send us a cover letter with 
your name, address, occupa- 
tion, list of equipment, area$$t 
general interests, and a sample 
review of a CoCo product yoii 
are currently using. We look 
forward to your response. After 
all, we already see you have the 
best taste in computers. 





Reviews Editor 

THE RAINBOW 

Falsoft Building 
P.O. Box 385 

KY 40059 





July 1988 THE RAINBOW 129 



thing with disk saves, this approach is 
faster and provides easier editing. 

The author states in the manual that 
SystemS was not intended to print out 
pictures, but he has included two print 
routines in the program for the DMP- 
105, DMP-106 and DMP-130 printers. 
I have a Star printer, so I was unable 
to try the print function. 

SystemS supports up to four disk 
drives, and I can see why. Each picture 
takes up 14 granules on the disk! The 
picture files are saved with a -PIC 
extension. A demo picture is included 
on the system disk. 

I am impressed with SystemS. My 
first thought upon opening the package 
was that it was just another graphics 
package, but it is really fun and very 
easy to use. The command icons are 
simple and straightforward. I was un- 
able to detect any serious flaws in the 
program, and it performed as adver- 
tised. Although it does not offer some 
of the more advanced options available 
from the big guys, this neat package is 
well worth your consideration. 



(Sun Products, 5455 Hansel Ave., Building 
L, Suite 7, Edgewood, FL 32809, 804-451- 
1255; $12.95: First product review for this 
company appearing in the RAINBOW.) 

— Jerry Semones 



' Softwar e <*co^"! 

Hyper-I/O - 
Configure Your 
Drive System 

If you have been considering a Sc- 
inch drive or hard drive for your CoCo, 
Hyper- 1 I O from Burke & Burke may be 
what you are looking for, especially if 
you don't want to move to OS-9. Hyper- 
//O is a dynamic disk interface that 
allows you to use almost any type of 
floppy or hard disk drive in any com- 
bination on a CoCo 1 , 2 or 3. It can also 
coexist on a hard drive with OS-9 if you 
change your mind and want to use OS- 
9 at a later time. 

Hyper-// O comes on an unprotected 
disk and has an 80-page manual that 
fully explains all of the many functions. 
Other features include full user- 

130 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



configurability, the ability to put 
Hyper-I/O on EPROM, enhanced 
BASIC commands for access to new 
features, and the ability to read stand- 
ard disks in quad-density drives. 

The program is compatible with the 
Burke & Burke CoCo XT and CoCo 
XT-RTC hard disk (reviewed April 
1988, Page 137) and competitive hard 
disk systems. It has full reset protection 
for RAM-based systems and an op- 
tional RAM disk and print spooler for 
the CoCo 3 called Hyper-Ill 

There are several different programs 
on the disk, including some OS-9 util- 
ities. The disk is divided into RS-DOS 
and OS-9 areas, so a FREE statement 
will indicate that the disk is full even 
though it does not appear to be when 
counting the number of granules used. 
HDIR displays a directory of a Hyper- 
I/O MSA under OS-9. HDEL will delete 
a file from a Hyper-I/O MSA. HCOPY 
will copy a file between OS-9 and 
Hyper-I/O. PRTCH is an assembly lan- 
guage utility used to overlay a memory- 
resident module. C5M is an overlaid 
version of the OS-9 Level 1 assembler 
R5M, which has been modified to gener- 
ate RS-DOS compatible output. Fi- 
nally, in the DEF5 directory there is a set 
of 1 1 equate files that, when used with 
C5M and HCOPY, can be used to write 
Hyper- 1/ O device drivers under OS-9, 

In order to use Hyper- 1 / O it is neces- 
sary to learn a few new terms. MSA 
(mass storage area) and disk handles are 
two new terms with which you will need 
to become very familiar. Mass storage 
areas come in two types, "flat" and 
"RBF" MSAs. A flat MSA is allowed 
to take up all the space on a storage 
device (a floppy drive) while an RBF 
MSA is allowed only a portion of a 
device (a hard drive). It is the RBF 
MSAs that are compatible with OS-9. 
MSAs can be as large as 3 Mb or as 
small as 2K. This way you can organize 
your hard drive in any way you want, 
having RS-DOS and OS-9. Disk han- 
dles are the four drive handles for all of 
the MSAs. 

While you can define hundreds of 
MSAs, you can have only four handles 
at any time. This allows you to use a 
single drive in many ways. For instance, 
you can set up two double-sided 40- 
track drives as two large drives or four 
small drives. Hyper- 1/ O gives you new 
commands that allow you to change this 
setup on the fly. 

Hyper-I/ O upgrades Disk Extended 
Color BASIC to provide new features 
and commands. It changes all functions 
and commands using drive numbers to 



use disk handles instead, but uses exist- 
ing error messages for new commands 
and features. The manual fully explains 
the new commands and related error 
messages. 

The BRCKUP command copies one 
MSA to another, but the MSAs must 
be of the same size. To copy programs 
from one type of MSA to another, use 
COPY. Hyper-I/ O adds a feature to COPY 
that allows you to specify a destination 
disk handle without typing the filename 
a second time. The output of DIR was 
changed slightly to show the disk handle 
for flat MSAs and the volume label for 
RBF MSAs. 

New commands in Hyper-I/O in- 
clude OPEN DRIVE, which has four 
forms of use, and UNLDRD, which closes 
all files on the MSA specified by the 
disk handle and then calls the MSA's 
device driver PARK function. The PRRK 
function puts your storage device into 
a state that allows the device to be safely 
transported — a must for hard drive 
systems. 

1 tested this program on two Teac 
slim-line DS/DD drives and could not 
find any problems with standard basic 
programs. All binary programs so far 
have returned me to standard RS-DOS 
after running, which I expected; you 
would need to put Hyper-I/ O on an 
EPROM to prevent this. 1 have not had 
any programs crash as a result of 
Hyper-I/ O being in the system. 

1 enlisted the aid of Dick White to test 
the program on his 3!/2-inch drive and 
his new hard drive using the Burke & 
Burke CoCo XT interface. He had 
already set up his hard drive for OS-9 
but did try to set up four RBF (OS-9 
term for any disk drive) MSAs on the 
3'/2-inch drive. He discovered a bug that 
would not allow this and sent a message 
on Delphi to Chris Burke. The bug was 
very quickly corrected, and both Dick 
and 1 had the corrected copy in a few 
days. Chris is very helpful and supports 
his products. 

If you find yourself considering some 
of the larger drives that are now becom- 
ing available at lower costs, Hyper-I/O 
will put all that new space to work for 
you, especially if you want to use it (or 
even part of it) with RS-DOS. 



(Burke & Burke, P.O. Box 1283, Palatine, 
IL 60078, 312-397-2898; £29.95^ Hyper-III, 
$19.95) 



— Barry Pottinger 



■ 



Softwd 



CoCo 1, 2 & 3 



Mr. Corey — 
Save the World 
from Nuclear 
Destruction 

Mr. Corey, an Adventure from Val- 
kyrie Software, takes place on an un- 
charted island where secret nuclear 
experiments are being conducted. As a 
secret agent for ATHENA, you have 
been discovered and placed in a security 
cell with a ticking time bomb. Your job 
is to escape your captors in time to warn 
the world of the evil deeds planned by 
the villainous Mr. Corey. 

Mr. Corey is similar to another Val- 
kyrie program, Tomb of Tien (reviewed 
in the May '88 rainbow, Page 129), in 
terms of overall style. Colorful graphics 
are used along with text to provide a 
split-screen type of display The top half 
shows your surroundings, and the bot- 
tom half is used to type in commands. 

Mr. Corey needs at least 64 K of 
RAM and Extended Color BASIC. It 
will run fine on the CoCo 3, but if you 
are using the Tandy CM-8 RGB mon- 
itor, be prepared to see the graphics in 



black and white. If you connect your 
CoCo 3 to either a composite color 
monitor or a color TV, you will see the 
program in full colon 

The software, available on tape or 
disk, is copy-protected, but a free 
replacement will be sent if you develop 
problems during the first year. 'A non- 
executable backup can also be made 
that will allow you to repair the original 
if a problem develops. 




Mr. Corey is a fascinating Adventure 
that kept me busy for hours. The pro- 
gram uses the familiar direction com- 
mands such as N or North, etc. You can 
Get, Put, Drop, Open, Go and Look. As 
usual, you can also keep track of the 
items that you are carrying with the 
Inventory command. These are just a 
small sampling of the straightforward 
commands involved. 



You will have to use all of your wits 
to solve this one. Never give up when 
commands don't seem to work. I found 
in one particular case, a violent act such 
as 'Kick'ing was needed. A game save 
command is also available to allow you 
to quit without having to start all over 
again the next time you play. The 
program is in two parts: The first tests 
your ability to escape the security cell; 
and the second, which automatically 
loads, will keep you busy for hours, and 
in my case — days! 

Mr. Corey is a good Adventure. The 
graphics are fair, but their lack of detail 
compared to other Adventures on the 
market does not deter from the appeal 
of the program. 1 admire the author, 
Scott Settembre,for his unconventional 
style and technique. Valkyrie has done 
a nice job in providing interesting, 
challenging and fun Adventure pro- 
grams to the CoCo Community, and 
this one is deserving of a spot on your 
computer table. But, really, does a name 
like "Mr. Corey" sound villainous to 
you? It sounds more like a high school 
science instructor to me. 



(Valkyrie Software, P.O. Box 2120, Mon- 
roe, NY 10950, 914-783-0191; $19.95 plus $2 
S/H) 

— David Gerald 




mm**-'' 



'V-^il^v 1 •Vj^fW^ }%^f^Tv 

One^Liner Contest^ 



PRINTS statement to the coordinates of a y SET 



, or vice versa. 



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1 INPUT" pRINT @ OR sET";A$: 

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tltftffe ^^^B- ; ; :5f#'l? Mift0pt 



(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
both The third Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion The 
" thud Rainbow Adventures fapv.) 



One-Liner C6n$mt Wihmr . . . 



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Joe F: Sobieski 
Johnstown, 'Mb 



(Por this winning onj^iher contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
both the Third Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion 7^- 
/'///></ Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



h «;.:<.'<;5'K-!». 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 131 




The following products have recently been received by 
THE RAINBOW, examined by our magazine staff and 
issued the Rainbow Seal of Certification, your assurance 
that we have seen the product and have ascertained that 
it is what it purports to be. 




^AL-WRITE, an assembly language 
program development system for the 
CoCo 3 that lets the programmer write 
and assemble programs using a full- 
screen editor and a menu-driven envi- 
ronment. C-Ware Laboratory, P.O. 
Box 4967, San Antonio, TX 78285, 
(512)690-1788; $30. 

^ BASIC Utility Diskette, a collection 
of utilities for BASIC programmers that 
includes the ability to perform line-by- 
line comparison of two programs, pre- 
pare a cross-reference of line numbers, 
read data from text memory and print 
it out, and print to a CoCo disk file in 
blocks. T.E.M. of California, Box 4311, 
Fullerton, CA 92634, (714) 871-8210; 
$19.95. 

The Color Job Diary, a BASIC pro- 
gram that keeps track of customer 
accounts for any type of business. There 
is no limit to the number of files the 
program can accommodate. Epson- 
compatible printers are supported and 
a mouse is required. Color Alloy CoCo 
3 Products, 1124 Denney Drive, Du- 
luth, MN 55805, (218) 724-3663; $20 
plus $3 S/H. 

<^> DIR Cataloger V. 1.5, a utility that 
reads a disk directory and disassembles 
it into several sections: filename, exten- 
sion, file type, etc. Directory informa- 
tion can be sent to the screen, printer or 
disk file. Requires a CoCo 2 with 32K 
memory or a CoCo 3. Mouse Software 
Ltd., 7013 Summit Ave., Cincinnati, 
OH 45243, (513) 984-4089; $20. 

^Disk Manager Tree, a utility that 
allows file manipulation on OS-9 disks, 
whether RAM disk, hard drive or 
floppy. It uses a "tree" display to show 
relationships ">f directories and subdi- 
rectories. OS- > Level II, at least one 
disk drive and a CoCo 3 with 512K 
required. Alpha Software Technolo- 
gies, 2810 Buffon St., Chalmette r LA 
70043, (504) 279-1653; $29.95. 



^►The Entertainer, a collection of 12 
programs for entertainment, consisting 
of puzzles, brain games and games of 
chance. Included is a two-player strat- 
egy game. For the CoCo 1, 2 and 3. 
George Aftamonow, 46 Howe St., Mil- 
ford, CT 06460, (203) 878-3602; $10. 

^GCS File Transfer V. 1.4, a group 
of OS-9 programs that transfer files on 
MS-DOS and FLEX-format floppies to 
and from the CoCo. CoCo 3 and OS- 
9 Level II required. Granite Computer, 
Route 2, Box 445, Hillsboro, NH 03244, 
(603) 464-3850; $44.95. 



Memo Calendar, a program that will 
display a calendar on your monitor for 
any month from 1984 to 1999. Memos 
and reminders can be grouped in files. 
For the CoCo 1, 2 and 3. A disk drive 
is required; a printer is optional. Sunrise 
Software, 8901 NW26 St., Sunrise, FL 
33322; $19.95 plus $2 S/H. 

MPI Locking Plate, two styles of 
boards that firmly attach a Multi-Pak 
Interface to the CoCo, preventing costly 
damage that could result from jostling. 
Gimmesoft, P.O. Box 421, Perry Hall, 
MD 21128, (301) 256-7558; $9.95. 



Graphics-25, a 100-percent machine 
language graphics utilities program that 
allows you to use the full memory range 
of the 512K CoCo 3 to create up to 25 
H5CREEN 1 and 3 screens, or up to 13 
H5CREEN 2 and 4 screens. It also allows 
instant changes of all 16 palettes and 
adds new graphics commands to BASIC. 
Gimmesoft, P. O. Box 421, Perry Hall, 
MD 21128, (301)256-7558; $24.95. 

# KJV CoCo Disk No. 14, the Bible s 
Book of Matthew on disk in ASCII 
format. Requires a CoCo 1, 2 or 3 with 
32K and at least one disk drive. Also 
requires a word processor. BDS Soft- 
ware, P.O. Box 485 P, Glenview, IL 
60025, (312) 998-1656; $3. 



«P>OS-9 Level II BBS, a set of com- 
mands and utilities you can use to create 
an OS-9 BBS program. For the CoCo 
3 with OS-9 Level IL Alpha Software 
Technologies, 2810 Buffon St., 
Chalmette, LA 70043, (504) 279-1653; 
$19.95. 

V-Term Terminal Emulator, a multi- 
tasking terminal emulation program for 
the CoCo 3 that emulates VT100 and 
VT52 terminals and supports CoCo 3 
memory. Support for multiple files in 
memory is included to remove the need 
to constantly save capture buffers and 
Xmodem downloads to disk. Gimme- 
soft, P.O. Box 421, Perry Hall, MD 
21128, (301)256-7558; $39.95. 

First product received from this company 




The Seal of Certification program is open to all manufacturers of products 
for the Tandy Color Computer, regardless of whether they advertise in 

THE RAINBOW. 

By awarding a Seal, the magazine certifies the product does exist — that 
we have examined it and have a sample copy — but this does not constitute 
any guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these hardware or 
software items will be forwarded to THE RAINBOW reviewers for 
evaluation. 

— Lauren Willoughby 




132 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



The Seventh Year 

Of Rainbow 

An index to the articles, programs, reviews 
and authors appearing in the rainbow from 
July 1987 through June 1988. 



Compiled and Edited 
by Leslie A Foster 

Copyright© 1988, Falsoft, Inc. 



TOTAL NUMBER OF ARTICLES 
(July 1981 to June 1988) — 4129 

This is the fifth index to the Rainbow. 



Previous indexes to the Rainbow are available as 
follows: 

July 1981 to June 1984— July 1984 issue 
July 1984 to June 1985— July 1985 issue 
July 1985 to June 1986— July 1986 issue 
July 1986 to June 1987— July 1987 issue 



The subject breakdown, and number of items 
per heading are shown below. The number follow- 
ing in brackets is the total number of articles pub- 
lished since 1981 in that topic (where indexed). 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE — 2 (45) 
BUSINESS — 9(38) 
CLUBS — 3(15) 
COMMUNICATIONS - 27 (92) 
DISK — 4 (62) 

EDITORIAL COMMENT — 22 (46) 
EDUCATION-GENERAL — 77 (255) 
GAME — 41 (292) 
GAME-ADVENTURE — 4 (26) 
GAME UTILITY — 3 (3) 
GENERAL — 14 (178) 
GRAPHICS — 58 (274) 
HARDWARE PROJECT — 12 (57) 
HARDWARE TUTORIAL — 5 (23) 
HINT — 26 (57) 

HOME APPLICATION - 31 (125) 
MUSIC— 15(66) 

ONE/TWO LINER PROGRAMS — 34 (99) 
OPERATING SYSTEMS-OS9 — 22 (103) 
PRINTER — 13 (77) 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS - 27 (101) 

TUTORIAL -24 (76) 

UTILITY -32 (170) 

WORD PROCESSING - 1 (14) 

TOTAL NUMBER OF ARTICLES — 613 (4129) 

AUTHORS — 444 (2280) 

PRODUCT REVIEWS — 132 (1681) 

RAINBOW ON TAPE/DISK — 335 (1795) 



Leslie A. Foster is the System Manager 
of Novanet, a jointly owned computer 
library system for the academic libraries 
in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 

Dibble, Peter. "A computer's ancient native lan- 
guage." (July 1987) 100 — Assembly language 
aid. CDUMP 

Gabler, David J. "Assembly language: Getting 
back to BASICS." (June 1988) 44 

BUSINESS 

Archer, David. "CoCo 3 number cruncher." (March 
1988) 146 — Spreadsheet program. SUM128 
MONTEST 

Bernico, Bill. "Advertising profit predictor." 

(March 1988) 32 ADPROFIT 
Conant, Shawn. "Putting it on their tab." (March 

1988) 20 — Print invoices for parts and labor. 

BILLGEN 

Corson,, Alan J. "The CoCo power user." (May 
1988) 146 — CoCo 3 as an effective office auto- 
mation tool. 

Hitko, Don. "Worksheet printer." (March 1988) 73 
SHEET 

Leistico, Dale James. "Delivering the goods." 

(March 1988) 36 — Bookkeeping system for 

newspaper carriers. PAPERS 
May, Charles. "Taking stock." (March 1988) 60 — 

Inventory control. STOCK 
Paroubek, Larry M. "Finding the right person for 

the job." (January 1988) 106 — Create job 

descriptions. JOB DESC 
Thompson, E. C. "In good form." (March 1988) 72 

— Print receipts. RECEIPT 

CLUBS 

"Clubs, clubs, clubs." (August 1987) 146 
"Clubs, clubs, clubs." (December 1987) 148 
"Clubs, clubs, clubs." (May 1988) 141 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Alger, Paul. "Caught up in a galactic conflict." 
(November 1987) 78 — BBS game. Correction, 
January, 1988, p.138. NEWGAME GALACTIC 
REMOTE2 

Anderson, Doug. "Personal password protector." 

(November 1987) 95 — Random password 

generator. PASSWORD 
Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: A conversation 

with the CoCo SIG manager." (October 1987) 

100 

Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: All roads lead to 

the CoCo SIG." (July 1987) 120 
Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Bringing it down!" 

(June 1988) 163 
Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Buffer capture 

garbage." (September 1987) 46 
Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Delphi's online 

debate team." (February 1988) 146 
Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Files and 

protocols." (May 1988) 160 
Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Reach out and 



touch someone." (March 1988) 140 
Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Some helpful 

improvements." (November 1987) 62 
Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: The battle line is 

being drawn." (August 1987) 102 
Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Database down- 
loading." (April 1988) 157. 
Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: The times are 

achanging." (December 1987) 121 
Bossinger, Sean. "Autodial reaches out across the 

miles." (November 1987) 144 AUTODIAL 
Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (July 1987) 

121 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (August 1987) 
102 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (September 
1987) 46 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (October 
1987) 100 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (November 
1987)63 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (December 

1987) 121 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (February 

1988) 146 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (March 1988) 
140 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (April 1988) 
157 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (May 1988) 
160 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." ( June 1988) 
163 

Hutchison, Don. "Getting started with Delphi." 

(November 1987) 64 
Jorgenson, Michael. "A BBS that's SysOp friendly 

and hacker hostile." (November 1987) 152 

BOOT.BAS BBS-BORD.SYS SYSOP.EDT 

TEXTGEN.EDT 

DISK 

Berenz, Michael. "An inside view." (July 1987) 97 

— Disk utility. DISKSEEK 

Honaker, Scott. "Exercise your drives." (June 

1988) 110 FDCAID 
Lawson, Matt. "Backup and go." (July 1987) 98 — 

Quicker disk backups. Correction. June 1988, 

p.38. FASTCOPY 
McGarrity, A. L. "The perfect disk manager." (July 

1987) 30 — Disk utility LOCATOR DISKDATA 

EDITORIAL COMMENT 

Faik, Lawrence C. "Print#-2" (June 1988) 10 — 
Discussion of suit between Apple and Microsoft 
and HP. 

Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (July 1987) 12 — 

Sixth anniversary comments. 
Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (August 1987) 12 — 

Changes for the next year. 
Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (September 1987) 12 

— Discussion of Rainbow Seal of Certification. 
Falk, Lawrence C, "Print#-2." (October 1987) 12 — 

"We're doing OK." 
Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (November 1987) 12 

— "An exchange of ideas." 

Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (January 1988) 12 — 

"Keeping in touch." 
Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (February 1988) 12 

— "Some random thoughts." 

Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (March 1988) (March 
1988) 12 — 'Yes, Alan, there is a future for the 
Color Computer.' 

Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (April 1988) 12 — 
'Seasons of change' (Staff changes at the 
Rainbow.^ 

Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (May 1988) 12 — 
How the Rainbow supports all models of 
CoCo's. 

Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building a Rainbow." 

(September 1987) 16 — Continuing Rainbow's 

development. 
Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building October's 

Rainbow." (October 1987) 16 
Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building January's 



July 1 988 THE RAINBOW 1 33 



Rainbow." (January 1988) 16 — Introduction to 

beginner's issue. 
Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building February's 

Rainbow." (February 1988) 16 — Introduction to 

utilities issue. 
Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building March's Rainbow." 

(March 1988) 16 — Introduction to business and 

finance issue. 

Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building April's Rainbow." 
(April 1988) 16 — Introduction to home help 
issue. 

Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building May's Rainbow." 
(May 1988) 16 — Upcoming changes. 

Reed, James E. "Building a Rainbow." (August 
1987) 16 — Introducing Jutta Kapfhammer as 
new Managing Editor. 

Reed, James E. "Building July's Rainbow." (July 
1987) 16 

Reed, James E. "Building November's Rainbow." 

(November 1987) 16 — Introduction to 

Telecommunications issue. 
Reed, James E. "Print#-2." (December 1987) 12 — 

Wants help writing a book about the CoCo. 

EDUCATION 

Bernico, Bill. "Any way you slice it." (September 

1987) 40 — Teach fractions. FRACTION 
Bernico, Bill. "How much do you have?" 

(September 1987) 70 — Count your money. 

MONEYJAR 
Bernico, Bill. "Teacher's pet." (September 1987) 

76 — Help teacher total scores. GRADER 
Blount, Andy. "The power of the mind." 

(September 1987) 36 — Demonstrates artificial 

intelligence. ANIMALS 
Blyn, Steve. "Can you afford a burger attack?" 

(January 1988) 54 — Estimating expenses. 

FASTFOOD 

Blyn, Steve. "Differences and similarities." (May 

1988) 88 — Review of synonyms, etc. NYMS 
Blyn, Steve. "Electricity and circuit 

experimentation." (December 1987) 98 — Teach 

electrical circuits. CIRCUIT 
Blyn, Steve. "Fun with phonics." (March 1988) 89 

PHONICS 
Blyn, Steve. "Getting a fix on triangles." 

(September 1987) 138 TRIANGLE 
Blyn, Steve. "Learning in the end zone." (October 

1987) 94 — Educational football quiz. CCBLITZ 
Blyn, Steve. "Number fun for the very young." 

(August 1987) 97 NUMREVUE 
Blyn, Steve. "Presidential election preview." (April 

1988) 70 — Polling program. ELECTION 
Blyn, Steve. "Restaurant reckonings." (February 

1988) 76 SHOPPING 
Blyn, Steve. "Spell down to vocabulary fitness." 

(July 1987) 56 — Language arts game. 

SPELDOWN 
Blyn, Steve. "Upgrading keyboard skills." 

(November 1987) 76 — Typing tutor. TYPING 
Blyn, Steve. "Who, what and where?" (June 1988) 

86 — Sharpen reference skills. MAGPARTS 
Dorhty, Dennis. "Report card payoff." (September 

1987) 20 — Total up the report card. GRADE$ 
Duncan, James Dale. "Learning your ABCs." 

(September 1987) 72 LETRGETR 
Gordley, Richard D, "CoCo sets the pace." 

(September 1987) 140 — Measure reading speed 

and comprehension. Correction, October 1987, 

p.50. TACHISTO 
Kolar, Joseph. "Parlez-vous CoCo francais?" 

(December 1987) 144 
Levinson, Eric. "The ins and outs of Boolean." 

(May 1988) 100 — Binary math practice. 

BOOLEAN 
Linge, John M. "Sounding out the ABC's." 

(February 1988) 142 ABCMRG 
MacLellan, Gary. "A colorful resistance." ( July 

1987) 44 — Teach color codes of resistors. 

BESJSTOR 

Mayeux, Ann B. "ABC is not just child's play." 

(September 1987) 58 — Introduce kids to 

computers. ABC 
Monroe, Richard. "Achieving simple equality." 

(July 1987) 50 — Educational game for children. 



BALANCE 

Musumeci, John. "Goodbye flashcards." 

(September 1987) 72 TIMETABL 
Plog, Michael. "Computers in school 

management." (November 1987) 150 
Plog, Michael. "Education overview: Approaches 

for lifelong learning." (August 1987) 32 
Plog, Michael. "Learning readiness and 

computers." (September 1987) 32 
Rittenhouse, James E. "Math can be fun." 

(September 1987) 71 MATHTCHR 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Getting geared up for safer 

driving." (September 1987) 90 — Road skills 

instructor. ROADSKIL 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Grammar 101 Part II." (June 

1988) 154 SENTENCE 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Keying into CoCo's power." (July 

1987) 112+ — Keyboard training. COCOKEYS 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Know what I mean?" (January 

1988) 90 — Recognizing complete sentences 
and fragments. SENTENCE 

Scerbo, Fred B. "On the road again." (December 

1987) 52 — Learn traffic safety rules. ROAD II 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Reading and decoding skills." 

(May 1988) 74 JUMBLE 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Revising the reservoir." (April 

1988) 146 — Fixes to recent programs. BLOOD 
HEART DRIVE2 COCOKEYS SPELLKEY 

Scerbo, Fred B. "Sentence savvy." (March 1988) 

78 SENTENCE 
Scerbo, Fred B. "The spelling game." (August 

1987) 92 COCOKEY2 
Scerbo, Fred B. "The ultimate testing programs." 

(February 1988) 94 — Generate quizzes. 

SUPRTEST 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Understanding verb use." 

(October 1987) 158 VERBTEST 
Smith, Bill. "Wipe out letters." (September 1987) 

74 CRUNCHER 
Toscano, Louis R. "The electronic blackboard." 

(September 1987) 106 — Mathematics teaching 

aid. GRAPH 

GAME 

Allen, Scot. "The Queen's quarrel." (October 1987) 

28 — Chess like puzzle. QUEENS 
Augsburg, Cray. "The vote is in." (February 1988) 

36 — Adventure contest report. 
Barden, William, Jr. "An A 'maze' ing adventure." 

(February 1988) 171 FINDMAZE NEWMAZE 
Behrmann, Darrel. "It's a touchdown!" (October 

1987) 83 FOOTBALL 
Belanger, Allan J. "CoCo concentration." (August 

1987) 20 — Memory game MEMOCARD 
Bernico, Bill ; and Aftamonow, George. "Beat the 

dealer." (August 1987) 84 BLAKJACK 
Compton, David. "Undercover CoCo." (April 1988) 

73 — Construct cryptograms. ENCRYPT 
DeMarco, Brian. "CoCo caliber." (April 1988) 74 

SHOOTEM 

DeMarco, Brian. "Picking up the pieces." (June 

1988) 82 COLLECT 

Donald, Steve. "Battle back with munchkin 
blaster." (August 1987) 44 BLASTER 

English, William D. "Learn CoCo learn." (August 
1987) 50 — Artificial intelligence helps CoCo 
play. COCOLERN 

Flaishaker, Paul. "Theater management." (August 

1987) 88 — A puzzle. THEATRE 

French, Paul. "Usetown annex." (January 1988) 58 
— Simulate a city planner. RVSLINE USETOWN 
Gleason, Chris. "Hit me if you can." (January 

1988) 76 HITME 

Holsten, Phil. "Helicopter hero." (March 1988) 42 
HELIHERO 

James, John. "Five in a row." (March 1988) 76 
CONNECTS 

Johnson, Clyde, Jr. "Lunar rescue." (August 1987) 

116 RESCUE 
Johnson, Neil. "Scrambled screen of letters." 

(August 1987) 90 — Memory game. WORD1 
Jolley, David. "Start your engines." (August 1987) 

86 — Racing car game SPEEDSTR 
Jones, Tudor. "Solitaire upgrade— automatic 

finish." (January 1988) 171 — Modification to 



December, 1986, p. 76. Correction, May 1988, 
p. 154. 

Kenny, Keiran. "Alphabet roulette." (November 

1987) 97 ALFAWORD 

Kerckhoff, Peter. "Sneaky snake." (August 1987) 
26 SNEAKY 

Koch, Daren. "Bee zapper." (September 1987) 50 
BEEZAP 

Lamonica, Mary ; and Lamonica, James. "Doing 
the trivia rag." (September 1987) 152 — Trivia 
game. TRIVIAG; TRIVIAFC 

Marsh, Albert P. "Rootin' tootin' sharpshootin' 
CoCo." (August 1987) 105 SHOOTN 

Martinez, Louis. "Back to square one." (January 

1988) 74 PUZZLE 

Miller, Scott ; and Cushing, Mike. "Guild of the 
Kingmaker." (April 1988) 86 KINGBOOT; KING 

Moon, J. R. "The blue block blues." (November 
1987) 97 DODGE 

Morrison, John. "Making magic." (August 1987) 88 

— A magic square. MAGICSQR 
Nevin, Bob. "Lotsa luck!" (June 1988) 81 

LOTT048 

Owens, Tony. "Blockout wipeout." (May 1988) 94 
BLOCKOUT 

Phillips, George. "Tank command." (June 1988) 60 

— Defend terrain against enemy air force. 
BLITZ1; BLITZ2; BL1TZ3 

Sirolly, Michael T. "Strata." (May 1988) 20 — 

Action game. STRATA 
Stewart, Shawn. "Have a hand at hangman." 

(August 1987) 89 HANGMAN 
Sutphin, Ricky. "A frightfully good time!" (October 

1987) 20 HORROR 
Sward, Steven. "Sub search." (March 1988) 122 

SUBSERCH 

Taulli, T. C. "Batter up!" (July 1987) 105 —Trivia 

game based on baseball. TRIVIA 
Tilenius, Eric W. "The urchins from the Black 

Lagoon." (January 1988) 31 URCHIN 
Tucker, Eric. "One good turn deserves another." 

(May 1988) 30 — Strategy game. FLIP IT 
Ward, Logan. "CoCo has all the answers." 

(November 1987) 52 MAGIC3 
Wolf, Eric A. "Into the danger zone." (August 1987) 

58 — F-15 ground assault simulator. F15EAGLE 



GAME - ADVENTURE 

Bell, Bruce K. "To overthrow the controllers." 
(February 1988) 42 — Adventure contest winner. 
CONTROL; CNTRL 

Parson, Louis. "The Kingdom of Le Lutin." (July 
1987) 58 — Adventure game. Correction, 
October, 1987, p. 50. LE LUTIN 

Ruangchotvit, Chinarut. "Castle of death." (Febru- 
ary 1988) 65 — Adventure contest winner. 
CASTLE 

Wilson, Lonni. "A Christmas dream." (December 
1987) 20 — Christmas adventure game. DREAM 

GAME UTILITY 

Ashby, Lou. "Keeping score with CoCo." (August 

1987) 36 — Keep track of hard won scores. 

SCOREBRD 
Cooney, Mike. "Get the home court advantage." 

(September 1987) 42 — Basketball scoreboard. 

SCOREBRD 

Haupt, Neil. "Help for adventurers." (August 1987) 
90 — Adventure map printer. MAPPER 



GENERAL 

"Anniversary special— pull out calendar." (July 
1987) 99 

Barden, William, Jr. "Barden's buffer: The mystery 
of the Tandy anagram." (May 1988) 170 
PALINDRM LETTERS PERMS 

Foster, Leslie A. "The sixth year of Rainbow." 
(July 1987) 145 — Index, July 1986 to June 1987. 

"Gift buyer's guide." (November 1987) 57 
Goodman, Marty ; and Hutchison, Don. "CoCoing 

abroad." (November 1987) 32 — Using the CoCo 

overseas. 



134 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



Goodman, Marty. "A guide to RGB analog 

monitors for the CoCo 3." (August 1987) 68 
Goodman, Marty. "Monitor updates." (November 

1987) 33 — Upgrade to August '87 article. 
Pettus, Ronald. "Plumbing for your CoCo." 

(November 1987) 36 — Making computer stands 

out of plastic pipe. 
Preble, Laurence D. "A healthy interface: Body 

maintenance and computing." (February 1988) 

1 18 — Posture problems and computing. 
"The RAlNBOWfest reporter." (September 1987) 

78 — Report of April 1987 RAlNBOWfest 

(Chicago). 

"RAlNBOWfest reporter." (March 1988) 25 — 

Report from Princeton, October 9-11, 1987. 
Rogers, Robert. "Compu match." (February 1988) 

30 — Computer dating. MATCH 
Samuels, Edward. "Who's gonna know?" (July 

1987) 123 — Copyright law review. 
Wiens, Michael F. "CoCo 3 potpourri." (June 1988) 

158 CC3PATCH 



GRAPHICS 

Aftamonow, George ; and Aftamonow, Ellen. 

"CoCo 3 canvas." (May 1988) 91 CANVAS 
Anderson, Larry. "A stitch in time." (December 

1987) 108 XSTITCH 

Barden, William, Jr. "From flatland to 3-D." 

(October 1987) 166 
Barden, William, Jr. "Hands-on Hershey." (April 

1988) 170 — Create various characters. 
FONTUTIL HFDRIVER EXAMPLE 

Bell, Mark. "This wreath hangs indoors." 

(December 1987) 72 WREATH 
Bennett, Jim "Sign in please." (May 1988) 52 — 

Use the CoCo to copy your signature. 

SIGNATUR 

Benway, Patrick. "All the colors of the rainbow." 

(December 1987) 74 COLRFEST 
Bernico, Bill ; and Aftamonow, George. "The 

clown of a hundred faces." (January 1988) 44 

CLOWNS 

Bernico, Bill. "Graphing great guitars." (June 

1988) 56 GUITARS 
Bernico, Bill. "Prepare before you paint." (October 

1987)82 P178&GL 
Bernico, Bill. "Ye olde font." (May 1988) 36 — 

Graphics print font styles. SCRNFONT 
Carrock, Solla. "Animation film festival." (October 

1987) 114 ANIMATE PICTBOOK 

Catlett, Brian. "Wear your heart on your screen." 

(February 1988) 100 — Electronic Valentine's 

day card. VALNTINE 
Curtis, H. Allen. "PALETTEable color mixing." 

(April 1988) 124 — Utility to make color 

selection easier. COLORMIX 
Curtis, H, Allen. "Screen dump extraordinaire." 

(October 1987) 30 — Correction, November 

1987, p.116. SCRNDUMP; SCRNDMPS 

LP78DMPS TESTSCRN 
DellaFave, Renard. "A festival of lights." 

(December 1987) 28 — Graphics for Hanukkah. 

HANUKKAH 
Ferreira, Ken. "Tunnel effects." (November 1987) 

96 — Graphics demo. CIRCLE; CIRCLE2 
Hall, Greg. "A short day's journey into the night." 

(November 1987) 106 — Graphics demo CITY 

SUN 

Hawkins, Darryl W. "Two screens accompany, but 
three is not a crowd." (November 1987) 100 — A 
third graphics screen. DEMO 

Kenny, Keiran. "Laying it on the line." (January 

1988) 73 LINEDRAW 

Kenny, Keiran. "Mirror image." (October 1987) 81 
MIRORPIX 

Kolar, Joseph. "DRAW statements: Getting the 

picture." (August 1987) 149 
Kolar, Joseph. "Graphics experience you can 

draw from." (July 1987) 157 — Use of DRAW 

command. 

Krom, Matt. "Powerful pages." (July 1987) 94 — 

Graphics demo. HI CIRCLE 
Machurek, Ed, Jr. "Merry Martian." (October 1987) 

79 MARTIAN 
Matthews, Becky F. "Electrifying graphics using 



PMODE power." (October 1987) 44 ENERGY 
McDowell, Jim. "One starry night." (November 

1987) 96 — Graphics demo STARS 
Montgomery, Scott. "Graphics creation transfer." 

(October 1987) 48 GRAFTRAN 
Musumeci, John. "CoCo's daring flying machine." 

(January 1988) 73 AIRPLANE 
Ostrom, Steven M. "Artifact colors on CoCo 3's 

RGB." (February 1988) 114 PATCH LOOK 
Parker, Sanjay. "Freaky face." (October 1987) 78 

FUNFACE 

Pokorny, Douglas. "Adding the HPRINT capability 
to PMODE 4." (May 1988) 155 FONTDEMO; 
FONTPOKE ROMRAM 

Pruyne, Jim. "A star like a wheel." (March 1988) 75 
STARS 

Rodriguez, Ana M. "Non-smoking section." (May 

1988) 90 NO SMOKE 

Sapello, Donald. "Peeling graphics." (February 

1988) 154 PEELPCLS SAMPLE 
Scerbo, Fred B. "CoCo cathead: 20 seconds into 

the future." (November 1987) 113 — Talking 

CoCo cathead. CATHEAD 
Shoobs, Bernice M. "High-tech quilting bee." 

(April 1988)75 QUILT 
Shoobs, Bernice. "CoCo cuddler." (January 1988) 

74 — Graphics demo. PLAID 
Shortt, Don ; and Duncan, M. G. "The Christmas 

star." (December 1987) 70 XMASSTAR 
Sutphin, Ricky. "A demonstration in art." (October 

1987) 80 COCOART 

Tadman, Sandy. "Life in a fish bowl." (February 

1988) 78 — Electronic aquarium. AQUARIUM 
Weaver, Daniel T. "Graphics reference chart." 

(May 1988) 92 GRAFCODE 
Weide, Dennis H. "A picture is worth 6144 bytes." 
(February 1988) 126 — Reversing a PMODE 4 
graphic. REVERSE1; REVERSE2; REVERSES; 
REVERSE4 

White, Eric. "The color gallery." (February 1988) 
85 — CoCo 3 graphics. CHANGER GALLERY 
PALPRINT 

Williams, John G. "CoCo draw update." (October 

1987) 98 — Update from October 1986, p.59. 
Correction, December, 1987, p.24. MENUGEN 
COCODRAW 

Wright, Archor. "Initially 3-D." (October 1987) 53 
3DLETTER 

HARDWARE PROJECT 

DiStefano, Tony. "Beginners— add an LED to your 

controller." (January 1988) 144 — LED on the 

disk controller. 
DiStefano, Tony. "Build a hall-megabyte ROM 

disk." (April 1988)154 
DiStefano, Tony. "Build an electronic EPROM 

emulator eraser." (February 1988) 150 
DiStefano, Tony. "Building an EPROM emulator." 

(September 1987) 150 
DiStefano, Tony. "Finishing the printer adapter." 

(December 1987) 156 
DiStefano, Tony. "Increasing character display." 

(June 1988) 138 
DiStefano, Tony. "Multi-pak LED upgrade." (May 

1988) 168 

DiStefano, Tony. "A new improved printer adapter." 

(November 1987) 38 
Huang, David. "Internal sound." (June 1988) 99 — 

Circuit to produce sound internally. 
Onley, Ray. "Child-proofing the CoCo." (January 

1988) 142 — Keyboard locking switch. 
Weide, Debbie ; and Weide, Dennis H. "Galileo 

and the CoCo." (December 1987) 160 — A 

science project to re-do Galileo's experiment. 

TIMER.BIN; TIMER.BAS 
Weide, Dennis H. "Static RAM interface." (May 

1988) 150 — A RAM pack for the CoCo ROM 

port. 

HARDWARE TUTORIAL 

Barden, William, Jr. "Digitizing the world, 

revisited." (June 1988) 114 
DiStefano, Tony, "Bigger and better Eproms." 

(March 1988) 158 
DiStefano, Tony. "Clever uses for memory." 



(August 1987) 124 
DiStefano, Tony. "Dissecting the disk controller." 
(October 1987) 126 

HINT 

Bouchard, Roger. "Hint." (February 1988) 115 — 
Bug in HPRINT command. Corrected, April, 
1988, p.14. 

Caesar, Cornelius. "Hint." (August 1987) 134 — 
"Useful commands for controlling graphics." 
Dugre, Bertrand. "Hint." (July 1987) 156 —Palette 

command hints. 
Ellenburg, George. "Hint." (March 1988) 80 —High 

speed poke with cassette recorder. 
Gagnon, Marc. "Hint." (August 1987) 138 — Pokes 

to remove plus/minus signs. 
Gagnon, Marc. "Hint." (October 1987) 189 —80- 

column EDTASM+. 
Gagnon, Marc. "Hint." (January 1988) 136 —Using 

INKEY$ 

Hameluck, Jeff. "Hint." (September 1987) 136 — 

EDTASM aid. 
Harris, Tim. "Hint." (July 1987) 96 — Use CoCo 

MAX cartridge. 
Hemenway, Ron. "Hint." (February 1988) 38 — 

Make disk labels stick better. 
"Hint." (July 1987) 134 — Put 'call waiting' on 

hold. 

"Hint." (August 1987) 24 — Tape recorder I/O fix. 
"Hint." (August 1987) 148 — "Waiting for the 
keystroke." 

"Hint." (November 1987) 116 — Disk directory 
printout. 

"Hint." (February 1988) 136 — Placement of disk 
drive and TV. 

"Hint." (March 1988) 144 — Bolt CoCo and Multi- 
pak to a piece of plywood. 

Mills, David. "Hint." (March 1988) 182 — M/L 
autostart. 

Petrak, Darryl L. "Hint." (October 1987) 14 — 

Resuming from an accidental 'BREAK.' 
Power, Will C. "Hint." (October 1987) 189 — 

Changing color sets, 
Ritchey, Ralph. "Hint." (September 1987) 166 — 

Undo editing changes. 
Schmidt, Fred. "Hint." (July 1987) 156 —Keyboard 

connection modification. 
Shelton, Douglas C. "Hint." (August 1987) 98 — 

Printer repair. 
Shinatzki, Steven. "Hint." (October 1987) 14 — 

Using INKEY. 
Stevenson, Colin D. "Hint." (September 1987) 14 

— VIP colors. 

Stewart, James M. "Hint." (February 1988) 87 — 

Print using high speed poke. 
Taggart, Ned M. "Hint." (March 1988) 144 — 

Trouble shoot a locked up keyboard. 

HOME APPLICATION 

Allen, David. "CoCo concoctions." (December 

1987) 77 APPLEPIE 
Anderson, Larry. "CoCo's auto maintenance 

manager." (April 1988) 58 — Keep maintenance 

schedules for up to 5 vehicles. MAIN EXPNS 

REM 

Beckles, Orman Cyril, III. "The Post Office." 

(March 1988) 104 — Mailing list program. — 

Major correction, April, 1988, p.30. POST 
Bernico, Bill. "I owe, I owe." (January 1988) 82 — 

Calculate monthly payments. PAYMENTS 
Burdon, Kenneth. "WATTS the electrical cost of 

appliances." (November 1987) 46 ELECFORM 
Copley, Don. "Let your CoCo do the walking." 

(November 1987) 70 — Database for phone 

numbers. NUMFILE 
Dettmann, Harvey, "How cold is it." (October 

1987) 82 — Calculate wind chill factor. 

WINDCHIL 
Dingle, Brent. "Improve your typing skills." 

(January 1988) 82 TYPER 
Eizenga, Jack W. "Rules of 78's." (March 1988) 100 

— Determine whether to pay off loans ahead of 

schedule. RULEOF78 
Franz, James E. "Stock analyzer." (March 1988) 94 

— Use it to time investment decisions. 



July 1988 THE RAfNBOW 135 



INVTREND 

Furman, George R. "Stitch niche-ery." (December 

1987) 76 — Make embroidery patterns. 
EMBROID 

Holdorf, William J. "Appointment calendar." 

(January 1988) 100 — Print an appointment 

book. CALENDAR 
Kolesar, Fred. "A CoCo pop-up calendar." (April 

1988) 74 CALENDAR 

LeBlanc, Brian. "Right back where we started from 
part 2 " (October 1987) 144 FAMILY CHART 

LeBlanc, Brian. "Right back where we started 
from." (September 1987) 102 — Genealogy aid. 
PAGE 

Mayfield, Randy. "That's entertainment." 

(December 1987) 92 — VCR index VCRTAPES 
Mayfield, Randy. "VCR tapes update." (February 

1988) 77 

Mooallem, Saul. "Spreading it on a little thicker." 

(March 1988) 54 — Spreadsheet program 

enhanced. SPREAD2 
Piersma, Daniel. "The home financial analyst." 

(April 1988) 112 — Help at tax time. BUDGET 

REPORT 

Pittman, Larry P. "Beating the college crunch." 
(June 1988) 26 — Calculate college saving plan. 
COLLEGE 

Rau, Fred. "Hit the road." (July 1987) 95 — 

Vacation log VACATION 
Remick, Jeff. "Who'll win on the gridiron?" 

(December 1987) 78 — Pick football winners. 

FOOTBALL 

Ruby, Paul, Jr. "Financial planning for your future." 
(January 1988) 84 — Analyze savings plan. 
COCOSAVR 

Saunderson, George F. "Making a Christmas ad- 
dress fist." (December 1987) 66 — Correction, 
February 1988, p.14, April 1988, p.14. XMASLIST 

Schlottmann, Robert S. "Preparing for Uncle Sam." 

(January 1988) 112 — Keep tax records in order. 

Correction, March 1988, p.40. TAX.BAS; TAX- 

INFO.XX REVFIELD SETUP.BAS 
Smiley, J. T. "Happy (un) birthday to you!" 

(January 1988) 80 — Calculate age in seconds. 

BIRTHDAY 
Spencer, Brad. "Good things are cookin' on 

CoCo." (April 1988) 28 — Database for recipes. 

RECIPES 

Tinklepaugh, Dale. "Financial time conversions." 
(April 1988) 34 — Personal financial 'toolbox.' 
FINANCE 

Tottingham, Bill. "Home inventory manager." 

(April 1988) 42 INVNTORY 
Turowksi, Donald. "Keep your memories in order." 

(December 1987) 46 — Create labels for photo 

album. PHOTOTAG 
Upperman, James A. "Operation child protect." 

(April 1988) 20 — Generate medical 

authorization form. MED FORM 

MUSIC 

Arko, Lyn. "Listen to what they done." (June 1988) 

80 MUSICPRO 
Boots, Greg. "Print that tune!" (June 1988) 52 

PRINTUNE 

Burke, Val. "Playin' the blues." (June 1988) 20 

COCOBLUZ 
Dods, Stuart C. "Preventing dis-chord." (June 

1988) 140 — Learn position of keyboard chords. 

CHORDS 

Golias, Ruth E. "A Christmas potpourri." (December 

1987) 100 — Christmas music and graphics. 
Correction, April 1988, p.14. XMASPORI 

Lawrence, Ingrid ; and Bourdeaux, Mark. "Hurray 
for the red, white and blue." (July 1987)20 — 
Music and graphics for the 4th of July. 
SSBANNER USSONGS 

Matthews, Becky F. "CoCo goes country." (June 

1988) 36 — Music and graphics of Nashville. 
ROCKYTOP 

Mosley, John. "Do you hear what I hear?" 
(December 1987) 86 — Correction, June 1988, 
p.38. XMASSONG MLEDITOR MLSONG 

Plaster, Gip Wayne.. "Adventures in music." ( June 



1988) 79 THECAVE EXPLORE2 
Plaster, Gip Wayne. "From scales to Mozart." 

(January 1988) 72 MUS1 
Shelton, Garry L. "Color composer." (June 1988) 

42 — Create and edit songs. SONGWRTR 
Shoobs, Bernice. "Too many (hie) bottles of beer." 

(June 1988) 79 99BEERS 
Spiller, Jeremy. "Synthesizer sound-off." ( June 

1988) 102 — Turn PLAY command into a 

synthesizer. SUPRPLAY WAVED IT 
Thompson, Ernie. "Blast from the past." (June 

1988) 96 JUKEBOX 
Willoughby, Lauren. "Calibrate your ears." ( June 

1988)78 PITCHER 

ONE AND TWO-LINER PROGRAMS 

Becwar, Arron. "Two liner contest winner." 

(February 1988) 77 — Graphics demo. 
Bell, Bruce K. "One liner contest winner." (May 

1988) 14 — Disk verify program. 
Bryson, B. J. "Two liner contest winner." (January 

1988) 14 — Graphics demo. 
Campbell, Jerry. "One liner contest winner." (June 

1988) 12 — Roll dice. 
Cooper, Rick. "Two liner contest winner." 

(January 1988) 14 — Graphics demo. 
Cunin, K. T. "Two liner contest winner." 

(September 1987) 168 — Graphics demo. 
Demers, James R. "One liner contest winner." 

(June 1988) 146 — Make address labels. 
Dickau, Robert M. "One liner contest winner." 

(May 1 988) 188 — Game 
Durant, Evan. "One-liner contest winner." (August 

1987) 152 — Scrambled word game. 
Fladung, Nick. "One liner contest winner." (June 

1988) 188 — Graphics demo. 

Florence, Bernard. "One-liner contest winner." 

(July 1987) 132 — Graphics demo 
Fye, David. "Two liner contest winner." (August 

1987) 94 — Game. 

Gehrke, Edward R. "One liner contest winner." 

(May 1988) 33 — Graphics demo. 
Gerhardt, Jerry. "Two-liner." (July 1987) 33 — 

Weight on different planets. 
Gongaware, Dana. "Two liner contest winner." 

(July 1987) 96 — Graphics demo. 
Guilford, Lonny. "One liner contest winner." (April 

1988) 123 — Graphics demo. 
Haussmann, Gary. "One liner contest winner." 

(March 1988) 46 — Graphics demo. 
Hawkinson, Stuart. "One liner contest winner." 

(May 1988) 189 — Amortization schedule. 
Hurt, Peter. "One liner contest winner." 

(September 1987) 41 — Game. 
Keller, Paul. "One liner contest winner." (May 

1988) 14 — Draw graphs of functions. 
Lowe, Brad. "One liner contest winner." (February 

1988) 74 — Golf game. 
Lowe, Brad. "One liner contest winner." (February 

1988) 132 — Disk checker. 
Martin, Jim. "One liner contest winner." ( June 

1988) 12 — Graphics demo. 
McClintock, Ronald E. "One liner contest winner." 

(February 1988) 151 — Game. 
Nemitz, Vernon. "One liner contest winner." 

(December 1987) 14 — PCLEAR routine. 

Correction, January, 1988, p.138. 
Radachowsky, Sage. "Two liner contest winner." 

(October 1987) 22 — Graphics demo. 
Rowgo, Russ. "Two liner contest winner." 

(September 1987) 77 — Game. 
Rucinski, Mark. "Two liner contest winner." 

(October 1987) 102 — Graphics demo. 
Schuler, Keith. "One liner contest winner." (March 

1988) 182 — Generate printed chart for 

adventure games. 
Selbee, Keith. "One liner contest winner." ( June 

1988) 188 — Print cards for cassette boxes. 
Stewart, James. "Two liner contest winner." 

(November 1987) 178 — Graphics demo. 
Toepke, Michael G. "Two liner contest winner." 

(January 1988) 69 — Game. 

Toon, J. Frederick. "One liner contest winner." 

(September 1987) 68 — Graphics demo. 
Unger, Frank, Jr. "One liner contest winner." 

(June 1988) 16 — Graphics demo. 



OPERATING SYSTEMS - OS-9 

Augsburg, Cray. "The impact of Multi-Vue." 

(February 1988) 152 — User friendly interface 

for OS-9 Level II." 
Barden, William, Jr. "Learning the lingo." (August 

1987) 168 

Dibble, Peter. "Compression filters in saving and 
restoring graphics screens." (December 1987) 
168 RLSQSH.CDUMP SAVEIMAGE COMPRESS 
GETWINATTR MAKPIPE GETBUFFER 

Dibble, Peter. "Polishing off the screen save/dump 
package." (January 1988) 176 
RLEXPND.CDUMP GETIMAGE UNPRESS 
PUTBUFFER MAKPIPE2 

Dibble, Peter. "The problem with BASIC09." 
(August 1987) 163 BFORK; BFORK.DUMP 
EDITOR-2 PRINTER 

Dibble, Peter. "Sometimes BASIC09 isn't fast 
enough." (September 1987) 170 SAVEIMAGE 
COMPRESS GETBUFFER GETWINATTR 

Dibble, Peter. "Using compressed files." (October 
1987) 164 UNPRESS 

Ewart, Nancy. "C: The beginnings." (November 

1987) 168 

Ewart, Nancy. "Stalk the fire-breathing dragon." 

(January 1988) 156 — OS-9 tutorial. 
Puckett, Dale L. "A view of Multi-Vue." (March 

1988) 180 DSORT; DSORT.ASM 

Puckett, Dale L. "Another great beginning." (June 

1988) 180 MVSHELL SKIPMUF 
Puckett, Dale L. "Back at the drawing board." 

(January 1988) 160 PIPEIT KISSDMENU; 

KISSDRAWFILL + BOX, LINE ETC. 
Puckett, Dale L. "Controller attacks halt line 

problem." (August 1987) 157 VMODE FILES 
Puckett, Dale L. "The evolution continues." 

(November 1987) 180 TEST KISSDRAW4; 

KISSDRAWBOX; KISSDRAWARC 

GETKISSMOUSE DOEVENT HANDLEMENU 

PLAYBACKPIX RECORDPiX WHICHT001 
Puckett, Dale L. "New tools, new toys." (.Apr/7 

1988) 160 CO80. PATCH WPDRV.DR; WP.DD; 

WECHO.DD (+ .SRC) 
Puckett, Dale L. "An OS-9 convert speaks out." 

(July 1987) 167 PRIME-TBL.C MACLIST 
Puckett, Dale L. "Patches, Programs and politics." 

(May 1988) 178 CMDGEN DEFSDEMO 

MAKECMDGEN 
Puckett, Dale L. "Primitive drawing tools." 

(September 1987) 160 KISSDRAW COCODRAW 
Puckett, Dale L. "Putting data structures on the 

drawing board." (December 1987) 180 

KISSDRAWPUT; + KISSDRAWBOX, LINE, 

CIRCLE, ELLIPSE, BAR GETKISSMOUSE 

SAVEPIX LOADPIX PREVIEWPIX ERASEPIX 

HANDLEMENU SETUPMOUSE WHICHTOOL 

DOEVENT 

Puckett, Dale L. "Unlock the graphics potential of 

OS-9 Level II.: (October 1987) 176 KISSDRAW2 
Puckett, Dale L. "Using a fourth-generation 

database language." (February 1988) 182 

KISSCOLOR 
White, Richard A. "BASIC09and Level II: 

Focusing on modules." ( July 1987) 163 

PRINTER 

Anderson, Doug. "Center that header." (May 1988) 
114 — Centered headings on a DMP-110. 

Barden, William, Jr. "Taking your printer to the 
limit." (December 1987) 172 

Brown, Charles E. Jr. "Printing in two columns." 
(May 1988) 95 LETTER PERSLOGO 

Crawford, Gay. "Disk jacket designer for the well- 
dressed diskette." (November 1987) 26 JACKET 
LONNIE.BIN TUXEDO.BIN 

Curtis, H. Allen. "A desktop publisher on a shoe- 
string." (October 1987) 58 — Corrections, Oc- 
tober 1987, p.24, January 1988, p.138. DESK- 
TOPL: DESKTOPH GENFONT1; GENFONT2 

Ellers, Ed. "Printer overview." (May 1988) 110 
Handis, John. "A full page dump for the DMP- 

105." (May 1988) 92 BIGDUMP 
Howe, Clay. "The LLISTing formatter." (May 1988) 

104 BESTLIST 
Jimenez, Jose L. "Formatting text with Telewriter." 



136 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



Max; CoCo3 questions, etc. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (March 

1988) 160 — Parallel port; Eprom; 64K upgrades; 

Surge protector, etc. 
Goodman, Marty, "CoCo consultations." (April 

1988) 142 — Running hot; CM-3 monitor 

problems; Battery backup, etc. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (May 

1988) 158 — Disk controller; VIP speller; BASIC 

enhancements. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (June 

1988) 83 — Hard drive; Upgrade; Trading files, 

etc. 



TUTORIAL 

Barden, William, Jr. "Delving into the CoCo disk." 
(January 1988) 180 DISKDUMP; DISKDIR 

Barden, William, Jr. "Font fascination." (March 
1988) 167 — Discussion on character genera- 
tion. CHAR1000 

Barden, William, Jr. "The mystery of the novice 
bell ringer, or elementary recursion, Watson." 
(November 1987) 174 

DiStefano, Tony. "Cache of the day." (July 1987) 
89 — Memory mapping tutorial. 

Drennan, Allen. "Customizing your keyboard." 
(December 1987) 116 — How to redefine keys. 

Ellers, Ed. "The care and handling of tapes and 
disks." (March 1988) 48 

Goodman, Marty ; and Cisin, Fred. "Photograph- 
ing a CRT screen." (December 1987) 58 

Kolar, Joseph. "ASCII for It," (November 1987) 163 

Kolar, Joseph. "BASIC training: Swamp think." 
(May 1988) 82 

Kolar, Joseph. "Basic training: Wading out of the 
swamp." (June 1988) 88 — Beginning graphics 

Kolar, Joseph. "Getting acquainted." (September 

1987) 97 — Intoduction to CoCo 3. 

Kolar, Joseph. "The Kolar progression." (January 

1988) 96 ODDSENDS ZIGZAG 

Kolar, Joseph. "Mission interchangeable," (March 
1988) 68 COMPARE; INDEX; SAVELOAD; 
TOTAL 

Kolar, Joseph. "Much ado about nothing." 

(October 1987) 84 
Kolar, Joseph. "Previewing a program." (February 

1988) 90 — Tutorial on typing in programs. 
Kolar, Joseph. "Reliving your first keystrokes." 

(April 1988) 80 
Ostler, David D. "BASIC for beginners part 1." 

(September 1987) 26 CLS VARIABLE 
Ostler, David W. "BASIC for beginners lesson 2." 

(January 1988) 37 GOSUB COCOCALC 
Ostler, David W. "BASIC for beginners lesson 3." 

(February 1988) 20 DATABASE 
Ostler, David W. "BASIC for beginners lesson 4." 

(March 1988) 82 DATABASE 
Perkins, Duane M. "Programming for the hi-res 

joystick interface. (February 1988) 122 HIRES- 
JOY 

Veal, Lee. "A glossary of computer terms." (Janu- 
ary 1988) 85 

Weide, Dennis H. "Follow the bread crumbs." 
(February 1988) 108 — How to find machine 
language addresses. ADRESBAS; ADRESPAS 

Willoughby, Lauren. "Starting from scratch." 
(January 1988) 20 — Tips to get the new user up 
and running. 



DISK3 LCPATCH2, LCPATCH3 
Clark, Roderick. "An alarming solution." 

(November 1987) 98 — Alarm clock. ALARM 
Dawson, David. "Pak to disk transfer." (December 

1987) 152 PAKXFER 

Doss, Raymond. "Creating data files." (March 

1988) 74 — Construct single dimensioned string 
file. FfLEDATA 

Ellis, Richard S. "Joy for joysticks. (August 1987) 

91 — Check out your joysticks. JOYCHECK 
England, Carl. "Backup and restore." (April 1988) 

72 — Backup disk directory. BRU 
Forgione, Joseph. "Prompt attention." (July 1987) 

97 — Change the cursor prompt. DRIVER; 

CONVERT 

Goldberg, Stephen B. "Help is on the way." (June 
1988) 14 — Create online assistance for any 
program. HELPMATE 

Hrycaj, Bohdan. "I/O error free." (December 1987) 
75 — Cassette loading utility. CALL 

Katsekes, Chuck. "CoCo 3 auto-boot." (June 
1988) 32 — Load and run a program at a speci- 
fied time. AUT03 

Katsekes, Chuck. "Color in 32 columns." (Afay 
1988) 93 PAL32 

Knoppow, Jim. "Hard copy your directory." (Feb- 
ruary 1988) Q-\ DIRPRINT 

Lueders, Raymond. "Easy as pie." (April 1988) 99 
— Help for the amateur BASIC programmer. 
UTILITY1 

Masten, Doug. "Auto-executing ML programs." 

(February 1988) 154 AUTOEXEC 
Needham, Andre. "The ABC's of organization." 

(February 1988) 80 — Alphabetize disk directory. 

DiRALPHA 

Ostrer, Ken. "Adjusting your monitor." (January 
1988) 80 COLRTEST 

Plaster, Gip Wayne, II. "Phrase centerer." (May 
1988) 93 CENTERER 

Purnelt, Dick. "They do it with numbers." 
(December 1987) 74 — Convert hex to decimal, 
etc. CONVERT 

Roberts, Bob. "Yakety-yak, the CoCo talks back." 
(October 1987) 106 — Use speech/sound car- 
tridge to read your listings. READPROG 

Sapello, Donald. "Debugging with Wordfind." 
(February 1988) 155 WORDFIND LOADER 

Shoobs, Bernice. "ASCII answers." (June 1988) 82 
ASCIIREF 

Speer, Mike. "Preventing program wipeout." 
(December 1987) 76 — Disk save utility. SAFE- 
SAVE 

Steele, Chris. "Reading word processing files." 
(February 1988) 81 ASCIREAD 

Steinbrueck, Richard. "Painless revisions." (Feb- 
ruary 1988) 155 — Help in saving programs on 
disk. SAVE&RUN 

Turner, Frank. "A CoCo pop-up calculator." (Feb- 
ruary 1988) 79 CALC 

Virkki, Jyrl J. "Putting on the program squeeze." 
(February 1988) 157 — Make programs smaller. 
CRUSH 

Weide, Dennis H. "The CoCo writes a program." 
(July 1987) 84 — Use machine language in 
BASIC." DATAWRIT 

WORD PROCESSING 

Hallock, Arthur S. "Color correspondent." (April 
1988) 48 — A mini word processor. LETRWRITR 



(May 1988) 164 
Perkins, Duane M. "CoCo 3 color dump." (May 

1988) 42 — Dump to the CGP-220. COLORS 

HRSAVE HRLOAD CGPPRINT COLORPIE 
Quellhorst, George. "Bulletin board standout." 

(May 1988) 116 — Printing posters with a DMP- 

130. POSTRPTR 
Schenck, Ed. "Ticket maker." (May 1988) 91 

TICKET 

Skaggs, Tracy L. "PMODE polychrome." (May 
1988) 58 — Dump PMODE 3 and 4 screens in 
color. IMAGE 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Downard, Dan. "Downloads." (July 1987) 161 — 
Printer connections; control-z; scroll stopper, 
etc. 

Downard, Dan. "Downloads." (August 1987) 154 

—Disk drives; DLOAD; EDTASM disk I/O; 

Underlining etc. 
Downard, Dan. "Downloads." Ocfober 7987; 163 — 

CD players; BBS; CoCo 3 memory. 
Downard, Dan. "Downloads." (November 1987) 

172 — Disassemble BASIC; Deskmate; CoCo3 

BBS; Disk crashes. 
Esposito, Richard E. "Doctor ASCII." (December 

1987) 124 — Printer problems; Modem use; 
Pirate protection, etc. 

Esposito, Richard E. "Doctor ASCII." (January 

1988) 152 — VDG upgrade; Printer control 
codes; Hard drives, etc. Corrections, February 
1988, p. 14, May 1988, p. 154. 

Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 
"Doctor ASCII." (July 1987) 126 — Machine 
language program; MC-10; Pascal; Ink jet; disk 
drives, etc. 

Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 

"Doctor ASCII." (August 1987) 126 — Screen 

dump; ROM packs on disk; remote keyboard; 

RS-232, etc. 
Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 

"Doctor ASCII." (September 1987) 126 — 1200 

baud; speed up poke; smart terminal; Y cable; 

memory chips, etc. 
Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 

"Doctor ASCII." (October 1987) 1 10 — 

Lowercase; BASIC09; Disk drive problems; 

Downloading. 
Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 

"Doctor ASCII." (November 1987) 126 — RS-232 

pak; Telewriter 64 fix; MC-10; Pascal oaten, etc. 
Esposito, Richard E.; and Libra, Richard W. "Doctor 

ASCII." (February 1988) 168 — Cassette to disk 

transfer; Plug 'n power; OS-9 BBS, etc. 
Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 

"Doctor ASCII." (March 1988) 164 — VIP fix; 

Hard drive; BBS, etc. 
Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 

"Doctor ASCII." (April 1988) 149 — Joysticks; 

EXEC; Multi-Pak; Downloading, etc. 
Esposito, Richard E.; and Libra, Richard W. "Doctor 

ASCII." (May 1988) 148 — Disk BASIC 1.1; Swap 

keyboards; Multi-Vue; Upgrades 
Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 

"Doctor ASCII." (June 1988) 166 — Screen 

dump; Upgrades, etc. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (July 

1987) 78 — Hi-res joystick interface; hard drive; 

disk drive cleaning, etc. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (August 

1987) 64 — Jumpy pictures; pin assignments; 

disk access problem; etc. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." 

(September 1987) 95 — Daisy wheel printer; RS- 
232 ROM disable; Touch pad; monitors, etc. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (October 

1987) 103 — Color Scripsit; Save graphics to 
tape; speech/sound; Keyboard problems, etc. 

Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." 

(November 1987) 103 — VT-52; Baud rates; Disk 

drives; Serial pin outs. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." 

(December 1987) 82 — Dead keyboard; 

Joysticks; Lowercase, etc. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (January 

1988) 149 — Both sides of disk; Atari and Color 



UTILITY 

Bernico, Bill. "Reading data files." (March 1988) 74 
FILEREAD 

Bernico, Bill. "Screen scrolling made easy." ^Oc- 
fober 1987) 26 SCROLL 

Bernico, Bill. "Secret filenames." (December 1987) 
38 — How to create secret disk filenames. 

Blochowiak, John. "A smooth operator." (January 
1988) 78 — Screen scrolling in 40 column mode. 
Correction, April, 1988, p.14. SMOOTHY 

Breindel, Adam. "Color creator." (January 1988) 
78 — Blend colors. COLORMIX 

Campbell, Mark. "Changing the language." (June 
1988) 168 — Customize your programming lan- 
guage. RAM CATALYST;CATALYST3 DISKBAS; 



AUTHORS 

Aftamonow, George ; and Aftamonow, Ellen. 

"CoCo 3 canvas." (May 1988) 91 CANVAS 
Alger, Paul. "Caught up in a galactic conflict." 

(November 1987) 78 — BBS game. Correction, 

January, 1988, p.138. NEWGAME GALACTIC 

REMOTE2 

Allen, David. "CoCo concoctions." (December 

1987) 77 APPLEPIE 
Allen, Scot. "The Queen's quarrel." (October 1987) 

28 — Chess like puzzle. QUEENS 
Anderson, Doug. "Center that header." (May 1988) 

114 — Centered headings on a DMP-1 10. 
Anderson, Doug. "Personal password protector." 

(November 1987) 95 — Random password 



July 1 988 THE RAINBOW 1 37 



generator. PASSWORD 
Anderson, Larry. "CoCo's auto maintenance 
manager." (April 1988) 58 — Keep maintenance 
schedules for up to 5 vehicles. MAIN EXPNS 
REM 

Anderson, Larry. "A stitch in time." (December 

1987) 108 XSTITCH 

Archer, David. "CoCo 3 number cruncher." (March 

1988) 146 — Spreadsheet program. SUM 128 
MONTEST 

Arko, Lyn. "Listen to what they done." (June 1988) 

80 MUSICPRO 
Ashby, Lou. "Keeping score with CoCo." (August 

1987) 36 — Keep track of hard won scores. 
SCOREBRD 

Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: A conversation 
with the CoCo SIG manager." (October 1987) 
100 

Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: All roads lead to 
the CoCo SIG." (July 1987) 120 

Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Bringing it down!" 
(June 1988) 163 

Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Buffer capture 
garbage." (September 1987) 46 

Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Delphi's online 
debate team." (February 1988) 146 

Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Files and 
protocols." (May 1988) 160 

Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Reach out and 
touch someone." (March 1988) 140 

Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Some helpful 
improvements." (November 1987) 62 

Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: The battle line is 
being drawn." (August 1987) 102 

Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: Database down- 
loading." (April 1988) 157 

Augsburg, Cray. "Delphi Bureau: The times are 
achanging." (December 1987) 121 

Augsburg, Cray. "The impact of Multi-Vue." (Feb- 
ruary 1988) 152 — User friendly interface for OS- 
9 Level If. 

Augsburg, Cray. "The vote is in." (February 1988) 

36 — Adventure contest report. 
Barden, William, Jr. "An A 'maze' ing adventure." 

(February 1988) 171 FINDMAZE NEWMAZE 
Barden, William, Jr. "Barden's buffer: The mystery 

of the Tandy anagram." (May 1988) 170 

PALINDRM LETTERS PERMS 
Barden, William, Jr. "Delving into the CoCo disk." 

(January 1988) 180 DISKDUMP; DISKDIR 
Barden, William, Jr. "Digitizing the world, 

revisited." (June 1988) 114 
Barden, William, Jr. "Font fascination." (March 

1988) 167 — Discussion on character 
generation. CHAR1000 

Barden, William, Jr. "From flatland to 3-D." 

(October 1987) 166 
Barden, William, Jr. "Hands-on Hershey." (April 

1988) 170 — Create various characters. 

FONTUTIL HFDRIVER EXAMPLE 
Barden, William, Jr. "Learning the lingo." (August 

1987) 168 

Barden, William, Jr. "The mystery of the novice 

bell ringer, or elementary recursion, Watson." 

(November 1987) 174 
Barden, W/ffiam, Jr. "Taking your printer to the 

limit." (December 1987) 172 
Beckles, Orman Cyril, III. "The Post Office." 

(March 1988) 104 — Mailing list program. — 

Major correction, April 1988, p.30. POST 
Becwar, Arron. "Two liner contest winner." 

(February 1988) 77 — Graphics demo. 
Behrmann, Darrel. "It's a touchdown!" (October 

1987) 83 FOOTBALL 
Belanger, Allan J. "CoCo concentration." (August 

1987) 20 — Memory game MEMOCARD 
Bell, Bruce K. "One liner contest winner." (May 

1988) 14 — Disk verify program. 

Bell, Bruce K. "To overthrow the controllers." 

(February 1988) 42 — Adventure contest winner. 

CONTROL; CNTRL 
Bell, Mark. "This wreath hangs indoors." (December 

1987) 72 WREATH 
Bennett, Jim "Sign in please." (May 1988) 52 — 

Use the CoCo to copy your signature. 

SIGNATUR 

Benway, Patrick. "All the colors of the rainbow." 



(December 1987) 74 COLRFEST 
Berenz, Michael. "An inside view." (July 1987) 97 

— Disk utility. DISKSEEK 
Bernico, Bill ; and Aftamonow, George. "Beat the 

dealer." (August 1987) 84 BLAKJACK 
Bernico, Bill ; and Aftamonow, George. "The 

clown of a hundred faces." (January 1988) 44 

CLOWNS 

Bernico, Bill. "Advertising profit predictor." 

(March 1988) 32 ADPROFIT 
Bernico, Bill. "Any way you slice It." (September 

1987) 40 — Teach fractions. FRACTION 
Bernico, Bill. "Graphing great guitars." (June 

1988) 56 GUITARS 

Bernico, Bill. "How much do you have?" 
(September 1987) 70 — Count your money. 
MONEYJAR 

Bernico, Bill. "I owe, I owe." (January 1988) 82 — 

Calculate monthly payments. PAYMENTS 
Bernico, Bill. "Prepare before you paint." (October 

1987) 82 P178&GL 

Bernico, Bill. "Reading data files." (March 1988) 74 
FILEREAD 

Bernico, Bill. "Screen scrolling made easy." 

(October 1987) 26 SCROLL 
Bernico, Bill. "Secret filenames." (December 1987) 

38 — How to create secret disk filenames. 
Bernico, Bill. "Teacher's pet." (September 1987) 

76 — Help teacher total scores. GRADER 
Bernico, Bill. "Ye olde font." (May 1988) 36 — 

Graphics print font styles. SCRNFONT 
Blochowiak, John. "A smooth operator." (January 

1988) 78 — Screen scrolling in 40 column mode. 
Correction, April, 1988, p.14. SMOOTHY 

Blount, Andy. "The power of the mind." 

(September 1987) 36 — Demonstrates artificial 

intelligence. ANIMALS 
Blyn, Steve. "Can you afford a burger attack?" 

(January 1988) 54 — Estimating expenses. 

FASTFOOD 

Blyn, Steve. "Differences and similarities." (May 

1988) 88 — Review of synonyms, etc. NYMS 
Blyn, Steve. "Electricity and circuit 

experimentation." (December 1987) 98 — Teach 

electrical circuits. CIRCUIT 
Blyn, Steve. "Fun with phonics." (March 1988) 89 

PHONICS 
Blyn, Steve. "Getting a fix on triangles." 

(September 1987) 138 TRIANGLE 
Blyn, Steve. "Learning in the end zone." (October 

1987) 94 — Educational football quiz. CCBLITZ 
Blyn, Steve. "Number fun for the very young." 

(August 1987) 97 NUMREVUE 
Btyn, Steve. "Presidential election preview." (April 

1988) 70 — Polling program. ELECTION 
Blyn, Steve. "Restaurant reckonings." (February 

1988) 76 SHOPPING 
Blyn, Steve. "Spell down to vocabulary fitness." 

(July 1987) 56 — Language arts game. 

SPELDOWN 
Blyn, Steve. "Upgrading keyboard skills." 

(November 1987) 76 — Typing tutor. TYPING 
Blyn, Steve. "Who, what and where?" (June 1988) 

86 — Sharpen reference skills. MAGPARTS 
Boots, Greg. "Print that tune!" (June 1988) 52 

PRINTUNE 

Bossinger, Sean. "Autodial reaches out across the 
miles." (November 1987) 144 AUTODIAL 

Bouchard, Roger. "Hint." (February 1988) 115 — 
Bug in HPRINT command. Corrected, April 
1988, p.14. 

Breindel, Adam. "Color creator." (January 1988) 

78 — Blend colors. COLORMIX 
Brown, Charles E, Jr. "Printing in two columns." 

(May 1988) 95 LETTER PERSLOGO 
Bryson, B. J. "Two liner contest winner." (January 

1988) 14 — Graphics demo. 
Burdon, Kenneth. "WATTS the electrical cost of 

appliances." (November 1987) 46 ELECFORM 
Burke, Val. "Playin' the blues." (June 1988) 20 

COCOBLUZ 
Caesar, Cornelius. "Hint." (August 1987) 134 — 
"Useful commands for controlling graphics." 
Campbell, Jerry. "One liner contest winner." ( June 

1988) 12 — Roll dice. 
Campbell, Marc. "Changing the language." (June 

1988) 168 — Customize your programming 



language. RAM CATALYST; CATALYST3 
DISK.BAS; DISK3 LCPATCH2; LCPATCH3 
Carrock, Solla. "Animation film festival." (October 

1987) 114 ANIMATE PICTBOOK 

Catlett, Brian. "Wear your heart on your screen." 

(February 1988) 100 — Electronic Valentine's 

day card. VALNTINE 
Clark, Roderick. "An alarming solution." 

(November 1987) 98 — Alarm clock. ALARM 
Compton, David. "Undercover CoCo." (April 1988) 

73 — Construct cryptograms. ENCRYPT 
Conant, Shawn. "Putting it on their tab." (March 

1988) 20 — Print invoices for parts and labor. 
BILLGEN 

Cooney, Mike. "Get the home court advantage." 
(September 1987) 42 — Basketball scoreboard. 
SCOREBRD 

Cooper, Rick. "Two liner contest winner." 
(January 1988) 14 — Graphics demo. 

Copley, Don. "Let your CoCo do the walking." 
(November 1987) 70 — Database for phone 
numbers. NUMFILE 

Corson, Alan J. "The CoCo power user." (May 
1988) 146 — CoCo 3 as an effective office 
automation tool. 

Crawford, Gay. "Disk jacket designer for the well- 
dressed diskette." (November 1987) 26 JACKET 
LONNIE.BIN TUXEDO.BIN 

Cunin, K. T. "Two liner contest winner." 
(September 1987) 168 — Graphics demo. 

Curtis, H. Allen. "A desktop publisher on a shoe- 
string." (October 1987) 58 — Corrections, Oc- 
tober 1987, p.24, January 1988, p. 138. DESK- 
TOPL; DESKTOPH GENFONT1; GENFONT2 

Curtis, H. Allen. "PALETTEable color mixing." 

(April 1988) 124 — Utility to make color 

selection easier. COLORMIX 
Curtis, H. Allen. "Screen dump extraordinaire." 

(October 1987) 30 — Correction, November 

1987, p.116. SCRNDUMP; SCRNDMPS 

LP78DMPS TESTSCRN 
Dawson, David. "Pak to disk transfer." (December 

1987) 152 PAKXFER 

DellaFave, Renard. "A festival of lights." 

(December 1987) 28 — Graphics for Hanukkah. 

HANUKKAH 
DeMarco, Brian. "CoCo caliber." (April 1988) 74 

SHOOTEM 

DeMarco, Brian. "Picking up the pieces." (June 

1988) 82 COLLECT 

Demers, James R. "One liner contest winner." 

(June 1988) 146 — Make address labels. 
Dettmann, Harvey. "How cold is it." (October 

1987) 82 — Calculate wind chill factor. 

WINDCHIL 

Dibble, Peter. "Compression filters in saving and 

restoring graphics screens." (December 1987) 

168 RLSQSH.CDUMP SAVEIMAGE COMPRESS 

GETWINATTR MAKPIPE GETBUFFER 
Dibble, Peter. "A computer's ancient native 

language." (July 1987) 100 — Assembly 

language aid. CDUMP 
Dibble, Peter. "Polishing off the screen save/dump 

package." (January 1988) 176 

RLEXPND.CDUMP GETIMAGE UNPRESS 

PUTBUFFER MAKPIPE2 
Dibble, Peter. "The problem with BASIC09." 

(August 1987) 163 BFORK; BFORK.DUMP 

EDITOR-2 PRINTER 
Dibble, Peter. "Sometimes BASIC09 isn't fast 

enough." (September 1987) 170 SAVEIMAGE 

COMPRESS GETBUFFER GETWINATTR 
Dibble, Peter. "Using compressed files." (October 

1987) 164 UNPRESS 
Dickau, Robert M. "One liner contest winner." 

(May 1988) 188 — Game 
Dingle, Brent. "Improve your typing skills." 

(January 1988) 82 TYPER 
DiStefano, Tony. "Beginners— add an LED to your 

controller." (January 1988) 144 — LED on the 

disk controller. 
DiStefano, Tony. "Bigger and better Eproms." 

(March 1988) 158 
DiStefano, Tony. "Build a half-megabyte ROM 

disk." (April 1988) 154 
DiStefano, Tony. "Build an electronic EPROM 



1 38 THE RAINBOW July 1 986 



emulator eraser." (February 1988) 150 
DiStefano, Tony. "Building an EPROM emulator." 

(September 1987) 150 
DiStefano, Tony. "Cache of the day." (July 1987) 

89 — Memory mapping tutorial. 
DiStefano, Tony. "Clever uses for memory." 

(August 1987) 124 
DiStefano, Tony. "Dissecting the disk controller." 

(October 1987) 126 
DiStefano, Tony. "Finishing the printer adapter." 

(December 1987) 156 
DiStefano, Tony. "Increasing character display." 

(June 1988) 138 
DiStefano, Tony. "Multi-pak LED upgrade." (May 

1988) 168 

DiStefano, Tony. "A new, improved printer adap- 
ter." (November 1987) 38 

Dods, Stuart C. "Preventing dis-chord." (June 
1988) 140 — Learn position of keyboard chords. 
CHORDS 

Donald, Steve. "Battle back with munchkin 

blaster." (August 1987) 44 BLASTER 
Dorrity, Dennis. "Report card payoff." (September 

1987) 20 — Total up the report card. GRADE$ 
Doss, Raymond. "Creating data files." (March 

1988) 74 — Construct single dimensioned string 
file. FILEDATA 

Downard, Dan. "Downloads." (July 1987) 161 — 
Printer connections; control-z; scroll stopper, 
etc. 

Downard, Dan. "Downloads." (August 1987) 154 

—Disk drives; DLOAD; EDTASM disk I/O; 

Underlining etc. 
Downard, Dan. "Downlaods. (October 1987) 163 — 

CD players; BBS; CoCo 3 memory. 
Downard, Dan. "Downloads." (November 1987) 

172 — Disassemble BASIC; Deskmate; CoCo3 

BBS; Disk crashes. 
Drennan, Allen. "Customizing your keyboard." 

(December 1987) 116 — How to redefine keys. 
Dugre, Bertrand. "Hint." (July 1987) 156 —Palette 

command hints. 
Duncan, James Dale. "Learning your ABCs." 

(September 1987) 72 LETRGETR 
Durant, Evan. "One-liner contest winner." (August 

1987) 152— Scrambled word game. 
Eizenga, Jack W. "Rules of 78's." (March 1988) 100 

— Determine whether to pay off loans ahead of 

schedule. RULEOF78 
Ellenburg, George. "Hint." (March 1988) 80 —High 

speed poke with cassette recorder. 
Ellers, Ed. "The care and handling of tapes and 

disks." (March 1988) 48 
Ellers, Ed. "Printer overview." (May 1988) 110 
Ellis, Richard S. "Joy for joysticks. (August 1987) 

91 — Check out your joysticks. JOYCHECK 
England, Carl. "Backup and restore." (April 1988) 

72 — Backup disk directory. BRU 
English, William D. "Learn CoCo learn." (August 

1987) 50 — Artificial intelligence helps CoCo 

play. COCOLERN 
Esposito, Richard E. "Doctor ASCII." (December 

1987) 124 — Printer problems; Modem use; 
Pirate protection, etc. 

Esposito, Richard E. "Doctor ASCII." (January 

1988) 152 — VDG upgrade; Printer control 
codes; Hard drives, etc. Corrections, February, 
1988, p.14, May, 1988, p. 154. 

Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 
"Doctor ASCII." (July 1987) 126 — Machine 
language program; MC-10; Pascal; Ink jet; disk 
drives, etc. 

Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 
"Doctor ASCII." (August 1987) 126 — Screen 
dump; ROM packs on disk; remote keyboard; 
RS-232, etc. 

Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 
"Doctor ASCII." (September 1987) 126 — 1200 
baud; speed up poke; smart terminal; Y cable; 
memory chips, etc. 

Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 
"Doctor ASCII." (October 1987) 110 — 
Lowercase; BASIC09; Disk drive problems; 
Downloading. 

Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 
"Doctor ASCII." (November 1987) 126 — RS-232 
pak; Telewriter 64 fix; MC-10; Pascal patch, etc. 



Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 

"Doctor ASCII " (February 1988) 168 — Cassette 

to disk transfer; Plug 4 n power; OS-9 BBS, etc. 
Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 

"Doctor ASCII." (March 1988) 164 — VIP fix; 

Hard drive; BBS, etc. 
Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 

"Doctor ASCII." (April 1988) 149 — Joysticks; 

EXEC; Multi-Pak; Downloading, etc. 
Esposito, Richard E.; and Libra, Richard W. "Doctor 

ASCII." (May 1988) 148 — Disk BASIC 1.1; Swap 

keyboards; Multj-Vue; Upgrades. 
Esposito, Richard E. ; and Libra, Richard W. 

"Doctor ASCII." (June 1988) 166 — Screen 

dump; Upgrades, etc. 
Ewart, Nancy. "C: The beginnings." (November 

1987) 168 

Ewart, Nancy. "Stalk the fire-breathing dragon." 

(January 1988) 156 — OS-9 tutorial. 
Falk, Lawrence C. "Lprint." (June 1988) 10 — 

Discussion of suit between Apple and Microsoft 

and HP. 

Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (July 1987) 12 — 

Sixth anniversary comments. 
Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (August 1987) 12 — 

Changes for the next year. 
Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (September 1987) 12 

— Discussion of Rainbow Seal of Certification. 
Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (October 1987) 12 — 

"We're doing OK." 
Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (November 1987) 12 

— "An exchange of ideas." 

Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2," (January 1988) 12 — 

"Keeping in touch." 
Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (February 1988) 12 

— "Some random thoughts." 

Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (April 1988) 12 — 
'Seasons of change' (Staff changes at the 
Rainbow. 

Falk, Lawrence C. "Print#-2." (May 1988) 12 — 
How the Rainbow supports all models of 
CoCo's. 

Ferreira, Ken. "Tunnel effects." (November 1987) 

96 — Graphics demo. CIRCLE; CIRCLE2 
Ftadung, Nick. "One liner contest winner." (June 

1988) 188 — Graphics demo. 

Flaishaker, Paul. "Theater management." (August 

1987) 88 — A puzzle. THEATRE 
Florence, Bernard. "One-liner contest winner." 

(July 1987) 132 — Graphics demo 
Forgione, Joseph. "Prompt attention." (July 1987) 

97 — Change the cursor prompt. DRIVER; 
CONVERT 

Foster, Leslie A. "The sixth year of Rainbow." 
(July 1987) 145 — Index, July 1986 to June 1987. 

Franz, James E. "Stock analyzer." (March 1988) 94 

— Use it to time investmentdecisions. 
INVTREND 

French, Paul. "Usetown annex." (January 1988) 58 

— Simulate a city planner. RVSLINE USETOWN 
Furman, George R. "Stitch niche-ery." (December 

1987) 76 — Make embroidery patterns. 
EMBROID 

Fye, David. "Two liner contest winner." (August 

1987) 94 — Game. 

Gabler, David J. "Assembly language: Getting 

back to BASICs." (June 1988) 144 
Gagnon, Marc. "Hint." (August 1987) 138 — Pokes 

to remove plus/minus signs. 
Gagnon, Marc. "Hint." (October 1987) 189 —80- 

column EDTASM+. 
Gagnon, Marc. "Hint." (January 1988) 136— Using 

INKEY$ 

Gehrke, Edward R. "One liner contest winner." 

(May 1988) 33 — Graphics demo. 
Gerhardt, Jerry. "Two-liner." (July 1987) 33 — 

Weight on different planets. 
Gleason, Chris. "Hit me if you can." (January 

1988) 76 HITME 

Goldberg, Stephen B. "Help is on the way." (June 

1988) 14 — Create online assistance for any 

program. HELPMATE 
Golias, Ruth E. "A Christmas potpourri." (December 

1987) 100 — Christmas music and graphics. 

Correction, April 1988, p.14. XMASPOFU 



Gongaware, Dana. "Two liner contest winner." 

(July 1987) 96 — Graphics demo. 
Goodman, Marty ; and Hutchison, Don. "CoCoing 

abroad." (November 1987) 32 — Using the CoCo 

overseas. 
Goodman, Marty ; and Cisin, Fred. 

"Photographing a CRT screen." (December 

1987) 58 

Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (July 
1987) 78 — Hi-res joystick interface; hard drive; 
disk drive cleaning, etc. 

Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (August 
1987) 64 — Jumpy pictures; pin assignments; 
disk access problem; etc. 

Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." 
(September 1987) 95 — Daisy wheel printer; RS- 
232 ROM disable; Touch pad; monitors, etc. 

Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." ( October 

1987) 103 — Color Scripsit; Save graphics to 
tape; speech/sound; Keyboard problems, etc. 

Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." 

(November 1987) 103 — VT-52; Baud rates; Disk 

drives; Serial pin outs. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." 

(December 1987) 82 — Dead keyboard; 

Joysticks; Lowercase, etc. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (January 

1988) 149 — Both sides of disk; Atari and Color 
Max; CoCo3 questions, etc. 

Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (March 

1988) 160 — Parallel port; Eprom; 64K upgrades; 

Surge protector, etc. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (April 

1988) 142 — Running hot; CM-3 monitor 

problems; Battery backup, etc. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." ( May 

1988) 158 — Disk controller; VIP speller; BASIC 

enhancements. 
Goodman, Marty. "CoCo consultations." (June 

1988) 83 — Hard drive; Upgrade; Trading files, 

etc. 

Goodman, Marty. "A guide to RGB analog 

monitors for the CoCo 3." (August 1987) 68 
Goodman, Marty. "Monitor updates," (November 

1987) 33 — Upgrade to August '87 article. 
Gordley, Richard D. "CoCo sets the pace." 

(September 1987) 140 — Measure reading speed 
and comprehension. Correction, October 1987, 
p.50. TACHISTO 
Guilford, Lonny. "One liner contest winner." (April 

1988) 123 — Graphics demo. 

Hall, Greg. "A short day's journey into the night." 
(November 1987) 106 — Graphics demo CITY 
SUN 

Hallock, Arthur S. "Color correspondent." (April 

1988) 48 — A mini word processor. LETRWRITR 
Hameluck, Jeff. "Hint." (September 1987) 136 — 

EDTASM aid. 
Handis, John. "A full page dump for the DMP- 

105." (May 1988) 92 BIGDUMP 
Harris, Tim. "Hint." ( July 1987) 96 — Use CoCo 

MAX cartridge. 
Haupt, Neil. "Help for adventurers." (August 1987) 

90 — Adventure map printer. MAPPER 
Haussmann, Gary. "One liner contest winner." 

(March 1988) 46 — Graphics demo. 
Hawkins, Darryl W. "Two screens accompany, but 

three is not a crowd." (November 1987) 100 — A 

third graphics screen. DEMO 
Hawkinson, Stuart. "One liner contest winner." 

(May 1988) 189 — Amortization schedule. 
Hemenway, Ron. "Hint." (February 1988) 38 — 

Make disk labels stick better. 
Hitko, Don. "Worksheet printer." (March 1988) 73 

SHEET 

Holdorf, William J. "Appointment calendar." 

(January 1988) 100 — Print an appointment 

book. CALENDAR 
Holsten, Phil. "Heficopter hero." (March 1988) 42 

HELIHERO 

Honaker, Scott. "Exercise your drives." (June 

1988) 110 FDCAID 
Howe, Clay. "The LLISTing formatter." (May 1988) 

104 BESTLIST 
Hrycaj, Bohdan. "I/O error free." (December 1987) 

75 — Cassette loading utility. CALL 
I Huang, David. "Internal sound." (June 1988) 99 — 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 139 



Circuit to produce sound internally. 
Hurt, Peter. "One liner contest winner." 

(September 1987) 41 — Game. 
Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (July 1987) 

121 — About Delphi. 
Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (August 1987) 

102 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (September 
1987) 46 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (October 
1987) 100 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (November 
1987) S3 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (December 

1987) 121 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (February 

1988) 146 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (March 1988) 
140 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (April 1988) 
157 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." (May 1988) 
160 

Hutchison, Don. "Database report." ( June 1988) 
163 

Hutchison, Don. "Getting started with Delphi." 

(November 1987) 64 
James, John. "Five in a row." (March 1988) 76 

CONNECT5 

Jimenez, Jose L. "Formatting text with Telewriter." 

(May 1988) 164 
Johnson, Clyde, Jr. "Lunar rescue." (August 1987) 

116 RESCUE 
Johnson, Neil. "Scrambled screen of letters." 

(August 1987) 90 — Memory game. WORD1 
Jolfey, David. "Start your engines." (August 1987) 

86 — Racing car game SPEEDSTR 
Jones, Tudor. "Solitaire upgrade—automatic 

finish." (January 1988) 171 — Modification to 

December 1986, p. 76. Correction, May 1988, 

p. 154. 

Jorgenson, Michael. "A BBS that's SysOp friendly 

and hacker hostile." (November 1987) 152 

BOOT.BAS BBS-BORD.SYS SYSOP.EDT 

TEXTGEN.EDT 
Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building a Rainbow." 

(September 1987) 16 — Continuing Rainbow's 

development. 
Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building April's Rainbow." 

(April 1988) 16 — Introduction to home help 

issue. 

Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building February's 

Rainbow." (February 1988) 16 — Introduction to 

utilities issue. 
Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building January's 

Rainbow." (January 1988) 16 — Introduction to 

beginner's issue. 
Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building March's Rainbow." 

(March 1988) 16 — Introduction to business and 

finance issue. 
Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building May's Rainbow." 

(May 1988) 16 — Upcoming changes. 
Kapfhammer, Jutta. "Building October's 

Rainbow." (October 1987)16 
Katsekes, Chuck. "CoCo 3 auto-boot." (June 

1988) 32 — Load and run a program at a 

specified time. AUT03 
Katsekes, Chuck. "Color in 32 columns." (May 

1988) 93 PAL32 
Keller, Paul. "One liner contest winner." (May 

1988) 14 — Draw graphs of functions. 
Kenny, Keiran. "Alphabet roulette." (November 

1987) 97 ALFAWORD 

Kenny, Keiran. "Laying it on the line." (January 

1988) 73 LINEDRAW 

Kenny, Keiran. "Mirror image." (October 1987) 81 
MIRORPIX 

Kerckhoff, Peter. "Sneaky snake." (August 1987) 

26 SNEAKY 
Knoppow, Jim. "Hard copy your directory." 

(February 1988) 81 DIRPRINT 
Koch, Daren. "Bee zapper." (September 1987) 50 

BEEZAP 

Kolar, Joseph. "ASCII for it." (November 1987) 163 

Kolar, Joseph. "BASIC training: Swamp think." 
(May 1988) 82 



Kolar, Joseph. "Basic training; Wading out of the 
swamp." (June 1988) 88 — Beginning graphics 

Kolar, Joseph. "DRAW statements: Getting the 
picture." (August 1987) 149 

Kolar, Joseph. "Getting acquainted." (September 

1987) 97 — Intoduction to CoCo 3. 

Kolar, Joseph. "Graphics experience you can 
draw from." (July 1987) 157 — Use of DRAW 
command. 

Kolar, Joseph. "The Kolar progression." (January 

1988) 96 ODDSENDS ZIGZAG 

Kolar, Joseph. Mission interchangeable." (March 
1988) 68 COMPARE; INDEX; SAVELOAD; 
TOTAL 

Kolar, Joseph. "Much ado about nothing." 

(October 1987) 84 
Kolar, Joseph. "Parlez-vous CoCo francais?" 

(December 1987) 144 
Kolar, Joseph. "Previewing a program." (February 

1988) 90 — Tutorial on typing in programs. 
Kolar, Joseph. "Reliving your first keystrokes." 

(Apr/7 1988) 80 
Kolesar, Fred. "A CoCo pop-up calendar." (Apr/7 

1988) 74 CALENDAR 
Krom, Matt. "Powerful pages." (July 1987) 94 — 

Graphics demo. HI CIRCLE 
Lamonica, Mary ; and Lamonica, James. "Doing 

the trivia rag." (September 1987) 152 — Trivia 

game. TRIVIAG; TRIVIAFC 
Lawrence, ingrid ; and Bourdeaux, Mark. "Hurray 

for the red, white and blue." (July 1987) 20 — 

Music and graphics for the 4th of July. 

SSBANNER USSONGS 
Lawson, Matt. "Backup and go." (July 1987) 98 — 

Quicker disk backups. Correction, June 1988, 

p.38. FASTCOPY 
LeBlanc, Brian. "Right back where we started from 

part 2." (October 1987) 144 FAMILY CHART 
LeBlanc, Brian. "Right back where we started 

from." (September 1987) 102 — Genealogy aid. 

PAGE 

Leistico, Dale James. "Delivering the goods." 

(March 1988) 36 — Bookkeeping system for 

newspaper carriers. PAPERS 
Levinson, Eric. "The ins and outs of Boolean." 

(May 1988) 100 — Binary math practice. 

BOOLEAN 
Linge, John M. "Sounding out the ABC's." 

(February 1988) 142 ABCMRG 
Lowe, Brad. "One liner contest winner." (February 

1988) 74 — Golf game. 
Lowe, Brad. "One liner contest winner." (February 

1988) 132 — Disk checker. 
Lueders, Raymond. "Easy as pie," (Apr/7 1988) 99 

— Help for the amateur BASIC programmer 

UTILITY1 

Machurek, Ed, Jr. "Merry Martian." (October 1987) 

79 MARTIAN 
MacLellan, Gary. "A colorful resistance." (July 

1987) 44 — Teach color codes of resistors. 
RESISTOR 

Marsh, Albert P. "Rootin' tootin' sharpshootin' 

CoCo." (August 1987) 105 SHOOTN 
Martin, Jim. "One liner contest winner." (June 

1988) 12 — Graphics demo. 

Martinez, Louis. "Back to square one." (January 

1988) 74 PUZZLE 
Masten, Doug. "Auto-executing ML programs." 

(February 1988) 154 AUTOEXEC 
Matthews, Becky F. "CoCo goes country." (June 

1988) 36 — Music and graphics of Nashville. 

ROCKYTOP 
Matthews, Becky F. "Electrifying graphics using 

PMODE power." (October 1987) 44 ENERGY 
May, Charles. "Taking stock." (March 1988) 60 — 

Inventory control. STOCK 
Mayeux, Ann B. "ABC is not just child's play." 

(September 1987) 58 — Introduce kids to 

computers. ABC 
Mayfield, Randy. "That's entertainment." 

(December 1987) 92 — VCR index VCRTAPES 
Mayfield, Randy. "VCR tapes update." (February 

1988) 77 

McClintock, Ronald E. "One liner contest winner." 
(February 1988) 151 — Game. 

McDowell, Jim. "One starry night." (November 
1987) 96 — Graphics demo STARS 



McGarrity, A. L. "The perfect disk manager." (July 
1987) 30 — Disk utility LOCATOR DISKDATA 

Miller, Scott ; and Gushing, Mike. "Guild of the 
Kingmaker." (Apr/7 7988; 86 KINGBOOT; KING 

Mills, David. "Hint." (March 1988) 182 — M/L 
autostart. 

Monroe, Richard. "Achieving simple equality." 
(July 1987) 50 — Educational game for children. 
BALANCE 

Montgomery, Scott. "Graphics creation transfer." 

(October 1987) 48 GRAFTRAN 
Mooaliem, Saul. "Spreading it on a little thicker." 

(March 1988) 54 — Spreadsheet program 

enhanced. SPREAD2 
Moon, J, R. "The blue block blues." (November 

1987) 97 DODGE 

Morrison, John. "Making magic." (August 1987) 88 

— A magic square. MAGICSQR 
Mosley, John. "Do you hear what I hear?" 

(December 1987) 86 — Correction, June 1988, 

p 38. XMASSONG MLEDITOR MLSONG 
Musumeci, John. "CoCo's daring flying machine." 

(January 1988) 73 AIRPLANE 
Musumeci, John. "Goodbye fiashcards." 

(September 1987) 72 TIMETABL 
Needham, Andre. "The ABC's of organization." 

(February 1988) 80 — Alphabetize disk directory. 

DIRALPHA 
Nemitz, Vernon. "One liner contest winner." 

(December 1987) 14 — PC LEAR routine. 

Correction, January, 1988, p. 138. 
Nevin, Bob. "Lotsa luck!" (June 1988) 81 

LOTT048 

Onley, Ray. "Chitd-proofing the CoCo." (January 

1988) 142 — Keyboard locking switch. 
Ostler, David D. "BASIC for beginners part 1." 

(September 1987) 26 CLS VARIABLE 
Ostler, David W. "BASIC for beginners lesson 2." 

(January 1988) 37 GOSUB COCOCALC 
Ostler, David W. "BASIC for begmners lesson 3." 

(February 1988) 20 DATABASE 
Ostler, David W. "BASIC for beginners lesson 4." 

(March 1988) 82 DATABASE 
Ostrer, Ken. "Adjusting your monitor." (January 

1988)80 COLRTEST 
Ostrom, Steven M. "Artifact colors on CoCo 3's 

RGB." (February 1988) 114 PATCH LOOK 
Owens, Tony. "Blockout wipeout." (May 1988) 94 

BLOCKOUT 
Parker, Sanjay. "Freaky face." (October 1987) 78 

FUNFACE 

Paroubek, Larry M. "Finding the right person for 
the job." (January 1988) 106 — Create job 
descriptions. JOB DESC 

Parson, Louis, "The Kingdom of Le Lutln." (July 

1987) 58 — Adventure game. Correction, 
October 1987, p. 50. LE LUTIN 

Perkins, Duane M. "CoCo 3 color dump." (May 

1988) 42 — Dump to the CGP-220. COLORS 
HRSAVE HRLOAD CGPPRINT COLORPIE 

Perkins, Duane M. "Programming for the hi-res 
joystick interface. (February 1988) 122 
HIRESJOY 

Petrak, Darryl L. "Hint." (October 1987) 14 — 
Resuming from an accidental 'BREAK.' 

Pettus, Ronald. "Plumbing your CoCo." 
(November 1987) 36 — Making computer stands 
out of plastic pipe. 

Phillips, George. "Tank command." (June 1988) 60 

— Defend terrain against enemy air force. 
BLITZ1; BLITZ2; BLITZ3 

Piersma, Daniel. "The home financial analyst." 
(Apr/7 7988; 112 — Help at tax time. BUDGET 
REPORT 

Pittman, Larry P. "Beating the college crunch." 
(June 1988) 26 — Calculate college saving plan. 
COLLEGE 

Plaster, Gip Wayne. "Adventures in music." (June 

1988) 79 THECAVE EXPLORE2 
Plaster, Gip Wayne. "From scales to Mozart." 

(January 1988) 72 MUS1 
Plaster, Gip Wayne, II. "Phrase centerer." (May 

1988) 93 CENTERER 
Plog, Michael. "Computers in school 

management. 1 ' (November 1987) 150 
Plog, Michael. "Education overview: Approaches 

for lifelong learning." (August 1987) 32 



1 40 THE RAINBOW July 1 988 



Plog, Michael. "Learning readiness and 
computers." (September 1987) 32 

Pokorny, Douglas. "Adding the HPRINT capability 
to PMODE 4." (May 1988) 155 FONTDEMO; 
FONTPOKE ROMRAM 

Power, Will C. "Hint." (October 1987) 189 — 
Changing color sets. 

Preble, Laurence D. "A healthy interface: Body 
maintenance and computing." (February 1988) 
188 — Posture problems and computing. 

Pruyne, Jim. "A star like a wheel." (March 1988) 75 
STARS 

Puckett, Dale L. "A view of Multi-Vue." (March 

1988) 180 DSORT; DSORT.ASM 
Puckett, Dale L. "Another great beginning." (June 

1988) 180 MVSHELL SKIPMUF 
Puckett, Dale L. "Back at the drawing board." 

(January 1988) 160 PiPEIT KISSDMENU; 

KISSDRAWFILL + BOX, LINE ETC. 
Puckett, Dale L "Controller attacks halt line 

problem." (August 1987) 157 VMODE FILES 
Puckett, Dale L. "The evolution continues." 

(November 1987) 180 TEST KISSDRAW4; 

KISSDRAWBOX; KISSDRAWARC 

GETKISSMOUSE DOEVENT HANDLEMENU 

PLAYBACKPIX RECORDPIX WHICHTOOl 
Puckett, Dale L. "New tools, new toys." (April 

1988) 160 CO80. PATCH WPDRV.DR; WP.DD; 

WECHO.DD (+ .SRC) 
Puckett, Dale L. "An OS-9 convert speaks out." 

(July 1987) 167 PRIME-TBL.C MACLIST 
Puckett, Dale L. "Patches, Programs and politics." 

(May 1988) 178 CMDGEN DEFSDEMO 

MAKECMDGEN 
Puckett, Dale L. "Primitive drawing tools." 

(September 1987) 160 KISSDRAW COCODRAW 
Puckett, Dale L. "Putting data structures on the 

drawing board." (December 1987) 180 

KISSDRAWPUT; + KISSDRAWBOX, LINE, 

CIRCLE, ELLIPSE, BAR GETKISSMOUSE 

SAVEPIX LOADPIX PREVIEWPIX ERASEPIX 

HANDLEMENU SETUPMOUSE WHICHTOOL 

DOEVENT 

Puckett, Dale L. "Unlock the graphics potential of 

OS-9 Level II.: (October 1987) 176 KISSDRAW2 
Puckett, Dale L. "Using a fourth-generation 

database language." (February 1988) 182 

KISSCOLOR 
Purnell, Dick. "They do it with numbers." 

(December 1987) 74 — Convert hex to decimal, 

etc. CONVERT 
Quellhorst, George. "Bulletin board standout." 

(May 1988) 116— Printing posters with a DMP- 

130. POSTRPTR 

Radachowsky, Sage. "Two liner contest winner." 

(October 1987) 22 — Graphics demo. 
Rau, Fred. "Hit the road." (July 1987) 95 — 

Vacation log VACATION 
Reed, James E. "Building a Rainbow." (August 

1987) 16 — Introducing Jutta Kapfhammer as 

new Managing Editor. 
Reed, James E. "Building July's Rainbow." (July 

1987) 16 

Reed, James E. "Building November's Rainbow." 

(November 1987) 16 — Introduction to 

Telecommunications issue. 
Reed, James E, "Print#-2." (December 1987) 12 — 

Wants help writing a book about the CoCo. 
Remick, Jeff. "Who'll win on the gridiron?" 

(December 1987) 78 — Pick football winners. 

FOOTBALL 

Ritchey, Ralph. "Hint." (September 1987) 166 — 
Undo editing changes. 

Rittenhouse, James E. "Math can be fun." (Sep- 
tember 1987) 71 MATHTCHR 

Roberts, Bob. "Yakety-yak, the CoCo talks back." 
(October 1987) 106 — Use speech/sound 
cartridge to read your listings. READPROG 

Rodriguez, Ana M. "Non-smoking section." (May 

1988) 90 NO SMOKE 

Rogers, Robert. "Compu match." (February 1988) 
30 — Computer dating. MATCH 

Rowgo, Russ. "Two liner contest winner." 
(September 1987) 77 — Game. 

Ruangchotvit, Chinarut. "Castle of death." (Febru- 
ary 1988) 65 — Adventure contest winner. 



CASTLE 

Ruby, Paul, Jr. "Financial planning for your future." 

(January 1988) 84 — Analyze savings plan. 

COCOSAVR 
Rucinski, Mark. "Two liner contest winner." 

(October 1987) 102 — Graphics demo. 
Samuels, Edward. "Who's gonna know?" (July 

1987) 123 — Copyright law review. 

Sapello, Donald. "Debugging with Wordfind." 

(February 1988) 155 WORDFIND LOADER 
Sapello, Donald. "Peeling graphics." (February 

1988) 154 PEELPCLS SAMPLE 
Saunderson, George F. "Making a Christmas 

address list." (December 1987) 66 — Correction, 
February, 1988, p.14, April 1988, p.14. 
XMASLIST 

Scerbo, Fred B. "CoCo cathead: 20 seconds into 

the future." (November 1987) 113 — Talking 

CoCo cathead. CATHEAD 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Getting geared up for safer 

driving." (September 1987) 90 — Road skills 

instructor. ROADSKIL 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Grammar 101 Part II." (June 

1988) 154 SENTENCE 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Keying into CoCo's power." (July 

1987) 112 — Keyboard training. COCOKEYS 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Know what I mean?" (January 

1988) 90 — Recognizing complete sentences 
and fragments. SENTENCE 

Scerbo, Fred B. "On the road again." (December 

1987) 52 — Learn traffic safety rules. ROAD II 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Reading and decoding skills." 

(May 1988) 74 JUMBLE 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Revising the reservoir." (April 

1988) 146 — Fixes to recent programs. BLOOD 
HEART DRIVE2 COCOKEYS SPELLKEY 

Scerbo, Fred B. "Sentence savvy," (March 1988) 

78 SENTENCE 
Scerbo, Fred B. "The spelling game." (August 

1987) 92 COCOKEY2 

Scerbo, Fred B. "The ultimate testing programs." 

(February 1988) 94 — Generate quizzes. 

SUPRTEST 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Understanding verb use." 

(October 1987) 158 VERBTEST 
Schenck, Ed. "Ticket maker." (May 1988) 91 

TICKET 

Schlottmann, Robert S. "Preparing for Uncle 
Sam." (January 1988) 112 — Keep tax records in 
order. Correction, March 1988, p.40. TAX.BAS; 
TAXINFO.XX REVFIELD SETUP.BAS 

Schmidt, Fred. "Hint." (July 1987) 156 —Keyboard 
connection modification. 

Schuler, Keith. "One liner contest winner." (March 

1988) 182 — Generate printed chart for 
adventure games. 

Selbee, Keith. "One liner contest winner." (June 

1988) 188 — Print cards for cassette boxes. 
Shelton, Douglas C. "Hint." (August 1987) 98 — 

Printer repair. 
Shelton, Garry L. "Color composer." (June 1988) 

42 — Create and edit songs. SONGWRTR 
Shinatzki, Steven. "Hint." (October 1987) 14 — 

Using INKEY. 
Shoobs, Bernice M. "High-tech quilting bee." 

(April 1988) 75 QUILT 
Shoobs, Bernice. "ASCII answers." (June 1988) 82 

ASCIIREF 

Shoobs, Bernice. "CoCo cuddler." (January 1988) 

74 — Graphics demo. PLAID 
Shoobs, Bernice. "Too many (hie) bottles of beer." 

( June 1988) 79 99BEERS 
Shortt, Don ; and Duncan, M. G. "The Christmas 

star." (December 1987) 70 XMASSTAR 
Sirolly, Michael T. "Strata." (May 1988) 20 — 

Action game. STRATA 
Skaggs, Tracy L. "PMODE polychrome." (May 

1988) 58 — Dump PMODE 3 and 4 screens in 

color. IMAGE 
Smiley, J. T. "Happy (un) birthday to youl" 

(January 1988) 80 — Calculate age in seconds. 

BIRTHDAY 

Smith, Bill. "Wipe out letters." (September 1987) 

74 CRUNCHER 
Speer, Mike. "Preventing program wipeout." 

(December 1987) 76 — Disk save utility. 

SAFESAVE 



Spencer, Brad. "Good things are cookin' on 
CoCo." (April 1988) 28 — Database for recipes. 
RECIPES 

Spiller, Jeremy. "Synthesizer sound-off." (June 

1988) 102 — Turn PLAY command into a 

synthesizer. SUPRPLAY WAVEDIT 
Steele, Chris. "Reading word processing files." 

(February 1988) 81 ASCIREAD 
Steinbrueck, Richard. "Painless revisions." 

(February 1988) 155 — Help in saving programs 

on disk. SAVE&RUN 
Stevenson, Colin D. "Hint." (September 1987) 14 

— VIP colors. 

Stewart, James M. "Hint." (February 1988) 87 — 

Print using high speed poke. 
Stewart, James. "Two liner contest winner." 

(November 1987) 178 — Graphics demo. 
Stewart, Shawn. "Have a hand at hangman." 

(August 1987) 89 HANGMAN 
Sutphin, Ricky. "A demonstration in art." (October 

1987) 80 COCOART 
Sutphin, Ricky. "A frightfully good time!" (October 

1987) 20 HORROR 

Sward, Steven. "Sub search." (March 1988) 122 

SUBSERCH 
Tadman, Sandy. "Life in a fish bowl." (February 

1988) 78 — Electronic aquarium. AQUARIUM 
Taggart, Ned M. "Hint." (March 1988) 144 — 

Trouble shoot a locked up keyboard. 
Taulli, T. C. "Batter up!" (July 1987) 105 —Trivia 

game based on baseball. TRIVIA 
Thompson, E. C. "In good form." (March 1988) 72 

— Print receipts. RECEIPT 

Thompson, Ernie. "Blast from the past." (June 

1988) 96 JUKEBOX 
Tilenius, Eric W. "The urchins from the Black 

Lagoon." (January 1988) 31 URCHIN 
Tinklepaugh, Dale. "Financial time conversions." 

(April 1988) 34 — Personal financial 'toolbox.' 

FINANCE 

Toepke, Michael G. "Two liner contest winner." 

(January 1988) 69 — Game. 
Toon, J. Frederick. "One liner contest winner." 

(September 1987) 68 — Graphics demo. 
Toscano, Louis R. "The electronic blackboard." 

(September 1987) 106 — Mathematics teaching 

aid. GRAPH 
Tottingham, Bill. "Home inventory manager." 

(April 1988) 42 INVNTORY 
Tucker, Eric. "One good turn deserves another." 

(May 1988) 30 — Strategy game. FLIPIT 
Turner, Frank. "A CoCo pop-up calculator." 

(February 1988) 79 CALC 
Turowksi, Donald. "Keep your memories in order." 

(December 1987) 46 — Create labels for photo 

album. PHOTOTAG 
Unger, Frank, Jr. "One liner contest winner." 

(June 1988) 16 — Graphics demo. 
Upperman, James A. "Operation child protect." 

(April 1988) 20 — Generate medical 

authorization form. MED FORM 
Veal, Lee. "A glossary of computer terms." 

(January 1988) 85 
Virkki, Jyrl J. "Putting on the program squeeze." 

(February 1988) 157 — Make programs smaller. 

CRUSH 

Ward, Logan. "CoCo has all the answers." 

(November 1987) 52 MAGIC3 
Weaver, Daniel T. "Graphics reference chart." 

(May 1988) 92 GRAFCODE 
Weide, Debbie ; and Weide, Dennis H. "Galileo 

and the CoCo." (December 1987) 160 — A 

science project to re-do Galileo's experiment. 

TIMER.BIN; TIMER.BAS 
Weide, Dennis H. "The CoCo writes a program." 

(July 1987) 84 — Use machine language in 

BASIC." DATAWRIT 
Weide, Dennis H. "Follow the bread crumbs." 

(February 1988) 108 — How to find machine 

language addresses. ADRESBAS; ADRESPAS 
Weide, Dennis H. "A picture is worth 6144 bytes." 

(February 1988) 126 — Reversing a PMODE 4 

graphic. REVERSE1; REVERSE2; REVERSE3; 

REVERSE4 

Weide, Dennis H. "Static RAM interface." (May 
1988) 150 — A RAM pack for the CoCo ROM 
port. 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 141 



\ 



- 



The color gallery." (February 1988) 
3 graphics. CHANGER GALLERY 



rra A. "BASIC09and Level II: 
Focusing on modules." (July 1987) 163 
Wiens, Michael F. "CoCo 3 potpourri." ( June 1988) 

158 CC3PATCH 
Williams, John G. "CoCo draw update." (October 

1987) 98 — Update from October 1986, p.59. 
Correction, December, 1987, p.24. MENUGEN 
COCODRAW 

Willoughby, Lauren. "Calibrate your ears." (June 

1988) 78 PITCHER 

Willoughby, Lauren. "Starting from scratch." 

(January 1988) 20 — Tips to get the new user up 

and running. 
Wilson, Lonni. "A Christmas dream." (December 

1987) 20 — Christmas adventure game. DREAM 
Wolf, Eric A. "Into the danger zone " (August 1987) 

58 — F-15 ground assault simulator. 
F15EAGLE 

Wright, Archor. "Initially 3-D." (October 1987) 53 
3DLETTER 

PRODUCT REVIEWS 

"Address." (March 1988) 132 — Correction, May 

1988, p.154. 
"ADOS-3." (July 1987) 138 
"An education." (September 1987) 133 
"Art-deli." (October 1987) 134 
"Artificial intelligence Tic-Tac-Toe." ( June 1988) 

133 

"Artificial learning file." (January 1988) 130 
"Assembly language programming for the CoCo 3. 

(book)" (June 1988) 132 
"The astro fortune teller." (May 1988) 130 
"Auto Dim." (January 1988) 139 
"Autoterrn 6.1," (March 1988) 132 
"Avatex 1200e." (April 1988) 134 
"Avatex 2400 modem." (Marc/7 7988; 134 
"Backup and Backup II" (July 1987) 142 
"Backup lightning." (February 1988) 136 
"Banker It." (April 1988) 133 
"Basic freedom." (August 1987) 135 
"Better graphics on your CoCo III (book)." 

(August 1987) 143 
"BTU analysis." (September 1987) 130 
"Bug buster." (September 1987) 132 
"Caladuril Flame of Light," (December 1987) 135 
"CBASIC III." (December 1987) 136 
"CCRAM." (June 1988) 130 
"Check account information system." (February 

1988) 133 

"Checkbook III." (July 1987) 133 
"Checkerboard filesort." July 1987) 137 
"Chemistry tutor." (April 1988) 136 
"CoCo address book." (June 1988) 133 
"CoCo base I." (March 1988) 130 
"CoCo checkbook." (December 1987) 134 
"CoCo disk zapper," (December 1987) 131 
"CoCo III utilities." (August 1987) 141 
"CoCo keyboard extender cable." (November 

1987) 137 

"CoCo Max II patch." (December 1987) 136 

"CoCo Max III." (April 1988) 129 

"CoCo midi 2." (September 1987) 133 

"CoCo newsroom." (March 1988) 129 

"CoCo XT." (April 1988) 137 

"CoCo 3 Turbo RAM 51 2K upgrade. (January 

1988) 130 

"Color Computer artist." (March 1988) 131 
"Color file II." (November 1987) 131 
"Color math." (February 1988) 136 
"Color Max 3 font editor." (February 1988) 132 
"Color Max 3." (October 1987) 129 
"Color Scripsit II." (August 1987) 138 
"Color Venture RAMDISK." (April 1988) 138 
"Curriilian cruiser." (February 1988) 132 
"Custom palette designer." (August 1987) 134 
"Data master." (May 1988) 128 ~ 
"DeskMate 3." (December 1987) 129 
'The Director." (April 1988) 138 
"Directory date." (August 1987) 132 
"Disk anti-pirate." (September 1987) 133 
"Disk ©ditor (June 1988) 130 
"Disk manager." (July 1987) 140 



•Disklock." (February 1988) 130 
'Dollar wise." (September 1987) 136 
'Donald Duck's playground." (September 1987) 
129 

'Donut dilemma." (August 1987) 133 
'Financial time conversions." (January 1988) 136 
'FlightSim I." (April 1988) 135 
'Gates of delirium." (October 7987; 136 
'Graf Find." (April 1988) 137 
•Gridiron." (August 1987) 142 
'A guide to CoCo 3 basics and graphics." (July 
1987) 136 

'Hall of the King III." (November 1987) 136 

'Hi-Res III." (November 1987) 133 

'High resolution joystick interface." (October 

1987) 130 — Correction, November, 1987, p. 11 6. 
'Indiana Jim." (May 1988) 138 

'Inventory manager." (December 1987) 132 

'IRA analysis." (November 1987) 130 

'Iron Cross: War in Russia." (January 1988) 131 

'Koronis rift." (August 1987) 136 

'Kung-fu dude." (February 1988) 129 

'The Lansford Mansion." (November 1987) 132 

'Laser surgeon: The microscope mission." (May 

1988) 126 

'Leonardo's pencil." (October 1987) 132 

•Lot-pro." (May 1988) 130 

'Lotzaluk." (November 1987) 135 

'Magnavox RGB Monitor 80." (August 1987) 140 

'Mapper." (July 1987) 132 

'Master disk." (February 1988) 133 

'Maxsound," (June 1988) 126 

'Mickey's space adventure." (January 1988) 135 

•MLBASIC." (December 1987) 138 

'Multi-label III." (July 1987) 135 

'My artist." (October 1987) 131 

'OS-9 development system." (May 7988; 132 

'Phantomgraph." (April 1988) 135 

'Phonebook." (November 1987) 136 

'Polytint." (October 7987; 132 

'Print spooler." (August 1987) 132 

'Printer lightning." (March 1988) 135 

'Printer muffler 80." (November 1987) 129 

'Pyramix." (December 1987) 132 

QuikPro+ll." (December 1987) 137 

'RAMDisk." (January 1988) 138 — Correction, 

February 1988, p. 14. 
'The rat." (May 1988) 137 
'REMUSIC 1.0." (May 1988) 136 
Rescue on Fractal us." (November 1987) 133 
'RGB patch." (July 1987) 142 
'Rickeyterm." (September 1987) 130 
'Robot odyssey." (February 1988) 131 
'Scan and Restorit." (October 1987) 134 
'Screen star/OS-9 text formatter." (October 1987) 

139 

Screenprint." (August 1987) 132 
'Shanghai." (March 1988) 138 
'Spectrum DOS." (July 1987) 134 
'Stock market portfolio." (October 7987; 138 
'Sub battle simulator." (June 1988) 134 
'Super Extended Basic Unravelled (book)." 
(August 1987) 139 

Super graphics 16." (June 1988) 132 
Super tape/disk transfer." (October 1987) 135 
Superdisk utility." (June 1988) 134 
T/S spell." (March 1988) 135 
Telewriter-128." (May 1988) 133 
Telewriter-64 (and modifications)." (August 1987) 
143 

Textform." (May 1988) 131 
The third Rainbow book of adventures." 
(November 1987) 137 
Title." (July 1987) 140 
'Tomb of Tien." (May 1988) 129 
Trig attack." (November 1987) 131 
TW-80." (October 1987) 138 
Typ-o-matic." (August 1987) 132 
Ultra editor." (July 1987) 139 

UniStand." (November 1987) 130 
Utility routines volume II." (November 1987) 135 
Vegas slots." (November 1987) 132 
Video cards/Keno." (February 1988) 135 
Winnie the Pooh and the Hundred Acre Wood." 
(December 1987) 133 
Wizard's den." (January 1989) 129 
Zandar." (June 7988; 131 



"Zone runner." (January 1988) 131 

RAINBOW ON TAPE/DISK 

ABC Mayeux, Ann B. "ABC is not just child's 
play." (September 1987) 58 — Introduce kids to 
computers. 

ABCMRG Linge, John M. "Sounding out the 

ABC's." (February 1988) 142 
ADPROFIT Bernico, Bill. "Advertising profit 

predictor." (Marc/7 7988; 32 
ADRESBAS; ADRESPAS Weide, Dennis H. 

"Follow the bread crumbs." (February 1988) 108 

— How to find machine language addresses. 
AIRPLANE Musumeci, John. "CoCo's daring 

flying machine." (January 1988) 73 
ALARM Clark, Roderick. "An alarming solution." 

(November 1987) 98 — Alarm clock. 
ALFAWORD Kenny, Keiran. "Alphabet roulette." 

(November 1987)97 
ANIMALS Blount, Andy. "The power of the mind." 

(September 1987) 36 — Demonstrates artificial 

intelligence. 
ANIMATE Carrock, Solla. "Animation film 

festival." (October 7987; 114 
APPLEPIE Allen, David. "CoCo concoctions." 

(December 1987) 77 
AQUARIUM Tadman, Sandy. "Life in a fish bowl." 

(February 1988) 78 — Electronic aquarium. 
ASCIIREF Shoobs, Bernice. "ASCII answers." 

(June 1988) 82 
ASCIREAD Steele, Chris. "Reading word 

processing files." (February 1988) 81 
AUTODIAL Bossinger, Sean. "Autodial reaches 

out across the miles." (November 1987) 144 
AUTOEXEC Masten, Doug. "Auto-executing ML 

programs." (February 1988) 154 
AUT03 Katsekes, Chuck. "CoCo 3 auto-boot." 

(June 1988) 32 — Load and run a program at a 

specified time. 
BALANCE Monroe, Richard. "Achieving simple 

equality." (July 1987) 50 — Educational game for 

children. 

BBS-BORD.SYS Jorgenson, Michael. "A BBS 
that's SysOp friendly and hacker hostile." 
(November 1987) 152 

BEEZAP Koch, Daren. "Bee zapper." (September 
1987) 50 

BESTLIST Howe, Clay. "The LLISTing formatter." 
(May 1988) 104 

BFORK; BFORK.DUMP Dibble, Peter. "The 

problem with BASIC09." (August 1987) 163 
BIGDUMP Handis, John. "A full page dump for 

the DMP-105." (May 1988) 92 
BILLGEN Conant, Shawn. "Putting it on their tab." 

(March 1988) 20 — Print invoices for parts and 

labor. 

BIRTHDAY Smiley, J. T. "Happy (un) birthday to 
you!" (January 1988) 80 — Calculate age in 
seconds. 

BLAKJACK Bernico, Bill ; and Aftamonow, 

George. "Beat the dealer." (August 1987) 84 
BLASTER Donald, Steve. "Battle back with 

munchkin blaster." (August 1987) 44 
BLITZ1; BLITZ2; BLITZ3 Phillips, George. "Tank 

command." (June 1988) 60 — Defend terrain 

against enemy air force. 
BLOCKOUT Owens, Tony. "Blockout wipeout." 

(May 1988) 94 
BLOOD Scerbo, Fred B. "Revising the reservoir." 

(April 1988) 146 — Fixes to recent programs. 
BOOLEAN Levinson, Eric. "The ins and outs of 

Boolean." (May 7988; 100 — Binary math 

practice. 

BOOT.BAS Jorgenson, Michael. "A BBS that's 
SysOp friendly and hacker hostile." (November 

1987) 152 

BRU England, Carl. "Backup and restore." (April 

1988) 72 — Backup disk directory. 
BUDGET Piersma, Daniel. "The home financial 

analyst." (April 7988; 112 — Help at tax time. 

CALC Turner, Frank. "A CoCo pop-up calculator." 
(February 1988) 79 

CALENDAR Holdorf, William J. "Appointment 
calendar." (January 1988) 100 — Print an 
appointment book. Kolasar, Fred. "A CoCo pop- 
up calendar." (April 1988) 74 



1 42 THE RAINBOW July 1 988 



CALL Hrycaj, Bohdan. "I/O error free." (December 

1987) 75 — Cassette loading utility. 
CANVAS Aftamonow, George ; and Aftamonow, 

Ellen. "CoCo 3 canvas." (May 1988) 91 
CASTLE Ruangchotvit, Chinarut. "Castle of death." 

(February 1988) 65 — Adventure contest winner. 

CATALYST; CATALYST3 Campbell, Marc. 

"Changing the language." (June 1988) 168 — 

Customize your programming language. 
CATHEAD Scerbo, Fred B. "CoCo cathead: 20 

seconds into the future." (November 1987) 113 

— Talking CoCo cathead. 
CCBLITZ Blyn, Steve. "Learning in the end zone." 

(October 1987) 94 — Educational football quiz. 
CC3PATCH Wiens, Michael F. "CoCo 3 

potpourri." (June 1988) 158 
CDUMP Dibble, Peter. "A computer's ancient 

native language." (July 1987) 100 — Assembly 

language aid. 
CENTERER Plaster, Gip Wayne, II. "Phrase 

centerer." (May 1988) 93 
CGPPRINT Perkins, Duane M. "CoCo 3 color 

dump." (May 1988) 42 — Dump to the CGP-220. 
CHANGER White, Eric. "The color gallery." 

(February 1988) 85 — CoCo 3 graphics. 
CHART LeBlanc, Brian. "Right back where we 

started from part 2." (October 1987) 144 
CHAR1000 Barden, William, Jr. "Font fascination." 

(March 1988) 167 — Discussion on character 

generation. 

CHORDS Dods, Stuart C. "Preventing dis-chord." 
(June 1988) 140 — Learn position of keyboard 
chords. 

CIRCLE Krom, Matt. "Powerful pages." (July 

1987) 94 — Graphics demo. 

CIRCLE; CIRCLE2 Ferreira, Ken. "Tunnel effects." 

(November 1987) 96 — Graphics demo. 
CIRCUIT Blyn, Steve. "Electricity and circuit 

experimentation." (December 1987) 98 — Teach 

electrical circuits. 
CITY SUN Hall, Greg. "A short day's journey into 

the night." (November 1987) 106 — Graphics 

demo 

CLOWNS Bernico, Bill ; and Aftamonow, George. 
"The clown of a hundred faces." (January 1988) 
44 

CLS Ostler, David D. "BASIC for beginners part 

1." (September 1987)26 
CMDGEN Puckett, Dale L. "Patches, Programs 

and politics." (May 1988) 178 
COCOART Sutphin, Ricky. "A demonstration in 

art." (October 1987) 80 
COCOBLUZ Burke, Val. "Playin' the blues." (June 

1988) 20 

COCOCALC Ostler, David W. "BASIC for 
beginners lesson 2." (January 1988) 37 

COCODRAW Puckett, Dale fc "Primitive drawing 
tools." (September 1987) 160 Williams, John G. 
"CoCo draw update." (October 1987) 98 — 
Update from October 1986, p.59. Correction, 
December, 1987, p.24. 

COCOKEYS Scerbo, Fred B. "Keying into CoCo's 
power." (July 1987) 112 — Keyboard training. 
Scerbo, Fred B. "Revising the reservoir." (April 
1988) 146 — Fixes to recent programs. 

COCOKEY2 Scerbo, Fred B. "The spelling game." 
(August 1987) 92 

COCOLERN English, William D. "Learn CoCo 
learn." (August 1987) 50 — Artificial intelligence 
helps CoCo play. 

COCOSAVR Ruby, Paul, Jr. "Financial planning for 
your future." (January 1988) 84 — Analyze sav- 
ings plan. 

COLLECT DeMarco, Brian. "Picking up the 
pieces." (June 1988) 82 

COLLEGE Pittman, Larry P. "Beating the college 

crunch." (June 1988) 26 — Calculate college 

saving plan. 
COLORMIX Breindel, Adam. "Color creator." 

(January 1988) 78 — Blend colors. Curtis, H. 

Allen. "PALETTEable color mixing." (April 1988) 

124 — Utility to make color selection easier. 
COLORPIE Perkins, Duane M. "CoCo 3 color 

dump." (May 1988) 42 — Dump to the CGP-220. 
COLORS Perkins, Duane M. "CoCo 3 color 

dump." (May 1988) 42 — Dump to the CGP-220. 



COLRTEST Ostrer, Ken. "Adjusting your 

monitor." (January 1988) 80 
COLRFEST Benway, Patrick. "All the colors of the 

rainbow." (December 1987) 74 
COMPARE; INDEX; SAVELOAD; TOTAL Kolar, 

Joseph. Mission interchangeable." (March 1988) 

68 

COMPRESS Dibble, Peter. "Compression filters in 
saving and restoring graphics screens." 
(December 1987) 168 Dibble, Peter. "Sometimes 
BASIC09 isn't fast enough." (September 1987) 
170 

CONNECTS James, John. "Five in a row." (March 
1988) 76 

CONTROL; CNTRL Bell, Bruce K. "To overthrow 

the controllers." (February 1988) 42 — 

Adventure contest winner. 
CONVERT Purnell, Dick, "They do it with 

numbers." (December 1987) 74 — Convert hex 

to decimal, etc. 
CO80. PATCH Puckett, Dale L. "New tools, new 

toys." (April 1988) 160 
CRUNCHER Smith, Bill. "Wipe out letters." 

(September 1987) 74 
CRUSH Virkki, Jyrl J. "Putting on the program 

squeeze." (February 1988) 157 — Make 

programs smaller. 
DATABASE Ostler, David W. "BASIC for 

beginners lesson 3." (February 1988) 20 Ostler, 

David W. "BASIC for beginners lesson 4." 

(Marcr? 1988) 82 
DATAWRIT Weide, Dennis H. "The CoCo writes a 

program." (July 1987) 84 — Use machine 

language in BASIC." 
DEFSDEMO Puckett, Dale L. "Patches, Programs 

and politics." (May 1988) 178 
DEMO Hawkins, Darryl W. "Two screens 

accompany, but three is not a crowd." 

(November 1987) 100 — A third graphics screen. 

DESKTOPL; DESKTOPH Curtis, H. Allen. "A desk- 
top publisher on a shoestring." (October 1987) 58 
— Corrections, October 1987, p.24, January 1988, 
p.138. 

DIRALPHA Needham, Andre. "The ABC's of 

organization." (February 1988) 80 — Alphabetize 

disk directory. 
DIRPRINT Knoppow, Jim. "Hard copy your 

directory." (February 1988) 81 
DISK.BAS; DISK3 Campbell, Marc. "Changing the 

language." (June 1988) 168 — Customize your 

programming language. 
DISKDATA McGarrity, A. L. "The perfect disk 

manager." (July 1987) 30 — Disk utility 
DISKDUMP; DISKDIR Barden, William, Jr. 

"Delving into the CoCo disk." (January 1988) 

180 

DISKSEEK Berenz, Michael. "An inside view." 

(July 1987) 97 — Disk utility. 
DODGE Moon, J. R. "The blue block blues." 

(November 1987) 97 
DOEVENT Puckett, Dale L. "The evolution 

continues." (November 1987) 180 Puckett, Dale 

L. "Putting data structures on the drawing 

board." (December 1987) 180 
DREAM Wilson, Lonni. "A Christmas dream." 

(December 1987) 20 — Christmas adventure 

game. 

DRIVER; CONVERT Forgione, Joseph. "Prompt 
attention." (July 1987) 97 — Change the cursor 
prompt. 

DRIVE2 Scerbo, Fred B. "Revising the reservoir." 

(April 1988) 146 — Fixes to recent programs. 
DSORT; DSORT.ASM Puckett, Dale L. "A view of 

Multi-Vue." (March 1988) 180 
EDITOR-2 Dibble, Peter. "The problem with 

BASIC09." (August 1987) 163 
ELECFORM Burdon, Kenneth. "WATTS the 

electrical cost of appliances." (November 1987) 

46 

ELECTION Blyn, Steve. "Presidential election 
preview." (April 1988) 70 — Polling program. 

EMBROID Furman, George R. "Stitch niche-ery." 
(December 1987) 76 — Make embroidery 
patterns. 

ENCRYPT Compton, David. "Undercover CoCo." 
(April 1988) 73 — Construct cryptograms. 



ENERGY Matthews, Becky F. "Electrifying 
graphics using PMODE power." (October 1987) 
44 

ERASEPIX Puckett, Dale L. "Putting data 
structures on the drawing board." (December 
1987) 180 

EXAMPLE Barden, William, Jr. "Hands-on 
Hershey." (April 1988) 170 — Create various 
characters. 

EXPLORE2 Plaster, Gip Wayne. "Adventures in 

music." (June 1988) 79 
EXPNS Anderson, Larry. "CoCo's auto 

maintenance manager." (April 1988) 58 — Keep 

maintenance schedules for up to 5 vehicles. 
FAMILY LeBlanc, Brian. "Right back where we 

started from part 2." (October 1987) 144 
FASTCOPY Lawson, Matt. "Backup and go." (July 

1987) 98 — Quicker disk backups. Correction, 

June 1988, p. 38. 
FASTFOOD Blyn, Steve. "Can you afford a burger 

attack?" (January 1988) 54 — Estimating 

expenses. 

FDCAID Honaker, Scott. "Exercise your drives." 

(June 1988) 110 
FILEDATA Doss, Raymond. "Creating data files." 

(March 1988) 74 — Construct single 

dimensioned string file. 
FILEREAD Bernico, Bill. "Reading data files." 

(March 1988) 74 
FILES Puckett, Dale L. "Controller attacks halt line 

problem." (August 1987) 157 
FINANCE Tinklepaugh, Dale. "Financial time 

conversions." (April 1988) 34 — Personal 

financial 'toolbox.' 
FINDMAZE Barden, William, Jr. "An A 'maze' ing 

adventure." (February 1988) 171 
FLIPIT Tucker, Eric. "One good turn deserves 

another." (May 1988) 30 — Strategy game. 
FONTDEMO; FONTPOKE Pokorny, Douglas. 

"Adding the HPRINT capability to PMODE 4." 

(May 1988) 155 
FONTUTIL Barden, William, Jr. "Hands-on 

Hershey." (April 1988) 170 — Create various 

characters. 

FOOTBALL Behrmann, Darrel. "It's a touchdown!" 

(October 1987) 83 Remick, Jeff. "Who'll win on 

the gridiron?" (December 1987) 78 — Pick 

football winners. 
FRACTION Bernico, Bill. "Any way you slice it." 

(September 1987) 40 — Teach fractions. 
FUNFACE Parker, Sanjay. "Freaky face." (October 

1987) 78 

F15EAGLE Wolf, Eric A. "Into the danger Zone." 
(August 1987) 58 — F-15 ground assault 
simulator. 

GALACTIC Alger, Paul. "Caught up in a galactic 

conflict." (November 1987) 78 — BBS game. 

Correction, January 1988, p.138. 
GALLERY White, Eric. "The color gallery." 

(February 1988) 85 — CoCo 3 graphics. 
GENFONT1; GENFONT2 Curtis. H. Allen. "A 

Desktop publisher on a shoestring." (October 

1987) 58 — Corrections, October 7987, p.24, 

January 1988, p.138. 
GETBUFFER Dibble, Peter. "Compression filters 

in saving and restoring graphics screens." 

(December 1987) 168 Dibble, Peter. "Sometimes 

BAS1C09 isn't fast enough." (September 1987) 

170 

GETIMAGE Dibble, Peter. "Polishing off the 
screen save/dump package." (January 1988) 176 

GETKISSMOUSE Puckett, Dale L. "The evolution 
continues." (November 1987) 180 Puckett, Dale 
L. "Putting data structures on the drawing 
board." (December 1987) 180 

GETWINATTR Dibble, Peter. "Compression filters 
in saving and restoring graphics screens." 
(December 1987) 168 Dibble, Peter. "Sometimes 
BASIC09 isn't fast enough." (September 1987) 
170 

GOSUB Ostler, David W. "BASIC for beginners 

lesson 2." (January 1988) 37 
GRADE$ Dorrity, Dennis. "Report card payoff." 

(September 1987) 20 — Total up the report card. 

GRADER Bernico, Bill. "Teacher's pet." 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 143 



(September 1987) 76 — Help teacher total 
scores. 

GRAFCODE Weaver, Daniel T. "Graphics 
reference chart." (May 1988) 92 

GRAFTRAN Montgomery, Scott. "Graphics 

creation transfer." (October 1987) 48 
GRAPH Toscano, Louis R. "The electronic 

blackboard." (September 1987) 106 — 

Mathematics teaching aid. 
GUITARS Bernico, Bill. "Graphing great guitars." 

(June 1988) 56 
HANDLEMENU Puckett, Dale L. "The evolution 

continues," (November 1987) 180 Puckett, Dale 

L. "Putting data structures on the drawing 

board." (December 1987) 180 
HANGMAN Stewart, Shawn. "Have a hand at 

hangman." (August 1987) 89 
HANUKKAH DellaFave, Renard. "A festival of 

lights." (December 1987) 28 — Graphics for 

Hanukkah. 

HEART Scerbo, Fred B. "Revising the reservoir." 

(April 1988) 146 — Fixes to recent programs. 
HELIHERO Holsten, Phil. "Helicopter hero." 

(March 1988) 42 
HELPMATE Goldberg, Stephen B. "Help is on the 

way." (June 1988) 14 — Create online assistance 

for any program. 
HFDRIVER Barden, William, Jr. "Hands-on 

Hershey." (April 1988) 170 — Create various 

characters. 

HI Krom, Matt. "Powerful pages." (July 1987) 94 — 

Graphics demo. 
HIRESJOY Perkins, Duane M. "Programming for 

the hi-res joystick interface. (February 1988) 122 

HITME Gleason, Chris. "Hit me if you can." 

(January 1988) 76 
HORROR Sutphin, Ricky. "A frightfully good 

time!" (October 1987) 20 
HRLOAD Perkins, Duane M. "CoCo 3 color 

dump." (May 1988) 42 — Dump to the CGP-220. 
HRSAVE Perkins, Duane M. "CoCo 3 color dump." 

(May 1988) 42 — Dump to the CGP-220. 
IMAGE Skaggs, Tracy L. "PMODE polychrome." 

(May 1988) 58 — Dump PMODE 3 and 4 screens 

in color. 

INVNTORY Tottingham, Bill. "Home inventory 

manager." (April 1988) 42 
INVTREND Franz, James E. "Stock analyzer." 

(March 1988) 94 — Use it to time investment 

decisions 

JACKET Crawford, Gay. "Disk jacket designer for 
the well-dressed diskette." (November 1987) 26 

JOB DESC Paroubek, Larry M. "Finding the right 
person for the job." (January 1988) 106 — 
Create job descriptions. 

JOYCHECK Ellis, Richard S. "Joy for joysticks. 
(August 1987) 91 — Check out your joysticks. 

JUKEBOX Thompson, Ernie. "Blast from the 
past." (June 1988) 96 

JUMBLE Scerbo, Fred B. "Reading and decoding 
skills." (May 1988) 74 

KINGBOOT; KING Miller, Scott; and Cushing, 
Mike. "Guild of the Kingmaker." (April 1988) 86 

KISSCOLOR Puckett, Dale L. "Using a fourth- 
generation database language." (February 1988) 
182 

KISSDMENU; KISSDRAWFILL + BOX, LINE ETC. 

Puckett, Dale L. "Back at the drawing board." 

(January 1988) 160 
KISSDRAW Puckett, Dale L. "Primitive drawing 

tools." (September 1987) 160 
KISSDRAWPUT; + KISSDRAWBOX, LINE, 

CIRCLE, ELLIPSE, BAR Puckett, Dale L 

"Putting data structures on the drawing board." 

(December 1987) 180 
KISSDRAW2 Puckett, Dale L "Unlock the 

graphics potential of OS-9 Level II.: (October 

1987) 176 

KISSDRAW4; KISSDRAWBOX; KISSDRAWARC 
Puckett, Dale L. "The evolution continues." 
(November 1987) 180 

LC PATCH 2; LCPATCH3 Campbell, Marc. 
"Changing the language." (June 1988) 168 — 
Customize your programming language. 

LE LUTIN Parson, Louis. "The Kingdom of Le 



Lutin." (July 1987) 58 --Adventure game. 
Correction, October 1987, p. 50. 

LETRGETR Duncan, James Dale. "Learning your 

ABCs." (September 1987) 72 
LETRWRITR Hallock, Arthur S. "Color 

correspondent." (April 1988) 48 — A mini word 

processor. 

LETTER Brown, Charles E, Jr. "Printing in two 

columns." (May 1988) 95 
LETTERS Barden, William, Jr. "Barden's buffer: 

The mystery of the Tandy anagram." (May 1988) 

170 

LINEDRAW Kenny, Keiran. "Laying it on the line." 

(January 1988) 73 
LOADER Sapello, Donald. "Debugging with 

wordfind." (February 1988) 155 
LOADPIX Puckett, Dale L. "Putting data structures 

on the drawing board." (December 1987) 180 
LOCATOR McGarrity, A. L. "The perfect disk 

manager." (July 1987) 30 — Disk utility 
LONNIE.BIN Crawford, Gay. "Disk jacket designer 

for the well-dressed diskette." (November 1987) 

26 

LOOK Ostrom, Steven M. "Artifact colors on 
CoCo 3's RGB." (February 1988) 114 

LOTT048 Nevin, Bob. "Lotsa luckl" (June 1988) 
81 

LP78DMPS Curtis, H. Allen. "Screen dump 

extraordinaire." (October 1987) 30 — Correction, 

November 1987, p. 11 6. 
MACLIST Puckett, Dale L. "An OS-9 convert 

speaks out." (July 1987) 167 
MAGICSQR Morrison, John. "Making magic." 

(August 1987) 88 — A magic square. 
MAGIC3 Ward, Logan. "CoCo has all the 

answers." (November 1987) 52 
MAGPARTS Blyn, Steve. "Who, what and where?" 

(June 1988) 86 — Sharpen reference skills. 
MAIN Anderson, Larry. "CoCo's auto maintenance 

manager." (April 1988) 58 — Keep maintenance 

schedules for up to 5 vehicles. 
MAKECMDGEN Puckett, Dale L. "Patches, 

Programs and politics." (May 1988) 178 
MAKPIPE Dibble, Peter. "Compression filters in 

saving and restoring graphics screens." 

(December 1987) 168 
MAKPIPE2 Dibble, Peter. "Polishing off the screen 

save/dump package." (January 1988) 176 
MAPPER Haupt, Neil. "Help for adventurers." 

(August 1987) 90 — Adventure map printer. 
MARTIAN Machurek, Ed, Jr. "Merry Martian." 

(October 1987) 79 
MATCH Rogers, Robert. "Compu match." 

(February 1988) 30 — Computer dating. 
MATHTCHR Rittenhouse, James E. "Math can be 

fun." (September 1987) 71 
MED FORM Upperman, James A. "Operation child 

protect." (April 1988) 20 — Generate medical 

authorization form. 
MEMOCARD Belanger, Allan J. "CoCo 

concentration." (August 1987) 20 — Memory 

game 

MENUGEN Williams, John G. "CoCo draw 
update." (October 1987) 98 — Update from 
October 1986, p.59. Correction, December 1987, 
p.24. 

MIRORPIX Kenny, Keiran. "Mirror image." 

(October 1987) 81 
MLEDITOR Mosley, John. "Do you hear what I 

hear?" (December 1987) 86 — Correction, June 

1988, p.38. 

MLSONG Mosley, John. "Do you hear what I 
hear?" (December 1987) 86 — Correction, June 
1988, p.38. 

MONEYJAR Bernico, Bill. "How much do you 
have?" (September 1987) 70 — Count your 
money. 

MONTEST Archer, David. "CoCo 3 number 
cruncher." (March 1988) 146 — Spreadsheet 
program. 

MUSICPRO Arko, Lyn. "Listen to what they done." 

(June 1988) 80 
MUS1 Plaster, Gip Wayne. "From scales to 

Mozart." (January 1988) 72 
MVSHELL Puckett, Dale L. "Another great 

beginning." (June 1988) 180 



99BEERS Shoobs, Bernice. "Too many (hie) 

bottles of beer," (June 1988) 79 
NEWGAME Alger, Paul. "Caught up in a galactic 

conflict." (November 1987) 78 — BBS game. 

Correction, January 1988, p.138. 

NEWMAZE Barden, William, Jr. "An A 'maze' ing 

adventure." (February 1988) 171 
NO SMOKE Rodriguez, Ana M. "Non-smoking 

section." (May 1988) 90 
NUMFILE Copley, Don. "Let your CoCo do the 

walking." (November 1987) 70 — Database for 

phone numbers. 
NUMREVUE Blyn, Steve. "Number fun for the very 

young." (August 1987) 97 
NYMS Blyn, Steve. "Differences and similarities." 

(May 1988) 88 — Review of synonyms, etc. 
ODDSENDS Kolar, Joseph. "The Kolar 

progression." (January 1988) 96 
PAGE LeBlanc, Brian. "Right back where we 

started from." (September 1987) 102 — 

Genealogy aid. 
PAKXFER Dawson, David. "Pak to disk transfer." 

(December 1987) 152 
PALINDRM Barden, William, Jr. "Barden's buffer: 

The mystery of the Tandy anagram." (May 1988) 

170 

PALPRINT White, Eric. "The color gallery." 

(February 1988) 85 — CoCo 3 graphics. 
PAL32 Katsekes, Chuck. "Color in 32 columns." 

(May 1988) 93 
PAPERS Leistico, Dale James. "Delivering the 

goods." (March 1988) 36 — Bookkeeping system 

for newspaper carriers. 
PASSWORD Anderson, Doug. "Personal 

password protector." (November 1987) 95 — 

Random password generator. 
PATCH Ostrom, Steven M. "Artifact colors on 

CoCo 3's RGB." (February 1988) 114 
PAYMENTS Bernico, Bill. "I owe, I owe." (January 

1988) 82 — Calculate monthly payments. 
PEELPCLS Sapello, Donald. "Peeling graphics." 

(February 1988) 154 
PERMS Barden, William, Jr. "Barden's buffer: The 

mystery of the Tandy anagram." (May 1988) 170 
PERSLOGO Brown, Charles E, Jr. "Printing in two 

columns." (May 1988) 95 
PHONICS Blyn, Steve. "Fun with phonics." (March 

1988) 89 

PHOTOTAG Turowksi, Donald. "Keep your 

memories in order." (December 1987) 46 — 

Create labels for photo album. 
PICTBOOK Carrock, Solla. "Animation film 

festival." (October 1987) 114 
PIPEIT Puckett, Dale L. "Back at the drawing 

board." (January 1988) 160 
PITCHER Willoughby, Lauren. "Calibrate your 

ears." (June 1988) 78 
PLAID Shoobs, Bernice. "CoCo cuddler," 

(January 1988) 74 — Graphics demo. 
PLAYBACKPIX Puckett, Dale L. "The evolution 

continues." (November 1987) 180 
POST Beckles, Orman Cyril, III. "The Post Office." 

(March 1988) 104— Mailing list program.— 

Major correction, April, 1988, p.30. 
POSTRPTR Quellhorst, George. "Bulletin board 

standout." (May 1988) 116 — Printing posters 

with a DMP-130. 
PREVIEWPIX Puckett, Dale L "Putting data 

structures on the drawing board." (December 

1987) 180 

PRIME-TBL.C Puckett, Dale L. "An OS-9 convert 

speaks out." (July 1987) 167 
PRINTER Dibble, Peter. "The problem with 

BASIC09." (August 1987) 163 
PRINTUNE Boots, Greg. "Print that tune!" (June 

1988) 52 

PUTBUFFER Dibble, Peter. "Polishing off the 
screen save/dump package." (January 1988) 176 

PUZZLE Martinez, Louis. "Back to square one." 

(January 1988) 74 
P178&GL Bernico, Bill. "Prepare before you 

paint." (October 1987) 82 
QUEENS Allen, Scot. "The Queen's quarrel." 

(October 1987) 28 — Chess like puzzle. 
QUILT Shoobs, Bernice M. "High-tech quilting 



144 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



bee." (April 1988) 75 
RAM Campbell, Marc. "Changing the language." 
(June 1988) 168 — Customize your 

programming language. 
READPROG Roberts, Bob. "Yakety-yak, the CoCo 

talks back." (October 1987) 106 — Use 

speech/sound cartridge to read your listings. 
RECEIPT Thompson, E. C. "In good form." (March 

1988) 72 — Print receipts. 
RECIPES Spencer, Brad. "Good things are cookin' 

on CoCo." (April 1988) 28 — Database for 

recipes. 

RECORDPIX Puckett, Dale L "The evolution 

continues." (November 1987) 180 
REM Anderson, Larry. "CoCo's auto maintenance 

manager." (April 1988) 58 — Keep maintenance 

schedules for up to 5 vehicles. 
REMOTE2 Alger, Paul. "Caught up in a galactic 

conflict." (November 1987) 78 — BBS game. 

Correction, January, 1988, p. 138. 

REPORT Piersma, Daniel. "The home financial 

analyst." (April 1988) 1 12 — Help at tax time. 
RESCUE Johnson, Clyde, Jr. "Lunar rescue." 

(August 1987) 116 
RESISTOR MacLellan, Gary. "A colorful 

resistance." (July 1987) 44 — Teach color codes 

of resistors. 

REVERSE1; REVERSE2; REVERSE3; REVERSE4 
Weide, Dennis H. "A picture is worth 6144 
bytes." (February 1988) 126 — Reversing a 
PMODE 4 graphic. 

REVFIELD Schlottmann, Robert S. "Preparing for 
Uncle Sam." (January 1988) 112 — Keep tax 
records in order. Correction, March, 1988, p.40. 

RLEXPND.CDUMP Dibble, Peter. "Polishing off 
the screen save/dump package." (January 1988) 
176 

RLSQSH.CDUMP Dibble, Peter. "Compression 

filters in saving and restoring graphics screens." 

(December 1987) 168 
ROAD II Scerbo, Fred B. "On the road again." 

(December 1987) 52 — Learn traffic safety rules. 
ROADSKIL Scerbo, Fred B. "Getting geared up for 

safer driving." (September 1987) 90 — Road 

skills instructor. 
ROCKYTOP Matthews, Becky F. "CoCo goes 

country." (June 1988) 36 — Music and graphics 

of Nashville. 

ROMRAM Pokorny, Douglas. "Adding the HPRINT 

capability to PMODE 4." (May 1988) 155 
RULEOF78 Eizenga, Jack W. "Rules of 78's." 

(March 1988) 100 — Determine whether to pay off 

loans ahead of schedule. 
RVSLINE French, Paul. "Usetown annex." 

(January 1988) 58 — Simulate a city planner. 
SAFESAVE Speer, Mike. "Preventing program 

wipeout." (December 1987) 76 — Disk save 

utility. 

SAMPLE Sapello, Donald. "Peeling graphics." 

(February 1988) ^54 
SAVE&RUN Steinbrueck, Richard. "Painless 

revisions." (February 1988) 155 — Help in saving 

programs on disk. 
SAVEIMAGE Dibble, Peter. "Compression filters 

in saving and restoring graphics screens." 

(December 1987) 168 Dibble, Peter. "Sometimes 

BASIC09 isn't fast enough." (September 1987) 

170 

SAVEPIX Puckett, Dale L. "Putting data structures 
on the drawing board." (December 1987) 180 

SCOREBRD Ashby, Lou. "Keeping score with 
CoCo." (August 1987) 36 — Keep track of hard 
won scores. Cooney, Mike. "Get the home court 
advantage." (September 1987) 42 — Basketball 
scoreboard. 

SCRNDUMP; SCRNDMPS Curtis, H. Allen. 
"Screen dump extraordinaire." (October 1987) 
30 — Correction, November 1987, p.116. 

SCRNFONT Bernico, Bill. "Ye olde font." (May 
1988) 36 —Graphics print font styles. 

SCROLL Bernico, Bill. "Screen scrolling made 
easy." (October 1987) 26 

SENTENCE Scerbo, Fred B. "Grammar 101 Part 
11" (June 1988) 154 Scerbo, Fred B. "Know what 
I mean?" (January 1988) 90 — Recognizing 
complete sentences and fragments. Scerbo, 



Fred B. "Sentence savvy." (March 1988) 78 
SETUP.BAS Schlottmann, Robert S. "Preparing 

for Uncle Sam." (January 1988) 112 — Keep tax 

records in order. Correction, March 1988, p.40. 
SETUPMOUSE Puckett, Dale L "Putting data 

structures on the drawing board." (December 

1987) 180 

SHEET Hitko, Don. "Worksheet printer." (March 

1988) 73 

SHOOTEM DeMarco, Brian. "CoCo caliber." (April 
1988) 74 

SHOOTN Marsh, Albert P. "Rootin' tootin' 

sharpshootin' CoCo." (August 1987) 105 
SHOPPING Blyn, Steve. "Restaurant reckonings." 

(February 1988) 76 
SIGNATUR Bennett, Jim "Sign in please." (May 

1988) 52 —Use the CoCo to copy your 

signature. 

SKIPMUF Puckett, DaleJ.. "Another great 
beginning." (June 1988) 180 

SMOOTHY Blochowiak, John. "A smooth 
operator." (January 1988) 78 — Screen scrolling 
in 40 column mode. Correction, April, 1988, p.14. 

SNEAKY Kerckhoff, Peter. "Sneaky snake." 

(August 1987) 26 
SONGWRTR Shelton, Garry L. "Color composer." 

(June 1988) 42 — Create and edit songs. 
SPEEDSTR Jolley, David. "Start your engines." 

(August 1987) 86 — Racing car game 
SPELDOWN Blyn, Steve. "Spell down to 

vocabulary fitness." (July 1987) 56 — Language 

arts game. 
SPELLKEY Scerbo, Fred B. "Revising the 

reservoir." (April 1988) 146 — Fixes to recent 

programs. 

SPREAD2 Mooallem, Saul. "Spreading it on a little 
thicker." (March 1988) 54 — Spreadsheet 
program enhanced. 

SSBANNER Lawrence, Ingrid ; and Bourdeaux, 
Mark. "Hurray for the red, white and blue." (July 

1987) 20 — Music and graphics for the 4th of 
July. 

STARS McDowell, Jim. "One starry night." 
(November 1987) 96 — Graphics demo Pruyne, 
Jim. "A star like a wheel." (March 1988) 75 

STOCK May, Charles. "Taking stock." (March 

1988) 60 —Inventory control. 

STRATA Sirolly, Michael T. "Strata." (May 1988) 

20 — Action game. 
SUBSERCH Sward, Steven. "Sub search." (March 

1988) 122 

SUM128 Archer, David. "CoCo 3 number 
cruncher." (March 1988) 146 — Spreadsheet 
program. 

SUPRPLAY Spiller, Jeremy. "Synthesizer sound- 
off." (June 1988) 102 — Turn PLAY command 
into a synthesizer. 

SUPRTEST Scerbo, Fred B. "The ultimate testing 
programs." (February 1988) 94 — Generate 
quizzes. 

SYSOP.EDT Jorgenson, Michael. "A BBS that's 
SysOp friendly and hacker hostile." (November 
1987) 152 

TACHISTO Gordley, Richard D. "CoCo sets the 
pace." (September 1987) 140 — Measure reading 
speed and comprehension. Correction, October 

1987, p.50. 

TAX.BAS; TAXINFO.XX Schlottmann, Robert S. 
"Preparing for Uncle Sam." (January 1988) 112 
— Keep tax records in order. Correction, March 

1988, p.40. 

3D LETTER Wright, Archor. "Initially 3-D." 

(October 1987) 53 
TEST Puckett, Dale L. "The evolution continues." 

(November 1987) 180 
TESTSCRN Curtis, H. Allen. "Screen dump 

extraordinaire." (October 1987) 30 — Correction, 

November 1987, p.116. 
TEXTGEN.EDT Jorgenson, Michael. "A BBS that's 

SysOp friendly and hacker hostile." (November 

1987) 152 
THEATRE Fiaishaker, Paul. "Theater 

management." (August 1987) 88 — A puzzle. 
THECAVE Plaster, Gip Wayne. "Adventures in 

music." (June 1988) 79 
TICKET Schenck, Ed. "Ticket maker." (May 1988) 



91 

TIMER.BIN; TIMER. BAS Weide, Debbie ; and 

Weide, Dennis H. "Galileo and the CoCo." 

(December 1987) 160 — A science project to re- 
do Galileo's experiment. 
TIMETABL Musumeci, John. "Goodbye 

flashcards." (September 1987) 72 
TRIANGLE Blyn, Steve. "Getting a fix on 

triangles." (September 1987) 138 
TRIVIA Taulli, T. C. "Batter up!" (July 1987) 105 — 

Trivia game based on baseball. 
TRIVIAG; TRIVIAFC Lamonica, Mary ; and 

Lamonica, James. "Doing the trivia rag." 

(September 1987) 152 — Trivia game. 
TUXEDO.BIN Crawford, Gay. "Disk jacket 

designer for the well-dressed diskette." 

(November 1987) 26 
TYPER DingEe, Brent. "Improve your typing skills." 

(January 1988) 82 
TYPING Blyn, Steve. "Upgrading keyboard skills." 

(November 1987) 76 — Typing tutor. 
UNPRESS Dibble, Peter. "Polishing off the screen 

save/dump package." (January 1988) 176 

Dibble, Peter, "Using compressed files." 

(October 1987) 164 
URCHIN Tilenius, Eric W. "The urchins from the 

Black Lagoon." (January 1988) 31 
USETOWN French, Paul. "Usetown annex." 

(January 1988) 58 — Simulate a city planner. 

USSONGS Lawrence, Ingrid ; and Bourdeaux, 
Mark. "Hurray for the red, white and blue." (July 

1987) 20 — Music and graphics for the 4th of 
July. 

UTILITY1 Lueders, Raymond. "Easy as pie." (April 

1988) 99 — Help for the amateur BASIC 
programmer. 

VACATION Rau, Fred. "Hit the road." (July 1987) 

95 —Vacation log 
VALNTINE Catlett, Brian. "Wear your heart on 

your screen." (February 1988) 100 — Electronic 

Valentine's day card. 
VARIABLE Ostler, David D. "BASIC for beginners 

part 1." (September 1987) 26 
VCRTAPES Mayfield, Randy. "That's 

entertainment." (December 1987) 92 — VCR 

index 

VERBTEST Scerbo, Fred B. "Understanding verb 
use." (October 1987) 158 

VMODE Puckett, Dale L. "Controller attacks halt 
Ifne problem." (August 1987) 157 

WAVEDIT Spiller, Jeremy. "Synthesizer sound- 
off." (June 1988) 102 — Turn PLAY command 
into a synthesizer. 

WHICHTOOL Puckett, Dale L. "Putting data 
structures on the drawing board." (December 

1987) 180 

WHICHTOOI Puckett, Dale L. "The evolution 

continues." (November 1987) 180 
WINDCHiL Dettmann, Harvey. "How cold is it." 

(October 1987) 82 — Calculate wind chill factor. 
WORDFIND Sapello, Donald. "Debugging with 

wordfind." (February 1988) 155 
WORD1 Johnson, Neil. "Scrambled screen of 

letters." (August 1987) 90 — Memory game. 
WPDRV.DR; WP.DD; WECHO.DD (+ .SRC) 

Puckett, Dale L. "New tools, new toys." (April 

1988) 160 

WREATH Bell, Mark. "This wreath hangs indoors." 

(December 1987) 72 
XMASLIST Saunderson, George F. "Making a 

Christmas address list." (December 1987) 66 — 

Correction, February. 1988, p.14, April, 1988, 

p. 14. 

XMASPORI Golias, Ruth E. "A Christmas pot- 
pourri." (December 1987) 100 — Christmas music 
and graphics. Correction, April 1988, p.14. 

XMASSONG Mosley, John. "Do you hear what I 
hear?" (December 1987) 86 — Correction, June 
1988, p.38. 

XMASSTAR Shortt, Don ; and Duncan, M. G. "The 
Christmas star." (December 1987) 70 

XSTITCH Anderson, Larry. "A stitch in time." 
(December 1987) 108 

ZIGZAG Kolar, Joseph. "The Kolar progression." 
(January 1988) 96 /j^ 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 145 



CoCo Consultations 



this and in future 
"Co Co Consultations, " 
I will be trying some- 
thing new. In addition to the 
familiar Q&A column, I will also 
include tidbits of information 
contributed by various folks and, 
in some cases, comment on the 
information. Thus, even if you 
don't have a question, I invite you 
to send in any little hints or de- 
scriptions of experiences you have 
had with the CoCo that you think 
might be of interest to the Co Co- 
owning public in general 



CoCo Economy 

Can a Color Computer 2 be upgraded 
to a Color Computer 3 without actually 
buying a Color Computer 3? 

Rio Yates 
Corpus Christi, TX 

While in theory you can do the up- 
grade you ask about, it would take a 
skilled hardware technician about 24 to 
48 hours of labor to do it (such techni- 
cians make $30 to $60 an hour), and cost 
you about $100 in parts. So the answer 
to your question is no. The only way to 
go from a Color Computer 2 to a Color 
Computer 3 is to buy a Color Computer 
3. There are just too many differences 
between the two for an upgrade of one 
to the other to be practical. 

Versatile Multipack 

We just got a CoCo 3 and upgraded 
our multipack interface as you sug- 
gested. Will we have any trouble using 
that multipack with our CoCo 2 on 
occasion? We read your January 1987 
article in RAINBOW and do not have any 



Martin H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics tinkerer and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Cose 11 of the CoCo world. On 
Delphi, Marty is the SIGop of RAIN- 
BOW'S CoCo SIG and database man- 
ager of OS-9 Online. His non-computer 
passions include running, mountaineer- 
ing and outdoor photography. Marty 
lives in San Pablo, California. 

146 THE RAINBOW July 1988 




By Marty Goodman 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



of the "problem " third-party hardware 
cards you mentioned. 

Mr. and Mrs. Greg Adams 
Rock Falls, IL 

If you are not using any of the "prob- 
lem" hardware cards (PBJ Word Pak 
model I or II, CoCo Max 1 or 2 Hi-Res 
pack, etc.), then your multipack up- 
graded for the CoCo 3 should continue 
to work fine on your old CoCo 2. 

On Track with ADOS-3 

Could you explain how to use a 40- 
track, double-sided drive as a 40- track, 
double-sided drive under Disk BASIC? 
Currently I am using it as a 3 5- track, 
single-sided drive. 

Linda Meaux 
Lafayette, LA 

The best way I know of to use Disk 
BASIC with 40-track, double-sided 
drives is to buy ADOS-3 from Spectro- 
Systems, then later burn it into a Disk 
EPROM. ADOS-3 also fixes some bugs 
and adds a great many extra features to 
Disk BASIC, while maintaining compat- 
ibility \yith programs written for un- 
modified Disk basic. To get the full 
benefit of ADOS-3 you need to burn it 
into an EPROM after configuring it. 
This is offered as a service at a modest 
price above the cost of the program 
itself. 



Upgrading Multi-Pak 

What is involved in upgrading both 
the new and the old Multi-Pak to work 
with the CoCo 3? Do I really have to 
upgrade a Multi-Pak even if it seems to 
work right with my CoCo 3? Will the 
upgraded Multi-Pak work with the 
CoCo 1 and 2 after the upgrade? 

Christian Michaud 
(SVPERCHRIS) 
Montreal, Quebec 

In the January 1 987 issue of rainbow 
I wrote an article on this subject; al- 
though what I wrote then is correct as 
far as I know, 1 now have even more 
information. If you own an older 
(bigger gray or white) Multi-Pak (Cat. 
No. 26-3024) the upgrade procedure is 
quite simple: Replace the old PAL chip 
(the only socketed chip on the board, so 
it is easy to find) with Part # AXX 7123 
from Tandy National Parts. That is all. 

For the new, smaller white Multi-Pak 
(Cat. No. 26-3124), the upgrade proce- 
dure is far more complex, as it involves 
installing a satellite board in the Multi- 
Pak. While the board is available, it is 
not accompanied by instructions; the 
installation is a bit tricky, so I recom- 
mend having Tandy upgrade it. Alter- 
natively, owners may refer to Delphi, 
where we have in the "Hardware Hack- 
ing" database a copy of the schematic 
for that satellite board that will allow a 
competent hacker to upgrade his own 
26-3124 Multi-Pak for under $2 in 
parts. 

In the light of newer information, I 
strongly recommend that all existing 
Multi-Paks be upgraded if they are 
intended to be used on the CoCo 3. Note 
that none of the Multi-Paks currently 
being sold are CoCo 3-compatible at the 
time of purchase. Due to an apparent 
order miscalculation for Multi-Paks, 
Tandy has at least a two-year supply of 
the old CoCo 2 Multi-Pak and is reluc- 
tant to tool up to make a CoCo 3 
version. So CoCo 2 Multi-Paks con- 
tinue to be sold, requiring purchasers of 
CoCo 3s to have the upgrade done. It 
is also essential to note that even if your 
CoCo 3 appears to work just fine with 
your Multi-Pak, the upgrade is re- 
quired. The upgrade may prevent slow, 
subtle damage to your CoCo 3; it is also 
necessary for some current CoCo 3 
accessories (such as the new Disto No- 
Halt Controller). 




A Multi-Pak upgraded in this fashion 
will still work fine on a CoCo 2, pro- 
vided you do not use a Word Pak model 
1 or 2, CoCo Max 2 Hi-Res Pak, or 
other third-party hardware addressed 
above SFF7E. The upgraded Multi-Pak 
will continue to work with CoCo 2 or 
CoCo 3 and a disk controller, an RS- 
232 pack, Orchestra 90, the Tandy 
Speech/ Sound Pak, most Speech Sys- 
tems packs, and the Word Pak RS. 



Common Hardware Failures 

What are the most commonly re- 
ported causes of hardware failure in the 
CoCo 3? 

Dave Archer 

(DAVE ARCHER) 

Finley, ND 

Surveying reports from the Delphi 
CoCo SIG, from my own experience 
repairing a few, and from several friends 
of mine who work for Tandy computer 
repair centers, it seems the most com- 
mon cause of catastrophic Color Com- 
puter 3 failure is a blown 68B09 chip. 
Because this chip is soldered directly to 
the board, it takes a skilled technician 
to replace it. 

Poorly seated GIME chips account 
for a lot of video problems and "flaky" 
machines. The cure there is to carefully 
remove the GIME chip, look for bent 
pins in the socket, straighten any you 
may find, wash both GIME chip pins 
and socket with ethanol, then very 
carefully and accurately reinsert the 
GIME chip in its socket. Observe at all 
times standard precautions for handling 
CMOS chips. 

I've also encountered quite a few 
reports of "keyboard failure" caused by 
a dead or damaged keyboard PI A chip. 
In the CoCo 3 this is IC5, called 
LSC81001. It is an open collector 2 Mhz 
variant of the familiar 6821 PIA chip, 
but it must be replaced by the exactly 
correct part that can be obtained from 
Tandy National Parts. This 40-pin chip 
is also soldered directly to the board. 
Much to my suprise, there are relatively 
few reports of machine failures due to 
a dead GIME chip. That is fortunate, 
for Tandy still wants roughly $50 for the 
part, which can be obtained nowhere 
else. 



An Optional Monitor 

The new version of the Commodore 
1084 monitor (designed to support all 



Commodore computers, including the 
C64, C128, and Amiga line) has a six- 
pin DIN jack that accepts an RGB 
analog signal with separate upgoing 
horizontal and vertical sync pulses. I 
used a cable exactly like your Mag- 
navox 8CM515 cable to hook a CoCo 
3 to it, and the results were excellent. / 
purchased this monitor from a local 
Service Merchandise store for $340. 
The rated dot pitch on it is .42, exactly 
the same as that for the Magnavox 
8 CMS 15 monitor. 

Jim Smith 

(JWSM1TH) 
Miramar, FL 



Magnavox has been making moni- 
tors for Commodore for a long time. 
The old 1902 monitor for the C64 and 
CI 28 was a modified 8CM562. It seems 
like this new 1080 monitor is a slightly 
customized 8CM515 model, for the 
overall appearance and layout of both 
the front and back of it (judging from 
the pictures in the user manual that you 
kindly sent me) are suspiciously similar 
to that of the 8CM515. I am delighted 
that you informed me of this added 
option that CoCo 3 owners have for 
acquiring an RGB analog/composite 
color monitor. This monitor also has 
"chromanance/ luminance "-type in- 
puts, a color video protocol used only 
by the newer Commodore 64s and 
Commodore 128s among home 
computers. It is also being used in the 
newly introduced ultra high resolution 
VHS VCR systems. Frankly, few folks 
really need it. Note, too, that RAINBOW 
advertisers like Howard Medical sell the 
Magnavox 8CM5I5 and CoCo 3 cable 
for roughly the same price (including 
shipping) as you paid for your Como- 
dore 1084. 



Reversing the Color Set 

On the CoCo 3, how can I use those 
old CoCo 2 programs that ask you to 
press the reset button if the color set (red 
and blue) is reversed? 

Richard S. Schultz 
Carmichael, CA 

As you no doubt discovered, pressing 
reset on a CoCo 3 will not cause the 
color set to reverse. There is an easy 
solution, however. If, after a normal 
power-up and booting of the program, 
you end up with the wrong color set, 
merely turn the machine off (or press 
the reset button while holding down 



CTRL and ALT). Then, power 
machine again (or press the reset I 
a second time, this time holding ^^mi 
the Fl key. This will result in an odd 
black-on-blue normal BASIC screen, but 
don't worry about that. Merely load 
and execute the program, and you will 
find it now has the color set you want. 

An EPROM for the Tandy FD-502 

What sort of EPROM is needed if 
one wants to burn a modified DOS 
ROM for the controller that comes with 
a Tandy FD-502 model drive? 

Leslie Earl 

(LESTER E) 

Houston, TX 

This latest model of CoCo disk drive 
system from Tandy, the double-sided 
FD-502, is accompanied by a new 
controller that now uses a 28-pin ROM 
instead of the old 24-pin ROM. This 
ROM should be pretty much pin-for- 
pin compatible with 2764-type EP- 
ROMs. 1 recommend using 250 ns or 
faster versions of the 2764, although 
slower ones will also work fine in most 
cases. If for some reason you have a 
problem substituting a 2764 EPROM 
for Tandy's 28-pin ROM, try running 
jumper wires from Pin 28 of the 
EPROM to both pins 1 and 27 of the 
EPROM (with all pins still inserted in 
the socket). Sometimes when an 
"EPROM-compatible" ROM is used, 
some lines specific to the EPROM (like 
Vpp) that need to be pulled to +5 volts 
when the EPROM is in use, are left 
unconnected for the ROM chip. It is a 
good thing Tandy is switching to 28-pin 
ROMs at long last, for I hear that 
Motorola will be discontinuing produc- 
tion of the 24-pin 68766 before the end 
of 1988. 

Ydur technical questions are wel- 
comed. Please address them to CoCo 
Consultations, the rainbow, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. 

We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit 
for brevity and clarity. Due to the large 
volume of mail we receive, we are unable 
to answer letters individually. 

Questions can also be sent to Marty 
through the Delphi CoCo SIG. From the 
CoCo SIG> prompt, pick Rainbow 
Magazine Services, then, at the RAIN- 
BO W> prompt, type RSK (for Ask the 
Experts) to arrive at the EXPERTS> 
prompt, where you can select the "CoCo 
Consultations" online form which has 
complete instructions. 



July 1 988 THE RAINBOW 1 47 



1 Turn of th e Scr e w — 

Five years ago I introduced to the 
CoCo Community a piece of 
hardware called the Disto con- 
troller. It is compatible with Radio 
Shack's controller, as well as others. 
One of its interesting features is an 
internal mini expansion bus (MEB). 
This bus allows internal expansion of a 
peripheral card. Two of the adapters 
available for this controller are more 
popular than ever these days. The first 
is the clock/ parallel adapter. This 
allows the user under OS-9 to have the 
real time at hand without having to type 
it in every time and to be able to connect 
a parallel printer to the CoCo without 
having to use an adapter. The second is 
a hard disk/ serial adapter, which allows 
the user to connect a hard disk to the 
CoCo. It also has an RS-232 interface 
that is somewhat compatible with the 
Radio Shack Deluxe RS-232 Pak. 

Until now, only one of these adapters 
would fit into the controller at one time. 
If you wanted a second, you needed an 
MEB carrier or a RAM disk along with 
a Multi-Pak Interface. Very expensive! 
If you had a CoCo 3, you also had to 
have the Multi-Pak modified. More 
bucks. As for myself, I have two sys- 
tems, a CoCo 1 with an unmodified 
Multi-Pak and monochrome monitor, 
and a CoCo 3 with no Multi-Pak and 
a Sony RGB monitor. I don't intend to 
buy another Multi-Pak for my CoCo 3 
system, so where does that leave me? 

There were a couple of reasons for 
writing this article. The first is that if I 
do something for myself and find that 
it helps me do something else better, 
faster or more easily, I think that other 
people must have the same needs; most 
of the time I am right. This is why I 
began writing articles in the first place. 
The second reason is that Radio Shack 
has discontinued the RS-232 Pak and 
may discontinue the Multi-Pak in the 
future. What will we do? 

If you take a look at the two adapters 
described above, they represent a lot of 
I/O: serial, parallel, hard disk and 
clock. To be able to have all those things 
without the Multi-Pak would be great. 
Getting the Super Controller or the 
Super Controller II is a good start, but 
you can still only put one of the two 
adapters inside the controller. This is 

Tony DiStefano is a well-known early 
specialist in computer hardware proj- 
ects. He lives in Laval Ouest, Quebec. 
Tony's username on Delphi is DISTO. 



A project to fit two 
adapters into your 

controller — 
at the same time 



Two for One 



By Tony DiStefano 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



where I come in. I decided that I wanted 
both of these adapters in my second 
system's controller. So I took out my 
soldering iron, and this is what I came 
up with. 

Before you get started, let me give you 
the drawbacks to this project. First of 
all, when all is said and done, you can 
no longer close the cover of the con- 
troller. An even bigger problem is 
power: When both of these boards are 
plugged in, the current draw is a little 
over the recommended limit of 300mA. 
A separate regulated supply must be 
built to handle the extra demand on 
power. Apart from these hurdles, a little 
soldering experence is needed. 

Let's review some theory before tak- 
ing out the ol' soldering iron, however. 
The MEB is a 17-pin connector that has 
data, address and control lines. The 
following is a description of these pins: 



Pin# 


Description 


1 


Reset 


2 


E Clock 


3 


AO 


4 


Al 


5 


DO 


6 


Dl 


7 


D2 


8 


D3 


9 


D4 


10 


D5 


11 


D6 


12 


D7 


13 


CE (Chip Enable) 


14 


GND 


15 


R/W 


16 


+5V 


17 


A2 



Study the pins carefully; it is a stand- 
ard memory-mapped area. If we added 
another area to this, the only thing to 
change would be the CE. All other lines 
— data, address and control — would 
be the same. A piggyback technique 
here will do fine, except for the CE pin, 
which will go to another memory- 
mapped area. This is not too hard since 
the controller is already decoded; all 
you have to do is fish out the CE. Later, 
I'll tell you how to patch the OS-9 
software, as well. 

Not much to the theory, is there? In 
fact, this project is more mechanical 
than anything else. Now, it is time to get 
started. Please don't do any of these 
modifications with the power on. All 
the modifications are done on the hard 
disk/serial adapter. There are two cuts 
to do on this board, or only one if you 
have a modified power supply and it can 
stand the extra drain. 

The first cut is to disable the CE from 
the board. Look at the component side 
of the board. Locate Pin 13 on the MEB 
connector. Follow the trace to the first 
hole and cut the trace just before that 
hole. For the +5V, locate Pin 16 on the 
same connector. Follow its wide trace to 
the first hole about one inch away, and 
cut the trace just before you reach that 
hole. 

On the solder side, solder a set of 17 
short male single inline header pins to 
the botton of the MEB connector. The 
clock/ parallel adapter board will sit on 
these pins. Now, solder one side of a 4- 
inch wire to the hole just after the first 
cut. For all versions of the Super Con- 
troller I, solder the other end of this wire 
to Pin 7 of the 74LS 1 39 chip just below 
the 74LS04. For the Super Controller 
II, solder the wire to Pin 3 of J3 on the 
controller; you also have the choice of 
putting on a jumper instead of soldering 
it. One limitation is that you must use 
the alternate, eight-byte area for this 
modification; the other area is only four 
bytes long, so it cannot be used. 

For the power, solder the plus side of 
a +5V regulated power supply to the 
hole above the second cut you made on 
the adapter. Locate Pin 14 on the MEB 
connector, follow it to the first hole, and 
connect the ground return of the power 
supply to it. Insert the clock/ parallel 
board piggyback on Pin 17 that you just 
installed. Plug the hard disk/serial 
board into the MEB connector. Con- 
nect the controller into the computer. 
That is all there is to the hardware part 
of this project. 



148 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



1 2 DC Adaptor 



7805 Regulator 



T 



Now for the software patches for the 
OS-9 drivers. One of the great things 
about OS-9 is the ability to adapt 
software to hardware. In most cases, the 
way designers connect devices to a 
computer is very similar. Where these 
devices are connected, as far as the 
memory map goes, can be very differ- 
ent. The writers of OS-9 had this in 
mind when they wrote it. Along with the 
necessary software drivers, the fathers 
of OS-9 created small blocks of memory 
called descriptors. These descriptors 
have information on the physical as- 
pects of the hardware they control — 
things like how many tracks on a disk 
or what baud rate the device works at. 

One of the pieces of information 
included in these device descriptors is 
the memory location of the hardware. 
This tells the software driver exactly 
where in memory the hardware can be 
found. Now, what I did above is change 
the hardware location of the hard disk 
registers and the serial (RS-232) regis- 
ters. The only way the software driver 
knows this information is through the 
device descriptor. All we have to do now 
is change the values in the proper device 
descriptors to the new memory loca- 
tions, and we are home free. 

Since the clock and parallel hardware 
is not changed, no changes to the de- 



C1 



VI 



G 

N 
D 



VO 



470 uf 25v 



I 



C2 

. 1 uf 25v 



+ 5 Volts 
-• Ground 



Figure 1: 5-volt Power Supply 



scriptors are needed. However, we do 
need to change the hard disk and serial 
descriptors. Let's start with the hard 
disk adapter. A little knowledge of OS- 
9 is needed to make these changes. On 
the disk that came with this adapter are 
drivers and descriptors. The /h0 de- 
scriptor used for the hard disk adapter 
needs to be changed. To change it, we 
will use the OS-9 command Debug. As 
part of the descriptor, there is a three- 
byte address that represents the area in 
the memory map where the hardware 
resides. This data is set for the hardware 
memory; but since we changed the 
hardware, we must now change the 
software. The third byte in this address 
is $53. You now have to change this 
value to $5 A. To do this, execute Debug 
and link to the 'h0 module. Press 
enter until you pass the series of two 
bytes, $07 and $FF; when you see the 
next value, $53, type =5P to change it 
to the right value. Press Q to exit. 

The other device descriptor to change 
is the serial one. Follow the same proce- 
dure as above, except use the /T2 
descriptor. The byte to change may be 
one of two values. If it is the original, 
unmodified Tandy descriptor, the value 
to look for is $68. If you have already 
changed this value, you will know that 
it is $54. In either case, change it to $5C. 



If you want to make this change per- 
manent, the OS-9 manual will describe 
just how to do this. 

There will be a lot of cables protrud- 
ing from this contraption: the disk drive 
cable, the hard disk cable, the printer 
cable, the RS-232 cable and the power 
cable. I bent and shaped all the cables 
so that they were parallel to the drive 
cable, and then I bundled them together 
with a tie-wrap. As I mentioned before, 
the cover will no longer fit; so I made 
another cover from a small piece of tin, 
bending, cutting and shaping it to fit. I 
did not bother to paint it, but you 
might. 

The only thing left is the power 
supply. Radio Shack has all the parts 
necessary to build a regulated power 
supply. You will need all the parts listed 
in Figure 1. Most of the parts are not 
too critical and can be substituted for 
the nearest part. The transformer you 
must use is a DC adapter. A 12-volt 
adapter at about 150mA will do just 
fine. 

I have recently joined Delphi. You 
can find me there as DlSTO. Drop me a 
line if you have any problems or if you 
just want to say "hi." Pm not on at any 
regular time, but look for me in the OS- 
9 and CoCo SIGs. /R\ 



m-fc Inf or 



Not just another checkbook program but a user friendly, menu driven, disk based 
information system. Keep track of deposits, checks, ATM withdrawals and other 
account transactions. De-fine up to 36 categories to monitor expenses. Set up 
automatic transactions for such items as direct deposits and deductions. Balance 
your account(s) in minutes! Other features include multi-drive capability, display 
and print options, check search on any field, edit and delete capability and more. 

Reviewed in Rainbow y^^v After Five Software Send check or M.O. for 

February 1988 pg. 133 ffT\h P.O. Box 210975 $34.95 plus $3.00 S/H. 

CoCo 3 compatible RAINBOW Columbia, SC 29221-0975 COD orders: add $2.00. 

Printer optional «™™ (B0J) 7B8 _ 5995 (SC res add 5X sales ta „> 

Summer special! Order before September 1, 1988 for only $29.95. 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 149 



D el phi Bur e au 



1 



Some time has been spent in this 
column discussing how to down- 
load programs from the CoCo 
S1G databases. Enough information 
has been given that your first attempts 
at downloading shouldn't be too pain- 
ful. At the same time, each user devel- 
ops many shortcuts in downloading 
files. These shortcuts will be different 
for most people and I leave it to you to 
find the methods that work best for you. 
It doesn't take long to learn the ropes, 
and pretty soon you will find download- 
ing becomes second nature. 

Tape-Based Users 

I feel it safe to say most Color Com- 
puter owners have at least one disk drive 
connected to their CoCos. However, 
many of the newer members to the 
CoCo Community don't. The reason is 
irrelevant — if their interest in the CoCo 
continues to grow, chances are they will 
add a drive as soon as they can. The 
point is, downloaded files often must be 
handled a little differently on tape- 
based systems than on disk-based 
CoCos. This is especially true of ma- 
chine language files. 

Because of the difference in the way 
disk and tape systems handle the ad- 
dressing information for ML files, 
different approaches must be taken 
when saving a downloaded file. Rather 
than spend more time on this issue here, 
we will be publishing an article next 
month discussing tape users and Del- 
phi. Written by database manager Don 
Hutchison (DONHUTCHISON), this arti- 
cle details the steps that must be taken 
by tape-based users before certain types 
of downloaded files can be run. 

Program Bugs 

Whenever a file is uploaded to the 
CoCo SIG and submitted for publica- 
tion in the database areas, that file is 
first sent to a private area used by the 
SIG staff. This file is officially in the 
database area and can be manipulated 
by the staff, but it cannot be seen by the 
general SIG public. This allows the staff 
to download the program and make 



Cray Augsburg is rainbow's technical 
editor and has an associates degree in 
electrical engineering. He and his wife, 
Ruth Ann, have two children and live 
in Louisville, Kentucky. His username 
on Delphi is CRA Y. 



Database downloading, 
Part 3 

Downloading 
Problems 

By Cray Augsburg 

Rainbow Technical Editor 



sure it works — to determine if the file 
is ready to be published. This down- 
load/error checking process is usually 
handled by Don Hutchison. 

Every effort is made to ensure that the 
programs in the public areas of the 
database work. If a problem is found, 
the uploader is asked to see that the file 
is fixed before it is published. However, 
some problem programs do get 
through. The number of submissions 
each month preclude full Beta-testing of 
uploaded programs. 

If you download a program and run 



it only to find an error, I imagine you 
will feel cheated. The few complaints we 
receive about program errors are often 
very vicious. They denounce the pro- 
grammer's abilities. They are also abu- 
sive to the SIG staff by implying we put 
bug-ridden programs in the databases 
intentionally. Keep in mind that we 
don't intentionally publish files that 
contain errors. Aside from the obvious 
ethical considerations, it takes a lot of 
work and time to clear up those errors. 
And I doubt if many people would 
upload error-ridden programs knowing 
their name will appear along with the 
program. 

One of the best ways to address such 
a situation is to contact the author and/ 
or Don Hutchison via Mail. Explain the 
problem as clearly as possible. Let us 
know what errors you are receiving and 
in what program lines they occur. In- 
clude information about your Color 
Computer setup. Describe the steps you 
are following in trying to run the pro- 
gram. With this information, it becomes 
possible to get a clear image of the 
problem and work toward a solution. 
After a solution has been found, the 
program will be changed accordingly so 
other users don't encounter the same 
problems. 

On a related note, problem programs 
are removed from public view. This is 



i-.-z ■ t^-v. 




By Don Hutchison 

Rainbow CoCo SIG Database Manager 




V- *;.', a . 

'V'* ' ; 




IGop Greg Law (gregl) has opened a 
'new topic in the database section of 
OS-9 Online, the topic is called "Revised 
OS-9 Users Group Material" since it will 
be stocked with the newer OS-9 Users 
Group files. (The existing Users Group 
files will remain online, also.) 

Both rainbow SIGs had very active 
months, in the forum areas as well as in the 
databases. We had a lot Of interesting, 
useful software uploaded to us. Let's check 
out the new material! 

OS-9 Online 

In the General topic of the database, 
Brian Wright (poltergeist) posted the 
first issue of the humorous Nut works 
Magazine. Brian also uploaded another 



entertaining file containing the first three 
issues of Humus Magazine. Jason Forbes 
(COC03KJD) uploaded C0COQS9 ; BflS, a 
modified version of the RS-OS9 program 
that makes RS-DOS disks readable from 
OS-9. {This version will relocate files if 
GRAN 0 is already used, and it will allow 
for larger files.) Kevin Darling (k darling) 
posted a text file describing a recom- 
mended hardware fix for the Tandy FD- 
502 second drive, which requires a small bit 
of soldering to correct an incorrectly 
positioned jumper. 

In the Utilities topic of the database, 
Warren Moore (wjmoore) uploaded 
Moore W indowsV an archived file contain- 
ing a collection of shell scripts to change 
the attributes of a current window device. 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



done for the protection of other users. 
In most cases, however, the program 
won't be moved from view until it is 
certain a problem exists within the 
program. We find many times that users 
don't have the right equipment to run 
a given program. Or, the steps they are 
using to run it are incorrect. And in the 
case of an ASCII download, line noise 
often becomes a problem. 

Many times, beginning downloaders 
will download a BASIC program and 
save it to disk, only to find the program 
won't load when they try to run it. More 
often than not, this is the result of savi ng 
a tokenized BASIC program in ASCII 
format or vice versa. In many cases, 
simply loading the file back into your 
terminal program's buffer and resaving 
it in the correct format will rectify the 
situation. Sometimes, and also with 
machine language programs, you will 
have to download the file again and save 
it correctly before you will be able to use 
it. 

Don Hutchison does an excellent job 
of tracking down user/ program prob- 
lems and finding agreeable solutions, 
and I feel he is well deserving of a pat 
on the back. I'm sure those of you who 
have dealt with him will agree. 

Downloading Time 

It can take quite a bit of online time 
to download a few simple programs at 
300 baud. It is for this reason most of 
the SIG staff go online at either 1200 or 
2400 baud. If it is within your means, 



I suggest using a 1200 baud modem. The 
drastic decrease in download time will 
allow you to more fully avail yourself 
of other areas of the CoCo SIG for the 
same amount of connect time. 

Uploading 

We are still offering free time for 
uploading to those who want to share 
their creations with other users, and we 
hope you will take advantage of this 
offer. Many find it very rewarding to 
help other people with similar needs and 
problems. Besides, uploading is a great 
way to gain new insight on file transfers. 

I have covered the topic of uploading 
files to the CoCo SIG in past issues and 
will do so again in the future. It is this 
involvement, along with the feeling of 
being connected to other members of 
the CoCo SIG, which makes the SIG 
what it is. Think of it this way: If 
nobody uploaded any programs, would 
you really be as interested in going 
online? There would be nothing there 
for you to download. 

Before we move into discussion next 
month of Workspace and its uses, I ask 
that you do a little "homework." Go 
ahead and look into Workspace. If you 
haven't done so already, try to upload 
and submit some files. Once you get into 
it, you might realize it isn't really all that 
hard to do. Just think of it as reverse- 
downloading. And if concern about the 
quality of your submission is holding 
you back, remember the old phrase, 
"nothing ventured, nothing gained!" □ 



Users can change the type of screen, 
change the default colors, toggle bold- 
facing on graphics windows and switch 
standard font size on graphics windows. 
Mark Kowit (markkowit) uploaded a 
decimal Display command and a 
Palette command utility that makes it 
easier to change palette values. Jason 
Forbes also posted DIG ICLOCK, which 
displays a continuous digital clock and 
date in its own window. Source code is 
provided for easy modification. 

In the Patches topic of the database, 
Jason Forbes updated his GamePatches 
file for fixing Koronis Rift and Rescue on 
Fractalus. Roger Smith (smddger) pro- 
j^ded us with 5PATGHW, a patch for T$f* 
Spell to allow for a single personal diction- 
ary in the 'DD data directory. 

In the Telcom topic of the database, 
Chris Bergerson (CHRlSB) provided us with 
ACCESS .flR, a "user-friendly" interface for 
the Xcom9 terminal program. It stores 
frequently used numbers with the ability t$ 
alter the numbers. The archived file con- 
tains BAS1C09 source, the packed program. 



a sample number file, and documentation. 
Ron Bihler (raab) posted a corrected 
version of READM5G and furnished Version 
1.01 of RiBBSy an OS-9 Bulletin Board 
System. RiBBS requires an RS-232 Pak, 
an auto-answer modem, and at least two 
drives. Greg Law furnished an autobaud 
version of TSGo/TSMan. This version 
contains modules to support both the 
standard Hayes command set as well as the 
extended set. 

In the Graphics & Music topic of the 
database, Mark O'Pella (mdodelphi) 
uploaded his rendition of Elton John's 
"Your Song" in UMuse format. Steve 
Fravel (OS9FANAT1C) posted an archived 
file containing two VEF pictures for 
Grateful Dead fans. The first picture is 
from the cover of the Steal Your Face 
album, while the second is from the back 
of the Shakedown Street album. Bob 
Montowski (graphicspub) kindly pro- 
vided 34 archived "Clip Art" groups for the 
CoCo 3's Home Publisher software. Each 
group, by the way, contains about 20 
pictures! Thanks, Bob! 



248 



-3823 



TANDY COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1OO0-HX 256K 1 Drive 
Tandy 1000-TX640K 1 Drive 
Tandy 3000-HL 512K 1 Drive 
Tandy 3000 640K 1 Drive 
Tandy 4000 1 Meg 1 Drive 
Tandy5000MC2 Meg 1 Drive 
Tandy 5000 MC 2 Meg 40 Meg 
Tandy 5000MC 2 Meg 84 Meg 
Tandy 1400LT 768K 2 Drives 
Tandy 102 24K 
Tandy Color 3 128K 

MONITORS & BOARDS 

VM-4 Monochrome Green 
VM-5 Monochrome Green 
CM-5 Color RGB 
CM-11 Color RGB 
EGM-1 Color RGB (EGA) 
VGM-100 Monochrome Analog 
VGM-200 Color Analog 
VGM-300 Color Analog 
Tandy Dual Display Card 
Tandy EGA Card 
Paradise Basic EGA Card 
Zucker Mono Graphics Card 

DRIVES 

Color Computer Drive 0 
5 1/4" External Drive 1000EX 
3 1/2" External Drive 1000EX 
Tandy 20 Meg Hardcard 
Tandy 40 Meg Hardcard 
Zucker 30 Meg Hardcard 
Seagate 20 Meg Hard Drive 
Tandy 1000/SX7TX Controller 

ZUCKER BOARDS 



535.00 
860.00 
1090.00 
1475.00 
1 890.00 
4250.00 
5525*00 
5950.00 
1195.00 
375.00 
1 55.00 



95.00 
115.00 
220.00 
335.00 
510.00 
169.00 
425.00 
535.00 
145.00 
185.00 
135.00 

72.00 



225.00 
18000 
200.00 
509.00 
679.00 
435.00 
265.00 
80.00 



45.00 



Zucker Serial Board 

Zucker OK Memory Board 1000 47.00 

Zucker MFB OK for 1000 106.00 

Zucker 1200 Baud Modem Card 72.00 



PRINTERS 

DMP-106 Dot-Matrix 
DMP-130 Dot-Matrix 
DWP-230 Daisy Wheel 
Epson LX-800 Dot-Matrix 
Epson FX-86E Dot-Matrix 
Epson FX-286E Dot-Matrix 
Epson LQ-500 Dot-Matrix 
Epson LQ-850 Dot-Matrix 



165.00 
255.00 
349.00 
205.00 
375.00 
475.00 
375.00 
579.00 



Please write for complete price list. 
We carry more items than listed here. 

Alt prices and offers may be changed or withdrawn without notice. Adver- 
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p 


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i 







July 1988 THE RAINBOW 151 



The Rainbow Bookshelf 



Fill out your CoCo library 
with these selections 



The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 

Authors Dale Puckett and Peter Dibble show how to take 
advantage of OS-9's multitasking and multiuser features. An easy- 
to-read, step-by-step guide packed with hints, tips, tutorials and free 
software in the form of program listings. 
Book $19.95, Disk Package $31 (2 disks, book not included) 

The Windows and Applications Disk for The 
Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Level II, Vol. I 

Puckett and Dibble have done it again! Here are all the great 
programs from the first volume of the Level II guide. Clever new 
applications ready to run. Disk $19.95 



The Rainbow Introductory Guide to Statistics 

Dr. Michael Plog and Dr. Norman Stenzel give a solid introduction 
to the realm of statistical processes and thinking for both the 
beginner and the professional. (80-coiumn printer required.) 
Book $6.95, Tape or Disk $5.95, Package $11.95 



The First Rainbow Book of Adventures 

Contains 14 winning programs from our first Adventure contest. 
Includes Sir Randolph of the Moors, Horror House, One Room, Dr. 
Avaloe and more. Plus hints, tips on solving Adventures. 
Book $3.50, Tape $3.50 



The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures 

Featuring 24 of the most challenging Adventure games ever 
compiled. Meet the Beatles and battle the Blue Meanies, find a 
hidden fortune, or win the heart of a mysterious princess. Ring 
Quest, Secret Agent Man, Dark Castle, Curse of Karos and more! 
Book $13.95, Tape $13.95 



The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures 

The excitement continues with 19 new Adventures. Discover 
backstage intrigue at the London Theatre, attempt a daring space 
rescue, or defeat evil in the year 2091 as a genetic android. Evil 
Crypt, Spymaster, Time Machine, The Amulet, and that's only the 
beginning! Book $11.95, Tape $9.95, Two-Disk Set $14.95 



>1\ /OJ 



The Rainbow Book of Simulations 

20 award-winning entries from THE RAINBOW'S first Simulations 
contest. You are a Civil War Commander, an air traffic controller, 
a civil defense coordinator, or a scientist on Mars . . . your wits are 
on the line. 

Book $9.95, Tape $9.95 



The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations 

The 16 winners from our second Simulations contest. Fly through 
dense African jungle, bull your way down Wall Street, lead a bomb 
squad, or try your hand at Olympic events. Test your skills and 
talents. Book $9.95, Tape $9.95, Disk $10.95 

r 1 

| / want to start my own Rainbow Bookshelf! j 

j Name I 

I Address I 

I City I 

J State ZIP J 

j □ Payment Enclosed, or □ Charge to: 

I □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express j 



Account Number 

Card Expiration Date 

Signature 

Please send me: 

□ The Rainbow Book of Simulations $ 9.95 

□ Rainbow Simulations Tape $ 9.95 

□ The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations $ 9.95 

□ Second Rainbow Simulations Tape $ 9.95 

□ Second Rainbow Simulations Disk $10.95 

□ The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 (book only) $1 9.95 

□ Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Disk Package (2 disks) $31 .00 

□ The Windows & Applications Disk for 

The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Level II, Vol. I $19.95 

□ The Rainbow Book of Adventures (first) $ 7.95 

□ Rainbow Adventures Tape (first) $ 7.95 

□ The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures $13.95 

□ Second Rainbow Adventures Tape $13.95 

□ The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures $1 1 .95 

□ Third Adventures Tape $ 9.95 

□ Third Adventures Disk Set (2 disks) $14.95 

□ Introductory Guide to Statistics $ 6.95 

□ Guide to Statistics Tape or Disk (indicate choice) $ 5.95 

□ Guide to Statistics Package (indicate choice of tape or disk) $1 1 .95 
Add $2 per book Shipping and Handling in U.S. 

Outside U.S., add $4 per book 
Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax 

(Allow 6 to 8 weeks for delivery) Total 



Mail to: Rainbow Bookshelf, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, 
Prospect, KY 40059 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call (800) 847- 
0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. For other inquiries call (502) 
228-4492. 

Please note: The tapes and disks offered by The Rainbow Bookshelf are not stand-alone products. 
That is, they are intended to be en adjunct and complement to the books. Even if you buy the tape 
or disk, you will still need the appropriate book. OS-9* is a registered trademark of the Microware 
Systems Corporation. 



In the Programmers' Den topic of the 
database, Greg Law posted a sample 
application for Multi-Vue. Greg's group- 
ing consists of four source files written in 
RMK assembler that are the beginning of 
an f ||iiicati^;designed to run under 
Multi-Vue. 



In the General topic of the database, 
Marty Goodman (martygoodman) 
^fosted three humorous text files provided 
by Rick Adams (rickadams). Titled 
Mongrels Unite!, these files describe the 
madcap experiences of one computer 
gpientist in the course of filling out forms 
;.for a security clearance in which he is asked 
i$$f his "race." Heath Dingwell (heaths- 
TEft) uploaded a comic text file containing 
fRffeloopers" wriiieti by school kids during 
i|$eir$jstory classes. Heath also uploaded 
'~||iii|l^ilation of some popular ^SOO" 
numbers. 



In the CoG|p; Graphics topic of the 
^|tl^fe|!:]Christopher Smith (POSSUM- 
DARK) sent us a Macintosh picture of Mao 
Tse Tung. Marlin Simmons (UN lee) up- 
loaded FON TED I T . RRG, follo wed closely 
?Sy a'levised version. James Farmer (MO- 
DEMMASTER) uploaded two original RAT 
pictures, Cosmic War and Spacewarp, and 
in orijpnal : C6&&: Max 3 picture called 
Starship. Bob Wharton (bobwharton) 
uploaded his drawings of the Boston 



Celtics' logo, on request of a user. 

In the Utilities and Application^^ 
the database, Jim Shoop (bazar) up- 
loaded his binary-to-BASic converter pro- 
gram. Michael Schneider (kscH^fe^ 
DEft) Mploaded a compr^^ cMlad 
PSHRINK for compressing W EFAX pic- 
tures into a single, smaller file. DSHR-INK 
will also expand the file into the corre- 
sponding pictures on a WEFAX disk. Ken 
Halter (KENH alter) uploaded some 
patches for CoCo 3 basic and a Pen Pal 
patch for the CoCo 3. Heath Dingwell 
upioafpl ;ifis ;? |p)|riin for printing disk 
directories, and Robert Pierce (rpierce) 
posted a CoCo 3 memory-scanning pro- 
gram.. . ^ 

In the Games topic of the database, Paul 
Dion (paulnorm and) uploaded Tapper- 
wars, his latest game creation. Heath 
Dingwell posted a friend's Alien Invasion 
game. Gregory Clark (gnome) provide!! 
an entertaining game program called 
Wimpy. Greg asks, "How good are yoj^ 
running and trying to hide? Are : i|o^|^||; 
when you can't fight back? 1 * Wimpy is for 
the I28K CoCo 3. 

In the Classic Graphics topic of the 
database, Jason Forties? poilld 
CHRIST. ARC, a seriMM CoCo Max 2 
graphics containing Biblical quotes origi- 
nally drawn by Tim Ashley, David Mills 
(david mills) uploaded a moving graphic 
of the world as it turns. This program is 



an interesting use of the graphics abilities 
of the CoCo. 

j§ In the Music and Sound topic of the 
database, Mike Stute (gridbug) kindly 
provided us with five new tunes, sure to be 
popular among music lovers. Heath Ding- 
well uploaded "Shilo" by Neil Diamond. 
John Barrett (J BAR RETT) posted four 
outstanding pieces for Musica II, and 
Orman Beckles (or man) uploaded two 
printer drivers for use with the Lyra 

^package, Mark Raphael (markr aph abl) 
uploaded a collection o| mpste files; for 
Musica^E£d& well as some stand-alone 
files. Mark included classical, pop and 
modern pop music files for a well-rounded 
offering. George Hoffman (Hd#f^ERGER) 
posted Pink Floyd's "Summer '68." 

In the Data Communications topic of 
the database, Michael Schneider uploaded 
a compressed file containing two WEFAX 
pictures. Michael also furnished a com- 
pression and decompression utility in the 
Utilities topic of the database in the hope 
that others will begin to ujploatf iWEjpAX 
pictures. Fred McDonald (fredmcd) 
posted a patch file for Version 4.0 of 
Ultimaterm. ADOS-3 users should have 
this file, since the pate^ 
compatible with ADO§||fe 

As you can see, the rainbow SIGs are 
always very active! No matter what you're 

^Interested in, you'll probably find it 
here. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



FILE TRANSFER UTILITIES 



Need to transfer files to and from MS-DOS and FLEX disks into your CoCo? 

Much Public Domain software source is out there ■ CUG, Doctor Dobbs, Austin 
Software Works and others - on MS-DOS format disks. 

Have files on a MS-DOS system at work and want to work on them at home on 
your CoCo? 

What do you do with a MS-DOS disk? With GCS File Transfer Utilities you just 
place the MS-DOS disk Into you CoCo disk drive - enter a simple command and 
the file Is copied into a CoCo file. Do the same with FLEX disks. File transfer back 
to MS-DOS and FLEX disks is just as simple. 



MS-DOS Transfer Programs 

PCDIR Directory of PC disk 

PCDUMP display PC disk sector 

PC READ read PC file 

PC WRITE write file to PC disk 

PCRENAME rename PC file 
PC DELETE delete PC file 



FLEX 



Transfer Programs 



FLEXDIR directory of FLEX disk 

FLEXDUMP display FLEX disk sector 

FLEXREAD read FLEX file 

FLEXWRITE write file to FLEX disk 

PCFORMAT format PC disk 



Extensive Single, double sided disks. 40 or 60 track! loppy drives. 
Options 8 or 9 sectors. First level sub-directories. Data (MS-DOS) 
Data or binary files. (FLEX). Others 

Requires: OS-9, 2 drives (one can be hard), SDISK (see D.P. Johnson ad) 

GSC File Transfer Utilities for CoCo - $44.95 

Ask about Multi-Vue verslonl 

All diskettes are CoCo OS-9 format. Orders must be prepaid or COD, VISA/MC 
accepted, add $1.50 S&H, additional charge for COD. 

GRANITE COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

Route 2 Box 445 Hillsboro, N.H. 03244 
(603) 464-3850 

OS-9 is a trademark of Mia war e System s Corporation an d Motorola Inc. 
MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft Corp. FLEX is a trademark of TSC, Inc. 




CocoTectrsSp 




You can use UltiHax as a normal HI-REZ 
joystick interface or switch it to be 
used with a popular Max III graphics 
program. The other feature of UltiHax 
is the option to have a large or small 
stick area so you can be more accurate 
with your drawings! 

The UltiHax interface is only $29.95 

Or trade in your original HiRes inter- 
face ( sent postage prepaid } and get 
UltiHax for only $14. 95 




With MACPLAY and a CoCo 3 you can play MAC sound 
files (Included on the second diskette) with pure 
6 BIT sound quality that the CoCo can produce! Or 
download other MAC sound files from a computer 
information service or MAC bulletin board systems 
to hear even more. Sound files can last for a few 
seconds or up to 1/2 minute. MAC sound files 
included on the second diskette contain excerpts 
from the 3 Stooges to the Road Runnner and more!! 

MACPLAY is only $ 19,95 

Please make check or money order payable to: Thomas E. Keller 



PA residents 
add 6% sales 
tax 



Send to: 
CocoTech 
208 Cathy Ann Drive 
Reading, PA 19606 
(215)-779-7768 



Please 
1 to 3 



allow 
weeks 



Shipping and handling: 
USA and Canada add $2-50 
Other countries add $5.00 

** We now handle 



for delivery 

Sorry no 
credit cards 
YET! 



C.O.D 



* * 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 153 



Do ctor ASCII 



Drive Support 

/ recently received a 20- Meg hard 
drive with a WD 1001-05 controller 
card. The drive was taken out of a 
Southwest Technical and I figured that 
since the SW ran on a 68B09 micro- 
processor (same as the Co Co 3) it would 
work on the CoCo. If lam correct, what 
do I need to do to interface them? If not, 
what Western Digital Controller does 
the Co Co use? I also have a Shugart 3.5- 
inch drive. Is there any way I can use 
this under RS-DOS? Would it work 
using OS-9 Level II? I use Stylograph 
as my word processor on the SW. I was 
told that I could get this for my Co Co. 
Where can I find it? My system consists 
of!28K CoCo 3, FD-500 disk, DMP- 
105 printer, TP-10 printer, mono- 
chrome monitor and a modem. I also 
have a bunch of gray and white CoCo 
Is and 2s. 

John Storlie 
Union Gap, WA 

I? The four major suppliers of hard 
/C disk systems for the CoCo 3 are 
Burke & Burke, Frank Hogg Labora- 
tory, Owl-Ware and RGB Computer 
Systems, all advertisers in this maga- 
zine. Contact them for support of your 
drive. Stylograph is available for the 
CoCo under both OS-9 Level I and 
Level II. Contact Great Plains Comput- 
er Company, P.O. Box 9 1 6, Idaho Falls, 
ID 83402, (208)529-3210. 

Copy-Protection Makes No Sense 



I'm looking for one of the best copy- 
right programs around. I know a 
while ago you suggested Anti-Pirate 
by Microcom but it's no longer adver- 
tised. If you were going to publish a 
program under your own name, what 
would you choose? 

Chris Green 
Carmichael, CA 




ft 



Richard Esposito is the principal engi- 
neer for EDM Corporation. He holds 
bachelor's, master's and doctorate 
degrees from Polytechnic Institute of 
Brooklyn. He has been writing about 
microcomputers since 1980. 

Richard Libra is a simulator test 
operator for Singer Link Simulation 
Systems Division. 

154 THE RAINBOW July 1988 




By Richard E. Esposito 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 

with Richard W. Libra 

15 I would neither market a copy- 
/C protected program nor would I 
encourage anyone else to market or 
purchase one. Even Lotus Corporation 
(the last major holdout) is abandoning 
copy-protection in its next release of 1- 
2-3. Protection makes no sense. It 
discourages legitimate users from pur- 
chasing your products. It challenges 
pirates to break the protection scheme; 
to prove they've done it, they make 
copies for their friends. The only suc- 
cessful protection schemes are 
hardware-based; if done right this 
would price you out of the CoCo 
market. 

A Fix for VIP Spellert 

I used your CoCo 3 fix for VIP 
C Doctor ASCII," March '88 RAIN- 
BOW). It worked fine for VIP Writer 
and VIP Calc;- however, I can find no 
such sequence of characters in my VIP 
Speller. Do you have a fix for VIP 
Speller? 

Jack Colemen 
Jo lie t, IL 

15 Sorry, but I do not have a copy of 
/C the old VIP Speller. There is now 
a new CoCo 3 version of VIP Writer) 
VIP Speller that uses the CoCo 3's 80- 
by-24 display mode. 



Display Enhancement 

How do I change from amber back- 
ground/black text to black back- 
& ground/ amber text and utilize the 
entire screen (eliminate the border) on 
boot-up and in Telewriter-64? / have a 
gray-case color computer, ADOS Ver- 
sion 1.01. video output board I built 
from Tim Mcintosh's article in RAIN- 
BOW (September 1986), and a Mag- 
navox 80 computer monitor. I am 
considering changing to the MC6847- 
Tl VDG (RAINBOW October, No- 
vember and December 1986). Will this 
chip change solve my problems, or is 
there an easier method? 

David Gierhart 
Fremont, OH 

D With the CoCo 3, you have con- 
/C trol over the palettes and can 
therefore get any color combination 
you want in any mode. With the earlier 
CoCos, the color combinations are 
hard-wired. Howard Cohen wisely 
designed Telewriter-64 to use dark text 
on a light background to maximize 
readability. Light text on a dark back- 
ground using a PMDDE4 screen with 
Telewriter-64 will result in a less legible 
display. The MC6847-T1 would give 
you true lowercase in the 32-by- 1 6 
display, but it makes little sense spend- 
ing money to enhance the display of an 
older CoCo when, with a few more 
dollars, you can move up to a CoCo 3 
and get a real 80-by-24 display with 
your Magnavox 80 computer monitor. 

Erasing the Errors 

/ have a 64 K CoCo 2 with an FD- 
501 disk drive. When I try to load a 
machine language or BASIC program 
I get an FD Error. When I try it several 
times it works. When I list a program 
and use the SHIFT @ command, I am 
sometimes given a TM Error. It also 
does other strange things at times. Any 
suggestions? 

Jeff Warren 
Maymesville, NC 

TD Try cleaning the contacts on your 
^ /Ldisk controller where it connects 
to the ROM pack port. A rubber eraser 
will remove the black oxidation (the 
root of the problem) and restore the 
silvery finish and electrical continuity. 



Seeing Both Sides 



Double-Precision 



MikeyTerm to the Rescue 



What is the best way to access both 
sides of a double-sided drive on the 
Co Co 3 other than using ADOS? 

Steve Morrison 

(STEVEN M J 

Newton, NC 

IP The drive selections in Disk Color 
/C BASIC are controlled by four ad- 
dresses corresponding to the four pos- 
sible drives allowable in Disk Extended 
Color BASIC (DECB): 





DECB 1.1 


DECB1.0 


#0 


55453 


55210 


#1 


55454 


55211 


#2 


55455 


55212 


#3 


55456 


55213 



Normally, the addresses correspond- 
ing to slots #0 through #3 contain the 
values 1, 2, 4 and 32, respectively, but 
you can change these on the CoCo 3 
since these values are in RAM. If, for 
example, you poke Slot #0 with 2 and 
Slot #1 with 1, your Drive 0 will act like 
a Drive 1 and your Drive 1 will act like 
a Drive 0. In a double-sided system, you 
cannot have more than three drives, 
since, with these, Slot #3 is used for side 
selection. So, if you want #2 to be the 
back of Drive 0, poke #2 with 33 (32+1); 
and if you want #3 to be the back of #1, 
poke #3 with 34 (32+2). 



Missing Voltage 

/ have a CoCo 2 and a Co Co 3 and 
two FD-500 drives. Also, I am using 
a 26-3 124 Multi-Pak interface. I have 
installed the upgrade board in the MPI 
as outlined by Marty Goodman in the 
January 1987 issue of RAINBOW. Every- 
thing works fine as long as the FD 500 
disk controller is plugged into the MPI. 
But when I plug the disk controller 
directly into the CoCo 2 or the CoCo 
3 ROM port, I get nothing but garbage. 
The screen either becomes black or 
shows a vertical pattern of colored @s. 
Can you help me? 

Chris Voelker 
Banning, CA 



15 The original disk controller was 
/C made for the CoCo 1, which sup- 
plied 12 volts at the ROM pack port. 
The newer CoCo 2 and CoCo 3 require 
either a Multi-Pak, which supplies the 
missing voltage, or a newer 5 volt-only 
controller. 



H Willard Conner, in your March 1987 
column, wrote in wanting to be able 
to use double-precision arith- 
metic. Radio Shack has a book called 
TR-S80 Color Computer Programs, in 
which there is a program using that 
feature. I was able to use it, but never 
fully understood it. Maybe it will help 
him, however. 

Harold Hendricson 
Mc Allen, TX 



Thanks for the info. 

Tracking TCE 



I have just read your September 1987 
column and was interested in your 
reference to TCE Systems. Unfortu- 
nately, I am not one of those who use 
Delphi, and I would appreciate it if you 
would let me know the address of TCE 
Systems. 

Karl Casper 
Professor of Physics 
Cleveland, OH 

13 All 1 have on TCE is two phone 
X X numbers: (800) 4TC-4TCE and 
(30 1 ) 963-3848. Their last advertisement 
in THE rainbow was in the February 
1987 issue, kenshunk is no longer on 
Delphi. 

ROM Pack Patches 



I have a CoCo 3 and an FD-502 disk 
drive. Recently I backed up my 
ROM packs to disk using David 
Dawson's u Pak to Disk Transfer" in the 
December 1987 issue of RAINBOW. It 
worked great until I tried it on a newer 
ROM pack from Radio Shack. It 
seemed to save and load properly, but 
when I typed EXEC the computer locked 
up, flashing streaks on the screen, and 
could not be terminated by pressing 
reset. What is the exact memory loca- 
tion for a ROM pack in a CoCo 3? The 
disk manual is not too clear in this area. 
Is there a poke I should use before EXEC, 
or is there something wrong with this 
patch? 

Dale Szabo 
Prince Albert, Saskatchewan 

IP Patches for some of the newer 
ROM packs to be used with Daw- 
son's program appeared in the March 
'88 installment of this column. If anyone 
can add to this list, write to me and I'll 
include your additional patches along 
with your name in a future issue. 



Fiji I own a DCM Modem Pack Version 
1.00.00 with the built-in terminal 
program. I was wondering if there 
was any way I could use a different 
terminal program with it. I would also 
like to know if there is any way I can 
add a bigger buffer in the DMP-105 
printer. Is there any program available 
for the Color Computer that changes 
Commodore programs to the CoCo and 
vice versa? 

Lucas Korytkowski 
Toronto, Ontario 

ID The public domain program Mi- 
/L key Term, available for $10 
from Mike Ward, 1807 Cortez, Coral 
Gables, FL 33134, is configurable to 
work with your DCM Modem Pack. 
External printer buffers that hook 
between your computer and printer are 
commercially available. With the 
proper software, you can allocate other- 
wise unused RAM in a 64K plus CoCo 
1, 2 or 3 for a print buffer. 

Double-Sided Disk Directories 

Is there a way to use DIR Alpha and 
DIR Print (February f 88 issue, Page 
80) to access and print the directories 
of my double-sided disks? My system 
consists of the following: CoCo 2 with 
64K Extended BASIC, one double-sided 
drive with HDS controller and an 
Epson LX-800 dot matrix printer. Both 
of the programs work great, but only for 
Side 0 of the drive. My system is set up 
for 0 and 2 (0 is the default). I access 
Side 2 of the disk by typing in 
L0flDM~filename:@. The DOS Fm using 
is Owl DOS Custom Modified Version 
1.1 ©1982 Tandy Lie. by Microsoft. 

Joaquin Chea 
New Market, AL 

ID If the DRIVE command is imple- 
/C mented, set your OwlDOS to 
access the back side of the disk and then 
run the program. Better yet, set up the 
programs as subroutines and make the 
DRIVE command part of the program, 

For a quicker response, your ques- 
tions may also be submitted through 
RAINBOW'S CoCo SIG on Delphi. 
From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick 
Rainbow Magazine Services, then, 
at the RAINBOW> prompt, type 
RSK for "Ask the Experts" to arrive 
at the EXPERTS> prompt, where 
you can select the "Doctor ASCII" 
online form which has complete 
instructions. 

Juty 1 988 THE RAINBOW 1 55 



If you have an idea for the "Wishing 
Well, " submit it to Fred c jo THE 
rainbow. Remember, keep your 
ideas specific, and don 7 forget this is 
BASIC. All programs resulting from 
your wishes are for your use, but 
remain the property of the author. 

Enough, OK? I've gotten your 
message. Several months ago I 
printed some corrections to 
make five older "Wishing Well" pro- 
grams work more efficiently on the 
CoCo 3. Since then, I have been deluged 
with letters from readers telling me that 
to change the color set from blue to red 
on CoCo programs using artifact col- 
ors, I only needed to hold down the Fl 
key while pressing the reset button. 

Mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima 
cutpal (Latin for saying, roughly, 
"Sorry, but I made a mistake. It's all my 
fault!") Remember, I am still relatively 
new to all the features on the CoCo 3. 
I have not had the chance to do all the 
reading that some of you have done 
since getting your new machines. My 
time on the CoCo has been spent in 
creating new programs for you. 

In any case, thank you for pointing 
that out to me and keeping me on my 
toes. Still, having these programs cor- 
rected will solve the problem for those 
who did not know about the reset and 
Fl either. It is always nice to have a 
program run correctly the first time 
without having to go through any 
keyboard gymnastics. 

Comma, Comma Down Doobie Do 
Down Down 

(Sorry, but I couldn't resist the pun.) 
In any case, this month's "Wishing 
Well" program will help train users on 
the correct grammatical use of the 
comma. Correct usage of commas is a 
skill that many students have great 
difficulty mastering. Five general rules 
must be mastered in order to correctly 



Fred Scerbo is a special needs instructor 
for the North Adams Public Schools in 
North Adams, Massachusetts. He holds 
a master *s in education and has pub- 
lished some of the first software avail- 
able for the Color Computer through 
his software firm, Illustrated Memory 
Banks. 



Training on correct 
comma usage 

CoCo Uses 
Some 

Comma 
Sense! 

By Fred B. Scerbo 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



use commas in English grammar. They 
are: 

1) Use commas between items in a 
list. 

2) Use commas when addressing 
someone in a sentence. 

3) Use a comma to separate a quota- 
tion from the rest of the sentence. 

4) Use a comma to set off the words 
"yes" or "no" in a sentence. 

5) Use a comma before a conjunction 
to separate two complete ideas in 
a sentence. 

Not every student can easily memo- 
rize these rules. They often become 
second nature only by repeated use. 
That's where the new program comes in. 

Comma Sense 

This new program is designed both to 
review the rules of comma use and to 
quiz the user on the correct placement 
of commas in a sentence. The program 
will work in 16K Color Extended BASIC. 
(Sorry, no Speech/ Sound Pak for this 
one.) 

The program as listed has 25 sample 
sentences covering all five rules. The 
sentences are stored in DRTR statements 
and can be replaced by your own sen- 
tences if you want. I have even included 



a subroutine allowing you to have a 
sentence with quotation marks in it, 
which is often difficult to do when using 
either DATA statements or string varia- 
bles. More on that later, though. 

Running the Program 

When you run the program, our title 
card will ask whether you want Instruc- 
tion or Quiz. Pressing I will review the 
five rules for you and tell you how to 
use the program. Pressing Q will cause 
the program to go directly to the quiz. 
The instruction segment is self- 
explanatory. 

In the quiz you v*\\\ be given num- 
bered sample sentences in random 
order. Each sentence will have all com- 
mas removed by the program. You must 
retype the sentence with the commas in 
the correct places. The program has the 
same routine as Jumble presented in the 
May '88 RAINBOW (Page 74). The cursor 
works much like a word processor in 
that words will not be split up at the 
edge of the screen. The backspace key 
will work to erase any errors made. 
Pressing ENTER finishes the input 

You must be careful about a few 
things. First, do not type too quickly or 
you will get ahead of the program. 
Secondly, be sure to put one space after 
every comma to match the original 
sentence in memory. 

When you think you have the sen- 
tence typed in correctly, press ENTER. If 
the sentence is correct, you will be told 
so. If it is not, you will be given two 
more chances to correct it by backing 
up with the cursor to your mistake. 
After the third try you will be shown the 
error, and the correct sentence will be 
shown to you. 

You may check your score at any time 
by pressing the @ key. You may return 
to the quiz by pressing C for continue. 

Adding Your Own Sentences 

It is actually quite simple to add your 
own sentences to the program. You may 
add up to 50 sentences to the program 
in DATA statements starting with Line 
1000. To delete my information type 
DEL 1000-4999 and press ENTER. This 
will ensure that the last line in the 
program will be 5000 DATA END. If you 
accidentally kill this line, be sure to re- 
enter it. To add your own information, 
simply type in a sentence with commas 
and wrap it in quotation marks: 1000 
DATA "SAM, COME HERE." 



156 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



If you want to type a statement 
already using quotation marks, natu- 
rally you cannot put quotes in quotes. 
Therefore, whenever you wish to have 
quotation marks appear in the state- 
ment, use an asterisk (*) instead: 1010 
DfiTfi "*HELLO, * HE 5RID." The * 
takes the place of the quotation mark. 
The program will re-interpret the data 
before it is used and print an actual 
quotation mark on the screen. (The 
screen will show the message "Please 
stand by," while this is being done.) 

Remember, you may only add up to 
50 statements. You may make them as 
easy or as difficult as you like, depend- 
ing on the needs of the student using the 
program. You may also want to include 
more than one usage of the comma in 
the same sentence. 



Try it out. I think you will agree that 
the program accomplishes its goal quite 
nicely. 

Special Thanks 

Several months ago I put out a re- 
quest for old, used Color Computers for 
use with our special needs students in 
the school system in which I teach. I am 
extremely grateful to those of you who 
have sent recorders, computers, cables, 
printers, disk drives, programs and, 
most of all, old CoCos. Our high school 
resource room is now at full capacity. 
Every student who needs to use a ma- 
chine has one. 

Therefore, I have started placing the 
extra machines we have received at the 
elementary level with our special needs 
students there. So far, I have set up 



three additional classrooms for handi- 
capped students where no computers 
were allocated before. You cannot 
imagine how overjoyed the teachers are 
to receive these machines. The kids are 
thrilled, too. 

Most people have requested their 
names not be listed here in the maga- 
zine. I will honor that request. If you 
have not yet received your thank-you 
note, you will shortly. Again, I thank 
you from the bottom of my heart for 
your generosity. Anyone else who may 
have an old CoCo collecting dust may 
still contact me at my home address or 
at my home phone, (413) 663-9648. Any 
donations made to a school system are 
tax-deductable, and our school system 
can supply a receipt for your tax pur- 
poses. □ 




40 137 

80 5 

150 29 

190 209 

260 48 



340 . 157 

425 206 

510 197 

1120 204 

END 178 



* 
* 

* 
* 



The listing: C0MMR5 

1 REM ************************ 

2 REM * COMMA SENSE * 

4 REM * BY FRED B.SCERBO 

5 REM * 60 HARDING AVE, 

6 REM * NORTH ADAMS, MA 01247 

7 REM * COPYRIGHT (C) 1988 

8 REM ************************ 

9 CLEAR3 00 0 : CLS 0 : PRINTSTRING$ ( 3 2 
,188) ;STRING$(32 / 204) ;:FORI=lT02 
56 : READA: PRINTCHR$ (A+128) ; :NEXT 

10 PRINTSTRING$ (32,195) ;STRING$( 
32,179) f 

15 DATA46,44,44,44,44,44,42,37,4 
4,44,44,44,45,32,46,44,45,44,44, 
42, 37,44,44,46,44,45,32,46,44,44 
,44,45 

20 DATA42, ,,, ,32,32,37, ,, ,32,37, 
,42, ,32, ,32,42,37, ,32,32,32,37,3 
2,46,44,44,44,45 

25 DATA43,35,35,35,35,35,42,37,3 

5,35,35,35,3 9, ,42, ,32,32,32,42,3 

7, ,32,32, ,37, ,42, , ,64,37 

30^ DATA115,115,115,115,115, ,115, 

115,115,115,115, ,115,114, , , ,113, 

112 , 115 , 115 , 115 , 115 , 115 , 115 , , 115 

,115,115,115,115,115 

35 DATA122, , , ,116, ,122, , , ,116, ,1 

22,125,114, , ,117, ,122,112, , , ,116 

, ,122,112, , , ,116 

40 DATA123, 115, 115,115,115, ,123, 
115,115,114, , ,122,112,125,1X4, ,1 
17,, 122, , , , , , ,123,115,115,114, , 



45 DATA, , , , 117 , , 122 , 112 , , 112 , , , 1 

22, ,112,125,114,117, ,122,, ,,, ,,1 
22 , , , , , 

50 DATA123, 115, 115, 115, 119, 112,1 
23,115,115,115,119,112,122, , , ,12 
5 , 119 , , 123 , 115 , 115 , 115 , 115 , 119 , 1 
12 , 123 , 115 , 115 , 115 , 115 , 119 
55 PRINT@419," BY FRED B.SCE 

RBO M ; 

60 PRINT@453," COPYRIGHT (C) 19 

88 

65 PRINT0483 , " <I>NSTRUCTIONS OR 

<Q>UIZ "; 
70 X$=INKEY$ :XX=RND (-TIMER) :IFX$ 
= "I"THEN75ELSEIFX$="Q"THEN220ELS 
E70 

75 CLS : PRINT@34 , "THIS PROGRAM IS 

DESIGNED TO HELP YOU LEARN 

THE CORRECT USE OF THE 'COM 

MA 1 IN A COMPLETE SENTEN 

CE.":PRINT@194,"YOU WILL BE GIVE 
N A SENTENCE WHICH HAS ALL TH 
E COMMAS IN IT REMOVED." 

80 PRINT @ 3 2 2 , " YOU MUST RE-TYPE T 
HE SENTENCE SO THAT IT IS CORR 
ECT & MAKES PROPER USE OF THE 
COMMA . " 

85 PRINTS 4 50, "PRESS <ENTER> TO C 
ONTINUE. " ; 

90 IFINKEY$OCHR$(13)THEN90 

95 CLS:PRINT@34,"OUR FIRST RULE 

WHEN USING COMMAS REQUIRES 

THAT WE USE COMMAS BETWEEN 

THINGS IN A LIST." 
100 PRINT@194 , "HERE IS A SAMPLE 
SENTENCE . " : PRINT9258 , "THE THREE 
STOOGES ARE LARRY, MOE, AND C 
URLEY . " 

105 PRINT @ 3 5 4 , "WE WOULD PAUSE AF 
TER EACH COMMA WHILE READI 

NG ALOUD." 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 157 



110 GOSUB115:GOTO130 

115 PRINTQ450 , "PRESS <ENTER> TO 

CONTINUE . " ; 

120 IFINKEY$<>CHR$(13)THEN120 
125 RETURN 

130 CLS : PRINT@34 , "OUR SECOND RUL 

E WHEN USING COMMAS REQUIRE 

S THAT WE USE COMMAS WHEN WE 

ARE CALLING SOMEONE'S NAME 

it 

135 PRINT@194,"HERE IS A SAMPLE 
SENTENCE . " : PRINT © 2 5 8 , "JIM , COME 
HERE SO I CAN SPEAK WITH YOU." 
140 PRINT@354,"WE WOULD PAUSE AF 
TER THE COMMA WHILE READI 

NG ALOUD." 
145 GOSUB115 

150 CLS:PRINT@34,"OUR THIRD RULE 
WHEN USING COMMAS REQUIRE 

S THAT WE USE COMMAS TO SEPA 

RATE QUOTATIONS FROM THE REST 
OF A SENTENCE." 

155 PRINT@194,"HERE IS A SAMPLE 
SENTENCE . " : PRINTQ258 , CHR$ (34) "GO 
ANSWER THE DOOR, "CHR$ (34) " HE": 
PRINT" SAID AS HE ENTERED THE R 
OOM." 

160 PRINTQ354, "QUESTION MARKS OR 
EXCLAMATION POINTS MAY BE USE 
D ALSO." 
165 GOSUB115 

170 CLS : PRINT@34 , "OUR FOURTH RUL 
E WHEN USING COMMAS REQUIRE 

S THAT WE USE COMMAS TO SET 

OFF THE WORDS YES OR NO." 

175 PRINT@194,"HERE IS A SAMPLE 
SENTENCE. ": PRINT© 2 58, "NO, YOU MA 
Y NOT HAVE SOME ICE CREAM BEFO 
RE SUPPER." 

180 PRINT@3 54,"WE AGAIN WOULD PA 
USE AFTER THE COMMA WHILE R 

EADING ALOUD." 
185 GOSUB115 

190 CLS : PRINT© 3 4 , "OUR FINAL RULE 
SAYS THAT WE MUST USE A COM 

MA TO PAUSE IN THE MIDDLE OF 
A SENTENCE BEFORE A CONJU 

NCTION." 

195 PRINT© 19 4, "HERE IS A SAMPLE 
SENTENCE.": PRINTS 2 58, "WE WENT TO 

THE SUPERMARKET, BUT IT WAS 

NOT OPEN." 
200 PRINT9354 , "THIS IS USED WHEN 

WE HAVE TWO DIFFERENT THINGS 
STATED . " 
205 GOSUB115 

210 CLS: PRINT© 3 4, "IF YOU DO NOT 
GET THE CORRECT ANSWER, YOU WI 
LL BE GIVEN A CHANCE TO TRY 

IT AGAIN. YOU MAY CHECK "THE 

SCORECARD BY PRESSING THE < 

©> KEY. YOU MAY THEN RETURN TO 
THE PROGRAM BY PRESSING <C> T 



0 CONTINUE" 

215 PRINT© 2 90, "WHEN TYPING YOUR 
ANSWER BE SURE TO PUT A SPA 

CE AFTER A COMMA. BE SURE TO 

TYPE SLOWLY I " : GOSUB115 
220 CLS0 

225 DIMAO(51) ,A$(51) ,B$(51) ,NP(5 
1) 

230 CLS0:GOTO265 
235 D=0 

240 IFLEN(J$)<=27THEN255 

245 FORT=27TO0STEP-1:IFMID$(J$,T 

,1)=" "THEN 2 60 

250 NEXT 

255 W$=J$+C$:F=LEN(W$) :PRINT@M+D 

,W$;STRING$(X-F,32) : RETURN 

260 W$=LEFT$(J$,T) :C$="" :W$=W$+C 

$:F=LEN(W$) : PRINT @M+D,W$; STRING $ 

(X-F,32) :C$=D$:J$=S$+RIGHT$(J$, ( 

LEN(J$) )-T) :D=D+32:GOTO240 

265 FORJ=1TO50:READ A$ (J) : IFA$ ( J 

)="END"THEN275 

270 NEXT J 

275 CLS0:J=J-1 

280 FORI=lTOJ 

285 AO(I)=RND(J) 

290 IFNP (AO ( I ) ) =1THEN 285 

295 NP(AO(I) )=1:NEXTI 

300 FORP=1TOJ:KL=0 

305 CLS: PRINT© 2 3 2, "PLEASE STAND 

BY" : A$=" " : B$=" " : R$= " 11 : C$=" " : D$=" 

":S$= M " 

310 Q$=A$ (AO (P) ) :K=LEN(Q$) 

3 15 A$=" " : FORI=lTOK: L$=MID$ (Q$ , I 

,1) :IFL$= f, *"THEN A$=A$+CHR$(34)E 

LSE A$=A$+L$ 

320 NEXTI:Q$=A$:A$="" 

325 FORN=lTOK:IFMID$(Q$,N,l)="," 

THEN 3 3 5 

330 A$=A$+MID$(Q$,N,1) 

335 NEXTN:B$=A$:GOTO360 

340 K=LEN(Q$) : B$=LEFT$ (A$ , 3 ) :FOR 

N=4TOK 

345 R=RND(12) :IFR>4THEN355 
350 B$=B$+" " 

355 B$=B$+MID$(A$,N,1) :NEXTN 
360 CLS: PRINT© 3 5, "ADD COMMAS TO 
EXAMPLE #";P:M=96: :J$=" "+B$:X 
=31:GOSUB235 

3 65 M=2 8 9 : PRINT © 2 8 9 , "=> " +CHR$ ( 12 

8) ; 

370 X=29:C$=CHR$(128) :D$=CHR$(12 
8):S$=" " 

375 Y$=INKEY$:IFY$="@"THEN4 60ELS 

EIFY$=CHR$ (13)THEN395ELSEIFY$=CH 

R$ ( 8 ) THEN3 8 5ELSEIFY$=" "THEN3 75 

380 R$=R$+Y$: J$=" "+R$:PRINT@29 

1 , " " ; : GOSUB2 3 5 : PRINT : GOT03 7 5 

385 IFLEN(R$)<1THEN375 

390 M=289:L=LEN(R$) :R$=LEFT$(R$, 

L-l) :PRINT@M,"";:J$=" "+R$:GOSU 

B2 3 5 : PRINT : GOTO 375 

395 IFR$=Q$THEN400ELSE410 



158 THE RAINBOW July 1986 



40j3 PRINT@480," YOU ARE ABSOLUT 

ELY CORRECT I ! ■■ ; 

405 CR=CR+1:GOTO450 

410 PRINT@480," SORRY, THAT IS 

NOT CORRECT I * ; 

415 IR-IR+l:KL-KL+l:IP KL<3 THEN 
440 

420 X$=INKEY$:IFX$<>CHR$(13)THEN 
420 

425 CLS: PRINTS 64," THE CORRECT 
USE OF THE COMMA IN THIS SENT 
ENCE IS:" 

430 PRINT :J$«" «+Q$:D$= , '":C$= ,l,, 

: X=3 1 : M=19 2 : GOSUB2 3 5 

435 PRINT@416," PRESS <ENTER> T 

0 CONTINUE."; :GOT04 50 

440 X$=INKEY$:IFX$=CHR$(13)THEN4 

45ELSEIFX$="@"THEN460ELSE440 

445 PRINT@480 / STRING$(30 / 32) ;:GO 

T0375 

450 X$=INKEY$:IFX$=CHR$(13)THEN4 
55ELSEIFX$=" @"THEN460ELSE450 
455 NEXTP 

460 CLS:PRINT@128,""; 

465 L=CR+IR:IF L=0 THEN L=l 

470 PRINT" NUMBER CORRECT = " 

CR 

475 PRINT 

480 PRINT" NUMBER WRONG = " 
IR 

485 PRINT: PRINT" STUDENT SCOR 

E = ";INT(CR*100/L) ;"%" 

490 PRINT: PRINT" ANOTHER TRY 

(Y/N/C)"; 

495 W$=INKEY$:IFW$=""THEN495 

500 IF W$=*"Y" THEN RUN 

505 IF W$="N" THEN CLS : END 

510 IF W$="C" AND P<=J THEN 305 

ELSE RUN 

515 GOT0495 

990 REM ENTER DATA AT LINE 1000 

1000 DATA "TODAY WE BOUGHT SOME 

SOUP, NUTS, GRAPES, AND BERRIES, 
it 

1010 DATA "SHE SAID IN A LOUD VO 
ICE, * YOU'LL NEED MORE MONEY.*" 
1020 DATA "YES, WE HAVE NO BAN AN 
AS. " 

1030 DATA "SAM, WHAT IS YOUR NEW 

ALBUM CALLED?" 
1040 DATA "WE ORDERED THE NEW ED 
ITION OF THE BOOK, BUT IT DID NO 
T ARRIVE IN TIME." 

1050 DATA "YES, YOU CAN COME ALO 
NG IF YOU HAVE ENOUGH MONEY." 
1060 DATA "IT SNOWED ALL SUNDAY 
NIGHT, SO WE DID NOT HAVE SCHOOL 

ON MONDAY." 
1070 DATA "I'LL HAVE THE BACON, 
LETTUCE, AND TOMATO ON RYE." 
1080 DATA "TAKE OFF THAT FOOLISH 

HAT, HARRY." 
1090 DATA "*WE FIND HIM GUILTY A 



a 

S CHARGED,* THE FOREMAN OF THE / 
URY SAID." 

1100 DATA "WE WENT TO THE LAW 
RM OF DEWEY, CHEETUM, AND HOWE." 
1110 DATA "SURE, YOU CAN COME BY 

ANYTIME YOU WANT." 
1120 DATA "IT IS A NICE DAY, BUT 

I THINK IT IS GOING TO RAIN LAT 
ER." 

1130 DATA "DID YOU HEAR WHAT I S 
AID, NORMAN?" 

1140 DATA "YOU WILL NEED A COLOR 
COMPUTER, A DISK DRIVE, A MOUSE 
, AND A PRINTER." 

1150 DATA "I HAVE READ OTHER MAG 
AZINES, BUT THE RAINBOW IS THE B 
EST." 

1160 DATA "*YOU WILL NEVER GET A 

WAY WITH IT,* WARNED THE HOSTAGE 
ii 

1170 DATA "ALICE, GET ME THE FLO 
UR, SUGAR, CAKE MIX, AND MILK." 
1180 DATA "NO, I DO NOT HAVE ANY 

MONEY TO LOAN YOU." 
1190 DATA "HE DID NOT GET ALONG 
WITH OTHERS, SO HE WENT HOME." 
1200 DATA "WE TOOK SALLY, DEBBIE 
, HARRY, AND JIM TO THE MOVIES." 
1210 DATA "CERTAINLY, YOU CAN CO 
ME IN NOW." 

1220 DATA "DIDN'T YOU PAY ATTENT 

ION TO ME, LARRY?" 

1230 DATA "*THIS IS THE WORST DA 

Y OF MY LIFE,* SCOTT SAID." 

1240 DATA "HE HAD A FEW DRINKS, 

BUT HE DID NOT DRIVE HIS CAR." 

5000 DATA END ^ 



CORRECTIONS 



"Ye Olde Font ? '(May 1988, Page 37): Bill Bernico has 
written to correct an error in his English Print Font 
program The mistake isn't noticeable unless you print 
a whole string of 5s on the screen. Currently, Line 280, 
which defines the character 5, ends with BU10BR10. 
This line should end with BU1XBR10. 

"Received and Certified" (May 1988, Page 140): The 

price and contact phone number are incorrect for the 
listing of ReMusic kQ< Codis Enterprises can be 
Reached at (817) 283-8571. ReMusic 1 | sells for $25, 
not $12. - 

For quicker reference, Corrections will be posted on 
Delphi as soon as they are available in the Info on 
Rainbow topic area of the database. Just type DRTR 
at the TOPIO 
prompt. 



July 1 988 THE RAINBOW 1 59 




Can the CoCo Learn? 



By William Barden, Jr. 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Can a computer possibly learn? For example, is it 
possible for your CoCo to learn how to play tic-tao 
toe without your programming the winning strate- 
gies? Imagine this scenario: You start playing tic-tac-toe with 
your computer, and it loses at first. However, as it plays, it 
learns from past mistakes and plays better and better. Finally, 
it becomes a master tic-tac-toe player, able to beat you in 
almost every game. In this column we'll look at that question 
and actually make your CoCo into a learning machine! I'll 
even ask for your help in playing against the CoCo — but 
more on that later. 

MENACE — A Matchbox Learning Machine 

To give credit where credit is due, this whole concept comes 
from a description of MENACE, a Matchbox Educable 
Naughts and Crosses Engine, described in Martin Gardner's 
book The Unexpected Hanging. Gardner, the Puzzle Master 
of Scientific American for many years, describes a learning 
machine made out of 300 matchboxes by Donald Michie, a 
biologist at the University of Edinburgh. 

Michie's matchboxes have a copy of a tic-tac-toe position 
on their cover (tic-tac-toe is called "naughts and crosses" in 
Great Britain). See Figure 1. Inside each matchbox are beads 
of different colors, each bead representing a move. There's 
a hole in each matchbox so that one bead can be randomly 
selected from all beads. The color of the bead selected 
determines the move. 

The machine starts first and makes the first move (in fact 
this is done by someone shaking the matchbox with the 
"empty" tic-tac-toe matrix on the cover and noting the color 
of the bead). This matchbox is then left open to indicate that 
a move of that configuration has taken place. 

For each machine move, a human opponent also makes 
a move. Since the machine started first, it plays odd moves 



Bill Barden has written 27 books and over 100 magazine 
articles on various computer topics. His 20 years' experience 
in the industry covers a wide background: programming, 
systems analysis and managing projects for computers 
ranging from mainframes to micros. 



TIC-TAC-TOE 




SELECT ONE 
BEAD 

Figure 1: Michie's Matches 



— 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. This means that any time the machine 
plays, there is an equal number of X's and O's on the tic- 
tac-toe matrix. 

At the end of the game there are several open matchboxes 
representing the moves that occurred. Each open matchbox 
has a selected color bead that determined the next move. If 
the machine won the game, more beads of that color are 
added to each open matchbox. If the game was a draw, only 
one bead of that color is added to the matchboxes. If the 
machine lost the game, one bead of that color is taken from 
each matchbox. 

Over many games, the matchboxes accumulate more beads 
representing winning moves than non-winning moves. The 
chance of selecting a winning bead (move) is much greater 
than that of selecting a losing or drawing bead. Gradually, 
the machine becomes smarter and smarter. 

Tic-Tac-Toe Positions 

The tic-tac-toe matrix looks like Figure 2. We'll assign each 
square a number of 1 through 9, as shown in the figure. For 
each of the nine squares, there are three possible characters 
that can be placed into the square — a blank (no move yet 
made), an O or an X. Instead of a blank, we'll use a dash 
character, just because it's easier to find the position on a 
printout. 



160 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



1 


2 


3 




u 




4 


5 
X 


6 


7 


8 


g 




X 


0 



Figure 2: Tic-Tac-Toe Matrix 
Characters and Numbering 



X 


0 


X 


0 








X 


0 



1 23456789 
X|0|X|0|-|-l-TxTo1 



X 


X 


o 


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 


9 


0 






X X 0 O -|- X|0 


-I 


X 


0 





X 


0 

















1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 

EEEE 



X O 



Figure 3: Tic-Tac-Toe String Representation 



To make the tic-tac-toe matrix easier to print and process, 
we'll use a nine-character string, as shown in Figure 3. The 
character positions of the string are numbered from 1 through 
9 and correspond to the tic-tac-toe positions. Several tic-tac- 
toe configurations are shown, with their corresponding string 
printouts. 

How many different configurations of the tic-tac-toe 
matrix are there? We can compute that fairly easily on the 

CoCo. We'll start with no entries, a string of . 

Then we'll increment by one from the left, changing a dash 

to an O: 0. The next increment will change an O 

to an X: X. The next increment will change an X 

to a dash again and add one to the next lower position: 

We'll stop when we get to XXXXXXXXX. The 

program to do this is shown in Listing 1, and the first few 
strings are: 

1 

-- -□ 2 

X 3 

4 

00 5 

OX 6 

X- 7 

X0 8 

- XX 9 

□-- 10 

□-□ 11 

Do you see any pattern here? If a dash stands for an O, 
an O for a 1, and an X for a 2, we can construct a ternary 



number of base three out of the patterns. The pattern -X- 
0--XX0 becomes 020100221. A ternary number is similar to 
a binary number but uses the digits 0, 1 and 2. In fact there 
are three to the ninth configurations of tic-tac-toe patterns, 
or 19,683 patterns. The program in Listing 1 will list them 
all. 

Some of the patterns, though, just can't be. The pattern 

□00 consists of three moves of O's and no others. 

Someone's cheating. Likewise, 000111111 has six X's and 
three O's, an unequal number of moves and impossible. 

The program shown in Listing 2 lists all possible moves 
that the machine can make if it goes first. Remember that 
if the machine goes first it is always confronted with a tic- 
tac-toe configuration with an equal number of X's and O's. 
We'll use O for the machine's move, by the way. 

It turns out that there are 3,139 possible configurations 
with an equal number of X's and O's. The last four are: 

XXXX0-000 19535 
XXXX00-00 19553 
XXXXDDO-0 19559 
XXXXDD00- 19561 

Note that each configuration has a corresponding number 
based on the original 19,683 configurations. Since most of 
the 19,683 configurations are not possible, there are gaps in 
the numbering. 

Michie originally used about 300 matchboxes in his 
manual method of MENACE. That's cheating somewhat. He 
reasoned that the configurations in Figure 4 were all the same, 
if the tic-tac-toe matrix was rotated and the mirror image was 
considered. We'll use the brute force method here and 
consider all possible configurations without regard to 
rotations or mirror images. 

Possible Next Moves 

For each configuration, there are one to nine possible next 
moves. The configuration, for example, repre- 



X 


0 








X 


0 







ORIGINAL 





X 






O 0 




X 


o 




- X 








o 


X 




o 


o 


X - 


X 





ROTATIONS 



90 c 



180* 



270* 





0 


X - 


X 


- 0 




- :< 




o 


X 








o 




X 0 










O 0| 




X X 


0 




X 





MIRROR 
IMAGES 



OF ORIGINAL OF 90' 



OF 180° OF270< 



Figure 4: Rotations and Mirror Images 



July 1 988 THE RAINBOW 161 



sents a game where no one has moved. The machine can play 
an O in any of the nine squares: 

□ 

-□ 

--□ 

0 

0 



□-- 

□- 

-0 

The □ X configuration represents a machine's first 

move in the upper left-hand corner and the human's response 
with an X in the lower right-hand corner. The machine can 
now play in any of seven positions: 

00 X 

□ -0 X 

□ X 

0---0---X 

□ 0--X 

□ D-X 

□ OX 

The 00 XX configuration represents two moves by the 

machine and two matching moves by the human. The 
machine can now play in any of the five remaining positions. 

The 00-0-X-XX configuration represents three moves by 
the machine and three matching moves by the human. The 
machine can now play in any of the three remaining positions. 

The 0000 -XXXX configuration represents four moves by 
the machine and four matching moves by the human. The 
machine can now play in one remaining position. 

From these examples, you can see the relationship between 
the move number, the number of X's and O's already played, 
and the number of positions in which the machine can play: 



Move 


# of O's 


# of X's 


Remaining 




(machine) 


(human) 


positions 


1 


0 


0 


9 


3 


I 


1 


7 


5 


2 


2 


5 


7 


3 


3 


3 


9 


4 


4 


1 



Selecting the Next Move 

The next move in Michie's MENACE was made by shaking 
up the matchbox and choosing a colored bead at random. 
Michie started out with four beads of nine colors for the first 
move matchboxes, three beads of each color for the third 
move matchboxes, two beads of each color for the fifth move 
matchboxes, and one bead of each color for the seventh move 
matchboxes (the ninth move has only one possibility). We 
can't use colored beads in the computer, but we can use a 
byte for each possible position and put a count in the byte. 
We'll use counts of five, four, three, two and one to simplify 
the ninth move processing. The count represents the number 
of colored beads. As an example, the configuration 00- -X- 
X-- is a fifth move configuration with five possible next 
moves by the machine. We'll put three beads in our figurative 
matchbox for each of the five possible moves: 00--X-X-- 
0,0,3,3,0,3,0,3,3. 



The impossible moves (those already occupied by an X or 
O) are initialized with a count of 0. Possible moves are 
initialized with a count of 3. 

The next move can be selected at random by adding up 
all of the counts (3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3= 15) and then generating 
a random number from 1 to 15. Suppose the number 
generated was eight. The machine would accumulate counts 
from left to right and stop when the total was equal to eight. 
Since eight occurs here in the third count (tic-tac-toe square 
6), the machine would use square 6 as its next move: 00-- 
X0X--. The human might reply with square 9: 00--X0X-X. 

At this point we're into a seventh move configuration of 
00-X0X-X. The machine would look at that configuration, 
which was initialized to two counts for each position: 00- 
X0X-X 0,0,2,2,0,0,0,2,0. 

The machine would add up the counts (2 + 2 + 2 = 6) and 
select a random number between 1 and 6, say 5. The number 
5 is in the eighth position, so the machine would respond with: 
00--X0X0X. 

Play would continue until someone won the game or a 
draw occurred. 

If the game was won by the machine, an adjustment would 
be made to the active configurations by adding three counts 
to each position. For the fifth move above this would change 
00--X-X-- 0,0,3,3,0,3,0,3,3 to 00--XX-X-- 
0,0,3,3,0,6,0,3,3. 

For the seventh move 00--X0X-X 0,0,2,2,0,0,0,2,0 
would become 00--XOX-X 0,0,2,2,0,0,0,5,0. 

Similar adjustments would be made for draws (one would 
be added) and losses (one would be subtracted). The whole 
process would emulate "reward and punishment" used for 
training pets (and unruly kids) and should make the machine 
choose the path with the most counts. 

Recording the Counts 

We need a character string of nine bytes (characters) to 
record the configuration and nine additional bytes to hold 
counts — a total of 18 bytes. Since there are 3,139 possible 



CO 

O 

Q_ 

tr 
O 



3 
O 

o 



2,423 4 
ENTRIES 



OX 



XO 



XO- -XO 



0 



0 



0 




Ql0|3l3|0|0|3l3l3 



RECORD 1 
RECORD 2 
RECORD 3 



ALWAYS 
0 FOR USED 
POSITIONS 



TYPICAL ENTRY 



v 

1 8 BYTES 



Figure 5: TICTACT0.DAT File Format 



1 62 THE RAINBOW July 1 988 




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configurations, that's 3,139*18 = 56,502 bytes, too large for 
normal basic memory. One solution is to hold configuration 
and counts in a disk file. 

Since we're holding binary data in the counts (counts may 
range from 0 to 255) the file should be a random file. 
Sequential files are somewhat sensitive to odd values in bytes, 
such as values less than 32. Random files allow us to hold 
any value without problems. 

The random file well use looks like Figure 5. Each record 
in the file has 18 bytes. The first nine bytes hold the 
configuration, a string of dashes, O's, and X's. The next nine 
bytes are nine fields, each field containing a count of 0 
through 255. The file is generated by the program in Listing 
3, a variation of the program in Listing 2. The new program 
initializes the master tic-tac-toe file and is used only once. 

The program in Listing 3 also eliminates "end game" 
conditions, such as: 

XXX 
- □ - 
□ - □ 

These end game conditions are not valid configurations 
because they would be detected before the machine had to 
make the next move. There are 18 end game conditions, three 
rows filled, three columns filled, and two diagonals filled for 
either O's (machine) or X's (human). Eliminating the end 
game configurations brings the total number of configura- 
tions down to 2,423 and the file of configurations down to 
43,614 bytes. 

The TICTACTD.DAT file is used by the processing program 
(described shortly) to find the current tic-tac-toe configura- 
tion and to look at the possible responses the machine can 
make. The program in Listing 3 also generates another file, 
called TTTDIR.DAT. This file is a sequential file, as shown in 
Figure 6. TTTDIR.DAT lists the record number in the 
TICTACTD.DAT file for any tic-tac-toe configuration. The 
catch is that a tic-tac-toe configuration such as -X--0-X-D 
must first be converted to a ternary number (in this example 
4,474). 

The TTTDIR.DAT file is read into memory and scanned to 
find the current tic-tac-toe configuration; the index of the 
TTTDIR.DAT entry (how far down the directory the entry is 
located) is identical to the number of the record in the 
TICTACTD.DAT file. 

After running the program of Listing 3, therefore, you'll 
have two files on disk: the T I CT ACTO . DAT main working file, 
and the TTTDIR.DAT directory file. Both are used by the 
TICTACT0.BA5 program. 

The TICTACTO.BAS Program 

This program draws the tic-tac-toe diagram, checks for an 
end condition, and "rewards" or "punishes" the tic-tac-toe 
data so that the program learns. The program contains no 
intelligence to make it smart — it just accumulates data for 
the learning process. The program is shown in Listing 4. 

Reading in the TTDIR.DAT File 

The first thing the program does is to read in the 
TTTDIR.DAT file into Array D. This file contains all 2,423 
possible configurations of the tic-tac-toe matrix, in base 3 
representation to save space. The program scans this array 
to find the current configuration and then uses the index 
value (1 through 2,423) as the record number of the 
T I CT AC TO. DRT record containing the counts and valid moves 



RECORD 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



0 



11 



15 



> 2,423 ENTRIES 



Figure 6: TTTDIR.DAT File Format 



for the machine to make. Reading in the TTTDIR.DAT file 
takes a minute or so but only has to be done once for any 
number of games you want to play. 

Screen Display 

The screen display for TICTACTO.BAS is not very elegant. 
It is designed to run on 32-character wide text displays and 
looks like this: 

12 3 
4 5 6 
7 8 9 

□ - - 

YOUR MOVE: ? 

General Operation 

Note that as soon as the program starts running, the 
machine makes the first move. For every move made, the 
program looks at the current configuration, converts it to a 
base number, looks up the number in the D array, and then 
uses the index of the D array entry to read in the record from 
the TICTACTO.DAT file. 

Once the record is read in, the counts are totaled. A random 
number is then generated, and a selection of the position is 
made to determine where the machine will play an O. The 
machine then makes the play. 

After the machine has played, a test for done is made. This 
checks the rows, columns and diagonals for a machine win 
or a draw. The human cannot win at this point because the 
last human move was checked for a done condition directly 
after the move. By the way, draws can only occur after the 
machine has played. 

If the machine has not won, a prompt message for the 
human's move is displayed. The human can play in any blank 
square; a check is made for a valid square. After the play has 
been made, a check for done is performed. If the human has 
not won, a loop is made back to the machine's play. 

Reward and Punishment 

Each time the machine plays, a record is made of the 
TICTACTO.DAT entry number and the position in which the 
response was made. (This corresponds to opening the box 
in Michie's MENACE.) At the end of the game, each 
TICTACTO.DAT entry is adjusted by adding or subtracting 



164 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



counts from the entry position. Three is added for a win, one 
is added for a draw, and one is subtracted for a loss. The 
updated entries for TICTACTO.DfiT are written back out to 
disk, so that the TICTRCTD.DRT always reflects the accu- 
mulated knowledge of the machine. 

A history file is also updated at the end of the game. This 
file is another random file with records one byte long. For 
each game, a new letter is added to the end of the file — either 
W, D or L. 

Variables 

As mentioned above, D holds the base 3 configurations. 
It's a numeric array of 2,423 entries and takes up about 12,1 15 
bytes. 

Arrays R and F hold the record number and position 
number for play for each machine move. These arrays are 
used to update the TICTRCTO . DRT file after each game. Array 
R$ is the actual tic-tac-toe matrix itself. Each of its nine 
entries corresponds to one of the nine tic-tac-toe positions. 
Each entry holds either a dash, X or O. Array BD is the 
numeric form of the array. It's used to make the conversion 
from a string configuration to a base three numeric config- 
uration easier. 

Subroutines 

The program is divided into subroutines to make the 
processing more modular and easier to decode. 

The Display O or X subroutine uses the variable I to 
indicate the position on the tic-tac-toe matrix of 1 through 
9. The tic-tac-toe matrix uses three lines starting at screen 
positions 207, 239, and 271. One blank is used between 
positions. The one character in string variable Y$ (O or X) 
is printed at the line start plus a displacement based upon 
the the position number. 

The Test for Done subroutine builds up a string called X$, 
composed of the three characters from an fi$ row, column, 
or diagonal. Another subroutine is then called to test for 
either an XXX or 00D string. The main subroutine also tests 
for all positions filled. If a draw results (nine positions filled), 
the variable DN is set to 1. If the machine has won, DN is set 
to 3; if the human has won, DN is set to - 1 . If there is no done 
condition, DN is set to 0. Note that DN holds the reward or 
punishment count to be added or subtracted from the count 
in the TICTRCTD.DRT entries. 

The next machine move subroutine first converts the tic- 
tac-toe configuration into a base 3 number. Array D is then 
searched for this number. The number must be found, as 



Array D holds all possible configurations. When found, the 
index to Array D is equivalent to the record number of the 
TICTRCTD.DRT entry. A GET reads this record. A random 
selection is then made of the machine's play. The Display X 
subroutine is called to display the play, and the fl$ array is 
changed to reflect the play. An entry is also made in the R 
array for the record number and the F array for the position 
number of the play. 

The reward/ punishment subroutine looks at Array R to 
find each record of TICTRCTO. DAT that has been used in the 
play. Each of these records is read in, and the count in the 
proper position (obtained from Array F) is adjusted by the 
value in the variable DN. The record is then rewritten to disk. 

A single-character record is then added to the history file 
to reflect the results of the game. 

How Would You Like to Be a Teacher? 

With some slight modifications, it would be possible to 
make the program play against itself (just generate a random 
number of 1 through 9 in place of the user input). The 
machine would then go along and play continuous game after 
continuous game, presumably getting smarter all the time. 

For the purposes of this column, though, I thought it might 
be interesting if interested readers would play the hundreds 
or thousands of games required to make the program learn. 
What I visualize is this: 

Interested CoCo freaks can write me for a copy of the game 
and files. I will then send the game out in sequence so that 
each person can play as many games as he or she wishes — 
maybe a hundred or so each (about a half-hour's worth). The 
player can then send the updated disk back to me, and I'll 
send it on to the next person. After the machine learns how 
to play properly, I'll send a copy of the updated files back 
to each person, so he or she can see how smart the program 
has become. I'll also plot the learning statistics in a column, 
together with the names of each person who participated. For 
this project to work, we must send the master disk by at least 
first class mail. I visualize about a month's worth of time until 
we have a smart program. How about it? If you would like 
to participate in this experiment, send your name and address 
to me at: 

Post Office Box 3568 
Mission Viejo, CA 92692 

I'll add your name to the list and we can get this interesting 
project going. 

See you next month with more CoCo topics. □ 







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July 1988 THE RAINBOW 165 



9 ) 

1 TO 9: A$( I ) = 



Listing 1: RLLPERMS 

Ij3j3 1 PRINTS ALL PERMUTATIONS OF 
TIC-TAC-TOE, EVEN IMPOSSIBLE ON 
ES 

llj3 DIM A$( 
12j3 C = p 
130 FOR I - 
": NEXT 
14j3 C = C + 1 

15j3 FOR I = 1 TO 9: PRINT A$ ( I 
) ; : NEXT : PRINT C 
160 1=9 

17)8 IF A$( I ) = THEN A$ ( 

) = "0": GOTO 180 ELSE IF A$ ( 
) m "0" THEN A$( I ) - "X 

GOTO 180 ELSE A$ ( I ) - »■-»■: 
IF I <> 1 THEN 1=1-1: GOTO 

170 ELSE GOTO 190 
180 GOTO 140 
190 STOP 

Listing 2: 15TM0VES 

100 1 PRINTS ALL POSSIBLE PERMUT 
ATIONS OF TIC-TAC-TOE FOR MACHIN 



I 
I 



E FIRST MOVE 
110 DIM A$( 9 ) 
120 C = 0: PC = 0 
130 FOR I = 1 TO 9: A$( I ) 
»: NEXT 
140 C = C + 1 

150 BC = 0: OC = 0: XC = 0 

160 FOR I = 1 TO 9: IF A$( I ) = 

il. ii THEN BC = BC + 1 ELSE IF A$ 
( I ) = "0" THEN OC = OC 

+ 1 ELSE XC = XC + 1 
170 NEXT 

180 IF OC = XC THEN PRINT A$ ( 1 

) ; A$ ( 2 ) ; A$ ( 3 ) ; A$ ( 4 ) ; A$ 
( 5 ) ; A$ ( 6 ) ; A$ ( 7 ) ; A$ ( 

8 ) ; A$( 9 ) ; C: PC = PC + 1 

190 1=9 

200 IF A$( I ) = "-" THEN A$ ( 
) = "0": GOTO 210 ELSE IF A$ ( 
) = "0" THEN A$( I ) = "X 

11 : GOTO 210 ELSE A$ ( I ) = 
IF I <> 1 THEN 1=1-1: GOTO 

200 ELSE GOTO 220 
210 GOTO 140 
220 PRINT PC 



I 
I 







Information 

Management 

System 



CSG IMS is a full featured relational database 
manager for the Color Computer and 0S9. 



I Interactive access to 
databases for quick queries. 

I Includes a structured 
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supporting program modules 
with full parameter passing 
and recursion. 



I User defined screen and 
report formats. 

I Record, index, and file sizes 
are virtually unlimited. 

I Text, BCD floating point 
(14 digits), short and long 
integer, and date data types. 



CSG IMS for CoCo3 OS9-L2 512K (single user) $169.95 

CSG IMS for OS9-L2 or 68000(multi user) $495.00 

CSG IMS demo with manual $30.00 

OTHER CSG PRODUCTS: 

ERINA Symbolic User-mode Debugger for OS9 $69.00 

SERINA System-mode Debugger for OS9 Level 2 $139.00 

MSF MS-DOS File Manager for CoCo3/OS9 L2 $45.00 

MSF with SDISK3 $65.00 

Shipping — N. America: $5, Overseas: $10 

Clearbrook Software Group, Inc. 

U.S.: P.O. Box 8000-499, Sumas, WA 98295 
CANADA: P.O. Box 8000-499, Abbotsford, B.C. V2S 6H1 

Phone:(604)853-9118 

OS9 is a trademark of Microware Systems Corp., 
MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft Corp. 



^^^^^^ 





PROGRAMS • PtRlPME HAL S • SUPPLIES • Sf PVICI 



Fast Delivery... 
Friendly Service 

Now in our 6th year! 




SUPER VALUE! 

Avatex1200e $ 99 
with Coco Cable 109 



Reviewed in 
April, 1988 
Rainbow! 



Avatex1200e, Cable 
AUT0TERM...$139 

•Coco 1,2 NKHjirsjg. Deluxe RS-232 Pak 




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166 THE RAINBOW July 1988 




270 


223 


390 


192 


610 


5 


END 


....87 



140 OPEN n O H , 
150 FIELD #1, 



Listing 3: DATflMAKR 

100 1 INITIALIZES "TICTACTO" WOR 
KING FILE FOR PLAY 
110 CLS 

120 PRINT "INITIALIZE TICTACTO" 
130 OPEN "D", #1, "TICTACTO", 18 

#2, "TTTDIR" 
9 AS X$ , 1 AS B$, 
1 AS C$, 1 AS D$, 1 AS E$, 1 AS 
F$, 1 AS G$, 1 AS H$, 1 AS 

1$, 1 AS J$ 
160 DIM A$( 9 ) 
170 C = -1: PC = 1 
180 FOR I = 1 TO 9: A$( I ) = "- 
": NEXT 

190 BC = 0: OC = 0: XC = 0 
200 C = C + 1 

210 FOR I = 1 TO 9: IF A$( I ) = 
"-" THEN BC = BC + 1 ELSE IF A$ 



( I ) = "0" THEN OC = OC 

+ 1 ELSE XC - XC + 1 
220 NEXT 

230 IF OC <> XC THEN GOTO 450 
240 IF OC < 3 THEN GOTO 260 
250 GOSUB 530: IF DN <> 0 THEN G 
OTO 450 

260 IF OC = 0 THEN MN = 5 ELSE I 
F OC = 1 THEN MN = 4 ELSE IF OC 
= 2 THEN MN = 3 ELSE IF OC = 

3 THEN MN = 2 ELSE MN ■ 1 
270 LSET B$ = CHR$( 0 ): LSET C$ 

= CHR$ ( 0 ) : LSET D$ = CHR$ ( 0 
) : LSET E$ = CHR$ ( 0 ) : L 

SET F$ = CHR$ ( 0 ) : LSET G$ = CH 
R$ ( 0 ) : LSET H$ = CHR$ ( 0 ) : 

LSET 1$ = CHR$( 0 ): LSET J$ 

= CHR$( 0 ) 
280 FOR I = 1 TO 9 
290 IF I ■ 1 THEN IF A$( 1 
-" THEN LSET B$ = CHR$ ( MN 
300 IF I - 2 THEN IF A$ ( 2 
-" THEN LSET C$ = CHR$ ( MN 
310 IF I = 3 THEN IF A$ ( 3 
-" THEN LSET D$ - CHR$ ( MN 
320 IF I = 4 THEN IF A$ ( 4 
-" THEN LSET E$ = CHR$ ( MN 



s I' 



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Rt. 40 E. WOODSTOWN, N.J. 08098 



"I cannot imagine the CoCo 3 without ADOS-3; 
it would not be a complete machine. n 

The RAINBOW, July 1987 

You've moved up to a CoCo 3. A powerful new machine. Now, it's time to 
give BASIC a shot in the arm, with ADOS-3. Wouldn't It be nice to turn on your 
machine and be greeted by an 80-column display, in the colors of your 
choice, with your own custom startup message? To run routinely at 2 MHz 
(double speed) without having to slow down for disk and printer operations? 
This and much, much more is possible with ADOS-3. our CoCo 3 adaptation 
of the acclaimed original ADOS, which shares the original's virtual 100% 
compatibility with commercial software. After customizing ADOS-3 using the 
provided configuring utility, you can have it burned into an EPROM that plugs 
Into the Disk BASIC ROM socket, or just use it in RAM as a disk utility, (EPROM 
+ burning will cost $15-20; we provide information concerning how you can 
have this done.) Supports double-sided drives (35, 40. or 80 tracks). FAST and 
SLOW commands, auto line number prompts, RUNM command, keystroke 
macros, arrow-key scroll through BASIC programs, auto-edit of error line, and 
many more valuable features. 

"ON A SCALE OF 1 TO 10, I RATE ADOS-3 A SOLID 15." RAINBOW, 7/87 

Disk . . . $34.95 Original ADOS for CoCo 1 or 2 . . . S27.95 (See 6/87 RAINBOW review) 

Original ADOS plus ADOS-3 $50.00 

THE PEEPER 

ML program tracer that multl tasks with the target program. An excellent 
learning tool for the ML novice; an Involuable debugging aid tor the expert. 
CoCo 1 . 2, or 3 compatible. 

Disk . . . $23.95 Assembler source listing . . . Add $3.00 



MONITOR CABLES for CoCo 3 

Magnavox8CM515/8CM505/8CM643 . , 



$19.95 



Sony KV1311CR 



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1 



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(305) 274-38990ay or Eve 

No delay on personal checks • Please add $2 00 shipping* Sorry no credit cards or COD'S, 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 167 



Frank Hogg Laboratory 

1 2 Years of Service, Support, and Friendly Help! 

DISC^^PRICE LIST 



CoCo Hard Drive Kits 




KIT INCLUDES: Burke & Burke (B&B) XT PC interface. Hard drive with 
controller, 3 foot ST506 cable set. Hard Drive Case with 60 watt power supply 
and fan. Includes OS9 LI and LH software. 1 megabyte transfer in 45 seconds! 
Type ahead under OS9. Complete instructions. Easy one evening assembly. 



. NEW LOWER 

20 Meg Kit Complete 60MS pricesh 
30 Meg Kit Complete 60MS Riff 
40 Meg Kit Complete 60MS 
80 Meg Kit Complete 28MS 
Assemble and test any of the above add 
OPTIONS: 

B&B Real Time Clock (add to above) 
B&B XT ROM Auto Boot from hard disk 
B&B Hyper I/O run DECB on hard drive 
B&B Hyper HI Ramdisk/spooler for above 
FBU Fast Hard disk Back Up 



*498.00 
*548.00 
*618.00 
996.00 
50.00 

30.00 
19.95 
29.95 
19.95 
75.00 



CoCo FHL High Speed Hard Drive Kits 

KIT INCLUDES: FHL HCA/WD High Speed interface, Hard drive with WD 
1002-05 controller, ST506 cable set, 4 foot 40 pin cable, Hard Drive Case with 
60 watt power supply and fan, OS9 software for LI and LTI with source, Complete 
instructions. Easy one evening assembly. 

( INTERFACE SPECIFICATIONS: Size is the same as a floppy controller. 
Interfaces the WD 1002-05 controller to the CoCo. This controller handles 3 
hard and 4 floppy drives. Type ahead under OS9 for both floppy and hard 
drive. Includes OS9 LI and III software with source. Autoboot ROM included to 
boot from floppy or hard drive. Supports OS9 only. I megabyte transfer in 37 
seconds!) , 




20 Meg High Speed Kit Complet< 
40 Meg High Speed Kit Complete 
80 Meg High Speed Kit Complete 
Assemble & Test any of the above add 
OPTIONS: 

Floppy Drive (Mounted in case) 

FBU Fast Hard disk Back Up $150.00 



♦725.00 
♦825.00 
1260.00 
60.00 

128.00 
75.00 



69.95 
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*99.95 
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Hard Drive Bits and Pieces 

B&B XT PC style interface 
B&B XT RTC interface w/clock/calendar 

(Call for Hard Drive and Kit prices) 
FHL HCA/WD High Speed Interface 
WD 1002-05 High Speed for FHL Interface 

(Supports both Hard and Floppy drives) 

(Call for Hard Drive prices) 

Hard Drive case with 60W P/S and Fan 
(Can also be used for floppy drives) 

SPECIFICATIONS: size 16" deep, 5.5" high, 7" wide. 60 Watt power supply 
with 3 drive type power connectors, <juiet 12 volt DC fan, LED power indicator, 
color matches CoCo. Holds 2 1/2 height hard or floppy drives and has card 
guided space for a PCB the size of a drive (like the WD 1002-05 controller) 



*98.00 



Cables 

ST506 Hard drive to controller set 36" 35.00 

ST506 Hard drive to controller set 12" 28.00 

FHL HCA/WD 40 Pin, 2 connectors 48" 25.00 

Floppy cable 34 pin, 2 connectors 36" 20.00 

Floppy Drives (5.25" and 3.5" FLOPPY DISKS) 
TEAC High Quality Drives - 1 Year Warr. 
FD55B 360K 40 Track DS 5.25" 118.00 
FD55F 720K 80 Track DS 5.25: 151.00 
FD35F 720K 80 Track DS 3.5" 147.00 
(Bare drives, requires case and power supply) 



CoCo OS9 Level II w/512K Software** 

The Wiz $79.95 69.95 

FEATURES: Mac- Like interface with windows, text and binary upload/download 
with xmodem, kermit, on line HELP, AUTOLOGGING, Macros, VT52 
emulation, Usage log and much more. The Wiz requires a RS232 Pak or 
similar device, LIT and 512KL 



Sculptor (BIG SALE!!!) $450.00 
Database - 4th generation language 



149.00 



DynaStar Word Processor $150.00 125.00 

FEATURES: Best OS9 editor/word processor/text formatter, has everything 
you would expect and more, keyboard macros, supports terminals and windows 
simultaneously, configurable, auto-indent for C and Pascal programming, index 
and contents generation, mail merge, bug free, solid, works with big files and 
much more. New manual makes it easier to use than ever. Most popular word 
processor since 1982! 



DynaSpell spelling checker 

by Dale Puckett 
Font Editor 

Super Sleuth disassembler 
FBU Fast Hard disk Back Up 
B&B Wild and MV 



$94.50 

$29.95 
$50.00 
$150.00 



45.00 

19.95 
45.00 
75.00 
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Books 

Inside OS9 Level II 



$39.95 



29.95 




ORDERING INFORMATION VISA and M/C. NY residents add 7ft sales 
tax. US shipping add $3.50. Please call for Air Express shipping. 

Send for FREE FHL NewsLetter and catalog. 
♦♦Most of our software requires OS9 LII and 512K, 

* New LOWER PRICES!!! 

Frank Hogg Laboratory, Inc. 

770 James Street - Syracuse, NY 13203 

Telex 646740 

Call 315/474-7856 



HARD DISK 
SYSTEMS 
INFORMATION 



For the best and fastest hard disk systems, trust Frank 
Hogg Laboratory. 

At Frank Hogg Laboratory, we have taken over 3 years of 
knowledge and expertise in the manufacture of the well 
known QT 68000 based computers and applied it to the 
CoCo. Many of the components used in our hard disk 
systems are the same as that used in the QT! 

Hard disk systems have been available for the CoCo for 
some years now, most are good reliable systems. 
However we have two new systems for the CoCo that are 
better. They are just as reliable as other systems, perhaps 
even more so. But they are both faster and less 
expensive. 

Our top of the line system features Bruce Isted's interface 
for the Western Digital WD 1002-05 high speed 
controller. Features; fastest system available, 1 
megabyte transfer in only 37 seconds!! Ttwice as fast as 
other systems! Supports 4 floppy and 3 hard drives, type 
ahead for both floppy and hard disk, auto boot OS9 
LI or L2 from hard or floppy disk. 
Disadvantage; does not support DECB. This is the 
system of choice for the serious OS9 user. 

Our second system features the Burke & Burke XT and 
XT RTC interface. This interface uses popular and 
inexpensive IBM PC type controllers. For this reason it is 
the least expensive hard disk system available today. Not 
as fast as the Isted system but faster than any other system 
available. It also supports RLL drives. 
Disadvantage; requires a multi-pak. 

Note: DECB support and other software options are 
listed on our price list. 



QT OOx 68000 & 
QT 20x 68020 
Computers 

These powerful computers are now 
available in kit form as well as fully 
assembled and tested systems. We 
also do custom systems based on 
these computers. Kit prices for floppy 

based QT OOx systems start at only 

$1995 while floppy based QT 20x 
systems start at only $2650. 

All systems include OS9 1 Professional 
Operating System with both C and 
Basic programming languages. Also 
included is QCom communications 
and backup software. 

Call or write for a brochure. 



ANN 



MENT! 



Frank Hogg Labor 
Sculptor dijitriboiti 
tremendous savings. 



LAST 
MONTH 

OF THE 
SALE!! 



I! 



of another 

ifcr them to you at 



Sculptor for the CfeCo IT! with OS9 Level II* is 

! ONLYM49 I 

$149 is below distributor cost! The list price is $450!! Once they are 
gone the prices will go back to normal. This is a great opportunity to buy 
the most powerful Database/4th Generation Language available today!!. * 
Requires OS9 LII and 512K. 

They won't last long. 
Hurry and get yours today!!! ! 



Iso on SALE Sculptor MS/DOS $149 
Sculptor OS9/68K $295 




See Dale Puckett's February and March 
1988 Rainbow columns for more 
information on this great package. 



ORDERING INFORMATION VISA and M/C. NY residents add 1% sales tax. US shipping 
add $3.50. Please call for Air Express shipping. 

Send for your FREE FHL NewsLetter and Catalog. 

* Most of our software requires OS9 LII and 512K. 

Frank Hogg Laboratory, Inc. 

770 James Street - Syracuse, NY 13203 

Telex 646740 

Call 315/474-7856 



330 IF I = 5 THEN IF A$ ( 5 
-" THEN LSET F$ = CHR$ ( MN 
340 IF I = 6 THEN IF A$ ( 6 
-" THEN LSET G$ - CHR$ ( MN 
350 IF I * 7 THEN IF A$ ( 7 
-" THEN LSET H$ = CHR$ ( MN 
360 IF I = 8 THEN IF A$ ( 8 
-" THEN LSET 1$ = CHR$ ( MN 
370 IF I - 9 THEN IF A$ ( 9 
-" THEN LSET J$ = CHR$ ( MN 
380 NEXT I 

1 
) 

+ 



) 

+ 



+ A$( 2 ) + A$ 
A$( 5 ) + A$( 6 
A$( 8 ) + A$ 



390 Y$ = A$( 
3 ) + A$( 4 
) + A$( 7 ) 

( 9 ) 

400 LSET X$ = Y$ 

410 PUT#1, PC 

420 PRINT#2, C 

430 PC = PC + 1 

440 PRINT "."; 

450 1=9 

460 IP A$( I ) - THEN A$ ( 

) = ti 0 ii. G0T0 47 ^ ELSE IF A$( 

) - "0" THEN A$( I ) = "X 

<•• GOTO 470 ELSE A$ ( I ) = "-": 
IF I <> 1 THEN I - I - 1: GOTO 

460 ELSE GOTO 480 
470 GOTO 190 
480 CLOSE 

490 PRINT "TICTACTO INITIALIZED" 
500 PRINT "COUNT="; PC - 1 
510 END 



I 
I 



530 1 TEST FOR DONE SUBROUTINE 

540 CT ■ 0 

550 FOR I = 1 TO 9 

560 IF A$( I ) <> "-" THEN CT = 

CT + 1 

570 NEXT 

580 IF CT - 9 THEN DN - 1: GOTO 
740 

590 2$ - A$( 1 ) + A$( 2 ) + A$( 

3 ) : GOSUB 760 
600 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 740 
610 Z$ = A$( 4 ) + A$( 5 ) + A$( 

6 ) : GOSUB 760 

620 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 740 
630 Z$ = A$( 7 ) + A$( 8 ) + A$ ( 

9 ) : GOSUB 760 
640 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 740 
650 Z$ = A$( 1 ) + A$( 4 ) + A$( 

7 ) : GOSUB 760 

660 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 740 
670 Z$ = A$( 2 ) + A$( 5 ) + A$ ( 

8 ) : GOSUB 760 

680 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 740 
690 Z$ = A$( 3 ) + A$( 6 ) + A$ ( 

9 ) : GOSUB 760 

700 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 740 



710 Z$ - A$( 7 ) + A$( 5 ) + A$( 

3 ) : GOSUB 760 
720 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 740 
730 Z$ = A$( 1 ) + A$( 5 ) + A$( 

9 ) : GOSUB 760 
740 RETURN 

750 i 

760 • EVALUATE 

770 IF Z$ = "XXX" THEN DN = -IS 
GOTO 800 

780 IF Z$ = "000" THEN DN = 3 : G 
OTO 800 
790 DN = 0 
800 RETURN 




310 23 1050 127 

480 134 1220 39 

680 77 END 62 

830 104 



Listing 4: TICTACTO 
100 1 TIC-TAC-TOE DRIVER PROGRAM 



120 CLS 

130 PRINT "READING DIRECTORY" 

140 DIM D( 2423 ) , R( 5 ) , F( 5 

), A$( 9 ), BD( 9 ) 

15 0 i 

160 OPEN "I", #1, "TTTDIR.DAT" 

170 FOR I = 1 TO 2423 

180 INPUT* 1, D( I ) 

190 PRINT "."7 

200 NEXT I 

210 CLOSE 1 

220 CLS 

230 PRINT "DIRECTORY IN MEMORY" 
24^ i 

250 OPEN "D", #2, "TICTACTO . DAT" 

,18 

260 FIELD#2 , 9 AS B$, 1 AS C$, 1 
AS D$, 1 AS E$, 1 AS F$, 1 AS G 
$, 1 AS H$, 1 AS 1$, 1 A 

S J$, 1 AS K$ 



280 FOR I = 1 TO 300: NEXT 
290 CLS 

300 FOR I = 1 TO 9: A$( I ) = 
": NEXT 

310 FOR 1=1 TO 5: R( I ) = 
NEXT 

320 RP = 1: FP = 1 
330 CLS 

340 PRINT ■ 12 



ii _ 



-1: 



3" 



170 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



5 
8 



6" 
gii 



ii 



it . 



35j3 PRINT " 4 
36J3 PRINT " 7 
37j3 PRINT: PRINT 
38)3 PRINT@ 207, A$ ( 1 ) 
( 2 ) ; " ; A$ ( 3 ) 
390 PRINTS 239, A$ ( 4 ) 

( 5 ); H II; A $( 6 ) 

400 PRINTS 2 71, A$ ( 7 ); 

8 ) ; » " ; A$ ( 9 ) 
410 1 GET MACHINE'S MOVE AND TES 
T FOR DONE 
420 GOSUB 580 
430 GOSUB 830 



•i n • 



ii ii 



A$ 
A$ 
A$( 



440 
ii 



IF DN <> 0 THEN PRINTS 320, 

ii 



450 IF 
I WIN" 
460 IF 
DRAW" : 



DN = 3 THEN PRINT© 320, 

GOSUB 1190: GOTO 280 

DN = 1 THEN PRINT© 320, 

GOSUB 1190: GOSUB 280 * 

470 PRINTS 320, 
ii • 



ii 



ii 



ii 



480 1 GET HUMAN'S MOVE AND TEST 
FOR DONE 

490 PRINT S320, "YOUR MOVE:";: I 
NPUT I 

500 IF A$( I ) <> "-" THEN GOTO 
470 

510 A$( I ) - "X" 
520 Y$ • "X": GOSUB 1130 

830 

<> 0 THEN PRINTS 320, 

•i 

= -1 THEN PRINTS320, " 
GOSUB 1190: GOTO 280 
560 GOTO 420 



530 
540 



GOSUB 
IF DN 



ii 



550 IF DN 
YOU WIN!" 



580 ' NEXT MACHINE MOVE SUBROUTI 
NE 

590 TC = 0 

600 FOR I = 1 TO 9 

610 X$ = A$( I ) 

620 IF X$ - "X" THEN C = 2 ELSE 
IF X$ = "0" THEN C = 1 ELSE C = 

J3 

630 TC = TC * 3 + C 
640 NEXT I 

650 1 

660 • NOW HAVE BASE 3 CONFIGURAT 
ION VALUE - FIND RECORD # 
670 IF A$( 1 ) = "-" THEN K = 1 
ELSE IF A$( 1 ) = "O" THEN K = 9 
69 ELSE IF A$( 1 ) - M X 

" THEN K » 1696 

680 FOR I = K TO 2423: IF D( I ) 

= TC THEN GOTO 690 ELSE NEXT 
690 GET#2, I: R( RP ) - I: RP = 
RP + 1 

700 BD( 1 ) - ASC( C$ ): BD( 2 ) 
= ASC( D$ ): BD( 3 ) = ASC( E$ 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



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Availability 




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July 1988 THE RAINBOW 171 



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n 



RAINBOW INDEX A complete index to the first three years, July 1981 through June 
1984, is printed in the July 1984 issue. Separate copies are available for $2.50 □ 

The Fourth and Fifth Year Indexes including rainbow on tape are in the July 
1985 and July 1986 issues, respectively. The Sixth Year Index is in the July 1987 
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BD( 9 ) 



CT = CT + BD 



) : BD( 4 ) = ASC( F$ ) : B 

D( 5 ) = ASC( G$ ): BD( 6 ) = AS 
C( H$ ) : BD( 7 ) = ASC( 1$ ) : 
BD( 8 ) = ASC( J$ ) 
= ASC( K$ ) 
710 CT = 0 
720 FOR I = 1 TO 9i 
( I ) : NEXT 
730 C = RND ( CT ) 
740 CT = 0 
750 FOR I - 1 TO 9 
760 CT = CT + BD( I ) : IF CT >= 
C THEN GOTO 780 
770 NEXT 

780 F( FP ) =1: FP = FP + 1 
790 A$( I ) - "O" 
800 Y$ = "O": GOSUB 1130 
810 RETURN 



830 1 TEST FOR DONE SUBROUTINE 
840 X$ = A$( 1 ) + A$( 2 ) + A$( 

3 ) : GOSUB 1070 
850 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 1050 
860 X$ = A$( 4 ) + A$( 5 ) + A$( 

6 ) : GOSUB 1070 

870 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 1050 
880 X$ = A$( 7 ) + A$( 8 ) + A$ ( 

9 ) : GOSUB 1070 
890 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 1050 
900 X$ - A$( 1 ) + A$( 4 ) + A$( 

7 ) : GOSUB 1070 

910 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 1050 
920 X$ = A$( 2 ) + A$( 5 ) + A$ ( 

8 ) : GOSUB 1070 

930 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 1050 
940 X$ = A$( 3 ) + A$( 6 ) + A$ ( 

9 ) : GOSUB 1070 

950 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 1050 
960 X$ = A$( 7 ) + A$( 5 ) + A$ ( 

3 ) : GOSUB 1070 
970 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 1050 
980 X$ - A$( 1 ) + A$( 5 ) + A$( 

9 ) : GOSUB 1070 
990 IF DN <> 0 THEN GOTO 1050 
1000 CT = 0 
1010 FOR I = 1 TO 9 
1020 IF A$( I ) <> THEN CT = 

CT + 1 
1030 NEXT 

1040 IF CT = 9 THEN DN = 1 
1050 RETURN 

1060 ■ 

1070 1 EVALUATE 

1080 IF X$ = "XXX" THEN DN - -1: 

GOTO 1110 
1090 IF X$ m »OOO lf THEN DN - 3 : 
GOTO 1110 
1100 DN = 0 
1110 RETURN 



1 72 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



1130 • DISPLAY 0 OR X ON SCREEN 

IN PROPER POSITION 

114 j3 IF I < 4 THEN PRINT@2j37 + ( 

I - 1 ) * 2 , Y$ ; : GOTO 1170 
115j3 IF I < 7 THEN PRINT@239 + ( 

I - 4 ) * 2 , Y$ ; : GOTO 1170 
1160 PRINT@ 271 + ( I - 7 ) * 2, 

Y$ } 

1170 RETURN 

1180 1 ========================== 



1190 • REWARD/ PUNISHMENT AND HIS 
TORY FILE 

TO 5 

= -1 THEN 1320 EL 



1200 FOR 1=1 
1210 IF R( I ) 
SE GET#2 , R( I 

1220 BD( 1 ) = 
) = ASC( D$ ) : 
) : BD( 4 ) - 
BD( 5 ) = ASC( 
SC( H$ ) 

ED { 
) = ASC( 
1230 BD( 
+ DN 



G$ ) 
BD( 7 ) = 
8 ) = ASC( 
K$ ) 

F( I ) ) = 



) 

ASC( C$ ) : BD( 2 
BD( 3 ) - ASC( E$ 
ASC ( F$ ) : 
BD( 6 ) = A 
ASC ( 1$ ) : 
J$ ) : BD ( 9 



BD( F( I ) ) 



1240 

( F 
1250 
BD ( 
1260 
LSET 
E$ = 

) ) 
1270 

LSET 

H$ = 

) ) 
1280 

LSET 

K$ = 

) ) 
1290 

1300 

1310 

1320 

1330 

1340 

E IF 

$ = 

1350 

1360 

1370 

1380 



IF BD( F( I ) ) < 1 THEN BD 
( I ) ) = 1 

IF BD( F( I ) ) > 255 THEN 
F ( I ) ) = 255 
LSET C$ = CHR$( BD( 1 ) ): 
D$ = CHR$ ( BD ( 2 ) ) : LSET 

CHR$( BD( 3 

LSET F$ = CHR$( BD( 4 ) ): 
G$ = CHR$( BD( 5 ) ): LSET 

CHR$( BD( 6 

LSET 1$ = CHR$( BD( 7 ) ): 
J$ = CHR$( BD( 8 ) ): LSET 

CHR$( BD( 9 

PUT#2, R( I ) 
NEXT 

i 

OPEN "D", #1, "HISTORY", 1 
FIELDfl, 1 AS U$ 
IF DN = 3 THEN V$ = "W" ELS 
DN = 1 THEN V$ ■ "D" ELSE V 
"L" 

LSET U$ = V$ 

R - LOF( 1 ) : PUT#1, R + 1 

CLOSE 1 

RETURN 







- - iMindi 


7 




■mm «o»«*i«w*f 














* 



New, Lowest Prices Ever On Interfaces 





Model 101 

Serial to Parallel Printer Interface 

★ Works with any COCO 

★ Compatible with "Centronics" Parallel Input Printers 

★ Just turn the knob to select any one of 6 baud rates 300-9600 

★ Comes complete with cables to connect to your printer 
and computer 

★ Can be powered by most printers 

Model 104 Deluxe Interface 
with "Modem Switch" 

★ Same Features as 101 Plus 

★ Built in Serial Port for your Modem or other serial device 

★ Switch between Serial Output and Parallel Output 

★ Comes with cables to connect to your computer and printer 

★ Can be powered by most printers 

Model 105 Serial Switch 

★ Connects to your COCO to give you 2 switch selectable 
Serial Ports 

★ Comes with a 3 foot cable to connect to your computer 

★ Now you can connect your Printer (or printer interface) 
and your Modem (or other serial device) to your COCO 
and flip the switch to use either device 

★ Does not require power 

Cassette Label Printing Program 

★ New Version 2.1 prints 7 lines of information 
on Cassette labels 

Comes on Tape with instructions to transfer to disk 
Menu driven, very easy to use 
Save and Load Labels from Tape and Disk 
Uses the features of your printer to print standard, 
expanded, and condensed characters 
Automatically Centers Each Line of Text 
Allows editing of label before printing 
Program comes with 24 labels to get you started 
16K ECB required 



Some of the Printers 
That Can - 

Supply power for the 101 and 
1 04 are Radio Shack, Star, 
Okidata, Brother, Juki, and 
Smith Corona. 

Some of the Printers 
That Cannot - 

Supply power for the interfaces 
are Epson, Seikosha, 
Panasonic, Silver Reed and 
NEC. If your printer cannot 
supply power to the interface 
you can order your interface 
with the "P" option or you can 
supply your own AC adapter. 
We recommend the Radio 
Shack 273-1431 AC adapter 
with a 274-328 connector 
adapter. 

Write or call for more 
information or for technical 
assistance. 



Price List 

Model 101 35.95 

Model 1 01 P 41.95 

Model 104 44.95 

Model 104P 51.95 

Model 105 14.95 

Cassette Label Program 6.95 
Pin Feed Cassette Labels: 
White 3.00/100 
Colors (specify) 3.60/C 
Red-Blue-Yellow-Tan 
C-10 Cassette 

Tapes 
Cassette Storage 

Boxes 
4 Pin Din Serial 
COCO Cables: 

Male/Male 6 foot 4.49 

Male/Female 6 foot 4.49 

Female/Female 6 foot 4.49 
Other Lengths Available, 

All items covered by a 
1 year warranty 



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2.50/dozen 



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July 1988 THE RAINBOW 173 



RAINBOWTECH 



?*1 



a 




OS-9 



Sending the Right 

Signals 



By Dale L. Puckett 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Our project to write a "shell" 
program that will give you a 
starting point for all of your 
BAS1C09 application programs is pro- 
gressing like the infamous race between 
the tortoise and the hare. I feel like the 
tortoise. The hare's ahead at this point, 
but I'm inching up on him. 

Last month, we began the MVShell 
project with the code needed to create 
a window on your Color Computer 3. 
That window had a frame around the 
edge and a menu bar on top. The menu 
bar displayed only one menu title, the 
Tandy hourglass icon, which gives you 
access to the desk accessories that 
Tandy includes in the Multi- Vue pack- 
age. This month we add to the initial 
window effort and enter the fascinating 
world of OS-9 signals. You'll want to 
follow the two tutorial programs Sig- 
TestOne and SigTestTwo closely. They 
contain a kernel of information you'll 
need to really start understanding 
multitasking, background processing 
and other OS-9 magic. 

Dale L. Puckett, a freelance writer and 
programmer, serves as director-at-large 
of the OS-9 Users Group and is a 
member of the Computer Press Associ- 
ation. His username on Delphi is 
DALEP: on packet-radio, KOHYD @ 
N4QQ; on GEnie, D.PUCKETT2; and 
on CIS, 71446, 736. 



After this month's additions, 
MVShell will display the same window. 
However, you'll now see the titles for 
the standard Files and Edit menu. We 
emphasize standard here, because that's 
really the point behind the MVShell 
project. If we all write our OS-9 Multi- 
Vue application programs in the same 
manner, using the same set of menus, 
etc., we will soon defeat the OS-9 
learning curve. 

After you have learned how to run 
one program, you will know how to run 
them all. Only the internal details of the 
problem your program solves will be 
different. For example, after the stand- 
ard is in place you will be able to save 
the words you've typed with your new 
word processor using the same menu or 
keystrokes you used to save your KISS- 
Draw art. You'll start your spelling 
checker the same way you start your 
word processor. You'll open files, create 
files, save files and delete files in the 
same manner — no matter what pro- 
gram you're running. 

My sources tell me that a meeting of 
CoCo OS-9 gurus is planned — cross 
your fingers and read this as "was held" 
— at RAINBOWfest Chicago to set the 
standard for the Multi-Vue clipboard. 
After this standard is defined and 
developers start using it, you'll be able 
to mark objects — or a number of 
characters if you're using a word proc- 



essor — and copy them to the clipboard. 
Once they are in the clipboard, you will 
be able to paste them back at another 
location in your drawing or story. 

If the standard is broad enough, 
maybe you'll be able to copy a couple 
of objects from your drawing program 
and then paste them into your word 
processor. People are doing it every day 
on a number of computers. Defining 
standards and using them will let us do 
the same things on the Color Computer. 
These are indeed exciting times. 

If standardization doesn't turn you 
on, you'll find many additional benefits 
in an MVShell-type program! For ex- 
ample, once you have MVShel 1 , you will 
never need to write code to take care of 
a program's housekeeping functions 
again — MVShell will create windows, 
handle menus, track the mouse, open 
files, save files, etc., for you. All you will 
need to do is write the functional code 
that takes care of the tasks unique to 
your application program. 

Additionally, if you use the code 
we're developing in MVShell, you will 
always have the standard Tandy desk 
accessory programs available for use 
from within your own BASIC09 Multi- 
Vue applications. In fact, you could 
take this lead one step further and add 
a number of your own desk accessories 
under the Tandy menu. Or, you could 
remove the Tandy desk accessories you 



174 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



Listing 1: MVShell 



PROCEDURE MVShell 

(* MVShell The beginning of an adventure in Multi-Vue 

You'll need this code In each Bastcj79 Application program 
you write for Multi-Vue. 



9999 
^38 

0JJ3B 

0077 

0092 

0095 

9909 
00FD 
0137 
|7166 
0197 
01CD 
0213 
0253 
0294 
02CF 

9W 

^314 

0317 

|I352 

038D 

03CA 

J74jJ9 

0418 

0419 

042F 

043 E 

0449 

0455 

045 C 

0465 

0473 

0474 

0475 

04A3 

P4C7 

04C8 

04ED 

?4F6 

JJ4F7 

0533 

^568 

0583 

^598 

05AE 

05AF 

05DA 

05E9 

9 SEA 

05F1 

05F9 

05FA 



0619 

JJ65JJ 
0665 
06 7A 
068F 
9699 
06D3 
0716 



* 



First, we create BasicJ39 Type statements 

that emulate the C header files presented in the Multi-Vue 
documentation and supplied as part of the Tandy Program 
!* Developers package. A quick SysCall routine 
"* at the end lets you see that your definitions 

* actually work. We've added the File and Edit menus 

* and will show you hov to add your own menus . We ' 11 also be showing 

* you how to set up a mouse routine that runs in the background 

* and sends signals to your application when the user clicks the 

* mouse button. When ve finish this "Shell* or "skeleton" 

* application, all you'll need will be your own application 

* code. 



* 
;* 
* 
* 
* 
* 



First, we must define the variables we will use in every 
Multi-Vue based program. These definitions use the same 
names as the C header files that come with the Developers 
Pak. Our first group of definitions is an emulation of the 
Wind.H file. 



(* General definitions 

DIM Null , CallCode , FunCode : BYTE 

DIM Stdln , StdOut : BYTE 

DIM EndStr: STRING [1] 

Null: -J? 

EndStr :-CHR$ (Null) 
Std0ut:-1 \StdIn:-0 



(* Define 6809 registers so we can use the get 
(+ and set status calls with syscall 

TYPE Registers-cc,a,b,dp:BYTE; x,y,u: INTEGER 
DIM Regs: Registers 

(* Window type defs. They tell the Windlnt code within OS -9 

(* what type of box you want to create on the screen. 

DIM WT_NBox , WT_FWin , WT_FSWin , »T_SBox , WT_DBox , WT_PBpox : INTEGER 

WT_NBox : -0 \WT_FWin : -l~\WT_FSWin : -2 

WT_SBox:-3 \WT_DBox:-4 \WTJ»Box:-»5 

DIM -MNEnbl , MNDsbl : BYTE \(* MV talk for Enable and MNDsbl 
MNEnbl :-l \MNDsbl:-Null 

DIM WINSync: INTEGER 
WINSync:-$CpCJJ 

DIM MN Jfove , MN_Clos , MN_Grow , MNJJscrl , MNJ)acrl , MN_Rscr 1 , MN_Lscrl 
: BYTE 

DIM MN_Tndy , MN File , MN_Edit ,MN_Styl , MN_Font , MN_Char : BYTE 
MN_Move : -1 \MN_Clos :-2""\MN_Grow:-3 \MN_Uscrl:-4 
MNJ)scrl:-5 \MNJtscrl:-6 \HN_Lscrl:-7 
MNJTndy:-20 \MN_File:-21 \MN_Edit:-22 
MN_Styl : -2 3 \MN_Font:-24 \MN_Char:-8 

(* Here are some more definitions you'll need in almost all -of your 
(* Basic$J9 / Multi-Vue application programs. This group takes care 
(* of the many buffers used vithin OS- 9 Level II. 



never use and substitute your own. The 
ability to instantly run a desk accessory 
program from a program of your own 
will immediately improve the quality of 
your life at the Color Computer key- 
board. 

If you haven't gotten around to en- 
tering MVShell from the June issue of 
RAINBOW, feel free to skip that version 
and dig right into this month's code. 
Everything that was presented last 
month is included here. If you're just 
joining our MVShel 1 series, you'll notice 
that we used the same variable names 
in this program that Tandy uses in its 
assembly language and C Defs files. We 
hope this will help keep the terminology 
standard across all languages and make 
it easier for BASIC09 programmers to 
communicate with the assembly lan- 
guage and C gurus. 

Because BASIC09 does not have built- 
in Define statements like C and PAS- 
CAL, we had to improvise. Essentially, 
we just used a variable to hold our 
definitions. However, you must note 
one important point here. Before we 
defined or initialized any variable to a 
preset value, we used BASIC09's TYPE 
and DIM statements to ensure that the 
data held by our variables was exactly 
the same shape as that used by assembly 
language and C and PASCAL pro- 
grammers. 

This data typing is extremely impor- 
tant here because before we have com- 
pleted MVShell we will have added 
dozens of SysCalls throughout the 
program. SysCall passes data directly 
to the internals of OS-9. If you pass OS- 
9 an integer when it expects and only 
has room for a byte, it will most likely 
choke. Your program will crash. 

Hey, Joe! Send me a "Signal"! 

While the theory behind an idea may 
be simple, implementing that same idea 




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that your serial port often gives you garbage. 



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Our new Dual Mode Controller (DMC) implements a new 
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operation is also retained to maintain full compatibility 
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July 1988 THE RAINBOW 175 



is often a different story. That's the 
situation we ran into with MVShell. We 
started with the desire to emulate the 
assembly language or C "intercept" 
function in a BAS1C09 program. Before 
we were through, we had tested two 
completely different approaches. I hope 
our examples will encourage you to 
experiment and give you a few ideas 
about how you can find out what is 
actually going on inside your program. 
First, however, let's review a few of the 
things we learned during the KISS Draw 
series. 

In the November column you were 
introduced to the concept of event- 
oriented programming — a concept 
that has given birth to a new generation 
of productive computer users. Before 
event-oriented programming hit the 
Coast, the computer dictated the flow 
of a program. Today, you control the 
flow. 

When you click the mouse button on 
your Color Computer, you generate an 
event. The flow of the program after 
you push that button depends on the 
type of event you initiated. Remember 
the main event loop that forms the heart 
of every Macintosh application pro- 
gram. Take another look at the English 
language code below. We're going to 
give you the basics you'll need to create 
the same main event loop with a BASIC09 
program. Next month, we hope to put 
one together for you. 

REPEAT 

Get an event from the event 
queue 

Determine what type of event it is 
Respond to the event if appropriate 
UNTIL the application is terminated 

We used this model when we wrote 
the main loop for KISSDraw. Our "do 
forever" loop continuously polled the 
mouse with a "get status" call. When the 
button was pushed, we determined 
where the mouse was located. This 
position dictated the action the pro- 
gram would need to take. If the mouse 
pointer was in the toolbox, we then 
determined the tool and let you use it 
to draw an object on the screen. When 
you finished with the tool, our program 
continued to circulate through the main 
event loop until you pushed the button 
again. 

Multi-Vue programs use a similar 
strategy. However, there's a big differ- 
ence between them and the KISSDraw 
model. Multi- Vue programs use signals 
sent by the mouse to determine when 
and where they need to do something. 



0747 

0748 DIM Grp_Font,GrpJUip,GrpJPtr,Grp_Pat2,Grp_Pat4.Grp_Pat6:BYTE 

0763 DIM Fnt~S8x8 , Fnt_S6x8 , Pnt_G8x8 : BYTE 

0772 DIM Ptr_Arr,Ptr_Pan,Ptr_Lch,Ptr_Slp,Ptr_Ill,Ptr_Txt,Ptr_Sch 
:BYTE 

0791 DIM WR_Cntnt , WR_Cntrl , VR_OfWln : BYTE 

07A0 DIM Pat_Sld , Pat_Dot , Pat_Vrt , Pat_Hrz , Pat_Xhtc , Pat_Lsnt : BYTE 

07BB DIM Pat_Rsnt,Pat Sdot , Pat_Bdot : BYTE 

07CA 

07CB (* Nov that we have reserved space for these variables, we'll need to 

0810 (* Initialize them. 

0823 

0824 (* First, the Buffer Group Numbers 

0846 Grp_Font:-200 

084D Grp_Clip:-201 

0854 Grp_Ptr:-202 

08 5B Grp_Pat2:-203 

0862 Grp_Pat4:-204 

0869 Grp_Pat6:-205 

0870 

0871 (* The Font Buffers 

0884 Fnt_S8x8:-l 

08 8 B Fnt~S6x8:-2 

0892 FntJ38x8:-3 

0899 

08 9 A (* The Mouse Pointer Buffers 

08B6 Ptr_Arr:-l 

08 BD Ptr_Pen:-2 

08C4 Ptr_Lch:-3 

08CB Ptr Sip: -4 

08D2 Ptr~Ill:-5 

08D9 Ptr_Txt:-6 

08E0 Ptr Sch:-7 

08E7 

08E8 (* The Window regions for the House 

090B WR Cntnt:-0 

0912 WR~Cntrl:-l 

0919 WR 0fWin:-2 

0920 

0921 (* The Pattern Buffers 

0937 Pat_Sld:-0 

093E Pat_Dot:-l 

0945 Pat_Vrt:-2 

094C Pat_Hrz:-3 

0953 Pat_Xhtc:-4 

09 5A Pat_Lsnt:-5 

0961 Pat_Rsnt:-6 

0968 Pat_Sdot:-7 

09 6F Pat_Bdot:-8 

0976 

0977 (* We must also tell our program what the mouse looks like. The following 

09C1 (* data structure created with the Basic09 Type statement is similar to the 

0A0C (* one we used in KISSDraw. 
0A27 

0A28 TYPE rodent-valid, actv,totm: BYTE; rsrv0: INTEGER; ttto : BYTE ; tsst 
: INTEGER; cbsa , cbsb , ccta , cctb , tt sa , ttsb , tlsa , tlsb : BYTE 

; rsrvl,bdx,bdy: INTEGER; stat,res:BYTE; acx,acy,wrx,wry 

; INTEGER 

0A99 

0A9A DIM msret: rodent 
0AA3 

0AA4 (* And, we'll need a few additional definitions in our Visual Shell. 
0AE8 

0AE9 DIM _update,vxmin,wymln,timout, follow, cur_wlnd,moussig,miscsig 
, wait: BYTE 

0B10 DIM sigcode , status ,wpath: INTEGER 
0B1F 

0B20 wxmin:-40 \(* minimum screen width for our window 

0B4D wymin:-24 \(* minimum screen height 

0B6C 

0B6D _updata:-3 \(* update rate for the mouse 

0B90 tlmout:-10 \(* timeout between clicks 

0BB0 follow:-! \(* update cursor when mouse moves. 

0BD9 (* set to zero for for no follow 

0BF9 

0BFA cur_wind:-0 \(* flag to fork a process on current window 
0C2C 

0C2D moussig:«10 \<* signal code returned by the mouse when 

0C5D (* the button is clicked and you need to check 

0C8B (* a pull down menu. 
0C9F 

0CA0 miscsig:-15 \(* miscellaneous signal code 

0CC3 wait: -20 \(* signal code to wait for button to be pressed 

0CF9 

0CFA (* Window menu data structures 

0D18 <* The first structure holds a menu item descriptor which includes: 

0D5B (* the name of the item, a byte to tell if the item is enabled or not, 

0DA1 (* and five reserved bytes. 



176 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



JJDBC 
jJDBD 
0DDE 
JTOE7 
JJDE3 
JJE2D 
JIE71 

fTEFl 

0F45 
0F8A 

JTFC6 



JIFF2 
0FFB 
0FFC 
103C 
107C 

1JJF7 
1137 
1164 
1165 



U9K 
11A3 
11A4 
11E2 
121E 
125A 
1298 
12D6 
1313 
134D 
1367 
1368 
1376 
138B 
1399 
13AF 



TYPE Mistr-_nmttl : STRING [ 15 ] ; mtenbl : BYTE ; mires(5) : BYTE 
DIM MldScr:Hlstr 



c* 
c* 
c* 
c* 
E* 



The next structure holds the definition of a menu. This includes: 
The name of the menu, the Id number of the menu, the width of the 
menu, the number of items In the menu and a byte that tells 
if the item is available or not. Two "reserved" bytes must be 
inserted before the last field. Hake this correction in your 
Multi-Vue manual. 

The final item in the structure is a pointer to the address of the 
array of structures that hold the individual menu items. 



TYPE mnstr— jnittl: STRING [15] ; janid,_mnxsiz,_mnnits,_mnenabl 

: BYTE; _reser2 , _mni terns : INTEGER 
DIM HNDscr: mnstr 

(* The final structure defines the contents of an entire window. 
(* This includes the title of the window, the number of menus on 
(* the window, the minimum height of the window, the minimum 
(* width of the window, a special pair of synch bytes and seven 
(* reserved bytes. A pointer to an array of menus --or data of 
(* the type "mnstr" which ve Just defined. 

TYPE wns tr-_wnttl : STRING [ 2G ] ; _nmens , _wxmin , _wymin : BYTE ; _wnsync 

♦.INTEGER; _wnres<7) :BYTE; __wnmen : INTEGER 
STH. VndScr :vnstr 

(* After we define --or "type" -- the special data structures 
(* we need for a Multi-Vue based program, we must initialize 
(* the data in those structures. Ve start with the items we 
(* want to appear on our lone menu. Notice that we needed to 
(* add a "null" character or Hex at the end of each string. 
(* Ve must do this because Basic?9 uses $FF hex to define the 
(* end of its strings and Multi-Vue expects the "C* style 
(* ?p hex for a delimiter. 

DIM _tanitms(9) :Mistr 
_tanitma(l) ._mnttl:-"Calc"+EndStr 
_tanitms(l) . jnienbl : -MNEnbl 
_tanitms(2) ._mnttl:-"Clock"+EndStr 
tanitms ( 2 ) . mienbl : -MNEnbl 



When the mouse button is up and their 
services aren't required, these programs 
can go about their business and do 
something else. They service the mouse 
only when you generate an event by 
pushing the mouse button. 

This approach is extremely impor- 
tant in the Multi-Vue environment 
where you may have three or four 
different windows open with a different 
program running in each. Each pro- 
gram is sharing time with the others. 
Yet, picture what would happen if a 
program like KISSDraw were running 
in one of the windows. Since it runs in 
a tight loop that constantly reads the 
mouse, it would hog much of the 6809 
microprocessor's time. Other programs 
running on the same Color Computer 
would appear sluggish at best. A real- 
world example of a program that hogs 
the microprocessor is the device driver 
for the bit banger port, /tl, on the rear 
panel of your Color Computer. When 
an OS-9 program is using this port, 
other processes barely function. 

Now, compare this with the true 
"event-oriented" approach. In MVShell 
and many other programs designed to 
run in a multitasking environment, a 
process is put to sleep when it is not 
actively doing anything. It awakens 



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July 1988 THE RAINBOW 1 77 



only after receiving a signal from you or 
the hardware. While the process is 
asleep, other programs running on the 
same computer shine. 

Most Multi-Vue programs emulate 
the technique shown in the Macintosh 
model above. Our MVShell will do the 
same. Our first versions of M VShe 1 1 will 
deal with one event at a time; however, 
with a little help from our friends we 
may be able to show you how to set up 
and handle a queue of events later on. 

The Easy Approach 

This month we learned once again — 
and quickly — that the "easy" way is 
usually not the way to go. But at least 
it got us to thinking. Before we ran into 
the easy way, we had been stumped. 
Your mission, should you decide to 
accept it, is to emulate the model below, 
which forms the heart of most Multi- 
Vue applications written in C: 

Create Window 
Initialize and start mouse 
Set Intercept trap 

DO 

Set signal code equal to zero 
Tell the mouse which signal to 

send (when button is clicked) 
Put process to sleep 
Wake up and handle chores 

(after receiving a signal) 
FOREVER 

When you first gaze at the algorithm 
above, it looks like it should be a fairly 
simple task — and it is, in assembly 
language and C. However, the task 
becomes a little more complicated when 
you are using BASIC09; this language 
does not give you a way to set an 
intercept. 

The brainstorm that resulted in our 
easy solution — SigTestOne — fol- 
lowed a telephone conversation with 
OS-9 Users Group MOTD editor, Bill 
Brady. Brady mentioned using BASlC09's 
ON ERROR GOTO statement to trap sig- 
nals from the mouse. After all, OS-9 
treats a signal similar to an error. Down 
the yellow brick road we traveled. I 
wrote SigTestOne at the terminal and 
proudly typed run. 

Unfortunately, the result was nothing 
to be proud of! SigTestOne did work — 
almost! When I clicked the mouse 
button, the program jumped to the ON 
ERROR GOTO routine at Line 100 as 
planned. However, error number 
reported by the program was #000 — 
the signal to "kill" a process. 



13BD _tanitma(3) . jnnttl :-"Calendar"+EndStr 

13D6 "tanltoa ( 3 ) . jnienbl : -MNEnbl 

13E4 _tanitms(4) . jnnttl :-"Control"+EndStr 

13FC "tanitma (4) . jnienbl : -MNEnbl 

140A _tanitms(5) .jnnttl: -"Printer "+EndStr 

1422 _tanitms(5) .jnienbl: -MNEnbl 

1430 ~tanitm*(6) .jnnttl :-"Port"+EndStr 

1445 "tanitms ( 6) .jnienbl: -MNEnbl 

1453 ~tanitms(7) .~nmttl:-"Help"+EndStr 

1468 ~tanitms ( 7) . jnienbl : -MNEnbl 

1476 _tanitms(8) .jnnttl :-"Shell"+EndStr 

148C "tanitms (8) .jnienbl: -MNEnbl 

149A "tani tms ( 9 ) . jnnttl : -" Clipboar d"+EndStr 

14B4 tanltms(9). ml«nbl:-MNDsbl 

14C2 

14C3 

14C4 DIM _£ilitms(6) :Mistr 

14D2 _£ ilitma(l) . jnnttl :-"New"+EndStr 

14E6 ~filitms(l) .jnienbl: -MNEnbl 

14F4 _filitma(2) . jnnttl :-"Open*+EndStr 

1509 ~filitms( 2) .jnienbl: -MNEnbl 

1517 ~filitms(3) . jnnttl :-"Save"+EndStr 

152C _filitms(3) .jnienbl: -MNEnbl 

153A ~filitms(4) . jnnttl :-" Abandon "+EndStr 

1552 ~f ilitme (4) .jnienbl: -MNEnbl 

1560 _filitms(5) .jnnttl: -"Print "+EndStr 

1576 ~filitms(5) . jnienbl :-HNEnbl 

1584 ~f ilitms(6) . jnnttl:-"Quit"+EndStr 

1599 "*filitms( 6 ). jnienbl: -MNEnbl 

15A7 

15A8 DIM _edltms(6) :Mistr 

15B6 _editma(l) , jmattl:-"Undo"+EndStr 

15CB _editms(l) .jnienbl: -MNEnbl 

15D9 _editms(2) . jnnttl : -"Cut "+EndStr 

15ED "editms (2 ) .jnienbl: -MNEnbl 

15FB _editma(3) . jnnttl: -"Copy "+EndStr 

1610 ^editms ( 3) .jnienbl: -MNEnbl 

161E _editms(4) , jnnttl: -"Paste "+EndStr 

1634 _aditms (4) .jnienbl : -MNEnbl 

1642 jsditms(5) . jnnttl :-" CI ear" +EndStr 

1658 ~ed itms( 5) .jnienbl: -MNEnbl 

1666 ~editms(6) . jnnttl :-"Shov"+EndStr 

167B editms (6) .~mienbl: -MNEnbl 

1689 

168A (* Nov we'll set up the entire menu 
16AD 

16AE DIM Tndy_Mn:mnstr 

16B7 TndyJIn. jnittl:-"Tandy"+EndStr 

16CB Tndy~Mn._amid:-MN_Tndy 

16D7 Tndy_Mn. jnnxsiz:-10 

16E2 Tndyjfn. jnnnits :-9 

16 ED Tndy_Mn . jnnenabl : -MNEnbl 

16F9 Tndy Mn. mnitems : -ADDR( tanitms) 

1707 

1708 DIM File_Mn:mnatr 

1711 File_Mn.jnittl:-"Files"+EndStr 

1725 Filejfn. jnnid:-MN File 

1731 Fila~Mn . jnnxs iz : -10 

173C File_Mn._mnnits:-6 

1747 File_Mn._mnenabl: -MNEnbl 

1753 Fila2Mn."nmitema:-ADDR( filitma) 

1761 

1762 DIM Edlt_Mn:nmstr 

176B Editjfn. jnittl:-"Edit"+EndStr 

177E EditMn . jnnid : -MN_Edit 

178A Edit_Mn._amxsiz:-10 

1795 Editjta. jnnnits:-6 

17A0 Edit~Hn . jnnenabl : -MNEnbl 

17AC Edit Mn. mnitema :-ADDR(_editos) 

17BA 

17BB (* Now that we have defined the items in the menu and the menu itself, 

1801 (* we can define the window that we want the menu to appear in. 

1840 (* First, we must create an array of menus that contains all of the 

1883 (* menus we hope to use. After we have reserved space in memory using 

18C9 (* Basic09's DIM statement, we must intialized each element in the array. 

1912 (* Here, we create an array of three menus. 
193D 

193E DIM Menus(3) :mnstr 
194C 

194D Menus ( 1 ) : -Tndy_Mn 

1958 Menus (2): -File Mn 

1963 Menua(3):-Edit~Mn 
196E 

196F tfndScr ._wnttl : - n KISSDraw"+EndStr 

1986 WndScr . junens : -3 

1991 VndScr.jncain:-80 

199C VndScr. ~wymin:-24 

19A7 (* _vnres, an array of seven reserved bytes, sits here 

19DD WndScr . jmsync : -WTNSync 

19E9 tfndScr-_vnmen:-ADDR( Menus) 
19F7 

19F8 (* The data structures have all been set up now. It is time to make a 



178 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 




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I looked over my code. Stumped, I 
picked up the phone and called Kevin 
Darling. "It'll work, but you have to 
pack the code first," he said. 

1 did. It did! But this solution was not 
appropriate. One of the advantages of 
an interactive programming environ- 
ment like BASIC09 is the fact that you can 
change things continuously and check 
the results instantly. If you are forced to 
go into a "packed" (compiled before 
you run it) mode, you lose this interac- 
tive advantage. 

Generating a Real Intercept 

Kevin Darling did a lot of experi- 
menting with Multi-Vue early on. One 
of those experiments involved program- 
ming Windlnt using BASIC09. He also 
stumbled into the problem above. He 
solved it by using the ON ERROR GOTO 
approach in conjunction with a Boolean 
variable. If the Boolean "packed" was 
true, he used the MsSig Sets tat call to 
tell the mouse to return a signal with a 
value of 2. If "packed" was false, it 
returned a 1 signal. If the code hadn't 
been packed, the ON ERROR GOTO rou- 
tine received a valid "wake up"signai — 
1 — and Darling was able to go ahead 
and process it. 

I wanted a simpler approach. I get 
confused easily when I must follow 
Boolean variables through decision 
trees, and I wanted to keep the overall 
flow of the program as simple as pos- 
sible. After all, this is "KISSable OS-9." 

"Why can't I write a short intercept 
routine in machine language, store it in 
the data area, point to it using BASIC09's 
flDDR function, and run it?" I asked. 

"Great idea!" Darling said. "It should 
work." 

With that, I was off on a daylong 
experiment. As it turned out, my inter- 
cept routine was only four bytes long. 
I used a fifth byte to return the value of 
the signal sent by the mouse. Here's the 
code in 6809 assembly language: 

STB ttflDDR(IceptCode)+4 
RTI 

In pure machine language that code 
looks like this: F7 HH LL 3B. 

To get that code into memory I de- 
fined a special data type named Int- 
CeptCod. I then dimensioned — or 
reserved space for — a variable named 
IceptCode of type IntCeptCod. The 
new data type had a single byte followed 
by an integer to hold the address, 
followed by two individual bytes. The 
first would hold the RTI code. The 
second gave me an empty byte in mem- 



1A3E 


(* set status call to Initialize the vindov. We will use _ss_wset. This 


1A87 


(* call needs three parameters. The path number, the window type and a 


1ACF 


(* pointer to the data structure defining the window. 


1B04 




1B05 


(* But first, we must turn off the cursor 


IB2E 


(* If we don't, we will occasionally write garbage on the 


1B67 


(* screen where we don't want it. A "gfx2" routine will 


1B9F 


(* take care of this for us. 


1BBB 


RUN Gfx2(StdOut,"CurOff") 


1BCE 




1BCF 


(* Now we'll make a SysCall with the Set Window function 


1C07 


(* code to prove that it works. 


1C26 




1C27 


CallCode :-$8E \(* Set Status Code 


1C41 


Regs.a:-StdOut 


1C40 


Regs.b:-$86 \(* SS.WnSet function code 


1C72 


Regs . x : -ADDR ( WndScr) 


leap 


Regs . y : -WT_FWin 


1C8C 




1C8D 


RUN SysCaLl(CallCode,Regs) 


1C9C 


PRINT #StdOut , "Hello <Insert Tour Name Here>" 


1CC2 


END 


1CC4 






Listing 2: SigTestOne 


PROCEDURE SigTestOne 


9999 


(* Short program to test method of emulating intercept routine 


003E 


003F 


DIM ErrNum: BYTE 


99" 




0047 


ON ERROR GOTO 100 \<* Set trap 


0050 


99*9 


(* Initialize House and start it runnins 

^ — — mmr ^^^mr ^m* ^m> mm mm- mm mM ^§*|k 


0081 


0082 


TYPE Reglsters-cc,a,b,dp:BYTE; x.y.u: INTEGER 


00A7 


00A8 


DIM Regs: Registers 


00B1 


DIM CallCode , Path , Stdln , StdOut : BYTE 


00C4 

w r 


DIM Follow, FollowNot: BYTE 


00CF 


DIM 3 aura Time : INTEGER 

-** * * mt muni » m * mj> 


00D6 

r r 


DIM bval . ccval : BYTE 

mm mm m m mm w mm mm m mm m mmf P mw mt mm 


r r 




00E2 


Follow: -1 


00E9 


FollowNot : — 0 

mt ^mr mm mm mr m m ~ ^m m0 ■ ^m 


9979 


Stdln :-0 


00F7 


StdChit : — 1 

mm * mm 


00FE 


SamoTime :— S03QA 


0106 




0107 


CallCode :— S8E \f* I S«t^t-f pail 

wcb i4m*+M wwun « y i# ju* \\ » *fl»C leap b ga^X 


011F 


Path: •Stdln 

m» mm mm m A * mm t^llXLl 


0127 


Regs. a: -Path 


0133 


Regs. b: -$89 \<* ss. Mouse 


014A 


Regs . x : -SampTime 


0156 


RUN SysCall<GallCode,Regs) 

• 


0165 


0166 


(* Now tell Mouse to return a signal with a value of 10 


019D 


019E 


CallCode :^S8E \(* I_SetStt call 


01B6 


Path: -Stdln 


01BE 


Regs. a: -Path 


01CA 


Regs.b:-$8A \(* ss.MsSig 


01E1 


Regs.x:-30A \(* $000A is 10 


01FB 


01FC 


RUN SysCall (CallCode, Regs) 


020B 




020C 


PRINT "Test is starting, click mouse!" 


022E 




022F 


(* Now stall for test 


0244 




0245 


FOR xray:-l TO 10000 


0258 


NEXT xray 


0263 




0264 


PRINT "Test is stopping now" 


027C 


END 


027E 




027F 100 


ErrNum: -ERR 


0288 


bval: -Regs. b 


0293 


ccval : -Regs . cc 


029E 


PRINT bval, ccval, ErrNum 


02AB 


IF ErrNum-10 THEN PRINT "It's the Mouse" 


02C8 


ELSE 


02CC 


PRINT "Who knows?" 


02DA 


ENDIF 


02DC 


END 


02DE 





1 80 THE RAINBOW July 1 988 



Listing 3: SigTestTuio 


PROCEDURE SigTestTvo 


WW 


(* Procedure to test possibility of setting intercept 




(* trap within Basic09 program 


JJJJ53 


(* First, we define a special data type for our intercept 


JJJJ8C 






TYPE IntCeptCod-StBCode:BYTE; IntAddr : INTEGER ; RTICode , IntResult 




: BYTE 


JJJIA8 


DIM IceptCode : IntCeptCod 


fl*Bl 






(* Nov that we have defined the data area where we will store 


9JJEF 


(* our intercept code, we will initialize it. 


nic 




jlllD 


IceptCode . StBCode : -$F7. 


^129 


IceptCode . IntAddr :-ADDR( IceptCode )+ 4 


013A 


IceptCode . RTICode : -$3B 


jI146 




0147 


(* Ve must also define a data type to hold the 6809 registers 


0184 


(* so we can pass the parameters to SysCall. 


PIB? 




jUBl 


TYPE Registers-cc,a,b, dp: BYTE; x,y,u: INTEGER 


?1D6 


DIM Regs: Registers 


01DF 




91*9 


(* And a few more variables to enhance readability 


0212 




0213 


DIM F_Icpt,F_Sleep,CallCode:BYTE 


0222 


DIM I_SetStt,SS_MsSig,StdIn,StdOut,SS GIP.SS Mouse: BYTE 


023D 


DIM Houses ig, Follow: INTEGER 


0248 


DIM Grp_Ptr , Ptr_Arr : BYTE 


0253 




0254 


Grp_Ptr:-202 


025B 


Ptr_Arr :-l 


0262 


F_Icpt:-$09 


026A 


F_Sleep:-$0A 


0272 


I SetStt:-$8E 


027A 


SS_MsSig:-$8A 


0282 


SS_GIP:-$94 


028A 


SSMouse :-$89 


0292 


Follow: -1 


0299 


StdIn:-0 


02A0 


Std0ut:-1 


02A7 


MouseS ig: -10 


02AE 




02AF 


(* Ve must turn on the mouse and set its global parameters 


02E9 


(* Here we tell the system we are using a high resolution 


0323 


(* mouse plugged into the right joystick port. 


0351 




0352 


Regs.a:-Stdln 


035E 


Regs.b:-SS_GIP 


036A 


Regs. x: -$0101 \(* HiRes, Right Joystick 


038E 


Regs.y:-$FFFF \(* Do not change timing 


03B1 


CallCode :-I_SetStt 


03B9 


RUN SysCall (CallCode, Regs) 


03C8 


PRINT n I have set the mouse's global parameters'* 


03F4 


(* Now we must tell the mouse how often to update itself 


03F5 


042D 


(* and when it should timeout. Ve also must tell the 


0463 


(* graphics cursor to follow the mouse. Ve do the latter 


049C 


(* by setting the 6809 Y-register to "Follow" or "1" before 


04D8 


(* the call. This parameter is undocumented in early versions 


0516 


(* of the OS* 9 Level II documentation. 


053C 




053D 


Regs . a : -S tdln 


0549 


Regs . b : -SS_Mouse 


0555 


Regs.x:-$0301 \(* Update / timeout info 


0579 


Regs. y: -Follow 


0585 


CallCode :-I_SetStt 


058D 


RUN SysCall (CallCode, Regs) 


059C 


PRINT "I have started mouse." 


05B5 




05B6 


(* Nov we can set up the 6B09 registers and make the call 


05 EF 


(* to set up the intercept. 


060A 




060B 


CallCode :-F_Icpt 


0613 


Regs . z : -ADDR( IceptCode ) 


0621 


Regs . u : -ADDR( IceptCode ) -1-4 


0632 


RUN SysCall (CallCode, Regs) 


0641 


PRINT "I have set the intercept" 


065D 




065E 


(* Ve'll turn on the Graphics Cursor so you can 


068D 


(* watch mouse movement on the screen. Ve'll make 


06BF 


(* it an arrow. 


06CE 




06CF 


RUN gf x2 ( " gc set * , Grp_Ptr , Ptr_Arr ) 


06 E6 




06E7 


(* The main loop of our future program will start here 


071D 




07 IE 


LOOP \<* Do this forever 


0732 





ory I could use to store the signal from 
the mouse. 

After dimensioning the variable 
IceptCode, I initialized it with straight- 
forward BASIC09 assignment state- 
ments. Later in the program, 1 used 
SysCall to run the OS-9 F$Icpt rou- 
tine. To do this, 1 loaded the 6809's X 
register with the address of the "inter- 
cept" routine I had stored in BASlC09's 
data area, loaded the U register with the 
address where I wanted to receive the 
signal from the mouse, and made the 
call. 

Later, after the process had been 
awakened by the mouse, I could check 
the value of IceptCode. IntResult to 
see if the mouse had generated the 
signal. This week, we are returning only 
one signal from the mouse. Later, well 
most likely have the mouse send back 
different signals to indicate different 
situations. Stay tuned, this project just 
might turn into a lot of fun. 

A Trip Through the Code 

We used a few SysCall functions 
when we presented the KISSDraw 
series last year, but not too many. 
Perhaps this is a good time for a review 
of the technique. Essentially, running a 
SysCal 1 is similar to running a GOSUB. 
Both statements run a subroutine. The 
difference lies in where the subroutines 
are located. 

When you type GOSUB 1000, you are 
telling BAS1C09 to jump to a subroutine 
that is located at Line 1000 in your 
program. After it runs that subroutine, 
BASIC09 will return the control of the 
program to the line following the GOSUB 
statement. 

SysCall is a jump to a subroutine 
within the heart of the OS-9 operating 
system itself. When control returns 
from the SysCall to your BAS1C09 
program, execution continues at the 
line following the SysCall — just like 
it does with the GOSUB statement. 

The subroutines you call with the 
SysCall function are executed by 
loading the 6809's B register with a 
special CallCode. You must also often 
pass additional information to the OS- 
9 subroutine when you run SysCall. 

When you make one of these system 
calls from within an assembly language 
program, you load the 6809 registers 
directly and then make the call. This 
means that when you want to run them 
from BASIC09 you must have a way to 
preload the 6809 registers before you 
run SysCall. You do this by creating 
a special data type that effectively 
emulates a 6809 microprocessor. In 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 1 81 



Sig Test Two we call this new data type 
Registers. After we define it, we 
reserve a space in memory for it with the 
BASIC09 DIM statement. We named that 
space Regs. 

To run SysCall then, we load our 
pseudo 6809 — Regs — with the proper 
information and then run SysCal 1 with 
two parameters. The first parameter is 
always the calling code. The second is 
always Regs, the pseudo 6809. 

We know what kind of information to 
put in each register by consulting the 
OS-9 technical documentation. It lists 
each call separately and gives the entry 
and exit conditions. By entry condi- 
tions, we mean it tells us what to load 
into each register before we run Sys- 
Call. The exit conditions tell us what 
we can expect to find in each of the 
6809's registers upon exit. When we run 
SysCall, we will find these exit values 
in the pseudo 6809, Regs. 

Readability Can't Be Overlooked 

Let's use our call to the internal OS- 
9 function MsSig for a readability 
example. Take a look at it now: 

Regs.a:=5tdln 

Regs - b : =SS _MsS i g 

Regs . x : =MouseS i g 

Ca 1 1 Code : = I_Se tS 1 1 

RUN SysCall(CallCDde,Regs) 

When you read this code, you can 
determine in English what you are 
loading into each of the 6809's registers 
as well as the function you want to run. 
Now consider this — the program would 
have worked in exactly the same 
manner if we had decided to type the 
following: 

Regs . a : =0 

Regs.b:=$BR 

Regs . x:=10 

CallCode:=$8E 

RUN SysCall (CallCode, Regs) 

Do you think you would remember 
what the second string of code would do 
if you read it two weeks after you wrote 
it? 1 certainly wouldn't! Notice how we 
reserved space and initialized all of 
these variables early in the program. 
Once we type 

Grp_Ptr:=202 
Ptr_flrr:=l 

we could type Run gfx2( "gcset", 
Grp_Ptr\Ptr_arr), rather than Run 
gfx2("gcset", 202,1). 

Which of those lines means more to 
you? 



0733 
0735 

9^9 
0761 

0787 

j7788 

07AB 

07D9 

0802 

08)73 

080F 

08 IB 

0827 

03 2F 

083E 

08 7E 

08A9 

08AA 

08DE 

0901 

0902 

?9?A 

093D 

094C 

094D 

0984 

09B5 

09F0 

0A25 

0A5B 

0A64 

0A65 

0A74 

?A78 

0A79 

0A92 

0AB9 

0AC9 

0ADE 

0AE2 

0B?6 

0B08 

0B0C 

0B0D 

0B46 

?B47 

0B5A 

0B5B 

0B5D 

0B5E 



PRINT 

PRINT "Type <Control E> or <BREAK> to stop It!" 

IceptCode. IntResult:-? \(* Initialize Signal Report 

(* Tell mouse which signal you want 

(* it to return when the button is pushed. Do 

(* this vith the SS_MsSig set status call 

Regs .a:-StdIn 

Regs.b:-SS_MsSig 

Regs . z : -House Sig 

CallCode : -I_SetStt 

RUN SysCall(CallCode,Regs) 

PRINT "I have given the mouse a signal to send back to the process 
PRINT "Now, I am putting the process to sleep.** 

(* Nov we must tell the process to go to sleep until 
(* it receives a signal to wake up. 

Ca 1 ICo de : -F_S le ep 

Regs.x:-? \(* Sleep forever --at least till signal 
RUN SysCall (CallCode, Regs) 

(* After a signal or interrupt wakes up the system, we 

(* should be able to find out if it was the mouse 

(* that generated the signal by looking at Icept Code .Result 

(* When we arrive here, the process has just awakened 

(* and we will test to see if the signal came from the 

(* mouse. 

EXITIF IceptCode . IntResult-2 THEN 
END EXIT 

PRINT "MouseSlg is now, HouseSig 

PRINT "IceptCode. In t Re suit is now, "j IceptCode . IntResult 
IF IceptCode. IntResult-HouseSig THEN 

PRINT "It's the Mouse HI- 
ELSE 

PRINT "The signal returned was, "j IceptCode . IntResult 
END IF 
END LOOP 

(* Always turn off graphics cursor before leaving program 

RUN gfx2("gcset",?,?) 

END 



Listing 4: SkipMuf (continued from last month) 



667 


? 


1 


(* 


668 


9 


1 


* Askabort - Asks user if he wants to abort computation in order 


669 


9 


1 


* to reenter data. 


670 


9 


1 


*) 


671 


9 


1 




672 


9 


1 


PROCEDURE Askabort (VAR path : text); 


673 


9 


1 




674 


9 


1 


BEGIN 


675 


9 


2 


Clrscrn(path) ; 


676 


6 


2 


Write(path, 'Prediction for: 9 , name); 


677 


24 


2 


IF (call[lj O » •) THEN 


678 


39 


3 


Write(path t », », call); 


679 


57 


2 


ffriteln(path) ; 


680 


62 


2 


Write(path, 'Date: day: 2:?, • \ moname:3, » »); 


681 


102 


2 


tfriteln(path, 'SSN: ' , sunspot:3:JI t » Flux: flux: 3:?); 


682 


139 


2 


tfrite(path, 'To: \ ocntnt, • (•, ocity, \ \ ocntry, '), • 


683 


197 


2 


Writeln(path, 'Lat », olat:6:2, • , Lon » , olon:7:2); 


684 


234 


2 


ffriteln(path) ; 


685 


241 


2 


Write (path, 'Continue computation (Y/N)7 *); 


686 


253 


2 


Prompt (path) ; 


687 


258 


2 


Reset(path) ; 


688 


268 


2 


Readln(path, answer); 


689 


28? 


2 


Rewrite (path) ; 


690 


29? 


2 


END; 


693 


0 


1 


{* 


694 


9 


1 


* Vantpmt - Asks if user wants printout on printer. 


695 


0 


1 


*) 


696 


0 


1 




697 


9 


1 


PROCEDURE tfantprnt(VAR path : text); 


698 


9 


1 




699 


9 


1 


VAR 


70? 


JJD 


1 


answer : char; 


701 


-ID 


1 




702 


-ID 


1 


BEGIN 


703 


0 


2 


Vrite(path, 'Want printout of results (Y/N) ? »); 


704 


14 


2 


Prompt (path) ; 


705 


17 


2 


Reset(path) ; 



182 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 





4 1 

27 


2 


Koaaln r^parn , answer j , 


^ ft ^ 

707 


37 


z 


Rewrite (.pacnj ; 


708 


47 


2 


IF ((answer • Y') OR. (answer ■ J )) itxn.^ 


709 


61 


3 


printout true. 


71 a 


OL 






71 1 






tJTintout ' — FALSE* 


719 


7A. 




FNn* 


715 




* 

1 


{* 


716 


9 


1 


* Hourmuf - computes HUT for specific hour of day. 


717 


9 


1 


*) 


718 


9 


1 




719 


9 


1 


FUNCTION Hourmuf (olat , olon ,mylat .mylon , p , q , r . s , k7 ,hour : real) : real ; 


72)7 


9 


1 




721 


9 


1 


CONST 


722 


rw wk 

PD 


* 

1 


A <l« A A ^ AAA 

e - 2.71821828; 


723 


mm. mi 

AD 


<* 

1 


pi - 3.14159265; 


724 




1 


tvopi - 6.28318531; 


725 


3D 


* 

1 


halfpi - 1.57079633} 


726 


ffD 


1 




727 


AD 


1 


VAR 


728 


3D 


1 


gl,k6,k5, j9 ,kl,a,b,c , d,vJ7:reaL; 


729 


-500 


1 


10,yl,y2,k8 r k9,g0,m9,t,t4 f c0,t9,t6,g9:real; 


730 


-115D 


1 


A *V A % A A « 

g8 ,u,g7,g2 ,ul,u2 ,u3 , step, test : real; 


731 




* 

1 




732 


-160D 


1 




733 


-16JJD 


1 


FUNCTION Acs (x : real) : real; 


734 


JJD 


2 




735 


0D 


2 


TAR 


736 


0D 


2 


result : real; 


737 


-5D 


2 




738 


-5D 


2 


BEGIN 


739 


9 


3 


result halfpi - Arctan(x / sqrt(-x * x + 1)); 


740 


31 


3 


acs result 


741 


31 


A 

3 


END; 


742 




2 




743 


9 


2 




744 


9 


2 


FUNCTION Rpower (y,x:real) :real; 


745 


9 


2 




746 


9 


2 


TAR 


747 


/In 

0D 


A 

2 


result : real ; 


748 


-5D 


2 




749 


-5D 


2 


BEGIN 


75a 


a 

J* 


3 


IF x - <2 Of 

- LC * W'F 


751 


5 


3 


THEN result :- 1.0 


752 


15 


4 


ELSE result Exp(x * Ln(y)); 



Here's another programming tip. 
Debugging can be awful if you don't 
give yourself enough clues. That's the 
purpose of all those Print statements 
in SigTestTwo. Every time I run a 
SysCall, I print a report on the screen 
to let me know where I am in the 
program. By looking at these reports, I 
can tell when or if the program goes 
astray. 

Caveats and What Comes Next? 

Before we secure this tutorial and 
turn you loose to run the code, you 
should take one or two precautions. 
First, you must run SigTestTwo in a 
graphics window. You cannot run the 
gfx2 gcset function to display the 
mouse pointer in a text type window. 
Additionally — for a reason as yet 
unknown — you must run SigTestTwo 
from a shell that was not created by 
Multi-Vue. We'll be looking deeper into 
this slight inconvenience to see if we can 
find the cause. Cross your fingers! You 
can, however, run SigTestTwo from a 
shell created by another shell that was 
not started by Multi-Vue. 

In other words, you can have Multi- 
Vue running in one window and a 
second shell running in another win- 
dow. Then, start SigTestTwo in this 




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"A definite 5 starsl" -12/87 Wizard's Castle review 





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All programs CoCo I 2, 3 compatible unless stated otherwise. 



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(412) 372-5674 

Personal checks, money orders, and C.O.D. orders 
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extra for C.O.D. orders. PA 
residents add 6% sales tax. 
Authorship and dealer inquiries 
welcome. 



...»•...'. 



>:•:••:•:•:•:»• 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 183 



second window. However, if you use the 
SHELL command under the Files menu 
to create a third shell, you will not be 
able to run SigTestTwo under it. For 
some reason, if you are running in a 
shell created by Multi-Vue, the signal 
returned when you click the mouse in 
SigTestTwo is zero — the signal to kill 
the process. And, as you might guess, 
that's exactly what happens. It's inter- 
esting to note that Kevin Darling's 
MVTest, another BASIC09 program, 
exhibits exactly the same behavior — 
and he uses the special packed Boolean 
/ ON ERROR GOTO algorithm. Fixing this 
one just might be a real challenge. 

"The next step in the 
evolution of MVShell 
will be to add the code 
from SigTestTwo to the 
tail-end of the code in 
this month's MVShell. " 

Another caveat comes with using 
SigTestTwo in its present form. Once 
you have run this procedure, you will 
not be able to use the break key or the 
CTRL-E key combination from within 
BASIC09 without restarting BASIC09. 
This happens because our own intercept 
routine in SigTestTwo takes the place 
of the intercept routine BAS1C09 sets. 
The solution to this problem isn't too 
difficult but would have made the code 
for this month's tutorial too long. We'll 
try to get it in next month. If you want 
to jump ahead of us, here are the steps 
you will need to follow at the start of 
your BASIC09 program: 

• Get BASlC09's Process ID using a 
GetID SysCall 

• Use SysCall to run FSGetPrcjc 

• Save the 512-byte array returned by 
FSGetProc into an array 

• Save the intercept vector address and 
data address in another variable 

• Use the intercept SysCall to restore 
them before you exit your program 

You must also remember that if you 
set your own intercept like we did in 
SigTestTwo, the ON ERROR GOTO func- 
tion will no longer work. You will need 
to process the expected errors each time 
with your own code, which you wake up 
following a signal. 

The next step in the evolution of 
MVShell will be to add the code from 
SigTestTwo to the tail-end of the code 
in this month's MVShell. Additionally, 
we'll need to add calls to Windings 
SS_MnSel, SSJJMBar and, if we have 



753 


A 1 

Hi 


i 


— ■ 1 

rpower result 


75*» 


/. 1 

*»1 


3 


END; 




755 




2 






•re c 
756 


AT 


2 






757 

757 


n 
J* 


2 


FUNCTION Checkval (x:real) :real; 


758 


9 


ft 

2 






"T C A 

759 


9 


A 

2 


BEGIN 




76J* 


9 


A 

3 


IF (x >- 1.0) OR (x <- -1.0) 


761 


A A 

22 


A 

3 


THEN 


762 


A £ 

26 


4 




IF x >- 1.0 


7£ 1 

763 


O Q 

29 


/. 

7 




THEN x :- 0,999999999 


7 C / 

764 


1 Q 

39 


5 




ELSE x -0.999999999; 


"7 C 5 

765 


c n 


3 


checkval : - x 


/DO 


An 


i 


END; 




7fi7 
1 0 / 


a 
J* 


o 

A 






/ oo 




1 
A 










0 
A 


FUNCTION Sgn (x : real) : real; 


770 


n 
J* 


0 
A 






771 
f f L 


n 
J* 


O 
A 


VAR 




772 


JJD 


2 


result: real; 


77<l 

773 


-5D 


n 

2 






77A 

774 


-5D 


n 

2 


BEGIN 




775 




3 


IF x 


< 9-9 


776 


5 


3 


THEN result -1.JJ; 


^ ^ ^ 

777 


A / 

24 


A 

3 


IF x 


- 9-9 


778 


A 7 

27 


A 

3 


THEN result :«■ 0.0; 


A 

779 


46 


3 


IF x 


> 9-9 


78p 


A Q 

49 


i 
3 


THEN result 1.0; 


701 

781 


£0 

68 


i 

3 


sgn 


result 


7SA 

782 


A B 

68 


3 


END; 




783 


9 


2 






784 


9 


«i 
2 






7AC 

785 


9 


2 


FUNCTION Minus exp (x: real) : real ; 


t a t. 

786 


9 


n 
2 






7 B 7 

787 


AT 

9 


2 


VAR 




7BO 

788 


OD 


2 


result : real ; 


7«A 

789 


-5D 


2 






t A n 

790 


-5D 


2 


BEGIN 




791 


9 


A 

3 


result Rpower((l.o / e),(-1.0 * x)); 


"V A A 

792 


A A 

33 


A 

3 


minus exp result 


793 


i 1 
33 


3 


END; 




7fl/, 


9 


rt 

2 






7 a c 
795 


9 


2 






796 


ft 

9 


rt 

2 


BEGIN (hourmuf ) 


797 


AT 

9 


A 

2 


k7 :- 


Checkval (k7) ; 


7 A A 

798 


* A 

12 


A 

2 


gl 


Acs(k7); 


7 Art 

799 


oo 
22 


2 


k6 :- 


1.59 * gl; 


Bnn 
800 


i c 
35 


rt 

2 


IF k6 


< 1.0 


a til 

801 


1 B 

38 


n 

2 


THEN k6 :- 1,0; 


BJJ2 


e 7 

5 / 


2 


k5 :- 


1*9 / k6; 


0)1 J 


7a 


O 
A 


IF k5 


O 1.0 


BOA 


/ J 


o 

A 


THEN k5 :- 0.5; 


OjSj 


QO 


O 
A 


j9 :- 


199-91 


0)1 0 


1 (11 
101 


4 
A 


a 


<r - p * Cos(gl)) / (q * Sln(gl)); 


807 


1 O 7 

127 


2 


7 1 :- 


0.0172 * (10.0 + (mouth - 1.0) * 30.4 + day); 


and 
6)10 


165 


n 
A 


y2 


0.409 * Cos(yl); 


A A 1 A 

809 


ion 

18° 


rt 

2 


kl 


l.o / (2.0 * k6); 


810 


onn 

299 


rt 

2 


test i 


- Abs(l.o - kl); 


oil 

811 


O 1 A 

214 


rt 

2 


step : 


- Abs(0.9999 - 2 * kl); 


01 O 

812 


Oil 

231 


o 

A 


REPEAT 


Oil 
0 1 J 


oil 

A J 1 


o 
A 


b 


- gl * kl; 


B 1 A 

814 


OA1 

241 


1 

3 


c ; 


i p * Cos(b) + q * Sln(b) * a; 


815 


27JJ 


1 
j 


d 


- (Cos(b) - c * p) / (q * Sqrtd.o - c * c)); 


0 1 c 

BlO 


in7 
307 


i 


d : 


t« Checkval (d); 


017 

817 


11 7 


i 


d 


:- Acs(d) ; 


a i o 

818 


1 11 

327 


i 


vO 


my Ion + Sgn(Sin(olozi - nylon)) * d; 


A 1 A 

819 


1 C 1 

351 


3 


IF (wO < 0.0) OR (wflf >- twopl) 


A A AT 

82? 


371 


A 

3 


THEN 


A A 4 

821 


375 


4 




IF wO < 0.0 


AAA 

822 


1 T O 

378 


4 




THEN wfl wO + twopi 


A A A. 

823 


1 rt 1 

391 


5 




ELSE wO wp - twopl; 


oo /. 
824 


A 1 7 


i 


c 


:- Checkval(c); 


0 o 


£97 

7 A / 


1 


19 


i- halfpl - Acs(c); 


00 £ 


AAA 


1 


k8 


t- 3 . 82*vO+12 . 0+0 . l3*(Sln(yl)+l . 2*Sin(2*yl) ) ; 


607 
DC / 


A01 


i 


k8 


k8-12.p*(l+Sgn(k8-27,0))*Sgn(Abs(k8-24.p)); 


BOB 


C/. c 
5H5 


3 


IF Cos (10 + y 2) <- -0.26 


629 


554 


3 


THEN BEGIN (then 1) 


A A AT 

830 


564 


4 




k9 :- o.O; 


A A 1 

831 


573 






g fl 9-9'> 


AAA 

832 


C A A 

582 


4 




m9 2.5 * gl * k5; 


ail 

833 


too 
599 


4 




IF m9 > halfpl 


A A i 

834 


/» ATM 

602 


* 

4 




THEN m9 :- halfpl; 


A A £ 

835 


621 


* 

4 




m9 Sln(m9) ; 


Bit 

o Jo 


coo 


A 




m9 :- l.p + 2.5 * m9 * Sqrt(m9); 


DJ / 


035 


A 




END Cthen 1) 


BIB 
0 JO 


ret 
055 


A 

H 


ELSE BEGIN [else 1) 


839 


£ c o 

658 


4 




k9 :- (-p.26+Sln(y2)*Sin(10))/(Cos(y2)*Cos(ia) 




ABA 

084 


4 




+9W>1 


a a i 


£ o a 
ova 


A 
*» 




k9 :- l2.a-Arctan(k9/Sqrt(Abs(l.a-k9*k9))) 


B AO 


70 * 

/ a5 


A 




*7. 639437; 


843 


738 


4 




t :- k8-0.5*k9+12,p*(l.p-sgn(k8-a.5*k9)) 


844 

W *T "T 


786 


4 




*8gn(Abs<k8-a.5*k9)); 


845 


811 


4 




t4 k8+a.5*k9-12.a*(l.p+Sgn(k8+a.5*k9-27.a)) 


846 


863 


4 




*Sgn (Abs (k8+a . 5*k9 -24.0)); 



184 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



Protect and highlight 
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time, the code to process a few of the 
menu selections. Hopefully, by the time 
we finish the project you'll have all of 
Multi- Vue*s desk accessories and other 
functionality available to you from each 
of your BASIC09 programs. 

Other Good News and Notes 

The new GShell from Kent Meyers 
keeps getting better. I'm still running 
one of the very early versions, and it 
sings. However, conversations with 
several people around the country tell 
me I'm really missing out. The later 
versions really shine! For example, we 
now have a wastebasket on our desktop. 
And thanks to Kent's ingenuity, it's 
easier to use than the one on the Mac- 
intosh. On the Macintosh you must 
drag your files to the wastebasket. On 
our Color Computer 3 with the new 
GShe 1 1 , you merely click on the file you 
want to throw away to select it. Then, 
move the mouse to the wastebasket and 
click. Presto! All gone! 

Additionally, if you put a ? in your 
ftIF file with the new GShell, you will 
get a prompt for additional parameters. 
And Meyers has come up with a simple 
modification to SCF and CC3io that lets 
you continue after a pause by clicking 
the mouse anywhere on the screen. He 
also redid the "Sure ?" box so that it 
pops up right where your mouse is 
sitting when you activate an action from 
the menu bar that requires it. And if 
that's not enough, there's now a quick 
shell. When you need another shell, just 
press S. Magic! 

But we've saved the real good news 
for last. This is another cross-your- 
fingers revelation, however, because 
this column will be printed after the fact 
— but the OS-9 Users Group plans to 
sell the IPatch that generates the new 
GShel 1 from the original Tandy file at 
RAINBOWfest Chicago. Hope you 
were there to get a copy. 

Speaking of the Users Group, the 
address is Suite R-237, 1715 Fowler 
Ave., Tampa, FL 33612. The cost for an 
individual membership is just $25 per 
year. The benefits are many and include 
access to a growing library of valuable 
public domain software and a subscrip- 
tion to MOTD y the UG newsletter. 
Dave Kaleita, Pete Lyall, Kevin Dar- 
ling, George Dorner and Carl Kreider 
are doing a heck of a job. Join them! 

And speaking of credit — Ron Lam- 
mardo's name was somehow edited out 
of our praises of the new Shell*. Ron 
provided many of the ideas for this team 
project and wrote the latest version. 
Great job, Ron! □ 



847 


895 


4 




C0 :- Abs(Cos(10 + y2)); 


848 


908 


4 




t9 9.7 * Rpower(c0,9.6); 


849 


931 


4 




IF t9 <- 0.1 


850 


934 


4 




THEN t9 0.1; 


851 


953 


4 




m9 2.5 * gl * k5; 


852 


970 


4 




IF m9 > halfpi 


853 


973 


4 




THEN m9 :- halfpi; 


354 


992 


4 




m9 Sin(m9) ; 


355 


1000 


4 




m9 1.0 + 2.5 * m9 * Sqrt(m9); 


856 


1027 


4 




IF (<t4<t) AND ((hour-t4)*(t-hour)<-0.0)) 


857 


1057 


4 




OR ((t4>-t) AND ((hour-t)*(t4«hour)>0.0)) 


858 


1087 


4 




THEN BEGIN (then 2) 


859 


1091 


5 




t6 hour+12.0*(1.0+Sgn(t-hour)) 


86)1 


1118 


5 




*Sgn(Aba(t-hour)) ; 


861 


1136 


5 




g9 pi * (t6 - t) / k9; 


862 


1157 


5 




gB :- pi * t9 / k9; 


863 


1174 


5 




u :- 0.5 * (t - t6) / t9; 


864 


1195 


5 




IF u < 0.0 


865 


1198 


5 




THEN u :- Hinusexp(u) 


866 


1212 


6 




ELSE u :- Exp(u); 


867 


1229 


5 




ul :- -0.5 * k9 / t9; 


868 


1247 


5 




IF ul < 0.0 


869 


1250 


5 




THEN ul Minus exp(ul) 


870 


1264 


6 




ELSE ul :- Exp(ul); 


871 


1283 


5 




u2 0.25 * (k9 - 24.0); 


872 


1303 


5 




IF u2 < 0.0 


873 


1306 


5 




THEN u2 Hlnusexp(u2) 


874 


1320 


6 




ELSE u2 :- Exp(u2) ; 


875 


1337 


5 




g0 :- c0*(Sin(g9)+g8*(u*u-Cos(g9))) 


876 


1363 


5 




/(1.0+g8*g8); 


877 


1382 


5 




g7 C0*(g8*(ul*ul+1.0))*u2*u2 


878 


1408 


5 




/<1.0+g8*g8); 


879 


1430 


5 




IF g0 < g7 


88)1 


1433 


5 




THEN g0 :- g7 


881 


1440 


6 




END (then 2) 


882 


1446 


5 




ELSE BEGIN (else 2) 


883 


1449 


5 




t6 hour+l2.0*(1.0+Sgn(t4-hour)) 


884 


1476 


5 




*Sgn(Abs(t4-hour)) ; 


885 


1494 


5 




g8 :- pi * t9 / k9; 


886 


1511 


5 




u :- 0.25 * (t4 - t6); 


887 


1528 


5 




IF u < 0.0 


888 


1531 


5 




THEN u :- Minusexp(u) 


889 


1550 


6 




ELSE u :- Exp(u); 


89)1 


1567 


5 




ul -0.5 * k9 / t9; 


891 


1585 


5 




IF ul < 0.0 


892 


1588 


5 




THEN ul :- Kinusexp(ul) 


893 


1602 


6 




ELSE ul Exp(ul); 


894 


1619 


5 




g0 C0*(g$*(ul*ul+1.0))*u*u/<1.0+g8*g8) 


895 


1663 


5 




END; (else 2) 


896 


1667 


4 


END; (else 1) 


897 


1667 


3 


g2 ! 


- (1.0+0.004*sunspot)*m9*Sqrt(6.0+58.0*Sqrt(g0)) ; 


898 


1713 


3 


u3 ; 


- k9 / 6.0 - 4.0; 


899 


1733 


3 


IF u3 < 0.0 


m 


1736 


3 


THEN u3 :- Minus exp(u3) 


901 


1750 


4 


ELSE u3 :- Exp(u3); 


902 


1767 


3 


82 : 


- g2 * (1.0 - 0.1 * u3 * u3); 


903 


1796 




g2 : 


- g2*(1.0+(1.0-Sgn(olat)*Sgn(mylat))*0.1); 


904 


1839 


3 


g2 : 


- g2*(1.0-0.1*(1.0+(Sgn(Abs(Sin(10)))-Cos(10)))) ; 


905 


1883 


3 


IF g2 <- j9 


906 


1886 


3 


THEN j9 g2; 


907 


1899 


3 


kl : 


- kl + step; 


908 


1909 


3 


UNTIL 


(kl >- test); 


909 


1919 




hourmuf :- 19; 


910 


1925 


2 






911 


1925 




END; {hourmuf) 


914 


0 


1 


C* 




915 


0 


1 


* Compmuf - Computes KOF for each hour of the day specified. 


916 


0 


1 


* 


Stores result in global array provided. 


917 


9 


1 


*) 




918 


0 


1 






919 


0 


1 


PROCEDURE Compmuf (VAR path : text) ; 


920 


0 


1 






921 


0 


\ 


VAR 




922 


0D 


I 


loopcount : Integer; 


923 


-2D 


I 


latl.lonl : real; 


924 


-12D 


1 


lat2,lon2 : real; 


925 


-22D 


I 




, s : real; 


926 


-42D 


1 


k7,hour : real; 


927 


-52D 


1 






928 


-52D 




BEGIN 




929 


0 


2 


latl 


Xw olat * degtorad; 


930 


15 


2 


lonl 


olon * degtorad; 


931 


28 


2 


lat2 


mylat * degtorad; 


932 


41 


2 


lon2 


mylon * degtorad; 


933 


54 


2 


p :- Sln(lat2) ; 


934 


62 


2 


q :- Cos(lat2) ; 


935 


70 


2 


r Sin(latl) ; 


936 


78 


2 


s Cos(latl); 


937 


86 


2 


k7 :- 


r*p+s*q* Cos(lon2 - lonl); 


938 


114 


2 






939 


114 


2 


Write (path, 'Crunching numbers 


940 


128 


2 


Prompt (path) ; 


941 


131 


2 


FOR loopcount :- 1 TO 24 DO BEGIN 


942 


145 


3 


hour t- loopcount; 



186 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



943 
944 
945 
946 
947 
948 
951 
952 
953 
954 
955 
956 
957 
958 
959 
96)1 
961 
962 
963 
964 
965 
966 
967 
968 
969 
970 
971 
972 
973 
974 
975 
978 

979 
980 
981 
982 
983 
984 
985 
986 
987 
988 
969 
99)1 
991 
992 
993 
994 
995 
996 
997 
998 
999 

im 
wi 
im 
im 
im 

1JIJJ5 

iw 
w 
im 
w* 

mv 
i0ii 

1012 
1013 
1014 
1015 
1016 
1017 
1018 
1019 
1020 
1021 
1022 
1023 
1024 
1025 
1026 
1027 
1028 
1029 
1030 
1031 
1032 
1033 
1034 
1035 
1036 
1037 
1038 
1039 
1040 



150 
176 
198 
212 
215 
229 

9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 

0D 

-2D 
-7D 
-12D 
-12D 

9 

6 

19 

31 

57 

83 
129 
140 
152 
173 
194 
238 
241 

9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
90 

-6D 
-6D 

9 

15 
19 
24 

30 
40 

50 

57 

63 

71 

83 

93 
109 
115 
123 
135 
145 
163 
169 
177 
189 

2) 18 
227 
246 
267 
288 

3) 79 
328 
349 
368 
389 

4) 76 
427 
450 
456 
472 
475 
481 
495 
498 
525 
531 
545 
551 
581 
587 
601 
606 
638 
644 
658 
664 

701 
707 



3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2 

2 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

3 

3 

3 

3 

2 

3 

3 

3 

3 

2 

3 

3 

3 

3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

3 

3 

3 

3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

3 

3 

3 

3 



results [loopcount] Hourmuf (latl, lonl, lat2, 

p, q, r, s, k7, hour); 

Write (path, »); 
Prompt (path) ; 
END; 
END; 

(* 

* Showmuf - displays computation results on screen. 
*) 

PROCEDURE Showmuf (VAR path : text); 



lon2, 




VAR 

loopcount 

oft 

hpf 



Integer ; 

real; 

real; 



BEGIN 

Clrscrn(path) ; 

Vriteln(path, 'HOUR OFT (MHZ) HUT" (MHZ) HPF (MHZ) ') ; 
FOR loopcount :- 1 to 23 DO BEGIN 

oft 0,85 * results [ loopcount] ; 

hpf :- 1.15 * results ( loopcount] ; 

ffriteln(path, loopcount :3, » . * t of t:6:l, results [loopcount] :9 
hpf :9:1); 

END; 

results [24] ; 
results[24] ; 

24. *, oft:6:l, results [24] :9:1, hpf:9:l); 



:1. 



oft 0.85 * 
hpf :- 1.15 * 
Wrlte(path, * 
Prompt(path) ; 
END; 

(* 

* Craphmuf - display graph of OFT, MUF, & HPF on screen 
*> 

PROCEDURE Craphmuf ( VAR path : text); 
VAR 

loopcount, x, y : integer; 
BEGIN 

Cvset(path, 1, 32, 0, 48, 24, 2, 0); 
Curoff (path) ; 
Scalesw(path, 0); 
Setdptr(path, 16, 8); 
Box(path, 376, 175); 
FOR loopcount :- 1 TO 5 DO BEGIN 

x :- (60 * loopcount) + 16; 

Setdptr(path, x, 8); 

Line (path, z, 175); 
END; 

FOR loopcount 2 TO 10 DO BEGIN 

y r- 175 - Round(Logl0( loopcount) * 100); 
Set dptr (path, 16, y); 
Line(path, 376, y) ; 

END; 

FOR loopcount 2 TO 4 DO BEGIN 

y 175 - Round (Logl0( 10 * loopcount) * 100); 

Setdptr(path, 16, y) ; 

Line (path, 376, y) ; 
END; 

Curxy(path, 0, 
Curxy(path, 0, 
Curxy(path, 0, 
Curxy(pach, 0, 
Curxy(path, 0, 
Curxy(path, 0, 
Curxy(path, 0, 
Curxy(path, 0, 
Curxy(path, 0, 
Curxy(path, 0, 
Curxy(path, 0, 
Curry(path, 0, 
Curxy(parh, 0, 
Curxy(path, 0, 

Write (path, '0 4 8 12 16 20 

Prompt (path) ; 
Curxy(path, 0, 
Vr it a (path, • 
Prompt (path) ; 

y 175 - Round(Logl0(results [24] ) * 100); 
Setdptr(path, 16, y) ; 
FOR loopcount 1 TO 24 DO BEGIN 
x :- 16 + (loopcount * 15); 

y 175 - Round (Logl0( re suits [loopcount]) * 100); 
Linem(path, x, y) ; 
END; 

Fcolor(path, $03); 

y :- 175 - Round(Logl0(0.85*results[24]) * 100); 
Setdptr(path, 16, y) ; 
For loopcount 1 TO 24 DO BEGIN 
x 16 + (loopcount * 15); 

y :- 175 - Round (Logl0(0. 8 5*results[ loopcount] ) * 100) 
Linem(path, x, y) ; 
END; 



i); 


Write (path, 


•40'); 


Prompt (path) 


3); 


Write (path, 


'30'); 


Prompt (path) 


5); 


Write (path, 


'20'); 


Prompt (path) 


9); 


Write (path, 


•10O; 


Prompt (path) 


13); 


Write(path, 


f F5'); 


Prompt(path) 


14); 


Write (path, 


♦R4'); 


Prompt (path) 


15); 


Write (path, 


•E»); 


Prompt (path) 


16); 


Writa(path, 


»Q3'); 


Prompt (path) 


17); 


Write (path, 


•U')i 


Prompt (path) 


18); 


Write (path, 


•E2 1 ); 


Prompt (path) 


19); 


Write(path, 


■.»•>: 


Prompt (path) 


20); 


Write (path, 


•C); 


Prompt (path) 


21); 


Write (path. 




Prompt (path) 


22); 








9 


4 8 


12 


16 


23); 








HOUR 


•); 







24') 



Submitting 

Material 
To Rainbow 



Contributions to the rainbow 
are welcome from everyone. We 
like to run a variety of programs 
that are useful/helpful/fun for 
other CoCo owners. 

WHAT TO WRITE: We are inter- 
ested in what you may wish to tell 
our readers. We accept for consid- 
eration anything that is well- 
written and has a practical appli- 
cation for the Tandy Color Com- 
puter. If it interests you, it will 
probably interest lots of others. 
However, we vastly prefer articles 
with accompanying programs 
which can be entered and run. The 
more unique the idea, the more the 
appeal. We have a continuing need 
for short articles with short list- 
ings. These are especially appeal- 
ing to our many beginners. 

FORMAT: Program submis- 
sions must be on tape or disk, and 
it is best to make several saves, at 
least one of them in ASCII format. 
We're sorry, but we do not have 
time to key in programs and debug 
our typing errors. AN programs 
should be supported by some ed- 
itorial commentary explaining 
how the program works. We also 
prefer that editorial copy be in- 
eluded on the tape or disk using 
any of the word processors cur- 
rently aval lable for the Color Com- 
puter. Also, please include a 
double-spaced printout of your 
editorial material and program 
listing. Do not send text in all 
capital letters; use upper- and 
lowercase. 

COMPENSATION: We do pay 
for submissions, based on a 
number of criteria. Those wishing 
remuneration should so state 
when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who 
wish more detailed information on 
making submissions, please send 
a self-addressed, stamped enve- 
lope (SASE) to: Submission 
Guidelines, the rainbow, The Fal- 
soft Building, P.O. Box 385, Pros- 
pect, KY 40059. We will send you 
comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit material 
currently submitted to another 
publication. 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 187 




About 
Your 
Subscription 



Your copy of the rainbow is 
sent second class mail. You 
must notify us of a new address 
when you move. Notification 
should reach us no later than 
the 15th of the month prior to 
the month in which you change 
your address. Sorry, we cannot 
be responsible for sending 
another copy when you fail to 
notify us. 

Your mailing label also 
shows an account number and 
the subscription expiration 
date. Please Indicate this ac- 
count number when renewing 
or corresponding with us. It 
will help us help you better and 
faster. 

For Canadian and other non- 
U.S. subscribers, there may be 
a mailing address shown that is 
different from our editorial of- 
fice address. Do not send any 
correspondence to that mail- 
ing address. Send it to our edi- 
torial offices at Falsoft, Inc., 
The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. This 
applies to everyone except 
those whose subscriptions are 
through our distributor in Aus- 
tralia. 




1041 


721 


2 


1)742 


726 


2 


1043 


758 


2 


1)144 


764 


2 


1045 


780 


3 


1046 


786 


3 


1047 


823 


3 


1048 


829 


3 


1049 


843 


2 


1050 


848 


2 


1051 


852 


2 


1110 


1222 


3 


1054 


9 


1 


1055 


9 


1 


1056 


9 


1 


1057 


9 


1 


1058 


9 


1 


1059 


9 


1 


1060 


0D 


1 


1061 


-4D 


1 


1062 


-8D 


1 


1063 


-23D 


1 


1064 


-3943D 


1 


1065 


-3943D 


1 


1066 


9 


2 


1067 


12 


2 


1068 


48 


2 


1069 


78 


2 


1070 


102 


2 


1071 


117 


3 


1072 


141 


2 


1073 


150 


2 


1074 


202 


2 


1075 


251 


2 


1076 


326 


2 


1077 


375 


2 


1078 


384 


2 


1079 


400 


2 


1080 


421 


2 


1081 


435 


3 


1082 


439 


3 


1083 


465 


3 


1084 


491 


3 


1085 


557 


3 


1086 


583 


3 


1087 


609 


3 


1088 


678 


3 


1089 


692 


2 


1090 


726 


2 


1091 


741 


3 


1092 


756 


4 


1093 


809 


2 


1094 


823 


3 


1095 


827 


3 


1096 


842 


4 


1097 


879 


3 


1098 


893 


2 


1099 


932 


2 


110? 


973 


2 


1101 


1015 


2 


1102 


1060 


2 


1103 


1102 


2 


1104 


1116 


3 


1105 


1128 


3 


1106 


1143 


4 


1107 


1180 


3 


1108 


1194 


2 


1109 


1208 


3 


1111 


1237 


4 


1112 


1274 


3 


1113 


1289 


2 


1114 


1304 


3 


1115 


1322 


3 


1116 


1341 


3 


1117 


1355 


2 


1118 


1394 


2 


1119 


1435 


2 


1120 


1477 


2 


1121 


1491 


2 


1122 


1519 


2 


1123 


1539 


2 


1124 


1558 


2 


1125 


1586 


2 


1126 


1604 


2 


1127 


1623 


2 


1128 


1644 


2 


1129 


1662 


2 


1130 


1681 


2 


1131 


1695 


3 


1132 


1699 


3 


1133 


1753 


3 


1134 


1811 


3 


1135 


1858 


3 


1136 


1872 


2 



Fcolor(path, $01); 

7 :- 175 - Round(Logl0(1.15*results[24]) * 100); 
Setdptr(path, 16, y) \ 
For loopcount 1 TO 24 DO BEGIN 
r 16 + (loopcount * 15); 

y 175 - Round(Logl0( 1.15*results[ loopcount ] ) * 100); 
LinemCpath, x, y) ; 
END; 

Fco lor (path, $02); 
Curon(path) ; 
END; 

FOR loop2 :- 1 TO 47 DO 

{* 

* Printmuf - 
*) 



print results on printer. 
PROCEDURE Printmuf (VAR path : text); 



VAR 

loopl, loop 2 

7 

oft,hpf ,mu£ 
graph 



Integer; 
Integer; 
real; 

ARRAY [1. .80,0. .48] OF char; 



BEGIN 

Rewrite (path, prlntpath) ; 

Writeln(path); Writeln(path) ; writeln(path) ; writeln(path) ; 
Writeln(path, title); ttriteln(path) ; 
Vrite(path, • Prediction for: • , name); 

IF (call[l] o Chr(0)) THEN 

Wrlte(path, » .call); 
ffriteln(path) ; 

Write(path,' Date: 1 , day: 2:0,* ■ ,moname:3 f 1 •); 

Vriteln(path, 'SSN: ■ ,sunspot:3:0, * Flux: • ,flux:3:0); 
Write(path,» To: » .ocntnt.' ('.ocity,', • gentry,* ), ') 

ffriteln(path, 'Lat: *,olat:6:2,' Lon: ',olon:7:2); 
Vriteln(path) ; 

Write(path,* HOUR OFT (MHZ) MUF(MHZ) HPF(MHZ) 1 ) ; 

yriteln(path, f HOUR OFT (MHZ) MUF(HHZ) HPF(MHZ) ' ) ; 

FOR loopl 1 to 12 DO BEGIN 

loop2 12 + loopl; 

oft :- 0.85 * results [ loopl ] ; 

hpf :- 1.15 * results [ loopl ] ; 

Wr its (path, loopl: 9, • . ' ,of t : 6 :1, results [loopl] : 9: 1 ,hpf : 9 : 1) 
oft :- 0.85 * results [ loop 2 ] ; 
hpf :- 1.15 * results { loop 2 ] ; 

Vriteln<path,loep2:lL,' . * ,oft:6:l,results[loop2] :9:l,hpf :9 
END; 

Writeln(path, Chr($13), Chr($lB), Chr($38)); 
FOR loopl 0 TO 48 DO 
FOR loop2 :- 1 TO 80 DO 
graph [loop2, loopl] :- 9 '; 
FOR loopl :■» 0 TO 6 DO BEGIN 
y :- 8 * loopl; 
FOR loop2 :- 1 TO 80 DO 
graph [loop2,y] :- »-'; 

END; 



:D; 



graph [1,0] 




•1' 


; graph(15,0] 


:- »2»; 


graph [24,0] 


:- »3» 


graph [30,0] 




'4' 


; graph[35,0] 


:- '5 r ; 


graph [39,0] 


:- '6* 


graph [42,0] 




•7' 


; graph[45,0] 


:- '8'; 


graph [48,0] 


:- »9» 


graph[50,0] 




•1' 


; graph! 51,0] 


'0 f ; 


graph[ 65,0] 


:- *2» 


graph [66,0] 




, 0 f 


; graph[ 74,0] 


:- '3»; 


graph [75,0] 


:- »0' 


FOR loopl :» 


2 


TO 


10 DO BEGIN 









x :- Round(logl0(loopl)*50) ; 
FOR loop2 :- 1 TO 47 DO 
graph [x,loop2] :- '|»; 

END; 

FOR loopl :- 2 TO 3 DO BEGIN 
x :- Round(logl0(10*loopl)*50) ; 
graph[x,loop2] :- * |»; 

END; 

FOR loopl :- 1 TO 47 DO BEGIN 
graph [1, loopl] :- • j*; 



»4» 
'2' 

•4' 



i _ tit. 
■ I » 

; graph[ 1,16] 
! graph[l,32] 
; graph [2, 40] 



»8 f 
•1' 
'0' 



graph [1,24] 
graph [2, 32] 
graph [1,48] 



graph [80, loopl] 
END; 

graph! 1,8] 
graph [2, 24] 
graph [1,40] 
graph [2, 48] 

x Round(logl0(1.15*results[24])*50); 
graph[x,0] :- '0'; 

graph[x,48] »0*; 

x :- Round(logl0(0.85*results[24])*50); 
graph[x,0] :- •#»; 
graph[x,48] :- , #»; 
x :« Round(logl0(results[24])*50) ; 
graph[x,0) :«• •*• j 
graph[x,48] :- •*'; 
FOR loopl :- 1 TO 23 DO BEGIN 
y :- 2 * loopl; 

graph[Round(logl0(1.15*results[ loopl ])*50),y] :- *0»; 
graph[Round(logl0(0.85*results[ loopl] )*50),y] :- •#•; 
graph(Round(logl0(results [loopl] )*50) ,y] :- **» ; 
END; 

FOR loopl :- 0 TO 48 DO BEGIN 



- »1» 

- '6' 

- »2' 



188 THE RAINBOW July 1988 



1137 

1138 

1139 

114? 

1141 

1142 

1143 

1144 

1147 

1148 

1149 

115? 

1151 

1152 

1153 

1154 

1155 

1156 

1157 

1158 

1161 

1162 

1163 

1164 

1165 

1166 

1167 

1168 

1169 

1170 

1171 

1172 

1173 

1174 

1175 

1176 

1177 

1178 

1179 

118)1 

1181 

1182 

1183 

1184 

1185 

1186 

1187 

1188 

1189 

119? 

1191 

1192 

1193 

1194 

1195 

1196 

1197 

1198 

1199 

12JJ? 

12(71 

1202 

12?3 

12?4 

1205 

1206 

1207 

12?8 

12JJ9 

121? 

1211 

1212 

1213 

1214 

1215 

1216 

1217 

1218 
1219 
122? 
1221 
1222 
1223 
1224 
1225 
1226 



1887 
19?2 
1949 
1958 
1972 
2??6 
2??9 
2?12 

9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 

14 
17 
27 
37 
47 
9 

9 

69 
91 
113 
135 
157 
179 
2?5 
231 
258 
284 
31? 
336 
341 
341 
353 
368 
378 
384 
384 
39? 
396 
411 
414 
414 
42? 
426 
432 
448 
454 
46? 
466 
472 
478 
484 
49? 
496 
515 
515 
521 
533 
538 
55? 
562 
574 
59? 
596 
6?8 
613 
625 
637 
649 
665 
671 
677 
693 
699 
7?5 
711 
717 
723 
729 
735 
741 
744 



3 
4 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



FOR loop2 1 TO 8? DO 

ffrite(path, graph [loop2 ,loopl] ) ; 
Writeln(path) ; 
END; 

Writeln(path, Chr(SlB), Chr(S36), Chr($14>); 
Page (path); 
Close (path) ; 
END; 

(* 

* Doagain - Is another prediction desired? 
*} 

PROCEDURE Doagain(VAR path : text); 
BEGIN 

Write(path, 'Do another MDT prediction (Y/N)? 
Prompt (path) ; 
Reset (path) ; 
Readln(path, answer); 
Revrite(path) ; 
END; 
BEGIN 

mo[l] :- 31 
mo[3] :- 31 
rao[5] 31 
mof7] :- 31 
mo[9] :- 3? 
mo[UJ :- 3? 
moarray [1] 
mo array [3 1 
moarray[5] 
moarray { 7 ] 
moarray [ 9 ] 
moarray [11] 
printout 



'); 



2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
4 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 
2 
1 



mo[2] 
mo[ 4] 
mo[6] 
mot8] 

BJO[l?] 

mo [12 J 

- * JAN* 

- 'MAR' 

- 'MAY' 

- 'JUL' 

- 'SEP* 

- 'NOV 
FALSE; 



- 28 

- 3?; 

- 3?; 

- 31; 

- 31; 

- 31; 
moarray [2] 
moarray [4] 
moarray [ 6 ] 
moarray [ 8 ] 
moarray [1?] 
moarray [12] 



- 'FEB* 

- 'APR' 

- , JUN t 

- 'AUG' 

- 'OCT* 

- 'DEC 



7 


SFTDPTH 


7 


7A 


i tt 


1 4 

12 


8 


9 


a 


ROT 


a 
0 


/ •* 


10 


12 


9 


9 


O 


T TNT 


a 

» 






12 


19 


9 


1 a 


r*TTQ V V 
VjUKJLX 


i a 
1? 


A 1 


2 


12 


11 


9 


1 1 

XX 




XX 


"7 A 


1° 


12 


12 


9 


1 9 
Li 




xZ 


28 


2 


12 


13 


9 


X J 


r"TTD nil 


xJ 


4 1 
XX 


z 


1 A 

12 


14 


9 


XH 




1 A 


xl 


ft 

2 


1 A 

12 


4* «— 

15 


9 


1 K 
1 J 


t ni""! a 
lAJuxy 


XO 


137 


17 


17 


17 


9 


xo 


wnPM 


1 K 

XJ 


fa 


2 


17 


16 


9 


17 
x / 




1 7 
LI 


9fl 
*? 


•j 

X 


13 


18 


9 


xo 


XAJuU 


xo 


X JH 


32 


15 


19 


354 


1 0 


n rifturifv 


91 
x± 


9fi 
XO 


/, 


15 


A A 

22 


54 


*ir 


Xnx x 


X J 


909 

X7X 


y, 
H 


18 


A C 

25 


12 


XX 




XO 


OA 7 
70 / 


JO 


19 


3? 


117 


22 
xx 




11 
OX 


71 9 
/ XX 


JO 


oi 
XX 


34 


459 


X J 




JO 


X7l 


2? 


16 


38 


tat 

125 


94 
X •» 


W Ail 1 CSSSi 1 


?Q 


7 e 




15 


J. ft 

4? 


54 


95 
X J 




HO 


1 097 
17X / 


l en 
lb? 


17 


54 


9 


XO 




A1 


^o 

J 7 


c 

9 


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/ A 

42 


9 


27 

X / 


uf ui crv 


A9 

HX 


AO 

H7 


c 

J 


1 / 


43 


9 


28 
xo 


PHFC5TVAT 




Ail 
oo 


a 
9 


1 a 
lo 


/. A 
HH 


9 


29 

X 7 


3UI1 


•»*» 


7i<i 

/ o 


e 


1 / 


A B 

Hj 


9 




nlOUOLAf 




A1 
HX 


c 

j 


*J7 
X / 


A £ 
HO 


9 


JX 


uunrnur 




9 Iffl 


CQ 

30 


1 o 
J7 


55 


A A 

22 


32 






XHX 


1 R 
xo 


1 £ 
XO 


K7 

j / 


A1 
HI 


33 


GRAPHMUF 


58 


853 


38 


23 


62 


86 


34 


PRINTMUF 


63 


2?13 


3983 


18 


71 


231 


35 


DOAGAIN 


72 


48 


4 


15 


73 


55 








9856 


532? 


594 




1821 



Rewrite (screen, vindov); 

Dvset(screen, 7, ?, ?, 8?, 24, ?, 1, 1) ; 

Font (screen, 2??, 1); 

Select(screen) ; 



Logo(screen) ; 
Header (screen) ; 

Vriteln(screen, 'Initializing program .«.'); 

Init; 

REPEAT 

Menu(screen) ; 

Getdat( screen) ; 

Askabort( screen) ; 
UNTIL ((answer - 'Y* ) OR (answer - f y')); 
Wantprnt (screen) ; 
Compnmf (screen) ; 
Shovmuf (screen) ; 
Graphmuf ( screen) ; 
IF printout THEN 

Printmuf (printer) ; 
Doagain(screen) ; 
Ovend( screen) ; 

WHILE ((answer - 'Y*) OR (answer - 'y')) DO BEGIN 
REPEAT 

Header(screen) ; 

ffrite( screen, *Use same geographic area for prediction (Y/N) ') 

Prompt (screen) ; 

Reset(screen) ; 

Readln( screen, answer); 

Rewrite (screen) ; 

IF ((answer - *N*) OR (answer - 'n')) THEN 
Nenu( screen) ; 

Write (screen, "Use same date and Sunspot/Flux number (Y/N) 7 '); 

Prompt (screen) ; 

Reset (screen) ; 

Readln( screen, answer); 

Rewrite (screen) ; 

IF ((answer - 'N* ) OR (answer 
Getdat (screen) ; 

Askabort(screen) ; 
UNTIL ((answer - *Y f ) OR (answer - 'y')); 
Wantprnt (sere en) ; 
Compmuf (screen) ; 
Showntuf (screen) ; 
Graphmuf (screen) ; 
IF (printout) THEN 

Printmuf (printer) ; 
Doagain (screen) ; 



1226 Lines of source code compiled with no errors found 

Actual Heap - 7863 
Actual Stack - 4428 
Free Memory - 3657 



'n')) 



THEN 



Ovend(screen) ; 
END; 



END. 



PROC NAME 


FSEC 


PSIZE 


LOCAL 


STACK 


CSEC 


CSIZE 


? SKIFHUF 


74 


761 


821 


25 


77 


211 


1 DWSET 


1 


86 


2 


12 


2 


9 


2 FONT 


2 


38 


2 


12 


3 


9 


3 SELECT 


3 


21 


2 


12 


4 


9 


4 OWSET 


4 


78 


2 


12 


5 


9 


5 CUROFF 


5 


21 


2 


12 


6 


9 


6 SCALESW 


6 


28 


2 


12 


7 


9 



Hint > ., . 

Handy Work 
Window 

Bsingitfis overlay window comipaad, 
OWSET, in a couple of short procedures, a 
"work window" can be opened over the top of 
OS-9 or BASIC09 screens where there is work 
underway. Such a nondestructive window 
takes on the characteristics of the window it 
overlays — that is, it opens with either the OS- 
9 or the BASIC09 prompt. BASIC09 is used lo 
create the two procedures: 

PRtiCEDURE ww 
RUN gfx2( "DWSET" 
20,2,0} 

RUN gfx2("B0LDSW / \ 
PR I NT ^ Work window. 
RUN gfx2( // BCLD5W 
END 



"ON" ) 



OFF") 



PROCEDURE qww 
RUN gf x2 ( " OWEHO " ] 

;f END 

The procedures are then saved under the name 
of the first: save* ww, and subsequently 
packed: pack* ww. 

The final step is to edit the startup file by 
adding Load ww to whatever else is found in 
it. On a 5I2K machine, runb and gf x2 
should also be added to star tup to get quick 
response from the work window call. At the 
OS-9 prompt you merely type ww and press 
ENTER, or type qww and press ENTER to exit 
to your main window. If at the BASIC09 
prompt, then $ww or $qww would be needed. 

De! Turner 
Kamloops, BC 



July 1988 THE RAINBOW 189 



Racksellers 



The retail stores listed below carry THE RAINBOW on a regular basis and 
may have other products of interest to Tandy Color Computer users. We 
suggest you patronize those in your area. 



ALABAMA 

Birmingham 

Brewton 

Florence 

Greenville 

Madison 

Montgomery 

Tuscaloosa 

ALASKA 

Fairbanks 

ARIZONA 

Cottonwood 
LakeHavasu 

City 
Phoenix 
Tempe 

Tucson 

ARKANSAS 

Fayetteville 
Ft. Smith 
Little Rock 

CALIFORNIA 

Berkeley 
Citrus Heights 
Grass Valley 
Hollywood 

La Jolla 

Los Angeles 

Marysville 

Napa 

Oakland 

Sacramento 

San Francisco 



Santa Monica 
San Jose 
Santa Rosa 
Stockton 

Sunnyvale 
Torrance 



Jefferson News Co. 
McDowell Electronics 
Anderson News Co. 
M&B Electronics 
Madison Books 
Trade l N' Books 
Injun John's. Inc. 

Arrow Appliance/Radio Shack 
Electronic World 

A & W Graphics Co. 

Book Nook 
TRI-TEK Computers 
Books, Etc. 
Computer Library 
Anderson News Co. 

Vaughn Electronics/Radio Shack 
Hot Off the Press Newsstand 
Anderson News Co. 

Lyon Enterprises 
Software Plus 
Advance Radio. Inc. 
Levity Distributors 
Stef-Jen, Inc. 

Butler & Mayes Booksellers 
Circus of Books (2 Locations) 
Bookland 

Bookends Bookstore 
DeLauer's News Agency 
Deiberfs Readerama 
Tower Magazine 
Booksmith 
Bookworks 
Castro Kiosk 

Midnight Special Bookstore 
Computer Literacy Bookshops 
Sawyer's News, Inc. 
Harding Way News 
Paperbacks Unlimited 
Computer Literacy 
El Camino College Bookstore 



COLORADO 

Aurora 
Colorado 

Springs 
Denver 
Glenwood 

Springs 
Grand 

Junction 
Longmont 

DELAWARE 

Middletown 
Newark 
Wilmington 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Washington, 
DC 



Aurora Newsstand 

Hathaways 
News Gallery 

The Book Train 

Readmore Book & Magazine 
City Newsstand 



Delmar Co. 
Newark Newsstand 
Normar, Inc.— The Smoke Shop 



FLORIDA 

Boca Raton 

Clearwater 

Cocoa 

Dania 

Davie 

Ft. Lauderdale 



Gainesville 
Jacksonville 
North Miami 

Beach 
Panama City 
Pensacola 
Pinellas Park 
South 

Pasadena 
Starke 

Sunrise 
Tallahossee 

Tltusville 



Chronichles 
News Room 
World News, Inc. 



Great American Book Co. 
The Avid Reader 
The Open Door 
Dania News & Books 
Software Plus More 
Bob's News & Book-Store 
Ciarks Out of Town News 
Mike's Electronics Distributor 
Paper Chase 
Book Co. 

Almar Bookstore 
Boyd-Ebert Corp. 
Anderson News Co. 
Wolfs Newsstand 

Poling Race Bookstore 
Record Junction, Inc. 
Radio Shack Dealer 
Sunny*s at Sunset 
Anderson News Co. 
DuBey's News Center 
Computrac 



GEORGIA 




Atlanta 


Border's 


Bremen 


Bremen Electronics/Radio Shack 


Forest Park 


Ellers News Center 


Jesup 


Radio Shack 


Thomasville 


Smokehouse Newsstand 


Toccoa 


Martin Music Radio Shack 


iirnnu 






OvjLm Oi ion, ii n— 


MOSCOW 


jonnson ixews /^ge^cy 


ILLINOIS 




Belleville 


Software or Systems 


Champaign 


Bookmark 


Chicago 


B. Daiton Booksellers 


Decatur 


Book Emporium 




K-rviari rioza 




iNtHinyuTo iviuii 


cost fvioiine 


dook emporium 


tvansTon 


INOinS ^©flT©! DOOKSTOr© 


(NtJWCJl 190 


douk criiponurn 


usie 


DOOK INOOK 


1 rr"i ivM 


empire renouicais 


Newton 


Bill's TV Radio Shack 


Paris 


Book Emporium 


Peoria 


Book Emporium 




Sheridan Village 




Westlake Shopping Center 




Illinois News Service 


Springfield 


Book Emporium 




Sangamon Center North 




Town & Country Shopping Ctr. 


Sunny land 


Book Emporium 


West Frankfort 


Paper Place 


Wheeling 


North Shore Distributors 


INDIANA 




Angola 


D & D Electronics 




Radio Shack 


Berne 


White Cottage Electronics 


Bloomlngton 


Book Comer 


Columbus 


Micro Computer Systems, Inc. 


Crawfordsville 


Koch's Books 



MASSACHUSETTS (cont'd) 



Dyer 
Franklin 
Ft. Wayne 
Garrett 
Indianapolis 



Lebanon 
Martinsville 
Richmond 
Wabash 

IOWA 

Davenport 
Des Moines 
Fairfield 

KANSAS 

Hutchinson 
Topeka 

Wellington 
Wichita 

KENTUCKY 

Hazard 

Henderson 

Hopkinsville 

Louisville 

Paducah 

LOUISIANA 

Baton Rouge 
Lockport 
New Orleans 
Monroe 

MAINE 

Bangor 

Brockton 

Caribou 

Oxford 

Sanford 

MARYLAND 

College Park 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Boston 

Brockton 

Cambridge 



Miles Books 
Gallery Book Shop 
Michiana News Service 
Finn News Agency, Inc. 
Bookland, Inc. 
Borders Bookshop 
Delmar News 
Indiana News 
Southside News 
Gallery Book Shop 
Radio Shack 

Voyles News Agency, Inc. 
Mltting's Electronics 

interstate Book Store 
Thacker/s Books, Inc. 
Kramers Books & Gifts 

Crossroads, Inc. 

Palmer News, Inc. 

Town Crier of Topeka, Inc. 

Dancf/s/Radto Shack Dealer 
Lloyd's Radio 

Daniel Boone Gulf Mart 
Mart's News & Gifts 
Hobby Shop 

Hawley-Cooke Booksellers (2 Locations) 
Radio Shack 



City News Stand 
TV Doctor/Radio Shack 
Sidney's News Stand Uptown 
The Book Rack 



Magazines, Inc. 
Voyager Bookstore 
Radio Shack 
Books-N-Things 
Radio Shack 

University Bookstore 



Eastern Newsstand 
Voyager Bookstore 
Out Of Town News 



Ipswich 
Littleton 
Lynn 
Swansea 

MICHIGAN 

Allen Park 

Birmingham 

Durand 

E. Detroit 

Harrison 

Hillsdale 

Holland 

Muskegon 

Niles 

Perry 

Riverview 

Roseville 

MINNESOTA 

Bumsville 

Crystal 

Edina 

Minneapolis 
Minnetonka 
Roseville 
St. Paul 



Willmar 

MISSOURI 

Farmington 
Flat River 
Florissant 
Jefferson City 
Kirksville 
St. Louis 
St. Robert 

MONTANA 

Butte 

NEBRASKA 

Lincoln 
Omaha 

NEVADA 

Carson City 
Las Vegas 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Keene 
Manchester 
West Lebanon 

NEW JERSEY 

Atlantic City 
Cedar Knolls 
Clinton 
Pennsville 
Rockaway 

NEW MEXICO 

Aiamogordo 
Albuquerque 
Santa Fe 

NEW YORK 

Amherst 
Brockport 
Brooklyn 
Eimira Heights 
Fredonia 
Hudson Falls 
Huntington 
Johnson City 
New York 



Pawling 
Rochester 

Woodhaven 



Ipswich News 
Computer Pius 
North Shore News Co. 
Newsbreak, Inc. 

Book Nook, Inc. 
Border's Book Shop 
Robbins Electronics 
Merit Book Center 
Harrison Radio Shack 
Electronics Express/Radio Shack 
Fris News Company 
The Eight Bit Comer 
Michiana News Service 
Perry Computers 
Riverview Book Store 
New Horizons Book Shop 

Shinder's Burnsvilte 
Shinder's Crystal Gallery 
Shinder's Leisure Lane 
Shinder's (2 Locations) 
Shinder's Ridge Square 
Shinder's Roseville 
Shinder's Annex 
Shinder's Maplewood 
Shinder's St. Pauls 
The Photo Shop 

Ray's TV & Radio Shack 
Ray's TV & Radio Shack 
Book Brokers Unlimited 
Cowley Distributing 
T&R Electronics 
Book Emporium 
Bailey's TV & Radio 

Piaza Books 

Nebraska Bookstore 
Nelson News 

Bookceilar 

Hurley Electronics 

Steve's Books & Magazines 

Radio Shack Associate Store 

Bookwrights 

Verham News Corp. 

Atlantic City News Agency 
village Computer & Software 
Micro World II 
Dave's Elect. Radio Shack 
Software Station 

New Horizons Computer Systems 
Page One Newsstand 
Downtown Subscription 

Village Green-Buffalo Books 

Lift Bridge Book Shop. Inc. 

Cromland, Inc. 

Soufhem Tier News Co., Inc. 

On Line; Computer Access Center 

G.A West & Co. 

Oscar's Bookshop 

Unicorn Electronics 

Barnes & Noble— Sates Annex 

Coliseum Books 

Eastern Newsstand 

Grand Central Station, Track 37 

200 Park Ave., (Pan Am #1 ) 

55 Water Street 

World Trade Center #2 
First Stop News 
Idle Hours Bookstore 
International Smoke Shop 
Jonil Smoke 
Penn Book 
Software City 
State News 
Walden Books 
World Wide Media Services 
Universal Computer Service 
Village Green 
World Wide News 
Spectrum Projects 



190 



THE RAINBOW July 1988 



tkom CAROLINA 



Cory 
Chapel HH 
Chariotie 
HlcHary 
Jcicksonvilla 
Kafnastflla 



CMIQ 

Akith 
C:.-jilinu- 

Devednd 

Ccfurnbland 

Co\jrrbus 



Dayton 



Dublin 

Fmdlijy 
Kflnr 

L»<OWoOd 
LJmn 

Mtamlsbuin 

loledo 
Wanen 

Vc4ina;tfowni 

OHiJiHOWA 

DMcaryimc i 

Gift 
'□■clcoixih 

JUlEd 
tUG&riEi 

Wand 



ALyilcAVfk 
Carry 

IftJilQjMllkr 

King at Frus& a 
McJye>n 
Sheading 
Femple 
Wed Ches-^r 
'Mrn'l Goc 

RHODE |SLn«D 

Ntiwf-vGft 



IVewsC^nlCf ill CaiyVrlape 
U^ l ^'-fleuE□hi■ News * Syrdry 
r\<ewwlrj"d Irvl'l 
C J Books 6 Comics 
Miohele's, Inc. 
<&SNewsrortd 
Boomers, Rhythm Center 
If &S IMawssland ^-3 'jocationsj 
R&ritt;* Ksws u>i 

□*L*chil New&A. labacco 
1 1 mte PJ01esso : Book Cenfei 
^ra?he Ecdb lit TV" 

Fidoiiiy ft riet^ronics 

BoSdhitpo 

Micro Center 

The ^e^ssfcind 

Books- &C®, 

*tuder height [fcxw $ C-^d 
Wlfce 

Wright Nevr^ & Books 

BcoV Ban - ! 

Ne^Hteadefs 

VMIka-'s L^>veHEJtv Shoope 

□pen Book 

Ihe 1 Nav^E, Shop 

Lck^vood tnteinotlonoi News 

•HM-- Nputf 
Booki;<ak rftfwiceMi!& 
LeO s Bcok & WW Sli^ 
Book Nrcfe, Ihc- 
Mnef^S Book? 

Rain Bot& & &n£kc DJrqp 



Mini! 1 Mk;m Sattv^se- 
ThgmqKSrtlai, Inc. dLo. paeia Shack 
Stem's Beck Stain 

Ubra Books- GcOkMaiK 
fiflh Avenue iW^j 
filch Qaar Store, Inc. 
Sbclh & 'Adshlngton New? 
CJapjrol -News Center 
niGckimale- Book 

0*1 SfefWHS 
NfrYwtifun Enterprises 
pjyn MoWt Ntr*3 
Cc^EkraksSCrXCfci 
Gtroai Books 
rune's Boote 
Pemcfitf Sothaoie 

Sm!tTV5^lewS& Zn:ti C.iTi .I-.- 

5cnV are- Corns* 
Cheste? County Bock Ca 
Mcro Worrd 

1rie -CompLler Center of Yori 
lotlccite Eoaitsrare 

Bal&jue News 



SQUIH CASOLlWA 

Chcreslon ■Hts. So^ae t-aus. Inc. 

damson Naivssfand 
Roy's,*! 

Pcfh^eflD News Co. 
"rn^oinC^rty 



Floiqncfs 
Gro^nvil^ 

T*-HNESS££ 

Cr?otronooga 

Dickson 
KncxvUe 

Memphis 
Ncs^iie 



Smyrna 

IEKA5 

Kg Spring 

Desoto 

Elgin 

Hapingror. 



Eookwiyl^ 
^ndarE<Ki Mews Co- 
.&Jd tocks & Pericdicols 
wirxtond Beclrcsnic.3 
Andeisnn ^e J *■'l 
■>ji«is- KlckJ Ekx^jlk^j 
CcmpUkir CijrtlSf 
Pavli-Klrifl 3<^*£talk?j: 
Wcwkn's Pki(:« 

[Jolkfjf nirjr.:?rc^ir;r, 



The Hcmf'r"^ 
Ronk^k 







RiflvTO 


VdiEiy Beck CenPgr 


V1ESINFA 




Dcrwllle 


K&SNewwlav:i 


1 lempbn 


Benders 


fftrtollt 


l-O Compu[ieM 




1urn lne Pope 




tfqlMtfn* | BccUsici:- 






Pert Angeled 


Pntl Bnek & Msvm 


^eoltla 








IQCDPX] 






Kycbte? t^J Pvlrtj 



VIPSINIA 

L-cgan 
Madkon 
I : dv^r5c-uf^ 

Chaiiesiosn 

Ar:[Cjlftran 
CLhiiahy 

Mnriisuf- 

MlfwcrukGCi 
^teuKetha 

AR&ENliNA 

Ccrdctna 

i ". -m:- 

UcDdand 
^r.gEford 

CAriADA 
.CjrisEPTA 

Bannyttiir* 
Brocks 

GjtiiKi-talm 
Dragon '<fci\\Ey 
Ldmanfon 
rcl^ 
Fdivtaw 
FfM Cri*:k 

f Rmkoltha^ 

wer. 

Grande 

Cache 
Grande 

Centre 
Hlntan 
innJetcn 
Lscamtje 
Lsduc 
Lethbridge 
Ucrv^nttnUer 
C*OlO*s 
R['iOc& R-vai 

Sr.Fcryl 

Sl^1'll.!l 

gin?!hmtf0 
Tdtoui 
Vtfe&llcCk 
Wetcs^r^rn 



Nick's No^4 

hrekenics & BiKll^ SrriC^Jt 
ConTmnji^aliCfiE. 
^Itey News S<irvicc 

Spring Hill Noa^ 

liodger fi&iioc;icaL3 
Cudahy News & Hob&y 
R.K. FS'ewEs Inc 
Ptc A Beck 
yhh*ersj1y EkiMLbre 
Ji irvfx^M Villii^a PftCiajef 

HcJ* Vc-Jiieiy 



■Tfcwrcil'k^fi. Tn^^niir^inlcMibii' ::. 

eJr.TtX!nrJCL>nlymJ^ 
Paris Rodio Electronics 



rjohfi Radio E^ccX 
P3ul TdiciaJ 

rjoijbNj "r>" Ai?^. RofSc-^hcrck 
Bil/s News 

fir?d!o Shock i'UscCfntied 5f<PTJF 
Langcrd Esecircr^cs 
CWD Micro 
r-!arjio Shack oso 
L>.N.ft. Purntry* 6 fV 
&h' Coloi & Sound 
A.S.D. iMIa Snack 

n WiUllf?adk^hcicic,.ASC 

The MerGo Hi il 

The Beck Ncc+: 

Jim Cooper 

L&SSteroo 

Bnan's £!©c ironies 

r&idlo Sh-ock. Msaocki led Stores 

Darnfron 

I Icyd hadlo a a:-*: 
□kdroyi fiodlo Shack 
Radio Shack A^socfc-led Sloraai 
TaiHfiE>ai Scrtware 
Woffler* rjKEKilrcrriti 
Sletllet l?adfoShcck 
Wheuhand Eleclronlcs. 
Pyrraweocl SlghJt &. Sound 
l^ltrfta 



flfillfSMj COIUMfUA 



ftufnacv 
BLfhs Lake- 

r?Vti| 



Cor^Ulir 



BRITISH COLUMBIA fconl'dl 

Chllllwock Chala-- Paiker 

CDgullrWT CCdv" Eooki Ll U 

CcoHkinoy RldCi rVkiiJc JSl Sfereo 

Daw*cn Ci^k Boll Rado & ft! 

Gotten Tats lairniEh'rpgs 

Kieiowpa T^fertoft Mqikfilmg 

.anglav Lcinrjlev RtirJIO lihcir:k 

HEilily , Ofow's Books 







mihit&i 


CodvEaoVE-LTti 


Fcnc&vilt 


PGrkfwlle IV 








Rivii Cai n si Groceiv 


Sidney 


!Jii±iw EleioJTcnyca 


S>rj1h€5S 


■/■'.:] II'; t^>n>& 1 \jiuiruit 


SguamlEh 


Kor-yk Q'»dKVIK±s 


Vancouyer 






ffl BfidSv.ru e- Crynpolcirs. 




Granville Beck Co, 




SSllconnecHong Books iJP 


10Q Me 


ltplcpkodlc&*y 


Hous?- 


■. LI ll-TVU A. 




r n 1 1 . .1 1LJ 


* A y'j.pt-ir l hi 




Garanson €lec. 


Mrx:;ii'" 


Central Sound 


Thw PuS 


Jbdl"E:SghlfiL Sound 


Selkirk 


Gi. IliniEbC. 


Vlrden 


."«j::ln?f Eht-atpJliat- 


ii,i. n ... 


i pc j t'ccziryiiica Lia. 


MEM MiUNSWlCk- 




TiA^nc'en 


Jetfrie? Er.lwrpiT^^ 


Sujses 


Dawtlr Bee 






1 1 JB_ k ■ _BV 


r>~ J, l blBt 


r_jCf Donecr 


.: r,l...i : - :-r.:... 


NOVASCOllA 




Hci^kn 


Atidnt^ t-Je*i 


ONTARIO 




Angus 


Mk>& poniflular -Services 


1 ^1 1 x l I 


Coinriij VcVjn 


Concord 




Locator 


J. Mocleane ft Sons 


i rano.er 


Modern Appllorice Cenli ■ ■ 


H ,:-it3vllle 


HuplEvllle Efec 


+iA . 1. .1'. J 






TM- Computers 




ModerTi Ajpplcince Cemre 


SouSh Wh.^-i 


Ms TV 




LTttnnialV 


QUEBEC 


Ur^wLiyjjriiR ds Pptji-se Benjamin Lnr 


La Sane 


Ptmr. Rouge 


Bouhque In. r>y. Lc«3K?ift 


yila St. Gabrted 


Gl|l» OcirTu™ j Enj/pf3s3<i 5J-nck 


SASKATCHEWAN 




AsEjnibofo 




L : ste/^cn 


riotvk BeclronioF- 


Moose Jaw 


DSS Compurer KhKet 


Nlplwan 


Cdrruarstona Sound 


Reainq 


ReiglrtoCcCoCkJb 




Sortv/ore S^pormarkel 




Evefybooya Softvaare Lrorary 


."i-lir:*: !:«,:■! 


Gl<l UDbe'-ye Podlo Shack 




I^CfUft SoNfce 




&anl' i House cf Sound 


VUKON 




'A"l iltel IQS- 


H&OHoJdngsi 


JAPAH 




Tokyo 


Amarfco A^dr^ Inc. 


FUERIOfflCD 




Snn iiicm 


Sol r\-.air. aiv 



>4/so available at all S. Dalton Booksellers, and 
selected Coles — in Canada, Waldenbooks, Pickwick 
Books, Encore Books, Barnes & Noble, Little 
Professors, Tower Book & Records, Kroch's & 
Brentano's, and Community Newscenters. 



AJIV 15B£ THE RAINBOW 



191 



Advertisers Index 



We encourage you to patronize our advertisers — all of whom support the Tandy Color 
Computer. We will appreciate your mentioning the rainbow when you contact these firms. 



After Five Software 149 

Alpha Products ,» .21 

Alpha Software Technologies 113 

Burke & Burke 39 

Cer-Comp , 78, 79 

Cinsoft ,,, Vf ......166 

CJN Enterprises 45 

Clearbrook Software 

Group 166 

CocoTech . . . 1 53 

Codis Enterprises 55 

Cognitec 29 

Colorware 18, 19, 22, 23 

Computer Center 31 

Computer Island 1 25 

Computer Plus . . . 3 

Computerware . 1 93 

D.P. Johnson . 177 

DATAMATCH, INC. ........... 1 13 

Dayton Associates of 

W. R.Hall, Inc 126,127 

Delphi w.,. ...42,43 

Diecom IFC 

Disto/CRC 55 

Dorsett Educational Systems IBC 

E-Z Friendly Software 12 

Easy Street Data Systems 1 06 

Electronic Energy Control 165 

FoxWare 33 

4**T'echs «».»««»'.. » . « « *....*....«* 94 
Frank Hogg Laboratory .. .168, 169 

Fraser Instrument 32 

G En ie 65 

Gimmesoft 1 79 

Granite Computer Systems .... 1 53 
Hawkes Research 

Services *♦♦•*»•.»..».;..».». 87 

HAWKSoft, Inc 115 

Heroic Destinies 49 

Howard Medical 66, 194 

J & R Electronics 45 

K— SOFT 95 

KLC Software 37 

Metric Industries... 173 

Micro Works, The 163 

Microcom Software 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 



Microtech Consultants 

Inc 121 

MicroWorld 99 

Other Guys CoCo, The .... 1 07 

Owl-Ware 69, 70, 71 

Performance Peripherals 61 

Perry Computers 151 

Preble's Programs, Dr BC 

PXE Computing 7 

R.G.B. Computer Systems 77 

Rainbow Binder 185 

Rainbow Bookshelf 152 

Rainbow Gift Subscription 44 

Rainbow on Tape and Disk ....104 

RAM Electronics 77 

Renco Computer Printer 

Supplies 63 

RTB Software..,.. 87 

Sardis Technologies ...... 1 75 



Call: 

Belinda Kirby 
Advertising Representative 

The Falsoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

(502) 228-4497 



SD Enterprises. , 25 

Second City Software 47 

SpectroSystems 167 

SPORTSWARE 37 

Sugar Software . . ..... . . . 41 

Sun Products 49 

Sundog Systems 183 

T & D Software. . . . . , . .97, 108, 109 

T.E.M. of California 117 

Tandy/Radio Shack 102, 103 

Tepco 59 

Three C's 63 

Tothian 115 

True Data Products 56, 57 

Vidicom Corporation 33 

Wasatch ware ...... >, 117 

Western Hills Software 75 

Woodstown Electronics 167 

Zebra Systems .105 



□ 



Call: 

Kim Vincent 

Advertising Representative 

The Falsoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

(502) 228-4492 




192 THE RAINBOW July 1988 




Ne#f e ? 



f! 



• Data Merge capability to interface with our OS-9 Text 

Formatter - perfect for using data master information 
imbedded in letters, forms, and more! 

• Expanded file list display capabilities make it easier to 

scan through your data files. 
Update for current users: 

Data Master users can receive this new version by 
ordering "Data Master Update" for only SIO. (Data 
Master registration card must be on file!} 



IRON CROSS 

by John & Michael Galus 

The German invasion of Russia 
began at 0300 on 22 June 1941. 
Two massive armies faced each 
other in a titanic struggle which 
would decide World War II. The 
object of IRON CROSS is to 
defeat the Russian forces con- 
trolled by the computer & to 
take control of the Russian cities. 

Requires 64K, Ext. Basic, Disk. $24.95 





Screen Star 

by Scott Cabit 




Data Master 

by BJ Chambfess 



Simplify with pull-down menus 

All options are available from anywhere in the program. 
To make it even simpler, each menu option can be invoked 
by a single character! 
Dialog boxes 

Pop-up windows display current settings and available 
choices. 

Unique LIST display format 

You view data in easy-to-read rows & columns. From this 
easy-to-read screen you may edit your data, without hav- 
ing to exit. Mass changes area snap! 

For even more power, use an access key to selectively dis- 
play a subset of records and can change them right on the 
screen! 

Compatibility with OS-9 Profile & Data Bank 

You won't lose any of your valuable datal 
Easy Expansion 

with re-definition of records and transfer of files. 
Elements & Records: 

Each record can contain up to 512 characters used within 
35 elements. Elements are defined as: alphanumeric 
(descriptive data), math (real numbers including dollars & 
cents), date, and derived (formulas calculated from other ele- 
ments in the same record). You can store any type of data 
using these field typesl 



Display & Entry Screens 

Design up to 9 different screen formats for data display 
and data entry for each data base. This is helpful for access- 
ing your data for different purposes. 
Sorts & Selections: 

Up to 9 different access keys can be defined. These are 
used for displaying data on the screen or selecting data for 
printing. You may use several levels of sorts as well as logi- 
cal operators to selectjustthe right data. Apowerful generic 
search is also available. 
Reports: 

See your data any way you want by designing your own 
reports! Data Master offers easy-to-use tools to design pro- 
fessional reports including report headings/titles, column 
headings, automatic page numbers, column totals, and 
more. Store up to 9 report formats for each data base. 
File Management 

Built-in fife management capabilities allow easy file 
manipulation for transferring data files, renaming data files, 
expanding data files; and more; 
Upload/Download 

Data Master can read and write standard sequential fifes 
which aids in data transfer between DynaCalc and many 
others. 

Full keyboard ease 

taking full advantage of the CoCo 3's cursor and function 
keys. 

OS-9 accessible 

Even while operating within Data Master: 



Requires OS-9 Level !!, 
CoCo 3, 512K 



$64.95 



Also available from Radio Shack 
through Express Order Software 

Screen Star implements the popular WordStar editing 
capabilities. If you know WordStar you already know how 
to use Screen Starl 

• Edit files larger than memory since Screen Star uses the 
disk as an extension of memory. 

• Block Commands - with a keystroke you can mark the 
start and end of a block, then move, copy, or delete the 
block. 

• Cursor Movement is easy with an array of commands to 



* Closing Commands let you exit the editor with or with- 
out save, and an import or export fifes whenever ycu 
need them. 

♦ Smart Speflens included. 

• Parameter commands personalize your environment 

* Access the OS-9 Shell, 

• Up to 10 functions keys can be defined by CoCo 3 users 
for fast, repetitive functions. 

• Use with the Text Formatter for a full word processing 
team. Simply imbed the Text formatter commands in your 
Screen Star file and it will be printed in style! 

♦ Level t & Level 2 are supported and both versions are 
included. 



move left or right brie character, or one word, or one line; 
scroll forward or back one line, one screen, one block; Requires 0S*9 Disk 
jump to the start or end of the line or the screen, block, WjtH leit formatter 



r * '\.y 



* J 



• Find & FJhd/R^lace Commands make mass changes and 
searches a snajk ;£ 

Pop-Up Help Menus are as close as a keystroke. 



'to 



_____ 



[ 



Call or Write to: 



Text 
Formatter 



Afso available from Radlo ShaLk 
through Express Order Software 




An easy way to get beautiful documents and 'erters widi 
OS-**, Text Formatter interface's wjtfi any editor that pro- 
duces standard ASCil text te, 

Features inci ude left and rightjustfflcatlon, page breaks, 
special spacing, automatic pagination, automatic page 
numbering, centering, Indenting, tabs, and sending 
escape ami control codes to your printer as well as sophis- 
ticated headers and footers. Special functions include 
macros for often used sequences, relative arguments, up- 
per and lower case modes, rmptkrtabit remarks, and more! 



Requires OS-9 



if* J 




call or write today for 



COMPUTERWARE « 6,9 > «6-3 512 

Box 668 • Enclnltas, CA • 92024 



FREE Catalog 



Color Connection 

This is the most comprehensive modem package for the CoCoi All protocols are 
supported including Compuserve Protocol B, XMODEM, and XON/XOFF. Auto dial 
feature for both Hayes compatible and some Radio Shack modems. Vbu can use all 
baud rates when using the Radio Shack Deluxe RS232 program packl Printer baud 
rates are selectable. 

You can print from the buffer and files bigger than the buffer can be uploaded and 
downloaded. Download direct to disk with automatic XON/XOFF protocol. Single 
key macros allow easy entry of often used passwords and IDs. Hl-res screens with 
a choice of colors are used. Ail printable characters are available and all control charac- 
ters are supported. 

RSDOS Disk $49.95 OS-9 Disk RS232 pak is required. $49.95 



Name _ 
Address 
City 



Yesl Send me your FREE catalogl 

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Card * 

Signature 



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CoCo □ 



Zip 



Exp. 



Item 



Format 



Price 



Shipping 6'/z% Calif. Sales Tax 

Surface — S3 minimum. COD Add $5 

3% for orders over SIOO Shipping* 
Air or Canada — $6 minimum. TOTAL 

6% for orders over SIOO 
Checks are delayed for bank clearance 




- - - - -- W I 



HOWARD MEDICAL COMPUTERS 



1690 N. Elston • Chicago, IL 60622 * orders (800) 443-1444 * inquiries and order status (312) 278-1440 



* 5 STAR FINAL 



JULY '88 



CLEAR 



HMC BIG WINNERS 



;• > 



'« * * 



DC-2 with printer port still 
able to go the distance. $ 98 
J&M Disk Controller with parallel 
port/Hard Drive expansion bus makes 
a revival with the CoCo 3. 

New from J&M 

DISK CONTROLLER 

is a scaled-down version of the popular 
DC-2 without a parallel port. It includes 
a switch with 2 ROM sockets, JDOS, 
manual and such features as gold con- 
nectors and metal box. It accesses 
double sided drives and accepts 
RSDOS 1.1 for Radio Shack 
compatability. $ 65 DC-4 with 
memory minder ($2 shipping) 




Game Winning Controller 

RS DOS ROM CHIP 

ROM chip fits inside disk controller. 
24 pin fits both J&M and RS controller 
Release LI For CoCo 3 Compatibility. 
$ 25 each Reg. $40 ($2 shipping) 

NEW FROM DISTO $ 129 

($2 Shipping) Super Controller II 
works with CoCo 1, 2 & 3. It buffers 
keyboard input so that no keystrokes 



are lost when disk is reading or writ- 
ing. Especially useful with OS-9, but 
also works with BASIC. 

MONITOR 

Sony KV-1311CR $ 499 

Regular $625 ($15 shipping) 

• Vivid Color • Vertically flat 13" 
screen • Monitor/Trinitron TV with 
remote control • 640 x 240 reso- 
lution at 15MHZ .37 mm Dot pitch 

• RGB analog & digital; TTL; and 
composite inputs • VCR inputs 

• Cable to CoCo 3 $36 




WORD PACK RS *49 

CoCo Max $ 78 45 

Basic Screen Editor $ 19 95 

MYDOS $ 15 
Payrol/BAS $ 29 95 
VIP Library $ 125 
VIP Writer $ 65 



"Guarantee" As good as Gold. 

Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee 
is meant to eliminate the uncertainty 
of dealing with a company through 
the mail. Once you receive our hard- 
ware, try it out; test it for compat- 
ibility. If you're not happy with it for 



any reason, return it in 30 days and 
we'll give you your money back (less 
shipping.) Shipping charges are for 
48 states. APO, Canada and Puerto 
Rico orders are higher. 





Hard Drive— Ready to Run! 

$ 499 ($9 Shipping) 20,000,000 
Bytes or the equivalent to a 125 R.S. 
50rs on line are packed into this 
hard drive, pre installed and ready to 
run. All you need to do is plug it in 
and go! This complete easy to use 
package includes a Seagate 20 Meg 
Hard Drive, a Western Digital WD 
1002-WX 1 Controller and interface 
that plugs into slot #3 of multipack 
interface, plus the case & power sup- 
ply. You even get a 1 year warranty. 
This 20 meg Hard Drive will work 
with IBM & clones. Basic driver, 
$49.95, lets you access this hard 
drive without need for OS-9. Order 
today! 

hotline 



ti 



DON'T MISS OUT, 
ORDER TODAY! 

800 / 443-1444 
WE ACCEPT VISA 
• MASTERCARD • AMERICAN 
EXPRESS • C.O.D. OR CHECKS 
• SCHOOL P.O. 





COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION 

Educational Programs for Students Grade K-12 and Adult Self Studies 

NEW PROGRAMS FOR YOUR TANDY 1000 

AND TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

Compatible with Apple - Atari - Commodore - TRS 80 I, III, 4 - IBM PC Jr. 
16 New Programs now available in Basic Spanish 

• NEW! VIDEO CASSETTES FOR VHS! 

InnerActive™ Video Tutorials 
Complete with audio narration 

4 cassias with 8 programs in each of the 
Jollo/wing subject areas: ^ ^ 

• Basic Spanish Grammar ^^Q5 

• Basic Algebra ^1 

• Fteadlno/by Phonics nAr/tanA 

• Basic Fractions. 



2 programs per tape. Running time: 45 minutes per lape. 



Reading by Phonics 



16 Programs on 8 VHS Tapes $159 



syllable adjectives 



id in U usually just add 




Which has 




You *a«j be able to 
reduce your taxes by 



- incoae 
acre rag ing 

- ioco«e 
spi itt ing 

- tax ihdltei 







Qne-sy 1 lab ie adject iocs that 
end in IJJ usually just add |tj 



Which has one syllable? 



Interactive Tutorial Programs for Home or Classroom Use 

Over 1000 programs for your selection with 32 now available on disk for the Color 

Computer and 500 now available for the Tandy 1000. 



"We're Your Educational 
Software Source" 

Subject No. of Programs 

Reading Development 256 (4 on disk) 
Reading Comprehension 48 (4 on disk) 

Mathematics 128 

Algebra 16 (16 on disk) 

History 32 (4 on disk) 

Spelling 16 

Government 16 

Physics 16 (4 on disk) 

16 Programs in each 
of the following: 

Children's Tales - Carpentry - Electronics 
Health Services - Office Skills - Statistics 
First Aid/Safety - Economics - Business 
Accounting - Psychology - MUCH MORE! 

Send for our free catalog of over 1000 DorseU educa- 
tional programs for Atari. TRS 80, Apple, IBM PC Jr., 
Commodore, Tandy 1000, etc. 



Apple II, TRS 80 I, III, & 4, and 
Commodore 64 computers require 
respective conversion kits (plug-in board 
and stereo cassette player), $99.00. Atari 
400/600/600^200 computers require the 
Atari caasetle recorder and the Dorsett 
4001 Educational Master Cartridge, 
$9.95. For the IBM PC Jr. a cassette 
adapter cable and a good cassette 
recorder are required. The Tandy 1000 
requires the Dorsett M1001 speaker/PC 
board kit, $69.00, and a standard 
cassette recorder. A Radio Shack 
CCR-81 or CCR-82 is recommended. 

CASSETTES: $59.50 for an album con- 
taining a 16-program course (8 cassettes 
with 2 programs each); $9.95 for a 
^-program cassette. 

DISKS: $l4-"&5 for a one-program disk; 
$28.95 for two disks; $48.95 for four 
disks. All disks come in a vinyl album. 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



Dorsett Educational Software features: 

• Interactive Learning 

• User Friendly 

• Multiple Choice and Typed 

• Program Advance with Correct Response 

• Full-time audio narration (Cassette 
Programs Only) 

• Self-Paced Study 

• High Resolution Graphics 

• Easy Reading Text 

For more Information, or to order call; 

TOLL FREE 1-800-654-3871 
IN OKLAHOMA CALL (405) 288-2301 



(MasterCard 



WW 



r~~) DORSETT 

Educational Systems, Inc. 

Box 1226, Norman, OK 73070 




I I ! 

t I I 

Ml 




For color Computer Software 

Since 1383 




Dear Friends, 

Thank you, 1988 marks oar 
fifth year of providing quality 
software for the Color computer. 
Only yoorr support has made it 
po33ible. So, from our hearts, Peg 
and I thank you And remember our 
promise --If you buy it from U3, we 
support it. If you are unhappy for 
any reason, 3end it back for a full 
refund within 30 days of purchase. 

Pyramix 

This facinating CoCo 3 ganne 
continues to be one of our best 
sellers. Pyramix is 100% machine 
language written exclusively to t9ke 
advantage of all the power in your 
128K CoCo 3. The Colors are 
brilliant, the graphics sharp, the 
action fast. Written by Jordon 
T3vetkoff and a product of Color - 
Venture. 

The Freedom Series 

Vocal Freedom 

I've got to admit, this is one 
nifty computer program Vocal 
Freedom turns your computer into a 
digital voice or sound recorder, 

The optional Hacker S PaC lets 

you incorporate voices or sounds 
that you record into your own 
BASIC or KL programs. Thi3 13 not 
a synthesiser. Sounds are digitized 
directly into computer memory 30 
that voices or sound effects 3ound 
very natural. One "off -the -shelf" 
sppltcation for Vocal Freedom i3 an 
automatic message -minder. Record 
a message for your family into 
memory. Set Vocal Freedom on 
automatic. When Vocal Freedom 
"hears" any noise in the roorrv, it 



plays the pre-recorded message! 
Disk operations are supported. VF 
also tests memory to take advantage 
of from 64K up to a full J12K Re- 
quires low cost amplifiler (RS cat. 
•277-1008) and any microphone. 

Mental Freedom 

Would your friends be impressed 
if your computer could read their 
minds? Mental Freedom uses the 
techniques of Biofeedback to 
control video game action on the 
screen. Telekinesis? Yes, you con- 
trol the action with your thoughts 
and emotions. And, oh yes, it talks 
in a perfectly natural voice without 
using a speech synthesizer! 
Requires Radio Shack 3 low cost 
Biofeedback monitor. Cat. *63-6?5 

BASIC Freedom 

Do you ever type in BASIC 
programs - -manually, I mean. If you 
do, you know it can be a real chore. 
Basic Freedom changes all that It 
gives you a full screen editor just 
like a word processor, but for 
BASIC programs. Once loaded in, it 
is always on-line. It hides invis- 
ibly until you call it forth with a 
single keypress! This program is a 
must for programers or anyone who 
types in programs. By Chri3 
Babcock and a product of Color - 
Venture. 

Lightning Series 

These three utilities give real 
power to your CoCo 3. 

Ramdisk Lightning 

This is the best Ramdisk 
available. It let3 you have up to 4 
mechanical disk drives and 2 Ram 
drives on-line and is fully compat- 
ible with our printer spooler below. 

Printer Lightning 

Load it and forget it --except for 
the versatility it gives you. Never 
wait for your printer again! Printer 
runs at high 3peed while you 
continue to work at the keyboard! 

Backup Lightning 

This utility requires 51 2K. Read3 
your master disk once and then 



makes superfast multiple disk 
backups on all your dirves! No 
need to format blank di3k3 first! 
Supports 35. 40 or 80 track drives. 

Prices 
CoCo 3 only 

Ram Disk Lightning, Di3k $1 9-95 

Printer Lightning Disk $1 9 95 

Backup Lightning, Disk $1 9.95 

All three. Disk $49-95 

Pyramix, Disk $24.95 

CoCo 1,2, or 3 

Vocal Freedom, Di3k $34.95 

Vocal Freedom Hackers Pac...$14.95 

CoCo 2 or 3 only 

Mental Freedom, Disk $24.95 

Basic Freedom, Disk $24.95 

CoCo 1 or 2 only 

VDQS, The Undisk, ramdi3k for the 

CoCo 1 or 2 only. Tape $24.95 

VDUMP, backup Undisk files to 

single tape file. Tape ....$14. 95 

VPRINT, Print Undisk directory. 
Tape. $9-95 

Everyone 

Add $2.50 shipping/ handling 

ill USA or CANADA 

Add $5.00 to ship to other 
countries 

Dr. Preble's Programs 

6^40 Outer Loop 
Louisville, KT 40226 



) 24 Hour Hot Line 
j ($02) 969-16 16 



Visa, MC, COD, Check