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Full text of "The Rainbow Vol. 01 No 1 - Vol 8 No 11"

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September 1987 



Canada- $4.95 U.S. $3.95 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

The Information Interface 

Oca Sduccitim Iteue 

Learn! 

ABCsfor Preschoolers 
BASIC for Beginners 
Understandable Calculus 

Even Drivers Ed 

Develop! 

Artificial Intelligence 
OS-9 Programming 
Family Genealogy 
Student Tutorials 






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AO* 



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mmmw 



1 cft9.^ V 






1 



SEE BACK COVER 

FOR OTHER DIECOM GAMES 



From Computer Plus to YOU . . . 

IS after PLUS after PLUS 






Tandy 200 24K S510* 
Tandy 600 32KS1269 
Tandy 102 24K$379 



Color Computer 3 
w/128KExt. Basic $159 



Tandy 1000 EX $479 
Tandy 1 000 SX $679* 




DMP-130$269 




Color Computer Disk Drive 
Drive 0 $249 Drive 1 $149 




DMP-106$160 



BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000 EX 1 Drive 256K 479.00 

Tandy 1000 SX 1 Drive 384K 649.00 

Tandy 1000 SX 2 Drive 384K 679.00" 

Tandy 3000 HL 1 Drive 512K 1229.00 
Color Computer 2 W64K Ext. Basic 89.00 
PRINTERS 

Radio Shack DMP-106 80 CPS 160.00 

Radio Shack DMP-130 100 CPS 269.00 

Radio Shack DMP-430 180 CPS 559.00 
RadioShack DWP-230DaisyWheel310.00 

Star Micronics NP-10 100 CPS 169.00 

Star Micronics NX-10 120 CPS 199.00 

Star Micronics NX-15 120 CPS 359.00 

Panasonic P-1080i 120 CPS 189.00 

Panasonic P-1091i 160 CPS 210.00 

Panasonic P-1092i 240 CPS 349.00 

Okidata 182 120 CPS 269.00 

Okidata 192+ 200 CPS 365.00 

Okidata 292 240 CPS 559.00 
MODEMS 

Radio Shack DCM-6 52.00 

Radio Shack DCM-7 85.00 

Radio Shack DCM-212 179.00 



Practical Peripheral 1200 Baud 149.00 

CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 

• SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 



COLOR COMPUTER MISC. 

Radio Shack Drive Controller 99.00 
Extended Basic Rom Kit 39.95 
64K Ram Upgrade Kit 39.00 
Radio Shack Deluxe Keyboard Kit 24.95 
HI-RES Joystick Interface 8.95 
COCO Max Y Cable 27.95 
Color Computer Mouse 44.00 
Multi Pak Interface 89.00 
Multi Pak Pal Chip for COCO 3 14.95 
CM-8 6' Extension Cable 19.95 
Botek Serial to Parallel Conv. 59.95 
Radio Shack Deluxe Joystick 26.95 
Radio Shack CM-8 RGB Monitor 249.00 
Radio Shack VM-4 Green Monitor 99.00 
PBJ 512K COCO 3 Upgrade 99.00 
Tandy 512K COCO 3 Upgrade 129.00 
Mark Data Universal Video Driver 29.95 
COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

TAPE DISK 

The Wild West (CoCo3) 25.95 
Worlds Of Flight 34.95 34.95 

Mustang P-51 Flight Simul. 34.95 34.95 
Flight 16 Flight Simul. 34.95 34.95 
Nuke the Love Boat (CoCo3) 34.95 



The Magic of Zanth (CoCo3) 34.95 
Sam Sleuth Private Eye 24.95 27.95 
Color Max 3 (CoCo3) 59.95 
COCO Util II by Mark Data 39.95 
COCO Max by Colorware 69.95 
COCO Max II by Colorware 79.95 
AutoTermbyPXE Computing29.95 39.95 
TelePatch III by Spectrum 29.95 
C III Graphics by Spectrum (CoCo3)19.95 
Font Bonanza by Spectrum (CoCo3)29.95 
Telewriter 64 49.95 59.95 

Pro Color Series 79.95 
Max Fonts (72 COCO Max Fonts) 64.95 
Elite Word 80 79.95 
Elite Calc 3.0 69.95 
CoCo3512KRamDiskbyCerComp 19.95 
OS-9 Level II by Tandy 71.95 
VIP Writer (disk only) 69.95 
VIP Integrated Library (disk) 149.95 

'Sale prices through 9/30/87 

Prices are subject to change without 
notice. Please call for shipping charges. 
Prices in our retail store may be higher. 
Send for complete catalog. 



com 




P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TRS-80 Is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 



Under 
The 





FEATURES 





106 



Cover illustration copyright © 1987 
by Fred Crawford 



[jJ^The cassette tape/disk symbols 
beside features and columns indi- 
cate that the program listings with those 
articles are on this month's RAINBOW ON 
TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK. Those with 
only the disk symbol are not available on 
RAINBOW ON TAPE. For details, check the 
RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK 
ad on Page 169. 



Report Card PayoWl Dennis Dorrity 

HOME HELP Good grades can be rewarding 

BASIC for Beginners/Dawd W. Ostler 

PROGRAMMING TUTORIAL An introduction just for the novice 

The Power of the Mind/ Andy Blount 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Teach CoCo to identify animals 

rJl Any Way You Slice WBill Bernico 

EDUCATION Cutting fractions down to size 

Home Court Advantage/ A/?/7ce Cooney 

GAME UTILITY A CoCo scoreboard for hoop action 

q?J Bee Zapper/Daren Koch 

GAME The cagey chameleon battles bees and birds 

^1 Not Just Child's P\ay I Ann B. Mayeux 

EDUCATION A great way to introduce kids to computers 

The RAINBOWfest Reporter/ Cray Augsburg 

SHOW NOTES A report from the Chicago show 



20 



26 



r^J Where We Started From/ Brian LeBlanc 

GENEALOGY Family history information at your fingertips 

r^J The Electronic Blackboard/Lou/s R. Toscano 

MATH TUTORIAL Calculus toughies made easy 

r^J CoCo Sets the Pace/Richard Gnrciley 

EDUCATION Measure reading speed and comprehension 

r^J Doing the Trivia Rag/Mary and James Lamonica 

GAME Do-it-yourself fun for trivia buffs 



NOVICES NICHEJS. 



How Much Do You Have 70 Learning Your ABCs 



Bill Bernico 
Math Can Be Fun 

James E. Rittenhouse 
Goodbye Flashcards 

John Musumeci 



James Dale Duncan 

71 Wipe Our Letters 

Bill Smith 

72 Teacher's Pet 

Bill Bernico 



36 



40 



.42 



50 



58 



78 



102 



106 



140 



152 



72 



74 



76 



NEXT MONTH: It's the RAiNBOWfall festival! Ghoulish graphics 
and scary scenes color our pages as we present our Graphics Issue. 
Explore the world of color and shape as only the beloved CoCo can 
do it. We'll expand your drawing capabilities and teach you the ins 
and outs of CoCo artistry. Of course, we've included our usual round 
of features, utilities, games, Q & A columns, new product reviews and 
much more. 

Come to the number one information source for the Color Computer 
1 , 2 or 3 — the rainbow! 



4 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



COLUMNS 



BASIC Training/Joseph Kolar 

Getting acquainted 

Building September's Rainbow/Jutta Kapfhammer 
Managing Editor's comments 

CoCo Consultations/Marty Goodman 

Just what the doctor ordered 
Delphi Bureau/Cray Augsburg. 



Buffer capture garbage and Hutchison 's database report 

Doctor ASCM/Richard Esposito 

The question fixer 

Education Notes/Steve Blyn 

A fix on triangles 

Education Overview/ Michael Plog, Ph.D 

Learning readiness 

PR\NT#-2,/ Lawrence C. Falk 

Editors notes 

Turn of the Screw/ Tony DiStefano 

Building an EPROM emulator 

Wishing Well/Fred Scerbo 

Geared up for safer driving 



RAINBOWTECH 



An Education/Thompson House . 

BTU Analysis/ A to Z Unlimited 

Bug Buster/Tothian Software 

CoCo Midi 2/Speech Systems 



Disk Anti-Pirate/Microcom Software. 
Dollar Wise/Prickly-Pear Software 



Donald Duck's Playground/Sierra On-Line, Inc. 
Rickeyterm/Spectrum Projects 



DEPARTMENTS 



Advertiser Index 



Back Issue Information. 

CoCo Gallery 

Corrections 



Letters to Rainbow. 

Maxwell Mouse 

One-Liner Contest 

Information 

The Pipeline 



176 
143 

_18 
_94 

_6 



Racksellers 

Rainbow Info 

Received & Certified 
Scoreboard 



146 

103 
125 



Scoreboard Pointers. 
Submitting Material 

to Rainbow 

Subscription Info 



.97 



.16 



.95 



-46 



.126 



.138 



.32 



-12 



.150 



_28 



KISSable OS-9/Da/e L. Puckett 160 

Primitive drawing tools 

BASIC09 Isn't Fast Enough/Peter Dibble 170 

OS-9 PROGRAMMING Assembly language can be fun 

"Barden's Buffer" and "Downloads" do not appear this month 



PRODUCT REVIEWS 



_133 
_130 
_132 
_133 
_133 
_136 
_129 
_130 



174 

_56 
137 
_86 
_88 



.39 
77 



The J 




September 1987 



Vol. VII No. 2 



Editor and Publisher 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor Jutta Kapfhammer 
Associate Editor Jo Anna Wittman Arnott 
Consulting Editor Jody Gilbert 
Reviews Editor Judi Hutchinson 
Submissions Editor Monica Wheat 
Copy Editor Sandra Blackthorn 
Editorial Assistants Wendy Falk, 

Angela Kapfhammer 
Technical Editor Cray Augsburg 
Technical Consultant Dan Downard 
Technical Assistants Ed Ellers, 

Joe Pierce 

Contributing Editors William Barden, Jr., 
Steve Blyn, Tony DiStefano, 
Richard Esposito, Martin Goodman, M.D., 
Joseph Kolar, Michael Plog, Dale Puckett, 
Fred Scerbo, Richard White 



Art Director Heidi Maxedon 
Designers Tracey Jones, Rita Lawrence, 
Denise Webb 



Lead Typesetter Jody Doyle 
Typesetting Services Karen Semones 



Falsoft, Inc. 
President Lawrence C. Falk 



General Manager Patricia H. Hirsch 

Asst. General Mgr. for Finance Donna Shuck 

Admin. Asst. to the Publisher Sue H. Evans 



Executive Editor James E. Reed 
Editorial Coordinator Jutta Kapfhammer 
Senior Editor T. Kevin Nickofs 
Production Coordinator Cynthia L. Jones 



Chief Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Dealer Accounts Judy Quashnock 

Asst. General Manager For Administration 
Bonnie Frowenfeld 
Customer Service Mgr. Sandy Apple 
Word Processor Manager Patricia Eaton 

Development Coordinator Ira Barsky 

Chiel of Printing Services Melba Smith 

Director of Production Jim Cleveland 

Dispatch Sharon Smith 

Business Assistant Laurie Falk 



Advertising Coordinator Doris Taylor 
Advertising Representative Belinda Kirby 
Advertising Representative Kim Vincent 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 
(502) 228-4492 



For RAINBOW Advertising and 
Marketing Office Information, see Page 176 



THE RAINBOW is published every month of the year by FALSOFT, Inc., The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059, phone (502) 
228-4492. the rainbow, RAINBOWteatand therainbow and RAINBOWfest logotypes are registered ® trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. • Seconcffclass postage paid Prospect, 
KY and additional offices. USPS N. 705-050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797). POSTMASTER: Send address changes to THE RAINBOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. Forwarding 
Postage Guaranteed. Authorized as second class postage paid from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. • Entire contents copyright © by 
FALSOFT, Inc., 1987. THE rainbow is intended for the private use and pleasure of its subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by any means is prohibited. Use 
of information herein is for the single end use of purchasers and any other use is expressly prohibited. All programs herein are distributed in an "as is" basis, without 
warranty of any kind whatsoever. • Tandy, Color basic, Extended Color basic and Program Pak are registered • trademarks of the Tandy Corp. • Subscriptions to 
THE RAINBOW are $31 per year in the United States. Canadian rates are U.S. $38. Surface mail to other countries Is U.S. $68, air mail U.S. $103. All subscriptions begin 
with next available issue. • Limited back issues are available. Please see notice for issues that are in print and their costs. Payment accepted by VISA, MasterCard, 
American Express, cash, check or money order in U.S. currency only. Full refund after mailing of one issue. A refund of 10/12ths the subscription amount after two 
issues are mailed. No refund after mailing of three or more magazines. 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 5 



Drumming Up Some Support 



Editor: 

I've enjoyed reading rainbow and watch- 
ing with a sort of familial pride as Falsoft 
has grown and expanded over the years. I'm 
becoming increasingly concerned, though, 
about ongoing support of the CoCo. 

When RAINBOW began appearing noticea- 
bly thinner last year, I preferred to attribute 
the difference to a thinner, perhaps less 
costly, paper stock rather than to compare 
the actual number of pages in each maga- 
zine. With the arrival of my June 1987 issue, 
however (178 pages, compared to the 210- 
page issues of the past year and the huge 258- 
page issues of May 1986 and earlier), I 
finally had to admit that the number of 
pages, and advertisers as well, had decreased 
significantly. I'm wondering whether the 
CoCo Community isn't slowly but surely 
losing the best remaining publication solely 
for the Color Computer. 

If rainbow has been paring one 16-page 
form after another from its issues because of 
insufficient advertising space being sold, 
which in turn is due to a drop in mail-order 
sales, then in order to preserve the magazine, 
we as readers, users, and the ultimate 
beneficiaries need to better support those 
vendors who support RAINBOW. I have 
experienced far better, quicker and more 
courteous service and product support from 
RAINBOW advertisers than I ever received 
from Tandy. That's why I continue to 
support the advertisers in rainbow and 
encourage others to do the same. 

Cyndi Marsico 
Philadelphia, PA 

As we have always said, the size of 
THE rainbow is directly relative to the 
amount of advertising. The fewer 
advertisers, the fewer pages. 

Yes, you can help by supporting our 
advertisers, and by mentioning THE 
rainbow when you order. This, 
frankly, is how we grew in the first 
place. 

We hope all of you will support our 
advertisers and mention THE RAIN- 
BOW when you buy or inquire about 
a product. It really does help us — and 
as you point out, you, too — a lot. 

As far as Tandy is concerned, we 
would point out that they also adver- 
tise in THE rainbow and support us 
in many other ways as well. 



What Is Piracy? 

Editor: 

I must agree with your stand on software 
piracy as outlined in the April issue. I have 
been in the CoCo world for four years and 
have some questions of my own. 

There are limitations to everything, in- 
cluding copyright laws. For example, I run 
down to the local Radio Shack and pick up 
that new game. When I get home and open 
the package, I find a registration card inside. 
It says that I must return the card to Texas 
for the software to be registered in my name. 
My question is, after I mail the registration 
card, do I have the right to sell an unmod- 
ified copy of this software? If so, what are 
the limitations on prices I can charge? Where 
will it stop if even copyrighted software can 
legally be sold from asecond party to a third, 
and so on? 

I think system operators must be fully 
responsible for the software available on 
their BBS. But, how can he know if the 
software is copyright? 

I remember a good example of piracy: the 
CBASIC software. I have seen CBASIC up 
for grabs on various BBSs. The only thing 
this accomplished was the direct inflation of 
the cost from the original developer. Piracy 
is one major reason today's software has 
such high price tags. 

Some Color Computer users treat the 
communications world like a game. I see it 
in a very different light, because I must buy 
everything I use. 

Terry Grant 
Bakersfield, CA 

It is a criminal offense to infringe 
a copyright, and for purposes of 
commercial gain, the violator may be 
liable for damages up to $50,000. 

For more detailed information on 
copyright laws and what you can and 
can't do with someone else's pro- 
grams, see Professor Edward Sam- 
uel's articles in the April and July 1987 

issues Of THE RAINBOW. 

You've Got a Friend 

Editor: 
To the CoCo Community: 
A few minutes is all it takes to write so 



we can become friends. I am 29 years old and 
single. I have light brown hair, I'm 5'10" tall 
and I weigh 155 lbs. In seven months I will 
have finished serving my sentence for 
forgery. I am serving time because I made 
a mistake. Doing wrong is not worth taking 
a chance on losing everything. The only 
thing a person really has in life is life. 

Hopefully, after reading my letter, you 
will write so I can send a picture of myself 
and we can become good friends. I am from 
Louisville, Ky., and I enjoy traveling and 
learning all I can about computing. Perhaps 
there are questions about prison life you 
would like to ask me; maybe someone 
somewhere out there would like to visit a 
prison. Please consider writing to one of 
your fellow CoCo enthusiasts. Thank you! 

Anthony Abrams # 7905 1 
Kentucky State Reformatory 
La Grange, KY 40032 

Why Not? 

Editor: 

To the rainbow, its staff, and all those 
who have a partin planningand carrying out 
RAINBOWfest go my thanks for the chance 
to speak with, and see the wares of, those 
companies who provide the lifeblood of our 
CoCo Community — our software. 

Unfortunately, each year we seem to see 
fewer companies who are willing to make the 
effort to be present at these events. While I 
understand the expense involved on their 
part, I believe that in a community such as 
ours, where so much business is handled by 
mail-order, they must understand how 
important it is to have our once-a-year 
chance to "see, touch and talk." 

Therefore, let me take this opportunity to 
thank those who made the effort and chas- 
tise those who want our business but don't 
seem to think we're worth the investment in 
customer relations. 

To all the rainbow readers out there, I ask 
that you also remember those that made that 
effort. When you write to vendors who want 
our business, thank those who make the 
effort and ask those who were not there — 
"why not?" 

Alan Malamut 
Darien, IL 



6 THE RAINBOW September 1987 




AUTOTERM 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLD'S 
SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING 



■NOW HI-RES - 



EASY COMMUNICATION + WORD PROCESSING + TOTAL AUTOMATION 



Full prompting and error checking. 
Step-by-step manual has examples. 
Scroll text backward and forward. No 
split words on screen or printout. 
Save, load, delete files while on line. 
Print, save all or any part of text, 
XMODEM for machine language 
fifes. 128 ASCII characters, 1200 
baud, etc. Works with D.C. Hayes or 
any modem. Handles files larger 
than memory. Print on line with J&M 
or RS232 Pak. Screen widths of 32, 
40, 42, 51, 64. 



Please hire the mentally retarded. 
They are sincere, hard working and 
appreciative. Thanks! 



Editing is super simple with the 
cursor. Find strings instantly too! 
Insert printer control codes. Specify 
page size and margins. Switch 
quickly between word processing 
and intelligent terminal action. Create 
text, correct your typing errors; then 
connect to the other computer, 
upload your text or files, download 
information, file it, and sign-off; then 
edit the receive data, print it in an 
attractive format, and/or save it on 
file. Compatible with TELEWRITER. 

CASSETTE S29.95 
DISKETTE S39.95 

Add $3 shipping and handling 
MC/V ISA/CO. D. 



Advanced system of keystroke 
macros lets you automate any 
activity, such as dial via modem, 
sign-on, interact, sign-off, print, save. 
Perform entire session. Act as 
message taker. At start-up, disk 
version can automatically set 
parameters, dial, sign-on, interact, 
read/write disk, sign-off, etc. Timed 
execution lets AUTOTERM work 
while you sleep or pfay. No other 
computer can match your COCO's 
intelligence as a terminal. 

PXE Computing 
11 VIcksburg Lane 
Richardson, Texas 75080 

214/699-7273 



BACK TALK 

Editor: 

In response to Richard M. Johnson's 
letter in the April issue, Page 7, I have the 
answers to his questions about the function 
keys on the CoCo 3 keyboard. 

I n Deskmate, the FJ key is the print key. 
The F2 key is the open file key, ALT is used 
to move to the top menu. The most unusual 
thing is that these keys were defined before 
the CoCo 3 came out. Deskmaie works 
much easier with the added keys, too. Now 
with the CoCo 3 I have the keys to go with 
the program! 

Gary Fox 
Brick, NJ 

The Vanishing Cursor 

Editor: 

In his article u Pretty Little Listings All in 
a Row, "in the May '87 issue, Mr. Quellhorst 
complained about the Hi-Res text screen 
cursor being left on the screen after a PRINT 
statement. I have found a simple solution to 
his problem: typingPOKE &HF812 , &H21 and 
POKE &HF31C, &H21 keeps the cursor from 
being printed after a PRINT or LOCATE 
command. Another useful fix I have found 
is POKE &HF015, &H21. This causes the 
HPRINT command to overwrite whatever 
was on the screen below it so that you do 
not have to constantly clear a space on the 
screen to print something. Typing POKE- 
&HF015, restores the normal opera- 

tion. 

Clyde F. Johnson, Jr. 
P*rt Royal, SC 



HINTS AND TIPS 

Editor: 

There have been a number of requests for 
electronic circuit design programs during 
the past few months. A good source for such 
programs is a book, available at Radio 
Shack, entitled Programs for Electronic 
Circuit Design by David Leithauser (Cat- 
alog No. 62-1054). It's a bargain at $4.95. 
The programs are written in BASIC, work 
well on a CoCo* and will run on a number 
of different computers. 

David J. Johnstone 

Tor ring ton, CT 

Koronis Help 

Editor: 

This information may be helpful to 
anyone who has been unable to get Radio 
Shack's Koronis Rift game to run without 
booting off of the game disk. Koronis Rift 
will not run if started from a window or the 
41-column /term device. If an attempt is 
made to run fiutoex (the file with the game 
module) from one of these devices an 4i illegal 
service request" error is generated. It seems 
that the game uses the SS-AScrn service cal! 
(Page 8-142 of the OS-9 manual) to get its 
graphics scree n(s). The support for this call 
is in VDG INT (the 32-column screen driver) 
and the call can only be made by a process 
running on the 32-column / term device. In 
order to run Koronis Rift you must be using 
the 32-column screen. 

John Elliot 
Fayetteville f AR 



REQUEST HOTLINE 

Editor: 

Would you consider an article for be- 
ginners like me, that tells how to get the OS- 
9 programs to load and run? I have pur- 
chased the book and two disks of The 
Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9, but have 
never been able to get the disks to load in 
my machine or even print a directory to the 
screen. 

Thank you for the most readable maga- 
zine I have ever seen and the time-saving 
disk that goes with it. 

Naomi Murdoch. 
Conesville, I A 



The disk for The Complete Rain- 
bow Guide to #S-9 require that you 

first boot the OS-9 operating system 
(available from Radio Shack). Look, 
for articles discussing OS-9 and the 
beginner in future issues of THE 
RAINBOW. 



CoCo Politics 

Editor: 

I recently saw a game called The Balance 
of Power by Mindscape. It's a geopolitical 
game, and I am wondering if there is a 
similar game for our beloved CoCo. 

Tom Fitzgerald 
164 Lewis Ave. 
Westbury, NY 11590 

September 1987 THE RAINBOW 7 



Rock 'n' Roll Tracking 

Editor: 

I'm a promoter of rock and roll bands and 
need a program to keep track of my band's 
dates, cash flow, transportation, etc. If 
anyone is interested in making some extra 
bucks writing programs, please write. 

Michael Smith 
17171 12th Ave. #106 
Seattle, WA 98122 

S.A.T. on Tape 

Editor: 

I am looking for a good S.A.T. program 
on tape. I own a 1 28K Color Computer 3, 
a CCR-81 tape drive, and a DMP-105 
printer. Thank you. 

JeffHillis 
869 97th Ave. N. 
Naples, FL 33963 

The Scientific CoCo 

Editor: 

I am a high school science teacher and use 
a CoCo for many things in my classes. Over 
the past year I have noticed several articles 
in science magazines where computers are 
used for interfacing and data gathering in 
science classes. The CoCo seems ideally set 
up for this and 1 would like to know if any 
of your readers have a similar interest in this 
project. 

David R. Evans 
68 Ridge Rd. Bridlewood 
Cheraw, SC 29520 

In the Dark 

Editor: 

Can anybody out there in CoCo land tell 
me where I can find a darkroom database? 

Dave Pel re 
23626 Irving 
Taylor, MI 48180 



INFORMATION PLEASE 

Editor: 

In the June 1986 issue, there was an 
excellent program by Martin and Jeremy 
SpiUer called The CoCo Piano-Synthesizer I 
Composer. What a terrific helper for putting 
music into programs! However, in the 
machine language section, some of the 
musical notes are just a hair off, as was 
stated by the author. He included instruc- 
tions for adjusting the "tuning." They are 
just too difficult for a beginner like me. 

I would like to hear from anyone who has 
fine-tuned the assembly listing of this 
program. Also, could someone tell me if an 
assembly language cartridge is needed to 
load assembly language programs? I pre- 
sume that the BASIC machine-language 
booter of this program would also have to 



be adjusted to obtain closer tunings, is that 
right? 

Robert E. Pacheco 
289 Coffin Ave. 
New Bedford, MA 02746 

Yes, some sort of assembler pro- 
gram is required in order to enter 
assembly language. 

If you are using the PIANDBIN file 
to create PIANO, yes, you would have 
to change some of the data values to 
correct intonation differences. 

Software Query 

Editor: 

Our school has an old, gray Color Com- 
puter with Extended basic and an ET 
board. I am seeking preschool/ kindergarten 
software to either tap into the side slot or 
load into the tape recorder. Can you help me 
identify what software will run on our 
computer beyond that available through 
Radio Shack? 

Drina Madden, Administrator 
Monlessori Southwest 
Suburban School 
8800 West 119th Street 
Palos Park, IL 60464 

Drive Dilemma 

Editor: 

I own a 64K ECB Color Computer 2 with 
a tape system. I am now considering upgrad- 
ing to a disk system but I am confused about 
what type of drive I should get. Should I get 
a single-sided or double-sided drive? Will I 
be limited by getting one drive rather than 
the other? (e.g., Can a single-sided disk be 
read by a double-sided drive, or vice versa?) 
What does a disk controller do and are there 
different kinds? 

In addition, I want to move on to a CoCo 
3 in the future and want my disk drive to be 
compatible. 

Kenneth W. Turner 
Mobile, AL 

A single-sided disk can be read by 
a double-sided drive. A disk con- 
troller does exactly that — // tells the 
disk drive what operations to per- 
form. Check the ads in RAINBOW; 
most controllers are now compatible 
with the CoCo 3. 



Printer Compatibility 

Editor: 

I have a Color Computer 2. Is there any 
way to connect an Okimate 10 Color Printer 
to my CoCo? The Plug-'n '-Print cartridge 
that came with the printer is for a Commo- 
dore 128 and has a 6-pin DIN connector. 

If there is a way to connect the printer to 
the CoCo, please let me know as soon as 
possible, as I am purchasing the printer f rom 
a friend. I also need to know where I can 
purchase the Plug-'n '-Print Cartridge, rib- 
bons, any software there may be to show 



how the printer works, and the special paper 
that the printer uses. 

W. D. Caudle Sr. 
Box 471 USCG 
Kodiak, A K 996 19-0471 

CoCo Freeze 

Editor: 

1 have a Color Computer 2 that has been 
upgraded to 64K by Radio Shack. Every 
once and a while, the computer will freeze 
up or do a cold start for no apparent reason. 
It only happens within one or two minutes 
after it has been turned on. Any information 
on how to solve this problem would be 
greatly appreciated. 

Mark Wessner 
2557 Byng Ave. 
Prince George, British Columbia 
Canada V2N 1E5 



KUDOS 

Editor: 

I really enjoy Novices Niche. I have a 
CoCo 2, one disk drive, a DMP-J05 and a 
Taxan green screen for which 1 built my own 
video amplifier. I would be happy to send 
a schematic of the video amp to anyone who 
wants it; it only cost me about $3 to make. 
I am a radar repairman so I understand 
hardware, but I know nothing about pro- 
gramming (hence the reason I enjoy Novices 
Niche). One thing I would like to see in 
Novices Niche is an alphabetizer for my 
directories. 

It is obvious that I still have a great deal 
to learn, but I am now up and running with 
my disk drive and the credit goes entirely to 
the authors of the articles in THE rainbow! 
Just by reading the articles and piecing 
together tidbits of information in them, I am 
now not only using my disk drive, but I find 
that I have already learned more about them 
than a lot of non-CoCo computer owners I 
know! It seems like CoCo people are about 
the only computer owners that are as inter- 
ested in the hardware as the software. 

Charles F. Phillips 
11 Jackson Drive 
Havelock, NC 28532 

That Extra Mile 

Editor: 

At a recent RAINBOWfest I purchased 
Pro-Color- File ^Enhanced* and other soft- 
ware written and distributed by Derringer 
Software, Inc. Somehow, there was a glitch 
in the program or disk. This is an excellent 
program and I really wanted to use it; when 
I explained this to Mr. Derringer by mail, 
he kindly sent me a copy of his revision. 
Once again one of your advertisers and a 
supplier to the CoCo Community has gone 
the extra mile and rendered excellent service 
after the sale. I am pleased to recommend 
Pro-Color- File * Enhanced*, Mr. Dennis 
Derringer and Derringer Software. 

Robert E. Jackson 
Knoxville, TN 



8 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



BOOKS & GRAPHICS 



500 

POKES, 

PEEKS, 

EXECs 

FOR THE TRS^80 COCO 




NEVER BEFORE has this infor- 
mation of vital significance to a 
programmer been so readily 
available to everyone. This book 
will help you GET UNDERNEATH 
THE COVER' of the Color Com- 
puter and develop your own Ml- 
QUAL1TY Basic and ML pro- 
grams. SO WHY WAIT?? 
This 80-page book includes 
POKES, PEEKs and EXECs to: 

★ Autostart your basic programs 

★ Disable Color Basic/ ECB/ Disk 
Basic commands like LIST, 
LLIST, POKE, EXEC, CSAVE(M), 
DEL, EDIT, TRON, TROFF, 
PCLEAR, DLOAD, RENUM, PRINT 
USINQ, DIR, KILL, SAVE, LOAD, 
MERGE, RENAME, DSKINI, 
BACKUP, DSKl$, and DSKO$. 

★ Disable BREAK KEY, CLEAR KEY 
and RESET BUTTON. 

★ Generate a Repeat-key. 

★ Transfer ROMPAKS to tape (For 
64K only). 

★ Speed Up your programs. 

★ Reset, MOTOR ON/OFF from 
keyboard. 

★ Recover Basic programs lost by 
NEW. 

★ Set 23 different 

GRAPH IC/SEMIQRAPHIC modes 

★ Merge two Basic programs. 

★ AND MUCH MUCH MOREJII 

COMMANDS COMPATIBLE WITH 
I6K/32K/64K/COLOR BASIC/ EC B/ DISK 
BASIC SYSTEMS and CoCo 1. 2, fit 3. 

ONLY $16.95 



SUPPLEMENT to 

500 POKES, 
PEEKS 'N EXECS 

ONLY . _ 

$9.95 

200 additional Pokes, Peeks 'n Execs to 
give you MORE PROGRAMMING POWER. 
Includes commands for 

flompak Transfer to disk 
PAINT with 65000 styles! 

Use of 40 track single/double sided drives with variable 
step- rates 

High-Speed Cassette Operation 
Telewriter 64®, Edtasm+ 0 and CoCo Ma^ 
Enhancements 

• Graphics Dump (for DMP printers) & Text Screen Dump 

• AND MUCH MUCH MORE! 

• 500 POKES, PEEKS N EXECS is a prerequisite 



^300 POKES 
PEEKS N EXECS 

FOR THE COCO III 

Get more POWER for your CoCo III. Includes 
commands for 

40/BO Column Screen Text Oump 
Save Text/ Graphics Screens to Disk 
Command/Function Disables 
Enhancements for CoCo 3 Basic 
12BK/512K Ram Test Program 
HPRINT Character Modifier 
AND MANY MORE COMMANDS ONLY $ 1 9.95 




MUST' BOOKS 

UNRAVELLED SERIES: These books provide a 
complete annotated listing of the 
BASIC/ECB and DISK ROMs. 

EXTENDED COLOR BASIC UNRAVELLED: $39.95 
DISK BASIC UNRAVELLED: $19.95 
BOTH UNRAVELLED BOOKS: $49.95 
SUPER ECB (CoCo3) UNRAVELLED: $24.95 
ALL3 UNRAVELLED BOOKS: $59.95 
COCO 3 SERVICE MANUAL $39.95 
INSIDE 0S9 LEVEL II $39.95 
RAINBOW GUIDE TO 0S9 LEVEL II ON COCO 3: SCALL 
BASIC PROGRAMMING TRICKS $14.95 
COCO 3 SECRETS REVEALED: $19.95 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING*: SI B.DQ 

ADOENDUM FOR CDCO 3: S12.QQ 
UTILITY ROUTINES VOL 1 BOOK: $19.95 



JhJF 



All orders, $50 & above (except COOs) 
shipped by UPS 2nd Day Air at no extra 
charge. Last Minute Shoppers can benefit 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box214 
Fairport, N.Y. 14450 
Phone (716) 223-1477 

VISA, MC, AMEX Check, MO. Please 
countries $5.00 S&H. COD (US only) 
add sales tax Computerized processing 
Dealer inquiries invited 




COLOR MAX 3 

Finally, your wait is over!! The ultimate 
graphics program for CoCo 3 has arrived 
Features include: 

• Icons and pull down menus 

• 320 x 200 hi- res screen 

• Choice of 64 colors 

• Pencil, Eraser, Spray Can, Line, Rectangle, Paint Brush & 
more functions 

• Electronic Typesetting with 1 1 built-in lonts 

• Zoom-in (Fat Bils) and Undo 

• Variety of brushes and patterns 

• Editing features such as invert flip, copy, cut pasle and 
clear 

• Load/Save/ Compress/Print your work 

• Works with RGB & Composite Monitors 

• Printer Drivers- EPSON, GEMINI, 0MP& CGP-220 

• Requires RS Hires joystick interlace 

Requires CoCo 3, 128 K, Tandy Disk Controller, 
Hi- Res Joystick Interface 

only $59.95 
HI-RES JOYSTICK INTERFACE: $11.99 



PIX CONVERTER 1: $29.95 




The CoCo Graphics Designer allows you 
to create beautifully designed Greeting 
Cards, Signs and Banners for holidays, 
birthdays, parties anniversaries and other 
occasions. Comes with a library of pre- 
drawn pictures. Also includes utilities 
which allow you to create your own 
character sets, borders and graphic 
pictures. Requires aTRS-80 COLOR 
COMPUTER I, II OR III ORTDP-100 with 
a MINIMUM 0F32K, ONE DISK DRIVE 
and a PRINTER, compatible with DISK 
BASIC 1 .0/1 .1 , ADOS 1 .0/1 .1 AND JDOS. 
Supports the following printers: C-ltoh 
851 0 AP, DM P1 00/1 05/1 1 0/1 30/430CGP- 
220, some OKI DATA Printers, SEIKOSHA 
GP100/250, LEGEND 808 and GORILLA 
BANANA. D|SK 

PICTURE DISK #1: 100 more pictures for 
CGD: $14.95 

FONT DISK #1 : 10 extra fonts'. $19.95 
COLORED PAPER PACKS $19.95 



add$3.00 S&H(USA& Canada), other 
add $2.50 extra NYS residents please 
& tracking of orders. Immediate shipment 




Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1-800-654-5244 9 AM -9 PM Monday- Saturday 

Except NY. Order Status, Information, Technical Information, NY Orders call 1 -71 6-223-1 477 



J 



Community Computing 

Editor: 

This letter is just to say thank you! 1 
bought my CoCo 2 three years ago here in 
Argentina where aimost no CoCo informa- 
tion is available. Af ter my first steps, 1 f ound 
your magazine and, of course, my "comput- 
er life" changed completely. 

First of all, the CoCo and you gave me 
friends through the penpal section. 1 have a 
lot of friends all over the world, and some 
of them have become very close f riends. You 
taught me basic, and now you're teaching 
me other computer languages. The time 
came when I began playing Adventure 
games, and of course, 1 got stuck and there 
you were with the "Scoreboard Pointers" 
section. Thanks to this wonderful machine 
I've discovered a new way of computing: 
Community Computing. Although there are 
not many CoCo users here, I managed to 
meet a lot of people in your home country. 
But most importantly, thanks to you (and 
fate) my dream of coming to your country 
to study is almost true. 

Luis Ricardo Blando 
Mendoza, Argentina 



BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS 



• I would like to inform your readers of a 
BBS sponsored by the Memphis Color 
Computer Users Group. The number is 
(901) 386-7297 and features downloads, 
games, graphics and special sections for 
those that are members of the group. Asso- 
ciate memberships are available. The pro- 
tocol is 7/E/ 1, and the board supports the 
CoCo 1, 2 and 3. The BBS also serves as an 
order line f or The Computer Center, Inc. 

Brian Wimberly, SysOp 
5512 Poplar Ave. 
Memphis, TN 38119 



• The Canandaigua, NY, BBS is online at 
(716) 396-1458. Xmodem uploads and 
downloads, hobby section and more. Seven 
days a week from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. (EST) 24 
hrs. on Saturdays. 7-E-l. 

Sam Fagg 
Booth St., Lot U39 
Canandaigua, N Y 14424 



• CoBBS #41 in Corning, Arkansas, now 
supports 300/ 1200 baud, Xmodem uploads 
and downloads, sale barn, four message 
boards, SysOp lounge, online games and 
more. We specialize in setting up new boards 
and helping new SysOps with their prob- 
lems. Call (501) 857-3138, 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. 
(EST). 7-E-l. 

Perry Parsons 
Cliff Redding 
1209 W. 5th St. 
Corning, AR 72422 



• ColorNet operates 24 hrs. a day, 7 days 
a week. The system features online games, 
online Hi-Res graphics, multiple message 
bases, uploads, and a download section that 
is growing daily. ColorNet supports 300/ 
1200 baud and is now running on a 20 Meg 
hard drive from True Data Products. Call 
(818) 840-8903. 

Pete Ellison 
366 W. Providencia 
Bur bank, CA 91506 



• I am pleased to announce a BBS in the 
Denver area. It is called the CoCo County 
Airport. It runs 24 hrs. at 300/1200 baud. 
It supports CoCo 1, 2 and 3 users. The 
nu mber is (303) 343-6707. Several download 
sections and online help. 

Ron A. Bihler 
Aurora, CO 

• I would like to inform your readers of a 
BBS called Dade CoCo BBS Systems. This 
BBS is running on CoBBS at 7-E-l. The 
system operates on a CoCo 1 with four 
double-sided drives, Multi-Pak, double disk 
controllers, RS-232 pack, and a DCM-5 
Modem. Xmodem up/downloading, with 
about 150 downloads. There are OS-9, 
technical, hobby and general SIGs. 24 hrs., 
7 days a week. SysOp is Robert Jones. Call 
(305) 266-1099. 

Robert Jones 
7301 S.W. 37 St. 
Miami, FL33155 



• The Gator Bait BBS is online at (904) 797- 
3373. 24 hrs., 300/1200 baud. 

Bill Case 
Box 1681 
St. Augustine, FL 32085 

• The High Level BBS operates in the 
Chicago area at (312) 566-8856. High Level 
has over 10 Meg online for storage, and 
operates 7 days a week, 24 hrs. a day, 300/ 
1 200 baud. Fully supports Xmodem and has 
multiple message bases. 

Brian Smith, SysOp 
265 Rouse 
Mundelein, IL 60060 

• BUBBS, Belden Hill Users Bulletin Board 
System, is online at (607) 693-3359. The 
operating hours for 300 baud are 5 p.m. to 
9 a.m. Mon. to Fri., 24 hrs., weekends and 
holidays. 1200 baud, 24 hrs. daily. 

All new users may register and imme- 
diately receive 45 minutes of online time. 
Additional time is awarded for uploads. Call 
(607) 693-1659, voice or (607) 693-3359, 
data. 

Arlin Menager 
RD #2, Box 68 
Harpursville, NY 13787 

• Colorama BBS is back online evenings at 
(914) 965-7600. 

Fred Suidyrn 
14 Sweetfield Circle 
Yonkers, NY 10704 



• Network 23 is run on a 512K CoCo 3 and 
takes advantage of RAM disk use, and 2 
MHz speed. We have text files, message 
bases, CoCo 1, 2 and 3 downloads. Plus 
online games, trial, etc. Call (614) 676-2505 
at 300/1200 baud. 7-E. 

Edison Carter, SysOp 
3735 Stark St. 
Bellaire, OH 43906 

• Tao BBS is running on a 64K CoCo 1 with 
two double-sided drives and uses CoBBS 
Version 1.2. It is online 7 days/ 24 hrs. at 300 
baud. There are message bases, Xmodem 
databases and a large BBS number section 
(over 600 numbers). There are also online 
games and more. Call (215) 598-0221. 

Bob Watson 
RD U2, Box 262 
New Hope, PA 18938 

• The Freedom Network BBS located in 
Honesdale, Pa., and supports 300/1200/ 
2400 baud, 8 data bits and no parity. Call 
(717) 253-4354. 

Andrew Robinson 
RD #1, Box 4 
Pleasant Mount, PA 18453 

• CoCoBBS is online 24 hrs. Downloads 
and SIGs for TRS80, Apple, IBM, IBM 
clones and CoCo. Community bulletin 
board area where you can post and look at 
for sale/ want ads free of charge. This is not 
limited to computer items but is open to 
anything legal. There are presently jobs 
wanted, electronic misc., household items, 
real estate and cars. Use post ads in the 
community board area. Call (608) 735-4509, 
300 baud. 

Robert Howard 
RR2, Box 23 B 
Gays Mills, W 154631 

• The Madison Area Tandy Users BBS has 
over 10 Megs of Color Computer downloads 
and a very large and interesting message 
base. Call (608) 274-6922 any time using 8- 
N-l. The system supports 300/1200/2400 
baud. 

Francis Selje 
P.O. Box 514 
Marshall, WI 53559 




the rainbow welcomes letters to the 
editor. Mail should be addressed to: Letters 
to Rainbow, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. Letters should 
include the writer's full name and address. 
Letters may be edited for purposes of clarity 
or to conserve space. 

Letters to the editor may also be sent to 
us through our Delphi CoCo SIG. From the 
CoCo SIG> prompt, type Rfll to take you 
into the Rainbow Magazine Services area of 
the SIG. At the RAINBOW> prompt, type 
LET to reach the LETTERS> prompt and 
then select Letters for Publication. Be sure 
to include your complete name and address. 



10 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



UTILITIES 



SUPER TAPE/DISK 
TRANSFER 




• Disk-to-Disk Copy (1-3 passes) 

• Tape- to- Disk Copy 

• Tape- to Disk Automatic Relocate 

• Disk-to-Tape Copy 

• Tape- toTape Copy 

Copies Basic/M L programs and DATA files, 
CoCo 1 t 2 & 3 32 K Disk System 

(Disk to Disk Copy requires 64 K) 

DISK ONLY $24.95 

COCO DISK ZAPPER 

Are you frustrated with crashed disks? if 
sq this program can save hours of labor by 
restoring complete or part of the information 
from the disk. Its indespensable! 
Requires minimum 32K/64 K disk system 
ONLY $24.95 

DISK TUTORIAL 

(2- Disk Package) 




An indispensable tutorial for serious disk 
Basic/ ML programmers. Gives almost 
everything you MUST know about the disk 
system CoCo 1 t 2 & 3 

ONLY$36.95 

UTILITY BONANZA I 

includes 20 best- selected utilities: 

• 40K Disk Basic • Disk Gataloger 

• Super Tape- to- Disk Capy [with Automatic Relocaie) 

• LList Enhancer • X-Ref for Basic Programs 

• Graphics Typesetter (two text sizes!) 

• LARGE DMP Graphics Dump • Basic Stepper 

• Hidden 32 K [Use the " hidden" 32 K from your 84 K CoCoj 

• RAM Disk (for Casselte& Disk Users) 

• Single Key Printer Text Screen Dump 

• And much, much more II! 

Most programs compatible with CoCo 3 

DISK (64 K Ret) ONLY $29.95 

SUPER PACKAGE 

The indespensible utility package 
comprising: SUPER TAPE/DISK 
TRANSFER, COCO DISK ZAPPER, DISK 
TUTORIAL and UTILITY BONANZA 
REGULAR S1 16.80 
YOU PAY $79.95 (Save $36.85) 



word processors ALL SOFTWARE COMPATIBLE 



Best Word Processor For 
(Cas) $47.95 



TeleWriter-64: 
CoCo 1, 2 & 3 
(Disk) $57.95 

TW-80:80 Column Displays morefeatures 
forTW-64. CoCo 3 Disk $39.95 
TELEPATCH III; TW-64 Enhancements - 
Overstrike, Spool, Fast I/O, more $29.95 
TELEFORM: Mail Merge & Form Letters for 
TW-64. $19.95 

COLOR SCRIBE3: Best Line Editorfor CoCo 
3. $49.95 

DATABASE 

Pro Color File * Enhancerf* 2,0: Multi- feature 
Database. $59.95 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Autoterm: Superb Terminal Program Works 
with any modem! (Cas) $29.95 
(Disk) $39.95 

RTerm2.0; CoCo3 Terminal Prog Supports 
40/80 columns & more Disk $39.95 
Wiz: For 0S9 ii. 300-19200 baud rate, 
windows! Req 51 2K& RS232 Pak 
$79.95 

(See our Communications Extravaganza 
on Page 15!) 

ASSEMBLERS/COMPILERS 

EDT/ASM 64 0: Best Disk Based Editor- 
Assembler for CoCo. $59.95 (Specify CoCo 
1, 2 or 3) 

THE SOURCE: Best Disassembler for CoCo. 
$34.95 (Specify CoCo 1,2 or 3) 
CBASIC: Most powerful Basic Program 
Compiler. $149.95 (Specify CoCo 1 , 2 or 3) 

TUTORIALS 

MACHINE GENESIS: Excellent Assembly 
Language Tutor. Includes Editor 
Assembler/debugger/Disassembler and 
other utilities. Disk $34.95 

COPYPROTECTION 

DISK ANTI-PIRATE: Best copy-protection 
program for disk Basic and ML programs. 
ONLY $59,95. 

HIDE-A-BASIC 1.1: Best copy- protection 
program for Cassette Basic programs. 
ONLY $24.95. 

(Both Disk Anti-Pirate & Hide- A-Basic 1.1 
for ONLY $79.95) 



WITH COCO 1. 2 & 3 



OTHER SOFTWARE 

A0DS3: Advanced Disk Operating System 
for CoCo3. $34.95. ADOS: $27.95 
COCO OTIL II: (Latest Version): Transfer 
CoCo Disk files to IBM compatible 
computer. Transfer MS- DOS files to CoCo. 
$36.95 

SPIT'N IMAGE: Makes a BACKUP of ANY 
disk $32.95 

GRAFPLOT; Generate graphs from data or 

spreadsheeta Fully automatic with print 

functioa Disk $44.95 

FKEYS III: Function Keys for CoCo3. 

$24.95 

C0C03 FONT BONANZA $29.95 

RGB PATCH: Displays most games in color 

on RGB monitors For CoCo 3 Disk 

$24.95 

CoCo Max (Cas) $67.95 

CoCo Max II (Disk) $77.95 

RON COCO MAX II ON COCO III: The kit 

contains softwares replacement PAL chip 
for 26-3024 Multipak Interface. $29.95 



GAMES 

(DISK ONLY) 



PYRAMIX: Cubix' for CoCo 3 
GANTELET: $28.95 
MISSION H6 ASSAOLT: $28.95 
MARBLE MAZE: $28.95 
PAPER ROOTE: $28.95 
KNOCK 00T: $28.95 
KARATE: $28.95 
WRESTLE MANIAC: $28.95 
BOONCING BOOLDERS: $28.95 
THE GATES OF DELIRIUM: $38.95 
CALAOURIAL FLAME OF LIGHT: $38.95 
LANSFORD MANSION: $38.95 
P-51 MUSTANG SIMULATION 

WORLDS OF FLIGHT: $34.95 





$34.95 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 21 4 
Fairport, N.Y. 14450 
Phone(716) 223-1477 



Ail orders $50 & above (except CODsj shipped by UPS 2nd Day Air at no extra charge. Last minute shoppers ( 
can benelit VISA MC. AMEX, Check, MO, Pleaseadd$3.00 S&H(USA& Canada), other countries " 
S5.00 S&H. COD (US only) add $2.50 extra MYS residents please add sales tax 
Computerized processing & (racking o! orders, immediate shipment Dealer inquiries invited 





VfSA 







Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1-800-654-5244 9 am- 9 pm Monday- Saturday 

Except NY. Order Status. Information, Technical Information NY Orders call 1-71 6-223-1 477 



Rainbow Police 
Combat Vaporware 



We're in sort of a quandary here and think we've found a 
solution. Here is what we are up to: 
For the past several months, I have been concerned about 
the proliferation of "new" software "companies" in the CoCo market. 
By this, 1 mean not only brand new ones, but some that have recently 
reappeared with the advent of the Color Computer 3. 

It is obvious that many of you are concerned, too. Some are on the 
same basis as 1 am, as observers of the market in general. Others have 
a more personal interest: You've ordered something from someone and 
it has either failed to arrive, will not run when it does or does not seem 
to be quite what it was purported to be. 

In a number of the latter cases, efforts to get a refund, replacement 
or whatever have, as many times as not, failed to be successful. 

After receiving quite a number of letters about this problem from all 
parts of the country (and a f ew from other countries, too), we have traced 
most of the problem to our "Received and Certified" section of the 
magazine. In almost every case, someone saw a notice of a program in 
"Received and Certified" and ordered the program (or other merchan- 
dise). 

Let me explain how this section of the magazine works. When a 
product comes in for review, we first load it into a CoCo and give it 
a very quick once-over, (I am using the example of a program here, but 
we do similar things for non-program products.) This is so that we can 
ascertain that the product is what it purports to be and that it, indeed, 
will load and run. Having done that, we feel we can safely say the product 
does "exist," which is the reason for the Rainbow Seal of Certification. 

The Seal program, by the way, was designed years ago to combat what 
is now known as "vaporware" — products that were announced but not 
completed. Some firms went so far as to advertise such products. That 
this problem does not really exist today in the CoCo market is, I think, 
testament to the effectiveness of the Seal program. 



INSTANT SOFTWARE!! : J 



Pay only for what you want! 
Quality Utility Software at Unbelievable Prices! 



40K for Cassette Programs: 1100 
40K for Disk Basic Programs: 1101 
ALPHA-DIR: Alphabetize your DIRs. #102 
APPOINTMENT CALENDAR: 1103 
AUTOMATIC DISK BACKUP: Rea. 2 drives 1 #104 
AUTOMATIC 5 Min. CASSETTE SAUE: 1105 
AUTOMATIC 5 Min. DISK SAUE: 1106 
AUTO DIR BACKUP: No more F5 Errors' #107 
BANNER MAKER: 7' High Letters' #108 
BASIC PROGRAM AUTORUN FROM TAPE: #109 
BASIC SEARCH: Search for a string. #110 
BORDER MAKER: 255 Border Styles! #111 
BOWLING SCORE KEEPER: 1112 
CALENDAR MAKER: For DMF' Printers. #113 
CASSETTE LABEL MAKER: DUP's Only. 1114 
CLOCK: Keeps tiie as you progran.1115 
COMMAND KEYS: Short Hand for Basic. 1116 
COMMAND MAKER: Design your own coamands. 1117 
COMMAND SAUER: Saves/Recalls Commands. #118 
CALCULATOR: On-screen calc. when programing. 1119 
COMPUTERIZED CHECKBOOK: 1120 
CURSOR STYLES: 65535 cursor styles! #121 
DISK CATALOGER: Puts DIRs into Master DIR. #122 
DISK ENCRYPT: Password-protect Bas. Progs. 1123 
DISK LABEL MAKER: DMF Printers! #124 
DMP CHARACTER SET EDITOR: 1125 
DMP SUPERSCRIPTS: Great for Ten-papers! 1126 
DOS COMMAND ENHANCER: 1127 
ENHANCED KILL: 1128 
ENHANCED LL 1ST: Beautiful Listings! 1129 
ERROR LOCATOR: CoCo locates your errors. #130 
FAST SORT: 100 strings in 3 seconds!! 1131 
FILE SCRAMBLER: Hide your private files! 1132 
FULL ERRORS: English error aessages! #133 
FUNCTION KEYS: Speeds prog. tiie. #134 
GEMINI/EPSON GRAPHICS DUMP: 1135 
GRADEBOOK: Great for teachers! 1136 
GRAPHICS SCREEN COMPRESSION: 1137 
GRAPHICS SCREEN DMP DUMP: 1138 
GRAPHICS SCREEN LARGE DMP DUMP: 1139 
GRAPHICS LETTERING: 2 sizes! 1140 
GRAPHICS MAGNIFY / ED IT: 1141 
HOME BILL MANAGER: Keep track of bills.1142 
INPUT/OUTPUT DATA MONITOR: 1143 
KEY CLICKER: Ensures inout accuracv.1144 

1 PROGRAM - $3 3 PROGRAMS - 
4 PROGRAMS - $24 5 C'R MORE 
All nrograms on disk, liars t 
disk. Documentation included 



KEY SAUER: Save/Recall your keystrokes. 1145 
LAST COMMAND REPEATER: #146 
LINE COPY: Copy Basic Lines. 1147 
LINE CROSS REFERENCE: 1148 
LIST/DIR PAUSE: No more flybys! 1149 
LOWERCASE COMMANDS: 1150 
MAILING LIST: With Zipcode Sort! #151 
MASS INITIALIZATION: 1152 
ML/BASIC MERGE: herae ML & Bas. Progs. 1153 
MESSAGE ANIMATOR: Great Billboard! #154 
ML TO DATA CONUERTOR: 1155 
MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST MAKER: 1156 
NUMERIC KEYPAD: Great for nuibers. #157 
ON BREAK GOTO COMMAND: 1158 
ON ERROR GOTO COMMAND: 1159 
ON RESET GOTO COMMAND: 1160 
PHONE DIRECTORY:1161 
PAUSE CONTROL: Put prograus on hold! #162 
PROGRAM PACKER: For Basic Prograns. 1163 
PURCHASE ORDER MAKER: Neat Invoices' #164 
RAM DISK: In-senory disk drive. 1165 
REPLACE: Find/replace strings. 1166 

REUERSE UIDEO CGREEN) : El iiinates eyestrain. 1167 

REUERSE UIDEO C RED 5 : El iiinates eyestrain. #168 

RAM TEST: Checks your RAM. 1169 

SIGN MAKER: RUNs on any printer' 1170 

SINGLE STEPPER: Great debugger! 1171 

SPEEDUP TUTORIAL: 1172 

SPOOLER : Speedup printouts! #173 

SUPER INPUT/LINEINPUT:1174 

SUPER COMMAND KEYS: 1175 

SUPER COPY: COPY aultiple files. #176 

SUPER EDITOR: Scroll thru Bas. Progs. #177 

SUPER PAINT: 65535 patterns! 1178 

SUPER REPEAT: Repeat Key. 1179 

SUPER SCROLLER: View Scrolled Lines. 1180 

TAB/SHIFT LOCK. KEYS: 1181 

TAPE ENCRYPT: Password protect Bas. Progs. 1182 

TEXT SCREEN DUMP: 1183 

TEXT SCREEN SCROLL LOCK: 1184 

TITLE SCREEN CREATOR: #185 

UNK ILL: your KILLed disk prograns. #186 

UAR I ABLE CROSS REFERENCE: 1187 

UCR TAPE ORGANIZER: 1188 

SIB 3 PROGRAMS - 521 
PROGRAMS - SS EACH 
han one program sent on the same 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 21 4 
Fairport, N. Y. 14450 
Phone (71 6) 223-1477 



All orders S50 & above(except CQOs] shipped by UPS2 nd Day Air at no extra charge. Last minute shoppers 
can benefit VISA MC. AMEX Check MO. Please add$3.00 S&H(USA& Canada), other countries 
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Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1-800-654-5244 9 AM -9 PM Monday- Saturday 

Except NY. Order Status, Information, Technical Information, NY Orders call 1 -71 6-223-1 477 



Once we award a Seal, we forward the 
product to a reviewer for a formal 
article, which will eventually appear in 
the magazine. 

Let me preface what I say next by 
emphasizing my undying support for 
so-called "kitchen table" software and 
hardware developers. THE RAINBOW, in 
fact, started life, literally, on my own 
kitchen table. 

But, it seems we see a trend of using 
the "Received and Certified" section of 
THE RAINBOW as a sort of classified 
advertising forum for "new" companies. 
And, because of our deadlines, by the 
time the review comes out, tens of 
thousands of people have already been 
exposed to some mention of the prod- 
uct. 

Frequently, many of these small, new 
companies are less than prepared for 
business. Consequently, they quickly 
get into some trouble early on, get 
frustrated and give up. Sometimes they 
give up with your money in their 
pockets. 

This is not a seminar on how to get 
into the software business, but it is an 
effort lo try to help everyone. The truth 
is thai writing, debugging and docu- 
menting a program is but half the battle. 
You also have to consider how you will 
sell what you have done, how you will 
send your product to customers, how 
you will provide customer support and 
how you will answer questions from 
people who may call or write for more 
information. You must price your prod- 
uct in an effort to take all of those things 
into consideration. 

If you have done things such as this, 
you are ready to start business. You are, 
to use a phrase, in business. If not, you 
aren't. 

For those of you interested in being 
in business, you should know almost 
everyone started out this way. Even the 
largest firms "opened their doors" on 
their "kitchen table." It can be done. It 
has been done many times and is still 
being done today. 



However, I feel we at THE RAINBOW 
are under an obligation to you, our 
readers and members of the CoCo 
Community, to be certain that those 
who offer products to the CoCo Com- 
munity do so with a reasonable chance 
of doing the things you expect them to 
do. That is one thing we think is impor- 
tant. The other is that we continue to 
provide an avenue for new vendors to 
move into the CoCo market. 

That is the quandary. If we "police" 
new vendors, we provide a greater level 
of protection for you, but, at the same 
time, we limit their access to the market. 

Here is how we hope to solve all of 
this: Since most of this activity revolves 
around our "Received and Certified" 
and review process, we have instituted 
a policy that we will always accept a 
"first" product from someone in "Re- 
ceived and Certified" and that we will 
send it out for review. However, we 
intend to separate products from these 
"first-timers" from those by established 
firms. The same goes for reviews, in that 
we will identify a product as being the 
"first one" from a vendor. 

To accept a second product as "Re- 
ceived and Certified" and to be sent on 
for review, we have established some 
guidelines that are basically designed to 
protect you. The purpose of these 
guidelines is to ascertain whether the 
vendor is really in business and under- 
stands what he or she needs to do to 
meet his or her obligation to customers. 

The end result of this should have two 
effects. First, I think we will see fewer 
problems in the buying and selling of 
products. And, second, we will no 
doubt see the list of "Received and 
Certified" products (and reviews) get- 
ting shorter. To deal with the latter, we 
plan to do some update reviews of 
products that have been on the market 
for some time and which re-reviewing 
would benefit our Community. 

As I said, this has been something of 
a problem for us — and more so in 
recent months. However, I think in the 



Hint . . 



VIP Colors 



If you're tired of the present color options with VIP Desktop and you have 
purchased a CoCo 3, you are in luck. Just use the PRLETTE command to 
change palette numbers 8 and 9 to any values between 0 and 63 before 
entering LDRDM"DESKTDP This will change your foreground and 
background colors respectively. You will find that some color choices work 
better than others, but I have found that, by choosing proper values, I can 
get razor-sharp images with VIP Desktop on an ordinary TV. 

Colin D. Stevenson 
New South Wales, A ustralia 



end, it will be a modification to our 
popular "Received and Certified" pro- 
gram and our review process that will 
help us all. 



While on the subject of how we do 
business here, I would like to print part 
of a letter I wrote to a company that 
complained about a review. The only 
part that has been changed is that which 
refers to the company: 

What disturbs me is that you seem 
to think as a "paying advertiser" you 
are entitled to some special treatment, 
some sort of dispensation. If you pay 
us money for an advertisment, your 
letter says, you are entitled to: 

1. Special consideration when we 
write your review. 

2. Immediate listing of your new 
programs in "Received and Certi- 
fied, " despite when they might have 
come in and what our production 
schedule might be. 

3. Printing of every single letter that 
is sent us about your program. 

4. Printing of any letter we might 
run word-for-word (I do not hear you 
say we changed the meaning of any 
letter). 

No way. The first duty of THE 
rainbow is to its readers. Perhaps 
that is a dumb way to run a magazine, 
since advertising pays the bills, but 
that is the way this magazine works (it 
is the way all good magazines work, 
too ). You cannot influence the edito- 
rial content of the magazine simply by 
advertising. 

I also told the advertiser about a 
review I wrote myself in the early days 
of the magazine. The program was 
awful. I recommended erasing the 
cassette it came on and using it to tape 
music. My letter continued. . . 

Of course the guy cancelled his ad. I 
knew he would. But I also knew the 
rainbow wasn 7 going to recommend 
buying it. It was an interesting mo- 
ment, because I'd worked in journal- 
ism all my life and had always es- 
poused the theory of separation of 
advertising and editorial. But I came 
to the moment of truth pretty early in 
the magazine 's development, and I am 
glad to say that I came down on the 
side of journalism. I would like to 
think that has been one factor that has 
helped make THE rainbow into what 
it is. 

And I would like to still think that. 

— Lonnie Falk 



14 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 



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VIDEO CLEAR: Reduce TV interference. 
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MJF 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box21 4 
Fairport, N. Y. 14450 
Phone(716) 223-1477 



WeacceptVISA/MC/AMEX, Check or MO. NOCODs. Please art $3.00 S&H. 
except where otherwise mentioned. NYS Residents please add sales tax 
Prices are subject to changa All products are covered by manufacturers 
warranty. 



Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1-800-654-5244 9 AM - 9 PM Monday- Saturday 

Except NY. Order Status. Information, Technical Information, NY Orders call 1 -71 6-223-1 477 



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All prices and otters may be changed o r withdrawn without nohco Adver- 
tised prices are cash prices C O D accepted add 2°M (minimum charge 
SlOtWj MC Visa add 2%. All non deleclive ilems require return 
merchandise aulhorizaUon Call (or RMA Number before returning 
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TM - Registered Trademark of Tandy. Epson, and IBM 
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BBS EOLTOTOSraS 

124 South Main Street, Perry, Ml 48872 
CALL 1-517-625-4161 or TOLL-FREE 
1-800-248-3823 



Continuing Rainbow's 
Development 



A excited as I am about this, my first issue as managing editor 

RAINBOW, I try to keep things in perspective. While it's a 
X A k<-Jbig step for me, the fact is, THE RAINBOW has enough 
momentum that it could almost run itself. Dozens and dozens of people doing 
hundreds of various tasks combine their efforts to create each month's 
RAINBOW Add to this all our monthly department editors, the many regular 
contributors, and the advice and counsel of thousands of avid readers, and 
one begins to realize that THE RAINBOW is the creation of many, many people. 
While this may not seem to be a revelation to you, it helps me breathe easier, 
as I plan to take advantage of all the help I can rustle up in the days ahead. 

We are taking a hard look at every aspect of RAINBOW and we can use 
your help. Perhaps you've said to yourself, "Gee, if only RAINBOW would 
. . ."If so, tell me about it. Yes, we've always asked for — and received — 
much advice about how to build THE RAINBOW, and the magazine has 
undergone a gradual but constant evolution. Now, though, we are 
considering sweeping changes — if warranted — and we do want to hear 
your suggestions. While I hope to hear from most of our regular contributors, 
let me assure you that, with equal interest, I'll read and heed advice from 
the newest reader, because we must constantly be aware of the needs of the 
newest member of the CoCo Community. Perhaps in our years of making 
rainbows, some things have become "old hat" and maybe we take some 
things for granted when we really ought to be explaining it better. It just 
might be that the newest CoCo user has the very best suggestion, but we 
won't know for sure unless we hear from you. 

For instance, should we add a new department? Eliminate an existing one? 
Is there an area largely untapped? An area sorely overworked? Are our issue 
themes reflective of your interests? Do we need some new topics? Would 
three-column listings be OK if it meant more material could be shoe-horned 
into each issue of the magazine? Is there enough OS-9 material? Or, too 
much? 

When I became the third editorial staff member of RAINBOW several years 
ago, we had three filing cabinets. Now, we have 30 — 10 times as many, 
and they're brimming with some 4,000 submissions. But, we can only use 
a dozen or so each month. We've an embarrassment of riches in terms of 
available material, but we need your help in determining how best to present 
thecream of the crop to you. Have we reached the point where listings should 
be eliminated in favor of many more articles, relying instead on RAINBOW 
ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK and our Delphi listings? Well, I sort of doubt 
that, but we want to challenge the basis of all of our production — with 
an eye to changing what needs changing and preserving that which has proven 
to be successful. 

Yes, we have momentum and, with your help, we plan to keep on rolling 
along. In fact, the more of us who work together, push together and plow 
ahead together, the more momentum we'll have and the more unstoppable 
we'll be. So, let us hear from you! Take an active role in the continued 
development of THE RAINBOW. 

— Jutta Kapfhammer 



1 6 THE RAINBOW September 1 987 



GREAT COCO III PRODUCTS 



SUMMER SPECIALS*!!! 



s 

A 
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64K Disk Utility 


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*- See July* 87 Rainbow pg 69 for product descriptions ill L ST 
chance at these LOW prices ! J I Offer expires 9/25/87 1 1 1 



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Color Max III requires a 128K CoCo III and Hi-Res Joystick interface. ( Specify" printer !T~$ 59.95 » Color Max III 
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CoCo III 512K RAM sticker $4*99 
Level 11 Quick Ref Guide $4.99 
Level II Basic09 binder ..$9.95 




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Better CoCo III Graphics ~ $24.95 



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PQ BOX 284 

HOWARD BEACH NY 11414 
See our other ad on page 67!!! 





1 



Carabelle 

Teakie Hamrick 

This beautiful scene of 
Carabelle Beach, Florida, 
located on Apalachicola 
Bay was created in basic 
on the CoCo 3. This 
phone booth now reads 
"WORLD'S smallest 
POLICE STATION." 
Teakie fives in Hilliard, 
Florida. 




WORLD'S smallest 



POLICE STATION 



^2 

~ jfti'iriljh 



V- 



41 





s ept e 




Moose 

Michael Lee 

Michael of Massapequa, 
New York, used Color Max 
3 to create this majestic 
creature of the North. His 
hobbies include 
computers and drawing. 



mbe r 1987 





Paradise 
Mike Swisher 

Mike lives in 
Pineville, North 
Carolina, and 
created his 
wonderful idea of 
paradise with Color 
Max 3. 



Shelby 



Karl Luedemann 



Karl created this graphic of a 1965 Shelby GT 
350R with Color Max 3. He lives in Indianapo- 
lis, Indiana. 



H 



0©C© H ft 2 

Puppy 

Domingo Martinez 



Domingo created this 
"perky puppy" scene in 
basic. He lives and 
attends high school in 
Miami, Florida, and 
would some day like to 
get a job doing 
commercial art with 
computers. 




THE 



Good grades can be rewarding! 




RepoH Card Payoff 

By Dennis Dorrity 



Most parents have experienced 
the frustration of their child 
bringing home a report card 
that is not up to the child's capabilities. 
How do you explain to the child that 
grades are important; that good study 
habits transfer to good work habits; 
that grades are used to mete out higher 
education and future careers? 

Sometimes you can't. The concept of 
a future that is six or eight years away 
is inconceivable to most young child ren. 
You are basically left with two choices: 
the carrot or the stick. Leaving the 
arguments to the experts, we (my wife 



Dennis Dorrity is the author of several 
programs released through Color Con- 
nection Software and has been pro- 
gramming on the CoCo for about three 
years. He is a lieutenant in Quartermas- 
ter Corps, United States Army, and the 
father of two girls and two boys. 



and I) prefer using positive reinforce- 
ment — the reward. As its name implies, 
DollarS for Good GradeS is a program 
that automates the practice of giving a 
child a monetary reward for educa- 
tional achievement. 

Our children use DollarS for Good 
GradeS regularly. We have made it 
easily accessible by placing it on both 
the educational disk and the game disk. 
They are encouraged to use the program 
on any pretext. 

I'm sure that most of you have chil- 
dren like ours, whose lifetime ambition 
is to collect every He-Man figure, 
Barbie doll, G.I. Joe, My Little Pony, 
Star Wars figure, Care Bear or sticker 
known to Saturday morning commer- 
cial television. When a new gimmick is 
advertised, one or more of our children 
want it. 

Seizing the opportunity, we tell our 
children that the report card money will 



have to be used to purchase the new toy 
they just can't live without. So off he or 
she trots to the CoCo with the others 
close behind. Since this happens at least 
once a week, the idea of striving for 
better grades is reinforced on a regular 
basis. 

Whether we parents use DollarS for 
Good GradeS, or one of our children 
use it, the format is the same. A menu 
is printed that asks for a name and the 
number of As, Bs, etc. Once you have 
answered each question, you are given 
the opportunity to make any necessary 
changes. This is accomplished by press- 
ing the number corresponding to the 
item you want to modify. The old 
number will be erased, and the new one 
you type in will replace it. Once you 
have it correct, you can get a printed 
copy. (See Figure 1.) 

Dollar values have been arbitrarily 
assigned : $ 1 0 for a solid 4 A' report card , 



20 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



The Amazing A-BUS 




An A-BUS system with two Motherboards 
A-BUS adapter In foreground 

The A-BUS system works with the original CoCo, 

theCoCo2 and the CoCo 3. 

About the A-BUS system: 

• All the A-BUS cards are very easy to use with any language that can 
read or write to a Port or Memory. In BASIC, use INPand OUT for PEEK and 
POKE with Apples and Tandy Color Computers) 

• They are all compatible with each other. You can mix and match up to 25 
cards to lit your application. Card addresses are easily set with jumpers. 

• A-BUS cards are shipped with power supplies (except PO-123) and 
detailed manuals (including schematics and programming examples). 

Relay Card re-140: $1 29 

Includes eight industrial relays. (3 amp contacts. SPST) individually 
controlled and latched. 8 LEO's show status. Easy to use (OUT or POKE in 
BASIC). Card address is jumper selectable 

Reed Relay Card re-i 56: $99 

Same features as above, but uses 8 Reed Relays tos witch low level signals 
(20mA max). Use as a channel selector, solid state relay driver, etc. 

Analog Input Card ad-142: $1 29 

Eight analog inputs. 0 to +5V range can be expanded to 1 00V by adding a 
resistor 8 bit resolution (20mV). Conversion time 120us. Perfect to 
measure voltage, temperature, light levels, pressure, etc Very easy to use. 

1 2 Bit A/D Converter an-146: $139 

This analog to digital converter is accurate to .025%. Input range is -4 Vto 
+4V. Resolution: 1 millivolt. The on board amplifier boosts signals up to 50 
times to read microvolts. Conversion time is 1 30ms. Ideal for thermocouple, 
strain gauge, etc. 1 channel. (Expand to 8 channels using the RE-1 56 card). 

Digital Input Card in-i41:$59 

The eight inputs are optically isolated, so it's safe and easy to connect any 
"on/off" devices, such as switches, thermostats, alarm loops, etc. to your 
computer. To read the eight inputs, simply use BASIC INP (or PEEK). 

24 Line TTL I/O dg-i48:$65 

Connect 24 input or output signals (switches or any TTL device) to your 
computer. The card can be set for: input, latched output, strobed output, 
strobed input, and/or bidirectional strobed I/O. Uses the 8255A chip. 

Clock with Alarm cl-144: $89 

Powerful clock/calendar with: battery backup for Time, Date and Alarm 
setting {time and date); built in alarm relay, led and buzzer: timing to 1/100 
second. Easy to use decimal format. Lithium battery included. 

Touch Tone® Decoder ph-i45:$79 

Each tone is converted into a number which is stored on the board. Simply 
read the number with INP or POKE. Use for remote control projects, etc. 

A-BUS Prototyping Card pr-152: $15 

3V2 by 4'/2 in. with power and ground bus. Fits up to 10 I.C.s 




5T-143 



Plug into the future 

With the A-BUS you can plug your PC (IBM, Apple, 
TRS-80) into a future of exciting new applications in the fields 
of control, monitoring, automation, sensing, robotics, etc. 

Alpha's modular A-BUS offers a proven method to build your 
"custom" system today. Tomorrow, when you are ready to take 
another step, you will be able to add more functions. This is ideal for 
first time experimenting and teaching. 

A-BUS control can be entirely done in simple BASIC or Pascal, 
and no knowledge of electronics is required! 

An A-BUS system consists of the A-BUS adapter plugged into 
your computer and a cable to connect the Adapter to 1 or 2 A-BUS 
cards. The same cable will also fit an A-BUS Motherboard for 
expansion up to 25 cards in any combination. 

The A-BUS is backed by Alpha's continuing support (our 11th 
year, 50000 customers in over 60 countries). 

The complete set of A-BUS User's Manuals is available for $10. 



Smart Stepper Controller sc-i49:$299 

World's finest stepper controller. On board microorocessor controls 4 
motors simultaneously. Incredibly, it accepts plain English commands like 
"Move arm 10 2 inches left". Many complex sequences can be defined as 
"macros"and stored in the on board memory. For each axis, you can control: 
coordinate (relative or absolute), ramping, speed, step type (half. full. wave), 
scale factor, units, holding power, etc Many inputs: 8 limit & "wait until" 
switches, panic button, etc. On the fly reporting of position, speed, etc. On 
board drivers (350mA) for small steppers (MO- 103). Send for SC- 14 9 flyer. 
Remote Control Keypad Option RC-1 21 : $49 

To control the 4 motors directly, and "teach" sequences of motions. 
Power Driver Board Option PD-1 23: $89 

Boost controller drive to 5 amps per phase For two motors (eight drivers). 
Breakout Board Option BB 122 $1 9 

For easy connection of 2 motors. 3 ft. cable ends with screw terminal board. 

Stepper Motor Driver st-i43:$79 

Stepper motors are the ultimate in motion control. The special package 
(below) includes everything you need to get familiar with them Each card 
drives two stepper motors (1 2V, bidirectional, 4 phase. 350mA per phase). 
Special Package: 2 motors (MO-1 03) + ST-1 43: PA-1 81 : $99 

Stepper Motors MO-103: $15or4for$39 

Pancake type, %Vt m dia, 'A" shaft, 7 5*/steo, 4 phase bidirectional. 300 
step/sec. 1 2V, 36 ohm, bipolar, 5 oz-in torque, sameas Airpax K82701 -P2. 

Current Developments 

Intelligent Voice Synthesi2er. 14 Bit Analog to Digital converter, 4 Channel 
Digital to Analog converter. Counter Timer, Voice Recognition. 

A-BUS Adapters for: 

IBM PC, XT, AT and compatibles. Uses one short slot. 
Tandy 1 000. 1 000 EX& SX. 1 200, 3000. Uses oneshortsiot 
Apple II, II +, He Uses any slot 
TRS-80 Model 102, 200 Plugs into 40 pin "system bus" 
Model 1 00. Uses40pinsocket (Socket is duplicated on adaotert. 
TRS-80 Mod 3.4,4 0 Fits 50 pin bus (Withhard disk, use Y-cable). 
TRS-80 Model 4 P Includes extra cable. (50 pin bus is recessed) 
TRS-80 Model I Plugs into _40 pm I/O bos on KB or E/l. 
Color Computers (TandyYFiis ROM slot Muittoak. or Y-caoie 

A- BUS Cable (3 ft, 50 COnd.) CA-1 63: $24 

Connects the A-BUS adapter to one A-BUS card or to first Motherboard. 
Special cable for two A-BUS cards: CA-1 62: $34 

A-BUS Motherboard mb-i20:$99 

Each Motherboard holds five A-BUS cards. A sixth connector allows a 
second Motherboard to be added to the first (with connecting cable CA- 
161: $12). Up to five Motherboards can be joined this way to a single A- 
BUS adapter. Sturdy aluminum frame and card guides included. 
• The A-BUS is not a replacement for the Multi-pak 




RE-140 





AR-133 .$69 
AR-133.,$69 
AR-134...$49 
AR-f36...$69 
AR-1 35...$69 
AR-132..$49 
AR-1 37.562 
AR-131...$39 
AR-138..S49 



AD-M2 



Add S3.00 per order for shipping. 
Visa, MC. checks, M.O. welcome. 
CT & NY residents add saies tax. 
C.O.D. add $3.00 extra. 
Canada: shipping is S5 
Overseas add 1 0% 



Jffi^ ALPHA (Fmx&bM^ 

a Sigma industries Company 242- W West Avenue, Darien, CT 06820 



Technical info: (203) 656-1 806 

& 0 cl ,y 800 221-0916 

Connecticut orders: (203) 348-9436 
All lines open weekdays 9 to 5 Eastern time 



$7 for a 'B\ $4 for a l C\ SI for a 'D* and 
zero for an T\ In the program, a child 
aJso receives a $10 bonus for a straight 
4 A' report card for a total of S20. To 
some this may seem like a lot of money, 
but I have noticed a steady improve- 
ment in all of my children's report cards. 
In my mind, the money is well spent. 



Baud 


Value 






600 


87 


1200 


41 


1800 


25 


2400 


18 


3600 


10 


4800 


7 


7200 


3 


9600 


1 


Table 1 





However, you can 
change these values 
by editing Line 120. 
BN equals Bonus, Sfi 
equals straight l A', 
SB equals Solid 'B\ 
and so on. 

Line 100 sets the 
printer baud rate to 
1200. You can delete 
the line if you use 600 
baud, as this is the 
default for the CoCo. 
Or you can substitute 
one of the values 
from Table 1 for the 41 to change the 
baud rate to fit your printer. Pressing 
the letter P will print the results from 
the values you have input to the pro- 
gram. The printout will occupy the right 
half of the sheet. Fold the sheet in half, 



DOLLAR $ FOR GOOD GRADE $ 



NAME OF STUDENT: ANGELINA 



f A ! s 



'C 1 



NUMBER 
NUMBER 
NUMBER 
NUMBER 
NUMBER 

GRADE POINT AVERAGE: 3 • 6j3 
AMOUNT EARNED: $8.8j3 



OF 
OF 
OF 
OF 
OF 



D 1 s 
F ! s 



OR 
OR 
OR 
OR 
OR 



VG ! s: 



! S+ f s: 
! S's: 
'S-'s 
'N's: 



3 
2 

J3 



Figure 1: Sample Report Card 



from side to side. This will give the child 
some privacy if needed. 

(Questions about this program may 
be addressed to the author at General 
Delivery, Smool, WY 83126. Please 
include an SA SE for a reply.) □ 



^j/ 250 225 

I 440 194 

j 630 116 

END 123 



'D OR S- 

•F OR N 
START OVER 
PRINT HARD 



COPY 



The listing: GRADES 

10 •$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 
20 '$$ DOLLAR$ FOR $$ 

30 '$$ GOOD GRADE $ $$ 

40 '$$ WRITTEN IN 1985 BY $$ 
50 '$$ DENNIS O. DORRITY $$ 
60 '$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 
70 •########################### 
80 '## INITIALIZATION & MENU ## 
90 '########################### 
100 P0KE15J3,41 '1200 BAUD 
110 PG$=" #.##": PM$=" $$#.##»: BL$= 
STRING$ (30, 191) 'AESTHETIC VALUE 
S 

120 BN=1J3.00:SA=10.00:SB=7.,0J3:SC 
=4.j3j3:SD=l.j3j3:SF=j3 'DOLLAR VALUE 
S 

130 CLS4:TL$=" DOLLAR$ FOR GOOD 
GRADE $ " : F0RL=1T02 6 : TL=ASC (MID$ 
(TL$,L,1) ) :IFTL>64THENTL=TL-64 
140 POKE102 6+L,TL:NEXTL 
150 TL$=" WRITTEN BY DENNIS O. D 
ORRITY " : FORL=lT03j3 : TL=ASC (MID$ ( 
TL$ , L , 1 ) ) : I FTL> 6 4 THENTL=TL- 6 4 
160 POKE15p4+L,TL:NEXTL 
170 GOSUB520 'NAME 
180 GOSUB54J3 'A OR VG 
190 GOSUB550 'B OR S+ 
200 GOSUB560 ' C OR S 



GOSUB570 
GOSUB58J3 
PRINT" 7, 
PRINT" P. 
'########################## 
'## CALCULATION ROUTINES ## 
'########################## 
GA=(A*4) + (B*3). + (C*2)+D 1 GRAD 



210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 

E ADJUSTMENT 

290 GV=(A*SA)+(B*SB)+(C*SC)+(D*S 

D)+(F*SF) 'GRADE VALUATION 

300 NC=A+B+C+D+F 'NUMBER OF CLAS 

SES 

310 IFNC=,0THENPRINT@384:PRINT@41 

7 : GV=0 : ME=0 : GOTO 3 4 0 

320 GP=GA/NC 'CALCULATE GPA 

33J3 ME=GV/NC 'MONEY EARNED 

340 PRINT@384," A GRADE POINT AV 

ERAGE OF " ; : PRINTUSINGPG$ ; GP 

350 PRINT : PRINT@4 17 , "EARNS " ; : PR 

INTUSINGPM$;ME; 

360 IFGP=4THENPRINT" + BONUS OF 

" ; : PRINTUSINGPM$ ; BN 

370 '#################### 

380 •## CHANGE ROUTINE ## 

390 -#################### 

400 TL$=" ANY CHANGES? ENTER <1- 

P> " 

410 FORL=lT02 6:TL=ASC(MID$(TL$,L 

, 1) ) : IFTL>64THENTL=TL-64 

420 POKE1346+L,TL:NEXTL 

430 AC$=INKEY$ : IFAC$=""THEN4 3p 

44j3 PRINT@3 20,BL$ ; 'BLANKS OUT P 

ROMPT 

450 IFAC$="P"GOSUB620 

460 AC=VAL(AC$) : IFAC<10RAC>7THEN 

280 



22 THE RAINBOW September 1987 





sW 



'The best program ever written for the Color Computer" 



That's how thousands of enthusiastic users rated 
the CoCo Max II drawing program. With CoCo Max 
III we are ready to amaze them again. Instead of 
"patching" CoCo Max II, we rewrote it from scratch 
to take advantage of the CoCo Max III hardware. 
The results will knock your socks off ! Below is a 
brief list of some of the new features, but some, 
such as animation, color sequencing, or the slide 
show, have to be seen. Send forthe Demo Disk, and 
see for yourself. 

Everybody's favorite drawing package features: 

- A 50% larger editing window. - Zoom area 400% 
larger. - New drawing tools: rays, 3D cubes, arcs,... - 
New editing tools: shadow,text size,... - Rotate by 1.5° 
steps - Select any 16 of the 64 possible colors (all 64 
colors displayed at once!) - Powerful color mix: additive, 
subtractive, overlay,... - Full color editing of patterns 
and color changing patterns. - Incredible special eff- 
ects with color cycling up to 8 colors with variable 
speed. -Animation adds the dimension of motion to 
your image. (Must be seen.) - Sophisticated data com- 
pression saves up to 70% of disk space when saving 
pictures. 

In addition, there are dozens of enhancements to the 
multitudeof features thatmadeCoCo Max II a bestseller. 

More about CoCo Max III 

• CoCo Max III is not an upgrade of CoCo Max II. It is entirely 
rewritten to take advantage of the new CoCo 3 hardware 
(More memory, resolution, colors, speed,...) 

• The new CoCo Max III Hi-Res Interface and the CoCo Max II 
Hi-Res Pack are not interchangable. 

• The new interface plugs into the joystick connector. 

• The CoCo Max ill disk is not copy protected. 

• CoCo Max III only works with the CoCo 3. 

• A Y-Cable or Multi-pak is not necessary. 

• Colors are printed in five shades of gray. 

• CoCo Max III can read CoCo Max II pictures and fonts. 



Note: CoCo Max II (for the CoCo 2) is still available on disk 
($79.95). CoCo Max I is still available on tape ($69.95). For 
details, refer to our double page ad in any Rainbow from 
January *86 to July '87 



Toll Free operators are for orders only. If you need precise answers, call 
the tech line. (Detained CoCo Max specs are included with the Demo Disk ) 

Add $3.00 por urrior lor shlpplnrj 
Visa. MC. checks. M.O. welcome. 
CT residents add sales tax. 
C.O.D. add S3.O0 extra. 
Canada: shipping Is 55 
Ovorxaan nriri 1 (!"/♦. 



( 



Technical info (203) 656-1806 

&°c n T ly 800 221-0916 

Connecticut orders (203) 348-9436 
All hnes open weekdays 9 to 5 Eastern time 

3f Beware of cheap and inferior imitations that DO NOT include a Hi-Res interface 
or charae extra for each utility 




Imagine this picture in sixteen colors! 



Guaranteed Satisfaction 

Umm CoCo Max for a full month. 
If you are not delighted with it, 
we will refund every penny. 



System Requirements: 

Any CoCo 3 disk system with a Joystick or a Mouse. 
We apologize to tape users, CoCo Max III needs the flexibility of a disk. 

The CoCo Max III system includes: • The special Hi-Res 
interface {for yourmouse or joystick) • The CoCo Max 1 1 1 disk • Many 
utilities: (Toconvert Max ii pictures, Max ii fonts, etc.) • Adetailled User's 

Manual. Complete system; nothing else to buy CoCo Max III: $79.95* 



WITH COUPON ONLY 



FREE DEMO DISK 



Name 
Street 



State 



City 
Zip 



Printer used: 

Please include $2 to help defray Processing and Shipping 
costs. (Check, Money Order, etc. Sorry, no COD or Credit 
Cards). Coupon (or copy) must be mailled to: 



[COLORWARE 



A division of Sigma Industries, Inc. 



COLORWARE 

242-W West Avenue 
Darien, CT 06820 



470 ON AC GOSUB 52J3 , 54j3 , 55j3 , 56J3 , 
57j3,58j3, 13/3 

480 GGT028J3 ' RECALC GPA & $$ 
490 '######################## 
5j3j3 ■## INPUT SUB-ROUTINES ## 
51)3 •######################## 
520 PRINT@64:PRiNT@65, 11 1. NAME? 
11 ; : LINEINPUTSN$ 

53) 3 IFLEN (SN$) <10RLEN (SN$) >15THE 
N52)3ELSERETURN 

54) 3 PRINT§9 6:PRINT@97,"2. HOW MA 
NY A OR VG? " ; : LINEINPUT A$:A=VA 
L(A$) :PRINT§117,A:RETURN 

55) 3 PRINT@128:PRINT@129, "3. HOW 
MANY B OR S+? ";: LINEINPUT B$:B= 
VAL(B$) : PRINT § 14 9, B: RETURN 

560 PRINT@160:PRINT@161, "4. HOW 
MANY C OR S? " ; :LINEINPUTC$:C=V 
AL(C$) :PRINT@ 18 1,C: RETURN 

57) 3 PRINT@192:PRINT§193,"5. HOW 
MANY D OR S-? " ; : LINEINPUTD$ : D=V 
AL(D$) : PRINT §21 3, D: RETURN 

58) 3 PRINT§2 24 :PRINT@22 5, "6. HOW 
MANY F OR N? " ; : LINEINPUTF$ : F=V 
AL ( F $ ) :PRINT@245,F:RETURN 

590 ■##################### 
6)3)3 •## PRINTER ROUTINE ## 

61) 2 •##################### 

62) 3 IF (PEEK ( 65314 ) AND1 ) 01THEN65 
0 'DETERMINES PRINTER STATUS 

630 PRINT§3 25," PRINTER IS NOT R 



EADY 11 ; 

64)3 FORL=)3T09 9 9 : NEXTL : RETURN 
650 PRINT#-2 , TAB ( 50 ) "DOLLAR$ FOR 

GOOD GRADE $ 
660 PRINT#-2 : PRINT#-2 , TAB (44 ) »NA 
ME OF STUDENT: "SN$ 
670 PRINT#-2, TAB (48) "NUMBER OF 1 
A's OR 'VG's: "A 

680 PRINT#-2, TAB (48) "NUMBER OF 1 
B's OR 'S+'s: "B 

690 PRINT#-2, TAB (48) "NUMBER OF 1 
C's OR 'S's: "C 

700 PRINT#-2, TAB (48) "NUMBER OF 1 
D's OR 'S-'s: "D 

710 PRINT#-2, TAB (48) "NUMBER OF ' 
F's OR 'N's: "F 

720 PRINT#-2, TAB (44) "GRADE POINT 
AVERAGE: " ; : PRINT #-2 , USINGPG$ ;G 

P 

730 PRINT#-2, TAB (44) "AMOUNT EARN 
ED: " ; : PRINT #-2 , USINGPM$ ; ME 
740 IFGP=4THENPRINT#-2,TAB(56) " 
+ ";ELSE780 

750 PRINT#-2,USINGPM$ ;BN; : PRINT# 
-2 , " BONUS 

760 PRINT#-2 ,TAB(59) " 

770 PRINT#-2,TAB(59) ; :PRINT#-2,U 
SINGPM$ ; ME+BN 

780 FORL=lT05:PRINT#-2: NEXTL 
790 RETURN 



PRINTERS! 

NE W! Okidata 1 92+ (Par. or Ser.) s 370 

N EW! Okidata 193 (Parallel) s 540 

N EW! Okidata 193+ (Serial) s 6 1 0 

Okimate 20 Color Printer $ 1 35 

Fujitsu 2100(80 col.) $ 4I0 

Fujitsu 2200 ( 1 32 col.) $ 520 

Toshiba 321 (Par. or Ser.) s 5 1 0 

Qume Letterpro 20 (Letter Qual.) s 445 

. Silver Reed 420 (Daisy Wheel) s 240 

Silver Reed 600 (Daisy Wheel) s 575 

(Add $ I0 Shipping for Printers) 



ACCESSORIES! 

Taxan 12" Green Monitor S I25 

Taxan 12" Amber Monitor s 1 35 

Table Top Printer Stand 

w/Slot(80col.) s 30 

Table Top Printer Stand 

w/ Slot (1 32 col.) s 45 

Stand w/ Diskette Storage (80 col.) s 47 

Stand w/ Diskette Storage (1 32 col.) s 57 

Other Printers, Monitors, and Accessories for CoCo 

nnd IBM upon request. 

i 15 off interface with purchase of printer 

Find your cheapest published price and we'll bent it!!! 



DISK DRIVE SYSTEMS! 

ALL '/i HEIGHT DOUBLE SIDED 

Drive 0 (addressed as 2 drives. 1 ) s 235 

Drive 0.1 (addressed as 4 drives!) s 350 

All above complete with HDS controller, 
cable, & drive in case with power supply 

Bare Double Sided Drives s 1 09 

Dual Vi Height Case w/Power Supply s 49 

Double Sided Adapter s 25 

HDS Controller, RS ROM & Instructions s 99 

25 CDC DS/DD Diskettes s 32 & s 3 s/h 

We use the HDS controller exclusively. Can use 2 different DOS ROM's 
Shipping Costs: s 5/drive or power supply, S I0 max. 
Co Co Serial Cables 15 ft.-S|0. Co Co/RS-232 Cables 15 ft.- s 20. 
Other cables on request. (Add s 3 00 shipping) 



SP-2 INTERFACE for 
EPSON PRINTERS: 

■ 300-19,200 BAUD rates 

■ Fits inside printer — No AC Plugs 

■ Optional external switch (*5 00 extra) frees parallel 
port for use with other computers 

■ s 49 9$ (plus 53°° shipping) 



SP-3 INTERFACE for 
MOST OTHER PRINTERS: 

■ 300-19,200 BAUD rates 

■ External to printer — No AC Plugs 

■ Built in modem/printer switch— no need for Y-cables or 
plugging/unplugging cables 

■ 5 64 9S (plus 5300 shipping) 



Both also available for IBM, RS-232 and Apple IIC computers, 



P.O. Box 293 
Raritan, NJ 08869 
(201) 722-1055 

ENGINEERING 



24 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 



COMPUTIZE, INC. • (215) 946-7260 • P.O. BOX 207 • LANG HORN E, PA 19047 





Hi-Res Joystick Interface. 

(Radio Shack #26-3028) 
Cat. #221CH 



$12.00 



Picture Converter 1 (C) 

6 Picture Format Converters: 

* CoCo Max B&W to "MGE" 

* CoCo Max artifact to "MGE" 

* 6K B&W binary fiJe to "MGE" 

* 6K artifact binary to "MGE" 

* Graphicom B&W to MGE" 

* Graphicom artifact to "MGE" 
(MGE is Color Max 3 Pix format) 
Cat.#220MD $29.95 

MOUSE PADS 
Super High Quality Rubberized 
Mouse Pads with Felt Finish. 
10 3/4x8 1/2" Specify Color... 
Cat.#210CH Red 
Cat.#211CH Blue 
Cat.#212CH Silver 

<un ooi? a 



Picture Converter 2(C) 
Converts ATARI (tm) Low Res 
320x200 picture files to "MGE" ' 
format used by Color Max 3. 
Works with ATARI pictures with 
file extensions .ST, .NEO, and 
.TNY. 

NOTE: This utility is designed to allow 

the user to retrieve picture files from 

Bulletin Boards and Information Services. 

Files must be "Un-Arced". 

Most databases have "UN-ARC" utilities 

available. 

Cat.#222MD $29.95 

Color Max 3 Font Editor(c) 

Create/Modify fonts for use with 
Color Max 3. Create Keyboard 
driven Icons. Customize existing 
fonts. Works in a "Fat Bits" type 
mode. Variable Height & Width. 
Let your imagination "go to work"! 
r*t AriidAxn <no 



CM3 Basic Tool & Gallery 

Load 8l Save "MGE" pictures for 
display outside of Color Max 3. 
Incorporate into basic programs. 
Gallery lists all MGE files-just 
Point & Display! 

Cat.#225MD $19.95 

Color Max 3 FONTS 
Max3 Fonts from Derringer 
Software. Quality fonts like those 
created for CoCo Max(r). 
Over 25 Fonts in all! 
Cat.#223DD $29.95 

YOU HAVEN'T PURCHASED 
COLOR MAX 3??? TRY A 

DEMO DISK SHOWS YOU 

THE P O W E R OF CM3! Price 
of demo is deducted when you buy! 
Why Wait???ORDER NOW 
Cat.#219MD $5.00 



£ 1 * 
o 



M 



□□□□□□□□□□ 

□ □□□□□D£ 



□ u 



□ 

□□□□□□ 



his is the first of a four-part series 
for the beginner programmer 
and those who want to know 
more about the BASIC language. In this 
series we will cover many of the com- 
mands used in the BASIC programmin 
language as it pertains to the Colo 

f £gmpu,tf r. g — . — 

First, we will cover some of t 
commands used and what each com 
mand does. 



BASIC 

for Beginners 

Lesson 1 



By David W. Ostler 



26 THE RAINBOW September 1 987 



CLS 

The CLS command clears the screen 
of any information that is being dis- 
played. It is especially useful when you 
want to clear data from the screen to 
display new information. 

Various forms of CLS are CLS*, where 
* is a number value between 0 to 8. The 
number will set the color of the screen. 
But when typing or printing of data 
onscreen occurs, the data will still 
appear black on a light green screen. If 
no number follows the CLS command, 
the screen will remain light green but all 
data will be removed from the screen 
display. 

Table 1 shows the color that will be 
displayed with the value of x. 



Table 1 

Color 



0 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



Black 
Green 
Yellow 
Blue 
Red 

Buff (Off-White) 
Cyan (Blue-Green) 
Magenta (Purple) 
Orange 




Dave Ostler is an IC layout designer and 
the systems manager for a CAD main- 
frame system. He teaches CAD and 
electronics at Gailford Technical Com- 
munity College. Dave is married and 
has three children, Avis, Chuck and 
Erik. 



Try this on your computer. Enter the 
CLS command and add a number di- 
rectly behind it. Remember that the 
syntax (the way that the command has 
to be for the computer to recognize it) 
has to be correct. (Example: CL50, 
CLS1, CLS2, CLS3, CLS4, CLS5, CLS6, 
aS7, CLS8, GL5.) 

Enter Listing 1 to see what types of 
screens your computer can generate by 
using the CLS command. 



INPUT 

The 




id allows \ 



INPUT command allows you to 
enter variables into the program. These 
variables may be string variables (a$ v 
c$, CSS, etc.) or integer variables (a, 
A, B, d, AE, etc.). This command is used 

C where more than one character needs to 
be entered as a variable or can be used 
as a place to pause a program. Please 
note that this command will not allow 
entry of any punctuation such as com- 
mas, periods, colons or semicolons. 

Proper syntax for this command is 
INPUT;*, INPUT "ENTER YOUR NUMBER 
HERE";.x\ for integer variables or 
INPUT "ENTER YOUR TEXT HERE";x$ 



for string variables. 

Other commands that also allow 



variable entry are LINEINPUT and 
INKEYS. These commands will be cov- 
ered later in this series. 

PRINT 

The PRINT command allows printing 
of variables and text strings or forces 
the cursor down the screen for proper 
screen printing. This command can also 
send information to various devices that 
are connected to your computer via the 
RS-232 (Serial I/O) plug or to the disk 
via the disk controller. 

It can also be combined with other 
characters to print, to the screen or to 
the devices mentioned above, in a 
particular way. 

The proper syntax for this command 
is PRINT, PRINT"THIS STRING ON THE 
SCREEN" or PRINT***, where *** is a 
specifier of where to send the data or 
how to print the data when it is sent. 
Table2coverssome of the specifiers and 
their use; for more information, refer to 
your manual on the PRINT command 
and its various forms. 

Of course, there are variations of 
these commands and other commands 
not covered here. Refer to your manual 
for more information on variations and 
their uses. 





Table 2 


Specifier 


T Ira 

Use 


DDTMTH 1 
rKl IN 1 H - ± 


Sends data to the tape 




drive 


rrc INI U - <L 


Sends data to the 




pruiicr 


DnTMTravw 
1 N 1 


Prints data at a partic- 




ular place on the 




screen 


nriTKITTHQ 

Hk IN 1 1 Ht) 


Moves the cursor to 




the tab location 


r"K 1 IN 1 Uj 1 INb 


13 r* in i p /nolo i r% o or\DPi 

rTinis oaia in a speci- 




fied format. 



FOR/NEXT 

The FDR/NEXT command can be used 
to set up a delay or force looping for 
data calculation or conversion. 

Loops are classified as two types: 
conditional and unconditional. Condi- 
tional loops have, just like the phrase 
says, conditions that must be met for the 
loop to continue and go on to the rest 
of the program. Unconditional loops 
will loop and go on to the rest of the 
program no matter what. The FDR/ 
NEXT commands used in the programs 





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September 1987 THE RAINBOW 27 



for this part of the series are condi- 
tional. They are used to put timing 
delays into the programs. 

The proper syntax for this command 
is FDR x = a to b STEP <::NEXT jc, where 
x is the variable dependent upon the 
loop, a is the value (which can be 
constant or variable) that determines 
the starting point of the loop, b is a 
value (which can also be a constant of 
a variable) that determines the end 
point of the loop, and c tells the com- 
puter how many value units to count 
before checking the loop. The NEXT x 
statement forces the loop back to the 
count. When the count is equal to the 
value of/?, the program will proceed out 
of the loop. 

INKEYS 

The INKEY$ command questions the 
keyboard for keystrokes, then checks 
them against the conditional loops set 
up within the program to see if the 
conditions are satisfied. Or it can be 
used with other commands to pause the 
program or select values. One use that 
most of us are familiar with is "PRESS 
RNY KEY TO CONTINUE". 

The proper syntax for this command 
is R$=INKEY$, where R$ is the variable 
string selected to be intrepreted by the 
INKEYS command. 

END 

This command marks the ending 
point of the program. When the END 
command is acted upon, the program 
terminates and you are placed back into 
the BASIC operating system. 

The proper syntax for this command 
is END. This command requires no 
variables or other conditions for the 
command to be executed. 

Variable Explanation 

This is a numerical value or text 
string, which can change within the 
program to allow entry of desired 
information. This information can be 
generated within the program or en- 
tered by the keyboard. This information 
may then be manipulated to return 
values or data information. Examples 
of variables are found in the listings. 

Looking at Listing 1 

Line 10 clears the screen, moves the 
cursor down the screen two lines and 
prints the text "THIS IS R CL5 COM- 
MRND". 

Line 20 sets up a timing delay so that 
the screen will not flash on to the next 
screen before you have a chance to 
observe it. Please note that the loop will 



count from 1 to 1000, and count by 
ones, before the program will proceed. 
The NEXTx command tells the program 
(hat the count has been registered and 
to continue counting to 1000. 

Lines 30 through 180 perform the 
same functions as those described 
above, but the CL5 command has the 
values attached to it, so that will change 

"Integer variables will 
not allow any entry 
other than numbers. " 

the screen as directed. (As an example, 
Line 30 prints the text "TH 1 5 1 5 R ' CLS 
1' COMMRND"; Line 40, a NEXTx com- 
mand; Line 50 prints "THIS IS R ' CLS 
2' COMMRND"; Line 60, a NEXTx com- 
mand; and so on.) 

Line 190 clears the screen, moves the 
cursor down the screen by two lines and 
prints the text "THIS DEMO SHOWS THE 
'CLS' COMMRND IF YOU WISH TO SEE 
THIS DEMO RGRIN PRESS (R) ELSE RNY 
□ THER KEY TO END THIS PROGRRM". 

Line 200 sets string variable R$ so 
that the keyboard will set R$ equal to 
the the key pressed. 

Line 210 tests string variable R$ and 
checks to see if any key has been 
pressed; if no key has been pressed, then 
the program will loop back to Line 200. 
If a key has been pressed, then the 
program will proceed to the next pro- 
gram step. This is a conditional loop. 

Line 220 tests string variable R$ to see 
if the key pressed was the A key. If the 
A key is pressed, the program is forced 
back to Line 10 to start the program 
again at that point. If the key pressed 
is not the A key, the program will then 
proceed on to the next program step. 

Line 240 clears the screen and then 
ends the program. 

Looking at Listing 2 

Line 10 clears the screen, moves the 
cursor down the screen one line and 
then prints the text "ENTER YOUR 
NRME". It also allows the entry of string 
variable R$ from the keyboard. Note: 
The INPUT command will not allow 
entry of variables with any form of 
punctuation. 

Line 20 moves the cursor down the 
screen two more lines and then allows 
the entry of integer variable R. Note: 
Integer variables also will not allow any 
entry other than numbers, any other 
type of notation such as commas for 



thousands or dollar signs to indicate 
dollars. It will allow the entry of peri- 
ods. Periods are treated as decimal 
points. 

Line 30 clears the screen, moves the 
cursor down the screen two lines and 
prints the text "WORKING ". 

Line 40 does the mathematical ma- 
nipulation of integer variable R (sub- 
tracts the integer variable R from 87) 
and sets integer variable B equal to that 
manipulation. It then sets up a timing 
delay to simulate that the computer is 
working on the problem. Please note 
that the loop will count from 1 to 1000, 
and count by ones, before the program 
will proceed. The NEXTx command tells 
the program that the count has been 
registered and to continue counting to 
1000. 

Line 50 clears the screen, prints string 
variable R$ (your name entered in Line 
10), directly following it prints the text 
string "YOU RRE", directly following it 
prints integer variable B, and directly 
following that the text string "YERR5 
OLD". So the entire line reads "your 
name YOU RRE 35 YERR5 OLD". 

Line 60 moves the cursor down the 
screen two lines and prints the text 
"RNOTHER (Y/N)". 

Line 70 sets string variable B$ so that 
the keyboard will set string variable B$ 
equal to the the key pressed. It then tests 
string variable B$ and checks to see if 
any key has been pressed; if no key has 
been pressed, then the program will 
loop back to Line 70. If a key has been 
pressed, then the program will proceed 
to the next program step. 

Line 80 tests string variable B$ to see 
if the key pressed was the Y key. If the 

Y key is pressed, the program is forced 
back to Line 10 to start the program 
again at that point. If the Y key is not 
the key pressed, then the program will 
proceed to the next program step. 

Line 90 tests string variable B$ to see 
if the key pressed was the N key. If the 
N key is pressed, the program is forced 
to Line 1 10 to end the program. If the 
N key is not the key pressed, then the 
program will proceed on to the next 
program step. 

Line 100 forces the program to go 
back to Line 70 (this is an unconditional 
loop). This loop ensures that only the 

Y and N keys are able to control the 
program action. Any other keys cause 
the program to go back to the INKEYS 
routine in Line 70. 

Line 1 10 clears the screen and forces 
the program to terminate and place 
control back into the BASIC operating 
system. 



28 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



PROGRAMMING EXERCISES 

Exercise 1 

Utilizing the methods presented in 
listings I and 2, write a program that 
will take any number you enter as a 
variable and multiply that number by 2. 

Note: The figure that your computer 
uses for multiplication is the asterisk 
(*). Example: 4x3- 1 2 is how we would 
write it on paper. 4*3- 12 is how the 
computer needs it. 



Exercise 2 

Write a program that will allow you 
to enter your name, street address, city, 
state, ZIP and phone number as differ- 
ent string variables. 

Variables can be any two-character 
combination. You can use any number 
of variables within a program in any 
combination of numerical and/ or alpha 
characters. The only limitation is that 
you may run out of memory in the 
computer if you use too many. 



The solutions to the programming 
exercises will be printed in the next 
installment of this series. Note that 
there may be many different ways in 
programming to obtain the same result; 
in this series we will attempt to use the 
most straightforward method for sim- 
plification. 

( Questions about this tutorial may be 
directed to the author at 901 Ferndale 
Blvd., High Point, NC 27260. Please 
enclose an SASE when writing.) □ 



Listing 1: CLS 

lj3 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" THIS IS A 

f CLS f COMMAND" 
20 F0RX=1T01J3J3J3STEP1:NEXTX 
30 CLS 1: PRINT: PRINT" THIS IS 

A ! CLSl f COMMAND" 
40 FORX=1TO1000STEP1:NEXTX 
50 CLS2: PRINT: PRINT" THIS IS 

A f CLS2 f COMMAND" 
60 FORX=1TO1000STEP1:NEXTX 
70 CLS3 :PRINT: PRINT" THIS IS 

A f CLS3 ! COMMAND" 
80 FORX=1TO1000STEP1:NEXTX 
90 CLS4 : PRINT: PRINT" THIS IS 

A f CLS4 1 COMMAND" 
100 FORX=1TO1000STEP1:NEXTX 
110 CLS5: PRINT: PRINT" THIS IS 

A ! CLS5 ! COMMAND" 



120 FORX=1TO1000STEP1 
130 CLS6: PRINT: PRINT" 

A ! CLS6 f COMMAND" 
140 FORX=lTO 1000 STEP1 
150 CLS7: PRINT: PRINT" 

A f CLS7 f COMMAND" 
160 FORX=1TO1000STEP1 
170 CLS8: PRINT: PRINT" 

A 1 CLS8 f COMMAND" 
180 FORX=1TO1000STEP1 
190 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" 
HOWS THE f CLS 1 COM- 
U WISH TO SEE THIS 

PRESS (A) ELSE ANY 

TO END THIS PROGRAM" 
200 A$=INKEY$ 
210 IFA$=" "THEN 200 
220 IFA$=" A"THEN 10 
240 CLS: END 



:NEXTX 

THIS IS 

:NEXTX 

THIS IS 

:NEXTX 

THIS IS 

:NEXTX 
THIS DEMO S 
MAND IF YO 
DEMO AGAIN 
OTHER KEY 



Listing 2: VPRIPBLE 

10 CLS : PRINT : INPUT "ENTER YO 
UR NAME" ;A$ 

20 PRINT : INPUT "ENTER YEAR OF 
YOUR BIRTH" ;A 

30 CLS : PRINT : PRINT "WORKING. 



40 B=(87-A) : FOR X = 1 TO1000 S 
TEP 1 : NEXT X 



50 CLS : PRINT : PRINT A$ ; : PRI 
NT 11 YOU ARE " ; B ; : PRINT "YEAR 
S OLD" 

60 PRINT : PRINT "ANOTHER (Y/N) " 
70 B$=INKEY$ : IF B$ = "" THEN 7 

80 IF B$ = "Y" THEN 10 
90 IF B$ = "N" THEN 110 
100 GOTO 70 

110 CLS : END /Z\ 



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TWELFTH COVER 
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RAM TEST 
LANDER 



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THIRTEENTH COVER 
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MUSIC SYNTHESIZER 
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ISSUE #14, AUGUST 1983 

MYSTERY COVER 
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ISSUE #15, SEPTEMBER 1983 

MYSTERY COVER PT 2 
GOLD VALUES 
TREK INSTRUCTIONS 
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ISSUE #16, OCTOBER 1983 

MYSTERY COVER 
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ISSUE #17, NOVEMBER 1983 

THANKSGIVING COVER 

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INDY500 

COLLEGE ADVENTURE 
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DRAW 



ISSUE #18, DECEMBER 1983 

CHRISTMAS COVER 
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GALACTIC CONQUEST 
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STATES REVIEW 
MATH TUTOR 

MACHINE LANGUAGE DATA 
PRINTER UTILITY INSI 
PRINTER UTIUTY 
MUTANT WAFFLES 



ISSUE #19, JANUARY 1984 

BANNER 
PROBE 

DISK DIRECTORY PROTECTOR 
OPTICAL CONFUSION 
WORD PROCESSOR 
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ISSUE #20, FEBRUARY 1984 

INTRODUCTION: 
HINTS FOR YOUR COCO 
ESCAPE ADVENTURE 
SEEKERS 
MASTER BRAIN 
LIST CONTROLLER 
DISKETTE CERTIFIER 
ROM COPY 
BASIC RAM 
SNAFUS 



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BASIC CONVERSIONS 
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SKY FIRE 
EASY BASIC 
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ISSUE #22, APRIL 1984 

HEALTH HINTS 
GLIBLIBS 

CLOTHER SLITHER 

BIBLE 1 & 2 

BIBLE3&4 

CATCHALL 

INVADER 

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MOON ROVER 

IO ERROR IGNORER 



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MONEY SAVERS 1 & 2 
STOCKS OR BOMBS 
WALL AROUND 
COCO TECHNICAL LOOK FT. 1 
NUCLEAR WAR INST. 
THERMONUCLEAR WAR 
CIRCUIT DRAWER 
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SUPER-SQUEEZE 
DATA FALL 



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DIR PACK & SORT 
BRICK OUT 

COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PT. 2 

USA SLIDE PUZZLE 

51 "24 SCREEN EDITOR 

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CITY INVADERS 

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STEPS 

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COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PT. 3 
SKID ROW ADVENTURE 
MONEY MAKER 
PIN-HEAD CLEANING 
LINE EDITOR INST 
LINE EDITOR 
BOOMERANG 
BUBBLE BUSTER 
RECOCHET 



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PEEK, POLE & EXECUTE 
SAUCER RESCUE 
YOUNG TYPER TUTOR 
O-TEL-0 

OLYMPIC EVENTS 
DOUBLE DICE 
COCO DATABASE 
BATTLE STAR 
COCO-PIN BALL 
MONTEZUMAS DUNGEONS 



ISSUE #27, SEPTEMBER 1984 

COCO TO COM 64 

GALACTIC SMUGGLER 

INDYRACE 

ACCOUNT MANAGER 

CASSETTE MERGE UTILITY 

STRING PACKING TUTORIAL 

SPACE DUEL 

BUGS 

TRAP-BALL 

BALLOON FIRE 

ISSUE #28, OCTOBER 1984 

HANGING TREE 
CHECKERS 
FOOTBALL + 
MORE PEEKS, POKES 
SPELLING CHECKER 
SOUND DEVELOPMENT 
WORD GAME 
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AUTO COPY 
RAT ATTACK 

ISSUE #29, NOVEMBER 1984 

DISK ROLL OUT 
ROBOT ON 
MULTIPONG 

ADVENTURE GENERATOR 
QUEST ADVENTURE 
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KEY REPEAT 
FULL EDITOR 
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ISSUE #30, DECEMBER 1984 

MATH HELP 
ZECTOR ADVENTURE 
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T-NOTES TUTORIAL 
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TREASURES OF BARSOOM 
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STRUCTURED COMPILED LANGUAGE 
LIBRARY MODULE 
MINIATURE GOLF 
STAR DUEL 

ARITHMETIC FOOTBALL 
GRID RUN 
SPIRAL ATTACK 
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ISSUE #32, FEBRUARY 1985 

DR. SIGMUND 
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ISSUE #33, MARCH 1985 

LIGHT CYCLE 
PAINT 

SKEET SHOOTING 
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ML DISK ANALYZER 
PERSONAL DIRECTORY 
NAUGHA ADVENTURE 
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ISSUE #34, APRIL 1985 

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SELECT A GAME 1 
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AUTO COMMAND 
COMPUTER MATCHMAKER 
KNIGHT AND THE LABYRINTH 
STAR SIEGE 

TALKING SPELLING QUIZ 



ISSUE #37, JULY 1985 

CHESS MASTER 
BIBLE 5-7 

SHIP WREK ADVENTURE 
FILE TRANSFER 
FOUR IN A ROW 
MARSHY 

TAPE CONTROLLER 
CATACOMB 
AUTO TALK 
SGR8PAK 

ISSUE #38, AUGUST 1985 

GOLF PAR 3 
WIZARD ADVENTURE 
KITE DESIGN 
ROBOTS 
GOMOKU 

AMULET OF POWER 
LINE COPY UTILITY 
DISK PLUMBER 
SUPER RAM CHECKER 
GRAPHIC HORSE RACE 

ISSUE #39, SEPTEMBER 1985 

DRUNK DRIVING 
CAR MANAGER 
SQUEEZE PLAY 
SUPER BACKUP 
RECIPE MACHINE 
ANTI-AIRCRAFT 
UNREASON ADVENTURE 
TALKING ALPHABET 
SUPER VADERS 
AUTOMATIC EDITOR 

ISSUE #40, OCTOBER 1985 

STAR TREK 
HAM RADIO LOG 
COCO-WAR 
DISK LABELER 
SHIP WAR 
ELECTRIC COST 
MULTIKEY BUFFER 
NUKE AVENGER 
CURSOR KING 
SAND ROVER 

ISSUE #41, NOVEMBER 1985 

GRUMPS 

DISK DRIVE SPEED TEST 
SOLAR CONQUEST 
GAS COST 

RIME WORLD MISSION 
WUMPUS 

CHARACTER EDITOR 
GRAPHIC TEXT 
GRAPHIC LOOPY 
BOLD PRINT 

ISSUE #42, DECEMBER 1985 

HOME PRODUCT EVALUATION 
YAHTZEE 
DISK UTILITY 
MACH II 

ELECTRONIC BILLBOARD 
CAR CHASE 

SUPER MANSION ADVENTURE 
SLOT MACHINE GIVEAWAY 
TEXT BUFFER 
TUNNEL RUN 



ISSUE #43, JANUARY 1986 

DUELING CANNONS 
WATER COST 
ZIGMA EXPERIMENT 
MUSICAL CHORDS 
SAFE PASSAGE 
PASSWORD SCRAMBLER 
GUNFIGHT 
KEYPAD ENTRY 
STYX GAME 
PRINTER DIVERT 

ISSUE #44, FEBRUARY 1986 

HOME INVENTORY 
NINE BALL 
PRINTER REVIEW 
EXPLORER ADVENTURE 
SPANISH LESSONS 
CROSS FIRE 
RAM SAVER 
GRAY LADY 
JOYSTICK INPUT 
COSMIC SWEEPER 

ISSUE #45, MARCH 1986 

INCOME PROPERTY MGMT 
ELECTRONIC BILLBOARD 2 
MOUNTAIN BATTLE 
THE FIGHT 
COLO KEENO 
HOCKEY 

IQGICAL PATTERNS 
ON SCALE SCREEN 
LIBERTY SHIP 
SINGLE STEP RUN 

ISSUE #46, APRIL 1986 

SPECIAL EVENTS REMINDER 
DISK LOCK 

SMALL BUSINESS MANAGER 

BOMB RUN 

TANKS 

TAR PITS 

BASEBALL 

NUMBER RELATIONSHIPS 

ROULETTE 

GLOBAL EDITOR 

ISSUE #47, MAY 1986 

CHRISTMAS LIST 
BLACK HOLE 
PITCHING MANAGER 
SYMBOLIC DIFF. 
BUG SPRAY 
OWARE CAPTURE 
EASY GRAPHICS 
DESERT JOURNEY 
SCREEN CONTROL 
FULL ERROR MESSAGE 

ISSUE #48, JUNE 1986 

CHESTER 
TV SCHEDULE 
BASE RACE 
ROMAN NUMERALS 
ASTRO DODGE 
HIRED AND FIRED 
MULTI COPY 
AUTO MATE 
SCROLL PROTECT 
NOISE GENERATOR 



ISSUE #49, JULY 1986 

COMPUTER t.O.U. 

DISK DISASSEMBLER 

BAKCHEK 

PACHINKO 

STOCK CHARTING 

HAUNTED STAIRCASE 

CANYON BOMBERS 

DRAGONS 1 & 2 

GRAPHIC SCROLL ROUTINE 

AUTO BORDER 

ISSUE #50, AUGUST 1986 

BUSINESS INVENTORY 
D & D ARENA 
DISK CLERK 
PC SURVEY 
TREASURE HUNT 
SCREEN GENERATOR 
ASTRO SMASH 
NFL SCORES 
BARN STORMING 
SMASH GAME 

ISSUE #51, SEPTEMBER 1986 

ASSET MANAGER 
MONEY CHASE 
FISHING CONTEST 
RIP OFF 
HAND OFF 
BUDGET 51 
VAN GAR 
DOS EMULATOR 
MEM DISK 

VARIABLE REFERENCE 

ISSUE #52, OCTOBER 1986 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 
WORKMATE SERIES 
CALENDAR 
INVASION 

THE TRIP ADVENTURE 
FOOT RACE 
FLIPPY THE SEAL 
SCREEN CALCULATOR 
ABLE BUILDERS 
SUPER ERROR 2 

ISSUE #53, NOVEMBER 1986 

CORE KILL 
LUCKY MONEY 
COOKIES ADVENTURE 
NICE LIST 
SPANISH QUIZZES 
PAINT EDITOR 
CAVERN CRUISER 
SNAPSHOT 
MEGA RACE 
KICK GUY 

ISSUE #54, DECEMBER 1986 

JOB LOG 
PEGS 

DIGITAL SAMPLING 
JUNGLE ADVENTURE 
PAINT COCO 3 
CONVERT 3 
COMPUTER TYPE 
PANZER TANKS 
MRS PAC 
BIG NUM 



ISSUE #55, JANUARY 1987 

GRADE BOOK 
MAIL LIST 
DOWN HILL 
FIRE FOX 
JETS CONTROL 
GALLOWS 
DIR MANAGER 
FIRE RUNNER 
GRAPHICS BORDER 
COSMIC RAYS 

ISSUE #56, FEBRUARY 1987 

CALENDAR PRINT 
CRASH 
GALACTA 
OCEAN DIVER 
CLUE SUSPECT 
WORD EDITOR 
ALIEN HUNT 
DEMON'S CASTLE 
PICTURE DRAW 
DIG 

ISSUE #57, MARCH 1987 

THE BAKERY 
ENCHANTED VALLEY ADV. 
SAFE KEEPER 
WAR 1 

BOMB DISABLE 
PIANO PLAYER 
SPREAD SHEET 
SLOT MANEUVER 
LIVING MAZE 
GEM SEARCH 

ISSUE #58, APRIL 1987 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 
PRINTER GRAPHICS 
SIMON 

PANELING HELPER 
MULTI CAKES 
CAR RACE 
ELECTRONICS I 
BATTLE TANK 
DISKETTE VERIFY 
WEIRDO 

ISSUE #59, MAY 1987 

GENEOLOGY 
PLANT CARE 
CHECK WRITING 
HEU RESCUE 
KABOOM 
NEW PONG 
CROQUET 
SUPER MONOPOLY 
ZOOM UTILITY 
ELECTRONICS II 

ISSUE #60, JUNE 1987 

JOB COSTING 
CATCH A CAKE 
CONCENTRATION II 
PROGRAMMABLE ROBOTS 
CT ADVENTURE 
MOTOR CYCLING 
STAR EXPLORER 
ELECTRONICS III 
GRAPHICS EDITOR 
GRAPHICS UTILITY 



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PLEASE CIRCLE 
TAPE or DISK 



EDUCATION OVERVIEW 



Learning Readiness 
and Computers 

By Michael Plog, Ph.D. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



you read this September 
issue, schools across the 
country are finishing prep- 
arations for the new school year. Some 
teachers have already been in their 
buildings, getting materials ready for 
new students. Soon, students will in- 
vade your school, ready for classes, 
textbooks, note pads and keyboards. 

Or will they be ready? Educators use 
the term "readiness" to describe a 
condition of students when learning is 
most effective. If students are not 
"ready," teaching is difficult, perhaps 
impossible as a meaningful experience. 
When children are ready, teaching is 
easier, learning is more efficient, and 
students are more willing to participate 
in the activities required by the teacher. 

The concept of readiness is normally 
used more with the areas of reading and 
mathematics, but it applies to all fields 
of learning. It can be applied to com- 
puter education as well as other areas 
of knowledge. Learning theorists have 
identified four components of readi- 
ness: physical, emotional and social, 
mental and educational. 

Mental readiness is generally related 
to the intellectual level of the student, 



Michael Plog received his doctorate 
degree from the University of Illinois, 
He has taught social studies in high 
school, worked in the central office of 
a school district and is currently em- 
ployed at the Illinois State Board of 
Education. 



sometimes measured by IQ scores. We 
can dispense rather quickly with mental 
readiness, as far as computer education 
goes. This component of readiness is 
very important for other areas of learn- 
ing, especially for classification of 
students with learning disabilities. For 
our purposes, however, we can assume 
that any child in a regular education 
class (and many in special education 
classes as well) has an intelligence level 
sufficient for the tasks required. 

In addition, there is very little we can 
do about a child's level of mental abil- 
ities. Some experiments have been 
conducted that show promise for im- 
proving intellectual abilities, but to date 
there is no "cure" for such difficulties. 
Even the experiments have conflicting 
results, seeming to work well in some 
situations and for some children and 
not so well in other situations and for 
other children. 

Likewise, physical readiness is not 
generally a problem with computer 
education. I have seen one-handed 
typists operate a keyboard very well, 
with only one problem — holding the 
CTRL key down while pressing another 
key. Some of these typists use a device 
made from a clothespin to hold the 
CTRL key and hardly skip a beat when 
typing. I also know a blind pro- 
grammer. He uses a device that allows 
him to "read" computer printout and 
make changes and corrections, then he 
instructs a keypuncher to take the next 
steps. 



For most physically handicapped 
students, solving the difficulties of 
computer education are small com- 
pared to the difficulties faced by other 
parts of the school setting, such as 
trying to get a wheelchair into a rest- 
room. Physical readiness is simply 
something that is only important for 
computer education in an extremely 
small number of cases. We can set that 
aside as a major consideration of read- 
iness. 

Now comes emotional and social 
readiness. Educators of primary stu- 
dents are often faced with this situation. 
Children come to school and are still 
very dependent on parents or older 
siblings. The personal adjustment of 
some children is such that a lack of self- 
security interferes with learning. This is 
especially evident in such fundamental 
areas as reading, where students have 
too little self-esteem to face mistakes. 

When applied to the field of comput- 
er education, the problem can become 
enormous. Students are faced with an 
entirely new situation, a new set of rules 
to govern their learning. This can gener- 
ate enough fear to immobilize students 
and cause a distaste for computers. This 
reaction may be especially noticeable in 
bright students. Teachers know the 
students can do the work, can under- 
stand the concepts involved and should 
have no difficulty. However, fear blocks 
effective learning. 

In all probability, you have listened 
to bright, articulate adults explain that 



As 



32 THE RAINBOW September 1987 






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they know they should learn more 
about computers, but have an irrational 
fear of them. These people know the 
fear is irrational, yet cannot set it aside. 

Some students are not "ready" — 
because of emotional or social factors 
— to learn about computers. Reading 
teachers and special education teachers 
have the jump on computer educators 
in this area. There are techniques used 
to improve emotional and social read- 
iness. Most of these techniques use the 
subject matter (reading or mathematics, 
normally) to improve the self-image and 
personal adjustment of the student. 

Teachers involved with computers 
should be aware that such a lack of 
readiness might be the cause of some 
students not learning what is expected. 
I know of no simple cure for this lack 
of readiness, but I am sure that compe- 
tent teachers can develop techniques to 
assist those students with this problem. 

The major problem of readiness 
comes in the area of educational read- 
iness. Some components of this type of 
readiness include ability to attend to 
tasks, the extent of vocabulary (espe- 
cially for reading) and the background 
of understanding. If students are simply 
not able to attend to computer learning 



long enough to accomplish the objec- 
tives, they will not learn a sufficient 
amount. Also, the concept of precondi- 
tions to learning become important 
here. It is difficult to teach basic pro- 
gramming without a rather firm under- 
standing of simple mathematics. It is 
difficult to teach word processing with- 
out a strong reading basis. Students 
need to have a background of under- 
standing and an adequate vocabulary to 
comprehend what is happening with the 
computer. 

Fortunately, educators have a great 
deal of control over the factors of 
educational readiness. Teachers can 
structure a study of computers with 
those factors in mind. We can learn 
where the student is, then fashion a 
course of study to lead the student from 
the current educational level to a higher 
one. Students can learn vocabulary as 
part of the course of study. In fact, these 
factors of educational readiness are 
what generally make a curriculum. 

Theorists have several additional 
factors to the educational component of 
readiness, two that we will discuss here: 
an understanding of the subject's im- 
portance and a desire to learn. These 
two factors are probably the most 



important considerations when dealing 
with readiness for computer education. 
The two are not the same. Students may 
understand the importance of a subject 
(especially knowledge of computers) 
and yet have no desire to learn. Also, 
students may have a desire to learn 
something simply because it is fun, yet 
have no concept of why the subject is 
important. Of the two, desire to learn 
seems more crucial to readiness than an 
understanding of the subject's impor- 
tance. Maybe the definition of a good 
teacher is one who causes students to 
have a desire to learn the subject. 

Schools face a continuing problem in 
all subject areas of the discrepancy 
between student readiness to learn and 
the need of the student to learn. Our 
culture can no longer afford students 
who are computer ilJ iterate. Thus, 
students have a need for acquisition of 
knowledge about computers — whether 
or not they are ready for it! The task of 
educators is then to improve the read- 
iness of students to learn about comput- 
ers. Are we "ready" for this task? 

Any comments, suggestions or 
thoughts are welcome. Please contact 
me at 829 Evergreen, Chatham, IL 
62629. /R\ 




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September 1 987 THE RAINBOW 35 



ARTIFICIAL INTEL 





A building block for thought, creativity, 
imagination and language 



The Power of the Mind 



By Andy Blount 




One of the fun things about using a computer is 
teaching it to learn. That's why I wrote Animals, 
a game that illustrates concepts used in artificial 
intelligence. Animals simulates the human mind by causing 
the computer to perform functions that are normally 
associated with human intelligence — recognizing objects, 
making decisions, drawing conclusions, under- 
standing language and learning from expe- 
rience. 

When you start Animals, the computer will 
ask if you're thinking of an animal. When you 
are, press Y (Yes). The computer will ask you 
questions about your animal and finally 
guess what your animal is. If right, the game 
will start over; but if it's wrong, the 
computer will ask you what animal you 
were thinking of and then ask you to type 
a question distinguishing the animal it 
guessed from your animal. Here's an 
example: You were thinking of a dach- 
shund and the computer guessed a 
dalmation. For the question, you 
could type, "Does it have spots all 
over it?" 

W hen you're playing Animals, it's 
important that you think of spe- 
cific animals, such as a rainbow 
trout rather than just a fish. 
When you are ready to quit 
the game, just press N (No) 
when asked if you are thinking 
of an animal. You'll then be 
able to save your collection of 
questions and animals on 
disk or cassette. The game 
will hold up to 300 animals and 
questions. 

(Questions about this program may be addressed to 
the author at 339 32 } / 2 Rd., Palisade, CO 81526. Please 
enclose an SASE when writing for a reply.) □ 

Andy Blount lives near the small towns of Palisade and 
Grand Junction in Colorado. He is 14 years old and enjoys 
programming on his Color Computer. 



36 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 




TOM MIX'S MINI-CATALOG 




Our very newest flight simulator. A full 



instrument aircraft that features the 
following: 

• Works with all COCO's 

• Realistic flight controls 

• Flight editor included to change flight 
parameters 

• Design your own airports and flight 
areas 

• Flies like Cessna 150 

• Full graphics & sound 

Joysticks Required $34,95 
Specify Tape or Disk 



—Educational Best-Sellers!— 

* Teachers Database ll-Allows teachers 
to keep computerized files of students. 
Recently updated with many new features! 

• Up to 1 00 students, 24 items per student 

• Many easy-to-follow menus 

• Records can be changed, deleted, 
combined 

• Statistical analysis of scores 

• Grades can be weighed, averaged, 
percentaged 

• Individual progress reports 

• Student seating charts 

• Test result graphs/grade distribution 
charts 

64K TDBII $59.95 Disk Only 
3 2KTDB $42.95 

NOW AVAILABLE FOR IBM PC & 
COMPATIBLES-Holds information on up to 
250 students with as many as 60 individual 
items of data for each. Contains the 
features listed above PLUS. 

Requi res 128K - $89.95 

Factpack- Three programs for home or 
school use provide drill and practice with 
basic "-/+/^/x" Grades 1-6. 
32K Ext. Basic $29.95 
Specify Tap e or Disk 

Vocabulary Management System -Helps 
children learn and practice using vocabu- 
lary and spelling words. Eleven programs 
including three printer segments for tests, 
puzzles, worksheets and five games; many 
features make this a popular seller! 
R equires 16 K Ex t Basic/ $42.95 
32K for Printer Output 

Specify Tape or Disk 

Fractions-A Three-Program Package. 
1 /Mixed & Improper 2/Equivalence 
3/Lowest Terms. Practice, review and defi- 
nitions make learning easy. 

32K Ext. Basic $35.95 
Specify Tape or Disk. 



FLIGHTS 




'Worlds of Flight 
Small Plane Simulation 

Real-time simulation generates panoramic 
3-D views of ground features as you fly 
your sophisticated plane in any of nine 
different "worlds." Program models over 35 
different aircraft/flight parameters. Realistic 
sound effects too! Manual included helps 
you through a typical short flight. 

32K Machine Language 
Joysticks Required $34.95 

Specify Tape or Disk 

Tom Mix Products at 
New Reduced Prices! 

* Dragon Slayer -Defeat the dragon by 
finding your way through a mountain maze. 
Gather treasure but avoid the deadly traps! 
160 exciting screens. 

32K & Joystick or Keyboard 
Disk $24.95 



* Sailor Man -Defeat the bigfatbadguy and 
win Elsie's heart. Super graphics. 

64K $27.95 

* The King- 

32K $27.95 

* Draconian — 

32K $22.95 

* Ms. Maze- 

32K $22.95 

* Kater Pillar 11- 

16K $22.95 

* Warehouse Mutants- 

16K $21.95 

* Buzzard Bait- 

32K $22.95 

All Above Specify Tape or Disk 

*COCO 3 Compatible 





■ 




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*P-51 Mustang 
Attack/Flight Simulation 

The ultimate video experience! Link two 
CoCo's together by cable or modem, and 
compete against your opponent across 
the table OR across the country! (Both 
computers require a copy of this program). 
The P-51 flight simulator lets you fly this WWII 
attack fighter in actual combat situations 
against another player, OR a non com- 
batant computer drone. 

32K Machine Language 
Joysticks Required $34.95 
Specify Tape or Disk 

*Goldfinder 

Here's the quality you've come to expect 
from TOM MIX. Endless possibilities await 
you in this exciting new creation. Move over 
Goldrunner and Loderunner, here comes 
GOLDFINDER 

32K & Joy sticks R equir ed $22.95 
Disk 

'Approach Control 
Simulator 

A complete simulation package which will 
lead to countless hours of discovery and 
adventure. 

• Specify Disk or Tape 

• Quick Reference Guide 

• Comprehensive Manual 

• No Joysticks Required 

32K Machine Language $34.95 

'Trapfall 

The "Pitfalls" in this game are many. Hid- 
den treasures, jump over the pits, swing on 
the vine, watch out for alligators, beware of 
the scorpion. Another game for the Color 
Computer with the same high resolution 
graphics as "The King." 

1 6K Machine Language $23.95 
Specify Tape or Disk 



ft 

TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 201 
Ada, Michigan 49301 
616/676-8172 



Ordering Infor mation 

■Call us at 616/676-8172 

for Charge Card orders 
■ Add $3.00 postage and 

handling 

• Ml residents add 4% 
sales tax 

• Authors-We pay top 
royalties! 




V/ 140 106 

280 40 

440 254 

650 107 | 

END 186 

The listing: ANIMALS 

10 ' ANIMALS 

20 'BY ANDY BLOUNT 

30 ' 

4j3 ' credits 

5j3 PCLEARl:CLEAR5W:DIMA$ (3j3j3) : 
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110 ONVAL ( INKEY $ ) GOT012J3 , 13 0 : GO 
T011j3 

120 CLS: PRINT "INSERT DISK WITH ' 
ANIMAL/ DAT ' ONIT AND PRESS [ENTE 
R] ":EXEC4453 9:SF=l:GOT014^1 
13J3 CLS:PRINT"POSITION TAPE - PR 
ESS <PLAY> THEN PRESS [ENTER] 

WHEN READY":EXEC4453 9:SF=-1 
140 OPEN"I" ,SF, "ANIMAL" 
150 IF EOF(SF) THENCLOSE#SF : GOTO 
110 

160 INPUT#SF, A$(X) : X=X+1 : GOT015J3 
170 PRINT"DONE LOADING ANIMALS": 
FORX=lT01j3j3j3:NEXT:GOT02j3£J 
180 F0RX=J2T03 :READA$(X) : NEXT 
190 'start game 

200 CLS : PRINT© 12 , "LETS PLAY":PRI 
NT@4j3 , " 1 GUESS THE ANIMAL'" : PRINT 
210 PRINT" THINK OF AN ANIMA 

L AND I WILL TRY TO GUE 

SS IT." :T=1:N=VAL(A$ (0) ) 
220 IFT=0 THEN CLS 

2 3J0 T=0 : PRINT : PI $= " ARE YOU THIN 
KING OF AN ANIMAL? " : GOSUB7 10 
240 A$=INKEY$ : IFA$=" "THEN24j3ELSE 
IFA$="L" THEN2 5£J ELSEIFA$="N" TH 



EN7 3J3 ELSEIFA$ = " Y "THEN 2 6j3 ELSE24 
0 

250 PRINT: PRINTTAB( 13) "LIST" : GOT 

0650 

260 PRINT: PRINTTAB( 15) "YES":PRIN 
T: B=l 

270 GOSUB49j3: IFLEFT$(A$ (B) , 2)="/ 

Q" THEN2 7J3 

280 ' guess animal 

290 PI$="IS IT A " :GOSUB71j3: PI$= 
RIGHT$(A$(B) , LEN ( A$ ( B) )-2)+"?":G 
OSUB71J3 

300 A$=INKEY$: IFA$=" "THEN3j3j3ELSE 
31,0 

31^i IFA$="Y" THENPRINT" YES":PRI 
NT" I GUESSED IT! WHY NOT TRY 

ANOTHER ANIMAL." ELS 

E33j3 

320 FORZ=lTOl^j3:NEXT:GOTO220 

3 3j3 PRINT" NO" : INPUT"THE ANIMAL 
YOU WERE THINKING OF WAS A " ;V$ 
340 PRINT "ENTERING THE ANIMAL: 11 
V$ : FORCC=lT03j3j3 : IF LEFT $ ( A$ ( CC) , 2 
)<>"/A" THENNEXTCC ELSEFORZ=3TO 
LEN(A$(CC) ) : IFMID$(A$(CC) ,Z,1)=" 
/" THENNEXTZ ELSE CC$=CC$+MID$ (A 
$(CC) ,Z,1) :NEXTZ:IFV$=CC$ THEN 3 6 
0 ELSECC$="" :NEXTCC 

350 GOT037J3 

360 PI$="SORRY, I ALREADY KNOW A 
11 : GOSUB7 10 : PRINT : PI $=V$+" , YOU M 
UST HAVE" : GOSUB71j3 : PRINT: PI$ = "AN 
SWERED A QUESTION WRONG. WHY NO 
T TRY AGAIN . " : GOSUB71j3 : FORX=lT03 
000 : NEXT : GOT02 2 0 

370 PRINT" PLEASE TYPE A QUESTION 
THAT WOULD DISTINGUISH A "V 

$ : PRINT" FROM A " ; RIGHT $ ( A$ (B) , LE 
N (A$ ( B) ) -2 ) ; " : " : LINEINPUT" " ; X$ 
380 PRINT"FOR A " V$ ",": LINEINPUT 
"THE ANSWER WOULD BE: " ;A$ 
390 A$=LEFT$(A$, 1) :IFA$o"Y" AND 

A$o"N" THEN3 8 0 
400 IFA$="Y" THENB$="N" 
410 IFA$="N" THENB$="Y" 
42j3 D=VAL(A$ (j3) ) 
43J3 A$(j3)=STR$(D+2) 
44j3 A$(D)=A$(B) 
45^ A$ (D+l)-"/A"+V$ 

4 60 A$ ( B) ="/Q"+X$+" / »+A$+STR$ ( D+ 
1) +"/"+B$+STR$ (D) +"/" 

47j3 GOT022j3 

480 'ask questions 

49J3 Q$=A$(B) 

500 FORZ=3TO LEN(Q$) 

510 IFMID$(Q$ , Z , 1) <>"/" THENPRIN 



38 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



Submitting Material 
To Rainbow 



TMID$ (Q$ , Z , 1) ; :NEXTZ 
52j3 PRINT" ?" ; 

53j3 C$ = INKEY$: IFC$= ,,,! THEN53j3ELSE 

IFC$ = I! Y ,! THENPRINT" YES" ELSEIFC 

$ = ,! N ,! THENPRINT" NO" ELSE53j3 

54p T$="/"+C$ 

550 FORX=3 TO LEN(Q$)-1 

560 IFMID$ (Q$,X, 2)=T$ THEN58 j3 

57 p NEXTX 

580 FORY=X+l TO LEN (Q$) 

590 IFMID$(Q$,Y,1)= ,I / ,, THEN610 

600 NEXTY 

6 10 B=VAL(MID$(Q$,X+2, Y-X-2) ) 
620 RETURN 

630 DATA" 4", "/QDOES IT FLY/Y2/N3 
/ ,, / "/ACROW" / "/AGOLD FISH" 
640 'list animals 

650 PRINT: PRINT" ANIMALS I ALREAD 
Y KNOW ARE:" 

660 F0RI=1T0299:IFLEFT$(A$(I) ,2) 

<>"/A" THENNEXTT:GOTO690 

670 FORZ=3TO LEN ( A$ ( I ) ) : IFMID$ (A 

$( I) ,Z,1 )<>"/" THENPRINTMID$ (A$ ( 

I) ,Z,1) ; :NEXTZ 

680 PRINT, ; : NEXTI 

690 FORX=1TO1000:NEXT:GOTO220 

700 'slow printing 

710 FORYP=lTOLEN(PI$) :PRINTMID$( 
PI$, YP, 1) ; : F0RGH=1T04 : NEXTGH , YP : 
RETURN 

720 'saving animals & quiting 
730 CLS : PRINT, , : PI $=" ARE YOU SU 
RE YOU WANT TO QUIT? " : GOSUB7 10 
740 A$=INKEY$:IFA$= ,!,I THEN740 ELS 
EIFA$="Y" THEN750 ELSEIFA$="N" T 
HEN2 20 ELSE740 

750 CLS:PI$ = "DO YOU WISH TO SAVE 
THE ANIMALS AND QUESTIONS IN ME 
MORY TO DISK OR CASSETTE? ": GOSUB 
71)3 

760 A$=INKEY$:IFA$= ,,,! THEN760ELSE 
IFA$="N" THENCLS : END ELSEIFA$="Y 
" THEN770 ELSE7 60 

770 CLS:PRINT"WHICH DO YOU WANT 
TO SAVE THEM TO?",,"l. DISK",," 
2. CASSETTE" 

780 ONVAL ( INKEY$ ) GOTO 7 90, 800: GO 
TO780 

790 CLS: PRINT 11 INSERT DISK TO SAV 

E ANIMALS ON THEN PRESS [ENTER] 

": SF=1:EXEC44539 :GOTO810 

800 CLS:PRINT"POSITION TAPE - PR 

ESS PLAY AND RECORD THEN PRESS 

[ENTER] " :SF=-1:EXEC44539 

810 OPEN"0" , #SF , "ANIMAL" : FORX=0T 

O300:PRINT#SF,A$ (X) : NEXT : CLOSE#S 

F : PRINT" FINISHED" : FORX=1TO1000 : N 

EXT: CLS: END /R\ 



Contributions to THE RAINBOW are welcome from 
everyone. We like to run a variety of programs that 
are useful/helpful/fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and 
it is best to make several saves, at least one of them 
in ASCII format. We're sorry, but we do not have time 
to key in programs. All programs should be supported 
by some editorial commentary explaining how the 
program works. Generally, we're much more inter- 
ested in how your submission works arid runs than 
how you developed it. Programs should be learning 
experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of 
criteria. Tnose wishing remuneration should so state 
when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed 
information on making submissions, please send a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope (SASE) to: Submis- 
sions Editor, THE RAINBOW, The Falsoft Building, P.O. 
Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. We will send you some 
more comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently 
submitted to another publication. 



"I cannot imagine the CoCo 3 without ADOS-3; 
it would not be a complete machine." 

The RAINBOW, July 1987 

You've moved up to a CoCo 3. A powerful new machine. Now, it's time to 
give BASIC a shot in the arm, with ADOS-3. Wouldn't it be nice to turn on your 
machine and be greeted by an 80-column display, in the colors of your 
choice, with your own custom startup message? To run routinely at 2 MHz 
(double speed) without having to slow dawn for disk and printer operations? 
This and much, much more 15 possible with ADOS-3, our CoCo 3 adaptation 
ol the acclaimed original ADOS, which shares the original's virtual 100% 
compatibility with commercial software. After customizing ADOS-3 using the 
provided configuring utility, you can have il burned into an EPROM that plugs 
into the Disk 8ASIC ROM socket, or just use it in RAM as a disk utility. (EPROM 
+ burning will cost S 15-20; we provide information concerning how you can 
have this done.) Supports double-sided drives (35. 40, or 80 tracks). FAST and 
SLOW commands, auto line number prompts, RUNM command, keystroke 
macros, arrow-key scroll through BASIC programs, auto-edit of error line, and 
many more valuable features 

"ON A SCALE OF 1 TO 10, I RATE ADOS-3 A SOLID 15." RAINBOW, 7/87 

Disk S34.95 Onginol ADOS tor CoCo 1 or 2 S27.95 (See 6/87 RAJNBOW review) 

THE PEEPER 

ML program tracer that multitasks with the target program. An excellent 
learning tool for the ML novice; an invaluable debugging aid lor the expert . 
CoCo 1. 2. or 3 compatible. 

Disk S23 95 Assembler source listing Add $3.00 



MONITOR CABLES for CoCo 3 

Magnavox 8CM51 5/8CM505/8CM643 



SonyKVl3HCR 



SPECTROSYSJEMS 



Miami. Florida 331 76 




*305J 274 -3899 Day or Eve 
Ptease add S2 00 shipping* SOfrV no credil cards or COD'S 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 39 




EDUCATION 





Explaining fractions to young 
children is like speaking Greek to 
them. At least it was for me until 
I got the grasp of how fractions work. 
The old saying, "Do I have to draw you 
a picture?" takes on a literal meaning 
with this program. 

Fractions consist of two parts: a 
numerator and a denominator. Using a 
pie as an example, the numerator indi- 
cates how many pieces from the whole 
pie are yours, so to speak. The denom- 
inator represents the total number of 
pieces in the pie. When you run I'rtu - 
tion Pie, you'll be asked for the denom- 
inator, or how many ways you want to 
divide the pie. The numerator is fixed 
at one. 

You can enter any number between 2 
and 9 for the denominator, and it's done 

Bill Bernlco is a self-taught computerist 
who enjoys golf, music and program- 
ming. He is a drummer with a rock band 
and lives in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. 



with a single keystroke. Let's suppose 
you enter 7 as your choice. An example 
will be displayed showing that 7 x V? = I • 
In other words, your slice of the pie is 
equal to everyone else's slice. No more. 
No less. 

After a few seconds, another screen 
will appear, showing the pie itself being 
divided up into the number of pieces 
chosen. Each piece will be numbered, 
and one of the pieces will be painted to 
highlight it. That one piece is the frac- 
tion of that whole pie selected on the 
first screen. From there, simply press 
enter to keep trying the program over 
and over. 

(Questions or comments regarding 
this program may be directed to Bill at 
708 Michigan A venue, Sheboygan, Wl 
53081. Please enclose an SASE when 
requesting a reply.) □ 



40 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 



The listing: FRACTION 

1 1 FRACTPIE by Bill Bernico 

idea by David Polonsky 

2 DIMA$(90) :P=3.14159:A$(32)="BR 
5" :A$(40)="BR2HU4EBD6BR3 ":A$ (41) 
=" BREU4HBD6 BR4 " : A$ (45) ="BE2R2 BR4 
BD2 " : A$ (48) ="BRHU3ER2FD3GNL2BR4 " 
:A$ (49)="BU4BR2ED5BR3 " :A$(50) ="B 
U4ER2FDGL3D2R4BR2 " : A$ (51)="BU5R3 
FGNL2FDGL2NHBR6 " : A$ ( 52 ) ="BR3U5G3 
R4BD2BR3 

3 A$ ( 53 ) ="BU5NR4D2R3FDGNL3BR4 " : A 
$ ( 5 4 ) = " BU5 BRNR2 GD3 FR2 EUHL2 GBD2 BR 
7" : A$ (55) ="BU5R4D2G3BR6" :A$ (56) = 
" BRNR2HUEHER2 FGNL2 FDGBR4 " : A$ (57 ) 
="R2EU3HL2GDFR2EBF3 " : A$ ( 6 5 ) = "U5E 
R2FD3NL4D2BR3" :A$ (67) ="BRNRHU4ER 
2FBD4GNL2BR4" : A$ (68) ="U6R3FD4GNL 

3 BR4 " : A$ ( 7 6 ) ="NU6R4 BR 3 

4 A$ (69)="NR4U3NR3U3R4BD6BR3":A$ 
(70) ="U3NR3U3R4BD6BR3" : A$ (72) ="U 
3NU3R4NU3D3BR4 " : A$ ( 7 3 ) ="U6LR2LD6 
LR2BR3" :A$ (75) ="U3NU3R2E2UBD3BL2 
F2DBR3 " :A$ (77) ="U6F3E3D6BR3" : A$ ( 
78)= "U5NUF4NU5 DBR3 ":A$(79)= M BRNR 
2HU4ER2FD4GBR4 " : A$ (80) ="U6R3FDGN 
L3BF3BR 

5 A$ (82)="U6R3FDGL2NLF3BR3" :A$ (8 

3 ) =" BUFR2EUHL2HUER2FBD5BR3 " : A$ ( 8 

4 ) = " BR2U6NL2R2BD6BR3 " : A$ ( 8 5 ) ="BR 
HU5BR4D5GNL2BR5" : A$ (87) ="BUNU5FE 
2F2ENU5BR3BD" : A$ (89) ="BR2U3H2UBR 
4DG2BF3BR2 " : PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS1 : SCREE 
Nl , 1 : COLOR0 , 1 

6 A$="INPUT FRACTION" : DRAWS4BM8 
0 , 30 " : GOSUB13 : A$= "DENOMINATOR ( 2 
-9 ) " : DRAWBM65 , 4j3 " : GOSUB13 : A$=" 1 
11 : DRAW"BM110 , 80S8" : GOSUB13 : DRAW" 
BM108,83R9 

7 B$=INKEY$:IFB$=""THEN7 

8 B=VAL(B$) : IFB<20R B>9THEN5 

9 A$=B$ : DRAWBM112 , 98" : GOSUB13 : D 
RAW"BM133 , 87E4BL4F4 " : A$=B$ : DRAW" 
BM155, 90S12":GOSUB13 : DRAWBM17 5, 
8 6R3 BUL3 " : A$=" 1 " : DRAW" BM190 ,90" : 
GOSUB13 : FORX=1TO1000 : NEXT : DRAWS 
4" :PCLS1: LINE (0,22) -(255,191) , PS 
ET, B:A$="EACH PIECE IS":DRAW"BM2 
0,15" :GOSUB13 

10 A$="1":DRAW"BM110,9":GOSUB13 : 
DRAWBM107 , 11R11" : A$=STR$ (B) : DRA 
W"BM106 , 18" : GOSUB13 : GOT014 

11 A$="OF THE WHOLE PIE":DRAW"BM 
130, 15":GOSUB13 : FORX=1TO1000 : NEX 
T: LINE (46, 191) -(211, 181) ,PSET,BF 
:A$="HIT ENTER TO TRY ANOTHER" : D 
RAWBM50, 189C1" :GOSUB13 : DRAW"C0 



12 IFINKEY$<>CHR$ ( 13 ) THEN12ELSE5 

13 FORX=lTOLEN(A$) : Y=ASC(MID$ (A$ 
,X,1) ) :DRAWA$(Y) : EXEC4 334 5 : NEXT : 
RETURN 

14 GOSUB2 5:GOT014 

15 ON ASC (A$) -48GOSUB16 , 17 , 18 , 19 
,20, 2 1,2 2, 23, 24: RETURN 

1 6 DRAWA $(49): RETURN 

17 DRAWA $ ( 50 ) : RETURN 

18 DRAWA$ (51) : RETURN 

19 DRAWA $ ( 52 ) : RETURN 

20 DRAWA $ ( 53 ) : RETURN 

2 1 DRAWA $ ( 54 ) : RETURN 

2 2 DRAWA $(55) : RETURN 
2 3 DRAWA $(56): RETURN 

24 DRAWA $ ( 57 ) : RETURN 

25 Q=0:N=B:IFN<2 OR N>9THEN2 5 

26 Z=N-1:FORJ=0TOZ:L(J)=100/Z:Q= 
Q+L(J) :NEXTJ:FORJ=0TOZ:M(J) =2*P* 
L ( J ) /Q : NEXT J : GOSUB2 7 : GOSUB3 2 : PAI 
NT(80,95) ,0,0:GOTO11 

27 T=A :SCREEN1,1: CIRCLE (128, 96 ) , 
50 : FORJ=0TOZ : X=12 8+50*SIN (T) : Y=9 
6-50*COS(T) :LINE(128,96)-(X,Y) ,P 
SET:T=T+M(J) 

28 IFT> (2*P)THENT=T-2*P 

29 NEXT J: RETURN 

30 LINE (X, Y) -(X,Y) , PRESET: RETURN 

31 GOSUB30 : GOSUB15 : PLAY"O5T60B" : 
EXEC4 3 3 45: RETURN 

32 T=A:FORI=0TOZ:K=126+3*80*SIN( 
T+M(I)/2)/4 :U=98-3*80*COS (T+M(I) 
/2 ) /4 : Y=U : X=K: A$=CHR$ (49+1) : GOSU 
B3 1 : T=T+M (I) : NEXTI : RETURN /R\ 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Use the up arrow to fight the force of gravity and 
avoid the obstacles as you ski cross-country. 

The listing: 

0 PMODE3:COLOR2:PCLS:SCREENl,l:L 
INE (0,0) -(25 6, 191) , PSET , B : FORY=l 
T025: A=RND(2 30)+9 : B=RND ( 170 ) +9 : C 
IRCLE (A , B) ,RND(9) +5 : PAINT (A, B) :N 
EXT : FORX=5T02 5 0STEP . 5 : PSET ( X , Y , 4 
) :H=H+.05+.l* (PEEK(341)=247) : Y=Y 
+H : IFPPOINT ( X , Y ) =6THENCLSELSENEX 
T : PLAY 11 L8GEL4CEG04L2C" :RUN 



Peter Hurt 
Springfield, VA 

(For this winning onc-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies of 
both The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion The Third 
Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 41 



Get the 

Home Court Advantage 



By Mike Cooney 





"W" our house, a Nerf basketball hoop is located 
linear our computer. My little brother plays 
m> ^continuously for hours, and the poor kid 

always keeps track of everything — time, scores and 

bonuses — in his head. So, I made him a computer 

scoreboard. 

Now all he has to do is tap a key when he scores. 
He no longer has to run into the other room to look 
at the time. 

Here's how it works. The computer draws the 
scoreboard and numbers on a Hi-Res screen and uses 
only 2K of memory. Each quarter lasts 10 minutes. If 
this is too long or short, you can speed or slow the 
program by changing the 25 in Line 100. A higher 
number makes a slower program. 

Table 1 refers to the keys that represent the different 
functions of the scoreboard. 1 didn't bother with a 
game-save since you usually play an entire game at one 
time. However, it can easily be added if anyone has the 
need for one. 

So let's shoot some hoops! 

( Questions or comments may be addressed to Mike 
at 1773 C rider Road, Mansfield, OH 44903, Please 
enclose an SASE when requesting a reply.) □ 

Mike Cooney, a junior in high school, has been 
programming for three years and has won THE RAIN- 
BOW one-liner contest several times. 





Table 1 


Key 


Function 


t 


. . Home score for hundreds 


Q 


. . Home score for tens (from 0 to 9 and 




then starts over) 


w 


.. Home score for ones (from 0 to 9 and 




then starts over) 


E 


. . Erases hundreds for home and vis- 




itor 


I 


.. Visitor score for hundreds 


0 


. . Visitor score for tens (from 0 to 9 and 




then starts over) 


P 


. . Visitor score for ones (from 0 to 9 




and then starts over) 


Space bar . . 


. . Stops clock 


T 


. . Buzzer that stops clock 


B 


. . Bonus sign 


V 


. . Bonus points to home 


N 


. . Bonus points to visitor 


C 


. . Clears bonus 


/ 


. . Sets period 




The listing: SCOREBRD 

0 ' *****SC0REB0ARD***** 1 

1 ' *********BY********* ' 

2 i****MIKE COONEY**** 1 
10 POKE65495,0 

20 PMODE3,1:PCLS:SCREEN1,0:Z=1:P 
1=1 

30 DRAWBM106 , 115U8R4D4NL4D1C1D3 
R4C4NR4U4NR4U4R4R2C1D8R3C4U8R4D4 
L4R1F3D1R1C1R3C4NU8R1C1R3C4U8R4D 
8NL4R1C1R3C4U8R2F2D4G2L2 " : DRAW'C 
2": CIRCLE (114 ,122) , 4:DRAW"C4" 
40 DRAWC3 " : FORE=1TO10STEP2 : LINE 
(0+E,0+E) -(255-E,191-E) ,PSET,B:N 
EXT: DRAW" C4" 

50 DRAWBM50 , 30" : GOSUB450 : DRAW" B 
M80, 30" :GOSUB450 

60 DRAW"BM150 , 30" : GOSUB450 : DRAW" 
BM18 0,30": GOSUB4 5 0 

70 DRAW 11 BM 60 , 80C3U8D4R4U4D8R2C1R 
3C3U8R4D8NL4R2C1R2C3U8D1F2E2U1D8 



R2C1R2C3NR4U4NR4U4R4 " 

80 DRAWBM154 , 72D6F2E2U6R2C1R3C3 

D8R1C1R2C3R4U4L4U4R6C1D8R3C3U8R2 

C1R2C3R4L2D8R1C1R4C3U8R4D8NL4R2C 

1R3C3U8R4D4L4R1F3D1 

90 GOSUB550:EXEC44539:FORC=1TO70 

0:NEXTC:DRAW"C1BM70, 130D48C4" 

100 M=9:S=5:H=11 

110 PLAY"V10O1T255L255" : H=H-1 : IF 
H<1THENH=10 : S=S-1 : IFS<0THENM=M-1 
:H=10:S=5: IFM<0THENGOSUB620 
120 DRAWBM80, 130" : ON M+l GOSUB4 
50,4 60,470,4 80,490,500,510,520,5 
30,540 

130 DRAWBM120 , 130" : ON S + l GOSUB 
450,460, 470,480,4 90,500, 510,5 20, 
530, 540 

140 DRAWBM150 , 130" : ON H GOSUB45 

0,460,470,480, 490, 500,510,520, 53 

0,540 

150 J=0 

160 J=J+1 

170 I$=INKEY$ 

180 IFI$="Q"THENQ=Q+1:GOSUB330 

190 IFI$="W"THENW=W+1:GOSUB3 60 

200 IFI$="O"THENO=O+1:GOSUB390 

210 IF I$="/"THEN GOSUB 600 

220 IFI$="P"THENP=P+1:GOSUB420 

230 IFI$="B"THENGOSUB560 

240 IFI$="V"THENGOSUB580 

250 IFI$="N"THENGOSUB590 

260 IFI$="E"THENDRAW"C1BM40,30D4 

0BM140, 30D40C4" 

270 IFI$=" "THENEXEC44539 

280 IFI$="T"THENSOUNDl , 5 : EXEC445 

39 

290 IFI$=" * "THENDRAW"BM40 , 30D40" 

300 IFI$="I"THENDRAW"BM140 ,30D40 
ii 

310 IFI$="C"THENDRAW"C1" : LINE (95 
,90) -(165,100) ,PSET,BF: DRAW'C 4" 
320 IFJ>25THENJ=0 : GOTO110ELSEGOT 
0160 

3 30 DRAW" BM 50 , 30" : IFQ=10THENQ=0 
340 ON Q+l GOSUB450,460,470,480, 
490,500,510,520,530,540 
350 GOTO 160 

3 60 DRAW"BM80,30" :IFW=10THENW=0 
370 ON W+l GOSUB450,460,470,480, 
490,500,510,520,530,540 
380 GOTO160 

390 DRAWBM150, 30" : IFO=10THENO=1 



September 19B7 THE RAINBOW 43 



FOR DELIVERY IN AUGUST, 1987 




Dale Puckett and Peter Dibble have done it again! They've been busy pulling apart, 
examining and testing the new OS-9 Level II. Find out what they've discovered with 
The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Level II, Vol I: A Beginners Guide to Windows. 

Let these popular authors open the window to OS-9 for you. 

This easy-to-follow book leads you step by step through OS-9 Level II. Clear, 
precise text, insightful examples and helpful tips make this almost 300-page book 
an indispensable resource. This book will only be available from us by advance order. 
We will only print sufficient copies to cover the orders on hand. 

Get Yours for Only $19.95! 
ALSO AVAILABLE - The Windows & Applications Disk 

An adjunct and complement to the book. You'll want the book for the tutorials 
and the disk to save the many hours of typing in lengthy programs. Disk $19.95 



Please send me: 

□ The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Level 11, Vol. I: A Beginners Guide to Windows for $19.95* 

□ The Windows & Applications Disk for $19,95* (Does not include book) 



Name 
Address 
City 



State 



ZIP 



L. 



□ Payment enclosed or Charge my: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

Account No. Exp. Date 

Signature 

Mail to: A Beginners Guide to Windows, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059 

To order by phone (credit card orders only), call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. For other inquiries, call (502) 228-4492. 
*Add $1 .50 per book shipping and handling in U.S. Outside U.S. add $4 per book. Allow 6 to 8 weeks for delivery. Ky. residents should 
add 5% sales tax. In order to hold down costs, we do not bill. All orders in U.S. funds only, please. 
OS-9 is a trademark of Microware Systems Corporation. 



4J30 ON 0+1 GOSUB45j3,460,47j2,480, 
490 , 5J30, 510 , 520 , 530 , 54 j3 
410 GOTO160 

420 DRAW"BM180,30" : IFP=10THENP=0 
430 ON P+l GOSUB450,460,470,480, 
490 , 500 , 510 , 520 , 530 , 540 
440 GOTO160 

450 DRAWR20D20C1NL19C4D20L20U40 
": RETURN 

4 60 DRAWC1NR20D20NR20D20R20C4U4 
0" : RETURN 

470 DRAWC1ND19C4R20D20C1ND20C4L 
20D20R20" : RETURN 

480 DRAW"C1ND40C4R20D20NL20D20L2 
0" : RETURN 

490 DRAW"C1NR20C4D20C1D20NR20U20 
C4R20U20D40" : RETURN 
500 DRAWNR20D20C1ND19C4R20C1NU1 
9C4D20L20" : RETURN 

510 DRAW"C1R20ND20L20C4D40R20U20 
L20" : RETURN 

520 DRAWC1D20NR20D20NR20U40C4R2 
0D40" : RETURN 

530 DRAW"R20D20NL20D20L20U40":RE 



TURN 

540 DRAW"D20C1D20NR20U20C4R20U20 
NL20D40" : RETURN 

550 DRAW"C4" : CIRCLE ( 110 , 140 ) ,4:C 
IRCLE(110,160) ,4:DRAW"BM70, 130D4 
0R1C1R9C4NR20U40R20D40R1C1R19C4N 
R20U40R20D40R1C1R9C4NR20U40R20D4 
0" : RETURN 

560 DRAW" BM108 , 90C3D8R3E1U2H1NL3 
E1U2H1NL2R2C1R3C3D8R4U8NL4R2C1R3 
C3ND8D1F4ND3U5R2C1R2 C3D8R4U8R2C1 
R2C3NR4D4R4D4L4 
570 RETURN 

580 DRAW " C 3 BM1 0 0 , 90G4F4 11 : RETURN 
590 DRAWC3BM153 , 90F4G4 11 : RETURN 
600 P1=P1+1 : IFP1=5THENDRAW"C1" : L 
INE ( 100 , 118 ) - ( 150 , 12 8 ) , PSET , BF : P 
1 = 1 

610 DRAW"C2 " : F0RRQ=1T0P1 : CIRCLE ( 
106+(RQ*8) ,12 2) , 4 : NEXTRQ : DRAWC4 
" : RETURN 

620 PLAY"V3101T1L1C" :EXEC44539:G 
OTO90 



<« GIMMESOFT »> 

A new generation of CoCo III software 



FKEYS III 



(CoCo 
l/ll/l II) 



A user friendly, user programmable function key utility 
that creates up to 20 function keys. Other features 
include an EDITOR, DOS mods , and DISABLE. Comes 
with an enhanced CoCo III version and it's 
EPROMable. (See April '87 review] 

Disk (latest version) $19.95 

Multi-Label III 

(CoCo III only) 
An easy to use, versatile label creating program including 
many new CoCo III features. Even if you already own a 
label program, this one's a must for the III!! 
(See July '87 review) Disk $1 6.95 

Custom Pafette Designer 



(CoCo Ml only) 



Easily alter the contents of any palette without having to 
remember numbers or colors! Once configured, all six- 
teen palettes can be saved to disk as a single subroutine 
which, may then be used in a basic program. 
(See Aug. '87 review) Disk $19.95 



SIXDRIVE 



(Coco 

l/ll/lll) 



This machine language utility modifies DECB 1 .0, 1 .1 , or 
FKEYS III to allow the use of 3 double-sided drives (or 2 
double-sided drives and J & R'S RAMDISKS) as 6 
single-sided drives without ANY hardware mods. 
Includes 2 selectable drive assignments and it's 
EPRDMable. 

Disk... $16.95 

With purchase of FKEYS III $12.95 

With purchase of any JramR $ 9.95 

JramR 512K Upgrade 

(CoCo Ml only) 
#1010 JramR bare board, connectors, and 

software $39.95 

#1014 JramR assembled and tested with software, 

without memory chips $49.95 

#1012 JramR assembled and tested with software, 

^ 51 2K memory $99.95 

(See June '87 review) 

* ►►► PYRAWIX 444 (CoCo HI only) 
Experience brilliant colors, sharp graphics, and 
hot action in this super machine language 
arcade game! $24.95 



Technical assistance: 7pm Co 9pm 
Orders; 9am to 9pm Eastern time 
Dn-line orders: Delphi's CoCo Sig 



GIMMESOFT 
P.O. Box 421 
Perry Hall, MD 21128 



Add $2.50 for shipping 
MD residents add sales tax 
Phone 301-256-7558 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 45 



DELPHI BUREAU 



Buffer Capture Garbage 



Recently, several of us at Falsoft 
have had problems capturing 
data by opening and closing our 
MikeyTerm buffers. Everything looks 
OK when we display the buffer. But, 
when we try to print the contents of the 
buffer, all we get is garbage. Or better 
yet, our printer does a song and dance 
routine that causes the final copy to be 
liberally sprinkled with characters of 
every imaginable type style. 

We don't quite have a hold on the 
cause for these problems. They myste- 
riously started despite our having made 
no changes in our communications 
parameters. It doesn't happen all the 
time, either. While we are looking for 
the root of the problem, we can offer a 
simple cure if you are also experiencing 
such difficulties. The next time you log 
on, try setting your communications 
parameters to 7-bit, even parity. This 
will cause your terminal program to 
"strip out" the offending control char- 
acters that are somehow appearing in 
the text. 



Cray Augsburg is RAINBOW s technical 
editor and has an associate's degree in 
electrical engineering. He and his wife, 
Ruth Ann, have two children and live 
in Louisville, Kentucky. His user name 
on Delphi is CRA Y. 



By Cray Augsburg 
Rainbow Technical Editor 



The FCC Strikes 

Earlier this year, the Federal Com- 
munications Commission (FCC) 
considered a proposal that would sub- 
ject packet-switch data network provid- 
ers, such as Telenet and Tymnet, and 



online service providers, like Compu- 
Serve and The Source, to an interstate 
access fee. The immediate effect would 
be a substantial increase in the cost of 
using such services as Delphi and those 
mentioned above. 



DATABASE REPORT 



This month was a busy one on THE 
rainbow SIGs! Uploading activity 
was brisk as users were busy drawing 
and digitizing pictures, and writing utilities, 
patches and games to share with others. It 
was also the month when the shadow of a 
new FCC proposal passed over the online 
community. 

OS-9 Online 

In the General topic area, Brian Wright 

(poltergeis t) posted a text file concerning 
proposed FCC changes relating to online 
communications services such as Delphi. 
These articles describe a potentially danger- 
ous proposal by the FCC that would levy 
an extra surcharge on data carriers like 
Telenet, Tymnet, etc. This would increase 
the hourly cost of being online by as much 
as $5 per hour. Also included were tips on 
how to communicate effectively with the 
FCC commissioners in order to register 
your complaint. (These files were posted on 
the CoCo SIG also.) 

Brian also posted a second file concern- 
ing OS-9 concepts for beginners. Kevin 



Darling (KDARL1NG) posted a text file 
concerning the use of the Multi-Pak Inter- 
face and slot selection, OS-9 drivers and 
how to convert an RS-232 pack so that two 
can be used at one time. 

In the Graphics topic area, Steve Clark 
(STEVECLARK) sent a graphics print from 
disk utility, and Greg Law (GREGL) pro- 
vided his utility MGEPIX for displaying 
MGE-format pictures under Level II. 

In the Users Group topic area, Greg Law 
uploaded more of the Users Group files, 
namely ADVENT, BUILD, BREAK, BOOT- 
SPLIT, BLANKO, BINCOM, BIN2BCD, BE5- 
5EL, BDUMP, AVERAGE STDEV, 
ATTR_CHG . B09, HELP.C and and HELP. A. 

In the Applications topic area, Ed Orbea 
(basque) sent us PILOT, a complete inter- 
preter and support files for the PILOT c.A.l. 
language. 

In the Utilities topic area, George 
Janssen (gbjanssen) uploaded a freeware 
file compression utility called PAK. Mark 
Kowit (TOBOR8) sent us a set of three 
utilities to provide color, CL5 and bold 
commands. Steve Clark uploaded a shell 



46 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 



The telecommunications community 
recognized the disastrous effects of such 
a surcharge and mounted a letter- 
writing campaign to the FCC, which 
responded by officially deciding not to 
act on the matter. Now it appears the 
commission was only trying to let the 
dust settle. It recently revived the issue 
by recommending that enhanced service 
providers should be subjected to the 
interstate access fee. 

What does this mean to the average 
user of online services? As much as $5 
per hour in additional access fees. Such 
a surcharge could be expected to price 
most individuals out of the nationwide 
telecommunications market and force 
many of the public information services 
but of business. 

In a brow-raising move, obviously 
related to the flak it caught the first time 
around, the FCC is not currently taking 
opinions from the public concerning the 
matter. Instead, it has announced that 
it is considering the new rules and will 
request opinions from certain parties at 
a future date. 

At this time, interested telecommu- 
nicators can do two things to make their 
feelings known. First, write to your 
congressmen, express your displeasure 
and ask them to do whatever they can 
to help. Be sure to refer to the FCC 
proposal by name, "Amendment of Part 
69 of the Commission's Rules relating 



to Enhanced Service Providers, General 
Docket 87-215," and state specifically 
why you are opposed to it. 

Second, call Telenet at 1-800- 
TELENET and tell them you want to 
help stop the surcharge. (Expect to be 
put on hold.) They will take your name, 
address and telephone number and, 
when the FCC decides to accept opin- 
ions from the public, will call on you to 
make your case by writing letters to the 
commission itself. 



"These changes 
have been long- 
awaited and are 
very important " 



New Places for Old Commands 

Delphi, as many of you well know, 
has been working diligently to make the 
system as easy to use as possible. They 
have made a good dent in the command 
areas of /SEND, /ENT, /WHO, /MRIL and 
/WHO 1 5. Now these commands are 
available in Workspace as well as 
Forum. 

Each of the commands is usable while 
at the Workspace or Forum prompts. In 



addition, they can be used within a 
Forum message. The only requirement 
is that you must enter them as the very 
first characters on a new line. Unfortu- 
nately, however, they will not work 
from within a Forum message if you are 
currently set to use the EDT editor. You 
must be using Oldie. You can set this by 
using the SETTINGS command in 
Workspace. If you have entered Mail 
from the WS> or FORUM> prompt, 
pressing CTRL-Z will return you from 
where you came just as it does from 
Conference. 

Another important change is that 
Delphi will now put all received sends 
and pages in a queue if you happen to 
be downloading or uploading. While 
performing such a file transfer, if 
another user sends you a message with 
/SEND or pages you with /PRGE, the 
messages will be put on a stack. When 
you are finished with the file transfer, 
these messages will appear on the screen 
so that you can respond to them. 

These changes have been long- 
awaited and are very important. Now 
you can find out someone's real name 
or information without having to back 
out of a message. More importantly, 
you won't miss any queries from other 
users just because you were busy down- 
loading. Eventually, Delphi hopes to 
initiate a message queue that is enabled 
any time you are busy. □ 



procedure (script) to send control codes to 
a DMP-120 printer for Level II. It includes 
the use of a dialog box and menu. 

In the Device Drivers topic area, Andrew 
Hart (andyl) sent us a device driver to use 
the Disto hardware clock in a RAM pack 
under Level II and complete documenta- 
tion. His driver temporarily slows down the 
clock while accessing the clock chip, which 
has a rather long access time of six micro- 
seconds. Ken Schunk (kenschunk) pro- 
vided a new CC3Disk module, a replace- 
ment driver for OS-9 Level II written by 
Volney Larowe. It allows Level II to use the 
old 12-volt controllers and fixes two prob- 
lems with the stock driver, a Side Select 
Error and the lack of Device Timeout 
Errors. It also allows the use of 48 tpi disks 
in 96 tpi drives. 

In the Telecommunications topic area, 
Greg Law provided the file XC0M9 V. $0fl, 
the latest version of this popular OS-9 
terminal program. It contains several bug 
fixes and added commands. 

CoCo SIG 

In the General topic area, I provided a 
text file describing the standards and file- 
naming conventions used in the rainbow 
CoCo SIG's database. 



In the Source Code topic area, Roger 
Krupski (hardwarehagk) provided a 
muticolumn directory routine. Doug 
Masten (dmasten) provided us with a 
routine to test a CoCo 3 for memory size, 
and I provided a simple memory sense 
subroutine for the CoCo 1 and 2. 

In the Utilities & Applications topic area, 
Roger Krupski posted the binary version of 
his multicolumn directory utility. Roger 
also sent us a basic Hi-Res picture saver 
and a one-swap backup utility for the CoCo 
3. Robert Pierce (rpierce) sent us an 
example start-up file for the CoCo 3, and 
Mike Salisbury (misal) gave us a text 
reader program and an appointment cal- 
endar program. Earl Knutson (bjornknut- 
SON) uploaded his Disk Jockey program, 
and a nice ham radio log book utility was 
sent to us by Dennis Hoin (hacker !). Mike 
Tolbert (mikegt) posted his Auto Boot 
program for the CoCo 3. 

In the Hardware topic area, Marty 
Goodman (martygoodman) provided 
two new articles. The first describes how to 
modify one of the older Disto 512K RAM 
disks for 1.8 MHz operation and suggests 
a fix for the Level I OS-9 RAM disk drivers 
that came with the card. The second pro- 
vides information describing a problem in 



the display of the CoCo 3 (image absent or 
text shifted left at power up) and two 
possible ways to fix this problem. 

In the Games topic area, Dave Ferreira 
(skeeve) sent us a biorhythm program that 
he modified to use Steve Bjork's Mouse 
program and his maze generator program. 
Brian Wright provided a clever game called 
Kamakazie Kar. Merle Metzger (merle- 
metzger) uploaded two picture maps 
describing the Dungeons of Daggorath 
game course. Mike Salisbury uploaded a 
golf game, and Jim Pogue (jimpogue) sent 
us his fine Scrabble-like game. 

The Graphics topic area was the most 
active database topic this month. Most of 
the uploads consisted of MGE-format 
CoCo 3 pictures. It should be mentioned 
that all MGE files on the SIG are saved in 
compressed format unless a "bit-mapped" 
format would result in a smaller file. MGE- 
format pictures may be as large as 32K and 
can occupy up to 14 grans on a disk. Color 
Max 3 provides for horizontal compres- 
sion, and we ensure that all MGE files are 
saved in the format that results in the 
smallest file size. This means that our users 
may download more pictures in the same 
time and thereby gain more f or their Delphi 
dollar. 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 47 



This month's uploads: Chris Brown 
(crispwilliam) sent us six outstanding 
pictures and MGELDOK . BflS, a BASIC pro- 
gram that provides an automated display of 
all MGE files on a disk. MGELDOK interfaces 
with Greg Miller's (gregmiller) BSCTOOL 
utility to do its work. Richard Trasborg 
(TRAS) sent us Mr. Ts Coloring Book, a 
group of three nudes that the user may 
color, and MfiRINfi, a nude picture con- 
verted from an Atari ST picture. Pre- 
viously, Richard had sent us six original 
nudes for the CoCo 3. Jason Forbes (CO- 
C03KID) sent us seven other converted Atari 
pictures. He also uploaded a grouping of 32 
different fonts, which one may LDflDM into 
his CoCo 3 and then use with the HPRINT 
command. All of these fonts are very nicely 
detailed. Michael Schneider (mschneider) 
sent us three James Bond pictures that were 
originally created by a CoCo 3 artist in 
Israel for the Atari ST. He also sent us 
STfiRWfiRS, an MGE picture of a scene from 
the classic movie Star Wars, I converted 
eight previously uploaded pictures from 
Atari format into MGE format and fur- 
nished them to the database. I also con- 
verted two pictures from OS-9 Online from 
VEF format and furnished them to the 
database in MGE format, Erik Gavriluk 
(erikgav) provided us with an outstanding 



MGEVi cture of Christie Brinkley taken 
from a digitized picture done on the Mac- 
intosh, cleaned-up and colored-in using 
Color Max 3. 

Mike Fischer (MIKE88) sent us a turtle 
graphics demonstration program by Gian 
Polizzi, graphics programmer for the Island 
CoCo Club. M ike also sent us six programs 
that are palette switching demos,; two of 
which were written by Gian Polizzi. Joab 
Jackson (joab) sent us a program called 
Galactic Orchids, which creates abstract 
patterns on the CoCo 3. Kurt Stecco 
(HIGHRA1LER) gave us eight more converted 
ST pictures in MGE format. Kurt's contri- 
butions include some digitized pictures of 
cars and trains, plus some interesting 
product logos. 

Ned Smith (nedsm) sent us his picture of 
the Voyager, drawn using basic commands. 
Brian Wright sent us his short program that 
demonstrates squares and rectangles on the 
CoCo 3. D.K. Lee (horneti) provided us 
with a picture of a baby dinosaur that he 
drew using Color Max 3. He also provided 
a picture of small animals in a pond setting, 
which was drawn by his 11 -year-old son. 
Both of these pictures are very colorful. Bob 
Wharton (bobwharton) sent us his first 
Color Max 3 picture, a drawing of Larry 
Bird of the Celtics. 



In the Music topic area, John Brennan 

(FIREFLY) gaveus his rendition of the theme 
music to The Honey mooners show. Bill 
Starr (wstarr) sent us two more popular 
□ rchestra-90 files. 

In the Product Announcements topic 
area, Chad Rogers (icmr) provided his 
assessment of the RGBPATCH program from 
Spectral Associates. This program sup- 
posedly provides PMODE A colors when 
CoCo 1 or 2 programs and games are run 
on a newer CoCo 3, Chad exlains some of 
his reservations about the product. 

In the Data Communications topic area, 
(I JOSH l) provided us with a list of San 
Francisco area B BSs. Bill Haesslein (billh) 
uploaded his parameter loader program for 
use with Greg-E-Term. It allows one to load 
the appropriate parameters for up to 20 
different configurations. Brian Wright 
provided a simple terminal program for 
conversation-oriented BBSs and Version 2 
of the MfiBEL terminal program. 

As you can see, CoCo users are keeping 
busy during the summer! We hope to see all 
of you online soon! 

— Don Hutchison 

(DONHUTCHISON) 

Rainbow's Delphi Database Manager 



The Rainbow Introductory Guide to 



Statistics 



Most people have been using statistics since they learned 
to talk. Statistical results and concepts turn up everywhere. 
A large part of our daily news consists of statistics. Results 
of opinion polls, surveys, research studies, the Dow Jones 
industrial average and, of course, our sports news are all 
statistics. But statistics are often misused. The informed 
person-needs' to understand the basic concepts in order to 
judge the appropriateness of applications. 

Rainbow Contributing Editor Dr. Michael Plog and co- 
author Dr. Norman Stenzel have written The Rainbow 
Introductory Guide to Statistics just for beginners. It is an 
easy-to-understand guide to this sometimes mysterious area 
of mathematics. Their aim is to introduce readers to the 
realm of statistical processes and thinking, and they believe 
that the Tandy Color Computer is an ideal machine for the 
reduction of data. [ \ 

Sharpen your skills with The Rainbow Introductory 
Guide to Statistics for only $6.95. Included in the book is 
the Co Go-Stat program, a BA$iC statistics program just for 
the Color 'Computer. (80-column printer required.) Forget 
the typing hassle by ordering the accompanying Statistics 
Tape or Disk for only $5.95. S pen d your time learning'and 
enjoying the new material, not debugging your typing. Just 
pop in the tape or disk and you're ready for action! 




Save when you buy The Rainbow Introductory Guide to 
Statistics book together with the t&pe or disk. Get bath for 
only $11.95. 



Please send me: The Rainbow Introduciory Guide io Statistics Book S6.95* 

The Rainbow Introductory Guide to Statistics Tape or Disk $5.95 
The Rainbow Introductory Guide to Statistics Book/ Disk Set $11.95 



Name — 
Address 
Ciiy _ 



_ State . 



-ZIP. 



□ My check in the amount of_ 



is enclosed* 

Please charge to my. □ VISA □ MasterCard 0 American Express 

Acct. No Exp. Date . 

[nature . 



Signal 

Mail to: The Rainbow Introductory Guide to Statistics. The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 

385, Prospect, KY 40059 
To order by phone (credit card orders only), call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. 
For other inquiries, call (502) 22M492. 

*Add $1.50 per book for shipping and handling in the U S Outside the U.S. add S4 per 
book (U.S. currency only). Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax. In order to hold down 
costs, we do not bill. Please allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. 

Noie: The lape and disk are not stand-alone products. If you buy either the tape or disk, 
you still need to purchase the book for instructions. 



48 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



Tandy Computers: 
Because there is 
no better valuer 



Tandy Color Computer 3 




We cut $ 20 off our most 
powerful Color Computer- 
now just $ 199. 

Now Radio Shack's most advanced version of 
the famous Color Computer is more affordable 
than ever! The Color Computer 3 is great for 
small business and home applications such as 
education, programming, word processing, 
graphics, entertainment and more. 

It's easy to expand with disk drives, 
printer, telephone modem and more. 
Plus, the Color Computer 3 comes 
with 128K RAM (expandable to 
512K), giving you greater programming 
and data-processing power. And for 
added versatility, the Color Computer 
3 is compatible with software and ac- 
cessories designed for the popular 
Color Computer 2. 

Create razor-sharp graphics with our 
CM-8 high-resolution monitor (sold sepa- 
rately). You can achieve up to 
160 X 192 or 320 X 192 resolution 
graphics using 16 colors, or 640 X 192 
with 4 colors. 

The Color Computer 3 offers uncom- 
promising performance at a terrific price. 
Visit Radio Shack today for a demonstration! 



r 
i 
I 



Send me a new 1988 
computer catalog. 



Mail To: Radio Shack 
Depl. 88-A-78 
300 One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth. TX 76102 



City 
State . 



El 
Jl 



Radio /hack 



Was $2 19.95 in Cat. RSC-17B. Price applies at Radio Shack 
Computer Centers and participating stores and dealers. Moni- 
tor, srand, Program Pak and disk drive sold separately. 



The Technology Store 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



GAME 





^ 




Bee Zap per 



By Daren Koch 

A chameleon is an animal with a long tongue that 
it lashes out to catch insects. In this game, you are 
a chameleon perched on a tree branch near a 
beehive. You must lash out your tongue at the bees in order 
to catch them. The branch that the chameleon is sitting on 
gets smaller as each bee makes it to the tree trunk. If the 
branch gets too small, you lose a life. 

You control the chameleon with the right joystick. There 
is a bird that flies out of a hole in the tree. You will see it 
a few seconds before it starts to move. If it bites your tongue, 
you lose a life. The bird can be killed by simply zapping 
it on the back as it flies by. 

As you advance through the levels, the bird appears more 
often and there are fewer bees to eat. After Level 4, the 
branch doesn't get any longer except, when you lose a life. 
After Level 5, you are rewarded with another life. It's a real 
challenge to reach these levels. 

Here's how the scoring works. In the first level, you 
receive 75 points for each bee killed; in the second level, you 
receive 100 points, etc. You receive 200 points when the bird 
is killed. You get a bonus after every level if you have not 
allowed more than five bees to reach the trunk of the tree, 
This game doesn't take long to type in, but it uses lots 
of memory. It can only be run on a 64K Extended basic 
machine. I included a POKE statement to make the machine 
run faster. In order to save the program, this poke must be 
countered; otherwise, it cannot be retrieved. Enter POKE 
65494,0 before saving. 

( Quest torn about this program may be addressed to (he 
author at 212 Pierre Connefroy, Boucherville, Quebec, 
Canada J4B 1 K6* Please enclose an SASEfor a reply,) □ 

Daren Koch is a 19-year-old college student majoring in 
computer science, in his spare time, he enjoys playing with 
his computer. 



THE RAINBOW Septe m ber 1 98 7 



Tandy Computers: 
Because . there is 
no better value. 



Tandy DaisyAVheel Printers 




Get letter-quality 
results for personal 
professional use 



Give your correspondence, reports and memos 
that clean, crisp "electric-typewriter" look with 
either of these IBM® compatible models. 

DWP 230* Our lowest-priced daisy-wheel printer 
delivers letter-quality printing at up to 200 words 
per minute. The DWP 230 also features forward 
and reverse paper feed, l /2-line feed, underline and 
programmable backspace. Utilizing interchange- 
able 96-character print wheels, you can give what 
was once 1 "ordinary" correspondence an attention- 
getting new look. At only $399.95, you get more— 
for less! 

DWP 520. The business-minded DWP 520 has 
features usually found in printers costing much 
more. And with printing at up to 500 words per 
minute, the DWP 520 is sure to save your office 
plenty of time as well. Designed to meet almost any 
task, this printer supports boldface, strike-through, 
double-underline, super and subscripts, and it al- 
lows you to use print wheels with different pitch or 
special characters. 

Whatever your printing needs, we've got great 
daisy-wheel performance at prices to meet your 
budget. Come into your local Radio Shack today. 



Send me a new 
1988 computer 
catalog. 



Name 

Company . 
Address _ 



r 
i 
i 

Telephone 

Radio /haek 



Mail To: Radio Shack City _ 
Dept. 88-A-1092 

300 One Tandy Center Stale 
Fort Worth, Texas 76102 



1 

-\ 



Prices apply at Radio Shack Computer Centers and participating stores and dealers, 
IBM/Reg. TM International Business Machines Corp. 



The Technology Store 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



HOW DO YOU PRESCRIBE A RAINBOW? 



It's simple — Give a RAINBOW gift certificate . 



the rainbow is the perfect 
remedy for an ailing CoCo; let a 
gift subscription perk up your 
friends' tired old computers, the 
rainbow is the information 
sou rce for the Tandy Color Com- 
puter. 

Each month, your friends will 
enjoy the intelligent programs, 
reviews and articles written ex- 
clusively for their CoCo. 

First, your gift will be an- 
nounced in a handsome card. 
Then, all year 'round, they'll re- 
member you and your thought- 
fulness when they get each edi- 
tion of the rainbow— morethan 
200 pages loaded with as many 
as 24 programs, 15 regular col- 
umns and lots of helpful hints 
and tips. 

Generosity benefits the giver, 
too. There'll be no more tracking 
down borrowed copies of the 
rainbow. Your collection will be 
safe at home. 

Give a rainbow gift certificate 
and let your friends in on the fun. 
the rainbow is the perfect com- 
panion for the Color Computer! 

Get your order to us by Sep- 
tember 25 and we'll begin your 
friends' subscriptions with the 
November issue of rainbow. 



Please begin a one-year (12 issues) gift subscription to 

THE RAINBOW for: 

Name 



Address 
City 



_State 



ZIP 



From: 

Name 



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City 



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Bill to: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

Acct. # Exp. date 

Signature 

Mail to: Rainbow Gift Certificate 
The Falsoft Building 
P.O.Box385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

For credit card orders call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. 
All other inquiries call (502) 228-4492. 

Subscriptions to THE RAINBOW are $31 in the United States; U.S. $38 in Canada. The surface rate 
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currency only, please. All subscriptions begin with the current issue. Please allow 6 to 8 weeks for 
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22 .. 
37 .. 
49 .. 
65 .. 
75 .. 
87 

97 .. 
END 



.195 
..37 
.119 
.188 
.107 
..92 
.172 
...9 



The listing: BEEZRP 

1 ***************************** 

2 '* WRITTEN BY DAREN KOCH * 

3 • * ORIGINAL IDEA BY * 

4 • * FRANCOIS GAGNE * 

5 * **************************** 

6 POKE 65495, j3 

7 GOSUB21 

8 PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS 

9 GOSUB37 

1ft Bl=l : P=lft ft :E=18 ft: 01=2 1ft: 0=5 :B 
=5:X=16^):D=4j3:N=9 :W=1: V=1:A2=5 

11 GOSUB24 

12 G0SUB78 

13 G0SUB18 

14 PM0DE4 , 1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 

15 GOSUB85 

16 GOSUB99 

17 G0T015 

18 LINE (22 ft , 1ft ft) - (24,0,191) , PRESE 
T,BF:IFV>-1 THENFOR A=17j3 TO170- 
(V*2j3) STEP -2j3:PUT(22j3,A)-(238, 
A+ 18 ) , C , PSET : NEXTA 

19 IFV=-2 THENCLS (7) : PRINT@43 , 11 G 
AME OVER" ; : PRINT @ 1 2 8 , 11 YOUR S CORE 

IS " ; LI ; : PRINT§2 5 6 , 11 DO YOU WANT 
TO PLAY AGAIN? (Y/N) 11 ; : INPUTA$ : 

IFA$="Y" THENRUN ELSE END 

2 ft RETURN 

21 C LS 7 : PRINT @ 4 3, 11 CHAMELEON"; 

22 PRINT§263, "ONE MOMENT PLEASE" 

23 RETURN 

24 FORQ=lTON:X(Q)=3l:Y(Q) = (RND(j3 
) *4 ) +2 : NEXTQ : RETURN 

25 CLS (RND(8) ) : IFL3<6 THENPRINT@ 
192, "BONUS " ; lj3j3*Bl ; : Ll=Ll+lj3j3*B 
1 

26 IFL3>5 THENPRINT§192 , "NO BONU 
S"; 

27 PRINT§2 56, "YOUR SCORE IS ";L1 



28 PRINT §6, "LEVEL ";B1;" COMPLET 
E" ; 

29 IFB1=4 THENA2=j3 

3J3 IFB1=5 THENV=V+1:G0SUB18 

31 PRINT§48j3, "PRESS FIRE TO CONT 
INUE" ; 

32 IF (PEEK (6528,0) AND3)=2 THEN 3 
3 ELSE32 

33 IFV=-2 THENRETURN ELSEPM0DE4 , 
1:SCREEN1, 1 

34 Ml=j3:L3=j3:B=B-A2:IFB<j3 THENB= 

ft 

35 GOSUB78:Bl=Bl+l:P=P-2j3:IFP<2j3 
THENP=2j3:Al=j3 

36 RETURN 

37 DATA 1,1)3,16,2,9,13,3,3,4,3,7 
,1)3,4,2, 2, 4,4, 13,5,0,18, 6, 2, 4, 6, 
6 , 14 , 7 , 8 , 12 , 1ft , 3 , 4 , lj3 , 7 , 11 , 1 1 , 2 , 
2, 11, 4, 13, 12, ft, 18, 13,2,4,13,6,14 
,14, 7, 10,15,9,13, 16,1)3,16 

38 DATA- 1 , , 

3 9 READ A,B,C:IFA=-1 THEN42 

4j3 FORX=B TOC : PSET (X+10J3 , A) : NEXT 

X 

41 GOT03 9 

42 DATA 1,3,3,1,15,15,2,3,15,3,2 




ftOGUUS < PI fli*»f ft i l F - )UP*N <i j 1 T : I ft I 




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SHIPPING will 0* fiftitged Hour AClUAL COST 
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September 1987 



THE RAINBOW 



53 



,16,4,2,16,5,2,4,5,7,11,5,14,16, 
6,1,4,6,7,11,6,14,17,7,1,17,8,1, 
17, 9, 1,3, 9, 5, 13, 9, 15, 17,1)3,1,4,1 
0,6,7,10,9,9,10,11,12,10,14,17,1 
1,1,5,11,7,11,11,13,17,12,1,6,12 
,9,9,12,12,17,13,2,2,13,16,16,13 
,4,8,13,10,14,14,2,3,14,6,12 

43 DATA 14,15,16,15,2,5,15,7,11, 
15,13,16,16,0,6,16,12,18,17,0,18 
, 18 , 0 , 4 , 18 , 1 , 11 , 18 , 14 , 18 

44 DATA -1,, 

45 READA,B,C:IFA=-1 THEN48 

46 FOR X=B TOC:PSET(X+200,A) :NEX 
TX 

47 GOT045 

48 DATA 1,3,3,1,15,15,2,3,15,3,2 
,16,4,2,16,5,2,4,5,7,11,5,14,16, 
6,1,4,6,7,11,6,14,17,7,1,17,8,1, 
17,9,1,3,9,5,13,9,15,17,10,1,3,1 
0 , 6 , 7 , 10 , 9 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 10 , 15 , 17 , 1 
1,1,3,11,7,11,11,15,17,12,1,3,12 
,9,9,12, 15, 17 , 13 , 1,4, 13 ,14, 16, 14 
,2,2,14,4,5,14,13,14 

49 DATA 14,16,16,15,2,3,15,5,6,1 
5,12,13,15,15,16,16,0,4,16,6,7,1 
6,11, 12,16,14, 18,17,0,7,17,11,18 
,18,0,4,18,7,7,18,11,11,18,14,18 

50 DATA -1, , 

51 READA,B,C:IFA=-1 THEN 54 

52 FORX=B TO C: PSET (X+200 , A+25) : 
NEXTX 

53 GOT051 

54 DATA 5,8,9,6,2,5,6,7,8,6,10,1 
0,7, 1,5,7,7, 9, 8, 0,4,8, 6, 6, 9, 0,1, 
9,5,5,9,7,9,10,0,4,10,9,9 

55 DATA -1, , 

56 ZZ=50 

57 READ A,B,C:IFA=-1 THEN 60 

58 FORX=B TO C: PSET(X+200 , A+70) : 
NEXTX 

59 GOT057 

60 DATA 1,0,1,2,0,3,3,0,4,4,1,4, 
5,4,5,5,8,9,6,2,5,6,7,8,6,10,10, 
7,1,9,8,0,6,9,0,5,9,7,9,10,0,4,1 
0,9,9 

61 DATA- 1 , , 

62 READ A,B,C:IFA=-1 THEN 6 5 

63 FORX=B TOC: PSET (X+200, A+90) :N 
EXTX 

64 GOT062 

65 DATA 1,1,1,2,0,2,3,1,1,4,0,2, 
5,1,1,6,0,2,7,1,1,8,0,2,9,1,1,10 
,0,2,15,1,1,16,0,2,17,0,2,18,0,2 
,19,0,2,-1, , 

66 READ A,B,C:IFA=-1 THEN 69 

67 FORX=B TO C : PSET (X+200 , A+110) 
: NEXTX 

68 GOTO 6 6 

69 DIMC(18, 18) ,C1(18, 18) ,C2 (18, 1 



8) ,B(10,10) ,B1(10,10) ,B2 (10,10) , 
F(3,10) ,F2( 3,10) ,F1( 3,5) ,F3 (3,5) 
,X(10) ,P (10) ,Y(10) ,0(18,7) ,01(18 
,7) ,02(18,7) ,03(18,7) 

70 GET(200,1) -(218,19) ,C,G:GET(2 
00,26) -(218,4 4) , CI, G: GET (0,0) -(1 
8,18) ,C2,G:GET(200,71)-(210,81) , 
B,G:GET (200 ,91) - (210,101) ,B1,G:G 
ET(0,0) -(10, 10) ,B2,G:GET(200,111 
)- (203, 121) ,F,G:GET(0,0)-(3,10) , 
F2,G:GET(200, 125) -(203,130) ,F1,G 
:GET(0,0)-(3,5) ,F3,G 

71 GET(100,0) -(118 ,7) ,O,G:GET(10 
0,10) -(118, 17) , 01, G: GET (0,0) -(18 
,7) ,02,G 

72 PCLS 

73 LINE(180,0) -(200,191) , PSET, BF 

74 LINE(5, 165)-(15, 170) , PSET, BF: 
LINE (0, 170) - (20,17 5) ,PSET, BF : LIN 
E (0,17 5) -(25, 180) , PSET , BF : LINE (0 
, 180 ) - ( 30 , 190 ) , PSET , BF : LINE (5,17 
0 ) - ( 15 , 170 ) , PRESET : LINE ( 0 , 17 5 ) - ( 
20,175) , PRESET: LINE (0,180) -(25,1 
80) , PRESET: LINE (0,185) -(30,185) , 
PRESET 

75 FOR X=0TO5: CIRCLE (182, 100) ,2, 
0,X: NEXTX 

76 GET(180,95)-(198,102) ,03,G 

77 RETURN 

78 IFB=14 THENB=16:F=0 

79 LINE(30, 36)-(180, 40) , PRESET, B 
F 

80 LINE(30+(10*B) ,36)-(180,40) ,P 
SET, BF 

81 S=30+(10*B) 

82 IFB=16 THENF0RJ=17 TO170 STEP 
4 : PUT ( X , J ) - (X+18 , J+18) ,C,PSET:PU 
T(X, J) - (X+18 , J+18 ) , C2 , PSET: NEXTJ 
:B=5:LINE(30+(10*B) , 36) - (180, 40) 
, PSET , BF : S=3 0+ ( 10 * Bl ) : V=V- 1 : GOSU 
B18 : F=0 : RETURN 

83 IFX<S ANDB<16THENPUT (X, 17) - (X 
+18, 35) ,C2,PSET: PUT(X+10, 17) -(X+ 
28,35) , CI, PSET:X=X+10:IFD>40 THE 
NLINE(X-3,41) -(X,D+15) , PRESET, BF 
:F=0:D=40 

84 RETURN 

85 IFF=0 THEN86 ELSE89 

86 J=JOYSTK(0) :PUT(X,17)-(X+18,3 
5) ,C2,PSET: IFJ=<20 ANDX>S+4 THEN 
X=X-5 ELSEIFJ=>40 ANDX<160 THENX 
=X+5 

87 PUT(X,17)-(X+18,35) ,C,PSET 

88 IF(PEEK(65280) AND3)=2 THENF= 
1 

89 IFF=2 THEN96 

90 IFF=1 THEN91 ELSERETURN 

91 PUT(X, 17) - (X+18 , 35) ,C1,PSET:P 
UT(X+8,D+1)-(X+11,D+11) ,F,PSET:P 



54 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



UT (X+8 , D+ll ) - (X+ll , D+16) , Fl , PSET 
:D=D+lj3:IFD+6=96 ANDX+9>H ANDX+9 
<H+18 THENPUT(H,9 5) -(H+18/1J32) ,0 
2M , PSET : Ml=j3 : F=2 : H=18j3 : M=J3 : L1=L1 

92 IFD=18j3 THEN93 ELSERETURN 

93 F=2:F0RR=1 TON: IFX+11>X (R) AN 
DX+8<X(R) +1)3 THENPUT (X (R) , 18j3)-( 
X(R) +lj3 f 19j2f) / B2 / PSET:X(R) =31:Y(R 
) = (RND(J3) *4)+2:K=l: PUT (01,0) - (01 
+ 10 , 0+1)3 ) , Bl , PSET : 0=0+15 : L=L+1 : L 
l=Ll+5j3+(25*Bl) :IF0=11)3 THEN0=5 : 
01=23)3 

94 IFL=14 THENL2=L2+25: LINE (31,1 
8)3) -(18)3,191) , PRESET, BF : PUT (X, 17 
) - (X+18 , 35 ) , C2 , PSET : LINE ( 2)31 , )3 ) - 
(2 56, 12)3) , PRESET, BF: LINE (X+8, 41) 
-(X+ll, 190) , PRESET , BF : 0=5 : M=)3 : Ml 
=)3 : Z=)3 : K=)3 : F=)3 : L2=L2+1 : 01=2 1)3 : X= 
16)3:D=4)3:L=)3:GOSUB25:IFN>4 THENN 
=N-2 : G0SUB2 4 : G0T08 5 

95 NEXTR: RETURN 

96 PUT(X+4,D)-(X+14,D+1)3) , B2 , PSE 
T : D=D-1)3 : PUT (X+8 , D+ll ) - (X+ll , D+l 
6 ) , F 3 , PS ET : PUT ( X+ 8 , D+ 1 ) - ( X+ 1 1 , D+ 
11) ,F2,PSET:IFD=4)3 THENF=)3 : K=)3 

97 IFK=1 THENPUT(X+4,D) -(X+14,D+ 
1)3) ,B1,PSET 



98 RETURN 

99 Z=Z+lsIFZ=N+l THENZ=1 

1)3)3 PUT(XJZ) , 18)3) -(X(Z)+1)3, 19)3) , 
B2 , PSET 

1)31 X(Z)=X(Z)+Y(Z) :W=W*-1:IFW>)3 
THENPUT(X(Z) , 18)3) -(X(Z) +1)3, 19)3) , 
B,PSET ELSEPUT(X(Z) , 180) -(X(Z)+1 

0. 190) ,B1,PSET 

102 IFX(Z)=>169 THENB=B+1:L3=L3+ 
1:PUT(X(Z) ,180) -(X(Z)+10,190) , B2 
,PSET:X(Z)=31: Y(Z)=(RND(0) *4)+2: 
GOSUB7 8 

103 M=M+1:IFM=P-15 THENM1=1 ELSE 
IFM=P THENM1=2 

104 IFM1>0 THENIFM1=1 ANDW>0THEN 
PUT(H, 95)-(H+18, 102) ,0, PSET ELSE 
IFM1=1 THENPUT(H,95)-(H+18,102) , 

01, PSET ELSEPUT(H, 95) -(H+18, 102) 
,02,PSET:IFH=<5 THENM1=0 : M=0 : H=l 
80 

105 IFM1=2 THENH=H-5:IFW=>0 THEN 
PUT(H, 95)-(H+18, 102) ,0, PSET ELSE 
PUT (H, 9 5) -(H+18, 102) ,01, PSET 

106 IFM1>0 ANDPPOINT(H-1,98)>0 T 
HENB=16 : GOSUB78 : F=0 : X=160 : D=40 

107 IFH=160 THENPUT(180,95)-(198 
, 102) ,03, PSET 

108 RETURN 




BTU Analysis 



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September 1987 THE RAINBOW 55 





How To Read Rainbow 



Please note that all the basic program listings in 
the rainbow are formatted for a 32-character 
screen - so they show up just as they do on your CoCo 
screen. One easy way to check on theaccuracyof your 
typing is to compare what character "goes under" what. 
If the characters match — and your line endings come 
out the same — you have a pretty good way of knowing 
that your typing is accurate. 

We also have "key boxes" to show you the minimum 
system a program needs. But, do read the text before 
you start typing. 

Finally, the little disk and/or cassette symbols on the 
table of contents and at the beginning of articles 
indicate that the program is available through our 

RAINBOW ON DISK or RAINBOW ON TAPE service. 

An order form for these services is on the insert card 
bound in the magazine. 



What's A CoCo? 



CoCo is an affectionate name that was first given to 
the Tandy Color Computer by its many fans, users and 
owners. 

However, when we use the term CoCo, we refer to 
both the Tandy Color Computer and the TDP System- 
100 Computer. (While many TDP-100s are still in 
service, the TDP Electronics division o f Tandy n o longer 
markets the CoCo look-alike.) It is easier than using 
both of the "given" names throughout the rainbow. 

In most cases, when a specilic computer is men- 
tioned, the application is for that specific computer. 
However, since the TDP System-100 and Tandy Color 
are, for all purposes, the same computer in a different 
case, these terms are almost always interchangeable. 



and press enter to remove it from the area where the 
program you're typing in will go. 

Now, while keying in a listing from the rainbow, 
whenever you press the down arrow key, your CoCo 
gives the check sum based on the length and content 
of the program in memory. This is to check against the 
numbers printed in the rainbow. If your number is 
different, check the listing carefully to be sure you typed 
in the correct basic program code. For more details 
on this helpful utility, refer to H. Allen Curtis' article on 
Page 21 of the February 1984 rainbow. 

Since Rainbow Check PLUS counts spaces and 
punctuation, be sure to type in the listing exactly the 
way it's given in the magazine. 

10 CLS:X=25G*PEEK(35)+17B 

20 CLEAR 25,X-1 

30 X = 256*PEEI< (35)+17B 

40 FDR Z=X TO X + 77 

50 READ Y:W=W+Y:PRINT Z,Y;W 

G0 POKE Z, Y:NEXT 

70 IFW=79B5THENB0ELSEPRINT 

"DATA ERROR" : STOP 
80 EXEC X : END 

90 DATA 1B2, L, 106, 167, 140, 60, 134 
100 DATA 126, 183, 1, 106, 190, 1, 107 
110 DATA 175, 140, 50, 48, 140, 4, 191 
120 DATA 1, 107, 57, 129, 10, 3B, 3B 
130 DATA 52, 22, 79, 158, 25, 230, 129 
140 DATA 39, 12, 171, 128, 171, 128 
150 DATA 230, 132, 38, 250, 4B, 1, 32 
160 DATA 240, 183, 2, 222, 48, 140, 14 
170 DATA 159, 166, 166, 132, 28, 254 
180 DATA 189, 173, 198, 53, 22, 126, 0 
190 DATA 0, 135, 255, 134, 40, 55 
200 DATA 51, 52, 41, 0 



OS-9 and RAINBOW ON DISK 



1) Type load dir list copy and press ENTER. 

2) If you have only one disk drive, remove the OS-9 
system disk from Drive 0 and replace it with the OS- 
9 side of rainbow on disk. Then type chd/d0 
and press enter. If you have two disk drives, leave 
the sytem master in Drive 0 and put the rainbow 
ON DISK in Drive 1. Then type chd'dl and press 

ENTER. 

3) List the read. me. first file to the screen by typing 

list read. me. first and pressing ENTER. 

4) Entering dir will give you a directory of the OS-9 
side of rainbow on disk. To see what programs 
are in the CND5 directory, enter di r cmds. Follow 
a similar method to see what source files are in the 
SOURCE directory. 

5) When you find a program you want to use, copy it 
to the CMDS directory on your system disk with one 
of the following commands: 

One-drivesystem:copy /d0/cmds/ filename /d0/ 
cmds/ filename -s 

The system will prompt you to alternately place the 
source disk (rainbow on disk) or the destination 
disk (system disk) in Drive 0. 
Two-drive system: copy /dl'cmds/ /7/enatf?e/d0/ 
cmds/ filename 

Once you have copied the program, you execute it 
from your system master by placing that disk in Drive 
0 and entering the name of the file. 



The Rainbow Seal 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Rainbow Check Plus 




The small box accompanying a program listing in 
the rainbow is a "check sum" system, which is 
designed to help you type in programs accurately. 

Rainbow Check PLUS counts the number and values 
of characters you type in. You can then compare the 
number you get to those printed in the rainbow. 
On longer programs, some benchmark lines are given. 
When you reach the end of one of those lines with your 
typing, simply check to see if the numbers match. 

To use Rainbow Check PLUS, type in the program 
and save it for later use, then type in the command run 
and press enter. Oncethe program hasrun, type new 



The OS-9 side of rainbow on disk contains two 
directories: CMDS and source. It also contains a file, 
read . me . f i rs t, which explains the division of the 
two directories. The CNDS directory contains executa- 
ble programs and the source directory contains the 
ASCII source code for these programs. BASIC09 
programs will only be offered in source form so they will 
only be found in the source directory. 

OS-9 is a very powerful operating system. Because 
of this, it is not easy to learn at first. However, while we 
can give specific instructions for using the OS-9 
programs, you will find that the OS-9 programs will be 
of little use unless you are familiar with the operating 
system. For this reason, if you haven't "learned" OS-9 
or are not comfortable with it, we suggest you read The 
Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 by Dale Puckett and 
Peter Dibble. 

The following is not intended as a course in OS-9. It 
merely states how to get the OS-9 programs from 
rainbow on disk to your OS-9 system disk. Use 
the procedures appropriate for your system. Before 
doing so, however, boo t the OS-9 operating system 
according to the documentation from Radio Shack. 



The Rainbow Certification Seal is our way of helping 
you, the consumer. The purpose of the Seal is to certify 
to you that any product that carries the Seal has actually 
been seen by us, that it does, indeed, exist and that we 
have a sample copy here at the rainbow. 

Manufacturers of products — hardware, software and 
firmware — are encouraged by us to submit their prod- 
ucts to the rainbow for certification. We ascertain 
that their products are, in actuality, what they purport 
to be and, upon such determination, award a Seal. 

The Seal, however, is not a "guarantee of satisfac- 
tion." The certification process is different from the 
review process. You are encouraged to read our reviews 
to determine whether the product is right for your 
needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship between advertis- 
ing in the rainbow and the certification process. 
Certification is open and available to any product per- 
taining to CoCo. A Seal will be awarded to any com- 
mercial product, regardless o1 whether the tirm adver- 
tises or not. 

We will appreciate knowing of instances of violation 
of Seal use. 



56 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION 

Educational Programs for Students Grade K-12 and Adult Self Studies 

NEW PROGRAMS FOR YOUR TANDY 1000 
AND TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

Compatible with Apple - Atari - Commodore - TRS 80 I, III. 4 - IBM PC Jr. 
16 New Programs now available in Basic Spanish 



• NEW! VIDEO CASSETTES FOR VHS! 

lnnerActive ,M Video Tutorials 
Complete with audio narration 
4 cassettes with 8 programs in each of the 
following subject areas: Ap 

• Basic Spanish Grammar *4 4^\95 

• Basic Algebra 

• Reading by Phonics per/t3De 

• Basic Fractions ~ r 

2 programs per tape Running time: 45 minutes per tape. 

16 Programs on 8 VHS Tapes $159°° 



Which has 



You tw able to 
reduce sour taxes bs 



aueroij li>s 




sol ttt ii »s 
tax stieltoi 




Interactive Tutorial Programs for Home or Classroom Use 

Over 1000 programs for your selection with 32 now available on disk for the Color 
Computer and 500 now available for the Tandy 1000. 



"We're Your Educational 
Software Source" 

Subject No. of Programs 

Reading Development 256 (4 on disk) 
Reading Comprehension 48 (4 on disk) 
Mathematics 128 
Algebra 16 (16 on disk) 

History 32 (4 on disk) 

Spelling 16 
Government 16 
Physics 16 (4 on disk) 

16 Programs in each 
of the following: 

Children's Tales - Carpentry • Electronics 
Health Services - Office Skills - Statistics 
First Aid/Safety • Economics • Business 
Accounting • Psychology • MUCH MORE! 

S«mm1 tot oui tree r.alalotj ol over 1000 Dor Ml I '•>•<- .1 
hori.il iirtMir.iftis lor Al.irt. TBS KO. AppWr IBM PC lr 

Commodore tandy 1000 sic 



Apple II, TRS 80 I, III, & 4, and 
Commodore 64 computers require 
respective conversion kits (plug-in board 
and stereo cassette player), $99.00. Atari 
400/600/800/1200 computers require the 
Atari cassette recorder and the Dorsett 
4001 Educational Master Cartridge, 
$9.95. For the IBM PC Jr. a cassette 
adapter cable and a good cassette 
recorder are required. The Tandy 1000 
requires the Dorsett M1001 speaker/PC 
board kit, $69.00, and a standard 
cassette recorder. A Radio Shack 
CCR-81 or CCR-82 is recommended. 

CASSETTES: $59.50 for an album con- 
taining a 16-program course (8 cassettes 
with 2 programs each); $9.95 for a 
2-program cassette. 

DISKS: $14.95 for a one-program disk; 
$28.95 for two disks; $48.95 for four 
disks. All disks come in a vinyl album. 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



Dorsett Educational Software features. 

• Interactive Learning 

• User Friendly 

• Multiple Choice and Typed 

• Program Advance with Correct Response 

• Full-time audio narration (Cassette 
Programs Only) 

• Self-Paced Study 

• High Resolution Graphics 

• Easy Reading Text 

For more information, or to order call 
TOLL FREE 1-800-654-3871 
IN OKLAHOMA CALL (405) 288-2301 



DORSETT 

Educational Systems, Inc. 

Box 1226, Norman, OK 73070 



EDUCATION 




Is Not Just Child's Play 




ftP PL E 



ALLIGATOR 



By Ann B 
Mayeux 



BIRD 



A-B-C-D-E-F-G. Even very little children 
can sing or hum along, and they are fascinated 
by that "funny TV" in the corner where Dad or 
Mom spend most of the day — the computer. 

ABC was created to allow small children to 
play with the alphabet and with the computer, keying 
in letters and getting pictures as a reward. Each Hi-Res 
picture displays things beginning with the letter the child 
keyed in, and the word for that object indentifies it if the 
child is ready to read. And the little child fascinated by the red 

Ann Mayeux takes time from the computer to care for her two small 
boys and husband. She has a degree in psychology and taught herself 
programming from the CoCo manual and therainbow, Anns winning 
Adventure program, Time Travelers, appears in The Third Rainbow 
Book of Adventures. 



B-DAT 



58 THERAINBOW September 1987 



32K 
ECB 




button will not stop the play because the 
BREAK key has been disabled. The child 
can push it to his/her heart's content 
and Mommy won't grumble. 

Once the program is typed or loaded 
in and run, the title screen will appear 
and the ABC song will play. Then a 



screen of instructions will appear, 
explaining that the child need only press 
any letter key and the computer will 
display a picture representing the letter. 
Once a picture is completed, the child 
can again press any key to begin play. 
To stop the program press reset. 



(Questions about this program may 
be addressed to the author at 433- A 
Alaska Drive, Petaluma, CA 94952, Be 
sure to include an SASE when writing 
for a reply.) □ 



110 82 1080 223 2000 252 

290 82 1200 104 2070 252 

470 155 1290 172 2170 204 

560 80 1420 162 2270 181 

650 85 1510 93 2350 134 

730 26 1620 224 2420 213 

830 26 1690 153 2520 160 

910 30 1810 91 END 198 

1000 92 1900 19 



The listing: ABC 
10 1 A*B*C 

2 0 1 BY ANN B. MAYEUX 
30 1 KEY WEST, FL 

40 POKE &HF8,&H32:POKE &HF9,&H62 
:POKE &HFA , &H1C : POKE &HFB, &HAF : 
POKE &HFC , &H7E : POKE &HFD,&HAD:PO 
KE &HFE , &HA5 : POKE &H19A, &H39 : POK 
E &H19B, &H0:POKE &H19C , &HF8 : POKE 

&H19A, &H7E 
50 FOR K=l TO 2: NEXT 
60 CLS : PRINT@204 , "A*B*C" : PRINT@3 
28, n BY ANN B . MAYEUX 11 : PRINT© 3 58 , 11 
FOR DAVID AND LANDRY" 
70 PLAY" L6CCGGAAL3GL6FFEEL12DDDD 
L3CL6GGL3FL6EEL3DL12GGGL3FL6EEL3 
DL6CCGGAAL3GL6FFEEDDL2C" : FORT=lT 
099 9 : NEXT: CLS 

80 AL$="U6E3F3D2NL6D4BR5 " : B$="U9 
R3F2G2L3R4F2G3L3BR11" :C$="U9R6BD 
9L6BR11" : D$="U9R4F2D5G2L4BR11 " : E 
$="U9R6BD4L6D5R6BR5" : F$="U9R6BD5 
L6D4BR11" 

90 G$="U9R6BD4NL2D5L6BR11" :H$="U 
9D4R6U4D9BR5" : I$="NU9BR6 " : J$="NU 
2R6NU9BR5" : K$="U9BR6G6E3F3D3BR5" 
:L$="NU9R6BR5" : M$="U9F4E4D9BR5" 
1<3<3 N$="U9D2F6DNU9BR5" :0$ = "U9R6D 
9L6BR11" : P$="U9R6D5L6D4BR1 1 " : Q$= 
"U9R6D9NF3L6BR11" : R$="U9R6D4L6R3 
F3D2BR5" : S$="R6U5L5U4R5BD9BR5" 
110 T$="BR3U9L3R6BD9BR5" :U$="NU9 
R6NU9BR5" : V$="BU9D6F3E3U6BD9BR5" 
:W$="NU9E4F4NU9BR5" : X$="M+6 , -9BL 
6M+6, 9BR5" : Y$="BR3U4H3U2BR6D2G3D 
4BR8" : Z$="BU9R6D2G6DR6BR5" 
120 CLS : PRINT@100 , "WE HAVE A PIC 
TURE FOR EACH LETTER OF THE ALP 



HABET ; JUST TYPETHE LETTER YOU WA 

NT TO SEE.": PRINT" AFTER THE P 

ICTURE IS COMPLETEYOU CAN SEE AN 

OTHER PICTURE BY TYPING IN ANOT 

HER LETTER- " 

130 PMODE3 , 1 : A$=INKEY$ 

140 IFA$="A"THEN410 

150 IFA$="B"THEN510 

160 IFA$="C"THEN590 

170 IFA$="D"THEN680 

180 IFA$="E"THEN750 

190 IFA$="F"THEN820 

200 IFA$="G"THEN900 

210 IFA$="H"THEN1020 

220 IFA$="I"THEN1100 

230 IFA$="J"THEN1130 

240 IFA$="K"THEN1220 

250 IFA$="L"THEN1340 

260 IFA$="M"THEN1410 

270 IFA$="N"THEN1490 

280 IFA$="O"THEN1560 

290 IFA$="P"THEN1680 

300 IFA$="Q"THEN1780 

310 IFA$="R"THEN1890 

320 IFA$="S"THEN2020 

330 IFA$-"T"THEN2100 

340 IFA$="U"THEN2190 

350 IFA$="V"THEN2250 

360 IFA$="W"THEN2360 

370 IFA$="X"THEN2440 

380 IFA$="Y"THEN2490 

390 IFA$="Z"THEN2550 

400 GOTO130 

410 PCLS2:SCREEN1,0:PLAY"L6C" 
420 DRAW"C3BM0 , 70R255C2 " : PAINT (1 
00 , 30) ,3,3: DRAW "BM 10 , 50M3 0 , 20M50 
, 50BM20, 35R20C4" 

430 CIRCLE(150, 30) , 50, 2 , . 25, . 3 , . 
05 : DRAW"C2BM150 , 30L20F20R20H20F1 
0R30H8R10F10L10H10BU8E12R4D15C4" 
440 FORH=120TO170STEP10: PSET(H,2 
7,2) :NEXTH: CIRCLE (60, 145) , 45, , .8 
5, -25, -72: CIRCLE (7 2, 157) ,3 5, , .8, 
. 3 , • 65 

450 DRAW"C2BM120, 65XAL$ ; XI $ ; XR$ ; 
XP$ ;XL$ ;XAL$ ; XN$ ; XE$ ; C4 " : CIRCLE ( 
65,138) ,13, ,1.3, -2, . 05 : DRAW "BM7 5 
, 141R5G4F6L5D6H6" 

460 DRAW"BM78 , 13 8R4 5E10G10F15G5R 
5F5E5R5H20E5G5R65E3U9H3G3L7H3G3L 



60 THE RAINBOW September 1 987 



14H3G3U5E6R3U3E6R3U3E6R3U3E6R3U5 
H1J3L3D5G25" 

47) 3 CIRCLE (15)3,1)35) ,1)3, ,1.2, .3, ft 
: CIRCLE ( 15)3 , 1)35) , 5 , 4 : LINE ( 14)3 , 1)3 
5)-(53,ll)3) ,PSET: PAINT (1)3)3, 115) , 
1 / 4:PAINT(65 / 138) ,1,4 

48) 3 DRAW"BM7)3 , 18)3XAL$ ;XL$;XL$ ;XI 
$ ; XG$ ;XAL$ ;XT$ ; X0$ ; XR$ ; 11 

49) 3 CIRCLE (215,11)3) ,1)3, ,1.7: PAIN 
T( 215, 11)3) ,4, 4: CIRCLE (22 8, 11)3) ,1 
)3, ,1.7: PAINT (232 , 11)3) , 4 ,4 

5)3)3 DRAW ,, BM21)3, 85F15U15E1)3D1)3G1)3 
": PAINT (2 3)3, 87) , 1 , 4 : DRAW f, BM2)3)3 , 1 

5) 3XAL$;XP$;XP$;XL$ ;XE$ ; 11 :GOT013)3 

51) 3 PCLS:SCREENl,)3:PLAY ff L6C ff 

52) 3 DRAW"C3BM)3 , l)3)3R2 5 5 fl : PAINT ( 1)3 
)3,3)3) ,3, 3: CIRCLE (19)3, 17)3) ,9)3, , .6 
:PAINT(24)3, 18)3) ,3,3 

53) 3 DRAW"C1BM2)3)3, 1)3D4)3R2)3E5U1)3H5 
L2)3R17E5U1)3H5L17C2BM14)3, 14)3R9)3D1 
5G5L65H2)3R5)3U74R2D74C4BM18 5, 7)3M1 
4)3 , 13 5R45U65 11 : PAINT (15)3, 13)3) ,4,4 

54) 3 PAINT (18)3, 145) ,2,2: DRAW fl BM19 
9, 68M2 3)3 , 13 5L31U67 11 : PAINT (2 2)3 , 13 

0) ,4,4 

55) 3 DRAW f, BM5, 3 1M2 6 , 4 1R4H6U1)3F5H6 
Ulj3F5H6Ul)3F29D8G4E2R4E2U3E4R5F4D 
2R4GL3D2R3FL4D2G2L3G9L2GL13HL6M5 
, 31 11 : PAINT (4)3, 36), 2, 4: PSET (64, 39 
) 

56) 3 CIRCLE (5)3 ,1)3)3) ,15, 2: PAINT (5)3 
, 1)3)3) ,2,2: DRAW " BM4 8 , 114G4F4U8F2D 

1) 3F5D7G8 ff : CIRCLE ( 7 5 , 7 5 ) , 13 : PAINT 
(75, 75) , 4 , 4 : DRAW"BM73 , 85G4F4U8F2 
D15G5Dl)3 fl 

57) 3 CIRCLE(115,45) , 16 , 1 : PAINT ( 11 
5,45) , 1, 1:DRAW"BM113 , 6)3G4F4U8F2D 
1)3F5D7G8" 

58) 3 DRAW"C2BM2 5,7 2XB$ ;XI$;XR$ ;XD 
$;BM17)3, 18)3XB$;XO$;XAL$;XT$ ;C4 M : 
DRAW fl BM15, 16)3XB$ ; XAL$ ; XL$ ;XL$ ;X0 
$ ; X0$ ;XN$ ;XS$ ; " : GOT013)3 

59) 3 PCLS:SCREENl,l:PLAY ff L6G fl 

6) 3)3 CIRCLE(7J3,35) , 3)3, 6, - 77, .J37, . 
7: CIRCLE ( 115 , 3 2 ) , 2 7 , 6 , . 9 , . 65 , . 4 : 
CIRCLE (8)3, 2)3) ,2)3,6, .9,. 47, )3 

61) 3 DRAW ft BM)3, 1)3XC$ ; XL$ ; X0$ ; XU$ ; X 
D$ ; » 

62) 3 DRAW fl C6BM)3 , 99R255C5" : PAINT (1 
)3)3, 1)3)3) ,6, 6: CIRCLE (4)3, 16)3) ,2 5, ,1 
, .1, . 9:CIRCLE(4)3, 16)3) ,17, ,1, .1, . 
9: DRAW ff BM59 , 14 5G7BD16F7C8 " : PAINT 
(19,16)3) ,5,5 

63) 3 DRAW M C7BM7)3 ,9)3R25E2)3R25F2)3R2 
5D25L115U2 5C8 11 : PAINT ( 1)3)3 , 9)3) , 7 , 7 
: LINE (115, 72) - (97,9)3) , PSET:LINE- 
(9 7, 113) , PSET: LINE- (13)3, 113) , PSE 
T: LINE- ( 13)3 , 72) , PSET : LINE- (115,7 



2) ,PSET 

64) 3 DRAW fl BM97 , 9)3R33BM133 , 72R5M15 
8, 9)3L25U18C5BM11)3, 14 3XC$ ;XAL$ ;XR 
$;C8 fl 

65) 3 PAINT (112, 8)3) , 5 , 8 : PAINT ( 13 8 , 
8)3) ,5, 8: CIRCLE (8 5, 115) ,1)3: CIRCLE 
(165,115) ,1)3 

66) 3 CIRCLE(18)3, 15)3) , 15: PAINT (18)3 
,16)3) ,5,8:CIRCLE(19 5, 165) ,2 5, , .9 
, .72, .55: CIRCLE (193, 165) , 15,, 1, . 
15, .45: : PAINT (195, 165) ,5,8 

67) 3 DRAW"BM17)3 , 168R1)3BM175 , 148R2 
BF4D2G2E2F2BR2 BU8R2BM169 , 14)3U5F4 
BR14E4D5C5BM21)3 , 19)3XC$ ;XAL$ ;XT$ ; 
C8 fl :GOT013)3 

68) 3 PCLS : SCREEN 1 , 1 : PLAY fl L6G M 

69) 3 LINE(48,17)-(55, 63) ,PSET,BF: 
CIRCLE ( 55 , 4)3) ,28, ,.9, .75, .25:CIR 
CLE (55, 4)3) , 2)3, , .9, . 75, . 25: PAINT ( 
8)3,4)3) ,8,8 

7) 3)3 DRAW ff C6BMl 5)3, 1)3R9)3D13)3L9)3U13 
)3BFl)3ND12)3R7)3D12)3L13)3C8 fl : CIRCLE ( 
17)3,7)3) ,5 

71) 3 CIRCLE (75, 14)3) ,25, , 1, .4, .1:C 
IRCLE (75, 1)37) , 19 , , . 9 : DRAW fl BM58 , 1 
)34H2L2G4D17F2R4E2U17BR3 3E2R2F4D1 
7G2L4H2U17 11 : PAINT ( 54 , 117 ) , 8 , 8 : PA 
INT(95,117) ,8,8 

72) 3 CIRCLE(75, 115) , 8 : CIRCLE ( 7 5 , 1 
1)3) ,3,, . 9:CIRCLE(68, 1)3 5) ,3,6,1.2 
: CIRCLE (8 2 , 1)3 5) , 3 , 6, 1.2 

73) 3 CIRCLE (65, 156) , 1 1 : CIRCLE ( 85 , 
156) , ll:DRAW ft BM5)3, 14 5M35, 15)3R15 !I 
:CIRCLE(7 5,17)3) ,16,6, .6: CIRCLE (7 
5, 17)3) , 12 , 6, . 6 

74) 3 DRAW fl BM5 8 , 191XD$ ;XI$;XS$;XH$ 
;BM15 , 13 5XD$ ;X0$ ;XG$ ;BM176 , 13)3XD 
$;X0$ ;X0$ ;XR$ ; 11 :GOT013)3 

75) 3 PCLS:SCREENl,l:PLAY fl L6A M 

76) 3 DRAW ff BM)3, 9)3E7 5D166BM5 , 7)3U1)3E 
l)3BD5Gl)3D5El)3BE7M+9 , -2)3BG9M+9 , 4B 
El)3Ul)3BE8El)3G5Dl)3 ff 

77) 3 LINE ( 2)3)3 f 5) -(215,6)3) , PSET, BF 
: LINE (2 15, 5) -(245,2)3) ,PSET,BF:LI 
NE ( 2 1 5 , 6)3 ) - ( 2 4 5 , 4 5 ) , PSET , BF : LINE 
(215,25) - (24)3, 4)3), PSET, BF 

78) 3 CIRCLE(9)3, 11)3) ,3)3,6,1, .1, .9: 
CIRCLE (115, 1)32) ,23,6,1.3, .6, . 1:C 
IRCLE ( 15)3 , 13)3) , 5)3 , 6 , . 8 , . 6 , . 5:PAI 
NT (1)3)3, 11)3) ,6,6:' 

79) 3 CIRCLE(115 , 1)32) ,23, 7 , 1.3 , . 6 , 
. 2 : CIRCLE (4 5, 11)3),2)3,6,1,)3,.4:CI 
RCLE(45,11)3) ,3)3,6,1,)3,.4: ! 

8) 3)3 DRAW ,f C6BM3)3 , 12)3G8 11 : PAINT ( 4)3 , 
13)3) , 6, 6: LINE (1)35, 14)3) -(14)3, 18)3) 
, PSET, BF: LINE (19 5, 14)3 ) - ( 1 6)3 , 18)3 ) 
, PSET, BF: 1 

81)3 DRAW fl BM196 , 1 2)3F1)3R5G2H5C8BM5 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 61 



5, 128R20D5L15H5" : CIRCLE (75 ,110) , 
4 : DRAW" BM100 , 19 1XE$ ; XL$ ; XE$ ; XP$ ; 
XH$ ; XAL$ ; XN$ ; XT$ ; « : PAINT (60 , 130 ) 
,5,8:GOTO130 

820 PCLS2 : SCREEN1 , 0 : PLAY"L6A" 
830 DRAW" BM120 , 5R40D15L25D5R20D1 
5L20D10L15U4 5" : PAINT (12 5 , 9 ) , 4 , 4 : 
CIRCLE (190, 170) ,99,3, .3:PAINT(20 
0 , 170) ,3,3: DRAW " C 2 BM 140 , 165XF$ ;X 
R$;XO$;XG$ ;C4" 

840 DRAW"BM120,90G15R100H15F15G1 

5L70H15E15H30L25D2 5F40G10R10F10E 

10R10H10U5BM190, 90E30R25D2 5G40F1 

0L10G10H10L10E10U5" 

850 CIRCLE(135,90) , 15, , 1. 5, . 5,0: 

CIRCLE (17 5, 90) ,15, ,1.5, .5,0: CIRC 

LE (17 5, 85) ,6, , 1 . 5 : CIRCLE ( 135 , 8 5 ) 

,6, , 1.5:DRAW"BM147, 90R15" 

860 PAINT(195,90) , 1, 4 : PAINT ( 115, 

90) ,1,4: PAINT (13 5, 100) , 1,4: PAINT 

(135,115) ,1,4 

870 DRAWBM20, 150C1U120G12D60F12 
U3 5E40BD55G2 5D50U20E20D9G20C4" :P 
AINT(15,50) , 1,1: PAINT (40, 150) ,1, 
1 

880 CIRCLE(55 , 30) , 5 : CIRCLE ( 4 7 , 3 6 
) ,5:CIRCLE(6 3,36) , 5 : CIRCLE ( 51 , 43 
) ,5:CIRCLE(58,44) , 5 
890 CIRCLE (48 , 100) , 9 , , . 7 :CIRCLE ( 
66,100) ,9, , .7:CIRCLE(57,9 3) ,6, ,1 
. 3 : CIRCLE (57 , 107) , 6, , 1 . 3 :DRAW"Biy 
5 , 1 8 5XF$ ; XL$ ; X0$ ; XW$ ; XE $ ; XR$ ; XS $ 
; " :GOTO130 

900 PCLS:SCREEN1, 1: PLAY"L3G" 
910 CIRCLE(100,20) ,20,7,1, .1, .9: 
DRAW"C7BM112 , 2 5R10L5D15C8" 
920 DRAW"BM40, 120R10D60L10U60BR7 
0R10D60L10U60BM50 , 12 5R60D10L60U1 
0BD49R60U10L60D10BU15M105, 13 5BM6 
0, 165M110, 145" 

930 LINE (25, 115) - (35 , 180) , PSET,B 
: DRAWBM0 , 13 5R2 5U10L2 5BD50R2 5U10 
L25":LINE(33 , 130) - ( 4 3 , 13 3 ) ,PSET, 
BF : LINE (33,167)-(43,170),PSET,BF 
940 LINE (125 , 115) - (135, 180) , PSET 
, B:DRAW"BM128 , 130L13D5" 
950 LINE (0,55) -(60, 60 ), PSET, BF:D 

RAW"C6BM0, 80E20R10D20U20R30D30C8 
ii 

9 60 FOR H=20TO40STEP6 : CIRCLE (H, 8 

0) ,4,7 :NEXTH: FORH=25T035STEP5 : CI 
RCLE(H,86) ,4 ,7:NEXTH: CIRCLE (30,1 

01) ,4,7 

970 FORH=27T033STEP5: CIRCLE (H, 93 



) ,4,7: NEXTH: FORH=50TO70STEP6 : CIR 
CLE (H, 90 ) , 4 , 7 : NEXTH : FORH=54T066S 
TEP6 : CIRCLE (H , 9 7 ) ,4,7: NEXTH : FORH 
= 58T064STEP6: CIRCLE (H, 104) , 4 , 7 :N 
EXTH: CIRCLE (60, 112) , 4 ,7 
980 CIRCLE (157 ,25) , 18 , , . 6 : : DRAW" 
BM159 , 5D10H6D6R15U6G6U10" : CIRCLE 
(157,3) ,4:CIRCLE(165,3) ,4:PAINT( 
157,25) ,8,8 

990 CIRCLE (152 , 22) , 3 , 6 : DRAW" BM17 

4 , 25D60F50D10H5U10H20D80L5U60H3D 
63L5U63H12D75L5U80H4D83L5U16 7" : P 
AINT(173 , 100) ,8,8 

1000 DRAW"BM255 , 125L120D10R120BD 
30L120D10R120" : DRAWBM0 , 50XG$ ;XR 
$;XAL$;XP$;XE$ ;XS$ ;BM183 , 75XG$;X 
I $ ; XR$ ; XAL$ ; XF$ ; XF$ ; XE $ ; " : DRAW" B 
M60 , 1 9 1XG$ ; XAL$ ; XT$ ; XE$ ; " 
1010 GOTO130 

1020 PCLS : SCREEN1 , 1 : PLAY"L6F" 
1030 LINE(200,120) -(190, 180) ,PSE 
T,BF: LINE (200, 145) -(23 5,155) , PSE 
T,BF:LINE(235,120) - (2 4 5, 180) , PSE 
T , BF 

1040 CIRCLE(170, 50) , 25:CIRCLE(16 
2,45) , 13 : PAINT (190, 50) , 7, 8: LINE ( 
180, 35) - (2 35 , 30) , PSET : LINE- ( 18 5 , 
65) , PSET: PAINT( 208 , 40) ,7,8 
1050 CIRCLE (150 , 22 ) , 20 , , . 3 :CIRCL 
E(190,22) , 20, , . 3 : CIRCLE ( 2 2 5 , 30) , 
10, , .3:CIRCLE(245,30) ,10, , . 3 : CIR 
CLE (2 35 , 20) , 5 , , 2 . 5 : CIRCLE ( 2 3 5 , 40 
) ,5, ,2. 5: PAINT (150, 22) , 8 , 8 : PAINT 
(190,22) ,8,8 

1060 LINE(10,80) -(100, 180) ,PSET, 
B: LINE (4 3 , 179) - ( 67 , 140) , PSET, B:L 
INE(20, 165)-(35,145), PSET,B: LINE 
(75, 165) -(90, 14 5) , PSET , B : CIRCLE ( 
49,160) ,3 

1070 FORH=20TO75STEP27: LINE(H,90 
) -(H+15, 110) , PSET, B: NEXTH 
1080 DRAW"C6BM10, 80E45F45BD50L90 
E15R60F15C8" : PAINT ( 50 ,117) , 6, 6 : D 
RAW" BM1 30 , 90XH$ ; XE $ ; XL$ ; XI $ ; XC$ ; 
XO$ ; XP$ ; XT$ ; XE $ ; XR$ ; BM30 , 2 5XH$ ; X 
0$;XU$;XS$;XE$;" 
1090 GOTO130 

1100 PCLS6:SCREEN1, 1: PLAY " L6F" : D 
RAW"BM17 5, 40R2 5D15L5D81R5D15L2 5U 
15R5U81L5U15" : PAINT (18 5, 50) ,8,8 
1110 CIRCLE(75,65) ,30,5,1, .4, .1: 
DRAW"C5BM46,75R56C8" : PAINT (75 , 65 
) , 5 , 5 : DRAW" BM 4 6 , 7 5R56M7 5 , 150M46 , 
75":PAINT(75, 130) ,8,8 



62 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



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C0C0 Cookbook $27.95 

Stores & retrieves up to 270 recipes on a disk with title, ingre- 
dients & instructions in easy freeform database. Includes 200 
recipes to start. Reg. $32.95 



GEO 



$29.95 



Desktop organizer includes date book calendar, calculator. 
| clock with alarm, phone directory freeform database, & mini 
I note writer. Reg. S 34.95 



Call or write for your FREE 
Computerware Catalog 



NEW COLOR MAX 3 



Now 320 x 200 screen resolution, and a choice of 16 of the 
64 colors are available on your CoCo 3. Fbinting is a snap with ] 
it's easy to use icons, pull down menus, and dialog boxes. 
Color Max 3 has 11 fonts making hundreds of lettering styles 
possible Any combinations of cola, shadow, outline, bold and 
italics are available for text. [Specify printer type when 
ordering.) 

Requires 128K, disk, hi-res joystick interface $57.50 



512K 



Complete 512K package 
only $96.50 

Price limited to quantity on hand 

512K Memory Board that's easy to install 

120ns Ramchips included for fast, reliable use 

Ramdisk Software that creates two additional drives that 

can be configured as 0 & 1, or 2 & 3 

Memory Diagnostics for 512K that tests three ways - 

convergence, rotating bit & latency 

GIME Chip technical specifications 



HARDWARE 



Mitsuba 4200 Baud Modem $154.00 

100% Hayes compatible, full or half duplex, speaker alert to 
busy signal, touch tone or pulse dialing. 

Universal Video Plus $34.95 

Composite video interface for the CoCo 1 or 2 

Monitors with audio $114 95 

12' J NAP amber monochrome (shipping $5.00) 



WORD PROCESSING 



Screen Star 

IScreen Star implements the popular WordStar editing capa- 1 
lbililies. Screen Star uses the disk as an extension of memory I 
ho it will edit files larger than memory. Move. copy, or delete I 
Iblocksof text with one key stroke. Powerful cursor commands I 
lallow fast and easy movement throughout the document. TheB 
Ifind/replace command makes masschangesand searches 1 
la snap. Set tabs, toggle the video, access the OS-9 shell and 1 
Ichoose wordwrap. Define up to 10 function keys for fast, I 
repetitive functions. Imbed Computerware's Text Formatter I 
Icommands in your Screen Star file for maximum word pro- 1 
Icessing capabilities, 

[Requires OS-9 $49.95 1 

I With Text Formatter $74.95 f 

OS-9 Text Formatter 

|The OS-9 Text Formatter interfaces with any editor that 
I produces standard ASCII text files like Computerware's Screen 
jStar. and Radio Shack's TS Edit. It supports right & left justifica- 
Ition, automatic pagination, headers and footers, macro tabs. 
Ipage numbering and auto date insert, sends ESC and CTL 
I codes to printer, Why just print it when you can FORMAT it with 
I OS-9 Text Formatter 

|Requires OS-9 $34.95] 



COMMUNICATIONS 



Color Connection 

I Color Connection for RSDOS. and OS-9 Connection are thel 
I best in communication software All of the standard protocols I 
I are supported, including CompuServe Protocol B, XMODEM, I 
land XON/XOFF. The auto dial feature for Hayes compatible! 
land some Radio Shack modems is supported. Macros allow! 
I easy entry to often-used passwords and IDs. Communicate I 
Iwith confidence with either Color Connection, or OS 9| 
(Connection 3.0. 

loS-9 version requires RS232 pak $49 951 

I RSDOS versions for CoCo 2 and CoCo 3 included $49 95 




Yesi Send me your FREE catalog I 

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Card # . 

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Item 



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Shipping 6% Calif. Sales Tax 

Surface — $2 minimum COD Add S5 . 

2% for orders over SI00 Shipping* 
Air or Canada — S5 minimum TOTAL . 

5% for orders over SI 00 
Checks are delayed for bank clearance 



112)8 DRAW"C5BM30, 175X1$ ;XC$;XE$ ; 
BR1 0XC$ ; XR$ ; XE $ ; XAL$ ; XM$ ; C8 11 : GOT 
0130 

1130 PCLS3:SCREENl,0:PLAY"L6E ff 

114) 3 DRAW"BM120, 185R65U65L65D65H 
25U65F2 5H2 5H3 5R64G3 2C1 11 

115) 3 DRAW n BM150, 30M185, 119L63H2 6 
E41FllEl)3C4 ff 

116) 3 CIRCLE(148 / 3)3) ,25, f 1, .95, .5 
5: CIRCLE (148 , 3)3) ,2 5, , 1, .6, . 9 : CIR 
CLE (14 8,2)3) , 3 5, , .2, -8, • 7 : PAINT ( 1 
5)3,1)3) ,4, 4: PAINT (15)3, 4)3) ,2,4 

117) 3 PAINT(140, 13)3) , 2 , 4 : PAINT ( 1 1 
6,15)3) ,2, 4: PAINT (8 5, 7)2) , 2 , 4 : PAIN 
T(148,80) ,1,1 

118) 3 CIRCLE (14)3, 33) , 3 , 3 : CIRCLE ( 1 
5 6,33) ,3, 3: CIRCLE (148, 3 8) , 3 : CIRC 
LE(148,39) ,7, , 1, .1, .45 

119) 3 CIRCLE (14 6, 16)3) ,1)3, ,1,)3, .5: 
DRAW fl BM156 , 16)3U2)3 ft 

12)3)3 FORH=0TO44STEP16:FORV=(142- 
H)TO(142+H) STEP15: CIRCLE (V, 68+H) 
,3,2 : NEXTV : NEXTH 

121) 3 DRAW"C2BM15,9)3XJ$ ;XAL$ ;XC$; 
XK$ ;BM26, 1)35X1$ ;XN$ ; BM2)3 , 120XT$ ; 

- XH$;XE$;BM20, 135XB$ ;XO$ ;XX$;C4 ff : 
GOT013)3 

122) 3 PCLS : SCREEN1 , 1 : PLAY fl L6E fl 

12 3)3 DRAW fl C6BM9 9 , 13 5D3)3U1)3M124 , 1 
35BD3)3M1)39 , 15)3BM4)3 , 5M15 , 3)3M4)3 , 7)3 
M65, 3)3M4)3, 5C8 11 : PAINT (4)3, 3)3) ,6,6 

124) 3 DRAW"BM4)3,7)3D6R3D3H3D4G2D3F 
5R3U3G4D5 11 : CIRCLE (4)3, 1)3)3) ,11, , .6 
: PAINT (4)3, 1)3)3) , 8 , 8 : CIRCLE ( 4)3 , 1)3)3 
) ,7,5, . 6 :PAINT (4)3, 1)3)3) ,5,5 

125) 2 LINE(4)3 , 1)35) -(42 , 125) ,PSET, 
BF : LINE ( 4 1 , 1 1 8 ) - ( 50 , 12 1 ) , PSET , BF 

126) 3 CIRCLE (18)3, 16)3) ,3)3,,1,.1,.8 
: CIRCLE (14 6, 182), 23, ,.3,0, . 9 : PAI 
NT(146, 182) ,8,8 

127) 3 LINE(160,140)-(175,70) , PSET 
: LINE- (215, 16)3) ,.PSET: LINE- (255 , 1 
78) , PSET: LINE- (188, 18 3) , PSET: PAI 
NT(175, 1)3)3) ,8,8 

128) 3 CIRCLE (164, 73) , 18, , . 6 : LINE ( 
17)3,62) -(176, 55) , PSET : LINE- ( 17 9 , 
75) , PSET : PAINT (165,70) ,8,8 

1290 CIRCLE (156, 119) ,1)2, , . 5 : DRAW 
"BM167 , 12 5L12D6F5R4U12 11 : PAINT ( 15 
6,119) ,8, 8: PAINT (156, 12 9) ,8,8 
130)3 CIRCLE ( 164 , 1)37) ,9, , .6:PAINT 
(164 , 1)37) ,8, 8: PSET (155, 117, 6) : CI 
RCLE ( 159 , 7)3) , 2 , 6 : DRAW"BM5)3 , 50M16 
4 , 1)37BM6)3 , 10XK$ ; XI$ ; XT$ ; XE$ ; BM17 
0 , 5 )3XK$ ; XAL$ ; XN$ ; XG$ ; XAL$ ; XR$ ; XO 
$;XO$;BM25, 147XK$;XE$ ;XY$; 11 
1310 PSET(155, 117,6) : CIRCLE (159, 



70) ,2,6 

1320 LINE(50, 50) -(164,107) , PSET 
1330 GOTO130 

1340 PCLS 3 : SCREEN 1 , 0 : PLAY 11 LI 2 D 11 
1350 LINE (170, 10) -(185, 90) , PSET, 
BF : LINE (185,90) -(230,75) ,PSET,BF 
13 60 LF$ = ff R60L40E13R40F13G13L40H 
13" :MF$ = ff R50L2 5U10E30D2 5E20D20Fl 
5G15D20H20D2 5H30U10" 
1370 DRAW"S6C2BM50, 170XLF$ ;S4BM1 
60 , 140XMF$ ; C4A1BM60 , 2XMF$ ; A0BM10 
,130XLF$; fl 

1380 CIRCLE(140, 110) ,20, , . 8 : CIRC 
LE(140,103) ,6:CIRCLE(140,117) ,6: 
PAINT (140, 110) ,4, 4: CIRCLE (12 2, 11 
0) , 10: DRAW"C3BM124 , 110R40C4 11 
1390 PAINT (110, 175) , 1 , 2 : PAINT ( 2 1 
0,14 5) , 1,2: PAINT (5 5, 52) , 1 , 4 : PAIN 
T(50,135) ,2,4 

1400 DRAW"C3BM97 , 184XL$ ;XE$ ;XAL$ 
;XV$ ;XE$ ;XS$ ; C2BM10 1 , 137XL$ ;XAL$ 
; XD$ ; XY$ ; XB$ ; XU$ ; XG$ ; C4 11 : GOTO130 
1410 PCLS : SCREEN1 , 1 : PLAY 11 LI 2D 11 
1420 DRAW"C6BM0, 90E50F20G10H10G1 
0H10BR40F60H20E60F15L5H5G10H5L5B 
R30F30G30E55F15 11 : CIRCLE (80 , 14)3) , 
12, ,1, . 5,0:DRAW"BM9 3,14)3D2)3F10H1 
0L2 4F8H8U20D20H10U18E8R11F6C8" : C 
IRCLE (92 , 168) , 14 , 6 , . 6 , . 1 , . 5 
1430 CIRCLE(82,25) ,22,6,1, .2, .8: 
CIRCLE (105, 24) ,30, 6,1,. 38,. 62 
1440 PAINT( 100, 110) , 7 , 6 : PAINT ( 10 
0,0) ,6,6 

1450 DRAW"BM73 , 165D2 6R8U18H8 11 : PA 
INT(75,180) ,8,8 

1460 DRAW 1! BM160, 160U40F20E20D40L 
10U20G10H10D20L10 11 : PAINT ( 165 , 155 
) ,8,8 

1470 DRAW n C5BM90,2 5XM$ ;XO$ ;XO$;X 
N$ ; 11 : DRAW n BM5 , 100XM$ ;XO$ ;XU$ ; XN$ 
; XT $ ; XAL$ ; XI $ ; XN $ ; XS $ ; 11 : DRAW 1 1 BM9 
5, 190XM$ ;XAL$ ; XI $ ; XL$ ; XB$ ; XO$ ;XX 
$;C8 ff 

1480 GOTO130 

1490 PCLS : SCREEN1 , 1 : PLAY I1 L12D 11 
1500 CIRCLE (160, 88) ,35, , .37: PAIN 
T(160,88) ,7,8 

1510 FORH=55TO170STEP5: LINE (H, 60 
) -(H+9 5, 140) , PSET: LINE (H+9 5,60) - 
(H, 140) , PSET: NEXTH: CIRCLE (160, 10 
0) ,50,7, . 7 : PAINT (160, 65) ,6,7 
1520 CIRCLE(160, 88) ,35,6, . 37 : DRA 
W"C5BM10, 60U50F50U50" 
1530 F0RT=1T03 0 : H=RND ( 180 ) : V=RND 
(160) :PSET(H,V) : NEXTT 
1540 DRAW n C7BM23 5, 19 1U45L150H2 5R 
65BR60R50U60H65R20F15U2 5R10D20F3 



64 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



0E15C8" : PAINT (25J3, 100) ,8,7 
155J3 DRAWC5BM18 5, 14j3XN$ ;XE$;XS$ 
; XT$ ; BM12 0 , 3 j3XN$ ; XI $ ; XG$ ; XH$ ; XT$ 
;C8 M :GOT013j3 

156)3 PCLS:SCREEN1, 1 : PLAY"L12D" 
1570 CIRCLE (210, 30) ,25: CIRCLE (21 
0,30) ,10: PAINT (210, 10) ,8,8 
1580 DRAW"BM0,175R25H10U80E15R50 
H10L45G10U45E20L9G20D40H7" : PAINT 
(1,100) ,7,8 

1590 CIRCLE (5j3, 5 j3) ,20, , .8, .9, .7: 
CIRCLE (50,28) , 17 , , . 8 : CIRCLE ( 44 , 2 
8) ,8, ,1.1: CIRCLE (56, 28) ,8, ,1.1:0 
IRCLE(65,48) ,10, ,1.2, .3, . 7 : CIRCL 
E( 35, 48) ,10, ,1.2, .9, .3:CIRCLE(45 
,2 8) ,4, 6: CIRCLE (56, 28) ,4, 6: CIRCL 
E(50,36) ,3,7 

1600 PAINT (50 ,62) ,5,8: DRAWC5BM4 
0, 60R20C8" 

1610 DRAW"BM77,40XO$;XW$;XL$;BM1 
2 , 90R70F80R100" : PAINT ( 60 , 160 ) , 8 , 
8 

1620 CIRCLE (135, 110) ,33,6, .7, .6, 
.8: : CIRCLE (145, 95) , 10 , 6 , . 8 , 0 , . 8 : 
CIRCLE (175, 95) ,20, 6,. 6,. 5, . 9 : CIR 
CLE (192, 95) ,10,6, .8,0, . 8 : CIRCLE ( 
220, 95), 20, 6,. 6,. 5, . 9 : CIRCLE (230 
,95), 9, 6,1, .2, .8:DRAW"C6BM2 3 5,10 
0R5E10R5D95L7 4H8 7R15E6C8 " : PAINT ( 
200,130) ,6,6 

1630 DRAWBM125, 115C5X0$ ;XC$ ;XE$ 
;XAL$;XN$;C8" 

1640 LINE(220,150)-(255,155) , PSE 
T: LINE- (225 , 160) , PSET : LINE- ( 2 55 , 
175) ,PSET:LINE-(225, 167) ,PSET:LI 
NE- (245, 185) , PSET: LINE- (220, 170) 
,PSET:LINE-(220, 185) ,PSET:LINE-( 
210, 165) ,PSET 
. 1650 LINE- (200,185) , PSET : LINE- ( 2 
00,170) , PSET: LINE- (17 5, 185) ,PSET 
: LINE- (195,167), PSET : LINE- (165,1 
7 5) , PSET: LINE- (19 5, 160) , PSET: LIN 
E-(165,155) ,PSET:LINE-(200,150) , 
PSET 

1660 CIRCLE (210, 135) ,22, ,1.2, .3, 
. 2:CIRCLE(204,140) ,5, ,1.2: CIRCLE 
(216,140) ,5, ,1.2:DRAW"BM207,145R 
6D3G3H3U3": PAINT(210, 135) ,8,8 
1670 DRAWC5BM170, 190X0$ ; XC$ ;XT$ 
;X0$;XP$;XU$;XS$ ;C8" :GOTO130 
1680 PCLS:SCREEN1,1:PLAY"L3C" 
1690 DRAWBM1 , 1R94D80L94U80BF9R7 
5D6 0L7 5U60BM1 0 , 9 8XP$ ; XI $ ; XC$ ; XT$ 
; XU$ ; XR$ ; XE $ ; BMl 0 5 , 3 0 XP$ ; XU$ ; XM$ 
; XP$ ; XK$ ; XI $ ; XN$ ; " : PAINT ( 4 , 4 ) , 6 , 
8 

1700 CIRCLE (45,47) ,27, , . 8 : PAINT ( 



50,50) ,8, 8: CIRCLE (45, 47) ,9,7,2.4 

: CIRCLE (45,47) ,18,7,1.2 

1710 DRAW"C6BM42 , 3 7U11E10D5G5D11 

L5": PAINT (4 5, 3 3) ,6,6 

1720 LINE(100, 191)-(70, 130) , PSET 

:LINE-(205, 125) , PSET : LINE- ( 255 , 1 

91) ,PSET 

1730 DRAW" BMl 5 5 , 165L10M162 , 191L2 
2M110,140R20": CIRCLE (140, 155) ,23 

f f a 8 f • 7 J • 1 5 

1740 CIRCLE (135, 154) ,10, ,1, .74, . 
15: LINE (13 4, 145) -(142 ,160) ,PSET: 
PAINT (130, 150) ,6,6 

1750 DRAW"C8BM170, 150E5R75D10L8U 
10D10L10U10D10L58H4L3U1R3E5D4F2G 
2D1" 

1760 PAINT (245 ,150) ,7, 8: PAINT (23 
5,150) , 6, 8: PAINT (190, 150) ,8,8 
1770 DRAW 11 BM4 3 , 1 90XP$ ;XAL$;XP$;X 
E$ ; XR$ ; BM18 5 , 140XP$ ; XE$ ; XN$ ; XC$ ; 
XI$;XL$;":GOTO130 
17 80 POLS : SCREEN 1,1: PLAY" L6G" 
1790 DRAW"BM134, 3 7R10F22L10H2 2" : 
PAINT (142, 43), 8, 8: CIRCLE (135,30) 
,30: CIRCLE (135, 30) , 20 : PAINT (135 , 
5) ,8,8 

1800 DRAW"BM2 5,3 5XQ$;XU$;XI$;XL$ 



TANDY COMPUTER 
DISCOUNTS 

COLOR COMPUTERS 



26-3127 64k color comp 89.95 

26-334 CoCo 3 170.00 

26-3131 1st disk drive 269.95 

26-3215 CM-8 color monitor 259.95 

PRINTERS 

26-2802 DMP 106 169.95 

26-1277 DMP-430 580.00 

26-1280 DMP-130 269.00 
Complete line of Tandy (Daisy Wheel) print wheels 

MODEL 4 and MSDOS COMPUTERS 

25-1 050 Tandy 1 000 EX 530.00 

25-1051 Tandy 1000 SX 850.00 

25-1011 Plus expansion board 179.00 

25-1023 CM-5 color monitor 249.95 

25- 1 020 VM-4 Monochrome monitor 1 1 0.00 

26- 1070 mod 4D 64k 2dr. 920.00 



We Carry the Complete Line of Tandy 
Computer Products at Discount Prices 

CALL FOR A FREE PRICE LIST 800-257-5556 
IN N. J. CALL 609-769-0551 

WOODSTOWN ELECTRONICS 

Rt. 40 E WOODSTOWN, N J. 08098 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 65 



; XT$ ; BM19 5 , 10XQ$ ; XU$ ; XE$ ; XE$ ; XN$ 
. ii 

1810 LINE (5, 50) -(100, 160) ,PSET,B 
: FORH=15T095STEP15 : LINE (H, 60) - (H 
, 1 50 ) , PSET : NEXTH : F0RV=6 0TO 155STE 
P15:LINE(15, V) -(90,V) ,PSET:NEXTV 
1820 FORH=20TO90STEP30:FORV=65TO 
14 5STEP3 0 : PAINT ( H , V) , 6 , 8 : NEXTV : N 
EXTH : F0RH=3 5T075 STEP30 : F0RV=8 0TO 
160STEP3 0 : PAINT (H , V) , 7 , 8 : NEXTV : N 
EXTH 

183,0 CIRCLE (220, 50) ,20: CIRCLE (22 
0,60) , 30, , .9: PAINT (220,85) ,8,8:C 
IRCLE( 220,90) ,30,7, .8, .5,0: DRAW" 
C7BM190, 90D80R20U100BR20D95L20R2 
0D5R20U80C8" 

1840 PAINT(205,87) , 7 , 7 : PAINT (235 
,87) ,7, 7: PAINT (220, 140) ,8,7 
1850 DRAWBM207 , 35R26U15G5H4G4H4 
G4H5D15 " : FORH=209TO2 3 3STEP5 : CIRC 
LE(H,28) ,3:NEXTH 

1860 CIRCLE (2 12, 50) , 3 , 6 : CIRCLE ( 2 
28,50) ,3, 6: PSET (220, 55) : CIRCLE (2 
20,60) ,5,7, .3 

1870 DRAW"C5BM210, 100R20L10D30H1 

0F10E10C8" 

1880 GOTO130 

1890 PCLS3 : SCREEN1 , 0 : PLAY"L6G" 
1900. LINE(0,130)-(255,191) , PRESE 
T, BF 

1910 LINE(93, 50) -(99,10) , PSET, BF 
: LINE ( 99 , 10 ) - ( 1 10 , 1 6 ) , PSET , BF : LI 
NE (99, 28) -(110, 34) , PSET , BF : CIRCL 
E(110,22) ,9, ,1, .75, .25: CIRCLE (11 
0,22) , 14, ,1, .75, .25 
1920 LINE(115,32)-(125,50) ,PSET: 
LINE- ( 1 18 , 50 ) ., PSET : LINE- ( 10 9 , 3 4 ) 
, PSET : PAINT ( 120 , 47 ) , 4 , 4 : PAINT (12 
1,22) ,4,4 

1930 LINE(38,110)-(52,40) ,PSET,B 
F : LINE (52,40)-(45,5), PSET : LINE- ( 
38,40) ,PSET:PAINT(45,20) , 4 , 4 : DRA 
W"BM38, 95G15R17D5R10U5R17H15C2" : 
PAINT (3 6, 102) ,2, 4: PAINT (54, 102) , 
2,4 

1940 FORH=42T048STEP3 :V=RND(30) : 

LINE (H, 114)-(H, 115+V) , PSET: NEXTH 

1950 DRAW"BM41 , 95R8U6L8BU8U6D6R4 

U6R4D6BU14L8U6R8L4D6C4" 

1960 FORC=90TO150STEP15: CIRCLE (2 

55,160) ,C, ,1, .5, .75:NEXTC:DRAW"B 

M104, 160R62" 

1970 PAINT (106, 155) ,4, 4: PAINT (25 
1,29) ,2, 4: PAINT (252, 45) , 1 , 4 : PAIN 
T(160, 155) ,3,4 

1980 CIRCLE(210, 135) ,16,2,1, .9, . 
6: CIRCLE (2 10, 165) ,25, 2,. 9,. 8,. 7: 



DRAW"C2BM199 , 128U20E4F4D16R6U8E8 
R7D5G7D10C4" 

1990 PAINT (2 10, 13 5) , 2 , 2 : PAINT ( 2 1 
0,165) ,2, 2: CIRCLE (205, 13 5) ,3:CIR 
CLE (215, 135) , 3 :DRAW"BM210, 140F2L 
4E2D4G2E2F2" 

2000 CIRCLE(200, 180) , 6:CIRCLE(22 
0,180) ,6 

2010 DRAWC3BM10, 155XR$ ;XO$;XC$; 
XK$;XE$;XT$;C2BM165, 11XR$ ;XAL$;X 
I $ ; XN$ ; XB$ ; X0$ ; XW$ ; C3 BM130 , 185XR 
$ ; XAL$ ; XB$ ; XB$ ; XI $ ; XT$ ; C4 11 : G0T01 
30 

2020 PCLS3:SCREEN1,0:PLAY M L3F M 
2030 LINE(0, 105) -(255,191) , PRESE 
T,BF: DRAW"C2BM2 55 , 110L255BD30R10 
0G51BR80E51R75 

2040 DRAW"BM40 , 40NU40ND40NR40NL4 
0NE30NF30NG30NH30BM80, 3 2XS$ ;XU$ ; 
XN$;C4" : CIRCLE (40, 40) ,25: PAINT (4 
0 , 40 ) ,2,4 

2050 DRAW" BM2 00,5 0R2 0F20 D2 0G2 0L2 

0H20U20E20C2BM195, 45XS$ ; XI $ ; XG$ ; 

XN$ ; " : PAINT (2 10, 80), 4, 4: DRAW" BM1 

90,86XS$;XT$;XO$;XP$;":LINE(207, 

112) - (213, 181) ,PSET,BF 

2060 DRAW"C4BM95 , 13 4F10BE40F16D4 

U4R4BM80, 190XS$ ;XN$ ;XAL$ ;XK$ ;XE$ 
. ii 

2070 CIRCLE(120, 110) ,29, , .9, .3, . 
9 : CIRCLE ( 120 , 110 ) , 17 , , 1 , . 3 , . 9 : CI 
RCLE (120, 14 8), 29, ,.9, .7, .6: CIRCL 
E (120, 145) , 17, , .9, .7, .5:CIRCLE(1 
43,102) ,12, ,1.1, .7, . 6: PAINT (145, 
110) ,4,4 

2080 CIRCLE ( 14 6, 100) ,2,1: CIRCLE ( 
140 , 104 ) , 2 , 1 

2090 DRAWBM5 , 130XS $ ; XT$ ;XR$ ; XE$ 

;XE$ ;XT$ ; ": GOTO 13 0 

2100 PCLS:SCREEN1,0:PLAY"L6E" 

2110 DRAW"BM0, 12 3 C3R2 55 C4" : PAINT 

(100,20) ,3,3 

2120 LINE (80, 85) -(170, 155) , PSET, 
BF:DRAW"C2BM177, 100R3 5D20R30D35L 
65U55 " : LINE (180 , 105 ) - ( 2 10 , 120) , P 
SET , B : DRAW"BM130 , 19 0C3XT$ ; XR$ ;XU 
$;XC$ ;XK$;C2" 

2130 PAINT(190, 135) , 2 , 2 : PAINT (23 
0,145) ,2,2: DRAW "BM 120 , 135U20L10U 
10R30D10L10D20L10C4" : PAINT (125 , 1 
25) , 2 , 2 

2140 CIRCLE(100, 155) , 15:CIRCLE(1 
50,155) , 15:CIRCLE(226, 155) ,15:CI 
RCLE (197, 155) ,15 

2150 DRAW"BM0,40F25D70G20L5D3R20 
E5F10E10F8R20H10L5H8U65E30U40L7D 
30G25U55L12D50H15U35L7D30H20" : PA 



66 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



A 


SPECTRUM PRI 
SHOPPING 1 


□ 

LI 


JECTS 
1ST 



COCO CABLES AND ... 

Printer/Modem 10 1 Extender Cable $14.95 

TANDY CM-8 RGB Analog 6'Video Ext Cable ....$19.95 

Disk Drive Cable (34pin - 34pin) $19.95 

Cassette 'Y' Cable - Connect a 26-3028 Hi-Res Joy - 
stick interface & Tape Recorder to CoCoIII .$19.95 

Modem Cable - 6ft (DB25-DB25) $19.95 

Joystick / Mouse 10 1 Ext Cable $19.95 

No more Deluxe RS-232 paks left to hook up ptr & 
modem? Buy our RS-232 "Y" Cable (4 pin) ....$24. o 

Dual Disk Drive Cable (3-34pin) $24.55 

MAGNAVOX 8505/8515/8CM643 Analog RGB cable .$24.95 
Other Analog RGB monitor cable ( Specify ! > ..$39.95 
15" Multi-Pak to Disk Pak Extender -Move your Multi- 
Disk Paks further away"^4r^Closeout .... $29.95 
12 IHL Dual "X" Cable - Hook up a Disk with a 

Voice Pak, Word Pak, CoCo Max, etc $29.95 

CoCo RS232 Switcher - Now easily switch between a 
printer & modem at the flick of a switch! ..$29.95 

OTHER GOOD STUFF ... 

5 1/4 " Diskettes in any quantity 49 cents 

C-10 tapes - Minimum quantity ( 20 pes ) . . .69 cents 
CoCoIl/CoCoIII KEYCAPS - Replace worn keys! .$4.99 

Rompak w/Blank PC Board 27xx series $9.95 

"D" Rev motherboard w/o socketed chips $16.95 

Video Clear - This cable will reduce TV interfer- 
ence created by CoCo! $19.95 

CoCo III keyboard - upgrade your CoCo H keyboard! 
" Package " deal w/ FKEYS III ($24. 95) software $39.95 

HPS Controller w/1.1 ROM (SAVE$20) $79.95 

Super Controller - Up to 4 DOSs by a POKE ..$99.95 
1200 Baud Mod em (Hayes compatible) Auto-dial/answer 
$139.95. Req's Modem cable ( 4pin or DB25 ) ..$19.95 

MAGNAVOX 8505 RGB Analog monitor $249.95 

SONY KV-1311 CR Analog monitor w/cable ....$499.95 



Breaking your back 
typing on your 
CoCo??? 





Sit back and relax with 
a Spectrum keyboard 
extender cable! $39.9 5 



Now you can extend your present keyboard away from 
your CoCoIl/CoCoIII ! Easier typing & requires no 
soldering! You also have the option to leave your 
present keyboard intact & hook up a second board 
for remote operation 1 Sgectrum Keyboard extender 

cable w/ EXTERNAL CoColl keyboard $49.95 

Design by Marty Goodman / so you know it's quality! 



SUPER CHIP -SALE- ... 

2764 EPROM $4.95 27128 EPROM $6.95 

6821 Standard PI A^£»£5r Closeout price! $6.95 

Basic ROM 1.1 Chip ^&*Q5z Closeout price! ...$9.95 

6847 VDG Chip 33&t&5: Closeout price! $12.95 

6809E CPU Chip ^3^3: Closeout price! $12.95 

CoCo III Multipak - "NEW" PAL chip (For Gray and 

White 26-3024 models ONLY) $19.95 

Basic ROM 1.3 ( Newest version) $19.95 

Disk ROM 1.1 - (Needed for CoCoIII ) $29.95 

Original SAM Chip (6883) $29.95 

Ext Basic 1.1 ROM - Closeout price! $29.95 

CoCo First Aid Kit - includes two PIA's, 6809E CPU 
and SAM Chips (BE PREPARED) Closeout price! $49.95 
EPROM Programmer - uses 2716s up to 27512 s! Super 
fast programming! - See April '86 review .$149.95 
New! " Upgraded " CoCoIII ' GIME 1 chip WRITE 

COCO LIBRARY ... 

A History of the CoCo / 1980-1986 $6.95 

CoCo Memory Map Reg. ^3=6^05: Now only $9.95 

New! 200 MORE Pokes,Peeks 'N Execs $9.95 

Basic ^ogranininc[ Tricks Revealed S&L&S: ... .$9.95 

500 Pokes, Peeks 'N Execs $16.95 

300 CoCoIII POKES $19.95 

Complete Rainbow Guide to 0S9 Level II $19.95 

Rainbow Guide to 0S9 Level II Disk $19.95 

A Guide to CoCo III GRAPHICS (7/87 review) .$21.95 
Better Graphics on CoCoj w/2 disks of pgms .$24.95 

CoCo II Service Manual (Specify Cat.#) $29.95 

CoCo III Unraveled - A best seller! ! ! $29.95 

CoCo III Service Manual $39.95 

Color/Extended / Disk Basic Unraveled $49.95 

MORE GOOD STUFF ... 

WICO Adapter - Hookup 2 Atari type joysticks. $19. 95 
CoCo Keybd - Low profile, fits all CoCo lis & "F"s 
WAS $39.95 - NOW $19.95. D/E CoCo I adapter $12.95 
WICO Trackball - Regularly $69.95 , Now only. $24. 95 
Universal Video Drvr - All monitors & CoCos .$29.95 
(2) Chip 64K Upgrade - 26-3134 A/B CoCo II .$29.95 

28 pin Ext Basic - 26-3134 A/B CoCo II $34.95 

Top FD-501 Drive 1 (#26-3131) - SAVE $60 ..$139.95 
CoCo III DISK DRIVE 0 - (includes CoCoIII Software 
Bonanza Packa ge - a $ 150 plus value ! ! ! ) ...$239.95 
2400 Baud Modem (Great for Delphi & CIS) ..$249.95 
512K COLOR COMPUTER III (includes CoCoIII Software 
Bonanza Packag e - a $ 150 plus value ! ! ! ) . . .$299.95 

SPECTRUM 

PO BOX 
HOWARD BEACH NY 11414 

All orders plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) 
NYS Residents add Sales Tax 
See our other ad on page 17 ! ! ! 



INT (30,70) ,4,4 

2160 FORH=7T099STEP12 : CIRCLE (H, 1 
0) , 13,2:PAINT(H+2,10) ,1,2: CIRCLE 
(H+3,35) ,13,2:PAINT(H+5,35) ,1,2: 
NEXTH 

2170 FORH=18TO80STEP12: CIRCLE (H, 
59) ,12,2:PAINT(H+2,52) ,1,2: NEXTH 
2180 DRAWC3BM15 , 190XT$ ;XR$ ;XE$ ; 
XE$;C4" :GOTO130 

2190 PCLS 3 : SCREEN 1,0: PLAY 11 L6 E 11 
2200 CIRCLE (40, 150 ) ,20,2,1,0, .5: 
CIRCLE ( 4 0, 150) ,10,2,1,0, . 5 : DRAW" 
C2BM22 , 150U30R10D30BR17U30R10D30 
C4 " : PAINT (40,165) ,2,2 
2210 CIRCLE (125, 90) ,85,1, .9, .5,0 
2220 LINE(124, 82) -(128,170) , PSET 
,BF: CIRCLE (114, 170) ,18,,1,0,.5:C 
IRCLE(114,170) ,10, ,1,0, .5: LINE (9 
4 , 170 ) - ( 104 , 170 ) , PSET : PAINT ( 114 , 
183) ,4,4 

2 230 FORH=60TO210STEP42: CIRCLE (H 
,90) ,22,1, .6, .5,0: NEXTH: PAINT (10 
0,60) ,1,1 

2240 LINE(124,10)-(128,17) ,PSET, 
BF:DRAW"C2BM150, 130XU$ ;XM$;XB$ ;X 
R$ ; XE$ ; XL$ ; XL$ ; XAL$ ; C4 " : GOTO 130 
2250 PCLS : SCREEN1 , 1 : PLAY M L3D M 
2260 LINE(170, 10) -(200,50) , PSET: 
LINE- (2 30 , 10) , PSET: LINE- (215 , 10) 
, PSET: LINE- (200, 35) , PSET : LINE- ( 1 
85,10) , PSET: LINE- (170, 10) , PSET 
2270 CIRCLE(60,141) ,25, , .75, .92, 
.56: CIRCLE (60, 103) , 25 , , . 75 , . 46 , . 
06:CIRCLE(36, 12 1) , 10 , , 1 . 6 , . 75 , . 2 
5: CIRCLE (84 , 121) , 10 , , 1 . 6 , . 25 , . 75 
: PAINT (60, 141) ,8,8 

2280 DRAW"C7BM53 , 13 1G2D5G3BR2 6H3 
U5H3 " : LINE (60,145)-(56,135), PSET 



: LINE- (64,135) , PSET: LINE- (60 , 145 
) ,PSET:LINE(55,130)-(65,131) ,PSE 
T,BF: CIRCLE (4 5, 150) , 8 , , . 9 , . 65 , . 1 
2290 DRAW"BM65,25H3L6G3D3F3E4H3R 
2D2" :LINE(55,120) - (66, 90) ,PSET,B 
F: LINE (57, 90) -(64 ,25) ,PSET,BF:LI 
NE(53 ,44)-(68,46) ,PSET,B 
2300 DRAW"C5BM58 , 37D100BR4U100C6 
": LINE (5, 124) -(13 5, 12 7) ,PSET,B:L 
INE(3,127)-(138, 132) ,PSET,BF 
2310 CIRCLE(200,160) ,25,8, .8, .8, 
. 7:DRAW"C8BM190, 150U7H6R32G6D7" : 
PAINT(200,160) ,8,8 

2320 DRAW"C6BM197, 137L20H10U10R1 
0F15U3H7U5E9R5F9D7E8R9F10D2G9L30 
11 :PAINT(200, 135) ,6,6 
2330 FORH=178T0233STEP15 : CIRCLE ( 
H,132) ,6,7, . 4:PAINT(H, 132) ,7,7:N 
EXTH:DRAW"C7BM186, 134G4D3F4E4U3H 
4BR30G4D3F4E4U3H4 11 : PAINT (186,13 6 
) ,7, 7: PAINT (216, 136) ,7,7 
2340 DRAW"BM180, 13 2U8E2F3D6R4U6E 
3F2D9BR16U8E2F3D8R4U8E3F2D8C8" :P 
AINT(182 , 128) , 7 , 7 : PAINT ( 19 2 , 128 ) 
,7, 7: PAINT (213, 128) , 7 , 7 : PAINT ( 22 
3,128) ,7,7:PSET(186,131,5) :PSET( 
216,131, 5) 

2 3 50 DRAW" BM0 , 5 7 XV$ ; XI $ ; XO $ ; XL$ ; 
XI$ ; XN$ ; BM18 0 , 190XV$ ; XAL$ ; XS $ ; XE 
$;BM168 , 100XV$;XI$ ;XO$ ;XL$ ; XE$ ;X 
T$;XS$; " :GOTO130 

23 60 PCLS2:SCREEN1,0:PLAY"L12GGG 
ii 

2370 LINE(185, 40) -(195,90) , PSET: 
LINE- (2 15, 60) , PSET: LINE- (235, 90) 
,PSET:LINE-(245,40) ,PSET 
2380 LINE(20, 20) - (180,25) , PSET, B 
F: LINE (30, 25) -(35,120) ,PSET,BF:L 
INE ( 170 , 2 5 ) - ( 16 5 , 120 ) , PSET , BF : LI 
NE(20, 120) -(180, 130) ,PSET,BF 
2390 LINE(40, 30) -(97,70) , PSET, B: 
LINE (103 ,30) -(160,70) , PSET, B: LIN 
E(40,75)-(97,115) , PSET, B : LINE ( 10 
3,75)-(160,115) ,PSET,B 
2400 PAINT(50,40) , 3 , 4 : PAINT ( 50 , 1 
00) ,3,4:PAINT(130,40) ,3,4:PAINT( 
130,100) ,3,4 

2410 CIRCLE(75, 140) ,40,1, . 7 : PAIN 
T(75, 140) , 1, 1: CIRCLE (14 5, 150) ,40 
,1, .7,0, . 5:CIRCLE(145,150) ,38,1, 
.7,0, .5:CIRCLE(145,150) ,32,4, .7, 
0, .5 

2420 LINE(113, 150) -(178,150) , PSE 
T: PAINT (145, 155) , 4 , 4 : FORH=120TO1 
74STEP12 : CIRCLE (H, 156) ,2,3, .5:NE 
XTH : FORH=13 0TO155STEP11 : CIRCLE (H 
, 165) ,2,3,. 5 : NEXTH 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Here is an excellent one-liner f or a long, 1 azy summer. 
Next year, I might write one called Mower, which will 
help keep this one in line. 

The listing: 

10 DIM R(255): PMODE 4: SCREEN 1 
,0: PCLS: FOR K=0 TO 6553 5: X=RN 
D(256) -1:R(X)=R(X)+1: PSET(X,192 
-R(X) ) : NEXT 

J. Frederick Toon 
Lebanon, CT 

(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies of 
both The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion The Third 
Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



68 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



243J3 DRAWBM4 5, 19j3XW$ ; XAL$ ; XT$ ; X 
E$ ; XR$ ; XM$ ; XE$ ; XL$ ; XOS ; XN$ ; BM6 5 , 
15XW$ ;XI$ ;XN$ ;XD$ ;XO$ ; XW$ ; 11 : GOTO 
130 

2440 PCLS2:SCREEN1,0:PLAY"L3F" 
2450 LINE(20,65) -(22j3,70) ,PSET,B 
F : LINE ( 20 , 100 ) - ( 2 20 , 10 5 ) , PSET , BF 
:DRAW"C3BM5, 5F4 j3BU40G4 j3 " 
2460 FORG=5T04 5STEP6: LINE (5*G, 65 
-G) - (5*G+17 ,G+105) , PSET, B: PAINT ( 
5*G+3,65) ,1,3:NEXTG 
2470 LINE(20, 180) -(90, 110) , PSET: 
LINE (30,14J3)-(99,140), PSET : CIRCL 
Y.(20,180) ,10 ,1'. PAINT (20 ,180) ,1,1 
: CIRCLE ( 30, 140) ,10,1: PAINT (30,14 
0) ,1,1 

2480 COLOR4 , 1 : DRAW" BM1 2 0 , 17 5XX$ ; 
XY $ ; XL$ ; XO $ ; XP$ ; XH$ ; XO $ ; XN$ ; XE $ ; 
":GOTO130 

2490 PCLS 2 : S CREEN1 , 0 : PLAY "L6EE" 
2500 FORC=50TO160STEP6 : CIRCLE (12 
5,0) ,C,1:NEXTC: CIRCLE (120, 105) ,5 
5,3: PAINT (100,7) ,2,3 
2510 FORC=55TO110STEP6: CIRCLE (12 
0 , 105) ,C, 1:NEXTC 

2520 CIRCLE (70, 105) , 30 , 3 : CIRCLE ( 



170,105) ,30,3:CIRCLE(134,70) ,37, 
3,1, .2, .05: PAINT (12 5, 120) ,3,3 
2530 LINE(88,83) -(155, 127) ,PSET, 
B:PAINT(120, 110) ,2,4 
2540 DRAW"BM110 , 95F10D10U10E10C2 
BM60 , 150XY$ ; XE$ ; XL$ ; XL$ ; XO$ ; XW$ ; 
BR15XY$ ; XAL$ ; XR$ ; XN$ ; C4 " : GOTO130 
2550 PCLS:SCREEN1,1:PLAY"L3D" 
2560 DRAW"BM50 , 30E2F2G2H2D10G4D4 
0G40D5E5U5E10D50R3U38D3D3 6R3U3 9E 
16D55R3U5 8R4D58R3U110R10E2U3H5L1 
0R5U10G2F2E2H2" 
2570 PSET(56,43,7) 

2580 DRAW"C7 BM175 , 80G15D3F4R3E6F 
6E6G6F10D30R5U2 3R2 5F9D14R5U3 2H4R 
6F4D4H8L2H4L5D9U9L9D7U7L7D8U8L4H 
6G6E6H6G7E7H4G6E6H4L5U6F3G3C6" 
2590 LINE(140, 70) - (250,150) , PSET 
,B: LINE (0,90) -(100, 165) ,PSET,B 
2600 FORH=140TO250STEP15:LINE(H, 
70)-(H, 150) ,PSET:NEXTH:FORH=0TO1 
00STEP15 : LINE (H , 90 ) - (H, 16 5) , PSET 
: NEXTH 

2610 DRAWC8BM130, 1R30G30R30BM18 
0 , 60XZ$ ; XE$ ;XB$ ; XR$ ; XAL$ ; BM120 , 1 
90XZ$;XO$;XO$;":GOTO130 



Model 101 
Interface $39.95 



Model 104 Deluxe 
Interface $51 .95 



Model 102 
Switcher $35.95 



Model 105 
Switcher $14.95 




• Serial to parallel interface 

• Works with any COCO 

• Compatible with "Centron 
ics" parallel input printers 

• 6 switch selectable baud 
rates 300-600-1200-2400 
4800-9600 

• Small size 4" x 2"x 1" 

• Comes complete with 
cables to connect to your 
computer and printer 



Other Quality 
Items 

High quality 5 screw shell C- 
10 cassette tapes. $7.50/ 
dozen 

Hard plasticstorageboxesfor 
cassette tapes. $2.50/dozen 

Pin-Feed Cassette Labels 
White S3.00/100 
Colors $3.60/100 (specify 
red. blue, yellow, tan) 



Same features as 101 plus 

• Built in serial port for your 
modem or other serial device 

• Switch between parallel 
output and serial output 

• Size is 4.5" x 2.5" x 1.25" 

• Comes complete with 
cables to connect to your 
computer and printer 

NEW! Cables for 
your COCO 

• U.L. listed foil-shielded cable 

• 2 Types: male/female exten- 
sion cables (used between 
aserial device and existing 
cable) male/male cables 
(used between two serial 
devices such as a modem 
and one of our switchers). 

• 3 ft./$3.95, 6 ft./$4.49, 

10 ft./$5.59 Specify M'M 
or M'F and length. 



• Connect to your COCO 
serialport and have 3 switch 
selectable serial ports 

• Colorcoded indicator lights 
show switch position 

• Lights also serve as a 
power on indicator for your 
COCO 

• Heavyguageblueanodized 
aluminumcabinet with non- 
slip rubber feet 

The 101 and 104 require 
powerto operate. Mostprint- 
ers can supply power to your 
interface. (Star, Radio Shack 
and Okidata are just a few that 
do - Epson and Seikosha do 
not). The interfaces can also 
be powered by an AC adap- 
tor; Radio Shack model 273- 
1 431 plugs into all models. If 
you require a power supply, 
add a"P" to the model number 
and add $5.00 to the price. 
(Model 101 P $44.95, Model 
104P $56.95). 



• Connects to your COCO 
to give you 2 switch select- 
able serial ports 

• 3 foot cable to connect to 
your COCOs serial port 

• The perfect item to use to 
connect a printer and a 
modem to your COCO 

• Small in size, only 4.5x2.5 
x 1.25 



The Model 101. 102. 104 and 
1 05 work with any COCO, any 
level basic and any memory 
size. These products are co- 
vered by a 1 year warranty. 

The Model 101 and 104 work 
with any standard parallel 
input printer including Gemini, 
Epson, Radio Shack. 
Okidata. C. loth, Seikosha, 
Panasonic and many others. 
They support BASIC print 
commands, word processors 
and graphic commands. 

We manufacture these 
products - dealer inquiries 
are invited. 



Cassette Label 
Program $6.95 

• New Version - tape trans- 
ferable to disk - save and 
load labels from tape to disk 

• Prints5 lines of information 
on pin-feed cassette labels 

• Menu driven, easy to use 

• Standard, expanded and 
condensed characters 

• Each line of text auto- 
matically centered. 

• Label display on CRT, en- 
abling editing before printing 

• Program comes on tape 
and is supplied with 24 
labels to get you started 

• 16K ECB required 

Ordering 
Information 

Free shipping in the United 
States (except Alaska and 
Hawaii) on all orders over 
$50.00. Please add $2.50 for 
shipping and handling on or- 
ders under $50.00 
Ohio residents add 6% 
sales tax. 

Call (513) 677-0796 and use 
your VISAor MASTERCARD 
or request C.O.D, (Please 
add $2.00 for C.O.D. orders). 
If you prefer, send check or 
moneyordenpayable in U.S. 
Funds to: 

Metric Industries 
P.O. Box 42396 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
45242 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 69 



NOVICES NICHE 





chool Pays, School Pays 




] HE RAINBOW is a teaching environment and we realize that the majority 
of our readers will always be beginners. In our continuing effort to always 
keep the new user in mind, and in addition to the many beginner feature 
articles and programs published in every issue, "Novices Niche" contains shorter 
BASIC program listings that entertain as well as help the new user gain expertise 
in all aspects of the Color Computer: graphics, music, games, utilities, education, 
programming, etc. 



Math Ue\p. 



InJow (Mluch 
©oVou ^ave? 

By Bill Bernico 



16K 
ECB 



The listing: MONEY JfiR 



"Mom, how much is 87 pennies and 12 nickels and eight 
dimes? Mom, how much is 14 quarters and nine nickels and 
77 pennies and three dollar bills? Mom, how much . . ." 

A few episodes like this, and you'll be ready to write your 
child a check and take all the change! Here's a better solution. 
Let your child load and run Moneyjar. 

The screen lists various denominations of money. All you 
need to do is enter the amount of each particular denomi- 
nation you have. If you have none, enter zero or press ENTER. 
The dollar value for that amount will appear in the right 
column. 

When you're finished, a total amount will be displayed. 
Then a new message, accompanied by a beeping noise, will 
ask if you want to play again or quit. 

Try entering extra-large amounts. After you have more 
than a million dollars, a little message will appear reminding 
you why banks were created. 



'MONEY JAR 

'FROM KROMICO SOFTWARE 
BILL BERNICO 



» BY 
t 



3J2 
4J3 

50 DIMA(ll) :F0RW=1T011:READA(W) : 
NEXT : CLS : PRINT § 8 , "COUNT YOUR MON 
E Y" : FORX= lj324T01j355: POKEX , PEEK ( X 
) -64 :NEXT:PRINT§3 4, "HOW MANY OF 
EACH DO YOU HAVE" : PRINT§75 , "QUAN 
TITY AMOUNT" :FORX=lj3 88 TOlll 

9: POKEX, PEEK (X) -64 
60 NEXT : PRINT@ 9 6," PENNIES " : PRINT 
@128 , "NICKELS" : PRINT@16j3, "DIMES" 
: PRINT§192 , "QUARTERS" : PRINT@22 4 , 
"HALF-DOLLARS" : PRINT@256 , " $1 BIL 
LS":PRINT@288, "$5 BILLS ": PRINT§3 
20, "$10 BILLS" : PRINT@352 , "$20 BI 
LLS":PRINT§3 84,"$5£> BILLS" : PRINT 
§416, " m $100 BILLS 

70 B=llj3:FOR C=l TO 11:PLAY"05T6 
0B" : PRINT@B , " " ; : LINEINPUTD$ : D=VA 
L ( D $ ) : POKEB+ 1 0 2 9 , 3 2 : E=E+ A (C) *D:G 
OSUB170 :E$="$$# ###.##": H=( A (C)*D 
)/lj30:PRINT@B+8, " " ; : PRINTUSINGE$ 



70 THE RAINBOW September 1 987 



; H : POKEB+10 4 1 , 3 2 : B=B+3 2 : NEXTC : PO 
KE1491, 32 :POKE1523 , 32 :PRINT§471, 
STRING$(8,45) : POKE1503 , 3 2 
80 POKE1535,32:D$="$$######":C$= 
"##" :FORX=1472TO1490:POKEX, 32 :NE 
XT : PRINT@48 0 , 11 your 11 ; : POKE1508 , 3 
2:PRINT"moneyjar 11 ; : POKE 15 17 , 3 2 : 
PRINT"total" ; : PLAY"O1T60CP3O2CP3 
03CP304CP305C" :PRINT§500 , 1111 ; : PRI 
NTUS INGD$ ; F ; : PRINT" . 11 ; :PRINTUSIN 
GC$ ; G ; 

90 DATA 1,5,10,25,50,100,500,100 
0,2000, 5000, 10000:IF PEEK(1533) = 
9 6 THEN POKE 153 3,112 
100 PRINT§32," TRY aGAIN 0 

R qUIT":PLAY"O4T60F" :FORY=1TO300 
: NEXT 

110 A$=INKEY$ 



12)3 IFA$="Q II THEN CLS:LIST-30 

13J3 IFA$="A"THEN RUN 

140 PRINT© 3 9 , "TRY AGAIN OR QUIT" 

: PLAY " 0 2 T 6 0 F " : FOR Y= 1TO 3 0 0 : NE XT : G 

OTO100 

150 CLS : PRINT@230 , "IF YOU HAVE T 

HAT MUCH MONEY, IT BEL 

ONGS IN A BANK - NOT A 

JAR ! TRY AGAIN . 11 : FORX= 

1T05: PRINT@173 , "OVERFLOW" : FOR Y= 

1TO100 : NEXTY : PLAY"O5T60G" : PRINT§ 

173 , "overflow" : FOR Y=1TO100 : NEXT 

Y:PLAY"O3T60G":NEXT 

160 FORX= 1TO 2500: NEXT : RUN 

170 F=INT(E/100) : IFF>99999THEN15 

9> 

180 G=E-100*F:RETURN 



4K 



Mlath (San \Be LPun 

By James E. Rittenhouse 



Math Teacher is an addition and subtraction program 
intended for first and second graders and is designed to re- 
inforce a positive attitude toward math. 

A computer face appears on the screen and asks an 
unlimited series of "What is X+Y"type problems, rewarding 
correct responses with a smile and sympathetically frowning 
when given an incorrect answer. 

The program keeps track of total questions asked and 
correct responses. The phrase PRESS ENTER: INPUT is placed 
throughout the program, creating pauses and allowing the 
child to proceed at his/ her own pace. 

Math Teacher is set up for addition problems, but it can 
be used for subtraction by making these changes: 

100 PRINT g 0, "LET'S DO <5UBTRACTING>" 

160 PRINT 0 32, "WHAT IS"X-""Y ; : INPUT A 

180 IF A=X-Y THEN GOTO 300 

190 IF AX-Y THEN GOTO 400 

410 PRINT 13 3G2,X-""Y" = "X-Y ; 

And adding this line: 

155 IF X<Y GOTO 150 

The listing: MATHTCHR 

1 REM *M ATHTCHR 

2 REM* BY J . E . RITTENHOUSE 

3 GOTO 500 
5 CLS(0) 

10 FOR H=20 TO 43 
20 SET (H,10,5) 
30 SET (H,20,5) 
40 NEXT H 
50 FOR V=10 TO 20 



SET (31, 15, 8) 

FOR H=28T03 4 : SET (H, 17 , 4 ) : NEXT 

SET (2 5, 13, 3) : SET (38, 13 ,3) 
PRINT§0, "LET'S DO <ADDING>" 
PRINT@3 2 , "PRESS [ENTER] " ; : IN 
A$ 

T=T+1 

X=RND ( 15 ) : Y=RND ( 15 ) 

PRINT@32 , "WHAT IS"X"+"Y; :INP 



60 SET(20,V,5) :SET(43,V,5) : NEXT 
V 
70 
80 
H 
90 
100 

110 
PUT 
145 
150 
160 
UT A 

180 IF A=X+Y THEN GOTO 300 
190 IF AOX+Y THEN GOTO 400 

300 PRINT§3 5 6, "****THAT'S CORREC 
T! ****•■ ; 

301 FOR X=89 TO 176 
SOUND X,1:NEXT X 
SET(27, 16,4) :SET. (35,16,4) 
R=R+1 

PRINT§420 , "THAT ' S"R"CORRECT 
OF"T 

PRINT§452 , "PRESS [ENTER] FOR 
ANOTHER" ; : INPUT A? 
350 GOTO 5 

PRINT§3 60, »*****WRONG*****" ; 
FOR P=176 TO 89 STEP-1 
SOUND P, 1:NEXT P 
SET (27, 18,4) :SET (35,18,4) 
PRINT@362,X"+"Y"="X+Y ; 
GOTO 3 30 

CLS(0) :S=128+16*(3-l)+0 
FOR H=20 TO 43 : SET (H, 10,5) 
SET (H, 20, 5) : NEXT H 
FOR V=10 TO 20:SET(20,V,5) 
SET(43,V,5) : NEXT V 
SET(31,15,8) 

FOR H=28 TO 3 4 : SET (H, 17 , 4 ) 
H 



302 
303 
310 
320 
OUT 
330 



400 
401 
402 
403 
410 
420 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
560 
EXT 



N 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 71 



570 SET(25, 13,3) :SET(38, 13,3) 
580 SET(27,16,4) :SET(35, 16,4) 
590 PRINT@40, "math" ;CHR$ (S) ;"can 
11 ; CHR$ ( S ) ; "be" ; CHR$ ( S ) ; 11 fun 11 ; 
600 PRINT§393 , "and" ;CHR$ (S) ; "i" ; 



CHR$(S) ;"can" ;CHR$ (S) ; "help 11 ; 
610 PRINT§458, "press", -CHR$ (S) ;"e 
nter" ;CHR$ (S) ; : INPUT R$ 
620 GOTO 5 



4K 



oodbye lashcards 

By John Musumeci 



Timetable can help you study for multiplication tests. 
Upon running, input the number you want to times by. You 
can enter any number from 1 to 9. Press ENTER and a times 
table will appear. 

If you select 6, for example, the times table from 6x1=6 
to 6x10=60 will be displayed. After studying, press ENTER for 
a test. Random numbers appear, which you multiply by 6. 
If you answer correctly, a random color is displayed, followed 
by another number. If you answer incorrectly, you will be 
informed, the screen will clear, and the times table will 
reappear for further studying. 

The listing: TIMETABL 

1 i ****TIMETBLE**** 

2 ***************** 

3 '***WRITTEN BY*** 

4 '*JOHN MUSUMECI** 

5 '*103-57 104 ST** 

6 '**OZONE PARK,*** 

7 i***NEW YORK***** 

8 ' ****H417******* 

9 '**718-738 0212** 

10 CLS 

20 PRINT@11, "TIMES TABLE" 

30 PRINT@64 , "WHAT NUMBER-TO-TIME 

S BY" 



40 PRINT : PRINT : INPUT B 
50 IF B<1 OR B>9 THEN 10 
60 CLS 

70 PRINT§11, "TIMES TABLE" 

80 PRINT@43," " 

90 PRINT: PRINT 
100 FOR A=l TO 10 
110 C=B*A 

120 PRINT B ; "X" ; A ; "=" ; C , : NEXT A 
130 PRINT: PRINT 

140 PRINT "PRESS <ENTER> FOR TES 

rpll 

150 INPUT Z 

160 CLS 

170 A=RND(10) 

180 PRINT@480, "PRESS '99' FORNE 

W NUMBER"; 

190 PRINT@75,A 

200 PRINT@105 , "X" 

210 PRINT§107,B 

220 PRINT§138," " 

230 PRINT: PRINT 
240 C=A*B 

250 INPUT "ANSWER IS";F 

260 IF F=C THEN PRINT "CORRECT": 

FOR X=1TO460*3 : NEXT X: SOUND 150, 

1:R=RND(7) +1:CLS (R) : FORX=1TO460* 

3:NEXTX:GOTO160 

270 IF F=99 THEN 10 

280 PRINT"WRONG" : FOR X=1TO4 60*3: 

NEXTX : SOUND75 , 5 : GOTO 60 



etterb un 




Learning ^four 

By James Dale Duncan 

The following program is aimed at preschoolers and was 
designed to help develop the concept of alphabetical 
ordering. 

Letter Getter displays the alphabet, in proper order, at the 
top of the screen. At the bottom is a scrambled alphabet. The 
flashing asterisk acts as the cursor and is moved by using the 
comma (,) and period (,) keys. 

72 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



Pressing the Z key "gets" the letter beneath .the cursor and 
takes it to the top of the screen. You then place the letter under 
its match in the correct row. When all the letters are correctly 
arranged, they flash and tones play. Along with the flashing 
letters, the number of moves used is displayed. 

Note that, as written, if the cursor is moved to the extreme 
right or left, the cursor will wrap around and appear at the 
opposite end of the current row. 

For those of you who jumped into CoCo's graphics head 
first, the text screen can be hard to deal with. A point that 
may help is shown in this program. In Line 120, 
L=PEEK(1056+G) looks at the cursor position 'G' + M024\ 
which is the difference between PRINT@ and the screen 
memory +32. This allows you to look at the row under the 
cursor and gives the ASCII number of whatever character 
is at that location. The result can be used in many ways. 



XTEAM 



OS-9 



mm 




BOTH 
WINNERS] 



'^L\w\.\.v\\y\\\^vvi\vi^ : 
J> All of our OS-9 products > 
>work with: 

OS-9 version 1 >: 
OS-9 version 2 
OS-9 Level 2 g 



XTERM 

OS-9 Communicalions program. 



- Menu oriented 

■ Upload/download. Ascii 

or XMODEM protocol 
• Execute OS-9 commands 

from within XTERM 



• Definable macro keys 

• Works with standard serial port, RS232 

PAK, or PBJ 2SP Pack, Includes all drivers. 

• Works with standard screen. XSCREEN, 
WORDPAK orDISTO 80 column board. 



$49.95 with souice $89.95 



XDIR & 


XCAL 


Hierarchial directory 


OS-9 calculator 


• Full sorting 


• Decimal, Hex, Binary 


• Complete pattern matching 


- +, -, *, /, AND.OR, XOR, NOT 


$24.95 


with source $49.95 




, . . . 



XDIS 

OS-9 disassembler 

$34.95 with source $54.95 







HARDWARE 




512k memory upgrade 


$80.00 


Printers 




Citizen 120D 


CALL 


Star NP10 


CALL 



XWORD 

OS-9 word processing system 

. Works with standard text screen, XSCREEN, WORDPAK, or DISTO 

• True character oriented full screen editing 
■ Full block commands 

• Find and Replace commands 

• Execute OS-9 commands from within 

• Proportional spacing supported 

• Full printer control, character size, emphasized, italics, 
overstrike, underline, super/sub-scripts 

• 10 header/footers 

• Page numbering in decimal or Roman numerals 

• Margins and headers can be set different for even and odd pages 

$69.95 with source $ 1 24.95 

XMERGE 

Mail merge capabilities for XWORD 
$24.95 with source $49.95 

XSPELL 

OS-9 spelling checker, with 20000 and 40000 word dictionaries 

$39.95 
XTRIO 

XWORD/XMERGE/XSPELL 
$1 1 4.95 wiih XWORD/XMERGEsourc«199.95 

XED 

OS-9 full screen editor 

$39.95 with source $79.95 



AND FOR RS DOS 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

This sales-based accounting package is designed 
for the non-accounting oriented businessman. It 
also contains the flexibility for the accounting ori- 
ented user to set up a double entry journal with an 
almost unlimited chart of accounts. Includes Sales 
Entry, kransaclion driven Accounts Receivable and 
Accounts Payable, Journal Entry, Payroll Disburse- 
ment, and Record Maintenance programs. System 
outputs include Balance Sheet, Income Statement, 
Customer and Vendor status Reports, Accounts 
Receivable and Payable Aging Reports, Check Reg- 
ister, Sales Reports, Account Status Lists, and a 
Journal Posting List. $79 95 

INVENTORY CONTROL/SALES ANALYSIS 

This module is designed to handle inventory control, 
with user defined product codes, and produce a detailed 
analysis of the business* sales and the sales force. One 
may enter/update inventory data, enter sales, run five 
sales analysis reports, run five inventory reports, set up 
product codes, enter /update salesman records, and 
update the SBAP inventory. $59.95 



PAYROLL 

Designed for maintaining personnel and payroll 
data for up to 200 hourly and salaried employees 
with 8 deductions each. Calculates payroll and tax 
amounts, prints checks and maintains year-to-date 
totals which can be automatically transferred to the 
SB A package. Computes each pay period s totals 
for straight time, overtime and bonus pay and det- 
eimines taxes to be withheld. Additional outputs 
include mailing list, listing of employees, year-to- 
dale federal and/or state tax listing, and a listing of 
current misc. deductions. Suited for use in all states 
except Oklahoma and Delaware. $59.95 



PERSONAL BOOKEEPING 2000 

Handles 45 accounts. Enters cash expenses as 
easily as checks. Handles 26 expense categories. 
Menu driven and user friendly. $39.95 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Includes detailed audit trails and history reports 
for each customer, prepares invoices and monthly 
statements, mailing labels, aging lists, and an alpha- 
betized customer listing. The user can define net 
terms for commercial accounts or finance charges 
for revolving accounts. This package functions as a 
standalone A/R system or integrates with the Small 
Business Accounting package. $59 95 



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Designed for the maintenance of vendor and A/P 
invoice files. The system prints checks, voids 
checks, cancels checks, deletes cancelled checks, 
and deletes paid A/P invoices. The user can run a 
Vendor List, Vendor Status report. Vendor Aged 
report, and an A/P Check Register. This package 
can be used either as a standalone A/P system or 
can be integrated with the Small Business 
Accounting Package. $59 95 



MICROTECH 
CONSULTANTS 
INC. 



1906 Jerrold Avenue 
t $t, Pauil, 55112 

DraUr ItHfu iriik In wiiili 
Author Submission* aecwptmd 

Jff- q ii f frifffrmtrf.fi it ffir rntrr 




Ordering Information 

Add $3 .00 shipping & handling, MN residents add 6% sates La*. 
Visa, Mastercard, COD {add $2 50) h personal checks. 



(612) 633-6161 



Consider this atext screen equivalent of the POINT or PPOINT 
commands. 

The listing: LETRGETR I 

0 • LETTER GETTER COPYRIGHT (C) 

JAMES DALE DUNCAN 11/7/86 
10 P=45 1 : D=l : G=4 19 : Pl=13 1 : W=0 : M= 

0 

20 A$="DNUEPYCQLOSVAMHBRWZIJGTXF 
K" : B$="ABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY 
Z": C$="abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy 
z" 

30 CLS : PRINT"*********LETTER*GET 
TER********** 11 : PRINT@67 , B$ ; :PRIN 
T§P,A$; 

4J3 FORDD=32T0448STEP64 :PRINT@DD+ 
62,CHR$(191)+CHR$(175) ; :PRINT@DD 
+3 0 , CHR$ (175) +CHR$ (191) ; : PRINT@D 
D,CHR$(17 5)+CHR$(191) ; :PRINT@DD+ 
3^CHR$ (191) +CHR$ (175) ;:NEXT 
5j3 G$=INKEY$:PRINT§G,CHR$ (42) ; : F 
ORJ=j3T05j3:NEXT:PRINT§G,CHR$ (3 2) ; 
: IFG$=" , "THENG=G-1ELSE IFG$=" . "T 
HENG=G+1 

60 IFG$="," OR G$=" . H THENM=M+1 
10 IFG<419THEN G=444ELSE IF G>44 
4 THEN G=419 

80 IF G$="Z"THEN GOSUB 110 

90 IF G$=""THEN5j3 u 

100 GOT05J3 



110 L=PEEK(lj356+G) :IFL<65 OR L>9 
0 THENL=32 

120 IF L=32 THEN RETURN 

130 PRINT@G+3 2,CHR$(32) ; 

140 G$=INKEY$:PRINT§P1,CHR$(L) ; : 

FORJ=pT05j3 : NEXT : PRINT@P1 , CHR$ (3 2 

) ; :IFG$=", "THEN P1=P1-1ELSE IFG$ 

=" . "THEN P1=P1+1 

150 IFG$="," OR G$="."THENM=M+1 
160 IFPK131THENP1=156ELSEIFP1>1 
56THENP1=131 

17J3 IFG$="Z"THEN19J3ELSE GOT014J3 
18J3 IFG$=""THEN14J3 
19J3 IF PEEK(992 + P1)<>96THEN21^( 
200 PRINT@P1-3 2,CHR$(L) ;:IFL<>PE 
EK(96j3+Pl) THENPRINT§Pl-3 2 , CHR$ (3 

2) ; 

21j3 IFLOPEEK(9 6P+Pl)THENPRINT@G 
+3 2,CHR$(L) ; ™ 

220 IFL=PEEK(9 6P+P1)THENW=W+1 h 
230 IFW=26THEN2 5p | 
24)3 RETURN 

25J3 PRINT§22 5, "YOU FINISHED IN 11 
; M ; 11 MOVES."; :PRINT§289, "PRESS A 
NY KEY TO PLAY AGAIN."; 
260 G$=INKEY$:PRINT@99,C$; : SOUND 
18^,1:PRINT@67,C$; :SOUND2pp, 1:PR 
INT§99,B$; :SOUND22j3,l:PRINT@67,B 
$ ; :SOUND24j3, 1: IFG$=" "THEN2 6j3 
27j3 RUN 



16K 
ECB 



Wipe ©ut Letters 

By Bill Smith 



Letter Cruncher puts to practice hand/eye coordination, 
and it's controlled by using the A and K keys. At the game's 
onset, the letter A will appear at the center of the screen, 
accompanied at the lower left by the first letter of a random, 
computer-generated string oHetters. The object of the game 
is to prevent this string frofifflngthening. 

This goal is accomplished by rapidly pressing the A key, 
which advances the letter at center screen, until it is the same 
as the computer-generated letter on the left of the string. Then 
press the K key to kill the identical letter, and play will 
continue. Letter Cruncher has five skill levels, so it can be 
extremely fast-paced or relatively easygoing. 

A problem does occur in about one out of every six games. 
The computer-generated letters stop appearing. Novices may 
find this a blessing, but it can be corrected by tapping the 
K key. 

74 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



The listing: CRUNCHER 

5 REM TITLE 

lj3 CLSj3:FORI=lTO 224 : READ A:PRI 

NTCHR$ (A+12 8) ;:NEXT 

2p DATA, i t t t i t t t i t i t i t t t i t i t i t i i 

3J3'dATA, ,47 ,32,32,, 47 , 4 4, 44, , 4 
4, 47, 44,, 44, 47, 44, ,47,44,44, ,47, 
44,47,,,,, 

4j3 DATA, ,, ,47, 32, 32, ,47, 44,44, ,3 
2, 47, 32, ,32, 47, 32,, 47, 44, 44,, 47, 
45 34 , , , , , 

5j3 ' DATa) '',44, 44, 44,, 44, 44, 44, ,3 
2, 44, 32,, 32, 44, 32,, 44 , 44, 44,, 44, 
32,44, ,,, , 

6j3 DATA31, 2 8,28, ,31, 28, 31,, 31, 16 

,31, ,31, 27, 16, 31, ,31, 28, 28, ,M1 

6,31, ,31,28,28, ,31,28,31 

7J3 DATA31, 16, 16, ,31,29,18, ,31,16 

,31,, 31, 2j3,27, 31,, 31, 16, 16,, 31, 2 

8,31, ,31,28,28, ,31,29,18 

8j3 DATA28, 28, 28, , 28, 16,28 , , 28,28 

,28,, 28, 16,2^,28,, 28, 28, 28,, 28,1 

6,28, ,28,28,28, ,28,16,28 




3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns X 24 lines 

True lower case characters 
User-friendly full-screen 
editor 

Right justification 
Easy hyphenation 
Drives any printer 
Embedded format and 
control codes 
Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 
Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 
The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lo wer case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fan. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses ail others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



. .one of (he best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



I hLLWKI 1 LK-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriier-64. For two reasons, 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
~- 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both, It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 5i column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24?! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that *'what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best fooking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVU/VIII, DMP- 100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smiih-Corona, 
Terminer, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access so 
intelligent printer features like; underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 
Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers ami automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers {like 
Spell f n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sire saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 
Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: prim directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, sei 
default drive. Easily customized to the n u m ber of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 



. . . truly a state of the *rt word processor. . 
outstanding in every respect, 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



RAINBOW 
ceanpicATiOM 

SEAL 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write, The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Street 

Del Mar, CA 92014 

#r check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 (weekdays, 
8 AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries invited, (Add 
$2 for shipping. Californians add 6% state tax.) 

Available at 
Radio /haek stores 
via express order 

catalogue #90-0253 
90-0254 

Apple It is a trademark of Apple Computer, inc.. Alan is a irademark 
of Atari. Inc.: TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp: MX-80 is s 
trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



9p PRINT§425, 11 BILL SMITH 11 1 
92 PRINT@457, "COPYRIGHT 1986"; 
95 FOR X=l TO 15pj3:NEXT X 
9 6 FOR X=1T02 

97 PLAY"L4;V8;04;L16. ;l;L32;l;Ll 
6 . ; 1 ; L3 2.; 1 ; L16 . ; 1 ; L3 2 ; 5 ; LI 6 . ; 8 ; L 
32 ; 5 ; L16 . ; 8 ; L3 2 ; 5 ; L16 . ; 8 ; L3 2 ; 5 11 
9 8 NEXTX : PLAY " L2 ; 1 " 
99 REM END TITLE 

1J30 P$="A":L$="":S=p 
lljd CLS 
120 P=65 

130 PRINT: INPUT 11 <ENTER> 
TO BEGIN" ;U$ 

135 INPUT "SKILL LEVEL(l-5) " ;LV 
137 T=llj3-LV*lj3 

14J3 CLS: PRINT "PL ACE FINGERS OVER 
'A' AND ' K 1 KEYS. GET READY ! 

it 

15j3 FOR V=l TO 15: FOR X=l TO 3:P 
LAY"V"+STR$ (V*2 ) +"L255 ; 03 ; 2 ; 1 ; 2 ; 
1":NEXT X:NEXT V 
16j3 CLS 

17j3 PRINT" letter cruncher" : 

FOR X=l TO 2 50: NEXT X 

180 PRINT@207,"A" 

190 H=0:D=RND(8)+64 

200 B$=CHR$(D) 

210 L$=L$+B$ 

220 PRINT@2 67, L$: SOUND 90,1 
230 IF LEN(L$)=9 THEN 400 



240 A$=INKEY$ 
250 IF A$="A" THEN 300 
260 IF A$="K" THEN 340 
270 IF A$<>"" THEN 240 
280 H=H+1:IF H=T THEN 190 
290 GOTO 240 

300 P=P+1:IF P=73 THEN P=65 
310 P$=CHR$(P) 
320 PRINT§207,P$ 
330 GOTO 240 
3 40 E=LEN(L$) 

3 50 IF P$=RIGHT$(L$,1) THEN L$=L 
EFT$ (L$ ,E-1) : ELSE GOTO 190 
360 T=T-1 

370 PRINT§2 67, L$ : SOUND 2 50,1 
380 S=S+1 
390 GOTO240 

400 FOR X=l TO 10: PLAY "L255;01; 

V30 ; 1 ; V2 6 ; 2 ; V2 2 ; 3 ; V18 ; 4 ; V14 ; 5 ; VI 

2; 6": SOUND 1,1: NEXT X 

410 CLS: PRINT" GAME OVER" 

420 PRINT: PRINT"YOU CRUSHED ";S; 

" LETTERS" 

425 PRINT "PLAYING SKILL LEVEL 11 
;LV 

430 PRINT: INPUT "PLAY AGAIN " ,*AG 
$: SOUND 180,1 

440 IF LEFT$(AG$,l)o"Y" THEN EN 
D 

450 GOTO 100 



Utility 



4K 



Teacher's (Pet 

By Bill Bernico 



Teachers, it's test-grading time again! Never fear; with 
Grader you'll be done with all those tests in a jiffy, with plenty 
of time left over to catch the reruns of Welcome Back, Kotter. 

Upon running Grader, you'll be asked for the number of 
questions on the test. You can enter any positive number. 
Next, you'll have to enter the student's name. 

As you review the student's test paper, press R when you 
find right answers and W when you find wrong ones. As you 
do this, the display will be updated to reflect how the student 
is doing — as you check each answer. 

The display includes total number of questions, number 
of right answers, number of wrong answers, total answers (a 
reminder of which question you're on), the constantly 



changing percentage of right answers, and the constantly 
changing grade based on that percentage. 

When you're finished, the student's name will appear with 
a message that this test has been graded. Press any key to 
begin with the next student. Warm up the television, you're 
almost done! 

The listing: GRADER 

1 'GRADER by Bill Bernico 

2 NW=j3 : NR=j3 : TA=j3 : NQ=j3 : PR=j3 : AN=j3 : 
CLS: INPUT 11 NUMBER OF QUESTIONS" ;N 
Q : INPUT 11 STUDENT ! S NAME H ; SN$ : CLS 

3 AN=AN+1:PRINT@)3, "N)3. QUESTIONS 
11 ; NQ : PRINT 11 NUMBER RIGHT " ; NR : PRI 
NT 11 NUMBER WRONG" ; NW : T A=NR+NW : IF 
TA=j3THEN4ELSEPR=INT ( (NR/TA) * 1)3)3) 

4 PRINT@9 6, "TOTAL ANSWERS "; TA : PR 
INT" PERCENT RIGHT" ;PR;"% 

5 IFPR=)3THENRG$ = "F-" :GOT02)3 

6 IFPR<5)3THENRG$ = "F-":GOT02)3 

7 IFPR<6)3THENRG$ = "F" :GOT02)3 

8 IFPR<65THENRG$ = "D-":GOT02)3 



76 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



About Your Subscription 



9 IFPR<7j3THENRG$= lf D" : GOT02J3 

f D+" :GOT02j3 
f C- lf :GOT02j3 
f C lf :GOT02j3 



! C+" :GOT02j3 
f B- lf :GOT02j3 
f B lf :GOT02j3 
'B+" :GOT02j3 
'A- 1 ' :GOT02j3 
A" :G0T02j3 



Ij3 IFPR<74THENRG$=' 

11 IFPR<77THENRG$=' 

12 IFPR<8j3THENRG$ = l 

13 IFPR<83THENRG$=' 

14 IFPR<86THENRG$=' 

15 IFPR<9j3THENRG$ = l 

16 I F PR< 9 3 THENRG $ = 1 

17 IFPR<96THENRG$=' 

18 IFPR<98THENRG$=» 

19 I FPR< 1 j3 1THENRG $ = 11 A+ 

2 j3 ^RINTgie^, "RUNNING GRADE 11 ; RG 
$ : IFTA=NQ THEN22ELSEPRINT@288 , "W 
AS ANSWER # lf ;AN: PRINT 11 rIGHT OR w 
RONG 

21 I$=INKEY$ : IFI$ = lf R lf THENNR=NR+l 
: G0T03ELSEIFI$="W"THENNW=NW+1 : GO 
T03ELSE2 1 

22 PRINT@288 , SN$ ; " 'S" : PRINT lf TEST 
IS NOW GRADED" :F0RB=1T04:PRINT@ 

224 , "FINAL OUTCOME" : FORE=1248T01 
2 6j3 : POKEE , PEEK (E) -64 : NEXT : FORT=l 
T02j3j3:NEXT:PRINT@2 24 , "FINAL OUTC 
OME" : FORT=lT02j3j3 : NEXT : NEXTB : PRIN 
T@484,"HIT ANY KEY TO DO ANOTHER 
" ; :EXEC44539 :GOT02 



Your copy of the rainbow is sent second class 
mail. You must notify us of a new address when 
you move. Notification should reach us no later 
than the 15th of the month prior to the month in 
which you change your address. Sorry, we cannot 
be responsible for sending another copy when you 
fail to notify us. 

Your mailing label also shows an account 
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Please indicate this account number when renew- 
ing or corresponding with us. It will help us help 
you better and faster. 

For Canadian and other non-U. S. subscribers, 
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Send it to our editorial offices at Falsoft, Inc., The 
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This applies to everyone except those whose 
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Contributions to "Novices Niche" are welcome from everyone. We 
like to run a variety of short programs that can be typed in at one sitting 
and are useful, educational and fun. Keep in mind, although the short 
programs are Jmited in scope, many novice programmers find it 
enjoyable andHuite educational to improve the software written by 
others. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk. We're sorry, but we 
cannot key in program listings. All programs should be supported by 
some editorial commentary, explaining how the program works. If your 
submission is accepted for publication, the payment rate will be 
established and agreed upon prior to publication. /^\ 



Two-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Use the right joystick to find the hidden treasure. The 
radar pitch will get higher as you approach your target. 

The listing: 

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N 

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Kalamazoo, MI 

(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies of 
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September 1987 THE RAINBOW 77 



Prospect, Kentucky 



Vol.2 No.4 



Reporter: Cray Augsburg 
Photographer: Jim Reed 



The RAINBOWfest Reporter 



©Falsofi. Inc. All Rights Reserved 



Chicago RAINBOWfest 1987 Opens to Thousands 



At 7 p.m., April 10, I987, 
RAINBOWfest 1 3 opened its 
doors at the Hyatt Regency 
Woodfield in Chicago. Each 
person in the tremendous 
crowd rushed to find those 
long-awaited bargains. Many 
knew just what they were look- 
ing for and most found it. Be- 
fore the evening was over and 
the Friday night attendees went 
back to their lodgings to pursue 
their purchases, several thou- 
sand people had crossed the 
threshold into our 5th Chicago 
show. 

Saturday started with the 
CoCo Community breakfast. 
After breakfast was served, 
Martin Goodman, M.D., spoke 
on the history of the Color 
Computer. His speech pro- 
gressed from the infant days of 
theCoCo, when it was "nothing 
more than a toy," to the more 
recent and serious applications 
of computers in general and the 
CoCo specifically, in science, 



industry and medicine. 

Dr. Goodman said, 
"We're beginning to see 
the same thing happen 
with the CoCo 3 as did 
with the older CoCos. 
We're now seeing some 
good, useful software 
that will enable the ma- 
chine to perform impor- 
tant tasks, thereby in- 
creasing the long life we 
already know exists in 
the CoCo. Expect to see 
a long life of the CoCo 3 
just as you are still seeing 
witli the earlier ma- 
chines." 

Alter Dr. Goodman's 
speech, Lonnie Falk, 
publisher of THE RAIN- 
BOW, took the opportu- 
nity to announce a new 
feature of RAINBOW- 
fest. In the July I987 issue 
of THE rain 8#w is a nomina- 
tion ballot for the rainb#w 
Color Computer Hall of Fame. 




Over 12,000 people joined CoCo Cat for the 13th RAINBOWfest. 



These ballots will be reviewed 
by a special committee and, at 
future RAINBOWfests, deserv- 



Seminars and Sandboxes Were a Hit 



Walter Fisher of Indianapolis 
controls the action as he and his 
brother, Shannon, show their 
mom, Terry, what the Color 
Computer is all about. 



Many people at the Chicago 
1987 RAINBOWfest took the 
opportunity to get off their feet 
and, at the same time, learn a 
little more about the machine 
they love. Indeed, some people 
attended the show for the ex- 
press purpose of the seminars. 

The subjects covered in the 
seminars ranged from "CoCo 
Consultations Live," given by 
Martin H. Goodman, M.D., to 
OS-9 and BAS1C09 seminars 
given by Dale Puckett and 
Peter Dibble. Whilespecialcare 
was taken to allow enough 
room for those interested, most 
of the seminars, including 
CoCo 3 Graphics given by Erik 
Gavriluk and Greg Miller, were 



"standing room only." 

One of the most popular 
seminars was the Educational 
Sandbox. This seminar, aimed 
at the younger crowd, allowed 
children (and their parents) to 
get their hands on a CoCo in a 
learning environment. 

The children were under the 
supervision of highly skilled 
employees from the local Radio 
Shack district. Steve Canter 
and Paul Brown were at the 
helm as youngsters were piloted 
through those first learning 
steps on a computer. CoCo Cat 
was there, too! 

Everyone had a great time, 
and the Educational Sandbox 
was a huge success. 



ing members of the CoCo Com- 
munity will be inducted into the 
Hall of Fame. Attendees were 
invited to make nominations at 
the breakfast. 

We thought the sh«w was 
crowded Friday night, but Sat- 
urday showed us just how 
packed an exhibit hall can be. 
Bargains were everywhere. New 
and older software and hard- 
ware could be had at rock- 
bottom prices. And, if it was 
advice on technical matters you 
desired, you could be sure to get 
questions answered. 

On Sunday, the crowd 
seemed wild. Perhaps it was 
those last minute purchases 
thatcaused thecraze. Whatever 
it was, people were getting all 
they could. Many of them fi- 
nally had their first "real" CoCo 
3 programs and couldn't wait to 
get them home to try out. Af ter 
the show closed that evening, it 
was determined that well over 
12,000 people had attended this 
year's Chicago Test. 



78 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 



Radio Shack Busier Than Ever 




The hot item at the Radio Shack booth was the CM-3 color composite monitor which was reduced by 66 
percent, while software packages were selling for as little as $2. 



One of the busiest booths at 
the show was Radio Shack's. 
Some of the deals to be found 
here included OS-9 Level II for 
$69.95, a CoCo 3 for $159, a 
D MP- 106 for $155 and Light 
and Appliance controllers for 
$8. The biggest bargain, 



though, was the CM-3. This 
standard color composite mon- 
itor was selling for only $99, a 
price reduction of 66 percent! 
Many attendees bought these 
for their CoCo 2s and 3s, and 
some bought them just because 
of the low price! 



If you were interested in ed- 
ucational software, the entire 
Tandy Home Educational Soft- 
ware series was up for grabs. 
Packages started the show at 
$4.95 on Friday night. A few 
were left on Sunday and were 
sold for as little as $2 each. 



Rockin' With 
Speech Systems 




Rich Parry of Speech Sys- 
tems had quite a selection of 
music to show off and lots of 
software and hardware to show 
it off with. Specials at the 
Speech Systems booth included 
the 512K Turbo RAM upgrade 
for $89.95 and Lyra for only 
$44.95. 



Diecom Products Offers 
Games and Fun 



At Diecom's booth programs 
that regularly cost $28.95 were 
selling for $23.95 and those that 
regularly cost $38.95 were 
going at a RAlNBOWfest spe- 
cial price of $3 1 .95. 

The hot item was Caladuril, 
a new, graphics Adventure that 



uses the arrow keys for move- 
ment. David Dies, President of 
Diecom, explained that there 
are several new games on the 
way, but we were most inter- 
ested in his passing mention of 
a possible future game using 
light guns for action. 




Our Educational Sandbox was a family affair for the Magnones of 
Dearborn Heights, Michigan. Melanie and her dad, Michael, learn 
together while her sister, Melissa, teams up with Rose Maurer. 



CoCo Cat Makes First Appearance 




CoCo Cat is alive and well! For the first time, RAlNBOW- 
fest attendees were treated to the presence of the furry feline. 
As people crowded around this booth and that, they were 
somewhat surprised to turn around and find themselves 
facing a six foot kitty cat. 

Many onlookers cheered as CoCo Cat danced to the 
music emanating from the Speech Systems booth. Some 
observers noted that RAINBOW'S Angela Kapfhammer was 
never around when CoCo Cat was making an appearance! 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 79 



OS-9 Level II 
Makes a Splash 




Peter Dibble, left, fields an OS-9 question. With the release of his new 
book, The Complete Rainbow Guide To OS-9 Level II, Vol. I: A 
Beginners Guide to Windows, Peter and co-author Dale Puckett are 
now working on still another volume. 



Clearbrook 

A welcome newcomer to the 
CoCo scene is Clearbrook Soft- 
ware Group. This Washington- 
based company has been mar- 
keting Information Manage- 
ment Systems for five years, but 
only recently ported their CSG- 
1MS relational database man- 
ager to the CoCo under OS-9. 
Owner Paul Kehler demon- 
strated CSG-IMS as well as 
Erina, a new full-featured 
OS-9 debugger Clearbrook has 
released. 

FHL 

New products seemed to be 
the rule at the Frank Hogg 
Laboratory booth. Wiz, a new 
terminal package for OS-9 
Level J I, was selling for$70and 
FHL's book, Inside OS-9 Level 
II, was going for $35. Dynasiar, 



which has been rewritten for the 
CoCo 3 to include windows, 
was selling for $ 1 00. This is $50 
off the regular price. The Dy- 
nasiar disk also includes all of 
the older versions of the pro- 
gram. FHL's Sculptor was sel- 
ling for $200 below the regular 
price of $495. Frank Hogg de- 
scribes it as an "environment 
within an environment. " He 
said, "Sculptor is a not a small 
time program for the CoCo. In 
fact, we can compile a program 
under Sculptor on the CoCo 
and turn around and run it on 
a VAX!" 

OS-9 Users Group 

Dave Kaleita, vice president 
of the OS-9 Users Group, sold 
memberships for $25. In addi- 
tion, you could pick up Users 
Group T-shirts for $10, or $6 if 



you also purchased arenewal or 
new membership. Many people 
had purchased OS-9 Level II at 
the show and were looking for 
information. They knew the 
Users Group was the place to 
go. Dave said, "We have had an 
excellent response. Things are 
looking bright now that we 
have fresh blood and enthusi- 
asm for the future." 



Sugar Software 

Gary Davis, owner of Sugar 
Software, did quite well selling 
OS-9 Calligrapher and also 
several educational packages. 
According to Gary, "I haven't 
had a single request for soft- 
ware on tape. Current users 
must be becoming more serious 
in their computing since most 
appear to be using disk drives." 



ColorMax 3 Debuts at Chicago Show 



Computize 

Computize was operating 
one of the hottest booths. Ken 
Klosinski of Computize said, 
"The pent-up demand for qual- 
ity Color Computer 3 programs 
is certainly evident. We've sold 
out of Color Max 3 and several 
other packages as well!" In 
addition to offering the super 
graphics program, Computize 
was selling a converter designed 
to convert PM0DE4 and CoCo 
Max pictures to the MGE for- 



mat used by Color Max 3. 

ColorMax 3 offers 320-by- 
200 graphics resolution in a 
choice of 1 6 d if ferent colors and 
it is designed to use the Radio 
Shack Hi-Res Interface. 

Since the product was brand 
new, very few printer drivers 
were available. You had your 
choice of a general Radio 
Shack DMP driver, an Epson- 
type driver or no driver at all. 
If you chose to purchase the 
package without a printer 



driver, Computize included a 
coupon that enabled you to 
upgrade whenever they finished 
the driver for your particular 
printer. 

Derringer 

Derringer Software was sel- 
ling Dynacalc and Pro- Color- 
File for $60 each. Their hottest 
seller, however, was a set of 
disks containing extra fonts for 
the new ColorMax 3. What can 
we look for in the future? Den- 
nis Derringer claims he is work- 
ing on a CoCo 3 version of Pro- 
Color- File. 

Computer Plus 

Some of the deals CoCo en- 
thusiasts found at Computer 
Plus were CoCo 3s for $159, 
CM-8 monitors for $239 and 
OS-9 Level II for $70. Also 
available were the new high 
resolution Joystick Interface 
for $9 and the CoCo Mouse for 
S39 which were selling really 
fast due to the introduction of 
ColorMax 3. When asked if he 
thought the CoCo 3 had sub- 
stantially influenced the CoCo 
market, Fran Purcell said, "I 
think so. I feel it has brought a 
lot more life back into the 



market. People were getting 
frustrated, but now we are see- 
ing some new products which 
are changing things." To prove 
his point, Fran added that 
Computer Plus had sold all 
their CoCo 3s, Level II pack- 
ages, Multi-Paks, Hi-Res Inter- 
faces and CoCo Mice before 1 
p.m. Saturday afternoon. 



Subscription 
Software 

Tom and Marianne Dykema 
of T&D Subscription Software 
offered a year's subscription to 
monthly programs on tape or 
disk for $60, $10 off the regular 
price. 





Erik Gavriluk and Greg Miller, co-authors of ColorMax 3 ^ gave a 
seminar about graphics on the CoCo 3. 



80 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



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CoCo 3 Brings New Life to Market 



Computer Center 

The Computer Center's 
booth could easily have been 
referred to as a traveling three- 
ring circus. Workers had little 
time to even stop and catch 
their breath. In addition to 
selling dual, double-sided drive 
systems with controller for $289 
and bare double-sided drives 
for $99, the Computer Center 
was also offering replacement 
keyboards, adapters, service 
manuals and lots of other little 
goodies. 




Sales were great at the Computer 
Center booth. 

Head Technician Logan 
Ward said, "Sales are great! A 
lot of people started with CoCo 
2s. Then they bought the CoCo 
3 and used their existing peri- 
pherals on it. Now, they are 
purchasing extra drives and 
other accessories for their older 
systems." 



Howard Medical 

Ross Litton of Howard Med- 
ical was offering several bar- 
gains on J&M and Disto con- 
trollers, which were selling for 
$65 and $98 respectively. 

The biggest seller here was 
monitor drivers, however. 
Since Radio Shack was blow- 
ing out the CM-3, people were 
buyingall thedrivers they could 
get their hands on. When Ross 
had a moment to talk, he said, 
"The CoCo 3 has certainly had 
a positive effect on our busi- 
ness. A lot of advertisers were 
saying things were going the 
'other way.' We have been able 
to prove them wrong with the 
turnout at this show. 11 

Gimmesoft 

Another newcomer of the 
Chicago Test was Gimmesoft. 
According to Tom DiMarco, 
Sr., owner of Gimmesoft, it was 
the introduction of the CoCo 3 
that paved the way and inspired 
the forming of Gimmesoft. 
Some of the offerings at this 
booth were FKEYS If! and 
Custom Pale lie Designer for 
$19.95 each and Six Drive for 
$12.95. Six Drive is a program 
that allows the use of three 
double-sided, double-density 
disk drives and makes 4 and 5 
valid drive numbers. 

Glenside CoCo Club 

Out host group, Glenside 
CoCo Club, kept busy selling 




Can you spot the MS-DOS user in this CoCo crowd? 




Gimmesoft's Tom DiMarco, Sr., left, shows his wares to Rich Maurer 
as RAINBOW'S Ira Barsky, second from left, looks on. 



R AIN BOWfest T-shirts and 
taking care of those people who 
had complimentary coupons 
for The Rainbow Book of Ad- 
ventures. The club's Ed Hatha- 
way said, "This show is much 
bigger than last year's show. It 
seems that the CoCo 3 has put 
life back into the CoCo 
market." 

Spectrum Projects 

The activity at the Spectrum 
Projects booth was centered 
around products for the CoCo 



3. Bob Rosen, owner of Spec- 
trum Projects, was selling CHI 
Graphics and CoCo 3 Secrets 
Revealed as a package for 
$29.95 and a 512K upgrade 
could be had for $79.95 with 
purchase of RAM Disk soft- 
ware for $19.95. Soon, expect 
to see an 80-column version of 
Telewriter and a remote key- 
board extender. Bob Rosen 
said, "This show is very encou- 
raging for third-party vendors. 
It indicates a healthy growing 
market for the CoCo 3." 



Communications Going Strong 



Delphi 

The Delphi booth was buz- 
zing with activity as Marty 
Goodman (martygood- 



\ 



9' 9 t 



Breakfast Keynoter Martin 
Goodman, M.D., discusses the 
"long road of the CoCo" at the 
CoCo Community breakfast. 
At left, Ed Juge, Director of 
Market Planning at Tandy, 
with Lonnie Falk. 



man) and Rusty Williams 
(RUSTY) sold subscriptions 
and handbooks as well as 
showed people how to get 
around online. Marty, of 
course, was offering free ad- 
vice to anyone who needed it. 
Many CoCo SIG notables 
stopped by the booth and 
spent a good deal of time 
talking with other members. 

CompuServe 

As in the past, Wayne Day 
and several others from 
CompuServe were onhand at 
the 1987 Chicago Test. They 
were offering free subscrip- 
tions, including $15 free con- 
nect time to attendees. Wayne, 
who seemed quite pleased 
with the show, said, "We've 
met a lot of friends; both 
online contacts as well as new 
members. " 



82 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



Bargains 
For Everyone 



HJL 

Some products never seem to 
lose their hold on the market 
and the HJL keyboard is one of 
them. These popular keyboards 
could be had at the Chicago 
R AINBOWfest for only $39.95. 
Other offerings at the HJL 
booth were Quick BASIC Plus 
for $12.95, the Number Jack for 
$49.95 and monitor adapters 
for $19.95. If these prices didn't 
attract attention, perhaps the 
new Soft Switch did. The Soft 
Switch is a software controlled 
switch designed to let you 
choose between one of two 
printers connected to your 
CoCo. 1 1 was selling for $49.95. 

Public Domain Software 

At Public Domain, disks 
were available for half-price 
($5) or you could take any six 
disks for $25. On Sunday, Pub- 
lic Domain was selling the com- 
plete 27-disk library for only 
$75. John Robinson of Public 
Domain said, "Our only plans 
for the future are to add more 
disks, including CoCo 3 soft- 
ware, to the library and increase 
the user-friendly nature of our 
software. 



Microcom 

Microcom was offering a 10 
percent across-the-board price 
reduction on their products. On 
Sunday, they upped the stakes 
and slashed the price on all 
utilities by 50 percent! The hot 
items at this booth were 5 1 2 K 
upgrades, Telewriter-64 and 
500 Pokes, Peeks & Execs. Fu- 
ture products will include a 
version of Pokes, Peeks and 
Execs for the CoCo 3. 

Disk Masters, Inc. 

A good place to stop after 
purchasing those new disk 
drives at the Test was the J/D 
Limited (now Disk Masters, 
Inc.) booth. It was here that 
many people accessorized their 
systems. You could buy a pack 
of 25 BASF DSDD disks for 
$14. Or, maybe you just needed 
a new printer ribbon. Well, J/ 
D had most makes. You could 
also pick up an Avatex I200hc 
modem for $123.95. 

A novelty item was the Mini 
Vac. This device is a miniature 
vacuum cleaner designed just 
for your computer. You can use 
it to clean dust from the inside 
or from around the keyboard. 





Carl Kreider, Software Librarian of the OS-9 Users Group, fields 
a question while manning the booth. 



Airline Pilot David Hooper (left), who coordinated our first 
RAINBOWfest, gives Tom Mix (right) expert advice on Flight 16. 



At $12.30, it really swept the 
RAINBOWfest attendees away. 

Sardis 

David C. Wiens had his 
hands full at the Sardis Tech- 
nologies booth showing off his 
new dual-mode disk controller. 
This controller is designed to 
work just as a standard Radio 
Shack disk controller in one 
mode. But, change modes and 
the magic starts. By properly 
handling the interrupt line, 
eliminates those annoying 
problems with the type-ahead 
buffer under OS-9. No longer 
will users have to put up with 
lost characters just because the 
disk was being accessed! The 
DMC was selling at a special 
show price of $1 19.50. Regular 
price for the controller is 
$149.50. 

Fazer Electronics 

While it normally sells for 
$149, Fazer was moving out the 
Fazer Electronics Speak-Easy 
voice synthesizer at $49! Speak- 
Easy can receive text via the 
RS-232 serial port and convert 
it to speech. This allows a great 
deal of machine independence. 
Fazer was also selling 3D Gra- 
phics, Banners and several 
other programs for just $2. 
Between sales, Ron Scarazzo 
had just enough time to men- 
tion that Fazer was working on 
a new voice recognition system 
that would not require any 
"voicetraining." 

D.P. Johnson/Hemphill 

Sharing a booth at this Test 
were Dan Johnson of DP John- 
son and Lewis Hemphill of 
Hemphill Electronics. They 
were busy hawking their new 
creation, DiskMaster. This de- 



vice combines a 20-Meg hard 
drive, high-density floppy 
drive, three serial ports, one 
parallel port, a hardware real- 
time clock and up to 1 .5 "Meg of 
RAM into one box all for 
$1,295. A dual floppy system 
without hard drive was availa- 
ble for $795. 

The biggest seller, though, 
was Hemphill's new 512K up- 
grade for the CoCo 3. While 
this board cost a little more 
than the others on the market, 
its unique and well-thought-out 
design enabled Hemphill Elec- 
tronics to sell quite a few. 

SpectroSystems 

Many people on Compu- 
Serve and Delphi have heard of 
Art Flexser. And those who 
don't know him from there 
should certainly recognize him 
as the author of ADOS. Well, 
Art has done it again by intro- 
ducing ADOS-3. This CoCo 3 
version not only gives the CoCo 
3 owner a chance to use A DOS, 
but allows the system to boot 
with some of the CoCo 3 en- 
hancements in place. 61 A DOSS 
gives the CoCo 3 owner 'boot- 
up' access to several of the 
CoCo 3's new features," says 
Art. ADOS-3, which sold very 
well, could be bought for $30. 

Tom Mix 

The Tom Mix booth had all 
software packages at special 
RAINBOWfest prices of 20 
percent off. We found Tom Mix 
demonstrating two of his new- 
est games, Flight If and Vegas 
Slots. Flight 16 is an 
instrument-oriented flight sim- 
ulator, while Vegas Slots is a 
CoCo 3 casino. It offers seven 
different slot games and all in 
Hi-Res with color. 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 83 



NEW 

DISK 
DRIVES 



Starting at 




New Low Price! 




89 



95 



with case & 
Power Supply 
129.95 



TANDON MPI TEAC 

Speed 6ms tk to tk and up 
Capacity 250k unformatted 
Tracks 40 

Warranty HOW 1 Year 

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED!! 

ALL DRIVES FULLY TESTED AND WARRANTEED 

We carry only the finest quality disk drives 
no seconds • no surplus 



40 Tks 6Ms 
Double Sided 
Double Density 

40 or 80 Tracks 
Vz Hght. Teac/Panasonic 




Free Software for Drive 0 Systems 

CoCo Checker...Test roms, rams, disk drives and & controller printer, keyboard cassette & more. 
Tape/Disk Utility... Transfers disk to tape and tape to disk. 



169 



95 



Drive 0 



189 



95 



Drive 0 



289 



95 



Drive 0 & 1 



• Full Ht Drive 
•Single Case 

• Heavy Duty Power Supply 

• 2 Drive Cable 

• Gold plated contacts 

• Controller & manuals 



• Double Sided Slim Line Drive 

• Case holds 2 slim line drives 

• Heavy Duty Power Supply 

• 2 Drive Cable 

• Gold plated contacts 

• Controller & Manuals 



• 2 Double Sided Slim Line Drive 

• Case holds 2 slim line drives 

• Heavy Duty Power Supply 

• 2 Drive Cable 

• Gold plated contacts 

• Controller & Manuals 



Other Drive Specials 
119 



Drives cleaned, aligned & tested, 29 



95 



95 



2nd Drive 

for new Radio Shack 
includes: 

• Slim Line DS/DD Drive 

• Cabling & Instructions 

• Mounting Hardware 



Full Ht Drive 89 95 

Full Ht Drive Ps/Case... 129 95 

Slim Line Drive 99 95 

Slim Line Drive Ps/Case... 139 95 
2 Slim Drives Ps/Case. 239 95 
Disk Controller 59 95 



Single Ps & Case 

Dual VzhX Ps & Case 

Dual Full Ht. Ps & Case . 
Disk Controller 



10 Diskettes 

with free library case 



54 95 
79 95 
59 95 
995 



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• Visa/Mastercard fe!^ 

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•C.O.D. Add $2. 



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Uxbridge, MA 01569 
617-278-6555 

Hours: Mon.-Sat., 9-6 (EST) 



Call us today! 617-278-6555 

Order Toll Free 1-800-635-0300 



Software Included 

• Pc-Write word processor 

• Pc-Calc Spreadsheet 

• Pc-File Database 

• Print Spooler 

• Ram Disk 

• Runs all popular software 



XT 

COMPATIBLE 



Complete 
system 



only 



699 



95 



Hardware Included 

• 4.77 mhz and 8mhz Turbo 

• 360k Floppy Disk Drive 

• Monochrome or Color Card 

• At style Case w/pwr light & key 

• Game, Printer and Serial Port 

• Real Time Clock 

• 150 watt power supply 

• 640k memory 

• At keyboard optional expanded 

• Monochrome Monitor 

• Optional Hard Disk Drive 



PRINTER CABLES AND 
INTERFACES AVAILABLE 
Call for current pricing 




NX10 (New 120CPS NLQ 80 col.) 19995 
NX15 (New 120CPS NLQ 132 col.) 349 95 

PANASONIC PRINTER 

10801 (New 120CPS NLQ 80 col.) 



17995 



Complete Packages 



229 95 



NX10 



25995 



10801 

includes: includes: 

• Panasonic 10801 Printer • Star NX10 Printer 

• Interface • Interface 

• Screen Dump Program • Screen Dump Program 




Serial to Parallel Interface 
for Color Computer I, II, III 



• 300-19,200 BAUD rates only 

• External to printer — No AC plugs 

• Built in modem/printer switch — 
No need for Y-cables or plugging/ 
unplugging cables Power SU PP'V + 500 



54 



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19* 


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29 95 


Enables your CoCo to operate 


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Uxbridge, MA 01569 
■ 617-278-6555 



Screen Dump Program 19 95 

The best screen dump program for the Epson & 
Star printers ever!! Have the option of standard 
images reverse w/regular or double sized pictures. 

Dealer Inquiries invited 
617-278-6555 

Call us today! 617-278-6555 

Order Toll Free 1-800-635-0300 



RAINBOW 



Give us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists in showing the Color Computer world your 
high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in THE RAINBOW'S 
"Scoreboard" column. All entries must be received 60 days prior to publication. Entries should be printed — 
legibly — and must include your full name, address, game title, company name and, of course, your high score. 
Each individual is limited to three score entries per month. Send your entries to Scoreboard, c/o THE RAINBOW. 
The "Rainbow Scoreboard" is now a bimonthly feature. 

For greater convenience, your high scores may also be sent to us through the MAIL section of our Delphi 
CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then type SEND and address to: EDITORS. 



* Current Record Holder 



Shutout 



* 

★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★i 



ADVANCED STAR*TRENCH (THE RAINBOW. 7/86) 
3,975 ★David Schalter, Clarkston, WA 
3,960 Maurice MacGarvey, Dawson Creek, 

British Columbia 
3,960 Robbi Smith, Helena, HI 
3,800 Shaw Muniz, Los Angeles, CA 
2,600 John Fredericks, Kalkaska, Ml 
2,450 Blain Jamieson, Kingston, Ontario 
ANDRONE (Radio Shack) 

107,901 *Steve Nealon, St. Louis, MO 
85,240 Judy Haviland, Caldwell, ID 
81,375 Corey Jackson, Monongahela, PA 
71,035 Quinn Grantor, Bismark, ND 
63,600 Maurice MacGarvey, Dawson Creek, 

British Columbia 
58,200 Scott Bellman, Bettendorf, IA 
BALLOON (THE RAINBOW, 6/87) 

1,500 ★Daniel Streidt, Cairo, Egypt 
BIOSPHERE (Radio Shack) 

25,345 ★Robert St. Pierre, Coventry. Rl 
21 ,372 Randall Edwards, Dunlap. KS 
1 0,056 Carlos Gameros. El Paso. TX 
3,101 Vincent Knight, Harvey. IL 
2,491 Robert de Lambert, Everett, WA 
BOUNCING BOULDERS (Diecom) 

3,994 ★Louis Boucherd, Gatineau, Quebec 
1,561 Lise Nantel, L'Acadie, Quebec 
36 Andre Grenier, Quebec, Canada 
BOXING (THE RAINBOW, 8/86) 

7.075 ★Steve Bullard, Allen, OK 
995 Jonathan Wanagel, Freeville, NY 
940 Chris Norman. Liberty, PA 
775 Patricio Gonzalez, Buenos Aires, 

Argentina 
775 Quinn Grantor, Bismark, ND 
720 Konnie Siewierskl, Schaumburg, IL 
600 Adam Broughton, Morris, PA 
BREWMASTER (Novasott) 

1 20,375 ★Thomas Crowe, Colombia, South 
Am©ric3 

BUBBLE WARS (THE RAINBOW. 2/66) 

42,800 ★Blain Jamieson, Kingston, Ontario 
41,400 Becky Rumpel, Arcadia, Wl 

BUZZARD BAIT (Tom Mix) 

763,550 *Geran Stalker, Rivordalo, GA 

CANYON CLIMBER (Radio Shack) 

150,200 ★Brian Lewis, Baltimore, MD 
145,800 Darren King, Yorkton, Saskatchewan 
135,600 Eric Rose. Grand Coulee, WA 
125,000 Tony Fortlno, Tacoma, WA 
1 12,700 Jesse Binns, Phoenix. AZ 
100,400 Michelle Schiessl, Menasha, Wl 

CASTLE (THE RAINBOW, 6/86) 

326,352 ★Richard Donnell, Penns Grove, NJ 
228,622 John Broussard Jr.. Alexandria, LA 
202,659 Brendan Powell, La Grande. OR 
116,606 Darryn Bearisto. New Carlisle, 
Quebec 

93,672 Maurice MacGarvey, Dawson Creek, 
British Columbia 
CLOWNS & BALLOONS (Radio Shack) 

1 1 ,650 ★Clitf Armoogan, Las Vegas, N V 
COLOR BASEBALL (Radio Shack) 

999-0 ★•Erik Munson. Tucson, AZ 
999-0 ★•Danny Wimett, Rome, NY 



998-0 »Eugene Paoli, Wilmington, DE 
982-0 »Geran Stalker, Rivordalo, GA 
866-1 Ghislain Chillis, Trois-Rivleres, 
Quebec 

814-0 »John Licata, Richton Park, IL 
814-1 Frank D'Amato, Brooklyn, NY 

COMMANDO (THE RAINBOW, 2/86) 

8,900 ★Robbie Smith, Helena, HI 
8,530 Becky Rumpel, Arcadia, Wl 
8,491 Robert Bergmann, Milwaukee, Wl 

DALLAS QUEST (Radio Shack) 

86 ★Melanie Moor, Florence, AL 

87 Douglas Bell, Duncan, OK 
87 David & Shirley Johnson. 

Leicester, NC 
87 Paul Summers, Orange Park, FL 
89 Chris Plche. White Rock, British 

Columbia 
89 Milan Parekh, Fullerton, CA 
89 Andrew Urquhart, Metairie. LA 

89 Steve Zemaitis, Howell, Ml 

90 Roy Grant, Toledo. OH 

91 John Semonin, Akron, OH 
DECATHALON (Spectral Associates) 

10,368 ★Sylvaln Duguay, St, Bruno, Quebec 
DEF MOV (THE RAINBOW, 1/87) 

30,892 *Henry Patterson, Marshall. TX 
30,051 DaveAllessi. Iselin, NJ 
29,274 Daniel Streidt, Cairo, Egypt 
27,346 Stephane Martel. Laval, Quebec 
23,530 Patrick Martel, Laval, Quebec 
DEMOLITION DERBY (Radio Shack) 
210,700 *Duke Davis, Sandwich. IL 
124,000 Judy Haviland, Caldwell, ID 
DEMON ATTACK (Imagic) 

28,780 ★Daniel Streidt, Cairo, Egypt 
4,960 Laundre Clemon, Sacramento, CA 
DEVIL ASSAULT (Tom Mix) 

623,550 ★Dale Krueger, Maple Ridge, British 
Columbia 

75,000 Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
59,200 Stephane Martel, Laval, Quebec 

DISCRIMINATION (THE RAINBOW, 1/87) 

19 ★Patrick Martel, Laval, Quebec 

DOODLEBUG (Computerware) 
10,099,1 10 *Andre Grenier, Valleyfield, Quebec 

DOUBLE BACK (Radio Shack) 

34,560 *Laundre Clemon. Sacramento. CA 

DOWNLAND (Radio Shack) 

99,980 *Danny Wimett, Rome. NY 
98,985 Karl Gulllford, Summerville, SC 
97,740 Stephane Deshaies. Beloell, Quebec 
89.490 Neil Edge, Williston, FL 
77,254 Tom Audas, Fremont, CA 
73.346 Jean-Francois Morin, Loretteville, 
Quebec 

70,142 Chris Goodman, Baltimore, MD 
68,142 Cooper Valentin, Vavenby, 

British Columbia 
67,721 Keith Yampanis, Jaffrey, NH 
62,442 Eddie Lawrence, Pasadena, 

Newfoundland 
55,300 Patrico Gonzalez, Buenos Aires. 

Argentina 

49,500 Danny Perkins, Clifton Forge, VA 



43,502 Mike Ells, Charlotte, Ml 
40.360 Jesse Binns, Phoenix. AZ 

34.424 Andrea Mayfield, Melbourne, FL 
25,147 Timothy O'Neal. Commerce, TX 
1 8,251 Sam DiCerce. Willowich. OH 
16,239 Stephane Martel, Laval, Quebec 
14.523 Steve Nealon, St. Louis, MO 

DRAGON BLADE (Prickly-Pear) 

69 *Jason Damron, Folsom, CA 
ENCHANTER (Infocom) 

400/212 ★Charly Rushing, Santa Rosa, CA 
400/621 Brad WiJson. Lithia Springs, GA 
400/431 Truman Bryerton, Jr., B.Ville. NY 
224/358 Joseph Delaney, Augusta, GA 
185/186 David Tarleton, Williamsburg, VA 
ESCAPE 2012 (Computerware) 

202 *Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 
EVICTOR (THE RAINBOW, 7/86) 

12,915 ★Spencer Metcalf, Longview, TX 
10.560 Patricio Gonzalez, Buenos Aires, 
Argentina 

FALCON'S LAIR (THE RAINBOW, 8/85) 

45.425 ★Talib Khan, Bronx. NY 
FIRESTORM (THE RAINBOW, 1/86) 

5,680 ★Kathy Rumpel. Arcadia, Wl 
3,760 Rick Beevers, Bloomfield. MN 
3,505 Blake Cadmus. Reading. PA 
GALACTIC ATTACK (Radio Shack) 

9,930 ★Daniel Streidt. Cairo, Egypt 
GALAGON (Spectral Associates) 

169,410 *Danny Dunne. Plttsfield, NH 
149,520 Vernon Johnson III, Parkville, MD 
1 16,280 Scott Jamison. Billerica. MA 
107,570 Kyle Madruga. Hanford. CA 
104,870 Chris Dunne. Pittsfield. NH 
98,770 Etienne Duguay. St. Bruno. Quebec 
73.520 Neil Edge, Williston. FL 
GALAX ATTACK (Spectral Associates) 

236,350 ★Corey Leopold. Nada. TX 
GALLOPING GAMBLERS (THE RAINBOW, 12/85) 

3,427,660 *Sean Lair, Ewing. MO 
GANTELET (Diecom Products) 
23,643,720 *Geran Stalker, Rivordalo. GA 
20,921,490 Randall Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
10,020.500 Ken Hubbard. Madison, Wl 
7,493,340 Stirling Dell, Dundalk, Ontario 
2,512,620 Jason Steele, Pensacola. FL 
2,312,640 Rory Kostman. Hershey, NE 
2, 1 1 5.790 Jerry Honigman, Waggoner, IL 
2,011,200 Jerry Colbert. Bakersfleld. CA 
1 , 1 08,750 Robert Fox, Dover. OH 
1,094,280 Donnle Pearson. Arvada, CO 
1 .081 ,530 Michael Wallace, Bronx. NY 
1,025,900 John Hotaling, Duanesburg. NY 
1,016,050 Edward Swatek. Chicago, IL 
933,740 Yvan Langlois. Laval, Quebec 
932,660 Brian Hunter, South Berwick, ME 
787,780 Brad Wilson, Lithia Springs. GA 
685,840 Karen Jessen, Cleveland, OH 
667,390 Robbie Smith, Helena, HI 
456,220 Scott Jamison. Billerica. MA 
410,868 Billy Helmick, Independence, KY 
79.570 David Gordon. Pierre, SD 
GHANA BWANA (Radio Shack) 

523,080 ★Joseph Delaney, Augusta, GA 



86 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 




GIN CHAMPION (Radio Shack) 

1.456 ★Lee Deuell, Shell Rock, IA 
GOLD RUNNER (NovasoH) 

1,088,240 *Bob Hester, Arlington, TX 
HOME ROW BOMBER (THE RAINBOW, 1/87) 
6,384 *Timothy Hennon, Highland, IN 
2,420 Stephane & Patrick Martel, Laval, 
Quebec 

JOKER POKER (THE RAINBOW, 3/87) 

2,793,285 *Blaln Jamieson, Kingston, Ontario 
JUNIOR'S REVENGE (Computerware) 

257,600 *Keith Cohen. Rocky Mount, NC 
JUNKFOOD (THE RAINBOW, 11/84) 

18,650 *Daniel Streidt, Cairo, Egypt 
KAMAKAZIE KAR (THE RAINBOW, 8/85) 
206.45 *Kathy Rumpel, Arcadia. Wl 
144.85 Chris Piche. White Rock. British 
Columbia 

123.55 Steven Darden, Woodson Terrace, 
MO 

83.85 Dan Dawson, Fort Wayne, IN 
75.75 Tim Glenn, Havertown, PA 
KARATE (Diecom Products) 

6,300 *David Darling, Longlac, Ontario 
THE KING (Tom Mix) 
3,824,280 *Andre Grenier, Quebec, Canada 
22,400 Spencer Metcalf, Longview, TX 
KNOCK OUT (Diecom Products) 

183,675 *Rush Caley, Port Orchard, WA 
181,085 Rush Caley, Port Orchard, WA 
174,150 Vernon Johnson III, Parkville, MD 
168,385 John Licata, Rlchton Park, IL 
161,125 Christian Grenier, Valleyfield, Quebec 
149,190 Daniel Lesage, Laval, Quebec 
KORONIS RIFT (Epyx) 

84.830 *Thomas Beruhelmer, Yoru, PA 
11,430 Timothy Hennon, Highland, IN 
2.785 Tony Rapson, Tulsa, OK 
LANCER (Spectral Associates) 

567,200 *Luke Birinyi, Pefferlaw. Ontario 
227,800 Andre Grenier, Valleyfield. Quebec 
178,800 Christian Grenier, Valleyfield, Quebec 
99,700 David Kauffman, South Haven, Ml 
LUNCHTIME (Nova&oft) 

42,025 *Steve Place, Webster, NY 
26,425 Joshua Conley, Springfield, OH 
MICROBES (Radio Shack) 

337,880 *Judy Haviland, Caldwell, ID 
121,330 Minesh Patel, Benton, AR 
77,700 Brian Abeling, Monticello, IA 
MINIGOLF (THE RAINBOW, 5/86) 

21 *Chris Lynd, Groesbeck, TX 
23 Daniel Bradford. Birmingham, AL 
23 Wilfrid Sloan, Newport-on-Tay, 
Scotland 

25 Richard Donnell, Penns Grove, NJ 
25 Billy Helmick, Independence, KY 
32 Chris Banas, Norlh West Territories, 
Canada 

MISSION: F-16 ASSAULT (Diecom Products) 
468,750 *Karen Jessen. Cleveland, OH 
355,570 Stirling Dell, Dundalk, Ontario 
318.160 Jeremy Pruski, Sandwich, IL 
127,550 Michael Heitz. Chicago, IL 
120,670 Vernon Johnson III, Parkville, MD 
49.630 Edward Swatek, Chicago, IL 
45,500 Chuck Morey. Bakersfield, CA 
45.375 Chris Wright. New Albany. IN 
MR. DIG (Computerware) 

357,450 *Keith Cohen. Rocky Mount. NC 
NUKE AVENGER 2( T & D Software) 
60.250 *Doug Lute. Clymer, PA 

OMNIVERSE (Computerware) 

1 1 2 *Roy Grant. Toledo. OH 



ONE-ON-ONE (Radio Shack) 

1,204-0 *»Chad Johnson, Benton, AR 
1,160-0 »Mark Lang, DownievJIle, CA 
1 ,132-23 Dan Liffmann, Andover. MA 
1,106-15 Rick Beevers, Bloomfield, NM 
1,086-17 David Blankenship, Princeton, WV 
1,078-2 Toby Jacobs, Belief ontaine, OH 
1 ,064-16 Tim De Jong, Rock Valley, IA 
1,028-60 Jamie Keels, Gulfport, MS 
PAC DROIDS (Programmer's Guild) 

19,710 *Jody Ronning, Melrose, Wl 
PAPER ROUTE (Diecom Products) 
1,120.350 *Neil Haupt, Elyria, OH 
1,059,350 David Kauffman, South Haven, Ml 
830,950 Christopher Darden. Woodson 

Terrace, MO 
720,560 Konnie Siewierski, Schaumburg, IL 
531,600 Larry Shelton, Marion, IL 
160.450 Holly Forsberg, Wheaton, IL 
PINBALLfflad/o Shack) 

142,400 ★Thomas Payton, Anderson, SC 
PITSTOP M (Epyx) 

51 *Chrlstian Grenier, Valleyfield, Quebec 
9 Laundre Clemon, Sacramento, CA 
POOYAN (Datasoft) 

99.500,300 *Danny Wimett. Rome. NY 
97,500,000 Rich Fiore, Clemson, SC 
54,500,000 Carlos Gameros, El Paso, TX 
3,785,000 Ben Collins, Clemson, SC 
1,987,000 Jon Sowle, Sanford. FL 
1,546,000 Jason Maxwell, Manchester, TN 
709,750 Shawn Bonning, Sayre, PA 
QUIX (Tom Mix) 
8,407,772 *John Haldane, Tempe, AZ 
1 ,404,000 Curtis Goodson, Sao Paulo, Brazil 
1,003,104 Elisa Goodsori, Sao Paulo, Brazil 
205,335 John Hotaling, Duanesburg, NY 
104,034 Christopher Conley, 

North Attleboro. MA 
38,957 Patrick Martel, Laval, Quebec 
19,410 Thomas Crowe, Colombia, South 
America 
RADIO BALL (Radio Shack) 
6,330,350 *Myrlam Ferland, Trois-Rlvieres, 
Quebec 

4,510,740 Les Dorn, Eau Claire, Wl 
1 ,945, 1 1 0 Dominic Deguire, St. Basile, Quebec 
1 ,768,940 Brian Buss, Whitehall, PA 
1,631 ,750 David Del Purgatorlo, Antioch, CA 
RAIDERS (THE RAINBOW, 11/86) 

2,100 ★Dave Allessl, Iselin, NJ 
REACTOIDS (Radio Shack) 

483.020 *Henry Patterson. Marshall, TX 
49,375 Daniel Streidt, Cairo, Egypt 
ROGUE (Epyx) 

17,851 *Yvan Langlois, Laval, Quebec 
4,508 Tony Rapson, Tulsa, OK 
SALVAGE OF THE ASTRONAUTS (THE RAINBOW, 9/86) 

1,090 *Spencer Metcalf, Longview, TX 
SANDS OF EGYPT (Radio Shack) 

87 ★Nell Haupt, Elyria, OH 
SANDWORM (THE RAINBOW, 8/86) 

737 *Beeky Rumpel, Arcadia, Wl 
355 Matthew Smith, Denman Island, 
British Columbia 
SHAMUS (Radio Shack) 

1 20,480 *Lynn Shrewsberry, Sunnyside, WA 
47,260 Jamie Keels, Gulfport, MS 
38,075 Kay Shrewsberry, Sunnyside, WA 
SPACE AMBUSH (Computerware) 

30,400 *Thomas Crowe, Colombia, South 
America 

SPEED RACER (MichTron) 

130,720 *Patricio Gonzalez, Buenos Aires, 
Argentina 



SPIDERCIDE (Radio Shack) 

6,170 *Talib Khan, Bronx, NY 
3,820 Eddie Lawrence, Pasadena, 

Newfoundland 
3.540 James Church, Pointe Claire, Quebec 
2,550 Charles Marlow. Briarwood, NY 
2,000 Mike Watson, Northvllle. NY 
1,740 Joel DeYoung, Manson, Maniloba ^ 
STARLORD (THE RAINBOW, 8/86) ^ 
10,489,710 ^Frederick Lajoie. Nova Scotia, I 
Canada 

STELLAR LIFE-LINE (Radio Shack) 

829,000 ★Steven Smith, Matthews, NC 
SUCCESS MANSION (THE RAINBOW, 1/87) ^ 

13/13 ★Dave Allessi, Iselin, NJ 
SUPER ROOTER (THE RAINBOW, 5/86) 

1 1 ,090 ^Frederick Lajoie, Nova Scotia, 
Canada 

3,910 Daniel Bradford, Birmingham, AL 
TEMPLE OF ROM (Radio Shack) 

303.600 *Tim Hennon, Highland. IN 
TUT'S TUMB (Mark Data) <M 
60.020 ★Don'SHer. Muncie, IN J* 
45,000 Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA ^ 
VARLOC (Radio Shack) ^ 
2,032 *Tony Harbin, Cullman, AL W 
2,008 Philip Pufflnburger, Winchester, VA *^ 
1,995 Denise Rowan, Minneapolis, MN ^ 
1,988 Randall Edwards. Dunlap, KS 
1,975 Bernard Florence, Croydon, Australia v 
1,968 Donnie Pearson, Arvada, CO 
1,952 Lynn Shrewsberry, Sunnyside. WA ^ 
1,908 Domenick Doran, Coram, NY 
VICIOUS VIC (THE RAINBOW, 7/86) ^ 
18,813 *Talib Khan. Bronx, NY V 
10,489 Karl Gulllford, Summerville.SC 
6,294 Pat O'Neill, Nepean, Ontario W 
4,643 Martha James, Swarthmore, PA 
3,285 Richard Donnell, Penns Grove, NJ 
THE VORTEX FACTOR (Mark Data) *m 
100/276 *Tommy Crouser, Dunbar, WV [ 
100/483 Rick & Brenda Stump, 

Laureldale, PA ~ 
210 Paul Maxwell, Vancouver, 
British Columbia 
WARP FACTOR X (Prickiy-Pear) 

5,829,559 *Doug Lute, Clymer, PA 
WILD WEST (Tom Mix) ^ 

38 *Nell Haupt. Elyria, OH 
WRESTLE MANIAC (Diecom) I 
546,315 *Louis Bouchard, Gatineau, Quebec 
39,086 Billy Helmick, Independence, KY ^ 
5,000 Christian Grenier, Quebec, Canada 
ZAXXON (DatasoO.) ^ 
2,06t,000 *Byron Alford, Raytown, MO W 
1,950,000 Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
1,300,500 Dan Brown, Pittsford, NY ^ 
1,100,600 Andrew Urquhart, Metairie, LA 
253,400 Bob Dewitt, Blue Island, IL ^ 
163,700 Daniel Bradford. Birmingham, AL 
119,600 Daniel Streidt, Cairo, Egypt ^ 
111,400 Jeff Miller, Bronson. Ml 
83,700 David Darling. Longlac. Ontario 
72,800 Tom Maccarone, Swampscott, MA 
67,400 Carlos Gameros, El Paso, TX 
59,800 Garrett Stangel, Milwaukee, Wl 
1 1 .400 Mike Ells, Charlotte, M I 
ZONX (THE RAINBOW, 10/85) 

6,500 *Daniel Streidt, Cairo, Egypt 



— Jody Doyle 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 87 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^ 



QREBOARD POINTER 



In conjunction with the rainbow's Scoreboard, which appears 
bimonthly, we offer this column of pointers for our game-playing 
readers' benefit. If you have some interesting hints, tips or responses 
to questions, or want help yourself, we encourage you to write to the 
Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. a 



FEEDBACK 

In response to letters from: 

• Derek Myall: In Knock Out, the first 
thing to remember about the Knock Out 
Kid is that no matter how hard you try, 
the Knock Out Kid is much faster than 
you, so don't use the Knock Out punch. 
Once you start punching, don't stop. 
When he walks into the ring, literally get 
your fists up. 

Konnie Siewierski 
Schaumburg, IL 

• Travis Stramer: In Raaku-Tu, try 
lighting the candle in the petite chamber, 
enter the room and attack the gargoyle 
with the candle. 

Roger Ranee 
Charleston, SC 

• Chuck Poynter: In Hitchhiker's Guide 
to the Galaxy, after Ford shows up, don't 
take the towel from him, just keep wait- 
ing. He will then talk with Prosser and 
lay down for you. 

Brendan Powell 
La Grande, OR 

• David Harris and Bill Marks: To get 
the second key for the apartment with the 
Rio sign on it in the Interbank Incident, 
go to the casino in Rio and bribe Rolf, 
the doorman, and he will usually give you 
a token. Go inside the casino and put the 
token in the slot machine closest to you. 
You will receive the skeleton key that 
opens the locker on the yacht and the 
door on the apartment in Seattle. 

I can't get inside the apartment. I used 
both keys to unlock the two locks on the 
door but nothing happens. 

Del Scharff 
Spring Lake Park, MN 

• George Lane: In Sands of Egypt, the 
canteen is obtained by going east three 
times afteryou kill the snake. Toget back 
to the pool, feed and mount the camel. 
Ride the camel and dismount. Use the 
palm fronds to make a rope. To do this, 
type MRKE ROPE and BRAID FRONDS. 

Eddie Baker 
Lincoln Park, NJ 



• Amber Murray: To incant the Vulcan 
ring in Dungeons of Daggorath, type 
INCANT FIRE. The torches will reveal 
themselves after you kill both blobs. 

• Richard Little: To kill the blobs in 
Dungeons of Daggorath, try attacking 
twice, move back, attack, move back, 
etc., until they're dead. Try the same 
process on the warrior on Level 2. There 
are no scrolls or flasks on Level I . 

• Daniel Bradford: In Zaxxon, to refuel 
you must destroy the cylinders. You may 
want to memorize positions on the screen 
where you are safe at certain times. 

Jeff Coburn 
Easton, PA 

Scoreboard: 

In Dungeons of Daggorath, I always 
get a ring. When I reveal it, it's a Vulcan 
ring. What is the correct incantation? 
What creature has a flask? What creature 
holds an "iron" sword? 

On the third level, an invisible creature 
kills me. How do I see it? What is the 
creature? 

Ron Smith 
Oak Ridge, NJ 

Scoreboard: 

How do you destroy the evil knights in 
Dungeons of Daggorath! I would also 
like to know about the scorpions, wraiths 
and the goldrogs, and how to defeat 
them. 

Shawn Bonning 
Sayre, PA 

Scoreboard: 

In Sea Search, how do you get the 
speargun, and what is the balloon used 
for? How do you unstick the anchor from 
the sand, and how do you check the air 
gauge on the tanks? 

I also need help with the following 
games from Owl's Nest Software: Ba- 
shan, Four Mile, ESP Island and Atlan- 
tis. I am able to move from place to place, 
but I am unable to get anything accom- 
plished. 

Nil a Grose 
Manheim, PA 



Scoreboard: 

How do I get to the bean plant in 
Pyramid! I know that once I find it, I'm 
supposed to water it twice so it will reach 
the hole. How do I get past the snake? 

After the mummy has stolen all your 
treasures, enter the maze to get them 
back. 

Ian Harrell 
Mt. Airy, NC 

Scoreboard: 

I have examined every inch of every 
room in Pyramid and can't find the final 
treasure. 

M.K. Watts 
San Diego, CA 

Scoreboard: 

I have Pyramid 2000 and have gotten 
up to 180 points, but then I am stuck. 
What are the magazines for and what 
does PLUGH mean and where do I use it? 

The bird statue has a great effect on the 
serpent, and the word "strong" doesn't 
mean physical strength. 

Clint Wessels 
Willow River, British Columbia 

Scoreboard: 

In Dallas Quest, once you get to the 
Chugalug Trading Post and you give the 
monkey the tobacco and he takes the 
cover off the trap door, how do you go 
down the ladder? 

In Sands of Egypt, where is the scepter 
for the drain cover in the swimming pool? 

Mike Duval I 
Zanesville, OH 

Scoreboard: 

In Wrestle Maniac, go into the top- left 
corner of the ring and move directly 
down. Wait for your opponent to come 
in front of you and move your joystick 
to the left and hold it there until the 
opponent is thrown into the ropes. 

Ryan Clark 
Pascagoula, MS 

Scoreboard: 

In Sands of Egypt, I am in the under- 
ground canal and I have the ladder, but 
I can't figure out how to get out. Does 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^ 



88 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



it have something to do with the hole in 
the ceiling? If so, how do I get up? 

Jason Mielke 
Oakfield, WI 

Scoreboard: 

In Sands of Egypt, all I have found are 
the magnifier, shovel, torch, rope, can- 
teen and the snake. How do I get further 
in the game? 

Allen Bell 
Atoka, OK 

Scoreboard: 

In Zork I, how do you unlock the 
grating and what do you do with the 
chain on the basket? In Cutthroats, how 
do you get into the lighthouse, the barren 
field and the back doors? 

Louie Elliott 
Cowan, TN 

Scoreboard: 

In Vortex Factor, how do I get to 
Cairo? I have read that you should go to 
London 1200, but I can't get there. 

Also, in Hitchhiker's Guide to the 
Galaxy, I am left alone on the Heart of 
Gold. Nothing I havetried has impressed 
the door to open for me. 

Brit Rothrock 
Roanoke, VA 

Scoreboard: 

In Raaku-Tu, I can find my way to the 
room with the gargoyle, but I can't find 
the candle or the lamp. How do you get 
across the rug to the east door? 

Tim Collett 
Polk, NE 

Scoreboard: 

I have the food, sword, lamp, candle, 
lever, chopstick, ring and idol after 
putting the coin in the slot in Raaku-Tu, 
but what's next? 

Michael Sargent 
Pine Bluff, AR 

Scoreboard: 

How do you build a chip for the sound- 
locked room on Level 5 in Robot Odys- 
sey! 

Melvin Grow 
Alameda, CA 

Scoreboard: 

To steal the Heart of Gold in Hitchhik- 
er's Guide to the Galaxy, you must shoot 
the rifles. To get Prosser to lie down in 
f ront of the bulldozer, you simply tell him 
to. First, concentrate on time traveling 
and collecting all objects you come upon. 
After this, you can get real tea. 

To get the plotter, you must type 
TYPE". To avoid being killed by a flying 
brick, you must get away from the house. 



In Mythology, what idea does Icarus 
need? In CoCoZone, how do you get the 
oxygen? 

Mike Morrell 
Lilburn, GA 

Scoreboard: 

How do I get my lifeboat to stop 
sinking in Blackbeard's Island? 

Doug Berry 
Huntington, WV 

Scoreboard: 

How do I pass the shark in Sea Quest? 

Ian Renauld 
St. Eustache, Quebec 

Scoreboard: 

I went to the field and killed the first 
spider in Trekboer, then at the grate 
there's another spider. How can I manage 
to kill the second spider? In Sea Quest, 
I f ound the golden anchor, a ring, a pearl 
and the silver bars, but I can't find the 
treasure. 

How do I squeeze the lime in Vortex 
Factor over the battery? In Black Sanc- 
tum, I cannot find a container when I 
want to bring snow with me. 

Daniel Streidt 
Cairo, Egypt 

Scoreboard: 

In The Magic of Zanth, I can't find a 
way past the lake. No matter which way 
I go, the dragon eats me. How do I find 
out what the "something" is that is on the 
bottom of the lake? 

Randy Pischke 
West Germany 

Scoreboard: 

In Magic of Zanth, I am stuck at the 
lake. If I try swimming it, I get "and you 
swim f or awhile" over and over. There is 
something beneath the water, but I can't 
find out what it is. Also, I have been 
unable to open the bottle. 

Joan Michel 
Kennewick, WA 



Scoreboard: 

In Castle Thuudo, what do you do at 
the door? In Enchanter, how do you get 
past the hammers after you have passed 
them once? 

In Treasure of the Aztecs, what do you 
do at the brick wall and at the hut? In 
Color Car, how do you get past the third 
stage? 

How do you get past the wraith in 
Martian Crypt? 

Neil Lehouillier 
Debden, Saskatchewan 



Scoreboard: 

Where is the rope I need to get down 
the cliff in Shenanigans'? 

Greg Barnes 
Columbia Station, OH 

Scoreboard: 

H ow do you find the "Right Direction" 
in Omniverse? 

Audrey De Lisle 
San Francisco, CA 

Scoreboard: 

How do you pass the sheer wall in 
Martian Cryptl How do you pass the 
alcove in Black Sanctum! 

Ian Renauld 
St. Eustache, Quebec 

Scoreboard: 

In Dragon's Blade, rest in a restive 
place and shoot things you can't reach. 
The witch enjoys powerful things and 
you should dig in a grave situation. 
Saplings make great poles and wearing 
helmets are considered to be good luck. 

In the temple, say what is on the scroll. 
Throwing boulders may save your life 
and search treasure carefully. Logs can 
float and can also be guided. The holy 
symbol will get you past the stone door, 
if you use it a certain way. Get the Dragon 
Blade, and win the game. 

Jason Damron 
Folsom, CA 

Scoreboard: 

In CoCo Zone, how do you get past the 
spider web? In Dallas Quest, where do 
you find the lamp? 

In Success Mansion, where do you find 
Scroll 4, Scroll 6, Scroll 10 and Scroll 1 2? 

Hatton Humphrey 
Bonham, TX 



To respond to other readers' inquiries 
and requests for assistance, reply to 
"Scoreboard Pointers," c/o THE RAIN- 
BOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 
We will immediately forward your letter to 
the original respondent and, just as impor- 
tantly, we'll share your reply with all 
"Scoreboard" readers in an upcoming 
issue. 

For greater convenience, "Scoreboard 
Pointers" and requests for assistance may 
also be sent to us through the MAIL 
section of our Delphi CoCoSIG. From the 
CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then 
type SEND and address to: EDITORS. Be 
sure to include your complete name and 
address. 

— Jody Doyle 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 89 



Getting Geared Up for 
Safer Driving 

By Fred B. Scerbo 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Editor's Note: If you have an idea for 
the " Wishing Well, " submit it to Fred 
c/o THE RAINBOW. Remember, keep 
your ideas specific, and don f t forget that 
this is BASIC. All programs resulting 
from your wishes are for your use, but 
remain the properly of the author. 



It's already "back to school" time, 
and, as usual, our trusty CoCo can 
look forward to another season of 
educational applications for those of 
you fortunate enough to have a CoCo 
as a resource. Tn the past few years, we 
havecovered a multitude of educational 
topics including math, grammar, 
science, life skills and on and on. What 
educational areas haven't we touched 
upon? Ts there a field? 

Sure enough, a suggestion finally 
came my way for a significant educa- 
tional field that J haven't seen any 
programs on: driver's education. There- 
fore, after many letters suggesting as 
many practical educational programs as 
I could come up with, I put together 
Road Skills for this month's "Wishing 
Well." It is a full-fledged driver's educa- 
tion instructional program that will 



Fred Scerbo is a special needs instructor 
for the North Adams Public Schools in 
North Adams, Massachusetts. He holds 
a master's in education and has pub- 
lished some of the first software avail- 
able for the Color Computer through 
his software firm, Illustrated Memory 
Banks. 



work on Color Computers 1, 2 and 3. 
(Sorry, no MC- 10 on this one; too many 
pokes.) 

Why Driver's Ed? 

With all of the concern about drunk 
driving and the many fatalities caused 
by it each year, driver's education has 
become more important with each 
passing year. Add to that the movement 
toward our becoming an increasingly 
mobile society, as well as peer pressure 
for young people to have their own 
wheels, and you will soon realize that 
good road knowledge is actually an 
essential survival skill. 

When you think about it, computers 
are ideal tools for reinforcing knowl- 
edge of driving regulations and good 
driving skills. After all, don't pilots train 
in simulators that graphically teach 
them the skills needed to fly? More 
people drive than fly, so sharp driving 
skills can benefit a larger segment of the 
population — those exposed to the 
dangers of reckless driving. 

Road Skills is not supposed to be a 
graphic, driver-training simulator. 
After all, most "Wishing Well" pro- 
grams are written in less than a month's 
time. A graphics driving program is a 
possibility, but that will take a little 
more time. (Road Skills II may become 
a reality sometime in the next year if 
time permits.) 

Instead, Road Skills is designed to 
review some major road regulations 
that are common to all 50 states, as well 
as some graphics illustrations of right- 



of-way situations. (Since automobile 
and driver licensing is a function of state 
governments, there are some variations 
in requirements and regulations from 
state to state. Therefore, I have tried to 
center on the areas that are the same 
from state to state.) 

Every state requires some type of pre- 
test before awarding a learner's permit 
and road training. Most often, this test 
is in written form, so it only makes sense 
to review knowledge of the written road 
regulations before any type of simula- 
tion is even attempted. 

The Program 

Road Skills is somewhat like some of 
the older quiz programs that have 
appeared in past articles of the "Wish- 
ing Well." However, this program is 
constructed differently in two ways. 

First, a graphics Simulation is in- 
cluded at the end of the review section; 
it shows a bird's-eye view of a four-way 
intersection with two cars approaching. 
The right of way is illustrated in each 
example in a way that will help you 
visualize who may or may not proceed. 

Secondly, the written section, unlike 
previous quiz programs, can actually 
merge the correct response to the cor- 
responding statement and allow you to 
review all the material in sentence form 
before even taking the quiz. This is 
especially useful since it makes the 
program instructional in nature, rather 
than diagnostic. (Some of you may 
recall that this is my big gripe with 
commercial educational software.) 



90 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



Therefore, we have a totally new 
program that you can add to if there are 
additional driver's skills you would like 
to see reviewed, which are applicable to 
the state you live in. (This information 
was taken from the Massachusetts 
Driver's Learner's Permit booklet. I 
have included 30 statements, but there 
is room for up to 50 so you can add your 
own. In Massachusetts, you must cor- 
rectly answer seven of 10 multiple- 
choice questions when you take the test 
at the Registry of Motor Vehicles.) 

Another change is that I have put this 
entire program into an inverse video 
screen using pokes. Each printed state- 
ment is made equal to Jl<$ and then sent 
to the video subroutine starting in Line 
375. The string is broken down using the 
MID$ command, and the ASCII value 
of each character is poked inversely to 
the screen. This gives you a very attrac- 
tive screen to read from. However, it 
also means that you must be very pre- 
cise in how you type in the program, 
since a misplaced poke value could lock 
up your machine. 

This technique also adds a nice, 
gradual, letter-by-letter scroll to the 
printing and wiping of text. I could have 
added speech to this program, but I 
decided against it for two reasons. First, 
the people using this program are likely 
to be teenagers, so artificial speech 
would most certainly seem too much 
like a gimmick. Second, it would re- 
quire restructuring most of the text so 
the Speech Pak could correctly pro- 
nounce most of it. This would make the 
program quite a bit longer. 

Besides, so many of my recent pro- 
grams have been talking programs that 
I was a little afraid to do another one 
and possibly scare away those of you 
who don't have a Speech Pak. (Those 
other programs worked well without 



the Speech Pak, but if you didn't read 
the article or type in the program, the 
heading at the top of the page may have 
scared you away.) 

Using the Program 

On running Road Skills, a "Wishing 
Well" style title screen will appear. You 
have a choice of pressing R for review 
or Q for quiz. Pressing R will let you 
read each of the 30 statements in the 
DRTR file. After reading each statement, 
press ENTER to go on to the next one. 

At the end of the 30 statements, the 
graphics section will begin. Press ENTER 
at the end of each screen to proceed to 
the next. You will notice that the cars, 
marked A and B, will actually drive 
across the streets to accurately display 
who is going in which direction. It took 
a few subroutines, but I think you will 
find it to be a nice effect. 

After you finish with the review, the 
program will return to the start. I chose 
this method rather than going directly 
into the quiz in case anyone wanted to 
review the material more than once 
before trying the quiz. This is much 
better than having to press BREAK and 
' rerun the program. 

When you select Q for quiz, the 
computer will drill you on the 30 state- 
ments (or more if you have added some) 
that you find in the review section. Each 
statement will now have a blank and 
two possible choices, A or B. The order 
of the material and order of the re- 
sponses are totally at random. If you 
answer correctly, the screen will say so. 
If you answer incorrectly, the computer 
will display the correct response when 
you press ENTER. 

You may proceed to each statement 
by pressing ENTER. Pressing the @ key 
will give you the score card. Once you 



are on the score card, you may rerun the 
program by pressing Y (yes), end by 
pressing N (no), or continue where you 
left off by pressing C (continue). If you 
get a passing grade, the screen will 
congratulate you. 

Adding Your Own Data 

You may enter your own data at the 
end of the program before Line 5000 by 
including three pieces of data: 

1) The beginning of a sentence 

2) The correct conclusion 

3) An incorrect conclusion 

Be sure to separate each piece of data 
by acommaand to use quotation marks 
if your sentence has any commas in it. 
Here is an example: 

2000 DRTR "TO STRRT THE CRR , 
INSERT THE", "IGNITION KEY", 
"TRUNK KEY" 

The program will insert the spaces 
and periods. Just be sure to leave Line 
5000 just as it is. 

If you make a mistake in any DRTR 
line, you will get an OD Error. Please 
do not write and tell me that you cannot 
find your DRTR errors. Check each DRTR 
line carefully and the program will 
work! 

Conclusion 

While Road Skills will not ensure 
that your youngster will become a safe 
driver, it can help prepare him or her in 
knowing the essential knowledge that 
leads to safe driving. Let me know if you 
find it useful and whether I should work 
on Road Skills 11 

Until next month, good luck in the 
coming school year. □ 



.74 580 21 



180 
265 
310 
375 
480 



.212 
..57 
.116 
. .77 
.233 



1040 173 

1110 219 

1160 163 

1230 19 

END 200 



The listing: R0RDSKIL 

lj3 REM************************** 
15 REM* ROAD SKILLS INSTRUCTOR * 
2j3 REM* BY FRED B.SCERBO * 
2 5 REM* 6j3 HARDING AVE * 

3j3 REM* NORTH ADAMS, MA j3!2 4 7 * 



35 REM* COPYRIGHT (C) 1987 * 
4j3 REM************************** 
45 CLEAR2j3j3j3:R$=CHR$(12 8) 
5j3 DIM AO(5j3) ,A$(5j3) ,B$(5j3) ,C$(5 
j3) ,NP(5j3) ,C(8) 

55 CLSj3:FORI=lT032 :PRINTCHR$ (172 
) ; : NEXT 

6j3 F0RI=1T0192 : READA: PRINTCHR$ (A 
+128) ; : NEXT 

65 DATA126 / 124 / 122 / 126 / 124 / 122 / 1 
26,124,122,125,124, 12 5, , ,3j3,28,2 
6,29, , ,3j3,2j3,3j3,2j3,3j3,16,2j3,3j3, , 
21,28,29 

7j3 DATA122 , , 122, 122 , , 122 , 122 ,96, 
122,117, ,117, ,,26,, 24, 21, 16, 22,1 
6, / 26, ,26, ,16,26, ,21, ,2j3 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 91 



75 DATA123, 115,122,122, ,122,123, 
115,122,117,9 6,117, , , 27 , 19 , 18 , 2 1 
,22 , 16, ,, 26, ,2 6, , 16,2 6, ,21,19 , 19 
8j3 DATA122, 117, ,122, , 122,122, 112 
,122,117,112,117, H ,2 6,21,20,18 
,,,26, ,26, ,16,26, , , ,21 
85 DATA122, 117, 96, 122, ,122,122, , 
122,117, ,117, ,16,26, ,26,21, ,20,1 
8,, 26,, 26, 21, 16, 26, 21, 21,, 21 
90 DATA122, 117, 114 , 123 , 115, 122 , 1 
22,112,12 2,119,115,119, , ,27,19,2 
6,2 3,18, ,27,17,27,17,27,23,17,27 
,23,21,19,23 

95 F0RI=1T032 :PRINTCHR$ (163) ; : NE 
XT 

100 PRINT@325," INSTRUCTIONAL QU 
IZ " ; 

1) 35 PRINT§357," BY FRED B.SCER 
BO 11 ; 

11) 3 PRINT§389," COPYRIGHT (C) 1 
987 " ; 

115 PRINT@453," (R) EVIEW OR (Q) 
UIZ "; 

12) 3 SW=3)3:KZ=RND (-TIMER) 
125 F0RJ=1T05)3 

13) 3 READA$(J) ,B$(J) ,C$(J) :IF A$ ( 
J)="END II THEN14)3 

135 NEXT J 

14) 3 J=J-1 

145 FORI=143T0255STEP16:KK=KK+l: 
C(KK)=I:NEXT 

15) 3 FORI=lTOJ 
155 AO(I)=RND(J) 

16) 3 IF NP(AO(I))=l THEN155 
165 NP(AO(I) )=1:NEXTI 

17) 3 X$=INKEY$: IFX$="R"THEN185 
175 IFX$="Q"THEN355 

18) 3 GOTO170 

185 CLSj3:FORI=lj324T0153 5:POKEI,3 
2 : NEXT : FORP=lTOJ : WW=RND ( 8 ) 

19) 3 FORI=1024TO1055:POKEI,C(WW) : 
POKEI+48)3,C(WW) : NEXT 

195 VL=96: JK$=A$ (P)+" "+B$(P)+". 
" :GOSUB375 

2) 3)3 GOSUB2j35:GOT0215 

2)35 X$=INKEY$ : IFX$OCHR$ ( 13 ) THEN 
2)35 

21) 3 RETURN 

215 FORI=1088TO1120+VL:POKEI, 32 : 
NEXT I 

22) 3 NEXTP 

225 CLS7:GOSUB2 30:GOTO2 35 

23) 3 FORI=144j3T01535:POKEI, 32:NEX 
T: RETURN 

2 35 FORY=j3T031:FORI=2 6T037: RESET 
( I , Y ) : NEXTI , Y : PRINT @ 1 2 8 , 11 11 ; : FORI 
=1T0128:PRINTR$; : NEXTI 
24 J3 VL=3 84: JK$="NOW WE WILL LOOK 



AT SOME EXAMPLES OF THE RIGHT O 
F WAY LAW. " :GOSUB375 
245 X$=INKEY$:IFX$OCHR$(13)THEN 
245 

25)3 GOSUB23j3:GOSUB255:GOSUB26j3:G 
OT02 65 

255 FORI=191TO180STEP-1:PRINT@I, 
"A" ; :FORY=1TO20: NEXTY :PRINT§I,R$ 
; : NEXTI : PRINT@I , "A" ;: RETURN 
260 FORI=401TO305STEP-32:PRINT@I 
, "B" ; : FORY=1TO20 : NEXTY : PRINT§I ,R 
$; :NEXTI:PRINT§I,"B"; : RETURN 
265 VL=3 84 : JK$="AT THIS INTERSEC 
TION, CAR A HAS THE RIGHT OF WAY 
OVER CAR B SINCE A IS ON B'S RI 
GHT. " :GOSUB375 

27)3 GOSUB205:GOSUB275:GOSUB280:G 
OT02 8 5 

275 FORI=179TO160STEP-1:PRINT@I, 
"A" ; : FORY=1TO20 : NEXTY :PRINT§I,R$ 
; : NEXTI : RETURN 

280 FORI=273T017STEP-32 :PRINT§I, 
"B" ; : FORY=1TO20 : NEXTY : PRINT§I , R$ 
; : NEXTI : RETURN 

285 GOSUB2 3j3:GOSUB2 9j3:GOSUB2 6j3:G 
OT0295 

290 FORI=192TO203 : PRINT@I , "A" ; : F 
0RY=1T02 0 : NEXTY : PRINT§I , R$ ; : NEXT 
I : PRINT @ I, "A" ; : RETURN 
295 VL=384 : JK$="IN THIS CASE, CA 
R B HAS THE RIGHT OF WAY SINCE I 
T IS ENTERING ON CAR A'S RIGHT": 
GOSUB37 5 

3)3)3 GOSUB205:GOSUB280:GOSUB305:G 
OSUB2 30 :GOSUB310 : GOSUB290 : GOT031 
5 

3j35 FORI=204TO22 3 :PRINT@I, "A" ; : F 
ORY=1TO20: NEXTY :PRINT@I,R$ ; : NEXT 
I : RETURN 

310 FORI=14T078STEP32 : PRINT§I , "B 

11 ; : FORY=lT02j3 : NEXTY : PRINT @ I , R$ ; : 

NEXTI : PRINT@I , 11 B" ; : RETURN 

315 GOSUB23j3:VL=384:JK$="THIS TI 

ME, CAR A HAS THE RIGHT OF WAY S 

INCE IT IS ON CAR B'S RIGHT .": GO 

SUB375 

32j3 GOSUB2j35:GOSUB3j35:GOSUB325:G 
OT033j3 

325 FORI=llj3T0396STEP32 :PRINT@I, 
"B" ; : FORY=lT02j3 : NEXTY : PRINT§I , R$ 
; : NEXTI : RETURN 

33j3 GOSUB2 3j3:GOSUB31j3:GOSUB2 55:V 
L=384 : JK$="THIS TIME, CAR B HAS 
THE RIGHT OF WAY SINCE IT IS ON 
CAR A'S RIGHT.":GOSUB3 75 
335 GOSUB205:GOSUB325:GOSUB275 
34j3 GOSUB2 3p:FORY=0TO7:FORI=2 6TO 
37 : SET ( I , Y , 7 ) : NEXTI , Y : PRINT@179 , 



92 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 



CHR$ (128) ; :PRINT@273 , "A" ; :VL=384 
:JK$="AT A T-SHAPED INTERSECTION 
, CAR A MUST COME TO A COMPLETE 
STOP BEFORE TURNING . 11 : GOSUB3 7 5 
345 GOSUB205 
3 50 RUN 

355 CLS)3:FORP=lTOJ 

3 6)3 FORI=lj356T015j83:POKEI,32:NEX 
T : WW=RND ( 8 ) : FORI=lj32 4TO1055 : POKE 
I,C(WW) : POKEI + 4 8)3 , C (WW) : NEXT 
365 VL=32 

37) 3 JK$=A$(AO(P) )+ lf ...... . ":GOS 

UB375:GOT041j3 

375 IFLEN ( JK$) <=SW THEN 4)3)3 

38) 3 FOR T=SW TOpSTEP-1 : IFMID$ ( JK 
$,T,l)= !f "THEN3 9)3 

385 NEXT T:GOT04j3)3 

39) 3 L$=LEFT$ (JK$,T) : L$» M "+L$:G 
OSUB6j3j3 : JK$=RIGHT$ ( JK$ , ( LEN ( JK$ ) 
) -T) :GOT0375 

395 GOT0395 

4)3)3 L$= fl "+JK$:G0SUB6J3J3 
4)35 RETURN 

41) 3 VL=VL+6 4 

415 D=RND(2)3) : IFD=>11THEN42 5 

42) 3 F$=B$(AO(P) ) :H$=C$(AO(P) ) :J$ 
= "A" :M$="B":GOT043j3 

425 F$-C$(AO(P) ) :H$=B$(AO(P) ) :J$ 
= "B":M$ = "A":GOT043)3 

43) 3 JK$- fl A) "+F$:GOSUB375: VL=VL+ 
32 

435 JK$="B) "+H$ : GOSUB37 5 : VL=VL+ 
32 

44) 3 G$=INKEY$:IF G$=""THEN44)3 
445 IF G$=J$THEN465 

45) 3 IF G$=M$THEN465 
455 IF G$="@ "THEN5 2 5 

46) 3 GOT044J2J 

465 IF G$=J$THEN48j3 
47p GOT049J2 

475 IF C(F(G) )<>AO(P) THEN49)3 

48) 3 L$^" YOU ARE CORRECT ! 11 : GOSU 
B6j3j3 

485 CR=CR+l:GOT0515 

49) 3 L$ = !l NO! THAT IS INCORRECT! 

" :GOSUB6j3j3 
495 IR=IR+1 

50j3 IFINKEY$<>CHR$(13)THEN5J3J3 
5J35 FORI=lj388T015j32 : POKEI, 32 :NEX 
TI 

51j3 VL=32 : JK$=»THIS IS WHAT THE 
CORRECT RESPONSE SHOULD BE.":GOS 
UB375 : VL=VL+ 3 2 : JK$-A$ (AO (P) ) +» 11 
+B$(AO(P) ) + n . " :GOSUB375 

515 IFINKEY$<>CHR$ (13 ) THEN515 
52)3 NEXTP 

525 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 

530 PRINT" NUMBER CORRECT = 11 

CR 



5 35 PRINT 

54) 3 PRINT" NUMBER WRONG = " 
IR 

545 J=CR+IR: IFJ=)3THENJ=1 

55) 3 PRINT: PRINT" STUDENT SCOR 
E = M ;INT(CR*lj3j3/J) ; w % w 

555 PRINT: PRINT" ANOTHER TRY 

(Y/N/C) " 

56) 3 IF INT(CR*1)3)3/J)=>7)3THEN57J3 
565 PRINT: PRINT" YOU NEED TO 
STUDY MORE! ! ! ":GOT0575 

57) 3 PRINT: PRINT" NOT BAD AT A 
LL ! ! ! " 

575 W$=INKEY$:IF W$=" "THEN57 5 

58) 3 IF W$="Y" THEN RUN 

585 IF W$="C"THENCLSj3:GOT052)3 

59) 3 IF W$="N" THEN CLS : END 
595 GOT0575 

6)3)3 HL=)3:VL=VL+32 :DR=LEN(L$) : FOR 
K=1T0 DR:ZV=ASC(MID$(L$,K,1) ) : IF 
ZV<=64THENZV=ZV+6 4 

6)35 POKElj324 + VL+HL , ZV-6 4 : HL=HL+1 
:NEXTK: RETURN 

IfSjfift DATA "IN MANY STATES, DURIN 
G THE ROAD TEST, THE OPERATOR MU 
ST", USE HAND SIGNALS FOR TURNS , U 
SE THE DIRECTIONAL LIGHTS 
1)31)3 DATA "AN INTERSECTING WAY I 
S WHERE", ANY ROADS JOIN AT AN AN 
GLE, ROADS BRANCH OFF 
1(320 DATA "THE RIGHT OF WAY LAW 
STATES THAT WHEN CARS ARE AT A F 
OUR WAY STOP AT THE SAME TIME, T 
HE RIGHT OF WAY BELONGS TO", THE 
CAR ON THE RIGHT, THE CAR TURNING 
1)33)3 DATA "WHEN AN OPERATOR APPR 
OACHES A PEDESTRIAN WHO IS IN TH 
E STREET, THE DRIVER MUST", COME 
TO A STOP, SOUND HIS HORN 
1)34)3 DATA "WHEN AN OPERATOR APPR 
OACHES AN INTERSECTION WITH A YI 
ELD SIGN, THE DRIVER MUST", STOP 
UNTIL SAFE TO PROCEED, PROCEED SL 
OWLY 

1)35)3 DATA "WHEN AN OPERATOR APPR 
OACHES A HORSE OR ANIMAL BEING D 
RIVEN, THE OPERATOR MUST", STOP I 
F THE ANIMAL IS FRIGHTENED , SOUND 
HIS HORN 

1)26)3 DATA "WHEN YOU ARE APPROACH 
ED BY A FIRE VEHICLE, YOU MUST P 
ULL TO THE", RIGHT UNTIL IT PASSE 
S , LEFT UNTIL IT PASSES 
1)37)3 DATA "WHEN YOU ARE BEING PA 
SSED BY ANOTHER VEHICLE, YOU MU 
ST STAY TO THE", RIGHT AND NOT BL 
OCK THE PASSER, CENTER AND LET TH 
EM GO RIGHT 

1)38)3 DATA "WHEN APPROACHING A BL 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 93 



IND PERSON, AN OPERATOR MUST" , ST 
OP FOR THE PERSON CROSSING , SOUND 

THE HORN AND SLOW DOWN 
1090 DATA "WHEN PASSING A VEHICL 
E GOING IN THE SAME DIRECTION, Y 
OU MUST STAY TO", THE LEFT AND PA 
SS WITH SAFE CLEARANCE , WHICHEVER 

SIDE HAS THE BEST CLEARANCE 
11/8/3 DATA "THE AMOUNT OF CLEAR A 
ND UNOBSTRUCTED VIEW YOU MUST HA 
VE BEFORE OVERTAKING A VEHICLE B 
EING PASSED IS", FOUR HUNDRED FEE 
T,TWO HUNDRED FEET 
111/3 DATA "WHEN APPROACHING OR P 
ASSING A SCHOOL BUS WHICH HAS ST 
OPPED TO ALLOW PASSENGERS ON OR 
OFF, YOU MUST", STOP UNTIL THE BL 
INKING LIGHTS ARE OFF, SOUND YOUR 

HORN AND SLOWLY PASS 
112/3 DATA "WHEN MAKING A LEFT HA 
ND TURN ON A ONE WAY STREET, THE 

OPERATOR MUST SIGNAL, POSITION 
THE CAR IN THE LANE NEAREST THE" 
, LEFT HAND CURB AND TURN, RIGHT H 
AND LANE AND TURN 

113/3 DATA "WHEN APPROACHING A CU 
RVE OR CORNER WITH AN OBSTRUCTED 

VIEW, YOU MUST", "SLOW DOWN AND 
KEEP TO THE RIGHT", SLOW DOWN AND 

SOUND THE HORN 
114/3 DATA "THE FUNDAMENTAL SPEED 

LAW IS THE REASONABLE SPEED FOR 
"/'TRAFFIC, ROADWAY USE AND SAFE 
TY" , "THE CONDITION AND AGE OF TH 
E CAR" 

115/3 DATA "THE PRINCIPLE CAUSE 0 
F AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS, BOTH FAT 
AL AND OTHERWISE IS", SPEED TOO F 
AST FOR CONDITIONS, DRIVING TOO F 
AR BELOW THE POSTED RATE 
116/3 DATA "AN OPERATOR IS REQURE 
D TO DRIVE AT SPEEDS BELOW POSTE 
D SPEEDS WHEN ROAD CONDITIONS AR 
E",NOT IDEAL DUE TO WEATHER OR T 
RAFFIC,MADE WORSE BY OLDER DRIVE 
RS 

117/3 DATA "OUTSIDE A THICKLY SET 
TLED DISTRICT, AN UNREASONABLE S 
PEED IS ANYTHING ABOVE", 4/3 MPH,3 
/3 MPH 

118/3 DATA "IN A THICKLY SETTLED 
DISTRICT, AN UNREASONABLE SPEED 
IS ANY SPEED ABOVE", 3/3 MPH, 4/3 MP 
H 

119/3 DATA "THE OPERATOR OF A VEH 
ICLE EMRGING FROM A DRIVEWAY, OR 
A GARAGE MUST", STOP AND YIELD T 
0 TRAFFIC, HONK AND PROCEED WITH 
CAUTION 



12/3/3 DATA "BEFORE MOVING AWAY FR 
OM THE CURB OR PARKING POSITION, 
THE OPERATOR MUST YIELD TO TRAF 
FIC AND", SIGNAL HIS INTENT TO EN 
TER TRAFFIC, SIGNAL IF IT IS AT N 
IGHT 

1210 DATA "WHEN A RED LIGHT SHOW 
S ALONE ON A TRAFFIC SIGNAL, THE 
OPERATOR MUST", STOP, SLOW DOWN AN 
D BE PREPARED TO STOP 
122/3 DATA "A FLASHING RED LIGHT 
MEANS THE OPERATOR MUST", STOP AN 
D PROCEED WHEN SAFE TO DO SO, PRO 
CEED WHILE SOUNDING HORN 
123/3 DATA "WHEN A YELLOW LIGHT S 
HOWS ALONE ON A TRAFFIC SIGNAL, 
AN OPERATOR", MUST BE PREPARED TO 
STOP, SHOULD PROCEED BEFORE IT C 
HANGES TO RED 

12 4/3 DATA "A FLASHING YELLOW LI 
GHT MEANS", SLOW DOWN AND PROCEED 

WITH CAUTION, JUST KEEP GOING 
125/3 DATA "A FLASHING GREEN LIGH 
T MEANS", GO IF IT IS SAFE, IT IS 
SAFE TO GO 

126/3 DATA "A RED AND YELLOW LIGH 
T TOGETHER MEANS" , "VEHICLES STOP 
, PEDESTRIANS CROSS" , "WATCH OUT 
FOR PEDESTRIANS 

127/3 DATA "YOU MAY PROCEED WHEN 
A RED LIGHT IS ILLUMINATED WHEN 
YOU ALSO SEE", GREEN ARROWS , FLASH 
ING GREEN 

128/3 DATA "A RED-YELLOW-RED BAND 
ON THE POST OF A TRAFFIC CONTRO 
L SIGNAL MEANS" , "PEDESTRIAN BUTT 
ON, PREPARE TO STOP" , NOTHING TO 
THE DRIVER OF A MOTOR VEHICLE 
129/3 DATA "WHEN YOU ARE DRIVING 
A CAR WHILE YOU HAVE A LEARNER'S 
PERMIT, THE LICENSED DRIVER MUS 
T SIT", IN THE FRONT SEAT , DIRECTL 
Y BEHIND YOU 

5/3/3/3 DATA END, , /R\ 



CORRECTION 

Due to a printing error on our part, Perry Com- 
puters' advertisement on Page 16 of last month's 
issue for the Tandy™ 1000SX computer was 
incorrectly listed as $ 1 75. The correct price is $775. 

For quicker reference, Corrections will be posted on 
Delphi as soon as they are available in the Info on 
Rainbow topic area of the database. Just type DfiTfl 
at the CoCo SIG> prompt and INFO at the TOPIO 
prompt. 



94 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



COCO CONSULTATIONS 



Blank Space Underlining 

By Marty Goodman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



I'm having trouble using Telewriter 
64 and my daisy wheel printer. When I 
send my printer the escape code for 
underlining, it only underlines letters. It 
does not underline blank spaces. I want 
to use the underline to create lines in 
forms I am printing. How can I do this? 

Gregory L. Foster 

(HAM MAN) 

Wauwatosa, WI 

Daisy wheel printers that support 
escape sequences for underlining typi- 
cally do so in one or both of two ways. 
You are describing what is often re- 
ferred to as "automatic word underline" 
— once the underline feature is turned 
on, letters and numbers are underlined 
but spaces are not. Some printers offer 
(via another escape sequence) an under- 
line that is not limited to letters and 
numbers. Check your printer manual to 
see if the printer does not have another 
escape sequence documented that sup- 
ports the other sort of underline. 

If your daisy wheel printer does not 
support general underlining of both 
letters and spaces via an escape se- 
quence, fear not! Under Telewriter 64 
there is an alternative for you. Use the 



Martin H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics tinker er and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard CoselJ oj the Co Co world. On 
Delphi, Marty is the SIGop of rain- 
bow's Co Co SIG and database man- 
ager of OS-9 Online. His non-computer 
passions include running, mountaineer- 
ing and outdoor photography. Marty 
lives in San Pablo, California. 



CTRL . DP function to define a printable 
special control character as the under- 
line character. For example, press CTRL 
and type . DPI 95 to define CTRL-l as 
the underline character. Then, for the 
spaces where you want blank under- 
lines, type CTRL-l instead of a space 
character. 

Be sure to use the CTRL . DP function, 
not the CTRL . D function when defining 
the underline control character. This 
will allow Telewriter to understand it is 
a printable character for alignment and 
justification purposes. 

RS-232 ROM Disable 

How can I disable the ROM on the 
Deluxe RS-232 Program Pak in order 
to use it with a Y -cable? Is it OK to use 
a Y-cable with the Deluxe RS-232 
Program Pak? 

Robert S. Erlick 
(EARLROB) 
Philadelphia, PA 
and 

Gregory L. Foster 

(HAMMAN) 

Wauwatosa, WI 

Generally speaking, it is a bad idea to 
use a Y-cable. Whenever you do, you 
introduce the strong possibility of 
making your system unreliable, partic- 
ularly during disk 1/ O. I urge you to get 
a Multi-Pak Interface instead. The 
M Pi's internal slot select circuitry takes 
care of the problem of disabling the 
Deluxe RS-232 Program Pak ROM. 

However, as an interim measure, you 
can probably use a Y-cable if you follow 
these rules. 

Make sure the Y-cable is as short as 
possible. This means that it should be 



no more than a total of two inches long. 
(Preferably shorter.) Get someone fa- 
miliar with removing and recrimping 
KELL AM brand connectors to shorten 
your Y-cable, if you are not familiar 
with handling such connectors yourself. 

Disable the ROM chip. This is.done 
as follows: Open up the RS-232 pack. 
The pack is held together by a single 
Philips head screw located underneath 
the label on the pack, more or less in the 
center of the pack. On older deluxe RS- 
232 Program Paks, the 24-pin ROM 
chip is in a socket. Merely remove the 
chip and throw it away. Be sure you get 
the 24-pin ROM chip and not the 28- 
pin 6551 U ART chip. 

On some newer RS-232 packs, Tandy 
soldered the ROM directly to the circuit 
board. You must remove the board and 
desolder the chip from the board. This 
can be done most easily by clipping all 
the pins on the chip, then using a 
soldering iron and long needle-nose 
pliers to remove the 24 severed chip legs 
one by one. Be sure not to dribble 
solder. Clean the holes when done with 
a solder sucker. While some recommend 
the easier alternative of locating the 
enable pin, cutting it and tying it to the 
"chip disabled" (+5) level, this is a poor 
idea if your intent is to use the pack with 
a Y-cable. It's best to get it totally out 
of the circuit. 

Please buy a Multi-Pak Interface as 
soon as you can afford one, for even 
short Y-cables can cause your CoCo to 
have intermittent crashes during Disk 
I/O. 

Free Floating Touch Pad 

How can I change the Koala Touch 
Pad sold by Radio Shack so that it is 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 95 



free floating rather than self-centering 
when the pen is removed? 

Vince Casingal 

( DESH ) 
Florida 

Sorry, Vince, The hardware of the 
Koala Touch Pad consists of two resis- 
tive sheets. There is no simple way to 
achieve what you desire. 



Consistent Crashes 

My CoCo system has problems. It 
will work for a while, but then it crashes. 
When I move my disk controller to 
another CoCo, ail is well. When I 
slightly jostle the bad system, it crashes. 
Propping up the disk controller in the 
CoCo slot seems to help. Even gently 
touching it can crash the system. Any 
advice? Also, one of my CoCo 2s con- 
sistently crashes after it is on for more 
than 20 mintues. The screen fills with 
"@" signs. Any ideas about this? 

Len Stone 
(elm) 
Chicago, IL 

While there are many things that 
could be wrong, your description of the 
problem makes it sound like the cause 
is a bad 40 system bus connector on the 
CoCo in question. Don Hutchison once 
had a similar problem, and he cured it 
by removing the 40-pin connector from 
the CoCo and replacing it with a new 
one, 

The Tandy National Parts part 
number for that 40-pin connector is 
8519094. Specify this as the part for 
Catalog No. 26-3027 type CoCo 2 when 
you order. To remove the old connector, 
first remove the CoCo printed circuit 
motherboard completely and detach the 
ground plane from it. Then cut all 40 
pins with a cutting plier. One by one, 
remove those pins using asoldering iron 
and long-nosed pliers. Then use asolder 
sucker to remove all excess solder from 
the holes and clean up the site of the old 
connector before inserting the new one 
in place and soldering it in. 

The other problem (the CoCo 2 that 
crashes with a screen full of "@" signs) 
sounds like it is caused by a marginal 
and overheating chip on the board. I'd 
start by replacing the SAM chip. Other 
possible but less likely causes would be 
the 6809, the RAM chips and a failing 
power supply. Note that the "@" char- 
acter corresponds to a zero in the text 
screen memory location. 

96 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



CoCo 2 Monitors 

What sort of monitor should I get for 
displaying text on my CoCo 2? What 
video driver will I need? If I get a 
monochrome monitor, what should I 
do about sound output? 

Richard Trasborg 
(TRAS) 
Staten Island, NY 



The best bet for use with text would 
be a monochrome composite video 
monitor. These are advertised in RAIN- 
BOW for prices ranging from $70 to 
$100. Monochrome is enormously su- 
perior in sharpness to any form of color 
display on the CoCo 1, 2 or 3, and it 
costs least of all. Any commercial 
monochrome monitor driver advertised 
in rainbow should work fine for adapt- 
ing your CoCo to work with a mono- 
chrome monitor. Most such drivers will 
leave the RF (TV) output undisturbed 
so that you can still use a color TV for 
display of games and other software 
that requires full-color displays, I rec- 
ommend getting an amber screen 
monochrome monitor, although others 
have differing tastes in phosphor color. 
Nearly any brand of monochrome mon- 
itor should work fine. The Magnavox 
and Amdek brands have especially nice 
displays. 

For sound output I recommend using 
the Radio Shack Audio Amp/Speaker 
(Catalog No. 277-1008), which costs 
$12. It is a little plastic box with a built- 
in audio amplifier and speaker. It can 
fit underneath the keyboard on your 
CoCo if you remove its back cover. It 
is designed to work off a 9-volt, tran- 
sistor radio-type battery, but can easily 
be powered by the CoCo itself. Just 
locate the big electrolytic capacitor on 
your CoCo ( 10,000 mfd). Hook the red 
wire from the power connector of that 
amplifier to the plus side of that capac- 
itor and the black wire to the minus side. 
You'll find that about 10 volts are 
available at that point in the CoCo 
power supply. This is ideal for powering 
that amplifier. 

Remote Keyboards 

Vm building a rack mount for my 
CoCo and want to put my CoCo key- 
board at the end of a ribbon cable, How 
long can I safely make such a cable? 
Also, I am interested in what you can 
tell me about the Coleco Adam key- 
boards that Radio Shack is now selling 
at quite low prices, with a view to 



possibly using one of those as my 
remote keyboard. 

Bob Rosenbrock 
(8PROFTRUDO) 
Bluffton, IN 

I've been using remote lap keyboards 
on my CoCo systems for the last four 
years. IVe never had any problems with 
cables up to 10 feet long. Recently I 
designed a package to help install a 
remote keyboard in any model of CoCo 
2 or 3. This consists of a 6- to 10-foot 
shielded ribbon cable attached to spe- 
cial adapter boards that allow easy 
connection to both the CoCo keyboard 
socket and to the mylar ribbon cable of 
the keyboard. Provision is made to 
facilitate running out reset and power- 
on lines too. Spectrum Projects is selling 
this device. 

Stay away from the Coleco Adam 
keyboard and all other non-CoCo key- 
board specials available from Radio 
Shack's surplus deals. The Adam key- 
board has a completely different matrix 
from that of the CoCo, and it is impos- 
sible to alter its wiring because it is all 
on a mylar film. Even with other surplus 
keyboards that are based on printed 
circuit boards, it is far too much hassle 
to rewire them. 

Instead buy a genuine CoCo 2 or 
CoCo 3 keyboard. These are available 
from National Parts, Computer Plus or 
Spectrum Projects. The one exception 
is that the Model 3 and Model 4 key- 
boards are almost (but not quite) ex- 
actly like the matrix wiring of the CoCo 
2 and 3, respectively. If you can get a 
deal on one of these, it might be worth 
it ? for only part of a single pair of rows 
needs to be rewired, and the ALPS 
brand Model 3 and 4 keyboards have a 
very nice feel to them. Be sure to get the 
schematic of these keyboards and of the 
CoCo keyboard to facilitate making the 
needed modifications! 

Your technical questions are welcomed, 
Please address them to CoCo Consultations, 
THE RAINBOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
4M59. 

We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit for 
brevity and clarity, Due to the large volume 
of mail we receive, we are unable to answer 
letters individually. 

Questions can also be sent to Marty 
through the Delphi CoCo SIG, From the 
CoCo SIG> prompt, pick Rainbow Maga- 
zine Services, then, at the RA1NB#W> 
prompt, type R5K (for Ask the Experts) to 
arrive at the EXPERTS> prompt, where 
you can select the "CoCo Consultations" 
online form which has complete instruc- 
tions. 



B - TRAINING 



Getting Acquainted 

By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



aving purchased a CoCo 3 to 
replace an ailing CoCo 1, I 
began to fool around with it to 
get the feel of the new machine. It was 
both an exhilarating and disappointing 
experience. How would the improved 
computer affect the newcomer in his 
attempt to master the CoCo 3? 

The newcomer should have little 
trouble getting acquainted with the new 
version of the old CoCo. Having no 
preconceived notions, he should have 
no problem that cannot be overcome. 
However, the owner of an older CoCo, 
imbued with the programming lore of 
the previous models, must learn pro- 
gramming techniques that are some- 
what different from those to which he 
has become accustomed. 

In effect, he has to learn how to 
program two computers. He must know 
the "old system," which included Hi- 
Res graphics. Under the constraints of 
the new CoCo, the veteran reader of this 
column is forced to view the old Hi- Res 
as a new Lo-Res. He must teach himself 
distinct yet parallel programming tech- 
niques with somewhat different state- 
ments or commands. 

My free advice is for the newcomer, 
who has recently joined the CoCo 
Community, to master the Lo-Res 
graphics first. Then, when he is 
comfortable with the Lo-Res graphics, 



Florida-based Joseph Kolar is a veter- 
an writer and programmer who special- 
izes in introducing beginners to the 
powers of the Color Computer. 



to venture into the new world of CoCo 
3 Hi~Res graphics. Then, and only then, 
will he keep the two techniques sepa- 
rated in his mind. 

Today, we will treat you to a little of 
both. First, we will write a printed name 
in Lo-Res graphics, just as if you had 
written it in a way that connected all the 
letters together in one flowing line as in 
a signature, proceeding from one letter 
to the next in a continous line. 

The result is Line 20 in Listing 1 . Key 
it in at this time. Critiquing this effort, 
the first thing that stands out is that the 
B is a poor creation and appears to clash 
with the printfontused in the rest of the 
name. 

Underneath, in Line 30, we create an 
alternate B. We note that the A might 
look better if it were wider. We position 
ourselves under the A in Belinda. This 
is done easily using the old trial and 
error ploy. We move BRx spaces to the 
right and use U6 as the locator. When 
we adjust the value x until it sits under 
the left-vertical leg of A, we have suc- 
ceeded. We recreate the A to make it 
wider by adding one unit to each of the 
two horizontal values. The resultant A 
looks too wide, but the original A is too 
narrow. 

Speaking of narrow, the M is guilty 
of the same offense. So, let us locate U6 
under the left-vertical leg of M and 
create a wider M. 

We notice that Y looks too flimsy, so 
we relocate U6 under the vertical leg of 
Y with BRx. We recreate a wider Y. You 
may want to move the new Y over so 



that it lines up along the left arm of the 
Y. The result is OK and these letters 
constitute the completed Line 30. 

The revised B still looks sick. In Line 
40, we create a B with a wider bottom 
segment. The D might look better if we 
make it a bit wider on the horizontal 
plane. Relocate under the left vertical of 
D. To make it easy, use U16. Now, we 
recreate a wider D. 

It is time to check out our work and 
see how our new letter fits into Line 20. 
If you are chicken, make a new program 
line, Line 50, and a revised Line 20. 
Note that L is three units wide, and I 
is only one unit wide. 

If you start a Line 50, you quickly get 
disillusioned. It is easier said than done. 
Whatever part you completed, type 
DEL50 and save Listing 1. 

After saving a listing using a tape 
system, note its starting and ending 
counter-locating numbers. Rewind the 
tape until it is a digit or two less than 
the starting counter number. Set 
cassette to play, key in 5KIPF and press 
ENTER. 

If all is well, CoCo will oblige and 
search, using S, for the program. When 
CoCo finds it, it will announce it with 
an F and the name, run through it, 
display OK and stop. This happy state 
of affairs indicates that CoCo found 
and verified a good C5RVE. You can 
relax and wipe the program out of 
memory with a clear conscience. 

If you got an I/O message, you know 
that your CSfiVE is doomed. Since your 
program is still safe in CoCo, advance 




September 1987 THE RAINBOW 97 



a few counter digits past the end of the 
bad CSflVE and CSflVE it again. Verify 
for a good CSflVE as explained above. 

I use 5l< IPF instead ofSKIPFjc, where 
x is the program name, because I am 
only interested in checking the last 
program (title irrelevent) that was 
CSflVED, and SKIPF will pick up the 
next program. 

We are going to use last month's 
technique to chop up the DRAW LINE 20 
and make revisions. This is great prac- 
tice. To quickly separate each letter in 
Line 20, insert a space right in front of 
each BR3, BR4 or BR5 in the line. A space 
exists after BRG to separate BELINDA 
from RAMSEY. You might want to place 
a semicolon in front of and after BRG. 
Every little marker is a guide to help 
you. Devise your own system, and use 
it! 

You may want to delineate letters in 
lines 30 and 40. Place a semicolon at 
both ends of BR34, BR19 and BR1B in 
Line 30 and BR2G in Line 40. All our 
replacement letters are identified. Press 

CLEAR. 

Since our first replacement letter is 
the second revision of B, it is in Line 40. 
Type LIST40 EDIT20. Substitute the 
new B for the old B. You can either 
delete the characters that made the old 
B and replace them with the new char- 
acters from Line 40 or alter only the 
characters necessary to make the new B. 
Now run. The next case on our agenda 
is to replace the old D with the new D 
in Line 40. 

Press CLEAR and type LIST40 
EDIT20. We know the D is the second 
letter in front of BR6, the word separ- 
ator. You can see that only two charac- 
ters need changing. A simple substitu- 
tion did the trick. Now run. 

Next, we need an A from Line 30. 
Press CLEAR and type LIST30 EDIT20. 
The characters that comprise A begin 
after BR34, up to and including the next 
semicolon. The first A we shall replace 
is the A in front of BRG. 

We do not disturb BR4 because it is 
a letter separator. Only two characters 
need to be changed. Run. On your own, 
replace the second A in Line 20. Run. 

Press CLEAR. Since M is the third 
letter in Line 30, type LIST30 EDIT20. 
This time, it is wise to locate the new M 
and copy it on scrap paper. Type 
UGF3E3DG. Now, pick up the old M in 
Line 20, about 150 characters into Line 
20. Replace 3s for 2s. The scrolling 
didn't push the desired information in 
Line 30 off the screen, but it could have 
if any of the lines were longer. So it's 



better to be safe than sorry and make 
a note of the proposed change on scrap 
paper. Now run. 

On your own initiative, exchange the 
Ys. Looking at the end product, another 
space between S and E is called for. 
Locate that spot in Line 20 and add an 
extra space. Now add a space between 
B and E and between E and Y. What do 
I mean by a space? Do it! 

Add two spaces to separate the words 
more distinctly. That looks good! Type 
DEL30-40, since we do not need the 
samples anymore. 

You may want to widen the N. Con- 
sider how you would reshape it. But 
first, relocate BELINDA RAMSEY, (H,V). 
I chose (34,98). 

Now, let us figure out how to widen 
the N. Begin a Line 30 by typing 30 
DRAkT'BM34,llB. I decided upon 
UGF5NU5D". 

Press CLEAR and type LIST30 
EDIT20. It is about 65 characters into 
Line 20. Make the appropriate changes 
and deletions and run. 

It looks pretty professional. Now 
type DEL30 and save it as Listing 2. 

Our next order of business is my first 
cautious step in experimenting with 
CoCo 3 to see what was what. If you 
own the new kid on the block, refer to 
your manual for an overview. If you do 
not and are curious about what the big 
hue and cry is all about, read on. 
Perhaps you may be impelled to get the 
new, truly inexpensive Super CoCo. 

If you are the proud owner of a CoCo 
3, key in KQKQNUT. If you own an older 
model, read the listing and follow along 
to get a preview of what to expect. Note 
that for the PRINT" " lines, all the 
statements are strange critters. Even the 
PRINT" " works a bit oddly in this 
instance. 

In effect, you are confronted with a 
new set of statements that have equiva- 
lents to what you are accustomed to in 
the older CoCos. 

Now run. You should see three differ- 
ent ribbons of different colored text on 
a light background. 

WIDTH40 tells CoCo to get into the 
mode that allows us to create on a 
screen 40 characters/spaces wide, as 
compared with the traditional 32 and 24 
rows, as opposed to the 16. On this Hi- 
Res screen, CoCo affords us the luxury 
of printing upper- and lowercase text. 

Note the blinking line of text. Line 16 
positions the cursor at a given column/ 
row location using grid coordinates. 
Using LQCATEx,^, starting with 0, going 
on up to 39, read right to find x. Then 



starting with 0 through 23, read down 
to find y. LOCATE is very easy to use as 
compared with the familiar PRINT@x 
command that requires us to memorize 
the locations from 0 to 5 1 1 that make 
up the 32-by- 1 6 text screen. Thus, the 
rule to follow using LOCATE is "count 
right then count down." 

To see this in action, change Line 16 
to LOCATE0 , 0 and run. Then change it 
to (5,20) and run. The entire colored 
strip with text included moved as a unit, 
without disturbing the other lines of 
text. Try coordinates (25,23) and then 
(0,24). The first wraps around to the 
next row and the second announces an 
F/C Error message due to asking CoCo 
to do the impossible. 

The reason it moved the blinking text 
on the colored strip is due to lines 20 and 
30. ATTRa , b , B , U tells CoCo the fore- 
ground color designated (a) and the 
background color desired (b). Both a 
and b values range from 0 through 7. 
The B option activates the blinking and 
the U option underlines the text. Add 
, U to Line 20 and run. All we succeeded 
in doing was crowding in our text, 
proving it to be of no value in this 
instance. Restore Line 20 to its original 
state. Line 30 prints our legend. Notice 
that the semicolon, which chops off the 
blue background, provides one blank 
space at the end of the blue ribbon. 

The second line of text is located in 
Line 40, colors chosen in Line 50 and 
selected text in Line 60. In order to 
maintain symmetry, an extra space was 
inserted between names. Note the two 
ending blank spaces. Only one was 
included in Line 80. The semicolon, 
hacking of f the orange ribbon, provided 
the second blank space to create sym- 
metry. 

Similarly, the last line of text is 
developed in lines 70 through 90. This 
line of text uses the u option to an 
advantage. Add , U to Line 80 and run. 
Now, remove the semicolon from Line 
90 and run. Isn't this effect neat? 

Restore Line 80 by removing ,U. 
Run, press break and run again. It 
must be run twice to throw unwanted 
lines out of memory. 

Line 95 is a ploy used to get the cursor 
out of the way. It is shunted to the upper 
left-hand corner and does not detract 
from the display. 

Line 5 contains a very useful com- 
mand. We are all too familiar that when 
we press break the program stops, 
period. Using ON BRK GOTO* where x is 
a designated line, we can advance to a 
useful area of the program. In this case, 



98 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



Line 5 directs CoCo to go to Line 200. 

Line 200 returns to the ordinary Lo- 
Res screen (32-by-16) and, since we 
might be adding more lines to a pro- 
gram in progress, we ask CoCo to list 
the rest of the program starting with 
Line 100. I can now add or insert more 
lines using the regular format that is so 
familiar to me. 

We read THE RAINBOW to expand our 
knowledge of CoCo. On Page 78 in the 
March 1987 issue, Eric White shows us 
how to use the ALT, CTRL, Fl and F2 
keys in our programs. 

Being a quick learner, the wheels 
turned in my mind, and the result is Line 
199. It states: If the CTRL key is pressed, 
go to Line 300 or else loop until pressed. 
Line 300 returns to the regular 32-by- 
16 screen, and CoCo is asked to LIST 
up to Line 100. 

If I want to see the latter part of the 
program, I press BREAK. I cover all 
bases. If I want to check or refer to the 
front part of the program, I press CTRL. 

Save KOKONUT, Look at KQK0NUT1, 
Change Line 5 in KOKONUT, which you 
still have in memory, from 200 to 300. 
Then type DEL199-, Key in Lines 199 



through 300 from K0K0NUT1. 

Line 199 states that if the ALT key is 
pressed, locate on Row 11, and if the 
CTRL key is pressed, locate on Row 15. 
In either case, print the message in Line 
200. 

Then run if the Fl key is pressed. But, 
if the F2 key is pressed, LIST the pro- 
gram in a 40-by-24 format. Otherwise, 
wait patiently until one or the other of 
the function keys is activated. 

If pressed, the break key sends 
CoCo to Line 300, reverting to the 32- 
by-16 text screen, and lists the last part 
of the program. 

Note that there is a certain sequence 
of key pressings required to force CoCo 
to LIST the program in Hi-Res (40-by- 
24) format Fool around and discover 
the sequence for yourself. Remember, 
you can EDIT from either listing: Line 
200, if F2 is pressed, and Line 300, if 
BREAK is pressed. Save K0K0NUT1. 

I have noted that on both of my TVs, 
in WIDTH 40, the left, 0 column falls off 
the display. This is also the case with my 
Brand X computer. Therefore, such a 
listing can be annoying to use. That is 
why I prefer to use WIDTH 32, avoiding 



the bother of reading incomplete line 
numbers and the increased chances of 
making errors. 

If you are experiencing this problem, 
one way to avoid incomplete program 
line numbers is to begin your program 
with Line 1000, advancing in incre- 
ments of 10, so that you know that the 
hidden digit is a L 

This foible of my TV is also the 
reason I hide the cursor at LOCATE, 0, 
which effectively removes it from sight, 

A nice effect is to add ,U in Line 80 
of K0K0NUT1. This will provide 24 lines 
and places the listing on a legal-pad 
screen. 1 can't say it is useful — just 
different. Note that if you type NEW, the 
lines remain. This is because CoCo 
retains them in memory. It is up to you 
to get rid of the ruled lines. 

Thanks to hints provided by THE 
rainbow, we managed to use the four 
relatively useless keys as thinly dis- 
guised ON BRK GOTOx keys. We found a 
versatile use for the ALT, CTRL, Fl and 
F2 keys, They are truly an enhancement 
for our cassette-based CoCo 3. The 
moral of the story: It pays to read THE 
rainbow carefully. □ 



Hardware 

Specia 

Communications 

Package 

300/1200 baud Fully Hayes 

compatible 
Modem - 2 Year Warranty 

[Modem & Cable] 

300/12DD/24DD baud 

Fuily Hayes 
Compatible Modem - CCITT 
2 Year Warranty 

$249.00 

[Modern S Cable] 



Softwa 



THE OTHER GUYS CoCo 

55 North Mam Street 
Suite 301-D 
PQ Box H 

Logan Utah 84321 



KEEP-TRAK 1 Oeneral Ledger Reg. $69.95— Only $39.95 

"Double-Entry" General Ledger Accounting System for home or business: 16k, 
32k, 64k. User-friendly, menu-inven. Program features' balance sheet, income & 
expense statement (current & 'YTD']. journal, ledger, 899 accounts [ 2350 entries on 
32k & 64k [71 0 accounts Gentries on 1 6k] (disk only]. Version 1 .2 has screen printouts. 
Rainbow Review 1.1 - 9/84 ■ 1 .2-4/85 

"OMEGA FILE" Reg. $69.95 — ONLY $24.95 

Rling data base. Be any information with Omega File. Records can have up to 1 6 fields 
with 255 characters per field [4080 characters/record]. Sort, match & print any field 
User friendly menu driven. Manual included [32k/64k disk only]. 

Rainbow Review 3/85. Hot CoCo 10/85 

BOB'S MAGIC GRAPHIC MACHINE 

Can generate BASIC code to use in your programs. Easy drawing and manipulation of 
circles, elipses, boxes, lines and ARCS. Smgte joystick operation with on line HELPS at all 
times. Allows text on the graphics screen & movement of objects on the screen Can be 
used as a stand-alone graphics editor Instruction Manual. GRAPHICS EDITOR. REG. 
S39.95— ONLY $24.95 for disk or tape . 64k EC8. 

Rainbow Review 7/85, Hot CoCo 9/85 "The graphics bargain of the year" 

'KEEP-TRAK 1 Accounts Receivable. 

Features; auto interest calculation, auto ageing of accounts, installment sales, total due 
sales, explanation space as long as you need, detailed statements. 'KEEP-TRAK' General 
Ledger tie in, account number checking, credit limit checking & more. User friendly/menu 
driven, includes manual. 539.95 or S49.95 General Ledger & Accounts Receivables. 

fDlsk0nlvl - 'COCO WINDOWS 1 

With hi-res character display and window generator Features an enhanced key board 
[klicks] and 1 0 programmable function keys. Allows the user to create multiple windows 
from basic, includes menu driven printer setup and auto line numbering. Four function 
calculator, with memory. The above options can be called anytime while running or writing 
in BASIC APPLE PULL YOUR DRAPES YOU DON'T WANT TO SEE THIS $24.95 [disk 
or tape] includes manual, 



C8013 753-7B2Q 
CSOOJ 94S-94QS 



[Add S3.00 for postage & handling] 
, Money Order, Check in U.S. Fund© [Please specify if iJ&IVJ 
controller] 



September 1 987 THE RAINBOW 99 



16K 
ECB 



Listing 1: 
0 '<LISTING1> 

10 PM0DE4 , 1 : PCLS : SCREEN 1 , 0 

20 DRAW"S8BM42,7J3U6R3D3NL3RD3NL4 

BR3NR4U3NR3U3R4BR3D6R3BR3NU6BR3U 

5NUF4NU5DBR3U6R3FD4GNL3BR4U5ER2F 

D3NL4D2 BR 6 U6R3FD2GLNL2F2BR3U5ER 

2FD3NL4D2BR3U6F2E2D6BR3BUFR2EUHL 

2HUER2NFBR3NR4D3NR3D3R4BR5U4NH2E 

2" 

30 DRAWBM42, 9J3U6R3FDGNL3FDGNL3B 
R34U5ER3FD3NL5D2BR19U6F3E3D6BR18 
U3NH3E3" 

40 DRAW"BM42,11J3 U6R3 FDGNL3RFDGN 
L4 BR2 6U6R4 FD4GNL4 11 
100 GOTO 100 




0 '<LISTING2> 
10 PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS : SCREEN1 , 0 
20 DRAWS8BM3 4, 98U6R3FDGNL3RFDGN 
L4 BR4NR4U3NR3U3R4 BR3D6R3 BR3NU 
6 BR3U6F5NU5D BR3U6R4FD4GNL4 BR4 
U5ER3FD3NL5D2 ; BR8 ;U6R3FD2GLNL2F2 
BR3U5ER3FD3NL5D2 BR3U6F3E3D6 BR 
3 BUFR2 EUHL2 HUER2 NF BR4NR4D3NR3D3 
R4 BR6U3NH3E3" 
100 GOTO 100 




CoCo3 



0 '<KOKONUT> 
5 ON BRK GOTO200 
10 WIDTH4J3 
16 LOCATE8,2 
20 ATTR 3,2,B 

30 PRINT" Tutorial For Kokonuts" 



40 LOCATEll,5 
50 ATTR4 , 7 

60 PRINT" JOSEPH KOLAR "; 
70 LOCATE8,8 
80 ATTR2 , 4 

90 PRINT" INVERNESS, FL. , 3265j3" 

r 

95 LOCATEJ3 ,0 

199 IF PEEK (34 2) =191 THEN GOT03J3 
0 ELSE GOT0199 

200 WIDTH32 : LIST1J3J3- 
300 WIDTH32 : LIST-1J3J3 



CoCo3 



Listing 4: 

0 '<KOKONUTl> 
5 ON BRK GOT03j3j3 
10 WIDTH4J3 
16 LOCATE8,2 
20 ATTR 3,2,B 

30 PRINT" Tutorial For Kokonuts" 

40 LOCATEll,5 

50 ATTR4 , 7 

60 PRINT" JOSEPH KOLAR "; 

10 LOCATE8,8 

B0 ATTR2 , 4 

90 PRINT" INVERNESS, FL. , 3265j3" 

■ 

95 LOCATEJ3 , 0 

199 IF PEEK (341) =191 THEN LOCATE 
12,11 ELSE IF PEEK(342)=191 THE 

N LOCATE 12,15 ELSE GOTO 199 

200 PRINT" HELLO THERE! " ; : LOCA 
TEj3,j3 

201 IF PEEK (343) =191 THEN RUN EL 
SE IF PEEK(344) =191 THEN LIST EL 
SE 2J31 

300 WIDTH32 : LIST1J3J3- 



100 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



DataPack II Plus V4. 1 

SUPER SMART TERMINAL PR06RAM 
AUTOPILOTsnd AUTO-LOS Commind Processors 
X-MODEM DISK FILE TRANSFER SUPPORT 
VT-IOO & VT-52 TERMINAL EMULATION 

* No lott daln using Ni-ft«* Display, £v«n at I J00 Baud on Ihm fi«Hal pari, 

* Q Mi-ftes Displays, 28 to 255 columns by 24 lines £» Irue UpperiLower case, 
« 45K Text Buffer when using the Hi-Res Text Display and Disk . 

* ASCII I* BINARy disk file transfer support via XMODEM. 

* Directly record receive data to a disk file while online. 

* VT-tOO terminal emulation for VAX, UNIX and other systems, 

* VT-100/S2 cursor keys «. position, insert/delete, PF «. All. Kbd. keys. 

* Programmable Word Length Parity, Stop Bits and baud rates 300 to 0600. 

* Complete full and Half Duplex operation, with no garbled data. 
1 Send full 126 character set from Keyboard with control codes. 
8 Complete Editor Insert, Delete, Change or Add to Buffer. 

* 0 Variable length, Programmable Macro Key buffers. 

* Programmable Printer rates from I i 0 to 0600 Baud. 

* Send Files directly from the Buffer, Macro Key Buffers or Disk. 

* Display on Screen or Print the contents of the Buffer. 

1 Free2e Display & Review informetionOn line with no loss of data. 

* Built in Command Menu (Help) Display. 

* And much much more. 

Supports: word-Pak i i II, fc.S. and Double Density fiD Column Cards 
Disia Controller w/80 column card Ik parallel printer 
PBJ Parallel Printer Card and Dual Serial Port (2SP-Pak) 
k. S.Modem-Pak& Deluxe RS-232Pak,even with Disk. 

Requires 32K * Disk, Only $59.95 



HI-RES II Screen Commander 

Tired of looking al the 16 line by 32 character display on your 
CoCo? Wish you could see more lines and characters? Then HI-RES II 
is the answer, it can give you the big screen display you've always 
wanted. It will display 24 lines of 32, 42, 51, 64 and even 85 true 
upper and lowercase characters per line without extra hardware, 

HI-RES li is the most powerful screen enhancement package available 
for the Color Computer, yet it is the least expensive, It is completely 
compatible and transparent to Basic, Once the program Is loaded, 
everything works the same as bef ore, only you have a much better 
display to work with. It even allows you to have mixed text and 
Hi-resolution graphics on the same screen or have separate text and 
graphics screens. It also has an adjustable automatic key repeat 
feature and allows you to protect up to 23 lines on the screen, 

HI-RES II features over 30 special control code functions that allow 
you to change characters per line, protect display lines, change 
background colon position cursor, switch normal/reverse video, 
underline, double size characters, erase line/screen/to end of 
screen, home cursor, character highlight and much more, It works on 
ell models of the CoCo with 16, 32 or 64K and provides automatic 
reset control so H1-R£S II won t disappear when you press reset. 

Only 24.95 on Tape or $29.95 on Disk 
"The Source" 

Now you can easily Disassemble Color Computer machine language 
programs directly from disk and generate beautiful Assembler 
Source Code. And "The Source* has all the f eatures and f unctions you 
are looking for in a Disassembler. 

* Automatic label generation and allows specifying FCB, FCC and FD6 areas. 

* Disassembles programs directly from Disk or ROM. 

* Output Disassembled listing with labels to the Printer, Screen or both. 

* Generates Assembler source files directly to disk, or a printed listing. 

* Generated source files are in standard ASCII formal. 
« Built in Hex/ASCII dump/display to locate FCB, FCC and FOB areas. 

* Built in Disk Director and Kill file commands. 

* Menu display with single key commands for smooth, Easy operation. 

* Written in fast machine language, one of the easiest Lo use Disassemblers 

Requires 52K Disk $54.95 

TEXTPRO Mi 
"The Advanced Word Processing System" 

* 9 Hf-Res Displays from 26 lo 255 columns b y 24 lines & Upper/Lower Case 

* Three Programmable Header lines lhal can be re-defined at anytime. 

* Programmable Fooler line & Automatic Footnote System. 

* 10 Programmable Tab slops & 1 Powerfull Tab Function Commands. 

* Completely Automatic Justification, Centering^ Flush left and right. 

* On screen display of underline and Double size characters. 

* Change indents, margins, line length, etc parameters anytime in the text. 

* Create and Edit files larger than memory, up to the size of a full disk. 

* Easily imbed any numberof formatand control codes. 
•Automatic Memory sense I6-64K with up to 48K of memory workspace. 

* Fully supports the use of 60 column hardware cards, 

TEXTPRO III is an advanced word processing system designed for 
speed, flexabiKty and extensive document processing. It is not like 
most of the other word processing programs available f or the Color 
Computer, If you are looking for a simple word processor to write 
letters or other short documents, then most likely you'll be better off 
with one of the other simpler word processors. But, if you want a 
powerful word processor with extensive document formatting 
features to handle large documents, term papers, manuals, complex 
formating problems and letter writing, then TEXTPRO III is what your 
looking f or. TEXTPRO works in a totally different way than most 
word processing programs. It uses simple 2 character abbreviations 
of words or phrases for commands and formatting information that 
you imbed directly in your text. There are over 50 different 
formating commands you can use without ever leaving the text your 
working on. There are no time comsuming, and often f urstrating 
menu chases, you are in total control at all times. The formatted 
output can be displayed directly on the screen, showing you exactly 
what your printed document will look like before a single word is ever 
printed. This includes margins, headers, footers, page numbers, page 
breaks, underlining, column formating and full justification. 

DISK $59.95 TAPE $49.95 



The CBA5IC Editor/Compiler VI. 1.2 

Do you want to write fast machine language programs but you 
don't want to spend the next few years trying to learn how ??? 
Well with CBASIC, you could be writing them right now! 

CBASIC is the only fully integrated Basic Compiler and program 
editing system available for the Color Computer. It will allow you to 
take full advantage of all the capabilities available in your color 
computer without having to spend years trying to learn assembly 
language programming. CBASIC allows you to create, edit and 
convertprograms from a language you are already familiar with 
Extended Disk Color Basic, into fast efficient machine language 
programs easily and quickly, We added advanced features like 8 full 
blown program editor, Hi-Res text Displays and 80 column hardware 
support for editing, compiling and your compiled programs. Plus we 
made it exceptionally easy to use, CBASIC is the friendliest and 
easiest compiler available for the Color Computer. 

"The most complete f ditor/Compi/er I have seen for the CoCo... " 
-The RAINBOW, March 1986 

CBASIC is & powerful tool for the Beginner as well as the Advanced 
Basic or Machine Language programmer. You can write programs 
without having to worry about the Stack, DP Register, memory 
allocation and so on, because CBASIC will do it f or you automatically. 
Or, CBASIC will let you control every aspect of your program, even 
general! no machine code directly in a program easily. 

CBASIC features well over 100 compiled Basic Commands and 
Functions that fully support Disk Sequential and Direct access files, 
Tape, Printer and Screen I/O. CBASIC supports ALL the High and Low 
Resolution Graphics, Sound, Play and String Operations available in 
Extended Color Basic, including Graphics GET, PUT. PLAY and DRAW, 
ail with 99.9% syntax compatibility. CBASIC also supports the built 
in Serial I/O port with separate printer & serial I/O baud rates. You 
can send and receive data with PRINT, INPUT and INKEY commands. 

CBASIC has its own completely integrated Basic Program Editor 
which allows you to load, edit or create programs for the compiler. 
It is a full featured editor designed specifically f or writing and editing 
Basic programs. It has block move & copy, program renumbering, 
automatic line numbers, screen editing, printer control and more. 

"fhe Editor is a v^ry good one and could be the subject for review 
all by itself... ' ' - The RAINBOW, March 1036 

'Comparing FCB's edit mode to CB ASIC's text editor is like comparing a 
World War II jeep to a modem sedan Both get you to your destination 
hut what a difference in the ride. --Hot CoL o t Feburary IQSo 

The documentation for CBASIC is an B 1/2 * U Spiral Bound book 
which contains approximaUy 120 pages of real information. 

"CBA SIC s manual is easy I o read and writ i en with a minimum of 
technics fese, * —Hoi CoCo February , 10$ 6 

The price of CBASIC is $149.00. It is the most expensive Color 
Basic Compiler on the market, and well worth the investment. 
Compare the performance of CBASIC against any Color Basic 
compiler, Dollar for dollar, CBASIC gives you more than any other 
compiler available. Requires 64K & Disk, not JDOS compatible. 
"The price tag it carries seemed a bit steep for an integer compiler on first 
glance, but when you add 64K, hi- res drivers, end fulf -screen editing, CBASIC 
begins to look more like a bargain. .* — Not CoCo F rbrvary, f 9#6 
'A Complete Editor/Compiler Well Worth its Price " - ~f>A INBQ W March 1066 

_ EDT/A5M 64D 

64K DISK EDITOR ASSEMBLER 

EDT/ASM 64D Is a Disk based co-resident Text Editor & Assembler. 
It has a Hi-Resolution 5t. 64 or 85 column by 24 line display, so you 
see your program listings easily and it supports Column cards. The 
disk also contains a free standing ML Debug Monitor, to help you debug 
your assembled programs. 

This is the most powerfull. easy to use Text Editor available in any 
Editor/ Assembler package for the Color Computer. It even has 
automatic line number generation for easy entry of program material. 

* tocol and Globe! string search and/orreplace. 

8 Full screen line editing with immediale line update. 

* Easy to use Single keyslroke editing commands. 

* Load &Save standard ASCII formatted Tape/Disk files. 

* Hove or Copy single & multiple text lines. 

* Create and Edit disk files larger than memory. 

« Hi-Res Text Display 28 to 65 columns by 24 lines. 

* Supports Word-Pak 1 3 SL & R.S. and Disto 60 column display cards. 
The Assembler portion of EDT/ASM 64D f eatures include: 

* Supports the full 6800 instruction set. 

* Supports conditional IF/THEN/ELSE assembly. 

* Supports Disk Library files (include). 

* Supports standard motorola assembler directives 

* Allows multiple values for FD8 & fC8 directives. 

* Generate!! listings to Mi-Res text screen or printer. 

* Assembles directly to disk or tape in IOADM format 

* Supports up to 0 open disk files during assembly. 

* Allows assembly from editor buffer, Disk or both. 

The freestanding 0EBU6 program provided includes: 
■ Examine and change the contents of memory. 

* Set, Remove and display up to 1 0 breakpoints In memory. 
1 Display/Change processor register contents. 

* Move a Block of memory or Fill Memory range with specified data. 

* Search memory range for data pattern. 

* Disassemble memory range into op-code format. 

Requires 52K Disk $59.95 

Toorder products by mail, send check or money orderforthe amount of 
purchase, plus $3.00 for shipping & handling lo the address below. 
To order by VISA, MASTERCARD or COD call us at (702) 452-0632 
(Monday thru Saturday, Bam to 5pm PSTi 

CER-COMP 
5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 
702-4520632 



Right Back 
Where We 
Started From 

By Brian LeBlanc 




SONS 





WO 



HID' 




Genealogy is a fascinating hobby. 
Who are you? Where are you 
from? Questions such as these 
often lead to the search for your roots. 
It's interesting to piece together the 
fabric of your past, discovering heroes, 
black sheep, stalwart citizens, pirates, 
farmers, shopkeepers, politicians and 
who knows what all. Often, though, 
digging out the information about your 
ancestors is a time-consuming and 
tedious chore. Family Tree was written 
to help you with the work. It stores and 
retrieves family history information on 
disk, allowing you to make a printout 
of a family member's data record or a 
lineage chart. The program is designed 

Brian Le Blanc is a licensed industrial 
electrician and a qualified electronics 
technician. He troubleshoots and re- 
pairs industrial computers and pro- 
grammable controllers. Brian holds 
eight diplomas from various computer 
courses, and he lives in Digby County, 
Nova Scotia. 



for use with the Radio Shack DMP-105 
printer. 

Family Tree actually consists of three 
parts: PAGE, which prints data sheets for 
collecting family information; FAMILY, 
which saves the collected information 
onto disk; and CHART, which prints a 
lineage chart for displaying ancestors 
and descendants. 

The first of these listings, PAGE, is 
presented this month. The data sheets 
it generates can be used to gather the 
information you need to continue with 
the Family Tree program. Just pass 
these sheets out to family members and 
have them fill in the blanks. Next month 
we will continue with the FAMILY and 
CHART listings. Now, get busy and track 
those roots! 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to the author at RR1 
Church Point Box 67- B, Digby County, 
Nova Scotia, Canada BO W 1 MO. Please 
enclose an SASE when writing for a 
reply.). □ 



1 02 THE RAINBOW September 1 987 




290 186 1060 75 

470 248 1230 253 

650 96 1470 146 

850 248 END 39 



The listing: PAGE 

9j3 REM (C) BRIAN LE BLANC 
95 REM JANUARY 24 1987 



W 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 



CLS 

PRINT #-2,CHR$(30) 
PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(22) 
DIM A$(137) :WIDTH 40 
GOSUB 1070 

PRINT "THIS PROGRAM WILL MAKE 
PRINTOUTS OF" 
160 PRINT "PAGES ONE AND TWO OF T 
HE" 

170 PRINT" FAMILY TREE PROGRAM" 
180 PRINT" 



190 PRINT "HOW MANY COPIES OF PA 
GE ONE" 

200 LINEINPUT Q$ 

210 LET PGONE=VAL(Q$) 

220 PRINT"HOW MANY COPIES OF PAG 

E TWO" 

230 LINEINPUT Q$ 

240 PRINT" 



250 TWO=VAL(Q$) 
260 J=95 

270 LOCATE 1,10: PRINT "ENSURE TO 
P OF PRINTER PAGE" 

280 LOCATE 1,12: PRINT " IS FLUSH 

WITH ROLLER" 
290 LOCATE 1,14: PRINT "PRESS (P) 
PRINT, OR (Q) TO QUIT" 
Q$=INKEY$ :IF Q$="" THEN 300 
IF Q$="Q" THEN 1050 
IF Q$<>"P" THEN 300 
FOR 1=1 TO 47: PRINT #-2,CHR$ 
(27) ;CHR$(54) : NEXT I 
340 IF PGONE=0 THEN 710 
350 FOR X=l 
360 PRINT 
CHR$(14) 

370 PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(21) 
380 PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(90) 



TO 
300 
310 
320 
330 



TO PGONE 
#-2,CHR$(15) ;CHR$(27) 



#-2, "FAMILY HISTORY 



IN 



380 

CHR$ (12) 
390 PRINT 
FORMATION" 
400 PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(90) ; 
CHR$(12) 

410 PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(15) ; 
CHR$ ( 14 ) 

420 FOR 1=1 TO 16 

430 PRINT #-2, TAB (6) ;A$(I) ;CHR$( 




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1. I/O commands 

CLOSE CLOADM CSAVEM DIR 
FILES GET INPUT KILL 
RSET USING LINEINPUT 

2. Program conlrol commands 



CALL DEFUSR END 

IF THEN ELSE 

3. Functions 

ABS ASC ATN 

HPOINT INSTR INT 

PEEK POINT PPOINT 

TIMER VAL VARPTR 

4. String functions 
CHRS INKEYS LEFTS 



EXEC 
ERROR 

COS 
LEN 
RND 



DRIVE DSKIS DSKOS FIELD 
LSET OPEN PRINT PUT 



FOR NEXT GOSUB GOTO 

ON RETURN STOP USR 

CVN EOF EXP FIX 

LOG LPEEK LOC LOF 

SGN SIN SQR TAN 



5. Graphic/Screen commands 
ATTR COLOR CLS CIRCLE 
HLINE HPAINT HPRINT HRESET 
LINE LOCATE PALETTE PAINT 
PRESET PSET RESET SCREEN 

6. Other commands 

DATA DIM MOTOR POKE 
TRON TROFF TAB VERIFY 
Plus many more commands not av 
interfacing wilh hardware register 



MID$ MKN$ RIGHTS STR$ 



STRINGS 



DRAW HCOLOR HSCREEN HDRAW 

HCIRCLE HCLS HSET JOYSTK 

PCLEAR PCLS PLAY PMODE 

SET SOUND WIDTH 



LPOKE RESTORE READ 



REM 



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September 1987 THE RAINBOW 103 



Zo ) r { Dp ) t v^niw \ xj ) 




7Q01 "POT? T-RQ TO A1 
/ zJ p r Ui\ X — Oz) ±\J O X 


44^ PRINT it z i ^nK^ [ Z 1 ) f tnK^ 1^)3] 


f 


Sjdfd IF 1 = 64 OR 1=73 THEN FLAG=1 


P"H"D^ f 1 9 ^ 
UrlKy \ ±Z ) 




o n C?4 TF T">^A THFN H=£01 FT.QF W=R01 
o j.p ir _l ^ o ft j. n Hi in n — o p iljjuij n — ~j p 


AR01 MFYT T 




ft90l TF FT.AH^^I TNFM PPTMT Ji — 9 TA 

O /L p 11 £ ±jr\.\3*** ^ _L J. n JZjIN ir xxX IN J. -ff f ±r\ 

"Rf£^ • A <^ f T ^ • PUP< ( O Q \ • nup^ ( TJ \ • pUD<i 
D [ o ) r [ X ) r v^rlrty \ Z 0 ) 1 v^rlKy \ -H- ) / v*il.tw 


4op PRINT it z , LrlKi? [ z 1 ) t LnKi? \ z)p ) 


• 

t 


LnK9 11^/ 




{ J ) 


47>3 PRINT #-2 , CHR§ ( 15 ) / tHKl? [Z 1 ) 


f 


Q O rt TP TP T A C — 1 rn tt tt 1 XT "DTDTXTT" 4 — O T>A"D 

oJ)^) Ir r LiAvj— I IniljN rKlJNl # ^ / IAJd 


LrlK9 ( 1 4 ) 




(O) t A9 1 1 ; 


AP01 PT5TMT Ji — 9 11 PFP COMM AT. 1^0^^" 

fiOp .i Ix-LlN d. -ff Z f ir HjXxO WIN IN rii-J 1NU 1 DD 




0 L t p r ±jc\\3—p 


^nrt DDTMT Ji — 9 PWP^ f 97^ • PHP £ f Q 0H 


# 


OL>p IT r\±. IN 1 it 4 1 \ Z 1 ) 1 v^nix y \z)p ) t 


pup<i f i o\ 






crtrt D'PTWP Ji — 9 PWP< ( 9 7 N • PWP ^ M R ^ 


• 

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OOp IN Hi A 1 X 


CHR$ ( 14 ) 




£701 PPTMT Ji — 9 P"H"D^^97> • PITT? ^ f Q • 
0 / p ir x\_l in 1 if z / v^nrv v \ z 1 1 t v^nx\y \z?p ) § 


510 FOR 1=17 TO 35 






520 PRINT #-2,TAB(6) ;A$(I) ;CHR$( 


oop r^rvX IN 1 if Z f v^rlrv v ^ ±D y / v^nrvy \ Z 1 ) t 


28) ;CHR$(50) ;CHR$(J) 






530 PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(9p) 


f 


Q Q 01 DPTMfP Ji — .9 HppDCnMiT FiMTT V T 


CHR$ ( 12 ) 






540 NEXT I 




q r% (X DDTMT Ji — 9 PUP^ ^07^ • PTTT? ^ f Q (A \ • 

ypp lrK±N 1 if — Zf UHK9 ^ z / ; f \ ¥p ) t 


550 PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(90) 


• 

1 




CHR$ ( 12 ) 




Q101 PPTKTT Ji — 9 PTTT?^ ( 1 A \ 'PMP^ ^9 7^ • 
z) j-p r^rvx in ± it z 1 v^nrvy ^ y / ^ni\9 ^ ^z r j 1 


560 PRINT #-2,CHR$ (15) ;CHR$ (27) 


f 


nunc!; M c\ 


CHR$(14) 




z)zp r UK ±—oZ IU ±p*i 


570 PRINT #-2 /'PERSONAL FAMILY, 


F 


z) 3 p _l r x — 0 / uk x — 0 1 nHjiN r Xj/ivj — x 


IRST MARRIAGE" 




Q£0i TF T>ft7 THFM H=fi01 FT.CJF H=R0i 


580 PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(90) 


• 


950 IF FLAGOl THEN PRINT #-2 TA 


CHR$ ( 12 ) 




£5 ^ D ) / r\ y ^ 1 J / Uilxx v ^ Z O J t UxiKy ^ il j t UxiKy 


590 PRINT #-2,CHR$(14) ;CHR$(27) 


• 

1 




CHR$ (15) 




C\ (Z ft TX? PT Af H rpTTTTiXT "D"DTMT> 41 _ T>AT3 

ybji5 Ir r XjAvj— X IHiIjIn r'KllNl #"Z,lAr3 


600 FOR 1=36 TO 58 






610 IF 1=41 OR 1=50 THEN FLAG=1 




z) 1 p r XjAvj — p 


620 IF I>41 THEN H=60 ELSE H=50 




QQffl TJT^TMT 1 Ji — 9 PWP^ ^97^ • PHP ^ ( Q 01 x j • 

z)op r^KXJN 1 tt ^ / uni\9 ^ z 1 ) t ^nx\v \-*P) f 


630 IF FLAGOl THEN PRINT #-2,TA 


Uilrvv ^ 1Z j 


B(6) ;A$(I) ;CHR$(28) ;CHR$(H) ;CHR$ 


QQ01 MFVT 1 T 
zJzJp IN ILA 1 X 


(J) 




1010101 PT5TNT Ji — 9 PHP^ ^97^ •PN"R^^99^ 
J-PPP iri\JL IN ± -ft Z / ^ni\y \ /L 1 ) t ^ni\y \ /L c* ) 


640 IF FLAG=1 THEN PRINT #-2, TAB 


1 011 01 FOP T = 1 TO 1 R 
j_p j_p r wx\ _l — x j. w x «j 


(6) ;A$(i) 




101901 PPTMT Ji — 9 PNP^ ^9 7^ •PTT'R^^RA^ 


650 FLAG=0 




1 0H 01 NFVT T 

_Lp O p IN Hi .A. J. X 


660 PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(90) 


• 

1 


1 01 A 01 MFYT 1 Y 
±p*±p IN Hi A 1 A 


CHR$(12) 




1 CI R 01 FKIFl 

X p L> p Hi IN U 


670 NEXT I 




1 01^01 UT?M CTTH CPPPPM nTQTJT AV APPA 
Xpop KHjIYI oUJd oUKrillilN UlorLAl AKKA 


680 PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(22) 




v 


690 REM LINE FEED 




1 7 01 Ff YP T = 1 TO 1 Tfi 


700 NEXT X 




1 0i£0i pfafi 


710 IF TWO=0 THEN END 




ipzJp XiXjX /-i9 ^ X j — 


720 FOR X=l TO TWO 




1 1 0101 MFYT T 
X J-PP INHjAI X 


730 PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(21) 




11101 T^ZiTA T ACTMAMF • PTPCTMSMP 


740 PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(90) 


• 


r / l v l X U U XjHiIN ril'llj / 


CHR$(36) 




11901 na^a rPMPPafPT^u • ttmpitp \rri 

LIZp VjHjIn iLKAl XUIN , , XjXJN Ili/lVjrj JNU 


750 PRINT #-2,CHR$(15) ;CHR$(27) 


t 


; , riAr'l IZHjU ; 


CHR$ ( 14 ) 




IIJ^ UA1A JdUKJN UAIiIj , , UIiIjJJ UAIiIj 


760 PRINT #-2," PERSONAL FAMILY, 






SECOND MARRIAGE" 




i i a 01 naTa pern • 11 11 


770 PRINT #-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(90) 


• 

1 


JYIX Uf /JYlUlrllljK Xiol/ 


CHR$(12) 




1150 DATA " FST ; " , 11 


780 PRINT #-2,CHR$(14) ;CHR$(2" 7 ) 


f 


MID; 11 , NO. OF BRS; 


CHR$(15) 




1160 DATA NO. OF SIS;, GOD FATHER 



104 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



; ,GOD MOTHER; 




; SONS NAME 








117 $ DATA NICKNAME 


; , BORN LOC 


141)3 DATA 11 11 


if 


ii 


if if 


;, RESIDENCE ; 




142)3 DATA 11 11 


if 


ii 


if if 


118)3 DATA B 1 RD LOC 


; , RELIGION 


143)3 DATA 11 11 


if 


ti 


, BORN DATE ; DA 


;, SCHOOLING ; 




UGHTERS NAME 








119)3 DATA 11 


. M if 


144)3 DATA 11 11 


if 


if 


if if 


. it if • if 

if i 




145)3 DATA 11 11 


if 


if 




12)3)3 DATA OCC/TRADE 


it 


146)3 DATA 11 11 


if 


if 


, SEARCHING CAN 


; » , EMPLOYMENT ; 




BE BY; 








121p DATA 11 


. M ii 


147)3 DATA 11 






11 , LASTNAME ; , 


; 11 , ABROAD 




FIRSTNAME ; 









122) 3 DATA 11 ; 11 , MILITARY 
; , LASTNAME 

123) 3 DATA FIRSTNAME ;,MIDDLENAME 
; , MAR 1 D DATE ; 

124) 3 DATA MAR 1 D LOC ; , BORN DATE 
| SONS NAME 

125) 3 DATA 11 

126) 3 DATA 

127) 3 DATA 
UGHTERS NAME 

128) 3 DATA 11 

129) 3 DATA 
13)3)3 DATA 11 



ii if if if if 
if ii if ii if if 
ii if if ii 



, BORN DATE ; DA 



If 


If 


If 


If 


11 


If 


If 


If 


If 


If 


If 


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, LASTNAME 



131) 3 DATA FIRSTNAME ; , MIDDLENAME 
; , MAR 1 D DATE ; 

132) 3 DATA MAR 1 D LOC ; , BORN DATE 
; SONS NAME 

133) 3 DATA 11 

134) 3 DATA 

135) 3 DATA 
UGHTERS NAME 



If 


If 


If 


If 


If 


1 


1 


If 


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II 


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, BORN DATE DA 



137) 3 DATA 

138) 3 DATA 11 11 , 11 11 , LASTNAME 

139) 3 DATA FIRSTNAME ;, MIDDLENAME 
; , MAR 1 D DATE ; 

14)3)3 DATA MAR 1 D LOC ; , BORN DATE 



If 


If 

f 


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1 


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148)3 DATA MIDDLENAME ;, GENERATION 
; , LINEAGE # ; 
149J3 DATA BAPTIZED 
BORN 

15jd0 DATA SPECIFIC 



DIED" 



ii ii 



UP TO 



, AFTER 



151) 3 DATA FROM 
TO 

152) 3 DATA ,! 11 

153) 3 DATA DATES MUST BE ENTERED 
AS ; , 11 11 , YEAR MONTH DAY 

; YYYYMMDD 

154) 3 DATA 11 11 

155) 3 DATA 1/ ENTER DATA , 2/SEARCH 
FILES 

156) 3 DATA 3/QUIT," 11 

157) 21 DATA 11 11 

158) 3 DATA 1/DISPLAY RECORD, 2/PRI 
NTOUT COMPLETE RECORD 

159) 3 DATA 3/PRINTOUT PARTIAL REC 
ORD, 4/DISPLAY NEXT RECORD 

16)3)3 DATA 5/CHANGE RECORD , 6/RETU 
RN TO MENU 

161) 3 DATA 11 11 

162) 3 RETURN 



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September 1 987 THE RAINBOW 1 05 



MATH TUTORIAL 



This computerized teaching aid makes 
short work of complicated problems 



The Electronic Blackboard 

By Louis R. Toscano 




106 THE RAINBOW September 1987 





oots and Graphs of Functions is 
mm a. high resolution graphics pro- 
II gram that I have used with a 
great deal of success in my calculus 
class. Although the program can be 
used for problem-solving by students of 
science and mathematics, it is also very 
effective as an electronic blackboard in 
the advanced mathematics classroom. 
Using the program, I have been able to 
demonstrate in a few minutes mathe- 
matical concepts that might otherwise 
have taken hours of chalk and black- 
board work. One picture is worth a 
thousand Delta-Epsilon proofs! 
The program will: 

1. Graph any function over any 
interval 

2. Graph two functions simultane- 
ously on the same set of axes 

3. Find the roots of a function (the 
x-intercepts of its graph) 

4. Evaluate a function for any value 
of x 

5. Find the intersection of the 
graphs of two functions (solves a 
system of two equations with two 
unknowns) 

6. Find the slope of the graph of a 
function (evaluates the first deriv- 
ative) 

7. Find the relative maximum and 
minimum values of a function 

Louis Toscano has a bachelor's degree 
in electrical engineering and a master 's 
degree in mathematics. He teaches 
calculus and computer programming at 
Martha 's Vineyard Regional High 
School in Massachusetts, and he is 
currently working on a program similar 
to Graph that will graph polar and 
parametric equations. 



8. Find the area between a curve and 
the x-axis (the definite integral) 

9. Find the area between two curves 
10. Graph piecewise and discontinu- 
ous functions. 

Here are some of the ways I have used 
the program in my calculus class: 

■ To show the relationship between the 
graph of a function and its first and 
second derivative 

■ To compare the graph of f(x) with 
f(x-h), f(x)+k, -f(x), and -f(-x\ (i.e., 
to show the effect of horizontal and 
vertical translations, and reflections 
across the x-axis and the origin) 

■ To demonstrate the effect of changing 
the parameters of y-Asin(bx+c) and 
^=Acos(bx+c) on the amplitude, 
period and phase angle 

■ To show the relationship between the 
graph of the quadratic function 
y=ax 2 +bx+c and the value of the 
discriminant b 2 -4ac 

■ To visually "prove" trigonometric 
identities such as sin2x=2sinxcosx by 
showing that the graphs of y=s'm2x 
and y-2s'mxcosx coincide over any x- 
interval 

■ To show that the derivative of sin* is 
cos* by comparing the slope of slnx 
with values of cos* at various points. 
In a similar manner, show that the 
derivative of e* is t x and the deriv- 
ative of LOGx is 1/x 

■ To show that the integral of 1 / x from 
x= \ to N is LOGN by comparing the 
area under 1/ x from 1 to N and the 
value of LOGN 

■ To demonstrate that sinx-x for small 
value of x (in radians) by graphing 
y=s'mx and y-x and showing that 

September 1 987 THE RAINBOW 1 07 



their graphs coincide over the interval 
where x is very small 

■ To show that the limit as x ap- 
proaches 0 of (sin*)/* is 1 by graph- 
ing >>=(sin;c)/;c in the vicinity of x-0 

■ To demonstrate the Taylor Series 
expansion of sinx by graphing y-s'mx 
and ^=x-x 3 /3! + x 5 /5!-x 7 /7!+ . . . 
and to show that the graphs coincide 
better as more terms of the expansion 
are used. Similarly, use the Taylor 
Series expansion for cos* and e* 

■ To demonstrate the use of Fourier 
Series to approximate square and 
triangular waves 

■ To demonstrate concepts such as the 
integral of kf(x) is equal to k times the 
integral of f(x) when k is a constant 

■ To graph the normal probability 
curve (the bell-shaped curve) and 
show that the area under the curve 
between -1 and 1 is .68, thus showing 
that approximately 68 percent of a 
"normal" population lies within one 
standard deviation of the mean 

Although most of the concepts I have 
mentioned are formally proven in class, 
I have found that the visual demonstra- 
tions I can make with the program help 
my students focus on the task at hand. 

RUNNING THE PROGRAM 

Run the program after loading it. You 
will be presented with the title page. 
Note that all text is on the high resolu- 
tion graphics screen (PMODE 4). You will 
then be asked if you want instructions. 
The instructions are rather lengthy and 
comprehensive, but I feel the program 
is easy enough to use that you will only 
need to read them once. Go through the 
instructions now and then return to this 
article, or skip the instructions for the 
time being and continue reading. 

You will then be presented with the 
main menu. You have three options: I) 
Graph one equation; 2) Graph two 
equations simultaneously; and 3) Use 
new equations. Let's graph the cubic 
equation y=x*-%x+5. Enter Option 3 at 
the menu. The screen will then show the 
instructions for writing an equation. 
Write the equation at Line 10 in the 
form y-f(x). If you were graphing two 
equations, you would write the second 
equation at Line 20. 

At Line 10, type 10 Y=Yt3-B*X+5. 
Then type RUN5 and press ENTER. You 
will be returned immediately to the 
main menu. Choose 1 at the main menu 
to draw the graph of one equation. You 
will then be asked for the x-interval over 
which you want the graph displayed. 



Let's graph the equation from 10 to 
x- 10. Enter -10 for the minimum value 
of x and 10 for the maximum value of 
x. After about 15 seconds, the graph of 
the equation at Line 10 is displayed on 
the screen. At the bottom of the screen, 
you will see the prompt: 

<DXV><RX5Xfl><M> <H>ELP 

The program is asking what you want 
to do next. D, V, R, etc., are mnemonic 
devices to help you remember what the 
program can do (i.e., enter D to change 
the domain, R to find the roots, R to find 
the area below the curve, etc.). But if 
you forget what they stand for, enter H 
for help and you will be presented with 
a help screen. Do so now. Then press 
ENTER to return to the graph. Except 
for the help screen, the graph will 
remain on the screen while all calcula- 
tions are performed. 

Changing the Domain 
(the X-Interval) 

Since most of the action on the graph 
of this equation seems to be taking place 
between x=-4 and x=4, let us "explode" 
the graph. Enter D to change the do- 
main, then enter -4 and 4 for the 
minimum and maximum values of x. 
After a few seconds, the exploded graph 
is drawn on the screen. You can con- 
tinue exploding the graph if you so 
desire. 

Evaluating the Function 
(Finding the Y-Coordinates) 

Let's find the value of the function 
when x=3.5. Enter V for value and then 
enter 3.5 for x. The screen shows that 
v= 19.88 when x-3.5. Notice also that 
there is a blinking dot on the graph at 
point 3.5, 19.88. Press ENTER to return 
to the prompt. Let us find a few more 
values of the function. Enter V again 
and then enter -1.8 for x. The screen 
should show 13.57. Try a few more 
values. Remember to press enter to 
return to the prompt after the computer 
has performed a calculation. 

Finding the Roots of the Function 

The roots of the equation occur 
where the graph crosses the x-axis. We 
can see from the graph that this equa- 
tion has three roots; nearx=-3, x=l and 
x=2.5. The program uses the Newton- 
Rhapson method to converge on the 
roots. Enter R for root. You must then 
enter an initial estimate of the root, 
which you can get by looking at the 
graph. Since you can see from the graph 
that a root lies somewhere between -4 



and -2, enter -3 for the estimate. After 
a couple of seconds, the screen tells you 
that there is a root at x=-3A. Also 
notice the blinking dot where the root 
occurs. Press ENTER to return to the 
prompt. Find the other roots. Enter R 
again. 

The second root appears to be around 
x- 1 . Enter 1 for an estimate. The screen 
tells you that the root is x=.661. Press 
ENTER and R again to find the third 
root. Enter 3 for an estimate. The root 
is at x=2.439. The estimates do not have 
to be too exact. Try repeating the 
procedure and entering 4 for an esti- 
mate. Again the screen shows that 
x=2.439 is a root. The closer your 
estimate is to the actual root, the 
quicker the program will converge on 
the root. Try entering 1000 for an 
estimate. It will still converge on 2.439, 
but it will take longer. 

Finding the Slope of the Graph 
(Evaluating the First Derivative) 

Enter 5 at the prompt to find the 
slope of the graph. The program will 
find a good numerical approximation 
to the value of the derivative of the 
function at any point. Actually, it will 
find the slope of the secant line between 
two very close points; but in many cases, 
after rounding, the value given will be 
exactly that of the slope of the tangent 
to the curve. Let's find the slope at x-4. 
Enter 4 for x. The screen shows 39.99. 
Note the exact value is 40. Also note the 
slope is positive, and the graph is rising 
at x=4. Repeat the process for a few 
more values. 

Area Under a Curve — 
The Definite Integral 

Let's find the area under the curve 
from x=-2 to 0. Enter R for area. You 
will be asked for the limits of integra- 
tion. Enter -2 for the minimum value 
of x and 0 for the maximum value. The 
program partitions the interval into 200 
subintervals and uses Simpson's rule to 
find the area. Note that the region in 
question is shaded in while the compu- 
tations are in progress. After a few 
seconds, the screen shows the area is 22 
square units. 

Graphing Two Equations 

Let's now graph two equations on the 
axes. We will graph the present equation 
at Line 10 and its derivative at Line 20. 
The derivative of y=x*-&x+5 is 3x 2 -8. 
Enter M at the prompt to return to the 
main menu and then choose Option 3 
to write a new equation. Since we want 
to keep the present equation at Line 10, 



108 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



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type 20 Y-3*Xt2-8 and press ENTER. 
Then type RUN5 to return to the main 
menu and choose Option 2 (graph two 
equations). Enter -5 for the minimum 
valueofxand 5 for the maximum value. 
After about 30 seconds, both graphs are 
displayed on the screen. Note this time 
the prompt at the bottom of the screen 
includes <I> to find the intersection of 
the two graphs. 

You can evaluate either function, find 
the roots of either function, find the 
slope of either function, and find the 
area between the two curves. Also note 
the relationship between the graph of 
Equation 1 (at Line 10) and the graph 
of its derivative at Line 20. When the 
graph Equation 2 lies above the x-axis 
(the derivative is positive), the graph of 
Equation 1 is rising (it has positive 
slope). When the graph of the derivative 
is below the x-axis, the graph of equa- 
tion 1 is falling. And when the graph of 
Equation 2 crosses the x-axis (the 
derivative is zero), the graph of Equa- 
tion 1 has a turning point (a relative 
maximum or minimum. 

Finding the Relative Maximum 
and Minimum Values of a Function 

Let's find the relative maximum and 
minimum values of Equation 1 (y = x 3 - 
Sx+5. First we must find the points 
where its derivative is zero (i.e., the 
roots of Equation 2). Enter R for roots 
and then enter 2 to specify that you 
want the roots of Equation 2. The graph 
of the derivative seems to be crossing 
the x-axis somewhere around x=-2. 
Enter -2 for an estimate. The screen 
then shows that there is a root at x- 
-1.633. Press ENTER to return to the 
prompt. 

Now we must find the value of Equa- 
tion 1 at x-- 1.633. Enter V for value and 
then 1 to specify Equation 1 . Then enter 
-1.633 for x. The screen shows 
y= 13.71. Thus, 13.71 is a relative max- 
imum value of the function, and 
(-1.633, 13.71) are the coordinates of 
the relative maximum of Equation 1. 

Now let's find the coordinates of the 
other turning point of Equation 1 (the 
relative minimum). The graph of the 
derivative crosses the x-axis around 
x-2. Enter R for root and 2 to specify 
Equation 2. Then enter 2 for the esti- 
mate. The screen shows a root at 
x- 1.633. Return to the prompt and then 
evalutate Equation 1 at x- 1.633. The 
screen shows ^=-3.709. Thus, the rela- 
tive minimum value of the function 
is -3.709, and the graph of Equation 1 
has a turning point at (1.633, -3.709). 



Finding the Intersection 
of Two Graphs 

Let's find the intersection of the two 
graphs. Note the graphs intersect at 
three different points. After returning to 
the prompt, enter I for intersection. 
Again you will be asked for an esti- 
mated value of x. Since the graphs 
intersect around x=-2.5, enter -2.5. 
The screen shows that the graphs inter- 
sect at (-2.445, 9.94). Return to the 
prompt and find the other two intersec- 
tions by entering an appropriate esti- 
mate for x. The other two intersections 
occur at (1.275, -3.126) and (4.171, 
44.19). 

Finding the Area Between 
Two Curves 

Let's find the area bounded by the 
two curves between x=-3 and x-2. 
Enter A for area and then enter -3 and 
2 for the limits of integration. The 
screen shows the area is approximately 
47.86 square units. 



INVESTIGATIONS 

Here are some of the many investiga- 
tions I have carried out with my stu- 
dents using this program. 

The Derivative of Sin X 

Before giving a formal proof that the 
derivative of sin* is cosx, I have my 
students graph the equations y=s'mx at 
Line 10 and y=cosx at Line 20 in the 
interval from 0 to 6.28 (twice pi radi 
ans). Then I ask them to find the slop 
of y=s'mx and the value of y=cosx fo 
various values of x. The students 
quickly conclude that the slope of 
y=s'mx is the same as the value of y-cosx 
for any value of x and, therefore, the 
derivative of sin* must be cos*. 

Now 1 proceed with the formal proof. 
But I find now, since the students know 
what the outcome should be, they are 
more focused on what I'm doing as I go 
through the formal proof. During the 
process of the proof, one must show the 
limit as x approaches 0 of (s'mx)/x-\. 
No problem. Graph y-(s'mx)/ x from 
x--3. 14 to 3.14 (see below for graphing 
discontinuous functions) and show the 
graph approaches 1 as x approaches 0 
from either side. (A f ormal proof of this 
important limit also follows.) A similar 
process can show the derivative of cosx 
is -sinx, the derivative of e x is e x , and 
the derivative of LOGx is \jx. Note 
when using trigonometric functions, the 
value of x must always be specified in 
radians, not degrees. 



Trigometric Identities 

To show that sin2x=2sinxcosx, graph 
y=s'm2x at Line 10 and _y=2sinxcosx at 
Line 20 over the interval from 0 to 6.28. 
After Equation 1 has been graphed, the 
students will see the second graph 
coincides exactly with the first graph 
that is already onscreen. One can also 
use V for value to evaluate both equa- 
tions 1 and 2 for various values of x. 
They will be equal. Try this for other 
identities. 

Taylor Series Expansions 

The function y^s'mx can be approx- 
imated by the Taylor series: x-x 1 \ 
3!+x 5 /5!-x 7 /7! + ... where 3! means 
3X2X1 or6,and5! means 5X4X3X2X1 
or 120. The approximation becomes 
better as more terms are used. To 
demonstrate this, graph y=s'mx at Line 
10 and y=x-x 3 /6 at Line 20 in the 
interval from -3.14 to 3.14. Note the 
graphs seems to coincide for -1 
<x< 1 . Try evaluating both functions for 
various values of x within this interval 
and compare the results. Then add more 
terms of the expansion to Line 20. You 
will see the graphs will coincide over 
larger intervals as more terms are 
added. Similar demonstrations can be 
done with the expansions for cosx and 
e*. 

Piecewise and Discontinuous 
Functions 

To graph a piecewise function, such 
as: 

y-x 1 for x<2 
y=2x for 2<=x<2> 
y=-x+9 for x>-3 

type at Line 10: 10 IF X<2 THEN Y = Xt2 
ELSE IF X>=2 RND X<3 THEN Y=2*X 
ELSE Y=-X+9. Try graphing the func- 
tion from x=0 to 4. 

You can use a similar technique to 
graph discontinuous functions. For 
example, the function y=\/(x-2) is 
undefined at x-2. Graphing this func- 
tion over an interval containing x-2 
may result in a division by zero error. 
To avoid this, and also avoid a very 
large range in the y values, type at Line 
10: 10 IF X<=1.9 OR X>=2.1- THEN 
Y=l/(X-2) ELSE Y=0. Then graph the 
function from x=0 to 4. (As an alterna- 
tive, you could type: 10 IF PBS (X-2) 
>= .1 THEN Y = l/(X-2) ELSE Y=0). 
Although y does not equal zero for 
values of x between 1.9 and 2.1, these 
points will be plotted on the x-axis and 
will not be visible. Note that to do this, 
you must understand the proper use of 
the OR, RND and ELSE statements. 



110 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



POSSIBLE ERRORS 

I have used the program extensively 
during the past year and, hopefully, it 
is fully debugged. However, errors may 
arise due to the equations you write at 
lines 10 and 20. There are five possible 
errors: 

SN Error (Syntax Error) at lines 10 
or 20 — You did not use the proper 
BASIC syntax when you wrote the equa- 
tion. For example, you might have 
typedSIN(2X] instead of 5IN(2*X ) . 
Check your BASIC manual for the 
proper syntax. 

/0 Error (Division By Zero Error) at 
lines 10 or 20 — Your equation is 
undefined for a value of x over the 
interval you have chosen. See above for 
graphing discontinuous functions. 

FC Error (Function Call Error) at 
lines 10 or 20 — This can arise when you 
try to graph functions such as 5QR and 
LOG over intervals for which the argu- 
ment is negative. For example SQR(X- 
2) is not a real number for values of* 
Jess than 2. Use a different x interval. 

OV Error (Overflow Error) at lines 10 
or 20 — The value of the function over 
the interval you have specified is greater 
than the computer's capacity. For exam- 



ple, graphing y-x i0 from *=5000 to 
10000 will result in an Overflow Error. 

OS Error (Out Of String Space 
Error) — When running the program 
for the first time immediately after 
loading it, you cannot type RUNS. You 
must run the program from the begin- 
ning, because Line 1 in the program 
clears the necessary string space. If this 
error occurs, either run the program 
from the beginning or type CLERR 1000 
and then type RUNS. 

CONCLUSION 

As I mentioned at the beginning, this 
program has proven to be very valuable 
in my calculus class. It has made many 
of the concepts and activities involved 
in the course much more meaningful to 
the students. I keep a Color Computer 
at the front of my room and load this 
program at the beginning of each class, 
since it often comes in handy in situa- 
tions I do not anticipate. 

The computer has become an exten- 
sion of my blackboard. I hope other 
high school teachers of advanced 
mathematics (including calculus, pre- 
calculus, math analysis, trigonometry 
and algebra) will also find it useful. If 



you come up with some interesting ways 
of using the program in your classroom, 
I would appreciate hearing about it. 

BONUS PROGRAM 

Equation is a drill-and-practice pro- 
gram for solving first-degree algebraic 
equations. It may be used either in a pre- 
algebra class or in an introductory 
algebra course. Each lesson consists of 
10 randomly generated equations. 

There are three levels of difficulty the 
student may choose. Level 1 consists of 
equations that can be solved in one step, 
such as: 

-3*= 18 
or 

*+4=-l2 

Level 2 involves equations that require 
two or more steps for a solution, such 
as: 

5*-4=-24 

or equations that require the use of the 
distributive property, such as: 

-3(*-2)=15 




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CoCo3 

zoithoxit a card guide . . . 

CUT IT OUT. 

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printed circuit cards and guides designed 
for the CoCo expanstlon port. Bare cards 
or with connector for disk controller. 

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To place an order, write to J&R Electronics. P.O. Box 2572. Columbia. MD 21045, OR call (301) 
987-9067 -^Jesse or (301) 760-0881— Ray. 

HOURS: Weekdays 7 p.m. -9 p.m.; Sat. Noon-5 p.m. EASTERN TIME, usually, if no answer try later. 
Add $4.00 shipping & handling (FOREIGN ORDERS $7.00), COD charge $3.00 Maryland residents edd 
5% stale lax. Foreign orders must include payment on U.S. bank 

CHECKS. MONEY ORDERS OR COD's only please (personal check— 2 weeks for clearance). IMMEDIATE 
DELIVERY. Give COCO Radio Shack model «(i.e. 26-3136). Disk or Tape whan ordering. 
QUANTITY DISCOUNT AVAILABLE. For information on shipping or previously placed orders cell (301) 
768-0661. COCO II 26 31XX owners call (soldering experience may be required) 

Refer to back Issues of RAINBOW for other products. 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 111 



Level 3 consists of equations that have 
the variable on both sides, such as: 



3*-4=-5;c+28 

The student may also choose Level 4, a 
mixture of all three levels, if he desires. 

The student is given two chances to 
solve the equation correctly. He receives 
10 points (and a graphic reward) for 
solving the equation correctly on the 
first try, but only 5 points on the second 



try. If he is still not successful after two 
attempts, he is shown not only the 
answer, but a detailed, step-by-step 
solution. 

The student may try as many sets of 
10 problems as he desires. At the end of 
each set, he is given his score for the 
current lesson, along with his cumula- 
tive score including the previous les- 
sons. If he scores less than 75 percent, 
he is encouraged to practice some more. 

I have used the program with slow 
learners in a pre-algebra class, and I 



found it very effective not only in re- 
inforcing the axioms of equality, but 
also operations with signed numbers. 
The program is rather lengthy, and due 
to space limitations the listing will not 
be printed; however, the program will 
be included on this month's RAINBOW 
ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK. 

(Questions or comments may be 
addressed to Mr. Toscano at Box 2400, 
Vineyard Haven, MA 02568. Please 
enclose an SASE when requesting a 
reply.) □ 



Editor's Note: The bonus drill and practice program, 
EQUATION, will immediately follow GRAPH on this 
month's RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK. 



44 132 5460 10 10143 , 

67 1 5920 150 20105 

86 195 7280 94 20118 

1600 9 7450 20 20210 

2740 130 7562 243 20235 

3600 174 7660 41 20290 

4100 84 7842 148 20340 

4660 100 9130 197 20420 

5080 108 9340 95 END . 



..117 
..235 
..200 
..169 
..223 
...13 
..100 
.243 
..148 



The listing: GRAPH 

1 CLEARlj3j3j3:CLS 

2 FLAG=1 : PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS : SCREEN1 , 0 
5 CLS:DIM K$ (Ij3j3) , El (192) , E2 (192 
) , A(4,4) :C$= M COMPUTATIONS ARE IN 

PROGRESS. . . ":GOT03 2 
lj3 Y=SIN(X) 
12 RETURN 
2J3 Y=COS(X) 

2 2 RETURN 

32 K$ (32) = !I BR8 !I : 'SPACE 

33 K$(33)="BR3UBU2U3BD6BR4": 1 ! 

34 K$ (3 4)="BRBU3EU2BR3D2GBD3BR4 !I 
I*" 

35 K$ (35) = !I BRBUR5BU3L5BED5BR3U5B 
D5BR2" : 1 # 

3 6 K$ ( 3 6 ) = 11 BRBUFR3 EUHL3 HUER3 FBHB 
L2NUD7 BU2 BR5 11 : 1 $ 

3 7 K$ (37) = !I BRBU4EFGHBR5G5BR4HEFG 
BR3 11 : 1 % 

39 K$ (39)= M BR3BU3EU2BR4BD6 !I : 1 APO 



ST 
4j3 
41 
42 



1 ( 
') 



K$ (4J3)="BR4H2U2E2BD6BR4 !I : 
K$ (41) = !I BR4BU6F2D2G2BR4 M : 
K$ (42) = !I BR2BU2E2NH2NU2NE2NF2D 
2BD2BR4" : 1 * 

43 K$ (43)="BR2BU3R2NU2NR2D2BDBR4 
n : i + 

44 K$ (44)= !I BR3EUBD2BR4 !I : 1 , 

45 K$(45)= !I BR2BU3R4BD3BR2": »- 



K$(46) 
K$(47) 
K$(48): 



46 
47 
48 
■0 

49 K$ (49)= 

50 K$(50)= 

51 K$ (51)= 
R6 M : 1 3 

52 K$(52)= 

53 K$(53)= 
R2 M : 1 5 

54 K$(54)= 
D6BR3 11 : '6 

55 K$(55)= 

56 K$(56)= 
3BR6" : 1 8 

57 K$(57)= 
3BR6" : 1 9 

58 K$(58)= 

59 K$(59)= 
6J3 K$(6j3) = 

61 K$(61)= 

62 K$(62)= 

63 K$(63)= 
i -p 

65 K$(65)= 
A 

66 K$(66) = 
11 : 'B 

67 K$(67)= 
: ! C 

68 K$(68)= 
D 

69 K$(69)= 
: ! E 

70 K$(70)= 
7 1 K$(71) = 
3BR3": ! G 
72 K$(72)= 
7 3 K$(73)= 
? I 

74 K$(74)= 
J 

75 K$(75)= 



'BR2R1BR4 11 : 1 . 
'BRE5BD5BR2 11 : 1 / 
'BR2HU4ER3FD4GNL3BR3 11 : 

'BR3R2BLU6GBD5BR5 11 : 1 1 
1 BRBU5ER3 FG4 DR4 BR3 11 : '2 
'BRBU5ER3FG2F2G1L3HBFB 

f BR5U6G4R5BD2BR2" : ! 4 
'BRBUFR3EU2HL4U2R5BD6B 

1 BRBUNUFR3EUHL3 GU 3 ER3 B 

'BRBU6R5G5DBR7 11 : 1 7 

1 BR2 HUEHUER3 FDGNL3 FDGL 



BR2BU3HUER3 FD2NL3D2GL 



'BR4BUUBU2UBD5BR4 11 : 1 : 
'BR3EUBU2UBD5BR4 11 : 1 ; 
1 BR2 BU 3 NE 3 F 3 BR3 11 : ! < 
'BRBU4R4BD2L4BD2BR7 11 : 1 



' BR2 BU 6 F 3 G 3 BR6 11 : f > 
BR2BU5ER2FG2BD2DBR4 11 : 

BRU5ER3FD3NL5D2BR2 11 : 1 

BRU 6R4 FDGNL4 FDGNL4 BR3 

BR2HU4ER3FBD4GNL3BR3" 

BRU6R3F2D2G2NL3BR4": ' 

BRNR5U3NR3U3R5BD6BR2 11 

BRU3NR3U3R5BD6BR2" : f F 
BR2HU4ER3FBD2NL2D2GNL 

BRU3NU3R5NU3D3BR2" : ! H 
BR4NLNRU6NLNRBD6BR4 11 : 

BR2NHR3EU5NLRBD6BR" : ' 

BR2U2NU4ENE3F3BR2 11 : ! K 



112 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



76 
77 
78 
79 
'O 
8J3 
81 



K$ (76 
K$ (77 
K$ (78 
K$ (79 



K$ (87 
K$ (88 
: 'X 
K$ (89 

K$(9p 
K$ (94 



="BRNU6R5BR2" : 1 L 
="BRU6F2RE2D6BR2" : 1 M 
="BRU6F5NU5DBR2 " : ' N 
= "BR2HU4ER3FD4GNL3BR3 11 : 

= "BRU6R4FDGL4 BD3 BR7 " : ' P 
="BR3H2U2E2RF2D2GNHNFGL 

="BRU5ER3FDGL2NL2F3BR2" 

= " BRBUFR3 EUHL3 HUER3 FBD5 

="BR4U6NL2R2BD6BR2" : 'T 
="BRBU6D5FR3EU5BD6BR2 " : 



K$(80 
K$ (81 
BR5 " : 'Q 

82 K$(82 
: 'R 

83 K$(83 
BR2 " : 1 S 

84 K$(84 

85 K$ (85 
•U 

86 K$(86 
•V 
87 
88 
2" 
89 
' Y 
90 
94 

95 IF FLAG=p GOTO5820 ELSE GOTO 
5600 

1000 '**PRINT ON HIRES SCREEN 

1100 P=ZP:GOSUB1240 

1120 ZF$= M S M +STR$ (ZF) +"BM"+STR$ ( 

ZX) +" , "+STR$ ( Z Y) : DRAW ZF$ 

1140 FOR ZJ=1 TO LEN (ZM$ ) 

1160 ZK=ASC(MID$ (ZM$,ZJ, 1) | 

1180 DRAW K$(ZK) :P=P+1:IF INT(P/ 

32)=P/32 THEN ZX=0 : Z Y=Z Y+12 : ZF$= 

"BM"+STR$ (ZX) +" , "+STR$ (ZY) : DRAW 

ZF$ 

1200 NEXT ZJ: RETURN 

1240 ' **CONVERT PRINT@ TO HIRES 

COORD 

1340 ZX=(P-INT(P/32) *32) *8 
T(P/32) * 12+8 : RETURN 



="BRBU6D3F3E2U4BD6BR2 ": 

="BRNU6E2RF2NU6BR2" : 'W 
= " BRUE2H2UBR5 DG2 NLF2DBR 

="BRBU6F3ND3E2UBD6BR2 " : 

="BRBU6R5DG4DR5BR2" : 1 Z 
= "BR2BU4E2F2BD4BR2" : 1 * 



ZY=IN 



1400 
1560 
1580 
NPUT 
1600 
1620 
00 

1660 
T,BF 
1680 



**HI RES TEXT INPUT 



GOSUB1000: 
GOSUB1240 : 

ZZ$=INKEY$: 
ZZ$=INKEY$: 



1 PROMPT 

'FIND COORD FOR I 

ZZ$=" ": ZA$=" " 
IF ZZ$O IIII THEN17 



LINE(ZX, ZY-7) - (ZX+6 , ZY) , PSE 



LINE(ZX, ZY-7) -(ZX 
COLOR 0, l:GOT0162 



COLOR 1,0 
+6,ZY) ,PSET,BF 

1700 IFZZ$>CHR$ (13)THEN1760 

1720 IFZZ$=CHR$ ( 13 ) ANDLEN ( ZA$ ) <> 

0THEN1900 

1740 IFZZ$=CHR$ (8)THEN1840 



Now Create Your Own Signs, 
Banners, and Greeting Cards. 



Introducing The 
Coco Graphics Designer 

Last Chriitmas we Introduced our 
COCO Greeting Card Deiigiier program 
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expanded it into a new program called 
the COCO Graphice Deeigiier. The 
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greeting cardi ptui bannen and eigne. 
Thii program will further increaie the 
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matrix printer. 

The Coco Graphics 

Designer allowi you to mix text and 
picturei in all your creation!. The 
program feature* picture, border, and 
character font editor*, to that you can 
modify or expand the already built in 
librariei. Plui a epecial "grabber" utility 
ii included to capture area* of high 
resolution icreeni for your picture 
library. 



Requirements: a Coco or Coco II 
with a minimum of 92K, On* Diik Drive 
(Diek Ext. BASIC 1.0/1. l.ADOS, or 
JDOS). Printer* eupported include: 
Epeon RX/FX, GEMINI 10X, SG-10, 
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Over 100 More Pictures 

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diskette containing over one hundred 
additional picture! ii available. 

#C333 Picture Diik #1 114.06. 



Colored Paper Packs 

Now available are packi containing 120 
iheeti of tractor-feed paper and 42 
matching envelop*! in aciorted bright 
RED, GREEN, and BLUE. Perfect for 
making your production! unforgettable. 
#C274 Paper Pack flO.96 




With Zebra's Coco Graphics Designer it's easy and enjoyable 
making your own greeting cards, signs, and banners. 



NEWS FLASH! 
CGP-220 and DMP-105 
NOW SUPPORTED 



As of June 1, 1987 we are 
shipping version 2.3 o-f the 
CoCo Graphics Designer. This 
version includes drivers -for 
the CGP-220 and DMP-105 
printers, and improved menu 
dialogs for single disk drive 
users. By the time this 
appears in print we 
probably also have 
Okidata printer drivers — 



l ssue 
wi 1 1 
added 
check 



with us if you have an Okidata. 



Ordering Instructions: aji order* 

add $3.00 Shipping ii Handling. UPS 
COD add 13.00. VISA/MC Accepted. 
NY reeidenti add ealea tax. 



Zebra Sytems, Inc 
78-06 Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(718) 296-2385 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 113 




WE'RE BRINGING THE COCO 



RAINBOWS 
BROADENING ITS 
SPECTRUM 

the rainbow and the Delphi Infor- 
mation Utility have joined together 
to allow CoCo owners all over the 
world to connect with one another! 

Delphi is a full-service information 
utility. It offers everything from up- 
to-the-minute news stories from Thu 
Associated Press to electronic mail 
services. But, best of all, it now has 
a special forum for Color Computer 
owners, and it's operated by the 
people who bring you the rainbow 
each month. 

The CoCo Special Interest Group 
(SIG) features a variety of services, 
including an open forum where you 
can send and receive messages 
from Color Computer owners all 
over the world. It also has several 
databases to which you can upload 
your favorite programs and from 
which you can download programs 
written by other CoCo enthusiasts. 
Some of these databases are basic 
programming, OS-9 and home ap- 
plications. 

When setting up your account with 
Delphi, if you do not have a credit 
card or prefer not to use it, Delphi 
requires that you send $25 to give 
your account a positive balance. 
This will be refunded after your first 
free hour if you choose to no longer 
use the system or it will be applied 
to future connect charges. If you do 
not maintain a positive balance, you 
will be charged $3.50 each month 
for direct billing. 



PEEK INTO THE 
RAINBOW 

The CoCo SIG's conference feature 
allows you to meet electronically 
with other members of the CoCo 
Community. You can join conferen- 
ces with notables such as Dale 
Puckett, Cray Augsburg, Marty 
Goodman, Don Hutchison, Jim 
Reed, Lonnie Falk and others — on 
a regular basis. Conference sched- 
ules will appear in the rainbow 
each month. Be sure to check online 
announcements for changes and 
additions. 



THE OTHER SIDE 
OF THE RAINBOW 

On Delphi, you also are able to buy 
rainbow on tape — order a whole 
set, or download an individual pro- 
gram immediately. You can also 
renew your rainbow subscription, 
make a fast and easy order for soft- 
ware or hardware from a multitude 
of vendors, or inquire about prod- 
ucts on the CoCo SIG. 

We also have a number of programs 
that you can download and use, just 
for the cost of the time you spend 
transferring them. There'll also be 
corrections for rainbow articles, 
helpful hints and many other useful 
features. 



FREE LIFETIME 
MEMBERSHIP 

the rainbow is offering subscribers 
a free lifetime subscription to Delphi 

— a $24.95 value — and a free hour 
of connect time — a $7.20 value at 
either 300, 1200 or 2400 Baud — so 
you can sample Delphi and the rain- 
bow CoCo SIG. That's right. Your 
subscription to the rainbow entitles 
you to this $32.15 value as a free 
bonus! 

If you're not a rainbow subscriber, 

just enter your order when you sign 
on with Delphi and you'll get the 
same great deal! For our $31 sub- 
scription fee, you'll get the finest 
Color Computer magazine ever, a 
free lifetime subscription to Delphi 
and a free hour of connect time. 

SAVE EVEN MORE 

Want to save even more? While 
you're online you can order, for only 
$29.95, a deluxepackage which in- 
cludes the Delphi membership, the 
Delphi Handbook and Command 
Card ($21.95) and a total of three 
hours of connect time ($21.60). 

Delphi provides us all with 
Immediate CoCo Community. 

Check it out today. After all, you can 
sample it for free! 

Problems? Call Delphi: 

(800) 544-4005 
(617) 491-3393 



GROUP COCO 




COMMUNITY TOGETHER 



How to reach RAINBOW'S Color Computer SIG . . . 



There are several ways to connect to Delphi and the 
rainbow's CoCoSIG. In most cities you will notevenhave 
to pay long distance charges; you can use special data 
communications networks like Telenet, Tymnet and the 
Canadian Datapac network. 

First, set your terminal program to operate at either 300 
or 1200 Baud (depending on the modem you have), and 
also select either 7 bits with even parity or 8 bits with no 
parity, and onestop bit. (If one combination doesn't work, 
try another.) 

Decide which network you should use. There is no 
surcharge for Telenet or Tymnet. Canadian residents using 
Datapac will be charged an additional $10.80 (U.S.) per 
hour. 

On Telenet: Call (800) 821-5340 to get the Telenet 
number for your area. After you call the appropriate 
number for your own area and make connection, you'll 
see a prompt of U L?" Press enter, the period key (.) and 
enter again. At the "service:" prompt, type GVC (for 
General Videotex Corporation) and enter. 

On Tymnet: Call (800) 336-0149 to get the Tymnet 
number for your area. After you dial your designated 
number and connect, you will see either "garbage" or a 
message saying "please type your terminal identifier." At 
this point, even if the screen is garbled, simply press 'A\ 
When "please log in:" appears, type DELPHI and press 

ENTER. 

From Canada (on Datapac): Call Delphi Customer 
Service at (617) 491-3393 to get the Datapac number for 
your area. After you connect, press the period key ( . ) and 
enter (use two periods if you're using 1200 Baud). Type 
SET 2: 1, 3: 126 and press ENTER. Now type p 1 3106 , 
DELPHI; and press ENTER, Delphi's new rates indicate an 
additional $10.80 hourly surcharge for evening use of 
Datapac, which means a total of $18 (U.S.) for connect 
time. 

From other countries: Many countries have their own 
data networks that can connect to either Telenet or 
Tymnet. Check with the telephone authorities in your 
country for details on how to sign up for this service. When 
you have an account set up, you can reach Delphi with 
a "host code" of 31 10 6170 3088 through Telenet, or 3106 
90 6015 through Tymnet. (You'll have to pay the toll 
charges for this connection.) 
Type in Your Username 

If you're already a subscriber to the rainbow, at the 



"USERNAME:" prompt, type JOINDELPHI and press 
ENTER. At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type RAINBOW. 
Then, at the "NUMBER:" prompt, type your individual 
subscription number from the mailing label of your latest 
issue of the rainbow. (If there are one or more zeros at 
the beginning of this number, include them.) 

If you don't already have a subscription, at the "USER- 
NAME:" prompt, type JOINDELPHI and press ENTER. At 
the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type SENDRRINBOW and press 
enter. Have your MasterCard, VISA or American 
Express card ready, because you'll be led through a series 
of questions that will enable us to put your rainbow and 
Delphi subscriptions into effect. In an effort to hold down 
non-editorial costs, we do not bill for subscriptions. 

If you make a typing error, just use Control-X and start 
over. Remember that at any point, when you're on Delphi, 
you can type HELP to get help on how to use the system. 
To get off the system just type BYE. 

If you find that you're unable to log on to Delphi and 
enter the CoCo SIG after following these instructions, call 
us during afternoon business hours at (502) 228-4492. We'll 
be glad to offer assistance. 

Come Visit Us! Type: GROUP COCO 

After you sign in, you'll be prompted to set up your own, 
personal "user name" — Delphi is a friendly service, no 
numbers to remember — and youll be asked a number 
of questions so Delphi can set up your account. You'll also 
be assigned a temporary password. 

Delphi will tell you that your account will be ready after 
6 p.m. the same day if you sign up before noon (Eastern 
time zone.) If not, your account will be ready at 6 p.m. 
the next day. Once an account is verified and opened, each 
rainbow subscriber will be credited with an hour of free 
timet 

When you log back in, use your chosen username and 
your temporary password to access the system. At that 
point, you will meet Max, who will help you configure 
things and will change your temporary password into your 
own personal password. This is the password you will use 
for subsequent sessions — or until you change it. 

After Max bids you goodbye, you'll wind up at the 
Delphi Main Menu; type in GROUP COCO and join us on 
theCoCo SIG! 



1760 IFLEN (ZA$)=XM THEN1620 
1780 IFXTO2THEN1820 
1800 IFZZ$<CHR$ (43)ORZZ$>CHR$(57 
) THEN1620ELSE1820 

1820 ZA$=ZA$+ZZ$: ZI=ASC(ZZ$) : DRA 
W M BL6"+K$ (ZI) : ZX=ZX+8 : G0T01 620 
1840 IFLEN (ZA$) <1THEN1620 
1860 ZA$=LEFT$ (ZA$, LEN(ZA$) -1) 
1880 ZX=ZX-8:COLOR1,0:LINE(ZX,ZY 
-7)-(ZX+8,ZY) , PSET,BF:COLOR0, 1:G 
OTO1620 

1900 IFXT=2THENZA=VAL(ZA$) 
1920 RETURN 

2700 ' ** FIND MAX MIN OVER INTER 
VAL 

2740 POKE65495,0:D=(R-L)/192:YU= 
-1E+16 : YL=1E+16 : X=L: FORK=0TO192 : 
X=L+K*D : IFEQ=1THENGOSUB10 : El (K)= 
Y:GOTO2840 

2820 GOSUB20:E2 (K)=Y 
2840 IFY<YL THENYL=Y: XL=X 
2 8 60 IFY>YU THENYU=Y: XU=X 
2880 NEXTK 

2900 X=R: IFEQ=1THENGOSUB10ELSEGO 
SUB20 

2920 IFEQ=1THENE1 (19 2) =Y ELSEE2 ( 
192) =Y 

2940 IFY<YL THENYL=Y : XL=X 

2960 IFY>YU THENYU=Y: XU=X 

2970 IFYL>0THENYL=0 

2975 IFYU<0THENYU=0 

2980 POKE65494 ,0 :RETURN 

3020 ' **DRAW GRAPH 

3080 ' **DRAW BORDERS 

3120 PMODE4 , 1 : COLOR0 , 1 : PCLS : SCRE 

EN1,1:P0KE178,2:LINE(63, 1) -(255, 

145) ,PSET,B 

3180 ' **HORIZONTAL GRIDS 

3220 F0RY=1T0145STEP36 : LINE (64 , Y 

)-(255,Y) , PSET : NEXTY 

3320 ' **VERTICAL GRIDS 

3360 FORX=63T0255STEP96:LINE(X,l 

) -(X, 7) , PSET: LINE (X,139)-(X,151) 

, PSET:NEXTX:FORX=111TO207STEP96 : 

LINE (X,1)-(X,7), PSET : LINE ( X , 13 9 ) 

-(X,164) , PSET:NEXTX: POKE178 ,0 

3540 ' **Y-AXIS 

3580 IFSGN(L)=SGN(R)THEN3700 
3600 X=63-L/(R-L)*192:X=INT(X) :F 
ORK=X-lTOX+l: I FK>2 55THEN3 6 60 
3610 LINE (K,0)-(K,145) ,PSET: NEXT 
K 

3660 1 **X-AXIS 

3700 AX=0:IF SGN ( YU) =SGN ( YL) THE 
N 3780 

3720 Y=145+YL/ (YU-YL) *145+1: Y=IN 
T(Y) : AX=Y : FORK=Y-l TO Y+1:LINE(6 



3,K)-(255,K) , PSET : NEXTK 

3780 ' **PRINT Y-COORD 

3820 ZX=0:ZY=8:FORK=0TO4:N=YU-(Y 

U-YL)/4*K:GOSUB53 20 

3860 ZM$=STR$(N) :ZM$=RIGHT$(ZM$, 

LEN (ZM$) -1) : IF ABS (N) <1 AND N<>0 

THEN ZM$="0"+ZM$ 
3880 IFN<0THENZM$="-"+ZM$ 

3 900 IFLEN ( ZM$) <7THENZM$=" " + ZM$ 
:GOTO3 900 

3924 P=0:GOSUB1120:ZY=ZY+34:NEXT 
K 

3960 ' **PRINT X-COORD 
4000 N=L:GOSUB4240 
4020 ZX=42 : ZY=163 :GOSUB1120 
4040 N=L+(R-L)/2:P=0:GOSUB4240 
4060 ZX=140 : ZY=163 :GOSUB1120 
4080 N=L+(R-L) : GOSUB5320 : ZM$=STR 
$ (N) : ZM$=RIGHT$ ( ZM$ , LEN ( ZM$) -1) 
4100 IF ABS(N)<1 AND N<>0 THEN Z 
M$="0"+ZM$ 

4120 IF N<0 THEN ZM$="-"+ZM$ 
4140 IF LEN(ZM$)<6 THEN ZM$=" "+ 
ZM$:GOTO4140 

4160 ZX=210:ZY=163 :GOSUB1120 

4180 N=L+(R-L)/4 :GOSUB4240 

4200 ZX=92:ZY=175:GOSUB1120 

4220 N=L+(R-L)/4*3 :GOSUB4240:ZX= 

188 : ZY=17 5:GOSUB1120:GOTO4 4 20 

4240 GOSUB5320:ZM$=STR$(N) : ZM$=R 

IGHT$ ( ZM$ , LEN ( ZM$ ) - 1 ) 

4260 IFABS (N) <1ANDN<>0THENZM$="0 

"+ZM$ 

4280 IFN<0THENZM$="-"+ZM$ 
4300 IFLEN ( ZM$ ) <6THENZM$=ZM$+" 11 
4320 IFLEN ( ZM$ ) < 6THENZM$=" " + ZM$ 
:GOTO4 300 

4 3 40 RETURN 

4 3 80 ' **PLOT GRAPH 

4420 I FM=2 THEN ZM$= : " GRAPH OF EQUA 
TION"+STR$ (EQ) : ZP=480 : GOSUB1000 
4480 X1=63:FORK=0TO192:IFEQ=1THE 
NY=E1 ( K) : POKE17 8,1: ELSEY=E2 (K) :P 
OKE178, 2 

4485 IF Y=0 THEN POKE 178,0 

4500 Y 1=14 5* (Y-YU) / (YL-YU) +1: IFY 

1<0 THEN Y 1=0 

4510 LINE(X1, Yl) -(Xl-1, Yl-1) ,PSE 
T,BF 

4520 X1=X1+1:NEXTK:RETURN 
4650 ' **ENTER X-INTERVAL 
4 660 GOSUB4 7 80 : ZM$="MINIMUM VALU 
E OF X? ":XM=8:XT=2:GOSUB1400:L= 
ZA:GOSUB4 780:ZM$="MAXIMUM VALUE 
OF X? " : GOSUB1400 : R=ZA : IFABS (R-L 
) < . 001THENGOSUB47 8 0 : ZM$="INTERVA 
L MUST BE > .001" : ZP=480 :GOSUB10 



116 THE RAINBOW September 198? 



00 : ZT=2 :GOSUB4900 : GOTO4 6 60 

4670 IFR<L THENTEMP=L: L=R: R=TEMP 

: RETURN 

4700 1 **CLEAR TO END OF SCREEN 
4710 POKE654 9 5 , 0: P=Z P : GOSUB1240 : 
COLOR1 , 0 : LINE ( ZX, ZY-8 ) - ( 2 55 , 191) 
, PSET , BF : COLOR0 , 1 : POKE6 5 4 9 4 , 0 : RE 
TURN 

4740 ! **PRINT CENTERED 

4750 ZP=32* (ZL-1) +16-LEN ( ZM$ ) /2 : 

GOSUR1000: RETURN 

4780 1 ** CLEAR PROMPT LINE 

4820 COLOR1,0:LINE(0,180)-(255,1 

91) , PSET, BF : COLOR0 , 1 : RETURN 

4 900 1 **TIME DELAY 

4 940 TIMER==0 

4960 IF TIMER<ZT*60THEN4 9 60 

4 9 80 RETURN 

5020 1 **ENTER KEY S/R 

5060 ZM$="PRESS THE ENTER KEY TO 

CONTINUE . 11 : ZP=480 : GOSUB1000 
5080 ZZ$=INKEY$: IFZZ$= n "THEN5080 
ELSEIFZZ$OCHR$ ( 13 ) THEN5080 
5100 RETURN 

5140 1 ** ALTERNATE ENTER KEY S/R 
5160 XX=0:X1=INT(X1) : Y1=INT(Y1) : 
IFXK63ORX1>255ORYK0ORY1>14 6THE 
NXX=1 

5162 ZM$="ENTER n : ZP=507 : GOSUB100 
0 

5163 IFXX=1THEN5180 

5165 X2=Xl-2 : IFX2<63THENX2=63 
5167 X3=Xl+2: IFX3>255THENX3=255 
5169 Y2=Y1-2:IFY2<0THENY2=0 
5171 Y3=Yl+2 : IFY3> 14 6THENY3=14 6 
5173 GET (X2,Y2)-(X3,Y3) ,A 
5180 ZZ$=INKEY$:IFZZ$=CHR$(13)TH 
EN5200 

5185 IFXX=1THEN5180 

5190 CIRCLE(X1, Yl) , 2 , 0 : ZT= . 5 : GOS 

UB4 900: CIRCLE ( XI , Yl) , 2 , 1: ZT=. 5:G 

OSUB4900:GOTO5180 

5200 IFXX=1THEN5220 

5210 PUT (X2 , Y2) - (X3 , Y3) , A 

5220 GOSUB4 7 80:RETURN 

5320 1 **ROUND OFF S/R 

5360 IFABS (N) > =1000000THEN54 60 

5380 IFABS (N) >=1000ANDABS (N) < 100 

0000THBNN=INT(N+. 5) :GOTO5460 

5400 IFABS (N) >=100ANDABS (N) <1000 

THE NN— INT (N* 10+ . 5 ) / 10 : GOTO 5 4 60 

5420 IFABS (N) >=10ANDABS (N) <100TH 

ENN=INT (N*100+. 5) / 100 : GOT054 60 

5440 IFABS (N) <10THENN=INT (N*1000 

+.5)/1000:GOTO5460 

5 4 60 RETURN 

5500 '***** MAIN PROGRAM ***** 



5560 ! **OPENING PAGE 

5600 ZM$= n GRAPHS AND ROOTS" :ZF=8 

: ZP=64:GOSUB1000 

5620 ZM$ = ff OF FUNCTIONS ":ZP=1 
28:GOSUB1000: ZF=4 

5640 ZM$= n BY LOUIS R. TOSCANO" :Z 
L=8 :GOSUB4 7 40 

5660 ZM$="P.O. BOX 2 400 " : ZL-10 : G 
OSUB4740 

5680 ZM$= n VINE YARD HAVEN, MA 025 

68" : ZL=12 : GOSUB4740 

5700 ZM$="TEL: ( 6 17 ) -69 3 -13 2 8 " : Z 

L=13:GOSUB4740 

5720 ZM$="COPYRIGHT 1984 11 : ZL=15 : 

GOSUB4740 : ZT=4 : GOSUB4 900 

57 30 COLOR0, 1: PCLS : ZM$= ft DO YOU W 

ANT INSTRUCTIONS ( Y/N) ? n : ZP=2 5 6 : 

XT= 1 : XM=1 : GOSUB1 4 0 0 

5740 IF ZA$— 11 Y"THEN GOSUB20000 

5780 1 **MENU AND DRIVER 

5820 CLS:PRINT@4, n WHAT DO YOU WI 

SH TO DO?" 

5840 PRINT@64, 11 (1) DRAW THE GRAP 
H OF THE PRESENT EQUAT 

ION AT LINE 10" ; 

5860 PRINT<§160, 11 (2) DRAW THE GRA 
PH OF THE PRESENT EQUA 

TIONS AT LINES 10 AND 20 SI 

MULTANEOUSLY 11 

5920 PRINT@288 , 11 (3 ) WRITE NEW EQ 

UATIONS AT LINES 10 AND/OR 20 

ii 

5940 PRINT@392 , "CHOOSE 1 - 3 : 11 ; 
5942 LINEINPUT MENU$: M=VAL(MENU$ 

) 

5945 IF M<>1 AND M<>2 AND M<>3 T 
HEN PRINT @ 384, STRING$ (32, 32) ; : GO 
TO5 9 40 

6020 PCLS: ON M GOSUB 7060,7060,3 
0000 

6040 CLS:GOTO5820 

7020 1 **GRAPH OF TWO EQUATIONS 
7060 PMODE 4 , 1 :COLOR0, 1: PCLS: SCR 
EEN 1,0 

7160 ZP=0:ZM$= n CHOOSE THE DOMAIN 

(X-INTERVAL) 11 :GOSUB1000 
7180 ZM$="MINIMUM VALUE OF X? 11 : 
Z P=64 : XM=8 : XT=2 : GOSUB1400 : L=Z A 
7200 ZP=128 : ZM$= n MAXIMUM VALUE O 
F X? 11 :GOSUB1400: R=ZA 
7220 IF R<L THEN TEMP=L: L=R: R=TE 
MP 

7240 ZP=256: ZM$= M COMPUTATIONS WI 
LL TAKE ABOUT 11 +STR$ ( 15 *M) + 11 S 
ECONDS. PLEASE STAND BY . 11 : GOSUB1 
000 

7260 EQ=1 : GOSUB2700 : IFM=1THEN73 4 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 117 



p 

7280 YL(1)=YL: YU ( 1 ) =YU : EQ=2 : GOSU 

B27 $$ : YL ( 2 ) =YL : YU ( 2 ) =YU 

1300 YL=YL(1) : IF YL(2)<YL THEN Y 

L=YL(2) 

7320 YU=YU(1):IF YU(2)>YU THEN Y 
U=YU(2) 

7340 EQ=1:G0SUB3$2$:IFM=1THEN73 8 

7360 GOSUB4 7 8$:EQ=2:GOSUB4 3 8$ 
738$ GOSUB478$: ZM$="<D><V><R><S> 
<A>" : IFM=2THENZM$=ZM$+"<I> 
7382 ZM$=ZM$+"<M> <H>ELP ":ZP=48 

0 : XM=1 : XT=1 : GOSUB14$$ 

7385 IF Z A$<>"D"ANDZA$<>" V" ANDZA 
$<>"R"ANDZA$<>"S"ANDZA$o ,f A"ANDZ 
A$<>" I"ANDZA$<> "M" ANDZA$<>"H"THE 
N7 3 8$ 

7387 IFM=1ANDZA$=" I"THEN73 8$ 
1390 IF ZA$^"D"THEN74$$ ELSE IF 
ZA$="V"THEN745$ ELSE IF ZA$="R"T 
HEN75$$ ELSE IF ZA$="H"THEN 7550 

ELSE IF ZA$="I" THEN 7600 ELSE 
IF ZA$="A"THEN765$ ELSE IF ZA$=" 
S"THEN7 8$$ ELSE RETURN 
1400 GOSUB4 650 

7435 GOSUB4 78$ : ZM$-C$ : ZP=4 80 : GOS 

UB1$$$:G0T0726$ 

1450 IFM=1THEN7 4 6$ 

7452 GOSUB478$:ZM$= lf EQUATION (1) 
OR (2) ? " : ZP=48$ : XT=2 : XM=1 : GOSU 
B14$$:EQ=ZA: IFEQ<>1ANDEQ<>2THEN7 
452 

746$ GOSUB478$:ZM$="X = 11 :ZP=48$ 
:XM=8:XT=2:GOSUB14$$:X=ZA:IF EQ= 

1 THEN GOSUBl$ ELSE GOSUB2$ 
7465 N=Y:GOSUB53 2$: ZM$ = "Y = "+ST 
R$ (N) : ZP=49 4 : GOSUBl$$$ : Xl = 6 3+ (X- 
L)/ (R-L) *192:Y1=145*(Y-YU) / (YL-Y 
U) +1 : GOSUB514$ : GOT073 80 

7500 IFM=1THEN751$ 

75$5 GOSUB478$: ZM$="EQUATION (1) 
OR (2)? ":ZP=48$:XT=2:XM=l:GOSU 
B1400 : EQ=ZA: IFEQ01ANDEQ02THEN7 
5$5 

751$ GOSUB478$:ZM$="ENTER ESTIMA 
TE. X = 11 : ZP=4 8$ : XT=2 :XM=8 : GOSUB 
1400 

7515 GOSUB478$:ZM$=C$:ZP=48$:GOS 
XJB1000 

7520 GOSUB9$$$:GOT073 8$ 

755$ SCREEN 0 , 1 : CLS 

7555 PRINT@$, "<D>OMAIN - CHANGE 

THE DOMAIN OF THE GRAPH (S) " 

7557 PRINT@64, "<V>ALUE - FIND TH 

E Y-COORDINATE OF THE GRAPH (S) F 

OR A SPECIFIED VALUE OF X" 



756$ PRINT@16$, "<R>OOTS - FIND T 
HE ROOTS OF THE FUNCTION ( S ) 11 

7561 PRINT@224, "<S>LOPE - FIND T 
HE SLOPE OF THE FUNCTION ( S ) 11 

7562 PRINT@288, "<A>REA - FIND TH 
E AREA BETWEEN THE CURVE AND X-- 
AXIS OR BETWEEN TWO CURVES" 

7563 ZM$="<I>NTERSECTION - FIND 
THE INTER-SECTION OF THE GRAPHS 11 
:IF M=2 THEN PRINT@384 , ZM$ 

7564 IF M=l THEN PRINT@3 8 4 , " <M>E 
NU - RETURN TO THE MENU" ELSE PR 
INT@448, "<M>ENU - RETURN TO THE 
MENU" 

757$ PRINT@4 82 , "PRESS <enter> TO 

CONTINUE" ; 
758$ ZZ$ = INKEY$: IF ZZ$OCHR$ ( 13) 

THEN 7 5 8$ 
759$ PMODE 4,1: SCREEN l,l:GOT073 
8$ 

76$$ GOSUB47 8$ : ZM$=" ENTER ESTIMA 
TE. X = " : ZP=48$ : XT=2 : XM=8 : GOSUB 
14$$ 

761$ GOSUB478$:ZM$=C$: ZP=48$:GOS 

UB1$$$:G0SUB92$$ 

762$ GOT0738$ 

765$ GOSUB478$:ZM$="MINIMUM VALU 
E OF X? 11 : ZP=48$ : XM=8 : XT = 2 : GOSUB 
14$$:L1=ZA 

766$ GOSUB4 78$ : ZM$= "MAXIMUM VALU 
E OF X? " :ZP=48$:G0SUB14$$:R1=ZA 
:IF ABS (Rl-Ll) <.$$1 THEN GOSUB47 
8$: ZM$=" INTERVAL MUST BE > .$$1" 
: ZP=48$ : GOSUBl$$$ : ZT=2 : GOSUB49$$ 
:GOT07 6 5$ 

767$ IF RKL1 THEN TEMP=L1 : L1=R1 
:R1=TEMP 

768$ IF LKL OR R1>R THEN GOSUB4 
78$ : ZM$ = " INTERVAL OUTSIDE DOMAIN 

OF GRAPH" : GOSUBl$$$ : ZT=2 : GOSUB4 

9$$:GOT0765$ 

778$ GOSUB478$:ZM$=C$:ZP=48$:GOS 
UB1$$$ : IFM=lTHENGOSUBl$$$$ELSEGO 
SUB12$$$ 

779$ N=AREA : GOSUB5 3 2$ : GOSUB4 7 8$ : 
ZM$="AREA = "+STR$ (N) : GOSUBl$$$ : 
ZM$ = "ENTER lf : ZP-5$7 : GOSUBl$$$ 
7795 ZZ$=INKEY$ : IFZZ$<>CHR$ (13)T 
HEN7795ELSE734$ 
78$$ IFM=1THEN782$ 

781$ GOSUB478$ : ZM$="EQUATION (1) 
OR (2)? ":ZP=48$:XM=l:XT=2:GOSU 
B14$$ : EQ=ZA : IFEQ01ANDEQ02THEN7 
81$ 

782$ GOSUB478$ : ZM$ = "X = if :ZP=48$ 
: XM=8 : XT=2 : GOSUB14$$ : GOSUB478$ 
783$ X=ZA:H=X* (1E-6) : IFH=$THENH= 



118 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



1E-6 

7835 IFEQ=1THENGOSUB10ELSEGOSUB2 

7840 Y1=Y : X=H+X : IFEQ=lTHENGOSUBl 
0ELSEGOSUB20 

7841 S1=Y/H-Y1/H 

7842 X=ZA-H: IFEQ=1THENGOSUB10ELS 
EGOSUB20 

7844 S2=Y1/H-Y/H:N=(S1+S2)/2:G0S 
UB5320:SLOPE=N 

7860 ZM$= ,f SLOPE = f, + STR$ (SLOPE) : 
GOSUB1000 : ZM$= f, ENTER n : ZP=507 : GOS 
UB1000 

7870 ZZ$=INKEY$:IFZZ$OCHR$(13)T 

HEN7870ELSE7380 

9000 ' **FIND ROOT 

9020 POKE65495, 0:ROOT=ZA 

9030 X=ROOT 

9040 IF X=0 THEN X=.001 

9050 FOR J=l TO 50: IF EQ=1 THEN 

GOSUB10 ELSE GOSUB20 

9060 IF ABS(X)<.0001 AND ABS (Y) < 

.0001 THEN 9160 

9070 Y1=Y:X1=X:X=X+»000001*X 

9080 IF EQ=1 THEN GOSUB10 ELSE G 

OSUB20 

9090 Y2=Y:IF Y2-Y1=0 THEN X=X+.0 

001;GOTO9080 

9100 SL0PE=(Y2-Y1)/(X-X1) :X=X1:Y 
=Y1 

9110 ROOT=X-Y/ SLOPE 

9120 IF ABS ( (ROOT-X)/X) <. 00005 T 
HEN 9160 

9130 X=ROOT:NEXT J 

9140 GOSUB4780:ZM$= ff NO ROOT FOUN 
D":IF MM=2 THEN ZM$=ZM$+" FOR EQ 
UAT . n +STR$ ( EQ) 

9150 ZP=480:GOSUB1000:GOSUB5160: 
GOTO 9 180 

9160 IF ABS (ROOT) <. 00001 THEN R 
OOT=0 

9170 GOSUB4780:N=ROOT:GOSUB5320: 
ZM$= l? ROOT AT X = ?I + STR$ (N) : ZP=48 
0 :GOSUB1000: Xl=63+ (N-L) / (R-L) *19 
2 : Yl=14 5* (-YU) / ( YL-YU) +1 :GOSUB51 
40 

9180 POKE 65 4 94,0: RETURN 

9200 1 **FIND INTERSECTION 

9220 POKE65495, 0 : ROOT=Z A : X=ROOT : 

IF X=0 THEN X=.001 

9230 FOR J=l TO 7 5 : GOSUB10 : Y1=Y 

9240 GOSUB20:Y1=Y1-Y 

9250 X1=X:X=X+.0001*X 

9260 GOSUB10: Y2=Y : GOSUB20 : Y2=Y2- 

Y 

9270 IF ABS (XI) <. 000001 AND ABS ( 
Yl)<. 000001 THEN 9360 



9280 IF Y2-Y1O0 THEN 9310 
9290 GOSUB1 0 : Y1=Y : GOSUB2 0 : Y2=Y : I 
F ABS (Y2-Y1) <. 00001 THEN 9360 
9300 GOTO 9350 

9310 SLOPE=( Y2-Y1)/ (X-Xl) : X=X1 : Y 
=Y1 

9 3 20 ROOT=X~~Y/SLOPE 

9330 IF ABS ( (ROOT-X)/X)<. 00005 T 
HEN 9 360 

9 3 40 X=ROOT:NEXT J 

9350 GOSUB4780:ZM$="NO INTERSECT 

ION FOUND, " : ZP=480 : GOSUB1000 : 514 

0 : POKE654 9 4,0: RETURN 

9360 IF ABS (ROOT)<. 00001 THEN RO 

OT=0 

9370 X=ROOT:GOSUB10:IF ABS (Y) <.0 
00001 THEN Y=0 

9380 GOSUB4 7 80:X1=6 3+ (X-L)/ (R-L) 

*192 : Yl=145* (Y-YU)/ (YL-YU) +1:N=X 

:GOSUB5320: ZM$="X="+STR$ (N) :N=Y: 

GOSUB5320: ZM$ = ZM$ + n Y="+STR$ (N) 

: ZP=4 80 : GOSUB1000 : GOSUB5140 : POKE 

65494, 0:RE TURN 

10000 1 **DEFINITE INTEGRAL 

10100 POKE65495,0:AREA=0:DX=(R1- 

Ll) /200 : X=L1: GOSUB10 : Xl=6 3+ (X-L) 

/ (R-L) *192: AREA=AREA+Y 

10110 Y1=145*(Y-YU)/ (YL-YU)+1:IF 

AXO0 THEN Y2=AX ELSE Y2 = 145 
10115 LINE (XI, Yl) -(XI, Y2) , PSET 
10120 FOR ZK=1 TO 1 9 9 : X=X+DX : GOS 
UB10 : Xl=6 3+ (X-L) / (R-L) *192 
10140 IF INT(ZK/2) OZK/2 THEN AR 
EA=AREA+4*Y ELSE AREA=AREA+2 *Y 

10142 Y1=145*(Y-YU)/ (YL-YU) +1: IF 
Y<0THEN POKE178,l ELSE POKE 178, 
2 

10143 LINE (XI, Yl) - (XI, Y2) , PSET 
10150 NEXTZK 

10160 X=R1:GOSUB10:X1=63+(X-L)/ ( 
R-L) * 19 2 : AREA=AREA+Y 
10170 Y 1=145* (Y-YU) / (YL-YU) +1 : LI 
NE(X1, Y1)-(X1, Y2) ,PSET 
10190 AREA=DX/3* AREA: RETURN 
12000 1 **AREA BETWEEN CURVES 
12100 AREA=0:DX=(R1~L1)/200:X=L1 
:GOSUB10 : Xl=63+ (X-L)/ (R-L) *192 : Y 
1=145*(Y-YU) / (YL-YU) +1:YTEMP=Y 
12110 GOSUB20:Y2=145*(Y-YU)/(YL»™ 
YU) +1: Y=ABS (YTEMP-Y) : AREA=AREA+Y 
12120 LINE (XI, Y1)-(X1, Y2 ) , PSET 
12130 F0RZK=1T0199 : X=X+DX : GOSUB1 
0:X1=63+ (X-L)/ (R-L) *19 2 : Y 1=14 5* ( 
Y-YU) / (YL-YU) +1: YTEMP=Y 
12135 GOSUB20: Y2=145* (Y-YU)/ (YL- 
YU) +1: Y=ABS (YTEMP-Y) 
12140 IF INT(ZK/2) OZK/2 THEN AR 



September 1 987 THE RAINBOW 119 



EA=AREA+4 *Y ELSE AREA=AREA+2 * Y 
12145 LINE (XI , Yl) - (XI , Y2 ) , PSET : N 
EXTZK 

12150 X=R1:GOSUB10:X1=63+ (X-L)/ ( 
R-L) *192 : Yl=145* (Y-YU)/ ( YL-YU) +1 
:TEMP=Y:GOSUB20:Y2=145* (Y-YU) / (Y 
L-YU) +1 : Y=ABS (YTEMP-Y) : AREA=AREA 
+Y:LINE(X1,Y1)-(X1,Y2) , PSET 
12160 AREA=DX/3*AREA: POKE65494 , 0 
I RETURN 

20000 1 ^^INSTRUCTIONS 

20100 COLOR0,1:PCLS:SCREEN1,0:ZM 

$= M THIS PROGRAM WILL DRAW THE GR 

APHOF ONE OR TWO FUNCTIONS ON TH 

E CARTESIAN COORDINATE PLANE.": 

ZP=0:GOSUB1000 

20105 ZM$="IT CAN ALSO BE USED T 
0 FIND THE ROOTS OF AN EQUATION, 

TO SOLVE ASYSTEM OF TWO EQUATIO 
NS WITH TWOUNKNOWNS, TO FIND THE 

MAXIMUM OR MINIMUM VALUES OF 
A FUNCTION, TO SHOW THE RELATIONS 
HIP BETWEENTHE GRAPH OF A FUNCTI 
ON AND ITS M :ZP=96:GOSUB1000 
20107 ZM$=" DERIVATIVE , TO FIND A 
REAS UNDER OR BETWEEN CURVES (TH 
E DEFINITE INTEGRAL) AND TO SHOW 

THE EFFECTOF TRANSLATIONS, REFL 
ECTIONS, ETC. ON THE GRAPH OF 
A FUNCTION . " : ZP=320 : GOSUB1000 : GO 
SUB5020:PCLS 

20110 ZM$="TO GRAPH ONE EQUATION 
, YOU MUST WRITE THAT EQUATION A 

T LINE 10 IN THE FORM: Y = F (X 
) " : ZP=0:GOSUB1000 

20115 ZM$="EXAMPLE: 10 Y = 2*X 
- SIN ( X ) " : Z P= 12 8 : GOSUB1 000 

20117 ZM$= M DO NOT USE ANY OTHER 
VARIABLE EXCEPT X AND Y. M :ZP=1 
92 :GOSUB1000 

20118 ZM$= M THEN TYPE M +CHR$(34)+ 
"RUN 5"+CHR$ (34)+ M TO RESUME THE 
" : ZP=288 : GOSUB1000 : ZM$= M PROGRAM. 
" : ZP=320 : GOSUB1000 : GOSUB5020 
20120 PCLS: ZM$= M YOU WILL BE ASKE 
D TO SPECIFY THEDOMAIN (X-INTERV 
AL) OVER WHICH YOU WANT THE GRA 
PH TO BE DRAWN. " : ZP=0 : GOSUB1000 
20125 ZM$= M AFTER ABOUT 15 SECOND 
S, THE GRAPH OF THE EQUATION 

AT LINE 10WILL BE DISPLAYED ON 
THE SCREEN. M :ZP=128: GOSUB1000: GO 
SUB5020 

20130 PCLS: ZM$= M AFTER THE GRAPH 
HAS BEEN DRAWN, YOU WILL BE PRO 
MPTED AT THE BOTTOM OF THE S 



CREEN WITH" : ZP=0 : GOSUB1000 

20134 ZM$= M <D><V><RXS><A><M> < 

H>ELP . " : ZP=128:GOSUB1000 

20140 ZM$ = M ENTER <D> IF YOU WISH 
TO RE-DRAWTHE SAME GRAPH OVER A 
DIFFERENT <D>OMAIN (X-INTERVAL) 

. " : ZP=19 2 : GOSUB1000 

20170 ZM$ = M ENTER <V> IF YOU WISH 
TO FIND THE <V>ALUE OF THE FU 

NCTION (Y- COORDINATE) FOR ANY V 

ALUE OF X . M : Z P=3 2 0 : GOSUB1 000 : GOS 

UB5020: ZP=192 :GOSUB4700 

20200 ZM$ = M ENTER <R> IF YOU WISH 
TO FIND THE ROOTS (ZEROES) OF 
THE FUNCTION (WHERE THE G 

RAPH CROSSES THE X-AXIS). " 

:ZP=192 :GOSUB1000 

20210 ZM$= M THE PROGRAM USES NEWT 
ON ! S METHODOF ITERATION TO FIND 
THE ROOTS . " : ZP=35 2 : GOSUB1000 : GOS 
UB5020: ZP=192 :GOSUB4700 
20220 ZM$="NEWTON l S METHOD REQUI 
RES THAT YOU ENTER AN INITIAL 
ESTIMATE OFTHE ROOT. YOU CAN GET 

SUCH AN ESTIMATE BY LOOKING A 
T WHERE THEGRAPH CROSSES THE X-A 
XIS. THE ESTIMATE DOES NOT HAV 
E TO BE TOOEXACT. 11 : ZP = 192 :GOSUBl 
000 : GOSUB5020 : ZP=19 2 : GOSUB4 700 
202 30 ZM$= M IF THE GRAPH HAS MULT 
IPLE ROOTS, YOU CAN REPEAT THE PR 
OCEDURE . " : ZP=192 : GOSUB1000 : GOSUB 
5020: ZP=19 2 :GOSUB4700 
20232 ZM$= M ENTER <S> IF YOU WISH 

TO FIND THE SLOPE OF THE FUNC 
TION FOR ANY VALUE OF X (IE. E 
VALUATE ITS DERIVATIVE) . THE PROG 
RAM WILL NUMERICALLY COMPUTE A 

GOOD APPROXIMATION TO THE 

SLOPE . 11 : ZP=192 : GOSUB1000 : GOSUB50 
20:ZP=19 2 :GOSUB4 700 

20235 ZM$= M ENTER <A> IF YOU WISH 

TO FIND THE AREA BETWEEN THE 
CURVE AND THE X-AXIS (THE DEFIN 
ITE INTE- GRAL) . YOU WILL BE PR 
OMTED FOR THE LIMITS OF INTEGRA 
TION. THE PROGRAM WILL PARTITIO 
N THE" : ZP=19 2 : GOSUB1000 
20237 ZM$=" INTERVAL INTO 200 SUB 
-INTERVALS AND USE SIMPSON'S RUL 
E TO FIND THE AREA . 11 : ZP=3 8 4 : GOS 
UB1000:GOSUB5020: ZP=192 :GOSUB470 

20240 ZM$="ENTER <M> IF YOU WISH 
TO RETURN TO THE MENU OR <H> FO 
R HELP IF YOU CAN'T RECALL WHAT 



1 20 THE RAINBOW September 1 987 



OVER 

<§>• 

1 / 2 OFF 



NOW Your Computer Writes 
PROGRAMS for YOU with 
QUIKPRO+II 

In minutes even if you know nothing about programming! 
For COCO, IBM, Tandy, Apple, Commodore, and others. 




To Computer Users. 
Now you can tell your computer what you want and your computer 
can write your programs for you in minutes to your custom design — easily and without 
requiring any programming background from you. ..with QUIKPRO + II. 

A Breakthrough In Micro Computer Technology 

You know your computer is fantastically fast... once it knows what to do. Programs 
and software are what makes it happen. Every task your computer performs for you 
requires some kind of program. Until now, you could only get programs in just one 
of two ways: buy a canned package that many times doesn't meet your needs 
or hand over hundreds or thousands of dollars for a custom programming job. 
Now, you have a better choice... 

Programs Without Programming 

Automatic programming is what it's all about. And, with QUIKPRO + II the 
Automatic Program Writer, your computer can actually write programs 
for you. You can quickly generate a new individual application 
program when you want it with QUIKPRO + II. Each program you 
create is a completely stand alone program that will run in the 
standard BASIC language you already have on your own 
computer. QUIKPRO + II creates filing, data retrieval, and report 
programs. Best of all, you do not have to become a 
programmer to use QUIKPRO + II. The QUIKPRO + II software 
becomes your personal progrcmmer, waiting to do your 
work for you any time of the day or night you choose to use it. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Proven and Widely Used 

Businesses, Schools, Hobbyists and Government are among our thousands of usei 



John Hopkins 

U.S. Department of 

Agriculture 
Proctor 8c Gamble 
Federal Express 
American Express 
Monsanto 

Ford Motor Company 
Duracell international 



NASA 

Westinghouse 

U.S. Navy 

NCR 

DuPont 

RCA 

Exxon 

AT&T 

Texas Tech 



General Electric 
Random House 



Tandy Corporation 
Satellite Broadcasting 



r 




APPLICATION CHECKLIST 



Here are a few of the thousands of possible applications 
you can do with QUIKPRO + II. ..And most can be created in 
a few minutes. 



BUSINESS USES 

Customer Filing 
Master Files for 

General Ledgers 
Accts. Receiv. 
Accts. Payable 
Telephone Logs 
Telephone Lists 

Hotel/Travel Data 

Reservations 
Property Control 

Library Catalogues 
Inventories 



EDUCATIONAL USES 

Student Records 
Grade Records 
Teacher Lists 
School Lists 
Program Design 
Course Design 

HOME & HOBBY USES 

Personal Records 
Check Lists 
Club Rosters 
Telephone Directories 
Recipe Files 



ORDER NOW - OVER V2 OFF 

CALL TOLL FREE 24 HOURS 
1-800-872-8787, Operator 606 

(From Georgia Call 1-800-874-5112, Operator 606) 

YES, send me QUIKPRO + II for $29.50 plus 
$4.50 shipping & handling $34.00 total. 
SAVE OVER V 2 OFF the reg. $149 price. 

Check your computer type & payment 



[ ] Color Computer 
2 or 3 with Disk 
] TANDY 1000, 1200, 3000 
] IBM/Compatible 
] Commodore 64 
] Apple 2. 2C, 2E 
] TRS-80 Mod 3 
] TRS-80 Mod 4 
] TRS-80 Mod 2 



[ ] Payment enclosed 

[ ] MasterCard [ ] VISA 

Card * . 



Expiration Date , 



Name _ 



Address 

Cify/Sfate/Zip 



Mail Orders to: ICR FutureSoft, P.O. Box 1446-FC 
Orange Park, FL 32073 



October 9-11 



O 
C 




Come meet 
CoCo Cat 
in person! 



fft v 



Princeton 



RAINBOWfest is the only comput- 
er show dedicated exclusively 
to your Tandy Color Computer. 
Nowhere else will you see as many CoCo-related 
products or able to attend free seminars con- 
ducted by the top Color Computer experts It's like 
receiving the latest issue of the rainbow in your 
mailbox! 

RAINBOWfest is a great opportunity for com- 
mercial programmers to show off new and innova- 
tive products for the first time. Princeton is the 
show to get information on capabilities for the 
new CoCo 3. along with a terrific selection of the 
latest CoGo 3 software. In exhibit after exhibit, 
there will be demonstrations, opportunities to 
experiment with software and hardware, and spe- 
cial RAINBOWfest prices. 

Set your own pace between visiting exhibits and 
attending the valuable, free seminars on all as- 
pects of your CoCo — from improving basic skills 
to working with the sophisticated OS-9 operating 
system. 

Many people who write for THE RAINBOW — as 

well as those who are written about — are there to 
meet you and answer questions. You'll also meet 
lots of other people who share your interest in the 
Color Computer. It's a person-to-person event and 
a tremendous learning experience in a fun and re- 
laxed atmosphere.' 

To make it easier for you to participate, we 
schedule RAINBOWfests in different parts of the 
country. If you missed the fun in Chicago, why 
don't you make plans now to join us in Princeton? 
For members of the family who don't share your 
affinity for CoCo, RAJNBOWfest is located in an 
area with many other attractions. 

A special feature of RAINBOWfest is the 
Educational Sandbox, which features child- 
oriented workshops to give hands-on experience 
to an age group often neglected. There are ses- 
sions for the kindergarten through third-graders, 
and for fourth- through seventh-graders. And, as 
an additional treat for CoCo Kids of all ages, we've 
invited frisky feline CoCo Cat to join us tor the 
show, RAINBOWfest has something for everyone 
in the family! 

The Hyatt Regency Princeton offers special 
rates for RAINBOWfest, The show opens Friday 
evening with a session from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. It's a 
daytime show Saturday — the CoCo Community 
Breakfast (separate tickets required) is at a a.m., 
then the exhibit hall opens promptly at 10 a.m. and 
runs until 6 p.m. On Sunday, the exhibit hall opens 
at 1 1 a.m. and closes at 4 p.m. 

Tickets for RAINBOWfest may be obtained di- 
rectly from THE RAINBOW. We'll also send you a 
reservation form so you can get your special room 
rate. 

The POSH way to go. You can have your travel 
arrangements and hotel reservations handled 
through rainbow affiliate, POSH Travel Assist- 
ance, Inc., of Louisville, For the same POSH treat- 
ment many of our exhibitors enjoy, call POSH at 
(502) 893-3311. All POSH services are available at 
no charge to, RAINBOWfest attendees. 



A A A ▲ 




i«ji««jwimr£«jiiWM*Hiimt«miW] 



TiT3l¥H*[*l:WllW:l 



Free Seminars 



▲ ▲AAA 



Cray Augsburg 

RAINBOW Technical Editor 
OS-9 For Absolute Beginners 

Steve Blyn 

RAINBOW Contributing Editor 

CoCos For Remedial Education 

Tom Di Marco, Sr. 

Senior Field Engineer, Gimmes oft 
Drive Installation, Maintenance 
and Operation 

Richard Esposito 

RAINBOW Contributing Editor 
Doctor ASCII Open Forum 

Art Flexser 

President, Spectra Systems 

Adding Features to the basic ROMs 

Marty Goodman 

RAINBOW Contributing Editor 

Open Forum, CoCo Consultations 

CoCo Community 



Greg Law 

independent Programmer and Author 
Rainbows OS-9 Online SiGop 
Programming, An Overview 

Jeffrey Parker 

independent Programmer and Author 

CoCo DOS and MS-DOS: Bridging the Gap 

Between the Worlds 

Dr. Larry Preble 

President [ Dr. Preble's Programs 
CoCo as a Mind Interface 

Dale Puckett 

RAINBOW Contributing Editor 

Level II Windows and The New BASIC09 

Graphics 



Breakfast 

3 



Jim Reed 

Executive Editor, Fatsoft, inc. 

An Introduction to RAINBOW'S Delphi SIG 

and RAINBOW Suggestion Box 

John Ross 

Ross Computer Services 

and John Gibney 

Delphi National Sates Director 

Open Forum, Telecommunications 

Ed Samuels 

Professor at Lew, New York Lew Schoot 
Computer Copyright; A How-to Guide 



The traditional CoCo Community Breakfast sets more than a table for your 
dining pleasure! Enjoy lively conversations with CoCo enthusiasts and learn 
exciting and informative news from our keynote speaker, a specialist in the 
Color Computer Community. 



RAINBOWfest - Princeton, New Jersey 
Dates: October 9-11, 1987 
Hotel: Hyatt Regency Princeton 
Rooms: $86 per night, single or double 
Advance Ticket Deadline: October 2, 1987 



Join us at a future RAINBOWfest! 

RAINBOWfest - Chicago, Illinois 
Dates: May 20-22, 1988 
Hotel: Hyatt Regency Woodfield 
Rooms: $64 per night, single or double 
Advance Ticket Deadline: May 13, 1988 



A In the works . . . 



We're putting the f inishing touches on The Educational Sandbox, a joint 
Tandy/RAINBOW effort. This is a computer workshop for RAINBOWfest 
kids. We're planning to have two sessions on both Saturday and Sunday. 
One workshop will be for the kindergarten through third-grade set, and the 
other for fourth through seventh graders. Each workshop will last between 
45 minutes and one hour, and will give the children and their parents 
hands-on experience in using Tandy computers and software. 



FREE T-Shirt to first five ticket orders received from each state. 
First 500 ticket orders received get a Chromasette tape. 



YES, I'm coming to Princeton! I want to save by buying tickets now at the special advance sale price. 
Breakfast tickets require advance reservations. 
Please send me: 



. Three-day tickets at $9 each 



total 



One-day tickets at $7 each total 

Circle one: Friday Saturday Sunday 

Saturday CoCo Breakfast at $12 each total 

Handling Charge $1 $ 1Q0 

TOTAL ENCLOSED 

(U.S. Currency Only, Please) 
□ Also send me a hotel reservation card for the Hyatt Re- 
gency Princeton ($86, single or double room). 



Name (please print) 

Address 

City 



.State 



ZIP 



Telephone 

Company 

□ Payment Enclosed, or Charge to: 
□ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

Account Number 



Exp. Date 
Signature 



Advance ticket deadline: Oct. 2, 1987. Orders received less than two weeks prior to show opening will be held for you at the door. Tickets will also be 
available at the door at a slightly higher price. Tickets will be mailed six weeks prior to show. Children 4 and under, free; over 4, full price. 

Make checks payable to: The RAINBOW. Mail to: RAINBOWfest, The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. To make reservations by phone, in Kentucky call (502) 228-4492, or outside Kentucky call (800) 847-0309. 



<DXV><R><S><AXM> ME 
ANS . " : ZP=19 2 :GOSUBlj3j3j3:GOSUB5j32j3 
LIST2j2)25j3 

20250 PCLS:ZM$ = "IF YOU WISH TO G 
RAPH TWO EQUATIONS AT THE 

SAME TIME, YOU MUST WRITE EQUAT 
ION (1) AT LINE 10 AND EQUATION 
(2) AT LINE 20, BOTH IN THE FORM 

Y - F(X) . " :ZP=j3:GOSUBlj3j3j3 
20260 ZM$="EXAMPLE: lj3 Y = X~2 

- 3*X +5 2j3 Y = 2*X 

- 3 S| : ZP^192:GOSUBlj3j3j3 

20270 ZM$="USE ONLY X AND Y FOR 
BOTH EQUATIONS. " :ZP=28 8:GO 

SUB1 0 0 0 : GOSUB5 0 2 0 

20280 PCLS:ZM$= ff AFTER ABOUT 30 S 
ECONDS, THE GRAPHS WILL BE D 

ISPLAYED ON THE SCREEN. YOU WILL 
AGAIN BE PROMPTED WITH: 11 : 

ZP=j3:GOSUBlj3j3j3 

20290 ZM$ = M <DXVXRXSXA><IXM> 

<H>ELP" : ZP=16j3 : GOSVB1000 
20300 ZM$="<D>,<V>,<R>,<A>,<M>, 
AND <H> HAVE THE SAME MEANING 

AS BEFORE. YOU CAN EVALUATE EITH 
ER FUNCTION<V>, FIND THE ROOTS O 
F EITHER FUNCTION <R> , FIND TH 
E SLOPE OF EITHER FUNCTION <S>, 
OR FIND THE" : ZP=224:GOSUBlj3j3j3 
20305 ZM$=»AREA BETWEEN THE TWO 
CURVES <A> . " : Z P=4 1 6 : GOSUB1000 : GO 
SUB5 0 2 0 : Z P=2 2 4 : GOSUB4 7 0 0 
20310 ZM$= lf HOWEVER, YOU ALSO HAV 
E THE THE OPTION OF FINDING 

THE INTER-SECTION OF THE TWO GR 
APHS BY PRESSING <I>. M :ZP=224 

:GOSUBlj3j3j3:GOSUB5j32j3: ZP=2 2 4 : GOSU 
B4700 

20320 ZM$= f, YOU MUST ENTER AN INI 
TIAL ESTIMATE OF THE INTER 

SECTION WHICH YOU CAN GET BY 
LOOKING AT THE GRAPH. THE PROGRA 
M WILL THENFIND THE EXACT VALUES 

FOR X AND":ZP=224:GOSUBlj3j3j3 
20330 ZM$="Y. IF THERE IS MORE T 
HAN ONE INTERSECTION, YOU CAN 

REPEAT THEPROCESS. " :ZP=384 : GOSU 
Blj3j3j3:GOSUB5j32j3 

20340 PCLS:ZM$= M TO FIND THE RELA 
TIVE MAXIMUM OR MINIMUM VALUES O 
F A FUNCTION WITHIN AN INTERV 
AL, GRAPH THE FUNCTION (LINE 1 
0) AND ITS DERIVATIVE (LINE 

20). THE MAXI-" : ZP=0 : GOSUBlj3J3j3 
20350 ZM$="MUMS OR MINIMUMS OCCU 



R WHERE THEGRAPH OF THE DERIVATI 
VE CROSSES THE X-AXIS . " : Z P= 160 : G 

OSUBlj3j3j2:GOSUB5j32j3 

20360 PCLS: ZM$="THUS, FIRST FIND 
THE ROOTS OF THE DERIVATIVE ( 
EQUATION 2) AND THEN EVALUATE TH 
E FUNCTION (EQUATION 1) AT 

THE ROOTS OF THEDERIVATIVE . " : ZP= 
0 : GQSUB1000 : GOSUB5j3 20 
20370 PCLS: ZM$= M TO GRAPH A PIECE 
-WISE FUNCTION, SUCH AS: M : ZP=j3:G 
GSUB1J3J3P 

20380 ZM$-"Y - 2*X FOR X 

< -1 Y = 3*X - 2 FOR -1 

<=X<=2 Y = 5 FOR X > 2 

" :ZP=9 6:GOSUBlj3j3j3 

20390 ZM$= M WRITE AT LINE 10:": ZP 
= 224 :GOSUBlj3j3j3 

20400 ZM$ = "lj3 IF X<-1 THEN Y=2*X 

ELSE ' IF X>=-1 AND X<=2 

THEN Y=3*X ELSE Y=5 " : Z P= 2 8 8 : G 
OSUBlj3j3j3: GOSUB5j32j3 

20410 PCLS: ZM$= H YOU CAN USE A SI 
MILAR TECHNIQUE TO GRAPH DISCONT 
INUOUS FUNC- TIONS, FOR EXAMP 

LE, Y=l/X IS DISCONTINUOUS AT 

X=j3. TO GRAPH THIS FUNCTION, W 
RITE AT LINE 10 : " : ZP=j3 : GOSUBlj3j3j3 
20420 ZM$="lj3 IF X<-.1 OR X>.1 T 
HEN Y=X ELSE Y=0 " : ZP=16^J : G 

OSUBlj3j3j3 

20430 ZM$=" ALTHOUGH Y DOES NOT E 
QUAL 0 FOR VALUES OF X BETWEEN - 
.1 AND .1, THESE POINTS WILL BE 
PLOTTED ON THE X-AXIS AND WILL N 
OT BE VISIBLE. " : ZP=256: GOSU 

Blj3j3j3:GOSUB5j32j3 
25000 RETURN 

30000 1 WRITE EQUATIONS INSTRUCTI 
ONS 

30100 CLS : PRINT@ 0 t "TO GRAPH ONE 
EQUATION, YOU MUST WRITE THAT EQ 
UATION AT LINE 10 IN THE FORM: 

Y = F(X) EXAMPLE: 10 

Y = 4*X - SIN(2*X) ,f ; 

30110 PRINT@16J3, "TO GRAPH TWO EQ 

UATIONS, WRITE EQUATION (1) AT 
LINE 10 AND EQUATION (2) AT 

LINE 20. EXAMPLE: 10 Y 

= X~2 - 5*X +3 20 Y 

= 2*X - 5" 

30120 PRINT@32j3, "USE ONLY THE VA 
RIABLES X AND Y . " : PRINT@38 4 , " THE 
N TYPE ! RUN 5 ! TO RETURN TO THE 
MENU . " ^ 



1 24 THE RAINBOW September 1 987 



MORE PRIZES We recently received 
three additional prizes for The Fourth 
Rainbow Adventure Contest. Unfortu- 
nately, the prizes arrived too late to be 
included in the advertisement. 

Sundog Systems has donated Cham- 
pion Action Arcade Adventure and 
White Fire of Eternity, Both packages 
are on disk and sell for $19.95 each. 

Bill Bernico of Kromico Software has 
donated Co Co Size, a computerized 
exercise program on disk. 

TALENTED BUFFER Scooter Prod- 
ucts Group, Ohm/ Electronics, Inc., has 
announced the availability of the new 
Scooter Model SPB256 Data Switch/ 
Multibuffer combination unit. This unit 
permits you to operate up to three 
computers with one printer. The built- 
in 256K buffer gives you the ability to 
store approximately 128 pages of data 
from any or all of the printers. 

The SPB256 was designed primarily 
to meet the needs of businesses and 
educational institutions where multiple 
computers are often used in conjunction 
with one printer. A four-position front 
panel pushbutton permits you to select 
automatic online sequencing of all 
computers or to place an individual 
computer online. The unit uses the 36- 
pin Centronic interface. Suggested 
retail for the SPB256 is $295. Contact 
Scooter Products, Ohm I Electronics, 



Inc., 746 Vermont St., Palatine, IL 
60067. Call (800) 323-2727 (Illinois, call 
312-359-6040). 

RADIO SHACK CONFERENCE The 

Fifth Annual International Conference 
on Education and Technology, de- 
signed to facilitate the exchange of 
information, software and technical 
expertise between nations, will be held 
March 28-31, 1988, at the University of 
Edinburgh in Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Topics of discussion will include 
artificial intelligence, open and distance 
learning, new enabling technologies in 
education, computers, leadership en- 
hancing technologies and teacher edu- 
cation. 

The conference is being held outside 
of the United States for the first time, 
making it a true international event. In 
previous years, the conference has been 
held in Forth Worth, Texas, and hosted 
by Radio Shack's Education Division. 
The 1988 conference will be enhanced 
not only by the delights of Scottish 
hospitality but also by the history and 
culture of Edinburgh, one of Europe's 
most attractive capital cities. 

A HOME FOR YOUR MOUSE Did 

you ever wonder where to put your 
mouse? Or, do you have the common 
problem of pencils rolling all over your 
desk? MousePouch, a new product from 




The MousePouch from H&H Enterprises. A 
functional add-on; handy just about any- 
where. 



H&H Enterprises, is designed to elim- 
inate these problems. MousePouch will 
hold most any mouse (even a real one), 
or it can be used as a catch-all. The 
pouch hangs on the side of your desk 
with a small Velcro strip and can be 
easily removed should your mouse 
decide to relocate. In addition, the 
pouch can be used to hold up to eight 
^-inch disks. 

MousePouch, which retails for $5.95, 
is available in two "configurations" — 
light gray with silver trim or natural tan 
with gold trim. Contact H&H Enter- 
prises, Box 2672, Corona, CA 91718, 
(714) 737-1376. 

EPSON ADD-ON Image Technology 
Inc. now offers an inexpensive, large- 
capacity buffer that mounts inside most 
Epson printers. This buffer allows you 
to transfer data to the printer at com- 
puter speed and get back to work im- 
mediately while your printer operates at 
its own pace. The user-upgradable 
buffer is easy to install in most Epson 
dot-matrix, parallel printers. It can be 
configured, by installing RAM chips, 
for 64K, 128K, 256K or 512K. The unit 
with OK installed sells for $ 109. A 256K 
unit costs $ 1 33 and the full-blown 5 1 2K 
is $157. Contact Image Technology 
Inc., 8150 S. Akron Street, Suite 405, 
Englewood, CO 80112, (303) 799-6433. 




Scooter Electronic Data Switch Model SPB256S puts up to three computers online. 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 125 



DOCTOR ASCII 



A Special Thank You 



By Richard E. Esposito 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 
with Richard W. Libra 



This represents the 49th consecu- 
tive monthly Doctor ASCII col- 
umn. Many thanks to all the 
people who have contributed to it over 
the years, including Richard Libra, 
Ralph Ramhoff, Jesse Jackson, Ray- 
mond Rowe and, of course, the readers. 



1200 Baud 

|jj If I want to use a 1200 baud modem 
.^[with my CoCo 2, do I also have to 
Wjbuy an RS-232 pack, which then 
means I must also buy a Multi-Pak 
Interface? Won't my CoCo 2 support 
1200 baud? 

John Bowden 
Owensboro, KY 

Ty With a 1200 baud modem and a 
CoCo 2 without a Multi-Pak, the 
CoCo's 6809 must handle the bit- 
banging of its internal RS-232 port, as 
well as uploading/downloading files, 
and still handle the screen display 
without dropping characters. To meet 
these objectives, you will need a termi- 
nal program that uses the standard 32- 
column display since it has the least 
overhead. The program Greg-E-Term, 
available from the author (Greg Miller, 
9575 Roston Road, Grandledge, MI 
48837) for $10 plus formatted disk, is 
especially tuned for this type of opera- 
tion. If you need or desire higher reso- 



Richard Esposito is a senior project 
engineer with Northrop Corp. He holds 
bachelor's, master's and doctorate 
degrees from Polytechnic Institute of 
Brooklyn. He has been writing about 
microcomputers since 1980. 

Richard Libra is a simulator test 
operator for Singer Link Simulation 
Systems Division. 




lutions, you will need either Tandy's 
RS-232 Pak, WordPak and a Multi- 
Pak, or a new CoCo 3. 

Using the Speed-Up Poke 

|H / have an old gray case CoCo (E 
_ board) and am having trouble with 
lJ the speed-up poke, 65495,0. I am 
using a Multi-Pak ( Catalog No. 26-3124 
for the CoCo 2) and it locks up when 
I try the poke. It works fine without the 
Multi-Pak. What's up? Can I do a 
hardware fix, or am I stuck unplugging 
the pack every time I use the poke? 

George R. Rivest 
(GEO RG ERR) 
Boulder, CO 

Ty Many of those older machines will 
/£. run at the higher rate if you clip 
capacitor C85. 

Smart Terminal Program 

n / read your response to Harold 
~ Luck's question about data transfer 
U between a CoCo and a Model 100 



(May 1987). I built the null modem 
cable needed to link the two computers. 
My question is: What smart terminal 
programs would you recommend I use 
in my Model 100? I am using the VIP 
terminal in my CoCo 2. 

Leon L. Hawley 
(LLH) 

Chapel Hill, NC 

pi, I use the built-in terminal pro- 
gram that comes in the Model 
100's ROM. 

Read/ Write Difficulties 

_ My CoCo has suddenly refused to 
— read disk files. It will read from the 
^ disk once only from a cold start and 
then refuses to read or write to the disk 
again. I used the "CoCoChek" ROM 
pack and everything checked out except 
for the inability to read/ write to the 
disk. ROM-RAMs-PIAs all checked 
out OK. I replaced all of the RAM 
chips, the CPU and the SAM chip with 
no change. I own an F board CoCo 1 
with the final fix installed by Radio 
Shack. 

Roger B. Alexander 

(S ALIA ED) 

Bellingham, WA 

1J 1 It may be your disk controller. Try 
/C swapping controllers on a friend's 
machine or at a friendly Radio Shack 
store. 

Machine Language 
Xmodem Transfers 

I A few local SysOps and I have pa- 
tiently been awaiting the emergence 
of a public domain machine lan- 
guage subroutine for the Xmodem 
upload and download of files that can 
be used from BASIC via the USR com- 
mand. Seeing as how our bulletin 
boards are written under BASIC, things 
would move a little too slow for an 
Xmodem transfer with a subroutine 



126 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 



written in BASIC, Thus, a machine 
language USR routine is an absolute 
necessity for us to be able to send or 
receive data fast enough to actually use 
and still have good data integrity, If you 
or any of the many other RAINBOW 
readers know of the existence of such a 
USR routine, please let me know. 

Lee S teens I and 
Co-SysOp of the Middle Kingdom BBS 

Prospect, KY 

T? Contact Greg Morse, 10871 Rose- 
^% land Gate, Richmond B.C., Can- 
ada, or look on Delphi for a copy of the 
source code for XCOM9, which is an 
assembler language terminal program 
for OS-9, In it is a code for Xmodem 
transfers, which you could adapt as a 
USR routine. 

GET Errors 

p / have a Co Co 2 with 64 K Extended 
L BASIC. Whenever I try to use the GET 
y command, I gel a DN Error message. 
This also happens with some of the 
sample programs in my BASIC manual. 
Why is this? 

Konnie Siewierski 
Schaumburg, IL 

D DN'is a "device number" error. 
* /C Try running the suspect programs 
on another CoCo to ascertain whether 
the problem is in your hardware. If it 
is the same on another machine, check 
to see that you have allocated a large 
enough array for your GET and that no 
spurious pokes are interfering with 
BASICS operation. 

Drive Recognition 

/ have a Teac double-sided, 40-track 
drive on my Color Computer 2. By 
using information from The Com- 
plete Rainbow Guide to OS-9, / have 
been able to format my OS-9 disks with 
40 tracks and use the second side as / 
d2. Recently, I purchased the Color 
Computer C compiler. The compiler 
files expect the C library to be on 'dl. 
Is there a way that I can patch either the 
OS-9 files to make the second side 'dl, 
or is there a patch for one of the C 
compiler files that will make them look 
for the C library on 'd2? 

William Walter 
Belvedere, IL 

O The drive number used by CCi 
/Lean be altered with the OS-9 
DEBUG utility by changing offset SEES to 
the ASCII value of the desired drive 
number (Zero=$30, One=$31» etc.). 



Don't forget to type VERIFY U after 
saving the modified CCI back to disk. 

RS-232 With a Y Cable 

I have access to a deluxe RS-232 
pack, but I don't have a Multi-Pak 
Interface. Is there any problem with 
using a Y-connector with it? It might 
possibly work with some of the lines 
swiiched. I have a CoCo 3 with a stand- 
ard RS controller. 

Steve J. Vieriell 

(STEVEVIERTELL) 
Chico, CA 

T? Although I do not recommend 
*-jL using a Y-cable, if you really want 
to use one, you need to remove the built- 
in ROM from the RS-232 pack because 
it uses the same adresses as the Disk 
BASIC ROM, which would cause bus 
contention problems. The built-in 
ROM contains a very primitive com- 
munications program that is not of 
much use on bulletin boards or Delphi 
anyway. Get a good disk-based terminal 
program that supports Xmodem pro- 
tocol, which supports your RS-232 
pack. Note that I see two potential 
problems with the Y-cable: taxing the 
marginal CoCo 3 internal power supply 
and opening the door to timing prob- 
lems with the disk controller, 

CoCo to PC Connection 

/ want to direct connect my CoCo to 
my PC Compatible to transfer data 
±3 and programs (CoCo SIG to PC to 
Co Co ). I tried to make a null modem 
cable, but it does not work. Can you tell 
me the necessary pin connections? 

Paul L. Bristol 
(PLB) 

Beaver Dam, WI 

\> The best way to transfer programs 
to your CoCo from your PC is 
with the CoCo Util //utility, which runs 
on your PC and reads, writes, performs 
file transfers and formats CoCo disks. 

Drive Replacement 

In your June column, you refer to an 
80-track, 5 l / 2 -inch drive (TEAC 
K3 55F). Will this drive or any other 80- 
track fit into the existing disk cases? I 
have an old (full -height) drive that is 
bad. I would like to pull it out of the 
case and replace it with an 80-track. Is 
this possible? If so, how detailed a 
modification will it be? I can get a bare 
80 (Tandon TM 101-4 or TEAC 55 B For 
MPI OSK). Will any of these work 



without a great deal of work and mod- 
ifications? 

Jimmy V. Lemke 
(JIMLEM50) 
Augusta, GA 

If your power supply is OK and 
/L cable to controller has no missing 
teeth, just put the new drive in the old 
case. If the cable has missing teeth, 
youll need a new cable. The full-height 
drives are electrically equivalent to the 
newer half-height ones. 

CoCo 2 and 3 Compatibility 

/ have a Radio Shack Appliance and 
Light Controller ( Catalog No. 26- 
3142). I have used my CoCo F board 
computer to do the programming of the 
controller with no trouble. Now I have 
the CoCo 3 and find that the introduc- 
tion banner displays OK, but when 
pressing the joystick button or the 
ENTER key, the graphics display and 
text get mixed up and the computer 
locks up, According to the Radio Shack 
catalog, the "CoCo 3 is compatible with 
CoCo 2 software in the CoCo 2 mode. " 

1 haven '/ been able to find any reference 
in the introduction, quick reference 
guide, or the Extended BASIC manuals 
to this CoCo 2 mode. Is it possible to 
use a "ROM Crack"" program and 
transfer the program to disk and then 
patch it to run, or m ust I abandon the 
controller for a self-contained unit? I 
am using OS-9 Level II and am looking 
for new software. What can I expect? 

Warren C. Hrach 
(W A ROCK) 

Cleveland Heights, OH 

T5 Sorry to be the bearer of bad 
news, but the CoCo 3 is not fully 
compatible with the CoCo 2. Radio 
Shack says that CoCo 2 software will 
work on the 3 if the software follows 
Radio Shack's rules. Unfortunately, in 
some cases, Radio Shack didn't follow 
its own rules. 

Memory Chips 

2 / have seen memory chips advertised 
J as 200NS, 150NS and 120NS. What 
■3 is the difference between each of 
them and which are the best ones for the 
64 K CoCo 2? 

Armando Marin- Arias 
(ARM ARl) 
Rio Piedras, PR 

O The lower the nanosecond rating, 
/C the faster the chip. The cheap- 
er, slower 200NS chips should work OK 
with your CoCo 2. 

September 1987 THE RAINBOW 127 



Column Errors 

I There were a number of incorrect 
statements made in your July col- 
umn in the answer to JSA regarding 
DEFT Pascal. First, DEFT is now 
published by TCE, which announced 
last fall that an upgrade for the CoCo 
3 would be available. Second, DEFT 
Pascal is not copy-protected. However, 
TCE has decided to make the linker 
require a keylock-type of disk. The high 
ratio of users to buyers prompted this. 
Third, the reason it does not work, 
which you did not address, could be one 
of two things: 1 ) The boot code memory 
check will return a value for a 32K 



machine on a Co Co 3. The linker will 
not be able to link large files with only 
32K. 2) The package from DEFT, 
Version 3.4 and earlier, had some tim- 
ing problems with the disk I I O code. 
This usually showed up in the linker. 

As for OS-9 being the PASCAL of 
choice, that remains to be seen. It has 
no string functions and suffers from 
very poor support. Tandy does not 
know much about it, and Micro ware 
won't talk to you unless you bought it 
from Microware. It won 7 even work on 
Level II without being patched! 

Kenneth R. Schunk 
( KENSHUNK) 
Gansevoort, NY 




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NLQ. Italics. Sub & Superscripts. 
Emphasized. Doubleslriko. Proportional. 
International. User Dolincd Characters, 
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'87 March 
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I just read your bulletin on Delphi 
that TCE Programs is now ship- 
ping DEFT Pascal, Version 4.0, which 
will run on any CoCo with at least 64K 
of memory and, on a CoCo 3, will run 
at 2 MHz for everything but I/O. It was 
nice to read that a few bugs have been 
fixed, such as the problem with floating- 
point compares and the potential disk 
I/O problem on newer machines. Con- 
tact Ted at TCE Programs for more 
information on pricing, upgrades and 
availability of DEFT Pascal, Version 
4.0. 

I disagree with you regarding your 
definition of copy protection. A "key 
disk" to me is indeed copy protection. 
OS-9 PASCAL adheres to the ISO 
Standard 7185.1 Level 0. It's nice to 
see some competition in the CoCo 3 
marketplace, and I wish you luck 
with your new product. 



BOOT.BAS for CoCo 3 

^ / noticed from your July column 
□ that many users are interested in 
3 the BOOT.BflS program in the 
Source topic of the database. I just 
wanted to mention that Mike Tol- 
bert (MIKEGT) has converted the 
program for operation on a CoCo 3. 
His version makes use of the ex- 
tended graphics abilities of the CoCo 
3. The file is available in the Utilities 
topic of the CoCo SIG's database. 
( Mike also generously provided the 
source code for the ML portion in a 
file for the Source topic.) He calls the 
new version B00T3 . BflS. 

Donald D. Hutchison 
(DONHUTCHISON) 
Norcross, GA 



$22995 ^ 



Thanks for the information, 
Don. 



For a quicker response, your 
questions may also be submitted 
through rainbow's CoCo SIG on 
Delphi. From the CoCo SIG> 
prompt, pick Rainbow Magazine 
Services, then, at the RAIN- 
BOW> prompt, type RSK for "Ask 
the Experts" to arrive at the EX- 
PERT!^ prompt, where you can 
select the "Doctor ASCII" online 
form which has complete instruc- 
tions. 



128 



THE RAINBOW 



September 1987 



Software 



Donald Duck's Playground — 
Teaches the Value of Money 



Tandy is now featuring a new line of 
software for the CoCo. While the pro- 
grams have been around for some time, 
this is where Tandy's position on requir- 
ing that all new CoCo software they are 
going to support must be written to 
operate under OS-9 comes to our ad- 
vantage. Programs written for other 
computers are easier to port over to the 
CoCo under OS-9, and now we are 
beginning to see the fruits of Tandy's 
CoCo position, more "new" software. 

The new line of software is produced 
by the combined efforts of Walt Disney 
Studios and Sierra On-Line. I must say 
that the programs contain some of the 
best graphics and animation that I have 
seen on the CoCo. They are targeted at 
the younger crowd (elementary age) and 
express the Disney/Sierra motto of 



"Playing For Fun/ Learning For Life." 
They "appear" to be fun games, but 
manage to slip in some very educational 
information. For instance, take Donald 
Duck's Playground. Through the use of 
some very skillful animation, the 
avowed purpose of the game is to help 
Donald build a playground for his 
nephews. 

In order to buy the equipment to 
build the playground, Donald has to go 
to work at various jobs to earn money. 
Each of the four jobs is an animated 
game unto itself. Once the job is done, 
Donald gets paid. His payment is 
graphically displayed in dollars and/ or 
coins on the screen, as well as by total 
numerical figures. (This is just another 
one of the sneaky educational tricks; it 
helps the young to associate numerical 



sums with actual coins and dollars.) 
Then he has to go out and buy various 
bits of playground equipment. Here is 
where the primary educational part 
comes in — making change. 

Once an item is selected, a total for 
that item is posted on the screen, and 
the user is shown how much money he/ 
she has in dollars and coins. The user 
has to select the proper amount of coins 
and/ or dollar bills and move them onto 
the counter by the cash register. If the 
sum of money paid is more than the 
total owed, then the cash register opens, 
the cash drawer comes out, and the user 
must collect the appropriate change in 
dollars and/ or coins. 

Once the equipment is paid for, it is 
delivered to the playground and ran- 
domly placed in one of 15 locations on 
one of three levels. Here we get a little 
exercise in logic. The user quickly learns 
that in order to get to one of the two 
upper levels of the playground, he or she 
must buy and install some sort of ladder 
to go up to each playground level. The 
equipment may be freely rearranged 
also. This all calls for some pre- 
planning on the user's part. 

September 1987 THE RAINBOW 129 



Oh yes, you can visit the playground 
at any time and, through computer 
animation, cause one of Donald's neph- 
ews to play on each item of equipment. 

The plain fact is that if it were not for 
the note to parents on Page 3 of the 
program manual, you might not realize 
that this program was intentionally 
designed to be an educational tool, it is 
just that much fun to play. But the 
educational content is there, of that 
there is no doubt. 

Not only does the program teach its 
primary lesson of making change, but 
it also teaches the concept of "labor for 
pay," and it does it in a very positive 
way. 

Donald Duck's Playground \s adver- 
tised for a 64K CoCo 1 or 2. But as it 
is written in OS-9 Level I, Version 2.0, 
it will run on a CoCo 3; I tested it. 6f 
course with a CoCo 3, you have to use 
a color TV or color composite monitor, 
as the graphics screens are all equivalent 
to PMDDE 4 and make use of artifacted 
colors. In fact, the programmers 
couldn't have picked a better Disney 
character to use, as Donald's blue sailor 
suit and red-orange beak works out just 
right with artifacted colors. Also, one 
joystick is required to operate the 
program. 

Now, to give this game a really thor- 
ough testing for this review, I called in 
two of my resident experts. As the 
program is billed for ages 7 to 11, I 
called in my 8-year-old computer wiz 
son, and as it is supposed to be educa- 
tional, I called in my elementary school 
teacher wife. 

Letting my son try out the program 
may have been a mistake, because it was 
an hour later before I could regain 
control of our computer. I think that 
speaks well for the program. However, 
it did give the resident school teacher an 
opportunity to observe the program in 
action, and for educational content, she 
gave it a solid 4 A+\ 

The game has three levels of play, 
which can be selected at the beginning 
of the game. This enables younger 
children or beginners to start out easy 
and work up. For older children, the 
advanced level provides them with more 
difficult challenges. 

While dressed in an arcade-style 
game format, this is not a win/ lose type 
game. It continues until you decide to 
quit and press the BREAK, key. This is an 
excellent way to present an educational- 
type game as it avoids causing a great 
deal of frustration in the user and, 
hence, causing him or her to drop one 
game and go on to another. 



Ii Donald Duck's Playground is very 
well-done, and even though it is adver- 
tised for ages 7 to 11, this old dad had 
a lot of fun reviewing this program for 
his kid and for RAINBOW. I would cer- 
tainly recommend this one. 

(Sierra On-Line, Inc., Coarsegold, CA 
93614. $34.95: Available in Radio Shack 
stores nationwide) 

— Kerry Armstrong 

' Softwar e CqCq1i2&3 1 

BTU Analysis — 
Calculates Heating 
and Cooling Needs 

BTU Analysis, by A to Z Unlimited, 
is a program for the CoCo 1, 2 or 3 
designed to analyze the heating and 
cooling needs of a building and to 
provide the user and client with a screen 
or printer output of the results. The 
program requires one disk drive and 
Disk BASIC. If you want a printed 
output, a printer is also required. 

BTU is both password- and copy- 
protected. A backup should be made 
but can only be used to restore the 
original disk. The program is run from 
the original disk using the password 
provided. A to Z Unlimited will replace 
the original disk in the event it cannot 
be restored with the backup. 

The program begins by asking if you 
are using a CoCo 1, 2 or 3, and whether 
you want to set the printer baud rate or 
boot the program. You are then pres- 
ented with a high resolution graphics 
introduction screen followed by the 
password request and a disclaimer 
notice. You may request online instruc- 
tions if you so desire. 

Next you are presented with a series 
of 1 1 questions about the premise you 
are analyzing, regarding design temper- 
ature; outside perimeter of the building; 
inside wall height; wall insulation; 
number of doors; number of windows; 
storm windows and doors; floor area to 
be heated and cooled; a basement, crawl 
space, or slab; insulated or heated floor 
area; and ceiling insulation. 

The program handles calculations for 
conventional heating systems. Non- 
conventional systems require a special- 
ist to analyze. 

When deciding on the number of 



doors and windows, you must translate 
your window sizes into the equivalent 
number of 15-square-foot windows and 
20-square-foot doors before answering 
those questions since the calculations 
are based on those two sizes only. This 
is quite simple, and instructions are 
given to perform this translation. 

Before the actual calculations are 
performed, all questions are displayed 
with the answers you provided, and you 
are given a chance to correct any of 
them by choosing the appropriate ques- 
tion number and retyping the answer. 
When all answers are correct, pressing 
C produces the resulting calculations. 
They may be displayed on the screen or 
printed. If you want to make another 
run, you may do so by simply changing 
the answers to any of the questions and 
recalculating. 

If you operate a business and want to 
have your business name and address 
included on the printed output, you 
may do so for a small fee by sending this 
information to A to Z Unlimited. Reg- 
istered owners will also be provided 
periodic upgrades for a small fee. 

BTU Analysis is easy to use and 
completely self-prompting. I found no 
detectable bugs in the software. If you 
are in the business of heating and air 
conditioning, BTU Analysis may be just 
the thing for you. 



(A to Z Unlimited, 901 Ferndale Boulevard, 
High Point, NC 27260; 919-882-6255. $39.95 
plus $3 S/H: First product review for this 
company appearing in THE rainbow) 

— Larry Birkenfeld 



i Software 

Rickey term — 
Friendly and Useful 
Terminal Package 

Rickeyterm is a basic data commu- 
nications package that runs on the 
CoCo 3 and requires a disk drive and 
a modem. Users with a monochrome or 
RGB monitor may make use of Rick- 
eyterm's 80-column mode, while others 
may use Rickeyterm^ 40-column mode. 
An optional RS-232 cartridge is also 
supported, if present. Rickeyterm is 
supplied on disk and includes three 
pages of documentation. 



130 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 



Rickey term is copyright 1987 by its 
author, Rick Adams, whose Delphi 
username is RlCKADAMS. It was written 
to meet the immediate needs of its 
author, who then decided to share it 
with others by distributing it under the 
''freeware" concept. Rickeyterm ena- 
bles the user to communicate with 
another computer via modem and to 
perform uploading and downloading 
using either straight ASCII or Xmodem 
protocol. Rickeyterm uses a buffer to 
perform these functions. 

Rickeyterm is marketed commer- 
cially by Spectrum Projects, which gives 
an even wider audience access to it. It 
is also available via downloading from 
the CoCo SIG on Delphi. The connect 
time charges for downloading the Rick- 
eyterm package at 300 baud would be 
approximately $2 to $3, somewhat less 
at 1200 baud. A sample file of "strings" 
for Rickeyterm is also available on 
Delphi. 

The documentation as supplied by 
Spectrum differs significantly from that 
supplied on Delphi or from the author 
of Rickeyterm. The content is basically 
the same, but the printed copy from 
Spectrum has had all blank lines re- 
moved in order to fit the document onto 
three sheets of paper, printed front and 
rear. The Rickeyterm package includes 
the following programs: Rickeyterm 
User's Guide, BASIC loader and machine 
language portion. 

The BASIC loader sets up various 
parameters, loads the machine language 
portion of Rickeyterm and then exe- 
cutes it. By examining the BASIC loader 
program, the user will be able to alter 
Rickey term's parameters in order to 
suit individual preferences. The user 
may modify screen width, colors, drive 
stepping rates and baud rates for the 
serial port and the RS-232 cartridge, if 
present. Several communications pa- 



rameters, such as flow control, line feed 
after carriage return and duplex set- 
tings, are also user-definable. The BASIC 
program is well-commented, which 
makes such modifications easy to per- 
form. The foreground and background 
color parameters are especially interest- 
ing to experiment with. 

Rickeyterm makes extensive use of 
wind ows, and herein is one of its secrets 
to a user-friendly interface. The upper 
half of the screen is used for special 
functions, while the lower half is always 
used for communications functions. 

One of the design criteria for Rickey- 
term was to provide the ability to 
communicate at all times, regardless of 
the other functions that the terminal 
program might be performing. The goal 
was to provide maximum user aware- 
ness while online. 

As Rick put it, "When Pm online, I 
want to see what's going on at the 
moment and don't want the screen to 
blank out and be replaced by a full- 
screen menu display when I want to do 
something. It makes me nervous. How 
would you like to be driving down the 
freeway, push a button to change the 
station on the radio, and have the 
windshield suddenly appear opaque 
and display a menu of available radio 
stations?" 

Rickeyterm was, therefore, provided 
with its unique abilities for viewing the 
buffer and entering text into the buffer, 
while still providing a view of what is 
happening online. One of the few excep- 
tions is during disk I/O, which is un- 
avoidable. 

Rickeyterm's command structure is 
especially easy to use. To invoke a 
Rickeyterm command, you simply 
press the alt key and one other key, 
depending upon which function is de- 
sired. For instance, pressing the ALT and 
H keys will produce a help screen 



showing all of Rickey term's available 
commands. This is an especially user- 
friendly feature. 

Pressing ALT and C will invoke Rick- 
eyterm's Conference mode. This com- 
mand is best used when "in conference" 
on Delphi. While in this mode, an 
inverse video line will appear at the top 
of the screen. All keyboard input while 
in the Conference mode will appear 
inside this line; when the ENTER key is 
pressed, the message is sent. Without 
this feature, it would be very difficult to 
see what you were typing because mes- 
sages from other users would fly across 
the screen and become intimately inter- 
mingled with your own typing. 

The buffer may be toggled open or 
closed. When closed, an underline 
cursor is displayed; when open, a block 
cursor is used. Text messages are also 
displayed on the screen as the buffer is 
opened or closed. If the buffer becomes 
full, it automatically closes and the 
cursor returns to an underline character 
to inform the user. 

The Buffer View mode deserves spe- 
cial note. While in this mode, commu- 
nications continue normally in the 
lower window, while the upper window 
displays the contents of the buffer. The 
arrow keys will scroll through the 
viewing window a line at a time, while 
the shifted arrow keys may be used to 
scroll through the window a screen at 
a time. This provides quick scrolling 
through the buffer display. At the same 
time, use of the other keyboard keys 
results in keystrokes being used in 
communications. 

The main purpose of the Buffer Entry 
mode is to compose multiline messages 
while in conference, which assures that 
your complete train of thought is placed 
into a conference message. Enterprising 
users will find plenty of other uses. 

The ALT-M sequence can be used to 



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September 1987 THE RAINBOW 131 



mark the beginning and the end of a 
"buffer block." This command only 
works while the Buffer View mode is 
active. Other ALT-key sequences allow 
you to read a disk file into the buffer or 
write the buffer or a marked portion to 
disk. 

If an RS-232 cartridge is in use, 
online printer support through the 
CoCo's standard serial port is provided 
through the use of the ALT-P sequence. 
The entire buffer or a marked portion 
of it may be printed while communica- 
tions continues. This is an unusual 
feature and may well prove valuable to 
many users. 

Invoking the Buffer Entry mode 
causes the screen to split into an upper 
and a lower window, similar to the 
effect of the ALT-V (Buffer View) com- 
mand. However, entering the Buffer 
Entry mode clears the buffer, and all 
subsequent keyboard input is appended 
to the buffer display in the upper win- 
dow. The left arrow key is used to 
backspace. Interestingly, this key allows 
you to backspace past the left margin, 
thus giving access to the previous 
line(s), if desired. 

When you have entered the message 
you want to send, use either the ALT-B 
command to send the contents of the 
buffer or press the BREAK key. If the 
BREAK key is pressed while in the Buffer 
Entry mode, the contents of the buffer 
will be sent, and then the buffer will be 
cleared. You may then enter another 
message. 

Rickey term is set up in such a way 
that the right joystick button causes a 
carriage return to be sent. When scrol- 
ling through forum messages, some 
people like to lean back in their chair 
with their joystick in their lap, so they 
can simply tap the joystick button 
whenever they want to bring up the next 
forum message. Many consider this to 
be the ultimate in "mellow" behavior 
and quite indicative of the attention to 
small details that has been included in 
Rickeyterm. 

Rickeyterm also provides support for 
special characters, such as escape, true 
line-break, DEL, upbrace, caret, back- 
quote, tilde, left and right brackets, 
curly braces, back slash and underscore. 
Those who regularly communicate with 
mainframes, especially those running 
under UNIX, will appreciate this added 
keyboard support. Rickeyterm is the 
only CoCo terminal program to my 
knowledge that provides this feature. 

A special feature of Rickeyterm is 
support for the sending of "strings," or 
predefined text sequences. The strings 



may be read into the buffer from disk, 
then referenced and transmitted by 
name. Strings can be arranged to form 
simple text "pictures" for the amuse- 
ment of others. To help with the crea- 
tion of personalized strings, Rick has 
graciously donated a set of sample 
strings to the CoCo SIG's database on 
Delphi. 

Ten special string names may be used 
to send strings with a minimum of 
keystrokes. The strings named &0 
through &9 are automatically sent 
whenever the commands ALT-0 through 
ALT- 9 are entered. If a frequently used 
string were defined in the string file as 
&3, for example, it could be sent with 
an ALT- 3 command. Other functions are 
provided within Rickeyterm to list and 
preview the available strings. 

I've found Rickeyterm to be an ex- 
ceptionally friendly and useful pro- 
gram, one which will be of value to all 
telecommunicating CoCo 3 owners. 



(Spectrum Projects, P.O. Box 264, Howard 
Beach, NY 11414; 718-835-1344. $39.95 plus 
$3 S/H) 

— Don Hutchison 



^-Sof twar e 



Bug Buster — 

Who Ya Gonna Call? 

Have you ever wanted a chance to 
seek and destroy those dreaded comput- 
er bugs without extensive and tedious 
programming or messy hardware mod- 
ifications? Then Bug Buster, a new 
arcade-type game from Tothian Soft- 
ware, is for you. 



ENTER l\ |r EXIT Hs 



VOLTAGE 



POWER 5UPPLV 



The scenerio is that you are able to 
enter your computer system with a 
certain number of "spray cans" in order 
to kill the various bugs that have in- 
fested it. You are a tiny figure controlled 
by the right joystick and have the ability 
to spray a beam of bug-fatal energy. You 
must explore the various parts of your 
system (ROM, RAM, disk drive, print- 
er, etc.) and eliminate the other little 
spider-like figures found there. Unfor- 
tunately, you also face the peril of the 
bugs retaliating with Bug Buster fatal 
energy and incidental hazards of the 
system itself (such as the printer striking 
you into oblivion or stray bolts from the 
power source), both of which drain you 
of a strength point. 



COMPUTERUM 




There are five separate sections of 
your computer under attack by the 
bugs. Each section uses one playing 
screen. Because each screen takes up 
one 6K graphics screen, the game is 
configured for both 32K and 64K. If 
you have a 64K system, the program 
will load all of the various play screens 
and keep them in memory; otherwise, it 
will load each screen as it is entered. 

Before you enter a section, you must 
decide how many cans of bug spray you 
want to take with you. Each can costs 
1 strength point and can fire 10 shots. 
You don't want to buy too many, for 
you can't take any excess to other 
sections of the computer, but you also 
get penalized for buying too few. One of 
the major factors in deciding how many 
cans to purchase is the level that you are 
currently playing. One can is sufficient 
for level one, for one shot is enough to 
exterminate one bug. At higher levels, 
the bugs get tougher, and it takes 
progressively more shots to kill them. 

And that's about it. As you progress, 
the bugs grow in number and strength, 
and it takes more and more shots to 
defeat them. You keep entering the same 
areas with little change, fighting the 



132 THE RAINBOW September 1 987 



same (except tougher) bugs and avoid- 
ing the same hazards. 

The graphics are reasonable, but not 
spectacular. The animation is also a 
little slow. The game is programmed in 
a combination of BASIC, compiled 
BASIC and assembly. This can account 
for the attitude of the graphics and 
animation, because of the inherent 
slowness and other limitations of the 
BASIC language. 

Bug Buster is enjoyable. However, 
one simply cannot play it for an ex- 
tended period of time without wonder- 
ing when you are going to finish. The 
concept is cute and amusing. The graph- 
ics and animation are adequate for its 
purpose. This is not an exceptional 
game but, for the price, can be a 
humourous break from other, more 
serious exploits on the computer. 

(Tothian Software, Box 663, Rimersburg, 
PA 16248. $19.95) 



— Glen Dahlgren 



Software - 



CoCo 1, 2 & 3 



claimed. I was able to "protect" several 
of my own BASIC programs and even 
some commercial games. It was effec- 
tive in thwarting most copying tech- 
niques, but I don't believe it will foil the 
real pirates in the CoCo world any more 
than a dead-bolt on my house will keep 
out a professional burglar. The point 
here is that if you expect your software 
to be totally protected, you are fooling 
yourself. Somewhere, somehow, some- 
one will find a way. 

I think Disk Anti-Pirate is a worth- 
while program that offers some unique 
protective features that most CoCo 
users will find useful and "Blue Beard" 
will find challenging. 

(Microcom Software, P.O. Box 214, Fair- 
port, NY 14450; 716 223-1477. $59.95 plus 
$3 S/H) 

— Jerry Semones 



Disk Anti-Pirate — 
Protects Your 
Programs 



Disk Anti- Pirate is a utility program 
for use on your Disk Extended Color 
BASIC CoCo with at least 16K of RAM. 
The program is not difficult to use, but 
specific steps must be followed in order 
to use it effectively. The program is 
menu-driven, and full instructions are 
provided in a 16-page instruction book. 

With Disk Anti- Pirate you can create 
ML autostart loaders for your BASIC 
and ML programs and disable the 
RESET, BREAK and CLEAR keys to re- 
start the program. You can encrypt your 
programs to prevent listing or otherwise 
disassembly of them and mask the code 
SO that LIST, LLIST, CLOflD(M), 
CSflVE(M), EXEC, POKE, DEL, EDIT, 
TRON, TROFF, PEEK, U5R, LDflD(N), 
5RVE(M) and MERGE will only function 
with your own private password. 

The program also features self- 
contained error trapping for BASIC and 
ML programs. A title screen editor is 
included, which can be used to dress up 
your programs. 

I found Disk Anti-Pirate to do all it 



Softw are- 



CoCo 1,2 &3 



An Education — 
from Thompson 
House 



Thompson House is offering educa- 
tional programs for preschool and first 
grade level students to study numbers, 
math, the alphabet and spelling. 

Available are four separate programs 
on cassette or 32K disk: Build-a-Word, 
Counting Things, Error Trap Number 
Facts and Error Trap Spelling. 

Build-a- Word teaches letter recogni- 
tion and alphabetical sequence. The 
student, teacher or parent sets up a list 
of words. The computer then shows an 
alphabetical sequence, and the student 
picks the next letter to eventually spell 
each word in the practice list. Guess My 
Word is part of this package. 

Counting Things includes three sub- 
programs: Matching Things, where the 
student matches keyboard numbers to 
numbers on the screen, Counting 
Things, which lets the student count 
boxes and circles and Abacus Counting, 
where the boxes to be counted are 
smaller and enclosed in an abacus-like 
grid. 

Error Trap Number Facts and Error 
Trap Spelling give the student a chance 
to go over a list of spelling or math 
problems. The list can be made by the 
student or teacher from the keyboard 



for a single lesson, or loaded from tape 
or disk. Errors are saved as a separate 
list that can be called up and practiced. 

Del Turner has prepared four educa- 
tional programs for the CoCo that any 
father could be proud of. I recall doing 
things like this myself a few years back 
when there weren't so many really well- 
done professional items for our CoCo. 

(Thompson House, P.O. Box 58, Kamloops, 
British Columbia, Canada V2C 5K3. $22.95 
each) 

— Bob Dooman 



L 



CoCo 1, 2 & 3 



CoCo Midi 2 — 
High-Tech Creativity 

MIDI, an acronym for Musical In- 
strument Digital Interface, has forever 
changed music composition and perfor- 
mance. Recording studios use MIDI in 
non-synthesizer applications, including 
automated control of mixers and spe- 
cial effects units (such as digital reverbs 
and noise gates). And fast MIDI data 
transmission rates (31.25 kilobaud) 
make Large Area Networks (LANs) 
possible at a low cost. 

CoCo Midi 2 is written entirely in 
assembler under Disk Extended Color 
BASIC and is an excellent example of 
what the MIDI excitement is about. 

CoCo Midi 2 runs on any CoCo, 
without modification. (It does not take 
advantage of the CoCo 3's memory and 
graphics features, however.) It includes 
MIDI software and a ROM pack hard- 
ware device featuring two five-pin DIN- 
type MIDI ports on the side. Also 
included are two medium length profes- 
sional MIDI cables. These are a $30 
value offered free. 

With all the equipment off, the hard- 
ware pack is inserted into Multi-Pak 
Interface Slot 3 (although a Y-cable, at 
extra cost, can be used). The two DIN 
plugs on the hardware pack are labeled 
"MIDI-in" and "MIDI-out" on the face 
of the hardware pack. Simply connect 
the MIDI-out from the pack to the 
MIDI-in on your synthesizer; then 
connect the MIDI-out from your syn- 
thesizer to the MIDI-in on the pack. 

Power up everything and insert a 
backup of CoCo Midi 2 into Drive 0. 
After typing LOflDM "COCOMIDI and 
pressing ENTER, you are greeted by a 
copyright message in colorful semi- 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 133 



graphics. Co Co Midi 2 loads in the rest 
itself and leaves you at the main menu. 

The main menu allows you to get a 
directory of two kinds of MIDI files; 
load and save these files. It also provides 
an interface to Lyra files. From here you 
enter two other major portions of the 
program: the Editor and the Control 
Menu. 

The directory listing distinguishes the 
two kinds of MIDI files you create with 
the extension .fland . T, denoting "All" 
and "Track," respectively. For instance, 
if you wanted to create a disco song with 
a bass sound, a rhythm keyboard sound 
and a lead keyboard sound, you could 
create the individual parts one at a time 
and save them as you go along. These 
musical parts (called "tracks" by record- 
ing studio convention) would each be 
saved with a . T extension. Once you 
finished the arrangement, you could 
load each track one after the other, do 
any final touching up, and then save 
them all at once with an . fl extension. 
CoCo Midi 2 saves tempo and MIDI 
channel parameters when saving your 
arrangements with the .Pi extension. 

When loading files, CoCo Midi 2 
gives you the choice of loading those 
files with the .fl extension or those files 
with the . T extension. It's easy to list 
these filenames to your monitor, so you 
don't have to memorize them. 

The main menu also gives you a way 
to exit the program. On the CoCo 1 and 
2, a software cold start was correctly 
performed. It did not correctly cold 
start on the CoCo 3 under the CoCo 3 
C-DOS I use, but that is not a serious 
problem. 

The Control Screen is where most of 
the musical action takes place. Here you 
record your individual tracks. During 
your recording session, you can play 
back these tracks either one at a time or 
all together, depending on which tracks 



you have turned on. (During playback, 
an entertaining graphics keyboard on 
the menu screen plays the notes for 
you.) You can record up to 16 tracks, 
each of which can be monophonic (one 
note at a time) or polyphonic (many 
notes at once). 

A wide variety of commonly used 
time signatures is available, including 
4/4 (the default), 2/2, 8/8, 3/4, 5/4 and 
9/8. You can define any other time 
signature as long as it doesn't exceed 5/ 
4 or 9/8. 









mm m 










LOAD S h V E 
EDIT GET 


D I P 

fl A K t 


CONT 
QUIT 


|lllllllllllMIMIIII | 


PRESS L , 3 


D , C , E 


G , M , Q OR 



The Control Menu allows you to 
filter out unwanted MIDI data. MIDI 
not only standardizes which notes will 
be played when, but how loudly they 
play, whether they play with special 
effects, or even whether they play on an 
ordinary pitch. Bytes are included to 
keep synthesizers and sequencers in 
time and in tune. 

You can easily imagine situations 
where you would exclude some of this 
data. For example, if you record a bass 
track for a pop dance song, you may 
want every note to sound equally loud. 
By filtering out "attack velocity" MIDI 
bytes, your track will play consistently 
loud despite any inconsistency in your 
playing. 



When this kind of data is filtered out, 
you also save memory in the MIDI 
software. In big MIDI recording proj- 
ects, this can be valuable. 

Thanks to MIDI, you only need to 
own one synthesizer with a keyboard. It 
should feature attack-velocity sensitiv- 
ity and "after-touch" (also called 
"pressure-sensitivity"), as well as a 
joystick or other controller device for 
altering filters and oscillators "on the 
fly." Your main keyboard is then a 
"controller" keyboard. 

If you need thicker sounds, you may 
hook up additional synthesizer "mod- 
ules" to your controller keyboard. 
These contain only the electronics of 
another synthesizer and do not include 
a keyboard. 

CoCo Midi 2 supports this kind of 
setup by allowing your controller 
(whether or not it creates its own 
sounds) to send its MIDI data both to 
the program and through the program 
to a synthesizer module. This way you 
can hear what you're doing while re- 
cording. 

This "MIDI Thru" software option 
may also make CoCo Midi a little less 
expensive to produce, since no MIDI 
Thru port needs to be added to the 
hardware pack. 

A keyboard-oriented studio would 
not be complete without a drum ma- 
chine. Drum machine programming or 
sequencing is usually supported by the 
drum machine's built-in software. Once 
you have planned out and created the 
drum patterns for a song, you may want 
CoCo Midi 2 to play with your drum 
machine. There are two ways to do this. 

First, the software clock that CoCo 
Midi 2 uses can control the tempo of the 
drum machine and your tracks. Thus, 
the CoCo is the "master" and the drum 
machine is the "slave." The Control 
Menu allows you to set up this config- 





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CSG-IMS/CoCo2/CoCo3 0S9 $169.95 

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134 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



uration by selecting Master Tempo 
mode. The other way to synchronize 
your drum machine to your tracks is to 
have the drum machine's clock run the 
CoCo clock. This is the Slave Tempo 
mode. 

If your drum machine produces what 
is called "sync tone/* then you are no 
longer limited to 16 tracks on your 
CoCo Midi 2 sequences. The expe- 
rienced MIDI user will know how to 
record the drum machine's sync tone to 
multitrack tape in a studio and how to 
use that recorded tone to synchronize 
any number of future drum machine 
and CoCo Midi 2 sequences. Imagine a 
composition of yours with 50 parts 
going all at once! 

In a recording studio, there is usually 
a hi-tech-looking box next to the engi- 
neer with lots of lights either on or off 
or red or green, depending on whether 
an artist is recording on a track or 
simply listening to it. 

The Set Screen is a software counter- 
part to this. Here you determine which 
tracks will be recorded and which will 
be played back. But there are additional 
features. You can give long descriptive 
names to each track, specify which of 1 6 
MIDI channels you want each track to 
play over, and transpose your track up 
to an octave higher, in half-step inter- 
vals. If you compose a song for an alto 
singer who hates it, there is no need to 
rewrite it for that soprano who loves it 
— just transpose each track up into her 
range. 

The Set Screen also keeps track of the 
memory thai each track uses up. This 
comes in handy when you decide to 
filter out MIDI data to free up RAM 
for that next, all-important track. 

Great studio musicians spent years 
perfecting their ability to play on the 
beat. They are so subtle in their under- 
standing of "tempo" that they even 



engage in heated debates about what 
"on the beat" means. 

Not all of us have the time or incli- 
nation to develop a perfect "sense of 
time," so most sequencers, including 
CoCo Midi 2, offer "quantization." If 
you play a series of quarter notes in a 
bass track almost perfectly on the beat, 
you can make them perfect by shifting 
the beginning of each note to the precise 
beginning of each beat. You might be 
using "eighth-note quantization" for 
this. 

For passages using eighth notes or 
sixteenth notes, you will have to use 
even finer quantization resolution. 
Otherwise, you run the risk of two 
eighth notes being quantized to the 
same downbeat. 

Another way to fix your music is to 
simply do it over — and that process is 
made easier with the Punch In and 
Punch Out feature. "Punching in" is the 
act of re-recording just the incorrect 
part of a track. It works like this. The 
computer will let you hear any tracks set 
to "on" until it reaches the punch-in 
point on the defective track. Then you 
hear all other tracks in Playback mode 
while you replay the defective track in 
Record mode. This track will continue 
in Record mode until it reaches the 
"punch-out" point. Then it simply 
continues playing back every track. 

By setting up punch-in and punch- 
out points on either side of a difficult 
passage, you can repeatedly practice, at 
any tempo and in any key, knowing that 
once you get it right, CoCo Midi 2 has 
preserved it forever. 

If you can't fix a passage with quan- 
tization or punching, you may have to 
resort to the Editor. The Editor is also 
the place where you can insert special 
MIDI bytes that activate features on 
your synthesizer, which many se- 
quencer/recorders can't record. (These 



bytes contain System Real-Time data. I 
know of a $15,000 sequencer that can't 
record System Real-Time data.) 

Especially useful is the ability to "edit 
in" program change bytes. You can have 
your flutes change to steel drums in the 
wink of an eye by including the right 
byte information. 

The Editor is very low-level and 
requires patience and knowledge. (Sev- 
eral examples are given, and an appen- 
dix to the manual explains standard 
MIDI data format.) The MIDI events 
are broken down in measures, beats and 
ticks; it is up to you to find the error and 
use the available editing commands to 
correctly add or delete MIDI events. 

Another great feature of the Editor is 
the ability to include bytes that will 
repeat a section of a track as many times 
as you like. The repetitive nature of 
commercial pop music makes this fea- 
ture worthwhile. 

CoCo Midi 2 is not copy-protected, 
so backups are a snap. It's menu-driven 
and sensitive to most of the user's needs; 
I had it up and running in five minutes. 

Recording real-time polyphony is a 
feature some sequencers don't have and 
it's really appreciated. Its over 40K 
memory allotment for data is plenty for 
most applications. Transposition and 
quantization make recording easier for 
semipro and lazy-professional instru- 
mentalists. 

It interfaces with Lyra, Speech Sys- 
tem's graphics-oriented composer/ 
editor. It does not require an MPI, 
although the alternative is that plague, 
the Y-cable. It runs on all CoCos very 
nicely. 

The drum machine interface, punch- 
in and punch-out, and filtering are 
professional features musicians have 
come to expect from MIDI sequencers. 
The inclusion of two top-notch MIDI 
cables is also a real plus. 



A 
L 
L 

P 
R 
O 
G 
R 
A 
M 
S 

c 
o 
c 
o 



FILESORT 




P.O.BOX 6464 
BAKERSFIELD, CA 93386 



32 OR 64K FILE PROGRAM . . .$16.95 / Cassette — BOTH VERSIONS INCLUDE: 
ML ROUTINES FOR DATA. EDIT, SORT, REVIEW, SEARCH, ERROR TRAPPING. MANY HARDCOPY OPTIONS. 

ENJOY A STIMULATING GAME OF KENO. 
A GRAPHIC DELIGHT FILLED WITH REALISTIC, 
EXCITING ACTION. PICK 1 TO 15 SPOTS. 
COMPLETELY RANDOM WINNERS. PREPARE 
FOR AN EXTREMELY CHALLENGINGGAME. 
CAN VOl/ BREAK THE HOUSE? 



13 


80 | 54 | 17 21 75 18 | 36 63 


9 


62 
3 


Bakersfield KENO VI. 2 


41 

33 


72 


49 | 11 29 44 | 38 | 55 | 27 | 16 


1 



32 OR 64K KENO SIMULATION 
Cassette ... $12.95 Disk ... $13.95 




ML GRAPHICS DUMP FOR DMP-2 
1 6 / 32 / 54K Csssette . . . $15.95 1 6 / 32 / 64K Disk . . . $16.95 



ML GRAPHICS DUMP FOR THE DMP-200. 

POSITION GRAPHIC PAGES 1-4, 5-8, OR 1-8 ANY 
PLACE ON PAPER. MENUPROMPTSI STANDARD, 
CONDENSED. OR COMPRESSED. PRINTOUTS IN 
NORMAL. ELONGATED, DOUBLE-. OR TRIPLE-SIZE. 

SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER. CALIF. RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX 
WE WILL MODIFY PROGRAMS TO WORK WITH YOUR PRINTER - NO EXTRA I 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 135 



The manual is well-written. Good 
grammar and a useful tutorial with key- 
by-key instructions make learning 
Co Co Midi 2 easy, although the Editor 
is hard to use unless you truly under- 
stand MIDI at the byte level. 

CoCo Midi 2 is every bit as good as 
any sequencer I have seen. And, Rich 
Parry says that a Step-Time entry mode 
is being finished right now. 

CoCo Midi 2 is a good buy, and I 
predict subsequent releases will be even 
better. 

(Speech Systems, 38 W. 255 Deerpath Road, 
Batavia, IL 60510; 312-879-6880. $149.95 
plus $3 S/H) 

— Paul Ward 



1 Software 1 1 

Dollar Wise — 
Borrowing With 
Confidence 



Several years ago, right around tax 
time, I wrote a simple amortization 
program for my Color Computer. It was 
a quick and easy, no-frills program to 
do exactly one function. Since then, 
each tax season, I search frantically 
through my disks looking for that 
program. When I find it, I tell myself, 
"Someday I should enhance this thing 
and make it more useful. But not today, 
of course. . . 

Well, now it's too late. Prickly-Pear 
Software beat me to it. Their new 
program, Dollar Wise, provides capa- 
bilities for a wide range of personal 
finance applications. 

Upon running Dollar Wise, the user 
is greeted by a delightful title screen, 
which is the least useful but most vis- 
ually appealing feature of the program. 
This disappears all too quickly and is 
replaced by a screen prompting you for 
your printer baud rate. After this is 
entered, the main menu appears, offer- 
ing a selection of six different functions: 
Loan Information, Savings Accounts, 
Mortgage Interest, Rent/ Buy Deci- 
sions, Real Estate Loan with Balloon 
Payment, Print Loan Amortization 
Table and Exit. 

The Loan Information option allows 
you to enter any two of the following: 
payment amount, amount financed, or 
number of payments It then computes 



and displays the third. I put this option 
through a very rigorous test, as I antici- 
pate being in the market for a new car 
in the not too distant future. I have 
spent quite a bit of time juggling 
numbers with this option, and as a 
result, when I actually start lurking 
around car lots, I will be much better 
prepared. 

The Savings option computes total 
balance in a savings account and inter- 
est earned, given an initial amount, 
interest rate, number of years, fre- 
quency of compounding, and, option- 
ally, amount of monthly deposit. 

The Mortgage Interest function asks 
for some basic information regarding a 
loan and computes total interest paid in 
any tax year. It takes into account the 
number of payments made in the first 
year and can actually be used on any 
installment loan. 

If you are considering the purchase of 
your first home, the Rent/ Buy Decision 
function does an interesting compari- 
son of the cost of buying versus renting. 
It asks for a rather lengthy list of 
parameters, some of which require 
some research to provide. Once these 
are entered, Dollar Wise provides you 
with the "break-even point," the year in 
which the initial costs of buying are 
balanced by the higher year-to-year cost 
of renting. Beyond this point in time, 
you are presumably better off buying 
than renting, due to the increasing 
equity in your home. In addition, you 
may request a comparison for any point 
in time, showing the accumulated dollar 
total you will have paid to rent, or to 
buy, during that interval. 

If you have, or are considering, a 
second mortgage with a balloon pay- 
ment, Dollar Wise has the capability of 
determining the monthly payment 
amount and the amount you will owe 
when the balloon payment comes due. 

The final function requires a printer 
and produces a hard copy amortization 
table when provided with the necessary 
loan information. You have the option 



of either a detailed, month-by-month 
report or simply a printout of the 
principal and interest paid in each tax 
year. The report is very complete and 
easy to read, and I had no trouble at all 
producing it on my D MP- 130 printer. 

All of the features of Dollar Wise 
functioned precisely as described. The 
documentation is brief, but clear, and 
makes good use of examples to explain 
each capability. Most of the inputs 
required are very self-explanatory, and 
those that are not are covered ade- 
quately in the documentation. Some of 
the program features use parameters 
that are subject to significant fluctua- 
tion in the real world. The authors do 
a good job of pointing this out, empha- 
sizing that Dollar Wise is not a financial 
wizard, just one of several tools that can 
be used in making financial decisions. 

There are a few characteristics of 
Dollar Wise that I found rather annoy- 
ing. For one thing, most of the functions 
can be repeated without returning to the 
main menu by making a change to one 
of the input parameters. It would be 
nice if the user could change multiple 
parameters in one pass. 

Another minor deficiency is that all 
times are input in "number of" months 
or years. The Amoritzation table, for 
instance, asks Number of Payments in 
first year? I would rather be asked 
"In what month was the first payment 
made?" Similarly, rather than having to 
request interest paid in "year 3," I would 
find it easier to ask for interest paid in 
1985. However, this does not reduce the 
accuracy or value of the output. 

Dollar Wise comes with a guarantee 
to load forever, and it will be replaced 
free of charge if it ever fails to do so for 
any reason. It is a very useful program 
for making a lot of financial decisions. 

(Prickly-Pear Software, 213 Mirada, El 
Paso, TX 79932; 915-584-7784. Disk $27.95; 
Tape $24.95) 

— Jim K. Issel 



Hint 



EDTASM+ Magic 



Here is a helpful hint for CoCo 3 owners who also use Disk EDTASM+. 
The 40- and 80-column displays are usable with Disk EDTASM+. Just set 
your screen the way you want it, put the EDTASM+ disk in the drive and 
type RUN"DD5". Nothing will appear on the screen when the disk stops, but 
all you have to do is press 2. After the disk stops again, type EDTfiSM and 
press ENTER. Again, you will be typing this "blind." When the disk stops 
again, you will find yourself in EDTASM+ and with a wider screen. It sure 
makes those assembly programs easier to read when running in 80-columns! 

Jeff Ha me luck 
Saskatchewan, Canada 



136 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



* s — n n rt n n 



77z£ following products have recently been received by 
THE RAINBOW, examined by our magazine staff and 
issued the Rainbow Seal of Certification, your assurance 
that we have seen the product and have ascertained that 
it is what it purports to be. 




Assembly Language Programming 
for the CoCo 3, a book that de- 
scribes the CoCo 3 enhancements 
and how to use them with assembly 
language. This is a continuation of 
the book Assembly Language Pro- 
gramming for the TRS-80 Color 
Computer by Laurence A. Tepolt. 
Tepco, 30 Water Street, Ports- 
mouth, RI 02871; (401) 683-5312. 
$12 plus SI S/H 

Calindex II, a 32K program de- 
signed to increase the efficiency of 
an individual or group by automat- 
ing the use of a calendar for man- 
agement of schedules. For the CoCo 
1, 2 and 3. Emerson Computer 
Services Company, 8289 Banner 
RoadSE, Port Orchard, WA 98366; 
(206)857-7878. $39.95 plus S3 S/H 



Erina, a debugger for the OS-9 
operating system. Includes a mini- 
assembler and disassembler for the 
6809, and tracing and debugging 
commands. For the CoCo 2 and 3. 
Clearbrook Software Group, P.O. 
Box 8000-499, Sumas, WA 98295; 
(604) 853-9118. $69 plus $5 S/H 



* Inventory Manager, a 64K business 
inventory control and purchase 
order entry system. For the CoCo 1 , 



2 and 3. Forrest Enterprises, 1521 
Lancelot, Borger, TX 79007; (806) 
274-3083. $25 



OS-9 Character Set Editor, a 512K 
graphics editor for the modification 
and creation of the OS-9 character 
sets. Included are several sample 
fonts and instructions on how to 
load and use alternate fonts. For the 
CoCo 3. Bobvander Poel Software, 
17435-57 Avenue, Edmonton, Al- 
berta, Canada T6M 1 EL $19.95 
plus $2 S/H 

QUIKPRO+II, a file maintenance 
data entry program generator. This 
program lets you create programs 
for filing and data handling without 
knowledge of programming. For the 
CoCo 1, 2, and 3. ICR- Future soft, 



1718 Kingsley Avenue, Orange 
Park, FL 32607; (904) 269-1918. 
$29.50 plus $4.50 S/H 



Tax Estimator, an update version 
for approximating federal tax for 
the 1987 tax year. For the CoCo I, 
2 and 3. Try-O-Byte, 1008 Alton 
Circle, Florence, SC 29501; (803) 
662-9500. $6 to cover S/H 



Trig Attack, an educational graph- 
ics game that teaches mathematical 
concepts in 1 1 levels of play. For the 
CoCo 1, 2 and 3. Sugar Software, 
P.O. Box 7446, Hollywood, FL 
33081; (305) 981-1241. $19.95 for 
16 K CB Tape or 32K ECB Disk 



*First product received from this company 



The Seal of Certification program is open to all manufacturers of products 
for the Tandy Color Computer, regardless of whether they advertise in 
THE RAINBOW. 

By awarding a Seal, the magazine certifies the product does exist — that 
we have examined it and have a sample copy — but this does not constitute 
any guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these hardware or 
software items will be forwarded to THE rainbow reviewers for 
evaluation. 

— Judi Hutchinson 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 137 



Getting a Fix 

on Triangles 

By Steve Biyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



r ■ ihis month's program is a review 
I of the major types of triangles. 
JL This subject is usually intro- 
duced in the seventh or eighth grade. 
Those illustrated in this program are the 
equilateral, isosceles, right and scalene 
triangles. 

An eqilateral triangle has three 60- 
degree angles and three equal sides. An 
isosceles triangle has two equal sides 
and two equal angles. A right triangle 
contains a right angle. A scalene trian- 
gle has three dissimilar sides and three 
nonequal angles. 

The program draws ? in high resolu- 
tion, an approximate simulation of one 
of the four triangles, selected randomly. 
Press the • key to move the cursor 
down the list of four names and then 
press the ENTER key when you believe 
the picture matches the correct name. 

If you are incorrect, a short beep will 
be heard. You can then continue to 
guess until the correct response is given. 
Then a pleasant tune is played and the 
word CORRECT is displayed. 

Since there are only four types of 
triangles to learn here, we hope that all 
students will master this program in a 
brief period of time. Therefore, we 
didn'tincludeany kind of scoring. After 



Steve Biyn teaches both exceptional 
and gifted children, holds two masters 
degrees and has won awards for the 
design of programs to aid the handi- 
capped. He owns Computer Island and 
lives in Staten Island, New York, 



each correct response, the user may 
press the B key to begin again or the E 
key to end the program. 

Students can get additional use out of 
this program by using a protractor, a 
semicircular, plastic device used to 
measure angles. It could be placed up 
to the screen to measure angles d rawn 
in the triangles illustrated. While not 
exact, their measurements will be close 
enough to get across all of the necessary 
points. Children would then be able to 
use the program for a different purpose: 
practice in the measurement of angles. 
After awhile they should be able to 
answer the following questions: 

1. The sum of the angles of any tri- 
angle is always ? 

2. Any triangle containing one 90- 
degree angle is a triangle? 

3. Any triangle with one angle greater 
than 90 degrees is a triangle? 

Along with learning the types of 
triangles, students also learn about 
three types of angles: acute (less than 90 
degrees), right (exactly 90 degress) and 
obtuse (more than 90 degrees). A pro- 
gram similar to the one presented here 
could be written to draw and teach this 
concept, which could be a follow-up 
activity of yours or the students. 

As students learn more about angles, 
they can check their understanding by 
trying to draw on paper and define such 
exotic triangles as acute scalene, obtuse 
scalene, acute isosceles, obtuse isos- 
celes, right scalene and right isosceles. 



Examples of these triangles could also 
be programmed by you or the students 
into this or a similar program. 

Our program displays its triangles 
and words in high resolution. A pro- 
gram that is so dependent upon graph- 
ics as this one really needs to use one 
of the available high resolution screens. 
The letters needed for the words are 
contained in strings on lines 390 
through 580. This method of program- 
ming is effective on the CoCo 1 and 2. 
The CoCo 3 will, of course, also be able 
to display and run this program prop- 
erly and is much more versatile. CoCo 
3s make programs such as this much 
easier to write because high resolution 
with onscreen text is permitted. 

The four types of triangles are dis- 
played by lines 40 through 1 10. Lines 
120 through 190 select and draw one of 
the four types. The dimensions of the 
triangles drawn are variable within 
certain limits. We would not want to 
d raw identical triangles during the 
running of the program. Variety always 
helps maintain student interest in any 
program. 

For each example, the type of triangle 
is randomly selected by the variable A. 
The routine contained in lines 220 
through 330 moves the cursor and 
checks for a match when the ENTER key 
is pressed. This method can easily be 
employed in modifications or additions 
to this program. 

We at Computer Island hope that this 
program helps introduce your young- 
sters to the world of triangles. □ 



1 38 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



The listing: TRIANGLE 



lj3 REM 11 REVIEWING TYPES OF TRIANG 
LE I? 

2j3 REM" STEVE BLYN, COMPUTER ISLAN 

D, STATEN ISLAND, NY, 1987 

3J3 CLEAR 1J8J3J8:PCLS5:PM0DE3,1:SCR 

EENl,l:PCLS5:GOSUB 3 9j3 

4j3 DRAW M BM2 6, 5C7A2S8 M + T$+Y$+P$+E 

$+S$ 

5j3 DRAW+SP$+0$+F$+SP$ 

6j3 DRAW+T$+R$+I$+A$+N$+G$+L$+E$+ 

S$ 

7j3 COLOR6:LINE(lj3,3)- (245 , 19) , PS 
ET / B:LINE(12 / 4) -(243, 18) , PSET , B 
8j3 DRAW M BM18j3,5j3S4 M +R$ + I$+G$+H$+ 
T$ 

9j3 DRAW"BM18j3, 8j3 M +E$+Q$+U$ + I$+L$ 
+A$+T$+E$+R$+A$+L$ 

IfSfS DRAW"BM18J3, llj3" + I$ + S$+0$ + S$+ 
C$+E$+L$+E$+S$ 

11J3 DRAW"BM18j3, 14j3 M + S$ + C$+A$+L$+ 
E$+N$+E$ 

12J3 J=lj3?K=13j3:C=2j3+RND(8j3) :D=2j3 
+RND(2j3) 

13J3 E=lj3j3+RND(5j3) :F=15j3+RND(5j3) 
14)3 A=RND ( 4 ) 

15J3 IF A=l THEN E=7j3+RND ( 3 0 ) : F=l 
3 j3 : C=INT (E/2 + . 5 ) : REM" ISOSCELES 11 
160 IF A=2 THEN C=lj3 : F=13 j3 : D=2p+ 
RND(5j3) :REM M RIGHT TRIANGLE" 
17J3 IF A=3 THEN J=1J3 : K=lj3j3 : D=5£J+ 
RND ( 2j3 ) :E=6j3+RND(3j3) : F=lj3j3 : C=INT 
((E-lj3)/2) : REM" EQUILATERAL" 
18J3 COLOR8 : LINE (J, K) - (C, D) , PSET 
19J3 LINE-(E,F) , PSET : LINE- ( J , K) ,P 
SET 

2j3j3 FOR T=52 TO 142 STEP 3j3:CIRC 
LE(155,T) ,5:NEXT T:T=52 
21J3 PAINT (J+2,K-1) ,6,8 
22j3 AN$=INKEY$ 



23j3 IF AN$ = "D" THEN CIRCLE (155, T 
-3)3) , 3, 5 : CIRCLE (15 5, T) ,3,8:T=T+3 
j2:PLAY"03L2)3j3CDEG" 

24) 3 IF AN$=CHR$(13) THEN 27)3 

25) 3 IF T>172 THEN T=5 2 : CIRCLE ( 15 
5,142) , 3 , 5 : CIRCLE ( 15 5 , 17 2 ) ,3,5 

26) 3 GOTO 22)3 

27) 3 IF T=82 AND A=2 THEN 34)3 

28) 3 IF T=112 AND A=3 THEN 34)3 

29) 3 IF T=142 AND A=l THEN 34)3 

3) 3)3 IF T=172 AND A=4 THEN 34)3 EL 
SE 3 3)3 

31) 3 IF T>172 THEN 33)3 

32) 3 IF T<82 THEN 33)3 

33) 3 PLAY"02L1)3)3GG" : GOTO 22)3 

34) 3 PLAY"04L1)3)3CDEFGGEECC" 

35) 3 DRAW"S8BM16)3, 16j3 M +C$+0$+R$+R 
$+E$+C$+T$ 

36) 3 EN$-INKEY$ 

37) 3 IF EN$ = "B" THEN RUN ELSE IF 
EN$="E" THEN END ELSE 36)3 

38) 3 REM"THESE ARE THE STRINGS FO 
R THE LETTERS AND NUMBERS" 

39) 3 A$ = "BEHUNU2R4NU2DGL2BGBL6 " 

4) 3)3 C$="BU4ER2FD2GL2HBG2 BL4 " 

41) 3 E$ = "BER3U2NL2U2L4BG5BL2" 

42) 3 F$="BUR4U2NL3U2BG5BL5" 

43) 3 G$ = "BUR4U3HL2GDRBG3 BL4 " 

44) 3 H$="BUU2NU2R4NU2D2BGBL9" 

45) 3 I$="BR2BUU4BU2BD7BL8" 

46) 3 L$="BU5R4D4BGBL9" 

47) 3 N$ = "BUU4F4U4BG5BL5" 

48) 3 0$ = "BEHU2ER2FD2GL2BGBL6" 

49) 3 P$ = "BER3U2NU2L3GNFBG2BL4" 

5) 3)3 Q$ = " BEHU2ERNDNURFD2GL2BGBL6 " 

51) 3 R$=" BEHERNH2R2NU2 D2L3 BGBL6 " 

52) 3 S$ = "BU2FR2EHL2HER2FBG4BL6 " 

53) 3 T$ = "BUR2NU4R2BDBL1)3" 

54) 3 U$ = "BUU3ER2FD3BGBL9" 

55) 3 Y$ = "BUE2NU2F2BGBL9" 

56) 3 SP$ = "BE4BUBG5BL5 ,f 1 ***SPACER 

57) 3 RETURN r 



OTZALUK 

f.S HERE! 



UXrZAIlJK, machine language program for (XJiO J, 2,& 3. Studies history of iXYVVm 
game as a hand i capper studies hor ses. Arizona 6/39 , Cal.i foniia 6/49, Iowa 6/36, 
Missouri 6/39, New York 6/40, New York 6/48, Oregon 6/42, Tri --State (Maine, 



New Hampshire, & Vermont) 6/36 , & Washington 
follow. Requi res 64K. Specify game desired with 

William G. Briganoe, S r . 
1 00 1. Fa i rwea the r Dr i ve 
Saoramento, CA 95833 
(916) 927-6062 



State 
order 



6/ 44 ava.i i able . Others to 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



On Disk! 
$29.95 
Introductory I 



rice 



CalJ for/iin residents add 6% siilex tax 



September 1 987 THE RAINBOW 1 39 



R program to measure reading speed 
and comprehensi on 



CoCo Sets the 



Pace 




By Richard D . GorcflGy 



The establishment of a small, pri- 
v at e s t h o pl.q u i ck ty 1 ead s to- very 
imaginative efforts to provide 
maximum learning experiences' with 
minimum expenditures. Our single 
CoCo gets very little commercial suit- 
ware, but does provide an immediate 
proving ground for all the edueai turns! 
programs lean grind out, My wife, who 
is the reading specialist in this team, 
requested a taehistoscope program to 
eliminate the need to purchase one of 
Uic commercial reading pacers on the 
nctarket. Originally* the program was 
written for tape operation and was later 
upg r ad ed when we acq it i r ed a disk 
drive, it you intend to use the program 
on a disk system, the following changes 
feed lo be made: 

Line 4010 change INPUT to 

LINEINPUT 
Line 4030 change INPUT to 

LINEINPUT 
Line 4040 change INPUT to 
LINEINPUT 



Richard Gordlcy find his wife* Nancy, 
operate the Chi /Heat he Alternative 
h'oQ'l in ChUhc&he* Illinois. Richard 
has a decree in Music Education, and 
his hohhics include ieathercraft, corn- 
p Ut h i$ af} d w i n dimt r u i n ei 1 1 rep a / r . 



The algorithm to provide a moving 
text window with variable speed was 
easy, but the rest of this program has 
been revised while in use for the last six " 
months, Believe me, l now have a 
healthy respect for commercial pro- 
iii a miners! 

Most tach is tos copes on the market 
allow you to use the machine on printed 
material right off the page, Since, by 
nature, computers must read files in 
order to do anything similar, we decided 
■to take advantage of this apparent 
dr awback to introduce immediate com- 
prehension testing in the body of the 
text iri the form of multiple-choice 
questions. Consequently, the assump- 
tion is that the users of Tachisto will be 
able to select appropriate level texts for 
their students and a!sq formulate ques- 
tions that test comprehension at the 
level consonant with the reading level of 
the text, 

At the core of Tachisto is a variable- 
speed « moving window tachistoscope 
that should increase reading speed, 
improve tracking ability, reinforce 
comprehension skills and provide a 
printed report for the instructor's ben- 
efit. Surrounding this is an environment 
of input, editing and file copying. 
Tachisto includes user instructions and 
a main and secondary menu, and it is 
as user- proof as possible, (f have found 
that there is no such thing as a program 
that is completely "user-proof, 1 * espe- 
cially for grade school students, but the 
many requests for Yes/ No responses 



during the program run, combined with 
an immediate editing feature, comes 
very close.) 

Initially, the program asks if you 
want instructions that apply mainly to 
the preparation of text files. This is the 
area in which the most errors are en- 
countered; since the student- use section 
is almost foolproof. Ail other functions 
of the program have been made self- 
prompting. 

The most difficult part of using Ta- 
chisto is breaking up text into 10 seg- 
ments of 255 characters each. Some care 
must also be used in order to avoids line 
breaks. The instructor may also want to 
include four to eight spaces at the. end 
of each text excerpt to prevent exit from 
the tachistoscope at a mote rapid rate 
than that selected, because of the 
heart of the program. One specification ' 
not included in the instructions is that 
because of the way Go Co stores fde&, 
quotation marks (") cannot be used in 
the text excerpts. Option 5 should be 
used ^ith c^tre since it only 'provides a' 
more elegant alternative to break, 
Premature exit from the program may 
be remedied without loss of 'data by 
typing GOTO 11% 

To use a less on,- you must enter the 
filename of the required text and the 
student's name, as well as the tachisto- 
scope speed. The tachistoscope alg^- : 
rithm, is found in lines 1120 to 1200, 
where you can see that the delay factor 
simply makes the computer count be- 
tween movements of the window. Thus, 

September T987 THE RAINBOW 141 



the fastest available speed is 0 and the 
slowest is unlimited. After selection of 
the reading speed, the program presents 
a preview and allows adjustment if the 
initially chosen speed is unsuitable. 

At this point in the program, when 
the text and speed have been chosen, the 
printer begins to record the perfor- 
mance of the student. Each text excerpt 
is followed by a multiple-choice ques- 
tion with three options. The student 
then follows the prompts. At this point, 
there is a secret option for the teacher 
who is monitoring the student's prog- 
ress. If the instructor so desires, pressing 
the right arrow key will display the 
entire text of the preceding excerpt in 
order to review the text. 

Pressing any key will then return to 
the multiple-choice question. Missing a 
question leads to a re-running of the 
text until a correct response is received. 
At the end of eachsession ? if thestudent 
has scored 70 percent or less, the lesson 



begins again. For the convenience of the 
instructor, the questions that are an- 
swered ineorrectly are printed out on 
the printer. (This feature helps detect 
f uzzy questions embedded in the file as 
well as indicating what comprehension 
problems exist in the student.) 

If you want to edit or copy a file from 
disk or tape to either medium, the 
program prompts the manipulation of 
the media and returns to the main menu 
when finished. Editing of a file before 
recording is also presented and promp- 
ted one step at a time. 

Tachisio could be improved, This 
program on disk could be made to read 
and record texts used by each student 
and advance them automatically. This 
would involve the incorporation of a 
calling program, which was altered by 
the Tachisio program through the use 
of DSKDS and DSKIS. More imaginative 
reward messages could be used. Use of 
the speed-up poke could make the 



window move much faster if care were 
taken to un-poke this before any I/O 
processes. The text window could be 
made larger or smaller, or each line of 
text could be "flashed" instead of 
"tracked." Since our school only deals 
with kindergarten through eighth grade 
students, the current parameters are 
satisfactory. 1 would welcome any effi- 
ciencies or enhancements from readers. 

Since there is such a huge time factor 
involved in creating text files for this 
program, 1 will trade text files usable 
with Tachisio on a one-for-one basis. 
Chillicothe Alternative School, Inc., a 
non-profit organization, accepts tax- 
deductible donations of any CoCo 
hard- or software in order to further our 
work with exceptional children. 

( Questions aboul ihis program may 
be addressed lo ihe auihor ai Box 28, 
Castle ton, IL 61426. Be sure lo include 
an SASE when writing for a reply.) □ 



Editor's Nole: A simple d*t* file, PUDDING, imme- 
diately follows ihe TACHISTO program on this month 's 
RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK. 



.225 2020. ,...214 

.149 3020...,. 100 

..89 3180 154 

.63 3320 .....72 

..94 3540... .151 

. .80 3710 213 



70 .. 
103 . 
170 . 
310 . 
900 . 
1121 

1230 143 4050 ......23 

1330 .....105 END 124 



T 



The listing: TOCHISTQ 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

10 



1 TACHISTOSCOPE 
'COPYRIGHT AUGUST 



D. 



1 RICHARD 
1 BOX 2 8 
1 CASTLETON 
CLEAR5j3j3j3 



1985 
GORDLEY 




61426 

|DIMTE$(1J3) ,Q1$ 
(1)3) ,A1(1J8) ,A|gg,3) 

12 WR$="T2 55L2 55CGCGCGCGCGCGCGCG 
CGCG" 

13 RI$="T4L8CFCFCF n 

14 SC=j3:PR=32 

15 TS$="HERE IS HOW THE TEXT WIL 
L APPEARWHEN TACHISTOSCOPE IS RU 
NNING. CAN YOU READ THIS EASILY 

OR SHOULD THE SPEED BE CHAN 

GED?" 

20 FORX=lT03 : PRINT@137 , "TACHISTO 
SCOPE" ; : FORZ = lT02 5j3 : NEXT : FORY=lT 
013:PRINT§136+Y,CHR$(128) ; : FORZ= 
lT05j3 : NEXTZ , Y : SOUNDlj3j3 , 1 : NEXTX 



30 PRINT@137, "TACHISTOSCOPE" ; : PR 

INT@27j3 f " (C) 11 ; : PRINT@327 , "RICHAR 

D D. GORDLEY" ; : PRINTS 3 9 8, "1985" ; 

4j3 FORX=lT01j3j3j3:NEXT 

50 CLS : PRINT@9 , "tachistoscope" ; : 

PRINT§9 6 , "DO YOU WISH INSTRUCTIO 

NS? (Y/N)"; 

60 GOSUB10000 

70 IFI$="N"THENllj3 

80 CLS : PRINT"USING THIS TACHISTO 
SCOPE PROGRAMYOU MAY PREPARE TEX 
T AND QUESTIONS TO BE USE 

D BY STUDENTSOR YOU MAY LOAD A P 
REVIOUSLY PREPARED TEXT FOR S 

TUDENT USE.":GOSUBlj3)33j3 
90 CLS : PRINT"THE PREPARATION PHA 
SE OF THE PROGRAM IS SELF-PRO 

MPTING WITH ONE EXCEPTION — THE 
LENGTH OF THETEXT EXCERPTS IS LI 
MITED TO 2 55 CHARACTERS." 
9 5 PRINT" AT THIS POINT THE COMPU 
TER WILL REFUSE TO ACCEPT FURTHE 
R INPUT. YOU SHOULD PLAN YOUR TE 
XT EXCERPTS ACCORDINGLY.": 

GOSUBlj3j3 3j3 

97 CLS: PRINT"REMEMBER THAT THE B 
EGINNING OF THE TEXT WILL ALSO 
INDICATE WHERE THE LINE BREA 

KS WILL OCCUR. YOU SHOULD 

FORMAT YOUR TEXT ACCORDINGLY. 11 : 
GOSUBlj3j33j3 

100 CLS: PRINT" ALL STUDENT QUESTI 
ONS WILL BE INTHREE-OPTION MULTI 
PLE CHOICE FORMAT . OPTIONS S 

HOULD BE LIMITED TO ONE WOR 



142 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



D. YOU WILL THEN BE ASKED TO I 
NDICATE THE CORRECT ANSWER by 
number. " : GOSUB10030 
103 CLS: PRINT "PREMATURE EXIT FRO 
M THE PROGRAM MAY BE REMEDIED WI 
THOUT LOSS OF TEXT BY TYPING 1 GO 
TO lip 1 » :GOSUBlpj33j3 
1)39 1$ = "" 

lip CLS :PRINT@12 / "main menu"; 
120 PRINT: PRINT"DO YOU WISH TO:" 
: PRINT: PRINT" (1) PREPARE A LE 
SSON": PRINT: PRINT" (2) USE A L 
ESSON" : PRINT: PRINT" (3) COPY A 
FILE" : PRINT: PRINT" (4) EDIT A 
FILE" : PRINT: PRINT" (5) EXIT P 
ROGRAM" : PRINT@44 8 , "PRESS NUMBER 
OF YOU CHOICE. " ; 

130 I$=INKEY$: IFI$=" "THEN130 

131 I=VAL(I$) : IFK10RI>5THENPLAY 
WR$ :GOTO130 

140 ONI GOTO150, 900, 2000, 3000, 60 
00 

150 CLS : PRINT"preparation-lesson 
input" ; 

151 PRINT: PRINT" WILL THE LESSON 
BE SAVED ON <D>ISK OR <T>APE 
? 11 

152 I$=INKEY$ : IFI$=" "THEN152 

153 IFI$="D" THEN159ELSEIFI$="T" 
THEN 160ELSE152 

159 DE=1 : PRINT : PRINT"POSITION DI 
SK IN DRIVE . " : GOSUB10030 : GOTO170 

160 DE=-1 : PRINT: PRINT" POSITION T 
APE IN RECORDER AND PREPARE TO 

record" :GOSUB10030 

170 CLS:PRINT@160, ""; :INPUT"FILE 
NAME OF THIS LESSON (8 L 
ETTERS OR LESS ) " ; FI $ : PRINT@2 8 8 , " 
FILE WILL BE NAMED "FI$ : PRINT : PR 
INT 11 IS THIS CORRECT? (Y/N)":GOSU 
B10000 

171 IFI$="N"THEN170 

172 CLS :PRINT@160, "INPUT TITLE O 
F LESSON. ": PRINT: INPUT TI$ 

174 CLS: PRINT"LESSON WILL BE TIT 
LED: " :PRINTTI$:GOSUB9999 
176 IFI$="N"THEN172 
200 FORX=1TO10 

210 CLS: LINEINPUT"TEXT: n ;TE$(X) 
220 CLS: PRINT"here is excerpt no 
."X 

230 PRINT: PRINTTE$ (X) :GOSUB9999 
240 IFI$="N"THEN210 
250 CLS: PRINT" INPUT QUESTION "X: 
LINEINPUT Ql$ (X) 

260 CLS: PRINT"QUESTION "X n IS":P 
RINT: PRINTQ1$ (X) :GOSUB9999 
270 IFI$="N" THEN250 



The 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



Back Issue 
Availability 



"'Coo' 0 ' 



BACK ISSUES STILL AVAILABLE 

Have you explored the wealth of informa- 
tion in our past issues? From our very first, 
four-page issue to many with more than 300 
pages of material, all just for CoCo users. It's 
a great way to expand your library! 

A WORLD OF INFO AT A BARGAIN PRICE 

All back issues sell for the single issue 
cover price. In addition, there is a $3.50 
charge for the first issue, plus 50 cents for 
each additional issue for postage and han- 
dling if sent by United Parcel Service, There 
is a $5 charge for the first issue, plus a $1 
charge for each additional issue on orders 
sent by U.S. Mail. UPS will not deliver to a 
post office box or to another country. 

MOST ISSUES STILL AVAILABLE 

Issues July 1981 through June 1982 are 
available on white paper in a reprint form. All 
others are in regular magazine form. VISA, 
MasterCard and American Express ac- 
cepted. Kentucky residents please add 5 
percent state sales tax. In order to hold down 
costs, wedo not bill and noC.O.D. ordersare 
accepted. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you 
order the back issues you want now while 
supplies last. 

To check availability and order, review and 
fill out the form on the next page and mail 
it with your payment to: 

THE RAINBOW 
The Falsoft Building 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 143 



BACK ISSUE ORDER FORM 

(See overleaf for instructions,) 



Please send me the following back issues: 



MONTH/YEAR 


PRICE 


MONTH/YEAR 


PRICE 






VOLUME 1 








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JUL '81 


Premier issue 


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AUG '85 


Games 


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AUG '81 




$200 


□ 


SEP '85 


Education 


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□ 


SEP '81 


Education 


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S200 


□ 


NOV '85 


Data Comm. 


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JAN '86 


Beginners 


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FEB '86 


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JUN f 83 


Printers 


$295 


□ 


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Anniversary 


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G 




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Graphics 


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^,95 


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Education 


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□ 


DEC '86 


Holiday 


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OCT '83 


Graphics 


$395 


□ 


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Beginners 


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DEC '83 


Holiday 


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FEB '87 


Utilities 


$3,95 


□ 


MAR '84 


Business 


$3.96 


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MAR *87 


Business 


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APR '84 


Gaming 


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APR '87 


Home Heip 


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Printer 


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MAY '87 


Printer 


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JUN '84 


Music 


S3 96 


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JUN 87 


Music 


$395 


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JUL '84 


Anniversary 


$3,95 


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JUL '87 


Anniversary 


$3.95 


□ 




VOI [IMF 4 








VOI r imp 7 
V ULUWt 1 






AUG '84 


Games 


$335 


□ 


AUG '87 


Games 


$395 


□ 


SEP '84 


Education 


$395 


□ 


SEP '87 


Education 


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O 


OCT '84 


Graphics 


$3.95 


□ 










NOV '84 


Data Comm. 


$335 


□ 










DEC '84 


Holiday 


$3,96 


□ 










JAN '85 


Beginners 


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FEB '85 


Utilities 


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MAR '85 


Business 


$395 


□ 










APR '85 


Simulations 


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MAY '85 


Printer 


$395 


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JUN '85 


Music 


$3.95 


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JUL '85 


Anniversary 


$396 


□ 











RAINBOW INDEX A complete index to the first three years, July 1981 Ihrough June 
1 984, is printed in the July 1 984 issue. Separate copies are available for $2.50 □ 

The Fourth and Fifth Year Indexes including rainbow On tape are in the July 
1985 and July 1986 issues, respectively. The Sixth Year Index is in the July 1987 
issue. 



TOTAL 

KY RESIDENTS ADD 5% 

U.S. MAIL CHARGE 
SHIPPING & HANDLING 
U.P.S. CHARGE 
TOTAL AMOUNT 
ENCLOSED 



Name 



Address 



City State ZIP 

□ Payment Enclosed, or 

Charge to my: □ VISA □ MC □ AE 

CARD # 



EXPIRATION DATE . PHONE ( ) 

SIGNATURE 



TO ORDER BY PHONE (credit card orders only) call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 
p.m. EST. All other inquiries call (502) 228-4492, 



28,0 CLS:PRINT"INPUT ANSWER CHOIC 
ES" 

290 FORY=lT03 

300 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT Y:INPUTA1$ 
(X,Y) 

3 10 NEXTY 

320 CLS:PRINT"QUESTION "X: PRINT: 

PRINT"POSSIBLE CHOICES : 11 : FORY—1T 

03 : PRINTA1$ (X, Y ) .: NEXTY : GOSUB9 999 

330 IFI$= H N"THEN280 

340 CLS: PRINT" INPUT NUMBER OF CO 

RRECT CHOICE FOR QUESTION" X : PRI 

NT: PRINT: INPUT A1(X) : PRINT 11 CORRE 

CT ANSWER TO QUESTION "X" IS "Al 

(X) :GOSUB9999 

350 IFI$="N"THEN340 

360 CLS: PRINT"EXCERPT NO. "X" CO 
MPLETE . " : SOUND 100 , 5 : FORTI=1TO50 
0:NEXTTI:NEXTX 

361 CLS :SOUND100 / 10: PRINT" WOULD 
YOU LIKE TO EDIT ANY OF THIS E 
XERCISE (Y/N)? note: 
IF YOU DO NOT EDIT, RECORD 
ING BEGINS AT ONCE ! " : GOSUB10000 

362 IFI$="Y" THEN3140 

370 IFDE=-1THENGOSUB5000ELSEGOSU 
B6100 

380 PRINT#-1,TE$(X) 

385 PRINT#-1,Q1$(X) 

390 FORY=lT03:PRINT#-l, A1$(X,Y) : 

NEXT 

430 IFDE=-1THENCLS : PRINT"DO YOU 
WISH TO RECORD ANOTHER COPY TO 
TAPE? (Y/N) ":GOSUB10000ELSE440 
435 IFI$="Y" THENGOSUB5000 
440 GOTO110 

900 1$="" :CLS:PRINT"student use 
section" : PRINT : PRINT "IS FILE ALR 
EADY IN MEMORY (HAVE YOU JUST CR 
EATED IT OR LOADED ITTO EDIT OR 
COPY) (Y/N) ?" :GOSUB10000 
910 IFI$=="Y" THEN1121 
950 CLS : PRINT : PRINT"WILL YOU REA 
D FILE FROM <D>ISK OR <T>APE?" 
955 I $=INKEY$ : I FI $=" " THEN9 5 5 
960 IFI$="D" THEN9 70ELSEIFI$="T n 
THEN1000ELSE955 

970 DV=1 : CLS : PRINT : PRINT" student 
use section" : PRINT"MAKE SURE FI 
LE DISK IS IN DRIVE. ": PRINT: PRIN 
T" PREPARE PRINTER AND SET TO 

1200 BAUD . " : GOSUB10030 : GOTO 10 2 

1000 DV=-1: CLS: PRINT" student use 
section" : PRINT : PRINT"PLACE FILE 
TAPE IN RECORDER AND PREPARE RE 
CORDER TO play": PRINT: PRINT" PREP 
ARE PRINTER AND SET TO 1200 BAUD 



144 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



" :G0SUBlpp3p 

1020 CLS : INPUT" FILENAME OF LESSO 
N";FI$ 

1030 PRINT : PRINT" LESSON "FI$:PRI 
NT" WILL BE PREPARED . " : GOSUB99 9 9 

1031 IFI$ = "N" THENlj32j3 
1050 GOSUB4000 

1121 CLS : INPUT" PLEASE ENTER DELA 
Y FACTOR FOR TACHISTOSCOPE SPE 
ED. " ;DL:SOUNDlj3j3, 1 

1122 PR=3 2 :CLSp:FORY=lTOLEN(TS$) 
:PRINT@PR,MID$ (TS$,Y, 1) ; :PRINT@P 
R-8,CHR$(12 8) ; :PR=PR+1 

1123 FORTM=lTODL: NEXT: NEXT 

1124 CLS:PRINT"IS THIS DELAY FAC 
TOR CORRECT ( Y/N) ? " : GOSUB10,00 

IFI$="N" THEN1121 
CLS : INPUT" STUDENT' S NAME" ; N 



1125 
1127 
M$ 
1128 
1129 
) 

1130 CLSj3:PRINT@192,TI$; 

O20j3j3:NEXT 

1132 GOSUB10030 

11A0 FORX=lT01j3 

1145 CLSj3 



POKE14 9,,0:POKE15j3, 41 
PRINT#-2 , NM$ , FI $ , DL; CHR$ (13 



F0RX=1T 



1150 PR=32 

1160 FORY=lTOLEN(TE$ (X) ) 

1110 PRINT@PR,MID$ (TE$ (X) , Y, 1) ; 

1180 PRINT@PR-8 , CHR$ (12 8) ; 

1190 PR=PR+1 

1200 FORTM=lTODL : NEXT 

12 10 NEXTY 

1220 CLS : PRINTQ1$ (X) : PRINT: FORY= 
1T03 : PRINTY" ) " : PRINTA1$ ( X , Y ) : NE 
XTY 

12 30 PRINT :PRINT"PRESS NUMBER OF 

YOUR CHOICE" 
124j3 I$=INKEY$: IFI $ = " "THEN12 4 j3 
1245 IFASC(I$)=9 THENCLS : PRINTTE 
$(X) :GOSXJB10030 :GOT0122p 
1250 I=VAL(I$) : IFK10RI>3THENPLA 
YWR$ :GOT012 4p 

1260 IFIOAl(X) THENGOSUB9ppp:SO 

UND5 , 5 : CLS : PRINT@2 2 4 , " INCORRECT- 

-TRY AGAIN" :FORQ=lT015pp: NEXT: PR 

INT#-2 ,Q1$ (X) , :GOT01145 

1210 CLS0 : PRINT@2 3 5 , "RIGHT ! ! " ; :P 

LAYRI$ 

1280 NEXTX 

1285 PRINT#-2,CHR$(13) 
1290 SOUNDlpp , 5 : CLS : PRINTNM$ " , " : 
PRINT: PRINT" YOU GOT " (10-SC) *10" 
% CORRECT. " : IFSC=>3THENPRINT"BET 



J & M'S 3.5" MICROFLOPPY DRIVES 




Upgrade to the Latest in Technology: J & M's 3.5" microfloppy drives 
allow a 720K format under OS-9 Level 2. (Four times the storage capacity of 
a standard Coco format OS-9 disk on a single microfloppy diskette!) 
Two Configurations Available: The external drive comes complete with 
case, power supply and cable. The internal drive is ready f»r installation. It 
simply replaces an existing 5.25" half-height drive. Utilize JIOS, RS DOS or 
ytur DOS. 

Internal $199.00 External $250.00 

We accept VISA, Mastercard or prepayment. Or, we can ship COD for cash 
or certified check. Shipping is extra. 

J&M Systems Ltd. 

15100-A CENTRAL SOUTHEAST 
ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO 87123 
505/292-4182 



<4A 



ALL OF A SUDDEN YOU'RE IN 



HOTEL AND 



. where learning to read music 
is easy and fun! 



RAINBOW 

cEnnncAiitu 



NOTELAND, a unique combination of a musical instru- 
ment and a course in music developed by Boston composer 
Andy Gnus, will ler you: 



• approach music as ii complete 
beginner; 

• learn from an audio cassertc 
and a wrirren manual; 

• fool around -and be learning; 

• plav a rune with a joysriek 
(optional) or cursor keys; 

• record a rune and play ir back 
with notation ; 

• save vour tune on tape or 
disk;" 

• test vQin-yelf with a beat-the- 
clocic quiz; 

• load the program from disk or 
cassette if von have a CoCo 1 



z 



-s 



or CoCo 2 with 32K and 
Extended Color Basic; 
■ take it home with vou-IF 
YOU ORDER NOWlfor the 
special inrroductoi y price of 
$24.95. (Mass. residents add 
5% sales tax.) 



Be sure to specs fy disk or cassette. 

Elegant Software 

89 Massachusetts Avenue, Box 251 
Boston, MA 021 IS 
617-232-3896 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 145 



TER TRY IT ONCE MORE , " : GOSUB1J303 
j3:SC=,0:GOTO113j3 

13j3j3 IFSC=J3THENPRINT" PERFECT JOB 
! ! "ELSEIFSC=1THENPRINT" VERY GOOD 

WORK! "ELSEIFSC=2THENPRINT"NOT B 
AD, KEEP TRYING ! " 
1305 FORX=lT03j3j3j3:NEXT 
1310 SC=J3: CLS: PRINT "DO YOU WISH 
TO USE THIS LESSON WITH ANOTHER 

STUDENT (Y/N)?":GOSUB10j2j3j3 
1320 IFI$="N" THENGOTO110 

1330 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: INPUT" STUDE 
NT NAME" ;NM$ : PRINT: INPUT" DELAY F 
ACTOR" ; DL 

1331 PR=3 2:CLS0:FORY=1TOLEN(TS$) 
:PRINT@PR,MID$(TS$,Y,1) ; :PRINT@P 
R-8,CHR$ (128) ; :PR=PR+1 

1332 FORTM=lTODL: NEXT 

1333 NEXT 

1334 CLS:PRINT"IS THIS DELAY FAC 
TOR CORRECT ( Y/N) ? " : GOSUB1000 

1335 IFI$ = "N" THEN13 30 

1340 PRINT#-2,NM$,FI$,DL;CHR$ (13 
) 

1350 GOTO1130 

2000 CLS : PRINT" file copy mode" : P 
RINT: PRINT: INPUT "NAME OF FILE TO 

COPY" ;FI$ 

2001 PRINT"WILL YOU READ FILE FR 
OM <D>ISK OR <T>APE?" 

2002 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN2002 

2003 IFI$="T"THEN2005ELSEIFI$<>" 
D"THEN2002 

2004 DV=1 : CLS : PRINT" PLACE DISK C 
ONTAINING"FI$:PRINT"IN DRIVE. ":G 
OSUB10030: GOTO2010 

2005 DV=-l:CLS:PRINT"PLACE TAPE 
CONTAINING "FI$: PRINT" IN RECORD 
ER AND PREPARE TO PLAY" : GOSUB100 




146 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



30 

2010 GOSUB4pj3j3 

2020 SOUNDlj3j3,5:CLS:PRINT"WILL Y 
OU COPY THIS FILE TO <D>ISK 

OR <T>APE? M 
2j325 I$ = !m 

2030 I$=INKEY$:IFI$= tnf THEN2j23j2 
2040 IFI$="T"THENDE=-1ELSEIFI$=" 
D !! THENDE=1 :GOT021j39ELSE2j33j3 
2100 I FDE=-1THENCLS : PRINT M PLACE 
TAPE TO RECEIVE DUPLICATE M FI$:P 
RINT" IN RECORDER AND PREPARE TO 

record" :GOSUBlj3j330 
21J39 I FDE=1THENCLS : PRINT "PLACE D 
ISK TO RECEIVE DUPLICATE ": PRINTF 
I$:PRINT"IN DRIVE. " :GOSUBlj3j33p 
211j3 IFDE=-lTHENGOSUB5j3ppELSEGOS 
UB6100 

219 5 CLS: PRINT" DO YOU WISH ANOTH 
ER COPY (Y/N) ?":GOSUBlj3j3pj3 
2196 IFI$="Y" THEN2j32j3 
2200 GOTOllp 

3j300 CLS : PRINT "edit prerecorded 

f JL 1 €- 

3002 PRINT: PRINT"WILL YOU READ F 

ILE FROM <D>ISK OR <T>APE?" 

3004 I$=INKEY$: IFI$ = " !l THEN3j3p4 

3006 IFI$="D M THENDV=1 ELSEIFI$= 

"T" THENDV=-1 ELSE3j2j34 

3010 CLS : PRINT: PRINT: INPUT"FILEN 

AME OF DESIRED FILE";FI$ 

3020 PRINT: PRINT"FILE "FI$: PRINT 

"WILL BE PREPARED" :GOSUB9999 

3030 IFI$="N" THEN3J310 

3031 IFDV=-1 THEN3J334 

3032 CLS:PRINT"PLACE DISK CONTAI 
NING" : PRINTFI$ : PRINT" IN DRIVE. " : 
GOSUB1 0030: GOT03 040 

3034 PRINT"PLACE TAPE CONTAINING 
":PRINTFI$:PRINT"IF RECORDER AND 

PREPARE TO play . " : GOSUB10 03 0 
3040 CLS: PRINT" SEARCHING FOR "FI 

$ 

3050 GOSUB4j3pp 

314j3 CLS:PRINT"f ile edit mode":P 
RINT: PRINT" (1) CHANGE FILE NAME" 
:PRINT"(2) CHANGE EXCERPT TITLE" 
: PRINT" (3) CHANGE A TEXT": PRINT" 
(4) CHANGE A QUESTION" : PRINT" ( 5 ) 

CHANGE ANSWER CHOICE" 
3145 PRINT" (6) CHANGE CORRECT AN 
SWER" : PRINT" (7) RECORD EDITED FI 
LE" : PRINT" ( 8 ) RETURN TO MAIN MEN 
U (aborts 
edit) " 

3147 PRINT@4 4 8 , "PRESS NUMBER OF 
YOUR CHOICE" 

315p I$=INKEY$ : IFI$=" "THEN 3 150 




ar. 



ftware 



"NEW OS9 FATCHEH *0 - ( C ) This is a useful utility for your 0S9 Level I or 
II system. It allows you to modify the contents of a file or memory module using easy to 
understand commands. Data may be displayed and entered in either decimal, hexadecimal, 
octal or ascii characters. Module CRCs calculated and patched automatically Patch 
command files may be used as input to the Patcher and patch command files can be 
generated horn an original and already patched file, Disk only; OS9 Level Lor I I ; $ 19,9-5, 



CALLIGRAPHER 

Co Co CaUigrapher - (Hybrid basic/ml) 
Tarn your CoCo and dot- matrix printer 
into a calligrapher's quill. Make beautiful 
invitations, flyers, certificates, labels and 
more. Includes 3 fonts: Gay Nineties, Old 
English and Cartoon. The letters are V?. 
inch high and variably spaced. Works with 
many printers including Epson, Gemini.. 
Radio Shack, Ok [data 02 A, Banana and 
Prowriter, Additional fonts are available 
(see below). Tape/Disk; $24.95. 

OS9 CaUigrapher - (Q Although a 
different program from the CoCo CaUigra- 
pher, the OS9 CaUigrapher prints all the 
same fonts. It reads a standard text file 
which contains text and formatting direc- 
tives. You may specify the font to use, 
change fonts at any time, centering left, 
right or full justification, line fill, margin, 
line width, page size, page break and in- 
dentation. Similar to (r off on UNIXtm sys- 
tems. Includes Gay Nineties, Old English 
and Cartoon fonts. Additional fonts are 
available (see below). Disk only; OS9 Level 
I or H; $24.05. 

CaUigrapher Fonts - Requires CaUigra- 
pher above. Each set on tape or disk; 
specify RSDOS or OSO version; $14.05 
each. Set #1 - (9 fonts) Reduced, re- 
versed and reduced-reversed versions of 
Gay Nineties, Old English and Cartoon; 
Set #2 - (8 fonts) Old Style and Broad- 
way; Set #3 - (8 fonts) Antique and Busi- 
ness; Set #4 - (8 fonts) Wild West and 
Checkers; Set #5 - (10 fonts) Stars, He- 
brew and Victorian; Set #6 - (8 fonts) 
Block and Computer; 

Economy Font Packages on disk; speci- 
fy RSDOS or OS9; 29.05: JPont Pack- 
age #1 - Above font sets 1, 2 and 3 (25 
fonts) on one disk. Font Package #2 - 
Above font sets 4, 5 and 8 (26 fonts) on 
one disk. Both Packages #1 and #2 (51 
fonts) on one disk; 40. §5. "O NEW 



| NEW O" CaUigrapher Combo 
Package - Everything!; specify RSDOS or 
I OS9; Includes the CaUigrapher and both 
1 Font Packages on one disk: $60.05. 



UTILITIES 

Piratector - (100% ML) Utility to allow 
your own disk-based BASIC or ML pro- 
grams to display a graphics title screen 
and then self-start after loading. Adds 
copy protection to your programs but still 
allows users to create nan- executable back- 
ups! Includes Semigraf. Disk only; CoCo 

1, 2, 3 (except Semigraf); $30,95. 

Super Screen Machine - (100% ml) Put 
your CoCo into high resolution mode for 
your own BASIC or ML programs. Smooth 
scroll, key click, lower case with colored 
characters. Tape/Disk; 32K CB; CoCo 1, 

2, 3 (except 64K mode); $10.05. 



Color Disk Manager - (m% ml) Disk 
utility with these features: Disk repair, 
selective track initialization, verify sectors, 
backups, tape to disk transfer, ROM Pak 
execution from disk, much more! 
Tape/Disk; CoCo 1. 2, 3 (except for 64K 
mode); $24.05, 

Color Tape Manager - {\oo% ml) Tape 
utility with these features; display start, 
end and exec address of ML programs, 
convert ML programs into BASIC DATA 
statements, append ML to BASIC, load, 
display/modify and save tape file, handles 
missing EOF and filename blocks, much 
more! Tape/Disk; 16K ECB; CoCo 1, 2, 3 
(except for B4K mode); $10.05. 

INFORMATION MGT. 

TIMS (The Information Management 

System) - (Hybrid basic/ml) Tape or disk, 
fast and simple general data base program. 
Create files of records that can be quickly 
sorted, searched, deleted and updated. 
Powerful printer formatting. Up to 8 user 
fields, sort on up to 3 fields. Tape/Disk; 
$10,95 (see combo pkg below). 

TIMS Mall - (Hybrid BASIC/ML) Tape or 
Disk based mailing list management pro- 
gram. Files are compatible with TIMS. 
Fast and simple to use. Supports labels 1, 
2 or 3 across, 2% to 4 inches wide. 
Tape/Disk; $19.05 (see combo pkg below). 

TIMS Utility - {-tfyhrii BASIC/ML) Utility 
companion for TIMS and TIMS Mail to al- 
low multi-term search (AND and OR log- 
ic), global change and delete, split large 
files and more! Tape/Disk; $14.05 (see 
combo pkg below). 

TIMS Combo Package - All three of the 
above programs: TIMS, TIMS Mail and 
TIMS Utility on one disk - S34.05. 

SPORTS STATISTICS 

Statistics programs for the coach, team 
manager or avid fan who wants to keep 
accurate team and opponent records. 
Printer output supported. The following 
are available; Baseball, Basketball^ Foot- 
ball and Soccer. Disk only; $10.05 each. 

EDUCATIONAL 



NEW O* Trig Attack - (10&6 ml) In 
this educational arcade game, enemy 
trigs travel along math curves. Players 
learn important mathematical concepts 
as they play. Trig Attack is filled with 
sound effects, colorful graphics and 
features 11 challenging levels. First class 
mathematical entertainment for ages 9 
and up. Excellent manual includes an in- 
troduction to trigonometry. Tape 16K 
CB/Disk 32K ECB; CoCo 1. 2 S 3; 
1HM>5. 



Silly Syntax - (Hybrid BASIC/ML) Ages 5 and 
up. Story creation game; output to screen 
or printer; includes 2 stories or create your 
own. Tape/Disk; $10,05 or disk with 62 
stories for $20.05. Sets of 10 stories on 
tape/disk for $4.05: Fairy Tales, Current 
Events, X-Rated, Sing-Along, Adventure, 
Potpourri, 

Bible Stories Adventure - (Hybrid 
BASIC/ML) Ages 4 & up. A graphics adven- 
ture game for young children & their fami- 
lies. Old testament. Tape/Disk; $10.05. 

The Presidents of the USA - (iot% ml} 
Ages 10 and up. Two trivia games, user 
modifiable, printer output supported. 
Tape/Disk; 16K ECB; $10.05. 

The Great USA - Ages 9 and up. Trivia 
game of the 50 states. Capitals, nick- 
names, abbreviations, flowers, trees and 
birds. Tape/Disk; 16K ECB; $10.05. 

Galactic Hangman - Ages 7 and up. Ex- 
citing new twist to the popular word 
game. Outstanding graphics; 700 word vo- 
cabulary. Tape/Disk; 16K ECB; $10.05. 

PreReader - (Hybrid basic/ml) Ages 3-5 
(level I); Ages 5-7 (level 2); Great graphics 
and music. Level 1: match colors, shapes, 
letters and numbers; Level 2: match letters 
and consonant blends with their sounds. 
Tape/Disk; Joystick; $10.05. 

Statgraf - High school and college level; 
Linear regression analysis program com- 
bined with a plotting and line graphing 
system. Up to 250 x/y pairs; data 
transformation; residuals; regression line; 
print graph with screen print program 
(not supplied); Tape/Disk; $10.05. 

SPECIAL INTEREST 

Rental Property Income and Expense 
Management Package - Maintain your 
rental property income and expense 
records, Print output supported. 28 ex- 
pense categories. This program may be lax 
deductible. Disk only; $20.05. 

Radio Systems Design Calculations - 
Performs 14 different calculations common- 
ly used in design or evaluation of land 
mobile radio systems, satellite TV, etc, 
Tape/Disk; $10.05. 

CoCo Knitter - Easy to use program to 
display or print instructions to knit a 
sweater: Cardigan or Pullover; Round or 
V-neck; Raglan or Set-in Sleeve; 3 weights 
or yarn; 8 sizes from baby to man. 
Tape/Disk; $10.05. 

Flying Tigers - (100% ML) Fast Defenders 
style arcade game. 5 levels of difficulty; 
Outstanding graphics and sound effects. 
Tape/Disk; Joystick; $10.05. 



A complete catalog of other sweet 
Sugar Software products is available. 




'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 7446 
Hollywood, Florida 33081 
(305) 981-1241 



All programs run on tht CoCo 1, $ and S, S2K 
Extended Baric, unless otherwise noted. Add 
$1.50 per tape or disk for postage and handling. 
Florida residents add S% sales tax. COD orders 
add $4. Dealer inquiries invited. Orders generally 
shipped in 24-48 hours. No refunds or exchanges 
without prior authorization. 



3160 I=VAL(I$) : IFK10RI>8THENPLA 
YWR$:GOTO3140 

317)8 ONI GOSUB3180, 3200, 3250, 337 

0,3500,3750,3900,110 

3175 GOTO3140 

3180 CLS: PRINT l! change file name" 
: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" CURRENT FILE 
NAME IS" : PRINTFI$ : PRINT: INPUT"NE 
W FILE NAME" ; FI$ 

3181 GOSUB9999 

3182 IFI$ = "N" THEN3180 
3190 RETURN 

3200 CLS : PRINT"change excerpt ti 
tie" : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT " CURRENT T 
ITLE IS":PRINTTI$ 

3210 PRINT: PRINT: INPUT"NEW TITLE 
" ;TI$ 

322J2 GOSUB9999 

3230 IFI$="N" THEN3200 

3 2 4)25 RETURN 

325) 3 CLS: PRINT "change text":PRIN 
T:PRINT"TEXT WILL BE DISPLAYED O 
NE BLOCKAT A TIME . TO EDIT FOLLO 
W THE PROMPTS AT THE BOTTOM OF 

THE SCREEN. 11 : GOSUB 1)3)3 3)3 

326) 3 FORX=1TO10 

327) 3 CLS:PRINTTE$(X) 

328) 3 PRINT@448 , 11 (E) DIT OR (C)ONT 
INUE? " ; 

329) 3 I$=INKEY$: IFI$= fl " THEN329)3 

33) 3)3 IFI$o"E" ANDI$O f! C ff THENPL 
AYWR$:GOT03 2 8)3 

331)3 IFI$="C" THEN3350 

3 3 2)3 CLS : PRINTTE$ (X) : PRINT : PRINT 

:LINEINPUT"NEW TEXT ? " ;TE$ (X) 

333) 3 CLS:PRINTTE$(X) :GOSUB9999 

334) 3 IFI$="N" THEN32 70 

335) 3 NEXT 

3 3 6)3 RETURN 

337) 3 CLS : PRINT"change question" : 
PRINT: PRINT"QUESTIONS WILL BE DI 
SPLAYED ONE AT A TIME. FOLLOW PR 
OMPTS TO EDIT. 11 : GOSUB 1)3)3 3)2 

338) 3 F0RX=1T01)3 

339) 3 CLS:PRINTQ1$(X) 

34) 3)3 PRINT@448 , " (E) DIT OR (C)ONT 
INUE?" ; 

341) 3 I$=INKEY$ : IFI$ = " "THEN341)3 

342) 3 IFI$<>"E" ANDI$o"C" THENPL 
AYWR$: GOTO 3 4)3)3 

343) 3 IFI$="C" THEN347)3 

344) 3 CLS : PRINTQ1$ (X) : PRINT: PRINT 
:LINEINPUT"NEW QUESTION ? I! ;Q1$( 
X) 

345) 3 CLS:PRINTQ1$ (X) :GOSUB9999 

346) 3 IFI$="N" THEN339)3 

347) 3 NEXT 

3 48)3 RETURN 



3 50)3 CLS : PRINT"change answer cho 
ice" : PRINT: PRINT"QUESTIONS AND A 
NSWER CHOICES WILL BE DISPLAY 

ED. FOLLOW PROMPTS 

TO EDIT. " :G0SUB1)3)33)3 

351) 3 FORX=1TO10 

352) 3 CLS : PRINTQ1$ (X) : PRINT 

353) 0 F0RY=1T03 

3 54)3 PRINT Y") " : PRINTA1$ (X, Y) : NEX 
TY 

355) 3 PRINT@448 , " (E) DIT OR (C) ONT 
INUE?" ; 

356) 3 I$=IMKEY$: IFI$=""THEN3560 

357) 3 IFI$<>"E" ANDI$o"C" THENPL 
AYWR$:GOTO3550 

3580 IFI$= ,I C" THEN3 7 10 

3 590 CLS : F0RY=1T03 : PRINTY : PRINTA 

1$(X, Y) : NEXTY 

3 600 PRINT: PRINT ,! CHANGE WHICH AN 
SWER?" 

3610 I$=INKEY$ :IFI$="" THEN3610 
3620 I=VAL(I$) : IFK10RI>3THENPLA 
YWR$:GOTO3 5 90 

3630 LINEINPUT"NEW ANSWER ? " ;A1 

$ (X, I) : GOSUB9999 

3640 IFI$="N" THEN3590 

3650 CLS : PRINTQ1$ (X) :F0RY=1T03:P 

RINTY") " : PRINT Al$ (X, Y) : NEXTY 

3660 PRINT@448, " (E) DIT FURTHER O 

R (C)ONTINUE?" ; 

3 6 70 I$=INKEY$ : I FI $=" " THEN3 670 

3680 IFI$o"E" ANDI$o"C" THENPL 

AYWR$:GOTO3 6 60 

3690 IFI$="C" THEN3710 

3700 GOTO3590 

3 710 NEXT 

3 7 20 RETURN 

3750 CLS : PRINT"change correct an 
swer number" : PRINT : PRINT" QUESTIO 
NS, ANSWERS, AND THE CURRENT 
CORRECT CHOICE WILL BE DISPLAY 
ED ONE QUESTION AT A TIME — FOLLO 
W PROMPTS TO EDIT. " :GOSUB10030 
37 60 FORX-1TO10 

3762 CLS: PRINTQ1$ (X) : F0RY=1T03 : P 

RINTY: PRINTAlS (X f Y) : NEXTY 

3770 PRINT" ANSWER NUMBER" X" IS "A 

1(X) 

3780 PRINT§448, " (E) DIT OR (C) ONT 
INUE?" ; 

3790 I$-INKEY$:IFI$= ftn THEN3790 

3 800 IFI$<>"C" ANDI$<>"E" THENPL 

AYWR$ : GOTO 3 7 80 

3810 IFI$=»C» THEN385J3 

3820 CLS:INPUT"NEW CORRECT ANSWE 

R";A1(X) 

3830 GOSUB9999 

3840 IFI$="N" THEN3762 



148 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



3850 


NEXT 


5060 PRINTtfDE . Al (X) 

— / XJ \J XJ J_ XX -L- il J. ][ —J -1 — J m _1_ I J\ 1 




3860 


RETURN 


5070 NEXTX 




3900 


IFDV=1THENCLS : PRINT"IF RECO 


5080 CLOSE#DE 

— / XJ KJ fJ v — J J \— / J — J Jf Ly J J 




RDING 


, NEW FILE ON SAME DISK AS 


5j39j3 RETURN 




OLD 


FILE, FILE NAME SHOULD 


6000 END 

w xy XJ XJ Uli 




BE CHANGED" : PRINT : PRINT"OKAY TO 


6100 OPEN !f O !f #DE FI$ 
6110 WRITE#DE . TI$ 




BEGIN 


[ RECORDING ( Y/N) ? " : GOSUB100 




j3j3:IFI$="N" THENRETURN 


612,0 FORX=1TO1 > 0 




391J3 


GOTO 151 


613 0 WRITE #DE . TE$ (X) 




4j3j3j3 


OPEN"I", #DV,FI$ 
INPUT#DV,TI$ 


614 0 WRITE #DE . Ol£ CX^ 

^y -1- i ^ty V i -L\ _L -L J—i jj I—/ J—i ^ >yy _L y ^ A y 




4J31)3 


6150 F0RY=1T03 :WRITE#DE 

\J -i- — ' Xy X \-/J.\. X -L. X Xy 7 «y • TV XX -L. X X_l JJ i—f J—I 


Al$fX Y) 


4j32j3 


FORX=1TO10 


:NEXT 




4j33j3 


INPUT#DV,TE$ (X) ,Q1$ (X) 


6160 WRITE #DE . Al ( X) 

V-/ J_ V-/ JL/ Tf 1\ -L. J- J— J Jj J—I at -i- lily 




4j34j3 


F0RY=1T03 : INPUT #DV,A1$ (X, Y) 


617 0 NEXTX 




4j35j3 


NEXTY 


618j3 CLOSE#DE 




4j36j3 


INPUT#DV,A1 (X) 


619j3 RETURN 




4j37j3 


NEXTX 


9000 SC=SC+1 

_y ^ty ^ty Jfj i_/ x^ i_/ x^ i _1_ 




4j38j3 


CLOSE #DV 


9j31j3 RETURN 




4j39j3 


RETURN 


9999 PRINT@448 , "IS THIS 


CORRECT? 




OPEN"0",#DE,FI$ 


f Y/N) 11 ; 




5j310 


PRINT #DE,TI$ 


10000 I$=INKEY$ : IFI$ = n 11 


THEN10000 

1 11 J—I X 1 -1- JL/ JL/ JL/ JL/ 


5J32J3 


FORX=1TO10 


10010 IFI$<> !f Y !f ANDI$<> 


"N" THENP 


503J3 


PRINT #DE,TE$ (X) 


LAYWR$ : GOTO10000 




5040 


PRINT#DE,Q1$ (X) 


10020 RETURN 




5050 


F0RY=1T03 : PRINT #DE,A1$ (X,Y) 


10030 PRINT@4 4 8 , "PRESS 


ANY KEY T 


: NEXT 


0 CONTINUE" ; : EXEC4 4 539: 


RETURN /R\ 



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OUR LATEST ISSUE CONTAINED 

1. Accounts Receivable 6. Foot Race 

2. Work Mate 7. Flippy the Seal 

3. Calendar 8. Screen Calculator 

4. Invasion 9- ADle Builders 

5. Trip Adventure 10, Super Error 2 



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September 1987 THE RAINBOW 149 



TURN OF THE SCREW 



Building an EPROM 
Emulator 

By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



A little while ago, I had to develop 
some software that would run in 
an EPROM in the CoCo. So, I 
took out my EPROM programmer and 
a few blank EPROMs and started to 
work. Soon after, I ran out of blank 
EPROMs and had to wait for my eraser 
to do its work. What a drag. 

I started thinking that there must be 
something I could do about this. The 
easiest way to solve my problem was to 
buy a whole lot of EPROMs. It was a 
quick solution, but the problem was 
only delayed. And it was also costly. I 
sat and thought about it for a while, 
then came up with this idea. Why not 
build something that would take the 
place of an EPROM and not take so 
long to erase? 

I had to make some type of RAM that 
looked and programmed just like an 
EPROM. RAM does not need to be 
erased. You just have to write over the 
top of it and, bang, it is done. If you 
have a choice of programming times (or 
can get into the program to change it), 
you can save a lot of time programming 
the emulator, too. While it takes time 
to program an EPROM, you can do an 
EPROM emulator in no time flat. 

What about this chip? It shouldn't be 
too hard to do these days, with the 
amount of memory chips available. So 
I looked into my favorite memory 
reference manual for some ideas. The 
EPROM I wanted to emulate was the 
2764. 1 use them a lot and they are quite 
popular. The 2764 is an 8K-by-8 
EPROM in a 28-pin package. I had to 
find the closest match possible. 

After looking through the memory 

Tony DiStefano is a well-known early 
specialist in computer hardware proj- 
ects. He lives in Laval Ouest, Quebec. 

150 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



manual, I found an almost perfect chip. 
It is an 8K-by-8 Static RAM chip in a 
28-pin package. I couldn't have come 
closer if I'd designed it myself. Next, I 
needed to find some pins that matched. 
I looked up the pinout for the 2764, 
compared the two and, presto, found an 
almost pin-for-pin match. What is this 
mystery chip? It's a 6264. Many com- 
panies make it, and it's not expensive. 

That is the first part. But what about 
retention? As soon as you power down 
static RAM, you have no more memory. 
Now you need a battery (a small coin- 
size battery will do) and a little bit of 
support circuitry. 

Figure 1 shows a diagram for an 
EPROM emulator. It takes an 8K 
RAM chip and a battery and turns it 
into an EPROM. The circuit is quite 
simple, but still needs some explana- 
tion. Also the construction of this is a 
bit tricky. I will start with the circuit and 



finish with construction tips. 

But first, you must remember that 
you are working with CMOS memory 
chips. These are very sensitive to static 
electricity. Your work area must be 
static free, and the best way is with a 
static-free mat. If you don't have one, 
take the following precautions. Don't 
wear running shoes on a shag carpet; it's 
better if the room is damp; and before 
you start to work, ground yourself by 
touching a water pipe. I also recom- 
mend that you use a grounded soldering 
iron. You will need just the standard 
project building kit for this one. 

In Figure 1, you will notice that Ul 
is the RAM chip. To access 8K of 
memory, you need 13 address lines, AO 
to A 12. These lines are directly con- 
nected to the socket. Instead of drawing 
each wire separately, they are tied into 
what is known as a bus. The bus is 
indicated by a dark line. When members 




go in and out of the bus, they have a 
name. Members of the same name 
connect together. For instance, A2 on 
the 6264 connects to A2 of the 2764 
socket and so on. All of the eight data 
lines are also connected together. 

In order for the RAM chip to retain 
its data, it must be kept powered at all 
times. This is where the battery comes 
in. It keeps the power to the chip at all 
times. The battery also keeps U3, R4 
and Q 1 (via R3) powered by way of D2. 
This way the memory chip cannot lose 
data. But this presents another prob- 
lem. Touching the pins of a powered 
chip may change the contents of its 
memory. If you happen to touch the R/ 
W line and the CE line, you've just 
changed memory, and you can't afford 
to change even one bit. The rest of the 
circuit is dedicated to protecting the 
memory. 

When the emulator is powered from 
the 2764 socket (i.e., it is in circuit and 
the circuit is on), Dl is forward biased 
and conducting, and D2 is reversed 
biased and is shut off. The LED D3 is 
on and supplies base current to Ql, and 
Ql is conducting and brings Pin 1 of the 
74HC139 low. This pin is the enable to 
half of a 2 to 4 decoder. Many different 
kinds of chips will work here, but I 
picked this one because it is easy to get. 
With this chip enabled, the CE of the 
2764 will pass through and enable the 
RAM chip. When there is no power to 
the 2764 socket, D2 is forward biased 
and keeps power to the RAM chip. On 
the other hand, Dl is reversed biased 
and is shut down. This turns off the 
LED and Q 1 no longer gets base current 
and becomes high impedance. This lets 
Pin 1 of U3 go high. That disables the 
chip, and when the chip is disabled, you 
cannot change its data. 

R4 is used to tie the R/W line of the 
RAM so that it defaults to a read 
operation. This is so that no writes to 



memory can be made when the power 
changes from external to battery or vice 
versa. The jumper Jl protects the chip 
from writes. When you are program- 
ming the emulator, you must have that 
jumper in. But, when it is time to use 
the emulator, you must remove this 
jumper. Again, this is another method 
to prevent writing to the RAM chip 
when you don't want to. 

The other half of the 74HC 1 39 is not 
used. The inputs are just tied high. This 
is necessary to prevent the chip from 
doing things on its own, like oscillating 
by itself and using up power for noth- 
ing. The ground connections to the ICs 
are not shown. You must connect Pin 
14 of Ul and Pin 8 of U3 to Pin 14 of 
the 2764 socket U2. Normally, the 
power connections to these chips are 
not shown, but in order to get the power 
to the right places, I put in wires. Also, 
it may seem that not all pins are con- 
nected from the RAM chip to the 
EPROM socket; it is true, a couple are 
missing. Don't worry about it because 
they are not connected (N/C). 

All the parts should be available at 
your local electronics parts shop. There 
are no hard-to-get parts. Your local 
Radio Shack store may havemost of the 
parts, but not all. Note, Rl and R2 are 
in a delicate circuit and should not be 
substituted for a "close" value. Ql is any 
"high gain" switching transistor such as 
a 2N2222 or a 2N3904. The battery 
voltage is about 3.6 volts. It can be just 
one or a combination of many, as long 
as it is about the right voltage. If you 
decide to use rechargeable batteries, a 
300 ohm resistor across D2 will re- 
charge them when the emulator is in 
use. The diodes should be low-leakage 
types with low, forward-voltage drop. 

As far as the construction of the unit 
goes, I used one trick that works well. 
You need a printed circuit protoboard. 
I didn't have any around, so I cut a piece 



of protoboard from one of my previous 
projects. If you don't have one, Radio 
Shack does. You need one that's about 
2 by 3 inches. You can cut it down to 
size later. It is better if you get the kind 
that does not have any bus lines. Get the 
type that has just pads; it is easier to 
work with. 

Now, for the socket. There are many 
techniques, but the way 1 do it is quite 
simple. Take a 28-pin socket made for 
wire wrapping. Insert the socket half- 
way into the protoboard and solder all 
the pins. This way you get a 28-pin 
socket on top and a 28-pin "plug" on the 
bottom to put into your EPROM pro- 
grammer. After all the pins are soldered, 
locate all the pins that are not the same 
on both. Solder a piece of wire just 
under the top socket. Solder another 
piece of wire to the bottom of the pin. 
Now cut the wire in between the two 
wires. This way, you get a clean cut 
without reheating the pin and taking a 
chance that the solder melts and the pin 
goes crooked. 

If you write a lot of machine language 
programs that run in ROM or 
EPROM, this emulator will save you 
hours of time. Using the emulator is 
quite simple. After the construction is 
made, remove the jumper Jl. Plug the 
emulator in an EPROM programmer 
and setthe programmer for 2764. Insert 
the jumper and program the emulator. 
Normally, it takes a few minutes to 
program. It takes time for the EPROM 
circuits to change those Is to 0s. But, it 
doesn't take any time to program RAM. 
If you can find where in the software the 
program delays are, change them to 0. 
You will see a great improvement in the 
time it takes to program the thing. Now, 
remove the jumper and remove the 
emulator. All you have to do is insert 
the emulator into a 2764 socket and you 
have the equivalent of a 2764 
EPROM. 



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* Hours. All shipments UPS unless requested otherwise. * 



************************************************************************************************************ 

September 1987 THE RAINBOW 151 



Doing the 



rrivial Chances is a trivia game 
for one to six players that uses 
questions created from the TRIV- ' 
IAFC program that is included. 

The game has three twists that make 
it different from others. First, you can 
use the Radio Shack Speech/ Sound 
Pak to have the questions read instead 
of just flashed on the screen. Second, 
you can override the computer scoring 
if the player's answer is correct but 
misspelled. For the answers, both first 
and last names are used. When one 
word is the answer, you do not use "a," 
"an" or "the." For example, one of the 
questions is, "What is the Star of 
Africa?" The answer is a diamond, so 
you would just type DIAMOND. 

Lastly, the questions and answers are 
not in DATA lines. They are stored in 
tape or disk files. These are created by 
using the TRIVIAFC program. This 
allows you to use different files you have 
created. One file might be a trivia game, 
and another may be vocabulary words 



By Mary and 
James Lamonica 




for your kids. If you create different 
files, be sure to edit Line 52 in the 
TRIVIAG program to load a different 
filename. In the TRIVIAFC program, 
you need to change lines 180 and 510. 

TRIVIAG Program Summary 

Line 20 clears out the graphics to 
allow for greater memory and sets the 
dimensions for the questions and 
answers. You may have up to 380 ques- 
tions and answers. To have this many, 
you need to clear 19,000 characters of 
string space. You must also alter lines 
70, 120 and 130 from 300 questions to 
the number you want. You will have 
increased memory if you use a tape 
system and you don't use the Speech/ 
Sound Pak. If you have only a 16K tape 
system, you may have up to 200 ques- 
tions, and you need to clear 10,000 
characters. 

Line 30 is the introduction. Lines 40 
to 90 allow for the input of questions 
from the disk. To use the program with 
cassette, make the following changes: 



Jim Lamonica teaches social studies 
and computer literacy at Magoffin 
Junior High School in El Paso, Texas. 
Mary teaches math at Jefferson High 
School. Both graduated from Eastern 
Illinois University. 



52 OPEN "I", tt-1, "TRIVIA" 

60 IF EOF (-1) THEN 90 

70 FDR NQ=1 TO 300: INPUTtt-1, 

QS(NQ) ,A5(NQ) :NEXT NQ 
90 CLOSE tt -1 



RAINBOW September 1987 



* * * * * CQLQR COMPUTER III SOFTWARE * * » * » 



CBAS1C ii! EDITOR/COMPILER 

The ULTIMATE Color Computer III Basic Compiler?!! 

If you want to write fast efficient machine language programs and you 
don't want to spend the next few years trying to learn how to write them in 
Assembly language or with a cheap compiler, then CBASIC III is the answer!!! 

CBASIC III is the only fully integrated Basic Com piler and Program 
Editing System available for the Color Computer 3. It will allow you to take 
full advantage of all the capabilities available in your CoCo-3 including 51 2K 
RAM. without having to spend years trying to learn assembly language 
programming. CBASIC III allows you to create, edit and convert programs 
from a language you are already familiar with Enhanced Disk Color Basic, into 
fast efficient machine language programs easily and quickly. CBASIC III 
supports all the enhanced hardware available in the CoCo-3. including Hi-Res 
Graphics & Screen displays. Extended Memory and Interrupts (Keyboard. 
Timer, Serial & Clock). We even added advanced commands not available in 
Basic to give you a level of control only available to very advanced Machine 
Language Programmers. Plus we made it exceptionally easy to use. noi like 
some other compilers. CBASIC III is the friendliest and easiest compiler 
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CBASIC III is a powerful tool for the Beginner as well as the Advanced 
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having to worn,' about the Stack. DP Register, memory allocation and so on. 
because CBASIC III will handle it for you automatically. For Advanced users, 
CBASIC III will let you control every aspect of your program, even generating 
machine code directly in a program easily. 

CBASIC III features well over 150 Compiled Basic Commands and 
Functions that fully support Disk Sequential and Direct access files. Tape, 
Printer and Screen I/O. It supports ALL the High and Low Resolution 
Graphics, Sound. Play and String Operations available in Enhanced Color 
Basic, including Graphics H/GET, H/PUT, H/PLAY and H/DRAW. all with 
99.9% syntax compatibility. CBASIC III also supports the built in Serial I/O 
port with separate programmable printer & serial I/O baud rates. You can 
send and receive data with easy to use PRINT, LVPUT. IN KEY, GETCHAR 
a nd PUTC HA R c om m a n ds . 

CBASIC makes full use of the powerful and flexible GIMI chip in the Color 
Computer 3. It will fully utilize the 128K of RAM available and install 2 Ultra 
Fasr Ramdisks if 512K is available, for program Creation. Editing and 
Compilation. You can easily access all 512K of me trior)' in a Compiled 
program thru several extended memory commands that can access it in 32K or 
8K blocks and single or double bytes. 

CBASIC has its own completely integrated Basic Program Editor which 
allows you to load, edit or create programs for the compiler. It is a full 
featured editor designed specifically for writing and editing Basic programs. It 
has block move & copy, program renumbering, automatic line numbers, screen 
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The documentation provided with CBASIC III is an 8 1/2 by 11 Spiral 
Bound book which contains approximatly 120 pages of real information. We 
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understand, but complete and comprehensive enough for even the most 
sophisticated user. 

CBASIC III is the most expensive Color Basic Compiler on the market, and 
well worth the investment. You can buy a less expensive compiler for your 
CoCo-3, and then find out how difficult it is to use. or how limited its features 
are. Then you'll wish you had bought CBASIC III in the first place. Dollar for 
dollar, CBASIC III gives you more than any other compiler available. If you 
can find a better CoCo-3 Basic Compiler then buy it!!! 

Requires 128/512K & Disk $149,00 

DATA PACK III ^USVl7l 

SUPER SMART TERMINAL PROGRAM 
AUTOPILOT & AUTO-LOG PROCESSORS 
X- MOD EM DIRECT DISK FILE TRANSFER 
VT-1$$ & VT-52 TERMINAL EMULATION 

* Ho lost data even at 2400 Baud on the COCO-3 Serial I/O port. 

* 8 Display Formats. 32/40/64/80 columns at 192 or 225 Res. 

* 50 K Text Buffer when using the Hi -Res Text Display and Disk. 

* ASCII & BINARY disk file transfer support via XMODEM. 

* Directly record receive data to a disk file (Da ca Logging). 

* VT- 100 terminal emulation for VAX, UNIX and other systems. 

* VT- 100/52 cursor keys, position, insert/ delete. PF & Alt. keys, 

* Programmable Word Length. Parity, Stop Bits and baud rates. 

* Complete Full and Half Duplex operation, with no garbled data. 

* Send full 128 character set from Keyboard with control codes. 

* Complete Editor, Insert, Delete. Change or Add to Buffer. 

* 9 Variable length. Programmable Macro Key buffers. 

* Programmable Printer rates from 110 to 9600 Baud. 

* Send Files directly from the Buffer, Macro Keys or Disk. 
" Display on Screen or Print the contents of the Buffer. 

* Freeze Display & Review information On line with no data loss. 

* Built in Command Menu (Help) Display. 

* Built in 2 Drive RAMDISK for 512K RAM support and much more. 
Supports: R.S. Modem-Pak & Deluxe RS-232 Pak. even with Disk. 

Requires 128/512K & Disk, Only $59.95 



TEXTPRO IV 

The Advanced Word Processing System" 

* 9 Hi-Res Displays from 58 to 212 columns by 24 lines in 225 Resolution. 

* On Screen Display of Bold. Italic. Underline & Double Width print. 

* Up to 8 Proportional Characters Sets Supported with Justification. 

* Up to 80 Programmable Function keys & loadable Function key sets. 

* Fully Buffered keyboard accepts data even during disk access. 

* Autoexecute Startup files for easy printer & system configuration. 

* 8 Pre-Defined Printer function commands & 10 Programmable ones. 

* Supports Library files for unlimited prin ting & configurations. 

* Disk file record access for MAIL MERGE & BOILER PLATE printing. 
■ Completely Automatic Justification, Centering. Flush left and right. 

* Change indents, margins, line length, etc. anytime in the text. 

* Create and Edit files larger than memory, up to a full disk. 

* Easily imbed any number of printer format and control codes. 

* Built in Ultra Fast 2 drive RAMDISK for 512K support. 
TEXTPRO IV is an advanced word processing system designed for speed. 

flexability and extensive document processing. It is not like most of the other 
word processing programs available for the Color Computer. If you are 
looking for a simple word processor to write letters or other short documents, 
then most likely you'll be better off with one of the other simpler word 
processors. But, if you want a powerful word processor with extensive 
document formatting features to handle large documents, term papers, 
manuals, complex formating problems and letter writing, then TEXTPRO IV 
is what your looking for. TEXTPRO IV works in a totally different way than 
most word processing programs. It uses simple 2 character abbreviations of 
words or phrases for commands and formatting information that you imbed 
directly in your text. There are over 70 different formatting commands you 
can use without ever leaving the text your working on. There are no time 
comsuming, and often furstrating menu chases, you are in total control at all 
times. You can see what the formatted document will look like before a single 
word is ever printed. This includes margins, headers, footers, page numbers, 
page breaks, column formating, justification and Bold. Italic, Underline and 
Double Width characters right on the screen. 

TEXTPRO IV can even support LASER PRINTERS wnh proportional 
fonts, take a good look at this AD? It was done with TEXTPRO IV on an 
OKI DATA LASERLINE-6 laser printer!!; All the character sets used on this 
AD are proportional spaced characters, all centering, justification, and text 
printing was performed automatically by TEXTPRO IV. 

Requires 128/512K & Disk 889.95 

HI- RES III Screen Commander 

The display you wanted but didn't get on your CoCo-3. 

* 54 Different Character Sizes available 14 to 212 cpl. 

* Bold, Italic or Plain character styles. 

* Double W id t h . Double Height and Quad Width characters. 

* Scroll Protect from 1 to 23 lines on the screen. 

* Mixed Text & Graphics in HSCREEN3 mode. 

* PRINT (§ ; available in all character sizes, 

* Programmable Automatic Key repeat. 

* Full Control Code Keyboard supported. 

* Selectable Character & Background color, 

* Uses only 4K of Extended or Basic RAM. 

* Written in Ultra Fast Machine Language. 

HI-RES III will improve the standard display capabilities of the Color 
Computer 3, even the 40 and 80 column displays have several features missing. 
For example you can't use PRINT (q. or have different character sizes on the 
same screen, even mixing text and graphics with the HPRINT command leaves 
a lot to be desired. HI-RES III can give you the kind of display capabilities 
you always dreamed about having on your color computer but didn't get with 
your COCO-3. Well now it's here and with a wide variety of display options 
that you can easily use with your Basic or ML programs. 
HI-RES III is totally compatible with Enhanced Color Basic and its operation 
is invisible to Basic. It simply replaces the normal screen display with an 
extremely versatile display * package. It also overcomes some of the 
disadvantages found when using the Width 40 & 80 screens. You can use the 
Print <a function on any line length with HI-RES III. It also gives you a 
programmable automatic key repeal that can be very handy for editing your 
Basic programs. Automatic key repeat can be adjusted from ultra fast to super 
slow and can be disabled entirely if desired. \ ou also get a full control code 
keyboard using the 'CTRL' key. So many of HI-RES Ill's extended functions 
can be controlled directly from the keyboard easily. With just a couple of 
simple keystrokes you can change character sizes and styles at any time, 

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Lines 100 and 1 10 allow for the input 
of the players' names. 

Lines 120 to 170 are the game lines. 
Three loops are used. Loop GG is the 
basic game loop. It allows for passes 
through the loop based on the number 
of questions divided by the number of 
players. Loop G is used to keep track 
of the player number. The X loop is used 
to determine the print locations for the 
players' names. A red square appears by 
the player whose turn it is. This is done 
in the PRINT@1G+ ( G*1G ) , CHR$(143 
+4B] statement in Line 120. 

Lines 122 to 126 allow for the point 
value to be assigned to each question. 
The computer rolls an electronic die, so 
each question may be worth from 1 to 
6 points. 

Lines 130 and 140 randomly choose 
the questions and test to see if they have 
been used. This is done by matching the 
question number with used question 
numbers in Array S. The input of the 
player's answer is also done here. The 
subroutine at Line 200 is used for the 
Speech/ Sound Pak. 

Line 150 checks to see if the player's 
answer is correct and, if it is, goes to the 
subroutine at Line 300 for the Speech/ 
Sound Pak. 

Line 160 is used if the player's answer 
is wrong. If the player is close to the 



correct answer, you may override the 
computer scoring by pressing Y (Yes). 
This is done in Line 162. You must press 
either Y (Yes) or N (No). 



Variable Summary 




TR TVTAO 


Q$ 


= Questions 


A$ 


= Answers 


S 


= Used Questions 


PN$ 


= Player name 


PS 


= Player score 


PAS 


= Player answer 


PV 


= Point value 


INS 


- Inkey 




1 KlVlArC 


IKS 


= Inkey 


QN 


= Question number 


NQ 


= Next Question 


Q$ 


= Questions 


N 


- Counter 


AS 


Answers 


Ni 


= Counter 



Lines 180 and 190 are used if you use 
all of the questions in the file. 

Lines 200 to 370 are used for the 
Speech/ Sound Pak. If you do not want 



this, delete these lines and delete the 
GDSUB statements in lines 140 and 160. 
My Speech/Sound Pak is connected 
with the disk controller by a Y-cable. 
The Multi-Pak Interface will also work. 



Trivia File Creation 

TR I V I RFC is the question file creation 
program. It allows you to create 400 
questions, but you do not need to type 
them all in at the same time. To prevent 
problems with possible loss of data, I 
usually type in 20 questions and answers 
at one time. 

You may use this program with a tape 
system by making the following 
changes: 

180 OPEN "0",tt-l, "TRIVIR" 

200 FORNl^lTON : PRINTtt-1 ,Q$ 

[Nl ) ,R$[N1) : NEXTN1 
210 CLD5Ett-l:GOTD30 
510 OPEN "I " , tt- 1 , "TRIVIR" 
520 IF EDF(-1)THEN550 
530 NQ=NQ+1 : INPUTtt-1 , Q$ ( NQ ) , R$ 

(NQ) 
550 CLDSEti-1 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to the Lamonicas at 10456 
Orpheus, El Paso, TX 79924. Please 
enclose an SASE for a response.) □ 



Editor's Note: TRIVIR, a data file containing 300 
questions, will immediately follow the TRIVIRFC 
program listing on this month's RAINBOW ON TAPE 
and RAINBOW ON DISK 

Listing 1: TRIVIRG 

lj3 'trivial chances (C) 1987 

11 'BY JAMES & MARY LAMONICA 

12 ' 

2j3 PMODEjZ) : PCLEAR1 : CLEAR16j3j3j3 : DIM 
Q$(3j3j3) f A$'(3j»jjj ,S(3j3j3) ,PN$(6) , PS 
(6) 

3j3 CLS(3) :SOUND2j3j3,2:PRINT@72,"t 
rivial chances" ; :PRINT@16j3, "THI 
S IS A TRIVIA GAME CREATED BYJAM 
ES AND MARY JEAN LAMONICA (C) 
1984. EL PASO, TEXAS, U.S. A PRE 
SS ANY KEY TO BEGIN THE GAME": SO 
UND2j3j3,2:EXEC4453 9 

4J3 CLS(4) : SOUND2j3j3 , 2 : PRINT@32 , "T 
O LOAD IN THE QUESTION FILE, 
PRESS ANY KEY":SOUND2j3j3,2:EXEC44 
539 

5j3 PRINT@199," SEARCHING FOR FILE 
n • 

52 OPEN"I" , #1, "TRIVIA" 



55 
ii • 



LOADING DATA 



PRINT@199 , " 
SOUND2j3j3, 2 
6J3 IF EOF(l)=-l THEN 9J3 
70 FOR NQ=lT03pp:INPUT#l,Q$(NQ) , 
A$ (NQ) : NEXT NQ 
9J3 CLOSE#l 

Ij3j3 CLS(3) :SOUND2j3j3,2:PRINT§32," 
HOW MANY PLAYERS ( 1-6 )";: INPUT N 
P 

llj3 FOR X=1T0NP:PRINT@96,"NAME O 
F PLAYER" ;X; :INPUTPN$ (X) :PRINT@9 
6, "" :NEXTX 

12J3 FORGG=lTOINT (3J3J3/NP) : FORG=lT 
ONP:CLS (3) : FORX=lTONP: PRINT§17+ ( 
X*16) ,PN$(X) ;PS (X) :NEXTX:PRINT@1 
6+(G*16) ,CHR$(143+48) ; 

121 PRINT§48J3,MEM; 

122 PRINT§416, "PRESS <ENTER> FOR 
POINT VALUE" 

124 I$=INKEY$:PV=RND(6) :IF I$=CH 

R$(13) THEN 126 ELSE 124 

126 PRINT@416, " " : PRINT§416 , "THIS 

QUESTION IS WORTH" ;PV 
13j3 R=RND(3j3j3) : IF S(R)=R OR Q$ (R 
)=""THEN13J3 

140 S(R)=R:PRINT§256,Q$(R) ;"?":G 



154 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



OSUB2J3J3 : PRINT@32J3 , " " ; : INPUTPA$ 
15J3 IF PA$=A$(R) THEN GOSUB3j3j3:P 
S (G) =PS (G) +PV: PRINT§2 56 , " " : PRINT 
§256 , "YOU ARE CORRECT "PN$(G)::F 
0RX=1T03*46^) :NEXTX:GOT017j3 
160 IF PA$OA$(R) THEN IA$="YOU 
ARE INCORRECT THE ANSWER IS " : PR 
INT§256 , IA$ ; : GOSUB3j3j3 : PRINT@32j3 , 
" " : PRINT@32£S , A$ (R) : PRINT§416 , " " : 
PRINT@416, "OVERRIDE COMPUTER SCO 
RE (Y/N)"; 

162 IN$=INKEY$ : IF IN$="Y"THENPS ( 
G) =PS (G) +PV: GOT017/3 ELSE IF IN$= 
"N" THEN 170 ELSE GOT0162 
17/3 NEXTG : NEXTGG 

18)3 CLS(8) : PRINT §9 6, "YOU HAVE US 
ED ALL THE QUESTIONS THE FINAL S 
CORES WERE" : FORX=lTONP : PRINT §17 7 
+(X*16) ,PN$(X) ;PS(X) :NEXTX 
190 GOT019J3 

200 XX=&HFF)3)3: YY=&HFF7E : POKEXX+1 
, 52 : POKEXX+3 , 63 : POKEXX+35 , 6)3 



Listing 2: TRIVIAFC 

10 PMODEj3:PCLEARl:CLEAR2j3j3j3j3 

20 DIMQ$(4^) ,A$ (4)3)3) 

30 CLS(3) :PRINT§32,"THIS IS A PR 



201 FOR 11=1 TO LEN (Q$ (R) ) 

21/3 IF PEEK(YY) AND 128=0 THEN 2 

10 

220 POKE YY, ASC (MID$ (Q$ (R) ,11,1 
)) 

23/3 NEXT II 

24/3 IF PEEK(YY) AND 128=0 THEN 2 
4/3 

25/3 POKE YY,13 
260 RETURN 

300 IF PA$OA$(R) THEN AA$=IA$+A 
$(R) ELSE AA$="YOU ARE CORRECT"+ 
PN$(G) 

310 FOR 11=1 TO LEN (AA$) 

320 IF PEEK(YY) AND 128=0 THEN 3 

20 

330 POKE YY, ASC (MID$ (AA$ , II , 1 ) ) 
34)3 NEXT II 

350 IF PEEK(YY) AND 128=0 THEN 3 
50 

360 POKE YY,13 
370 RETURN 



OGRAM TO CREATE A QUESTION AND 
ANSWER FILE FOR THE 'trivial cha 
nces 1 GAME CREATED BY JAMES & M 



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RAINBOW PAGE 134 



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Septemberl987 THE RAINBOW 



155 



The Rainbow Bookshelf 



Fill out your CoCo library 
with these selections 



The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 

Authors Dale Puckett and Peter Dibble show how to take 
advantage of OS-9's multitasking and multiuser features. An easy- 
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ARY JEAN LAMONICA (C) 1987. PR 
ESS A KEY TO BEGIN. " : EXEC4453 9 
40 PRINT@224 , "DO YOU WISH TO LOA 
D A PARTAILLY COMPLETED QUESTION 

FILE (Y OR N) " 
50 IK$=INKEY$ 

60 IF IK$="Y" THEN GOSUB 500 
10 IF IK$="N" THEN 90 
75 IF IK$="Y" THEN9J3 
80 GOTO 50 

90 CLS ( 3 ) : PRINT §32 , "YOU MAY ENTE 
R" ;4j3j3-NQ; " QUESTIONS" : PRINT§96, 
"ENTER THE NUMBER OF ADDITIONAL 
YOU WISH TO ENTER AT 
" ; : INPUTQN 

PRINT§64, "YOU WILL BE 



QUESTION AN 
THE QUESTIO 
CHARACTERS . 
PRESS A KEY 



QUESTIONS 

THIS TIME 
100 CLS (3) 

ASKED FIRST FOR THE 
D THEN THE ANSWER. 
NS ARE LIMITED TO 30 

THE ANSWERS TO 20. 

TO CONTINUE. " :EXEC4453 9 
110 FORN=NQ+ 1TONQ+QN 
120 CLS (3 ) :PRINT@32, "QUESTION #" 
;N; :PRINT§9 6, "TYPE IN QUESTION & 

PRESS ENTER 11 : INPUT Q$ (N) 
130 IF LEN (Q$ (N) ) >30 THEN PRINT" 
QUESTION EXCEEDS MAXIMUM LENGTH" 
:FOR X=lT046j3*3 : NEXTX : GOT012J3 



14j3 PRINT@2 2 4, "TYPE IN ANSWER & 
PRESS ENTER ": INPUT A$(N) 
150 IF LEN(A$ (N) ) >20 THEN PRINT" 
ANSWER EXCEEDS MAXIMUM LENGTH " 
:FORX=lT046j3*3 : NEXTX : PRINT§2 5 6 , " 
" :PRINT@288, "":GOT014j3 
160 NEXT N 

110 CLS ( 5 ) : PRINT§9 6 , "TO SAVE THE 
QUESTION FILE, PUT DISK IN AND 
PRESS A KEY PLEASE": EXEC44539 

180 OPEN" 0 ", #1, "TRIVIA" 

190 PRINT§2j32 , "SAVING DATA"; 

200 FOR N1=1T0N:WRITE#1,Q$ (Nl) , A 

$ (Nl) : NEXTN1 

210 CLOSE#l:GOT03j3 

499 END 

500 CLS (4) :PRINT§32 , "POSITION TH 
E DISK AND PRESS A KEY TO BEGI 
N. ":EXEC44539 

505 PRINT§106, "FINDING FILE"; 

510 OPEN"I" , #1, "TRIVIA" 

515 PRI NT @ 10 6 , " LO ADI NG DATA " ; 

520 IF EOF(l)=-l THEN 55j3 

530 NQ=NQ+1:INPUT#1,Q$(NQ) ,A$(NQ 

) 

54J3 GOTO 520 

550 CLOSE#l 

560 RETURN /R\ 



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September 1987 THE RAINBOW 157 




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KISSabie OS-9 



Primitive Drawing Tooli 

By Dale L. Puekett 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



FM 1 he Complete Rainbow Guide to 
M OS-9 Level H, Volume I: A Be- 
JL ginners Guide to Windows is at 
the printer. The project was long and 
time-consuming for both Peter and me. 
It was also a lot of fun. We're trying to 
wind down to normal now, so it'll be a 
short column this month. But, we pre- 
dict you'll have a lot of fun as soon as 
you dig into the BASIC09 listings we're 
presenting here. 

One of the nice things about the 
CoCo 3 is the high resolution mouse 
adapter you can buy for less than $10 
at your local Radio Shack store. Be- 
cause a lot of the early CoCo 3 OS-9 
Level II software did not support this 
handy tool, we thought we would see 
what we could build. Besides, we 
wanted to get you started on your 
personal CoCo Draw program. 

In our new book, we generated a 
simple, but nice, drawing program that 
you drive from a menu printed on an 
overlay window. From that menu you 
can draw a straight line, a box or a 

Dale L Puekett, who is author of The 
Official BASIC09 Tour Guide and co- 
author, with Peter Dibble, of The 
Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9, is a 
free-lance writer and programmer. He 
serves as director-at-large of the OS-9 
Users Group and is a member of the 
Computer Press Association. Dale is a 
U.S. Coast Guard lieutenant and lives 
in Rockville, Maryland. 

1 60 THE RAINBOW September 1 987 



Listing 1: KISSDRfiW 
PROCEDURE KISSdrawellipse 

(it Program to draw a ellipse at location pointed 
(* to by high resolution mouse. 

(* Uses procedure KISSGetMouse 

TYPE registers=cc,a,b,dp:BYTE; x , y , u ; INTEGER 

TYPE rodent-Vld , Ac t , ToTm : BYTE ; XI: INTEGER; TTTo : BYTE ; TSSt : INTEGER 
; CBS A, CBS B, CCtA, CCtB , TTSA } TTSB , TLSA , TLS B : BYTE ; X2 , BDX , BDY; INTEGER 
; Stat , Res : BYTE; AcX , AcY , WRX , TOY : INTEGER 
DIM Mouse: rodent 

(* Let's draw with a pencil cursor 
RUN gfx2("gcset" ,202,2) 

PRINT "Mo^e pencil to center of ellipse and press mouse button." 
PRINT "Hold button down and drag. Release at corner of" 
PRINT "rectangle framing ellipse, !r 

REPEAT 

RUN getKISSmouse(Mouse) 

RUN gfx2 ("putgc" , Mouse . AcX , Mouse .AcY) 

UNTIL Mouse . CBSAO0 

RUN gf x2 ( " se tdptr" , Mous e . BDX , Mous e . BDY) 
RUN gf x2 (" POINT" , Mouse . BDX , Mouse . BDY) 

WHILE Mouse. CBSAOg DO 

RUN getKISSmouse(Mouse) 

RUN gfx2("putgc H , Mouse .AcX, Mouse , AcY) 



circle. You will be surprised at the 
number of different objects you can 
create with these three simple primitive 
drawing tools. 

We became so fascinated with our 
new toy, we wanted to improve it. This 
month, we feature two listings, KISS- 
Drau and CoCoDrauj. We'll get you 
started with the procedure that draws a 
box. Once you pick up the trick, you'll 
be able to add a number of your own 
primitive drawing tools. 

We'll also show you two versions of 
the menu program that lets you select 
the tools. The book should be at your 
local Radio Shack store by the time you 
read this column, so you'll be able to get 
a head start on the DrawCi re le and 
DrawLine routines. Hopefully, in a 
later issue we can build a menu made 
out of icons so you can select and direct 
your new drawing tools by pointing and 
clicking. 

KISSDrau could be the start of a fun 
CoCo Community programming proj- 
ect. If you have ideas or a short proce- 
dure or two to add, send them along and 
we'll get them published as quickly as 
we can. 

The listing CoCoDraw contains proce- 
dures named SetUpMouse, GetMouse, 
DrawBax and DrauDbj ects. KISS 
Draw is made up of SetUpMouse, Get- 
KISSMouse, KISSDrawBox and Draw- 
Objects. The SetUpMouse routine is 
the same in both listings. We left it in 
both packages to make things easier to 
follow when you type them. DrawOb- 
j ec ts is similar in both listings, but not 
the same. The cosmetic routines that 
keep the unnecessary clutter off the 
screen are a bit different. 

The lesson in this month's listings can 
be found by carefully studying the 
differences between GetMouse and 
Ge tKISSMouse, as well as the differen- 
ces between DrawBox and KISSDrau - 



ENDWHILE 

RUN gf x2 ("ellipse ABS( Mous e. BDX-Mouse . AcX) , ABS (Mouse . BDY-Mouse . AcY 
)) 

RUN gfx2("bell") 
END 

PROCEDURE KISSdrawbar 

(* Program to draw a bar at location pointed 
(* to by high resolution mouse. 

(* Uses procedure KISSGetMouse 

TYPE registers=cc,a,b,dp:BYTE; x , y , u : INTEGER 

TYPE rodent=Vld , Act , ToTm: BYTE ; XI : INTEGER ; TTTo : BYTE ; TSS t: INTEGER 

CBSA , C BSB , CCtA , CC t B , TTSA , TTS B , TLSA , TLS B : BYTE ; X2 , BDX , BDY : INTEGER 
Stat , Res : BYTE; AcX, AcY ,WRX , WRY : INTEGER 

DIM Mouse: rodent 

(* Let's draw with a pencil cursor 
RUN gfx2("gcset",202,2) 

PRINT "Move pencil to first corner and press mouse button. Then," 
PRINT "hold button down and drag. Release at opposite corner." 

REPEAT 

RUN getKISSmouse (Mouse) 

RUN gfx2 ("putgc" , Mouse .AcX, Mouse .AcY) 

UNTIL Mouse . CBSAO0 

RUN gfx2("setdptr" , Mouse . BDX , Mouse . BDY) 
RUN gf x2(" POINT" , Mouse . BDX, Mous e . BDY) 

WHILE Mouse. CBSAO0 DO 

RUN getKISSmouse (Mouse) 

RUN gf x2( "putgc" .Mouse . AcX, Mouse . AcY) 

ENDWHILE 

RUN gfx2("bar" , Mouse . AcX.Mouse. AcY) 
RUN gfx2("bell") 



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END 




PROCEDURE KISSdrawline 

(* Program to draw a line at location pointed 
(* to by high resolution mouse. 




(* Uses procedure KISSGetMouse 




TYPE registers=cc , a ,b } dp ; BYTE ; x,y,u; INTEGER 




TYPE rodent=?ld, Act, ToTm: BYTE; XI: INTEGER; TTTo : BYTE ; TSSt : 


INTEGER 


; CBSA , CBSB , CCtA , CC t B,TTSA , TTSB , TLSA, TLSB : BYTE ; X2,BDX,BDY: 


INTEGER 


; Stat .Res; BYTE; AcX, AcY , WRX ,WE.Y : INTEGER 




DIM Mouse: rodent 




(* Let's draw with a pencil cursor 




RUN gfx2( H gcset",2£2,2) 




PRINT "Move pencil to first end and press mouse button. Then," 
PRINT "hold button down and drag, Release at opposite end," 


D T7PT7 A T 

RUN getKISSmouse(Mouse) 

RUN gr xZ ( putgc , Mouse . AcX ,Mous e . Ac Y ; 




UNTIL Mouse. CBSAOj? 




RUN gf x2 ( •* s e t dp tr " , Mous e , BDX , Mous e . BDY) 
RUN gf x2 ( " POINT" , Mous e . BDX , Mouse . BDY) 




WHILE Mouse .CBS AO^ DO 




RUN getKISSmouse (Mouse) 

RUN gf x2 ( "putgc " , Mous e . AcX , Mous e . Ac Y) 




ENDWHILE 




RUN g f x 2 ( " 1 ine " , Mou se.AcX, Mous e . A c Y ) 
RUN gfx2("bell") 




END 




PROCEDURE KISSdrawcircle 

(* Program to draw a circle at location pointed 
(* to by high resolution mouse. 




(* Uses procedure KISSGetMouse 




TYPE registers^cc , a j b , dp : BYTE ; x,y,u: INTEGER 




TYPE rodent-Vld , Act ,ToTm: BYTE; Xl I INTEGER; TTTo; BYTE; TSSt 


: INTEGER 


; CBSAjCBSB.CCtA^CCtB.TTSAjTTSB, TLSA , TLS B ; BYTE ; X2 , BDX , BDY : INTEGER 


; Stat , Res: BYTE; AcX .AcY , WRX, WRY : INTEGER 




DIM Mouse: rodent 




(* Let's draw with a pencil cursor 




RUN gfx2("gcset" I 2^2 t 2) 




PRINT "Move pencil to center of circle and press mouse button. Then," 
PRINT "hold button down and drag. Release at point where M 
PRINT "line drawn through center intersects radius." 



1 62 THE RAINBOW September 1 987 



Box, Other tricks can be learned by 
studying the methods we used to build 
our menu in an overlay window. When 
we created the overlay window, we 
saved the material underneath it so that 
OS-9 could repaint the screen when we 
were through with the menu. 

In the CoCoDraui version, you'll no- 
tice that we only worked with three 
pieces of information from the high 
resolution mouse. Much more is avail- 
able, and we used some of it in KISS- 
Draw. With CoCoDraw, we stuck to the 
horizontal and vertical position of the 
mouse and the status of the button, We 
used one of the graphics cursors built 
into OS-9 to tell us where we were 
pointing with the mouse. 

We clear the screen first and print a 
welcome message in boldface type. The 
first procedure we run is SetUpMouse, 
which essentially tells OS-9 that you are 
using a high resolution mouse that can 
point to any one of 640 pixels across the 
screen in 192 individual rows. 

SetUpMouse uses the SysCall rou- 
tine that comes with the OS-9 Level II 
version of BASIC09. SysCall lets you 
call machine language routines within 
OS-9 from your BASIC09 program, The 
technical manual tells you the informa- 
tion you need to give each OS-9 system 
subroutine when you call it. The vari- 
able callcode is the number of the 
subroutine you want to use. You must 
give OS-9 the rest of the information by 
putting the proper value in each of the 
6809's registers. 

Since the order of the registers in the 
6809 never changes, we can create our 
own data type that looks just like the 
6809 microprocessor in our Color Com- 
puter. That's what we're doing with the 
TYPE statement in the procedure named 
SetUpMouse, Notice that after we 
defined this new data type, we still had 
to reserve memory for a variable of this 
data type. We called our variable regs. 

Notice also that BASIC09 lets you read 
from or write to individual fields in a 
record made of a customized data type. 
That's why we were able to assign values 
to each 6809 register so we could set up 
the mouse parameters with the proce- 
dure SetUpMouse, After we have as- 
signed the proper value to each register 
that needs to be initialized and selected 
the proper callcode, we simply "run" 
SysCall like any other program. Es- 
sentially with Se tUpMouse, we have 
given OS-9 some low-level work to do 
from within a high-level language. 

Before you run CoCoDraw or KISS- 
Draw, you must load all of the system 
fonts, pointers and patterns into a 



buffer. We used s tdpats_4 since we 
planned to run our drawing programs 
in four color windows. 

We do it with a procedure file called 
from our start-up file. It looks like this: 

merge /dcJ/sys/s td Fonts >'w 
merge 'dd^sys/stdp trs >/w 
merge /dd'sys/stdpa ts_4 >/y 

In the CqCo Draw listing, the proce- 
dure DrawBox selects the pencil as a 
graphics cursor. Notice how we did that 
by running gcset, one of the built-in 
g f x 2 commands that comes with 
BASIC09. In fact, you'll notice as you 
study these that the drawing programs 
were built by simply running a number 
of the gfx2 commands in the proper 
order. 

In the DrawBox procedure we have 
defined the packet of information that 
the SysCall routine generates when it 
calls theset status call named 55- Mouse 
as an array of 32 bytes. Then, we read 
the horizontal and vertical positions 
and determine the status of the mouse 
button by looking at the proper byte in 
the array. We knew which byte to look 
for — almost — by looking at the table 
on Page 8-125 of the OS-9 Technical 
Reference Manual. 

Unfortunately, an extra two bytes 
have been reserved for the future, four 
bytes into the packet. This throws the 
count of f and leads to a lot of confusion. 
You won't need to worry, however. 
You'll find the names of each field in the 
packet are the same in the special data 
type we defined in the procedure KISS- 
DrawBox as they are in the table. We 
called the two reserved integers XI and 
X2. 

Notice how BASIC09's TYPE statement 
let us define a 32-byte variable that just 
happens to look like the data returned 
by the set status call SS . MOUSE. Once we 
had defined this new data type, we were 



REPEAT 

RUN getKISSmouse (Mouse) 

RUN gfx2( ,, putgc" , Mouse, AcX, Mouse . Ac Y) 

UNTIL Mouse. CBSAO0 

RUN gf x2("setdptr" , Mouse . BDX , Mouse , BDY) 
RUN gfx2("P0INT" ,Mouse.BDX,Mouse,BDY) 

WHILE Mouse. CBSAO0 DO 

RUN getKISSmouse (Mouse) 

RUN gf x2("putgc" ,Mouse, AcX, Mouse , AcY) 

ENDtfHILE 

RUN gfx2 ("circle" , ABS (Mous e, BDX- Mouse. AcX)) 
RUN gfx2("bell") 



END 



PROCEDURE SetUpMouse 

(* This procedure uses the program 1 SysCall * to 
C>v do a set status call which sets up 0S-9 to treat 
(* the Color Computer Mouse as a high resolution device 
(* using the right joystick port. Because, this change is 
systemwide, another program using the mouse later would 
(* also need to know how to use the optional high 
(* resolution mouse adapter, 

(* Since this set status call is also used to change the 
(* key repeat start constant and delay speed, it tells 
(* OS-9 to leave those parameters unchanged. 

TYPE registers=cc,a,b, dp : BYTE; x , y , u : INTEGER 

DIM regs registers 
DIM callcode : BYTE 

(* Now set up the mouse parameters 



regs , a 
regs . b 
regs . x 
regs.y 



-$94 

=$0101 
=$FFFF 



callcode ;=$8E 

RUN syscall (callcode , regs) 
END 



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MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 163 



able to read from or write to any field 
in it, We read the ones we needed to 
emulate other drawing programs. 

To use KISSDrawBox, you move the 
mouse to the point on the screen where 
you want to place onecorner of thebox. 
With the graphics cursor over that 
point, you push down the button on the 
mouse and hold it while you move the 
mouse to the point where you would 
like to see the opposite corner of the 
box. When the graphics cursor is over 
this point, you release the mouse button 
and a box pops on your screen. 

Study the routines this month, take 
a look at the DrauiCircle and Draw- 
Line routines in our new book and let 
us know what you want to add. If you're 
ambitious, show us how you would go 
about it. We'll compare notes and 
feature the best in the future. This could 
be the start of an exciting project. 

Tip of the Month 

Download Carl Kreider's Rr utility 
from RAINBOW^ Delphi OS-9 Online 
SIG. It'll save you a lot of valuable 
online time and make it much easier for 
you to download the new OS-9 pro- 
grams appearing in the database. 

Carl is the new librarian for the OS- 
9 Users Group. While the title is new, 
the job isn't. Carl has been helping Dave 
Kaleita, the group's new vice president, 
for several years. These guys have done 
a tremendous job for you. There are 
nearly 70 disks available in the library. 
Most have nearly a dozen programs on 
them, although a few are packed full 
with one or two useful applications 
programs. Help these guys help you. 
Join the group now and take advantage 
of their library. You couldn't buy the 
education that's hiding on those disks. 

Tip Two 

After you download Rr, download 
Kevin Darling's new OS-9 Level II 
utilities. He's updated the tools he 
published in his book and added several 
new ones. Speaking of Kevin's book, 
Inside 0S-9 Level II is a gold mine for 
the hacker, Youll learn more than you 
can ever remember about OS-9 system 
variables, the Color Computer's G1ME, 
the file managers, the windows, the 
fonts, the descriptors and the bugs. It's 
a reference work extraordinaire! Buy it. 
By the way, Kevin spends hours and 
hours answering your questions on the 
RAINBOW OS-9 Online Forum. Sign on 
and say heilo. 

That s it for September. Enjoy the 
BASIC09 procedures and keep on hack- 
ing! □ 

164 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



PROCEDURE GetKISSMouse 

(* Reads the present location of the mouse and 
(* returns the status of the button. 






TYPE registers-cc,a, b,dp:BYTE; x ,y , u : INTEGER 






TYPE rodent=Vld,Act,ToTm:BYTE; XI: INTEGER; TTTo 


BYTE; TSSt: 


INTEGER 


; CBS A, CBSB, CCtA, CCtB , TTS A, TTSB , TLSA , TLSB : BYTE ; 


X2.BDX,BDY 


INTEGER 


; S ta t , Res : BYTE ; AcX , AcY , WRX , WRY ; INTEGER 






DIM Reg is terSet : register s 
DIM callcode ; BYTE 
PARAM Mouse :rodent 






RegisterSet . a ; =0 
RegisterSet .b:=$89 
RegisterSet. x: *=ADDR (Mouse) 
Regis terSet . y :=1 
callcode :*=$8D 






RUN syscall ( callcode , Register Set) 






END 






PROCEDURE KISSdrawbox 

(* Program to draw a box at location pointed 
(* to by high resolution mouse, 






(* Uses procedure KISSGetMouse 






TYPE registers=cc,a,b,dp:BYTE; x , y , u ; INTEGER 






TYPE rodent=Vld, Act ,ToTm: BYTE; XI : INTEGER ; TTTo 


: BYTE ; TSSt 


INTEGER 


; CBSA, CBSB, CCtA, CCtB , TTS A , TTSB, TLSA, TLSB; BYTE; 


X2, BDX, BDY 


INTEGER 


; Stat , Res : BYTE ; AcX , AcY , WRX , WRY : INTEGER 






DIM Mouseirodent 






(* Let*s draw with a pencil cursor 






RUN gfx2("gcset , ',2$2 > 2) 






We must make sure we have turned on the 
(* the high resolution mouse 






RUN Setupmouse 






PRINT "Move pencil to first corner and press mouse button. Then , " 
PRINT "hold button down and drag. Release at opposite corner." 


REPEAT 






RUN getKISSmouse (Mouse) 

RUN gf x2 ( "putgc" , Mouse . AcX, Mouse .AcY) 






UNTIL Mouse. CBSAo£ 






RUN gf x2 ( "se tdptr" , Mouse. BDX , Mouse . BDY) 
RUN gfx2 ("POINT* 1 , Mouse, BDX, Mouse. BDY) 






WHILE Mouse , CBSAOj? DO 






RUN getKISSmouse(Mouse) 

RUN gfx2( ,, putgc" .Mouse . AcX } Mouse .AcY) 






ENDWHILE 







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RUN gfx2("box" , Mouse . AcX, Mouse . AcY) 
RUN gfx2("bell") 

END 



PROCEDURE DrawObjects 
DIM button: BYTE 
DIM horiz , vert : INTEGER 
DIM choice:STRING[l] 

(* First, clear the window 
RUN gfx2("clear") 

(* And greet them with a boldfaced message 
RUN gfx2("boldsw" , "on") 
PRINT "Welcome to CoCo Draw!" 

(* Don't forget to turn bold printing off 
RUN gfx2("boldsw M ,"off ") 

(* and prepare OS-9 for the High Resolution Mouse*) 
RUN SetUpMouse 

REPEAT 

(* We'll put the menu in an 
(* overlay window 

RUN gf x2 ( "owset " ,1.5,5,3^,13,2,4) 

(* We should turn on the text cursor 
RUN gfx2("curon") 

(* and turn off the graphics cursor for now 



RUN gfx2("gcset 


",?,?) 


(* Here's 


our menu 


PRINT "You 


may 


draw one o 


PRINT 






PRINT " 


1. 


A box" 


PRINT " 


2. 


A circle" 


PRINT " 


3. 


A line" 


PRINT " 


6. 


An Ellipse 


PRINT " 


5. 


A bar" 


PRINT 






PRINT " 


9- 


To Quit" 


PRINT 







(* Draw attention to our prompt 
RUN gfx2("revon") 
PRINT "Which one: ■ 

(* But after we get their attention 
(* we want to return to normal print 
RUN gfx2("revof f ") 

(* Now, wait for their response 
REPEAT 

RUN inkey (choice) 
UNTIL choiceO"" 

(* When they answer, we'll 

(* turn off the cursor and 

(>'<" close our window to give 

(* them a full screen to draw in 

RUN gfx2("curoff ") 

RUN gfx2( M owend") 

(* We must run the drawing program 
(* they have selected. 
IF choice="l" THEN 

RUN gfx2("CurHome") \RUN gf x2 ("ErLine ") 
PRINT \RUN gfx2(" ErLine") 



PRINT \RUN gfx2( "ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2(" ErLine") 

RUN gfx2(" CurHome") 

RUN gfx2("curoff") 

RUN KISSdrawbox 

RUN gfx2("CurHome") 

ELSE 

IF choice="2" THEN 

RUN gfx2("CurHome") \RITN gf x2 (" ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2( "ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2( "ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2("ErLine") 

RUN gfx2("CurHome") 

RUN gfx2("curoff ") 

RUN KlSSdrawcircle(mouse) 

ELSE 

IF choice="3" THEN 
RUN gfx2("curoff ") 

RUN gfx2("CurHome") \RUN gf x2 ( "ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2(" ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2( "ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2(" ErLine") 

RUN gfx2("CurHome") 

RUN gfx2("curoff ") 

RUN KlSSdrawline(mouse) 

ELSE 

IF choice-"4" THEN 
RUN gfx2("curoff") 

RUN gfx2("CurHome") \RUN gf x2 ( "ErLine " ) 

PRINT \RUN gfx2 ("ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2(" ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2 ("ErLine") 

RUN gfx2("CurHome") 

RUN KlSSdrawellipse(niouse) 

ELSE 

IF choice="5" THEN 

RUN gfx2("Cur0ff ")\RUN gfx2 ("CurHome ")\RUN gfx2 ("ErLine") 
PRINT \RUN gfx2( "ErLine") 
PRINT \RUN gfx2(" ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2("ErLine") \RUN gfx2 ( "CurHome " ) 

RUN KlSSdrawbar(mouse) 

END IF 

ENDIF 

END IF 

ENDIF 

ENDIF 

UNTIL choice="0" 

RUN gfx2(" CurHome") 

RUN gfx2( "ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2("ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2("ErLine") 

PRINT \RUN gfx2(" ErLine") 

RUN gfx2("gcset", Jf.Jf) 

END 



Hint . . . 

Hack Backtracking 

During long program editing sessions, a tired mind 
can go a long way toward destroying what you have 
created. Specifically, an inadvertent "hack" by 
pressing H in the edit mode can leave you cold. If you 
have mistakenly "hacked" a line, hold down SHIFT and 
press the up arrow, and then press A to get back to 
the start of the line without any changes. 

Ralph Ritchey 
Wrangell, AK 



166 THE RAINBOW September 1987 



Listing 2i CoCoDraui 


(* returns the status of the button. 






iirii, r eg is _ers — cc , a , d , ap . t> i i sl , ^,y,u 


±LN 1 LbLK 


PROr.FDTTRF 9 p t-TTnMrm <: p 






( ' Vf TVi"f<; ■nTTx^prlii'^'p 1 1 <; p ^ t~ Vi p nrnovpin ' ^v<;r,p 1 1 ' t~ n 

\ 1 lilo UJL UV^CUU.j»C U o C o L1LC LJ JL KJ V JL. CL HI J / o vail U ^> 


DIM r egs : reg is ter s 




^ *.V H n a oof <;t"flfii<; r a 1 1 uhi rh cofc nn D^-Q t~ n frppf 


jjiri pauQ,caxj.coQ6.Diirj 




( ' Vf t"Vip f.nl nr f.fwinn tar Mon cp a VitoVi rpcnl nf i nn Hp v( c p 
^ * mc vuiu x. vuiuputci. uuuoc do a. i. coui ul iuii <akz v i^c 


uin. pa CKeu^jz j . D i in, 




r Vt* 1 1 c i n o f- Vi >*"iryVit~ i niro i~ i p lr t\ /~\y~ i~ on t - r*i t o ^ n a Tina to 
^ " UilUg L 1 1 fed tJ_gilL J Uyb L 1U K pUi L , DctdUbc , L. 1 1 J_ is Clldllgc J_o 






^ " by iLclllWlQt; , dllOUIlct pi-Ogl-cim VlSsJ-Ilg Ullc JllOU.be Idlct WOUIQ 


rAKAn. nor iz , ver t : IN l HbHK 




(it a 1 en nppfi t~n Irnou li dlj t~n n<?p fhp nnfi nns 1 h i oh 


bad *M Kai t- t-n-n ■ RVTT7 




f" Vf rP Qfll Uf 1 nn mnn cp P rl P T"i t" P T" 
\ JL CoUlUU lull lliV_l LA. o G aUaU LCI ■ 








D L- p fT A T 




( i< Q infP fhi q cpf <?t"At"ii<; rp 1 1 ic al en 1 1 q p H t~n rhanffP t~ Vi p 

u 11LLC Llllo O \Z U o La LUo V^all lo aloU UoCU LVJ ^UQU^C LUC 






/■j/if Up v rpnpflt cfprf- r*nn<;t"ATit" p n rl H pi av enpp ri it* t~ p 1 1 ^ 

l ^ V 1 C UCa L o Lai L LUHo Lall L CL 1 1 V_k u c lay o JCCU , 1L L yZ- 1 1 o 


regs . a . — ^ 




(Vc 0S~9 to leave those parameters unchanged. 


regs . b : =$89 






regs . x : =ADDR(packet) 




ILiii icgloLCics — L L , d , U , Up . C I ICj , X,y,U.,J.lNlILLiILi\ 


regs . y : =1 




JUJ.ll iCgi , ICgJ-OLClO 


caiicoae . = 9 o jj 




nTM r a 1 1 r nrl p • RVTF 

JJlil L-dllCUUc . Dl id 








RUN s y s ca 1 1 ( ca I I code , r e g s ) 




^" LNCJW o c L *^P LllC UlUVlcsC pdidHlc Lei b 








nor iz . —pacice t Q z _> ; Db+pacKetQzb; 




rod c ia • — Of 

regis . a . — y> 


VciL . — pdCKcL^Z / ) "t JOtpdCKe L^ZO ) 




-tpoc K ' — ^ Q 4 


butt on i = packet(9) 




-TPOC V'— ^CflCfl 






ic'^b . y , — v>rrrf 


RUN gfxi ( putgc , nor iz , ve r t ) 












END 




RUN syscall (callcode , regs) 


PROCEDURE drawbox 






(* Program to draw a box at location 


pointed 


END 


to by high resolution mouse. 




PROCEDURE GetMouse 


(* Uses procedure GetMouse 




(* Reads the present location of the mouse and 


(* Called by procedure DrawObjects 





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September 1 987 THE RAINBOW 1 67 



DIM horiz, vert, Horizl, vert 1: INTEGER 
DIM button: BYTE 

RUN gfx2("gcset , \ 202,1) 

RUN gfx2("curup") 
RUN gfx2("erline") 

PRINT "Point to first corner of box and click mouse." 



(* First, clear the window 
RUN gfx2 ("clear") 

(* And greet them with a boldfaced message 
RUN gfx2("boldsw" ,"on") 
PRINT "Welcome to CoCo Draw!" 

(* Don't forget to turn bold printing off 
RUN gfx2("boldsw" , "of f ") 

(* and prepare OS -9 for the High Resolution Mouse *) 
RUN SetUpMouse 

REPEAT 

C* We'll put the menu in an 
(* overlay window 

RUN gfx2("owset" ,1,5,5,30,10,2,4) 



UNTIL choIceO ,, • , 

(* When they answer, we'll 

(* turn off the cursor and 

(* close our window to give 

(* them a full screen to draw in 

RUN gfx2("curof f ") 

RUN gfx2("owend") 

(* We must run the drawing program 

(* they have selected. 

IF choice="l" THEN 

RUN gfx2("curoff ") 

RUN gfx2("CurHome") 

RUN gfx2("ErLIne") 

RUN drawbox 

ELSE 

IF choice="2" THEN 
RUN gfx2("CtvrHome") 
RUN gfx2("ErLIne") 
RUN gfx2("curoff ") 

PRINT "See CRGTOS-9 for this procedure" 
ELSE 

IF choice="3" THEN 
RUN gfx2( M curoff") 
RUN gfx2("CurHome") 
RUN gfx2("ErLIne") 

PRINT "See CRGTOS-9 for this procedure too!" 

ENDIF 

ENDIF 

ENDIF 

UNTIL choice^"?" 
RUN gfx2("CurHome") 
RUN gfx2("ErLIne") 
RUN gfx2("gcset",0,0) 

END /55S 



Two-Liner Contest Winner . . . 



Here is a two-liner we should all be familiar with. 



The listing: 

5 PM0DE4,1:PCLS:SCREEN1,1:LINE(5 
, 4 j - ( 2 5J3 , 1 8 6 ) , PSET , B : FORX=4T01 >32 
STEP14 : LINE ( 128 , X) - ( 2 5j3 , X) , PSET : 
NEXTX : FORX=1 / 02TO18 6STEP14.: LINE (5 
, X) - ( 2 5p , X) , PSET : NEXTX : LINE ( 128 , 
4) -(128,102) ,PSET:FORX=18T0168ST 
EP28 : PAINT ( 129 , X+l) , 1 , 1 : NEXTX: PO 
KE178 , 1 : FORX=4T0182STEP28 

6 PAINT (129 ,X+1) , , 1: NEXTX :FORX=l 
4T09j3STEP19:FORY=19 TO 121STEP18 
: CIRCLE ( Y , X) ,2,1: NEXTY , X : FORX=2 8 
TO104STEP18 : FORY=23T081STEP19 : CI 
RCLE (X,Y),2.5,1: NEXTY , X : POKE178 , 
2: PAINT (6, 6) , , 1 : FORW=lT05j3j3j3 : NEX 
TW:RUN 

K.T. Cunin 
Worthington, OH 

(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies of 
both The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion The Third 
Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



RUN ge tmouse( horiz , vert , button) 
HorizL : -horiz 
vertl : =vert 

RUN gfx2 ("setdptr" , Horizl, vertl) 
RUN gfx2 ("POINT" , Horizl, vertl) 
RUN gfx2 ("curup") 
RUN gfx2("erline") 

PRINT "Point to location of opposite corner and click again . " 

RUN getmouse (horiz , vert , button) 

RUN gfx2 ("box", horiz, vert) 

RUN gfx2( M bell M ) 

END 

PROCEDURE DrawObjects 
DIM button: BYTE 
DIM horiz, vert '.INTEGER 
DIM choice : STRING [1] 



(* We should turn on the text cursor 
RUN gfx2("curon") 

C* and turn off the graphics cursor for now 

RUN gfx2("gcset" , 0,0) 

C* Here's our menu 

PRINT "You may draw one object." 

PRINT 

PRINT " 1. A box" 

PRINT " 2. A circle" 

PRINT " 3. A line" 

PRINT 

PRINT " 0. To Quit" 

PRINT 

(■>'<■ Draw attention to our prompt 
RUN gfx2("revon M ) 
PRINT "Which one: " ; 

(* But after we get their attention 
(* we want to return to normal print 
RUN gfx2("revoff ") 

(* Now, wait for their response 
REPEAT 

RUN inkey(choice) 



168 THE RAINBOW September 1987 





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of one side of the disk is formatted for the OS-9 
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CoCo3 
512K 



OS-9 
Level II 




OS-9 PROGRAMMING 



Sometimes BASIC09 Isn't 
Fast Enough 



By Peter Dibble 



The BASIC09 language is an excep- 
tional version of BASIC. You will 
find that the speed of BASIC09 on 
a Color Computer, even a CoCo 2, is 
in the same class as Microsoft BASIC on 
an IBM AT. The elegance of Microsoft 
BASIC is not even close to BASIC09. 

If BASIC09 is so wonderful, why do I 
keep bringing up assembly language? 
Four reasons: It's easy to use all the 
features of the OS-9 operating system 
and the 6809 microprocessor from 
assembly language, it's a fun language 
to use, assembly language programs can 
be small, and they can be fast. 

For hobbyists, fun is the best reason 
to use assembly language. An un- 
friendly language like assembler doesn't 
sound fun to work with, but it is. If you 
don't find assembly language amusing, 
concentrate on how small and fast 
assembly language programs are com- 
pared to BASIC09 programs. 

It's hard for me to prove the case for 
assembly language programs being 
small compared to BASIC09 programs. 
The smallest BASIC09 program is a few 
bytes of code plus about 12K of Runb. 
To do a fair test, I would need to code 
a very large program in both assembler 
and BASIC09. That would be too much 



Peter Dibble has a bachelor's degree in 
chemistry and is currently a graduate 
student in computer science. He has 
worked as an applications programmer, 
systems programmer and as the user 
services assistant director for the Uni- 
versity of Rochester Computing Center. 
With Dale Puckett, he is the co-author 
of The Complete Rainbow Guide to 
OS-9. 



work. It is a fact that assembly language 
programs need never be bigger than 
equivalent BASIC09 programs, and will 
usually be much smaller, but you'll have 
to take my word for it. 

The extra speed that assembly lan- 
guage offers is easier to demonstrate 
than its efficient use of memory. In this 
article I will show you a useful BASIC09 
program that takes much more time 
than I feel happy with. Later I will show 
you how much faster the program is 



when it is written in assembly language. 
I started by saying that BASIC09 is an 
exceptionally fast version of BASIC. You 
might expect that BASIC09 on a CoCo 3 
would be fast enough for anyone. Most 
of the time you would be right, but not 
always. 

Saving Images 

The window support software in OS- 
9 makes it fairly easy to pick any image 
off the screen and save it. It would be 



Listing 1: Save I mage 



Editor's Note: The four listings pres- 
ented in this article will be combined 
into one file, COMPRESS, on this month 's 
RAINBOW ON DISK. 



PROCEDURE Savelmage 

0000 DIM FileName : STRING [99] 

000C INPUT "Image file name: ", FileName 

0025 RUN compress (FileName) 

002F END 



Listing 2: Compress 

PROCEDURE Compress 

0000 PARAM OutFileN:STRING[99] 

000C DIM InC : BYTE 

0013 DIM RunL : BYTE 

001A DIM OutPath, Window: BYTE 

002 5 DIM Nyble , LNyble : BYTE 

0030 DIM Nl: BOOLEAN 

0037 DIM buffer (7680) : BYTE 

0043 DIM section: INTEGER 

004A DIM position: INTEGER 

0051 DIM WinType,horiz, vert: INTEGER 
0060 

0061 CREATE #OutPath , OutFileN : WRITE 

006D Window :=1 

0074 N1:=TRUE 

007 A RunL:=0 

0081 section:=0 

0088 position:=0 



170 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 



nice to be able to copy images from the 
screen to a disk file, then restore them 
to the screen. It's not hard to save 
images this way, but a few images will 
fill your disk. Type 7 and Type 8 win- 
dows each take 32K of storage! 

Most images can be compressed to 
much less than 32K. The smallest rep- 
resentation of an image is usually the 
script that created it. A window with a 
single circle drawn on it (or even a blank 
window) needs 32K of memory, but 
clearing the screen and displaying a 
circle on it takes only a few bytes of 
commands. If a script isn't available, we 
have to use other compression tricks. 

There is an archiving program in the 
OS-9 Users Group's library that does a 
nice job of compressing images. Unfor- 
tunately, it does many other things as 
well. It's not a small program. 

The compression method called run 
length encoding works well on images, 
and it is easy to program. The idea is 
that colors come in blobs. Instead of 
recording an image as 

"red, red, red, red, black, 
black, green, black , . . 

we will say 

"4 red , 2black , lgreen , 
lblack , . . 

This trick usually works very well, 
but the wrong data can make run length 
encoding work very poorly. The encod- 
ing algorithm has a threshold built into 
it. Every time it has to code a color with 
a run length less than the threshold, it 
uses more space to store the code than 
the original data used. However, the 
larger the threshold, the better the 
compression (provided the runs are 
long enough). 

The person who writes the compres- 
sion algorithm gambles on the kind of 



008F RUN GetWinAttr (Window, WinType , horiz , vert) 

00A8 PUT #OutPath, WinType 

00B2 PUT #OutPath, horiz 

00BC PUT #OutPath,vert 

00C6 

00C7 GOSUB 100 \REM get a nyble 

00D9 LNyble:=Nyble 

00E1 REPEAT 

00E3 GOSUB 100 \REM get a nyble 

00F5 IF NybleOLNyble OR RunL>=15 THEN 

0109 GOSUB 50 \REM put a (runl, nyble) pair 

0127 LNyble:=Nyble 

012F RunL:=0 

0136 ELSE 

013 A RunL:=RunL+l 

0145 ENDIF 

0147 UNTIL section=4 AND position=0 

0159 CLOSE #OutPath 

015F END 

0161 50 REM Write a byte 

0173 LNyb 1 e : =LOR ( 1 6 *RunL , LNyb 1 e ) 

0182 PUT #OutPath,LNyble 

018C RETURN 

018E 100 REM Get a nyble 

019F IF position=0 THEN 

01AB section :=section+l 

01B6 RUN Getbuf fer (Window, buffer , section) 

01CA position=l 

01D1 ENDIF 

01D3 IF Nl THEN 

01DC InC :=buffer(position) 

01E7 Nyble :=InC/16 

01F2 IF position>=7680 THEN 

01FF position:=0 

0206 ELSE 

020A position : =position+l 

0215 ENDIF 

0217 ELSE 

021B Nyble :=InC 

0223 ENDIF 

0225 Nyble :=LAND($0F, Nyble) 

0231 N1:=N0T(N1) 

02 3 A RETURN 




September 1987 THE RAINBOW 171 



Listing 3: Get Buffer 

PROCEDURE GetBuffer 

0000 PARAM Window: BYTE 

0007 PARAM buffer(7680) : BYTE 

0013 PARAM section: INTEGER 

001A TYPE registers=cc,a,b,dp:BYTE; x,y,u: INTEGER 

003F DIM regs : registers 

0048 DIM i, group: INTEGER 

0053 DIM position: INTEGER 

005A BASE 0 

005C RUN syscall($0C,regs) 

006A group : =regs . a 

0075 position: =48* (sect ion- 1) 

0083 RUN gf x2 (Window , "get " , group , 1 , 0 , pos it ion , 6 3 9 , 48 ) 

00AA regs.a=l 

00B5 regs.b=$84 

00C1 regs .x=group*25 6+l 

00D4 regs.y=l 

00DF RUN syscall($8E,regs) 

00ED IF LAND(regs.cc,l)O0 THEN 

00FF ERROR regs.b 

0107 ENDIF 

0109 FOR i:=regs.y-l TO 0 STEP -1 

0126 buffer(i) : =PEEK(regs . x+i) 

013A NEXT i 

0145 regs . x=group*256+l 

0158 regs.y=0 

0163 RUN syscall($8E,regs) 

0171 RUN gfx2("killbuff' f , group, 1) 

0189 END 



Listing 4: GetWinfittr 

PROCEDURE GetWinAttr 

0000 PARAM Window: BYTE 

0007 PARAM typecode : INTEGER 

000E PARAM horiz,vert: INTEGER 

0019 TYPE register s=cc, a, b, dp: BYTE; x , y,u: INTEGER 

003E DIM regs : registers 

0047 regs . a : =Window 

0053 regs.b:=$93 

005F RUN syscall($8D,regs) 

006D IF LAND (regs . cc , 1)=1 THEN 

007F ERROR regs.b 

0087 ENDIF 

0089 typecode :=regs . a 

0094 IF typecode<5 THEN \REM not a graphics window 

00B8 ERROR 183 \REM illegal window type 

00D2 ENDIF 

00D4 FOR i:=5 TO typecode 

00E7 READ horiz,vert 

00F0 NEXT i 

00FB END 

00FD DATA 640,192 

0108 DATA 320,192 

0113 DATA 640,192 

011E DATA 320,192 



image it will be compressing. I am 
conservative, so I decided to design a 
compression algorithm that codes run 
lengths of up to 16. Runs longer than 
16 are coded as two runs of the same 
color. 

The Color Computer uses one, two or 
four bits per pixel. It would have been 
best for me to write three versions of the 
compression algorithm: one for each 
number of colors. I didn't. If a window 
is in two-color mode, my compression 
program will treat each group of four 
pixels as one. It's not the best thing to 
do, but it works. 

There are a few things about this pro- 
gram that you should notice. 

To run it, type RUN "Savelmage". 
It only works on the current win- 
dow. 

It stores the type and size of a 
window with the data from it. 
It uses SYSCRLL. 
It's painfully slow. 

It would be very nice to be able to 
pick an image out of another window, 
but OS-9 makes it difficult. Since win- 
dow commands are issued by writing 
them to the window you want to affect, 
OS-9 will not process window com- 
mands for a window from which a 
program is reading. The shell and 
BASIC09 (for instance) are usually trying 
to read from their windows. 

The compression program might be 
able to get away without knowing the 
size and type of the window it is com- 
pressing, but we'll need to know those 
facts when we want to redisplay the 
image. 

The program uses 5Y5CALL four 
times. GetWinPttr uses 5Y5CALL to get 
the window type. GetBuffer uses 
5Y5CALL to get its process ID to use as 
an image buffer number, then it uses 
5Y5CALL to map an image buffer into 
its address space; finally it uses another 
SYSCfiLL to map the image buffer back 
out of the address space. 

Results 

In my tests, the run length encoding 
compression program worked pretty 
well. It usually reduced images to less 
than half their full size. It was, however, 
very slow. I only timed it once, but that 
time it took more than AVi minutes to 
compress a window. 

I think four minutes is far too long 
to spend compressing the data from one 
screen, but I can't find any way to make 
a dramatic improvement in the speed of 
the BASlC09program. 17s 



172 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 



DIGISECTOR 
DS-69B 



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FOR THE 
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The DS-69B comes with a one year warranty. Cameras 
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NO RISK GUARANTEE 

If you are not completely satisfied with the performance of your new 
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TH mD©[^°> 

Purveyors of Fine Video Digitizers Since 1977. 



P.O. Box 1110 Del Mar, CA 92014 (619) 942-2400 



Racksellers 



The retail stores listed below carry THE RAINBOW on a regular basis 
and may have other products ot interest to Tandy Color Computer 
users. We suggest you patronize those in your area. 



ALABAMA 

Birmingham 

Brewton 

Florence 

Greenville 

Madison 

Montgomery 

ALASKA 

fo/rbanks 

ARIZONA 

Phoenix 
Sierra Vista 
Tempe 
Tucson 

ARKANSAS 

Fayettevllle 
Ft. Smith 
Little Rock 

CALIFORNIA 

Citrus Heights 
Grass Valley 
Half Moon Bay 
Hollywood 

Sacramento 
San Jose 
Sonta Rosa 
Sunnyvale 

DELAWARE 

Mlddletown 

Mliford 

Wilmington 

FLORIDA 

Boca Raton 

Cocoa 

Davie 

Deltona 

Ft. Lauderdale 

Jacksonville 



Noith Miami 

Beach 
Panama City 
Pensocola 
Pinellas Paik 
Starke 

Tallahassee 

Tarmpo 

Titusville 

GEORGIA 

Bremen 
Jesup 
Marietta 
Toccoa 

IDAHO 

Lewiston 
Moscow 

ILLINOIS 

Aurora 
Belleville 
Champolgn 
Chicago 



Jefferson News Co. 
McDowell Electronics 
Anderson News Co. 
M & B Electronics 
Madison Books 
Trade 'N' Books 

Electronic World 

TRI-1EK Computers 
Livingston's Books 
Computer Library 
Anderson News Co. 

Vaughn EleclTonlcs/Radlo Shack 
Hot Off the Press Newsstand 
Anderson News Co. 

Software Plus 
Advance Radio, Inc. 
Strawf lower Electronics 
Levity Distributors 
Polygon Co. 
Tower Magazine 
Computer Literacy Bookshops 
Sawyer's News. Inc. 
Computer Literacy 

Delmar Co. 

Miiford News Stand 

Normar, Inc.— The Smoke Shop 

Software. Software, Inc. 
The Open Door 
Software Plus More 
Wilson Assoc. dbo Radio Shack 
Electronics Engineers 
Mike's Electronics Distributor 
The Book Nook 
Book" Town 

White's of Downtown Bookstore 

Almar Bookstore 
Boyd-Ebert Corp. 
Anderson News Co. 
Wolf's Newsstand 
Record Junction, Inc. 
Radio Shack Dealer 
Anderson News Co. 
Fine Print Bookstore 
Computrac 

Bremen Electronics/Radio Shack 

Radio Shack 

Act One Video 

Martin Music Radio Shack 



Books. Etc. 

Johnson News Agency 

Kroch's & Brentano's 
Software or Systems 
Book Market 
B. Dalton Booksellers 

N. Wabash St. 

West Jackson St. 
Bob's in Newtown 
Bob's News Emporium 
Bob's Rogers Park 
Book Market 

East Cedar 

North Cicero 

West Dlversey 
E.B. Garcia & Associates 
Kroch's & Brentano's 

South Wabash 

West Jackson 

516 N. Michigan 

835 N. Michigan 
Parkway Drugs 
Parkwest Books 
Sandmeyer's Bookstore 
Univ. of Chicago Bookstore 
Univ. of Illinois Bookstore 
Videomat, Inc. 



ILLINOIS (cont'd) 
Chllllcothe 
Danville 
Decatur 



East Mollne 

Evanston 

Geneseo 

Kewanee 

Lisle 

Newton 

Oak Brook 

Oak Park 

Paris 

Peoria 



Schaumberg 

Skokle 

Springfield 



Sunnyland 
West Frankfort 
Wheeling 



Book Emporium 
Book Market 
Book Emporium 
K-Mart Plaza 
Northgote Mall 
Book Emporium 
Chicago-Main News 
B & J Supply 
Book Emporium 
Book Nook 
Bill's TV Rodlo Shack 
Kroch's & Brentano's 
Kroch's & Brentano's 
Book Emporium 
Book Emporium 
Sheridan Village 
Westlake Shopping Center 
Book Market 
Illinois Newsservice 
Kroch's & Brentano's 
Kroch's & Brentano's 
Book Emporium 
Sangamon Center North 
Town & Country Shopping Ctr. 
Book Emporium 
Paper Place 
North Shore Distributors 



MINNESOTA (cont'd) 

Minneapolis Read-More News 



INDIANA 




Annnln 


DAD Ftflptrnnlrs 


Radio Shock 


Berne 


White Cottage Electronics 


Columbus 


Micro Computer Systems, Inc. 


wv_iii oil 


Rnn News Agency, Inc. 


Oreenwood 


The Computer Experience 




Booklond, Inc. 




Delmar News 




Indiana News 


Jasper 


Elex Mart 


Madison 


A/co Office Supplies 


Martinsville 


Radio Shock 


Wabash 


Mlltlng's Electronics 


IOWA 




Davenport 


Interstate Book Store 


Ottumwa 


Southslde Drug 


KANSAS 




Topeka 


Palmer News, Inc. 




Town Crier ot Topeka, Inc. 


Wellington 


Dandy's/Radio Shack Dealer 


Wichita 


Amateur Radio Equipment Co, 




Lloyd's Rodlo 


KENTUCKY 




Hazard 


Daniel Boone Gulf Mart 


Hopklnsvllle 


Hobby Shop 


Paducah 


Radio Shack 


LOUISIANA 




Monroe 


The Book Rack 


MAINE 




Bangor 


Magazines, Inc. 


Brockton 


Voyager Bookstore 


Caribou 


Radio Shack 


Sanford 


Radio Shock 


Waterboro 


Radio Shack 


MASSACHUSETTS 




Brockton 


Voyager Bookstore 


Cambridge 


Out Of Town News 


Fltchburg 


Corners Book Shop 


Ipswich 


Ipswich News 


Littleton 


Computer Plus 


Lynn 


North ShOTe News Co. 


Swansea 


Newsbreak, Inc. 


MICHIGAN 




AJJen Park 


Book Nook, Inc. 


Durand 


Robblns Electronics 


Harrison 


Harrison Radio Shack 


Howell 


Howell Auto Parts 


Lowell 


Curt's Sound & Home Arcade Center 


Muskegon 


The Eight Bit Corner 


Owosso 


C/C Computer Systems 


Perry 


Perry Computers 


Royal Ook 


Software City 


Sterling 




Heights 


Sterling Book Center 


Wyoming 


Gerry's Book Co. 


MINNESOTA 




Duluth 


Carlson Books 



The Photo Shop 

North Side News 

Ray's TV & Radio Shack 
Cowley Dlslrlbutlng 
T&R Electronics 
Audio Hut 
Book Emporium 
Computer Xchange 
Front Page News 
Bailey's TV & Radio 

Plaza Book Store 

Consumer Electronics of Whlteflsh 
Nelson News 
Hurley Electronics 



Wlllmar 

MISSISSIPPI 

Jackson 

MISSOURI 

Farmlngton 
Jeffeison City 
Klrksvllle 
Moberly 
St. Louis 



St, Robert 

MONTANA 

Butte 
Whlteflsh 

NEBRASKA 

Omaha 

NEVADA 

Las Vegas 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

West Lebanon Verham News Corp. 

NEW JERSEY 

Cedar Knalls 
Clinton 
Marmora 
Pennsvllle 
River Edge 
Rockaway 

NEW MEXICO 

Alamogordo 
Albuquerque 



Village Computer & Software 
Micro World II 
Outpost Radla Shack 
Dave's Elect. Radio Shock 
Software City 
Software Station 

New Horizons Computer Systems 
Desert Moon Distributors 
Fiont Page Newsstand 
Page One Newsstand 

NEW YORK 

Brockport Lift Bridge Book Shop, Inc. 

Brooklyn Cromland, inc. 

Elmlra Heights Southern Tier News Ca, Inc. 
Fredonla On Line: Computer Access Center 

Hudson Falls GA West & Co. 
Johnson City Unicom Electronics 
New York Barnes & Noble— Sales Annex 

Coliseum Books 
Eastern Newsstand 
Grand CentTal Station, Track 37 
200 Park Ave.. (Pan Am #1) 
55 Water Street 
World Trade Center #2 
First Stop News 
Idle Hours Bookstore 
International Smoke Shop 
Jonll Smoke 
Penn Book 
Software City 
State News 
Usercom Systems, inc. 
Walden Books 
World Wide Media Services 
Software City 

Universal Computer Service 
Village Green 
Worldwide News 
Spectrum Projects 



N. White Rains 
Pawling 
Rochester 

Woodhaven 
NORTH CAROLINA 



Aberdeen 

Caiy 
Charlotte 

Havlock 
Hickory 
Marion 

OHIO 

Blanchester 

Canton 

Chardon 

Cincinnati 

Columbiana 

Columbus 

Coshocton 

Dayton 

Falrbom 



King Electronics 
Radio Shack 

News Center In Caiy Village 
Newsstand Infl 
Papers & Paperback 
Computer Plus 
C? Books & Comics 
Boomers Rhythm Center 

JR Computer Control 
Little Professor Book Center 
Thrasher Radio & TV 
Clnsoft 

Fidelity Sound & Electronics 

B5 Software 

Utopia Software 

Huber Heights Book & Card 

Wllke News 

News-Readere 

Wllke's University Shoppe 



174 



THE RAINBOW September 1987 



OHIO (cont'd) 

Kent 
Kentpn 
Lakewood 
Lima 

Miamteburg 
Mount Orab 
Rocky River 
Toledo 
Wbodsfieid 

OKLAHOMA 

Oklahoma 

City 
Taklequah 
Tulsa 

OREGON 

Portland 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Allen lawn 

Allison Posk 

^Itoohb 

Brookville 

Malvern 

Philadelphia 

Phoenlxvllle 
Pittsburgh 
Pleasant Hills 
Temple 
Wind Gap 
York 

RHODE ISLAND 

Warwick 



The News Shop 

T.W. Hogan & Associates 

Lakewood International News 

Brunner News Agency 

Edu-Caterers 

Wnke News 

Mount Orab Radio Shack 

Programs Unlimited 

Leo's Book & Wine Shop 

Day Appliance & TV/Radio Shack 

Dealer 



Merit Micro Software 

Thomas Sales, Inc. dba Radio Shack 

Steve's Book Store 

Rtth Ave, News 

Owl Services 
Software City 
Newborn Enterprises 
Lany's Stereo Shop 
Personal Software 
City Software Center 
Newsy 

Stevens Radio Shack- 
All-Pro Souvenlers 
Pitt Computer SrSoftware 
Software Corner 
Micro World 

the Computer Center of York 
Software Connection 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston Hts. Software Haus, Inc. 
Gaffney Gaftney Book Store 

Greenville Palmetto News Co. 
Spartanburg Software City 
Union Fleming's Electronics 

TENNESSEE 

Chattanooga 

Dickson 
Knoxvllle 



Memphis 

Smyrna 
Union City 

TEXAS 

Big Spring 
Brenham 
Elgin 

VIRGINIA 

Gafton 
Norfolk 
Richmond 

WASHINGTON 

Seattle 
Tacoma 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Huntington 
Logan 
Madison 
Parkersburg 

WISCONSIN 

Appleton 

Cudahy 

Milwaukee 



Mlnocqua 
Racine 

WYOMING 

Casper 



Anderson News Go. 
Guild Books & Periodicals 
Highland Electronics 
Anderson News Co. 
First feyta Computer Co. 
Computer Center 
Software.. Inc. 
Delker Electronics 
Cox Electronics Radio Shack 

Poncho's News 
Moore's Electronics 
The Homing Pigeon 

Electronics Marketing 
l-O Computers 
Software City 

Adams News Co... Inc. 
B & ^Magazines & Books 
Nybbles 'N Bytes 

Nick's News 

Stan's Electronics & Radio Shack 
Communications. LTD 
Valley News Service 

Badger Periodicals 
Cudahy News& Hobby 
Book Tree 
Booked Solid 
Booked Solid II 
Harvey Schwartz Bookshop 
Univ. of Wisconsin Bookshop 
island Technologies 
Little Professor Book Center 

The Computer Store 



CANADA: 




Al RFDT A 
ALDCK 1 f\ 




Banff 


R/-inff D/^iHIrv QH/"i^l/ 

Dunn kucjio oncJCK 


RI/~ilrmor« 


I & k^rvortsfit Music 

1. W l\ Of~ r *-'l Id IA IVIUOlW 


dvji ii lyviiro 






rv>i %, n" ACf Dnrlln Qhnrl/ 


^aigary 


R|||v/'e Mowt 

only s iwwj 




IVtJIiy 0*U 1 1 W\JI Kj UMoHILJUIUlO 


^lUloSnOll T 1 


Kuaiu onucK ANbsuciuitjaoimoo 


Drayton Valley 


LUl lyUICJ CiOCIIOihCo 


Edmonton 




Edson 


l\UUIVJ Ol IUl*IS 


roirview 


HMD Pi imlti iro A TV 


Fox Creek 


Fox City Color & Sound 




AS.C. Radio Shack 


Ft. Saskatche- 




wan 


Ft. Mall Radio Shack, ASC 


Grande 




Cache 


The Stereo Hut 


Grande 




Centre 


The Book Nook 


Hlnton 


Jim Cooper 


Innlsfall 


L & S Stereo 


Leduc 


Radio Shack Associated Stores 


Lethbrldge 


Datatron 


Lloydminster 


Lloyd Radio Shack 


Okotoks 


Okotoks Radio Shack 


Peace River 


Radio Shack Associated Stores 




Tavener Software 


St. Paul 


Walter's Electronics 


Stettler 


Stettler Radio Shack 


Strathmore 


Wheatland Electronics 


Taber 


Pynewood Sight & Sound 


Westlock 


Westlock Stereo 


Wetasklwln 


Radio Shack 


BRITISH COLUMBIA 


Bumaby 


Compullt 


Bumslake 


VT. Video Works 


Campbell 




River 


TRS Electronics 


Chllliwack 


Charles Parker 


Coortengy 


Rick's Music & Sterea 


Dawson Creek 


Bell Radio & IV 


Golden 


Taks Home Furnishings 


Kelowna 


Telesoft Marketing 


Langley 


Langley Radio Shack 


N. Vancouver 


Mlcrowest Distributors 


Nelson 


Oliver's Books 


Parksvllle 


Parksvllle IV 


Penticton 


D.J/s 




Four Corner Grocery 


Sidney 


Sidney Electronics 


Smlthers 


Wall's Home Furniture 


Squamlsh 


Kotyk Electronics 


100 Mile 




House 


Tip Top Radio & TV 



MANITOBA 




Altonc 


LA Wiebr Ltd. 


Lundar 


Goranson Elec. 


Morden 


Central Sound 


The Pas 


Jodl's Sight & Sound 


Selkirk 


GL Enns Elec. 


Vlrden 


Archer Enterprises 


Winnipeg 


J & J Electronics Ltd. 


UCUi DDI III CYkJIf^W 

NcW BKUNoWlV^K 




Moncton 


Jeffries Enterprises 


Sussex 


Dewltt Elec. 


MCUiCOIIMfM Akin 




Botwood 


Seaport Elec. 


Carbonear 


Slade Realties 


NOVA SCOTIA 




Halifax 


Atlantic News 


ONTARIO 




Angus 


Micro rnmm it or ^orvlfAS 


Aurora 


Compu Vision 




ii lyi ui 1 1 Ovtiwuio 


Exceter 


J. Mocleone & Sons 


Hanover 


Modern Appliance Centre 


Huntsviile 


Huntsviile Elec. 


Kenora 


Donny "B" 


Kingston 


TM. Computers 


Listowel 


Modern Appliance Centie 


South River 


Max TV 




Dennis TV 


QUEBEC 




LaSqlle 


Messageries de Presse Benjamin Enr. 


Pont. Rouge 


Boutique Bruno Laroche 


SASKATCHEWAN 




Asslnlbola 


Telstar News 


Estevan 


Kolyk Electronics 


Moose Jaw 


P&S Computer Place 


Nlplwan 


Cornerstone Sound 


Reglna 


Reglna CoCo Club 




Soflware Supermarket 


Saskatoon 


Everybody's Soflware Library 


Shellbrooke 


Gee. Laberge Radio Shack 


Tlsdale 


Paul's Service 


Unity 


Grant's House of Sound 


YUKON 




Whltehorse 


H & O Holdings 


JAPAN 




Tokyo 


America Ado. Inc. 


PUERTO RICO 




San Juan 


Software City 



Also available at all B. Dalton Booksellers, 
and selected Coles Bookstores, 
\N aid en books, Pickwick Books, Encore 
Books, Barnes & Noble, Little Professors, 
Tower Book & Records, Kroch's & 
Brentano's, and Community Newscenters. 



AUSTRALIA 

Blaxland 
Klngsford 



Blaxland Computers 
Paris Radio Electronics 



September 1987 THE RAINBOW 1 



Advertiser's Index 



We encourage you to patronize our advertisers — all of whom support the Tandy Color 
Computer. We will appreciate your mentioning the rainbow when you contact these firms. 



A to Z Unlimited 55 

Alpha Products 21 

Boiling Spring 

Lakes Software 29 

Canyon County Devices 167 

Cer-Comp 101, 153 

Cinsoft 53 

Clearbrook Software 

Group 134 

CNR Engineering 24 

Cognitec 75 

Colorware 23 

Computer Center 35 

Computer Island 81 

Computer Plus 3 

Computerware 63 

Computize 25 

D.P. Johnson 163 

Dayton Associates of 

W. R. Hall, Inc 128 

Delphi 114, 115 

Diecom IFC, IBC 

Disto 33 

Dorsett 57 

Elegant Software 1 45 

Frank Hogg Laboratory 165 

Gimmesoft 45 

Hard Drive Specialists 177 

Hawkes Research 

Services 77 

TMM/Hemphill Electronics ....161 

Howard Medical 34, 178 

ICR Futuresoft 121 

J & M Systems 105, 145 

J & R Electronics 111 

Kelly Software 

Distributors 167 

Metric Industries 69 

Micro Works, The 173 

Microcom Software ...9,11,13,15 
Microtech Consultants 

Inc 73 

MicroWorld 109 

Other Guys Software, The 99 



1 76 THE RAINBOW September 1 987 



Owl-Ware 157, 158, 159 

Performance Peripherals 155 

Perry Computers 16 

Preble's Programs, Dr BC 

Probitat 131 

PXE Computing 7 

Rainbow Bookshelf 156 

Rainbow Gift Subscription 52 

Rainbow Introductory 

Guide"to Statistics 48 

Rainbow on Tape and Disk 169 

Rainbow OS-9 Level II Book 44 

RAINBOWfest 122, 123 

Robotic Microsystems 111 

RTR Development Systems 151 

SEESOF.i 55 



Seibyte Software 135 

Software House, The 27 

SpectroSystems 39 

Spectrum Projects Inc 17, 67 

Sugar Software 147 

Sunrise Software 1 55 

T & D Software 27, 30, 31, 149 

Tandy/Radio Shack 49, 51 

Tepco 171 

Tom Mix Software 37 

True Data Products 84, 85 

Wasatch ware 103 

William Brigance 139 

Woodstown Electronics 65 

Zebra Systems 113 



M Call: 

Belinda Kirby 
Advertising Representative 

The Falsoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

(502) 228-4497 



Call: 

Jack Garland 

Garland Associates, Inc. 
10 Industrial Park Road 
Hingham, MA 02043 

(617) 749-5852 



□ Call: 

Kim Vincent 
Advertising Representative 

The Falsoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

(502) 228-4492 




The Best Money Can Buy . . . 
HDS Floppy Drive Controller Board 




Reduce your I/O errors with the Hard Drive Specialist 
Floppy Drive Controller for the Color Computer. Gold edge 
card connectors, advanced design, and the absence of 
potentiometers make it the best available. Our newest ver- 
sion controller allows the use of either (two 24 pin ROMS), 
or (one 24^ pin and one 28 pin ROM). Using this board 
with the standard Radio Shack ROM gives you 100% com- 
patibility with all Radio Shack software. 
Completed and Tested Board 

with Radio Shack ROM $99. 

(Includes Case, and DOS Instructions) 

Completed and Tested Board without ROM . . . $79. 

(Includes Case) 

Bare Board with Instruction manual $30. 

Parts Kit For Bare Board without ROM $30. 

Radio Shack ROM (current version) $20. 

Radio Shack ROM 1.0 $40. 



Ordering Information : 

Use our WATS line to place your order via Visa. MasterCard, or Wire Transfer Or 
mail your payment directly to us. Any non> certified funds will be held until proper 
clearanca is made. COD orders are accepted as well as purchase orders from 
government agancies. Most items are shipped off the shelf with the exception of hare" 
drive products that are custom built. UPS ground is our standard means of shipping 
unless otherwise specified Shipping costs are available upon request. 



Drive 0 Complete v $199. 

Drive 1 Complete $129. 

Drive 0 & 1 Dual Drive $319. 



HARD DRIVE SPECIALIST 



1-713-480-6000 
Order Line 1-800-231-6671 
16208 Hickory Knoii 
Houston, Texas 77059 




Save $200 on Magnavox Monitors 
Magnavox 8CM643 RGB Analog only $385!! 




MONITORS 




1230A12" 



This 12" green screen high resolution 
monitor offers 80 column capability, Zenith 
quality and a 90-day warranty valid at any 
of Zenith's 1200 locations. 



$125 



122A Zenith 12" Amber Screen offers 
the same 640 dots x 200 lines reso- 
lution at 15MHz and a 90-day war- 
ranty valid at 1200 locations. 



$88 



(*7 shipping) 

MAGNAVOX 
8 CM 515 has 

analog RGB for CoCo 3, TTL RGB 
for Tandy 1000 or IBM PC's, and 
composite color for CoCo 2 and 3. 
Built-in speaker. 14" screen with 
640 dot x 240 line resolution. Plus 
2 years parts and labor warranty. 

reg. list S499 

SAVE 
$200 



Retail $199 
Our price 
($7 shipping) BRAND NEW 

All monitors require an amplifier cir- 
cuit to drive the monitor and are 
mounted inside the color computer. 
They attach with spring connectors 
with two wires extending out of the 
computer, one for audio and one for 
video. CoCo 3 does not require an 
amplifier circuit. 

VA-1 for monochrome monitors only, 
fits all color computers 



$24.45 



$39. 45 



$298 

+ $14 Shipping 




CC-3 Magnavox RGB cable. 

only $19.95 with 

Magnavox Monitor order. 
$29.95 w/o monitor. 



( 6 2 shipping) 

VC-4 for monochrome or color, fits all 
color computers 
($2 shipping) 

MAGNAVOX 

CM 8505 has analog RGB 
and TTL RGB and composite 
color input. Built in speaker. 13" 
screen with 390 dots x 240 reso- 
lution in RGB mode. Plus 1 year 
parts & labor warranty. 

reg. list $299 

SAVE 

*79 



$220 

+ $14 Shipping 




DRIVE 0 + ■ Howards Drive 0 gives you a 

DD-3 MPI drive, a CA-1 cable and a J&M DC-4 Disk Controller 

for onlv. Double sided double density 360 



$17845 

( s 5 shipping) 
Add $34 for a Disto DC-3. 




|0 1 



GUARANTEE 

Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee is meant to eliminate the uncertainty- 
of dealing with a company through the mail. Once you receive our hard- 
ware, try it out; test it for compatibility. If you're not happy with it for any 
reason, return it in 30 days and we'll give you your money back (less 
shipping.) 

Shipping charges are for 48 states. 

APO, Canada and Puerto Rico orders slightly higher. 



DISK CONTROLLER 




c 

ADD-ON 

DC-38 includes 80 column capacity, 
parallel printer, real time clock, and all 
software $138 

DC-256 256K RAM Board includes 
software to access all RAM $QQ 



DC512 512K 
software 



RAM 



Board with 

$125 



DC-3C Clock Calendar and parallel 
printer port Q $40 



Includes controller and C-DOS 4.0 
ROM Chip. DISTO 

$98 DC-3 A 

$2 shipping on all DISTO products 

BOARDS 

DC-3P Mini Eprom programmer in- 
cludes all software to program 2764 
or 27128 chips Q $55 

2764 8K Eprom 28 pin 

$8« 0 each 

27128 16K Eprom 28 pin 

$8 50 each 

C-DOS 3 28 pin Eprom makes Disto 
controller compatible with CoCo 3 

»20 



SOFTWARE SPECIALS 



Payrol/BAS 



($2 shipping) 

• Nonprotected basic modifiable 

• Tax tables built in for automatic 
federal calculation 

• Custom code for every state (*25 option) 

• 4 pay periods 

• 7 deductions 

• Prints checks 

• 100 employees 

• 30 ledger numbers for checks 
other than payroll 

• Check register includes monthly 
or weekly federal deposit amount 

• Enter, update, delete employees, 
company and check information 

• Print payroll and nonpayroll 
checks 



Payrol/BAS™ 
30 Day TVial 

$29.95 



VIP LIBRARY 

Softlaw's integrated package in- 
cludes VIP writer terminal, data 
base, call and disk zap which can 
fix a diskette that is giving I/O 
errors 



$125 



($2 shipping) 



MEMORY 

Memory for CoCo 3 PC memory 
board plugs into the spare slots in- 
side the computer and can be 
populated with 256K ram chips. 
Completely solderless with com- 
plete easy to install instructions. 

$49.50 

PC Memory board with 512K *99 

Software spooler and RAM disk 

for lightning quick response or no 
disk swapping drive backup for 1 
drive system and printer spooler to 
free computer during long listings. 

$19.45 

($2 shipping on Memory 
products) 



64-2 for CoCo 2. Kit requires one 
solder point, no trace cuts. 

($2 shipping) $24.45 

64-E1 for E Boards with complete 
instructions. Remove old chips 
and replace with preassembled 
package— no soldering or trace 
cuts. 

($2 shipping) 28.45 

64-F1 for F Boards. No soldering 
needed. Capacitor leads must be 
cut. 

($2 shipping) $24.45 

64-22 TWo chip set for 26-3134A 
and B, 26-3136A and B. Koren Col- 
or Computers require 1 solder 
point. 

( s 2 shipping) 28.45 



Howard Medical Computers 1690 N. Elston Chicago, IL 60622 
JU (Qf\n\ aai.iaaa —(312) 276-1440 




(800) 443-1444 



Shuwruom Hours: 
8:00 - 5:00 Mon, - Fri. 
10:04' 3:00 S*t. 



WE ACCEPT: VISA • MASTERCARD • AMERICAN EXPRESS 
C.O.Q OR CHECKS • SCHOOL RO.'S 




DR. PREBLE'S 
- PROGRAMS 



Introducing PYRAMIX 

for your Cotor Computer 3 ! 



Product of 
ColorVenture 



The Pyramid has long been associated 
endless arcade fun. 



with mystery and power. Now, PYRAM1I, for your CoCo 3, Is n source of 



PYRAMIX is a 100% machine language gome written exclusively to take advantage of all the power in your 128K 
CoCo 3. The colors are brilliant, the graphics sharp, the action hot. 

The object of PYRAHLX looks deviously simple. .Just change the tops of the hlocks in the pyramid to the 
indicated color. But the accomplishment can be ciusivet 

Foiling boulders, the relentless pursuit of the Snake, the slow moving "death square" and precipitous falls 
challenge you from oil sides. Then there's that little sneak with sunglasses, who undoes your hard-earned 
color changes if you don't cetch him. 

It's all quite maddening! As you reach more challenging levels, you'll find that you need to hop on the 
squares not once but twice in order to change their color. Or, worse yet, hopping on a squsre you already 
visited might undo the work you've Just done. 

But you do have some help in PYRAKJJC. There are elevator discs. Hop on one and It will take you to the top, 
possibly luring the greedy Snake over the edge! If you catch a Time-Stopper Orb, time will freeze, allowing 
uninterrupted work for while. 

PYRAMIX features the finest in animation, graphics^ sound effects and game play available today. It has all 
the extras you want, too, auch as a pause option, RCB and CMP modes, keyboard or Joystick play, help screen, 
.nultiple skill level, and the ability to backup your disk. 



HI) ftliSti 
score) siaase 



0 0> 0 0 0 0 

JUHP CPAUSTKO tl rtP 



Best of all is the low price! Available today, for only $24.95 




BASIC FREEDOM 1 No one wants to be chained down. And 
yet, if you type in BASIC programs, you have been 
subject to involuntary servitude! The culprit? 
BASIC'S limited EDIT coraraond. 



•r. Preble's 
Prescriptions, 



Dejaand Your BASIC FREEDOM! Developed by ColorVenture, this software gives you o full screen editor 
for typing In mid editing BASIC programs! Move the cursor anywhera on the screen. Insert, delete or 
add text. It's the some concept as in a word processor, except you never have to leave BASIC! BASIC 
FREEDOM is an invisible machine language progran which you can turn on and off ot will. Even 
pressing RESET will not hurt your BASIC FREEDDOM! Sinple, yet powerful with an easy to read manual. 
Many extra "nice touches" included, like KEY REPEAT and LOWERCASE INTERPRETER which lets you type 
BASIC commands in upper or lower case for ease of programming. Translation to uppercase is automatic 



for commands. Text in quotes is not affected. 



For CoCo 1. 2. or 3 ! 



A sopsrnte version is 



SPECIAL COCO 3 VERSION lets you work in 32, 40, or 80 column display mode) 
available for the CoCo 1 and 2. Available on disk for S29.95 + s/h. 

MENTAL FREEDOM by Dr. Preble! IMACrHBl Some day, a computer ao advanced that it responds to your 
very thought a and emotions. Imagine, somo day, thought-controlled graphics: levitation and 
materialization! PLUG IN YOUR MIND ond UNB00K YOUR JOYSTICKS-- that day is now! The Radio Shack 
Color Computer has many advanced capabilities, Just waiting to be tapped. Dr. Problo's Progress 
combines the advanced technology of the CoCo with the amazing Radio Shack Biofeedback Monitor to 
bring you "Mental Preedo.." y QV CoCo 2 0r 3 

TIlOUGuT-CONTROLLED VIDEO CHALLENGE? Unlike any video game you have ever played, our Thoughtware 
tests your ability to handle atresa, to remain calm under' adverse circumatancoa. LIGHTNING FAST 
reflexes will do you no good here, unless you first tame the fickle dragon of your mind. Are you the 
secretely nervous type? Many people can keep a "Poker Face" even when they are worried so that 
others may not notice; but can you really stop the worry itself? Find out with Mental Freedom! 

AND IT TALKS! Did you know that the CoCo can produce incredibly realistic digital speech without a 
special speech synthesizer? The voice quality is so good, it sounds human! Honeat. Beat of all, no 
extra hardware is needed for spoech, Just some clever programming by Dr. Preble. 

MENTAL FREEDOM - Next tiite your friends ask what your computer can do, show 
them Dr Preble's Thoughtwore! Requires Radio Shock's Biofeedback Monitor 
Catalogue #63-675. Mental Freedom - TAPE or DISK $29.95 + s/h 



J 



CoCoBraille 



Emboss Grade 1 or Crade 2 
Braille using your CoCo 1, 2 
or 3 and a Brother Daisy Wheel 
printer! Fast Print to 
Braille conversion algorithm 
converts word processor ft las, 
program listings and data 
files into touch readable 
Braille. For use by the blind 
or the sighted. No knowledge 
of the Braille code is 
necessary. Just send print to 
the program and out comes 
Braille! Note: The complex 
Grade 2 conversion is very 
good and though not alwaya 
perfect, quite readable. 
Requires 64K or more. Brother 
HR series printer or the IF-50 
interface series required. 
Low Cost! Similar aoftware 
coets 3 times as much. Only 
$95. 



VD0S» the UnDISK: Ssve multiple programs in memory. Or save multiple graphic pictures in memory. Works with 
or without a disk. Let's you SAVE, IOAD and KILL stored progrnma or graphics. DIREdORY function lists 
filea, gives the start, end and execution addresses of machine language programs and number of freo bytes 
remaining. Own a RAM disA: without buying a disk drivel Requires 64K CoCo 1 or 2. Available on tape or disk 
for $24.95 + shipping/handling. 

VDUMP, for the InDISK: Backup all your UnDISK files to a single tape file for oasy reloading A must for VDOS 
users! On tape for $14.95 + ahipping/handling. 

VFRINT, for the tnDISK: Paper printout for UnDISK Directory. On tope, $9.95 + shipping/handling. 

Check, Money Order, MasterCard, VISA or COD accepted . For Shipping to USA or Canada add $2.50, to other 
councne, 0 <d 55.00. tfgTfr, f 0X CoCO 1 Of 2 



VtSA 



IMortorCdtd 



Check Honey Order or 

cod" 





1 a 3 2 A <B T 

Dress up your "Disk. Directory 

color Jul messages awl 
borders. Create useful fxelp 
messages Add that pro- 
fessional touch to uour cre- 
ations! Only $9 95 



Order From 
Dr Preble's Programs 

6540 Outer loop 
LouismOe. XX) 40228 
(502) 966-8281 

Phone Ordtrs »oo*pt«<3 
■ion., W»o., fVi., ind <S»i. lift)