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THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



Our Beginners Blockbuster 



Packed with handy tips, 
BASIC Training and 
short, easy-to-understand 
programs for new 
CoCo owners 



A zany graphics game from 
Eric White 



Dennis Weide's CoCo ROS 



Two Tutorials 
from Bill Bernico 






WRESTLE MANIAC 



HI 



M A. 



■JWKt>. 



f> u r e 




Bouncing Boulders is a new, fast paced arcade- 
style game for your Coco, As you race your man 
around the screen you try to collect enough stars 
to open the exit to the next level. You can drop 
rocks to kill aliens that follow you around the 
screen trying to catch you. But beware of the fall- 
ing and bouncing boulders as they will crush your 
man if you get trapped under one. The many dif- 
ferent screens with tots of puzzles will keep you 
playing for hours on end. 










<ri 






— -A. 






w - 





You've asked for it and now it's here, a wrestling 
game for your color computer. Play a single match 
or play a tag team match in this 1 to 4 player game. 
Wrestle against the computer or wrestle against 
your friend in a single or tag team match, Use pun- 
ches, kicks, body slams, back breakers and many 
other moves as you attempt to pin your opponent. 
Super graphics and realistic play action make this 
a great game for all, 

64 K AND JOYSTICK 



$38.95 



CAM 




OF DELIRIUM 



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1 




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1 


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■ ■ . ' * I - ■ . 









Travel through towns and ex- 
plore strange lands m the 
ultimate fantasy role-playing 
game for the color computer. 
As you travel the land you will 
meet different characters that 
you may convince to join you In 
your quest. During your quest 
you will learn the secrets of 
magic spells and ultimately, 
your final goal. 

Enter The Gates of Dtllriurn 
contest! The first person to 
solve the game shall be our 
grand prize winner of a Coco 3. 
there will be 5 second prizes of 
one free game from Diecom 
Products and 5 third prizes of 
one free hat from Diecom Pro- 
ducts. 

required $38.35 u s. 

$52,95 can 

available on disk onlv 



ALSO AVAILABLE 

— Paper Route, Knock Out, 
Karate, each game requiring 
64K. Tape or disk. 

$28.95 u s. 
$38.95 can. 



6715 FIFTH LINE, MILTON, ONT., CANADA L9T 2X8 

We accept: 

















cheque or money order 



24 hr. order tine: 
(416) 878-8358 
personal service 9-5 



Please add $2 for shipping 
& handling. Ontario 
residents add 7% sales tax. 
C.O.D. Canada only. 
Dealer inquiries invited 
Looking for new software. 



fte 




Tandy 200 24K$510* 
Tandy 600 32K$810* 
Tandy 102 24K $339* 








BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000 EX 1 Drive 256K 569.00 

Tandy 1000 SX 2 Drive 384K 839.00 

Tandy 3000 HL 1 Drive 512K 1229.00 

Model IVD 64K with Deskmate 889.00 

PRINTERS 

Radio Shack DMP-105 80 CPS 160.00 

Radio Shack DMM30 100 CPS 219.00' 

Radio Shack DMP-430 180 CPS 559.00 
Radio Shack DWP-230 Daisy Wheei310.00 

Star LV-1210 120 CPS 199.00 

Star NX-10 120 CPS 279.00 

Star SG-15 120 CPS 410.00 

Panasonic P-1091 120 CPS 259.00 

Panasonic P-1092 180 CPS 339.00 

Okidata 292 200 CPS 529.00 

Okidata 192 200 CPS 375.00 

Epson LX-80 100 CPS 275.00 

Epson FX-85 160 CPS 419.00 

MODEMS 

Radio Shack DCM-7 Modem 85.00 
Radio Shack DC Modem 

Program Pac 99.00 

Radio Shack DC Modem 212 179.00 

Hayes 300 Baud Modem 169.00 

CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

♦ LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

♦ BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

♦ KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

♦ TIMELY DELIVERY 

♦ SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 



COLOR COMPUTER MISC. 

Radio Shack Drive Controller 99.00 
Extended Basic Rom Kit 39.95 
64K Ram Upgrade Kit 39.00 
Radio Shack Deluxe Keyboard Kit 24.95 



Kit 



79.95 
27.95 
44.00 
89.00 
69.95 
52,00 
26.95 



HJL Keyboard Upgrade 
COCO Max Y Cable 
Color Computer Mouse 
Multi Pack Interface 
Botek Serial to Parallel Conv. 
Radio Shack CCR-81 Recorder 
Radio Shack Deluxe Joystick 
Amdek Video 300 Green Monitor139.00 
Amdek Video 300 Amber Moniior149.00 
Goldstar Green Monitor 85.00 
Panasonic Amber Monitor w r audio99.00 
Radio Shack VM-4 Green Monitor 99.00 
Mark Data Universal Video Driver 29.95 

COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

TAPE DISK 

Approach Control Simul. 29.95 34.95 

Worlds Of Flight 29.95 32.95 

Mustang P-51 Flight Simul. 29.95 34.95 

Spectral Typing Tutor 1995 22.95 

Dungeon Quest 24.95 27.95 



Major Istar 24.95 27.95 

Sam Sleuth Private Eye 24.95 27.95 

Mark Data Graphic Adven.24.95 27,95 

COCO Util II by Mark Data 39.95 
COCO Max by Colorware 69.95 

COCO Max II by Colorware 79.95 

Auto[ermbyPXEComputing39,95 49.95 

TelePatch II by Spectrum 29.95 

Telewriter 64 49.95 59.95 

Deft Pascal Workbench 99.95 

Deft Extra 39.95 

Pro Color File Enhanced 2.0 59.95 

Max Fonts (72 COCO Max Fonts) 64.95 



Elite Calc 
Elite Word 
Elite File (disk only) 
DynaCalc (disk only) 
Word Pack RS by PBJ 
VIP Writer (disk only) 
VIP Integrated Library (disk) 

Order any 2 software pieces listed and 
take 10% off their listed price. All Radio 
Shack software 10% off list. Send for 
complete list. 'Sale prices through 
1/15/87 



69.95 69.95 
6995 69.95 
74.50 
99.95 
99.00 
69.95 
149.95 






P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 



Under 
The 




26 




FEATURES 




ai Color Chart for CoCo 3/Rick Adams and Dale Lear 



COCO 3 CAPABILITIES An onscreen display of the 64 colors 

Only the Beginning/ 

NOVICES' NICHE Fun "quickies" to ease ihe newcomer into computer use 

Laser Battle/Curf Coty 



20 



26 




36 



58 




GAME Your skill and nerve will defeat these elusive enemies 

Through the Ages/Roger Bouchard 

ORGANIZATION Print out calendars for any year from 1583 

^ The Eyes Have It/Bruce K. Bell, O.D. 

GAME Three entertaining games to challenge visual memory 

Escape From the Bug Zone/Eugene Vasconi , 

TUTORIAL Minimize bug problems and increase programming expertise 



_46 



52 



CoCo-Nect-A-Dot/Er/c White 




108 




GAME Create your own zany puzzles 

Care and Feeding of a CoCo Club/Mark Haverstock 

BEGINNERS SPECIAL Tips for a healthy, happy organization 

Shifty-Eyed Animation/8/7/ Bernico 

GRAPHICS Bring graphics to life with this two-faced tutorial 

A PAL for the CoCo 3/ Marty Goodman 

UPGRADE Multi-Pak upgrades explained for us all 

Success Mansion/Pan/ Ruby, Jr. 

ADVENTURE Achievement is within your grasp 

E=|J CoCo ROS, Part 11/ 'Dennis H. Weide 



58 



60 



67 



82 



98 



HARDWARE PROJECT Building the robot system 



The Menu Selector/0/7/ Bernico 



108 



153 



158 



TUTORIAL A professional look for program menus 



Get Comfortable With OS-9/Nancy Ewart 

TUTORIAL A good introduction for beginners 



160 



Cover illustration copyright © 1986 
by Fred Crawford 



r^^fcThe cassette tape/disk symbols 
beside features and columns indi- 
cate that the program listings with those 
articles are on this month's rainbow on 
TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK. Those with 
only the disk symbol are not available on 
RAINBOW ON tape. For details, check the 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK 

ads on pages 103 and 151. 



NEXT MONTH; Ah, lacy cards and rosy cupids. It's that sentimental time of year 
and THE RAINBOW is prepared with titillating tidbits to let you fall in love with your CoCo 
all over again. February brings our Utilities Issue filled with interesting and helpful 
programs for all. We'll finish our series on the robot operating system and introduce 
you to some more of the CoCo 3's wonders. And, of course, we'll have reviews of the 
latest products, plus our regular columns. 
Valentine's Day is the time to make the perfect match — your Color Computer and 

THE RAINBOW. 



COLUMNS 



BASIC Training/Josep/i Kolar 

MID$ struts its stuff 

Building January's Rainbow/J/Vr? Reed 

Comments on the Co Co 3 

CoCo Consultations/Marty Goodman 
Just what the Doctor ordered 

Delphi Bureau/Cray Augsburg 



Making friends and Goodman's database report 

Doctor ASCII/ Richard E. Esposito 

The problem fixer 

Education Notes/Steve Blyn 



Little ones can count on CoCo 

Education Overview/A/Z/cftae/ Plog, Ph.D. 

The question of assessment 

PRINT#-2,/ Lawrence C. Falk 

Editor's notes 

Turn of the Screw/ Tony DiStefano 

How monitors work 

Wishing Well/Fred 6. Scerbo 

Presenting a math drill 



RAINBOWTECH 




Barden's Buffer/ Willi am Barden, Jr 

PSET, PRESET and graphics speed 

Bits and Bytes of BAS\C/Richard White 

The first days with CoCo 3 

Downloads/Dan Downard 



CI 



Answers to your technical questions 

KISSable OS-9/Da/e L Puckett 

Debunking some OS-9 myths 



DEPARTMENTS 



Advertisers Index 



Back Issue Information 
CoCo Cat 



Clubs, Clubs, Clubs 

CoCo Gallery 

Corrections 



Letters to Rainbow 
The Pipeline 



208 
139 
159 
_70 
_18 
164 
_6 



Received & Certified 
Reviewing Reviews- 
Scoreboard 



Scoreboard Pointers 
Submitting Material 
to Rainbow 



One-Liner Contest 
Information 



104 



144 



Subscription Info 
These Fine Stores. 



PRODUCT REVIEWS 

Product Review Contents 



86 



16 



92 



168 



162 



76 



176 



12 



94 



78 



181 



188 



178 



193 



132 
.131 
172 
174 



56 
48 



206 



129 



The 




January 1987 



Vol. VI No. 6 



Editor and Publisher 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor James E. Reed 

Senior Editor T. Kevin Nickols 

Submissions Editor Jutta Kapfhammer 

Copy Editor Jo Anna Wittman Arnott 

Reviews Editor Judi Hutchinson 

Editorial Assistants Wendy Falk, Jody Gilbert, 

Angela Kapfhammer, Monica Wheat 
Technical Editor Dan Downard 
Technical Assistant Cray Augsburg 
Contributing Editors William Barden, Jr., 

Steve Blyn, Tony DiStefano, 

Richard Esposito, Martin Goodman, M.D., 

Joseph Kolar, Michael Plog, Dale Puckett, 

Fred Scerbo, Richard White 
Consulting Editors Ed Ellers, 

Danny Humphress, Belinda C. Kirby 

Art Director Heidi Maxedon 
Production Coordinator Cynthia L. Jones 
Designers Tracey Jones, Rita Lawrence, 
Sandra Underwood, Denise Webb 

Lead Typesetter Jody Doyle 
Typesetting Services 

Suzanne Benish Kurowsky, Karen Semones 



President 



Falsoft, Inc. 

Lawrence C. Falk 



General Manager Patricia H. Hirsch 

Asst. General Mgr. for Finance Donna Shuck 

Admin. Asst. to the Publisher Sue E. Rodgers 



Editorial Director James E. Reed 

Asst. Editorial Director Jutta Kapfhammer 

Creative Director Heidi Maxedon 



Chief Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Advertising Accounts Beverly Taylor 
Dealer Accounts Judy Quashnock 

Asst. General Manager For Administration 

Bonnie Frowenfeld 
Customer Service Mgr. Sandy Apple 
Asst. Customer Service Mgr. Beverly Bearden 
Word Processor Manager Patricia Eaton 

Development Coordinator Ira Barsky 

Chief of Printing Services Melba Smith 

Pre-press Production John Pike 

Dispatch Janice Eastburn 

Asst. Dispatch Mark Herndon 

Business Assistants Laurie Falk, Sharon Smith, 
Pam Workhoven 



Advertising Coordinator Doris Taylor 
Advertising Representative Kim Vincent 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 

(502) 228-4492 

West Coast Advertising and Marketing Office 
President Cindy J. Shackleford 
Advertising Representative Shirley Duranseau 
For RAINBOW Advertising and 
Marketing Office Information, see Page 208 



the rainbow is published every month of the year by FALSOFT, Inc., The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059, phone (502) 
228-4492. the rainbow, RAINBOWfest and the rainbow and RAINBO Wfest logotypes are registered ® trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. • Second class postage paid Prospect, 
KY and additional offices. USPS N. 705-050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797). POSTMASTER: Send address changes to the rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. Forwarding 
Postage Guaranteed. Authorized as second class postage paid from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. • Entire contents copyright ® by 
FALSOFT, Inc., 1986. the rainbow is intended for the private use and pleasure of its subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by any means is prohibited. Use 
of information herein is for the single end use of purchasers and any other use is expressly prohibited. All programs herein are distributed in an "as is" basis, without 
warranty of any kind whatsoever. • Tandy, Color basic, Extended Color basic and Program Pak are registered ® trademarks of the Tandy Corp. • Subscriptions to 
the rainbow are $31 per year in the United States. Canadian rates are U.S. $38. Surface mail to other countries is U.S. $68, air mail U.S. $103. All subscriptions begin 
with next available issue. • Limited back issues are available. Please see notice for issues that are in print and their costs. Payment accepted by VISA, MasterCard, 
American Express, cash, check or money order in U.S. currency only. Full refund after mailing of one issue. A refund of 10/1 2ths the subscription amount after two 
issues are mailed. No refund after mailing of three or more magazines. 




'.. I JMMMMMMi^ . 3 ng» jAflflUnwUflUaL 'MM6MMMMMMMH Hup i ■ »"Vt"i BBB 

Pll jBp ^Hb^ ifli fill iSIIIIIILnnnnn^Jli^ ^^^^^^^ 

no lv I nt 




The Doc's Still 




Editor: 

I have been receiving THE RAINBOW since 
the demise o{ HOT CoCo. One article I have 
missed is Doctor ASCII, so imagine my 
surprise when I received the November 1986 
issue to find it a regular feature, 

I used to turn to this article first thing 
upon receiving HOT Co Co and even though 
1 have never submitted any questions, I have 
had many of them answered, 

Clair Hum 
Sanford, MI 

Glad you're a fan of Doctor ASC- 
IIS column. We welcome him as a 
regular columnist in RAINBOW, His 
column is on Page 162 of this issue. 



RAINBOWfest Raves 

Editor: 

I just wanted to let you know what a good 
time I had at the Princeton RAINBOWfest. 
For those who have never attended a RAIN- 
BOWfest I urge them to go. This was my first 
but it won't be my last. I met some great 
people and it was fun to see the faces that 
go with the names in the magazine, 

I hadn't been using my Color Computer 
that much until I picked up THE RAINBOW 
and decided to go to the RAINBOWfest. I 
bought the new CoCo 3 and have sent for 
a subscription to RAINBOW, I am excited all 
over again about the CoCo, and I can thank 
you and the RAINBOWfest for this new 
excitement. 

Larry Burlingame 
Selinsgrove* PA 



Telecom Successes 

Editor: 

[ would like to comment about the article 
"Hamming It Up" on Page 42 in the No- 
vember 1986 issue, Our Air Force MARS 
Base Support Team at Langley AFB re- 
cently used a CoCo 2 with the RS-232 pack 
and a GLB PK II TNC for a VHF packet 
demonstration at the Langley Air Force 
Base Open House. The system operated fine 
through the five-hour program, logging and 
transmitting 1 76 pieces of morale and 
welfare traffic to a central point across the 

6 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



base. There, the printed out messages were 
sorted according to region destination and 
introduced into the regular SSB MARS 
phone nets for delivery. 

James S. Johnson 
WB4WDMjAFF2VA 
Hampton, VA 



THE NEW ADDITION 

Editor: 

After recently having problems with my 
CoCo I, I purchased a CoCo 3. I discovered 
a few things other readers might like to 
know: 

1) F/Psoftware will not run on the CoCo 
3. i use VIP Writer and Database exten- 
sively, and now must find something to 
replace them. 

2) PenPal Version I will not run on the 
CoCo 3. I don't know about the later 
version. 

3) The DISTO Super Controller works 
on a CoCo 3. However, C-DOS, ADOS, 
J DOS, etc., do not work. Only RS-DOS will 
work, so far. 

If someone comes up with a patch to allow 
VIP to run on the CoCo 3, I hope you will 
print it. I don't really want to go to another 
software package after having so much 
success with VIP. 

Tony Rap son 
Tulsa, OK 

For some good news, see Jim 
Reeds column on Page 16. 



Better, But Not Quite . . . 

Editor: 

The new CoCo 3 is an amazing new 
computer. It has everything the CoCo 
Community has been waiting for — better 
graphics, compatibility, etc., but there are 
still a few things we need. One of the things 
needed is more function keys on the key- 
board or even better, a keyboard like the 
Tandy 1000's. Now that we have windows, 
we need a new Multi-Pak with about eight 
slots for more expansion. 

Leslie Miller 
Lewiston* ID 



List Those Variables 

Editor: 

I have been reading rainbow since No- 
vember 1984. During that time 1 have seen 
some changes in your program listings that 
make them even better and easier to use. On 
Page 53 of the September 1 986 issue, I noted 
that Mr. Kromeke has included a variable 
list at the beginning of his program. I wish 
that all of the programs had such a list. It 
makes the programs more understandable 
for users. 

Regan Werner 
Pueblo f CO 



HINTS AND TIPS 



Editor: 

For those who use VIP Desktop and want 
room for a small program or two, here is 
how to get two free granules. Grans 20 and 
2 1 are unused so it is a matter of changing 
the GAT (Granule Allocation Table) to 
enable you to put programs there. 

Boot up VIP Disk-Zap and, following the 
instructions in the manual, change bytes 20 
and 21 of Track 17, Sector 2 to U FF"I have 
a one-gran boot program and a one-gran 
backup program on my disks and they speed 
things up greatly. 

A word of caution. I do not know if there 
is more than one version of Desktop so you 
should examine grans 20 and 21 with Desk- 
Zap before modifying the disk. 

Bob Owen 
Wilmington, NC 

Improved Graphics Dump 

Editor: 

For those of you with Radio Shack DMP- 
1 30 printers who are unhappy with the print 
options available when using Co Co Max, 
here is one solution. If you configure CoCo 
Max and request the Epson MX as the 
printer to be used, then it is possible to 
switch the DMP-130 to IBM mode and it 
will dump the pictures in a much more 
satisfactory manner. One problem is that 
you need to use a serial-to-parallel converter 
in order to use the IBM mode of the DMP- 
130. The advantages are great; it is possible 
to do a "double-size" dump and the double- 
strike looks a lot better. 

J.M. Perry 
Dublin, Ireland 




GOOD 
LOOKIN' 



AUTOTERM shows true upper/ 
lower case in screen widths of 32, 
40, 42, 51, or 64 characters with 
no split words. The width of 32 
has extra large letters. Scrolling is 
forward, backward, and fast. Block 
graphics pictures are displayed 
automatically and can be scrolled. 

The screen's top line shows 
operating mode, unused memory 
size, memory on/off, and caps- 
lock on/off. It also gives helpful 
prompts. 



SWEET 
TALKIN' 



KEY-BEEP can be on/off. Unac- 
ceptable keystrokes cause a lower 
pitched BOP! This ERROR- 
BEEBOP can be on/off. 

Talks to other computers with 
Full or Half Duplex; Baud Rate of 
110, 150, 300, 600, 1200; Parity as 
even, odd, mark, space, none; 7 
or 8 bit Word; any Stop Bits; all 
128 ASCII characters; true line 
Break; XON/XOFF protocol; and 
optional line-at-a-time transmis- 
sion. Able to send and receive 
text, block graphics, BASIC and 
ML programs. A 64K machine 
holds up to 44,000 characters 
(32,000 in HI-RES). 

DUAL PROCESSING lets you 
review & edit while more data is 
coming in. 

XMODEM for disk file transfer. 



YOU COULD FALL IN LOVE WITH 

AUTOTERM! 

IT TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLD'S 



SMARTEST 
TERMINAL 



Fully supports D.C. Hayes and 
other intelligent modems. 

Talks to your printer with any 
page size, margins, line spacing, 
split word avoidance. Embed your 
printer's control sequences for 
boldface, underlining, etc. Narrow 
text can be automatically spread 
out. 



You'll also use Autoterm 
for simple word processing 
and record keeping 

You can display directories, 
delete files, transmit directly from 
disk, and work with files larger 
than memory. Easily maintain a 
disk copy of an entire session. 

Compatible with TELEWRITER 
(ASCII) & other word processors. 



SMOOTH 
WALKIN' 



AUTOTERM moves smoothly 
and quickly between word proces- 
sing and intelligent terminal 
action. Create text, correct your 
typing errors; then connect to the 
other computer, upload your text, 
download information, file it, and 
sign-off; then edit the received 
data, print it in an attractive 
format, and/or save it on file. 

Editing is super simple with the 
cursor. Find strings instantly, too! 
Any operating parameter, such as 
screen width, can be altered at 
any time. Uncompleted com- 
mands can be cancelled. 




PUTTY IN 
YOUR HANDS 



The word processor can be 
used to create, print, and/or save 
on file your personal KSMs. They 
let AUTOTERM act like you. For 
example, it can dial through your 
modem, sign-on, interact, perform 
file operations, & sign-off; an 
entire session without your help. 
KSMs can answer the phone, 
prompt the caller, take messages, 
save them, hang-up, and wait for 
the next call. The KSM potential 
is unbelievable! 



NEW DISK VERSION 5 
JS NOW AVAILABLE ^ 

At start-up, AUTOTERM can set 
parameters, dial, sign-on, interact, 
read/write disk, sign-off, etc. 
Timed execution lets AUTOTERM 
work while you sleep or play. 

Print while on line, with J&M 
Parallel Printer Port, Radio Shack 
Modem Pak or RS-232 Pak. 
AUTOTERM's buffering lets slow 
printers fall behind without losing 
data. 



NO OTHER COMPUTER IN 
THE WORLD CAN MATCH 
YOUR COCO'S AUTOMATIC 
TERMINAL CAPABILITIES! 



I 



AVAILABLE IN CANADA 

from 

Kelly Software Distributors 
Edmonton, Alberta 



CASSETTE $39.95 
DISKETTE $49.95 

Add $3 shipping and handling 

MC/VISA/C.O.D. 



PXE Computing 

11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson, Texas 75080 

214/699-7273 



Please hire the mentally retarded. They are sincere, hard working and 
appreciative. Thanks! Phyllis 



DOS in Time 

Editor: 

Many times in my programming efforts I 
need to know what type of DOS is being 
used. To find out what type is used so that 
proper pokes can be made, type 
fl=PEEK(30B) :PRINT ft. The table below 
lists values. 

A DOS 

19 Radio Shack Disk BASIC 1.0 

20 Radio Shack Disk BASIC 1.1 
29 Spectro Systems ADOS 1.01 

I hope this information helps others in 
their programming endeavors. 

David W. Ostler 
High Point, NC 



REQUEST HOTLINE 

Editor: 

It would be nice if someone would make 
a program to calculate electric and gas 
meters to determine usage to verify gas and 
electric company bills. Instead of using four 
circles to show meter dials, I would like it 
to input 1-12 o'clock setting to show meter 
dial arrows, then calculate it from the last 
meter taking date. By phoning the utility 
company, one could find out the regular 
date the meter was read, then use that date 
as the starting date to read. 

Bob Baker 
Box 254789 
Sacramento, CA 95825 

Tired of Plain Vanilla 

Editor: 

Does anyone know where I can buy 
colored computer paper with matching 
envelopes? 

Dr. Hugo D. Spatz 
749 Nyack Avenue N.E. 
Port Charlotte, FL 33952 

See "Pipeline" in the November 
1986 issue for information on hi- 
tech Stationery. 

Building the Perfect Adventure 

Editor: 

I am looking for an Adventure construc- 
tion set for my CoCo 2. If anyone knows 
where I can find one, please write to me. 

Danny Cordonnier 
5003 Villa Circle 
Colorado Springs, CO 809 J 8 

Check out "The Adventure Pro- 
cessor" on Page 26 in the August 
J 986 issue. 

Needs Telemetry System 

Editor: 

Does any company market hardware, 
transmitters and receivers for telemetry 
systems that could be run by the CoCo? Its 
use would be to monitor water pumps in a 
small water system. Must be FCC approved. 

Paul Wising er 
Greenwood Town Hall 
P.O. Box 195 
Greenwood, LA 71033 



Distaff Stats 

Editor: 

I play hockey on a women's team and have 
been assigned to do the statistics. Does 
anyone have a program to enable me to do 
the stats on my computer? 

Debbie Bechard 
3-842 Pillette Road 
Windsor, Ontario 
Canada N8Y 3B5 



Reprinting Roger 

Editor: 

The past few months you havehad inquir- 
ies about tape-to-disk transfers. You refer to 
the January 1984 issue, Page 48, Roger 
Schrag's "A Tape to Disk Transfer Vehicle." 
The January 1984 issue of rainbow is not 
available as a back issue and I cannot find 
a copy through various library sources. I 
expect others may have difficulty locating 
the referred article. 

Allen Hoffman 
W. Richland, WA 

I You can order copies of a par- 
ticular article from an out-of-print 
issue for $2. You need to send us 
the title of the article, author and 
what issue the article appeared in. 

In this case, however, due to 
popular demand, we plan to re- 
print Rogers article in our Febru- 
ary 1987 issue. 



INFORMATION PLEASE 

Editor: 

I've been working on a boot program and 
haven't found a way to prevent the prompt 
sign from appearing. Is there any way to 
automatically run a program after loading 
from cassette? 

Jason Matheny 
1008 Audubon Parkway 
Louisville, K Y 40213 

Error Terror 

Editor: 

My CoCo 2 has a terrible case of I/O 
Errors, although I am using the standard 
Radio Shack CCR-81 recorder and C-20 
tapes. Sometimes my programs will load 
without errors, while other times no pro- 
grams wiJl load even though they were saved 
in succession. After typing the same pro- 
gram several times, I would like to know if 
there is a poke or program to disable the 1/ 
O Error and recover the program. 

Jerry Broughton 
R.D. 81, Box 28 
Morris, PA 16938 

The Line Starts Here 

Editor: 

I just purchased an Epson JX-80 printer. 
It has a four-color ribbon and is capable of 
printing in seven colors. It works great with 
Telewriter^ method of defining and embed- 
ding printer codes right in the text. I need 
a color screen dump which supports this 
printer's superb Hi- Res graphics capabili- 
ties. 



I have written to distributors of several of 
the major graphics editors (Graphicom, 
CoCo Max II, etc.) and none of them 
currently support the JX-80's color features 
(normal black works fine, however). If you 
have one of these printers, or plan to 
purchase one, please let the software com- 
panies know of your interest. 

Laura Burch 
52 Elm Street 
Newport, ME 04953 

The ROS CoCo 

Editor: 

My grandfather and I were working on a 
remote-control car and decided to have a 
64K CoCo 2 control it using commands 
from the computer. After soldering capac- 
itors and resistors on a board, and hooking 
it up to a male and female connector, I'm 
not sure where to hook the connector or 
what commands to use. Please help. 

Also, I am interested in exploring the 
different parameters of machine language 
and animated graphics using BASIC state- 
ments such as GET and PUT. I was wondering 
if anyone could reply and tell me how to do 
animated graphics or machine language 
programming. 

Eddy Learnard 
110 Park Avenue 
Willis ton Park, NY 11596 

See our three-part series on 
ROS (Robotic Operating System) 
which started in the December 
1986 issue. Part 2 is on Page 153 
of this issue; Part 3 will appear 
next month. 

You may find the answers in the 
October 1986 Graphics issue. 

Small Business Needs 

Editor: 

I have yet to see a good inventory control 
program. I am sure the CoCo 3 can handle 
such a program. If I may speak for other 
small-business men, there is a definite need 
for a program that can handle the following: 
catalog number, page number, item descrip- 
tion, packing, cost per pack, mark up and 
retail price with the number in stock. There 
needs to be an auto reorder point, so when 
a particular item goes below a certain 
number the program will send the items to 
be reordered as well as a complete inventory 
to the printer list, which can be printed on 
tape, disk or fanfold paper. 

If such a program is available, I would 
appreciate knowing where it can be pur- 
chased. 

Henry R. Barish 
135 Madison Street 
Apt. 10 
Wellsville, NY 14895 



BOUQUETS 

Editor: 

Recently I experienced crashed disks on 
a terminal program which I had purchased 
from Spectrum Projects, a rainbow adver- 



8 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



500 





FOR THE TRS-80 COCO 




MEYER BEFORE has this infor- 
mation of vital significance to a 
programmer been so readily 
available to everyone. This book 
will help you GET UHDERHEATrl 
THE COVER' of the Color Com- 
puter and develop your own MI- 
QUALITY Basic and ML pro- 
grams. SO WHY WAIT?? 
This 80-paqe book includes 
POKEs, PEEKS and EXECs to: 

★ Autostart your basic programs 

★ Disable Color Basic/ EC5V Disk 
Basic commands like LIST, 
LLI5T, POKE, EXEC. CSAVE(M), 
DEL. EDIT, TROtl, TROfF, 
PCLEAR, DLOAD, REflUM, PRtHT 
USIHQ, DIR, KILL, SAVE, LOAD, 
MERQE, RENAME, DSKIHl 
BACKUP, DSKI$, and DSr\0$. 

★ Disable BREAK KEY, CLEAR KEY 
and RESET BUTTON. 
Generate a Repeat-key. 
Transfer ROMPAKS to tape {for 
64 K only). 

Speed Up your programs. 

Reset, MOTOR OH/OFF from 

keyboard. 

Recover Basic programs lost by 
HEW. 

Set 23 different 
QRAPMIC /SEMIQRAPMIC modes 
Merge two Basic programs. 

AND MUCH MUCH MOREJII 
COMMANDS COMPATIBLE WITH 
16 K/32 K/64 K/ COLOR BASIC/ ECB/ DISK 
BASIC SYSTEMS and CoCo 1, 2, «f 3. 

ONLY $16.95 



★ 



★ 



jkJLg 




Pi 

Y MP 1 i \ Jr P -a 

«» * « « . 

200 additional Pokes, Peeks' n Execs to 
give you MORE PROGRAMMING POWER 
Includes commands for; 

• Rompak Transfer to disk 

• PAINT with 65000 styles! 

• Use of 40 track single/ double sided drives with variable 
step- rates 

• High-Speed Cassette Operation 

• Teiewnler64 e , Edtasm-P and CoCo Ma** 
Enhancements 

• Graphics Dump {lor DM P printers) & Text Screen Dump 

• AND MUCH MUCH MORE! 

• 500 POKES, PEEKS'N EXECS is a prerequisite 





DISK TUTORIAL 

(2- Disk Package) 




An indispensable tutorial for serious disk 
Basic/ML programmers. Gives almost 
everything you MUST know about the disk 
system Some features: 

• Learn about track/sectors/granules 

• How the Directory is organized 

• Useful disk utilities 

• Useful ROM routines 

• How to use double sided/40/80 track drives 

• Information security on disk 

• Insight into common disk errors 

• Many Tips/ Hints/ Secrets you won't find 
elsewhere! 

• And Much Much More! 

CoCo 1, 2 & 3 





MICROCOM SOFT 

P,0. Box 214 
Fairport, N. Y. 1 4450 
Phone{716) 223-1477 



The CoCo Graphics Designer allows you 
to create beautifully designed Greeting 
Cards, Signs and Banners for holidays, 
birthdays, parties, anniversaries and other 
occasions Comes with a library of pre- 
drawn pictures. Also includes utilities 
which allow you to create your own 
character sets, borders and graphic 
pictures. Requires a TRS-80 COLOR 
COMPUTER I, II OR III ORTDP-100 with 
a MINIMUM 0F32K, ONE DISK DRIVE 
and a PRINTER, compatible with DISK 
BASIC 1.0/1.1, ADOS 1.0/1.1 AND JD0S 
Supports the following printers: EPSON 
RX/FX GEMINI 10X/SG-10, NX-10, 
C-ltoh 8510, DMP-1 00/1 05/400/430, 
SEIKOSHA GP-100/250, LEGEND 808 
and GORILLA BANANA. 

DISK ONLY $29.95 
PICTURE DISK #1 

This disk includes QVER 100 pre-drawn 
pictures for use with the CoCo Graphics 
Designer. 

DISK ONLY $ 1 4.95 



COLOR SCRIBE II 

THE C0C03 WORD-PROCESSOR 

This superb word processor uses the 80 
COLUMN display of the CoCo III and 
includes the following features: Justifica- 
tion, Headers, Footers, Pagination, OVER 
20 Line Editing Commands such as 
Character Insert/Delete, skip over words, 
breaking a line and more. Comes with a 
comprehensive manual. Requires a 128K 
COCO III with Disk Drive. 

ONLY $49,95 



COCO DISK ZAPPER 



Are you frustrated with crashed disks? If 
so, this program can save hours of labor by 
restoring complete or part of the information 
from the disk. Its indespensable! 

Requires minimum 32 K/64 K disk system 
CoCol, 2 & 3 ONLY $24.95 



VISA, MC, Am Ex, Check, M0. Please add $3.00 shipping and handling (USA & 
CANADA, other countries $5,00). COD add $2.50 extra NYS residents please add 
Sales Tax. Immediate shipment Dealer inquiries invited. |H 




Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1 -800-654-5244 9 am- 9 pm est 7 days a week 

Except NY. For information, technical information NY orders & after-hours 1 -71 6-223-1 477 



tiser. When I wrote them explaining my 
problem and inquiring about the cost of 
replacement, I received by return mail two 
replacement disks and a letter of apology for 
my inconvenience from Paul Rosen. Com- 
panies like Spectrum deserve all possible 
support. 

Lawrence Gibbs 
Cochranville, PA 

Plus Promptness 

Editor: 

This is a letter of praise for Computer 
Plus. I got my DMP-105 printer in eight 
days after mailing my check to them. The 
toll-free number is nice too, since I was able 
to find out beforehand just how much the 
postage and handling was to be. 

Jerome Bigge 
Muskegon, MI 



Some Exceptions 

Editor: 

This is to inform all users of Speech 
Systems software and/or hardware prod- 
ucts that, due to the extensive care we take 
with the design and production of our 
offerings to the CoCo Community, all of our 
products (save three) will execute unmodi- 
fied on the CoCo 3. 

The first exception is E.A.R.S. That, too, 
will run if you type EXEC &HE010 and press 
ENTER before the subsequent CLORDN and 
EXEC of EARS -BIN. 

The second exception is CoCo MIDI. 
Disregard the following if you're using a 
Y-cable. The following is for multipack 
users. The disk controller must be in Slot 4. 
The CoCo MIDI pack must be in Slot 3. 
Turn on the computer and type: 

POKE 65407, 51 :EXEC57360 

The third exception is for Super Voice. 
The Super Voice Speech Synthesizer works 
perfectly in the CoCo 3 as outlined in the 
manual. However, the CoCo 1 and CoCo 2 
would let you get sloppy and not force you 
to CLERR100, &H5FFF to L0RDM"TRN5 
LRTE" or CLEfiR100,&H57FF to LDAD 
N"5UPERT0K" even though you are sup- 
posed to. The CoCo 3 forces you to do this. 
Failure to do this will not allow you to load 
the program. 

Thanks to all of you for your continued 
support; and thank you too, rainbow, for 
being the best friend the CoCo ever had! 

Randy H. Spec tor 
Vice President, Speech Systems 

Batavia, IL 



BULLETIN BOARD SYSEMS 

Editor: 

TheTandyColorSIGCoCoTBBS of the 
South Bay Color Computer User's Group 
has a new phone number which is Voice 
(408) 923-2967, Tandy CoCo BBS (408) 244- 
8250. We want this BBS to be one of the best 
CoCo/ recreational boards in California. 
The board is running several CoCo sub- 
boards and many various discussion/enter- 
tainment boards. Each of the CoCo boards 



has its own up/download ability corre- 
sponding to the topic of the board (example: 
graphics, music, general, games). Check it 
out and please consider joining our CoCo 
club, the South Bay CoCo User's Group of 
the Santa Clara Valley. 

John Say 
San Jose, CA 

•The CoCo Communications newsletter is 
goingstrong. This newsletter has a list of 24- 
hour CoCo BBSs throughout the world. 
Also has reviews on BBS software, modems, 
terminal software, a review on 24-hour BBS 
in each state each month. There will also be 
a mailbag for people to leave messages in or 
ask questions about BBS hardware, soft- 
ware, etc. The cost is $2. The new address 
is: 

Steve Slack 
6 Saddle Circle 
Newark, DE 19711 

• Fast Trackin' BBS has added Run 
Length Encoded graphics (RLE) online for 
the callers' viewing pleasure. (SysOps inter- 
ested call BBS for information.) These 
graphics files can be viewed using Mike 
Ward's RLETRM or CIS Vidtex. There are 
plenty of othergraphics online, digitized and 
drawn by Mike Trammell of New York. 
There are also games, communications, 
utilities and musicfiles, plus a Stuff file that 
can be added to for some helpful hints. The 
1.08-Meg BBS is still running on the reliable 
backup MODEM II until service can be 
found for the 1200 baud Data Phone. 

The BBS operates on an open format. 
Callers must leave their name, address and 
phone number before being validated to use 
the BBS. After validation, within 24 hours 
if all information has been left, the callers 
will be able to retrieve files. All menus can 
be viewed beforehand. The BBS number is 
(502) 365-7771 and operates 24 hours a day. 

David Guess 
Princeton, KY 

• To access Omni-Com BBS call (601) 
497-OMN1 or (601) 875-8688. It runs 24 
hours, 300/ 1200 baud, 7-bit, even, 1 stop. 

Omni-Com Data Telecommunications 

Gautier, MS 



• If you are looking for a BBS system 
loaded with CoCo software, Access-80 is the 
board to call. It has many special interest 
areas (SIAs), one of which is dedicated to 
the CoCo. Call (603) 888-6999, 24 hours a 
day, 300/1200 baud. 

Bruce Burleson 
Nashua, NH 

• I have a 64K CoCo with dual disk drives, 
a printer and a DCM-5 modem, and I would 
like to get in touch with a BBS near or in 
the Belle-Mead area. Anyone interested, 
please write me soon. 

Scott Enman 
88 Steinmetz Road 
Belle- Mead, N J 08502 

• I am running a BBS at (201) 382-8252 
called The Final Frontier. Callers can 
participate in the multi-player interactive 
Star Trek game. I also have a Jot of Star Trek 
downloads. 

Derrick 
Co Ionia, NJ 

• The Mystical Mansion of Madgarr BBS 
hours are 10:30 p.m. to 6 a.m. and from 9 
a.m. to 2 p.m. EST It runs on 300 baud only. 
Call (304) 287-2607. All users are validated 
and real names are not necessary. 

Mark Richards 
Carolina, WV 



THE rainbow welcomes letters to the 
editors. Mail should be addressed to: Letters 
to Rainbow, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. Letters should 
include the writer's full name and address. 
Letters may be edited for purposes of clarity 
or space. 

Letters to the editors may also be sent to 
us through the MAIL section of our Delphi 
CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> prompt, 
pick MAIL, then type SEND and address to: 
EDITORS. Be sure to include your complete 
name and address. 



ARTS AND LETTERS 




"Fr-fwt f?Lyn.t ,VA 21630 



* Submissions tutor* 

tfrosped, KY +0059 



Envelope of the Month 



Jim Bennett 
Front Royal. I A 



10 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



UTILITIES/BOOKS 




UTILITY ROUTINES for the 
TANDY &TRS-80 COCO (Vol 1) 

This powerful book for Basic and ML 
Programmers, includes program expla- 
nation, memory requirements and an 
annotated source listing for the utility 
routines given below. These routines if 
bought individually will cost you 
HUNDREDS OF DOLLARS. 

These are 100% Position Independent 
ML Utilities and require no ML program- 
ming knowledge. 

COMMAND KEYS: Access commands with 2 keystrokes 
CURSOR STYLES: Over 65000 cursor styles 
ERROR SKIP: 'ONERR GOTO' for Basic Programs 
FULL LENGTH ERRORS: Get real word error messages 
KEY CLICKER: Ensure Key input accuracy 
REPEAT KEY: Repeat ANY key 
REVERSE VIDEO (Green & Red): Eliminate eye-strain 
SPOOLER: Don't wait for those long printouts 
SUPER SCROLLER: Save/view scrolled lines 
TAPE- TO- DISK: Copy Basic and ML programs 
AND MUCH MUCH MORE!!! 

For 1 6 K/32 K/64 K Cassette or Disk 
Sytstems, CoCo 1, 2 & 3 

BOOK $19.95 

THESE ROUTINES (READY-TO-RUN) ON 

CAS/ DISK: 

$24.95 

BOTH BOOK AND CASSETTE 
or DISK: 

$36.95 



UTILITY ROUTINES (VOLUME II) 

(Disk Only) 

Includes 20 oft-used utilities such as: 4f^jr 

• PAINT with 65000 styles ^f*^ 

• Add SUPERSCRIPTS to your OMP printer 

• Oeslgn your own commands! 

• Programming Clock 

• Fast Sort for Basic Strings 

• Create a character set for your DMP printer 

• Find/ Replace phrases in your Basic Program 

• Let the computer locate your errors! 

• CoCo Calculator 

• Super EDITing for Basic Programs 

• Automatic Directory Backup 

• And much much more! 

64K DISK ONLY 

$29.95 



WE HAVE ALL THAT YOU NEED TO SUCCEED 




SUPER TAPE/ DISK 
TRANSFER 




• Disk- to- Disk Copy (1-3 passes) 

• Tape- to- Disk Copy 

• Tape- to- Disk Automatic Relocate 

• Disk- to- Tape Copy 

• Tape-to- Tape Copy 

Copies Basic/ M L programs and DATA files. 
CoCo 1, 2 & 3 32 K Disk System 

( Disk to Disk Copy requires 64 K) 

DISK ONLY 

$24.95 



UTILITY BONANZA I 

ncludes 20 best- selected utilities: 

» 40 K Disk Basic • Disk Cataloger 

► Super Tape-to-Dlsk Copy (with Automatic Relocate) 
» Disk-to- Tape Copy 

► LList Enhancer (with page numbering!) 
» Graphics Typesetter (two text sizes!) 

► LARGE DMP Graphics Dump 
» X-Ref for Basic Programs 

► Hidden 3ZK (Use the "hidden" 32K from your 64K CoCoj 
» Basic Stepper (Super Debugged) 

► RAM Disk (for Cassette & Olsk Users) 

» Single Key Printer Text Screen Dump 
AND MUCH. MUCH MORE!!! 

Most programs compatible with CoCo 3 
DISK (64K Req.) ONLY $29.95 



MUST" BOOKS 



UNRAVELLED SERIES: These 3 books 
provide a complete annotated listing of 
the BASIC/ECB and DISK ROMs. 

COLOR BASIC UNRAVELLED: $19.95 
EXTENOEO BASIC U N RAVE LLE 0 $19.95 
DISK BASIC UNRAVELLED: S 1 9.95 
ALL 3 UNRAVELLEO BOOKS: $49.95 
RAINBOW GUIDE TO OS-9 (Book): SIB.95 
RAINBOW GUIDE TO OS-9 (2 Disks): $29.00 
BASIC PROGRAMMING TRICKS: Tips and tricks 
for Basic Programmers. Only $14.95 
CoCo 3 SECRETS REVEALED: SI 6.95 



OTHER SOFTWARE.. . 

Telewriter-64 (Cas) $47.95 (Dsk) 57.95 
Teletorm: Mail Merge for TW-64® 1 9.95 
Telepatch (Dsk) 19.95 
Telepatch II 29.95 

CoCo Max (Cas) 67.95 
CoCo Max II (Dsk) 77.95 
CoCo Max Upgrade (Dsk) 18.95 
Autoterm (Cas) 36.95 
(Latest Version) (Dsk) 46.95 
Graphicom II 22.95 
SPIT * N IMAGE: Makes a mirror image 
(BACKUP) of ANY disk, even protected 
ones. Will also initialize and BACKUPinone 
pass. ONLY $32.95 

COCO UTIL II (Latest Version): Transfer 
CoCo Disk files to IBM compatible 
computer. Transfer MS-DOS files to CoCo. 
CoCol, 2 & 3 ONLY $36.95 

DISK ANTI-PIRATE: Best copy- protection 
program for disk Basic and ML programs. 
CoCo 1,2 &3 ONLY $59.95 

HIDE- A- BASIC 1.1: Best copy- protection 

program for Cassette Basic programs. 
CoCo 1,2 &3 ONLY $24.95 



CABLES/HARDWARE 

HAYES COMPATIBLE MODEM: $129.95 
MODEM CABLE: $19.95 

UNIVERSAL VIDEO DRIVER: Use your 
monochrome or color monitor with your 
CoCo (ALL CoCos). Includes audio 
connection. Easy installation- no 
soldering. ONLYS29.95 

INTRON ICS EPROM PROGRAMMER: Best 
EPROM Programmer for the CoCo. 
Lowest Price Anywhere - $1 37.95. 

RS232 Y CABLE: Hook 2 devices to the 
serial port ONLY $18.95. 

3-P0SITI0N SWITCHER: 

Select any one of three RS232 devices 
(printers/modems) from the serial port 
ONLY$37.95 

Y CABLE: Use your Disk System with CoCo 
Max, DS69, etc. ONLY $24.95 

SERIAL TO PARALLEL INTERFACE: With 6 
switch selectable baud rates (300-9600). 
Comes with all cables. $39.95 




MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 214 
Fairport, N. Y. 14450 
Phone (71 6) 223-1477 



To order All orders$50 & above shipped by 2nd day Air UPS with no extra charge. Last minute shoppers 
can benefit VISA, MC, Am Ex, Check, MO Please add $3.00 shipping and handling 
(USA& CANADA, other countries $5.00) COD add $2.50 extra NYS residents please add 
Sales Tax Immediate shipment Dealer inquiries invited. 



■ J A. — _J S — -m 




Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1-800-654-5244 9 AM - 9 PM EST 7 days a week 

Exceot NY. For information, technical information, NY orders & after-hours 1-716-223-1477 




We Keep On Keeping On 



Probably the number one subject of letters to RAINBOW these last 
several weeks has concerned the CoCo 3 and what programs will 
and will not run on it. First of all, I want you to know that we're 
doing as much as we can to get as much accurate information together 
as possible and to get it to you. 

In his column this month, Jim Reed addresses a few of the problems 
and is giving the most-asked questions some answers. Our Q-and-A 
columns are trying to address things, as well. Til try not to duplicate those 
letters here. 

While we'll certainly keep on keeping on in this regard, I do think that 
a couple of observations are in order. 

The first is, of course, that those people who "followed the rules" for 
third-party software really don't have a problem. It is the people who did 
not who may have some incompatibility problems. Some of these firms 
will provide fixes; we will attempt to find some fixes when we can and, 
as always, fixes may well come in from other members of the CoCo 
Community. When they do, we'll pass them on to you. 

The second issue is a little more philosophical, however. 

Let's consider this: Many of the programs written for the CoCo and 
CoCo 2 were "gee whiz" simply because they did something really special 
that, now, you might take for granted with the CoCo 3. My best example 
is Telewriter. 1 remember when it first came out and we sat down and simply 
u gee-whizzed" at the high resolution screen. This, remember, was in the 
days long before 80-column cards and the like. 

Other programs came along, like Elite-Word, and all of them did the 
same thing. So did a bunch of database managers, telecommunication 
packages and the like. Before long, it was pretty well-established that a 
Hi-Res screen was necessary for the more "business-oriented" functions of 
the Color Computer. In the last two years, no one would have seriously 
considered marketing a word processor, for instance, that did not have a 
high resolution screen display. 

But when Dick White and I first saw Telewriter, the first question in 
our minds was "how did they do that?" Dick figured it out (he knows a 
lot more about programming than I do). All I did was use it. 

My point, however, was that it was done with programming. And that 
programming required a great deal of program space. Even in machine 
language, it had to make the CoCo run slower. It also used up programming 
space that might have been devoted to more features (although 1 have 
always been satisfied with the features available in Telewriter, myself). 



12 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



Printer Interface 



Seikosha SP-1000A 

Printer 



Metric Industries Tills package includes the SP-KJOOi 

MnH^E IftdP Printer, a true parallel printer, not 

muuui iutr the SP-1000AS which is a serial 

Interface With printer that cannot operated! the 

Modem Switch ™; d 60 c ° ,or Compu,er Baud 



Compatible with the 
new COC03 





Free shipping 



Graphics 
Multiple Copies 
Variable Line Spacing 
Paper Widlh 

Pin and friction — 4" to 10" 
Centronics parallel 
Impact dot matrix method, bi 
directional in logic seeking, uni- 
directional tn graphic printing 
100 (Draft mode), 20 cps (Near 
Letter Quality) print speed, with 
reduced noise level 

Pin-feed or fnction-feed. 
Automatic paper loading function 



True descenders 

A variety of functions including 

Under line, Bold print. Double 

striking 

A v/anety of print character sets 
including Pica, Elite, Italics, Super/ 
Subscripts, Proportional, 
Elongated. Condensed, and Italic 
Super/Subscripts. 
Standard L5K buffer 

Printer is covered with a two- 
year warranty. 



ModWW! Interlace 

$39.95 




The Model 101 is a serial to 
parallel interface intended for use 
with a COCO and any Centronics 
compatible parallel input printer. 
The 101 has 6 switch selectable 
baud rates (300-9600). The 101 
is only 4" x 2" x 1 * and comes 
with all cables and connectors for 
your computer and printer. 



Other Quality Items 



isllly 5 Screw Shell O10 
Cassette Tapes $7.50 per dozen 

Hard Plastic Storage Boxes for 
Casselte Tapes $2.50 per dozen 

Pin Feed Cassette Labels 
White $3.00 per 100 
Colors $3.60 per 100 (Red. Blue, 
Yellow or Tan) 

Ribbons for your SP-1000 series 
Seikosha printers $8.00 



The Model 101, 102, and 104 
work with any COCO including 
COC03, any level basic and any 
memory size. These products are 
covered by a 1 year warranty. 



Model 102 Switcher Deluxe Interface 

$35.95 $51.95 





The Model 102 has 3 switch 
positions that allow you to 
switch your computer's serial 
output between 3 different 
devices (modem, printers or 
another computer). The 102 has 
color coded lights that indicate 
the switch position. These 
lights also act as power 
indicators to let you know your 
computer is on. Supplied with 
the 102 are color coded labels 
that can be applied to your 
accessories. The 102 has 
a heavy guage anodized 
aluminum cabinet with non-slip 
rubber feet. 




The Model 104 is a serial to 
parallel interface like the Model 
101 but it has the added feature 
of a serial port (sometimes 
referred to as a modem switch). 
This feature allows the connection 
of a parallel printer and any 
serial device (modem, serial printer 
etc.) to your computer. You may 
then select either output, serial or 
parallel, with the flip of a switch. 
The 104 is only 4.5" x 2.5" x 1.25 J ' 
and comes with all cables and 
connectors for your computer. You 
supply the serial cable for your 
modem or other serial device. 



The 101 and 104 require power in 
order to operate. Most printers 
can supply power to your 
interface. Star, Radio Shack, and 
Okidata are just a few that do. 
Epson and Seikosha do not. The 
interfaces can also be powered by 
an AC adapter (Radio Shack 
Model 273-1431 plugs into 
all models). If you require a power 
supply, add a "P" to the Model 
number and $5.00 to the price 
(Model 101P $44.95, MODEL 104P 
$56.95). 



ng information 



Free shipping and insurance fn 
the United States (except Alaska 
and Hawaii) on all orders over 
$50.00. Please add $2.50 for 
shipping and handling on orders 
under $50.00. 

Ohio residents add 5.5% sales 
tax. 

Call (513) 677-0796 and use VISA, 

MASTERCARD or C.O.D. 

or send check or money order to: 




ft 



Cas 
Program $6.95 




WIKTTB LfiHKU 



«i I'M mtr. imM itm immit. 



New Version 1.3 Tape transfera- 
ble to disk. Now save and 
toad Labels from tape or disk. 

This fancy printing utility prints 
5 lines of information on 
pinfeed cassette labeis. "Cas> 
sette Label" is menu driven and 
is very easy to use. It uses the 
special features of your 
printer for standard, expanded 
or condensed characters. Each 
line of text is automatically 
centered. Before the label 
is printed, it is shown on your 
CRT — enabling you to 
make changes if you like — 
then print 1, 2 or 100 labels. The 
program comes on tape and it 
Is supplied with 24 labeis to 
get you started. 16K ECB 
required. 



— Call for prices on 
the SP-1000 A and 

— other Seikosha 
" printers. 



Metric industries Inc. 

P.O. Box 42396 
Cincinnati, Ohio 45242 





The CoCo 3's high resolution modes 
eliminate the need to "program in" a 
high resolution screen. This means it 
speeds up a program (because the CoCo 
3 does not have to use software to 
maintain the screen) and it allows more 
"space" for more features. 

The same goes for most of the "arti- 
fact color" programs. Heck, you don't 
need artifact colors when you have 16 
regular colors available at a time in 
BASIC. But I remember when Mark 
Data Products introduced its first ani- 
mated graphics Adventure games. 
They, too, set a standard. CoCo 3 has 
some problems with the artifact colors 
because it doesn't really need them. It 
has real colors. 

I guess my point is that there are two 
ways to look at CoCo 3 and its "down- 
ward compatibility." The first is that 
there are, indeed, some things that do 
not (will not) work as they did before. 
The other way is that more and better 
things will come out of the new ma- 
chine. 

Yes, I know it also means that you 
might be in a position to buy some new 
software. But, in truth, much of what 
you now use will run on the CoCo 3. 
That which does not will probably have 
some "better" version available in the 
next few months or so. 

I can see there is room for some 
disagreement here. It is certainly possi- 
ble to take the position that "I have 
bought all the software I want to buy." 
If that is so, then sure, there may be a 
problem. But, I, personally, have al- 
ways seen a computer as an evolving 



system. When something decidedly 
"better" comes along, I want it. It 
improves both my enjoyment and pro- 
ductivity. 

Here is an example, albeit extreme. 
When the laser printers came out, we 
went out and bought one. Before, we 
had been doing listings in double-strike 
and "emphasis" mode to make sure we 
had good, clear copy. The lasers 
changed all of that. Not only did we get 
good, clear and black copy, we also got 
it, seemingly, hundreds of times faster. 
But we already had a printer, right? 
Why change? Because of simple produc- 
tivity. 

personally, have 
always seen a 
computer as an 
evolving system. 
When something 
decidedly 'better* 
comes along, I want 
it." 



I am not advocating you go out and 
buy a laser printer (unless you do very 
heavy printing on your CoCo, as we 
do). What I am saying is that we saw 
something that would work better and 
we got it. 

In what are, admittedly, the very 
early stages of the CoCo 3, things are 
kind of up in the air right now. No one, 
even here at the RAINBOW, has every 



version of every program. But we are 
working diligently to test things as we 
can. We'll help as much as we can. 

But, remember, too, we have a mag- 
azine to put out and new programs to 
test as well. Of course, we are working 
on all of this, and will keep on keeping 
on. One of the reasons we will is because 
we owe it to you to do as much as we 
can. And the other reason is that it is 
just plain fun. 

I happen to think that is the best part 
of it all. Whether you have a CoCo, a 
CoCo 2 or a CoCo 3, computing is fun. 
And it is going to be more and more fun 
as the years go on. 

I do want to thank all of you who 
have written to comment on the 
wrapper which we now use to protect 
THE RAINBOW in its venture through the 
postal system (or should I say systems, 
since many countries are involved). 
We've been wanting to do this for a long 
time and our printer has finally been 
able to get the equipment to do it. 

I am also gratified to see how many 
of you took the time to drop me a line 
to say something about the subscription 
offer packed in the CoCo 3 boxes. Most 
of you said that you already have a 
subscription, but that it was "nice to 
see" this happening. 

A suggestion if I may: Give that little 
envelope to a friend. Anyone can use it! 
And we're delighted to get those enve- 
lopes! 

A happy CoCo New Year to each of 
you! 

— Lonnie Falk 



PRINTERS! 

N EW! Okidata 192+ (Par. or Ser.) x 370 

NE W! Okidata 193 (Parallel) x 540 

N EW! Okidata 193+ (Serial) s 6 10 

Okimate 20 Color Printer x 1 35 

Fujitsu 2100(80 col.) MlO 

Fujitsu 2200 ( 1 32 col.) *520 

Toshiba 321 (Par. or Ser.) J 5I0 

Qume Letterpro 20 (Letter Qual.) x 445 

Silver Reed 420 (Daisy Wheel) x 240 

Silver Reed 600 (Daisy Wheel) x 575 

(Add X I0 Shipping for Printers) 



ACCESSORIES! 

Taxan 12" Green Monitor s 1 25 

Taxan 12" Amber Monitor s 1 35 

Table Top Printer Stand 

w/Slot (80 col.) x 30 

Table Top Printer Stand 

w/Slot (132 col.) s 45 

Stand vW Diskette Storage (80 col.) s 47 

Stand w/Diskette Storage (132 col.) *57 

Other Printers, Monitors, and Accessories for CoCo 
and IBM upon request. 

1 I5 off Interface with purchase of printer. 

Find your cheapest published price and we'll beat it!!! 



SP-2 INTERFACE for 
EPSON PRINTERS: 

■ 300-19,200 BAUD rates 

■ Fits inside printer — No AC Plugs 

■ Optional external switch (*5°° extra) frees parallel 
pore for use with other computers 

■ J 49" (plus *3°° shipping) 



DISK DRIVE SYSTEMS! 

ALL '/j HEIGHT DOUBLE SIDED 

Drive 0 (addressed as 2 drives!) *235 

Drive 0, 1 (addressed as 4 drives!) *350 

All above complete with HDS controller, 
cable, & drive in case with power supply 

Bare Double Sided Drives s 1 09 

Dual l /i Height Case w/ Power Supply s 49 

Double Sided Adapter s 25 

HDS Controller. RS ROM & Instructions s 99 

25 CDC DS/DD Diskettes *32 & *3 s/h 

We use the HDS controller exclusively. Can use 2 different DOS ROM's. 
Shipping Costs: 5 5/drive or power supply, *I0 max. 
Co Co Serial Cables IS ft.-'IO. Co Co/ RS-232 Cables 15 ft. — *20. 
Other cables on request. (Add s 3°° shipping) 



SP-3 INTERFACE for 
MOST OTHER PRINTERS: 

■ 300-19,200 BAUD rates 

■ External to printer — No AC Plugs 

■ Built in modem /printer switch— no need for Y-cables or 
plugging/unplugging cables 

■ J 64 9S (plus *3 00 shipping) 



Both also available for IBM, RS-232 and Apple HC computers. 



c 




R 



P.O. Box 293 
Raritan, Nj 08869 
(201) 722-1055 

ENGINEERING 



14 THE RAINBOW January 1987 






Toll Free 
Orders Only 
800-245-6228 



Information 
301-521-4886 




If You Pay Taxes 

You Need Coco-Accountant 

All our software is CoCo 3 Compatible 



It s the most useful piece of soft- 
ware I own. " 

That's what we hear again and 
again from folks who buy Coco-Ac- 
countant II. This 32/64K single-entry 
accounting system for the home and 
small business is all you need to 
manage your finances and give you 
the information you need at tax time. 

We wrote the original version for 
ourselves two years ago because 
we wanted to know three things: 
Where did the money come from, where did it go, and 
what can we deduct from our taxes? 

As it turned out, we liked it better than anything else 
on the market, so we decided to sell it. And we've been 
improving it ever since. 

People say they like it because it's easy to use. Just 
spend a few minutes each month entering your data: 
checks, cash outlays, credit card expenses or income. 
In any order. CoCo-Accountant takes the whole mess 
and makes sense out of it. Here's what it does: 

♦ Lists and totals entries by month, offsetting in- 
come against expenses. 

♦ Lists and totals entries by account, for a month or 
the whole year. 

♦ Lists and totals entries by payee or income 
source, for a month or the whole year. 



DEDUCTIBLE 



♦ Provides a year-to-date summary 
by account. 

♦ Prints a spreadsheet showing 
activity by account and month for 
the whole year (seeing this one is 
believing). 

♦ Flags deductible expenses. 

♦ Flags expenses subject to 
sales tax and figures out how much 
sales tax you paid! 

♦ Lets you define up to 48 ac- 
counts (in 64K version). 

♦ Takes 900 entries in 64K version, 500 in 32K disk 
and 450 in32Ktape. 

♦ Sorts entries by date. 

♦ Stores your data to tape or disk. 

You can use CoCo Accountant as a simple check- 
book register or make it into a comprehensive home ac- 
counting package. Our customers tell us they use it in 
the home, at school, for their clubs, churches and small 
businesses. In fact, they use it in ways we never 
dreamed of! 

CoCo-Accountant II is so easy to use and flexible 
that you'll be delighted. So stop shoving all those re- 
cords in a shoe box and join the computer age! 

The price of Coco-Accountant II is $34.95. Please be 
sure to tell us your memory requirements and whether 
you want tape or disk. 



Thoroughbred, Harness, Greyhound 




>RSE RACK' 




A A 



■HARNESS RACE! 




DOG RACES- 



Use your Color Computer to improve your performance 
at the track! These 16K programs for Thoroughbred, Har- 
ness and Greyhound racing rank the horses or dogs in 
each race quickly and easily, even if you've never handi- 
capped before. All the information you need is readily avail- 
able from the Racing form, harness or dog track program. 
We even provide diagrams showing you where to find each 
item! 

Thoroughbred factors include speed, distance, past 
performance, weight, class, jockey's record, beaten favor- 
ite and post position. Harness factors include speed, post 
position, driver's record, breaking tendencies, class, oark- 



ed-out signs and beaten favorite. Greyhound factors in- 
clude speed, past performance, maneuvering ability, favor- 
ite box, class, kennel record, beaten favorite and breaking 
ability. 

We include complete instruction and a wagering guide 
that tells you which races to bet and which to avoid — one 
of the real secrets of good handicapping. You can buy a 
more expensive handicapper, but we don't think you can 
buy a better one! Thoroughbred, Harness or Greyhound 
Handicapper, $34.95 each on tape or disk. Any two for 
$54.95 or all three for $74.95. 



VISA 



Federal Hill Software 8134 Scotts Level Rd. Baltimore. Md. 21208 




i 




26 
26 



3^ 
.3^ 



2 6-333» 



26 
26 



3^ 



2 C^ r ^ 



RGB 



Mo' 



1000 



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26 



com 



25 



■ 10 



25 



,023 



3000 



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25 



.4070 



3000 CO " 



25 
25 



it* 



F * 3 IV 



EPSON Co ^n 
* ? V32 CC^ 




BUILDING JANUARY'S RAINBOW 



Identifying the C0C0 3 "challenge" . . . 

. . . and working together to meet it! 

This is our annual beginners issue and we have more beginners than ever this 
year. Even the "old soldiers" are getting into "new beginnings" as the CoCo Com- 
munity assesses the Color Computer 3 and what we are going to do with it. 

With more memory, 80 columns, real lowercase and much higher resolution 
graphics, there's a new wave of excitement. But, there's also what the uninitiated might 
mistakenly regard as pessimism, the talk about what the new CoCo 3 won't do, Tandy 
did a much better job with respect to preserving compatibility than many CoCo 
veterans were expecting, and deserve high marks for doing so; still, old timers will 
try out dozens of programs, most of which run fine and without incident, and then, 
when they find one that won't work right on the new machine, you'd think the world 
was at an end. Well, you have to read between the lines of "bellyaching" to recognize 
"the challenge." Yessir, there's nothing a Radio Shack junkie likes better than the 
challenge, and opportunity, offered by something that needs a bit of fixing. 

I am firmly convinced that the CoCo Community will meet the CoCo 3 challenges 
that lie ahead, and "getting there" will be half the fun. You can rest assured that, as 
the rough edges and problem areas are identified and fixes or patches or rewrites 
become available, we'll report it all to you as soon as we can. For instance, in this 
issue, Dick White reports that older disk controllers (those requiring 12 volts) won't 
work with the CoCo 3, at least without some modification — not big news since they 
wouldn't work with the CoCo 2 either. Perhaps the easiest way to get 12 volts to the 
controller is to use a Multi-Pak Interface, but these units themselves need a minor 
upgrade to work with the CoCo 3. Not to worry, the cost of parts is small and our 
article "A PAL for Your CoCo 3" explains how to do this upgrade yourself. 

In "Turn of the Screw," Tony DiStefano discusses the different types of monitors, 
since the CoCo 3 needs an RGB analog monitor for best results. In "CoCo 
Consultations," Marty Goodman discusses why PM0DE4 artifact colors don't work on 
RGB analog monitors. Roger Bouchard says those with monochrome monitors will 
want to kill the color burst for greater clarity: Use POKE &HE033, PEEK (&HE033) 
□ R &H10 for the 32-column mode, and replace the S.HE033 address above with &HE03C 
for 40 columns or &HE045 for 80-column mode. If the screen then looks a bit dim, 
try CL5 5 to brighten things up. Richard Esposito informs us that no provision was 
made under BASIC for saving the new CoCo 3 Hi-Res screens to disk, but then tells 
us how in "Doctor ASCII." 

In his column, Bill Barden says Color Disk EDTASM works just fine, almost. In 
our letters section, Speech Systems' Randy Spector give a rundown on that company's 
products and what to do to fix the three that need patching. Look for similar reports 
from others in upcoming issues. Incidentally, I hear that OS-9 Level II should begin 
appearing in the stores by the time you see this, and that the 1, 100-page manual has 
been the holdup. 

While some CoCo programs may require major rewrites, many just need a bit of 
modification. For instance, some VIP programs appear to work while other versions 
of the same program have problems on the CoCo 3. Marty has discovered that the 
memory test that runs at bootup of VIP Writer writes over the top 256 bytes of memory 
on the CoCo 3 ($FE00 -$FEFF). The test must be made to stay out of this region to 
avoid "crashing." If you can use a disk zapper, try changing the SFF00 at $681/' to 
SFE00, though the fix may vary from version to version. 

Similar problems affect Radio Shack's Ghana Bwana, Desert Rider, One-On-One 
and Pitfall //, but these are now patched and they run in full color, too. Look for 
these longer fixes to be posted soon in our Delphi CoCo Sig and we'll include them 
along with assembled notes, such as the discovery that Radio Shack's Sound/Speech 
Program Pak won't run right at double-speed, in a "round up" of fixes in a future 
issue of rainbow. At this writing (mid-November), the information is just beginning 
to come in. 

To stay abreast of the latest CoCo 3 news, and to learn how to get the most from 
your present system, or that bargain-priced CoCo 2 you just got for Christmas, or 
that old gray workhorse with the paint half rubbed off, why not make this a "beginning" 
of your own, by joining the tens of thousands who take advantage of an annual 
subscription to keep following THE rainbow. 

— Jim Reed 



16 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



The Ultimate 
Color Computer 

Enhancements 

for Productivity 
from HJL Products 

A 'flow at aM-rfttrut, 






|.Bfl» 



n 



r,-..iiM 




Now available for all 
models, including CoCo 3 



To achieve maximum productivity with 
your Color Computer, you have to make 
it as easy as possible to get information 
Into and out of the system. 

This Is why we developed the HJL 
family of high-performance 
enhancements for ALL MODELS of the 
Color Computer. ^ 

The Keyboard - $79j 
The overwhelming favorite of seriou 
Color Computer users worldwide, the 
HJL-57 keyboard has the smooth, 
consistent feel and reliability you need 
for maximum speed with minimum 
input errors. Includes A Function Keys 
and sample function key program. 
Installs In just a few minutes with no 
soldering. ^ Jfa 

The Numeric Keypad - W9;96j$*£&" 
The Number Jack is a self-contained, 
cable-connected keypad for heavy-duty 
number-crunchers. Besides the number 
keys, It has ail the cursors, symbols 
and math keys, including autoshlfted 
(one-touch) ADD and MULTIPLY. 
Comes complete with 3-foot cable and 
all necessary connectors for quick and 
easy installation without soldering. 



The Monitor Adapter - $25.95 

This universal driver works with all 
monochrome monitors, and is easily 
installed without clips, jumpers or 
soldering (except in some later CoCo 2s 
with soldered-in video chips). Here's 
crisp, clear, flicker-free monitor output 
with all the reliability you've come to 
expect from HJL Products. 

The Monitor - $89.95 

The GoldStar high-resolution amber 
monitor brings you the monochrome 
display that's preferred by most 
computer professionals today. Once 
you've used it you'll never connect your 
computer to a TV set again. The 12- 
inch diagonal CRT has an etched non- 
glare faceplate. (Requires adapter sold 
above) £ 

£ns* 



The BASIC Utility - $2fc9 

Quick Basic Plus, a high-performance 
programming utility, can be used with 
any color computer that has four func- 
tion keys, 26 pre-defined BASIC 
statements, 10 user-defined macros at 
a time (you can save as many sets of 
macros as you like), automatic line- 
numbering, word wrap, global search, 



and instant screen dump to printer, 
make this software the BASIC pro- 
grammer's dream come true. Comes 
with re-legendable 3-way reference 
chart. Specify disk or cassette. 

The HJL Warranty 

Every HJL product comes with a full, 
one-year warranty and the exclusive 
HJL 15-day unconditional guarantee 
(except software). 

Pick a Pair & Save 15% 

Now, for a limited time, we'll give you 
15% off the price of any two or more 
products shown here. Just mention 
this ad when you order. 

Call Now, Toll Free 

1 -800-828-6968 

In New York 1-800-462-4891 
International calls: 716-235-8358 




Ordering Information; Specify model (Original, F-version, or CoCo 2 Model Number). Payment by C.O.O., check, 
MasterCard, or Visa. Credit card customers Include complete card number and expiration date. Add $2.00 for 
shipping, 3.50 to Canada; except monitors (call for shipping charges before ordering monitors). New York state 
residents add 77« sales tax. Dealer Inquiries Invited 



PRODUCTS 

□iv. of Touchstone Technology Inc. 

955 Buffalo Road • P.O. Box 24954 
Rochester, New York 14624 



■ 





The Staff 

Omni-Com Staff 

Gautier, MS 

This caricature of the Omni-Com staff 
was created with basic, a Radio Shack 
X-Pad and CoCo Max //'s Fat Bits. 
From leftto right are Rod Roberts, Matt 
Welch and Mark Welch. 






P 

R 
I 

Z 
E 





P 
R 
I 

Z 
E 




Castle 

Bradley Bansner 

Wyomissing, PA 

Bradley opens the gallery with this 
enchanting pictorial setting which was 
created with CoCo Max. Bradley is 15 
years old and is a member of the Sky- 
line Color Computer Club of Berks 
County. 








7>' 










Rainbow 

5teve Ricketts 

Boring, OR 

Steve, who is 31 , married and has three 
daughters, is a computer operator for 
a manufacturing firm and owns two 
CoCos. He created this New Year treat 
with basic and many hours of drawing, 
pixel blasting and painting. 



18 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



The Enchantment of Chrashk 

James Olszewski 

Rowlctt, TX 

This dragon's lair was created with 
basic, and the help of James' girl- 
friend. James enjoys electronic syn- 
thesizers and computers, and also 
writes music. 



Space Dome 

Matt Havlovick 

Renton, WA 

Matt is an eighth grader and has been 
using his CoCo for five years. Space 
Dome was created with basic on a 
CoCo 3. Besides computing, Matt also 
enjoys playing the trumpet and piano. 



o 



H 

0 N 

6° 
LN 

E 



■ , 4 

Vw IT"" 



( ; w i 

\ 




4 " f \ 

71 





O 



N E 

R T 

A ' 

E 



Townhall 

Ko/2 Depot 

Braintree, MA 

Ron is a 34-year-old restaurant man- 
ager and uses his CoCo to help run the 
restaurant and as a hobby. Townhall 
was created with basic while learning 
to use the CoCo's line command. 



o 




0" 
E 



SHOWCASE YOUR BEST! 

You are invited to nominate original work for inclusion in 
upcoming showings of "CoCo Gallery." Share your crea- 
tions with the CoCo Community! 

Be sure to send a cover letter with your name, address and 
phone number, detailing howyou created your picture (what 
programs you used, etc.) and how to display it. Also, please 
include several facts about yourself, the more the better. 

Don't send us anything owned by someone else; this 
means no game screens, digitized images from TV programs 
or material that's already been submitted elsewhere. A 
digitized copy of a picture that appears in a book or 
magazine is not an original work. 

We will award a first prize of $25 f a second prize of $15 
and a third prize of $10. Honorable mentions will also be 
given. 

Jody Doyle, Curator 




SPHCE DOME 




Send your entry on either tape or disk to: 

CoCo Gallery 
THE RAINBOW 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 
Attn: Jody Doyle 

January 1987 THE RAINBOW 1 9 



COCO 3 CA 



toco 

I28K 



Here's a clever program to display all 64 colors 
available on the Co Co 3 onscreen at the same time 



Color Chart for the 

CoCo 3 



By Rick Adams and Dale Lear 




One oldie first tilings new Color 
Computer 3 users want (o do 
is explore the greatly ex- 
panded selection ol colors available, 
I rantically, they Hip through the pages 

of the manual looking J or a color chart, 
or a list of the color codes in numerical 
order with descriptions of each. 

Alas, all that can he found is Sample 
Program 23 (which shows the colors, 
eight at a lime), and a ' color chart" on 
Page 295 thai invites you to run the 
sample program and "fill in the blanks." 

Until now, with the eight colors 
available on the Color Computer I and 
2, there has been little ambiguity in- 
volved in interpreting the colors. There 
is no way, other than with a severely 
mis-adjusted color TV set, or a color- 
blind observer, thai the color red would 
be mistaken for the color blue, for 
example. 

With the 64 colors now available on 
the Color Computer 3, however, an 
clement of ambiguity has been intro- 
duced. With 64 colors to choose from, 
there is not only red, there is also light 
red, dark red, orange-red, red-orange, 
purplish -red, magenta- red, red-ma- 

Rick Adams is a systems programmer 
for a com puny that develops 68000* 
Itased systems software, In addilion to 
writing games* he likes science fiction 
and is the author of Radio Shack s 
Temple of ROM. Rick lives in Roluiert 
Park, California. 

Date I, ear owns Hale I. car Software 
and makes his living developing pro- 
grams for the Coht Computer, lie has 
authored games and other sttffware 
such as Double Back, Baseball, 

ISf 1)11, IS WORD and IX L LOGO* 

Dale, his wife, Laurel, and their six 
chih I ten live in Petaluma. Calif <>rttia> 

20 THE RAINBOW January 19B7 



gent a, etc. You gel the idea. With so 
many color shades, each perhaps only 
slightly different from its neighbor, an 
element ol subjectivity creeps in, As we 
put it: "One person s light magenta is 
another's pink." Also, the ink-ip rela- 
tion of the colors by the video hardware 
in various TVs may differ due to the 
adjustment of the lint and color con- 
trols, the bandwidth of the TV and 

many other factors. I 

So, we suspect that 
Tandy's "do-ii-your* Color 
self" color chart was 

i 

/J L Lion phone calls from -I I | 

frantic users wanting lo £ 
know, "Why does the 6 

CoCo 3 color chart in 8 

the manual say that ^0 

Color Code 49 is light Ji 
cyan, whereas on my ~ 13 

TV it is pale bluer \ 1 } t 

Don't worry, wc have 
a solution for you. Tan- 
dy's Sample Program 23 | 

is 44 lines of basic code. Figure 1: F 
and shows eight colors 
at a time. Our version is i 

26 lines long (if you 
* , i Color 
don I cuter the com- 
ments), and shows ft// o4 i 1 0 

ctdors on the screen at „ ^ 

otu e\ ~ z — : 3 

Now, we can almost 5 

see some of you scratch- ^ 

ing your heads at this . e 

point, and thinking, _ - ie 

"Now wait a minute. I }g 

know the CoCo 3 is a — ~ J ■■} 

great machine, but I i 1 15 
thought that only 16 
colors were available at 

any one lime.** Yes, I 

that's true. So, how is it Figure 2: 



that we can go right ahead and break 
the rules? The answer is simple: Wc 
cheat. 

Down at the bottom of the BASK 
program listing are a number of DRTft 
statements, containing values thai arc 
poked into memory to load a short 
machine language program. I his short 
program, for which we have provided a 
separate assembler listing, switches the 



Color Computer 3 - Color Chart 




Figure I: Photograph of composite color monitor 



Color Computer 3 - Color Chart 



Figure 2: Photograph of analog RGB monitor 



The Amazing A-BUS 




An A-BUS system with two Motherboards 
A-BUS adapter In foreground 

The A-BUS system workswlth the original CoCo, 

theCoCo2 and the CoCo 3. 



About the A-BUS system: 

• All the A-BUS cards are very easy to use with any language that can 
read or write to a Port or Memory. In BASIC. use IN P and OUT (or PEEK and 
POKE with Apples and Tandy Color Computers) 

• They areall compatible with each other. You can mix and match up to 25 
cards to fit your application. Card addresses are easily set with jumpers. 

• A-BUS cards are shipped with power supplies (except PD-123) and 
detailed manuals (including schematics and programming examples). 

Relay Card re-140: $1 29 

Includes eight industrial relays. (3 amp contacts. SPST) individually 
controlled and latched. 8 LED's show status. Easy to use (OUT or POKE in 
BASIC) Card address is jumper selectable. 

Reed Relay Card re-156: $99 

Sameleatures as above, but uses 8 Reed Relays to switch lowlevel signals 
(20mA max). Use as a channel sfilector, solid state relay driver, etc. 

Analog Input Card ad-142: $129 

&irjM analog inputs. 0 to +5V range can be expanded to 1 00 V by adding a 
restsior, 8 bit resolulion (20mV). Conversion time 120us. Perfect to 
measure voitage, temperature, light levels, pressure, etc. Very easy to use. 

1 2 Bit A/D Converter an-i 46: $1 39 

This analog to digital converter is accurate to .025%. Input range is -4V to 
+4V. Resolution: 1 millivolt. The on board amplifier boosts signals up to 50 
times to read microvolts. Conversion time is 130ms. Ideal for thermocouple, 
strain gauge, etc. 1 channel, (Expand to 8 channels using the RE-1 56 card). 

Digital Input Card in-i41:$59 

The eight inputs are optically isolated, soit's safe and easy to connect any 
"on/off" devices, such as switches, thermostats, alarm loops, etc. to your 
computer. To read the eight inputs, simply use BASIC INP (or PEEK). 

24 Line TTL I/O dg-148: $65 

Connect 24 input or output signals (switches or any TTL device) to your 
computer. The card can be set for: input, latched output, strobed output, 
strobed input, and/or bidirectional strobed I/O. Uses the 8255A chip. 

Clock with Alarm cm 44: $89 

Powerful clock/calendar with: battery backup for Time, Date and Alarm 
setting (lime and date); built in alarm relay, led and buzzer; timing to 1 /1 00 
second. Easy to use decimal format. Lithium battery included. 

Touch Tone® Decoder ph-i45:$79 

Each tone is converted into a number which is stored on the board. Simply 
read the number with INP or POKE. Use for remote control projects, etc. 

A-BUS Prototyping Card pr-152: $15 

3V2 by 4»/2 in. with power and ground bus. Fits up to 10 I.C.s 



Plug into the future 

With the A-BUS you can plug your PC (IBM, Apple, 
TRS-80) into a future of exciting new applications in the fields 
of control, monitoring, automation, sensing, robotics, etc. 

Alpha's modular A-BUS offers a proven method to build your 
"custom" system today. Tomorrow, when you are ready to take 
another step, you will be able to add more functions. This is ideal for 
first time experimenting and teaching. 

A-BUS control can be entirely done in simple BASIC or Pascal, 
and no knowledge of electronics is required! 

An A-BUS system consists of the A-BUS adapter plugged into 
your computer and a cable to connect the Adapter to 1 or 2 A-BUS 
cards. The same cable will also fit an A-BUS Motherboard for 
expansion up to 25 cards in any combination. 

The A-BUS is backed by Alpha's continuing support (our 11th 
year, 50000 customers in over 60 countries). 

The complete set of A-BUS User's Manuals is available for $10. 




ST-143 




CI -144 




RE-140 





AD-142 



Smart Stepper Controller sc-149: $299 

World's finest stepper controller On board microprocessor controls 4 
motors simultaneously. Incredibly, it accepts plain English commands like 
"Move arm 1 0.2 inches left". Many complex sequences can be defined as 
"macros" and stored in to or* board memo ry. For each axis, you can control 
coordinate (relative or absolute), ramoing. speed, step type (half, full, wave), 
scale factor, units, holding power, etc Many inputs: 8 limit & "wait until" 
switches, panic button, etc. On the fly reporting of position, speed, etc. On 
board drivers (350mA) for small steppers (M0- 103) Send for SC- 149 flyer. 
Remote Control Keypad Option RC-1 21 : $49 

To control the 4 motors directly, and "teach" sequences of motions: 
Power Driver Board Option PD-1 23: $89 

Boost controller drive to 5 amps per phase. For I wo motors (eight drivers). 
Breakout Board Option BB-122:$19 
For easy connection of 2 motors. 3 ft. cable ends with screw terminal board. 

Stepper Motor Driver st-i43:$79 

Stepper motors are the ultimate in motion control. The special package 
(below) includes everything you need to get familiar with. them Each card 
drives two stepper motors (1 2V. bidirectional. A phase. 350mA per phase). 
Special Package: 2 motors (M0't03J|+SM43: PA-181: $99 

Stepper Motors MO-io3:$i5or4tor$39 

Pancake type. 2Va' dia, %" shaft. 757stea 4 phase bidirectional. 300 
step/sec. 1 2V, 36 ohm, bipolar, 5 oz-in torque, same as Airpax K82701-P2. 

Current Developments 

Intelligent Voice Synthesizer 14 Bit Analog to Digital converter, 4 Channel 
Digital to Analog converter. Counter Timer, voice Recognition. 

A-BUS Adapters for: 

IBM PC, XT. AT and compatibles. Uses one short sioi. 
Tandy 1 000, 1 000 EX& SX, 1 200, 3000. Usesoneshortslot 
Apple II, II +, He. Uses any sioi. 
TRS-80 Model 1 02. 200 Plugs into 40 Din "system bus" 
Model 1 00. Uses40 pin socket (Socket is duolicatedon adaoter). 
TRS-80 Mod 3.4.4 D. Fits 50 oin bus. (With hard ri'Sk usoY-cabHV 
TRS-80 Model 4 P . Includes extra caWe. (50 pin bus is recessed) 
TRS-80 Model I. Ptiros rtic 4Q pn I/O bus on KB or Ert. 
Color Computers (Tandy). Fits ROM slot Muitipak. or Y-caWe 

A-BUS Cable (3 ft, 50 cond.) ca-163: $24 

Connects the A-BUS adapter to one A-BUS card or to first Motherboard. 
Special cable for two A-BUS cards: CA-1 62: $34 

A-BUS Motherboard mb-i20:$99 

Each Motherboard holds five A-BUS cards. A sixth connector allows a 
second Motherboard to be added to the first (with connecting cable CA- 
161: $1 2). Up to five Motherboards can be joined this way to a single A- 
BUS adapter. Sturdy aluminum frame and card guides included. 
• The A-BUS is not a replacement for the Multi-pak 



AR-133.,S69 

AR-133. S69 

AR-134..S49. 

AR-136...S69 

AR-135...S69 

AR-132.S49 

AR- 137. .562 

AR-131..S39 

AR-138..S49 



Add $3.00 per order for shipping. 
Visa. MC, checks, M.O. welcome 
NY residents add sales tax. 
C.O.D. add S3. 00 extra. 
Canada: shipping Is S5 
Overseas add 10% 




ALPHA [PmotmS; 




Technical info: 



(203) 656-1806 



a division of Sigma Industries, tnc. 

7904- W Jamaica Avenue, Woodhaven, NY 11421 



22M V 800 221-0916 

New York orders: (718) 296-5916 
All lines open weekdays 9 to 5 Eastern lime 




You'll use it all the time and love using it 



What isCoCo Max? 

Simply the most incredible graphic 
and text creation "system" you have 
ever seen. A Hi-Res Input Pack (more 
on the pack later) is combined with 
high speed machine language 
software. The result will dazzle you. 




CoCo Man dfsk system, with Y-cable. 



Is CoCo Max for you ? 

Anyone who has ever held a pencil or 
a crayon for fun, school or business 
will love it. A 4 year-old will have fun 
doodling, a 1 5 year-old will do class 
projects and adults will play with it for 
hours before starting useful 
applications (illustrations, cards, 
artwork, business graphics, flyers, 
charts, memos, etc.) This is one of the 
rare packages that will be enjoyed by 
the whole family. 

What made CoCo Max an 
instant success ? 

First there's nothing to learn, no 
syntax to worry about. Even a child 
who can't read will enjoy CoCo Max. 
Its power can be unleashed by simply 
pointing and clicking with your 
mouse or joystick. With icons and 
pull down menus, you control CoCo 
Max intuitively; it works the same way 
you think. 

Don't be misled by this apparent 
simplicity. CoCo Max has more power 
than you thought possible. Its blinding 
speed will astound you. 
It lets you work on an area 3.5 times 
the size of the window on the screen. 
It's so friendly that you will easily 
recover from mistakes: The undo 
feature lets you revert to your image 
prior to the mistake. As usual, it only 
takes a single click. 
Later, we will tell you about the 
"typesetting" capabilities of CoCo 
Max II, but first let's glance at a few of 
its graphic creation tools: 



With the pencil you can draw free 
hand lines, then use the eraser to 
make corrections or changes. For 
straight lines, the convenient rubber- 
banding lets you preview your lines 
before they are fixed on your picture. 
It's fun and accurate. Lines can be of 
any width and made of any color or 
texture. 

The paint brush, with its 32 
selectable brush shapes, will adapt to 
any job, and make complicated 
graphics or calligraphy simple. 
For special effects, the spray can is 
really fun: 86 standard colors and 
textures, all available at a click. It's 
like the real thing except the paint 
doesn't drip. 

CoCo Max will instantly create many 
shapes: circles, squares, rectangles 
(with or without rounded corners), 
ellipses, etc. Shapes can be filled with 
any pattern. You can also add 
hundreds of custom patterns to the 
86 which are included. 
The Glyphics are 58 small drawings 
(symbols, faces, etc.) that can be used 
as rubber stamps. They're really great 
for enhancing your work without effort 



There is so much more to say, such as 
the capability to use CoCo Max 
images with your BASIC programs, 
the possibility to use CoCo Max's 
magic on any standard binary image 
file. There are also many advanced 
features such as the incredible lasso. 





Pulldown menus 



Zoom In I 



Control Over Your Work 

CoCo Max's advanced "tools" let you 
take any part of the screen, (text or 
picture) and perform many feats: 
• You can move it around • Copy 
it • Shrink or enlarge it in both 
directions • Save it on the electronic 
Clipbook • Flip it vertically or 
horizontally • Rotate it • Invert 
it • Clear it, etc. etc. 
All this is done instantly, and you can 
always undo it if you don't like the 
results. 

For detail work, the fat bits (zoom) 
feature is great, giving you easy 
control over each pixel. 
To top it all, CoCo Max II works in 
color. Imagine the pictures in this ad 
in color. If you own a Radio Shack 
CGP-220 or CGP-1 1 5, you can even 
print your work in full color ! 



Inside the Hi-Res Input Pack 



Why a Hi-Res Input Pack ? 

Did you know that the CoCo joystick 
input port can only access 4096 
positions (64x64)? That's less than 
10% of the Hi-Res screen, which has 
49152 points! (256x192). You lose 
90% of the potential. The Hi-Res Input 
Pack distinguishes each of the 491 52 
distinct joystick or mouse positions. 
That's the key to CoCo Max's power. 
The pack plugs into the rom slot (like 
a rom cartridge). Inside the pack is a 
high speed multichannel analog to 
digital converter. Your existing 
joystick or mouse simply plugs into 
the back of the Hi-Res Pack. 

Electronic Typesetting... 

You'll be impressed with CoCo Max's 
capability. Text can be added and 
moved around anywhere on the 
picture. (You can also rotate, invert 
and flip it...) At a click, you can choose 
from 14 built in fonts each with 1 6 
variations. That's over 200 typestyles ! 




Examples of printouts 



Printing Your Creations 

There are a dozen ways to print your 
work. All are available with a click of 
your joystick (or mouse) without 
exiting CoCo Max. Your CoCo Max 
disk includes drivers for over 30 
printers ! 



All the CoCo Max pictures are un retouched screen shots or printouts (Epson RX-80). 





Jettisflti Report 



no mflJDH II EW5 TODAY 

Reporters Desperate 

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o 



Publish a newsletter 
or bulletin 



(<X0 HAD 



CoCo HOH 
COCO M«M 



COCO ^<7^ 

CoCo Max 
CoCo Mai 

CoCo iDax 
CoCo max 

CoCo max 
CoCo max 

CoCo Max 
CoCo Max 



CoCo Max 

CoCo Mm 
CoCo May. 



mm 

feSai IB 



Over 200 typestyles to 
choose from! 

generate flyers. 





Fun for children while 
stimulating creativity. 




The whole family will enjoy 
CoCo Max. Here are a few 
examples of the possibilities. 

All these pictures are unretouched screen photos 
or printouts (on an Epson RX-80). 



hmerlcrn 



SCHNOID 



CORPJ 





CORP; 
TAKES 



PROFIT 





Pulley 



Business graphs, charts, 
\5/ diagrams. Also memos 




Video portrait 

(with optional digitizer). 




©4 ne»v »vay fo express 
your imagination. 




schematics 
and floor plans. 



hi.li 1 ; a™ in. i!,ni: u-.mi,. Mi:.|,;,in<£|i 



TimH 



ha S St 5 




Junior's homework 
and science projects. 
Term papers too ! 





7*/»/s /s a cartoon. 



CoCo fax JL 




CoCo Max II 

'-ogos and letterheads. 



System Requirements: 

Any 64K CoCo and a standard joystick or 
mouse. (The koalapad and the track ball work, 
but are not recommended.) 
Disk systems need a Multi-Pak or our Y-Cable. 
CoCo Max is compatible with any Radio Shack 
DOS and ADOS. 

Note: the tape version of CoCo Max includes 
almost all the features of CoCo Max II except 
Shrink, Stretch, Rotate, and Glyphics. Also» it 
has 5 fonts instead of 1 4. 
CoCo Max is not compatible with JDOS, 
DoubleDOS, MDOS, OS-9, the X-pad, and 
Daisy Wheel Printers. 

Printers Supported: 

Epson MX, RX, FX and LX series, Gemini, Star, 
Micronlx, Delta 10, 10X, 15, 15X, SG- 
1 0.Okidata 82A, 92, 93, C. Itoh Pro-writer, 
Apple Image-writer, Hewlett-Packard Think jet, 
Radio Shack DMP 1 00, 1 05, 1 1 0, 1 20, 200, 
400, 500, Line Printer 7, Line Printer 8, TRP- 
100, CGP-220. (DMP-1 30 use Line Printer 8), 
PMC printers, Gorilla Banana. 
Color printing: CGP-200, CGP-1 1 5 



Pricing 

CoCo Max on tape $69.95 

with Hi-Res Pack and manual. 

CoCo Max II (disk only) $79.95 

with Hi-Res Packand manual. 

Upgrade: CoCo Max to CoCo Max II 

New disk and manual $1 9.95 

New features of CoCo Max II: 1 4 fonts and glyphic 
font, dynamic shrink and stretch, rotate, multiple drive 
capability. 68 page scrapbook, point and click file 
load, color printer drivers, full error reporting. 

Upgrade: CoCo Max tape to disk 

manuals, diskand binder $24.95 

Y-Cable: Special Price $19.95 

Super Picture Disks #1 , #2, and #3 

each: $14.95 

All three picture disks $29.95 

Guaranteed Satisfaction 

Use CoCo Max for a full month. 
If you are not delighted with it, 
we will refund every penny. 



Font Editor Option 

A font is a set of characters of a 
particular style. CoCo Max includes 
1 5 fonts. You can create new fonts of 
letters, or even symbols or graphics 
with the font editor. Examples: set of 
symbols for electronics, foreign 
alphabets, etc $1 9.95 



Digitizer DS-69 

This new Low Cost Digitizer is the 
nextstep in sophistication for your 
CoCo Max system. With the DS-69 
you will be able to digitize and bring 
into CoCo Max a frame from any video 
source: VCR, tuner, or video camera. 
Comes complete with detailed 
manual and C-SEE software on disk. 
Multi-Pak is required. 

New Low Price Save $50 $99.95 

New: faster DS-69A $1 49.95 



Colorware Incorporated 
COLORWARE 79-04 A Jamaica I Avenue 

Woodhaven, NY 11421 



800 221-0916 

Orders only. 

NY & Info: (718) 296-5916 
Hours: 9-5 Eastern time. 



Add S3.00 per order for shipping. 
We accept Visa, MC, checks, M.O. 
C.O.D. add S3.00 extra. 
NY and CT : add sales tax. 
Shipping to Canada is S5.00 Ap,i 
Overseas. FPO, APO add 10% w*P' 



palette registers as a screen is drawn. 

Sixteen limes tn\ each time the screen 
is drawn* I he palette registers are re- 
loaded wilh a new set of values, tn this 
in an lie i\ every possible available color 
can he shown on the same screen. 
Another nice thing about this color 
chart is that it clearly shows the rela- 
tionship between the "intensity 11 and 
"color phase 11 portions of the color 
values. 

The color codes are six -bit values. 
This means that color codes 0-63 are 
available. For the composite color set, 
which is (he color set those using a color 
TV will see, l he leftmost two bits in the 
value are the color intensity, while the 
four remaining bits are the color phase. 

The first column of the color chart 
shows color values 0 through 15, all of 
which correspond to color phase 0 
through 15, color intensity () r These 
colors are so dark thai some of them 
may be indistiguishable from black on 
your TV, unless you turn up the color 
hriiditness* 

The next column, which displays 
color codes 16 through 31, again shows 
values corresponding to color phase 0 
through 15, except that the intensity 



Listing 1: CDL0R3 



value is I. These colors should all be 
visible, yet somewhat dark, 

The third column, displaying colors 
32 through 47, contains colors with 
intensity 2. These colors appear quite 
hright and vibrant. 

The last column, showing colors 48 
through 63 (which are colors with 
intensity level 3), appears so bright that 
its colors are pastels. 

You may notice some small horizon- 
tal dashes at the left edge of your TV 
screen. These dashes appear because the 
colors generated by the GIME chip in 

Those of you with analog RGB 
monitors will see a set of colors 
on your screens that is very different 
from what one would see on a color 
TV or a composite color monitor. On 
a composite monitor, there are 16 
distinct colors that are presented at 
four different luminance levels. For 
example, the "colors 11 8, 16, 24 and 
32 are the same color, but 16 is 
brighter than 8, 24 is brighter than 16 
and 32 is brighter than 24. However, 
the four sets of 16 colors are pre- 
sented in a very different way on 



the Color Computer 3 become "un- 
se tiled" briefly whenever the contents of 
the palette registers are changed. 

Since the palette registers ate being 
reloaded 16 Limes per screen refresh 
(which is 960 times a second), this 
disturbs the ( i 1 M F enough to result in 
this side effect. This is even more notice- 
able if the high-speed poke is removed 
from the program. You may have no- 
ticed this effect on some video games on 
the Atari VCS, which uses this same 
technique to expand the number of 
available colors. □ 

RCIll monitors, and the colors in 
each set no longer have this relation- 
ship. Figure I shows the colors you 
see on a color TV or composite 
monitor (this was photographed 
from a Panasonic CT-I300D); Figure 
2 shows the colors as displayed on 
Tandy's CM-B analog RGB monitor. 

Why are the colors so different in 
the two modes? Perhaps the analog 
RGB output was added after the 
G1MF chip design was already well 
into the final design stages, 

— Ed Filers 



COLOR COMPUTER 3 COLOR CHART 
COPYRIGHT 1986 
BY RICK ADAMS AND DALE LEAR 



SET UP PALETTES AND VIDEO 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
10 
80 

90 FOR 1=0 TO 15: PALETTE I,0:NEX 
T I 

100 PALETTE 1,63 

110 HSCREEN 2 

120 ' 

'HIGH-SPEED POKE 
i 



'DISPLAY HEADING 



130 
140 

150 POKE &HFFD9,0 
160 
170 
180 ' 

190 HPRINT (4,1), "Color Computer 
3 - Color Chart" 

200 ' 

210 ' DRAW BOXES AND NUMBERS 
220 ' 

230 FOR X=0 TO 3 1 COLUMNS 

240 HLINE (X*80+10,32) -(X*80+40, 

160) ,PSET,B 

250 FOR Y=0 TO 15 'ROWS 

260 HPRINT (X*10+5,Y+4) ,X*16+Y 



270 HLINE (X*80+10, Y*8+40) -(X*80 
+40,Y*8+40) ,PSET 

280 HPAINT (X*80+20,Y*8+36) ,8+X, 
1 

290 NEXT Y 
300 NEXT X 
310 ' 

320 'POKE IN MACHINE LANGUAGE 
330 ' 

340 FOR 1=4096 TO 4160 
350 READ A 
360 POKE I, A 
370 NEXT I 
380 ' 

390 'EXECUTE MACHINE LANGUAGE 
400 ' 

410 EXEC 4096 
420 ' 

430 'DATA FOR MACHINE LANGUAGE 
440 'PORTION OF PROGRAM 
450 1 

460 DATA 26,80,198,46,247,255,3, 
134 

470 DATA 16,142,0,16,206,32,48,1 
98 

480 DATA 70,125,255,2,125,255,3, 
42 

490 DATA 251,125,255,0,125,255,1 
,42 

500 DATA 251,90,38,245,125,255,0 
,125 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 




51J3 DATA 255,1,42,251,191,255,18 
4,255 

520 DATA 255,186,48,137,1,1,51,2 



01 

530 DATA 1,1,198,7,74,38,218,32, 
198 



Listing 2: 










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ft ft 4* ft 

00360 




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jo jo jo 10 










ft ft 1 1 ft 
00370 


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WAIT FOR HORIZ SYNC 








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^ SI 1 A 

1019 


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ft ft a ft 

00380 


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$FF00 








00030 




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101C 


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FF01 


00 390 


CYC4 TST 


$FF01 








ft ft ft A ft 
jOjOjOHjO 

ft ft IXC ft 

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a— 


DALE LEAR AND RICK ADAMS 


1 ft 1 V 


£ A 


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ft ft A ft ^ 

00401 




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COUNT STRIPE 


SCAN LINES 








00070 




CYCLE THROUGH 16 


1021 


5A 




00420 




DECB 










Si /I /I A Si 

00080 


* 


DIFFERENT PALETTE COMBOS 


^ si *\ *\ 

1022 


26 


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HORIZONTAL SYNC 








00440 




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00110 




CLOCK, TO YIELD ALL 


1024 


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FF00 


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TST 


$FF00 








00120 




64 COLORS ON A SINGLE 


1027 


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00130 




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00470 




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00140 












00480 














am ^ 0*1 

00150 












00490 


* 


CHANGE PALETTE VALUES 


« f% am 0% 






00160 




ORG $1000 


102C 


BF 


FFB8 


00500 




STX 


$FFB8 






00170 
00180 


* 


INIT VERT SYNC CLOCK 


1 Si *% 

102F 


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si si e si 

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50 


00190 


CYCLE ORCC #$50 








si si e *■» si 

00530 




BUMP PALETTE 


VALUES 


1002 


mm -m 

C6 


m\ mm* 

2E 


00200 




LDB #$2E 


^ si *\ 

103 2 


30 


an ft i /> l 
89 0101 


00540 




LEAX 


$0101, X 
$0101, U 


1004 


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00220 




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1036 


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31 


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si si e e /l 

00550 

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00230 




SET UP FOR 16 STRIPES 








00560 




STRIPES ARE 


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86 


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10 


00240 


CYC1 LDA #16 








ft ft CI ft 

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00241 






103A 


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07 


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00580 




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#7 








00250 


* 


INITIAL PALETTE VALUES 








0058 1 








1009 


8E 


0010 


00260 




LDX #$0010 








00590 




COUNT NUMBER 


OF STRIPES 


100C 


CE 


2030 


00270 




LDU #$2030 


103C 


4A 




00600 




DECA 










00271 






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LAST STRIPE, 


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100F 


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103F 


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1000 


00660 




END 


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1011 


7D 


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00330 




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1014 


7D 


FF03 


00340 


CYC2 TST $FF03 


00000 TOTAL ERRORS 










Co Co Cat 
NOT 



Get your own CoCo Cat button by 
riting to Falsoft, Inc., The Falsoft 
uilding, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. Please enclose $1 .50 for ship- 
ping and handling. 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 25 



NOVICES' NICHE 



These fun "quickies 99 help ease the newcomer 
into the amazing world of computing 



t's 





eginning 



Color Computer owner buys his/her 
versatile machine for its graphics and music 
capabilities, organization of their home and 
office, educational purposes — both in the home 
and school and to acquire programming knowl- 
edge — and some, simply for pure fun and enter- 
tainment. 

As far as the Co Co is concerned, the more you 
learn, the more you realize how little you actually 
know. That is why every session at the keyboard 
is an adventure in learning. 

THE RAIN BO W is a teaching environment and we 
realize that the majority of our readers will always 
be beginners. In our continuing effort to always 
keep the new user in mind and in addition to the 
many beginner feature articles and programs 
published in every issue, "Novices* Niche" will 
contain shorter BASIC program listings that will 




entertain and help the new user gain expertise in 
all aspects of the Color Computer: graphics, music, 
games, utilities, education, programming, etc. 

Contributions to "Novices* Niche" are welcome 
from everyone. We like to run a variety of short 
programs that can be typed in at one sitting and 
will be useful, educational and fun. Keep in mind, 
although the short programs are limited in scope, 
many novice programmers find it enjoyable and 
quite educational to improve the software written 
by others. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk. 
We're sorry, but we do not have the time to key 
in program listings. All programs should be 
supported by some editorial commentary, explain- 
ing how the program works. If your submission is 
accepted for publication, the payment rate will be 
established and agreed upon prior to publication. 

— Jutta Kapfhammer 
Submissions Editor 



ames 





[Finger Sprints 

By Bruce K. Bell, O.D. 



Computer newcomers are often not accustomed to efficient 
typing methods and yet will spend hours entering programs 
from the keyboard. Home Row Bomber provides a fun way 
to develop and sharpen typing skills, even for the most 
experienced typist. 

Upon running the program, a fleet of eight battleships will 
appear on the blue water in the lower screen. Pressing a 
number (1-9) starts the game at the skill level chosen. Using 



26 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



Level 1 , only the "home row" keys will be used (A, S, D, F, 
G, H, J, K, L, ;). As higher levels are reached or selected, 
additional keys are added. 

After a level is chosen, letters will descend toward the ships 
in the water. Press the letter on the keyboard corresponding 
to the letter on the screen and the letter will explode. 
However, if the letter reaches your battleships first, one 
battleship will be destroyed for each missed letter. After each 

The listing: HOME ROW 

0 'HOME ROW BOMBER 1.0; (C) 1986 

BRUCE BELL 
5 POKE359,57 

10 L$=" JFKDLS ; AHGURIEOWPQ YTMV , C . 
X/ZNB74839201:-@! #$%& • ()=?><+" :P 
OKE282 , 1 

20 CLS0:PRINT@8 / "home"CHR$(128) " 
row"CHR$ (12 8) "bomber" ; :FORK=0TO9 
: S (K) =0 : NEXT : M=0 : H=0 

30 FORY=28TO31:FORX=0TO63:SET(X, 
Y 4 3 ) : NEXTX , Y : F0RK=1T08 : C= (RND ( 5 ) 
+2 ) * 16 : S$=CHR$ ( 12 9+C) +CHR$ ( 1 3 5+C 
) +CHR$ ( 13 5+C) +CHR$ ( 13 1+C) : PRINT@ 
412+K*4,S$; :NEXT:PRINT@4 80, "scor 

e" ; :PRINT@500, "level" ; :GOSUB130 

40 PRINT@32," PRESS (1-9) FOR ST 
ARTING LEVEL" : I$=INKEY$ : IFI$="Q" 
THEN170ELSEL=VAL ( I $ ) : IFL<1THEN40 
ELSEFORK=32T063 : PRINT @K, CHR$ (128 
) ; : NEXT : SC=0 : GOSUB13 0 
50 FORK=0TO9 

60 IFS (K) >0THEN90ELSEIFRND (DL) >1 
THEN120 

70 L$(K)=MID$(L$,RND(LL) ,1) :S(K) 
=1 

80 P(K)=32+RND(128) -1: IFPEEK(P(K 



25 letters are destroyed, the level increases by one, which 
allows additional letters to descend at a faster rate. At the 
higher skill levels as many as 10 letters will fall simultaneously 
at rapid speeds, requiring liberal use of the SHIFT key. 

The game ends when all eight ships are destroyed or 20 
letters reach the water. A game may be aborted by pressing 
the SHIFT and down arrow keys simultaneously. The score 
up to that point will then be displayed. 



) +1024) <>1280RPEEK(P (K) +1056) <>1 
28THEN80 

90 IFS(K)=0THEN110ELSEPRINT@P(K) 
,CHR$ (128) ; :P(K)=P(K)+32 :PK=PEEK 
(P(K)+1024) :PRINT@P(K) ,L$(K) ; 
100 IFP(K) >415THENS (K) =0 : PRINT@P 
(K) ,"*" ; : SOUND100 , 1 : PRINT@P(K) AN 
D4092 , CHR$ (12 8) CHR$ ( 128 ) CHR$ (128 
)CHR$(128) ; :M=M+1: IFM=20THEN20EL 
SEIFPK<>128THENH=H+1 : IFH=8THEN20 
110 Q$=INKEY$ : IFQ$=""THEN120ELSE 
IFQ$=" [ "THEN20ELSEFORQ=0TO9 : IFS ( 
Q) =0THENNEXTQ ELSEIFQ$<>L$ (Q) THE 
NNEXTELSES (Q) =0 : POKEP (Q) +1024 , 42 
:SOUND200,1:PRINT@P(Q) ,CHR$ (128) 
; :SC=SC+2 :PRINT@486,SC; :S=SC/100 
: IFS=INT ( S ) THENL=L+1 : GOSUB13 0 
120 NEXTK:GOTO50 
130 LL=L*9:IFLL>54THENLL=54 
140 DL=91-L*10:IFDL<1THENDL=1:PO 
KE65495,0ELSEPOKE65494,0 
150 SCREEN0, (L+l) AND1 
160 PRINT@486,SC*L" ";:PRINT@50 
6 , L ; : RETURN 

170 POKE359, 126 : POKE282 , 255 : CLS4 
: PRINT" BYE BYE!": END 





The listing: LEftKY 

10 REM*THE LEAKY ROOF GAME 
20 REM* BY J . E . RITTENHOUSE 
22 CLS 

25 GOSUB 600 

30 PRINT: PRINT"******THE LEAKY R 
OOF GAME******" 



Wet Mild 

By James E. Rlttenhouse 

The Leaky Roof game is one which combines eye-hand 
coordination and a little luck. 

Using the A and L keys, move the red bucket under the 
water dripping from the ceiling to achieve a catch. Ten points 
are awarded for each drip caught. Your score and the number 
of drips missed are displayed just below the floor, and missing 
five drips ends the game. 

Try not to get all wet! 



40 PRINT : PRINT"DIRECTIONS : 11 

50 PRINT"USE THE RED BUCKET TO C 

ATCH THE" 

55 PRINT" DRIPS AND SCORE POINTS. 
IF YOU" 

60 PRINT"MISS FIVE DRIPS (THEY 1 R 

January 1987 THE RAINBOW i 27 



70 PRINT" BIG DRIPS) THE GAME IS 
OVER . 11 

80 PRINT: PRINT 11 PRESS [A] TO MOVE 

LEFT AND" 

85 PRINT"PRESS [L] TO MOVE RIGHT 
it 

« 

90 PRINT :GOSUB 660 

95 PRINT: INPUT" PRESS [ENTER] TO 

BEGIN" ;ST$ 

100 T=0:B=0:F=288 

105 CLS(0) 

107 FOR H=1T061: SOUND 50,3:H=H+R 
ND(50) 

109 IF H>61 THEN H=61 

110 FOR V=l TO 31 
115 SET(H,V,3) 

120 IF V=17 AND F=288+INT(H/2) T 
HEN GOTO 128 

122 IF V=17 AND F=288+INT (H/2 ) -1 
THEN GOTO 128 

124 IF V=17 AND F=288+INT (H/2 ) -2 
THEN GOTO 128 

125 GOTO 129 

128 SOUND 100, 3: SOUND 7 5,2:GOSUB 
400: GOTO 107 

129 GOSUB 300 

130 RESET (H,V) 
140 NEXT V 

150 B=B+1:IF B=5 THEN GOTO 500 
155 PRINT@4 50, "MISSED DRIPS=";B; 
160 NEXT H 
165 GOTO 107 

300 C=128+16*(4-1)+11:D=128+16* ( 
4-1) +3 :E=12 8+16* (4-1) +7 



315 IF F>317 THEN F=317 
320 PRINT@F,CHR$ (C) ;CHR$(D) ; CHR$ 
(E) 

330 A$=INKEY$:IF A$=" "THEN RETUR 
N 

335 IF A$="A"OR A$="L"THEN GOTO 
340 ELSE RETURN 

340 IF A$="L"THEN PRINT© F, "": F=F 
+RND(10) :GOTO 315 

350 IF A$="A"THEN PRINT@F , " " : F=F 
-RND(10) :GOTO 310 
400 T=T+10 

410 PRINT@38 6,CHR$(C) ;CHR$ (D) ;CH 

R$(E) ;"=";T; 

430 FOR X=1TO1000:NEXT X 
440 RETURN 

500 CLS:PRINT@288,"THE WATER'S U 
P TO YOUR EARS NOW. BETTER STOP B 
EFORE YOU DROWN . " 

505 PRINT: PRINT "YOUR SCORE WAS " 

;T 

510 PRINT: INPUT 11 PLAY AGAIN (Y OR 
N) " ;P$ 

520 IF P$="Y"THEN GOTO 10 ELSE E 
ND 

600 G=128+16* (4-l)+6 

610 FOR X=0TO31 

620 PRINT@0+X,CHR$ (G) ; 

640 NEXT X 

650 RETURN 

660 FOR X=0TO31 

670 PRINT@416+X,CHR$(G) ; 

680 NEXT X 

690 RETURN 



The listing: BACKSTRB 

BACKSTABBER 1986 



100 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 



ALLEN DRENNAN 
1986 COLOR CLOUD 
19506-D INDUSTRIAL DR. 
SONORA, CA. 95370 





isit To The [Past 




By Allen Drennan 

Backstabber 1986 is similar to the old Breakout games first 
available for the CoCo 1 and is a great game for beginners. 

You need a joystick to play. Start by bouncing the ball off 
your paddle and the four layers of blocks. If the ball hits the 
ground below your paddle you lose a man. Three men are 
given at the start of the game and the CoCo keeps score. To 
win you must clear the entire board of blocks or reach a score 
of 240. 



160 ' (209) 533-8489 
170 " 
180 CLS0 

190 E$=CHR$(22 7)+CHR$(227)+CHR$ ( 
227) +CHR$(227) : F$=CHR$ ( 128 ) +CHR$ 
(128) +CHR$ (128 ) +CHR$ (128) 



28 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



200 MN=3 :R0=3 :00=3 :RL=3 :BX=60:BY 

=15:SX=1:SY=1 

210 FOR J=2 TO 61 

220 SET(J,5,4) :SET(J, 1,4) : :SET(J 
,30,4) : SET (1, INT (J/2) ,4) :SET(62, 
INT (J/2) ,4) 
230 NEXT J 

240 FOR J=8 TO 14 STEP 2 

250 FOR 1=2 TO 61 

260 SET(I,J,5) 

270 NEXT I: NEXT J 

280 PRINT @ 448+00, F$ ; 

290 PRINT @ 448+RL,E$; 

300 00=RL 

310 RL=INT(JOYSTK(0)/2) 

320 IF RL>27 THEN RL=27 

330 IF RL<1 THEN RL=1 

340 IF BX=2 OR BX=61 THEN SX=-SX 

350 IF BY=6 THEN SY=-SY 

360 IF BY<>29 THEN 390 




raphics 



370 SOUND 100, 8: RESET (BX, BY) : BX= 

60 : BY=15 : SX=1 : SY=1 :MN=MN-1 

3 80 IF MN=0 THEN RUN ELSE 2 80 

390 RESET (BX, BY) :BX=BX+SX:BY=BY+ 

SY 

400 IF BX>61 THEN BX=61 

410 IF BX<2 THEN BX=2 

420 IF POINT (BX, BY) =7 THEN 430 E 

LSE 450 

430 SOUND 150,1:SY=-SY:BY=BY-1:A 
=RND(2):IF A=l THEN SX=-1 ELSE S 
X=l 

440 GOTO 280 

450 IF POINT (BX, BY) =0 THEN 490 
460 SOUND 1, l:CO=CO+l: IF CO=240 
THEN 200 

470 PRINT @ 42, "SCORE :";C0; 
480 SY=-SY:GOTO 3 90 
490 SET (BX, BY, 5) 
500 GOTO 280 




appy L\Jew 1 ear! 



BvC 



armie 



A. Th 



omas 



The following program draws New Year's graphics and 
plays a familiar tune. 
Happy New Year to all! 




The listing: NEW YEAR 

5 PM0DE4,1 

10 PCLS : SCREEN1 , 1 

20 CIRCLE (188, 56) ,50 

30 DRAWBM156 , 2 8 ; D18U9R6U9D18U9B 

R10BD9BL8E10F10BL8BU4L4BR16U10D2 

0U20R8D8L8R8BR8U8D20U20R8D8L8R8B 

R8D12U12H4BR9G4BD20BL60 

40 DRAW"BM170 , 60 ; D10BU10BR5D10U3 

H4BR8U3D10R5BU5L5BU5R5BR8 BD10H5U 

5BR5D8U8R5D10E5U5BD15BL40F5E5G5D 

10BR11U14R5BD7L5D7R5BR3E10F10BL5 

BU5L10BR19U10D15U15R5D5L5R5D2R1D 

2R1D2R1D2R1D2BD20BL30F5L8E5BG3 6D 

40U50D53 

50 CIRCLE (184, 13 6) ,30,1,1, .50, .8 
0 



60 DRAW"BM24,20;S5L2R2D20L4R8BR1 

0U20L5D5R5BR10U5D20R5U11L5U10R5D 

10BR7BU10R8D20 

70 DRAW"BM0, 160;R250 

80 DRAWBM3 6 , 172 ; S8R10H5G5E5U5H1 

0R20G10BU4L3R6L3BU3R1D1L1U1BL2BU 

2R1D1L1U1BU5BR6R1D1L1U1 

90 DRAW 11 BM7 0 , 168 ;R10D2L10U2" : DRA 

W"BM70, 169;L3D1R3 

100 CIRCLE (94, 168) , 5 : CIRCLE ( 94 , 1 
68) ,3 

110 DRAW"BU40G10E30H2G15F2H1G4L1 

U1L1R1BE5R4E5L4E5R4 

200 G=147:C=176:E=193:D=185 

210 SOUNDG,5:SOUNDC,5:SOUNDC,7:S 

OUNDC , 5 : SOUNDE , 5 : SOUNDD , 5 : S0UND1 

January 1987 THE RAINBOW 29 



76,5: SOUNDD , 5 : SOUNDE , 5 : SOUNDD , 5 : 
SOUNDC , 5 : SOUNDC , 5 : SOUNDE , 5 : SOUND 
204 , 5 : SOUND 2 10 , 5 : SOUND2 10 , 5 : SOUN 
D204 , 5 : SOUND193 , 5 : SOUND193 , 5 : SOU 
NDC , 5 : SOUNDD , 5 : SOUNDC , 5 : SOUNDD , 5 



: SOUNDE , 5 : SOUNDD , 5 : SOUNDC , 5 

240 :SOUND159,5:SOUND159,5:SOUND 

147,5:SOUND176,5 

1000 GOTO1000 




pEEKasso Prints 

By Keiran Kenny 





Peekasso is a simple drawing program that uses PEEK 
(135) and the keyboard. The arrow keys are used to move 
up, down, left and right. The W key is used to move north- 
east, the S key to move south-east, the Q to move north-west 
and the A for south-west. A pixel is set at the center of the 

The listing: PEEKASSO 

0 1 PEEKASSO • : BY KEIRAN KENNY, 

THE HAGUE, 1986. 
10 PMODE4 , 1 : COLOR0 , 5 : PCLS : S CREEN 

1/1 

20 X=128:Y=96 
30 PSET(X,Y,0) :GOTO50 
40 P=PEEK(13 5) 
50 IFP=94THENY=Y-1 
60 IFP=10THENY=Y+1 
70 IFP=8THENX=X-1 
80 IFP=9THENX=X+1 
90 IFP=65THENX=X-1: Y=Y+1 
100 IFP=81THENX=X-1:Y=Y-1 
110 IFP=87THENX=X+1: Y=Y-1 
120 IFP=8 3THENX=X+1: Y=Y+1 
130 IFX<0THENX=0:POKE135,0 
14p IFX>255THENX=255:POKE135,0 



screen and by pressing the appropriate key, the trace will 
continue drawing in the required direction. Press another 
directional key and the trace will change direction without 
stopping. To stop movement, press any key except 1, 2, 3 or 
4. 

The 1 key will give you a flashing cursor which can be 
moved to any location using the direction keys. The 2 key 
will restore the pixel for drawing af the new location. To erase 
a line, press 1 and go back in the direction from which you 
came. And, if you run into the edge of the screen, the trace 
stops and wait for another directional key to be pressed. 

To save a masterpiece, press the play and record buttons 
on the cassette recorder and then press 3. To load a previously 
save?! picture, position the tape in the appropriate position 
and press 4. A flashing cursor will appear at the top-left 
corner of the screen when the loading is complete. 



150 IFY<0THENY=0:POKE135,0 
160 IFY>191THENY=191:POKE13 5,0 
170 IFP=49THENC=5 
180 IFP=50THENC=0 
190 IFP=51GOSUB240 
200 IFP=52GOSUB250 

210 IFC=5THENCIRCLE (X, Y) ,1,0: CIR 
CLE (X, Y) , 1,C:GOTO230ELSEPSET(X,Y 
,C) 

220 FORD=1TO100:NEXT 
230 GOTO40 

240 POKE1 3 5,0: CSAVEM" 11 , PEEK ( &HBA 
) *256,PEEK(&HB7) *256-l,&HB44A:X= 
0 : Y=0 : C=5 : RETURN 

250 PCLS:POKE135,0:CLOADM:X=0: Y= 
0 : C=5 : RETURN 





/Astronomer's [nJeaven 

By Robie Kressman 

The following program will display six big dippers in the 
night sky. If you would like to change screen colors, change 
Line 15 to: 15 SCREEN 1,0. You can also change Line 55 to: 
55 GOTO 5 and the dippers will blink on and off. 

The listing: BIGDIPPR 

1 • *** DIPPER *** 

2 ' BY ROBIE KRESSMAN 



5 PMODE 4,1 
10 PCLS 

15 SCREEN 1,1 

20 DRAW "BM60, 60R60G15NL30GL30G 

H50L30GH50L30U20FR30U20 

25 DRAW "BM170, 60R60G15NL30GL30 

GH50L3 0GH5 0L3 0U20FR3 0U2 0 

30 DRAW "BM180, 60R60G15NL30GL30 

GH50L30GH50L30U20FR30U20 

40 DRAW "BM190, 60R60G15NL30GL30 

GH50L30GH50L30U20FR30U20 

45 DRAW "BM160, 60R60G15NL30GL30 

GH50L30GH50L30U20FR30U20 

50 DRAW "BM200, 60R60G15NL30GL30 

GH50L30GH50L30U20FR30U20 

55 GOTO 55 



30 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



AFFORDAB L EI 



CoCo II 


$87 


C nP n T T T 
LOLO 111 




Drive 0 


$175 


CM-8 Moni tor 


$248 ' 


Sakata Monitor 


$185 


(composite driver 


i n c 1 . ) 


Deluxe Joystick 


$24 


Mouse 


$40 


Mul t iPak 


$75 | 


RS-232 Pack 


$27 


CCR-81 Cass.Rec. 


$42 


CCR-82 


$27 



U 1 sks ( bo ) 


$7 .50/box 


Di sks ( DS) 


$8 .00/box 


DMP-105 


$110 




DMP-430 


$545 




DMP-130 


$215 




Tandy 1000 EX 


$550 




Tandy 1000 SX 


$870 




VM-4 Moni tor 


$99 




CM-10 Monitor 


$360 




CM-5 MOn i tor 


$240 





CoCo 3 512K Upgrade 
MultiPak Upgrade (26 
MultiPak Upgrade (26 



3024) 
3 124) 



$130 
$8 
$7 



«■ Please Not* - Our ads are submitted 

early, so prices are subject to chano«!H 
We appreciate your cooperation & .. 
understanding 1n this matter. 



Method of Payment: 

MC. Visa, Am. Ex. - 3orry, No dtnine! 
Certified Check or Money Order. 
Personal Checks - Allow 1 week to clej 



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saasi* ass? ©inr tasseiy aQAflasraiAi&iK 



* Full TANDY 

Warranty 

* 100% TANDY 

PRODUCTS 

* FREE Shipping 



==> CALL <== 
In Pa: 

215/759-7662 

In N. J. : 
201/735-6777 



COMPUTER CENTER 



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Laneco Plaza, Clinton, N.J. 08809 



ALL PRICES INCLUDE SHIPPING ! ! ! 



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TANDY 
RAD I O 



EQUIPMENT WITH 
3 HACK WARRANTY 



FULL 



tilities 





ongwriter's Word L^hymer 



By Bill Bernico 



Whether you're a poet, a songwriter or just a wise guy who 
needs to come up with a rhyming word, the following 
program may suit your needs. 

All you have to do is type in the word you are trying to 
rhyme and the CoCo will display 65 combinations of words, 
13 at a time, that rhyme with it. Granted, not all 65 words 
will be valid words, or even words that make sense. However, 
if the list contains even one word that helps finish your poem, 
it's done its job. 

The listing: RHYMER 

10 'SONGWRITER'S WORD RHYMER 
20 ' FROM KROMICO SOFTWARE 



30 'BY BILL BERNICO 
40 ' 

50 CLS : INPUT 11 WORD TO RHYME" ;W$ 
60 T$=MID$ (W$,2,LEN(W$) ) :CLS 
70 FOR R=l TO 65: READ R$ 
80 PRINT R$+T$ 

90 IF R=13 OR R=2 6 OR R=3 9 OR R= 

52 OR R=65 THEN GOSUB 120 
100 NEXT: RUN 

110 DATA A,B,BL,BR,C,CH,CL,CR,D, 
DR, E , F , FL, FR, G, GR, H, I , J , K, KL, L,M 

, MIN , MI S , N , 0 , OB , P , PH , PHO , PHY , PL , 
PR, PRA, PRE , PRO , PSY , QU , R, S , SC , SCH 

, SH, SK, SL, SM, SN, SP, ST, STR, SQU, SW 
,T,TH,THR,TR,U,V,W,WH,WR,X,Y, Z 
120 PRINT: PRINT@452, "HIT ANY KEY 

TO CONTINUE 
130 IF INKEY$=" "THEN 130 
140 RETURN 



Teacher's IPeX 

By Christine Terrio 




Spelling Worksheet Generator is a simple program that 
will print a spelling word list of up to 20 words to aid students 
in handwriting practice of words on spelling tests. 

To replace the words with your own, change the data 
statements in lines 1000, 1010, 1020 and 1030. The elongated 
or double-wide printer codes are located in Line 75, and are 
turned off in Line 115. The baud rate is set to run on the 
Olivetti ink-jet printer at 2400 baud. 

The listing: 5PELPRRC 
5 'SPELPRAC 

10 'BY CHRISTINE TERRIO 11/85 
15 CLS: PRINT "PRESS (BREAK) AND 
LOAD YOUR OWN" 

20 PRINT "WORDS INTO DATA LINES. 

START AT LINE 1000" 
25 PRINT "USE ONLY 5 WORDS IN EA 
CH DATA LINE" 
30 PRINT "THEN RUN AGAIN" 
35 PRINT 11 PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE 
" ; BK$ 

40 INPUT BK$ 

45 IF INKEY$ = " 11 THEN 50 
50 CLS:PRINT"SET PRINTER AT 2400 
BAUD" 

55 PRINT 11 THEN PRESS (ENTER) 11 ;X$ 



60 INPUT X$ 
65 POKE 150,18 

70 CLS: PRINT @288, "PRINTING" 

75 PRINT#-2,CHR$ (27) ;CHR$ (51) 

80 PRINT#-2 , "NAME" ;STRING$ (24 , 95 

) ; "DATE" ;STRING$ (8,95) 

85 PRINT#-2, "WRITE EACH WORD 4 O 

R 5 TIMES";STRING$(2,13) 

90 FOR X= 1 TO 20 STEP 1 

95 READ A$ 

100 PRINT#-2,A$+STRING$(40-LEN(A 
$) ,95) ;STRING$ (2, 13) 
105 NEXT X 
110 RESTORE 

115 PRINT#-2,CHR$ (27) ;CHR$ (52) 
120 CLS:PRINT"DO YOU WANT ANOTHE 
R? (Y/N) " 

125 PRINT"IF YES, POSITION PRINTE 
R AT THE TOP OF THE NEXT PAGE"; 
Y$ 

130 INPUT Y$ 

135 IF Y$="Y" THEN GOTO 70 

140 IF Y$<>"Y" THEN END 

1000 DATA REWARD, RECESS, RESULT 

, RECORD, RECITE 

1010 DATA REMAIN, REFUSE, REPLY, 

RESPECT, REMEMBER 
1020 DATA REMIND, RETURN, REJECT 
, REPEAT, REMAINDER 
1030 DATA REVIEW, RECEIVE, REMOV 
E, RELIEF, RECEIPT 
1040 DATA END 



32 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



The magazine for Tandy portable and MS-DOS users 



Not only does Tandy produce our favorite CoCo, we think they produce the best and best-priced lap- 
top portable and MS-DOS computers as well. We've found that when satisfied Color Computer users 
decide to add portability or move to MS-DOS, many stick with Tandy. For these people we publish PCM, 
The Personal Computer Magazine for Tandy Computer Users. 

Each month in PCM, you'll find information and programs for the Tandy 100, 102, 200 and 600 portable 
computers. And you'll find even more coverage for their MS-DOS machines, the 1000, 1200, 2000 and 
3000, along with the great new 1000 EX, 1000 SX and 3000 HL 

FREE PROGRAMS! 

We learned from the rainbow that readers want programs to type in, so each month we bring you an 
assortment of them: games, utilities, graphics, and home and business applications. 



BAR CODE LISTINGS AND PROGRAM DISKS! 

For portable users, PCM is the only home computer publication in the world that brings you programs 
in bar code, ready to scan into memory like magic with the sweep of a wand! For those who don't have 
time to type in listings, we offer a companion disk service with all the programs from the magazine. 

TUTORIALS AND PRODUCT REVIEWS! 

As if all this weren't enough, we offer regular tutorials on telecommunications and hardware; assembly 
language, basic and pascal programming tips; and in-depth reviews of the new software, peripherals 
and services as they are released. Add it all up and we think you'll find PCM to be the most informative 
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U.S. currency only, please. 

Mail to: PCM, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059 




Most Howard Medical products are COCO 3 compatible, 
some require special patches. Please inquire when you order. 

GUARANTEE — H oward Medical's 30-day guarantee is meant to eliminate the uncertainty of dealing with 
a company through the mail. Once you receive our hardware, try it out, test it for compatability. If you're not 
happy with it for any reason, return it in 30 days a nd we'll give you your money back, (less shipping) 

RS DOS ROM CHIP [_ 

ROM chip fils inside disk controller. 24 pin fits both J&M 
and RS controller Release 1.1 




COCO MAX II 



Lets the graphic capabilities of your CoCo EXPLODF 
on the screen m on paper. ^*7JJ 45 

1 



Y CABLE 

Needed to connect CoCo Max and disk d( ivo at same 

$19.45 

FONT EDITOR 

Lets you create your own fonts or symbols 

$19.45 




DISK 

CONTROLLER 



NEW FROM 



J&M 

The DC-4 is a scaled down versiunof the popular DC- 
2 without a parallel port or memory minder. It 
i in ludes a switch with 2 ROM sockets, J DOS, manual 
and such features as gold connectors and metal box. 
It accesses double sided drives and accepts RSDOS 
l l fm Radio Shack compatibility. CCC 

($2 shipping) ^VV 




DISK 
DRIVE 

spare slots in the Radio Shack 
501 Disk Drive, This bare drive features 40 Track, double 
sided 360K potential and a six ^JIIA 
miiusecond track ($2 shipping} * 1 JZ 

seen rate. 

The DD-2 combines the Teac 55B with our v 2 height 
horizontal case and heavy duty 
power supply shjppjng) 



Dl>1 ( 1 in k en< lasure ! . tieighi horizontal wilh hrjvy duly pQWfel 
supply Iru ludes all mounimg haulware, VI r nn 

($2 shipping) *J3-UU 

lull height disk enclosure. AcCgpti two v> height drivrs. 
Im ludes power supply for 2 drives antj % r \Q £fl 

all mounting hardware. ($2 shipping) 3!7#JU 



$188 



OTEK 



Reg $40 



($2 shipping) 



each 



Serial to parallel converter converts the CoCo 4 pin serial 
output to run a parallel printer like Star or Epson, In* 
eludes all cables. Add $10 for modem attachment 

($2 shipping) 



WORD 



lis Ri 



lack is tne hardware answer for an 80 column 
display. It includes a built-in video controller to drive a 
monochrome monitor like our 123A. To get started, you 
need OS-9 2.0, a Y-cable or multipack interface drive 0, 
and a monochrome monitor 

($2 shipping) 

New basic driver runs word pack without 
need for an OS-9. 



Howard Medical has located and tested a select few 
typewriters that can connect to the Tandy Color 
Computer and we offer them here at mail order 
prices. These typewriters bridge the gap between dot 
matrix and daisy wheel printers with excellent letier 
quality and keyboard access. Try one in your home 
for 30 days and if you do not agree that this is the best 
uf both worlds return it pre-paid for a courteous 
refund. 

OLIVETTI CX880 with built-in parallel port $-j<jjj* 
OLYMPIA ORBIT XP with built-in parallel port 

$286* 

OLVMPIA CARFRRA with free $75 starter kit 
Needs $75 parallel mt. •» Lh *- .idapiet *225* 

IITH CORONA 6100 with spell checker 
Needs $98 parallel & serial interface adapter 

*315* 

*($7 shipping) 



Howard Medical Computers 1690 N. Elston Chicago, IL 60622 




ORDERS 



(800) 443-1444 



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(312) 278-1440 



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It's called the premier Color Computer magazine for good 
reason. THE RAINBOW is the biggest, best, brightest and most 
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THE RAINBOW features more programs, more information 
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A monthly issue contains more than 200 pages and up to two 
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Two great ways to bring 
the Rainbow into your life 




Rainbow on Tape 
& Rainbow On Disk! 



For more than four years now, tens of thousands of 
RAINBOW readers have enjoyed the luxury of RAINBOW 
ON TAPE. Each month our tape service subscribers receive 
all the great programs from the pages of THE RAINBOW 
(those over 20 lines long), without the trouble of having to 
type them in. 

Now, in addition to RAINBOW ON TAPE, there is 
RAINBOW ON DISK — another great way to bring THE 
RAINBOW into your life. 

Each month, all you do is pop the tape into your cassette 
player or the disk into your drive. No more lost weekends 
typing, typing, typing. As soon as you read an article about 
a program in THE RAINBOW, it's ready to load and run. 
No work. No wait. 

Yes, you could type the programs in yourself, as many 
peopledo. But all of them? Every month? There simply isn't 
enough time. 

Just think how your software library will grow. With your 
first year's subscription, you'll get almost 250 new pro- 
grams: games, utilities, business programs, home applica- 
tions — the full spectrum of THE RAINBOW'S offerings 
without the specter of keying in page after page of listings 
and then debugging. And, with RAINBOW ON DISK, you'll 
also get all the OS-9 programs. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK — as 
we've said before, they're the "meat" of THE RAINBOW at 
a price that's "small potatoes." And now you even have a 
choice about how it should be served up to you. 

To get your first heaping helping, just fill out and return 
the attached reply card. No postage necessary. 





Drive 0 and 1 269» s 

One double sided drive with doubler board and new RS 
controller so you can have the equivalent of 2 drives in 
one. You can even backup from 0 to 1 . Works with all 
CoCo's. Compatible w/RS DOS. No special operating 
system needed. 




EPSON® LX-80 PRINTER 



239 



95 



The logical choice for your CoCo! 80 column, 100 CPS 
in draft mode, 16 CPS in near letter quality mode, 1 K 
Buffer, compatible with CoCo max. 1 year warranty* 
LX-80 Tractor Feed 27.95. Serial to parallel converter 
starting at only 49.95. 

*We are authorized Epson® Sales and Service 




Both our drive 0 and 1 in one case, with cable and R.S. 
controller. The best just got better! 




Add a second x ii height drive to your Radio Shack® Thin 
Line Disk Drive. Comes with 3 minute installation 
instructions, screwdriver required. Please specify either 
catalog #26-3 129 or 26-3 1 3 1 when ordering. 





Drive 1 



125 95 



Your Choice 
Silver or White 



199 



95 



Drive 0 



SUPER DRIVE SALE 



Special prices on new first quality disk drives. They even have GOLD connectors on the back , . . Some other places charge 229.00 for 
dr. 1 and 299.00 for dr. 0, not us! Drive 1 is I, Second Color Computer drive, or external mod HI, IV. Drive 1 just plugs into the extra 
connectoron your Dri veO cable. Both drives are compatible with any version of the Color Computer and all versions of drives. Drive 0 
is your first Color Computer drive and comes complete with cable, manual, and R.S. controller. Bare full hgt SSDD drive only 79.95 , 

T HE COMPUTER CENTER 
901-761-4565, 5512 Poplar, Memphis, TN38119 
Add $4.90 for shipping and handling— Visa, MC & money orders accepted, No CODs 
Allow an additional 3 weeks for personal checks— Drive faceplates may vary slightly 
Prices subject to change without notice. Radio Shack is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation 

Prices subject to change without notice. 




il I 




m 

in 



• - i * 



■ \ 



is 



l"!'<*;yj.i 



"W^^^/ Afov is an action game which challenges you to 
m m defend your home planet against the enemy. After 
.^L^r loading and running Def Mov, a low resolution title 
screen appears while the computer sets up the graphics 
screen. When the game board appears, the computer plays 
a short tune and the ground begins to scroll by as you fly 
your ship over the blue soil. Press the right joystick button 
to begin your battle against the enemy. 

The object of the game is to shoot down the enemy before 
his ship reaches the left side of the screen. To do this, you 
use the right joystick to move your ship vertically and to 
fire the laser. Your spare ships are located on the lower-left 
part of the screen. You also have three superzappers in your 
arsenal that you can activate by moving the joystick 
completely to the left. Be careful not to activate a super- 
zapper by mistake, for they will prove to be very valuable 
as the game progresses. Your superzappers are the z-shaped 




lines on the lower-right side of the screen. When activated, 
superzappers destroy the enemy regardless of where he is. 

The enemy attacks in waves of 10, and beginning with 
the fourth wave they begin to shoot back at you. With each 
new wave, the enemy becomes faster and harder to hit. 

Located in the lower center of the screen is your enemy 
casualty gauge. When you shoot down about 35 enemies 
and the gauge reaches the full mark, you have a chance to 
earn an extra superzapper. You now enter what is called the 
bonus tunnel. To earn an extra superzapper you must 
successfully fly your ship through the jagged tunnel without 
crashing into the walls. Once the ship has started moving 
you can't stop it, so be ready. 

The scrolling of the ground and the movement of the ships 
are all created using the GET and PUT statements. I used 
combinations of the PM0DE4 and PM0DE3 screens to add 
color to the high resolution PM0DE4 screen. Score is kept 
by summing the horizontal positions of the enemy ships 
each time you hit one. Therefore, the quicker you shoot the 
enemy, the greater the X value will be, and in turn, the more 
points you will earn. 

I welcome comments on the quality of my program, or 
perhaps suggestions on improving the play. I am only 
familiar with BASIC language, however. Good luck and have 
fun! 

(Questions or comments about this game may be 
addressed to Curt at 4072 Eleven Mile Rd., Auburn, MI 
48611. Please enclose an SASE when writing.) □ 



Curt Coty attends college in Michigan, and is pursuing a 
degree in electrical engineering. A self-taught programmer, 
Curt also enjoys sports. 



36 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



¥/ 250 


231 


460 


198 


690 


246 


870 


198 


1120 


13 


1340 


151 


1580 


201 


1770 


238 


END 


,...57 



The listing: DEF MOV 1 

10 ' DEF MOV BY CURT COTY 10/24/ 
86 . 

20 POKE 65495, 0 

30 CLS4 

40 PRINT@1,STRING$ (30, "*") ; 

50 PRINT§481,STRING$(30,"*") ; . 

60 PRINT@237, "def mov"; 

10 PRINT@362,"by curt coty" ; 

80 SCREEN0,1 

90 DIM BG(245,10) ,SG(10 , 10) 

100 PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS0 

110 DRAWBM9 , 50 ;U7 ;R5 ; F3 ;R10 ; G4 ; 

L13 

120 ' DRAW GROUND 
130 PMODE3,l:COLOR2,l:G=165 
140 FOR 1=0 TO 255 
150 R=RND ( 3 ) : G=G+ (R-2 ) 
160 IF G<160 THEN G=160 ELSE IF 
■G>170 THEN G=170 
110 PSET(T,G) :NEXT T : PAINT (0 ,190 

) 

180 1 DRAW SUPERZAPPERS 

190 DRAW "BM230,175;C3;G5;R5;G7 

200 DRAWBM240, 17 5;C3 ;G5;R5;G7 

2 10 DRAW 11 BM 2 5 0 , 1 1 5 J C 3 ; G 5 ; R 5 ; G 7 

220 'DRAW RESERVE SHIPS 

2 3 0 DRAW " BM 1 5 , 1 8 5 ; C 3 ; U 7 ; R 5 ; F 3 ; R 1 

0;G4;L13 

240 DRAW"BM45,185;C3 ;U7;R5;F3 ;R1 

0;G4;L13 

250 'DRAW ENEMY GUAGE 

260 DRAW"BM190,175;C0;D10 

210 DRAW"BM90,175;C0;D10 

280 GOSUB 3 60 

290 SOUNDl,5 

300 RUN 310 ™ 

310 DIM SH(25,25) :GET(5,35) -(30, 

60) ,SH 

320 DIM MT(35,20) :GET (100 , 100) - ( 

135, 120) ,MT 

330 DIM EN(30,15) 

340 GOSUB 580 

350 GOTO 450 

360 ' GROUND SCROLLING ROUTINE 

370 SCREEN 1 : POKE 65314,248 

380 PLAY"03L16A04C03D04C03A04C03 



A04C03D04C03A04C03L16B04CDC03BAG 

ABAGF#EF#GF#EDC#DEDC#02BABAGF#GA 

B03C#D02BAGF#EL8D" 

390 GET (0, 160) -(10, 170) ,SG 

400 GET (10 , 160 )- (255 , 170) , BG 

410 PUT (0,160) -(245,170) , BG 

420 PUT(245,160)-(255,170) ,SG 

430 IF PEEK(65280)=126 OR PEEK(6 

5280) =254 THEN RETURN 

440 GOTO 390 

450 'MAIN LOOP 

460 X=220:LL=90:ES=2 :Y=35:SZ=230 

: SL=45 :NO=0 : SC=0 : W=l : SN=-20 

470 A=JOYSTK(0) :B=JOYSTK(l) 

480 IF PEEK(65280)=126 OR PEEK(6 

5280) =254 THEN GOTO 830 

490 IF B>53 THEN Y=Y+3 ELSE IF B 

<10 THEN Y=Y-3 

500 IF Y>135 THEN Y=135 ELSE IF 
Y<0 THEN Y=0 

510 PUT(5,Y) -(30,Y+25) ,SH 

520 PUT(X,R) -(X+30,R+15) ,EN,PSET 

530 X=X-ES 

540 IF X<10 THEN GOSUB 1080 

550 IF A=0 THEN GOSUB 920 

560 IF ABS(SN-X)<15 THEN GOSUB 1 

830 

570 GOTO 470 

580 ' FIRST ENEMY 

590 NE=0 

600 COLOR 3,1 

6 10 DRAW" BM2 2 8 , 100 ; D2 ; R10 ; D3 ; L5 ; 

R10 ; U3 ; R2 ; U3 ; L2 ; U3 ; L10 ; R5 ; D3 ; L10 
;D1 

620 GET(223 , 93 ) - (253 , 108) ,EN,G 
630 R=93 :W=W+1:ES=ES+1:IF ES>8 T 
HEN ES=8 

640 CLS4:PRINT@298," score" ;SC; :P 
RINT@2 66, "wave no.";W; 

650 FOR T=l TO 2000: NEXT T : PMODE 

4 , 1 : SCREEN1 : POKE 65314,248 

660 RETURN 

670 ' SECOND ENEMY 

680 COLOR 3,1 

69 0 DRAW"BM2 2 8 , 100 ; E5 ; R10 ; D2 ; L4 ; 

G3 ; F 3 ; R4 ; D2 ; L10 ; H5 

700 GET(225, 93) -(255,108) , EN, G 
710 R=93:ES=ES+1:W=W+1:IF ES>8 T 
HEN ES=8 

720 CLS4:PRINT@298," score" ;SC; :P 
RINT@266, "wave no.";W; 

730 FOR T=l TO 2000: NEXT T: PMODE 

4 , 1 : SCREEN1 : POKE 65314,248 

740 RETURN 

750 ' THIRD ENEMY 

760 COLOR 3,1 

770 DRAW"BM226,100;D2;R20;U3 ;L20 

;Dl;Ul;R8 ;E3 ;R7;D9 ;L7;H3 

780 GET (225 , 93 )- (255 , 108) ,EN,G 

January 1987 THE RAINBOW 37 



790 W=W+1:R=93 :ES=ES+1:IF ES>8 T 
HEN ES=8 

800 CLS4:PRINT@298, "score" ;SC; :P 
RINT@266, "wave no.";W; 

810 FOR T-l TO 2000: NEXT T : PMODE 
4,l:SCREENl:POKE 65314,248 
820 RETURN 

830 'SHOOTING ROUTINE 

840 PMODE 3,1: COLOR 2,1 

850 LINE(30,Y+11) -(255,Y+11) , PSE 

T 

860 PLAY"T255 ; L2 55 ; BBBBGGGEEC 
870 COLOR1,0:LINE(30, Y+ll) -(255, 
Y+ll) ,PSET 

880 ES=ES+.5:IF ES>8 THEN ES=8 
890 NO=NO+l:IF NO>12 THEN NO=12 
900 IF ABS((Y+3)-R)<6 THEN GOSUB 

1200 
910 GOTO 510 

920 'SUPERZAPPER ROUTINE 

930 IF SZ=260 THEN RETURN 

940 PMODE 4,1: CO LOR 1,0 

950 LINE(30, Y+ll) -(X+15,R+7) , PSE 

T 

960 FOR T=l TO 50 
970 PLAY"T255;A;B,*C 
980 SCREEN1: PMODE 3,1 
990 PLAY"T255;D;E,*F 
1000 SCREENl:PMODE4, 1 
1010 NEXT T 

1020 PMODE 4, 1:SCREEN1: COLOR 0,1: 
POKE 65314, 248:LINE(30,Y+11)-(X+ 
15,R+7) ,PSET 

1030 PMODE 3 , 1: DRAW"BM"+STR$ (SZ)+ 

",175;C2;G5;R5;G7 

1040 SZ=SZ+10 

1050 PUT(X,R)-(X+30,R+15) ,MT,PSE 
T 

1060 GOSUB 1200 
1070 RETURN 

1080 'ENEMY REACHES LEFT SIDE 

1090 PLAY"T5;L200;O5;BAGFEC;O3 ;B 

AGFEC ; 01 ; BAGFEC ; LI ; C 

1100 FOR T=l TO 400: NEXT T 

1110 IF SL=-15 THEN 1910 

1120 PLAY"T100;L100;O2 ; BBAAGGFFE 

ECCEFGAB 

1130 DRAW"BM"+STR$ (SL) +" , 185 ; C2 ; 

U7 ; R5 ; F3 ; R10 ; G4 ; LI 3 

1140 PUT (5 , Y) - 1 (35 , Y+20) ,MT 

1150 PUT (X,R) - (X+35, R+20) ,MT 

1160 R=RND(140) :X=220 

1170 PLAY"03 

1180 SL=SL-30 

1190 RETURN 

1200 'SHIP HITS ENEMY 

1210 PUT (X ,R) - (X+35 , R+15) ,MT 

1220 PUT (X,R) - (X+20 ,R+15) , EN 

1230 PLAY"T255,*L255;BBCCBBCCBBCC 



1240 PUT (X,R) - (X+35, R+15) ,MT 
1250 SC=SC+INT(X) 
1260 ES=ES-(N0*.5) :NO=0 
1270 R=RND(140) :X=220 
1280 NE=NE+1:IF NE=10 THEN GOSUB 
670 ELSE IF NE=20 THEN GOSUB 75 
0 ELSE IF NE=30 THEN GOSUB 580 
1290 LL=LL+ 3 

1300 PM0DE3, 1:PSET(LL, 180,0) : PSE 

T(LL-1, 180,0) :PSET(LL-2, 180,0) 

1310 IF LL>186 THEN SOUND 10,10: 

GOSUB 1350 

1320 SC=SC+INT(X) 

1330 IF W>3 THEN SN=RND(210) 

1340 RETURN 

1350 'BONUS TUNNEL ROUTINE 
1360 PUT (5,Y)-(35,Y+20) , MT 

1370 CLS4 :PRINT@2 2 5, "prepare to 

enter bonus tunnel"; 

1380 PRINT@298, "score" ;SC; 

1390 PM0DE4 , 1 : COLOR 1,0 
1400 LINE(0, 70) -(20,90) ,PSET 
1410 LINE(0,128)-(20,108) ,PSET 
1420 1=90 

1430 FOR P=20 TO 255 

1440 R=RND ( 3 ) : 1=1+ (R-2 ) 

1450 IF K80 THEN 1=80 ELSE IF I 

>100 THEN 1=100 

1460 PSET(P, I, 1) :PSET(P, 1+18,1) 
1470 NEXT P 

1480 SH$="U7;R5;F3 ;R10 ; G4 ; LI 3 
1490 DRAW"BM0,100;"+SH$ 
1500 SCREEN1:P0KE 65314,248:1=10 
0:SOUND100, 10 

1510 FOR X=0 TO 1500:NEXT X:SOUN 
D 200,1 

1520 DRAW"BM0, 100;C0;"+SH$ 
1530 FOR P=0 TO 235 STEP 2 
1540 A=JOYSTK(0) :B=J0YSTK(1) 
1550 IF B>53 THEN 1=1+1 ELSE IF 
B<10 THEN 1=1-1 

1560 DRAW"BM"+STR$(P)+", "+STR$(I 
)+"Cl"+SH$ 

1570 IF PPOINT(P+6,I-8)=l OR PPO 
INT (P+15 , I) =1 OR PPOINT(P+19,I-4 
)=1 THEN 1650 

1580 DRAW"BM"+STR$ (P) +." , "+STR$ (I 

)+"C0"+SH$ 

1590 NEXT P 

1600 FOR T=l TO 20 : PLAY"T255 ; L55 
;CEFGAB" : NEXT T 

1610 CLS4 :PRINT@229, "**bonus sup 

erzapper**" ; 

1620 SZ=SZ-10 

1630 PMODE 3 , 1 : DRAW"BM"+STR$ (SZ) + 

",175;C3;G5;R5;G7" 

1640 GOTO 1700 

1650 'SHIP CRASHED 

1660 DRAW"BM"+STR$(P+9)+", "+STR$ 



38 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



(1-3)+" ;G5;E1J3;G5;H5;F10 ;H5;L5;R 
lp;L5;U5;Dlp 

1670 SOUND 1,20 

168)3 FOR T=l TO500:NEXT T 

1690 CLS4:PRINT@268, "no bonus"; 

1700 COLOR 0,1 

1710 PMODE4,l 

1720 DRAW"BM"+STR$ (P+9 ) +" , "+STR$ 

(1-3 ) +" ; C0 *G5 ;E10 ;G5 ;H5 ; F10 ;H5 ;L 
5;R10;L5;U5;D10 

1730 COLOR 1,0 

LINE(0,70)-(255,70) , PSET 
LINE (0, 128) -(2 55, 128) , PSET 
PAINT(0,90) ,1,1:PAINT(0,90) 



1740 
1750 
1760 

r0.V0 
1770 

1780 
1790 
1800 
,248 
1810 
1820 
1830 
1840 
1850 
1860 
1870 



PMODE3 , 1 : COLOR 6,1 

LINE (92, 180) -(189, 180) , PSET 

LL=90 

PMODE3 , 1 : SCREEN1 : POKE 65314 



R=RND(140) :X=220 
RETURN 

< ENEMY SHOOTS AT SHIP 
PMODE3 , 1 : COLOR 3,1 
LINE(X,R+7) -(5,R+7) , PSET 
PLAY"T100;L255;CCCCACCCCA" 
COLOR l,0:LINE(X,R+7) -(5,R+ 
7) ,PSET 

1880 IF ABS( (Y+3) -R)<6 THEN GOSU 
B 1080 

1890 SN=RND(210) 

1900 RETURN 

1910 • END OF GAME 

1920 FOR T=l TO 50 

1930 CIRCLE (127, 96) ,T*2 , , .8 

1940 PMODE4,l:SCREENl,l 

1950 PLAY"02 ;L n +STR$ (T) +" ;G" 

1960 CLS4 

1970 PRINT© 7 5, "game over"; 

1980 PRINT@3 60 , "YOUR SCORE" ;SC; 
1990 PRINT @3 9 4 , "WAVE NO.";W; 
2000 NEXT T 

2010 PRINT @4 85, "PRESS ANY KEY TO 
PLAY"; 

2020 IF INKEY$=" "THEN 2020 ELSE 
RUN 



* ■ r 
■ 



, 1 1 . » -v 




Now Create Your Own Signs, 
Banners, and Greeting Cards. 



Introducing The 
Coco Graphics Designer 

Last Christmas we introduced our 
COCO Greeting Card Designer program 
(tee review April 86 Rainbow). It has 
been to popular that we've now 
expanded it into a new program called 
the COCO Graphics Designer. The 
Coco Graphics Designer produces 
greeting cards plus banners and signs. 
This program will further increase the 
uaefullness and enjoyment of your dot 
matrix printer. 

The Coco Graphics 

Designer allows you to mix text and 
pictures in all your creations. The 
program features picture, border, and 
character font editors, so that you can 
modify or expand the already built in 
libraries. Plus a special "grabber" utility 
is included to capture areas of high 
resolution screens for your picture 
library. 



Requirements: a Coco or Coco II 
with a minimum of 32K, One Disk Drive 
(Disk Ext. BASIC 1.0/1.1, ADOS, or 
JDOS). Printers supported include: 
Epson RX/FX, GEMINI 10X, SG-10, 
NX-10, C-Itoh 8510, DMP-100/ 105/ 
400/ 430, Seikosha GP-100/250, Legend 
808 and Gorilla Bannana. Send a SASE 
for complete list of compatible printers. 
#C332 Coco Graphics Designer $20.05 

Over 100 More Pictures 

An optional supplementary library 

diskette containing over one hundred 
additional pictures is available. 

#C333 Picture Disk #1 $14.05. 

Colored Paper Packs 

Now available are packs containing 120 
sheets of tractor-feed paper and 42 
matching envelopes in assorted bright 
RED, GREEN, and BLUE. Perfect for 
making your productions unforgettable. 



#C274 Paper Pack 



$10.05 





With Zebra's Coco Graphics Designer it's easy and enjoyable 
making your own greeting cards, signs, and banners. 

WICO 
TRACKBALL 
Now $19.95 

Order Cat#TBRS01 
(Was $69.95) 

You can benefit from our purchase of 
brand new WICO Trackball Controllers 
at closeout prices. This model was 
designed specifically for the Radio Shack 
Color Computer and plugs right into the 
joystick port. 

WICO is the largest designer and 
manufacturer of control devices for 
commercial arcade video games. If 
you've ever played an arcade video 
game, chances are you've used a WICO 
joystick or trackball and experienced its 

We have bargain priced trackballs for ATARI, Commodore, TI, 
and other computers. Call or write for our price list. 



superior control, pinpoint firing 
accuracy, and exceptional durability. 

Includes one-year limited warranty. 
Phoenolic ball offers 360-degree 
movement. Two optical encoders 
provide split-second response. 
Quick-action fire button for smooth, two 
handed arcade response and feel. Long 
5' computer connection. Heavy duty 
plastic case for long hard use. 
Compatible with all color computer 
models. 



Ordering Instructions: All orders 

add $9.00 Shipping & Handling. UPS 
COD add $3.00. VISA/MC Accepted. 
NY residents add sales tax. 



Zebra Sytems, Inc 
78-06 Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(718) 296-2385 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 39 




EARS 



Electronic 
Audio 
Recognition 
System 



$99.95 



• SPEECH 
RECOGNITION 

• HANDS OFF 
PROGRAMMING 

• HIGH 
QUALITY 
SPEECH 

REPRODUCTION 
EARS Does It All! 




Two Years In the Making. Speech Systems 
was formed to develop new and innova- 
tive speech products. After 2 years of in- 
tensive Research and Development, we 
have created a truely sophisticated 
speech recognition device. Recognition 
rates from 95% to 98% are typical. Until 
now, such a product was outside the 
price range of the personnel computer 
market, and even small businesses. 

EARS is trained by you r voice and capab le 
of recognizing any word or phrase. 
Training EARS to your particular voice 
print takes seconds. Up to64voice prints 
may be loaded into memory. You may 
then save on tape or disk as many as you 
like so that your total vocabulary is virtu- 
ally infinite. 

Speech and Sound Recognition. EARS is re- 
ally a sound recognition system, so it re- 
ally doesn't matter whether you speak in 
English, Spanish, orFrench. In factyou do 
not have to speak at all, you can train 
EARS to understand sounds such as a 
musical note or a door slamming. 

Hands Off Programming. Imagine writing 
your own BASIC programs without ever 
touching the keyboard. Everything that 



you would normally do through a 
keyboard can now be done by just 
speaking. 

Programming EARS Is Easy. LISTEN, 
MATCH and other commands have been 
added to BASIC so that programming 
EARS is a piece of cake! The single BASIC 
line: 10 LISTEN: MATCH will instruct 
EARS to listen to you and return the 
matching phrase. 

It Talks. EARS is also capable of high qual- 
ity speech. We mean REALLY high quality. 
The speech is a fixed vocabulary spoken 
by a professional announcer. Speech 
Systems is currently creating a library of 
thousands of high quality words and 
phrases. For a demonstration call (312) 
879-6844, you won't believe your ears or 
our EARS. 

DISK OWNERS, EARS will work with any 
disk system with either a MULTI-PAK or 
Y-CABLE. Our new Triple Y-CABLE was 
specifically developed for those wishing 
to add SUPER VOICE as a third device. 

You Get Everything You Need* You get ev- 
erything you need including a specially 
designed professional headsetstyle noise 



cancelling microphone. The manual is 
easy to use and understand. Several 
demonstration examples are included so 
you don't have to write your own pro- 
grams unless you want to. EARS will work 
in any 32K or 64K Color Computer. 

SUPER VOICE $20 OFF 

Imagine talking to your computer and it 
talking back to you. When you need an 
unlimited vocabulary, you can't beat 
SUPER VOICE. For a limited time, we will 
give you the SUPER VOICE for $59.95 with 
your EARS purchase. Even if you already 
have another speech unit, here is your 
chance to buy the best and save $20. 

VOICE CONTROL 

Applications for EARS are astounding. 
Here is our first of many listening pro- 
grams to come. VOICE CONTROL is a 
program specifically designed to allow 
you to control any appliance in your 
house with your voice and our HOME 
COMMANDER (sold separately) or the 
Radio Shack Plug 'N' Power controller. 
For example, you can control your TV by 
saying "TV ON" or. "TV OFF". . $24.95 



r 




BLANK DISK 

OR TAPf 
WITH EVERY 
ORDER 





Dealer Inquiries 
Invited 



'//' 



Speecli Si 



it 



em5 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada S3. 00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada S5.00 

COD charge ... S2.00 

Illinois resident * add 6'A% sales tax 



38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (TO ORDER) 

CALL ANY DAY TO ORDER. ALSO ORDER BY MAIL 





9 



T.M. 



COCO'S MOST ADVANCED 
SPEECH SYNTHESIZER. 

IT TALKS, SINGS AND 

MORE. 

only . . . $79.95 

WITH EARS PURCHASE 
only . . . $59.95 



** 4f «i wL 




SUPER VOICE is no ordinary speech synthesizer. It uses Silicon 
Systems, Inc. SSI-263, the most advanced speech/sound chip 
available. SUPER VOICE is not only capable of highly intelligible 
speech, sound effects, and singing over a 6 octave range, but now 
we have turned SUPER VOICE into a monophonic Super Music 
Synthesizer with our PIANO KEYBOARD. 

IT TALKS. A free TRANSLATOR text-to-speech program makes 
writing your own talking program as easy as SAYING "HELLO." 

SUPER VOICE works in any32K or 64K computer. A disk system 
requires a Y-Cable or Multi-Pak. 

Here are the facts; 
the decision is yours. 






sui'f a viticr 


REAL TALKER 


RS SPEECH 
CARTRIDGE 


VOICE-PAK 


Synthesizer Device 


77 

SSI ?4* 


SC 01 


SP 256 


SC-01 


Speaking Speeds 


' 


1 


1 


l 


Volume Levels 




1 


i 


1 


Articulation Rates 


| 


\ 


1 


1 


Vocal Tract 
Filter Settings 




1 


1 


1 


Basic unit 
o< Speech 


frl (►hone inn 
i *ut*Uuni r*i" 


64 phonemes 


64 allophones 
5 pause lengths 


64 phonemes 


Pilch Variations 


MM <3? iMaM* levels 
atift A inlrecitan ipcEfti} 


4 


1 


* 



SUPER TALKING HEADS 

Paul and Pauline, our talking heads program is normally$24.95. 
Dec. 15 we will include them with each SUPER VOICE order. 



Until 





2*lrVWW 




Dealer Inquiries 
Invited 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD. VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada , $3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6'A% sales tax 



'//' 



emd 



38W 255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (TO ORDER) 



1 MEGABYTE 
COLORAMA 

CALL ANY DAY TO ORDER. ALSO ORDER BY MAIL OR BBS. 




if YOU _ 



#8* 

use ps 



LYRA is the most powerful music composition program we have seen on 
any computer. We don't mean just the COCO, we really mean any com- 
puter. Whether you are a novice trying to learn music or a professional 
musician with MIDI equipment you will find LYRA a powerful tool. You 



see, we wrote LYRA for musicians that hate computers. If you want proof, 
purchase a LYRA demo for $7.95. We will apply the demo price to your 
purchase. MIDI output requires the LYRA MIDI cable (#MC158) or COCO 
MIDI Seq/Editor (#CM147). 



Ultra Easy to use, just point with joystick or 
mouse and click 

Compose with up to 8 completely 
independent voices. 

Room for over 18,000 notes. (This is not 
misprint!) 

Super Simple Editing Supports' 



Note insert 
Note delete 
Note change 
Output music to: 
TV Speaker 
STEREO PAK 
SYMPHONY 12 
MIDI Synth 



Block insert ■ 
Block delete 
Block copy 

Monitor Speaker 
ORCHESTRA 90 
COCO MIDI S/E 
MIDI Drum Machine 



Output up to 4 voices without additional 
hardware. 



Output all 8 voices using either SYMPHONY 
12 or one or more MIDt synthesizers and 
drum machines. 

Output any voice on any of the 8 MIDI 
channels. 

Transpose music to any key. 
Modify music to any tempo. 
Automatically inserts bar for each measure 
as you compose. 

Key signature lets you specify sharps and 
flats only once, LYRA will do the rest. 
^ Plays MUSICA 2 files using LYRA CONVERT 
(#LC164). 

Each voice may be visually highlighted or 
erased. 

v* Each measure is numbered for easy 
reading. 

LYRA OPTIONS 



Solo capability 
Block edits are highlighted. 
^ Tie notes together for musical continuity. 
Name of note pointed to is constantly 
displayed. 

Jump to any point in the score 
instantaneously. 

Memory remaining clearly displayed, 
however you will have plenty of memory 
even for the most demanding piece. 
\^ Help menu makes manual virtually 
unnecessary. 

LYRA is 100% software, no need for extra 
hardware unless you want more power 

\^ Music easily saved to tape or disk. 

*^ Requires 64K and mouse or joystick. 



LYRA (Disk only) #LY122 



$54.95 



These LYRA options are not required. They are provided for those wishing additional flexibility. 



LYRA CONVERT 

A program to convert MUSICA 2 files to LYRA 
files. 

(T or D) #LC164 , $14.95 

LYRA STEREO ENHANCER 

Gives the LYRA stereo output when used with 

the STEREO PAK or ORCHESTRA 90. 

(T or D) #LS149 , . $14.95 

LYRA MIDI CABLE 

A cable to connect your computer to your MIDI 
synthesizer. 

#MC158 $19.95 

We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders 

Shipping and handling US and Canada S3. 00 

Shipping and handling outside ihe US and Canada , . $5.00 

COD Charge . S2.00 

Illinois residents add 6'/A> sales tax 



LYRA SYMPHONY 12 ENHANCER 

Lets LYRA play all 8 voices through SYMPHONY 
12. 

(T or D) #LS177 $19.95 

STEREO PAK 

Plugs into the COCO ROM cartridge slot allow- 
ing easy connection to your stereo system. 
#SP193 $39.95 

SYMPHONY 12 

A real hardware music synthesizer, lets LYRA 

play all 8 voices in stereo. 

(T or D) #SY149 $69.95 



COCO MID Seq/Editor 

A professional quality MIDI interface for MIDI 
synthesizers. 

(Disk only) #CM147 $149.95 

MUSIC LI8RARY 

A collection of over 800 songs. When used with 
CONVERT, it gives an incredible LYRA library. 
Each volume 100 songs. 

(T or D) #MLXXX $29.95 

COCO MAX is a trademark of Colorware. 
ORCHESTRA 90 is a trademark of Radio Shack 



38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 




FILE EDIT NIDI MISC 



£LD_LC1 



NIDI Instruments: 




Brass 1 
Piano 3 
E Organ 5 
Truupe t 7 
Oboe 3 
Vibrphu B 
C 1 av ier D 
Snaredr F 



005 
003 
014 
016 
019 
026 
032 
045 



S t r ing 
Gu i t ar 
P Organ 
Flute 
C 1 ar ne I 
Harpsch 
T i npan i 
Percusn 



J JJJIrJJ,. 



0 




Now your COCO can talk to your MIDI music synthesizer. 
Whether you have a Korg, Roland, Casio, Yamaha, or Moog, it 
doesn't matter as long as it's MIDI equipped. Choose from our 



entry level MUSICA MIDI system that plays MUSICA files or our 
Professional COCO MIDI 2 system. 



^ Supports 16 Track recording and playback 

^ Adjustable tempo. 

\* Over 45 Kbytes available 

(Over 15,500 MIDI events possible). 

Record to any track. 

f Low Level track editing. 

f LYRA editing, (one voice per track) 

\f Playback from any number of tracks 

^ Quantizing to 7i6, '/j2, Vfca intervals 



Control Change 



u+ Filter oul MIDI dala: 
Key pressure 
Program change Channel Pressure 
Pitch wheel System Message 

Graphic Piano Keyboard Display in both 
record and playback mode. 

^ Adjustable Key (Transposilion). 

^ Save recording to disk for later playback or 
editing. 

Syncs to drum machine as MASTER or 
SLAVE. 



^ Sequencer features. 

^ 100% machine code. 

"Musician Friendly" Menu Driven. 

^ Metronome 

^ Many songs included. 
Includes MIDI hardware interface, 2 MIDI ca- 
bles, detailed manual, and software. Requires 
64K CoCo, Y-Cable or Multi-Pak. 
COCO MIDI 2 (disk only) #CM147 . $149.95 
DOUBLE Y-CABLE #DY181 $28.95 
TRIPLE Y-CABLE #TY173 . . I $34.95 



DX LIBRARIAN 



Save and load voice parameters for the Yamaha DX series of syn- 
thesizers {DX-7, DX-100, DX-21 etc.). Save sounds individually 
or as a group letting you load the entire synthesizer in seconds. 



Comes with professionally developed voices for the DX-7 worth 
10 times the price. Requires COCO MIDI hardware interface. 
DX LIBRARIAN (Disk only) #DX143 $39.95 



CASIO LIBRARIAN 



Save and load voice parameters for any Casio synthesizer (CZ-101, memory or buffer. Requires COCO MIDI hardware interface. 
CZ-1000, CZ-5000etc.) You can save from the: presets;- cartridge, CASIO LIBRARIAN (Disk only) #CL169 $39.95 



MUSICA MIDI 



MUSICA MIDI takes any MUSICA 2 music file and plays it through 
your MIDI synthesizer. We offer you over 800 tunes from our 
MUSIC LIBRARY series (sold separately) or create your own music 



using MUSICA 2. Inlcudes: documentation, plenty of music, and 
the cable to connect between the COCO and your synthesizer. 
MUSICA MIDI Complete (Disk Only) #CM126 $39.95 



MIDI KEYBOARD 



If you own the Casio CZ-101 or similar MIDI synth, you know 
that the mini keys and the short 3 or 4 octave keyboard is limiting. 
MIDI KEYBOARD when used with our full size 5 octave keyboard 



gives you the flexibility you need. Comes with cable to connect 
the COCO to your MIDI synth. 

MIDI KEYBOARD (Disk only) #MK167 $29.95 




CHRISTMAS FANTASIA 

We got so many compliments last year for Christmas Fantasia Volume 1, we added 
a second all new version. 

Christmas Fantasia is a collection of traditional Christmas music combined with 
beautiful high resolution Christmas scenes. Christmas Fantasia picks one of more 
than a dozen Christmas scenes and music selections from tape or disk, displays 
the picture and plays the music. Upon completion, another scene and piece of 
music is loaded and played. The Christmas scenes are beautiful. One shows a 
chapel nestled in a valley with snow actually falling. The low price is our way of 
saying "SEASONS GREETINGS' 7 from Speech Systems. 64K required. 

Volume 1 (Tape or Disk) #CF125 $19.95 

Volume 2 (Tape or Disk) #CF126 $19.95 



MUSICA 




•When in stereo mode, music is 
played through our STEREO PAK 
(purchased separately). 

• Loudness of each voice may be 
individually specified. 

• Memory available is constantly 
displayed. 

• Voice waveshapes may be 
exchanged between voices at any 
point. 

• Tempo may be specified and may 
even be altered as the music plays. 




1 9:37445000 2 7:98751001 
3 3:35577100 4 9:95443200 



J) ,JJ. k ,1 



• Flats and sharps supported. 

« Billions of timbre combinations. 

* High resolution graphic display, 
looks just like sheet music. 



• Output music to your printer 
(Gemini 10X, Epson, R.S. printers). 



■MUSICA 2 is 100% software, no need for 
hardware unless you want music produced in 
STEREO. In that case, the STEREO PAK may be 
purchased separately. It's a must for the 
audiophile! 

■ Repeat bars allow repeating of music without 
re-inserting music a second or third time. 

■30 page manual describes all. 

•Requires 64K. 




$29.95 





Tape or Disk 



• Allows you to specify key signature. 

•Voice timbre (waveshape) may be 
altered by specifying harmonic 
content just like stops on an organ. 

• During editing, voice being inserted 
is displayed. 

• Each measure is numbered for easy 
reading of music. 

• Measure bars aid in reading and 
developing music. 

• Each voice may be visually 
highlighted for easy identification. 

•4 Voices produced simultaneously. 

• Input notes from Coco keyboard, 
joystick, or Piano Keyboard. 



•Play music from your own BASIC program. 

• Block copy music for easy music development. 

• 100% machine language so it is lightning fast. 
•Vibrato effect easily produced. 

•With STEREO PAK, voices may be switched 
between left and right speakers as music plays. 

• Durations include: whole, half, quarter, 
eighth, sixteenth, thirty-second, sixty-fourth, 
and triplet. 



MUSIC LIBRARY 



TM 



The MUSIC LIBRARY series consists of 8 volumes: 100 through 
800 each sold separately. Each contains over 100 four voice music 
selections with a playing time of over 3 hours each. The disk 
version is shipped on 5 full disks. When coupled with STEREO 
PAK, the music is reproduced with unsurpassed realism. 

A JUKEBOX program is included to allow you to select specific 
songs or automatically play each. These songs are ready to go, 
you don't need MUSICA 2 or a knowledge of music. MUSICA 2 
users may customize each song. Each volume sold separately, 

specify tape or disk. #MLXXX $29.95 

List of 800 songs #LS800 $3.00 



MUSIC LIBRARY 100 

Stage, Screen, & TV 
Music of the 70's 
Music of the 60's 
Music of the 50's 
Old Time Eavorites 
MUSIC LIBRARY 200 
MUSIC LIBRARY 300 
MUSIC LIBRARY 400 
MUSIC LIBRARY 500 
MUSIC LIBRARY 600 
MUSIC LIBRARY 700 
MUSIC LIBRARY 800 



Classical 

Christmas (popular) 

Christmas (traditional) 

Patriotic 

Polka Party 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 



Entire Library 
30 Hours of 
Music! 
40 disks 
or 

25 tapes 




TM 



FILE EDIT HIDI HISC 



SYMPHONY 12 



■ ■■emiEKD 




JJilJlrJJL. 



9%. 



<.o 



o 



<0 



o 



I T 1 1 ! ? I J T I T 

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If you want to compose music, experiment, or STEREO AND MONO. By connecting SYM- PIANO KEYBOARD. For those wishing to turn 

just listen to music, LYRA is the tool you need. PHONY 12 to your home stereo system, music is SYMPHONY 12 into a real polyphonic synthe- 

LYRA represents the new state-of-the-art super produced in stereo, 6 voices from each channel. sizer we offer a full size 61 note piano 

user friendly software. Pull down menus and However, you don't need to have a stereo system, keyboard. 

icons make composing music as easy as pointing all 1 2 voices also come out of your TV or monitor. Tape users using boih SYMPHONY 1 2 and the 

with a joystick or mouse and clicking LYRA is SYMPHONY 12 is a soohisti- ?'ANO KEYBOARD will require a Y-CABLE. 

capab e of 8 individual y contro led voices. You swwu trrtwo. jiivirnuiM iz is a sopnisu r „ clQmr - t-:„i„ vnoir 

may take advantage of the 8 voice power of cated ^und generator. 12 voices and 4 noise D k ystems require a Triple Y-CABLE or 

LYRA using external MIDI synthesizers or SYM- £ e , nera A°'\ 8ive . y0 " incredible sound effect capa- ^ L '^ Y or 

PHONY 12. We believe that LYRA and SYM- bll "V- We have included gun shot, explosion, rac- f ' " ' £ °< °> * S . Y ^ p • • $69 - 95 

PHONY 12 was a match made in heaven. For a in 8 car and more. LYRA SYMPHONY 12 ENHANCER 

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include free the LYRA SYMPHONY 12 CONNEC- SQund effeQ se|ections and comp | ete documenta- DOUBLE Y-CABLE #DY181 $28.95 

HON, a 519.95 value. tion So f, ware is shipped on Tape or Disk. TRIPLE Y-CABLE #TY173 $34.95 

GUITAR CHORD BOOK 

This program, written by a guitar instructor of 17 years, displays in high Whether you are a beginning guitar student or an advanced player, you 

resolution graphics the exact fingering for over 100,000 chord combina- will find this quick reference to guitar chords invaluable. 

tions. You may even tune your guitar to the computer and play along. 32K Disk only #GC153 $29.95 

MUSIC THEORY 

COURSE 1 COURSE 2 

This course covers all the basics from music notation & duration, key A more advanced course that deals with: Major and' Harmonic Minor 

signatures, tempo, to an introduction of the keyboard. This is an entry scales, interval spelling, Triad (Chord) theory, Inversions, Dominant 7th 

level course recommended as a prerequisite for Course 2. chords, and ear training of the intervals. 

32K Disk only. #MT101 $49.95 32K Disk only #MT102 , . t , . $49.95 



Generate calendars for any year from 
1583 on . . . 



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Listing 1: calendar 

1)3 REM LISTING1 

2p REM THE LAST CALENDAR 

3f5 CLEAR10j3,0 

4)3 DIMC(5j34) ,M(11) 

5p L$=CHR$ (lj3) 

6j3 Ml$=" JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH 
APRIL MAY JUNE J 

ULY AUGUST SEPTEMBEROCTOBER 

NOVEMBER DECEMBER" 
7p Sl$=" SUN MON TUE WED THU FR 
I SAT 11 :S1$=S1$+" " + 

Sl$ 

8j3 M$=" % % ":M$=M$+" 

"+M$ 

9j3 M(j3)=31:M(l)=28:M(2)=31:M(3) = 
3 0 : M ( 4 ) =3 1 : M ( 5 ) =3 j3 : M ( 6 ) =3 1 : M ( 7 ) ! = 
31:M(8)=3j3:M(9)=31:M(lj3)=3j3:M(ll 
)=31 



Ij3j3 S$=CHR$(14) 
llj3 E$=CHR$(2j3) 

12JZ) CLS : LINEINPUT" YEAR TO BE PRI 
NTED : ";Y$ 

13j3 Y=ABS ( INT ( VAL ( Y$) ) ) : IFYoVAL 

(Y$) THENGOSUB6 5 0 : GOT012J3 

14j3 IFY>1582THENIFY^INT(Y/4) *4TH 

ENM ( 1 ) =2 9 : IFY=INT ( Y / Ij3j3 ) * 1 j3j3ANDY 

<>INT(Y/4j3j3) *4j3j3THENM(l) =28ELSEE 

LSEELSEGOSUB65J3 :GOT012j3 

15j3 CLS : LINEINPUT"MESSAGE TO BE 

PRINTED t ";MG$ 

16j3 IFLEN (MG$) >4j3THENGOSUB66,0 : GO 

T015J3 

17j3 CLS: LINEINPUT" BIRTH MONTH TO 
HIGHLIGHT (1 - 12 )JIF N 

ONE ) " ; BM$ : BM=ABS ( INT ( VAL ( BM$ ) ) ) 
: IFBMOVAL ( BM$ ) 0RBM>1 20RBM$< " j3 " 0 
RBM$>" 13 "THENGOSUB67j3 : GOT017j3 
18j3 IFBM THENELSEBD=j3:BM=j3:GOT02 

19j3 CLS : LINEINPUT "BIRTH DAY TO H 
IGHLIGHT (1-3 , 0 IF 

NONE ) " ;BD$:BD=ABS ( INT ( VAL (BD$) ) 
) : IFBD>M ( BM-1) ORBDoVAL ( BD$ ) ORBM 
$<"j3"0RBM$>" 13 "THENGOSUB68j3 : GOTO 




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January 1987 THE RAINBOW 47 



190 

200 IFBD THENBD=BD+BM*42 

210 CLS : PRINT@2 24, "SETTING UP CA 

LENDAR YEAR "Y$ 

220 REM CALENDAR SET-UP 

230 J=Y*365:GOSUB620 

240 FORML=0TO11:DM=1 

250 FORWL=0TO5 

260 FORDL=DW T06 

270 C(ML*42+WL*7+DL)=DM:DM=DM+1 

280 IFDM>M (ML) THEN 30 0ELSENEXTDL 

290 DW=0:NEXTWL 

300 DW=DL+ 1 : 1 FDW=7 THENDW= 0 

310 NEXTML 

320 IFBD GOSUB 560 

330 CLS :PRINT@224, "PRINTING CALE 

NDAR YEAR "Y$ 

340 REM CALENDAR PRINTOUT 

350 PRINT#-2," " 

360 Y$=MID$(STR$(Y) ,2) :PRINT#-2, 
L$N$S$STRING$ ( 18-LEN ( Y$ ) /2 , " " ) Y 
$L$L$E$C$ 

370 FORML=0TO10STEP2 
380 PRINT#-2,L$S$; 

390 PRINT#-2,USINGM$;MID$ (M1$,ML 
*9+l,9) ;MID$ (M1$,ML*9+10,9) 
400 PRINT#-2,E$S1$ 
410 FORWL=0TO5:W$=" " 



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420 FORMR=0TO1 
430 FORDL=0TO6 

440 D=(ML+MR) *42+WL*7+DL:D$=RIGH 

T$(" "+STR$ (C(D) ) ,4) :IFVAL(D 

$)=0THEND$=" " 

450 IFC(D)=99THEND$=" **" 

460 W$=W$+D$:NEXT 

470 IFMR<1THENW$=W$+" 
ii 

480 NEXT 

490 PRINT#-2,W$:NEXT 
500 NEXT 

510 PRINT#-2,L$L$N$S$STRING$ (18- 
LEN (MG$)/2," ")MG$E$L$L$ 
520 PRINT#-2,L$ 
530 CLS 
540 END 

550 REM SET ** ON BIRTHDATE 

560 J=0:IFBM=1THEN580 

570 FORML=0TOBM-2 : J=J+M(L) :NEXT 

580 J=J+Y*365:GOSUB620 

590 C(BD+DW-43)=9 9 

600 RETURN 

610 REMDAY OF WEEK CALCUL 

620 IFY<>INT(Y/400) *400ANDY=INT( 

Y/100) *100THENJ=J+1 

630 V=J+INT (Y/400) -INT (Y/100) -36 

5+INT( (Y-l)/4) :Vl=l+V-INT(V/7) *7 

: DW=V1-INT (Vl/7 ) *7 

640 RETURN 

650 CLS : PRINT "THE YEAR MUST BE F 

ROM 1583 UP":GOTO690 

660 CLS: PRINT "THIS PROGRAM CAN 0 

NLY PRINT A ONE LINE MESSAGE W 

HICH MUST BE LESS THEN 40 CHARA 

CTERS LONG .":GOTO690 

670 CLS:PRINT"NO SUCH MONTH IN A 

NORMAL YEAR" :GOTO690 
680 CLS:PRINT"THIS DATE DOES NOT 

EXIST IN THE MONTH AND YEAR SPE 
CIFIED . " 

690 PRINT@448 , "SORRY CHARLY !",, 
"PRESS ANY KEY TO TRY AGAIN"; 
700 IFINKEY$=" "THEN700ELSERETURN 



Listing 2: CfiLMOD 

10 REM LISTING 2 

25 REM NO EXPANDED PRINT 

80 M$=" % % " 

:M$=M$+" "+M$ 

100 S$=CHR$(0) 

110 E$=CHR$(0) 

360 Y$=MID$ (STR$ (Y) ,2) :PRINT#-2, 
L$N$S$STRING$ (3 6-LEN (Y$ ) /2 , " ") Y 
$L$L$E$C$ 

510 PRINT#-2 ,L$L$N$S$STRING$ (3 6- 
LEN(MG$)/2," ")MG$E$L$L$ 



48 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



• •■*•*•■•••»••*»■■•••••••■••■»*«•»«••••»»•••■•••■»**•»*.■■■••«••■»••■■■ 

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■ > ft * • 4 * • ft ft ft* ft ft • ft ft • ft ft ft I • ft ft ft t I * 

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m Mm ■ • *•••»•■•••*•*•>•»•••»«•»•••» _ ■ ■ 






THE FINAL FRONTIER 



64K Disk or Tape BATTLE HYMN — The Battle of Gettysburg 

Player controls Lee's army of 1 1 divisions (39 individual) brigades including J cavalry 
(Stuart) and 3 artillery (Alexander) and must capture 5 victory objectives to win 
decisively. It's all here, from Gulp's Hill to Little Round Top, from Pickett's charge ro 
Hood's heroic victory at Devil's Den. 

Play starts on the second day of the battle with Johnson, Early and Rodes facing an 
unreinforced Union line running from Gulp's Hill down to Gemetery Hill and east. 
Player has early size advantage bur must act quickly as Union reinforcements are seen 
arriving; and must form the line and charge up hill over a great distance. Where is 
Stuart.' 

Brigades must be turned to march or fire. Union troops must reload after firing. 

Player may limber or unlimber cannon; must watch his fatigue factors and prevent 
troops from routing. The object is to force the flank and pin the enemy in a cross fire. 
Easier said then done. Very historic, with an Ark Royal touch. 

Hi res graphics; machine language. Game save. Play takes 3-5 hours. $29.00 



LUFTFLOTTE 

the Battle of Britain 




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■:•:■:•:•:■:•»:•:•:•:■:•:■:■:•:■:•:■:•:■:•:•:■:::; 

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32K Disk Only THE FINAL FRONTIER 

You have been chosen as commander in a struggle to gain control of an unexplored 
section of the galaxy. Your foe: an alien race called VOLSUNG. Here in the distant 
future, when space travel has become commonplace, on uncharted star systems you 
hope to find the raw materials which are vital to your industry and construction of a 
fleet of space craft. 

Srarting with limited ships and resources, you must quickly search, locate and bring 
needed systems under your influence, before the aliens can gain a foothold and threaten 
your expansion. 

A star system can support industry, mining, energy or farming. You must decide on 
how to concentrate your efforts to maintain a balance to best serve your needs for 
developing your civilization and producing new space craft. Spacecraft that you will 
surely need when you and the alien VOLSUNGS eventually collide in a titanic struggle 
for the cointrol of the Final Frontier. 



100% hi res, total machine language, disk based. 



$25.00 




KEYBOARD GENERAL 





Isn't it time for a newsletter/magazine that talks about the games you've been playing? 
An in-depth resource of playing hints, strategies and tactics? Wouldn't it be nice to whip 
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The Keyboard General is published bi-monthly. We'll publish your letters; your game 
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gaming, playing and programming hints, and perhaps discover new ways to assault that 
village or attack that flank. 

Every month we'll feature a Company Commander replay; discussion of new and old 
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Don't miss out! The Keyboard General is filling a great need in the software industry: a 
publication dedicated to discussing rhose programs you've been playing. Subscribe 
today, and find out how to beat the computer! $15.00 year subscription 



32K LUFTFLOTTE - The Battle of Britain 

Player takes the German side and tries to succeed where Goering and the entire Luft- 
waffe failed: destroy Britain's will to fight from the air. 

A mammoth game, Luftflotte has it all. Twenty-four British cities producing one of six 
war materials: petroleum, armaments, aircraft, shipping, morale, electronics; 26 air 
bases, 18 low radar sires, 17 high radar sites all forming a complex web of inter- 
communication and defense. Can you break the web? 

Player controls 3 Lufrflottes of over 2000 individual planes including Stuka, Junkers, 
Dornier and Hcinkel bombers; Mel 10 and Mel09 fighters. Player may launch bomb 
runs, recon missions, strafing sorties or transfers: up to five flights per Luftflotte. 

Player watches as his flights head for London or Bath or Glasgow or lorad site 'j' or 
It's up to you. There arc 85 individual targets in the game. 

Hi res screen shows aerial combat, bombing and strafing missions and supplies brief 
information. Watch targets and planes explode! Semigraphic srrategic map of England 
and targets. For conclusive information, view the intelligence screen to see everything. 
Unless, of course, you prefer playing EXPERT in which case you'll be flying blind as the 
real Germans did not so long ago. 

Playing time: 3-6 hours. Game save. Machine language. $29.00 



ARK ROYAL GAMES 

P.O. Box 14806 
Jacksonville, FL 32238 

(904) 786-8603 




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Terms and Conditions: 

The prices quoted here are for cash. We will accept MasterCard, VISA, 
Discover and American Express. Please ask for details. 

COD's are accepted without any deposit. Purchase orders accepted based 
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Our hours are from 9:30 am to 5:30 pm, Monday through Friday and until 
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Our telephone number of technical service is 617-872-9090. 



Addresses: 
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Framingham, MA 01701 



Not responsible for typographical errors. Terms and specifications may 
change without notice. 



Trademarks: 
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Eagle Computer 

© 1987 Micro Smart, Inc. 



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Three entertaining gomes to challenge 
visual memory 



The Eyes 
Have It 



By Bruce K. Bell, O.D. 





oh 



J 



Discrimination actually consists of 
three games that can be used in three 
different ways. They were written f or 
use in my office with patients undergoing 
vision therapy, but as you'll see, are genuinely 
entertaining as well. 

Beat the Clock is similar to Perfection, a 
popular game in which various-shaped play- 
ing pieces must be placed in a puzzle within 
a certain time period. In this version, a shaded 
area with white "holes" appears in the upper 
half of the screen representing the puzzle 
board, and the lower screen contains the 
black playing pieces. Move the blinking box 
to the piece you desire to "pick up." Press the 
firebutton and the cursor moves to the upper 
half of the screen. Move the blinking box to 
the hole matching the piece you "picked up" 
and press the firebutton to "drop" it in the 
hole. The piece does not disappear from the 
lower screen until the piece is correctly placed 
in the puzzle board in the upper screen. 
Continue this process until all the pieces are 
used. 

The object of the second game, Memory 
Match, is to remember the location of shapes 
that are "hidden" under different numbers. 
Move the blinking box over a number and 
press the firebutton to reveal the shape 
"underneath" it. Then move to another 
number and press again to reveal a second 
shape. If they are the same, you have a match. 
Continue until all shapes are revealed. 

Look and Find is played by moving the 
blinking box over the shape in the upper 
screen that is the same as the shape in the 
lower screen. Continue until all shapes are 
identified. 

In all three games the right joystick moves 
the blinking box. Your score represents the 
approximate number of seconds it took for 
you to complete the game. Of course, the 
lower the score, the better you have done. 
Four levels are available, with Level 4 being 
the most difficult. The "Best Score" is reset 
each time a new level is selected. 

There are three ways Discrimination may 
be used. First of all, it may be played just as 
a game of challenge with your only goal being 
to enjoy yourself. 

Secondly, it may be used to improve visual 
skills by training in a controlled environment. 
Discrimination may be used to help improve 

Bruce Bell practices optometry in his home 
town of Rockmart, Georgia. He spends hours 
using programs he finds in THE RAINBOW and 
programming his Co Co for use in his office 
and at home. Bruce 's program, CoCo Zone 
is the grand prize winner in the Third Rain- 
bow Adventure contest. 



52 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



eye-hand coordination, rapid eye move- 
ments, dynamic peripheral awareness 
(side vision), visual memory and visual 
strategies. This may be especially help- 
ful for athletes in high speed sports, 
such as tennis and basketball. 

Finally, it can be used to help pre- 
schoolers and early elementary students 
learn size and shape discrimination, as 



well as laterality skills (knowing right 
from left) and visual memory. 

What is the difference in the three 
ways of using Discrimination! None, 
really, except for who is using Discrim- 
ination and why they are playing it. 
Please note that none of this is intended 
to be medical advice; if you suspect you 
have any eye or visual problem, you 



should consult your eye care profes- 
sional. I just wanted to point out the 
many ways Discrimination can be en- 
joyed, by young and old alike. 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to Dr. Bell at 614 East Elm 
St., Rockmart, GA 30153; 404-684- 
5650. Please enclose an SASE when 
writing.) □ 



105 


.147 


2110 


215 


165 


193 


2165 


. . ..54 


540 .. . 


...161 


2215 . . 


140 


585 . 


61 


2245 . . 


33 


1055 


. 216 


END . 


197 


2035 . 


,11 







The listing: DISCRIM 

0 'DISCRIMINATION 1.0; COPYRIGHT 
(C) 1986 BRUCE BELL 

1 'note: pressing ' Q' anytime du 
ring play, will end the game bef 
ore all pieces are moved. 

10 CLEAR1000:DIMF$(31) ,L$(25) ,F( 
31) ,P(31) ,U(31) ,A(11) :HS=999 
15 GOSUB2205 

20 POKE65494 ,0 : CLS : PRINT"DISCRIM 
INATION 1.0", "COPYRIGHT (C) 1986 

BRUCE BELL EXTENDED COLOR BAS 
IC 32K": PRINT: PRINT 
25 PRINT@160,STRING$(13,60) " MEN 
U "STRING$(13,62) , ,TAB(6) "1. BEA 
T THE CLOCK" TAB ( 3 8 ) " 2 . MEMORY MA 
TCH"TAB(38) "3 . LOOK & FIND" TAB (3 
8) "4. END PROGRAM": PRINT: PRINT" 
ENTER YOUR SELECTION (l-4)";:S-0 
30 FORP=1024TO153 5:IFS<1ORS>4THE 
NS=VAL ( INKE Y $ ) :POKEP, (PEEK(P)+64 
) AND127 : NEXT : GOTO30 
35 IFS=4THENCLS : PRINT" BYE BYE" : E 
NDELSEPRINTS : PRINT@418 , "LEVEL OF 

DIFFICULTY ( 1-4 ) " ; : INPUTLD$ : LD= 
VAL ( LD$) : IFLD>4THEN3 0ELSEIFLD<1T 
HEN 20 

40 POKE65495,0:ONS GOTO105, 505 , 1 
005 

100 • *****beat the clock ****** 

105 CLS8 : PRINT@96 , "AS QUICKLY AS 
POSSIBLE, PLACE THE BLACK FIG 

URES ON THE LOWER SCREEN IN THE 
MATCHING HOLES", "ABOVE. USE THE 
JOYSTICK TO MOVE THE CURSOR AND 
PRESS THE FIRE BUTTON TO PICK 
UP OR PLACE A" , "FIGURE "PL 

AY BEGINS IN ONE MOMENT ..." 

110 PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS : DRAWBM180 ,0C5 



D191" 

115 FORK=0TO31:U(K)=0:P(K)=0:F(K 
) =0 : NEXT 

120 GOSUB2025: 'draw lower screen 
125 GOSUB2050 : 'draw upper screen 
130 W$="BEAT" :DRAW"BM200,8C6":GO 
SUB2185:W$="THE" :DRAW"BM205, 18C8 
" : GOSUB2 18 5 : W$=" CLOCK" : DRAW" BM1 9 
5,28C7":GOSUB2185: 'title 

135 GOSUB2160: 'draw copr notice 
140 GOSUB2085: 'countdown 

145 X=5:Y=104 :K=l:C=3:N»0:TIMER= 

0 :' initialize game 

150 GOSUB2105: 'joystick input 

155 IFQ$="Q"THEN213 5ELSEIFK=2THE 

N165:'fb pressed or quit? 
1 60 K=2 : C=l : D=9 4 : XG=X : YG=Y : PG=P : 
Y=Y-94:SOUND100, l:GOT0175: 'adjus 
t for upper board 

165 IFF(PG)=P(P)THENGET(XG,YG) -( 
XG+20 , YG+20 ) , A , G : COLOR0 , 0 : LINE ( X 
G,YG) - (XG+20 , YG+20) , PSET, BF: PUT( 
X,Y)-(X+20,Y+20) ,A,AND:F(PG)«-l: 
N=N+1 : SOUND200 , 1ELSESOUND50 , 1 : ' m 
atch? 

170 K=l:C=3:D=0: Y=Y+94: 'adjust f 
or lower board 

175 IFN=LD*8THEN213 5ELSEGOSUB212 

0:GOTO155: 'figures completed? 
500 • *****memory match ******* 

505 CLS6: PRINT@96 , "A FIGURE HIDE 

S BEHIND EACH NUM- BER. PRESSING 

THE FIRE BUTTON UNCOVERS THE 

FIGURE. AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE U 

SE THE JOYSTICK TO MATCH THE FIG 

URES", "PLAY BEGINS IN ONE MOMENT 
ii 

f 9 ■ 

510 FORK=0TO31:U(K)=0:P(K)=0:F(K 
)=0:NEXT:PG=-1 
515 FORK=0TOLD*4-1 
520 F=RND(32)-1:IFF(F)=1THEN520E 
LSEF(F) =1: FORX= 1T02 
525 P«RND(LD*8) -1 : IFU(P) =1THEN52 
5ELSEP(P)=F:U(P)=l:NEXTX,K 
530 PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS 5 : COLOR0 , 5 : LINE 
(180,0)-(255,191), PSET , BF : POKE17 
8,2:LINE(0,98)-(180,191) ,PSET,BF 
: SCREEN 1, 1 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 53 



535 GOSUB2070: 'print discriminat 
ion 

540 N=1:FORY=22TO88STEP22:FORJ=0 
T02 *LD-1 : X=l+88/LD* J : DRAW"BM=X; , 
=Y ; C5 " : W$=STR$ ( N ) : G0SUB2 185 : N=N+ 

1:NEXTJ,Y: 'print numbers in squa 



545 W$-"MEMORY" : DRAWBM188 , 18C6" 
:GOSUB2185:W$="MATCH":DRAW"BM194 
,28"SGOSUB2185 

550 G0SUB2 160: 'draw copr notice 

555 GOSUB2085: 'countdown 

560 X=5:Y=10:C=3:K=1:N=0:D=94:TI 

MER=0 : ' initialze game 

565 G0SUB2 105: 'joystick input 

570 IFQ$="Q"THEN2135ELSEIFP=PG 0 
RP (P) =-lTHENSOUNDl , 1 : GOT0565ELSE 
IFK=2THEN580 

575 K=2:XG=X:YG=Y:PG=P:GOSUB2010 
: SOUND100 , 1 : GOTO 5 90 
580 K=1:GOSUB2010:IFP(P)=P(PG)TH 
ENN=N+1: W$= "MATCHES "+STR$ (N) :COL 
OR0 , 5 : LINE ( 30 , 120 ) - ( 150 , 135 ) , PSE 
T , BF : DRAW" BM4 0 , 1 30C5 " : G0SUB2 185: 

F0RT*1T03 : PLAY"L100 ; 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 ; 
7 ; 8 ; 9 ; 10 ; 11 ; 12 " : NEXT : P (P) =-1 : P ( P 
G)=-l:GOTO590: 'match! 

585 SOUND10, 2 : COLOR0 , 5 : LINE (XG, Y 



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double sided drives ana more Atier customing aDOS you can nave it burned into 
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concerning ho* you can nave tn.s bono > F($a\wgi i«CJude • repeat and edit of the 
last auecl mode command • 26defmaplecontroi key abbreviations • automatic line 
number prompts • DOS command • Iiwei use " i^d entry la fine complement to 
a E,eweihic ~>f PBJ woroPak) • COP"i iUenamf-i rp idnve number) • AE e^or ovemde 
i ptiOn • RAM command (64K) • RUNM command • text echoing 10 pnnlor • Ml 
morvito: • lent hio Scan » unMdncgd Cuec'Ory • ei'Or trapping • fti-'ei lexl utilily 
•nci-wCed i<i2 Si Oi 64 characters per hnui 

•7 COULD NOT FIND ANY SOFTWARE THA T WOULD NOT RUN UNDER AOOS/' 

THE RAINBOW. Oecember 1984 
•f LOVE ADOSI A GENUINELY FIRST RATE PRODUCT." 

Color Micro Journal. FODruary 1985 
7 WON T PART WITH MY ADOS EPROM FOR ANYTHING NO COMPATIBILITY 
PROBLEMS 

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Wonitoi I'liacnme language programs AS THEY ARE RUNNING' Peepe/ actually 
nmeshares witn the tar g«l progiam giving FULL CONTROL as ML programs run 
Switch inManiiy between watching legulai program output <ind Peeper s trace ol 
regisiets ano siacw on scieen or printer inspect mon-iory in any o* 260isplay modes 
Execution speed can oe varied tut* speed to the Dfliest crawl or halted entirely 
as programs 'un Single-stepping breakpoints memory or register exarnme/change 
Relocatable supports 6<ik use <i6K required) See February 85 review 
Disk S23 95 Tape S2V95 Assembler sourco listing Add 3.00 

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The Magnavox 8CM515 and 0CM505 monitors, containing RGBI, and audio inputs, 
sell at prices comparable lo Tandy's CM-8, and represents a far belter buy lor CoCo 
3 users Composite inpul. which CM-8 lacks, is required lor seeing PMODE 4 displays 
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G) -(XG+20 , YG+20) , PSET , BF:LINE (X, 
Y) - ( X+20 , Y+20) , PSET, BF: W$«STR$ (P 
G+l ) : H=XG-5 : V-YG+1 2 : DRAW" BM=H ; , = 
V;C5":GOSUB2185:W$=STR$(P+l) :H=X 
-5 : V=Y+12 : DRAW"BM*H ; , =V ; " : GOSUB2 

185:PG=-1: 'no match 

590 IFN=LD*4THEN2135ELSE565 

1000 •*****iook and find ****** 

1005 CLS4 : PRINT§128 , "USE THE JOY 
STICK TO FIND THE" , "FIGURE SHOWN 
IN THE BOTTOM HALF OF THE SCREE 
N. PRESS THE FIRE BUTTON WHEN 
YOU'VE FOUND IT.", "PLAY BEGINS I 
N ONE MOMENT ..." 

1010 FORK=0TO31:U(K)=0:P(K)=-1:N 
EXT 

10 15 PMODE 4 , 1 : COLOR0 , 5 : PCLS : LINE 
(180,0) -(255, 191) , PSET, BF: DRAW "B 
M0, 100R180" 

1020 GOSUB2050: 'draw upper scree 
n 

1025 W$="LOOK" : DRAWBM200 , 8C6" : G 
OSUB2 185 : W$="AND' , : DRAWBM205 , 18C 
8" : GOSUB2185 : W$-"FIND" : DRAW " BM2 0 
0 , 28C7 " : GOSUB2 185 : • title 

1030 GOSUB2160: 'draw copr notice 

1035 W$="FIND THE ABOVE" :DRA 

W"BM10, 130C5" :GOSUB2185 

1040 GOSUB2085: 'countdown 

1045 X=5 : Y=10 : D=94 : C=l : N=0 : TIMER 

=0: ' initialize game 

1050 F=RND(LD*8)-1:IFU(F)=1THEN1 
050 ELSE PMODE 4 , 1 : SCREEN1 , 1 : COLOR5 
,0: LINE (90, 118) -(110,138) ,PSET,B 
F : DRAW " BM10 0 , 1 2 8 C0XF$ ( F ) ; " : SOUND 
200,l:PMODE3, 1 

1055 GOSUB2 105: 'joystick input 

1060 IFQ$="Q"THEN2135ELSECOLOR0, 
5:LINE(5, 170) -(105, 180) ,PSET,BF: 
IFFOP(P) THENW$="LOOK AGAIN" : DRA 
W"BM5 , 180C7 " : GOSUB2185 : SOUNDS , 2 : 

GOTO1055: 'did not find 

1065 W$="CORRECT":DRAW"BM5, 180C6 
" : GOSUB2 185 : N=N+1 : U ( F) =1 : F0RT=1T 

03 : PLAY"L100 ; 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 ; 7 ; 8 ; 9 " : 
NEXT : • found it 1 

1070 IFN=LD*8THEN2135ELSE1050 
1075 GOTO1075 

2000 'HI!!!! subroutines !!!!!! 1 
2005 'draw figure in memory mate 
h 

2010 PMODE4 , 1 : SCREEN1 , 1 : COLOR5 , 0 
:LINE(X,Y)-( X+20, Y+20) ,PSET,BF:H 
=X+10 : V=Y+10 : DRAW"BM=H ; , =V ; C0XF$ 

(P(P) ) ;":PMODE3, 1 

2015 RETURN 

2020 'draw lower screen subr 

2025 K=0:FORY=114TO180STEP22:FOR 
J=0TO2*LD-1 



54 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



IK 



■i' 



J J 



n 



TTmn 



y 



PI 



ID EE 




Up 



Pi 



IT 



llllllll 




N 



2030 P=RND(LD*8) -1: IFU(P) =1THEN2 
030ELSEF (K) =P:U (P) =1 : K=K+1 : X=14+ 
88/LD*J:DRAW"BM=X; ,=Y;C5XF$(P) ;'» 

: NEXTJ , Y 

2035 COLOR5,0: LINE (0,8) -(180, 100 
) ,PSET,BF: PAINT (1,191) ,5,5 

2040 RETURN 

2045 'draw upper screen subr 

2050 K=0:FORY=20TO86STEP22 :FORJ= 
0TO2*LD-1 

2055 P=RND(LD*8)-l:IFU(P)=2THEN2 
055ELSEP (K) =P : U (P) =2 : K=K+1 : X=14+ 
88/LD* J : DRAW" BM=X ; , =Y ; C0XF$ ( P) ; " 
: NEXT J , Y 

2060 DRAWBM0, 100R180" : POKE 17 8 , 1 
:PAINT(1,9) , ,0 

2065 COLORS, 5: LINE (0,0) - (180 , 7) , 
PSET , BF 

2070 SCREEN1 , 1 : PMODE3 , 1 : W$="DISC 
RIMINATION" : DRAW" BM20 , 6C7 " : GOSUB 
2185 

2075 RETURN 

2080 'countdown subr 

2085 W$="GET" : DRAWBM184 , 100C6" : 
GOSUB2185: W$= n READY" : DRAW"BM184 , 
110 " : GOSUB2 185 : SOUND50 , 1 : F0RJ=1T 
0700 : NEXT : C0L0R5 , 5 : LINE ( 184 , 102 ) 
- (255 , 110) , PSET, BF: W$="SET" : DRAW 
"BM184 , 110C6" :GOSUB2185 : SOUND100 
, 1 : FORJ=1TO700 : NEXT 
2090 COLORS, 5: LINE (184, 90) -(255, 
110) ,PSET,BF:W$="GO":DRAW"BM184, 
100C7" :GOSUB2185:SOUND150,2 
2095 RETURN 

2100 'joystick subr 

2105 I FTIMER> 5 4 00 0THENQ $="Q" ELSE 
Q$-INKEY$ 

2 1 10 I FQ$» " Q " THENRETURNELSE JH= JO 
YSTK(0) : JV= JOYSTK ( 1 ) :POKE178,C:D 
RAW"BM=X; ,=YfR20D20L20U20" 
2115 X=INT(JH*LD/32) *88/LD+5:Y=I 
NT( JV/16) *22+104-D: P= (X-5+ ( Y+D-l 
04) *8)/(88/LD) :P=INT(P+.5) 
2120 PK=PEEK ( 65280 ) :IFPK<>126AND 
PK<>254THENZ=1ELSEIFZ THENZ=0:RE 
TURN 

2125 DRAW" BM=X ,* ,=Y;C5R20D20L20U2 
0":GOTO2105 



PI 









mmii 







Ml 



i 



I 



til 



PP1 



n 



TO 



I 



Eim 



llllllll 



to 



I 

i 



I 



PS 

U 



m 

it 



iiiiiiii 



4 



2130 'compute score/replay subr 

2135 SC=TIMER/60: COLORS, 5: IFQ$<> 

"Q"THENIFSC<HS THENHS=SC 

2140 COLOR5,5:LINE(182,44)-(255, 

74) , PSET , BF: G0SUB2 170 

2145 COLORS , 5 : LINE (184,90)-(255, 

110) , PSET, BF: DRAWBM184 , 100C7XL$ 

( 1 5 ) ; C 6 " : W$= " LAY " : GOSUB 2 18 5: DRAW 

"BM205, 110C8" :W$="OR":GOSUB2185: 

DRAW"BM210, 120C7XL$(16) ;C6":W$=*' 

UIT":GOSUB2185 

2150 Q$=INKEY$ : IFQ$= H P"THENSCREE 
N0 , 0 : GOTO40 ELSEIFQ$= H Q"THEN10EL 
SE2150 

2155 'draw score/copr subr 

2160 DRAW"BM252,32C6L68BF2C8R64B 
G2C7L60" 



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January 1987 THE RAINBOW 55 



2165 W$="C 1986":DRAW"BM188,178C 

8 : G0SUB2 185 : PM0DE4 , 1 : SCREEN1 , 1 : 
CIRCLE (19 1,175), 07: PM0DE3 , 1 : W$=" 
B BELL" : DRAWBM188 , 188" :GOSUB218 
5 

2170 DRAWBM182 , 54C7" : W$="LEVEL" 
+STR$ (LD) :GOSUB2185 : DRAW"BM182 , 6 
4C8":W$="TIME"+STR$(INT(SC+.5) ) : 
GOSUB2185 : DRAW"BM182 , 74C6" : W$="B 
EST"+STR$(INT(HS+.5) ) :GOSUB2185: 
RETURN 
2175 RETURN 

2180 'print hi -res character 

2185 F0RK=1T0LEN(W$) :L=ASC(MID$( 

W$,K,1) ) :IFL>64ANDL<91THENL$=L$( 

L-65) ELSEIFL=4 6THENL$="URDLBR6"E 

LSEIFL<480RL>57THENL$="BR6"ELSEL 

$=N$(L-48) 

2190 DRAWL$ : NEXTK 

2195 RETURN 

2200 'define figures 

2205 FORK=0TO31:READF$(K) :NEXT:D 

ATABD8E4R4H4E4L4H4G4L4F4G4R4F4 , " 

BD8R8M-8 , -16M-8 , +16R8" , BD8$8U16L 

16D16R8 , BD6R8U12L16D12R16 , BH2U6R 

4D6R6D4L6D6L4U6L6U4R6 

2210 DATABU2E6F2G6F6G2H6G6H2E6H6 

E2F6 , BL8E8F8G8H8 , BU2E6F2G6D8L4U8 



Submitting Material 
To Rainbow 



Contributions to THE RAINBOW are welcome from 
everyone. We like to run a variety of programs that 
are useful/helpful/fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and 
it is best to make several saves, at least one of them 
in ASCII format. We're sorry, but we do not have time 
to key in programs. All programs should be supported 
by some editorial commentary explaining how the 
program works. Generally, we're much more inter- 
ested in how your submission works and runs than 
how you developed it. Programs should be learning 
experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of 
criteria. Those wishing remuneration should so state 
when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed 
information on making submissions, please send a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope (SASE) to: Submis- 
sions Editor, THE RAINBOW, The Falsoft Building, P.O. 
Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. We will send you some 
more comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently 
submitted to another publication. 



H6E2F6 

2215 DATAE8L16F16L16E8,BU8F6D2G6 
H6U2E6 , BU8F8D8L16U8E8 , BR2U8L4D16 
R4U8 , F8U16G16U16F8 , E8D16L16U16F8 
, BR2D8L4U12L6U4R16D4L6D8 , BU2R8D4 
L16U4R8 

2220 DATABR2R6U4L6U4L4D4L6D4R6D8 
R4U8 , BU2R8U4L16D4R8BD4R8D4L16U4R 
8 , BR2E6L4G12R4E6 , "E8M-8 , +16M-8 , - 
16F8" , BD8R8H6U10L4D10G6R8 , BE2U6R 
4D16L4U6L4D6L4U16R4D6R4 , BD8R8U4L 
6U4R6U4L16D4R6D4L6D4R8 , BD8R8U16L 
4D12L12D4R8 , BD8R8U16L4G4H4L4D16R 
8 

2225 DATABR8H8L4G4F4G4F4R4E8 , BD8 
E6U4H6G6D4F6 ,U8R8G16R8U8 , BL2H6R4 
F12L4H6 , BD8E8U8L4G4H4L4D8F8 , "BD8 
M+8 , -16L4G4H4L4M+8 , +16" , U8L8F16L 
8U8 

2230 'define hi-res char set 

2235 N$ (0) ="NU6R4U6L4R6D6BR4" : N$ 
(1)="R6UL2NL4U5L2DR2BR6BD5" :N$ (2 
) ="R6UNL2BU2U3L6R4D3L4D3BR10" :N$ 
( 3 ) ="R6U3NL4U3L6R4D6BR6> : N$ ( 4 ) = " 
BU3NU3R4ND3U3R2D6BR4" 
2240 N$(5)="UR2DL2R6U3L6U3R2ND3R 
4BR4BD6" :N$ (6) ="NU6R6U3LND3L5U3R 
6DL2BR6BD5" : N$ ( 7 ) ="BU6R4D6RU6RD6 
BR4 " : N$ ( 8 ) ="U3NR4U3R4D6RU6RD6L6B 
R10" : N$ ( 9 ) ="BU3NR4U3R4D6RU6RD6BR 
4" 

2245 L$(0)="U6R2ND6R4D3NL6D3BR4" 
: L$ ( 1) =L$ (0) +"BL4L6BR10" : L$ ( 2 ) 
NR6U6R2ND6R4D2BF4" : L$ ( 3 ) ="U6R2ND 
6R2F2D2G2BR6" :L$ (4) ="NR6U3NR4U3R 
2ND6R4BD6BR4":L$(5)= M U3NR4U3R2ND 
6R4BD6BR4 " : L$ ( 6 ) ="NR6U6R2ND6R4BD 
4D2BR4" 

2250 L$(7)="U6R2D3ND3R4U3D6BR4": 
L$ ( 8 ) ="R2U6L2R6L2D6R2BR4" : L$ ( 9 ) ■ 
"R2U6L2R6L2D6BR6" : L$ (10) ="U6R2D2 
NM+4 , -2ND4F4BR4" : L$ (11) ="U6R2D6R 
4BR4" : L$ ( 12 ) ="U6R2ND6F2E2D6BR4 " 
2255 L$(13)="U6R2D3R2D3R2NU6BR4" 
: L$ ( 14 ) ="U6R6L4D6R4NU6BR4 " : L$ ( 15 
) ="U6R2ND6R4D3L4BD3BR8 " : L$ ( 16) =» 
U6R2ND6R4D6L6R4BU2M+4 , +2BR4" : L$ ( 
17 ) ="U6R2ND6R4D3L4R2M+2 , +3BR4 " : L 
$ (18) ="R6U3L2ND3L4U3R2ND3R4BD6BR 
4" 

2260 L$(19)="BU6R2ND6R2ND6R2BD6B 
R4 " : L$ ( 20 ) ="U6R2 D6R4NU6BR4 " : L$ ( 2 
1) ="BR2H2U4R2D4F2E2U4BD6BR4 " : L$ ( 
22) -"BU2U4R2D6E2F2NU6BR4" : L$ (23) 
="UE2H2UR2DF2G2DBR4UH2E2UBD6BR4" 
: L$ ( 2 4 ) ="UR2DL2R6U3NU3L6U3R2D3BR 
8BD3" : L$ ( 25) ="R6UL2DL4U2M+6 , -2U2 
L6DR2 

2265 RETURN /rn 



56 THE RAINBOW January 1967 



The Magic of 2a nth 

In Zanth, magic is commonplace. Dragons, Griffins, Centaurs 
and Demons abound. You are sent on a quest to discover the 
source of magic in Zanth. This intriguing adventure features over 
2 dozen tikes 16 color animated graphic screens, 4 voice music 
and sound effects, and speech (when used with the 
Tandy SSC pak). The 16 color graphics look great, and 
will bring hours of thrilling adventure. 

Requires 128K, CoCo 3, disk $34.95 




Color Scribe 

Take advantage of the power of your Color Computer 
3 for all your word processing and editing. Have it your 
way with either a 40, 64, or 80 column display on either 
a green, amber, blue, or monochrome screen, and 
reverse video! A huge buffer of over 64K is available. No 
more guessing how much buffer space is left as a command tells you how 
many bytes are available. There are over 20 line editing commands. You 
can even move a block of text from one file to another. Save keystrokes 
with macro commands. Includes extensive text formatting —pagination 
with headers and footers, left and right justification, etc. Color Scribe III is a 
must for anyone who is serious about word processing. 
Requires ^SK 



Color Connection IV 

The best has just been made better for the Color Com- 
puter 3. Use baud rates up to 1200 directly from the 
back, or up to 9600 with a Multi-pak. It supports all 
standard protocols including CompuServe's Protocol B, 
XMODEM, and XON/XOFF. It features a 40, 64, 
or 80 column display in amber, green, blue 
or monochrome modes, and reverse video 
display options are in the set-up file. Auto 
answer/ auto dial features for both Hayes 
compatible and some Radio Shack 
modems are supported. The buffer holds over 
65 K. Single key macros enter often used ID's with 
a single key stroke. Our favorite Color Connection 3 
for the CoCo 1 and CoCo 2 is included. 
Requires 12BK. CoCo 3, disk $49.95 



Special! 

$3.00 

Off 
Any Order. 



Return of Junior's Revenge 

This Is the same Junior you've seen in the 
Kong arcade series, but with new CoCo 3 
graphics. This tireless little monkey must over- 
come all sorts of obstacles (4 screens worth) 
to rescue his father, the King. He will traverse 
the Jungle and swamp, climb vines, avoid chompers and birds, and more 
before he finally meets with his big daddy. The 16 color graphics are superb 
Requires 1 28K, CoCo 3, disk $34.95 




Ends 

1/31/87 



,0° 



CO 



Personal Productivity 

C.E.O $49.95 

Personal 

Finance $32.95 



Business Applications 

$100. (Payroll $125) 

General Ledger 
Check Ledger 
Inventory Control 
Payroll 

Accounts Payable 
Accounts Receivable 



OS-9 Tools 

Sourcerer $39.95 

OS-9 Basic $49.95 

Raid $39.95 

Macro Assembler ... $49.95 

Textools $29.95 

Text Formatter $34.95 

Advanced 

Utilities $29,95 

Disk Fix $29.95 

Advanced Editor . . . $39.95 




Adventures/Simulations 

cassette $24.95 disk $27.95 

Dungeon Quest 
Omniverse 
Major Istar 
Treasure of the Aztecs 
Escape: 2012 
Star Trader 
Franchise 
Sam Sleuth 



Games — Sports 

cassette $24 

Ice Hockey 
Football 
Mr. Dig 
Pro Golf 
Bloc Head 



ort$ -Arcades I Bio Detector 
1.95 dtakS27_95 J SVnther77 



I 



Call or Write to: 




I 



RSDOS Programming Tools 

Sourcerer $49.95 

Color Basic Compiler $39.95 

Macro Assembler $49.95 

Advanced Editor $29.95 

Color Connection III $49.95 

(includes Color Connection IV) 




COMPUTERWARE® ,6191 436-35,2 

Box 668 • Encinltas, CA • 92024 



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Address 
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Yesl Send me your FREE catalog! 

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Shipping 6% Calif. Sales Tax 

Surface — $2 minimum COD Add $5 

2% for orders over SI00 Shipping* 
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5% for orders over SI 00 
Checks are delayed for bank clearance 



TUTORIAL 



Minimize bug problems and increase 
vour programming expertise 



€SC/1P€ FROM TH€ BUG ZOh€ 




Picture, if you will, a dimly lit 
workshop. The only perceptible 
activity centers around quickly 
moving fingers performing a comput- 
eresque symphony on the keyboard. 
Atop the paper-clogged table rests a 
smoking beaker of cocoa (what else?); 
in the distance, thunder rumbles. Line 
after line is entered from voluminous 
pages of THE RAINBOW, still warm after 
the journey from Prospect, Ky. 

Meet Mr. I.N. Putter, an unsuspect- 
ing participant in this pseudo- 
Frankenstein scenario, who is unaware 
of his imminent, never-to-be-forgotten 
voyage into "The Bug Zone." (Music, 
please.) 

Those of us having an affinity for the 
Color Computer have the chance to 
conquer The Bug Zone. Since we create 
most of them ourselves, we can quite 
easily eradicate our bug problems pro- 
vided we are armed with the right 
ammunition: knowledge. Debugging is 
in itself an art Just like creating original 
programs. As such, it can be quite 
rewarding and a valuable aid toward 
better understanding programming. 

This is written for less experienced 
computer users who are still refining 
their basic skills. It offers certain tech- 
niques about debugging and should 
make the prospect of entering listings 
and handling the debugging process less 
frightening. 

What can be done to help Mr. Putter 
avoid an unnecessary journey into The 
Bug Zone? The most obvious ammuni- 
tion is some understanding of how 
BASIC vernacular is applied to make the 
computer perform a particular task. For 
that, he must become familiar with the 
language: Where do O's go in a PLAY 
statement? How big a number can be 

Eugene Vasconi is a helicopter pilot in 
San Antonio, Texas, as well as a mu- 
sician and free-lance television pro- 
ducer. His major interests on the CoCo 
are graphics and music. 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



used in a circle coordinate? When can 
remarks be eliminated? Attempting to 
enter a listing without at least an ele- 
mentary understanding of the parame- 
ters is like playing a trumpet and not 
knowing what the valves are for. 

Assuming we have done our home- 
work, most bugs can be squashed dur- 
ing the actual typing phase. Listings 
such as those in the RAINBOW are very 
helpful, since they reflect what should 
appear on the computer screen (the 32- 
character width). As you enter the 
listing, pay particular attention that 
what you've typed matches the ends of 
the magazine lines. Make your informa- 
tion match the Rainbow's exactly. Any 
variation could mean you've made an 
error. Take a moment after every line to 
check this. Use a marker to help avoid 
jumping to another line. Try a pen 
clipped to the side which points to the 
proper spot; as you continue, move it 
down the page. This technique can 
prevent line jumping or typing in the 
same information twice. As we all 
know, wading through tightly packed 
lines for hours can be hazardous to your 
eyesight; this will help. 

Pay attention to addresses. A "28" 
typed in place of a "280" will eventually 
cause the program to act strangely or 
give a UL Error when the CoCo tries to 
locate an address that doesn't exist. 

Even if there is no machine language 
in the program, always save it to tape 
before you run it. You may have typed 
in an accidental poke that will lock the 
unit, and your typing efforts will have 
been wasted when the power must be 
turned off to free the machine. An even 
wiser practice is to make in-progress 
saves while entering, so if the power 
goes off you won't have lost everything. 
I learned this lesson when hours of 
typing during a storm ended in a one- 
second power failure. My CoCo, 
trained as it was, got scared and forgot 
everything I had been teaching it. I now 
save, even when taking a short break. 



bv eucene vwscom 



Keep a spare work tape around for this 
purpose. 

If the program doesn't run properly 
go about your debugging and, espe- 
cially if machine language is used, mark 
your corrections in the magazine, power 
down, reload and then edit. Again, save 
before trying. In this way, you'll be 
certain everything is correct from 
scratch and not helped by a past input 
from you or the program, which may be 
masking a problem. 

Trips into The Bug Zone are most 
frequently scheduled by Syntax Errors. 
They are the most common and usually 
the easiest to find except for the ones 
pointed out by the computer that you 
check 30 times to no avail. Don't worry, 
they're there. They hide in things like 
those formulas the geniuses create with 
200 parentheses and 50 multiplications. 
Remember, you need just as many ('s as 
you need )'s for it all to work. You don't 
need to understand the formula to be 
sure it is entered correctly, just count. 
Pay particular attention to semicolons, 
colons, periods and commas; they can 
look alike. This is an area many pro- 
grammers need to watch, and I have 
been a violator as well. Let's start 
avoid ing similar-looking letter/ number 
combinations where possible, like 
O(0)=I(1) or S$(B)=MN$(I). Of 
course, certain information must be 
programmed according to basic re- 
quirements such as PLAY "LBB05", but 
notice how many of the following look 
similar to type-weary eyes especially on 
a television plagued with RF interfer- 



- Q 



ence: 




□ - 


0 


I - 


1 


B - 


B 


5 - 


$ 


N - 


M 


G - 


6 


* _ 


+ 





This is one area where thoughtful pro- 
gramming can assist the variety of 
debugging talents found in the CoCo 



community and make entering listings 
much easier. 

TM Errors are solved simply by 
finding the place where a $ or string 
designation was either omitted or added 
by mistake. $ can only designate string 
material like P$ = "DDG" not fi$=7G. 
There are a few modifications to this 
rule, but basically when acquiring the 
TM Error, look for a dropped $. 

The two errors that strike most fear 
into human hearts are the OD Error and 
the FC Error. The first because it tells 
us we must wade through those 800 data 
lines we barely got through in the first 
place, and the second because it can be 
caused by something far away from the 
line listed as the error line. 

The OD or (Out of Data) Error is not 
a particularly overwhelming problem. 
First, by yelling "out of data" the 
computer is saying that it wanted to 
read more than you gave it. That tells 
us we have one problem: The read 
amount doesn't match the amount of 
data available. It isn't necessary to 
understand the program to find the fix, 
simply check the read amount. If it says 
10 FOR X = l TO 99 : REPD fi$(X):NEXT 
X, we know we need 99 pieces of data 
to satisfy the computer. Be certain the 
99 is correct. Now go to all those data 
lines and simply count the numbers 
between the commas; they should total 
99. If not, you missed one somewhere, 
so double-check the magazine listing for 
proper alignment at the edges of the 
margins. This should help; if it doesn't, 
you will need to go line by line to find 
the problem. 

Sometimes you get to the end and still 
can find no omitted data number. Is the 
computer wrong? Don't bet on it. The 
problem here is usually a period typed 
in place of a comma. This would make 
a statement like: DPTfi 77,54,32,71, 
10, which has five separate numbers, 
turn into: DRTP 77,54,32.71,10, 
which has only four. That little period 
is almost invisible among myriad lines 
of numbers, and most people would 
rather hear fingernails on a chalkboard 
than go through them one by one. 

So, do it the easy way. If you find 
yourself in this position, check each 
DPTfi line with EDIT. If we enter EDIT 
and search for the period, 5 . , the cursor 
will move to the end of a good line or 
stop on the period we've been looking 
for. Change it and you're on your way. 
Don't forget to mark it in the book as 
a problem, in case you need to find it 
again. 

We now come to the infamous FC 



(Function Cal I) Error. This accounts for T youll eventually escape The Bug Zone. 



most of the one-way trips into The Bug 
Zone. 

Let's look at a few possibilities with 
an FC Error in Line 100: 100 
PLfiY"T255L355;01 ;PBCDEr~;XZ$; ". 
Everything in the line looks OK. The 4 0' 
is an 'O' and not a zero, quotes are there, 
255 is the maximum legal amount for 
tempo and length, 1 is legal for the 
octave, the note names are proper, and 
the semicolons arereally semicolons. So 
why still an FC Error in 100? 

The only culprit left to cause a prob- 
lem is XZ$, so now we must find Z$ and 
check it out. If it's bad, the computer 
came to Line 100 in good faith and did 
what it was told, but when it smacked 
into Z$, it found someone asked it to do 
something illegal for the PLfiY com- 
mand. Presto — The Bug Zone. 

To find Z$, we have to look at Line 
50: 50 ZS = TCCflflflBBBQ4flCEGF". 
Looks OK, but wait. The Q before the 
4 doesn't make sense; it should be an 0 
for octave. The mistake could just as 
easily have been any letter other than A 
through G or a command not allowed 
in PLfiY. So, we see here how a mistake 
way up in the program can affect a line 
anywhere. 

The DRfiU command is another good 
place for problems, since countless 
letter/ number combinations are used to 
create a particular screen image. How 
about an FC Error in Line 100 again: 
100 DRfiU"BN125,95;5G3;E30R10D9 
L12;Xfi$; ". 

Aha, the obvious problem is the 
illegal number for the SIZE command. 
It can only be a maximum of 62. We'll 
fix it and all will be well. Unfortunately, 
we still have an FC Error, so let's find 
where fi$ is created: 10 fi$="U4R3G9L 
3U7H3U5R47B5F9RG". 

Remember, you must know some- 
thing about the parameters allowed in 
BASIC commands. If you do, you find 
that fi$ calls for a line to be drawn 4,785 
points to the right. When you check the 
listing you find out it should have been 
R47D5. 

FC bugs can take on a wide variety 
of disguises: PUT parameters must equal 
their repsective GET partners, PRINT 
\2XXX, can be no more than 511, and 
line commands must not exceed 256 
horizontal and 192 vertical. The possi- 
bilities are endless, and we can't cover 
them here. The solution is to break the 
problem down into small parts starting 
with the called line number, then search 
for the other areas brought into play to 
make that line work. By doing this, 




A final hint concerning breaking the 
large program down into small parts. 
Don't be afraid to insert a GOTO or STOP 
command in a listing to test the waters. 
Things go by rapidly when the comput- 
er works, so you need to center in on 
your problem. 

If, for example, a PfiINT command 
makes color spill out of your graphics 
try this: 

10 DRfiUrBM125,9GR40D40L40U3B 
20 PfiINT (130, 100) ,4,3 

Put 15 GOTO 15 in and check whether 
the line makes a complete container for 
the paint. You won't see it until it is too 
late. Then fix the DRfiU statement and 
remove the GOTO. If the container is 
complete and there is still a problem, 
double-check the paint coordinates by 
changing PfiINT to a P5ET ( 130 , 100 ) , 
put in 25 GOTO 25 and see where the dot 
sets. If the listing is correct you won't 
need this, but mistakes do happen. 

For number variables like 10 X=X*2 
or 200 LINE(X,30)-(X+7,120) , 
P5ET, the program will work for a 
moment unitl X gets too big to be legal. 
If it's part of a larger program, put a 
stop on Line 201 and ask the computer 
to ?X. What if it says X=250? No good, 
because the second part of the line 
command adds 7 to X and therefore 
equals 257, which is not allowed. Your 
problem then becomes the X=X*@ state- 
ment, which maybe needed to be an 
X=X+2. 

So, don't be discouraged by an occa- 
sional voyage into The Bug Zone. Those 
more experienced have spent many an 
hour saying nasty things to their CoCo 
while learning to discover elusive bugs. 
Just remember to: 

1 . Learn the rules 

2. Compare with the listing 

3. Save to tape before running 

4. Check each line before continuin 

5. Double-check address numbers 

6. Be careful of similar characters 

7. Narrow down the problem 

8. Don't be in a hurry 

You will soon find you've acquired a 
key that unlocks the many doors you 
may encounter on your next trip into 
The Bug Zone. 

( Questions about this article may be 
directed to the author at 12474 Starcrest 
$204, San Antonio, TX 78216, 512-496- 
5783. Please enclose an SASE for a 
reply when writing.) 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 59 




GAME 



Create your own zany puzzles 



CoCo-Nect-A-Dot 



f 

From time to time, I enjoy explor- 
ing the graphics capabilities of 
the CoCo. The Color Comput- 
er's Extended BASIC is a very powerful 
construction set. It can provide hours of 
fun and occasionally frustration. With 
it you can successfully create a variety 
of interesting and useful programs. 

CoCo-Nect-A-Dot is one such pro- 
gram, using commands such as DRAW, 
LINE, PRINT, GET and PUT as the main 
building blocks. Explored in this pro- 
gram is the incorporation of a simple 
data interpreter. By coding each dot 
puzzle in a standard format, the puzzle 
can be displayed by simply processing 
the puzzle data through the interpreter. 
Once the user interface is finished and 
operating, additional puzzles can be 
created by entering more puzzle data. 

CoCo-Nect-A- Dot accepts input 
from either the joystick port or key- 
board. Press the firebutton on the 



Eric White is a self-taught programmer 
with a graphic arts background, who 
has been writing software for jive years. 
He lives in Altamont Springs, Fla., and 
has coauthored many programs in 
association with WHITESMITH. 



By Eric White 



desired joystick to select it as the input 
device. I will be using the keyboard 
throughout the rest of the program 
operation instructions. The active keys 
are the arrow keys and the space bar. 

There are three menu options avail- 
able: Dots, Lines and Color. To select 
a new puzzle, move the pencil with the 
arrow keys until the point of the pencil 
is on the box marked Dots, then press 
the space bar. 

The Lines menu item is automatically 
selected when the program first starts, 
and after each new puzzle has been 
constructed. Lines is the drawing mode 
used to connect the dots. Position the 
pencil point where you want to tack a 
line down and press the space bar. Next, 
move the pencil to where you want the 
line to stop and press the space bar a 
second time. 

Once your puzzle is complete, you 
may want to add alittle color. Move the 
pencil point to the box marked Color 
and press the space bar. A flashing box 
will surround one of four color bars 
located at the bottom right of the 
screen. Use the up- and down-arrow 
keys to move the flashing box to the 
desired color and press the space bar to 
select that color. Next, position the 
pencil point where you want to add 



60 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



color and press the space bar to fill the 
area. 

The program consists of nine sec- 
tions. Lines 50 to 390 are for device 
input, lines 400 to 650 are pencil posi- 
tion update, lines 660 to 980 draw the 
main screen, and lines 990 to 1 170 are 
the puzzle data interpreter. Lines 1180 

COCO -NECT- F) - DOT 

L 



e 




♦ 20 



RS COLORFUL fiS ft .„„ 




L, ■ MES 




to 1320 do Hi-Res text printing, lines 
1 330 to 1630 are the menu options, lines 
1640 to 1760 have the puzzle data, lines 
1770 to 2200 are the Hi-Res character 
data and program variables, and lines 
2210 to 5000 are the start-up display. 

To create a new puzzle, simply add 
puzzle data in this order: x position (0- 
255) for hint message, y position (0-191) 
for hint message, and the hint message 
string. Next, each point of the puzzle is 
described by the x (0-255), and y (0- 
191), R or L (which puts the dot's 
number on the right or left of the dot), 
and 0,0, END (which is used to end the 
puzzle's data). 

Note: The x coordinate must be 
divisible by 4 and the y coordinate must 
be divisible by 3, so the pencil point can 
be placed exactly on the dots. With a 
little planning, almost any simple shape 



can be encoded into a CoCo-Nect-A- 
Dot puzzle. 

COCO-NBCT- R • DOT 




so 




[ DOT Si 



COLOR 



llllllllllllllllllllll 



(You may direct questions about this 
program to the author at P. O. Box 609, 
Altamonte Springs, FL 32715, 305-834- 
0493. Please enclose an SASE when 
writing.) □ 





1430 


231 


220 


4 1610 .. 


120 


450 , 


....78 1720 .. 


241 


620 


9 1840 .. 


52 


810 


....45 2040 .. 


94 


960 


....18 2240 .. 


. . 149 


1190 


.. .247 END .. 


....98 



'DEVICE 2 = RIGHT JOYSTICK 
•DEVICE 3 = LEFT JOYSTICK 



•KEYBOARD DETECTION 

IF PEEK(345) =247 THEN POKE 3 

THEN POKE 3 



60 
70 
80 
90 



The listing: COCDNECT 

10 ' 8503.10/23:00 MOD:8607.26 
20 CLEAR200:PCLEAR8 
30 'POKE6 54 95,0 'SPEED POKE 
40 GOTO 1760 
50 1 

'JOYSTICK ROUTINES 
i 

PLAY"L150ABCDEFG" : A$=INKEY$ 
. r FR=0 : P=PEEK (65280) : AR= JO YSTK ( 
0) :BR=JOYSTK(l) :AL=JOYSTK(2) : BL= 
JOYSTK ( 3 ) 

100 IF KJOl THEN IF INKEY$<>"" 
THEN KJ=l:GOTO 80 

110 IF KJ<>2 THEN IF P=126 OR P= 
254 THEN KJ=2:GOTO 80 
120 IF KJ<>3 THEN IF P=125 OR P= 
253 THEN KJ=3 : PLAY"L150ABCDEFG" : 
GOTO80 

130 ON KJ GOTO 190,260,310 
140 1 

150 'DEVICE 1 = KEYBOARD 



160 
170 
180 
190 
200 

45,255:FR=1:RE TURN 
210 IF PEEK(343)=247 
43,255:A=A-1 

220 IF PEEK(341) =247 THEN POKE 3 
41,255:B=B-1 

230 IF PEEK(342)=247 THEN POKE 3 
42,255:B=B+1 

240 IF PEEK(344)=247 THEN POKE34 

4,255:A=A+1 

250 RETURN 

260 'RIGHT JOYSTICK DETECTION 
270 A=AR:B=BR 

280 IF (P AND 3)<3 THEN FR=1 
290 RETURN 
300 1 

'LEFT JOYSTICK DETECTION 
i 



310 
320 
330 
340 



A=AL : B=BL 

IF (P AND 3)<3 THEN FR=1 
350 RETURN 
360 ' 

370 PCOPY5T01 : PCOPY6T02 : PCOPY7TO 
3 : PCOPY8T04 : RETURN 

380 FORU=lT04 : PCOPY U TO U+4:NEX 
T : RETURN 

390 PUT(210,79) -(253, 119) ,K,PSET 
: RETURN 
400 ' 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 61 



410 ' DRAW & GET PENCIL 
420 • 

430 PMODE4,1:PCLS1:COLOR0 

440 DRAWBM0, 22 ;"+P$ 

450 GET(0,0)-(23,22) ,P 

460 PCLS : C0L0R1 : DRAW" BM0 , 2 2 ; U5E1 

7R2F3D2G17L5" : PAINT (2, 17) ,1,1 

470 GET(0,0)-(23,22) ,M 

480 GOSUB370:X=99:PRINT@9 6+32+3 2 

, "" ; :GOSUB22 70 

490 PRINT: PRINT" PRESS ANY KE 

Y TO BEGIN ":EXEC4 4539 

500 PMODE4 : SCREEN 1, 1 

510 IF FR=1 THEN 520 ELSE 550 

520 IF X>194 THEN 1340 

530 PLAY"T200AB" : IF L=0 AND TP=0 
THEN L1=X:L2=Y:L=1:GOTO550 ELSE 
IF TP=1 THENGOSUB3 7 0 : PMODE3 , 1 : 

PAINT(X,Y) , CO , 1 : PMODE4 , 1 :GOSUB38 

0:GOTO560 

540 IF L=l THEN PMODE3 , 5 : COLOR1 : 
LINE (LI , L2 ) - (X , Y) , PSET : PMODE4 : L= 

0 

550 GOSUB90:SCREENl,l:IF A=C AND 

B=D THEN 510 
5 60 C=A: D=B 

570 X=C*4:IF X>23 2 THEN X=23 2 

580 IF X<0 THEN X=0 

590 Y=D*3:IF Y<24 THEN Y=24 

600 IF L=l AND TP=0 THEN PCOPY5T 

01 : PCOPY6T02 : PCOPY7T03 : PCOPY8T04 

: PM0DE3 , 1 : C0L0R1 : LINE ( LI , L2 ) - (X , 

Y) ,PSET:PMODE4,l:GOTO620 

610 PMODE4,5:GET(OX,OY-22)-(OX+2 

3 , OY) , S , G : PM0DE4 , 1 : PUT ( OX , OY-2 2 ) 

-(OX+23 ,0Y) ,S,PSET 

620 PUT (X , Y-2 2) - (X+23 , Y) , M, OR 

630 DRAW" BM=X ; , =Y ; C0 " +P$ 

640 OX=X:OY=Y 

650 GOTO550 

660 • 

670 * DRAW SCREEN 
680 ' 

690 PM0DE4,5:PCLS1 

700 BD=1: S=18 :MX=8 :MY=1: DRAWS15 

":M$="COCO NECT A D0T":G0SUB1 

250 

710 DRAW"BM81,8;S4U6BM166,8;»+D$ 

+"BM19 8,8;"+D$ 

720 PM0DE3,5:C0L0R1 

730 LINE(0,20) -(200, 185) ,PSET,B 

740 LINE (6, 186)-(200, 191) , PSET, B 

F 

750 LINE (200, 28)-(205,191) , PSET, 
BF 

760 LINE(210,20)-(250,68) ,PSET,B 
770 MX=214:MY=113 :M$="COL" :GOSUB 
1190 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



780 MX=23 6:MY=113 : M$="OR" : G0SUB1 
190 

790 MX=214 :MY=97:M$="LINES" : GOSU 
B1190 

800 MX=218 :MY=81 :M$="DOTS" : GOSUB 

1190 

810 LINE(251, 28) -(256,73) , PSET, B 
F 

820 LINE(216,69)-(256,73) ,PSET,B 
F 

830 MX=2 30:MY=42 :M$="BY" : G0SUB12 
30 

840 MX=2 16 : MY=50 : M$="ERIC" : GOSUB 
1230 

850 MX=214 : MY=59 : M$="WH" : G0SUB12 
30 

860 MX=228 :MY=59:M$="I" :GOSUB123 
0 

870 MX=234 : MY=59 : M$="TE" : G0SUB12 
30 

880 BD=0:PMODE3,5:COLOR1:LINE(21 
0, 128) - (253 , 135) ,PSET,BF 
8 90 COLOR2:LINE(210,144)-(253,15 
1) ,PSET, BF 

900 C0L0R3 :LINE(210, 160) -(253 , 16 
7) , PSET, BF 

910 COLOR0:LINE(200,15)-(208,18) 
, PSET , BF : C0L0R1 : LINE ( 2 10 , 17 6 ) - ( 2 
53 , 183) , PSET,B 

920 LINE(210,79)-(253,87) ,PSET,B 
930 LINE(210, 95)-(253, 103) , PSET, 
B 

940 LINE(210, 111) -(253, 119) , PSET 
,B 

950 GET(210,79)-(253,119) ,K,G 
960 PUT(212,96)-(251,102) ,L,NOT 
970 GOSUB1000 : G0T04 30 
980 RETURN 
990 • 

1000 1 READ DATA & PLOT POINTS 
1010 ' 
1020 DN=1 
1030 PMODE4,5 
1040 COLOR0 

1050 READ MX, MY ,M$ : IF M$="OUT"TH 
EN RESTORE :GOTO1050 ELSE G0SUB11 
90 

1060 READ PX,PY,OF$:IF OF$="END" 

THEN 1150 
1070 IF OF$="R "THEN 0F=8 
1080 IF OF$="L "THEN 0F=-6:IF DN 
>9 THEN 0F=-12 

1090 DRAW" BM=PX ; , =PY ; "+D$ : PX=PX+ 

OF : PY=PY-1 : DRAW" BM=PX ; , =PY ; A1BD3 
ii 

1100 IF DN<10 THEN DRAW N$(DN):G 
OTO1130 

1110 DN$=STR$ ( DN) 






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ONLY 



1120 DRAW N$(VAL(MID$(DN$,2,1) ) ) 
+"BL6BU6 M +N$ (VAL(RIGHT$ (DN$,1) ) ) 
1130 DN=DN+ 1 
1140 GOTO 10 60 

1150 'FINISHED READING DATA 
1160 DRAW" A0 11 
1170 RETURN 
1180 ' 

1190 'HI-RES PRINTING SHOP 

1200 'NEEDS M$="MESS AGE " 

1210 1 MX=X POS 

1220 1 MY=Y POS 

1230 DRAW"S4":S=8 

1240 PMODE4 , 5 : COLOR0 

1250 FORM=l TO LEN(M$) 

1260 N=ASC(MID$ (M$,M, 1) ) -64 

1270 IF N=-32 THEN MX=MX+6 : NEXTM 

: RETURN 

1280 IF N=0 THEN LINE (MX, MY+4 ) - ( 
MX+6 , MY+4 ) , PSET : MX=MX+8 : NEXT : RET 
URN 

1290 IF N=-18 THEN PSET (MX+2 ,MY+ 
4,0): NEXTM : RETURN 

1300 DRAW"BM=MX ; , =MY ; A1C0"+A$ (N) 
13 10 BX=MX+ 1 : DRAW" BM=BX ; , =MY ; A1C 
0"+A$(N) 

13 20 MX=MX+S : NEXTM : RETURN 

1330 ' 

1340 ' MENU 

1350 1 

1360 IF X<210 THEN550 

1370 IF Y>79 AND Y<88 THEN 1420 

13 80 IF Y>96 AND Y<104 THEN 1490 
1390 IF Y>111 AND Y<120 THEN 153 

1400 GOTO550 
1410 ' 

14 20 ' DOTS 
1430 1 

14 40 PLAY"T200CD" : PMODE4 , 5 : SCREE 
N1,1:GOSUB390 

1450 PUT(212,80)-(251,86) ,L,NOT 
1460 COLOR1: LINE (2, 21) -(198,184) 
, PSET , BF 

1470 L=0:GOSUB1000:GOSUB390:PUT( 

212,96) -(251, 102) , L , NOT : GOSUB3 70 

: PMODE4 : SCREEN1 , 1 : TP=0 : GOTO570 

1480 ' 

14 90 'LINES 

1500 1 

1510 PLAY"T200CD" : L=0 : TP=0 : PMODE 
4,5:GOSUB390:PUT(212,96) -(251, 10 
2 ) , L, NOT : GOSUB370 : GOTO570 

1520 1 

1530 'COLOR 

1540 • 

1550 PLAY"T200CD":OO=B:PMODE4, 5: 
GOSUB390:PUT(212 , 112 ) - ( 251 , 118 ) , 



L,NOT:GOSUB3 70 

1560 L=0:TP=1:PMODE3 

1570 GOSUB90 

1580 IF K>1 THEN B=INT(B/16) ELS 
E B=B AND 3 

1590 COLOR1 : LINE (209, B*16+127) -( 
255 , B*16+136 ) , PSET , B : COLOR0 : LINE 
(209,B*16+127) -(2 55,B*16+136) , PS 
ET,B:OB=B 

1600 IF FR=0 THEN 1570 
1610 CO=PPOINT(235,B*16+129) 
1620 B=OO:GOTO570 
1630 1 

1640 1 DOT DATA 
1650 ' 

1660 DATA 4, 175, WHEN YOU WISH AP 
ON A @@@@. ,100, 36, R ,140, 148, R , 
30,72,L ,160, 72, R ,52, 148, L ,100 
,36,L ,0,0, END 

1670 DATA 16, 175, YOU ARE MY SWEE 
T @@@@@. , 108, 167, R ,168, 99, R ,17 
2,67,R ,140, 48, R ,104, 67, L ,76,4 
8,L ,44,67,L ,48,99,L ,108, 167, L 
, 0,0, END 

1680 DATA 12, 175, LIKE A BOLT OF 
@@@@@@@@. ,176, 36, L ,48,95,L ,100 
,103, R ,28, 169, L ,164, 106, R ,120 
,87,L ,176, 36, R ,0,0, END " 
1690 DATA 44, 175, LITE AS A @@@@. 
,56, 160, L ,172, 104, R ,80,36,L ,5 
6,160,R ,160, 32, R ,80,36,R ,172, 
104, L ,0,0, END 

1700 DATA 12, 175, SHINES LIKE A @ 
@@@@@@. ,24,68, R ,99, 160, L ,64,68 
,L ,99,36,L ,136, 68, R ,99, 160, R 
,184, 68, L ,24,68,L ,80,36,L ,120 
,36,R ,184, 68, R ,0,0, END 
1710 DATA 22, 175, YOUR MY @@@ @@ 
@@@. ,124, 132, L ,148, 72, L ,164,82 
,R ,152, 108, R ,132, 118, L ,156,56 
,R ,36,56,L ,68, 132, R ,184, 132, R 

,136, 148, L ,56, 148, R ,16, 132, R 
,68, 132, L ,0,0, END 

1720 DATA 22, 175, YOU @@@@@ UP MY 
LIFE. ,72,32, R ,128, 32, R ,156,10 
4,R ,88, 104, L ,72, 148, L ,84,160, 
R ,76, 168, L ,124, 168, R ,116,160, 
L ,128, 148, R ,112, 104, R ,44,104, 
L ,72,32,L ,0,0, END 
17 30 DATA 12, 17 6, AS COLORFUL AS 
A @@@@@@, ,96,60, L ,72,84,R ,60,6 
8,L ,128, 50, R ,128, 68, R ,56,56,L 
,68,36,L ,120, 84, R ,100, 92, L ,9 
2,30,L ,116, 32, R ,72, 104, R ,44,9 
2,L ,36,76,L ,60,84,L ,88, 140, L 
,20, 140, L ,52, 168., L ,148, 168, R , 
18£f,'l40,R ,88, 140, R ,0,0, END 
1740 DATA 0,0, OUT 



64 THE RAINBOW January 1987 




Challenges Await You In 



Th* Rainbow 
BookahtH 



1 





1G 



The Second Rainbow Book Of 

Put your wits and skills to the test with 16 outstanding programs 
from the winners of our Second Simulation Contest, You'll en- 
counter explosive action as the leader of the Rainbow City Bomb 
Squad. As the Master Train Dispatcher, the pressure is intense 
to avoid accidents and keep the trains on time. When all this 
activity seems too much, who ya gonna call? Ghostget- 
ters, of course! Then it's off to CoCo's Bowling Alley for a little 
Monday night relaxation. 




Plunge into real-life action with: 



Vacation U.S. A, — On the trail of 
adventure through the American 
heartland 

Project Theta — Alone in your fighter, 
you stand before Zygor's invasion 
fleet 

Olympic Decathlon — Qualify in 10 
grueling events 



Bush Pilot — Danger lurks above the 
canopy of the dense African jungle 

Nereid Countdown — Many different 
skills are needed to launch the 
massive Ezekial into orbit 

Stock Market — Failure or fortune in 
the world of high finance 

Our award-winning authors: Curtis Boyle, Peter Brandt, Audrey DeLisle, Bill 
English, Aryeh Glaberson, Floyd Keirnan, Ray Ligocki, Brian Maiorano, Chris 
McKernan, Baron Quintana, Joel Robbins, Charles Santee, Randy Simpson, Bob 
Tyson, E.L Vasser and Duane Wood. 

All This For Only $9.95! 

And for all the fun without the fuss — 

The Second Rainbow Simulations Tape or Disk 

Save yourself hours of typing listings. Just load these great Simulations into your 
computer and run them. What could be easier? 

The tape or disk is an adjunct and complement to the book. Even if you buy either 
the Second Rainbow Simulations Tape or Disk, you'll want and need the book 
for the introductory material and loading instructions. 

Tape Only $9.95 Disk Only $10.95 



Please send: □ The Second Rainbow Book Of Simulations for $9.95* 

□ The Second Rainbow Simulations Tape $9.95 

□ The Second Rainbow Simulations Disk $10.95 

Name , 




Address 



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ZIP 



□ My check in the amount of 

Please charge to my: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

Account Number Exp. Date 

Signature 

Mail to: The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, 
Prospect, KY 40059 

To order by phone (credit cards orders only) call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. 
For other inquiries call (502) 228-4492- 

•Add $150 shipping and handling per book. Outside ihe U.S., add $4. Allow 6 lo 8 weeks for delivery. Kentucky residents add 5% 
sales tax for book and tape. In order to hold down costs, we do not bill U.S. currency on/y please. 



175,0 

1760 DIM P(13) ,M(13) ,S(13) ,A$(26 

) ,N$(25) ,K(80) ,L(10) 

1770 A=54:B=15:OY=45:OX=216:KJ=l 

: X=OX : Y=OY 

1780 1 

179)3 1 CHARACTER DATA 
1800 1 

1810 D$="EFGHRBU3" 'DOT 

1820 P$="U5E15F5G3H3G11BF2E11H4E 

5R2F3D2G17L5E" 

1830 N$ (0) =" BRNR2HU2ER2 FD2GBR3 11 
1840 N$(1)="BEHR4BD2BR2" 
1850 N$(2)="U3EFD3R2NU4BR2" 
1860 N$(3)="U3EFND2EFD3BR2" 
1870 N$ (4) = "BU3NR4F3NU4BR3" 
1880 N$ (5)="NU4R2U3EFD3BR2" 
1890 N$ (6) ="BU3BNED2FR2HU2EFD2GB 
R3 " 

1900 N$(7)="U4RF3BD2BR2" 

1910 N$ (8 ) ="BRHU2EFND2EFD2GHGBR5 



ii 



1920 N$ ( 9 ) ="BRHU2ENR2FD2GBR2BEU2 
HB" 

1930 A$ ( 1) ="BRNR3HU2ERND4R2BD4BR 
2" 




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on 32k & 64k (710 accounts & entries on 16k) (disk only). Version 1 2 has screen 
printouts Rainbow Reviews 1.1 - 9/84 ; 1 2-4/85 

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fields with 255 characters per field (4080 characters/record). Son, match & print 
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Rainbow Review 3/85, Hot CoCo 10/85 

BOB'S MAGIC GRAPHIC MACHINE 

Can generate BASIC code to use in your programs Easy drawing and manip- 
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Ledger & Accounts Receivables. (Disk Only). 

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With hi res character display and window generator. Features an enhanced key 
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multiple windows Irom basic. Includes menu driven printer setup and auto line 
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I 



1940 A$ 

1950 A$ 

I960 A$ 

1970 A$ 

1980 A$ 

1990 A$ 

2000 A$ 

2010 A$ 

2020 A$ 

2030 A$ 
ii 

2040 A$ 
2050 A$ 
2060 A$ 
2070 A$ 
2080 A$ 
2090 A$ 
GBR3 11 
2100 A$ 
2" 



2) ="NR4U3EFND3EFD3BR2" 

3) ="BRNR2HU2EBR2FD2GBR3 11 

4 ) = 11 NR4 U 3 ER2 FD3 BR2 11 

5) ="NU3R2NU2R2NU4BR2" 

6) ="NU4R2NU2R2BR2 11 

7 ) = " NR4U4 BR2 NDRFD 3 BR2 11 

8 ) ="R2NR2U4NL2R2 BD4 BR2 11 

9) ="BU2R4BD2BR2 " 



10 
11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 

18 



_ i 
— i 



_ i 
_ i 
_ i 
_ i 
_ i 
— i 



—i 



BU4R3FD2GLBR4 " 

NR4 BU4F2ND2E2 BD4 BR 2 

R4NU4BR2" 
NR4 E2H2R4 BD4 BR2 11 
NR4E4NL4BD4BR2 " 
BRNR2HU2ER2FD2GBR3 11 
NR4U3EFD3BR4 " 
BRNR2HU2ER2 FDNNLNRD 

NR4U3EFND3BDE2BD4BR 



2110 


A$ 


(19; 


1 =" 


'BU3NBED2FEU2EFD3BGB 


R3 11 










2120 


A$i 


(20! 


1 =" 


U2NU2R4 BD2BR2 " 


2130 


A$l 


(21] 


1 =" 


'NR3 BU4R3FD2GBR3 11 


2140 


A$ 


(22; 


1 =" 


1 NR2 BU4R2 F2G2 BR4 11 


2150 


A$ 


(23) 


=■< 


NR4 BU4R4G2 F2 BR2 11 


2160 


A$l 


(24) 


= '< 


E4BL4F4BR2 " 


2170 


A$l 


(25] 


1 =" 


BU4F2NG2R2BD2BR2" 


2180 


A$l 


(26) 


=■' 


U4F4NU4BR2" 


2190 


i 









2200 FORX=lT016:PRINTSTRING$ (32, 
32) ; : NEXTX 

2210 PRINT" ********************* 
***********" • 

2220 PRINT"* BASIC COCO- NECT A D 
OT V:1.0 *"; 

2230 PRINT"* COPYRIGHT 1986 BY E 
RIC WHITE *"; 

2240 PRINT"* ALL RIGHTS RES 

ERVED * " ; 

2 2 50 PRINT "********************* 
***********" • 

2260 PRINT: PRINT" 
GRAM STARTS " 
2270 PRINT: PRINT" 

SPACEBAR " 
2280 PRINT" TO SELECT THE KEY 
BOARD 11 
2290 PRINT" 



AFTER PRO 



PRESS THE 



OR 



11 



PRESS THE FIRE B 



2300 PRINT" 
UTTON " 

2310 PRINT" TO SELECT THE JOY 
STICK " 

2320 PRINT: PRINT" FOR INPU 

T DEVICE " 

2330 IF X<>99 THEN GOTO 690 ELSE 
RETURN 



66 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



BEGINNERS SPECIAL 



Here's what you need to know to have 
a healthy, happy organization 







jgg&k [m tfSBfc '■ I ■ III Inl 
Ptf P If III P 



ly lark Haverstock 



JH re you a member of a Color Com- 
puter club? If you are, you're in 
B"Mgood company, In the October 
1986 RAINBOW, there were approxi- 
mately 146 CoCo clubs listed in the 
U nited States and Canada. This d oesn't 
even take into account clubs that have 
Color Computer STGs, or ones that 
have yet to make themselves known to 
the CoCo Community. 

Sometimes, these clubs start from 
small and humble beginnings. Often, a 
few friends who have a common interest 
in the CoCo get together for informal 
meetings, and soon find themselves 
attracting other enthusiasts who want 
to share their ideas and problems. Other 



Mark Haverstock teaches computer 
applications and language arts classes 
for the Boardman Schools in Youngs- 
town, Ohio. He is also editor of the C3 
Crier, newsletter of the Color Computer 
Club, Inc., of Canfield, Ohio. 




clubs form out of the frustrations f ound 
in their present users groups. Our club, 
for example, came about as a result of 
finding no Radio Shack computer users 
groups in the Youngstown area. The 
group that was formed by five owners 
of the early Color Computers now 
boasts a membership of over 100, and 
will celebrate its fifth birthday this yean 
As a member of this modestly suc- 
cessful computer club, Fd like to share 
a few tested hints to help your CoCo 
club grow and thrive with a little in- 
volvement from your officers and 
members. 

Membership 

The most important ingredient in any 
club is a pool of active members. After 
you've gotten your crew of friends and 
acquaintances together, how do you 
attract new members? You're dealing 
with a fairly narrow group: those inter- 
ested in the Radio Shack Color Com- 
puter. These people are probably al- 
ready owners or prospective owners of 
this particular computer. To find this 
select group of people, mailings to 
computer owners, newspaper ads and 
the like are not a very effective way to 
reach CoCo owners. 

If you think about it, the most likely 
place to find a Color Computer owner 
would be at a Radio Shack store or 
franchise. But wait! Before you go stake 
out the computer section of your local 
store, here are some suggestions and 
realistic expectations you should have. 

Tandy does acknowledge TRS-80 
computer users groups, and even pub- 
lishes its own newsletter for them. This 
doesn't imply, however, that your local 
store manager or computer representa- 
tive is going to supply you with custom- 
er names, nor does it mean that they will 
hang signs or pass out promotional 
literature for you. Company policy 
dictates otherwise. In spite of these 
policies, we've found that store 
personnel have been some of 
our best allies, as 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 67 



far as referring potential members to us 
by word of mouth. 

Often, customers will ask if there are 
any local Color Computer clubs, or seek 
technical help or advice that store 
salespeople cannot provide. We regu- 
larly mail newsletters and a few infor- 
mation sheets about our club to local 
stores. On the average, we gain three to 
six members per month who mention 
they heard about us at a Radio Shack 
store. 

Other stores that sell computer sup- 
plies, software and related products can 
help with membership referrals. We also 
find that providing them with monthly 
newsletters and general information 
sheets helps remind them of us, and in 
turn generates new members. 

Listing club information on local 
BBS systems is another way of recruit- 
ing potential members who have 
modem capabilities. Leave a message 
on the board about your club; better 
yet, ask the SysOp to put information 
about your club in a more prominent 
place, such as the bulletin section. 

Other users groups can also be a 
source of new members. I'm not sug- 
gesting that you proselytize from other 
clubs, but there are two situations you 
should consider: 1) a person who owns 
a Color Computer and another brand; 
2) a person who belongs to a Color 
Computer SIG within a larger club. 
After all, a second membership may be 
beneficial to their understanding and 
use of the CoCo, as well as to your 
membership rolls. 

Last, but certainly not least, have 
announcements about your club 
printed in computer magazines of inter- 
est to CoCo users. Magazines such as 
RAINBOW, CoCo Ads and Spectrogram 
provide sections for club listings free of 
charge. 

Meetings 

According to our club historian, the 
first meeting of the Color Computer 
Club (later to become the Color Com- 
puter Club, Inc. of Canfield, Ohio) held 
its first meeting at a local bar. The then- 
elected secretary scrawled our first 
minutes on a cocktail napkin. It's more 
likely that your meetings started at the 
home of a member than in a bar. Even- 
tually, these places will become too 
small to accommodate a growing club. 



The next question is, where can you 
hold your meetings? 

The most likely (and cheapest) can- 
didates for meeting places are schools, 
libraries, churches and lodges. Most of 
these places will provide facilities at a 
nominal charge, or no charge at all. 
Some restaurants have meeting or 
community rooms that are free for the 
asking or may be provided for free if 
your meeting agenda happens to in- 
clude ordering a meal or snack. Least 
desirable from the standpoint of cost is 
a rented room or hall. 

If there is a charge involved, ask your 
members to each donate a dollar toward 
the cost of the meeting room. If the 
collection exceeds the cost of the room, 
you may eventually decide to do what 
we did. Any excess went to purchasing 
a door prize for the next meeting. This 
is one way to take care of the surplus, 
as well as providing an added incentive 
to attend each month. 

When planning meeting activities, the 
best policy is to take care of the business 
meeting first, when you have everyone's 
attention. Whatever time is left can be 
devoted to demonstrations, help ses- 
sions, lectures, etc. Remember, the 
mind only absorbs what the seat can 
endure, so frequent breaks are a must 
if your meeting lasts any length of time. 
Some of our members have been caught 
sneaking out to get a burger and fries 
during a long-winded business meeting. 

Encourage your members to bring 
their computers if space and the number 
of electrical outlets permit. This prac- 
tice provides easy access to hardware 
for demonstrations or help sessions. 
There's nothing like seeing the program 
or hardware in action. 

Be sure to make your meetings edu- 
cational and informative. Besides being 
a social gathering for computer owners, 
a meeting should provide some learning 
exeriences for members and visitors 
who may attend. A club that provides 
a forum to exchange information and 
educate will meet the needs of its present 
members, as well as attract beginners 
who seek help and advice. 

Club Assets 

The club assets I will refer to don't 
have anything to do with the treasury. 
When a prospective member is looking 
over your club, the one implied question 



always in his or her mind is, "What's in 
it for me?" A good club will provide 
services to attract and keep members. 

One of the most valuable services 
we've found is providing a club library 
of public domain programs. This is a 
great attraction for new computer 
owners who have little or no software. 
They can borrow a wide array of pro- 
grams without making any major in- 
vestment. 

Keep your library public domain 
only! There are several reasons for this. 
First, it's cost efficient. Public domain 
programs cost the club nothing, except 
for the cassettes or disks on which they 
are stored. Secondly, the issue of pro- 
gram privacy becomes non-existent. 
Members, if they desire, can copy these 
programs legally. Public domain pro- 
grams have no strings attached. In 
contrast, licensing agreements in com- 
mercially produced programs may limit 
use to the original buyer only, making 
them unsuitable for a lending library. If 
a member illegally copies a program, 
both the member and club could be 
liable. 

There are many places a club library 
can obtain public domain software. 
Programs can be downloaded from 
BBS systems, and the Color SIGs on 
information services, such as Delphi. A 
few companies who advertise in RAIN- 
BOW, including PD Software of Hous- 
ton, Texas, compile and sell disks of 
public domain software at a nominal 
price to cover the cost of the disk and 
duplicating. Established clubs, like our 
own, will often exchange library disks 
of public domain programs on a one- 
for-one basis. Finally, don't forget your 
members who may want to donate 
programs they have written to your 
library. 

Offering classes is a great draw for 
new members, especially those who are 
first-time computer owners. BASIC lan- 
guage classes will probably be the most 
well attended, and suit the needs of most 
of the membership. Advanced courses 
in BASIC, as well as PASCAL and assem- 
bly language, can be considered if there 
are members qualified to teach them. 
Our club usually holds these classes at 
the homes of members, and limits the 
amount of students accordingly. 

An alternative to formal classes is a 
resident "expert" on applications pro- 



68 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



grams. Incorporated into some of our 
meetings have been demonstrations of 
specific programs, such as a particular 
word processor or filing program. 
These "experts" are members who are 
thoroughly acquainted with the pro- 
grams and give either a small group 
demonstration or one-on-one help to 
members. 

A club BBS system can also be an 
inducement for prospective members. It 
can provide an instant means of com- 
munication between club members and 
a current update on club activities and 
concerns. Our club BBS is open to all, 
but members have several reserved 
sections and privileges not available to 
the public. 

Since the purchase of equipment and 
phone costs can quickly go beyond the 
ability of a club to support it, sponsor- 
ship of a club member's existing board 
is an attractive alternative. Sharing the 
cost of monthly phone charges is one 
way a SysOp and club can benefit each 
other. 

Newsletters 

One visible sign of a growing club is 
a newsletter. It may start from humble 
beginnings on a single copied sheet, or 
be a mini-magazine with regular col- 
umns, programs and tutorials. What- 
ever size or format, we've found this to 
be one of the club's greatest assets. Our 
members appreciate, even look forward 
to, the arrival of a monthly newsletter. 

Getting a newsletter started requires 
the efforts of several dedicated 
members. I emphasize the word several 
here for a good reason. A single editor 
cannot go it alone. A good newsletter 
needs people who can write and com- 
municate clearly, have a talent for 
graphic arts, and editors who have a 



good working knowledge of grammar 
and spelling. 

Articles from members are crucial to 
the success of any club newsletter. As in 
many clubs, most of the articles submit- 
ted are from officers and a handful of 
regular contributors. To promote writ- 
ing for our club newsletter, we've of- 
fered some incentives that have been a 
modest success. Each member who has 
an article printed in the newsletter 
receives a one-month extension on his 
club membership. Periodically, pro- 
gramming contests are held to solicit 
programs for publication. The winning 
program is published, and the winner 
receives a prize or gift certificate for his/ 
her efforts. 

To make things simpler for the editor, 
our newsletter requires submissions on 
tape or disk from a word processor, 
written in ASCII format. That way, the 
editor only needs to load the file into his 
word processor, make corrections, and 
print out the article. The articles and 
artwork are then pasted up on layout 
sheets and sent to the printer. 

If your club can afford it, offset 
printing by a professional printer pro- 
duces the best quality newsletters. A 
good alternative for budget-conscious 
clubs is to find a professional printer 
who has a high-speed copier. Most of 
these copiers will print both sides and 
collate at a reasonable cost. 

Money Raising Activities 

To support a newsletter, BBS and 
other club activities, you'll need to have 
a treasury with sufficient funds. Dues 
for membership will always be a signif- 
icant form of income, but usually won't 
be enough to cover a club's entire 
expenses. Money-raising activities now 
become a major consideration. Try to 



avoid money-raising activities that 
require a substantial cash outlay in 
advance. 

Raffles can be a hit or miss proposi- 
tion. In the past, our club has held 
raffles for two Color Computer sys- 
tems; one was successful and one barely 
covered expenses. There is an obvious 
element of risk if you can't at least break 
even. One type of raffle that involves no 
investment is a "50/50 raffle," in which 
the proceeds are evenly distributed 
between the club and the winner. The 
50/50 raffle has been successful at both 
meetings and membership drives. 

Traditional money raisers such as 
candy sales are possibilities if you can 
form a good working relationship with 
the supplier. Many of these fund-raising 
companies will buy back unopened 
boxes of items that have not been sold. 
Also, they may not bill you for the 
merchandise immediately. This gives 
the club an opportunity to pay the bill 
from the first round of sales money that 
is turned in. Whatever you choose to 
sell, be sure you have support from your 
members, as well as a sales plan from 
the supplier that is to your liking. 

Final Thoughts 

These are just a few suggestions that 
will contribute to the growth of a Color 
Computer club. Of course, this is not 
the final word on how to run a club, nor 
is it intended to be. The ideas are ones 
that have worked for us over the last few 
years. I'd welcome comments on what 
projects and ideas have worked for your 
particular club. 

(Questions about this article may be 
addressed to Mr. H overstock at 6835 
Colleen Drive, Youngstown, OH 445 12. 
Please enclose an SASE when writ- 
ing.) /£\ 



Two- Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Use the joystick to make your player avoid the 
potholes. This one is great and is even more difficult 
when using the high-speed poke. 

The listing: 

1J3 IFN=0THENCLS3 : PLAY"L2 5503ABGF 
EDCCC" : PRINT@J3 , "SCORE : 11 ;SC : X=31 : 
Y=3 1 : K=K+2 : FORT=1TOK+10 : SET (RND ( 
63) ,RND(26)+1,2) : NEXTT ELSE C=JO 
YSTK(j3) : IFC<10THENX=X-1ELSEIFC>5 
3THENX=X+1 



2j3 Y=Y-1 : IFPOINT (X, Y) =2THENPRINT 
"FINAL SCORE: ";SC:END ELSE SC=SC 
+ 1 : PRINT@j3 , "SCORE : " ;SC: IF Y<2THE 
NN=j3:GOT01p ELSE N=l : SET (X , Y , 5 ) : 
PLAY " L2 5 50 ICC" : FORT=lT07 5 : NEXTT : 
SET (X, Y, 3 ) :GOTO X0 

Dean Amo 
Welhersfield, CT 



(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow ttook of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 69 



* * * 

Clubs, Clubs, Clubs 

We compile a list quar- 
terly of Color Computer 
Clubs because of the 
many requests we receive. CoCo 
Clubs may wish to exchange 
newsletters, share ideas for top- 
ics of discussion at monthly 
meetings, etc. 

Please let us know if we have 
omitted any clubs and send us 
complete up-to-date addresses. 
Only those clubs that have 
signed our anti-piracy agree- 
ment form will appear in this 
listing of CoCo Clubs. Also, 
please notify us if youwish to add 
or delete any names on this list. 
Send your information to: 

CoCo Clubs 
THE RAINBOW 
The Falsoft Building 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

* * * 



ARIZONA 

Tucson Color Computer Club, Bill Nunn, 9631 E. 
Stella, Tucson, 85730, (602) 721-1085 

CALIFORNIA 

Color America Users Group, Mark Randall, 2227 
Canyon Road, Arcadia, 91006, (818) 355-6111 

Los Angeles-Wilshire Color Computer Users' 
Group, Norm Wolfe, P.O. Box 11151, Beverly 
Hills, 90213, (213) 838-4293 

California Computer Federation, (San Fernando 
Valley Chapter), Pete Ellison, 366 West Provi- 
dencia Ave., Burbank, 91506, (818) 840-8902 

California Computer Federation, (San Francisco 
Chapter), Art Murray, P.O. Box 7007, Redwood 
City, 94063, (415) 366-4560, BBS (415) 364-2658 

The Davis CoCoNuts, Shneor Sherman, 1818 
Haussler Dr., Davis, 95616, (916) 758-3195 

South Bay Color Computer Club, Patricia Scheffer, 
1435 W. 172nd Street, Gardena, 90247, (213) 
371-2016 

South Bay Color Computer Club, Bill Tillerson, 73 
Alamitos Ave., Suite 2, Long Beach, 90802, (213) 
432-3037 

Ventura County Color Computer Club (VC4), Doug 
McLaughlin, Oxnard Public Library, 214 South 
"C" Street, Oxnard, 93030, (805) 984-4636 or 
BBS (805) 484-5491 

Citrus Color Computer Club, Jack Brinker, P.O. Box 
6991, San Bernadino, 92412, (714) 824-1866 

South Bay Color Computer Users Group, John G. 
Say, 3117 Balmoral Drive, San Jose, 95132, 
(408) 923-2967 

COLORADO 

The ESCO Computer Club, David E. Schulz, 1299 
Harrison Street, Denver, 80206, (303) 388-6988 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Northern Virginia C.C. Club, Bruce Warner, 14503 
Fullerton Rd., Dale City, Virginia 22193, (703) 
690-2453 



FLORIDA 

Northwest Florida CoCo Nuts, Lee Gottcher, P.O. 
Box 1032, FortWalton Beach, 32549, (904) 678- 
8894 

Jacksonville Color Computer Club, William H. 
Brown III, 2411 Hirsch Ave., Jacksonville, 32216, 
(904) 721-0282 

CoCo Chips Color Computer Club, 715 5th Avenue 
NE, Largo, 33540, (813) 581-7779 

Broward County Color Computer Club, George 
Aloia, 2263 N.W. 65 Avenue, Margate, 33063, 
(305) 972-0975 

South Brevard Color Computer Club, Benjamin S. 
Jerome, 496 Hillside Court, Melbourne, 32935, 
(305) 259-4609 

CoCo Nuts of Central Florida, George Ellenburg, 
Box 593790, Orlando, 32859-3790, (305) 855- 
7867 

Color-6809 Users Group, Emery Mandel, 4301 11th 
Avenue North, St. Petersburg, 33713-5207, (813) 
323-3570, BBS (813) 321-0397 

C.C. Club of Sarasota, Ernie Bontrager, 4047 Bee 
Ridge Rd., Sarasota, 33583, (813) 921-7510 

GEORGIA 

The Northeast Atlanta Color Computer Club, Joe 
Novosel, P.O. Box 450915, Atlanta, 30345, (404) 
921-7418 

The CoCo Cartel, Dennis M. Weldy, 4059 Acacia 
Drive, Columbus, 31904, (404) 576-5479 

Atlanta Color Computer Users Group, Terry E. 
Love, 5155 Maroney Mill Rd., Douglasville, 
30134, (404) 949-5356 

ILLINOIS 

Illinois Color Computer Club of Elgin, Tony Po- 
draza, 1 1 9 Adobe Circle, Carpentersville, 601 10, 
(312) 428-3576 

Northern Illinois Color Computer Club, Kenneth 
Trenchard, Sr., 6145 N. Sheridan Road 30, 
Chicago, 60660, (312) 973-5208 

Willow-Works Club, Kevin L Adair, 5753 S. Laflin, 
Chicago, 60636, (312) 737-5716 

Peoria Color Computer Club, Harold E. Brazee, 102 
Twin Oak Court, East Peoria, 61611, (309) 694- 
4703 

Glenside Color Computer Club, Ed Hathaway, 8 W. 
Stevenson Drive, Glendale Heights, 60139, (312) 
462-0694 

Kitchen Table Color Computer Group, Robert Mills, 
P.O. Box 464, Hanover, 61041, (815) 591-3377 

Motorola Microcomputer Club, Steve Adler, 1301 
Algonquin Rd., Schaumburg, 60196, (312) 576- 
3044 

Chicago OS-9 Users Group, John Chasteen, 480 
Gilbert Drive, Wood Dale, 60191, (312) 860-2580 

INDIANA 

Three Rivers Color Computer Club, R.R. 3, Box 269, 
Angola, 46703 

CoCo Program Exchange, Erik Merz, 3307 Arrow 
Wood Dr., Fort Wayne, 46815, (219) 749-0294 

Indy Color Computer Club, Kevin S. Jessup, Sr., 
P.O. Box 26521, Indianapolis, 46236, (317) 873- 
5808 

Southern IndianaComputer Club, Route 1, Box 459, 
Mitchell, 47446 

Michiana CoCo Club, Clay Howe, 310 S. Jefferson 
St., Sturgis, 49091, (616) 651-4248 

IOWA 

CoCo Questers, Scott Bellman, 2420 Salem Court, 
Bettendorf, 52722, (319)359-7702 

Metro Area Color Computer Club (MACCC), David 
E. Hansen, 3147 Avenue J, Council Bluffs, 
51501, (712) 323-7867 

Mid Iowa CoCo, Terry G. Simons, 1328 48th Street, 
Des Moines, 50311, (515)279-2576 

Dubuque Tandy Users Group, Wesley Kullhem, 
1995 Lombard, Dubuque, 52001, (319) 556-4137 

KANSAS 

KC CoCo Club, Gay Crawford, P.O. Box 11192, 
Kansas City, 66111, (913) 764-9413 



Micro 80 Users Group, Kevin Cronister, 2224 Hope, 
Topeka, 66614, (913) 272-1353 

Color Computer Clubof Wichita, William Wales, 220 
East Harry St., Lloyd Electronics, Wichita, 
67220, (316) 685-9587, BBS (316) 685-8752 

KENTUCKY 

Perry County CoCo Users Group, Keith W. Smith, 
General Delivery, Hardburly, 41747, (606) 439- 
4209 

LOCO-COCO, Jim Spillman, 2405 Woodmont Dr., 
Louisville, 40220, (502) 454-5331 

LOUISIANA 

Cajun CoCo Club, Rick Herbert, P.O. Box 671, 
Crowley, 70526, (318) 788-3148 

MAINE 

Tandy Computer Club, Delmer Cargill, P.O. Box 
428, Westbrook, 04092, (207) 854-2862 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Greater Boston Super Color Users Group, Robert 
Biamonte, 6 Boulder Drive, Burlington, 01803 

Massachusetts CoCo Club, Jason Rahaim, Spring 
St., Lunenberg, 01462, (617) 582-6514 

CLUB 6809, Jean Salvas, 204 East Street, Spring- 
field, 01104, (413) 734-5163 

MICHIGAN 

Color C.H.I.P.S., Jack Pieron, 3175 Oakhill Place, 
Clarkston, 48016, (313) 627-4358 

CCUG (Color Computer Users Group), Rich Van 
Manen, 0-599 Lake Michigan Dr., Grand Rap- 
ids, 49504, (616) 453-8351 

Tandy Users Group of Grand Rapids, Robert M. 
Worth, Jr., 1726 Millbank S.E., Grand Rapids, 
49508 (616) 245-9324 

Greater Kalamazoo Color Computer Club, Jim Rix, 
1835 Chevy Chase Blvd., Kalamazoo, 49008, 
(616) 344-7631 

Greater Lansing Color Computer Users Group, P.O. 
Box 14114, Lansing, 48901 

Michiana CoCo Club, Clay Howe, 310 S. Jefferson 
St., Sturgis, 49091, (616) 651-4248 

MISSISSIPPI 

Singing River C.C. Club, Mark Welch, 3605 Van- 
cleave Rd., #118, Gautier, 39553, BBS (601 ) 875- 
8688 

Gulf Coast Color Computer Assoc., Ed Keels, 22 
Christy Cove, Gulfport, 39503, (601) 832-1210 

Jackson Color Computer Club, Dorothy N. Welch, 
424 Church Street, Madison, 39110, (601) 856- 
7255 

CoCo Art Club, Joel Bunyard, Rt. 16, Box 11, 
Meridian, 39301, (601) 483-0424 

MISSOURI 

North County 80 Group, Tom Vogel, 12 Ville Donna 
Ct., Hazelwood, 63042, (314) 739-4078 

Mid-America Color Computer User's Group, Jerry 
Morgon, 807 Ponca Drive, Independence, 
64056, (816) 796-5813 

Coconuts, 1610 N. Marian, Springfield, 65803 

NEBRASKA 

Siouxland Color Computer Club, Alan Pedersen, 
61 1 D Street, South Sioux City, 68776, (402) 494- 
2284 

NEVADA 

CAT. F.U.N., Paul A. Osborne, 201 Miners Road, 
Fallon, 89406, (702) 423-5789 

NEW JERSEY 

West Orange CoCo Club, Gregg Favalora, 12 
Blackburne Terrace, W. Orange, 07052, (201) 
736-1748 (let ring 12 times) 

Loco CoCo Club, Bud Lavin, 73B Wavercrest Ave., 
Winfield Park, 07036 

Mercer County Color Computer Users Group, 
Richard C. Kelly, 1904 Country Lane, W. Tren- 
ton, 08628, (609) 883-9270 

NEW MEXICO 

Chaves County Color Computer Club, Lee Mitchell, 
1102 Melrose Drive, Roswell, 88201, (505) 623- 
0789 



70 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



NEW YORK 

AdirondackCoCoClub (Albany Chapter), Ron Fish, 
Box 4125, Albany, 12204, (518) 465-9793 

Adirondack CoCo Club, (Greene County Chapter), 
Pete Chast, P.O. Box 61, Athens, 12015, (518) 
945-1636 

Adirondack CoCo Club (Glens Falls Chapter), 
Richard Mitchell, 39 Center St., Fort Edwards, 
12828 

Island Color Computer Club, Joseph Castelli, P.O. 
Box 901, Bellmore, 11710, BBS (516) 783-7506 

Kings Byte CoCo Club, Morty Libowitz, 1063 East 
84th St., Brooklyn, 11236, (718)763-4233, BBS 
(718) 837-2881 

C.C. Club of Central N.Y., Joseph Short, 248 S. 
Fourth Ave., Ilion, 13357, (315)895-7730 

Rockland County Color Computer Users Group, 
Harold L Laroff, P.O. Box 131, Monsey, 10952- 
0131, (914) 425-2274 

Olean Area CoCo Users Group, Herman L. Smith, 
P.O. Box 216, Olean, 14760, (716) 933-7488, 
BBS (716) 933-7489 

The Rochester S-80 Computer Club, Inc., Gary 
Panepinto, P.O. Box 15476, Rochester, 14615, 
(716) 392-6133 

New York Color Computer User Group, Carl Glo- 
vinsky, 15 Bolivar St., Staten Island, 10314, (718) 
761 -0268 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Bull City CoCo Users Group, Todd Wall, 5319 
Durand Drive, Durham, 27703, (919) 598-1348 

Raleigh Color Computer Club, David Roper, P.O. 
Box 680, Garner, 27529 

OHIO 

Central Ohio ColorComputer Club, Jim Upperman, 
5201 Wilcox Road, Amlin, 43002, (614) 876-1767 

Color Computer Club, Inc., William Wills, P.O. Box 
468, Canfield, 44406 

Dayton Color Computer Users Group, Steven E. 
Lewis, 4230 Cordell Dr., Dayton, 45439, (513) 
299-3060 

Dayton Area Color Computer Users Group, David 
R. Barr, 2278 Yorkshire PI., Kettering, 45419, 
(513) 293-2228 

Greater Toledo Color Computer Club, William Paul 
Saba Sr., 3423 Cragmoor Ave., Toledo, 43614, 
(419) 385-9004 

Tri-County Computer Users Group, William J. 
Loeffler, 2612 Dale Avenue, Rocky River, 441 16, 
(216) 356-0779 

Miami Valley CoCo Club, Tim Ellis, 1805 W. Park- 
way Dr., Piqua, 45356, (513) 773-2244 

OKLAHOMA 

Central Oklahoma Computer Organization, Inc., 
Martin Schiel, 5313 Spitz Drive, Oklahoma City, 
73135, (405) 670-6891 

Green Country Computer Association, Michael 
Keller, P.O. Box 2431, Tulsa, 74101, (918) 245- 
3456 (DATA) 

PENNSYLVANIA 

HUG-A-CoCo, George Lurie, 2012 Mill Plain Court, 
Harrisburg, 17110, (717) 657-2789 

Penn-Jersey Color Computer Club, P.O. Box 2742, 
Lehigh Valley, 18001 

Skyline Color Computer Club of Berks County, 
Lewis F. Brubaker, 4874 Eighth Ave., Temple, 
19560, (215) 921-3616 

Pittsburgh Color Group, Ralph Marting, P.O. Box 
351, West Mifflin, 15122, (412) 823-7607 

RHODE ISLAND 

New England COCONUTS, P.O. Box 28106, North 
Station, Providence, 02908 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

LoCo CoCo Club, Larry Coyle, 4334 Flynn Dr., 
Charleston, 29405, (803) 747-0802 

Midlands 80 Computer Club, Frank Eargle, P.O. Box 
7594, Columbia, 29202, TBBS (803) 791-7389 



Spartanburg County CoCo Club, Lawrence Easier, 
Jr., Rt. 1 Highway 221, Spartanburg, 29302, 
(803) 578-3120 

TENNESSEE 

Tri-Cities Computer Club, Gary Collins, P.O. Box 
4506 CRS, Johnson City, 37602-4506, (615) 929- 
1862 

Foothills Micro-Computer Club, Aaron Sentell, P.O. 
Box 1541, Maryville, 37801, (615) 982-4629 

TEXAS 

The San Antonio Color Computer Club, James 
Leatherman, 2430 Rawhide Lane, San Antonio, 
78227 

UTAH 

Salt City CoCo Club, Dennis Mott, 720 E. Browning 
Ave., Salt Lake City, 84105, (801) 487-6032, BBS 
(801 ) 487-6787 

VIRGINIA 

Northern Virginia C.C. Club, Bruce Warner, 14503 
Fullerton Rd., Dale City, 221 93, (703) 690-2453 

Central Virginia Color Computer Club, Roger Lee, 
Rt. 2 Box 175, Madison Heights, 24572 * 

Color Company, Rick Blouin, 12007-C3 Greywing 
Sq., Reston, 22091, (703) 860-9297 

Richmond Area Color Computer Organization, 
William Mays, 6003 Westbourne Drive, Rich- 
mond, 23230, (804) 282-7778 

WASHINGTON 

Northwest Computer Club, Larry Haines, East 2924 
Liberty, Spokane, 99207, (509) 483-5547 

Mount Rainier Color Computer Club, Ron Amos, 
2450 Lenore Drive N., Tacoma, 98406, (206) 752- 
8735 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Mil-O-Bar Computer Club, Jim LeMaster, P.O. Box 
130, Ona, 25545, (304) 743-4752 after 4 p.m. 

Blennerhassett CoCo Club, David Greathouse, 
1306 Wells Circle, Parkersburg, 26101 

WISCONSIN 

Southern Wisconsin CoCo Club, David C. Buehn, 
24607 67th Street, Salem, 53168, (414) 843-3830 

CANADA 

ALBERTA 

Bonnyville User Group (BUG's), Doug MacDonald, 
Box 2071, Bonnyville, T0A0L0, (403) 826-4790 

The Calgary Color Computer Club, P.O. Box 22, 
Station M, Calgary, T2P 2G5 

Edmonton CoCo Users Group, Dexter Dombro, 
P.O. Box 4507 Stn. South, Edmonton, T6E 4T7, 
(403) 439-5245 

BRITISH COLUMBIA 

Vancouver Colour Computer Club, Box 76734, Stn 
S, Vancouver, V5R 5S7 

Salmon Arm CoCo, David Coldwell, RR #4, Site 26 
Comp. 13, Salmon Arm, V1 E 4M4 

MANITOBA 

Winnipeg Micro-80 Users Group, Robert Black, 
1 755 King Edward St., Winnipeg, R2R 0M3, (204) 
633-7196 

NEW BRUNSWICK 

Campbellton 6809EUsers Group, Blaine Arsenault, 
80 Deny Street, Atholville, E0K 1A0, (506) 753- 
4769 

NOVA SCOTIA 

Halifax Dartmouth CoCo Users Group, Eugene 
Naugler, P.O. Box 572, Dartmouth, B2Y 3Y9 

Colour Computer Halifax User Group (CoCo Hug), 
Paul A. Power, 6354 London St., Halifax, B3L 
1X3, (902) 455-6341 

ONTARIO 

ESSA Color Computer Club, Albert L. Ley, 40 Perry 
Street, Barrie, L4N 2G3, (705) 728-9481 

Kingston CoCo Club, Kenneth Bracey, 316 West- 
dale Ave., Apt. 4-C, Kingston, K7L 4S7, (613) 
544-2806 

K-W CoCo Club, P.O. Box 1291, Station C, Kitch- 
ener, N2G 4G8 



London CoCo Nuts Computer Club, Harry K. 
Boyce, 180 Concord Road, London, N6G 3H8, 
(519) 472-7706 

Niagara Regional CoCo Club, Gerry Chamberland, 
6843 Cumberland Crt., Niagara Falls, L2H 2J9, 
(416) 357-3462 

Ottawa 6809 Users Group, Norm Shoihet, 1497 
Meadowbrook Road, Ottawa, K1B 5J9, (613) 
741-1763 

Sarnia Computer Users Group, J. Verdon, P.O. Box 
1082, Sarnia, N7T 7K5, (519) 344-6985 

QUEBEC 

Club d'Ordinateur Couleur du Quebec, Inc., Centre 
de-Loisirs St-Mathieu, 71 10- 8e Ave., St-Michel, 
Montreal, H2A3C4, (514) 270-7507 

Club Micro Ordinateur de Montreal-Nord, Christian 
Champagne, 12365 Blv. Langelier #7, Montreal- 
Nord, H1G 5X6, (514) 323-5958 

Club ORCO-RS, Jacques Bedard, 33 Lisiere, St- 
Constant, J0L 1X0, (514) 632-4311 

Le Club Couleur du Nord, Gabriel Pigeon, CP. 315, 
Barraute, JOY 1A0, (819) 734-2577 

SASKATCHEWAN 

Saskatoon Color Computer Club, L. Curtis Boyle, 
35 Bence Crescent, Saskatoon, S7L 4H9, (306) 
382-1459, BBS (306) 384-8040 

FOREIGN 

AUSTRALIA 

Blacktown City TRS-80 Colour Computer Users 
Group, Keith Gallagher, P.O. Box 264, River- 
stone, New South Wales, 2765, (02) 627-4624 

COCOPUG, Harry Murphy, 8 Lois Court, Regents- 
ville, New South Wales, 2750 

CoCoHUG (Color Computer Hobart Users Group), 
Robert Delbourgo, 15 Willowdene Avenue, 
Sandy Bay, Hobart, Tasmania, 7005 

ISRAEL 

The First Color Computer Club of Israel, J. Yosef 
Krinsky, 52 Ramot Polin, Jerusalem, Israel, 
Phone (02) 863-354 

MEXICO 

Mexcoco Users Group, Sergio Waisser, Paseo de la 
Soledad #120, Mexico City, D.F., 53920, phone 
294-36-63 

the NETHERLANDS 

Color Computer Club Benelux, Jorgen te Giffel, 
Eikenlaan 1, 4641 GB Ossendrecht, the Nether- 
lands 

PERU 

Piura Color Computer Club, Carlos Alvarez, Box 
142, AV. Guillermo Irazola, J-6 URB. Miraflores 
Castilla, Piura, Peru, phone (074) 327182 

PUERTO RICO 

Puerto Rico Color Computer Users Club, P. A. 
Torres, Cuernavaca 1699, Venus Gardens, Rio 
Piedras, Puerto Rico 00926, Phone (137) 755- 
7598 

WEST GERMANY 

First CoCo Club Hamburg, Theis Klauberg, 2345 
Delaware Drive, Ann Arbor, Ml 48103 (tempo- 
rary address). 



new clubs 



Editor: 

We would like to inform CoCo owners in 
the San Joaquin Valley of our new club. We 
are looking for new members to join us. We 
will have many activities, one being monthly 
meetings. Anybody interested in joining, 
please call (209) 646-2632 or write to me. 

Matthew L. Reyna 
695 T Street 
Parlier, CA 93648 



■ 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 71 



• I would like to announce a new Color 
Computer user group in the Orlando/ 
Winter Park area. The club has its own BBS. 
Detailsaboutthe BBScan beobtained at the 
club meetings which are the first Wednesday 
of every month at my condominium's club- 
house. To get directions, call (305) 855-7867 
or write to me. 

George M. Ellen burg 
CoCo Nuts of Central Florida 

Box 5913790 
Orlando, FL 32859-3790 

• Anyone interested in joining the CoCo 
Trading Post Club, please write me. 

Bart Stanley 
490 Potts Road 
Conyers, GA 30208 

• I publish a newsletter called Lewis Clark 
Exchange and am currently looking for new 
members. I print ideas, programs and 
interesting articles. I would like to exchange 
newsletters with other clubs and organiza- 
tions. For more information on subscribing 
or exchanging newsletters, write to me. 

Leslie Miller 
Lewis Clark Exchange 
1 130 Bryden A venue 
Lewiston, ID 83501 



• IYn pleased to announce the formation of 
the COMPuter Assembly Serving Shelby 
(COMPASS) Club. COMPASS meets the 
second Monday of every month at 7:30 p.m. 
on the third floor of the First Christian 
Church in Shelbyville. 

Duke N orris 
P.O. Box 241 
Shelbyville, IN 46176 

• I would like to know if there is a CoCo 
users club in the Leavenworth area. Anyone 
knowing of one or anyone wanting to 
organize one, please contact me. 

Michael Frick 
839 Ottawa Street 
Leavenworth, KS 66048 

• We would like to inform your readers of 
the Ft. Meade Color Computer Club. Our 
meetings are held on the second and fourth 
Monday of each month. We meet at the 
Land, Sea and Air Recreation Center lo- 
cated in the N.S.A. complex at Ft. Meade. 
No dues are collected and all are invited to 
attend. We start at approximately 6:30 p.m. 
and cover a wide range of interests. For 
further information contact either Frank 
Powers (301) 262-9573 for the Washington 
area or Mike Clancy (301) 551-7520 for the 
Baltimore area. 

Frank A. Powers 
12207 Mackell Lane 
Bowie, MD 20715 



• The GOSUBTRS-80 Computer Club has 
been together for eight years. We are a Tandy 
computer club, with sections for all Tandy 
computers. We have a BBS that operates 24 
hours a day at 300/ 1 200 baud. You can reach 
it at (617) 756-1442. The club meets every 
third Sunday of the month at St. Peters- 
Marian High School on Grove Street. 

Edward J. Donovan 
357 June Street 
Worcester, MA 01602 



• The Tandy Users Group of Grand Rapids 
(formerly known as the Grand Rapids Area 
Tandy Users Group) meets on the third 
Tuesday of each month, 7 p.m., Radio 
Shack Computer Center, 3 142-28th Street in 
Kentwood. Our group is represented equally 
by the MS-DOS, OS-9 and CoCo users. At 
the present time, there are no dues and 
membership is open to all, regardless of 
hardware. 

Robert M. Worth, Jr. 
1726 Mil I bank S.E. 
Grand Rapids, Ml 49508 



• The Jackson Color Computer Club meets 
on the third Tuesday of each month, 7 p.m., 
V.A. Medical Center. For information, call 
(601) 856-7255 or write us. 

Dorothy N. Welch 
424 Church Street 
Madison. MS 391 10 



• I would like to announce the start of the 
New York Color Computer Program ex- 
change group. Our group wants to get public 
domain programs in circulation. We do print 
a newsletter which is filled with contests, 
facts and other interesting things. There is 
no fee. For information please write to us. 

Larry Chattoo 
230 Lott Avenue, Apt. 5-B 
Brooklyn, NY 11212 



• Announcing the formation of the CoCo 
Users Group of Elmira. For information 
write to us or call (607) 734-0065. 

Bill Cecchini 
P.O. Box 4181 
Elmira, NY 14904 



• It is with great pleasure that I announce 
the extension of the United States largest 
Color Computer user's group 'to the Enid 
and northwest Oklahoma area with the 
formation of the Enid Chapter, CoCo Inc. 
We have 20 members in our third month of 
existence and are growing rapidly. We offer 



the same benefits as the Oklahoma City 
parent organization; club disks monthly, a 
newsletter, a BBS and monthly meetings 
with seminars on BASIC, OS-9 and other 
points of interest to all CoCo users. Inter- 
ested parties should contact their favorite 
Radio Shack dealer or write me. 

David Graham 
724 E. Maple 
Enid, OK 73701 



• The Williamsport Area Color Computer 
Club meets every third Wednesday of the 
month. If you have any questions, contact 
me at (717) 322-9715 or drop me a message 
on the Delphi CoCo SIG. We meet at 7 p.m. 
in the James V. Brown Library. 

Christian Ross 
(CGR) 
Williamsport, PA 



• A new club is being formed in the north- 
ern Virginia area. We are supported by two 
local BBSs and have started a public domain 
library with over 800 entries. We would also 
like to hear from other clubs about exchang- 
ing ideas, newsletters and anything else that 
will benefit the clubs involved. Our BBS 
support numbers are Handy Tandy (703) 
532-5317 and CoCo Corner (703) 573-3362. 
Any interested party wanting more informa- 
tion about this club, please write to me. 

Rick Blouin 
12007-C3 Grey wing Square 
Reston, VA 22091 



• The Richmond Area Color Computer 
Organization (RACCO) meets on the fourth 
Tuesday of each month. We publish a 
newsletter each month. For information call 
me at (804) 282-7778 or write to me. 

Bill Mays 
6003 Westbourne Drive 
Richmond, VA 23230 



• 1 am starting The Poor Man's CoCo Club. 
Although based in Wisconsin, CoCoists 
from anywhere around the world who want 
to see what owning a CoCo is all about 
should send an SASE to me. 

Mark Andreessen 
Rt. 2, Box 103 W 
New Lisbon, Wl 53950 



• We would like to announce the existence 
of the Bonnyville User Group (BUG's). 
Although we are an all-types of computer 
club, the majority of our members are CoCo 
users. We have a monthly newsletter as well 



72 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



as our own club BBS and other benefits. For 
more information, call Doug MacDonald at 
(403) 826-4790 or write to me. 

Gerhard Wolf 
P.O. Bag-R 
Bonnyville, Alberta 
Canada IX) ROW 



• The Calgary Color Computer Club is 
interested in exchanging newsletters with 
other clubs. Thank you rainbow for provid- 
ing this service to the international commu- 
nity of CoCo users. 

Charles E.S. Torre y 
P.O. Box 22, Station M 
Calgary, Alberta 
Canada T2P2G5 



• The CoCo Co-op of Bridgetown has a 
new address (see below). We will send a 
newsletter and a public domain software 
disk when you pay the club registration fee. 
Write to me. 

Lee Sutto 
P.O. Box 565 
Bridgetown, Nova Scotia 
Canada BOS I CO 



• Announcing a new CoCo club as Les 
Cocologiques in the south shore of the 
Montreal area. For more information call 
(514) 647-1849 or (514) 465-3597. You can 
also write us. 

Normand N ante I 
105 Sacre Coeur, Suite J 05 
Longueuil, Quebec 
Canada J4L IAS 



• 1 am pleased to announce the formation 
of Les Cocophiies Club in Legardeur, 



Quebec. For more information, please write 
to me. 

Jean-Claude Larouche 
17 Bord-de-I'Eau 
Repentigny, Quebec 
Canada J6A 3K2 



• The Blackwood Computer Club is a new, 
non-profit computer club. There are no 
meetings or membership fee. The only cost 
will be postage for a newsletter that will be 
sent out every other month, depending on 
circulation. Write to us for more informa- 
tion. 

Doug White 
Box 38 

Sylvania, Saskatchewan 
Canada SOE ISO 



• 1 would like to announce a new CoCo 
club in Argentina. The Free CoCo Club has 
25 members and the majority of us are 
electronics teachers at the high school or 
university level. We make programs about 
physics, chemistry, mathematics, electricity, 
electronics, business, statistics, etc. They are 
made in Spanish and some in English. We 
would like to communicate with others 
interested in the CoCo. 

Miguel Angel Novoa 
Thome J J 90 
Codigo Postal 1406 
Buenos Aires, Capital Federal 

A rgentina 



• 1 would like to inform you of a new club 
for CoCo users in the western district of 
Melbourne. The Sunshine Color Computer 
Club meets on Thursday nights every three 
weeks (except during school holidays) in the 
computer room of the TAFE Building, 



Morris Street, Sunshine. For more informa- 
tion write to us: Sunshine Color Computer 
Club, P.O. Box 111, Sunshine 3020 VIC. Or 
give lan Butriss a call at 03 314-3240. 

Ian Mavric 
32 Burnewang Street 
Albion, VIC 3020 
Australia 



• We have a Christian Users Group oper- 
ating in Australia of which I am the contact 
person. We would love to hear from similar 
minded CoCo users throughout the reader- 
ship of your magazine from around the 
world. 

Raymond L. Isaac, Lieutenant 

P. O. Box 130 
Hall & Residence 
57 Witlenoom Street 
Collie, 6225 
A us tr alia 



• The First Color Computer Club of Israel 
is in need of public domain programs. Since 
we are a long distance call to all BBSs, we 
are asking for any individual/clubs to send 
us programs to add to our library. Jf re- 
quested, we will be happy to send you our 
current newsletter. Please send an S ASE. We 
have a new mailing address and phone 
number. Phone city code (02) 863-354; 
please call 07:00-20:00 GMT. 

J. Yosef Krinsky 
52 Ramot Polin 
Jerusalem, Israel 

• Announcing The Great German CoCo- 
Cooks Club. We are only a few CoCo users, 
but we would like to get in contact with all 
German CoCo users and, of course, with 
CoCo users in every country. 

Hans - Joerg Sebastian 
Kalkumerstr. 96 
4000 Duesseldorf 30 
West Germany 



ORDER PHONE (416) 456-0032 

Call or Write ' For your free catalogue, more info or give us suggestions! 
Duck Productions. 18 Rowe Court. Brampton. Ontario. Canada L6X 2S2 
Please add $2.00 tor handling Ontario residents add 7% provincial tax 
Watch our caiaiogue tor discounts, hints and tips and chance to win software. 

Micro • Fire the ultimalesecret weapon. 

Have you beat your thumbs more than the aliens? This is a great 
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side effects. Comes with complete instructions and calibration program 
tor adiustment to taste. St 9.95 ($24.95 CDN.) 

Class Monitor Dual monitor driver 

The best monitor driver tor any Coco. It drives any composite, colour 
or monochrome monitors. Complete with dual audio outputs tor 
immediate access ol either or both monitors. Simple installation 
instructions. $31 .50 ($39.50 CDN.) 

Laser Mazer master puzzle of reflection 

Captain. Starfleet wants Reguta One protected from intruder attack. 
A battle ol wits, pitted against six cloaked Romulan vessels lurking 
in the quadrant. Can you find and engage them in time? A master 
puzzle ol reflection tor your sensors. Identity the locations of physical 
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RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
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Battle to D-Day The multiple player adventure 

Can you change the course of history? General, your mission is to 
locale and secure the Third Reich's emergency command posl before 
the allied landing on Normandy. Think Ihrough obstacles, battle after 
battfe to find the entrance code. Then command your assault 1 Battle 
against time? Battle against three opponents Adventure tn tnoughtware 
tor only $29.95 ($38.95 CDN.) 



Keepi ng Track more than a disk manager. 

If you own more than two disks you'll love Keeping Track. A manager 
menu of nine utilities that do it all! The real highlight is "D", the 
directory/autostart. It's a continuous access I.D. directory that loads 
and executes any program with a single keystroke. All programs 
fully documented. $29.95 ($38.95 CDN.) 

Map 'n Zap semi automatic disk repair 

The layman's step by step kit lor directory and grain table repair. 
Locates errors, maps out disk contents to screen or printer, backs 
up any flawed disk and prompts built in disk zap tor repair. Complete 
with full tutorial on Coco's disk input / output access operation. 
$19.95 ($24 95 CDN.) 

Code Buster machine language disassembler 

Three terrific programs to explore machine language. Screen or printer 
accurate disassembly of binary code. Simple prompted procedure 
with some instruction to dissect and undersland your ROMs Fully 
documented for only $19.95 ($24.95 CDN.) 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 73 




Max Fonts 

few /or C0C0 Mar 

Now you cafl /?ai/e t/p fo 7? for creating 
dazzling type-set titles and special displays! 

3 SETS OF 24 FONTS 

WHICH ARE OUT OF THIS WORLD! 





ay h flit 



c-' /935 Srare/ Enterprises 



A FONT EDITOR FOR COCO 

• £tf/J current fonts 

• Create Ms 

• Comes with pre-defined fonts 

• CoCo Max I & II compatible 




Written by Wally Bayer and Mike Sliawaluk 




(Disk Only) 



Wntien by Michael W. Shmsluk 

CoCo Max" is 0 registered trademark o! Colo/ware 



SET ONE 



SETT 




t/ /nAii 




Digital Small 

Digital Large 

Fofyra 

il'Ml f!"!i H "'MS |[ Jl"h l! ,s h II"' 
!!t;!'!: :;H !!::!' !:::; S!"H 11 ViUuVhui 



ilsl^l gill HI 




Victory 

3 « by Tmmih Sutll 



I flflflflfln ^ ^Hft- .dfffFfjflflflflflb-. ifflflnr ^ ^FOTi j tiflflflPflupflflflflfl ltL ffiflflflff^ Tpflflb jlflflflflWflflflflflP b Jffflflffl Mf THpjBm 

B-c Bf / ^Hm Iff 3 erf ty I eg. Bp 




Fine Print 

Norm and e S m a 1 1 

IVormande Medium 

ISORMANDE LG, 
Piano 



Kolon 




PEIQfVOT LARQ£ 

FMRCGFiQiTJ SSTIQLL 

preefirst! rrsELJiuini 

P wy i M Mfl ijfiff 11 ^ iB i y""" HW BU, tt jRynw £*7^b^£fi IS gyro uw , " H ft gyy— 1 bt*"™ 
n B tfLJ iU ml Wvm H I ■ H b iri n 1 in mm 

B^iitfii*;i ill;t<:lc SinsiSS 

^3S as" as ^88 P' H Ik. mm S9 W \m M Wt « PS J ^ W 

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Kl 



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I I I 1 1 O & «J *ZT T" i 

Mocnos C ivi a .1 a 

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PHSSITOUT LFiHQS 




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Broadway 

IDIRiDAIDWAV IENiGIR.. 



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Old En^lisli 

t~ i ri m i"^"! rf~zD 4™z3 

mi h mi!^ 

lag ffljs dj& 

XikXiS LAk^i 

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Tiiio man 

Tip Top 



^3.E» 



PROCOLORFILE * 

? 1984 by Derringer Software Inc 

ENHANCED 2.0 

60 Data Fields for each record 
1020 spaces available per record if needed 
Maximizes multiple drive operation 
28 equation lines (+-7) 
IF-THEN-ELSE logic test in equations 
Full Screen editing on up to 4 data entry screens 
Key click and auto key repeat 
Stores custom designed report formats 
Obtain totals, averages, or summaries for any fieid 
Output reports to printer, screen, or disk file 
Send data out to a DYNACALC compatible file 
Separate label generator for up to 10 across labels 
Pre-define up to 16 indexes for searching/reporting file 
Sorts 750 records in under 5 minutes 
User defined selection menus 
Repeated tasks performed with one keystroke 
Comes with 75 pages of documentation in a 3 ring binder 
Supported by a national users group 
Fu I time programmer support 
Supplied on an unprotected disk 





PRO COLOR-FORMS 20 



c 1984 by Derringer Sol (ware. Inc 



PRO-COLOR-FORMS will access data files created with 
PRO-COLOR-FlLEandmergethem wiihaletter or placethem 
on pre-printed forms. 

• STORE UP TO 6 FORMATS • USER DEFINED PAGE SIZE 

• SUPPORTS SPECIAL PRINTER CONTROL CODES • RIGHT 
JUSTIFICATION - PASSWORD PROTECTION • MERGES 
WITH GRAPHICS FROM MASTER DESIGN OR 
TELEGRAPHICS • 



PROCOLORDIR 

c 1984 by Demnger Sot (ware Inc. 



* 



PRO-COLOR-DIR will read your directories and create a 
master data file that can be accessed by PRO-COLOR-FILE 
for sorting and reporting. 1000 + records can be stored on 
one diskette with valuable information about each program. 

You can obtain hard copies of the information and create 
labels of the filenames for placing on ihe diskette itself. 

• DISK ID NAME - FILENAME/EXT • TYPE OF FILE 

• DATE CREATED ■ DATE UPDATED • NUMBER OF 
GRANS ALLOCATED • NUMBER OF SECTORS 
ALLOCATED AND USED • MACHINE LANGUAGE 
ADDRESSES - 




FOR BOTH 




™ Jbf jflBBfe JBBl wbb £BS~jBB& tSSLjSSs £BS~jBBfo Jbbb iff iffLJffj 

SSSmv Sm II nBW BBS BBS W 

SPREAD SHEET FLEXIBILITY 

(Includes Dynagraph, Sidewise) ^nt I 

$7095 IHC^&tf- 

Telewriter-6i 



WORD PROCESSOR POWER 



%&0 




coco Max ii 

GRAPHICS SUPERIOR 



$JQ95 




@ SUMMARY * 

•c 1985 Derringer Software. Inc. 

If you use your spreadsheet program to keep track of youi 
expenses then <§ SUMMARY can help you analyze those 
expenses. For example, if you indicate a "Category" for each 
expense then @ SUMMARY will produce a report that shows 
a total for each category, the highest amount, the lowest 
amount and the average amount. In addition, ©SUMMARY 
can produce a hi-res line graph or bar graph of the analysis 
and allow you to place titles on the graph. A hardcopy of the 
graph can also be generated as well as saved to disR. 

The analysis can be saved in a "data file" which can be 
loaded into DYNACALC or read in by ©SUMMARY for future 
additions to the analysis. If you use other Spreadsheets such 
as ELITE*CALC then you have added a graphing feature to 
your spreadsheet applications. The analysis can also be saved 
in an ASCII file which can be read by word processors for 
inclusion in a report. 

@ SUMMARY is compatible with any spreadsheet program 
that can generate an ASCII text file of worksheets. 

Specify RS-DOS 
or 0S9" 



(disk only) 



*0S9 version does not 
have Hi -Res graphing 

and requires Basic§9. 



DYNACALC 1 is a registered trademark oi Computer Systems Center 

ELITE'CALC is a trademark oi Elite Software 

0S9 is a registered trademark oi MICROWARE and MOTOROLA 

«r% m mm "C m mm Www Wm ^Js mm Mm m aOfc 
II I m m § m 1, M m If III BdSHSs & S m. M 9 



SIDEWISE * 

s 1984 by Demnger Software. Inc 

Add a new ''twist " to your printer's capabilities! 

SIDEWISE makes your printer do something you never 
thought possible -print side ways 1 . 

SIDEWISE will read in any ASCIi text file and print it out 
side ways using a Radio Shack, Epson, Okidata, C-ltoh or 
Gemini printers having dot-graphics ability. 

SIDEWISE 0S9 is compatible with OYNACALC OS9 and 
requires Basic09 

SIDEWISE 0S9 
(Disk only) 





SIDEWISE RS-DOS 
* RS-DOS version included FREE with DYNACALC 

0S9 ts a registered trademark of MICROWARE and MOTOROLA 



TELEGRAPHICS 

1984 by Demnger Software Inc 



* 



PRINT HI-RES GRAPHICS USING TELEWRITERS 4! 

Use CoCo Ma*, Graphicom or other graphics programs to 
create letter heads and print them while using Telewriter-64. 

Telegraphies interfaces with Radio Shack, Epson, Gemini, 
C-ltoh and Okidata printers having dot-addressable graphics. 
A simple modification to Telewriter-64 will allow you to exit 
Telewriter via the DISK I/O MENU and print out the graphic 
without affecting any of your text in the buffer. 

This is the same feature that is included in our MASTER 
DESIGN program. Since we felt you don't need to buy two 
graphics editing programs, we have made this feature available 
at a reduced price. 





(Available Only On Disk) 

NO OTHER DISCOUNTS APPLICABLE 



MASTER DESIGN * 

c 1984 hy Demnger Software, inc 

Generates lettering i n hi-res graphics that can be different 
sizes, skinny, bold, textured, drop shadowed, raise shadowed 
or tall. Also interfaces with the telewriter-64 word processor 
for printing hi-res displays with your letters. 

take full advantage oi all the extended BASIC hi-res iraphic 
commands includingboxes.circles, lines, copy displays and 
utilize GET and PUT features. Added commands includemim 
reflection, turn displays backwards or upside down. Squish 
displays, create dot patterns for shading or diagonal lines. 

The Letterhead Uti lity allows you to access hi-res graphics 
from Telewriter-64, your own BASIC programs or 
PRO-COLOR-FORMS. 

Interfaces with dot matrix prinjershaving dot addressable 
graphics. 




See reviews in: 

July '84 Rainbow. Oct 84 Hot CoCo 



Derringer Software, Inc. South Carolina residents add sales tax. 

PO Box 5300, Florence, SC 29502-5300 Include $3.00 for UPS Shipping - S5.00 U.S. Mail - $9.00 Air Mail 

TO pldCe dn Order by ptlOne, Call: (803) 665 5676 Canadian Distributor-Kelly Software 

10 AM and 5 PM EOT Australian Distributor-Computer Hut Software 

Check. Money Order, VISA or MasterCard Allow 2 weeks for delivery 



Let the Little Ones Learn 
by Counting on CoCo 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



This month's program is one for 
the little folks — the preschool- 
ers. It is always wise to try to 
interest preschoolers in using comput- 
ers. This will help them to avoid fears 
and anxieties about computer usage 
that may develop later in Jife. Usually, 
a young child will want to "play with" 
the home computer if he or she has seen 
parents or older siblings using it. This 
has certainly been the case in my home. 
My youngest child has always wanted 
to imitate the activities of the rest of us. 
She is now 5 years old. Her first two 
years were spent observing computer 
use in the home and during the next 
three years, using it herself. 

This program is meant to ease a 
young child into using a computer 
comfortably. It is simple, colorful, and 
presents a concept that most youngsters 
have experienced before — counting 
objects. A car will travel across the 
screen beeping its horn. Immediately 
afterward, a group of cars will appear 
on the screen. The child is required to 



Steve Blyn teaches both exceptional 
and gifted children, holds two master's 
degrees and has won awards for the 
design of programs to aid the handi- 
capped. He owns Computer Island and 
lives in Staten Island, New York. 



count the cars and type in the correct 
answer. The number of cars varies 
randomly from two to eight. The com- 
puter displays the child's answer if he 
presses a number from one to eight. 
Other keys produce no response from 
the computer. 

If a wrong answer is given, the com- 
puter displays it but makes no negative 
reaction. We are, after all, dealing with 
very young children and do not want the 
computer to present any unpleasant 
impressions to them. The child may 
continue to press keys until the correct 
answer is given. A happy tune accom- 
panies a correct answer. 

Sounds reinforce the visual picture of 
the number of cars. This is an extra aid 
to the child. Some may prefer to use the 
number of beeps as an initial aid to 
counting, and then use the pictures as 
a secondary source of counting. If the 
child becomes too reliant on counting 
the beeps, you can turn off the volume 
on your TV or monitor. 

The words for the numbers are also 
displayed each time the child presses a 
number from one to eight. We felt that 
some of the children might be up to 
learning how to spell the numbers. 
Nursery schools and Sesame Street do 
a lot toward making our kids aware of 
the numbers and letters at an early age. 



The INKEYS is used throughout this 
program to make it easier for the little 
ones to use the keyboard. It is some- 
times difficult for them to coordinate 
pressing the correct letter and then 
finding the ENTER key. This becomes 
even more difficult on the new Color 
Computer 3. (The ENTER key is less 
prominent on the new computer and 
will no doubt present problems to 
adults and children alike for awhile.) 
The ENTER key is used only to go on to 
the next group of cars to count. Mom 
or Dad can provide some assistance if 
needed. 

Lines 60-110 draw and print the 
original car across the screen. Line 120 
changes the position of the car by three 
places, and the loop created by lines 40 
and 130 moves the car along. 

Lines 150 and 230 choose random 
numbers from one to four. The number 
of cars d rawn will therefore be a number 
between two and eight. The cars are 
drawn in lines 160 through 290. Lines 
300 to 320 create a box for the answer 
to be placed in. 

Line 340 looks for the child's re- 
sponse. Lines 350 through 420 check to 
see whether that response was one of the 
acceptable answers (one through eight). 
If not, the program immediately looks 
for the next response. If an acceptable 



76 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



response was keyed in, it is printed and 
checked to see whether it is the correct 
answer by lines 460 and 470. 

After the correct answer is given, a 
happy tune is played by Line 460 and 



the computer waits for the next instruc- 
tion. Pressing ENTER gives another 
example; pressing the E key ends the 
program. 

We hope that your young ones enjoy 



working with this program. We do 
suggest, however, that you stay with 
them to provide encouragement, help 
when necessary, and give a lot of praise 
for their accomplishments. □ 



The listing: CRRCDUNT 

lj3 REM" PRESCHOOL COUNTING CARS" 
2j3 REM 11 STEVE BLYN , COMPUTER ISLAN 
D , STATEN ISLAND, NY ,19 8 6" 
3j3 BB=j3 

4j3 FOR B= 1 TO 9 

5j3 CLSj3:PRINT@9 6,STRING$(64 , 22 3) 
■ 

6j3 B$=CHR$(165)+CHR$(17 2)+CHR$(1 
7 4 ) +CHR$ (17 2) +CHR$ ( 17 j3 ) 
7j3 PRINT@27-BB,B$; 

8j3 C$=CHR$ ( 145) +CHR$ ( 175) +CHR$ ( 1 
7 5 ) +CHR$ (17 5) +CHR$ (175) +CHR$ (175 
)+CHR$(17 5) 
9j3 PRINT@57-BB,C$; 

Ij3j3 D$=CHR$ (252) +CHR$ (128) +CHR$ ( 

128)+CHR$ (252) 

11(5 PRINT@91-BB,D$; 

12/3 BB=BB+3 : SOUND4j3 , 2 

13 p NEXTB 

140 CLSj3 

15) 3 A=RND ( 4 ) 

16) 3 FOR T= 1 TO A 

17) 3 PRINT@13)3+M,B$ 

18) 3 PRINT @16)34-M,C$ 

19) 3 PRINT@194+M,D$ 

2) 3)3 M=M+7: SOUND 2)3)3,2 

21) 3 NEXT T 

22) 3 M=)3 

23) 3 B=RND ( 4 ) 

24) 3 FOR T= 1 TO B 

25) 3 PRINT@2 58+M,B$ 

26) 3 PRINT@288+M,C$ 

27) 3 PRINT@322+M,D$ 

28) 3 M=M+7: SOUND 2)3)3,2 

29) 3 NEXT T 

3) 3)3 PRINT@lj3,STRING$(ll,255) ; 

31) 3 PRINT@74,STRING$ (11,255) ; 

32) 3 PRINT@42,CHR$(255) ; :PRINT@52 
, CHR$(2 55) ; 

33) 3 PRINT@47 

34) 3 EN$=INKEY$ 

35) 3 ' " 
ii 

36) 3 
ii 

37) 3 
E lf 

38) 3 
ii 

39) 3 
ii 



IF EN$= lf 6 lf THEN J=6:J$ = lf SIX 



9 ll • 



IF 


EN$= 


"1" 


THEN 


J= 


1 


:J$=' 


• ONE 


IF 


EN$= 


"2" 


THEN 


J= 


2 


:J$=' 


1 TWO 


IF 


EN$= 


ii 3 ii 


THEN 


J= 


3 


:J$=' 


'THRE 


IF 


EN$= 


ii 4 ii 


THEN 


J= 


4 


:J$=' 


•FOUR 


IF 


EN$= 


.15.1 


THEN 


J= 


5 


:J$=' 


•FIVE 



IF EN$="7" 
IF EN$="8" 



THEN J=7:J$="SEVE 
THEN J=8:J$="EIGH 



4j3j3 
n 

410 
N" 
42j3 

mil 

43j3 IF EN$<>"1" AND EN$<>"2" AND 
EN$<>"3" AND EN$<>"4" AND EN$<> 
"5" AND EN$<>"6" AND EN$<>"7" AN 
D EN$<>"8" THEN 34j3 
44j3 PRINT@47,EN$; 
445 PRINT@461, J$; 
45j3 C=VAL(EN$) 

46j3 IF C=A+B THEN FOR T=l TO 3:P 
LAY ",03 ; L3j3CEGGGFEDC" : NEXT T:GOTO 
48j3 

47j3 IF COA+B THEN 3 4j3 
48j3 AN$=INKEY$ 

49j3 IF AN$=CHR$(13) THEN RUN ELS 
E IF AN$="E" THEN 5j3j3 ELSE 4 8j3 
5j3j3 CLS : END 



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January 1987 THE RAINBOW 77 



Understanding Relationships 
Between Fractions, Decimals 

and Whole Numbers 



By Fred B. Scerbo 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Editor's Note: If you have an idea for 
the "Wishing Well/' submit it to Fred 
c/o THE RAINBOW. Remember, keep 
your ideas specific, and don't forget that 
this is BASIC. All programs resulting 
from your wishes are for your use, but 
remain the property of the author. 



Another new year is upon us. It 
is a time for reflection and a 
time for new resolutions. As I 
look back on the past year, I feel that 
a good deal of what I set out to do in 
the "Wishing Well" successfully came to 
pass. We have had games, educational 
programs and a heavy dose of tutorial 
approaches in the column as a whole. 
What does the future hold? 

Well, with a little luck I hope to be 
able to introduce some CoCo 3 pro- 
grams in the "Wishing Well" before the 
next year is out. However, I will make 
this one firm resolution: I will not forget 
the overwhelming numbers of you who 
have a CoCo 1 and 2. Knowing the vast 



Fred Scerbo is a special needs instructor 
for the North Adams Public Schools in 
North Adams, Massachusetts. He holds 
a master's in education and has pub- 
lished some of the first software avail- 
able for the Color Computer through 
his software firm, Illustrated Memory 
Banks, 



numbers of RAINBOW readers who rely 
on these pages for software, I feel it will 
be a long time until the CoCo 3 users 
are in the majority. Therefore, fear not. 
I am not about to discard our trusty 
Color BASIC and Extended BASIC just 
because something new has come down 
the line. 

Now, let's get down to business for 
this month. 

Mail and Wishes 

During the last year, the "Wishing 
Well" has become much more difficult 
to prepare. There are several reasons for 
this. First, many readers have suggested 
programs that are virtually impossible 
to create in BASIC. I cannot write pro- 
grams that jump in and out of OS-9 or 
alter the configuration of the BREAK key 
so it re-boots your disk system. These 
things are just not possible without 
getting into assembly language. Re- 
member, the "Wishing Well" was de- 
signed to take ideas you submit and 
synthesize them into real programs in 
BASIC. Sometimes, ideas from four or 
five different sources will serve as the 
stimulus for a different program. Re- 
member, creating a brand new program 
each month does take time and is not 
the easiest task in the world. 

Secondly, some of the most requested 
ideas readers have submitted can no 



longer be created in the "Wishing Well." 
The most requested features are sequels 
to Rockfest, Baseball Fever, Football 
Fever and most of my other graphic 
designs. 

Unfortunately, our legal department 
has informed me that we can no longer 
reproduce logos and symbols that are 
protected under copyright. We have not 
had a major problem with this in the 
past, but the legal department is paid to 
warn magazines about areas where 
trouble could develop. Therefore, don't 
expect Rockfest III or Basketball Fever. 
The lawyers say no. 

A few readers have written expressing 
outrage that I did not drop everything 
to write their program to project pork 
belly futures or to calculate schedules 
for school crossing guards. Some ideas 
are just too limited and I cannot devote 
a whole column to a program that only 
two or three RAINBOW readers can use. 
My goal always has been to create 
programs that the greatest number can 
use. That's why I won't abandon CoCo 
1 and 2 either. 

A lot of recent mail has commended 
the Life Skills series and programs like 
Color Change Quiz II. Sheila Jackson 
from Moline, 111., wrote that her two 
children use these programs extensively 
and asked for more of the same. Ken- 
neth Burdon of Plaistow, N.H., echoed 



78 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



the same ideas in expressing thanks for 
programs like Math Driller II, which his 
grandchild uses. 

Elementary educator Jack Lamou- 
reaux also expressed a need for a pro- 
gram like these dealing with the issue of 
relationships between numbers. All of 
us have struggled with those less-than 
and greater-than signs, < and >. There- 
fore, the next Life Skills program, 
offered this month, will deal with 
number relationships and recognition. 
Mrs. Jackson, Mr. Burdon and Mr. 
Lamoureaux, this one's for you, as well 
as all the other "Wishing Well" readers 
who have a use for an educational 
program dealing with a valuable math 
skill. 

The Program 

Life Skills 5 is designed to fit into a 
16K Color BASIC computer or a 20K 
MC-10 without modifications. Like 
most other Life Skills programs, this 
one has a variable skill level, and three 
different types of material are covered. 
On running the program, the user will 
be presented with three choices: frac- 
tions, decimals or whole numbers. 

The program is written in such a way 
as to adjust the location of the numbers 



displayed on the screen, especially in the 
case of fractions. 

If D is selected for decimals, the next 
line reads: 

Select the number of 
decimal places (2-G). 

If F for fractions or W for whole 
numbers is pressed, the choice is: 

Select the number of 
number places (1-5). 

Pressing the corresponding number 
gives the choice you desire. The next 
prompt asks: 

Do you want to have 
hints given? (Y-N) 

By hints, 1 mean explaining what the 
greater-than (>) or less-than (<) signs 
stand for. If N is chosen, the multiple 
choice selections A through C will only 
have the signs shown. 

Next, the screen gives us our first 
problem and says: 

Look at the two values below. 
The first number is 
the second number. 



Below this are printed the two values, 
whether they are whole numbers, dec- 
imals or fractions. Next will be the three 
choices: 



R ) Grea ter than 

B ) Less than . . 

C) Equal to . - 



- > 



< 



If no hints are given, only a row of 
dots and the signs will appear next to 
the letters. The user need only press the 
letter desired. If the answer is wrong, the 
screen displays: 

Sorry, try again ! ! 



If the answer is correct, the screen will 



say: 



VERY GOOD! THRT IS CORRECT! 
PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE ! 

An arrow will also flash next to the 
correct response. Pressing ENTER ad- 
vances to the next problem while press- 
ing @ gives us our score card, which has 
now become a standard feature of all 
these educational programs. When the 
score card is on the screen, pressing Y 
reruns the program, pressing N ends it, 



165 . 
240 . 
335 . 
425 . 
END 



.83 
.91 
.10 
.84 
207 
145 



25 REM* 
30 REM* 
35 REM* 
40 REM* 
45 REM* 



* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 



The listing: MPTHQUIZ 

10 REM************************** 
15 REM* LIFE SKILLS MATH QUIZ * 
20 REM* NUMBER RELATIONSHIPS 

RECOGNITION SKILLS 
BY FRED B.SCERBO 
60 HARDING AVE 
NORTH ADAMS, MA 01247 
COPYRIGHT (C) 19 8 6 
50 REM************************** 
55 CLS0 

60 F0RI=1T032:PRINTCHR$(17 2) ;:NE 
XT 

65 F0RI=1T0192:READA:PRINTCHR$(A 
+128) ; : NEXT 

70 F0RI=1T032:PRINTCHR$(16 3) ;:NE 
XT 

75 DATA109 , 104 , 9 6 , 10 9 , 10 4 , 100 , 1 1 
0,108,106,109,108,109, , ,30,28,26 
,29, , ,30,20,30,20,30,16,20,30, ,2 
1,28,29 



----- nr^J] 




A unique approach 
to disc reliability 

Memory Minder from J&M Systems is 

one of the most comprehensive disk 
drive diagnostic programs available for 
microcomputers. It quickly and easily 
runs comprehensive testing of all vital 
operating parameters to assure data 
integrity. 

Data Integrity 

Means Data Confidence 

Memory Minder is so easy to run you 
will be inclined to testyourdisk drives on 
a regular basis and correct problems be- 
fore they ever endanger your data. This 
program provides long term confidence 
in your data integrity. 



Memory Minder is currently available 
for the following: 

Version 1.03 

TRS-80 Model HI/4 

48 tpi SingleSide 

48 tpi Double Side 

96 tpi and 48 Ipi Double Side 

TRS-80 Model-] 

48 tpi Single Side Single Density 

TRS-80 Color Computer and 
TDP-100 

48 tpi Single Side 
48 tpi Double Side 



Technical Knowledge 
Not Required 

Simply slip in the Memory Minder disk 
and select one or more of eight sophisti- 
cated tests. Easy to understand graphics 
on your screen display findings in a few 
moments. Now you can discover poten- 
tial misalignments and problems before 
they endanger your valuable data. 

Call or write for details and 
more information 

i//A 

J&M SYSTEMS, LTD. 

1 5 1 00-A CENTRAL SOUTHEAST 
ALBUQUERQUE, NM 87123 
505/292-4182 

We accept MasterCard and Visa 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 79 



and pressing C continues the program 
already in progress. 

I have not included the function of 
Computer Paced Learning introduced a 
few issues ago because it is not appro- 
priate for this material. Still, you may 
adjust the level of the difficulty at the 
beginning of each run. 

Like all my other educational pro- 
grams, examining the listing will help 
you get an idea of how variables can be 
used to create multi-subject programs. 
Without the use of variables, it might be 



necessary to write three different pro- 
grams to cover fractions, decimals and 
whole numbers. Study the listing and it 
might give you some ideas for your own 
programming skills. 

Conclusion 

1 hope all of you will find this pro- 
gram to be a valuable addition to your 
educational program library. If my mail 
has been any indication, many young 
CoCo users have been cutting their 
teeth on the software available only in 



these pages. Therefore, give me a hand 
in coming months by suggesting some 
other ideas for material and subjects to 
be covered in this type of program. 
Since our options are now so limited, as 
I mentioned earlier in the article, your 
input would be helpful. 

Also, don't be hesitant to suggest an 
idea for a game. I have some ideas 
percolating and someone out there 
might just provide enough stimulus to 
get the idea going! See you next 
month! □ 



80 DATA101, , ,101, , ,106,96,104,10 
1, ,100, , ,26, ,24,21, 16,2 2,16, ,26, 
,26, ,16,26, ,21, ,20 

85 DATA101, , ,101, , ,107,106,96,10 
1,99,98, , ,27,19,18,21,2 2,16, , ,26 
,,26, ,16, 26, ,21, 19, 19 
90 DATA101, , ,101, , ,106,104, ,101, 

,,,,,, 26, 21, 20, 18, ,,26, ,26, ,16, 2 
6 , , , , 21 

95 DATA101, ,106,101, ,,106, , ,101, 

,97,, 16, 26,, 26, 21,, 20, 18,, 26,, 26 

,21,16,26,21,21, ,21 

100 DATA103,99,106,103,98,97,107 

,, ,103,99,103, , ,27,19,26,23,18, , 

27,17,27, 17,27,23,17,27,23,21,19 

,23 

105 PRINT6293," NUMBER RELATIONS 
HIPS "; 

110 PRINT@325," RECOGNITION SKI 
LLS 11 ; 

115 PRINT6357," BY FRED B.SCER 
BO " ; 

120 PRINT6389," COPYRIGHT (C) 1 
986 "; 

125 PRINT@421," (F) RACTION, (D) EC 
IMAL ";:PRINT@4 53," OR (W)HOLE 
NUMBERS 11 ; 

130 X$=INKEY$:IFX$=""THEN130 
135 IFX$="F"THEN FR=1:GOTO190 
140 I FX$= 11 D " THEN FR=0 : VL=32 : A=0 : 
GOT0155 

145 IFX$="W"THEN FR=0 : VL=3 2 : GOTO 
190 

150 GOTO130 

155 PRINT@421," SELECT THE NUMBE 
R OF ";:PRINT@453," DECIMAL PLAC 
ES (2-6)"; 

160 X$=INKEY$:IFX$= IMI THEN160 
165 X=VAL(X$) :IFX<=1THEN160 
170 IFX>6THEN160 

175 N$=" . " : FORI=lTOX : N$=N$+ "#" :N 
EXT 

180 GOTO230 
185 GOT0185 

190 PRINT@421," SELECT THE NUMBE 
R OF 11 ; :PRINT@453 , " NUMBER PLACE 



ii 
ii 



S (1-5)"; 

195 X$=INKEY$:IFX$= MM THEN195 
200 X=VAL(X$) :IFX<=0THEN195 
205 IFX>5THEN195 

210 A=10 A X:N$="#" :FORI=lTOX:N$=N 
$+"#":NEXT 

215 D$=" " :F0RI=1T06-X:D$=D$+" 
11 : NEXT : FORI=lTOX : D$=D$+ 11 - 11 : NEXT : 
GOT02 3 0 
220 VL=32 

225 N$="###":GOTO230 

230 L$=CHR$ (91) :R$=CHR$ (93) 
235 AR$="=>" 

240 PRINT@421 / " DO YOU WANT TO H 
AVE " ; :PRINT@453 , " HINTS GIVEN 
? (Y-N) "; 

245 X$=INKEY$:IFX$= IIII THEN245 
250 IFX$="Y"THEN265 
255 IFX$="N M THEN285 
260 GOT0245 

265 E$ ( 1 ) ="GREATER THAN . . 11 

270 E$(2)="LESS THAN 

275 E$ (3) ="EQUAL TO 

280 GOTO290 

285 F0RI=1T03:F0RY=1T014:E$ (I)=E 

$(I)+".":NEXTY / I 

290 IF FR=1 THEN FG=X-5 

295 B=RND(A) :C=RND(A) :K=RND(10) : 

IFK=10THENC=B 

300 IF FR=0THEN315 

305 B(2)=B:C(2)=C:B(1)=RND(A/10) 

: C ( 1 ) =RND (A/10 ) : IFK=10THENC ( 1 ) =B 

(1) 

3.10 GOTO330 

315 B(1)=B:C(1)=C:IF FR01THEN3 3 
9> 

320 K=RND(2) : IFK=1THEN330 
325 C(1)=C(1) *2:C(2)=C(2) *2 
330 CLS : PRINT@34 , "LOOK AT THE TW 
0 VALUES BELOW. THE FIRST NUMB 

ER IS THE SECOND NUM 

BER." 

335 PRINT@168+VL-FG, ""; :PRINTUSI 
NGN$;B(1) ; :PRINT@178+VL-FG, 1111 ; :P 
RINTUSINGN$;C(1) 
340 IF FR< > 1THEN3 5 5 



80 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



345 PRINT@198,D$; : P£INT@208 , D$ ; : 
PRINT§232-FG, 11 11 ; : PRINTUSINGN$ ; B ( 
2) ; :PRINT@242-FG, 1111 ; : PRINTUSINGN 

$;C(2); ™ 

350 B=B(1)/B(2) :C=C(1)/C(2) 

355 PRINT@294,"A) "E$ ( 1 ) L$" >"R$ 

360 PRINT@ 3 2 6, " B ) "E$ ( 2 ) L$"<"R$ 

365 PRINT@358,"C) "E$ ( 3 ) L$ "="R$ 

370 X$=INKEY$:IFX$=""THEN370 

375 IFX$="@"THEN465 

380 IFX$<"A"THEN370 

385 IFX$> II C"THEN370 

390 IF B>C AND X$= II A"THEN4 10 

395 IF B<C AND X$="B H THEN4 10 

400 IF B=C AND X$="C"THEN410 

405 NV?=NW+1: PRINT § 422, "SORRY, TR 

Y AGAIN ! !> ; : FORI=1TO1000 : NEXTI : 

PRINT@422,STRING$(22, 32) ; :GOT037 

0 

410 NR=NR+ 1 

415 IF B>C THEN SL=291 : GOTO430 

420 IF B<C THENSL=32 3 :GOTO430 

425 IF B=C THEN SL=3 55 : GOTO430 

430 NC=NC+1 : PRINT@418 , "VERY GOOD 

! THAT IS CORRECT !";:PRINT@483, 

"PRESS <ENTER> TO CONTINUE!"; 

435 X$=INKEY$ 

440 PRINT@SL,AR$; 

445 FORI=1TO10:NEXT:PRINT@SL," 



" ; : FORI=1TO10 : NEXT 

450 IFX$="@"THEN465 

455 IFX$OCHR$(13)THEN43 5 

460 GOTO290 

465 CLS: PRINT §101, "YOU TRIED"NC+ 
NW" PROBLEMS & 11 : PRINT@ 165, "ANSWER 
ED"NC" CORRECTLY" 

470 PRINT@229, "WHILE DOING"NW"WR 
ONG . " 

475 NQ=NC+NW:IF NQ=0THEN NQ=1 

480 MS=INT(NC/NQ*100) 

485 PRINT@2 93,"YOUR SCORE IS"MS" 



%." 



490 PRINT@357, "ANOTHER TRY (Y/N/ 
C) ?"; 

495 X$=INKEY$:IFX$="Y"THEN RUN 
500 IFX$="N"THENCLS : END 
505 IFX$= II C"THEN2 90 
510 GOT0495 




SUPER 

PROGRAMMING 
AID 



RAINBOW 

CEfrirtCAnON 

se*t. 



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review in the July Rainbow. 

The Super Programming Aid is the best in- 
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January 1987 THE RAINBOW 81 



Bring your graphics to life with this 
two-face tutorial 



The Case of the Shifty-Eyed 

Animation Tutor 



I have worked with graphics for years 
and it's become my favorite part of 
computing. Once I got the drawing, 
painting and circling down pat, 1 
wanted a way to stay interested enough 
in graphics to continue writing pro- 
grams. The next obvious step was 
animation — makingmy pictures move. 

I did a little research and worked with 
the various commands until I got a 
fairly good grasp of the workings of 
simple animation. Once you know why 
and how things work for a simple 
program like this, you can adapt the 
procedure to more complicated draw- 
ings. The time spent understanding this 
technique is worth the effort when you 
see your creations move. 



By Bill Bernico 

Two creates FRCE 2. BIN. Now that you 
have the two picture files on disk you 
can run Facetest. 

Facetest is the program that brings all 
these processes together. First it 
PCLERRs eight graphics pages. Then it 
loads FRCE l.BIN with an offset of 
6144. This will store the picture starting 
on Graphics Page 5. Next, it loads FRCE 
2. BIN and stores it in memory. With the 
aid of the SCREEN command, the pic- 
tures are displayed one after another in 
rapid succession to create the illusion of 
animation. 

The time delay in Line 160 determines 
how fast the eyes will shift. They will 
continue to shift untilyou press any key, 
which stops the process. 



f 





Drawing, erasing, and redrawing is 
slow and awkward. GET and PUT are fine 
for moving across the screen. But sup- 
pose you have a portion of your picture 
that only needs to move in place or alter 
itself. That's what this technique will 
teach. It's done with the PCDPY com- 
mand. 

The sample programs, Face One and 
Face Two, each draw a face. The only 
difference in the two drawings is the 
direction that this fellow is looking. 
Face One has the guy looking right and 
Face Two has him looking left. As you 
run Face One, it creates a binary disk 
picture file called FRCE l.BIN. Face 



To save you a little typing time, Face 
One and Face Two are the same except 
for lines 1 10-140. You can type in Face 
One, save it and edit lines 110-140 to 
those lines from Face Two. 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to the author at 708 Mich- 
igan Ave., Sheboygan, W 7 53081: 414- 
457-486 1. Please enclose an S AS E when 
writing.) □ 



Bill Bernico is a self-taught computerist 
who enjoys golf] music and program- 
ming. He is a drummer with a rock band 
and lives in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. 



82 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



Listing 1: FACE ONE 



' FACE ONE 

•FROM KROMICO SOFTWARE 
'BY BILL BERNICO 



1J3 
2J3 

50 PMODE4,l:PCLSl:SCREENl,l:COLO 
R0,1 

6j3 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,50: CIRCLE (110, 
80) ,12,0, . 5:CIRCLE(14 6,80) ,12,0, 
.5: CIRCLE (128,9 6) ,10,0,2 
70 LINE(100, 69) -(120,75) ,PSET,BF 
:LINE(136, 69) -(156,75) ,PSET,BF 
80 CIRCLE(128, 106) ,30,0,1,0, .5 
90 DRAW"BM120, 50U7BR4D6BR4U8BR4D 
9BR5U6 

100 CIRCLE (174, 96) ,15,0,1, .75, .2 
5: CIRCLE (82, 96) , 15 , 0 , 1 , . 2 5 , . 75 
110 CIRCLE(116,80) ,7,0,1, .33, .8 
120 CIRCLE (152, 80) ,7,0,1, .33, .8 
130 POKE 178,1:PAINT(112,80) , ,0: 
PAINT (148, 80) , ,0 

140 SAVEM"FACE 1" , 3 584 , 9727 , 3 584 



Listing 2: FACE TWO 



'FACE TWO 

'FROM KROMICO SOFTWARE 
'BY BILL BERNICO 



10 
20 
30 
40 1 

50 PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS1 : SCREEN1 , 1 : COLO 
R0,1 

60 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,50: CIRCLE (110, 
80) ,12,0, .5: CIRCLE (14 6, 80) ,12,0, 
.5: CIRCLE (128,96) ,10,0,2 
70 LINE(100, 69) -(120,75) ,PSET,BF 
:LINE(136, 69) -(156,75) ,PSET,BF 
80 CIRCLE(128, 106) ,30,0,1,0, .5 
90 DRAW"BM120,50U7BR4D6BR4U8BR4D 
9BR5U6 

100 CIRCLE (174, 96) ,15,0,1, .75, .2 
5: CIRCLE (8 2, 96) , 15 , 0 , 1 , . 25 , . 75 
110 CIRCLE (104, 80) ,7,0,1, .8, .18 



Hint 



Command Performance 



Here is a tip for those with the new Color Computer 
3. Tandy did a wonderful thing in eliminating some 
commands for Hi-Res graphics. When you issue the 
HSCREEN command, the screen is automatically 
cleared for you. Sounds great! But, what if you want 
to enter the Hi-Res screen without clearing it? Try 
entering P0KE&HEGCG,33. This will cause the system 
to bypass the automatic HCLS. The original value. for 
memory location SEGCG is 141. 



120 CIRCLE (140, 80) ,7,0,1, .8, .18 
130 POKE 178, 1: PAINT (108, 80) , ,0: 
PAINT(137,80) , ,0 

140 SAVEM"FACE 2" , 3584 , 9727, 3584 



Listing 3: FflCETEST 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
ES 
70 
80 
90 
100 

110 
120 
130 
140 



'FACE TEST 

'FROM KROMICO SOFTWARE 

'BY BILL BERNICO 
i 

PCLEAR8 

CLS: PRINT" LOADING PICTURE FIL 



PCLS1: COLOR0, 1 
LOADM"FACE 1",6144 
LOADM"FACE 2 
PMODE4 , 5 : SCREEN1 , 1 : GOSUB160 
PCOPY 8 TO 4 
PLAY"O4T60F 

PMODE4 , 1 : SCREEN1 , 1 : GOSUB160 
IF INKEY$O""THEN170 
150 GOTO 100 

160 FORX=1TO300: NEXT: RETURN 

170 CLS : PRINT "TEST COMPLETE . . . SU 

CCESS 

180 END 



COOCOOOOOOO 



THE SOFTWARE HOUSE 8 

A DIVISION OF DATAMATCH, INC. j 



PROGRAMMERS 




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January 1987 THE RAINBOW 83 



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WINCHESTER BASIC 



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The Formatting Review: 
MID$ Struts Its Stuff 



By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Knowing you are eager to con- 
tinue your studies, NID$ takes 
center stage today. Three list- 
ings plus a modification were prepared 
to reinforce your understanding of 
putting text onto the screen one letter 
at a time without any hands-on interfer- 
ence. As you will see, the programs are 
very short, considering what they do. 

The actual text in the three programs 
is not to be taken seriously. If memory 
serves me right, I think that only one of 
the programs is factual. The others are 
overworked figments of a sick imagina- 
tion. They are meant to be reading 
material for this tutorial. 

Key in Listing I and run it. Im- 
pressed? List through Line 10. 

We will use arrays to place each 
succeeding string of text onto the 
screen. Arrays should be dimensioned 
in a line near the beginning of a pro- 
gram. Line 6 is a good place to put DIN 
A$(5). However, faithful CoCo allows 
for 10 items in an array without protest. 
That being the case, the line was omitted 
as superfluous. 



Florida-based Joseph Kolar is a veter- 
an writer and programmer and special- 
izes in introducing beginners to the 
powers of Co Co. 



Insert Line G DIN A$(4), run it and 
get the BS Error. If you have more items 
to stuff into an array (in this case, 
R$(5)) and you do not reserve enough 
array containers to store all of them, 
CoCo shoots back immediately with a 
BS Error message. Change the ( 4 ) to 
[5) in Line 6. Leave it in the program; 
it doesn't do any harm. 

Whenever you work with strings of 
text, enter CLEPR 500 to reserve space 
in memory. Chances are you will need 
it, as you will soon see. 

Look at Line 10. Almost all of the 
allowed characters that could be con- 
tained in A$(l) were stuffed in. In fact, 
if you get into the edit mode and take 
off the final quote mark and space over, 
the best you can do is add three more 
blank spaces before CoCo balks and 
hangs up. 

If you care to find out LEN ( R$ ( 1 ) ) 
or the total number of characters/ 
spaces in the program, without using 
any program line number, key in: 

PRINT LEN(A$(1) ) 

and press ENTER, or type: 

PRINT LEN ( A ( 1 ) ) +LEN ( A$ ( 2 ) ) 
+ LEN ( A$ ( 3 ) ) +LEN ( A$ ( 4 ) ) +LEN 
(A$(5)) 

and press ENTER. 



I enjoy using these calculator func- 
tions to extract information from a 
program in progress, because the pro- 
gram lines remain undisturbed. 

Line 10 contains one complete sen- 
tence and part of a second sentence — 
as much text as was reasonably possible 
to cram into the container. Add the 
temporary lines: 

II PRINT A$(l) ; 
12 GDTD12 

and run. We did not bother to Jocate the 
text on any particular row. Wejust want 
to view it and check out the formatting, 
spelling and punctuation for a neat 
layout. 

List Line 20. In this array unit, 
A$(2), we completed the unfinished 
sentence and followed up with a com- 
plete sentence that ends the paragraph. 
Since we wanted a space after huelgo, 
we began our string with a space. 

Delete Line 12. Add: 

21 PRINTA$(2); 

22 GOTO 22 

and run. One substantial paragraph 
results! 

Be aware of the importance of the 
semicolon. We will use the semicolon 
solely to put on all the text, one char- 
acter/space at a time, without the use 



86 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



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of any locating point values or varia- 
bles. If you want to give this technique 
a name, the Follow gambit is as good 
as any. 

List Line 30. For demo purposes, we 
shall create an even larger paragraph. It 
is a new sentence, so two spaces are 
placed in front of the start of text. It 
contains two sentences. Delete Line 22 
and add: 

31 PRINTfi$[3) ; 

32 GDT032 

Run this. It scrolls up and we lose the 
beginning. Good! We gave up on the 
long paragraph and started a new one 
with the second sentence. Note that the 
last line in array unit R$(3), has 21 
blank spaces after it. Directly from the 
display, count the number of blank 
spaces from the closing quote to the end 
of the row. 

List Line 40 and delete Line 32. Add: 

41 PRINTR$(4) ; 

42 G0T042 

Run your work. 

In order to begin a new paragraph 
and stay within the semicolon, Follow 
gambit at the beginning of R$(4), we 
must account for all that blank area at 
the end of fl$ ( 3 ) . There is room for 22 
characters/spaces to fill up the re- 
mainder of the row. A two-space indent 
is required for the new paragraph. Thus, 
22+2 blank spaces must be the first 
element in R$( 4 } so that the first letter 
falls exactly where it is intended. 

Delete Line 42 and add these lines: 

51 PRINTR$(5) 5 

52 GOTO 52 

Now run. You can see that the blank 
area at the end of R$ ( 4 ) plus two extra 
indenting spaces set the R$[5) text in 
the correct location. We are satisfied 
with our layout. Look, Ma, no loca- 
tions! 

Delete lines 11,21,31,41,51 and 52. 
Run the result. The program should run 
slow enough for you to read along. Note 
that somewhat longer pauses after Flat 
and Factor are created. CoCo has to 
cycle (actually put on all those blank 
spaces) but this doesn't detract from the 
readability. 

List lines 200 to 250. We have three 
nested loops. The inner one at Line 240 
determines the length of the pause 
between the placement of each succeed- 
ing character/ space. The middle loop, 
Line 220, is where B is the number of 



each character/space of the text as it is 
fingered in a particular array unit. It is 
to be printed, using MID$, where one 
letter in the Bth location in array unit 
R$(R), is printed, after the previous 
letter, thanks to the semicolon. No 
doubt you could combine lines 210 and 
220, but it makes more sense to the 
beginner to show it as two lines. The 
outer loop, at Line 200, chooses the 
array containers, R$(R], to be worked 
on by CoCo in succession. 

How would you tell CoCo to begin 
on the third row? Work it out! 

Did you know that CoCo is an ac- 
complished linguist? It can speak pure 
Jargonese. Save Listing 1 and type NEW. 
Key in Listing 2. If you are sure you 
have lines 200 to 240 exactly as listed, 
run. Do you want a translation? Then 
run again. 

List lines 200 to 240. This is the nice 
tight routine with an assist from Line 5 
that allows you to use a single array to 
write a neat program. 

Let's fool around and listen to CoCo 
beat its gums. Insert 211 FOR B=l TO 
LEN [ R$ [ R ) ) STEP 3: PLRY"T240O 
5L32CP32L16EP16L32GPBLBB". 

Turn up the volume and run. It is 
using a different dialect this time. Run 
for the translation. 

By the way, if you want to begin 
displaying the text on some row other 
than the top one, insert at the beginning 
of Line 200 as many PRINT :s as the 
number of lines you want to drop down. 

At this point, the DEL211: in Line 
240 becomes harmless. Save Listing 2 
and type NEW. Key in Listing 3 and run. 
This version is displayed with the MID$ 
routine in lines 200 to 230. List lines 200 
to 240 and you will see nothing you 
haven't tackled before. It is a very 
satisfactory version. 

Nevertheless, blank rows divide each 
set of statements. Working them into a 
program where every bit of text is put 
on in succession, using an array item, 
makes CoCo demand that the empty 
rows be created inside array units. 

List lines 10 to 40. STRINGS would 
solve this problem. It would be neces- 
sary to fill the balance of Line 10, 
R$ [ 1 ) , on the last row, with blanks. It's 
easy to count the number of remaining 
spaces (14). A complete blank row 
consists of 32 spaces. The blank spaces 
could be simulated by using CHR$ 
(143), which produces an invisible 
green square. 

Line 20 told CoCo that in array unit 
R$(2), a string of 46 green squares, 
using graphics block 143, were re- 
quired. The Follow gambit would tack 



88 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



them at the end of R$ ( 1 ) . They would 
also act as a pause routine to allow more 
time to read the text blocks. 

To see this from another perspective, 
in Line 20, change 143 to 12B and run. 

Replace 143 in Line 20. Save Listing 
3. List lines 10 to 40, 50 to 60, 70 to 80 
and 90 to 100. Note that no empty row 
was placed after Line 90, much less a 
new paragraph. 

This was done on purpose to demon- 
strate the need for the DIM statement to 
dimension an array. Change Line 100, 
fi$(10) to R$[ll). Then, create the 
spacing between blocks of text. 

Add 95 fi$(10)=STRING$(2B+32, 
143). Reformat Line 100 in order to 
make it into a new paragraph as orig- 
inally conceived but not executed. 
Employing the Invisible Vertical Line 
ploy, the second through fifth rows 
should have the following words begin- 
ning at the left margin: language, 
they, Saxon and large. Make appro- 
priate adjustments at the end of each 
row and remember to indent two spaces 
for the paragraph. (Refer to the mod- 
ified listing if you are encountering 
difficulty.) Now run. 

CoCo rebels and gives out a BS Error 
in Line 100. Sure! No provision was 
made for storing R$ [ 11 ) . Try adding 5 
DIM fi$(ll) and run. Still no good. 
Press BREAK. CoCo breaks at Line 240. 
List lines 200 to 240. CoCo did what was 
expected of it. It ran R$(l) through 
fi$[10) and relaxed. We failed to allow 
for R$[ll], where R=ll. Modify by 
editing Line 200 to change 10 to 11. 
Now run. 

Save Modified and type NEW. Load 
Listing 3 and remove the REN from Line 
199 and run. This version uses LEFTS to 
put on the blocks of text with adequate 
pauses for reading time. There is a 
discontinuity where the last paragraph, 
R$[10), is smacked onto the end of 
P$(9). We are going to straighten out 
this mess and add The End 1 in an 
appropriate spot. 

List lines 300 to 360. Here is a good 
example of good-natured CoCo saving 
me from myself. Look carefully. There 
are two separate T variables due to my 
carelessness. The T in Line 300 belongs 
to the outer, inclusive loop. The T in 
Line 320 gives CoCo the current value 
to be used in Line 340 to print the letter 
at that T location in the string R$(R). 

Change T in lines 300 and 350 to B and 
run. Since the program works, CoCo 
proves that T was 'really two separate 
variables with separate functions. They 
did not impinge upon each other's 



territory, so CoCo saw no problem. Use 
TRDN to study this. 

Type NEW and load Modified. Re- 
move the masking REM from Line 199 
and run. Oh no! What did we forget? 
List lines 300 on. Right! Change Line 
310, from 10 to 11 and run. 

We are going to add a proper ending. 
List Line 100. Two blank spaces remain 
at the end of the last row of text. If we 
skip down three rows, we calculate 32 
multiplied by 3 equals 96 spaces. We 
shall print The End!, centered, of 
course, so that we guesstimate about 
nine spaces in front of the legend. We 
shall create 110 fi$ ( 12) =STRING$ 
[107, 143)+" The End". 

Line 6 needs to reserve another item 
in the array. Thus, rekey: G DIM R$ [ 12 ) . 
Learning from experience, we increase 
R in Line 310 by one to 12. While we 
are at it, we might as well as do the same 
in Line 200, (the other version that we 
will check out later). Now run this. 

We got an OS Error after a while. 
CoCo is having problems, due to our 
desire to add an ending. It is crying for 
more reserved memory to store all those 
extra blanks. Raise the value in Line 5 
to 600 and run. That works! But we 
better change 107 to 110 in Line NO 
and, at the end of it, add +STRINGS 
[3B,143). Now run to see what we 
created. 

We created another OS Error. We 
need to reserve still more memory. In 
Line 5, change G00 to 700 and run. 
That's fine! For the acid test, replace the 
masking REM marker in Line 199 and 
run. That's it! Wrap it up by saving it. 

You've learned a lot with hands-on 
investigation. You had fun exercising 
your inquiring mind and created two 
impressive variations of a theme. We 
didn't use any specific value to locate 
anything, but used a vague, indistinct 
system. CoCo used the semicolon to 
present the text from start to finish. 

There is a third variation you may 
want to try. Using Modified with Line 
199 unmasked, add STEP2 to Line 310 
and at the end of Line 330 add :CLS. 

1 am sure, with your creative juices 
flowing, you will find a way to add The 
End to the program. I bet you will also 
come up with a way to center each 
panel. No hints except to say that you 
learned one technique (in bits and 
pieces) in this tutorial, although you 
may not have realized it. 

What better way to leave you — 
having fun while being engrossed in 
working out a problem and adding to 
your programming skills? □ 



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January 1987 THE RAINBOW 89 



Listing 1: MAJUNGA 

p , <LISTING1> MAJUNGA 
5 CLEAR 5j3j3:CLS 

1J3 A$(l)=" THIS PROGRAM IS AN E 
XPERIMENT TO FIND OUT WHAT THE E 
FFECTS AREON THE SONORA SUNFLOWE 
RS WHEN DRENCHED IN A THICK BA 
TH OF GAMMA RAYS. YOU MAY N 

OT BE TOO IMPRESSED BUT HAVE YOU 
NOTICED ' THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 
THE SON- ORA AND HUELGO" 
20 A$(2)=" TYPES OF MAJUN- GA? 

SONORA GROWS ONLY IN THE LAZA 
FUND I AN SWAMP AND THE HEULGOTYPE 
IS FOUND EXCLUSIVELY ON THENEAR 
SLOPES OF THE SIERRA MADRE MOUN 
TAINS . 11 

3(5 A$(3)=" THE MAJUNGA HAS FIVE 
EPI CENTRAL UNGLAVES WHILE THE 
ANT I -MA JUNG AS HAVE SIX OR SEVEN. 

WHEN THE GAMMA RAY HITS THE 
ANT I -MAJUNGA IT CURLS THE PHENO- 
ORAL UP AND IT WITHERS IN NO 
TIME FLAT . 11 
40 A$(4)=" 

IT IS A SORRY STATE OF AFFAIRS 
ESPECIALLY, SINCE THE SONORA IS 
SO LUSH. THUS FAR, NO INDUST- 
RIAL USES HAVE BEEN FOUND, BUT, 
IT IS CONTEMPLATED, WITH THE AD- 
VENT OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY, MA- 
JUNGA WILL BE A FACTOR." 
5j3 A$(5)=" MAJUNGAS, L 

IKE JOJOBA NUTS ARETANGY AND WHE 
N UNRIPE, A LITTLE ASTRINGENT. I 
F THAT COULD BE CULLED OUT, T 
HE MAJUNGA WOULD BEA BOON TO MAN 
KIND AND REVOLU- TIONIZE THE G 

RANOLA BAR AS WE KNOW IT TODAY 
i ii 

2j3j3 FOR A=l TO 5 

21J3 L=LEN (A$ (A) ) 

22 j3 FOR B=l TO L 

23j3 PRINTMID$ (A$ (A) ,B,1) ; 

24j3 FOR T=1T0 2 J3 : NEXTT , B , A 

25j3 GOTO 25j3 



Listing 2: ROMAN 

j3 ! <LISTING2> ROMAN 
5 CLEAR5j3j3:CLS 

1J8 A$(l)=" THE CHURUSCI WERE A 
BRANCH OF THE TUETONII, A GERMAN 
IC TRIBE DWELLING NORTH OF THE 
HYRCANIAN FOREST, ALONG THE BANK 
S OF THE ELBE RIVER. 11 
2j3 A$(2)=" 



THEY WERE FORCED NORTH BY THE M 
ARCOMMANI . THIS MADE THEM IN- T 
RUDE INTO THE TERRITORY OF THE S 
WABII, A FIERCE GERMAN TRIBE T 
HAT WAS IN FLUX AT THE TIME." 
3j3 A$(3)=" THE ROMAN TWENTIE 

TH LEGION, UNDER MARCUS AVARIC 
US, WAS IN THEIR WINTER CAMP A 
T INCENDUNUM. 11 

4J3 A$(4)= n THE S WABII, UNDER BA 
DUCI, DE- CIDED TO ATTACK THE CA 
MP OF THE ROMAN LEGION. IT WAS 
EITHER THAT OR TURN ON THEIR 
GERMANIC TORMENTORS , THE CHURUS 
CI. THEY OPTED TO ATTACK AT NIG 
HT. " 

5j3 A$(5)=" THIS WAS A BI 

G MISTAKE SINCE THE SWABIAN CLA 
NS WERE LED BY FIERCE BUT UNDI 
SCIPLINED WAR- RIORS. THEY MA 
DE A BIG NOISE BYSTRIKING THEIR 
SPEARS AGAINST THEIR LEATHER S 
HIELDS. THIS ONLY ALERTED TH 
E LEGIONARIES ANDINFURIATED" 
6j3 A$(6)=" THEM. AFTER A BRIEF 
STRUGGLE, THE SWABII WERE ROUTED 
AND THEIR LEADER BADUCI WAS CAP- 
TURED AND BOUND AND SENT TO 
ROME. HERMAN, BROTHER OF BADU- 
CI, OFFERED TO TAKE BADUCI 1 S 
PLACE, BUT MARCUS AVARICUS , IM- 
PRESSED WITH THIS FILIAL" 
7j3 A$(7)=" DEVO- TION OFFERED T 
0 MAKE HERMAN LEADER OF THE 

GERMAN AUXILLI- ARIES. HERMAN 
ACCEPTED AND YEARS LATER BE 

CAME THE ROMAN EMPEROR, VALEN 
S. THUS, WAS THE FATE OF ROMAN 
DETERMINED . 11 
2j3j3 FOR A=l TO 7 
21J8 FOR B=l TO LEN (A$ (A) ) 
22j3 PRINTMID$ (A$ (A) ,B, 1) ; 
2 3j3 FOR T=1T0 2j3 : NEXTT, B, A 
24j3 DEL211:GOT024j3 

Listing 3: ANGLO 

j3 '<LISTING3> <ANGLO> 
5 CLS:CLEAR5j3j3 

1J8 A$(l)=" THE ANGLO-SAXONS WER 
E TWO CLOSELY RELATED GERMAN 

IC TRIBES LOCATED IN NORTHERN GE 
RMANY FAC-ING THE NORTH SEA." 
2j3 A$ (2)=STRING$ (14 + 32, 143) 
3j3 A$(3)=" THE JUTES WERE ANOTH 
ER GERMAN- I C TRIBE THAT WAS SITU 
ATED IN DENMARK, IN WHAT IS NO 
W CALLED JUTLAND." 



90 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



4) 3 A$(4)=STRING$ (24 + 32 , 143 ) 

5) 3 A$(5)=" AT ABOUT THE SAME TI 
ME, IN THELATE FIFTH CENTURY A.D 
. , DUE TO PRESSURE FROM OTHER GE 
RMANIC TRIBES, THESE SEA-GOIN 
G TRIBES CROSSED OVER INTO SOUT 
HERN ENG- LAND." 

6) 3 A$(6)=STRING$( (27 + 32) ,143) 

7) 3 A $(7)=" THEY QUICKLY OVERPO 
WERED THE REMNANTS OF ROMAN SET 
TLERS AND THE INDIGENOUS CELTIC 

PEOPLES. IN A FEW HUNDRED YEAR 
S, THE MIX OF GERMANIC TRIBES, R 
OMAN COLON-ISTS AND CELTIC INHAB 
ITANTS DEVELOPED INTO THE EN 

GLISH RACE. 11 

8) 3 A$(8)=STRING$(32, 143) 

9) 3 A$(9)=" LATER SEA-GOING DANE 
S CROSSED THE NORTH SEA AND SETT 
LED IN COASTAL NORTHERN ENGLA 
ND. STILLLATER, THE NORMANS, FR 
ENCH- SPEAKING DESCENDANTS 0 
F VIKINGS, TOPPLED THE SAXON NATI 
ON IN 1)366A.D." 

1) 3)3 A$(l)3)= lf THESE INVADERS BROU 
GHT THEIR LANGUAGE AND CUSTO 
MS WITH THEM. THEY WERE SUPERIMP 
OSED ON THE SAXON INHABITANTS BU 
T, BY AND LARGE, THE RACE WAS 
UN- CHANGED . 11 

199 'GOTO 299 

2) 3)3 FOR A=l TO 1)3 

21) 3 FOR B=l TO LEN (A$ (A) ) 

22) 3 PRINTMID$(A$ (A) ,B, 1) ; 

23) 3 FOR T=1T0 2)3 : NEXTT , B , A 

24) 3 GOTO 24)3 
299 ■ *** 

3) 3)3 FOR T= )3 TO LEN (A$ (A) ) 
31)3 FOR A= 1 TO 1)3 

3 2)3 T=LEN(A$ (A) ) 

33) 3 FOR Z= 1 TO 3)3)3)3:NEXT 

34) 3 PRINTLEFT$(A$(A) ,T) ; 

35) 3 NEXTA, T 

36) 3 GOT036)3 



Listing 4: MODIFIED 

)3 1 <MODIFIED> 

5 CLS:CLEAR5)3)3 

6 DIM A$(ll) 

1) 3 A$(1)= M THE ANGLO-SAXONS WER 
E TWO CLOSELY RELATED GERMAN 
IC TRIBES LOCATED IN NORTHERN GE 
RMANY FAC-ING THE NORTH SEA." 

2) 3 A$(2)=STRING$(14 + 32 , 143) 



3) 3 A*$(3)=" THE JUTES WERE ANOTH 
ER GERMAN- IC TRIBE THAT WAS SITU 
ATED IN DENMARK, IN WHAT IS NO 
W CALLED JUTLAND." 

4) 3 A$(4)=STRING$(24+32, 143) 

5) 3 A$(5)=" AT ABOUT THE SAME TI 
ME, IN THELATE FIFTH CENTURY A.D 
. , DUE TO PRESSURE FROM OTHER GE 
RMANIC TRIBES, THESE SEA-GOIN 
G TRIBES CROSSED OVER INTO SOUT 
HERN ENG- LAND. 11 

6) 3 A$(6)=STRING$( |27 + 32) , 143) 

7) 3 A $(7)=" THEY QUICKLY OVERPO 
WERED THE REMNANTS OF ROMAN SET 
TLERS AND THE INDIGENOUS CELTIC 

PEOPLES. IN A FEW HUNDRED YEAR 
S, THE MIX OF GERMANIC TRIBES, R 
OMAN COLON-ISTS AND CELTIC INHAB 
ITANTS DEVELOPED INTO THE EN 

GLISH RACE . n 

8) 3 A$(8)=STRING$(32 , 143) 

9) 3 A$(9)=" LATER SEA-GOING DANE 
S CROSSED THE NORTH SEA AND SETT 
LED IN COASTAL NORTHERN ENGLA 
ND. STILLLATER, THE NORMANS, FR 
ENCH- SPEAKING DESCENDANTS 0 
F VIKINGS, TOPPLED THE SAXON NATI 
ON IN 1)366A.D. 11 

95 A$(1)3)=STRING$(28+32 , 143) 

1) 3)3 A$(ll)=" THESE INVADERS BRO 
UGHT THEIR LANGUAGE AND CUSTOMS 

WITH THEM. THEY WERE SUPERIMPOS 
ED ON THE SAXON INHABITANTS BU 
T, BY AND LARGE, THE RACE WAS 
UNCHANGED. 11 
199 1 GOTO 299 

2) 3)3 FOR A=l TO 11 

21) 3 FOR B=l TO LEN (A$ (A) ) 

22) 3 PRINTMID$ (A$ (A) , B, 1) ; 

2 3)3 FOR T=1T0 2)3 : NEXTT , B , A 
24)3 GOTO 24)3 
299 ■ *** 

3) 3)3 FOR T= )3 TO LEN ( A$ (A) ) 

31) 3 FOR A= 1 TO 1)3 

32) 3 T=LEN(A$ (A) ) 

33) 3 FOR Z= 1 TO 3)3)3)3:NEXT 

34) 3 PRINTLEFT$(A$ (A) ,T) ; 

35) 3 NEXTA, T 

36) 3 GOT036)3 




January 1987 THE RAINBOW 91 



CO CONSULTATIONS 




Viewing: oIUUl 4 1 ictures 

on Your CoCo J 

By Marty Goodman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



• When I view PMDDE 4 pictures on my 
Co Co 3 using my (Tandy) CM-8 mon- 
itor, there are no colors. Why is this? 

Noel Fallon 

(FALLON) 

Lawion, OK 

The colors you are accustomed to 
seeing in PMOQE 4 pictures using a color 
TV or composite color monitor arc 
what we call "artifact colors." They are 
an "artifact" of some idiosyncrasies of 
the composite video signal protocol. 
When you switch over to using the RGB 
signal protocol, those colors are lost. 
What is gained by the RGB protocol is 
the potential to display more colors, 
more precisely, in higher resolution. But 
we will have to wait for the arrival of 
quality Hi-Res graphics editor pro- 
grams to make use of that capability on 
the CoCo 3. Please see mv answer to the 
next question for more hints on viewing 
old PMDDE 4 CoCo pictures on your 
CoCo 3. 



• What monitor do yourecommend for 
the CoCo 3? 

Rick Adams 
( RICK A DA MS) 
Rohnert Park, CA 

WhiletheCM-8 is made forthe CoCo 
3, I recommend that folks buying a 



Martin H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics t inker er and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Cosell of the CoCo world. 
Marty is the database manager of RAIN- 
BOW'S CoCo SJG on Delphi. His non- 
computer passions include running, 
mountaineering and outdoor photo- 
graphy, Marty lives in San Pablo, 
California. 



monitor for their CoCo 3 also consider 
models that can accept both RGB A and 
color composite video inputs. Using 
such a monitor, you can switch at will 
to composite video, and see your old 
PMODE 4 pictures in full color. Note that 
these monitors also have an RGB I 
(TTL) input, so they can be used with 
IBM PC (or Tandy 1000) RGB CGA 
outputs also. Two such monitors are the 
8CM8505 and the 8CM8515 from Mag- 
navox, but a special cable to go between 
the CoCo 3 and the Magnavox moni- 
tors will be needed. Other monitors with 
a variety of color inputs that can be 
made to work with the CoCo 3 in both 
RGB A and composite video mode 
include the Sony NCR series and the 
Teknika MJ305, Sony's NCR series 
requires that you use the composite 
video from the CoCo 3 to supply its sync 
line, for it demands a combined sync 
signal, instead of the separate H and V 
sync supplied by the CoCo 3, and used 
by some monitors. Note that unlike 
Tandy's CM-8, all of the monitors 
mentioned can also be used with VCRs. 



• / just bought a Drive B for a Tandy 
1000 and installed it in my CoCo FD 
500 case, It works fine as Drive L but 
fd like to know how to use both sides 
of it under OS-9. 

Bruce E. Ondersma 

( BEO ) 

Grand Rapids, Ml 



There are several ways to use double- 
sided drives under OS-9. On Delphi, we 
have posted patches to the existing CC~ 
Disk drivers that will allow this. Alter- 
natively, you might want to buy one of 
the commercial packages that allows 
you to configure your OS-9 drivers for 
one or two sides. Computerware and 
D.P. Johnson both make such pack- 



ages. The Computerware package (Disk 
Fix and other Utils) is particularly nice 
in that it includes some other useful OS- 
9 tools. The Computerware product 
does not, however, support 80-track 
drives. 



* Can I use Colorcom/E with my 
Volksmodem 12? 

Steve Short 
Jackson, TN 

Yes, you should be able to use Color- 
com/E with your Volksmodem. The 
proper cable is needed and you may 
have to set appropriate switches on the 
modem. A careful study of the modem 
and its manual will be needed, as each 
modem requires slightly different tin- 
kering with its setup and pinouts. In 
general, set any switches so that DTR 
(date terminal ready) is true always. 
Disable the auto-answer. Wire up a 
four-pin DIN to a 25-pin DB connector 
for your CoCo as follows: Pin 4 of the 
CoCo DIN connector goes to Pin 2 of 
the modem DB-25 connector, Pin 2 of 
the CoCo DIN goes to Pin 3 of the 
modem DB connector, Pin 3 of the 
CoCo DIN goes to Pin 7 of the modem 
DB connector, and Pin 1 of the CoCo 
DIN connector goes to Pin 8 of the 
modem DB connector. The required 
four-pin DIN connector, 25-pin DB 
connector, and necessary hoods and 
wire for this cable can all be purchased 
at Radio Shack. Note that there are 
some patches for Colorcom/E on Del- 
phi that fix some bugs in it, de-protect 
it, and make it CoCo 3 compatible. 
Look for these in the Data Communi- 
cations d atabase, where they were 
posted by Art Flexser. 



• / am tired of the small viewing area 
and black border thai surround my 



92 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



CoCo's 3 2 -column green screen. Why 
did Tandy do this, and what can be done 
to fix it? 

Richard Hill 
Owensboro, KY 

The characteristic of that screen that 
you complain of was established not by 
Tandy, but rather by Motorola in the 
design of the 6847 VDG video chip used 
in the CoCo 1 and 2. The reason they 
limited the display to the center of the 
screen was that many different models 
of TV sets had different amounts of 
"overscan," and they wanted to make 
the display sufficiently small so it would 
never be cut off due to the particular 
adjustment of a given TV set. Because 
it is fixed inside the hardware of the 
VDG chip, there is no easy way to alter 
this. You have two routes to using more 
of the screen: 

1) Purchase a PBJ Word-Pak along 
with a multipack interface and a mono- 
chrome monitor and software that uses 
the pack, and you will have 80-column 
text capabilty under OS-9 and under a 
few Disk Extended BASIC programs. 

2) Purchase a CoCo 3 and either a 
monochrome ($60 to $ j 00) or an RGB 
color($270 to $450) monitor. The CoCo 
3 has both text and graphics video 
modes that use the screen edge to edge. 
But watch out! In its 40- and 80-column 
text mode, the CoCo 3*s screen often is 
not visible in its first and last two or 
three columns, due to overscan on some 
commercial television sets and on some 
commercial color composite video 
monitors, This is the kind of problem 
that Motorola sought to avoid in its 
design of the old VDG chip. The wider 
display of the CoCo 3 will always be 
properly displayed on monochrome 
and RGB A monitors, 

Note that a TV service technician can 
adjust someTVsand many monitors f or 
a narrower display and thus fit in the 
full CoCo 3 screen, This sometimes 
merely involves turning a slug in a coil 
inside the monitor, though at times it 
involves an actual patch to the horizon- 
tal oscillator circuit, 



• / am designing a board to plug in to 
the CoCo 2B> on which I plan to put a 
2764 EPROM and a few small to me- 
dium scale TTL chips. Will the CoCo 



be able to supply enough power for such 
a board? 

Steve Allen 

(STEVE A LIEN) 

All of the power supplies for the 
CoCo J and 2 have been on the marginal 
side in terms of power to spare. How- 
ever, all of them have been able to 
power a disk controller, which has both 
an EPROM and a number of other 
chips on it. I suspect that the CoCo will 
quite adequately power a board of the 
sort you describe. Since I am conserva- 
tive when it comes to hardware design, 
Td recommend you use a 27C64 
(CMOS) EPROM and 74C, 74HC, or 
74HCT series chips^ all of which are 
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide 
semiconductor) and so consume much 
less power. The cost of the CMOS 
EPROM and 74 series chips is not much 
greaterthan that of NMOS (N-channel 
metal-oxide semiconductor) EPROMs 
and 74LS series logic chips. Given the 
marginal power capabilities of the 
CoCo, it might make the difference 
between the CoCo running too hot or 
acceptably warm, 

Interestingly, the CoCo 3 appears to 
use the same power supply as that used 
in the CoCo 2. Now, the CoCo 3 circuit 
appears to draw less power than a CoCo 
2 circuit. The GIME chip, which replac- 
es both the power hog TTL SAM 
(transistor-transistor logic synchronous 
address multiplexer) chip and the VDG 
(video display generator) chip, is a low 
power CMOS chip, I would predict 
from this that the CoCo 3 will run 
cooler than its predecessors, with more 
power to spare for driving devices 
plugged into its port. Note also that the 
CoCo 3 has its eight data lines on its bus 
buffered with a 74LS245 chip. Though 
the address lines on its port are still 
unbuffered. 



• Recently when 1 plugged my disk 
interface cartridge into my Co Co I saw 
sparks flying out of the interface. My 
system was fried. Most of the damage 
came from pins 36 and 43 (sic) of the 
cartridge port. My drives may be good, 
but I don 7 know where to get aseparate 
disk controller pack without the drives, 
Also, can I possibly use some of my old 
chips (RA Ms) from my fried CoCo to 
upgrade a new one? 

Lee Ki I lough 
Conroe, TX 



Before you do anything else you need 
to find out why you fried your CoCo, 
or else you risk frying the next CoCo 
you hook up! Your information was 
garbled (there is no "Pin 43" on the 
cartridge connector — that connector 
has only 40 pins). But it sounds as if you 
got high voltage (probably 1 20 volts 
AC) on your ground lines. This could 
happen from improperly grounded disk 
drives that had a fault inside the case. 
Or the fault might be inside your CoCo 
itself. This could be the case even 
though you had the switches off on both 
the CoCo and the disk drives. Such a 
fault not only will roast CoCos, but can 
also constitute a lethal shock hazard. 
You need to take your drives in to a 
service center and have them checked 
out. Same for the rest of your system. 

Given the sort of problem you de- 
scribe, it is quite possible you burned 
out every chip in your CoCo, so none 
of them may be usable. You'll need to 
experiment by trying the chips out in 
another machine. 

Disk controller cartridges can be 
purchased through any of a dozen or 
moresources that advertise in RAINBOW, 
Look through this or any issue for 
details. Among the many companies 
that sell them are DISTO (CRC), J&M 
systems, HDS, True Data Products, 
and Spectrum Projects. Check the 
advertisers index in RAINBOW. The price 
is often in the $70 to $100 range for a 
given unit. 

Sorry to hear you smoked your 
CoCo. But I'm glad you are alive to tell 
the tale. 



Your technical questions are welcomed, 
Please address t hem to CoCo Consultations, 
THE RAINBSW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. 

We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit for 
brevity and clarity, Due to the large volume 
of mail we receive, we are unable to answer 
letters individually. 

For quicker response time, your questions 
may also be posted in the FORUM section 
of rainbow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. In 
FORUM, type RDD and address your ques- 
tions to the username MARTYGOOD- 
MAN. Marty is on most every evening to 
respond to FORUM messages. Other CoCo 
SIG members may also reply to questions 
posted in this public message area. Please be 
sure to leave your name and address in any 
FORU M questions, since those of wide 
interest will be selected for publication in 
this column. 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 93 



TURN OF THE SCREW 



Taking a Look at How 

Monitors Work 



By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Well, I finally got my CoCo 3. 
The first thing I needed to do 
was to plug it into a monitor. 
In my computer room I have various 
color monitors, TVs and monochrome 
monitors. I read through the CoCo 3 
manual and found out it has three ways 
of connecting a display to it. The first 
and most common is the RF output. 
This is where you connect an ordinary 
TV to it. The second is a composite 
color output, sometimes known as a 
video output. The third is an RGB 
output. 

Now, most people are familiar with 
the RF output. Many people know 
about video outputs, but what is this 
RGB stuff? It is not new to me because 
I use an RGB monitor for my other 
computers. With the right connector, a 
piece of ribbon wire and the right 
information, I connected the CoCo 3 to 
my Sony RGB monitor. 

Ever since I wrote an article on how 
to connect your CoCo to a mono- 
chrome monitor, I have been getting 
calls about it. So, with the coming of the 
CoCo 3, it is time to do an "everything 
you ever wanted to know about mon- 
itors but were afraid to ask" article. 
Here it is. 

I am going to start from the basics 
and work my way up to RGB. Let's 
begin with some theory on a mono- 
chrome monitor. The mono part of that 
word implies one color. At first, all 
picture tubes were white. Then green 
was the "in" color and then amber 
became popular. Whatever the actual 
color of the tube, it is still one color, 

Tony DiStefano is a well-known early 
specialist in computer hardware pro- 
jects. He lives in Laval Ouest, Quebec. 

94 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



hence monochrome. A picture tube is 
made of glass. Inside this tube is a 
vacuum. On the inside surface of the 
display area there is a thin coating of 
phosphorus. One physical property of 
phosphorus is that when bombarded 
with electrons (high voltage electricity) 
it glows. Inside the back end (neck) of 
a picture tube there are circuits that 
shoot electrons at the phosphorus. The 
construction of the tube is beyond this 
article, but when it is on, a stream of 
electrons hits the phosphorus, and 
where it hits, the phosphorus glows. But 
alone, all that does is make a glowing 
dot in thecenterof thescreen. Not much 
good. 

Since electrons are affected by a 
magnetic field, putting a magnet close 
to the tube will deflect our dot. The dot 
would move according to the strength 
and direction of our magnetic field. An 
electric current through a wire creates 
a magnetic field. The more current, the 
stronger the magnetic field. A length of 
wire wrapped in a coil is enough to 
deflect our dot anywhere on the screen. 
In most monitors, two coils of wire 
wrapped around the neck of the tube are 
used to move our dot around. One coil 
is positioned so that a varying amount 
of current makes the dot move sideways 
or horizontally. The other is positioned 
to give up/down or vertical motion. 

Given the right amount of current 
and in the proper sequence, our dot now 
moves from right to left and from top 
to bottom, in the same motion as read- 
ing. Make that dot move fast enough 
and it appears to fill the screen with 
light, since phosphorus continues to 
glow for a short time after the dot has 
moved. Those lines you see on your 
screen are made by one moving dot. 



So far, we have one moving dot that 
fills the screen with light. If, while 
moving this dot, you were to increase 
and decrease the number of electrons 
hitting the phosphorus, you would get 
varying amounts of light. The amount 
of light produced is directly propor- 
tional to the number of electrons hitting 
the phosphorus. 

Things are shaping up to a picture. In 
a TV monitor, there are many signals 
and currents, one of which is called the 
horizontal oscillator. This circuit is 
connected to the coil that deflects the 
dot horizontally. Figure 1 shows the 
wave shape of the horizontal oscillator. 
It starts off negatively, deflecting the 
dot to the left. It increases linearly to a 
positive position, moving the dot 
smoothly across the screen. Then, it 



1 



□ 



Vol lags J 



Figure 1 



Retrace 
lime 




Time— !— 63.5 us— i 

■ 

Horizontal Oscillator 



Vollage _i 

Time 




i^i^eams.-*!- — 1& earns. — -i 

Verltcal Oscillator 



quickly jumps back to the original 
position. During this time the electron 
flow is cut off so that it will not appear 
on the screen. This time period is k nown 
as the retrace time, and the circuit that 
cuts off the electron flow is called a 
blanking circuit. 

Another circuit in a TV is the vertical 
oscillator and yes, you guessed it, it 
controls the dot vertically. The wave 
shape of the vertical oscillator is basi- 
cally the same as the horizontal one, 
only much slower. Many horizontal 
cycles fit inside one vertical cycle (more 
on this later). The vertical oscillator also 
has retrace time and vertical blanking 
circuits. Due to its nature, one horizon- 
tal cycle is called a scan line, and one 
vertical cycle is called a frame. 

When our dot is not doing horizontal 
retrace or vertical retrace it appears on 
the screen. This is known as active 
video. It is during this time that our dot 
gives the viewer useful information. 
This information can be a picture like 
ordinary TV, or computer generated 
characters. In either case, the video 
signal is proportional to the brightness 
of the picture. A higher signal produces 
a brighter dot and a lower signal pro- 
duces a softer dot. 

In order for a picture to appear on a 



video monitor, three signals are needed; 
horizontal, vertical and video signals. It 
is not efficient to run three signals and 
a ground return to a TV receiver or 
monitor. A method was developed to 
combine these three signals into one. 
Instead of supplying complete horizon- 
tal and vertical wave shapes, the source 
need only send a pulse signifying the 
start of every horizontal line and the 
start of every vertical frame. These 
pulses are known as sync pulses. The 
rest of the wave shape is then regener- 
ated inside the monitor. It is then up to 
the monitor to make sure that the 
internal horizontal and vertical oscilla- 
tors keep up with the sync pulses. 
These sync pulses and video signals 



are mixed together in a specific way to 
form one signal called "composite 
video," for obvious reasons. Figure 2 
shows part of a composite signal. In 
North America, all composite video 
conforms to the NTSC (National Tele- 
vision Systems Committee) standard; 
more on that later. In a monitor, circuits 
are made to separate the video informa- 
tion from the sync signals, and are then 
translated to drive currents that connect 
to the coils and the picture tube. 

Up till now, I've been talking about 
monochrome (black and white) pic- 
tures. But, there is a good reason why 
Tandy calls our CoCo a Color Comput- 
er — it can display a color picture. 
When TV first came out, it was only in 



Figure 2: A Composite Signal 



1 Voll 
P 10 P 



Voltage 



Video 



\ 



Vertical 

sync 



Honzonial 
sync 



Vertical 
blanking 



— I I - 

I I 

HOn^onial 
blanking 



Time 



U 



XPNDR2 and SuperGuide - 
an Ideal Expansion Card Set" 

— RAINBOW 2/86 



HARDWARE REVIEW 




RAINBOW 



XPNDR2 $39.95 each or 2/$76 
This prototype card features a 40 pin 
connector for projects requiring an on- 
line disk system or ROM paks. The 
CoCo signals are brought out to wire- 
wrap pins. Special gold plated spring 
clips provide reliable and nofsefree 
disk operation plus solid support for 
vertical mounting of the controller. The 
entire 4.3*7 inch card is drilled for ICs 
Assembled, tested and ready to run. 

XPNDR1 $19.95 each or 2/$36 
A rugged 4.3*6.2 inch bare breadboard 
that brings the CoCo signals out to 
labeled pads. Both XPNDR cards are 
double-sided glass/epoxy, have gold 
plated edge connectors, thru-hole 
plating and are designed with heavy 
power and ground buses. They're 
drilled for standard 0.3 and 0.6 inch 
wide dual in-line wirewrap sockets; 
with a 0.1 inch grid on the outboard end 
for connectors. 

SuperGuide S3.95 each 
Here is a unique plastic insert that 
aligns and supports printed circuit 
cards in the CoCo cartridge port. Don't 
forget to ORDER ONE FOR YOUR 
XPNDR CARDS. 



Included with each XPNDR card 
are 8 pages of APPLICATION 
NOTES to help you learn about 
chips and how to connect them to 
your CoCo. 




To order or for technical informa- 
tion call: 

(206) 782-6809 

weekdays 8 a.m. to noon 

Wepay shipping on prepaid orders. 
For immediate shipment send 
check, money order or the number 
and expiration date of your VISAor 
MASTERCARD to: 



ROBOTIC 




niCROSYSTEMS 



BOX 30807 SEATTLE. WA 98103 



i^THE COCO-PC IS HERE! 




Wouldn't it be great to use an IBM PC, XT, AT or 
compatible to run CoCo OS-9 and FLEX software. 

Well, now you can with our PI-6809 processor card. PI-6809 
fits neatly into a full size expansion slot in the PC. It 
features ONE MEGABYTE RAM, 128K EPROM and a full 
RS-232 interface. 

Our software runs FLEX and boots CoCo OS-9 from disk 
yet gives you FULL ACCESS to PC facil ities including hard 
disk, printer, network . . . and file transfer between FLEX, 
OS-9 and PC/MS- DOS formats. 

NO RISK TRIAL — Buy the PI-6809 now and we give you 
a money back guarantee if you are not satisfied. DON'T 
DELAY — ORDER TODAY! 

Special Introductory Price — $495.00 
Shipping and Insurance — $ 19.50 

COMPUSENSE LIMITED, PO BOX 169, 
PALMERS GREEN, LONDON, ENGLAND 
N13 5XA Phone 01-882 0681/6936 

Cheques, Money Orders, VISA 
and MASTERCHARGE accepied 
Dealer Enquiries Welcome 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 95 




mm 



mm. 



XTERM 

OS-9 Communications program. 

Menu oriented ■ Definable macro keys 

Upload/download. Ascii " Works with standard serial port, RS232 
or XMODEM protocol PAK, or PBJ 2SP Pack, Includes all drivers. 

Execute OS-9 commands " Works with standard screen. XSCREEN, or 
from within XTERM WORDPAK 80 column board. 

$49.95 with source $89.95 



1 . » . •.- -■« *--- r -~ 



-T7 



XMENU 

Creates a menu driven environment for OS-9. 
. Create your own menus ' Woiks wilh standard screen, 

$29.95 



XSCREEN, WORDPAK, O-PAK 
with source $5 9. 9 5 



,j ■ •■ ■ ■ ■ - - 1 ■■ ■■ ■ " ■■ ■■ ^ .-......^j.^ JJ ,-. JJJJ JJ .. J .. 



XSCREEN 

OS-9 hi-res screen 
5 1/64/85 chars per line • Easy menu operation 

$19.95 wilh source $39.95 



S3 

m 





. : ,;.;.v:.v.-.v. : . : . : . : ;.x<;.;,;.;.:r>:.v/^ 


XDIR & 


XCAL 


Hierarchial directory 


OS-9 calculator 


■ Full sorting 


• Decimal, Hex, Binary 


■ Complete pattern matching 


•+,-,*,/, AND.OR, XOR, NOT 


$24.95 


with s ourcc $49.95 



■: 



XDIS 

OS-9 disassembler 

$34.95 with source $54.95 



XWORD 

OS-9 word processing system 

Works with standard text screen, XSCREEN, WORDPAK, or O-PAK 

True character oriented full screen editing 

Full block commands 

Find and Replace commands 

Execute OS-9 commands from within 

Proportional spacing supported 

Full printer control, character size, emphasized, italics, 
overslrike, underline, super/sub-scripts 
10 header/footers 

Page numbering in decimal or Roman numerals 

Margins and headers can be set different for even and odd pages 

$69.95 wilh source $124.95 

XMERGE 

Mail merge capabilities for XWORD 

$24.95 with source $49.95 

XSPELL 

OS-9 spelling checker, with 20000 and 4 0000 word dictionaries 

$39.95 
XTRIO 

XWORD/XMERGE/XSPELL 
$114.95 with XWORD/XMERGE sourc$ 199.95 

XED 

OS-9 full screen editor 

$39.95 with source $79.95 



i 



wm 







1 ■ 1 

























m 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

This sales-based accounting package is designed 
for the non-accounting oriented businessman. It 
also contains the flexibility for the accounting ori- 
ented user to set up a double entry journal with an 
almost unlimited chart of accounts. Includes Sales 
Entry, transaction driven Accounts Receivable and 
Accounts Payable, Journal Entry, Payroll Disburse- 
ment, and Record Maintenance programs. System 
outputs include Balance Sheet, Income Statement, 
Customer and Vendor status Reports, Accounts 
Receivable and Payable Aging Reports, Check Reg- 
ister, Sales Reports, Account Status Lists, and a 
Journal Posting List. $79 95 

INVENTORY CONTROL/SALES ANALYSIS 

TK is module is designed to handle inventory control, 
with user defined product codes, and produce a detailed 
analysis of the business' sales and the sales force. One 
may enter/update inventory data, enter sales, run five 
sales analysis reports, run five inventory reports, set up 
product codes, enter /update salesman records, and 
update the SB AP inventory. $59.95 



PAYROLL 

Designed for maintaining personnel and payroll 
data for up to 200 hourly and s laried employees 
wilh 8 deductions each. Calculates payroll and tax 
amounts, prints checks and maintains year-to-date 
totals which can be automatically transferred to the 
SB A package. Computes each pay period's totals 
for straight time, overtime and bonus pay and det- 
ermines taxes to be withheld. Additional outputs 
include mailing list, listing of employees, year-to- 
date federal and/or state tax listing, and a listing of 
current misc. deductions. Suited for use in all states 
except Oklahoma dhd Delaware. $59.95 



These programs are user friendly and menu 
driven. Sample transactions are included. Each, 
package features a hi-res screen. Each requires 
a printer, a minimum of 32k and at lean I disk. 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Includes detailed audit trails and history reports 
for each customer, prepares invoices and monthly 
statements, mailing labels, aging lists, and an alpha- 
betized customer listing. The user can define net 
terms for commercial accounts or finance charges 
for revolving accounts. This package functions as a 
standalone A/R system or integrates wilh the Small 
Business Accounting package. $59 95 



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Designed for th e maintenance of vendor and A/P 
invoice files. The system prints checks, voids 
checks, cancels checks, deletes cancelled checks, 
and deletes paid A/P invoices. The user can run a 
Vendor List, Vendor Status report, Vendor Aged 
report, and an A/P Check Register. This package 
can be used cither as a standalone A/P system or 
can be integrated wilh the Small Business 
Accounting Package, $59 95 



^ — 





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p St. P^MN 55112 

A mjMot . Suhrn lit ion* m a* pit 4 




Ordering Information 

Add $3.00 shipping & handling, MN residents add 6% sales tax. 
Visa, Mastercard, COD (add $2.50), personal checks. 



(612) 633-6161 



black and white. When color came out, 
a method had to be developed so that 
a color signal would be compatible with 
a black and white TV. 

It was up to the NTSC to develop a 
composite signal that would carry the 
extra color signal and still be compat- 
ible with the older black and white 
signal. In 1953, the NTSC established 
the color television standards. In these 
standards, the signal is to have 525 line 
interlaced scan. The horizontal scan 
frequency is 15.734 kHz; the vertical 
frequency is 59.94 Hz. The color infor- 
mation is contained in a 3.579545 MHz 
subcarrier. The phase angle of the 
subcarrier represents the color, and the 
amplitude of the carrier represents the 
saturation. Figure 3 shows one horizon- 
tal line. Notice the color frequency burst 
just after the horizontal sync. The phase 
difference between this reference burst 
and the actual signal describes what 
color that particular part of the screen 
should be. The amplitude of the color 
signal represents how much of that 
color to put on the screen. 

On the monitor side, color is quite 
complicated to reproduce. You have to 
start with a completely new tube. In- 
stead of smooth monochrome phospho- 
rus, the tube has to be striped with 
alternate red, green and blue phospho- 
rus. The smaller the stripe the better the 
picture quality. 



When a color composite video signal 
enters a color monitor, it is first stripped 
of its sync signals, and then the mono- 
chrome (called luminance) and color 
signals (called chroma) are split into 
three signals, the red content, the green 
content and the blue content. Three 
separate electron beams are used to 
display the three colors on the screen. 
The beam carrying the red content has 
to hit all the red strips. The green hits 
the green strips and so on. If a beam that 
has red information hits any other color 
than red, a wrong color results. It 
requires a lot of electronic circuits to 
keep this from happening. That is not 
the worst part; the color frequency 
carrier is 3.58 MHz. In order to isolate 
the color carrier from the monochrome 
signal, a filter is used that removes any 
frequency higher than 3.58 MHz. This 
seriously limits the resolution of a color 
signal. In fact, the resolution of a color 
signal, at absolute best, is about 400 
lines. That is OK for the CoCo and 
CoCo 2 but is not good enough for the 
CoCo 3. 

When you put a color signal in a 
monochrome monitor, the color infor- 
mation shows up as dots on the screen. 
Figure 3 shows that. The frequency of 
the color signal is 3.58 MHz. A mono- 
chrome monitor with a 20-MHz band- 
width has no filter to remove the color 
carrier. The monitor will have no prob- 



Figure 3: One Horizontal Line 



Luminnnce 



I von 
P lo P 



vouage 




Horizontal 
sync 
plus* 




Honzomnl -» ! 



6UinKmg 



Time 



lems displaying the color carrier — as 
an annoying monochrome mess of dots. 

Now comes the CoCo 3. It has a 
resolution of 640-by-192. That is very 
nice but have you ever seen a 640-by- 
192 screen on a regular composite 
monitor? Believe me, it's not a pretty 
sight. What is Tandy to do? The only 
reasonable thing is to get rid of that 
color carrier and put out the color 
information separately. Now that is a 
great idea and for once Tandy did it 
right! The CoCo 3 has an output known 
as an RGB output. That's right, RGB 
stands for Red, Green and Blue. No 
color carrier, no filters and no sync 
pulses, just clean color, 

Wait a minute, that won't work with- 
out sync pulses. So Tandy added some 
more lines and added sync pulses. In 
fact, the CoCo 3's RGB output is the 
best color picture ever for a CoCo! The 
clarity is limited only by the resolution 
of the monitor. 

You don't have to have a Tandy RGB 
monitor. However, if you plan on going 
out to buy a brand X monitor at some 
discount mail order house, here are a 
few tips to help you get started with 
fewer headaches. 

First, when you select a model you 
want (or can afford), make sure that it 
is an RGB analog monitor with negative 
or composite sync (like my Sony) with 
a horizontal frequency of 15.7 kHz and 
a vertical frequency of 60 Hz. Also 
make sure that the bare connector to the 
monitor is available. You will also need 
a connector for the CoCo 3 side of it. 
That requires a 10-pin female socket 
connector for flat ribbon cable. And 
don't forget to get three or four feet of 
10-conductor flat ribbon cable. Use the 
pinout supplied in the CoCo 3 manual 
and match the pinout of the RGB 
monitor manual to it. Now plug it in 
and watch it go! /3\ 



c 



ft 



o 




V ♦'Vjjr & G 0° $18.00 U.S. 



3? 




+ $1 .50 shipping. 



U.S. check or money 
order. RI residents 
please add 6% sales tax. 

TEPCO 

30 Water Street 
Portsmouth, RI 02871 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 97 



HMMMMMMMM t 



UPGRADE 



What you need to know to upgrade your Multi-Pak 
Interface for use with your new Co Co 3 



TTl AT I 1 ~\T Jp 1 jO o 

i AJL lor lour 1^01^0 o 

By Marty Goodman 



eference has been made to the 
fact that you will need to up- 
grade your Multi-Pak Interface 
if you want to use it with your new 
CoCo 3. There has been a lot of con- 
fusion about this. In this article, I hope 
to clarify matters regarding this up- 
grade, explaining why it is necessary, 
how to do it, and where and how to get 
the needed parts. Much of my informa- 
tion for this article comes from Tandy 
Technical Bulletin CC:29 } dated August 
14, 1986. This bulletin is distributed to 
Tandy Computer Service Centers. 
Some of it comes from personal tests, 
and some from personal communica- 
tion with Mark Siegel of Tandy Corpo- 
ration. 

There are two different types of 
Multi-Pak Interfaces (MPI) for the 
CoCo. The"old MPI" was the first MPI 
sold by Tandy. It is physically larger 
than the newer ones, and is Radio 
Shack Catalog No. 26-3024. This model 
was first sold with a battleship gray 
case, though later it was sold with a 
white case. 

Later on, Tandy redesigned the MPI, 
making it smaller and much less expen- 
sive to produce. This newer, slimmer, 
trimer MPI is Radio Shack Catalog No. 
26-3124. The catalog number can be 
found on a sticker on the bottom of 
your Multi-Pak. 

When folks first got their CoCo 3s, 
brought them home, and plugged them 

Martin H. Goodman, M.D., is a long- 
time electronics tinker er and lives in 
San Pablo, California. Marty is a RAIN- 
BOW contributing editor and writes the 
"CoCo Consultations'' column. He is 
also the database manager of rain- 
bow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. 



intotheir old Multi-Paks (with the disk 
controller plugged into Slot 4 as recom- 
mended by Tandy), they discovered one 
of three things. Some found that their 
MPIs appeared to work perfectly. Oth- 
ers found that their disk controller 
would berecognized bytheCoCo 3 only 
if it was plugged into Slot 1. Still others 
found that regardless of what slot they 
plugged their disk controller into, it 
simply would not be seen by the CoCo 
3, This different behavior is explained 
by the fact that different releases of the 
same catalog number MPI had slightly 
differently programmed PAL chips in 
them. 

The critically important thing to note 
here is that regardless of how your MPI 
behaves with your CoCo 3, it is neces- 
sary to upgrade it either by replacing the 
PAL chip (in thecaseof the older MPIs) 
or by adding in a satellite board (in the 
case of the newer ones). Both the tech- 
nical bulletin and Mark Siegel, person- 
ally, were quite firm in this rec- 
ommendation. 

Note that earlier, several folks alleged 
that this upgrade was needed only if you 
were going to install 5 1 2K in your CoCo 
3. That is false. You need to do this 
upgrade regardless of the amount of 
memory in your CoCo 3. 

At the Princeton RAINBOWfest, 1 
heard that all local Radio Shack retail 
outlets had been briefed in the problem 
with the Multi-Pak. However, I called 
five Radio Shack Computer Centers in 
the San Francisco Bay area, and five 
Radio Shack stores with computer 
divisions. No one had heard of this 
problem. Because of this, I urge you, the 
RAINBOW reader, to tell your local 
Computer Center or division personnel 
about this problem. 



By informing the local stores, you 
may save other CoCo 3 purchasers 
some grief. You might even consider 
urging your local Radio Shack store 
employee to buy a copy of this issue of 
RAINBOW for reference on this matter. 

If your Multi-Pak is still under war- 
ranty (if it has been less than 90 days 
since it was bought or last repaired) I 
have been told by Mike Ward that you 
can get it upgraded for free, Please 
check out this possibility if your MPI 
falls into that category. I do not know 
how much, if anything, Tandy ordinar- 
ily charges for labor on upgrading the 
Multi-Pak. The parts fee is $7.50. You 
may want to inquire about this before 
deciding to do the upgrade yourself. 
Usually Tandy's minimum labor charge 
is $15. Even if Tandy is providing the 
labor for the upgrade for free, you still 
may want to upgrade the Multi-Pak 
yourself, because that way it will not be 
out of your hands for the one to two 
weeks that such repairs often take. 

Upgrading Your Old Multi-Pak 

If you own one of the older MPIs 
(Catalog No. 26-3024) it will be rela- 
tively easy for you to do the upgrade 
yourself. All you need is a 20-pin PAL 
chip. To order it, just go to your local 
Radio Shack store and tell them you 
want to order, from National Parts, Part 
Number AXX 7123, and also tell them 
that that part is for Catalog No. 26- 
3024. It should cost $7.50. It usually 
takes about two weeks for the part to 
arrive at your local Radio Shack store. 

Be sure the MPI is unplugged, then 
open the case of your old Multi-Pak. 
This, of course, will involve breaking 
the warranty sticker that covers one of 
the four screws. 




98 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



COMPUTERS 

CANADA'S COCO 
HARDWARE SHOP 




D1STO SUPER PRODUCTS 



• SUPER CONTROLLER & 

• SUPER RAM DISK 256K/512K 

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OTHER PRODUCTS 

• 5.25" Drive Case & Power 
Supply 

5.25" Bare Drives 
Hard Disks 
Printers and Ribbons 
Monitors 
Keyboards 
Joysticks 
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DS-69A Digitizers 
Drive Cleaning Kits 
Flip & File Cases 
5.25" Floppy Diskettes 
COCO Support Litterature 



SERVICES 

» EPROM 
Burning 

> Repairs 
on COCOs 
and Drives 



C.R.C. PRODUCTS 

Serial to Parallel Interfaces 

Dual-Dos Switchers (for J&M) 

Color & Monochrome 
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Project Boards 

RS-232 Switchers 

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"Y" & Extender Cables 

Drive and other Cables 

5.25" SS or DS Drive Kits 



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FREE CATALOGUE 




COMPUTERS 

10802 Lajeunesse 
Montreal, Quebec 
Canada H3L 2E8 



1-51 4-383-5293 



RAINBOWfest is the only computer show 
dedicated exclusively to your Tandy 
Color Computer. Nowhere else will you 
see as many CoCo-related products or be able to 
attend free seminars conducted by the top Color 
Computer experts. It's like receiving the latest 
issue of the rainbow in your mailbox! 

RAINBOWfest is a great opportunity for com- 
mercial programmers to show off new and inno- 
vative products for the first time. Chicago is the 
show to get information on capabilities for the 
new CoCo 3. In exhibit after exhibit, there will be 
demonstrations, opportunities to experiment 
with software and hardware, and special RAIN- 
BOWfest prices. 

Set your own pace between visiting exhibits 
and attending the valuable, free seminars on all 
aspects of your CoCo — from improving basic 
skills to working with the sophisticated OS-9 op- 
erating system. 

Many people who write for the rainbow — as 
well as those who are written about — are there 
to meet you and answer questions. You'll also 
meet lots of other people who share your interest 
in the Color Computer. It's a person-to-person 
event and a tremendous learning experience in a 
fun and relaxed atmosphere. 

To make it easier for you to participate, we 
schedule RAINBOWfests in different parts of the 
country. If you missed the fun in Princeton, why 
don't you make plans now to join us in Chicago? 
For members of the family who don't share your 
affinity for CoCo, RAINBOWfest is located in an 
area with many other attractions. 

As a new feature for RAINBOWfest, we are 
planning an Educational Sandbox. This will fea- 
ture child-oriented workshops to give hands-on 
experience to an age group often neglected. 
There will be a session for the kindergarten to 
third grade set and another for fourth through 
seventh graders. RAINBOWfest has something 
for everyone in the family. 

The Hyatt Regency Woodfield offers special 
rates for RAINBOWfest. The show opens Friday 
evening with a session from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. It's 
a daytime show Saturday — the CoCo Commun- 
ity Breakfast (separate tickets required) is at 8 
a.m., then the exhibit hall opens promptly at 10 
a.m. and runs until 6 p.m. On Sunday, the exhibit 
hall opens at 1 1 a.m. and closes at 4 p.m. 

Tickets for RAINBOWfest may be obtained di- 
rectly from the rainbow. We'll also send you a 
reservation form so you can get your special 
room rate. 

The POSH way to go. You can have your travel 
arrangements and hotel reservations handled 
through rainbow affiliate, POSH Travel Assist- 
ance, Inc., of Louisville. For the same POSH 
treatment many of our exhibitors enjoy, call POSH 
at (502) 893-331 1 . All POSH services are available 
at no charge to RAINBOWfest attendees. 

Show Schedule: 

Friday evening , 

— Exhibits open from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. 

Saturday 

— CoCo Community Breakfast at 8 a.m. 

— Exhibits open at 10 a.m. and close at 
6 p.m. 

Sunday 

— Exhibits open from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. 



Remove the black cardboard shield 
that covers the space around the four 
card sockets. You will now see the 
circuit board. Note that only one chip 
on that board is socketed. All others are 
soldered directly to the board. The chip 
you are interested in is the socketed one, 
a 20-pin chip called U8. Carefully 
remove this chip and replace it with the 
new chip you just bought. In doing this 
you must be careful not to bend pins on 
the new chip, and you must be careful 
to put in the new chip with its notch 
pointing the same way as the notch on 
the chip you just removed. Also, ob- 
serve the usual anti-static precautions 
for handling delicate chips. The new 
chip will come to you on a piece of black 
anti-static foam. Place the old chip that 
you removed into this foam, and save 
it in a safe place. I will explain why later. 

After successfully replacing the old 
PAL chip, put your MPI back together 
again and the upgrade is complete. Be 
careful about positioning the plastic 
extension of theslot selectswitch as you 
are reassembling the Multi-Pak. 

Upgrading Your New Multi-Pak 

If you own one of the newer MPIs 



(Catalog No. 26-3124), I recommend 
you take your MPI to Tandy and have 
them upgrade it for you. This is because 
the upgrade involves cutting a trace on 
the circuit board, and then delicately 
soldering seven wires of that satellite 
board to various integrated circuit chip 
pins on the board. If you feel totally 
comfortable with doing such work, 
what follows is a brief outline of the 
upgrade process. 

Go to your local Radio Shack and 
order from National Parts a Satellite 
Board, Part No. AXX 7119 (for Catalog 
No. 26-3124). This should also cost 
$7.50. 

When you get the satellite board, 
open up your MPI, being careful to note 
the length of the screws that hold it 
together and what holes they go in. Be 
sure, that your MPI is unplugged. Now: 

1) Unscrew and free the printed 
circuit board. This involves removing 
three screws that hold it down, remov- 
ing all metal clips that hold the shield 
to it, and removing the shield itself. 
Carefully note the position of the metal 
clips for reassembly. You need not 
disconnect the transformer. 

2) Locate IC6, the monster 64-pin 



chip. Cut the trace that connects Pin 52 
of IC6 to Pin 19 of IC1 (the 74LS245 
chip used to buffer the data lines). 

3) Position the satellite board over IC 
6, with its components up, and with its 
wires facing the card edge. 

4) Locate IC4. This is one of three 
74LS367 buffer chips. Solder the three 
yellow wires from the satellite board to 
pins 3, 9, and 1 1 of IC4. It does not 
matter which yellow wire goes to which 
of the three pins on IC4. 

5) Solder the white wire from the 
satellite board to Pin 52 of IC6 (the big 
IC). 

6) Solder the blue wire from the 
satellite board to Pin 19 of IC I (the 
74LS245). 

7) The remaining red and black wires 
from the satellite board need to be 
hooked up to +5 volts and ground, 
respectively. This can be gotten from the 
power supply pins of any of the chips 
on the board. Tandy recommends using 
pins 16 and 8 of IC5, respectively. (Red 
wire to Pin 16 of IC5 and black wire to 
Pin 8 of IC5.) 

8) Replace the shield on the circuit 
board. Using two of the three screws 
that held it to the case, reattach it. The 



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material with a wide range ot programs . 
the best writers and programmers available. 

*TELEG R AM by Bobby Ballard: A monthly column concern- 
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♦DOWNTIME by Rush Caley: Little-known facts, new and 
different ideas, opinions, and an occasional criticism or two. 
*BA5IC HELP by Bill Bernico: Answers to your questions 
concerning the Color Computer and the BASIC language. 
*PASCAL PROGRAMMING by Delmar Searls: An in-depth 
study of Pascal and how to use it effectively. 

Assembly, C, OS-9, REM statements as data storage, floating 
point math, and graphics animation are covered with an emphasis 
on understanding. Utilities, games, business and home management 
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PLEASE SEND ME 1 2 ISSUES O F SPECTROGRAM MAGAZINE 
FOR $18 {40% off the cover price). 



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Rockford, IL 61105 

Foreign subscriptions : tgfi Canada, all others $34 
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Exp. Date: 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 101 



screws to use are the one near the power 
switch and the one near the selector 
switch. Now close up the case, being 
careful to make the extension of the 
selector switch fit properly. 

Problems You Must Know About 

After you have completed either of 
these upgrades (or had Tandy do them 
for you), the Multi-Pak will now work 
fine with your CoCo 3 with nearly all 
Tandy hardware and software. Bui, the 
fix causes some serious problems with 
some third-party products. After up- 
grading your Multi-Pak, it will not 
work with the CoCo M *x Hi-Res joy- 
stick interface. Even' if you use that 
upgraded Multi-Pak with an old CoCo 
1 or 2 (the CoCo M *x software itself 
will not run on the CoCo 3), the CoCo 
M$lx hardware card will cease to work. 
The PBJ Word~Pak I and II will also 
cease to work with Multi-Paks that have 
been upgraded for the CoCo 3. The 
Microworks DS-69A digitizer will also 
not work with upgraded Multi-Paks. 

The reason for this is that the upgrade 
locks out address space SFF80 through 
SFF9E The upgraded Multi-Pak can no 
longer access those addresses. This 
lockout is done because the GIME chip 
in the CoCo 3 uses those addresses, and 
the upgrade makes sure that no other 
device will affect those locations. The 
third-party devices I just mentioned all 
use port addresses in the SFF90 to 
SFF9F range, and thus are locked out 
by the Multi-Pak upgrade, 

Note that the PBJ Word-Pak I and II 
are no longer in production, and the 
current model (PBJ's Word-Pak RS) 
uses ports at SFF76, 7, 8, and 9. Thus, 
it is not affected by the Multi-Pak 
upgrade. I have spoken with Bob Lentz 



of Microworks, and he is in the process 
of fixing his DS-69A digitizer to work 
on the CoCo 3. At present, I have no 
word on whether or not a fix for CoCo 
Mmx will be available. 

A Possible Solution for Hackers 

If you own one Multi-Pak and occa- 
sionally want to use it with a CoCo 2 
with some of the hardware that is now 
locked out, there are a few approaches 
to fixing this problem. In all cases you 
need to be a little bit of a tinkerer. 

If you have a new, small MP1 (Cat- 
alog No. 26-3 124) the fix is quite easy. 
Open the Multi-Pak and remove the 
circuit board and shield. Remove the 
white and blue wires of the satellite 
board from where they are soldered to 
the ICs on the main board. Now, send 
wires from Pin 52 of IC6 and Pin 1 9 of 
IC1 to the two poles of a DPDT switch. 
On one of the two positions, short the 
two connections together. On the other, 
hook up the blue and white wire from 
the satellite board. Refer to my descrip- 
tion of the upgrade of the new Multi- 
Pak to clarify just what wires go where. 
In effect, what you are doing is switch- 
ing the satellite board in and out of the 
circuit, Mount the DPDT switch on the 
case of the Multi-Pak. You now have a 
M ulti-Pak that can be switched between 
CoCo 2 and CoCo 3 modes. In CoCo 
2 mode, it will work with a CoCo 2 and 
any of the add-on } third-party hardware 
I mentioned above. In CoCo 3 mode, it 
will work properly with a CoCo 3. 

If you own one of the older Multi- 
Pa ks (Catalog No. 26-3024) you might 
consider rigging up a "PAL switcher." 
This switcher is easier to build than you 
might think, because most of the pins 
on the PAL chip are either power or 
inputs. Indeed, only pins J4, 15, 16, and 



1 8 are outputs. Armed with this knowl- 
edge, you can piggyback or wire in 
parallel all but those four pins, then 
switch them using a 4PDT switch. 

Ghost Busting 

The reason for the Multi-Pak fix for 
the CoCo 3 is at least twofold. 

First, the older PAL chips used to 
decode the software slot select port for 
the Multi-Pak "ghosted" from SFF7F 
to SFF9F That is 5 when a value was 
written to SFF7F, it appeared at SFF9F 
also, and vice versa. This ghosting 
caused no problems with the CoCo 2, 
but it plays havoc with the CoCo 3, 
which occasionally wants to write to 
SFF9F when talking to its GIME chip. 
Similarly, any attempt at slot selection 
with a ghosting Multi-Pak will send 
spurious data to the GIME chip. Thus, 
the decoding of the software slot selec- 
tion port had to be made more com- 
plete. 

Second, Tandy felt it necessary to 
lock out the $FF80 through $FF9F 
range (SFFAO and up are already locked 
out by the programming of the old 
Multi-Pak PAL chips). This was to 
protect the GIME chip from conflicts 
with information from other external 
devices that might be addressed in that 
range. 

I have been asked many times already 
why one should upgrade one's existing 
Multi-Pak if it happens to be one that 
appears to work fine with the CoCo 3. 
I can't fully answer that question at this 
time. I must emphasize, however, that 
both the Tandv technical bulletin and 
top Tandy officials strongly insist that 
regardless of whether or not your Multi- 
Pak appears to work properly with your 
CoCo 3, you must get it upgraded to 
assure proper operation. ^ 



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102 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



V 



Those Great RAINBOW Programs 

Without All The Fuss! 
Subscribe to RAINBOW ON TAPE! 



Every month, rainbow on tape brings as many as two dozen ready-to-run 
programs right to you. Using the current issue of the rainbow as documen- 
tation, all you have to do is load and run them. Just a one-year subscription 
gives you more than 230 new programs! The typing time saved is time that 
can be spent with the CoCo. (rainbow on tape does not include OS-9 
programs or those less than 20 lines.) 



Need a back issue of rainbow on tape? 
Issues available beginning with April 1982 



Subscribe to rainbow on tape Today! 

LOOK FOR OUR ORDER CARD 
BETWEEN PAGES 34 AND 35 

The cost for a single copy of rainbow on 
tape is $10 within the United States; U.S. $12 
in all other countries. The annual subscription 
rate for rainbow on tape is $80 within the U.S.; 
U.S. $90 in Canada; and U.S. $105 for all other 
countries. U.S. currency only, please. In order 
to hold down non-editorial costs, we do not 
bill. 



DISK USERS: RAINBOW ON DISK 
IS NOW AVAILABLE! 

All the programs from the rainbow — includ- 
ing OS-9 — are now available on disk. For 
more information, see page 151 of this issue. 



NOW AVAILABLE ON DELPHI! 

For your convenience, RAINBOW ON TAPE can also be 
ordered via the Delphi Information Network, in our Shopping 
Service area of THE RAINBOW'S Color Computer SIG (Special 
Interest Group). 

The individual programs from our past January issues are 
also available for immediate download in the RAINBOW ON 
TAPE Database area in the RAINBOW'S Color Computer SIG 
on Delphi. There is a $3.50 per program surcharge. 



RAINBOW ON TAPE is not a stand-alone product, but is 
intended as an adjunct and complement to the magazi ne. 
Even if you purchase rainbow ON TAPE, you will still need 
the magazine for loading and operating instructions. 

To order by phone, [credit card orders only) call 
800-847-0309, 8 a.m. - 5 p.m. EST. All other 
inquiries call 502-228-4492, 




Programs from Our Past 
Beginners Issues: 

January 1986 — CoCo Puzzler, a game to create puzzles easy 
enough for children yet challenging enough for experts; 
Pattern Blocks, an educational discovery process of colors 
and shapes; Novices' Niche, eight short programs especially 
for the beginner; Color My CoCo, a simple program that 
demonstrates your computer's music and graphics capabil- 
ities; Remote Burglar Alarm, Part II, a computerized alarm 
system for the home; Add/Sub5, an educational program that 
generates addition and subtraction math problems; Fire- 
storm, an arcade-type game involving skill; The Seed, a 
graphics program that illustrates the growth from seed to 
flower; CoBBS, part three of a complete bulletin board 
system; Caltime, an electronic calendar that never forgets 
special dates and appointments; and Joysticks, Touch Pads 
and Digitizing the World, a graphics program that shows the 
techniques for creating digitized patterns. Plus six additional 
programs. 



January 1985 — It Is Better To PUT Than To GET, how to 
use complementary commands to create graphics; Home 
Sweet Home, a graphics program featuring thesightsof home 
life; The Keyboard Cassette Editing System, a tape utility that 
works on BASIC or Extended BASIC to simplify tape com- 
mands; Link, a utility that concatenates RAM records and 
writes them to tape; DISKTEST, a utility that will check your 
disk for errors; A Simple Test Processor, an easy, efficient text 
handler; The Interplanetary Fruit Fly, a game that demon- 
strates psuedohigh resolution graphics on a text screen. Plus 
11 additional programs. 




TWISTER Ohm/ Electronics recently 
introduced their Scooter Model 
SP500M monitor stand, the newest 
member of the Scooter line of Guard- 
It Control Centers. With electrical 
power protection built into the base, the 
new control center features a locking tilt 
and full swivel capabilities. The 
SP500M provides five protected and 
switchable sockets. The tilt feature 
allows the SP500M to be locked at any 
tilt angle while still allowing the unit to 
swivel. Other features include a master 
on/off switch with indicator light and 
a resettable circuit breaker. Suggested 
retail price is $79.95. Contact Scooter 
Products, Ohm I Electronics, Inc., 746 
Vermont Street, Palatine, IL 60067, 
(800) 323-2727 (Illinois, call 312-359- 
6040 ). 

CLEANING SERVICE New from Net- 
worx is Screen Clean, a low-cost clean- 
ing system designed to eliminate dust 
and static from CRT screens on com- 
puter monitors and terminals. A pack- 
age of Screen Clean contains 10 sets of 
cleaning pads; each set includes a wet 
pad and a dry pad. The wet pad is pre- 
moistened with an anti-static solution. 
The dry pad is a lint-free absorbent 
cloth that completes the cleaning pro- 
cess and leaves the screen dry and free 
of residual static electricity. Screen 
Clean is priced at $5.95 each. Contact 
Networx, 203 Harrison Place, Brook- 
lyn, NY 1 1 237-1587, (718)821-7555. 

IDENTITY CRISIS MatheGraphics 
Software has announced Trig Identity 
Graphs for the CoCo. Trig Identity 
Graphs brings a visual dimension to the 
subject of trig identities in trigonometry. 
With this high resolution graphics 
program, the user can explore the 
geometric relationships between the 
two sides of any trig identity and be able 
to see clearly whether a supposed iden- 
tity is realJy valid. Trig Identity Graphs 
is available individually on tape or disk 
for the Color Computer 1, 2 or 3 with 
Extended BASIC for $25, or as part of 



the Trig Graphs Package from Mathe- 
Graphics. The Trig Graphs package 
also contains SIN&COS Graphs and is 
priced at $40. Contact MatheGraphics 
Software, 61 Cedar Road, E. North- 
port, NY 11731, (516)368-3781. 

HIGH FINANCE Tandy Corporation 
has announced that consolidated sales 
and operating revenues for the first 
quarter of its 1987 fiscal year were 
$742,550,000, an increase of 14 percent 
over the previous year's sales and oper- 
ating revenues of $650,834,000. Net 
income for the three months ending 
September 30, 1986, rose 5 percent to 
43,720,000 from 41,713,000 in the same 
quarter of the prior year. 

COVER UP? The Cover Craft line of 
dust covers from Amherst International 
Corporation has been expanded to 
include 50 new models. All covers are 
anti-static, made with fold stitching and 
are guaranteed for the life of the hard- 
ware. Among the new additions to the 
line are covers for Okidata, Epson, 
Citizen and Panasonic printers in ver- 
sions which include tractor feed, cut 
sheet feed or just plain. Covers retail for 
$9.95 to $16.95. Contact Amherst Inter- 
national Corporation, 540 North Com- 
mercial Street, Manchester, NH03I0I, 
(800)547-5600. 

FREE CATALOG The new Black Box 
Catalog features 52 new products. The 
Black Box Catalog provides a source 
for items ranging from switches and 
cables to modems and data acquisition 
devices. For your free copy of the 
catalog, write Personal Black Box 
Catalog, P.O. Box 12800, Pittsburgh, 
PA 15241, (412) 746-5500. 

MICROWARE SPEAKS The follow- 
ing is taken from the a recent Micro- 
ware Systems Corporation press re- 
lease: 

The Color Computer 3 combines an 
economical, high-performance sys- 
tem with an end-user oriented inter- 



face. At the nucleus of the machine is 
an enhanced version of OS-9 Level II, 
providing upward compatibility from 
the Color Computer 2 which uses OS- 
9 Level I. OS-9 is a real-time, multi- 
user, multi-tasking operating system 
that is compact, ROMable and pro- 
vides a UNIX-style applications en- 
vironment. The Color Computer ver- 
sion of OS-9 Level II includes a multi- 
screen, multi-window environment 
that allows several programs to run 
simultaneously within different win- 
dows. It also has over 30 utility com- 
mand programs for system and disk 
file control. OS-9 is available from 
Tandy for both the 128K and 512K 
versions of the Color Computer 3. 

Multi-View is an enhanced win- 
dowing environment designed specif- 
ically for the Color Computer 3. It 
gives a common, graphics-based, 
user-friendly environment for appli- 
cation programs to run under. It 
consists of systems support for title 
bars, menu bars, pull down menus 
and dialog boxes. The graphics shell 
allows the user, with the aid of a 
mouse, to select picture oriented 
commands to process programs and 
create windows. Standard desk top 
utilities include: Calculator, Cal- 
endar/Memo Book, Alarm Clock, 
Printer Configuration, Help, Control 
Panel and Clipboarding Support. 

The Color Computer 3's version of 
Color BASIC, compatible with pre- 
vious 64K Extended Color basic, has 
been enhanced by Microware for 
greater control of its new power and 
capabilities. Commands added to the 
system allow access to all 5J2K of 
memory and high resolution graphics. 
High resolution text and graphics 
screens are outside the basic work- 
space and do not use up program 
memory space. 

A Development Pak, designed to 
provide advanced utilities for pro- 
gram development, has also been 
released by Tandy. Features of the 
Development Pak include: a relocat- 
able macro assembler and linker, hard 
disk driver, RAM disk driver, descrip- 
tors, system programmer utilities, 
programming support for utilizing the 
window environment, plus a screen 
editor. 



1 04 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



GREAT COCO 10 PRODUCTS 



SECRETS REVEALED 

An introduction to the 
Color Computer H !M 
Compares differences 
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GIME chip specs 

CoCo I/CoCo HL Converter 
CoCo n Memory Map 




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It's here! A drawing 
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DISPLAY FOR THE CoCo III. AVAIL- 
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VIDEO DIGITIZER 

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WORD PROCESSING 





US 




TELEWRITER-64 - Three Hi-Res 
screens, true lowercase char's 
right justify, full screen 
editor. Tape $49-95 Disk $59.95 
TELEPATCH - A TW-64 enhancer ! ! ! 
True bjock move, Overstri ke & 
TSPOQL mode, Type Ahead Buffer 
FASTER Disk I/O 64K Disk $19.95 




Ed 



SEIKOSHA 

SP-1000A 

• 100 cps draft 

• 20 cps NLQ 

• Friction and tractor 

• Front panel Controls 

• 1.5 K buffer 

$219.95 



PRINTERS 

BU IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IH 




GEMINI Printer -120 cps, tract- 
friction feed, NLQ mode, BUFFER 
Front Panel Controls! - $249.95 
KAMELEON -Low cost Parallel Ptr 
Interface! 600/9600 Baud $49.95 
PBH- 64 - A combo Parallel Ptr 
interface & 64K Print Buffer ! 
COMPUTE while you PRINT $149.95 




MONITORS 





RS 26 Z 30H) Low Profile CoCo 
Keybd. Fits all CoCoII's. "F" & 
TDP-100's WAS" T39.95 NOW $19.95 
Adapter for D/E CoCoI's - $9.95 






Monitor Stand $24.95 



MONOCHROME 
MONITORS 

80x24 Hi-Res screens! $99.95 
Uni versal Video Driver - Works 
w/ al 1 monitors & CoCos!- $29.95 
1 3^ OLOR Monitors $169.95 



m 




#Also accepts COLOR COMPOSITE video input 
for PMODE4 artifact colors which show up 
as BLACK £ WHITE dots on the Tandy CM~8t 
Works w/Tandy TUOO, VCR a & Cameras I ! I 



SPEEDY COD ORDER HOT LINE - CALL 718-835-1344 



ftftftftftftftftftftftftftftftftftftftftft 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 

COLORFUL COMPUTING 



ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft 



SPREADSHEET 
DATA BASE MANAGER 




PRO-COLOR FILE - 60 Data Fids, 
8 Report Fmts, 4 Screen Fmts, 
FAST ML Sort, Global Search, 
1020 bytes /record - Disk $49.95 
EZ BASE - Maintain inventories, 
recipes, etc. Up to 500 records 
w/15 fields - 32K Disk $29.95 
Bu^Tem *-*B0TH** for only $69.95 




i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii hi iiiiiili 




COCO MAX II 

piiiim i nnnnmBBKHHUinMB 



Feature packed Hardware and 
§P-fi*jre graphics system!!! 
Pul 1-Down menus. Multiple font 
styles, Full g raphic editing, 
256x1 92 Joystick input module. 
64K Disk $79. 95-w/Ycable $99.95 
CoCoMax I-II Dsk Upgrade $19-95 
MaxEdit-$1 9. 95 MaxFonts-$64. 95 




DISK DRIVES 




DOUBLE SIDED 
DRIVE 0 
$239.95 

Top FD-501 Drive 1 (#26-3131) - 
Easy install! (SAVE$60) $139.95 



Super Ram - 51 2K Ramdisk for 
CoCo l/TT7Req Multi-Pak $169.95 
0S-9 Software Driver - $24.95 
Super Control ler - Switch up to 
4 DOSs via single POKE! $99.95 
Spectrum D0S-$29.95 AD0S -$39.95 
Eprom Pr^mr - SuperCtlr $69.95* 
DISPLAY80 - SuperCtlr $149.95** 



* 
** 



Uses 2764's ($4.95) or 

27128's ($6.95) Eproms 
Includes an 80x24 display, 
Real Time Clock 

& Printer interface ! 



aiHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 

DISTO PRODUCTS 







■AM 




4 



> 



GAME CONTROLLERS 




TRACKBALL 

$24.95* 

Wico Command Adapter - Now you 
can hookup 2 Atari type joystks 
to your CoCo for only $19.95! 
* Reg. $69.95 (See 9/86 review) 





u 



COCO II UPGRADES 



n 






'Here comes the ../ 



Want to upg rad e your new $69/ 
$88 CoCo II? TSee below ! ! ) 
4464 DRAMs - two chip 64K 
upgrade for 26-31 34A and 26- 
3134 B Korean CoCo TPl ..$39.95 
Extended BASIC - 28 pin ROM for 
26-3134 A7§~CoCo 1 1 ' s ...$34.95 
Buy 'em BOTH for only - $69.95 




SPECTRUM PROJECTS, Inc. 

PO BOX 264 
HOWARD BEACH, NY 11414 



CoCo Club/Dealer 

inquiries invited I 
Software/Hardware 
submissions welcomed I 
Looking for CoCo Hi software 



All orders plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) - COD add $2.00 extra - NYS Residents add Sales Tax 



Adventure and achievement are 
within your grasp when you enter 




Success Mansion 



By Paul Ruby, Jr. 



Y 



ou are lying in bed one evening. 
As you lie there, you glance over 
at the clock on the dresser and 
notice that it is after midnight. Your eyes 
begin to feel heavy. You are getting sleepy, 
very sleepy. You can hardly keep your eyes 

open. ZZZZZzzzzzz . . . 
That's it! You're sound asleep. In your 
slumber, you begin to dream. You are Joe I. 

Gonamakit. You live in the small town of 
Tinysville. You have heard rumors of the old 
man who used to live in the mansion on the 
hill. The gossip in town says that he once 
stole the 13 scrolls of success from a guru 

in India. 

You begin to talk in your sleep. You talk 
about going in the mansion and retriev- 
ing the 13 scrolls. Before you realize 
it, someone has overheard your 
talk. The rumor spreads like wildfire. 
The townspeople begin to laugh and talk 

behind your back. 
The dream drags on; months seem 
to pass. You are still the laughing 
stock of the town. As you are wash- 
ing pots and pans in the local res- 
taurant, you decide you are u sick 
and tired of being sick and tired." 

You march out of the restau- 
rant and head straight for Success 
Mansion. When you reach the 

Paul Ruby, Jr. is the 22-year-old found- 
er of Ruby Software and Consult- 
ing. A self-taught programmer, 
he installs, customizes and 
writes accounting sys- 
tems for businesses. 




108 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 




PPIIMG 




1ST 



SUPER CHIP -SALE- 

6821 Standard WA^h#5T $6.95 

Basic ROM 1.1 Chip^%#St $9.95 

6847 VDG Chip l&fr&E $12.95 

6809E CPU Chip $12.95 

CoCo III Multipak - "NEW" PAL chip (For Gray and 

White 26-3024 models ONLY) $19.95 

Orig SAM Chip (6883) $29.95 $19.95 

Basic ROM 1.3 ( Newest version ) $19.95 

68766 EPROM - (Fits all Basic ROMS ) $19.95 

Disk ROM 1.1 - (Needed for CoCoIII) $29.95 

New SAM Chip with heatsink (74LS785) $29.95 

Ext Basic 1.1 ROM - NEW LOW PRICE $29.95 

CoCo First Aid Kit - includes two PIA's, 6809E CPU 

and SAM Qnips^59^eS[ (BE PREPARED) $39.95 

EPROM Eraser - 3 minute erasure time $49.95 

EPROM Programmer - uses 2716s up to 27512s i Super 
fast prograiriming i - See April '86 review .$149.95 

COCO LIBRARY ... 

h History of the CoCo / 1980-1986 $3.95 

New! 200 MORE Pokes, Peeks 'N Execs $9.95 

Basic Programming Tricks Revealed $14.95 

CoCo Memory Map $16.95 

500 Pokes, Peeks *N Execs $16.95 

Basic 09 Tour Guide • $19.95 

Assembly Language P rcqrantning $19.95 

Color Basic Unraveled $19.95 

Extended Basic Unraveled ....$19.95 

Disk Basic (1.0/1.1) Unraveled $19.95 

New! New! CoCo II Service Manual (Specify CoCo II 

Catalogue model number $24.95 

CoCo III Service Manual $39.95 

Official MXCRCMRE 0S9 Manual Set $49.95 

The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS9 $19.95 

Guide with Two Disk Package of demo pgms ...$49.95 
Color/Ext ended/Pi sk Basic Unraveled - A completely 
comienteci disassembly of the CoCo R0MS 1 Comprehen- 
sive three (3) Book Set - Save $10! $49.95 

MORE OOOD STUFF .»* 

DELUXE JOYSTICK - SPECIAL - Now only $29.95 

Conputize "Y" Box - More positive connections than 

a "Y" Cable $39.95 

55£ WORDPAK-RS - Newest version 11 HiRes 80 x 24 

display (See Oct obex »86 review) $99*95 

Micro Works DS-69A Digitizer $149.95 

512K Color Computer III $369.95 



= S AND ... 

Printer / Modem 15* Extender Cable ..,,$14.95 

Tired of unplugging devices from your RS232 port? 

^ a "T Cable $19.95 

Disk Drive Cable (34pin - 34pin) $19.95 

Modem Cable - 6ft (DB25-DB25) $19.95 

Joystick/ Mouse 10 ' Ext Cable $19.95 

Dual Disk Drive Cable (3-34pin) $24.95 

CoCo I IT Analog RGB monitor cable (Specify manu- 
facturer and model number) $24.95 

15 18 Multi-Pak/Rom Pak Extender - Move your Multi- 
ROM Paks further away $27.95 

40 Pin Dual "Y" Cable - Hook up a Disk with a 

Voice Pak, fcford Pak, CoCo Max, etc $29.95 

Triple RS232 Switcher - Now easily select any one 

of three RS232 peripherals $39.95 

40 Pin Triple "Y" Cable - Hook up any three (3) 

Voice/Word/RS232/Digitizer PAKs $39.95 

Special! Four (4) Drive Disk Cable $49.95 

OTHER GOOD STUFF ... 

C-10 tapes in any quantity 49 cents 

5_l/4" Diskettes, any quantity 79 cents 

0S-9 Quick Reference Guide $3.95 

VHS T-120 Video Tapes $7.95 

Rompak w/Blank PC Board 27xx series $9.95 

Video Clear - This cable will reduce TV interfer- 
ence created by CoCo I $19.95 

The Magic Box - load Mod I/III Basic program tapes 

into the CoCo $24.95 

DOS Switcher ~ Select from any two DOSs (Disk 1.0 

1.1, JDOS) in a J&M disk controller $29.95 

Orig CoCol "D" Rev motherboard., Includes all chips 
( ShM, CPU, PIA f s, VDG) e xcept RAM and Ext Basic I 

Fantastic source for Spare Parts! $39.95 

256K RAM Chips (Set of 8) $39.95 

CoCo III MOttfQCHROME Driver i $39.95 

H JL-57 Keyboard - CoCo III version! Gomes complete 
with special FREE Function Key Software . . . .$59.95 

HPS Controller w/1.1 ROM (SAVE$20) $79.95 

Amdek Drive System with cont roller $239.95 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 
HOWARD BEACH NY 11414 



All orders plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) COD ORDER HOT LIIN1E 

COD 3 ClCl $2*00 © X t r S ma W^% #a g «m 

NYS Residents add Sates Tax /18*83o-13«#«# 



COLORFUL UTILITIES <N»<I> 



COCO CHECKER * 

Something possibly wrong with your CoCo ??? CoCo CHECKER is the answer! ! Will test your ROMs, 
RAMs, Disk Drives & Controller, Printer, Keyboard, Cassette, Joysticks, Sound, PIAs, VDG, Internal 
Clock Speed, Multi-Pak Interface and more!! 16K TAPE/DISK $21.95 (see Jan '85 Rainbow Review) 

MULTI-PAK CRAK 

Save ROM PAKs to your 64K Disk system using the RS Multi-Pak Interface. Eliminate constant 
P lugging in of ROMPAKs now by keeping all your PAK software on disk . Includes POKEs for 
"PROBLEM" ROMPAKs- including the NEW 16K PAKS! (Demon Attack,Dragons Lair,etc) 64K DISK $24.95 



III 



he FEATURES of TELE PATCH plus the classically proportioned characters of the WIZARD with 
TRUE lowercase! Now CoCo III compatible! (Upgrade $15 w/ proof of purchase ) $29.95 

SPIT N IMAGE 

A su per upgrade from Disk Omni Clone! Back everything up! This amazing program handles " non 
standard " disks with ease. We haven't found any disk yet that it can't handle. Don't ever be caught 
without a backup again! Lowest price too! Beats most "copy protection " programs! 32K DISK $34.95 

COCO SCREEN DUMP 

The best screen dump program for the Panasonic, Epson & Gemini printers ever! Have the option of 
standard or reverse images w/regular or double sized proportional pictures. 600-9600 Baud too! A 
must for Graphicom and CoCo Calendar users. 16K TAPE/DISK $21.95 (see Nov '84 Rainbow Review) 

DISK UTILITY 2.1 A* 

A mu Iti-featured tool for USER FRIENDLY disk handling. Utilize a directory window to selectively 
sort, move, rename and kill file entries. Lightning fast Disk I/O for format, copy and backup. 
Examine contents of files, the Granule Table, plus the size, load addresses and entry points of all 
programs. Sing le command execution of both Basic and ML programs. 32K/64K DISK $29-95 Now also 
CoCo III compatible! Upgrade only $15 w/ proof of purchase, (see Oct'84 Rainbow Review) 

SPECTRUM FONT GENERATOR 

Now you can write files using any C oCo Word Processor (Telewriter-64, VIP Writer, etc.) and convert 
them to special Highly Pet ai led character sets ! Some of the character sets supported are Italics , 
Ol d Engl i sh , Futuristic and Block. A character set ed i tor is included to create custom sets or 
modify existing ones! Supports most dot - matrix printers! DISK $29-95 (see Dec '85 Rainbow Review) 



Add 24 NEW Disk commands with 2 Hi -Res screens! Supports 40 track & Double -Sided drives, 6 ms 
stepping, auto disk search, error trapping & " EPROMABLE ". 64K DISK^a^ftS: New LOW price!! $29.95 

SCHEMATIC DRAFTING PROCESSOR 

Save tim e and design pro looking diagrams using a 480X540 pixel worksheet w/6 viewing windows. 
Over 30 electron ic sy mbol s w/10 definable symbols . (Even Logic gates & Mult i pin chips!) Print hard 
copy and save to disk. 64K DISK ^40^5: New LOW price!!! $29,95 (see Jan '84 Rainbow Review) 



THE MEMORY MANAGER 



Now you can use the SECOND 32K memory bank of your 64K CoCo as a SUPERFAST Ramdisk ! Also 
CHAIN a long Basic program from the first bank into the second or LOAD Basic programs into both 
32K banks and RUN from either bank! USER FRIENDLY & completely MENU DRIVEN. 64K DISK $29.95 



Use your CoCo to keep track of your checking and savings accounts! Printout individual personal 
checks! 32K/64K TAPE $19-95 DISK $29-95 (see April'85 pg. 210 & Oct'85 pg. 197 Rainbow Reviews) 



THE ULTIMATE GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 



Wizard's Castle is a graphic adventure game with deadly creatures , magic spells and traps of all 
types which are RANDOMIZED at the beginning of each session so that no_2 adventures will be the 
same! REAL TIME ACTION keeps the game's characters interacting even though you may be waiting to 
make a move. Includes three skill levels, 60 Hi-Res screens & Game Save Feature. 64K DISK $24.95 

BUY ANY 5 PROGRAMS *NOW AVAILABLE BY EXPRESS ORDER AT 
GET A DOUBLE SIDED YOUR LOCAL RADIO SHA K STORE!!! 

DRIVE t FOR $199.95 ASK TO SEE THE RADIO SHACK 

NO OTHER DISCOUNTS CAN BE APPLIED DEMO DISKS - FC*0249 & FG+0919M! 



/TN /T\ mr^m. ^y^m B ;4W u " l Mmk BB nifm gB fflSSS fmftfn Wt m m m ■ D ■ D ffl ar™? "v /t\ 

- / V , / V , It jHh wB B jHh TUB mL^JSw B B B B B B W H sraHB ^Mttsk / V, / \ / \ 

" \ I # " \ I # H JOB lifli flfl JOB , jqWol ^vt^SSSSHI a , *Mm Ills $Sllsi iJfM ?>§§M 18s H BmP*"™ ** ^**eBg8& " \ M \ ¥ \ ¥ 

V V wBK\ JSSSs mat <^^t mm ^BBk rajaf wSL. JeSSm mm vSSSL. JEEEEEo mM Wm, I — B ^mm B wsBBk. sEEES X. ^ V _X X. -X 

t t "llltl '"UHiP 1 »»■ '"UHIP 1 ■ tH ■ '"lUlH 11 BBP ■ ■ Wnm m m mmmsm "'IIIIMIp 11 f ' t 




COCO GRAPHIC DESIGNER 

Create custom greetings for any occasion: Birthdays, Anniversaries, Holidays, etc, Also BANNERS & 
SIGNS ! Includes " GRABBER " utility - capture Hi -Res CoCo screens for your GRAPHIC LIBRARY! Easy 
to use & comes with a set of £rej^awn graphics, deludes a screen & font editor, 32K DISK $29.95 

COCO VIDEO TITLER 

Start your VCR tapes with dazzling title frames followed by professional countdown to black fade- 
outs! Use a title page editor with several sizes of text & background colors! 32K DISK $24*05 

^o&tffe VIP WHITER ENHANCER 

Make all your programs that use ASCII files ( TW-64, Mikeyterm , etc.) compatible with VIP WRITER 
files! Automatically fixes TEXT CASE and CONTROL CHARACTER problems. DISK INTRO PRICE $19,95 

64K DISK UTILITY PACKAGE 

Take advantage of an expanded 64 K machine. Make an additional 8K of RAM available by relocating 
the Ext Basic ROM from $8000 to fP8QQ, Copy ROMPAKS to disk (even~ TT protected" PAKS) and create 
a 32K SPOOL buffer for printing. DISK $24*95 (see July '83 Rainbow Review) 

TAPE/DISK UTILITY 

A powerful package that transfers tape to disk and disk to tape automatically. Does an automatic 
copy of an entire disk of programs to tape. Ideal for Rainbow On Tape to disk. Also copies tape to 
tape & prints tape & disk directories. TAPE/DISK $24.95 (see Sept '83 Rainbow Review) 





SUPER DUPER UTILITIES 

inally! At last! A "SUPER DUPER" utility software package all rolled up into ONEill Includes such 
.great uti lit ies as: CoCo Disk Zap, Disk Encryption, Disk Mailing List, EZ Disk Master, Graphics 
ZOOM, Banner Creator, Function KEYS, Super INPUT/L INEINPUT, Basic Program PACKER, Alpha 
Directory, Basic SEARCH and much, much morelll 32K DISK $29.95 (see June ? 86 Rainbow Review) 

COCO III UTILITIES 

It's here! Just in time! Some neat utility programs for your brand new Color Computer lilt 
includes a CoCo il to CoCo III converter program, 32K Hi~Res screen saver, simple 40/80 column 
Word Processor, RAM tester, DEMO BALL generator, SMOOTH scrolling demos. 128K DISK $21.95 

THE Of-S SOLUTION 

NOW, a program that creates a "USER FRIENDLY " environment within OS-9! The OS-9 SOLUTION 
replaces 19 of the old "USER HOSTILE" commands with single keystroke, menu driven commands. No 
more typing in complex long pathnames or remembering complicated syntaxes! Set ail XMODE 
parameters at the touch of keys !J^$S9385T New LOW price!!! $24-95 (see Sept f 85 Rainbow Review) 

COCO-UTIL II 

Now you can have the power to easily transfer Radio Shack Color Computer disk files to your MS- 
DOS machine - including the Tandy 1 000 & IBM PC!!1 You can also transfer MS-DOS files to your 
CoCo disk, even format CoCo disks! CoCo-Util will save you countless hours of retyping! No need to 
move your computer or printer anymore! Requires 128K MS-DOS computer w/2 disk drives - $39*95 




SOFTWARE BONANZA PACKAGE 

reate an instant library of Spectrum Projects TOP Colorful Utility software. Select any of the 
following V2 programs to customize your own SPECTACULAR SOFTWARE BONANZA ! CoCo Checker, 
Mul t i-Pak Crak, CoCo Screen Dump, Disk Uti I ity 2.1, Spectrum Font Generator, Tape/Disk Utility, 
Fast Dupe II, 64K Disk Uti I ity, Spectrum DOS, CoCo Calendar, Schematic Drafting Processor, OS-9 
Solution, Basic Plus, EZ Base or Blackjack Royale (a $300 plus value) for only $99.95!!! 



MIKEY-DIAL 



When used with any Hayes compatible modem & Dei uxe Program Palk, adds to Mikeyterm 4.0 the 
ability t# Autod ial 22 numbers from a menu & load a set of 3 MACROS for each directory choice. 
Also EASY redial & changing of MODEM settings by command menu. DISK $19*95 (See Pec 8 88 Review) 



■ nun itmumjmm mq 



All orders plus $3 S/H (Foreign $5) 
COD add $2 extra 
NYS Residents add Sales Tax 
COD ORDER LINE 718-835-1344 



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w~ m CS & §£""**« m ssmjrH ElZS IlZjI 8^^« IB^*^rl2 to^ m m m 

UUmuilV BPT BOB .... HttHHttHr ffl ffl Ha w..w w) UUmHylf nnttttnf B B u W mf mmr H ^ ^HH^n n ^Affl n .... 

^B^^^^^^ BBpifififim iWlBt BHHhMWMfliB. ro ww, ^M THWDUUIIIIIIIinillF 5BBr TBDOP BBBr ^^^^^^^^r ^^W— ^^^^^^^^^^B IPfffithmu jBBP IHHHimuiii ijlllia lllBw— wBm 'Qw- A^^^^H BOB ^BBM^i Jgn^uu^mmm 

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B_J BF H """^B otl BB & ^PBk ^"""""ij^ii ^ wwwt ^ S ^» ffl BMW W B— B bPBu S ^TOyff^ ^*nm ^*bb B^^B ^*bb B^^B 

B B! BJBB WW V w ^OflPt BJ Bj tWWWW^ BBBSr WWWW <BT ^B& ^BBBB™' B B B *ooai « ™ SI « *^ 




Recommended Reading for Your CoCo from . . . 

The Rainbow Bookshelf 




SIMULATIONS 



P|KCWUIWIH«Cf 





I Hi: HAiMvnw jiihik 
in w»vk>ti in s 



First 



The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 

The book that demystifies the stale-of-the-art operating system for 
the Tandy Color Computer. Authors Dale L Puckett and Peter Dibble 
show you how to take advantage of OS-9's multitasking and multi- 
user features, and the capability of redirecting input and output 
commands at will. An easy-to-read, step-by-step guide packed with 
hints and tips, tutorials and free software in the form of program 
listings. 

Book $19.95 

Disk Package $31 (2 disks, book not included) 



The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures 

This sequel features 24 of the most challenging Adventure games 
ever compiled. Meet the Beatles and battle the Blue Meanies, find 
a hidden fortune, or win the heart of a beautiful and mysterious 
princess. Experience the thrills and chills of the most rugged 
Adventurer without ever leaving your seat. Ring Quest, Secret Agent 
Man, Dark Castle, Curse of Karos, Island and more! 

Book $13.95, Tape $13.95 



Rail 



sJV Y V v X v v v J 



The Rainbow Book ot Simulations 

Features 20 award-winning entries from the rainbow's first 
Simulation programming competition. You are the Commander-in- 
Chief of the Confederate Army during the Civil War, an air traffic 
controller at one of the nation's busiest airports, the owner of your 
own software business, a civil defense coordinator in charge of 
saving Rainbow City from a raging flood, a scientist conducting 
experiments on Mars . . . Your wits are on the line. 

Book $9.95, Tape $9.95 



The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations 

The 16winningprogramsfromour second Simulation contest. Fly through the dense African 
jungle as a bush pilot, bull your way down Wall Street, lead the Rainbow City bomb squad, 
or try your hand at Olympic events. Test your skills and talents. 

Book $9.95, Tape $9.95, Disk $10.95 



Coming Soon: The Rainbow Introductory Guide to Statistics 



I want to start my own Rainbow Bookshelf! 



Please send me: 

□ The Rainbow Book of Simulations 

□ Rainbow Simulations Tape 

□ The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations 

□ Second Rainbow Simulations Tape 

□ Second Rainbow Simulations Disk 

□ The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 (book only) 

□ Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Disk Package (2 disks) 



$ 9.95 
$ 9.95 
$ 9.95 
$ 9.95 
$10.95 
$19.95 
$31.00 



□ The Rainbow Book of Adventures (first) $ 3.50 ^-$^25 _ 

□ Rainbow Adventures Tape (first) $ 3.50 £3&TL 

□ The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures $13.95 _ 

□ Second Rainbow Adventures Tape $13.95 _ 
Add $1.50 per book Shipping and Handling in U.S. 

Outside U.S., add $4.00 per book 
Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax 

(Allow 6 to 8 weeks for delivery) Total 



Name 



Address 

City 

State _ 



ZIP 



□ Payment Enclosed, or □ Charge to: 
□ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 



i fV! 





















Account Number 



Card Expiration Date 
Signature 



Mail to: Rainbow Bookshelf, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 

Please note: The inpes and disks offered by The RaJnbow Bookshelf are nol aland-alone products. Thai is, they are intended to be an adjunct and complement to the boons. Even if you buy the tape or disk 
you Mil siili need the appropriate book. OS-fl« is a registered trademark of tho Mi<* owaro Systems Corporation. 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. For other inquiries call (502) 
228-4492. 



doorstep you begin to have second 
thoughts. You remember the rumors of 
the mansion being haunted. 

As you turn to walk away, you realize 
the entire town has followed you to the 
doorstep of the mansion. The people 
begin to laugh at you and dare you to 
go in. You know if you walk away now, 
you will never hear the end, of it. Your 
pride is at stake. You decide to show 
everyone that you can retrieve the 13 
scrolls, or your name isn't Joe I. Gon- 
amakit! 

Success Mansion is a beginner's 
Adventure program, that has been 
designed to progress into a real life 
adventure. It requires a 32K Color 
Computer, and either a cassette re- 
corder or one disk drive. (Multipack 
interface and speech/sound cartridge 
are optional.) The mansion contains 13 
scrolls listing principles of success, 
which are used by millionaires across 
the country. 

Your goal in the Adventure is to 
retrieve the 13 scrolls and exit the 
mansion. While retrieving the scrolls, 
you will discover other items in the 
mansion. Examine the items and find 
them in the real world. Answer the 
Success Quiz if you can. Try to apply 
the information you have learned to 
your life. That is when the real Adven- 
ture begins. 

The program plays like most other 
text Adventure programs. First, it 
displays a description of your surround- 
ings. Then, it prompts you for a com- 
mand, which is composed of one verb 
followed by a noun. The program will 
not allow any abbreviations for com- 
mands. (Can you figure out the princi- 
ple behind that?) 



Moving in the Mansion 

To move through the mansion, you 
will need to type a verb — either WPLK, 
RUN or GO, followed by a direction. The 
direction must be either NDRTH, 5DLITH, 
ERST, WEST, LIP or DOWN. The descrip- 
tion, displayed by the program, will list 
the valid directions that you may use. 

Example: WPLK NORTH 

Looking Around 

The program will also list objects that 
are in the room with you. When there 
are objects in the room with you, you 
may want to look at some of them. 
Typing the verb LOOK by itself, for a 
command, displays the room descrip- 
tion. 

Example: LOOK DOOR 

Picking Up Objects 

Some of the objects in the mansion 
may be picked up. To pick up an object, 
simply type the verb GET followed by 
the name of the object you want to pick 
up. 

Example: GET BOOK 

Taking Inventory 

As you explore the mansion, you may 
forget what you are carrying. To list the 
objects you are carrying, type the com- 
mand INVENTORY by itself . 

Getting A Little Help 

If you are having difficulty when you 
start, try typing the command HELP. 

Quitting the Adventure 

Should you desire to quit the Adven- 
ture before finishing it, you can quit by 
typing the command QUIT. 



Saving an Adventure 

If you do not have time to complete 
the Adventure during one sitting, you 
can save it to tape or disk. To save the 
Adventure, simply type the command 
5RVE. The program will then prompt 
you for the device to save the Adventure 
on (tape or disk). If the' Adventure is to 
be saved on tape, put the desired tape 
in the recorder and press the play and 
record buttons. 

Loading an Adventure 

To load a previously saved Adven- 
ture, with the present Adventure in 
memory, simply type the command 
LORD by itself. The program will then 
prompt you for the device to load the 
Adventure from (tape or disk). If the 
Adventure is saved on tape, make sure 
the correct tape is in the recorder and 
press the play button. If the Adventure 
is saved on disk, make sure the correct 
disk is in the disk drive. 

Talking or Non-talking 

If you have the Speech/Sound Pro- 
gram Pak from Radio Shack, this Ad- 
venture will talk to you. 

During the Adventure, you may want 
to either turn the talking routine on or 
off. To turn the talking routine on, type 
the command TRLK ON. To turn the 
talking routine off, type the command 
TRLK OFF. 

Beware the BREAK Key 

Should you press the break key by 
mistake, you can continue the Adven- 
ture where you left off by typing the 
command CONT and pressing ENTER. 

Hint 

Be sure to write down the things you 



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JFD-CP DISK CONTROLLER 

OlM new JFIRT. compatible with both the original COCO and 

the COCO 2. features a 
parallel port to svppnrt a 
Centronics compatible 
printer or our hard drive, 
and an external ROM 
switch, which allows you 
to select JDOS or an np- 
Nonal RS DOS-type ROM. 
It comes in a case and in- 
cludes JDOS 1.2 and man- 
ual. JDOS implements all RS DOS commands, plus many more, 
including auto lint- numbering error trapping, baud rate selec- 
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■JFLMT The JFD-CP controller is cnittlMiiblc with the COCO 3. however the parallet port will not function with the COCO A. Us^rs of the ftV Cr and COCO 3 should mil connect jnrlhinil tu the parallel 
printer port. 

•Tl»e JDOS disk operating system will yield unpredictable results when used on a COCO 3. El is. recommended thai JDOS not h« used oh the COCO 3. Radio- Shack DOS (vers. 1.0 nr 1.11 will work in ail 
m\ Controllers. 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 113 



WE'RE BRINGING THE COCO 



RAINBOW'S 
BROADENING ITS 
SPECTRUM 

the rainbow and the Delphi Infor- 
mation Utility have joined together 
to allow CoCo owners all over the 
world to connect with one another! 

Delphi is a full-service information 
utility. It offers everything from up- 
to-the-minute news stories from The 
Associated Press to electronic mail 
services. But, best of all, it now has 
a special forum for Color Computer 
owners, and it's operated by the 
people who bring you the rainbow 
each month. 

The CoCo Special Interest Group 
(SIG) features a variety of services, 
including an open forum where you 
can send and receive messages 
from Color Computer owners all 
over the world. It also has several 
databases to which you can upload 
your favorite programs and from 
which you can download programs 
written by other CoCo enthusiasts. 
Some of these databases are basic 
programming, OS-9 and home ap- 
plications. 

When setting up your account with 
Delphi, if you do not have a credit 
card or prefer not to use it, Delphi 
requires that you send $20 to give 
your account a positive balance. This 
will be refunded after your first free 
hour if you choose to no longer use 
the system or it will be applied to 
future connect charges. If you do not 
maintain a positive balance, you will 
be charged $3.50 each month for 
direct billing. 



PEEK INTO THE 
RAINBOW 

The CoCo SIG's conference feature 
allows you to meet electronically 
with other members of the CoCo 
Community. You can join conferen- 
ces with notables such as Dale 
Puckett, Cray Augsburg, Marty 
Goodman, Don Hutchison, Jim 
Reed, Lonnie Falk and others — 
on a regular basis. Conference 
schedules will appear in the rain- 
bow each month. Be sure to check 
online announcements for changes 
and additions. 



THE OTHER SIDE 
OF THE RAINBOW 

On Delphi, you also are able to buy 
rainbow on tape — order a whole 
set, or download an individual pro- 
gram immediately. You can also 
renew your rainbow subscription, 
make a fast and easy order for soft- 
ware or hardware from a multitude 
of vendors, or inquire about prod- 
ucts on the CoCo SIG. 

We also have a number of programs 
thatyou can download and use, just 
for the cost of the time you spend 
transferring them. There'll also be 
corrections for rainbow articles, 
helpful hints and many other useful 
features. 



FREE LIFETIME 
MEMBERSHIP 

the rainbow is offering subscribers 
a free lifetime subscription to Delphi 

— a $24.95 value — and a free hour 
of connect time — a $7.20 value at 
either 300, 1200 or 2400 Baud — so 
you can sample Delphi and the rain- 
bow CoCo SIG. That's right. Your 
subscription to the rainbow entitles 
you to this $32.15 value as a free 
bonus! 

If you're not a rainbow subscriber, 

just enter your order when you sign 
on with Delphi and you'll get the 
same great deal! For our $31 sub- 
scription fee, you'll get the finest 
Color Computer magazine ever, a 
free lifetime subscription to Delphi 
and a free hour of connect time. 

SAVE EVEN MORE 

Want to save even more? While 
you're online you can order, for only 
$29.95, a deluxe package which in- 
cludes the Delphi membership, the 
Delphi Handbook and Command 
Card ($21 .95) and a total of three 
hours of connect time ($21.60). 

Delphi provides us all with Imme- 
diate CoCo Community Check it 
out today. After all, you can sample 
it for free! 



Problems? Call Delphi: 

(800) 544-4005 
(617) 491-3393 



DELPH I 



TYPE: 

GROUP COCO 




COMMUNITY TOGETHER 



How to reach RAINBOW'S Color Computer SIG . . . 



There are several ways to connect to Delphi and the 
rainbow's CoCo SIG. In mostcities you will not even have 
to pay long distance charges; you can use special data 
communications networks like Telenet, Tymnet and the 
Canadian Datapac network. 

First, set your terminal program to operate at either 300 
or 1200 Baud (depending on the modem you have), and 
also select either 7 bits with even parity or 8 bits with no 
parity, and one stop bit. (If one combination doesn't work, 
try another.) 

Decide which network you should use. There is no 
surcharge for Telenet or Tymnet. Canadian residents using 
Datapac will be charged an additional $ 1 2 (U.S.) per hour. 

On Telenet: The Uninet network has now merged with 
Telenet. To get the Telenet number for your area, call (800) 
336-0437. After you call your local access number and 
make connection, press the ENTER key twice. When the 
"TERMINAL^" prompt appears, press ENTER again. 
When the "@" prompt appears, type C DELPHI and press 
ENTER. 

On Tymnet: Call (800) 336-0149 to get the Tymnet 
number for your area. After you dial your designated 
number and connect, you will see either "garbage" or a 
message saying "please type your terminal identifier." At 
this point, even if the screen is garbled, simply press 'A'. 
When "please log in:" appears, type DELPHI and press 

ENTER. 

From Canada (on Datapac): Call Delphi Customer 
Service at (617) 491-3393 to get the Datapac number for 
your area. After you connect, press the period key (.) and 
ENTER (use two periods if you Ye using 1200 Baud). Type 
SET 2:1, 3:126 and press ENTER. Now type p 1 3106, 
DELPHI; and press enter. Delphi's new rates indicate an 
additional $12 hourly surcharge for evening use of 
Datapac, which means a total of $18 (U.S.) for connect 
time. 

From other countries: Many countries have their own 
data networks that can connect to either Telenet or 
Tymnet. Check with the telephone authorities in your 
country f ordetails on how to sign up for this service. When 
you have an account set up, you can reach Delphi with 
a "host code" of 312561703088 through Telenet, or 
3 1 060060 1 500 through Tymnet. (You'll have to pay the toll 
charges for this connection.) 

Type in Your Username 

If you're already a subscriber to the rainbow, at the 
"USERNAME:" prompt, type RRINBOWSUB and press 



ENTER. At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type your individ- 
ual subscription number from the mailing label of your 
latest issue of the rainbow. (If there are one or more zeros 
at the beginning of this number, include them.) 

If you don't already have a subscription, at the "USER- 
NAME:" prompt, type RRINBOWORDER and press ENTER. 
At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type SENDSUB and press 
ENTER. Have your MasterCard, VISA or American 
Express card ready, because you'll be led through a series 
of questions that will enable us to put your rainbow and 
Delphi subscriptions into effect. In an effort to hold down 
non-editorial costs, we do not bill for subscriptions. 

If you make a typing error, just press ENTER and start 
over. Remember that at any point, when you're on Delphi, 
you can type HELP to get help on how to use the system. 
To get off the system just type BYE. 

If you find that you're unable to log on to Delphi and 
enter the CoCo SIG after following these instructions, call 
us during afternoon business hours at (502)228-4492. We'll 
be glad to offer assistance. 

Come Visit Us! Type: GROUP COCO 

After you sign in, you'll be prompted to set up your own, 
personal "user name" — Delphi is a friendly service, no 
numbers to remember — and you'll be asked a number 
of questions so Delphi can set up your account. You'll also 
be assigned a temporary password. No time is assessed 
against your free hour of service while you answer these 
questions. 

Delphi will tell you that your account will be ready after 
6 p.m. the same day if you sign up before noon (Eastern 
time zone.) If not, your account will be ready at 6 p.m. 
the next day. Once an account is opened, each rainbow 
subscriber will be credited with an hour of free timet 

When you log back in, use your chosen username and 
your temporary password to access the system. At that 
point, you will meet Max, who will help you configure 
things and will change your temporary password into 
your own personal password. This is the password you 
will use for subsequent sessions — or until you change it. 

After Max bids you goodbye, you'll wind up at the 
Delphi Main Menu; type in GROUP COCO and join us on 
the CoCo SIG! 



■ 9 m ■ 



More than a book . . . 

A MILESTONE 




oduies O 
ograms. 



□ Please send me The 

Complete Rainbow Guide To 
OS-9 for $19.95.* 



Name 



□ Please send me The Rainbow 
Guide To OS-9 Disk (a 
package of two disks) for 
$31.* Does not include book. 

Signature 




Address 
City 



State 



ZIP 







' 1 h 

1 Woi fe<C ard 1 

i — — - * 


i 


* ■ 







.Card Expiration Date 



□ My check in the amount of is enclosed. 

□ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

Account Number . . 

Mail to: 

The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059 

To order by phone {credit card orders only) call 800-847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. 

For other inquiries call 502-228-4492. 

'Add $1.50 per book shipping and handling in U.S. Outside U.S. add $4 per book. Allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. KY residents 
add 5% sales tax. In order to hold down costs, we do not bill. ALL ORDERS IN U.S. FUNDS. 

OS-9 is a trademark of Microware Systems Corporation. 



Success 

Ql: Why must you type GO, WALK or 
RUN followed by a direction to move 
through the mansion? 

Q2: Why must you exit the mansion 
with the 13 scrolls? 

Q3: Why has the program been writ- 
ten in BASIC instead of machine lan- 
guage? 

Q4: What is written on the following 
scrolls: 

A: SCROLL1 
B: SCROLL2 
C: SCROLL3 
D: SCROLL4 
E: SCROLL5 
F: SCROLL6 
G: SCROLL7 



Quiz 

H: SCROLL8 
I: SCROLL9 
J: SCROLL10 
K: SCROLL11 
L: SCROLL12 
M: SCROLL13 

Q5: Of all the objects in the mansion, 
which item contains the detailed de- 
scription of each of the principles on 
each scroll? 

Q6: List the title of each book on the 
suggested reading list: 

A: 
B: 
C: 
D: 



find and any observations you make. 

Loading the Program From Cassette 

1. Type the command: PCLEPR 1 

2. Type the command: CLDPD 

3. Type the command: RUN 

Loading the Program From Disk 

1. Type the command: PCLEPR 1 

2. Type the command: LDPD 
"SUCCESS" 

3. Type the command: RUN 

Enjoy your success! 

(Questions about this program may 
be addressed to Mr. Ruby at Route 3 
Box 2], Beeville, TX 78102; 512-358- 
8819. Please enclose an SASE when 
writing.) □ 




110 253 

250 92 

420 147 

530 147 

680 50 

810 187 

970 121 

1050 231 

1140 250 

1210 76 

1290 200 



1360 33 

1500 199 

1590 165 

1680 215 

1740 112 

1830 1 

1 900 233 

1990 255 

2060 178 

2140 148 

2220 245 



2310 89 

2410 210 

2480 28 

2520 126 

2620 237 

2690 42 

2790 114 

2850 228 

2910 44 

3000 183 

3150 72 

END 169 



The listing: SUCCESS 

10 FILES 1,255: CLEAR 1024 

20 CLS(RND(8)) : PRINT@169 , "SUCCES 

S MANSION" ;:PRINT@227, "WRITTEN B 

Y : PAUL RUBY JR." ; 

30 REM 

40 PRINT@296, "COPYRIGHT (C) 1986 

" ; : PLAY "T2 5 5 ; L2 5 5 ; V3 1 " : FOR A=lTO 

3 1 : PLAY " A G C DGE D AG A V - 1 1 : NEXT 

42 PRINT@448, "TALKING ADVENTURE 

(Y/N)?"; 

44 Z$=INKEY$:IF Z$="Y"OR Z$="y"T 
HENTK=1ELSE IF Z$="N"OR Z$="n"TH 
ENTK=0ELSE 44 

46 PRINT@448,STRING$(3 2,PEEK(102 

4) ) ; 

50 Z1$="SUCCESS MANSION. WRITTEN 

BY PAUL RUBY JUNIOR. COPYRIGHT 
9TEEN 8EESIX":GOSUB3100 
60 IF TK=lTHENFOR Z=1TO5500 : NEXT 
70 PRINT@489,"<PRESS ANY KEY>"; 
80 Z1$="PRESS ANY KEE TO CONTINU 
E":GOSUB3100 

90 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 90 EL 
SE CLS(RND(8) ) 

100 IFTK=1THENPRINT@16 8,"0NE MOM 
ENT PLEASE" ; :Z1$="1 MOMENT PLEAS 
E" : GOSUB3100 : FOR Z=1TO1900 : NEXT : 



FOR Z=1TO20:SOUNDRND(25 5) , 1:NEXT 
:FOR Z=1TO1000:NEXT:Z1$="HELLO J 
OE" :GOSUB3100 :FORZ=1TO1500:NEXT 
110 CLSRND(8) :PRINT@165, "THE ADV 
ENTURE BEGINS ! ! ! " ; : Z1$="THE ADVE 
NTURE BEGINS" : GOSUB 3100 
120 DIM L$(35) ,LO$(32) ,0$(32) ,C$ 
(25) ,T(6,34) ,C(25) , O (32) , T$ ( 6) , T 
L$(6) 

130 FOR C=l TO 34 : READ L$(C):NEX 
T 

140 FOR C=l TO 31: READ LO$(C),0$ 
(C) ,0(C) : NEXT 

150 FOR C=l TO 3 4 : READ T(1,C),T( 
2-;c) ,T(3,C) ,T(4,C) ,T(*5,C) ,T(6,C) 
:NEXT 

160 T$ (l)="NORTH" :T$(2) ="SOUTH" : 
T$ ( 3 ) ="EAST" : T$ ( 4 ) ="WEST" : T$ ( 5 ) = 
"UP":T$(6)="DOWN" 

170 FOR C=l TO 22 : READ C$(C),C(C 

) : NEXT 

180 L=1:M=0 

190 CLS: PRINT @480 

200 Z$="YOU ARE "+L$(L)+" " 

210 Z$=Z$+"YOU SEE " 

220 FL=0 

230 FOR C=l TO 31: IF O(C) =L THEN 

240 ELSE 270 
240 IF FL=0 THEN Z$=Z$+"A "+LO$ ( 
C) ELSE Z$=Z$+", "+LO$(C) 
250 IF LEN(Z$)>32 THEN GOSUB 301 

260 FL=FL+1 
270 NEXT 

280 IF FL=0 THEN Z$=Z$+"NOTHING 
OUT OF THE ORDINARY" 
290 Z$=Z$+". " 

300 Z$=Z$+"OBVIOUS EXITS LEAD " 
310 FL=0 

320 FOR C=l TO 6: IF T(C,L)>0 THE 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 117 



570 FOR C=l TO 6: IF T(C,L)<-1 TH 
EN DT=3 ELSE NEXT 

580 FOR C=l TO LEN(A$):IF MID$ (A 

$,C,1)=" " THEN A1$=LEFT$ (A$ , C-l 

) :B$=MID$(A$,C+1,LEN(A$)-C) : GOTO 

600 ELSE NEXT 

590 A1$=A$ 

600 FOR C=l TO 2 2 

610 IF C$(C)=A1$ THEN A=C(C):GOT 
0640 

620 NEXT 

630 Z$="I DO NOT UNDERSTAND THE 
VERB IN YOUR COMMAND. PLEASE TRY 
ANOTHER COMMAND . " : G0SUB3 0 10 : GOT 
0430 

640 FL=0:IF INSTR(B$+" 11 , " DESK 

11 ) THEN B1$="DESK" :FL=1 

650 IF INSTR(B$+" 11 , 11 HUTCH 11 ) TH 

EN B1$="HUTCH" : FL=1 

660 IF INSTR(B$+" 11 , 11 TABLE " ) TH 

EN B1$= ,I TABLE" :FL=1 

670 IF INSTR(B$ + " 11 , 11 BOOKSHELF 

11 ) THEN B1$="B00KSHELF":FL=1 

680 IF INSTR(B$+" "," STATUE ")T 

HEN Bl$= 11 STATUE" :FL=1 

690 IF INSTR(B$+" "," MAT " ) THEN 

B1$="MAT" : FL=1 
700 IF INSTR(B$+" "," KEY " ) THEN 

B1$="KEY":FL=1 
710 IF INSTR(B$+" "," SCROLL ")T 
HEN B1$="SCR0LL" : FL=1 
720 IF INSTR(B$+" "," DOOR " ) THE 
N B1$="D00R":FL=1 

730 IF INSTR(B$+" "," PANEL " ) TH 

EN B1$="PANEL" :FL=1 

740 IF FL=1 THEN B$=B1$ 

750 FOR C=l TO 31: IF INSTR(B$+" 

"," "+0$(C)+" ") THEN B$=0$(C) 

760 NEXT 

770 FOR C=l TO LEN(B$):IF MID$(B 
$,C,1)=" " THEN B1$=LEFT$ ( B$ , C-l 
) ELSE NEXT 

780 IF B1$="A" OR B1$="THE" OR B 
1$="AT"0R B1$="T0"THEN B$=MID$(B 
$,C+1,LEN(B$) -C) :B1$="":GOTO770 
790 ON A GOTO 810,930,1360,1450, 
1550, 1640, 1790, 1970,2210, 2370,24 
20,2470,2520,2560 
800 'INVENTORY 

810 CLS: PRINT 11 YOU ARE CARRYING T 

HE FOLLOWING: ": PRINT :Z1$=" YOU AR 

E CARRYING THE FOLLOWING ...": GOS 

UB3100 

820 Z$="" 

830 FOR C=l TO 31 

840 IF O(C)=1000 THEN Z$=Z$+"-"+ 
LO$(C)+"- " 

850 IF LEN ( Z $ ) >3 2THEN GOSUB3010 
860 NEXT 



N 330 ELSE 360 

3 30 IF FL=0 THEN Z$=Z$+T$(C) ELS 
E Z$=Z$+", "+T$(C) 

340 IF LEN(Z$)>32 THEN GOSUB 301 
0 

350 FL=FL+1 

360 NEXT:Z$=Z$+". 11 

370 IF T(1,L)<0 AND T(l,L)>-3 TH 

EN Z$=Z$+"TO THE NORTH IS A CLOS 

ED DOOR. " 

380 IF T(2,L)<0 AND T(2,L)>-3 TH 
EN Z$=Z$+"TO THE SOUTH IS A CLOS 
ED DOOR. " 

390 IF T(3,L)<0 AND T(3,L)>-3 TH 
EN Z$=Z$+"TO THE EAST IS A CLOSE 
D DOOR. " 

400 IF T(4,L)<0 AND T(4,L)>-3 TH 
EN Z$=Z$+"TO THE WEST IS A CLOSE 
D DOOR. " 

410 IF T(3,L)=-3 THEN Z$=Z$+"TO 
THE EAST IS A CLOSED METAL PANEL 



ii 



420 IF T(4,L)=-3 THEN Z$=Z$+"TO 

THE WEST IS A CLOSED METAL PANEL 
ii 

430 Z=RND(1000) : IF Z>950 THEN Z$ 
=Z$+" YOU CAN HEAR THE PEOPLE ST 
ILL LAUGHING AT YOU OUT SIDE. 11 
440 IF Z>900 AND ZO50THEN Z$=Z$ 
+" THE TOWNS PEOPLE STILL LAUGH 
AT YOUR ADVENTURE. " 
450 IF Z<50 THEN Z$=Z$+" YOU REM 
INISCE OF YOUR BEST FRIENDS LAUG 
HING AT YOUR TALK OF SUCCESS. 11 
460 IF LEN(Z$)>32 THEN GOSUB 301 

0 

470 IF Z$<>""THEN PRINT Z$:Z1$=Z 
$:Z$=" ":GOSUB3100 

480 PRINT @0," total moves: 11 ;STR$( 

m) :print@480, "" ; : line input "=>" 
;a$ 

490 a4$="":if a$="" then 480 

500 FOR C=l TO LEN(A$) :A3$=MID$ ( 
A$,C,1):IF ASC(A3$)>96 AND ASC(A 
3$)<122 THEN A4$=A4$+CHR$ (ASC (A3 
$)-32) ELSE A4$=A4$+A3$ 
510 NEXT:A$=A4$ 

515 IF INSTR(A$ , "TALK ON" ) THENTK 
=1 : G0T04 8 0 : ELSEIFINSTR ( A$ , "TALK 
OFF" ) THENTK=0 : GOT048 0 
520 M=M+1 

530 WN=0:FOR C=19 TO 31: IF 0(C) < 
1000 THEN WN=1 ELSE NEXT 
540 IF WN=0 THEN T(2,l)=999 
550 IF L=l OR L=3 OR L=6 OR L=7 
OR L=14 OR L=15 OR L=3 0 OR L=31 
THEN DT=1 

560 FOR C=l TO 6 : IF T(C,L)<0 THE 
N DT=2 ELSE NEXT 



118 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



870 IF Z$="" THEN PRINT: PRINT TA 
B(12) ; "NOTHING" : Zl$="NOTHING" :GO 
SUB3100 

880 IF LEN(Z$) >3 2THENGOSUB3010 
890 IF Z$<>""THEN PRINT Z$:Z1$=Z 
$:GOSUB3100 

900 PRINT@489, "<PRESS ANY KEY>"; 
:Z1$="PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE" 
:GOSUB3 100 

910 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 910 

920 CLS:GOTO 200 

930 IF A$=A1$ THEN 200 

940 IF B$="KEY"OR B$=" SCROLL" THE 

NZ$="THIS MANSION HAS MORE THAN 

ONE "+B$+" IN IT. YOU WILL HAVE 

TO SPECIFY WHICH ONE YOU WANT.": 

GOSUB30 10 : GOTO430 

950 IF B$="KEY1"AND O(3)=1000THE 
NZ$="IT LOOKS LIKE IT MIGHT UNLO 
CK A DOOR. ":GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
960 IF B$="KEY2 "AND O(4)=1000THE 
NZ$="IT LOOKS LIKE AN ORDINARY M 
ETAL KEY . " : GOSUB3 010 i GOT04 3 0 
910 IF B$="KEY3 "AND O(5)=1000THE 
NZ$="IT IS YOUR AVERAGE METAL KE 
Y . " : GOSUB3 010: GOTO 4 30 
980 IF B$="KEY4"AND O(6)=1000THE 
NZ$="IT HAS THE LETTERS M.B. ON 
IT. 11 :GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
990 IF B$="PAPER"AND O(1)=1000TH 
ENZ$="THE NUMBERS 9-6-3-1-4-7 AR 
E WRITTEN ON IT . " : GOSUB3010 : GOTO 
430 

1000 IF B$=" CARD" AND O(2)=1000TH 
ENZ$="THE PLASTIC CARD READS 2-4 
-6-8 . ":GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
1010 IF B$="MAT"AND L=1THENZ$="I 
T READS WELCOME TO SUCCESS MANSI 
ON. ONE CORNER IS WORN, AS IF IT 

HAS BEEN MOVED QUITE OFTEN IN T 
HE PAST. " :GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
1020 IF B$="SCROLLl"AND 0(20) =10 
00THENZ$="IT READS the scroll of 

desire. " :GOSUB30 10: GOT04 30 

1030 IF B$="SCROLL2"AND 0(21) =10 
00THENZ$="IT READS the scroll of 

faith. ":GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
1040 IF B$="SCR0LL3"AND 0(22) =10 
00THENZ$="IT READS the scroll of 

autosuggestion. 11 : GOSUB3010 : GOTO 
430 

1050 IF B$="SCR0LL4"AND O(2 3)=10 
00THENZ$="IT READS the scroll of 
specialized knowledge. 11 : GOSUB30 

10:GOTO430 

1060 IF B$="SCR0LL5"AND 0(24) =10 
00THENZ$="IT READS the scroll of 

imagination . " : GOSUB3010 : GOT043 0 

1010 IF B$="SCR0LL6"AND O(25)=10 



00THENZ$="IT READS the scroll of 
organizedplanning . 11 : GOSUB3010 : G 

OTO430 

1080 IF B$="SCR0LL7"AND 0(26) =10 
00THENZ$="IT READS the scroll of 
decision. ":GOSUB3010:GOTO430 

1090 IF B$="SCR0LL8" AND 0(27) =1 
000THENZ$="IT READS the scroll O 

f persistence. ":GOSUB3010:GOTO43 

1100 IF B$="SCR0LL9"AND 0(28) =10 
00THENZ$="IT READS the scroll of 

the master mind. 11 : GOSUB3010 : GOT 

0430 

1110 IF B$="SCROLL10"AND 0(29)=1 
000THENZ$="IT READS the scroll o 
f sex transmutation. BEHIND EVER 

Y SUCCESSFULL MAN IS A SUCCESSFU 
LL WOMAN. ":GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
1120 IF B$="SCR0LL11"AND 0(30) =1 
000THENZ$="IT READS the scroll o 
f the subconscious mind. " :G0SUB3 

010:GOTO430 

1130 IF B$="SCR0LL12"AND 0(31) =1 
000THENZ$="IT READS the scroll o 
f the brain. " :GOSUB3010:GOTO430 

1140 IF B$="SCR0LL13"AND 0(19)=1 
000THENZ$="IT READS the scroll o 
f the sixthsense. 11 :GOSUB3010:GOT 

04 30 

1150 IF B$="DOOR"AND DT=2THENZ$= 
"THE DOOR IS CLOSED. 11 : G0SUB3 010: 
GOTO430 

1160 IF B$="DOOR"AND DT=3THENZ$= 
"THE DOOR IS LOCKED. 11 :GOSUB3010: 
GOTO430 

1170 IF B$="DOOR"AND DT=0THENZ$= 
"YOU LOOK AROUND, BUT DON'T SEE 
A DOOR. 11 : GOSUB3010 : GOTO430 
1180 IF B$="DOOR"AND DT=1THENZ$= 
"THE DOOR IS OPEN. 11 : GOSUB3010 : GO 
TO430 

1190 IF B$="DESK"AND L=7THENZ$=" 
IT IS A SOLID OAK DESK. THE DESK 
HAS A SMALL DRAWER. ": G0SUB3 010 : 
GOTO 4 30 

1200 IF B$="DESK"AND L=29THENZ$= 
"IT IS A LARGE WALNUT DESK. THER 
E IS A LARGE DRAWER ON THE LEFT 
SIDE OF THE DESK. " : G0SUB3 010 : GOT 
0430 

1210 IF B$="DESK"AND L=14THENZ$= 
"IT IS A LARGE METAL DESK. THERE 

IS A SMALL METAL DRAWER ON THE 
RIGHT SIDE OF THE DESK. " : GOSUB30 

10:GOTO430 

12 20 IF B$=" DRAWER" AND (L=70R L=2 
90R L=14 ) THEN Z$="THE DRAWER IS 
UNLOCKED. " :GOSUB3010:GOTO430 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 119 



1230 IF B$=" BOOKSHELF "AND L=2 AN 
DO(16)>-4THENZ$="IT IS A LARGE B 
OOKSHELF EXTENDING THE LENGTH OF 

THE WALL. 11 : GOSUB3010 : GOTO430 
1240 IF B$=" BOOKSHELF "AND L=2 AN 
D 0(16)=-4THENZ$="THERE IS A PAP 
ERBACK BOOK ON ONE OF THE SHELVE 
S . 11 : GOSUB3010 : 0 ( 16) =L: GOTO430 
1250 IF B$="BOOK"AND O(16)=1000T 
HENZ$="THE TITLE OF THE BOOK IS 

think and grow rich WRITTEN BY N 

APOLEON HILL . " : GOSUB3 0 10 : GOT04 3 0 
1260 IF B$="HUTCH"AND L=17THENZ$ 
="IT IS MADE OF MAHOGANY, AND IT 
IS NOT LOCKED. ": GOSUB30 10 :G0T04 
30 

1270 IF L=70R L=80R L=290R L=30A 
ND B$=" PANEL" THENZ$=" EXAMINING T 
HE PANEL, YOU NOTICE A SMALL KEY 
PAD FOR ENTERING NUMBERS. YOU RE 
ALIZE YOU WILL HAVE TO HAVE THE 
CORRECT COMBINATION TO 'OPEN' OR 
'CLOSE' THE PANEL. ": GOSUB30 10: G 
OTO430 

1280 IF B$="TABLE" AND L=18 AND 
O(26)<0 THEN 0 ( 2 6 ) =L: 0 ( 17 ) =L: Z$= 

"YOU NOTICE A SMALL PAMPHLET AN 
D THE 1 SCROLL7 1 . 11 : GOSUB3 0 10 : GOTO 

430 

1290 IF B$=" TABLE 11 AND L=18 AND 
O(26)>0 THENZ$= "IT IS A LARGE T 
ABLE WITH A TIGER CLAW PEDESTAL. 
":GOSUB3010 :GOTO 430 
1300 IF B$=" BOOKLET" AND 0(15)=1 
000 THENZ$= "IT READS 'THE JUNKF 
OOD WITHDRAWAL MANUAL 1 BY MONTE 
KLINE. " :GOSUB30 10: GOTO 430 
1310 IF B$=" PAMPHLET" AND 0(17)= 
1000 THENZ$= "IT CONTAINS A LIST 

OF BOOKS: HOLY BIBLE, '7 KEYS T 
0 A LONGER LIFE 1 BY DR. HANS J. 
KUGLER, 'THE MAGIC OF BELIEVING 1 

BY CLAUDE BRISTOL, 'THE GREATES 
T SALESMAN IN THE WORLD 1 BY OG M 
ANDINO . 11 : GOSUB30 10 : G0T04 3 
1320 IF B$=" JACKET" AND 0(14) =10 
00 THENZ$="IT IS YOUR AVERAGE DR 
ESS JACKET. " :GOSUB30 10 : GOTO 430 
13 30 IF B$=" STATUE" AND L=10 THE 
NZ$= "THIS IS A BEAUTIFUL MARBLE 

STATUE OF CUPID. " :GOSUB30 10: GOT 
0 430 

1340 Z$="YOU DO NOT HAVE THE "+B 
$+". ":GOSUB3010 
13 50 GOTO 4 30 

13 60 FOR C=l TO 6 : IF B$=T$ (C) TH 

EN DR=C:GOTO 1380 

1370 NEXT: GOTO 1430 

13 80 IF T(DR,L)>0 THEN L=T(DR,L) 



:GOTO 1400 

1390 IF T (DR, L) =<0THEN Z$="YOU C 
AN NOT GO THAT WAY. " :GOSUB3010 :G 
OTO430 

1400 IF L=1000AND WN>0THEN2720 
1410 IF L=999THEN2770 
1420 GOTO200 

1430 Z$="PLEASE TRY A DIRECTION. 
11 : G0SUB3 0 10 : GOTO 4 3 0 
1440 1 

1450 IF B$="SCROLL"OR B$="KEY"TH 
ENZ$="THIS MANSION HAS MORE THAN 
ONE "+B$+" IN IT, THEREFORE, YO 
U WILL HAVE TO SPECIFY WHICH ONE 
. 11 : G0SUB3 0 10 : G0T04 3 0 
1460 IF B$=" JACKET" AND 0(22)=-lT 
HENZ$="AS YOU PICK UP THE JACKET 
, SOMETHING FALLS FROM ONE OF TH 
E POCKETS. YOU TAKE A CLOSER LOO 
K, AND REALIZE IT IS THE VALUABL 
E ' SCR0LL3 ' ." :GOSUB3010:O(22)=21 
: 0 ( 14 ) =1000 : GOTO430 
1470 FOR C=1T031 

1480 IF B$=0$(C)AND 0(C) =L AND 0 

$(C)<>"*"THEN 0(C) =1000 :Z$=LO$(C 

)+" HAS BEEN TAKEN. ":GOSUB30 10: G 

OTO430 

1490 NEXT 

1500 FOR C=1T031 

1510 IF B$=0$(C)AND O(C)=1000THE 
NZ$="YOU ALREADY HAVE THE "+L0$ ( 
C)+", " :GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
1520 NEXT 

1530 Z$="YOU ARE UNABLE TO TAKE 
THE "+B$+" . " : GOSUB30 10 : G0T04 30 
1540 1 

1550 IF B$="MAT"AND L=1AND 0(3)= 
-1THENZ$="AS YOU MOVE THE WELCOM 
E MAT, YOU NOTICE THE 1 KEY1 1 UND 
ER THE MAT.":GOSUB3010:O(3)=L:GO 
TO430 

1560 IF B$="MAT"AND L=1AND 0(3) > 
1THENZ$="Y0U MOVE THE MAT, BUT S 
EE ONLY A PILE OF DIRT . 11 : GOSUB30 
10:GOTO4 30 

1570 IF B$="MAT"AND L=1AND 0(3)= 
1THENZ $="THE 1 KEY1 1 IS STILL HER 
E ON THE PORCH. ": GOSUB30 10 : G0T04 
30 

1580 IF B$= 11 FIGURE "AND L=10AND 0 

(19) >0THENZ$="YOU MOVE THE FIGUR 

E OF CUPID, BUT NOTHING HAPPENS. 

" : G0SUB3 0 10 : G0T04 3 0 

1590 IF B$=" STATUE "AND L=10AND 0 

(19)<0THENZ$="YOU MOVE THE STATU 

E OF CUPID, REVEALING A COMPARTM 

ENT CONTAINING THE 1 SCROLL 13 1 . " : 

O(19)=10:GOSUB3010:GOTO430 

1600 IF B$=" DOOR" THENZ$=" AROUND 



120 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



♦ ♦ ♦ best of everything ! 



Unleash the true potential of your 
Color Computer with accessories 
from Radio Shack. 

Add a pair of joysticks (A, 26-3008, 
Pair/$19.95) for fast 360° movement 
or our Deluxe Joystick (B, 26-3012, 
$29.95) that adjusts to your touch, al- 
lowing "fine tuning". For maximum 
control of games and graphics, simply 
"roll" the Color Mouse (C, 26-3025, 
$49.95) across a tabletop to accu- 
rately position the cursor. 

Maximize your Color Computer's 
power with the Multi-Pak Interface 
(D, 26-3124, $99.95). You can change 
programs instantly using the selector 
switch, or under program control. 
And you can connect disk drives or 
other accessories, too. 



Here are two more great-sounding 
accessories! The Sound/Speech Car- 
tridge (E, 26-3144, $79.95) adds 
three-voice sound and text to speech. 
The Orchestra-90 CC (F, 26-3143, 
$79.95), lets you create electronic 
music and sound effects. 

The 300-baud DC Modem Pro- 
gram Pak (G, 26-2228, $89.95) makes 
it possible to join the telecommuni- 
cations wave. Since the modem and 
software are built in, you can access 
information services by phone. Need 
more memory? Hard disk storage is 
yours with the Hard Disk Interface 
(H, 26-3145, $129.95)*. 

Come in today for the accessories 
that make your Color Computer even 
more of a high performer! 



Radio /hack 

The Technology Store 



A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



r 



Send me an RSC-17 
Computer Catalog. ■ 

Mall to: Radio Shack, Dept. B6-A-710 
300 One Tandy Cenler, Fort Worth, TX 76102 



Name 



I 

I 



Address 
City 



State 
Zip_ 



Phone 



I 

I 

I 
I 




'Requires 64K, Multi-Pak Interface, floppy disk with controller and 
OS-9 (2.0 or later). Prices apply at participating Radio Shack Com- 
puter Centers and participating Radio Shack stores and dealers. 
Orchestra-90r7M Software Alfair. 0S-9/TM Microware Corp. 



HERE WE 'OPEN' AND 'CLOSE' DOORS 

. " : GOSUB3 010 : GOT043 0 

1610 IF B$="PANEL"THENZ$="THE PA 

NEL WILL 'OPEN' OR 'CLOSE 'WITH T 

HE CORRECT COMBINATION. 11 : GOSUB30 

10:GOTO430 

1620 Z$="YOU ARE UNABLE TO MOVE 
THE "+B$+" .":GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
1630 1 

1640 IF A$=Al$THENZ$="YOU MUST S 
PECIFY WHAT YOU WANT TO UNLOCK." 
: GOSUB3 0 10 : GOT043 0 

1650 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=310R L=30 
) AND T(3,30)=-2AND 0 ( 6) =1000THEN 
Z$="YOU HAVE UNLOCKED THE DOOR W 
ITH THE ' KEY4 ' . " : T ( 4 , 3 1 ) =-1 : T ( 3 , 
30 ) =- 1 : GOSUB3 0 10 : GOTO 430 
1660 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=310R L=30 
) AND T(3,30) >-2THENZ$="THE DOOR 
IS ALREADY UNLOCKED. ": GOSUB3010 : 
GOT04 3 0 

1670 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=310R L=30 
) AND T(3,30)=-2AND 0 ( 6 ) <1000THEN 
Z$="YOU DO NOT HAVE THE PROPER K 
EY TO UNLOCK THIS DOOR . " : GOSUB30 
10:GOTO430 

1680 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=140R L=15 
) AND T(3,14)=-2AND 0 ( 5 ) =1000THEN 
Z$="YOU HAVE UNLOCKED THE DOOR W 
ITH THE ' KEY3 ' . 11 : T ( 3 , 14 ) =-1 : T ( 4 , 
15)=-1:GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
1690 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=140R L=15 
) AND T(3 ,14) >-2THENZ$="THE DOOR 
IS ALREADY UNLOCKED. 11 : GOSUB3010 : 
GOT04 3 0 

1700 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=140R L=15 
) AND T(3,14)=-2AND 0 ( 5 ) <1000THEN 
Z$="YOU DO NOT HAVE THE PROPER K 
EY TO UNLOCK THIS DOOR. " : GOSUB30 
10:GOTO430 

1710 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=60R L=7)A 
ND T(3,6)=-2AND 0 (4 ) =1000THENZ$= 
"YOU HAVE UNLOCKED THE DOOR WITH 
THE ' KEY2 ' . " : T (3 , 6) =-1 :T ( 4,7)=- 
1 : GOSUB3 010 : GOTO430 
1720 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=60R L=7)A 
ND T(3 , 6) >-2THENZ$="THE DOOR IS 
ALREADY UNLOCKED . 11 : GOSUB3010 : GOT 
0430 

1730 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=60R L=7)A 
ND 0(4) <1000THENZ$="YOU DO NOT H 
AVE THE PROPER KEY TO UNLOCK THI 
S DOOR. 11 : GOSUB3010 : G0T04 3 0 
1740 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=10R L=3)A 
ND T(1,1)=-2AND 0 ( 3 ) =1000THENZ$= 
"YOU HAVE UNLOCKED THE DOOR WITH 
THE ' KEY1 ' . " : T ( 1 , 1) =-1 : T (2 , 3 ) =- 
1 : GOSUB3010 : G0T04 30 

1750 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=10R L=3)A 



ND T(1,1)>-2THENZ$="THE DOOR IS 
ALREADY UNLOCKED. " : GOSUB3010 : GOT 
0430 

1760 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=10R L=3)A 
ND T(1,1)=-2AND 0 ( 3 ) <1000THENZ$= 
"YOU DO NOT HAVE THE PROPER KEY 
TO UNLOCK THIS DOOR. " : GOSUB3010 : 
GOTO430 

1770 Z$="YOU ARE UNABLE TO UNLOC 
K THE "+B$+" .":GOSUB3010:GOTO4 30 
1780 1 

1790 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=310R L=30 
) AND T(3,30)=-1AND 0 ( 6 ) =1000THEN 
Z$="YOU HAVE LOCKED THE DOOR WIT 
H THE 'KEY4 ' . " :T (3 , 30) =-2 :T (4 , 31 
)=-2 :GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
1800 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=310R L=30 
) AND T(3,30)=-1THENZ$="THE DOOR 
IS ALREADY LOCKED. 11 : G0SUB3 010 : GO 
TO430 

1810 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=310R L=30 
) AND T(3,30)>-1THENZ$="THE DOOR 
MUST BE CLOSED BEFORE YOU CAN LO 
CK IT.":GOSUB3010:GOTO4 30 
1820 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=30OR L=31 
) AND 0(6) <1000THENZ$="YOU DO NOT 
HAVE THE PROPER KEY TO LOCK THI 
S DOOR.":GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
1830 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=140R L=15 
) AND T(3,14)=-1AND 0 ( 5 ) =1000THEN 
Z$="YOU HAVE LOCKED THE DOOR WIT 
H THE • KEY3 ' . " : T ( 3 , 14 ) =-2 : T ( 4 , 15 
) =-2 : G0SUB3 0 10 : G0T04 3 0 
1840 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=140R L=15 
) AND T(3,14)=-2THENZ$="THE DOOR 
IS ALREADY LOCKED .": GOSUB30 10 : GO 
TO430 

1850 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=140R L=15 
) AND T(3 ,14) >-lTHENZ$="THE DOOR 
MUST BE CLOSED BEFORE YOU CAN LO 
CK IT.":GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
1860 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=140R L=15 
) AND 0(5) <1000THENZ$="YOU DO NOT 
HAVE THE PROPER KEY TO LOCK THI 
S DOOR. " : GOSUB3010 : GOTO430 
1870 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=60R L=7)A 
ND T(3,6)=-1AND 0 (4) =1000THENZ$= 
"YOU HAVE LOCKED THE DOOR WITH T 
HE ' KEY2 ' . ":T(3,6)=-2:T(4,6)=-2: 
GOSUB3010 : GOTO430 

1880 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=60R L=7)A 
ND T(3,6)=-2THENZ$="THE DOOR IS 
ALREADY LOCKED. 11 : GOSUB3010 : G0T04 
30 

1890 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=60R L=7)A 
ND T(3 , 6) >-lTHENZ$="YOU MUST CLO 
SE THE DOOR BEFORE YOU CAN LOCK 
IT. " : GOSUB3010 : GOTO430 
1900 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=60R L=7)A 



122 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



DeskMate 7-in4 software 
makes your Color Computer 

better than ever. 



Now our popular DeskMate® 
software is available for disk-based 
Color Computers! DeskMate 
(26-3259, $99.95) features seven 
popular personal-productivity 
programs — all on one disk! A 
general-purpose TEXT entry and 
editing program is ideal for writing 
correction-free letters, memos and 
short reports. LEDGER, a simple 
spreadsheet program, helps you do 
budgeting, sales forecasting, profit- 

and-loss projec- 
tions and other 
I "What if . . . ?" 
calculations. Us- 
ing the four- 

' color PAINT 

CALENDAR picture editor, 




am um< ioi 



»♦•> m m *a m m m 

ii.-<i< mm mm mm 

mi m.m m-m mm 

im mi m lit m t.i m 

MM f m iHN .MM 



LEDGER 




you can create 
colorful charts, 
graphs, designs 
and "doodles" 
on your screen. 
Print a copy on 
a dot-matrix or 
ink-jet printer. 
The INDEX CARDS personal filing 
system lets you enter and edit data 
and perform simple sorts and search- 
es. It's ideal for keeping track of 

names and ad- 
dresses. TELE- 
COM gives you 
access to na- 
tional informa- 
tion services, 
TELECOM plus transmits 





in.Mmr'.iiMnrnccM— 1 
















MMN 








N 






b<l '•<• 


■1 'Ml 


IM MM 




»<« MM 


• MM 


mmm 




hum 


• »•« . 


MM 




• M •••• 


■MS 


1 •# • • 




. •• MM 




m 








■ 







Files!' IVieu 



Data Oi recto rv 



» JEW! 




* J! J 

23 


Filei ^ 


Oat of i 1 e 


Budget 


SI i 






Ap ri IBS 


Friends 


Bu 1 let in 


1 1 


Q 


jr 


Kirfsturr 


Resumes 


Year 1385 




!«l 




H p m p u ■" r u 
fTrrrt 

fTFTrl 


Dow j ones 


Picture! 

r o 


1 T H t ■ 

Ma/ 55 


Recipes 


1 J 

Ent rpri z 







INDEX CARDS 



and receives 
files from other 
computers by 
phone (requires 
modem). A sim- 
ple'monthly cal- 
endar program 
displays "to 
do's" for any date. CALENDAR is 
an easy way to organize your day 
A four-function CALCULATOR is 
available within the operations of 

any application. 

Don't have a 
disk drive? You 
can add one for 
just $299.95. 

(26-3131). 

TEXT EDITOR Come in today! 

Radio /haek 

The Technology Store 7 




A DIVISION OF TANDY COHPOHATION 



Se 

I 
I 
I 
I 

L 



Send me an RSC-17 Computer Catalog 

Mail To: Radio Shack 
Dept. 87-A-711, 300 One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth. TX 76102 



Name 



Address 
City 



State 



ZIP 



Phone 



1 
I 

I 

I 
I 

J 



Prices apply at Radio Shack Computer Centers and par- 
ticipating stores and dealers. DeskMate/Registered TM 

Tandy Corp. 




ND O(4)<1000THENZ$="YOU DO NOT H 
AVE THE PROPER KEY TO LOCK THIS 
DOOR . " : GOSUB3 g 10 : GOTO 4 30 
1910 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=10R L=3)A 
ND T(1,1)=-1AND O(3)=1000THENZ$= 
"YOU HAVE LOCKED THE DOOR WITH T 
HE ' KEY1 ' . ":T(l,l)=-2:T(2,3)=-2: 
GOSUB3 0 10 : GOT04 3 0 

1920 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=10R L=3)A 
ND T(1,1)=-2AND 0 ( 3 ) =1000THENZ$= 
"THE DOOR IS ALREADY LOCKED.": GO 
SUB3010:GOTO430 

1930 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=10R L=3 ) A 

ND T(l,l) >-lTHENZ$="YOU MUST CLO 

SE THE DOOR BEFORE YOU CAN LOCK 

IT . " : GOSUB3010 : GOTO430 

1940 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=10R L=3)A 

ND O(3)<1000THENZ$="YOU DO NOT H 

AVE THE PROPER KEY TO LOCK THIS 

DOOR . 11 : GOSUB3 0 10 : GOT04 3 0 

1950 Z$="YOU ARE UNABLE TO LOCK 

THE "+B$+" . " : GOSUB3 010 :GOT043 0 

1960 • 

1970 IF A$=Al$THENZ$="YOU MUST S 
PECIFY WHAT YOU WANT TO OPEN. 11 :G 
OSUB3010:GOTO4 30 

1980 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=310R L=30 
) AND T(3,30)=-1THENZ$="YOU HAVE 
OPENED THE DOOR. 11 :T ( 3 , 30 ) =3 1 : T ( 4 
,31)=30:GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
1990 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=310R L=30 
) AND T(3,30)>-1THENZ$="THE DOOR 
IS ALREADY OPEN . 11 : GOSUB3010 : GOTO 
430 

2000 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=310R L=30 
) AND T(3,30)=-2THENZ$="YOU MUST 
UNLOCK THE DOOR BEFORE YOU CAN 0 
PEN IT. " : GOSUB3010 : GOTO430 
2010 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=140R L=15 
) AND T(3,14)=-1THENZ$="Y0U HAVE 
OPENED THE DOOR. " : T ( 3 , 14 ) =15 : T ( 4 
, 15) =14 : GOSUB3 010 : GOT043 0 
2020 IF B$=" DOOR" AND (L=140R L=15 
) AND T(3,14)=-2THENZ$="YOU MUST 
UNLOCK THE DOOR BEFORE YOU CAN 0 
PEN IT.":GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
2030 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=140R L=15 
) AND T(3,14)>-1THENZ$="THE DOOR 
IS ALREADY OPEN. " :GOSUB30 10 S GOTO 
430 

2040 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=60R L=7)A 
ND T(3 , 6)=-lTHENZ$="YOU HAVE OPE 
NED THE DOOR.":T(3,6)=7:T(4,7)=6 
: GOSUB3 0 10 : GOT04 3 0 

2050 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=60R L=7)A 
ND T(3,6)>-1THENZ$="THE DOOR IS 
ALREADY OPEN. " : GOSUB3010 : GOTO430 
2060 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=60R L=7 ) A 
ND T(3,6)=-2THENZ$="YOU MUST UNL 



OCK THE DOOR BEFORE YOU CAN OPEN 

IT . " : GOSUB3010 : GOT043 0 
2070 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=10R L=3)A 
ND T(1,1)=-1THENZ$="Y0U HAVE OPE 
NED THE DOOR.":T(l,l)=3:T(2,3)=l 
: GOSUB30 10 : GOTO 430 

2080 IF B$= "DOOR" AND (L=10R L=3)A 
ND T(1,1)>-1THENZ$="THE DOOR IS 
ALREADY OPEN. " : GOSUB3010 : GOTO430 
2090 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=10R L=3 ) A 
ND T(l,l)=-2THENZ$="YOU MUST UNL 
OCK THE DOOR BEFORE YOU CAN OPEN 

IT." :GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
2100 IF L=17AND B$="HUTCH"AND 0( 
28) <0THENZ$="AS YOU OPEN THE HUT 
CH, THE • SCROLL9 ' DROPS TO THE F 
LOOR. THE DOOR ON THE HUTCH SWIN 
GS SHUT WHEN YOU LET IT GO.":0(2 
8 ) =17 : GOSUB3010 : GOT043 0 
2110 IF L=17AND B$="HUTCH"AND 0( 
28) >0THENZ$="YOU OPEN THE HUTCH, 

AND SEE NOTHING INSIDE. THE DO 
OR ON THE HUTCH SWINGS SHUT WHEN 

YOU LET IT GO. " :GOSUB3010 : GOT04 
30 

2120 IF B$= "PANEL" AND (L=70R L=80 
R L=290R L=3 0 ) THEN GOSUB 2 600: GO 
TO430 

2130 IF B$="DRAWER"AND L=7AND 0( 

2)<0THEN 0(2)=L:0(2 9)=L:Z$="WHEN 
YOU OPEN UP THE DRAWER, YOU SEE 
A PLASTIC ID CARD AND THE VALUA 

BLE • SCROLL10 1 . " : GOSUB3010 : GOT04 

30 

2140 IF B$=" DRAWER" AND L=7AND 0( 
2) >0THENZ$="THE DRAWER IS NOW OP 
EN. " : GOSUB3 010 : GOTO430 
2150 IF B$=" DRAWER 11 AND L=14AND 0 
(21) <0THENZ$="OPENING THE DRAWER 
REVEALS THE VALUABLE 1 SCROLL2 ' . 
" : 0 ( 2 1 ) =L : GOSUB3 0 10 : GOT04 3 0 
2160 IF B$=" DRAWER" AND L=14AND 0 
(21)>0THENZ$="THE DRAWER IS OPEN 
. " : GOSUB3 010 : GOTO430 
2170 IF B$="DRAWER"AND L=29AND 0 
(1)<0THENZ$="OPENING THE DRAWER 
REVEALS A WRINKLED PIECE OF PAPE 
R, THE ' SCROLL8 ' , AND THE 'SCROL 

Lll' . 11 :0(1)=L:O(27)=L:O(30)=L:GO 

SUB3010:GOTO430 

2180 IF B$=" DRAWER" AND L=29AND 0 
(1) >0THENZ$="THE DRAWER IS NOW 0 
PEN . " : GOSUB3 0 10 : GOT04 3 0 
2190 Z$="YOU ARE UNABLE TO OPEN 
THE "+B$+" . 11 :GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
2200 • 

2210 IF A$=Al$THENZ$="YOU MUST S 
PECIFY WHAT YOU WANT TO CLOSE.": 
GOSUB30 10 : GOT043 0 



124 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



2220 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=310R L=30 
) AND T(3,30)>0THENZ$="YOU HAVE C 

LOSED THE DOOR. " : T ( 3 , 30 ) =-1 : T ( 4 , 

3 1 ) =-1 : GOSUB3010 : GOTO 4 30 

2230 IF B$="DOOR"AND(L=310R L=30 

) AND T(3,30)<0THENZ$="THE DOOR I 

S ALREADY CLOSED. 11 : GOSUB3 0 10 I GOT 

0430 

2240 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=140R L=15 
) AND T(3,14)>-1THENZ$="Y0U HAVE 
CLOSED THE DOOR. " : T ( 3 , 14 ) =-1 : T (4 
,15)=-1:GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
2250 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=140R L=15 
) AND T(3,14)<0THENZ$="THE DOOR I 
S ALREADY CLOSED .": GOSUB30 10 : GOT 
0430 

2260 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=60R L=7)A 
ND T(3,6)=-1THENZ$="Y0U HAVE CLO 
SED THE DOOR.":T(3,6)=-l:T(4 / 7)= 
- 1 : G0SUB3 010: GOTO 430 
2270 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=60R L=7)A 
ND T(3,6)>-1THENZ$="THE DOOR IS 
ALREADY CLOSED. 11 : GOSUB3010 : G0T04 
30 

2280 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=10R L=3)A 
ND T (1 , 1) >-lTHEN Z$="YOU HAVE CL 
OSED THE DOOR.":T(l,l)=-l:T(2,3) 
=-1 : GOSUB30 10 : GOTO430 
2290 IF B$="D00R"AND(L=10R L=2 ) A 
ND T ( 1 , 1) <0THENZ$="THE DOOR IS A 
LREADY CLOSED . " : G0SUB3 0 10 : G0T04 3 

0 

2300 IF L=17AND B$="HUTCH"THENZ$ 
= 11 THE HUTCH IS ALREADY CLOSED. 11 : 
G0SUB3 0 10 : G0T04 3 0 

2310 IF B$="PANEL"AND(L=70R L=80 
R L=290R L=3 0) THEN G0SUB2 600 : GOT 
0430 

2320 IF B$=" DRAWER" AND L=7THENZ$ 
="THE DRAWER IS CLOSED. ": GOSUB30 
10:GOTO430 

2330 IF B$=" DRAWER" AND L=14THENZ 
$="THE DRAWER IS CLOSED . 11 : G0SUB3 
010:GOTO430 

2340 IF B$=" DRAWER" AND L=29THENZ 
$="THE DRAWER IS NOW CLOSED.": GO 
SUB3010:GOTO430 

2350 Z$="YOU ARE UNABLE TO CLOSE 

THE "+B$+". ":GOSUB3010:GOTO430 
2360 ' 

2370 IF B$="SCROLL"OR B$="KEY"TH 
ENZ$="THIS MANSION HAS MORE THAN 
ONE "+B$+" IN IT. YOU WILL HAVE 
TO SPECIFY WHICH ONE . " : G0SUB3 0 1 
0:GOTO4 30 

2380 FOR C=l TO 31 

2390 IF B$=0$(C)AND O(C)=1000AND 
0$ (C) <>"*"THEN 0 (C) =L: Z$=LO$ (C) 



+" HAS BEEN DROPPED. " :GOSUB30 10: 

GOTO430 

2400 NEXT 

2410 Z$="YOU DO NOT HAVE A "+B$+ 

"-»'": GOSUB3010 : GOTO430 
2420 • SAVE 

2430 PRINT:Z$="I AM CAPABLE OF S 
AVING THIS ADVENTURE ON 'TAPE' 0 
R 'DISK' . ":GOSUB3010:PRINTZ$:Z1$ 
=Z$:GOSUB3100:Z$="" 

2431 Z$="ON WHICH DEVICE SHALL I 
SAVE THE ADVENTURE ":GOSUB30 10 :P 

RINTZ$ ; : Z1$=Z$ : G0SUB3 100 : Z$=" 11 : 1 
NPUTQ$ 

2440 IF Q$<>"TAPE"ANDQ$<>"DISK"T 
HENZ$="O.K. JOE. YOU MUST TYPE 
EITHER 'TAPE' OR 'DISK'. I DID N 
OT SAVE THE ADVENTURE .": GOSUB301 
0 : PRINTZ$ : Z1$=Z $ : G0SUB3 100 : Z$=" " 
:GOTO430 

2450 IFQ$="TAPE"THENGOSUB3250 : Zl 
$=" SAVING" : PRINTZ1$ : GOSUB3010 : OP 
EN"0" , #-1, "JOESGAME" : F0RC=1T031 : 
PRINT#-1,L0$ (C) ;0$(C) ;0(C) : NEXT : 
F0RC=1T034 : PRINT#-1 , T ( 1 , C) ; T ( 2 , C 

) ;T(3,C) ;T(4,C) ;T(5,C) ;T(6,C) :NE 

XT : PRINT # -1 , L ; M : CLOSE- 1 : GOSUB32 3 
0:GOTO430 

2460 IFQ$="DISK"THENOPEN"0", #1, " 
JOESGAME" : F0RC=1T031 : WRITE#1 , L0$ 
(C) ,0$(C) ,0(C) :NEXT:F0RC=1T034:W 
RITE#1,T(1,C) ,T(2,C) ,T(3,C) ,T(4, 
C) ,T(5,C) ,T(6,C) :NEXT:WRITE#1,L, 
M: CL0SE1 : G0SUB3 2 30 : G0T04 3 0 
2470 ' LOAD 

2480 PRINT: Z$="I CAN LOAD AN ADV 
ENTURE FROM ' TAPE • OR ' DISK 1 . " : G 
OSUB3010:PRINTZ$: Z1$=Z$ : G0SUB3 10 
0:Z$=" " 

2481 Z$="FROM WHICH DEVICE SHALL 
I LOAD AN ADVENTURE" :GOSUB3010: 

PRINTZ$ ; : Z1$=Z$ : GOSUB3100 : Z$=" " : 
INPUTQ$ 

2490 IFQ$<>"TAPE"ANDQ$<>"DISK"TH 
ENZ$="O.K. JOE. YOU MUST TYPE EI 
THER 'TAPE' OR 'DISK'. I DID NOT 
LOAD AN AD VENTURE. 11 : GO SUB 30 10 :P 
RINTZ$:Z1$=Z$ :GOSUB3100 :Z$=" 11 : GO 
TO430 

2500 IFQ$="TAPE"THENGOSUB3250 : Zl 
$="LOADING":PRINTZ1$:GOSUB3010:O 
PEN"I", #-1, "JOESGAME" :F0RC=1T031 
:INPUT#-1,L0$ (C) ,0$(C) ,0(C) : NEXT 
: F0RC=1T034 : INPUT#-1 , T ( 1 , C) , T ( 2 , 

C) ,T(3,C) ,T(4,C) ,T(5,C) ,T(6,C) :N 
EXT:INPUT#-l,L,M:CLOSE-l:GOSUB32 
40:GOTO430 

2510 IFQ$="DISK"THENOPEN"I", #1, " 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 1 



! JOES GAME" : F0RC=1T03 1 : INPUT #1 , LO$ 
1 (C) ,0$(C) ,0(C) :NEXT:F0RC=1T034:I 
NPUT#1,T(1,C) ,T(2,C) ,T(3,C) ,T(4, 
C) ,T(5,C) ,T(6,C) :NEXT:INPUT#1,L, 
M: CLOSE 1 : GOSUB3 2 40 : GOT04 3 0 
2520 • QUIT 

2530 Z$="ARE YOU SURE YOU WANT T 
0 QUIT [YES OR NO] ?" : GOSUB3010 : P 
RINTZ$; :Z1$=Z$:GOSUB3100:Z$="" :I 
NPUTQ$ 

2540 IF Q$<>"YES"AND Q$O"N0 ll THE 
NZ$="IF YOU ARE GOING TO FIND YO 
UR SUCCESS, YOU WILL NEED TO LEA 
RN TO ASK FOR EXACTLY WHAT YOU W 
ANT . " : GOSUB30 10 : PRINTZ $ : Z 1 $=Z $ : G 
OSUB3 100 : GOTO 2530 

2550 IF Q$=" YES "THEN END ELSE430 
2560 'HELP 

2570 IF L=1THENZ$="A VOICE IN YO 
UR HEAD SEEMS TO SAY, TO THE SOU 
TH IS HEART BREAK AND TO THE NOR 
TH DESTINY. WHEN ALL SEEMS LOST, 
LOOK TO BE WELCOMED. ":GOSUB30 10 
:GOTO430 

2580 Z$="YOU WILL LEARN MORE BY 
USING YOUR OWN JUDGEMENT AND NOT 
THE JUDGEMENT OF OTHERS . 11 : GOSUB 
3010:GOTO4 30 
2590 1 

2600 Z$="IN ORDER TO 'OPEN' OR 1 
CLOSE' THE PANEL, YOU WILL NEED 
TO ENTER THE COMBINATION AS A SE 
RIES OF NUMBERS. " :GOSUB3010:Z1$= 

Z$:GOSUB3100:PRINTZ$: Zl$="the co 
mbination please" : PRINTZ 1$ ; : GOSU 

B3100:INPUTA2$ 

2610 IF(L=70R L=8 ) AND T(3,7)<0AN 
D A2$="963147"THENZ$="THE PANEL 
SLIDES OPEN . " : T ( 3 , 7 ) =8 : T ( 4 , 8 ) =7 : 
GOSUB3 0 10 : GOT02 7 0 0 
2620 IF(L=70R L=8 ) AND T(3,7)>0AN 
D A2$="963147"THENZ$="THE PANEL 
SLIDES SHUT,":T(3,7)=-3:T(4,8)=- 
3 : GOSUB 3 0 10 : GOT02 700 
2630 IF(L=290R L=30)AND T(3,29)< 
0AND A2$="2468"THENZ$="THE PANEL 
SLIDES OPEN.":T(3,29)=30:T(4,30 
)=29:GOSUB3010:GOTO2700 
2640 IF(L=290R L=30)AND T(3,29)> 
0 THEN Z $ = " THE PANEL SLIDES SHUT." 
:T(3,29)=-3:T(4,30)=-3 :GOSUB3010 
:GOTO2700 

2650 Z$="THAT IS NOT THE CORRECT 

COMBINATION .": GOSUB3 010 
2660 IF(L=70R L=8 ) AND O(1)=1000T 
HENZ$="THE CORRECT COMBINATION I 
S AT ARMS LENGTH. 11 :GOSUB30 10 
2670 IF(L=70R L=8 ) AND O(1)<1000T 
HENZ$=" PERHAPS YOU SHOULD SEARCH 



126 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



THE MANSION FOR THE CORRECT COM 
BINATION. " : GOSUB3010 
2680 IF(L=290R L=30)AND O(2)=100 
0THENZ$="THE CORRECT COMBINATION ' 

IS CLOSER TO YOUR HEART THAN YO 
U THINK. ":GOSUB3010 
2690 IF(L=290R L=30)AND O(2)<100 
0THENZ$=".YOU MIGHT DO BETTER TO 
SEARCH THE MANSION FOR THE COMBI 
NATION. " :GOSUB3010 
2700 RETURN 
2710 1 

2720 CLS:Z$="YOU SHOULD TRY AGAI 
N SOME OTHER TIME. YOU DID NOT F 
IND THE 13 SCROLLS. THE TOWNS PE 
OPLE ARE ALL LAUGHING AT YOU.":G 
OSUB3010 : PRINTZ$ : Z1$=Z$ : GOSUB310 

2730 Z$="IF YOU DESIRE SUCCESS B 
AD ENOUGH, YOU WILL DISREGARD TH 
E LAUGHTER OF THE TOWNS PEOPLE 
AND TRY AGAIN. ":GOSUB30i0: PRINTZ 
$ : Z 1$=Z $ : GOSUB3 100 

2740 PRINT: Z$=" PLAY AGAIN [YES/N 

0 ] ? " : GOSUB3 0 10 : INPUTZ $ 

2750 IF Z$<>"YES"AND Z$O"N0"THE 

NZ$="PLEASE TYPE 'YES' OR 'NO'." 

: GOSUB3 0 10 : GOT02 740 

2760 IF Z$="YES"THEN RUN ELSE EN 

D 

2770 CLS:Z$="YOU HAVE FOUND ALL 
13 SCROLLS. YOU ARE WELL ON YOUR 
WAY TO YOUR SUCCESS .": GOSUB3010 : 
PRINTZ $ : Z1$=Z$ : GOSUB3100 
2780 Z$="THE TOWNS PEOPLE BEGIN 
TO ASK TO SEE THE SCROLLS THAT Y 
OU HAD THE COURAGE TO GET.": GOSU 
B3010 : PRINTZ$ : Z1$=Z$ :GOSUB3100 
2790 Z$=INKEY$:IF Z$=" "THEN2790E 
LSE END 

2800 1 DATA STATEMENTS 
2810 DATA ON THE FRONT PORCH OF 
SUCCESS MANSION., IN THE MANSION' 
S LARGE LIBRARY., IN THE FOYER AT 

THE MANSION'S ENTRANCE., IN THE 
DOWNSTAIRS LAVATORY . , IN A LARGE 
GAME ROOM. 

2820 DATA AT THE SOUTH END OF A 
LONG HALLWAY EXTENDING NORTH AND 

SOUTH., IN THE OFFICE WHERE BIG 
MONEY DEALS WERE ONCE CLOSED., IN 

A LARGE VAULT WHERE VALUABLES A 
RE KEPT . , ON THE LANDING HALF OF 
THE WAY UP THE STAIRCASE. 
2830 DATA AT THE FOOT OF A BEAUT 
IFUL MARBLE STAIRCASE LEADING UP 
WARD. I 
2840 DATA IN THE MIDDLE OF A LON 
G HALLWAY EXTENDING NORTH AND SO 



UTH . , AT THE SOUTHERN END OF A LA 
RGE LIVING ROOM., ON A MARBLE STA 
IRCASE LEADING UP FROM A SMALL L 
ANDING. , IN THE MANSION'S LARGE S 
TUDY . , AT THE NORTH END OF A LONG 

HALLWAY LEADING SOUTH. 
2850 DATA AT THE NORTH END OF TH 
E LIVING ROOM. , AT THE WESTERN EN 
D OF A LARGE DINING ROOM. 
2860 DATA IN THE MIDDLE OF A LAR 
GE DINING ROOM . , AT THE EAST END 
OF A LARGE DINING ROOM . , IN A LAR 
GE KITCHEN . , IN A SMALL LAUNDRY R 
OOM.,IN THE KITCHEN PANTRY., ON T 
HE PRIVATE BALCONY., IN THE MASTE 
R BATHROOM. 

2870 DATA IN THE GUEST BEDROOM. , 
IN THE GUEST BATHROOM., IN A LARG 
E BEDROOM. 

2880 DATA IN THE BATHROOM WHICH 
ADJOINS TWO BEDROOMS . , IN THE PRI 
VATE STUDY . , IN THE MASTER BEDROO 
M.,AT THE EAST END OF A LONG BAL 
CONY., AT THE TOP OF A STAIRCASE. 
, AT THE WEST END OF A LONG BALCO 
NY . , IN A SMALL BEDROOM . 
2890 DATA WRINKLED PIECE OF PAPE 
R, PAPER, -2 , PLASTIC ID CARD, CARD, 
-2 , KEY1 , KEY1 , -1 , KEY2 , KEY2 , 30 , KEY 
3 , KE Y3 ,28, KEY4 , KE Y4 , 20 , LARGE OAK 
DESK, *, 7, LARGE WALNUT DESK,*, 29 
, METAL DESK,*, 14 

2900 DATA CHINA HUTCH ,*, 1 7 , LARGE 
OAK TABLE , * , 18 , HANDCARVED BOOKS 
HELP, *, 2, STATUE OF CUPID, *, 10 , PL 
USH DESIGNER JACKET , JACKET , 2 1 , SM 
ALL BOOKLET , BOOKLET ,22, PAPERBACK 

BOOK, BOOK, -4 
2910 DATA SMALL PAMPHLET , PAMPHLE 
T,-l, DESIGNER WELCOME MAT,*,1,SC 
R0LL13 , SCROLL13 , -3 , SCROLL1 , SCROL 
LI , 9 , S CROLL2 , S CROLL2 , - 1 , S CROLL3 , 
SCROLL3 , -1 , SCROLL4 , SCROLL4 , 8 , SCR 
OLL5 , SCROLL5 , 30 , SCROLL6 , SCROLL6 , 
8 , SCROLL7 , SCROLL7 , -1 
2920 DATA SCROLL8 , SCROLL8 , -1 , SCR 
OLL9 , SCROLL9 , -1 , SCROLL10 , SCROLL1 
0,-1, SCROLL11 , SCROLL11 , -1 , SCROLL 
12,SCROLL12,2 

2930 DATA -2 , 1000 ,,,,,,,3, ,,,6,- 
2,4,2,,, ,,,3,, ,,,6,,, 
2940 DATA 11 , 3 , -2 , 5 , , , , , -3 , -2 , , , 
/ i i — 3 ,,,,,,, 13 , 10 ,,,11, ,9, 
2950 DATA 15 , 6 , 12 , 10 , , , 16 , , , 11 , , 
/ r i r / 32,9, , , — 2, , , , 17, 11, 16, — 2, , 
2960 DATA 18 , 12 , , 15 , , , , 15 , 18 , , , , 
,16,19,17,, ,,,20,18, , ,22,, 21, 19, 



2970 DATA , , , 20 , , , , 20 , , , , , , 2 9 , , , 

»»»30,,,,,,31,26,,, 

2980 DATA , , , 2 5 , , , , 3 3 , 2 8 , , , , , 3 4 , 

*27, , ,23, ,—3, , , ,24, ,-2,— 3, , 

2990 DATA 25 , , 32 , -2 , , , , , 33 , 31 , , 1 

3,27, ,34,32, , ,28, , ,33, , 

3000 DATA INVENTORY, 1, LOOK, 2, EXA 

MINE , 2 , READ , 2 , GO , 3 , RUN , 3 , WALK , 3 , 

GET, 4 , TAKE , 4 , MOVE , 5 , PUSH, 5 , PULL, 

5 , UNLOCK , 6 , LOCK , 7 , OPEN , 8 , CLOSE , 9 

, DROP , 10 , PUT , 10 , SAVE , 11 , LOAD , 12 , 

QUIT, 13, HELP, 14 

3010 CX$=CHR$ (32) :LL=32 

3020 CL=INT(LEN(Z$)/LL) :CR$=RIGH 

T$(Z$,CL) 

3030 IF LEN(Z$)<=LL THEN PRINTZ$ 

:Z$=" ":GOTO3090 

3040 FOR CX=LL TO 1 STEP-1 

3050 IF MID$(Z$,CX,1)=CX$ THEN C 

C=CX:GOTO3070 

3060 NEXT:GOTO3070 

3070 PRINT LEFT$(Z$,CC-1) :Z1$=LE 
FT$(Z$,CC-1) :GOSUB3100:Z$=MID$(Z 
$,CC+1,LEN(Z$) -CC) 
3080 IF LEN(Z$)>LL THENGOTO3040 
3090 RETURN 

3100 IF TK=0THEN RETURN ELSEX=&H 
FF00 : Y=&HFF7E 

3110 POKE X+l,52:POKE X+3,63 
3120 REM 

3130 POKE X+35,60 
3140 GOSUB3160 
3150 RETURN 

3160 Z1$=Z1$+" ":FOR I=1T0LEN(Z1 
$) 

3170 IF PEEK(Y) AND128=0THEN3170 
3180 POKE Y,ASC(MID$ (Z1$,I,1) ) 
3190 NEXT I 

3200 IF PEEK (Y) AND128=0THEN3200 
3210 POKE Y,13 

3220 FORZ=1TO1800: NEXT: RETURN 
3230 Z$="THE ADVENTURE HAS BEEN 
SAVED . " : GOSUB3010 : Zl$=" " : RETURN 
3240 Z$="THE ADVENTURE HAS BEEN 
LOADED . " : GOSUB30 10 : Z 1$=" " : RETURN 
3250 Z$="I WILL TURN ON THE MOTO 
R TO THE TAPE RECORDER. POSITIO 
N THE TAPE WHERE YOU WANT, THEN 
PRESS ANY KEY TO TURN OFF THE TA 
PE RECORDER . " : GOSUB3 0 10 : PRINTZ $ : 
Z1$=Z$ : GOSUB3100 : Z$=" " : F0RZ=1T01 
000 : NEXT : MOTORON 

3260 Q$=INKEY$:IFQ$=""THEN3260EL 
SEMOTOROFF:Zl$="PRESS ANY KEY TO 
CONTINUE . " : PRINT : PRINTZ 1 $ : GOSUB 
3100 

3270 Q$=INKEY$:IFQ$=""THEN3270EL 
SERETURN 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 127 




STAR NX-10 COMPLETE SYSTEM 




Easy-to-use and ready for the heavy workloads 
from your TRS-80 Color Computer 1, 2, 3 or PC 
compatible. Control pitch, margins, NLQ, Italics 
1 and more from the Front Control Panel. Stuff the 
| 5K data buffer with your own unique character set 
or use one of the 1 1 built in character sets. 1 
Year limited warranty serviceable nationwide. 
Deluxe Users manual. System includes the NX-10 
Dot Matrix printer with BLUE STREAK II serial- 
to-parallel interface and our Software Trio (see 
below). 



SPECS: 120cps Dralt. 30cps NLQ, Italics Sub & Superscripts, 
Emphasized, Double sirike. Proportional. International. Down Loadable 
Char., Leh, Right, or Center Justilication, Underline. Vertically Enlarged 
2X/4X. 5. 6, 8.5. 10. 1 2, & 17 CPI. Graphics 480-1920 dots/line, Horz & 
Verl, Tabs. Forward or Reverse n/216" Line Feeds. Hex Dump. Fnclion 
& PushTractor.SK Data Buller. 



$29995 



+510 Shipping 
and Insurance 



COMPLETE 



SEIKOSHA SP-1000AS COMPLETE SYSTE 



Triple Mode Dot Matrix printer with serial 
interface, cable and our Software Trio (see 
below). Ready to run single sheet or 4" to 10" 
tractor paper from your TRS-80 Color Computer 
1, 2, or 3. Compatible with your programs that 
let you control your baud rate, like CoCoMax, 
VIP, Basic and OS-9 etc. 24 month limited 
warranty. 76 page users manual. 



SPECS" 100cps Dralt, 20 cps NLQ, Italics. Sub & Superscnpls. Bold, 
Doubteslnko. Proportional, tntornabonol. Undorlino. 5, 6. 8 5, 10. 12, & 
17 CPI. Graphics 400-1920 dols/lino. Horizontal and VerticaJ Tabs, 
n/216" Line Feods, Hex Dump, Frtctionand Tractor Paper Foed 



J 



$21995 



+S10 Shipping 
and Insunincc 



COMPLETE 





CITIZEN 120D COMPLETE SYSTEM 



Triple Mode, High performance Dot Matrix 
printer with serial interface, cable, and our 
Software Trio (see below). Ready to run with 
your TRS-80 Color Computer 1, 2, or 3. Load 
single sheets with one button ease or use the 
adjustable tractor with rear or bottom feed. Fill 
the 4K buffer with text and graphics from your 
favorite programs such as CoCoMax, VIP and 
Basic at rates up to 9600 baud. 12 month limited 
warranty. Deluxe users manual. 



SPECS. 120 cps Drall, 25 cps NLO. Hales. Sub & Superscripts. 

Emphasized, Doubleslnke. Proportional, International. User Delinod 

Characters. Led, Right. Center or Full Justification. Undrlme. Ovorscore. 
* Reverse Print. Vertically Enlarged 2X. 5. 6. 8.5. 10. 12. 17. & 20 CPI. 
| Graphics 480-1920 ootsnme. Horz and Verl. Relative & Absolute Tabs. 

rV2l6" Line Feeds. Hex Dump. Friction and Tractor. 4K Buffer. 



$229 95 



+SlO Shipping 
and Insurance 



COMPLETE 



BLUE STREAK II 



Transfer your data from CoCo 1, 2, 3 to your 
parallel printer with a fury. The Blue Streak can 
increase your data transmission 4 fold over 
conventional-compatible interfacing and increase 
printer throughput. An additional serial I/O port 
permits port sharing with another serial device 
without recabling. 



Serial to Parallel 
Interface 



SPECS 300. 600. 1200. 2400. 4*300. 950D Switfiabie Baud flares, 
PdwOT Supply £76'H31AUL bsigd, 1 Ytit W&rramy. Inpul .1 Pin Serial. 

Output 36 P*n Parallel and 4 Pin Serial, Total Catte Lengih 5.1 I riches. 

Bo* *>jr*t* 



$4995 
$5495 



without powers SXc 

■ , , +S2 Shipping 

With pOWer W Insurance 



SOFTWARE TRIO 




WORD PROCESSOR 2.2 

TAPE OR DISK VERSION 

A feature packed program that turns your CoCo 
into an office machine. Create and save letters 
and documents with the Word processor tailored 
for your printer. 




A FULL 8"X 1 1 " SCRHEN DUMP PROGRAM 

A well-written and documented program written 
in machine language position independent code. 
Features include user definable color shading and 
printing in all 5 Pmodes. Tape transferable to 
disk. Requires 16K extended color basic. 



TYPE SELECTION 
TUTORIAL PROGRAM 

Menu driven program for the CoCo. Teaches 
and shows the new user the numerous features of 
their printer. (Specify printer when ordering) 



ALL THREE 
PROGRAMS 



$1995 



DAYTON ASSOCIATES SK , INC. 

DUN & BRADS! REET LISTED 

7201 CLAIRCREST BLDG. C 
DAYTON. OHIO 45424 
OHIO RESIDENTS ADD 6 % SALES TAX • CO.D. ADD $2.00 

TKS-KO Color Oui»|iulcf<* Tandy Cnq> . CoCoMa»<9 Cnktrwarc Inc., VIPc$ SoflUw Coqi. Alt ibla »uhjctl in clun^c without rwtiw 



3-D Graphics 

Great Effects Without the Glasses/ Logicware 141 

Banner 

Give Your Message to the World/S. Erickson Software 146 

B.E.S.T. Expert System 

Solve Problems with Quest ion na\res/Thinking Software 149 

Colorscan 

Delivers Dazzling Results/Compi/f/ze, Inc 136 

Disk Programming Package 

Utilities That Provide Additional Security/C/WD Micro 144 

D.L. LOGO 

As Simple as ABC/Rac/Zo Shack 147 

Dragon Slayer 

Delve into Delightful Depths/Tom Mix Software 135 

Educational Software 

Makes Math Fun/York 10 Software 134 

The Electronic Robotic Dog 

A CoCo Nut's Best Friend/E/ecfron/c Motion Control Inc 139 

Map 'n Zap 

Relieves Disk System Headaches/Duc/c Productions 148 

Miscellaneous Writings 

Superior Program for Bible Students/Soi/ere/gr? Grace Software 145 

MouseTop 

A Furry Companion for Your CoCo/H&H Enterprises 140 

PonyExpress 24A Modem 

Information Carrier for the New fKge/Telenetics Corporation 148 

Super Programming Aid Version 2 

Better Than Ever/Bangert Software Systems 138 

WRITEST 

The Teacher's Pet/ Cocosoft 150 




HOW DO YOU GIVE A RAINBOW? 



It's simple — Give a rainbow gift certificate . . . 



Let a gift subscription to the 
rainbow carry the premier Color 
Computer magazine right to 
your friends' doorsteps, the 
rainbow is the information 
source fortheTandy Color Com- 
puter. 

Each month, your friends will 
enjoy the intelligent programs, 
reviews and articles written ex- 
clusively for their CoCo. 

First, your gift will be an- 
nounced in a handsome card. 
Then, all year 'round, they'll re- 
member you and your thought- 
fulness when they get each edi- 
tion of the rainbow — more than 
200 pages loaded with as many 
as 24 programs, 15 regular col- 
umns and lots of helpful hints 
and tips. 

Generosity benefits the giver, 
too. There'll be no more tracking 
down borrowed copies of the 
rainbow. Your collection will be 
safe at home. 

Give a rainbow gift certificate 

and let your friends in on the fun. 
the rainbow is the perfect com- 
panion for the Color Computer! 

Get your order to us by Jan. 25 
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E_ aatuaf Mu^^^^^Maaaaai — w . ann * tumou r 

Cflfltt <flUB§ IJUJkf HH MHI 

i66n xBBEf 9BBGE bGG& nflv thee 3BBBP 

IJr ir^ if if 
W IBbbbbb V V 






Bowling League Secretary 

Editor: 

1 would like to take this opportunity to 
thank reviewer Donald Dollberg for the 
thorough and favorable review of my first 
commercial software venture, Bowling 
League Secretary (September 1986, Page 
141). 

I would also like to address the question 
he raised of the omission from the reports 
of a final tally sheet for each player. During 
program development, 1 had originally 
planned to include this report. However, in 
the attempt to keep everything within the 
capabilities of a 32K CoCo and one disk 
drive system (what most people seem to 
have), the storage requirements for this data 
precluded its inclusion in Version 1.0. A 
weekly report is, however, generated that 
includes the required data, i.e., the season's 
high average, game and series as well as total 
pins and games for each player. This can be 
entered into the individual's tally sheet. 

In Version 1.0, I attempted to maximize 
the number of bowlers that could be accom- 
modated, since 1 had no idea what size 
leagues would be attracted to this program. 
The program can presently hand le over 200 
bowlers* statistics; even more by reserving 
more buffer memory and string storage 
space in some of the sorting programs. 

If user interest shows that the smaller 
leagues want this feature, I will try to add 
it to the one-disk version for a limited 
number of requirements for both reports 
and number of bowlers. 

I am now working on a version with full 
reporting capabilities but, at present, it 
looks like a two-drive system will be re- 
quired. 

Incidently, I am about to release Version 
I . I which is designed for mixed leagues and 
keeps separate statistics for men and 
women. The same storage limitation applies 
to this new version, so this first release will 
be for a one-drive system. 

I would like to thank RAINBOW for the 
excellent magazine, and for the interest and 
encouragement given new software suppli- 
ers byway of "Received and Certified. "This 
gives the sincere newcomer a chance to get 
started in the CoCo world . Again, thanks for 
your coverage of the CoCo and keep up the 
good work, 

Tom Barnea 
TOM EL A* CO 



Try-O-Tax 

Editor: 

I have been using Try-O-Tax (available 
from Try-O-Byte, 1008 Alton Circle, Flor- 
ence. SC 29501; 803-662-9500) for two tax 
seasons. I use it primarily to check returns 
prepared by other members of the firm. To 
date, I have processed more than 200 income 



tax returns using Try-O-Tax. I am well 
satisfied with the application. I have read 
comments from others that the program is 
very slow. In fact, the program is just as fast 
as your printer. My printer operates at 9600 
baud and prints (draft) at 140 cps. In such 
an environment, the program operates faster 
than I can enter data. The program is 
actually a series of programs for the various 
forms, which are accessed by a main menu. 
The program is written in BASIC, which 
allows one to alter it. For example, earlier 
versions automatically rounded to the 
nearest dollar. In our firm, all of the tax 
practicioners use dollars and cents; it was a 
simple matter to alter the program to 
accommodate that. 

I have just received the 1986 version of 
Try-O-Tax. The new version contains some 
very substantial enhancements. The system 
now completes Schedules A, B, C, D, E, F, 
G (income averaging), SE (self-employment 
tax) and W (deduction for married couples 
working), and Forms 1040, 2106 (employee 
business expense), 2441 (child care credit) 
and 6252 (installment sale). Further, Tax 
Schedules X, Y and Z are incorporated in 
the program. Thus, in doing Schedule G, 
there is no need to look up tax rates, and 
for incomes over $50,000, the tax is figured 
automatically. (For incomes below $50,000, 
you still have to look up the tax in the tax 
tables.) Further, there is a provision for 
selecting the baud rate of output and an 
automatic form feed, both of which save 
considerable time. Also, the new version 
uses dollars and cents in the output. The 
outprint format has been imp roved 
immensely; with some printers it comes very 
close to meeting the IRS' requirements for 
computer-produced facsimile forms. How- 
ever, the author cautions that all offices may 
not accept these and advises attaching the 
printouts to the standard forms, particularly 
if you are expecting a large refund. The disk 
also contains the 1986 Tax Estimator, which 
was reviewed earlier in RAINBOW. Further, 
the documentation is greatly improved, This 
application is also available for Radio Shack 
models 111 and 4. 

In summary, I was pleased with Try-O- 
Tax over the past two years, but the new 
version is a program of professional quality 
at a very reasonable price for a reasonably 
priced computer — a rare value. Also, it has 
been my experience over the years that the 
author is always ready and eager to help if 
you have a problem. The programs are 
unprotected and written in BASIC, so if one 
does encounter a problem, it can easily be 
resolved with a phone call to the author. 1 
have not had time to extensively test the 
programs, but havespent some time running 
them all and haveencountered no problems. 

James IV. Brown III 
Medina, OH 



PenPai 

Editor: 

I received my November RAINBOW 
today, and as is my usual habit, promptly 
sat down and read it cover to cover. I was 
rather disturbed when I came to Graham 
Langford's letter in Reviewing Reviews on 
Page 131. My experience with Four Star 
Software in general, and PenPai in partic- 
ular, seems to have been just the opposite of 
Graham's. 

I first ordered PenPai shortly after its 
release. I did experience problems in that 1 
could not get the program to load in my 64K 
CoCo 2. After a couple of telephone calls to 
Four Star, during which they were most 
understanding and helpful, they explained 
to me that my problem was being caused by 
the copy protection used on Version 1.0. 
They promised that the problem would be 
corrected in Version 2.0, and that I would 
be sent a copy as soon as it was ready for 
release. 

As promised, I received Version 2.0 last 
spring and began using it with no problem 
whatsoever. To my surprise, a few weeks 
later Version 2. 1 appeared in my mailbox, 
With it came a letter explaining that a bug 
had been found in 2.0, and had been fixed 
in 2. 1 . I was not even aware of the bug in 
2.0! 

I have been using and thoroughly enjoy- 
ing PenPai ever since. It has replaced TW- 
64 as my word processor of choice (1 am 
using it now to write this letter), and the 
communications program is fantastic for the 
CoCo SIG on Delphi! I am sorry that 
Graham has had problems with Pen Pal, but 
obviously not everybody else has encoun- 
tered t hese problems. 

Leonard K. Huh 
Dallas. TX 



TX- Word Processor 



Editor: 

A bug has been located in TX Version 
03.07.1. When typing the Descriptor line, 
TX attempts to perform a word-carry if you 
type past the end of the line. A word-carry 
from the Descriptor line (67) will crash TX. 

Fixing the bug is very easy. Load TX 
Version 03.07. 1 into your CoCo and edit 
Line 69 as shown below: 

65 IFMID$(T$(R ) ,RM,1)=H$DRR 

>65THEN3BELSEFQRF=RM TDRM-20 
STEP-1: IFMID$(T$(R) ,F,1)><H$T 

HENNEXT :GOTO38ELSEB=F:F=RM-20 
:NEXT: IFMI0$(T$(R+1) ,5,B7-B)> 
<5TRING$(B7-B,H$)THEN72 

Save the repaired program. That's it. 
The bug is gone. ^ B/$ 

Wesifield, PA 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 131 



RECEIVED & CERTIFIED 



The following products have recently been received by THE RAINBOW, 
examined by our magazine staff and approved for the Rainbow Seal of 
Certification, your assurance that we have seen the product and have 
ascertained that it is what it purports to be. 

This month the Seal of Certification has been issued to: 



Checkers-32K, a computer version of 
the popular board game. Challenging 
play for players with varied skill levels. 
Applied Machine Intelligence, P.O. 
Box 358, Salida, CO 81201; $3.95 plus 
$.85 S/ H. 



Chess-32K, for the Color Computer. 
Compete against the CoCo with this Hi- 
Res assembly language game. Features 
six skill levels with strong play and fast 
responses. Applied Machine Intelli- 
gence, P.O. Box 358, Salida, CO 81201; 
$5.95 plus $.85 S/H. 



CoCo III Secrets Revealed, a book 
filled with useful information and pow- 
erful secrets to help you utilize the new 
features of the Color Computer 3. 
Spectrum Projects, Inc., P. O. Box 264, 
Howard Beach, NY 11414; (718) 835- 
1344, $16.95 plus $3 S/H. 



Box 11099, Chicago, IL 60611; (312) 
276-9712, $25. 



Speak-Easy, a speech synthesizer for 
the Color Computer. Features include a 
serial interface for use with the disk 
drive. No programming of words, just 
simple commands initiate speech. This 
device plugs into the printer port of the 
CoCo and appears as a printer to the 
CoCo. Fazer Electronics, Inc., 539 
McDaniel Mill Road, Conyers, GA 
30207; (404) 929-1657, $149. 

CoCo III 512K Board, for the Color 
Computer 3. Easy to install. Includes 16 
prime 256K DRAM chips. The board 
can also be purchased without the 256K 
DRAM chips. Compatible with OS-9 
Level 2 and Multi-View. Spectrum 
Projects, Inc., P.O. Box 264, Howard 
Beach, NY 11414; (718) 835-1344, 
$139.95 (with chips) or $99.95 (without 
chips) plus $3 S/H. 



VIP Writer Enhancer, designed for 
people who take files from VIP Writer 
and use them in another context, like 
uploading them to a BBS. It is also 
useful for downloading files from 
another word processor and changing 
them for use with VIP Writer. Spectrum 
Projects, Inc. , P. O. Box 264, Howard 
Beach, NY 11414; (718) 835-1344, 
$19.95 plus $3 S/H. 



The Word Factory Word Meanings, a 

64K educational game for the CoCo. 
This is a three-program package for the 
teacher, the parent and the student. For 
the student, an entertaining game that 
helps build a better vocabulary. The 
teacher and parent are provided with a 
program to build new word lists. And, 
for the teacher, a program that gener- 
ates test sheets for the classroom. 
SEC A, P.O. Box 3134, Gulf port, MS 
39505; (601)832-8236, $24.98. 



Disk Minizap, a 32K BASIC disk utility 
program that allows the user to alpha- 
betize a directory, save a backup direc- 
tory, print a directory and edit sectors 
of the disk. Drayon Software, P.O. Box 
2516, Rent on, WA 98056; (206) 255- 
8562, disk only, $6. 



Quotes, a 32K game for the CoCo that 
simulates the famous television show, 
Wheel of Fortune. Compete with your 
friends for points, not cash (up to eight 
players). B. Erickson Software, P.O. 



Teacher Pak II, a collection of four 16K 
ECB programs for teachers. Teacher 
Pak Plus, a powerful 32K test-making 
program, is also included. Tothian 
Software, Inc., Box 663, Rimer sburg, 
PA 16248; (814) 473-3887, $47.95. 



TRY-O-T AX, is directed to the individ- 
ual taxpayer and provides a convenient 
and economical way to remove some of 
the confusion and hassle associated 
with federal income tax preparation. 
Try-O-Byte, 10008 Alton Circle, Flor- 
ence, SC 29501; (803) 662-9500, $39.99 
plus $3 S/ H. 



The Seal of Certification program is 
open to all manufacturers of products 
for the Tandy Color Computer, 
regardless of whether they advertise in 

THE RAINBOW. 

By awarding a Seal, the magazine 
certifies the product does exist — that 
we have examined it and have a 
sample copy — but this does not 
constitute any guarantee of 
satisfaction. As soon as possible, these 
hardware or software items will be 
forwarded to THE RAINBOW reviewers 

for evaluation. 

— Judi Hutchinson 



1 32 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



V 



Computer Island Educational Software 



PROGRAM TITLE 


GRADES 


MEMORY 


PRICE 


PRESCHOOL 








Preschool 1 - counting 


Pre-K 


M /-\| X p— 1 

16K-Ext. 


11.95 


Preschool II - adding 


Pre-K 


1 6K-Ext. 


1 1 .95 


Preschool III - alphabet 


Pre-K 


1 6K-Ext. 


1 1 .95 


Music Marvel-play songs 


Pre-K, 1 


1 6K-Ext. 


-4-4 r\ c 

1 1 .95 


Arrow Games-6 games 


Pre-K, 1 


32K-Ext. 


21.95 


First Games-6 games 


Pre-K, 1 


32K-Ext. 


24.95 


Mr. Cocohead-facemaker 


K-3 


16K-Ext. 


16.95 


LANGUAGE ARTS 








Beyond Words 1-3 parts 


3-5 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Beyond Words 2-3 parts 


6-8 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Beyond Words 3-3 parts 


9-12 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Vocabulary 1-1000 words 


3-5 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Vocabulary 2-1000 words 


6-8 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Vocabulary 3-1000 words 


9-12 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Context Clues 


4,5,6 or 7 


16K-Ext. 


17.95 


Reading Aids - 4 parts 


2-4 


16K-Ext. 


19.95 


1/' All ' A ' A I 

King Arthur-writing tool 


2-6 


1 6/32 Ext. 


29.95 


Cocowheel of Fortune 


4-up 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Context Clues 


2-3 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


CLOZE Stories 


3.4.5.6 or 7 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Locating Story Details 


2-3 or 4-5 


32K-disk 


24.95 


Drawing Conclusions 


3-4 or 5-6 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 








19 95 


FOREIGN LANGUAGES 








French Baseball-200 wds. 


4-up 


16K-Ext. 


11.95 


French Baseball-500 wds. 


4-up 


Ul.i\ 1 A I. 


1Q QS 


Spanish Baseball-200 wds. 


4-up 


1 6K-Ext. 


11.95 


Spanish Baseball-500 wds. 


4-up 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Hebrew Alphabet 


beginners 


16K-Ext. 


11.95 


Hebrew Utility 


drawing utility 


16K-Ext. 


15.95 


CRITICAL THINKING PROBLEMS 






Find The Math Sequence 


4-up 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Stranded-graphic advent. 


4-up 


32K-disk 


24.95 


TEACHER/STUDENT AIDS 






Colorgrade-gradebook 


Adult 


32K-disk 


29.95 


Quizmaker-write quizzes 


5-up 


32K-Ext. 


24.95 


b 1 1 typing tutor (CocoWarehouse) 


4-up 


16K-Ext. 


21.95 



Disk indicates available on disk only. 
Tape prices given. 
Add $5.00 for any program on disk. 



PROGRAM TITLE 


GRADES 


MEMORY 


PRICE 


MATH 








Openinq a Bank Account 


4-7 


32K-disk 


24.95 


Dollars & Sense 


2-4 


16K-Ext. 


14.95 


McCoco's Menu 


3-5 


16K-Ext. 


14.95 


Moneypak 


2-5 


32K-Ext. 


24.95 


Graph Tutor 


3-7 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Graph-It 


7-up 


16K-Ext. 


14.95 


Math Invaders 


1-8 


16K-Ext. 


17.95 


Mathquiz-4 operations 


2-5 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Addition & Subtraction 


2-3 


16K 


11.95 


Skill Tutor Series 








Division Tutor 


3-7 


16K-Ext. 


14.95 


Multiplication Tutor 


3-7 


16K-Ext. 


14.95 


Factors Tutor 


5-8 


16K-Ext. 


19.95 


Fractions Tutors (3 programs) 








addition, subtraction or murtiplicafion 


4-8 


16K-Ext. 


19.95 ea. 


Trigonometry 


8-10 


32K-Ext. 


24.95 


Equations Linear 


7-9 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Equations Quadratic 


8-11 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Arith. Diagnostic Disk 


3-8 


32K-disk 


49.95 


Fraction Diagnostic Disk 


4-9 


32K-disk 


49.95 


Verbal Problems Series 








Distance Problems 


5-8 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Area & Perimeter 


5-8 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Pizza Game 


3-5 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Sales & Bargains 


6-8 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Comparison Shopping 


4-7 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


oir ict i y LJiut; vjciiiit; 




0*Cr\ IZA I. 


1Q QR 


SOCIAL STUDIES 








Know Your States 


5-up 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


History Game 


5-up 


32K-Ext. 


14.95 


States & Capitals 


5-up 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Explorers & Settlers 


4-up 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Famous American Women 


6-up 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


Street Map Game 


3-5 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


MISCELLANEOUS 








Name That Song 1,2 or 3 


2-up 


16K-Ext. 


11.95 


Music Drill 


3-up 


16K-Ext. 


19.95 


Science Game 


8-up 


32K-disk 


29.95 


Computer Literacy 


6-up 


32K-Ext. 


19.95 


5 Educational Programs 


1-2 or 






with Lightpen 


3-6 


32K-disk 


44.95 


Chemistry Tutor 


10-up 


32K-disk 


29.95 



/ 
11 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Computenm 



V/SA 



(718) 948-2748 
Dept. R 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 

Send for catalog with complete descriptions. 



Please add S1 .00 per order for postage. N.Y. residents, please add proper tax. FREE set of BINARY DICE, including full directions, with 
orders of 2 or more items. 



Dealer Inquiries Invited. 



TRS-80 Color Computer 



All Payments in U.S. Funds. 



Software Review, 



Educational Software Makes 

Math Fun 

Look. Listen. Learn. Three simple words, but when used 
in conjunction with the software available from Compass 
education, these words take on a new and deeper meaning. 

This educational software is available on cassette tapes 
and is made to run on any CoCo that has at least 16K of 
memory. This software library consists of five main study 
courses which cover standard school curriculum. Each 
study course contains two volumes of material with eight 
cassettes in each volume for a total of 144 individual lessons. 

The five main study courses are Developing Reading 
Comprehension, Rules of Writing, Math, Science/ Physics 
and American History. 

The first cassette in each volume contains the main loader 
used to run all of the lessons in that volume. As the loader 
is written in machine language, you will need to insert the 
cassette in your cassette player and rewind it. After you turn 
on your CoCo and monitor, all you will need to do is to 
type CLDflDM :EXEC : and press ENTER. When the program 
is loaded and running, just follow the prompts on the screen. 

When using these lesson plans, you can stop the program 
at any time by pressing the pause key on your cassette player. 
If you don't have a pause key, just stop the recorder. You 
can also rewind or fast forward the tape so that you can 
review or skip any section of the lesson plan. 





Spcgtc Eaty fir fffS.OO 

the speech synthesizer that leaves the others tight lipped 

F INALL Y . . . 



* 

* 
* 
* 



□ ik 



r 



No more Eumbllng with Multl-Pac or Y-Connectors 
No vocabulary ROM or disk needed 
Compatible with all operating systems 
No driver program needed 
Appears as a printer to Co-Co 



Speak-Easy plugs into the serial 
port o£ your Co-Co, not the card 
slot, and appears as a printer 
to the Co-Co. Incorporated In 
Speak-Easy is a unique state ot 
the art two chip set which 
phonetically converts ASCII text 
to speech. What this means to 
you Is extreme ease of use 
virtua lly unlimited voca bulary, 
and complete Uexablllty in a 
speech synthesizer. Just look at 




Hofvcy »ayi ( Finally, I can 
for diniior." 



4 




this sample BASIC program: 
10 INPUT A* 
20 PRINT tf-2,A* 
30 GOTO 10 
and imagine how you could 
1^9 upgrade your games and 

Ubk-fV!#l applications with simple printer 
"Si|i /JUL statements to use Speak-Easy! It 

^^^^^^ '-^^^ can say anything Including 
Smokcy idyi, N For $ 149.00, ^ foreign words . If yo u can s pell 

dorVI lot Iho cal gel you, longu.." jfc / g p gj k-jj^s y_ ca n sa / Jfc l 

Also available In RS-232C configuration with 
selectable baud rate, word length and stop bits. Choose 
between 4 pin DTN or DB-25 connectors. If you have a 
special need or configuration, let us know . We will have 
you talking in no 1 1 me 1 ' 





G. *■ I I. E BtU.Tt 



1 00 I m urn. u|/c.».J> 

I DO <• Ut/C>««J<i 

I oa i.. cnu 

> mJJ iX ..I., I.. 



539 HcBanlel 

Conyers, Ca . 



Mill f?d. 
30207 phone 

coo 



visa and MasterCard 
404^929-1657 welcome 




I received the entire library, so over the next few months 
we will review each study course separately. This month we 
begin with Math. 

The Math study course contains numbers, fractions and 
basic algebra. 

As I mentioned earlier, there are two volumes in each 
lesson plan. In Lesson Plan One, Volume One starts with 
learning number digits and ends with different numbering 
systems. Volume Two starts with raising numbers to powers 
and ends with naming and defining fractions. 

In Lesson Plan Two, Volume One starts with numerators 
and denominators of fractions, and ends with addition and 
subtraction of fractions. Volume Two starts with addition 
of mixed numbers and ends with using a ruler to measure 
fractions. 

Lesson Plan Three, Volume One begins with the logic of 
algebra and ends with fractions and division. Volume Two 
starts with solving problems with equations and ends with 
equations and trigonometry. 

These lesson plans are very well thought out, organized 
and presented. Each lesson plan starts out with the basic 
concept of that lesson and advances, cassette by cassette, 
to the more complex information provided by that lesson. 

We were having a small family gathering on a football 
Sunday. My brother-in-law, Jerry, his wife, Julie (who are 
avid sports fans), and my niece Misty spent more time with 
CoCo and the algebra then they did watching the games. 

Jerry couldn't stop raving about the program. He enjoyed 
it as a review of basic algebra. He told me that it has been 
a while since he got out of high school and he thought he 
had forgotten all of the algebra he had struggled through. 
Using this program brought it all back to him. He was 
impressed. 

Misty is just starting junior high school this year and, 
although she hasn't been formally introd uced to algebra, she 
still managed to enjoy this lesson plan. Misty summed it 
up very well when she said, "Uncle John, algebra is fun." 

These programs are presented in such a way as to allow 
both adults and children to look, listen and learn. But most 
of all, to enjoy them. 

To me, the main values of any type of educational 
software are the varying levels of difficulty, positive 
reinforcement, and whether or not it is user-friendly. 

These programs certainly contain all of the preceeding 
requirements and, on a scale of one to 10, I would not 
hesitate to give the Math study course a 9.5. 

(York 10 Software, 9525 Vassar Avenue, Chatsworth, CA 
91311; 818-700-0330, $49.95 per volume plus $3 S/H) 

— John A. Appel 



Hint . 



Topsy-Turvy 



Many CoCo users encounter I/O Errors when 
loading programs from tape which were saved by a 
different CoCo. The most likely culprits are the 
volume setting and tape alignment. If you have tried 
various volume settings with no luck, try turning the 
tape recorder, with the cassette in place, upside-down 
on the table. This will change the way the tape travels 
across the playback head and may result in a "good" 
load of the program. 



134 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



Software Review* 



7Z\ 



Delve Into the Delightful 
Depths of Dragon Slayer 



Grab your sword, fellow game players, for you are about 
to proceed into the lair of the awful dragon to save the 
villagers of Pendor. 

What's that? You say you're tired of searching for 
treasure, fighting monsters and, most of all, going after fire- 
breathing dragons? Ah, but don't despair, because from this 
time-worn saga Tom Mix Software has created a game of 
epic proportion that will delight many a Color Computer 
owner. And — even more good news this game runs on 
the CoCo 3. 

You see, in Dragon Slayer, you do not frantically mash 
the joystick button in an attempt to exterminate evil life 
forms. Nor do you madly pound on the keyboard in your 
quest to HACK MONSTER. Rather, you, a shortish cone- 
shaped fellow with two spindly legs, wander about a 10-level 
dungeon (with 16 rooms per level) moving objects to 
facilitate your quest for the aforementioned fire-breather. 

Each room is depicted on the screen with walkways, 
ladders, ropes and other objects shown graphically. Using 
either the arrow keys or joystick, you move up and down 
ladders and ropes, gathering keys to unlock doors, wielding 
swords to crush enemies, donning boots for treks across 
dangerous turf, restoring downed bridges, maneuvering 
through darkened passageways and, of course, collecting 
the ubiquitous bags of money scattered throughout the 
dungeon. One press of the space bar allows you to pick up 
objects, but with the exception of money, only one object 
may be carried at a time. 




R 0 DM HO . 1 4 ■ N □ U CARRYING 
SCOREOOCOOl FLASH LIGHT 



Juggling objects and determining how to deal with traps 
and other tricks requires thought and strategy, not to 
mention exploration, and trial and error. This is especially 
true at higher levels where there are many, many obstacles, 
puzzles and assorted challenges. Solving this game is no easy 
matter, especially since you have only three "lives" with 
which to complete the task. 



Dragon Slayer effectively meshes the visual aspects of an 
arcade game with the challenges and strategy of an 
Adventure game. The graphics are excellent. The animation 
is smooth and relatively flicker-free. Sound effects, though, 
could be improved. 

When it comes to features, Dragon Slayer deserves a high 
rating. You can control your speed (or stop), pause the game 
and quit, or save the game after solving a level. I found a 
problem with the last feature. When I had solved Level 1, 
I pressed the S key as instructed to save my game position. 
However, the next time I loaded the game, it did not 
continue with Level 2 as the instructions said it would, but 
started all over at Level J. I have talked with others who 
haven't had this problem, so perhaps it was a bug in the 
review copy. 

All in all, Dragon Slayer is a game that provides countless 
hours of fun and challenge for practically everyone. The 
game, while designed for adults, is equally suitable for 
children, and could even help them learn basic puzzle 
solving. On a scale of one to five, Dragon Slayer gets a four. 

Dragon Slayer expertly combines arcade action with 
strategy, exploration and challenging puzzles, making it 
easy to play but hard to master. Good graphics and 160 
different rooms further enhance this game. 



(Tom Mix Software, P.O. Box 201, Ada, MI 49301; 616- 
957-0444, disk $29.95 plus $3 S/H) 

i 

— Eric W. Tilenius 



Formaker 

clean paperwork for business 

"ft will give the small or home business professional-looking 
forms and effortless, errorless totals, accounting for taxes, 
discounts, shipping and deposits." 

The RAINBOW, May 1986 
RAINBOW 



menu driven 

customize for your company 
on screen Instructions 
creates: Invoice, quote, purchase order, 

mall order, receipt, letter 
printer customization 
and much, much more 



$49 



CERTlf »Gat»0* 
MM 



32K ECB dlSC 



"You have to look good to the customer . . This program 
helps , . by providing neat, well-prepared forms . 

The RAINBOW, May 1986 




Makes learning so much fun . . . rainbow 
. . that kids think its a game! 

Letter and number recognition. Ages 2 to 6 



SEAL 



$24 



32K ECB disc or tape 

"If you are looking for a program to teach young children 
the alphabet, numbers and early vocabulary, super TUTOR 
may fit the bill." The RAINBOW, June 1986 

send for more Information: 

Challenger software 

42 4th Street 
Pennsburg, PA 18073 
Call (215) 679-8792 (Evenings) 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 135 



Software Review 

Colorscan Delivers 
Dazzling Results 

So you bought a Radio Shack CGP-220 Color Ink- Jet 
Printer on sale . . . but you haven't been able to do much 
with it, since software for Tandy's most colorful printer was 
scarce. Have no fear! Computize, Inc., and the Whitesmith 
partnership (of Graphicom //and Hardcopy fame) have just 
what you're looking for. 

Colorscan is more than just a screen dump program. One 
quick glance at the documentation has you up and running. 
The program greets you with simple instructions for making 
sure you get the correct colors on your screen. Next, you're 
whisked away to the icon-oriented main menu, where you 
can choose one of eight different "modules," or selections, 
by using either the keyboard or joystick. By selecting Disk, 
you can load or view any 6K (one screen) picture, specify 
which drives to use and change the baud rate. 



voeo eofto eeoeo qoqo ooift 

g^^aoa « Q 4 O 4 9 4 O £ # 4 4 44 d C v r 

QO OO ©ft flftO ** #* 

OA *° ftO 4« Oft ftO»# ftftftft ftft •+ 

vv ftft ftftft ^ftBftftft Oft ftftft 40ft ft* V V 

B a ft a 9 ft * * ft * * ft * ftft ftft ftftftft ftftftft 

vvv^&C ft O&OSO OS ftOBftOO' O O ft 0 ft O ft#ftftftd 

o ft 0 9 ft fr ft 9 * « * e a o ft e ft ftft ftftftft ftftftft 



COLORSCAN HI-RES PRINT UTILITY 




m. i i 

©1986 WWITESmiTW UU.O 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



The two "regular" screen dump modules allow you to 
create a '/i-page or '/4-page printout, with an adjustable left- 
hand margin. Disk Dump lets you view 6K pictures on the 
selected disk or print them all out, two across on the paper, 
with just a flick of the wrist. 

The Poster module creates multi-page printouts of either 
the entire picture or just part of it. You are told how long 
it will take, as well as how many sheets of paper. This feature 
also works to make a small printout of just a portion of 
the picture quickly. 

Customizing the colors of your printout is done via the 
Custom Ink module. This lets you to determine whether the 
reds, blues, blacks and whites on the screen are printed just 
as they look, or maybe as violet, green, yellow and magenta, 
instead. Colors can be selected individually, and a test 
printout can be done, which gives a hard copy of the pokes 
needed to change the BASIC driver to default to these colors. 

But wait, there's more! Rainbow-colored banners can be 
produced using the Banner module. Select four colors and 
one of the seven fonts that are included to make a banner 
up to 27 inches long. The estimated time is displayed for 
this feature, also. 



And as if this weren't enough, Colorscan has a feature 
I've not seen anywhere else. This gives the capability to 
make a listing of any BASIC program, but with one 
important difference. You can have your line numbers 
printed in one color, program code in another, and remark 
statements in a third color. You're also allowed to specify 
four strings to be highlighted in your choice of colors as 
well. In addition, you may also have any multi-command 
lines separated in the listing. All this is a little slow, but the 
resulting printout is fascinating. Unlike other parts of the 
program, I was unable to find a way to break out once 
printing has started. 

I also liked the fact that what this program says is violet, 
looks violet. If you go according to Ink- Jet's manual, what 
they say is violet, looks blue, and vice versa. I find this quite 
annoying, not to mention confusing. Whitesmith's decision 
to make this change was, in my opinion, a good move. 

The first disk I received had a few garbled files, and some 
of the features did not function properly. After contacting 
Eric White, it was determined that I'd received an early 
production copy, and a new disk was rushed to my house. 
The second copy worked just fine. I found Mr. White and 
Computize to be as user friendly as their program. 

There are only a few minuses that I can see with 
Colorscan. Documentation is minimal, and leaves a few 
things to your own discovery. For example, there is no 
explanation of how to exit the String Search (use the break 
key), or the Banner Edit mode (the break key again). The 
line numbers to change in the boot program for default 
colors aren't listed anywhere, (lines 710-740). If you view 
a BASIC program before listing it from the Color List 
module, make sure the printer is on, or the program hangs 
up. To exit the program use the reset button, or turn the 
computer off. Personally, I like to exit through the software. 
And while you are told that two-screen CoCo Max pictures 
can be loaded, you are not told to scroll the picture with 
the arrow keys. Also be aware that Colorscan cannot be 
used with ADOS, but works well with 1 .0 or 1 . 1 Disk BASIC. 

All in all, I feel that Colorscan is a fine, easy-to-use piece 
of software. So if you're looking for a program that can help 
your Color Ink-Jet Printer really strut its stuff, Colorscan 
delivers dazzling results! 

(Computize, Inc., P.O. Box 207, Langhorne, PA 19047; 215- 
946-7260, disk only, $29.95 plus $3 S/H) 

— Gay Crawford 



One- Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Run this program, Grid, and enter the spacing you 
desire by entering any number from 1 to 255. Try some 
fractional values for interesting effects. 

The listing: 

1 CLS:INPUT"ENTER GRID SIZE";X:P 
MODE4,l:PCLS:SCREENl, l:FORA=X TO 
255STEP X:LINE(A,0)-(A,192) , PSE 
T : LINE (0 , A) - ( 2 55 , A) , PSET : NEXT A : L 
INEINPUTA$ : GOTO 1 

Keith Biasillo 
Indianapolis, IN 

(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both 77k? Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



136 THE RAINBOW January 1987 




PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-lOO 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 



HALL OF THE KING (Rainbow Review 6/86) 

This program combines all the things you look for in a great 
two disk graphics adventure program. The Hi-Res graphics 
are superbly done. The text portion of the screen and Ihe 
graphics change quickly as you move through the HALL OF 
THE KING. You can move freely from one portion of Ihe 
adventure to another. Call up your inventory at any time. You 
can even save or load a game at ANY time. HALL OF THE 
KING will challenge even the most seasoned adventurer. 

HALL OF THE KING requires 64K EB and one disk drive. This 
exciting two disk adventure comes packaged in a vinyl case. 
$39.95. 

HALL OF THE KING II (Rainbow Review 9/86) 

Continue your quest for the Earthstone in The Inner 
Chambers of the HALL OF THE KING. Outstanding graphics 
help show the way to success in your search to help restore 
the legendary power of the Earthstone to the dwarven race. 
The deeper you travel into the inner chambers, the more dif- 
ficult your progress becomes. HALL OF THE KING II has all 
the fine features of the first adventure. It is designed to 
follow the original HALL OF THE KING but may be played as 
a stand-alone adventure. The adventure fills two disks and 
comes packaged in a handsome vinyl folder. It requires one 
disk drive and 64K. $39.95 

WARP FACTOR X (Rainbow Review 2/86) 

If you have been waiting for a game for your color computer 
that has everything, your wait is over. WARP FACTOR X is 
here. This all graphics simulation game requires strategy, 
fast thinking, an eye for detail, and -above all experience in 
knowing the capabilities of your stauhip and its computer. 
(See review in Feb. 85 issue of Rainbow.) It requires 32K one 
disk drive and comes packaged in a vinyl library case. $34.95 

DARKMOOR HOLD (Rainbow Review 8/86) 

You and your comrades will explore the levels of Darkmoor 
Hold in an effort to gain great riches and defeat the dark 
wizard. The Wizard will soon realize the threat you pose and 
the many monsters you meet and battle will become stonger 
and more powerful as you move through the 10 levels of 
Darkmoor. A keen eye will help you find weapons and armor 
to aid your battle along with treasures for you to keep. Your 
party consists of a Dwarf, an Elf, and you, the Human, each 
with their own special attributes. The weapons, armor and 
treasure are placed randomly in each level to provide a new 
challenge each time you play. You may also save the game 
you are playing since defeating the evil Wizard is not an easy 
task. It has great graphics and an impressive text screen to 
give you more fun than a barrel of elves. Requires 64KEB and 
1 disk drive. $29.95 



POLICY ON PROTECTION 

We believe our customers are honest — all of our software 
can be backed up using standard backup procedures. 

Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include $1.50 
shipping for each order. TX residents add 5 1/8% sales tax. 
Orders shipped within two days. 

Dealer and author inquiries are always welcome. Canadian 
dealers should contact Kelly Software Distributors, Ltd. 608, 
STNT, Calgary, Alberta T5H 2H2, (403) 236-2161 




DRAGON BLADE (Rainbow Review 11/86) 
Animated Graphics Adventure 

This 100% hi-res graphics adventure features many animated 
screens which will delight the avid adventurer. You search for 
the magic Blade which is the only way to rid your homeland of 
the fearsome dragon which has risen from a long rest to ter- 
rorize your village. Fill your screen with super graphics as you 
try to solve the difficult challenge the village leaders have set 
before you. Dragon Blade requires 64K EB and 1 disk drive. 
$29.95 



DOLLAR WISE 



In todays world of high finance, variable interest rates, 
balloon payments, and lease options there is a program that 
can help you sort out the details and make sense of the small 
print. DOLLAR WISE is an extremely flexible program that 
will allow you to find the best loan by substituting values for 
all the different variables that make up the loan. Find the 
future value and interest paid for either single or multiple 
deposit savings accounts. Determine mortgage interest paid 
during a tax year— very good for estimating tax savings on 
credit purchases also. Should you rent or buy. DOLLAR WISE 
gives you all the options. It will even provide a loan amortiza- 
tion table print out with Tax Year summaries either by month 
or year. Requires 32K Tape -$24.95 Disk - $27.95 



FONTFILE — (New for the COCO III) 



FONTFILE replaces the standard Hi-Res COCO III font with a 
character set you select. Choose from a menu of 26 or create 
your own and save it to disk for future use. Use the fontfile in 
your own basic programs or livenup an old program with a Hi- 
Res font screen. FONTFILE will work on all versions of the 
COCO but is especially written to take advantage of the 
special capabilities of the new COCO III. Requires 64K and 
one disk drive. $24.95 

COMING SOON! 
Hall Of The King III 



Send for our free catalog 

Call (915) 584-7784 or 

Send Order To: PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

213 La Mirada 
El Paso, Texas 79932 





Software Review^^^^^^^^^^S^^^S'f^ 

Super Programming A id 
Version 2 Is Better Than Ever 

A great utility program hasjust gotten better! If you don't 
already own the BASIC Programming Aid, check out the 
review in the July 1986 rainbow. It was already a super 
program for anyone who programs in BASIC, and now it 
has been improved. Briefly, the main programming aids that 
were already available include Automatic Line Numbering, 
Auto-Load of a disk menu program, Keyboard Clicker, 
Suspend, Copy, Move, Find, List Scrolling, Key Repeat, 
Program Formatting, Clear Key Disable, Current Line Edit 
and Command Keys. The Command Keys feature allows 
keys on your keyboard to become function keys. By pressing 
the control key (down arrow) and then a letter, a command 
or a line of text is automatical ly typed for you. You can use 
the command table supplied or program your own com- 
mand keys. 

Version 1 works with 16K ECB or more, but doesn't take 
advantage of 64K. Version 2 has been designed to run with 
the 64K CoCo. It will not run on the 16K CoCo. Version 
2 works with 32K, but the new print spooler will not work 
in this mode. 

Version 2 allows you to configure the CoCo as an all- 
RAM machine. This gives the option of placing the 
Programming Aid in RAM that is not used by BASIC, 



Extended BASIC or Disk BASIC, and permits use of all the 
normal 32K of RAM for a BASIC program. 

The addition of a print spooler lets you get back to work 
while listing a program and allows better performance from 
BASIC programs. Depending on how you set up your 
memory, you can have between 6K and 32K of print spooler 
available. For instance, if you have 64K, it's possible to use 
that "hidden" 32K of RAM as a print spooler. You never 
again need to wait for the printer to finish before getting 
back to work. You and the printer can now work at the same 
time. Running the spooler also gives you the option of 
cancelling output that has already been spooled. 

Version 2 is configured to your system at startup time. 
The memory and command table options are easy to set. 
Prompts give you the opportunity to change any of the 
startup options to make it meet your programming needs 
any time you use it. 

The manual is clear and detailed. Each function is fully 
explained and examples are given. Onscreen prompts, 
status messages and error messages keep you from getting 
lost or confused. 

Bangert Software Systems has put all these options 
together in one compact machine language program. It can 
be used with either tape or disk based systems and works 
with any ROM version. 

Anyone who programs in BASIC should have this 
program. After all, you deserve it. 

(Bangert Software Systems, P.O. Box 21056, Indianapolis, 
IN 46221; 317-632-0174, $29.95) 

— James Ventling 



SPECIAL DEAL ON THE GREATEST SOFTWARE DEAL 



500 PROGRAMS! 



GET 50 DISKS OR 50 CASSETTE TAPES FULL OF OVER 
500 PROGRAMS. HERE IS WHAT YOU'LL RECEIVE: 

★ Over 250 Utility/Home Application Programs including a 
Word Processor, DataBase, Spreadsheet, Account Man- 
ager, 2 Basic Compilers, Terminal Programs, ROM Copies, 
Mail List, Machine Language Tutorials, Plus Much More! 

★ Over 200 exciting games including Warlords, Star Trek, 
Super Vaders, Solar Conquest, Horse Races, Football, 
Baseball, Frog Jump, Invader, Plus Much More! (Many 
machine language games) 

★ Over 30 adventures including The College Adventure, Dun- 
geon Master, Space Lab, Ice World, Ship Wreck, Zigma 
Experiment. Plus 32K Graphic Adventures. 

EACH INDIVIDUAL ISSUE SOLD FOR *9. 00 
EACH OR s 450 FOR ALL 50 ISSUES. WE 
SLASHED THE PRICE TO ONLY 150.°°. 



REG. H50 



\NOW} 



$ 150 



00 



ON EARTH JUST GOT BETTER! 



THAT'S RIGHT! THIS MONTH WE'VE DROPPED OUR YEARLY 
SUBSCRIPTION RATE AN UNBELIEVABLE s 1 0. 00 TO ENTICE YOU 
INTO SUBSCRIBING WITH US. GET 1 2 DISKS OR TAPES A YEAR 
CONTAINING OVER 120 QUALITY PROGRAMS. A SUBSCRIP- 
TION TO T & D SOFTWARE CONSISTS OF 10 READY-TO-LOAD 
PROGRAMS DELIVERED BY FIRST CLASS MAIL EVERY MONTH. 

NO WE ARE NOT THE SAME AS THE RAINBOW ON TAPE. IN 
FACT, MANY SUBSCRIBERS HAVE WRITTEN IN AND SAID THAT 
WE ARE MUCH BETTER THAN R AINBOW ON T APE! 




PRICES 

TAPE 



THIS 

OflDISK MONTH ONLY 
1 Y£AR(l2loauea) 60.00 
6MO.(61sauM) 4*tXT 35 00 

1 1SSUE JMff 8.00 

M.<*.gan flestdenis Add *% 
Overseas Add S10 «o Subsa.pf.on Price 
Personal Checks Welcome! 



★★THIS MONTH ONLY** 



VISA 



Buy this package of 500 programs and 
receive a free 6 month subscription. 
(A $ 35 value) 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
HAL 



* 1 6K-64K Color Computer OUR LATEST ISSUE CONTAINED 
*Over4000 Satisfied Customers 1 . Computer I.O.U. 6. Haunted Staircase 

* Back Issues Available From 2. Disk Disassembler 7. Canyon Bombers 

* July '82 (Over 500 Programs) 3. Bak Chekers 8. Dragon Adventure 

4. Pachinko 9. Graphic Scroll 

5, Stock Charting 10 Aulo Border 



RAINBOW 



CoCo 3 Compatible 




T & D SUBSCRIPTION SOFTWARE, P.O. BOX 256C, HOLLAND, Ml 49423 (61 6) 396-7577 



138 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



A CoCo Nut's Best Friend: 
Spike, The Electronic 
Robotic Dog 



This just has to be the ultimate science fair project! 
Imagine if you will, a CoCo-controlled robotic dog 
scampering around in front of your booth nipping at the 
heels of the judges! 

The idea sounded hilarious to me when I first heard of 
it, but the folks at Electronic Motion Control have 
developed plans and software to actually accomplish this 
feat. In spite of the humorous setting I have depicted, the 
subject should not be taken lightly. The resultant robot built 
from the available plans is capable of some pretty neat 
tricks. 

The plans consist of detailed drawings, diagrams and 
circuit board layouts, as well as a parts list of the hardware 
items needed. Besides a dedicated Color Computer 2 with 
ECB and 64K RAM, you also need various other circuit 
boards, motors and gear boxes. A list of where to buy these 
items. is included in the package, many of which can be 
purchased from EMC. 

A program is supplied on tape that allows you to program 
"Spike" to follow a specific pattern. As Spike runs the 
pattern he quickly learns his directions and runs it himself 
without any further training from his master. You program 
the initial pattern with the use of a joystick plugged into 
the CoCo. By the way, the computer is removed from its 
plastic case and installed directly onto Spike's chassis. Your 
TV or monitor is used during this initial programming 
process in order to see what you are doing. If you want, 
you can also hook up a printer and make a listing of the 
program with your unique pattern and other changes. 

The CoCo 2 is modified to the extent of bypassing the 
AC power supply and using motorcycle batteries and 
charger for the power supply. Other minor CoCo logic 
board modifications are also required and detailed. 

A clever option utilizing a Polaroid Sonic Board , like that 
used in the auto-focus instant camera, allows Spike to "see" 
obstructions and react accordingly. You can also add an 
optional speech synthesizer so that Spike can "speak," or 
maybe just bark. 

In looking over the detailed, 4 1-page instruction booklet, 
it appeared that everything you need to know to build this 
robot is there. One should not take this project lightly, 
however. It requires a lot of sheet metal work and some 
machining as well as electronic savvy; definitely not a 
project for the novice. The finished product is well worth 
the effort and adds still another dimension to your Color 
Computing interests. 

Although this represents a "fun" type project, it will not 
be a snap to build and train Spike; but unlike the real thing, 
this dog won't leave a mess on your living room floor! 

(Electronic Motion Control Inc., P.O. Box 17271, Air Port 
Station, Clearwater, FL 33520; 813-536-1694, $69.50 plus 
$3 S/H) 

— Jerry Semones 



■ 

* 

■ 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



■ 

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Back copies of many issues of the 
rainbow are still available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue 
cover price. In addition, there is a $3.50 
charge for the first issue, plus 50 cents 
for each additional issue for postage and 
handling if sent by United Parcel Service. 
There is a $5 charge for the first issue, 
plus a $1 charge for each additional issue 
on orders sent by U.S. Mail. UPS will not 
deliver to a post office box or to another 
country. 

Issues July 1981 through June 1982 
are available on white paper in a reprint 
form. All others are in regular magazine 
form. VISA, MasterCard and American 
Express accepted. Kentucky residents 
please add 5 percent state sales tax. In 
order to hold down costs, we do not bill 
and no C.O.D. orders are accepted. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you 
order the back issues you want now while 
supplies last. 

To order, just fill out the form on the 
next page and mail it with your payment 
to: 

THE RAINBOW 

The Falsoft Building 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 




January 1987 THE RAINBOW 



BACK ISSUE ORDER FORM 

(See overleaf for instructions.) 

(Payment must accompany back issue orders. We do not bill.) 

□ Please send me the following back issues: 



NO 


MONTH 


YEAR 


VOLUME 1 


PRICE 


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^ QC 


HI 
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OCTOBER 


'8S 


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QC 


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'8S 


nATA POMM 

Un 1 AA U U IVI IVI . 




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6 


JANUARY 

W » 1 1 ^ V*/ t 1 III 


'86 


BFGINNFRS 


$3.95 


□ 


7 


FEBRUARY 


'86 


UTILITIES 


$3.95 


□ 


8 


MARCH 


'86 


BUSINESS 


$3.95 


□ 


9 


APRIL 


'86 


HOME HELP 


$3.95 


□ 


10 


MAY 


'86 


PRINTER 


$3.95 


□ 


11 


JUNE 


'86 


MUSIC 


$3.95 


□ 


12 


JULY 


'86 


ANNIVERSARY 


$3.95 


□ 








VOLUME 6 






1 


AUGUST 


'86 


GAMES 


$3.95 


□ 


2 


SEPTEMBER 


'86 


EDUCATION 


$3.95 


□ 


3 


OCTOBER 


'86 


GRAPHICS 


$3.95 


□ 


4 


NOVEMBER 


'86 


DATA COMM. 


$3.95 


□ 


5 


DECEMBER 


'86 


HOLIDAY 


$3.95 


□ 


6 


JANUARY 


'87 


BEGINNERS 


$3.95 


□ 



RAINBOW INDEX A complete index to our firsl three years. July 1981 
through June 1984. is printed in ils entirety in our July 1984 issue. 
Separately bound copies are also available$2.50 □ 



Note: Our Fourth and Fifth Year Indexes, including RAINBOW ON TAPE 
indexes, are included in (he July 1985 and 1986 issues, respectively. 

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Accessory Review^^^^^^^^S^^^^^r^s 

MouseTop — A Furry 
Companion for 
Your CoCo 

Remember the ads for Jaws II — "Just when you thought 
it was safe to go back in the water ,v ? 

Well, just when you think you've seen everything, it 
always comes along. And here it is: The MouseTop mouse 
cover. 

You don't need this little cover that fits right over your 
computer mouse. Oh, certainly, it keeps the grime, dust and 
grit off the mouse. But I have honestly seen darn few people 
use keyboard, disk drive and (for that matter) typewriter 
covers. Too much trouble. 

Those things don't have something that the MouseTop 
does — it's cute. 

"What's that?" someone asked a few minutes after it 
arrived. "It's a mouse cover," I said. "It keeps my mouse 
clean and warm." 




"It's cute" was the reply. "Really cute. At last, you have 
something cute to go with all that equipment." 

OK. I've bought laser printers, 70-Meg hard drives, jazzy 
plotters and every computer Tandy's made in the past five 
years. Nothing has brought as much comment as this little 
MouseTop. 

It /scute. Two ears, glasses and a shiny black nose. It fits 
right over my computer's mouse. The "tail" is the mouse 
cord. 

Each MouseTop is hand-made, which makes each unique. 
And they are machine washable. 

I like this little varmint and I think you'll like it, too. It 
does add a touch of furry personality to your computer. 

(H&H Enterprises, P.O. Box 2672, Corona, CA 91718; 714- 
737-1376, $5.95,20/20 vision model [without glasses] $5.49) 

— Lonnie Falk 



140 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



Software Review 

Miscellaneous Writings 
Enhances Bible Studies 

The idea of a book or books on disk isn't new, so I will 
not make further comment on the concept, except to agree 
that it is a case of the future being the here and now. 

The Rev. Mark Camp has used the idea to great advan- 
tage for Bible scholars, ministers or people just plain 
interested in the scriptures. I'm excited about that, but the 
whole concept of book disks has to be even more exciting! 

Just think of a school having history books on disk that 
could be updated every year as history is being made. Use 
your imagination on this one; there are hundreds of 
applications. 

As for Miscellaneous Writings, I put them to the test by 
using the outlines for a sermon and a couple of Bible studies. 
Nobody fell asleep and fell out the window, so they must 
have been effective. 

Seriously, they were very good outlines that are easy to 
follow. I will reserve any review on doctrinal grounds for 
religious publications. 

The text files print out well on VIP Writer, which has 
always been my workhorse word processor. They also print 
on Telewriter-64 and with a text file printer included on the 
disk. 

This is a superior program for Bible students, Sunday 
schools or folks interested in the Bible, but don't let that 
keep you non-biblical types from taking a look. It is a great 
concept. 

The material on the disk is explained in DISKINFD/TXT, 
which tells you all about the files. Using the built-in word 
processor, or your own word processor program, you can 
read or print out the file you want. This is a superior way 
to obtain and store text. I would call this an inexpensive 
must for all Bible students and an interesting disk for 
everyone. 

Also included in the review package was a collection of 
programs called CoCo Hymnal II. 

This program was conceived out of necessity when Pastor 
Mark was caught on a night when his regular pianist was 
not available. 

All he had around was his "Tandy Steinway" so he sat 
down and programmed some favorite hymns along with a 
text display of the words. It was well received by the 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Just type it in and run it. This program is quite self- 
explanatory. 

The listing: 

J8 CLSj3:FORN=lT01pp:C=RND(8) :X=RN 
D(32) -l:Y=RND(16) -1:SET(X, Y,C) :S 
ET(X,31-Y,C) :SET(63-X,Y,C) :SET(6 
3-X, 31-Y,C) : IFRND(2p)=30RINKEY$< 
> 11 "THENRUNELSENEXT : RUN 1 LIGHT SHO 

W Stevie D. Pritchett 

Jacksonville, AL 

(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been seni copies 
of both 77?e Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion Ttie Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



congregation, and Pastor Mark expanded it using a couple 
of graphics programs to include some title pages and a 
menu. 

The program operates by typing RUN "FT. BPS", which 
prints out (onscreen) the instructions and sets a Hi-Res 
screen for the text printing. 

You can choose Old and New Favorites, Songs About the 
Holy Spirit, Hymns of the Reformed Faith or Songs for 
Children. Each general area gives you several choices of 
hymns. 

Mark modestly says the arrangements are not profes- 
sional, but they sound like the mighty Wurlitzer to me. It 
is amazing how much music can come out of my old gray 
F-board CoCo. 

My only problem with the CoCo Hymnal is the inability 
of the program to take you back to the menu after a set 
of selections has been played. 

You can access another group if you run the basic 
program for that group, but that requires keeping the list 
handy, and you know how lazy we can get about things like 
that. I am sure Mark Camp is working on that program 
along with a lot of good stuff. 

Sovereign Grace Software is filling an important 
function. I found both disks in the review package well 
worth the money and the time. 

(Sovereign Grace Software, 221 Highview Drive, Ballwin, 
MO 63011; 314-227-3238, Writings Disk $9.95; CoCo 
Hymnal, by donation) 

— Howard Lee Ball 



0 COLOR BANKBOOK 


$19.95 


• BOSINESS BANKBOOK 




SYSTEM ONE 




FOR ONE DISK DRIUE 


$49.95 


SYSTEM TWO 




FOR TWO DISK DRIUES 


$49.95 


0 UCR FILE 


$19.95 


0 SOPERDISK UTILITY 


$ 9.95 


SEE REVIEW IN MAY '86 




RAINBOW PAGE 131 




# RODIOLOG 


$ 9.95 


SEE REVIEW IN MAY '86. 




RAINBOW PAGE £09 




+ CODE PRACTICE 


$ 9.95 


ORDERS OR INFORMATION 




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January 1987 THE RAINBOW 141 



BaaeBBT_j00oo8 



Look What's New at N 



Top- quality software at 
affordable prices, written by 
well-known authors in 6809 
Machine Language 




NEW RELEASE 

DONUT DILEMMA 

Angry Angelo has raided Antonio's Donut 
Factory sending the entire complex amuck! 
Donuts have come alive and all the 
machines are out of control. You must 
reach floor 10, past the Fat Spurters, 
Cream Blasters and Berserk Bucket to 
name a few, and deactivate the power 
generator to restore law and order. But 
hurry! Time is running out! 

Requires 32K 

Tap e $21.95 Disk $24.95 



Maui Vice 

Step into the shoes of Crockett & Tubbs, 
and gatherevidence, photographs and wit- 
nesses to convict your suspects! With 
"windows" to select your options, hi-res 
graphics, and a new story generated each 
time you play. This is state-of-the-art that 
guarantees excitement and newness every 
time you play. 

64K Ext. Basic & Joystick Required 
Disk $21,95 

Other Best Sellers 

The Misadventures of Eddie— Eddie is 
roaming through time creating havoc-and 
you must bring him home! Over 140 loca- 
tions, 50+ commands, hi-res grapic 
adventure. 64K Disk $21.95 

Brewmaster— Move along the end of the 
bars, serving beer to your th irsty customers. 
Fast-paced action. 32K & Joystick. 

Tape $14.95 Disk $17.95 

Martian Crypt -Life once existed on Mars! 
Find the hidden Martian crypt. Animated 
hi-res graphic adventure with sound effects. 

32K Tape $18.95 Disk $21.95 



FOURCUBE 

Now you can play TIC-T AC-TOE in 3D. The 
board consists of a 4x4x4 grid of cells. Pit 
your wits against the computer with six 
levels of difficulty or against your favorite 
opponent. Sound easy? Try it and you'll 
agree with us when we say its a "real 
challenge". 

Requires 32K 1 or 2 Player s 

Tape $15.95 Disk $18.95 





Moneyopoly 

Play the popular board game on one of 
the most realistic computer game simula- 
tions ever! Contains all the features of the 
original. Buy, sell, rent, wheel & deal your 
way to fortune. 

3 2K Joystick Required 
Tape $19.95 Disk $22.95 



CREDITS 



PUIr *J COINS 




e [lifts 

III 0 RETUftn H AH OLE 




Vegas Game Pak 

Six games in all! Blackjack, Keno, Video 
Poker & 3 slot machine lookalikes. Super 
graphics! 

16K Ext. Basic Required 
Tape $24,95 Disk $27.95 



NEW RELEASE 

LUNCHTIME 

Your chef, Peter Pepper, is surrounded! 
Dodge pickles, hot dogs, and eggs while 
building hamburgers. This high res game 
features 7 difficult levels of wild entertain- 
ment. Fast paced action for either one or 
two players. Have a Burger Time. . . 
Req uires 32K & Joysticks 

Tape $18.95 Disk $21.95 

Tom Mix Products at 
New Reduced Prices! 

Sailor Man— Defeat the bigfatbadguy and 
win Elsie's heart. Super graphics. 

64K Tape $24.95 Disk $27.95 

Dragon Slayer- Defeat the dragon by 
finding your way through a mountain maze. 
Gather treasure but avoid the deadly traps! 
160 exciting screens. 

32K & Joystick or Keyboard 
Disk $ 24.95 

The King— 

32K Tape $24.95 Disk $27.95 
Draconian — 

32K Tape $19.95 Disk $22.95 
Ms. Maze— 

32K Tape $19.95 Disk $22.95 
Kater Pillar II- 

1 6K Tape $1 9.95 Disk $22 .95 
Warehouse Mutants— 

16K Tape $18.95 Disk $21.95 
Buzzard Bait- 

32K Tape $19.95 Disk $22.95 



NOVflSOFT 

A Tom Mix Company 

P.O. Box 201 
Ada, Michigan 49301 

616/676-8172 



Ordering Information 

Add $3 shipping/handling 
Ml residents add 4% sales tax 
Dealers welcome 

Many more titles-write for free catalog! 

Credit Card Orders 

Call 616/676-8172 




ViSA* 



TOM MIX'S MINI-CATALOG 




Educational Best-Sellers! 



P-51 Mustang 
Attack/Flight Simulation 

The ultimate video experience! Link two 
CoCo's together by cable or modem, and 
compete against your opponent across 
the table OR across the country! (Both 
computers require a copy of this program). 
The P-51 flight simulator lets you fly this WWII 
attack fighter in actual combat situations— 
against another player OR against the 
computer. 

32K Machine Language 
Flight Manual Inc l uded 
Tape $29.95 Disk $34.95 



□ 



Worlds of Flight 
Small Plane Simulation 

Real-time simulation generates panoramic 
3-D views of ground features as you fly 
your sophisticated plane in any of nine 
different "worlds." Program modelsover35 
different aircraft/flight parameters. Realistic 
sound effects too! Manual included helps 
you through a typical short flight. 
32K Machine Language 
Flight Manual Included 
Joysticks Required 
Tape $29.95 Disk $34.95 



Teachers Database II— Allows teachers 
to keep computerized files of students. 
Recently updated with many new features! 

• Up to 1 00 students, 24 items per student 

• Many easy-to-follow menus 

• Records can be changed, deleted, 
combined 

• Statistical analysis of scores 

• Grades can be weighed, averaged, 
percentaged 

• Individual progress reports 

• Student seating charts 

• Test result graphs/grade distribution 
charts 

64K TDBII $59.95 Disk Only 
32K TDBI $42.95 Tape $39.95 

NOW AVAILABLE FOR IBM PC & 

COMPATIBLES-Holds information on up to 
250 students with as many as 60 individual 
items of data for each. Contains the 
features listed above PLUS. 

Requires. 128K - $89.95 



Factpack-Three programs for home or 
school use provide drill and practice with 
basic "-/+/-/x" Grades 1-6. 

32K Ext. Basic 
Tape $24.95 Disk $29.95 

Vocabulary Management System— Helps 
children learn and practice using vocabu- 
lary and spelling words. Eleven programs 
including three printer segments for tests, 
puzzles, worksheets and five games; many 
features make this a popular seller! 

Req uir es 16K Ext. Basic/ 

32K for Printer Output 
Tape $39.95 Dis k $42.95 

Fractions-A Three-Program Package. 
1 /Mixed & Improper 2/Equivalence 
3/Lowest Terms. Practice, review and defi- 
nitions make learning easy. 

32K Ext. Basic 
Tape $30.95 Disk $35.95 




NEW RELEASE 
GOLD FINDER 

Here's the quality you have come to expect 
from TOM MIX. Another outstanding color 
computer game. This one ranks right up 
there with "Donkey Kong". Listen to this: 
69 levels for one or two players PLUS you 
can create your own levels (up to 306 on 
a disk). Endless possibilities await you in 
this exciting new creation. Move over 
Goldrunner and Loderunner, here comes 
GOLD FINDER. . . 

32K & Joysticks Required 

Disk $27.95 

We Have More Software 
Available Than Listed Here. 
Please Write for a Free Catalog! 




NEW RELEASE 

THE BLACK HOLE 

For anyone who enjoys solving a challeng- 
ing logical puzzle, here is a 3-dimensional 
puzzle composed of 63 numbered cubes 
in a 4 by 4 by 4 array that leaves one 
BLACK HOLE. You tell the computer to sort 
the cubes and the computer tells you to put 
them in numerical order. A real brain 
bender. Outstanding color and action. 
Years of entertainment. . . 

For IBM PC & Co mpatibles 

$24.95 

More Tandy-IBM/PC software available. 



Unique Utilities! 

New! Use the tools we've used to create 
"Donkey King," "Sailor Man" and others! 
Full use of 64K RAM 
100% Machine Language 
No ROM Calls 
Selectable Drive 
Support 1-4 drives 
Menu Selected functions 
"Cold Start" exit to Basic 
Parameters easily changeable in basic 
loader 

MAS Assembler— the finest ever! 
(Includes EDT) 

Di sk $74.95 

EDT— Effortless full screen editing w/2-way 
cursor. Text files to 48K+. Copy, save, 
move, delete, print blocks, much more! 

Dis k $39.95 

Deputy Inspector— Alphabetize, resort and 
backup directory; fast 3-swap backups, 
copy files or programs, auto-reallocate 
granules during backup for faster loading, 
more! 

Disk $21.95 

Sector Inspector-Alphabetize, backup and 
print directory; repair crashes, LLIST basic 
programs, read in and edit 23+ grans, 
much more! 

Disk $29.95 




TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 201 
Ada, Michigan 49301 

616/676-8172 

Ordering Information 

Call us at 61 6/676-81 72 
for Charge Card orders 
Add $3.00 postage and 
handling 

Ml residents add 4% 
sales tax 

Authors-We pay top 
royalties! 





VISA 



Software Revie 



Disk Programming Package 
Provides Additional Security 



From time to time everyone sits in front of his CoCo and 
thinks, "I sure wish someone would write a utility to do that. 
It would be so nice!" At least four of those wishes have now 
come true thanks to Bob van der Poel Software's Disk 
Programming Package. 

The Disk Progran^ming Package consists of four utilities 
that could be of use to all Disk BASIC programmers. The 
four utilities are ADDML, which appends machine 
language subroutines to your BASIC program; UN- 
PACKER, which reverses the action of BASIC line packers; 
MLBASIC, which converts a BASIC program to a machine 
language file; and JOIN, which links several machine 
language routines into one file and optionally adds an auto- 
exec feature. 

The four utilities come on a single disk, which is not copy 
protected. The documentation consists of five sheets of 
typewritten instructions written in a chatty, friendly style 
that leads you through the operation of each of the utilties. 
The programs run exactly as the instructions state. The 
operation of the four utilities is so simple, I was able to run 
all of them without having to look at the instructions. 





THE RAINBOWS 

One-Liner Contest 
has now been expanded 
to include programs of 
either one or two lines. This 
means a new dimension and new 
opportunity for those who have "really 
neat" programs that simply just won't fit in 
one line. 

Here are the guidelines: The program must 
work in Extended basic, have only one or two 
line numbers and be entirely self-contained — 
no loading other programs, no calling ROM 
routines, no poked-in machine language code. 
The program has to run when typed in directly 
(since that's how our readers will use it). Make 
sure your line, or lines, aren't packed so tightly 
that the program won't list completely. Finally, 
any instructions needed should 
be very short. 



The ADDML utility is perhaps the most useful utility of 
the four. With it, you can take a BASIC program, code the 
slow parts in machine language, and then use the utility to 
combine the two into one file. When you run the utility, 
it asks you for the name of the BASIC program to add the 
machine language routine to, the name of the machine 
language file, and the name of the file to write the combined 
output to. The disk then churns for a while and you have 
a new BASIC program file, which is the original BASIC 
program and the machine language routine combined. The 
new BASIC program can be edited and re-saved many times 
because the machine language part now "rides" along with 
it in memory and on disk at the bottom of the new BASIC 
program. Also created is an extra line in the new BASIC 
program to calculate the execution offset of the machine 
language routine. 

The UNPACKER utility is designed to reverse the effects 
of BASIC packer programs that delete spaces and create 
multi-statement lines when they can. Although a specific 
packer program is mentioned in the documentation, I found 
out that UNPACKER will take any BASIC program, packed 
or not, and create a new program with one statement per 
line and spaces between all the BASIC keywords. 

MLBASIC is a fascinating utility. It converts a BASIC 
program from BASIC format to a format that can then only 
be loaded with the LDPDM command. In addition, it encrypts 
the BASIC program and provides for protection against the 
BREAK key. With this utility, you can easily protect a BASIC 
program from being listed, edited or changed in any way. 
The machine language file that MLBASIC creates is fully 
ready to be placed on a PROM chip. The documentation 
states that this utility may cause problems on CoCos with 
Extended BASIC 1.0 because of the PCLEAR bug. 

The final utility, JOIN, lets you take several machine 
language files and merge them all together into one file. You 
may also add an autoexec option to your new file. 

Bob van der Poel has provided all CoCo users with a set 
of utilities that are both useful and practical. The Disk 
Programming Package is easy to use and well-documented. 
Dr. Megabyte recommends these utilities to anyone who 
may have a use for them. 

(CMD Micro, 10447-124 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, 
Canada T5N 1R7; 403-488-7109, $14.95 plus $2 S/H) 

— Mark E. Sunderlin 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Type this one, but try to guess what it does before 
you run it. 

The listing: 

ljS PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS : SCREEN1 , 1 : PMODE 
3,1: F0RPL=1T03 3 : D=RND ( 3 ) +1 : F=RND 
(2 56) -1 : G=RND ( 192 ) -1: CIRCLE (F,G) 
, 11, D, 1: PAINT (F,G) , D, D: LINE (F, G+ 
8) -(F,G+18) ,PSET:NEXTPL:FOR HT=1 
T04 4 4 * 3 : NEXTHT : GOTOl J5 

John Beck 
Suitland, MD 

(For this winning onc-lincr contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



assette) to 





^§3 



1 44 THE RAINBOW January 1 987 



Software jffey/ew Z;; ^ f7^:\ 

You Can Have 3-D Graphics 
Without the Glasses 

As you may have noticed, one of the things the CoCo 
does best is graphics. Logicware has developed a program 
that makes CoCo shine in that regard, and with a flair. 

This machine language program is available on tape or 
disk and needs 64 K of RAM and Extended Color BASIC. 
It is not copy-protected so a backup copy is possible. A 29- 
page detailed set of instructions is well-done and full of 
examples on how to put the program through its paces. 

3-D Graphics provides simultaneous rotation, move- 
ment, zoom and animation of 3-D graphics images. The 
images can be printed on most dot matrix printers; the 
program is specifically designed to work with Radio Shack 
printers, 




Samples of what can be done with this software are 
provided. You can see a spaceship (The Enterprise), a cube, 
a sphere and a pyramid , all of which rotate and move about 
the screen to show every perspective. 

Running the program is as simple as loading and 
executing THREED. You are prompted to enter a command. 
Pressing H provides a menu of options. A demonstration 
of 3-D with animation of the spaceship can be viewed. 

A zero is used for the shortest possible delay time between 
successive graphics images. It provides very smooth 
rotation and alternate views of the spaceship. Increasing the 
value results in stop-action-type still shots. Exit the viewing 
mode by pressing the ENTER key. 



A demonstration is also provided using a sphere, a cube 
and a pyramid. The unique thing about this demo is that 
not only are the objects rotating and moving on the screen, 
but the pyramid actually zooms from a small to a large size 
giving it the appearance of real 3-D as it moves toward the 
viewer. A pretty neat trick — and no 3-D glasses! 

Some other unusual techniques are possible with this 
program. You can select a single view of any of the objects 
and make it as small or as large as you like. 

It takes about 2 l £ minutes for the view to be completed, 
and it remains on the screen. While the picture is drawn on 
a black background, it can be inverted by pressing I and 
ENTER. At this point you can send the picture to the printer. 

As you can see, the commands are very powerful and 
allow the programmer almost unlimited freedom in ways 
to view an object. Since the size of the object on the screen 
is proportional to the Scale Value, the objects size can be 
changed easily. The Standing Point of Observation Value 
(SPO) can also be changed for close-up or far away views. 
The X, Y and Z values of rotation and translation are 
extremely useful. The center of the screen represents a value 
of zero while positive values of X go to the right and negative 
values to the left. The Y values are positive going up and 
negative going down from the center. The Z values are 
positive coming toward the user (out of the screen) and 
negative going away from the user (into the screen). In a 
similar fashion, the X, Y and Z translations move the object 
off of center. 

Also included is a program called Edit. This program is 
used to create your own 3-D graphics images. The user 
enters appropriate coordinates to create any image the 
imagination can dream up, although I found this part of 
the program to be a little user hostile. You have to resort 
to pencil and paper to create these images, since you are 
dealing with tri-axis information. While this is complex, it 
is not impossible and I suspect that many CoCo users will 
catch on quickly. I also feel that the Edit program is lacking 
in one important area. It needs a way to "see" what's going 
on. As it stands, you can't see the fruits of your labor 
without first saving the file and then looking at it with the 
THREED program. Another useful feature would be a disk 
command to allow the usertoseethedirectory. A Dir option 
would be a real help since you wouldn't have to break out 
of the program to see the filenames you couldn't remember 
or forgot to writedown. 

In spite of these shortcomings, 3-D Graphics is a powerful 
program that allows talented programmers to create some 
very interesting 3-D images. The authors, Robert Steidl and 
Johnathan Lein, have put together a useful package that 
challenges graphics lovers in a unique and imaginative way. 
You will soon find out that your imagination does not have 
to be limited to flat screen images, but can display depth 
and movement in a way not often seen on the likes of a 
CoCo. 



(Logicware, 730 W. McDowell Rd., Phoenix AZ 85007; 602- 
821-2465, $32,95 plus $3 S/H) 



— Jerry Semones 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 145 




Software Review. 



THE CENTRAL SOURCE FOR COCO SUPPORT 



presents . . . 



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Make Your Own banner 



Banner is designed to print banners, which it -does without 
fuss or fanfare. The 16-page booklet of instructions is well- 
written. In clear, simple, easy-to-understand language it 
tells how to load the program and operate it. 

Need a "HAPPY BIRTHDAY" sign for the kiddie party 
or a "VOTE FOR JOHN HATHAWAY" sign for the 
political rally? Banner produces what you want with 
neatness and dispatch. Well, the dispatch depends on the 
printer. I used 600 baud and the speed was satisfactory, but 
not blinding. If your equipment permits, you can have only 
one cup of coffee while printing a sign of several words, but 
don't expect the printer to throw it out faster than you can 
fold the output. 

The menus are clear, complete and easy to use. When the 
program is loaded with LOPDM"BPNNER, the first menu 
comes up on the monitor and asks what baud rate to use. 
After selecting a baud rate, you are asked if you want a line 
feed after each carriage return. After you answer this 
question the main menu comes up, providing eight possible 
selections. The first selection invites you to enter the 
message you want printed on the banner. Just type out the 
message as if you were using a typewriter and press ENTER. 
Next, select Display Message and check your entry for 
correctness. If all is well, select Print and watch the banner 
being prepared before your very eyes! 

Banner uses Xs to fill out the characters on the sign or 
banner unless you select a different character at the main 
menu, such as graphics blocks for solid figures. The letters 
are Roman, well-proportioned and neatly formed. The 

result is easy to read and makes an attractive display. 

Other selections from the main menu permit entries of 
various printer codes to change the height of the characters, 
etc. 

Banner is a fun program and I recommend it even if you 
don't need banners! 

(B. Erickson Software, P. O. Box 11099, Chicago, 1L 60611; 
312-276-9712, $25) 

— Charles L. Redman, Jr. 



Hint 



GIME That Lowercase 

This one is for the CoCo 3. As you well know, the 
Color Computer features true lowercase in the 40- and 
80-column modes, but not in the 32-column mode. 
However, the GIME allows emulation of the 
MC6847T1. To enable the lowercase in the 32-column 
mode, just enter PDKE&H95C9 , &H7F : PDKE&HFF 
33,&H10. 

Bob Rosen 
Howard Beach, N Y 



146 



THE RAINBOW January 1 987 



Software Review 



Easy-To-Use D.L. LOGO Is as 

imple as ABL, 

What is D.L LOGO! In a nutshell, D.L LOGO is a 
programming language that uses English instead of 
symbolic commands. No line numbers are used, as it is also 
a structured language. It has gained popularity in educa- 
tional circles, and seems to be a good introductory language. 
Many school systems are standardizing on D.L. LOGO for 
young students. 

To run D,L. LOGO on your Color Computer you must 
have a 64K Color Computer and one disk drive. The 
programming language uses the OS-9 operating system and 
is a good example of quality OS-9 programming. But you 
don't need OS-9 to use LOGO. A boot program is included 
in the back of the manual for "users with Disk BASIC 1.0. 

To use all of the functions you also need the following 
optional equipment: Multi-Pak, Speech/ Sound Cartridge, 
X-Pad Graphics Tablet, two joysticks and a dot matrix 
printer. For speech capabilities you need boththe Multi-Pak 
and Speech/Sound Cartridge. The Multi-Pak is also 
recommended for the X-Pad. 

The documentation is excellent. The manual is slightly 
over 400 pages long and starts with the very basics and 
continues with a logical progression of all of the commands 
and functions. Many programming examples are given and 
a summary is included at the end of each chapter. I would 
classify the manual as hands-on and informative, but not 
technical. 




D.L LOGO uses a method of drawing called "turtle 
graphics. "Two types of screens are used. One is a text screen 




f or program development, and the other is a graphics screen 
for programs. When using the graphics screen, 16 back- 
ground and foreground colors are possible. English 
commands are used to move the turtle around the graphics 
screen. The turtle leaves a tail. The graphics screen has 256 
horizontal and 1 92 vertical steps. 

You can do more than draw with D.L LOGO. As in any 
other programming language, both string and numerical 
variables are supported. A full set of numerical and logical 
functions is included with variable precision from zero (an 
integer) to 100 places. When first loaded the precision is set 
to two places. 

Sound/ Speech is supported by SAY and SOUND primitives. 
(D.L. L (9 (7 (9 calls commands primitives.) Using these audio 
commands, an example is given for how to use your CoCo 
as a talking alarm clock. How about that? 

A full set of file-handling commands is also included. An 
editor is included for memory-resident files. As in any other 
language, you can store and retrieve files using your disks. 
One example in the manual is a disk catalog program. 

Dale Lear, the author of D.L. LOGO, has really done 
justice to LOGO for the Color Computer. I am pleased to 
see Radio Shack make the commitment to education by the 
introduction of this type of program. 

There was one problem, I never could get the demo 
program to fully execute. I kept getting an OM Error. 
Several other programming examples on the production 
disk ran without a flaw. 

I recommend D.L. LOGO as a full implementation of 
LOGO for the Color Computer. If you are having trouble 
understanding BASIC, or are already familiar with LOGO, try 
it; it's like learning your ABCs. 

Editor's Note: Hotel CoCo, a game requiring D.L LOGO, is scheduled 
to appear in next month's issue. 

(Available in Radio Shack stores nationwide, Catalog No. 
26-3033, $99.95) 

— Dan Downard 



January 1987 THE RAfNBOW 147 



Software Revie w ^^^^^^^^^ 

Map 5 n Zap Relieves Disk 
System Headaches 

Do you want to learn about how and where programs 
are actually stored on your disks? Have you ever had the 
frustrating experience of 1/ O Errors with your disks? Have 
you ever killed a file only to immediately (yet, not quickly 
enough) realize it was your favorite game from THE 
RAINBOW? Then Map 'n Zap is for you! 

Map n Zap is a disk editor and repair system intended 
for anyone who has discovered the headaches that go with 
owning a disk system. This person might be a layman or 
a big-time "hacker." Disk drives really are nice. They 
provide a great amount of fast and usually reliable data 
storage. Occasionally, though, things go awry and you are 
stuck with a disk you would like to use for a coffee cup 
coaster. The Map 'n Zap manual, along with the associated 
programs, will take you away from your misery and put you 
back in business. 

With Map 'n Zap, you can alter how data appears on the 
disk. You can edit the directory and restore those inadvert- 
ently killed files. You can even edit your programs directly 
on the disk. The included manual takes you from step one 
of disk repair through the entire process. At the same time, 
it gives you a good deal of knowledge about your disk 
system and how files are stored. While the manual may 
sometimes get a little over the head of the average user, one 
or two rereadings of the confusing section will usually clear 
things up. It is obvious that much thought was given to 
providing a package for the novice as well as for the 
advanced CoCo user. 

I am thoroughly impressed with what Duck Productions 
has done. They have offered an excellent package, which 
includes a bonus directory program and several disk 
utilities, at a quite affordable price. Everyone who uses a 
disk drive with his CoCo should have a disk zap program, 
and Map 'n Zap is definitely one which should not be 
overlooked. 

(Duck Productions, 18 Rowe Court, Brampton, Ontario, 
Canada L6X 2S2; 416-456-0032, $19.95, $24.95 Cnd.) 

— Cray Augsburg 



Hint . . . 

Cut It Out 

To obtain a printout of a disk directory from your 
CoCo, first make sure your printer is set correctly and 
is online. Then, type 

P0KE111,254:DIR 

and press ENTER. The disk will spin and your directory 
will be printed out for you. You may want to cut it 
out and tape it to the disk jacket so you will always 
know what program is where. 



Hardware Revie n^^^^^^^^^^^^Z ^ST^N 



The Pony Express Rides Again 



In 1860, when men were men and horsepower meant just 
what it said, the new wonder of data transfer technology 
was the Pony Express. Those brave riders sped the mail 
across the mountains and prairies, from Missouri to 
California, come hail or high water. The record time for the 
trip was a breathtaking seven days and 17 hours. And at 
a cost of $5 per half-ounce of mail. 

Little more than a century later, we can send information 
over far greater distances at 2,400 characters per second. 
And at considerably lower cost, even though your monthly 
information service bill might make that hard to believe. 

With a nod to those early riders, there is an information 
carrier for the new age: the Telenetics PonyExpress 24A 
modem. 

The PonyExpress 24A is a 2400 baud external modem, 
featuring asynchronous operation, auto-dial/ auto-answer 
capabilities and complete call progress monitoring. It is 
fully compatible with the Hayes AT command set, and is 
therefore compatible with most communications software 
available. 

According to the Telenetics literature, the modem was 
designed for the greatest ease of operation. Only two LEDs 
are located on the front panel, one for "modem ready" and 
one for "on line." When you turn on or reset the modem, 
it performs a self-test and the modem-ready light comes on; 
when you make a connection, the on-line light comes on. 
And if you have problems, a convenient reset button is 
included on the front panel that puts it back through the 
automatic self-test. 

On the back, along with the input phone line jack, is a 
jack for a telephone handset, a knob that controls the 
speaker volume, a power switch and, of course, the RS-232 
port to connect it to your computer. Conveniently, a bank 
of four DIP switches is also located on the rear panel, rather 
than hidden away inside the chassis. 

I have put the PonyExpress through its paces over the 
past 12 weeks, leaving it turned on for 10 hours a day even 
when it wasn't being used. It has stood up to the treatment 
like a champion. Had it not, it was reassuring to know that 
it comes with a three-year warranty. 

Of special note is that the Telenetics PonyExpress 24A 
is being offered in a special online promotion on Delphi. 
For $330.95, significantly below retail, you can travel across 
the land with the speed of the PonyExpress. For more 
information about the offer, send electronic mail to 
username 2400MODEM. 



(Telenetics Corporation, 895 E. Yorba Linda Blvd., 
Placentia, CA 92670; 714-524-5770, $495) 



— Kevin Nickols 



148 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



Software Review > 



mfj • Fm _ti J3 CI* t 

System Toolkit 



Thinking Software has produced a simple menu-driven 
approach to generating your own rule-based backward 
chaining expert system. An expert system asks the user a 
series of questions to be answered on a scale of zero to 10. 
The expert then decides on a correct solution. Question- 
naires that rate the level of stress in your life or your life 
expectancy would be good examples of simple expert 
systems. Large scale systems can be created with hundreds 
of questions and dozens of possible solutions. An expert 
system could be built to help you decide what's wrong with 
your car or if you should take a sick pet to the vet. 

Simple menus and clear prompts make B.E.S.T. easy to 
use. You must type in all the questions the expert might need 
to ask. Then, you type in all the possible solutions and rate 
each question as it relates to the solution. You can add or 
modify questions and solutions at any time, so you don't 
have to complete the system in one sitting. 

The expert is smart enough to ask only the questions that 
it needs to decide on a solution. Often, this will be all the 
questions in the system. If, however, the expert can tell from 
your answers that certain solutions have zero possibility of 
being true, the expert skips any further questions that deal 
with those solutions. 



You do need to keep in mind that the expert is only as 
good as the questions and solutions that you type into it. 
The expert is not smart enough to learn from experience. 

Though I couldn't test it, the expert toolkit is supposed 
to work on the new CoCo 3. A talking version is also 
available for use with the Radio Shack speech cartridge. 

Bad points: The expert toolkit would not run properly 
on a CoCo 1 (D board). Software developers need to 
remember that not all CoCos are 2s and 3s. 

Any expert system that you create must be first booted 
from the toolkit disk, making it awkward for users who are 
unfamiliar with computers. Even more unfortunate is that 
the toolkit disk is copy protected. This one disk that is used 
to create and start-up any and all of your expert disks will 
be subject to a lot of wear, yet there is no way to make a 
backup for safety or to use with each expert system disk. 
You can, however, order a replacement disk for $5. 

The screens that display the title and directions are shown 
for a set length of time. Average readers will have no 
problem, but slow readers may not be able to finish reading 
the directions in time. A prompt to press a key when finished 
reading would have been better. 

The B.E.S.T. expert system you create is rather slow as 
it asks the questions, though the manual does state that the 
speed-up poke can be used if your computer can handle it. 

(Thinking Software, 46-16 65th Place, YVoodside, NY 1 1 377; 
718-429-4922, B.E.S.T. Expert System with Stock Market 
and Executive Health Expert Systems ready to consult, 
$59.95; talking version, $64.95) 

— James Ventling 



TCE s 5 th. Anniversary Catalog 

is now available? 



IF YOU OWN A TANDY COMPUTER THERE'S 'SOMETHING FOR YOU! 



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ABC's IN COLOR 
ALPHA MEMORY 
HAPPY COUNT 
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BASIC MATH 
CRISSCROSS MATH 
CRISS CROSS PLUS 
FLASH CARD 
FRACTIONS 
FRACTION DESTROYER 
FRIEND OR FOE 
MATH BOMBER 
MATH REVIEW 
MB. BEAR FLASH CARD 
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PLACE VALUES 
REDUCING FRACTIONS 
RESCUE MATH 

LEARNING ACTIVITIES 

ALPHA ATTACK 

CAPITAL MATCH 

HISTORY QUIZ 

MATH QUIZ 

MEMORY MATCH 

QUIZ GAME 

UNITED STATES 

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ANTONYM EXPRESS 
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CRISS CROSS SPELL 
ENGLISH REVIEW 
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SPELL BOMBER 
SPELLING RULES 
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for a FREE TCE Software catalog and the latest copy of TCE NEWS. 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 149 



Software Review. 



WRITES T Is the Teacher's Pet 



Tests, exams and quizzes may be the cause for student 
nightmares but are a vital part of a teacher's daily life. 
Preparing tests is a time-consuming chore that can be made 
simpler if the teacher has a CoCo and WRITEST. 

WRITEST is a test preparation program that produces 
many copies of Matching, Multiple Choice, True or False, 
and Short Answer or Long Answer tests on your printer. 
The program randomizes input or re-randomizes the order 
on command. WRITESTls programmed in BASIC allowing 
changes to be easily made. 

The program is written for a minimum 32K CoCo, 
requires a cassette recorder and an Epson RX-80 printer 
with Graftrax. However, any 80-column printer may be 
used with suitable changes in printer code. The program 
uses the full capability of the printer, including Pica wide, 
Elite, condensed, emphasized and double strike. Underlin- 
ing and superscripts are possible, as well as a variety of 
specially programmed symbolsf or mathematical usage such 
as pi, radicals, angles and circles. 

Since it's written in BASIC, the program consumes a large 
amount of RAM. The instructions recognize this problem 
and recommend the use of POKE 25, G to free about 1,500 
bytes. Deletion of statements regarding print codes and a 
possible RENUM provide another 500 bytes. Having received 
the program on cassette, I first tried to copy and run it on 



disk but received Out of Memory statements for my trouble. 
The disk operating system just takes away too much 
memory from this program. 

I also had problems with memory on cassette until I 
followed all the recommendations for additional free 
memory. Being challenged by running this program on disk, 
I experimented. The POKE 25 , G : NEW shut everything down 
in the disk mode. However, deleting the statements 
regarding print codes and renumbering (RENUM 1,1,1) 
provided sufficient memory to operate with my system. 
Once I was past these obstacles, I was able to generate some 
tough tests. 

The menu for test creation is straightforward and easy 
to follow. I tried all the formats and easily produced 
professional looking documents. Tests can be filed (on tape) 
and reloaded to be modified or used again. Options are 
provided in the formats. The program also allows the 
allocation of scores for each question. 

The documentation is extensive, 12 pages, but I had a 
little problem understanding what the program did until I 
ran it. The author goes into features and printer codes 
immediately without describing what the program can do. 
The documentation is good, particularly the printer code 
section for other printers, and the trouble-shooting section. 

The programmer states that the program is sent at his cost 
($2) and he would appreciate it if you would send "whatever 
you feel it is worth, after you have had a chance to use and 
evaluate it." It is difficult for me to judge the value of 
W RITEST, but it is certainly capable of producing 
professional exams in the formats described above and 
could save time for a teacher. 



GRAFPLOT 



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• 3.00 DISK U TAPE^in 
REFUND W/PURCHABE 
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(Cocosoft, Darryl L. Petrak, Beech and Broadway, Box 665, 
House, NM 88121; tape only, send what it's worth to you) 

— Mel Siegel 



Hint . . . 

Silence Is Golden 

Many I/O Errors encountered when loading 
programs from tape can be corrected. Often, the user 
is trying to load a program with the tape positioned 
past the point where that program starts. You must 
start the loading process at a point where there is no 
data on the tape — the quiet space between the 
programs. One way to make sure you're at one of these 
points is to issue the following commands: 

RUD I DON : MDT0R-0N 

then press ENTER. You willhear the high-pitched noise 
of computer data through your TV speaker. When the 
noise stops, youare at asilentspot. At this point, force 
a Syntax, or SN, Error by pressing a letter key and 
then ENTER. You can then load your program. 



150 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



WE'VE OUTDONE OURSELVES! 




The DS-69A is the best video digitizer available for your COCO at any price. This new, turbocharged version of our 
original DS-69 Digisector allows your 64K COCO to see clearly into the world of any television picture. 



SPEED! 

PRECISION! 

RESOLUTION! 

Compabitibility 

Compactness 

Convenience 

Ease of Use 



The fastest — 8 images per second! 

The highest — 64 levels of true grey scale! 

The finest — 256 x 256 picture elements! 

Use with a black and white or color camera, a VCR or tuner. 

Self contained in a plug in Rompack. 

Use with a Y-cable, Multi-Pak, PBJ Bus or plug directly into the cartridge slot. 
Software on disk will get you up and running fast! 



POWERFUL C-SEE ™ SOFTWARE 



C-SEE is the menu driven software package included with your DS-69A. Available on disk or cassette, it provides 
lightning fast 5 level digitizing to the screen, high precision 16 level digitizing for superb hard copy printout and 
simple keyboard or joystick control of brightness and contrast. Or call our driver routines from your own Basic 
program for easy 64 level random access digitizing. Pictures taken by the DS — 69A may be saved on disk or 
cassette by C-SEE and then edited with COCO MAX, MAGIGRAPH or GRAPHICOM for special effects. Any of the 
popular printers may be used to obtain printouts of images digitized by the DS-69A. 

ONE YEAR WARRANTY 

DS-69A Digisector & C-SEE III Software 

OR your DS-69 & 
MAGIGRAPH Graphics Editor on disk 



$1 49.95 
$ 59.95 
$ 39.95 



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DS-69 DIGISECTOR M 
THERE'S ONLY ONE BETTER 



VIDEO DIGITIZER 



■ ■ 



And that's the DS-69A. The DS-69 is The Micro Works' original video digitizer, tried and true since 1984. It provides 
almost all the features of the DS-69A and is now available at a new low price. TheDS69 features; 

SLUGGISHNESS 2 images per second. Quick enough to freeze all but the fastest moving pictures. 
INCOMPATIBILITY Brightly colored scenes may be striped when using a color camera. 
INCONVENIENCE Will not work with a Y cable. 

Otherwise, it's a DS-69A. Precision, resolution, compactness, ease of use, software and warranty. 
Except one last thing. 

DS-69 Digisector & C-SEE III Software $ 99.95 

Superb image quality produced by both Digisectors. 





Screen 




Screen 



Printout 



Terms: Visa, Mastercard, Check or C.O.D. 



NO RISK GUARANTEE 

If you are not completely satisfied with the performance of your new DS-69A or DS-69 
you may return it, undamaged, within ten days for a full refund of the purchase price. 
We'll even pay the return shipping. If you can get any of our competitors to give you 
the same guarantee, buy both and return the one you don't like. We know which one 
you'll keep. 



• ■ ™mD©[^§> 

Purveyors of Fine Video Digitizers Since 1977. ^/©If^C^I? 



P.O. Box 1110 Del Mar, CA 92014 (619) 942-2400 



The CoCo ROS, Part II: 
Building the ROS Circuit 



By Dennis H. Weide 



Last month, I introduced you to the 
CoCo ROS and gave you a brief 
explanation of what it can do. This 
month, I'd like to show you the actual 
ROS circuit and give some tips on how 
to build and test it. I'll explain how the 
circuit works and how to program it. 

The ROS Design 

The idea for the ROS circuit came 
from the book T RS-80 Models /, III & 
Color Computer Interfacing Projects, 
by William Barden, Jr. It's an excellent 
book on interfacing projects and shows 
various methods for interfacing the 
CoCo. Borrowing from his idea, I've 
increased the capacity of the original 
circuit by adding a second 8255 Proces- 
sor Peripheral Interface chip and pro- 
viding the proper address, read /write 
and chip select (CS) decoding for it. 

Figure 1 is the programmable periph- 
eral interface circuit used by the ROS. 
We'll refer to it as the Robot Operating 
System Signal Processor circuit or 
simply the ROSSP. It uses two 8255 
PPI chips whose data buses are con- 
nected in parallel. The chip select (CS) 



Dennis Weide is a communications 
technician for AT&T communications 
in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where he 
programs AT&T and IBM PCs. He 
enjoys making toys and teaching com- 
puter programming. 



ti. 





»/* 




c 




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14 



X 



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PD 



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PA« 
PAS 



H 

or 

04 

03 
04 
OS 
02 
01 
DO 



Q 



f 

u. 

I 

r 



Al 
AO 

«tser 



P A 4 

PAS 
PA 2 

PA I 
PAO 

PB I 
PBi 

pas 

PB4 

PBS 
PB* 
PBI 
PBO 

PC» 
PCS 
PCS 
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PCS 
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ss 

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65 



PAft 
PAS 



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q 

u. 

it. 



cl 
PI 

DC 
03 
0< 
01 
01 
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r 



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PA J 
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PA I 
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pb r 

PDi 



i. f>l3 
£ P04 

PBt 

pa« 

PBO 



r: 



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in 



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•1 

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pcz 

PC I 
PCO 



Figure 1 



12_ 



u 



«! 12 — 

k pco i! J 



January 1 987 THE RAINBOW 1 53 





Figure 2: PP1 Control Word Layout 


Rit 
1311 


FTnnrtinn 




u 


run \s ^luwcr j 


l=Irmnt 0 = Ontnnt 


l 


run d 


1 — T n m 1 1 n = Ontnnt 
1 JIipUL U UULpUl 


z 


ivioae select 


U 1V1UUC U 1 1V1UUC 1 


J 


Port C (upper) 


l = Input 0=Output 


A 

4 


Port A 


l = Input 0=Output 


J,0 


Mode select 


00= Mode 0 






0l = Mode 1 






10=Mode 2 


7 


Mode set flag 


\- Active 


H Aalll UlCo. 






Dec 


Binary 


inpui uuipui 


v aiue 


\ / n 1 1 1 a 

v aiue 


runs r una 


IZo 


i nnnnnnn 
1 uuuuuuu 


\f nn p A R C 
INUI1C r\,D,V_, 


1 Ay 


i nnnnnn i 

1 UUUUUU 1 


V^IUWCI ) /A, D,v^^UppCI ) 


1 jU 


10000010 


B A,C 


1 J 1 


10000011 


B,C(lower) A 


1 JO 


10001000 


C(upper) A,B,C(lower) 


144 


10010000 


A B,C 


146 


10010010 


A,B C 


154 


10011011 


A,B,C, None 


Decimal value to be poked into &HFF43,&HFF47 



XXXX is the hexadecimal address to 
load and YYY is the value (0-255) to 
write. For example, to write to address 
SFF40 Port PA3 only, POKE &HFF40,B; 
8 is the binary value of Bit 3. You can 
use the RND, OR and NOT functions to 
control multiple actions from the same 
address. Figure 3 shows how I wired the 
inputs and outputs for use in the 
ROSSP. Each 8255 PP1 chip requires 
one circuit of Figure 3. Only one bit of 
each chip is shown wired although all 
bits must be. For IC 2, the pin designa- 
tions change from 1-8 to 10-16. All 
other designations stay the same. Be- 
sides the ROSSP, this circuit has many 
other useful applications. 

A Look at the Octal Buffers 

For buffering between the 8255s and 
the peripheral equipment, I've used 
74LS240s and 74LS244s. These 20-pin 
DIP octal buffers/ line drivers are ca- 
pable of handling 40 milliamps of 
current; enough to drive high-resistance 
relays or LEDs. The 74LS240 buffer 
inverts the input signal; the 74LS244 
doesn't. Using these two buffers, you 
can design many different circuit con- 
figurations. For the ROSSP, the enable 
leads (pins 1 and 19) are grounded to 
enable all outputs at all times. In Figure 



lead uses the A2 Address Lead and three 
gates to select one of the PPI chips. 
Address leads AO and Al allow you to 
select one of three add resses per chip to 
read or write. For the ROSSP, we've 
chosen two addresses on each chip for 
outputs (distributors) and one for in- 
puts (scans). Later, I'll show you how 
to program the PPI chip for all inputs 
or all outputs. 

A Look at the PPI 

The 8255 PPI is a 40-pin DIP IC that 
has three programmable modes. The 
mode I've chosen (Mode 0) allows for 
two output ports (ports A and B) and 
one input port (Port C). The outputs are 
latched and must be set and reset as 
desired. The inputs follow the state of 
the peripheral. To program the PPI, 
poke the control word for the proper 
mode according to Figure 2. The ad- 
dresses for each PPI chip are shown in 
Figure 1 in parentheses. The control 
word is address SFF43 for IC I and 
SFF47 for IC 2. To program each PPI 
for two outputs and one input port, 
POKE &HFF43,&HB9 and POKE 
&HFF47,&HB9. To read the input ports, 
print PEEKC&HFF42] and print 
PEEK ( &HFF4G ) . To write to the output 
ports, POKE IHXXXX,YYY where 



vo 

ID 

o 



Per 



P86 



PB5 



P83 



PQZ 



pbi 



f5v 

! 



,0.1 



|l |I0 | l9 

rin 



1 1 



>3 



15 



Ol 



IC G 74LS244 
REVERSE OfllVER 
MOTOR r-e 



m 



MTR 



U5R 



MSR 



MAR 



M3R 



M 2 R 



M I R 



I^JI9 4 



5V 



PCT 


19 


<C 7 74LS24 4 
SCAM BUf f Efl 

input i-a 


2 


m 

INfl 


PC6 


'6 




4 


IM7 


PCI 


14. 




6 


1 H6 


PC4 






a 


<N3 


PC3 


9 




1 1 


IN4 


PC2 


7 




13 


IH1 


PCI 


5 




15 


IN2 


PCO 


3 




1 T INI 



l NO 



m 



047 


2 


IC 5 74LS24 4 

fonwano driver 
motor i-a 


18 


MSP 


+ 5 


P46 


* 




16 


U7F 




Pas 






M 


M6F 




PA4 


a 




12 


M5F 




Pa j 11 




9 






PAZ 


13 




7 


Mir 




Pa 1 'f> 




5 






PAO 


17 


JN 


3 


M 1 F 






L> 





KIF 




+ 5V 



KIR 




MICR05'.VI7CH 



N/C 



m 



Figure 3 



154 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



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3, the 74LS240's drive relays direct. A 
high on any input to the buffer causes 
a low output, which in turn operates the 
relay. The ROS program is designed so 
that only one relay can operate at a 
time, thus allowing the entire ROSSP 
to be powered from the computer. Use 
relays with a high resistance winding so 
that current requirements are kept as 
low as possible. If you build a separate 
+5-volt power supply, be sure to keep 
a common ground between the comput- 
er and the ROSSP. 

To operate any particular relay, write 
the bit value of that relay to the address 
of that port. When any port of the 8255 
is poked to zero, all relays are released. 
When it's poked with a value between 
1 and 255, the corresponding relays will 
operate. 

Building the ROSSP 

Building the ROSSP circuit is easy. 
We won't go through a step-by-step 
description of how to build it because 
construction isn't critical. I'll give you 
whatever hints are necessary to help you 
along. If you're inexperienced in circuit 
construction, I recommend you study 
the article and schematics carefully 



before beginning. If necessary, find 
someone in your local CoCo club to 
guide you along. After you've built this 
project, you'll be ready for almost 
anything. 

If possible, use wire-wrap connec- 
tions and 30-gauge wire. You can use 
point-to-point soldering, but wire wrap- 
ping is faster and easier. Keep the leads 
from the ROM port to the PPIs as short 
as possible. Use . Imfd capacitors across 
the power leads of all ICs to prevent 
high-speed switching errors. All other 
wiring is non-critical. 

I used a double-sided Vector 3795 
board with a pin spacing of . 1 inch. I 
had to cut the pins on each side of the 
board to make it a 40-pin board. Any 
double-sided circuit board with a pin 
spacing of . 1 inches and at least 40 pins 
can be modified to work. If you use the 
Vector board, you'll have to add on a 
piece of perfboard to fit the entire 
circuit. Use IC sockets and IDs for the 
bottom of the sockets to assist in wiring. 
Check all connections carefully and 
confirm your wiring with an ohmmeter 
before installing the ICs or plugging the 
board into the computer. When the 
wiring is correct, you're ready to plug 
it in and test it. 



Testing the ROSSP 

Using the program listing and last 
month's logic tester, you can test the 
circuit. First, turn off the computer. 
Then plug the ROSSP into the ROM 
port. Be sure that the circuit board fits 
properly into the port. A shorted pin 
could destroy the 6809E microproces- 
sor chip. Connect the logic tester to +5 
volt (red lead) and ground (black lead) 
of the ROSSP then turn the computer 
power on. Load and run the BASIC 
program. 

Follow the instructions on the screen 
to test the two 8255 PPI chips and the 
four 74LS240 buffer chips. Test the 
74LS244 buffer chips using the PEEK 
command and grounding the input 
leads one at a time. A grounded input 
lead will cause the corresponding bit to 
be reset when the PEEK command is 
executed. If no input leads are 
grounded, the PEEK command will 
return a value of 255. 

Next month, we'll take a look at the 
ROS program and discuss how to con- 
nect the circuit to the Robotix R-2000 
kit. We'll also take a look at a sample 
ROS program. Until then, have fun 
with this one. □ 



2300 
4200 
5800 
END 



143 
.78 
. .4 
.62 



The listing: ROS TEST 



PROGRAM LISTING 1 
ROS TEST PROGRAM 
BY DENNIS H. WE IDE 
(C) 1986 

FOR TESTING THE ROSPPI 



100 ' 
200 ■ 
300 ' 
4)3)3 ' 
5j3j3 1 

CIRCUIT 
600 ■ 
100 ■ 

8j3j3 CLS:POKE &HFF43 , 137 : POKE &HF 
F47, 137 

900 POKE &HFF4)3, 0: POKE &HFF41,)3 
1000 POKE &HFF44, )3 : POKE &HFF45,)3 

11) 3)3 FOR X=)3 TO 7 

12) 3)3 READ Y : PA ( X) =Y : NEXT X 

13) 3)3 FOR X=j3 TO 7 

14) 3)3 READ Y : PB (X) =Y : NEXT X 

15) 3)3 FOR X=)3 TO 7 

16) 3)3 READ Y : PC (X) =Y : NEXT X 

17) 3,0 PRINT 

18) 3)3 1 SET PIN NUMBERS 

19) 3)3 DATA 4 ,3 , 2 ,1, 4)3,39 ,38,37,18 



,19,2)3,21,22,23,24,25,3,5,7,9,12 
, 14 , 16, 18 

2)3)3)3 CLS : PRINT: PRINT 

21) 3)3 PRINTTAB (6) "ROSPPI TEST PRO 
GRAM" 

22) 3)3 PRINT: PRINTTAB (4) "1. TEST 8 
255 PPI'S 11 

23) 3)3 PRINT: PRINTTAB (4) "2. TEST 7 
4LS24j3 BUFFERS" 

24j3j3 PRINT: PRINTTAB (4) "3 . END CI 
RCUIT TEST" 

25j3j3 PRINT: PRINTTAB (4) "ENTER ONE 

OF THE ABOVE"; 
26)3)3 INPUT Q 

27j3j3 ON Q GOTO 3000 , 3 500 , 2 9J3J3 
2800 GOTO 2j3j3j3 
2900 CLS: END 

3000 AD=&HFF4j3:IC=l:P=l:GOSUB 43 

j3j3 

3100 AD=&HFF41:IC=l:P=2:GOSUB 43 

00 

3200 AD=&HFF44:IC=2:P=l:GOSUB 43 

00 

3300 AD=&HFF45:IC=2:P=2:GOSUB 43 

j3j3 

3A00 GOTO 2000 

3500 IC=5:AD=&HFF4p:GOSUB 6100 
3600 IC=6:AD=&HFF41:GOSUB 6100 
3100 IC=8 :AD=&HFF44 :GOSUB 6100 
3800 IC=9:AD=&HFF4 5:GOSUB 6100 



156 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



39j3j3 GOTO 2j3j3j3 
4j3j3j3 1 

41j3j3 1 8255 TEST SUBROUTINE 

42j3j3 1 

43j3j3 CLS: PRINT" SET LOGIC TESTER 
TO RED" 

44j3j3 FOR X=j3 TO 7 

45j3j3 IF P=l THEN 46j3j3 ELSE IF P= 
2 THEN 47j3j3 

46j3j3 PRINT@64 , 11 ADDR="HEX$ (AD) " 
IC ="ic n PIN="PA(X) :GOTO 48j3j3 

47j3j3 PRINT@64 , " ADDR="HEX$ (AD) 11 
IC=»IC n PIN= f, PB(X) 

48j3j3 PRINT@128 , "OUTPUT IS LOW (R 

ED) " 

4900 PRINT: INPUT"PRESS <ENTER> T 
0 CONTINUE" ;Q 
5j3j3j3 POKE AD,2 A X 

51j3j3 PRINT @ 128 , "OUTPUT IS HIGH f 
GREEN) " 

52j3j3 PRINT: INPUT "PRESS <ENTER> T 
0 CONTINUE" ;Q 
53j3j3 POKE AD,j3 

54j3j3 PRINT@128 , "OUTPUT IS LOW (R 
ED) " 

55j3j3 PRINT: INPUT "PRESS <ENTER> T 
0 CONTINUE" ;Q 



56j3j3 NEXT X 
5700 RETURN 
5800 1 

5900 1 74LS240 TEST SUBROUTI 

NE 

6000 1 

6100 CLS:PRINT"SET LOGIC TESTER 

TO GREEN" 

6200 FOR X=0 TO 7 

6300 PRINT@64 , "ADDR="HEX$ (AD) " 

IC="IC" PIN="PC(X) 
6400 PRINT@12 8 , "OUTPUT IS HIGH ( 
GREEN) " 

6500 PRINT: INPUT "PRESS <ENTER> T 
0 CONTINUE" ;Q 
6600 POKE AD, 2 A X 

6700 PRINT© 12 8 , "OUTPUT IS LOW (R 
ED) " 

6800 PRINT: INPUT"PRESS <ENTER> T 
0 CONTINUE" ;Q 
6900 POKE AD,0 

7000 PRINT© 12 8 , "OUTPUT IS HIGH ( 
GREEN) " 

7100 PRINT: INPUT" PRESS <ENTER> T 
0 CONTINUE" ;Q 
7200 NEXT X 

7 300 RETURN ^ 



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January 1987 THE RAINBOW 157 




Add a touch of professionalism 
and pizazz to program menus 



The Menu Selector 




By Bill Bernico 



I write a lot of programs that use 
menus. These menus typically have 
numbers next to each selection. To 
use that selection, you need only press 
that number and the program branches 
off accordingly. Well, that's OK if you're 
a no-nonsense programmer looking to 
create a bare-bones program and save 
as much memory as possible. However, 
if you want to add that extra touch to 
your program, here's a way to make the 
menu selections a little more interesting. 

Look at the listing. Line 50 prints out 
the menu, just as you'd have to do with 
the old method. Lines 1000 to 1600 are 
mere/y samples of how the menu 
branches off. In your actual program 
you would replace these sections with 
routines from your own program. 

Line 1700 is there so you can keep 
trying the program over and over. It 
can, and should, be deleted when you 
use this for your own program. 

That leaves lines 60 to 150, the "meat" 
of this whole routine. Let's look at 



Bill Bernico is a self-taught computerist 
who enjoys golf music and program- 
ming. He is a drummer with a rock band 
and lives in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. 

158 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



what's happening in each of them. What 
looks like an underline in Line 60 is 
actually a left arrow, created by pressing 
SHIFT and the up arrow. The printer 
prints it as an underline. Just substitute 
a left arrow for it. Also, the up arrow 
in Line 70 is printed as an up arrow 
without the tail (it's called a caret). 

Line 60 prints the left arrow at Screen 
Position 180, which is just to the right 
of the first selection. In Line 70, just 
before the familiar INKEYS statement, 
you see two pokes. Inserting these two 
pokes immediately before this INKEYS 
statement allows the INKEYS command 
to repeat. Without these two pokes the 
program will still work but you'll have 
to press the arrow key each time you 
want to move the arrow up or down. 
With the pokes in place, you can simply 
hold the arrow keys and the pointer will 
continue to move as long as you hold 
down the arrow key. Line 70 checks the 
INKEYS to see if you press the up arrow, 
and acts accordingly If you do press the 
up arrow and the pointer is lower than 
the top line, it moves the pointer up one 
notch. 

Line 80 checks the INKEYS to see if 
you pressed the down arrow, which is 



CHR$ ( 10 ) . If you did and the pointer is 
higher than the bottom item on the 
menu, then the pointer is reprinted at 
the new position, one line down. It also 
checks to see if you pressed ENTER, or 
CHR$(13). If not, it goes back to Line 
60 to repeat the pointing process. If you 
do press ENTER, the program continues 
to lines 90 to 150 to see where the 
pointer is at the time you press ENTER 
so it can branch off to the correct 
subroutine. 

Here's how that works. For each 
PRINT @ position on the screen there is 
also a poke position. This poke position 
is 1,024 plus whatever screen position 
you've printed at. 

For example, if the pointer is pointing 
at the first selection, the "input items" 
line, then the pointer is being printed at 
Screen Position 180, which is Poke 
Position 1204(1024+180). Line 90 peeks 
at Position 1204 to see if the left arrow 
occupies that space. The shifted up 
arrow that produces the left arrow on 
the screen is also known as CHR$(95). 
I f Peek Position 1 204 contains a 95, then 
it goes to Line 1000, the section that 
deals with input items. Lines 100 to (50 
check the other peek positions for the 



pointer and branch off when the pointer 
is found. 

It may seem a little complicated at 
first, but once you grasp what's going 
on, you can create a really neat, eye- 



catching menu that people will re- 
member. Go on. Give it a try. It doesn't 
take that much extra work or memory 
and it'll give your program an extra 
touch of professionalism. 



( Questions about this tutorial may be 
directed to Mr. Bernico at 708 Michigan 
Ave., Sheboygan, W I 53081, 414-459- 
7350. Please enclose an SASE for a 
reply when writing.) O 



The listing: MENUTUTR 



1 MENU SELECTOR TUTORIAL 
'FROM KROMICO SOFTWARE 
•BY BILL BERNICO 



Ijd 
20 
30 
4p ' 

50 CLS:PRINT@105, "selections" : PR 
INT@ 168, "INPUT ITEMS" ; :PRINT@199 
, "DELETE ITEMS"; : PRINT @ 2 3 1 , " SAVE 
TO DISK" ; :PRINT@261, "LOAD FROM 
DISK" ; :PRINT@297, "SORT ITEMS"; :P 
RINT@3 3£),"MAIN MENU"; :PRINT@358, 
"EXIT TO BASIC"; 

6j& PRINT§A*32+18j3,"_»; :A$=INKEY$ 
7J3 POKE341,255:POKE342,255:A$=IN 
KEY$ : IFA$=" "THEN70ELSEIFA$=" A "AN 
DA>0THENPRINT@A*3 2+180: A= A- 1 : GOT 

06J3 

80 IFA$=CHR$ ( 10 ) ANDA<6THENPRINT@ 
A*3 2 + 180 :A=A+1:GOTO60ELSEIFA$OC 



HR$(13)THEN60 

90 IF PEEK ( 1204 )=95THEN1000 
100 IF PEEK(1236) =95THEN1100 
110 IF PEEK(1268)=95THEN1200 
120 IF PEEK(1300)=9 5THEN1300 
130 IF PEEK(1332)=95THEN1400 
140 IF PEEK ( 13 64 ) =9 5THENI500 
150 IF PEEK ( 1396) =95THEN160 / 0 
1000 CLS: PRINT" INPUT SECTION": GO 
TO1700 

1100 CLS: PRINT "DELETE SECTION" :G 
OTO1700 
1200 CLS 
01700 
1300 CLS 
01700 
1400 CLS 
01700 

1500 CLS :PRINT"*- MAIN MENU SECTION 
" :GOTO1700 

1600 CLS : PRINT"EXIT SECTION 

1700 FORX=1TO1000 : NEXT : RUN ^ 



PRINT" SAVE SECTION" : GOT 



PRINT "LOAD SECTION": GOT 



PRINT"SORT SECTION" : GOT 



CoCo Cat 




DEALER 7AXL 5 OA*£r. . . 
IA/OC//LD XX/ 




S A/jt/AX5 Sty ,VO 




^ ^^^^ ^ ^ ^^ j^ ^jj^jj ji^^ii^^ fl^^^^^^^^^ j^^j^^^^^n^ ^^jj^E^K? ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^"jjjijj^ 1^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ HH^ ^ slllH ^§§§1 ^^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^^| |^^^^ ^^^ 

Easy, Solcieriess Installation 

"JramR" 

512KCOCO 3 Memory Expansion Board. Upgrades stock 128K COCO 3 to full 
512K for 0S9 Level II. Similar to RS upgrade. 

COCO I & II ONLY 

Pari number Pries Osscripiion 

fM 001 S39.9S Banker II bare board {with long pin socket, does not include memory 

Expansion 8vW(iJ 

u 1 002 S69 95 Banker II bare board + parts (does nol include Memory Expansion Board) 

H 1003 $69 95 Banker II assembled & tested (no memory) 

* 100-1 SI 29 95 Banker 1 1 (2S6K. upgradable to 512K; assemble & tested wtlh memory 

If 1005 SI69 95 Banker I! (512K) assembled & tested wilh memory 

IH008 Si 5 00 Memory Expansion Board 

11007 $29 95 Memory Expansion Board * parts 

ALL sollware is configurable for 258K/512K operation 

Soltwate shipped on disk, add $10 00 for software on tape. (059 RAMDlSK not available on tape} 

AL L boards below are 256K/512K capable, software & documentation included 

New SAM (74LS785) not included (use your 74LS783). 74L-S785 recommended lor 2 0 MHz operaiion 

COCO 3 ONLY 

tll0 10 $33.95 JramR bare hoatd plus connectors 

'J 10! ! S 109.95 JramR kit includes 3l) parts ph$ memory c nips 

01012 $139.95 JramR assembled and tested plus memory chips 



#9000 



fr9001 
09002 
#9004 
If 9005 



mm 



$39.95 



$35.00 
$500 
$24 95 
$24 95 



$10.00 



MISCELLANEOUS 

Down Under Controller. Ram Pack size controller with BOOS Gold 
plated, high reliability edge connectors, jumpers lor 24/28 pin ROM. 
Compatible with COCO I and COCO II & COCO 3. 
BDOS (Enhanced DOS on 27128 EPR0M) 
64K switch 

New SAM 74LS785 {required only for 2.0 MHz operation) 
PowerBasic (Requires RSD0S 1.0 or 1.1 and 256K or 51 2K Banker) 
Utilize the extra memory for variable slorage and pass variables between 
programs in diffe/ent pages ol memory Split a large BASIC program into 
smaller pieces and GOTO or GOSUB a line in another page ol memory 
and more features, in eluded (disk only) 
S/W Pac upgrade, t XX ic 2 XX 



To place an order, write 10 J&R Electronics, P.O. Box 2572. Columbia, MD 21045. 
OR cali (301 ) 967-9067 - Jesse or {301} 788-0861 — Ray. 

HOURS 1 Weekdays 7pm -9pm.: Sat. Noan-Sp.m. EASTERN TIME, usually, if no answer try later 

Add S4.0O shipping & handling (FOREIGN ORDERS S7.00), C0I charge $3.00 Maryland residents add 
5% stale lax. 

CHECKS. MONEY ORDERS OR COO's only please (personal check — 2 weeks for clea/ance). IMME- 
DIATE DELIVERY. Give COCO Radio Shack model K (i.e. 26-31361. D/sk or Tape when ordering. 

QUANTITY DISCOUNT AVAILABLE. For informalion on shipping or previousfy placed orders cali {301) 
7A8-0B6I COCO II 26 31 XX owners call (soldering experience may be required). 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 159 



TUTORIAL 





TAMING THE BEAST: 



i 5 



WITH OS-9 



v 



, 'V'r. '*. " ^- ' ^' 



.V, 






January 1987 






Sago*- 



3 




ast year 1 decided to learn the C 
programming language, so I 
™J bought Radio Shack's OS-9 and 
thee Compiler. I, who have no comput- 
er math or programming background, 
heard the call. Elegant, fast, portable C 
beckoned. 

I took one look at thedocumentation 
and thought, "You are not going to 
shove thesedisks in your drives and just 
start in. Oh my, no!" I then bought The 
Complete Rainbow Guide to by 
Dale Puckett and Peter Dibble, and 
went through all the back issues of THE 
RAINBOW. These were a big help; how- 
ever, through no fault of theirs, I kept 
falling into traps with no apparent way 
out, it was only last week that I com- 
piled my first simple c program and it 
worked! For those of you following in 
my footsteps, I hope these tips will save 
you some of the time they cost me. 

First, work through Radio Shack's 
Getting Started With OS-9, doing each 
operation several times. I wasted a lot 
f time trying to dive before I could 
swim, because I was too anxious to get 
on to the other literature. "Getting 
Started With The OS-9 Operating Sys- 



Nancy Ewart lives in Toms River, N.J. A 
and is a partner in a framing/ art\ 
supply j paperback book business, She\ 
has had her Co Co for nearly two years] 
and is a dedicated user, 



WART 



Item," by Bruce Warner (THE rainbow, 
[January 1986, Page 134) is a good 
beginning reference, too. It covers many 
of the same areas as the Radio Shack 
booklet and some new ones as well. 

Don*t study alone all of the time. I 
have the advantage of working with an 
•OS-9 Special Interest Group in a CoCo 
Users Group. Together we solved some 
problems. Other people have gotten 
help through bulletin boards. 

As you work on OS-9, if you have two 
jseparate drives, use Drive 0 for your 
(execution) system disk; store your files 
in directories in Drive 1. 

For future sanity, name directories in 
all caps (JUNK) and name files in 
lowercase (phone 1 is t). Two weeks 
from now you won't remember which 
are directories and which are files and 
that can waste a lot more time. Use 
TMDDE -UPC, press CLEAR-0 and press 
ENTER. Pressing CLEAR-0 now toggles 
upper- and lowercase, if you want to 
include this in your start-up procedure 
file, write it TMDDE . 1 -UPC. 

Before you CHX to another execution 
directory, use the DIR command on the 
proposed new directory. Think ahead to 
what commands you may want to use 
and check to see if they are resident in 
the new directory so that you can call 
them. If they are not in the new direc- 
tory take them with you with the LORD 
icommand, for example, LORD DIR and/ 
lor LORD FREE. Then when you CHX /dx/ 
CMOS after you insert a special disk vou 



* » j, 



v. 





will be able to read the directory, etc. 
3 Do not forget to CHX /dx/CMD5 when 
you want to return to your system disk. 
I CHX and CHD go with you always with- 
al out your loading them. 

If you have OS-9 Version 2.0, learn 
to use the help command. If you are 
using an earlier version, build a help file 
with the most common commands and 
their syntax. I still don't remember from 
one session to the next all the details 
that must be typed exactly right. 

Do not try to use commands relating 
to modules on simple files. You cannot 
use i den t, for example, on start-up the 
1 way you can on DS9Baa t, A file is not 
^necessarily a module, although modules 
may be contained in a file. (Blood, sweat 
and tears were spent on this one.) 

Make special system disks for special 
applications. See the February 1986 
RAINBOW for two extremely helpful 
articles, "Creating OS-9 System Disks," 
by Donald Dollberg and "Getting 
Started with BASIC09," by Richard A. 
White. I put TSEDIT and the C Com- 
piler (both Radio Shack) in the com- 
mands directory of one 80-track disk. 

I made hard copies of important 
information about each of my system 
disks, then stored them in the disk 
jacket using DIR >/p; FREE >'p; DIR 
CMD5>/p; MDIR>/p; MFREE >'p. 
* , When you feel secure with moving 

A 



around the system, creating and saving 
files and using some of the more basic 
commands, tackle Dale Puckett's The 
Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9, 
published in 1985 by Falsoft, Inc. 

Keep asking questions. Sometimes 
you have to rephrase the question 
repeatedly for the same problem until 
you get a version of the question that 
communicates. 

To Use TSEDIT 

If you want to use C, you need an 
editor that lets you make square and 
curly brackets as well as back slashes. 
See the Appendix in the documentation 
for TSEDIT Be sure to SETIME. 
TSEDIT should be in your current 
execution directory. 

TSPARS must be in your current 
data directory if you want to change the 
parameters of the display. For use with 
the C Library, copy TSPARS to ✓dl' 
SOURCES. 

At the OS-9 prompt type tsed i t and 
press BREAK. Now type i (for insert) 
and type your copy, message or source 
code. Press BREAK and type -.^filename 
(to save, the colon is important). Press 
BREAK and type :p (to print) and press 
BREAK and type :q (to quit). 

To Compile and Run a C Program 

Have TSEDITand the C Compiler in 



Drive 0 and the C Library in DL Now 
type: 

chx /d0/cmds 
chd /dl/sources 
tsed i t 

(To save, press BREAK and type :uj 
filename . c). Press BREAK and type :q. 

If you have to change disks to have 
the C Compiler commands in Drive 0, 
do that now. Type chx /d0/cmds again. 

ccl filename . c 

The program (source code) will now 
compile or abort. 

filename 

When you look at your current exe- 
cution directory you will see the file- 
name of your C program, but without 
the -c. The source code, filename . c, 
will be in the SOURCES directory. 
When you type the filename, the pro- 
gram will execute. 

By paying attention to the small 
steps, the giant leap to C is possible. It's 
really quite easy! 

( Questions about this tutorial may be 
directed to the author at 1861 Skiff 
Court, Toms River, N J 08753, 201-270- 
8435. Please enclose an SASE when 
writing.) □ 



'1 



This is a copy of the help file I built. 



echo syntax help 
ECHO 

ECHO FORMAT /DX 

ECHO BACKUP (DJ3 TO Dl ASSUMED) 

ECHO BACKUP DJ3 (SINGLE DRIVE) 

ECHO BACKUP /D2 /D3 

ECHO FOR FASTER BACKUP SPACE NUM 

BER SYMBOL XXK ( 2J3K 3 2K) 

ECHO DIR /DX/XXX/XXX 

ECHO BE SURE TO LIST ALL DIRECTO 

RIES, IN ORDER, TO FILE LOCATION 

ECHO DIR . . TO GO UP A DIRECTOR 

Y 



ECHO CHD /DX/XXX 

ECHO CHANGE DATA DIRECTORY 

ECHO CHD . . 

ECHO ONE PERIOD FOR CURRENT LEVE 
L PLUS 

ECHO ONE PERIOD FOR EACH LEVEL Y 

OU WANT TO GO UP 

ECHO CHX /DX/BASICJ39 

ECHO CHANGE EXECUTION DIRECTORY 

ECHO TYPE CHD /DX/MOREHELP 

ECHO AT THE OS9 PROMPT TYPE "DIR 
ii 



MAILING LIST 
DATA INFORMATION PROGRAM 



More than just another 
mailing list program 



See Rainbow Reviews 
August '86, pg. 149 



DOUBLE or MJTHII1" 



Requires 16K or 64K Tape or 64K Disk System 



Price: $29.95 



CROCKETT SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 1221 
St. Ann, MO 63074 
(314) 441-9278 



We welcome: 
Checks 

C.O.D. (Add $3.00) 




Wg Jia ve very, very 
LOV PR I CHS on paper, 
ribbons, d I sirs , and 
other supplies. SENJD 
& J for our JP U JL jL. — COHOJ? 
catalog - and we w_i 1 1 
refund £» 2 ^ j~g ci ± iz .' 



ssiifraiMn special n 

3 6 12 SAO 



DKP 100 6.50 5. BO G-SO 1. 50 



Xdltr ORDER 
CimCK 



5, mOHT ST. 
ST. CtJtfft FA 1?3?4 

January 1987 THE RAINBOW 



DOCTOR ASCII 



It Prints Slower Than 

Cold Molasses 



By Richard E. Esposito 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 

with Richard W. Libra 



I've got a 64K CoCo 2 with a Radio 
Shack CGP-220 ink-jet printer that 
prints slower than cold molasses 
when printing CoCo Max II images. Do 
you know of any way that I can get my 
printer to print these pictures faster? 

Harry Stonelake 
Castro Valley, CA 

\y If the printer is not running at its 
/C limit, you can speed it up using 
a screen dump that is written in assem- 
bly language. If the printer's hardware 
can handle a higher speed, hiking the 
baud rate either via a built-in DIP 
switch or a serial-to-parallel converter, 
with the CoCo sending at 9600 baud or 
using a direct parallel interface such as 
the one on the J&M controller could 
make a noticeable difference. Of partic- 
ular note with the CoCo Max II pro- 
gram is that the color driver will not 
print multiple colors at once with the 
CGP-220 printer. Colorware is reported 
to be updating the current version of 
CoCo Max to alleviate the problem, so 
help is on the way. 

Cartoon Animation 

/ would like to know if there is any 
way I can make a computer anima- 
tion of a person moving, similar to 
a cartoon video game. Also, can I use 
64K and 32K programs or will I have 
to use only 32 K programs with my 64 K 
CoCo 2? Do I have to have a disk drive 
to gain access to this memory? 

Brandon Carlton 
Corona, CA 

Richard Esposito is a project engineer 
for TRWs Federal Systems Group. He 
holds bachelor's, master's and docto- 
rate degrees from Polytechnic Institute 
of Brooklyn. He has been writing about 
microcomputers since 1980. 

162 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



R 




IJ Assembly Language Graphics for 
the TRS-80 Color Computer by 
Don Inman and Kurt Inman, Reston 
Publishing Company, Inc., may help in 
your search for animation programs. If 
you put your computer into all-RAM 
mode you can use the 15.75K space 
above the BASIC interpreter as well as 
the normal user memory for all your 
assembly language programs. You do 
not need a disk drive or OS-9 to take 
advantage of this memory. 

Bright Screen Save 

In Milt Webb !s letter to the editor, 
May 1986, [Page 8 ], he gave a POKE 
359,57:SCREEN0,1 to brighten the 
screen. This does give a much improved 
screen, however when I use this when 
typing in a program and try to save the 
program in the ASCII format with an 
A option, it starts the disk drive, scrolls 
the program list, then gives the OK 
prompt, but doesn't save the program. 



Is there any way to get the bright screen 
without this happening? 

Phi 1 1 VanNoty 
Hemet, CA 

Location 359 is the position of 
the three-byte RAM hook for the 
I/O. Standard BASIC has it set to RTS, 
Extended BASIC changes it to JMP 
$8273, DOS 1.0 changes it to JMP 
SCB4A, and DOS 1 . 1 changes it to JMP 
SCC1C. By poking an RTS, you elim- 
inate some of the features of disk and 
extended BASIC, one of which is the 
ASCII save feature. If, after you finish 
editing, you poke back the original 
value (i.e., 126) you can restore those 
features. 

Printer Decisions 

[D I am about to buy a printer and can't 
decide what to buy. I have found a 
couple of printers and I would like 
your opinion as to which one would be 
the best for home use with graphics, 
text, and a little bit of business. The two 
printers are the Epson Homewriter 10 
NLQ and the NEC PR103A NLQ. 

Glenn Bailey 
Rogersville, TN 

TD Of the two you mentioned, the 
Epson has a more standard pro- 
tocol, thus finding graphics software 
support for it is much easier. Before 
making a decision however, see the 
November 1 1, 1986 issue of PC Maga- 
zine which reviewed 97 new printer 
models for 1986. To ensure availability 
of the ribbons and software support, 
you might want to stick with name 
brand printers which are IBM-graphics 
compatible. The major printer manu- 
facturers are IBM, Tandy, Epson, Star- 
Micronics, Toshiba and Okidata. 



DataPack 11 Plus V4.1 

SUPER SMART TERMINAL PR06R AM 
AOTOPILOTind AUT0-L06 C ommsna processors 
X-ttODEM DISK FILE TRANSFER SUPPORT 
VT-tOO & VT-52 TERMINAL EMULATION 

No lout data using Hi-ftes Display, Even at 1200 Baud on the Serial port. 
9 Hi-Res Displays, 2d to 2S5 columns by 24 lines L true Upper/Lower case. 
45K Text Buffer when using the Hi -Res 7*xt Display and Disk 
ASCII S* BINARY disk file transfer support via XMODEM. 
Directly record receive data to a disk file while online. 
VT - 1 00 terminal emulation for VAX, UNIX and other systems, 
VT-1 00/52 cursor keys k position, insert/delete, Pf 4 Alt. Kbd. keys. 
Programmable Word length, Parity, Stop Bits and baud rales 300 to Q&00, 
Complete Full and Half Duplex operation, with no garbled data. 
Send full 128 character set from Keyboard with control codes. 
Complete Editor Insert, Delete, Change or Add to Buffer. 
0 Variable length, Programmable Macro Key buffers 
Programmable Printer rates from t 10 to 0b00 Baud, 
Send Files directly from the Buffer, Macro Key Buffers or Disk. 
Display on Screen or Print the contents of the Buffer, 
f re*?* Display & Review information On line with no loss of data. 
Built in Command Menu (Help) Display. 
• And much, much more. 
Supports: Word-Pak 1, 11, ft.S. and Double Density SO Column Cards 
Oisto Controller w/80 column card L parallel printer 



PBJ Parallel Printer Card. and 0<jb> Serial Port (2$P-Pek) 
R. S. Modem-Pak L Deluxe RS-232 Pak, even with Disk. 

Requires 32K & Di3fc, Only $59.95 



HI-RE5 !! Screen Commander 

Tired of looking at the 16 line by 32 character display on your 
CoCo? Wish you could see more lines and characters? Then HI-RES II 
is the answsr, it csn give you the big screen display you ve always 
wanted, it will display 24 lines of 32, 42, 51, 64 and even 65 true 
upper and lower case characters per line without extra hardware. 

HI-RES II is the most powerful screen enhancement package available 
for the Color Computer, ye I it is the least expensive. It is completely 
compatible and transparent to Basic. Once the program is loaded, 
everything works the same as before, only you have a much better 
display to work with. It even allows you to have mixed texL and 
Hi-resolution graphics on the same screen or have separate text and 
graphics screens. It also has an adjustable automatic key repeal- 
feature and allows you to protect up to 23 lines on the screen. 

HI-RES II features over 30 special control code functions that allow 
you to change characters per line, protect display lines, change 
background color, position cursor, switch normal/reverse video, 
underline, double size characters, erase line/screen/to end of 
screen, home cursor, character highlight and much more. It works on 
all models of the CoCo with 16, 32 or 64K and provides automatic 
reset control so HI-RES II won't disappear when you press reset. 

Only 24.95 on Tape or $29.95 on Disk 



The Source 

Now you can easily Disassemble Color Computer machine language 
programs directly from disk and generate beautiful, Assembler 
Source Code. And "The Source" has all the features and functions you 
are looking for in a Disassembler. 

* Automatic Label generation and allows specifying FCB, FCC and FDB areas. 

* Disassembles programs directly from Disk or ROH. 

41 Output Disassembled ii sting with labels to the Printer, Screen or both. 

* Generates Assembler source files directly to disk, or a printed listing. 

* Generated source Hies are in standard ASCII format. 

« Built in Hex/ASCII dump/display to locale FC8, FCC and FOB areas. 

* Built in Disk Directory and Kill file commands. 

* Menu display with single key commands for smooth, £«sy operation. 

* Written in fast machine language, one of the easiest lo use Disassemblers 

Requires 32K Disk $34.95 



The CBA51C Editor/Compiler VI. 1.2 

Do you want to write fast machine language programs but you 
don't want to spend the next few years trying to learn how ??? 
Well with CBASIC, you could be writing them right now' 

CBASIC is the only fully integrated Basic Compiler and program 
editing system available for the Color Computer. It will allow you lo 
take full advantage of all the capabilities available in your color 
computer without having to spend years trying to learn assembly 
language programming. CBASIC allows you to create, edit and 
convert programs from a language you are already familiar with 
Extended Disk Color Basic, into fast efficient machine language 
programs easily and quickly. We added advanced features like a full 
blown program editor, Hi-Res text Displays and 80 column hardware 
support for editing, compiling and your compiled programs. Plus we 
made it exceptionally easy to use, CBASIC is the friendliest and 
easiest compiler available for the Color Computer. 

"The most complete f di tor/Compiler I have seen for the CoCo.. . " 

--The RAINBOW, March I OS 6 

CBASIC is a powerful tool for the Beginner as well as the Advanced 
Basic or Machine Language programmer. You can write programs 
without having to worry about the Stack, DP Register, memory 
allocation and so on, because CBASIC will do it for you automatically. 
Or, CBASIC will let you control every aspect of your program, even 
generating machine code directly in a program easily. 

CBASIC features well over 100 compiled Basic Commands and 
Functions that fully support Disk Sequential and Direct access files, 
Tape, Printer and Screen I/O. CBASIC supports ALL the High and Low 
Resolution Graphics, Sound, Play and String Operations available in 
Extended Color Basic, including Graphics GET, PUT, PLAY and DRAW, 
all with 99 .9/2 syntax compatibility. CBASIC also supports the built 
in Serial I/O port with separate printer S< serial I/O baud rales. You 
can send and receive data with PRINT, INPUT and INKEY commands. 

CBASIC has its own completely integrated Basic Program Editor 
which allows you to load, edit or create programs for the compiler. 
It is a full featured editor designed specifically for writing and editing 
Basic programs. It has block move 8* copy, program renumbering, 

automatic line numbers, screen editing, printer control and more. 

"The £ditor is a very good one and could he the subject for re view 
si f fry itself. . " -- fhe RAINBOW, liars: h 1036 

"Comparing FC8 a edit mode to CBASIC s text editor is like comparing a 
World War ft jeep to a modem sedan Both get you to your destination^ 
but what a difference in the ride. '— Hoi CoL o, F eburary IQSb 

The documentation for CBASIC is an 8 1/2 * 11 Spiral Bound boak 

which contains approximally !20 pages of real information, 

"CB ASIC's manual is easy to read and whiten with a minimum oi 



techmcslese 



Ho ( CoCo F ebruary . / 066 



TEXTPRO III 
"The Advanced Word Processing System " 

9 Hi-ftes Displays from 28 to 255 columns by 1A lines & Upper/Lower Case 
Three Programmable Header lines that can be re-defined at anylime. 
Programmable Fooler line & Automatic Footnote System. 

10 Programmable Job stops & ? Powerfull tab Function Commands. 

* Completely Automatic Justification, Centering, Plush lef I and right. 

* On screen display of underline and Double size characters. 

* Change indents, margins, line length, elc, parameters anytime in Ihe text. 

* Create and Edit files larger than memory, up to the size of a full disk, 

* Easily imbed any number of format and control codes. 

* Automatic Memory sense with up to 48K of memory workspace. 

* Fully supports the use of SO column hardware cards. 

TEXTPRO 111 is an advanced word processing system designed for 
speed, taxability and extensive document processing. It is not like 
most of Ihe other word processing programs available for the Color 
Computer. If you are looking for a simple word processor to write 
letters or other short documents, then most likely you'll be better off 
with one of the other simpler word processors. But, if you want a 
powerful word processor with extensive document formatting 
features to handle large documents, term papers, manuals, complex 
formating problems and letter writing, then TEXTPRO 111 is what your 
looking for. TEXTPRO works in a totally different way than most 
word processing programs. It uses simple 2 character abbreviations 
of words or phrases for commands and formatting information that 
you imbed directly in your text. There are over 50 different 
formating commands you can use without ever leaving the text your 
working on. There are no time comsuming, and often furslrating 
menu chases, you are in total control at all limes. The formatted 
output can be displayed directly on the screen, showing you exactly 
what your printed document will look-lifce'before a single word is ever 
printed. This includes margins, headers! footers, page numbers, page 
breaks, underlining, column formating and full justification, 

DISK $59.95 TAPE $49.95 



The price of CBASIC is $M9 .00. It is the most expensive Color 
Basic Compiler on the market, and well worth the investment. 
Compare the performance of CBASIC against any Color Basic 
compiler. Dollar for dollar, CBASIC gives you more than any other 
compiler available. Requires 64K & Disk, not JDOS compatible. 

"The price lag it carries seemed a bit steep for an integer compiler art first 
glance, but when you add 6<fA', hi-res drivers, and Ml -Screen editing, CBASIC 
begins to look more Tike a bargain.. " --Hot CoCo F ebrvary, I OSS 
"A Complete Editor/Compiler Well Worlh its Price" —RAINBOW March 1 086 



EDT/A5M 64D 
CS 4 K D ! S r% E D 1 T 0 R r\. *) 5 E t*\ B ! — E R 

EOT/ ASM 64D is a Disk based co-resident Text Editor fc* Assembler. 
It has a Hi-Resolution 51. 64 or 05 column by 24 line display, so you 
sea your program listings easily and it supports Column cards. The 
disk also contains a free standing ML Debug Monitor, to help you debug 
your assembled programs. 

This is the most powerfull, easy to use Text Editor available in any 
Editor/ Assembler package for the Color Computer. It even has 
automatic line number generation for easy entry of program material. 

* Local and Global strinq search and/or replace. 

* Full screen line editing with immediate line update, 

* Easy louse Single keystroke editing commands. 

* Load &$ave standard ASCII formatted Tape/Disk files. 

* Hove or Copy single 4» multiple text lines. 

* Create and Edit disk files larger than memory. 

* Hi-Res Text Display 2$ to 65 columns by 24 lines. 

■ Supports Word-Pak 1 ,11. & R.S. and Disto 80 column display cards. 

The Assembler portion of EDT/ASM 64D features include: 

* Supports the full 6800 instruction set. 

* Supports conditional IF/THEN/ELSE assembly. 

* Supports Disk Library files (include). 

* Supports standard motorola assembler directives 

* Allows multiple values for FOB & FCB directives. 

* Generates listings loWi-ftes text screen or printer. 

* Assembles directly lo disk or tape in LOADM format. 
s Supports up to 0 open disk files during assembly 



* Allows assembly 

Reg] 



from editor buffer, Disk or both. 

Ires 32K Disk $59 95 



CoCo-3 512IC upgrade $149.95. curd wihout Ram 149.95 
Two Drive RAM-DISK progrim for 512K CoCo-5 $19.95 



To order products by mait 4 send check or money order lor the amount of 

?urchase. plus 13.00 for shipping & handling to the address below 
o order by VISA, MASTERCARD or COD call us at {705) 452-0632 
(Monday thru Saturday, 8nm lo 5pm PST) 

CER-COMP 
5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89 1 10 
702-452-0632 



ROM Pak on Disk 

I am in the process of writing a book 
and have been using the Color Scrip- 
sit ROM Pak/ cassette. Instead of 
using the ROM Pak system, I would 
prefer to store my material on disk. Not 
only does it have more memory, but it 
allows me to chain the material to- 
gether. My problem is that this ROM 
Pak system does not load into my 
Telewriter-64 or Elite Word Disk word 
processers. Can you help me solve this 
problem? 

Norm Neaveill 
East Moline, IL 

1^ Use the Print-to-Tape option on 
/C Scripsit y then use the program 
from November's column for transfer- 
ring assembly language tapes to disk 
(use the already numbered option) to 
get the resulting ASCII files on disk for 
Telewriter-64 or Elite Word. 



Learning OS-9 

II recently purchased the OS-9 PAS- 
CAL system for the Color Computer 
in hopes of learning PASCAL. Unfor- 
tunately, I have not yet been able to 
even create a PASCAL source program, 
which is the first step listed in the 



instruction manual which came with 
this software. I'm totally confused with 
the instructions in this manual and can 't 
get specific answers from my local 
Radio Shack store. Does this OS-9 
package need, for example, the 
TSEDIT package? Why does the OS-9 
system seem so difficult to intrepret? 
Any help you can give would be much 
appreciated. 

Alfred Walser 
Monroe, W A 

\y When you purchase OS-9, it 
j/L comes with its own line-oriented 
text editor. Read Chapter 2 of the 
orange OS-9 Program Development 
manual. Also, see pages 73-75 and 180 
of Dale Puckett's The Complete Rain- 
bow Guide to OS-9. If you, like me, 
prefer a more sophisticated full-screen 
editor, there are (at extra cost) Stylo- 
graph, Dynastar, and TSEDIT. 

To some, OS-9 is a blessing, but it's 
also a pain, especially to beginners. 
Since most OS-9 software was origi- 
nally written for $15,000-plus micro- 
mainframes, the superior quality is 
evident, but unfortunately for be- 
ginners, the documentation was written 
for professionals. If you need help, write 
us. Documentation can be written, but 



good software at a reasonable price is 
hard to find. 

Television Interference 

When I turn on my CoCo with my 
disk controller installed, I get some 
3 TV interference, but not enough to 
bug me. When I boot up my machine 
with CoCo Max with a Y cable how- 
ever, I get so much interference that I 
can't even see the screen. I've noticed 
that when I'm inputting or out putting 
to disk, the interference pretty much 
goes away. I've installed a Thunder 
RAM 256K upgrade. Could that be 
causing the problem? 

Eric Hochstetler 
Mooresville, IN 

13 Both the Y cable and the 256K 
/L are contributors. Switching to a 
monitor should help. Eliminating the 
switch-box on the back of your TV and 
making a direct coaxial connection 
should also help some. 

Binary Code Identification 

Is there any way for the CoCo with 
Disk Extended Color BASIC to iden- 
tify binary code such as A =01000001, 
etc.? Bryant Wilkie 

Mountlake Terrace, WA 



CORRECTIONS 



"The Power of the Palette: Graphics on the Color 
Computer 3" (October 1986, Page 37): The Tunnel 
program contains an error on the RAINBOW ON DISK 
and RAINBOW ON TAPE. Due to a production error, 
Line 540 of the program on these products became 
garbled. The line appears in order as Line 7226. 
Because of this, you will get a ?UL Error in Line 250. 
To correct the problem, delete Line 7226 and enter 
Line 540 as it appears in THE rainbow. 



involves adding the following lines to the BASIC 
startup file, TERM3BP5. 



551 POKE 

552 POKE 

553 POKE 

554 POKE 

555 POKE 

556 POKE 

557 POKE 
55B POKE 



&.H6260 
&.HG261 
&HG273 
&H6274 
&HG275 
&.H6276 
&HG277 
&.H627B 



,&H20 
,&H11 
, &HDG 
,&H07 
,&HC4 
,&H7F 
,&H20 
,&HE9 



"Coming to 'Terms' With the CoCo 3" (November 
1986, Page 93): Because of a production error, the 

TERM3BRS file on the RAINBOW ON DISK and RAINBOW 

ON TAPE fails to operate. This is because the WIDTH 
command in Line 450 was not properly tokenized 
during the file transfer. To correct the problem, simply 
|, load the program, type EDIT 450 and press ENTER 
twice. Then, resave the file. 

Dale Lear has also written to tell us of a patch for 
the Term2 program. Term3, as it appears in THE 
RAINBOW, will not work on some BBSs (including 
CompuServe) because of the manner in which it 
detects carriage returns. Dale's fix for the program 



"Monochrome Magic on the CoCo 3" (Hint, 
December 1986, Page 48): In addition to displaying 
the Microware name, the CL59 statement also clears 
the border to the background color. 



For quicker reference, Corrections will be posted on 
Delphi as soon as they are available in the Info on 
Rainbow topic area of the database. Just type DfiTfi 
at the CoCo SIG prompt and INFO at the Topic? 
prompt. 



164 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



The Best Money Can Buy . . . 
HDS Floppy Drive Controller Board 




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Floppy Drive Controller for the Color Computer. Gold edge 
card connectors, advanced design, and the absence of 
potentiometers make it the best available. Our newest ver- 
sion controller allows the use of either (two 24 pin ROMS), 
or (one 24 pin and one 28 pin ROM). Using this board 
with the standard Radio Shack ROM gives you 100% com- 
patibility with all Radio Shack software. 
Completed and Tested Board 

with Radio Shack ROM $99. 

(includes Case, and DOS Instructions) 

Completed and Tested Board without ROM . . . $79, 

(Includes Case) 

Bare Board with Instruction manual $30. 

Parts Kit For Bare Board without ROM $30. 

Radio Shack ROM (current version) $20. 

Radio Shack ROM 1.0 $40. 



Ordering Information : 

Use our WATS i?ne"to place your order via Visa, MasterCard, or Wire Transfer. Or 
rhail your payment directly to us, Aay non- certified funds will be held until proper 
clearance is made. COQ^orders are accepted as well as purchase orders from 
government agencies. Most ttems are shipped off the shelf with the exception ol hard 
drive products that are custom buill, UPS ground is our standard means of shipping 
unless otherwise specified Shipping coats are available upon request. 



Drive 0 SS/DD $150 

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Drive 1 Complete $129. 

Drive 0 & 1 Dual Drive $319. 



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Order Line 1-800-231-6671 
16208 Hickory Knoll 
Houston, Texas 77059 



1^ The CoCo's BASIC intrepreter has 
/C built-in functions for converting 
back and forth between decimal and 
hexadecimal. Since each Hex digit can 
independently be converted to binary, 
the answer is sort of yes. For example: 
?HEX$(241) yields the Hex value Fl, 
and since F = llll in binary code and 
1=0001 in binary, putting them together 
you have; I 1 1 1000 1 which is the binary 
representation of 241. 

Voice Synthesizers 

II own a 64K CoCo 2 and want to 
have a voice synthesizer for it. 
Should I purchase Radio Shack 's 
Sound I Speech Program Pak, or should 
I chance installing the SP0256-AL2 
Voice Synthesizer, which needs a 2.12- 
MHz clock crystal, and more? 

James Klimm 
Pelly, Saskatchewan 

T> I'd wait for the 26-3144 Sound/ 
Speech Program Pak to go on 
sale and then buy it. Since the release 
of OS-9 2.00.00, it has a device driver 
that supports sending speech to it 
simply by diverting your standard 
output. 

Artifacted Color Problems 

/ own an elderly gray CoCo and 
when running some programs, the 
colors come out wrong. It is very 
annoying to play card games with green 
hearts and diamonds! By pressing reset 
and typing, the correct colors eventually 
appear. With some games, the screen 
fills with red. By pressing BREA K until 
it comes up blue, the correct colors will 
appear when the game is started. Is 
there a line that I can add to the begin- 
ning of graphics programs to ensure 
that the correct colors will appear? 

Herb Sinclair 
We na tehee, WA 

D The artifacted color set on the 
/L CoCo 1 and 2 is unpredictable 
and cannot be fixed with software; 
however, on the CoCo 3, the alternate 
set is obtained by powering up with the 
Fl pressed. 



J-DOS Support 

Does anyone write software to sup- 
port J-DOS? When I upgraded to 
disk on my CoCo 2, 1 bought the new 
J&M JFD-CP controller with both ./- 
DOS end RS-DOS installed. Since 
then, I have watched for wordprocesser 
and spreadsheet programs advertised to 

166 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



run under J-DOS so that I can fully use 
my double-sided, 40- track drives. I 
know that OS-9 will work, but I don 7 
care to convert. Can you give me any 
clues to help me on my search? 

Tom Re a 
Chicora, PA 

ID Software developers write pro- 
grams for the operating system 
that the majority of CoCo owners have, 
and like it or not, it's Disk Extended 
BASIC. When you do not adhere to this 
standard, unfortunately, you are on 
your own. My advice, if you want more 
tracks, is to patch your Radio Shack 
ROM using Colin J. Stearman's "Get- 
ting on the Right Track," RAINBOW, 
July 1985, Page 26 and you can make 
a new 40-track DOS by burning the 
modified code into a 68766 EPROM. 
Note: since the new OS-9 Level II for 
the CoCo 3 supports double-sided and 
higher capacity drives, I expect the next 
release of Disk Extended BASIC to 
support these drives. 

CoCo Error-Trapping 

/ recently read an article about 
CoBBS in the November, 1985 issue 
of RAINBOW, and the subject of a 
program for error-trapping was dis- 
cussed. How could I use error-trapping 
if I have Disk Extended Color BASIC 
using the RS-DOS chip? I've seen 
different brands of disk controllers that 
have error-trapping built in? Can I 
make error-trapping work on my 
CoCo? 

Tim Fultz 
Moncks Corner, SC 

In order for you to have the 
/C capability to use error-trapping 
on your CoCo, you would have to use 
a machine language subroutine to inter- 
cept the ROM vector at addresses 
S018E-S0190. An article "Trap That 
Error" by H. Allen Curtis, RAINBOW, 
August 1984, Page 61, supplies a BASIC 
program that pokes such a machine 
language program into memory for 
DOS 1.0. Patches for DOS 1.1 appear 
on Page 237 of the October 1984 issue. 
By the way, the new CoCo 3 has error- 
trapping built in with its ON ERR GOTO 
statement. 

BASIC Cold Start 

/ have several disk utility programs 
that force BASIC to cold start, then 
load a program. One that comes to 
mind is Diskutil by Jeff Francis. In this 



program, when you select the Load 
option, it cold starts to BASIC, and has 
BASIC load and run the file by injecting 
a statement like LORD "THISFILE" 
:RUN. Is there any way to do this from 
BASIC? 

Eric W. Tilenius 
Huntington Station, NY 

W A Disk BASIC program can cause 
/C another to be executed by simply 
including RUN PROG2 in the first pro- 
gram where you want it to switch. 

Hard Disk Setup 

|||| / have a 64K CoCo 2 with Disk 
|^ Extended Color BASIC Version 1.1, 
^and have recently purchased OS-9. 
Vve been curious about the hard disks 
and dual DSDD drives I see advertised 
for the CoCo. If I get either the hard 
disk or the dual DSDD drives, do I need 
a different controller to access all these 
tracks? Do I also need a different 
controller to access both sides? Do I 
need modified cables? Does a 5 l / 4 -inch 
disk look logically like a 3 l /2-inch and 
do they have the same number of 
tracks? 

Bruce Corey 
Bradenton, FL 



Hint . . . 



Baud Boy 



If your printer is capable of ac- 
cepting data at a higher baud rate 
than 600, or you just got that new 
serial-parallel converter and want 
to try it out, try the following poke. 
Location 150 in memory holds 
values which control how fast data 
is sent to your printer. The power- 
up value in this location is 87. If you 
want to change this, just enter 



POKE150,X 



where X equals one of the following 
values:600baud, 87; 1200 baud, 41; 
2400 baud, 18; 4800 baud, 7; and 
9600 baud, 1. If all you get is gar- 
bage, try adding or subtracting a 
value of one from the above values 
and re-poking them. 



I? Aside from the 5 ^ -inch single- 
sided d rive #26-3131, Tandy also 
markets a double-sided, 514-inch 360K, 
40-track drive (#25-l060)>and a double- 
sided, 3V 2 Anch 720K, 80-track drive 
(#25-1061), both of which (with modi- 
fications) are CoCo compatible. They 
will work with a standard CoCo con- 
troller, but require a new cable without 
missing teeth. Other drives worthy of 
consideration are TEAC's 55BV (40 
tracks, 360K) and TEAC's 55F (80 
tracks, 720K). All of these drives will 
work with Disk Color BASIC 1 .0 or LI, 
but under Disk BASIC, they use only one 
side and 35 tracks. Note that if you are 
using one of the 80-track drives (5 l / 4 
inch or 3|/ 2 inch), you also need a 35- 
or 40-track drive to transfer software to 
the new media. If you want even higher 
capacity, but only for OS-9 (this drive 
will not work with BASIC), you have a 
wider choice, Wei tec Digital in Ana- 
heim, Calif., (714) 630-7020 markets an 
IBM PC-AT 1.2-Meg drive Model 
M 16-P12 ($149) that has a special logic 
board that lets it feed off a standard 
controller. With it and OS-9, you could 
have 30 sectors/ track and 80 tracks on 
each side for a total of 4,800, 256-byte 
sectors. Compare that to the standard 
35~track, single-sided drive with its 630 
256-byte sectors, a double-sided 40- 
track with 1,440 256-byte sectors, and 
a double-sided 80-track with 2,880 256- 
byte sectors. Tandy markets hard drives 
and a controller for the CoCo, but since 
this is not yet a mass market item, the 
price is still high. 



Memory Poke Crashes 

/ have a converted 64K CoCo with 
two disk drives. When typing in the 
memory poke, PDKE25 ,G :NEW, [find 
that I cannot load anything from a disk. 
The disk starts to load, stops in the 
middle and the computer crashes, I have 
to shut down the machine to do any- 



thing else, Why? Is there a fix? 

Raymond Home 

' Billings, MT 

X? Use POKE 25, 14 : PDKE&HE00 , 0 : 
NEW for disk BASIC or you will 
overwrite disk BASIC'S file buffers be- 
tween $600 and $DFF 



Hi-Res Saves 

How can I save a CoCo 3 high 
resolution picture display to disk? 



13 You can save / load CoCo 3 
/L graphics displays using the fol- 
lowing routines: HISRVE and HILDRD. 
To use HISRVE, you must return to the 
Width 32 mode, then run the program 
supplying a filename of up to eight 
characters. It then saves the 32K screen 
memory in four 8K increments with 
filenames name'HRl, name 'WR2, 
name/h&3 and name^HRA. 

HISRVE routine 

10 INPUT'NRME: ";N$ 

20 FDR I = &H70 TD &H73 

30 PDKE &HFFR2, I 

40 F$ = N$ + "/HR"+CHR$( I-G4) 

50 SRVEMFS,&H4000,&H5FFF, 44539 

60 NEXTI 

70 PDKE &HFFR2, &H7R 

The HILOflD routine prompts you for 
the filename (up to eight characters, no 
extension) and the HSCREEN value, then 
loads the graphics into memory allow- 
ing you to view them as they load. 

HILDRD routine 

10 INPUT"NRME; ";N$ 

20 INPUT'HSCREENtr ;H 

30 HSCREEN H 

40 FDR I=&H70 TD &H73 

50 PDKE &HFFR2, I 

G0 F$=N$ + "VHR"+CHR$( 1-64) 

70 LDRDMFS 

B0 NEXT I 

90 PDKE &HFFR2, &H7R 



One or both routines can be incorpo- 
rated into your own programs ? but be 
sure to exercise care that this code 
resides below Address &H4000. This 
can be assured by putting this code at 
the very beginning of your program 
except for a GDTD that branches around 
it. You can then GDSUB one of these 
routines to save/ load a graphics d isplay. 

The routines HISRVE and HILDRD 
manipulate the Memory Management 
Unit (MMU) registers to move 8 K 
increments of memory into the 6809's 
64K address space so the SRVEM and 
LDRDM routines can access it. I deve- 
loped the following routine, MRP^BRS, 
in order to help understand how these 
registers worked; it should be equally 
useful to anyone writing code in BASIC 
or another language to use the addi- 
tional memory in the CoCo 3. You can 
find a CoCo 3 memory map on Page 3 1 1 
of the Color Computer 3 Extended 
BASIC manual. 

MRP/BRS routine 

1 PCLERR1 

10 PRI NT"TR5!< 0 REG. MEM „ 

STRRT" : PR INT"REGI STER VRLUE 

PRGE RDDRESS" 

20 FDR I=&HFFR0 TD &HFFRF 

30 IF I-&HFFRB THEN PRINT:PRINT 

"TRSK 1 REG. MEM. STRRT" : PRINT 

"REGISTER VRLUE PRGE RDDRESS" 

40 X=PEEK ( I ) RND63 

50 Y=X*&H2000 

G0 YH=INT( Y/65536) 

70 YL=( Y-YH*65536)/409G 

B0 PRINT" ";HEX$( I ) ";HEX$ 

( PEEK ( I ) ) ; " ";HEX$(X)' ; " 
" ; HEXS ( YH ) ; HEXS ( YL) ; "000" 
90 NEXT 

For a quicker response, your questions 
may also be posted in the Forum section 
of RAINBOW'S CoCo SIG on Delphi. In 
Forum ? type ROD and address your 
questions to the username DOCTOR- 
ASCIL You may also send questions to 
DOCTORASCII via Delphi Mail 



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January 1987 THE RAINBOW 167 



DELPHI BUREAU 




A Review of the Personal 

^Settings Profile' 



By Cray Augsburg 
Rainbow's CoCo SIGop 



Recently, a handy feature was 
added to Delphi. This feature is 
a section where you can control 
how Delphi interacts with your termi- 
nal. It's called Settings and is very 
similar to the Settings feature found 
under Using Delphi just off the main 
menu. It allows you to change your 
communications parameters as well as 
set terminal options. 

To get to this area, simply enter your 
personal Delphi Workspace from the 
CoCo SIG menu or from any database 
prompt. Then type SET and press 
ENTER. Now, if you don't have your 
system set for prompt level three 
(/PR=3), enter a question mark and you 
will see the following Settings menu: 



BUSY-Mode 

DEFAULT-Menu 

DOWNLOAD-Line-terminators 

ECHO-Mode 

EDITOR 

KERMIT-SETTINGS 

LENGTH(Lines/page) 

NETWORK-PARAMETERS 

PASSWORD(Change) 

PROMPT-Mode 



PASSWORD-locked 

SET-High-bit 

SLASH-Term-settings 

TERMINAl-Type 

TIMEOUT 

UTILITIES 

WIDTH(Columns) 

XMODEM-SETTINGS 

HELP 

EXIT 



At first glance, some of these items 
look pretty complicated and rightly so. 
We will discuss some of the simpler 
selections this month and save the more 
complicated and esoteric items for a 
future installment. You are always 
invited to experiment with any of the 
options. However, unless you have 

Cray Augsburg is RAWBOW's technical 
assistant and has an associate's degree 
in electrical engineering. He and his 
wife, Ruth Ann, have two children and 
live in Louisville, Ky. His user name on 
Delphi is RA IN BO WMA G. 

1 68 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



some understanding of the impact a 
particular selection could make, don't 
fool with it! 

Now, you may recognize that some 
items in this menu are available from 
nearly any prompt on Delphi. You can 
enter them as "slash" commands. For 
instance, you can type /PR=3 to change 
your prompt level anywhere except 
Mail. You can also use /W=XX and 
/L=YY to alter the width and length of 



your particular terminal. The problem 
with these slash commands is that their 
effects are only temporary. Once you log 
off Delphi, the next time you log on, 
these commands have to be reentered 
into the computer. However, if you 
make the changes in your Settings area, 
they become a permanent part of your 
default profile and become immediately 
effective the moment you sign on. 
As we discuss the various options, 



DATABASE REPORT 



October has been the month of the 
CoCo 3 here on the SIG. With its 
introduction, the SIG has been 
rapidly accumulating new files in the 
CoCo 3 and OS-9 databases. 

In our CoCo 3 news database Roy 
Crosby (UNCLE) uploaded to us the 
image of the three Microware pro- 
grammers who put their mugs inside the 
CoCo 3 ROM. Jerome Kalkhof 
(GRUMCLUB) gave us some thoughts 
comparing the CoCo 3 and the Commo- 
dore 1 28. Art Flexser (ARTFLEXSER) 
and I have begun to post a variety of 
patches and fixes for both the flawed 
CoCo 3 BASIC ROM and for third-party 
programs that initially were incompati- 
ble with the CoCo 3. Of greatest impor- 
tance is the patch Art Flexser posted that 
describes how to fix Telepatched Tele- 
writer to allow it to run on the CoCo 3. 
Bill Jackson (BILLJ ACKSON) gave us 
what will undoubtedly be the first of 
many "start-up"files for the CoCo 3 that 
accomplishes several fixes. I've provided 
some hardware information about the 
RGB signals of the CoCo 3 versus those 



of the Atari ST RGB A monitor. Kevin 
Darling (KDARLING) contributed 
some of his thoughts on compatibility 
issues. Dave and Becky Matthews 
(ADOBEPAGODA) gave us some dem- 
onstration graphics programs in BASIC. 
Mike Himowitz (HIMOWITZ) has con- 
tributed a utility for the CoCo 3. Art 
Flexser has given us some of what will be 
parts of the upcoming ADOS 3, includ- 
ing utilities for redefinition of the CLEAR 
key and for defeating the automatic 
HCLS done whenever a Hi-Res graphics 
mode is invoked. 

Our OS-9 database has had its index 
of all its contents brought up to date by 
our tireless OS-9 section leader, Dale 
Lear (DALELEAR). Ronald Cole 
(RONALDCOLE) has given us an as- 
sembly language and OS-9~based pro- 
gram for printing 16 gray level pictures 
made with a DS-69 digitizer from The 
Microworks. It was based on an earlier 
RS-DOS BASIC utility supplied by Bob 
Montowski (GRAPH 1CSPUB). Jay 
TruesdaIe(JAYTRUESDALE)hasgiven 
two essays, including a superb product 
review of the Disto 512K RAM disk as 



^When the system 
doesn't detect any 
activity from your 
terminal, it asks 
you to respond. If 
you don't do so 
within 30 seconds, 
you are 
automatically 
logged off" 



keep in mind help is only a Delphi 
distance away. Just type HELP at the 
Settings menu. You will be greeted with 
a list of information about the Settings 
utility. Then you will be given the option 
to ask for help on any of the items in 
the menu. 

Busy Mode 

Entering the Busy Mode settings 
option allows you to set your default as 
either "busy" or "not busy.""Not busy" 
is the standard system default. By 
setting the default as "busy," you ac- 
complish the same thing as if you had 
entered 'GRG or /BUSY at other Delphi 
prompts. It stops the interruption of 
other users paging you or sending you 
messages with the /SEND command. It 
also eliminates the notifications that 
you have received a new mail message. 
To turn this default off, should you 



decide to set your default to busy, just 
enter /NDGRG at any Delphi prompt. 
Keep in mind, on the CoCo SIG, we 
prefer you set yourself as being busy 
only while you are reading mail or 
uploading/downloading. Other people 
may want to talk. 

Default Menu 

As the name of this selection implies, 
it allows you to set which menu you are 
first greeted with upon signing onto 
Delphi. The system default is Delphi's 
main menu or Main. You can set the 
default to the CoCo SIG by entering 
GROUP CDCD (or just GR CD) using this 
selection. You can set this default for 
nearly any area on the system. Ob- 
viously, wise use of this selection can 
save you a great deal of time as well as 
reduce the number of keystrokes re- 
quired to get to the SIG. 



used under OS-9. Greg Law (GREGL) 
has given us directory utilities for multi- 
user OS-9 systems, and an automatic 
baud rate selecting version of TSMON. 
Kevin Darling has sent us some utilities 
for branching or looping within a shell 
procedure. He also has given us 
MVERfFY, a utility for speeding the 
process of updating the CRC of a module 
in memory. In addition, he has also given 
us a DMDDE command similar to the 
XMDDE, but for RBF drivers. Wayne R. 
Sundstrom (DRIFTER) has provided a 
LOG program that logs OS-9 shell activ- 
ity. It is also a tutorial on how to patch 
the OS-9 shell with debugger. Rick 
Adams (RICKADAMS) has given us a 
command under OS-9 Level 1 Version 2.0 
that sets up the output of the CoCo 3 to 
be fully monochrome, eliminating those 
ugly vertical stripes normally seen on a 
monochrome display. 

In the Data Communications data- 
base, I've uploaded all of the graphics 
screens that constitute the original doc- 
umentation for the WEFAX program 
published in RAINBOW, February 1985. 
Lance Bannerman (STARCOWBOY) 
has uploaded two lists of frequencies 
from all over the world one can listen to, 
to find WEFAX signals. I've also up- 
loaded the source code for the RTTY 
program published in the November 
1986 RAINBOW, Emery Mandel 
(EM AN DEL) has given us Dazzelierm 
2.2. Michael Banks (KZIN), the manager 
of the Science Fiction SIG on Delphi, has 
provided us with an updated list of CoCo 
BBS systems. Brian Wright (POLTER 
GEIST) has sent us an updated version 
of A SCU Express for the CoCo and 
another terminal program for the CoCo. 
Don Hutchison (DONHUTCHISON), 
in charge of database submissions, has 
given a patch for Color com j ' E that adds 



a FREE command for it. Mike Ward 
(MIKEWARD) has posted a patch that 
allows Mikeyterm 4.0 to run on the CoCo 
3, but note that this patch does not allow 
use of either the Word-Pak or the intrin- 
sic 40- or 80-column screen on the CoCo 
3. That will have to waitforanewversion 
of the program. 

In the Utilities database Andrew Elli- 
nor (CROPPER) has uploaded a disk 
utility, and Earl Casper (EARL- 
CASPER) has sent us a VDG Fix pro- 
gram. Marvin D. Peterson (MAZO) has 
sent us a disk editing utility called Disk- 
save. In the November database report, 
I erroneously credited Milt Webb with 
the encryption program. The program is 
actually courtesy of Doug Masten 
(DM ASTEN). Sorry about that, Doug! 

In the Games database, Emery Mandel 
has sent us an Adventure game titled 
CoCo Club Adventure. Roger Smith 
(SMUDGER) has given us three new 
game entries. 

Our Music library continues to grow 
with new selections provided by Derrick 
M. Kardos (DTG), Mark Raphael 
(MARKRAPHAEL), Loren J. Howell 
(XENOS) and Ray Wright (RAYWRl). 

In the Graphics database a new host of 
images has arrived. Brian Wright has 
been quite active this month, sending us 
some extremely fine digitized images 
converted over from other computer 
systems using a picture exchange pro- 
tocol being developed in his area. He's 
also sent us a classic computer pinup girl 
image. Emery Mandel has provided a 
number of images, and a package that 
when downloaded and run produces a 
beautiful, animated fireworks display. Ira 
Goldwyn (IRAG) has again shared with 
us a dozen pictures from his immense 
library of digitized images. Mark Kowit 
(TOBOR8) has sent two more original 



pieces of digitizer art. Marvin Peterson, 
Derrik M. Kardos and Ray Wright, have 
also contributed this month. 

Don Hutchison, our submissions 
chief, decided to collect a little detailed 
information on our database this month. 
It turns out we now have roughly a dozen 
megabytes of stored CoCo program, 
text, music and graphics data accumu- 
lated over the year we have been in 
operation. At this time, by far the two 
largest databases are our Graphics and 
our rainbow ON tape databases, which 
are nearly the same size, and which 
togetheraccount for over half of the total 
number of bytes we offer. 

But times are changing. With the 
arrivalof the CoCo 3, a greater emphasis 
will be placed on OS-9. Our OS-9 section 
is growing nicely already. However, over 
the next few months I expect an explo- 
sion of OS-9 material. This will be in 
large part due to our acquiring permis- 
sion to ^>ost the entire contents of the 
OS-9 Users Group software library on 
Delphi. This library has, I am told, 
roughly five megabytes of data in it. We 
have just received the disks for the 
library, and will be sorting the material 
out and gradually posting it over a period 
of months. 

I look forward to seeing continuing 
strong support for the CoCo 3 during this 
new year. Whether you seek tips on 
buying hardware and accessories for 
your CoCo, software to run, music to 
play, or images to view, the Rainbow 
Delphi CoCo SIG surely has something 
for you. See you there! 



— Marty Goodman 
(MARTYGOODMAN) 
Delphi CoCo SIG Database Manager 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 1 69 



Password Change 

This item allows you to change your 
Delphi password. This should be done 
fairly frequently to ensure security of 
your Delphi account. You will be re- 
quired to enter your present password 
and then enter the new password you 
have chosen. Then you will be asked to 
enter your new password again for 
verification. Your password must be at 
least six characters or numbers long, 
and should not contain any punctua- 
tion. Passwords will not appear on the 
screen as you type them in. 

Prompt Mode 

The Prompt Mode setting allows you 
to setthelevel of the prompts displayed 
by the system. Prompt Mode 3 tells the 
system to display a complete menu 
every time you enter an area on Delphi, 
while Prompt Mode 2 displays a single- 
line prompt listing the available com- 
mands. Experienced users will spend 
most of their time in Prompt Mode 1. 
This mode displays a one- o r two-word 
description of the Delphi area you are 
in. It gives no clue as to available 
commands. This selection functions the 
same as /PR=X at other Delphi prompts, 
but your choice becomes a permanent 
part of your Delphi profile. It saves time 
to stay in Prompt Mode 1 and just enter 
a question mark when you need a menu 
for the present area. However, we 
suggest you go to Prompt Mode 3 about 
once a weeL-This is because the system 
software is ever-changing and you may 
miss out on some new additions because 
you didn't know they were there. 

Editor 

This selection allows you to choose 
which editor you want to use for creat- 
ing files and editing messages. The 
system default is the EDT editor, a 
product of Digital Equipment Corpora- 
tion. It is somewhat difficult to learn to 
use. More popular is a line editor called 
"Oldie," which uses simple slash com- 



mands. It seems to fit well in the Delphi 
environment. If you want to use the 
Oldie editor, just enter OLDIE under the 
Editor selection. 

Width and Length 

These items function just as /W=XX 
and /|_=YY except that, as we've said 
before, the changes become a perma- 
nent part of your user profile. They will 
only change if you change them by 
rewriting them or using /W or /L. A 
handy tip with Length is that if you set 
your length to zero, you eliminate all the 
"More?" prompts. Just use CONTROL-S 
and CONTROL-Q to stop and start the 
screen scrolling as you like, 

Timeout 

Timeout is a handy new feature from 
Delphi. Let's say you are online late at 
night and your body decides to take a 
break. While you are examining the 
insides of your eyelids, Delphi is busy 
burning away your hard-earned dollars 
and you aren't even doing anything on 
the system. When the system doesn't 
detect any activity from your terminal, 
it asks you to respond. If you don't do 
so within 30 seconds, you are automat- 
ically logged off. Timeout allows you to 
change how long Delphi waits before 
asking you to respond. The system 
default is 10 minutes, but you can 
change it to whatever value is most 
convenient for you. 

Utilities 

The Utilities feature is particularly 
important because it can help you avoid 
problems as you experiment with your 
settings. Before you begin changing 
your default settings, you can enter the 
Utilities selection and save your current 
profile to afilein your Workspace. Then 
you can experiment with the confidence 
that you can later reload your standard 
settings file. 

In Utilities, you have three options: 
List, Dump and Reload. With List, you 



can display a listing of your current 
settings; Dump saves your current 
profileto a file in your Workspace called 
PROFILE . DMP, which conveniently 
allows you to edit it there; and Reload 
reloads it after you have edited it or 
messed it up while you were experi- 
menting. 

There is also a special settings option 
called Key which is most useful for 
those who sign on to Delphi using 
different terminals. All users have a 
profile with a key of zero, the profile 
that is used each time you log on. But 
some users may want to have different 
profiles. The Key option allows you to 
set up additional profiles with keys of 
I to 9. Each profile key is saved with the 
command /5RVE tt, and can be loaded 
with the command /RESTORE U at any 
time, from any area of the system. 

As an example, for my CoCo with a 
Word-Pak I, I use a profile that has 80 
columns and 22 lines selected. However, 
on occasion, I use a Tandy 200 so I can 
sit on the couch and watch my two kids. 
For this, I select Key 1, which is set up 
for 40 columns and only 14 lines. This 
makes it a lot easier to change, since I 
don't have to enter /[_ and /W com- 
mands. 

You can /5RVE and /RESTORE keys 
from any prompt. Just make sure the 
settings you are currently using are the 
ones you want to save. Keep in mind, 
though, that any time you log on, your 
key will automatically be set to zero. 
Therefore, you will start up with the 
defaults you have chosen from the 
Settings area of your Workspace. 

Free Time Offer 

Delphi has announced an interesting 
special offer. Delphi members can 
receive $50 of online time if they have 
their Delphi name included on their 
business card or business letterhead. 
The user must send a sample to Delphi 
for verification. For more details, send 
Mail to NANCE, a Delphi employee./^ 



\ CHECKING ACCOUNT INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Let your CoCo ease the task of uanagina your checking 
accounts with CAIS, Record deposits, checks, ATfl 
transactions, interest, service charges and other 
debit/credit transactions* Reconcile and balance your 
accounts in iinutes. Search and edit capabilities, 



Requires 32K and 1 disk drive (sin), Printer optional. 

To order, send check or MD for 24.95 plus 2.50 S/H to: 
(SC res. add 51 sales tax) 

After Five Software 

P.O. Box 210975 
Coiuibii, S.C. 29221-0975 

(Reviewed in RAJNBD8 April 'B6 issue, pg. 1B5) 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



CoCo Repairs 

• • • $25 Plus Parts • • • 
HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS 



Front Panel Controls 
Monitor Drivers 
UPS Memory Backup 



Memory Upgrades 
Keyboard Upgrades 
ROM Upgrades 



AND MANY MORE! 



Special Requirements? Just let us know. 
Rowe Electronics Co., inc. 
5137 Goldman Dr. • Birmingham, Ai 35210 

(205) 958-4943 



170 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



The United Computer Federation and 

SRB Software 

kjjf oil fcfff 1 

^^^^^ *■ v ■* *•* 




Disneyland Hotel • January 30 to February 1 , 1 987 



The Color Exhibition '87 promises to be one of the best 
events in Color Computer history! Color Computer owners 
throughout the United States will be gathering at the Disneyland 
Hotel January 30th, 31st and February 1 st for a weekend of 
entertainment, education and plain old fun. Tentative guest 
speakers include Dale Puckett, Brian Lantz, Bill Turner, Bill 
Barden, Dale Lear, Frank Hogg, Wayne Day 5 Marty Goodman, 
John Ross, Steve Bjork, Linda Vincent and Pete Ellison . . . Plus 
much, much more. Throughout the 3-day event we will be 
running "THE COCO COUNTY FAIR" . . , This is an opportunity 
for you to show off your stuff in competitions ranging from a 
Mid-air P-51 sky duel, to entering your favorite Graphic picture, 
BASIC program, music fife and more! Plus many of the top 
vendors who make up the Color Computer Community will be 
on hand showing off the latest in Color Computer innovations, 
and wheeling and dealing like never before! And. if that were not 
enough one of the largest CoCo bashes to rock the West Coast 
will take place on Saturday night ... All this plus many more 
surprises are waiting for you at the beautiful Disneyland Hotel! 



Tickets available at all Ticketron locations, or Teletron Charge 
(213) 410-1062 or (714) 634-1300 

Or send your check or money order to: 

United Computer Federation 

366 W. Providencia Ave., Burbank, CA 91506 

For additional show information phone (818) 840-8903 

There is a special advance ticket price (before Jan 14, 1987) of $7.00 
for Adults, $3.50 for children 5 to 12. Ticket prices will be slightly 
higher at the door. 



Featuring Special 

Guest Speakers: 

Dale Puckett 
Brian Lantz 
Bill Turner 
Bill Barden 
Dale Lear 
Frank Hogg 
Wayne Day 
Marty Goodman 
John Ross 
Steve Bjork 
Linda Vincent 
Pete Ellison 

The Color Computer Exposition '87 and 
CoCo County Fair are presented by the 
United Computer Federation, The UCF 
is an organization of Color Computer 
users with chapters throughout the 
western United Spates with the Color 
Expo as it's National Meeting, 



Show times for the event, 

Friday 7:00 p.m. -10:00 p.m. 
Saturday 10:00 a.m. -6:00 p.m 
Sunday 11:00 a.m. -4:00 p.m. 




TELETHON" 



To Order By 
Phone Call: 

(213) 410-1062 

(714) 634-1300 



★ ★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★-A-***** iri 




G/Ve us your 6esf: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists in showing the Color Computer world 
your high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in THE RAINBOW'S 
"Scoreboard" column. All entries must be received 60 days prior to publication. Entries should be printed 
— legibly — and must include your full name, address, game title, company name and, of course, your high 
score. Each individual is limited to three score entries per month. Send your entries to Scoreboard, c/o THE 
RAINBOW. The "Rainbow Scoreboard" is now a bimonthly feature. 

For greater convenience, your high scores may also be sent to us through the MAIL section of our new 
Delphi CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then type SEND and address to: EDITORS. 



* Current Record Holder 



4.656 

4.254 
4,058 
3,970 



58,200 
57.300 
54,300 
40,585 



3.376,080 
3.042.470 
1,909.630 
747.200 



ADVANCED STAFTTRENCH (THE RAINBOW. 7/86) 
3.960 ★Maurice MacGarvey. Dawson Creek. 

British Columbia 
2,300 Btain Jamieson. Kingston, Ontario 
1,800 Chris Goodman, Baltimore, MD 
ALPINE SLOPES (THE RAINBOW, 12/85) 

6.851 ★Myriam Ferland. Trois-Rivieres, 
Quebec 

Maurice MacGarvey. Dawson Creek. 

British Columbia 
Todd Wirtz. Midland. Ml 
Johnny Garrison. Tuscaloosa. AL 
Steven Bullard. Allen. OK 
ANDRONE (Radio Shack) 

61,200 ★Maurice MacGarvey. Dawson Creek. 
British Columbia 
Scott Bellman, Bettendorf, IA 
Mitch Hart, Seattle. WA 
Daphnie Phillips, Evansvhle, Wl 
Theresa Juetten, Pelkie, Ml 
ASTRO BLAST (Mark Data) 

60.825 ★Craig Schreder. Sarnia. Ontario 
BAG-IT-MAN (Aardvark) 

358,000 ★Kevin Krueger, 100 Mile House, 
British Columbia 
BEAM RIDER (Spectral Associates) 
6,004,000 ★James Oakley, Nashville, TN 

Lisa Lapointe. La Tuque, Quebec 
Evelyn Thompson. Nederland. TX 
Paul Bivens. Washington, PA 
Robert Eering, Swift Current. 
Saskatchewan 
BIOSPHERE (Radio Shack) 

391 *Danny Perkins, Clifton Forge, VA 
BOXING (THE RAINBOW, 8/86) 

480 ★Tallb Khan, Bronx, NY 
395 Blain Jamieson, Kingston, Ontario 
BUBBLE WARS (THE RAINBOW. 2/86) 

75,100 ★Rachael Richards. Btakeslee, PA 
Shirley Kirk, Elgin, OR 
Odene Kirk, Elgin, OR 
Daniel Cecil, Bardstown. KY 
Carlton Taylor, Scarborough. Ontario 
BUSTOUT (Radio Shack) 

37,900 ★Gordon Rock. Davenport, IA 

Charles Egglesfield, Sault Ste Marie. 

Ontario 
Tanya Maestas. Denver, CO 
Mike McCafferty, Idaho Falls. ID 
Chris Zepka, North Adams, MA 
CANYON CLIMBER (Radio Shack) 

60.000 ★Debbie Wilcock, Mt. Carmel, PA 
CASTLE (THE RAINBOW, 6/86) 

202,659 ★Brendan Powell, La Grande. OR 
Darryn Bearisto. New Carlisle. 
Quebec 

John Broussard Jr.. Alexandria, LA 
Kirby Smith. York. PA 
Maurice MacGarvey. Dawson Creek, 
British Columbia 
CATERPILLAR CAVE (T&D Software) 

1,170 *Alex Abraham, Atlanta, GA 
CHAMBERS (Tom Mix) 

180,900 ★Blossom Mayor. East Greenbush, NY 
CLOWNS & BALLOONS (Radio Shack) 

62.440 ★Robin Ackerman. Concord, TN 
41,280 Blake Cadmus. Reading. PA 
COLOR BASEBALL (Radio Shack) 

999-0 ★•Erik Munson. Tucson. AZ 
866-1 Ghislain Chillis. Trois-Rivieres. 
Quebec 



43.150 
37.957 
30,850 
29,650 



21,850 

21,630 
21.236 
18.403 



116.606 

55.239 
10,216 
9.941 



Shutout 



814-1 Frank D'Amato. Brooklyn, NY 
814-0 «John Licata, Richton Park, IL 
653-0 «Danny Perkins. Clifton Forge. VA 
549-0 «Skipper Taday. East Lyme, CT 
COLOR BLACKJACK (THE RAINBOW, 10/83) 
$26,500 ★Francois Provencal. Chateauguay. 
Quebec 

COLOR CAR (NOVASOFT) 

242.767 *Alan Martin. Cornwall. Ontario 
110.454 Scott Enman. Belle-Mead. NJ 
107.864 David Entenmann. Monroe. NY 

COLORPEDE (Intracolor) 

317.476 ★Nadine Bourgeault. Mississauga. 
Ontario 

CRYSTLE CASTLES (ThunderVision) 

820,010 ★ J. Yosef Krinsky. Jerusalem. Israel 
595.490 Candice Berger. Calgary, Alberta 
DALLAS QUEST (Radio Shack) 

87 ★Douglas Bell, Duncan. OK 
89 Milan Parekh. Fullerton, CA 
89 Andrew Urquhart. Metairie, LA 

89 Steve Zemaitis, Howell. Ml 

90 Roy Grant. Toledo. OH 

91 John Semonin. Akron. OH 

92 David & Shirley Johnson. 

Leicester, NC 
DEATH TRAP (Soft Sector) 

86.748 ★Douglas Pardon. Brigham City. UT 
47,233 Dale Krueger, Maple Ridge, 

British Columbia 
40.674 David Entenmann. Monroe. NY 
DECATHALON (Spectral Associates) 

10.304 ^Bernard Florence. Croydon, Australia 
9,648 Matthew Sunderland. Christchurch, 

New Zealand 
9.344 Marco Lecours. Ste-Justine, Quebec 
DEMOLITION DERBY (Radio Shack) 

110,500 ★Tim Glenn. Havertown, PA 
97.700 Brian Ballew, Morganton, NC 
DEMON ATTACK (Imagic) 

244. 1 1 0 ★Gregory Day. Holstein, Ontario 
125.520 Mike Watson. Northville, NY 
81,635 Tim Glenn. Havertown. PA 
70,010 Lisa Nebel. Phoenix, AZ 
64.195 Jon Ruhnow. Duncanville, TX 
DEMON SEED (MichTron) 



DOWNLAND (Radio Shack) 

89,490 ★Neil Edge. Williston, FL 
77,254 Tom Audas. Fremont. CA 
70.142 Chris Goodman. Baltimore. MD 
68.142 Cooper Valentin. Vavenby, 

British Columbia 
49,500 Danny Perkins. Clifton Forge. VA 
DRACONIAN (Tom Mix) 

760.549 ★Conan Davis, London. Ontario 
157.310 Mark Bourgeault. Mississauga, 
Ontario 

DRAGON FIRE (Radio Shack) 

123.120 *Rupert Young. Sheffield. MA 
46,713 Gilles Gagne. Sillery. Quebec 
33,676 Nathanael Heller, Kenner. LA 
30.720 Brian Matherne. Gretna. LA 
21,221 Jermaine Jackson. Tallulah, LA 
ENCHANTER (Infocom) 

400/621 ★Brad Wilson. Lithia Springs. GA 
185/186 David Tarleton. Williamsburg, VA 
80/1 15 Scott Bellman. Bettendorf. IA 
EVICTOR (THE RAINBOW. 7/86) 

9*230 ★Raymond MacGarvey. Dawson Creek. 

British Columbia 
7,500 Rachael Richards. Blakeslee. PA 
4,570 Chris Goodman, Baltimore. MD 
FALCON'S LAIR (THE RAINBOW. 8/85) 
30,522 *Kirby Smith, York, PA 
19.554 Talib Khan. Bronx. NY 
18.461 Joyce Smith. Butler. PA 
17.463 Michael Scott. Johnstown. NY 
15.707 Daniel Cecil, Bardstown, KY 
FIGHTER PILOT (Saguaro Software) 

117.000 ★Stevphan Arvay. St. Louis. MO 
61,500 Steven Arvay. St. Louis, MO 
FIRESTORM (THE RAINBOW, 1/86) 

3,510 *Brad Bansner, Wyomissing. PA 
FROGGIE (Spectral Associates) 

34,540 ★Richard Nieves, Mayaguez, 
Puerto Rico 
FROG-MAN (Computer Island) 

6,635 *Andy Green. Whitehall, PA 
GALAGON (Spectral Associates) 

73,520 *Neil Edge, Witliston, FL 
71,220 Debora Edwards. Wembley. Alberta 
GANTELET (Diecom Products) 



15.360 


★Blake Cadmus. Reading, PA 


2,011,200 


★Jerry Colbert. Bakersfield. CA 


DESERT PATROL ( Arcade Animation) 


787,780 


Brad Wilson, Lithia Springs, GA 


746.450 


★Rodney Abery, Victoria, Australia 


628,020 


Mike Dyer, Lompoc. CA 


DESERT RIDER (Radio Shack) 


243.810 


Jay Graddick. Cocoa. FL 


68,872 


★Janine Freamon, Citrus Heights, CA 


73.460 


John Straiton. Merrill Island, FL 


65.215 


Skip Freamon. Citrus Heights. CA 


GATES (THE RAINBOW. 8/86) 


62.329 


Sieve Zemaitis, Howell, Ml 


600 


★James Donegan, Saugerties. NY 


51.519 


Michael Lizardy. Oregon, OH 


GHANA BWANA (Radio Shack) 


50.268 


Bernard Florence. Croydon, Australia 


693.830 


★Steve Wright, Fredericton. 


40.721 


Fiona Robertson, Hackett, Australia 




New Brunswick 






510.160 


Milan Parekh, Fullerton. CA 


DOODLEBUG 


(Computerware) 


459,930 


Gene Wells, Silsbee, TX 


2,515.940 


★William Novobilsky. 


359,080 


Mike Dyer. Lompoc, CA 




Lanoka Harbor. NJ 


325,900 


Rupert Young. Sheffield. MA 


1.315.170 


Doreen Watt. Sudbury, Ontario 


300.000 


Leon Kornbluth, Richfield. NJ 


400.820 


Blossom Mayor. East Greenbush, NY 


GHOST GOBBLER (Spectral Associates) 


52,430 


Craig Schreder. Sarnia, Ontario 


102,540 


★Greg Erickson. Lowell. MA 


18.385 


Blake Cadmus. Reading, PA 


80,550 


Olga Pichard. Lausanne, Switzerland 


DOUBLE BACK (Radio Shack) 


76,900 


Ghislain Chillis. Trois-Rivieres. 


2,586.300 


★Eugene Roosa. Stone Ridge, NY 




Quebec 


1.618,400 


Diane Guernon, Montreal. Quebec 


76,900 


Pierre Pichard, Lausanne, 


450.600 


Michael Brennan. Calgary. Alberta 




Switzerland 


159.610 


Blake Cadmus. Reading. PA 


72,960 


Sylvain Castonguay. Chicoutimi, 


52.840 


Joel MacNeil. Needham, MA 




Quebec 


22,600 


Samuel Wilcock. Mt. Carmel. PA 


47,200 


Mark Herpst, San Diego, CA 



* * ★★★★ ************************^ 



172 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 




GRABBER (Tom Mix) 

182,100 ★Blossom Mayor, East Greenbush, NY 
23,550 Rod Kruetzfeld, Vanscoy, 
Saskatchewan 
GRID FACTOR (T&D Software) 

4,550 *Alex Abraham. Atlanta. GA 
HITCHHIKER'S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY (infocom) 

400/722 *Brad Wilson. Lithia Springs. GA 
HYPERZONE (Computerware) 

16,230 *Richard Nieves. Mayaguez. 
Puerto Rico 
JUNIOR'S REVENGE (Computerware) 

1,210,400 *Ryan Sharp. Pompano Beach. FL 
KAMAKAZIE KAR (THE RAINBOW, 8/85) 

75.75 ★Tim Glenn, Havertown. PA 
KARATE (Diecom Products) 



994-24 
994-28 
986-22 
970-32 
969-0 



★Robbie Cross. Starkville. MS 
Gilles Melanson. Sudbury. Ontario 
Jim Doyle. Barrackville. WV 
Scott Enman. Belle-Mead. NJ 
Scott Bellman. Bettendorf, IA 
THE KING (Tom Mix) 
4,092.600 *Fruber Malcom, Culpeper. VA 
Tim Rueb. Stevensville. Ml 
Yolanda Farr, Sayre. PA 
Kevin Cornell, Greentown. IN 
Rodney Abery. Victoria. Australia 



24,400 
1 1 ,000 
10,900 
9.900 
4,200 



2,134,600 
1 ,670.900 
1,500,800 
219,700 



KNOCK OUT (Diecom Products) 



181,085 
168,385 
149,190 
137.900 
135,825 



★Rush Caley. Port Orchard. WA 
John Licata, Richton Park. IL 
Daniel Lesage. Laval. Quebec 
John Rogers. Rye. NH 
Ghislain Chillis. Trois-Rivieres. 
Quebec 

KUNG FU FIGHTER (THE RAINBOW. 3/86) 
890 ★Brian Matherne. Gretna. LA 
LEMANS (Spectral Associates) 

0:53 *Robert Eering. Swift Current. 

Saskatchewan 
0:93 Stephen Mills. Swift Current, 
Saskatchewan 
LUNAR-ROVER PATROL (Spectral Associates) 
403,950 ★Rodney Abery. Victoria. Austral 
142,600 Jerry Rossano, Manassas. VA 
MARBLE MAZE (Diecom Products) 



36,354,780 
186.560 
106,950 
104,130 
103,560 



★Melvin Sharp Jr.. Baltimore, MD 
Neil Edge. Williston. FL 
Dan Bouges. Niantic. CT 
Jeff Maxwell. Lincoln, NE 
Stephane Ouzilleau. Lauzon. Quebec 



MEGA-BUG (Radio Shack) 



20.94 1 
18,874 
17.250 
14,861 
14,785 



★Shelby Dunning, Sacramento. CA 
Tim Rueb, Stevensville. Ml 
Keith Queen. Marietta, GA 
Michael Clerico. Seaford. NY 
Blain Jamieson. Kingston. Ontario 



MINIGOLF (THE RAINBOW. 5/86) 

23 ★Wilfrid Sloan. Newport-on-Tay. 
Scotland 
16 ASSAULT (Diecom Products) 
★ Michael Heitz. Chicago, IL 
Richard Nieves, Mayaguez. 

Puerto Rico 
Chris Foster. Texarkana, TX 
Jeanine Mason. Spencer. MA 
Stevphan Arvay, St. Louis. MO 
MONSTER MAZE (Radio Shack) 

207.800 ★Kenneth Kirby, Murphy. NC 
MR. DIG (Computerware) 
10,416.315 ★Paula James, Lumberton. TX 
MUDPIES (MichTron) 



MISSION: F 

127.550 
38.305 

34.670 
29,600 
19.900 



ONE-ON-ONE (Radio Shack) 

1.006-57 ★Elliot Alfred & Ian Hanson, 
Houston. TX 
Mark Berry. Durham. Ontario 
Chad Johnson. Little Rock. AR 
Toby Jacobs. Bellefontaine. OH 
Wes Hill. Vashon. WA 
•Erik Huffman, Rochester Hills. Ml 
OPERATION FREEDOM (THE RAINBOW. 8/85) 
33,320 ★Blain Jamieson. Kingston. Ontario 
24.395 Mark Daley. Binghamton. NY 
PAC-TAC (Computerware) 

39,853 *Andy Green. Whitehall. PA 
PAPER ROUTE (Diecom Products) 

511 ,000 *David Kauffman. South Haven, Ml 
Lawrence Elman. Smithtown. NY 
Jami Foster. Maryville. TN 
Michael Heitz, Chicago. IL 
Martin Parada, Arcadia. CA 
PEGASUS AND THE PHANTOM RIDERS (Radio Shack) 
250,200 ★Leon Kornbluth. Richfield. NJ 
Mike Grant, Fresno. CA 
Mike Dyer. Lompoc. CA 
Milan Parekh. Fullerton. CA 
Rodrigo Maldonado. Whittier. CA 
PITFALL II (Activision) 

199.000 *Kirk Lockhart. Waco. TX 

Danny Perkins. Clifton Forge. VA 
Tom Audas. Fremont. CA 
Michael Wallace, Bronx. NY 
Thomas Audas II. Fremont, CA 
Brian Biggs. Grove City, OH 
PITSTOP II (Epyx) 

54 ★James Doty. Washougal. WA 

★Danny Perkins. Clifton Forge. VA 
Randy Heckman. La Mirada. CA 
Walter Hearne. Pensacola, FL 
Jeff Maxwell. Lincoln. NE 
POLARIS (Radio Shack) 

81.724 *Gene Murphy, Ft. Worth. TX 
POLAR TIC TAC TOE (THE RAINBOW. 8/86) 

12 ★Chris Goodman. Baltimore. MD 
POOYAN (Datasoft) 

97.500,000 ★Rich Fiore. Clemson. SC 
Ben Collins. Clemson. SC 
Jon Sowle. Sanford. FL 
Jason Maxwell. Manchester, TN 
Thomas Mayor, Brooklyn. NY 
POPCORN (Radio Shack) 

165,180 ★Matt Heinemann. Richmond. VA 
Keith Aschemeier. Napoleon. OH 
Melita Boudreault, Port-Cartier. 

Quebec 
Bruce Johnson. Vavenby, 

British Columbia 
ScottSwedis. Spencer. MA 
PYRAMID (Radio Shack) 

220/220 *Craig Fricke. Jacksonville. IL 
QUIX (Tom Mix) 
1,404.000 ★Curtis Goodson. Sao Paulo. Brazil 
1,003,104 Elisa Goodson, Sao Paulo. Brazil 
RADIO BALL (Radio Shack) 
6,330.350 ★Myriam Ferland. Trois-Rivieres. 
Quebec 
Les Dorn. Eau Claire. Wl 
Dominic Deguire. St. Basile. Quebec 
Sara Grace. Baltimore. MD 
Brian Matherne. Gretna. LA 



SAILOR MAN (Tom Mix) 



997,300 
983,300 
910,200 
879,100 
741,100 



★John Licata. Richton Park. IL 
Gabriel Asset, Cameron. MO 
Mike McGeoch, Havertown, PA 
Alan Drazen, Longwood. FL 
Bryan Jenner. Calgary. Alberta 
SALVAGE OF THE ASTRONAUTS (THE RAINBOW. 
4,830 ★Chris Goodman. Baltimore. MD 
793 Spencer MetcaJf. Longview. TX 
SANDWORM (THE RAINBOW. 8/86) ' 

830 ★Brian Matherne. Gretna. LA 
SHAMUS (Radio Shack) 



337,550 
249.000 
200,305 
1 06,000 



187,300 
109.800 
63,890 
50.200 



199,000 
198.252 
194,000 
187,900 
173.884 



54 
15 
9 
9 



190.280 

88,960 
27,510 
27.285 
24,000 



SHENANIGANS (Mark Data) 



★Damon Sunderland. Christchurch. 
New Zealand 
Mike McGeoch. Havertown. PA 
Craig Schindler. Cambridge, Ontario 
Thomas Hunt. Oxon Hill. MD 
Frank Pruet. San Diego. CA 



90 
90 
90 

95 
95 



★Roy Grant. Toledo. OH 
★Jeff Hillison, Blacksburg, VA 
★Paul Maxwell. Vancouver. 
British Columbia 
Ed Emelett. Nanticoke. PA 
David Kay, Winnipeg. Manitoba 



SHOCK TROOPER (Mark Data) 



★Fruber Malcom, Culpeper, VA 
Erik Huffman. Rochester Hills. Ml 
Rodney Mullineaux, Gig Harbor. WA 
Gordon Alvarnaz. Taunton. MA 
Tim Peysar. Pasadena. CA 
SIR EGGBERT JUMPER (THE RAINBOW, 8/85) 

568 ★Odene Kirk. Elgin. OR 
SKIING (Radio Shack) 



214,203 
150.490 
100,040 
69,328 
50,782 



**★★***★★**★★★*★★**★★★***★★★★★ 

* 
* 

★**★***★*★★****★★*★**★★**★**** 



3,785,000 
1,987,000 
1.546,000 
1,253.200 



116.630 
57,680 

56.500 

50.210 



★Tim North. Emporia. KS 
Sam Zehel Jr., Coal Center, PA 
Jason Munson, Tucson. AZ 
Leslie Sherman. Shallowater, TX 
Scott Clevenger. Fairmount. IN 
Billy Fairfuit. Charleston. SC 
Kevin Gallagher. Santa Monica. CA 
SLAY THE NERIUS (Radio Shack) 

329,335 ★Tom Audas. Fremont. CA 
157,997 Thomas Audas II, Fremont. CA 
SPACE ASSAULT (Radio Shack) 

10,120 ★Kenneth Kirby. Murphy. NC 
SPEED RACER (MichTron) 



0:45.65 
0:49.45 
0:56.00 
0:56.00 
1 :00.00 
1 :00.00 
1:10.00 



145,400 
142.720 
142,310 
142,100 
139,210 



SPIDERCIDE (Radio Shack) 



★Brian King. Orlando. FL 
Erik Huffman. Rochester Hills. Ml 
Kevin Cornell, Greentown. IN 
Chris Harrison. Brooks. KY 
Alan Drazen. Longwood, FL 



2,550 
2,000 
1.740 
1,730 
1,540 



STAR BLAZE (Radio Shack) 



★Charles Marlow. Briarwood, NY 
Mike Watson. Northville. NY 
Joel DeYoung. Manson. Manitoba 
Jason Munson, Tucson, AZ 
Blake Cadmus. Reading. PA 



4.510,740 
1,945,110 
1,330,500 
1.301,350 



9.350 
8,750 
8.750 
8,400 
8,200 
8,100 
7,650 



★Michael Shahan. Bloomington. IN 
Jon Larson. Seligman. AZ 
Kent Pirkle. Cumming. GA 
John Guptill. Columbia. MO 
Chris Coleman. Meriden. CT 
Curtis Frazier Jr.. Enterprise, AL 
Christian Keyes. Stroud, Ontario 



STARLORD (THE RAINBOW. 8/86) 



★Sal Scibetta. Houston. TX 
Terry Kreller. Winnipeg. Manitoba 
Lisa Kohn. Canton, OH 
Eddie Roginski, Mertztown. PA 
Dale Krueger. Maple Ridge, 
British Columbia 
NINJA WARRIOR (Programmers Guild) 



354,800 
246,600 
127,200 
108.800 
96,700 



★Vivian Buterin. St. John. MO 
Rich Fiore. Clemson, SC 
Robert Mercredi, Winnipeg. Manitoba 
Terry Kreller. Winnipeg. Manitoba 
Eric Gladstone. Ocala. FL 
OFFENDER (American Business Computers) 
215,000 ^Andrew Urquhart. Metairie. LA 



1,011.900 
753,000 
181.200 
164,400 
108.000 



ROBOTTACK 

2.122.150 

1.020,800 
975.850 
931.250 
637.600 
ROMMEL 3-D 
499.400 

144,600 
84,000 

68.200 

62,700 



(Intracolor) 

★Ghislain Chillis & Michel Lessard. 
Trois-Rivieres. Quebec 
Ian MacLachlan. Bethany. Ontario 
Erik Huffman, Rochester Hills. Ml 
Keith Smith. Bethany. Ontario 
Chad McClellan. Rushvitte. IN 

(MichTron) 

★Stephen Charchuk. Yarmouth, 

Nova Scotia 
Jim Hawerbier. Elmhurst, IL 
Todd Hooge. Comox, 

British Columbia 
Marc Gagnon, Cap-de-la-Madeleine. 

Quebec 
Paul Seng. East Lansing. Ml 



452.880 
213.180 
92,220 
65,280 

51,195 



★Brad Bansner, Wyomissing, PA 
David Bartmess. Fayetteville. PA 
Christian Keyes. Stroud. Ontario 
Wilfrid Sloan. Newport-on-Tay. 

Scotland 
Mark Glover, Derby. NY 



STELLAR LIFE-LINE (Radio Shack) 



347,420 
299,030 



★Steven Smith. Matthews, NC 
William Novobilsky. 

Lanoka Harbor. NJ 
Don Johnson, Winnipeg. Manitoba 
Stefan Mecay. Austin. TX 
Craig Fricke. Jacksonville. IL 
STRATEGY FOOTBALL (THE RAINBOW. 8/83) 

124-7 ★Thomas Laubach. Jacksonville, FL 
TEMPLE OF ROM (Radio Shack) 

1,422,400 ★Timothy Bishop, Jacksonville. FL 
959,400 Sonya Hurst, Richmond, CA 



78.600 
58,580 
49,900 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 173 



***************************** 



938.800 Christopher Romance. 

Massapequa Park, NY 
250.600 Thomas Audas II, Fremont, CA 
219.300 Maurice MacGarvey. Dawson Creek, 

British Columbia 
131. 100 Brian Matherne, Gretna, LA 
THE TOUCHSTONE (Tom Mix) 

73.520 *Mark Bourgeault, Mississauga. 
Ontario 

TUBE FRENZY (Aardvark) 

181,930 *Sheryl Chapnick. Winnipeg, Manitoba 

VARLOC (Radio Shack) 

1.910 ★Danny Perkins. Clifton Forge. VA 

1,850 Michael Batalon, Ninole. HI 

1.850 Wayne Edwards, Wembley. Alberta 



VICIOUS VIC (THE RAINBOW. 7/86) 

2,626 *Brad Bansner. Wyomissing. PA 
2,512 Jeff Brudereck, Wyomissing, PA 
1,201 Maurice MacGarvey. Dawson Creek, 
British Columbia 
THE VORTEX FACTOR (Mark Data) 
100/483 *Rick & Brenda Stump. 

Laureldale, PA 
WH1RLYBIRD RUN (Spectral Associates) 

31.300 *Martin Parada, Arcadia. CA 
ZAXXON (Datasoft) 
2.061.000 ★ Byron Alford, Raytown, MO 
1.300.500 Dan Brown. Pittsford. NY 
1.100.600 Andrew Urquhart. Metairie. LA 
256.400 Blake Cadmus. Reading, PA 



253.400 Bob Dewitt, Blue Island. IL 

52,000 Jesse Ross, Rochester. NY 

ZONX (THE RAINBOW. 10/85) 

21 .100 ★Phillip Johnson, Scottsville. VA 

15.100 J. Yosef Krinsky. Jerusalem. Israel 

14,900 Christian Keyes, Stroud. Ontario 

14.300 Dale Taylor. Chattanooga. TN 

13.600 Michael Etchason. Sauk Rapids. MN 



— Jody Doyle 





In conjunction withTHERAiNBOw'sScoreboard, weofferthiscolumn of 
pointers for our game-playing readers' benefit. If you have some interest- 
ing hints and tips, we encourage you to share them by sending them to 
ihe Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. 



FEEDBACK 

Scoreboard: 

In response to the letter from Frank 
Heezen in the October I986 issue, thegunk 
in Zork I is a tube of glue that can be used 
to repair any holes in the inflatable boat. 
You have to use the boat to travel down 
the river to recover a treasure, but if you 
do not take any sharp objects in the boat 
with you, there will probably be no holes 
and you will not need the glue. 

Richard King 
Plymouth, IN 

BOXED IN 

Scoreboard: 

You can go beyond 999.999 in playing 
Quix. When you pass one million, the 
screen rolls over a few times and the 
counter resets to zero. 

Here is a simple technique to catch the 
two snakes: Make a lot of small boxes 
along the margins, as closely spaced as 
possible, but without touching one 
another. A snake will eventually enter the 
space between two boxes, and will be 
unable to come out again. Then just close 
off that space at your leisure. 

Curtis C. Good son 
Campinas, Brazil 

THE CRACKED CRYPT 

Scoreboard: 

1 have finally solved The Martian Cryptl 
Here are some pointers: 

The magic word is "amore." When you 
cross the pit ask for help. Go into the 
water, go South, then West, get the crown 
and go East, North, North. Give the crown 
to the sage for another riddle. Pry the 
plaque with the stalactite. Then go East 
and fly over the cracks in the floor and 
throw the stalactite at the wraith. To open 
the bigdoors throw aredgem. Once inside, 
ask for help. 



If anyone knows how to cross the bridge 
in Trekboer, please send help. I have tied 
the rope to the tree east of the bridge. But 
it doesn't work. 

David Merkel 
Houston, TX 

PYRAMID PUZZLE 

Scoreboard: 

In Pyramid I have everything but the 
coins and remaining treasure. How do 1 get 
them? PLUGH does not seem to change the 
game (as far as T can tell). 

Also in Zork I I can't find the altar, 
dispose of the granite wall in the slide room 
or figure out what to use to exorcise in the 
tiny cave room. If you have the red buoy, 
use it to hide your valuables from the thief 
and the other guy. Please send help to 
"Scoreboard/' 

Dale Lampe 
Sacramento, CA 



DON'T JUMP SHIP 

Scoreboard: 

I need help on the Adventure The Stow- 
away from The Second Rainbow Book of 
Adventures. I have searched the whole 
ship, found the power box on the wall 
behind the coal pile and thrown the switch. 
Also, I have found the message on the 
ceiling and moved the compass handle. 
Where do I go from here? Any help would 
be appreciated. 

William R. Graham 
Swedesboro, NJ 



DID I MISS SOMETHING? 

Scoreboard: 

I've just solved Bedlam in one sitting of 
about half an hour. I had fun with it but 
it ended too soon. Does anybody know of 
any other exits besides the kennel? 



A hint for Bedlam: Drop the hook 
before you feed the dog the meat with the 
pill inside it. 

Erick Molnar 
Reno, NV 

AXE-ING FOR HELP 

Scoreboard: 

I'm having trouble with Blackbeard's 
Island, After I get the string, 1 go back 
through the path in the underbrush. Then 
I go to the dock and fish for the anchor. 
When T go back to the underbrush, T can't 
get through. It tells me the underbrush is 
too thick! Since my axe broke T can't cut 
another pathway. Can anybody help? 
Please write to the "Scoreboard." 

David So lie y 
Elyria, OH 

BOGGED DOWN IN BEDLAM 

Scoreboard: 

I can't find how to get around the 
serpent in Pyramid 2000. I also haven't 
found out how to get over the rug in 
Raaka- Tu, o r how t o get the green key and 
red key in Bedlam. Any help would be 
appreciated. 

Sam Waldrop 
Brownwood, TX 

SUPREME FLASK SURPRISE 

Scoreboard: 

1 am stumped on Kingdom of Basham. 
1 can't get off the mountain road. In Sands 
of Egypt, I can't even find the pyramid let 
alone get in. 

While playing Dungeons of Daggorath 
I came across a supreme flask which I 
could pick up, but was unable to use. I have 
owned the game for several years and never 
encountered this before. Any help would 
be greatly appreciated. 

Joseph J. McElheny 
Pensacola, FL 



**★★*★★★************★**★★★**★ 



174 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



I 



ftware 



For the serious student . . . 
■ from Preschool to College 



Ages 3-5 

Hand-eye coordination 
Colors 
Shapes 
Numbers 

Great graphics and music 
Reading readiness skills 
Capital letters 
Small letters 

Learn to associate letters and letter blends with the 

sounds they make 

Requires 32K ECB and joysticks 




PreReader 



A 



J R V 




£ 0 R R E C T w 



$1 9.95 -Tape 
$24.95 - Disk 



GALACTIC 
HANGMAN 




FF'EE 



3 



R 



S U G fl R 

Both 16K ECB and 
32K ECB versions 
included on tape 
$17.95 

For grade 2 and up 

Exciting version of popular word guessing game 
Play against the computer or a friend 
Outstanding high-resolution graphics and animation 
Great sound effects and music 
700 word vocabulary included 
Create your own word files 

- your child's spelling list 

- foreign language vocabulary 

- specialized word list, i.e., geographic, chemistry, 
physics 

Broaden your vocabulary 

Both 16K ECB and 32K ECB versions included on 
tape 

Easily moved to disk 



MRTH MISSION 



SHOT TiMEP 



, POUEP L E U E L 



[ 1 1 1 1 1 1 



1. 1. i.U. 



i 



Z [ 
a 



M4 



55 



14 



31 



ItJ 
■3 
Z 
LI. 













■ 


rn 


■ 


70 


■ 




■ 


IN 


■ 


□ 


■ 




■ 


m 


\5J= 23 




?l~ 40 


511 = 100 



Math Mission is an educational game designed to rein- 
force early math skills in the four math operations: 

Addition 
Subtraction 
Multiplication 
Division 

• Can be played on any of four optional levels of 
difficulty 

• Joystick oriented to develop hand-eye 
coordination 

• Shot timer simulates a classroom time test 

• Picture, sound, and word rewards 

MATH MISSION requires 32K ECB and 

1 joystick 

Available on both Tape and Disk 
$24.95, either version 



Dealer and author inquiries are ul- 
ways welcome. Canadian dealers 
should contact KeJlv Software Dis- 
tributors, Ltd., P.#. Box 11932, 
Edmonton, Alberta T5J-3L1, (403) 
421-8003. 

Disk software compatible wilJi Radio 
Shack DOS onlv. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 7446 
Hollywood, Florida 33081 
(305) 981-1241 

A complete catalog of other sweet 
Sug r Software products is available. 



A44 61.50 per program for postage 
and handling, Florida residents add 
5% sales tax. 

COD orders are welcome. CIS orders 
EMAIL to 70405, 1374. \o re funds or 
exchanges. 




EDUCATION OVERVIEW 




The Question 
of Assessment 



By Michael Plog, Ph.D. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



One of the key terms currently in 
vogue for education these days 
is accountability. Schools are 
being asked to improve their account- 
ability at the national, state and local 
levels. 

For most people, this concept has two 
components — fiscal and student learn- 
ing. A cynical definition of "fiscal 
accountability" is that schools are asked 
to do more with less money. Fiscal 
accountability is most often raised as an 
issue by people who want to reduce 
school budgets. However, the main 
topic of interest here is not fiscal ac- 
countability, but accountability of 
student learning. We will leave the idea 
of fiscal responsibility for later. 

Accountability for student learning is 
closely tied to the idea of assessment. 
With proper assessment, so goes the 
argument, schools will be accountable 
for the knowledge students acquire, and 
will be able to identify areas of weakness 
that need improvement. 

Michael Flog received his doctorate 
degree from the University of Illinois. 
He has taught social studies in high 
school, worked in the central office of 
a school district and is currently em- 
ployed at the Illinois State Board of 
Education. 



The term "assessment" is normally 
translated into the more common term 
of "testing." Ask most educators what 
they do for assessment of student learn- 
ing, and they will respond by telling you 
which tests (often standardized com- 
mercial instruments) they administer to 
students. 

Assessment, however, is a much 
broader concept than testing. Testing 
has come to mean paper and pencil 
instruments, where a student is pre- 
sented with one question at a time and 
must provide one answer at a time. The 
answer is either right or wrong. Assess- 
ment, on the other hand, is generally 
used by educators to indicate a full 
evaluation of student abilities and 
knowledge. 

There are arguments about the merits 
of testing. My personal opinion is that 
testing is a very poor way of determin- 
ing what a student knows, but a very 
easy way of getting a lot of information 
about a lot of students in a short time. 
The value of that information is what 
raises questions about the merits of 
testing. 

For example, consider the problem of 
a teacher who wants to determine how 
well students have learned program- 
ming a computer in BASIC. One option 
for this teacher is the test option. The 



teacher develops a series of questions 
(generally, a set of multiple choice 
questions) about programming terms, 
examples of FDR-NEXT loops, how to 
use commands such as RESTORE, LINE, 
PMODE, CLOflD, etc. Students answer the 
questions. Each question is assigned 
one correct response, and the total 
number of correct responses is used to 
obtain a score for each student. This 
score is then interpreted to indicate how 
much students know about program- 
ming. 

Unfortunately, this activity is not the 
best way for a teacher to determine how 
well students have learned BASIC pro- 
gramming. The obvious "best" way is 
for the teacher to assign a task to be 
completed on the computer. Students 
would have to program the machine to 
complete the task. If a student's pro- 
gram does not perform the task re- 
quired, the teacher can clearly state that 
student does not know how to program 
the computer. If the computer does 
indeed perform the task required, the 
student has demonstrated knowledge 
about BASIC programming. The level of 
difficulty of the task to be performed 
should relate to the level of knowledge 
of the students. For a beginning pro- 
grammer in the lower grades, the task 
may be to input and print names of 



176 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



classmates. For an advanced pro- 
grammer in high school, the task might 
be to create a database for class attend- 
ance and grades. 

Although it is entirely possible to 
conduct a good assessment program 
without a computer, it is impossible to 
provide a large scale testing program 
without some computerized assistance. 
Computers are used for testing in two 
basic ways. 

The first way is to use the computer 
instead of paper and pencil. In this type 
of computer use for testing, a student is 
given a question on the computer screen 
instead of on a piece of paper. The 
student presses a key instead of writing 
an answer or marking a space on an 
answer sheet. The computer keeps track 
of all responses, scores the responses as 
right or wrong, gets a score for the 
student, and can even compare each 
individual student with all other stu- 
dents taking the test. 

In this application of the computer to 
testing, we have simply replaced one 
technology with another. The computer 
is merely eliminating a few steps in the 
process. The questions need not be any 
different if shown on the screen than on 
a piece of paper. This application does 
allow some flexibility not available with 
pencil and paper tests. For instance, the 
order of questions can be arranged in 
different sequences, depending on 
answers to previous questions. In 
general, however, this use of the com- 
puter is not much different than a paper 
and pencil test. 

Another way of using the computer 
for testing is management of test infor- 
mation. Computers can be used to score 
tests. Most commercial tests, and a 
growing number of locally developed 
tests, use "mark sense" answer sheets. 
Students darken a "bubble" on the 
sheet, and an electronic device records 
that mark as the answer. This scoring 
technique is much faster than having 
humans score the responses, with an 
error rate close to what humans would 
do. (All test scoring has error.) Schools 
can purchase small "readers" that score 



the mark sense answer sheets and 
transfer the information through a 
standard RS-232 port. (This is about 
the same as using your RS-232 to 
communicate with Delphi. You are just 
communicating with the reader,) 

In addition to scoring the test, 
another component of management of 
test information is the analysis of the 
test instrument. Analysis of test infor- 
mation involves two parts. First is the 
analysis of the items making up the test. 
Each item (question) can be examined 
by two characteristics: how well it 
relates to the test as a whole, and how 
well it performs by itself. A test com- 
posed of items showing good item 
characteristics is said to have strong 
reliability. 



rr . . . widespread 
student testing is 
simply impossible 
without the use of 
computers." 



The second part of analysis of test 
information deals with the analysis of 
groups of students. Students may be 
compared with each other or to some 
predetermined criterion of success as 
measured by the test. 

Thus, widespread student testing is 
simply impossible without the use of 
computers. The mathematics involved 
in determining item characteristics and 
analyses of groups of students is too 
prohibitive without the speed of elec- 
tronic machines. If it were not for 
computers, very few national commer- 
cial test instruments would be available 
for purchase, and those would be ex- 
tremely expensive. With computers, 



tests can be constructed and analyzed 
by local school districts. 

So much for the testing concept. 
Now, let's return to the more important 
concept of assessment rather than 
group testing. Do computers have a role 
to play here? 

One problem in this area is that the 
state of the art of full assessment is not 
as advanced as testing. Assessment has 
traditionally been left up to individual 
teachers providing judgments about 
individual students. Teachers have used 
a variety of ways to determine student 
knowledge, including assigning tasks 
for students to perform, observing 
behaviors of students, and listening to 
students discuss detailed points about 
concepts learned. 

It is entirely possible to use comput- 
ers for assessment just as you would use 
them for any other educational activity. 
Students can be asked to express their 
knowledge in written form on a 
computer, or show they understand 
some concept by addressing it with 
assistance from the computer. These 
activities, however, are simply replacing 
other technologies with the computer. It 
is the same situation as having students 
take a test on the computer instead of 
using paper and pencil. We still know 
very little about the broader concept of 
assessment of determining student 
knowledge. We need more study in this 
field — more work by people at all levels 
of education. 

There are several test companies 
today selling standardized test instru- 
ments for school use. All make liberal 
use of computers for test analysis. All 
use the weaker concept of testing; none 
(to my knowledge) use the more ap- 
propriate concept of assessment. If you 
have found a way to use computers to 
determine student knowledge (not deal- 
ing with testing, which only measures 
how well students can take a test), 
please share your information with 
others. I, especially, would like to hear 
from you. If anyone wants to write, my 
address is 829 Evergreen, Chatham, IL 
62629. /S\ 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Here is a good way to alleviate frustration. Get your 
hands on a dart pistol. Then run this program to add 
the finishing touch. 

The listing: 

lja PMODE4,l:SCREENl,l:PCLS:FORY= 
1T03 : X=X+3 f) : CIRCLE ( 1 2 8 , 9 6 ) , X : CIR 
CLE (128 ,9 6) , 10:DRAW"BM128, 9 6;E3G 
6E3H3F6" : DRAW"BMlj38 , 96 ;U3R3D3L3R 



3D3L3U1" : DRAWBM8 3 , 9 6 ?R3U3L3D6R3 
U3 " : DRAW"BM55 , 95 ;U2L3R4L1D2L1D2L 
1D2" :NEXTY:F0RZ=1T0999999 :NEXTZ 

Matt Blue 
Columbus, IN 



(For this winning one-Hner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both 77?<? Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 177 



d) 




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iLAXl 



the 
rainbow 



L/.- — 



— — — r 



DOWNLOADS 





raphical Errors 



nn 




I g i fi T 

\_j Kl JL JL JL 



usion 



By Dan Downard 
Rainbow Technical Editor 



• / recently bought the TRS-80 Coior 
Computer Assembly Language Pro- 
gramming book. As I was paging 
through it I found an assembly language 
program for a music synthesizer, and as 
I began typing it in, I came upon two 
lines that required left arrows. When I 
pressed SHIFT- UP A RRO w, nothing hap- 
pened: the cursor just sat there. 

I can get a left arrow while in BASIC, 
but not while in assembly. 

The two lines look like this: 



00310 MUS005 LDA 1 ENVPTR 
GET VALUE 

00460 LDA 1 ENVPTR 

DUMMY 



Craig Leininger 
Moorhead, MN 

Craig, you indeed found a typo in 
TRS-SO Color Computer Assembly 
Language Programming. The up and 
left arrows you refer to are probably 
misprinted control codes. If you look at 
the rest of the listing you will see that 
ENVPTR is the label for an envelope table 
at address S3F69. 



• I recently ran across Rainboard in the 
November J 983 issue. Instead of pur- 
chasing RemoTerm, / typed in Dan 

Dan Downard is an electrical engineer 
and has been involved in electronics for 
27 years through Ham radio ( K4KWT), 
His interest in computers began about 
eight years ago and he has built several 
SS XX systems, 



Downard's terminal driver program 
contained in that issue, as instructed by 
the author of Rainboard. 

When the program was executed I 
noticed the caller's BREAK key wasn't 
disabled at all. I came to the conclusion 
that the poke given in Rainboard 's 
start-up routine was geared for Remo- 
Term only. What poke could I use to 
disable the caller's BREAK key in the 
terminal driver program? 

Allen Drennan 
Sonora, CA 

If you have an RS-232 Program Pak 
you can try using RE MOTE 23 2, which 
appeared in the November 1986 issue of 
THE RAINBOW, If not, Allen, try RE- 
MOTE 2 in the November 1985 issue. 
Both of these programs are rewrites of 
the original program with a few bells 
and whistles. 



• In your September column, you an- 
swered a letter from Mr, Richardson 
regarding two problems with OS-9. 
Several years ago, when I first pur- 
chased OS-9 t I had a similar problem 
with the forma t command. When I 
tried to formal a disk, it would format 
the first several tracks, however, it 
would eventually crash and lock up the 
system. Since the drives were fairly new, 
I had the Radio Shack technician exam- 
ine them. He told me it was a defective 
controller board since he couldn't ad- 
just the board to work. I believe Mr. 
Richardson might be well off to check 
his controller. 

William Strutts 
Burton, MI 



Thanks for your help, William, This 
adjustment could indeed be the prob- 
lem. As I have said before, Radio Shack 
should get better grades for their service 
staff. 



• / have a 44 K Disk Extended BASIC 
CoCo with BASIC Version J, 2, Ex- 
tended BASIC Version I A, Disk BASIC 
Version 1.0 and an Epson MX/80 Plus 
printer. 

Recently. I bought Graphic Screen 
Print Program (GSPRE) from Custom 
Software Engineering, Inc. for my 
CoCo and printer. This program only 
works on the cassette base; if possible, 
please tell me the proper procedure so 
I can use it with my disk base. 

Tho Luong P. 
Flushing, NY 

All you have to do to use the screen 
dump program with disk is transfer it 
from cassette to disk. Without having 
the GSPREptogvAm I can't tell you the 
exact ending address, but if you have a 
tape-to-disk transfer program it will 
happen automatically. If you don't, 
after loading the program from cassette 
try: 

SAVEM "GSPRE" , &H7DD0 , 
&H7FFF,&H7DD0 

Then change lines JO and 20 of your 
program to: 

10 CLEAR 200,&H7DD0-&HE00 
20 LOADM"GSPRE" 

For the rest of the instructions use 



178 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



SRVE, SRVEM and LOAD instead of 
CSflVE,CSflVEM and CLOflD. 



• I have a Gorilla Banana printer which 
was purchased from DAK. Any time I 
try a graphics printout (like CoCo 
MaxJ, // never works. I have set the 
baud rate, checked connections and 
power supplies. I really want to use 
Hong Kwong's program in the May 
1986 RAINBOW. Could you please tell 
me what to do? 

Jim Messer 
Jacksonville, FL 

Jim, we'll let William Tenison answer 
your question. 



• On May 13, I wrote you requesting 
information regarding screen dump 
information for my CoCo to my Gorilla 
Banana. I also asked if this printer 
would print graphics. 

I should have read my new RAINBOW 
before I wrote. In it you told about 
Radio Shacks screen dump program 
DWDUMP, Catalog No. 26-3121. 

I have also solved my problem of 
getting the Gorilla to accept CoCo Max 
graphics. For anyone else who might 
have this problem here is how I did it: 

On power-up, run the following pro- 
gram to put the printer in graphics 
mode: 

20 PRINT tt-2, CHR$[B) 
30 FDR TIME = 1 to 20 
40 C=C+1 
50 PRINT C; 
G0 NEXT TIME 
70 END 

With the CoCo Max disk in the drive, 
type RUN "CONFIG". 

Configure CoCo Max to the DMP- 
100 at 600 baud 

Type RUN "COCOMAX". 

William J. Tenison, Jr. 

Jackson, TN 



• While I was working on a program 
that used the 64-by-64 graphics mode, 
I did the following: PDKE359,57: 
PDKEG5314,B5. What I got is a seem- 
ingly normal screen but with a green 



border instead of the usual black and 
real lowercase! I tried to poke some 
other values in Address 65314 and I 
came up with some interesting results: 

P0KEG5314,21 — Real lowercase on 

normal screen 
PDKEG5314,B5 — Real lowercase with 

green border 
PDKE65314,60 — Real lowercase on 

inverse screen 
PDKEG5314 ,0 — Usual CoCo screen 
PDKES5314,45 — Inverse screen 
PDKEG5314,73 — Green border 

These pokes do not function on 
CoCos older than Tandy 's latest release. 
Before using any of the pokes, you must 
first type PDKE359,57. Do you know 
what is the cause of this? Also, do you 
know a way to get one of these pokes 
permanently on my CoCo (i.e., on 
power up)? 

Richard Bella vance 
Rimouski, Quebec 

Richard, the reason you are obtain- 
ing these results is that you have one of 
the new 6847T1 VDGs in your CoCo. 
The only way I know to have these 
pokes on power-up is to modify the 
ROMs. The VDG is initialized each 
time a restart is encountered. 



• / have a 26-31 34 B. It uses the new 
RAM configuration. What is involved 
in upgrading it to 64K and Extended 

BASIC? 

I noticed jumpers labeled 256 K on the 
PC board. Is there a new 256K upgrade 
coming? Any information? 

Bob Ritterbeck 
Akron, OH 



Bob, the jumpers you are referring to 
are actually for the ROM in your CoCo. 
Don't you wish they were for the RAM? 



• / am interested in putting BASIC and 
compiled machine language programs 
into ROM packs. Could you give me 
any suggestions on how to go about 
doing this? 



Will these programs auto-execute 
when the computer is turned on, and 
when the reset button is pressed like 
Radio Shack ROM Packs? What is the 
reason for this? Where can I purchase 
blank ROM packs? 

Darren Dykstra 
Sand Lake, MI 

Darren, a program is included with 
the newer version of the Intronics 
EPROM Programmer that will do 
exactly what you want. Unfortunately 
I don't know if they sell it separately. 
You may write and ask. 



• Is there a peek or poke, or some other 
simple way to "test" an item to find out 
what minimum RA M the program will 
run in? 

Jeffrey Under 
Lake Carmel, NY 

You might try using the CLEAR com- 
mand to limit the area of memory that 
BASIC uses. Entering CLERR 200 , 1G3B3 
will cause BASIC to assume that there is 
only 1 6K of available RAM; if you have 
a CoCo with standard color BASIC (not 
Extended) you could go a step further 
and use CLEAR 200,4095 to tell BASIC 
to use only 4K if you wanted to check 
a program that is intended to run on 4K 
machines. After using the CLEAR state- 
ment, load your program and check to 
see that it runs properly. (A few pro- 
grams written for 32K machines, such 
as those that poke their own machine 
language routines into high memory, 
will ignore the CLEAR statement; if this 
happens, the program will run properly 
even though it really requires 32K and 
won't run on an actual 16K CoCo.) 



Your technical questions are welcomed. 
Please address them to: Downloads, THE 
rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit for 
space and clarity. Due to the large volume 
of mail we receive, we are unable to answer 
letters individually. 

Your technical questions may also be sent 
to us through the MAIL section of our new 
Delphi CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> 
prompt, pick Rainbow Magazine Services, 
Then, at the R AINBO W> prompt, type LET 
to arrive at the LETTERS> prompt, where 
you can select the "Downloads" online form 
which has complete instructions. 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 179 





How To Read Rainbow 



Please note that all the basic program 
listings in the rainbow are formatted for 
a 32-character screen — so they show 
up just as they do on your CoCo screen. 
One easy way to check on the accuracy 
of your typing is to compare what char- 
acter "goes under" what. If the charac- 
ters match — and your line endings 
comeout the same — you have a pretty 
good way of knowing that your typing is 
accurate. 

We also have "key boxes" to show you 
the minimum system a program needs. 
But, do read the text before you start 
typing. 

Finally, the little cassette symbol on 
the table of contents and at the begin- 
ning of articles indicates that the pro- 
gram is available through our rainbow 
on tape service. An order form for this 
service is on the insert card bound in the 
magazine. 



What's A CoCo? 



CoCo is an affectionate name that was 
first given to the Tandy Color Computer 
by its many fans, users and owners. 

However, when we use the term 
CoCo, we refer to both the Tandy Color 
Computer and the TDP System-100 
Computer. It is easier than using both of 
the "given" names throughout the rain- 
bow/ 

In most cases, when a specific com- 
puter is mentioned, theapplication is for 
that specific computer. However, since 
the TDP System-100 and Tandy Color 
are, f orall purposes, the same computer 
in a different case, these terms are 
almost always interchangeable. 



The Rainbow Check Plus 



T 



The small box accompanying a pro- 
gram listing in the rainbow is a "check 
sum" system, which is designed to help 
you type in programs accurately. 

Rainbow Check PLUS counts the 
number and values of characters you 
type in. You can then compare the 
number you get to those printed in the 
rainbow. On longer programs, some 
benchmark lines are given. When you 
reach the end of one of those lines with 
your typing, simply check to see if the 
numbers match. 



To use Rainbow Check PLUS, type in 
the program and C5AVE it for later use, 
then type in the command RUN and press 
enter. Once the program has run, type 
new and press enter to remove it from 
the area where the program you're typ- 
ing in will go. 

Now, while keying in a listing from the 
rainbow, whenever you press the down- 
arrow key, your CoCo gives the check 
sum based on the length and content of 
the program in memory. This is to check 
against the numbers printed in the 
rainbow. If your number is different, 
check the listing carefully to be sure you 
typed in the correct basic program code. 
For more details on this helpful utility, 
refer to H. Allen Curtis' article on Page 
21 of the February 1984 rainbow. 

Since Rainbow Check PLUS counts 
spaces and punctuation, be sure to type 
in the listing exactly the way it's given in 
the magazine. 

10 CLS:X=256*PEEI<(35)+178 

20 CLEAR 25,X-1 

30 X=256*PEEI< (35) + 178 

40 FOR Z=X TO X + 77 

50 READ Y:W=W+Y:PRINT Z,Y;W 

60 POKE Z,Y:NEXT 

70 IFW=7 t 385THENB0ELSEPRINT 

"DATA ERROR" : STOP 
80 EXEC X : END 

90 DATA 182, 1, 106, 167, 140, 60, 134 
100 DATA 126, 183, 1, 106, 190, 1, 107 
110 DATA 175, 140, 50, 48, 140, 4, 191 
120 DATA 1, 107, 57, 129, 10, 38, 38 
130 DATA 52, 22, 79, 158, 25, 230, 129 
140 DATA 39, 12, 171, 12B, 171, 128 
150 DATA 230, 132, 38, 250, 48, 1, 32 
160 DATA 240, 183, 2, 222, 48, 140, 14 
170 DATA 159, 166, 166, 132, 28, 254 
1B0 DATA 189, 173, 198, 53, 22, 126, 0 
190 DATA 0, 135, 255. 134, 40, 55 
200 DATA 51, 52, 41, 0 



Using Machine Language 



Machine language programs are one 
of the features of the rainbow. There are 
a number of ways to "get" these pro- 
grams into memory so you can operate 
them. 

The easiest way is by using an editor/ 
assembler, a program you can purchase 
from a number of sources. 

An editor/assembler allows you to 
enter mnemonics into the CoCo and 
then have the editor/assembler assem- 
ble them into specific instructions that 
are understood by the 6809 chip, which 
controls your computer. 



When using an editor/assembler, all 
you have to do, essentially, is copy the 
relevant instructions from the rainbow's 
listing into CoCo. 

Another method of getting an assem- 
bly language listing into CoCo is called 
"hand assembly." As the name implies, 
you do the assembly by hand. This can 
sometimes cause problems when you 
have to set up an ORIGIN statement or 
an EQUATE. In short, you have to know 
something about assembly to hand- 
assemble some programs. 

Use the following program if you wish 
to hand-assemble machine language 
listings: 

10 CLEAR200,&H3F00:I=&H3F80 

20 PRINT "ADDRESS: ";HEX$( I); 

30 INPUT "BYTE"; B$ 

40 PDKE I,VAL("&H"+8$) 

50 1 = 1 + 1 : GDTD 20 

This program assumes you havea 16K 
CoCo. If you have 32K, change the 
&H3F00 in Line 10 to &H7F00 and change 
the value of I to &H7F80. 



The Rainbow Seal 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

The Rainbow Certification Seal is our 
way of helping you, the consumer. The 
purpose of the Seal is to certify to you 
that any product that carries the Seal 
has been physically seen by us, that it 
does, indeed, exist and that we have a 
sample copy here at the rainbow. 

Manufacturers of products — hard- 
ware, software and firmware — are 
encouraged by us to submit their pro- 
ducts to the rainbow for certification. 
We ascertain that their products are, in 
actuality, what they purport to be and, 
upon such determination, award a Seal. 

The Seal, however, is not a "guarantee 
of satisfaction." The certification pro- 
cess is different from the review process. 
You are encouraged to read our reviews 
to determine whether the product is 
right for your needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship 
between advertising in the rainbow and 
the certification process. Certification is 
open and available to any product per- 
taining to CoCo. A Seal will be awarded 
to any commercial product, regardless 
of whether the firm advertises or not. 

We will appreciate knowing of in- 
stances of violation of Seal use. 



180 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



BARDEN'S BUFFER 



More on x IS Hi 1 , x riHi!SJli 

and Graphics Speed 



hat do weather radar pictures on local TV news 
programs and the Color Computer have in com- 
mon? More than you might think. In the last 
column I was nonplussed because I had coded an assembly 
language subroutine for setting and resetting points on a 256- 
by-192 graphics screen, only to find it was slower than the 
Microsoft BASIC PSET and PRESET! In this column I will be 
vindicated, to a certain extent, when I show you a Line 
subroutine. The whole purpose of this exercise, by the way, 
is to show you what's involved in CoCo graphics. The 
assembly language for graphics is not that easy, but once you 
have a few base subroutines, such as a Set Point and Draw 
Line, you can build upward. And we'll answer that question 
about TV weather radar. 

PSET Revisited 

In case you missed last month's column, the assembly 
language PSET code is shown in Listing I. Input to PSET is 
an X,Y point for a high resolution screen, stored in YX in 
reverse order. As there are 32 bytes per row in this resolution, 
each byte specifying eight pixels, dividing YX by 8 gives the 
displacement to the row. Adding $E00 (for a disk system) 
points to the actual byte for the point. A point at X,Y = 
100,50, for example, has a Y,X value of 50 * 256 + 100 or 
12,900. Dividing 12,900 by 8 gives 1 fill for the displacement 
from the start of the graphics page (any remainder from the 
division is thrown away), A decimal value of 1612 is Hex 
S64C. Adding SE00 to S64C gives S144C, the actual byte 
location containing the bit for the pixel 100,50. 

The byte location actually contains on/off status for eight 
pixels. To locate the proper bit, the least significant three bits 
of X are examined and used to index into a mask table of 

Bill Barden has written 27 books and over 100 magazine 
articles on various computer topics. His 20 years experience 
in the industry covers a wide background: programming, 
systems analyzing and managing projects ranging from 
mainframes to micrmcomputers* 



By William Harden, Jr* 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



eight values. These three bits represent values of 0 through 
7; the mask table entries of 0 through 7 contain the proper 
bit setting, such that the mask table value can be ORed with 
the pixel byte to set the proper pixel Using the point at X,Y 
- 100,50 as an example, the X value in binary is 001 10010. 
ANDing this X value with 00000 1 1 1 (7) results in: 

00110010 X=50 

AND 00000111 To mask out three lower bits 



00000010 Result = 0000010 = 2 

Whenthis index value is added to the address of MSKTAB, 
the mask value at MSKTAB + 2 is read. This value, $20, is 
used to set Bit 5 of the byte location, regardless of the state 
of Bit 5 previously (set or reset). 

XXXXXXXX Contents of byte location 
OR 00100000 MSKTAB value, to set bit 



XX1XXXXX Bit 5 set; others unchanged 

The same process can be done for PRESET^ except that an 
AND of an inverted mask retains all bits except for the one 
to be reset, 

XXXXXXXX Contents of byte location 
FIND 11011111 PRESET MSKTAB value, to set bit 



XX0XXXXX Bit 5 reset; others unchanged 

Although this code is efficient and fast, I found to my 
chagrin that it is not as fast as the Microsoft BASIC PSET, 
A lthough my PSET code is more efficient, the calling sequence 
to pass the X, Y parameters to the assembly language 
subroutine from BASIC is time-consuming. 




January 1 987 THE RAINBOW 181 



A Line Subroutine 

An assembly language subroutine to draw a line on the 
screen can utilize the P5ET and PRESET subroutines. But how 
do we go about drawing a line on the screen? Let's consider 
some methods that could be used. 

If we keep the same way of specifying lines as BASIC, we'll 
have a starting point called X1,Y1 and an ending point called 
X2,Y2, as shown in Figure 1. (We don't have to use this 
convention. We could specify a starting point, an angle and 
a line length, for example. We'll stick to the start and end 
point standard here, however.) 



Figure 1: Line Start and End Points 




X2,Y2 






S X 2 ,Y 2 












Xi,Yi Xi.Yt 
* * 






X X 2( Y 2 




*=Starting point 



We could use trigonometry in plotting the points. The 
tangent of an angle is the ratio of the opposite side's length 
over the length of the adjacent side. Advancing one X pixel 
at a time, we could multiply the tan value by the new X 
displacement to find the corresponding Y displacement, as 
shown in Figure 2. But that's awfully messy, for a very good 
reason. It uses division to get the tan value in the first place 
and multiplication to get every consecutive point. 



Figure 2: Plotting Points by Trigonometry 



Tan - a Y = 80 = .5 
a X = 160 



40,120 




220,40 



aY=120-40 : 
80 



aX=200-40=160 



Y Displacement = 10*Tan = 10*. 5=5 Pixels 
X Displacement = 10 Pixels 



Another approach that could be used is to compute the 
tan value and use it as an index into a table of increment 
values, as shown in Figure 3. The table would give the amount 
that the Y value would be incremented for every step in the 
X direction. 

Take an angle of 30 degrees, for example. Every step of 
one pixel in X causes a step of .577 in the Y direction. Keeping 
a running total of the accumulated Y value would define the 
Y pixel to be set. Again, though, this calls for fractional 



Figure 3: Increment Values Stored In a Table 




Degrees 
1 



Value 



4 

5 



0.017 



0.035 



0.052 



0.069 



29 
30 



31 



44 

45 



0.577 



0.601 



Tangent 
> Values 
1-45° 



1.000 



arithmetic which is achieved by floating-point operations, or, 
at the very least, "scaling." 

We're on the right track, however. The ratio of Y to X can 
be used not to access a table of values, but directly. This is 
the scheme that Microsoft uses in its implementation of LINE. 
It's shown in the BASIC program of Listing 2. The algorithm 
is a variation of one called Bresenham's Line Algorithm, 
which you can find in books on computer graphics, such as 
Computer Graphics by Schaum's Outline Series. (One that 
I can heartily recommend — it's probably clearer than most.) 

The BASIC code is an emulation of the assembly language 
code for LINE in Extended Color BASIC at $9401 through 
$9502. 

Microsoft's LINE Algorithm 

The BASIC code is entered with X 1 , Y 1 defining the starting 
point, and X2, Y2 defining the ending point. Variables X and 
Y are set equal to XI and Yl, the starting point. X and Y 
hold the coordinate of the current screen point. 

First, a check is made of X2 and XI . If X2 is greater than 
or equal to XI, then the increment from XI to X2 will be 
positive; otherwise, it is negative. Variable MR (MAJORACT) 
is set to 1 or 3, respectively, to record this relationship. 

Next, the same check is made of Y2 and Y 1 , with variable 



1 82 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



NA (MINORACT) being set to 2 if Y2 is greater than or equal 
to Yl or to 4 otherwise. 

Next, variables MO (MAJORDELT) and ND (MINOR- 
DELT) are set to the absolute value of the actual distance 
in pixels from start to end, as shown in Figure 4. 



Figure 4: Computing MD and ND 



X 2 ,Y 2 =40,30 




X,,Y, =220,180 



This distance =a X= 
ABS(220-40)=180 = MD 



This distance = 

a Y=ABS(30-180)=ABS(-150) = 150 = ND 



If MD (MAJORDELT) is greater than or equal to ND 
(MINORDELT), one point at a time along the X axis will 
be incremented. If ND (MINORDELT) is greater, one point 
at a time along the Y axis will be incremented. In the latter 
case, NA (MINORACT) is swapped with MA (MAJORACT) 
and MD (MAJORDELT) is swapped with ND (MINOR- 
DELT) so that the "major" action and deltas represent the 
governing increment, up/ down or left/ right. The "minor" 
action involves a fraction of a pixel increment. 

Next MC (MAJORCNT) is set to MD (MAJORDELT). MC 
(M AJORCNT) holds the longest increment/ decrement path. 
One P5ET will occur for every pixel in this path. 

NC (MINORCNT) is next set to half of MD (MAJOR- 
DELT). NC (MINORCNT) is incremented by ND (MINOR- 
DELT) for each P5ET. This is a form of scaling where the 
minor increment represents a fractional increment. When the 
increment is greater than MD (MAJORDELT), then the 
current minor coordinate will be incremented or decremented 
by one. For a nearly flat horizontal line, many increments 
will be made of NC( MINORCNT) before Y changes. For lines 
closer to 45 degrees, Y will be changed almost as often as 
X. For vertical lines, the same action is taken, but on X 
instead of Y. The minor increment action is really a way to 
step along the shorter side. 

The main loop starts at Line 1000. If the MC (MAJORCNT) 
represents X, one increment or decrement in the X direction 
is done for each count in MC (MAJORCNT). For each step, 
P5ET writes the current point. The Y NC (MINORCNT) is 
then adjusted by addingND(MINORDELT). If ND (MINOR- 
DELT) is greater than MD (MAJORDELT), Y is incremented 
or decremented in preparation for the next P5ET. If the MC 
(MAJORCNT) represents Y, the same actions are taken but 
for Y and X. The four short subroutines at the end of the 
code represent the increment/ decrement actions to be taken 
for incrementing or decrementing X and Y. 

Confused? Admittedly, the algorithm is a little confusing. 
However, if you step through the BASIC code, it's fairly easy 
to see what is happening. The algorithm is efficient because 
each point along the line is written only once. In addition, 
there is no complicated math — just simple additions, 
comparisons and subtractions. 

A typical call to the subroutine is shown in Listing 2 before 
the code for LINE. 



The Weather Radar Puzzle Explained 

The idea of writing each point only once is significant. Ten 
years ago, I worked at a company that developed color 
digitizers for weather radars. The idea was to take a News 
At 5 black-and-white weather radar display and convert it 
to color. The engineer in charge had spent a great deal of time 
developing a hardware algorithm to simulate a radar sweep 
line. (To show how design efforts can be thwarted: The sweep 
line was "designed out" with a great deal of effort and expense 
in the converter electronics. However, television stations 
reported that viewers didn't believe the sweepless picture was 
really a legitimate radar scan, without the sweep line! The 
decision was made to put the sweep line back in.) 

The engineer's algorithm was based upon incrementing X 
and Y an amount such that every pixel along the line of the 
sweep would be filled, but there would be no "gaps." He was 
also anxious to avoid many overwrites of pixels more than 
once. Unfortunately, he didn't use the Microsoft algorithm, 
and the resulting display, although fast enough, was 
inefficient, with many overwrites. But you know these 
hardware guys — at nanoseconds instead of milliseconds, 
they can afford to be sloppy. 

In any event, the algorithm is one of the best in efficiency. 
All that's left is to speed it up by our own assembly language 
code. 

Assembly Language Code for LINE 

The assembly language code that performs the same 
algorithm as the BASIC program is shown in Listing 3. It 
follows the same steps as the BASIC code in about the same 
order. It is similar, but not identical, to the Microsoft code 
in ROM that draws lines. 

In the main loop of the code, the X and Y registers have 
been set up to contain the proper subroutine address for 




LEARN 

COMPUTER 

PROGRAMMING 

Now you can become your own com- 
puter expert and get a computer to do 
just what you want. Get the most out of 
any computer by designing your own 
programs, and avoid having to pay the 
high price of prepackaged software. 

LEARN AT YOUR OWN PACE 

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INSTITUTE 



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YES. 1 



Name 



Send me information on how I can learn aboul computers 
and programming at home 



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DEPT. 67 1 

HALIX INSTITUTE 
CENTER FOR 
COMPUTER EDUCATION 
1543 W. OLYMPIC. #226 
LOS ANGELES, CA 90015-3894 



City 



Stale/Zip 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 183 



incrementing or decrementing X and Y. These subroutines 
areLINlQl, LIN102, LIN103 and LIN104. The D register (A 
and B combined) contains the minor count, adjusted by 
addingthe minor deltaeach time through the loop. Themajor 
count in MC is decremented at the end of the loop to control 
the number of PSETs. 

An additional function has been added in this code, 
however. Variable FUNC controls either a P5ET or PRESET — 
a 0 is PRESET while a 1 is a PSET. The code for PSET and 
PRESET follow the LINE subroutine. It is the same as that 
presented in the last column, with the exception of saving and 
restoring the CPU registers with a stack. Separate subrou- 
tines for PSET and PRESET speed up the overall execution 
for setting or resetting points, as no test for the function needs 
to be made. 

Testing the Code 

After all this work, it might be nice to have a Line 
subroutine that actually runs faster than the LINE function 
in Microsoft BASIC. The code here is faster. If used with other 
graphics assembly language code, it will be several times 
faster than calling LINE in BASIC. Even when called from 
BASIC, though, it is about twice as fast as LINE. 

Listing 4 shows a BASIC program that illustrates the speed 
differences between LINE in BASIC and the code. In memory 
of that hardware engineer, this BASIC code simulates a radar 
scan in high-resolution graphics. A sweep line scans clockwise 
around the screen. The BASIC code to do this draws a line 
from the screen center to the screen edge and then erases it. 
There are four parts to the code, for each side of the screen. 

The point at the screen center is constant, regardless of the 
direction of the line. We've chosen 128, 96 as the screen center. 

The rightmost side is written by drawing a line from the 
center to a point at X=255 and a varying Y, from 0 (top-right 
corner) to 191 (bottom-right corner). Immediately after the 
line is drawn, it is erased by a PRESET. The other three sides 
use the same scheme — one coordinate for the side is held 
constant while the second varies. The sweeps of the four sides 
repeat continuously. One complete sweep around the screen 
takes about 82 seconds. 

Listing 5 shows BASIC code that calls the assembly language 
LINE code. First, the assembly language object module is 
loaded from disk after memory from &H3F00 has been 
protected by a CLERR. Next, the locations of XI, VI, X2, Y2 
and FUNC in the assembly language LINE subroutine are 
defined. This just makes it a little less work to pass 
parameters, using short names instead of hexadecimal 
addresses. 

There are five parameters to be passed: the starting X and 
Y (XI, Yl), the ending X, Y (X2, Y2) and the functions (0 for 
reset and 1 for set by FUNC). These parameters are located 
in the middle of the assembly language Line subroutine — 
no great disadvantage once XI, Yl, X2, Y2 and FUNC have 
been defined. 

The subroutine is called with the usual calling sequence. 
A DEF U5R0 defines the starting address of &HF000, and a 
call is made by R=5R0(0) with a dummy argument. 

All five parameters need not be defined for each call of the 
subroutine. The five parameters are not changed by the 
subroutine so they do not need to be reinitialized if they have 
not been changed by the BASIC code. 

There's a little more work involved here in setting up the 
parameters, but even with the overhead, a complete sweep 
takes only 54 seconds. 

184 THE RAINBOW January 1987 i 



Using the Assembly Language LINE 

You can use PSET, PRESET and LINE to do your own 
assembly language graphics and get a significant speed 
increase. You are sacrificing generality, however, as the 
assembly language code is designed for only high resolution 
two-color graphics. It's easy to see how a box function could 
be added to the code — four separate calls could be made 
for the four sides of the box. Even a filled-in box is not 
difficult — just draw a succession of lines from top to bottom. 

BASIC graphics functions such as CIRCLE are another 
problem, but not impossible. A Microsoft circle is done by 
drawing a 64-sided polygon; again the assembly language 
LINE code could be used, although Microsoft uses a different 
approach of a sin/ cosine table. 

All higher-level graphics functions are built upon these 
"primitive" graphics operations of PSET, PRESET, LINE and 
a few others. If these basic functions are efficient, it will help 
in making higher-level operations fast as well. 

■ 

CoCo 3 Report 

After many phone calls checking on the availability of 
CoCo 3s, I was getting a little anxious. One evening I walked 
into my local Radio Shack, however, and glanced toward the 
CoCo display. This CoCo had more keys! Sure enough, it 
turned out to be a 3, the only one in the store and that day's 
new arrival. I immediately bought it. But I was worried. 
Would the CoCo 3 go? Would CoCo 2 users lust after it, as 
I had? 

I found the answer at the RAINBOWfest in Princeton, 
N.J., on October 17-19. I was there giving a seminar on 
computer languages. While there, I was astounded at the 
number of Color Computer 3s that were being sold every 
person walking out the door seemed to have a CoCo 3 box 
under his arm. Admittedly, the 3s were discounted, but it was 
apparent to me and everyone else that the CoCo 3 is going 
to be a hacker's dream and another Color Computer success. 

Although I haven't spent a great deal of time on the CoCo 
3, I can report that the disk EOT ASM runs just fine, except 
for the minor inconvenience of having to restart after coming 
back to BASIC from the assembler. 

I love my 3 and I hope you do, too. There's a lot of material 
that can be covered in this column about assembly language 
on the CoCo 3. The old high resolution mode of 256 by 192 
in two colors pales by comparison to the 640-by-192 four- 
color modes. The additional memory of up to 512K leaves 
plenty of room for high-speed graphics and other applica- 
tions. And even assembly language can benefit by the higher 
clock speed. 

In future columns we'll be looking at these applications on 
the CoCo 3 and also looking in detail at assembly language 
under OS-9. The OS-9 assembler is a different animal from 
EDTASM, but the basic instruction set is the same — it's 
just the way OS-9 approaches things that makes it slightly 
more difficult. Please let me know your feelings about what 
topics you'd like to see covered in the column and the mix 
of CoCo 3/ OS-9 and CoCo 2 topics. Till I hear from you, 
keep assembling! □ 



Listing 1: 

ORG 

PSET LDD YX get Y to A, X to B 

LSRA divide by 8 to get row displacement 

RORD 

LSRA 

RORB 

LSRA 



ROJRB 








ADDD 




point to actual 


byte 


TFR 


D,Y 


save in Y 




LDB 


YX+1 


X value to B 




ANDB 


#7 


get 0-7 value 


for bit position 


LDX 


#MSKTAB 


address of mask 


table 


LDA 


,v 


get byte 




ORA 


B,X 


set bit 




STA 




restore byte 




RTS 




return 




MSKTAB FCB 








FCB 


$40 






FCB 


$20 






FCB 


$10 






FCB 


$08 






FCB 


$04 






FCB 


$02 






FCB 


$01 






Y.X RMB 


2 


Y, X in reverse 


order 


END 









MA: MA = 
= ND: ND 



220 ND = ABS( Y2 - Yl ) 
230 IF MD < ND THEN T = 

NA: NA = T: T = MD: MD 

= T 

= MD 
= MD/2 

( MD AND 1 ) = 1 AND (MA 
THEN NC = NC - 1 
1 DRAW A LINE CORE CODE 
FOR I = MC TO 0 STEP -1 
PSET (X,Y) 

ON MA GOSUB 3 60, 390, 420, 



240 MC 
250 NC 
260 IF 
>= 3 ) 
270 
280 



Listing 2: LINEBftS 

100 'BASIC DRAW LINE SUBROUTINE 
110 SCREEN 1,0 
120 PMODE 4,1 
130 PCLS 

140 XI =0: Yl = 100: X2 = 255: 

Y2 = 95 

150 GOSUB 170 

160 GOTO 160 

170 'DRAW A LINE SUBROUTINE FROM 

XI, Yl TO X2,Y2 
180 X = XI: Y = Yl 
190 IF X2 - XI >= 0 THEN MA = 1 
ELSE MA = 3 

200 IF Y2 - Yl >= 0 THEN NA = 2 
ELSE NA = 4 

210 MD = ABS( X2 - XI ) 



290 
300 
50 
310 
320 



NC = NC + ND 

IF NC - MD > 0 THEN NC = NC 
- MD: BUMP = 1 ELSE BUMP = 0 
330 IF BUMP = 1 THEN ON NA GOSUB 

360, 390, 420, 450 
340 NEXT I 
350 

3 60 'INCREMENT X 
370 
380 
390 
400 
410 

420 'DECREMENT X 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 



RETURN 

• INCREMENT 
X = X + 1 
RETURN 

• INCREMENT 

Y = Y + 1 
RETURN 

' DECREMENT 
X = X - 1 
RETURN 

' DECREMENT 

Y = Y - 1 
RETURN 



Listing 3: LINE BIN 











************************************* 










* LINE 


SUBROUTINE. DUPLICATES MS BASIC 1 LINE 1 * 








PP12P 


* INPUT 


: (XI, 


Y1)=STARTING POINT IN 256X192 * 








PP13P 


* 


(X2, 


Y2)=ENDING POINT IN 256X192 * 








PP14P 


* 


(FUNC)=P IF PRESET, 1 IF PSET * 










* OUTPUT: LINE 


DRAWN ON 


SCREEN * 










********************************************** 








PP17P 
















PP18P 




ORG 


$3FPP 






FC 


3F8C 


PP19P 


LINE 


LDD 


Yl 


INITIALIZE X,Y BEGINNING 


3F03 


FD 


3F91 


PP2PP 




STD 


YY 


XI — > X; Yl — > Y 


3FP6 


8E 


3F7C 


PP21P 




LDX 


#LINlpl 


IF DELTA X > DELTA Y 


3F09 


B6 


3F8E 


PP22P 




LDA 


X2 


GET END POINT FOR X 


3F0C 


BP 


3F8D 


PP23P 




SUBA 


XI 


X2 - XI = DELTA X 


3FpF 


24 


p4 


pp24p 




BHS 


LINpip 


GO IF DELTA X POSITIVE 


3F11 


40 


PP25P 




NEGA 




TAKE ABSOLUTE VALUE 


3F12 


8E 


3F84 


PP26P 




LDX 


#LINlp3 


X DECREMENTS DOWN 


3F15 


B7 


3F94 


P0270 


LINpip 


STA 


MD+1 


DELTA X=P TO 255 


3F18 


7F 


3F93 


PP28P 




CLR 


MD 


MAKE DOUBLE BYTE 


3F1B 


108E 


3F8p 


PP29P 




LDY 


#LINlp2 


IF DELTA Y > DELTA X 


3F1F 


B6 


3F8F 


PP3PP 




LDA 


Y2 


GET END POINT FOR Y 


3F22 


BP 


3F8C 


PP31P 




SUBA 


Yl 


Y2-Y1 = DELTA Y 


3F25 


24 


05 


PP32P 




BHS 


LIN020 


GO IF DELTA Y NEGATIVE 


3F27 


40 




PP33P 




NEGA 




TAKE ABSOLUTE VALUE 


3F28 


108E 


3F88 


PP34P 




LDY 


#LIN1P4 


Y DECREMENTS DOWN 


3F2C 


B7 


3F96 


PP35P 


LIN020 


STA 


ND+1 


DELTA Y=P TO 191 


3F2F 


7F 


3F95 


PP36P 




CLR 


ND 


MAKE DOUBLE BYTE 


3F32 


FC 


3F93 


PP37P 




LDD 


MD 


GET DELTA X 


3F35 


10B3 


3F95 


PP38P 




CMPD 


ND 


LARGER THAN DELTA Y? 


3F39 


24 


PB 


PP39P 




BHS 


LIN025 


GO IF YES 


3F3B 


IE 


12 


P0400 




EXG 


X,Y 


SWAP ACTION FUNCTIONS 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 185 



3F3D 


FE 


3F95 


00410 




LDU 


ND 


SWAP DELTAS -MAJOR 


3F40 


FD 


3F95 


00420 




STD 


ND 


INCREMENT IS LARGEST 


3F43 


FF 


3F93 


00430 




STU 


MD 


DELTA 


3F46 


FC 


3F93 


00440 


LIN025 


LDD 


MD 


GET MAJOR DELTA 


3F49 


F7 


3F97 


00450 




STB 


MC 


STORE IN MAJOR COUNT 


3F4C 


54 




00460 




LSRB 




MAJOR DELTA/ 2 


3F4D 


B6 


3F94 


00470 




LDA 


MD+1 


GET MAJOR DELTA 


3F50 


84 


01 


00480 




ANDA 


#1 


TEST FOR ODD# POINTS 


3F52 


27 


06 


00490 




BEQ 


LIN028 


GO IF EVEN 


3F54 


8C 


3F84 


00500 




CMPX 


#LIN103 


ODD DECREMENT=SPECIAL 


3F57 


25 


01 


00510 




BLO 


LIN028 


GO IF INCREMENT 


3F59 


5A 




00520 




DECB 




ADJUST COUNT BY ONE 


3F5A 


4F 




00530 


LIN028 


CLRA 




D=MINOR COUNT 








00540 


* MAIN 


LOOP HERE - EXECUTED MAJOR DELTA TIMES 


3F5B 


7D 


3F90 


00550 


LIN030 


TST 


FUNC 


TEST PRESET OR PSET 


3F5E 


26 


04 


00560 




BNE 


LIN03 5 


GO IF PSET 


3F60 


8D 


5F 


00570 




BSR 


PRESET 


PRESET CALL 


3F62 


20 


£2 


00580 




BRA 


LIN03 6 


CONTINUE 


3F64 


8D 


32 


00590 


LIN03 5 


BSR 


PSET 


PSET CALL 


3F66 


AD 


84 


00600 


LIN03 6 


JSR 


/X 


BUMP MAJOR POINT 


3F68 


F3 


3F95 


00610 




ADDD 


ND 


ADD MINOR DELTA TO COUNT 


3F6B 


10B3 


3F93 


00620 




CMPD 


MD 


TIME TO BUMP MINOR? 


3F6F 


25 


05 


00630 




BLO 


LIN050 


GO IF NO 


3F71 


B3 


3F9 3 


00640 




SUBD 


MD 


GET NEW COUNT 


3F74 


AD 


A4 


00650 




JSR 


iV 


BUMP (OR DECR) MINOR 


3F76 


7A 


3F97 


00660 


LIN050 


DEC 


MC 


DECREMENT MAJOR COUNT 


3F79 


26 


E0 


00670 




BNE 


LIN030 


REPEAT IF NOT DONE 


3F7B 


39 




00680 
00690 




RTS 




RETURN FROM LINE SUBR 


3F7C 


7C 


3F92 


00700 


LIN101 


INC 


XX 


FOR X2 > XI CASE 


3F7F 


39 




00710 
00720 




RTS 






3F80 


7C 


3F91 


00730 


LIN102 


INC 


YY 


FOR Y2 > Yl CASE 


3F83 


39 




00740 
00750 




RTS 






3F84 


7A 


3F92 


00760 


LIN103 


DEC 


XX 


FOR X2 > XI CASE 


3F87 


39 




00770 
00780 




RTS 






3F88 


7A 


3F91 


00790 


LIN104 


DEC 


YY 


FOR Y2 < Yl CASE 


3F8B 


39 




00800 
00810 




RTS 












00820 


* WORKING STORAGE AREA 




3F8C 






00830 


Yl 


RMB 


1 


STARTING POINT (INPUT) 


3F8D 






008 40 


XI 


RMB 


1 




3F8E 






00850 


X2 


RMB 


1 


ENDING POINT (INPUT) 


3F8F 






00860 


Y2 


RMB 


1 




3F90 






00870 


FUNC 


RMB 


1 


0=PRESET, 1=PSET (INPUT) 


3F91 






00880 


YY 


RMB 


1 


FOR PSET OR PRESET CALL 


3F92 






00890 


XX 


RMB 


1 




3F93 






00900 


MD 


RMB 


2 


MAJOR DELTA, X OR Y 


3F95 






00910 


ND 


RMB 


2 


MINOR DELTA, X OR Y 


3F97 






00920 
00930 


MC 


RMB 


1 


MAJOR COUNT h # MAJOR PNTS 








00940 


* PSET 


SUBROUTINE 




3F98 


34 


36 


00950 


PSET 


PSHS 


D,X,Y 


SAVE REGS 


3F9A 


FC 


3F91 


00960 




LDD 


YY 


Y TO A, X TO B 


3F9D 


44 




00970 




LSRA 




/8 TO GET ROW DISP 


3F9E 


56 




00980 




RORB 






3F9F 


44 




00990 




LSRA 






3FA0 


56 




01000 




RORB 






3FA1 


44 




010 10 




LSRA 






3FA2 


56 




01020 




RORB 






3FA3 


C3 


0E00 


01030 




ADDD 


#$E00 


POINT TO ACTUAL BYTE 


3FA6 


IF 


02 


01040 




TFR 


D,Y 


SAVE IN Y 


3FA8 


F6 


3F92 


010 50 




LDB 


YY+1 


X VALUE TO B 


3 FAB 


C4 


07 


010 60 




ANDB 


#7 


GET 0-7 VALUE FOR BIT PO 


3 FAD 


8E 


3FB9 


01070 




LDX 


#MSKTAB 


ADDRESS OF MASK TABLE 


3FB0 


A6 


A4 


01080 




LDA 


,Y 


GET BYTE 


3FB2 


AA 


85 


01090 




ORA 


B,X 


SET BIT 


3FB4 


A7 


A4 


01100 




STA 


,Y 


RESTORE BYTE 


3FB6 


3 5 


36 


01110 




PULS 


D,X,Y 


RESTORE REGS 


3FB8 


39 




01120 
01130 


* MASK 


RTS 
TABLE 


FOR PSET 


RETURN 



1 86 THE RAINBOW January 1 987 



3FB9 


8p 


01140 


MSKTAB FCB 


$80 




3FBA 


4j3 


01150 


FCB 


$40 




3FBB 


2P 


01160 


FCB 


$20 




3FBC 


ljt 


01170 


FCB 


$10 




3FBD 


08 


01180 


FCB 


$08 




3FBE 


04 


01190 


FCB 


$04 




3FBF 


02 


01200 


FCB 


$02 




3FC0 


01 


01210 


FCB 


$01 








01220 


* PRESET SUBROUTINE 




3FC1 34 


36 


01230 


PRESET PSHS 


D,X, Y 


SAVE REGS 


3FC3 FC 


3F91 


01240 


LDD 


YY 


Y TO A, X TO B 


3FC6 44 




01250 


* LSRA 




/8 TO GET ROW DISP 


3FC7 56 




01260 


RORB 




3FC8 44 




01270 


LSRA 






3FC9 56 




01280 


RORB 






3FCA 44 




01290 


LSRA 






3FCB 56 




01300 


RORB 






3FCC C3 


0E00 


01310 


ADDD 


#$E00 


POINT TO ACTUAL BYTE 


3FCF IF 


02 


01320 


TFR 


D/Y 


SAVE IN Y 


3FD1 F6 


3F92 


01330 


LDB 


YY+1 


X VALUE TO B 


3FD4 C4 


07 


01340 


ANDB 


#7 


GET 0-7 VALUE FOR BIT POS 


3FD6 8E 


3FE2 


01350 


LDX 


#MSKTA1 


ADDRESS OF MASK TABLE 


3FD9 A6 


A4 


01360 


LDA 


, Y 


GET BYTE 


3FDB A4 


85 


01370 


ANDA 


B,X 


SET BIT 


3FDD A7 


A4 


01380 


STA 




RESTORE BYTE 


3FDF 35 


36 


01390 


PULS 


D,X,Y 


RESTORE REGS 


3FE1 39 




01400 


RTS 




RETURN 






01410 


* MASK TABLE 


FOR PRESET 




3FE2 


7F 


01420 


MSKTA1 FCB 


$7F 




3FE3 


BF 


01430 


FCB 


$BF 




3FE4 


DF 


01440 


FCB 


$DF 




3FE5 


EF 


01450 


FCB 


$EF 




3FE6 


F7 


01460 


FCB 


$F7 




3FE7 


FB 


01470 


FCB 


$FB 




3 FE8 


FD 


0148 0 


FCB 


$FD 




3FE9 


FE 


01490 


FCB 


$FE 










END 






PPPPQ TOTAL ERRORS 











Listing 4: RRDARBR5 



100 1 RADAR SCAN PROGRAM IN BASIC 

110 CLEAR 100,&H3EFF 

120 LOADM "LINE" 

130 SCREEN 1,0 

140 PMODE 4 

150 PCLS 

160 FOR Y=0 TQ 191: LINE (12 8,10 
0) -(255, Y) ,PSET: LINE (128,100)- 
(255, Y) , PRESET: NEXT Y 
170 FOR X=255 TO 0 STEP -1:LINE 
(128, 100) -(X, 191) ,PSET: LINE (12 
8,100) - (X, 191) , PRESET: NEXT X 
180 FOR Y=191 TO 0 STEP -1: LINE 
(128,100)-(0,Y) ,PSET: LINE (128, 
100) -(0,Y) , PRESET: NEXT Y 
190 FOR X=0 TO 255: LINE (12 8,10 
0) -(X,0) ,PSET: LINE (12 8, 100) -(X, 
0) , PRESET: NEXT X 
200 GOTO 160 



Listing 5: RADflRBIN 

100 1 RADAR SCAN PROGRAM USING A 

SSEMBLY LANGUAGE PSET 

110 CLEAR 100,&H3EFF 

120 LOADM "LINE" 

130 SCREEN 1,0 

140 PMODE 4 

150 PCLS 

160 X1=&H3F8D: X2=&H3F8E: Y1=&H3 
F8C: Y2=&H3F8F: FUNC=&H3F90 
170 DEFUSR=&H3F00 
180 POKE XI, 12 8: POKE Yl, 100 
190 POKE X2, 2 55: FOR Y=0 TO 19 1 : P 
OKE FUNC,l:POKE Y2 , Y : A=USR0 (0 ) : P 
OKE FUNC , 0 : A=USR0 ( 0 ) : NEXT Y 
200 POKE Y2, 191: FOR X=2 55 TO 0 S 
TEP -l:POKE FUNC, 1: POKE X2,X:A=U 
SR0(0):POKE FUNC,0:A=USR0 (0) :NEX 
T X 

210 POKE X2,0:FOR Y=191 TO 0 STE 
P -l:POKE FUNC, 1: POKE Y2,Y:A=USR 
0(0): POKE FUNC , 0 : A=USR0 ( 0 ) : NEXT 
Y 

220 POKE Y2,0:FOR X=0 TO 255:POK 
E FUNC, 1: POKE X2 , X : A=USR0 (0) : POK 
E FUNC , 0 : A=USR0 ( 0 ) : NEXT X 
230 GOTO 190 



S2\ 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 187 




BITS AND BYTES OF BASIC 



The First Days With CoCo 3 
Experimentation and 

Discovery 



By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



The old gray box was quiet as its 
plugs and multipack interface 
were pulled. Certainly, this had 
happened many times before in prepa- 
ration for trips to users group meetings 
or the vacation cottage in Michigan. If 
it suspected that its successor had 
arrived, it did not let on. 

And it had plenty of reason to doubt. 
In its nearly six years of existence, it had 
seen reams of words about other com- 
puters pour through its keyboard. The 
actual presence of a Model 100 had 
failed to change the old gray box's 
preeminent position. The Tandy 1000 
was talked about, but never appeared 
on site, and dreaming about a "new 
CoCo" had been going on for over two 
years. 

But, recently, a message appeared. 
YouVe seen them, the "while you were 
out" type, short and to the point: 

Date: 10/10 Hour. 3:45 
Name: Don Eaker 
Telephoned: have good news 



Richard White lives in Fairfield, Ohio, 
has a long background with microcom- 
puters and specializes in BASIC pro- 
gramming. With Don Dollberg, he is 
the coauthor of the TIMS database 
management program. 



Don runs the Fairfield, Ohio, Tandy 
Computer Center and has a reputation 
for making things happen. His is the 
only Radio Shack facility in the south- 
ern Ohio area whose listing in the 
telephone book is in boldface type. Less 
than an hour later, CoCo 3, Serial 
Number 1001394, left its last Tandy 
home to go on active duty. 

With the old gray box on the side- 
lines, it was simple enough to plug 1394 
in its place and fire it up. It was feeding 
an amber monochrome monitor, since 
the analog RGB monitor had not yet 
showed up. Marty Goodman had al- 
ready alerted us to the inadequacies of 
a monochrome monitor handling a 
color composite video signal, and the 
32-character screen display was cer- 
tainly less than good. No surprise here, 
so let's move on to the 40-character 
screen by typing NIDTH 40. The screen 
cleared to one color and what looked 
like the □< appeared in the upper left- 
hand corner. 

The □ was partly lost off the left edge 
of the screen. Adjusting the width knob 
on the back of the monitor brought the 
entire character onto the screen. There 
was still the black grid in the back- 
ground that Marty had described a few 
issues ago. 

Typing NIDTH 80 produced the 80- 



character screen, which was also laced 
with background lines. Now came the 
discovery that makes computers so 
much fun. When I typed CL55, the 
background cleared to a uniform shade 
and the characters were clearly reada- 
ble. 

With the legibility problem solved, it 
was time to move on to finding out what 
characters were available. Actually, all 
the characters and their codes are in the 
manual that comes with the machine. 
But there is a saying, "When all else fails 
read the manual." All else had not 
failed. A one-liner did the job and gave 
me a tool to probe speed in printing to 
the screen and observe screen scrolling: 

10 FDR X=32 TD 255 : PRINT CHR$ 
(X) ; :NEXT :PRINT :GDTO10 

This puts each printable character to 
the screen, then does a line feed and 
starts over again. The primary addition 
is a set of foreign and special characters 
that are not available from the key- 
board. The old CoCo, colored block 
graphics are not available in the 40- and 
80-character text screens. 

The users group meeting the next day 
provided a chance for picky people to 
pass judgment on the characters and 
screen scrolling. A number were long- 



188 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



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time Wordpack users. The consensus 
was that this was a good character set 
and that the scrolling was also good. 
And this came from one user who has 
complained long and loud about the 
jumpy scrolling of an IBM PC. 

In the early days of the CoCo, much 
was made of the "high-speed pokes." 
POKE G5495,0 doubles the micropro- 
cessor clock speed whenever it accesses 
the upper 32K where the BASIC ROMs 
are located. POKE G5497,0 doubles the 
clock speed without qualification. Only 
the earliest models have trouble with the 
POKE G5495,0. The old gray box will 
tolerate it only if there is no disk ROM 
pack installed. 

Since CoCo 3 supports the 1.8-MHz 
clock, only the POKE 65497,0 is used. 
Certain functions, including musical 
tone generation, the cassette port and 
serial port are clock-rate dependent and 
the POKE G549G,0 is used to return the 
machine to the slower clock to achieve 
proper timing. Some people have been 
able to use the serial port at the higher 
clock rate. To date I have not heard of 
successful cassette operations at a high 
clock rate. You can easily see the effect 
of the high speed clock by running the 
screen scrolling program previously 
mentioned to get a feel for screen 
writing and scrolling at low speed. Then 
POKE G5497,0 and run the program 
again. It really speeds things up. I 
suspect that most CoCo 3 software will 
be designed to use the high clock rate. 

The next thing to do was to turn 
everythingoff and plug in the multipack 
interface that held the disk drive con- 
troller. I booted back up and issued a 
DIR command. I got back an SN Error. 
BASIC had not recognized the drive 
controller. Eventually, I dispensed with 
the interface and then could boot into 
Disk Extended BASIC Version 2.0 or 2. 1 . 
I have controllers with both versions 1 .0 
and 1.1 available. The CoCo 3 converts 
these to versions 2.0 and 2.i. However, 
when I tried to access the disk, an I/O 
Error resulted. Finally, itdawned on me 
that these were older controllers that 
require 12 volts, which is not supplied 
by either CoCo 2 or CoCo 3. Even 
worse, these controllers almost worked. 
They work well enough to trash any 
disk you try them on. So beware! 

The solution to this problem is to use 
the older controllers in a multipack 
interface. But, if CoCo 3 does not see 
the Disk BASIC when it is in a multipack 
interface, we are back to square one. 
The problem is in the interface, and 
Radio Shack has said the PAL chip 



would need to be replaced. (See Marty 
Goodman's article on Page 98 of this 
issue.) However, we had assumed that 
interfaces would work with 128K ma- 
chines and that the upgrade was needed 
to operate with 512K. We now know 
that the upgrade is needed for an inter- 
face to be operable at all. A disk con- 
troller with a Radio Shack DOS ROM 
that works in a CoCo 2 works in the 
CoCo 3. 

One result of these doings is that the 
old gray box is back in its accustomed 
place performing its usual duties, while 
1394 is on another table making pretty 
pictures. This arrangement works better 
for doing this column, since I can 
experiment on the CoCo 3 and then 
immediately move over to write about 
what I found. ■ 

At this point, I wanted to see some 
graphics. Rick Adams and Dale Lear 
had two programs on October's RAIN- 
BOW ON TAPE. The tape interface 
worked. The Tunnel program is not 
much on a black-and-white monitor, 
but Wheel does what it is intended to 
do. Since I had seen what I wanted to 
see on the monitor, it was time to hook 
1394 to a color TV. 

It quickly became apparent why 
Radio Shack has stayed with the 32- 
character CoCo screen so long. The 40- 
and 80-character text screens and the 
new high resolution graphics screens are 
64 pixels wider than the old CoCo 
screens. If the TV does not properly 
center the screens, the edge of the left 
side is lost. In my case, one to two 
characters on the left edge of the 40- 
character screen and more on the 80- 
character screen were off the screen. 
The TV at the Computer Center was 
only somewhat better. 

Interestingly, 80-character text is 
readable on my color TV, but it is fairly 
new and still has good contrast. And the 
quality is not what one needs for con- 
tinuous use. Expect 80-column text to 
be illegible on old sets with poor con- 
trast and other ills. I quickly found 
myself returning to the 32-character 
screen to enter programs. The 32- 
character screen looks fine on a color 
TV. It is only on monochrome monitors 
that one has trouble. This is not to say 
that programmers should not use the 
40-character screen. It does mean that 
programs must forgo using a couple of 
columns at least on the left side of the 
screen. 

The cause of the the centering prob- 
lem lies in the computer, since the screen 
is offset to the left on both the TV and 



monitor. I am told that the same thing 
happens when an MS-DOS machine 
runs on a TV. I expect that much new 
programming will use CoCo 3 modes, 
partly because of the ability to put text 
onto graphics screens. 

Tunnel \nthe 16-color graphics mode 
on the color TV was something else 
entirely. The pastel colors blending into 
each other gives an effect totally lost in 
black and white. 

Looking for something more led me 
to Sample Program 24 in the manual. 
It draws 80 circles on the screen and fills 
each with a random color. It then draws 
some colored bars at the top and bot- 
tom of the screen. Then the program 
goes into a loop and randomly changes 
the colors in the palette. The result is 
spectacular with all elements changing 
colors at the same time. And it's fast. I 
put a high speed poke into the program, 
but took it out because the changes 
came too fast. 

On a reasonable quality TV, CoCo 3 
is a spectacular graphics machine. On 
top of this it appears that the new high 
resolution graphics commands are a bit 
easier to understand and use than the 
original Extended BASIC commands. 

While the original Extended BASIC 
commands remain and should run all 
older Extended BASIC programs, their 
capability is enhanced so they can use 
any of the computer's 64-color set. 
These colors are now available to all 
text and graphics modes. The job is 
done through use of the palette, which 
is as good a place as any to start. 

In the CoCo 3, as in previous CoCos, 
each color is referred to by number. 
Previous CoCos supported eight colors 
plus black in the low resolution graphics 
and two or four color subsets of these 
colors in the higher resolution modes. 
These restraints still apply, except that 
the available colors are determined by 
reference to specific slots in the palette 
that are initialized with numbers that 
refer to colors available on previous 
CoCos. These default settings can be 
changed from the keyboard or from a 
BASIC program changing the available 
colors in any text or graphics mode at 
any time. 

PALETTE is used in two ways. The 
first is to configure the colors in the slots 
for either a composite monitor or TV 
set: PALETTE CMP. This is the default 
from a cold start. Whenever PALETTE 
CMP is issued, the default palette colors 
are reestablished. PALETTE RGB sets up 
the machine to use the RGB analog 
monitor to be released by Tandy. The 



1 90 THE RAINBOW January 1 987 



RGB monitor interpretation of colors is 
different from that of a composite video 
monitor. When you cold start a CoCo 
3 with an RGB monitor, you will have 
to enter the PALETTE RGB command 
from the keyboard. The command 
could also be the first line of a BASIC 
program. I suspect that there will be a 
way to configure the computer for an 
RGB monitor from an OS-9 start-up 
file. 

The second use is to change the color 
assigned to a particular slot or palette 
register. The syntax is PALETTE pr, cc 
where pr stands for palette register or 
slot and cc means color code. 

There are 16 palette registers num- 
bered 0 to 15. The computer refers to 
the palette registers to determine which 
colors are to appear on the screen. 
When a palette register's color assign- 
ments change, all locations on the 
screen referring to that slot change. 
Here is a BASIC program that will 
change the screen color showing all 
available colors: 

10 HSCREEN 2 
20 HCL5 2 

30 FDR X^0 TO 63 : PALETTE 2,X 
: FOR Y=l TO 300 : NEXT Y,X 
HSCREEN 2 sets the computer for the 
320-by-192, 16-color graphics. HCL52 
clears the graphics screen to the color 
in Palette Register 2. In Line 30, X is 
incremented from 0 to 63 and the Color 
Codes are loaded into Palette Register 
2 with PALETTE 2,X. FOR Y=l TO 300 
: NEXT Y is simply a delay loop so the 
colors can be observed. 

The manual does not list all the 
available colors. This is probably be- 
cause of differences in the ways different 
monitors and TVs display colors. What 
may be yellow on one machine could be 
yellow-orange on another, while a 
pastel green might be shifted to yellow. 
What they call buff looks like white to 
me. A program, Sample Program 23, is 
provided to present each color and its 
number in groups of eight. With this 
program, you can view all the colors 
and list them as they appear with your 
equipment. A picture of the first screen 
shown by this program should help you 
adjust your TV or monitor to display 
colors in a similar manner. There ap- 
pear to be 16 basic colors with pastel 
variations. In the first cycle, the colors 
are intense with intensity diminishing in 
higher numbered cycles. The only col- 
ors I really missed were dark brown and 
a selection of grays. A picture of the old 
gray box might need to have a bluish 
cast. And it certainly will be possible to 



Slot 


Color 


CMP Code 


RGB Code 


0 


Green 


18 


18 


1 


Yellow 


36 


54 


2 


Blue 


11 


9 


3 


Red 


7 


36 


4 


Buff 


63 


63 


5 


Cyan 


31 


27 


6 


Magenta 


9 


45 


7 


Orange 


38 


38 


8 


Black 


0 


0 


9 


Green 


18 


18 


10 


Black 


0 


0 


1 1 


Buff 


63 


63 


12 


Black 


0 


0 


13 


Green 


18 


18 


14 


Black 


0 


0 


15 


Orange 


38 


38 



Defaults 



Table 1: Startup Color Assignments 







ATTR 


ATTR 




CLS 


Foreground 


Background 


Color 0 




Slot 8 


Slot 0 


Color 1 


SlotO 


Slot 9 


Slot 1 


Color 2 


Slot 1 


Slot 10 


Slot 2 


Color 3 


Slot 2 


Slot 1 1 


Slot 3 


Color 4 


Slot 3 


Slot 12 


Slot 4 


Color 5 


Slot 4 


Slot 13 


Slot 5 


Color 6 


Slot 5 


Slot 14 


Slot 6 


Color 7 


Slot 6 


Slot 15 


Slot 7 


Color 8 


Slot 7 







Foreground: 
Background: 



Slot 8 
Slot 0 



Black 
Green 



Table 2: Color Slot Numbers 



draw an electric pink Cadillac. 

The startup color assignments are 
listed in the manual and are reproduced 
in Table 1 . 

The colors i n slots 0 through 8 include 
the colors used by the traditional CoCo 
low resolution text screen, but color 
number does not correspond to slot 
number. Black is in slot 8 and all colors 
are in slots numbered one slot lower 
than the color number. I am not satis- 
fied that this confusion is needed. 

Things get worse with the 40- and 80- 
column text screens. CLS works just like 



it does for the 32-column screen. A new 
command, ATTR cl,c2,B,U is availa- 
ble. How ATTR does what it does is not 
immediately obvious. Central to under- 
standing is that cl, the foreground 
color, uses one set of palette slots while 
c2, the background color, uses an 
entirely different set of slots. Further, 
cl uses higher numbered slots, while c2 
uses lower numbered slots. It seems 
backward. Reread this paragraph and 
make sure you understand the arrange- 
ment. Perhaps a table will help. Table 
2 appears on Page 300 in the manual. 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 191 



The discussion of flTTR in the front of 
the manual does not even mention the 
table, leaving the user to wallow in 
confusion. 

To finish off flTTR, B is a switch to 
start text blinking and then stop blink- 
ing; U is a switch to start and stop 
underlining. 

At this point we have enough infor- 
mation to explain why CL55 clears the 
screen on a monochrome monitor and 
makes the lettering legible. Color 5 
references Slot 4, whose default color is 
buff (which is white for most purposes). 
The default foreground color is black. 
The composite video signal carries only 
black and white information, which is 
what the black and white monitor wants 
to see. flTTR 2 , 4 accomplishes the same 
thing. Available background colors do 
not include black in the default situa- 
tion. Try this: 

PALETTE 0,0 
flTTR 1,0 

This assigns the color black to Slot 0; 
green is in Slot 9, which is used as 
Foreground Color 1. The result is green 



letters on a black background. flTTR 
3,0 provides buff letters on black. Both 
displays have color fringes in a TV 
screen, but don't look bad from a 
distance. Neither color is readable on 
the 80-character screen, and dark on 
light is better on the 40-character 
screen. PALETTE CMP undoes all the 
damage we did with this experiment. 

PRINT, PRINT TAB and PRINT USING 
work on the 40- and 80-column screen 
just as they do on the 32-column screen. 
PRINT @n, is only used on the 32- 
column screen. On the 40- and 80- 
column screens use LOCATE x,y to 
position thecursor to column x and row 
y. The next PRINT statement will begin 
printing at that location. The column 
can be 0 to 39 on the 40-column screen 
and 0 to 79 on the 80-column screen. On 
either screen, rows range from 0 to 23. 

Note the difference between the ways 
PRINT@n, and LOCATE x,y work. LO- 
CATE x , y merely positions the cursor at 
a particular column position on a spec- 
ified line. When using PRINT @n, each 
screen location has a number. The range 
is 0 to 51 1 on the 32-character screen. 
Further, PRINT @n, expects there to be 



a string or variable following the 
comma, which is to be printed. You can 
use PRINT @n, like LOCATE x,y, if you 
follow the comma with a null string and 
a semicolon, like PRINT @n, ""; . 

As noted, the left one or two charac- 
ter positions on the 40-column screen 
are lost when using CoCo 3 on a color 
TV. 

Good programming practice will be 
to start all printing at Column 3. This 
will generalize your programs so they 
will work on monitors or TVs. LOCATE 
2,y would be used prior to each PRINT 
statement that is to print to the left side 
of the screen. 

Alternately, you can use PRINT 
TAB( 4) ; "TEXT". This prints the text at 
the same position as LOCATE 2,y. The 
implication is that the computer uses 
80-column locations even when work- 
ing on a 40-column screen. 

This essentially covers the operation 
of the 40- and 80-column text screens. 
They represent a major improvement 
over previous CoCos. Next month we 
will move on to the new graphics capa- 
bilities. 



From the Princeton RAINBOWfest . . . 

The CoCo 3 Round-Table Tape! 



the rainbow recorded the main event 
of RAINBOWfest Princeton, the Satur- 
day evening (Oct. 18) round-table 
discussion: 

"The Design, Development 
and Marketing of the CoCo 3." 

Speakers included Tandy's Barry 
Thompson and Mark Siegel, as 
well as independent CoCo 3 pro- 
grammers Steve Bjork and Dale Lear 
(filling in for Greg Zumwalt). 

This was a lively and informative ses- 
sion and, therefore, we want as many 
people as possible to hear what these 
RAINBOWfest guests had to say. 



YES, Please send me 



copies of the "CoCo 



3 Round-Table Tape" at $5 per copy plus $1.50 

S/H for a total of 

(U.S. Currency only, please.) 



Name (please print) 



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City 



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Exp. Date 
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free number: (800) 847-0309. 



192 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



KISSable OS-9 





ebun 



User Hostility 




yth of 



By Dale L. Puekett 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



f>( ince January's RAINBOW is dedi- 
^^cated to beginners, we'll take a 
KwFfresh look at the basics of OS-9 
this month and try to eliminate some of 
the apprehension that surrounds Color 
Computer owners tryingto use OS-9 for 
the first time. We'll wrap up the column 
with a few tips submitted by readers. 

Myth Versus Reality 

OS-9 is the victim of a myth in Color 
Computer circles. Those who perpetu- 
ate that myth would have you believe 
that OS-9 is difficult to use and impos- 
sible to understand. Not so! 

The ironic thing about this myth is 
the fact that it most likely exists because 
of the tremendous computing power 



Dale L, Pucketi, who is author o/The 
Official BASIC09 Tour Guide and 
coauthor, with Peter Dibble, of The 
Official Rainbow Guide to OS-9, is a 
free-lance writer and programmer. He 
serves as director-at-large of the OS-9 
Users Group and is a member of the 
Computer Press Association. Dale 
works as a US. Coast Guard chief 
warrant officer and lives on Governors 
Island in New York Harbor, 



built into OS-9. Many options come 
with this power; options that give you 
the opportunity to make many choices. 

Many people become overwhelmed 
when they face too much freedom or too 
many choices, They think that just 
because a choice exists, they have to 
make it. They lose sight of the fact that 
no action — or choice — is always an 
option. A professional operating system 
like OS-9 usually delivers a popular 
default action when you decide not to 
make a choice. 

To illustrate our point we will try to 
give several examples that compare OS- 
9 to the Disk Extended BASIC used by 
the Color Computer. To do this, we'll 
show you how to do a few trivial tasks 
using several different tools. For exam- 
ple, let's imagine we want to print a 
message on our Color Computer screen. 
With Disk Extended BASIC we could 
type a simple command to do the job 
immediately after we turn on our com- 
puter. 

PRINT "HELLO, I'M R COLOR 
COMPUTER ! " 

HELLO, I ' M fl COLOR COMPUTER 

As soon as we typethe command line, 
our Color Computer will print the 



second line on the screen. Disk Ex- 
tended BASIC is a language and one of 
the verbs in that language is PRINT. 
Each time Disk Extended BASIC sees the 
word PRINT it looks at the string of 
characters or variable following that 
word and prints it. 

If you wanted to print the same line 
on the screen several times, you could 
type in a short program and run it. 

10 FOR X = 1 TO 10 

20 PRINT "HELLO, I 'M R COLOR 

COMPUTER!" 

30 NEXT X 

RUN 

HELLO, I 'M fl COLOR COMPUTER 
HELLO, I'M fl COLOR COMPUTER 

BASIC09 is another computer lan- 
guage that runs under the OS-9 operat- 
ing system. Using an advanced design, 
it compiles each line of your program 
into an intermediate or I -code as you 
type it in. As a result it can run your 
programs four to five times faster than 
Disk Extended BASIC. Additionally, 
programs written in BASIC09 are much 
easier to read and understand because 
they do not require line numbers and 
they let you use long variable names 
that convey a meaning. Reading a 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 193 



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BASIC09 program is almost like reading 
the solution to a problem written in 
English. For example: 

FOR LINE : = 1 TO 10 
PRINT "HELLO, I'M R COLOR 
COMPUTER ! " 

NEXT LINE 

When we run this program, BASIC09 
produces the same results on our screen 
as the Disk Extended BASIC program. 
If we wanted a stand-alone program, we 
could write the same program using the 
C language compiler that runs under 
OS-9. 

main( ) 

{ 

int line; 

for [ 1 ine = 0; line !- 10; 
line++) 

printf ('"HELLO, I 'MA COLOR 
COMPUTER! \n") ; 

} 

"Just think of an 
operating system 
as a traffic cop on 
a busy corner * * * 
OS-9 directs the 
flow of 

information inside 
your computer*** 

Disk Extended BASIC, BASIC09 and C 
are all languages. While the syntax of 
each language is a bit different, the 
result is the same. Each language lets 
you do the same job. 

OS-9 is not a language. Rather, it is 
an operating system. And the many 
utility commands that come with it let 
you do many things. For example, the 
OS-9 echo utility lets you simulate the 
first Disk Extended BASIC PRINT com- 
mand line above. Even though it is a 
command that tells the OS-9 operating 
system to do something, it delivers a 
result just like the PRINT verb in Disk 
Extended BASIC. Try it, At the OS-9 
prompt, type: 

0S9: echo HELLO, I'M fi COLOR 

COMPUTER ENTER 

HELLO, I'M R COLOR COMPUTER 

Note that we did not type the excla- 



mation point in our example. It is a 
special character in an OS-9 command 
line and is used to set up a pipeline. We'll 
talk about pipelines later. 

By repeating the echo command line 
above 10 times in an OS-9 procedure file 
we could even simulate the other pro- 
grams. However, since the OS-9 Shell 
is not a complete programming lan- 
guage and does not allow FOR-NEXT 
loops we would need to type the echo 
command line 10 times. Let's try it! 

059: build TenTimes ENTER 
? load echo ENTER 

? echo Hello, I'm fi Color 

Computer ENTER 

^ echo Hello, I'm fi Color 

Computer ENTER 
? 

: » m «t 

? unlink echo ENTER 
? ENTER 

0S9: TenTimes ENTER 
Hello, I'm fi Color Computer 
Hello, I'm fi Color Computer 

mm* 

0S9: 

It may not be elegant. But, it works 
and serves to illustrate the point that 
OS-9 is not really that complicated. It's 
just another way of getting a job done. 

OS-9 Can Do Graphics Too! 

The OS-9 module that writes to your 
Color Computer screen can also do 
graphics. Just to prove the old adage 
that the more things change, the more 
they stay the same, let's look at three 
ways to draw a box near the edge of 
your CoCo graphics screen. We'll use 
Disk Extended BASIC first. 

10 PMODE 1,1 

20 PCL5 

30 SCREEN 1,1 

40 LINE (10,10) - (10,176) , 
PSET 

50 LINE (10,176) - (240,176), 
PSET 

60 LINE (240,176) - (240,10) , 
PSET 

70 LINE (240,10) - (10,10) , 
PSET 

B0 GOTO B0 

As an alternative, we could have 
replaced lines 40 though 70 with Line 40 
below. But, we wanted to keep our 
example programs parallel 

40 LINE (0,0) ~ (255,191) , 
PSET,B 



To write the same program in BASIC09 
we would use the following lines: 

run gf x( "mode" , 0 , 4 ) 
run gf x( "clear ") 
run g fx ( "co 1 or " , 7 ) 
run gf x( "move'' ,16,16 ) 
run gfx("line",16,176) 
run gf x( " 1 i ne" , 240 , 176 ) 
run gfx("line",240,16) 

run gfx("line",16,16) 

Note that when you work with graph- 
ics under OS-9, the module named gr f o 
must be available in memory or in your 
current execution directory, We'll talk 
moreabout modules in memory and the 
OS-9 directories later. For now s you 
should know that the gfx in the BASIC09 
program lines above is the name of a 
BASIC09 module that interprets the high- 
level language p arameters within paren- 
theses and sends out the proper control 
codes to the OS-9 screen driver module. 
The move command above places OS 
9's invisible graphics cursor at a posi- 
tion 16 pixels up from the bottom of the 
screen and 16 pixels to the right of the 
screen's left edge. We drew our box in 
from the edge of the screen so it would 
be easier to see it on a monochrome 
monitor. All of this implies that you 
should be able to send these codes to the 
screen driver module from the OS-9 
command line, and you can. 

The easy way to draw the box above 
using OS-9 would be to use a series of 
command lines containing the display 
utility in a procedure file. 

OSS: build box ENTER 
? load grfo 
? load display ENTER 
? display F 0 4 ENTER 
? display 10 4 ENTER 
? display 11 7 ENTER 
? display 15 10 10 
? display 16 10 B0 ENTER 
? display 16 F0 B0 ENTER 
? display 16 F0 10 ENTER 
? display IBM® 10 ENTER 
? unlink display ENTER 
? ENTER 

059: box ENTER 

You could also type display fol- 
lowed by each of the hexadecimal 
numbers used above in one command 
line. We formatted the OS-9 procedure 
file the way we did to make it parallel 
in structure to the BASIC09 program. 
The line with display 15 10 10 places 
the invisible cursor used by the OS-9 
graphics driver 16 pixels up and 16 



196 THE RAINBOW January 1987 



pixels to the right of the lower left-hand 
corner of the OS-9 graphics screen, just 
like the move command in the BASIC09 
program. Notice also that the OS-9 
display command uses hexadecimal 
numbers, while the BASIC09 program 
used decimal numbers. The Location 
BO is 176 pixels up from the bottom of 
the screen. The Location FO is 240 
pixels to the right of the left edge of the 
screen. Notice how these numbers com- 
pare to the decimal numbers in the 
BASIC09 and Disk Extended BASIC pro- 
grams. 

□59: display F 0 A 10 A 11 7 15 
10 10 16 10 B0 16 F0 B0 16 F0 10 
16 10 10 

You can also use the OS-9 display 
utility with the proper control codes to 
move the graphics cursor, set individual 
pixels on the screen to a specific color, 
draw circles and paint an area of the 
screen with a specific color. 

Now that we have shown you that 
OS-9 is merely another way to give 
directions to your Color Computer, 
we'll move on to show you how to get 
started using OS-9. Hopefully, we'll be 
able to show you how to avoid a few 
trouble spots along the way. 

OS-9 is an Operating System 

Before we move on we should take a 
few moments to talk about operating 
systems. In the language of a systems 
designer, an operating system controls 
the low level processes within your 
computer. It gives your applications 
programs a way to talk to and control 
your hardware. It also manages your 
memory and other finite resources 
within your computer. 

These processes are nothing more 
than short programs that happen to be 
running and doing a job for you. They 



may be putting characters in a disk file 
or they may be sending a series of 
characters to a printer. Your system 
resources include external devices like 
your terminal, printer and disk drives. 
They also include things inside your 
computer like memory and the micro- 
processor's time. 

Just think of an operating system as 
a traffic cop on a busy corner. The 
traffic cop directs the flow of automo- 
biles on a busy street. OS-9 directs the 
flow of information inside your 
computer, making sure that the right 
data gets to the right place at the right 
time. 

Getting Started With OS-9 

There are two ways to bring OS-9 to 
life on your Color Computer. The 
method youusedepends on which Disk 
Extended BASIC ROM is in your CoCo. 
If you have Disk Extended BASIC 1.0 
then you must use the special OS-9 boot 
disk that comes with your OS-9 system 
disk. You must insert it in Drive 0 and 
type RUN"*". A few seconds later the 
screen will instruct you to insert the OS- 
9 master disk in Drive 0 and press any 
key to continue. 

If you have a Color Computer with 
Disk Extended BASIC 1.1, then all you 
need to do is put the OS-9 master disk 
in Drive 0 and type DOS, a Disk Ex- 
tended BASIC command that does the 
same thing as the RUN"*" command 
above. 

After typing DOS, OS-9 will ask you 
the date and time. OS-9 uses the date 
and time when it saves a file. And if you 
forget the date or want to know what 
time it is, OS-9 can retrieve that infor- 
mation and print it on the screen. If you 
are using versions 1.00 or 1.01 of OS- 
9, setime, the OS-9 utility command 
that asks you for the time must be run 



each time you start OS-9. It starts the 
pseudo clock that runs within OS-9. If 
this clock is not running, OS-9 is not 
able to run multiple tasks. 

If you want to know the current date 
while running OS-9, you can ask for it 
by using the da te utility command that 
comes with your system. Simply type: 
□59: date and press ENTER. OS-9 will 
print the date on your screen for you. 
If you need to know the time, you can 
ask OS-9 to print that by typing 059: 
da te t and pressing ENTER. 

If you type this command right after 
you start the Color Computer, OS-9 
will look in its module directory for a 
module named da te. Since, you haven't 
loaded that module, OS-9 will not find 
it. Because it could not find the module 
in memory, OS-9 will look for it in its 
current execution directory. This direc- 
tory is almost always /d0/CMDS on 
standard OS-9 systems. If you haven't 
deleted the file named date from your 
disk, OS-9 will find it, load a module 
named date into memory and execute 
it. After it does all of this, you will see 
the date appear on the screen. 

If you knew you were going to ask for 
the date and time every few minutes, 
you could load the date command in 
memory. After you do this, it will 
appear to run instantly (059: load 
date). In fact, you can load a number 
of program modules into memory and 
have them available instantly. However, 
if you try to load too many programs 
into the crowded 64K workspace avail- 
able with OS-9 Level I, you will quickly 
run into a problem — you won't have 
enough memory left in your computer 
to run the large programs that do most 
of your real work. BASIC09, for example, 
takes up approximately 22,000 bytes of 
memory. 

All of this means you have to write 



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January 1987 THE RAINBOW 197 



your programs in a number of small 
modules while programming with 
BASIC09 on an OS-9 Level I system. You 
must then load each module from a disk 
when you need it. Modularity is a big 
plus for BASIC09, but loading a module 
from disk every time you need to run it 
can be a big pain. 

OS-9 Level II Solves Many 
Memory Problems 

If you already own a CoCo 3 with 
5 1 2K of memory, rest easy. When OS- 
9 Level II becomes available, many of 
the problems feeding the myth that OS- 
9 is hard to use and understand will 
disappear. I have been running OS-9 
Level II with only 240K of memory for 
more than four years and I have never 
run into a problem. 

"Modularity is a 
big plus for 
BASIC09, but 
loading a module 
from disk every 
time you need to 
run it can be a big 
pain. 

OS-9 Level II helps solve memory 
problems by setting up a separate 64K 
of workspace for each task running on 
your computer. Let's briefly compare 
OS-9 Level I and OS-9 Level II. 

With OS-9 Level I you can only 
access 64K of memory. Part of this is 
due to the fact that the 6809E processor 
in your Color Computer can only access 
64K of memory. The rest is due to the 
fact that OS-9 Level I does not know 
about memory management beyond the 
64K boundary. Enter OS-9 Level II. 

OS-9 Level II works with two differ- 
ent types of workspace. For starters, it 
sets aside a system workspace that holds 
all of the device descriptors and device 
drivers you need to access your hard- 
ware as well as the file managers, kernel 
and other internals that OS-9 needs to 
manage your computer's resources. 
And here's another bonus — that same 
system workspace is used for all the data 
memory needed by OS-9. 

After setting up its own system work- 
space, OS-9 Level II then sets up a 
separate workspace for each process 
you start. Remember, a process is 
simply one of your programs that 



happens to be running. The important 
fact to remember is that each of these 
user workspaces can be up to 64K long. 
Let's get specific and show what this 
really means to you. 

What happens when you run BASIC09 
from within OS-9 Level I? In a few 
words, memory space is cramped and 
you have very little room for programs. 
For example, in my system I have 145 
pages, or just over 36K, of memory free 
immediately after I start OS-9. After 
loading BASIC09, 1 have 55 pages, or just 
over 13K, of free memory left. That 
doesn't give me a lot of space to work. 

Now, let's see what happens when I 
run BASIC09 with OS-9 Level II. After 
loading BASIC09 it just sits there in 
memory. It will be available almost 
immediately, but it won't be using any 
data workspace until I start it as a 
process by running it from the com- 
mand line. When I do run it, I will have 
nearly 64 K, or 256 pages, of memory 
available for it and the programs it is 
running. This means BASIC09 will be 
able to use approximately 64K-22K, or 
nearly 42K, of memory for its programs 
and data. In reality, there is closer to 
63. 5K of memory available in each 
workspace because the top memory 
locations are mapped to the hardware. 
But in any case, 42K of memory is much 
better than 13 K. 

Making a New OS-9 Disk 

One of the most important lessons 
you can learn when you start to work 
with OS-9 is to always work with a copy 
of the master disk you purchased from 
Tandy. Never work with the original 
disk because accidents can happen — 
even to experienced hackers. So when 
you first run OS-9, make a backup of 
that precious master disk. It isn't hard 
to do and it shouldn't take too much 
time. Think of the time as a valuable 
investment. 

First, you will need to format a new 
disk. To begin, type 059: load format 
free and press ENTER. Now, take the 
OS-9 system master disk out of Drive 
0, insert the new disk in the drive and 
type 059: format /d0 and press 
ENTER. 

The format program asks you if you 
really want to format the disk in Drive 
0. After you confirm that the disk in 
Drive 0 is indeed your new disk and not 
your master system disk, press Y for yes 
and the format program will go to 
work. 

Format will then ask you to name the 
new disk. You can make up any name 



here because that name will be replaced 
when you back up the master system 
disk on the new disk. After you type the 
name, format will verify the data it 
placed on the new disk and you will 
soon see the OS-9 prompt again. When 
you do, type 0S9: free /d0 and press 
ENTER. 

The free utility command should 
report that you have a total of 630 
sectors on the disk and that 620 sectors 
are available to use. If format found 
any bad sectors on the new disk it will 
report a number smaller than 630. If this 
happens, do not attempt to back up the 
system master disk on to it. The OS-9 
backup utility requires that the format 
of the disk you are using to hold the 
backup is formatted exactly like the 
original disk you are backing up. If the 
two formats are not identical, the 
backup command will not work. Don't 
even try. 

Assuming that your new disk is good, 
take out the new disk and put the master 
system disk back in Drive 0. Then type 
□59: unlink format free and press 
ENTER. 

This command line removes the two 
utility programs you loaded earlier and 
frees more memory for you to use when 
you do the actual backup. Now type 
□59: load backup and press ENTER. 

After backup is loaded you must take 
the original master disk out of Drive 0 
and put the newly formatted disk in that 
drive. Then type 059: backup s /d0 
«32l< and press ENTER. 

When the OS-9 backup utility asks if 
you are ready to back up from /d0 to 
/d0 answer with a Y for yes. The pro- 
gram will instruct you to get the desti- 
nation disk and press any key. Since you 
already have it in the drive, go ahead 
and strike any key. OS-9 asks you if it 
is OK to write over the disk in the drive. 
Again, press Y for yes. 

You'll then be asked to get your 
source disk ready. Remove the backup 
disk from the drive, insert the master 
system disk and then press any key. You 
will have to repeat the steps above 
several times, swapping the disks when 
the backup program asks you to, until 
the original disk is completely copied 
onto the new disk. 

Now that you have a new copy of the 
system master disk you should store the 
original master disk in a safe place. The 
important thing to remember about 
backup is that you can only back up a 
disk to another disk of identical size. 
You cannot back up up a 35-track disk 
to a 40-track drive. Nor can you back 



198 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



up a single-sided, 40-track disk to a 
double-sided, 40-track disk. 

To back up all the files on a disk of 
one format onto a disk formatted dif- 
ferently, you must use the OS-9 dsave 
utility command or one of the many 
alternative copy commands from third- 
party vendors. Without going into a lot 
of detail, here is an OS-9 command that 
will do the job: 059: dsave /dl /d0 ! 
Shell and press ENTER. 

You'll notice that this command 
assumes you have two disk drives in 
operation. After you have used OS-9 a 
few hours, you will discover that two 
disk drives are indeed a necessity — not 
a luxury. The exclamation point in the 
command line above causes dsave to 
send its output to the OS-9 command 
interpreter, which is named Shell. It is 
an example of the pipelines we men- 
tioned earlier. 

Customizing Your Disks 

One of the most important advan- 
tages of OS-9 is the fact that it lets you 
customize your system to your heart's 
content. Unfortunately, this ability also 
makes a tremendous contribution to the 
myth that OS-9 is difficult to use and 
hard to understand. 

Make the pledge right now to stick 
with the basics until you are ready to 
start modifying your system. Practice 
running the utility commands that are 
stored in the /dO/CMDS directory of 
your working system disk. Follow the 
directions in the OS-9 manuals or The 
Complete Rainbow Guide To OS-9 
carefully. After you understand what is 
happening when you run each com- 
mand, you can moveforward freely and 
modify your computer as you like. 

Many of the problems you'll encoun- 
ter if you are running OS-9 Level I 
revolve around the severe memory 
constraints forced on you by the limited 
64K workspace. In fact, many of the 
error messages you receive when you 
start to work with OS-9 procedure files 
will occur because there is simply not 
enough memory to load in the module 
required to do a specific task. 

Another error message you may see 
quite often at first is Error 216 — File 
Not Found! This error pops up a lot for 
beginners because they do not fully 
understand the OS-9 file system. 

The important thing you must under- 
stand is that OS-9 always maintains two 
working directories. One of these direc- 
tories is called the current execution 
directory. The other is called the current 
data — or working — directory. 

OS-9 always looks in the current 



execution directory when it is looking 
for a file that contains a program it 
needs to run. Likewise it usually stores 
all data files and looks for procedure 
files in the current data directory. 

Here's the trick. The current execu- 
tion directory and current data direc- 



tory are seldom stored in the same 
physical position on two different disks. 
This means that even though these 
directories may have thesame names on 
both disks, they are often not located on 
the same track or sector. Because of this, 
OS-9 will not be able to find your 



Listing 1: f ixtime 

*************************** 
* 

* FIXTTME - COPYRIGHT (c) 1986 by 5- B. GOLDBERG 
* 

* Updates time to help correct clock for disk usage. 
* 

* Counter update is $49 from start of module. Use 

* Debug to change timing count, if necessary. In- 

* crease the count to slow the clock, decrease the 

* count to speed up the clock. Check clock operation 

* and change in source code when it keeps good time 

* and re-assemble object module. Do NOT unlink f ixtime 

* while testing, or you'll have a total system crash. 
* 

* Fixtime can't be unlinked if part of OS9Boot file. 

* Use OS9Gen to add fixtime to boot file and execute 

* from your startup file. Do NOT use Cobbler after 

* executing fixtime, the CRC and header will not be 

* correct! ! ! 
* 

ifpl 

use /dj3/def s/os9def s 
endc 

* 

**************************************** 

* SET COUNT TO KEEP YOUR CLOCK ON TIME * 

***************************** it ********** 

count equ 8 disk access count 

vector equ NMI vector address 

* 

mod len , name , prgrm+ob j ct , reent+1 , entry , dsiz 

* 

rmb 200 stack 

dsiz equ 
* 

name fcs /fixtime/ 

fee /(c) 19 86 S.B.GOLDBERG/ 
******************************** 

* 

* INITIALIZE AND QUIT 
* 



entry 


ldx 


vector get NMI vector 




stx 


l+jump,pcr save it 




leax 


fix, per time correction address 




stx 


vector put in NMI vector address 




Ida 


#$3d new entry offset 




sta 


name-3,pcr put in header 


noerr 


clrb 


clear error flag 




OS9 


f$exit quit 



******************************** 



* THIS DOES THE ACTUAL WORK 
* 

counter feb count disk access counter 
fix dec counter, per update time? 

bne jump not yet 

Ida #count yes, counter value 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 199 



current directories if you swap disks 
without telling it. 

Here's the solution. If you remove 
one disk from a drive and insert 
another, always type: 

□59: chd /d0/MyDi rectory ENTER 
□S9: chx /d0/CMDS ENTER 

Note that the directory names in these 
two command lines are simply exam- 
ples and you need to type the names of 
the actual directories stored on the disk 
you have inserted. 

Hopefully, we have given you enough 
information to get you started and 
pointed out a few of the pitfalls to avoid 
when you first start running OS-9. 
Hang in there and practice. Stick with 
the simple utilities until you thoroughly 
understand what is happening when 
you run them. After you conquer a 
command, move on to another. Before 
long, you'll be able to control your 
Color Computer like you never could 
before. 

And, if the Not Enough Memory 
Errors are driving you crazy, just re- 
member that OS-9 Level II and 512K of 
usable memory at your fingertips is just 
around the corner with the new CoCo 
3. I have a hunch that the new visual 
shell that Microware and Tandy are 
developing will bring intuitive comput- 
ing and applications to OS-9. Things 
should really be fascinating in about a 
year. 

CoCo SIG Database Expanding 

The OS-9 database in rainbow's 
CoCo SIG on Delphi is really expand- 
ing. I understand that the complete 
library of the OS-9 Users Group should 
be available soon. And even without the 
Users Group Library, the number of 
files has expanded dramatically in the 
last few months. 

You can now find beginners' tutorials 
and help with downloading files in a 
series of excellent articles in the data- 
base. In addition to the articles, you will 
find several dozen programs including 
a disassembler, Steve Bjork's bouncing 
ball demos and many utilities. You will 
evenfind drivers and descriptors for the 
JAR Banker RAMdisk and the 
Speech/Sound Cartridge from Tandy. 
Plus, you'll find a number of files that 
show you how to patch several OS-9 
programs. Take a look; you'll like what 
you see! 

Tips From Bob Rosen 

Bob Rosen reports that to use a 
monochrome monitor on the Color 



counter, per reset counter 
pack, per address for time package 
f$time get time 

#60 time check constant 

5,x add a second 

5,x totals minute or more? 

newtime no, set new time 

5,x yes, make seconds zero 

4 , x add one minute 

4 , x hour or more? 

newtime no, set new time 

4,x yes, zero minutes 

3,x add an hour 

f$stime set new time 
******************************** 

! >00 ! to force extended address 

>£50 goto NMI handler 
******************************** 



Santy 



sta 
leax 
os9 

Ida 
inc 
cmpa 
bhi 
clr 
inc 
cmpa 
bhi 
clr 
inc 

newtime os9 
************** 

* You MUST use 
* 

jump jmp 
* 

************** 

pack feb 

emod 

len equ * 

end 

Listing 2: reboot 
/* 

* OS9 ReBoot 
* 

* Copyright 1986 by R.M. 
V 

#include <stdio . h> 
#include "module . h" 
#include H os9def s . h" 



#define SECTOR 256 
#define SECS_TRACK 18 

#define TRACK_SIZE (SECTOR * SECSJTRACK) 

#define BOOTS IZE TRACK_SIZE 

#define TRACK3 4 ((long) TRACK_SIZE * 34) 

#define SYSERR -1 
/* 

Track 3 4 of boot disk is. loaded 
into the following buffer. 

V 

char bootstrap [BOOTSIZE] ; 
/* 

If a hard disk has a bootable partition, 
the byte starting byte address is placed 
in the following 24 bit buffer. 

V 

char of f set [ 3 ] ; 
/* 

Any failure causes the following message 
to be displayed. 

V 

char *usage = "Usage: ReBoot /devname\n" ; 
/* 

The device descriptor's address is copied 
here. 

V 



200 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



modjiev * device; 
/* 

The device driver's address is copied 
here. 

V 

mod_exec *driver; 
/* 

The bootable diskette or hard disk 
partition's file number. 

V 

FILE *disk; 
/* 

The bootable diskette or hard disk 
partition's device name. 

V 

char devname[32] ; 
/* 

The bootable diskette or hard disk 
partition's driver name. 

V 

char drivername [ 3 2 ] ; 
int temp; 

/* 

Reboot main program. 
V 

main(ac,av) 
int ac; 
char *av[ ] ; 

{ 

/* 

Reboot has no default argument. 
V 

if (ac != 2) 

failed ("Wrong number of arguments") ; 

/* 

Argument 1 is the diskette or hard disk 
partition name. 

V 

s tr cpy ( de vname , av [ 1 ] ) ; 
/* 

Try to link to the device. Success if 
the device is already in the module 
directory. 

V 

device = modlink(&devname [1] , DEVIC, OBJCT) ; 
/* 

Verify existence. 
V 

if (device == SYSERR) 
{ 

/* 

No problem, try to load it. 
V 

device = modload(&devname[l] , DEVIC, OBJCT) ; 
/* 

Verify existence. 
V 

if (device == SYSERR) 
/* 

Now we have a problem. The device 
descriptor is not in the execution 
directory! 

*/ 



Video Composite output of the CoCo 
3 you can type: 

WIDTH B0: PRLETTE 8, 255: 
PALETTE 0, 0 

To have your CoCo 3 tell you who 
wrote the Microware Disk patch, type: 

WIDTH 40 : CL5 9 : CL5 100 

And, finally, Rosen researched the 
pinout of the RGB monitor jack and 
shares it here. Looking at the outside of 
the RGB out jack on the bottom of the 
computer, you'll see the following 
pinout: 

9 7 5 3 1 

10 8 6 4 2 

Here are the connections: 



1. Ground 

2. Ground 

3. Red 

4. Green 

5. Blue 



6. Polarity (No Pin) 

7. Sound 

8. Hsync 

9. Vsync 

10. No connection 



"If you own 
several versions of 
OS -9, make sure 
you use only the 
utility commands 
that came with 
each version." 



OS9Gen Tips From Walt Weber 

We received a nice note with several 
tips from Walt Weber in Marysville, 
Wash., recently that repeats some ad- 
vice we have mentioned several times in 
the past but which bears repeating. If 
you own several versions of OS-9, make 
sure you use only the utility commands 
that came with each version. The same 
is especially true if you are using the ASM 
command that comes with OS-9. You 
need to make sure that you use the 
OS9DEFS files that came with the 
version of OS-9 you are currently using. 
If you don't, tricky bugs can sneak into 
your object code that will be almost 
impossible to find. 

Weber has done a lot of experiment- 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 201 



Protect and highlight 
gour important 
magazine collection 

with sturdy 
RAINBOW binders 




Distinctive, Durable RAINBOW Binders 

the rainbow is a vital resource to be referred to 
again and again. Keep your copies of the rainbow safe 
in our quality, distinctive binders that provide com- 
plete protection. 

These attractive red vinyl binders showcase your 
collection and ensure your rainbows are in mint 
condition for future use. Each binder is richly em- 
bossed with the magazine's name in gold on the front 
and spine. They make a handsome addition to any 

Put an End to Clutter 

Organize your workspace with these tasteful bind- 
ers. Spend more time with your CoCo and eliminate 
those frustrating searches for misplaced magazines. 

Aset of two binders, which holds a full 12 issues of 
the rainbow, is only $13.50 (plus $2.50 shipping and 
handling). 

Special Discounts on Past Issues 

To help you complete your collection of the rain- 
bow, we re offering a special discount on past issues 

of the magazine. 

When you place an order for six or more back issues 
of the rainbow at the same time you order binders, 
you are entitled to $1 off the regular back issue price. 
To order, please see the "Back Issue Information" 
page in this issue. 

Know Where to Look 

You may purchase the "Official And Compleat Index 
To THE RAINBOW" for $1 when you purchase a set 
of binders. This comprehensive index of rainbow's 
first three years (July 1981 through July 1984) is 
usually priced at $2.50. 



YES. Please send me 



set(s) of RAINBOW binders 




Take advantage of these special offers with your binder purchase: 

Save $1 off the single issue cover price for back issues. Minimum order of 6 magazines. Please 
enclose a back issue order form from a recent issue indicating magazines wanted. 

Purchase the "Official and Compleat Index to THE RAINBOW" for $1. (Regular price $2.50.) 



State 



ZIP 



(These offers good only with the purchase of a rainbow binder set) 

Name 

Address 

City 

□ My check in the amount of is enclosed. (I n order to hold down costs, we do not bill.) 

Charge to: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

Account Number Expiration Date = 

Signature 

Mail to: Rainbow Binders, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059 

Binders are $13.50 per two-binder set plus $2.50 shipping and handling. If your order is to be sent via U.S. mail to 
a post office box or foreign country, please add $2. Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax. U.S. currency only, please. 
In order to hold down non-editorial costs, we do not bill. 

For credit card orders call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST 

All other inquiries call (502) 228-4492. 



failed ( "Loading descriptor"); 

} 

/* 

Ok, we will access the boot device 
directly. 

V 

strcat ( devname , " @ " ) ; 
/* 

Need to find the device's driver now. 
Get the bas address of the descriptor. 

*/ 

temp = device; 
/* 

Copy the name of the driver from the 
descriptor. 

V 

strhcpy (drivername , device->m_ddname+temp ,32) ; 
/* 

Hard disk descriptors that support booting 

will have their partition offsets 
copied. 

V 

strass (offset, device->m_control, 3 ) ; 
/* 

Now link to the driver. 

V 

driver = modi ink ( drivername , DRIVR, OB JCT) ; 
/* 

Verify. 
V 

if (driver == SYSERR) 
{ 

/* 

Driver not in memory, try to load 
it. 

*/ 

driver = modload (drivername, DRIVR, OBJCT) ; 
/* 

Verify. 
*/ 

if (driver == SYSERR) 
/* 

Driver not in execution directory either! 
*/ 

failed ( "Loading driver") ; 

} 

/* 

Ok, now open the boot device. 
V 

disk = open (devname, 1) ; 
if (disk == SYSERR) 

f ailed ( "Opening device"); 

/* 

Seek to sector 0 to satisfy the RBF 
manager's thirst for its contents. 

*/ 

if (lseek(disk,0L,0) == SYSERR) 
failed ("Seek to Sector p») ; 

/* 

Fake read. RBF will get a copy of 
the identification sector here. 

V 



ing with the 0S9Gen command. In fact, 
he has written a program named Gen- 
Mod which is available in the DL6 
section of the OS-9 SJG on Compu- 
Serve. It adds three options to an 
existing 0S9Gen command and fixes a 
few bugs he located in the original. 
GenMod makes it easier to change your 
D59Bdd t file if all you need to do is 
delete and /or add a module to it. 

While he was experimenting with 
□S9Gen he learned that the OS-9 kernel 
gets located at SF000 and is $F00 bytes 
long in Version 1.00. However, in Ver- 
sion 2.00.00, it is located at SEF00 and 
is $F80 bytes long. Unfortunately, it 
seems these locations and lengths are 
hard coded into Cobbler and 0S9Gen. 
Version 1 .00. of these commands marks 
the 15 sectors of Track 34 allocated in 
the disk allocation map of the diskette. 
Version 2.00.00 marks all 18 sectors, 
even though only 16 contain the kernel. 

This means that if you boot up in 
Version 1.00, but use 0S9Gen from 
Version 2.00, the wrong data will be 
written to the disk on Track 34. Booting 
up in Version 2.00.00 and using 0S9Gen 
from Version 1.00 won't work either. 

Weber also found a bug in Version 
2.00.00 of DS9Gen. It seems that it will 
rewrite Track 34 if it determines that an 
OS-9 kernel is on the track. But, a bug 
in both Cobbler and 0S9Gen can cause 
problems in the disk allocation map 
when a kernel is already on Track 34. 
Here is Weber's patch. The Cobbler 
patch begins at an offset of 23 F from the 
beginning of the module. 

OLD: EC B4 Bl 4F 10 26 00 R6 CI 53 

10 26 00 R0 R6 04 
NEW: CC 4F 53 10 R3 B4 10 26 00 fi4 

R6 04 30 CB 52 12 

Here is the 059Gen patch. It begins 
at an offset of 47 F. 

□LD: EC B4 Bl 4F 10 26 01 06 CI 53 

10 26 01 00 R6 04 
NEN: CC 4F 53 10 R3 B4 10 26 01 04 

fl6 04 30 C9 02 00 

Additionally, you must change the 
A7 at an offset of 4A9 to an A6, and 
the 1 D at an offset of 4AD to an 18. 

Fixtime 

Stephen B. Goldberg, of 695 Plain- 
view Road, Bethpage, NY 11714, has 
contributed another interesting utility 
program. He wrote Fixtime because he 
got fed up with having the system clock 
end up 20 or 30 minutes slow after a 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 203 



long session at his CoCo. F i x t i me is his 
attempt at Jceeping the clock on time. It 
does violate several rules of OS-9 pro- 
gramming. It is self-modifying and it 
loads and stores to fixed addresses. But 
it works. It must be loaded before you 
run it and Goldberg reports that he 
thinks it is a good idea to add it to your 
□59Boot file after you have debugged 
it so that it won't get unlinked acci- 
dentia If the Fix time does get unlinked 
after you run it, your system will crash. 
Also, after you have run Fix time you 
cannot use Cobbler to generate a new 
OS9Boot file. 

ReBoot 

Bob Santy of Medford, Mass., and 
Greg Law both caught me when I stated 
that you couldn't remove the floppy 
disk driver and descriptor when running 
OS-9 from a hard disk. I stand cor- 
rected. While writing this column, I 
often need to transfer files from a disk 
someone mails me to my hard disk. 

Because of this constant use, it never 
occurred to me that I could run the 
system without the floppy drivers — 
even though I could always load them 
in and use them when needed. The fact 
that the Tandy hard disk I used for 
several months seldom found the /h0 
descriptor like it shoulduntil it had been 
running for several hours, also side- 
tracked me. 

As Santy pointed out in his letter, the 
boot module stored with the kernel and 
init on Track 34 of a Color Computer 
OS-9 disk is completely self-contained 
and capable of reading the system into 
memory without the CCDisk driver and 
/d0 device descriptor. This means if you 
are using a hard disk you can save a lot 
of memory by not loading the floppy 
drivers. This can be a big help to you 
if you want to run the Tandy/ Micro- 
ware C compiler on the Color Comput- 
er. 

Santy contributed the reboot utility 
program listed this month. It requires 
the pathname of the device you want to 
boot as an argument. He wrote it for use 
with the hard disk he purchased from 
Software Support of Ashland, Mass. 
That disk has bootable partitions and 
reboot works well on that device. 

Even if Santy's utility will not work 
with your hard disk, it is full of excellent 
C code that may help you when you need 
to write other C utilities. It is an out- 
standing example of how good com- 
ments make a program easier to under- 
stand, and it is a valuable contri- 
bution. □ 



if (read (disk, bootstrap, 256) ~ SYSERR) 
failed ("Reading Sector J3") ; 

/* 

Ok, now seek to the bootstrap on 
track 34. 

V 

if (lseek(disk,TRACK34,j3) == SYSERR) 
failed ("Seek to Track 3 4") ; 

/* 

Read the entire track into the buffer. 
V 

if (read (disk, bootstrap, BOOTSIZE) == SYSERR) 
failed ("Reading Track 34") ; 

/* 

Verify that the track contains a bootstrap. 
*/ 

if (strncmp (bootstrap, "OS" , 2) == J3) 

{ 

/* 

Ok, all is well. The bootstrap is in memory 
and we are all set to execute it. 

*/ 

#asm 

orcc #$5J3 Disable interrupts 

leax offset, y Copy hard disk partition offset 
ldu #$38j3j3 Hard disk boot module is 

ldb #3 Coded to find the partition 

oloop 
Ida ,x+ 
sta ,u+ 
decb 

bne oloop 
Ida >$38j3j3 
cmpa #$FF 
beq fboot 
Ida #$22 
sta >$FF7F 
fboot 
clr >$78 
clra 



Offset at $38j3j3 in RAM 



Check to see if 
Booting floppy 
Floppy boot! 
Hard disk boot! 
Select slot 3 of Multi-Pak 

Warm start indicator 
Set DP to ja 



tfr a, dp 

leay bootstra,y Get base of boot 
jmp 2,y Execute bootstrap 

#endasm 

} 

failed("Disk not bootable!"); 



} 



/ 



Any failure uses this exit routine 
Display specific error message and 
exit. 

V 



failed (msg) 
char *msg; 

{ 

printf ("ERROR: 
printf (usage) ; 
exit(errno) ; 

) 



%s\n",msg) ; 



204 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



Telewriter-64 

the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 

True lower case characters 

User-friendly full-screen 
editor 

Right justification 

Easy hyphenation 

Drives any printer 

Embedded format and 
control codes 

Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 

Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 

The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lowercase is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
Tl, Vic or TRS-80 Model 111. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fan. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain priming feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



. . . one o f the best programs f or (he Color 
Computer I hove seen.. 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS ( 




Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on Ihe screen at one 
lime. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows'* that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any primer 
(LPVII/VIII, DMP- 100/200, Epson, Okidaia, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Iioh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminei, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent primer features like: underlining, 
subscript superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 

Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and muhi-line he?ders and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even te.xi files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for su r e saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 

Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, labs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "mode.-;." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum case of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



...truly a state of the art word processor, 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewritcr-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Street 

Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 (weekdays, 
8AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries invited. (Add 
$2 for shipping. Calif ornians add 6% state tax.) 

Available at 

Radio /hack stores 
via express order 

catalogue #90-0253 
90-0254 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer. Inc.; Alan is a trademark 
of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp; MX-80 is z 
trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



THESE FINE STORES 
CARRY THE RAINBOW 

The retail stores listed below carry the rainbow on a regular basis and may have 
other products of interest to Tandy Color Computer users. We suggest you 
patronize those in your area. 



ALABAMA 




Birmingham 


Jefferson News Co. 


Brewton 


McDowell Electronics 


Florence 


Anderson News Co. 


Greenville 


M & B Electronics 


Madison 


Madison Books 


Montgomery 


Trade 'N' Books 


ALASKA 




Fairbanks 


Electronic World 


ARIZONA 




Phoenix 


TRI-TEK Computers 


Sierra Vista 


Livingston's Books 


Tempe 


Books Etc. 




Computer Library 


Tucson 


Anderson News Co. 


ARKANSAS 




Fayettevllle 


Vaughn Electronics/Radio Shack 


Little Rock 


Anderson News Co. 



CALIFORNIA 

Citrus Heights 
Grass Valley 
Half Moon Bay 
Hollywood 
Lompoc 
Los Angeles 

Sacramento 
Santa Rosa 
Sunnyvale 

COLORADO 

Westminster 

DELAWARE 

Middletown 

Milford 

Wilmington 

FLORIDA 

Boca Roton 

Cocoa 

Davie 

Ft. Lauderdale 
Jacksonville 



Nath Miami 

Beach 
Orlando 
Panama Clly 
Pensacola 
Pinellas Park 
Sorasota 
Starke 

Sunrise 

Tallahassee 

Tampa 

Tifusvllle 

GEORGIA 

Bremen 

Cummings 

Jesup 

Marietta 

Toccoa 

IDAHO 

Moscow 

ILLINOIS 

Aurora 
Belleville 
Champaign 
Chicogo 



Software Plus 
Advance Radio. Inc. 
Strawflower Electronics 
Levity Distributors 
L&H Electronics Emporium 
E.D.C. Industries 
Polygon Co. 
Tower Magazine 
Sawyer's News, Inc. 
Computer Literacy 



Software City 

Delmg_r Co 

Milford News Stand 

Normar, Inc.— The Smoke Shop 

Software. Software. Inc. 
The Open Door 
Software Plus More 
Electronics Engineers 
Mike's Electronics Distributor 
The Book Nook 
Book Town 
Deano's TV 

Almar Bookstore 

Book Mania 

Boyd-Eberf Corp. 

Anderson News Co 

Wolf's Newsstand 

Family Computers 

Record Junction. Inc. 

Radio Shack Dealer 

Sunny's at Sunset. Inc. 

Anderson News Co. 

Fine Print Bookstore 

Sound Trader & Computer Center 

Computrac 

Bremen Electronics/Radio Shack 

Kent Radio Shack 

Radio Shack 

Act One Video 

Martin Music Radio Shack 

Johnson News Agency 

Kroch's & Brentano's 
Software or Systems 
Book Market 
B. Dalton Booksellers 

N. Wabosh St. 

West Jackson St. 
Bob's /n Newtown 
Bob's News Emporium 



Chlilicothe 

Danville 

Decatur 



East Moline 

Evanston 

Geneseo 

Kewanee 

Usle 

Newton 

Oak Brook 

Oak Park 

Paris 

Peoria 



Schaumberg 

Skokie 

Springfield 



Sunnyland 
West Frankfort 
Wheeling 

INDIANA 

Angola 

Berne 

Columbus 

Garrett 

Greenwood 

Indianapolis 



Jasper 
Madison 
Martinsville 
Wabash 

IOWA 

Davenport 

KANSAS 

Topeka 

Wichita 

KENTUCKY 

Georgetown 

Hazard 

Hopkinsvllle 

Louisville 

Paducah 

Pikevllle 

LOUISIANA 

Crowley 
Monroe 

MAINE 

Brockton 
Caribou 
Warerboro 



Bob's Rogers Park 
Book Market 

East Cedar 

North Cicero 

West Dlversey 
E.B. Garcia & Associates 
Kroch's & Brentano's 

South Wabash 

West Jackson 

516 N Michigan 

835 N. Michigan 
Parkway Drugs 
Parkwest Books 
Sandmeyer's Bookstore 
Univ. of Chicago Bookstore 
Univ. of Illinois Bookstore 
Vldeomat. Inc. 
Book Emporium 
Book Market 
Book Emporium 

K-Mart Plaza 

Northgate Mall 
Book Emporium 
Chicago-Main News 
B & J Supply 
Book Emporium 
Book Nook 
Bill's TV Radb Shack 
Kroch's & Brentano's 
Kroch's & Buentano's 
Book Emporium 
Book Emporium 

Sheridan village 

Westlake Shopping Center 
Book Market 
Illinois News Service 
Kroch's & Brentano's 
Kroch's & Bfentano's 
Book Emporium 

Sangamon Center North 

Town & Country Shopping Ctr. 
Book Emporium 
Paper Place 
North Shore Distributors 

D & D Electronics 
Radio Shack 

White Cottage Electronics 
Micro Computer Systems, Inc. 
Finn News Agency, Inc. 
The Computer Experience 
Bookland. Inc. 
Delmar News 
Indiana News 
Elex Mart 

Arco Office Supplies 
Radio Shack 
Milling's Electronics 

Interstate Book Store 

Palmer News. Inc. 
Town Crier of Topeka. Inc. 
Amateur Radio Equipment Co 
Lloyd's Radio 

Goodwin Electronics 
Daniel Boone Gulf Mart 
Hobby Shop 
The Computer Store 
Radio Shack 
Gus-Stan Enterprises 

Acadiana Newsstand 
The Book Rack 

Voyager Bookstore 
Radio Shack 
Rodlo Shack 



MARYLAND 

Silver Spring 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Brockton 

Cambridge 

Rtchburg 

Ipswich 

Littleton 

Lynn 

MICHIGAN 

Allen Park 

Dearborn 

Durand 

Harrison 

Lowell 

Mt. Clemens 

Muskegon 

Owosso 

Perry 

Rosevilte 

Royal Oak 

Sterling 

Heights 
Trenton 
Wyoming 

MINNESOTA 

Minneapolis 
Willmor 

MISSOURI 

Farmington 
Jefferson City 
Kirksvilte 
Moberly 
St. Louis 

University City 

MONTANA 

Whftefish 

NEBRASKA 

Lincoln 

NEVADA 

Las Vegas 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

West Lebanon 

NEW JERSEY 

Cedar Knolls 

Clinton 

Marmora 

Montvale 

Pennsvllle 

River Edge 

Rockaway 

NEW MEXICO 

Alamogordo 
Albuquerque 

NEW YORK 

Brockport 
Elmira Heights 
Fredonla 
Hudson Fails 
Johnson City 
New York 



Layhlll Newsstand 

Voyager Bookstore 
Out Of Town News 
Comers Book Shop 
Ipswich News 
Computer Plus 
North Shore News Co. 

Book Nook, Inc. 

DSL Computer Products 

Robblns Electronics 

Harrison Radio Shack 

Curf s Sound & Home Arcade Center 

Michigan Radio 

The Eight Bit Corner 

C/C Computer Systems 

Perry Computers 

New Horizons 

Software City 

Sterling Book Center 
Trenton Book Store 
Gerry's Book Co. 

Read-More News 
The PhotoShop 

Ray's TV & Radio Shack 
Cowley Distributing 
T&R Electronics 
Audio Hut 
Book Emporium 
Computer Xchange 
Hnal Edition 

Consumer Electronics of Whitefish 

Hobby Town 

Hurley Electronics 

Verham News Corp. 

Village Computer & Software 

Micro World II 

Outpost Radio Shack 

Software City 

Dave's Elect. Radio Shack 

Soflware City 

Software Station 



New Horizons Computer Systems 
Desert Moon Distributors 
Page One Newsstand 

Lift Bridge Book Shop, Inc. 

Southern Tier News Co., Inc. 

On Line: Computer Access Center 

G A West & Co. 

Unicom Electronics 

Barnes & Noble— Sales Annex 

Coliseum Books 

Eastern Newsstand 

Grand Central Station. Track 37 

200 Park Ave.. ( Pan Am * 1 ) 

55 Water Street 

World Trade Center #2 
First Stop News 
Idle Hours Bookstore 
International Smoke Shop 
Jonli Smoke 
Penn Book 
Software Cily 
State News 



i ; 

206 THE RAINBOW January 1987 





Usercom Systems. Inc. 




Waiden Books 




World Wide Media Services 


N. White Ptains 


Software City 


Pawling 


Universal Computer Seivice 


Rochester 


Village Green 




World Wide News 


Woodhaven 


Spectrum Projects 


NORTH CAROLINA 


Aberdeen 


King Electronics 




Radio Shack 


Cary 


News Center In Cary Village 


Charlotte 


Newsstond Infl 




Papers & Paperback 


Havlock 


Computer Plus 


Hickory 


C 3 Books & Comics 


Marlon 


Boomers Rhythm Center 


OHIO 




Blanchester 


JR Computer Control 


Canton 


Little Professor Book Center 


Chardon 


Thrasher Radio & TV 


Cincinnati 


Cinsoft 


Coii imhlana 


Fidelity Sound & PlectTonlcs 


Coshocton 


Utopia Software 


Dayton 


Huber Heights Book & Card 




Wllke News 


Falrtx>m 


News-Readers 


Glrard 


Glrard Book & News 


Kent 


The News Shop 


Kenton 


T (Kill ft A 11 

T.W. Hogan & Associates 


Lakewood 


Lakewood International News 


Lima 


Brunner News Agency 




Edu-Caterers 


Mlamlsburg 


Wilke News 


Mount Orab 


Mount Orab Radio Shack 


Rocky River 


Programs Unlimited 


Toledo 


Leo s Book & Wine Shop 


Awl U\J 


Fine Print Rooks 


OKLAHOMA 




Vw/KIUI IUI I KJ 




City 


Merit Micro Software 


Tulsa 


Steve's Book Store 


OREGON 




Portland 


Rfth Ave. News 


PENNSYLVANIA 




Allison Park 


Software City 


Altoona 


Newborn Enterprises 


Brookvllle 


Lany's Stereo Shop 


Malvern 


Personal Software 


Philadelphia 


City Software Center 




Newsy 


Phoenixville 


Stevens Radio Shack 


Pittsburgh 


All-Pro Souveniers 


Pleasant Hills 


Pitt Computer & Software 


Temple 


Software Comer 


Wind Gap 


Micro World 


York 


The Computer Center of York 


RHODE ISLAND 




Warwick 


Software Connection 


SOUTH CAROLINA 


Charleston Hts. 


Software Haus. Inc. 


Gaffney 


Gaffney Book Store 


Greenville 


Palmetto News Co. 


Spartanburg 


Software Clly 


Union 


Fleming's Electronics 


TENNESSEE 




Chattanooga 


Anderson News Co. 




Guild Books & Periodicals 


Dickson 


Highland Electronics 


Knoxville 


Anderson News Co. 




Rrst Byle Computer Co. 


Memphis 


Computer Center 




Software, Inc. 


Nashville 


Moska's Book Stare 


Smyrna 


Delker Electronics 


Union City 


Cox Electronics Radio Shack 



TEXAS 

Elgin 
Orange 
Son Antonio 

UTAH 

Murray 

VIRGINIA 

Gafton 
Norfolk 
Richmond 

WASHINGTON 

Seattle 
Tacoma 



WEST VIRGINIA 

Huntington 
Logan 
Madison 
Parkersburg 

WISCONSIN 

Appleton 
Cudahy 
Lodysmlth 
Milwaukee 



WYOMING 

Casper 



ARGENTINA 

Cordoba 

AUSTRALIA: 

Klngsford 



CANADA: 
ALBERTA 

Banff 

Blairmore 

Bonnyville 

Brooks 

Calgary 

Claresholm 

Drayton Valley 

Edmonton 

Edson 
Falrview 
Fox Creek 

Ft. Saskatche- 
wan 
Grande 

Cache 
Grande 

Centre 
Hlnton 
Innlsfail 
Leduc 
Lethbrldge 
Lloydmlnster 
Okotoks 
Peace River 

St. Paul 

Stealer 

Strathmore 

Taber 

Westlock 

Wetasklwln 



The Homing Pigeon 
Northway Books & News 
CoCo Nuts 

Deseret Book 

Electronics Marketing 
l-O Computers 
Software City 

Adams News Co.. Inc. 
B & I Magazines & Books 
Nybbles 'N Bytes 



Nick's News 

Stan's Electronics & Radio Shack 
Communications, LTD 
Valley News Seivice 

Badger Periodicals 

Cudahy News & Hobby 

Electronics, Etc. 

Book Tree 

Booked Solid 

Booked Solid II 

Haivey Schwartz Bookshop 

Univ. of Wisconsin Bookshop 

The Computer Store 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 



Inf ormatica V Tetecomunicaclones 
Paris Radio Electronics 



Banff RadloShack 
L&KSports&Music 
Paul Tercler 

Double *D" A.S.C. Radio Shack 
Billy's News 

Radio Shack Associated Stores 

LangardElectronlcs 

CMD Micro 

Kelly Software Distributors 
Radio Shack 
D.N.R. Furniture & TV 
Fox City Color & Sound 
A.S.C. Radio Shack 

Ft. Mall Radio Shack. ASC 

The Stereo Hut 

The Book Nook 
Jim Cooper 
L & S Stereo 

Radio Shack Associated Stores 
Datatron 

Lloyd Radio Shack 
Okotoks Radio Shack 
Rodlo Shack Associated Stores 
Tavener Software 
Walter's Electronics 
Stealer Radio Shack 
Wheatland ElectTanlcs 
Pynewood Sight & Sound 
Westlock Stereo 
Radio Shack 



Burnaby 


Compulit 


Bums Lake 


VT. Video Works 


Campbell 




River 


TRS Electronics 


Chilliwack 


Charles Parker 


Coortenay 


Rick's Music & Stereo 


Dawson Creek 


Bell Radio & TV 




i uko nuiTitJ run iisr iiiiys 


Langley 


Langley Radio Shack 


N. Vancouver 


Mlcrowest Distributors 


Nelson 


Oliver's Books 


Parksville 


Parksville TV 


Pentlcton 


D.J.'s 




Four Comer Grocery 


Salmon Arm 


Matrix Computing 


Sidney 


Sidney Electronics 


Smithers 


Wall's Home Furniture 


100 Mile 




House 


lip iopRaaio« TV 


MANITOBA 




AJtona 


LA. Wlebr Ltd. 


I i ir"k/H/ir 
LUI KJUl 


^Of OF 1 CJGC. 


Mnrripn 

1 VIV" *-Jv7l 1 


V^OI IIIVJI JUUI IU 


The Pas 


Jodl's Sight & Sound 


Selkirk 


G.L Enns Elec. 


Vlrden 


A/cher Enterprises 


Winnipeg 


J & J Electronics Ltd. 


NEW BRUNSWICK 




Mancton 


Jeffries EntsrDrises 


Sussex 

OUJ*A/A 


Dewltt Elec 

t^W W III fts 1 ' ■ 


NEWFOUNDLAND 




Balwood 


Seaport Elec. 


Carboneor 


Slade Realties 


NOVA SCOTIA 




Halifax 


Atlantic News 


ONTARIO 




Aurora 


Compu Vision 


Concord 


Ingram Software 


Exceter 


J. Macleane & Sons 


Hanover 


Modern Appliance Centre 


i i. ■ i -in — 

Huntsvllle 


Huntsvllle Elec. 


Kenora 


Donny B 


Kingston 


T.M. Computers 


Llstowel 


Modern Appliance Centre 


South River 


Max TV 




Dennis TV 


QUEBEC 




LaSalle 


Messagerles de Presse Benjamin Enr 


Pont. Rouge 


Boutique Bruno Laroche 


SASKATCHEWAN 




AssiniDoia 


I eisiar News 


Estevan 


Kotyk Electronics 


Moose Jaw 


D&S Computer Place 


Nlplwan 


uornersrane oouna 


Rsolna 


Realna CoCo Club 




Software Supermarket 


Soskatoon 


Everybody's Software Library 


Shell brooke 


Gee. Laberge Radio Shack 


Tisdale 


Paul's Se/vice 


Unity 


Grant's House af Sound 


YUKON 




Whiteharse 


H & O Holdings 


JAPAN 




Takya 


America Ada Inc. 


PUERTO RICO 




San Juan 


Software City 



Also available at all B. Dalton Booksellers, and selected Coles Bookstores, 
Waldenbooks, Pickwick Books, Encore Books, Barnes & Noble, Little 
Professors, Tower Book & Records, Kroch's & Brentano's, and Community 
Newscenters. 



January 1987 THE RAINBOW 207 



AD VER TISER INDEX 



We encourage you to patronize our advertisers — all of whom support the 
Tandy Color Computer. We will appreciate your mentioning THE rainbow when 
you contact these firms. 



After Five Software 170 

Alpha Products 21 

Ark Royal Games 49 

Bangert 81 

Canyon County Devices 102 

Cer-Comp 163 

Challenger 135 

Cinsoft 146 

CNR Engineering 14 

CoCo Cat Anti-drug Ad 25 

Cognitec 205 

Colorware 22, 23 

Compusense 95 

Computer Center 35 

Computer Friends 89 

Computer Island 133 

Computer Plus 3 

Computerware 57 

Computize, Inc 209 

CRC Computers 99 

Crockett Software 161 

D.P. Johnson 197 

Dayton Associates of 

W. R. Hall, Inc 128 

Delphi 114, 115 

Derringer Software 74, 75 

Diecom IFC 

Disto/CRC 63, BC 

Duck Productions 73 

Fazer Electronics 134 

Federal Hill Software 15 

Group Technology 157 



Halix Institute 183 

Hard Drive Specialists 165 

Hawkes Research Services 1 50 

HJL div. of Touchstone 

Technology, Inc 17 

Howard Medical 34, 210 

Inventive Solutions 167 

J & M Systems 79, 113 

J & R Electronics 159 

Kelly Software Distributors 87 

Lucus Industries 2000 167 

Mark Dataproducts 155 

Marty's Rubber Stamp Shop 161 

Metric Industries 13 

Micro Smart 50, 51 

Micro Works, The 152 

Microcom Software 9, 11 

Microtech Consultants Inc 96 

MicroWorld 31 

Moreton Bay 189 

Novasoft 142 

Other Guys Software, The 66 

Owl- Ware 84, 85 

PCM 33 

Perry Computers 16 

Polygon 77 

Preble's Programs, Dr IBC 

Prickly-Pear Software 137 

Public Domain 88 

PXE Computing 7 

Radio Shack 121, 123 

Rainbow Binder 202 



Rainbow Bookshelf 112 

Rainbow Gift Subscription 130 

Rainbow On Disk 151 

Rainbow On Tape 103 

Rainbow OS-9 Book 116 

Rainbow Simulation Book II 65 

RAINBOWfest 100 

RAINBOWfestTape Ad 192 

Robotic Microsystems 95 

Rowe Electronic Co., Inc 170 

Selected Software 47 

Software House, The 83 

Spectrogram 101 

Spectrosystems 54 

Spectrum Projects Inc. 



105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 111 

Speech Systems 

40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 



Sugar Software 175 

Sunrise Software 141 

T & D Software 138 

TCE 149 

Tepco 97 

Thinking Software, Inc 55 

Tom Mix Software 143 

Tothian Software Inc 157 

True Data Products 194, 195 

Try-O-Byte 81 

United Computer Federation ... 171 

Woodstown Electronics 101 

Zebra Systems 39 




Call: 



ShackJeford, Nolan, Davis, Gregg and Associates 

Cindy Shackfeford, president 

Advertising Representative 

12110 Meridian South, Suite 5 

P.O. Box 73-578 

Puyailup, WA 98373-0578 

(206) 848-7766 



Call: 

Kim Vincent 

Advertising Representative 
The F also ft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

(502)228-4492 



Call: 

Jack Garland 
Garland Associates, Inc. 
10 Industrial Park Road 
Hlngham, MA 02043 

(617) 749-5852 



208 



THE RAINBOW January 1987 



ALL SOFTWARE 
COMPATIBLE WITH 
COCO I, COCO II 

& COCO III 

COMPUTERS 



SUPER BACK-UP 
UTILITY© 

...WITH S.B.U. FROM COMPUTiZE - 
YOU'LL NEVER NEED ANOTHER BACK- 
UP UTILITY FOR YOUR COCO! I! 
SUPER BACK-UP UTILITY WILL PER- 
FORM ALL OF THE FOLLOWING FUNC- 
TIONS: 

1. TAPE TO TAPE (Regardless of most projec- 
tion schemes? } 

2. TAPE TO DISK (Move Cassette programs 10 
Disk!) 

3. AUTO RELOCATE (For those Cassette pro- 
grams that conflict wish Disk operating 
systems.) 

4. DISK TO TAPE (Place Disk programs onto 
Cassette) 

5. DISK TO DISK (Our powerful Split-N-lmagc 
Program, Copies regardless of most protec- 
tion schemes!) 

• MENU DRIVEN 

« REQUIRES 32K EXTENDED COCO 

• REQUIRES \ OR 2 DRIVES 

• ALL MACHINE LANGUAGE! I! 
COMPARE WITH OTHER INDIVIDUAL 
PROGRAMS COSTING IN EXCESS OF 
$100.00 

DISK $49.95 Cat. No. I07CD 



SPIT-N -IMAGE© 

M/L Disk Back-Up Utility 

There h no need to suffer the heartbreak of 
crashed disks any longer. Spit-N-lmage will 
create a mirror image of your valuable disk pro- 
grams which do not respond to normal back-up 
functions. Will also initialize and back-up in one 
pass. Data processing experts always insist on 
having a back-up — it's good practice. 

REQUIRES 32K CC 
DISK $34,95 .......... Cat. No. I0ICD 



TRIPLE TRANSFER 
UTILITY© 

Transfer contents of disk to tape • Transfer con- 
tend of tape to disk • Automatically relocates 
cassette programs that conflict with the disk 
operating system * Displays machine language 
program addresses * Copies ASCII. Basic. & 
Machine Language Programs * All contained in 
I menu driven program! 

REQUIRES 32K CC EXT. 
Disk $24.95 Cat. No. \0SCB 




If you have ever owned a "Y" Cable you know 
how easy it is so 'bump' or dislodge the cable 
from the computer. With the positive mechanical 
connection of the "Y Box" chances are greatly 
reduced of the *'Y" coming dislodged. 

One of the most common causes of a shorted 
data bus in the CoCo i s a misaligned or loose 
"V" Cible. Don't let your computer be the next 
victim of a "Y" Cible. *rder the "Y Box" from 
COMPUT12E, 



• NOISE FREE "COLD CONTACT" TO 
YOUR COMPUTER 

• POSITIVE MECHANICAL AND ELEC- 
TRICAL CONNECTION 

• Catalog No. 162CH Only S29.95 



MASTER KEY II 

New improved Version! A hardware product thai 
takes control of any program regardless of protec- 
tion. Now use with RS Mulii-pak, "Y" cable or 
optional extender cable, Captures register contams 
as *hcy were when Master Key II was engaged. 
Complete disassembler, memory save, and much 
more. Requires some familiarity with Assembly 
Language, 

MOM PAK Cat. No. I60HR $ 99.95 

Cat. No. 161HR With Est. Cable $109,95 





(215) 946-7260 P.O. BOX 207 * LANGHORNE, PA 1904? 

Check or M.O. • Add S3.C0 shipping * PA residents add 6% sales tax 





THE LATEST IN COCO NEWS!!! ★★★★★★★ 



• Supports 4 Hi-Rcs display modes 
» 4 page animation mode 

• Color Palette with over 15 color patterns for use 
with Hi-Res artifact 

• Send/Receive pictures over modern 

• Supplied utility allows capturing Hi-Res screens 
from most COCO arcade games 

■ Multiple Hi-Res character fonts (user re- 
definable) 

• Supplied utility for transferring Craphieom 
screens to Basic or other M/L programs. 

• Supplied utility for loading screens from Basic 
or other sources 

• Built in Hi-Res SCREEN PRINT (compatible 
with EPSON, C-ITOH, CEMiNJ-10. OKI, plus 
Radio Shack's LP-VK, LP-VIU, DM P- 100, 
DMP-200, and CCP-II5 printers) from 310 to 
9600 baud 

• SEND/RECEIVE slow-scan television 

• Many additional features, operating hints, hard- 
ware mod's and suggestions, etc. 

REQUIRES 64K COCO, I DISK DRIVE, AND I 
ANALOG JOYSTICKS 



QUICK BACKUP 
UTILITY $19.95 

Catalog No 185CD 

Deluxe backup utility for the Radio Shack Color 
Computer, 

* Backup a disk in as few as 32 seconds (in three 
passes) 

* Format and backup a full disk in one minute 

* Full error correcting features (retry, skip, in- 
finite retry) 

Displays the current track that is being processed, 
works with all ROM versions. Supports 1 or 2 disk 
drive, A great disk production tool, 



GRAPHICOM $24.95 



Catalog No, ......... , ...... 1 I IGD 

Simply stated - One of the finest graphic programs 
written for the Color Computed 
FEATURES; 

• S-U-P-E-R U-S-E-R F-R-I-E-N-D-L-Y • 




m 



9 vlll >3 



^^^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^g jjjjy^^j ^ ^ ^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^ 

aBBg T« jsbbs. 

JHflflflflflflff innnnnnn irfffittfh -«HBBBbkk ^tfUtfc. rtrfHHHHHHHHffi l HHHHHI flflflflflflflflflm .jOJUUUU0BtlbtX****«x~ ^M^Mk^. a 

m TS^JfTlifTlT 

fill mm mm m WM mm mm ■ ^rn^&W ^^mm. 

M. V' %✓ W R M K 2^ v3 



Announcing COLORSCAN, new software for the CGP-220. This program is a must for 
anyone who owns a Radio Shack Ink Jet Primer, and enjoys creating graphics with 
Graphicom, Graphicom Part I], CoCo MAX, or any program that produces a standard 
6K binnary picture files, 

This program contains some of the popular features found in ''HARDCOPY" such as 
Ixl, 2x2 and posters; but color scan produce full color printouts of your favorite 6K 
graphics files, You can also create colorful banners up to 27' in length, or dump a disk's 
entire graphic contents to paper. 

Colorscan will print program listings in blazing color, make remarks in red, line numbers 
green, search for strings and prim in blue, etc. Ail these features and more, 

catalog number 184WD $29.95 



GRAPHICOM PART II 

Catalog No. 132 WD . $24.95 

GRAPHICOM PART II DOES NOT 
REQUIRE GRAPHICOM TO RUN! 




"11 

HITESmiTH 0:1. Q 

Graphicom Pari II is a video processing 
package thai provides many functions 
thai are missing in Graphicom. Here are 
jus! a few of the features provided by 
Graphicom Pari II: 

ENLARGE/REDUCE/ROTATE 
Enlarge or reduce any portion of a graphic 
screen, just like a photographic enlarged 
Rotate by any degree or fraction of a 
degree around any point on the screen. 



PAINT 

Paint or "fill-in'' any irregular area on the 
screen! More than 50 different colored 
patterns available, Additional paint pat- 
terns may be user-defined. 

PAN & ZOOM 

"Zoom in" x2, x4, or x8 on any portion 
of the screen to do fine pixel work. Allows 
editing of Graphicom character sets with 
ease! 

TYPESETTER & FONT EDITOR 

Add text in 16 different sizes, also sup- 
ports user definable foreground & 
background colors. Design & Edit 
characters for use in the typesetter. 

PIXEL BLASTER 

Allows the user to easily substitute or 
remove colors. Widen lines, swap BLUE 
& RED without effecting BLACK & 
WHITE, etc, 

Graphicom Pari II requires a 64K extend- 
ed disk basic system, and supports 1 to 4 
disk drives, keyboard or joystick (analog 
or switch type) input. It will load and save 
both Standard BIN files and Graphicom 
screens. All functions support color or Hi- 
Res operation, as well as the 4 screen 
display modes. 



OUR 
GRAPHICOM 
DIGITIZER 
JUST GOT BETTER 



ARE YOU LOOKING 

FOR A HI-RES GRAPHIC 
SCREEN PRINT 
PROGRAM? 




THE ULT I HATE PR IHTEfl UTILITY 




©1384 WHITESH1ITH Utl.0 

Ai-t- RIGHTS RESESWEI1 



' HARDCOPY - Hardcopy is more 
than just a screen print utility, compare 
these features with any other graphic 
dump program on the market; 

* Full CRAPH1COM/GRAPHICOM 
PART 11 compatibility! Loads STAN- 
DARD 6K images, GRAPHICOM 
pictures, and COCO MAX pictures 
too! 

* BLACK & WHITE or GREY SCALE 
priming, (n GREY SCALE printing, 
colors are printed as user definable 
patterns. Supports hi -res in all 4 
GRAPHICOM display modes! 

* Ix, 2x, 3s PRINTOUTS - Three menu 
options are reserved for the most fre- 
quently used printout sizes; Ik 
(quarter page), 2k (half page), and 3x 
(full page). 

* GRAPHIC LABELS - The label prin- 
ting option allows the user lo create 
custom mailing or disk labels with 
professional looking results. 

* GREETING CARDS - The greeting 
card option allows the user to custom 
design greeting cards using both text 
and graphics. 

* GIANT POSTERS - The poster op- 
tion provides the user with a means of 
reproducing a hi-rcs graphic 10 a 
multi-sheet poster, 

« SPECIAL EFFECTS - The special ef- 
fects option allows the user to directly 
control the printing directives; ROTA- 
TION, X/Y SIZE, X/Y FLJP, X/Y 
GRID, X/Y FILL, TAB, WINDOW, 
POS/NEG IMAGE, and more! 

* USER CALL - Have an application 
that HARDCOPY doesn't $uite 
match? HARDCOPY routines can be 
added to EXTENDED BASIC 
through the USR command! 

HARDCOPY* requires a 64K Color 
Computer or Color Computer II, and at 
ieast one disk drive. It supports 1 to 4 disk 
drives, keyboard or joystick input. Please 
specify printer and cat, number when 
ordering. 

* Due lo hardware differences, some 
features may function differently on cer- 
tain printers. 



IDS 480/5*«-G ... 
Oki 82A (Olograph) 

Okidaia 92 

Gemini I0X . . 
Gemini SG-I0/I, 
DMP-105 .... 
Epson LX-80 . . 
Epson MX-80 
Epson RX-80 . . 
Epson FX-80 . . 
Rhcman PLUS 
DMP-liO .... 
DMP-120 .... 

DMP-130 

DMP-200 .... 
CGP-220 



Ca\. No. 
Cai. No. 
Cat. No. 
Cai. No. 
Cat. No. 
Can, No. 
Cai, No. 
Cat. No, 
Cat. No. 
Cai. No. 
Car. No. 
Cat. No. 
Cat, No, 
Cai, No. 
Cat, No. 
CaL No. 



179WD 
171 WD 
174WD 
I78WD 
I83WD 
S73WD 
172WD 
I73WD 
I73WD 
I77WD 
1 80 WD 
I7*WD 
I82WD 
I75WD 
J8IWD 



HARDCOPY PRINT 

UTILITY $29.95 




Most Howard Medical products are COCO 3 compatible, 
some require special patches. Please inquire when you order. 



(800) 443-1444 



ORDERS 





NEW 

Dual Mode 

EPSON LX-80 



hi murh 

HoH !»(!FUll 



near letter quality plus a 
\q parallel converter, and a Howard Printer Tutorial 

(S7 | 

Add $29 50 (or tractor E 1 i 




is the latest generation of printer, and alter 
hkj giving toward and backward movement o' papei p*u« 
pnnttng capaowiie^ NX-P package >ndudes the N)M0, a 
ionvertfii and (he Howard Pr»nter Tutorial ifci? 



Mdgnavox CM G5b2 ' olor com po- 
sit* with 2 year warranty 13" 
screen 240 x 200 dot resolulio 
with built-in tpeaknr $ *| €J 

|4H ih>pp<ii|l 



(312) 278-1440 



INQUIRIES AND ORDER STATUS 





ISK CONTROLLERS 




Include* controller nod 
C-DOS ROM chip 

son 

%IU {$2 shipping) 



ADD-ON BOARDS 



PC-38 includes 80 column capao 
riftillel printer roal time clock, 
i all soil wan? ^"133 

■ C-256 25(i K RAM Board includes 
wanMo^cwsaimAMs^g 

>3P Mmi EPRQM Pioorarrmter 
tudos alt software to . 
jram?764 or 27128 55 

DC5I2 512K RAM B 



DC-3C Clock Calendar |njd piftl* 
lei printer port ^40 

OD-2 Double sided 360K Unve 

r height CtlSH 

ir ii iKjwe' sun ply 



M88 



CA-1 Cable in connect i:un I roller (o 
one orive S24&0 

C-DOS 3.3 28 PIN ROM mukei 
islo DC - 1 wo i k 



*2I 



•El tor £ Boards 




MEMORY 



je — no soioenng 
trace tuft |S2 shpg) *28. 
S4-F1 1ni F Boards No soldering 



fi4-2 roi COCO 2. Kit rcq< 
holder pomi, no 
trace cuts ($2 shipping) 
r>4-22 Two chip set tor 

and fl 26-3136A ami ft Ki 



must 



$24 45 

($2 shipping) 




$28 45 

(S2 shipping* 



PAYROL/BAS™ 

Wntiflu in nonprotected bas 




FTWARE SPECIALS 



for the cofo' cornoulBi 



f U(E 1 1 i'«<K k * lepum guide 



VIP LIBRARY 

wt law's integrated package includes VIP witter ternunal, c 
disk .-'.sf i which can hx a diskette thai <& giving I/O errors 



SAP- 1 1 



he 



$ 19 95 



BPA-1 

Chart your blood p 
readings taken in I 
you* hom« 



s 125 



95 




3 does not require video Qfltplhi 

Howard Medical Computers 1690 N. Elston Chicago, IL 60622 




ORDERS 



(800) 443-1444 



INQUIRIES AND ORDER STATUS 

(312) 278-1440 



Showroom Hours: 
8:00 - 5:00 Mon. - Fri. 
10:00 - 3:00 Sat. 



WE ACCEPT: VISA • MASTERCARD • AMERICAN EXPRESS 

C.O.D. OR CHECKS • SCHOOL RO.'S 



Help Js Battle the 




st of Disk Drives 



New Lower Price 

Un-DISK Drives $4&05? 

34.95 

Vou Bet! There are empty spaces in your32K 
and 64K CoCo. The Preble VDOS Un-DISK 
helps you fill them up with PROGRAMS! 



Un-DISK uses your computer's extra 
memory like a fast disk drive. 

Un-DISK can store BASIC and MACHINE 
LANGUAGE programs. 

Un-DISK is INVISIBLE. Vup! Un-DISK 
does not interfere with normal Color Com- 
puter Operation. 

Un-DISK appears only when you type the 
magic word VDOS. 

Un-DISK comes with comprehensive in- 
structions which you may not need be- 
cause: 

Un-DISK is self-prompting and easy to 
use! 

Un-DISK is provided on cassette. 

Un-DISK is faster than a slow clumsy 
DISK DRIVE and best of all H 

Un-DISK is CHEAPER than a DISK DRIVE! 

Un-DISK will work even if you already own 
a disk but WHY BUY A DISK AT ALL? 

Un-DISK should be in the library of every 
serious CoCo user even if you own a disk 
says Frank J. Esser, independent reviewer 
for rainbow Magazine! 



OK sure, disk drives ARE NICE. I own one. 
But if your finances are limited, the Un-DISK 
can give you much of the power of the 
mechanical drive. Even if you already own a 
disk the Un-DISK can work like a super fast 
extra disk 

EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . 
Additional Power For $14.95 

Only with VDUMP for the Un-DISK! 

• VDUMP lets you make a cassette backup 
copy of everything stored in the Un-DISK. 

• VDUMP lets you save 5, 10, 15 or more 
programs on a single cassette tape file. 

• VDUMP lets you switch Un-DISKs. With a 
single load operation replace a group of 
financial programs with a set of children's 
programs. (The new VDUMP tape over- 
writes the old.) 

• VDUMP can allow you to save a whole lot 
of rainbow on tape in a SINGLE file. 

• VDUMP is the perfect companion to the 
Preble VDOS Un-DISK. 

Available from Doctor Preble's Programs, 
naturally! Bringing you fine Color Computer 
Products Since 1983! 




The Preble VDOS Un-DISK $34.95 

The Preble VDUMP $14.95 

Shipping & handling 

U.S. and Canada $1,50 

or $5.00 to other foreign points 

VISA and MasterCard accepted 




Order From: 
Dr. Preble's Programs 

6540 Outer Loop 
Louisville, KY 40228 
(502) 966-8281 
Canadians may order from Kelly Software 





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