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BOOL! 




WRESTLE 





Bouncing Boulders is a new, fast paced arcade- 
style game for your Coco, As you race your man 
around the screen you try to collect enough stars 
to open the exit to the next level. You can drop 
rocks to kill aliens that follow you around the 
screen trying to catch you. But beware of the fall- 
ing and bouncing boulders as they will crush your 
man If you get trapped under one, The many dif- 
ferent screens with lots of puzzles will keep you 
playing for hours on end. 

64 K REQl 





You've asked 1m It and now It's here, a wrestling 
game for your oatac computer, Play a single match 
or play a tag team match in this 1 to 4 player game. 
Wrestle against the computer or wrestle against 
your friend in a single or tag team match. Use pun- 
ches, kicks, body slams, back breakers and many 
other moves as you attempt to pin your opponent. 
Super graphics and realistic play action make this 
a great game for all, 




a if 



hi 



OF 




Travel through towns and ex- 
plore strange lands In the 
ultimate fantasy role-playing 
game for the color computer, 
As you travel the land you will 
meet different characters that 
you may convince to Join you In 
your quest, During your quest 
•you will learn the secrete of 
magic spells and ultimately 
your final goal, 

Enter The Gates of Delirium 
contest! The first person to 
solve the game shall be our 
grand prize winner of a Gooo 3. 
There will be 5 second prizes of 
one free game from Dlecom 
Products and 5 third prizes of 
one free hat from Dlecom Pro- 
ducts. 

64K M _ . _ 

REQUIRED $38.95 U.S. 



$52.95 can 



ALSO AVAILABLE 



— Paper Route, Knock Out, 
Karate, each game requiring 
64K. Tape or disk. 



6715 FIFTH LINE, MILTON, ONT., CANADA L9T 2X8 



We accept: 



$28.95 u.s. 
$38.95 can. 




[MasterCard 1 



cheque or money order 



24 hr. order line; 
(416) 878-8358 
personal service 9-5 



Please add $2 for shipping 
& handling. Ontario 
residents add 7% sales tax. 
C.O.D. Canada only. 
Dealer inquiries invited 
Looking for new software. 



PLUS 



after 



PLUS 



after 





BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

Major Istar 24.95 27.95 

Sam Sleuth Private Eye 24.95 27.95 

Mark Data Graphic Adven.24.95 27.95 

COCO Util II by Mark Data 39.95 
COCO Max by Colorware 69.95 

COCO Max II by Colorware 79.95 

AutoTermbyPXEComputing39.95 49.95 



COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000 EX 1 Drive 256K 
Tandy 1000 SX 2 Drive 384K 
Tandy 3000 HL 1 Drive 51 2K 
Model IVD 64K with Deskmate 



569.00 
839.00 
1229.00 
889.00 



PRINTERS 

Radio Shack DMP-105 80 CPS 110.00 1 

Radio Shack DMP-130 100 CPS 219.00* 

Radio Shack DMP-430 180 CPS 559.00 
Radio Shack DWP-230 DaisyWheel310.00 

Star LV-1210 120 CPS 199.00 

Star NX-10 120 CPS 279.00 

Star SG-15 120 CPS 410.00 

Panasonic P-1091 120 CPS 259.00 

Panasonic P-1092 180 CPS 339.00 

Okidata 292 200 CPS 529.00 

Okidata 192+ 200 CPS 375.00 

Epson LX-80 100 CPS 275.00 

Epson FX-85 160 CPS 419.00 

MODEMS 

Radio Shack DCM-7 Modem 85.00 
Radio Shack DC Modem 

Program Pac 99.00 

Radio Shack DC Modem 212 179.00 

Hayes 300 Baud Modem 169.00 

CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF I 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 

• SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 



COLOR COMPUTER MISC. 

Radio Shack Drive Controller 99.00 
Extended Basic Rom Kit 39.95 
64K Ram Upgrade Kit 39.00 
Radio Shack Deluxe Keyboard Kit 24.95 



HJL Keyboard Upgrade Kit 79.95 
COCO Max Y Cable 27.95 
Color Computer Mouse 44.00 
Multi Pack Interface 89.00 
Botek Serial to Parallel Conv. 69.95 
Radio Shack CCR-81 Recorder 52.00 
Radio Shack Deluxe Joystick 26.95 
Amdek Video 300 Green Monitor 139.00 
Amdek Video 300 Amber Monitor149.00 
Goldstar Green Monitor 85.00 
Panasonic Amber Monitor w/audio99.00 
Radio Shack VM-4 Green Monitor 99.00 
Mark Data Universal Video Driver 29.95 

COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

TAPE DISK 

Approach Control Simul. 29.95 34.95 

Worlds Of Flight 29.95 32.95 

Mustang P-51 Flight Simul. 29.95 34.95 

Spectral Typing Tutor 19.95 22.95 

Dungeon Quest 24.95 27.95 



TelePatch II by Spectrum 29.95 

Telewriter 64 49.95 59.95 

Deft Pascal Workbench 99.95 

Deft Extra 39.95 

Pro Color File Enhanced 2.0 59.95 

Max Fonts (72 COCO Max Fonts} 64.95 



Elite Calc 
Elite Word 
Elite File (disk only) 
DynaCalc (disk only) 
Word Pack RS by PBJ 
VIP Writer (disk only) 
VIP Integrated Library (disk) 

Order any 2 software pieces listed and 
take 10% off their listed price. All Radio 
Shack software 10% off list. Send for 
completely list. 'Sale prices through 
12/15/86 



69.95 69.95 
69.95 69.95 
74.50 
99.95 
99.00 
69.95 
149.95 







P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TRS-60 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 



Under 
The 



18 




36 



FEATURES 



Season's Greetings/Ei/grene Vasconi 




HOLI DAY SPECIAL Add your name to this computerized greeting 

Rainbow's Holiday Shopping Gu\6e/Rainbow Staff 

HOLI DAY SPECIAL CoCo gift ideas for everyone 

Mortar Command/Charles Farris 




GAME Your mission is to hold the bridge 

Hebrew WriterMrye/i Glaberson 




LANGUAGE An aid to printing out Hebrew characters 

Deck the Halls/R/c/r Woods 




MUSIC Four-voice harmony with a word processor 

Fortune Wheel on Tape/ f Arron Branigan 



MODIFICATION Use this popular game with a tape system 

Power Supply Fixes/Marty Goodman 



HARDWARE PROJECT Help for common CoCo and multipack problems 

From Our Home to Yours///ene Fortin 



GRAPHICS Generate money-saving holiday cards 

Go Tell It on the CoCo/ f Arron Branigan. 



HOLIDAY SPECIAL A seasonal songfest highlights these graphics 

The Solitary Endeavor/ Tudor P. Jones 



GAME A clever computer version of the old card game 

The CoCo ROS, Part UDennis H. Weide 




H AR DWARE PROJECT Build your own robot operating system 

Where Is \WBrian Biggs 



42 




ORGANIZATION Disk labels display up to 24 program names 

Holiday Hearth/ Eugene Vasconi. 



18 



25 



29 



36 



42 



50 



54 



62 



66 



76 



85 



93 



HOLIDAY SPECIAL CoCo nuts roasting near an open fire 

O Tannenbaum/Sec/cy F. Matthews 



GRAPHICS A lovely tree and a tutorial to boot 

Up on the Rooftop/J. D. German 



GAME Santa needs your help to fly his magical mission 

LED Power Indicator/Logan Ward 



108 



116 



124 



160 



H AR DWARE PROJECT Lets you know when your disk drives are on 



Cover illustration copyright ® 1986 
by Fred Crawford 



r^m The cassette tape/disk symbols 
beside features and columns indi- 
cate that the program listings with those 
articles are on this month's RAINBOW ON 
TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK. Those with 
only the disk symbol are not available on 
rainbow ON tape. For details, check the 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK 
ads on pages 172 and 159. 



STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT AND CIRCULATION 

1A) Title of publication: The Rainbow, The Color Computer Monthly Magazine. B) Publication No.: 705050. 2) Date of filing: 
September 30, 1966. 3) Frequency of issue: Monthly. 3 A) No. of issues published annually: 12. 3B) Annual subscription price: 
$31.00. 4) Complete Mailing Address of known office of publication: The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, Prospect, 
Jefferson County, Kentucky 40059. 5) Complete Mailing Address of headquarters of general business offices of the publisher: 
Same. 6) Names and complete addresses of publisher, editor, and managing editor: Publisher and Editor Lawrence C. Falk, 
The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, Prospect, Kentucky 40059; Managing Editor: James E. Reed, The Falsoft Building, 
9509 U.S. Highway 42, Prospect, Kentucky 40059. 7) Owner: Falsoft, Inc., The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, Prospect, 
Kentucky 40059. 8) Known bondholders, mortgagees and other security holders owning or holding 1 percent or more of total 
amount of bonds, mortgages or other securities: None. 9) For completion by nonprofit organizations authorized to mail at special 
rates (Section 423.12 DMM). The purpose, function and nonprofit status of this organization and the exempt status for Federal 
Income tax purposes (Check one): Not applicable. 10) Extent and nature of circulation: (X)= Average No. copies each issue during 
preceding 12 months; (Y)= Actual No. copies of single issue published nearest to filing date. A) Total No. of copies printed: 
(X)71,554 (Y)69,200. B) Paid circulation: 1) Sales through dealers and carriers, street vendors and counter sates: (X)26,084 
(Y)35,037. 2) Mail subscription: (X)35,487 (Y)31,789. C) Total paid circulation: (X)61,571 (Y)66,826. D) Free distribution by mail, 
carrier or other means, samples, complimentary and other free copies: (X)1,957 (Y)1,821. E) Total distribution: (X)63,528 
(Y)66,647. F) Copies not distributed: 1) Office use, left over, unaccounted, spoiled after printing: (X)179 (Y)533. 2) Returns from 
news agents: (X)7,847 (Y)20. G) Total: (X)71,554 (Y)69,200. 



COLUMNS 



BASIC Training/Josep/7 Kolar 

Formatting text to suit yourself 

Building December's Rainbow/ Jim Reed 

Managing Editor's comments 

CoCo Consultations/Marfy Goodman 

Just what the Dr. ordered 

Delphi Bureau/Cray Augsburg 



More on using Mail and Goodman's database report 

Doctor ASCU/Richard E. Esposito m 

The problem fixer 

[^J Education Notes/Sfeve Blyn 

Binary dice conversions 

Education Overview/M/cftae/ Plog, Ph.D 

Computers and our English vocabulary 

PRINT#-2,/ Lawrence C. Falk 

Editor's notes 

Turn of the Screw/Tony DiStefano 

The no-switch VDG 

%Sm Wishing Well/Fred B. Scerbo . 

Creating designer arcade games 

RAINBOWTECH 



Barden's Buffer/ William Barden t Jr 

The BASIC PSET and graphics display speeds 

Bits and Bytes of BAS\C/Richard White 

Dealing with variables in BASIC09 

Downloads/Dan Downard 



Answers to your technical questions 

£ KISSable OS-9/Da/e L Puckett 

A bundle of holiday goodies 

OS-9 Spooler/Stephen B. Goldberg. 

Print a file as a background task 

DEPARTMENTS 



Advertiser Index 

Back Issue Information 
CoCo Cat 



CoCo Gallery 
Corrections _ 



Letters to Rainbow 
The Pipeline 



208 
_47 
-39 
114 
101 
_6 



Rainbow Info 

Received & Certified 
Scoreboard 



Scoreboard Pointers 
Submitting Material 
to Rainbow 



One-Liner Contest 
Information 



104 



64 



Subscription Info 
These Fine Stores, 



PRODUCT REVIEWS 

Product Review Contents. 



80 



16 



102 



169 



156 



88 



173 



12 



98 



163 



190 



195 



178 



198 



183 



165 
131 
150 
152 



64 
64 



206 



.129 




December 1986 



Vol. VI No. 5 



Editor and Publisher 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor James E. Reed 

Senior Editor T. Kevin Nickols 

Submissions Editor Jutta Kapfhammer 

Copy Editor Jo Anna Wittman Arnott 

Reviews Editor Judi Hutchinson 

Editorial Assistants Wendy Falk, Jody Gilbert, 

Angela Kapfhammer, Monica Wheat 
Technical Editor Dan Downard 
Technical Assistant Cray Augsburg 
Contributing Editors William Barden, Jr., 

Steve Blyn, Tony DiStefano, 

Richard Esposito, Martin Goodman, M.D., 

Joseph Kolar, Michael Plog, Dale Puckett, 

Fred Scerbo, Richard White 
Consulting Editors Ed Ellers, 

Danny Humphress, Belinda C. Kirby 

Art Director Heidi Maxedon 
Production Coordinator Cynthia L. Jones 
Designers Tracey Jones, Rita Lawrence, 
Sandra Underwood, Denise Webb 

Chief of Typography Debbie Hartley 
Typography Services Jody Doyle, 
Suzanne Benish Kurowsky 



President 



Faisoft, Inc. 

Lawrence C. Falk 



General Manager Patricia H. Hirsch 

Asst. General Mgr. for Finance Donna Shuck 

Admin. Asst. to the Publisher Sue E. Rodgers 



Editorial Director James E. Reed 

Asst. Editorial Director Jutta Kapfhammer 

Creative Director Heidi Maxedon 



Chief Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Advertising Accounts Beverly Taylor 
Dealer Accounts Judy Quashnock 

Fulfillment Services Director Bonnie Frowenfeld 
Fulfillment Services Asst. Dir. Sandy Apple 
Asst. Customer Service Mgr. Beverly Bearden 
Word Processor Manager Patricia Eaton 

Development Coordinator Ira Barsky 

Chief of Printing Services Melba Smith 

Pre-press Production John Pike 

Dispatch Janice Eastburn 

Asst. Dispatch Mark Herndon 

Business Assistants Laurie Falk, Sharon Smith, 
Pam Workhoven 



Advertising Coordinator Doris Taylor 
Advertising Representative Kim Vincent 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 

(502) 228-4492 

West Coast Advertising and Marketing Office 
Director Cindy J. Shackleford 
Advertising Representative Shirley Duranseau 
For RAINBOW Advertising and 
Marketing Office Informations see Page 208 



THE rainbow is published every month of the year by FALSOFT, Inc., The Faisoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059, phone (502) 
228-4492. the rainbow, RAINBOWfest and the rainbow and RAINBOWfest logotypes are registered ® trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. • Second class postage paid Prospect, 
KY and additional offices. USPS N. 705-050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797). POSTMASTER: Send address changes to the rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. Forwarding 
Postage Guaranteed. Authorized as second class postage paid from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. • Entire contents copyright © by 
FALSOFT, Inc., 1986. the rainbow is intended for the private use and pleasure of its subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by any means is prohibited. Use 
of information herein is for the single end use of purchasers and any other use is expressly prohibited. All programs herein are distributed in an "as is" basis, without 
warranty of any kind whatsoever. • Tandy, Color basic, Extended Color basic and Program Pak are registered « trademarks of the Tandy Corp. • Subscriptions to 
the rainbow are $31 per year in the United States. Canadian rates are U.S. $38. Surface mail to other countries is U.S. $68, air mail U.S. $103. All subscriptions begin 
with next available issue. • Limiled back issues are available. Please see notice for issues that are in print and their costs. Payment accepted by VISA, MasterCard, 
American Express, cash, check or money order in U.S. currency only. Full refund after mailing of one issue. A refund of 10/1 2ths the subscription amount after two 
issues are mailed. No refund after mailing of three or more magazines. . 



LETTERS TO THE UM 




But, What Does It Mean? 



Editor: 

Regarding the cover of the September 
1986 RAINBOW, where the monitor is pro- 
truding through the cover, I recognize the 
wording as being from a Hard Drive Spe- 
cialist advertisement. Why is this? 

I want to thank you for publishing the 
letter from William Capich in the "Down- 
loads" column [August 1986, Page 187]. I 
recently purchased a new 64K CoCo 2, with 
a *B' after the model number. I knew that 
some newer CoCos had built-in lowercase 
and was hoping mine did as well. 

The manual that came with the CoCo just 
said to type SHIFT-O to get lowercase, it 
didn't mention the pokes Mr. Capich wrote 
about at all. It was disappointing to have the 
regular "checkerboard" characters. 

Now I can have 16 different text screens! 
That orange lowercase is really easy on the 
eyes! 

Lee Deuell 
Shell Rock, I A 

The screen shown on our Sep- 
tember 1986 cover shows part of 
Tandy's demonstration program 
for the CoCo 3. The wording on 
the "backside" of the "torn" por- 
tion of the illustration is just some- 
thing selected by our cover artist to 
represent the "insides" of a typical 
Rainbow. My, you are observant! 



BACK TALK 



Editor: 

A letter in the August 1986 issue [Page 6] 
from Ronald Pettus discussed the lack of a 
carriage return at the end of each line when 
using VIP Writer. 

To get around that problem, I use the 
programmable feature of VIP Writer to put 
a carriage return at the end of each line, after 
I have made the line width any value I desire 
(up to 240). However, it has one fault: It will 
not stop at the end of the document being 
altered, so you have to watch the monitor 
and press break to make it stop. You can 
then save the result. 

Press the following keys: break, clear, 

Z, E, UP ARROW, CLEAR, SH1FT-0, RIGHT 
ARROW, RIGHT ARROW, ENTER, DOWN 

arrow, shift-0 and DOWN ARROW. Type 
100 and press enter. 

To execute, go to top of document; having 
set the desired line width, press CLEAR and 
then E, and the process will start. 

John Winchester Dana 
Hamden, CT 



HINTS AND TIPS 

Editor: 

Here's a change for anyone who wants to 
use the program Picprt [May 1986, Page 72] 
for a tape system. 

Change all the LOfiDMs to CLOfiDMs in the 
basic program. After assembling the three 
machine language programs together type: 

POKE&H797F,6:POI<E&H7B0B,G:PDI<E& 
H7B8F,29:POKE&H7B90,255:POKE7 
D10 , 6 : P0KE&H7DBE , 29 : P0KE7DBF , 255 

This changes the start and end addresses 
where the graphic picture is stored. You can 
now CSflVEM them as one program. 

James R. Dean 
Stirling, Ontario 

Forget the Arrow Keys 

Editor: 

For those who would like to use a joystick 
instead of the arrow keys on Ira Goldwyn's 
Scrambled Pix [September 1986, Page 108], 
just replace lines 160 to 210 and 2010 with 
the following: 

160 H=JOYSTK(0):V=JOYSTK(1) 

170 P=PEEI< { 652B0 ) : I FP=1260RP=254 

THEN2000 
180 IFH=0THENR=fi+l:GDTD220 
190 IFH=G3THENR=A-1:GOTO220 
200 IFV=0THENA=A+4:GQTa220 
210 IFV=G3THENA=A-4:GOTO220ELSE 

150 

2010 P=PEEK(G5280) :IFP=1260RP= 
254THEN2000 

This modification is for the right joystick. 
Press the firebutton to see what the picture 
is supposed to look like. 

Donald S. Ricketts 
Boring, OR 

Dont Forget to Toggle 

Editor: 

I agree with Mike McPeek [October 1986, 
Page 9], when he said that without rainbow, 
his computer would just be an expensive 
paperweight on his desk. 

I use Telewriter 64 (disk version) for many 
tasks, both personal and business. One of 
the problems I often encountered was when 
I exited the editor to either load or save a 
file, I would forget to toggle to uppercase. 
This often resulted in saving a file with a 
lowercase filename or when attempting to 
load a file I would get the File Not Found 
message. 



An easy solution to this was to add POKE 
282, 255 to the beginning of both the 
5 -XXX and S . ASC filenames. By adding this 
poke, when you access the disk I/O pro- 
grams, it toggles the computer to uppercase 
characters. This enhancement has saved me 
a lot of frustration. 

Michael L. Dunn 
Winton, CA 



REQUEST HOTLINE 

Editor: 

I have a Radio Shack Color Computer 2. 
Where can I get a program that I can run 
through my Heathkit interface on a short- 
wave radio to bring the Morse code through 
my computer and onto my screen? 

Robert G. Yerkes 
1234 Putnam Howe Drive 
Belpre, OH 45714 

Barking up the Family Tree 

Editor: 

I have a 64K CoCo 2 with one disk drive 
and a CGP-220 (ink jet) printer. We own a 
kennel and fin looking for a program that 
will keep dog show records, pedigrees, etc. 
Please send any information to me. 

Stanley Hughes 
VIP Kennel 
Box 2630 
Corinna, ME 04928 

Gimme an Angle 

Editor: 

I am a tenth grader and would like to get 
information on where I could obtain a 
program on geometry. 

Todd Kirchenberg 
4004 S. 12 Place 
Sheboygan, WI 53081 

Paint the Fence; Wax the Car 

Editor: 

I have a 64K CoCo and I am looking for 
a karate program. I would also like infor- 
mation on how to make a program run 
automatically after you load it from cassette. 

Alan Asher 
95 Korby Road 
Esko, MN 55733 

See Kung Fu Fighter on Page 66 
in the March 1986 issue. Also, 
Diecom Products has the game 
Karate. 



THE RAINBOW December 1 986 




YOU COULD FALL IN LOVE WITH 

AUTOTERM! 



>- " ■< 

f IT TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE ^ 

WORLD'S 
SMARTEST 
TERMINAL 



GOOD 
LOOKIN' 



AUTOTERM shows true upper/ 
lower case in screen widths of 32, 
40, 42, 51, or 64 characters with 
no split words. The width of 32 
has extra large letters. Scrolling is 
forward, backward, and fast. Block 
graphics pictures are displayed 
automatically and can be scrolled. 

The screen's top line shows 
operating mode, unused memory 
size, memory on/off, and caps- 
lock on/off. It also gives helpful 
prompts. 



SWEET 
TALKIN' 



KEY-BEEP can be on/off. Unac- 
ceptable keystrokes cause a lower 
pitched BOP! This ERROR- 
BEEBOP can be on/off. 

Talks to other computers with 
Full or Half Duplex; Baud Rate of 
110, 150, 300, 600, 1200; Parity as 
even, odd, mark, space, none; 7 
or 8 bit Word; any Stop Bits; all 
128 ASCII characters; true line 
Break; XON/XOFF protocol; and 
optional line-at-a-time transmis- 
sion. Able to send and receive 
text, block graphics, BASIC and 
ML programs. A 64K machine 
holds up to 45,000 characters 
(33,300 in HI-RES). 

DUAL PROCESSING lets you 
review & edit while more data is 
coming in. 

XMODEM for disk file transfer. 



Fully supports D.C. Hayes and 
other intelligent modems. 

Talks to your printer with any 
page size, margins, line spacing, 
split word avoidance. Embed your 
printer's control sequences for 
boldface, underlining, etc- Narrow 
text can be automatically spread 
out. 

You'll also use Autoterm 
for simple word processing 
and record keeping 

You can display directories, 
delete files, transmit directly from 
disk, and work with files larger 
than memory. Easily maintain a 
disk copy of an entire session. 

Compatible with TELEWRITER 
(ASCII) & other word processors. 

SMOOTH 
WALK IN 1 

AUTOTERM moves smoothly 
and quickly between word proces- 
sing and intelligent terminal 
action. Create text, correct your 
typing errors; then connect to the 
other computer, upload your text, 
download information, file it, and 
sign-off; then edit the received 
data, print it in an attractive 
format, and/or save it on file. 

Editing is super simple with the 
cursor. Find strings instantly, too! 
Any operating parameter, such as 
screen width, can be altered at 
any time. Uncompleted com- 
mands can be cancelled. 




PUTTY IN 
YOUR HANDS 



The word processor can be 
used to create, print, and/or save 
on file your personal KSMs. They 
let AUTOTERM act like you. For 
example, it can dial through your 
modem, sign-on, interact, perform 
file operations, & sign-off; an 
entire session without your help. 
KSMs can answer the phone, 
prompt the caller, take messages, 
save them, hang-up, and wait for 
the next call. The KSM potential 
is unbelievable! 

NO OTHER COMPUTER IN 
THE WORLD CAN MATCH 
YOUR COCO'S AUTOMATIC 
TERMINAL CAPABILITIES!!! 

WHAT THE 
REVIEWERS SAY 

"AUTOTERM is the Best of Class." 
Graham, RAINBOW, 6/83 

"The AUTOTERM buffer system is 
the most sophisticated — and one of 
the easiest to use. . ." 
Banta, HOT CoCo, 9/84 

"Almost a full featured word 
processor, . ." 
Ellers, RAINBOW, 11/84 

"AUTOTERM's excellent error- 
handling routines, thorough docu- 
mentation, and logical, easy-to-use 
command structure make it stand 
out." 

Parker, HOT CoCo, 5/85 



AVAILABLE IN CANADA 

from 

Kelly Software Distributors 
Edmonton, Alberta 



CASSETTE $39.95 
DISKETTE $49.95 

Add $3 shipping and handling 

MC/VISA/C.O.D. 



PXE Computing 

11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson, Texas 75080 

214/699-7273 



Please hire the mentally retarded. They are sincere, hard working and 
appreciative. Thanks! Phyllis 



INFORMATION PLEASE 

Editor: 

I am deaf and I recently tried to use my 
Tandy 64K CoCo 2 and modem to telephone 
other deaf people with a TTY (teleprinter). 
The modem on my computer did not work 
with the TTY. The TTY is only 50 baud and 
my computer modem is only 300/ 1200 baud. 
Can you make the modem program a true 
50 baud? How much would it cost to make 
the programs sync? 

John Metcalfe 
5 Coo ley Avenue 
Macleod, Victoria 3085 

Australia 



Copy Cat 

Editor: 

I have a CoCo 2, J&M disk controller and 
a disk drive. How do you copy binary files 
from one disk to another with a single disk 
drive? 

Thomas Crowe 
Apartado aereo 2353 
Villavicencio, Colombia 
South America 

To copy any file from one disk to 
another on a one-drive system, 
insert the disk with the file to be 
copied and type COPY filename. ext 
ENTER. The computer will prompt 
you to insert the original and, then, 
the destination disk. The file will 
be copied with the same name, so 
if there is already a file with that 
name on the new disk you should 
rename or kill it first. 

The Force was with Him 

Editor: 

I have a copy of Colorkit from Arizin, Inc. 
in Scottsdale, Ariz., and have used it a lot. 
Last week I was unable to load it because 
it gave me an error. Like a good disk system 
user, I tried to load my backup copy. No go, 
my backup copy was under a bag of magnets 
my wife had purchased for next Christmas. 

Bruce Butterfield 
3318 Pepperwood Lane 
Fort Collins, CO 80525 

Expanding Horizons 

Editor: 

I have a DMP-105 printer which I use 
with my CoCo 2. 1 often print out graphics 
displays. I use the Hi-Res Screen Print 
Utilities. My printer will only print half- 
width pictures. The manual that came with 
the print utility said to check the printer 
manual on how to set the printer to the 
expanded print mode. When I looked in the 
manual for my printer I found no such 
information. I tried the elongated font 
(CHR$(14)) but that did not work. Is there 
any way to set my printer to the expanded 
print mode? 

Tom Cook 
229 N. Second Avenue 
Villa Park, IL 60181 

8 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



Bonkers Over BBSs 

Editor: 

I am in search of CoCo users who have 
any BBS numbers, telecommunications 
software or public domain BBS system 
software they can send me. 

Philip Cavanagh 
6840 Beaton Road 
R.R. 3 

Sooke, British Columbia 
Canada V0S 1N0 

Radio Rodeo 

Editor: 

I am a Ham radio operator and am 
looking for CW, RTTY, and any other 
programs for my Tandy Color Comput- 
er. .. . 

Silvio Araujo 
950 N.E. 100th Street 
Miami Shores, FL 33138 

Editor: 

... I have been looking for a program 
that would translate CW (continuous wave 
Morse code transmission) and RTTY from 
a shortwave radio. Have you ever printed 
anything on this order in rainbow. . . ? 

Charles Dockham 
36 Davey Street 
Buffalo, NY 14206 

Editor: 

... I would like to know if the February 
1985 issue of your magazine dealing with 
weather fax printouts using the 64K Color 
Computer is still available, and also, 
whether subsequent issues are available 
dealing with this subject and RTTY recep- 
tion in general? 

Leigh Wright 
3020 Bridgeway #452 
Sausalito, CA 94965 

In addition to the WEFAX pro- 
gram on Page 42 in our February 
1985 issue, see Page 36 in the 
November 1986 issue for coverage 
of RTTY. 



THE NEW ADDITION 

Editor: 

In the September 1986 issue of rainbow 
I was thrilled to read that Tandy had intro- 
duced the CoCo 3. In Steve Bjork's com- 
mentary [Page 26], he stated that a graphics 
resolution of 640 by 225 could be achieved 
using the analog RGB monitor. However, in 
both the 1987 Tandy catalog and in the 
brochure I picked up in the Radio Shack 
Computer Center it stated that the highest 
resolution possible for the CoCo 3 with a 
CM-8 was 640 by 192. Please explain this 
conflict in specs. 

Jay Puckhaber 
1057 Echo Woods Court 
Clarkston, GA 30021 

The highest resolution requires 
OS-9 and certain programming 
techniques as well as an analog 
RGB monitor. 



Editor: 

I just received your September 1986 issue 
announcing the CoCo 3 and it certainly does 
seem to be an impressive machine. However, 
as I have invested a considerable amount of 
money and time in OS-9 Level I software, 
a couple of questions immediately come to 
mind. First, will the existing OS-9 Level I 
software from Tandy, such as Dynacalc and 
DeskMate, and products from other 
vendors, such as the Textool utilities from 
Computerware, run under the Level II 
system? If not, will the new CoCo 3 run the 
Level I system? Also, will I need to purchase 
a new disk controller to run my existing 
Tandy disk system with the CoCo 3 under 
either RS-DOS or OS-9? 

Bruce Albert 
P.O. Box 174 
Cedar Glen, CA 92321 



The CoCo 3 will operate under 
the OS-9 Level /system. 

We expect these programs to 
work, but we, too, are waiting to 
receive Level II OS-9. 

As long as you have Disk Ex- 
tended basic 1.0 or 1.1, youllhave 
no trouble with the CoCo 3. 



Editor: 

I am very excited about the new CoCo 3. 
I have a couple of questions concerning this 
new computer. In Steve Bjork's article he 
said that artifact colors were not available 
with the new CM-8 RGB monitor. Are 
artifact colors available at all on the CoCo 
3 and, if so, would you be able to get them 
if the computer was set at composite instead 
of RGB with the CM-8 monitor? Also, I 
would like to know if windows can be used 
without OS-9. The CoCo 3 looks great and 
I plan on buying it as soon as all my ques- 
tions are cleared up about the CoCo 3. 

George J. Hoffman 
161 Youngblood Avenue 
Shavertown, PA 18708 

Artifact colors are supported on 
the CoCo 3 but only when using a 
composite color monitor or TV. 
The CM-8 is strictly an RGB 
analog monitor and does not sup- 
port artifacting. 



Editor: 

To start off, the introduction of the CoCo 
3 is not a great thing. I am sure some of the 
owners of the CoCo 1 and 2 are not happy 
about this news. 

The CoCo 3 is better than the old ones so 
what are we, the proud owners of the older 
models to do — get the new CoCo 3? What 
if the CoCo 3 has its own software, what are 
we supposed to do, sit around and let the 
CoCo 3 take over and leave the older models 
to rust? 

I propose that the CoCo makers develop 
an extension for the old CoCos to make it 
like the CoCo 3. Like adding extra chips to 
the computer to make it like new so we don't 
have to be left out in the cold. If this can be 



500 
POKEs, 
PEEKS, 
'N 

EXECs 

FOR THE TRS-80 COCO 




NEVER BEFORE has this infor- 
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This 80-page book includes 
POKEs, PEEKs and EXECs to: 

★ Autostart your basic programs 

★ Disable Color Basic/ECB/Disk 
Basic commands like LIST, 
LLIST, POKE, EXEC, CSAVE(M), 
DEL, EDIT, TROM, TROFF, 
PCLEAR, DLOAD, REMUM, PRINT 
USING, DIR, KILL, SAVE, LOAD, 
MERQE, REM AM E, DSKINI, 
BACKUP, DSKI$, and DSKO$. 

★ Disable BREAK KEY, CLEAR KEY 
and RESET BUTTON. 
Generate a Repeat-key. 
Transfer ROMPAKS to tape (For 
64K only). 

Speed Up your programs. 

Reset, MOTOR ON /OFF from 
keyboard. 

Recover Basic programs lost by 
MEW. 

Set 23 different 
QRAPHIC/SEMIQRAPHIC modes 
Merge two Basic programs. 

AND MUCH MUCH MOREIII 
COMMANDS COMPATIBLE WITH 
1 6 IS/3 2 K/ 64 ¥J COLOR BASIC/ECB/DISK 
BASIC SYSTEMS and CoCo I and CoCo II. 

ONLY $16.95 



★ 
★ 

★ 
★ 



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200 additional Pokes, Peeks'n Execs to 
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Includes commands for 

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• PAINT with 65000 styles! 

• Use of 40 track single/ double sided drives with variable 
step- rates 

• High-Speed Cassette Operation 

• Telewriter 64® Edtasm+® and CoCo Mai® 
Enhancements 

• Graphics Dump (for DMP printers) & Text Screen Dump 

• AND MUCH MUCH MORE! 

• 500 POKES, PEEKS 'N EXECS is a prerequisite 



DISK TUTORIAL 




(2- Disk Package) 



An indispensable tutorial for serious disk 
Basic/ ML programmers Gives almost 
everything you MUST know about the disk 
system Some features: 

• Learn about track/sectors/granules 

• How the Directory is organized 

• Useful disk utilities 

• Useful ROM routines 

• How to use double sided/40/80 track drives 

• Information security on disk 

• Insight into common disk errors 

• Many Tips/ Hints/ Secrets you won't find 
elsewhere) 

• And Much Much More! 

only $36.95 



JhJF 




MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 21 4 
Fairport, N.Y. 14450 
Phone (71 6) 223-1477 



At Last! A program to create full- page signs 
and multi-page Banners on your printer 
Many fine features: 

• Select from 6 Border Styles 

• Includes 6 Font Styles 

• Font Editor allows you to create your own fonts 

• Automatically centers your signs 

• Creates 6" High Banners 

• Menu Driven/ Easy to use 

Why buy expensive Graphics Programs 
when SIGNS N BANNERS can do the job! 

Compatible with DMP printers with graphics 
capability, Gemini 10X, 15X, SG-10, 
SG-15 and virtually ANY printer with 
60 X72 dots per inch capability. Compatible 
with Disk Basic 1.0 and 1.1 

64K DISK ONLY $26.95 



a 



GREETING CARD 
DESIGNER 

Create your own greeting cards for 
Birthdays, Holidays and Special Occasions 
Includes a library of pre-drawn pictures 
and custom border styles Includes a Font 
Editor. Compatible with EPSON RX/FX/ 
GEMINI 10X/SG-10, C-IT0H 851 0, DMP- 
100/105/400/430, SEIK0SHA GP-1 00/ 
250, LEGEND 808 and GORILLA BANANA 
printers Requires a minimum of 32 K and a 
disk drive Compatible with Disk Basic 1 .0/ 
1.1, ADOS orJDOS. 

only $24.95 
COCO DISK ZAPPER 



A 




Are you frustrated with crashed disks? If 
so, this program can save hours of labor by 
restoring complete or part of the information 
from the disk If s indespensable! 

Requires minimum 32 K/64K disk system 
ONLY $24.95 



VISA, MC, Am Ex, Check M0. Please add $3.00 shipping and handling (USA & 
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Sales Tax Immediate shipment Dealer inquiries invited 




Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1 -800-654-5244 9 am- 9 pm est 7 days a week 

Except NY. For information, technical information, NY orders & after-hours 1 -71 6-223-1 477 



done, a lot of people would save a lot of 
money instead of getting the new CoCo 3. 

Anthony Achong 
265 Cherry Street 
New York, NY 10002 

We consider the Co Co 3 to be 
progress in a fast-changing 
computer world, ft would not be 
feasible to offer an upgrade from 
the Co Co 2 to the Co Co 3. Due to 
the advanced technology and de- 
sign used in the Co Co 3, such an 
upgrade would require replacing 
the Co Co 2 circuit board with a 
new one. This would not be cost 
effective. 



CoCo Cat Art 




Gladys Chappell 
Kennewick, WA 



Patchin' Up Writer-Zap 

Editor: 

For those readers who eagerly typed in 
Writer-Zap [September J986, Page 116] 
only to see their screen display INCOMPAT- 
IBLE VERSION, I have a patch to Ian 
Millard's outstanding program that may 
solve the problem. I have been waiting a long 
time for a program like this and was deter- 
mined to make it work. After some search- 
ing around my VIP Writer disk, I was 
successful. 

To see if this patch will work, change the 
57 in Line 140 to 48. Run the program. If 
it makes it to PART I - TABS, break out of 
the program and type in the following 
changes: 

Line 150: change 95 to 61, 104 to 70, 94 
to 60 

Line 220: change 5344 to 65344 
1 0 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



Line 230: change 126 to 92 

Delete lines 240 and 250 

Add lines 262 and 264: 
262 C=97:D$="3":G0SUB 340 
264 C=99:D$="4":G0SUB 340 

Note: When entering codes for CLEAR 3 
and CLEAR 4 only a one-digit printer code 
is possible, so do not enter an escape code 
at the first prompt. Just press the enter key 
to skip to the next prompt and enter a single 
printer code. 

Line 260: delete C$=A$: change 1 to 95 
Line 270: change 8 to 102 
Line 280: change 11 to 105 
Line 290: change 14 to 108 
Line 300: change 17 to 111 
Line 310: change 20 to 114 
Line 320: change 23 to 117 
Line 330: change C$ to A$ change B$ to 
C$ 

Line 430: add B=B-1 : to the beginning of 
the line 

Line 440: change 37 to 21, 64 to 48, 59 
to 43 

Line 470: add : PR I NTS155 , E$ to the end 
of the line. 

Now if someone can just figure out how 
to modify the fire-up screen parameters (I,C, 
24, 64n and width64) Writer-Zap will be 
complete. 

Doug Thorsvik 
Biloxi, MS 



Editor: 

We have received dozens of requests for 
further information on Writer-Zap [Sep- 
tember 1986, Page 116] and we want to clear 
up any misconceptions caused by the IN- 
COMPATIBLE VERSION statement. That test 
was added as an afterthought, just in case 
someone tried to use Writer-Zap on a 
version of VIP Writer that had been mod- 
ified, thereby destroying their word proces- 
sor. We were unaware that there was an older 
version of VIP Writer on the market, and 
did not intend leaving large numbers of users 
out in the cold. 

For those people running 1.0, Writer-Zap 



may not have worked. These folks should 
replace these two lines as shown: 

30 FOR A=35B4 TO 3659:READ B:P0KE 
A, B: NEXT A:EXEC&HE00 

570 DATA 134, 32,142, 4,0, 167, 12B, 
140, 6, 0,3B, 249, 142, 4, 42, 49, 141, 
0,23,141,2,32,13,166,160,129, 
64,3B,1,57,12B 

I want to thank Doug Thorsvik for his 
research to produce the patch he has sent to 
the rainbow. As we have been unable to get 
a copy of the old VIP Writer, we could not 
confirm the value changes that Doug has 
provided. 

However, we have an addition that allows 
the user to change his line width default by 
adding the following line. 

195 PRINT "LINE WIDTH DEFAULT IS" 
ASC ( M I D$ ( A$ , 72 , 1 ) ) : I NPUT "CHANGE 
IT T0";C:IF CO0 THEN MID$ 
(A$,72,1)=CHR$(C) 

The 72 is for the original version of 
Writer-Zap. For those of you with compat- 
ibility problems, it seems that changing these 
two values to 63 may do the trick. 

Further details on multiple printer driver 
codes have become available. For more 
information, call (416)456-0032 or write me. 

Ian Millard 
18 Rowe Court 
Brampton, Ontario 
Canada L6X 2S2 



BOUQUETS AND BRICKBATS 

Editor: 

I would like to say thanks to Dayton 
Associates for the technical support I re- 
ceived from them on my newly purchased 
Gemini NX-10. Thanks, Dayton, for the fast 
and professional response. 

Tracy Walker 
Donaldsonville, LA 

Continued on Page 176 



ARTS AND LETTERS 



9t 







Envelope of the Month M Redelsheimer 

r St. Lows, MO 



UTILITIES/BOOKS 




UTILITY ROUTINES for the 
TANDY & TRS-80 COCO (Vol 1) 

This powerful book for Basic and ML 
Programmers, includes program expla- 
nation, memory requirements and an 
annotated source listing for the utility 
routines given below. These routines if 
bought individually will cost you 
HUNDREDS OF DOLLARS. 

These are 100% Position Independent 
ML Utilities and require no ML program- 
ming knowledge. 

COMMAND KEYS: Access commands with 2 keystrokes 
CURSOR STYLES: Over 65000 cursor styles 
ERROR SKIP: 'ONERR GOTO' for Basic Programs 
FULL LENGTH ERRORS: Get real word error messages 
KEY CLICKER: Ensure Key input accuracy 
REPEAT KEY: Repeat ANY key 
REVERSE VIDEO (Green & Red): Eliminate eye-strain 
SPOOLER: Don't wait for those long printouts 
SUPER SCROLLER: Save/view scrolled lines 
TAPE-TO- DISK: Copy Basic and ML programs 
AND MUCH MUCH MORE!!! 

For16K/32K/64K Cassette or Disk 
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BOOK $19.95 

THESE ROUTINES (READY-TO- RUN) ON 

CAS/DISK 

$24.95 

BOTH BOOK AND CASSETTE 
or DISK 

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UTILITY ROUTINES (VOLUME II) 

(Disk Only) .^Mfc, 

Includes 20 oft-used utilities such as: ^f^Jfl^ 

• PAINT with 65000 styles 

• Add SUPERSCRIPTS to your DMP printer 

• Design your own commands! 

• Programming Clock 

• Fast Sort for Basic Strings 

• Create a character set for your DMP printer 

• FintV Replace phrases in your Basic Program 

• Let the computer locate your errors! 

• CoCo Calculator 

• Super EDITing for Basic Programs 

• Automatic Directory Backup 

• And much much more! 

64K DISK ONLY 

$29.95 



WE HAVE ALL THAT YOU NEED TO SUCCEED 




SUPER TAPE/DISK 
TRANSFER 




• Disk- to Disk Copy(1 -3 passes) 

• Tape- to- Disk Copy 

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Copies Basic/ ML programs and DATA files. 
32 K Disk System 
(Disk to Disk Copy requires 64 K) 

DISK ONLY 

$24.95 



UTILITY BONANZA I 

Includes 20 best- selected utilities: 

• 40 K Disk Basic • Disk Cataloger 

• Super Tape-to- Disk Copy (with Automatic Relocate) 

• Disk-to- Tape Copy 

• L List Enhancer (with page numbering!) 

• Graphics Typesetter (two text sizes!) 

• LARGE DMP Graphics Dump 

• X-Ref for Basic Programs 

• Hidden 32K (Use the "hidden" 32K from your 64K CoCo) 

• Basic Stepper (Super Debugger!) 

• RAM Disk (for Cassette & Disk Users) 

• Single Key Printer Text Screen Dump 

AND MUCH. MUCH MORE!!! 

DISK (64K Reel) 
ONLY $29.95 



fit 



MUST" BOOKS 



UNRAVELLED SERIES: These 3 books 
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the BASIC/ECB and DISK ROMs. 

COLOR BASIC UNRAVELLED: $19.95 
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DISK BASIC UNRAVELLED: $19.95 
ALL 3 UNRAVELLED BOOKS: $49.95 
RAINBOW GUIDE TO OS-9 (Book): $18.95 
RAINBOW GUIDE TO OS-9 (2 Disks): $29.00 
BASIC PROGRAMMING TRICKS: Tips and tricks 
for Basic Programmers Only $14.95 



OTHER SOFTWARE... 

Telewriter-64 (Cas) $47.95 (Dsk) 57.95 
Teleform: Mail Merge for TW-64® 1 9.95 
Telepatch (Dsk) 19.95 
Telepatch II 29.95 

CoCo Max (Cas) 67.95 
CoCo Max II (Dsk) 77.95 
CoCo Max Upgrade (Dsk) 18.95 
ProColorFile(Dsk) (includesSIMON) 54.95 
Dynacalc (Dsk) 79.95 
Autoterm(Cas) 36.95 
(Latest Version) (Dsk) 46.95 
Graphicom II 22.95 
SPU N IMAGE: Makes a mirror image 
(BACKUP) of ANY disk, even protected 
ones. Will also initialize and BACKUP in one 
pass. ONLY $32.95 

COCO UTIL II (Latest Version): Transfer 
CoCo Disk files to IBM compatible 
computer. Transfer MS-DOS files to CoCo. 
ONLY $36.95 

DISK ANTI-PIRATE: Best copy- protection 
program for disk Basic and ML programs. 
ONLY $59.95. 

HIDE-A-BASIC 1.1: Best copy- protection 
program for Cassette Basic programs. 
ONLY $24.95. 

CABLES/HARDWARE 

UNIVERSAL VIDEO DRIVER: Use your 
monochrome or color monitor with your 
CoCo (ALL CoCos). Includes audio 
connection Easy installation - no 
soldering ONLY $29.95 

INTRONICS EPROM PROGRAMMER: Best 
EPROM Programmer for the CoCo. 
Lowest Price Anywhere - $137.95. 

RS232 Y CABLE: Hook 2 devices to the 
serial port ONLY $18.95. 

3 P0SITI0N SWITCHES: 

Select any one of three RS232 devices 
(printers/ modems) from the serial port 
ONLY $34.95. 

Y CABLE: Use your Disk System with CoCo 
Ma* DS69, eta ONLY $24.95 

DISKETTES (10): BONUS Brand SS/DD 

diskettes for the CoCa 100% Guaran- 
teed. $12/ box. 



MJF 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 21 4 
Fairport, N.Y. 14450 
Phone (71 6) 223-1477 



To order All orders $50 & above shipped by 2nd day Air UPS with no extra charge. Last minute shoppers 
can benefit VISA, MC, Am Ex, Check, MO. Please add $3.00 shipping and handling 
(USA& CANADA, other countries $5.00) C0Dadd$2.50 extra NYS residents please add 
Sales Tax Immediate shipment Dealer inquiries invited 





Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1 -800-654-5244 9 am- 9 pm est 7 days a week 

Except NY. For information, technical informatioa NY orders & after-hours 1 -71 6-223-1 477 



New CoCo 3 Brings Back 
Memories of the Early Excitement 



Kim Vincent 1^ 1 
thought I might share it with you because it is some truly 
exciting information for all of us, 
Kim, who we sometimes call "KJK" because about half the letters 
she gets here are addressed to the wrong first name and the most 
frequent mistakes are "Kit" and "Jim" (thus Kit, fim, Kim), said that 
last week she got a number of calls from people in South Carolina 
interested in advertising new CoGo 3 products in THE RAINBOW, 

"How come all from the same place?" asked Kim, who — along 
with Jack Garland in the eastern part of the country and Cindy 
Shackleford in the West — sells advertising space in this magazine. 

Kim likes to ask questions and I am not always certain of the 
answers. This time, though, I was. "Simple," I said, "There is a Tandy 
warehouse in South Carolina and it is obvious that some of the first 
CoCo 3s to be released got into the hands of people who placed orders 
at stores close to the warehouse." 

Now, despite the fact that we would like to see more advef tiding 
in THE RAINBOW for a wide variety of reasons, this news is heartening 
for other reasons as well. I have been part of this whole market long 
enough to remember the earlier days of the CoCo when just about 
everyone (or so it seemed) had some idea for a program for this 
fantastic computer. 

The most interesting thing about all of that is that many of those 
people — the Paul Searbys, Tom Mixes, Bob Rosens, Howard 
Cohens and Ron Krebses — have established some fine businesses 
for themselves. They came out early, developed more sophisticated 
programs as time went on, and became some of the leaders of the 
CoCo Community. They also — as I did — had a lot of fun doing 
it> and made some money as well. 

I am reminded, too, of people whose names you might not know. 
People like Wayne Diercks, Mel Heftner and Arnold Pouch, They 
each developed good programs for CoCo in the eairly days* Wayne's 
business got to be too big for him and he sold out to another company 
who still markets his programs; Mel was the world's leading expert 
in screen dump programs, but with the advent of super-graphics 
programs the need for screen dumps pretty much went away, at least 
as a commercial product; Arnold was one of the most innovative 
minds I have known in any computer market. Sadly, he has passed 
away 



Printer interface 



Compatible with the 
new COC03 




mmsm&z. x 




Seikosha SP-100 



Printer 



Free shipping 

Graphics 
Multiple Copies 
Variable Line Spacing 
Paper Width 

Pin and friction — 4" to 10*. 
Centronics parallel. 
Impact dot matrix method, bi- 
directional in logic seeking, uni- 
directional in graphic printing. 
100 (Draft mode), 20 cps (Near 
Letter Quality) print speed, with 
reduced noise level. 
Pin-feed or friction-feed. 
Automatic paper loading function. 




Model 104F ii 
interface with 
Modem Switch 



Printer, a true parallel printer, not 
the SP-1000AS which is a serial 
Jltifite'r that cannot operalg at the 
standard Color Computer Baud 
Rate of $00. 



True descenders 

A variety of functions including 

Under line. Bold print, Double 

striking. 

A variety of print character sets 
including Pica, Elite, Italics, Super/ 
Subscripts, Proportional, 
Elongated, Condensed, and Italic 
Super/Subscripts. 
Standard 1.5K buffer. 

Printer is covered with a two- 
year warranty. 




The Model 101 is a serial to 
parallel interface intended for use 
with a COCO and any Centronics 
compatible parallel input printer. 
The 101 has 6 switch selectable 
baud rates (300-9600). The 101 
is only 4" x 2" x 1 " and comes 
with all cables and connectors for 
your computer and printer. 



Other Quality items 



High Quality 5 Screw Shell C-10 
Cassette Tapes $7.50 per dozen 

tad r'losUt; BIoibcjq Boxes for 
Canswit^ Ta,>jf. i:\ h0 p«?« dozen 

Pin Feed Cassette lii&efe 
While $3.00 per 100 



The Model 102 has 3 switch 
positions that allow you to 
switch your computer's serial 
output between 3 different 
devices (modem, printers or 
another computer). The 102 has 
color coded lights that indicate 
the switch position. These 
lights also act as power 
indicators to let you know your 
computer is on. Supplied with 
the 102 are color coded labels 
that can be applied to your 
accessories. The 102 has 
a heavy guage anodized 
aluminum cabinet with non-slip 
rubber feet. 




The Model 104 is a serial to 
parallel interface like the Model 
101 but it has the added feature 
of a serial port (sometimes 
referred to as a modem switch). 
This feature allows the connection 
of a parallel printer and any 
serial device (modem, serial printer 
etc.) to your computer. You may 
then select either output, serial or 
parallel, with the flip of a switch. 
The 104 is only 4.5" X 2.5" X 1.25" 
and comes with all cables and 
connectors for your computer. You 
supply the serial cable for your 
modem or other serial device. 




Ribbons for your SfM 000 -series. 
Seikosha printers $8.00 

The Model 101, 102, and 104 
work with any COCO including 
COC03, any level basic and any 
memory size, These products are 
covered by a 1 year warranty. 



The 101 and 104 require power In 
order !o ontiWfr Most printers 
cafi supply power 10 you*, 
interface. Star, Radio Shack, and 
Okfdata are Just a lew mai do 



Ordering Information 



Free shipping and Insurance in 
the lintel Sunns {*»eapi 
and Hawaii) on afl orders over 



Epson and Seikosha do not 'The $50.00. Please add $2.50 for mm 



Interfaces can also be powered by 
an AC adapter (Radio Shack 
Model 273-1431 plugs Into 
ail models). If you require a power 
supply, add a U P" to the Model 
number and $5.00 to the price 
(Model 101 P $44.95, MODEL 104P 
$56.95). 



shipping and handling on order^ 
under $50.00. 






turn 



New Version 1.3 Tape transferra* 
bte to disk. Now save and 
load Labels from tape or disk. 

This fancy printing utility prints 
5 lines of information on 
pinfeed cassette labels. "Cas- 
sette Label" is menu driven and 
is very easy to use. It uses the 
special features of your 
printer for standard, expanded 
or condensed characters. Each 
line of text is automatically 
centered. Before the label 
is printed, it is shown on your 
CRT ~ enabling you to 
make changes if you like — 
then print 1, 2 or 100 labels. The 
program comes on tape and it 
is supplied with 24 labels to 
get you started. 16K ECB 
required. 



Ohio residents add 5.5% sales 

'W-r-^ ~r- ■ .... " 

Call (513) 677-0796 and use VISA, 

MASTERCARD or C.O.D. 

or send check or money order to: 




Call for prices on 
the SP4000A an 

h 




5+J 



If 



Metric Industries inc. 

P.O. Box 42396 
Cincinnati, Ohio 45242 



But Wayne, Mel and Arnold all had 
a lot of fun in the computer business, 
got to know a lot of people, and put a 
not inconsiderable amount of money in 
their own pockets. It was his success, 
after all, which led Wayne to sell out. 

All of these people, and lots of others, 
were early entrants into the CoCo 
market — in something like the first 18 
months. It was a new market, thriving 
with enthusiasm and energy. There were 
new ideas almost every day. 

Most of those early programs and 
ideas came from something someone 
wanted to do with their computer. 
When they did it well enough to satisfy 
themselves, they brushed it up and 
started selling it. I did, too. I wrote a 
program, an Adventure called Vampire, 
which enjoyed limited success. Of 
course, the rainbow enjoyed a lot 
more, but that's another story. 

That's why I'm encouraged by the 
news Kim brings. The story is a familiar 
one. Tandy puts a really neat computer 
in the hands of some creative people, 
they see something they want to do, and 
they figure they may as well market it. 

Don't try doing that in the IBM or 
Atari field. That's big bucks territory. 
Shoot, youH pay PC Magazine as much 
to run a full-page ad as you will us for 
almost a whole year! And, to really 
make a success, there are a lot of other 
things you have to be able to do to 
market it as well. 

Someone once asked me what the key 
to THE rainbow's success was. The 
answer was a very simple one: We have 
always made it possible for people to be 
successful. Our business is your success 
— whether it is learning how to get the 



most out of your CoCo, or whether it 
is selling CoCo software or hardware. 
If you succeed, we succeed. It's as simple 
as that. 

Perhaps that is why I am most excited 
about KJK's news. I sense a stirring of 
new ideas, new products, new uses — 
innovations in general. It bodes well for 
CoCo. 

If you have an idea, call Kim or Jack 
or Cindy. They'll be happy to help. I 
look forward to hearing about your 
ideas, and I am sure they'll be interest- 
ing. After all, here is a chance to start 
off on the ground floor of a new, but 
well-established, marketplace. 

We are very glad to welcome Richard 
Esposito to these pages as Doctor 
ASCII. I've admired Richard's column 
for quite some time and his willingness 
to share information and assistance 
with others. As is obvious from these 
pages, we think question-and-answer 
columns are good and we like to run 
them. Richard's is one of the best. 

It is really appropriate to thank Eric 
Maloney, editor-in-chief of 80 Micro 
for allowing us to use the Doctor ASCII 
name for the column. 

I am sorry that 80 Micro has dropped 
CoCo coverage. They were a worthy 
competitor, as was the magazine they 
first gave birth to and then absorbed, 
HOT CoCo, We knew that they did not 
plan to continue the CoCo coverage — 
80 Micro's bread and butter is Model I, 
II, III and 4 computers — but felt it not 
politic to comment publicly. 

Someone once asked what we would 
do if there were no competition. The 
answer is that we will keep on keeping 



on. And, by the way, there are no plans 
for an increase in subscription rates this 
coming year — just as there was no 
increase last year. 

We're sorry to see the CoCo coverage 
end in 80 Micro, but understand why it 
must. Its main base of readers have Z- 
80-based computers and surely don't 
want the space devoted to CoCo (or 
MS-DOS, for that matter) when it 
could be used for their own machines. 

By way of finally for this month, you 
may be interested to know that we are 
changing the focus of one of our other 
magazines, SOFT SECTOR. For the past 
two years, SOFT SECTOR has supported 
the Sanyo line of MS-DOS machines. 
Beginning this month, SOFT SECTOR 
becomes the only magazine I know of 
that's devoted to the PC Compatible 
market. Among others, it will cover 
Tandy, Victor, AT&T, Compaq and 
Leading Edge MS-DOS machines, 
from the compatible perspective. Our 
other publication, PCM will continue 
to cover the Tandy MS-DOS and por- 
table computers exclusively. But SOFT 
SECTOR will be something different and 
we look forward to its debut. 

We also look forward to 1987 — a 
year we think will be highly successful 
for CoCo and THE RAINBOW, Tandy's 
compatibles and PCM, and PC com- 
patibles and the new SOFT SECTOR. 

But most of the excitement is here at 
THE RAINBOW. And no wonder; the 
CoCo and the CoCo 3 are excitement- 
generating computers! 



Lonnie Falk 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING for the TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 



At last - The book exclusively for you and your CoCo !! 
You've learned BASIC and are now ready to learn assembly 
language programming. This hands-on guide begins with 
the basics and progresses to the expert level; 
revealing programming conventions and techniques and 
aU, the internal capabilities of the TDP-100, CoCo 1 
and 2. At every step of the way are illustrations, 
sample programs, and plain English explanations. All 
sample programs are shown as assembled with Radio 
Shack's EDTASM+ cartridge. Plus£ a complete chapter 
explains how to use all EDTASM+ capabilities. This book 
describes how to write subroutines, interrupt handlers, 
programs that control the graphics display modes, 
cassette, disk, keyboard, sound, joysticks, serial I/O, 
interrupts, and use of ROM resident subroutines. Also 
covered are the MC6809E microprocessor, the video 
display generator (VDG), peripheral interface adapters 



(PIA), SAM, memory, and how they all work together. 
Suitable as a high school or college textbook. 
CHAPTERS ; The Binary Number System • Memory and Data 
Representation - Introduction MC6809E Microprocessor - 
Addressing Modes of the MC6809E - MC6809E Instruction 
Set - Assembly Language Programming with EDTASM+ - 
Assembly Language Programming - Assembly Language and 
Extended Color BASIC - Internal Control and Graphics - 
Technical Details. 

289 pages TRS-80 & EDTASM+ are 

soft cover trademarks of Tandy Corp 

$16.00 U.S. plus $1.50 shipping. Check or money order. 
RI residents please add 6% sales tax. Inquire about 
volume discounts. 

Published and TEPCO 
sold by 30 Water Street 
Portsmouth, RI 02871 



14 THE RAINBOW December 1986 




PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-lOO 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 



HALL OF THE KING (Rainbow Review 6/86) 

This program combines all the things you look for in a great 
two disk graphics adventure program. The Hi-Res graphics 
are superbly done. The text portion of the screen and the 
graphics change quickly as you move through the HALL OF 
THE KING. You can move freely from one portion of the 
adventure to another. Call up your inventory at any time. You 
can even save or load a game at ANY time. HALL OF THE 
KING will challenge even the most seasoned adventurer. 

HALL OF THE KING requires 64K EB and one disk drive. This 
exciting two disk adventure comes packaged in a vinyl case. 
$39.95. 

HALL OF THE KING II (Rainbow Review 9/86) 

Continue your quest for the Earthstone in The Inner 
Chambers of the HALL OF THE KING. Outstanding graphics 
help show the way to success in your search to help restore 
the legendary power of the Earthstone to the dwarven race. 
The deeper you travel into the inner chambers, the more dif- 
ficult your progress becomes. HALL OF THE KING II has all 
the fine features of the first adventure. It is designed to 
follow the original HALL OF THE KING but may be played as 
a stand-alone adventure. The adventure fills two disks and 
comes packaged in a handsome vinyl folder. It requires one 
disk drive and 64K. $39.95 

WARP FACTOR X (Rainbow Review 2/86) 

If you have been waiting for a game for your color computer 
that has everything, your wait is over. WARP FACTOR X is 
here. This all graphics simulation game requires strategy, 
fast thinking, an eye for detail, and -above all experience in 
knowing the capabilities of your stai jhip and its computer. 
(See review in Feb. 85 issue of Rainbow.) It requires 32K one 
disk drive and comes packaged in a vinyl library case. $34.95 

DARKMOOR HOLD (Rainbow Review 8/86) 

You and your comrades will explore the levels of Darkmoor 
Hold in an effort to gain great riches and defeat the dark 
wizard. The Wizard will soon realize the threat you pose and 
the many monsters you meet and battle will become stonger 
and more powerful as you move through the 10 levels of 
Darkmoor. A keen eye will help you find weapons and armor 
to aid your battle along with treasures for you to keep. Your 
party consists of a Dwarf, an Elf, and you, the Human, each 
with their own special attributes. The weapons, armor and 
treasure are placed randomly in each level to provide a new 
challenge each time you play. You may also save the game 
you are playing since defeating the evil Wizard is not an easy 
task. It has great graphics and an impressive text screen to 
give you more fun than a barrel of elves. Requires 64KEB and 
1 disk drive. $29.95 



POLICY ON PROTECTION 

We believe our customers are honest — all of our software 
can be backed up using standard backup procedures. 

Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include $1.50 
shipping for each order. TX residents add 5 1/8% sales tax. 
Orders shipped within two days. 

Dealer and author inquiries are always welcome. Canadian 
dealers should contact Kelly Software Distributors, Ltd. 608, 
STNT, Calgary, Alberta T5H 2H2, (403) 236-2161 




DRAGON BLADE (Rainbow Review 11/86) 
Animated Graphics Adventure 

This 100% hkes graphics adventure features many animated 
screens which will delight the avid adventurer. You search for 
the magic Blade which is the only way to rid your homeland of 
the fearsome dragon which has risen from a long rest to ter- 
rorize your village. Fill your screen with super graphics as you 
try to solve the difficult challenge the village leaders have set 
before you. Dragon Blade requires 64K EB and 1 disk drive. 
$29.95 

DOLLAR WISE 



In todays world of high finance, variable interest rates, 
balloon payments, and lease options there is a program that 
can help you sort out the details and make sense of the small 
print. DOLLAR WISE is an extremely flexible program that 
will allow you to find the best loan by substituting values for 
all the different variables that make up the loan. Find the 
future value and interest paid for either single or multiple 
deposit savings accounts. Determine mortgage interest paid 
during a tax year— very good for estimating tax savings on 
credit purchases also. Should you rent or buy. DOLLAR WISE 
gives you all the options. It will even provide a loan amortiza- 
tion table print out with Tax Year summaries either by month 
or year. Requires 32K Tape -$24.95 Disk - $27.95 



FONTFILE - (New for the COCO III) 

FONTFILE replaces the standard Hi-Res COCO III font with a 
character set you select. Choose from a menu of 26 or create 
your own and save it to disk for future use. Use the fontfile in 
your own basic programs or livenup an old program with a Hi- 
Res font screen. FONTFILE will work on all versions of the 
COCO but is especially written to take advantage of the 
special capabilities of the new COCO III. Requires 64K and 
one disk drive. $24.95 

COMING SOON! 
Hall Of The King III 



Send for our free catalog 

Call (915) 584-7784 or 

Send Order To: PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

213 La Mirada 
El Paso, Texas 79932 





TANDY 

ihf ideal 




LJ 



26-3334 




26 
26 



S3--., 



A 000 



PUT** 



25 



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25 
25 



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-A022 



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25 



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Mo** 
Monfto< 



Mi; 



25 



-4070 



25 
25 



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•86 



Dot 



BUILDING DECEMBER'S RAINBOW 




The Color Computer 3 



and The CoCo Three 



A a long last, the Color Computer 3 is in the stores. And, with the holiday 
/% T season upon us, it's being offered at a sale price of $199.95. Then, 

JLjL \t too, the 64K Color Computer 2 is also on sale and it is just $99.95. 

With that kind of "byte for the buck," the favorite add-on to many CoCo systems 

this Christmas will be a new CoCo itself! 

Historically, the CoCo is Tandy's strongest seller during the holiday season. 

Tandy's Ed Juge says, "Each year, Christmas sales of the Color Computer break 

the previous year's record. So, we are very optimistic about the continued success 

of this machine." 

To help you drop a few not-so-subtle hints for those preparing Christmas lists, 
we've included a Holiday Shopping Guide in this Holiday issue. For maximum 
effect, we suggest you use a grease pencil to circle a few items on pages 25-28 and 
then sort of prop the magazine open on the coffee table for a few days. It never 
hurts to give Santa a helping hand now and then. 

Speaking of the CoCo 3, if you'd like to surprise your favorite Radio Shack 
salespersons, tell them to hold the CTRL and ALT keys down while powering up 
the new machine. Yep! In addition to the Chicago Seven, Dirty Dozen and Jackson 
Five, we now have "The CoCo Three," Mark Hawkins, Tim Harris and T. Earles. 
These intrepid programmers, also known as the Good, the Bad and the Ugly — 
though not necessarily in that order — have their picture embedded in the ROM 
of our CoCo 3. 

More in a future issue on 
these "Three Mugateers," 
immortalized in the screen 
dump at right. In the mean- 
time, let's have an informal 
"Free the CoCo Three" con- 
test. Without getting bogged 
down in rules, we'll send a 
free tape of CoCo programs 
to the first person from each 
state who writes in with an 
alternate way (other than 
the method above) to make 
The CoCo Three appear on 
the screen. 

Saving the digitized pic- 



E : : i 1 i : : 



• I • , - 1 ■ I ■ ■ • ■ * * 



* • 
• ft 

* > 



• • * • • • * ■ • • » • • • .»_«.».«_»_».».•_« 



: : I I 



* i * 
« ■ a 
• • 

I • • t 

■ « 



t • 
r ■ 



• ■ • * M - 1 ■ ^ ■ I ' t * - * 



* ■ 9 ' * 
• ! 4 . • • ■ 

i <• • • * » » % 

• 1 1 ■ * 

■ ■ I i . m ■ 

. ' . » " " 

»■■!■• » t ■ • 



• I » I ■ I 4 I * I < * • " 

• • • • ■ ■ t I • I > I 4 I • I • ! •* 

i ■ ■ ■ 

■ * * * i ■ I * I » 1 1 I 

• * • * i * * » i • • » i « ■ » » 





M. Hawkins T. Harris T. Earles 



The CoCo Three" 



ture to disk is easy enough; it's a standard PMDDE 4 graphics screen. Simply press 
the reset button after viewing the picture and type SflVEM "PICTURE",&H0E00, 
&H25FF, &HA027. To view the picture on a CoCo 1 or 2, load the file and type 
10 PM0DE4,1:SCREEN1,1: GOTO 10 and run it. You may notice an extraneous 
black line to the left of the picture when you reload the file, due to 4 glitch caused 
by the reset process. This can be removed with any graphics editor. To make a 
printout, you'll need a screen dump program. 

As I write this column, we are packing our suitcases for the Princeton 
RAINBOWfest. One of the highlights we expect will be a round-table on "The 
Design, Development and Marketing of the CoCo 3." Scheduled speakers include 
Tandy's Barry Thompson and Mark Siegel, as well as independent CoCo 3 
programmers Steve Bjork and Greg Zumwalt. Our plans are to tape record this 
panel discussion for the benefit of those who could not attend the show, so check 
Page 174 for details on ordering a copy. 

Lastly, in the spirit of CoCo Community, that special feeling that has made 
us all friends over the past few years, from our house to yours, best wishes for 
a happy holiday season and a prosperous new year! 

— Jim Reed 



16 THE RAINBOW December 1986 










7««tute P* rue ao° 




&&&&& 




SUPP 




HOLIDAY SPECIAL 



A computerized greeting 
for you to personalize 




Season's 



Greetings 



By Eugene Vasconi 

It's that time of year for warm greet- 
ings and renewed friendships, so 
here's our special Christmas card 
from the RAINBOW family. 

You may also use the program as your 
very own personalized greeting to fel- 
low CoCoers. All you need do is change 
one line. 
Line 650 presently reads: 

DRAW "BM40,92;XR$;XA$;XI$; 
XN$;XB$;X0$;XW$;" 

Change the R-A-I-N-B-O-W letters in 
that line to those of the name desired. 
Also change the BM40 to fit the number 
of letters in the name according to the 
following chart: 



Number of letters 

3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



Changes to 

BM60 
BM55 
BM50 
BM45 
BM40 
BM30 
BM20 
BM10 



For example, if your name is Santa, 
line 650 would read: DRAW"BM50,92;XS$; 
Xfl$;XN$;XT$;XR$;". This is the only 
change necessary to customize the 
program. A maximum of 10 letters will 
fit 

Hope you enjoy my holiday 
gift and have a very happy 
holiday season! 
( You may direct questions 
about this program to 
the author at 12474 Starcrest 
#204, San Antonio, TX 78216, 512-496- 
5783. Please enclose an SASE when 
writing.) □ 

Eugene Vasconi is a commercial heli- 
copter pilot in San Antonio, Texas. His 
computer interests include graphics, 
music and education. He has been a 
CoCoer for five years. 



V/ AAf] 



280 . 
440 . 
630 . 
840 . 
916 . 
975 . 
END 



119 
131 
107 
156 
.70 
...7 
178 



The listing: GREETING 



10 DIM 
20 A$= 
30 B$= 
40 C$= 
50 D$= 
6j3 E$= 
70 F$= 

8) 3 G$= 

9) 3 H$= 

I) 30 1$ 

II) 3 J$ 
120 K$ 
130 L$ 
140 M$ 
150 N$ 
160 0$ 
170 P$ 
180 Q$ 
190 R$ 
200 S$ 
210 T$ 



X(10) ,Y(10) 
"U12E4R4F4D4NL12D8BR6" 
"U16R12D4G4NL8F4D4NL12BR6" 
"U16R12BD16NL12BR6" 
"U16R8F4D8G4NL8BR10" 
11 U8 NR8U8R1 2 BD 1 6NL1 2 BR6 " 
"U8NR8U8R12BD16BR6" 
"U16R12BD8NL4D8NL12BR6" 
"U8NU8R12NU8D8BR6" 

•ReuieNLeRSBDiSNLeBRe 11 

'NU4R12NU16BR6 11 
l U8NU8R4NE8F8BR6" 
'NU16R12.BR6" 
, U16F6ND2E6D16BR6" 
l U16F6D6F6NU16BR6 11 
, U16R12D16NL12BR6" 
'U16R12D8NL12BD8BR6" 
•U16R12D16NL12NH4BR6" 
, U16R12D8L4NL8F4D4BR6" 
1 R12U8L12U8R12BD16BR6" 
BR6U16NL6R6BD16BR6" 



MERRY 

I I IRIS I 

FHOI THE 
RRINBOI 
FM1ILV 



r nns 




December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 9 



220 U$="NU16R12NU16BR6" 

230 V$="BR6H6U10BR12D10G6BR12" 

240 W$="NU16R6NU8R6NU16BR6" 

250 X$="E6U4NH6NE6D4F6BR6" 

260 Y$="BU16D4F6ND7E6NU4BD12BR6" 

270 Z$="NR12U3E12U2NL12BD16BR6" 

280 AP$="BU16BR8D4G4BF8BR6" 

290 H Y $= " BU8 BR2 R8 BR2 BD8 BR6 " 

300 CLS(3) :FORFP=1TO30:PRINT@FP, 

CHR$ (134+80) ;: PRINT @FP+ 480, CHR$( 

134+80) ; :NEXTFP:FORFQ=32T0448STE 

P32 : PRINT@FQ,CHR$ (137+96) ; : PRINT 

@FQ+31,CHR$ (137+96) / : NEXTFQ 



HflPPY 




NEU VERR 


FRIIfl THE 




RRINBDU 


* 


FAMILY 


I, 



310 POKE359,57:SCREEN0,1:PRINT@6 

9 /'TWAS THE NIGHT BEFORE ";:PRIN 

T@139, "CHRISTMAS "; 

320 PRINT@228,"AND NOTHING WAS S 

TIRRING "; 

330 GOTO410 

340 PLAY"T1L8V2801CC#CC#CC#CC#CC 
#" 

350 PRINT@358 , "EXCEPT THE COMPUT 
ER! "; 

360 PLAY"T4L1601GG-FEE-D02GG-FEE 
-D03GG-FEE-D04GG-FEE-D05GG-FEE-D 
L12AA#AA#AA#AA#AA#AA#L2A" 
370 GOTO490 

380 PRINT@232 , " [PRESS ANY KEY] " 

9 

390 PLAY"L200O1CEGO2CEGO3CEGO4CE 

G05CEG" 

400 GOTO670 

410 PMODE3 , 1 : PCLS 

420 CIRCLE(0,170) ,100,2, .6, .75, . 
93 

430 CIRCLE (180, 195) ,200,2, .3, .6, 
.2 

440 PAINT (125, 190) ,4,2 

450 DRAW"BM180 , 80 ;C3G10R5G20R10G 

30R20G35R55D10R10U10NL10R55H35R2 



0H3 0R10H20R5H10 " 

460 PAINT (180, 100) ,3,3 

470 PAINT (178, 182) ,5,3 

480 GOTO340 

490 COLOR 2 

500 FORR=1TO10:READ X(R),Y(R):NE 
XTR 

510 DATA 165,130,150,110,130,140 

,120,175,205,165,210,110,230,140 

,240,175,185,105,170,155 

520 FORDR=1TO10 : F0RM=1T04 : CIRCLE 

(X(DR) ,Y(DR) ) , M : NEXTM , DR 

530 POKE359,126:CLS(0) :PLAY"05L3 
G" 

540 LINE (137, 160) -(215, 130) ,PSET 
550 LINE(148,126)-(200,105) ,PSET 
560 LINE(165,100)-(187,87) ,PSET 
570 COLOR3 

580 LINE(0,0)-(255,194) ,PSET,B 
590 DRAW" BM10 , 30 ; S 5 ; C2 ; XM$ ; XE $ ; X 

R$;XR$;XY$;" 

600 DRAW" BM10 , 55 ; XC$ ; XH$ ; XR$ ; XI$ 

; XS $ ; XT$ ; XM$ ; XA$ ; XS $ ; " 

610 DRAW" BM10 , 7 3 ; S3 ; C3 ; XF$ ; XR$ ; X 

0$;XM$;" 

620 DRAW"BM+15,0;XT$;XH$;XE$;»: • 
the 

6 30 DRAW" BM4 5 , 110 ; C0 ; XF$ ; XA$ ; XM$ 
;XI$ ;XL$ ;XY$ ; » : • family 
640 'insert line 

650 DRAW" BM40 , 92 ; XR$ ; XA$ ; XI $ ; XN$ 

;XB$;XO$;XW$;" 

660 GOTO380 

670 DIMSO$(337) :F0RZ=1T0337:READ 

SO$(Z) JNEXTZ 

680 EXEC44539 

690 DIMZF$(63) 

700 PMODE4,l:SCREENl,l 

710 FORSY=3T075:SZ=255-SY 

720 PSET (SZ , SY) : PRESET (SZ+3 , SY-3 

) 

730 NEXTSY 

740 FORS=1TO4:CIRCLE(180,75) ,S,1 
750 NEXTS 

760 DRAWBM180 , 75 ; S3 ;C1NE7NF7NG7 
NH7" 

770 DRAW"BM180,75;C0NU8NR8ND8NL8 
ii 

780 REM 

790 IF PS=1THEN GOTO900 
800 IF ZZ=>337 THEN GOTO820 
810 ZZ=ZZ+l:PLAY"T15L8;XSO$(ZZ) ; 
": GOTO 8 50 

820 IF FL=55THEN PS=1:GOTO840 
830 FL=FL+l:COLOR0,0:LINE(5,FL+5 
) -(200,FL+5) ,PSET:GOTO850 



20 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



The Amazing A 




What will you do with it ? 




s 



An A-BUS system with 2 Motherboards and 9 Cards. 




SHEILA wanted to set up a variety of experi- 
ments in her lab. With an A-BUS, the computer 
can watch the mice instead of Sheila. 
HARRY has a model railroad layout that he wished 
to automate. Now his home computer controls the engines^ 
gates, signals, etc. through the A-BUS, 

BOB tests electrical fixtures as they leave the assembly line. He 
develops test equipment quickly with inexpensive, off-the-shelf, 
and easy to use A-BUS cards. 

But what's an A-BUS ? It's the easiest way to connect a variety of 
cards that sense and control anything outside the computer. With 
the A-BUS, your C0C0 becomes an incredib/e machine. 
What would I need? First, an A-BUS Adapter to convert your 
computer bus to the A-BUS standard. Then a Cable (with one or two 
slots) to connect one or two A-BUS Cards. If you need more than 
two cards, the cable will be connected instead to the A-BUS 
Motherboard, which has five slots. Up to five motherboards can be 
chained. Finally, add you choice of A-BUS Cards tof it your project. 
I'm not an engineer. Can I use the A-BUS? If you can wire a 
switch, you can use the A-BUS. No computer hardware knowledge 
is needed ! A screwdriver is ail you need for many projects. 
What about software? Simple PEEK and POKE commands con- 
trol the whole system, whether you read the time on the clock, 
switch the relays, take a temperature reading, or turn a motor. 
What If I change computers ? Incredibly, this is as simple as 
replacing the inexpensive adapter card. 




A-BUS Adapters 



C0C0 to A-BUS Adapter AR-1 38: $49 

Works with all CoCo's. Plugs into rom slot or Multipak, 
Disk systems without Multipak need Y-cable ($19.95) 
A-BUS adapter for: AApple I!, lie. AR-1 34. ..$49 
IBM PC, XT, AT and all compatibles. 
TRS-80 Models 100, 200. 
TRS-80 Mod 3.4.4D. Fits50pin I/O bus. 
TRS-80 Model 4P. Includes extra cable. 
TRS-80 Model I. Plugsinto40pinl/0 bus 



AR-1 33. ..$69 
AR-1 35.. .$69 
AR-1 32. ..$49 
AR-137...$62 
AR-1 31. ..$39 




A-BUS Motherboard MB~1 20 : $99 

Will accomodate five A-BUS cards. A sixth connector 
allows a second motherboard to be added to the first 
(with connecting cable CA-161...$12). Up to five 
motherboards can be joined this way to a single 
adapter. The motherboard is mounted on a sturdy 
aluminum frame with card guides. 

A' BUS Cable (3 ft) CA-i 63: $29 

Connects Adapter to 1 A-BUS card or Motherboard. 
Special Cable f ortwo A-BUScards CA-1 62 .$39 

Relay Card Re-i 40: $1 29 

8 industrial relays on board. Contacts are rated at 3 
amps. You can control up to 64 cards (512 relays) 
using several motherboards. Jumpers are used to 
simply select the card address. The card is easily 
controlled in BASIC with "OUT" or "POKE". For 
example, OUT 1 ,0 turns all the relays off on card # 1 . 
Eight LED's show which relays are on. 

Digital Input Card in 141 : $49 

It's safe and easy to connect and read switches, 
keypads, thermostats, alarm loops, etc. The eight 
inputs can monitor the presence of voltage or switch 
position. Simple INP or PEEK commands read the 
status (On or Off) of the inputs. Each input is optically 
isolated for convenience and safety. 

Analog Input Card AD-142:$119 

With this 8 bit, 8 channel A/D converter, your comp- 
uter can read voltages, temperatures, pressures, 
light levels, etc. Take over 100 readings per second 
in BASIC (several thousand with machine language). 
It's simple to use, for example: OUT 1,3 selects 
chan nel #3, then A= I N P(1 ) reads the voltage on that 
channel. Input range: 0 to 5.1V. Resolution: 20mV. 
Conversion time 120us. 

Prototyping Card PR-152:$1 5 

Protocard is 3 1 /2 by4V2 in. and accepts up to 10 IC's. 





1 2 Bit A/D Converter an-146:$109 

This high performance analog to digital converter 
features accuracy to 0.025%, 130ms conversion 
time, sign and over range indication. The basic input 
range is —5 to +5 volts, with 1 2mV resolution, but 
the gain of the on-board amplifier can be set to 
measure microvolts. Ideal for a strain gauge, thermo- 
couple, pH meter, etc. 

Motor Controller st~143:$69 

Stepper Motors are the ultimate in motion control. 
The special package (below) includes everything 
you need to get familiar with stepper motors: Each 
controller card drives two stepper motors (12V, 
bidirectional, 4 phase). 

Motor: 48 steps/revolution, 300 steps/second, W 
shaft: MO-103...$15. Power supply: PS-126...$10 
Special Package: the controller card, two stepper 
motors, and power supply: PA-181...$99 

Clock with Alarm cl-i44:$89 

It's the most powerful clock/calendar available. The 
features: • 5 second/month accuracy. • Keeps 
time, date, and alarm for 5 years (even with computer 
off). • Can time events down to 1/100 second. 

• Periodic "chime". • Full time and date alarm. 

• Four alarm outputs: Computer, LED, Buzzer, and 
Reed Relay. • Easy to use,: for example H~INP(1} 
reads the hours, Y=INP(6) reads the year, etc. 



Latest Developments 

Voice Synthesizer 
15 Bit Analog to Digital Converter 
Intelligent Stepper Motor Controller 
Digital to Analog Converter 
LCD Display (one and two line) 
Touch Tone® Decoder 
Counter Timer 
24 Line TTL Input/Output 



VS-153 
AD-155 
ST-154 
DA-147 
LD-151 
PH-145 
CT-154 
DT-148 



?J.^ N V ne 800 221-0916 

Info and NY orders: (718) 296-5916 
Technical Info: (203) 656-1 806 

All lines open weekdays 9 to 5 NY time. 



Add $3.00 per order tor shipping. 
We accept Visa, MC, checks, M.Q. 
C.O.D add $3,00 extra. 
N.Y. residents add sales tax. 
Shipping to Canada is $5.00 
Overseas, FPO, APO add 10% 



COLORWARE 



Colorware Inc 
79-04 Jamaica Ave 
Woodhaven f NY 11421 



You'll use it all the time and love using it 



What is CoCo Max? 

Simply the most incredible graphic 
and text creation "system" you have 
ever seen. A Hi-Res Input Pack (more 
on the pack later) is combined with 
high speed machine language 
software. The result will dazzle you. 




CoCo Max disk system, with Y-cabte. 



Is CoCo Max for you ? 

Anyone who has ever held a pencil or 
a crayon for fun, school or business 
will love it. A 4 year-old will have fun 
doodling, a 1 5 year-old will do class 
projects and adults will play with it for 
hours before starting useful 
applications (illustrations, cards, 
artwork, business graphics, flyers, 
charts, memos, etc.) This is one of the 
rare packages that will be enjoyed by 
the whole family. 

What made CoCo Max an 
instant success? 

First therms nothing to learn, no 
syntax to worry about. Even a child 
who can't read will enjoy CoCo Max. 
Its power can be unleashed by simply 
pointing and clicking with your 
mouse or joystick. With icons and 
pull down menus, you control CoCo 
Max intuitively; it works the same way 
you think. 

Don't be misled by this apparent 
simplicity. CoCo Max has more power 
than you thought possible. Its blinding 
speed will astound you. 
It lets you work on an area 3.5 times 
the size of the window on the screen. 
It's so friendly that you will easily 
recover from mistakes: The undo 
feature lets you revert to your image 
prior to the mistake. As usual, it only 
takes a single click. 
Later, we will tell you about the 
"typesetting" capabilities of CoCo 
Max II, but first let's glance at a few of 
its graphic creation tools: 



With the pencil you can draw free 
hand lines, then use the eraser to 
make corrections or changes. For 
straight lines, the convenient rubber* 
banding lets you preview your lines 
before they are fixed on your picture. 
It's fun and accurate. Lines can be of 
any width and made of any color or 
texture. 

The paint brush, with its 32 
selectable brush shapes, will adapt to 
any job, and make complicated 
graphics or calligraphy simple. 
For special effects, the spray can is 
really fun: 86 standard colors and 
textures, all available at a click. It's 
like the real thing except the paint 
doesn't drip. 

CoCo Max will instantly create many 
shapes: circles, squares, rectangles 
(with or without rounded corners), 
ellipses, etc. Shapes can be filled with 
any pattern. You can also add 
hundreds of custom patterns to the 
86 which are included. 
The Glyphics are 58 small drawings 
(symbols, faces, etc.) that can be used 
as rubber stamps. They're really great 
for enhancing your work without effort. 




Pull down menus Zoom In I 



Control Over Your Work 

CoCo Max's advanced "tools" let you 
take any part of the screen, (text or 
picture) and perform many feats: 
• You can move it around • Copy 
it • Shrink or enlarge it in both 
directions • Save it on the electronic 
Clipbook • Flip it vertically or 
horizontally • Rotate it • Invert 
it • Clear it, etc. etc. 
All this is done instantly, and you can 
always undo it if you don't like the 
results. 

For detail work, the fat bits (zoom) 
feature is great, giving you easy 
control over each pixel. 
To top it all, CoCo Max II works in 
color. Imagine the pictures in this ad 
in color. If you own a Radio Shack 
CGP-220 or CGP-1 1 5, you can even 
print your work in full color I 



There is so much more to say, such as 
the capability to use CoCo Max 
images with your BASIC programs, 
the possibility to use CoCo Max's 
magic on any standard binary image 
file. There are also many advanced 
features such as the incredible lasso. 




Inside the HI-Res Input Pack 



Why a Hi-Res Input Pack ? 

Did you know that the CoCo joystick 
input port can only access 4096 
positions (64x64)? That's less than 
1 0% of the Hi-Res screen, which has 
491 52 points! (256x1 92). You lose 
90% of the potential. The Hi-Res Input 
Pack distinguishes each of the 491 52 
distinct joystick or mouse positions. 
That's the key to CoCo Max's power. 
The pack plugs into the rom slot (like 
a rom cartridge). Inside the pack is a 
high speed multichannel analog to 
digital converter. Your existing 
joystick or mouse simply plugs into 
the back of the Hi-Res Pack. 

Electronic Typesetting... 

You'll be impressed with CoCo Max's 
capability. Text can be added and 
moved around anywhere on the 
picture. (You can also rotate, invert 
and flip it...) At a click, you can choose 
from 1 4 built in fonts each with 1 6 
variations. That's over 200 typestyles ! 




Printing Your Creations 

There are a dozen ways to print your 
work. All are available with a click of 
your joystick (or mouse) without 
exiting CoCo Max. Your CoCo Max 
disk includes drivers for over 30 
printers ! 



Ail the CoCo Max pictures are unretouched screen shots or printouts (Epson RX-80). 





The whole family will enjoy 
CoCo Max. Here are a few 
examples of the possibilities. 

All these pictures are unretouched screehiiWptl^ 
or printouts (on an Epson RX-SO)I 



Jettison ISUport 

Fust wnth liut 6iq Scoops 



25<t 



no mflJOB n Ews tqdry 

Reporters Desperate 

"tnty iititj l-Y Ho tin 
li good newj but heck' I 
could ls» or lofc if some- 
thing dot to t happen quick 1 ' 
Reporter r<ri Schoidt it • 
bortd and unhappy &an 
'I really don I cart This job 
it inks nothing ever happens 
irouua tt«r* M*yi Schmidt 
SchnJI • II yaar old name 
of ihe city, has often come 
is <o the newspaper cffic* 
wttaoui a titifle xorv Bui 
toil week is 4iff«ranr. 
corJinj 10 Scbaidi.Tvt con- 
sidered conoimng a crioa 
nyself iu<( lo treat ihe 
doldrums but ! can't think 
Of anything ftaariTorthr that 
wouldn't (at at ui trouble " 

Editor Tiffl Jeeiioft shows 
lillla aytjpathr for tha un- 
lucky era* Vhea I was a 
reporter »« ne»er had thif 
protlata T think tbeie guys 
ara tha latian bunch of bueas 
I've av»r «»»n • M.tor lemscn 




Win is Lhis Ladg Smiling? 



Lou Schvartt or er l 6th Si 
was mfortQe4 sonde? that 
she had von (10 is the f BW 
Sweepstakes Saa page 1- 




Life in tha faat lane not all 
it's cracked up to ha 

So' You think vou vant lo 
go into sotae glomDroui field 
like Television or Newspapers 
Tou trunk you toe would 
lika lo bring in tha big bucks 
and rub noses with the <:elet<- 
rttias' Vail forget it Running 
a newspaper soundi Itke fun 
t knov but before you go ofi 
he:r-;o;keiJ and s'er' vour 
own paper ar Lu* » I V 
j'e'ion ]is'*n io 'he voice of 
reason 

t' 'ake: a to' of money tc 
run a newipaper for riemplf 
starling even e saeli paper 
could :ost over Sit BOO Bear 




AMERICAN 



SCHNOID 



PROFIT _J 




Pulley 



String 



©Business graphs, charts, 
diagrams. Also memos 





Fun for children while 
stimulating creativity, 



Publish a newsletter 
or bulletin 



Coco mi 



COCO MAM 

coco Mom 



CoCo Man 
CoCo Ma% 

CoCo Max 

CoCo max 
CoCo ITJaz 

Code Max 

CoCo max 
CoCo max 

CoCo Max 
CoCo Max 



CoCo Max 
CoCo Mux 

CoCo Max 
CoCo Max 



Mm 



it 



Over 200 typestyles to 
choose from I 
generate flyers. 





Junior's homework 
and science projects. 
Term papers too ! 



£Zjk Video portrait 

Xw (with optional digitizer). 




© ThisisacBrioori. 



CoCo PORT 





CoCo /tax It 




A new way to express 
your imagination. 



m 



schematics 
and floor plans. 



CoCo Max II 

Logos and letterheads. 



System Requirements: 

Any 64 K CoCo and a standard Joystick or 
mouse. (The koala pad and the track ball work, 
but are not recommended.) 
Disk systems need a Muiti-Pak or our Y-Cable. 
CoCo Max is compatible with any Radio Shack 
DOS and ADOS. 

Note: the tape version of CoCo Max includes 
almost all the features of CoCo Max II except 
Shrink, Stretch, Rotate, and Glyphics. Also, it 
has 5 fonts instead of 1 4. 
CoCo Max is not compatible with J DOS, 
DoubleDOS, MDOS, OS-9, the X-pad, and 
Daisy Wheel Printers. 



Epson MX, RX, FX and LX series, Gemini, Star, 
Micronix, Delta 10,1 OX, 15, 15X, SG- 
10,0kidata 82A, 92, 93, G. Itoh Pro-writer, 
Apple Image-writer, Hewlett-Packard Thinkje£ 
Radio Shack DMP 100, 105, 110, 1 20, 200, 
400, 500, tine Printer 7, Line Printer 8, TRP- 
100, CGP-220. (DMP-130 use Line Printer 8), 
PMC printers, Gorilla Banana. 
Color printing: CGP-200, CGP-1 15 



Pricing 

CoCo Max on tape $69.95 

with Hi-Res Pack and manual. 

CoCo Max II (disk only) $79.95 

with Hi-Res Pack and manual. 

Upgrade: CoCo Max to CoCo Max II 

New disk and manual $19.95 

New features of CoCo Max 11:14 fonts and giyphic 
font, dynamic shrink and stretch, rotate, multiple drive 
capability, 68 page scrapbook, point and click file 
load, color printer drivers, full error reporting. 

Upgrade: CoCo Max tape to disk 

manuals, disk and binder $24.95 

Y-Cable: Special Price. ..... $1 9.95 

Super Picture Disks #1 , #2, and #3 

each: $14.95 

AH three picture disks $29.95 




Font Editor Option 

A font is a set of characters of a 
particular style. CoCo Max includes 
1 5 fonts. You can create new fonts of 
letters, or even symbols or graphics 
with the font editor. Examples: set of 
symbols for electronics, foreign 
alphabets, etc. $1 9.95 

Video Digitizer DS-69 

This new Low Cost (Digitizer is the 
next step in sophistication for your 
CoCo Max system. With the DS-69 
you will be able to digitize and bring 
into CoCo Max a frame from any video 
source: VCR, tuner, or video camera. 
Comes complete with detailed 
manual and C-SEE software on disk, 
Multi-Pak is requir4ilS 
New Low Price Save $50. . . . .... $99.95 

New: faster DS-69A, ; . a $149,95 



Colorware Incorporated 

COLORWARE ™-04 A Jamaica * Avenue 

Woodhaven, NY 11421 



800 221-091 6 

Orders only. 

NY & Info: (718) 296-5916 
Hours: 9-5 Eastern tim*© 



Add S3 00 per order for shipping. 
We accept Visa, MC, checks, M.O. 
C.O.0. add $3.00 extra. 
NY and CT i add sales fox" 
Shipping to Canada is $5.00 
Overseas, FPO, APO add 10% 



8 4 J3 DRAW" BM12 , 3J3;S5;C1; XH$ ; XA$ ; X 
P$ ; XP$ ; XY$ ; BM12 , 55 ; XN$ ; XE$ ; XW$ ; B 
M+2 0 , 0 ; XY$ ; XE $ ; XA$ ; XR$ ; " 

85j3 DRAW"BM18j3,75;ClNU8NR8ND8NL8 



it 



855 REM 

86J3 DRAW"BM18j3,75;Cj3NE7NF7NG7NH7 



ii 



87J3 FORPP=lT03j3:NEXTPP 
88J3 GOT076j3 

899 PM0DE4 , 1 : SCREEN1 , 1 

900 REM 

9J31 COLOR0 , 0 : FORKT=60TO185 : LINE ( 
14j3,KT) -(24J3,KT) , PSET : NEXTKT : COL 
OR1, 0: PAINT (245, 19J3) ,0,0: PRESET ( 
139,159) 

902 CIRCLE ( 22 j3,llj3) ,15,1,2,0, .5: 

CIRCLE (22J3, 162) ,11,1, .6 

9j33 LINE (2j35,llj3)- (235, 110) , PSET 

905 LINE (219 , 140) - (221, 160) , PSET 

,B 

9J38 IF ZP=>63 THEN GOTO910 

9J39 ZP=ZP+l:READ ZF$(ZP) :PLAY"T1 

5L8 ;XZF$ ( ZP) ; " : F0RYP=1T02 0 : NEXTY 

P:GOT092j3 

910 IF ZP=63THEN GOSUB1J3J3J3 



ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 

FOR YOUR COCO 1, 2 OR 3 

THREE GREAT PROGRAMS — 

1. COCO HAPPINESS EXPERT INCREASE YOUR HAPPINESS 

2. COCO THERAPIST — DISCUSS YOUR PROBLEMS 

3. COCO POET - ENDLESS STIMULATING POETRY 

He^ 1 Al Pack I $24.95 

(SPECIFY TAPE OR DISK) 
(AND LEARN YOUR HAPPINESS QUOTIENT) 

COMPLETE DOCUMENTATION INCLUDES 
"THE HISTORY OF Al" 

COCO JOKESTER 

JUST TELL HIM YOUR NAME AND HE'LL TALK.YOUR EAR OFF 

$26.95 (DISK ONLY) 



Now Available 

COCO EXPERT SYSTEM TOOLKIT 

BUILD YOUR OWN EXPERT SYSTEM 
USING SIMPLE MENU COMMANDS. 

— DEMOS, TUTORIAL, EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL, CLEARLY 
WRITTEN KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING MANUAL 

— CREATE YOUR OWN KNOWLEDGEBASE 

— $59.95 * DISK ONLY * 64K REQUIRED 
INCLUDED: TWO FREE EXPERT SYSTEMS 

— STOCK MARKET EXPERT 

— EXECUTIVE HEALTH EXPERT 



THINKING SOFTWARE, INC. 

46-16 65 PLACE 
WOODS IDE, NY. 11377 
(718) 429-4922 



24 



CALL RIGHT NOW FOR FREE CATALOG 

Talking version of all software available 
RS Speechpak required / Add $5.00 per disk 



THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



911 R=RND(2j3)+21j3:S=RND(lj3)+85 

912 T=RND(20)+21j3:U=RND(lj3)+75 

913 V=RND(20)+210:W=RND(10)+95 

915 CIRCLE (R,S) ,3, 1 : CIRCLE (T,U) , 
3 ,1: CIRCLE (V,W) ,3,1 

916 CIRCLE (R,S) ,3,0: CIRCLE (T,U) , 
3,0: CIRCLE (V,W) ,3,0 

920 GOT09J38 

950 DATA 05A,04A,A,05G,F#,P8,E,P 
8 , D, 04A, 05E , 04A, 05F# , 04A, 05D, P8 , 
E,F#,G,E,F#,04A,A,05E,D,04A,05C# 
,P8,D,G,F#,,E 

955 DATA 05A, 04A, A,05G, F# , P8 , E, P 
8,D,04A,05E,04A,05F#,04A,05D,PB, 
E,F#,G,E,F#,04A,A,05E,D,04A,05C# 
,P8,D,P8,P8,P8 

960 DATA 03E,P8,P8,F#,G,P8,E,P8, 
F#,P8,P8,G,A,P8,E,P8,F#,G#,A,P8, 
B,04C#,D,P8,C#,02E,03B,02E,03A,G 
,F#,E 

965 DATA 05A,04A,A,05G,F#,P8,E,P 
8,D,04A,05E,04A,05F#,04A,05D,A,B 
,B,B,B,A,04G,F#,O5G,F#,04A,05E,P 
8,L3204DF#A05D 

97J3 DATA P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 
, P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , OIG ,P8,P8,A,G,P8 
, E , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , G , P8 , P8 , A, G , P8 
, E , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , 02D, P8 , P8 , P8 , D 
, P8 , OIB , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , 02 C , P8 , P8 
, P8 , C , P8 , 01G , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 
975 DATA A, P8 , P8 , P8 , A, P8 , 02C, P8 , 
P8,01B,A,P8,G,P8,P8,A,G,P8,E,P8, 
P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , A, P8 , P8 , P8 , A,P8 ,02C, 
P8,P8,01B,A,P8,G,P8,P8,A,G,P8,E, 
P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , 02D, P8 , P8 , P8 , D, P8 
, F , P8 , P8 , D , OIB , P8 , 02C , P8 , P8 , P8 , P 
8 , P8 , E , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 
98J3 DATA C, P8 , 01G, P8 , E, P8 , G, P8 , P 

8,F,D,P8,C,E,G,C,E,G,L32CG02CEGO 
3C 

985 DATA P8,P8,P8,P8,P8,P8,P8,P8 
, P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , 04E , P8 , A , P8 , A , B , 
A,G#,F#,P8,F#,P8,F#,P8,B,P8,B,05 
C#,04B,A,G#,P8,E,P8,E,P8,05C#,P8 
,C#,D,C# ,04B,A,P8,F# ,P8,E, E,F#,P 

8,B,P8,G#,P8,L32AC#E05A,P8,01A 
99J3 DATA 02G, P8 ,03C, P8 , P8 , C, C, P8 

,E,P8,D,P8,P8,C,D,P8,E,D,C,P8,P8 
, C , E , P8 , G , P8 , A, P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , P8 , A , 
P8 , G , P8 , P8 , E , E , P8 , C , P8 , D , P8 , P8 , C 
,D,P8,E,D,C,P8,P8,02A,A,P8,G,P8, 
03C,02C,E,G,03CEG04C 

1000 COLORl,l:LINE(205,115)-(235 
,115) ,PSET 

1010 PAINT (220,138) ,1,1: ZP=65 
1020 RETURN 

I7\ 



/ 



\ 



S 




5 



"Any landing you walk away 
from is a good landing." Get 
them before they get you 
with Mission: F-16 Assault, 
Diecom Products, $28.95; 
$3B-95Cnd. 



7 s * 




o 



e 




ulis(*t furkinfl tttwfop? 
Well, jf Santa's helpers areni 
in tune with the care ami )tlfi~ 
Mr of the family CoCo nut, maybe we 
ean help* 

The Nuinhow editors right here in the 
?oCoLand toy stofv $ hare gathered a 
mtuiUm of g(ft items sure to tickle the 
CoCo lover at your house. 

From stacking stuff ers to the "frig" 
ilift idea* we think these are hound to 
please* 

(lor iirik<rihg information on these holiday gift 

lUllTtfilfM, faBi* Vnyr 1740 




Finding that favorite program is 
easy as 1-2-3 with the No Label 
System from Weber and Sons, 
$22.45. Also, prolong the life of 
favorite programs with Disk Clean- 
ing Sets, Ohm Electronics. 3W, 
$7.95; 5%" r $6.95. 






Try your hand at the "big one" and see if you can beat 
the galvanic skin response detector used in the Bio 
Detector from Computerware, $24.95. 



Rainbow editorial assistant Angela Kapfhammer gives the 
WICO Trackball a spin while designer Sandy Underwood waits 
for a turn. From Zebra Systems, $19.95. 



27 



December 1986 




F * . .. 

THE RAINBOW 





\ 



IIUiBljl»i M^I:«Mini 

TTTT??TiTrrTTTTJTirTTTrrrrmrri 



For software that produces "one-liners," 
try CoCo Jokester, a barrage of humor 
to brighten any CoCo nut's screen. From 
Thinking Software, Inc., $26.95. 





For a winning place in the show, put 
your money on The Handicappers. 
Separate programs for thoroughbreds, 
harness horses and greyhounds. Fed- 
eral Hill Software, $39.95 each; $59.95 
any two; $79.95 ail three. 





Senior editor Kevin Nickols easily installs an HJL-57 
Keyboard Kit-2 for a professional keyboard touch. 
HJL Products, $89 95. 








Howard Medical suggests this Zenith Green 
Screen Monitor with Hi-Res graphics and 15 MHz 
band width for $67.50. Monitor stand also availa- 
ble for $39.50. 





Let the light of the season shine throughout the year with a subscription to THE 
RAINBOW, rainbow ON DISK or RAINBOW ON TAPE. Other gift ideas from Falsoft, Inc., 
include magazine binders and selections from the Rainbow Bookshelf. 



26 



THE RAINBOW December 1986 








Laurence Tepolt's Assembly 
Language Programming for 
the TRS-80 Color Computer is 
ideal for the serious CoCo 
user. From Tepco, $16 (begin- 
ning Jan. 1, $18). Any Adven- 
turer would appreciate 20 
Solved Adventures Volumes 1 
and 2 from Lomiq, $8; $10 Cnd. 
each. 










Cinsoft offers the inexpensive Seikosha SP-1 000A 
dot matrix printer as a complement to any com- 
puter system, $209. Utility programs from Tothian 
Software include Homeware, $19.95; Diskman, 
$21.95; and Time Master, $19.95 ($49.95 whole 
set) 







"If I were president, rd ; . . - M You make decisions 
and you run the country with Congress , from B5 
Software, $29.95. 



Personalize your gift giving with CoCo graphics and printer 
transfer paper from Foto-Wear, (4 pack); $19.95 {10 

pack). Add color to graphics creations with Underware 
Ribbons and Color Pens from Diversions. Ribbons range from 
$14.95 to $21.95; Color Pens, $14.95. 








Here's an add-on you can subtract on. too! 
Beverly Bearden, in Rainbow's business 
division, multiplies the CoCo's usefulness 
with HJL's Numberjack, $89.95. 







You can talk In Dale Lear*s language! Based on M.I. TVs 
LOGO, D.L LOGO is a programming language designed to 
run under OS-9. Radio Shack stores nationwide. 






December 1986 THE RAINBOW 27 






These stocking stutters can help your children sharpen 
basic skills. Educational software from York 10, $49.95 per 
volume of eight cassettes. 



- 




The bargain-priced Avatex 1200 baud modem opens up 
a whole new "online" world. From Spectrum Projects, 
$129.95. 




^ f. 




Emm 







Delight your favorite CoCoist with the MouseTop 
from HSlH Enterprises, $5.95. From The Lyter Side, 
this foam rubber Computer Hammer adds a touch of 
humor $8.95. The A2D Deluxe two-button joystick 
puts the action in the palm of your hand, works with 
the CoCo 3 and is available from Cinsoft, $29.95. 




If your gift is for someone hardware oriented, 
consider the Banker 11 memory expansion 
board. J & R Electronics, from $39.95 to 
$169.95. 





Fantasia // brings the spirit of the holiday season to life 
with graphics and music. From Speech Systems, $19.95. 



The Tandy Color Computer 3 has made its debut in time 
far fiofiday giving, and Radio Shacks new CM-8 analog 
RGB coJor monitor is what is needed to maximize its 
potential. Radio Sh&cfe; stores nationwide. 



(Pi'ur imlfflltg jfiVtifiimthm tm these holiday jjlll <*k>tfioiii, *t<v Pup 174. t 




During World War II, your para- 
trooper battalion is dropped 
behind enemy lines to capture 
several bridges along the Rhine River. 
Unfortunately, your battalion runs into 
a Panzer division at one bridge. After 
a short battle, your battalion retreats. In 
the confusion, you become separated 
from the battalion, finding yourself at 
the far end of the bridge. Looking back 
across the bridge, you see the German 
tanks start up to pursue your fleeing 
battalion. After finding an abandoned 
mortar hidden in the bushes, you pre- 
pare to meet the enemy. As the first tank 
rolls onto the bridge, you fire. 



Charles Farris is a student at AFCENT 
High School in Brunsswn, the Nether- 
lands. He has had his CoCo 2 for four 
years and enjoys programming in 

BASIC. 



Mortar Command is a 16K ECB 
program requiring one joystick plugged 
into the right port. Control the angle of 
the mortar by moving the joystick 
horizontally. Moving the joystick to the 
right decreases the angle of the mortar 
while moving it to the left increases the 
angle. The maximum angle is 85 degrees 
and the minimum angle is 45 degrees. 
Pushing the button fires the mortar. 

The tanks that roll across the bridge 
come in waves of six. The speed of the 
tank is controlled by its placement in the 
wave. The first tank moves very slowly, 
the second a little bit faster and so on 
until the last tank in the wave crosses, 
moving very fast. Once the sixth tank 
is destroyed, the next wave begins. 

There are two ways to destroy the 
tanks. One is to hit them with your 
mortar shells. A hit anywhere on the 
tank destroys it. The second way is to 
let the tank roll over your ammo, which 
is in front of your mortar, and blow up. 



The only problem with this method is 
that you lose a life. Every time you 
destroy a tank with your mortar, a small 
swastika is drawn in the score box at the 
top of the screen. You only get a swas- 
tika if you hit the tank with a shell. 
Allowing the tank to run over your 
ammo does not count as a "kill" and you 
will not get a swastika. After destroying 
36 tanks, a glider will fly down and land 
on the bridge, signaling that you have 
won the game. Also, for every 10 tanks 
you destroy, you get an extra man. 

Upon running the game, you are 
asked if you want to use the high speed 
poke (POKE 65495 , 0). If your computer 
cannot take this poke, delete lines 6 
through 9. After you have selected YES 
or NO, the title screen is drawn. Pushing 
the firebutton starts the game. After you 
lose all your men, the words GfiME OVER 
are displayed and the triumphant Ger- 
man tanks roll across the bridge at high 
speed. Pushing the firebutton restarts 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 29 



the game. Pressing the space bar returns 
the computer to normal speed if you 
selected the high speed poke and ends 
the program. Be sure when you type in 
the program that the poke in Line 365 
is POKE 65494,0 and not POKE 
65495,0. 

Line changes for playing the game on 
the keyboard are listed at the end of the 
article. The use of the high speed poke 
can be chosen at the beginning of the 
game. The game is best played on a 
monitor, since the artifact colors in 
PMODE 4,1: SCREEN 1,1 make the 
ground look striped. To fix this, change 
the command SCREEN 1,1 in Line 175 
to SCREEN 1,0. The ground will still 
look striped, but it will look better than 
before. On a monitor, the ground is not 
striped, but black speckled with white 
dots. 

The program uses a sine wave to plot 
the course of the shell. The routine for 
that is located in lines 115 through 160 
and accessed from Line 60. The angle 
of the mortar is controlled from lines 55 
through 75. The tanks are controlled 
from lines 90 through 110. The tanks' 
coordinates are defined in lines 190 
through 215. The background is drawn 
in lines 285 through 340. The score box 
and scoring is done in lines 385 through 
430. The routine for determining 
whether or not a tank is hit by a shell 
is found in lines 250 through 255, and 
the tank is destroyed in lines 260 
through 280. The other parts of the 
program not mentioned here are labeled 
with remark statements for easy access. 



Most of the graphics are done with 
DRRW statements, such as the tanks, 
glider, score box, swastikas, and the 
lettering in the title screen, game-over 
sign, and end-of-the-game graphics. 
The bridge was done using the LINE 
command, the river with CIRCLE com- 
mands, the banks with the PRESET 
command. 

The hardest part of the program to 
develop was explosions. I put the tank 
array that I defined with GET in Line 185 
onto a smaller area. The computer, 
confronted with this problem, mashes 
the picture in order to fit it into the 
smaller area. By using a FOR-NEXT loop 
to slowly decrease the size of the PUT 
area, the tank seems to blow apart while 
in reality, it is being squashed together. 
An interesting explosion happens when 
the computer only decreases the PUT 
area by one pixel. The tank appears to 
be blown off its treads. 

When I wrote the bridge graphics, I 
did not know that you can use the 
bridge pylons as sights. The mortar 
shells will either land on the pylons or 
in the blank spaces on the bridge be- 
tween them. The last two tanks in every 
wave move extremely fast and you will 
be able to get only one shot in, so wait 
till they get on the bridge, then shoot 
straight up. The shot should catch them 
just before they roll over you. Experi- 
ment to find the right setting and time 
to fire. 

Change the M=M-1 in Line 95 to M=M- 
0 for more lives. 

For those without joysticks, I have 



included a list of line changes for con- 
verting the game to keyboard control. 
They are: 



55 
60 
65 



70 



245 
360 
365 
550 



R$=INKEY$ 

IF fi$=CHR$ ( 32 ) THEN MF=1 
IF R$=CHR$(B) THEN LINE (0,170) 
-(C,D) ,PSET:C=C-1:IF C<1 
THEN C=l 

IFR$=CHR$(9) THEN LINE (0,170) 
~(C,D),PSET:C=C+1:IF C>10 
THEN C=10 

IF INKEY$=CHRS(32) THEN 

PCLS5:G0T0 285 ELSE GOTO 240 

IF INKEY$=CHR$(32) THEN 

RE=0:K=0:GOTO 20 

IF INKEY$="E" THEN POKE 

65494,0: STOP 

IF INKEY$=CHR$(32) THEN 9 

ELSE 550 



These changes will enable you to 
control the angle of the mortar with the 
right- and left-arrow keys. The space 
bar becomes the firebutton. When the 
GfiME OVER sign appears, the E key stops 
the game and returns the speed to 
normal. The space performs as the 
firebutton for all other functions. 

If you have any questions concerning 
the game, send an SASE with your 
questions to me at P.O. Box 582, 1141 
USAFSAS Det 2, APO, NY 09011. If 
you live in Europe, send the SASE to 
Eindstraat 15, 6451 A A Schinveld, the 
Netherlands. 

Have fun and good luck! □ 



65 .. 
160 . 
235 . 
295 . 
370 . 
440 . 
480 . 
END 



.126 
.251 
..81 
..91 
.143 
.211 
.164 
...0 



The listing: MORTRR 

****************** 

* MORTAR COMMAND * 

* BY * 

* CHARLES F ARRIS * 
****************** 

HIGH SPEED POKE (Y/N) 
CLS0 : PRINT© 3 3*8, "high"+CHR$ ( 12 

8 ) +" speed"+CHR$ (128) +»poke" ; 

7 PRINT@302, »y"+CHR$ (128)+"n"; 

8 IF INKEY$="Y" THEN POKE 65495, 



0 
1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 



REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 
i 



0:GOTO 9 ELSE IF INKEY$= ,, N ,, THEN 
POKE 65494,0: GOTO 9 ELSE GOTO 8 

9 REM 

10 SS=1 

15 DIM T(43) ,TX(10) ,TR(78) 
20 GOTO 170 

2 5 RE=0 : C=10 : D=160 : TY=157 : WT=1 : M 
=3:TS=l:K=0:L=0 

30 1 DRAW MEN LEFT 
35 IF M=0 THEN C=0:GOTO 350 ELSE 
FOR G=l TO M:L=L+10: DRAW'S 4 BM"+ 
STR$ (L)+",191C0URE2G2RDL2 11 : NEXT 
G:L=0 

40 DRAW" C 5 11 

45 1 MAIN PROGRAM 

50 A=JOYSTK(0) :B=JOYSTK(l) 

55 IF PEEK(65280)=126 OR PEEK(65 

280) =254 THEN MF=1 

60 IF A=0 THEN LINE (0, 170) - (C, D 

) ,PSET:C=C-1:IF C<1 THEN C=l 

65 IF A=63 THEN LINE (0 , 170) - (C, D 

) ,PSET:C=C+1:IF O10 THEN C=10 



30 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



7j3 MA=C*50 

75 COLOR 5,0:LINE(0,170)-(C,D) ,P 
RESET 

80 CIRCLE (0,170) ,5,0 

85 ' TANK MOVEMENT 

90 IF WT=6 THEN RE=l:WT=l:GOSUBl 

90 

95 PUT(TX(WT) / TY)-(TX(WT)+26,TY+ 
12) ,T,PSET 

100 TX(WT)=TX(WT)-TS:IF TX(WT)<= 
0 THEN TX(WT)=0:M=M-1:TS=WT:GOTO 
260 

105 IF MF=1 THEN GOTO 110 ELSE I 

F MF=0 THEN 50 

110 • FIRE ROUTINE 

115 X=X+6 

120 H=0+X*MA/360 

125 V=160-SIN (X/57. 29578 )* (160/2 
) 

130 H=INT(H) :V=INT(V) 
135 PSET(H1,V1,5) 
140 PRESET (H,V) 

145 IF V>161 THEN X=0 : PSET (H, V, 5 
) :MF=0:GOTO 250 
150 H1=H:V1=V 
155 GOTO 90 
160 GOTO 160 

165 1 DRAW, DEFINE, & GET TANK 

170 PMODE 4,1:PCLS 5: SCREEN 1,1 

175 DRAW"BM50,50C0S4R7ER4FDGL4HU 

BD2RL4GLG2E2RDLGDFR15EUHL15R14UR 

F2H2 LHL4 BDBR5 BL1 4 BDRFDGR4 HUERFDG 

R3HUERFDGR4HUEC5 

180 GET(50,45)-(76,57) ,T,G 

185 1 SET UP TANK X COORDINATES 

190 TX(l)=255+6 

195 FOR N=2 TO 7 

200 TX(N)=TX(N-l)+20 

205 NEXT N 

210 IF RE=1 THEN RE=0: RETURN EL 
SE 220 

215 REM 'SOFTWARE CO. TITLE 
220 IF SS=1 THEN PCLS5:GOTO 225 
ELSE IF SS=0 THEN PCLS5:GOTO 285 
225 FORC=1TO20STEP3:LINE(0+C,0+C 
) - (255-C, 191-C) , PRESET, B: NEXT C: 
DRAW"C0S24BM30,50U3R3D3L3U3BFDRU 
LRBEBRD2FREU2LD2LU2LBR4R3DL2RDLR 
2DL3U3R3BRR2FGFLHDLU3RBDRBR2BUR3 
DL2R2D2L3UR2L2U2BR4R3DL2RDLR2DL3 
U3R3BRBDD2RURDRU2HLGBRRBEBRR3DL2 
R2D2L3UR2L2U2 " 

230 DRAW"BM30,55R3DL2R2D2L3UR2L2 
U2R3 BRR3 D3 L3U3 BFDRULBUBR3R3 DL2 RD 
LDLU3R3 BRR3 DLD2 LU2 LUR3 BRD3 ERFU3 L 
DLULBR4 BDD 2 RURDRU 2 HLGBRRBR2 UR2 FG 
FLHDLU2BRRBUBR2R3DL2RDLR2DL3U3 " 
235 DRAW"S16BM80,140R2DL2DU2BR3R 
2 DLFHLDU2 BR 3 R2 L2 DRLDR2 BRR2UL2UR2 



BRR2 L2 DRLDR2 BRU2 F2U2 BRR2 LD2 BR2R2 
UL2UR2 " 

240 IF PEEK(65280)=126 OR PEEK(6 
5280) =254 THEN PCLS5:GOTO 285 EL 
SE 240 

245 • HIT OR MISS ROUTINE 

250 IF H>TX(WT) AND H<TX(WT)+26 

THEN K=K+l:GOTO 2 60 ELSE FOR Y=l 

TO 4:CIRCLE(H,V) ,Y,0,1, .5,1:NEX 
T Y:MF=0:FORY=1 TO 4 : CIRCLE (H,V) 
,Y,5,1, .5,l:NEXT Y:MF=0:X=0:GOTO 

50 

255 • DESTROY TANK 
260 FOR B=l TO RND (6) : PUT (TX (WT) 
,TY)-(TX(WT)+26-B,TY+12-B) ,T,PSE 
T : NEXT B:IF TX(WT)=0 THEN LINE(0 
, 188) - ( 63 , 191) , PSET, BF: LINE (TX (W 
T) , TY) - (TX (WT) +26 , TY+12 ) ,PSET,BF 
265 TS=WT:SS=0 

270 TX(WT)=255:SS=0:WT=WT+l:GOSU 
B 385 

275 GOTO 35 

280 1 DRAW RIVER, BANKS, & BRIDGE 
285 Y=170:L=15 
290 Ll=255-L 

295 FOR X=l TO L STEP 2:PSET(X,Y 
,0):NEXT X:FOR X=L1 TO 255 STEP 
2 : Ll=255-L: PSET (X, Y,0) :NEXT X:Y= 



SUPER t^rW 

PROGRAMMING ^%C0 

RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

"Best value of the year", see the 
review in the July Rainbow. 

The Super Programming Aid is the best in- 
tegrated software utility available for your 
COCO. Add what Tandy left out, COPY and 
MOVE statements, FIND, PRINT FORMAT- 
TER, KEY CLICKER, PROGRAMMABLE 
KEYBOARD, MULTIPLE EDIT SESSIONS, 
MERGE PROGRAMS, TYP-O-MATIC keys and 
much more, saves hours of time for BASIC 
programmers. Version II and III add many 
more features, PRINT SPOOLER, FULL 
SCREEN EDIT COMAND, SCREEN PRIN- 
TING and more. 

VERSION I —$19.95 — for 16K&32K COCO 
VERSION II — $24.95 — for 64K COCO 
VERSION III — $29.95 — for COCO 3 

Call or Write Bangert Software Systems 

for Info P.O. Box 21056 

Satisfaction Indianapolis, IN 46221 

Guaranteed! (317) 262-8865 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 31 



Y+1:L=L+1:IF Y=186 THEN 305 ELSE 
FOR X=0 TO L STEP 2 : PSET (X, Y,0) 
•.NEXT X:FOR X=L1 TO 255 STEP 2:L 
1=255-L: PSET (X, Y,0) :NEXT X:Y=Y+1 
:L=L+1 

300 IF Y=186 THEN 305 ELSE 295 
305 LINE (0 , 170) - (5 , 177 ) ,PRESET,B 
F 

31J3 FORB=38 TO 224 STEP 10:CIRCL 
E(B,185) ,6,0, .41,1, .5 
315 NEXT B:O=0 

320 LINE(19,170)-(236,175) , PRESE 
T,B: LINE (19, 170) -(14,170) , PRESET 
: LINE (236, 170) -(243, 170) , PRESET 
325 FOR X=45 TO 224 STEP 27:0=0+ 
1:IF 0=2 OR 0=4 OR 0=6 THEN LINE 
(X-7,175)-(X+7,188) , PRESET, B: NEX 
T X 

330 NEXT X 
335 GOSUB 385 
340 X=0:GOTO 25 
345 1 GAME OVER 



5CDRET 




350 X=50:Y=50 

355 DRAW"S20BM50,90C0L3D3R3ULBR2 
DU2ERFD2UL3R3BFU3M+1 , +2RM+1 , -2D3 
BRR3 L3URLU2R3 BR6R3 D3 L3U3R3 BRM+1 , 
+3RM+1,-3BRR3L3D2RLDR3BRU3R3D2L2 
FHL" 

360 IF PEEK(65280)=126 OR PEEK(6 
5280) =254 THEN RE=0 : K=0 : GOTO 20 
3 65 IF INKEY$=CHR$(32) THEN POKE 

65494, 0:STOP 
370 IF SS=0 THEN 4 60 
375 GOTO 360 

380 • SCORE BOX GRAPHICS 

385 IF SS=1 THEN 430 ELSE IF K=l 

0 OR K=20 OR K=30 THEN M=M+1:G0T 

0 390 ELSE IF K=3 6 THEN 475 

390 LINE(0,0)-(250, 75) , PRESET, B: 

DRAW"C0BM95, 10 ; S16R2UL2UR2BRR2L2 

D2R2BRR2U2L2D2R2BRU2R2DL2RFBRR2L 

2URLUR2 " 

395 F=5:LV=20 

400 FOR KI=1 TO K:IF F>240 THEN 

F=5:LV=LV+20 

405 IF K=J0 THEN RETURN 

410 DRAW"S8C0BM ,, +STR$ (F) + " , "+STR 

$(LV)+"F2E4F2BL4F2G2BU8G2F2" 

415 F=F+20 



420 NEXT KI 

425 RETURN 

430 1 TITLE SCREEN 

435 DRAW"S24C0BM22,50U5RFRERD5LU 
4GLHD4LBR7R3EU3HL3GD3FBU2UERFDGL 
HBM+5 , +2U5R4 FDGLFRDLH2 LD2 LBU3 BRR 
3UL3DBF3BR4RLU4L2UR5DL2D4BR3U3E2 
RF2D3LUL3 DLRBU2UERFDL3R3 BRBD2 BRU 
5R4 FDGLFRDLH2 LD2 LBU3 BRR3UL3 D" 
440 DRAW"BM4 , 90BRR3L3HU3ER3FDLUL 
2GDFR2URDGBR3R3EU3HL3GD3FBEREUHL 

GDFBR4 BDU5RFRERD5LU4 GLHD4 LBR6U5R 
FRERD5LU4GLHD4LBR6U3E2RF2D3LUL3D 
LRBU2UERFDL3BR5BD2U5RF3U3RD5LUH3 
D4LBR6U5R3F2DG2L3RBUU3R2FDGL2" 
445 DRAW"BM80, 120S16U2FED2BRR2LU 
2 LR2 BRR 2 L2 DR2 DL2 BR3R2UL2UR2 BRR2 L 
D2LR2BRR2U2L2D2R2BRU2F2U2 BRBDR2 
450 DRAW"BM33, 140U2DR2UD2BRR2U2L 
2 D2 R2 BRU 2 D2 R2 BRREHLD2 BR6U2 LR2 BRD 
2UR2UD2BRR2L2URLUR2BR4BD2R2U2L2D 
2R2ULRBFU2R2DL2RFBRR2LU2LR2BRRFG 
LU2BR3R2L2D2R2ULRBDBRR2L2URLUR2C 
5" 

455 SS=0:TX(1)=255:TY=157 

460 DRAW"C5":TX(1)=TX(1)-6:IF TX 

(1)<=0 THEN LINE(0,TY)-(TX(l)+26 

,TY+12) , PSET, BF: GOTO 455 

465 PUT (TX (1) , TY) - (TX ( 1) +26 , TY+1 

2) ,T,PSET 

470 GOTO 360 

475 1 GLIDER DRAWN AND DEFINED 
480 DRAW"S12C0BM128 , 96E2R3M+4 , +1 
M+l , -2RD2GM-5 , +1L3M-2 , -1R2U2DLDB 
R2 ERM+ 2 , + 1BR3 BUR 2 L2 BDBL3 L4 C5 " 
485 GET (128,85)-(170,99) , TR, G 
490 LINE(128,85)-(170,99) ,PSET,B 
F 

495 X=230:Y=96 
500 1 LAND GLIDER ON BRIDGE 
505 IF Y=155 THEN 525 ELSE 510 
510 X=X-3:Y=Y+1 

515 PUT (X, Y) -(X+42,Y+14) ,TR, PSET 
520 GOTO 500 

525 X=X-1:PUT(X,Y) -(X+42, Y+14) ,T 
R, PSET: IF X=10 THEN 540 
530 GOTO 525 

535 ' END OF GAME GRAPHICS 
540 DRAW"BM60, 120S20C0U2R2L2D2R2 
ULRDBRU 2R2D2L2R2 BRU2 R2 D2 L2 R2 BRU 2 
RFGLBR5U2D2EFU2BRR2D2L2U2R2BRD2U 
2R2DL2RFBRU2DM+2 , -1BD2M-2 , -1" 
545 DRAWBM25, 140U2FED2BRR2U2L2D 
2 R2 BRU2R2 DL2 RFBR2U2 LR2 BRBDDUEFDU 
L2R2BRBDU2R2DL2RFBR4R2L2U2R2 BRR2 
D2 L2U2R2 BRD2U2 FED2 BRU 2 FED2 BRUEFD 
UL2R2 BDBRU2 F2U2 BRRFGLU2 " 
550 IF PEEK(65280)=126 OR PEEK(6 
5280) =254 THEN 9 ELSE 550 



32 



THE RAINBOW December 1986 




HOW DO YOO GIVE A RAINBOW? 



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It's simple — Give a rainbow gift certificate . 

Let a gift subscription to the 
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Each month, your friends will 
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First, your gift will be an- 
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some require special patches. Please inquire when you order. 



We have Rainbowfest prices year 'round! 



COCO MAX II 

Lets the graphic capabilities of your CoCo EXPLODE 
on the screen or on paper. it "TO M P" 

*7o.45 

Y CABLE 



Needed to connect CoCo Max and disk drive at same 

$1 9.45 

FONT EDITOR 

Lets you create your own fonts or symbols 

$19.45 




DISK 

CONTROLLER 



NEW FROM 



J&M 

The DC-4 is a scaled down versionof the popular DC- 
2 without a parallel port or memory minder. It 
includes a switch with 2 ROM sockets, J DOS, manual 
and such features as gold connectors and metal box. 
It accesses double sided drives and accepts RSDOS 
1.1 for Radio Shack compatibility. 



($2 shipping) 




TEAC DISK 
55B DRIVE 

>are slots in the Radio Shack 
drive features 40 Track, double 
sided 360K potential and a six 



millisecond track 
seek rata 



($2 shipping) 



$132 



The DD-2 combines the Teac 55B with our Vi height 
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Jng) 



$188 




GUARANTEE 



■ 



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RS DOS ROM CHIP 

ROM chip fits inside disk controller. 24 pin fits both J&M 
and RS controller Release 1.1. 

Reg- $40 



BOTEK 



($2 shipping) 



each 



Serial to parallel converter converts the CoCo 4 pin serial 
output to run a parallel printer like Star or Epson. In- 
cludes all cables. Add $10 for modem attachment. 

($2 shipping) S 



WORD PACK 



lis ROM pack is ihe hardware answer for an 80 column 
display. It includes a built-in video controller to drive a 
monochrome monitor like our 123A. To get started, you 
need OS-9 2.0, a Y-cable or multipack interface drive 0, 
and a monochrome monitor. CQO 

($2 shipping) ^0%f 

New basic driver runs word pack without 
need for an OS-9. 



Howard Medical has located and tested a select few 
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prices. These typewriters bridge the gap between dot 
matrix and daisy wheel printers with excellent letter 
quality and keyboard access. Try one in your home 
for 30 days and if you do not agree that this is the best 
of both worlds return it pre-paid for a courteous 
refund. 

OLIVETTI CX880 with built-in parallel port 
OLYMPIA ORBIT XP with built-in parallel port 

$286* 

OLYMPIA CARERRA with free $75 starter kit 
Needs $75 parallel interface adapter $225* 

SMITH CORONA 6100 with spell checker 
Needs $98 parallel & serial interface adapter 

$315* 

*($7 shipping) 



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same. For more information call (502) 228-4492. For credit card 
orders only, you may call (800) 847-0309. 



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Two great ways to bring 
the Rainbow into your life 




Rainbow on Tape 
& Rainbow On Disk! 



For more than four years now, tens of thousands of 
RAINBOW readers have enjoyed the luxury of RAINBOW 
ON TAPE. Each month our tape service subscribers receive 
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Yes, you could type the programs in yourself, as many 
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To get your first heaping helping, just fill out and return 
the attached reply card. No postage necessary. 





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36 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



Use this program to print out Hebrew characters 
for Chanukah cards, party invitations or thank 
you notes 



HEBREW WRITER 



By Aryeh Glaberson 



Have you ever had to write a 
report in Hebrew, and didn't 
like making draft after draft 
because of a few spelling errors? For the 
many needy programmers out there 
who just want prepackaged/pre- 
programmed software without having 
to read manuals, I decided to make an 
easy-to-learn program to do the job. 

Hebrew Writer is a program that 
consists of a primitive screen editor for 
use with Hebrew, and a corresponding 
downloading character set for the Oki- 
data 92 and 93 printers. The combina- 
tion is roughly equivalent to a smart 
electronic typewriter. This program 
should be useful for preparing invita- 
tions to Chanukah parties, thank-you 
notes to Bubie and Zaide for Chanukah 
"gelt," and holiday greetings to your 
friends. 

The program has three main parts: 
The character table for the dot matrix 
printer (lines 420 to 710), the character 
set for the PMDDE 4 Hi-Res screen (lines 
720 to 1300), and the executing part of 

Aryeh Glaberson lives in Edison, N.J., 
and is a sophomore at the Rabbi Jacob 
Joseph Yeshiva where he is presently 
pursuing Talmudic Studies. 



the program (lines 1310 to 1810). 

One of the main difficulties with 
writing Hebrew is that it is printed out 
from right to left instead of left to right 
as in English. To print the characters on 
the screen, the program pokes the 
character data into graphics memory 
instead of drawing, because DRAW is a 
rather slow process. One way to im- 
prove the characters would be to change 
the first part of the program, which has 
all the data for the screen characters. 
The same can be done to the printer 
characters by changing the second part 
of the program, which contains the data 
for the characters downloaded to the 
printer. A different code would have to 
be written for a printer other than the 
Okidata. 

The cursor is an underline that is 
drawn underneath the next character to 
be drawn. The printer baud rate (set for 
2400) can be changed by editing Line 
130. 

The program starts by setting the 
baud rate and sending you to the help 
screen. The uppercase characters are 
gotten by using the shift keys (the 
program sets the lowercase flag in Line 
1590). The listing doesn't have to be 
changed to fit into a disk system because 



it checks for the beginning of graphics 
memory in Line 1485 by peeking at Hex 
$BA. 

The two arrow keys are used to move 
the cursor around. Typing H at any time 
calls the help screen which shows the 
key equivalents. A carriage return then 
returns to the editor with the cursor not 
moved. Typing the appropriate keys 
produces a right-to-left display of the 
Hebrew characters. Another carriage 
return clears the screen, sends the line 
to the printer and produces the proper 
right-to-left hard copy. Two passes are 
made by the printer to achieve double- 
strike and to put in appropriate de- 
scenders. The cursor is returned to the 
upper-right of the screen. When nearing 
the 18th character, some beeps are 
sounded to warn of an end-of-line 
because the program automatically 
sends the line to the printer on the 18th 
character. Typing l< before printing 
deletes the line, and 0 quits to BASIC. 

When the computer is doing some 
calculations it uses the speed-up poke, 
but slows down when it does any print- 
ing. If your machine can't handle it, take 
out Line 390, take out the poke in Line 
1500, and delete lines 1760 and 
1790. □ 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 37 




The listing: HEBWRITE 

100 REM* * * * HEBREWRITER 
110 REM* * * * 16K ECB COCO 
120 REM**** OKI DATA 92&93 

130 POKE 150,18 
150 GOTO 330 
160 CLS : PRINT"ALEF 

- b" 

170 PRINT"GIMMEL - 

d" 

180 PRINT "HAY 
V" 

190 PRINT" ZAYIN - 

k" 

200 PRINT "TET 
yll 

210 PRINT" CHAF 
C" 

220 PRINT "LAMED - 
Itl" 

230 PRINT "MEM S. - M NUN 

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320 RETURN 

330 CLS:PRINT@70,"hebrew typewri 
ter" 

340 PRINT@102, "BY ARYEH GLABERSO 
N" 

350 PRINT@130, "COPYRIGHT §1985 A 
. GLABERSON" 

360 PRINT@198, "PLEASE WAIT A MOM 
ENT" 

370 PMODE4,l:PCLS:CLEAR1000 

380 REM ***SPEEDDOWN 

390 POKE65494,0 

400 DIM N(30) ,D$(58,7) 

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RAINBOW 

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ON EARTH JUST GOT BETTER! 



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38 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



420 REM ***PRINTER CHAR TABLE** 
430 DATA A,a,0, 97, 26, 100,8,23, 32 
,67,0,0,0 
440 DATA A,b,0 
7,0,32,0 
450 DATA A,g,0 
,0,0,0 

460 DATA A,r,0 
20,0 

470 DATA A,h,0 
0,126,0 

480 DATA A,v,0 
,0,0 

490 DATA A, Z ,0 
,0,0 

500 DATA A,k,0 
,126,0 

510 DATA A,t,0 
,64,62,0 
520 DATA A,y,0 

0,0 

530 DATA A,c,0 
34,65,62,0 
540 DATA A, 1,0 
0,24,0 

550 DATA A,m,0 
33,70,56,0 
560 DATA A,M,0 
9,1,127,0 
570 DATA A,n,0 

0,0,0 

580 DATA A,N,0 
,0,0 

590 DATA A,s,0 
,66,60,0 
600 DATA A,i,0 
,0,7,0 

610 DATA A,p,0 
,4,56,0 

620 DATA A,P,0 
26,0 

621 DATA D,G,0 
27,0 

630 DATA A,q,0 
0,6,0 

635 DATA D,Z,0 
,0,0 

640 DATA A,d,0 
,6,0 

650 DATA A,S,0 
,100,2,1,0 
660 DATA A,T,0 
2,124,0 

670 DATA A,C,0 
,3,0 

675 DATA D,H,0 
,0,0 

680 DATA A,X,0 
,34,65,0 



67,0,99,0,99,0,12 
0,96,1,96,31,0,96 
1,6,0,6,0,6,0,6,1 

0,1,102,16,6,0,6, 

0,0,1,6,0,126,0,0 

0,0,0,1,118,8,6,0 

0,121,6,0,6,0,6,0 

57,70,0,70,0,72,4 

0,1,6,0,6,24,0,0, 

0,65,34,65,34,65, 

0,4,10,0,75,0,43, 

123,4,3,64,32,66, 

125,1,99,1,99,1,9 

0,0,99,0,99,28,0, 

0,0,0,3,120,7,0,0 

61,66,0,66,0,66,0 

97,6,61,0,24,0,12 

67,8,70,8,66,0,66 

5,2,5,0,1,0,1,0,1 

0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1 
1,124,1,0,17,0,9, 

0,0,0,0,127,0,0,0 

0,1,6,0,6,0,6,120 

127,0,104,4,114,9 

97,0,127,0,1,0,1, 

3,0,3,0,3,0,127,0 

0,0,0,0,0,0,127,0 

65,2,69,8,64, 8,85 



690 DATA A, X, 0,3, 4, 11, 0,120, 4, 3, 
0,3,0 

700 DATA A, .,0,0,24,0,24,0,0,0,0 
,0,0 

710 DATA A, ",",0,0,24, 64,56,0,0, 
0,0,0,0 

720 REM ***HI-RES CHAR TABLE 

730 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

740 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

750 DATA 31,2,2,2,2,2,2 

760 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

770 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

780 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

790 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

800 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

810 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

820 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

830 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

840 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

850 DATA 16,15,17,17,17,31,31 

860 DATA 4,4,4,4,4,4,4 

870 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

880 DATA 30,9,21,1,1,1,1 

890 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

900 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

910 DATA 17,17,21,21.21,21,31 

920 DATA 31,9,9,9,9,9,25 

930 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

940 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

950 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

960 DATA 27,17,10,4,4,4,4 

970 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 



CoCo Cat 




£WP-Y30 PA/WTdK, AM).. 




A/o Down PAytA&JT, 
A/0 8AU.6WSI 




December 1986 THE RAINBOW 39 



980 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
990 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
1000 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
1010 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
1020 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
1030 DATA 0,0,0,0,12,12,0 
1040 DATA 0,0,0,12,12,4,8 
1050 DATA 19,11,6,12,10,25,25 
1060 DATA 30,2,2,2,2,2,31 
1070 DATA 30,31,1,1,1,31,30 
1080 DATA 31,31,2,2,2,2,2 
1090 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
1100 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
1110 DATA 14,2,2,2,2,13,13 
1120 DATA 31,31,1,1,9,9,9 
1130 DATA 9,9,9,11,6,12,24 
1140 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
1150 DATA 16,30,17,17,17,17,17 
1160 DATA 8,16,14,1,2,4,8 
1170 DATA 26,29,9,17,17,23,23 
1180 DATA 12,12,4,4,4,12,12 
1190 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
1200 DATA 30,9,9,29,1,1,30 
1210 DATA 31,1,1,5,5,4,4 
1220 DATA 14,17,1,1,1,1,1 
1230 DATA 30,17,17,17,17,17,14 
1240 DATA 16,25,27,21,17,17,14 
1250 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
1260 DATA 12,4,4,4,4,4,4 
1270 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
1280 DATA 27,27,18,10,4,2,31 
1290 DATA 12,12,4,0,0,0,0 
1300 DATA 4,2,5,4,4,4,4 
1310 F0RJ=1T032 

1320 READ T$,C$,N(1) ,N(2) ,N(3) ,N 
(4),N(5) ,N(6) ,N(7) ,N(8) ,N(9) ,N(1 
0),N(11) 

1330 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(37) ; 
T$;C$; 

1340 REM ***SEND TO PRINTER 
1350 FOR I=1T011:PRINT#-2,CHR$(N 
(I) ) ; :NEXTI 
1360 NEXT J 

1370 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(50) ; 
1380 GOSUB 160 

1390 CLS: INPUT" GREEN SCREEN 11 ;GL 
$ 

1 400 IFGL$="Y" THENAO= 192: BO=2 5 5 : 
ELSEIFGL$<>"Y"THENAO=63 : BO=0 
1410 CLS:PRINT@198," just one mo 

ment" ; 

1420 F0RJ=1T058 
1430 F0RI=1T07 
1440 READM 

1450 IFGL$= ,, Y"THENM=255-M 
1460 D$(J,I)=CHR$(M) 
1470 NEXTI 
1480 NEXT J 

1485 XZ=256*PEEK(&HBA) 



1486 XY=XZ+256 
1490 POKE &H11A,0 

1500 POKE65495,0:SCREEN1,0:IFGL$ 
= " Y " THENPCLS (1) ELSEPCLS 
1510 B$=STRING$(80,CHR$(32) ) 
1515 C$=STRING$(80,CHR$(32) ) 
1520 FL=0:CT=32:CN=80 
1530 A$=INKEY$:IFA$= H,, THEN1530 
1540 POKEXY+CT+FL*288,BO 
1550 IF A$="H" THEN SCREENl,l:GO 
SUB 160 :SCREEN1,0: GOTO 1530: ELSE 
IF A$="Q" THEN 1780: ELSE IF A$= 
CHR$(13) THEN 1760: ELSE IF A$="K 
" THEN 1500: ELSE IF A$OCHR$(9) 
THEN 1600 

1560 CT=CT+1:CN=CN+1 

1570 IFCT>32ANDFL=0THENCT=32:CN= 

80 : ELSEIFCT>63ANDFL=1THENCT=0 : FL 

=0 : ELSEIFCT>95ANDFL=2THENCT=32 : F 

L=l 

1580 POKE XY+CT+FL*288,AO 

1590 GOTO 1530 

1600 CT=CT-1 : CN=CN-1 

1610 IFCT<0THENCT=63 :FL=1:ELSEIF 

CT<32ANDFL=1THENCT=95 : FL=2 : ELSEI 

FCT<81ANDFL=2THENGOTO17 60 : ELSEIF 

CT<8 6ANDFL=2THENSOUND200 , 1 

1620 FF=XZ+CT+FL*288 

1630 POKE FF+256,AO 

1640 IFA$=CHR$(8)THENGOTO1530 

1650 J=ASC(A$)-64 

1660 IFA$=" . "THENJ=31ELSEIFA$=" , 
"THENJ=32 

1670 IFJ<10RJ>58THENJ=1 
1680 GG=32 

1690 REM*** PRINT CHARS ON SCREEN 
1700 FORK=lT07:POKEFF+GG,ASC(D$( 
J,K)) : GG=GG+ 3 2 : NEXTK 
1710 POKE FF+256,AO 

1720 I FCN< 1 THENCN= 1 E LS E I FCN> 80TH 
ENCN=80 

1730 MID$(B$,CN,1)=A$ 

1732 IFA$="N H THENA$= ,, Z" 

1733 IF A$="C" THEN A$="H" 

1734 IF A$="P" THEN A$="G H 

1735 MID$(C$,CN,1)=A$ 
1740 GOTO1530 

1750 REM* **SPEEDDOWN, SEND LINE T 

0 PRINTER 

1760 POKE65494,0 

1762 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(37) ; 

CHR$(57) ;CHR$(0) ;B$ 

1766 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(54) ; 

C$ 

1770 GOTO 1500 

1780 POKE &H1 1A, &HFF: CLS 

1790 POKE65494,0 

1800 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(48) ; 
1810 END 



40 THE RAINBOW December 1966 



• • • 



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<5deck the Oralis 



By Rick Woods 

One of the shortcomings of the (ML) is the lowest level language that 

Color Computer is its single a computer can be programmed in. It 

voice music in the BASIC mode, consists of zeros and ones (binary 

But one of the programs available for values) that the computer uses to turn 

the 32KCoCo is Musica //from Speech off and on the many thousands of 

Systems, a versatile software music electrical switches inside the computer, 

synthesizer. Using it, Tve written some These binary digits are called bits and 

music that I think most CoCo users will are assembled in groups of eight to form 

find enjoyable. a byte. Each memory address in the 

My brother, Randy, and I belong to CoCo stores one byte of information, 

the New Mexico All-State Choir. Using Since listing programs in binary format 

my choir experience and some help would lead to unusually long listings, a 

from Randy, IVe written music for my hexadecimal format is most often used. 

CoCo that shows what a great machine The hexadecimal numbering system is 

it really is. base 16 and is represented by the 

I converted the music into a string of numbers 0 to 9, and the letters A to F 

hexadecimal numbers that can be keyed to represent the values 11 to 1 5. Notice 

into the computer using a word proces- that Listing 1 consists entirely of these 

sor or the BASIC program in Listing 2. characters. This is the machine lan- 

My version of the song "Deck the guage program converted to a string of 

Halls" is an excellent example of what hexadecimal numbers. Each hexadec- 

a CoCo can do when properly pro- imal digit in the music listing represents 

grammed. 4 bits or one-half of a byte (a nibble). 

Therefore, each address you want to 

About Machine Language load in the computer requires two 

Musica II lets you write music for the hexadecimal characters. Hexadecimal 

CoCo in machine language. All the numbers in this article will be repre- 

mu&ic I've written, therefore, is in sented by a leading dollar sign ($). 

machine language. For those who are Looking at Listing 1 then, you can see 

ne*- tfi computers, machine language that the first address (S3DA0) will be 

" "" ' loaded with $BD; the second address 

with $ A9; the third address with $28 and 

Rick Woods is a senior at West Mesa so forth. 
High in Albuquerque, N.M., where he 

is student president of the music depart- Loading Music With a Word 

ment. His hobbies include music and Processor 

computers, and he enjoys arranging Any word processor that saves files in 

music for the CoCo, ASCII (the standard data format used 



by most home computers) can be 
used to enter Listing 1. When you 
enter the music listing, don't use 
carriage returns or characters other 
than those appearing in the listing. 
The first characters you enter will 
be BDR92B. Continue entering the 
entire listing, being very careful not 
to make any mistakes. The slightest 
mistake can have drastic results. 
Save the text file you created with 
the word processor to disk using the 
filename DECKHALL .DAT. 

As Listing 1 appears, it can't be 
executed in the computer. It must 
first be loaded into the proper 
computer addresses. To accomplish 
thrs, Listing 2 is used. After youVe 
keyed in the listing and saved it to 
disk, run the BASIC program and 
select the Convert Music option. 
The program clears memory and 
sets the start, end and execute 
addresses of the ML program. Then 
it reads the text file from disk, 
converts it to byte-size information 
and stores it in the proper memory 
addresses. When the entire text file 
has been loaded into memory, the 
program waits for the disk to stop 
then writes the ML program back 
to disk in binary, the normal ML 
format, using the filename DECK- 
HALL.8IN. It's only necessary to 
convert the music listing once. 
Anytime thereafter, run MUSCLOAD 
and select the Play Song option. 



Watch for Errors 

If the music doesn't sound good 
to you after you've converted it, go 
back and compare the text file to 
Listing 1 and correct any errors. 
Each hexadecimal character in 
Listing 1 represents four bits and 
there are 5,332 characters in the 
listing. That means youH be setting 
the state of 21,328 bits in the com- 
puter's memory. A one-bit error can 
cause some unusual results. The 
two errors I inserted into the trial 
run caused loss of all melody in the 
first case and made the song sound 
like a chain saw in the second. So, 
if you're not satisfied with the 
results when you finish, go back 
and check the text file for errors. 




Non-disk Users 

For those without a disk system, 
IVe written the BASIC program in 



&f£gj • ' ! 




mix- 




\ a . 1 Wit 



Listing h DECKHflLL 

BDA9288E059F9F888E0420108E3DBCA6A0A780108C3EFB23F6 

7E3 F0 0 60 60 6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A 

6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A606060606A6060606060604445434B6054 

48456048414C4C53 6060606060606A606060606A6060606060 

60606060606060606060 6,06)3 6060606060606060606A6060 60 

606A604152526E666050474D6E604259605249434B60574F4F 

4453606A606060606A6060604 34F4E566E6042596044454E4E 

4953 60574549444560606A606060606A60684 3 696071797875 

6042596044 665260534F465457415245606A606060606A6060 

607174727071604D4152515545545445604E6E456E6060606A 

606060606A606060414C42 55515545525155456E604E4D6078 

7771727360606A606060606A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A 

6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6A6060606060606060606060 

606060 6060606060 606060 60606060606060606060 6060FF00 

FF002002200E8E4000EC844454ED818C43FE2FF58 63F1F8BB6 

FF0184F7B7FF01B6FF0384F7B7FF03863CB7FF2334011A508E 

4400A680B73FCDEC8197C0D7C3EC8197C6D7C9201681FE2 610 

EC8497C0D7C3EC0297C6D7C9A60497CD3008A6802BE6274C97 

CCD6CDD7CEA69F3FC0AB9F3FC3A99F3FC6A99F3FC9B7FF20DC 

C1E384DDC1DCC4E302DDC4DCC7E304DDC7DCCAE306DDCA0ACE 

260A0ACC27BFD6CDD7CE20C730843084B600008A00810020BA 

4F1F8B8E4000EC844858ED818C43FE2FF53581FF00FF00FF00 

FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF 

00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00FF00C100 

FF00FF00FF00FF00424950585E656B7072767779787774726F 

6B66615D58534E4A4643 3F3C3938373 5343332323 131313030 

2F2F2F2F2F2F2F3031323336383A3E41464A4E52575C5F6265 

66696A69696664605D59534E48423D38332E2A272525242425 

26292D3136393E43494C5154575A5C5D5D5D5D5D5B5A575553 

514E4B4A49474544434241403F3F3D3D3B3938373533312F2C 

292725252424252526282B2E3 235393E44494C5154585B5D5D 

5E5D5D5A56524D49443E383 3 2D2825201D1B181818191A1D20 

24262B2F34383C4044484A4C4F4F5152525252525252525151 

5150504F4F4E4E4C4A494744423E3A3733 2D28241F1A15120F 

0C0B09090A0C1013181E242B333A4A4E53595D62 666A6E7173 

75767879797877777675747271706F6D6C6B6A6968 67666664 

6464636261605F5D5D5B5A5958575553525150505050505051 

50515253535455565657585859595A5A5A5B5A5A5B5C5D5D5E 

5E606265666869 6C6E6F71737575767677777675747171706C 

6A6764615E5D5B575553524F4E4C«4A4A4A494747454443413F 

3D3A383734322F2C28262322211F1D1B1A1A19191B1B1E1F21 

232425272A2C2E303033323435363637383838383838383939 

393B3C3D3E3F3F3F414142414141404141403F3D3D3B393837 

3 63634323130302E2D2C2C2C2A2A292928262625242220201E 

1D1C1B1A1919191A1B1E1F2125282C313 6394045434447494A 

4C50515556595B5D5E6062646667696A6C6E6F707172747474 

76767677777878787879787778777777767675747473727270 

70706E6D6D6C6B6A696867 666564626261605E5E5E5D5D5C5B 



44 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



Listing 3 so that you, too, can key 
in this music and enjoy it. This 
program works a little differently. It 
loads the data from Listing 1 di- 
rectly into the proper addresses 
then saves the machine language 
program to tape. 

This method is a little more dif- 
ficult since you must keep track of 
the addresses you load. To help 
you, each time you press enter, the 
program prints the last address 
loaded and the next address to load. 
Be sure to enter an even number of 
characters. An Improper String 
Length Error will result if you 
don't. That's because each byte is 
represented by two hexadecimal 
characters. If you enter an odd 
number of characters, the program 
will load the last character with a 
zero in the most significant digit 
into the next address. When the 
program loads your next line of 
data, it jumps ahead one more 
address. At this point, you'll be one 
address off in the ML program and 
it won't work. If you get this error, 
reenter the data properly. 

It's not necessary to key in List- 
ing 1 all at once. You can stop and 
save the partial ML program to 
tape and quit for awhile. Just be 
sure to record the last address you 
loaded and the next address to load. 
When you're ready to resume enter- 
ing the music listing, run the BASIC 
program and enter the next address 
you want to load. As you key in the 
music listing, be sure you don't key 
in more than five or six screen lines 
before pressing ENTER. Your key- 
board buffer only holds about 255 
characters. If you key in more than 
that without pressing ENTER, you'll 
get an OS Error, causing program 
execution to stop. 

If you want, you can enter the 
music listing using Dennis Weide's 
Codelode program from the July 
1985 RAINBOW. Use 3DA0 for the 
start address and keep track of the 
last address listed each time you 
press ENTER. 

I hope you like the music and I 
want to wish everyone at THE RAIN- 
BOW and all its readers a very happy 
holiday season. 

(Questions about this program 
may be directed to the author at 
14201 Marquette N.E., Albu- 
querque, NM 87123, 505-836-0582. 
Please enclose an SASE when writ- 
ing.) n 



5A5958575856565555545353525251515J3504F4E4E4E4D4C4C 
4B4B4A4A4A4A4A4949484847474 6454544444 34443 43424141 
4j33F3F3E3E3D3D3C3C3C3B3B3A3A3938383838383837363636 
353534333332313131312F2F2F2E2D2D2C2B2A2A2928272725 

2525242422212p2j31FlElDlClBlA1918171615141312121211 
1010j3F0Ej3Dj3C0C0Cj3C0B0^ 

121214151718191B1D1E20222425272A2B2E3 1333 638 393C3E 
4143484E545A5E64686C7j372757678797878777574716F6D6A 
6664615D5B5855525J34D4B4A48464544424J34J33F3E3E3D3D3C 
3C3D3C3C3D3C3E3E3E3F3F404j341424242424242424141414j3 
4J33F3E3E3D3C3B3A3A3A3A3A3A3A3C3C3D3E3F414243454648 
484A4A4A4B4A4A4B4A4A4A4 9484747454544 444 34242414141 
4141424242424342434343424241414J34J33F3E3D3C3B3A3A3A 
3939383839393A3B3C3D3E3F41424345464748494A4A4A4A4A 
494A49484747464544444 34 342424 14 142424243 4 34 3444 545 
454646474747474848474746464645444342413F3D3B3A3836 
34312F2B2825232plC191714121pj3Ej3DpC^C^CJiD^Elj8121519 
lD22262B32383D424142434j3FE4142434j342pj3)339E2j315B3j3j3 
j3j3j3j300039E1015B 

3Fj3AD9073Dj339E2j31j3420AD9j36D5^^ 

2j3j3E7BpAD9j373Dj339E2j31j342j3AD9p6D5ppj3p2j3123Fj3AD9j373D 
j339E2j3j3E7Bj3AD9073Dj3000^ 

^6D5p2B61pl23Fj3AD9j36D5j32B61j31356pAD9^6D5^2B61plj342 
^AD9^6D5j32B62^123Fj3AD9^(73Dj32B61)3123F^AD9)S73D)32B61j3 
10420AD9j373Dj32B6FFj3j300^^ 

9E2j3j3DABpAD9p821j32B62^pE7B^AD9j373Dp39E2j3j3E7BpAD9p7 

D9p73Dpj3j3plpl356pAD9p73D^j3pp2j312 3Fj3AD9j373Dj339E2^flj3 
420AD906D5W0FFj3Wj3W 

2j31j342^AD9p6D5j3j3j3j32pl23F^AD9p73Dj339E2j3j3E7BpAD9^73D 
0j30j3FFj3j3j3j3W 

j36D5j32B61j3l356j3AD9j36D5j32B61plp42j3AD9j36D5j32B62j3123F 
pAD9j373Dj32B61pl2 3Fj3AD9p73Dj32B61j31p42j3AD9j373Dj32B6FF 

B62j3j3E7Bj3AD9p73Dj339E2pj3E7B^AD9j373Dj339EFF^j3p)3^p^ 
^p^pP2pip42j3^pj3j3p^2B61plp42pDAB^9AB^^lpl2 3Fj3D 
AB09AB000j32jm56000W 

lpl356pE7Bp91Fp0pp2pl5B3pflPpp0p003SE2010420DAB082^ 
036AFFj300000Wj30W 

p91Fp39E2j315B3pE7Bp91Fj339Elj3185BpE7Bj391Fj339ElplB57 

0E7B091F039E201CF70E7B091F030BFF00W 

lB57^DABp821j341j32j3185BpC2D^173Dp41p2pl5B3pAD9j36D5j32 

B62^15B3^hD9^6D5^2B6FF^^^0^^^^^^f5^^fi0^2fil5B3^fifi0^0 

W39Elpl5B3j3AD9j373Dpj3j3j31pl356pAD9p73DpW2i3123Fpj3 

000j300039E2010420AD9j36D500j3^^ 

7BpAD9p73Dj339E2j31j342pAD9j36D5j3W2j312 3F^AD9j373D^f39E 
200E7 B0 AD90 7 3 DJ3 J3J3 j3 FF ^ 

p39Ep8j3pj3ppC2Dp73Dp39E^8185Bj3C2Dj373D^39Ej38j3j3j3j3pC2D 
P73D^39E^8185BpC2Dj373Dj339Ep8PPj3i3pC2Dj373Dj339Ej38185B 
j3C2Dp73Dj339Ej38j3^j3^C2Dj373Dp39E2j315B3j3AD9j373Dj339Elp 
15B3pAD9p73Dp39Eipi356pAD9p73Dp39EFFpj3pPj3j3pj3j3^j3j3Pj3 
j3p2pl23F^AD9p73Dp39E2j31j342PAD9p6D5j32B64j3j3E7Bj3AD9p7 
3Dj339E2000;30000j3j30^ 

2j3393A323j3323 339303j334823220393A3 63j33 53131313)33186 
3320393A3934313j33j330303j3823420393A32343 63434323031 
j302j3202020202j32020202j32j3202j32^ 

2p2p2p2j3202p2p2p2p2j32p2j32p2j32j32j32j32j32p2j32j32p2p2p2j3 
2j32p2j32j32p2p2j32p2p2j32p2p2j32j32j3j30 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 45 



Now Create Your Own Signs, 
Banners, and Greeting Cards. 



Introducing The 
Coco Graphics Designer 

Last Christmas we introduced our 
COCO Greeting Card Deeigner program 
(see review April 86 Rainbow). It haa 
been to popular that we've now 
expanded it into a new program called 
the COCO Graphici Deeigner. The 
Coco Graphici Designer producee 
graeting cards plui barmen and signs. 
This program will further increase the 
utefuiineis and enjoyment of your dot 
matrix printer. 

The Coco Graphics 

Designer allows you to mix text and 
pictures in ail your creations. The 
program features picture, border, and 
character font editors, so that you can 
modify or expand the already built in 
libraries. Plus a special "grabber" utility 
is included to capture areas of high 
resolution screens for your picture 
library. 



Requirements: a Coco or Coco II 
with a minimum of 32K, One Disk Drive 
(Disk Ext. BASIC 1.0/l.l.ADOS, or 
JDOS). Printers supported include: 
Epson RX/FX, GEMINI 10X, SG-10, 
NX- 10, C-Itoh 8610, DMP-100/ 105/ 
400/ 430, Seikosha GP-1OO/250, Legend 
808 and Gorilla Bannana. Send a SASE 
for complete list of compatible printers. 
#CS82 Coco Graphics Designer $29.95 



Over 100 More Pictures 

An optional supplementary library 

diskette containing over one hundred 
additional pictures is available. 

#CSS3 Picture Disk #1 $14.96. 



Colored Paper Packs 

Now available are packs containing 120 
sheets of tractor-feed paper and 42 
matching envelopes in assorted bright 
RED, GREEN, and BLUE. Perfect for 
making your productions unforgettable. 
#C274 Paper Pack $19.95 





VTOBl 




With Zebra's Coco Graphics Designer it's easy and enjoyable 
making your own greeting cards, signs, and banners. 



WICO 
TRACKBALL 
Now $19.95 

Order Cat#TBRS01 
(Was $69.95) 

You can benefit from our purchase of 
brand new WICO Trackball Controllers 
at closeout prices. This model was 
deii (7i ad apccifically for the Radio Shack 
Color Computer and plugs right into the 
joystick port. 

WICO is the largest deeigner and 
manufacturer of control devices for 
commercial arcade video games. If 
you've ever played an arcade video 
game, chances are you've used a WICO 
joystick or trackball and experienced its 



superior control, pinpoint firing 
accuracy, and exceptional durability. 

Includes one-year limited warranty. 
Phoenolic ball offers 360-degree 
movement. Two optical encoders 
provide split-second response. 
Quick-action fire button for smooth, two 
handed arcade response and feel. Long 
6' computer connection. Heavy duty 
plastic case for long hard use. 
Compatible with all color computer 
models. 



We have bargain priced trackballs for ATARI, Commodore, TI, 
and other computers. Call or write for our price list. 



Ordering Instructions: All orders 
add $3.00 Shipping Jc Handling. UPS 
COD add $3.00. VISA/MC Accepted. 
NY residents add salee tax. 



Zebra Sy terns, Inc 
78-06 Jamaica Ave, 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(718) 296-2385 



Listing 2: MUSCL0RD 

1000 1 LISTING 2 

1100 1 

1200 1 

1300 ' ******************** 

140)3 '**** MUSIC LOAD **** 

15,0)3 '******************** 

16) 3)3 • FOR LOADING 

17) 3)3 ' MUSIC PROGRAMS 
18J3)3 1 USING WORDPROCESSOR 
19)3)3 ' WITH DISK SYSTEM 
2)3)30 1 

2100 ' 

2200 ' BY RICK WOODS 

2300 ' (C) 1985 

2400 1 

2500 » 

2600 • 

2700 CLEAR200,&H3DA0 

2800 CLS 

2 900 PRINT : PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 6 ) "MUS 
IC LOADER PROGRAM" 

3000 PRINT: PRINTTAB (10) "BY RICK 
WOODS " 

3100 PRINT : PRINTTAB (8) " ========= 

=======« 

3200 PRINTTAB (10) "PROGRAM MENU" 

3 300 PRINTTAB (8) " =============== 

= n 

3400 PRINTTAB ( 8 )" 1 . CONVERT MUSI 
C» 

3500 PRINTTAB (8) "2. PLAY SONG" 

3600 PRINTTAB ( 8 )" 3 . END PROGRAM" 

3 700 PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 5 ) " " ; : INPUT 
"ENTER ONE OF THE ABOVE" ;Z 
3800 IF Z<1 OR Z>3 THEN 2800 
3900 ON Z GOTO 4700,4100,4000 
4000 END 

4100 CLS 

4200 IF PEEK(15776)=189 THEN 450 
0 

4300 LOADM" DECKHALL" 

4400 FOR X=l TO 3000: NEXT X 

4500 EXEC &H3DA0 

4600 GOTO 2800 

4700 OPEN"D" , #1 , "DECKHALL. DAT" , 2 

4800 FIELD#1,2 AS B$ 

4900 X=&H3DA0 

5000 FOR Y=l TO LOF(l) 

5100 GET#1,Y 

5200 A$="&H"+B$ ■ 

5300 POKE X,VAL(A$) 

5400 X=X+1 

5500 NEXT Y 

5600 CLOSE#l 

5700 FOR X=l TO 5000 

5800 NEXT X 

5900 VERIFY ON 



46 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



6j3j3j3 S AVEM" DECKHALL" , &H3DA0 , &H48 

09,&H3DAj3 

61)3)3 GOTO 28)3)3 



Listing 3: TAPELOAD 



LISTING 3 



' ********************** 

• * * * * * MUSIC LOAD ***** 
■ ********************** 



i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 



FOR LOADING 

MUSIC PROGRAMS 

IN NON-DISK SYSTEMS 



BY RICK WOODS 
(C) 1985 



1000 
1100 
1200 
1300 
1400 
1500 
1600 
1700 
1800 
1900 
2000 
2100 
2200 
2300 
2400 
2500 

2600 CLEAR 200,&H3DA0 
2700 CLS 

2 800 PRINT : PRINT ; PRINTTAB ( 6 ) "MUS 

IC LOADER PROGRAM" 

2900 PRINT: PRINTTAB (10) "BY RICK 

WOODS" 

3000 PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 8 ) »========= 

=======» 

3100 PRINTTAB (10) "PROGRAM MENU" 
3 200 PRINTTAB (8) " =============== 

=» 

3300 PRINTTAB ( 8 )" 1 
3400 PRINTTAB (8) "2 
3500 PRINTTAB (8) "3 
3600 PRINTTAB ( 8 ) "4 
3700 PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 5 ) " " ; : INPUT" 
ENTER ONE OF THE ABOVE" ;Z 
3800 IF Z<1 OR Z>4 THEN 2700 
3900 ON Z GOTO 4100,6100,7300,40 
00 

4000 END 
4100 CLS 
4200 X=&H3DA0 

4300 INPUT "ENTER START ADDRESS"; 
SA 

4400 IF SA=0 THEN SA=X 

4500 PRINT: INPUT "ENTER DATA STRI 

NG";D$ 

4 600 IF D$="SAVE" THEN 6800 

4700 IF D$="" THEN 4500 

4800 IF LEN(D$)/2=INT(LEN(D$)/2) 

THEN 5300 
4900 CLS: FOR 0=1 TO 10 
5000 PRINTTAB (5) "IMPROPER STRING 

LENGTH" : SOUND 100,1 



ENTER MUSIC" 
PLAY SONG" 
PRINT DATA" 
END PROGRAM" 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 




StosWXBOgi 




Back copies of many issues of the 
rainbow are still available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue 
cover price. In addition, there is a $3.50 
charge for the first issue, plus 50 cents 
for each additional issue for postage and 
handling if sent by United Parcel Service. 
There is a $5 charge for the first issue, 
plus a $1 charge for each additional issue 
on orders sent by U.S. Mail. UPS will not 
deliver to a post office box or to another 
country. 

Issues July 1981 through June 1982 
are available on white paper in a reprint 
form. All others are in regular magazine 
form. VISA, MasterCard and American 
Express accepted. Kentucky residents 
please add 5 percent state sales tax. In 
order to hold down costs, we do not bill 
and no C.O.D. orders are accepted. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you 
order the back issues you want now while 
supplies last. 

To order, just fill out the form on the 
next page and mail it with your payment 
to: 

THE RAINBOW 

The Falsoft Building 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 




December 1986 THE RAINBOW 47 



BACK ISSUE ORDER FORM 

(See overleaf for instructions.) 
(Payment must accompany back issue orders. We do not bill.) 

□ Please send me the following back issues: 





■ IAUTLI 

MONTH 


\/<*m i me 4 
VOLUME 1 






NO. 


YEAR 




PRICE 


1 


JULY 81 


PREMIER looUE 




u 


2 


All in 4 

AUG. 81 




An r\n 

$^.00 


i — i 
u 


3 


SEPT. 81 


EDUCA1 ION 


$2.00 


1 — 1 

u 


4 


OCT. 81 


PRINTER 


$2.0U 


1 — 1 


5 


NOV. 81 




$2.00 


1 — 1 

u 


6 


DEC. 81 


HOLIDAY 




1 — 1 

u 


7 


JAN. 82 




$<£.00 


n 

u 


o 
O 


FEB. 82 




$41.00 




9 


MAR. 82 




d>o CA 

$2.50 


u 


10 


a r* n ion 

APR. 82 




tf"A Cfl 

$2.50 


U 


12 


ii ■ ftt. 1 1 — 1 n o 

JUNE 82 




$2.50 


u 






VOLUME 2 






11 


ll ii i r* > rt o 

JUNE 83 


PRINTERS 


$2.95 


1— 1 

□ 


12 


JULY 83 


ANNIVERSARY 


An AC 

$2.95 


n 
U 






VOLUME 3 






1 


A 1 i o> ion 

AUG. 83 


/-\ * urn 

GAMES 


$2.95 


r— 1 

□ 


2 


SEPT. 83 


rT"\ i t ATI »r\ a. i 

EDUCATION 


A A AC 

$2.95 


I — i 

□ 


3 


OCT. 83 


/*N n A nUI AO 

GRAPHICS 


(tO AC 

$3.95 


I— I 

u 


4 


NOV. 83 


i—v ATA r*AUll 

DATA COMM. 


tf"0 AC 

$3-95 


n 


5 


DEC. 83 


HOLIDAY 


(•> o nc 

$3.95 


n 
U 


8 


MAR. 84 


BUSINESS 


O AC 

$3.95 


i — i 

u 


9 


APR. 84 


GAMING 


*0 AC 

$3.95 


1 — 1 


10 


MAY, 84 


PRINTER 


(to nc 

$3.95 


n 
U 


11 


ll i l 1 1 — mi 

JUNE 84 


■ 11 |OI/*> 

MUSIC 


$3.95 


i — i 

u 


12 


JULY 84 


ANNIVERSARY 


^O AC 

$3.95 


1 — 1 

u 






VOLUME 4 






4 

1 


All/** 'O A 

AUG. 84 


/"* A I A CO 

GAMES 


(to nc 
$3.95 


1— 1 

u 


2 


SEPT. 84 


EDUCATION 


$3.95 


1 — 1 

u 


3 


OCT. 84 


/*** D A Dl_1 1 1> C 

GRArHIUo 


♦ O AC 


U 


4 


NOV. 84 


HATA /~\ in j 

DATA COMM. 


£0 AC 

$o.95 


n 


5 


r*»c/"» 'QA 

DEC. 84 


i_i/"m in a v 
HOLIDAY 


(to AC 

$3.95 


n 

u 


0 


1AM IDC 

JAN. 85 


D CP IMMCDC 

BEGINNEHo 


AC 

$3.95 




7 


rEB. 85 


1 IT1 1 IXI CO 

Ul ILI1 IES 


4*0 AC 

$3.95 


■U 


8 


HAD IQC 

MAR. 85 


Dl IC 1 kICCC 

BUSINESS 


tfO AC 

$3.95 


(—1 


9 


ADD >QC 

APR. 85 


OlhJI II AXl/*MclO 

SIMULA 1 IONS 


AC 

$3.95 


r— i 
U 


10 


MAY 85 


DD IklTCD 

rHINI ER 


io QC 

$0.95 


n 
Ul 


11 


If IXiC 'QC 

JUNE 85 


Li i io ir» 
MUolU 


io oc 
$0.95 


i — i 


12 


II II V 'QC 

JULY 85 


AMMH/CDCAQV 


io QC 

$0.95 








\te\\ I me c 
VOLUME 5 






1 


AUG. 85 


a HCO 

GAMES 


tfO AC 

$3.95 


n 
U 


2 


SEPT. 85 


EDUCATION 


&>r\ AC 

$3.95 


n 
U 


3 


OCT. 85 


GRAPHICS 


d*o Ac 

$3.95 


□ 


4 


NOV. 85 


ATA AAlll 1 

DATA COMM. 


I^O AC 

$3.95 


Li 


6 


1 A HI IOC 

JAN. 86 


BEGINNERS 


io OK 


n 
l_l 


7 


r- r— D IOC 

FEB. 86 


1 ITII ITICP 

UTILITIES 


$3.95 


□ 


o 
o 


WAD 'QC 


PI ICIMCCC 
dUoIiN too 


$3.95 


□ 


9 


APR. '86 


HOME HELP 


$3.95 


□ 


10 


MAY '86 


PRINTER 


$3.95 


□ 


11 


JUNE '86 


MUSIC 


$3.95 


□ 


12 


JULY '86 


ANNIVERSARY 


$3.95 


□ 






VOLUME 6 






1 


AUG. '86 


GAMES 


$3.95 


□ 


2 


SEPT. '86 


EDUCATION 


$3.95 


□ 


3 


OCT. '86 


GRAPHICS 


$3.95 


□ 


4 


NOV. '86 


DATA COMM. 


$3.95 


□ 


5 


DEC. '86 


HOLIDAY 


$3.95 


□ 



RAINBOW INDEX A complete index to our first three years, July 1981 
through June 1984, is printed in its entirety in our July 1984 issue. 
Separately bound copies are also available. $2.50 □ 

Note: Our Fourth and Fifth Year Indexes, including RAINBOW ON TAPE 
indexes, are included in the July 1985 and 1986 issues, respectively. 

TOTAI 

KY RESIDENTS ADD 5% 

U.S. MAIL CHARGE 

SHIPPING & HANDLING 

U.P.S. CHARGE 

TOTAL AMOUNT 

ENCLOSED 

Name 



Address 



City State ZIP 

□ Payment Enclosed, or charge to my: 

□ visa Dmc Dae 

CARD # 



EXPIRATION DATE PHONE # 

SIGNATURE 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. EST. All other inquiries call (502) 228-4492. 



5100 NEXT Q:F0R Q=l TO 1000: NEXT 
Q 

5200 CLStGOTO 4500 

5300 FOR Q=l TO LEN ( D$ ) STEP 2 

5400 E$=MID$(D$,Q,2) ;E$="&H"+E$ 

5500 POKE SA,VAL(E$) 

5600 PRINT "LOAD ADDR=" ;HEX$ (SA) , 

5700 SA=SA+1 

5800 PRINT "NEXT ADDR=" ;HEX$ (SA) 
5900 NEXT Q 
6000 GOTO 4500 
6100 CLS 

6 2 00 PRI NT : PRINT : PRI NTT AB ( 7 ) " NOW 

LOADING MUSIC" 
6300 CLOADM" DECKHALL" 
6400 FOR Q=l TO 1000:NEXT Q 
6500 EXEC 
6600 GOTO 2700 
6700 STOP 

6800 CLS : PRINT : PRINT 

6900 PRINTTAB( 5) "PREPARE TAPE RE 

C0RDER" 

7000 PRINT: PRINTTAB (7) "THEN PRES 
S <ENTER>" 

7 100 CSAVEM" DECKHALL" , &H3 DA0 , &H4 
809,&H3DA0 
7200 GOTO 2700 
7300 CLS 

7400 PRINT : PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 10 ) "NO 
W PRINTING" 

7500 FOR Q=&H3DA0 TO &H4809 

7600 A$=HEX$(PEEK(Q) ) 

7700 A$="0"+A$:A$=RIGHT$(A$,2) 

7800 PRINT#-2,A$; 

7900 QQ=QQ+1 

8000 IF QQ=30 THEN PRINT#-2 : QQ=0 
8100 NEXT Q ^ 



Hint . . . 

Monochrome Magic 
on the CoCo 3 

Several people have expressed concern that a 
monochrome monitor is not supported on the Color 
Computer 3. The CoCo 3 does support a composite 
color monitor, however. If you want to hook a 
monochrome monitor to this output, you can obtain 
acceptable results by issuing the following command 
line: 

WIDTH40: PALETTE 8,255: PALETTE 0,0:CLS9 

All the CLS9 does is display the Microware name. 
It is not necessary for this line to work. 

Bob Rosen 
Howard Beach, NY 



48 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



Great Christmas Savings from Radio Shack, 

The Tandy 102 Portable 



Reg. 

$49900 



399 



00 



Save 1 100 on our most 
popular portable. 




Good things really do come 
in small packages 

Here's the perfect gift for 
busy executives, students and 
people on the move. The Tandy 
102 provides the performance of 
a desktop computer in a much 
smaller — and much more afford- 
able package. 

We've redesigned our best- 
selling portable — the Model 
100 — into the slimmer, more 
lightweight Tandy 102. Ideal for 
businesspeople who travel, the 
Tandy 102 includes five instant- 
on programs, an 8-line by 40- 
character LCD display and a 
built-in modem. Despite its 
small size, the Tandy 102 fea- 
tures a full-size typewriter-style 
keyboard and 24K memory. 



Use the Tandy 102 as a per- 
sonal word processor, address/ 
phone directory, appointment 
calendar and telephone auto- 
dialer. Access other computers 
or national information services 
by phone with the built-in 300 
bps modem and communica- 
tions program. Or write your 
own programs in BASIC, 

The Tandy 102 includes paral- 
lel, RS-232C, cassette and bar 
code reader interfaces. You can 
even add a Disk/Video Interface 
for up to 184,000 characters of 
disk storage, as well as connec- 
tion to a TV or display monitor. 
The powerful little Tandy 102 is 
a Micro Executive Workstation™ 
that operates on batteries or op- 
tional AC adapter. 



Save on our other portables! 

The powerful Tandy 200 
£26-3860, Reg. $799.00, Sale 
$599) and the professional disk- 
based Tandy 600 portable com- 
puters (26-3901, Reg. $1599.00, 
Sale $999) are available at spe- 
cial holiday savings as well. Stop 
by your local Radio Shack. 
We've got the perfect portable 
for everyone on your list. 

Radio /hack 



The Technology Store 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



TM 



Prices apply at Radio Shack Computer Centers and participating stores and dealers. Sale begins 10/21/86, ends 12/31/86. 



MODIFICATION 



Fortune Wheel 



By Arron Branigan 




After having Fortune Wheel published in the 
August 1 986 issue of RAINBOW, I have received 
several calls and letters from people wanting 
to know how to make the program work with a tape 
system. With my goal clearly laid before me, I set out 
to accomplish the task. What follows are the results. 

To alter Listing 1 (the actual Wheel program) for 
tape operation, you first need to change the following 
lines as indicated. 

560 CLS : PRINT@224 , "POSITION TAPE 
AT PROPER COUNTER NUMBER, PRESS 
PLAY THEN PRESS [ENTER] " : INPU 
TXV : SCREEN 1 , 1 : PT=PL 
570 POKE65494, j3 : CLOSE* -1 : OPEN "I 
" , #-1, "CATEGORY" : FORZZ=1TO10 : INP 
UT#-1,CT$ (ZZ) ,K$(ZZ) :NEXTZZ:POKE 
65495,0 



Arron Branigan is a technical sergeant in the U.S. Air 
Force and is pursuing a bachelor's degree in computer 
applications at Arkansas State University. He enjoys 
programming his computer and singing country and 
western music. 



580 FORO=l TO RD 

600 SS=0:DS=RND(10) :CAT=VAL(CT$( 

DS) ) :C$=K$(DS) :GY=1 

610 FORSS=l TO RO:IFK(SS)=DS THE 

N 600 ELSENEXTSS 

620 K(RO)=DS:POKE65495,0 

630 TL=0:FOR TL=64 TO 1 STEP-1:I 

FMID$(C$,TL,1)<>" " THEN640 ELSE 

NEXTTL 



it 



Then delete Line 590 from the original program. 
Change the CLEAR 1000 in Line 70 to CLEAR 1500. 
Now, save this altered version to tape. 

To alter Listing 2, the Creator program, change the 
following lines as indicated. Note that lines 1000 to 
2030 are new and are necessary for tape operation. 

100 CLS :PRINT@ 230,"";: INPUT 

(1 
(2 

(3 
(4 
(5 

(6) -END M 
AKE SELECTION" ;SE 



-CREATE FILES 
-CORRECT FILES 
-LIST FILES 
-GET TAPE FILE 
-SAVE A TAPE FILE 
-END 



50 



THE RAINBOW 



Great Christmas Savings from Radio Shack 

64K Color Computer 2 

ONLY $0095 

Save $ 60 on a colorful gift 
for the whole family 




Here's a perfect gift 
that's sure to fit 

Give your family Radio Shack's 
remarkable Color Computer 2 
(26-3127, Reg. $159.95), and 
start computing the first thing 
Christmas morning — even if 
you've never used a computer 
before! Simply attach to your 
TV, and you're set. 

Everyone in your family can 
use the Color Computer 2 year 
round for education, entertain- 
ment, and home management 
tasks. It can even be used for 
writing your own sophisticated 
programs — simply pop in an 
instant-loading Program Pak™ 



cartridge, or choose ready-to- 
run cassette software (requires 
optional recorder) to set up a 
family budget, monitor invest- 
ments, create an inventory of 
household items or play exciting 
games with sound effects. Your 
children will use the Color 
Computer 2 to help strengthen 
their math, spelling and reading 
skills, too. 

Save $100 on the 
matching disk drive. 

The Color Computer 2 lets 
you access 32,000 characters of 
memory with the built-in BASIC 
language. As your family's inter- 
ests and skills grow, the Color 



Computer 2 can be expanded to 
keep up with everyone's needs. 
Add the FD-501 Color Thinline 
Disk#0 (26-3131, Reg. $299.95, 
Sale 199.95) to access the full 
64K memory and to store over 
156,000 characters of data. Plus, 
you can add a telephone modem 
for communications, a printer, 
joysticks and much more. 

Put the Color Computer 2 in 
its place — at the top of your 
family's gift list — and do your 
shopping early at Radio Shack. 

Radio /haek 

The Technology Store ™ 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



*TV, platform and disk drive not included. Prices apply at Radio Shack Computer Centers and participating Radio Shack stores and dealers. Sale begins 10/21, ends 12/24. 



110 IF SE=6 THENPOKE65494,0:END 
120 ON SE GOSUB 270 , 180 , 510 , IP 
,2000:GOTO100 
190 GOSUB 1000 

200 IF FK1 OR FI>10 THEN 180 
210 A1$=A$(FI) :B$=B1$(FI) 
270 PS=1:POKE65495,0:CLS:IF SE=1 
THENFORFI=1TO10:CLS(6) :B$=STRIN 
G$(64," ") : PRINT@480 , "RECORD" ;FI 

t 

430 A$(FI)=A1$:B1$(FI)=B$ 
440 IF SE=1 THENPS=1 : NEXT FI 
450 RETURN 

520 GOSUB1000:POKE65494,0 

530 CLS: INPUT "ENTER FILES: START, 

END"; ST, EN: IF EN>10 THEN EN=10:E 

LSE IF ST<1 OR ST>10 OR EN<1 OR 

EN>10 OR ST> EN THEN 530 

580 PRINT " RECORD " ; X ; CR$ ; " CATAGOR 

Y";CR$;A$(X) ;CR$;B1$(X) 

590 IF CO$="Y" THEN PRINT#-2, US 
ING P$ ;X,A$(X) ,B1$(X) 
610 NEXTX:PRINT#-2,CHR$(2 7) ;CHR$ 
( 19 ) ; : RETURN 

1000 POKE 65494, 0:CLS:PRINT@224, 
""; :INPUT"IF FILE IS NOT IN MEMO 
RY THEN POSITION TAPE TO PROPE 



R COUNTER NUMBER THEN PRESS PLAY 
, TYPE LOAD [ENTER] ELSE TYPE 
R[ ENTER] " ;Q$:IFQ$O"L0AD"ANDQ$<> 
"R" THEN 1000: ELSE IFQ$="R" THEN 

POKE 6 5 4 9 5 , 0 : RETURN 
1010 OPEN "I", #-1, "CATEGORY" 
1020 FOR X5=1TO10:INPUT#-1,A$(X5 
) ,B1$(X5) :NEXTX5:POKE65495,0:RET 
URN 

2000 CLS:PRINT@224,"POSITION TAP 
E, PRESS PLAY AND RECORD THEN 
PRESS [ENTER]": INPUT ZZ:POKE6549 
4,0: OPEN "0",#-l, "CATEGORY" 
2010 MOTORON:FORZZ=l TO 1800 :NEX 
TZZ:MOTOROFF: '** CLEAR LEADER ON 
TAPE ** 

2020 FORX5=l TO 10 : PRINT#-1 , A$ (X 
5) ,B1$(X5) :NEXTX5 
2030 CLOSE #-1: RETURN 

Delete lines 420, 570 and 620 to 680. Now, add 
CLEAR 2000 to the beginning of Line 75. Save the 
result to tape as CREATOR. This is all there is to it. 

Creator creates a file called CATEGORY on your tape. 
This file will have 10 records. You can put as many 
files as you want on one tape, however, make sure you 
start with a blank tape for the first file. ^ 




CoCo Cat 
Sat/ii. 

Qlugt -file, 
NOT 



Get your own CoCo Cat button by 
writing to Falsoft, Inc., The Falsoft 
Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. Please enclose $1 .50 for ship- 
ping and handling. 



52 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 






COMPUTERS 

CANADA'S COCO 
HARDWARE SHOP 




DJSTO SUPER PRODUCTS 



• SUPER CONTROLLER & 

• SUPER RAMDISK 256K/512K 

WITH ADD ONS 

Parallel Printer Interface 
Real Time Clock 
80 Column Card 
Hard Disk Interface 
EPROM Burner 



OTHER PRODUCTS 

5.25" Drive Case & Power 
Supply 

5.25" Bare Drives 

Hard Disks 

Printers and Ribbons 

Monitors 

Keyboards 

Joysticks 

EPROMs 

DS-69A Digitizers 

Drive Cleaning Kits 

Flip & File Cases 

5.25" Floppy Diskettes 

COCO Support Litterature 



SERVICE S 

EPROM 
Burning 

Repairs 
on COCOs 
and Drives 



C.R.C. PRODUCTS 



Serial to Parallel Interfaces 

Dual-Dos Switchers (for J&M) 

Color & Monochrome 
Monitor Drivers 

Project Boards 

RS-232 Switchers 

COCO Memory Upgrades 

Model 100 Upgrades 

"Y" & Extender Cables 

Drive and other Cables 

5.25" SS or DS Drive Kits 



SEND FOR 
FREE CATALOGUE 



CTC com 



COMPUTERS 

10802 Lajeunesse 
Montreal, Quebec 
Canada H3L 2E8 



1-514-383-5293 



WE ACCEPT wmm a in u« 
PHONE ORDERS S §Bk ONLY 



C.O.D. 
IN CANADA 




HARDWARE PROJECT 



Fixing CoCo and Multipak 

Power Supplies 



By Marty Goodman 



he Color Computer is a very 
well-made machine. Compared 
to the competition in its price 
range, the CoCo has afar superior track 
record of hardware reliability. Tandy's 
excellent construction and quality con- 
trol deserve our appreciation. 

Even the best-constructed machines, 
however, have problems now and then. 
In the case of the Color Computer, one 
known problem area is the power 
supply. I've fixed a number of flaky 
CoCo power supplies, and heard stories 
of many others, both from hacker 
friends and from Tandy repair person- 
nel. In this article 111 tell you some of 
the problems we've seen and the fixes 
we've used. 

A word of caution: The power supply 
on all models of CoCo contains live 1 10- 
volt lines at the transformer board, 
which are not shut off even when the 
power switch on the CoCo is turned off. 
Be sure your CoCo is unplugged before 
working on the power supply. 

When measuring voltages on it, be 
very careful not to brush up against the 



Martin H Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics t inker er and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Cosell of the CoCo world. 
Marty is the database manager of rain- 
bow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. His non- 
computer passions include running, 
mountaineering and outdoor photo- 
graphy. Marty lives in San Pablo, 
California. 



circuit board on the power transformer. 
On new machines this board is pro- 
tected by a piece of cardboard. But on 
many older machines I've seen, the 
cardboard has been pulled off by 
hackers, exposing bare contact points 
carrying 110 volts AC. Don't forget, 
hacking on your CoCo or Multipak 
voids any warranty that may be in 
effect. 

Both the gray CoCo and the older 
Multipak use pretty much the same 
power supply for generating 5, +12 and 
-12 volts. The +12 and -12 volt supplies 
are simple, linear circuits, using mono- 
lithic three-lead regulator chips (7812s 
and 7912s). The 5-volt supply on the old 
CoCos and Multipaks is linear, but it's 
complicated. It uses the older LM-723 
regulator IC, along with a Darlington 
transistor array as a pass/ power tran- 
sistor. The 5-volt power supply is pro- 
tected by a 6.2-volt over-voltage protec- 
tion zener diode (1N4735) going from 
the output of the power supply to 
ground. 

The added complexity of the 5-volt 
supply has proved to be a source of 
problems on some machines. On older 
'D' boards a .33-ohm power resistor 
(R66) tended to burn out, causing loss 
of the 5-volt supply. In cases of other 
power supply malfunctions, the 6.2-volt 
zener fuses in the act of protecting the 
rest of the CoCo's circuitry, shunting all 
power on the 5-volt line to ground. So 
check that zener first when you find a 
dead 5-volt supply. 

Sometimes when working on the 
older CoCo or Multipak power supply, 
I get exasperated with the overly com- 



54 



THE RAINBOW December 1986 



plicated circuit. I saw a few that were 
blowing out their 723 regulator chips 
about as fast as I could replace them. 
Rather than wasting time tracing the 
problem further, I prefer ripping out all 
of the components associated with the 
5-volt power supply, including the big 
TO-3 case heat-sunk power transistor. I 
then drop a TO-3 case 7805 1.5-amp 
monolithic regulator into the socket 
and heat sink formerly occupied by that 
power transistor. 

A few trace cuts and jumpers bring 
proper input, output and ground lines 
to the regulator, and hanging a couple 
of 2.2 mfd anti-oscillation tantalum 
caps on the input and output of the 7805 
completes the fix. The new power 
supply runs cooler and is far simpler to 
fix should it develop problems later. 

A similar power supply is used on the 
CoCo 2, but much of the regulator 
circuitry is now inside the SALT chip 
(Supply and Level Translator). This is 
a custom IC, and available only from 
Tandy national parts. It handles 5-volt 
power regulation, RS-232 level transla- 
tion and cassette input. The earliest 
American CoCo 2s used an early ver- 
sion of the SALT chip that required 



external protective 3.9-volt zener diodes 
on the incoming RS-232 lines, but the 
newer American Coco 2s and all Ko- 
rean KoKo 2s use a newer version of the 
SALT chip that has the diodes inter- 
nally. Because the SALT chip contains 
all this circuitry, replacing it with 
standard components would require 



the capacitor and cleaning the circuit 
board cured the problem. 

One commonly reported problem 
with CoCo power supplies is cold solder 
joints, particularly at the junction of the 
transformer and its associated satellite 
circuit board. Check that board very 
carefully in cases of computers with 



"Recently I heard about a gray CoCo 
power supply that began to sizzle and 
smoke when the computer was turned 



on. 



not only a standard regulator IC, but a 
lot of other components as well. 

Recently I heard about a gray CoCo 
power supply that began to sizzle and 
smoke when the computer was turned 
on. Careful inspection revealed a leak- 
ing 220 mfd power filter cap. The juices 
from that cap were shorting out parts 
of the 12-volt supply — and the 12-volt 
supply is required on old CoCos in 
order for the video to work. So in 
addition to smoking and sizzling, that 
machine had lost its video. Replacing 



intermittent or flaky 5-volt supplies. If 
in doubt, just remelt the solder on all 
conections there. Be especially sure the 
CoCo's AC plug is out when you do so. 
If the CoCo is plugged in when you 
solder on that board, you risk a poten- 
tially lethal shock. 

That reminds me of my favorite 
technical repair instructions: "Step 6: 
To avoid lethal shock hazard, be sure to 
do Step 5 before Step 4. 




The 
Handicappers! 

For the Color Computer 

From Federal Hill Software 



Use your Color Computer to improve your per- 
formance at the track! Separate programs for Thor- 
oghbreds, Harness horses and Greyhounds rank 
the horses or dogs in each race. Handicap a race in 
minutes, even if you've never handicapped before! 

All the data you need is readily available in the 
thoroughbred Racing Form, harness or dog track 
program. We even provide diagrams showing you 
where to find the information you need! Data entry 
is quick and easy. Our manual shows you how to 
bet, when to bet and when to sit out — one of the 
real secrets of good handicapping. 

Throughbred, Harness or Greyhound Handi- 
capper, $39.95 each on tape or disk. Any two, just 
$59.95, all three only $79.95. Tape reqires 16K 
memory, Disk 32K. Will run on CoCo-3. You can 
buy a more expensive handicapper, but you can't 
buy a better one! 

Federal Hill Software 
8134 Scotts Level Rd. 
Baltimore MD 21208 
Orders 800-628-2828 Ext. 850 
Information 301-521-4886 





Fotmaker 

clean paperwork for business 

"it will give the small or home business professional-looking 
forms and effortless, errorless totals, accounting for taxes, 
discounts, shipping and deposits" 

The RAINBOW, May 1986 
RAINBOW 



CERTIFICATION 
HAL 



menu driven 

customize for your company 
on screen instructions 
creates: Invoice, quote, purchase order, 

mall order, receipt, letter 
printer customization £ /I d 

and much, much more 

"You have to look good to the customer . . . 
helps . . . by providing neat, well-prepared forms . . 

The RAINBOW, May 1986 



32K ECB dlSC 

This program 




RAINBOW 



CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Makes learning so much FUN . . 
. . . that kids think it's a game! 

Letter and number recognition. Ages 2 to 6 

32K ECB disc or tape 

"If you are looking for a program to teach young children 
the alphabet, numbers and early vocabulary, super tutor 
may fit the bill." The rainbow, June 1986 



$24 



Send for more Information: 

Challenger software 

42 4th Street 
Pennsburg, pa 18073 
Call (215) 679-8792 (Evenings) 



December 19B6 THE RAINBOW 55 



EARS 



TM 



Electronic 
Audio 

Recognition 
System 



$99.95 



\0 



S9 



• SPEECH 
RECOGNITION 

• HANDS OFF 
PROGRAMMING 

•HIGH 
QUALITY 
SPEECH 

REPRODUCTION 
EARS Does It All! 




Two Years In the Making. Speech Systems 
was formed to develop new and innova- 
tive speech products. After 2 years of in- 
tensive Research and Development, we 
have created a truely sophisticated 
speech recognition device. Recognition 
rates from 95% to 98% are typical. Until 
now, such a product was outside the 
price range of the personnel computer 
market, and even small businesses. 

EARS is trained by your voice and capable 
of recognizing any word or phrase. 
Training EARS to your particular voice 
print takes seconds. Up to 64 voice prints 
may be loaded into memory. You may 
then save on tape or disk as many as you 
like so that your total vocabulary is virtu- 
ally infinite. 

Speech and Sound Recognition. EARS is re- 
ally a sound recognition system, so it re- 
ally doesn't matter whether you speak in 
English, Spanish, or French. In fact you do 
not have to speak at all, you can train 
EARS to understand sounds such as a 
musical note or a door slamming. 

Hands Off Programming. Imagine writing 
your own BASIC programs without ever 
touching the keyboard. Everything that 



you would normally do through a 
keyboard can now be done by just 
speaking. 

Programming EARS Is Easy. LISTEN, 
MATCH and other commands have been 
added to BASIC so that programming 
EARS is a piece of cake! The single BASIC 
line: 10 LISTEN: MATCH will instruct 
EARS to listen to you and return the 
matching phrase. 

It Talks. EARS is also capable of high qual- 
ity speech. We mean REALLY high quality. 
The speech is a fixed vocabulary spoken 
by a professional announcer. Speech 
Systems is currently creating a library of 
thousands of high quality words and 
phrases. For a demonstration call (312) 
879-6844, you won't believe your ears or 
our EARS. 

DISK OWNERS. EARS will work with any 
disk system with either a MULTI-PAK or 
Y-CABLE. Our new Triple Y-CABLE was 
specifically developed for those wishing 
to add SUPER VOICE as a third device. 

You Get Everything You Need. You get ev- 
erything you need including a specially 
designed professional headset style noise 



cancelling microphone. The manual is 
easy to use and understand. Several 
demonstration examples are included so 
you don't have to write your own pro- 
grams unless you want to. EARS will work 
in any 32K or 64K Color Computer. 

SUPER VOICE $20 OFF 

Imagine talking to your computer and it 
talking back to you. When you need an 
unlimited vocabulary, you can't beat 
SUPER VOICE. For a limited time, we will 
give you the SU PER VOICE for $59.95 with 
your EARS purchase. Even if you already 
have another speech unit, here is your 
chance to buv the best and save $20. 

VOICE CONTROL 

Applications for EARS are astounding. 
Here is our first of many listening pro- 
grams to come. VOICE CONTROL is a 
program specifically designed to allow 
you to control any appliance in your 
house with your voice and our HOME 
COMMANDER (sold separately) or the 
Radio Shack Plug 'N' Power controller. 
For example, you can control your TV by 
saying "TV ON" or "TV OFF". . $24.95 





'//' 



s. 



peec 



em A 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6 1 /<% sales tax 



38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (TO ORDER) 

CALL ANY DAY TO ORDER. ALSO ORDER BY MAIL 



COCO'S MOST ADVANCED 
SPEECH SYNTHESIZER. 

IT TALKS, SINGS AND 

MORE, 
only . . . $79.95 

WITH EARS PURCHASE 
only . . . $59.95 




SUPER VOICE is no ordinary speech synthesizer. It uses Silicon 
Systems, Inc. SSI-263, the most advanced speech/sound chip 
available. SUPER VOICE is not only capable of highly intelligible 
speech, sound effects, and singing over a 6 octave range, but now 
we have turned SUPER VOICE into a monophonic Super Music 
Synthesizer with our PIANO KEYBOARD. 

IT TALKS. A free TRANSLATOR text-to-speech program makes 
writing your own talking program as easy as SAYING "HELLO." 

SUPER VOICE works in any 32K or 64K computer. A disk system 
requires a Y-Cable or Multi-Pak. 

Here are the facts; 
the decision is yours. 








REAL TALKER 


RS SPEECH 
CARTRIDGE 


VOICE-PAK 


Synthesizer Device 


. rrrft E m 

i" tM^tur^liii^ 1 ' • 


SC-01 


SP-256 


SC-01 


Speaking Speeds 


f ifi ij 


1 


1 


1 


Volume Levels 


; 1* 4 1 H 


1 


1 


1 


Articulation Rates 


. 1 ;. 

f .... 8 iiuWCt 


t 


1 


1 


Vocal Tract 
Filter Settings 


255 

I'll]'" '" , 


1 


1 


1 


Basic unit 
of Speech 


^phonemes 
4 durations each 


64 phonemes 


64 allophones 
5 pause lengths 


64 phonemes 


Pitch Variations 


' ^098 U$ Absolute levels 

jlii 1 ^ r <- 


4 


1 


4 



SUPER TALKING HEADS 

Paul and Pauline, our talking heads program is normally $24.95. Until 
Dec. 15 we will include them with each SUPER VOICE order. 





TM 



LEGE 



F ILE EDIT niDI MISC 



All Voices On 
Tine Signature 
Key Signature 
Tenpo 

Reset block 



if YOU 

9& SS^coWO- 



FILE EDIT MIDI MISC 




Block delete 



\ Blocfc COPM 




LYRA is the most powerful music composition program we have seen on 
any computer. We don't mean just the COCO, we really mean any com- 
puter. Whether you are a novice trying to learn music or a professional 
musician with MIDI equipment you will find LYRA a powerful tool. You 



see, we wrote LYRA for musicians that hate computers. If you want proof, 
purchase a LYRA demo for $7.95. We will apply the demo price to your 
purchase. MIDI output requires the LYRA MIDI cable (#MC158) or COCO 
MIDI Seq/Editor (#CM147). 



Ultra Easy to use, just point with joystick or 
mouse and click. 

Compose with up to 8 completely 
independent voices. 

Room for over 18,000 notes. (This is not a 
misprint!) 

Super Simple Editing Supports: 



Note insert 
Note delete 
Note change 
Output music to: 
TV Speaker 
STEREO PAK 
SYMPHONY 12 
MIDI Synth 



Block insert 
Block delete 
Block copy 

Monitor Speaker 
ORCHESTRA 90 
COCO MIDI S/E 
MIDI Drum Machine 



Output up to 4 voices without additional 
hardware. 



is Output all 8 voices using either SYMPHONY 
12 or one or more MIDI synthesizers and 
drum machines. 

Output any voice on any of the 8 MIDI 

channels. 
\* Transpose music to any key. 
v Modify music to any tempo. 
\* Automatically inserts bar for each measure 

as you compose. 
\* Key signature lets you specify sharps and 

flats only once, LYRA will do the rest. 
* Plays MUSICA 2 files using LYRA CONVERT 

(#LC164). 

Each voice may be visually highlighted or 
erased. 

Each measure is numbered for easy 
reading. 

LYRA OPTIONS 



\* Solo capability 

Block edits are highlighted. 
^ Tie notes together for musical continuity. 

Name of note pointed to is constantly 

displayed. 

Jump to any point in the score 

instantaneously. 
*^ Memory remaining clearly displayed, 

however you will have plenty of memory 

even for the most demanding piece. 
\* Help menu makes manual virtually 

unnecessary. 

LYRA is 100% software, no need for extra 
hardware unless you want more power. 

\* Music easily saved to tape or disk. 
Requires 64K and mouse or joystick. 

LYRA (Disk only) #LY122 $54.95 



These LYRA options are not required, They are provided for those wishing additional flexibility. 



LYRA CONVERT 

A program to convert MUSICA 2 files to LYRA 
files. 

(T or D) #LC164 $14.95 

LYRA STEREO ENHANCER 

Gives the LYRA stereo output when used with 

the STEREO PAK or ORCHESTRA 90. 

(T or D) #LS149 $14.95 

LYRA MIDI CABLE 

A cable to connect your computer to your MIDI 
synthesizer. 

#MC158 $19.95 

We accept CASH. CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada , $3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada S5.00 

COD Charge . $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6'/<% sales tax. 



LYRA SYMPHONY 12 ENHANCER 

Lets LYRA play all 8 voices through SYMPHONY 
12. 

(T or D) #LS1 77 $19.95 

STEREO PAK 

Plugs into the COCO ROM cartridge slot allow- 
ing easy connection to your stereo system. 
#SP193 $39.95 

SYMPHONY 12 

A real hardware music synthesizer, lets LYRA 

play all 8 voices in stereo. 

(T or D) #SY149 $69.95 



COCO MID Seq/Editor 

A professional quality MIDI interface for MIDI 
synthesizers. 

(Disk only) #CM147 $149.95 

MUSIC LIBRARY 

A collection of over 800 songs. When used with 
CONVERT, it gives an incredible LYRA library. 
Each volume 100 songs. 

(T or D) #MLXXX $29.95 

COCO MAX is a trademark of Colorware. 
ORCHESTRA 90 is a trademark of Radio Shack. 

38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 



P C* / BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 

fl <^jU1lS)711 (312) 879-6880 



1 




FILE EDIT MIDI HISC 



(\Q t n ? n , 



S3 ID I a fcH 



HIDI Instruments: 



0 
2 
4 
6 
8 
A 
C 
E 



blOl Brass 1 
006 Piano 3 
013 E Or9an 5 
003 Trunpet 7 
018 Oboe 9 
021 Vibrphn B 
025 Clavier B 
043 Snaredr F 



005 String 
009 Guitar 
014 P Organ 
016 Flute 
019 Clarnet 
026 Harpsch 
032 Tinpani 
045 Percusn 



0 



to? 



y^3 






_3 




MM MM ' *~ MMM M MM 



Ml M 



MMMM MWMWWMMWMWWMUUHH 



Z/l/MMilBllllim\\Ul\\tt 



Now your COCO can talk to your MIDI music synthesizer. 
Whether you have a Korg, Roland, Casio, Yamaha, or Moog, it 
doesn't matter as long as it's MIDI equipped. Choose from our 



entry level MUSICA MIDI system that plays MUSICA files or our 
Professional COCO MIDI 2 system. 



Supports 16 Track recording and playback. 

Adjustable tempo. 

Over 45 Kbytes available 

(Over 15,500 MIDI events possible). 

Record to any track. 

Low Level track editing. 
\* LYRA editing, (one voice per track), 
f Playback from any number of tracks. 

Quantizing to Vie, Vsa intervals. 



Filter out MIDI data: 
Key pressure 
Program change 
Pitch wheel 



Control Change 
Channel Pressure 
System Message 



^ Graphic Piano Keyboard Display in both 
record and playback mode. 

f Adjustable Key (Transposition), 

Save recording to disk for later playback or 
editing. 

Syncs to drum machine as MASTER or 
SLAVE. 



Sequencer features. 

100% machine code. 

\* "Musician Friendly" Menu Driven. 

^ Metronome 

Many songs included. 
Includes MIDI hardware interface, 2 MIDI ca- 
bles, detailed manual, and software. Requires 
64K CoCo, Y-Cable or Multi-Pak. 
COCO MIDI 2 (disk only) #CM147 . $149.95 

DOUBLE Y-CABLE #DY181 $28.95 

TRIPLE Y-CABLE #TY173 $34.95 



DX LIBRARIAN 



Save and load voice parameters for the Yamaha DX series of syn- 
thesizers (DX-7, DX-100, DX-21 etc.). Save sounds individually 
or as a group letting you load the entire synthesizer in seconds. 



Comes with professionally developed voices for the DX-7 worth 
10 times the price. Requires COCO MIDI hardware interface. 
DX LIBRARIAN (Disk only) #DX143 $39.95 



CASIO LIBRARIAN 

Save and load voice parameters for any Casio synthesizer (CZ-101, memory or buffer. Requires COCO MIDI hardware interface. 
CZ-1000, CZ-5000 etc.) You can save from the: presets, cartridge, CASIO LIBRARIAN (Disk only) #CL169 $39.95 



MUSICA MIDI 



MUSICA MIDI takes any MUSICA 2 music file and plays it through 
your MIDI synthesizer. We offer you over 800 tunes from our 
MUSIC LIBRARY series (sold separately) or create your own music 



using MUSICA 2. Inlcudes: documentation, plenty of music, and 
the cable to connect between the COCO and your synthesizer. 
MUSICA MIDI Complete (Disk Only) #CM126 $39.95 



MIDI KEYBOARD 



If you own the Casio CZ-101 or similar MIDI synth, you know 
that the mini keys and the short 3 or 4 octave keyboard is limiting. 
MIDI KEYBOARD when used with our full size 5 octave keyboard 



gives you the flexibility you need. Comes with cable to connect 
the COCO to your MIDI synth. 

MIDI KEYBOARD (Disk only) #MK167 $29.95 




CHRISTMAS FANTASIA 

We got so many compliments last year for Christmas Fantasia Volume 1, we added 
a second all new version. 

Christmas Fantasia is a collection of traditional Christmas music combined with 
beautiful high resolution Christmas scenes. Christmas Fantasia picks one of more 
than a dozen Christmas scenes and music selections from tape or disk, displays 
the picture and plays the music. Upon completion, another scene and piece of 
music is loaded and played. The Christmas scenes are beautiful. One shows a 
chapel nestled in a valley with snow actually falling. The low price is our way of 
saying "SEASONS GREETINGS" from Speech Systems. 64K required. 

Volume 1 (Tape or Disk) #CF 125 $19.95 

Volume 2 (Tape or Disk) #CF1 26 . $19.95 



MUSICA 





•When in stereo mode, music is 
played through our STEREO PAK 
(purchased separately). 

• Loudness of each voice may be 
individually specified. 

• Memory available is constantly 
displayed. 

• Voice waveshapes may be 
exchanged between voices at any 
point. 

• Tempo may be specified and may 
even be altered as the music plays. 

• Flats and sharps supported. 

• Billions of timbre combinations. 

• High resolution graphic display, 
looks just like sheet music. 



•MUSICA 2 is 100% software, no need for 
hardware unless you want music produced in | 
STEREO. In that case, the STEREO PAK may be 
purchased separately. It's a must for the 
audiophiJel 

• Repeat bars allow repeating of music without <i 
re-inserting music a second or third time. 

•30 page manual describes all. 

• Requires 64K. 



mu:ich II 



I 9: 97445880 2 7s 98750 00 1 
3 3595577000 4 95 9544320) 



tCMS = MEM0P - 




• Output music to your printer 
(Gemini 10X, Epson, R.S. printers). 




$29.95 




Tape or Disk 



• Allows you to specify key signature. 

• Voice timbre (waveshape) may be 
altered by specifying harmonic 
content just like stops on an organ. 

• During editing, voice being inserted 
is displayed. 

• Each measure is numbered for easy 
reading of music. 

• Measure bars aid in reading and 
developing music. 

• Each voice may be visually 
highlighted for easy identification. 

• 4 Voices produced simultaneously. 

• Input notes from Coco keyboard, 
joystick, or Piano Keyboard. 



• Play music from your own BASIC program. 

• Block copy music for easy music development. 

• 100% machine language so it is lightning fast. 

• Vibrato effect easily produced. 

• With STEREO PAK, voices may be switched 
between left and right speakers as music plays. 

• Durations include: whole, half, quarter, 
eighth, sixteenth, thirty-second, sixty-fourth, 
and triplet. 



MUSIC LIBRARY 



TM 



The MUSIC LIBRARY series consists of 8 volumes: 100 through 
800 each sold separately. Each contains over 100 four voice music 
selections with a playing time of over 3 hours each. The disk 
version is shipped on 5 full disks. When coupled with STEREO 
PAK, the music is reproduced with unsurpassed realism. 

A JUKEBOX program is included to allow you to select specific 
songs or automatically play each. These songs are ready to go, 
you don't need MUSICA 2 or a knowledge of music. MUSICA 2 
users may customize each song. Each volume sold separately, 

specify tape or disk. #MLXXX $29.95 

List of 800 songs #LS800 $3.00 



MUSIC LIBRARY 100 

Stage, Screen, & TV 
Music of the 70's 
Music of the 60's 
Music of the 50's 
Old Time Favorites 
MUSIC LIBRARY 200 
MUSIC LIBRARY 300 
MUSIC LIBRARY 400 
MUSIC LIBRARY 500 
MUSIC LIBRARY 600 
MUSIC LIBRARY 700 
MUSIC LIBRARY 800 



Classical 

Christmas (popular) 

Christmas (traditional) 

Patriotic 

Polka Party 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 



Entire Library 
30 Hours of 
Music! 
40 disks 

or 
25 tapes 




TM 



SYMPHONY 12 



FILE EDIT MIDI MISC 



W w W ( ' UJ UJ 




o 



0 



c 



SPfSATlON 




If you want to compose music, experiment, or STEREO AND MONO. By connecting SYM- PIANO KEYBOARD. For those wishing to turn 

just listen to music, LYRA is the tool you need. PHONY 12 to your home stereo system, music is SYMPHONY 12 into a real polyphonic synthe- 

LYRA represents the new state-of-the-art super produced in stereo, 6 voices from each channel. sizer we offer a full size 61 note piano 

user friendly software. Pull down menus and However, you don't need to have a stereo system, keyboard. 

icons make composing music as easy as pointing all 12 voices also come out of your TV or monitor. T userj us| bojh SYMPHONY 12 and the 

^eWwXS^W^Sk^OoS S 0 UND EFFECTS ' SYMPHONY 12 is a sophisti- PIANO KEYBOARD will require a Y-CABLE. 

^o^^rlofceTower of "ted »und generator. ,2 voices and 4 lise Did . systems require a Triple Y-CABLE or 

LYRA using external MIDI synthesizers or SYM- 8 e , nera A° rs k glve / ol f 'Credible sound effect capa- ^LTI-PAK. „ , T nr n „ Y ^ q , 

PHONY 12. We believe that LYRA and SYM- bility. We have mcluded gun shot, explosion, rac- f <I or D) #SY149 . . $69.95 

PHONY 12 was a match made in heaven. For a ln 8 car and more ' ^ L K * 7 ; VMPHONY 12 ENHANCEK $ig ^ 

limited lime when you purchase both, we will SYMPHONY 12. You get over a dozen music and PIANO KEYBOARD #PK18s' " '. '. '. '. $U9.<)5 

VI^m tfo q 6 , i CONNEC- SQUnd effect se , ections and comp , ele documenta- DOUBLE Y-CABLE #DY181 $28.95 

TION, a $19.95 value. tion software is shipped on Tape or Disk. TRIPLE Y-CABLE #TY173 $34.95 

GUITAR CHORD BOOK 

This program, written by a guitar instructor of 17 years, displays in high Whether you are a beginning guitar student or an advanced player, you 

resolution graphrcs the exact fingering for over 100,000 chord combina- will find this quick reference to guitar chords invaluable. 

tions. You may even tune your guitar to the computer and play along. 32K Disk only #GC153 $29.95 

MUSIC THEORY 

COURSE 1 COURSE 2 

This course covers all the basics from music notation & duration, key A more advanced course that deals with: Major and Harmonic Minor 

signatures, tempo, to an introduction of the keyboard. This is an entry scales, interval spelling, Triad (Chord) theory, Inversions, Dominant 7th 

level course recommended as a prerequisite for Course 2. chords, and ear training of the intervals. 

32K Disk only. #MT101 $49.95 32K Disk only #MT102 $49.95 



A money-saving greeting card 
generator for giving holiday cheer 



From Our Home 

to Yours 



By Dene Foitin 



Well folks, it appears that the 
holiday season is nearly upon 
us once again. It's time to 
renew old acquaintances with a card or 
letter, and you can be sure the cost of 
greeting cards has gone up since last 
year. This year, however, you needn't 
turn your hard-earned dollars over to 
the card company. Let CoCo write your 
cards for you. You may not win an art 
scholarship with this design, but it 
comes from the heart and your friends 
will appreciate hearing from you. They 
will also be amazed at what your com- 
puter can do for you. 




1S29 SMOSY1S 
3Hi AO* SMIHm 



• ♦ * • • # 

4 *•■* * * * ■ 



«* ****** 

* «* « • • ••»• • *•» 

» • 9 • • • 

* • * • » • ■ 



- • - ■ - 

***** 



»«* u» *t» 

***** *«*•■ *«*•« 
***** ***** • ***« 



Printout prior to folding. 



Cardshop runs on a 16K ECB com- 
puter with a Line Printer VIII. It is 
easily transportable to other printers, as 
the only character control codes are 
CHR$ ( 17 ) , which puts the printer in the 
proportional character set, and 
CHR$ ( 19 ) , which returns the printer to 
the regular character set. 

Don't be alarmed when you see your 
printer print the card cover upside 
down. Once your card is folded, it will 
toe rightside up again (see diagram). 
1 I didn't allow for entering the sender's 
ft name because, in my opinion, a card 
WL is much more personal when this is 
f done in your own handwriting. 
Nothing can beat the sincerity of a 
signature. However, if you so choose, it 
can easily be added. 

I have used four subroutines in Card- 
shop. They begin at lines 1000, 1050, 
1100 and 1150. These subroutines are 
for any lines that are used more than 



62 



THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



once. This probably wasn't necessary, 
but subroutines do eliminate a lot of 
repetition. 

The card cover is drawn in lines 30 to 
80. Note how STRINGS is used directly 
in the statement in Line 30 and as a 
variable in Line 40. STRINGS is indis- 
pensable when drawing in the text 
mode, and is explained very well in 
Going Ahead With Extended Color 
BASIC. 

The message menu is in lines 90 to 
120. Here you will find a novel use of 
INSTR. It allows one keystroke selection 
without having to convert the letter 
pressed to ASCII. 

Lines 150 to 250 contain the prepro- 
grammed messages. Lines 300 to 350 
allow you to enter your own message. 
The formula in Line 330 measures the 
length of your message and centers it 
properly. 



(Ifwerlffd) 



I 

! 
I 
I 

I 
I 

r 

i 

i 



f OlD 



s! 



MESSAGE 




MESSAGE 



I 

I CARD 
j COVER 

I 

1 



FOLDING INSTRUCTIONS 



(You may direct questions about this 
program to the author at 1410 Limber- 
lost Road, London, Ontario, Canada 



N6G 2V6. Please enclose an SASE 
when writing.) □ 







The listing: fiffl|j|H0| 



1 
2 
3 

4 
S 
6 
7 
8 



r 

>t 

»* 
i * 

• * 

• * 
i * 



** *** ******** ******* 

* RY ** 

** 

** 



i 



RDS. 



2,0 



30 GO 



* ILENE FORT IN 

* SEPT. 1985 

* 14 1/8 LIMBERLOST 

* LONDON, ONT. ** 

* N6G 2V6 ** 
********* * * ***** *** * * 

f : PRJNT"MERRV CHRISTMAS": PR 
PRINT" I AM READY TO PRINT CA 
» : PRINT" IS YOUR PRINTER READ 
"IF SO, JUST PRESS 



<*INKEY$ tIF I$o"P"THEN20 

i PRINTS Zj& 2 , "PRINTING" 
SUB S GOSUBlj35j3 : GOSUBlj35j3 



: PRINT #-2, STRING $ ( 4p , 42) ZGOSUBll 
J30:GOSUB11J3J3 

4| A$=STRING$(3,42) : B$«STRING$ (4 
,32) :PRINT#-2 ,TAB(2) ;A$;B$;A$ ;B$ 
;A$ ;B$?A$; B$;A$;B$;A$ :GOSUBlja50: 
F0RX*1T03 : PRINT # - 2 : NEXT 
5j3 PRINT#-2,TAB(8) ;»**** * * * 

* * *" : PRINT f - 2 , TAB { 8 ) ; "* 

* * * * * *" J PRINT #-2 
,TAB(8) ?»**** **** * * * ** ** 
:PRINT#-2,TAB(11) ;"* * * * * * 

*** ** ** * *» 

6J3 PRINT # - 2 : PRINT # - 2 
If PRINTS "-2 * TAB f 9 ) } " * * * * * 
**** * *"lPRl»i*2>TABt9) ; "* 

* * * * * * *":PRINT#-2, 
TAB (8) ;"*** **** **** *** * * * 

":PRINT#-2,TAB(8) ;"* * * * * * 

* * * *" i PRINT #-2 ,TAB(8 ) ; " * 



: 



- ■ 



MAILING LIST 
DATA INFORMATION PROGRAM 



More than just another 
mailing list program 



See Rainbow Reviews 
August '86, pg. 149 



Requires 16K or 64K Tape or 64K Disk System 

Price: $29.95 



CROCKETT SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 1221 
St. Ann, MO 63074 
(314) 441-9278 



We welcome: 
Checks 

C.O.D. (Add $3.00) 





************************************ 

* Want a battery-operated Color 3? * 

* You'll need: * 



★ 
* 

* 
* 



$49.50 
$19-50 



CMOS 63B09E CPU 
CMOS 63B21 PIA 

CMOS Conversions 
480 Oakdale Rd NE 
Suite 3 

Atlanta GA 30307 



Send money orders only. 



★ 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 



★ *********************************** 

December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 63 



i MMj ii i i.i u ii i w . ii h i iv i 



1ft 



"IJIUMW" 



* **** **** ' #*,#* ** **» 

8 J3 F0RX-1T03 I PRINT# -2 : NEXT : GOSUB 
XW:P0RX=1T012 :PRINT#-2 :NEXT 
9p CLS : PRINT " MES S AGE OPTIONS" : PR 
INT : PRINTTAB ( 2 ) ; "A. BEST WISHES P 
OR A MERRY CHRISTMAS AND H 

APPV NEW YEAR" : PRINTTAB ( 2 ) / " B . SE 
ASONS GREETINGS " ! PRINTTAB ( 2 ) } " C. 
WISHING YOU THE SEASONS BEST»;:P 
RINTTAB (2) ; "D . OTHER" 
lfSfS PRINT; PRINT: PRINT "SELECT OPT 

HP A$AiNKEY|t IP A$*"»THIN11^ 
12)9 ON INSTR ( " ABCD" , A$ ) GOTQ150 , 2 
00 ,-250 ,300 
£30 GOTO90 

150 PRINT#-2,TAB(51) ;"Best Wish© 
S for a" ; PRINT#-2 :PRINT#-2 , TAB ( 5 
4) >CHR$ (27) ;CHR$ (17) "MERRY CHRIS 
TMAS";CHR$(27) ;CHR$(19) : PRINT #-2 
5 PRINT#-i|TAB ( 58 ) ; "and" • PRINT#-2 
t PRINT #-2, TAB (54 ) ?CHR$ (27) ;CHR$( 
17) "HAPPY NEW YEAR" ;CHR$(27) ;CHR 
$ (19) 

160 GOTO90 

200 PRINT#-2,TAB(52) ;CHR$(27) ;CH 
R$ ( 17 ) ; "SEASONS GREETINGS " ; CHR$ ( 



wwi!iiJ.fi,Jirt.? l ^ l » ,l »H|!!U 11 



27) ;CHR$ ( 19) :GOTO90 
25f5 PRINT#-2 / TAB(52) ; "WISHING YO 
U THE" : PRINT* -2 : PRINT* -2, TAB ( 54) 
I CHR$ ( 27 ) f CHR$ (17) ; "SEASONS BEST 
" CHR$ (27) ; CHR$ (19) :GOTO90 
300 CLS : PRINT" YOU MAY PRINT YOUR 
OWN MESSAGE. ": PRINT: PRINT "ENTER 
ONE LINE AT A TIME .": PRINT : PRIN 
T"DO NOT TYPE A LINE LONGER THAN 
» : PRINT "THIRTY SIX CHARACTERS . " 
310 INPUT A$ 

320 IP LEN(A$)>36THEN310 

330 X«((40-LEN(A$) )/2) +40; PRINT* 

-2 , TAB ( X ) ; A$ i GOSUB 11 5 J3 

340 IP B$* ,, Y' , THEN300ELSE END 

350 IF B$«"Y"THENPRINT*-2:GOTO30 
p 

999 END 

1000 A$=STRING$ (40,42) :F0RX=1T03 
i PRINT* -2 , A$ : NEXT: RETURN 

1050 PRINT * - 2 , TAB (3s) ;"*" ?i»$«STR 
ING$ (6,32) :C$»"*" : PRINT* -2 , B$ ; C$ 

;B$;C$ ; B$ ; C$; B$; C$ ? B$ ; c$ : RETURN 

1100 A$-"***** ":PRINT#-2," »A$ 
?A$;A$; A$ ; A$ ; A$ : RETURN 
1150 INPUT" IS THERE MORE (Y/N) " } 
B$ : RETURN /Rv 



-in - 



.in mil n 



4- ' 





THE RAINBOW'S 

One-Liner Contest 
has now been expanded 
to include programs of 
either one or two lines. This 
means a new dimension and new 
opportunity for those who have "really 
neat" programs that simply just won't fit in 
one line. 

Here are the guidelines: The program must 
work in Extended basic, have only one or two 
line numbers and be entirely self-contained — 
no loading other programs, no calling ROM 
routines, no poked-in machine language code. 
The program has to run when typed in directly 
(since that's how our readers will use it). Make 
sure your line, or lines, aren't packed so tightly 
that the program won't list completely. Finally, 
any instructions needed should 
be very short. 



Send your entry 
(preferably on cassette) to: 







About Your Subscription 



Your copy of the rainbow is sent second class 
mail. If you do not receive your copy by the 5th 
of the month of the publication date, send us a card 
and we will mail another. Canadian subscribers 
and foreign airmail allow two additional weeks. 

You must notify us of a new address when you 
move. Notification should reach us no later than 
the 15th of the month prior to the month in which 
you change your address. Sorry, we cannot be 
responsible for sending another copy when you 
fail to notify us. 

Your mailing label also shows an "account 
number" and the subscription expiration date. 
Please indicate this account number when renew- 
ing or corresponding with us. It will help us help 
you better and faster. 

For Canadian and other non-U. S. subscribers, 
there may be a mailing address shown that is 
different from our editorial office address. Do not 
send any correspondence to that mailing address. 
Send it to our editorial offices at Falsoft, Inc., The 
Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 
This applies to everyone except those whose 
subscriptions are through our distributor in 
Australia. 



64 



THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



A Great Holiday Gift Idea! 



RAINBOW Binders 



[j"u ; /A'!jij\JyAU;Vv\ v 

w new* cowwr MONi\tY awgazm 



,. Lr„,r-, 






Distinctive, Durable RAINBOW Binders 

the rainbow is a vital resource to be referred to 
again and again. Keep your copies of the rainbow safe 
in our quality, distinctive binders that provide com- 
plete protection. 

These attractive red vinyl binders showcase your 
collection and ensure your rainbows are in mint 
condition for future use. Each binder is richly em- 
bossed with the magazine's name in gold on the front 
and spine. They make a handsome addition to any 
room. 

Put an End to Clutter 

Organize your workspace with these tasteful bind- 
ers. Spend more timp with your CoCo and eliminate 
those frustrating searches for misplaced magazines. 

A set of two binders, which holds a full 12 issues of 
the rainbow, is only $13.50 (plus $2.50 shipping and 
handling). 

Special Discounts on Past Issues 

To help you complete your collection of the rain- 
bow, we're offering a special discount on past issues 
of the magazine. 

When you place an order for six or more back issues 
of the rainbow at the same time you order binders, 
you are entitled to $1 off the regular back issue price. 
To order, please see the "Back Issue Information" 
page in this issue. 

Know Where to Look 

You may purchase the "Official And Compleat Index 
To THE RAINBOW" for $1 when you purchase a set 
of binders. This comprehensive index of rainbow's 
first three years (July 1981 through July 1984) is 
usually priced at $2.50. 



YES. Please send me 



set(s) of rainbow binders 




Take advantage of these special offers with your binder purchase: 

Save $1 off the single issue cover price for back issues. Minimum order of 6 magazines. Please 
enclose a back issue order form from a recent issue indicating magazines wanted. 

Purchase the "Official and Compleat Index to THE RAINBOW" for $1 . (Regular price $2.50.) 



(These offers good only with the purchase of a rainbow binder set) 

Name 

Address 

City 



State 



ZIP 



□ My check in the amount of 

Charge to: □ VISA 

Account Number 

Signature 



is enclosed. (In order to hold down costs, we do not bill.) 

□ MasterCard □ American Express 

Expiration Date 



Mail to: Rainbow Binders, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 

Binders are $13.50 per two-binder set plus $2.50 shipping and handling. If your order is to be sent via U.S. mail to 
a post office box or foreign country, please add $2. Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax. U.S. currency only, please. 
In order to hold down non-editorial costs, we do not bill. 

For credit card orders call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST 

All other inquiries call (502) 228-4492. 



HOLIDAY SPECIAL 





[^*ONDisi(] 



A seasonal song /est to 
warm your heart 



Go Tell It 

on the CoCo 



Bg Arron Branigan 




T 



is the season to be jolly, and to that end I'd like 
to introduce Winter Wonderland. This program 
presents three yuletide graphics scenes merged 
into one program. Winter Wonderland begins with a 
selection menu. The first choice is the Nativity scene. It 
includes the manger, Mary, Joseph and a shepherd with 
his crook. To the left stands a cow. A star twinkles for 
a while and the computer plays eight Christmas songs: 
Away In a Manger," "O Little Town of Bethlehem, 
O Come All Ye Faithful," "What Child Is This?, 
Angels We Have Heard on High," "God Rest Ye Merry 
Gentlemen," "Jingle Bells" and "Winter Wonderland." 
Between each song there is a pause and the stars twinkle 
for a bit. 

The second choice draws a Christmas tree, complete 
with presents. Then youll hear "O Christmas Tree." The 
third choice draws a snowman and plays that old 
favorite, "Frosty the Snowman." 



(4 



44 



44 



»> 




After a picture is completely drawn, the menu can be 
called up by pressing R, but only when the music is not 
playing. 

The entire listing may be typed in as one long program, 
or each program module may be typed in separately. The 
program in its entirety, or, even the Nativity program 
alone, requires 64K of memory. However, the Christmas 

tree and snowman programs, if run separately, require 
only 16K. 

If you want to use the program modules separately, 
delete the lines indicated in the remark lines, and delete 
lines 10 through 110. 

(You may direct questions about this program to the 
author at 105 Briarfield Cove, Jacksonville, AR 72076, 
501-982-6067. Please enclose an SASE when writ- 
ing.) □ 

Arron Branigan is a technical sergeant in the U.S. Air 
Force and is pursuing a bachelor's degree in computer 
applications at Arkansas State University. He enjoys 
programming his computer and singing country and 
western music. 



66 THE RAINBOW December 1986 




650 

830 . 

1020 

1250 

1500 

1670 

1830 

1980 

2100 



.128 
.160 

213 
.140 

147 
.53 
,210 
. .29 
.186 
.254 
, . 27 



2260 .v, 
2390 . 
2490 . . , 
3170 . . . 
3360 , . . 
3490 . , , 
4000 , , . 
4280 , . , 
4450 . . . 
4620 . . . 
END . . , 



i * >. > 



168 
.14 
.105 
.244 
133 
.165 
.,174 
..165 
..211 
. ..76 
i , 83 



The listing: WINTER 

10 ' *************************** 

20 '* CALLING MENU FOR THREE * 

30 '* CHRISTMAS PROGRAMS * 

40 '* BY: ARRON W. BRAN I G AN * 
50 ' ****************** ********* 

60 CLS(RND(8) ) :PRINT@3 2, 

*************************** 

* CALLING MENU FOR THREE * 

* CHRISTMAS PROGRAMS * 

* BY: ARRON W. BRAN I G AN * 
********************* ******•• 

70 PRINT@224 / " 

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *** *********** 

* (1) -NATIVITY SCENE * 

* (2) -CHRISTMAS TREE * 

* (3) -SNOWMAN * 

* MAKE SELECTION §f * 
*********** * * ************** 

":SEL$=INKEY$ 

80 PLAY" T255 ? L255 ; 05 / 10 ; 1 ; 04 ; 10 f 

1 ; 03 ; 10 ; 1 ; 02 ; 10 ; 1 ; 01 ; 10 ;1; L2 ;T2 " 

90 IF SEL$=""THEN70:ELSESEL=VAL( 
SEL$) 

100 IF SEL<10R SL>3 THEN 70 

110 IF SEL=1THEN 120 : ELSEIFSEL=2 

THEN3060:ELSEIFSEL=3THEN4050 

120 
* 

130 
* 

140 
* 

150 
* 

160 
* 

170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 



' ********* ******* * * *** ****** 

• * NATIVITY+CHRISTMAS MUSIC 

'* PROGRAM #1 

' * BY: ARRON W. BRAN I G AN 
******* * * * * * **************** 

PCLEAR 4 
PMODE 3 /1 
PCLS 

SCREEN 1,0 
PCLS 3 

LINE (0,0)-(256,193) , PSET ,B 

FOR X=l TO 300 

PSET (RND (255), RND ( 116) , 1 ) 



COLOR 

LINE 

LINE 

LINE 

LINE 

LINE 

LINE 

LINE 

LINE 

PAINT 

LINE 

LINE 

LINE 

LINE 

COLOR 

LINE 

LINE 

LINE 

LINE 

LINE 

LINE 

PAINT 

LINE 



2,1 
(128 , 12 ) 
(132,20) 
(140,24) 
(132,28) 
(128,48) 
(124,28) 
(116,24) 
(124,20) 

(128,28 
(112 ,8) - 
(136,16) 
(120,32) 
(136,32) 

4,1 

(44,96) - 
(129,76) 
(208,96) 
(206,100 
(128,80) 
(46,100) 
(72,92) 
(60,98)- 



-(132,20) 
-(140,24) 
-(132,28 ) 
-(128,48) 
-(124,28) 
-(116, 24) 
-(124,20) 
-(128,12) 
) / 2 , 2 
(120,16) , 
-(144,8) , 
-(112,40) 
-(148,40) 



,PSET 
,PSET 
, PSET 
,PSET 
,PSET 
, PSET 
,PSET 
,PSET 

PSET 
PSET 
,PSET 
,PSET 



(129,76) ,PSET 
-(208,96) ,PSET 
-(206,100) , PSET 
)-(128,80) ,PSET 
- (46, 100) , PSET 
-(44,96) ,PSET 
/ 8 , 8 

(196,168) ,PSET, 



'(.>■ ■ .■ 



260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
360 
370 
380 
390 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
B 

490 LINE (64 ,9 6) -(192, 168) ,PSET, 

b . . "!' T " ■ '"' !: 

500 PAINT (128,88) ,2,8 

510 PAINT (128,128) ,2,8 

520 LINE (0,116) -(52 ,116), PSET 

530 LINE (196,116) -(255,116) ,PSE 

T 

540 CIRCLE (128,108) ,110,8,1, .95 
, .10 

550 CIRCLE (138,108) ,110,8/1, .95 
,.10 

560 LINE (214, 167) -(236, 167) , PSE 
T 

570 LINE (224,68)-(237,68) ,PSET 

580 PAINT (224, 163) ,8,8 

590 PAINT (240,100) ,8,8 

600 CIRCLE (212,66) ,20,1,1 

610 PAINT (212,66) ,1,1 

620 CIRCLE (224, 54) ,20,1, 1 

630 PAINT (226,37) ,1,1 

640 CIRCLE (240,60) ,20,1,1 

650 PAINT (252,60) ,1,1 

660 CIRCLE (224,54) ,20,8,1, .27, . 

60 

670 LINE (108,152) -(148, 152) , PSE 
T 

680 LINE (0,0) -(256/193) , PSET, B 
690 LINE (148,152)-(140,164) ,PSE 
T 

700 LINE (140, 164) -(116,164) , PSE 

T f^fefv^-i • 

710 LINE 1 116 / 164 )> ( 108 , 152 ) , PSE 



250 NEXT X 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 67 



720 PAINT (124,16)3) 

730 FOR X=l TO 41 

740 LINE (X+107,RND 

07,RND(5)+152) ,PSET 

750 NEXT X 

760 LINE (140,152)- 

T 

770 CIRCLE (123,140 
75 

78) 3 CIRCLE (13)3,13 6 

79) 3 CIRCLE(136,14)3) 

8) 3)3 LINE (118,152)- 
T 

81) 3 PAINT (128,144) 

82) 3 PAINT (128,132) 

83) 3 LINE (118,151)- 
T 

84) 3 LINE (124,151)- 
T 

85) 3 LINE (168,132)- 
T 

86) 3 LINE (134,151)- 
T 

87) 3 LINE (176,168)- 
T 

88) 3 LINE (170,138)- 
T 

89) 3 LINE (162,168)- 
T 

9) 3)3 LINE (170,134)- 
T 

91)3 LINE (140,152)- 



92) 3 LINE (168,125)- 

T 

93) 3 CIRCLE (168,12)3 

94) 3 LINE (172,120)- 
T 

95) 3 PAINT (172,156) 

96) 3 LINE (148,168)- 
T 

97) 3 CIRCLE (156,112 
980 LINE (7)3, 168)-(74, 16)3) ,PSET 
99)3 LINE (74,16)3)-(86,162) ,PSET 
1)3)3)3 LINE (78,160)- 
1)310 LINE -(96,132) 
1020 CIRCLE (100,134) ,8,4,1, .5, . 

05 

1030 LINE (106,136)-(98,140) ,PSE 
T 

1040 LINE -(97,144) ,PSET 

1050 LINE (95,140)-(93,144) , PSET 

1060 LINE -(100,144) , PSET 

1070 LINE -(104,140) , PSET 

1080 LINE -(104,144) , PSET 

1090 LINE -(100,148) , PSET 

1100 LINE -(88,148) , PSET 



3,8 

5)+148)-(X+l 

140,140) ,PSE 

,4,8,1, .50, . 

,8,8,1 
4,8,1, .75,1 
118,140) ,PSE 

1,8 
3,8 

130,139) ,PSE 
130,143) ,PSE 
168, 126) ,PSE 
130, 143) ,PSE 
176,128) ,PSE 
158,124) ,PSE 
166,136) ,PSE 
158,121) ,PSE 
130,136) ,PSE 
164,120) ,PSE 



,6,8,1, .5,1 
176,128) ,PSE 

5,8 

160,112) ,PSE 
,5,8,1, .5,1 



88,140) ,PSET 
PSET 



1110 LINE -(93,138) , PSET 

1120 LINE (96,148) -(88,156) , PSET 

1130 LINE -(94,168) , PSET 

1140 LINE -(74,164) , PSET 

1150 LINE -(72,168) , PSET 

1160 PAINT (84, 156), 3, 8 

1170 PAINT (100,136) ,3,8 

1180 LINE (76,104)-(180,104) ,PSE 

T 

1190 LINE -(192,96) ,PSET 

1200 LINE (180,104)-(180,168) ,PS 

ET 

1210 LINE (64,96)-(76,104) ,PSET 
1220 LINE -(76,168) , PSET 
1230 LINE (116,164)-(140,168) , PS 
ET, BF 

1240 LINE (94,164)-(160,164) ,PSE 
T 

1250 LINE (192,168)-(180,164) ,PS 
ET 

1260 LINE -(176,164) ,PSET 

1270 REM ***COW*** 

1280 LINE (24,156)-(0,156) ,PSET 

1290 LINE -(0,140) , PSET 

1300 CIRCLE (8,141) ,8,8,1, .50, .7 

5 

1310 LINE (8,134)-(28,130) , PSET 

1320 LINE -(36,132) , PSET 

1330 LINE (40,144)-(36,130) ,PSET 

1340 LINE -(48,130) ,PSET:LINE -( 

44,144) , PSET: LINE - (40 , 144 ) , PSET 

1350 LINE (46,141)-(44, 156) , PSET 

1360 LINE -(28,152) , PSET 

1370 LINE -(16,152) , PSET 

1380 LINE (24,156)-(24,152) ,PSET 

1390 LINE (36,140)-(40,153) ,PSET 

1400 LINE -(28,152) , PSET 

1410 CIRCLE (42,116) ,25,2, .5, .15 

, .38 

1420 PSET (39,133,2) :PSET (45,13 
3,2) 

1430 PAINT (20, 144), 8,8 

1440 CIRCLE (8,152) ,15,3,1, .75,1 

1450 CIRCLE (36,150) ,15,3,1, .50, 

.25 

1460 COLOR 2,1 

1470 LINE (42, 132 ) - (42 , 138 ) , PSET 
1480 REM ***TWINKLING STAR*** 
1490 COLOR 2,3 

1500 LINE (112, 8)- (120,16) , PRESE 
T 

1510 LINE (136,16) -(144,8) , PRESE 
T 

1520 READ A, B 

1530 IF A=999 THEN RESTORE :READ 
A, B 

1540 LINE (120,32)-(112,40) ,PRES 



68 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



ET 
155J3 
156j3 
ET 

1570 
158J3 
159J3 
16J3j3 



PRESET (A, B) 

LINE (136,32)-(148,40) , PRES 



PSET (A,B,2) 

LINE (112,8)-(12j3,16) ,PSET 
LINE (136,16)-(144,8) ,PSET 
LINE (12j3 / 32)-(112,4j3) , PSET 
1610 LINE (136,32)-(148,40) ,PSET 
1620 G=G+1:IF G=100 THEN P=P+1:0 
N P GOSUB 1700,1770,1850,1940,20 
40, 2130, 2220, 2330:IF P=8 THEN P= 

1630 IF G=125 THEN G=0 

1640 A$=INKEY$: ' ***DELETE THIS L 

INE IF ENTERING ONLY 1 PROGRAM** 

1650 IF A$="R" THEN RUN:'***DELE 
TE THIS LINE IF ENTERING ONLY 1 
PROGRAM*** 
1660 GOTO 1490 

1670 DATA 10,50,200,40,46,76,96, 
24,244,30,10,10,180,50,20,40,220 
,40,254,20 

1680 DATA 160,20,148,40,100,20,1 
00,60,32,40 



DATA 999,999 

REM **AWAY IN THE MANGER** 
FOR X=l TO 2 

PLAY " V2 7 ; L4 ; 04 ; C ; L4 . ; C ; L8 ; 
-;L4 ;A;L4 . ;A;L8;G;L4 ;F;P30;F 
; L2 ; C ; L4 ; P30 ; C ; L4 . ; P30 ; C ; L8 ; 
; C ; P30 ; C ; G ; E ; D ; C ; F ; L2 ; A ; L4 ; 0 
P30 ; L4 . ; C ; L8 ; 03 ; B- ; L4 ; A ; L4 . ; 
; G ; L 4 ; F ; P 3 0 ; F ; E ; D " 

PLAY "L2;C;L4;P30;C;L4. ;B-; 
; L4 ; G ; A ; G ; F ; G ; D ; E ; L2 ; F" 



1690 
1700 
1710 
1720 
03 ;B 
; E ; D 
D;L4 
4;C; 

A;L8 
1730 
L8;A 
1740 NEXT X 
1750 PLAY "L1;F" 
1760 RETURN 

1770 REM ***0 LITTLE TOWN OF*** 

* * * BETHLEHEM *** 
1780 FOR X=l TO 2 

1790 PLAY "V27;O2;L4;A;P60;A;P60 
;A;G+;A;03 ;C;02 ;B-;D;G;F;L8 ;E;F; 
L4;G;C" 

1800 PLAY "L2. ;A;L4;A;P60;A;P60; 
A;03 ;D;C;P60 ;C;02 ;B-;D;G;F;L8 ;E; 
F;L4;A;G" 

1810 PLAY "L2 . ;F;L4 ;A;P60 ;A;P60 ; 
A; G ; F ; L2 ; E ; L4 ; P60 ; E ; P60 ; E ; D ; E ; F ; 

G" 



★ ★★★★★ SELECTED SOFTWARE 



* LOW PRICES * FAST SERVICE * FREE SHIPPING * 



SOLDERLESS UPGRADE KITS 

With easy-to-follow instructions 

64K FOR E BOARD $39.95 

64K FOR F BOARD $29.95 

64K FOR C0C02* (ALL MODELS) , $29.95 

EXTENDED BASIC CHIP $34.95 

*AII Korean models require one solder joint. 
Please specify model # with order. 

NOTE: ALL ICs used in our kits are first quality 150 NS 
prime chips and carry one full year warranty. 



BASIC ROMs DISASSEMBLY 

COLOR BASIC UNRAVELLED $17.95 

EXTENDED BASIC UNRAVELLED $17.95 

DISK BASIC UNRAVELLED $17.95 

ALL 3 BOOKS ONLY $39.95 

ULTRA 80C DISK EDITOR ASSEMBLER $29.95 

BUG OUT & THE ORACLE (M.L. Monitor) $14.95 

ALL 5 ITEMS ONLY $59.95 

500 POKES, PEEKS. 'N EXECS $16.95 

200 POKES, PEEKS, 'N EXECS $9.95 

UTILITY ROUTINES (VOLUME 1) $19.95 

WITH ROUTINES ON TAPE OR DISK $36.95 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING 

(TEPCO) $16.95 

ALL 10 ITEMS ONLY $119.95 



UTILITIES & APPLICATIONS 

TAPE 

DYNACALC 

TELEWRITER 64 $39.95 

TELEPATCH II 

PRO-COLOR-FILE 2.0 

TOM MIX MAS ASSEMBLER 

AUTOTERM $31.95 

PEN PAL 2.1 

ADOS 

THE PEPPER W/SOURCE $24.95 

DISK UTILITY 2.1 

SUPER BACKUP UTILITY 

GRAPHICOM 

UTILITY ROUTINES VOL. 1 

UTILITY ROUTINGS VOL. 2 

SUPER TAPE/DISK TRANSFER 

DISK TUTORIAL (2 DISKS) , 



DISK 
$69.95 
$49.95 
$24.95 
$49.95 
$67.95 
$39.95 
$74.95 
$27.95 
$26.95 
$19.95 
$44.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 
$27.95 
$21.95 
$34.95 



GAMES 

TAPE 

WRESTLE MANIAC $26.95 

BOUNCING BOULDERS $26.95 

THE GATES OF DELIRIUM $35.95 

GANTELET $26.95 

MISSION F-1 6 ASSAULT $26.95 

PAPER ROUTE $26.95 

P51 MUSTANG $26.95 

WORLDS OF FLIGHT $26.95 

WIZARD S CASTLE 

DRAGON BLADE (PRICKLY-PEAR) 



DISK 
$26.95 
$26.95 
$35.95 
$26.95 
$26.95 
$26.95 
$29.95 
$29.95 
$21.95 
$26.95 



COCO MAX WITH TAPE $64.95 

COCO MAX II WITH DISK $74.95 

Y-CABLE 24.95 

DS-69A DIGISECTOR $139.95 

HJL-57 KEYBOARD $69.95 

INTRONICS EPROM PROGRAMMER $139.95 

DATARASE $39.95 

ROMPACK P C. BOARD W/CASE $9.95 

VIDEO PLUS IIU $34.95 



PACKAGE SPECIALS 
SELECTED SOFTWARE PAC: Galagon, Cubix Froggie, 
Lancer & Lunar Rover Patrol (All 32K M.L.) 
$34.95 TAPE OR DISK 

SPACE PAC: 10 M.L. Space Games (Mostly 16K) 
$21.95 TAPE OR DISK 

ADVENTURE PAC: 5 Adventure Games (Mostly 32K) 

$19.95 TAPE OR DISK 

EDUCATIONAL PAC: 6 Educational Games 

(16K + 32K) 

$19.95 TAPE OR DISK 

TREASURY PAC: A collection of 30 games (4K - 32K) 
$29.95 TAPE OR DISK 

WEBCOR MODEM* * AUTOTERM** 
$64.95 (DISK ADD $5.00) 
COCO CABLE $12.95 

*300 Baud Direct Connect. Power Adapter Included. 
"Latest Version. 



WE PAY SHIPPING in the United States, Canada & Mexico. 
Overseas please add 10%. (MN Residents add 6% sales tax.) 
We accept Visa, Mastercard, check or money order. U.S. 
funds only for foreign orders. C.O.D. please add $2.00. 



send to SELECTED SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 32228, Fridley, MN 55432 
24 HOUR ORDER LINE 612-757-2439 
INFORMATION 612-757-1026 (11 A.M.-5 P.M. C.S.T.) 

24 HOUR SHIPPING 



69 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 



1820 PLAY "L2. ;A;L4 ;P60;A;P6j3;A; 
P 60 ; A ; G+ ; A ; 0 3 ; C ; 0 2 ; B - ; D ; o 3 7 D ; C ; 0 
2;F;L4. ;A;L8;G;L2. ;F" 
1830 NEXT X 
1840 RETURN 

1850 REM **0 COME ALL YE FAITHFU 
L** 

I860 FOR X=l TO 2 

1870 PLAY "V27;O2;L4;F;L2;P60;F; 

L4 ; C ; F ; L2 ; G ; C ; L4 ; A ; G ; A ; B - • • 

1880 PLAY " L2 ; A ; L4 ; G ; F ; L2 ; P60 ; F ; L 

4;E;D;E;F;G;A;L2 ;E;L4 . ;D;L8 ;C" 

1890 PLAY "L1;P60;C;L2;O3;C;L4;O 

2 ; B- ; A ; L2 ; B- ; A ; L4 ; G ; A ; F ; G " 

1900 PLAY "L4 . ;E; L8 ; D ; L4 ; C ; F ; P60 

;F;E;F;G;L2 ;F;L4 ;C;A;P60;A;G;A;B 
_ ii 

1910 PLAY "L2;A;L4;G;A;B-;A;G;F; 
L2 ; E ; L4 ; F ; B- ; L2 ; A ; L4 . ; G ; L8 ; F ; L2 . 
;P60;F" 
1920 NEXT X 
1930 RETURN 

1940 REM **WHAT CHILD IS THIS** 
1950 FOR X=l TO 2 

1960 PLAY "V27;02;L4;G;L2;B-;L4; 

03 ; C ; L4 . ; D ; L8 ; E ; L4 ; D ; L2 ; C ; L4 ; 02 ; 
A;L4.F;L8;G;L4;A" 

1970 PLAY "L2 7 B- ; L4 7 G 7 L4 . ? P60 7 G 7 
L8 7 F+ 7 L4 7 G 7 L2 7 A 7 L4 7 F+ 7 L2 7 D 7 L4 7 G 7 
L2 ? B- 7 L4 7 03 7 C 7 L4 . 7 D 7 L8 7 E 7 L4 7 D" 
1980 PLAY "L27C7L47027A7L4. 7F7L8 
7G7L47A7L4. 7B-7L87A7L4 7G7L4 . 7F+? 
L8 ? E 7 L4 7 F+ 7 L2 . 7 G 7 P60 7 G" 
1990 PLAY "037F7L4. 7P607F?L87E7L 
4 7D7L2 7C7L4 702 7A?L4 . 7F7L8 7G7L4 7A 
7L27B-7L47G" 

2000 PLAY "L4. ?G7L87F+7L47G7L27A 
7L4 7F+7L2. 7D7O37F7L4. 7P607F7L8 7E 
7L47D" 

2010 PLAY "L27C7L47027A7L4. 7F7L8 
7 G 7 L4 7 A 7 L2 7 B - 7 L4 7 G 7 L4 . 7 F # 7 L8 7 E 7 L 
4 7F+7L2. 7G7P607G" 
2020 NEXT X 
2030 RETURN 

2040 1 * *ANGELS WE HAVE HEARD ** 
********0N HIGH********** 
2050 FOR X=l TO 2 

2060 PLAY "V27 7O2 7L4 7B7P607B7P60 
7B7O+7D7L4 . 7P607D7L8 7C7L2 7O-7B7L 
4 ?P60 ?B7A?B?0+7D7L4 . 7O-7B7L8 7A7L 
2 7G" 

2070 PLAY "L4 7B7P607B7P607B7O+7D 
7 L4 . 7 P60 7 D 7 L8 7 C 7 L2 7 0- 7 B 7 L4 7 B 7 A 7 B 
7 0+ 7 D 7 L4 . 7 O- 7 B 7 L8 7 A 7 L2 7 G " 
2080 PLAY "0+7D7L8?E7D7C?0-7B70+ 
7 L2 7 C 7 L8 7 D 7 C 7 0- 7 B 7 A; L2 7 B 70+ 7 L8 7 C 
7 0- 7 B 7 A 7 G 7 L4 . 7 A 7 L8 7 D 7 L2 7 P60 7 D" 



2090 PLAY "L47G7A7B70+7C;0-7L27B 
7 L4 7 A 7 P4 7 0+ 7 L2 7 D ? L8 ? E ? D 7 C ; 0- 7 B 7 L 
2 ; 0+ 7 C 7 L8 7 D 7 C ? 0- 7 B 7 A" 
2100 PLAY "L27B7L87O+7C7O-7B7A7G 
7L4 . 7A7L8 7D7L2 7P607D7L4 7G7A7B7O+ 
7C7 7L2 70-7B7A7L17G" 
2110 NEXT X 
2120 RETURN 

2130 '**GOD REST YE MERRY ***' 
'** GENTLEMEN ***• 
2140 FOR X=l TO 2 

2150 PLAY "O27L47D7P607D7A7P607A 

; G 7 F ? E 7 D 7 C 7 D 7 E 7 F 7 G" 

2160 PLAY "L2. 7A7L47D7P607D7A7P6 

0 7 A 7 G ? F 7 E 7 7 D 7 C 7 D 7 E 7 F 7 G" 

2170 PLAY "L2. 7A7L47P607A7B-7G7A 

7 B- 7 0+C 7 D ; 0- 7A7G7F7D7E 7 F" 

2180 PLAY " L2 7 G 7 L4 7 F 7 G 7 L2 7 A 7 L4 7 B- 

7 A 7 P60 7 A 7 G 7 F 7 E 7 L2 7 D 7 L8 7 F 7 E 7 L4 7 D" 

2190 PLAY "L27G7L47F7G7A7B-7O+C7 

D 70- 7 A 7 G 7 F 7 E ; L2 . ; D" 

2200 NEXT X 

2210 RETURN 

2220 '****JINGLE BELLS****' 
2230 FOR X=l TO 2 

2240 PLAY "T5 7O4 7L4 7C7P607C?A?G? 
F ; L2 . 7 C 7 L8 7 P60 7 C 7 P120 7 C ? L4 7 P60 7 C 
7A7G7F" 

2250 PLAY "L2. 7 D 7 P60 7 L4 ? D 7 P60 7 D7 
B-7A7G?L2 . 7E;L4 7 0+ 7 C 7 D 7 C 70- 7 B- 7 G 
;L2. 7A7L4 7C" 

2260 PLAY "P607C7A7G7F7L2. 7C7L87 
C ; P 1 2 0 7 C 7 P 6 0 ; L4 7 C 7 A 7 G 7 F 7 L 2 . D 7 L 4 7 
P60 7 D 7 P60 7 D 7 B- 7 A 7 G 7 0+ 7 C 7 P60 7 C 7 P6 
0 7 C 7 P60 ? C 7 D 7 C 7 0- 7 B- 7 G 7 LI 7 F" 
2270 FOR Y=l TO 2 

2280 PLAY "L4 7 A? P60 7 Aj P60 7 L2 7 A7 L 
4 7 P 6 0 7 A 7 P 6 0 7 A 7 P 6 0 7 L 2 7 A 7 L 4 7 P 6 0 7 A 7 
0+ 7 C 7 0- 7 F 7 G 7 LI 7 A 7 L4 7 B- 7 P60 7 B- 7 P6 
0 7 B- 7 P60 7 B- 7 P60 7 B- 7 A 7 P60 7 A 7 L8 7 P6 
0;A7P1207A" 

2290 IF Y=l THEN PLAY "L47A7G7P6 
07G7A7L2 7G7O+7C7O-" ELSE PLAY "L 
4 7 0+ 7 C 7 P60 7 C 7 0- 7 B- 7 G 7 LI 7 F 7 T2 " 
2300 NEXT Y 
2310 NEXT X 
2320 RETURN 

23 30 '***WINTER WONDERLAND * * * 
2340 PLAY "T3 7 03 7 L8 7 F 7 P60 7 F 7 P60 7 
F 7 G 7 P60 7 G 7 P60 7 L4 7 G 7 L8 7 P60 7 G 7 L8 7 A 
7 P60 7 A 7 P60 7 A 7 B- 7 L4 . 7 P60 7 B- 7 L8 7 P6 
07B-" 

2350 PLAY "O+7C7P607C7P607C7D7P6 
0 7 D 7 L4 7 P60 7 D 7 P60 7 L8 7 D 7 C 7 P60 7 C ; P6 
0 ? C ; 0- ? B- ; L2 7 P60 7 B-" 
2360 PLAY "L87A7P607A7P607A7O+7D 
7 P60 7 D 7 L4 7 P60 7 D 7 P60 7 L8 7 0- 7 F 7 P60 7 



70 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



F ; P60 ; F ; A ; P60 ; A; L4 ; P60 ; A ; L8 ; P6J3 ; 

A" 

237J3 PLAY "L4 ;G;L2 . ;F;P1;L8/F;P6 
0 ; F ; P60 ; F ; G ; P60 ; G ; P60 ; L4 . ; G" 
2380 PLAY "L8;A;P60;A;P60;A;B-;P 
60 ; L2 ; B- ; L8 ; 0+ ; C ; P60 ; C 7 P60 ;C;D;P 
60;D;L4. ;P60;D" 

239J3 PLAY "L8 ;C ;P60 ;C ;P60 ;C;0- ;B 
- ; P60 ; L2 ; B- ; L8 ; A ; P60 ; A; P60 ; A ; 04 ; 
D ; P60 ; D ; L4 ; P60 ;D ; L8 ; P60 ; D" 
2400 PLAY "O-;F;P60 ;F;P60 ;F;A;P6 
0 ; A; P60 ; L4 ; A ; L8 ; P60 ; A ; L4 ; G ; L2 . ; F 
; L4 ; P3 » 

2410 F0RX=1 TO 2 

2420 PLAY "0+;L8. ;C;P60;L16;C;L2 
. ; P60 ; C ; L8 . P60 ; C ; L16 ; P60 ; C ; 0- ; L4 
; A ; 0+ ; L2 ; C ; L8 . ; P60 ; C 7 L16 ; P60 ; C " 
2430 PLAY "L2. ;C;L8. ;P60;C;L16;P 
6 0 ; CL4 ; 0- ; B- ; 0+ ; L2 ; C ; P16 ; L8 ; C ; E ; 
P60 ; E ; P60 ; E ; D ; L4 . ; D ; L8 ; P60 ; D" 
2440 PLAY "C;P60;C;P60;C;O-;B-;L 
2 ; B- ; L8 . A; P60 ; L16 ; A ; P60 ; L8 . ; A; LI 
6 ; P60 ; A ; L8 . ; G ; P60 ; L16 ; G ; L8 . ; P60 ; 
G ; L16 ; P60 ; G ; L2 . ; F" 
2450 IF E=l THEN RETURN 
2460 NEXT X 

2470 PLAY "P4;L8. ;E;L16;P60;E;L8 

. ;O+;C+;L16;P60;C+;O-;L8. ;F+;L16 
; F+ ; L8 . ; 0+ ; D ; L16 ; P60 ; D ; L4 ; C+ ; L2 . 
;0-;A" 

2480 PLAY "L8. ;E;L16;P60;E;L8. ;0 

+ ; C+ ; L16 ; P60 ; C+ ; 0- ; L8 . ; F+ ; L16 ; P6 
0 ; F# ; L8 . ; P60 ; 0+ ; D ; L16 ; P60 ; D ; L2 ; C 
+ ; L8 ; C+ ; P8 " 

2490 PLAY "0-;L8. ;G;L16;P60;G;L8 

. ; 0+ ; E ; LI 6 ; P60 ; E ; 0- ; L8 . ; A ; P60 ; LI 
6 ; A ; 0+ ; L8 . ; F ; P60 ; L16 ; F ; L4 ; P60 ; E ; 
;L2;C;L4;P60;C" 

2500 PLAY "L8. ;E;P60;L16;E;O-;L8 

. ;A;P60;L16;A;O+;L8. ;D;P60;L16;D 
; 0- ; L8 . ; G ; P60 ; L16 ; G ; L2 ; 0+ ; C ; L4 ; C 
;0-" 

2510 E=1:G0SUB 2420 :E=0 
2520 PLAY "T2" 

2530 RETURN: '***END PROGRAM #1** 
3000 1 ************************* 

3010 '* CHRISTMAS TREE & * 

3020 ' * CHRISTMAS TREE MUSIC * 

3030 •* PROGRAM #2 * 

3040 '* BY: ARRON W.BRANIGAN * 

3050 ' ************************* 

3060 PCLEAR 4 
3070 PMODE 3,1 

3075 RESTORE :F0RX=1T03 2 :READA:NE 
XTX: ' **DELETE THIS LINE IF LOADI 
NG ONLY 1 PROGRAM** 
3080 PCLS 



3090 SCREEN 1,0 

3100 FOR X=l TO 150 

3110 C=RND(8):IF C=l OR C=5 OR C 

=4 OR C=8 THEN 3110 

3120 CIRCLE (RND(144)+60,RND(148 

)+14) ,4,C 

3130 NEXT X 

3140 DRAW "BM128,12;G10;R4;G15;R 
8 ; G20 ,*R12 ; G2 5 ; R16 ; G3 0 ; R20 ; G3 5 « 
3150 DRAW "R150" 

3160 DRAW "H35;R20;H30;R16;H25;R 

12 ;H20 ;R8 7H15 ;R4 ;H10" 

3170 DRAW "BM126, 147 ;D30 ;G10 ;R22 

;H10;U30" 

3180 PAINT (1,1) ,2,8 

3190 LINE (0,0)-(256,192) ,PSET,B 

3200 LINE (128,0) -(128,12) ,PSET: 

LINE (124,4)-(132,4) , PSET 

3210 COLOR 3,1 

3220 LINE (84, 172) -(104, 186) , PSE 
T,BF 

3230 COLOR 4,1 

3240 LINE (154,172)-(174,186) , PS 
ET,BF 

3250 COLOR 2,1 

3260 LINE (94,172)-(94,186) , PSET 
3270 LINE (164,172) -(164,186) , PS 
ET 

3280 LINE (34, 179) -(104,179) , PSE 
T 

3290 LINE (154,179)-(174,179) ,PS 
ET 

3300 READ A,B,C 

3310 IF A=999 THEN 3350 

3320 CIRCLE (A,B),4,4 

3330 CIRCLE ( 128 , 12 ) , 10 , 4 , 1 , . 10 , 

.23 

3340 GOTO 3300 

3350 FOR X=10 TO 150 STEP 10 
3360 CIRCLE (128 , 12) , X, 2 , 1, . 10 , . 
43 

3370 NEXT X 
3380 COLOR 8,1 

3390 LINE (0, 0)-(256, 192) , PSET, B 

3400 DATA 128,62,2,92,108,8,138, 

58,3,132,108,3,88,140,3,130,140, 

2,120,135,3,110,125,4 

3410 DATA 119,88,2,118,108,2,128 

,108,4,108,98,2,128,98,4,138,90, 

3,170,140,2,160,130,3 

3420 DATA 160,140,5,128,32,2,128 

,63,3,128,39,5,124,39,2,152,76,3 

,152,86,3 

3430 DATA 999,999,999 
3440 PLAY "V27;L4;03;D;L8. ;G;L16 
; P60 ; G ; L4 ; P60 ;G ; A ; L8 . ; B ; L16 ; P60 ; 
B ; L4 ; P60 ; B ; P60 ; B ; L8 ; A; B ; 0+ ; L4 ; C ; 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 71 



r 



0-;F+" 

3450 PLAY "A;G;D;L8 . ;G;L16 ;P60 ;G 
; L4 ; P 6 0 ; G ; A ; L 8 . ; B ; L 1 6 ; P 6 0 ; B ; L4 ; P 
60;B;P60;B" 

3460 PLAY "L8;A;B;L4;0+;C;0-;F+; 
A;G;0+ ; D ; L8 ; P60 ; D ; 0- ; B ; 0+ ; L4 . ; E ; 
L8;D" 

3470 PLAY "P60 ;D;C;P60 ;L4 . ;C;L8 ; 
P60 ; C ; P60 ; C ; 0- ; A ; 0+ ; L4 . ; D ; L8 ; C ; P 
6)3 ; C ; 0- ; B ; P60 ; L4 ; B ; D" 
348)3 PLAY "L8 . ;G;L16;P60 ;G;L4 ;P6 
0 / G ; A; L8 . ; B ; L16 ; P60 ; B ; L4 ; P60 ; B ; P 
60 ; B ; L8 ; A ; B ; 0+ ; L4 ; C ; 0- ; F+ ; A ; G" 

3490 FOR T=l TO 10 

3500 A=0 :B=UC=1 

351J3 FOR X=l TO 140 STEP 10 

3520 FOR Y=A TO C STEP 8 

3530 A$=INKEY$:IF A$= ,I R" THEN RU 

N:»***DELETE THIS LINE IF ENTERI 

NG ONLY 1 PROGRAM*** 

354J3 PSET (128+Y,12+X,3) :PSET(12 

8+Y+l,12+X,3) 

3550 PSET (128+Y, 12+X+l, 3) :PSET( 
128+Y+l, 12+X+l, 3) 

3560 PSET (128+Y+2,12+X,3) : PSET 

(128+Y,12+X+2,3) 

3570 PSET (128+Y+l,12+X+2,3) 

3580 PSET (128+Y,12+X,2) : PSET (1 

28+Y+l,12+X,2) 

3590 PSET (128+Y, 12+X+l, 2) :PSET 
(128+Y+l, 12+X+l, 2) 

3600 PSET (128+Y+2,12+X,2) :PSET( 

128+Y,12+X+2,2) 

3610 PSET (128+Y+2, 12+X+2, 2) 

3620 PSET (128+Y+2, 12+X+l, 2) 

3630 NEXT Y 

3640 A=A-4:C=C+4 

3 650 NEXT X 

3 660 NEXT T 

3670 GOTO 3440 



* 

4000 
4010 
4020 
4030 
4040 
4050 



4140 PAINT (128, X*4) , 1,1 

4150 NEXT Y 

4160 X=10 

4170 FOR Y=l TO 3 

4180 X=X*1.5 

4190 CIRCLE (128, X*4) ,X*2,0, .5,1 
,.5 

4200 NEXT Y 

4210 CIRCLE (128, 63), 2,0 

4220 CIRCLE (120, 57), 2,0 

4230 CIRCLE (136, 57), 2,0 

4240 CIRCLE (128, 63) , 10,0, . 5, .15 

, . 40 

4250 CIRCLE (128, 84), 2,0 

4260 CIRCLE ( 128 , 104 ) , 2 ,0 

4270 CIRCLE (128 , 128) , 2 ,0 

4280 CIRCLE (128 , 148) , 2 ,0 

4290 CIRCLE ( 128 , 47 ) , 10 ,0 , . 2 

4300 DRAW M BM119,47;C1;U20;B;R18 

; D2 0 " 

4310 CIRCLE (128,27) ,8,1, .2 
4320 FOR T=l TO 8 

4330 CIRCLE ( 128 , 2 7+T*2 ) , 8 , 1 , . 2 , 
1, .15 

4340 NEXT T 

4350 CIRCLE ( 12 8 , 47 ) , 25 , 0 , . 2 , 1 , . 
5 

4360 DRAW "BM88 , 80 ; CI ; G20 ;R21 ; C0 
; R20 ; E3 ; R4 ; D2 ; L2 ; R2 ; D2 ; L2 ; R2 ; D2 ; 
L2 ; R2 ; D 2 ; L2 ; R2 ; D2 ; D50 ; R2 ; U6 5 ; R5 ; 
U15 ; L3 ; D7 ;U7 ; L3 ; D7 ;U7 ; L3 ; D7 ;U7 ; L 
3 ; D15 ; R5 ; D15 ; L2 ; L4 ; H3 ; L16 ; CI ; H4 ; 
F4 ; L30 ; H5 ; E2 1 ; R12 " 
4370 PAINT (86,80) ,1,1 
4380 DRAW "BM165 , 78 ;R5 ; E10 ;U2 ;R5 

; E5 ; U7 ; E5 ; H5 ; E5 ; H2 ; F2 ; G5 ; F5 ; E10 ; 
G2 ; E3 ; H2 ; F2 ; G3 ; E2 ; G10 ; R10 ; E4 ; R4 ; 
E4;R4;E4" 

4390 DRAW "BM10 , 76 ; CI ;R2 35" 

4400 DRAW "BM30,82;U20;R4;D20;R3 



4080 



GOTO 3680:'**END PR0GRAM#2* 


;L10 


ii 








4410 


CIRCLE 


(25,53) ,10 




I ************************* 


4420 


PAINT 


(25,53) , 1,1 




' * THE SNOWMAN * 


4430 


CIRCLE 


(38,53) ,10 




•* PROGRAM #3 * 


4440 


PAINT 


(38,53) ,1,1 




■* BY: ARRON W.BRANIGAN * 


4450 


CIRCLE 


(31, 43), 10 




' ************************* 


4460 


PAINT 


(31,43) ,1,1 
(25,53) ,10,0 




PCLEAR 4: CLEAR 2 55 


4470 


CIRCLE 




X=10 


4480 


CIRCLE 


(38,53) ,10,0,1, .65,1 


PMODE 4,1 


4490 


CIRCLE 


(42,97) ,15,1, .5, . 


25, 


PCLS 


.01 






SCREEN 1,1 


4500 


CIRCLE 


(63,117) ,35,1, .5, 


.80 


LINE (10, 10)-(251-5, 188-5) , 


, .65 








B 


4510 


PAINT 


(15,160) ,1,1 
(128,135) ,67.5,0, 




FOR Y=l TO 3 


4520 


CIRCLE 


.5, 


X=X*1.5 


.83, 


.15 






CIRCLE (128, X*4) ,X*2, , .5 


4530 


CIRCLE 


(128,135) ,67.5,0, 


.5, 



72 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



.35, .6 

4540 CIRCLE (128 , 90) , 45 ,0 , . 5 , . 83 
/ • 50 

4550 LINE (52 / 102)-(80,76) ,PRESE 
T 

4560 LINE (0,0)-(256, 192) , PRESET 
,B 

4570 DRAW "BM2 6 , 82 ; C0 ;R3 ;U5 ;D5 ;R 
6 ; U5 ; D5 ; R3 " 

4580 CIRCLE (30 , 152 ) , 30 , 0 , . 5 , . 18 
, .29 



,T 4590 DRAW "CI ; BM0 , 0 ; F10 ; BM2 55 , 0 ; 
f G10 ; BM0 , 19 2 7 E 10 ; BM2 5 5 , 1 9 2 ; H10 ; C0 





E3 ; R3 ; E2 ; R2 ; E2 ; R2 ; E3 " 

4630 PAINT (212,56) ,1,1 
4635 GOSUB 4 660 
4640 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 464 
0:'***IF ENTERING ONLY 1 PROGRAM 

CHANGE THIS LINE TO READ. 4640 

GOTO 4640 
4650 IF A$="R" THEN RUN:»***DELE 
TE THIS LINE IF ENTERING ONLY 1 
PROGRAM**** 

4660 «***FROSTY THE SNOWMAN*** 
4670 F$="L202GL4EL8FL4GL203CL402 
BL803CL4DC02 BAGG BO 3 L8 CL4 DCO 2 BAL4 
G ; 03 C02 EL8 GAL4 GF " 
4680 F1$="EFL2G":F2$="EDL2C ,, 
4690 S$="L2GL4AA03CL8C02L4BAGEFA 
GFEL2EL4DDFFAA03L2CCL8DL4CCO2BAL 
2G" 

4700 T$="L4GL8GGL4GGAL8GGL4GGAGE 
GL2D" 

4710 L$="L8B03CL4DC02BAG03C02L2E 

L8GAL4GFL2E03DL1C" 

4720 PLAY "T5;XF$;XF1$;XF$;XF2$; 

XS $ ; XF$ ; XF2 $ ; XT$ ; XL$ ; » 

4725 RETURN 

4730 «***END PROGRAM #3** 



OWL 
XT 



» > 



**TANDY®1200 HD 
normally equipped with 
full height drives 

* Details on 1000 SX 
from Radio Shack fall 
catalog / prices & 
details may change 

TANDY Is a registered 
trademark of Tandy 
Radio Shack Inc. 



CALL 




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WINCHESTER BASIC 

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□n-screen sketching mode 



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TECHNICAL ADVICE 
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All Prices Include 
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Supply 






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1 



By Tudor P. Jones 



Solitaire is a computer version of 
the old standby favorite card 
game whose object is to put 
shuffled playing cards back into order. 

Twenty-eight cards are dealt to the 
columns to start the game, and others 
are turned from the remainder, or 
display, and added to the columns or 
stacks as they appear. If they cannot be 
legaJJy entered onto the columns or 
stacks, then they have to be left in the 
display until they are exposed once 
again. 

The bottom card on any column may 
be moved either to its appropriate stack 
to continue the sequence, or to the 
bottom of another column. The visible 
display card can also be moved to its 
stack, or to the bottom of any column, 
but only in accordance with the usual 
rules. The columns must be in descend- 
ing sequence and alternating color 
(diamond or heart on a club or spade). 

One card is dealt face up by the 
computer to begin Column 1, and six 
more face down in a row, to begin 
columns 2 to 7. Another card is dealt 
face up on Column 2, and five more face 
down on columns 3 to 7. This is con- 



Tudor Jones, of Ottawa, Ontario, is a 
land surveyor, and in his spare time 
writes survey-oriented software. 

76 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



tinued until there are seven piles of 
cards increasing in number from one to 
seven from left to right, with only the 
top card of each pile exposed. 

As each ace becomes available, it 
should be moved to begin the stacks 
above the columns. Each stack is built 
up in suit and sequence to the king. 

The 24 remaining cards are turned 
over three at a time. The third card is 
visible in the display. The number 
alongside the display indicates which 
card is visible. 

After making any opening moves that 
are possible, press the space bar to turn 
over the next three cards. When all of 
the cards have been dealt this way to the 
display, another press of the space bar 
turns all of them over, and deals the top 
three cards of those remaining, with the 
third card being visible in the display, 
and available for play. 

Press the down arrow and a column 
number to move a card from the display 
to that column. Any illegal move gener- 
ates a NO message. The left arrow moves 
a card from the display to the stacks. 
Press the up arrow and column number 
to move a card from the bottom of a 



column up to the stacks. The right 
arrow plus two column numbers (from 
and to) moves a card or cards from 
column to column. A whole column, or 
part of a column, may be moved to 
another following the descending/ 
alternating rule. 

When a column is cleared to reveal 
the top of a face-down pile, the top card 
of this pile is turned over by the com- 
puter. The heavy line over a column 
indicates that unexposed cards are lying 
beneath the top card. 

When a pile has been cleared to leave 
a space, it can only be filled with a king 
or a column of cards built on a king. 

As in regular solitaire, the game can 
not always be completed. Sometimes, 
the cards are shuffled so it is impossible 
for the four stacks to be finished. 
Failure, therefore, is not always a sign 
of bad play. On the other hand, some 
games may be lost through bad play 
that would otherwise have come out. 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to Mr. Jones at 2338 Ryder 
Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H 
6X6, 613-731-3365. Please enclose an 
SASE when writing.) □ 




140 97 

210 89 

300 231 

450 110 

630 180 

790 193 

990 57 

1140 164 

END 241 



The listing: SOLTAIRE 

10 CLS: CLEAR: DIMDECK( 52) ,COL(7,2 
0) ,C$(4) ,S$(4) ,N$(14) ,YC(7) ,STAC 
K(4) :R=RND( -TIMER) : GOSUB1210 : GOT 
0190 

20 N$=INKEY$:IF N$=" "THEN20ELSER 
ETURN 

30 LINE (238, 9) -(250, 32) , PRESET, B 

F: N1=INT (D/10) : N2=D-N1*10 : IF N2= 

1THEN N2=14 

40 IF N1=1THEN Nl=14 

50 IF N1=0THEN60ELSE DRAW"BM238, 

32;XN$(N1) ;BR4XN$(N2) ; 11 : RETURN 

60 DRAW"BM238,32;XN$(N2) ; " : RETUR 

N 

70 IF CARD<14THEN RANK=CARD : SUIT 
=1: RETURN 

80 IF CARD<27THEN RANK=CARD-13 : S 
UI T= 2 : RETURN 

90 IF CARD<40THEN RANK=CARD-2 6 : S 
UIT=3 : RETURN 

100 RANK=CARD-3 9 : SUIT=4 : RETURN 
110 LINE(XC,YC) -(XC+11,YC+1) ,PSE 
T , B : RETURN 

120 LINE(200,0) -(232,39) , PRESET, 
BF : RETURN 

130 LINE(XC,YC) - (XC+32 , YC+39) , PR 
ESET,BF: RETURN 

140 LINE (XC,YC) -(XC+32, YC+39) , PS 
ET, B : POKE 2 00 , XC+5 : POKE 20 2 , YC+8 : D 
RAW"XN$ (RANK) ; " : POKE200 , XC+24 : PO 
KE202 , YC+8 : DRAW M XS$ (SUIT) ; " : POKE 
200 ,XC+17 : POKE202 , YC+32 : DRAW"XC$ 
(SUIT);": IF SUIT=20R SUIT=4THEN 
PAINT (XC+11, YC+22) ,0,0 
150 RETURN 

160 IF COL(F,1)=0ORCOL(F,2)=0THE 
N170ELSERETURN 

170 LINE (XC, 43) -(XC+3 2, 44 ) ,PRESE 
T , B : RETURN 

180 XC=165 : YC=1 : GOSUB130 : DRAW'BM 
174 ,20 ;U6F4D2U6BR5R2FD4GL2HU4E" : 
FORN=1TO500 : NEXT : GOSUB130 : GOT02 8 

0 

190 CLS : PRINT@10 , " ' SOLITAIRE 1 " : P 
RINT@35, "PRESS : -" : PRINT© 6 4 , "SPAC 



EBAR TO DISPLAY NEXT CARD. DOWN 
ARROW & COLUMN NO. TO MOVE C 
ARD FROM DISPLAY TO COLUMN .": PRI 
NT @ 160, "LEFT ARROW TO MOVE FROM 
DISPLAY TO TOP STACK." 
200 PRINT@224, "UP ARROW AND COLU 
MN NO. TO MOVE CARD FROM COLU 
MN TO TOP STACKRIGHT ARROW AND C 
OLUMN NUMBERS TO MOVE CARDS 

FROM COL TO COL" : PRINT@352 , " 1 Q • 
TO QUIT AT ANY TIME. MOVE 
ALL CARDS TO TOP STACKS TO W 
IN. " 

210 PRINT@453, "(DECK BEING SHUFF 
LED) . " 

220 FORI=lT04: STACK (I) =0: NEXT :FO 
RI=1T07 : YC ( I ) =4 5 : FORJ=lT02 0 : COL ( 
I, J) =0: NEXT: NEXT 

230 F0RI=1T052 : DECK ( I) =1 : NEXT : FO 
RI=1T051: J=RND(52) :N=DECK(J) : DEC 
K ( J ) =DECK (I) : DECK ( I ) =N : NEXT : PRIN 
T@453," PRESS <ENTER>. ":G 
OSUB20 

240 PMODE4,l:COLOR0,l:PCLS(l) :SC 
REEN1 , 1 

250 DRAW"BM14,190;XN$(14) ;":J=14 
: FORI=2T07 : POKE202 , 190 : J=J+38 : PO 
KE200, J:DRAW"XN$ (I) ;":NEXT 
260 J=0:K=24 :FORI=lT07 : J=J+l:FOR 
N=lTO J:K=K+l:COL(I,N)=DECK(K) : 
DECK (K) =-1 : NEXT : NEXT : XC=-3 6 : YC=4 
5 : FORI=lT07 : CARD=COL (1,1) : GOSUB7 
0:XC=XC+37:GOSUB140:IF I=1THEN N 
EXT ELSE LINE (XC, 43) -(XC+32, 44) , 
PSET, B:NEXT 

270 CARD=DECK ( 3 ) : GOSUB7 0 : XC=2 00 : 

YC=0:GOSUB140:D=3 :GOSUB30 

280 XC=165: YC=1:GOSUB130:IF STAC 

K ( 1 ) + STACK ( 2 ) +STACK ( 3 ) +STACK ( 4 ) - 

52THEN300ELSE XC=166 : YC=15 : GOSUB 

110 

290 GOSUB20:IF N$="Q"THEN10ELSEI 
F N$=CHR$ (3 2)THEN320ELSEIF N$=CH 
R$(10)THEN530ELSEIF N$=CHR$(9)TH 
EN760ELSEIF N$=CHR$ (94 ) THEN390EL 
SEIF N$=CHR$ (8)THEN1190ELSEGOTO2 
90 

300 DRAW"BM90,110;F4NE4D6BR10H2U 

6E2R4F2D6G2NL4BR9H2U8BR8D8G2NL3B 

R3BE10D7F3E2F2E3U7BR7D10BR7U10F8 

D2U10" :GOSUB20:GOTO190 

310 REM START OF 'SPACE BAR' 

320 DRAW"BM167 , 13 ;E4NL4NH4NU4NE4 

NR4NF4D4 " : XC=200 : YC=0 : GOSUB130 

330 IF DECK(1)=-1THEN180 

340 D=D+3:IF DECK(D) >0THEN370 

350 D-D-l:IF DECK(D) >0THEN370 

360 D=D-1:IF DECK(D) <0THEN D=0:X 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 77 



C=200 : YC=0 : GOSUB130 : G0T03 3 0 

370 CARD=DECK(D) : GOSUB70 : XC=200 : 

YC=0 :GOSUB140 : GOSUB30 : GOTO280 

380 REM START OF 'UP ARROW 

390 DRAWBM170, 13 ;U5L2E4F4L2D5L4 

" :XC=1S3 : YC= 15 : GOSUB 110 

400 GOSUB20:IF N$="Q"THEN280ELSE 

IF N$<"l"OR N$>"7"THEN400 

410 F=VAL(N$):IF COL(F,1)=0THEN1 

80 

420 IF F=1THEN F=14 

430 I=20:DRAW"BM186 ; 13;XN$(F) ;": 

IF F= 14 THEN F=l 

440 1=1-1: IF COL(F,I)=0THEN440EL 

SE CARD=COL(F,I) :GOSUB70 

450 IF RANK<>STACK(SUIT)+1THEN18 

460 STACK(SUIT)=STACK(SUIT)+1:XC 
=SUIT*3 8-2 4 : YC=0 : GOSUB130 : GOSUB1 
40 

470 XC=F*37-36:YC=YC(F) :GOSUB130 
480 COL(F,I)=0:IF YC(F)>45THEN Y 
C(F)=YC(F) -9 
490 GOSUB160 

500 IF COL(F,1)=0THEN YC=45:GOSU 
B130:GOTO280 

510 CARD=COL(F,I-l) : GOSUB70 : YC=Y 

C(F) :GOSUB140:GOTO280 

520 REM START OF 1 DOWN ARROW 

530 DRAWBM172 , 13 ;H4R2U5R4D5R2G4 

":IF DECK(1)=-1THEN180 

540 CARD=DECK(D) :GOSUB70:IF RANK 

O1THEN610 

550 GOSUB 120 

560 STACK ( SUIT )=STACK( SUIT) +1:XC 
=SUIT* 3 8-24: YC=0 : GOSUB1 3 0 : GOSUB1 
40 

570 IF D=0THEN370 

580 I=D:D=D-1:CARD=DECK(D) : GOSUB 
70 : XC=200 : YC=0 : GOSUB30 : IF D>0THE 
N GOSUB140 

590 IF DECK(I+1)=-1THEN DECK(I)= 
-1:GOTO280 

600 DECK(I)=DECK(I+1) : 1=1+1: GOTO 
590 

610 XC=183:YC=15:GOSUB110 

620 GOSUB20:IF N$="Q"THEN280ELSE 

IF N$<"l"OR N$>"7"THEN620 

630 F=VAL(N$):IF F=1THEN F=14 

640 DRAW"BM186,13;XN$(F) ;":IF F= 

14 THEN F=l 

650 IF RANK=13AND COL (F , 1) O0THE 
N180 

660 IF RANK=13 AND COL(F, 1) =0THE 

N GOSUB120:COL(F,1)=DECK(D) :XC=F 

*37-36: YC=YC(F) : GOSUB140 : GOTO570 

670 C1=RANK:S1=SUIT:I=20 

680 IF COL(F,1)=0THEN180 

690 1=1-1: IF COL(F, I)=0THEN690 



700 CARD=COL(F,I) : GOSUB70 : N=SUIT 

+2: IF N>4THEN N=N-4 

710 IF N=S1 OR SUIT=S1 THEN 180 

720 IF ClORANK-1 THEN 180 

730 GOSUB120 

740 YC(F)=YC(F)+9:XC=F*37-36:YC= 
YC(F) :GOSUB130:COL(F, I+1)=DECK(D 
) : CARD=DECK ( D) : GOSUB70 : GOSUB140 : 
GOTO570 

750 REM START OF 'RIGHT ARROW 
760 DRAW"BM167, 11 ;U4R5U2F4G4U2L5 
» : XC=183 : YC=15 : GOSUB110 
770 GOSUB20:IF N$="Q"THEN280ELSE 
IF N$<"l"OR N$>"7"THEN770 
780 F=VAL(N$):IF F=1THEN F=14 
790 DRAW"BM18 6 ; 13;XN$(F) ;":IF F= 
14 THEN F=l 

800 XC=165:YC=30:GOSUB110 

810 GOSUB20:IF N$="Q"THEN280ELSE 

IF N$<"l"OR N$>"7"THEN810 

820 T=VAL(N$):IF T=1THEN T=14 

830 DRAW"BM169 ; 28;XN$(T) ;":IF T= 

14 THEN T=l 

840 J=20:IF COL(T,1)=0THEN1060 
850 J=J-l:IF COL(T ; J)=0THEN850 
860 CARD=COL(T ; J) : GOSUB70 : HRANK= 
RANK:HSUIT=SUIT:HYC=YC(F) :HJ=J:I 
=20 

870 1=1-1: IF I=0THEN180 

880 IF COL(F ; I)=0THEN870 

890 CARD=COL ( F , I ) :GOSUB70:IF HRA 

NK=RANK+1 THEN 920 

900 1=1-1: IF I=0THEN180 

910 HYC=HYC-9:IF HYC=3 6THEN180EL 

SE890 

920 N=SUIT+2:IF N>4THEN N=N-4 
930 IF N=HSUIT OR SUIT=HSUIT THE 
N 180 

940 HI=I:YC(F)=HYC 

950 J=J+l:COL(T, J)=COL(F ; I) :COL( 

F, I) =0:1=1+1: IF COL(F ; I)>0THEN95 

960 I=HI:XC=F*37-36:IF COL(F,l)= 
0THEN LINE(XC,45)-(XC+32,183) , PR 
ESET, BF 
970 GOSUB160 

980 IF HY045THEN YC(F)=HYC-9 
990 LINE (XC, HYC) -(XC+32, 183) , PRE 
SET ,BF: 1=20 

1000 1=1-1: IF I=0THEN YC(F)=45:Y 
C=45 : GOSUB130 : GOTO1030 
1010 IF COL(F ; I)=0THEN1000 
1020 CARD=COL ( F , I ) : GOSUB7 0 : YC=YC 
(F) :GOSUB140 

1030 J=HJ:YC(T)=YC(T) -9:XC=T*37- 
36 

1040 IF COL(T, J)=0THEN280 

1050 YC (T) =YC (T) +9 : CARD=COL(T, J) 

: GOSUB70 : YC=YC (T) : GOSUB130 : GOSUB 



78 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



140: J=J+1:GOTO1040 

1060 I=20:HYC=YC(F) 

1070 1=1-1: IF I=0THEN180 

1080 IF COL(F,I)=0THEN1070 

1090 CARD=COL(F,I) :GOSUB70:IF RA 

NK=13 THEN 1120 

1100 1=1-1: IF I=0THEN180 

1110 HYC=HYC-9:IF HYC=3 6THEN180E 

LSE1090 

1120 YC(T)=45: YC (F) =45 : HI=I : J=0 : 
XC=F*37-3 6 : LINE (XC, 4 5) - (XC+32 , 18 
3) , PRESET, BF:XC=T*37-36:YC=45 
1130 J=J+l:COL(T / J)=COL(F,I) : COL 
(F, I) =0 : CARD=COL (T, J) : GOSUB70 : GO 
SUB140: 1=1+1: IF COL(F / I)=0THEN11 
40ELSE YC(T)=YC(T)+9:YC=YC(T) :GO 
SUB130:GOTO1130 

1140 XC=F*37-36:I=HI-1:IF COL(F, 
1)=0THEN YC=45:GOSUB130:GOSUB170 
: GOT02 8 0 

1150 IF COL(F,2)=0THEN GOSUB170 
1160 CARD=COL ( F , I ) : GOSUB70 : YC=YC 
(F) :GOSUB140 

1170 1=1+1: IF COL(F / I)=0THEN280E 

LSE COL(F,I)=0:GOTO1170 

1180 REM START OF 'LEFT ARROW 1 

1190 DRAWBM171 , 13 7H4E4D2R5D4L5D 

2": IF DECK (1)=-1THEN 180 

1200 CARD=DECK(D) :GOSUB70:IF RAN 



K=STACK(SUIT) +1THEN550ELSE180 

1210 N$ (0)="BUU4ER2FD4GL2H": 

N$ (1)="U4E2F2D2L3R3D2 M : 

N$ (2) ="BU5ER2FDGL2GD2R4" : 

N$ ( 3 ) = 11 BR 3 L2 HBU4 ER2 FDGLRFDG " : 

N$ (4)="BR3U6G3DR4 " : 

N$ (5) ="BR3L2HBU5R4L4D2R3FD2G" : 

N$ (6) ="BR3L2HU4ER2FBD2BL3R2FDG" 

1220 N$(7)="BU6R4DG3D2": 

N$ ( 8 ) = " BR3 L2HUEHUER2 FDGL2 R2 FDG" : 

N$ ( 9 ) = " BUFR2 EU2 L3 HUER2 FD4 " : 

N$ (10) ="R2LU5LRUBR5R2FD4GL2HU4E" 

:N$ (11) ="UDR3U6L2R4 " : 

N$(12)="BR1HU4ER2FD4GLBUF2 M : 

N$(13)="U6BR4G3F3" : 

N$(14)= ,I R2LU6DLRBRBD5" 

1230 S$ (1)="U6D3R4U3D6": 

S$ (2) ="BR3EGL2HU4ER2FBF" : 

S$ (3)="U6R3FD4GL3 " : 

S$ (4)="BU1FR2EUHL2HUER2F" 

1240 C$ (1)="HUH2UH2UH2UHU3EUE2R3 

F2E2R3F2DFD3GDG2DG2DG2DG" : 

C$ (2)="L3ER2HU5G3L3H2U3E2R3FEH2U 

3E2R3F2D3G2FER3F2D3G2L3H3D5F2L2 " 

: C$ (3 ) ="H3UH2UH3E3UE2UE3F3DF2DF3 

G3DG2DG3 " : 

C$ (4) ="L2EU7G3L2H2U4EUE7F7DFD4G2 
L2H3D7FL2" 

1250 RETURN ^ 



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December 1986 THE RAINBOW 79 



Formatting Text Presentations 
to Suit Yourself 



» 



By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Ready for more punishment? In 
this tutorial, we shall finish the 
demo program we began the 
last time around. You were asked to do 
some homework. If you did it, give 
yourself an A. 

Load in your homework assignment. 
Refer to Listing 1 and key in lines 900 
to 1999. If you just arrived on the scene, 
or neglected to do your homework, key 
in the entire listing. Run it. 

The result is quite attractive. It is an 
interesting, alternate way to place lots 
of text on a screen. It takes some effort 
but once you understand the system, 
you will find it easy to use this tech- 
nique. The ultimate viewer will find it 
relaxing to read along without being 
asked for any hands-on input, such as 
press this or do that. In fact, I call it the 
read along gambit. 

List lines 910 and 920. Variables fi$ 
and B$ contain strings of text that fill 
the balance of the text panel. Creating 
the actual sentences is the most difficult 
task. You must compose sentences that 
say what you want said and yet fit into 
the constraints of the text page or panel. 

Here are some factors to take into 
consideration. There are 219 charac- 
ters/spaces in A$. The maximum that I 



Florida-based Joseph Kolar is a veter- 
an writer and programmer and special- 
izes in introducing beginners to the 
powers of Co Co, 



could have produced in this particular 
instance is 245. You can check it out if 
you are in the right part of the program, 
without using any program line 
number, by asking CoCo to print 
L=LEN(fl$). 

Sometimes it is necessary to reword 
a sentence/ paragraph to shorten it. At 
other times, it may be convenient to 
break it up into shorter bites. There are 
no hard and fast rules except the dic- 
tates of the situation. You must use the 
invisible vertical line gambit to format 
the text. 

You must have a very good idea 
where you plan to locate the strings. 
You can do this by trial and error. If you 
do not feel comfortable with this meth- 
od, feel free to try this next technique. 
Add the following lines: 

930 PRINTfil28,.A$ 

931 PRINT@352,B$ 

932 G0TQ932 

Press CLEAR and type RUN900 

Adjust the PRINTS locations as neces- 
sary. Alter the contents /length of any 
sentence to give it a better fit. This is 
called your layout. After finalizing your 
layout, make a note of the fi$ and B$ 
locations. Did you notice how abruptly 
the text was presented? Obviously, it 
will require a lot of time to read the text. 
(More on this phase later.) 

Delete lines 930 to 932. Other prob- 
lems and considerations may crop up 



and will be confronted as we encounter 
them. Now that we have a good idea of 
the contents and appearance of the text 
panel, we can use the read along gambit, 
using LEFTS to create the routine that 
will work our will on CoCo. 

List lines 940 to 1000. By trial and 
error, we determined that a time lapse 
of 50 units between the placement of 
each succeeding letter would afford us 
sufficient time to read the text as it is 
thrown onto the screen. (Feel free to use 
some other value, but be consistent 
throughout the program.) 

Note in Line 940, T=Q, etc., my typo 
error. Good-natured CoCo saved the 
day by reading it as T=0, etc. 

Here is a fun thing! Temporarily 
insert 941 PRINTT; to prove that CoCo 
sees T=0, and type RUN900. Question: 
Why did CoCo print T up in the corner 
and then print T of the balance of 
underneath? 

Study the placement of this line and 
the solution will come to you. TRDN is 
helpful. Delete Line 941 and type 
TROFF. 

List lines 940 to 1000. fi$ was put on 
first, using the location that you selected 
from your layout. It was done as ex- 
plained in the last tutorial. B$ was put 
on next, also in a nested loop, where 
Line 1000 is equivalent to lines 960 and 
970. 

Refer to last month's tutorial if you 
are encountering difficulty recalling 
what the two similar routines do. 



80 THE RAINBOW December 1 966 



F> U d £ 

342 Sherbrooke east, 
Montreal, QC, 
Canada, 

tel.: 514.288.5506 



Could we mask Line 970 and add 
: NEXT at the end of Line 960? Take time 
out to see what CoCo does. 

List lines 940 to 1005. Add :GOTO900 
at the end of Line 100, and add 1001 
GOTO 1001 and 1010 GOTD1010 in 
order to bypass part of the program and 
still retain the heading in the first panel. 
Now run it. 

The last string, B$, was too long for 
the screen and CoCo was forced to 
scroll up in order to get to the next 
blank space. Scrolling upward pushed 
the name up and off the screen. The 
address remained. This did not look 
very professional. 

One solution was to remove the 
remaining heading from the text panel. 
Line 1005 was one quick way to do it. 
Nothing was printed in the leftmost 
locations in the two top rows con- 
cerned. Delete Line 1001 and run. 

It could have been centered vertically 
a little better. Care to have a go? I will 
later on because it irritates me. 

Delete Line 1010. Insert 1125 GOTO 
1125. Watch the last part of the action. 
Now run. List lines 1005 to 1 125. 

I placed the program section separa- 
tors, lines 1 100 and 1300, in what seems 
to be the wrong places. They really 
should be just before the CLS lines. This 
is a real-live, hand-crafted program, 
with insertions and deletions, and to 
give it a feeling of spontaneity I decided 
to show warts and all. Remember, you 
are expected to rearrange the program 
lines to suit yourself. 

Line 1 1 10 kept the display panel on 
the screen for 1500 units (alter this value 
to suit), and then the screen was blanked 
out to prepare for the next panel. Run 
it. Delete Line 1125 and list lines 1130 
to 1140. 

The second panel had two batches of 
text. Using the same line formulations 
as in lines 980 to 1000, this text is 
centered for better appearance, then 
programmed in two segments. 

Rekey 100 NEXT. Add 6 GDTD 1120 
and 1120 GOTO 1220. 

Suppose you wanted a breather after 
C$ was placed on the screen to absorb 
what was written? Instead of a pause 
loop, you could add a bunch of spaces 
at the end to enlarge C$. 

List Line 1130. Edit this line by 
moving the closing quote mark until it 
is under the V in "screen." Run it. 

CoCo will have to cycle through all 
these additional blanks, because T is 
now increased to include all these 
spaces. They take time to loop through 



and, in effect, you get an extra pause 
without the addition of a conventional 
pause line. Run again. 

You can adjust it by adding or re- 
moving these trailing spaces. Press 
BREAK. Now, edit Line 1140, and add 
some trailing blanks. Mask Line 1210 
and delete Line 1220. Now run it. 

You can see that the extra time CoCo 
needs to cycle through T multiplied by 
the number of trailing spaces, replaces 
the run-of-the-mill pause routine in 
Line 1210. 

You were issued a challenge in D$. It 
wasn't demonstrated, but I am sure it 
can be done. Work on it later! 

Rekey 6 GOTO 1130. Remove any 
trailing blanks in lines 1130 and 1140. 
Unmask Line 1210. Insert 1135 
GOTO1300 and 1350 GOTO 1350. Now 
run. 

Did you see what we did? We restored 
some lines to their original state and we 
bypassed the heading and the rest of the 
first panel. We picked up C$ and by- 
passed the second panel. List lines 1300 
to 1340. 

If you mask Line 1305 and pull out 
+X$ in lines 1320 and 1330, you may 
understand this better. Make these 
suggested changes and run. 

The text runs nicely across the screen, 
albeit backward, and it is kind of con- 
fusing until it is completely displayed. 
I thought it might look more dignified 
if it was led by an arrow, since there 
were a few unused spaces on the last row 
where it settled into its final home. 

List lines 1300 to 1340. Unmask Line 
1305. A small string, X$, was created 
four units long. Restore +X$ in Line 
1320. The length was increased by four, 
in the new string, C$+X$. Restore +X$ 
in Line 1330. This meant that we have 
an enlarged string to display and, as we 
are starting from the right end of the 
string, our guiding arrow would lead the 
sentences as they flowed onto the 
screen. Run to make sure. 

We don't need the arrow any more. 
In fact, it is an affront to our artistic 
sensibilities. We don't waste any time, 
and remove it forthwith. Line 1405 does 
the job. The location was chosen by trial 
and error. Delete Line 1350. 

Trial and error does not mean that 
you throw up your hands and take a 
wild guess. No! You take a reasonable 
guess. What follows is how my mind 
ticks, if ever so slowly. 

The target location was at the end of 
the eighth row. The ninth row begins 
with Location 256. I backed up a few 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 81 



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digits to 250 and tried it out. When it 
was tested, I saw I knocked off the 
period. An adjustment was made. 

As an aside, many moons ago, you 
were asked to make a training aid for 
yourself, on part of which, you were 
advised to make a PRINT!? list of the 
starting locations of each row. I made 
mine and refer to it constantly. It is no 
big effort to look on top of my TV for 
the guide. You don't think for a minute 
that I remember all the nuts and bolts 
in CoCo's vast storehouse of knowl- 
edge? 

Delete Line 6 and add 11 GOTO 1410, 
We move our starting offset to begin 
after CL5, so we could start in the 
middle of the third panel. Delete Line 
1 135 and run. 

Line 1415 gave us a pause. Not too 
long. The last string, C$, had been 
redisplayed correctly, if not orthodoxly, 
so there wasn't much incentive to study 
it further. We had just located the arrow 
on the line above, so it wasn't mind- 
bending to pick up the correct location 
of the next program line, fl$. The last 
panel, being well-formatted and well- 
centered, called for an abrupt end at 
Line 1999. 

"These last cosmetic 
improvements separate 
the men from the boys. 99 

Delete Line 1 1 and run to make sure 
it is working properly. The last para- 
graph, fl$ (Line 1410), was located just 
below the unorthodoxly presented top 
paragraph, C$, to bind it in firmly and 
present the whole panel as a precon- 
ceived unit. To wit: It gives it a natural, 
flowing appearance and neat change of 
pace, first proceeding in one direction 
and then augmented, from the opposite 
direction. 

Finishing a program always causes a 
quandary for the author. When is it 
really finished? A program is never 
finished. There is always something that 
can be polished to make it better. 

It reminds me of an artist completing 
an oil painting in three days. Then he 
dabs a little here and a bit there for over 
three months, never quite satisfied with 
the result. When it is hanging in an art 
gallery, he can still spot areas where he 
could touch it up. It is never finished! 

So, too, with this demo, I could make 
changes. However, at some point, un- 
perfected though it may be, I have to say 
that this is it. 



That is not to say that you can't 
continue to modify it. For instance, two 
changes could be made in the last panel. 
In Line 1330, change 64 to 32 and in 
Line 1405, change 251 to 251-32 or 
219. 

The first panel bugs me. With the 
period in Line 920, CoCo is ornery and 
scrolls up, destroying the heading. Two 
solutions come to mind — omit the 
punctuation mark or revise B$. How- 
ever, the text is exactly what I want to 
say and the only change I would tolerate 
is to change THE to OUR. This doesn't 
affect the length of B$ — and I want my 
period! Neither, do I want to give up the 
blank row under the header. 

GOES TO PROVE could be changed to 
PROVES, but the former has a sense of 
a continuing, repeated action. Thus, for 
me, there is no choice. Being stuck with 
panel one, I don't like the unbalanced, 
vertical centering. Despite the short 
holding pause at Line 1 1 10, it could be 
scrolled up one row for a neater effect. 
Adding 1001 PRINT solves that prob- 
lem. 

These last cosmetic improvements 
separate the men from the boys. As you 
run through this program, you will find 
something that I overlooked that of- 
fends your sensibilities. By all means, 
feel free to incorporate your improve- 
ments so it gets your stamp of approval. 

Since the backward presentation is 
unreadable, why not speed it up? 
Change Line 1305 by inserting a space 
in front of the closing quote mark. To 
Line 1320, add 5TEP2. Give it a long 
pause at Line 1415, from 500 to 1500. 

We might just as well double-time it 
off the screen. Add the following lines: 

1406 Y$="<--- ":F0R 2- 1 TO 
1500: NEXT 

1407 FOR fi= LEN{C$+Y$) TO 0 
., STEP -2 . 

1408 PRINTB64 , RIGHTS ( C$+Y$ , ft) 

1409 FOR Z= 1 TO 50:NEXTZ t A 

This spoils our final display. Help me 
to recenter the last fl$ display. 

It is so easy to go off on tangents. Did 
you change Line 1430 from 256 to 128? 

One more tangent, and that's it! Add 
1412 CLS8 and run. Add ; at end of 
Line 1430 and run. Shades of tutorials 
past. 

We had fun. Bit by bit, we digested 
a lot of useful information. Next month, 
we shall conclude this study and write 
lots of text to demonstrate another 
method you will enjoy using. □ 



82 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



*I^210 216 

w 600 149 

920 87 

1150 86 

END 13 



T 



The listing: DEMO 

0 '<LISTING1> DEMO 
5 CLEAR 500 
10 CLS 

20 A$= M BETTY ANN WHITE" 
30 B$="824 NE 56 ST. 

40 C$="SEATTLE, WASHINGTON" 

41 PRINT@8,LEFT$(A$, 5) ; :F0RZ=1T0 
200:NEXTZ 

42 PRINT MID$(A$,6,5) ;:FORZ=l TO 
200:NEXTZ 

43 PRINTRIGHT$(A$,5) 

44 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 

45 CLS 

46 '*** 

47 A$=" JOSEPH KOLAR » 
50 FOR T= 0 TO LEN (A$) 

60 PRINT@9, LEFT$(A$,T) 
70 PRINT@41,LEFT$(B$,T) 
80 PRINT@70, LEFT$(C$,T) 
90 FOR Z= 1 TO 51: NEXT 

100 NEXT 

101 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 

102 GOSUB 2000 

103 PRINT@9,A$ 

104 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 
110 L=LEN(A$) 

120 FOR A=L TO 0 STEP-1 

130 PRINT@30-A," "RIGHT$ (A$ , A) 

140 FOR B=l TO 51: NEXT 

150 NEXTA 

160 •*** 

210 A$=" JOSEPH KOLAR" 
220 L=LEN(A$) 
230 FOR A=0 TO L 

240 PRINT@213-A, " "+LEFT$ (A$, A) 
250 FOR B=l TO 200: NEXT 
260 NEXT A 

270 FOR Z=1TO500:NEXT 

300 FOR A=L TO 0 STEP-1 

310 PRINT0202 , RIGHT$ (A$, A) 

320 FOR B=l TO 200: NEXT 

330 NEXT A 
340 •*** 

400 A$=" BETTY ANN WHITE" 
410 FOR T= 0 TO LEN (A$) 
420 PRINT@8,LEFT$(A$,T) 
430 FOR Z= 1 TO 50: NEXT 



440 NEXT 

450 FOR Z= 1 TO 1000: NEXT 
460 '*** 

490 L=LEN(A$) 

500 FOR A=L TO 0 STEP-1 

510 'PRINT@8,RIGHT$(A$,A) 

511 PRINT@8 , LEFT$ (A$ , A) 
520 FOR Z=l TO 200 : NEXT 
530 NEXT A 

535 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 
540 •*** 

600 A$="JIMY OWEN WHITE" 

605 PRINT@8,A$ 

606 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 

610 'FOR T= LEN(A$) TO 0 STEP-1 

611 FOR T=0 TO LEN (A$) 
620 PRINT@8,LEFT$(A$,T) 
630 FOR X= 1 TO 200:NEXT 
640 NEXT T 

650 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 
660 •*** 

700 A$=" BETTY ANN WHITE" 
710 FOR T=0 TO 15 
720 PRINT@8,RIGHT$(A$,T) 
730 FOR X=l TO 200: NEXT 
740 NEXT T 

750 FOR Z= 1 TO 500:NEXT 
800 •*** 

810 B$="JIMY OWEN WHITE" 

811 L=LEN(B$) 

820 FOR A= 0 TO L 

830 PRINT@22-A," "+LEFT$ (B$, A) 

840 FOR X= 1 TO 200: NEXT 

850 NEXT A 

860 FOR Z=1TO500:NEXT 
9j3j3 ****** 

910 A$=" THIS PROGRAM WAS CREAT 
ED TO FOOL AROUND WITH SOME OF 
THE CAPABILITIES OF THE <LEF 
T$> AND <RIGHT$> FUNCTIONS OF TH 
E COCO. AS A CHANGE OF PACE, T 
HIS TEXTYOU ARE READING, WAS PLA 
CED ON THIS DISPLAY USING <LEFT 
$>." 

920 B$=" IT JUST GOES TO PROVE 
THAT THERE IS MORE THAN ONE W 
AY TO DO ALMOST ANYTHING WHEN 
IT COMESTO PROGRAMMING THE BELOV 
ED COCO." 

940 FOR T« O TO LEN (A$) 
950 PRINT@128, LEFT$(A$,T) 
960 FOR Z=l TO 50: NEXT 
970 NEXT 

980 FOR T=0 TO LEN (B$) 
990 PRINT@3 52, LEFT$(B$,T) 
1000 FOR Z= 1 TO 50:NEXTZ,T 
1005 PRINT@0, "":PRINT@3 2, "" 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 83 



llpp '*** 

1110 FOR Z= 1 TO 1500: NEXT 
1120 CLS 

1130 C$=" A SECOND DISPLAY PANE 
L WAS ADDED TO SHOW ONE WAY T 
0 AVOID <INPUT PRESS 1 ENTER' > R 
OUTINES. THIS WAS DONE, AGAIN, 
TO SHOW HOW TO USE AN ALTERNATE 
WAY TO GET THE TEXT TO THE SCR 
EEN . " 

1140 D$=" CAN YOU CHANGE THE RO 
UTINE TO UTILIZE <RIGHT$> INSTEA 
D OF <LEFTS> TO PUT THIS TEX 

T ONTO THE SCREEN? TRY IT AND 

SEE IF YOU CAN COME UP WITH A 
WORKABLE ROUTINE!" 
1150 FOR T=0 TO LEN(C$) 
1160 PRINT@64, LEFT$(C$,T) 
1170 FOR Z= 1 TO 50:NEXTZ,T 
1180 FOR T=0 TO LEN (D$) 
1190 PRINT@256, LEFT$(D$,T) 
1200 FOR Z=l TO 50:NEXTZ,T 
1210 FOR Z=l TO 500:NEXT 
1300 '*** 
1305 X$=" >« 



1310 CLS 

1320 FOR A=0 TO LEN(C$+X$) 

13 30 PRINT@64,RIGHT$(C$+X$,A) 

1340 FOR Z=l TO 50:NEXTZ,A 
1400 •*** 

1405 PRINT@2 51, 

1410 A$=" NOT VERY PRACTICAL! 
BUT THAT IS ONE OF THE PERILS OF 

CREATIVEEXPERIMENTATION. THE B 
EGINNER GETS TO DO LOTS OF USEL 
ESS THINGS, BUT IT IS STILL 

LOTS OF FUN!" 
1415 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 
1420 FOR T=0 TO LEN ( A$ ) 
1430 PRINT@256,LEFT$(A$,T) 
1440 FOR Z= 0 TO 50:NEXTZ,T 

1999 GOTO 1999 

2000 • 

2010 FOR X= 1 TO 10 
2020 PRINT© 9," WRONG!" 
2030 FOR Z= 1 TO 20: NEXT 
2040 PRINT§12," " 
2050 FOR Z= 1 TO 40:NEXT 
2060 NEXTX 
2070 RETURN 



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84 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



HARDWARE PROJECT 




Add excitement to computing with 
your own Robot Operating System 



Last year at the New Mexico state 
fair, I had the opportunity to see 
a computer exhibit that had an 
IBM-compatible computer connected 
to a robot arm. The arm was controlled 
by BASIC'S LPRINT command (PRINTtt- 
2 in the CoCo) which could be executed 
from the keyboard or from a BASIC 
program. These commands were sent to 
an interface unit as big as the computer 
itself where they were processed into 
signals that the arm could use. After a 
few minutes of experimentation, I was 
able to program the arm to pick up 
small objects and move them. I inquired 
about the price of the robot arm and 
interface, and was told that it cost more 
than $5,000. 

It was a little out of my price range, 
so I decided to build something that 
resembles a robot of sorts and interface 
it to the CoCo. I had no idea where to 
begin so I just started reading every- 
thing I could find on the CoCo. 

After a lot of research and experi- 
mentation, I came up with what I call 
the CoCo ROS (Color Computer 
Robot Operating System). While it is 



Dennis Weide is a communications 
technician for AT&T communications 
in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where he 
programs AT&T and IBM PCs. He 
enjoys making toys and teaching com- 
puter programming. 



somewhat primitive, it gives those 
people interested in experimenting with 
their CoCo and robotics a chance to do 
so without spending a fortune. 



What's a ROS? 

The CoCo ROS is a hardware circuit 
you build and a machine language 
program I've written to program it. It 
plugs into the cartridge port, but can be 
used with the multipack interface. 

The circuit board plugs into the 
CoCo ROM port and allows you to 
connect other equipment to the CoCo. 
Many such circuits have already been 
designed and built, but I think youH 
find this one is easier to program and 
it allows more I/O ports than most of 
the others. If you're new to computers 



By Dennis H. Weide 

or don't have much experience in circuit 
building, you may want to wait until 
you've read and studied all three parts 
of this article before you begin. 



The ROS software consists of one 
BASIC program for cassette functions 
and one machine language program for 
writing, testing, modifying and execut- 
ing the ROS program you write. The 
machine language program was written 
using Deft PASCAL and the compiled 
version will be available on RAINBOW 
ON TAPE for those who don't have Deft 

PASCAL. 

ROS Defined 

By now, you're probably asking what 
the ROS can do. Well, the ROS allows 
you to interface peripheral (external) 





Figure 1: Robotic Toy List 




Name 


Manufacturer 


Price 


Capsela 2000 


Play Jour 


$89.95 


Robotix R-1500 


Milton Bradley 


$49.95 


[ Robotix R-2000 


Milton Bradley 


$59.95 


Digger Dan's 






Site Crane 


Revell 


$29.99 


Digger Dan's 






Colossal Crane 


Revell 


$42.99 


Erector Set 


Ideal 


$31.97 


Robostrux 


Tomy 


$19.99 


Chatbot 


Tomy 


$59.99 


Verbot 


Tomy 


$59.99 


Omnibot 


Tomy 


$279.99 


Omnibot 2000 


Tomy 


$499.00 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 85 



equipment to the CoCo and program 
the computer to control external func- 
tions. There are many robot construc- 
tion kits and radio-controlled toys 
currently on the market that can be 
controlled from your computer. Model 
railroad buffs will find the ROS a 
suitable computer-controlled system 
for use with their railroad layouts. The 
ROS is not designed for use with radio- 
controlled equipment using propor- 
tional controls. 

Figure 1 is a partial list of some of the 
kits and toys that can be interfaced to 
the CoCo using ROS. I chose the Ro- 
botix R-2000 construction kit from the 
Milton Bradley Company over the 
others because it had gripper arms and 
four-geared, reversible motors. In 
about 30 minutes, I built a robot arm 
for testing the system. The kit is actually 
a toy and accuracy of movement leaves 
a lot to be desired, but I was able to 
overcome the limitations of the kit by 
adding microswitches to the robot arm 
and connecting them to the inputs on 
the circuit board. I'd be interested to 
hear about your successes (and failures) 
with ROS. 

Let's Get Started 

Next month, I'll introduce you to the 
interface circuit and give you tips on 
how to build it. And in the last install- 
ment 111 show you the software and 
explain how to program the robot you 
build. For now, let's look at how to 
build a simple logic tester that'll be 
useful for testing the ROS circuit when 
you build it. 

While the ROS circuit is not difficult 



Figure 2: Logic Tester 



INPUT 
PflOBE 





RED 



LED 

GREEN 



ICI 

74LS240 



SLACK 



Ct 



RED 



RZ 



0 0 



or complicated to build, you'll need to 
test it thoroughly after you build it to 
ensure there are no wiring errors. 

Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of a 
simple logic tester that's both inexpen- 
sive and easy to construct. It uses a 
74LS240 Octal Buffer/ Line Driver IC 
which is fully TTL and CMOS compat- 
ible. If you're experienced with digital 
circuit design, you'll notice that many 
other ICs could have been used in place 
of the one chosen. Feel free to try other 
types for your logic tester. I chose the 
74LS240 because it's used extensively in 
the ROS circuit and can handle 40 
milliamps of current, enough to drive 
the LEDs. The LEDs are the bi-color 
type that change color according to the 
direction of current flow through them. 

Because the ROS circuit is digital, 
we're only concerned with high and low 
states when testing it. When the logic 
tester is connected to the circuit under 
test, the LED lights, indicating whether 
the point under test is high or low. 
Because of the simplicity of the tester, 



If the red LED stays on, remove the 
probe from the circuit under test and 
open S 1 . This causes a high on the input 
to the test circuit and the green LED 
lights. If the point under test is low, the 
red LED lights. You'll have to switch S 1 
back and forth to verify the test results. 
If the point under test doesn't change 
the color of the LED after switching S 1 , 
then it's open. 

I recommend you use a socket for the 
IC so you can easily replace it if the need 
ever arises. When you build the logic 
tester, decide in advance what type of 
case you're going to use to house it. I 
used a round plastic tube for the hous- 
ing and a blunted cross stitch needle for 
the input probe. Be sure to make a good 
electrical connection on the input probe 
to prevent erroneous indications. You 
can use one of Radio Shack's micro-test 
clips (#270-370) instead of the probe, or 
you can make a one-piece, hand-held 
tester. Wiring isn't critical but be sure to 
use a . 1 mfd capacitor across the +5-volt 
supply lead to prevent switching errors. 



Figure 3: Logic Tester Parts List 



Designation 
IC 1 

CI .lmfd 
Rl 470 ohm 
R2 10 ohm 
LED 
Clip lead 



Part 

74LS240 

* 272-1432 

* 271-1317 

* 271-1301 
XC5491 

* 270-370 
Input Probe 
Case 

SI SPST * 275-406 

Misc. 30 guage & hookup wire 
Note: * Denotes Radio Shack parts 



Quantity 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 



Price 

.69 
.49 
5/.39 
S/.39 
4/1.00 
2/1.39 
N/A 
N/A 
2/. 69 
N/A 



switch SI is used to condition the input 
probe before reading. When the tester 
is connected to a +5-volt power source 
and switch SI is open, the green LED 
should light. Closing S 1 should change 
the LED to red. If your tester colors are 
reversed, reverse the polarity of the 
LED to correct the problem. If you 
can't find the right type of LED, use two 
LEDs connected in parallel but be sure 
only one conducts at a time. Resistor R2 
is used to limit current through the 
LED, 

To use the tester, connect the red lead 
to +5 volts and the black lead to ground 
of the circuit under test. Close S 1 so that 
the red LED is on. Resistor Rl holds the 
input at ground potential until an 
incoming high overrides it. If the point 
under test is high, the green LED lights. 



The parts I used for the logic tester 
can be purchased from almost any 
electronic supply store, but may be 
expensive. I purchased all my parts 
from a mail-order parts house (Jameco 
Electronics, 1355 Shoreway Road, 
Belmont, CA 94002) and saved a sub- 
stantial amount of money. The only 
problem is that the minimum order is 
$20. Figure 3 is the parts list showing 
prices at Jameco. If you're going to 
build the ROS circuit, wait until next 
month to see the parts list. You'll be able 
to place one order for all parts. 

That's it for this month. If you have 
any questions or comments, you can 
write to me at 14201 Marquette N.E., 
Albuquerque, NM 87123. Please in- 
clude a self-addressed, stamped enve- 
lope if you want a reply. /£\ 



86 THE RAINBOW December 1986 




64K Disk or Tape BATTLE HYMN - The Battle of Gettysburg 

Player controls Lee's army of 11 divisions (39 individual) brigades including 3 cavalry 
(Stuart) and 3 artillery (Alexander) and must capture 5 victory objectives to win 
decisively. It's all here, from Culp's Hill to Little Round Top, from Pickett's charge to 
Hood's heroic victory at Devil's Den. 

Play starts on the second day of the battle with Johnson, Early and Rodes facing an 
unreinforced Union line running from Culp's Hill down to Cemetery Hill and east. 
Player has early size advantage but must act quickly as Union reinforcements are seen 
arriving; and must form the line and charge up hill over a great distance. Where is 
Stuart? 

Brigades must be turned to march or fire. Union troops must reload after firing. 

Player may limber or unlimber cannon; must watch his fatigue factors and prevent 
troops from routing. The object is to force the flank and pin the enemy in a cross fire. 
Easier said then done. Very historic, with an Ark Royal touch. 

Hi res graphics; machine language. Game save. Play takes 3-5 hours. $29.00 



LUFTFLOTTE 

\ the Battle of Britain 



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32K Disk Only THE FINAL FRONTIER 

You have been chosen as commander in a struggle to gain control of an unexplored 
section of the galaxy. Your foe: an alien race called VOLSUNG. Here in the distant 
future, when space travel has become commonplace, on uncharted star systems you 
hope to find the raw materials which are vital to your industry and construction of a 
fleet of space craft. 

Starting with limited ships and resources, you must quickly search, locate and bring 
needed systems under your influence, before the aliens can gain a foothold and threaten 
your expansion. 

A star system can support industry, mining, energy or farming. You must decide on 
how to concentrate your efforts to maintain a balance to best serve your needs for 
developing your civilization and producing new space craft. Spacecraft that you will 
surely need when you and the alien VOLSUNGS eventually collide in a titanic struggle 
for the cointrol of the Final Frontier. 

100% hi res, total machine language, disk based. $25.00 

i 




KEYBOARD GENERAL 





Isn't it time for a newsletter/magazine that talks about the games you've been playing? 
An in-depth resource of playing hints, strategies and tactics? Wouldn't it be nice to whip 
the computer? 

The Keyboard General is published bi-monthly. We'll publish your letters; your game 
plays, your thoughts and ideas. You'll hear from us, our program authors. You'll learn 
gaming, playing and programming hints, and perhaps discover new ways to assault that 
village or attack that flank. 

Every month we'll feature a Company Commander replay; discussion of new and old 
products, and letters from you. There will be special discounts and promotions offered 
only subscribers of the Keyboard General. 

Don't miss out! The Keyboard General is filling a great need in the software industry: a 
publication dedicated to discussing those programs you've been playing. Subscribe 
today, and find out how to beat the computer! $15.00 year subscription 



32K LUFTFLOTTE - The Battle of Britain 

Player takes the German side and tries to succeed where Goering and the entire Luft- 
waffe failed: destroy Britain's will to fight from the air, 

A mammoth game, Luftflotte has it all. Twenty-four British cities producing one of six 
war materials: petroleum, armaments, aircraft", shipping, morale, electronics; 26 air 
bases, 18 low radar sites, 17 high radar sites all forming a complex web of inter- 
communication and defense. Can you break the web? 

Player controls 3 Luftflottes of over 2000 individual planes including Stuka, Junkers, 
Dornier and Heinkel bombers; Mel 10 and Me 109 fighters. Player may launch bomb 
runs, recon missions, strafing sorties or transfers: up to five flights per Luftflotte. 

Player watches as his flights head for London or Bath or Glasgow or lorad site 'j' or , . . 
It's up to you. There are 85 individual targets in the game. 

Hi res screen shows aerial combat, bombing and strafing missions and supplies brief 
information. Watch targets and planes explode! Semigraphic strategic map of England 
and targets. For conclusive information, view the intelligence screen to see everything. 
Unless, of course, you prefer playing EXPERT in which case you'll be flying blind as the 
real Germans did not so long ago. 

Playing time: 3-6 hours. Game save. Machine language. $29.00 



ARK ROYAL GAMES 

P.O. Box 14806 
Jacksonville, FL 32238 

(904) 786-8603 




Prices include shipping to U.S., APO's, and Canada, COD's (USA only) add $3.75. Florida residents 
add 5% sales tax. All orders shipped within 24 hours. Programs require Color Computer (Tandy 
Corp.). Be sure to state system when ordering. 



Understanding the Computer 
With Binary Dice Conversions 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



There usually comes a time when 
a child will ask how a computer 
works. You could be the one 
nearby when this question is asked, and 
you may regard this as an unlucky 
position to be in. This month's column 
and accompanying program is meant to 
give you some ideas about the topic, and 
help you resist the temptation to say, 
"Who cares, as long as it works." 

A computer's native, or real, lan- 
guage is binary. This is the number 
system that uses only zeros and ones. A 
computer needs only the two numbers 
of the binary system to do its work 
because everything it reads ultimately 
gets translated into zeros and ones. An 
instruction read as a zero tells the 
computer to turn the circuit "off." An 
instruction read as a one tells the com- 
puter to turn the circuit "on." 

The two digits, zero and one, are 
called bits. The word "bit" comes from 
the term Binary diglT. Computers 
translate instructions into a series of bits 
(zeros and ones) each time they read an 
instruction. Every letter, number and 
symbol gets translated into a series of 
eight bits. This is referred to as a "byte." 

For example, the letter 6 B' is trans- 
lated into 01000010. Students will 
rightfully ask why we don't read and 
write programs in binary notation. A 
good reason is that it is not our normal 



Steve Blyn teaches both exceptional 
and gifted children, holds two master's 
degrees and has won awards for the 
design of programs to aid the handi- 
capped. He owns Computer Island and 
lives in Staten Island, New York. 



way of doing math. We use higher level 
languages and our regular base 10 
numbers. Computers contain compil- 
ers, which then convert our programs 
into the binary notation. 

Here is a game to help introduce 
children to binary numbers. All the 
letters in the word RAINBOWS are 
associated with the numbers 0 to 7. 

R A I N B O W S 
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 

Have the children form new words 
from these number-letter associations. 

0 — 1—3 * RAN 

6 — 5 — 3 = .777 

7 — 1—6 = ??? 

Children may then be encouraged to 
create their own puzzles. Explain to the 
students that computers operate in a 
manner something like this game. 

A process similar to the game takes 
place inside a computer to interpret and 
store information. Computers use base 
2 numbers. Each one stands for a power 
of two. Computers read bytes which 
usually contain eight bits of informa- 
tion. Each bit is a power of two. The 
table below shows the base 10 value of 
the powers. 



The way to convert a binary number 
into our usual decimal representation is 
to add the value of all columns contain- 
ing one and ignore all zeros. 

The lowest number would be all eight 
columns containing zero (all in the "off 
position), 00000000. The value would, 
of course, be zero. 

The highest number would be all 
eight in the one or "on" position. The 
value would be 255, the highest number 
that can be contained in one byte of 
information. 

The binary number shown in the 
previous diagram is 01001101. It is 
converted to the usual base 10 number 
by computing the sum of 64 + 8 + 4 + 
1 which is 77. This byte represents the 
letter 'M\ 

This month's program allows chil- 
dren to practice converting base 2 
numbers to our regular base 10 
numbers. The game is in the form of 
eight binary dice. A binary die is a 
regular shaped die with only zeros or 
ones on its face. If you would like to 
make a set, they can easily be made from 
sugar cubes. A dark pencil or felt tipped 
marker can be used to write on the 
cubes. 

Lines 130 to 220 print a simulation of 



Table: Base 10 and base 2 equivalents 



2 7 


2 6 


2 5 


2 4 


2 3 


2 2 


2 l 


2° 


power of two 


128 


64 


32 


16 


8 


4 


2 


1 


base 10 


0 


1 


0 


0 


1 


1 


0 


1 


base 2 



88 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



a roll of each of the eight dice. They 
randomly display a zero or a one. 
Above the dice are the values in base 10 
(decimal) they represent. The student 
merely adds the values of the ones to 
obtain the answer. 

The computer figures out the answer 
in lines 240 to 310. The answer is 
variable J. Lines 340 and 350 check the 
user's answer (C) against the real answer 



(J). The correct answer is displayed 
when the user's answer is incorrect. 
After five tries, a score is given by Line 
400. The child may either press E to end 
the program or G to go on and begin 
again. 

As a follow-up activity to the pro- 
gram, children may try converting given 
base 2 numbers back into base 10 and 
then looking up their corresponding 



character strings (CHR$). The code 
values for CHR$ may be found at the 
back of the manual that came with your 
computer. The values for the capital 
letters range from R=65 to Z=90. 

We hope that we have provided you 
with some ideas to enliven the explana- 
tion of this fairly dry topic. As always, 
we at Computer Island appreciate hear- 
ing from our readers. □ 



The listing: BINARY 



UNT OF THE CORRECT BASE 1J3 ANSWE 
R." 







24j3 


IF 


VA(1)=1 


THEN 


J=J+128 


10 


REM" STEVE BLYN , COMPUTER ISLAN 


250 


IF 


VA(2)=1 


THEN 


J=J+64 


D,l 


STATEN ISLAND, NY 


260 


IF 


VA(3)=1 


THEN 


J=J+32 


20 


REM" BINARY DICE CONVERSIONS" 


210 


IF 


VA(4)=1 


THEN 


J=J+16 


30 


DIM VA(8) 


280 


IF 


VA(5)=1 


THEN 


J=J+8 


40 


Q=Q+1:IF Q=6 THEN 400 


290 


IF 


VA(6)=1 


THEN 


J=J+4 


50 


A$=STRING$ (32,255) 


300 


IF 


VA(7)=1 


THEN 


J=J+2 


60 


CLS5 : S=158 : D=l : J=0 


310 


IF 


VA(8)=1 


THEN 


J=J+1 


10 


PRINT @ 6, "CONVERT TO BASE 10" J 


320 


PRINT§320, 


"": PRINT© 320, " WHA 



90 EN$=INKEY$ 

100 IF EN$=CHR$(13) THEN lljZJ ELS 
E 9J3 

110 PRINT@96," 128 64 32 16 
8 4 2 1" 

120 PRINT§128,A$; : PRINT§192 , A$ ; 
130 FOR D=lTO 8 
140 S=S+4 

150 FOR T=1T05:PRINT@S,CHR$(128) 

;:S0UND1J3J3,1 
160 R=RND ( 2 ) 

170 IF R=l THEN V=48 ELSE V=49 
180 IF R=2 THEN VA(D)=1 ELSE VA( 
D)=0 

190 PRINT § S, CHR$ (V) ; 
200 SOUND 100,1 
210 NEXT T 
220 NEXT D 

230 REM" VARIABLE J WILL KEEP CO 



330 INPUT C 

340 IF C=J THEN PRINT@394 , "CORRE 
CT !"; :PLAY"O3L50CEGCEGGFEDC":RT 
=RT+1 

350 IF COJ THEN PRINT§384 , "SORR 

Y, THE CORRECT ANSWER IS"; J 

360 PRINT@452, "PRESS ENTER TO GO 

AGAIN" ; 
370 EN$=INKEY$ 

3 80 IF EN$=CHR$(13) THEN 40 ELSE 
IF EN$="E" THEN 390 ELSE 370 

3 90 CLS : END 

400 CLS8:PRINT§96, "YOUR SCORE IS 

"RT"OUT OF 5 CORRECT"; 

410 REM" THE SCORE CARD" 

420 PRINT@256, "PRESS 'E' TO END 

OR 1 G 1 TO GO ON"; 

4 30 EN$=INKEY$ 

440 IF EN$="E" THEN 390 ELSE IF 
EN$="G" THEN RUN ELSE 430 



ORDER PHONE (416) 456-0032 

Call or Write ! For your free catalogue, more info or give us suggestions! 
Duck Productions, 18 Rowe Court, Brampton, Ontario, Canada L6X 2S2 
Please add $2.00 for handling. Ontario residents add 7% provincial tax 
Watch our catalogue for discounts, hints and tips and chance to win software. 

Micro •Fire the ultimate secret weapon. 

Have you Peat your thumps more than the aliens? This is a great 
rapid fire circuit that's easily installed on any joystick. Has no computer 
side effects. Comes with complete instructions and calibration program 
for adjustment to taste. $19.95 ($24.95 CDN.) 

Class Monitor Dual monitor driver 

The best monitor driver for any Coco. It drives any composite, colour 
or monochrome monitors. Complete with dual audio outputs for 
immediate access of either or both monitors. Simple installation 
instructions . $31 .50 ($39. 50 CDN.) 

Laser Mazer master puzzle of reflection 

Captain, Starfleet wants Reg u la One protected from intruder attack. 
A battle of wits, pitted against six cloaked Romulan vessels lurking 
in the quadrant. Can you find and engage them in time? A master 
puzzle of reflection for your sensors. Identify the locations of physical 
mass in space and command your attack. Misjudgement is a deadly 
option. Adventure in thoughtware for only $24.95 ($29.95 CDN . ) 




rf OUflUTV 
\COMPUT€R PRODUCTS 

Ducra 






fa • 



r 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Battle to D-Day The multiple player adventure 

Can you change the course of history? General, your mission is to 
locate and secure the Third Reich's emergency command post before 
the allied landing on Normandy. Think through obstacles, battle after 
battle to find the entrance code. Then command your assault! Battle 
against time! Battle against three opponents. Adventure in thoughtware 
for only $29.95 ($38.95 CDN.) 



Keeping Track more than a disk manager, 

If you own more than two disks you'll love Keeping Track. A manager 
menu of nine utilities that do it all! The real highlight is "D". the 
directory /autostart. It's a continuous access I.D. directory that loads 
and executes any program with a single keystroke. All programs 
fully documented. $29.95 ($38.95 CDN.) 

Map 'n Zap semiautomatic disk repair 

The layman's step by step kit tor directory and grain table repair. 
Locates errors, maps out disk contents to screen or printer, backs 
up any flawed disk and prompts built in disk zap for repair. Complete 
with full tutorial on Coco's disk input / output access operation. 
$19.95 ($24.95 CDN.) 

Code Buster machine language disassembler 

Three terrific programs to explore machine language. Screen or printer 
accurate disassembly of binary code. Simple prompted procedure 
with some instruction to dissect and understand your ROMs. Fully 
documented for only $19.95 ($24.95 CDN.) 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 89 



Derringer Software. 



Max Fonts 

New for CoCo Max 

Now you can have up to 72 fonts for creating 
dazzling type-set titles and special displays! 

3 SETS OF 24 FONTS 

WHICH ARE OUT OF THIS WORLD! 



$ 



95 



each 



3/m 



95 



Written by Wafly Bayer and Mike Shawaluk 



Max Edit 



©1985 Snard Enterprises 



A FONT EDITOR FOR 
COCO MAX 

• Edit current fonts 

• Create new fonts 

• Design symbol fonts 

• Comes with pre-defined fonts 

• CoCo Max I & II compatible 



CoCo's Best 
& Fastest 
Spreadsheet 

RS-DOS 
VERSION 



FOR 64K 
DISK SYSTEMS 





$ 




95 



(Disk Only) 



• 51 x 24 

Display with 
Lower Case 

• Super-fast Smart 
Screen Refresh 

Auto-Repeat 
Keyboard Driver 

• Fast 16-Digit Arithmetic 
with Scientific Functions 

Two-way communications 
with PRO-COLOR-FILE 

★ Enhanced* 



Written by: Michael W. Shawaluk 

CoCo Max" is a registered trademark of Colorware. 



Serving the Color 
Computer for 4 Years. 



PROCOLORFILE 

s. 1984 by Derringer Software, inc. 

ENHANCED 2.0 

60 Data Fields for each record 
1020 spaces available per record if needed 
Maximizes multiple drive operation 
28 equation lines (4- -V) 
IF-THEN-ELSE logic test in equations 
Full Screen editing on up to 4 data entry screens 
Key click and auto key repeat 
Stores custom designed report formats 
Obtain totals, averages, or summaries for any field 
Output reports to printer, screen, or disk file 
Send data out to a DYNACALC compatible file 
Separate label generator for up to 10 across labels 
Pre-define up to 16 indexes for searching/reporting file 
Sorts 750 records in under 5 minutes 
User defined selection menus 
Repeated tasks performed with one keystroke 
Comes with 75 pages of documentation in a 3 ring binder 
Supported by a national users group 
Full time programmer support 
Supplied on an unprotected disk 



$ 59 



95 



PRO COLOR FORMS 20 

© 1984 by Derringer Software. Inc. 

PRO-COLOR-FORMS will access data files created with 
PRO-COLOR-FILE and merge them with a letter or place them 
on pre-printed forms. 

• STORE UP TO 6 FORMATS • USER DEFINED PAGE SIZE 

• SUPPORTS SPECIAL PRINTER CONTROL CODES • RIGHT 
JUSTIFICATION • PASSWORD PROTECTION • MERGES 
WITH GRAPHICS FROM MASTER DESIGN OR 
TELEGRAPHICS • 

PROCOLORDIR 

1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

PRO-COLOR-DIR will read your directories and create a 
master data file that can be accessed by PRO-COLOR-FILE 
for sorting and reporting. 1000 + records can be stored on 
one diskette with valuable information about each program. 

You can obtain hard copies of the information and create 
labels of the filenames for placing on the diskette itself. 

• DISK ID NAME • FILENAME/EXT • TYPE OF FILE 

• DATE CREATED • DATE UPDATED • NUMBER OF 
GRANS ALLOCATED • NUMBER OF SECTORS 
ALLOCATED AND USED • MACHINE LANGUAGE 
ADDRESSES • 



$ 29 



95 



DYNACALC® 

SPREAD SHEET FLEXIBILITY 

(Includes Dynagraph, Sldewise) 

Telewriter-64 

WORD PROCESSOR POWER 

Coco Max 

GRAPHICS SUPERIOR 

$JQ95 



@ SUMMARY 

© 1985 Derringer Software. Inc. 

If you use your spreadsheet program to keep track of your 
expenses then ©SUMMARY can help you analyze those 
expenses. For example, if you indicate a "Category" for each 
expense then @ SUMMARY will produce a report that shows 
a total for each category, the highest amount, the lowest 
amount and the average amount. In addition, @ SUMMARY 
can produce a hi-res line graph or bar graph of the analysis 
and allow you to place titles on the graph. A hardcopy of the 
graph can also be generated as well as saved to disk. 

The analysis can be saved in a "data file" which can be 
loaded into DYNACALC or read in by @ SUMMARY for future 
additions to the analysis. If you use other Spreadsheets such 
as ELITE*CALC then you have added a graphing feature to 
your spreadsheet applications. The analysis can also be saved 
in an ASCII file which can be read by word processors for 
inclusion in a report. 

@ SUMMARY is compatible with any spreadsheet program 
that can generate an ASCII text file of worksheets. 



Specify RS-DOS 
or OS9* 



(disk only) 



$1995 



*0S9 version does not 
have Hi-Res graphing 

and requires Basic09. 



DYNACALC ■ is a registered trademark of Computer Systems Center 

ELITE*CALC is a trademark of Elite Software 

0S9 is a registered trademark of MICROWARE and MOTOROLA. 



SIDEWISE 

© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

Add a new "twist" to your printer's capabilities! 

SIDEWISE makes your printer do something you never 
thought possible -print side ways! 

SIDEWISE will read in any ASCII text file and print it out 
side ways using a Radio Shack, Epson, Okidata, C-ltoh or 
Gemini printers having dot-graphics ability. 

SIDEWISE 0S9 is compatible with DYNACALC 0S9 and 
requires Basic09 



SIDEWISE 0S9 
(Disk only) 



SIDEWISE RS-DOS 



$2495* 



* RS-DOS version included FREE with DYNACALC R 

0S9 is a registered trademark of MICROWARE and MOTOROLA. 

TELEGRAPHICS 

€ 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

PRINT HI-RES GRAPHICS USING TELEWRITER-64! 

Use C0C0 Max, Graphicom or other graphics programs to 
create letter heads and print them while using Telewriter-64. 

Telegraphies interfaces with Radio Shack, Epson, Gemini, 
C-ltoh and Okidata printers having dot-addressable graphics. 
A simple modification to Telewriter-64 will allow you to exit 
Telewriter via the DISK I/O MENU and print out the graphic 
without affecting any of your text in the buffer. 

This is the same feature that is included in our MASTER 
DESIGN program. Since we felt you don't need to buy two 
graphics editing programs, we have made this feature available 
at a reduced price. 



$2495 



(Available Only On Disk) 

NO OTHER DISCOUNTS APPLICABLE 



MASTER DESIGN 

© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

Generates lettering in hi res graphics that can be different 
sizes, skinny, bold, textured, drop shadowed, raise shadowed 
or tall. Also interfaces with the telewriter-64 word processor 
for printing hi-res displays with your letters. 

Take full advantage of all the extended BASIC hi-res graphic 
commands including boxes, circles, lines, copy displays and 
utilize GET and PUT features. Added commands include mirror 
reflection, turn displays backwards or upside down. Squish 
displays, create dot patterns for shading or diagonal lines. 

TheLetterhead Utility allows you to access hi-res graphics 
from Telewriter-64, your own BASIC programs or 
PRO-COLOR-FORMS. 

Interfaces with dot matrix printers having dot addressable 
graphics. 



FOR BOTH 



$2995 



July 84 Rainbow, Oct. '84 Hot C0C0 



Derringer Software, Inc. 

PO Box 5300, Florence, SC 29502-5300 

To place an order by phone, call: (803) 665-5676 

10 AM and 5 PM EOT 

Check, Money Order, VISA or MasterCard 



South Carolina residents add sales tax. 
Include $3.00 for UPS Shipping - $5.00 U.S. Mail - $9.00 Air Mail 

Canadian Distributor-Kelly Software 
Australian Distributor-Computer Hut Software 







XTERM 

OS-9 Communications program. 

Menu oriented " Definable macro keys 

Upload/download. Ascii • Works with standard serial port, RS232 
or XMODEM protocol PAK, or PBJ 2SP Pack, Includes all drivers. 

Execute OS-9 commands ■ Works with standard screen. XSCREEN, or 
from within XTERM WORDPAK 80 column board. 

.95 with source $89.95 



$49 



XMENU 

Creates a menu driven environment for OS-9. 
Create vour own menus ' Works with standard screen, 

XSCREEN, WORDPAK, O-PAK 

.95 with source$59.95 



$29 



' I ' 1 Ml i I I I 



XSCREEN 

OS-9 hi-res screen 
• 5 1/64/85 chars per line ■ Easy menu operation 

$19.95 with source $39.95 



XDIR & XCAL 

Hierarchial directory OS-9 calculator 

• Full sorting • Decimal, Hex, Binary 

• Complete pattern matching • +, *, /, AND.OR, XOR, NOT 

$24.95 with source $49.95 



XDIS 

OS-9 disassembler 
$34.95 with source $54.95 




XWORD 

OS-9 word processing system 

• Works with standard text screen, XSCREEN, WORDPAK, or O-PAK 

• True character oriented full screen editing 

• Full block commands 

• Find and Replace commands 

• Execute OS-9 commands from within 

• Proportional spacing supported 

• Full printer control, character size, emphasized, italics, 
overstrike, underline, super/sub-scripts 

■ 10 header/footers 

• Page numbering in decimal or Roman numerals 

• Margins and headers can be set different for even and odd pages 

$69.95 with source $1 24.95 

XMERGE 

Mail merge capabilities for XWORD 

$24.95 with source $4 9. 95 

XSPELL 

OS-9 spelling checker, with 20000 and 40000 word dictionaries 

$39.95 
XTRIO 

XWORD/XMERGE/XSPELL 
$114.95 with XWORD/XMERGE sourc#1 99.95 

XED 

OS-9 full screen editor 

$39.95 with source $79.95 







»;«;«; 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

This sales-based accounting package is designed 
for the non- accounting oriented businessman. It 
also contains the flexibility for the accounting ori- 
ented user to set up a double entry journal with an 
almost unlimited chart of accounts. Includes Sales 
Entry, transaction driven Accounts Receivable and 
Accounts Payable, Journal Entry, Payroll Disburse- 
ment, and Record Maintenance programs. System 
outputs include Balance Sheet, Income Statement, 
Customer and Vendor status Reports, Accounts 
Receivable and Payable Aging Reports, Check Reg- 
ister, Sales Reports, Account Status Lists, and a 
Journal Posting List. $79.95 

INVENTORY CONTROL/SALES ANALYSIS 

This module is designed to handle inventory control, 
with user defined product codes, and produce a detailed 
analysis of the business' sales and the sales force. One 
may enter/update inventory data, enter sales, run five 
sales analysis reports, run five inventory reports, set up 
product codes, enter /update salesman records, and 
update the SB AP inventory. $59.95 



PAYROLL 

Designed far maintaining personnel and payroll 
data for up to 200 hourly and salaried employees 
with 8 deductions each. Calculates payroll and tax 
amounts, prints checks and maintains year-to-date 
totals which can be automatically transferred to the 
SBA package. Computes each pay period'3 totals 
for straight time, overtime and bonus pay and det- 
ermines taxes to be withheld. Additional outputs 
include mailing list, listing of employees, year-to- 
datc federal and/or state tax listing, and a listing of 
current misc. deductions. Suited for use in all states 
except Oklahoma 4hd Delaware. $59.95 



These ittograms app^ n*enu 
driven, Sample transactions are included. Each 
package features a hi-res screen. Each requires 
a mrintCT, a mmirnum of 32k and at least 1 disk 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Includes detailed audit trails and history reports 
for each customer, prepares invoices and monthly 
statements, mailing labels, aging lists, and an alpha- 
betized customer listing. The user can define net 
terms for commercial accounts or finance charges 
for revolving accounts. This package functions as a 
standalone A/R system or integrates with the Small 
Business Accounting package. $59 95 



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Designed for the maintenance of vendor and A/P 
invoice files. The system prints checks, voids 
checks, cancels checks, deletes cancelled checks, 
and deletes paid A/P invoices. The user can run a 
Vendor List, Vendor Status report, Vendor Aged 
report, and an A/P Check Register. This package 
can be used either as a standalone A/P system or 
be integrated with the Small Business 



can 



Accounting Package. 



$59.95 




INC 



1906 jerrold AVettiie 




Ordering Information 

Add $3.00 shipping & handling, MN residents add 6% sales tax. 
Visa, Mastercard, COD (add $2.50), personal checks. 



OS'9 is g inutimark of MUrowmiS 



(612) 633-6161 



16K 
Disk 



Display up to 24 program names on a 
neat disk label 



Where Is It? 




■ "Ik you list the directory of 
I ■ ^\disk after disk to find the 
JL* J ^^program you're looking 
for? Do your disks sit in a box, out of 
order, or even worse, on the floor in a 
pile? If so, Disk Labeler can help. 

Disk Labeler numbers your disks and 
prints up to 24 program names on 3!/£- 
by- 15 /i6-inch, one-across mailing labels. 

To get started, type in the listing, save 
a copy, and run the program. The title 
screen appears and you are reminded to 
set the printer to 9600 baud. To change 
the baud rate, simply poke a different 
value into Location 150 in Line 170 
using the table in Figure 1. 





Figure 1 


600 baud 


— -* POKE 150,87 


1200 baud 


^— POKE 150,41 


2400 baud 


- POKE 150,18 


4800 baud 


— POKE 150,7 



Brian Biggs is a junior at Westland High 
School in Galloway, Ohio. He enjoys 
baseball swimming, working with his 
Co Co and reading THE RAINBOW. 



If the printer is not on, the program 
pauses until it is turned on, otherwise 
you see the main menu. The status 
section shows the current setup for 
printing. You can change disk number 
and disk code by pressing 1 and 2, 
respectively. The disk code can be any 
three-letter code that suits your needs. 

Both the disk number and disk code 
must be three characters long. If they 
are less than or greater than three 
characters, Disk Labeler will automat- 
ically go back to the main menu. If you 
have already selected 1 or 2 from the 
menu and want to leave the contents the 
same, just press ENTER and you will go 



\ By Brian Biggs 

back to the main menu and the status 
line will not change. 

Menu Option 3 lets you change the 
drive of the disk whose label you are 
printing. All drives (0 to 3) are available. 

Menu Option 4 takes you to the 
program entry mode of Disk Labeler. 
You are prompted to enter the name of 
each program on the disk, one after the 
other. If you want to change menu 
options or abort the program entry 
mode, type R and press ENTER. You will 
be returned to the main menu. 

Typing D and pressing ENTER gives 
you a directory of the disk. This func- 
tion is used to get program names from 
the disk to enter them into Disk Labeler. 
Pressing any key after the directory is 
displayed returns you to program entry 
mode. 

After all the programs on one disk 
have been entered, press P and ENTER. 
The screen will display the label with the 
program names printed in three col- 
umns. This three-column format must 
be used because of the size of the CoCo's 
screen, but the names will be printed in 
four columns on the label. If all the 
names are correctly spelled, press Y, 
and printing begins. Otherwise, press N 
and you are returned to the program 
entry mode. 

After printing is over you are asked 
if you want to print the same label 
again. This function is used to line up 
the labels in the printer without having 
to type in all the program names again. 
If you do not want to print the same 
label again, type N and you will be 
returned to the main menu. To leave 
Disk Labeler, select main menu Option 
5 and you can exit. 

Disk Labeler \§ quite useful as written 
but, as is the case with most programs, 
it was written to be modified. One thing 
that could be added is a subroutine to 

December 1986 THE RAINBOW 93 







Finure 2 




" *f 


Emphasized Drint 


CHRSf 27 1 




Double-strike Drint 


PUD* ( P7 i 


■_l 


HHPSiffi "i Set naee leneth to 6 






— ■ One line exnanded Drint 

V^r llv llllv V A V-/ 111 IVlvVl VJ X 111 V 


nHRSf 15 1 




Condensed Drint 




1 1 


CHRS f 9 1 Set line feed to 9 It> inch 


CHRSf 131 




HJ^^ vj'fa'v *'>•'"*■'. # 

C cirri use return 






Form feed 


CHRif 27 1 

W 1 IIV-V It-' 1 


■■'IS'- 


Reset orinter 


CHR$(7) 




— — Sound printer bell 



alphabetize all programs entered, or a 
subroutine to read the programs di- 
rectly from disk. I wrote Disk Labeler 
for a Star SG-10 printer. If you want to 
change the codes, an explanation of the 
printer codes I used, in the order they 
appear in the program, can be found in 
Figure 2. 

Any modifications you have made or 
any questions you have can be sent to 
me at 3555 Rolling Hills Lane, Grove 
City, OH 43123. Or call (between 7 p.m. 
and 10 p.m.) (614) 878-1081. Please 
include an SASE if you want a re- 
sponse. □ 



W 200 



The listing: LRBELER 



....195 

320 196 

500 245 

690 43 

END 162 



T 



10 CLEAR1000 

20 CLS:F0R P=1157 TO 1179: READ A 
:P0KE P, A: NEXT 

30 FOR P=1189 TO 1205:READ A:P0K 
E P,A:NEXT 

40 FOR P=1289 TO 1301:READ AtPOK 



ADOS 



ENHANCED, EPROM-ABLE 
DISK BASIC 



Now. you can supercharge Basic with an impressive array o( extra features 
WITHOUT sacrificing compatibility! ADOS is compatible with virtually 100 B /o of 
commercial software. Customizing utilities are provided to allow user-defined 
command abbreviations, baud rate, step rate, tracks per disk (35 or 40). support of 
double-sided drives, and more. After customizing ADOS, you can have it burned into 
an EPROM that plugs into the Disk Basic ROM socket, or just use it in RAM as a 64K 
disk utility. (EPROM + burning will cost about $20~we provide information 
concerning how you can have this done.) Features include: • repeat and edit of the 
last direct mode command • 26 definable control-key abbreviations • automatic line- 
number prompts • DOS command • lowercase command entry (a fine complement to 
a lowerkit nr PBJ WordPak) • COPY (filename) to (drive number) • AE error override 
option • RAM command (64K) • RUNM command • text echoing to printer * ML 
monitor • text file scan • enhanced directory • error trapping • hi res text utility 
included (42. 51. or 64 characters per line) 

*7 COULD NOT FIND ANY SOFTWARE THAT WOULD NOT RUN UNDER ADOS." 

THE RAINBOW. December 1984 
"/ LOVE ADOS! ...A GENUINELY FIRST RATE PRODUCT." 

Color Micro Journal. February 1985 
"/ WON'T PART WITH MY ADOS EPROM FOR ANYTHING . . . NO COMPATIBILITY 
PROBLEMS." 

Hot CoCo.May 1985 

Disk $27.95 



THE PEEPER 



ML PROGRAM TRACER 



Monitor machine-language programs AS THEY ARE RUNNING! Peeper actually 
timeshares with the target program, giving FULL CONTROL as ML programs run. 
Switch instantly between watching regular program output and Peeper's trace of 
registers and stack on screen or printer. Inspect memory in any of 26 display modes. 
Execution speed can be varied from full speed to the barest crawl, or halted entirely, 
as programs run Single-stepping, breakpoints, memory or register examine/change. 
Relocatable, supports 64K use 06K required) See February '85 review. 
Disk $23.95 Tape $21.95 Assembler source listing Add 3.00 

THE NEXT BEST THING TO A DISK DRIVE 

Fastape allows cassette MO at 3000 baud -TWICE NORMAL SPEED. It uses the high- 
speed (POKE 65495.0) mode, and makes it convenient to stay in this mode 
throughout Features automatic adjustment of cassette and printer parameters when 
speed mode is changed. Control-key functions for many Basic commands and for 
changing speed modes. Compatible with all file types, and can be used with 
Telewriter 64 and many other tape utilities. (16K required) See July B3 review. 
'Ti** . . HiM 11 ».ti \Hfm QifCOUNT PR*«1J 




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SPECTROSYSTEMS/^ Surte A108 

w - — >Z~~ / V "- Miami. Florida 33176 

No delay on personal checks (305) 274-3899 >Oay ur' 

Pipa.si* ,uld S.' 00 snipping bony no cn>dit i.nids or COD s Evp 



1330: READ A:POK 
1435:READ A:POK 
1458:READ A:POK 



E P,A:NEXT 
50 FOR P=1327 TO 
E P, A: NEXT 
60 FOR P=1413 TO 
E P, A: NEXT 
70 FOR P=1455 TO 
E P,A:NEXT 
80 DIM G$(24) 
90 FOR X=l TO 1000: NEXT 
100 CLS:FOR X=l TO 10 
110 PRINT@225 , "SET 9600 BAUD RAT 
E ON PRINTER" 
120 FOR P=l TO 50: NEXT 
130 PRINT@225, "set 9600 baud rat 
e on printer" 
140 FOR P=l TO 50: NEXT 
150 NEXT X 
160 GOSUB 800 

170 POKE 150,1:' SET BAUD RATE TO 
9600 

180 N1$="123":N2$="ABC" 
190 CLS:PRINT STRING$(32,"=") ; 
200 PRINT"statUs: DISK NUMBER 
" ;N1$: PRINT" DISK CODE 

" ; N2 $ : PRINT" CURREN 
T DRIVE ";D: PRINT STRING$ ( 32 , "= 

"); 

210 PRINT@224, "1) CHANGE DISK NUM 
BER" :PRINT"2) CHANGE DISK CODE":P 
RINT" 3) CHANGE DRIVE" : PRINT" 4 ) ENT 
ER PROGRAMS": PRINT" 5) QUIT" 
220 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 220 
230 IF A$="l" THEN GOSUB 830:PRI 
NT@423 , ; : INPUT"NEW DISK NUMBER" ; 
B$:IF LEN(B$)<>3 OR B$="" THEN 1 
90 ELSE Nl$=B$:GOTO 190 
240 IF A$="2" THEN GOSUB 830:PRI 
NT@423, ; :INPUT"NEW DISK CODE";B$ 
:IF LEN(B$)<>3 OR B$="" THEN 190 
ELSE N2$=B$:GOTO 190 
250 IF A$="3" THEN PRINT@42 3 , ; : I 
NPUT"NEW DRIVE" ;D: IF D<0 OR D>3 
THEN 250 ELSE 190 
260 IF A$="4" THEN GOTO 330 
270 IF A$="5" THEN PRINT@423 , "AR 



94 



THE RAINBOW December 1986 



FOLLOWING PROGRAMS ARE SAME 
PRICE AS U.S. IN CANADIAN FUNDS 

□ AUTOTERM TAPE $39.95 

□ AUTOTERM DISK $49.95 

□ THE UN-DISK $34.95 

MICROTECH 

□ SMALL BUSINESS $79.95 

ACCOUNTING 

□ ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE. . . $59.95 

□ ACCOUNTS PAYABLE $59.95 

□ INVENTORY CONTROL $59.95 

MICROTECH OS-9 

□ XTERM $49.95 

□ XWORD $69.95 

□ XTRIO $114.95 

(All other Microtech programs) 

PRICKLY PEAR SOFTWEAR 

□ HALL OF THE KING I & II . . . $39.95 

□ DARKMOOR HOLD $29.95 

□ DRAGON BLADE $29.95 

□ RTD TRIO $49.95 

(All other Prickly Pear programs) 

□ TELEWRITER 64 TAPE $69.95 

□ TELEWRITER 64 DISK $84.95 

□ TELEWRITER 64 &. $99.95 

TELEPATCH 

BOB VAN DER POEL UTILITIES 

□ TELEPATCH $27.95 

□ TELEWRITER 64 $14.95 

CHARACTER SET EDITOR 

□ TELEPATCH & $34.95 

CHARACTER SET EDITOR 

□ RAINBOW MAGAZINE $14.95 

INDEX SYSTEM WITH ALL 
RAINBOW DATABASE INCLUDED 

□ ULTRA LABEL MAKER $14.95 

□ GREAT DISK UTILITIES! .... $14.94 
SEE FEB. 86 RAINBOW PAGE 214 

TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

□ WORLDS OF FLIGHT $41 .95 

TAPE 

□ WORLDS OF FLIGHT $46.95 

DISK 

□ P51 TAPE $41 .95 

□ P51 DISK $46.95 

□ DRAGON SLAYER DISK .... $34.95 

(We carry all other Tom Mix and 
Nova Soft products) 



We are 
Canada's largest 
Software Distributor 

for the 
Color Computer 





□ ADOS $39.95 

□ THE PEEPER $29.95 

□ COCO GRAPHICS $41 .95 

DESIGNER 

□ UP GRADES FOR COCO ... $21 .95 
GREETING CARD 

DERRINGER SOFTWARE 

□ MAX EDIT $27.95 

□ MAX FONTS $34.95 per font 

□ ALL THREE FONTS $89.95 

□ PRO COLE FILE $69.95 

□ SIDEWISE $27.95 

□ SIDEWISE OS-9 $41 .95 

(We carry all other Derringer products) 

NEW COCO III SOFTWARE FROM 
COMPUTERWARE! 

□ COLOR CONECTION IV ... . $69.95 

□ COLOR SCRIBE II $69.95 

□ THE MAGIC OF ZANTH $49.95 

□ RETURN OF JUNIOR'S $49.95 

REVENGE 

(We manufacture all of computerware's 
great products) 

□ NEW ROBOT ODYSSEY. . . . $49.95 

□ ALL MARKDATA GRAPHIC . . . $34.95 
ADVENTURES TAPE 

DISK $39.95 

□ SPACE P AC FROM $27.95 

SPECTRAL 1 0 MACHINE LANGUAGE 
SPACE GAMES TAPE 

DISK $31.95 

□ ARCADE PAC FROM $24.95 

SPECTRAL 5 QUALITY ARCADE 
GAMES TAPE 

DISK ............... $28.95 

□ WIZARD CASTLE DISK $27.95 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

□ COCO CHECKER TAPE .... $27.95 
OR DISK 

□ DISK UTIL 2.1 $34.95 

□ MULTI PAC CRACK $34.95 

□ COCO VIDEO TITLER $27.95 

□ THE OS-9 SOLUTION $54.95 

□ THE FONT GENERATOR. . . . $54.95 

HARDWARES 

□ 64K UPGRADES FOR $59.95 

KOREAN COCO II 

□ VIDEO DOUBLE DRIVERS . . . $49.95 
FOR COCO I 

□ VIDEO DOUBLE DRIVERS . . . $49.95 
FOR COCO II 



VALUABLE COUPON 

$3.00 DISCOUNT 

ON ALL PRODUCTS 
ORDERED BY 
JANUARY 31st, 1987 

~ VALUABLE COUPON 

Kelly Software Distributors Ltd. 

P.O. Box 608, Station T Calgary, 
Alberta T2H 2H2 

Tel : (403)236 2161 





ORDER FORM 



Name 



Address 



City 



Province 



Postal Code 



Phone 



□ Yes send me your FREE catalog. A Iso send me the following programs. 
Item Quantity Price 



VISA 
Card # _ 
Exp. _ 



MasterCard 



Shipping 
- Total 



Signature 



Add $2.00 Shipping 



E YOU SURE (Y/N) ?»:GOTO 290 
280 GOTO 220 

290 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 290 
300 IF A$="N" THEN 190 
210 IF A$="Y" THEN CLS : PRINT "THA 
NK YOU FOR USING THIS PROGRAM" : E 

ND^V'.y- 'y' -f 

320 GOTO 290 

330 FOR N=l TO 24 

340 CLS :PRINT@12,N1$;»-" ;N2$ 

350 PRINT© 3 7 , "ENTER THE PROGRAM 

NAMES "'.PRINT 

360 PRINT§97, "<P>RINT <R>E START 

<D>IRECTORY" : PRINT 

370 PRINT" PROGRAM #" ;N; : INPUT G 

$(N) 

380 IF G$(N)="P" THEN 430 

390 IF G$(N)="R" THEN GOSUB 840: 

GOTO 190 

400 IF G$(N)="D" THEN 730 

410 IF LEN (G$ (N) ) >8 THEN PRINT"T 

00 LONG (LIMIT: 8 CHARACTERS )": GO 

TO 370 

420 NEXT N 

430 CLS : PRINT© 12 , Nl$ ; "-" ;N2$ : PRI 
NT : PRINT 
440 T=65 

450 FOR Q=l TO N-l 

460 PRINT@T,G$(Q) :T=T+11 

470 IF Q=3 OR Q=6 OR Q=9 OR Q=12 

OR Q-15 OR Q=18 OR Q=21 OR Q=24 

THEN T=T-1 
480 NEXT Q 
490 PRINT : PRINT 

500 PRINTTAB(5)"IS THIS OK (Y/N) 
?" ; 

510 A$=INKEY$:IF A$=»» THEN 510 

520 IF A$="Y" THEN 560 

530 IF A$="N" THEN 330 

540 GOTO 510 

550 'START PRINTING 

560 GOSUB 800 

570 CLS : PRINT023 6 , "PRINTING" 
580 PRINT #-2 , CHR$ (2 7) "E "CHR$ (27) 
"G"CHR$(27) "C"CHR$(6) ; 
590 PRINT* -2 , CHR$ (14 ) |" "Nl$ 

;»-";N2$; 



MEW FOR CHRISTMAS: 



RECORD ANY SOUND OP MUSIC OM VOUR COCO. RECORD K I TT . CYLON* . RUTOSOT^ 
PHRSERS, SOUNDTRACKS OP YOUR OWN VOICE WITH EXCELLENT REPRODUCTION 
IJSE MEGR SOUND TO EXRfllNE riND RLTEP THE PECnRDINC FO* cisr m vnijp 
OWN BASIC PROGRRHS— 1*'*4K ECP trpe OP DISK S4« 



ELIMtNRTE THE F£RR ne RURN-IN ON YOUP TV OP MONT TOR SCREEN 
STOP BURN RUTOMRTICRLY DRPKENS VIEUING SCREEN WJPING YOUP PPSENCE 

lf^f4K tape np DISK t\7 

INGUIRtES'COPS <1Pr* TILL 3W rsi* 1 ) 923-4221 np 9«9E FOP tMPO 

MEGA SOUND DEMO TRPE— SEND f3.5R 
INCLUDE t2.3* FOP SNIPING 'CODS RDD *2>.MftlL CHECK OP fVO TO 

LUCAS INDUSTRIES 

1472* CEDAR «:T.N.E. 
ALLIANCE. OH In -MSBl 



600 PRINT#-2,CHR$(15) ;CHR$(27) "A 
" CHR$ ( 9 ) 

610 FOR Q=l TO N-l 

620 PRINT#-2,G$(Q) , 

630 IF Q/4=INT(Q/4) THEN PRINT#- 

2 , CHR$ ( 13 ) ; 

640 NEXT Q 

6 50 PRI NT # - 2 , CHR $(12); ; 

660 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27) "@"; 

670 PRINT#-2,CHR$(7) ; m ' 

680 PRINT© 2 2 5, "PRINT SAME LABEL 

AGAIN (Y/N)?" 

690 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 690 
700 IF A$="Y" THEN 560 
710 IF A$="N" THEN GOSUB 840: GOT 
0 190 

720 GOTO 690 

730 CLS : DIRD : PRINTTAB ( 9 ) FREE (D) ; 
"GRANS FREE" ; :EXEC44 539 : GOTO 340 
7 40 DATA 6 8,73,83,75 ,96 , 76,65 , 6 6 , 
69,76,69, 82 ,96, 104 , 80 ,82,79, 71 ,8 
2,65,77,83,105 

750 DATA 7 0 , 79 , 82 , 96 ,83 ,71 , 109 , 11 

3, 112 , 96 , 80,82, 73 ,78,84 ,69 ,82 

760 DATA 6 6 , 89,96,66,73,76,76,96, 

83,69,77,80,70 

770 DATA113, 121, 120, 117 

780 DATA 13 , 15 ,4 ,9,6,9,5,4,32 ,2,2 

5,32,2, 18 ,9 ,1 ,14, 32 , 2,9,7, 7, 19 

790 DATA49,57,56,54 

800 PE=PEEK ( 653 14 ) AND1 

810 IF PE=0 THEN RETURN ELSE PRI 

NT@ 4 8 6, "PRINTER NOT ON LINE!"; 

820 GOTO 800 

830 PRINT@483 , "MUST BE 3 CHARACT 
ERS LONG"; : RETURN 

840 FOR X=l TO 24:G$(X)="":NEXTX 
RETURN /«\ 



Hint . . . 

Relief for the Eyes 

Here is a print font for the DMP-105 printer that 
prints in large dark letters for the seeing impaired. 

10 PRINTB-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(14) 
20 PRINT8-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(23) 
30 PRINTtt-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(31) 

To end the Large Print mode: 

40 PRINTtt-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(15) 
50 PRINTtt-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(19) 
60 PRINT8-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(32) 

Randy Daniels 
Carrie Mills, IL 



96 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



Fantasy Clip Art Disk 

Gnomes j el yes? dr 0.90ns and more- • ■ 
More than thirty cl ips for Co com ax- . . 

ALL MEW I!! 



m 



AS,: 



>■* ■■ ■■ .* ,'j 




t .■ > > > ." .O > .■ .» 5w S .■ j" \T 

L ■ > > ,'■ )■ '* !■ *■ '* ,'■ ■ .'■ V'. m JhT^* 'r" ' 

p > :« :» > > > > > ;5>"> jt""".--'" 
h v> '■ « *■ ■» ■» '■ y» v - 



You must have 
Cocomax* 

64K EXB disk SM-95 





Put Some Motion in Vour Graph i est 
I jmgMH^ Use The Motion Picture 

an an i mat i on tool • 
Create up to 
eight frames 
of an i mat i on- 

§1 

$1$ Includes a 




4 y 



program you can 
-~ use to show your 



3j own Animation from a Basic 



program- . , d 

G4K EXEi Disk $34-95 



M 


S 


O 


O 


R 


F 


E 


T 


T 


W 


O 


A 


N 


R 




E 



Oriental Gallery I 

Twenty new f ul L -screen pictures from a 
tal ented graph i c art i st • - - at I ready to 
print or use with your graphic editor- 

ALL NEW J J J I 




B 

A 
Y 



What's Hot for the Winter? 




Try this 
Las Vegas 
slot machine copyright is® 5 

s i rftul at i on- Try 
tight or Loose odds 
A simuL at i on or s if 
you want j an arcade 

game to test your reflexes* 

3£K EXB 

Tape or Disk < plea.se specify) 



TM 




A SUPER COLOR PRINTER 
The- OhZ. I MATE 20 
AT A SUPER LITTLE PRICE! 

Prints ten characters to the inch, 
twelve characters fifteen characters to the inch, 
'talics* I tal 2 cs. I tali cs . 



Under 1 ine 



Sjperscr 



o t 



Subscript. 



Small. Light w 
Prints up to 80 ch 
Prints four color 
disk software for 
:olor and four col 
]olor Computer hi 

Okimate 20, P 
Daper, black and c 
instructions, and 



Parallel $240.00 
BIO. 00 Shipping 



The only color Okimate 
20 Screen Dump Now 
Available for the C0C0. 

(Price subject to change) 



eight . Quiet . 
aracters per second, 
graphics . I ncl udes 
black and white, two 
or screen dumps of 
res graphics, 
lug n' Print, 
olor r ibbon , 
sof tware. 




,..<i| •>i|iii|i i« " ty • 

' 'lilll! j ; '] 1 ■ ' ' [ "jl '' ' : 



T 



r» 1 




s s ■» on Sdm a Barbar a v ouoaeo t / t»t> 



DOUBLE DRIVER II 

Finally a monitor driver for 
the Color Computer II that 
lets you use a monochrome 
and a color monitor 
simultaneously. We're proud 
of this new driver. The six 
transister circuit provides op- 
timal signal mixing and signal 
gain. Excellent monochrome 
output and better quality 
resolution in the color ouput 





than any driver we have 
seen. Audio output also. Fits 
all models of the Color Com- 
puter II. $29.95. 




THE COCO-SWITCHER 

A QUALITY PIECE OF HARDWARE 

The C0C0 Switcher allows you to hook up 
three peripherals to your RS-232 jack. Con- 
nect your modem, printer and any other 
RS-232 compatible peripheral to the C0C0 
Switcher. An LED on the C0C0 Switcher 
shows if your computer is on or off at a glance, 
The LED flickers when transmitting or receiv- 
ing data. 

$39.95 plus $2.00 shipping and handling 



DOUBLE DRIVER I 

The BEST monitor driver available. 
Color composite, monochrome and 
audio output. For original C0C0 D, E 
and F boards. $24.95. 

MONO II 

Mono II for Color Computer 2. An 
excellent monochrome monitor driver 
hat has audio output also. Specify 
node] needed. 

$24.95. 




MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Bay laboratory 
316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

Ordering information 

Send $2.00 shipping and handling per order. We ship 
within 1 working day on receipt of order. Blue Label 
Service available. California residents add 6% sales tax. 




TURN OF THE SCREW 



The No-Switch VDG 



By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Two months ago I introduced you 
to the new VDG-T1. It came 
installed in the CoCo 2 B series. 
I guess I shouldn't say "new" any more; 
the CoCo 3 is out. I have ordered mine 
and, as you might well guess, I will turn 
the screw on it and see what is under the 
hood. I'm sure I will be able to come up 
with some hardware ideas on what we 
can do with this new CoCo 3. If any of 
you have a hardware idea for the new 
computer, jot it down and send it to 
"Turn of the Screw Wish List," care of 
RAINBOW at the Falsoft building. Mean- 
while, back to the or CoCo 2. 

The VDG-T1 has a lot of nifty 
changes to make it better. But these 
changes are not very accessible. The 
changes are hidden away deep inside 
CoCo. I wrote on how to dig these 
changes out so that you could make use 
of them. These changes included lower- 
case letters, inverse screen and a colored 
border. I discussed a couple of ways to 
access these. One was in software and 
the other was in hardware. The software 
way is a pain at best. You have to insert 
a BASIC line every time you printed to 
the screen. If you have a machine 
language program, forget it, the soft- 
ware just will not work. 

The hardware way is a little better. 
You have three switches and set them up 
the way you want. The only problem is 
that the switches interfere with the 
graphics modes. So when you use 
graphics, you have to switch the three 
switches back to their original position. 
Again, what a pain. If you have a 
program that switches back and forth 
between graphics and text, you either 

Tony DiStefano is a well-known early 
specialist in computer hardware pro- 
jects. He lives in Laval Ouest, Quebec. 

98 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



have to play "flip the switches," or not 
bother with them at all and set them to 
their default settings. If that is the case, 
why put them in, in the first place? 
Don't despair, this month I'll show you 
how to eliminate the switches and still 
have the best of the VDG-T1. 

First, let me review what the three 
pins and switches do. The three pins in 
question are pins 27, 29 and 30. The 
Motorola specifications manual for the 
MC6847T1 states that these pins are 
named GM2, GM1 and GMO respec- 
tively. These three pins have dual pur- 
poses. There is another pin on this VDG 
known as the A/ G Pin (Pin 35). This pin 
is an input. It controls whether the VDG 
is in Alpha/ Numeric mode or in one of 
the many graphics modes. When this 



pin is logic state 0, or low, the VDG is 
in the Alpha/ Numeric or text mode. 
When the pin is high it is in the graphics 
mode. This is the dual mode that other 
three pins can go into. In the graphics 
mode (A/G = HI) these three pins tell 
the VDG what graphics mode you want. 
For example, you can be in the 128-by- 
64 pixel resolution mode or the 256-by- 
192 pixel resolution. Table 1 shows all 
the different graphics combinations 
available with this VDG. 

In the text mode (A/ G LO) the three 
pins in question control in which text 
mode the VDG will display the text 
characters. For example, true upper- 
and lowercase characters, inverse low- 
ercase characters, green border or black 
border. Table 2 is a description of how 



Table 1 



GMO 


GM1 


GM2 


Description 


0 


0 


0 


64 by 64 


4 Color * 


0 


0 


1 


128 by 64 


2 Color 


0 


1 


0 


128 by 64 


4 Color 


0 


1 


1 


128 by 96 


2 Color 


1 


0 


0 


128 by 96 


4 Color 


1 


0 


; 1 


128 by 192 


2 Color 


1 


1 


0 


128 by 192 


4 Color 


1 


1 


1 


256 by 192 


2 Color 



Table 2 



Pin No. 


Pin Name 


Logic Level 


Function 


30 


GMO 


Low 


Inverse Lowercase characters. 


30 


GMO 


High 


True Lowercase characters. 


29 


GM1 


Low 


Normal green screen. 


29 


GM1 


High 


Inverse black screen. 


27 


GM2 


Low 


Black border. 


27 


GM2 


High 


Colored border. 



1 

The Ultimate 
Color Computer 

♦ 

Enhancements 

for Productivity 
from HJL Products 

i 

t 

ft flow atragll'&n*. 




Now available for all 
models, including CoCo 3 



To achieve maximum productivity with 
your Color Computer, you have to make 
it as easy as possible to get information 
into and out of the system. 

This is why we developed the HJL 
family of high-performance 
enhancements for ALL MODELS of the 
Color Computer. ^ Sfrto 




The Keyboard - $71 

The overwhelming favorite of serious"" 
Color Computer users worldwide, the 
HJL-57 keyboard has the smooth, 
consistent feel and reliability you need 
for maximum speed with minimum 
Input errors. Includes 4 Function Keys 
and sample function key program. 
Installs In just a few minutes with no 
soldering. ^ feto 




The Numeric Keypad - 

The NumberJack is a self-contained, 
cable-connected keypad for heavy-duty 
number-crunchers. Besides the number 
keys, it has all the cursors, symbols 
and math keys, including autoshifted 
(one-touch) ADD and MULTIPLY. 
Comes complete with 3-foot cable and 
all necessary connectors for quick and 
easy installation without soldering. 



The Monitor Adapter - $25.95 

This Universal driver works with all 
monochrome monitors, and is easily 
installed without clips, jumpers or 
soldering (except in some later CoCo 2s 
with soldered-in video chips). Here's 
crisp, clear, flicker-free monitor output 
with all the reliability you've come to 
expect from HJL Products. 

The Monitor - $89.95 

The GoldStar high-resolution amber 
monitor brings you the monochrome 
display that's preferred by most 
computer professionals today. Once 
you've used it you'll never connect your 
computer to a TV set again. The 12- 
inch diagonal CRT has an etched non- 
glare faceplate. (Requires adapter sold 
above) ± ff^ 



The BASIC Utility • 

Quick Basic Plus, a high-performance 
programming utility, can be used with 
any color computer that has four func- 
tion keys. 26 pre-defined BASIC 
statements, 10 user-defined macros at 
a time (you can save as many sets of 
macros as you like), automatic line- 
numbering, word wrap, global search, 



and instant screen dump to printer, 
make this software the BASIC pro- 
grammer's dream come true. Comes 
with re-legendable 3-way reference 
chart. Specify disk or cassette. 

The HJL Warranty 

Every HJL product comes with a full, 
one-year warranty and the exclusive 
HJL 15-day unconditional guarantee 
(except software). 

Pick a Pair & Save 15% 

Now, for a limited time, we'll give you 
15% off the price of any two or more 
products shown here. Just mention 
this ad when you order. 

Call Now, Toll Free 

1 -800-828-6968 

In New York 1-800-462-4691 
International calls: 716-235-8358 





Ordering Information: Specify model (Original, F-versicn, or CoCo 2 Model Number). Payment by C.O.D., check, 
MasterCard, or Visa. Credit card customers Include complete card number and expiration date. Add $2.00 for 
shipping, 3.50 to Canada; except monitors (call for shipping charges before ordering monitors). New York state 
residents add 7% aafeMax. Dealer Inquiries Invited 



p r on U C T s 

ply, of Touchstone Technology Inc. 

955 Buffalo Road • P.O. Box 24954 
Rochester, New York 14624 




s Battle the 
st of Disk Drives 



New Lower Price 

Un-DISK Drives $4&95? 

S34.95 



You Bet! There are empty spaces in your 32K 
and 64K CoCo. The Preble VDOS Un-DISK 
helps you fill them up with PROGRAMS! 

Un-DISK uses your computer's extra 
memory like a fast disk drive. 



Un-DISK can store BASIC and MACHINE 
LANGUAGE programs. 

Un-DISK is INVISIBLE. Yup! Un-DISK 
does not interfere with normal Color Com- 
puter Operation. 

Un-DISK appears only when you type the 
magic word VDOS. 

Un-DISK comes with comprehensive in- 
structions which you may not need be- 
cause: 

Un-DISK is self-prompting and easy to 
use! 

Un-DISK is provided on cassette. 

Un-DISK is faster than a slow clumsy 
DISK DRIVE and best of all . . . 

Un-DISK is CHEAPER than a DISK DRIVE! 

Un-DISK will work even if you already own 
a disk but WHY BUY A DISK AT ALL? 

Un-DISK should be in the library of every 
serious CoCo user even if you own a disk 
says Frank J. Esser, independent reviewer 
for rainbow Magazine! 



OK sure, disk drives ARE NICE. I own one. 
But if your finances are limited, the Un-DISK 
can give you much of the power of the 
mechanical drive. Even if you already own a 
disk the Un-DISK can work like a super fast 
extra disk. 

EXTRA. . .EXTRA. . .EXTRA. . .EXTRA. . . 
Additional Power For $14.95 

Only with VDUMP for the Un-DISK! 

• VDUMP lets you make a cassette backup 
copy of everything stored in the Un-DISK. 

• VDUMP lets you save 5, 10, 15 or more 
programs on a single cassette tape file. 

• VDUMP lets you switch Un-DISKs. With a 
single load operation replace a group of 
financial programs with a set of children's 
programs. (The new VDUMP tape over- 
writes the old.) 

• VDUMP can allow you to save a whole lot 
of rainbow on tape in a SINGLE file. 

• VDUMP is the perfect companion to the 
Preble VDOS Un-DISK. 

Available from Doctor Preble's Programs, 
naturally! Bringing you fine Color Computer 
Products Since 1983! 




The Preble VDOS Un-DISK $34.95 

The Preble VDUMP $14.95 

Shipping & handling 

U.S. and Canada $1.50 

or $5.00 to other foreign points 

VISA and MasterCard accepted 




Order From: 
Dr. Preble's Programs 

6540 Outer Loop 
Louisville, KY 40228 
(502) 966-8281 
Canadians may order from Kelly Software 



M 

C 
6 
8 
4 
7 
T 
1 



A/G 



35 



GM2 



27 



GM1 



29 



GMO 



30 



See text 



See text 



Sea text 



1 6 



SN74LS157 



Control 



10 
11 



B1_ 

A1 

B2 

A2 

B3_ 
A3 



Switch 



Switch 



Y1 



Y2 



Y3 



Switch 



15 





35 


4 


27 


7 


29 


9 


30 





s 

o 
c 
k 
e 
t 



Figure 1 



the three pins affect the text display on 
your screen. 

The three control pins and the A/G 
pin are all inputs. To control them, the 
CoCo uses four pins on a PIA (Periph- 
eral Interface Adapter). By now we are 
all familliar with the idiosyncrasies of 
Color BASIC. It controls these pins 
according to the old 6847 VDG, not the 
Tl VDG. Two articles ago I told you 
how to use switches to get around this. 
In last month's article I showed you how 
to hook up the Tl VDG to an old CoCo. 
This time 111 use an electronic switch to 
do the same switching action. With this 
modification, you won't have to fiddle 
with switches. It's compatible with all 
software. This modification will work 
with any CoCo that has the new Tl chip 
installed. The main part you will need 
is a TTL logic chip, the number is 
SN74LS157. Unfortunately, it is not 
available at your local Radio Shack 
store, but you can get it at any good 
electronics shop. 

This chip is a quad 2-to-l data selec- 
tor. For each of the four gates, there are 
two inputs (A and B) and one output 
(Y). It also has a control line. The way 
it works is that when the control line is 
low, the output Y is the same level as 
the A input and disregards what is at 
input B. When the control line is high, 
the output Y is the same level as the B 
input and disregards what is at input A. 
Can you see it coming? We can use this 
chip to control the three pins of the Tl 
VDG and use the A/G line to control 
the selector chip. 

Look at the schematic in Figure 1 . It 
shows the wiring to this modification. 
I disconnected the three output pins of 
the PIA (that connects to the VDG). 
These three pins now go to the B input 
on three of the four gates on the selector 
chip. The outputs of these three gates go 
to the VDG. The fourth gate is not used. 
I have also connected the control pin of 
the selector chip to the A/G pin of the 
VDG. When the CoCo is in the graphics 
mode, this pin is high. This makes the 
control pin on the selector chip high 
also. When the control pin is high, the 

Y output will follow the B input. Given 
that the PIA pins are connected to the 
B inputs, when the control pin is high, 
it is as if the selector chip were not even 
there. 

Now, when the CoCo is in text mode, 
the A/ G pin is low. Since the control pin 
of the selector chip is connected to the 
A/ G pin (in the text mode), the control 
pin is low. What happens when the 
control pin of our selector is low? The 

Y outputs follow the A inputs. What did 



you connect the A inputs to? Well, that 
all depends on how you want the text 
mode to look. Each of the three pins 
does something different. For example, 
the pin that connects to Pin 30 controls 
true lowercase characters or inverse 
lowercase characters. Table 2 shows 
what each pin does. 

When you have picked which mode 
you want, you have to connect the A 
input to match that mode. When that 
mode requires a low, you have to con- 
nect that A input to ground or Pin 8 on 
the selector chip. When that mode 
requires a high, you have to connect 
that A input to 5 volts or Pin 16 on the 
selector chip. 

The construction of this modification 
is typical of my projects. You need all 
the regular tools. Some people don't 
like to cut and solder directly on chips 
and PC boards. In that case you will 
need a 40-pin socket. I used a socket on 
this one. I hollowed out the center of it 
and used the space to put the selector 
chip in. If you don't want to use a 
socket, just piggy-back the selector chip 



on top of the VDG. If you use a socket, 
pry up pins 27, 29 and 30 so they do not 
go back into the socket. Use the empty 
pinhole as the connection to the PIA. 
If you don't use a socket, cut VDG pins 
27, 29 and 30 and pry them up. Make 
sure you cut the pin high enough so you 
can solder to the stub that is left; it is 
the connection to the PIA. Either way, 
make sure you don't cut A/G Pin 35. 
Even though we are using this pin, the 
VDG still needs it too. Remember, the 
Y outputs of the selector chip go to the 
VDG, and the B inputs come from the 
connection that used to go to the VDG. 

If you made last month's mod that 
puts the new VDG into the older CoCo, 
make sure you don't break any wires. If 
you used a socket to do it, you can use 
the same socket in last month's project 
for this one. You save a socket. 

Well, that's it. When all the connec- 
tions are done, close up the computer 
and try it. Check to make sure that all 
the modes work and that the text mode 
is the mode you want. /E\ 



CORRECTIONS 

"Esch-A-Sketch" (August 1986, Page 75): Eric White has written to correct 
a packed line in Escher. Using the extend option of the EDIT command, add 
the following characters to Line 280: 

TO 450 

so that the last statement in the line is GOTO 450. 

For quicker service, Corrections will be posted on Delphi as soon as they 
are available in the Info on Rainbow topic area of the database. Just type 
DRTfl at the CoCo SIG prompt and INFO at the Topic? prompt. 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 01 



COCO CONSULTATIONS 



Distinguishing Between 
Central Processor Chips 



By Marty Goodman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



• What is the difference between the 
6809 E central processor chip used in the 
Co Co 1 and 2 and the 68B09E used in 
the CoCo 3? What is the difference 
between the 6809 and the 6809E? 

Don Hitko 
(DD) 

Burton, MI 

The 6809E found in the CoCo 1 and 
2 was rated by Motorola to run at no 
more than 1-MHz clock speed. Motor- 
ola also made versions of that same chip 
called 68A09E and 68B09E rated to run 
at 1.5- and 2-MHz clock speeds respec- 
tively. Most 6809Es will run at speeds 
higher than 1 MHz, but the reliability 



Martin H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics tinkerer and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Co sell of the CoCo world. 
Marty is the database manager of RAIN- 
BOW'S CoCo SIG on Delphi. His non- 
computer passions include running, 
mountaineering and outdoor photo- 
graphy. Marty lives in San Pablo, 
California. 



of such operation is not vouched for by 
Motorola. In some of the later models 
of the old CoCo 1 and 2, Tandy used 
the 68A09E instead of the 6809E. Other 
than speed rating, the chips are identi- 
cal. 

The 6809 family also is divided into 
two sub-families of chips: those that 
require external sources for their sepa- 
rate 'E' and 'Q* clock signals, (desig- 
nated by the added letter 'E*), and those 
that generate clock signals themselves 
with merely a crystal added. The 'E' 
series is the one used in the Color 
Computer family. The non 'E' series of 
6809s are typically used in smaller, 
dedicated applications. For example, as 
part of the "smarts" of Radio Shack's 
CGP-220 ink-jet printer. 



• My old CoCo 1 controller has been 
behaving erratically over the last few 
weeks. The drive motors seem to go on 
of their own accord at times. Recently 
when I powered up the machine the 
drives were always on. They still would 
do proper disk access. I replaced the 
1793 controller chip and the problem 
persisted. Then I exchanged U2 with U3 



(the two 7416 chips) and now the con- 
troller works fine. 

Art Flexser 
(ARTFLEXSER) 
Miami, FL 

The control of drive spindle motor is 
not affected by the 1793 controller chip. 
This control is mediated by a 7416 
(inverting open collector buffer) num- 
bered U2 on the circuit board. (There 
is a second 7416 chip, called U3, used 
in another part of the circuit that has 
nothing to do with the motor on cir- 
cuit). Further back, there is a 14174B 
(CMOS Hex D flip flop) (U8) used to 
create the port at FF40, which is used 
for motor control and drive select. All 
of these chips are socketed. 

You were very lucky. On U3, only 
three of the six gates are actually used 
by the disk controller, and the gate used 
for motor control in U2 is one of the 
unused gates in U3. This explains why 
your swap resulted in a working con- 
troller. I recommend you replace both 
of the 7416 chips, because I would hold 
suspect any chip that had one bad gate 
and be reluctant to use it long even if 
the other gates appear to work. Also, I 
recommend replacing both 7416 chips 



102 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



with 7406 chips. The 7406 chip is iden- 
tical to the 7416 chip in its pin out, and 
in its logical function, but it is rated to 
sink up to 30 volts, while the 7416 is 
rated to sink only up to 15 volts. 



• / just got a Chinon half-height, 
double-sided disk drive. When I insert 
a disk into it and shut the door, it spins 
for a couple of seconds. Is this OK? 

Mark Camp 
(MARKCAMP) 

The automatic spinning after disk 
insertion is an intentional feature added 
to some of the newer half-height 
"smart" disk drives for the purpose of 
seating the disk in the drive. Such drives 
often also spin the disk as you take it 
out and leave the drive spinning a few 
seconds after your drive select light goes 
out. 



• I have heard there is a problem using 
the Co Co 3 with existing multipack 
interfaces. I own an old gray multipack 
and an ancient disk controller (that 
requires 12 volts). What do I need to do 
to make these work with the Co Co 3? 

Mike Himowitz 
(MHIMOWITZ) 
Baltimore, MD 

Because of a bug in the PAL chip on 
the multipack, the slot-select port ad- 
dress ghosts from FF7F to FF9F. If you 
have the old gray multipack or if you 
have one of the old, large, white-cased 



multipacks, you will probably be able to 
fix it by ordering a replacement PAL 
chip from Tandy. Ask your local Radio 
Shack store to order part number AXX 
-7123 from National Parts. Say it is for 
the multipack, Catalog No. 26-3024. 
The price for the chip is $7.50. 



• I have a 64 K Co Co and want to hook 
it up to a monitor. How do I do this? 
What type of monitor should I buy? I 
am primarily interested in using my 
Co Co as a word processor. 

Nicolas Bardino 
Whiting, NJ 

First you need to install a device often 
called a "video driver." This device 
creates the signal needed to drive such 
a monitor. 

Monitors used on the CoCo 1 and 2 
come in two different varieties: compos- 
ite video monochrome and composite 
video color monitors. The monochrome 
monitors usually come in either green or 
amber screen varieties. If you are doing 
text processing, I recommend you not 
buy a color composite monitor. They 
produce nearly unreadable text screens. 
Get a monochrome composite monitor 
and the driver needed to make it work. 
The result will be a crisp text screen, 
even in 64-column mode. The only way 
to judge any brand of monitor is to look 
at the display it produces on your 
CoCo. Manufacturers' specs are worth- 
less for determining which monitor will 
look better. Every "computer grade" 
composite monochrome monitor I have 



seen produces a reasonably clear image 
on the CoCo, so it is nearly impossible 
to go wrong regardless of which brand 
of monitor you buy. 

For those of you about to buy a CoCo 
3, note that 80-column text can be 
resolved on analog RGB monitors that 
are supported by the CoCo 3. But even 
on an expensive RGB color monitor, 
text will not look fully as clear as it will 
on a monochrome monitor. So if you 
plan to use the CoCo 3 mostly for text, 
you might want to consider buying a 
monochrome composite monitor. The 
CoCo 3 has a composite video output 
that will drive a monochrome monitor, 
though you may have to tell OS-9 and 
other software that you are using a 
monochrome monitor in order to get 
the image to look quite right. 



Your technical questions are welcomed. 
Please address them to CoCo Consultations, 
THE RAINBOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. 

We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit for 
brevity and clarity. Due to the large volume 
of mail we receive, we are unable to answer 
letters individually. 

For quicker response time, your questions 
may also be posted in the FORUM section 
of rainbow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. In 
FORUM, type ADD and address your ques- 
tions to the username MARTYGOOD- 
MAN. Marty is on most every evening to 
respond to FORUM messages. Other CoCo 
SIG members may also reply to questions 
posted in this public message area. Please be 
sure to leave your name and address in any 
FORUM questions, since those of wide 
interest will be selected for publication in 
this column. 



PRINTERS! 

N EW* Okidata 1 92+ (Par. or Ser.) $ 370 

N EWt Okidata 193 (Parallel) $ 540 

N EW! Okidata 193+ (Serial) $ 6I0 

Okimate 20 Color Printer $ I35 

Fujitsu 2100 (80 col.) MlO 

Fujitsu 2200 ( 1 32 col.) $ 520 

Toshiba 321 (Par. or Ser.) $ 5I0 

Qume Letterpro 20 (Letter Qual.) $ 445 

Silver Reed 420 (Daisy Wheel) $ 240 

Silver Reed 600 (Daisy Wheel) $ 575 

(Add $ I0 Shipping for Printers) 



ACCESSORIES! 

Taxan 12" Green Monitor $ I25 

Taxan 12" Amber Monitor $ I35 

Table Top Printer Stand 

w/Slot (80 col.) $ 30 

Table Top Printer Stand 

w/Slot(l32 col.) $ 45 

Stand vW Diskette Storage (80 col.) $ 47 

Stand w/ Diskette Storage (132 col.) $ 57 

Other Printers, Monitors, and Accessories for CoCo 
.and IBM upon request. 

$ 15 off interface with purchase of printer. 

Find your cheapest published price and we'll beat it!!! 



DISK DRIVE SYSTEMS! 

ALL Vi HEIGHT DOUBLE SIDED 

Drive 0 (addressed as 2 drives!) $ 235 

Drive 0,1 (addressed as 4 drives!) $ 350 

All above complete with HDS controller, 
cable, & drive in case with power supply 

Bare Double Sided Drives .■ $ 1 09 

Dual Vi Height Case w/ Power Supply J 49 

Double Sided Adapter $ 25 

HDS Controller, RS ROM & Instructions s 99 

25 CDC DS/DD Diskettes '32 & $ 3 s/h 

We use the HDS controller exclusively, Can use 2 different DOS ROM's. 
Shipping Costs: *5/drive or power supply, *I0 max. 
Co Co Serial Cables 15 ft.— *I0. Co Co/RS-232 Cables 15 ft.— '20. 
Other cables on request. (Add *3°° shipping) 



SP-2 INTERFACE for 
EPSON PRINTERS: 

■ 300-19,200 BAUD rates 

■ Fits inside printer — No AC Plugs 

■ Optional external switch (*5 00 extra) frees parallel 
port for use with other computers 

■ M9" (plus *3 00 shipping) 



SP-3 INTERFACE for 
MOST OTHER PRINTERS: 

■ 300-19,200 BAUD rates 

■ External to printer — No AC Plugs 

■ Built in modem/ printer switch— no need for Y-cables or 
plugging/unplugging cables 

■ *64 9S (plus *3°° shipping) 



Both also available for IBM, RS-232 and Apple IIC computers. 



c 




R 



P.O. Box 293 
Raritan, Nj 08869 
(201) 722-1055 

ENGINEERING 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 103 



PERSONALITY FOR DISKS Person- 
alize your disks with typeset and printed 
labels. The new labels from Decision 
Graphics measure 1 by 4 inches and 
allow up to four lines of text. The labels 
let you keep track of your disks. You 
will know at a glance whether or not the 
disk belongs to you. The labels are 
priced at $12.50 per hundred. Contact 
Decision Graphics, Inc., P.O. Box 2776, 
Littleton, CO 80161, (303)796-0341. 



NEW CATALOGS Radio Shack has 
announced its three new computer 
catalogs — the 1987 Tandy Computer 
Catalog, the 1987 Radio Shack Soft- 
ware Reference Guide and the 1987 
Radio Shack Educational Software 
Reference Guide. The catalogs are now 
available free of charge at more than 
7,000 Radio Shack stores, Computer 
Centers and participating dealers na- 
tionwide. The Tandy Computer Cat- 
alog features 176 new items, including 
our favorite Color Computer 3. The 
software reference guides are excellent 
sources of Radio Shack and third-party 
products for Tandy computers. 



OS-9 TIDBITS Microware has an- 
nounced that Thomson SIMI V of Paris, 
France, has licensed OS-9 / 68000 for the 
software nucleus of the recently an- 
nounced European Education Stand- 
ard microcomputer system. Three 
major European electronic companies 
have previously signed an agreement to 



i 



cooperate in the development of a 
European standard for 16-bit micro- 
computers incorporating OS-9/ 68000. 

Also, Force Computers GmbH has 
signed a license with Microware Sys- 
tems Corporation for the distribution of 
the OS-9/68000 Operating System. 
Under the agreement, Force will be able 
to offer OS-9 to new and existing users 
of its VME-based 68000 processor 
boards and peripherals. 

These announcements reflect OS-9's 
rapidly increasing acceptance as the 
standard operating system for 68000- 
based personal computers. WeVe 
known it all along with our CoCos. 



BOOKS, BOOKS, BOOKS Howard W. 
Sams & Co. has kept its tradition of 
providing technical material to comput- 
er experimenters, hobbyists and profes- 
sionals. Publications recently released 
include Computer Connection Myster- 
ies Solved and Experiments In Artificial 
Intelligence for Microcomputers. 

Computer Connection Mysteries 
Solved covers topics such as the RS-232 
interface, cabling, monitoring and 
testing gadgets. Retail price for the 272- 
page manual is $15.95. 

Experiments in Artificial Intelligence 
for Microcomputers covers game- 
playing problems, problem solving, 
computer analysis of arguments and 
natural language processing as well as 
several other topics. Retail price for this 
176-page work is $14.95. Sams books 
are available through bookstores, com- 
puter retailers and electronic distribu- 
tors, or directly from Sams by calling 
(800) 428-SAMS. 



PURGE THE SURGE New from Net- 
worx is Wire Cube Plus, a surge sup- 
pression device designed to protect both 
computers and modems. This device 
includes a single AC outlet and a phone 
line connection in one box, which is 
designed to be plugged into the wall. 
Energy is absorbed by a two-stage 
silicon/ MOV transient suppressor. The 
device's two-stage silicon/ gas tube for 
tip-gnd and ring-gnd prevents disrup- 
tion of modem operation by shunting 
harmful energy on modem lines to 
ground. Price for the Wire Cube Plus is 
$39.95. Contact Networx, 203 Harrison 
Place, Brooklyn, NY 11237, (718)821- 
7555. 



SPEAKING OF MODEMS Practical 
Peripherals is now offering a stand- 
alone 1200 bps modem, the Practical 
Modem 1200 SA, which is fully Hayes- 
compatible, includes auto-answer/ 
auto-dial capabilities, supports virtu- 
ally all communications software and 
includes an upgrade path for a pro- 
grammable enhancement card. The 
enhancement card, soon to be released, 
can be used for buffering, programma- 
ble protocol conversion, security, time/ 
date logging and other functions that 
can be programmed or downloaded 
from a host computer. Features of the 
Practical Modem 1200 S A include semi- 
permanent storage of up to 10 telephone 
numbers, menu-driven configuration, 
pulse or tone dialing and a volume- 
controlled speaker. Two modular jacks 
accommodate voice and data calls. 
Price for the Practical Modem 1200 SA 
is $239. Contact Practical Peripherals, 
31245 La Baya Drive, Westlake Village, 
CA 91362, (818)991-8200. 



1 04 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 




GREAT COCO III PRODUCTS 



SECRETS REVEALED 

An introduction to the 
Color Computer I!!! 
Compares differences 
between the CoCo l/ll 
and the NEW CoCo m. 

GIME chip specs 

New Ext. Basic 2.0 cmds 
New Memory Map 

128K Memory Tester 

$14.95 






$29.95 



GRAPHICS 

It's here! A drawing 
program for the CoCo W 
using the new Enhanced 
graphic features. Requires 

128K CoCo Iff w/Disk 

Analog RGB monitor recommended. 

Uses 320x192 graphics 
16 of any 64 colors 
Save & Load 32K screens 
Dual joystick button 

$19.95 



The Spectrum Projects Holiday 

BONUS COUPON 

SAVE 5% SAVE 5% 
ON ALL ORDERS 

OVER $100 

SAVE 5% SAVE 5% 

Offer Expires 1/15/87 - No other discounts can be applied. 



COMING SOON 



512K UPGRADE - ENHANCED COCO 



All orders plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) - COD add $2.00 extra - NYS Residents add Sales Tax 



HOWARD BEACH NY 11414 

COD ORDER HOT LINE 718-835-1344 




J 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 

COLORFUL COMPUTING 



COMMUNICATION 




or 



C0L0RC0M/E - A complete smart 
termi nal package! Upload, 
Download, Hi-Res (51X24) 
screen, 300/1200 Baud, Offline 
Printing- 32/64K Disk* - $39.95 
*- Now with DELPHI & Compuserve 
XMODEM support! Download ML! 
COMPUSERVE Starter Kit $14.95 




MODEMS 




1 200 BAUD 
$129.95** 

Hayes compatible! Super for the 
DELPHI & Compuserve CoCo Sig! 
300/1200 Baud, Auto -dial / answer 
** Requires Modem cable .$19.95 





KEYBOARDS 



WORD PROCESSING 




is 




lfi= 




TELEWRITER-64 - Three Hi-Res 
screens, true lowercase char's 
right justify, full screen 
editor. Tape $49.95 Disk $59.95 
TELEPATCH - A TW-64 enhancer! ! ! 

move, 



True block 



Overstrike & 



T SPOOL mode. Type Ahead Buffer 
FASTER Disk I/O 64K Disk $19.95 





PRINTERS 



SEIKOSHA 

SP-1000A 

• 100 cps draft 

• 20 cps NLQ 

• Friction and tractor 

• Front panel Controls 

• 1.5 K buffer 

$2 1 0.95 




i pnif iiiiniiiiiiii ij j 

GEMINI NX-10 - 120 cps, tract- 
frict feed, NLQ mode, 5K buffer 
Front Panel Controls! - $249.95 
KAMELEON -Low cost Parallel Ptr 
Interface! 600/9600 Baud $49.95 
PBH-64 - A combo Parallel Ptr 
interface & 64K Print Buffer ! 
COMPUTE while you PRINT $149.95 




US 



MONITORS 




RS 26-3016 Low Profile CoCo 
Keybd. Fits all CoCoII's, "F" & 
TDP-100's WAS ~T39.95 NOW $19.95 
Adapter for D/E CoCoI's - $9.95 






Monitor Stand $24.95 



MONOCHROME 
MONITORS 

80x24 Hi-Res screens! $89.95 
Universal Video Driver - Works 
w/all monitors & CoCos!- $29.95 
1 3 ir ~C0L0R Monitors $169.95 

i 






♦Accepts RGB TTL & composite video inputs 
alsol Much more versatile than the Tandy CM-81 
Works w/Tandy 1000 & other computers III 



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SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

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PRO-COLOR FILE - 60 Data Fids, 
8 Report Fmts, 4 Screen Fmts, 
FAST ML Sort, Global Search, 
1020 bytes/record - Disk $49.95 
DYNACALC - Visicalc cmd format, 
51x24 Screen, Hi-Res Graphics* 
New LOW price! 64K Disk $69-95 
Buy' em *B0TH* for only $99.95 





COCO MAX II 





Feature packed Hardware and 
Software graphics system!!! 
Pul 1-Down menus. Multiple font 
styles, Full graphic editing, 
256x192 Joystick input module. 
64K Disk $79.95-w/Ycable $99.95 
CoCoMax I-II Dsk Upgrade $19.95 
MaxEdit-$19.95 MaxFonts-$64.95 



iniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiNiiiiiiiiiiniii 



DISK DRIVES 





DOUBLE SIDED 
DRIVE 0 
$239.95 

Top FD-501 Drive 1 (#26-3131) - 
Easy install! (SAVE$60) $139.95 



ii 



MiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiHiln^ 

DISTO PRODUCTS 



i 





Su per Ram - 51 2K Ramdis k for 
CoCo l/ITTReq Multi-Pak $169.95 
0S-9 Software Driver - $24.95 
Super Control! er - Switch up to 
4 DOSs via single POKE! $99.95 
Spectrum D0S-$29.95 AD0S -$39.95 
Eprom Prgmr - SuperCtlr $69.95* 
DISPLAY8Q - SuperCtlr $149.95** 





GAME CONTROLLERS 





TRACKBALL 
$24.95* 

Wico Command Adapter - Now you 
can hookup 2 Atari type joystks 
to your CoCo for only $19.95! 
* Reg. $69.95 (See 9/86 review) 





COCO II UPGRADES 

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinnnnnnnniiB 



Want to upgrade your new $69/ 
$88 CoCo II? (See below !!) 
4464 DRAMs - two chip 64K 
upgrade for 26-31 34A and 26- 
3134B Korean CoCo II's ..$39.95 
Extended BASIC - 28 pin ROM for 
26-3134 A7BToCo II's ...$34.95 
Buy 'em BOTH for only - $69.95 



'Here comes the ... 




* 



Uses 2764's ($4.95) or 
27126's ($6.99) Eproms 
Includes an 80x24 display, 
Real Time Clock 

& Printer interface I 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS, Inc. 

PO BOX 264 
HOWARD BEACH, NY 11414 



CoCo Club/Dealer 

inquiries invited ! 
Software/Hardware 

submissions welcomed I 
Looking for CoCo HE software 



All orders plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) - COD add $2.00 extra - NYS Residents add Sales Tax 




Co Co nuts roasting near an open fire 



Holiday Hearth 




'Twas a few days before Christmas and all through the den 

Not a key was in motion — a lack of ideas again. 

When what to my wondering eyes should appear 

But a pint-sized computer and a program, oh dear! 

Through the pages and pages of numbers I race 

And . . . thank you, dear Rainbow . . . a Christmas Fireplace! 




By Eugene Vasconi 
































II 1 









Christmas Fireplace is a warm addition to your 
holiday cheer and uses a graphics technique put 
forth by John Fraysse in the October 1983 
RAINBOW [Page 18], Part one of the program creates the 
basic graphics scene while part two holds the animation 
loop of four fires, light patterns and the music. 

You will need to create two separate programs, then 
load the first one and run it. Without losing memory, 
load the second program and run it. (The CoCo will 
retain anything created on the graphics pages even when 
a new program is loaded.) 

The part of the program that was most fun was keeping 
the music going while the fireplace roars along. 1 
accomplished this by using data statements and a PLAY 
command that inserted one note of the song between 
every flip of the pages. With the proper delay, it sounds 
like a continuous tune. 

Stoke up your CoCo, nestle up to the TV and stay 
warm over the holidays! 

(Questions about (his program may be directed to the 
author at 12474 Starcrest #204, San Antonio, TX 78216, 
512-496-5783. Please enclose an SASE when writ- 
ing.) □ 



Eugene Vasconi is a commercial helicopter pilot in 
San Antonio, Texas. His computer interests include 
graphics, music and education. He has been a.CoCoer 
for five years. 




1 








II 












Si 








11 

















108 



THE RAINBOW December 1986 




SHOPPING LIST 



CHIP -SALE- ... 

6821 Standard PIA^rST $4.95 

Basic ROM 1.1 Chip ~£&s$£ ..$7.95 

6847 VDG Chip $9.95 

6809E CPU Chip^»s=&5: $9.95 

CoCo lTT7Mu1tipak "NEW" PAL chip .$19.95 

Orig SAM Chip ( 6883 ) Z$2ftr£5T $19.95 

Basic ROM 1.3 ( Newest version) ...$19.95 
68766 (Fits all Basic ROMS) EPROM $19.95 
Disk ROM 1.1 (Needed for CoCoIII ) $29.95 
New SAM Chip w/heatsink (74LS785) $29.95 
Ext Basic 1.1 ROM - NEW LOW PRICE $29.95 
CoCo First Ajd Kit - includes two PIA's, 

6809E CPU & SAM Chips ^59^95T $39.95 

EPROM Eraser - 3 min erasure time $49.95 
EPROM Prgmr - 271 6' s up to 27512 ! Super 
fast programmi ng-See 4/86 review $149.95 

COCO LIBRARY... 

A History of the CoCo / 1980-1986 .$3.95 
New! 200 MORE Pokes, Peeks 'N Execs $9.95 
Basic Programmi ng Tricks Revealed. $14.95 

CoCo Memory Map $16.95 

500 Pokes, Peeks 'N Execs $16.95 

Basic 09 Tour Guide $19.95 

Assembly Language Programmi ng ....$19.95 

Color Basic Unraveled $19.95 

Extended Basic Unraveled $19.95 

Disk Basictl70/1.1) Unraveled ...$19.95 

New! CoCo II Service Manual* $24.95 

CoCo TTT Service Manual $39.95 

Official MICROWARE 0S9 Manual Set $49.95 
The Complete Rainbow Guide to 0S9.$19.95 
W/Two Disk Package of demo pgms ..$49.95 
Col or / Extended / Di sk Basic Unraveled - 
Complete disassembly of the CoCo ROMS ! 
Complete 3 Book Set - Save $10! ..$49.95 



DELUXE JOYSTICK - Now only $29.95 

Computize "Y" Box - More positive 

connections than a "Y" Cable $29.95 

PBJ WORDPAK-RS - Newest version ! HiRes 

80x24 display (See Oct'86 review) $99.95 

Micro Works DS-69A Digitizer ....$149.95 

51 2K Color Computer 3 $369.95 

* - Specify CoCo II Catalogue Number 

All orders plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) 

COD add $2.00 extra 
NYS Residents add Sales Tax 




COCO CABLES AND... 

Printer/Modem 15' Extender Cable .$14.95 
Tired of unpluggi ng devices from your 
RS232 port? Try a RS232 "Y" Cable . $19. 95 
Disk Drive Cable (34pin - 34pin) .$19.95 

Modem Cable - 6ft (DB25-DB25) $19.95 

Joystick7Mouse 10' Ext Cable $19.95 

Dual Disk Drive Cable (3-34pin) ..$24.95 
CoCo III Analog RGB monitor cable $24.95 
15" Multi-Pak/Rom Pak Extender - Move 
your Multi/ROM Paks further away . $27. 95 
40 Pin Dual "Y" Cable - Hook up a Disk 
w/Voice. Word Pak. CoCo Max . etc ..$29.95 
Triple RS232 Switcher - Now select one 
of any three RS232 peripherals ...$39.95 
40 Pin Triple "Y" Cable - Hook up any 3- 
Voi ce7Word/RS232/Di gi t i zer PAKs ..$39.95 
Special! 4 Drive Disk Cable $49.95 

OTHER GOOD STUFF... 

C— 10 tapes 1n any quantity .....49 cents 
5 1/4 " Diskettes , any quantity .79 cents 

0S-9 Quick Reference Guide $3.95 

VHS T-120 Video Tapes $7.95 

Rompak w/Blank PC Brd-27xx series .$9.95 
Video Clear - This cable will reduce TV 
interference created by CoCo! ....$19.95 

The Magic Box - Load Mod I/III Basic 
program tapes i nto the CoCo ...... $24. 95 

DOS Switcher - Select from any two DOSs 
XDTsk 1.0 1.1, JD0S) in J&M ctlr .$29.95 
Orig CoCo I "D" Rev motherboard . Includes 
all chips (SAM, CPU, PIA's, VDG) except 
RAM and Ext Basic ! Spare Parts ! $39.95 

256K RAM Chips (Set of 8) $39.95 

Model 100 8K Upgrade $39.95 

HJL-57 Keyboard - Save $7.00!!! ..$72.95 

Specify Model /Revision Board 

HPS Controller w/1.1 ROM(SAVE$20) $79.95 
Amdek Drive System w/controller .$239.95 



HOWARD BEACH NY 11414 



ORDER HOT LINE 
71 8-83S-1 344 



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COCO 



Something possibly wrong with your CoCo ??? CoCo CHECKER is the answer! ! Will test your ROMs, 
RAMs, Disk Drives & Controller, Printer, Keyboard, Cassette, Joysticks, Sound, PIAs, VDG, Internal 
Clock Speed, Multi-Pak Interface and more!! 16K TAPE/DISK $21.95 (see Jan '85 Rainbow Review) 



MULT I- PA K CRAK 



Save RQM FAKs to your 64K Disk system using the RS Multi-Pak Interface. Eliminate constant 
p lugging in of ROMPAKs now by keeping all your PAK software on disk . Includes POKEs for 
"PROBLEM" ROMPAKs- including the NEW 16K PAKS! (Demon Attack,Dragons Lair,etc) 64K DISK $24.95 




'All the FEATURE S of TELEPATCH plus the classically proportioned characters of the WIZARD 
($19.95) font w/TRUE lowercase descenders! Get BOTH & SUPERCHARGE your TW-64 for only $29.95 



SPIT l\l IMAGE 



A _s 
sta 



>uper upgrade from Disk Omni Clone! Back everything up! This amazing program 
ndard " disks with ease. We haven't found any disk yet that it can't handle. Don't ei 



handles "non 



ever be caught 

without a backup again! Lowest price too! Beats most " copy protection" programs! 32K DISK $29.95 



COCO SCREEN DUMP 



Tne best screen dump program for the Panasonic, Epson & Gemini printers ever! Have the option of 
standard or reverse images w/regular or double sized proportional pictures. 600-9600 Baud too! A 
must for Graphicom and CoCo Calendar users. 16K TAPE/DISK $21.95 (see Nov ! 84 Rainbow Review) 



DISK UTILITY 2.1* 



A multi-featured tool for USER FRIENDLY disk handling. Utilize a directory window to selectively 
sort, move, rename and kill file entries. Lightning fast Disk I/O for format, copy and backup. 
Examine contents of files, the Granule Table, plus the size, load addresses and entry points of all 
programs. Single command execution of both Basic and ML programs. 32K/64K DISK $24.95 " Disk 
Utility has proven itself very quickly at my house" - Ed Ellers Oct '84 Rainbow Review pg. 220 



SPECTRUM PONT GENERATOR 



Now you can write files using any CoCo Word Processor (Telewriter-64, VIP Writer, etc.) and convert 
them to special Highly Detai led character sets ! Some of the character sets supported are Italics , 
Old English , Futuristic and Block . A character set editor is included to create custom sets or 
modify existing ones! Supports most dot-matrix printers! DISK $29.95 (see Dec '85 Rainbow Review) 



SPECTRUM DOS 



Add 24 NEW Disk commands with 2 Hi -Res screens! Supports 40 track & Double -Sided drives, 6 ms 
stepping, auto disk search, error trapping & "EPROMABLE". 64K DISK ^$A9&SL New LOW price!! $24.95 



SCHEMATIC DRAFTING 




CESS 




THE MEMORY MANAGER 



Save time and design pro looking diagrams using a 480X540 pixel worksheet w/6 viewing windows . 
Over 30 electronic symbols w/10 definable symbols . (Even Logic gates & Multi pin chips!) Print hard 
copy and save to disk . 64K DISK ]$49adS: New LOW price!!! $29.95 (see Jan '84 Rainbow Review) 



Now you can use the SECOND 32K memory bank of your 64K CoCo as a SUPERFAST Ramdisk ! Also 
CHAIN a long Basic program from the first bank into the second or LOAD Basic programs into both 
32K banks and RUN from either bank! USER FRIENDLY & completely MENU DRIVEN. 64K DISK $29.95 



COCO CHECKBOOK 



Use your CoCo to keep track of your checking and savings accounts! Printout individual personal 
checks! 32K/64K TAPE $19.95 DISK $29.95 (see April f 85 pg. 210 & Oct'85 pg. 197 Rainbow Reviews) 



L i J 



Wizard's Castle 



THE ULTIMATE GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 



is a graphic adventure game with deadly creatures , magic spells and traps of all 
types which are RANDOMIZED at the beginning of each session so that no 2 adventures will be the 
same! REAL TIME ACTION keeps the game's characters interacting even though you may be waiting to 
make a move. Includes three skill levels, 60 Hi-Res screens & Game Save Feature. 64K DISK $24.95 




BUY ANY 5 PROGRAMS 
GET A DOUBLE SIDED 
DRIVE 0 FOR $199.95 
NO OTHER DISCOUNTS CAN BE APPLIED 




*NOW AVAILABLE BY EXPRESS ORDER AT 
YOUR LOCAL RADIO SHACK STOREI1! 

ASK TO SEE THE RADIO SHACK 
DEMO DISKS - FC*0249 & FC*0919H! 




-0-0-0- 




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COCO GRAPHIC DESIGNER 



Create custom greetings for any occasion: Birthdays, Anniversaries, Holidays, etc. Also BANNERS & 
SIGNS ! Includes " GRABBER " utility - capture Hi -Res CoCo screens for your GRAPHIC LIBRARY! Easy 
to use & comes with a set of pj^drawn graphics. Includes a screen & font editor. 32K DISK $29.95 



COCO VIDEO TITLE R 



Start your VCR tapes with dazzling title frames followed by professional countdown to black fade- 
outs! Use a title page editor with several sizes of text & background colors ! 32K DISK $24.95 



VIP WRITER ENHANCER 



Mafce all your programs that use ASCII files ( TW-64, Mikeyterm , etc.) compatible with VIP WRITER 
files! Automatically fixes TEXT CASE and CONTROL CHARACTER problems. DISK INTRO PRICE $19.95 



64K DISK UTILITY PACKAGE 



Take advantage of an expanded 64K machine. Make an additional 8K of RAM available by relocating 
the Ext Basic ROM from $8000 to $D800. Copy ROMPAKS to disk (even " protected " PAKS) and create 
a 32K SPOOL buffer for printing. DISK $24.95 (see July '83 Rainbow Review] 



TAPE/DISK UTILITY 



A powerful package that transfers tape to disk and disk to tape automatically. Does an automatic 
copy of an entire disk of programs to tape. Ideal for Rainbow On Tape to disk. Also copies tape to 
tape & prints tape & disk directories. TAPE/DISK $24.95 (see Sept '83 Rainbow Review) 



j j j 



SUPER OUPER UTILITIES 



TinaHy! At last! A "SUPER DUPER" utility software package all rolled up into ONE!!! Includes such 
great utilities as: CoCo Disk Zap, Disk Encryption, Disk Mailing List, EZ Disk Master, Graphics 
ZOOM, Banner Creator, Function KEYS, Super INPUT/LINEINPUT, Basic Program PACKER, Alpha 
Directory, Basic SEARCH and much, much more!!! 32K DISK $29.95 (see June '86 Rainbow Review) 



COCO CALENDAR 



Get organized for '86 TODAY with the CoCo Calendar! Designed for recording the entire year's 
occassions and daily appointments so you can plan ahead. You can store HUNDREDS of entries and 
our GRAPHIC Calendar will show all MEMOS! 32K DISK $19.95 (see Mar '86 Rainbow Review) 



THE 09-9 SOLUTION 



NOW, a program that creates a " USER FRIENDL Y" environment, within OS-9! The OS-9 SOLUTION 
replaces 19 of the old " USER HOSTILE " commands with single keystroke, menu driven commands. No 
more typing in complex long pathnames or remembering complicated syntaxes! Set all XMQDE 
parameters at the touch of keys !J339f85T New LOW price!!! $24.95 (see Sept ! 85 Rainbow Review) 



COCO-UTIL 



Now you can have the power to easily transfer Radio Shack Color Computer disk files to your MS- 
DOS machine - including the Tandy 1000 & IBM PC!!! You can also transfer MS-DOS files to your 
CoCo disk, even format CoCo disks! CoCo-Util will save you countless hours of retyping ! No need to 
move your computer or printer anymore! Requires 128K MS-DOS computer w/2 disk drives - $29-95 



SOFTWARE BONANZA PACKAGE 



Create an instant library of Spectrum Projects TOP Colorful Utility software. Select any of the 
following J_2 programs to customize your own SPECTACULAR SOFTWARE BONANZA ! CoCo Checker, 
Multi-Pak Crak, CoCo Screen Dump, Disk Utility 2.1, Spectrum Font Generator, Tape/Disk Utility, 
Fast Dupe II, 64K Disk Utility, Spectrum DOS, CoCo Calendar, Schematic Drafting Processor, OS-9 
Solution, Basic Pius, EZ Base or Blackjack Royale (a $300 plus value) for only $99.95!!! 



MIKE Y- DIAL 



Wfien used with any Hayes compatible modem & Deluxe Program Pak, adds to Mikeyterm 4.0 the 
ability to Autodial 22 numbers from a menu & load a set of 3 MACROS for each directory choice. 
Also EASY redial & changing of MODEM settings by command menu. DISK $19.95 (See Dec'86 Review) 




I IMC 



All orders plus $3 S/H (Foreign $5) 
COD add $2 extra 
NYS Residents add Sales Tax 
COD ORDER LINE 718-835-1344 HOWARD BEACH NY 11414 




Listing 1: XMASFIRE 





, . ,131 


48 .. 


... ,112 


72 .. 


.,..248 


END 


.....101 


i ,. - 



1 CLS (4) : PRINT@98 , "THIS IS THE F 
IRST PART OF THIS PROGRAM. IT I 
S CREATING THE 



GRAPHICS FOR 
YOU GET THE < 
CLOAD THE SEC 
THIS ONE. "J 



PART TWO. WHEN 
OK> PROMPT, JUST 
OND PROGRAM OVER 

2 PM0DE1,1:PCLS:G0T098 

3 LINE (48, 180) -(208,80) , PSET , B 

4 LINE (60, 180) -(196,88) ,PSET,B 

5 LINE (84, 184) -(172, 172) ,PSET,BF 

6 LINE (86, 172) -(174,160) ,PSET,BF 

7 LINE(84, 162) -(172,152) ,PSET,BF 

8 LINE ( 8 2 , 17 4 ) - ( 8 6 , 1 6 2 ) , PSET , BF 

9 LINE (66,66)- (190 ,10) , PSET , B 

10 LINE(68,64)-(188,12) ,PSET,B 

11 DRAW"BM84,56;L8U8R8" 

12 DRAW"BM88 , 56 ;U8D4R8D4U8 " 

13 DRAWBM100 , 56 ;U8R8G4L4R4F4" 

14 DRAW"BM124,28;U8R8G4L4R4F4" 

15 DRAW"BM136 , 28 ;U8R8G4L4R4F4" 

16 DRAW"BM114,56,-R4L2U8L2R4" 

17 DRAW"BM124 , 56 ;R8U4L8U4R8" 

18 DRAW"BM172 , 56 ;R8U4L8U4R8 " 

19 DRAW"BM140,56;U8L4R8" 

20 DRAW"BM148,56;U8F4E4D8" 

21 DRAWBM160 , 56 ;U8R8D4L8R8D4 " 

22 DRAW"BM100,28;U8F4E4D8" 

23 DRAW"BM120,28;L8U4R4L4U4R8" 

24 DRAWBM148 ,20; F4D4U4E4 11 

25 LINE (256, 15) -(2 32, 48) , PSET 

26 LINE- (240, 52) , PSET 

27 LINE- (22 6, 80 ), PSET 

28 LINE-(236,80) ,PSET 

29 LINE- (220, 80) , PSET 

30 LINE- (2 34 , 10 6 ) , PSET 

31 LINE- (2 16, 13 6), PSET 

32 LINE- (252 , 136) , PSET 

33 LINE- (252,196) , PSET 

34 REM PRESENTS 

35 LINE (252, 144) -(248,168) ,PSET, 

B ■*P*t.\-.st^ 

3 6 LINE ( 2 5 2 , 1 6 8 ) - ( 2 4 6 , 176) , PSET , 

BWs y • ;t s «.«! * 

37 LINE (240 ,176) -(232, 164 ) , PSET , 

B . ^W^ 4 ^ 

38 LINE (2 52, 180) -(232,176) , PSET, 
BF 

39 LINE(232, 184) -(216> 164) , PSET, 

■a 

,.<■' •••..<•:■• <■ ■?. 

? it. ■ . .V. , s . ■ * ■ ... 

40 LINE(228, 164) -(220,148) ,PSET, 

41 CIRCLE (240, 148) ,6 



) , PSET 
) ,PSET 
1 , . 4, . 9 
.5, .9 
,PSET 
/ .2, .4 
6) , PSET 
,^8|<8 , . 2 5 



8" 
6" 

CIRCLE (235 
) ,3,5 

: CIRCLE (22 
120) ,3,5 



5..:. 



42 LINE (8,72 ) - ( 12 , 80 ) , PSET 

43 LINE- (3 2, 72), PSET 

44 LINE- (28, 64) ,PSET 

45 LINE- (8, 72) , PSET 

46 LINE (12, 80) -(22, 128 

47 LINE (32, 72) -(40, 128 

48 CIRCLE (14, 134) ,10, , 

49 CIRCLE (8, 132) ,5, ,1, 

50 LINE ( 2 , 13 6 ) - (6 , 142 ) 

51 CIRCLE (14, 138) ,8, ,1 

52 LINE ( 1 8 , 1 4 6 ) - ( 3 8 , 1 3 

53 CIRCLE (3 4, 13 2) ,6, ,1 

54 PAINT (12, 4) ,3,4 

55 PAINT (28, 108) ,4,4 

56 PAINT (2 50, 88) ,2,4 

57 PAINT (240, 14 8) ,4,4 

58 PAINT (228, 172 ),3,4 

59 PAINT (108, 104) ,2,4 

6 0 DRAW " BM8 2 , 17 2 ; C 3 ; R8 

61 DRAW"BM84,160;C3;R8 

62 CIRCLE (2 50, 15) ,3,5: 
, 46) ,3, 5 : CIRCLE (230, 75 

63 CIRCLE (225, 100) ,3,5 
0,133) ,3,5: CIRCLE (240, 

64 FORX=3T07STEP2 

65 Y=X+1 

66 PCOPY 1TO X : PCOPY 2 TO Y 

67 NEXTX 

68 PMODE1, 1 

69 FOR X=68T0188 STEP24 

70 CIRCLE (X, 4) ,2,4 

71 CIRCLE (X, 72) ,2,5 

72 NEXTX 

73 FORX=12T068STEP24 

74 CIRCLE ( 60, X) ,2,4 

75 CIRCLE ( 196, X) ,2,2 

76 NEXTX 

77 PM0DE1,3 

78 FORX«76T0188STEP24 

79 CIRCLE (X, 4) ,2,5 

80 CIRCLE (X, 72) ,2,4 

81 NEXTX 

82 FOR X=20TO68STEP24 

83 CIRCLE (60, X) ,2,2 

84 CIRCLE ( 196 ,X) ,2,4 

85 NEXTX 

86 PM0DE1,5 

87 FORX=84T0188STEP24 

88 CIRCLE (X, 4) ,2,2 

89 CIRCLE (X, 72) ,2,5 

90 NEXTX 

91 FORX= 28T068STEP24 

92 CIRCLE ( 60, X) ,2,2 

93 CIRCLE (19 6, X) ,2,1 

94 NEXTX 

95 PM0DE1,7 

96 PCOPY 3 TO 7: PCOPY 4 TO 8 

97 END 

98 PCLEAR8:GOT03 



112 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



28 

33 .241 
END . > i 19 



T 



Listing 2: XMRSDRVR 

1 CLS(8) :PRINT897,»NOW IMAGINE £ 
T'S CHRISTMAS EVE AND OUTSIDE T 
HE SNOW IS GENTLY FALLING . YOU' 
RE WARM AND COZY IN YOUR LIVIN 
G ROOM WAITING FOR SANTA TO 
BRING THAT NEW iffi DISC DRIVE AN 
D/|>R1NTER]> "; ; ?&' 

2 PRINT© 391, "MERRY CHRISTMAS " ; 

3 FOR M=lTO5j30j3:NEXTM 

4 PMODEI, 1: CLE 

5 DRAWBM88 , 150 ;C3 ;U42E8F4D40E8U 
12E8F8D8F4E4U16E8U8E4F4D4PF4R4E1 

6 PAINT (90,145) ,4, if, . . 

7 pmodei , 3 :mMm : i 

8 DRAWBM88 , 150 ;C3 ;E16U2 6E4U10E4 
D52R8U4E4U8E8F4D24E8F8 D4R8U16E4F 
4D16L8j3" 



*• ♦ :■ j &»■ >«& -r« ,f • 
& ?V-,fJ ; ; 'v'.}-^ 

•*•"..;>'.•• W-.-.:»'C<;.' 



SSL'"*'! 





■ : -1, 



9 PAINT (9 3, 1 48) ,4,3 ^^m-sf&P 

10 PAINT(163,148) ,4,3 

11 PMODEI, 5 

12 DRAWBM88 , 150 ;C3 ;H4E8U8F4D12R 
12U48E8F4D36G4D8F4R12E8U4E4U4F4D 
8F4U48F4D8F4D28E8D20L84" 

13 PAINT (90,148) ,4,3 

14 PMODEI, 7 ; , : 

15 DRAWBM88 , 150 ;C3 ;U24F4D12E8D1 
2R12U8E4U44F4D16F4D28F4R16U8E4U4 
j3F4D48R8E8F4D8L84" 

16 PAINT (90, 148) ,4,3 

17 DIMA$ (64) ,B$(11) 

18 FOR A=li061 ; ' v ,5 . 

19 READ A$(A) # ?> W y : - 

20 NEXTA >.'. u '"".' ' " ' ; •■ •• 

21 FOR"" iSSlTGli ?^ i-; ;i s " : ; • 1 v '■ v ""^ ■ ' ' • ' ' 

22 READ B$ (B) : : . " ' ' 

23 NEXTB 

24 Y=j3 : Z=0 : ZZ=j3 : QQ=0 : XX=0 



25 FOR X=1T08STEP2 

26 SCREEN 1 , 1 

27 PMODEI, X 

28 IF XX=11 THEN GOT035 

29 Y=Y+1 : Z=Z+1 ' 

30 IF Z>110 THEN GOTO 3 4 

31 PLAY"Llp;XA$(Y) 

32 IF Y=64 THEN Y^l 

33 GOTO 36 

34 XX=XX+1 : PLAY"L1J3;XB$(XX) ; " : GO 
T036 ^ : 5J:; ^!'^ 

35 FOR PP=1T03P:QQ=QQ+1:NEXTPP 

36 NEXTX 

37 m 0*2000 THEN GOT024 5 

3 8 GOT025 ' . : ; SMU0:^% >^ X: = ' , ^ 

39 DATA L6j3;04CEG05C,Plj3,04;L6p; 
CEG05C / P1^I,04 ;B,A,G,F,E,E,E,Plp, 
P10 , Plj3 , Plj3 , Pip , L40 ; CEG05C , P10 , 0 

4 ; L40 ; DFA, Pip , G , F , E , D , C , Pip , 05 ; A 
,Plp,G,Plp,E,Plp . 

4p DATA L6p ; 04 ; CEG05C , Pip , 04C , PI 
p , L6p ; DFA, Pip , C , D, L6p ;EGB , Pip , G, 
A , B , Pip , Pip , A , L6P ; CE-A- , Pip , A- , P 
lp,B-, A-,G, F , L6p ; CEG , Pip , L6p ; CEG 
, Pip , G, F,E,D . - 

41 DATA L6p;04;CEG05C,04A,G / Plp, 
L6p ; CEG05C, Pip , Pip, Pip , 04D, Pip , L 
4p ; 03 CEG04CEG05C MMSM-PMW^f 



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****** %t 

<V Software <t> 




I 

* 

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'KEEP-TRAK' General Ledger Reg. $69.95— ONLY $24.95 

"Double-Entry" General Ledger Accounting System for home or business: 16k, 
32k, 64k. User-friendly, menu-driven. Program features: balance sheet, income & 
expense statement (currents 'YTD'), journal, ledger, 899 accounts & 2350 entries 
on 32k & 64k (710 accounts & entries on 16k) {disk only). Version 1.2 has screen 
printouts. Rainbow Reviews 1.1 • 9/84 : 1.2-4/85 

"OMEGA FILE'' Reg. $69.95 — ONLY $19.95 

Filing data base. File any information with Omega File. Records can have up to 16 
fields with 255 characters per field (4080 characters/record). Sort, match & print 
any field. User friendly menu driven. Manual included (32k/64k disk only). 

Rainbow Review 3/85. Hot Co Co 10/85 

BOB S MAGIC GRAPHIC MACHINE 

Can generate BASIC code to use in your programs. Easy drawing and manip- 
ulation of circles, elipses, boxes, lines and ARCS. Single joystick operation with on 
line HELPS at ail times. Allows text on the graphics screen & movement of objects 
on the screen. Can be used as a stand-alone graphics editor. Instruction Manual. 
GRAPHICS ED I TOR. Reg. $39.95— ONLY $19.95 for disk or tape. 64k ECB. 
Rainbow Review 7/85, Hot CoCo 9/85 "The graphic* bargain of the year" 

'KEEP-TRAK' Accounts Receivable. (Avail. 10/01/85). 

Features: auto interest calculation, auto ageing of accounts, installment sales, 
total due sales, explanation space as long as you need, detailed statements, 'KEEP- 
TRAK' Qenerai Ledger tie in, account number checking, credit limit checking & 
more. User friendly/menu driven. Includes manual. $39.95 or $49.95 General 
Ledger & Accounts Receivables. (Disk Only). 

'COCO WINDOWS' Available 10/31/85 
With hi-res character display and window generator. Features an enhanced key 
board (klicks) and 10 programmable function keys. Allows the user to create 
multiple windows from basic. Includes menu driven printer setup and auto tine 
numbering. Four function calculator, with memory. The above options can be 
called anytime while running or writing in BASIC. APPLE PULL YOUR DRAPES, 
YOU DON'T WANT TO SEE THIS. $19.95 (disk or tape) includes manual. 

CALL TOLL FREE 



1-800-942-9402 




THE OTHER GUY'S SOFTware jAdd $Z50 for postage A handling) 

P.O. Box H, 55 N. Main C.O.D., Honey Order, Check in U.S. Funds 

Lninn. UT 84321 4£Qf) 753-7620 (Plaatft afttdfy If JAM controller] 



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I 

* 

I 

* 

I 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 113 







--si 



Strictly CoCo 

Edwin Hathaway 

Glendale Heights, IL 

Edwin takes top honors this month 
with his impression of what a country 
store filled with CoCo accessories 
could look like here in Prospect, Ken- 
tucky. It took approximately 15 hours 
to create this pictorial with CoCo Max, 
and Edwin feels this one is his best, so 
far. 



Cowboy 

Kevin S.Jessup 

Lawrence, IN 

Kevin has had his Color Computer 
since 1982, and uses it mainly for 
applications. He is the president of the 
Indy Color Computer Club, is married 
and has two children. Kevin used 
McPaint, along with Pixel-Paint and 
Graphicom Part II, to help create this 

western image. 






P 
R 
I 

Z 
E 



X-Mas 
George Alola 

Margate, FL 

"Ho, ho, ho, and a Merry Christmas" is 
the message from George. George is 
the president of Broward County Color 
Computer Club and created this holi- 
day scenery with CoCo Max, just in 
time for our December issue. 



114 



THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



Christmas Morning 

Ryan Devlin 

Louisville, KY 

This pictorial comes from right here in 
Kentucky, just a stone's throw away 
from rainbow headquarters. Ryan is 14 
years old and enjoys the theater and 
computers. Christmas Morning was 
created with basic and, as you can tell, 
Ryan is already thinking about the 

holiday season. 




lv E 
"? 

A i 




Football 

Steven E. Baker 

Hattlesburg, MS 

With the football season now upon us, 
Steven used basic to grace the gallery 
with these two football players in mo- 
tion. Steven is the president of a small 
vertical-market software development 
company and has had his CoCo for 

three years. 

SHOWCASE YOUR BEST! 

You are invited to nominate original work for inclusion in 
upcoming showings of "CoCo Gallery." Share your crea- 
tions with the CoCo Community! 

Be sure to send a cover letter with your name, address and 
phone number, detailing how you created your picture (what 
programs you used, etc.) and how to display it. Also, please 
include several facts about yourself, the more the better. 

Don't send us anything owned by someone else; this 
means no game screens, digitized images from TV programs 
or material that's already been submitted elsewhere. A 
digitized copy of a picture that appears in a book or 
magazine is not an original work. 

We will award a first prize of $25, a second prize of $15 
and a third prize of $10. Honorable mentions will also be 
given. 

Jody Doyle, Curator 





Waterfall 

Ken Miller 

Yardley, PA 

Reminding us (or some of us), about 
the wonderful vacation spent on a 
tropical island, is this beautiful water- 
fall which was created with CoCo Max. 
Ken is a Senior at Pennsbury High 
School and is planning to go to college 
to major in computer science. 




Send your entry on either tape or disk to: 

CoCo Gallery 
THE RAINBOW 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 
Attn: Jody Doyle 

December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 115 





16K 1 










ECU 1 


ffSK^ r i ■■ 







/I lovely tree to enjoy plus a quickie 
yuletide graphics tutorial 



O, Tannenbaum 



By Becky F. Matthews 



116 




last, a Christmas tree Si 
ulation! Your CoCo si 
>lies the f fe& and lots 
ornaments including balls, bells, stars, 
lights, icicles, candy canes and tinsel. 
The ornament icons i|f 'arranged on 
either side of the graphics screen. The 
Christmas tree is in the center of the 
screen. Use the right joystick to select 
and place ornaments on the tree using 
the point-and-click method. First, point 
the joystick so the cursor is positioned 
over the ornament icon wanted. Then 
ejipk the joystick button to select that 
ornament. Now point the joystick to 
position the cursor where you would 
like to have the ornament, and click the 
button to put it there. 

There are two special icons that do 
not represent ornaments, the Oops icon 
and the Musical Note icpn> Clicking on 
the Oops icon removes the last orna- 
ment placed. Clicking on the Musical 
Note icon plays a Christmas tune, To 
trim your tree, load TRIMTREE and run. 
To save your decorated tree to tape, 
press the S key. To load a previously 
saved tree, press the L key. 

There are several examples in this 
listing of using a FOR-NEXT loop to 
simplify graphics programming. Lines 
130 to 150 draw three small Christmas 

Reeky Matthews has a^ij^^-t^n^ic 
eduction from the University of Mis- 
sissippi She and her husband David 
have three C6C6 cats, 



THE RAINBOW December; gse 




trees on the title page. Originally, there 
was only one small tree drawn with fl 
equal to 175. With the addition of a FDR- 
NEXT loop, one tree was easily changed 
into three trees. The loop first sets A to 
165 where the first small tree is drawn. 
The next time the loop is executed, fl is 
175 and the second tree is drawn 10 
spaces (STEP 10) to the right of the first 
tree. The third and final time through 
the FOR-NEXT loop, fl is equal to 185, the 
position of the third small tree. The 
same method is utilized in lines 260 and 
270 where the three small trees are 
colored with random graphics charac- 
ters. 

The title page is drawn on the text 
screen. On this screen there are 32 
horizontal screen locations. Therefore, 
to draw a straight vertical line, a FDR- 
NEXT loop with STEP 32 is used. In lines 
290 and 300 this is done to make color- 
ful word borders. To see how much 
these two lines add to the attraction of 
the title page, press BREAK, type EDIT 
290, press ENTER, type I ' (apostrophe) 
and press ENTER (to end the editing). 
Edit Line 300 in the same way, then run 



the program and see the difference in 
the title page. To return these lines to 
their original state, press BREAK, type 
EDIT 290, press ENTER, then press the 
D key once (to delete one character, the 
apostrophe), then press ENTER. Edit 
Line 300 the same way. 

In programming graphics, look for a 
repetitive pattern as a possible place to 
use a FDR-NEXT loop. We have seen 
examples of this with the three small 
trees and the word borders. Another 
example is the outline of the large 
Christmas tree (Line 570). To draw the 
right side of the tree starting at the top, 
first a line is drawn toward the lower- 
right screen corner, then a line is drawn 
to the left. Looking at the large tree, you 
can see that this pattern is repeated six 
times. Instead of typing 12 different 
LINE statements, a FDR-NEXT loop is 
used. Each time through, X is incre- 
mented by 10 and Y is incremented by 
25. The left side of the tree is drawn the 
same way (lines 640 to 670), except X is 
decremented by 10 each time. 

Another example of a repetitive 
graphics pattern begins with Line 730. 



There are 16 green ornament boxes 
drawn in two vertical rows, one row on 
each side of the screen. Line 740 sets the 
horizontal position for the first row of 
boxes (X=8) and the second row 
(X=227). Line 750 increments the verti- 
cal position Y by 22 each time the loop 
is executed to position eight boxes in 
each row. To make a screen full of green 
boxes type EDIT 740, press ENTER, type 
X (to extend the line or to get to the end 
of it quickly), press the left arrow twice 
(to erase the 1 and the 9), type 4 and 
press ENTER. The end of Line 740 
should now read STEP 24. Now type 
RUN and after the title screen there will 
be 100 green boxes instead of 16! To 
change Line 740 back to normal, press 
BREAK, type EDIT 740, press ENTER, 
type X, press the left arrow once (to 
erase the 4), type 19 and press ENTER. 
The end of Line 740 should read STEP 
219. Try experimenting with FDR-NEXT 
loops next time you program graphics. 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to the author at P. O. Box 
339, Antioch, TN 37013-0339. Please 
enclose an SASE for a reply.) □ 



1 




200 . , .,,.23 1180 . ,...235 

370 , ...,,,97 1390 38 

570 91 1640 ,....,76 

770 .,,...121 END ......26 

980 * ..... . 53 



T 



The listing: TRIMTREE 



\Q • * * * *TRIMTREE * * * * 

20 »****BY BECKY MATTHEWS * * * * 

30 ' *TITLE AND INSTRUCTIONS 

40 DIMZ(lp) 

50 CLS4 

60 PRINTS 4 3 , "TRIM THE" / : PRINT@7 

5, "CHRISTMAS"; : PRINT@107 , » TREE 

I "; 

70 PRINT© 3 2 3, "POINT AND CLICK WI 
TH YOUR"; 

80 PRINT@3 55, "RIGHT JOYSTICK TO 
CHOOSE "; 

90 PRINT@387 , "AN ORNAMENT, THEN 
POINT " ; 

100 PRINTI419, "AND CLICK AGAIN T 
Q PLACE "; 

110 PRINT@451,"IT ON THE CHRIS TM 
AS TREE."; 

120 1 *DRAW LITTLE TREES 

130 FOR A = 165 TO 185 STEP 10 

140 PRINT© A," " ; : PRINT @A+ 31," 

« ; : PRINT@A+62 , " " ; : PRINTSA+9 

6, " »; 

150 NEXT A 




160 '*GOSUB PLAY TUNE 
170 GOSUB1640 

180 PRINT© 4 8 3, "PRESS ANY KEY WHE 

N READY."; 

190 '*WAIT LOOP 

200 »*JINGLE BELLS SOUND EFFECT 

210 SOUND 2 55,1: SOUND 254,1 

220 ' *LITTLE TREES 

230 Tl = RND(112)+143:T2=RND(112 

)+143;T3=RND(112)+143:T4=RND(112 

)+143 

240 T$=CHR$(T1)+CHR$(T2)+CHR$(T3 

)+CHR$(T4)+CHR$(Tl) 

250 • *COLOR LITTLE TREES 

2 60 FOR A = 165 TO 185 STEP 10 :P 

RINT@A,CHR$(T1) ;: PRINT ©A+31 , CHR$ 

(T2 ) +CHR$ (T3 ) +CHR$ (T4 ) ; : PRINT@A+ 

62, T$; :PRINT@A+96,CHR$(T2) ; 

270 NEXT A 

280 «*COLOR WORD BORDERS 
290 FOR Y = 42 TO 106 STEP 32: PR 
INT@Y,CHR$(T1) ;: PRINT© Y+10 , CHR$ ( 
Tl ) ; : NEXTY 

300'FOR Y = 322 TO 482 STEP 32:P 
RINT@Y,CHR$(T1) ; : PRINT@Y+26, CHR$ 
(Tl) ; : NEXTY 

310 A$=INKEY$:IF A$»««" THEN 200 
320 '*GOSUB DRAW TREE 
330 GOSUB570 

340 '*GOSUB DRAW ORNAMENTS 
350 GOSUB730 

360 X»18:Y«18:GOSUB79p:Y*'4^:GOSU 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 117 




Dreantnrougn 

New interactive CoCo software 
makes learning easy, fun. 
Kids love it! 



Available now - an 18 Volume Library with 
144 programs. Educational Software for 
kids from 6 to 18. 

Parents are depending more and more on 
supplemental education for their children. Edu- 
cators know that the most effective teaching is 
done one-to-one. Through individual attention 
and self-paced progress, students learn more 
and retain more. 

BETTER THAN A PRIVATE TUTOR 

The Compass Education Software LOOK/ 
LISTEN/LEARN approach is the next best 
thing to a private tutor. Unlike other educational 
software the Compass Library also talks to the 
student — not in synthesized speech, but in a 
real human voice. With on-screen textual infor- 
mation and attention-getting graphics, stu- 
dents of all ages actually enjoy learning! 

SELF-PACED FOR BETTER RETENTION 

The lessons advance only after the stu- 
dent has correctly answered the questions 
throughout the programs assuring that the 
material has been thoroughly absorbed. 

SIMPLE EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 

All you need is the TRS-80* Color Com- 
puter (any model), computer cassette recorder 
and TV set. Once the cassette is loaded you 
need only enter two simple commands . . . and 
then press any key to start the lesson. 

Of course you can stop the lesson at any 
point to study information on the screen. Just 
push the pause button on the cassette player. 
Push it again and lesson resumes. 

To answer questions throughout the les- 
son simply press the appropriate number on 
the computer keyboard, type in the correct 
answer, or follow other easy instructions. And 
go back and review, just rewind the cassette. 
It's that simple. 

CHOOSE FROM 18 Volumes 

There is not sufficient space in this adver- 
tisement to list all lesson titles, but here is a 
sample: 

MATHEMATICS 

In today's advanced, HiTech world, under- 
standing and working with numbers is essen- 
tial. Compass has developed three compre- 
hensive series of math programs. From basic 
numerals for the very young, to algebra and 
higher mathematics for the older child. In 
between, there are programs for everything 
from addition and subtraction to practical 
everyday percentage problems. 




Volume 

MF 1 — 
MF 2 — 
MF 3 — 
MF 4 — 
MF 5 — 
MF 6 — 
MF 7 — 
MF 8 — 



** • ** mm 

Z *** mm 

m mil 
nt »■■■■■ 



MATH/FRACTIONS 

Grades 4 to 8 

1 

Numerator, denominator, bar 
Multiplication of fractions 
Factors and prime numbers 
Reducing fractions, reciprocals 
Reducing fractions, lowest terms 
Proper fractions, mixed numbers 
Multiplication-division of fractions 
Addition-subtraction of fractions 



Volume 2 

Eight lessons: MF-9 to 16 

MATH/BASIC ALGEBRA 

For all grades 

Volume 1 

Eight lessons: MBA-1 to 8 
Volume 2 

Eight lessons: MBA-9 to 16 

MATH/NUMBERS 

Volume 1 

Eight lessons: MN-1 to 8 
Volume 2 

Eight lessons: MN-9 to 16 

SELF DEVELOPMENT 

Writing effectively means communica- 
tiong effectively. Through the writing series of 
lesson students of all ages will develop basic 
skills needed to turn thoughts and ideas into 
expressive words and phrases. 

RULES OF WRITING 

For all grades 

Volume 1 

Eight lessons: RW-1 to 8 
Volume 2 

Eight lessons: RW-9 to 16 

LANGUAGE ARTS 

A practical education begins with good 
reading skills and is continued with increased 
vocabulary comprehension and, of course, 
spelling. Your child will learn that reading is fun 
while they are also learning when to use "to," 
"too," and "two," and how to spell when build- 
ing a vocabulary. 



THE MAGIC OF SPELLING 

Grades 4 to 8 

Volume 1 

MS 1 — Plurals: branches, rodeos, valleys 
MS 2 — Plurals: houses, brushes, candies 
MS 3 — Plurals: babies, pianos, leaves 
MS 4 — Suffixes: boxed, referred, writing 
MS 5 — Suffixes: paid, quickly, extremely 
MS 6 — Suffixes: said, confusion, school's 
MS 7 — Homonyms: two, too, to; their, there 
MS 8 — Homonyms: our, are, hour; ate, eight 

Volume 2 

Eight lessons: MS-9 through 16 

VOCABULARY COMPREHENSION 

Grades 3 to 5 

Volume 1 

Eight lessons: VC-1 through 8 
Volume 2 

Eight lessons: VC-9 through 16 

DEVELOPING READING COMPREHENSION 

For all grades 

Volume 1 

Eight lessons: DRC-1 to 8 
Volume 2 

Eight lessons: DRC-9 to 16 

SCIENCE 
SCIENCE/PHYSICS 

Volume 1 

Eight lessons: SP-1 to 8 
Volume 2 

Eight lessons: SP-9 to 16 

HISTORY 
AMERICAN HISTORY 

Volume 1 

Eight lessons: AH-1 to 8 
Volume 2 

Eight lessons: AH-9 to 16 

So there it is . . . no-nonsense subject 
matter presented in a way that maximizes 
understanding and retention. 

SPECIAL PRICING 

York 10 has been able to obtain a supply of 
these programs for a one-time sale price of 
$49.95 per volume. The regular price is 
$79.95 per volume. Order now. If you're not 
completely satisfied, simply return the mate- 
rials to us in good condition within 30 days and 
we'll cheerfully refund the purchase price. 
Write or call for free information. 

To order, send your check or money order 
for $49.95 (CA residents add sales tax) for 
each volume you wish, plus $3.50 shipping and 
handling (any quantity). For immediate ship- 
ment, call the number below and charge your 
VISA or MASTERCARD. 




ii at it «b u 



9525 VASSAR AVENUE 
CHATSWORTH, CA 91311 

1- 818/700-0330 — 



*TRS-80 is a registered trademark of The Tandy Corporation. 



B8 20 : Y«6 2 : G0SUB8 50 1 Y=8 2 : G0SUB8 8 0 
:Y=104:GOSUB920 

370 Y»12 6 : G0SUB9 60 : Y=14 6 : GOSUB10 

00 : X=12 : Y=164 : GOSUB1030 

380 X=236:Y=18:GOSUB1060:Y=40:GO 

SUB1090 : Y=62 : GOSUB1120 

390 Y=84 :GOSUB1150 : Y=106:GOSUB11 

80 : Y=12 6 : G0SUB12 10 

400 Y=150:GOSUB1240:GOSUB 1270 

410 »*GOSUB JOYSTICK ROUTINE 

420 GOSUB 1760 

430 • *CLICK ROUTINE 

440 IF X < 8 OR X > 248 THEN 410 

450 IF Y < 10 OR Y > 182 THEN 41 

460 IF X >28 THEN 1300 

470 IF Y > 9 AND Y < 27 THEN D m 

1 

480 IF Y > 31 AND Y if 4 9 THEN D 
49/3 IF Y > 53 AND Y < 71 THEN D 

^ 

500 IF Y > 75 AND Y < 93 THEN D 

n 4 

510 IF Y > 97 AND Y < 115 THEN D 

520 IF Y > 119 AND Y < 137 THEN 
D 83 6 

530 IF Y > 141 AND Y < 159 THEN 
D = 7 

540 IF Y > 163 AND Y < 181 THEN 
1700 

550 SOUND 200,1 
560 GOTO 1400 

570 ' *TREE SUB ■ 
580 PMODE3,1:PCLS3:SCREEN1,0 
590 COLORl,4 

600 Y=15:FOR X » 128 TO 180 STEP 

610 LINE(X,Y)-(X+16,Y+25) , PSET : L 
INE-(X+10,Y+25) ,PSET 
620 Y=Y+25 
630 NEXT X 

640 Y=15:FOR X - 128 TO 72 STEP 
-10 

650 LINE(X / Y)-(X-16 / Y+25 ) , PSET : L 
INE-(X-10,Y+25) ,PSET 
660 Y-Y+25 
670 NEXT X 

680 LINE(68,165)-(190,165) , PSET 

690 PAINT (118 ,50) ,1,1 

700 LINE (12 4, 165) -(13 2, 18 5) ,PSET 

,BF 

710 LINE (100, 185) -(156, 191) ,PRES 
ET,BF 

720 RETURN 

730 1 *ORNAMENTS BOXES SUB 

740 COLOR l:FOR X = 8 TO 227 STE 



P219 

750 FOR Y = 9 TO 182 STEP 22 
760 LINE (X, Y) - (X+20> Y+18) , PSET, B 

F 

770 NEXT Y : NEXT X 

780 RETURN 

790 • *RED BALL SUB 

800 CIRCLE (X,Y) , 5, 4 : PAINT (X, Y) ,4 

,4 

810 RETURN 

820 1 *BLUE BALL SUB 

830 CIRCLE (X,Y) , 5,3 : PAINT (X,Y) ,3 

,3 

840 RETURN 

850 ' * YELLOW BALL SUB 

860 CIRCLE (X,Y) ,5,2: PAINT ( X , Y ) , 2 

,2 

870 RETURN 

880 ' *RED BELL SUB 

890 COLOR4 : CIRCLE (X,Y) ,5,4,1, .52 

, .99: LINE (X-2, Y)- (X-4, Y+6) ,PSET: 

LINE- (X+4 , Y+6) , PSET : LINE- (X+2 , Y) 

,PSET 

900 PAINT(X,Y) ,4,4SPSET(X,Y+8,4) 

910 RETURN 

920 ' *BLUE BELL SUB 

930 COLOR3 : CIRCLE ( X , Y ) ,5,3,1, .52 

, . 99 : LINE (X-2 , Y) - (X-4 , Y+6) , PSET: 
LINE- (X+4 , Y+6) , PSET : LINE- (X+2 , Y) 
, PSET 

940 PAINT (X, Y) , 3,3: PSET (X, Y+8 ,3) 
950 RETURN 

960 1 *YELLOW BELL SUB 

970 COLOR2: CIRCLE (X,Y) ,5,2,1, .52 

, . 99 : LINE (X-2 , Y) - (X-4 , Y+6) , PSET: 

LINE- (X+4 , Y+6) , PSET : LINE- (X+2 , Y) 

,PSET 

9 80 PAINT ( X , Y ) , 2 , 2 : PSET ( X , Y+ 8 , 2 ) 

990 RETURN 

1000 '*ICICLE SUB 

1010 COLOR2:LINE(X,Y-l)-(X,Y+9) , 

PSET 

1020 RETURN 
1030 «*OOPS SUB 

1040 N$="BM"+STR$ (X) +" , M +STR$ (Y) 
: DRAW" C 3 ;XN$ ;D6R4U6NL4BR4D6R4U6N 
L4 BD10 L4 D3 R4 D3 L4 BL8U6R4 D4 L4 " 
1050 RETURN 

1060 • *RED AND YELLOW STAR SUB 
1070 N$= ,, BM"+STR$ (X) +" , "+STR$ ( Y) 
: DRAW"C4 ;XN$ ; NU6ND6NL6NR6C2NE4NF 
4NG4NH4 " 
1080 RETURN 

1090 • * YELLOW STAR SUB 

1100 N$="BM"+STR$ (X) +" , »+STR$ ( Y) 

: DRAWC2 ;XN$ ; NU6ND6NL6NR6NE4NF4N 

G4NH4 » 

1110 RETURN 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 119 



1120 ' *RED LIGHT SUB 

1130 CIRCLE (X,Y) ,3,4:PSET(X,Y,2) 

1140 RETURN 

1150 • *BLUE LIGHT SUB 

1160 CIRCLE (X, Y) , 3,3:PSET(X,Y,2 ) 

1170 RETURN 

1180 •♦YELLOW LIGHT SUB 

1190 CIRCLE(X,Y) ,3,2:PSET(X,Y,4) 

1200 RETURN 

1210 ' * CANDY CANE SUB 

1220 COLOR4: CIRCLE (X,Y) ,5,4,1, .5 

2 , . 99 : LINE (X+2 , Y) - (X+2 , Y+7) , PSET 

1230 RETURN 

1240 « * YELLOW TINSEL SUB 

1250 FORT=0TO1: CIRCLE (X,Y-T) ,6,2 

, .5,0, . 5 : NEXTT 

1260 RETURN 

1270 •♦MUSIC NOTE SUB 

1280 DRAW"BM236,176C3L2U2R2D2U10 

F4" 

1290 RETURN 

1300 • *CLICK CHECK ;$f 

1310 IF; X W 226 THEN 1400 

1320 IF Y|l|9 AND Y < 27 THEN D 

= 9 

1330 IFiili 31 AND YS< 49 THEN D 

= 10 

1340 IF Y > 53 AND 71 THEN D 

1350 IF Y > 75 AND Y < 93 THEN D 

1360 IF Y > 97 AND Y < 115 THEN 
D = 13 

1370 IF Y > 119 AND Y < 137 THEN 
D = 14 

1380 IF Y > 141 AND Y < 159 THEN 

D «■ 15 . . ' 
1390 IF Y > 163 AND Y < 181 THEN 

GOSUB 1640 ELSE SOUND 200,1 
1400 ' * CLICK TO PLACE 
1410 ' *GOSUB JOYSTICK ROUTINE 
1420 GOSUB 1760 
1430 IF X < 48 THEN 430 
1440 IF Y < 10 OR Y > 182 THEN 4 

1450 IF X > 210 OR D = 0 THEN 41 

ft 

1460 SOUND 250,1 

1470 X2=X:Y2»Y:GET(X2-10,Y2-9)-( 
X2+10,Y2+9) ,Z,G 
1480 IF D - 1 THEN GOSUB 790 
1490 IF D m 2 THEN GOSUB 820 
1500 IF D = 3 THEN GOSUB 850 
1510 IF D = 4 THEN GOSUB 880 
1520 IF D « 5 THEN GOSUB 920 
1530 IF D ■ 6 THEN GOSUB 960 
1540 IF D w 7 THEN GOSUB 1000 
1550 IF D «* 8 THEN GOSUB 1030 



1560 IF D = 9 THEN GOSUB 1060 

1570 IF D - 10 THEN GOSUB 1090 

1580 IF D = 11 THEN GOSUB 1120 

1590 IF ft - 12 THEN GOSUB 1150 

1600 IF D m 13 THEN GOSUB 1180 

1610 IF D = 14 THEN GOSUB 1210 

1620 IF D = 15 THEN GOSUB 1240 

1630 GOTO410 

1640 ' *PLAY TUNE SUB 

1650 PLAY"V3 1L1T50O4CL8FP1FP1FP1 

L101FP1P1P1" 

1660 PLAY"L104GL8AP1AP1AP1L101AP 
IPIPI" 

1670 PLAY"04L1AL8GP1AP1B-P1L102C 
P1P1" 

1680 PLAY "04 T 2 5 L1EGL2 FP 10 IF » 
1690 RETURN 
1700 '*OOPS SUB 

1710 IF X2=0 AND Y2=0 THEN 410 
1720 PUT(X2-10,Y2-9)-(X2+10,Y2+9 
) i %"f PSET 

1730 PLAY"V30T155O2BAGFEDCO1BAGF 
EDC" 

1740 X2=0:Y2=0 
1750 GOTO410 

1760 ' * JOYSTICK CURSOR AND CLICK 
SUB 

1770 A=JOYSTK(0) :B=J0YSTK(1) 
1780 X=A*4:Y=B*3 :L=PPOINT(X,Y) :R 
=PP0INT(X+2,Y) 

1790 S=L+3:PSET(X,Y,S) :PSET(X+2, 
Y,S) :PSET(X,Y,L) : PSET (X+2 , Y,R) 
1800 B$=INKEY$:IF B$= M S" THEN 18 
40 

1810 IF B$="L" THEN 1910 

1820 P=PEEK(65280) : IFP<>254ANDP< 

>126THEN1770 

1830 RETURN 

1840 '*CSAVE SUB 

1850 CLS: PRINT "SAVE TREE": PRINT: 
PRINT 

1860 INPUT "ENTER NAME FOR TREE"; 

A$ : PRINT : PRINT "PRESS A KEY WHEN 
CASSETTE READY. " 

1870 B$=INKEY$:IF B$="» THEN 187 
? 

1880 CLS3: PRINT "SAVING "A$7 
1890 CSAVEM A$ , &H600 , &H1DFF,0 
1900 PMO DE 3 , 1 : S CREEN 1,0:GOTO410 
1910 ' *CLOAD SUB 

1920 CLS: PRINT" LOAD TREE": PRINT: 
PRINT 

1930 PRINT"PRESS A KEY WHEN CASS 
ETTE READY . " 

1940 B$=INKEY$:IF B$="" THEN 194 
0 

1950 PM0DE3 , 1 : SCREEN 1,0 : CLOADM : G 
OTO410 fib 



120 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



Mind-tingling action! 

THE SECOND RAINBOW BOOK OF 




Twenty-four of the most challenging Adventure games ever 
compiled await you in this latest offering from The Rainbow 
Bookshelf. Journey through time, fight World War III, win 
the heart of a beautiful and mysterious princess. Experience 
the titrations of the most rugged Adventurer without ever 
leaving your seat. 



'fop/cor 



i 



Order The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures and among the 24 program 
listings you'll receive are: 



Yellow Submarine — Meet the Beatles and attempt to 
outlast the Blue Meanies while enjoying some of the 
Fab Four's all-time musical hits. 
Ring Quest — Regain possession of a magical ring and 
save a kindom. 

Time Tripper — Lost in another dimension. 



Chief Inspector — Who killed B.L. Brown? 

Sir Randolf Returns — The sequel to a favorite from our 

first Adventure book. 

Silverton House — Where's the money been stashed? 
Ice Princess — Just one glance at this beauty will steal 
your heart. 



Experience other traditional and contemporary challenges from these winning authors: Mark Fetherston, Jeff Crow, Larry Lansberry, 
J.C. Jackson, Robert W. Mangum II, Robert Poppe, David Taylor, Gregory Clark, Steve Skrzyniarz, David L. Dawson, Curtis Boyle, 
Bruce K. Bell, Pat Pugliancx Pat and John Everest, Mike Fahy, Scott Settembre, Darin Anderson, Robert L. Thomas, Terrance Hale, Paul 
Hensel, Philip Courie, Michael Dennison and Robert Dickau. 

The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures sells for only $13.95! 

THREE BONUS PROGRAMS 

WHEN YOU BUY THE SECOND RAINBOW ADVENTURES TAPE! 

That's right. You'll receive a total of 27 fantastic Adventures when you get the Second Rainbow 
Adventures tape. The three bonus games are Castle Thuudo, by Carmen D. Michele; Halls of 
Dungeon Death, by Eric and Mark Riel; and Caves of Kalakh, by Jane Fisher — programs with 
listings too lengthy to include in the book. Save yourself hours of typing listings. Load these great 
Adventures into your computer and run them! 

The Second Rainbow Adventures Tape is only $13.95. 

The tape is an adjunct and complement to the book. Even if you buy the Second Rainbow 
Adventures Tape, you'll need the book for the introductory material and loading instructions. 

Keep your Rainbow Bookshelf up-to-date! 
See Page 179 for additional Rainbow Bookshelf offerings. 



□ Please send me 
The Second Rainbow 
Book Of Adventures 
for $13.95* 



□ Please send me 
The Second Rainbow 
Adventures Tape 
for $13.95 




The Rainbow Bookshelf 



TH 



Name 



Address 



City 



State 



ZIP 



□ My check in the amount of 



is enclosed.* 



Please charge to my: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 
Account Number Exp. Date . 



Signature 



Mail to: The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures, 
The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059 

To order by phone {credit card orders only) call 800-847-0309, 
8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. For other inquiries call 502-228-4492. 

*Add $1.50 shipping and handling per book. Outside the U.S., add $4. Allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. 
Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax for book and tape. In order to hold down costs, we do not bill. 
U.S. currency only, please. 



■ 



WE'RE BRINGING THE COCO 



RAINBOWS 
BROADENING ITS 
SPECTRUM 

the rainbow and the Delphi Infor- 
mation Utility have joined together 
to allow CoCo owners all over the 
world to connect with one another! 

Delphi is a full-service information 
utility. It offers everything from up- 
to-the-minute news stories from The 
Associated Press to electronic mail 
services. But, best of all, it now has 
a special forum for Color Computer 
owners, and it's operated by the 
people who bring you the rainbow 
each month. 

The CoCo Special Interest Group 
(SIG) features a variety of services, 
including an open forum where you 
can send and receive messages 
from Color Computer owners all 
over the world. It also has several 
databases to which you can upload 
your favorite programs and from 
which you can download programs 
written by other CoCo enthusiasts. 
Some of these databases are basic 
programming, OS-9 and home ap- 
plications. 

When setting up your account with 
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card or prefer not to use It, Delphi 
requires that you send $20 to give 
your account a positive balance. This 
will be refunded after your first free 
hour If you choose to no longer use 
the system or it will be applied to 
future connect charges. If you do not 
maintain a positive balance, you will 
be charged $3.50 each month for 
direct billing. 



PEEK INTO THE 
RAINBOW 

The CoCo SIG's conference feature 
allows you to meet electronically 
with other members of the CoCo 
Community. You can join conferen- 
ces with notables such as Dale 
Puckett, Cray Augsburg, Marty 
Goodman, Don Hutchison, Jim 
Reed, Lonnie Falk and others — 
on a regular basis. Conference 
schedules will appear in the rain- 
bow each month. Be sure to check 
online announcements for changes 
and additions. 



THE OTHER SIDE 
OF THE RAINBOW 

On Delphi, you also are able to buy 
rainbow on tape — order a whole 
set, or download an individual pro- 
gram immediately. You can also 
renew your rainbow subscription, 
make a fast and easy order for soft- 
ware or hardware from a multitude 
of vendors, or inquire about prod- 
ucts on the CoCo SIG. 

We also have a number of programs 
that you can download and use, just 
for the cost of the time you spend 
transferring them. There'll also be 
corrections for rainbow articles, 
helpful hints and many other useful 
features. 



FREE LIFETIME 
MEMBERSHIP 

the rainbow is offering subscribers 
a free lifetime subscription to Delphi 

— a $24.95 value — and a free hour 
of connect time — a $7.20 value at 
either 300, 1200 or 2400 Baud — so 
you can sample Delphi and the rain- 
bow CoCo SIG. That's right. Your 
subscription to the rainbow entitles 
you to this $32.15 value as a free 
bonus! 

If you're not a rainbow subscriber, 

just enter your order when you sign 
on with Delphi and you'll get the 
same great deal! For our $31 sub- 
scription fee, you'll get the finest 
Color Computer magazine ever, a 
free lifetime subscription to Delphi 
and a free hour of connect time. 

SAVE EVEN MORE 

Want to s^ve even more? While 
you're online you can order, for only 
$29.95, a deluxe package which in- 
cludes the Delphi membership, the 
Delphi Handbook and Command 
Card ($21 .95) and a total of three 
hours of connect time ($21 .60). 

Delphi provides us all with Imme- 
diate CoCo Community. Check it 
out today. After all, you can sample 
it for free! 



Problems? Call Delphi: 

(800) 544-4005 
(617) 491-3393 



DELPH I 



TYPE: 

GROUP COCO 




COMMUNITY TOGETHER 



How to reach RAINBOW'S Color Computer SIG . > . 



There are several ways to connect to Delphi and THE 
rainbow's CoCo SIG. In most cities you will not even have 
to pay long distance charges; you can use special data 
communications networks like Telenet, Tymnet and the 
Canadian Datapac network, 

First, set your terminal program to operate at either 300 
or 1200 Baud (depending on the modem you have), and 
also select either 1 bits with even parity or 8 bits with no 
parity, and one stop bit. (If one combination doesn't work, 
try another.) 

Decide which network you should use. There is no 
surcharge for Telenet or Tymnet. Canadian residents using 
Datapac will be charged an additional $12 (U.S.) per hour. 

On Telenet: The Uninet network has now merged with 
Telenet. To get the Telenet number for your area, call (800) 
336-0437. After you call your local access number and 
make connection, press the ENTER key twice. When the 
"TERMINAL^' prompt appears, press ENTER again. 
When the "@" prompt appears, type C DELPHI and press 
ENTER. 

On Tymnet: Call (800) 336-0149 to get the Tymnet 
number for your area. After you dial your designated 
number and connect, you will see either "garbage" or a 
message saying "please type your terminal identifier." At 
this point, even if the screen is garbled, simply press 'A'. 
When "please log in:" appears, type DELPHI and press 

ENTER. 

From Canada (on Datapac): Call Delphi Customer 
Service at (617) 49 J -3393 to get the Datapac number for 
your area. After you connect, press the period key (.) and 
enter (use two periods if you're using 1200 Baud). Type 
SET 2:1, 3:126 and press ENTER. Now type p 1 3106, 
DELPHI ; and press enter. Delphi's new rates indicate an 
additional $12 hourly surcharge for evening use of 
Datapac, which means a total of $18 (U.S.) for connect 
time. 

From other countries: Many countries have their own 
data networks that can connect to either Telenet or 
Tymnet. Check with the telephone authorities in your 
country for details on how to sign up for this service. When 
you have an account set up, you can reach Delphi with 
a "host code" of 312561703088 through Telenet, or 
3 10600601500 through Tymnet. (You'll have to pay the toll 
charges for this connection.) 

Type in Your Username 

If you're already a subscriber to THE rainbow, at the 
"USERNAME:" prompt, type RfilNBOWSUB and press 



enter. At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type your individ- 
ual subscription number from the mailing label of your 
latest issue of the rainbow. (If there are one or more zeros 
at the beginning of this number, include them.) 

If you don't already have a subscription, at the "USER- 
NAME:" prompt, type RRINBOWORDER and press ENTER. 
At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type SENDSUB and press 
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Express card ready, because youH be led through a series 
of questions that will enable us to put your rainbow and 
Delphi subscriptions into effect. In an effort (o hold down 
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If you make a typing error, just press ENTER and start 
over. Remember that at any point, when you're on Delphi, 
you can type HELP to get help on how to use the system. 
To get off the system just type BYE. 

If you find that you're unable to log on to Delphi and 
enter the CoCo SIG after following these instructionSj call 
us during afternoon business hours at (502) 228-4492. Well 
be glad to offer assistance. 

Come Visit Us! Type: GROUP COCO 

After you sign in, youH be prompted to set up your own, 
personal "user name" — Delphi is a friendly service, no 
numbers to remember and youll be asked a number 
of questions so Delphi can set up your account. Youll also 
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against your free hour of service while you answer these 
questions. 

Delphi will tell you that your account will be ready after 
6 p.m. the same day if you sign up before noon (Eastern 
time zone.) If not, your account will be ready at 6 p.m. 
the next day. Once an account is opened, each rainbow 
subscriber will be credited with an hour of free time! 



When you log back in, use your chosen username and 
your temporary password to access the system. At that 
point, you will meet Max, who will help you configure 
things and will change your temporary password into 
your own personal password. This is the password you 
will use for subsequent sessions — or until you change it. 



After Max bids you goodbye, youll wind up at the 
Delphi Main Menu; type in GROUP COCO and join us on 
the CoCo SIG! 



Santa needs your help to fly his 
magical nighttime rnission 



Up on the 







By J, D. German 




Kyou T re Looking for a Christ mas 
present that will get your 
youngsters interested in the 
computer, this program may be just 
what Santa ordered. Here Comes Santa 
is a Christmas graphics game wilh a 
builMn^ personalized gift tag. Actually, 
its not a game in the usual sense, since 
there is no scoring or clock to play 
against. But it is fun - - so much fun that 
you may have trouble getting the kids 
to give up the computer when it's your 
turn. 

Here Comes Santa is a MSEC graph- 
ics animation in which your child con- 
trols Santa and his reindeer as they fly 
Jh rough a star-filled sky and land in 
front of houses below, Santa's altitude 
is controlled either with a joystick or 
from the keyboard with the up- and 

: :• 

,LB. German works in Albuquerque* 
fi*M. f as an analyst for the Strategic 
Defense Initiative Star Wars'' pro- 
gram r He has written several articles for 
Coior Computer magazines and has 
authored educational programs for the 
CoCo. 

124 THE RAINBOW December 



down-arrow keys. Either way, the rein* 
deer and sleigh behave according to ihe 
laws of physics, having lo overcome 
momentum to change their flight path. 

The overall program structure ia 
designed to keep the graphics animation 
as fast as possible. The aniEnatipn 
routine is tocaled at the front end of the 
program and time-consuming state- 
ments within the animation loop (lines 
90 to 450) were kept to a minimum, hi 
spite of this, Santa flew a little slower 
than I would have liked, so 1 added the 
speed-up poke as Line 65, If your 
computer woni respond to the speed- 
up poke, you may warn to remove one 
or two of the animated background 
objects to buy some spaed. I'bese ob- 
JccLl (houses, trees, etc) arc put in place 
as arrays BJ through B4 in lines ?0* 100, 
230 add 240, You can skip the DRAW 
statements (lines 550 to 600) for any 
deleted objects to save some typing 
time. Another alternative is to give up 
the moving star background P5ET with 
lines 1 10 and 250. The lines that gener- 
ate the stars {lines 660 and 670) and the 
lines that move the stars (lines 400 
through 440) can also be eliminated. 

Lines l t 2 and 63990 are included to 
work around the infamous PCLEAR bug 



in the older versions of the Extended 
Hash: ROM, If your computer doesn't 
suffer from that abominable affliction „ 
you can leave out those three lines. 

Lines 10 through 60 display a Christ- 
mas greeting and play a few bars of 
appropriate music. Line 40 produces a 
red and green personalized gift card that 
remains on the screen while the pro- 
grain creates the animated objects. 
Change the names in that line to tnaieh 
your own children's names. To center 
«he new names on the screen change the 
value of the PRIWTi statement in this 
line. The new value can be calculated by 
counting the number of letters and 
spaces in the name, dividing by two, and 
adding the result to 32* 

After the high-speed poke in Line 65 ( 
the program skips to the drawing rou- 
tine beginning with Line 470. This is 
where all of the animated figures are 
initially drawn and painted. After each 
is completed,, a GET statement stores ths 

figure in memory as an array. I tried to 
minimis the amount of typing,, so I left 
out the optional semicolons between 
most of Lhe DRAW parameters. 1 also 
saved some typing by defining onti 
legless reindeer. RD5 in Line 4^0, then 
adding two different leg positions in 
Line 500 to provide the galloping ani- 
mation fqr the reindeer, T he remainder 
of the DRAW, statements product four 
figures: -a house, an apart rneut, a church 
with a pine tree beside it and a large, 
lighted Christmas tree. 
Once the figures have been drawn and 



stored, the initial positions of the figures 
and the stars are produced. To keep the 
program from getting boring, I added 
some randomizing functions to the 
position calculations. Lines 610 
through 650 randomly select the order 
of the four figures and add a random 
component to the spacing between 
them. Lines 660 and 670 place the stars 
at random locations in the sky, while 
Line 680 starts Santa's sleigh and rein- 
deer at a different altitude each time the 
program is run. 

Finally, Line 690 sets the PLRY pa- 
rameters for the hoofbeat clicks before 
Line 700 sends the program into the 
flying routine loop starting at Line 90. 

The animation is achieved by paging 
back and forth between two screens. 
While one screen is being displayed, the 
other is having the figures cleared and 
set to a new position. The two program 
blocks that perform this function, lines 
90 through 220 and lines 230 through 
450, are identical except for the loca- 
tions of the figures, so 111 just describe 
the first block. 

The scene construction begins with 
placement of the four ground-level 
background figures (stored in arrays Bl 
through B4) in lines 90 and 100. Line 
1 1 0 sets the stars in place, while lines 1 20 
and 130 put Santa's sleigh and reindeer 
in place. These figures are added last so 
they will overlay the other figures and 



appear to be in front of them. As a final 
touch to the animation, Line 140 adds 
the click of tiny hoofbeats whenever the 
reindeer are on the ground. 

Once the scene placement is com- 
plete, the positions of Santa and the 
background figures are updated for the 
following scene. Line 150 begins this 
process by making the next position of 
each reindeer equal to the last position 
of the reindeer in front of it. This gives 
the team of reindeer an undulating 
flight path that adds to the realism. The 
next two lines, 160 and 170, provide the 
new altitude position for the lead rein- 
deer (Rudolph, of course). Here you 
have a choice between joystick control 
or keyboard control. In this listing, Line 
160 is preceded by an apostrophe, so it 
is not seen by the program, and Line 
170, the keyboard control line, drives 
Rudolph up and down in response to 
the up- and down-arrow keys. If you 
would rather use the right joystick, 
delete the apostrophe in Line 160 and 
delete Line 170. You must also make the 
same changes in lines 300 and 310. 

The second half of lines 160 and 170 
contain the trick to making Santa and 
his reindeer obey the laws of physics. 
When the up arrow (or up joystick) is 
held, the reindeer acquire momentum, 
as variable DV, in the upward direction. 
To turn them around to the downward 
direction, you must hold the down- 



arrow key (or down joystick) long 
enough to overcome that momentum, 
since DV will only change by +/-2 with 
each position update. Line 190 limits DV 
to a maximum absolute value of 6, and 
Line 200 adds DV to Rudolph's present 
position while ensuring that he cannot 
fly off the screen. 

Finally, Line 210 stops the reindeer if 
they are all on the ground and the down 
arrow is pressed. To resume flight, just 
press the up arrow. After Line 220 
"turns the page," the entire cycle is 
repeated with the second set of reindeer 
hoof positions. 

Here Comes Santa began with a 
comment from my wife, Patty, about 
how much fun kids could have with a 
Christmas computer game. If you enjoy 
writing or tinkering with animated 
programs, Here Comes Santa is a good 
one to work with. You could make the 
house or apartment look like your own, 
add an airplane for Santa to dodge, or 
put a Christmas star in the sky. What- 
ever you do with it, I hope your family 
enjoys this program as much as mine 
has. As the jolly old elf himself once 
said, "A merry Christmas to all, and to 
all a good night!" 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to the author at P.O. Box 
652, Cedar Crest, NM 87008, 505-281- 
1719. Please enclose an SASE for a 
reply.) □ 



The listing: SfiNTR 



110 
210 .. 
340 
500 .» 
560 
610 . 
END 



♦ • « * 



...70 
..230 
..210 
,..70 
...40 
....0 
..157 



1 GOTO 6399J3 

2 GOTO 10 

3 CLEAR 5j3j3:PCLEAR 8: GOTO 2 

5 ****************************** 



* 

6 ' * 
* 

* 
* 
* 



HERE COMES SANTA CLAUS 

BY J. D. GERMAN 

CREATIVE 

TECHNICAL 

CONSULTANTS 

P.O. BOX 652 
CEDAR CREST, NM 87008 



* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 



************ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 



10 CLS 4: POKE 65494, j3 

20 PRINT@109 , "MERRY" } 

30 PRINT@171, "CHRISTMAS"; 

4j3 PRINT@23 3,"CHRIS & JAMIE"; 

5 0 PLAY "L2T803 ; CAL4GGL2 FCAL4 GGL2 

FCA#L4A#A#L2AL1A# " 

60 PRINT@483 , "I'M THINKING - PLE 

ASE WAIT"; 

65 POKE 65495 ,0i "HIGH SPEED POKE 
70 GOTO 470 

80 '** FLYING ROUTINE ** 

90 PUT(X1,168)-(X1+34,191) ,B1,PS 

ET:PUT (X2 , 168) - (X2+34, 191) ,B2 ,PS 

ET 

100 PUT(X3,168)-(X3+34,191) ,B3,P 
SET : PUT ( X4 , 16 8 ) - ( X4+3 4 , 19 1 ) , B4 , P 
SET 

11J3 PSET(I1,J1,2) :PSET(I2, J2,2) : 
PSET(I3, J3,2) :PSET(I4, J4,2) :PSET 
(I5,J5,2) 

120 F0RI=1T05:PUT(55+2J3*I,Y(I)-1 
1)- (73+20*1, Y(I) ) , RB , PSET : NEXT I 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 125 



:PSET(77,Y(l)-8,4) :PSET(77,Y(1) - 
7,4) :PSET(79,Y(l)-8,,4) :PSET(79,Y 
(l)-7,4) 

130 PUT(180,Y(6)-19)-(221,Y(6)+2 
) , SL, PSET : SCREEN1 , 0 
140 IF Y(l)=190 THEN PLAY "A" 
150 F0RI=1T05:Y(7-I) =Y( 6-1 ): NEXT 
160 "X^OYSTKOJ) :Y=JOYSTK(l) :DV= 
DV+INT( (Y-26)/13) : '»>JOYSTICK V 
ERSION ONLY<« 

170 IF PEEK (342) =247 THEN DV=DV+ 
2 ELSE IF PEEK(341)=247 THEN DV= 
DV-2 : • »>KEYBOARD VERSION ONLY« 
< 

180 POKE342,0:POKE341,0 

190 IF DV>6 THEN DV=6 ELSE IF DV 

<-6 THEN DV=-6 

200 Y(1)=Y(1)+DV:IF Y(l)<20 THEN 
Y(l)=20 ELSE IF Y(l)>190 THEN Y 
(1)=190:DV=0 

210 IF Y(l)=190 AND Y(6)=190 AND 

PEEK(342)=247 THEN 210 
220 PMODE 3, 5: PCLS 3 
230 PUT(X1+4,168)-(X1+38,191) ,B1 
, PSET : PUT (X2+4 , 168 ) - (X2+38 , 191) , 
B2,PSET 

240 PUT(X3+4,168)-(X3+38,191) ,B3 
,PSET:PUT(X4+4,168)-(X4+38,191) , 
B4 , PSET 

250 PSET ( 11+4, Jl, 2) :PSET(I2+4 / J2 
,2) :PSET(I3+4,J3,2) : PSET (14+4 ,J4 
,2) :PSET(I5+4 / J5 / 2) 
260 FORI=1TO5:PUT(55+20*I,Y(I)-1 
1) - (73+20*1 ,Y (I) ) ,RA, PSET: NEXT I 
:PSET(77,Y(l)-8,4) : PSET (77, Y(l) - 
7,4) :PSET(79,Y(l)-8,4) :PSET(79,Y 
(l)-7) 

270 PUT(180,Y(6)-19)-(221,Y(6)+2 

) , SL, PSET : SCREEN! , 0 

280 IF Y(l)=190 THEN PLAY"E" 



290 F0RI=1T05:Y(7-I)=Y(6-I) :NEXT 
300 «X=JOYSTK(0) :Y=JOYSTK(l) :DV« 
DV+INT( (Y-26)/13) : '»>JOYSTICK V 
ERSION ONLY<« 

310 IF PEEK (342) =247 THEN DV=DV+ 
2 ELSE IF PEEK (341) =247 THEN DV= 
DV-2 : • >»KEYBOARD VERSION ONLY« 
< 

320 POKE342,0:POKE341,0 

330 IF DV>6 THEN DV=6 ELSE IF DV 

<-6 THEN DV=-6 

340 Y(1)=Y(1)+DV:IF Y(l)<20 THEN 
Y(l)=20 ELSE IF Y(l)>190 THEN Y 
(1)=190:DV=0 

350 X1=X1+8:IF Xl>217 THEN X1=0 
360 X2=X2+8:IF X2>217 THEN X2=0 
370 X3=X3+8:IF X3>217 THEN X3-0 
380 X4=X4+8:IF X4>217 THEN X4=0 
390 X5=X5+12:Y5=Y5+4:IF X5>217 A 
ND RND(20)=1 THEN X5=0 : Y5=RND ( 14 

400 I1=I1+8:IF Il>255 THEN 11=0 
410 I2=I2+8:IF I2>255 THEN 12=0 
420 13=13+8: IF I3>255 THEN 13=0 
430 14=14+8: IF I4>255 THEN 14=0 
440 15=15+8: IF I5>255 THEN 15=0 
450 PMODE 3 , 1 : PCLS 3 : GOT09 0 
460 '** DRAW ROUTINE ** 
470 PCLEAR8: PMODE 3,1: PCLS 3 
480 DIM RA(5) ,RB(5) ,SL(23) ,XX(10 
5) ,XY(2) ,B1(150) ,B2(150) ,B3(150) 
,B4(150) ,AP(800) 

490 RD$="BM4,6;C2R2BD1R2BR4R2BU1 
R2BD2BL4L2D1L2R4D1L2D1R11L2D1L9D 
1R9D1L1D1R3BL12L1BR2BU1R1BU1BR4C 
4U2L1D2" 

500 DRAW RD$+»BM10,16C2R1BR11R1" 
:GET(4,6)-(22,17) ,RA, G: PCLS3 : DRA 
WRD$+»BM6,16C2R1D1L1BR9R2U1L1":G 
ET(4,6)-(22,17) ,RB,G:PCLS3 : 'REIN 
DEER 

510 DRAW"BM10,16;C1R4D1L1D2R1D1R 
10U4R21D3L2D2L2D2L31U2L2U2L2U1R2 
U1R2BD7BL3L3D2R1D1R1D1R39L4U1L1B 
L1BU1L1BU1L1BU1L2 BD1L1BD1L1BD1L1 
BD1L11U1L1BU1BL1L1BU1L1BU1L2BD1L 
1BD1L1BD1L1":PAINT(27,18) ,4,1 
520 DRAW"BM34,15;C2;R4U1L4U1R4U1 
L4BL5BD3C4R6U1L6U1R6U1L6U1R6BD4B 
R1C2R5U1L5U1R5BU1BL1C1L3U1R3U1L3 
U1R3 " 

530 DRAWBM23 , 20 ;C2L7U6D5R2C4R5U 
1L8BL2C2U1BR2C4R8U1L4C2U1R4U1L4C 
4U1C2R4U1L3C4U1R3U1L3R3U2C2U1" 
540 GET(4,7)-(45,28) ,SL,G:PCLS3: 
'SLEIGH 

550 DRAW"BM2 , 191 ; C2 ;U14L2U1R2U1R 
2U1R2U1R2U1R2U1R2U1R2U1R2U1R2D1R 
2D1R2 D1R2D1R2D1R2 D1R2 D1R2 D1R2D1L 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

This program creates a cash register, which is great 
for those fall garage sales. 

The listing: 

0 F0RX=1T099999 : CLS : PRINT @ 41, 11 CA 
SH REGISTER" : INPUT" PRICE : " ; P: INP 
UT"CASH TENDERED: " ; CT : PRINT : PRIN 
T"YOU GET:": PRINT" ";CT-P;"$ 
BACK IN CHANGE" : RT=P+RT : INPUTD : I 
FD< 1THENNEXT X:ELSE PRINT"YOU MO 
VED $";RT;" WORTH OF": PRINT"MERC 
HANDISE 1 ! " 

Russ Rosen 
Cardiff, CA 

(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



126 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



2D14L28 ;BM26, 172 ?C4 ;U4R2D4R2D2U6 
;BM8 , 184 ; C2 ;D4R2U4 ; BM22 , 184 ; D4R2 
U4 11 : PAINT ( 4 , 18 8) , 1,2: GET (0,168)- 
(34,191) ,B1,G:PCLS3: 'HOUSE 
560 DRAW»'BM2 , 191 ; C2 ;U13L2R32U1L3 
2U1R3 2L2D15L2 8 ; BM8 , 17 5 ; C4 ; U3R2 D3 
R2U3 ; BM2 4 , 187 ; C2 ;U4R2D4 " : PAINT ( 8 
.... 188) , 4 , 2 J DRAW " BM6 ,187 ; C3 ; U4R2 D4 
7 BM16 ; 187 ;U4R2D4 " : GET (0 , 168 ) - ( 3 4 
,191) ,B2,G:PCLS3: 'APARTMENT 
570 DRAWBM2 , 191 ;C2 ;U8L2U2R2U2R2 
U2R2U4R2U4L2R2U2R1D2R2L2D4R2D4R2 
D2R2D2R2D2L2D8L13" : PAINT (8 , 188) , 
2,2: DRAWBM6 , 186 ; C3 ; D4R2U4R2D4 ; B 
M26 , 191 ; CI ;U1L6R13L2U1L8R1U1R5U1 
R2L8R2U1R4L2U1U1R2L5R2U1U1" : PAIN 
T(26,190) ,1,1 

580 GET(0,168)-(34,191) ,B3,G:PCL 
S3: 'CHURCH 

590 DRAWBM14 , 191 ; CI ;U2L12U1L2R2 
U1R2U2L2R2U1R2U2L2R2U1R2U2L2R2U1 
R2U2L2R2U1R2U2L2R2U1R2U2L2R2U2R2 
D2R2L2D2R2D1R2L2D2R2D1R2L2D2R2D1 
R2 L2 D2R2 D1R2 L2D2R2D 1R2 L2 D2 R2 D1R2 
L2D1L24":PAINT(8,188) ,1,1: 'TREE 
600 PSET(14,168,2) : PSET ( 16 , 173 , 3 
) :PSET(12, 176,4) : PSET (14, 178, 2) : 
PSET (18, 181, 4) : PSET (8, 180, 3) :PSE 



T(10,183,3) : PSET (16, 182, 2) :PSET( 
22,185,3) : PSET (6, 186,4) : PSET (4,1 
88,2) : PSET (12, 187, 3) :PSET(24,188 
, 4) : GET (0 , 168 ) - ( 34, 191 ) , B4 , G : PCL 
S3; 'TREE LIGHTS 

610 R=RND ( 4 ) : ON R GOTO 620,630,6 
40,650 

620 X1=RND(20) :X2=Xl+38+RND(20) : 
X3=X2+38+RND(20) : X4=X3+38+RND (20 
) :GOTO 660 

630 X2=RND(20) :Xl=X2+38+RND(20) : 
X3=Xl+3 8+RND ( 2 0 ) : X4=X3+3 8+RND (20 
) :GOTO 660 

640 X4=RND(20) :X3=X4+3 8+RND (20) : 
X2=X3+3 8+RND (20) : Xl=X2+3 8+RND (20 
) :GOTO 660 

650 X4=RND(20) :X2=X4+38+RND (20) : 
X3=X2+3 8+RND (20) : Xl=X3+3 8+RND (20 

660 I1=RND(255) :I2=RND(255) :I3=R 
ND(255) :I4=RND(255) :I5=RND(255) 
670 J1=RND(170) : J2=RND(170) :J3=R 
ND(170) : J4=RND(170) : J5=RND(170) 
680 Z=RND(100)+50:FOR 1=1 TO 6:Y 
(I)=Z:NEXT 

690 PLAY"T255L255O1V30" 
700 GOTO 90 

63990 PMODE0 , 1 : PC LEAR 1 : GOTO 3 ^ 



THE BEST SELLING COCO DIGITIZER 
t££a»$£ JUST GOT BETTER . . . $125.00 









"I 



GRAPHICOM/ klJDEQ DJGJTJZEH 

Input directly into Graphicom fof easy enhancements, manipulation, stamping, 
and storage. Accepts composite video signal in (l.Ov p-p) from video camera, 
VCR, video disc player, another computer, or other compatible video sources. 
View "off air" or "VCR" digitized video at close to real-time (a full 13 frames a 
second!!). "Snapshot" video frames to the digitizer's internal memory. 
Use with your multi-pak, "Y" box, or a" 4 Y" cable ("Y" Box Cat. No. 162CH 
available at $29.95 / "Y" cable Cat No. 137CH available at $19.95) 
Video is input via a RCA phono connector. External controls for HORIZON- 
TAL POSITION, VERTICAL POSITION, HORIZONTAL WIDTH, 
BRIGHTNESS, and CONTRAST (FUZZ) settings. 

Don't be fooled by imitations ... this is the GRAPHICOM VIDEO 
DIGITIZER 

REQUIRES 64K COCO, 1 DISK DRIVE, AND 2 ANALOG JOYSTICKS. A 
FREE GRAPHICOM PROGRAM, AND PICTURE DISK ARE SUPPLIED 
WITH PURCHASE OF VIDEO DIGITIZER (A $50 VALUE) . . . NEW LOW 
PRICE! $125.00 









ft 



ADD $5.00 FOR HANDLING • SHIPPED FREE, FEDERAL EXPRESS 



Check or M.O. 




INC. 



(215)946-7260 P.O. BOX 207 • LANGHORNE, PA 19047 



PA residents 
add 6 % 
sales tax 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 127 




STAR NX-10 COMPLETE SYSTEM 



Easy-to-use and ready for the heavy workloads 
from your TRS-80 Color Computer 1, 2, 3 or PC 
compatible. Control pitch, margins, NLQ, Italics 
and more from the Front Control Panel. Stuff the 
5K data buffer with your own unique character set 
or use one of the 11 built in character sets. 1 
Year limited warranty serviceable nationwide. 
Deluxe Users manual. System includes the NX-10 
Dot Matrix printer with BLUE STREAK II serial- 
to-parallel interface and our Software Trio (see 
below). 



SPECS: 120cps Draft, 30c ps NLQ, Italics Sub & Superscripts, 
Emphasized, Doublestiike, Proportional, International, Down Loadable 
Char., Left, Right, or Center Justification, Underline, Vertically Enlarged 
2X/4X, 5. 6, 8.5, 10, 12, & 17 CPI, Graphics 460-1920 dots/line. Horz. & 
Vert. Tabs, Forward or Reverse n/216" Line Feeds, Hex Dump, Friction 
& Push Tractor. 5K Data Buffer. 



$29995 



+S10 Shipping 
and Insurance 



COMPLETE 



SEIKOSHA SP-1000AS COMPLETE SYSTE 



Triple Mode Dot Matrix printer with serial 
interface, cable and our Software Trio (see 
below). Ready to run single sheet or 4" to 10" 
tractor paper from your TRS-80 Color Computer 
1, 2, or 3. Compatible with your programs that 
let you control your baud rate, like CoCoMax, 
VIP, Basic and OS-9 etc. 24 month limited 
warranty. 76 page users manual. 



SPECS: lOOcps Draft, 20 cps NLQ, Italics. Sub & Superscripts, Bold, 
Doublestriko. Proportional, International, Underline, 5, 6, 6.5, 10, 12, & 
17 CPI, Graphics 480-1020 dots/line, Horizontal and Vertical Tabs, 
n/218" Line Feeds, Hex Dump, Friction and Tractor Paper Feed. 



$21995 



+$10 Shipping 
and Insurance 



COMPLETE 





CITIZEN 120D COMPLETE SYSTEM 



Triple Mode, High performance Dot Matrix 
printer with serial interface, cable, and our 
Software Trio (see below). Ready to run with 
your TRS-80 Color Computer 1, 2, or 3. Load 
single sheets with one button ease or use the 
adjustable tractor with rear or bottom feed. Fill 
the 4K buffer with text and graphics from your 
favorite programs such as CoCoMax, VIP and 
Basic at rates up to 9600 baud, 12 month limited 
warranty. Deluxe users manual. 



SPECS: 120 cps Draft, 25 cps NLQ. Italics, Sub & Superscripts. 
Emphasized. Doubles Irike, Proportional, International, User Defined 
Characters. Lett, Right, Center or Full Justification, Undrline, Overscore. 
Reverse Print, Vertically Enlarged 2X. 5, 6. 6.5. 10. 12. 17. & 20 CPI, 
Graphics 480-1920 dots/line, Horz. and Vert. Relative & Absolute Tabs, 
n/216" Line Feeds, Hex Dump. Friction and Tractor, 4K Buffer. 



$229 95 



+$10 Shipping 
and Insurance 



COMPLETE 



BLUE STREAK II &2i!!i , * r,lw 



Transfer your data from CoCo 1, 2, 3 to your 
parallel printer with a fury. The Blue Streak can 
increase your data transmission 4 fold over 
conventional-compatible interfacing and increase 
printer throughput. An additional serial I/O port 
permits port snaring with another serial device 
without recabling. 



SPECS: 300. 600. 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 Swithable Baud Rates, 
Power Supply 276-1 431 A UL Listed, 1 Year Warranty. Input 4 Pin Serial, 
Output 36 Pin Parallel and 4 Pin Serial. Total Cable Length 54 Inches, 
Box 4"x2 H xr. 



$49^ without power 'SSSSS 
$5495 with power 



+$2 Shipping 
and Insurance 



SOFTWARE TRIO 




ton'6 

WORD PROCESSOR 2.2 

TAPE OR DISK VERSION 

A feature packed program that turns your CoCo 
into an office machine. Create and save letters 




A FULL 8 H Xir SCREEN DUMP PROGRAM 

A well-written and documented program written 
in machine language position independent code. 



TYPE SELECTION 
TUTORIAL PROGRAM 

Menu driven program for the CoCo. Teaches 
and shows the new user the numerous features of 
their printer. (Specify printer when ordering) 



and documents with the Word processor tailored Features include user definable color shading and 
for your printer. printing in all 5 Pmodes. Tape transferable to 

disk. Requires 16K extended color basic. 



ALL THREE 
PROGRAMS 



$1995 



DAYTON ASSOCIATES'^, INC. 

DUN & BRADSTREET LISTED 

720! CLA1RCREST BLDG. C 
DAYTON. OHIO 45424 
OHIO RESIDENTS ADD 6 % SALES TAX • C.O.D. ADD $2.00 

TKS 80 Color CoiupulcrW Tandy Corp., CoCoMax® Colorwarc Inc.. VIE 1 * Si4lkjwt E 'nrj». Alt data subject lo change without notice. 



ofW.R. 
HALL 



RAINBOW REVIEWS 



+ 1 + 1 I I + ■ ■ 



* 4. • + 



P + + i * ir •# • • ■ Y«; 



* ■ P 1 



+ H ■ + ...» 



t p -p » ■ 4 + * ■ * 4 



Avatex 1200 Baud Modem 

Gets You Online With Delphi/Specfrum Projects, Inc. . . , 

Assembly Language for the TRS-80 Color Computer 

Informative Book for Beginners and Advanced Programmers/Tepco . . .-142 
Battle Hymn 

Historic Simulation of the Battle of Gettysburg/Ar/f Royal Games . \ ... . .136 
CC3 Draw 

Paint Pretty Pictures on the CoCo 3/Spectrum Projects, inc. 
COMM-4 

Gives CoCo Four RS-232 Ports/GoCo Devices , 

DMS-3B Digital Memory Scope 

A Hardware Hacker's Delight/ D& A Research + , . 

Dragon's Temple 

Challenging and Entertaining Simulation/ Jade « * , 

Inside Information 

Survey of Information I ndustry/A/e w American Library . 

Little Letters 

Helps Children Master Lowercase/Bod's Software , 
LYRA 

CoCo Comes to Life With the Sound of Music/Speecft Systems . . + .133 

MikeyDial 

Makes Mikeyterm Even Better/Specfrum Projects, Inc. 

Packer 

Pack BASIC Programs for More Memory/Bob van der Poel Software 

TX Word Processor 

Lots of Word Processor for the Price/Ko/esar ♦ , > . *>^> . . 

White Fire of Eternity 

Animated Graphics Adventu re/Saguaro Software 1 35 



* . 1 44 



p w 




The magazine for Tandy portable and MS-DOS users 

Not only does Tandy produce our favorite CoCo, we think they produce the best and best-priced lap- 
top portable and MS-DOS computers as well. We've found that when satisfied Color Computer users 
decide to add portability or move to MS-DOS, many stick with Tandy. For these people we publish PCM, 
The Personal Computer Magazine for Tandy Computer Users. 

Each month in PCM, you'll find information and programs for the Tandy 100, 102, 200 and 600 portable 
computers. And you'll find even more coverage for their MS-DOS machines, the 1000, 1200, 2000 and 
3000, along with the great new 1000 EX, 1000 SX and 3000 HL. 



FREE PROGRAMS! 

We learned from the rainbow that readers want programs to type in, so each month we bring you an 
assortment of them: games, utilities, graphics, and home and business applications. 

BAR CODE LISTINGS AND PROGRAM DISKS! 

For portable users, PCM is the only home computer publication in the world that brings you programs 
in bar code, ready to scan into memory like magic with the sweep of a wand! For those who don't have 
time to type in listings, we offer a companion disk service with all the programs from the magazine. 



TUTORIALS AND PRODUCT REVIEWS! 

As if all this weren't enough, we offer regular tutorials on telecommunications and hardware; assembly 
language, basic and pascal programming tips; and in-depth reviews of the new software, peripherals 
and services as they are released. Add it all up and we think you'll find PCM to be the most informative 
and fun magazine for this market today! 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call 800-847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. For other inquiries 
call 502-228-4492. 

J □ YES! Please send me a one year (12 issues) 
I subscription to PCM for only $28/ A savings of 22% 
I off the newsstand price. 

I Name 

I Address 

I City State ZIP 

I In order to hold down costs, we do not bill. 

I ED My check in the amount of is enclosed. 

I Charge to my: DviSA ^MasterCard CD American Express 

I Acct. # Expiration Date 

I Signature 

-I* Canadian subscribers U.S. $35. Surface rate elsewhere $64, airmail $85. Allow 6 to 8 weeks for first copy. Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax. 
■U.S. currency only, please. 

Mail to: PCM, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059 




■ 



RECEIVED 

AND CERTIFIED 



The following products have recently been received by THE RAINBOW, 
examined by our magazine staff and approved for the Rainbow Seal of 
Certification, your assurance that we have seen the product and have 
ascertained that it is what it purports to be. 

This month the Seal of Certification has been issued to: 



3-D Graphics, a 64K program that 
allows simultaneous rotation, move- 
ment, zoom and animation of 3-D 
graphics images. An editor is also 
included that allows the user to create 
and edit three-dimensional data. Logic- 
ware, 730 W. McDowell Road, 
Phoenix, AZ 85007; (602) 821-2465, 
$32.95 plus $3 SI H. 

Avatex 1200 Baud Modem, is Hayes 
compatible and has auto-dial/ answer. 
Requires modem cable. Spectrum Pro- 
jects, Inc., P.O. Box 264, Howard 
Beach, NY 11414; (718) 835-1344, 
$129.95; cable $19.95 plus $3 S/H. 

Banner — Roman Type, a 16K program 
that makes banners for parties, clubs, 
schools, etc. Seven-inch characters are 
printed horizontally on the printer so 
you can make them any length you 
want. B. Erickson Software, P.O. Box 
1109, Chicago, IL 60611; (312) 276- 
9712, $25. 

Basic Spanish, an introductory course 
for the CoCo. This series of 16 full- 
length programs covers much of the 
first semester study of the Spanish 
language. Both interactive data and 
audio are on the cassettes, completely 
synchronized. The 16 lessons, each with 
an hour of study, are recorded on eight 
cassettes supplied in a leatherlike 
album. Dorsett Educational Systems, 
Inc., Box 1226, Norman, OK 73070; 
(800) 654-3871, $99. 

Bowling League Secretary Version 1.1, 

a 64K program to aid in bowling team 
stats. This new version allows mainte- 
nance of separate statistics for men and 
women in a mixed league. Tomela*Co, 
P.O. Box 2162, Doylestown, PA 18901; 
(215) 968-4271, $49.95. 



Chess-007, a 32K ECB game requiring 
two joysticks. High technology comes 
to the aid of chess players. This game 
allows you to record any game with 
multiple variations and lets you review 
your favorite openings or grandmaster 
games prior to competition. ChessTech, 
Ltd., 3080 Trenwest Drive #2, Winston- 
Salem, NC 27103; (919) 768-2370, disk 
$69.95; tape, $59.95. 

CoCo Jokester, a disk full of endless 
jokes. Radio Shack Sound/Speech 
Cartridge required. Thinking Software, 
46-16 65th Place, Woodside, NY 11377; 
(718) 779-6860, $24.95. 

Full Screen Editor & Varisave, a 64K 
screen editor for the Color Computer. 
This program is written in a form that 
conserves the CoCo's memory — no 
memory is taken away from what is 
used to store BASIC programs. Warren 
& Associates, P. O. Box 5120, Virginia 
Beach, VA 23455; (804) 475-2557, $25 
plus $1.50 S/H. 

Gantelet, a 64K game that two or three 
people can play at the same time. Travel 
through many levels in search of an exit 
to the next level. Avoid the ghosts and 
other creatures that are out to stop you 
in your quest. Diecom Products, 6715 
Fifth Line, Minton, Ontario, Canada 
L9T 2X8; (416) 878-8358, $28.95; 
$38.95 Cnd. 

Mikeydial, adds to Mikeyterm the 
ability to auto-dial 22 numbers from a 
menu, automatically set the baud rate, 
and load a different set of three macros 
for each directory choice. Spectrum 
Projects, Inc., P.O. Box 264, Howard 
Beach, NY 11414; (718) 835-1344, 
$19.95 plus $3 S/H. 



Presidential Decisions of George 
Washington, a 32K disk ECB political 
Simulation. You are presented with ten 
issues that President Washington had to 
face, and the object is to make the same 
decisions. This program is an excercise 
in critical thinking, packed with inter- 
esting historical data. B5 Software, 
1024 Bainbridge Place, Columbus, OH 
43228; (614) 276-2752, $31.95. 

Puzzle Math, a 64K educational pro- 
gram that requires one disk drive. 
Puzzle Math comes complete with 18 
Hi-Res graphics pictures that are uti- 
lized in the learning process as puzzles. 
Each picture can be treated as an 8, 12, 
16, 24 or 48 piece puzzle. When the 
student answers a problem correctly, a 
piece of the puzzle is displayed. The 
program is targeted for grades 2-5 and 
is written to handle four levels of diffi- 
culty. SEC A, P.O. Box 3134, Gulf port, 
MS 39505; (601) 832-8236, $24.95 plus 
$3 S/H. 



The Seal of Certification program is 
open to all manufacturers of products 
for the Tandy Color Computer, 
regardless of whether they advertise in 

THE RAINBOW. 

By awarding a Seal, the magazine 
certifies the product does exist — that 
we have examined it and have a 
sample copy — but this does not 
constitute any guarantee of 
satisfaction. As soon as possible, these 
hardware or software items will be 
forwarded to THE rainbow reviewers 

for evaluation. 

— Judi Hutchinson 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 131 



Hardware Review ^»/^\ 

Go Online With 
Avatex 1200 Modem 

The Avatex 1200 is a small, compact 300/1200 baud 
selectable modem marketed by Spectrum Projects for the 
Color Computer. 

I have been using my old, trusty Modem 1 for a few years 
now and was delighted to get a chance to review the Avatex. 

It's very attractive in its beige plastic case that measures 
4% wide by 9 l A long by 1% inches high. It's well-packaged 
in a colorful carton and is supplied with a wall transformer 
for the power supply. An easy-to-read, 29-page illustrated 
booklet is included, along with two loose sheets that deal 
with technical information and how to hook it up to your 
CoCo. I hooked it up in less than 10 minutes and imme- 
diately went online to Delphi. 

What a difference 1200 baud makes! Using Mikeyterm 
and my old 300 baud modem, I was able to easily read the 
text as it was displayed on the screen, but at 1200 baud the 
cursor seems to fly across the screen — so fast, in fact, that 
multiple cursor images seem to appear! Obviously, the 
beauty of such a fast modem is that you can reduce your 
online time, thus saving money. 



J&R ELECTRONICS 

Complete 256K and 512K Memory Expansion Systems 
(Hardware, Software and documentation included) 
User friendly software, programmer not required 

Easy, Solderless Installation 

★ We have eliminated the necessity to piaayhack fjpSJ2K versions! ★ 
RAH01SK— Fast disk I/O, 35/40 track |wop dfN* ^WwfSi 

PCOPYMOR — More thanflffl^fl 4WB3eel^) mp-mn/y ai ^ril^rcTJPY command modified to accept 
PC0PY 1 to 126. More than 70 i'MnnE^^fWanTPPCOPY 1 to 302 with 512K versions (or 30 PM0DE 
4 screens with one RAMD^^.1" *" ~ ai0O% _ 

SPOOLER — HUGE printer buffer fwef^ltoradri^e V8^jl§ter while the printer's busy. Custom- 
izable from 30K to over 200K (50^wUJ^t£%verspis|. Qfjfferlln be turned off/on copied using simple 
PRINT CHRS commands. W% 11% 

0S9 Rimdlik— Fast OS-9 disk IpfcsWG track single sidfid *h ID frjsfejjdouble sided (51 2K) Ramdisk 

under 0S9! GOOD'S 0S9 RamdisK ( Rainbow |^86Pwith ItJlly r,wme$ted source code and install files 

addedbyJ&R. (Requires 0S9 operating smer^% ^ 

ALL software above is configura,b^0^256W/5raK oaer|tion. . 5 « ' 

Software shipped on disk, adaSmOO to^pftwa^inllp^.^OSO RAMDISK not available Dn tape). 

ALL boards below are 256K/I^K ®OTfer software & documentation included. 

New SAM (74LS785) not included" (use your 74LS783), 74LS785 recommended for 2.0 MHz operation. 



Pari number 


Price 


Description 


#1001 


$39.95 


Banker II bare board (with long pin socket, does not include memory 
Expansion Board) 


#1002 


$69.95 


Banker II bare board + parts (does not include Memory Expansion Board) 


#1003 


$89.95 


Banker II assembled & tested (no memory) 


#1004 


$129.95 


Banker II (256K, upgradable to 51 2K) assembled & tested with memory 


#1005 


$169.95 


Banker II (512K) assembled & tested with memory 


#1006 


$15.00 


Memory Expansion Board 


#1007 


$29.95 


Memory Expansion Board + parts 


#9000 


$89.95 


Down Under Controller. Ram Pack size controller with BD0S Gold 
plated, high reliability edge connectors, jumpers for 24/28 pin ROM. 
Compatible with COCO I and COCO II. 


#9001 


$35.00 


BDOS (Enhanced 0OS on 27128 EPR0M) 


#9002 


$5.00 


64 K switch 


#9004 


$24.95 


New SAM 74LS785 (required only for 2.0 MHz operation) 


#9005 


$24.95 


★ New!* PowerBasic— Introductory Price. (Requires RSD0S 1.0 or 
1.1 and 256K or 51 2K Banker) Utilize the extra memory for variable 
storage and pass variables between programs in different pages of 
memory. Split a large BASIC program into smaller pieces and GOTO or 
GOSUB a line in another page of memory. . .and more features included, 
(disk only) 


#9006 


$10.00 


S/W Pac upgrade. 1. XX to2.XX 



To place an order, write to J&R Electronics, P.O. Box 2572, Columbia, MD 21045, 
OR call (301 ) 987-9067 — Jesse or (301 ) 788-0861 — Ray 
HOURS: Weekdays 7 p.m.-9 p.m.; Sat. Noon-5p.m. EASTERN TIME. 

Add $4.00 shipping & handling (FOREIGN ORDERS $7.00), COD charge $3.00. Maryland residents add 
5% state tax. 

CHECKS, MONEY ORDERS OR COD's only please (personal check — 2 weeks for clearance). IMME- 
DIATE DELIVERY. Give COCO Radio Shack model # (i.e. 26-3136), Disk or Tape when ordering. 
QUANTITY DISCOUNT AVAILABLE. For information on shipping or previously placed orders call (301) 
788-0861 . COCO II 26-31 XX owners call (soldering experience may be required). 



While Spectrum advertises this product as "Hayes 
compatible," it's not totally compatible since it does not 
support all of the Hayes commands. 

But, this modem is largely Hayes compatible and can be 
used in place of a Hayes in most cases. For example, if you 
wanted to use this modem for an auto-answer BBS, the only 
means for software disconnect after the user has logged off 
is by toggling the DTR line (RS-232 Pin 20) off, then back 
on to enable it to answer the next call. It will not automat- 
ically return to the command mode, therefore toggling the 
DTR is the only means of hanging up the telephone under 
computer control. What this means to those of you who 
want to use this modem for a BBS, is that you will have 
to use the Deluxe Radio Shack RS-232 Program Pak and 
suitable software that will enable this toggling (RS-232 Pin 
20 low to high). It is also compatible to Hayes in the sense 
that it uses similar commands and is capable of auto-dial, 
redial, and auto-answer. If you are like most CoCo users, 
these are all of the features you need anyway, and this 
product clearly fills those needs. 

Logging onto Delphi is easy using the auto-dial feature. 
After turning the unit on and selecting 1200 baud, you put 
the voice/ data switch in the data position. I put Mikeyterm 
in the Combat mode and typed: RTDT telephone number and 
pressed ENTER. As soon as connection is made, the screen 
displays CONNECT 1200. If instead you see NO CARRIER, then 
your call was not completed either because the line was busy 
or there was no modem at the number you told the computer 
to dial. You can automatically redial when you see the no 
carrier message by simply typing A/. Avatex then redials the 
last number you entered. If you would rather run the 
modem at 300 baud, the connect message will simply read 
CONNECT, so it's an easy reminder that you are not running 
at optimum speed. 

Besides the three push buttons on the front of the modem, 
there are also eight red rectangular LEDs for indicating 
power on, terminal ready, send data, receive data, high 
speed (1200 baud), modem check, test mode and ring 
indicator (for incoming calls). 

These LEDs, combined with an eight-position DIP 
switch on the back of the modem, enable you to conduct 
several tests that will assist you in locating operational 
problems should they occur. 

I should also mention that if you want to use this or any 
other 1200 baud modem on your CoCo, you will need an 
RS-232 pack and an RS Catalog No. 26-1408 male-to-male 
cable (DB-25). You can use this modem without the RS- 
232 pack, but you will be restricted to 300 baud using the 
"bit banger" four-pin DIN socket on the back of the CoCo. 
In this case you will need RS Catalog No. 26-3014, which 
is a four-pin DIN-to-male cable. 

I really like this product. It comes with a two-year limited 
warranty and the price is right, which makes it a real winner 
in my book. It will provide most CoCo users with all the 
modem they are likely to want or need, and at such a 
reasonable price it can be paid for with the money you will 
save by being online less. 

(Spectrum Projects Inc., P.O. Box 264, Howard Beach, NY 
11414; 718-835-1344, $129.95 plus $3 S/H) 

— Jerry Semones 



132 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



Software Review SSSSSSSSSSESSSSZf^ 

The CoCo Comes to Life With 
the Sounds of Lyra 

As a serious musician who plays only for personal 
enjoyment, I was elated to receive a package from Speech 
Systems. I have enjoyed Musica and Musica II, and now 
I had a chance to try out the new Lyra. 

Lyra is an eight-voice music editor for the Color 
Computer. It allows the user to enter, edit and play music. 
It gives the newcomer to music an easy way to transcribe 
from piano books, and it gives the serious musician an 
excellent tool for composing and trying out new ideas. 

The Lyra package is based on a point-and-ciick user 
interface similar to that offered by more expensive software. 
Entering notes in a given voice simply requires selecting the 
desired voice, picking out a note value and placing the note 
on the staff. All that is required is a joystick. Notes may 
have lengths from a whole note down to a 32nd note. The 
tonal range allows pitches from A below the bass stave to 
E above the treble stave — a range of four and one-half 
octaves. When you have worked on one voice, just select 
another and enter the harmony. 

Lyra offers several editing features. You can quickly and 
easily change the time signature, key signature and master 
tempo by using the pull-down edit menu. You can also mark 
a block of the musical score for later copying or deleting. 
Any note can be deleted or changed in the wink of an eye. 



FILE EBIT MIDI HISC 




The edit window of Lyra. Only four voices have been 
used in the example. 

One thing was difficult to get used to. With Musica, the 
user is required to press I to insert a note. On the other hand, 
Lyra is always in the insert mode. Just position the cursor 
between the notes where you want to insert, and press the 
firebutton. Once you get the hang of this, it becomes quite 
easy to use. 

Several choices for playing your creation are included 
with Lyra. First, you may send music to the TV. Or, you 
could select the included drivers to send music to a Stereo 
Pak or an Orchestra 90 Program Pak plugged into a Multi- 
Pak Interface (MPI), Only four voices are playable via these 
methods. 



One way to hear all eight voices is to use the Symphony 
12 Enhancer with a Symphony 12 cartridge in the MPI. I 
was very satisfied with the resultant sound. The timbre, or 
harmonic content, is not alterable as it is in Musica, but 
the ability to hear eight voices far outweighs this. 

Another method for hearing eight voices is to connect 
your CoCo to a MIDI synthesizer. Unfortunately, I do not 
have access to a MIDI, but the options this device offers 
had my mouth watering, and Christmas isn't that far away. 
Options include setting up complete instrumentation, 
changing MIDI velocities and altering MIDI channels. 
Another feature in the MIDI pull-down menu is the 
Transpose selection, which works with other output 
options. 

As mentioned before, I received the Symphony 12 
Enhancer with my review package. This works very well and 
is simple to install in your Lyra system. Just load it in and 
go! I also received Lyra Convert. This package allows one 
to convert a standard Musica II file to Lyra format for 
editing and playing. I tried this on several files and all of 
them transferred without incident. The only problems 
associated with this are that tone tables are lost in the Lyra 
format and the version of Lyra I had does not support 64th 
notes. I have been told by Speech Systems that this has been 
corrected in a more recent version. Also, the Lyra Convert 
documentation warns of this and offers several reasonable 
solutions. 

While Lyra does not offer some features that Musica 
users may be used to, I am told we can expect the works 
on this package as well. The people at Speech Systems have 
dedicated themselves to providing top-quality sound 
software and hardware at a good price. They have suc- 
ceeded. 

My overall impression of Lyra and the other packages 
I received is that they are quite good. I thought having four 
voices with Musica was awesome. Then Speech Systems 
released Musica II. Now, hearing eight separate voices come 
out of my little gray CoCo shows me what creative 
programming can really do! Lyra definitely gets a 95 on a 
scale of 100. (I reserve the remaining five points for the 
future.) 

(Speech Systems, 38W255 Deerpath Road, Batavia, IL 
60510; 312-879-6880, disk only, $54.95) 

— Cray Augsburg 



Hint . . . 

A Simple Printer Switcher 

For those who have more than one printer, and 
don't like hooking and unhooking the RS-232 cable, 
try adding a piece of ribbon cable to the RS-232 
connector and put another RS-232 plug on the other 
end to form an RS-232 "Y" cable. Simply turn on and 
off the printer not needed. 1 get a warning light on 
my MDP-200 when I use my Smith-Corona L-1000, 
but it works great and is a lot easier. 

Fred Schmidt 
Westminster, CO 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 33 



Hardware Reviewi 



COMM-4 Board Gives CoCo 
Four RS-232 Ports 



One of the few deficiencies the CoCo has is its lack of 
a standard RS-232 port. There is the 5-pin DIN RS-232 
port, the so-called "bit banger" port, but it has a non- 
standard connector and, having been designed as a printer 
port, it has trouble with speeds above 1200 bits per second. 

In order to make up for this, CoCo Devices has intro- 
duced the COMM-4 RS-232 interface. The COMM-4 unit 
is designed to plug into a multipack-type interface. It 
provides the CoCo with four standard RS-232 communi- 
cations ports ready to hook up to modems, printers, 
terminals and any other standard RS-232 equipment. 

The COMM-4 unit is about the same size as the disk 
controller and may be plugged into any slot of the 
multipack. Installation of the hardware is very simple, 
because the unit is plugged into any free slot on the 
multipack. A small cable then runs from the COMM-4 pack 
to the standard printer/ modem port on the CoCo. This 
cable provides the interrupts needed for the COMM-4 unit 
to operate. The cable is only about 2 feet long and may be 
a little short for some arrangements of hardware. I had to 
slightly re-arrange my setup in order to use it. 

Installing this cable means you no longer have use of the 
standard printer/ modem port. You must re-cable whatever 
device(s) you had plugged into the standard port to the 
COMM-4's standard RS-232 ports. Having the COMM-4 
plugged into the multipack and the cable plugged into the 
printer/ modem port, the hardware installation is complete. 

The COMM-4 unit is designed to be used under OS-9. 
The only support for Disk Extended BASIC provided with 
the COMM-4 is a short program to allow one of the 
COMM-4 ports to act as a printer. There is no reason that 
BASIC drivers couldn't be written to fully use the COMM- 
4. The documentaton provides enough information for a 
good assembly programmer to write them. 

Under OS-9, full device drivers and device descriptors are 
provided. The software, along with its source code, comes 
on a non-copy-protected disk provided with the unit. Also 
included are several script files to ease installation. 
Instructions are provided to guide a user in installing the 
COMM-4 software under both OS-9 Version 1.01 and 2.0. 
Though the instructions are clear and rather easy, they 
assume that the user has two disk drives. No installation 
instructions are given for single-drive users. 

Aside from not having single-drive installation instruc- 
tions, the documentation is excellent. It has sections on the 
theory of the hardware and the software, installation, 
applications examples, a full schematic of the unit, a 
complete parts list, an assembly drawing of the PC board 
and printed listings of the source code to all the software 
provided with the unit. The manual is written in a clear and 
straightforward manner. Its style varies depending on the 
subject being covered. The theory sections are written in a 
technical style, while a simpler style is used in the instal- 



lation and use sections. All the program listings are well- 
commented and fairly easy to comprehend. There are good 
examples of device drivers and descriptors for anyone 
thinking of writing his own device software. 

The COMM-4 board worked almost without flaw. I used 
it to drive a printer, a modem and a second terminal all at 
the same time and at many different combinations of baud 
rates and word sizes. The COMM-4 unit worked well except 
for one program: For some reason, the Kermit protocol 
program when used with the COMM-4 unit caused the 
CoCo to spontaneously re-boot when I tried a file transfer. 




This does not occur when using Kermit with other RS-232 
packs. I had no trouble sending or receiving files using an 
Xmodem type program with the COMM-4 unit. Neither 
CoCo Devices nor I could come up with a reason for their 
unit not working with the Kermit program. CoCo Devices 
is researching this and may have a solution soon. 

I had to call CoCo Devices a few times in order to 
complete this review and I found them to be very friendly 
and willing to help with my questions. As a matter of fact, 
a few of my suggestions have been placed in the latest copy 
of the documentation. 

As far as I can tell, the COMM-4 hardware should work 
with the new CoCo 3. In order to use it under the new OS- 
9 Level II, a new set of software drivers will have to be 
written. 

The COMM-4 pack is a very good product which 
provides the CoCo under OS-9 with four standard RS-232 
I/O ports. It is easy to install both the hardware and 
software. The documentation is an example to other 
manufacturers on how to write documentation. I highly 
recommend this product unless you have need of the Kermit 
communications protocol. 



(CoCo Devices, Box 667, Seabrook, TX 77532; 713-474- 
3232, $99.95. Requires multipack and OS-9 Version 1.01 or 
2.0) 



— Mark Sunderlin 



134 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



Software RevieWi 



White Fire of Eternity Heats 
Up the Desire for Adventure 

White Fire of Eternity is a new animated graphics 
Adventure from Saguaro Software. The graphics are 
outstanding, made even more so by the use of animation. 
The Adventure itself has a fairly good plot but a limited 
vocabulary. 

White Fire is supplied on a copy-protected disk — one 
of the game's negative aspects, especially since it accesses 
the disk often — and works on any 64K CoCo. 

Visually, White Fire is quite an achievement. The 
graphics, done with Co Co Max, are excellent, and author 
Glen R. Dahlgren has added a nice touch by having the 
pictures slide up into an area of the screen in the shape of 
a scroll with the words White Fire on it. The program has 
to load each new scene from the disk, causing a few seconds 
delay whenever it needs a new picture. I found this slightly 
annoying at first, but got used to it after playing for awhile. 
k ■ 




lere is a serine forest glen 
loninated by a shimmering 

pring. 



see SPRING 

EXITS : 

OMMAlTO : ■ 



M M 



Adding to the graphics is the animation. Moving clouds, 
billowing smoke and rising bubbles grace the beautiful 
graphics and add a touch of realism. Not every scene is 
animated, but enough to give the graphics a "life-like" 
quality. However, if you are a fast typist, beware! I found 
that whenever animation was present, the program would 
miss characters when I typed at my normal speed. "Hunt- 
and-peckers" or slower typists should have no trouble. On 
scenes without animation, you can type as fast as you want 
without suffering any adverse effects. 

The scenario, or background, of the Adventure works 
well. The plot is good, but could be a bit more involved. 
I would place the Adventure at a medium difficulty level 
— probably fairly easy for a veteran Adventurer, and 
possibly a bit hard for someone's first Adventure, but a good 
challenge for most. The Adventure is not vast, taking place 
in about 25 "rooms" or areas. Mr. Dahlgren has managed 
to pack a number of challenges into this area, though, 
including mazes, puzzles and areas to explore. A game save 
feature is provided. 

White Fire uses the standard two-word command entry, 
in the form verb noun (for example: TAKE KNIFE, DRINK 
WRTER, MOVE ROCKS). Fishing for the right word to do what 
you want may take awhile. This is a small point, but there 
are instances when the game will only recognize one specific 
word — often one you would not think of. This limitation 



could have been overcome by providing a list of recognized 
verbs or by expanding the vocabulary to include several 
synonyms for a word. 

The few quirks in the Adventure do not affect game play 
in any great measure, but should have been straightened out 
before the game was brought to market. For instance, you 
can cut a branch off the dead tree more than once (although 
cut as often as you like and you can still take only one 
branch). Also, once you have unearthed the knife, you can 
use it to carve things even when the knife is not in your 
possession. (Pretty neat trick, there.) And, the staff seems 
to have a curious property of becoming invisible when 
looked at. Still, these quirks are very minor and in no way 
prevent your solving White Fire. 

I would advise watching your sanity while playing this 
game. Getting stuck on a puzzle can, as in most Adventures, 
be maddening. But with White Fire, you're really on your 
own! No help is ever given, and the game is encoded on the 
disk, so using a disk zap will not help. This adds to the 
challenge of solving the game honestly, although if you're 
really stuck, I did find a way of using a memory zap to look 
at the Adventure once loaded in memory. White Fire is a 
combination of BASIC and machine language. 

The price is, in my opinion, quite fair. To wrap it up, on 
my 1-5 rating system, White Fire of Eternity gets a 4, overall. 



(Saguaro Software, 4137 E. Bermuda, Tucson, AZ 85712; 
602-881-6786, 64K disk required, $24.95) 

— Eric Tilenius 



BACK TO COMPUTING! 


Name Brand 

DISKS 
$1.00 

DS DD w/ Tyvek Sleeves 
Buy 5 get FREE Case 
Buy 10— Color Case 

C-10 Cassettes 590 


Dot Matrix/Graphics 

PRINTER 
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Daisy Wheel 
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SOFTWARE 

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Books/Others20% 
CoCo Maxll w/Y 
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12" Green or Amber 
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13" Color/Sound ,$159 


5% 40-Track Slim 

DISK DRIVES 

$90 

DS DD Hi-Tech (U.S.) 
W/Case/Pwr $139 
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Smart Auto 

MODEMS 

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300/1200 Baud 
Hayes Comp 
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SYSTEMS 

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Printer Intf $40 

Video Driver . . . S24 
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Catalog Free 


PARTS 

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(21 3] 453-4406 Shipping Charges: 
Calif, res. add 6V2% tax 2% or $3.00 rnln. 
All prices subject Monitors/Printers 
to change/stock avail. Hardware extra 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 1 35 



Software flewew— Software p^;,».„— — 7^ 



Explore the Maze of the 
Dragon's Temple 

Dragon's Temple is a fairly simple Simulation of a knight 
from King Art's Court on a quest through a maze to find 
treasure and avoid a deadly dragon. At first, I was a little 
disappointed in the graphics and the speed of the game. The 
game consists of a maze, with you, the knight, represented 
as a and the dragon as an 'X\ Also in the maze are the 
treasures, **', that you are to gather. As I said, at first, I 
was disappointed, but when I realized the game sold for 
$13.95, 1 decided it is well worth that price. It is good that 
someone is still producing challenging programs that the 
beginning CoCo user can buy at a low cost. 

You move through the maze by using a joystick. The maze 
is only in view while the light is on. Your lantern has little 
oil in it, so eventually the light will be gone. Once the light 
goes out, you have to remember the maze the best you can, 
but you do have help. 

You have at your disposal a number of bombs that 
allow you to blow down a wall, but these bombs are limited 
and only take down one wall per bomb, so use them 
sparingly. A few bombs will also be found with the treasures. 
All this time, the dragon is pursuing you through the maze. 
You have only a limited time to collect all the treasures. As 
you collect a treasure, time is added. An analog timer is 
represented on the left side of the screen. After you gather 
all the treasures shown, more time is added and new 
treasures are placed in the maze. The maze does not change 
as you clear each set of treasures, so when the light goes 
out, the maze remains the same for each set of treasures. 




There was one thing about Dragon's Temple I was not 
crazy about. When you are finally eliminated (killed is so 
final) and you want to start the game again, it takes a couple 
of minutes to construct the new maze. You do get a different 
maze when you start a new quest. It's just a short delay, 
but after you've been playing hot and heavy for awhile, it 
seems like an eternity. 

Overall, I believe Dragon's Temple is definitely worth 
checking out. The game is challenging and can provide 
hours of entertainment for a small investment. It requires 
64K, one joystick and a disk drive. 

(Jade, RFD#2, Box 2740, Clinton, ME 04927, disk $13.95) 

— Dale Shell 



Lots of Word Processor for the 

Price With TX 

I reviewed the early version of TX, without much 
enthusiasm, in the March 1986 issue of The RAINBOW. Well, 
this latest version is quite a step up from that early one. The 
general outlines remain the same; TXis still written in BASIC 
and supports a buffer/ single file capacity of sixty-six 80- 
character lines. It still uses the standard 32-by-15 character 
screen treated as a window over the page. (As one begins, 
the cursor moves from left to right; however, once the screen 
corresponds to the right page segment, the cursor appears 
to stand still and the text moves under it). Calculation, 
wordwrap, character manipulation and repetition features 
are similar to those in the earlier version; and again, the 
documentation is certainly more than adequate. 

But there the similarities end. The new TX is more 
smoothly and attractively programmed. Gone, for instance, 
is the minor irritation of having to retype RUN because of 
the PCLERR 1 early in the program. Text entry mode now 
comes up not only in upper- and lowercase (rather than the 
previous version's uppercase), but the display is in eye- 
easing inverse green characters on a black background. 

At the bottom of the screen, in normal black-on-green, 
is a descriptor line that may be saved and loaded with the 
file, but does not print out. This line serves not only as a 
single-line notepad, but also as a linking device for chain 
printing. Thus, TX, even though its capacity is but one page, 
can be used to write and print out a multi-page document 
by treating each page as a separate file, and chain-printing 
the files in the desired order via the descriptor line. Possibly 
a shade awkward, but quite practicable. 

TX now permits the insertion of printer codes for change 
of typeface and underlining, but by line rather than by word. 
Printer baud rate is easily alterable from within the program 
without losing text. Another slight inconvenience is that TX 
accepts only files it has created. ASCII files from other word 
processors may not be loaded into TX for editing or 
printing. 

The most striking of the many improvements is the 
keyboard response speed. I'm no touch-typist, but I have 
a quite rapid two-to-four-finger technique that left the old 
TX — and just about every other BASIC editor I've tried — 
in the dust. Not so with the new TX. It's fast and accurate 
(at least as fast and accurate as I am), and comfortable to 
work with. 

Bottom line? The new TX, modest though its features are, 
is a lot of word processor for the money. In spite of its 
limitations, it handles brief letters and grade school or 
junior high-level papers easily and smoothly. Moreover, its 
simple operation makes it a dandy choice for introducing 
a youngster to the ease and convenience of writing with a 
computer. 

(Kolesar B/S, 7 Ladd Rd., Westfield, PA 16950; 814-367- 
5384, Disk $16.95 plus $2 S/H) 

— John Ogasapian 



1 36 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



HOT HARDWARE AND SUPER SOFTWARE 



UNIVERSAL VIDEO DRIVER 

ITS THE BEST!!! Great Price! Only $29.95 



Carefully engineered to 
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Audio Connection 
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64K 
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TANDY 1000 UPGRADES 



640 K upgrade board with real time clock . «.......> . . . . . $189.95 

Serial Interface Board .... . . . .•. * . . .... . ... . . . . . »>• . . 49.95 

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Hayes compatible 300/1200 Baud deluxe modem ........... 189.95 



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Magnavox BM-7622 Amber Screen - high quality, low price — $109.95 

Order a quality monitor from us and get a Universal 
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Star NX-10 Printer, New model for '86 279.95 

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32 K required 



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FOR THE SERIOUS COCO USER 



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Ottl€t SupBt Intelligence has intercepted a coded message 
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Time Fighter TRG-5 attack saucer sub-assemblies. 




iiiintiimiiiiHHiii uitiiiiimiiMiiiiiiiiimiiiiimiiiitiiiiiiiiniiMii 

©COPYRIGHT 1985, 
O. BOCHORDT 

iilllliiHIIIPIIIinilllllMllilllll IIHIMIIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIUIllltIM Illllllllllllll Illlllllilllltlllllllllllll 



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Book Review, 



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Inside Information: 
Comprehensive Survey 
of Information Industry 



Information utilities are companies that sell information, 
much as the local utility sells natural gas or electricity. Just 
as there are numerous electric, gas and telephone utilities, 
there are many information utilities, each providing 
different kinds of information and different services at 
varying prices. 

Inside Information is an excellent in-depth discussion of 
these utilities. The intended readership includes profession- 
als and businessmen who frequently need up-to-date or 
specialized information to pursue their careers. These 
people will benefit most from reading this book. 

This book is written in four parts. The first part provides 
an introduction to the subject of data communications and 
describes the necessary hardware and software. It is not 
written around any specific computer, although the author, 
John Helliwell, considers the IBM PC to be the de facto 
standard personal computer and the Hayes modem the de 
facto standard in modems. 

The second part (and major portion of the book) 
describes in detail five types of information utilities: general 
interest utilities (Dialog and Mead Data Central), biblio- 
graphic databases (BRS Information Technologies, SDC/ 
Orbit, Pergamon InfoLine and Wilsonline), news services 
(Vu/Text, DataTimes, NewsNet, Info Globe and Finsbury 
Data Services), beginner's utilities (Knowledge Index, Dow 
Jones News/ Retrieval, The Source, CompuServe and 
Delphi) and specialized databases. Specialized databases 
include databases for the fields of bioscience and medicine; 
social sciences, humanities and education; food and 
agriculture; environment and natural resources; energy; 
engineering and technology; law and government; trade- 
mark and patent; mathematics, chemistry, and physics; and 
computing and numeric (statistical) databases. He identifies 
several databases in each category, and compares them to 
each other in terms of available information, approximate 
cost and ease of use. 

The third portion discusses a related topic — telecommu- 
nications (communications between two or more compu- 
ters, including electronic mail). 

The final part of this book is composed of five appendices, 
which explain "getting the most out of Crosstalk" (a 
communications program written for the IBM PC), "getting 
the most out of Dialog and Mead Data Central" (two 
databases described in the book), and the addresses of all 
the utilities discussed in the first three sections of the book. 

I found this book to be well-written and interesting 
reading. The book is a comprehensive survey of the rapidly 
growing information industry. 

(John Helliwell, New American Library, 1633 Broadway, 
New York, NY 10019; 212-397-8000 $14.95 U.S., $19.95 
Can.) 

— Jerry Oefelein 



• Call • 

513-396-SOFT 



• Shop by Modem • 

513-396 SHOP 



• Write • 

2235 Losantivilte, Cincinnati, OH 45237 

SHIPPING will bt charged at our ACTUAL COST 
Ohio residents add S S'g S<>es T«i COD add 2 00 



138 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



Software ReviewZ _ ST/^\ 



Get Rid of the Excess Baggage 

With Packer 



Do you want your BASIC programs to hog less memory? 
Do you want them to run faster than a speeding bullet? Do 
you want to do all this with almost no effort? Well then, 
my friends, you need Packer. 

Packer is a machine language utility that allows you to 
do all the above and more. You can fix referenced remarks, 
that is, those nasty programs that have a statement go to 
a line that is a remark, except you didn't type in those 
remarks so you get a UL Error. You can delete all those 
comments to save memory. If you want your programs 
really tight, you can remove all the extra spaces, colons and 
LET statements that aren't needed. 

Save more memory by removing semicolons that aren't 
needed in print lists. Get rid of all those unnecessary GDTDs 
after THENs and ELSEs. If you're really adventurous, you can 
join lines together in huge, uneditable lines. 

Packer allows you to choose any of the options from the 
menu. Best of all, you can do all of them automatically by 
selecting item number 7. Believe me, it isn't as complex as 
it sounds. The program comes with a comprehensive three- 
page manual that explains everything you need to know. It 
even includes warnings like making sure you have the 
program you're about to pack with Packer saved some- 
where else because you may not be able to edit the packed 
version. 

I have used and unsuccessfully tried to abuse every feature 
offered by this program. I saved from three to 27 percent 
of memory usage in BASIC programs I typed in from 
RAINBOW listings. I couldn't figure out any easy way to see 
how much faster these programs would run under packed 
conditions, but I'm sure it increased the speed just because 
BASIC has less information to interpret. 

One major warning: Make sure you have a good copy 
of your program before executing Packer. One BASIC 



One-Liner Contest Winner I ; . 

Just enter your name and a color number, one 
through eight, and watch the magic happen. 

The listing: 

1 D=3 : INPUT "NAME , COLOR" ; N$ , C : Z=L 
EN(N$) :Y=Z+1:DIMA(Y) :A(Y)=127+16 
*C : FORI=lTOZ : A ( I ) =ASC (MID$ (N$, I, 
1) ) :NEXT:E=1535:F=E-Z:CLS(C) : FOR 
X=1T0511 : E=E-1 : F-F-.l : FORI=F TOE : 
N-N+l : POKE I , A (N) : NEXT : N=j3 : POKE I- 
1 , A ( Y ) : D=D+ . 4 : SOUNDD , 1 : NEXT : PRIN 
T@17j3 ,N$; : SOUND1,50: CLS : RUN 

Jeff Harper 
Karnack, TX 

(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



program I used with Packer has some especially tricky 
graphics statements in the first few lines and, after packing 
it, the program would not run. 

The program reports its movements to either the printer 
or screen and informs you of the memory saved for each 
or all the choices you made from the menu. The author 
never mentioned the program used the default BASIC 600 
baud for the printer, so my 1200 baud printer spewed out 
trash until I set the default to 1200. It would be nice to be 
able to select the baud rate from the program. 

The only other problem I had was that the manual said 
trailing quotes would be removed from the end of print 
statements at the end of a line. I couldn't get this to happen, 
but it certainly is a very minor point. 

Speaking of errors, this program even helps you fix your 
programs by reporting errors such as non-existent lines that 
are referenced in ON GOTO type statements. If no BASIC 
program is in memory when you execute Packer, it stops 
execution with an error message and goes back to BASIC 
so you can load one in. Just type EXEC and Packer takes 
off again. 

I was very impressed with this program and its documen- 
tation. If you have disks full of BASIC programs and want 
to pack more on, or you want those programs to run almost 
as fast as they will on the new CoCo 3, then I would 
recommend Packer. 

(Bob van der Poel Software, 17435-57 Avenue, Edmonton, 
Alberta, Canada T6M 1E1; 403-481-1037, $14.95 plus 
$2 S/H) 

— C.L. Pilipauskas 



PLUG THIS INTO YOUR COCO 

Engage mind and Connect the world 

(or at least the electrical signals used to control 
outside devices and instruments) 




• Expansion Connector Breadboard, CC-100 accesses 
the data, address, and control buses, $34.95 

• TRS-80 Color Computer Interfacing, With Experi- 
ments, No. 21893, explains and illustrates principles, 
$14.95 

• Experiment Component Package, CC-150, contains 
the parts needed to do the experiments, $67.50 

Add $1.50 per item for shipping or get all three for 

$105.00 plus $3.00 shipping. 

Maryland residents add 5% sales tax. 

VISA/Master Card accepted. Call 301-298-5716. Free 

catalog available. 



PUTTING 
HANDS 
AND 
MINOS 
TOGETHER 




Qroup £ftchnology, d5ld. 



6925 Dogwood Road 
Baltimore, MD 21207 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 139 



HI-RES II SCREEN COMMANDER 

Are you tired of looking at the 16 line by 32 character display on 
your CoCo? Do you wish you could see more lines and characters? 
Then HI-RES II is the answer, it can give you the big screen display 
you've always wanted. It will display 24 lines of 32, 42, 5 1 , 64 and 
even 85 true upper and lower case characters per line without any 
hardware modifications. 

HI-RES II is the most powerful screen enhancement package 
available for the Color Computer, yet it is the least expensive. It is 
completely compatible and transparent to Basic. Once the program 
is loaded, everything works the same as before, only you have a 
much better display to work with. It even allows you to have mixed 
text and Hi-resolution graphics on the same screen or have separate 
text and graphics screens. It also has an adjustable automatic key 
repeat feature and allows you to protect up to 23 lines on the 
screen. HI-RES II features over 30 special control code functions 
that allow you to change characters per line, protect display lines, 
change background color, position cursor, switch normal/reverse 
video, underline, double size characters, erase line/screen/to end of 
screen, home cursor, character highlight and much more. It works 
on all models of the CoCo with 16, 32 or 64K and provides 
automatic reset control so HI-RES II won't disappear when you 
press reset. 

Only $24.95 for Tape and $29.95 for Disk 

EDT/ASM 64D 

64K DISK EDITOR ASSEMBLER w/DEBUG 

EDT/ASM 64D is a Disk based co-resident Text Editor & 
Assembler. It has a Hi-Resolution 5 1 , 64 or 85 column by 24 line 
display, so you see your program listings easily. It also supports the 
PBJ 80 Column Word-Pak cards. The disk also contains a free 
standing Machine Language Debug Monitor, to help you debug 
your assembled programs. 

The Editor in EDT/ASM 64D is the most powerfull, easy to use 
Text Editor available in any Editor/ Assembler package for the Color 
Computer. It even has automatic line number generation for easy 
entry of program material. Some of it's features include: 

c> Local and Global string search and/or replace. 

<r> Full screen line editing with immediate line update. 

<& Easy to use Single keystroke editing commands. 

c?" Load & Save standard ASCII formatted Tape/Disk files. 

& Move or Copy single & multiple text lines. 

c?* Create and Edit disk files larger than memory. 

& Hi-Res Text Display 28 to 85 columns by 24 lines. 

c> Supports the PBJ 80 Column cards Word-Pak 1 & II. 
The Assembler portion of EDT/ASM 64D is the part that creates 
the Machine Language program. It processes the source file(s) 
created or edited by the text editor and creates a LOADM or 
CLOADM binary file on either Disk or Tape. Using library files you 
can assemble an unlimited size file, using several different disk 
drives. 

O Supports conditional 1F/THEN/ELSE assembly. 
& Supports Disk Library files (include). 
& Supports standard motorola assembler directives 
O Allows multiple values for FDB & FCB directives. 
O Generates listings to Hi-Res text screen or printer. 
t> Assembles directly to disk or tape in LOADM format. 
c? Supports up to 9 open disk files during assembly. 
c> Allows assembly from editor buffer, Disk or both. 
t> Full description text error messages. 

DEBUG is a free standing program debugger which provides all 
the functions supported by most system monitors. Some of them 
include: 

O- Examine and change the contents of memory. 

& Set and display up to 10 breakpoints in memory. 

C? Remove single or multiple breakpoints. 

Z? Display/Change processor register contents. 

O Dump Memory in Hex and ASCII format. 

t> Fill Memory range with a specified data pattern. 

& Move a block of memory. 

X? Search memory range for data pattern. 

& Disassemble memory into op-code format. 

Requires 32K and Disk $59.00 



"The Source" 

Now you can easily Disassemble Color Computer machine lan- 
guage programs directly from disk and generate beautiful, Assemb- 
ler Source Code for a fraction of the cost of other Disassembler/ 
Source generator programs. And, the Source has all the features 
your looking for in a Disassembler. 

t> Automatic Label generation. 
c> Allows specifying FCB, FCC and FDB areas. 
O Save, Load and Edit FCB, FCC, and FDB map on Disk. 
& Disassembles programs directly from Disk 
ir> Output complete Disassembled listing with labels to the Printer, 
Screen or both. 

<r> Generates Assembler compatible source files directly to disk. 

& Generated source files are in standard ASCII format. 

<r> Built in Hex/ASCII dump/display to locate FCB, FCC and FDB 

areas in a program. 
<r> Built in Disk Directory and Kill file commands. 
& Menu display with single key commands for smooth, Easy, 

almost foolproof operation. 
& Written in fast machine language, one of the quickest and 

easiest to use Disassemblers available. 

Requires 32K and Disk $34.95 

TEXTPRO III 
"The Advanced Word Processing System" 

<&• 9 Hi-Resolution Display Formats from 28 to 255 columns by 24 
lines. 

True Upper and Lower Case display format. 
<sy Three Different Programmable Header lines, re-definable at 
anytime. 

<r> Programmable Footer line & Automatic Footnote System. 
<sy 10 Programmable Tab stops & 7 Tab Function Commands. 
O Automatic Line Justification, Centering, Flush left and Flush 
right, 

O On screen display of underlining and Double size characters. 
z> Change indents, margins, line length, etc. at anytime in a 
document. 

<r> Create and Edit files larger than memory, up to the size of a 
full disk. 

<r> Easily imbed any number of format and control codes for 
printers. 

i> Automatic Memory sense 16-64K with up to 48K of 
workspace. 

<& Typist Friendly line and Command format entry w/ auto key 
repeat. 

<& Fully supports the use of 80 column hardware cards. 

TEXTPRO III is an advanced word processing system designed 
for speed, flexability and extensive document processing. It is not 
like most of the other word processing programs available for the 
Color Computer. If you are looking for a simple word processor to 
write letters or other short documents, then most likely you* 11 be 
better off with one of the other word processors. But, if you want a 
powerful word processing program with extensive document 
formatting features to handle large documents, term papers, man- 
uals, complex formating problems and letter writing, then TEX- 
TPRO is what, your looking for. TEXTPRO works in a totally 
different way than most word processing programs. It uses simple 2 
character abbreviations of words or phrases for commands and 
formatting information that you imbed directly in your text. There 
are over 50 different formating commands you can use without ever 
leaving the text your working on. There are no time comsuming, 
and often furstrating menu chases, you are in total control at all 
times. The formatted output can be displayed directly on the screen, 
showing you exactly what your printed document will look like 
before a single word is ever printed. This includes margins, head- 
ers, footers, page numbers, page breaks, underlining, column 
formating and full justification. 

Disk $59.95 Tape $49.95 

To order products by mail, send check or money order for the amount of 
purchase, plus $3.00 for shipping & handling to the address below. 

To order by VISA, MASTERCARD or C.O.D. call us at the 
number listed below (Monday thru Saturday, 8am to 5pm PST). 

CER-COMP 
5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 
S (702) 452-0632 S 



On En [puis Us 11 Plus W4.@ 

SUPER SMART TERMINAL PROGRAM 
With AUTOPILOT Executive Command Processor and AUTO-LOO Language Processor 

X-MODEM DISK FILE TRANSFER SUPPORT 
VT-1QQ&VT-52 TERMINAL EMULATION 



No lost data when using Hi-Res Display , Even at 1200 Baud. 
9 Hi-Res Display formats, 28 to 255 columns by 24 lines. 
True Upper and Lower Case Displays. 
45K Text Buffer when using the Hi-Res Display and Disk . 
Kill the Hi-Res Display Option for an Extra 6K of buffer space. 
ASCI! & BINARY disk file transfer via XMODEM. 
Directly record receive data to a disk file while online. 
VT-100 terminal emulation for VAX, UNIX and other systems. 
VT-100752 cursor keys & position, insert/delete, tabs & more. 
Automatic File Capture. 

Programmable Word Length, Parity and Stop Bits. 
Programmable Baud Rates from 300 to 19200 Baud. 
Complete Full and Half Duplex operation, no garbled data. 
Send full 128 character set from Keyboard with control codes. 
Freeze Display & Review Information On line with no data loss. 



Complete Editor, Insert, Delete. Change or Add to Buffer. 

Automatic Key Repeat for Buffer Editing. 

9 Variable length, Programmable Macro Key buffers can store 

entire programs. Only limited by the size of available memory. 

Programmable Control Character Trapping. 

Programmable Prompt Character or Delay to send next line. 

Programmable Printer rates from 1 10 to 9600 Baud. 

Send Files directly from the Buffer or Disk. 

Supports True Line Break Transmission. 

Save and Load Text Buffer and Program Key to Tape or Disk. 

Disk Commands include: Load, Save, Kill and Directory. 

Display on Screen or Print the contents of the Bufferr. 

Automatic Memory Sense 16-64K (32K required for Hi-Res ). 

Program and Memory Status Displays. 

Built in Command Menu (Help) Display. 



Auto-Log: is a communications programming language that will enable you to automatically have DPI1+ Dial the phone, wait for and respond 
to a log-on prompt, send commands to a remote system, or even to send an entire program automatically. 

AUTOPILOT: is a executive command processor that will automatically process a command file containing a sequence of DPII+ commands 
including Auto-Log commands. 

SUPPORTS: PBJ Word-Pak I, II, R.S. and Double Density 80 Column Cards Not Compatible vith JDOS 

Disto Super Controller w/80 column card & parallel printer Requires 32K & Disk 

PBJ Parallel Printer Card and Dual Serial Port (2SP-Pak) 1 Onlv 1 5 9 on 

Radio Shack Modem-Pak & Deluxe RS-232 PBk. even with Disk. y * 



Do you want to write fast efficient machine language programs but you don't want t 
the next few years trying to learn how to write them in Assembly language? 
Well with CBASIC. vou could be writing them right now! 



o spend 



CBASIC is the only fully integrated Basic Compiler and program 
editing system available for the Color Computer. It will allow you to 
take full advantage of all the capabilities available in your color 
computer without having to spend years trying to learn assembly 
language programming. CBASIC allows you to create, edit and 
convert programs from a language you are already familiar with 
Extended Disk Color Basic, into fast efficient machine language 
programs easily and quickly. We spent over 2 years writing and 
refining CBASIC to make it the Best Color Basic compiler available 
for the Color Computer. We added advanced features like a full 
blown program editor. Hi-Res text Displays and 80 column hardware 
support for editing, compiling and even for your compiled programs. 
Plus we made it exceptionally easy to use, CBASIC is the friendliest 
and easiest compiler available for the Color Computer. 

The most complete f ditor/Compi/er /have seen for the CoCo... " 

-The RAINBOW, March 1 936 

CBASIC is for BEGINNER & ADVANCED USERS 

CBASIC is a powerful tool for the Beginner as well as the 
Advanced Basic or Machine Language programmer. You can write 
programs without having to worry about the Stack. DP Register, 
memory allocation and so on, because CBASIC will handle it for you 
automatically. For Advanced users, CBASIC will let you control 
every aspect of your program, even generating machine code 
directly in a program easily. 

CBASIC adds many features not found in Color Basic, like 
Interrupt, Reset and On Error handling, and much more. 

Commands and Extensive Hardware Support 

CBASIC features well over 100 compiled Basic Commands and 
Functions that fully support Disk Sequential and Direct access files. 
Tape, Printer and Screen I/O. CBASIC supports ALL the High and 
Low Resolution Graphics, Sound. Play and String Operations available 
in Extended Color Basic, including Graphics GET. PUT. PLAY and 
DRAW, all with 99.9S syntax compatibility. CBASIC also supports 
the built in Serial 1/0 port with separate programmable printer & 
serial I/O baud rates. You can send and receive data with easy to 
use PRINT. INPUT and INKEY commands. 

CBASIC is the only Color Basic Compiler that includes it's own 
Hi-Res 5 1 , 64 or 85 by 24 line display. It also supports the PBJ 
"Word-Pak" I. II and R.S. versions as well as the Disto and Double 
Density 80 column displays. All as part of the standard CBASIC 
package. You can even include them in your compiled programs by 
using a single CBASIC command. 

CBASIC makes full use of the power and flexibility of the 6883 
SAM in the Color Computer. It will fully utilize the 96K of address 
space available in the CoCo during program Creation, Editing and 
Compilation. There is a single CBASIC command for automatic 64K 
RAM control, to allow use of the upper 32K of RAM automatically. 
When used in compiled programs it will automatically switch the 
ROMs and RAM in and out when needed. Plus there are two other 
commands to control of the upper 32K of RAM manually in a 
program. 



CBASIC has its own completely integrated Basic Program Editor 
which allows you to load, edit or create programs for the compiler. 
It is a full featured editor designed specifically for writing and 
editing Basic programs, most likely you'll find you want to use it for 
writing all your Basic programs. It has block move & copy, program 
renumbering, automatic line numbers, screen editing, printer control 
and much more. 

"The Editor is a very good one and could be the subject for review 
all by itself " -The RAINBOW, March I W6 

"Comparing fCB's edit mode to CSASIC's text editor is like comparing a 
World War II jeep to a modern sedan. Both get you to your destination, 

but what a difference in the ride. — Hot CoCo, Feburary 1 9B6 

The documentation provided with CBASIC is an 8 1/2* 1 1 Spiral 
Bound book which contains approximatly 120 pages of real 
information. We went to great lengths to provide a manual that is 
not only easy to use and understand, but complete and comprehensive 
enough for even the most sophisticated user. 

"CBASIC's manual is easy to read and written with a minimum of 
technicalese. " -Hot CoCo February , ! G86 

The price of CBASIC is $ 149.00. It is the most expensive Color 
Basic Compiler on the market, and well worth the investment. 
Compare the performance of CBASIC against any Color Basic 
compiler. Dollar for dollar, CBASIC gives you more than any other 
compiler available. Requires 64K & Disk, not JDOS compatible . 

"The price tag it carries seemed a bit steep for an integer compiler on first 
glance, but when you add 6*iK, hi-res drivers, and full-screen editing, CBASIC 
begins to look more like a bargain.. " — Hot CoCo February, 1 966 
"A Complete Editor/Compiler Weil Worth its Price "--RAINBOW March 1086 

COMMANDS SUPPORTED 

t/O COMMANDS . CLOSE. CLO ADM. CSAVEM.DR}VE.DSKI*,DSKQ*. FIELD. FILES. GET. 
INPUT.LINE INPUT, KILL, LSET, LOADM, OPEN, PRINT, PRINT*, PUT,RENAME, RSET, SAVEM, 
WRITE 

CONTROL STATEMENTS: CALL, CHAIN, END, EXEC, FOR, NEXT, STEP, GOTO, GOSUB, 
RETURN, IF, THEN, ELSE, STOP, END, RUN, ON/GOTO, ON/GOSUB, ON ERROR GOTO, ON NMI 
GOTO, ON IRQ GOTO, ON SWI GOTO, ON FIRO GOTO, ON RESET GOTO, IRQ ON, IRO OFF, 
RAM ON, RAM OFF, RAM64K, IRQ, FIRO, NMI, SWI, STACK, RETI 

COMPILER DIRECTIVES: BASE, ORG, DIM, HIRES, DPSET, GEN, PCLEAR, TRACE ON, TRACE 
OFF, MODULE 

GRPAHICS/SOUND STATEMENTS: KAY, SOUND, COLOR, CIS, CIRCLE, DRAW, LINE, PAINT, 
PCLS, PCOPY, PMODE, PRESET, PSET, RESET, SET, SCREEN, POINT, PPOINT, GET, PUT 
NUMERIC FUNCTIONS: ABS, POS, RND, PEEK, DPEEK, TAB, ASC, LEN, INSTR, VAL, ERR, ERL, 
EOF, SWAP, LOF, LOC, FREE, CVN, VARPTR, JOYSTK, SON, TIMER, OVEREM, DSEARCH, 
SWITCH, POS*, INKEY 

STRING FUNCTIONS: CHRt, LEFT*, RIGHT*, MIDI, STR1, TRftt, STRING*, r*N*,lNK£Yt, BUFl, 
SWAP*, SWITCH*, HEX* 

OTHER/SPECIAL COMMANDS: AUDIO ON/OFF, DATA, DIM, MOTOR ON/OFF, POKE, DPOKE, 
READ, RESTORE, CBLINK, UNLINK, BRATE, PRATE, MID*=, STACK, VERIFY ON/OFF 

To order b y mail, send check or money order for the amount of the program plus 
J3.GO for shipping and handling to the address listed below. 

To order by VIAS, MASTERCARD or COD call us at: (702) 452-0632 (Monday thru 
Saturday. Bam to 5pm PST). 

CER-COMP 
5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas. NV 891 10 
(702)-452-0632 



Book RevieWi 



Assembly Language 
Programming for the 
TRS-80 Color Computer 



Learning to program in assembly language has never been 
easy. It takes a lot of concentrated study, time and mistakes 
(unfortunately). While assembly language is technically 
termed a low-level language, it provides access to each and 
every function that a computer is capable of performing. 
By contrast, a high-level language such as BASIC provides 
only limited access to a computer's full capabilities. 

Those wishing to learn the tricks of assembly language 
programming now have a new tool available in the form 
of a book entitled Assembly Language Programming for 
the TRS-80 Color Computer, written by Laurence A. 
Tepolt. Beginners will find the book very easy to follow, 
while more advanced programmers will find it to be a 
valuable reference. 

Information and concepts are presented in a logical, easy- 
tc&understand order. For instance, when new technical 
descriptions or terms are introduced, their first usage is 
highlighted in boldface text to draw attention. Each new 
concept is followed by at least one example. 



TOTHIAN SOFTMARE 



COCO TESTEM 

Make multiple choice, matching, true/false, 
completion, short answer tests. Complete 
randomizing function. Requires printer with 
underline ability. Works with tape or disk. 
32K ECB tape. $19.95 

TEACHER PAK 

Both weighted and regular grading, seating 
charts, alphabetizing, statistical analysis. 
Works with tape or disk. 16K ECB tape. $34.95 

BOTH COCO TESTEM AND TEACHER PAK - $47.95 

D I SKMAN 

Backup, reorganize, and alphabetize RS disk 
directories. Examine & change sectors. Catalog 
disk tiles. Printouts. 32K disk. $21.95 

HOMEWARE 

Versatile home management package. Use with 
tape or disk. Five 16K ECB/ML modules on tape: 

CALENDAR - Draw calendars. Various formats. 

SAVINGS/LOANS - Personal finance calculators. 

DIRECTORY - Keep track of phone numbers, 

addresses, etc. Print address labels. 

INVENTORY - For home records, hobbies, etc. 

HOME-WRITER - Simple ML word processing. 

Single modules: $19.95 Whole set: $49.95 

Pa. residents add 65L Send check or money 
order - no cash - to: 

Tothian Software. Inc. 
Box 663 
Rimersburg, Pa. 1624B 



The instruction set of the 6809 processor is discussed in 
detail. Chapter 5 is a valuable reference guide, as it contains 
a comprehensive explanation of each instruction, how it 
operates and how the condition codes are affected. This 
section could be a valuable stand-alone reference by itself. 

The book also describes the operation and use of the 
EDTASM+ assembler, text editor and monitor. In fact, all 
of the examples in the book were written using the 
EDTASM+ ROM pack, which is probably the most widely 
used assembler. In any case, the examples may be readily 
transferred to practically any other assembler. 

Next are the practical applications. Perhaps the most 
sought-after information for new programmers concerns 
how to interface their machine language programs with 
BASIC. Fortunately, the book covers a variety of methods 
for doing so. Attention is given to methods for passing 
numeric and string information to and from BASIC, as well 
as the trusted technique of USR calls. 

Very good detail is given on the use of ROM routines. 
Through the use of ROM routines, the assembly language 
source code may be reduced in size and made more efficient. 
Practical examples are given for the ROM routines to clear 
the screen, output a character through the serial port, 
display text on the screen, get keyboard data, read the 
joystick values, and do tape and disk I/O. These are subjects 
that are quite difficult for the student to master on his own, 
and the book covers them in detail. 

Chapters 9 and 10 are devoted to the more advanced 
topics, such as interrupt processing, the internal control 
registers and graphics. These topics are very important and 
are well-covered within the book. 

A lot of additional information is provided in the book's 
appendix — details of the CoCo's cartridge connector, a 
chart of the 6809E instruction set, ASCII character and 
control codes, CoCo character and control codes and 
dedicated CoCo memory addresses. A thorough compila- 
tion of this type of data within one publication is very useful, 
and saves the assembly language programmer a lot of time 
that might have been spent in searching through several 
other publications. 

While the book presents virtually all the information 
about CoCo hardware that a programmer needs, there are 
many more concepts of assembly language programming to 
be learned. The author himself refers to his book as an 
introduction to assembly language programming. I call it 
a very good introduction! 

(Tepco, 30 Water Street, Portsmouth, RI 02871; 401-683- 
3019, $16 plus $1.50 S/H. Price increases to $18 January 
1, 1987) 

— Don Hutchison 



RGB VIDEOc^ol^r 

.WHITE OR GREEN CHARACTERS ON A 
BLACK SCREEN-PLUS NORMAL GREEN 
SCREEN-SWITCH SELECTABLE 

,N0 SPECIAL SOFTWARE 

.HI-RES GRAPHICS 

.ADD $5.00 SHIPPING & HANDLING 

INVENTIVE SOLUTIONS 

BOX 286 
STANFORDVILLE , N . Y . 
(914)528 4404 12506 



.USING THE COCO AS A DEVELOPMENT 
SYSTEM 

.HIDDEN MODEM 

•MONOCHROME VIDEO DRIVER-WHITE 
CHARACTERS ON A BLACK SCREEN 

.COMPOSITE VIDEO DRIVER 

.PARALLEL PORTS 

.D/A A/D CONVERTERS 

.ELECTRONIC FLEA-MARKET (PARTS) 

.AND MUCH MORE 

DEAL DIRECT WITH MANUFACTURER 

SEND OR CALL FOR FREE CATALOG 
OR INFORMATION 



1 42 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



Software RewewMi^^^MM^/^ 

Mikeydial: Making Mikeyterm 

Even Better 

Here is a very worthwhile addition to Mikeyterm that, 
when used with a Hayes-compatible modem, provides auto- 
dial and logon capability. When used with an auto-dial 
modem and Mikeyterm, this program eliminates the need 
for typing in all those telephone numbers and other logon 
information for your favorite BBSs. 

The program, written in BASIC, automatically loads and 
executes Mikeyterm (you will need it on the same disk). 
Upon running Mikeydial you are greeted with a title page 
followed by a full page of BBS names you added earlier. 
Pressing ENTER results in a second page of BBS names. You 
can toggle between these two pages by simply pressing 
ENTER again. Each BBS name is preceded with a letter, A 
to V, so that you have the capability of 22 auto-dial/ logon 
possibilities. In addition to the auto-dial directory there is 
a command mode that allows you to change several modem 
parameters. The submenu gives choices for speaker on, full 
duplex, auto-answer off, carrier on, connect alert off and 
1200 baud. 

Selecting any of the numbers from 1 to 6 toggles to the 
opposite parameter such as on/ off, full/ half, 1200/300, etc. 
After making your selections and /or changes, press CLEAR 
to return to the directory mode, or the space bar to go 
directly to the terminal mode. Assuming you want to use 
the auto-dial feature of the modem, press CLEAR at this 
time. When you select any of the 22 available BBS names, 
the program loads a macro, which in turn commands your 
modem to dial and log on the BBS of your choice. If the 
"connect alert" feature is turned on and the modem dials 
a busy number, you can go about your business while the 
program instructs the modem to keep trying until connec- 
tion is finally detected. At that time you will hear a 
continous warbling tone to alert you to the fact that 
connection has been established, and the program will wait 
for you to press any key to go online. 

Another nice feature of Mikeydial is that it allows you 
to use a different set of three macros for each different 



— —^m — m i , I . 1 . 1 ,. I I u \^^~m^ i ^ i 

One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

This program will display the characters in the 
RAM / ROM of your Color Computer. It also features 
a sound output to entertain most anyone within 
earshot. 

The listing: 

fl CLS : FORX=lT065535 :A«PEEK ( X ) : PR 
INTCHR$ (A) ; : I FA< 1THENNEXTELS ES OU 
NDA, 1:NEXT 

David Cross 
Bonaire, GA 

(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



directory, making up for Mikeyterm's ability to handle only 
three in total. Macros are used to set up the user numbers, 
passwords and other logon procedures, and each can be 
different for all 22 BBSs you have programmed into 
Mikeydial. This is a great convenience, in that you will no 
longer need your BBS log sheet or scraps of paper with 
similar information. 

In order to program the macros, you can use any word 
processor capable of reading/ writing ASCII files, or you 
could use the buffer entry mode of Mikeyterm itself. Since 
I already had Mikeyterm loaded in the computer, I elected 
to use the buffer entry mode. It was quite easy to do, as 
the instructions that come with Mikeydial point out. You 
simply follow a specified sequence of entries, the first being 
the BBS name followed by the telephone number you want 
dialed. Then there are three macros that contain other logon 
information such as your user name and password. The last 
entry contains the baud rate at which you want to connect 
to the BBS. 

I believe that Mikeydial is an excellent program that 
increases the usefulness and power of Mikeyterm. Dave 
Haber of Foxx Software has done a nice job on this 
program. Once you couple this program with Mikeyterm 
and a modem, you will have a combination that's hard to 
beat. 

(Spectrum Projects Inc., P.O. Box 264, Howard Beach, NY 
11414; 718-835-1344, $19.95 plus $3 S/H) 

— Jerry Semones 



BAStC COMPILER 

MLB ASIC 1.0 - BASIC COMPILER 

Compiled Program Speed (Tine In minutes: seconds) 

Program Interpreter MLBASIC 

Eratosthenes Sieve 6:58.7 0 : 06 . 3 
Matrix Fill, Mult , Sum 

10x10 0:30.9 0:02.5 

String Manipulation 6:22.5 2:17.7 

Floating Point 0:32.6 0:30.6 
Disk I/O 

(2000 PHIMT/IHPUTs) 2:21.5 0:27.6 



Additional Features not found with RS BASIC 

The SUBROUTINE command is used to declare the beginning of a 
syb-program. The CALL statement is used to call that sub-program, just as 
GOSI'BIOO calls a subroutine at line 100. The subprograms contain a list of 
parameters that are "linked", or referenced, to the variable that is likewise 
used In the parameter list of the CALL statement. All variables that are not 
referenced in the parameter list are used as local variables within each 
subprogram. In other words, variables in the subprogram do not affect the 
sane variables in the calling program. The following is an example using CALL 
and SUBROUTINE: 

10 INPUT" ENTER A NUMBER ?";A:PRINT 

20 CALL CUBE(A; 

30 PRINT"A Cubed-" ;A:ST0P 

40 SUBROUTINE CUBE(B) 

50 B»B*B*B 

60 RETURN 

MLB ASIC has several commands that offer extended programming capability. 
These commands are used for double byte PEEKs and POKEs, transferlng blocks 
of menory, executing machine language routines in ROM, and manipulating the 
hardware registers. 



More Reasons to buy MLBAS1C Today 

Three data types are allowed with MLBASIC. They are 16 bit INTEGER, 40 bit 
FLOATING POINT (with the same precision as wltb RS BASIC programs), and 

CHARACTER. 

String manipulation speed is 5 times faster than RS BASIC string handellng. 
A Fully detailed 154 page manual is included that not only explains how to 
use MLBASIC, but also is an easy to use reference manual for all commands 
offered with MLBASIC. 

(See our other ad in this magazine for more 
details on the BASIC Compiler, MLBASIC) 

Write us for more details on an ENHANCED 
version of MLBASIC for the COCO 3 



WasatchWare 




7350 Nutree Drive Salt Lake City, UT 84121 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 43 



7£\ 



Software Review ^SSS^SSSSST/^ 



Software ReWew^SS^SSSSSSS 

Little Letters Encourages 
Mastery of Lowercase 

Do you know a child who has mastered uppercase letters 
but is struggling to learn the lowercase alphabet? Bob's 
Software has the program to help. 

This program displays a lowercase letter on the screen and 
waits until an uppercase letter is pressed. When the correct 
choice is made, a balloon slowly rises from the bottom to 
the top of the screen and a new letter is shown. If an 
incorrect key is selected a buzzer sounds, the appropriate 
uppercase letter is displayed briefly next to the lowercase 
letter and another chance is given. 

People who have one of the voice packs and who place 
the translator program on the disk with Little Letters will 
also hear spoken rewards, which enhances the program for 
the child. 

All instructions are included in the program, although if 
you want to use a voice pack, you need to refer to its 
instructions and provide your own translator program. 
Bob's Software distributes Little Letters as freeware and 
encourages distribution of the program. To become a 
registered owner and receive a catalog of other free 
programs you are asked to send $15. 

The program works well, the letters are drawn clearly, 
and it is well suited for children who require a great deal 
of practice before mastering skills. 

(Bob's Software, P.O. Box 391, Cleveland, OH 44107; 216- 
871-8858 $15 to become a registered owner) 

— Carol Kueppers 



Battle Hymn: The Battle 
of Gettysburg 

The battle lines are drawn. As Commanding General Lee 
of the Confederate Army, you are in charge of 39 divisions 
attempting to turn back the Union Army. 

Battle Hymn is a Hi-Res battlefield Simulation for a 64K 
ECB Color Computer. It comes on either tape or disk with 
a well-written and informative eight-page instruction 
booklet. The machine language program is not copy 
protected, and backup copies for the buyer's own protection 
are encouraged. 

The Simulation is easy to load and execute in the 
conventional manner. The playing screen is divided into two 




sections. The larger, upper half contains the map-like 
representation of the battlefield at Gettysburg during the 
Civil War. The bottom section of the screen contains the 
commands and status lines. The Union Army's positions are 
clearly identified by an American flag, while your Confed- 
erate positions are identified by an X. 

There is also a facing clock that is used to determine which 
way a unit is facing. This is very important since a unit can 
only fire in the direction it is facing. The facing is shown 
at the bottom of the screen as part of the command /status 
display. To check which way the Union divisions are facing, 
press U. In addition, the field of fire can be displayed by 
pressing R for the area affected. 

To make the Simulation even more realistic, the author 
has built in a stamina factor which affects losses under fire. 
Stamina is affected by fatigue, which in turn is caused by 
not resting or troops in rout. Some cute sound effects also 
add another degree of realism. 

The graphics in this Simulation are fair. As you might 
expect, there is little in a map to get excited about, but on 
the other hand, this Simulation is not a shoot-'em-up arcade 
game. History buffs and those with military or battlefield 
interests will love it, 

A great deal of strategy has been programmed into Battle 
Hymn. You would be wise to read up on the Civil War before 
you try it. Personally, I did no better than my forefathers. 
I, too, met my fate at the hands of General Mead. 

(Ark Royal Games, P.O.Box 14806, Jacksonville, FL 32238; 
904-786-8603, tape $29; disk $31) 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Here's one for the Ham! This program computes 
the lengths of the sides of a two-element Delta Loop 
antenna as well as the spacing of each element. 

The listing: 

P CLS: PRINT" DELTA LOOP ANTENNA 
DIMINSIONS" : PRINT: INPUT 11 XMIT FR 
EQ. IN MEGAHERTZ" IF : D« ( 100 5/F) / 3 
:R=(1030/F)/3;SP= ( 3J3P/F) * . 17 : PRI 
NT " DIRECTOR= " : PRINTD"FT. PER SID 
E" : PRINT " REFLECTORY 11 : PRINTR"FT. 
PER SIDE":PRINT"APROX. SPACING B 
ETWEEN ELEMENTS="SP"FT. " 

■'■'.■y^:'AS-'^\ : -^/- Timothy Johnson 

' Tulia, TX 



(For this winning one-liner contest entry; the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbctw Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



David Gerald 



144 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



w$fc eteV 




coyote 



CO"'*' 

Wo™ 



CO 5, 



"~ed^^r; t>e P°\e 0 o<* ^ 




^^^^ ^SSSsSB 



10 01 ( o.<°' 



2>* 





Hardware ReviewS^SSSSSSSSSS^ST/^\ 

Hardware Hackers Delight: 
D & A Research Digital 
Memory Scope 

Have you ever thought the uses for your CoCo were 
limited? I hope not! D & A Research of Satellite Beach, Fla., 
has come up with a novel use for your favorite computer 
that makes it much more valuable if you like hardware 
experimenting. 

This review focuses on the DMS-3B Digital Memory 
Scope, but we will look at this series of hardware add-ons 
in a broader sense. Actually, the scope can be be purchased 
as a complete kit for $169, but the individual boards can 
be used for many other purposes. The following boards 
comprise the kit: a J110K CoCo Bus Adaptor, a J105B 
Buffer Board, two J107B I/O Ports, a J202B A-to-D/ D-to- 
A Board, one probe, one printer cable and a power supply. 
A 64K CoCo is required, and the review sample had the 
software on tape. 

The J110K CoCo Bus Adaptor is a small circuit board 
that connects the CoCo to the rest of the D & A Research 
boards. It really has no stand-alone capabilities other than 
passing data lines D0-D7 and address lines A0-A7 to 
peripherals. Address lines A13-A15 are decoded to provide 
a directional data bus. Out and In signals are provided to 
the auxiliary bus. Connections to this circuit board are 
made using edge-type connectors. 

The J105B Buffer Board provides bus isolation, better 
known as buffering, between the Jl 10K and any peripher- 
als. The same signals passed by the bus adaptor are buffered 
using 74LS245 bi-directional data buffers and a 74LS32. 
Connections to this board are made using DIP connectors. 

The J107B I/O Port is the heart of the expansion 
interface. With the use of hardware decoding and software, 
the eight-bit data bus can be addressed as a port with any 
number between 0 and 255. Each J107B can be used to 
provide one 8-bit digital input and one 8-bit digital output. 
The port address is selected using an eight-pole DIP switch 
on the board. A 5-volt, wall-type DC power supply is 
necessary for these boards to operate. Connections to the 
boards are made using DIP headers. Output status is 
indicated by use of LEDs for each bit. 

A keyboard driver is used as an example of a practical 
application of these three boards. 

The J202B A-to-D/ D-to-A Board contains a DAC0807 
D-to-A converter and a DAC0804 A-to-D converter to 
further expand the capabilities of this bus. In addition to 
the 5 volts previously mentioned, +/-9 volts are necessary. 
These voltages are generated by the use of inexpensive 
transistor batteries. 

The information on the input and output voltage and 
impedance is sketchy, to say the least, but it appears to be 
-2.55 to +2.55 volts, corresponding to the digital value read 
from, or stored to, the port. Four values of sensitivity are 
hardware selectable. When the sensitivity is increased, the 
input range is decreased. The sample rate of the A-to-D 
converter is adjustable from 3 KHz to 10 KHz. 

The digital side of the analog input contains an LED 
display. Asynchronous and synchronous operation is 



hardware selectable. Clock frequency and gain are adjust- 
able by means of pots on the board. 

If you purchase the entire kit including the two J107Bs, 
you receive a probe for the A-to-D converter and software 
that can be used to convert your CoCo to an oscilloscope. 
It works, too! The software contains a screen dump routine 
for an Epson MX-70 printer. Therefore, you have the DMS- 
2B Digital Memory Scope at your disposal. An example of 
the output is shown below. 



The review package came in an attractive sheet metal 
enclosure measuring 8 by 6 by 2 { /i inches. The front panel 
included power supply switches, a jack for the 5-volt wall 
supply, the analog input and output jacks and a DB-25 
connector labeled Port A. LEDs indicate all power supply 
voltages. From a hardware standpoint it is impressive. 

The manuals are a different story. Adequate instructions 
are given in general terms. Each board contains an example 
of a use, such as a BASIC program convertor from a Model 
I to a CoCo, but specific information is lacking for the 
operating parameters and board specifications. The 
manuals assume you have enough background to figure it 
out from the schematic diagrams. 

I would recommend this kit, or any of the individual 
boards, for only the experienced hardware hacker. At the 
same time, the assembled package has excellent potential 
for advanced educational use. The only drawback is the 
documentation. I think the price is reasonable. 

(D & A Research, 400 Wilson Ave., Satellite Beach, FL 
32937; 305-777-1728, DMS-3B kit, $169) 

— Dan Downard 

Happy 
Holidays 

From your friends at RAINBOW 




146 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



Holiday Greetings 




Pumpman 

You'll dig thl* 100% ML arcade game! 
The Pumpman carries a pump mat he 
Ares at aliens Poaky and Dfagon as 
they change forms and chase him 
around underground 15 different 
screens, "pause game" feature, 
bonuses. As fun and challenging as the 
original arcade game! 32K. one joy- 
stick required. 

Tap* $21.95 Disk $24.95 



The Andrea CoCo 

By Art Martin 

Another great animated graphics 
adventured All you came down to the 
Yacht Club for was to get a drink and 
maybe play a tittle poker. Heck, 
nobody would ever guess that the 
closest thing you owned to a real yacht 
was the one over your fireplace. It was 
In the bar that you heard rumors of 
earth-shattering events about to take 
place You step out onto the wharf to 
get a little air when your natural 
curiosity and sense of adventure start 
to work.. .Can you save the world? 
Superb graphics, save & load feature. 
64K. one disk drive required. 

Disk $24.95 





Adventure In 
Mythology 

By Scott Cabit 



Rghter Pilot 

An original arcade game! Wave after 
wave of attacking aircraft attempt to 
shoot you down as you maneuver your 
fighter into the wild blue yonder, 
blasting enemy tighter, bombers, and 
paratroopers out of the sky. Joystick or 
keyboard operation, "pause game" 
feature Disk version saves high scores. 
32K. 100% Machine Language. See 
February '86 Rainbow for review 

Tap* $21 .95 Disk $24.95 

* * * GERMANY HERE 



An animated graphics adventure. 
Battle monsters and discover treasures 
as you assume the personalities of 
various heroes in ancient Greek myttv 
logyi You goal is to win the hand of the 
beautiful Atalanta, the swrft-running 
huntress. But beware of the perils and 
obstacles that stand In your way as you 
journey through ancient Greece! Four- 
voice music and sound effects, auto- 
matic speech when using a Tandy SSC 
speech, pak. Load and Save feature, 
over 250 locations. 64K Machine lan- 
guage 

Tap* $21.95 Disk $24.95 

we COME *** 



NEW 
WAT C H 

The Best 
Epson Screen Dump 

An easy-to-use screen dump utility for 
Epson. Panasonic. Gemini, ond com- 
patible printers Three sizes ot printouts, 
double-strike option, reverse printing 
switch use of double-density, bit- 
image mode, allows you to view the 
grapnlcs screen before printing 16K. 
supplied on tope Disk transferable 

Tape $14.95 



D EALERSH IP 
FOR DETAILS 

CGM20 
Screen Dump 

A graphics screen dump utility for the 
CGP-220 Ink Jet Printer. Features in- 
clude: Fast machine language, four- 
color and one-color versions, special 
CoCo Max version, user-selectable 
colors, regular or double-size printout. 
16K. 

Tape $14.95 Disk $17.95 



White Fire 

Of Eternity 




0^ 



White Fke is a full 64K 
super animated graphic 
• adventure, In an age of 
magic and monsters, you 
are tost rn the forbidden 
woods trying to get out... 

Disk $24.95 




Blackjack Dealer 
Feeler Dealer 

These Two programs help you develop your 
BlacKjack skill dnd strategy in Blackjoctc 
Dealer, the computer deals the cards and 
ploys the dealer's hand against you Feeler 
Dealer enables you to test your strategy by 
Dlaytng the desired number of hands using 
your techniques & tendencies A great 
teacher for new Blackjack players and a 
valuable tool for the veteran player Both 
programs included 32K extended 

Tape *24.95 Disk *29.95 




MAROONED! 

Sitting on the back porch one fine afternoon 
you see a stronge. flashing UFO-type objec' 
descena from the clouds & >and in the corr 
field Being the curious type, you run out tc 
investigate ana find a spaceship wttn itj 
hdtch open as you step insiae the hater 
closes and the ship takes off : Nov, you must 
fina o way to get back home A great 
graphics adventure' 32K & one disk dove 
reauired 

Disk or Amdek '29.95 



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Software Review SSSSS^Sl 5E5S27^\ 



Pretty Pictures on the CoCo 3 

With CC3 Draw 

At last, a package that utilizes the power of the new CoCo 
3 has arrived. CC3 Draw is a graphics editor designed to 
operate with the Color Computer 3's enhanced graphics. 

This program is a simple editor with several special 
features. With CC3 Draw, you can draw lines, boxes, circles, 
filled boxes or just set dots. Cursor control is with a joystick. 
CC3 Draw supports a two-button joystick; however, if you 
only have a single-button joystick, the space bar works as 
the second joystick button. 

To draw with CC3 Draw, just set a point on the screen 
using the joystick's second button or the space bar. Then 
move to the second point and press the appropriate key for 
the function. Nothing could be simpler. Sometimes a second 
press of the space bar or button is required for proper setting 
of a point. While this is not a major problem, it is somewhat 
bothersome. I have been assured by the programmers that 
this is being corrected. 

CC3 Draw supports 16 colors on the 320-by-192 Hi-Res 
screen available for the CoCo 3. All color choices are 
supported. It is easy to change colors, and CC3 Draw allows 
the user to set up "default" palettes for switching color sets. 
Complete instructions are included for this. Also included 
is a discussion of the PALETTE command on the CoCo 3 



and how it works. This is handy because the PRLETTE 
command and other associated color-control commands on 
the Color Computer 3 are somewhat difficult to understand. 

CC3 Draw is by no means a replacement for CoCo Max. 
It is a starting point for CoCo 3 software. It does not have 
fancy icons or close-up editing capabilities. It does offer 
basic drawing functions for new owners of the CoCo 3. In 
addition, CC3 Draw offers something to the programmer 
as well. 

The program is written entirely in BASIC. Because of this, 
those who know BASIC will be able to add their own 
commands and icons. The program is well-commented for 
these people. Also, several useful routines can be found in 
the BASIC listing. Among these is a method for saving the 
Hi-Res screen. This is something the CoCo 3 does not 
normally allow. If nothing else, CC3 Draw gives several 
examples of how to use the new features of the CoCo 3. 
However, I believe you'll want to draw a few pictures, too. 

CC3 Draw includes five single-spaced pages of documen- 
tation covering nearly every aspect of the program. I found 
this to be helpful. 

While I cannot give CC3 Draw a super-high rating, it does 
have some features that make it very worthwhile. I give the 
program a 75 on a 100-point scale. The documentation, 
however, gets a score of 90 on the same scale. 

(Spectrum Projects, Inc., P.O. Box 264, Howard Beach, FL 
11414; 718-835-1344, $19.95 plus $3 S/H) 

— Cray Augsburg 



TCE's 5th Anniversary Catalog 

is now available? 




PROGRAMMING TOOLS 
DEFT PASCAL WORKBENCH 
DEFT EXTRA 

DEFT 3D GRAPHICS SAMPLER 

WORD PROCESSING 
CHILD WRITER 
MEMO WRITER 
BUSINESS WRITER 

DATA MANAGERS 
CHILD FILER 
LIST MANAGER 
BUSINESS MANAGER 

SPREADSHEETS 
CHILD CALC 
SIMPLE CALC 
BUSINESS CALC 

EARLY LEARNING 
ABC s IN COLOR 
ALPHA MEMORY 
HAPPY COUNT 
MIX AND MATCH 
MR. BEAR COUNT 
MR. BEAR SPELLER 
MR. PIGGY 
SEE AND SPELL 
TEACHING CLOCK 



MATH SERIES 
BASIC MATH 
CRISS CROSS MATH 
CRISS CROSS PLUS 
FLASH CARD 
FRACTIONS 
FRACTION DESTROYER 
FRIEND OR FOE 
MATH BOMBER 
MATH REVIEW 
MR. BEAR FLASH CARD 
MR. BEAR MATH 
PLACE VALUES 
REDUCING FRACTIONS 
RESCUE MATH 

LEARNING ACTIVITIES 
ALPHA ATTACK 
CAPITAL MATCH 
HISTORY QUIZ 
MATH QUIZ 
MEMORY MATCH 
QUIZ GAME 
UNITED STATES 
VOCAB BRUSH-UP 



LANGUAGE ARTS 
ALPHABETIZE 
ANTONYM EXPRESS 
ANTONYM MATCH 
COMPUTER EASE 
CRISS CROSS SPELL 
ENGLISH REVIEW 
HOMONYMS 
NOUNS 

NOUNS REVIEW 
PLURALS 
PRONOUNS 
SAVE THE FISH 
SPELL BOMBER 
SPELLING RULES 
SUPER SPELL BOMBER 
SYNONYM EXPRESS 
SYNONYM MATCH 
TORPEDO SCRAMBLE 
VERB REVIEW 
WEEKLY SCRAMBLER 
WEEKLY SPELLER 



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CALL us at l-(800)-4TC-4TCE or l-(301)-963-3848 
for a FREE TCE Software catalog and the latest copy of TCE NEWS 



148 



THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



Telewriter-64 

the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 

True lower case characters 

User-friendly full-screen 
editor 

Right justification 

Easy hyphenation 

Drives any printer 

Embedded format and 
control codes 

Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 
Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 

The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 1 6 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 




...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 5 1 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/VI1I, DMP-100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins: line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 

Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line herders and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell *n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sire saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 

Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and /or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



...truly a state of the art word processor., 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Compruter is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Street 

Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 (weekdays, 
8AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries invited. (Add 
$2 for shipping. Californians add 6% state tax.) 

Available at 
Radio Shaek stores 
via express order 

catalogue #90-0253 
90-0254 

Apple U is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a trademark 
of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp; MX-80 is a 
trademark of Epson America, Inc. 





Give us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoColsts in showing the Color Computer world 
Ugh score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in RAINBOW'S 
"Scoreboards ^ All entries must be received 60 days pWor to publication. Entries should be printed 
— legibly -- |hd mjist include your fwf/ riame, address, game title, company name arid, of course, your high 
score. Each individual is limited to three score entries per month. Send your entries to Scoreboard, c/o THE 
RAINBOW. The "Rainbow Scoreboard" is now a bimonthly feature. 

For greater convenience, your high scores may also be serrfcto^ section of our new 

Delphi CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then type SEND and address to: EMTORS. 



* Current Record Holder 



Shutout 



ADVANCED STAR*TRENCH (THE RAINBOW, 7/86) 
3,960 ★ Maurice MacGarvey, Dawson Creak, 

British Columbia 
2,300 Blain Jamieson, Kingston, Ontario 
1,800 Chris Goodman, Baltimore, MD 

ALPINE SLOPES (THE RAINBOW, 12/65) 
6,851 



200 <1 
143-3 
141-0 



101-2 



4,656 

4,254 
4,056 
3,970 



58,200 
57,300 
54,300 
40,585 



46,713 
33,676 
30,720 
21,221 
19.986 
18,529 
15,260 



* 
★ 



★Myriam Ferland, Trois-Rivieres, 
Quebec 

Maurice MacGarvey, Dawson Creek, 

British Columbia 
Todd Wirtz, Midland, Mi 
Johnny Garrison, Tuscaloosa, AL 
Steven Bullard, Allen, OK 
AN DRONE (Radio Shack) 

61,200 ★Maurice MacGarvey, Dawson Creek, 
British Columbia 
Scott Bellman, Bettendorf, iA 
Mitch Hart, Seattle, WA 
Daphnie Phillips, Evansville, Wl 
Theresa Juetten, Reikis, Ml 
ASTRO BLAST (Mark Data) 

60,825 ★Craig Schroder, Sarnis, Ontario 
BAG-IT-MAN (Aardvark) 

358,000 ★Kevin Krueger, 100 Mile House, 
British Columbia 
BEAM RIDER (Spectral Associates) 
6,004,000 * James Oakley, Nashville, TN 

Lisa Lapointe, La Tuque, Quebec 
Eveiyn Thompson, Nederiand, TX 
Paul Bivens, Washington, PA 
Robert Eering, Swift Current, 
Saskatchewan 
BIOSPHERE (Radio Shack) 

391 *Danny Perkins, Clifton Forge, VA 
BOXING (THE RAINBOW, 8/86) 

480 ★Talib Khan, Bronx, NY 
395 Blain Jamieson, Kingston, Ontario 
BUBBLE WARS (THE RAINBOW, 2/86) 

75,100 *Rachael Richards, Biskeslee, PA 
Shirley Kirk, Elgin, OR 
Odene Kirk, Elgin, OR 
Daniei Cecil, Bardstown, KY 
Carlton Taylor, Scarborough, Ontario 
Jon Larson, Seligman, AZ 



89 
89 
89 
90 
91 
92 



3,376,080 
3,042,470 
1,909.630 
747,200 



43,150 
37,957 
30,850 
29,650 
28,800 



BUSTOUT ( Radio Shack) 



37,900 
21,850 



21,630 
21,236 
18,403 
1,266 



★Gordon Rock, Davenport, IA 
Charles Egglesfieid, Sault Ste Marie, 

Ontario 
Tanya Maestas, Denver, CO 
Mike McCafferty, Idaho Falls, ID 
Chris Zepka, North Adams, MA 
Andy Walker, York, PA 
CASTLE (THE RAINBOW, 6/86) 

202,659 ★Brendan Powell, La Grande, OR 
10,216 Kirby Smith, York, PA 
9,941 Maurice MacGarvey, Dawson Creek, 
British Columbia 
CATERPILLAR CAVE (T&D Software) 

1,170 *Aiex Abraham, Atlanta, GA 
CLOWNS & B ALLOONS ( Radio Shack) 

62,440 *Robin Ackerman, Concord, TN 
41,280 Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
COLOR BASEBALL (Radio Shack) 

999-0 ★•Erik Munson, Tucson, AZ 

Ghislain Chillis, Trois-Rivieres, 

Quebec 
Frank D'Amato, Brooklyn, NY 
•John Licata, Richton Park, IL 
•Danny Perkins, Clifton Forge, VA 
•Skipper Taday, East Lyme, CT 



866-1 

814-1 
814-0 
653-0 
549-0 



Martin Parada, Arcadia, CA 
Steven Buliard. Alien, OK 
•Maurice MacGarvey, Dawson Creek, 
British Columbia 
Craig Mesler, Waikerville, Ml 
COLOR BLACKJACK (THE RAINBOW, 10/83) 
$26,500 ★Francois Provencal, Chateauguay, 
Quebec 

COLOR CAR (NOVASOFT) 

242,767 ★Alan Martin, Cornwall, Ontario 
1 1 0,454 Scott Enman, Belle-Mead, N J 
107,864 David Entenmann, Monroe, NY 
CRYSTLE CASTLES (ThunderVision) 

820,010 *J. Yosef Krinsky, Jerusalem, Israei 
DALLAS QUEST (Radio Shack) 

87 ★Douglas Bell, Duncan, OK 
Milan Parekh, Fulleflon, CA 
Andrew Urquhart, Metairie, LA 
Steve Zemaiti8, Howell, Ml 
Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 
John Semonin, Akron, OH 
David & Shirley Johnson, 
Leicester, NC 
DEATH TRAP ( Soft Sector) 

86,748 ★Douglas Pardon, Brigham City, UT 
47,233 Daie Krueger, Maple Ridge, 

British Columbia 
40,674 David Entenmann, Monroe, NY 
DECATHALON (Spectral Associates) 

10,304 ★Bernard Florence, Croydon, Australia 
9,648 Matthew Sundariand, Christchurch, 

New Zealand 
9,344 Marco Lecours, Ste-Justine, Quebec 
DEMOLITION DERBY (Radio Shack) 
110,500 *Tim Glenn, Havertown, PA 
97,700 Brian Ballew, Morganton, NC 
DEMON ATTACK (imagic) 

244,110 ★Gregory Day, Holstein, Ontario 
Mike Watson, Northvllle, NY 
Tim Glenn, Havertown, PA 
Lisa Nebel, Phoenix, AZ 
Jon Ruhnow, Duncanviile, TX 
DEMON SEED (MichTron) 

15,360 ★Biake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
DESERT PATROL (Arcade Animation) 

746,450 ★Rodney Abery, Victoria, Australia 
DESERT RIDER (Radio Shack) 

68,872 ★Janine Freamon, Citrus Heights, CA 
Skip Freamon, Citrus Heights, CA 
Steve Zemaitis, Howell, Ml 
Michael Llzardy, Oregon, OH 
Bernard Florence, Croydon, Australia 
DOODLEBUG (Computerware) 
2,515,940 ★William Novobilsky, Lanoka Harbor, 
NJ 

Doreen Watt, Sudbury, Ontario 
Craig Schroder, Samia, Ontario 
Biake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
DOUBLE BACK (Radio Shack) 
2,586,300 ★Eugene Roosa, Stone Ridge, NY 
Diane Guernon, Montreal, Quebec 
Michael Brennan, Calgary, Alberta 
Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
Joel MecNeil, Needham, MA 
DOWNLAND (Radio Shack) 

89,490 ★Neil Edge, Williston, FL 

Chris Goodman, Baltimore, MD 
Cooper Valentin, Vavenby, 

British Columbia 
Danny Perkins, Clifton Forge, VA 



125,520 
81,635 
78.010 
64,195 



65.215 
62,329 
51,519 
50,268 



1,315.170 
52,430 
18.385 



1,618,400 
450,600 
159,610 
52,840 



70,142 
68,142 



46,804 Theresa Juetten. Pelkie, Ml 
43,485 Jon Kirkham, Stratford, CT 
38,696 Chuck Lehotsky, North Jackson, OH 
DRACONIAN (Tom Mix) 

760,549 ★Conan Davis, London, Ontario 
DRAGON FIRE (Radio Shack) 

123,120 ★Rupert Young, Sheffield, MA 
Gilles Gagne, SiMery, Quebec 
Nathanae! Heller, Kenner, LA 
Brian Matheme, Gretna, LA 
Jermaine Jackson, Tallulah, LA 
Owen Edson, Sherman Oaks, CA 
James Nahas, New London, CT 
Ed Emelett, Nantlcoke, PA 
ENCHANTER (Intocom) 

400/621 ★Brad Wilson. Lithia Springu, GA 
185/186 David Tarleton, Williamsburg, VA 
80/1 1 5 Scott Bellman, Bettendorf, IA 
E VICTOR (THE RAINBOW, 7/86) 

9,230 ★Raymond MacGarvey, Dawson Creek, 

British Columbia 
7,500 Rachael Richards, Blakeslee, PA 
4,570 Chris Goodman, Baltimore, MD 
FALCON'S LAIR (THE RAINBOW, 8/85) 
30,522 ★Kirby Smith/York, PA 
Talib Khan, Bronx. NY 
Joyce Smith, Butler, PA 
Michael Scott, Johnstown, NY 
Daniel Cecil, Bardstown, KY 
FIGHTER PILOT (Saguaro Software) 

117,000 ★Stevphan Arvay, St, Louis, MO 
61,500 Steven Arvay, St. Louis, MO 
FIRESTORM (THE RAINBOW, 1/86) 

3,510 ★Brad Bansner, Wyomissing, PA 
FROG-MAN (Computer Island) 

6,635 ★ Andy Green, Whitehall, PA 
GALAGON (Spectral Associates) 

73,520 ★Nell Edge, Williston, FL 
71,220 Debora Edwards, Wembley, Alberta 
GANTELET (Diecom Products) 

787,780 ★Brad Wilson, Lithia Springs, GA 
Mike Dyer, Lompoc, CA 
Jey Graddlck, Cocoa, FL 
John Straiton, Merritt Island, FL 
Michael Heitz. Chicago, IL 
Jeff Thompson, Chesterfield, VA 
GHANA BWANA (Radio Shack) 

693,830 ★Steve Wright, Fredericton, 
New Brunswick 
Milan Parekh, Fullerton. CA 
Gene Wells, Silsbee, TX 
Mike Dyer, Lompoc, CA 
Rupert Young, Sheffield, MA 
GHOST GOBBLER (Spectral Associates) 
102,540 ★Greg Erickson, Lowell, MA 



19,554 
18,461 
17,463 
15,707 



628.020 
243,810 
73.460 
72,760 
30,000 



510,180 
459,930 
359,080 
325,900 



80,550 
76,900 



4*8,900 



49,600 



Otga Pichard, Lausanne, Switzerland 
Ghislain Chillis, Trois-Rivieres, 

Quebec 
Pierre Pichard, Lausanne, 

Switzerland 
Sylvain Castonguay, Chicoutimi, 

Quebec 
Mark Herpst, San Diego, CA 
Jason Maxwell, Manchester, TN 
Bobby Brooks, Zephyrhilis, PA 
GRABBER (Tom Mix) 

23,550 ★Rod Kruetzfeld, Vanscoy, 
Saskatchewan 
GRID FACTOR (T&D Software) 

4,550 ★Alex Abraham, Atlanta, GA 



72,960 

47,200 
37,200 
14,750 



★★★*★★★★★★*★★*★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 



150 



THE RAINBOW December 1986 





90 
90 



11,000 
10,900 
9,900 
4,200 



2,134,600 
1,670,900 
1,500,800 
219,700 
187,400 
10,600 



168,385 
149,190 
137,900 
135,825 



194,000 
173,884 
170,248 

142,152 



54 
15 
9 
9 



★Jeff Hilliaon, Blacksburg, VA 
★ Paul Maxwell, Vancouver, 
British Columbia 
Ed Emelett, Nanticoke, PA 
David Kay, Winnipeg, Manitoba 
SHOCK TROOPER (Mark Data) 

21 4,203 ★Fruber Malcom, Cuipeper, VA 

Erik Huffman, Rochester Hills, Ml 
Rodney Mullineaux, Gig Harbor, WA 
Gordon Alvarnaz, Taunton, MA 
Tim Peysar, Pasadena, CA 
SIR EGGDERT JUMPER (THE RAINBOW, 8/85) 

568 ★Odene Kirk, Elgin, OR 
SKIING (Radio Shack) 



95 
95 



150,490 
100,040 
69,328 
50,782 



0:45.65 
0:49.45 
0:56.00 
0:56.00 
1:00.00 
1:00.00 
1:10.00 



186,560 
106,950 
104,130 
103,560 



18,874 
17,250 
14,861 
14,785 
5,612 



34,670 
29,600 
19,900 
14,900 



3,785,000 
1,987,000 
1,546,000 
1 ,253.200 
1,122,050 
101,250 



116,630 
57,680 

56,500 

50,210 
32,750 
14,800 



SPEED RACER (MichTron) 



★Tim North, Emporia, KS 
Sam Zehel Jr., Goal Center, PA 
Jason Munson, Tucson, AZ 
Leslie Sherman, Shallowater, TX 
Scott Clevenger, Falrmount, IN 
Billy Fairfull, Charleston, SC 
Kevin Gallagher, Santa Monica, CA 



145,400 
142,720 
142,310 
142,100 
139,210 
85,600 



★Brian King, Orlando, FL 
Erik Huffman, Rochester Hills, Ml 
Kevin Cornell, Green town, IN 
Chris Harrison, Brooks, KY 
Alan Drazen, Longwood, FL 
Tjm Peysar, Pasadena, CA 
SPIOERCIDE (Radio Shack) 

2,000 ★Mike Watson, Northville, NY 
1,740 Joel DeYoung, Manson, Manitoba 
1,730 Jason Munson, Tucson, AZ 
1,540 Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
STAR BLAZE (Radio Shack) 



* 

* 
* 

* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

★ 



HITCHHIKER'S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY (intocom) 

400/722 ★Brad Wilson, Lithia Springs, GA 
JUNIOR'S REVENGE (Computerware) >m 
1 ,210,400 *Ryan Sharp, Pompano Beach,. FL 
KAMAKAZIE KAR (THE RAINBOW, 8/65) 

75.75 ★Tim Glenn, Havertown, PA 
KARATE (Diecom Products) 

24,400 ★Robbie Cross, Starkviile, MS 

Gilles Melanson, Sudbury, Ontarfo 
Jirn Doyle, Barrackville, WV 
Scott Enman, Belle-Mead, NJ 
Scott Bellman, Bettendorf, IA 
THE KING (Tom Mix) 
4,092,600 ★Fruber Malcom, Cuipeper, VA 
Tim Rueb, Stevensvifle, Ml 
Yolanda Farr, Sayre, PA 
Kevin Cornell, Greentown, IN 
Rodney Abery, Victoria, Australia 
Craig Whjtten, Oreana, IL 
Bobby Brooks, Zephyrhills, FL 
KNOCK OUT (Diecom Products) 

1 81 ,085 ★Rush Caley, Port Orchard, WA 
John Licata, Richton Park, IL 
Daniel Lesage, Laval, Quebec 
John Rogers, Rye, NH 
Ghislain Chillis, Trois-Rivieres, 
Quebec 

LEMANS (Spectrai Associates) 

0:93 *Stephen Mills, Swift Current, 
SosRh tc h g W3 n 
LUNAR-ROVER PATROL (Spectral Associates) 
403,950 *Rodney Abery, Victoria, Australia 
142,600 Jerry Rossano, Manassas, VA 
MARBLE MAZE (Diecom Products) 
36,354,780 ★Melvln Sharp Jr., Baltimore, MD 
Nell Edge, Williston, FL 
Dan Bouges, Niantic, CT 
Jeff Maxwell, Lincoln, NE 
Stephana Ouzilleau, Lauzon, Quebec 
MEGA-BUG (Radio Shack) 

20,941 ★Shelby Dunning, Sacramento, CA 
Tim Rueb, Stevensvllle, Ml 
Keith Queen, Marietta, GA 
Michael Clerico, Seaford, NY 
Blain Jamieson, Kingston, Ontario 
Luis Mejico, Cordoba, Argentina 
MISSION: F-16 ASSAULT (Diecom Products) 
127,550 ★Michael Heitz, Chicago, IL 
Chris Foster, Texarkana, TX 
Jeanine Mason, Spencer, MA 
Stevphan Arvay, St. Louis, MO 
Paul Mason, Spencer, MA 
MR. DIG (Computerware) 
1 0,41 6,31 5 ★Paula James, Lumberton, TX 
MUDPIES (MichTron) 

354,800 ★Sal Scibetta, Houston, TX 

Terry Kreller, Winnipeg, Manitoba 
Lisa Kohn, Canton, OH 
Eddie Roginski, Mertztown, PA 
Dale Krueger, Maple Ridge, 
British Columbia 
NINJA WARRIOR (Programmer's Guild) 
1 ,01 1 ,900 *Vivian Buterin, St. John, MO 
Rich Fiore, Clemson, SC 
Robert Mercredi, Winnipeg, Manitoba 
Terry Kreller, Winnipeg, Manitoba 
Eric Gladstone, Ocala, FL 
OFFENDER (American Business Computers) 

215,000 ^Andrew Urquhart, Metairie, LA 
ONE-ON-ONE (Radio Shack) 

1,006-57 ★Elliot Alfred & Ian Hanson, Houston, 
TX 

Mark Berry, Durham, Ontario 
Chad Johnson, Little Rock, AR 
Toby Jacobs, Bellefontalne, OH 
Wes Hill, Vashon, WA 
•Erik Huffman, Rochester Hills, Ml 
OPERATION FREEDOM (THE RAINBOW, 8/85) 
33,320 ★Blain Jamieson, Kingston, Ontario 
24,395 Mark Daley, Binghamton, NY 
PAC-TAC ( Computerware) 

39,853 *Andy Green, Whitehall, PA 
PAPER ROUTE (Diecom Products) 

337,550 ★Lawrence Elman, Smithtown, NY 
Jam! Foster, Mary ville, TN 
Michael Heitz, Chicago, IL 
Martin Pa rada, Arcadia, CA 
Jeanine Mason, Spencer, MA 



246,600 
127,200 
108,800 
96,700 



753,000 
181,200 
164,400 
108,000 



994-24 
994-28 
986-22 
970-32 
969-0 



249,000 
200.305 
106,000 
98,200 



PEGASUS AND THE PHANTOM RIDERS (Radio Shack) 
250,200 *Leon Kornbluth, Richfield, NJ 
109,800 Mike Dyer, Lompoc, CA 
63,890 Milan Parekh, Fullerton, CA 
50,200 Rodrigo Maldonado, Whittier, CA 
PITFALL II (Activision) 

199,000 ★ Danny Perkins, Clifton Forge, VA 
Michael Wallace, Bronx, NY 
Brian Biggs, Grove City, OH 
Donald Williams, Prince George, 

British Columbia 
Don Lyman, Seattle, WA 
PtTSTOP II (Epyx) 

54 ★James Doty, Washougal, WA 

★Danny Perkins, Clifton Forge, VA 
Randy Heckman, La Mirada, CA 
Walter Hearne, Pensacola, FL 
Jeff Maxwell, Lincoln, NE 
POLAR TIC TAC TOE (THE RAINBOW, 8/86) 

12 ★Chris Goodman, Baltimore, MD 
POOYAN (Datasoft) 

97,500,000 ★Rich Fiore, Clemson, SC 
Ben Collins, Clemson, SC 
Jon Sowle, Sanford, FL 
Jason Maxwell, Manchester, TN 
Thomas Mayor, Brooklyn, NY 
J. Yosef Krinsky, Jerusalem, Israel 
Craig Schroder, Sarnla, Ontario 
POPCORN (Radio Shack) 

165,180 *Matt Heinernann, Richmond, VA 
Keith Aschemeier, Napoleon, OH 
Melita Boudreault, Port-Cartier, 

Quebec 
Bruce Johnson, Vavenby, 

British Columbia 
Scott Swedis, Spencer, MA 
Andy Downin, Mesa, AZ 
Jerone Broshear, Woodbridge, VA 
PYRAMID (Radio Shack) 

220/220 ★Craig Frlcke, Jacksonville, IL 
RADIO BALL (Radio Shack) 
6,330,350 ★Myriam Ferland, Trois-Rivieres, 
Quebec 
Les Dorn, Eau Claire, Wl 
Dominic Deguire, St. Baslle, Quebec 
Sara Grace, Baltimore, MD 
Brian Matherne, Gretna, LA 
ROBOTTACK (intracoior) 
2,122,150 ★Ghislain Chillis & Michel Lessard, 
Trois-Rivieres, Quebec 
Ian MacLachlan, Bethany, Ontario 
Erik Huffman, Rochester Hills, Ml 
Keith Smith, Bethany, Ontario 
Chad McClelian, Rushville. IN 
Craig Whitten, Oreana, IL 
ROMMEL 3-D (MichTron) 

499,400 ★Stephen Charchuk, Yarmouth, 
Nova Scotia 
Jim Hawerbier, Elmhurst, iL 
Todd Hooge, Comox, 

British Columbia 
Marc Gagnon, Cap-de-la-Madeleine, 

Quebec 
Paul Seng, East Lansing, Mi 
SAILOR MAN (Tom Mix) 

997,300 ★John Licata, Richton Park, IL 
Gabriel Assel, Cameron, MO 
Mike McGeoch, Havertown, PA 
Alan Drazen, Longwood, FL 
Bryan Jenner, Calgary, Alberta 
Craig Frlcke, Jacksonville, IL 
Marc Bertrand, Trois-Rivieres, 

Quebec 
Myriam Ferland, Trois-Rivieres, 

Quebec 
Bobby Brooks, Zephyrhills, FL 
SALVAGE OF THE ASTRONAUTS (THE RAINBOW, 9/86) 
4,830 ★Chris Goodman, Baltimore, MD 
793 Spencer Metcalf, Longview, TX 
SHAMUS (Radio Shack) 

190,280 ★Damon Sunderland, Christchurch, 
New Zealand 
Mike McGeoch, Havertown, PA 
Craig Schindler, Cambridge, Ontario 
Thomas Hunt, Oxon Hill, MD 
Frank Pruet, San Diego, CA 
SHENANIGANS (Mark Data) 

90 ★Roy Grant, Toledo, OH : 



9.350 
8,750 
8,750 
8,400 
8,200 
8,100 



4,510,740 
1,945,110 
1,330,500 
1,301,350 



1,020,800 
975,850 
931,250 
637,600 
475,600 



144,600 
84,000 

68,200 

62,700 



983,300 
910,200 
879,100 
741.100 
496,800 
276,100 

234,900 

132,000 



★Michael Shahan, Bloomington, IN 
Jon Larson, Seligman, AZ 
Kent Pirkle, Cumming, GA 
John Guptili, Columbia, MO 
Chris Coleman, Meriden, CT 
Curtis Frazier Jr., Enterprise, AL 
STARLORD (THE RAINBOW, 8/86) 

452,880 ★Brad Bansner, Wyomissing, PA 
46,440 Talib Khan, Bronx, NY 
STELLAR LIFE-LINE (Radio Shack) 



347,420 
299,030 



★Steven Smith, Matthews, NC 
WilHam Novobilsky, Lanoka Harbor, 
NJ 

Don Johnson, Winnipeg, Manitoba 
Stefan Mecay, Austin, TX 
Craig Fricke, Jacksonville, IL 
STRATEGY FOOTBALL (THE RAINBOW, 8/83) 

124-7 ★Thomas Laubach, Jacksonville, FL 
TEMPLE OF ROM (Radio Shack) 



78,600 
58,580 
49,900 



1,422,400 
959,400 
938,800 



219,300 

207,800 
105,300 



★Timothy Bishop, Jacksonville, FL 
Sonya Hurst, Richmond, CA 
Christopher Romance, 

Massapequa Park, NY 
Maurice MacGarvey, Dawson Creek, 

British Columbia 
Jeanine Mason, Spencer, MA 
Michael Albert, Long Beach, NY 
TUBE FRENZY eAardVarfr; 

181,930 ★Sheryl Chapnick, Winnipeg, Manitoba 
VARLOC (Radio Shack) 

1 ,910 ★Danny Perkins, Clifton Forge, VA 
1 ,850 Michael Bataion, Nlnoie, HI 
1,850 Wayne Edwards, Wembley, Alberta 
VICIOUS VIC (THE RAINBOW, 7/86) 

2,626 ★Brad Bansner, Wyomissing, PA 
2,512 Jeff Brudereck, Wyomissing, PA 
1,201 Maurice MacGarvey, Dawson Creek, 
British Columbia 
WHIRLYBIRD RUN (Spectral Associates) 

31,300 ★Martin Parada, Arcadia, CA 
ZAXXON (Datasoft) 



2,061,000 
1,300,500 
1,100,600 
256,400 
253,400 
163,700 



★Byron Alford, Raytown, MO 
Dan Brown, Pittsford, NY 
Andrew Urquhart, Metairie, LA 
Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
Bob Dewitt, Blue Island, IL 
Daniel Bradford, Birmingham, AL 



88,960 
27,510 
27,285 
24,000 



ZONX (THE RAINBOW, 10/85) 



21,100 
15,100 
14,300 
13,600 
6,600 



★Phillip Johnson, Scottsville, VA 
J. Yosef Krinsky, Jerusalem, Israel 
Dale Taylor, Chattanooga, TN 
Michael Etchason, Sauk Rapids, MN 
Roy Geeo, Hot Springs, AR 



Debbie Hartley 



★ ★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★-A-* 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 1 51 



*★*★★★*****★★★***★★★★****★★★* 



C t$ V) IS B IP Si B 




I HI T C O 
Pi I Ell 




In conjunction with the rainbow's Scoreboard, we offer this column of 
pointers for our game-playing readers' benefit. If you have some interest- 
ing hints and tips, we encourage you to share them by sending them to 
uhe Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. 



FEEDBACK 



Scoreboard: 

In response to Dale Lampe's question 
about Pyramid (August 1986), to get out 
of the maze after you are at the vending 
machine, you must go north, west and then 
up. 

In the game Raaka-Tu l need to know 
bow to get to the goblin and how to kill 



Avi Finkel 
Lewisburg, PA 



Scoreboard: 

In response to Rodrigo Maldonado's 
letter (October 1986) about Pitfall II, when 
you get down to the bottom of the caverns, 
go left as far as possible on land. Wait for 
the bat to fly over and, after a second, a 
balloon will appear.Go to the left side of 
the screen and avoid the bats. When you 
get to the top, the balloon will pop. Make 
sure you're over the land part. Go left, 
jump the scorpion, go up and you 11 find 
the girl. Go down to the second scorpion 
from the top and then go left. Run and 
jump off the side, and keep going left to 
get the ring. The rest is up to you. 

1 need help in defeating the Wizard's 
image in Dungeons of Daggorath. IVe 
mastered everything but him so far, and he 
doesn't fall for any tricks. Send help to the 
"Scoreboard." 

Danny Perkins 
nfton Forge, VA 




Scoreboard: 

In conjunction with Dawn Daniels' 
letter in the October 1986 "Scoreboard" on 
how to get the coin in Raaka~Tu, using the 
"wait" command allows you to wait for the 
guards to pass and then approach the 
temple and get the coin (without getting 
killed). Be sure to move away immediately 
after getting the coin or the guards will 
return and kill you. 

IVe been going CoCo crazy trying to kill 
the image of the Wizard in Dungeons of 



Daggorath, Any help would be greatly 
appreciated. 

Andy Wolstromer 
River Edge, NJ 

Editor's Note: Danny and Andy, 
you both might refer to the letter 
entitled "Rings are Good for the 
Image," which appeared in the 
March 1981$ "Scoreboard." 



GAME QUEST 

Scoreboard: 

1 am seeking information about a com- 
pany called Programmer's Guild. They 
make a game called Ninja Warrior, which 
is shown in the "Scoreboard." I would like 
to know if anyone has their address or 
telephone number. 

Keith DuBose 
Sarasota, FL 

Editor's Note: Programmer's Guild 
is no longer in business, Keith, and 
we could not find any company that 
sells their game. We have had nu- 
merous requests for this game re- 
cently, so if anyone knows of a 
software company that carries Ninja 
Warrior, please write to the "Score- 
board." 



GREEDY CREATURES 

Scoreboard: . 

I have some hints for Dungeons of 
Daggorath, If you have a lot of objects you 
don't need/drop them. You can then stay 
in that same cell and no creatures (except 
the scorpion and the Wizard) may attack 
you until they are finished collecting the 
objects. While they are picking them up* 
you can attack them as much as you want, 
but watch out for your heart rate. 

Michael Wallace 
Bronx, NY 



A-MAZE-ING RESULTS 



Scoreboard: 

I have a few tips for Madness arid the 
Minotaur. In the room with the strange 
colored walls, turn the lamp off and then 
examine everything. 

To get the pack rat to give you a treasu re, 
take the sapphire to it. 

To find out what you need to get the spell 
book, when you first start the game go 
west, west, north and examine the pool. In 
this room you can also climb the ledge (if 
you have the rope), or you can get the flute 
and parchment, go to the room in the maze 
that plays music, and play the flute. Also 
in the maze, find the pit that changes 
location in each game and type LOOK PIT. 

To open the crypt which has a passage 
leading down only, get the Power ring and 
open the crypt. 

John Fulton 
Boydton, VA 



A LITTLE MARTIAN MUSIC 

Scoreboard: 

Here are some tips for Pyramid 2000. At 
the entrance to the pyramid, type OPEN 
PANEL. Be sure you have the lamp, bottle, 
food and scepter. Be sure to water the plant 
twice. To get out of the maze, go north, 
west and then up. 

I need directions to the Mummy's Chest. 
I also need to know if the fallen block can 
be moved. If so, how? 

In Mars-80, to get more oxygen go into 
the ship. To catch the martian, play your 
harmonica (look in your suit) until he 
comes in the room. Make sure you have 
the net. Then type, NET MARTIAN. This will 
prevent him from moving everything 
around. 

Sherry Moore 
Columbus, OH 



★★★★★★★★★*★★*★*★*★*** * ******* 

152 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



★ ★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★a-******** 



PLAYING If l^if * 

Scoreboard: 

Here are a couple hints for Pap^ Route, 
Riding your bike in the middle of the street 
is much safer than the sidewalk; if you miss 
a few houses in the beginning, don't panic 
— this makes it easier to get perfect 
deliveries later. 

I need help with Trekboer. How can I 
find the coordinates of the planet Alton, 
and is this the planet where I will find the 
Xendos? Also, how can I open the access 
panel in the environmental control room? 
Any help would be appreciated. 

Michael Heitz 
Chicago, IL 




IMMUNITY 



Scoreboard: 

In the second board (Indian Hill) of 
Canyon Climber, if you go up the first 
ladder and then come back down, the 
arrows will no longer be able to kill you. 
This allows you to get points by jumping 
them without endangering yourself. 

I need help with Pyramid 2000 (What do 
you do about the mummy?) and Raaka-Tu 
(What do you do after youVe gained 25 
points?). ' 

Any other help with those games would 
be appreciated also. 

Matt Kurtin 
Roanoke, VA 



BURIED ALIVE 



Scoreboard: 

Here are some hints for War of the 
Worlds. Mapping is very useful in Chapter 
L but in chapters 2 and 3 it won't help 
much. Remember that the priest is only 
human and everything he says is not 
always true. When the alien drone tells you 
Klandor is on the island, he doesn't mean 
the island near Talma. 

I need some help with The Co Co Zone 
(rainbow, April 1986). I get the mask and 



bottle and get into the casket, Once 1 am 
buried, I try to drill a hole, but I get the 
response, u too dark." When I light the 
match to drill a hole, a draft of air extin- 
guishes it. I understand that you should be 
able to see good enough to drill a hole if 
you have the flashlight, but where do you 
get it? I've searched all over the entire 
building. Any help would be greatly appre- 
ciated. 



'oung 
Manson, Manitoba 



■k CATCH-ALL OF CLUES 

Scoreboard: 

To start, I would like to give some hints 
on the game Zork I. To open the dam, you 
must go to the maintenance room and get 
the wrench. After you have the wrench, go 
to the controls and use it to turn the bolt. 
Wait awhile before going to the reservoir. 
You will now have a north direction to 
follow. 

For the game Enchanter, try sleeping in 
the four poster bed and when you get up, 
examine the bedpost. Also, to get the jewel 
box open, drop all your items outside the 
gallery. In the gallery you will find the 
Ozmoo spell. Then, go outside the gallery 
and make your way to outside the temple. 
Drop all your inventory, cast the spell on 
yourself and go inside. 

In the game Hitchhiker's Guide to the 
Galaxy, cover the hole in the vagon hold 
wall with your gown and cover the grating 
with the towel. I know how to get past the 
first two objects, but what do you do with 
the robot panel? Any help would be appre- 
ciated. 

David Beyer 
Melbourne, FL 



BRINGING ORDER TO BEDLAM 

Scoreboard: 
I have solved Bedlam several times and 



there are two key points. 1) You must get 
the green key out of the Shock Room by 
standing in the room before it. 2) Get the 
hamburger out of the refrigerator, put the 
blue pill in it and feed it to the dog. 

I would like help in solving Madness and 
the Minotaur. I can't seem to get any points 
at all, or kill monsters. Why? 

Maurice MacGarvey 
Dawson Creek, British Columbia 



HOPING FOR HALL HINTS 

Scoreboard: 

I need some help, but also have a few 
tips, in the game Hall of the King. I need 
help in finding the stick and also need to 
know how to pry open the gate with the 
funny lettering above it. 

Does anyone know how to bend the bar? 

The tips I have may be useful to some 
people. Put the amulet on the hook (the 
amulet is found in the seats in the theatre), 
and the gate that is in the room with the 
two statues and the gem, will open. When 
you get to the shrine with the bowl and the 
rod on his head, pull the rod. 

While in the room with the statue, box 
and pole, put the coins in the box. The rest 
is up to you. 

Mark Bourdeaux 
Spring Arbor, MI 



To respond to other readers' inquiries 
and requests for assistance, reply to 
"Scoreboard Pointers;* c/o THE RAIN- 
BOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 
We will immediately forward your letter to 
the original respondent and, just as impor- 
tantly, well share your reply with all 
"Scoreboard" readers in an upcoming 
issue. 

For greater convenience, "Scoreboard 
Pointers" and requests for assistance may 
also be sent to us through the MAIL 
section of our new Delphi CoCo SIG. 
From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick 
MAIL, then type SEND and address to: 
ED I TORS. Be sure to include your complete 
name and address. 



Debbie Hartley 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 



153 



December 1986 



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The Disappearing PCOPY 

Dilemma 



By Richard E. Esposito 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 

with Richard W. Libra 



Whenever I PCDPY 1 to 5, I get a 
syntax error and everything gets 
erased from memory. Is this a bug in 
one of my ROMs? 

Ernest Feo 
Miramar, FL 

13 To PCOPY higher than 4, Ernest, 
/C you must PCLERR memory first. 
When you power up your Extended 
BASIC CoCo, BASIC reserves 6K bytes of 
screen memory starting at Address 1536 
and continuing in 1,536-byte incre- 
ments to 7679. Space above this area is 
used for your programs. Therefore, if 
you PCOPY into this area without clear- 
ing additional screen memory, you will 
get syntax errors and lose your pro- 
gram. 

Bar Code for the CoCo 

Does someone make a device like a 
light pen that can read data from a 
magazine to the CoCo 2? 

John Leach 
New York, NY 

13 What you are interested in, John, 
/C is a text scanner. There was a firm 
marketing a device that claimed to read 
typewritten documents with a high 
degree of accuracy. Introduced at 
$1,000 plus, it consisted of a frame that 
held an 8!4-by-l 1-inch page and a 
trolley used to manually scan one line 
at a time. The product apparently has 
not been too successful, since I've seen 
it reduced to under $200. There have 
been attempts to put machine readable 

Richard Esposito is a project engineer 
for TRW's Government Systems 
Group. He holds bachelors, master's 
and doctorate degrees from Polytechnic 
Institute of Brooklyn. He has been 
writing about microcomputers since 
1980. 





text in magazines, and rainbow's sister 
publication, PCM, has been printing 
portable computer software in bar code 
since April 1984. 

rainbow once bound a phonograph 
recording of a CoCo tape into an anni- 
versary issue. The most encouraging 
technology at the moment is the Cauzin 
SoftStrip, which its proponents claim 
can tolerate the variation inherent in 
mass producing a magazine. 

80-Column Display 

In the August 1986 issue, Marty 
Goodman recommended Word-Pak 
RS and the Disto Super Controller 
for those who desired an 80-column 
display. When I asked Howard Medical 
Computers about Word-Pak RS, they 
told me it only worked with OS-9; the 
Disto Controller is advertised to work 
with BASIC only if I rewrite some com- 
mands. Since I am not a programmer, 
can you give me programming hints on 
getting it to work with my software 



before I lay out $220 on a Disto Con- 
troller? 

Guenter Glebinski 
Union, NJ 

ID If you are looking for an 80- 
^/C column display to work with 
your existing Color Computer soft- 
ware, Guenter, you are in for a big 
disappointment. Most standard CoCo 
software either uses high resolution 
graphics or the 32-by-16 text screen. 
FLEX and OS-9 software is usually 
written using these operating systems' 
standard display drivers, which can be 
patched to utilize a hardware 80- 
column display such as the ones sold by 
Disto or Howard Medical. PBJ, the 
manufacturer of Word-Pak, sold FLEX 
and BASIC drivers for earlier versions 
(Word-Pak I and II) of their Word-Pak 
RS. Cer-Comp and Elite Software 
market Word-Pak versions of their 
software. The 80-column display for the 
CoCo that has the most potential for 
non-OS-9 support is the one that comes 
standard on the new CoCo 3. 

Buffer Printing 

/ use my MC-10 to access bulletin 
boards using Tandy's Micro Compac 
communications program and a 
modem. It is my understanding that the 
June 1984 issue of HOT CoCo had an 
article explaining how one could print 
the buffer contents. 

Frank McCain 
Pearland, TX 

Ic, The review by John S. Cullings 
X on Page 109 of that HOT CoCo 
issue included a BASIC program Com- 
pac Patch, which patches the Micro 
Compac communications program to 
allow you to return to BASIC without 
destroying the text buffer. It also in- 
cludes a BASIC program Scan and Print, 



1 56 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



which allows you to print the text buffer 
from BASIC. Back issues and reprints of 
articles from HOT CoCo are available 
from CW Communications/ Peterbor- 
ough, Inc., 80 Pine Street, Peterbor- 
ough, NH 03458, (603)924-9471. 

Merging With Pokes 

What pokes do I use to merge two 
programs using Extended Color 
BASIC? 

B. Cohn 
West Stockbridge, MA 

The following technique can be 
used to merge any number of 
basic programs as long as you do not 
exceed your CoCo's memory limit and 
the programs were saved in normal 
(non- ASCII) format: 

1) Type PRINT HEX$ ( PEEK ( 25 ) 
*256+PEEK(2G) ) and record the 
value. 

2) CLOAD the first program. 

3) Type PRINT HEX$ ( PEEK ( 27 ) 
*256+PEEI<(28)-2) and again 
record the value. 

4) Poke the values from Step 3 into 
addresses 25 and 26. (e.g., PDKE25 , 
$H53:P0KE2G,&H41) 

5) CLOAD the next program and re- 
number if necessary to avoid 
line number conflicts. 

6) Poke the values from Step 1 into 
addresses 25 and 26. 

Note: You can repeat steps 2 through 
6 to merge additional programs as long 
as you have sufficient memory. This 
technique also works with disk systems 
for programs that are not saved in 
ASCII. 

Pondering an Upgrade 

I have a 16 K ECB Co Co, cassette, 
a D WP-210 printer and Color Scrip- 
sit. / bought this setup a while ago 
and now since everything is much im- 
proved, should I upgrade or buy a new 
system? I am interested in using my 
computer for word processing, book- 
keeping and telecommunications. 

Rosemarie Hoyt 
Sharon, VT 

The lowest cost upgrade that will 
A significantly enhance the capabil- 
ity of your CoCo would be to increase 
its memory to 64K RAM. With the 
RAM upgrade, the addition of one, or 
preferably two, double-sided disk drives 
would open the door to more profes- 
sionally written home/ office software. 
If your needs require an 80-column 
display and memory beyond 64K, then 
I would advise getting a new CoCo 3 



instead of adding memory to your 
current machine. In any case, the drives 
will work even if you move up to a 3 
later. 

Program Interference 

H Is it possible that one program can 
M interfere with another? I have a 
S program, Gopher, and it works fine 
unless I try to run it with Diskmetiu, at 
which time I get an illegal function call. 

Robert LeBlanc 
Bouctouche, New Brunswick 

1? The Diskmenu program per- 
A 7C formsaPCLEARlinLine30.This 
eliminates most of the graphics memory 
that Gopher may require. Try removing 
this statement from Line 30 and see if 
that helps. 

EDTASM Assembly 

I recently purchased Tandy's Disk 
EDTASM assembler. My question is 
how can I get the assembler source 
listings from RAINBOW ON TAPE to disk 
for processing with my assembler? 

W. Tudor Morris 
Middletown, OH 

1} Assembler source listings are not 
*-pC included on RAINBOW ON TAPE. 
However, the program that follows will 
accomplish the task in other cases. It 
allows you to transfer ASCII files to 
disk and to number them if necessary 
for the EDTASM editor. 

10 DIM L$(80): L=0 
20 INPUT"TAPE FILENAME";FT$ 
30 INPUT"DI5I< FILENRME";FD$ 
40 0PEN"I",8-1,FT$: 0PEN"D", 
ttl,FD$ 

50 INPUT"D0ES FILE HAVE LINE 

NUMBERS?";Q$ 
60 L=L+10: I$=STR$(L): LINE 

INPUT8-1,L$ 
70 IF LEFT$(Q$,1)="Y" THEN 

PRINT81;L$ ELSE PRINT81, 

RIGHT$(I$,LEN(I$)-1) ; 

" ";L$ 

80 IF EOF(-1)=0 THEN G0 
90 CL0SE8-1: CL0SE81 
100 REM END DF EDTASM 
TRANSFER 

' A Hard Disk Bargain 

Is it possible to hook a hard disk to 
the CoCo at a reasonable price? 

Jeff Miller 
Midland, VA 

13 Since Tandy is currently market- 
ing a hard disk controller, Cat- 
alog No. 26-3145 ($129.95), look for 
advertisers in RAINBOW to offer low- 
cost packages consisting of a drive, case, 



cable and power supply to support this 
"standard" controller. 

Epson Dump 

Where can I find a good, low-cost 
screen dump for my Epson RX-80 
printer? 

Russell Bolick 
Middleburg Heights, OH 

ID Versadump, in HOT CoCo 
/C March 1985, is a screen dump 
generator that will build a machine 
language screen dump routine for your 
printer as well as many others. It was 
also part of the Instant CoCo tape for 
that month. 

MicroMeltdown Problems 

jU / am having difficulty entering the 
^ machine language portion o/Micro- 
B Meltdown, rainbow, April 1983. I 
tried to write a poke routine. The first 
two lines which follow resulted in an 
?LS Error. 

10 FOR X=&H0 TO &H0134:READ A$: 
POKEX , VAL ( "&H"+A$ ) : NEXT X 

20 DATAGD,8C,31,26,1B,6C,8C, 
2C,BE,01,68,AF,BC,27 

When I tried to assemble it, I got 193 
errors. Is the program chock full of 
errors? 

Teddy Kanamori 
Pasadena, CA 

ID You're on the right track, but you 
/C are poking into BASIC'S reserved 
area of memory and consequently blow- 
ing it away. The confusion arises from 
the "ORG 0000," which EDTASM 
interprets as Address $600 not $0000 as 
one might expect. The following loop 
will poke the proper code into memory 
in locations that will not interfere with 
BASIC, using data statements like the 
ones you are currently using. After 
saving the machine language version of 
this routine, be sure to subtract $600 
from the offset value calculation men- 
tioned in the article. 

10 FOR X=&H600 to &H94A: READ 
A$: POKEX, VAL ("&H"+A$) : 
NEXTX 

When entering this code into ED- 
TASM+, omit the Hex numbers in 
columns two and three. For example, 
the line: 

0003 0000 6D8C31 START TST 
<T0GLE,PCR NOT 0 

should be entered as: 

0003 START TST <T0GLE,PCR NOT 0 

December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 57 



Colorful Text 

I would like to know if there is a 
poke that changes the border of the 
screen to a different color. Also, can 
the text be changed to a different color? 

Karl Beyer 
Marengo, IL 

See Tony DiStefano's "Turn of 
the Screw," rainbow, October 
1986, Page 162, for the border color. 
Text can be displayed red on yellow or 
yellow on red using the command 
SCREEN1,0. This change is nullified by 
BASIC when your program terminates. 
This nullification can be aborted by 
poking various values into Address 359 
decimal. Some cassette machines work 
with 16 and some disk machines with 



zero. 



OS-9 System Disk Add-On 



D Can BASIC09 be put on the OS-9 
system disk? I am new to OS-9 and 
would like to learn much more about 
this operating system. 

Tim Hill 
Woodstock, Ontario 

13 Boot up with a backed-up copy 
/C of your system disk and use the 
DEL command to eliminate routines 
that you will not likely use with BASIC09. 
Then simply use the CDPY command to 
put BASIC09 in the /dO/CMDS direc- 
tory. Dale Puckett's books on OS-9 and 
BASIC09 are just the ticket for a new OS- 
9 aficionado. 

Disk Fix 

/ have a tape-to-disk program that 
allows me to use most, but not all, 
of my old tape programs with my 
new disk system. As a novice, how can 
I fix the routines that do not run or 
execute with my disk? 

Carl Rexrode 
Las Vegas, NV 

As far as BASIC programs are 
/C concerned, look for embedded 
machine language routines in the code. 
Disk BASIC puts your programs 2,048 
bytes higher in memory and in many 
cases, it's just a matter of identifying 
addresses in the embedded routines and 
incrementing them by 2,048. Machine 
language programs are another story. If 
they have an auto-loader, it must be 
disabled first. Assuming no auto- 
loader, either address dependencies or 
pokes that affect the disk drive hard- 
ware can be the culprit. If the problem 
is only address-dependent, a program, 
TAPEFIX, was published in my col- 
umn in 80 Micro, June 1986. It disables 



Disk BASIC after loading an ML pro- 
gram into high memory, and then 
moves it down to its normal address 
space before executing it. If TAPEFIX 
fails and the vendor of the software has 
no upgrade policy, your only alternative 
would be to disassemble the code and 
fix it the hard way. 

Nondestructive Putting 

How can I put an object on the 
screen without destroying the por- 
tion underneath it? 

Rox Lores 
Ponce, PR 

T2, Use GET to retrieve the portion of 
the screen where you will PUT an 
image and put it to a non-displayed 
page of screen memory for safekeeping. 
Later, when you want to remove your 
object, you can get the original back- 
ground and put it back. 

Mileage With a Light Pen 

1] Can I use a light pen to aid in 
estimating mileage from a road map? 

Virhe Lowe 
Mio, MI 

15 A light pen is essentially a photo- 
}C cell that detects the absence or 
presence of light. It can give the illusion 
of writing on a CRT because the soft- 
ware driver quickly blinks each pixel on 
the screen so the computer can detect 
the switching on or off of the pixel to 
which the light pen is pointed. If the 
map is displayed on a CRT and the 
appropriate hardware and software is 
available, it is technically feasible. 

Crack Proof? 

For months now I have been using 
what I thought was a fail-safe protec- 
tion called K-Lock. Just recently, a 
friend of mine found a way to search 
through the directory, find the pass- 
word, match it, and pass through K- 
Lock right to the directory by changing 
Line 380 to: 

380 DfiTfi 166,128,177,18,134, 
38,80,129 

Can this program be made unbreak- 
able? 

Ryan Haldeman 
Dallas Center, IA 

13 There is no software protection 
/L scheme that cannot be broken. 
Some are more difficult than others, but 
it's a constant cat and mouse game. It 
appears that this time, the cat got the 
mouse. 



The CoCo Print Shop 

/ have seen a program for other 
computers celled Print Shop. Is there 
anything like it for the Co Co? 

Steven Day 
Dayton, OH 

The closest CoCo equivalent I 
have seen is CoCo Max II. 

Atari Games for CoCo 



Is there any way to run Atari 2600 
video games on the CoCo? 

Bobby King 
McCrory, AR 

X) It would be difficult to get the 
/C Atari code running on the CoCo, 
Bobby. First of all, you would need to 
disassemble the ROMs and convert the 
6502 code to 6809 code. Then you 
would need to rewrite the portions of 
the code that are hardware dependent. 
Yes, it's possible, but with Atari game 
consoles selling for $30 and less, it's not 
worth the effort. 

Bank Switching 

I have a 64 K CoCo and I would like 
to have a program that allows me to 
use two 32K banks of memory. 
Where can I find one? 

Mike Johnson 
Jacksonville, FL 

13 An ML program that allows you 
/C to bank switch from BASIC was 
included in the article "The 80K Color 
Computer," HOT CoCo, June 1985. 

A Transfer Vehicle 

[I Having just traded to a Tandy 1000, 
|| how can I transfer my RAINBOW ON 
& tape programs to my Tandy 1000? 

Warren Dugger Jr. 
Orange, TX 

13 You can transfer RS-232 to RS- 
A 232. This is done by saving all of 
the BASIC programs on the CoCo in 
ASCII form, then loading them into the 
upload buffer of a smart terminal pro- 
gram such as Cer-Comp's Datapack IL 
With a similar program such as Cross- 
talk on the 1000, you can then save the 
programs to an MS-DOS disk. The 
alternative is to save the programs in 
ASCII to a CoCo disk and then use a 
program such as Mark Data Product's 
CoCo Util II to make the transfer. Keep 
in mind, however, most programs will 
require heavy editing before they will 
run on the Tandy 1000 and some may 
not run at all. 



158 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



Edit to Squeeze in a Little More 

Sometimes when typing in a pro- 
gram from RAINBOW, I find a pro- 
gram line is too long, e.g., the pro- 
gram Oh! Canada, September 1985, 
Page 124, had such a line. 

Florence Campeau 
Coteau Landing, Quebec 

Sometimes, Florence, you can 
squeeze in a few extra characters 

using the editor even after you have 

reached the end of the line. 

Old-time Games 

Several years ago, before computers 
became so popular, there were two 
programs for the TRS-80 Model I 
known as Santa Paravia and Fiumac- 
cio. These were later released by Instant 
Software, but I've never seen them for 
the Co Co. 

Madison Farrell 
Walterboro, SC 

X) Before the beginning of the 
/C video-game craze, Madison, 
game programs were mostly in the 
public domain and were written by 
programmers for mini-computers and 
mainframes for fun with no profit 
motive. Two books by David H. Ahl, 
101 Basic Computer Games and More 
Basic Computer Games, contain a 
collection of the best of these. Many of 
these games were customized for the 
TRS-80 Model I and subsequently 
showed up in Instant Software. 

Fill in the Blank 

/ would like to have the computer 
display lines with blank fields and 
then have the user fill them in. Can 
you offer some hints as to how this 
might be done? 

Keith March 
Continental, OH 

13 The cursor position in the CoCo 
A /L is stored in addresses 136 and 137 
decimal. The normal text screen mem- 
ory is in the range 1024 to 1535, the first 
32 bytes corresponding to the first row; 
the next 32 bytes, the second row; etc. 
You can put your fixed text on the 
screen using PRINTS statements and 
then position the cursor for inputs by 
poking the addresses 136 and 137. For 
example, to position the cursor to the 
center of the second row and prompt for 
input to the variable X, the BASIC code 
would be: 

100 P0KE136 , 4 : P0KE137 , 48 
110 INPUT X 



Drivers Needed 

Are there any graphics printer driv- 
y ers marketed for non-Tandy printers 
which run under OS-9? 

Paul French 
Burlington, I A 

I do not know of any commercial 
/L packages, but one could easily be 
written using C or BAS1C09. 

Upgrade for MC-10 Not Practical 

H How far can I go with my 20K MC- 
w 10 in making it more like my dad's 
M Co Co? I would like 64 K, extended 
BASIC and assembly language capabil- 
ity. 

Nicholas Petroff 
N. Vancouver, British Columbia 

13 It is technically possible to ex- 
A > pand the MC-10 to 64K. You 
could write an assembler in BASIC for it. 
Pete Stark, in his book Kilobaud Klass- 
room, includes one for the 6800 that is 
very similar to the MC-10's 6803. The 
CoCo and the MC-10 both use the same 
tape ML format so a 6803 assembler 
could run on the CoCo and create ML 
tapes for the MC-10. However, with 
64K CoCos as cheap as they are now, 
it makes no economic sense to expand 
the hardware of your MC-10. Even 
upgrading a CoCo 1 or 2 is questionable 
in light of the price of the new CoCo 3. 

Rainbow's the Answer 

Where can I find in-depth informa- 
tion on upgrading my CoCo, partic- 
ularly printers, DOSs and disk 
drives? 

Howard Knickerbocker 
Olalla, WA 

The most popular printers for 
/L CoCo owners are the Star Gem- 
ini series. If you buy drives, don't get the 
obsolete single-sided ones. Get double- 
sided drives. The ones made by TEAC 
have a good reputation for reliability. If 
you plan to use CoCo commercial 
software, get Radio Shack Disk Color 
BASIC 1.0 or 1.1 in ROM for disk 
controller, which supports single as well 
as double-density operation. You can 
get ADOS, BDOS, JDOS or some 
other ROM DOS, but use one of these 
as an alternate when you are writing 
your own code. For specific informa- 
tion on a particular product, check the 
reviews in rainbow. Since 1984, the 
July issues of the rainbow have in- 
cluded a comprehensive index of the 
previous year, which includes a reviews 
index. 



Cross Assembling 

|| Does anyone market a 6809 - 
68008 cross-assembler? I am inter- 
ested in moving CoCo source code to 
CIR-PAK Ltd.'s 68008 board for the 
CoCo. 

Dennis Kakoske 
Winnipeg, Manitoba 



1? Contact Frank Hogg Laboratory. 

A jC They market a 6502-6809 trans- 
lator and may be planning one for the 
68008. 



64K Runs 16K Programs 

Will a 64 K CoCo run programs 
designed for a 16K machine? 

Michael Albert 
Long Beach, NY 

A similarly configured CoCo 
/C with larger memory will run the 
programs of one with less memory 
unless there is a difference in the ROMs, 
and the program uses undocumented 
ROM calls. Incompatibilities do arise 
with disk versus non-disk CoCos pri- 
marily due to the use of the memory in 
the range $600 to $DFF, which is 
reserved for use by Disk BASIC. 



The IRS Is Watching 

Can the CoCo be used to prepare 
federal tax returns and will the IRS 
accept computer-generated forms 
from a DMP-130 printer? 

David Sharp Jr. 
Dover, PA 

There have been income tax 
preparation programs published 
in CoCo magazines and included in tape 
loaders such as Chromasette. None of 
those I have seen generated the tax 
forms, but they supplied the informa- 
tion. I do, however, know that the IRS 
does accept computer-generated forms. 
I suggest that you contact your local 
branch of the IRS or a tax attorney for 
regulations governing computer gener- 
ated forms. 



For a quicker response, your questions 
may also be posted in the Forum section 
of rainbow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. In 
Forum, type RDD and address your 
questions to the username DOCTOR- 
ASCII. You may also send questions to 
DOCTORASCII via Delphi Mail 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 59 



No more wasted electricity 
with this clever project 



LED Power Indicator 



everyone knows, one of the 
problems with owning disk 
drives for the CoCo is that 
you can't tell if power is being supplied 
to the unit. 

I am just as guilty as the next person. 
I will finish using CoCo Max or some 
other software, turn off my trusty CoCo 
and leave. Hours later 111 come back to 
my computer room, turn on my CoCo 
and reach around the back of the drives, 
only to find out that I failed to turn 
them off the last time. I do not know 
about other CoCo users, but electricity 
is costly these days and I feel the need 
to save all I can. Plus, I do not like 
power supplied to any of my units when 
they are not in use. 

Enter the bi-color, power-on indica- 
tor. This modification allows you to use 
a tri-color LED in place of the existing 
red LED. Under normal conditions, 
with the power on, the LED will glow 
red or green, depending on what color 
you choose. During disk I/O, the LED 
will glow the opposite color, letting you 
know the drive is being accessed. After 
I/O is complete, the LED will return to 
its original color. 



Logan Ward lives in Memphis, Tenn., 
and is studying electronics technology 
and computer engineering at the State 
Technical Institute. He is head techni- 
cian and service manager at The Com- 
puter Center, and his hobbies include 
custom programming and creating 
pictures on CoCo Max. 



By Logan Ward 



One of the big advantages to this 
modification is that no holes need to be 
drilled in the drive face plate. Another 
plus is that the basic components can be 
bought at your local Radio Shack. 

The first order of business is building 
the circuit (see Figure 1). The modifica- 
tion uses a 7404 Inverter and a tri-color 
LED (we will only use two colors). The 
inverter requires +5 volts to operate. 
This can be done a couple of ways. One 
is to tap 5 volts from the power connec- 
tor on back of the drive to the chip 
mounted on perf board and stuck with 
double-stick tape to the drive or drive 
case. 

The second method is piggybacking 
the chip to an existing chip on the drive 
motherboard with Pin 14 to 5 volts and 
Pin 7 to ground. Spread out the other 
legs so they do not touch the chip on the 
drive circuit board. Use a meter to find 
these voltages. Run two wires from pins 
1 and 2 of the 7404 to the existing LED 
on your drive. 

Take the tri-color LED and solder a 
long lead to the wire going to Pin 1 for 
a green power-on light and a red access 
light. To have a red power-on light and 
green access light, reverse LED pin 
connections. Next, remove the red LED 
from the face plate. How you do this is 
up to you. There are many different 
drives and many ways of removing the 
LED. Take it out as you see fit. 

After removal of the LED, discon- 
nect it from the leads attached to it. 
Take the positive lead and put a piece 
of electrical tape across the exposed 




1 60 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



Figure 1: GoCo Disk Drive Power-on Indicator 



LED1 



Tri-color 
LED 




To ground 
on LED Leads 



Ground Q 



O +5 volts 
(DC) 



Parts List 

LED1 — Tri-color LED (RS # 276-035) 
U1 — 7404 inverter (RS # 276-1802) 
10 — PERF Board (RS # 276-024) 



part of the wire. You will no longer need 
this. Now attach the ground lead wire 
from the old LED and solder it to Pin 
3 of the 7404. When this is complete, 
solder a small wire from Pin 4 to Pin 
1 of the 7404 inverter. Finally, remount 
your tri-color LED in the holder your 
original red LED was in. That's all there 
is to it. Some drives have the LED 
soldered into the circuit board. This 
project will work for those drives, but 
it will take a little extra work. 

I have tried this modification on full- 
height TEAC, TEC, Shugart, Tandon, 
MPI and Texas Peripheral disk drives. 
It worked on all of them, with success 
in all cases. 

The basic modification can be done 
for under $3 and in one evening. So get 
to work and enjoy. This modification 
has truly helped me and I know it will 
help you. If you have any questions, feel 
free to call me at the Computer Center 
(901-685-0009) from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
CST. 

I would like to thank Jesse Dunn, of 
the Memphis Color Computer Users 
Group for this idea, and my best friend, 
Ken Hunt, for a helpful suggestion. 
Happy computing! 



"XPNDR2 and SuperGuide - 
an Ideal Expansion Card Set" 



— RAINBOW 2/86 
HARDWARE REVIEW 




RAINBOW 



XPNDR2 $39.95 each or 2/$76 
This prototype card features a 40 pin 
connector for projects requiring an on- 
line disk system or ROM paks. The 
CoCo signals are brought out to wire- 
wrap pins. Special gold plated spring 
clips provide reliable and noisefree 
disk operation plus solid support for 
vertical mounting of the controller. The 
entire4.3*7 inch card is drilled for ICs. 
Assembled, tested and ready to run. 

XPNDR1 $19.95 each or 2/$36 
A rugged 4.3* 6.2 inch bare breadboard 
that brings the CoCo signals out to 
labeled pads. Both XPNDR cards are 
double-sided glass/epoxy, have gold 
plated edge connectors, thru-hole 
plating and are designed with heavy 
power and ground buses. They're 
drilled for standard 0.3 and 0.6 inch 
wide dual in-line wirewrap sockets; 
withaO.1 inch grid on the outboard end 
for connectors. 

SuperGuide $3.95 each 
Here is a unique plastic insert that 
aligns and supports printed circuit 
cards in the CoCo cartridge port. Don't 
forget to ORDER ONE FOR YOUR 
XPNDR CARDS. 



included with each XPNDR card 
are 8 pages of APPLICATION 
NOTES to help you learn about 
chips and how to connect them to 
your CoCo. 




To order or for technical informa- 
tion call: 

(206) 782-6809 

weekdays 8 a.m. to noon 

We pay shipping on prepaid orders. 
For immediate shipment send 
check, money order or the number 
and expiration date of your VISA or 
MASTERCARD to: 

ROBOTIC £r-\M ICROS Y5TEM S 

BOX 30807 SEATTLE, WA 98103 




MAGAZINE FOR COLOR COMPUTER USERS, 



Spectrogram Magazine provides useful and interesting support 
material with a wide range of programs and articles by some of 
the best writers and programmers available. 

•TELEGRAM by Bobby Ballard: A monthly column concern- 
ing the Color Computer and its use in telecommunications. 
•DOWNTIME by Rush Caley: Little-known facts, new and 
different ideas, opinions, and an occasional criticism or two. 
*BASIC HELP by Bill Berntco: Answers to your questions 
concerning the Color Computer and the BASIC language. 
•PASCAL PROGRAMMING by Delmar Searls: An in-depth 
study of Pascal and how to use it effectively. 

Assembly, C, OS-9, REM statements as data storage, floating 
point math, and graphics animation are covered with an emphasis 
on understanding. Utilities, games, business and home management 
programs are a steady diet, and all the programs in Spectrogram 
are available on tape or disk. Spectrogram Magazine could become 
the most informative addition to your Color Computer system! 



PLEASE SEND ME 12 ISSUES OF SPECTROGRAM MAGAZINE 
FOR $18 {40% off the cover price). 

Name: 



Address: 
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Zip: 



( ) Check enclosed 

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Exp. Dale: 



SPECTROGRAM MAGAZINE 
P. O. Box 138 (815)968-9600 
Rockford, IL 61105 

Foreign subscriptions :$26 Canada, all others $34 
Groups : $15 with 5 or more subscriptions 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 1 61 



The Best Money Can Buy . . . 
HDS Floppy Drive Controller Board 




Reduce your I/O errors with the Hard Drive Specialist 
Floppy Drive Control lar for the Color Computer. Gold edge 
card connectors, advanced design, and the absence of 
poterrtiorneters make it ths best available. Our newest ver- 
sion controller allows the use of either (two 24 pin ROMS), 
or (one 24 pin and one 28 pin ROM}, Using this board 
with the standard Radio Shack ROM gives you 100% com- 
patibility with all Radio Shack software. 
Completed and Tested Board 

wltti Radio Shack ROM * , h , S99. 

(Includes Case, and DOS Instructions) 
Completed and Tested Board without ROM ... $79, 
(Includes Case) 

Bare Board with Instruction manual , , 
Parts Ktt For Bare Board without ROM 
Radio Shack ROM (current version) 
Radio Shack ROM 1.0 



4 . 



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Creating Designer 
Arcade Games 



By Fred B. Scerbo 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Editor's Note: If you have an idea for 
the "Wishing Well," submit it to Fred 
c/o THE RAINBOW. Remember, keep 
your ideas specific, and don 7 forget that 
this is BASIC. All programs resulting 
from your wishes are for your use, but 
remain the property of the author. 



The pages of THE RAINBOW have 
often served as the testing 
ground for graphics, subrou- 
tines, and full-blown games I have 
worked on during the last few years. 
Some of the earliest offerings were short 
4K programs such as Zelda's Bat Bottle 
or Alpine Aliens. 

One of the most popular games I have 
listed was in 1982: Snail Invaders. 
"Snail" was the nickname of one of my 
students who served as the inspiration 
for that game written entirely in BASIC. 
Since a BASIC Invader game could not 



Fred Scerbo is a special needs instructor 
for the North Adams Public Schools in 
North Adams, Massachusetts. He holds 
a master's in education and has pub- 
lished some of the first software avail- 
able for the Color Computer through 
his software firm, Illustrated Memory 
Banks. 



match the speed of its machine language 
relatives, making the targets slow- 
moving snails more than justified the 
lack of speed. (In July of 1983, Snail's 
sequel, Snail's Revenge was also listed 
for RAINBOW readers. It even made the 
"Scoreboard," as readers submitted 
their high scores.) 

Snail Invaders served as the later 
inspiration for a more refined version I 
released called Creatavader. The rou- 
tines were slightly faster and a menu of 
assorted targets was added to allow the 
user to blast something that really 
bugged him, whether it be cats or those 
little "have a nice day" smiley faces. 
While it still could not match the speed 
of a machine language game, it was an 
interesting variation on the theme, and 
those who purchased copies told me 
they enjoyed it. 

The Wish 

Since then, some of you have written 
asking how to obtain copies of some of 
those out-of-print 1MB games including 
Creatavader and Snail Invaders. While 
Snail Invaders could be obtained by 
ordering back issues of the magazine or 
RAINBOW ON TAPE, Creatavader has 
been totally unavailable, until now. 

As my 1986 Happy Holidays gift to 



all my readers, now you can enjoy a 
vastly improved Creatavader (Version 
2.0), which is not only a shorter listing 
than the original Snail (by about 1,700 
bytes), but a much more efficient pro- 
gram as far as programming techniques 
are concerned. 

Cleaning House 

When I decided to rewrite Creata- 
vader, the first step was to dump the old 
title card with the 1MB logo. Using 
CoCo Titlemaker from several issues 
ago, I created a much more attractive 
title card which matches most of my 
recent programs. 

However, as I started to analyze the 
listing, which was now over four years 
old, I was a little embarrassed to see 
how sloppy the structure of the program 
was. Quite honestly, I must have been 
GDSLJB crazy, since I had weaved such 
a tangled web of subroutines it was a 
nightmare to unravel. In fact, I couldn't 
help but be reminded of comic Pee Wee 
Herman's line about trying to unravel 
a sweater ". . . that someone keeps 
knitting and knitting and knitting and 
knitting . . .!" I had knit some sweater 
with this listing! 

The next change I made, after I found 
my place, was to rewrite the graphic 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 163 



scoring display, which was quite crude 
in the original version. Snail had been 
written without using string arrays, so 
this time I incorporated a more efficient 
subroutine that also cut down on the 
number of GDSUBs. Subroutines are 
slower than straight programming since 
the CPU (Central Processing Unit) of 
your CoCo must set up a flag and 
pointer whenever a subroutine is called. 
By reducing the number of GOSUBs, the 
program would execute in much less 
time. Next, I went to the section of the 
program that would draw the boxes 
containing our graphics targets. Both 
Snail and Creatavader listed every 
location and IF-THEN statement as a 
separate set of lines. This constituted 48 
separate lines for the 24 graphics 
targets. 

These lines were cut down to about 
four lines by inserting variables and 
using a set of nested FOR-NEXT loops. 
The end result would be that the pro- 
gram's speed increased dramatically by 
this one change. 

The original versions of Snail and 
Creatavader also used a set of compli- 
cated IF-THEN statements at the end of 
the program to set up the explosion 
locations correctly if a target was hit. A 
short math formula using the INT 
function allowed me to eliminate this 
entire subroutine at the end of the 
program. An added side bonus also now 
allowed me to award different values of 
points based on the location of the 
target's height. 

Add to this the rewrite of the scoring 
mechanism and the reduction in GO- 
SUBs, and Creatavader (Version 2.0) 
runs more than twice as fast as its 
original version. Naturally, I could not 
help but add a few other refinements. I 
made the difficulty level a little tougher 
to compensate for the speed increase. 

For example, sometimes a target will 
reappear after it has been blasted. Also, 
the phantom ship that takes shots at you 
is now much quicker and appears more 
often. The scoring mechanism will 
handle up to a 15-digit score, so forget 
trying to turn it over. You can't. 

A major change that helped speed up 
the game was my change from PM0DE3 
to PM0DE1. The resolution between 
these two modes is not as dramatic as 
the difference between PMDDE4 and 
PMDDE1, for example. Since in PM0DE1 
only half as much graphics memory is 
used as in PMDDE3, we also get a dra- 
matic speed increase in BASIC. 

Another interesting change I added 



was the use of the PCDPY command. 
Since PMDDE1 uses only graphics pages 
1 and 2, we do most of our animation 
on pages 3 and 4 and PCOPY them to 1 
and 2. This eliminates the annoying 
ripple effect when the targets move 
across the screen. Now they march to 
the right in unison, rather than one at 
a time. 

More Speed 

If you want to get the maximum 
speed out of this program, add an extra 
line with the speed-up poke in Line 0: 

0 POKE65495,0 

Do this only when you have run the 
program without the poke and saved it. 




2) You cannot shoot and move at the 
same time. 

3) Even if you blast all the targets to 
the right, you must clear all the targets 
before the last one on the left reaches 
the center. To have allowed it to go all 
the way to the right would require 
changes that would slow down the 
program too much. 

4) Sometimes you may shoot 
through your shield without destroying 
them. Other times you cannot. 

5) Once you clear the screen, the 
phantom ship may still shoot at you for 
awhile. Hide behind your shields! 

When all your men are destroyed, 
you may restart the game by pressing 
the ENTER key. The program determines 
a blast when the point on the screen 

where your shot is going 
is tested for background 
color. Sometimes, you 
may just graze a target 
which has some back- 
ground color in it. In 
this case, the target will 
not explode. 



Some CoCos will not accept this poke 
with the disk drive plugged in, so be 
careful to save the program first, or 
P0KEG5494 , 0 before attempting a save. 
This makes the program really zip 
along. 

On running the game, you see the new 
title card. Pressing any key gives you the 
menu of choices. The targets you may 
choose are communist flags (years 
before Rambo), television sets (get even 
with junk programming), whales (if you 
don't want to save them), killer toma- 
toes, nuclear bombs (nuke the nukes), 
smiley faces (don't have a nice day), cats 
and Creatavader mode. 

As you can see, there is something for 
everyone. After you select the target, the 
screen will clear and your game starts. 
You must use the right joystick and 
firebutton. Play the game just as you 
would any other invader-style game 
with these variations: 

1) The targets do not shoot back, but 
a phantom ship will appear and take 
shots at you. 



Creatavader Mode 

You may make your 
own "designer" targets 
by selecting the Crea- 
tavader mode. You may 
use either a green or 
white background when 
you select this mode. 
After selecting the background color, 
you will see a small box that will hold 
your design. Use the arrow keys to move 
a dot around the screen to draw a target. 
At the bottom of the screen are four 
circles with available colors. Press 
numbers 1 through 4 according to their 
order to create a dot. Be sure to select 
other than the background color before 
you start drawing. Use the background 
color to erase any mistakes. 

When you are finished drawing, press 
@ to start playing with your new target. 
If you use too much background color 
in your drawing, you may not hit your 
targets. 

You may not save your creations, 
unfortunately. If you really must save 
your own creations, renumber the pro- 
gram using RENUM and kill one of my 
targets and create your own using DRAW 
and PRINT in the same lines. 

Conclusion 

I hope you enjoy this holiday gift. 
You should be able to pick up some 
programming ideas just from keying it 



1 64 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 




How To Read Rainbow 



Please note that ail the basic program 
listings in the rainbow are formatted for 
a 32-charaeter screen so they show 
up just as they do on your CoCo screen. 
One easy way to check on the accuracy 
of your typing is to compare what char- 
acter "goes under" what. If the charac- 
ters match — and your line endings 
come out the same — you have a pretty 
good way of knowing that your typing is 
accurate. 

We also have "key boxes" to show you 
the minimum system a program needs, 
But, do read the text before you start 
typing. 

Finally, the little cassette symbol on 
the table of contents and at the begin- 
ning of articles indicates that the pro- 
gram is available through our rainbow 
ON tape service. An order form for this 
service is on the insert card bound in the 
magazine. 



What's A CoCo? 



CoCo is an affectionate name that was 
first given to the Tandy Color Computer 
by its many fans, users and owners. 

However, when we use the term 
CoCo, we refer to both the Tandy Color 
Computer and the TDP System-100 
Computer, It is easier than using both of 
the "given" names throughout the rain- 
bow. 

In most cases, when a specific com- 
puter is mentioned, the application is for 
that specific computer. However, since 
the TDP System-100 and Tandy Color 
are, for all purposes, the same computer 
in a different case, these terms are 
almost always interchangeable. 



The Rainbow Check Plus 



T 



The small box accompanying a pro- 
gram listing in the rainbow is a "check 
sum" system, which is designed to help 
you type in programs accurately. 

Rainbow Check PLUS counts the 
number and values of characters you 
type in. You can then compare the 
number you get to those printed in the 
rainbow. On longer programs, some 
benchmark lines are given. When you 
reach the end of one of those lines with 
your typing, simply check to see if the 
numbers match. 





To use Rainbow Check PLUS, type in 
the program and CSRVE it for later use, 
then type in the command run and press 
enter. Once the program has run, type 
NEW and press enter to remove it from 
the area where the program you're typ- 
ing in will go. 

Now, while keying in a listing from the 
rainbow, whenever you press the down- 
arrow key, your CoCo gives the check 
sum based on the length and content of 
the program in memory. This is to check 
against the numbers printed in the 
rainbow. If your number is different, 
check the listing carefully to be sure you 
typed in the correct basic program code. 
For more details on this helpful utility, 
refer to H. Allen Curtis' article on Page 
21 of the February 1984 rainbow. 

Since Rainbow Check PLUS counts 
spaces and punctuation, be sure to type 
in the listing exactly the way it's given in 
the magazine. 

10 CL5 : X.t256*PEEI< ( 35 ) +178 

20 CLERR 25,X-1 

30 X=25G.*PEEI< (35)+17B 

40 FDR Z=X TD X+77 

50 READ Y:W=W+Y:PRINT Z,Y;W 

G0 POKE Z f Y: NEXT 

70 IFW=7985THENB0EL5EPRINT 

"DRTfi ERROR ":5TDP 
00 EXEC X : END 

90 DRTA 182, 1, 106, 167, 140, 60, 134 
100 DATA 12G, 183, 1, 10G, 180, 1, 107 
110 DATA i75* 140, 50, 4B, 140, 4, 191 
120 DATA 1, 107, 57, 129, 10, 38, 38 
130 DATA 52, 22, 79, 15B, 25, 230, 129 
140 DATA 39, 12, 171, 12B, 171, 128 
150 DATA 230, 132, 38, 250, 48, 1, 32 
160 DATA 240, 183, 2, 222, 4B, 140, 14 
170 DATA 159, 166, 16G,;132, : 28, 254 
180 DATA 1B9, 173, 19B, 53, 22, 126, 0 
190 DATA 0, 135, 255, 134, 40, 55 
200 DATA 51, 52, 41, 0 



Using Machine Language 



Machine language programs are one 
of the features of the rainbow. There are 
a number of ways to "get" these pro- 
grams into memory so you can operate 
them. 

The easiest way is by using an editor/ 
assembler, a program you can purchase 
from a number of sources. 

An editor/assembler allows you to 
enter mnemonics into the CoCo and 
then have the editor/assembler assem- 
ble them into specific instructions that 
are understood by the 6809 chip, which 
controls your computer. 



When using an editor/assembler, all 
you have to do, essentially, is copy the 
relevant instructions from the rainbow's 
listing into CoCo. 

Another method of getting an assem- 
bly language listing into CoCo is called 
"hand assembly." As the name implies, 
you do the assembly by hand. This can 
sometimes cause problems when you 
have to set up an ORIGIN statement or 
an EQUATE. In short, you have to know 
something about assembly to hand- 
assemble some programs. 

Use the following program if you wish 
to hand-assemble machine language 
listings: 

10 CLEAR200,&H3F00:I=&H3FB0 

20 PRINT "ADDRESS: ";HEX$( I); 

30 INPUT "BYTE";B$ 

40 POKE I,VAL("&H"+B$) 

50 I=I+1:G0T0 20 

This program assumes you have a 16K 
CoCo. If you have 32K, change the 
&H3F00 in Line 10 to &H7F00 and change 
the value of I to &H7FB0. 



The Rainbow Seal 



4R\ 

RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

The Rainbow Certification Seal is our 
way of helping you, the consumer^The 
purpose of the Seal is to certify to you 
that any product that carries the Seal 
has been physically seen by us, that it 
does, indeed, exist and that we have a 
sample copy here at the rainbow. 

Manufacturers of products — hard- 
ware, software and firmware — are 
encouraged by us to submit their pro- 
ducts to the rainbow for certification. 
We ascertain that their products are, in 
actuality, what they purport to be and, 
upon such determination, award a Seal. . 

The Seal, however, is not a "guarantee 
of satisfaction." The certification pro- 
cess is different from the review process. 
You are encouraged to read our reviews 
to determine whether the product is 
right for your needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship 
between advertising in the rainbow and 
the certification process. Certification is 
open and available to any product per- 
taining to CoCo. A Seal will be awarded 
to any commercial product, regardless 
of whether the firm advertises or not 

We will appreciate knowing of in- 
stances of violation of Seal use. 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 65 



in. If nothing else, it will teach you to them so you don't spend hours unravel- Until next time, Season's Greetings 
document your programs as you write ing years later, as I had to. and Happy New Year to you all! □ 



55 

26 252 



37... 
46 .. 
66 

82 .. 
100 . 
END 



...7 
.36 
174 
205 
113 
.32 



The listing: CRTVRDER 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



**************************** 



* 
* 
* 



CREATAVADER VERSION 2.0 

BY FRED B.SCERBO 

60 HARDING AVE 

NORTH ADAMS, MA. 01247 

COPYRIGHT (C) 1986 
**************************** 

CLEAR400:PLAY"V31P255" 

9 CLS0 : PRINTSTRING$ (32,220) ; 

10 F0RI=1T02 2 4 : READA : PRINTCHR$ (A 
+128) ; :NEXT 

11 DATA110, 109 ,101 ,108,109 ,101,1 
08 , 104 , 110 , 108 , 106 , 108 , 110 , 104 , 7 



IBU1LD THIS COCO POWERED ROBOT I 

BRTTERV POWERED 
SONIC RANGING 

SPEECH PROCESSED 

PROGRAMMABLE 
SELF CONTRINED 
SEND $ 69.50 FOR 

BUILD PLANS LAVOUTS SCHEMATICS 
PROGRRM AND DRAWINGS 




USE THIS HARDWARE TD BUILD ROBOTS OR 
RNV OTHER AUTOMATED PROC ESS 111 ITH COCO 


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MODEL 200 BUSS DRIUER 


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MODEL 300 STEPPER BMP. 


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MODEL 400 MOTHER BOARD 


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MODEL 500 DC MOTOA AMP. 


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MODEL 600 A TO 0 CONUEDTER 


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SENO FOR OUR FREE 7 PAGE BROCHURE. 

ELECTRONIC MOTION CONTROL 

PO BOH 17271 RAPT STATION 

CLEAAWATEA FLOAIDA 33520 
COD CALL B1 3-8968295 

ORDERS HDD $3.00 S+H FLR. RES. HDD 5% SRLES TflH 



8,76,74,42,32, ,37,37,44,45,37,45 
,34,46,44,37,44,45 

12 DATA106, ,101, ,101,101, ,96,106 
, ,106, ,106, ,74,80,74,42,32, ,37,3 



32,42,42,32,37, ,37 



7,32,37,37,32,42,42 

13 DATA106, ,101, ,101,101, ,96,106 
, ,106, ,106, ,74,80,74,42,32, ,37,3 
7,32,37,37,32,42,42,32,37, ,37 

14 DATA106, ,101,108,110,101,108, 
96,110,108,106, ,106, ,78,76,74,45 
,32,32,46,37,44,45, 37, 32,42,46,4 
0,37,44,46 

15 DATA106, ,101, ,106,101,96,96,1 
06, ,106, ,106, ,74,80,74,37,34,33, 
42, 37,32,37, 37, 32,42,42,32,37, ,4 
2 

16 DATA106, 97, 101, ,106,101, ,96,1 
06, , 106, , 106, ,74,80,74,32,43,39, 

32,37,32,37,37,33,42,42,32,37, ,4 
2 

17 DATA108, 108, 100, ,108,100,108, 
104,104, ,104, ,104,96,72,80,72,80 
,36, 40, 32, 36, 32, 36, 36, 44, 32, 44 ,4 
4,36, ,44 

18 PRINTSTRING$ (32,220) ; 

19 PRINT© 3 2 6," BY FRED B.SCERBO 
" ;: PRINTS 358, " VERSION 2.0 

";: PRINTS 390, " COPYRIGHT (C) 
1986 " ; 

20 IFINKEY$=" "THEN20 

21 CLS0:SR=3:R=5:Z=110:R$=CHR$(1 
28) 

22 PM0DE1, 1:PCLS:SCREEN0,0:Q$="C 
1BRNU4RU4RD4RU4RD4RU4RNL4D2NL4D2 
L6C3" 

23 DIMT(24) ,N$(9) ,A(15) :FORI=0TO 
9:READN$(I) : NEXT 

24 DATA BR2U4R3D4NL3 , BR4NU4BR, BR 
2U2R3U2NL3BD4NL3 , BR2R3U2NL2U2NL3 
BD4 , BR2 BU2NU2R3U2 D4 , BR2R3U2L3U2R 
3BD4 , BR2U4NR3D2R3D2NL3 , BR2BU3UR3 
D4 , BR2U4R3D2NL3D2NL3 , BR2BU2NR3U2 
R3D4 

25 QQ$="L25502B01C" 

26 GB$="ULUL2UR7DL2DLD" : CLS0 : PRI 
NT@38, "coirimunist"+R$+" flags" ; :PR 

INT@102 , ,, television"+R$+"sets" ; : 
PRINT@166, "whales"; :PRINT@230, "k 
iller"+R$+"tomatoes" ; : PRINT@294 , 
"nuclear"+R$+"bombs" ; : PRINT@358 , 
"smiley"+R$+" faces" ; 

27 PRINT@422, "cats"+R$+"cats"+R$ 
+"cats" ; : PRINT0486, "creatavader" 
+R$+"mode" ; 

28 FORI=1TO8:POKE1058+LW,48+I:LW 



166 



THE RAINBOW December 1986 



=LW+64 : NEXT I 

29 TR$=INKEY$:IFTR$>"8"THEN29 

30 IFTR$<"1"THEN29 

31 CLS0:TR=VAL(TR$) :0N TR GOT032 
,34,35,37,38,39,40,42 

32 LINE(26,28)-(48,42) ,PSET,BF 

33 DRAW"S4BM30,41C2E3RF2R4E2NF4E 
2U2H4L4BD4BRNE2NG2NF4 " : AC=1 : SR=3 
:R=l:GOT065 

34 COLOR7,6:LINE(26,28)-(48,42) , 
PSET, BF: LINE (30, 31) -(41,39) ,PRES 
ET,BF:COLOR8,5:LINE(44,31)-(46,3 
4) ,PSET,BF:SR=3:R=5:GOT065 

35 DRAW"S6BM3 6,39C3L5H2U5HU2RNF3 
RF2E2R2D2G3LD2R2REURERER6F2DGL3G 
2R4NL11DL15" 

36 PAINT(40,36) , 3 , 3 : DRAWS6BM3 6 , 
39C5BL4BU4NU5UC3R" : PSET (40, 36,8) 
:AC=l:R=l:GOT065 

37 COLOR4,5:CIRCLE(38,36) ,11, , .7 
: PAINT (40, 36) ,4,4:DRAW"S4BM40, 32 
C2L2NH3R5E3LG2L4H2" :SR=3 :R=5:AC= 
0:GOTO65 

38 COLOR3,5:DRAW"S4BM40,42C3L7H2 
NR17H2E4R13F4G4L6BM40,42BL7BH4BL 
2C2NH3NG3L2NU2ND2 " : PAINT (40 , 38 ) , 
3, 3: CIRCLE (40, 34) ,6,4, .7:R=1:AC= 
l:GOT065 

39 COLOR2,5:CIRCLE(38,36) ,11, , .9 
.•PAINT (38, 36) , 2 , 2 : DRAWS4BM38 , 40 
C7L2NH3R5NE3 " : FORI=0TO1 : PSET ( 41 , 
34-1,3) :PSET(36,34-I,3) :NEXT:PSE 
T(29,36,3) :AC=l:R=l:GOT065 

40 DRAW"S4BM38,41C2BL7U2EU2H3U5R 
12DL11D4E2R7F4U2EUF3RE3DFGL3DFR2 
GL5H2D3FR2D2BL4H2U5G2L2H2D2FR2D4 
": PAINT (38, 34) , 2 , 2 : PAINT (44 , 34 ) , 
2,2:PSET(44,34,3) 

41 AC=l:R=l:GOT065 

42 GR=1:PRINT@104, M select"+R$+"c 
olor"+R$+"mode" ; : PRINT@169 , "whit 
e"+R$+"screen ,, +R$+R$+"l" ; :PRINT@ 
233 , ll green"+R$+ ,, screen"+R$+R$+ ,, 2 

"7 :PM0DE3,1:PCLS 

43 XI$=INKEY$ : IFXI$="1"THEN44ELS 
EIFXI$="2"THEN45ELSE4 3 

44 R=5:SCREEN1, 1 : AC=0 : GOT046 

45 R=1:SCREEN1,0:AC=1 

46 LINE(23,27)-(49,43) ,PSET,B:FO 
RI=50TO240STEP60 : PC=PC+1 : CIRCLE ( 
1,120) ,10, PC: PAINT (I, 115) ,PC,PC: 

CIRCLE (I, 120) ,11, 4: NEXT 

47 FP=34:SP=3 6:C=2 

48 PSET(FP,SP,C) 

49 XI$=INKEY$ : IFXI$="1"THEN51ELS 
EIFXI$="2 "THEN52ELSEIFXI$=" 3 "THE 
N53ELSEIFXI$="4"THEN54ELSEIFXI$= 
"*"THEN55ELSEIFXI$=CHR$(10) THEN5 
6ELSEIFXI$=CHR$ (8) THEN57ELSEIFXI 



$=CHR$ (9)THEN58ELSEIFXI$="§"THEN 
59 

50 GOT049 

51 C=l:GOT048 

52 C=2:GOT04 8 

53 C=3:GOT048 

54 C=4:GOT048 

55 SP=SP-l:GOT048 

56 SP=SP+l:GOT048 

57 FP=FP-l:GOT048 

58 FP=FP+l:GOT048 

59 LINE(23, 27)-(49, 43) , PRESET, B: 
CLS0 : SCREEN0 ,0 : Z=30 : GOT065 

60 GOTO60 

61 IFAC=0THENSCREEN1 , 0ELSESCREEN 
1,1 

62 RETURN 

63 IFAC=0THENSCREEN1, 1ELSESCREEN 
1,0 

64 RETURN 

65 DIMS (10) 

66 GET(20,28)-(48,42) ,S,G 

67 FORI=1TO90:PSET(RND(43) ,RND(1 
9) ,RND(5) ) : NEXT 

68 DIME(21) :GET(0,0)-(43,19) ,E,G 

69 GG$="BR2U2R2U2R2U2RD2R2D2R2D2 
L9" 

70 DRAW"S4BM14,192C3"+GG$ 




nil ru 



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December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 67 



71 PAINT (19 , 19)3) ,3,3 

72 DIMF(9) :GET(J3,185)-(41,192) ,F 
,G:G0T075 

73 MS$=STR$(M1) :MK=LEN(MS$)-l:MS 
$=RIGHT$(MS$,MK) :F0RID=1T0 MK:A( 
ID)=VAL(MID$(MS$,ID,1) ) tNEXTID 

74 DRAWS8BM13 , 20"+Q$ : F0RSW=1T0I 
D-l : DRAWN$ ( A ( SW) ) +Q$ : NEXTSW: RETU 
RN 

75 PCLS 

76 CLS0 : SCREEN^ , 
11 GOSUB73 

78 KL=4:K=j3:GOSUB98 

79 F0RI=J3T0176STEP48:F0RY=28T012 
8STEP20:PUT(I,Y)-(I+28,Y+14) ,S,P 
SET : NEXTY : NEXTI 

8J3 FORI=4T0184STEP6j3:BI$=STR$(I+ 
2j3) :DRAW"S8BM H +BI$+",165;C8U2E3R 
6F3D2L4H2G2L4 " : PAINT ( 1+24 , 163 ) , 8 
,8:NEXTI:GOSUB63 

81 F0RI=1T0SR:DRAW"S4BM"+STR$ (12 
6+(34*I) )+", 18 ;C3"+GG$: NEXTI 

82 FORI=j3T08j3STEP3:PCOPYlT03:PCO 
PY2T04 : PM0DE1 , 3 : FORD=j3T0144STEP4 
8 : IC=I+D 

83 FORF=36T0136STEP2j3:IFPPOINT(l 
j3+IC,F)=R THEN84ELSEPUT(0+IC,F-8 
)-(28+IC,F+6) ,S,PSET 

84 NEXTF 

85 NEXTD:PCOPY3T01:PCOPY4T02:PMO 
DEI , 1 : GOSUB1J35 : GOSUB87 : NEXTI 

86 GOT075 

87 IFPP0INT(Z+19,19J3)=R THEN111 

88 XC=0:FORB=1TO26:IFC=1THENGOSU 
B99 

89 IFW=1THENGOSUB101 

9J3 NEXTB : IFW=1THENRETURN 

91 POKE339 , 255 : W=JOYSTK(p) :IFPEE 
K ( 3 3 9 ) =2 54THEN10 1ELSEIFW<10THENG 
0SUB94ELSEIFW>56THENGOSUB96 

92 RETURN 

93 PCLS: GOTO 8 2 

94 Z=Z-16 : IFZ<=8THENZ=8 

95 GOSUB9 8: RETURN 

96 Z=Z+16:IFZ=>216THENZ=216 



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168 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



97 GOSUB98: RETURN 

98 PUT(Z-2,185)-(39+Z,192) ,F,PSE 
T : RETURN 

99 FF=INT(K/2J3) :KR=FF*20+4 :PUT(Z 
-4,186-KR) -(Z+39,17j3-KR) ,E,PSET: 
LINE(Z-8,190-KR)-(Z+42,17J3-KR) ,P 
RESET , BF : GOSUB61 : PLAY"05L255B03C 
» : GOSUB63 : W=J3 : C=J3 : PSET (Z+19 ,183- 
K,R) :K=2 6:KL=j3:Ml=Ml+(5*FF) 

GOSUB7 3 : RETURN 
101 W=l : PSET (Z+19 , 183-K, R) :K=K+2 
j3:IFPPOINT(Z+19,183-K)=R THENC=j3 
: GOT01J32 : ELSE C=l 

1J32 PSET(Z+19,183-K,3) :IFK=>156T 

HEN1J34 

1J33 GOT092 

1J34 PSET(Z+19, 183-K, R) :W=p:K=26: 
KR=J3:G0T092 

lj35 GOSUB87:IFSB=1THEN108 

1J36 XB=RND(4) :IFXB=4THEN107ELSER 

ETURN 

1J37 SB=l:SC=RND(18j3)+35:RETURN 
108 IFPPOINT(SC,16j3)=R THENBL=19 
2ELSEBL=165 

1J39 SB=p : DRAW"S4BM"+STR$ (SC) +" , 1 
48C2 "+GB$ : PLAYQQ$ : LINE (SC , 14 6) - ( 
SC,BL) , PSET: PUT (SC-11, BL-18 ) -(SC 
+11 , BL) , E , PSET : LINE (SC-11 , BL-18 ) 
-(SC+11,BL) , PRESET, BF : GOSUB63 : LI 
NE(SC,146)-(SC,BL) , PRESET 

110 DRAW"BM"+STR$ (SC) +" , 148C1"+G 
B$: RETURN 

111 FORDS=lT04:PUT(Z+8,184)-(Z+3 
J3,192) , E, PSET: LINE (Z+8 ,184) -(Z+3 
J3,192) , PRESET, BF:NEXTDS 

112 SR=SR-1 

113 GOSUB61 : COLOR3 , 1 : DRAW"S4BM"+ 
STR$(126+(34*(1+SR) ) ) +" , 18C1"+GG 
$+"U2R13 » : SOUND1 , 4 : GOSUB98 : GOSUB 
63 : IFSR=0THEN114ELSE88 

114 GOSUB63:FORI=2^)TO20STEP-20: 
SOUNDI, 1:NEXT 

115 IFINKEY$OCHR$(13)THEN115ELS 
ERUN 




DELPHI BUREAU 



A Follow-up on SIG Mail 



Welcome to the Delphi Bureau. 
If you read this column last 
month, you know we covered 
some of the basic commands used in the 
Mail system on Delphi. This month 
we'll show you several commands that 
give total control of your Mail files. 

Mail Commands 

The following list describes several 
useful Mail commands. 

BACK — This moves you back to the 
message prior to the one you have just 
read. If you just read message four, 
BACK allows you to read message three. 

COPY — This command copies a 
message from one folder to another. 
Unlike the FILE command (discussed 
last month), it does not delete the 
message from the original folder. To 
use, just enter COPY foldername. 

EXTRACT — puts the message in a file 
you choose in your Workspace, as 
opposed to adding it to a folder. This 
command is very handy for saving a 



Cray Augsburg is rainbow's technical 
assistant and has an associate's degree 
in electrical engineering. He and his 
wife, Ruth Ann, have two children and 
live in Louisville, Kentucky. His user- 
name on Delphi is RAIN BOW MAG. 



copy of a message in Workspace if you 
want to download it later. The EXTRACT 
command has several options: 

Ex tract/ Append filename — adds 
the message to the end of an existing file 
in Workspace. 

Ex t rac t/Noheader filename — 
saves the message, which can be an 
ASCII or binary program file, to the 
indicated filename in Workspace after 
deleting the Mail header from the file. 
If the file is a program, it may then be 
downloaded and immediately run. 

EXTRACT can also be used in conjunc- 
tion with other commands, such as 
SELECT, to work on all messages in a 
selected group. For this, you would use 
the Extract/All option. 

NEXT — This command skips over the 
current message and starts sending the 
next message to your terminal. Just 
enter it at any "Press ENTER for more" 
prompt when reading a long message. 

SEARCH — If you want to find a given 
string in your current folder of mes- 
sages, use SEARCH text string. This will 
search every message in the folder for 
the occurrence of the named string. The 
string may appear in the "To:" and 
"Subject:" fields as well. When it en- 
counters the string, the message will be 
displayed. To continue using the same 



By Cray Augsburg 
Rainbow's CoCo SIGop 



string to find other occurrences, just 
enter the SEARCH command again with- 
out retyping the search string. 

SELECT — This is one of the more 
powerful commands in Mail. It estab- 
lishes a folder of messages that future 
commands can affect as a group. You 
can use the COPY, SEARCH and EXTRACT 
commands to manipulate these mes- 
sages. 

SET — Use this command to alter the 
characteristics of your Mail setup on 
Delphi. Following are commonly used 
command structures. For more com- 
mands and examples, type HELP SET at 
the MAIL> prompt. 

SET COPY-SELF — This establishes 
the default for whether the SEND or 
REPLY commands return a copy of the 
message being sent to the user sending 
the message. Options with this com- 
mand are Nosend and Noreply. 

SET FILE — establishes or opens 
another file as your current mail file. 
The default file will be MAIL. MAI. If you 
use the COPY, FILE or MOVE commands 
to close other mail files, you can then 
use SET FILE to open those files. 

SET FOLDER — This enables you to 
change folders within a given mail file. 
SHOW FOLDER can be used to display the 
currently set folder. 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 69 



SET FORWARD — establishes a "for- 
warding address" for your mail mes- 
sages. The "address," or username, you 
specify will receive all messages ad- 
dressed to you. 

SET PER50NRI NAME — allows you 

to add to the From: field of any mail 
messages you send. A good item to fill 
this with is your real name, so that users 
receiving your mail will know who you 
are. 

As you can see, the SET command is 
very powerful and useful. Use the HELP 
SET command to find out more about 
SET. 

Last month, we discussed the READ 
command. This month, I have a few 
more comments to make about READ. 



Sometimes your message counter in 
Mail will indicate you have no more 
messages, but there really might be 
some new messages. This could occur if 
you are reading your mail while 
"gagged." You can check to find out by 
typing READ/NEW. If there are any new 
messages, you will then begin reading 
them. 

READ/BEFORE and READ/AFTER are 
beautiful commands. They allow you to 
read messages before or after a specified 
date. As an example, to read all mes- 
sages before September 24, 1986, enter 
READ/BEFORE 24-SEP-1S86. 

Distribution Lists 

By using Mail commands and Work- 
space commands you can create what 



are known as distribution lists. A dis- 
tribution list is a list of usernames to 
which you may choose to send a copy 
of a letter. It is useful if you commonly 
send mail to the same group of people. 
First, go into Workspace and create a 
file containing all the usernames to 
which you want to send mail. Each 
username must be on a separate line. 
Also, the filename must end with the 
extension .DI5. To send a message to 
a distribution list, just enter ^filename 
at the "To:" prompt of the send com- 
mand. For example, to send mail to the 
list FRIENDS . DIS, enter 0FRIENDS 
without the extension at the "To:" 
prompt. 

We thank Delphi for this informa- 
tion, which was derived from The Del- 



DATABASE REPORT 



Although the Co Co 3 has not yet 
become available to most CoCo 
owners, we already have files in 
our CoCo 3 News database with prelimi- 
nary specifications on the GIME chip 
and a tutorial on the workings of the 
CoCo 3's memory manager, kindly up- 
loaded by Kevin Darling (KDARLING). 
Jerome Kalkhof (GRUMCLUB) up- 
loaded his own impressions of it (he 
seems to prefer Commodore machines). 
Larry Wimble (formerly THEAS- 
SEMBLER, and now LARRYWIM- 
BLE) has already uploaded a responding 
essay to that one. I uploaded three files 
concerning the machine, including some 
critiques of aspects of it and some inside 
information on how to order from Na- 
tional Parts the needed PAL fix for the 
multipack and the 512K memory up- 
grade board. One of these files is an essay 
that compares the CoCo 3 to the Atari 
520 ST. 

Dale Lear (DALE LEAR) has been 
busy organizing and enabling files in the 
OS-9 database. Jonathan Guthrie (SCI- 
GUY) (one of our more vocal forum 
members) has sent us a Sieve of Eratos- 
thenes Benchmark program in C, Milt 
Webb (MILTWEBB) has given us a Sort 
program in C, and Dale Lear has pro- 
vided some patches and fixes for his OS- 
9 text editor programs TSEDIT and 
TSWORD (these are available at your 
local Radio Shack store). Denny Skala 
(DENNYSKALA) uploaded a powerful 
OS-9 based disassembler. Don Hutchi- 
son (DONHUTCHISON) has provided 
a text file to answer questions about how 
to download using OS-9. He also has 



provided some patches for CCDISK that 
allow customizing the step rate arid 
motor on delay for much faster disk 
access. Ronald Cole (RONALDCOLE) 
has provided software and hardware 
instructions on how to use a remote 
terminal to talk to OS-9. Rick Adams 
(RICKADAMS) has provided source 
code for a utility to change the color of 
the cursor under OS-9 Version 2.0. Dan 
Angelich (BOWS1N) uploaded a valua- 
ble conversion program that converts 
files from Disk Extended BASIC to OS- 
9 format. He has also given us a story of 
his first experiences with the OS-9 oper- 
ating system. Much of the material 
uploaded either includes or is in the form 
of source code in assembly or C, and can 
constitute a tutorial for folks wanting to 
learn programming under OS-9. Some of 
the material was commented for use as 
a tutorial. 

In the Source Code for 6809 database 
Edward Coen (EDCOEN) has sent us 
source code for an elaborate CoCo Disk 
Extended BASIC disk editor program. In 
the Product Reviews database, I have 
posted a preliminary review of an out- 
standing new CoCo OS-9 product, 
Robot Odyssey. 

Our Utilities database has seen over a 
dozen new files added this last month. 
Stanley Townsend (ST) has provided a 
program to strip the carriage returns 
from Telewriter 64 files, for later transfer 
to VIP Writer and MS-DOS -based word 
processors. Jerome Kalkhof has given us 
a complementary utility that adds line 
feeds to CoCo files and prepares them for 
subsequent conversion to an MS-DOS- 



based system, Dan Downard (DAN- 
DOWN ARD) of "Downloads" fame has 
provided yet another utility of this sort. 
Dan has also given us a tracer utility 
called New trace. Jim Martin (JIM M) has 
given us a math quiz, and Don Hutchison 
has sent us a handy amortization utility. 
Tom Bedwell (REBECCA) has given us 
an elaborate Lotus 7-2-i-like spreadsheet 
program. Loren J. Howell (XENOS) has 
uploaded a CGP-200 graphics dump 
program. Other programs have been 
contributed to the Utilities database by 
Mark Camp (MARKCAMP), Rex 
Cowan (DOC10), Dave Macleod 
(SCORPION2), Steven Schnautz 
(WOODSMITH), Excer R. Zayas (NY- 
PHOTO) and Dale Lear. 

In our Hardware Hacking database, 
Kevin Darling has posted an article 
about Color Computer hard drive sys- 
tems. It tells what you need to know to 
make your own CoCo hard drive system, 
assuming you have general computer 
hardware experience. Both the Tandy 
and third-party hard drive hookups are 
discussed. I've posted a note about the 
current generation of one-megabit 
EPROMs, and Paul Kenneth Ward 
(PKW) has shared his experience in 
setting the speed on full-height MP1 
drives. 

In the Graphics database Ira Goldwyn 
(IRAG), who recently became a pub- 
lished RAINBOW author, has again sent 
several dozen enhanced digitized images 
of popular TV actors and cartoon char- 
acters, fve posted the October "CoCo 
Gallery" in the Graphics database, and 
Art Flexser (ARTFLEXSER) has pro- 
vided us with a revised version of the 
MAXCMP picture compressor, which 
now provides for color flip of the files it 
creates. Marc Leavy (MARCWA3AJR) 
has contributed a patch for Erik Gavril- 



170 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



phi Handbook as well as from expe- 
rience in Mail. 

Taking the Lead 

In early October, the CoCo SIG took 
the lead as far as Forum messages are 
concerned. The CoCo SIG has more 
Forum messages posted than any other 
SIG on Delphi. Thanks to CoCo SIG 
Manager Jim Reed (JIMREED) for 
this observation which coincides with 
the SIG's first birthday! The SIG began 
operation on Oct, 12, 1985. While this 
does not necessarily mean we are the 
most active SIG on Delphi, it would 
appear we are the most talkative. 

Size of the Database 

Marty Goodman (MARTYGOOD- 
MAN) has provided us with another 



tidbit of information regarding our 
SIG. After using a special command in 
the databases, Marty has announced 
that we have some 2,500 files in our 
database totaling more than 12 mega- 
bytes of disk space. Let's double this by 
taking advantage of the Free Upload 
Time Offer, which Jim has posted in the 
Questions & Feedback section. 

Thanks to Forum "Helpers" 

We extend a special thank you to all 
members of the SIG who seem more 
than willing to help out in answering 
Forum messages. While the names are 
too numerous to mention, those people 
know who they are. It is people like this 
who make the CoCo Community what 
it is. □ 



iik's (ERIKGAV) Macintosh Picture 
Converter program. Richard Trasborg 
(TRAS) has sent us several images of 
lovely ladies. Greg Geary (GJG) has 
given us a DMP driver for MACPIX. 
Don Hutchison has provided more of his 
wry humor with his "Burger King" car- 
toon. 

In the Music database we have some 
big news. Stephen Scherock (SFSC HE- 
ROCK) has uploaded a utility that allows 
one to play Orehestra-90 type music files 
6n a CoCo that does not have an 
Orchestra-90 hardware card in the sys- 
tem. Although, of course, compromises 
are made in getting the CoCo's hardware 
to generate the music, this will allow 
CoCo music lovers with other music 
hardware to sample the music. Stephen 
has also uploaded some music files. Ray 
Wright (RAYWRI) has been busy send- 
ing us 10 new Musica 2 compositions. 
Other material has been uploaded to the 
Music database by George McCashin 
(GMCC), Mike Carey (MIKECAREY), 
Don Kline (DON 13), Paul Seng (PAUL- 
SENG), Tom Bedwell and Tim Collier 
(TIMEXTWIN). 

In the Data Communications database 
we have just put a patch for Mikeyterm 
3.0, written by Mike Ward, that allows it 
to run on the CoCo 3. The Delphi CoCo 
SIG and rainbow magazine managed to 
test Mike's code (Mike did not have a 
CoCo 3 at the time he wrote and sent us 
the patch), confirm it worked and get 
back to him all within 24 hours. Cray 
Augsburg (RAINBOWMAG) rushed to 
check that patch on rainbow's in-house 
CoCo 3. This patch will not allow oper- 
ation in the CoCo 3 80-column mode. 
That may be available at a later date. 

Two new utilities for Mikeyterm have 
been provided. Stephen Scherock has 
given us a revised version of MTSTART, : 



allowing auto-dialing and setup configu- 
ration for several different communica- 
tions situations. Mark Gallagher (GAL- 
LAGHER) has given us A4T, a combi- 
nation of MTWPRS and MTHA YES 
that at once patches, loads and starts 
Mikeyterm 3,0, and sets it up for use with 
both the Hayes Smartmodem command 
set and with the WordPak RS. 

Art Flexser has uploaded some "bug 
fixes" for Color com I E Version 3.0 or 

Don Hutchison has been very active on 
our service, doing well over half of the 
work of enabling and fixing files in the 
database here. I want to thank him for 
his untiring efforts. If you submit a file, 
it is very likely it will be Don who 
examines it. 

Over the next month I expect to up- 
load back issues of the "CoCo Gallery" 
to the Graphics database. I also hope to 
upload graphics images of the original 
documentation for the WEFAX pro- 
gram published in the February 1985 
issue of rainbow, along with a complete 
set of current versions of the WEFAX 
program, in variants for a number of 
printers and for a send/ receive version. 
Now that the CoCo 3 is finally becoming 
available to the public, I expect our 
CoCo 3 News section to become more 
active. Expect to see the first public 
domain programs for it there, new tech- 
nical information about it, and descrip- 
tions of any problems found in this brand 
new machine. 

See you all on the Delphi rainbow 
CoCo SIG 1 



— Marty Goodman 
(MARTYGOODMAN) 
Delphi CoCo SIG Database Manager 



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Computers and Our 
English Vocabulary 



By Michael Plog, Ph.D. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



The English language is one of the 
most (possibly the single most) 
flexible languages in the world. 
English contains a great number of 
words with specific definitions. About 
450,000 words are now in general use in 
English. A lot of our words are adapted 
from other languages, such as French 
(when William the Conqueror invaded 
England, he made French the language 
of the ruling class), Latin, German and 
old Celtic languages (through earlier 
invasions of England). It is my under- 
standing that English vocabulary is 
twice the size of other, related lan- 
guages, such as French, Italian, Spanish 
and German. 

When we want to express ourselves, 
we have far greater opportunities than 
people speaking other languages. At the 
opposite end of the spectrum from 
English is Taki, a language spoken in 
parts of French Guinea that has only 
340 words. Our large vocabulary allows 
us to convey our thoughts to others with 
a richness of meaning and a minimum 
of confusion. 

Of the 450,000 words now in general 
use in English, Shakespeare would have 
understood only about 250,000. Of all 



Michael Plog received his doctorate 
degree from the University of Illinois. 
He has taught social studies in high 
school, worked in the central office of 
a school district and is currently em- 
ployed at the Illinois State Board of 
Education. 



those words added since Shakespeare's 
time, about half have come into use 
during the past 50 years. The language 
is growing even today. 

The dictionary in our house has a few 
pages at the beginning entitled "New 
Words." These are words which are new 
to the English language ("ninja" and 
"kung fu" are examples); new uses of 
previously existing words ("jet lag"); or 
words once primarily used only by 
specialists but are now in general use 
("clone "). It is fascinating to read some 
of these words, and to realize that NOW 
accounts at banks come from the term 
"Negotiable Order of Withdrawal." 

As you might expect, many of these 
new words come from the computer and 
electronic fields. One example is the 
term "micro," which has always meant 
"very small" since ancient Greek times. 
Some of our new English words include 
microwave oven, microprobe, micro- 
dot, microfische microcircuit and mi- 
crocomputer. 

The new computer words in the Eng- 
lish language come in different forms. 
Some new English words have a back- 
ground in computer science, or have 
been made possible by computers, but 
still relate only to technical concepts. As 
an example, we have all heard of the the 
CAT scan in the field of medicine. The 
term comes from "Computerized Axial 
Tomography." The CAT scan equip- 
ment (and, thus, word) would be impos- 
sible without computers. This is not a 
computer term, but a medical term 



whose existence relies on computer 
technology. 

Other new words apply only to areas 
of computer science, but are used and 
understood by the general population. 
If you talk about artificial language or 
artificial intelligence, almost everyone 
will know it has something to do with 
computers. Most people know the term 
"BASIC" as a computer language, even 
if they do not know how to program in 
BASIC, or even use computers. Also, 
most people, including those who never 
use computers, will have some idea of 
the use of terms like binary, chip, core, 
cursor, daisy wheel and floppy disk. 

Because of the wide interest in com- 
puters in the United States today, the 
specialized vocabulary has been ab- 
sorbed by our culture quickly. With the 
effect of computer education in schools, 
we can expect the next generation of 
Americans to have these terms as a 
natural part of their speech, and per- 
haps a better understanding of the 
definitions than many of us today have. 

My favorite new English words de- 
rived from computer jargon, however, 
are those words that have adopted new 
meanings. These are words that began 
in the computer field, but have since 
taken on wider uses. Some words have 
been around for a long time, but have 
had meanings changed or expanded 
because of their use in the computer 
field. 

Consider the old, faithful word "pro- 
gram." This word started as a noun 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 173 



outside the computer area. We used to 
speak of a program as a plan to be 
followed, or the total of the individual 
components of a plan. Then, the word 
entered the area of computers and 
became a set of instructions for the 
machine to follow. It was still a noun 
(we wrote the program), but soon took 
on verb meanings also (we programmed 
the machine). People who have never 
seen a computer, never even been inside 
a Radio Shack computer store, know 
the definition of the term and know that 
computers are programmed by humans. 

But in the past few years, the word 
has adopted a wider meaning. We now 
speak of programming humans, with 
both a positive and negative aspect. We 
can be programmed to wear seat belts, 
control our anger, or any number of 
things we used to do differently. People 
who have undergone intense mental 
conditioning are now considered pro- 
grammed. Specialists deprogram 
youngsters from religious cults and 
reprogram them to live in more conven- 
tional society. The term "deprogram- 
ming" is listed in the dictionary as the 
process of eliminating a set of thinking 
caused by intensive indoctrination. 



Now that is a great promotion for a 
word that started as "plan." 

Other words from the field of com- 
puter science have been accepted into 
our language, then altered to assume a 
wider definition. The term "debug" 
came from computer science, referring 
to corrections in a computer program. 
(See this column in the October 1986 
rainbow.) We now speak of debugging 
relationships with other people, or of 
working the bugs out of any new activ- 
ity. "Feedback" is another example of 
an electronic term that has come to have 
broader meanings. Speakers get feed- 
back from audiences; teachers get feed- 
back from students. A "glitch" no 
longer just means a malfunction of a 
machine due to a surge of power, but 
now can refer to any problem from a 
relatively small source. 

Have you ever heard an employer say 
he wanted someone "online" as quickly 
as possible, so the new person could 
"interface" with people necessary to 
complete the task before the whole 
"program" got "zapped?" 

Some people believe that our lan- 
guage controls our thoughts. The way 
we think is determined by the vocabu- 



lary we have with which to express our 
thoughts. I do not know whether that 
is true or not. But, a large vocabulary 
allows us to express ourselves with 
greater precision and have greater 
control over how we share our thoughts 
with other people. In essence, commu- 
nication is limited by vocabulary. We 
are fortunate that our language is less 
limiting than other languages — we can 
communicate our thoughts with fewer 
limitations. We should also recognize 
the debt we owe to the field of computer 
science for giving us a richer vocabulary 
for our communications. 

Education is learning: knowing the 
thoughts of others and sharing our 
thoughts with other people. Before we 
can express a thought, or learn from the 
expressions of others, we need to have 
a language capable of accommodating 
that thought. Because our language is 
still growing, our thoughts can continue 
to grow. If we ever get caught in an 
"endless loop," our thoughts will stop 
growing, and education will stop. 

If you want to share your thoughts, 
please write me at 829 Evergreen, Cha- 
tham, Illinois 62629. Until next time, 
happy words! 



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(201) 257-6549 



H&H Enterprises 
P.O. Box 2672 
Corona, CA 91718 
(714) 737-1376 

H JL Products 
P.O. Box 24954 
Rochester, NY 14624 
(800) 828-6968 

Howard Medical Computers 
1690 N. Elston 
Chicago, IL 60622 
(800) 443-1444 

J&R Electronics 
P.O. Box 2572 
Columbia, MD 21045 
(301)987-9067 

Lomiq, Inc. 

c.p. 105, succursale A 

Jonquiere, Quebec 

Canada G7X 7V8 

(418)542-6425 

The Lyter Side 
511 Cottonwood 
Canon City, CO 81212 
(303)275-1640 

Ohm Electronics 
P.O. Box 368 
Palatine, IL 60067 
(800) 323-2727 



Spectrum Projects, Inc. 
P.O. Box 264 
Howard Beach, NY 11414 
(718) 835-1344 

Speech Systems 
38W255 Deerpath Road 
Batavia, IL 60510 
(312) 879-6880 

Tepco 

30 Water Street 
Portsmouth, RI 02871 
(401)683-3019 

Thinking Software, Inc. 
46-16 65 Place 
Woodside, NY 11377 
(718) 429-4922 

Tothian Software, Inc. 
Box 663 

Rimersburg, PA 16248 
(814)473-3887 

Weber and Sons, Inc. 
P.O. Box 104 
Adelphia, NJ 07710 
(800) 225-0044 

York 10 

9525 Vassar Avenue #R1 
Chats worth, CA 91311 
(818)700-0330 

Zebra Systems, Inc. 
78-06 Jamaica Avenue 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(718) 296-2385 



174 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



ftware 



Best Wishes for a Happy, Healthy 
Holiday Season from Sugar Software 



We make all of our holiday greeting 
cards with 

and so can you! 
The CoCo Calligrapher works on these printers: 

Epson: MX80, FX80, 100 (8 1/2 x 1 1 size only), 
and all models with graphtrax 
Gemini: 10, 10X, 15, 15X (81/2 x 11 size only) 
Radio Shack :LP7, LP8, DMP100, 110, 120, 200, 
420, 510, 2100 

Okidata: 92A - unless it is version 4. The ROM 
has a bug and the dealer should replace it for you. 
Banana: Behaves like a Radio Shack 
Prowriter: 8510 

These type styles come on the CoCo Calligrapher pro- 
gram tape or disk: 

Gey Nineties 

Tape - $24.95 
Disk - $29.95 
Both require 32K ECB 

Simplify all of your Holiday Mailing 

with 

TIMSMAIL 



Address all your holi- 
day greeting cards in 
minutes! Update your 
list in seconds! 

• Designed for 80 column 
printers 

• Continuous feed or 
single sheet labels 

• 1, 2 or 3 labels wide 

• 2.5, 2.75, 3, 3.5 and 4 
Inch labels 

• Sort by zip code 

• Sort by name 

• Select records to print 

• About 200 records will fit 
in 32K 




$19.95 - Tape 
32K ECB 
Disk 
Compatible 



User friendly 
Detailed tutorial & guide 
No blank line! 
Send formatted file 
to tape, disk, or printer 
Upper and lower case 
Up to 230 characters 
per record 



These additional type styles are also available — 
$19.95 each, or $49.95 for all on tape or disk. 



Old English-reduced 
Old English-reverse 
Old English- 
reverse/ reduced 



Tape 1 

Cartoon-reduced 
Cartoon-reverse 
Cartoon - 
reverse/reduced 



Gay Nineties-reduced 
Gay Nineties-reverse 
Gay Nineties- 
reverse/reduced 



Tape 2 

IBroadu 



Broadway 
Broadway- reduced 
Broadway-reverse 
Broadway- 
reverse/reduced 



B 



Tape 3 



siness 



Business 
Business-reduced 
Business-reverse 
Business- 
reverse/reduced 



Old Stylt ^s>fif Ique 



l3ld Stylt 



Old Style 
Old Style-reduced 
Old Style-reverse 
Old Style- 
reverse/reduced 



Antique 

Antique-reduced 
Antique-reverse 
Antique- 
reverse/reduced 



Spend some quality time with 



Bible 
Stories 




Adventure 



your family and play 
Tape - 

16K ECB -$19.95 
Disk- 

32K ECB - $24.95 

A very simple graphics adven- 
ture game for young children 
and their families. 

All of these stories are included: 

• Adam and Eve 

• Noah's Ark 

• Abraham and Isaac 

• The Exodus 

• David and Goliath 

Intriguing sound effects. Exciting high-res graphics and 
animation. The one adventure game that's fun to play 
over and over again! 




Disk software compatible with Radio Shack DOS only. 
A complete catalog of other sweel Sugar Software products is available. 



Dealer and author inquiries are always 
welcome. Canadian dealers should con- 
tact Kelly Software Distributors, Ltd., P.O. 
Box 11932, Edmonton, Alberta T5J-3L1 
(403) 421-8003. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 7446 
Hollywood, Florida 33081 
(305) 981-1241 

No refunds or exchanges. 













V/SA 









Add $1.50 per program for 
postage and handling. Flor- 
ida residents add 5% sales 
tax. COD orders are wel- 
come. CIS orders EMAIL to 
70405. 1374. Dealer inquir- 
ies invited. 



Continued from Page 10 

Gold Star Performance 

Editor: 

I have received such outstanding service 
from one of your advertisers that I would 
like to call it to the attention of you and your 
readers. 

I own a CoCo 2 and one disk drive. I 
decided to purchase a second drive from the 
Computer Center, Inc., in Memphis, Tenn. 
About six months after I purchased this 
drive, it developed a problem. I returned it 
to the Computer Center with a note. It was 
returned 10 days later with a note saying that 
the drive worked and the only charge was 
for shipping and handling. I thought that 
was fine, since the drive worked perfectly 
when I connected it. 

About two weeks later, the drive devel- 
oped the same problem. I sent it back to the 
Computer Center again. This time it was 
returned within eight days and it had been 
repaired free of charge, and they didn't even 
charge postage and handling. It is so hard 
to get prompt, courteous service these days. 
The drive has been working fine ever since. 

Howard D. Clark 
El Paso, TX 

A Veteran Beginner 

Editor: 

I'm writing to tell you about Paul Bangert 
of Bangert Software Systems. After order- 
ing the Super Programming Aid, I had a 
question concerning it. In less than a week 
I had my answer from Mr. Bangert. 

If anyone in CoColand needs a decent 
programming aid, the Bangert Super Pro- 
gramming Aid [reviewed in the July 1986 
rainbow, Page 158] is the item to get. 

I was really glad to read that you will 
always have things in rainbow for be- 
ginners. IVe had my CoCo for a few years, 
but 111 never be a super programmer. I just 
make small, inefficient programs that keep 
me occupied. 

Philip Beltz 
Uhrichsville, OH 



Label Legacy 



Editor: 

I have been lucky to have had my letter 
printed in your magazine and have gotten 
some very nice CoCo pen pals. I met one 
man who became very close to me and we 
wrote to each other every week for over a 
year. He was really great with the CoCo and 
had made an address label with a dog on it 
and the word 'love* under it for me because 
of a stamp I try to use all the time. Then he 
had a heart attack. His family wrote me 
about it. I am trying to find someone who 
could write a program to make this label for 
me. I will gladly pay for it. Can anyone help 
me? I have a 64K CoCo, tape and a DMP- 
105 printer. You have a great magazine and 

1 76 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



I wouldn't miss it for anything. Thanks for 
helping me meet some very nice people. 

Sandra Steed 
115 2nd Drive SE 
New Philadelphia, OH 44663 



KUDOS 

Editor: 

I just wanted to pay you a compliment on 
the wonderful opportunity you've given me, 
as well as many others, in providing us with 
such a treasure as rainbow. It is definitely 
a gift to all CoCo users! 

I am a data processing major, with an 
associate's degree, working as a computer 
operator, on my way to becoming a pro- 
grammer. I enjoy the programs rainbow 
provides, as well as all the ads for equipment 
and software to expand my system and help 
me program better and more efficiently. 
Thank you for that gift. 

Bonnie Kitts 
Williamsburg, VA 

Please Don't Forget Us 

Editor: 

I ask you not to forget that it is the novice 
or beginner who makes your magazine 
grow, so consider the minimum equipment 
required to compute and address these 
people. I learned more from Don't String 
Me Along [October 1986, Page 100] than I 
have from any article in some time. Go get 
'em Ellen and George Aftamonow! 

I would like for someone to gather all 
errors ever gotten in basic and /or OS-9, 
with an explanation, reason, how to over- 
come, what caused the error and what they 
mean. Large order I know. 

Harold E. Crunk 
Maplewood, MO 



My Favorite Record 

Editor: 

Why not have a Rainbow One- and Two- 
Liner book and tape to complement your 
Simulations and Adventure series? I'd buy 
one. Also, why not put the CoCo Gallery on 
tape? Even more than either of these, I'd like 
to see the Simulations, Adventures, One- 
and Two-Liners, and CoCo Gallery all on 
disk. This would be of great value to me. 

Kerry B. Rogers, USN 
FPO New York, NY 



Doesn't Like OS-9 

Editor: 

Just when I had concluded that you and 
your magazine were hurting yourselves, 
patting yourselves on the back, you finally 
did something I consider worthwhile. 
Writer-Zap [September 1986, Page 116] is 
the program I have been looking for. I run 
my printer at 2400 baud and had to change 
that parameter manually each time. No 
more, thanks to you and special thanks to 
Ian Millard for making it available to the 
members of CoCo Community who use and 
like VIP Writer. 

I have OS-9 Version 01:01:00 and I con- 
sider it to be a total waste of money. I have 
not been able to find anything useful to do 
with it, nor do I find I can learn what to do 



with it from Dale Puckett. I have the 
Rainbow Guide to OS-9 but it assumes you 
know all about it and leaps in at full speed. 
I certainly am not going to spend $25 to 
upgrade to Version 2 of OS-9 until or unless 
I can find a use for it. 

I am running a CoCo 2, a J&M controller 
and a double-sided, 40- track disk drive. I use 
a DMP-105. 1 would like to see some entry- 
level tutorials on OS-9 so I can figure out 
what to do with it and how to do it. 

Keep Bill Barden going; he is the most 
lucid writer I have found on computers. 

Sam P. Carroll 
Olympia, WA 



PMODE is Red, PMODE is Blue 

I'm an honest person and I'd like to say, 
I had the urge to get a computer one day, 
Went to Radio Shack, walked in with ease, 
The salesman said, "May I help you please?" 

I said, "I'm looking for a computer," 

he asked, "What kind?" 
I replied, "I'm not sure, let's see your line." 
We looked at all the computers in the store, 
My knowledge of computers, unknown, not 

anymore. 

He asked, "See anything to suit you?" 
I said, "I really like that Color Computer 2." 
He picked up the computer and handed it 
to me, 

He rang it up and the total came to $279.33. 

I was so excited, I had a computer now, 
But how to use it, I didn't know how. 
I called Radio Shack that very day, 
The salesman explained in full, right away. 

After experimenting for about four weeks, 
I had learned a lot about pokes and peeks, 
I bought software that worked my way, 
But I had one problem, only 16K. 

I searched and found an upgrade for 69 
bucks, 

It was from Spectrum Projects, was I in luck. 
My order was filled and filled very fast, 
I had my upgrade I wanted, 64K at last. 

The magazine I had was called rainbow, 
Got it from a friend, where he got it I don't 
know. 

rainbow was filled with articles to read, 
My friend told me, "That rainbow is a need. 

IVe been reading RAINBOW ever since then, 
Of all computer magazines, rainbow 

always wins. 
With Lonnie Falk as its editor, 
I don't think rainbow could be better. 

I supported my CoCo 2 all the way, 
Until I heard about the new CoCo 3 one day. 
With its exciting new features, I was amazed, 
Its brilliance and colors flared with a blaze. 

I haven't had a chance to try one out, 
From what I've read, it's the best without a 
doubt. 

My local Radio Shack hasn't received 
them yet, 

When they do, 111 get one, you can bet! 



rainbow is, and will always be for me, 
I know itH get better, thanks to CoCo 3. 
rainbow magazine will always be the best, 
But I think it's time to put my pen to rest. 

Andrew Urquhart 
Metairie, LA 



PEN PALS 

• I'm looking for a CoCo pen pal. Pm 14 
years old and have a 64K CoCo 2 BASIC 
Version 1 . 1 with disk and a cassette recorder. 

Jon Larson 
P.O. Box 237 
Seligman, AZ 86337 

• I read the letter in the July 1986 rain- 
bow [Page 10] about all the different coun- 
tries THE RAINBOW is sent to. I already have 
pen pals in Australia, Canada, Argentina 
and Brazil, but would like pen pals in other 
countries. I would also like to hear from 
anyone who is interested in war and weap- 
ons, law or politics. 

Tim Vogel 
2425 Greendale Road 
Wilmington, DE 19810 

• I have a 64 K ECB system with a cassette 
recorder and am in search of a pen pal. I am 
16 years old. 

Brannon Baxley 
P. O. Box 355 
Live Oak, FL 32060 

• Anyone who wants to be a pen pal and 
has a cassette player please write me. I will 
answer all letters. You can help me keep my 
expenses down by sending an SASE. 

Dane Kramer 
802 N DeQuincy 
Indianapolis, IN 46201 

• Pm searching for pen pals who are 
interested in heavy metal, Adventure games 
and computer graphics. I have a 64K CoCo, 
disk drive, DMP-1 10 printer and the fantas- 
tic CoCo Max. All ages are welcome to 
write. 

Erik Ames 
406 East 12th Street 
LaPorte, IN 46350 



• I'm 1 5 years old and would like a pen pal. 
I have a 64K computer, double disk drive, 
cassette recorder, modem and a DMP-1 30 
printer. 

Yvonne Hinkle 
RR 1, Box 358 
Washington, IN 47501 

• I'm 16 years old and have a 64K ECB 
CoCo 2, two double-sided disk drives, 
DMP-105 printer, 300/1200 Baud modem 
and would like to have some pen pals. 

Michael Adams 
31740 Courtney Cr. 
Walker, LA 70785 



• I would like to have a pen pal who owns 
a CoCo 1 or 2. I'm 16 years old and own a 
CoCo with dual-disk drive, cassette recorder 
and a Spirit-80 printer that thinks it is an 
Epson. 

Kelly Stone 
P. O. Box 225 
Rose City, MI 48654 

• I would like to hear from other CoCo 
owners who are involved in law enforce- 
ment, particularly those who have written 
job-related programs. Also, I would like to 
hear from law enforcement people from 
other countries. 

J.E. Borger 
Box 52 

South Dennis, N J 08245 

• If you enjoy throwing out your 16K 
Color Computer, trashing your DMP-105 
printer or putting an ax in your color TV — 
do not write to me. If you love your CoCo, 
please write to me. 

Michael Albert 
661 Neptune Boulevard 
Long Beach, NY 11561 

• I am 13 years old and want pen pals who 
are having trouble with programs, games or 
anything else. Must have a cassette recorder 
and disk drive. 

Eurik Perez 
358 Wadsworth Avenue 

Apt. 43 
New York, NY 10040 

• I am looking for a pen pal who enjoys 
Adventures. I am 10 years old and have a 
TRS-80 Color Computer with disk drive, 
printer and modem. 

Brad Bergstresser 
26027 Redwood Drive 
Olmsted Falls, OH 44138 

• I would like to have pen pals who have 
a CoCo 2 with at least 32K. I have many 
tapes but I don't have a disk drive. 

Joel High 
2155 Jarvis Road 
Lancaster, PA 17601 

• Anyone who wants a pen pal in the USA 
please send an SASE or 25 cents. I will try 
to answer all letters. This offer stands for 
people in foreign countries also. 

Blake Cadmus 
1106 Whitfield Boulevard 
Reading, PA 19609 

• I am interested in getting a CoCo pen 
pal. I am 14 years old and have a 64K CoCo 
2 and tapes. 

Jason Maxwell 
867 Rye Street 
Manchester, TN 37355 

• I am willing to correspond with CoCo 
users anywhere in the world who have a 
similar or compatible CoCo configuration 
to mine (tape, ECB, modem and printer). I 
hope to have a disk drive soon. 

Bill Kroulek 
13809 Lillard Road 
Soddy, TN 37379 



• If there are any CoCo users who want 
to write to me, I'd be very pleased. I am 14 
years old and own a TRS-80 64K computer. 

Ben Stimmel 
P. O. Box 44 
Burlington, TX 76519 

• I'm looking for a girl pen pal. I have a 
64K CoCo with printer and cassette. 

Pierre- Etienne Michel 
808 du Chateau 
St-Hilaire, Quebec 
Canada J3H 1N4 

• I am looking for a pen pal. I have a 16K 
CoCo 1. 

Steven Freriks 
P.O. Box 116 
Englefeld, Saskatchewan 
Canada S0K 1N0 

• I would like to have a pen pal. For more 
information write me. 

Shane Pasiechnyk 
Box 344 

Mary svi lie, British Columbia 
Canada V0B 1Z0 

• I want to correspond with CoCo users 
who have MIDI systems using Yamaha DX 
and RX synthesizers and any of the follow- 
ing: Colorchestra, Syntrax by Intercomp, 
CoCo MID I by Speech Systems and Musica 
MIDI by Speech Systems. 

Ross Whitney 
201-21 Pioneer Drive 
Kitchener, Ontario 
Canada N2P 1 HI 

• I am in search of a CoCo pen pal living 
in Germany or the USSR. I am 12 years old 
and have a 64 K CoCo 2 and cassette re- 
corder. 

Mathieu Chouinard 
616 Rue Hudon CP. 500 
LaPocatiere, Quebec 
Canada 60 R 1Z0 

• I would like to write to anyone sharing 
my interest in Adventures. So far I have 
either solved or helped in finding the solu- 
tions to most of the Mark Data programs 
and Dallas Quest. At the moment I am 
having some difficulty with The Vortex 
Factor, Major Istar and To Preserve Quan- 
dic. I am 10 years old. 

Scott Chase 
3 Thomas Street 
Baxter, Victoria 3911 
Australia 



the rainbow welcomes letters to the 
editors. Mail should be addressed to: Letters 
to Rainbow, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. Letters should 
include the writer's full name and address. 
Letters may be edited for purposes of clarity 
or space* 

Letters to the editors may also be sent to 
us through the MAIL section of our Delphi 
CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> prompt, 
pick MAIL, then type SEND and address to: 
EDITORS. Be sure to include your complete 
name and address. 

December 1986 THE RAINBOW 177 



DOWNLOADS 

Now's the Time to Get Online 



• Having just purchased a Modem I, I dug 
through back issues only to find zilch. Can 
you explain how to use my modem? 

Mervyn Swaine 
Hantsport, Nova Scotia 



So you want to join the ranks of telecom- 
muters, Mervyn. Really all you need is the 
modem, a cable to connect it to the comput- 
er, a cable to connect it to your telephone, 
some terminal software, and the telephone 
number of your local Uninet pad in order 
to get on Delphi. (See the ad in this issue for 
more details.) 

A few terminal programs have appeared 
in the rainbow. If you have a CoCo 3, a 
terminal program appeared in last month's 
issue. All that the terminal, or communica- 
tions, program does is allow you to send and 
receive data over the telephone lines. The 
more elaborate programs have buffers — 
methods of storing text received or to be 
sent. Also, they have different protocols for 
reliable transmission of data. I recommend 
Mikeyterm. It is available on Delphi for the 
cost of your connect time. 

The cables you need can be found at your 
local Radio Shack store. Your Modem I just 
converts the data to tones for transmission 
purposes. More elaborate modems are also 
available. They automatically dial and 
answer your telephone, and are capable of 
faster baud rates than your Modem L 



Dan Downard is an electrical engineer 
and has been involved in electronics for 
27 years through Ham radio (K4KWT). 
His interest in computers began about 
eight years ago and he has built several 
68 XX systems. 



When you finally get connected to Delphi, 
send a message to DANDOWNARD or 
RAINBOWMAG on the CoCo Forum. We 
are always glad to hear from you. 



• A strange thing happens when I type EXEC 
without a machine language program in 
memory. The drive starts running, looking 
for a file on the disk in Drive 0 (if one is in 
the drive). 

What is the file the drive is looking for? 
Is it looking for a machine language file, 
BASIC file, ASCII file or OS-9 file? Does it 
load and automatically execute the file? 

Willie Wong 
San Francisco, CA 

Willie, you are doing something wrong. 
When the command EXEC is found in a 
program, the microprocessor program 
counter (the address counter) jumps to the 
address pointed to by S009D. If there is 
nothing stored at this address, you're in 
never-never land. The disk drive is not 
looking for a file, but just running without 
any purpose. This is dangerous from a 
software standpoint since you may jump to 
a place in Disk basic that may re-format a 
disk, etc. I suppose that is why we have 
write-protect tabs. At the same time it will 
do no physical damage to the computer, and 
pushing reset will re-initialize the system. 



• Do you have to get an RGB monitor to 
use the 80-character screen and the Hi- Res 
graphics, or can that be done on a normal 
TV? I was also wondering about the option 
for adding more memory. Does more mem- 
ory mean more string space, and does it give 
more room before OM Errors? 



By Dan Downard 
Rainbow Technical Editor 



Could you recommend a good word 
processing and small-business accounting 
program for the CoCo 3? I do not have a 
CoCo 3 yet. 

Do you recommend getting OS-9 Level II 
for the CoCo 3? I have never used the OS- 
9 system, and I do not know whether that 
would be a good investment for a 14-year- 
old, self-taught programmer on a limited 
budget. 

David West 
Leesburg, FL 

I see you are looking forward to the CoCo 
3 with the rest of us, David. I wouldn't 
recommend using a TV with the CoCo 3 for 
Hi-Res graphics. The RF circuits are no 
different than in the present CoCos. It is 
impossible to send the necessary video 
information over a standard RF carrier. At 
the same time, a monochrome monitor 
works fine for 80-column word processing. 
Graphics are better on an RGB monitor, but 
a color monitor will suffice. 

To take advantage of the added memory 
in the CoCo 3, at present you will have to 
use OS-9 Level II. There hasn't been time to 
develop software for RS-DOS, even though 
it's possible. You will still be able to write 
longer programs with the same amount of 
memory due to the fact that graphics screens 
are now stored in different memory banks, 
and do not interfere with program memory. 

Because the CoCo 3 is so new we will have 
to see what kind of business software devel- 
ops. Existing software will run, but most is 
formatted for a 32-column screen. It should 
not be too difficult to convert the screen 
formats. As far as OS-9 goes, there are 
several excellent word processors and ac- 
counting programs already available. Try 
contacting some of the established vendors 
such as Computerware and Frank Hogg 
Labs. 



178 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



Recommended Reading for Your CoCofrom . 



The Rainbow Bookshelf 




TWKCOWMMOWIOOIOr 






The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 

The book that demystifies the state-of-the-art operating system for 
the Tandy Color Computer. Authors Dale L. Puckett and Peter Dibble 
show you how to take advantage of OS-9's multitasking and multi- 
user features, and the capability of redirecting input and output 
commands at will. An easy-to-read, step-by-step guide packed with 
hints and tips, tutorials and free software in the form of program 
listings. 

Book $19.95 

Disk Package $31 (2 disks, book not included) 



The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures 

This sequel features 24 of the most challenging Adventure games 
ever compiled. Meet the Beatles and battle the Blue Meanies, find 
a hidden fortune, or win the heart of a beautiful and mysterious 
princess. Experience the thrills and chilis of the most rugged 
Adventurer without ever leaving your seat. Ring Quest, Secret Agent 
Man, Dark Castle, Curse of Karos, Island and morel 

Book $13.95, Tape $13.95 



First 

The Rainbow Book of Adventures 

A collector's item containing 14 winning programs from the 
rainbow's very first Adventure contest. Includes such favorites as 
Sir Randolf of the Moors, Search for the Ruby Chalice, Deed of the 
York, Horror House, One Room, The Door and Dr. Avaloe. Plus, hints 
and tips on solving Adventures. 

Book $7.95, Tape $7.95 



The Rainbow Book of Simulations 

Features 20 award-winning entries from the rainbow's first 
Simulation programming competition. You are the Commander-in- 
Chief of the Confederate Army during the Civil War, an air traffic 
controller at one of the nation's busiest airports, the owner of your 
own software business, a civil defense coordinator in charge of 
saving Rainbow City from a raging flood, a scientist conducting 
experiments on Mars . . . Your wits are on the line. 

Book $9.95, Tape $9.95 



The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations 

The 16 winning programs from our second Simulation contest. Fly through the dense African 
jungle as a bush pilot, bull your way down Wall Street, lead the Rainbow City bomb squad, 
or try your hand at Olympic events. Test your skills and talents. 

Book $9.95, Tape $9.95, Disk $10.95 

Coming Soon 
The Rainbow Guide to Introductory Statistics 



I want to start my own Rainbow Bookshelf! 



Please send me: 

□ The Rainbow Book of Simulations 

□ Rainbow Simulations Tape 

□ The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations 

□ Second Rainbow Simulations Tape 

□ Second Rainbow Simulations Disk 

□ The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 (book only) 

□ Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Disk Package (2 disks) 

□ The Rainbow Book of Adventures (first) 
Q Rainbow Adventures Tape (first) 

□ The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures 

□ Second Rainbow Adventures Tape 
Add $1.50 per book Shipping and Handling in U.S. 
Outside U.S., add $4.00 per book 

Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax 

(Allow 6 to 8 weeks for delivery) Total 



$ 9.95 
$ 9.95 
$ 9.95 
$ 9.95 
$10.95 
$19.95 
$31.00 
$ 7.95 
$ 7.95 
$13.95 
$13.95 



Name 



Address 

City 

State _ 



ZIP 



□ Payment Enclosed, or □ Charge to: 
□ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 



VISA 




* v J 











Account Number 



Card Expiration Date 
Signature 



Mail to: Rainbow Bookshelf, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 

Please note: The tapes and disks offered by The Rainbow Bookshelf are not stand-alone products. That is, they are intended to be an adjunct and complement to the books. Even if you buy the tape or disk, 
you will still need the appropriate book. OS-9® is a registered trademark of the Microware Systems Corporation. 




IIX'S MINI-CATALOG 




Educational Best-Sellers! 



P-51 Mustang 
Attack/Flight Simulation 

The ultimate video experience! Link two 
CoCo's together by cable or modem, and 
compete against your opponent across 
the table OR across the country! (Both 
computers require a copy of this program). 
The P-51 flight simulator lets you fly this WWII 
attack fighter in actual combat situations- 
against another player OR against the 
computer. 

32K Machine Language 
Flight Manual Included 
Tape $29.95 Disk $34.95 




TALL 



Worlds of Flight 
Small Plane Simulation 

Real-time simulation generates panoramic 
3-D views of ground features as you fly 
your sophisticated plane in any of nine 
different "worlds." Program models over 35 
different aircraft/flight parameters. Realistic 
sound effects too! Manual included helps 
you through a typical short flight. 
32K Machine Language 
Flight Manual Included 
Joysticks Required 
Tape $29.95 Disk $34.95 



Teachers Database II -Allows teachers 
to keep computerized files of students. 
Recently updated with many new features! 

• Up to 1 00 students, 24 items per student 

• Many easy-to-follow menus 

• Records can be changed, deleted, 
combined 

• Statistical analysis of scores 

• Grades can be weighed, averaged, 
percentaged 

• Individual progress reports 

• Student seating charts 

• Test result graphs/grade distribution 
charts 

64K TDBN $59.95 Disk Only 
32K TDBI $42.95 Tape $39.95 

NOW AVAILABLE FOR IBM PC & 

COMPATIBLES-Holds information on up to 
250 students with as many as 60 individual 
items of data for each. Contains the 
features listed above PLUS. 

Requires 128K - $89.95 



Factpack -Three programs for home or 
school use provide drill and practice with 
basic "-/+/-/x" Grades 1-6. 

32K Ext. Basic 
Tape $24.95 Disk $29.95 

Vocabulary Management System -Helps 
children learn and practice using vocabu- 
lary and spelling words. Eleven programs 
including three printer segments for tests, 
puzzles, worksheets and five games; many 
features make this a popular seller! 

Requires 1 6K Ext. Basic/ 

32K for Printer Output 
Tape $39.95 Disk $42.95 

Fractions— A Three-Program Package. 
1 /Mixed & Improper 2/Equivalence 
3/Lowest Terms. Practice, review and defi- 
nitions make learning easy. 

32K Ext. Basic 
Tape $30.95 Disk $35.95 




NEW RELEASE 

GOLD FINDER 

Here's the quality you have come to expect 
from TOM MIX. Another outstanding color 
computer game. This one ranks right up 
there with "Donkey Kong". Listen to this: 
69 levels for one or two players PLUS you 
can create your own levels (up to 306 on 
a disk). Endiess possibilities await you in 
this exciting new creation. Move over 
Goldrunner and Loderunner, here comes 
GOLD FINDER. . . 

32K & Joysticks Required 

Disk $27.95 

We Have More Software 
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THE BLACK HOLE 

For anyone who enjoys solving a challeng- 
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puzzle composed of 63 numbered cubes 
in a 4 by 4 by 4 array that leaves one 
BLACK HOLE. You tell the computer to sort 
the cubes and the computer tells you to put 
them in numerical order. A real brain 
bender. Outstanding color and action. 
Years of entertainment. . . 

For IBM PC & Compatibles 

$24.95 

More Tandy-IBM/PC software available. 



Unique Utilities! 

New! Use the tools we've used to create 
"Donkey King," "Sailor Man" and others! 

• Full use of 64K RAM 

• 100% Machine Language 

• No ROM Calls 

• Selectable Drive 

• Support 1-4 drives 

• Menu Selected functions 

• "Cold Start" exit to Basic 

• Parameters easily changeable in basic 
loader 

MAS Assembler— the finest ever! 
(Includes EDT) 

Disk $74.95 

EDT- Effortless full screen editing w/2-way 
cursor. Text files to 48K+. Copy, save, 
move, delete, print blocks, much more! 

Disk $39.95 

Deputy Inspector— Alphabetize, resort and 
backup directory; fast 3-swap backups, 
copy files or programs, auto-reallocate 
granules during backup for faster loading, 
more! 

Disk $21.95 

Sector Inspector- Alphabetize, backup and 
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programs, read in and edit 23+ grans, 
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Disk $29.95 




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P.O. Box 201 
Ada, Michigan 49301 

616/957-0444 

Ordering Information 

Call us at 616/957-0444 
for Charge Card orders 
Add $3.00 postage and 
handling 

Ml residents add 4% 
sales tax 

Authors -We pay top 
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Top-quality software at 
affordable prices, written by 
well-known authors in 6809 
Machine Language 




NEW RELEASE 

DONUT DILEMMA 

Angry Angelo has raided Antonio's Donut 
Factory sending the entire complex amuck! 
Donuts have come alive and all the 
machines are out of control. You must 
reach floor 10, past the Fat Spurters, 
Cream Blasters and Berserk Bucket to 
name a few, and deactivate the power 
generator to restore law and order. But 
hurry! Time is running out! 

Requires 32K 

T ape $21 .95 Disk $24.95 



Maui Vice 

Step into the shoes of Crockett & Tubbs, 
and gather evidence, photographs and wit- 
nesses to convict your suspects! With 
"windows" to select your options, hi-res 
graphics, and a new story generated each 
time you play. This is state-of-the-art that 
guarantees excitement and newness every 
time you play. 

64K Ext. Basic & Joystick Required 
Disk $21.95 

Other Best Sellers 

The Misadventures of Eddie— Eddie is 
roaming through time creating havoc-and 
you must bring him home! Over 140 loca- 
tions, 50+ commands, hi-res grapic 
adventure. 64K Disk $21.95 
Brewmaster-Move along the end of the 
bars, serving beer to your thirsty customers. 
Fast-paced action. 32K & Joystick. 

Tape $14.95 Disk $17.95 

Martian Crypt— Life once existed on Mars! 
Find the hidden Martian crypt. Animated 
hi-res graphic adventure with sound effects. 

32K Tape $1 8.95 Disk $21 .95 



NEW RELEASE 

FOURCUBE 

Now you can play TIC-TAC-TOE in 3D. The 
board consists of a 4x4x4 grid of cells. Pit 
your wits against the computer with six 
levels of difficulty or against your favorite 
opponent. Sound easy? Try it and you'll 
agree with us when we say its a "real 
challenge". 

Requires 32K 1 or 2 Player s 

Tape $15.95 Disk $18.95 




Moneyopoly 

Play the popular board game on one of 
the most realistic computer game simula- 
tions ever! Contains all the features of the 
original. Buy, sell, rent, wheel & deal your 
way to fortune. 

32K Joystick Required 

Tape $19.95 Disk $22.95 




Vegas Game Pak 

Six games in all! Blackjack, Keno, Video 
Poker & 3 slot machine lookalikes. Super 
graphics! 

1 6K Ext. Basic Required 
Tape $24.95 Disk $27.95 





NEW RELEASE 

LUNCHTIME 

Your chef, Peter Pepper, is surrounded! 
Dodge pickles, hot dogs, and eggs while 
building hamburgers. This high res game 
features 7 difficult levels of wild entertain- 
ment. Fast paced action for either one or 
two players. Have a Burger Time. . . 
Requires 32K & Joysticks 

Tape $18.95 Disk $21.95 

Tom Mix Products at 
New Reduced Prices! 

Sailor Man-Defeat the bigfatbadguy and 
win Elsie's heart. Super graphics. 

64K Tape $24.95 Disk $27.95 

Dragon Slayer -Defeat the dragon by 
finding your way through a mountain maze. 
Gather treasure but avoid the deadly traps! 
1 60 exciting screens. 

32K & Joystick or Keyboard 
Disk $24.95 

The King- 

32K Tape $24.95 Disk $27.95 
Draconian - 

32K Tape $19.95 Disk $22.95 
Ms. Maze- 

32K Tape $19.95 Disk $22.95 
Kater Pillar II- 

16K Tape $19.95 Disk $22.95 
Warehouse Mutants— 

16KTape $18.95 Disk $21.95 
Buzzard Bait- 

32K Tape $19.95 Disk $22.95 

NOVflSOFT 

A Tom Mix Company 

P.O. Box 201 
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Ordering Information 

• Add $3 shipping/handling 

• Ml residents add 4% sales tax 

• Dealers welcome 

• Many more titles -write for free catalog! 

Credit Card Orders 

Call 616/957-0444 





• Whenever I press the reset button on my 
Co Co 2, garbage appears on the screen and 
the computer crashes. Also, the click nor- 
mally heard when reset is pressed is absent. 
What's wrong? 

Jeff Walker 
Hudson, NC 



The reset button is a hardware connection 
to the reset line of several devices inside your 
CoCo, the most important being the 6809E 
microprocessor. It sounds as if you are 
having trouble with this circuit. The type of 
switch you need depends on the version of 
CoCo 2 you have, Jeff. It is called S2 and 
the part number can be identified if you have 
a service manual for the version in question. 
There were several versions of the CoCo 2 
produced. 

You should hear two simultaneous clicks 
when the reset button is pressed. One is the 
switch and the other is the cassette relay. 
This is due to the fact that you are actually 
re-initializing the system. 



• About Melvin Halpern s letter concerning 
his Gemini 10 buffer [October 1986, Page 
195], I experienced the same problem with 
my Gemini 10. I tried three commercial 
interfaces, all with the same results. I'm not 
sure what causes the problem. The computer 
updates the printer very slowly. It appears 
to be a problem in handshaking, or some- 
thing in that area. 

However, the solution to the problem is 
on Page 202 of the November 1983 issue of 
rainbow. After building this interface, my 
Gemini 10 prints a file almost four times as 
fast as it did when using the commercial 
interfaces. 

Jim Fodor 
Warner Robins, GA 

Thanks for the info, Jim. As the Gemini 
10 is a very popular printer, I think several 
readers will benefit from your advice. 



• I'm having an unusual problem with my 
'D' revision 64 K Extended CoCo 2. It 's lying 
to me! Somehow it has developed its own 
unique set of rules for mathematics. Within 
these rules it's very consistent in its answers 
to mathematical questions, except that these 
answers are as apt to be wrong as they are 
to be right. It makes no difference whether 
the calculation is in a program or entered 
directly, or if accessories are attached. Here 
is a simple example: PRINT 22.95-22.00 
and the answer it gives is . 950003. 

The problem becomes serious when a 



relational test between two variables is 
made, and then the program branches, 
based on whether AO. Example, the trial 
balance within a bookkeeping program. The 
books may balance perfectly, but CoCo says 
they don't! 

Radio Shack says they can 't find anything 
wrong. Do you, or any of your readers, 
know what could be causing the problem? 

Ron Stanwood 
Langley, British Columbia 

Ron, it's been awhile since I have been in 
school, but I think you need to normalize 
your numbers. One of the shortcomings of 
not having integer math in BASIC is the fact 
that all numbers have to be normalized. By 
the way, my CoCo gives the same answer. 
One plus one is no longer two in the com- 
puter world. 

It's not a problem, though. Try the follow- 
ing: 

10 R=22. 95-22. 00 

20 B=(INT(fi*100+.5) )/100 

30 PRINT B 

Line 20 is called normalizing and is required 
in all programs using integer math. There is 
really nothing wrong inside your computer 
other than the fact that math is done with 
algorithms that are correct to only so many 
decimal places. 



• I am learning machine language and lam 
now getting into graphics. I have had no 
trouble making simple routines like point- 
plotters or screen copiers, but I am having 
trouble with routines requiring complicated 
math like line and circle makers. Could you 
please tell me where the Extended Color 
basic line routine is, or at least how it is 
done? I really need help. 

I would also like to know if it is possible 
to switch only certain parts of ROM to 
RAM in a 64 K machine. I can go to the all- 
RAM mode, but then lam unable to use the 
hardware addresses in $FF00 to $FFFF. 
How does one perform an interrupt request? 

John- Paul Williams 
Montclair, CA 

Let's take the topics one at a time, John- 
Paul. First, well look at the Extended basic 
line routine. Drawing a line or a circle is a 
lot more complicated than it sounds because 
different graphics modes require different 
coordinates. I suggest Extended BASIC 
Unraveled by Spectral Associates. This 
commented disassembly of basic explains 
all of the steps necessary to make ROM calls 
for machine language programs. If you want 
to disassemble basic yourself, the line 
routine is at S93BB. Keep in mind that it first 
checks to see if it's a LINE INPUT command. 

You can still use the hardware addresses 
from $FF00 to $FFFF in the 64K mode. 



This will also be the case for the CoCo 3, 
even though you will be able to switch in 
banks of memory in 8K increments. Keep in 
mind that this bank switching is only imple- 
mented using OS-9 Level II, or for graphics 
screens. 

Interrupts will be a hot topic with the 
advent of the CoCo 3, and will be used 
extensively. An interrupt is an external 
signal to the microprocessor that stops the 
normal execution of a program, does some- 
thing else for awhile, and then resumes 
normal program execution. There are sev- 
eral types of interrupts, both hardware and 
software, and they tend to speed execution 
of software because software polling is no 
longer necessary to find out what kind of 
external events are happening. 

A good example is the software overhead 
required to see if a key is depressed. If this 
is set up as an interrupt type of event, no 
software is necessary until the key is de- 
pressed, generating a hardware signal to the 
microprocessor. Earlier CoCos did not have 
the hardware necessary to implement all 
types of interrupts. The GIME chip inside 
the CoCo 3 uses interrupts extensively. We'll 
keep you up to date as more information 
develops. 



• / have a 64 K CoCo 2 and I seem to have 
a problem when I type in a program of some 
length. When I list the program it will list 
as if all the lines are there, but when I run 
the program I get a UL Error. When I try 
to list that line, the computer gives just the 
line number like it was never typed. The rest 
of the program is gone when I list it line by 
line, but when listing the whole program it 
seems to be there. 

Can you help me or tell me what is wrong? 

Edgar Ban 
Goldendale, WA 

Edgar, it sounds as if you have an incor- 
rect function call in your program that is 
overwriting some of your memory. Check all 
of the functions such as POKE, EXEC, etc., to 
see if the proper arguments are included, and 
whether they are correct. 



Your technical questions are welcomed. 
Please address them to: Downloads, the 
rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit for 
space arid clarity. Due to the large volume 
of mail we receive, we are unable to answer 
letters individually. 

Your technical questions may also be sent 
to us through the MAIL section of our new 
Delphi CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> 
prompt, pick DELPHI MAIL, then type 
SEND and address TO: DANDOWNARD. 
Be sure to include your complete name and 
address. 



182 THE RAINBOW December 1986 




PRINTER UTILITY 



OS-9 Spooler: 

Print a File as a Background Task 



One of the first things I tried when 
I fired up OS-9 on my CoCo 
was printing a file as a back- 
ground task (list file >/p &). What 
a disappointment that was! Each time 
a line was read from the disk and every 
time data was sent to the printer 
through the standard CoCo serial port, 
the computer hung up. 

However, there is a printer utility, 
similar to one I saw described in a 
UNIX text, that permits background 
printing with just a bit of slowing of any 
other work. The program lpr, is not for 
use with a hardware serial port such as 
Tandy's or PBJ's but for the "plain 
vanilla" Color Computer RS-232. 

The program consists of a buffer to 
hold text (cutting down on disk ac- 
cesses) and its own routine to send 
characters directly to the printer, one at 
a time, without using the OS-9 printer 
device driver which hogs computer 
time. 

The baud rate is automatically set by 
reading it from the device descriptor, p. 
The constants in the listing work for my 
computer and printer, and I imagine 



Steve Goldberg is a dentist and lives in 
Bethpage, N.Y. He was taught pro- 
gramming by his son Joe, a high school 
senior. 



that they should be OK for you, also. 
If your printer produces nonsense, 
juggle the values a bit. The slower baud 
rates are fairly tolerant, but at higher 
speeds, a change of one or two can make 
a big difference. 

Don't be disturbed by the warnings 
you receive when you assemble lpr. The 
program directly addresses RAM loca- 
tions, which OS-9 doesn't like. The 
program is not reentrant for the same 
reason (even thought it says it is). 

To use this program, type lpr fol- 
lowed by the name(s) or pathlist(s) of 
the files(s) you want printed, followed 
by an ampersand (&), which makes lpr 
run as a background task and returns 
the use of the computer to you while 
your file(s) print. For example: 

lpr f ileone f iletwo & ENTER. 

The default buffer size is about 4K. 
To reduce disk access to a minimum, 
make the text buffer as large as possible 
by using the # command line modifier. 
If you can, make it large enough to hold 
the entire file. Be sure to leave enough 
memory free to run whatever other 
program you want to use while your 
file(s) are being printed. For example: 

lpr bigf lie tt20l< & ENTER. 

If you don't enter a filename after lpr 



By Stephen B. Goldberg 

on the command line, the input is via 
the standard input path and data can be 
accepted from another program 
through a pipeline. For example, you 
can print the output of a text formatter: 

form<texfile ! lpr & ENTER. 

If you forget to use the ampersand, 
your computer will proceed with print- 
ing your file(s) but you will not be able 
to use it for any other programs. In this 
case, press CLEAR-C and the printing 
process will move to the background 
and control of the machine will be 
returned to you. 

The only way you can terminate a 
background process is with the kill 
command. When you execute lpr using 
the ampersand on the command line, 
you will see the process ID number 
displayed on the screen after pressing 
ENTER. If you want to stop the program 
before it has finished printing, enter 
kill followed by the process ID 
number. If you have forgotten the 
process ID number, you can always find 
it by using the procs command. 

That's about it. It makes life with 
CoCo OS-9 a bit more pleasant. 

(You may direct questions about this 
program to Mr. Goldberg at 695 Plain- 
view Road t Bethpage, NY 11714, 516- 
681-7209. Please enclose an SASEwhen 
writing.) □ 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 83 



The listing: spooler 



************************************** 



* 



* LPR - COPYRIGHT (c) 1985 by S. B. GOLDBERG 

* PRINT SPOOLER FOR STANDARD COCO SERIAL PORT 

* Use: lpr [filename] [•••] & 

*.;;. 

* 

*!!u|l 'I 1 modifier to enlarge buffer. 



<program> I lpr & 
lpr < filename & 



ifpl 

use 

endc 



/dj3/defs/os9defs 



path 



mod len , name , prgrm+ob j ct , reent+1 , entry , dsiz 



rmb 



file path number 
starting address of buffer 
end address of text 
size of buffer 
filename pointer 
delay constant 
buffer 
stack 

parameters 



1 

startbuf rmb 2 

endbuf rmb 2 

bufsiz rmb 2 

pointer rmb 2 

count rmb 2 
buffer rmb 

rmb 2J80 

rmb 20J3 

dsiz equ 
* 

*" : - 

name fcs /lpr/ 

fee /(C) 1985 S.B.GOLDBERG/ 

descript fee /p / 
****************************** 

* 

* BAUD RATE DELAY CONSTANTS 

0; 

table fdb $0168 3j30 baud 

fdb $j3j3af 6j3j3 baud 

fdb $pj356 12J3J3 baud 

fdb $0029 2400 baud 

fdb $0012 4800 baud 

fdb $0007 9600 baud 

* * * * * * * * ********************** 

* DATA INITIALIZATION AND 

* BUFFER SIZE CALCULATION 
* 

entry clr path set to standard input path 

leay buffer,u starting address of buffer 

sty startbuf save it 

tfr x,d data area top 

subd startbuf subtract start of buffer 

subd #200 subtract stack bytes 

std bufsiz save size of buffer 



1 84 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 




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program for easy 64 level random access digitizing. Pictures taken by the DS— 69A may be saved on disk or 
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****************************** 
* 

* FIND BAUD RATE AND SET DELAY 
* 

pshs x save parameter pointer 

leax descript,pcr device decsriptor name 

clra any type or language 

os9 f$link link to descriptor 

bcs out exit with error 

ldb 39,u get baud rate 

decb adjust value 

aslb for table offset 

leax table, per constant table address 

ldd b,x get delay constant 

std count save it 

puis x retrieve parameter pointer 
****************************** 

* 

* CHECK FOR PARAMETER 
* 

Ida ,x parameter character 

cmpa #$j3d parameter present? 

beq read no, read from standard input path 
****************************** 

* 

* OPEN FILE FOR PRINTING 
* 

open Ida #read. read mode 

os9 i$open open file 

bcs out exit with error 

sta path save file path number 

stx pointer save pointer to next filename 
****************************** 

* 

* READ FILE INTO BUFFER 
* 

read ldy bufsiz size of buffer 

Ida path input path number 

ldx startbuf start address of buffer 

os9 i$read read block into buffer 

bcs error branch on error 

tfr y,d length of block in buffer 

addd startbuf add starting address 

std endbuf save end address 

tfr x,y start of buffer to 1 Y 1 register 
****************************** 

* 

* OUTPUT CHARACTERS TO PRINTER 
* 

write Ida $ff22 get printer status 

asra printer busy? 

bcs write yes, check again 

pshs cc no, save condition codes 

orcc #%j31j31j3j3j3j3 mask interrupts 

clr $ff2j3 start bit to printer 

bsr wait delay 

ldb #8 bit counter 



1 88 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



lsr ,y get data bit 

rola put in correct 

rola position for output 

sta $ff2j3 send out bit 

bsr wait delay 

decb last bit? 

bne outchar no, send next one 

Ida #2 stop bit 

sta $f f 2J3 out to printer 

bsr wait delay for two 

bsr wait stop bits 

puis cc retrieve condition codes 

leay l,y address of next character 

cmpy endbuf last character? 

beq read yes, get next block 

bra write no, send next character to printer 
********* **** *** ************** 

* ERROR CHECK 

cmpb 
bne 
tst 
beq 
Ida 
os9 
ldx 
Ida 



error 



noerr 
out 



cmpa 
bne 
clrb 
os9 



#e$eof end of file? 
out no, exit with error 
path standard input path? 
noerr yes, exit program 
path no, get input path number 
i$close close input file 
pointer get parameter pointer 
>x get next parameter character 
#$#d another parameter present? 
open yes, open next 
no, clear error flag 
f$exit quit LPR 



****************************** 
* 

* BAUD RATE TIMING LOOP 
* 



waitl 



n 

V, ' ■' 



ldx 


count 


leax 


~l,x 


bne 


waitl 


rts 


yes, 


emod 




equ 




end 





delay count 
done? 
no, count some more 



• f» * >. * 4 »r* 




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December 1986 THE RAINBOW 189 




BARDEN S BUFFER 



The BASIC PSET and 
Graphics Display Speeds 



By William Barden, Jr. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



one of the computer shows I attended recently, I 
saw a graphics display by Evans and Sutherland. 
It showed, in real time, a Harrier Jump Jet landing 
on a battle zone highway, taking off, and then overflying the 
area. The image was terrific — almost the same resolution 
you'd get from extended play low resolution mode on a VCR. 
Scenery, buildings and other features were continually 
updated and displayed on the screen, creating a scenario that 
made Sublogic's Flight Simulator look very crude. Let me 
hasten to add that I'm a big fan of Flight Simulator — I've 
flown between the World Trade Centers many times and put 
a number of dents in the Sears Tower with the Cessna 182. 
But the two displays are worlds apart. What's the answer? 
Why can't we get graphics like the Evans and Sutherland 
display on systems such as the CoCo? 

There are several reasons. Although the CoCo 3 is a fast 
system, its graphics will not be fast enough. What is fast 
enough? As you might guess, there is no upper limit to the 
rate at which we'd like to update the screen. In this column 
we'll take a look at how fast graphics are, why they aren't 
faster, and what we can do about speeding them up. We'll 
provide a little assembly language subroutine that's 2 X A times 
as fast as the one in BASIC, which might help you plot as well 
as the Borgias. Well also show you how we developed the 
subroutine. Unfortunately, we'll also tell you what went 
wrong with the design so that the program is not a good one 
to call from basic. 



Bill Barden has written 27 books and over 100 magazine 
articles on various computer topics. His 20 years experience 
in the industry covers a wide background: programming, 
systems analyzing and managing projects ranging from 
mainframes to microcomputers. 



An Inefficient Screen 

It's unfair to compare an Evans and Sutherland graphics 
system to a small computer's graphics capability. Evans and 
Sutherland builds its system around dedicated hardware — 
graphics functions such as drawing lines and figures are done 
with the help of high-speed electronics at nanosecond (bil- 
lionths of seconds) rather than microsecond (millionths of 
seconds) response times. 

The CoCo and other systems, the IBM PC, the Tandy MS- 
DOS machines, and other small computers, use "raster- 
scanned" graphics. The video display is updated like a 
television set's display by sweeping the light beam across the 
face to draw 525 horizontal lines. There are other types of 
displays that draw "vectors" on the screen as required — an 
oscilloscope is a simple form of this type of screen display. 
However, we're stuck with the raster scan display — actually 
an excellent choice, as the costs of the system can be kept 
low with this type of screen display. 

The raster can update the screen with a complete frame 
30 times a second. This is enough of a continuous update to 
provide a flicker-free picture. Ideally, then, we're shooting for 
updating graphics on the screen 30 times a second. However, 
even lower update rates, a few times per second as in the 
Flight Simulator^ can provide a good simulation of move- 
ment. 

The raster scan is updated from a graphics memory buffer, 
called graphics or text "pages." The current graphics or text 
page is an area of memory set aside that the graphics 
electronics in the computer continually read to update the 
display. Depending upon the graphics/ text mode, several 
different types of mapping are used. In CoCo graphics 
displays, the two most common types of maps are one-bit 
and two-bit mapping, shown in Figure 1 . 




1 90 THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



ByteN 
in 

graphics page 



/ 


0 


1 


0 


1 


0 


1 


1 


1 
















A 



One-bit mapping 



Graphics 
display 




One bit sets/resets 
one pixel 



Byte N 

in 

graphics page 





0 1 

■ 


7 0 


■ 

1 t 


0 1 


1 ^ 


■ | 

, ' 



Two-bit mapping 



Graphics 
display 



Two bits set/reset 
one pixel 



Figure 1: Graphics Display Mapping 



In one-bit mapping, each bit in the graphics memory 
corresponds to one pixel, or picture element, on the screen. 
If PMODE 4 is being used, the resolution of the picture on the 
screen is 256 horizontal elements by 192 vertical elements, 
each element having a corresponding bit in memory. Now 256 
by 192 is 49,152 pixels or 49,152 bits. Since there are eight 
bits per byte, a 256-by-192, single-color mode takes 49,152/ 
8 bytes, or 6,144 bytes in the graphics memory area. Each 
bit is either a 0 or 1, standing for one of two colors. 

In two-bit mapping, every two bits represent one pixel on 
the screen. The possible permutations of two bits are 00, 01, 
10 and 11. These four codes represent four different colors. 
Although the CoCo 2 could have a four-color, 256-by-192 
mode, it does not. The maximum resolution four-color mode 
is PMODE 3, 128 by 192 pixels. Since 128 by 192 is 24,576 
pixels, and because each pixel takes up two bits in memory, 
the number of bits is again 49,152 and the number of graphics 
memory bytes is 6,144. 

The CoCo 3, of course, has a much greater resolution — 
640 by 192 in four colors — requiring 640 * 192 * 2 = 245,760 
bits or 30,720 bytes! More on the CoCo 3 when they become 
commonplace. 

Bit Tweaking 

All graphics display speeds boil down to one thing: how 
fast bits can be set and reset in the video memory (graphics 
page). As you know, 6809 instructions are oriented towards 
bytes and doublebytes (words). Data can be moved around 
from 6809 registers to memory and back again in chunks of 
one or two bytes (memory transfers are one byte at a time, 
but may occur twice for 16-bit operands). However, it's not 
as easy to manipulate bits. There is one "bit" instruction, 
appropriately called BIT, but all it does is test whether a bit 
in a memory byte is a 0 or 1. It would be nice to be able to 
set or reset a bit in a memory byte with one instruction. This 
is not to be, at least with the current version of the 6809. 
About the best we can do is: 



LDA 
ORA 
STA 



VIDMEM 
VIDMEM 



5 
2 
5 



These three instructions load Register A with a byte from 
video memory, set one bit (the most significant bit), and store 
the changed byte back again. In two-color, 256-by-192 mode, 
this would set one pixel on the screen. 

How long do these instructions take? To find out, look in 
Appendix II of TRS-80 Color Computer Assembly Language 
Programming. The execution speeds of each instruction are 
given in cycle times. A cycle time is just a fixed clock pulse 
width (in the CoCo 2 it's 1.12 microseconds). The total cycles 
required in the three instructions are 12 cycles, or 13.4 
microseconds. Of course, the previous code is not the whole 
story. We need more generic instructions to allow any byte 
in video memory to be accessed, and any bit within the byte 
to be set. Here's a more realistic code segment: 



PSET 



BYTE 
MASK 



LDX 
LDA 
ORA 
STA 
RTS 
RMB 
RMB 



BYTE 
,X 

MASK 
,X 

2 
1 



6 
4 
5 
4 
5 



This code makes up a complete subroutine. To set a pixel 
on the screen (in 256-by-192 mode), locations BYTE and 
BYTE+1 are loaded with the address of the screen byte to 
be accessed and Location MASK is loaded with the "mask" 
of the bit to be set — $80, $40, $20, $10, $08, $04, $02 or 



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- Many new commands that expand your programming capability 

Commands Supported 



1. I/O -Commands 

CLOSE CLOADM CSAVEM DIfi 
GET INPUT KILL LSET 

2. Program Control Commands 
CALL END EXEC FOR 



DRIVE 
OPEN 



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DSKIS 
PRINT 



NEXT 



DSKOS 
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FIELD 
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THEN 



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ERROR ON.. CO RETURN STOP 



GOSUB GOTO 
SUBROUTINE 



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INT LEN LOG LOC 

SGN SIN SQR TAN 

4. String Functions 

CHRS INKEYS LEFTS HIDS 

5. Graphic/Sound Commands 
COLOR CLS CIRCLE DRAW 
PMODE PRESET PSET RESET 

G. Other/Spocial Commands 

DATA DIM LLIST MOTOR 

TAB VERIFY DLD DST 

REAL SREG SWP VECTD 



CVN 
LOF 
TIMER 



MKNS 



EOF 

PEEK 

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EXP 
POINT 



RIGHTS STRS 



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Write us for more details on sn ENHANCED version of MLBASIC for the COCO 3 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 91 



$01. There are 24 cycles here (26.9 microseconds). With this 
code it's possible to update an entire 256-by-192, two-color 
screen in 49,152 * 26.9 microseconds, or about 1.3 seconds. 

Of course, there are some variables. If we want to clear 
a horizontal line, we can just store a $00 or a $FF in a single 
byte to handle eight pixels at one time, thereby increasing 
the speed by a factor of eight. Also, we may not want to 
update all of the pixels on the screen — perhaps only one 
quarter of the screen is being changed between frames — this 
increases the screen update rate by a factor of four. In general, 
though, setting any point will probably take no less than 26.9 
microseconds. This means that we're stuck with an update 
rate of about .76 full screens, 1.5 half-filled screens, or three 
quarter-filled screens per second in real time, nothing 
approaching the Evans and Sutherland graphics. 

About the only way to speed up the graphics is to 
sequentially display previously generated graphics data. You 
could, for example, load in 6,144-byte images from disk at 
a rate of 5 per second (the data transfer rate from disk is about 
31,000 bytes per second and the screen can be updated at this 
rate with block moves). However, this would not be real time 
and you couldn't easily make the program interactive. (You 
could have sets of images on a hard disk, I suppose, but even 
a 10-megabyte hard disk could only hold 1,627 frames worth 
of 6,144-byte data — about seven minutes at 4 frames per 
second.) 

How Microsoft Does It 

With these discouraging limitations behind us, let's see how 
fast the BASIC PSET is. Here's some BASIC code to measure 
it: 

100 SCREEN 1,0 
110 PMODE 4,1 
120 PCLS 

130 TIME1 = TIMER 
140 FOR X=0 to 255 
150 FOR Y=p TO 191 
160 PSET (X,Y) 
170 NEXT Y 
180 NEXT X 

190 TIME1 - TIMER - TIME1 
200 IF TIME1 < 0 THEN TIME1 
210 PRINT "TIME=" ; TIME1/60 



LDU 
LDA 
PULS 



#MSKTAB 
A,U 
PC,U, B 



$9377 LDB 


,x 


PSHS 


B 


TFR 


A,B 


COMA 




AN DA 


,x 


ANDB 


COLOR 


PSHS 


B 


ORA 


,S+ 


STA 


,x 


SUBA 


,s+ 


ORA 


FLAG 


STA 


FLAG 


RTS 





The two parts of the code appear at locations S92A6 and 
$9377 in my ROM. It was disassembled by Z-BUG in ED 
TASM + and modified slightly to include symbolic references 
to variables. Other ROM versions should have this code at 
about the same locations. It is not the complete PSET code, 
but performs the basic operation of computing the byte 
location of the pixel, finding the pixel mask, and setting the 
pixel. Here's how it works: 

/The first portion of the code computes the address of the 
byte containing the pixel and leaves this address in Register 
X. Also computed is the bit mask to use within the byte, which 
is stored in Register A. 

The second portion of the code actually accesses the byte 
and uses the bit mask to set or reset the proper bit. 



= 65536 + TIME1 



The time required to clear the screen by vertical columns 
is 248 seconds. Obviously, though, some of this time is spent 
in the "overhead" of the BASIC loop. How much? Substituting 
this statement deletes the call to PSET with an approximately 
equivalent statement: 

160 x«x 

The time now required is 150 seconds. Subtracting the two 
results gives about 98 seconds for the time of the PSET action 
itself, for 49,152 points, or about 2,000 microseconds (2 
milliseconds = 2/ 1000th second) per point! Other tests bear 
this figure out. 

The question now must be: Why does the basic PSET take 
2,000 microseconds per point when the assembly language 
example we gave takes only 26.9 microseconds per point? 

The answer lies in the Microsoft code for PSET: 



$92A6 PSHS 


U,B 


LDB 


BYTESR 


LDA 


YCOOR 


MUL 




ADDD 


PAGEST 


TFR 


D,X 


LDB 


XCOOR 


LSRB 




LSRB 




LSRB 




ABX 




LDA 


XCOOR 


AN DA 


#7 



r 



Displacement 



L 



Byte Q 


1 


2 


I 1 * 1 


30 


31 


4 




f V 



1t 



X/8 

^ Bytes 



Pagest & displacement + X/8= 
address of byte 



Xand7 = 
Index to 
MSKTAB 



7 6 5 




Graphics 
page 



Bit to be 
set 

2 1 



I — I — I — I — i 
0 1(010 1 0 1 Byte from graphics page 
— I — r—n — f — I — | 1 



MSKTAB +0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


$80 




+1 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


$40 




+2 


0 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


S20 




"+3* 


0 


0 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


0 


310 




+4 


0 


0 


0 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


$06 




*5 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


1 


0 


0 


$04 




+6 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


1 


0 


$02 


Stored 


+7 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


1 


$01 


back 



Byte or 

MSKTAB + 3 = 



1 0 1 



00 



This bit set 



Figure 2: BASIC PSET Operation 



In the first portion, the U and B registers are first saved 
in the S Stack. This is standard for any registers that will be 
used in a subroutine. The registers are restored at the end 
of the subroutine. 

Register B is then loaded with BYTESR, a variable 
representing the number of bytes per screen row. This varies 



192 



THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



with the PMODE. For the 256-by-192 case it's 32 bytes — eight 
bits per byte for 32 bytes gives a complete row of 256 bits. 

The Y coordinate YCOOR is now loaded into Register A and 
the number of bytes per row is multiplied by the value of the 
Y coordinate. The result is the displacement of the row in 
bytes from the start of the graphics page, as shown in Figure 
2. Adding the beginning address of the current graphics page 
(PRGE5T) now points to the 32-byte row containing the pixel, 
as shown in the figure. This address is transferred to Register 
X. 

The X coordinate XCOOR is now loaded into Register B. 
Three LSRBs divide this value by eight to find the byte 
displacement from the start of the row 0-31. This value is 
added to X by an ABX. X now points to the byte containing 
the pixel as shown in Figure 2. The X coordinate is now 
loaded into A and ANDed with 7. The result is 0 to 7, and 
defines the bit in the byte that is to be set or reset. The bit 
mask value is loaded from the mask table (MSKTAB) by 
using the contents of A as an index value (LDA A,U). The 
bit mask table has entries of $80, $40, $20, $10, $08, $04, $02 
and $01, reflecting the proper bit to be set or reset within the 
byte. A PULS PC,U,B now restores the U and B registers 
and returns from the subroutine. 

The second part of the code uses the address in X and the 
bit mask in A to obtain the byte, AND out the proper bit(s), 
OR in the new color for a set or reset, and set a change flag 
if the graphic byte is unchanged. The crux of the operation 
is the OR, overly complicated here because more than one 
PMODE is handled by the routine. 

There's no question that this code is neat, good code. 
However, because the PSET must handle different PMODEs and 
colors, the code is much longer than necessary for a special 
256-by-192 case. Most importantly, the code in the complete 
PSET (not shown) has a great deal of overhead for syntax 
checking and argument evaluation as well. A figure of 2,000 
microseconds per point is about 300 instructions for each 
PSET, but it's easy to see where this time is spent! Unfortu- 
nately, I didnt consider all of the aspects of this syntax 
checking and argument evaluation when I first looked at the 
problem, but more about that soon. 



Rolling Your Own PSET 

Considering the time that PSET takes in BASIC, it certainly 
seems that we should be able to implement our own assembly 
language subroutine to duplicate the action of PSET or 
PRESET at a much faster rate. We are not burdened by the 
overhead functions of syntax checking and would not have 
to spend time in finding the arguments either (at least that 
was my original theory and it's partially true). 

What would be the absolute fastest code to set a point on 
a 256-by-192 element screen? One way that came to mind was 
to use a table of 49,152 addresses, each address corresponding 
to the screen location of the byte containing the pixel involved 
(see Figure 3). As each address would have to be two bytes, 
the table would be 98,304 bytes long. In addition to the 
address table, we'd have a mask table of 49,152 entries, each 
entry a single byte in length, and corresponding to the proper 
bit mask for a given X, Y. However, the size of the tables 
exceeds the addressing range of the 6809! Even with an 
extended addressing range, the displacement from the table 
start would exceed the maximum 16-bit value — a Y,X of 
$A080 representing Y,X = 160, 128, for example, would 
require a displacement address of $14100 (remember, there 



are two bytes per entry). This is a pity, as it would make for 
a fast PSET, something like: 



PSET 



LDD YX get Y,X values 

ADD YX x 2, but possible overflow! 

TFR x save in X - may be too large 

CLRA zero A 

LDB X x now in D 

TFR D,Y save in Y 

LDA [ADDTAB, X] get byte 

ORA [MSKTAB, Y] set bit 

STA [ADDTAB, X] restore 

RTS return 



Address 
Table +0 



41 -- 



+2 



+49150 — 



+49151 



Mask 
Table +0 



Points to 
Proper Byte 



Graphics 
page 



Stored 
back 



+1 
+2 



+49149 
+49150 
+49151 



10 0 0 0 000 



0 10 0 0 000 



0 0 10 0 000 



0 0 0 0 0 10 0 



0 0 000010 



0 0 000001 



1110 0 0 0 0 
^- Set 




^» Bit to be set 

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Byte from page 
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mask Value 



Result 



Figure 3: Fast PSET Scheme 



Outside of taking a horrendous amount of memory, and 
the fact that it doesn't work, it's a good idea for systems like 
the CoCo 3 with 512K bytes of cheap memory. Maybe a 
modification of splitting the address table into two parts 
would work. 

What about a modification with a more manageable table? 



Starting 
row address +- 

+0 



+190 



Points to 
row start 



X Displacement 
table 

+0 



+1 



Graphics 
page 



+254 



+255 




X Displacement 



table 

♦0 
+1 



+254 
+265 



1000 00 00 



0 1000000 



Appropriate 
' mask lor 
X value 



000000 1 0 



0000000 1 



Figure 4: Modified Fast PSET Scheme 



If we had a table containing the addresses of all of the starting 
rows, a second table for the displacements for an X within 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 193 



the row, and a third table for the mask for every X, we could 
use this code to do the PSET: 



6,&H44 ,&H56, &H44 

140 DATA &H56, &HC3 , &H0E, &H00, &H1 
F, &H02 , &HF6, &H3F, &H2 6 
15J3 DATA &HC4,&H07,&H8E,&H3F,&H1 



PSET 


LDD 


XLOC 


get X location 


D,&HA6, &HA4 , &HAA 




ADDD 


XLOC 


times 2 


160 DATA &H85,&HA7,&HA4,&H39, &H8 




TFR 


D,X 


now in X 


0,&H40,&H20,&H10 




LDD 


YLOC 


get Y location 
times 2 


170 DATA &H08,&H04,&H02,&H01 




ADDD 


YLOC 


180 FOR I=&H3F00 TO &H3F24 




TFR 


D, Y 


now in Y 


190 READ A: POKE I, A 




LDD 


YTAB , Y 


get starting row address 


200 NEXT I 




ADDD 


XTAB, Y 


add in X displacement 


210 SCREEN 1,0 




TFR 


D,Y 


now in Y 


220 PMODE 4,1 




LDA 




get byte 


230 PCLS 




ORA 


MSKTAB/ X 


set bit 


240 TIME1=TIMER 




STA 


,Y 


restore byte 


250 FOR X=0 TO 255 




RTS 




return 


260 FOR Y=0 TO 191 


XLOC 


RMB 


2 


two bytes - X in second 


270 POKE &H3F25,Y: POKE &H3F26,X 


YLOC 


RMB 


2 


two bytes - Y in second 


280 A=*USR0(0) 



The table arrangement is shown in Figure 4. 

However, this code uses a lot of double-length operand 
instructions — lots of LDDs and ADDDs. The total number 
of cycles here is about 85, making the subroutine about 96 
microseconds long. Is there a more efficient subroutine? 

The final version of the PSET subroutine follows. It is not 
unlike the core Microsoft subroutine, although developed 
before I reviewed the BASIC code. 

The Y and X coordinates are stored in Location YX. The 
LDD picks up YX into D. The three sets of shifts then divide 
by 8. The result in D is the displacement from the start of 
the graphics page. The start of Graphics Page 0, $E00, is then 
added to this displacement address to give an address value 
that points to the byte containing the pixel. This address is 
then stored in Y. 

Next, X is loaded with the X value and the lower three bits 
are masked through to B. Register X is then loaded with the 
address of the mask table. 

The byte containing the pixel is loaded into A by the LDA, 
Y. The proper bit is set by doing an ORA B,X, which adds 
the value of 0 to 7 in B with the address of MSKTAB to get 
an effective address pointing to the mask value. The mask 
value is then ORed to set the bit. The result in A is then stored 
back to the byte and an RTS is done to return. 



ORG $3F00 

PSET LDD YX 
LSRA 
RORB 
LSRA 
RORB 
LSRA 
RORB 

ADDD #$E00 

TFR D, Y 

LDB YX+1 

ANDB #7 
LDX 

LDA ,Y 

ORA B,X 

STA ,Y 
RTS 

MSKTAB FCB $80 

FCB $40 

FCB $20 

FCB $10 

FCB $08 

FCB $04 

FCB $02 

FCB $01 

YX RMB 2 

END 



get Y to A, X to B 

divide by 8 to get row displacement 



point to actual byte 
save in Y 
X value to B 

get 0-7 value for bit. position 
# MSKTAB address of mask table 



get byte 
set bit 
restore byte 
return 



Y, X in reverse order 



This subroutine takes 56 cycles and is therefore about 34 
percent faster than the previous version without having the 
additional memory requirement of 1,152 bytes worth of 
tables. The subroutine is not relocatable in this version. It 
is shown in Listing 1 incorporated in a BASIC program to clear 
the screen. 

100 ' BENCHMARK FOR PSET SUBROUT 
INE 

110 CLEAR 100, &H3EFF 

120 DEFUSR0=&H3F00 

130 DATA &HFC,&H3F,&H25,&H44,AH5 



290 NEXT Y 
300 NEXT X 

310 TIME1-TIMER - TIME1 
320 IF TIMEK0 THEN TIME1 - 
6+TIME1 

330 PRINT "TIME-"? TIME1/60 



6553 



And therein lies the second part of this story. Although the 
assembly PSET is indeed VA times as fast as the "core" 
assembly language code in Microsoft BASIC, it is only that 
fast when not called from BASIC. When I ran the program 
in Listing 1, 1 was horrified to discover that the program took 
about 574 seconds, 326 seconds longer than the plain vanilla 
PSET version. Why? The extra time was created by the two 
pokes to set up the X and Y parameters and by the USR call 
itself. BASIC overhead for evaluating arguments adds 
considerable time to the execution of the code. The upshot 
of this is that the assembly language code can be used stand- 
alone with other assembly language code, but when called 
from BASIC will take 2.3 times longer than PSET. It taught 
me that innocuous BASIC statements can take a great deal of 
time compared to assembly language subroutines that are a 
lot more efficient. Score one for Microsoft. 

The PRESET version to clear points is a separate subroutine 
and is shown in the code below. The only differences between 
the two subroutines is that the mask table in PRESET is a 0 
for the bit to be reset and that the mask value is ANDed with 
the contents of the byte. 

Both versions work for 256-by-192 mode (PMODE 4) for 
Graphics Screen 1 on a disk system. 



PSET LDD 


YX 


get Y to A, X to B 


LSRA 




divide by 8 to get row displacem 


RORB 






LSRA 






RORB 






LSRA 






RORB 






ADDD 


#$E00 


point to actual byte 


TFR 


D/ Y 


save in Y 


LDB 


YX+1 


X value to B 


ANDB 


#7 


get 0-7 value for bit position 


LDX 


# MSKTAB 


address of mask table 


LDA 




get byte 


AND 


B,X 


reset bit 


STA 




restore byte 


RTS 




return 


MSKTAB FCB 


$7F 




FCB 


$BF 




FCB 


$DF 




FCB 


$EF 




FCB 


$F7 




FCB 


$FB 




FCB 


$FD 




FCB 


$FE 




XY RMB 


2 


Y, X in reverse order 



What good is an assembly language PSET subroutine that 
is actually slower than BASIC'S PSET? When this code is used 
by itself, it is fast and can therefore be used to construct your 
own line and graphics shape subroutines. More about those 
in the next column. 

So until you write that 10-microsecond PSET, keep on 
assemblin\ ^ 



194 



THE RAINBOW December 1 986 




BASIC09 
OS-9 



BITS AND BYTES OF BASIC 



Dealing With Variables 

In BASIC09 



By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



All programs deal with data in 
some way and there must be 
ways to store, retrieve and use 
this data. Conventional BASICS have 
variable tables in which the variable's 
name is associated with values if the 
data is numbers or, if the data is a string, 
the table keeps the location of the string 
and its length. When a string variable 
is changed, BASIC writes the string to a 
free area of string space and changes the 
string variable table to reflect the new 
location and length. The old string is 
forgotten and its space is unused. Peri- 
odically, BASIC runs out of string space 
and program execution stops while the 
forgotten strings are found and active 
strings are moved into their space, 
freeing a memory block for new storage. 

This can be pretty handy for a pro- 
grammer; he doesn't need to worry 
about string length, provided it does not 
exceed about 250 bytes. Further, BASIC 
uses only what it needs of string space, 
so memory is conserved. Nearly all 
other languages require that the pro- 



Richard White lives in Fairfield, Ohio, 
has a long background with microcom- 
puters and specializes in BASIC pro- 
gramming. With Don Dollberg, he is 
the coauthor of the TIMS database 
management program. 



grammer declare the variable type and, 
if it is a string, its maximum length. 
Storage space is then assigned to each 
variable and is unchangeable once 
program execution starts. BASIC09 
works this way. 

There are a number of advantages to 
doing things this way. The programmer 
may use the simple data types to build 
complex data structures. These com- 
plex structures can then be used in 
definition of an array that uses a very 
large block of memory. Instead of 
saving each member of the array or each 
individual variable comprising the data 
structure individually to a disk file, the 
memory block can be written directly to 
disk. BASIC09 does not care what is 
stored in the block. All it does is grab 
bytes and shove them to the disk as fast 
as it can, which is pretty fast. It's just 
as fast loading in, too. Since each byte 
has its own place in the memory block, 
BASIC09 finds the right value for each 
variable it looks for individually. To 
make this possible, the programmer has 
to understand data types and how to 
build with them. 

There are five basic or "atomic" data 
types in BASIC09, which are also found 
in many other languages. Byte, integer 
and real data types deal with numbers. 
A string type holds a string of charac- 
ters. Boolean is a one-byte variable that 
can only be either true or false. 



BASIC09 allocates variable storage 
space in memory based either on dimen- 
sion statements, which declare the 
variable name, type and (in the case of 
string) the length, or by a default when 
the variable is first used in the program. 
Following are some typical variable 
declarations: 



0000 DIM count! , count2 : INTEGER 
000B DIM buff :STRING[2000 
0017 DIM line:STRING[100] 



IN I LbLK 
0] 

1 



Note that more than one variable 
may be dimensioned in a line as long as 
the variable names are separated by 
commas. Some more complex exam- 
ples follow. The number in the square 
brackets after STRING is the string 
length. The square brackets must be 
used and are generated by pressing the 
CLEAR key and the left or right paren- 
thesis keys. 



0090 DIM smwords , md words, lg 
words, bgwords: INTEGER 

00R3 DIM sms twords ,mdstwords , 
JLgstwords,bgstwords: 
INTEGER 

00B7 DIM length, count, value 

pa tho , pa th i : INTEGER 
00CE DIM cher:STRING[l] 
00DB DIM f ileln, f i leout rSTRING 
[IS] 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 95 



f 



Obviously, a byte-type variable is one 
byte in size. It can store positive whole 
numbers in the range of zero to 255. Its 
primary value is memory economy. 
There is no computation advantage, 
since byte variables are always con- 
verted to integer or real values for 
computation. 

Integer variables use two bytes of 
memory. The number stored may be 
positive or negative and be in the range 
of -32,768 to 32,767. Integer variables 
should be real workhorses in your 
programs. Though restricted to whole 
numbers, integer math is fast. It's the 
natural language of your 6809 micro- 
processor. Integers make great counters 
in F0R-T0-NEXT and other looping 
structures available in BAS1C09. 

It is important to keep in mind their 
limits when using byte and integer 
variables. First, it is possible to assign 
a number stored in an integer variable 
to a byte variable. Provided the number 
is positive and less than 256, all will be 
well since the least significant eight bits 
of the integer are stored. The most 
significant eight bits, those that help 
define a number greater than 255 or a 
negative number, go into the bit bucket 
and disappear for all time. No error 
results. 

Arithmetic operations can cause 
values outside the integer range. This 
causes a "wrap around." For example, 
32,767 + 1 = -32,768. Although these 
results are predictable, they are confus- 
ing, so it is best to avoid trouble in the 
first place. When there is a chance the 
limits of integer math will be exceeded, 
use real variables. 

Division of one integer by another 
yields an integer result with any re- 
mainder discarded. 

Any undeclared numeric variables 
default to real type. A variable can also 
be declared real at the outset, which is 
the best practice from a program clarity 
viewpoint. Real variables use five bytes 
of storage. They include the range from 
2.938735877 * 10^-39 to 1.0701411835 
* 10^38. Operations that exceed the 
range will cause either an overflow or 
underflow error. 

Real number or floating-point de- 
cimal calculations in a computer are 
never exact. There are certain to be 
errors in the 10th digit, and the ninth 
digit is suspect in some operations. This 
can mean that a number computed one 
way can look identical to a number 
computed another way, while a com- 
parison made by the computer will say 
they are different. This is because the 



numbers were rounded differently in the 
different operations. Programmers 
need to be cautious about making strict 
comparisons (i.e., = or O) between real 
numbers. 

A string is a variable length sequence 
of characters. The string can have zero 
length, in which case it is empty and is 
sometimes called a null, or nil, string. 
Strings can be dimensioned from one 
character in length up to memory limits. 
The string length assigned in the dimen- 
sion statement only assigns memory 
space for that string. The actual length 
of the string itself may vary from zero 
up to the space assigned. This raises 
some significant memory conservation 
questions. 

Say you write a simple note-taking 
program and allow a separate string 
variable for each of twenty 80-character 
lines. You have just committed 1,600 
bytes of memory and have yet to enter 
a character. If you null each string and 
individually write them to a disk file as 
variable length ASCII strings, the file 
will be very short. Use the program to 
enter some notes and save the file, and 
it will be the length of text stored plus 
an ASCII null character ($00) between 
each string. If, on the other hand, you 
put the file to disk under a single array 
name, a full 1,600 bytes (mostly gar- 
bage) will be in the disk file. 

A possible way around this is to 
define a very long string and treat it as 
a buffer, storing shorter strings in 
sequence somewhat like conventional 
BASICS do. Of course you need to work 
out how to manage the buffer and its 
data yourself. This is demonstrated by 
Listing 1. 

The string buff is dimensioned 2000 
characters long. The first three F0R-T0- 
NEXT loops simply load letters and 
numbers (in character format) into the 
string buff, more than half filling it. 
The fourth FDR-TO-NEXT simply gets 
100-byte sections of the string buff and 
sends them to the screen to demonstrate 
that long strings actually work. Using 
RDDRname you have the program find 
the start of the string in memory and 
peek and poke at it. Of course, these 
types of activities are not for the novice 
programmer. 

Note that the two strings, buff and 
line, were initialized at the beginning 
of the program. In the case of buff, it 
was essential to start with an empty 
string; a dimensioned-only string is sure 
to contain garbage. Because we always 
make an assignment to line, it could 
have been uninitialized. Neither of the 




DIM countl ,count2: INTEGER 
DIM buff :STRING[2000] 
DIM line:STRING[100] 



buff:= 
line:= 



Listing 1: 



PROCEDURE longetring 



0000 

000B 
0017 
0023 

mzA 

0032 

0033 FOR countl^l TO 100 

0043 buff:=buff+-"a"+STR$(countl) 

0054 NEXT countl 
005F 

00G0 FOR countl=l TO 100 

0070 buff^buff+^^+STR^Ccountl) 

00B1 NEXT countl 
00BC 

mm FOR countl=l TO 200 

009D buff:=buff+"c"+5TR*(countl) 

00flE NEXT countl 

00Bfl FOR countl=0 TO 10 

00CR UnB^ID$(bUff,coLntl*100 f 100) 

00DB PRINT lines 

00E0 FOR countS^l TO 2000 

0&F1 NEXT count2 

00FC NEXT countl 

0107 

aiea END 



count variables were initialized since 
FOR-TO-NEXT handles that chore. 

Finally, there is the Boolean type, 
which is essentially a true or false flag 
that BASIC09 understands. When Boo- 
lean values are printed, they appear as 
true and false. 

Occasionally, it is necessary to mix 
numeric variables of different types in 
a calculation. In this case, values are 
automatically converted to the largest 
type needed to retain accuracy. But type 
conversion takes time, so keeping to a 
single type in an expression has merit. 

Arrays of variables are data struc- 
tures in which a number of items of data 
are stored under a single variable name. 
Here are some examples: 

DIM words(100) :STRING[16] 
DIM Bach— sale (200) :REAL 
DIM bouHng_score9(3) : IN 
TEGER 

These statements make room for a 
100-word list, 200 sales and three bowl- 
ing scores. The individual member of an 
array is accessed by the array name and 
the number of the member. The member 
number may be assigned to a variable; 
perhaps in a loop that is printing the 
array, the member number could be the 
loop counter. 



196 THE RAINBOW December 1986 



countl"! to 
PRINT student_namB(countl) 
NEXT countl 



The preceding arrays have one di- 
mension. Two- and three-dimension 
arrays are also possible under BASIC09. 
If you think of a single-dimensioned 
array as a numbered list, then two- or 
three-dimensioned arrays can be 
thought of as added columns or lists to 
the right. 

DIM sa 1 es ( 100 ,100 ,100 ) : REAL 

In this example, the first dimension 
could be the sale, the second the sales 
tax and the third the total. 

The TYPE statement is used to define 
a list of variables to be associated 
together. For example, let's consider 
writing a program to store phone 
numbers. Three pieces of information 
are needed at minimum. These are first 
name, last name and phone number. 
The list might be sorted by last name, 
which is why first and last names are 
stored separately. We want these three 
pieces of data stored together as a 
record. They can be set up as a complex 
data type. 

TYPE phone_rec = first, last : 
S TR I NG [ 16 ) ; phone : STR I NG [ 1 2 ] 

This says that the variable phone 
_rec is a complex type made of two 16- 
character strings named first and 
last and the 12-character string named 
phone. This only established the type 
for data structure and has not dimen- 
sioned it. The next step is to dimension 
an array to hold the records. 

DIM phone_list(100) : phone^rec 

Since first and last each have 
space for 16 characters and phone 
allocates 12 more, each member of the 
array phone_list( )will need 44 
bytes, and the whole array will use 4,400 
bytes. 

Here is a somewhat more complex 
example. I wrote a program to store 
advancement and badge awards for a 
local scout troop. A major reason for 
doing this in BASIC09 was that it af- 
forded me a way to print customized 
reports for each scout showing only 
those advancements and awards actu- 
ally earned and the dates of the awards. 
The record for each boy must keep track 



of 10 ranks, 12 skill awards and 118 
merit badges, along with the name of 
the boy, the date joined and his patrol. 
This is not something to do in a spread- 
sheet, and none of my file manager 
programs would handle the specialized 
reports. This is where the TYPE state- 
ment really shines. 

TYPE rec = last,first, patrol , 
STRING [ 12 ]; 

j o i ned , rda te{10 ),sadate(12) 
,mbdate(120):STRING[8] 
scout : rec 



All the eight-character strings are 
intended to store a date in the form of 
YY/MM/DD. Note also how easily 
arrays are included. The rdate( ) 
array is for rank, sada te ( ) is for skill 
awards and mbdate ( ) is for merit 
badges. Only a single variable, scout, 
is dimensioned. It's big — over 1,000 
bytes. So I store the records on disk and 
only work with one or two at a time. 

To show how individual fields in the 
record are accessed, here is the code to 
select and print merit badges and the 
dates they were awarded. 

FOR countl=l TO 118 
IF scout . mbdate ( countl)>" " THEN 
: PR I NT ttpr USING *X12, S30< , SB 
mb (countl ) , 
scou t , mbda te ( countl } 
ccjuht32 = count3+i 
END IF 
NEXT countl 

Since there are 118 merit badges, the 
scout's merit badge date field for each 
badge must be checked. This field is 
described to BASIC09 by the variable 
name, scout, a period and the array 
name, mbdate (countl). In most in- 
stances the mbdate member is null. 
When there is a date in the field, the 
name of the merit badge is printed from 
the separate mb( ) array followed by 
the date from the scout, mbda te( ) 
array. The variable count3 keeps track 
of the number of lines printed for 
pagination purposes. 

Note how neatly the IF-THEN-ENDIF 
lays out. There is really no limit on how 
much code can go after THEN or ELSE. 
In conventional BASIC all the code 
associated with IF-THEN-ELSE must be 
on one numbered line. BASlC09's control 
structures provide a rich set of tools to 
do top down programming. Well take 
up this topic when we return to BASIC09 
after a tour of the new commands in 
CoCo 3 BASIC. ^ 



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December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 97 







KISSable OS-9 



A Bundle of Holiday Goodies 



By Dale L. Puckett 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Early this year Stephen Goldberg 
of 695 Plainview Road, Beth- 
page, NY 11714, started distri- 
buting Utilipak — a very handy pack- 
age containing nearly two dozen OS-9 
utilities. Later in the year he updated the 
package to make everything compatible 
with OS-9 Level I, Version 2.00.00. 
Now, just in time for Christmas, he's 
offering Utilipak Too. 

Utilipak Too features a number of 
programs that were supposed to be 
included in Utilipak. Unfortunately, 
according to Goldberg, there wasn't 
enough room on the contents page. The 
price for Utilipak Too is right, just $12, 
and you can still buy the original Util- 
ipak for $25. And, Goldberg says the 
Pack, Unpack and Crypt utilities now 
work much faster. 

The utilities include Bootfix, Cls, 
Copy, D, Deiniz, Del, List, Page, Rep, 
Update and Unload. Bootfix will be 
especially handy for Disk BASIC 1.0 
users who own single-sided disk drives. 
It combines the Disk BASIC boot pro- 
gram with a system disk and lets you 
boot OS-9 from Disk BASIC with a 
single disk. 

While Cls merely clears the screen, it 
is much faster than typing display c. 

Dale L. Puckett, who is author o/The 
Official BASIC09 Tour Guide and co- 
author, with Peter Dibble, of The 
Official Rainbow Guide to OS-9, is a 
free-lance writer and programmer. He 
serves as director-at-large of the OS-9 
Users Group and is a member of the 
Computer Press Association. Dale 
works as a US. Coast Guard chief 
warrant officer and lives on Governors 
Island in New York Harbor. 



Copy uses the same syntax as the orig- 
inal Tandy copy command, however it 
lets you overwrite an existing file if you 
desire. It also reduces the number of 
exchanges required for disk-to-disk 
copies on single-drive systems and gives 
better error management. 

D is the unformatted directory utility 
from the original Utilipak. It is included 
in this package so you can use it with 
Del and Rep. Deiniz, Rep and Unload 
have all been published in this column 
during the past year. However, the 
versions that come on the Utilipak Too 
disk have improved error handling. 

Del directly replaces both the original 
Tandy del command and the DL util- 
ities, saving you some disk space. This 
Del duplicates the syntax of both of 
these, and also features improved error 
handling. 

Update is a simple one-step replace- 
ment for the Tandy verify utility. With 
Update you don't have to remember to 
request the 'U' option on your com- 
mand line. The Utilipak Too List utility 
optionally prints line numbers if you 
request them on your command line. 
Also, this list will not fill your screen 
with garbage if you try to list a file 
containing an OS-9 module. Along the 
same lines, Page gives you a paginating 
filter utility program that prints op- 
tional page numbers and headers. It 
also lets you set the page length and 
pause at the end of each page if you 
desire. 

You can hear sleigh bells in many 
places this time of year. And if you 
install this patch from Goldberg, you 
will hear bells more often while running 
OS-9. 

Change the byte at Offset $639 Hex 



in the module IOMan to a 7. After you 
do this, every time OS-9 reports an error 
you will hear a beep. If you change the 
byte at $617 Hex in ASM to a 7, that 
program will also sound off. 

After you make these changes with 
debug you can make them permanent 
by saving the modified modules. If you 
do this, don't forget to verify them with 
the U option or run the new Update 
utility from Utilipak Too. 

Another Request for Config Help 

Nick Molfese of South Holland, 111., 
sent me a question about the new con- 
f ig utility that comes with OS-9 Level 
I, Version 2.00.00. Since a lot of people 
are still having problems running con- 
f ig, we thought it would be good to 
take another look at it here. 

Just about everyone having trouble 
getting config to run properly receives 
a #216 (File Not Found) Error. Here's 
the reason. When you insert the conf i g 
disk to run it, you must change both the 
current data directory and current 
execution directory. If you have a 
single-disk system, remove the OS-9 
system disk and insert a working copy 
of the config disk. Then type the 
following OS-9 command lines to run 
config: 



□59: chx /d0/cmds 
□59: chd /d0 
059: Config 



ENTER 
ENTER 
ENTER 



I think youU really enjoy this handy 
utility. If you buy BASIC09 sometime in 
the near future, here's another quick tip. 
You must go through the same proce- 
dure to run BASIC09 with a single-drive 
system. First, take out the OS-9 system 



198 



THE RAINBOW December 1986 



disk. Then, insert the BASIC09 disk in the 
drive. With BASIC09, you must type the 
following OS-9 command lines: 



0S9: chx /d0 
0S9: chd 'd0 
0S9: basic09 



ENTER 
ENTER 
ENTER 



Notice that in this sequence you did 
not set the current execution directory 
to /dO/CMDS. That's very unusual. 
But you must do it because Tandy has 
stored BASIC09 in the root directory of 
the distribution disk. This means if you 
insert a working backup of that disk in 
drive /dO, BASIC09 is stored in the root 
directory — or /dO. 

More Version 2.00.00 Tips 

Howard Luckey of Park Forest, 111., 
wasn't so lucky when he tried to run 
some of the procedure files listed in the 
Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9. 
Unfortunately, I was unable to dupli- 
cate his problem with the tee com- 
mand. He received a #215 (Bad Path- 
name) Error when he ran the sample 
command line: 

059: list /dG'startup ! tee /p 
/dl/ test—directory /scratch 

I suspect that Howard misspelled the 
name of the test directory when he 
created it or that he did not have a 
device named /p or 'dl installed when 
he ran the sample. Misspelling the name 
of a device would also cause a #215 
Error. 

Many of you may have run up against 
the other problem Howard noticed. 
When he used the procedures on pages 
145 to 150 of our book using Version 
2.00.00 of OS-9, everything worked 
fine. Unfortunately, however, when he 
tried to boot his new disk he ran into 
a major problem — it wouldn't work. 

Howard was on the right track and 
checked the CRC of the modules in his 
new OS-9 boot file. He found two that 
were bad. What happened? 

During one of the steps in the proce- 
dure files, you save, into a special 
directory, the modules in memory that 
you want in the new boot file. Later, you 
use 0S9Gen to place them in a new file 
named DS9Boot. 

Unfortunately with Version 2.00.00, 
the code in the modules CCIO and 
C032 or CO80 are modified as soon as 
you start your system. If you save them 
from memory, you will have saved a 
module with a bad CRC. 

The solution is to use the copy of 
CCIO and C032 or CO80 that come in 



the MODULES directory on your con- 
f ig disk. They haven't been modified 
and will work fine. Another example 
later in the same chapter shows how to 
use other files with 0S9Gen to create a 
new 0S9Boot. 



"Some say it is confusing 
to have a floppy be d0 
and a hard disk be d0. / 
say it is less confusing 
than having the root 
device be either h0 or d0 
depending on how I 
booted. 99 



Having a Ball! 

Last month we recommended you 
download the Ball Demo from Steve 
Bjork in the OS-9 section of the Color 
Computer SIG database on Delphi. A 
few days ago we received a note from 
Fred Sawtelle with a neat trick you can 
do with that demo. 

"Ball has two documented options, 
-s and -f, but it also has a -u option," 
Sawtelle said. "Try that one! And put 
an ampersand (&) on the end of your 
command line. 



"After you start the demo, type dis- 
play 0f0005 and press ENTER. By 
using this line and display e you can 
toggle the graphics mode," he said. 
"Hold down the BREAK key and watch 
what happens. To freeze the screen, type 
kill 3, or whatever Ball's procedure 
number is on your CoCo." 

Once Sawtelle had stopped the demo, 
he was able to send the image to his 
printer. His son wanted to show it to his 
geography teacher. Thanks for the tip, 
Fred. 

Free OS-9 Details 

We have mentioned that there was a 
bonanza of information available in the 
files in your OS9DEFS directory. Sev- 
eral people have asked us how they can 
get to that information. Probably the 
most effective way is to assemble them 
using the OS-9 assembler, ASM. First, 
build a short file named asmdef s. 

□S9: build asmdefs ENTER 

? opt 1 ENTER 

? use /d0/defs/os9defs ENTER 

? use /d0/defs/scfdefs ENTER 

? use /d0/defs'rbfdefs ENTER 

?use /d0/defs/systype ENTER 

? ENTER 

After you have typed this file, assem- 
ble it with this command line: 

□S9: asm asmdefs 1 tt20K>/p 

Note that the 1 is a lowercase 'L', not 
a numeral one. This command line 
prints a formatted listing that shows the 
names of all the internal variables in 
OS-9. Enjoy! 



One- Liner Contest Winner . . , 

Resist calculates the equivalent resistance of any number of parallel 
resistors. 



iVv'i v./'.. .*. 



The listing: 



10 C=J3 : INPUT " HOW MANY RESISTORS " 
;A:IFA<lTHENlj3ELSEFORX=l TO A: PR 
INT"RESISTOR#"X" (OHMS) " ; : INPUT R 
(X) :IFR(X)<=j3THENPRINT"RT=j3 OHMS 
" :GOTO10ELSEC=C+1/R(X) :NEXTX:PRI 
NT " RT= " 1/ C " OHMS " : GOT01J3 



Joseph Ferullo 
Revere, MA 



(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies of htiih Tht* Rainbow Btwk 
of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow Simulations Tape.) 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 199 



A Quick Correction 

In the September column a typo 
slipped into one line of the BASIC09 
Procedure Printer listing. Here is the 
correction. 



Bad line: 
Correct line: 



run gf x ( "gcolr" T x 
f y-pin, color) 
run gfx( "gcolr",x 
, y , pin, color ) 



Another Nifty Trick From Greg Law 

Would you rather test a procedure file 
while you're typing? Try this: 

□59: ex shell t -p »new 
proceduref ile ENTER 

This command line creates a shell 
that echoes your command lines and 
does not print any prompts. Since you 
have redirected the standard error 
output path to a file, you will wind up 
with a file that will run as a procedure 
file. If each command line you typed ran 
perfectly when you typed it live, it will 
run properly from the script, new 
proceduref ile. If, however, you ran 
into an error with your typing, you will 
need to edit neuproceduref ile. Since 
you actually ran the code you typed, 
you'll know which typos need to be 
fixed. Nifty! 

More On Standards 

Cornelius Seon sent us a note recently 
about a technique he thinks should 
become a standard. He pointed to the 
Computerware/ Tandy program OS-9 
Profile and endorsed programmer 
Brian Lantz's technique. 

"Profile uses the OS-9 makdlr utility 
to make a data directory in the current 
data directory for each database you 
create. The filename you give to Profile 
becomes the name of a new directory," 
Seon said. "The files in this directory are 
data files, the names of which are 



symbols that describe what each file 
contains. Each directory also contains 
the screens, indexes, reports and format 
files needed by OS-9 Profile." 

Another nice note came our way from 
Carl Kreider this month. Kreider is the 
chairman of the OS-9 Users Group 
Software Committee and, among other 
things, a real programming genius. If 
you scan the programs in the Users 
Group's library you will find he is the 
author of many of them. 

"I have never had to use h0 as the 
name for my hard disk," Kreider writes. 
"My system normally boots on its hard 
disk as d8, but I had to boot from a 
floppy until I cut a PROM with the boot 
code for my new 31 -megabyte drive. 
Here's the procedure. 

"In your modules directory, rename 
your floppy descriptors with a suffix of 
. f. Copy d0.f to dl.h and patch its 
name to be dl. Repeat for other neces- 
sary floppy descriptors. 

"Then, copy h0 to d0 . h and patch its 
name to be d0. Build a new boot file 
using the new descriptors. I like to keep 
a vertical list of modules in files named 
hardmods and f loppymods. They can 
be used with cat and install or as 
input to 059Gen to build a new boot 
file." 

Kreider reports that using the new 
boot file brings the system up on the 
hard disk with the hard disk as d0. After 
you do this, your software will have no 
problem finding 'dO'defs, or other 
files hard coded in programs that as- 
sume they are stored on Drive /d0. 

"I feel rather strongly that the root 
device should be named d0 just to avoid 
the problems you discussed in your 
column," Kreider said. "Some say it is 
confusing to have a floppy be d0 and a 
hard disk be d0. 1 say it is less confusing 
than having the root device be either h0 
or d0 depending on how I booted. 

"After all, is not the /def s hack 

just an attempt to find the root device?" 



Kreider asked. "Let's make it easy and 
always call it d0. I have practiced what 
I preach since my first hard disk four 
years ago, even on a CoCo. This tech- 
nique is so simple that I would be 
foolish to claim originality, but I am 
surprised that it has not been mentioned 
in the press." 

Thanks for the tip Carl. I think a lot 
of CoCo OS-9 hackers are going to have 
fun experimenting. 

This Month's Listings 

Fred Sawtelle sent us a real holiday 
present this month. We are printing four 
interesting utilities written in OS-9 
assembly language. We've saved two 
more for the New Year. 

This month you can study and try 
del, dname, exit and time. The del 
is an improved delete utility. It expects 
a space between filenames and inter- 
prets a carriage return as the end of the 
file list. This means that a list of file- 
names, one to a line, won't work. But, 
you can flush a directory by piping the 
output of dir to Sawtelle's del. When 
you do, don't be surprised when you see: 

DEL: can't find directory 

DEL: can' t find of 

DEL: can' t find . 

DEL: can't find 06:08:59 

After these messages it will go ahead 
and delete the files in your directory. 

The dname gives you a way to change 
the name of the volume stored on a disk, 
exit lets you return to Radio Shack 
Disk BASIC smoothly. And finally, time 
gives you a way to print the time with- 
out the date. 

Happy Holidays 

I hope this column has given you a 
few ideas or answered a few questions. 
I hope also that your holiday season will 
be the best ever. Until next year, keep 
on hacking. □ 



Listing 1: del 


use /d0/defs/os9defs 
endc 


* DEL * 

* an Improved Delete Utility * 


* CONDITION: use /dp/defs/os9defs 
SKIP2 equ $8c 


* (C) Copyright 1986 * 

* by Fred Sawtelle * 

* 3103 Montgomery Road * 

* Huntsville, TX 77340 * 

* June 16, 1986 * 

nam DEL 

ttl an Improved Delete Utility 


* MODULE SPECS 

TYP set prgrm+objct 
REV set reent+1 

mod ZZ,MN,TYP,REV,GO,EDAT 
MN fcs "del" 

fcb 1 : version 

* DATA SPECS 


if pi 


FLAG rmb 1 



200 



THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



LASTNAME rmb 2 


XDELETE COItt ,U 


BUFFER rxnb 4J3)3 




EDAT equ • 


DELETE Ida ,u 
bmi EXDIR 


* STRINGS , ETC. 


os9 i$delete 
DELI bes DELERR 


SNTXMSG fee "USE: DEL [-x] pathname [...]" 


DEL2 Ida , X 
cmpa #$j3d 


feb $0a 


fee " or get pathnames from standard input." 


bne DELETE 


feb $0a 


Ida ,u 


fee 11 -x option » use execution directory," 


beq STDINPUT 


feb $0d 


bra OUT 


SEND equ * 


EXDIR os9 i$deletx 


FINDMSG feb 7 


bra DELI 


fee "DEL: Can't find " 




FEND equ * 


ERROR cmpb #e$eof 
bne EROUT 


* EXECUTABLE CODE 


OUT clrb 


GO clr ,u :=stdin 


EROUT OS9 fSexit 


Ida , x 
cmpa #$0d 


WRITERR Ida #2 


WRITE os9 i$writln 


beq STDINPUT 


bes EROUT 


cmpa # f ? 


rts 


beq SYNTAX 




mc ,u :«path in param area 


DELERR stx LASTNAME, u 


cmpa # 1 - 


leax FINDMSG, per 


bne DELETE 


ldy #FEND-FINDMSG 


ldd ,x++ 
andb #$df 


bsr WRITERR 


ldX LASTNAME, u 


cmpb #'X 


clrb 


beq XDELETE 


Dl incb 


SYNTAX leax SNTXMSG, per 


Ida ,x+ 


ldy #SEND-SNTXMSG 


cmpa #$20 


Ida #1 


beq D2 


bsr WRITE 


cmpa #$0d 


bra OUT 


bne Dl 
leax -i,x 


* STANDARD INPUT 


pshs x 
clra 


STDINPUT leax BUFFER, U 


tfr d,y 


clra 


ldx LASTNAME, u 


idy nn 


bsr WRITERR 


os9 i$readln 


puis X 


bes ERROR 


bra DEL2 


Ida ,x 
cmoa #$0d 




D2 Ida -1.x 


beq OUT 


pshs a,x 
Ida #$j3d 


feb SKIP2 

, ■ - 



OS-9 ™ SOFTWARE/HARDWARE 



SDISK— Standard disk driver module allows the full use of 35, 40 
or 80 track double sided disk drives with COCO OS-9 plus you 
can read/write/format the OS-9 formats used by other OS-9 
systems. (Note: you can read 35 or 40 track disks on an 80 track 
drive). Now updated for OS-9 ver. 02.00.00 $29.95 

SDISK + BOOTFIX— As above plus boot directly from a doubJe 
sided diskette $35.95 

L1 UTILITY PAK— Contains all programs from Filter Kits Nos. 1 
& 2 plus Hacker's Kit #, plus several additional programs, Over 
35 utilities including "wild card" file cmds, MacGen command 
language, disassembler, disk sector edit and others. Very useful, 
many of these you will find yourself using every time you run your 
system. These sold separately for over $85. $49.95 

SKIO — Hi res screen driver for 24 x 51 display; does key click, 
boldface, italics; supports upgraded keyboards and mouse. With 
graphics screen dump and other useful programs. Now UPDATED 
FOR OS-9 Ver 2.0 $29.95 



PC-XFER UTILITIES— Utilities to read/write and format ss MS- 
DOStm diskettes on CoCo under OS-9. $45.00 (requires SDISK) 

CCRD 512K Byte RAM DISK CARTRIDGE— Requires RS Muitipak 
interface, two units may be used together for 1MB RAM disk. OS-9 
driver and test software included. $199.00 

All disk prices are for CoCo OS-9 format; for other formats, specify 
and add $2.00 each. Order prepaid or COD, VISA/MC accepted, 
add $1.50 S&H for software, $5.00 for CCRD; actual charges added 
for COD. 



D.P. Johnson, 7655 S.W. Cedarcrest St. 
Portland, OR 97223 (503) 244-8152 

(For best service call between 9-11 AM Pacific Time) 

OS-9 ia a trademark of Microware and Motorola inc. 
MS-DOS Is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc. 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 201 



Those Great RAINBOW Programs 
Without All The Fuss! 

Subscribe to RAINBOW ON TAPE! 



Every month, rainbow on tape brings as many as two dozen ready-to-run 
programs right to you. Using the current issue of the rainbow as documen- 
tation, all you have to do is load and run them. Just a one-year subscription 
gives you more than 230 new programs! The typing tirr\e saved is time that 
can be spent with the CoCo. (rainbow on tape does not include OS-9 
programs or those less than 20 lines.) 



Need a back issue of rainbow on tape? 
Issues available beginning with April 1982 



Subscribe to rainbow on tape Today! 

LOOK FOR OUR ORDER CARD 
BETWEEN PAGES 34 AND 35 

The cost for a single copy of rainbow on 
TAPE is $10 within the United States; U.S. $12 
in all other countries. The annual subscription 
rate for rainbow on tape is $80 within the U.S.; 
U.S. $90 in Canada; and U.S. $1 05 for all other 
countries. U.S. currency only, please. In order 
to hold down non-editorial costs, we do not 
.Wit 



DISK USERS: RAINBOW ON DISK 

IS NOW AVAILABLE! 

All the programs from the rainbow — includ- 
ing OS-9 — are now available on disk. For 
more information, see page 145 of this issue. 



NOW AVAILABLE ON DELPHI! 

For your convenience, RAINBOW ON tape can also be 
ordered via the Delphi Information Network, in our Shopping 
Service area of THE rainbow's Color Computer SIG (Special 
Interest Group). 

The individual programs from our past December issues are 
also available for immediate download in the rainbow ON 
tape Database area in THE rainbow's Color Computer SIG 
on Delphi. There is a $3.50 per program surcharge. 



RAINBOW ON TAPE is not a stand-alone product, but is 
intended as an adjunct and complement to the magazine. 
Even if you purchase RAINBOW ON tape, you will still need 
the magazine for loading and operating instructions. 

To order by phone, (credit card orders only) call 
800-847-0309, 8 a.m. - 5 p.m. EST. All other 
inquiries call 502-228-4492. 




Programs from Our Past 
Holiday Issues: 

December 1985 — Rudolph, a graphics and music story- 
telling program; Christmas Songs, computerized chimes that 
ring out seasonal tunes; Remote Burglar Alarm, Part I, a 
computerized alarm system for the home; Trivia Tic-Tac-Toe, 
a multiple-choice game where a correct answer gives an 'X' 
or 'O'; Puzzle, an educational word search puzzle game; 
CoBBS, part two of a complete bulletin board system; 
Awards, a Ham utility that keeps track of various awards for 
Ham radio operators; Brain Games, five programs combined 
to challenge your insight and memory; Menorah, a graphics 
program that illustrates and gives a short history lesson on 
the lighting of the menorah candles; Alpine Slopes, an action 
game that shows the techniques of programming with 4K; and 
Christmas Show, a graphics program that displays various 
holiday scenes accompanied with seasonal tunes. 

December 1984 — Holly Jolly Holidays, a program that 
consists of a series of holiday scenes each followed by an 
appropriate holiday song; Handler, the second of three parts 
on diskette file organization; Christmas Card File and Labeler, 
an aid in preparing holiday greetings; Season's Greetings, a 
graphics program that displays an animated, holiday greet- 
ing; Rescue on Alpha II, the graphics winner from The Second 
RAINBOW Adventure Contest; The Head of the Beast, the 16K 
winner from The Second RAINBOW Adventure Contest; 
Season's Greeting Cards, a program to create computerized 
multicolor greeting cards; 128K The Easy Way, a tutorial on 
expanding CoCo's memory; Encyclopedia, a program to help 
students seek information from the CoCo; Football Fever, 
Part II, a graphics program to create AFC helmet pictures; and 
Personable Pascal, a program to manage a Christmas gift list. 



sta -l,x 


sta -l,x 


ldX LASTNAME , U 


bra DEL2 


clra 




tfr d,y 


emod 


bsr WRITERR 


ZZ equ * 


puis a,x 


end 



Listing 2: dname 



* . * 

* DNAME * 
* ^ 

* Change Diskette Volume Name * 
* : * 

* (C) Copyright 1986 * 

* by Fred Sawtelle * 

* 3103 Montgomery Road * 

* Huntsville, TX 77340 * 

* February 7, 1986 * 
* . * _ * 



nam Dname 

ttl Change Diskette Volume Name 
ifpl 

use /d#/def s/def sf ile 
endc 

* CONDITION: use /dj3/def s/def sf ile 
* MODULE DEFINITION 

TYP set prgrm+objct 
REV set reent+i 

mod ZZ,MN,TYP,REV,GO,EDAT 
MN fcs "Dname" 
EDITION fcb 4 

fee » (C) 1986FredSawtelle" 

* DATA MEMORY AREA 

rmb dd.opt : input buffer 
PATH rmb 1 : pathname 
RENAMFLG rmb 1 j rename or not? 
NEWNAME rmb 2 :new name address 
BUFF ADR rmb 2 : f ree string area 
STRINGS rmb 2j3j3 : device name$ 
EDAT equ . 

* EXECUTABLE CODE 

OPEN leax STRINGS ,u : index device 
OP1 Ida #updat. :get access mode 

os9 i$open :open device 

bes EROUT 

sta PATH :save path number 
rts 

FORMAT leax FMMSG , per 

ldy #FMEND- FMMSG 

bsr OUTPUT 
EXIT clrb : insure no error code 
EROUT os9 f$exit 

OUTPUT Ida #1 : standard output 
os9 i$writln :send message 
bes EROUT 
rts 

* INITIAL ENTRY HERE 



GO clr RENAMFLG : f or no rename 

leay STRINGS ,u 
Gl Ida , x : examine parameters 

cmpa #$2J3 : space? 

bne G2 

leax l,x 

bra Gl 

G2 cmpa #$0d :no dev specified? 
beq COPY 2 

cmpa #'/ : is it a device? 
bne FORMAT : if not, show format 
os9 f $prsnam : is it ok? 
bes FORMAT : show proper format 
leay STRINGS, u :Y-index buffer 
leax -l,x :back up to M / ,f 
C0PY1 Ida , x+ : transfer devname 
sta , y+ 
decb 

bpl C0PY1 
COPY 2 ldd #$402j3 :tell OS9 entire 
std ,y++ : device is a file 
sty BUFFADR 

* CHECK FOR RENAME 

Ida ,x+ :Xreg = end of devname 

cmpa #$j3d :if cgrtn, then no 

beq READIN : rename wanted. 

cmpa #$20 : space? 

bne FORMAT :only cgrtn, sp ok 
SKIPSPCE Ida ,x+ : check next chr 

cmpa #$0d :is it cgrtn? 

beq READIN : if so, no rename 

cmpa #$20 : another space? 

beq SKIPSPCE :if yes, loop back 
G0TNEW1 leax -l,x : found a name 

stx NEWNAME : so save pointer 

com RENAMFLG :flag a rename 

* OPEN FOR READ 

READIN bsr OPEN 
ldy #dd.opt :# bytes to read 
leax ,u : index buffer 
os9 i$read 
bes EROUT 
os9 i$close 

* DISPLAY OLD NAME 

Ida RENAMFLG 
bne MAKENEW 

leax dd.nam,u : point at old name 
ldy BUFFADR 
NEXTONE Ida ,x+ 
bmi LASTONE : if bit 7 set 
sta ,y+ 

bra NEXTONE 
LASTONE anda #$7f : switch off bit 7 
sta ,y+ : normal for write 
Ida #$0d 
sta ,y 
ldx BUFFADR 
ldy #3 3 



J 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 203 



lbsr OUTPUT 

* TEST FOR RENAME 

Ida RENAMFLG :do we rename? 
Ibeq EXIT : if not, out. 

MAKENEW leay dd.nam,u : index old name 
ldx NEWNAME : index new name 
ldb #$lf :max count less 1 

MOVENAME Ida ,x+ 
cmpa #$0d 

beq SETBIT :if string end 

sta ,y+ 

decb 

bpl MOVENAME : if not past max 
SETBIT Ida -l,y :get last chr 
ora #$80 : set bit 7 
sta -l,y : replace it 

CLRBYTES decb :past max yet? 
bmi REWRITE : if yes 



clr ,y+ :if not, clear it 
bra CLRBYTES 

REWRITE lbsr OPEN, 
leax ,u : index buffer 
ldy #dd,opt :get count 
Ida PATH 

os9 i$write : output new data 
lbcs ER0UT 
os9 i$close 
lbcs EROUT 
lbra EXIT 

* MESSAGES, DATA 

FMMSG fee "USE: DNAME [/device [new name]]" 

feb $pd 
FMEND equ * 

emod 
ZZ equ * 
end 



Listing 3: exit 



* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 



EXIT 



(C) Copyright 1986 
by Fred Sawtelle 
3103 Montgomery Road 
Huntsville, TX 77340 
February 8, 198 6 



* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 



nam Exit 

ttl from OS-9 to Disk BASIC 

* NOTE: Clearly, this is not a 

* time-sharer's utility. 

ifpl 

use /d0/def s/os9def s 
endc 

* CONDITION 

* use /dj3/def s/os9def s 

* MODULE SPECS 

TYP set prgrm+objet 
REV set reent+objet 

mod ZZ,MN,TYP,REV,GO,EDAT 
MN fes "Exit" 

feb 2 (edition) 

fee "(C)1986FredSawtelle" 

* DATA SPECS 

rmb 20j3 
EDAT equ • 

* MODULE EXECUTION 



GO Ida ,X 

anda #$df 
cmpa # 1 Y 
beg YES 
leax SURE, per 
Ida #1 

os9 i$writln 
bes OUT 

ldy #1 
clra 
leax , u 
os9 i$read 
bes OUT 
clrb 
Ida ,x 
anda #$df 
cmpa # 1 Y 
bne OUT 

YES leax Dp, per 
bsr TRACKS 
leax Dl,pcr 
bsr TRACKS 
leax D2,pcr 
bsr TRACKp 
leax D3,pcr 
bsr TRACKS 

OVERRIDE orcc #$50 

leau EXIT, per 
cmpu #$8j30j3-(Xl-EXIT) 
bio EXIT 
ldx #$100j3 
ldb #X1-EXIT 
TFR Ida ,u+ 
sta , x+ 
decb 
bne TFR 



204 



THE RAINBOW December 1986 



1 



jmp $ip 

OUT os9 f$exit 

TRACK0 Ida #1 
os9 i$open 

bcs OVERRIDE 

ldb #SS. Reset 

os9 i$setstt 

bcs OVERRIDE 

ldx #5 

os9 f$sleep 

bcs OUT 

rts 

* STRINGS, ETC. — 

Dj3 fee H /W " 

Dl fee H /D1@ 11 

D2 fee M /D2@ »» 

D3 fee "/D3@ " 



Listing 4: time 

* * 

* TIME * 
* * 

* Display time without date * 

* By Fred Sawtelle * 
* — — — — — ■ -* 



nam Time 
ifpl 

use /d0/def s/os9def s 
endc 

* CONDITION: use /dp/def s/os9def s 
* MODULE SPECS 



SURE fdb $0707 

fee "EXIT OS9 (y,n)?" 
feb $0d 

* THE OS 9 TRASHER 

* NOTE: this may not work with 

* the CoCo Deluxe. It depends 

* on what's been done to Disk 

* Extended BASIC. 

EXIT ldx #$71 

sta $ffde 

clr ,x 

jmp [$fffe] 
XI equ * 

emod 
ZZ equ * 
end 



sta , u+ 
ldb ,x+ 
bsr process 
Ida "#■ : 
sta ,u+ 
ldb ,x+ 
bsr process 
Ida #$0d 
sta ,u 

Ida #1 
ldy #9 

os9 i$writln 
bcs EROUT 
clrb 

EROUT os9 f$exit 



December 1986 THE RAINBOW 205 



TYP set prgrm+objet 
REV set reent+1 

mod ZZ,MN,TYP,REV,GO,EDAT 
MN fes "Time" 

* DATA SPECS 

rmb 200 
EDAT equ . 

* EXECUTABLE CODE 

GO tfr u,x 
os9 f$time 
bcs EROUT 
leax 3,x 
leau 3,x 
ldb ,x+ 
bsr PROCESS 
Ida #•: 



PROCESS Ida #$2f 

inca 
PI subb #$64 

bee PI 

sta , u+ 

cmpa #$30 

bne P2 

leau -l,u 
P2 Ida #$3a 
P3 deca 

addb #$0a 

bee P3 

sta ,u+ 

addb #$30 

stb , u+ 

rts 

emod 
ZZ equ * 
end 



THESE FINE STORES 
CARRY THE RAINBOW 

The retail stores listed below carry the rainbow on a regular basis and may have 
other products of interest to Tandy Color Computer users. We suggest you 
patronize those in your area. 



ALABAMA 

Birmingham 

Brewton 

Florence 

Greenville 

Madison 

Montgomery 

ALASKA 

Fairbanks 

ARIZONA 

Phoenix 
Sierra Vista 
Tempe 

Tucson 

ARKANSAS 

Fayetteville 
Little Rock 

CALIFORNIA 

Citrus Heights 
Grass Valley 
Half Moon Bay 
Hollywood 

Lompoc 
Los Angeles 

Sacramento 
Santa Rosa 
Sunnyvale 

COLORADO 

Westminster 

DELAWARE 

Mlddletown 

Milford 

Wilmington 

FLORIDA 

Boca Raton 

Cocoa 

Davie 

Ft. Lauderdale 



Jefferson News Co. 
McDowell Electronics 
Anderson News Co. 
M 8c B EiectTonlcs 
Madison Books 
Trade 'N' Books 

Electronic World 

TRI-TEK Computers 
Livingston's Books 
Books Etc. 
Computer Library 
Anderson News Co. 

Vaughn Electronics/Radio Shack 
Anderson News Co, 

Software Plus 
AaVance Radio, Inc. 
Strawflower Electronics 
Levity Distributors 
Wbrfd Book & News Co. 
L&H Electronics Emporium 
E.D.C. Industries 
Polygon Co. 
Tower Magazine 
Sawyer's News, Inc. 
Computer Literacy 

Software City 

Del mar Co. 

Milford News Stand 

Normar. Inc.— The Smoke Shop 

Software, Software. 
The Open Door 
Software Plus More T 
Electronics Engineers 
Mike's Electronics Distributor 



Bob's News Emporium 
Bob's Rogers Park 
Book Market 
East Cedar 
North Cicero 
West Dlversey 
E.B. Garcia & Associates 
Kroch's & Brentano's 
South Wabash 
West Jackson 
516 N. Michigan 
835 N, Michigan 





Parkway Drugs 




Parkwest Books 




Sand mayor's Bookstore 




Unrv.of Chicago Bookstore 




Univ. of Illinois Bookstore 




Vldeomat, Inc. 


Chllllcothe 


Book Emporium 


Danville 


Book Market 


Decatur 


Book Emporium 




K-Mart Plaza 




Northgate Mall 


East Mollne 


Book Emporium 


Evanston 


Chicago-Main News 


Geneseo 


B& J Supply 


Kewanee 


Book Emporium 


Lisle 


Book Nook 


Newton 


Bill's TV Radio Shack 


Oak Brook 


Kroch's 8t Brentano's 


Oak Park 


Kroch's & Brentano's 


Paris 


Book Emporium 


Peoria 


Book Emporium 




Sheridan Village 




Westlake Shopping Center 




Book Market 




Illinois News Service 


Schaumberg 


Kroch's & Brentano's 


Skokle 


Kroch's & Brentano's 


Springfield 


Book Emporium 


Sangamon Center North 




Town & Country Shopping < 


Sunnyland 


Book Emporium 


West Frankfort 


Paper Place 


Wheeling 


North Shore Distributors 



Jacksonville 


The Book Nook 




Melbourne 


Book Town 
Deano'sTV 
City Newsstand 


INDIANA 

Angola 




The Little Store 


Berne 

Columbus 

Garrett 

Greenwood 

Indianapolis 


North Miami 
Beach 


Almar Bookstore 


Orlando 
Panama City 


Book Mania 
Boyd-Ebert Corp. 


Pensacola 


Anderson News Co. 


Pinellas Parte 


Woffs Newsstand 




Sarasota 


Family Computers 


Jasper 
Madison 
Martinsville 
Wabash 


Starke 


Record Junction, Inc. 


Sunrise 


Radio Shack Dealer 
Sunn/s at Sunset, Inc. 


Tallahassee 


Anderson News Co. 


Tampa 


Rne Print Bookstore 


IOWA 


Sound Trader fit Computer Center 


Davenport 


TltusvUte 


Computrac 


KANSAS 


GEORGIA 




Topeka 


Bremen 


Bremen Electronics/Radio Shack 


Cummings 


Kent Radio Shack 


Wichita 


Jesup 


Radio Shack 




Marietta 


Act One Video 


KENTUCKY 


Toccoa 


Martin Music Radio Shack 


IDAHO 


Georgetown 




Hazard 


Moscow 


Johnson News Agency 


Hopklnsville 


ILLINOIS 

Aurora 


Kroch's & Brentano's 


Louisville 

Paducah 

Palntsville 

Pikeville 

Princeton 


Belleville 


Software or Systems 


Champaign 


Book Market 


Chicago . 


B. Dalton Booksellers 


N. Wabash St. 


LOUISIANA 




West Jackson St. 


Crowley 




Bob's in Newtown 


Monroe 



D & D Electronics 
Radio Shack 

White Cottage Electronics 
Micro Computer Systems, Inc. 
Finn News Agency. Inc, 
The Computer Experience 
Bookland, Inc. 
Delmar News 
Indiana News 
Elex Mart 

Arco Office Supplies 
Radio Shack 
Mlttlng's Electronics 

Interstate Book Store 



Palmer News, Inc. 
Town Crler of Topeka, Inc. 
Amateur Radio Equipment Co, 
Lloyd's Radio 

Goodwin Electronics 
Daniel Boone Gulf Mart 
Hobby Shop 
The Computer Store 
Radio Shack 
R-Kat Electronics 
Gus-Stan Enterprises 
Miller Electronics 

Acadiana Newsstand 
The Book Rack 



MAINE 

Brockton 

Caribou 

Waterboro 

MARYLAND 

Silver Spring 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Brockton 

Cambridge 

Fltchburg 

ipswich 

Littleton 

Lynn 

MICHIGAN 

Allen Park 

Dearborn 

Durand 

Harrison 

Lowell 

Mt, Clemens 

Muskegon 

Owosso 

Perry 

Rosevllle 

Royal Oak 

St. Johns 

Sterling 

Heights 
Trenton 
Wyoming 

MINNESOTA 

Minneapolis 
Will mar 

MISSOURI 

Farmington 
Jefferson City 
Klrksvilie 
Moberly 
St. Louis 

University City 

MONTANA 

Whiteflsh 

NEBRASKA 

Lincoln 

NEVADA 

Las Vegas 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

West Lebanon 

NEW JERSEY 

Cedar Knolls 

Clinton 

Lawrenceville 

Unwood 

Marmora 

Montvale 

Pennsville 

River Edge 

Rockaway 

NEW MEXICO 

Alarnogordo 
Albuquerque 

NEW YORK 

Brockport 
Elmira Heights 
Fredonia 
Hudson Falls 
Johnson City 
New York 



Voyager Bookstore 
Radio Shack 
Radio Shack 

Layhlll Newsstand 

Voyager Bookstore 
Out Of Town News 
Comers Book Shop 
Ipswich News 
Computer Plus 
North Shore News Co. 

Book Nook. Inc. 
DSL Computer Products 
Robbins Electronics 
Harrison Radio Shack 
Curf s Sound & Home Arcade Center 
Key BookShop 
Michigan Radio 
The Eight Bit Comer 
C/C Computer Systems 
Perry Computers 
New Horizons 
Software City 
Clinton Electronics 

Sterling Book Center 
Trenton Book store 
Gerry's Book Co. 

Read-More News 
The Photo Shop 

Ray's TV & Radio Shack 
Cowley Distributing 
T&R Electronics 
Audio Hut 
Book Emporium 
Computer Xchange 
Final Edition 

Consumer Electronics of Whiteflsh 
Hobby Town 
Hurley Electronics 
Vemam News Corp. 



Village Computer & Software 
Micro World II 

Micro Con Software Center 
Software City 
Outpost Radio Shack 
Software City 
Dave's Elect. Radio Shack 
Software City 
Software Station 

New Horizons Computer Systems 
Desert Moon Distributors 
Page One Newsstand 

Lift Bridge Book Shop, Inc. 

Southern Tier News Co.. inc. 

On Line: Computer Access Center 

G A West & Co. 

Unicom Electronics 

Barnes & Noble— Sales Annex 

Coliseum Books 

Eastern Newsstand 

Grand Central Station. Track 37 

200 Pork Ave., (Pan Am #1 ) 

55 Water Street 

World Trade Center #2 



206 



THE RAINBOW December 1 986 



Rrst Stop News 

Idle Hours Bookstore 

International Smoke Shop 

Jonll Smoke 

Penn Book 

Software City 

State News 

Usercom Systems, Inc. 

Walden Books 

World Wide Media Services 



N, White Plains 


Software City 


Pawling 


Universal Computer Service 


Rochester 


Village Green 




World Wide News 


Wood haven 


Spectrum Projects 


NORTH CAROLINA 


Aberdeen 


King Electronics 




Radio Shack 


Gary 


News Center In Cary Village 


Charlotte 


Newsstand Inf 1 




Papers & Paperback 


Havtock 


Computer Plus 


Hickory 


C 2 Books & Comics 


Marlon 


Boomers Rhythm Center 


NORTH DAKOTA 




Fargo 


Computer Assoaa res 


OHIO 




Blanchester 


JR Computer Control 




UIMo nUiONUI DUUIv V^Cfl HOI 


Chardon 


Thrasher Radio 8c TV 


Cincinnati 


ansoft 


Columbiana 


Fidelity Sound & Electronics 


Coshocton 


Utopia Software 


Dayton 


Huber Heights Book & Card 




WllkeNews 


Fairbom 


News-Readers 


GIrard 


GIrard Book & News 


Kent 


The News Shop 


Kenton 


T.W. Hogan & Associates 


Lakewood 


Lakewood International News 


Uma 


Brunner News Agency 




Edu-Caterers 


Mlamlsburg 


Wilke News 


Mount Orab 


Mount Orab Radio Shack 


Rocky River 


Programs Unlimited 


Toledo 


Leo's Book & Wine Shop 


Xenla 


fine Print Books 


OKLAHOMA 




Oklahoma 




dry 


Merit Micro Software 


Tulsa 


Steve's Book Store 


OREGON 




Portland 


Hfth Ave. News 


PENNSYLVANIA 




Allison Park 


Software City 


Altoona 


Newborn Enterprises 


Brookvlile 


Larry's Stereo Shop 


Malvern 


Personal Software 


Philadelphia 


City Software Center 




Newsy 


Phoenlxville 


Stevens Radio Shack 


Pittsburgh 


Ail -Pro Souveniers 


Pleasant Hills 


Pitt Computer & Software 


Temple 


Software Comer 


Wind Gap 


Micro World 


York 


The Computer Center of York 


RHODE ISLAND 




Warwick 


Soitware Connection 


SOUTH CAROLINA 


Charleston Hts. 


Software Ha us. inc. 


Gaffney 


Gaffney Book Store 


Greenville 


Palmetto News Co. 


Spartanburg 


Software City 


Union 


Fleming's Electronics 



TENNESSEE 

Chattanooga 

Dickson 
Knoxville 

Memphis 

Nashville 
Smyrna 
Union City 

TEXAS 

Etgln 
Orange 
San Antonio 

UTAH 

Murray 

VIRGINIA 

Gafton 
Norfolk 
Richmond 

WASHINGTON 

Seattle 
Tacoma 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Huntington 
Logan 
Madison 
Parkersburg 

WISCONSIN 

Appleton 
Cudahy 
Ladysmith 
Milwaukee 



WYOMING 

Casper 

ARGENTINA 

Cordoba 

AUSTRALIA: 

Wngsford 

CANADA: 
ALBERTA 

Banff 

Blalrmore 

Bonnyvllle 

Brooks 

Calgary 

Claresholm 

Drayton Valley 

Edmonton 

Edson 
Falrview 
Pox Creek 

Ft. Saskatche- 
wan 
Grande 

Cache 
Grande 

Centre 
Hinton 
Innlsfall 
Leduc 
Lethbrldge 
Lloydmlnster 
Okotoks 
Peace River 

St. Faul 



Anderson News Co. 
Guild Books & Periodicals 
Highland Electronics 
Anderson News Co. 
Rrst Byte Computer Co. 
Computer Center 
Software, Inc. 
Mosko's Book Store 
Delker Electronics 
Cox Electronics Radio Shack 



The Homing Pigeon 
Northway Books & News 
CoCo Nuts /• 



DeseretBook 

Electronics Marketing 
l-O Computers 
Software CHy 

Adams News Co., Inc. 

B & I Magazines & Books ; \ • 

Nybb!es r N Bytes 

Nick's News 

Stan's Electronics & Radio Shack 
Communications, LTD 
Valley News Service 

Badger Periodicals 

Cudahy News & Hobby 

Electronics, Etc. 

Book Tree 

Booked Solid 

Booked Solid II 

Harvey Schwartz Bookshop 

Univ. of Wisconsin Bookshop 

The Computer Store 



intormatlca Y Telecomunlcaclones 



Paris Radio Etectrontes 



Banff Radio Shack 
L & K Sports & Music 
Paul Tender 

Double "D" A.S.C. Radto Shack 
BlliysNews 

Radio Shack Associated Stores 
Langard Eiectronlcs 
CMD Micro 

Kelly Software Distributors 
Radio Shack 
D.N.R. Furniture & TV 
Fax aty Color* Sound 
A.S.C. Radio Shack 

Ft, Mall Radio Shack. ASC 

The Stereo Hut 

The Book Nook 
Jim Cooper 
L 8c S Stereo 

Radio Shack Associated Stores 
Dotation 

Lloyd Radio Shack 
Okotoks Radio Shack 
Radio Shack Associated Stores 
Tavener Software 
Walter's Electronics 



Stettler Stettter Radio Shack 

Stfathmor© Wheatland Eiectronlcs 

Taber fyneMood Sight & Sound 

Wesrlock Westlock Stereo 

Wefaskiwin Radio Shack 

BRITISH COLUMBIA 



Bumaby 
Bums Lake 
Campbell 

River 
Chilllwack: 
Coortenay 
DawsonCreek 
Golden 
Langley 
N. Vancouver 
Nelson 
Parksville 
Pentfcton 

Salmon Arm 
Sidney 
Smimers 
100 Mile 
House „ : 

MANITOBA 

Altona 
Lundar , 
Morden . 
The Pas 
Selkirk 
Virden 
Winnipeg 

NEW BRUNSWICK 

Moncton 
Sussex 

NEWFOUNDLAND 

Botwood 
Carbonear 



Compulit 

VT. video Works 

TRS Bectrontes 
Charles Parker 
Rick's Music & Stereo 
Bell Radio & TV i - 
Taks Home Furnishings 
Langley Radio Snack 
Mlcrowest Distributors 
Oliver's Books 
Parksville TV 
DJ/s 

Four Corner Grocery 
Matrix Computing 
Sidney Bectrontes 
Wall's Home Furniture 

Hp Top Radto & TV 

LAWiebrLtd. 
Goransan Elec. 
Central Sound 
Jodi's Sight & Sound 
G.L Enns Elec. 
Archer Enterprises 
J&JEIectronlcsLtd. 



Jeffries Enterprises 
Dewitt Elec 



Seoport Elec. 
Slade Realties 



NOVASCOTIA 

Halifax 

ONTARIO ; 

■■■ Aurora -M- 
Concord 1 
Exceter /.-, 
Hamilton < 
Hanover 

Huntsvlile 
Kenora 
Kingston 
Llstowel 
South Rrver 



Atlantic News 

Compu vision 
Ingram Software 
J. Macteane & Sons 
Dataman 

Modem Appliance Centre 

Hunfsvitle Elec. 

Donny^B" 

T.M. Computers 

Modem Appliance Centre 

Max TV 

Dennis TV 



QUEBEC i 

LaSaile Messageries dePresse Benjamin Enr. 

Pont. Rouge Boutique Bruno Laroche 

SASKATCHEWAN 

Asslnlboia 
Estevan 
Moose Jaw 
Nlpiwan 
Reglna 



Saskatoon 
Shellbrooke 
Tisdale 
Unity 

YUKON 

Whltehorse 



PUERTO RICO 

San Juan 



Telstdr News 
Kotyk Electronics 
D&S Computer Place 
Cornerstone Sound 
Reglna CoCo Club 
Software Supermartcet 
Everybody's Software Library 
Gee. Laberge Radio Shack 
Paul's Service 
Grant's House of Sound 

H & O Holdings 



America Adb, IncL 
Software City 



Also available at all B. Dalton Booksellers, and selected Coles Bookstores, 
Waldenbooks, Pickwick Books, Encore Books, Barnes & Noble, Little 
Professors, Tower Book & Records, Kroch's & Brentano's, and Community 
Newscenters. 



December 1 986 THE RAINBOW 207 



AD VERTISER INDEX 

We encourage you to patronize our advertisers Pm all csf whom support the 
Tandy Color Computer. We will appreciate your mentlqhing the rainbow when 
you contact these f irms. 



Ark Royal Games . v ,87 
IBanQert. ♦ .*•» . » . •♦♦'«•#-, •■» « - *.3 , l 
Canyon County Devices ...... .189 

Cer-Com p . . ;v; .r.*,-.. . , 140, 141 

C h a 1 1 e n q e r * . » . ... *■■ . • » * , * • .. • ...35 

Gf nSOft • '.'«.«» •■ ! .»t\* :•: . » + 4 H >. H 4 i h + H # e 1 38 

CMOS Conversions. ...... , .63 

CNR Engineering . .103 

Cognitec . . . . 149 

Colorware . . . .... * . * v21 ^ ,22, 23 

Computer Center ....... .35 

Computer Friends . , >. . » , 1 97 

Computer Island . . .172 

Computer Plus .v?.. . . . 

Computerware ................ . 41 

Computize, Inc. . . ...... , . .127, 209 

CoCo Cat/Anti-drug ad . > . ..... . 52 

Crockett Software .... . . . , , . 63 

Custom Computer Products . . . 82 

D.P, Johnson ^ . H . ^ ,201 

Dayton Associates of 

W. R. Hall, Inc. , , .. . ...128 

Delphi ••■«■• -k ''*:,*: . . p . . . . . . « 122, 1 23 

Derringer Software. , . ...... .90, 91 

Diecorn ««*.«.*..»»» * : «. * ■ ■ + . - • I 
Dtsto ......... ..; . . » . * . . ^ .... 7j 53 

Dorsett. ..» . . * * ... . . . *»•■■■»■■■ IBC 

Duck Productions . ,89 

Electronic Motion Control 166 

Federal Hill Software , . , ....... .55 

Group Technology , . . - f • ► + + , ^ > .139 



Hard Drive Specialists . ........ 162 

Hawkes Research Services 84 

HJL div. of Touchstone 

Technology, Inc., . , . . . . .... .99 

Howard Medical ............ .34, 210 

Inventive Solutions ♦ . , . . .142 

J & M Systems . . v ..BC 

J & R Electronics . . . . . 132 

Kelly Software Distributors. ..... 95 

Lucus Industries 2000 + . . ...... . 96 

Mark Data Products 1 37 

Metric Industries **> , , , ..13 

Micro Works, The ......185 

Microcom Software. . , . . . 9, 1 1 

MicroSmart, Inc. .186, 187 

Microtech Consultants Inc.. . , , . .92 
MicroWorld ....... . . . . . *.> •«> * . . 1 

Moreton Bay 

Novasoft. ..............a* • i • . • . 1 

Other Guys Software, The. . .... 113 

Owl-Services. . . . . . . . ... ...... . .73 

O w l**^Ware »*«*■».* . »,.,». • . ... 74, 75 

PC ^^ *•*.. ....... . ... . * «; * ... ; 130 

Perry Computers :i 16 

Polygon ...... ^ -. * . »•:»- . « . • « ■ * .135' 

Preble's Programs, Dr. . . . . < . . 100 

Prickly-Pear Software 15 

Public Domain ..171 

PUCe «••♦.»«»».'».»• i' «• . • • ■ - I < r r r 81 

PXE Computing ................ .7 

Radio Shack . . . . .. 49, 51 i 



Rainbow Adventure Book II ♦ . . ... 121 

Rainbow Binder ^ * * . . . . *^:*65 

Rainbow Bookshelf. — . .179 

Rainbow Gift Subscription . > . .33 
Rainbow On Disk ............. .145 

Rainbow On Tape ...... ... . . .> .202 

Robotic Microsystems . • . • 161 
Rowe Electronic Co., Inc. + + + . . .168 
Saguaro Software , . . .... *>■ . ... 147 

Selected Software ..... , . . . . - 69 

Software House, The 84 

Spectrogram . . . ... . ♦ ■ 1 61 

Spectrosystems .94 

Spectrum Projects Inc. 

....105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 111 
Speech Systems 

. ... ...... . 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 

Sugar Software ......... <>.. . 1 75 

Sunrise Software *> .79 

T & D Software 38 

rCE . . . . . . * * ♦ « + + + • •. * »■■ ■* *.♦ . . 148 

T e p c o * . . » . . . . . . . ■ . ....... * h v . . .... 1 4 

Thinking Software, Inc. ... . . . ,..24 

Tom Mix Software , . r * . . . . . , ♦ . 180 

Tothian Software Inc. . . . + + . . , . # 1 42 

True Data Products . r . • . , . 1 54, 1 55 
Wasatchware ........ ... . . .143, 191 

Woodstown Electronics... f . 79 

Yo rk 10 . . . *•*»•?•» + + + :»-; .I.L....J 18 
Zebra Systems ..... . * . ...... . . .46 



Call: 




Shackleford, Nolan, Davis, Gregg and Associates 

Cindy Shackleford, president 

Shirley Duranseau 

Advertising Representative 

12110 Meridian South, Suite 5 

P.O. Box 7M78 

Puyallup, WA 98373-0578 

(206) 648-7766 



Call: 

Kim Vincent 

Advertising Representative 
The Faisoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

(502) 228-4492 



Call: 

Jack Gartand 
Garland Associates, Inc. 
10 industrial Park Road 
Hingham, MA 02043 

(617) 749-5852 



208 



THE RAINBOW December 1 986 




ALL SOFTWARE 
COMPATIBLE WITH 
COCO I, COCO II 

& COCO III 
COMPUTERS 



SUPER BACK-UP 
UTILITY© 

...WITH S.B.U. FROM COMPUTIZE — 
YOU'LL NEVER NEED ANOTHER BACK- 
UP UTILITY FOR YOUR COCO!!! 
SUPER BACK-UP UTILITY WILL PER- 
FORM ALL OF THE FOLLOWING FUNC- 
TIONS: 

1. TAPE TO TAPE (Regardless of most protec- 
Uon schemes!) 

2. TAPE TO DISK (Move Cassette programs to 
Disk!) 

3. AUTO RELOCATE (For those Cassette pro- 
grams that conflict with Disk operating 
systems.) 

4. DISK TO TAPE (Place Disk programs onto 
Cassette) 

5. DISK TO DISK (Our powerful Split-N-Image 
Program, Copies regardless of most protec- 
tion schemes I) 

• MENU DRIVEN 

• REQUIRES 32K EXTENDED COCO 

• REQUIRES 1 OR 2 DRIVES 

• ALL MACHINE LANGUAGE!! 1 . 
COMPARE WITH OTHER INDIVIDUAL 
PROGRAMS COSTING IN EXCESS OF 
$100.00 

DISK $49.95 Cat. No. 107CD 

SPIT-N-IMAGE© 

M/L Disk Back-Up Utility 

There is no need to suffer the heartbreak of 
crashed disks any longer. Spit-N-lmage will 
create a mirror image of your valuable disk pro- 
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functions. Will also initialize and back-up in one 
pass. Data processing experts always insist on 
having a back-up — it's good practice. 

REQUIRES 32K CC 
DISK $34.95 Cat. No. 101CD 



TRIPLE TRANSFER 
UTILITY© 

Transfer contents of disk to tape • Transfer con- 
tents of tape to disk • Automatically relocates 
cassette programs that conflict with the disk 
operating system • Displays machine language 
program addresses • Copies ASCII, Basic, & 
Machine Language Programs • All contained in 
1 menu driven program! 

REQUIRES 32K CC EXT. 
Disk $24.95 Cat. No. 105CD 



"Y BOX 



9 J 




If you have ever owned a "Y" Cable you know 
how easy it is to 'bump' or dislodge the cable 
from the computer. With the positive mechanical 
connection of the "Y Box'* chances are greatly 
reduced of the "Y** coming dislodged. 

One of the mosl common causes of a shorted 
data bus in the CoCo is a misaligned or loose 
"Y" Cable. Don't let your computer be the next 
victim of a "Y" Cable, order the "Y Box" from 
COMPUTIZE. 

• NOISE FREE "GOLD CONTACT" TO 
YOUR COMPUTER 

• POSITIVE MECHANICAL AND ELEC- 
TRICAL CONNECTION 

• Catalog No. 162CH Only $29.95 



MASTER KEY II 

New Improved Version! A hardware product that 
takes control of any program regardless of protec- 
tion. Now use with RS Multi pak, "Y" cable or 
optional extender cable. Captures register contants 
as they were when Master Key U was engaged. 
Complete disassembler, memory save, and much 
more. Requires some familiarity with Assembly 
Language. 

ROM PAK Cat. No. 160HR $ 99.95 

Cat. No. 16IHR With Ext. Cable $109.95 






(215) 946-7260 P.O. BOX 207 • LANGHORNE, PA 19047 

Check or M.O. • Add $3.00 shipping • PA residents add 6% sales tax 



★ ★★★*★★ THE LATEST IN COCO NEWS!!! 



• Supports 4 Hi-Res display modes 

• 4 page animation mode 

• Color Palette with over 15 color patterns for use 
with Hi-Res artifact 

• Send/Receive pictures over modem 

• Supplied utility allows capturing Hi-Res screens 
from most COCO arcade games 

• Multiple Hi-Res character fonts (user re- 
definable) 

• Supplied utility for transferring Graphicom 
screens to Basic or other M/L programs. 

• Supplied utility for loading screens from Basic 
or other sources 

• Built in Hi-Res SCREEN PRINT (compatible 
with EPSON, C-ITOH, GEM1NI-10, OKI, plus 
Radio Shack's LP-VII, LP-VIII, DMP-100, 
DMP-200, and GCP-115 printers) from 110 to 
9600 baud 

• SEND/RECEIVE slow-scan television 

• Many additional features, operating hints, hard- 
ware mod's and suggestions, etc. 

REQUIRES 64K COCO, 1 DISK DRIVE, AND 2 
ANALOG JOYSTICKS 



QUICK BACKUP 
UTILITY $19.95 
Catalog No 185CD 

Deluxe baclcup utility for the Radio Shack Color 
Computer. 

• Backup a disk in as few as 32 seconds (in three 
passes) 

• Format and backup a full disk in one minute 

• Full error correcting features (retry, skip, in- 
finite retry) 

Displays the current track that is being processed, 
works with all ROM versions. Supports I or 2 disk 
drive. A great disk production tool. 



GRAPHICOM $24.95 

Catalog No U1GD 

Simply slated - One of the finest graphic programs 
written Tor the Color Computer! 

FEATURES: 

• S-U-P-E-R U-S-E-R F-R-I-E-N-D-L-Y ! 



Season s 
Greetings 



Announcing COLORSCAN, new software for the CGP-220. This program is a must for 
anyone who owns a Radio Shack Ink Jet Printer, and enjoys creating graphics with 
Graphicom, Graphicom Part II, CoCo MAX, or any program that produces a standard 
6K binnary picture files. 

This program contains some of the popular features found in "HARDCOPY" such as 
lxl, 2x2 and posters; but color scan produce full color printouts of your favorite 6K 
graphics files. You can also create colorful banners up to 27' in length, or dump a disk's 
entire graphic contents to paper. 

Colorscan will print program listings in blazing color, make remarks in red, line numbers 
green, search for strings and print in blue, etc. All these features and more. 
Colorscan catalog number I84WD $29.95 



GRAPHICOM PART II 
Catalog No. 132WD . $24.95 

GRAPHICOM PART II DOES NOT 
REQUIRE GRAPHICOM TO RUN! 




©1984 WH I 

Graphicom Part II is a video processing 
package that provides many functions 
that are missing in Graphicom. Here are 
just a few of the features provided by 
Graphicom Part II: 

ENLARGE/REDUCE/ROTATE 

Enlarge or reduce any portion of a graphic 
screen, just like a photographic enlarger! 
Rotate by any degree or fraction of a 
degree around any point on the screen. 



PAINT 

Paint or "fill-in" any irregular area on the 
screen! More than 50 different colored 
patterns available. Additional paint pat- 
terns may be user-defined, 

PAN & ZOOM 

"Zoom in" x2, x4, or x8 on any portion 
of the screen to do fine pixel work. Allows 
editing of Graphicom character sets with 
ease! 

TYPESETTER & FONT EDITOR 

Add text in 16 different sizes, also sup- 
ports user definable foreground & 
background colors. Design & Edit 
characters for use in the typesetter. 

PIXEL BLASTER 

Allows the user to easily substitute or 
remove colors. Widen lines, swap BLUE 
& RED without effecting BLACK & 
WHITE, etc. 

Graphicom Part II requires a 64K. extend- 
ed disk basic system, and supports 1 to 4 
disk drives, keyboard or joystick (analog 
or switch type) input. It will load and save 
both Standard BIN files and Graphicom 
screens. All functions support color or Hi- 
Res operation, as well as the 4 screen 
display modes. 



OUR 
GRAPHICOM 
DIGITIZER 
JUST GOT BETTER 
SEE PAGE 127 



ARE YOU LOOKING 
FOR A HI-RES GRAPHIC 
SCREEN PRINT 
PROGRAM? 



THE ULTIMATE PRINTER UTILITY 




©1984 WMITESmiTM U: 1.0 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



HARDCOPY - Hardcopy is more 
than just a screen print utility, compare 
these features with any other graphic 
dump program on the market; 

• Full GRAPH ICOM/GRAPHICOM 
PART II compatibility! Loads STAN- 
DARD 6K images, GRAPHICOM 
pictures, and COCO MAX pictures 
too! 

• BLACK & WHITE or GREY SCALE 
printing. In GREY SCALE printing, 
colors are printed as user definable 
patterns. Supports hi-res in all 4 
GRAPHICOM display modes! 

• lx, 2x« 3x PRINTOUTS - Three menu 
options are reserved for the most fre- 
quently used printout sizes; Ix 
(quarter page), 2x (half page), and 3x 
(full page). 

• GRAPHIC LABELS - The label prin- 
ting option allows the user to create 
custom mailing or disk labels with 
professional looking results. 

• GREETING CARDS - The greeting 
card option allows the user to custom 
design greeting cards using both text 
and graphics. 

• GIANT POSTERS - The poster op- 
tion provides the user with a means of 
reproducing a hi-res graphic to a 
multi-sheet poster. 

• SPECIAL EFFECTS - The special ef- 
fects option allows the user to directly 
control the printing directives; ROTA- 
TION, X/Y SIZE, X/Y FLIP, X/Y 
GRID, X/Y FILL, TAB, WINDOW, 
POS/NEG IMAGE, and more! 

• USER CALL - Have an application 
that HARDCOPY doesn't quite 

. match? HARDCOPY routines can be 
added to EXTENDED BASIC 
through the USR command! 

HARDCOPY* requires a 64K Color 
Computer or Color Computer II, and at 
least one disk drive.lt supports 1 to 4 disk 
drives, keyboard or joystick input. Please 
specify printer and cat. number when 
ordering. 

• Due to hardware differences, some 
features may function differently on cer- 
tain printers. 

IDS 480/560-G Cal. No. 170WD 

Oki 82A (Okigraph) Cat. No. 179WD 

Okidaia 92 Cat. No. 17IWD 

Gemini 10X Cal. No. 174WD 

Gemini SG-10/15 Cal. No. 178WD 

DMP-105 Cat. No. 183WD 

Epson LX-80 Cat. No. I73WD 

Epson MX-80 Cat. No. 172WD 

Epson RX-80 Cat. No. 173WD 

Epson FX-80 Cat. No. 173WD 

Riteman PLUS Cat. No. 177WD 

DMP-110 Cat. No. I80WD 

DMP-120 Cat. No. I76WD 

DMP-130 Cat. No. I82WD 

DMP-200 Cat. No. I75WD 

CGP-220 Cat. No. 181 WD 

HARDCOPY PRINT 
UTILITY $29.95 




Most Howard Medical products are COCO 3 compatible, 
some require special patches. Please inquire when you order. 




(800) 443-1444 



ORDERS 



(312) 278-1440 



INQUIRIES AND ORDER STATUS 



PRINTERS 




NEW 

Dual Mode 

EPSON LX-80 



•ie UC-BO Offers dr.jn Qr near letter quality plus a 1K input?buffer for much 
faster graphics printing spaed,' IfrP package incudes the Dfc$Q, a Bofsk serial 
to p-s^alle) convfl^lsr, and a Howard .Printer Tutorial, 



$017 W ehlpplne) 
Olf Add $3&so f( 



i 



for tractor et-1 



The NX-10 is tha \ts r ^\ generation of printers, and offers buHMft becWtfactttf 
feed giving ft-^-vnrtJ and backward movement of paper plus exce^ibni^gwj^fes, 
printing ■ ^ninNies* l\|X«R package includes the NX-10,. a SoteH^alJp^wllei 
converter ifre Howard Printer Tutorial. Cn A a 9 




MONITORS 



123A 12" 

This 12" green screen high resolution mon- 
itor offers 80 column capability, Zenith quali- 
ty and a 30 day warranty valid at any of 
Zenith's 12QQ locations, p rp a CU 
Retail $149 $0750 lttPAL ' K 



Our price 



($7 shipping) 



122 A Zenith 12" Ambar Screen of- 

fers4he same Mb dots x 200 dots 
resolution at iSMHfc as the 123A 
ric) a $0 day werftflty v e^d at our 
1200 locations, $0 O 

($7 shippin g OO 

Closeout speoinli — only 14 in 
stock; We have ^ i.miia-J number of 



lesser known 
lave been i--: 
brand new in th 
original boxes. 



1. monitors that 
ilmned. but are 

*139 

{$14 shipping) 



141 Roland 13" Mot Monitor with 
speaker, 270 dcie 200 dots 
resolution, 4MHz 
bandwidth. ( 

($14 snipping) 



131 Zenith 13" Color Monitor fifes 
medium resolution 'with, speaker 
arid! RGB Jack, $ H C Q 
($14 shipping) (OO 

AJi monitors require an amplifier 
Circuit to drive the monitor and are 
mounted Inside the color computer. 
They attach with spring connectors, 
With two wires extending out of the 
computer, one for audio and one for 
video, 

VA-1 for monochrome 
monitors pnty> fits all 
color computers 

(* 2S h P8 > $ 24 45 

VC-4 for monochrome 
■ :r color, fits ail oo|or 
computers 




DISK CONTROLLERS 




DC- 
ADD-ON 



DC-38 InQlvidasQp jcolijfmriiji , 
ty, parallel printer rdaf time oTpck'r 
and all software $ 1 3 8 

DC-256 256K RAM Board Includes 
software to access all RAM $ -j 25 
DC-3P Mini EPROM Programmer 
Includes all software to 

program 3764 or 27128 $55 
DCS12 512K RAM Board $165 



0* 

Includes controller and 
C-DOS ROM chip, 

$ 98 ($2 shipping) 

BOARDS 

OC-3C Clock Calendar and'paraJi- 
fel printer port J^Q 

DD-2 Double sided 360K disk drive 
with Va height case 

and power supply $188 

CA-1 Cable to connect controller to 
one drive $2450 

CA-2 Ttoo drive cable $2050 



MEMORY 



64-E1 for E Boards with complete 
instructions, Remove old chips and 
replace with preassembled pack- 
age— no soldering §*yfk 45 
or trace cuts. ($2 shpg) "J*. 
64-F1 for F Boards. No soldering 
needed Capacitor $24^ 5 
leads must be cut ($2 sh ^ ng) 



64-2 for COCO 2. Kit requires one 
solder point, no *#%jia* 
trace cuts. ($2 shlpp!ng)*24 4t> 
64-22 Two chip set tor 26-3134A 
and B, 26-3136A and B. Koren Col- 
or Computers require *r%aAC. 
1 solder point $28 4b 

($2 shipping) 



SOFTWARE SPECIALS 

PAYROL/BAS™ 

Written fn nonprotected basic for thecplor corpputer.This easy-to-use package 
of programs will simplify and decrease the time spent doing payroll, ftalnbcw 
May. 1986 review- says. J > lElegan^and ) profe8sfor^al. ,, State.and federal tables 
are already- included 'SendTor Wtt« f\ page report* guide, £ jqQ§ 

VIP LIBRARY 

Softlaw's integrated package Includes VIP writer terminal, data base, call and 
disk zap which can fix a diskette that Is giving I/O errors $ ^ 2 5 



SAP-II 

Stock analysis program m#aniz£iE 
your portfolio and g|ves specific; 
sel] and stop- * 4 
loss points. * |y yo 



BPA-1 

Chart yodr blood pressure from daily 
readings taken in the comfort of 
your home. $-|g95 



GUARANTEE 

Howard Medical's SQ-da&guarantee, \$ rrieapt to eliminate the uncertainty of 
dealing with a company thrptjgh, the "-mail. Once you receive our hardware, try 
it out,* test It for compatab1l%/ff^6u , i'e not happy with it for any reason, return 
it In 30 days and we'll g|V^'ydu your money back (less shipping). 



Howard Medical Computers 1690 N. Elston Chicago, IL 60622 




ORDERS 



(800) 




INQUIRIES AND ORDER STATUS 

(312) 278-1440 



Showroom Hours: 
8:00-4:00 MonrFri. 
10:00-3:00 Sat. 



W£ ACCEPT: VISA • MASTERCARD • AMERICAN EXPRESS 

C.O.D. OR CHECKS' • SCHOOL RO:S 



COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION 

Educational Programs for Students Grade K-12 and Adult Self Studies 

NEW PROGRAMS FOR YOUR TANDY 1000 

AND TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

; Compatible with Apple - Atari - Commodore - TRS. 80 I, III, 4 - IBM PC Jr 
1 16 New Programs now available m^Rasic Spanish 



,,1, /% 
\\\\ , 

i * 



• NEW! VIDEO CASSETTES FOR VHS! 



InnerActlve™ Video Tutorials 
Complete with audio narration 
4 cassettes with 8 programs in each of the 
following subject areas:, ■ 

• Basic Spanish Grammar #K Jk 

• Basic Algebra 

• Reading by Phonics mil 

• Basic Fractions > 

2 programs per tape. Running time ' 45 minutes per tape 



95 



per/tape 



16 Programs on 8 VHS Tapes $159 c 



i | | {■ | syllable adjectives!^ 
M J | ^ in y usually just add 

I M EPS m M-z 



CALL TOLL FREE 
FOR MQRE INFORMATION 



ich has 



You be able to 
reduce your taxes by 



Ml 



- tncooie 
V I [Hicmc 

It* I it I LIT] 

- tax shelLoi 




l/hich? 



Q sister 



One-syllable adjectives that 
end in y usually just add |y 

Which h-as one syllable? 



I & sly 



Interactive Tutorial Programs for Home or Classroom Use 

Ov?r 1000 programs for your selection with 32 now available on disk for the Color 

Computer and 500 now available for the Tandy 1000. 



I 

4 J I 

Subject 



"We're Your Educational 
Software Source" 



*ubjeet No. of Programs 

Reading Development ' 256 (4 on disk) 
Reading Comprehension 48 (4 on disk) 

j Ma I: ha ma! I 128 

'Wflabra 16 (16 on disk) 

'Hlislory 32 (4 on disk) 

'Spelling 16 

iGovernnwil 16 

IFf^slcs 16 (4 on disk) 

| He Programs in each 

| i of the following: j 

jChildren's Tales • Carpentry - Electronics 
Health Services - Office Skills - Statistics 
FlFftl Aid/Safety - Economics - Business 
'Accounting - Psychology - MUCH MORE! 

ill I j 

Sjmd for uC|r free ecJuca 
:! i r. , -i«0™ f1 ^ I* PC J,r 

K-np^^n-. ■■ gig 



Apple II, TRS 80 I, III, & 4, and 
Commodore 64 computers require 
respective conversion kits (plug-in board 
and stereo cassette player), $99.00 Atari 
400/600/800/1200 computers require the 
Atari cassette recorder and the Dorset* 
-4001 Educational Master Cartridge, 
$9.95. For the IBM PC Jr. a "cassetle 
adapter cablei and a good t cassette 
recorder are required. The Tandy T00O 
requires the Dorsett M1001 speaker/PC 
board kit, $69.00, and a slanderer 
cassette recorder. A Raj#1o Shack 
CCR-81 or CCR-82 is rec?srnmended/ 

CASSETTES; $59.90 for an album cpn- 
laihrng a l^urogram course (8 cassettes 
with 2 programs each); $8.80 for a 
2-pr-og.ram casselta. 

DISKS: $14.95 for a one-program disk;* 
$28.95 for two disks; $48.95 for four 
disks. All disks come in a .vinyl, albuhi 

Dealer In.quirles^lcome . * 



Dorsett Educational Software features. 

• Interactive Learning ' 

• User Friendly , ;v 

• Multiple Choice and Typed 

• Program Advance with Correct Response 

• Full-time audio narration (Cassette 
Programs Only) 

.•-Serf -Paced Study , 

• High Resolution Graphics 

• Easy-fteading Text 

For more information, or to order call: ' 

TOLL FREE 1-800-654-3871 

IN OKLAHOMA CALL (405) 288-2301 

' r . " ^ .. _ 

(MastofCord) I LiWJ* 

jv.v- A I J ,< 

DORSETT 

Educational Systems, Jnc. 

"T>Sf * fla j{ ; 1 226, Nopapv O KT3D7Q '■" 



LOWEST CONTROLLER PRICE EVER! 

The New JFD-EC, Only $75 



JFD-EC DISK CONTROLLER 

The JFD-EConomical controller combines the best 
* features of the 

original JFD-COCO 
with the two 
switchable ROM 
sockets, fully 
buffered data lines, 
and Memory Minder 
in ROM. The JFD- 
EC replaces the JFD- 
COCO in our 
product line at an 
even lower price. The controller 
includes JDOS, Memory Minder in ROM, and the 
JDOS manual. 



JFD-EC Disk Controller with JDOS 



$75 



JFD-CP DISK CONTROLLER 

Our new JFD-CP, compatible with both the orginal 
COCO and the COCO 2, features a parallel port to 

support a 
Centronics 
compatible 
printer or our 
hard drive, 
and an 

external ROM 
switch, which 
allows you to 
select JDOS or 
an optional RS 
DOS-type ROM. It comes in 
a case and includes JDOS 1.2 and manual. JDOS 
implements all RS DOS commands, plus many 
more, including auto line numbering, error 
trapping, baud rate selection, OS/9* boot from 
floppy or hard drive, and Memory Minder**, our 
disk drive analysis program (Precision Alignment 
Disk not included). 

JFD-CP Disk Controller with JDOS $139 




DRIVE SYSTEMS 

Upgrade your Color Computer by adding our new 
JFD-CP disk controller, supercharged with JDOS 1.2 

operating 
system, and a 
top quality 
drive with case 
and power 
supply. Comes 
complete with 
cable and JDOS 





man 



ual. 



Drive 0 System with one double 'side drive $299 
Drive 0, 1 System with two double side drives $449 



MEMORY MINDER** 

Memory Minder 
is a disk drive 
test program now 
included in 
JDOS. Used 
with a 
Precision 
Alignment 
i Disk, 

Memory 
Minder allows 
you to check 
your drives for speed, 
alignment, sensitivity, hysteresis, 
and more! You can actually align or adjust the drives 
while viewing the graphics on the screen. No special 
equipment needed! 

PRECISION ALIGNMENT DISKS (From Dysan) 
PAD-40X 1 : Tests single side disk drives $26 
PAD-40X2: Tests double/single disk drives $33 

Memory Minder is available on diskette for those 
who don't own a JFD-CP or JFD-EC Controller with 
JDOS. Includes Precision Alignment disk. 




Memory Minder: single side package 
Memory Minder: single/double side package 



*OS/9 is a registered trademark of Microware, Inc. 

**Memory Minder is a registered trademark of J&.M Systems, Ltd. 



$59 
$75 



NEW TERMS 

One-year warranty on parts &. labor; 30-day money 
back guarantee (except shipping) if not totally 
satisfied. Items must be returned in like new 
condition. 

Free shipping via UPS in continental United States 
for payment by VISA, MasterCard, or cashiers check. 
COD requires 10% prepayment by bank card plus 
3% shipping. Blue Label and foreign shipping extra. 



<//A 

J & M SYSTEMS. LTD. 



15100-A CENTRAL SE 
ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO 87123 
505/292-4182 



r