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Canada $4.95 U.S. $3.95 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 







ications 




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t®&m ft© €©§ 





C®in)[nK§©ft © @©©@p(oi 
if® y©m i§S sdftdop 





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And Doctor ASCII 
Joins the Rainbow 



Bouncing Boglders is a new, fast paced arcade- 
style game for your Coco. As you race your man 
around the screen you try to collect enough stars 
to open the exit to the next level. You can drop 
rocks to kill aliens that follow you around the 
screen trying to catch you. But beware of the fall- 
ing and bouncing boulders as they will crush your 
man if you get trapped under one. The many dif- 
ferent screens with lots of puzzles will keep you 
playing for hours on end. 



You've asked for it and now It's here, a wrestling 
game for your color computer. Play a single match 
or play a tag team match in this 1 to 4 player game. 
Wrestle against the computer or wrestle against 
your friend in a single or tag team match. Use pun- 
ches, kicks, body slams, back breakers and many 
other moves as you attempt to pin your opponent. 
Super graphics and realistic play action make this 
a great game for all. 





mm 






■A 











1 H P 




>ttr £h 
















• : r : i ; ' , r --- ~* ■ r-rf'.-'-ii' 



Travel through towns and ex- 
plore strange lands In the 
ultimate fantasy role-playing 
game for the color computer. 
As you travel the land you will 
meet different characters that 
you may convince to join you In 
your quest. During your quest 
you wlli learn the secrets of 

magic spells and ultimately, 
your final goal. 

Inter The Gates of Delirium 
contest! The first person to 
solve the game shall be our 
grand prize winner of a Coco 3. 
There will be 5 second prizes of 
One free game from Diecom 
Products and 5 third prizes of 
one free hat from Diecom Pro- 
ducts. 

64K 

REQUIRED $38.95 U.S. 

$52.95 can. 

available on disk only 



9 



ALSO AVAILABLE 

— Paper Route, Knock Out, 
Karate, each game requiring 
64K. Tape or disk. 

$28.95 u.s. 
$38.95 can. 



6715 FIFTH LINE, MILTON, ONT., CANADA L9T 2X8 

We accept: 



VISA 




cheque or money order 



24 hr. order line: 
(416) 878-0358 
personal service 9-5 



Please add $2 for shipping 
& handling. Ontario 
residents add 7% sales ta> 
C.O.D. Canada only. 
Dealer inquiries invited 
Looking for new software. 



I 



romC 



after 







BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

Major Istar 24.95 27.95 

Sam Sleuth Private Eye 24.95 27.95 

Mark Data Graphic Adven.24.95 27.95 

COCO Util II by Mark Data 39.95 
COCO Max by Colorware 69.95 

COCO Max II by Colorware 79.95 

AutoTerm by PXE Computi ng39.95 49.95 



COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000 EX 1 Drive 256K 
Tandy 1000 SX 2 Drive 384K 
Tandy 3000 HL 1 Drive 512K 
Model IVD 64K with Deskmate 



569.00 
839.00 
1229.00 
889.00 



PRINTERS 

Radio Shack DMP-105 80 CPS 110.00* 

Radio Shack DMP-130 100 CPS 219.00* 

Radio Shack DMP-430 180 CPS 559.00 
Radio Shack DWP-230 Daisy Wheel359.00 

Star LV-1210 120 CPS 199.00 

Star NX-10 120 CPS 279.00 

Star SG-15 120 CPS 410.00 

Panasonic P-1091 120 CPS 259.00 

Panasonic P-1092 180 CPS 339.00 

Okidata 292 200 CPS 529.00 

Okidata 192+ 200 CPS 375.00 

Epson LX-80 100 CPS 275.00 

Epson FX-85 160 CPS 419.00 

MODEMS 

Radio Shack DCM-7 Modem 85.00 
Radio Shack DC Modem 

Program Pac 99.00 

Radio Shack DC Modem 212 179.00 

Hayes 300 Baud Modem 169.00 

CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 

• SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 



COLOR COMPUTER MISC. 

Radio Shack Drive Controller 99.00 
Extended Basic Rom Kit 39.95 
64K Ram Upgrade Kit 39.00 
Radio Shack Deluxe Keyboard Kit24.95 



Kit 



79.95 
27.95 
44.00 
89.00 
69.95 
52.00 
26.95 



HJL Keyboard Upgrade 
COCO Max Y Cable 
Color Computer Mouse 
Multi Pack Interface 
Botek Serial to Parallel Conv. 
Radio Shack CCR-81 Recorder 
Radio Shack Deluxe Joystick 
Amdek Video 300 Green Monitor139.00 
Amdek Video 300 Amber Monitor149.00 
Goldstar Green Monitor 85.00 
Panasonic Amber Monitor w/audio99.00 
Radio Shack VM-4 Green Monitor 99.00 
Mark Data Universal Video Driver 29.95 

COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

TAPE DISK 

Approach Control Simul. 29.95 34.95 

Worlds Of Flight 29.95 32.95 

Mustang P-51 Flight Simul. 29.95 34.95 

Spectral Typing Tutor 19.95 22.95 

Dungeon Quest 24.95 27.95 



TelePatch II by Spectrum 29.95 

TeleWriter 64 49.95 59.95 

Deft Pascal Workbench 99.95 

Deft Extra 39.95 

Pro Color File Enhanced 2.0 59.95 

Max Fonts (72 COCO Max Fonts) 64.95 



69.95 69.95 
69.95 69.95 



Elite Calc 
Elite Word 

Elite File (disk only) 74.50 
DynaCalc (disk only) 99.95 
Word Pack RS by PBJ 99.00 
VIP Writer (disk only) 69.95 
VIP Integrated Library (disk) 149.95 
Order any 2 software pieces listed and 
take 10% off their listed price. All Radio 
Shack software 10% off list. Send for 
complete list. 'Sale prices through 
11/30/86 





P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TRS-S0 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 



* 



Under 
The 




28 




FEATURES 



42 





114 



Cover illustration copyright © 1986 
by Fred Crawford 



Treasure QuesX/Eric Tucker 

GAME Feel this Adventure with spring-centered joysticks 

j*m Thanksgiving Pizza Party/ Bill Bernico 

V^fl CMTCDTAIklMCKIT If *U» Pi'/^i'**. c Ur,A ™»t 



ENTERTAINMENT If the Pilgrims had met Italians instead 

Third One's the Charm/Mark Siegel 



TUTORIAL New commands and features of the CoCo 3 

RTTY for the CoCo/Marty Goodman 



TELECOMMUNICATIONS Send and receive RTTY information 

Hamming It Up/Len Popyack 

PACKET RADIO Put worldwide communications in your "packet" 



Raiders/Darre/ Behrmann 

GAME Skill and concentration are needed for this one 

^jj The Old-Time Fix/ Horace D. Vaughn 



MODIFICATION Use the Old-Time Banner Printer with disk 



The Evolving Remote/Mar/c Crosby 

^* TELECOMMUNICATIONS Use Remote2 with an RS-232 Pak 

^*gCoBBS Message Editor/ Richard Duncan 



TELECOMMUNICATIONS A useful update for the CoBBS system 

Two-CoCo BBS System/ Ted Kyte 



TELECOMMUNICATIONS A switching system for your BBS 

Coming to Terms/Rick Adams and Dale Lear. 



COCO 3 CAPABILITIES Faster telecommunications on the new CoCo 

■M The Artistic BBS/Eric Bailey 

^™ GRAPHICS Use Lo-Res graphics for sharp logon messages 

McCheckers/Er/7c Gavriluk and Greg Miller 

GAME Checkers with a modem offers a new twist 



The Envelope P\ease/ Contest Judges 

CROSSWORD CONTEST Dick McGrath's tricky puzzle wins first place 

^5J| Keycad/Keyflow/ James Ventling 



KEYBOARD UTILITY CoCocad and CoCoflow modifications 

Speedy GETzales/H. Allen Curtis. 



GRAPHICS Vastly increase GET and PUT speeds 

The Super Switcher/flofcerf C. Merryman 



HAR DWARE PROJECT Easy access for your peripherals 

Living on Rainbow Time/Greg L Zumwalt 

COCO 3 CAPABILITIES Amazing graphics displays 



18 



28 



30 



36 



42 



52 



55 



70 



80 



86 



93 



108 



114 



125 



126 



158 



168 



170 



I -Jfm The cassette tape/disk symbols 
[jZ3 ^ beside features and columns indi- 
cate that the program listings with those 
articles are on this month's rainbow on 
TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK. Those with 
only the disk symbol are not available on 
RAINBOW ON TAPE. For details, check the 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK 

ads on pages 172 and 159. 



NEXT MONTH: Ho, ho, ho! It's that merry time of year and there's no better way 
to get into the festive spirit than with our December Holiday Issue. We've packed our 
bag full of surprises and programs you're sure to enjoy during those long winter 
evenings. And don't forget to take a look at our special Holiday Shopping Guide; perfect 
for selecting just the right gift for that certain CoCo nut. 

Light up your December with THE RAINBOW, the number one information source for 
the Color Computers 1, 2 and 3! 



COLUMNS 



J BASIC Training/ Joseph Kolar 

One character / space at a time 

Building November's Rainbow/J/m Reed 

Managing Editor's comments 

CoCo Consultations/ZWarfy Goodman 

Just what the Dr. ordered 

Delphi Bureau/Cray Augsburg 



Using Mail in the SIG and Goodman 's database report 

Doctor ASCII/ Richard E. Esposito 

Introducing a new Rainbow column 

?J Education Notes/Steve Blyn 



Word fun: "The Three Bears" comes of age 

Education Overview/M/chae/ Plog, Ph.D 

The most important educators of all 

PRINT#-2,/Lawrence C. Falk 

Editor's notes 

Turn of the Screw/ Tony DiStefano 

More on the new VDG 

?| Wishing Well/Fred S. Scerbo 

Prepare for Thanksgiving with Liquid Measure 

RAINBOWTECH 



Barden's Buiier/William Barden, Jr. 

A Co Co assembly language quiz 

Bits and Bytes of BAS\C/Richard White 

BASIC09 on the CoCo 3 

Downloads/Dan Downard 




Answers to your technical questions 

KISSable OS-9/Da/e L Puckett 

Blue sky for OS-9 Level II 

Tutorial/ Ca/Wn Dodge 



Readable Equivalents to C 

DEPARTMENTS 



Advertiser Index 

Back Issue Information 
CoCo Cat 



CoCo Gallery 
Corrections _ 



Letters to Rainbow 
The Pipeline 



208 
119 
169 

_26 
_78 
6 



Rainbow Info 

Received & Certified 
Reviewing Reviews _ 
Submitting Material 
to Rainbow 



46 



16 



182 



102 



154 



74 



166 



12 



88 



62 



192 



188 



186 



199 



191 



104 



Subscription Information 
These Fine Stores 



_15 
132 
131 



25 
38 



206 



One-Liner Contest 
Information 



151 



PRODUCT REVIEWS 



Product Review Contents 



129 



The 




November 1986 



Vol. VI No. 4 



Editor and Publisher 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor James E. Reed 
Senior Editor T Kevin Nickols 
Submissions Editor Jutta Kapfhammer 
Copy Editor Jo Anna Wittman Arnott 
Reviews Editor Judi Hutchinson 
Editorial Assistants Judy Brashear, 

Wendy Falk, Jody Gilbert, 

Angela Kapfhammer 
Technical Editor Dan Downard 
Technical Assistants Cray Augsburg, 

Chris Wehner 
Contributing Editors William Barden, Jr., 

Steve Blyn, Tony DiStefano, 

Richard Esposito, Martin Goodman, M.D., 

Joseph Koiar, Michael Plog, Dale Puckett, 

Fred Scerbo, Richard White 
Consulting Editors Ed Ellers, 

Danny Humphress, Belinda C. Kirby 

Art Director Heidi Maxedon 
Production Coordinator Cynthia L. Jett 
Designers Tracey Jones, Sandra Underwood, 
Denise Webb 



Chief of Typography Debbie Hartley 
Typography Services Jody Doyle, 
Suzanne Benish Kurowsky 



President 



Falsoft, Inc. 

Lawrence C. Falk 



General Manager Patricia H. Hirsch 

Asst. General Mgr. for Finance Donna Shuck 

Admin. Asst. to the Publisher Sue E. Rodgers 



Editorial Director James E. Reed 

Asst. Editorial Director Jutta Kapfhammer 

Creative Director Heidi Maxedon 



Chief Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Advertising Accounts Beverly Taylor 
Dealer Accounts Judy Quashnock 

Fulfillment Services Director Bonnie Frowenfeld 
Fulfillment Services Asst. Dir. Sandy Apple 
Asst. Customer Service Mgr. Beverly Bearden 
Word Processor Manager Patricia Eaton 

Development Coordinator Ira Barsky 

Chief of Printing Services Melba Smith 

Pre-press Production John Pike 

Dispatch Janice Eastburn 

Asst. Dispatch Mark Herndon 

Business Assistants Laurie Falk, Sharon Smith, 
Monica Wheat, Pam Workhoven 

Advertising Coordinator Doris Taylor 
Advertising Representative Kim Vincent 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 

(502) 228-4492 

West Coast Advertising and Marketing Office 
Director Cindy J. Shackleford 
Advertising Representative Shirley Duranseau 
For RAINBOW Advertising and 
Marketing Office Information, see Page 208 



the rainbow is published every month of the year by FALSOFT, Inc., The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059, phone (502) 
228-4492. THE RAINBOW, RAINBOWfest and THE rainbow and RAINBOWfest logotypes are registered ® trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. • Second class postage paid Prospect, 
KY and additional offices. USPS N. 705-050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797). POSTMASTER: Send address changes to THE RAINBOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. Forwarding 
Postage Guaranteed. Authorized as second class postage paid from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. • Entire contents copyright ® by 
FALSOFT, Inc., 1986. the rainbow is intended for the private use and pleasure of its subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by any means is prohibited. Use 
of information herein is for the single end use of purchasers and any other use is expressly prohibited. All programs herein are distributed In an "as is" basis, without 
warranty of any kind whatsoever. • Tandy, Color basic, Extended Color basic and Program Pak are registered ® trademarks of the Tandy Corp. • Subscriptions to 
the rainbow are $31 per year in the United States. Canadian rates are U.S. $38. Surface mail to other countries is U.S. $68, air mail U.S. $103. All subscriptions begin 
with next available issue. • Limited back issues are available. Please see notice for issues that are in print and their costs. Payment accepted by VISA, MasterCard, 
American Express, cash, check or money order in U.S. currency only. Full refund after mailing of one issue. A refund of 10/12ths the subscription amount after two 
issues are mailed. No refund after mailing of three or more magazines. ___ 



LETTERS TO THE 




Friends for a Long 
Time to Come 



Editor: 

I received the September 1986 issue of the 
rainbow and was excited to see the an- 
nouncement of the new CoCo 3. I imme- 
diately ran down to the local Radio Shack 
Computer Center to see this new machine 
and they didn't even have them in yet! I am 
amazed at how quickly you got this infor- 
mation into your magazine. That shows true 
dedication to your readers. 

I am also amazed at the new CoCo and 
the features offered at such a low price. I was 
getting frustrated with having a great com- 
puter with only 64K of memory, and envious 
of my friends who have computers with 
larger memories, but now I will be the envy 
of them. It looks like CoCo and the great 
people of RAINBOW magazine will be my 
friends for a long time to come. 

John Merrill 
Provo, UT 



BACK TALK 



Editor: 

I am writing in reference to Richard 
White's article "Getting In Touch With 
Penpal" [August 1986, Page 194]. Richard 
mentioned his dilemma when using JDOS 
40-command track formatted disks with 
Penpal. His first reference is that the FREE 
command only returned 73 granules versus 
78. This is because Penpal is not compatible 
with JDOS 40-track FAT table formats. 
Penpal follows the standard FAT table 
format established in Disk Extended basic 
with extensions for 40-track. 

This format is based on the file allocation 
table containing 78 contiguous bytes of 
information concerning the availability of 
storage granules. This table starts with the 
first byte of the sector in which the file 
allocation table is stored. JDOS starts its 
first allocation byte on the sixth byte, 
followed by 77 additional bytes. 

The first five bytes in the JDOS file 
allocation table are identification bytes. This 
code tells the JDOS operating system that 
a format other than 35-track, single-sided 
disk is installed. Since the file allocation 
table under Disk basic is byte-to-granule 
position dependent, this causes total incom- 
patibility with JDOS 40-track disks outside 
of the JDOS operating environment. When 
Penpal checks the FREE status of the disk, 
it sees the first five bytes (of JDOS code) as 

6 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



used granules and the next 73 granules as the 
only FREE space available. 

What Penpal, or any other Disk B ASIC- 
based program, sees as data stored in 
granule 20 for example is seen by JDOS as 
data stored in granule 15. So a copy of a file 
saved under JDOS causes data from the 
wrong granule or granules to be moved to 
the new disk. You end up with garbage or 
missing data. 

I recommend using only Disk basic 
compatible operating systems when using 40 
tracks. A DOS like ADOS follows the FAT 
table format and just extends its range. The 
use of JDOS creates a need to stay with 
programs that are only JDOS compatible, 
or to operate with two operating systems 
and separate your disks by DOS type. It's 
too bad JDOS didn't put its ID Codes at the 
end of the file allocation table. 

In reference to Richard's lost 14 granules 
under Disk basic, it is that you have 19 used 
granules plus JDOS code of 5 granules for 
a new used granule total of 24 verses 19 
actually. This total would be from the 68 
only reported by Disk basic. 

In closing, may I say I really enjoy your 
magazine and its informative articles. 

James Bodily 
Clearfield, UT 

Editor: 

I appreciate the time and effort that Mr. 
Bodily has gone to, to explain why Penpal 
cannot use 40-track disks formatted under 
JDOS. This problem should not be consid- 
ered a problem with Penpal. Rather, it is a 
compatibility problem between Disk BASIC 
and JDOS. 

Mr. Bodily's closing comment about his 
appreciation of rainbow and its informa- 
tive articles could not have been made but 
for material submitted by informed readers 
like Mr. Bodily who spend time to share 
their knowledge with others. 

Richard White 
Fairfield, OH 



Metronomic Proportions 

Editor: 

I'd like to contribute this routine to 
Michael Bridges of Nashville, Tenn. [August 
1986, Page 8], and anyone else who is 
interested in using the CoCo as a metro- 
nome. If you don't find certain speeds 



accurate enough, change the value of the 
variable T in program Line 1 or merely 
enter a speed value greater than or less than 
the one you want. It will be more accurate 
if you type everything exactly as it is printed, 
including line numbers and spaces. 

After you have typed it in, RUN. When the 
prompt appears, type a number for the speed 
you want in beats per minute and press 
enter. Your CoCo will immediately begin 
to act like a metronome. Make sure the 
volume is turned up on your TV or monitor. 
When you're finished, press break. 

0 CLS : CLEAR 200 

1 T = 420 

2 PLAY "05;L255;V31" 

3 PRINT @ 225,;: INPUT "<anter> 
METRDNOME SPEED. ";S 

4 B = INT(60/S * T) 

5 PLAY "G":F0R X = 1 TO BrNEXT 
X:G0T0 5 

Don Lockwood 
Washington, PA 

Pin-to-Pin Fix 

Editor: 

Alfred Johnson [July 1986, Page 8] wrote 
about the Cannon Typestar 7 that doubles 
as a typewriter. I own a Brother EP-44 dot- 
matrix printer that also doubles as a type- 
writer. It's portable, runs on AC or DC and 
has a 4K memory to use as a simple word 
processor. 

The EP-44 has a built-in RS-232C inter- 
face. All you need to make the EP-44 work 
with CoCo is a 4-pin to 25-pin serial cable 
(Cat. No. 26-3014) from Radio Shack. 

The following hookup works: CoCo Pin 
2 to RS-232C Pin 20. CoCo Pin 3 to RS- 
232C Pin 1. CoCo Pin 4 to RS-232C Pin 3. 

The EP-44 accepts ASCII code and is 
compatible with other computers, including 
Tandy models. Just set the Baud rate and 
word length, and you're ready to print. If 
anyone needs more information or has any 
questions, drop me a line. 

Edward Lasota 
720 E. 1st Avenue 
Roselle, NJ 07203 

Quick 'n' Dirty 

Editor: 

In response to E.C. Blend, Jr. [September 
1986, Page 6] and others who have asked 
how to get DeskMate to print at 2400 Baud, 
here is a quick and dirty solution: Patch the 



* 




YOU COULD FALL IN LOVE WITH 

y AUTOTERM! , 

'IT TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE^ 



WORLD'S 
SMARTEST 
TERMINAL 



GOOD 
LOOKIN' 



AUTOTERM shows true upper/ 
lower case in screen widths of 32, 
40, 42, 51, or 64 characters with 
no split words. The width of 32 
has extra large letters. Scrolling is 
forward, backward, and fast. Block 
graphics pictures are displayed 
automatically and can be scrolled. 

The screen's top line shows 
operating mode, unused memory 
size, memory on/off, and caps- 
lock on/off. It also gives helpful 
prompts. 



SWEET 
TALKIN' 



KEY-BEEP can be on/off. Unac- 
ceptable keystrokes cause a lower 
pitched BOP! This ERROR- 
BEEBOP can be on/off. 

Talks to other computers with 
Full or Half Duplex; Baud Rate of 
110, 150, 300, 600, 1200; Parity as 
even, odd, mark, space, none; 7 
or 8 bit Word; any Stop Bits; all 
128 ASCII characters; true line 
Break; XON/XOFF protocol; and 
optional line-at-a-time transmis- 
sion. Able to send and receive 
text, block graphics, BASIC and 
ML programs. A 64K machine 
holds up to 45,000 characters 
(33,300 in HI-RES). 

DUAL PROCESSING lets you 
review & edit while more data is 
coming in. 

XMODEM for disk file transfer. 



Fully supports D.C. Hayes and 
other intelligent modems. 

Talks to your printer with any 
page size, margins, line spacing, 
split word avoidance. Embed your 
printer's control sequences for 
boldface, underlining, Qtc. Narrow 
text can be automatically spread 
out. 

You'll also use Autoterm 
for simple word processing 
and record keeping 

You can display directories, 
delete files, transmit directly from 
disk, and work with files larger 
than memory. Easily maintain a 
disk copy of an entire session. 

Compatible with TELEWRITER 
(ASCII) & other word processors. 

SMOOTH 
WALKIN' 

AUTOTERM moves smoothly 
and quickly between word proces- 
sing and intelligent terminal 
action. Create text, correct your 
typing errors; then connect to the 
other computer, upload your text, 
download information, file it, and 
sign-off; then edit the received 
data, print it in an attractive 
format, and/or save it on file. 

Editing is super simple with the 
cursor. Find strings instantly, too! 
Any operating parameter, such as 
screen width, can be altered at 
any time. Uncompleted com- 
mands can be cancelled. 




PUTTY IN 
YOUR HANDS 



The word processor can be 
used to create, print, and/or save 
on file your personal KSMs. They 
let AUTOTERM act like you. For 
example, it can dial through your 
modem, sign-on, interact, perform 
file operations, & sign-off; an 
entire session without your help. 
KSMs can answer the phone, 
prompt the caller, take messages, 
save them, hang-up, and wait for 
the next call. The KSM potential 
is unbelievable! 

NO OTHER COMPUTER IN 
THE WORLD CAN MATCH 
YOUR COCO'S AUTOMATIC 
TERMINAL CAPABILITIES!!! 



WHAT THE 
REVIEWERS SAY 

"AUTOTERM is the Best of Class." 
Graham, RAINBOW, 6/83 

'The AUTOTERM buffer system is 
the most sophisticated — and one of 
the easiest to use. . ." 
Banta, HOT CoCo, 9/84 

"Almost a full featured word 
processor. . 
EHers, RAINBOW, 11/84 

"AUTOTERM's excellent error- 
handling routines, thorough docu- 
mentation, and logical, easy-to-use 
command structure make it stand 
out." 

Parker, HOT CoCo, 5/85 



AVAILABLE IN CANADA 

from 

Kelly Software Distributors 
Edmonton, Alberta 



CASSETTE $39.95 
DISKETTE $49.95 

Add $3 shipping and handling 

MC/VISA/C.O.D. 



PXE Computing 

11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson, Texas 75080 

214/699-7273 



Please hire the mentally retarded. They are sincere, hard working and 
appreciative. Thanks! Phyllis 



device driver (printer) so that it ignores the 
Baud parameter in the descriptor and sends 
at 2400 Baud. This works for any applica- 
tion that uses the printer module. 

Boot up with a disk that has DeskMate. 
If the disk does not have Cobbler and Debug 
in the execution directory, switch to one that 
does and execute chx /do/cmds, then load 
Cobbler and Debug, Switch 'back to the 
DeskMate disk and execute chx /do/cmds 
again. Patch the Printer module and execute 
Cobbler as shown below. 

OSS: Debug 

Interactive Debugger 
DB: L PRINTER 

0000 87 
D8: . .+61 

0061 R6 
DB: =86 

0062 R8 
DB: =04 

0063 35 
DB: =12 

0064 xx 
DB: L PRINTER 

0000 87 
DB: - - +194 

0194 fiE 
DB: =9B 

0195 B2 
DB: =25 

0196 Cfi. 
DB: =35 

0197 xx 
DB: Q 

059: COBBLER 'DO 

The memory locations shown are offsets. 
The actual locations will be the offsets added 
to the base address where Printer is loaded. 

Duane M. Perkins 
Mount Gretna, PA 

More Views on Pirating 

Editor: 

Mr. Vergona's letter [August 1986, Page 6] 
helps to emphasize that there are real people 
out there whose rights are being trampled on 
and their profits stolen by others who steal 
their software. 

For those who think it is "no big deal" to 
copy software you haven't paid for, just 
what do you think is the difference between 
what you do and what a shoplifter does? Of 
course, the only difference between you and 
the shoplifter is that he will eventually be 
caught and punished, but you know you 
never will because it is impossible for anyone 
to enforce the copyright laws. You operate 
outside the sphere of law enforcement, so 
society gives you the romantic label of pirate 
instead of thief . . . 

Robert Pels 
Burlington, VT 

Editor: 

... I sympathize with his plight. Having 
spent over a year writing and rewriting a 
basic checkbook management program, I 
would hate to see the results of my labors 
passed around illegally if I were offering the 
program for sale. 

I do not condone "trading" programs with 
other users — in the end this will only hurt 

8 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



the recreational or home computer market, 
especially the CoCo community! . . . 

Jim Peasley 
Redwood City, CA 

Editor: 

Responsible members of the CoCo com- 
munity would not have stolen Bill Vergona's 
work so there is no sense in appealing to 
those who did. I would suggest those who 
have a copy of Bill's work and did not spend 
any money to acquire such material, owe Bill 
Vergona for his efforts. Bill said the loss of 
revenue from this piracy has made advertis- 
ing his product impossible. I don't currently 
need what Bill has worked so hard on for 
my own use, but there will come a time when 
I may very well want such a product or some 
new product Bill has brought to the market- 
place. I want the option of choosing. . . . 

David Nolton 
Charlotte, NC 

Editor: 

. . .1 agree totally with his point of view; 
however, I don't see how sales could have 
been cut "by over 50 percent." Any serious 
user needing such a powerful utility as 
CBASIC would purchase it. In my opinion, 
the pirated copies. are being used by people 
who ordinarily wouldn't purchase it 
(another program to fool around with). 

Allen Huffman 
Pineland, TX 



HINTS AND TIPS 

Editor: 

I've noticed several inquiries concerning 
sources of Ham radio programs. While 
thumbing through QST, the journal for the 
American Radio Relay League, I ran across 
this information: Amateur radio software is 
now available from SPEC-COM, the Ama- 
teur Radio Specialized Communication 
Journal. These programs are for the CoCo 
and are available on tape or disk. A catalog 
of these programs can be obtained by 
sending an SASE to SPEC-COM, P.O. Box 
H, Lowden, IA 52255. 

Curt Myers, KJ4AA 
Benton, KY 

Going Bananas 

Editor: 

I have been using DeskMate and am very 
pleased with it. However, the program has 
a bug to be considered by users of these 
printers: Radio Shack LP-7, the Gorilla 
Banana and the Epson MX-80. For these 
printers, the Text processor part of Desk- 
Mate, at the first top line of the second and 
all later printed pages, prints that line at the 
left border, not at the normal margin. So 
that one line is positioned to the left, out of 
line with all other lines. Radio Shack knows 
about this and tells me they have no patch 
for the problem. Test the program with your 
printer before buying it. 

The DeskMate terminal program is a 
beauty, far better than any other terminal 
programs I've tried. I use the DeskMate 
Terminal program in preference over all 
others. 

I would like to hear from anyone who is 



able to tell me how to increase the Te? 
buffer and the Terminal buffer. 

Charles E. Brown, J, 
Route 1, Box 59 
White Stone, VA 22578-976 

Starlord Hint 

Editor: 

Here is a hint for Starlord [August 198( 
Page 58] to make it easier to find the lin 
number of a data statement that has an erro 
in it. This hint will only work if you receiv 
an FC error in Line 30. You should hav 
your lines numbered exactly the way the; 
are printed in the magazine. After yoi 
receive the FC error in Line 30, type: PR IN" 
INT( ( ( (I-10240)/8)*10)+60) 

The number you receive is the line numbei 
that contains the error. Simply list tha 
number to display the line that contains the 
error. No line should contain a numbei 
greater than 255 since 255 is the largesl 
number that can be poked into a single 
memory location. For those of you whose 
copy of the program simply locks up aftei 
a certain point, recheck your typing. Even 
if one number is incorrectly entered, the 
program could crash. 

Raju Dash 
Downers Grove, IL 



REQUEST HOTLINE 

Editor: 

I would like to find any programs for 
printing address labels. I have a 16K CoCo 
2 ECB with a cassette. Any programs and 
information would be greatly appreciated. 

Karen Krumanocker 
609 College Garden Drive 
Kutztown, PA 19530 

CoCo Cribbage 

Editor: 

In a recent issue of a competitive maga- 
zine I saw a program for a cribbage game 
for the Commodore and Atari. Does some- 
one have a CoCo version that I might be able 
to type in and enjoy? 

Bill Franken 
1358 Sepulveda 
San Bernardino, CA 92404 

Electronics Programs 

Editor: 

I have been looking for a program for my 
electronics hobby. So far I haven't seen or 
heard of one for the Radio Shack 64K Color 
Computer. Do you know who sells them? 
Also, I was told that Radio Shack's 100 Disk 
Drives can be used with my machine, is this 
true? 

7. DeBruin 
236 Pinecove Road 
Burlington, Ontario 
Canada L7N 1 Wl 

Choo Choo CoCo 2 

Editor: 

I would like to know how to run a train 



;et from the CoCo 2. Any help would be 
greatly appreciated. 

Torin Segstro 
216 Springdale Circle East 
Airdrie, Alberta 
Canada TOM 0B0 

Attention Numismatists 

Editor: 

Anyone who has a coin saving program 
for the CoCo, please write to me. 

Blake Cadmus 
1106 Whitfield Blvd. 
Reading, PA 19609 

A Wave of the Wand 

Editor: 

I am interested in purchasing a text reader 
for my CoCo. I have hundreds of programs 
1 don't have time to type in. If anyone knows 
of such a device and the appropriate soft- 
ware to use it for entering programs, please 
let me know. 

Percy Veals 
Rt. 1, Box 169 
Gloster, MS 39638 



DELPHI LINE 

Editor: 

How about a rainbow on disk? I know 
a lot of people would like it. Don't get rid 
of the tape, just have the disk as well. 

Paul Fielding 
(PA ULFIELD1NG) 

Your prayers have been answered. 
Look on Page 159 of this issue. 

School Daze 

Editor: 

The CoCo community is growing up! 
How will the CoCo do in the college scene? 
What if the "campus computer" is a Macin- 
tosh or an IBM? What if there is no "campus 
computer"? I am sure CoCo owners who will 
be taking the computer to college with them 
would be interested in knowing what they're 
up against. I asked a friend of mine who runs 
his own business, and unfortunately he had 
to say that if the campus computer is an IBM 
or whatever, you either have that computer, 
you buy it or you flunk out because of 
incompatibility. If you do your homework 
on a CoCo, you can't always transfer it to 
an Apple. People might want to consider 
what the current computer of a college is 
when deciding where to go. 

I was thumbing through my latest issue of 
THE rainbow and noticed your advertise- 
ment for PCM magazine. Could there, be 
any way for readers to use a bar code pen 
to wave in programs out of rainbow? You 
could add a special part to the rainbow 
with the codes on it. This would be a fast 
way to enter programs and might even be 
cheaper than having to download them from 
Delphi. I'm sure this would raise the price, 
but it would be worth it. 

Ted Matthews 
(SIERRA) 
Frazer, PA 



INFORMATION PLEASE 

Editor: 

I am a licensed Ham radio amateur, 
W2SAD, looking for a program for the 
CoCo that will function as a Bulletin Board 
on packet radio. These programs are called 
Packet Bulletin Board System (PBBS) and 
are used with a Packet controller (TNC 2) 
developed by Tucson Amateur Packet 
Radio in Tucson, Ariz., on allocated ama- 
teur radio frequencies. There are PBBSs that 
have been written for the IBM and Xerox 
computers, but I can't find any for the 
CoCo. Anyone with information on how to 
obtain a PBBS program for the CoCo please 
write me. Harry Warren 

19 New York Avenue 
Lavallette, NJ 08735 

Multi-Pak Fix 

Editor: 

I understand there is a fix required on the 
old Multi-Pak before it will work on the 
CoCo 3. Will I be able to use my 512K chips 
to upgrade my 128K CoCo 3? 

Leonard H. Reed, Sr. 
190 Cleaveland Road #1 
Pleasant Hill CA 94523 

The "fix" for the Multi-Pak is, at 
this time, only expected to be 
available through Radio Shack 
service centers. It involves a chip 
replacement. The new CoCo 3 uses 
a satellite board (special circuit 
board) for 512K upgrades. The 
board comes with 16 256 K by 1-bit 
dynamic RAM chips. 

CoCo Max Questions 

Editor: 

I own a CoCo 2 ECB and am going to buy 
a printer for CoCo Max. I have seen an 
Olivetti PR-2300 ink-jet printer in the DAK 
catalog. If I have a serial to parallel convert- 
er, can I use this printer with CoCoMax IP. 

Cliff Geier 
Rt. 1, Box 245 
Fairview, WV 26570 

To our knowledge, this printer is 
not supported by. Co Co Max II. 
We suggest you contact Color- 
ware. 

Hayes Compatibles 

Editor: 

I am looking for information on DAK or 
other Hayes-compatible 1200 Baud mo- 
dems. Chad Stuckey 

254 S. Ringold 
Boone, IA 50036 

Pokin' Along . 

Editor: 

I have bought the last few editions of 
rainbow and found some very helpful 
PDKEs and EXECs. I would like to know if 
anyone knows of other helpful PDKEs and 
EXECs. Any reply would greatly be appreci- 
ated. Warren Hudym 

Box 174 
Wapella, Saskatchewan 
Canada SOG 4Z0 
Microcom Software sells 500 
Pokes, Peeks and Execs. See their 
ad on Page 17. 



CoCo Cat Art 




Rochelle Sherman 
Levittown, NY 



BOUQUETS AND BRICKBATS 

Editor: 

I would like to tell your readers about the 
excellent service of two of your advertisers. 
The first is The Software House of Redford, 
Michigan. I saw their advertisement on Page 
162 of the August 1986 issue. I decided to 
order eight of their color ribbons for the SG- 
10 printer. I mailed my order with a check 
and within one week I received the eight 
ribbons plus two extra ribbons. Mr. Dallas 
Cox wrote on my invoice that they had 
recently added purple ribbons to their color 
assortment and he was including two of 
these ribbons at no extra charge. I would like 
to thank Mr. Cox for his friendly, fast 
service, and would like to encourage others 
to deal with The Software House. By the 
way, the ribbons are great! 

Second, I would like to congratulate 
Dayton Associates. The first time I called to 
order their SG-10 printer package, I was 
greeted by an answering machine. I left my 
name and number, and the next day Dayton 
Associates returned my call. I ordered the 
printer C.O.D. and in four days it was on 
my doorstep. I was pleased with the pack- 
aging, and the manual was easy to under- 
stand. Not only would I like to thank 
Dayton Associates for their prompt, cour- 
teous service, but thank Star Micronics for 
making such a fine printer as the SG-10. I 
can only imagine the quality of their new 
NX-10. Brian Biggs 

Grove City, OH 

Fast Service Praised 

Editor: 

I would like to make a few comments 
about some of your advertisers. I have 
purchased about $1,000 worth of equipment 
from Computer Plus in the last five years 
and have been more than satisfied. They give 
fast service and good prices. But can you top 
this? I ordered Graphicom by phone from 
Moreton Bay Software about noon one day 

. November 1986 THE RAINBOW 9 



and found it laying at my front door early 
the next morning. There was also a note 
from the telephone sales girl saying she 
hoped I would enjoy the program and she 
gave me a few extra pointers on its use. 

Floyd Keirnan 
Orange, CA 

Rainbow BBS? 

Editor: 

I get unbelievably great support from 
your advertisers. With both hard- and 
software problems they have all came 
through with quick, courteous fixes or 
replacements. This type of response some- 
times gives me a better feeling about a 
supplier than if all had been perfect. It says 
a lot about the quality of rainbow. 

I would like to see rainbow start its own 
BBS, so people like me who don't have 
access to Delphi or CompuServe could get 
access to you via modem. I have literally 
called from Maine to California (Florida, 
too) trying to get a copy of MTERM. Sol 
wouldn't mind the long distance calls once 
in a while to your BBS. 

Art McDariiel 
Ferndale, CA 

User Hostile 

Editor: 

I agree heartily with the comments pub- 
lished in your magazine regarding the user 
hostility of VIP Writer. In fact, I find the 
entire VIP Library to be user hostile. 

What is even worse, though, is the attitude 
of the publishers of the VIP Library. I have 
written to Softlaw three times over the past 
year or so asking for help in using the math 
package contained in VIP Database. Thus 
far, I've not been shown the courtesy of a 
reply of any kind whatsoever by Softlaw. 
That, to me, is the ultimate in "user hostil- 
ity." 

E. W. Rees 
Yaupon Beach, NC 



Don't Forget Us 

Editor: 

With all the excitement over the new 
CoCo 3 please don't forget there are still 
those of us struggling along with the old gray 
machine who would like to learn more of the 
secrets of its use. 

H. W. Regester, Jr. 
Corsicana, TX 

See Jim Reed's "Building July's 
RAINBOW'' July 1986, Page 16. 



No Silly Advice 



Editor: 

I am writing because I am afraid that a 
very helpful tip that was passed on may have 
not been taken seriously by some of your 
readers. 

I have a 64 K CoCo with cassette and I 
have been plagued for some time with I/O 
errors, especially with machine language 
programs. Some programs, including my 
screen dump, have proved impossible to 

1 0 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



load. When I read the suggestion offered by 
Rick Bullon [June 1986, Page 163], I 
chuckled. Turn your recorder upside down! 
Stupid! Unscientific! No good solution is 
free. 

Well Rick, after tucking my tongue in my 
cheek, bearing in mind that this silly lark was 
costing me nothing, I tried it. Rick, I now 
have just three words for you — it works, 
thanks! 

Paul Fullerton 
Gardiner, ME 



Too Technical! 



Editor: 

Thanks to your magazine, the Color 
Computer is one of the best consumer 
products on the market. The articles elab- 
orating on the existing programming struc- 
ture provide extreme flexibility. 

Why are all of the OS -9 articles reading 
like a lab report? Did someone forget that 
OS-9 comes with all the technical specifica- 
tions and minus the information required to 
get the individual pieces of your system 
operating (so you can experiment)? The 
Guide to OS-9 could be a good manual. The 
missing operators manual is quite normal 
when you let engineers do the paperwork. 
All of the high-tech goodies-bag without the 
proper organization has promoted the 
impression that OS-9 is just a digitized 
Edsel. Just getting the printed word to the 
buyers of these products should go a long 
way to eliminating the unending articles on 
computer-market apathy. 

Michael L. Millard 
Douglas City, CA 



A Color Black and White TV 

Editor: 

The "Loose Strings" cartoon by Tron 
[September 1986, Page 166] isn't nearly as 
funny as you think! There is a program 
available for the TS1000 (Russell Electron- 
ics) which does produce color graphics on 



a black and white TV by a pulse-modulatior 
technique. Put one of your programmers tc 
work on that for the CoCo! 

B.R. Pogue 
Lake Havasu City, A2 



A 'Prize Winning' Idea 

Editor: 

I was thinking about an annual rainbow 
magazine cover contest, where subscribers 
could make a cover picture using Graphi- 
com, CoCo Max or any program to make 
a cover for your magazine. Their prize is 
having it printed on the cover of the rain- 
bow! So what do you think? 

Jeff Kilsdonk 
. Milwaukee, WI 

Nice idea, Jeff In the meantime, 
try your artistic talents on "Enve- 
lope of the Month" or "CoCo 
Gallery. " 



PEN PAL 

Editor: 

I'm Brazilian and a rainbow reader. I 
have a 64K ECB CoCo and I'd like to 
correspond with other CoCo owners around 
the world. 

Eduardo Akira Watanabe 
R. Major Fraga, 4-155 
Bauru - SP - Brazil 17100 



the rainbow welcomes letters to the 
editors. Mail should be addressed to: Letters 
to Rainbow, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. Letters should 
include the writer's full name and address. 
Letters may be edited for purposes of clarity 
or space. 

Letters to the editors may also be sent to 
us through the MAIL section of our Delphi 
CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> prompt, 
pick MAIL, then type SEND and address to: 
EDITORS. Be sure to include your complete 
name and address. 



ARTS AND LETTERS 




sr 1/ 



rfoo 





- ' ' -' -_ ThEFAu6oFT6uh-OI1s1Ct 

.P.O. -Box 3S5 



Envelope of the Month 



Dan Wang 
Oshkosh, WI 




s Battle the 
st of Disk Drives 



New Lower Price 

Un-DISK Drives $4&95? 

$34.95 

You Bet! There are empty spaces in your 32K 
and 64K CoCo. The Preble VDOS Un-DISK 
helps you fill them up with PROGRAMS! 



Un-DISK uses your computer's extra 
memory like a fast disk drive. 

Un-DISK can store BASIC and MACHINE 
LANGUAGE programs. 

Un-DISK is INVISIBLE. Yup! Un-DISK 
does not interfere with normal Color Com- 
puter Operation. 

Un-DISK appears only when you type the 
magic word VDOS. 

Un-DISK comes with comprehensive in- 
structions which you may not need be- 
cause: 

Un-DISK is self-prompting and easy to 
use! 

Un-DISK is provided on cassette. 

Un-DISK is faster than a slow clumsy 
DISK DRIVE and best of all . . . 

Un-DISK is CHEAPER than a DISK DRIVE! 

Un-DISK will work even if you already own 
a disk but WHY BUY A DISK AT ALL? 

Un-DISK should be in the library of every 
serious CoCo user even if you own a disk 
says Frank J. Esser, independent reviewer 
for rainbow Magazine! 



OK sure, disk drives ARE NICE. I own one. 
But if your finances are limited, the Un-DISK 
can give you much of the power of the 
mechanical drive. Even if you already own a 
disk the Un-DISK can work like a super fast 
extra disk. 

EXTRA. . .EXTRA. . . EXTRA. . .EXTRA. , . 
Additional Power For $14.95 

Only with VDUMP for the Un-DISK! 

• VDUMP lets you make a cassette backup 
copy of everything stored in the Un-DISK, 

• VDUMP lets you save 5, 10, 15 or more 
programs on a single cassette tape file. 

• VDUMP lets you switch Un-DISKs. With a 
single load operation replace a group of 
financial programs with a set of children's 
programs. (The new VDUMP tape over- 
writes the old.) 

• VDUMP can allow you to save a whole lot 
of rainbow on tape in a SINGLE file. 

• VDUMP is the perfect companion to the 
Preble VDOS Un-DISK. 

Available from Doctor Preble's Programs, 
naturally! Bringing you fine Color Computer 
Products Since 1983! 




The Preble VDOS Un-DISK $34.95 

The Preble VDUMP $14.95 

Shipping & handling 

U.S. and Canada $1 .50 

or $5.00 to other foreign points 

VISA and MasterCard accepted 




Order From: 
Dr. Preble's Programs 

6540 Outer Loop 
Louisville, KY 40228 
(502) 966-8261 
Canadians may order from Kelly Software 



s Got "IT 



I must confess that I am in some bit of trouble here. Despite the 
fact that I am a stickler for deadlines being met, it seems I am 
about to miss mine for this column. If there is a blank space 
rather than these words, youH know I didn't make it (and probably 
got keel-hauled in the process). 

There is a good reason, though. The person to blame is a Maine 
resident by the name of Stephen King. 

King (Salem's Lot, Carrie, Cujo, etc.) has had the audacity to 
release his latest novel, It, right at deadline time. I have been haunting 
(pun intended) the bookstores for its appearance. Now that It has 
arrived, I've had my nose deep in its 1,100-plus pages for nights and 
nights. 

/* is one of those books that is best to read by the strong light 
of a sunny day; but nighttime is about the only time I have had to 
read it (night is also when I usually write this column). King has not 
only written a good story in //, but he has crafted the story so that 
it is just pure pleasure simply reading it. I'm savoring the book but, 
like all good scary books, it also gives me some unsettling moments. 

Since I have not yet finished It, I think the "It" of the title is that 
dark, undefinable something that hangs out in basements, attics, 
pipes, under porches and in dark hallways. Everyone has confronted 
It at some time or another. It is the one thing you fear most. It might 
be a vampire, wolf man and/ or mummy, but usually It is without 
definition — other than It. Unfortunately, with an active mind, and 
reading the book at night, It has been hovering close to the house. 

So, last night, the dog had to go out about 2 a.m. After a dozen 
or so plaintive whines, I put // down and took him. He charged down 
the stairs onto a wooden floor in the dark and his claws made this 
absolutely terrifying scratching noise in the darkness. Just for a 
moment there, I wondered whether It was down there, too. Let's be 
charitable and say I hastened to turn on the light. 



HP J 

landy 



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64K Disk or Tape BATTLE HYMN — The Battle of Gettysburg 

Player controls Lee's army of 11 divisions (39 individual) brigades including 3 cavalry 
(Stuart) and 3 artillery (Alexander) and must capture 5 victory objectives to win 
decisively. It's all here, from Culp's Hill to Little Round Top, from Pickett's charge to 
Hood's heroic victory at Devil's Den. 

Play starts on the second day of the battle with Johnson, Early and Rodes facing an 
unreinforced Union line running from Culp's Hill down to Cemetery Hill and east. 
Player has early sire advantage but must act quickly as Union reinforcements are seen 
arriving; and must form the line and charge up hill over a great distance. Where is 
Stuart? 

• Brigades must be turned to march or fire. Union troops must reload after firing. 

Player may limber or unlimber cannon; must watch his fatigue factors and prevent 
troops from routing. The object is to force the flank and pin the enemy in a cross fire. 
Easier said then done. Very historic, with an Ark Royal touch. 

Hi res graphics; machine language. Game save. Play takes 3-5 hours. $29.00 



^ LUFTFLOTTE 

^y^^ the Battle of Britain 



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32K Disk Only THE FINAL FRONTIER 

You have been chosen as commander in a struggle to gain control of an unexplored 
section of the galaxy. Your foe: an alien race called VOLSUNG. Here in the distant 
future, when space travel has become commonplace, on uncharted star systems you 
hope to find the raw materials which are vical to your industry and construction of a 
fleet of space craft. 

Starting with limited ships and resources, you must quickly search, locate and bring 
needed systems under your influence, before the aliens can gain a foothold and threaten 
your expansion. 

A star system can support industry, mining, energy or farming. You must decide on 
how to concentrate your efforts to maintain a balance to best serve your needs for 
developing your civilization and producing new space craft. Spacecraft that you will 
surely need when you and the alien VOLSUNGS eventually collide in a titanic struggle 
for the cointrol of the Final Frontier. 

100% hi res, total machine language, disk based. $25.00 




KEYBOARD GENERAL 





Isn't it time for a newsletter/ magazine that talks about the games you've been playing? 
An in-depth resource of playing hints, strategies and tactics? Wouldn't it be nice to whip 
the computer? 

The Keyboard General is published bi-monthly. We'll publish your letters; your game 
plays, your thoughts and ideas. You'll hear from us, our program author^. You'll learn 
gaming, playing and programming hints, and perhaps discover new ways to assault that 
village or attack that flank. 

Every month we'll feature a Company Commander replay; discussion of new and old 
products, and letters from you. There will be special discounts and promotions offered 
only subscribers of the Keyboard General. 

Don't miss out! The Keyboard General is filling a great need in the software industry: a 
publication dedicated to discussing those programs you've been playing. Subscribe 
today, and find out how to beat the computer! $15.00 year subscription 



64K LUFTFLOTTE - The Battle of Britain 

Player takes the German side and tries to succeed where Goering and the entire Luft- 
waffe failed: destroy Britain's will to fight from the air. 

A mammoth game, Luftflotte has it all. Twenty-four British cities producing one of six 
war materials: petroleum, armaments, aircraft, shipping, morale, electronics; 26 air 
bases, 18 low radar sites, 17 high radar sites all forming a complex web of inter- 
communication and defense. Can you break the web? 

Player controls 3 Luftflottes of over 2000 individual planes including Stuka, Junkers, 
Dornier and Heinkel bombers; Mel 10 and Mel09 fighters. Player may launch bomb 
runs, recon missions, strafing sorties or transfers: up to five flights per Luftflotte, 

Player watches as his flights head for London or Bath or Glasgow or lorad site 'j* or. . . 
It's up to you. There are 85 individual targets in the game. 

Hi res screen shows aerial combat, bombing and strafing missions and supplies brief 
information. Watch targets and planes explode! Semigraphic strategic map of England 
and targets. For conclusive information, view the intelligence screen to see everything. 
Unless, of course, you prefer playing EXPERT in which case you'll be flying blind as the 
real Germans did not so long ago. 

Playing time: 3-6 hours. Game save. Machine language. * $29.00 



ARK ROYAL GAMES 

P.O. Box 14806 
Jacksonville, FL 32238 

(904) 786-8603 




Prices include shipping to U.S., APO's, and Canada. COD's (USA only) add $3.75. Florida residents 
add 5% sales tax. All orders shipped within 24 hours. Programs require Color Computer (Tandy 
Corp.). Be sure to state system when ordering. 



While opening the door I decided to 
think about something other than It 
(after all, I had to turn off the light and 
go back up the stairs and the only thing 



my dog guards with any competency 
whatsoever is his dinner bowl). And, 
naturally, since I was feeling guilty 
about it anyway, I thought about this 
column. 



I realized that it was also the middle 
of the night at both Atari and Commo- 
dore headquarters, and it dawned on me 
that maybe some of those people, too, 



were awake and worried about their 
own It. 

And then, flights of fancy being what 
they are, I decided that It for Commo- 
dore and Atari people might be lurking 



in a tall glass tower in Fort Worth 
Texas. This is certainly not to imply tha 
John Roach looks like the vampire 
Ron Stegall the wolfman or Barrj 
Thompson the mummy. But, re 
member, It is really the one ^indefinable 
.thing you fear the most. And, if 1 
happened to be sitting up in the middle 
of the night thinking about what to dc 
with my Amiga or ST computer line in 
view of the release of the new CoCo 3, 
I think it would certainly cross my mind 
that my It might, indeed, be coming to 
"get" me from somewhere like Tandy 
Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. 

I think if I was responsible for the 
success or failure of Atari or Amiga, Pd 
be more scared of that than of some 
scratching, scraping screeching sound 
that might be a dog's claws on a wooden 
floor in the dark — or might not. 

As Steven King, a good New Eng- 
lander, would probably say, "ayuh." 



Lonnie Falk 



"This is certainly not to imply that 
John Roach looks like the vampire, 
Ron Stegall the wolfman or Barry 
Thompson the mummy." 



TCE's 5 th Anniversary Catalog 
is now available? 

IF YOU OWN A TANDY COMPUTER THERE'S SOMETHING FOR YOU! 



PROGRAMMING TOOLS 
DEFT PASCAL WORKBENCH 
DEFT EXTRA 

DEFT 3D GRAPHICS SAMPLER 

WORD PROCESSING 
CHILD WRITER 
MEMO WRITER 
BUSINESS WRITER 

DATA MANAGERS 
CHILD FILER 
LIST MANAGER 
BUSINESS MANAGER 

SPREADSHEETS 
CHILD CALC 
SIMPLE CALC 
BUSINESS CALC 

EARLY LEARNING 
ABC's IN COLOR 
ALPHA MEMORY 
HAPPY COUNT 
MIX AND MATCH 
MR. BEAR COUNT 
MR. BEAR SPELLER 
MR. PIGGY 
SEE AND SPELL 
TEACHING CLOCK 



MATH SERIES 
BASIC MATH 
CRISS CROSS MATH 
CRISS CROSS PLUS 
FLASH CARD 
FRACTIONS 
FRACTION DESTROYER 
FRIEND OR FOE 
MATH BOMBER 
MATH REVIEW 
MR. BEAR FLASH CARD 
MR. BEAR MATH 
PLACE VALUES 
REDUCING FRACTIONS 
RESCUE MATH 

LEARNING ACTIVITIES 

ALPHA ATTACK 

CAPITAL MATCH 

HISTORY QUIZ 

MATH QUIZ 

MEMORY MATCH 

QUIZ GAME 

UNITED STATES 

VOCAB BRUSH-UP 



LANGUAGE ARTS 
ALPHABETIZE 
ANTONYM EXPRESS 
ANTONYM MATCH 
COMPUTER EASE 
CRISS CROSS SPELL 
ENGLISH REVIEW 
HOMONYMS 
NOUNS 

NOUNS REVIEW 
PLURALS 
PRONOUNS 
SAVE THE FISH 
SPELL BOMBER 
SPELLING RULES 
SUPER SPELL BOMBER 
SYNONYM EXPRESS 
SYNONYM MATCH 
TORPEDO SCRAMBLE 
VERB REVIEW 
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WEEKLY SPELLER 



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CALL us at l-(a00)-4TC-4TCE or 1-O0D-963-3848 
for a FREE TCE Software catalog and the latest copy of TCE NEWS. 



14 THE RAINBOW November 1986 




How To Read Rainbow 



Please note that all the basic program 
listings in the rainbow are formatted for 
a 32-character screen — so they show 
up just as they do on your CoCo screen. 
One easy way to check on the accuracy 
of your typing is to compare what char- 
acter "goes under" what. If the charac- 
ters match — and your line endings 
come out the same — you have a pretty 
good way of knowing that your typing is 
accurate. 

We also have "key boxes" to show you 
the minimum system a program needs. 
But, do read the text before you start 
typing. 

Finally, the little cassette symbol on 
the table of contents and at the begin- 
ning of articles indicates that the pro- 
gram is available through our rainbow 
on tape service. An order form for this 
service is on the insert card bound in the 
magazine. 



What's A CoCo? 



CoCo is an affectionate name that was 
first given to the Tandy Color Computer 
by its many fans, users and owners. 

However, when we use the term 
CoCo, we refer to both the Tandy Color 
Computer and the TDP System-100 
Computer. It is easier than using both of 
the "given" names throughout the rain- 
bow. 

In most cases, when a specific com- 
puter is mentioned, the application is for 
that specific computer. However, since 
the TDP System-100 and Tandy Color 
are, for all purposes, the same computer 
in a different case, these terms are 
almost always interchangeable. 



The Rainbow Check Plus 



The small box accompanying a pro- 
gram listing in the rainbow is a "check 
sum" system, which is designed to help 
you type in programs accurately. 

Rainbow Check PLUS counts the 
number and values of characters you 
type in. You can then compare the 
number you get to those printed in the 
rainbow. On longer programs, some 
benchmark lines are given. When you 
reach the end of one of those lines with 
your typing, simply check to see if the 
numbers match. 



To use Rainbow Check PLUS, type in 
the program and csave it for later use, 
then type in the command RUN and press 
enter. Once the program has run, type 
new and press enter to remove it from 
the area where the program you're typ- 
ing in will go. 

Now, while keying in a listing from the 
rainbow, whenever you press the down- 
arrow key, your CoCo gives the check 
sum based on the length and content of 
the program in memory. This is to check 
against the numbers printed in the 
rainbow. If your number is different, 
check the listing carefully to be sure you 
typed in the correct basic program code. 
For more details on this helpful utility, 
refer to H. Allen Curtis' article on Page 
21 of the February 1984 rainbow. 

Since Rainbow Check PLUS counts 
spaces and punctuation, be sure to type 
in the listing exactly the way it's given in 
the magazine. 

10 CLS : X=25G*PED< ( 35 ) +17B 

20 CLEAR 2S,X-1 

30 X=25G*PEEI< (35J+17B 

40 FOR Z=tt TO X+77 

50 READ Y:W=W+Y:PRINT Z,Y;W. 

G0 POKE Z,Y:NEXT 

70 IFW=79B5THENB0ELSEPRINT 

"DATA ERROR " : STOP 
B0 EXEC X:END 

90 DATA 182, 1, 10G, 167, 140, G0, 134 
100 DATA ,126, 1B3, 1, 106, 190, 1, 107 
110 DATA 175, 140, 50, 4B, 140, 4, 191 
120 DATA 1, 107, 57, 129, 10, 38, 3B 
130 DATA 52, 22, 79, 15B, 25, 230, 129 
140 DATA 39, 12, 171, 12B, 171, 128 
150 DATA 230, 132, 38, 250, 48, 1, 32 
1G0 DATA 240, 183, 2, 222, 4B, 140, 14 
170 DATA 159, 166, 166, 132, 2B; 254 
180 DATA 1B9, 173, 198, 53, 22, 12G, 0 
190 DATA 0, 135, 255, 134, 40, 55 
200 DATA 51, 52, 41, 0 



Using Machine Language 



Machine language programs are one 
of the features of the rainbow. There are 
a number of ways to "get" these pro- 
grams into memory so you can operate 
them. 

The easiest way is by using an editor/ 
assembler, a program you can purchase 
from a number of sources. 

An editor/assembler allows you to 
enter mnemonics into the CoCo and 
then have the editor/assembler assem- 
ble them into specific instructions that 
are understood by the 6809 chip, which 
controls your computer. 



When using an editor/assembler, all 
you have to do, essentially, is copy the 
relevant instructions from the rainbow's 
listing into CoCo. 

Another method of getting an assem- 
bly language listing into CoCo is called 
"hand assembly." As the name implies, 
you do the assembly by hand. This can 
sometimes cause problems when you 
have to set up an ORIGIN statement or 
an EQUATE. In short, you have to know 
something about assembly to hand- 
assemble some programs. 

Use the following program if you wish 
to hand-assemble machine language 
listings: 

10 CLERR200,&H3F00:I=&H3FB0 

20 PRINT "ADDRESS: ";HEXS( I ); 

30 INPUT "BYTE y ';B$ 

40 POKE I,VAL("&H"+B$) 

50 I=a+1:GQTD 20 

This program assumes you have a 16K 
CoCo. If you have 32K, change the 
&H3F00 in Line 10 to &H7F00 and change 
the value of I to &H7FB0. 



The Rainbow Seal 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

The Rainbow Certification Seal is our 
way of helping you, the consumer. The 
purpose of the Seal is to certify to you 
that any product that carries the Seal 
has been physically seen by us, that it 
does, indeed, exist and that we have a 
sample copy here at the rainbow. 

Manufacturers of products — hard- 
ware, software and firmware — are 
encouraged by us to submit their pro- 
ducts to the rainbow for certification. 
We ascertain that their products are, in 
actuality, what they purport to be and, 
upon such determination, award a Seal. 

The Seal, however, is not a "guarantee 
of satisfaction." The certification pro- 
cess is different from the review process. 
You are encouraged to read our reviews 
to determine whether the product is 
right for your needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship 
between advertising in the rainbow and 
the certification process. Certification is 
open and available to any product per- 
taining to CoCo. A Seal will be awarded 
to any commercial product, regardless 
of whether the firm advertises or not. 

We will appreciate knowing of in- 
stances of violation of Seal use. 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 1 5 



BUILDING NOVEMBER'S RAINBOW 




A Look at Copyrights . • . 

. . . and Your Right to Copies 

This is our telecommunications issue and a prime topical thread in any form of 
telecommunications revolves around the use and abuse of copyrights. Perhaps 
my brief treatment here will stimulate individual reading and group discussion, 
both in club meetings and on bulletin boards and national information services. 

A prime source of confusion is that many people familiar with the old copyright law 
preach it as gospel despite the fact a new law has been in force for years. Prior to 1978, 
under the old law, for something to be protected it had to be published with a copyright 
notice and registered with the U.S. Copyright Office in Washington, D.C. 

Under present law, it's extremely easy to get a limited copyright. If you put a notice 
of copyright (where it can be easily seen) on every copy of the work that reaches the 
public, this alone — without further action — will afford protection for a period of 
five years. To get more permanent protection, you must register your work with the 
copyright office within five years after the work is made public. (The U.S. has reciprocal 
copyright relations with many countries — including Russia, so, I hope we copyright 
defense stuff!) 

Copyrights used to be granted for 28 years and could be extended for another 28 years. 
That was under the old law. Now, a copyright lasts for your lifetime and 50 years after 
your death. In the case of companies, not individuals, holding copyrights, the copyright 
is for 75 years from the year in which it was first published, or 100 years from the date 
it was created — whichever is shorter. 

Now, copyright ownership and ownership of the material object in which the copyright 
work is embodied are entirely separate things. That is, an artist, for example, could 
copyright a painting and then, if he chooses, convey that copyright to someone else, 
a publisher, for instance. But, he could keep the painting, since transfer of the material 
object does not in itself convey any rights under the copyright. By the same token, in 
going to a store and purchasing a copy of a book — or a piece of software — you do 
not acquire the copyright to it. You could pass that individual copy of the book around 
until the pages fell out, but you do not have the right to reproduce it merely because 
you bought a copy. Similarly, the law forbids you to reproduce copyright computer 
programs. 

While, often, all rights are sold in one transaction, there are several separate rights 
protected by copyright laws and each can be sold individually without affecting 
ownership of the other rights. You might, for example, retain book and /or movie rights 
while selling only first North American serial (magazine) rights, and retaining other serial 
rights. 

So, all you need do to copyright something is put the proper notice on all the copies 
that go to the public; registration is not necessary. But if you want to do something 
about copyright infringement, that is another matter! A copyright owner who has not 
registered his claim can, of course, sue someone who has infringed on his claim, but 
he cannot enforce his claim until he has registered his work — either before filing a 
suit or during the trial. It must be registered before a judgment can be rendered. 

Unfortunately, there is a widespread notion that the original author retains some sort 
of rights to public domain material, such as a computer program he or she wrote. While 
there may be some moral obligation to the author, in copyright law, a creative work 
is in the public domain if it is not covered by a copyright or if its copyright has expired. 
Once in the public domain (that is, distributed to the public without copyright 
protection), it is fair game and cannot simply be "jerked back out" of public domain, 
nor can it be copyrighted by anyone else. When the copyright expires or the material 
is placed in the public domain, the copyright owner loses all rights to the work and 
it may be freely copied or reproduced by the general public. 

Now, concerning so-called "collective" copyrights, a compilation of non-original 
material can be copyrighted. Nonetheless, any copyright material remains the property 
of the copyright owner and public domain stuff is still public domain. 

So, a copyright is your exclusive right to control the distribution, copying, sale or 
publication of any form of communication that can be recorded in any tangible medium. 
It is a valuable piece of property, without which publications such as THE RAINBOW would 
not be possible. And, while we retain rainbow's copyright, you can purchase the right 
to receive 12 copies with a one-year subscription; I hope you 11 choose to exercise that 
right. 

— Jim Reed 



500 
POKEs, 
PEEKs, 

'N 

EXECs 

FOR THE TRfr80 COCO 




NEVER BEFORE has this Infor- 
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MERGE, REM AM E, DSKINI, 
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and RESET BUTTON. 
Generate a Repeat-key. 
Transfer ROMPAKS to tape (For 
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Speed Up your programs. 

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1 6 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



UTILITIES/BOOKS 




UTILITY ROUTINES for the 
TANDY & TRS-80 COCO (Vol 1) 

This powerful book for Basic and ML 
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These are 100% Position Independent 
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FULL LENGTH ERRORS: Get real word 
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KEY CLICKER: Ensure key input accuracy. 
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• LARGE DMP Graphics Dump 

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• Hidden 32 K {Use the "hidden" 32K from your 64K CoCo) 

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Use your spring-centered joystick to feel 
the effects of this game on your "man" 




Treasure Quest: 






Adventure 



You've made it to the second 
room. All is quiet, and right 
across from you is a gold bar! As 
you look around the room, you count 
a total of five bars of gold. You check 
the walls, but see nothing. Looking at 
the floor, there's nothing but gold. You 
step across the floor, and fall into a pit. 

Treasure Quest is an arcade Adven- 
ture game that requires a 16K Extended 
Color BASIC CoCo with one joystick. It 
uses the speedup POKE (POKE 65495 , 0). 
If your machine can't handle it, edit 
lines 160 and 1 130 to delete it. 

The title screen has two parts. The 
first uses CoCo's eight colors and CHR$ 
blocks to write the title. The second is 
the graphics screen which shows you 
entering the castle. 

The castle has three rooms: the Vac- 
uum Room, the Magic Pit Room and 



Eric Tucker lives in the Bronx and is a 
17-year-old student at Baruch College. 
He is studying for a bachelor's degree 
in computer science. He owns both an 
MC-10 and a Co Co, but programs 
exclusively on the Co Co. 



the Wind Tunnel. In all three rooms 
your man is the blue square. 

In the Vacuum Room, there is a large 
bar of gold on the other side of the 
room. You must cross the room, get the 
gold and return to the blue door. On 
either side of the room are two large 
ducts. Avoid both of them, or you'll get 
pulled in by the suction from the duct. 
If you get close to the gold, you may be 
repelled by an invisible force field. It 
comes and goes at random, so keep 
trying. Once you get the gold, you must 
go back across the room to the blue 
door to get out. 

The second room is the Magic Pit 
Room. There are five bars of gold 
situated throughout the room. Sur- 
rounding them are large, square, disap- 
pearing pits. You must avoid getting 
caught when one appears or down you 
go! After picking up all the gold, a small 
blue key may appear on the screen. Pick 
up this key and you are awarded 100 
points and an extra man. However, you 
must then go back and go through the 
room again. 

The third room, the Wind Tunnel, is 
the easiest of the three. To your right is 
a large fan and three gold keys. To the 
left is a blue spiked wall. You must fight 



By Eric Tucker 



against the fan to get the three keys. 
During your struggle, the spiked wall 
moves slowly but surely toward you. 
Once you reach all three keys, you are 
congratulated, then sent back to the 
Vacuum Room. 

To begin, you are given three men. 
The only way to gain an extra one is to 
get the small blue key in the Magic Pit 
Room. All treasures except the blue key 
are worth 250 points. You automatically 
get five points each time you move. In 
the Vacuum Room, you must pass 
between the ducts to get the points. 
After passing all three boards, you are 
given another 100 points. 

At the end of the game, your score 
and the high score are displayed. A 
spring-centered joystick should be used 
to best feel the effects of the first and 
third rooms. I hope to see some of your 
scores on the Scoreboard. 

If your man doesn't look like a 
square, press break and run the pro- 
gram again. 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to the author at 2950 Park 
Avenue #114, Bronx, NY 10451, 212- 
665-1821. Please enclose an SASEwhen 
writing.) □ 



18 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 




760 120 

900 17 

1010 104 

1130 67 

END 181 



The listing: TREASURE 

20 CLEAR200 : DIM MAN (9 ,11) 

30 PCLS:DRAW"C3" :LINE(100,92) -(1 

04 , 96) , PSET, BF : GET (98 , 88 ) - ( 108 , 9 

8) ,MAN,G:SC=0 

40 CLS0:C=0 

60 F0RT=1T08:PRINT§34,STRING$(3, 
143+ (C*16) ) ; : PRINT§67 , CHR$ (143+ ( 
C*16) ) / :PRINT@99,CHR$ (143+(C*16) 
) ; :PRINT@131,CHR$ (143+(C*16) ) ; 
70 B$=CHR$(143+(C*16) ) :B2$=CHR$( 
140+(C*16) ) :B3$=CHR$(131+(C*16) ) 
:G$=CHR$(128) 

80 PRINT@70 , B$+B$+G$+B$+CHR$ ( 140 
+ (C*16) ) +B$+G$+B2 $+B2 $+B$+G$+B$+ 
B2$+B2$+G$+B$+G$+B$+G$+B$+B$+G$+ 
B$+B2$+B$; 

90 PRINT@102,B$+G$+G$+B$+B3$+B$+ 
G$+B$+B2$+B$+G$+B2$+B2$+B$+G$+B$ 
+G$+B$+G$+B$+G$+G$+B$+B3$+B$ ; 
100 PRINT§134,B$+G$+G$+B$+B3$+B3 
$+G$+B$+B3 $+B$+G$+B3 $+B3 $+B$+G$+ 
B$+B$+B$+G$+B$+G$+G$+B$+B3 $+B3 $ ; 
110 PRINT@200,B$+B$+B$+B$; : PRINT 
@218,B$; 

120 PRINT@232,B$+G$+G$+B$+G$+B$+ 
G$+B$+G$+B$+B2$+B$+G$+B$+B2$+B2$ 
+G$+B2$+B$+B2$; 

130 PRINT@264,B$+G$+CHR$(137+(C* 

16) )+B$+G$+B$+G$+B$+G$+B$+B3$+B$ 

+G$+B2$+B2$+B$+G$+G$+B$ ; 

140 PRINT@296, B$+B$+B$+B$+G$+B$+ 

B$+B$+G$+B$+B3$+B3$+G$+B3$+B3$+B 

$+G$+G$+B$; :PRINT@332 , CHR$ (136+ ( 

C*16) ) ; 

150 C=C+1:NEXT: PRINT@395 , "BY ERI 
C TUCKER"; : SCREEN0, 1: FORT=1TO20J3 
0 : NEXT 

160 SOUND200,4:POKE65495,0:PMODE 
3:PCLS2:MD=0 

170 DRAWBM0 , 50 ; C4 ; F10D15R15U30E 
10C3U10R5D1R3D1L8D8C4F10D30R15U1 
5E10F10D65L80U75" : PAINT (6 , 60) , 4 , 
4 

180 DRAW"Cl":LINE(0,12 6)-(86 Jl 191 
) , PSET, BF: LINE (144 ,12 6) -(255 ,191 
) , PSET, BF:DRAW"C3" :LINE(88, 130) - 



(142,191) , PSET, BF: LINE (0, 160) -(2 
55,191) ,PSET,BF. 

190 DRAWC4" : LINE ( 192 , 125) - (194 , 
120), PSET, BF 

200 LINE(82,126)-(82,66),PSET 
210 SCREEN1,0:FORT=1TO2000:NEXT: 
X=82:Y=66 

220 FORT=0 TO 1 4 : DRAW " C4 " : LINE ( 8 2 , 
66)-(X,Y) , PSET: LINE (82, 126) -(X,Y 
) , PSET : SOUND2 45,1: FORZ=1TO200 : NE 
XT : DRAW" C2 " : LINE- (82,126), PSET : X 
=X+4:Y=Y+4:NEXTT 

230 DRAW"C3":LINE(82,12 6)-(X,Y) , 
PSET: LINE- (82, 66) , PSET : PLAY"T6L1 

6V30O1CCCV25CCCV20CCCV15CCCV10CC 
CV5CCC" 

240 FORT=1TO1000:NEXT 
250 X=192:Y=125:F0RT=1T056:DRAW" 
C3": LINE (82, 66) -(142,12 6) ,PSET:L 
INE(X,Y) -(X+2,Y-5) , PSET, BF : FORQ= 
1TO30 : NEXT : PLAY" L3 2T2 0V30O1DBV20 
DBV10DB" : DRAW"C2 " : LINE (X, Y) - (X+2 
, Y-5 ) , PSET , BF : X=X-2 : NEXT 
260 FORT=1TO1500:NEXT 
270 SOUND100,1 

280 CLS: PRINT© 107, "VACUUM ROOM": 
PRINT§198, "PICK UP THE GOLD BAR" 
:PRINT83 30, "YOUR SCORE: " ;SC:PRIN 
T@3 62,"MEN LEFT: " ; 3-MD 
290 FORT=lT03 500: NEXT 

300 REM vacuum room 

310 PCLS:DRAW"C4BM100,0;G40R152H 
40 ;BM100, 191 ;H40R152G40": PAINT (1 
10,5) ,4, 4: PAINT (100, 185) , 4 , 4 : DRA 
W"C2BM10, 100E8R15F8L31" 
320 PAINT(15,98) ,2,2 
330 DRAW"C4": LINE (0,40) -(255,40) 
, PSET: LINE (0, 151) -(255, 151) , PSET 
340 DRAW"C3" : LINE (252, 86) -(255, 1 
06) ,PSET,BF 

350 PX=200 : PY=96 : PUT (PX, PY) - (PX+ 

10,PY+12) , MAN, PSET 

360 SCREEN1,0:POKE65314, 248: FORT 

=1TO500:NEXT 

370 PLAY"T3O2L32V5GBGBGV10BGBGBV 

1 5GBGBGV2 0 BGBGBV2 5GBGBGV3 0 BGBGB " 

:CT=0:GD=0 

380 GOSUB 1140 

385 IF PX<=42THENPX=42 

390 PLAY"T200V10L64O2CD" 

400 IF PX>56 AND PX<202 THEN SC= 

SC+5 

430 QW=RND(10) : IF QW<8 AND PX=60 
THEN PX=60:IFPY<96THENDRAW"BM58 
, 45 ; C4 ; D51 ; L2U51C1 ; D51R2U51 ; " EL 
SE DRAW"BM58,96;C4 ;D51L2U51 ;C1 ;D 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 19 



Now Create Your Own Signs, 
Banners, and Greeting Cards. 



Introducing The * 
Coco Graphics Designer 

Lut Chrlttmu w« introduced our 
COCO Greeting Card Detigner program 
(lee review April 88 Rainbow). It has 
been eo popular that we've now 
expanded it into a new program called 
the COCO Graphici Detigner. The 
Coco Graphici Deiigner produces 
greeting cardf plui banners and ligni. 
Thii program will further increase the 
uiefullneis and enjoyment of your dot 
matrix printer. 

The Coco Graphics 

Designer allows you to mix text and 
pictures in all your creations. The 
program features picture, border, and 
character font editors, so that you can 
modify or expand the already built in 
librariei. Plui a special "grabber" utility 
is included to capture areas of high 
resolution screens for your picture 
library. 



Requirements: a Coco or Coco II 
with a minimum of S2K, One Disk Drive 
(Disk Ext. BASIC 1.0/l.l.ADOS, or 
JDOS). Printers supported include: 
Epson RX/FX, GEMINI 10X, SG-10, 
NX-10, C-Itoh 8510, DMP-100/ 105/ 
400/ 430, Seikosha GP-100/250, Legend 
808 and Gorilla Bannana. Send a SASE 
for complete list of compatible printers. 
#C332 Coco Graphics Designer S 29.95 



Over 100 More Pictures 

An optional supplementary library 
diskette containing over one hundred 
additional pictures is available. 
#C33S Picture Disk #1 $14.96. 



Colored Paper Packs 

Now available are packs containing 120 
sheets of tractor-feed paper and 42 
matching envelopes in assorted bright 
RED, GREEN, and BLUE. Perfect for 
making your productions unforgettable. 
#C274 Paper Pack $19.95 





With Zebra's Coco Graphics Designer it's easy and enjoyable 
making your own greeting cards, signs, and banners. 



WICO 
TRACKBALL 
Now $19.95 

Order Cat#TBRS01 
(Was $69.95) 

You can benefit from our purchase of 
brand new WICO Trackball Controllers 
at cloeeout prices. Thli model was 
designed specifically for the Radio Shack 
Color Computer and plugs right into the 
joystick port. 

WICO Is the largest designer and 
manufacturer of control devices for 
commercial arcade video games. If 
you've ever played an arcade video 
game, chances are you've used a WICO 
joystick or trackball and experienced Its 



superior control, pinpoint firing 
accuracy, and exceptional durability. 

Includes one-year limited warranty. 
Phoenolic ball offers 360-degree 
movement. Two optical encoders 
provide split-second response. 
Quick-action fire button for smooth, two 
handed arcade response and feel. Long 
V computer connection. Heavy duty 
plastic case for long hard use. 
Compfctible with all color computer 
models. 



We have bargain priced trackballs for ATARI, Commodore, TI, 
and other computers. Call or write for our price list. 



Ordering Instructions: Ail orders 

add 13.00 Shipping Si Handling. UPS 
COD add tS.00. VISA/MC Accepted. 
NY residents add sales tax. 



Zebra Sy terns, Inc 
78-06 Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(718) 296-2385 



51R2U51" 

431 IF QW<8 AND PX=60 THEN PX=86 
: PY=PY+ 1 : PUT ( PX , PY ) - ( PX+10 , PY+ 12 
) , MAN, PSET : LINE ( 60 ,PY) -(70, PY+12 
) , PRESET , BF : PLAY"T50L3 2V3 104CDV2 
1CDV11CD" 

440 PUT (PX, PY) - (PX+10 , PY+12 ) ,MAN 

, PSET: IF PY+4>96 THEN 460 

450 IF PX<202 AND PX>56 AND PY+4 

<96 THEN PY=PY-(RND(4) -1) 

460 IF PX<202 AND PX>56 AND PY+4 

>96 THEN PY=PY+(RND(4) -1) 

470 IF PY<=42 OR PY>=138 THEN GO 

SUB1080:IFMD<3THEN280 

480 IF PX>41 AND PX<47 AND PY>=8 

5 AND PY<=100 AND GD=0 THEN PAIN 

T( 15, 98), 1,1: PLAY" V3 1T5L3 2CDEFGA 

B" : GD=1 : SC=SC+250 

490 IF GD=1 AND PX>=240 THEN PLA 
Y"T6L32V30O4BBBV25BBBV20BBBV15BB 
BV10BBBV5BBB" : GOTO 5 10 
500 GOTO 380 

510 REM open pit room 

520 FORT=1TO1500:NEXT:SOUND100, 1 
530 CLS:PRINT§104,"MAGIC PIT ROO 
M":PRINT@197, "PICK UP THE GOLD B 
ARS" : PRINT @ 3 30, "YOUR SCORE: " ;SC: 
PRINT§362, "MEN LEFT: " ;3-MD:FORT= 
1T03 500 : NEXT : FORT=lT05 : GD ( T ) =0 : N 
EXT:XY=0:BZ=0 

540 GX(1)=80:GY(1)=40:GX(2)=80:G 
Y(2)=150:GX(3)=140:GY(3)=96:GX(4 
)=212:GY(4)=60:GX(5)=212:GY(5)=1 
30 

550 PCLS : F0RT=1T05 : DRAW" BM"+STR$ 
(GX(T) )+","+STR$(GY(T) )+";C2E4R6 
F4L14" : PAINT (GX (T) +2 , GY (T) -1) , 2 , 
2 : NEXT 

560 DRAW"C3":LINE(0,86)-(4,100) , 
PSET, BF 

570 HX(1)=60:HY(1)=84:HX(2)=132: 
HY(2)=10:HX(3)=132:HY(3)=150:HX( 

4 ) =19 2 : HY ( 4 ) =80 : SCREEN 1 , 0 : POKE65 
3 14 , 2 48 : PX=12 : PY=92 : HX ( 5 ) =40 : HY ( 

5) =15:HX(6)=40:HY(6)=146:HX(7)=1 

32:HY(7)=42:HX(8)=132:HY(8)=118: 

HX(9)=192:HY(9)=20:HX(10)=192:HY 
(10) =140 

580 R=RND(10) : DRAW"C4" : LINE (HX (R 
) , HY (R) ) - (HX (R) +30 , HY(R)+30) ,PSE 
T,BF 

590 GOSUB 1140: LINE (PX, PY) - (PX+1 
0, PY+12) , PRESET, BF 

591 IF H<5 THEN PX=PX-2 

592 IF H>59 THEN PX=PX+2 

593 IF J<5 THEN PY=PY-1 

594 IF J>59 THEN PY=PY+1 
600 SC=SC+5 

605 XY=0:FORT=1TO5:IFGD(T)=1THEN 



20 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



4k 



What will you do with it ? 





An A-BUS system with 2 Motherboards and 9 Cards. 




SHEILA wanted to set up a variety of experi- 
ments in her lab. With an A-BUS, the computer 
can watch the mice instead of Sheila. 
HARRY has a model railroad layout that he wished 
to automate. Now his home computer controls the engines'! 
gates, signals, etc. through the A-BUS. 

BOB tests electrical fixtures as they leave the assembly line. He 
develops test equipment quickly with inexpensive, off-the-shelf, 
and easy to use A-BUS cards. 

But what's an A-BUS ? It's the easiest way to connect a variety of 
cards that sense and control anything outside the computer. With 
the A-BUS, your CoCo becomes an incredible machine. 
What would I need? First, an A-BUS Adapter to convert your 
computer bus to the A-BUS standard. Then a Cable (with one ortwo 
slots) to connect one or two A-BUS Cards. If you need more than 
two cards, the cable will be connected instead to the A-BUS 
Motherboard, which has five slots. Up to five motherboards can be 
chained. Finally, add you choice of A-BUS Cards to fit your project 
I'm not an engineer. Can I use the A-BUS ? If you can wire a 
switch, you can use the A-BUS. No computer hardware knowledge 
is needed I A screwdriver is all you need for many projects. 
What about software? Simple PEEK and POKE commands con- 
trol the whole system, whether you read the time on the clock, 
switch the relays, take a temperature reading, or turn a motor. 
What if I change computers? Incredibly, this is as simple as 
replacing the inexpensive adapter card. 




A-BUS Adapters 



CoCo to A-BUS Adapter AR-138: $49 

Works with all CoCo's. Plugs into rom slot or Multipak. 
Disk systems without Multipak need Y-cable ($19.95) 
A- BUS adapter for AApple II, lie. AR-1 34.. .$49 
IBM PC, XT, AT and ail compatibles. AR-133...$69 
TRS-80 Models 100, 200. AR-135...$69 
TRS-80 Mod 3,4,4D. Fits 50 pin I/O bus. AR-132...S49 
TRS-80 Model 4P. Includesextracable. AR-1 37. ..$62 
TRS-80 Model I. Plugsinto40 pin I/O bus. AR-1 31 ...$39 

A-BUS Motherboard mb-1 20: $99 

Will accomodate five A-BUS cards. A sixth connector 
allows a second motherboard to be added to the first 
(with connecting cable CA-1 61 ...$12). Up to five 
motherboards can be joined this way to a single 
adapter. The motherboard is mounted on a sturdy 
aluminum frame with card guides. 

A-BUS Cable (3 ft.) ca-163: $29 

Connects Adapter to 1 A-BUS card or Motherboard. 
Special Cable for two A-BUS cards CA-1 62 . . .$39 

Relay Card re-140: $129 

8 industrial relays on board. Contacts are rated at 3 
amps. You can control up to 64 cards (512 relays) 
using several motherboards. Jumpers are used to 
simply select the card address. The card is easily 
controlled in BASIC with "OUT" or "POKE". For 
example, OUT 1 ,0 turns all the relays off on card # 1 . 
Eight LED's show which relays are ort. 

Digital Input Card in-141 : $49 

It's 3afe and ea3y to connect and read switches, 
keypads, thermostats, alarm loops, etc. The eight 
inputs can monitor the presence of voltage or switch 
position. Simple INP or PEEK commands read the 
status (On or Off) of the inputs. Each input is optically 
isolated for convenience and safety. 

Analog Input Card AI>142:$119 

With this 8 bit, 8 channel A/D converter, ypur comp- 
uter can read voltages, temperatures, pressures, 
light levels, etc. Take over 1 00 readings per second 
in BASIC (several thousand with machine language). 
Ifs simple to use, for example: OUT 1,3 selects 
channel #3, then A=INP(1 ) reads the voltage on that 
channel. Input range; 0 to 5.1V. Resolution: 20mV. 
Conversion time 1£0us. 

Prototyping Card pr-152; $15 

Protocard is 3 1 /2 by 4Va in. and accepts up to 10 ICs. 






12 Bit A/D Converter AN-1 46:$1 09 

This high performance analog to digital converter 
features accuracy to 0.025%, 130ms conversion 
time, sign and over range indication. The basic input 
range is -5 to +5 volts, with 1.2mV resolution, but 
the gain of the on-board amplifier can be set to 
measure microvolts. Ideal for a strain gauge, thermo- 
couple, pH meter, etc. 

Motor Controller st-1 43:$69 

Stepper Motors are the ultimate in motion control. 
The special package (below) includes everything 
you need to get familiar with stepper motors: Each 
controller card drives two stepper motors (12V, 
bidirectional, 4 phase). 

Motor: 48 steps/revolution, 300 steps/second, W 
shaft: MO-103...S15. Power supply: PS-126...$10 
Special Package: the controller card, two stepper 
motors, and power supply: PA-181 ...$99 

Clock with Alarm cl-144:$89 

It's the most powerful clock/calendar available. The 
features: • 5 second/month accuracy. • Keeps 
time, date, and alarm for5 years (even with computer 
off)- • Can time events down to 1/100 second. 

• Periodic "chime". • Full time and date alarm. 

• Four alarm outputs: Computer, LED, Buzzer, and 
Reed Relay. • Easy to use,: for example H=INP(1) 
reads the hours, Y=INP(6) reads the year, etc. 




Latest Developments 

Voice Synthesizer 

15 Bit Analog to Digital Converter 

Intelligent Stepper Motor Controller 

Digital to Analog Converter 

LCD Display (one and two line) 

Touch Tone® Decoder 

Counter Timer 

24 Line TTL Input/Output 



VS-153 
AD-155 
ST-1 54 
DA-1 47 
LD-151 
PH-1 45 
CT-1 54 
DT-148 



?J^ L Y lne 800 221-0916 

Info and NY orders: (718) 296-591 6 
Technical Info: (203)656-1806 
All lines open weekdays 9 to 5 NY time. 



Add $3.00 per order tor shipping. 
We accept Visa, MC, checks, M.O. 
CO D. add S3 00 extra. 
N. Y. residents add sales tax. 
Shipping to Canada is $5.00 
Overseas, FPO, APOadd 10% 



COLOR WARE 



Colorware Inc 
79-04 Jamaica Ave 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 




You'll use it all the time and love using it 



What is CoCo Max? 

Simply the most incredible graphic 
and text creation "system" you have 
ever seen. A Hi-Res input Pack (more 
on the pack later) is combined with 
high speed machine language 
software. The result will dazzle you. 




CoCo Max disk system, with Y-cable. 

Is CoCo Max for you ? 

Anyone who has ever held a pencil or 
a crayon for fun, school or business 
will love it. A 4 year-old will have fun 
doodling, a 1 5 year-old will do class 
projects and adults will play with it for 
hours before starting useful 
applications (illustrations, cards, 
artwork, business graphics, flyers, 
charts, memos, etc.) This is one of the 
rare packages that will be enjoyed by 
the whole family. 

What made CoCo Max an 
instant success? 

First there's nothing to learn, no 
syntax to worry about. Even a child 
who can't read will enjoy CoCo Max. 
Its power can be unleashed by simply 
pointing and clicking with your 
mouse or joystick. With icons and 
puil down menus, you control CoCo 
Max intuitively; it works the same way 
you think. 

Don't be misled by this apparent 
simplicity. CoCo Max has more power 
than you thought possible. Its blinding 
speed will astound you. 
It lets you work on an area 3.5 times 
the size of the window on the screen. 
It's so friendly that you will easily 
recover from mistakes: The undo 
feature lets you revert to your image 
prior to the mistake. As usual, it only 
takes a single click. 
Later, we will tell you about the 
"typesetting" capabilities of CoCo 
Max II, but first let's glance at a few of 
its graphic creation tools: 



With the pencil you can draw free 
hand lines, then use the eraser to 
make corrections or changes. For 
straight lines, the convenient rubber- 
banding lets you preview your lines 
before they are fixed on your picture. 
It's fun and accurate. Lines can be of 
any width and made of any color or 
texture. 

The paint brush, with its 32 
selectable brush shapes, will adapt to 
any job, and make complicated 
graphics or calligraphy simple. 
For special effects, the spray can is 
really fun: 86 standard colors and 
textures, ail available at a click. It's 
like the real thing except the paint 
doesn't drip. 

CoCo Max will instantly create many 
shapes: circles, squares, rectangles 
(with or without rounded corners), 
ellipses, etc. Shapes can be filled with 
any pattern. You can also add 
hundreds of custom patterns to the 
86 which are included. 
The Qlyphics are 58 small drawings 
(symbols, faces, etc.) that can be used 
as rubber stamps. They're really great 
for enhancing your work without effort 



There is so much more to say, such as 
the capability to use CoCo Max 
images with your BASIC programs, 
the possibility to use CoCo Max's 
magic on any standard binary image 
file. There are also many advanced 
features such as the incredible lasso. 





f Mr I ait CiOQOif i i oni itul* 




Pull down menus 



Jmti ass 



Zoom In I 



Control Over Your Work 

CoCo Max's advanced "tools" let you 
take any part of the screen, (text or 
picture) and perform many feats: 
• You can move it around • Copy 
it • Shrink or enlarge it in both 
directions • Save it on the electronic 
Clipbook • Flip it vertically or 
horizontally • Rotate it • Invert 
it • Clear it, etc. etc. 
All this is done instantly, and you can 
always undo it if you don't like the 
results. 

For detail work, the fat bits (zoom) 
feature is great, giving you easy 
control over each pixel. 
To top it all, CoCo Max II works in 
color. Imagine the pictures in this ad 
in color, if you own a Radio Shack 
CGP-220 or CGP-1 1 5, you can even 
print your work in full color ! 



Inside the HhRes Input Peck 

Why a Hi-Res Input Pack ? 

Did you know that the CoCo joystick 
input port can only access 4096 
positions (64x64)? That's less than 
10% of the Hi-Res screen, which has 
491 52 points! (256x1 92). You lose 
90% of the potential. The Hi-Res Input 
Pack distinguishes each of the 491 52 
distinct joystick or mouse positions. 
That's the key to CoCo Max's power. 
The pack plugs into the rom slot (like 
a rom cartridge). Inside the pack is a 
high speed multichannel analog to 
digital converter. Your existing 
joystick or mouse simply plugs into 
the back of the Hi-Res Pack. 

Electronic Typesetting... 

You'll be impressed with CoCo Max's 
capability. Text can be added and 
moved around anywhere on the 
picture. (You can also rotate, invert 
and flip it,..) At a click, you can choose 
from 1 4 built in fonts each with 1 6 
variations. That's over 200 typestyies ! 





Examples of printouts 



Printing Your Creations 

There are a dozen ways to print your 
work. All are available with a click of 
your joystick (or mouse) without 
exiting CoCo Max. Your CoCo Max 
disk includes drivers for over 30 
printers! 



All the CoCo Max pictures are unretouched screen shots or printouts (Epson RX-80). 





The whole family will enjoy 
CoCo Max. Here area few 
examples of the possibilities. 

AH these pictures are un retouched screen photos 
or printouts (on an Epson RX-80). 



Jettison Report 



no moioR nEws today 

I 



Reporters Desperate 



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11 tn4 nt*i' km b*ck> l 
«sut4 I»m bt |o» if «oa»- 
thisi 4«*>b'i Sipno fUKk'' 
Bt»tri«r ttrl S«>ibi«i it i 
turn «a4 unbtppr a«n 
'1 rnUT iao't on Thli 
Kink* VetbtBi i?»r h.^nni 
«rouo4 hm ~.mt* ScSaut 
Sthmdl. ■ J! yt.i 914 n«h«« 
Sf Ih« cut. hit of :»n CPS* 
in it (at tpvip.p.r offie* 
vltkow i until norr In 
ihn *nk it iiff.rmt ■ <- 
cor<bB| to S<bbi4i '!'»» cob- 
tldtr.4 (oaatlttBI • crm 

ariitf iuii te krt»k ibi 
4ol4ruai. t»< I cib t rmnk 
of iBftbiai tt»»i»ortbr ib»< 
voui4n t g«t at m irouklt ' 
Ililor Tta JflDilflB rha.l 
lillt. irap.rhr ter lb( <IB- 

iu«tr crtT "»iita I »•» • 
r.porttr »♦ ni.ir hi« ihn 
tfoM«o I think ihtii |uyt 
•n -hi ltu.it tuach of tumi 

l>. .V.. t..w * Mi, or Icairofl 




Vhrj is this luff Smiling? 

Lou Sch»»n: of e.7 t 6th Si 
▼ ■f informed oonity th«t 
:hi M »oc i to ic tht tu»! 
Svi.pntW, S.e ,i|t t- 




aaaVfrl/ O '.' * J " 




^to fill? BBflB^ 
Life in the fast line oot all 
it's cracked up to be 

So 1 You think vcu w«nt 10 
ja into JOtte sUncraus field 
liVi TfllBVitian or Vevi^apari 
Tou ihmx you loo would 

like 10 !nr,( in ' ft# !' t£ t>g<l.: 

and rut noj*i wtih th< ;eteb' 
rnitr' Vtll forget it Ruanmi 
» neviptcer lOur^i }.ke fun 
[ kfto* but bsfort you fto off 
hilf "tO'-hi'd and jtert vcur 
ovn paper n tuv * T V 
.tanrjn tiiren to rhe voiie of 

tT ulcfi a lot of mcnty 'o 
run a niv:^ap»r fur •xam.ptc 
nar'irjf even • ;n5tl p«l**r 
cjmU suit over 11+ 900 Eear 





AMERICAN 



SCHNOID 



CORPJ 



PROFIT^ 3 




OTHER 




iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii^iirriiiiiiiiiiiiiiii:!^'!'!!! 



Table 

RECOROlfK- MASSES 
TIMER 



SPRING 
BALANCE 



©Business graphs, charts, 
diagrams. Also memos 











=5 


1 







MASS 



©fun tor children while 
stimulating creativity. 



0 



Publish a newsletter 
or bulletin 



coca hah 



COCO M8H 
COCO Han 




CoCo Man 
CoCo Man 

CoCo Max 

CoCo ITIax 
CoCo max 

€o€o (flax 

CoCo max 
CoCo max 

CoCo Max 
CoCo Max 



CoCo ?lox 
CoCo Jlox 

CoCo Max 
CoCo Max 




Junior's homework 
y and science projects. 
Term papers too l 



this is 



□ ca rtoonj 



Wdeo portrait 

(with optional digitizer). 





_ Over 200 typestyles to 
ft) choose from I 
generate flyers. 




/s a cartoon. 




CoCo flCDlTL 




V % 



A new way to express 
your Imagination. 



schematics 
and floor plans. 



CoCo Max II 

^ Logos and letterheads. 



System Requirements: 

Any 64K CoCo and a standard joystick or 
mouse. (The koala pad and the track ball work, 
but are not recommended.) 
Disk systems need a Multl-Pak or our Y-Cable. 
CoCo Max is compatible with any Radio Shack 
DOS and ADOS. 

Note: the tape version of CoCo Max includes 
almost all the features of CoCo Max II except 
Shrink, Stretch, Rotate, and Glyphics. Also, it 
has 5 fonts instead of 1 4. 
CoCo Max is not compatible with JDOS, 
DoubleDOS, MDOS, OS-9, the X-pad, and 
Daisy Wheel Printers. 

Printers Supported: 

Epson MX, RX, FX and LX series, Gemini, Star, 
Micronix, Delta 10, 10X, 15, 15X, SG- 
10,Okidata 82 A, 92, 93, C. Itoh Pro-writer, 
Apple Image-writer, Hewlett-Packard Thinkjet, 
Radio Shack DMP 1 00, 1 05, 1 1 0, 1 20, 200, 
400, 500, Line Printer 7, Line Printer 8, TRP- 
100, CGP-220. (DMP-130 use Line Printer 8), 
PMC printers, Gorilla Banana. 
Color printing: CGP-200, CGP-1 1 5 



Pricing 



CoCo Max on tape . . $69.95 

with Hi-Res Pack and manual. 

CoCo Max II (disk only) ^^ $79.95 

with Hi-Res Pack and manual 

Upgrade: CoCo Max to CoCo Max II 

New disk and manual , $1 9.95 

New features of CoCo Max II: 14 fonts and glyphic 
font, dynamic shrink and stretch, rotate, multiple drive 
capability, 68 page scrapbook, point and click file 
load, color printer drivers, full error reporting. 

Upgrade: CoCo Max tape to disk 

manuals, disk and binder . , 5 „■« ... r ...... . $24.95 

Y-Cable: Special Price. , . $1 9.95 

Super Picture Disks #1 , #2, and #3 

each: $14.95 

All three picture disks.., , . $29.95 

Guaranteed Satisfaction 

Use CoCo Max for a full month. 
If you are not delighted with it, 
we will refund every penny. 



Font Editor Option 

A font is a set of characters of a 
particular style. CoCo Max includes 
1 5 fonts. You can create new fonts of 
letters, or even symbols or graphics 
with the font editor. Examples: set of 
sy m bols for electron ics, f oreig n 
alphabets, etc. . . . , ,. r ..$1 9.95 

Video Digitizer DS-69 

This new Low Cost Digitizer is the 
next step in sophistication for your 
CoCo Max system. With the DS-69 
you will be able to digitize and bring 
into CoCo Max a frame from any video 
source: VCR, tuner, or video camera. 
Comes complete with detailed 
manual and C-SEE software on disk. 
Multi-Pak is required. 

New Low Price Save $50. $99.95 

New: faster DS-69 A. . ..... «,« . $149.95 



Color ware Incorporated 

COLORWARE 79 -° 4 A Jamaica Avenue 

Woodhaven, NY 11421 



800 221-0916 

Orders only. 

NY & Info: (718) 296-591 6 
Hours: 9-5 Eastern time. 



Add $3,00 per order for shipping. 
We accept Vise, UC, checks, M. O. 
C. O. D. add S3. 00 exf re. imim 
NYandCT: add sales tax. 
Shipping to Canada is $5.00 
Oversees, FPO, APO add 10% 



XY=XY.+1 : NEXT : IF BZ=0 AND XY=5 AN 
D PX<=64 AND PX>35 AND RND(90)<= 
2 THEN DRAWS2C3BM140, 96L4D8R4U8 
D16G4F4E4H4S4" : KX=140 : KY=96 : BZ=1 
: S0UND1 , 1 

606 IF BZ=1 AND PPOINT (KX, KY) <>3 

THEN GOSUB 500.0 :GOTO550 
610 PUT(PX,PY) -(PX+10,PY+12) ,MAN 
,PSET 

620 Z=RND ( 1J3 ) : IF Z<6 THEN LINE (H 
X(R) ,HY(R) )-(HX(R)+30,HY(R)+30) , 
PRESET , BF : SOUND1 , 1 : GOTO580 
630 XY=0:FORT=1TO5:IFGD(T)=1THEN 
XY=XY+1 : NEXTELSENEXT 
640 IF XY=5 AND PX<=12 AND PY>85 
AND PY<100 THEN PLAY"T6L32V30O4 
BBBV25BBBV20BBBV15BBBV10BBBV5BBB 
":GOTO710 

650 F0RT=1T05:IF PPOINT (GX(T) +12 
,GY(T))<>2 AND GD(T)=0 OR PPOINT 
- (GX(T) ,GY(T) )<>2 AND GD(T)=0 THE 
N SOUND250,8:SC=SC+250:LINE(GX(T 
) , GY (T) ) - (GX (T) +14 ,GY (T) -5) , PRES 
ET , BF : GD ( T ) =1 : NEXT ELSE NEXT 
660 IF PPOINT (PX+12,PY+13) =4 THE 
NGOSUB1020 : IFMDOTHEN530 
670 IF PPOINT (PX+12,PY-1) =4 THEN 
GOSUB 1020:IFMD<3THEN530 



ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 

FOR YOUR COCO 

THREE GREAT PROGRAMS — 

1. COCO HAPPINESS EXPERT - INCREASE YOUR HAPPINESS 

2. COCO THERAPIST — DISCUSS YOUR PROBLEMS 

3. COCO POET — ENDLESS STIMULATING POETRY 

A) Pack | $24.95 

(SPECIFY TAPE OR DISK) 
(AND LEARN YOUR HAPPINESS QUOTIENT) 

COMPLETE DOCUMENTATION INCLUDES 
"THE HISTORY OF Al" 

COCO JOKESTER 

JUST TELL HIM YOUR NAME AND HE'LL TALK YOUR EAR OFF 

$26.95 (DISK ONLY) 



Now Available 

COCO EXPERT SYSTEM TOOLKIT 

BUILD YOUR OWN EXPERT SYSTEM 
USING SIMPLE MENU COMMANDS. 

— DEMOS, TUTORIAL, EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL, CLEARLY 
WRITTEN KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING MANUAL 

— CREATE YOUR OWN KNOWLEDGEBASE 

— $59.95 " DISK ONLY ' 64K REQUIRED 
INCLUDED: TWO FREE EXPERT SYSTEMS 

— STOCK MARKET EXPERT 

— EXECUTIVE HEALTH EXPERT 



THINKING SOFTWARE, INC. 

46-16 65 PLACE 
WOODSIDE, N.Y. 11377 
(718) 429-4922 




CALL RIGHT NOW FOR FREE CATALOG 

Talking version of all software available 
RS Speechpak required / Add $5.00 per disk 



68j3 IF PPOINT (PX-2,PY-1) =4 THEN 

G0SUB1J32J3:IFMD<3THEN53J3 

690 IF PPOINT (PX-2,PY+13) =4 THEN 

GOSUB102J3 : IFMD<3THEN53j3 
70j3 GOTO 59j3 
71J3 REM wind tunnel 

720 FORT=lT015j3j3:NEXT:SOUNDlj3j3,l 
: CLS : PRINT @ 10 6 , "WIND TUNNEL" : PRI 
NT@197 / "TRY TO REACH THE KEYS":P 
RINT@330 , "YOUR SCORE : " ;SC: PRINT @ 
362, "MEN LEFT: " ; 3-MD : FORT=1TO350 
0 : NEXT 

721 K1=0:K2=0:K3=0:CT=0 
730 CT=0 

740 PCLS : D$="F6G6F6G6F6G6F6G6F6G 
6F6G6F6G6F6G6F6G6F6G6F6G6F6G6F6G 
6F6G6F6G6F6G6F6G6":DRAW"C3BM12,0 
"+D$:DX=12 

750 PAINT (1,5) ,3,3:DRAW"C4":LINE 
(255,76) -(240,116) ,PSET,BF:LINE( 
255,94) -(225,98) , PSET, BF: DRAWU2 
U8D16H8E8":PAINT(223,96) ,4,4 
760 LINE(228,10)-(230,181) ,PSET, 
BF 

770 KY$="L4D8R4U8D16G4F4E4H4" 

780 DRAWC2BM208 , 30"+KY$+"BM208 , 

140"+KY$+"BM208 , 85"+KY$ 

790 SCREEN1,0:POKE65314,248 

800 PX=128:PY=92:FORT=1TO1000:NE 

XT 

810 GOSUB1140:IFPX>=212THENPX=21 
2 

815 IF J<5 THEN PY=PY-1 

816 IF J>59 THEN PY=PY+1 
820 IF PX<60 THEN PX=PX+1 
830 IF PX>190 THEN PX=PX-1 
840 SC=SC+5 

850 CT=CT+1:IF CT/5=INT(CT/5) TH 
EN DRAW"C3BM"+STR$(DX)+",0"+D$:D 
X=DX+2 

860 PX=PX-(RND(3)-1) :PLAY"T200V2 
0L64O1CCC" 

870 PUT(PX,PY) - (PX+10, PY+12) ,MAN 
,PSET 

880 IF PPOINT (PX-2,PY) =3 OR PPOI 
NT(PX-2,PY+12)=3 THEN GOSUB 1080 
:IFMD<3THEN710 

890 DRAW"BM228, 10C3D171R1U171C4L 
1D171R1U171L1" 

900 IF PPOINT (PX+12,PY+13) =2 AND 
PY<45 AND PY>30 AND K1=0 OR PPO 
INT(PX+12,PY)=2 AND PY<45 AND PY 
>30 AND K1=0 THEN DRAW"C1BM208 , 3 
0"+KY$ : SOUND240 , 4 : Kl=l : SC=SC+250 
910 IF PPOINT (PX+12,PY+13) =2 AND 
PY<155 AND PY>140 AND K3=0 OR P 
POINT(PX+12,PY)=2 AND PY<155 AND 
PY>140 AND K3=0 THEN DRAWC1BM2 
08 , 140"+KY$ : SOUND240 , 4 : K3=l : SC=S 



24 



THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



C+250 

920 IF PPOINT(PX+12,PY+13)=2 AND 
PY<100 AND PY>85 AND K2=0 OR PP 
0INT(PX+12,PY)=2 AND PY<100 AND 
PY>85 AND K2=0 THEN DRAW"C1BM208 
, 85"+KY$ : SOUND24j3 , 4 : K2=l : SC=SC+2 
50 

930 IF Kl=l AND K2=l AND K3=l TH 
EN 950 

940 GOTO 81)3 

950 REM cleared all boards 

960 SOUND200,5:SOUND225, 10 

970 FORT=1TO2000:NEXT 

980 CLS: PRINT© 12 8," CONGRATULAT 

IONS! YOU HAVE": PRINT" COMPLETE 

D THE THREE ROUNDS!" 

990 SC=SC+1000:PRINT@320," YO 

UR SCORE: ";SC:SCREEN0,1 

1000 SOUND200,5:FORT=1TO2000:NEX 
T 

1010 GOTO 2 60 
1020 REM pitfall 

1040 CLS0:PRINT@480,STRING$(31,2 
07) ; :PRINT@15,CHR$(175) ; : Z=0 
1060 FORT=15T01STEP-l:PRINT@Z+15 
,CHR$(175) ; :SOUNDT,l:PRINT@Z+15, 
CHR$(128) ; :Z=Z+32:NEXT 
1070 PRINT@396,CHR$(163) ;:PRINT@ 
403,CHR$(166) ; : PRINT@461 , CHR$ ( 16 



] 



Submitting Material 
To Rainbow 



Contributions to THE RAINBOW are welcome from 
everyone. We like to run a variety of programs that 
are useful/helpful/fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and 
it is best to make several saves, at least one of them 
in ASCII format. We're sorry, but we do not have time 
to key in programs. All programs should be supported 
by some editorial commentary explaining now the 
program works. Generally, we're much more inter- 
ested in how your submission works and runs than 
how you developed it. Programs should be learning 
experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of 
criteria. Tnose wishing remuneration should so state 
when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed 
information on making submissions, please send a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope (SASE) to: Submis- 
sions Editor, THE RAINBOW, The Falsoft Building, P.O. 
Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. We will send you some 
more comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently 
submitted to another publication. 



8) ; :PRINT@463,CHR$(162) ; :PLAY"T6 
L16V30O2CCCV25CCCV20CCCV15CCCV10 
CCCV5CCC" : FORT=1TO1500 : NEXT : SCRE 
EN1 , 0 : POKE65 3 14 ,248: GOSUB1080 : RE 
TURN 

1080 FORT=1TO20:PUT(PX,PY) -(PX+1 
0 , PY+12 ) , MAN , PRESET : SOUND2 50 , 1 : P 
UT(PX,PY)-(PX+10,PY+12) ,MAN, PSET 
: NEXT 

1090 MD=MD+1:IF MD<3 THEN RETURN 
1100 PLAY"01V25T3L2BL2.C" 
1110 FORT=1TO2000 : NEXT : CLS : PRINT 
@64," TREASURE QUES 
T":PRINT@192," YOUR SCORE:" 

;SC:IF SOHS THEN HS=SC: PRINT@22 
4," HIGH SCORE: ";HS ELSE PR 

INT@224," HIGH SCORE: ";HS 

1115 PRINT@128," GAME 
OVER" 

1120 PRINT@288 , "" ; : INPUT "ANOTHER 
GAME";I$ 

1130 IF LEFT$(I$,1)="Y"THENSC=0: 
GOTO160 ELSE POKE65494 ,0 :END 




1140 H=JOYSTK(0) : J=JOYSTK(l) 
1150 IF H<5 THEN PX=PX-2 
1160 IF PX<=8THENPX=8 
1170 IF H>58 THEN PX=PX+2 
1180 IF PX>=242THENPX=242 
1190 IF J<5 THEN PY=PY-1 
1200 IF PY<=8THENPY=8 
1210 IF J>58 THEN PY=PY+1 
1220 IF PY>=174THENPY=174 
1230 RETURN 

5000 PLAY"T3L3204V5CDEFGABAGFEDC 
V10CDEFGABAGFEDCV15CDEFGABAGFEDC 
V20CDE FGABAG FE DCV2 5 C DE FG ABAGFE DC 
V3 0CDEFGABAGFEDC" 

5010 FORT=1TO1000: NEXT: CLS: PRINT 
@128," CONGRATULATIONS! YOU PI 
CKED": PRINT" UP AN EXTRA M 

AN!" 

5020 PRINT@224 , "MEN LEFT : 11 ; 3 -MD : 
MD=MD-1 : FORT=1TO2000 : NEXT : PRINT@ 
224 , "MEN LEFT : " ; 3-MD : SOUND1 , 1 : FO 
RT=1TO1500 : NEXT : SCREEN1 , 0 : SC=SC+ 
100 : BZ=0 : F0RT=1T05 : GD(T) =0 : NEXT : 
RETURN /R> 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 25 




Orbital Drag Race 

Ray Larabie 

White Lake, Ontario 

Ray gives us his rendition of galactic 
entertainment, which was created with 
basic and a program Ray devised him- 
self. Ray is 1 6 years old and lives along 
the lower part of the Madawaska River. 




p 

R 
I 

Z 
t- 



P 

R 
I 

Z 
E 



Summer 

Clay Ambrose 

Bloomington, CA 

Taking the gallery back a few months, 
Clay used CoCo Max and CoCo Paint 
to remind us of how wonderful, care- 
free and relaxing summertime can be. 





P51 Mustang 

Anthony Harvey 

LaTuque, Quebec 

Soaring into the pages of the rainbow, 
this memorable fighter plane was 
created with basic and the enduring 
patience of Anthony, who is 13 years 
old. 



26 



THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



Editor 

Woody Pope 

Garland, TX 

Woody used basic to create this amus- 
ing graphic which really hits home with 
all of us here at the rainbow. 




E 








GO 
CDCD 



Wolf 

Robin Moulder 

Stone Mountain, GA 

Robin created the face of this canine 
predator with the use of basic. Robin 
works part time at Radio Shack and is 
a full-time student at Devry Institute of 
Technology for Electronics Engineer- 
ing Technology. 



SHOWCASE YOUR BEST! 

You are invited to nominate original work for inclusion in 
jpcoming showings of "CoCo Gallery." Share your crea- 
ions with the CoCo Community! 

Be sure to send a cover letter with your name, address and 
Dhone number, detailing how you created your picture (what 
urograms you used, etc.) and how to display it. Also, please 
nclude a few facts about yourself. 

Don't send us anything owned by someone else; this 
neans no game screens, digitized images from TV programs 
3r material that's already been submitted elsewhere. A 
digitized copy of a picture that appears in a book or 
magazine is not an original work. 

We will award a first prize of $25, a second prize of $15 
and a third prize of $10. Honorable mentions will also be 
given. 

Jody Doyle, Curator 



o 



|n 

Aii 
E 




CoCo Cat 

Mark Bourdeaux 

Spring Arbor, MI 

Mark, who is 13 years old and a fresh- 
man at Western High School, graces 
the CoCo Community this month with 
this well-known comic figure that was 
created using CoCo Max. 




Send your entry on either tape or disk to: 

CoCo Gallery 
THE RAINBOW 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 
Attn: Jody Doyle 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 27 





// the Pilgrims 
had met Italians 

instead 
of Indians . . . 



A Thanksgiving 
Pizza Party 



By Bill Bernico 

Just think of it. If the Pilgrims had been met at Plymouth 
Rock by Italians instead of Indians, we wouldn't be 
having turkey for Thanksgiving. No, we'd probably be 
having pizza instead. Imagine, no drumsticks, no white 
meat sandwiches for a week afterward, no worried turkeys. 
Just good ol' pizza. 

With that concept in mind I'd like to present Holiday 
Pizza. This program allows you to make your own pizza 
with your own toppings. Granted, it is limited to five 
ingredients besides the dough and sauce, but they're the five 
most common toppings available. 

To make your pizza you need one key ingredient — 
common sense. The toppings are listed on the left side of 
the screen and by pressing the first letter of that topping 
it is added to your pizza. Like I said, first comes the common 
sense. You could start with any of the toppings but when 
you make a real pizza you start with the dough and sauce. 
Same goes here. If you start with anchovies, for example, 
the sauce covers them up and you won't be able to see them, 
so start with the dough and the sauce. Then you can add 
the rest in any order. 

Most ingredients are added immediately. Have patience 
with the Cheese and Extra Cheese options, though. They 
take about 40 seconds to complete. As each topping is 
added, its name is deleted from the list. When the name 
disappears, you know the topping is added. 

When you have the pizza made up the way you like it, 
press T' for finished and the pizza will be carved by the head 
of the house, just like a turkey. To try the program again, 
simply press the space bar. 

(Questions about this program may be directed to Mr. 
Bernico at 70S Michigan Ave., Sheboygan, WI 53081. 
Please enclose an SASE for a reply.) □ 

Bill Bernico is a self-taught computerist who enjoys golf 
music and programming. He is a drummer with a rock band 
and lives in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. 



28 



THE RAINBOW November 1966 



Sy/ 12 130 f 

27 .139 

34 .141 I 

END ......95 I 

I ! 

The listing: PIZZFi 

1 'HOLIDAY PIZZA 

2 ' FROM KROMICO SOFTWARE 

3 ' BY BILL BERNICO 

4 • 

5 CLEAR500-.DIM A$ ( 88 ) : GOT038 

6 PMODE3,1:PCLS:SCREEN1,0 

7 P$="L2ND2L2G2NF2G2D3NR2D3F2NE2 
F2R2NU2R2 " : M$="ND3U5RD8RU8FD3RU2 
FDNRL8UED2RU3 11 : F$="R6BR6R2DL3BL3 
L10GR17DL12BL3L3FR17DL3BL4L9RFR6 
BR6R2 » : CIRCLE ( 158 , 9 6 ) , 9 6 

8 A$= 11 DOUGH" : DRAWC3BM0 , 9" : GOSUB 
35:A$="TOMATO SAUCE" : DRAW"BM0, 24 
" : GOSUB3 5 : A$="MUSHROOMS " : DRAW" BM 
0,39": GOSUB3 5 : A$=" ANCHOVIES 11 *iJRA 
W"BM0, 54" :GOSUB35 : A$=" CHEESE" : DR 
AW"BM0 , 69 " : GOSUB3 5 : A$=" PEPPERS " : 
DRAW" BM0 ,84": GOSUB3 5 

9 A$=" SAUSAGE" : DRAWBM0 , 99 11 : GOSU 
B35 : A$="EXTRA" : DRAW"BM0 , 114 11 : GOS 
UB3 5 :A$=" CHEESE ": DRAW" BM8, 122" :G 
OSUB35 : A$="FINISHED" : DRAW"BM0 , 15 
0":GOSUB35 

10 C$=INKEY$:IFC$=""THEN10 

11 IFC$="D"THENPAINT(158,3) ,2,4: 
LINE(0,0) -(60, 16) , PRESET, BF 

12 IFC$="T"THENCIRCLE(158, 96) ,90 
, 4 : PAINT ( 158 , 9 ) , 4 , 4 : LINE (0 , 16 ) - ( 
90,30) , PRESET, BF 

13 IFC$="C"THENGOSUB2 1: LINE (0, 60 
)-(60,72) , PRESET, BF 

14 IFC$="A"THENGOSUB27 

15 IFC$="M"THENGOSUB29 

16 IFC$="P"THENGOSUB31 

17 IFC$="S"THENGOSUB33 

18 IFC$="E"THENGOSUB21 : LINE (0 , 10 
2)-(60,126) , PRESET, BF 

19 IFC$="F"THEN40 

20 GOTO 10 

21 FORC=1TO500:X=70+RND(177) :Y=1 
0+RND(190) :PSET(X,Y,2) 

2 2 IFPPOINT (X+i; Y) =1THENPRESET ( X 

23 IFPPOINT (X-l, Y) =1THENPRESET (X 
,Y) 

24 IFPPOINT (X, Y+l ) =ITHENPRESET (X 



25 IFPPOINT (X, Y-1)=1THENPRESET(X 
,Y) 

26 NEXTC: RETURN 

27 E=130:F=25:GOSUB28:E=197:F=29 
: GOSUB2 8 : E=2 20 : F=7 3 : GOSUB2 8 : E=17 
0 : F=8 3 : GOSUB2 8 : E=10 8 : F=10 1 : GOSUB 
2 8 : E=14 9 : F=140 : GOSUB2 8 : E=2 20 : F=l 
11 :GOSUB28: LINE (0,48) -(65,60) , PR 
ESET , BF : GOTO 10 

28 DRAW"C2BM=E ; , =F,*"+F$ : DRAW"C4 " 
: RETURN 

29 O=190:D=58:GOSUB30:C=140:D=70 
: GOSUB30 : C=2 2 6 : D=9 9 : GOSUB30 : C=17 
1: D=119 : GOSUB30 : C=2 15 : D=150 : GOSU 
B3 0 : C=10 4 : D=14 5 : GOSUB3J3 : C=8 6 : D=7 
6 :GOSUB30: LINE (0,32) -(70,43) , PRE 
SET,BF:GOTO10 

30 DRAW"C1BM=C; ,=D; "+M$ : RETURN 

31 H=90:V=122 :GOSUB32 :H=210:V=80 
: GOSUB3 2 : H=18 1 : V=13 2 : GOSUB32 : H=l 
19 : V=40 : GOSUB3 2 : H=17 6 : V=3 0 : GOSUB 
32:H=135:V=159:GOSUB32:H=150:V=1 
00 : GOSUB3 2 : LINE (0, 70) - (60, 86) , PR 
ESET, BF 

32 DRAW" C1BM=H ; ,=V;"+P$ : RETURN 

33 A=158 : B=96 :GOSUB34 : A=148 : B=40 
: GOSUB3 4 : A= 1 6 8 : B= 1 5 2 : GOSUB 3 4 : A= 1 
13 : B=8 0 : GOSUB3 4 : A=120 : B=13 3 : GOSU 
B3 4 : A=190 : B=103 : GOSUB3 4 : A=2 10 : B= 
13 0 : GOSUB3 4 : A=205 : B=60 : GOSUB 3 4 : L 
INE (0,86) -(60,99) , PRESET , BF: GOTO 
10 

34 CIRCLE (A, B) , 10 , 3 : PAINT (A, B) , 3 
, 3 : RETURN 

35 FORX=lTOLEN(A$) :Y=ASC(MID$(A$ 
,X,1)) 

36 IFY<0THENY=0 

37 DRAWA$ (Y) : NEXT : RETURN 

38 A$(32)="BR4":A$(65)="U6R4D3NL 
4D3BR4" : A$ (67) ="NR4U6R4BD6BR4" : A 
$ ( 68 ) ="RU6LR3FD4GL2BR7 " : A$ ( 69 ) =" 
NR4U3NR4U3R4BD6BR4" : A$ (70) ="U3NR 
4U3R4BD6BR4" :A$ (71) ="BU6NR5D6R5U 
3L2BD3BR6" :A$ (72) ="U6D3R4U3D6BR4 
" : A$ (73) ="BRNU6BR4" : A$ (77)="U6F2 
E2D6BR4" : A$ (78) ="U6DF4U5D6BR 

39 A$ (79) ="R4L4U6R4D6BR4" : A$ (80) 
="U6R4D3L3D3BR7":A$ ( 82 ) ="U6R4D3L 
4RF3BR4 " : A$ ( 8 3 ) ="R4U3L4U3R4BD6BR 
4" : A$ (84) ="BU6R4L2D6BR6" : A$ (85) = 
"U6D6R4U6D6BR4 ":A$ (86) ="BU6D4F2E 
2U4BD6BR4" :A$ (88) ="UE2H2UDF2E2UD 
G2F2DBR4" :GOT06 

40 DRAW"BM158,96C1NU96ND96NR96NL 
96NE80NF80NG80NH80 

41 IFINKEY$OCHR$ (32 ) THEN41ELSER 
UN 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 29 



The Third One's 

the Charm 



Here we are at the start of a new 
era in the saga of the Color 
Computer. The Color Comput- 
ers 1 and 2 have been great machines. 
The proof of this is their longevity and 
popularity. With the introduction of the 
Tandy Color Computer 3, a new age 
dawns for the home computer. This new 
computer can produce startling graph- 
ics and run many programs at the same 
time, and allows for a better human-to- 
computer interface. Of course, the best 
part is that it's priced so everyone can 
afford to buy one. 

Let's get down to the facts and fig- 
ures. First, the Color Computer 3 comes 
with 128K of RAM and can be ex- 
panded to 512K. The graphics capabil- 
ities are 640 by 225, although only a 
maximum of 640 by 192 is supported. 
Up to 16 colors can be displayed on the 
screen at the same time, and there are 
64 different colors to choose from. Both 
40-by-24 and 80-by-24 character screens 
are supported. In addition, these 
screens have attributes, eight fore- 
ground and eight background colors, 
underlining and blinking. The hardware 



Mark Siegel is the product manager of 
Color Computer and home entertain- 
ment products for Tandy Corporation, 



By Mark Siegel 



is capable of displaying more lines of 
text. Keep in mind, however, most TV 
sets cannot display these extra lines. 
The Color Computer 3 can run at .89 
MHz, like its predecessors. A new 1.79 
MHz clock rate is provided. This addi- 
tional speed allows the Color Computer 
3 to outrun most of the PC compatibles, 
and all of its competition in this price 
range. 

The 6809 CPU has a 16-bit program 
counter, which means it can only ad- 
dress 64K at any one time. Yet, the 
Color Computer 3 can have 512K of 
RAM in it, and the 6809 can execute a 
program from all the RAM. This is 
done with a device called an MMU 
(Memory Management Unit). The 
MMU is also referred to as a DAT 
(Dynamic Address Translator). Sounds 
pretty fancy. Well, it's really quite 
simple. There are two sets of eight-DAT 
registers, one for a system mode and one 
for a user mode. 

A memory address has a 16-bit binary 
value. Each bit, starting with the most 
significant bit, selects either the upper 
or lower section of memory. For exam- 
ple, if the highest bit in the 16-bit 
address is on, the processor will only 
select memory in the upper 32K of 
address space. The three most signifi- 
cant bits break memory into 8K blocks 
throughout the map. These three bits 







XTERM 

OS-9 Communications program. 



Menu oriented 
Upload/download. Ascii 
or XMODEM protocol 
Execute OS-9 commands 
from within XTERM 



• Definable macro keys 

- Works with standard serial port, RS232 
PAX, or PBJ 2SP Pack, Includes all drivers. 

• Works with standard screen. X SCREEN, or 
WORDPAK 80 column board. 



$49.95 with source $89.95 



XMENU 

Creates a menu driven environment for OS-9. 
• Create your own menus " Works with standard screen, 

$29 



XSCREEN, WORDPAK. O-PAK 
.95 with source $ 5 9 . 9 5 



1 1 ■ 1 1 ■ ■ i ■ i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



XSCREEN 

OS-9 hi-res screen 
• 5 1 /64/85 chars per line "Easy menu operation 

$19.95 with source $39.95 



XDIR & 


XCAL 


Hierarchial directory 


OS-9 calculator 


• Full sorting 


• Decimal, Hex, Binary 


• Complete pattern matching 


• +, *, /, AND.OR, XOR, NOT 


$24.95 


with source $49.95 



XDIS 

OS-9 disassembler 
$34.95 with source $54.95 




XWORD 

OS-9 word processing system 

• Works with standard text screen, XSCREEN, WORDPAK, or O-PAK 

• True character oriented full screen editing 

■ Full block commands 

• Find and Replace commands 

■ Execute OS-9 commands from within 

• Proportional spacing supported 

• Full printer control, character size, emphasized, italics, 
overs trike, underline, super/sub-scripts 

• 10 header/footers 

• Page numbering in decimal or Roman numerals 

• Margins and headers can be set different for even and odd pages 

$69.95 with source $124.95 

XMERGE 

Mail merge capabilities for XWORD 

$24.95 with source $4 9. 95 

XSPELL 

OS-9 spelling checker, with 20000 and 40000 word dictionaries 

$39.95 
XTRIO 

XWORD/XMERGE/XSPELL 
$114.95 with XWORD/XMERGE sourc$1 99.95 

XED 

OS-9 full screen editor 

$39.95 with source $ 79. 95 






SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

This sales-based accounting package is designed 
for the non- accounting oriented businessman. It 
also contains the flexibility for the accounting ori- 
ented user to setup a double entry journal with an 
almost unlimited chart of accounts. Includes Sales 
Entry, transaction driven Accounts Receivable and 
Accounts Payable, Journal Entry, Payroll Disburse- 
ment, and Record Maintenance programs. System 
outputs include Balance Sheet, Income Statement, 
Customer and Vendor status Reports, Accounts 
Receivable and Payable Aging Reports, Check Reg- 
ister, Sales Reports, Account Status Lists, and a 
Journal Posting list $79 95 

INVENTORY CONTROL/SALES ANALYSIS 

This module is designed to handle inventory control, 
with user defined product codes, and produce a detailed 
analysis of the business' sales and the sales force. One 
may enter/update inventory data, enter sales, run five 
sales analysis reports, run five inventory reports, set up 
product codes, enter /update salesman records, and 
update the SBAP inventory. $59.95 



PAYROLL 

Designed for maintaining personnel and payroll 
data for up to 200 hourly and salaried employees 
with 8 deductions each. Calculates payroll and tax 
amounts, prints checks and maintains year-to-date 
totals which can be automatically transferred to the 
SBA package. Computes each pay period's totals 
for straight time, overtime and bonus pay and det- 
ermines taxes to be withheld. Additional outputs 
include mailing list, listing of employees, year-to- 
date federal and/or state tax listing, and a listing of 
current misc. deductions. Suited for use in all states 
except Oklahoma ihd Delaware. $59.95 



These programs aw user friendly and menu 
qVivcn* SampleWn 

package features s hi-res screen. Each requires 
a printer, a rjunrmum of 32k and; at Ittat 1 disk 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Includes detailed audit trails and history reports 
for each customer, prepares invoices and monthly 
statements, mailing labels, aging lists, and an alpha- 
betized customer listing. The user can define net 
terms for commercial accounts or finance charges 
for revolving accounts. This package functions as a 
standalone A/R system or integrates with the Small 
B usiness Accounting package. $59.95 



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Designed for the maintenance of vendor and A/P 
invoice files. Hie system prints checks, voids 
checks, cancels checks, deletes cancelled checks, 
and deletes paid A/P invoices. Hie user can run a 
Vendor List, Vendor Status report, Vendor Aged 
report, and an A/P Check Register. This package 
can be used either as a standalone A/P system or 
can be integrated with the Small Business 
Accounting Package. $59.95 




MICROTECH 
CONSULTANTS 

I H I 1906 Jerrold Avenue 
|s|^i|||| H St. Paul, MN 55112 • 

::::::£:*>jW^ 




Ordering Information 

Add $3.00 shipping & handling, MN residents add 6% sales tax. 
Visa, Mastercard, COD (add $2.50), personal checks. 



(612) 633-6161 



produce eight combinations. This set of 
combinations point to the eight DATs. 
Each DAT register can be made to point 
to an 8K block in the 5,1 2K memory 
map. By changing these DAT registers, 
the 6809 can address any location in the 
l^-meg address space. Having two sets 
of DATs allows the 6809 to switch 
memory maps very quickly. An operat- 
ing system like OS-9 Level II changes 
the user's memory configuration during 
an interrupt, and allows for many 
programs and/ or programs longer than 
64K to run within the system. 

Now that we have provided the 6809 
CPU with a way to address more mem- 
ory, we can look at how the superb 
graphics use it. First, let's look at all the 
graphics modes. 

Compatible Modes 



64 by 32 
128 by 100 
128 by 192 
256 by 192 

New Modes 
160 by 192 
320 by 192 
320 by 192 
640 by 192 
640 by 192 



8 color 
4 color 
4 color 
2 color 



16 color 
4 color 

16 color 
2 color 
4 color 



Most of the games written for the 
Color Computer use the 128-by-192 
four-color mode; this mode takes up 6K 
of memory. And, of those games, most 
use two graphics screens for a total of 
12K. The 320-by-192 16-color mode 
uses 32K of memory for just one screen. 
A game that requires two screens of 
video uses 64K. That is the maximum 
amount of memory that you could have 
in the old Color Computer. You can 
write some really fine looking programs 
with this kind of color and resolution. 
However, to do a program like Zaxxon 
in this kind of resolution would take a 
lot of CPU time to move such a large 
section of memory. The new computer 
has been equipped with both vertical 
and horizontal smooth scrolling. What 
this does is allow the video screen to act 
like a window on top of a larger screen. 
Thus, we get the effect of moving large 
amounts of memory without using very 
much CPU time. It is also important to 
note that all graphics modes use contig- 
uous memory. This makes address 
calculations simpler and faster. 

The 16-color registers can be set to 
any of 64 colors. The primary set of 
colors consists of red, green and blue. 
Each color has up to three shades. By 



ATTR 
HBUFF 

HCIRCLE 

HCLS 

HCOLOR 

HDRAW 

HGET 

HLINE 

HPAINT 

HPRINT 

HPUT 

HRESET 

HSET 

HSCREEN 

HSTAT 

LOCATE 

LPOKE 

ON BRK GOTO 

ON ERR GOTO 

PALETTE 

WIDTH 

BUTTON 

ERLIN 

ERNO 

HPOINT 

LPEEK 



Figure 1 

Displays character attribute,- foreground, background, blink 
and underline 

Allocates space outside of BASIC'S program area for Hi-Res 

GET /PUT buffers 

Draws a circle on Hi-Res screen 

Clears Hi-Res screen 

Sets foreground and background on Hi-Res screen 

Draws an object on Hi-Res screen described by a string 

Copies an area on Hi-Res screen to a buffer 

Draws a line on Hi- Res screen 

Fills an area on Hi- Res screen 

Displays text on Hi-Res graphics screen 

Displays a block stored in a buffer on Hi- Res screen 

Resets a point on Hi-Res screen 

Sets a point on Hi-Res screen 

Selects Hi-Res mode for display 

Returns character location, character and attribute 

Positions cursor on a screen 

Pokes a byte into any location in the 512K map 

Causes the BREAK key to be trapped 

Causes an error to be trapped 

Changes color registers 

Selects 32-, 40- or 80-column display 

Returns status of firebutton 

Returns the line number in which an error occurred 

Returns number of the error 

Returns a point on Hi-Res screen 

Peeks a location in the 512K map 



mixing the color and shades together 
you produce the effect of shading and 
contouring of objects. This allows for 
anti-aliasing (non-stair-step lines), and 
many other state of the art display 
techniques. You can set as many of the 
color registers to the same color as you 
want. This allows you to hide objects on 
the screen and have them appear by just 
changing their palette color. Even more 
dramatic effects can be produced by 
changing the palettes continuously, as 
in producing a flickering fire on the 
screen. 

Another area addressed by the new 
computer is the interrupt system. Spe- 
cial interrupt control registers have 
been incorporated to allow the proces- 
sor to spend far less time in the interrupt 
service routine. This hardware allows 
interrupts to be generated by the key- 
board, joystick button, serial port, 
cartridge port, V-blank and a program- 
mable interrupt generator. Theseinter- 
rupts can be vectored to either the IRQ 
or FIRQ. The programmable timer 
interrupt has a 12-bit couriter and can 
use either the 15,000 Hz or a 70-ns 
clock. The programmable interrupt 
timer can be used to aid the processor 
in producing sound through the six-bit 
D/ A converter or to provide a clocking 
system for the "bit-banger" serial port. 

Those of you who like good, crisp 
hardware-generated text are going to 
love the CoCo 3. As stated earlier, we 
have 40- and 80-column text with attri- 



butes. In addition, there are 32 interna- 
tional characters in the character set. 
The programmable timer generates the 
blink rate for the blinking attribute, 
color registers 0 to 7 produce fore- 
ground colors and registers 8 to 15 
produce the background colors. Add in 
the underline and control of border 
colors and you can produce some pretty 
attractive screens. However, you will 
want a CM-8 color monitor. The CM- 
8 is not another PC-compatible RGBI 
monitor, but rather an analog Hi-Res 
RGB monitor. 

Each joystick port now has two fire- 
buttons. The resolution of the joystick 
is still 64 positions internally. However, 
with the Hi-Res joystick adapter and 
OS-9 Level II, you can get 640 true 
analog positions. 

With all these features added to this 
new machine, it still maintains compat- 
ibility with its predecessor. The excep- 
tion is software that uses the VDG/ 
SAM semi-graphics modes or undocu- 
mented BASIC ROM calls. Most pro- 
grams should work if they worked on 
the Color Computer 1 and 2. Third- 
party products that follow these rules 
should work: 



1. Use only documented ROM calls 

2. Do not write to an address above 
SFE00 

3. Make sure the map is selected £ot 
16K internal and 16K external. 



32 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



To top off the Color Computer 3, 
nore power has been added to the 
IASIC ROM in the computer. These 
ange from support of the new graphics 
o error handling. Figure 1 is a summary 
)f the newly added BASIC commands. 

These new features work with the 
Disk system, giving the user a new Disk 
Extended BASIC. For compatibility, 
IASIC still runs at .89 MHz. You will 
ind the 26 new commands both useful 
ind fun. 

3S-9 Level II From 
Vficroware Systems 

The new OS-9 comes with a window- 
ng system. This system allows you to 
lave a multi-user system at one display 
ind keyboard. Until now the only way 
/ou could have more than one program 
equiring keyboard input and display 
Mtput was to attach a terminal to the 
3olor Computer. Now, you can tell OS- 
) to open another terminal on the same 
screen or a different screen. The win- 
dowing system allows for multiple 
screen and multiple resolutions, and all 
active at the same time. To my knowl- 
edge there is no other system at any 
price that has this capability. In graphics 
modes, the system allows the features 



window to window, the user presses the 
CLEAR key to move forward to the next 
window or SHIFT-CLEAR for the pre- 
vious windows. The window system acts 
like a super terminal, so you do not use 
up program memory space for video 
display. 

OS-9 Level II provides many other 
valuable system functions. Among 
these is record locking. This allows 
more than one program to access the 
same information file at the same time 
without conflict. Because of the MMU, 
Level II does not permit memory frag- 
mentation. A full disk driver is included 
in the system so larger drives can be 
added in the future. 

Developing software under this new 
system will be a challenge in many ways. 
First, it is possible to run one OS-9 
Level I program under the window 
system. What this means is that under 
the Color Computer Level I system, 
video memory is mapped into the real 
address space. This Level I video emu- 
lation has some additional functional- 
ity. Under this system you can have up 
to two VDG video screens of 6K each 
or a 16K, 160-by-192 16-color screen, 
the capability of changing the color 
palettes and more. 



Figure 2 



Select font 


You may use different font styles 


Point 


Plot a point 


Line 


Draw a line 


Circle 


Draw a circle 


Get block 


Copy a block into a system buffer 


Put block 


Copy a block from system to screen 


Fill 


Paint the screen 


Use logic 


And, or, xor, no logic 


Use pattern 


Apply pattern to command 


Ellipse 


Draw an ellipse 


Arc 


Draw an arc 


Create a window 




Use overlay window 




Proportional 


Proportionally-spaced text 


Bold text 




Invert text 




Underline text 




Download font 




Download buffer 




Scale on/off 




Protect on/ off 





described in Figure 2. 

In graphics, all windows are scaled to 
640 by 192. This allows for programs to 
be written for one size screen without 
having to worry about what portion of 
some other screen the application will 
run on in the future. To change from 



When running any 1/ O-oriented task, 
it is the programmer's responsibility to 
not waste system time or permit his task 
to endanger I/O. 

Here's an example. You have a pro- 
gram that uses the mouse/joystick 
pointer device on one window and, on 



another window, you are playing an 
arcade game. You switch from a friendly 
user shell on Window 1 to the arcade 
game on Window 2. You start moving 
the joystick around to shoot down the 
flying saucers. Well, by moving the 
joystick to shoot at the saucer you pull 
down the disk utility menu back on our 
friendly menu. If a programmer is not 
careful, conceivably, when you push the 
button to fire at the saucer, the button 
could be misread by the menu which 
thinks you have selected to format the 
disk drive. You finish the game, go to 
the menu and, because the program did 
not play by the rules, you have lost all 
the programs and data on the disk. But 
take heart; OS-9 provides the informa- 
tion so this need not ever happen. 

There are some things that both users 
and programmers should be aware of. 
First, if you have more than one task 
running that does disk file I/O, and one 
of the programs tells you to swap disks 
in the disk drive, be careful. By swap- 
ping the disk, you may deprive the other 
program of its data. Here again, the 
programmer should have taken precau- 
tions against this by using good error 
trapping. 

With some good forethought by the 
companies that produce and sell soft- 
ware, the Color Computer 3 could be a 
new industry standard. 

This new machine will challenge the 
programming community with new 
possibilities. It will spark our collective 
imaginations into producing software 
unlike any other. It will open new doors, 
cross new boundaries and set Color 
Computer owners apart from the 
crowd. Those who intend to write 
software for Tandy must use OS-9, but 
they will find that OS-9 will make their 
lives a lot simpler. 

This new software will allow the 
Color Computer 3 to grow and mature 
with new, exciting concepts of what can 
be done on a home computer. Both 
Radio Shack and the third-party world 
can produce new, innovative software, 
and expand our concepts of how we 
interact with and use a computer. 



November 1966 THE RAINBOW 33 




Howard Medical Computers 



We have Rainbowfest prices year 'round! 



SMITH 
CORONA 



Smith Corona offers the latest and best in typewriter 
technology including a built-in 50,000 word dictionary and 
spelling checker that beeps as a spelling error is made, 
a full line lift off correction feature! 

($7 shipping) 

Special interface plug unit transforms the Smith Corona 
typewriter into a wordprocessing printer for your color 
computer. Includes both serial and parallel output. 



DISK 
CONTROLLER 



NEW FROM 
J&M 




The DC-4 is a stripped down version of the very popular 
DC-2 and includes all the same features such as 
memory minder automatic format recognition, gold cir- 
cuits, metal box, and software selectable tract seek rate 
except for ROM switch and parallel port. 

s 

($2 shipping) y 





TEAC DISK 
55B DRIVE 

The Teac 55B fits into the spare slots in the Radio Shack 
501 Disk Drive. This bare drive features 40 Track, double 
sided 360K potential and a six ^ ja* 

millisecond track ,„ v O I J \ J 

seek rate. ($2 sh.pp.ng) V |gt 

The DD-2 combines the Teac 55B with our V2 height 
horizontal case and heavy duty 
power supply. /M _ui— i—* $lOO 




($2 shipping) 



GUARANTEE 

Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee is meant (o eliminate the uncertainty of deal 
ing with a company through the mail Once you receive our hardware try it out; 
test it for conipataiblliiv If you're not happy with it for any reason, return it in 30 
days and Wtt'll give you your money back, (less shipping) 




RS DOS ROM CHIP 

ROM chip fits inside disk controller. 24 pin fits both J&l 
and RS controller Release 1.1. 



B0TEK 



Reg.$40 



($2 shipping) 



eacl 



Serial to parallel converter converts the CoCo 4 pin serial 
output to run a parallel printer like Star or Epson. In- 
cludes all cables. Add $10 for modem attachment. 



($2 shipping) 



$6845 



• *m 



WORD PACK RS 

ack is the hardware answer for an 80 column 
display. It includes a built-in video controller to drive a 
monochrome monitor like our 123A. To get started, you 
need OS-9 2.0, a Y-cable or multipack interface drive 0, 
and a monochrome monitor. COO 

($2 shipping) ^0*J 

New basic driver runs word pack without 
need for an OS-9. 




MONITORS 



123A 12" 

This 12" green screen high resolution mon- 
itor offers 60 column capability, Zenith quail 
ty and a 30 day warranty valid at any of 
Zenith's 1200 locations. 

Retail $149 $gy 50 REPACK 



Our price 



($7 shipping) 



122A Zenith 12" Amber Screen of- 
fers the same 640 dots x 200 dots 
resolution at 15MHz as the 123A 
and e 90 day warranty valid at our 
1200 locations 

($7 shipping) O O 

Closeout Specials — only 14 in 
stock We have a limited number of 
lesser known color monitors that 
have been discontinued but are 
brand new in their -t^%€\ 
original boxes | j^j 

($14 shipping) 

141 Roland 13" Color Monitor with 
speaker, 270 dots x 200 dots 
resolution, 4 MHz Cft^-T 
band width £\ f 

($14 shipping) 



131 Zenith 13" Color Monitor has 
medium resolution with speaker 
and RGB jack C «4 ^ O 

(S14 shipping) lDO 

AH monitors require an amplifier 
circuit to drive the monitor and are 
mounted inside the color computer 
They attach with spring connectors, 
with two wires extending out of the 
computer, one for audio and one for 
video. 

VA-1 for monochrome 
onitors only, firs all 
olor computers 

($2 shpg]F24^ 

VC-4 for monochrome 
r color, fits ail color 
computers 

<«*. P3 , $ 39 45 



Howard Medical Computers 1690 N. Elston Chicago, IL 6062 

ORDERS INQUIRIES AND ORDER STATUS 

(800) 443-1444 =(312) 278-1440 = 




Showroom Hours: 
8:00 - 4:00 Mon. - Fri. 
10:00 - 3:00 Sat. 



WE ACCEPT: VISA • MASTERCARD • AMERICAN EXPRESS 
C.O.D. OR CHECKS • SCHOOL P.O.'S 



ORDER RAINBOW 

ON DISK NOW 

AND SAVE! 

As a special introductory 
offer, you can subscribe to 
RAINBOW ON DISK be- 
fore January 1, 1987, for 
only $90 — $9 off the reg- 
ular subscription price. 
Don't miss out — order 
today! 




The 

THE COLOR COMPUTER 

It's called the premier Color Computer magazine for good 
reason. THE RAINBOW is the biggest, best, brightest and most 
comprehensive publication a happy CoCo ever had! Is there any 
wonder we get letters daily praising THE RAINBOW, the 
magazine one reader calls "A Pot Of Gold" for his Color 
Computer 

THE RAINBOW features more programs, more information 
and more in-depth treatment of the Tandy Color Computer than 
any other source. 

A monthly issue contains more than 200 pages and up to two 
dozen programs, 1 4 regular columns and as many as 20 product 
reviews. And advertisements: THE RAINBOW is known as the 
medium for advertisers — which means every month it has a 
wealth of information unavailable anywhere else about new 
products! Hundreds of programs are advertised in its pages 
each month. 

But what makes THE RAINBOW is its people. Nationally 
known people like Bill Barden, who has written 27 books on 
computer topics and writes for us each month. Or, Fred Scerbo, 
who writes special programs at the request of readers. Experts 
like Dick White and Joseph Kolar, two of the most knowledge- 
able writers on BASIC. Communicators like Marty Goodman and 
Cray Augsburg, who stay abreast of telecommunications 
advances. Or, Dan Downard, RAINBOW technical editor, who 
answers our readers' toughest questions. Educators like Dr. 
Michael Plog and Steve Blyn, who show how CoCo can be used 
at home or school. Advanced programmers like Dale Puckett, 
who guide you through the sophisticated OS-9 operating 
system. Electronics experts like Tony DiStefano, who explain 
the "insides" of the CoCo. These people, and many others, visit 
you monthly through columns available only in THE RAINBOW. 

Every single issue of THE RAINBOW covers the wide 
spectrum of interests in the Tandy Color Computer — from 
beginners' tutorials and arcade games to telecommunications 
and business and finance programs. Helpful utilities and do-it- 
yourself hardware projects make it easy and fun to expand your 
CoCo's capabilities. And, monthly reviews by independent 
reader reviewers take the guesswork out of buying new software 
and hardware products. 

Join the tens of thousands who have found THE RAINBOW 
to be an absolute necessity for their CoCo. With alt this going 
for it, is it surprising that more than 90 percent of THE RAINBOW 
subscribers renew their subscriptions? 

We're willing to bet that, a year from now, you'll be doing the 
same. For more information call (502) 228-4492. For credit card 
orders only, you may call (800) 847-0309. 



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the Rainbow into your life 




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& Rainbow On Disk! 



For more than four years now, tens of thousands of 
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ON TAPE. Each month our tape service subscribers receive 
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!" I J || \ I^IIIIWH l I ll 
■■ ■tf.lM I pii !■ i 'mii-iii 



-RTTY for the 
Color Computer 



By Marty Goodman 



This article and the accompany- 
ing program provide a simple, 
practical means of using the 
Radio Shack Color Computer to send 
and receive RTTY information. Non- 
licensed radio enthusiasts may find the 
article and the program of some inter- 
est, although most of the commercial 
international radio text transmissions 
are sent via microwave and satellite. 
Indeed, outside of RTTY encountered 
on the Ham bands, most RTTY trans- 
missions in the HF bands consist of 
encrypted material. 

What Is RTTY? 

RTTY is a very old means of encod- 
ing text information for transmission 
over the radio. The version most com- 
monly used encodes a 1 (mark) as a 
2125-Hz tone and a 0 (space) as a 2295- 
Hz tone. This encoding is then used to 



Martin H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics tinkerer and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Co sell of the Co Co world. 
Marty is the database manager of rain- 
bow's Co Co SIG on Delphi. His non- 
computer passions include running, 
mountaineering and outdoor photo- 
graphy. Marty lives in San Pablo, 
California. 



make up characters consisting of five 
bits each. This five-bit code is the 
Baudot code, an early predecessor of 
the present-day, seven-bit ASCII code. 
Five bits allow for coding only 32 
different characters, but one of those 
codes is a shift character, which can be 
used in conjunction with other charac- 
ters to get a somewhat greater range of 
characters. Still, only uppercase letters, 
the numbers, and a limited number of 
punctuation marks are allowable. 

The version of RTTY implemented 
here can send and receive at 45.45 Baud 
(60 words per minute). 

This may seem slow to those accus- 
tomed to 300, 1200 or 2400 Baud mod- 
ems, but it is faster than many folks can 
type. More important, it is sufficiently 
slow that it results in more reliable 
transmission over radio than even 
machine generated and received Morse 
code. Thus, while the RTTY protocol is 
quite old and slow, and while this 
program is a fairly limited implementa- 
tion of it, it still has real practical value 
to radio amateurs. 



Program Characteristics 

The program to be presented is a 
simple one. Many desirable features, 
such as backspace in the transmit 
buffer, saves to disk, and transmitting 
of a previously prepared text file, have 
not be implemented. Macro 80C Source 



code for the program will be available 
in the Data Communications area on 
Delphi, so that assembly language 
programmers may enhance it as they 
please. The program supports only the 
slowest Baud rate for RTTY transmis- 
sion. However, this program allows you 
to type at the keyboard and have RTTY 
tones transmitted out the gray (Aux) 
plug line of the cassette port on the 
CoCo. RTTY tones are received from 
a high frequency receiver into the zero 
crossing detector of the cassette port 
(black, Earplug). 

When an RTTY signal is received, 
owners of older shortwave receivers 
need to adjust their variable BFO until 
the tuning indicator on the RTTY 
program's screen shows they have ad- 
justed the tones to the right frequency. 
Reception in such cases is greatly en- 
hanced if a narrow band audio pass 
filter is used to filter the output of your 
HF receiver. Such a pass filter should 
be constructed to pass very narrow 
bands centered on the two tone frequen- 
cies, 2125 and 2295 Hz. Some HF 
receivers come with a built-in RTTY 
filter centered on 2200 Hz. If such a 
feature is available, it should be used. 
Owners of newer digital receiver equip- 
ment will not have a variable BFO, but 
may be able to get by using an IF shift 
control that is often provided, com- 
bined with a 200-Hz IF filter if that is 
available. 



36 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



Hardware Setup 

The output of your receiver is fed into 
;he cassette input of the CoCo. As 
loted, a narrow pass audio filter greatly 
mproves performance. If your audio 
output is more than a volt peak to peak, 
/ou might want to use dual diodes (as 
llustrated in the WEFAX interface in 
:he February 1985 RAINBOW) as a volt- 
age limiter. Your transmitter's micro- 
phone input is fed from the CoCo 
cassette output port. You may need to 
use a 100K ohm resistor in series with 
this signal, and /or a IK to 1 OK ohm 
resistor in parallel with it, in order to 
match the impedance and amplitude of 
the CoCo cassette output to your trans- 
mitter's microphone input. The cassette 
motor relay jack is used to key your 
transmitter. This is all exactly as was the 
case with the WEFAX program and 
Graphicom SSTK 

Using the Program 

Type in (or obtain via rainbow on 
TAPE, or download from the Delphi 
RAINBOW ON TAPE database topic area) 
the program RTTY.BAS that follows. 
Now run the program. This program 
pokes its data into memory, and creates 



the machine language program 
RTTY. BIN. It then allows you to save 
that program. Now load tht RTTY. BIN 
program, and type EXEC. 

The screen clears. You see the tuning 
meter in the left part of the first line on 
the screen. There is a black cursor at the 
left side of this tuning meter. When 
receiving RTTY signals, adjust your 
receiver so that the black cursor is 
flipping back and forth between both 
sides of the tuning meter area, thereby 
centering the output frequency of your 
receiver to around 2200 Hz. Three lines 
up from the bottom of the screen you 
see the bright yellow receive cursor. This 
cursor moves as text is received. You 
will be able to see up to thirteen, 32- 
column lines of received text on the 
screen before it scrolls off the top of the 
screen. The second to last line of the 
screen shows the transmit cursor in dark 
red (black if you are using a mono- 
chrome monitor on your CoCo). You 
have two lines of screen in which to see 
what you have typed. RTTY is used in 
simplex, and the two parties talking 
must take turns. 

RTTY BIN for the CoCo starts up in 
receive mode. Pressing the CLEAR key 



toggles it from receive mode to transmit 
mode and back again. While you are in 
receive mode, you can still type on the 
keyboard, and what you type will be 
saved in a buffer, to be transmitted 
when you switch over to transmit mode. 
The BREAK key clears out any material 
in the transmit buffer that has not yet 
been sent. 

RTTY.BIN recognizes, in addition to 
the 26 capital letters of the alphabet and 
the 10 numerical digits 1 through 0, the 
following punctuation marks: carriage 
return-line feed pair, space and ! " # $ 

&'()-;:,./? 

The program also supports a BEL 
character, which is received as an up- 
arrow character to the screen, and 
transmitted by pressing the up-arrow 
key. There is no provision for a back- 
space under Baudot code. 

Notes on the Program 

Like the SSTV routines in Graphi- 
com, and the WEFAX program, 
RTTY.BIN depends on the use of 
tightly coded timing loops for its ability 
to send and receive signals essentially 
without external hardware. Such code 
has to be carefully written so all 



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* SELECTED SOFTWARE 

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24 HOUR ORDER LINE 612-757-2439 
INFORMATION 612-757-1026 (1 1 A.M. - 5 P.M. C.S.T.) 

24 HOUR SHIPPING 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 37 



branches in the receive or transmit 
portions take exactly the same, and 
exactly the right number, of machine 
cycles. The signal is received and pro- 
cessed by looking for zero crossings and 
precisely timing the period of each 
audio cycle received. Neither interrupts 
nor timers are used. Even CoCo 3 
programmers are now discovering that 
this technique of tight machine loops 
for timing can actually work better than 
using interrupts and timers, for less 
machine time is wasted stacking stuff 
and returning from unneeded inter- 
rupts. 

This sort of code cannot be written 
under OS-9 or any other interrupt- 



using, multi-user or multi-tasking sys- 
tem. It is strictly for use in dedicated 
applications, where the entire machine's 
resources are servicing only one task. 
This approach to coding cannot be used 
on the IBM PC XT or AT (8088/8086- 
type machines) nor on the Atari 520 ST 
or 1040 ST. On the Atari 68000 ST 
systems, machine cycles are stolen 
unpredictably from the processor in 
order to service the video (contention 
type DMA for video) instead of the 
regularly interleaved video DMA used 
on the CoCo 1, 2 and 3. On the 8088/ 
8086 processors, there is internal buffer- 
ing of instructions that makes cycle 
execution times a nightmare to calcu- 



late. On the CoCo, cycles are share 
regularly (every other cycle) betwee 
the video and the 6809. Therefore 
machine language loops can be cor 
structed to take up a precise amount c 
time. The Color Computer is an ides 
machine for this sort of application 
considering its great power, its built-ii 
zero crossing detector, and its moderat 
cost. 

Anyone attempting to modify thi 
program should be careful. If you d< 
not take great pains to keep all th< 
execution times on the loops of cod< 
exact, modified versions will either no 
work at all or their performance will b< 
degraded. C 



210 . 
904 . 
914 . 
922 . 
931 . 
END 



222 
.74 
83 
206 
..12 
112 



T 



The listing: RTTY 

10 REM THIS PROGRAM IS PUBLIC DO 
MAIN, BY N6LQV 
20 PCLEAR4 
30 CLS 

40 PRINT" RADIO TELETYPE TRANS 
CEIVER" 

50 PRINTSTRING$(32,"-") ; 
60 PRINT 

10 PRINT"NOW GENERATING MACHINE 

LANGUAGE" 

80 PRINT 

90 PRINT "PLEASE WAIT. . . " 
100 ST=&HE00:AD=ST:LI=9J30 
110 READA$,CS 
120 IF A$="X" THEN 200 
130 FOR 1=1 TO 64 STEP 2 
140 A=VAL("SH"+MID$(A$,I,2) ) 
150 POKE AD,A:CS=CS-A:AD=AD+1 
160 NEXT 

170 IF CS THEN PRINT "DATA ERROR 

IN LINE"; LI: END 

180 PRINT@174,938-LI 

190 LI=LI+l:GOTO 110 

200 IF PEEK(&HCj3j3j3)=68 AND PEEK( 

&HCJ301)=75 THEN B$=»DISK" ELSE B 

$="TAPE" 

210 PRINT© 9 6, "PROGRAM IS NOW IN 
MEMORY AND" 

220 PRINT "READY TO BE SAVED. INS 
ERT ";B$ 

230 LINEINPUT"AND PRESS ENTER " ; 
A$ 



240 IF B$="DISK" THEN 280 

250 CSAVEM"RTTY",ST,AD-1,CS 

260 LINEINPUT"PRESS ENTER TO SAV 

E AGAIN ";A$ 

270 GOTO 250 

280 SAVEM"RTTY/BIN",ST,AD-1,CS 
290 END 

900 DATACC343CF7FFJ31B7FFJ33B7FF21 
F7FF231A5J3J3F42CCFEF8DD4J38E12DADD 
44DD46DD,4625 



About Your Subscription 



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and foreign airmail allow two additional weeks. 

You must notify us of a new address when you 
move. Notification should reach us no later than 
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Please indicate this account number when renew- 
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For Canadian and other non-U. S. subscribers, 
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Send it to our editorial offices at Falsoft, Inc., The 
Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 
This applies to everyone except those whose 
subscriptions are through our distributor in 
Australia. 



38 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 




tl^Mitsuba 1200 Modem 



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expensive) Hayes modem. The fea- 
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ope rati on, di rect connect, tou c h 
tone :or " '-pi tii s'^ r : ; cj f ^li^^^f ijjll^ojp; ''li=6iif 
duplex, speaker alert to busy signal, 
and complete compatibility with the 
Hayes Smartmodem 1200. 
CoCo cable $25.00 Modem $169.00 



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• -The Universal Video Plus works 
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• All cables (audio and video) 
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: as required by other drivers. 

• Heavy duty construction, 
evidenced by sturdy leads 
and connectors. 



Shielded audi#^Bd video 
cables insure ff\^^ 0^ra 
RF interference is introduced 
from the Universal Video 
Plus. K/'r/'' 

The adjustment ^pq| . on the 
Universal Video Plus makes it 
easy to optimize the video 
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You don't have ^ modify 
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Installation is easy. There is 
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$34.95 




Monochrome Monitor 

The 20 mhz band width, 800 line reso- 
lution, and 80 x 25 display insure a 
crisp picture. The non-glare screen 
and streamlined style is also attrac- 
tive. If also has audio! 
Green 12" Amber 12" $114.95 

plus $5.00 shipping 




SAKATA Color Monitor 

WHILE SUPPLIES 



mmniiniiiM 



Beautiful 13" color display with 280 x 
300 line resolution. Includes compo- 
site video color and audio. 

$1 75.00 
plus $15.00 shipping 



Bio Detector 

Biofeedback & 
Lie Detector Game 

Learn the art of relaxation 
through biofeedback — or 
use the sa me device for 
party fun as a lie detector 
game. Software for both is 
A included. The Bio Detector 
works through silver finger 
sensors attached to the Bio 
Detector unit which plugs into the joystick 
port. Your galvanic skin response is plotted in 
hires color graphics and sound. Learn stress 
reduction easily by watching your responses 
on the screen. The Anxiety Attack Game will 
provide hours of embarrassing and truthful 
fun as well. All hardware, software, and 
K instructions are included. 

Requires 16K $24.95 



Call or Write to: 




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901 DATA480F4A0F4B8E12029F4E9F5F 
0F530F588E0400CE12B2A6C0A7808C04 
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ITS 



40 THE RAINBOW November 1986 




They're here! 

All NEW 
Products for the 

CoCo 3! 



Color Connection IV 

by BJ Chambless 

New features include 80 columns, higher baud rates, and 
more! This is the most comprehensive modem package for 
the CoCo 3. All standard protocols are supported including 
CompuServe's Protocol B, XMODEM protocol, and 
XON/XOFF. Full support of the auto answer/auto dial feature 
for both Hayes compatible and some Radio Shack modems 
Is provided. Single key macros allow easy entry of often-used 
passwords and ID's with a single key stroke. 

Requires 1 28K, CoCo 3, Disk $49.95 

Color Scribe II 

This great Word Processor can take full advantage of the 80 
column display of the CoCo 3. Justification, Headers, 
Footers, and Pagination make it perfect for letters and 
documents as well as programming in BASIC, PASCAL, "C" 
and Assembly Language. (A special option allows you to 
disengage the formatter, allowing more free memory for 
program editing.) Over 20 line editing commands include 
capabilities like character insert and delete, skip over words, 
breaking a line, and more! A complete, easy-to-understand 
manual accompanies your disk. , 

Requires 1 28K, CoCo 3, Disk $49.95 



The Magic of Zanth 

by Scott Cabit 

In the Land of Zanth, magic is commonplace. Dragons, 
Griffins, Centaurs and Demons abound. You are sent on a 
quest to discover the source of magic in the land of Zanth. 
This intriguing adventure features over 2 dozen hi-res 16 
color animated graphic screens, 4 voice music and sound 
effects, and speech (when used with the Tandy SSC pak). 
The 16 color, 320 x 192 graphics look great on either a 
composite color monitor, an analog RGB monitor, or a 
television. 

Requires 126K, CoCo 3, Disk, (SSC pak optional) $34.95 

Return of Junior's Revenge 

by BJ Chambless 

This is the same Junior you've seen in the Kong arcade 
series, but with new CoCo 3 graphics. This tireless little 
monkey must overcome all sorts of obstacles (4 screens 
worth) to rescue his father. The King, from the mean 
zookeeper. He will traverse the jungle and swamp, climb 
vines, avoid chompers and birds, open locks and more 
before he finally meets with his big daddy. The 16 color, 320 
x 192 graphics are superb on either a composite color 
monitor, an analog RGB monitor, or a television. 

Requires 128K, CoCo 3, Disk $34.95 



Call or write for our NEW fall/winter catalog 

It's filled with special prices and coupons for extra savings 



By the time you read this ad . . . 

. . . even more products will be 
available for the new CoCo 3. 

. . . many OS-9 products will be 

to run on OS-9 Level 2. 



Order your FREE catalog today!!! 



Introductory Special 
$3.00 off any order for CoCo 3 Software 
offer expires November 30, 1986 



Call or Write to: 




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[ Checks are dejayedfor bank dearance^ j 



PACKET RADIO 




y ut worldwide communication right in your "packet 




By Len Popyack 



When was the last time you lost 
sleep playing with your 
CoCo? For me it has hap- 
pened only twice — once when I bought 
my computer back in 1981, and again 
after I bought my Packet Radio inter- 
face. 

Have you ever thought about being 
able to call up anyone's computer 
system anywhere in the world, leave 
them a message, transfer a program, or 
simply chat with them — all for free? It 
is possible to communicate digitally 
with anyone via conventional toll tele- 
phone lines, but you always have to pay 
for it. It's also possible to communicate 
with any other licensed amateur radio 
operator (or his computer) using Packet 
Radio, 

What Is Packet Radio? 

Packet Radio is a way in which any 
Ham (slang for amateur radio operator) 
with a Terminal Node Controller (TNC) 
can send digital information to another 
Ham with a TNC. The data is transmit- 



Len Popyack holds a bachelor's degree 
in electrical engineering and works as an 
engineer for General Electric in Syra- 
cuse, New York. Len enjoys developing 
assembly language programs for the 
Co Co. He is active in Amateur radio 
and his call is KA2NYJ, 



ted at 1 200 Baud and can be sent around 
the country. When the data arrives at its 
destination it is guaranteed to be error 
free. What more could one ask for! 

The device that allows the radio 
transceiver to be connected to your 
CoCo is called a Terminal Node Con- 
troller. Most TNCs are actually self- 
contained microcomputers. The TNC 
allows you to connect to another TNC 
by commanding your TNC to make the 
connection, similar to the way you 
command the telephone company to 
connect you to another number by 
dialing the number. 

Amateur radio packet communica- 



• 

Buffalo Rochester 
Bus Depot Bus Depot 



tion actually got started in Canada 
about 1978. The Canadian government 
issued a special digital communications 
license, and packets of data were soon 
heard in Canada. 

It wasn't until November of 1981 that 
the US amateurs got organized to 
develop a TNC that could be sold at a 



low cost. The organization formed was 
the Tucson Amateur Packet Radio 
Corporation (TAPR). Many dedicated 
engineers and programmers from 
around the country worked together in 
TAPR to design a low-cost TNC. 

Other amateur groups, such as the 
Amateur Radio Research and Develop- 
ment Corporation (AMRAD), Ama- 
teur Radio Satellite Corporation 
(AMSAT) and the American Radio 
Relay League (ARRL) took part in 
packet radio's early development. 

To get a feel for what packets are and 
how they are used, imagine a bus loaded 
with people. On the front of this bus is 




Utica Albany 
Bus Depot Bus Depot 



a sign displaying its destination. This 
bus is the packet and the people inside 
are data. 

The bus originated at a bus station, 
say Buffalo, and its destination is Al- 
bany (see Figure 1)* The bus only has 
a limited amount of fuel, so it must 
make stops at Rochester and Utica for 



Figure 1: Packets are similar to buses on an interstate highway. 
In this example, a bus is traveling to Albany from Buffalo. 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 43 



refueling and to check that all the 
passengers arrived safely and comforta- 
bly. 

The front of the bus is the packet 
header, the road is a communication 
channel and each bus station is a node 
(see Figure 2). Each packet originates at 
a node and may stop at a few nodes for 
error checking and re-transmission to 
the next node (similar to refueling the 
bus). The channel (road) is a radio link. 
This link connects each node to another. 
By transmitting packets from node to 
node, one can transfer data from Buf- 
falo to Albany as easily as transferring 
data across town by conventional 
phone modems. 

During the course of a digital com- 
munication, your TNC sends many 











s 








Y 


Pin ht— Hit Hinarv/ 
CiyilL UIL Ullldiy 


Pa rkpt 


Qv/n p 


N 


or ASCII data 


Header 


Byte 


C 

















Data 



Packet Header Contains: 
Control information 
Destination station 
Originating station 
Digipeater list 
CRC word 
Other control data 



Figure 3: Expanded view of a packet 



DATA 




Radio 
Link 



Radio 
Link 



Buffalo 
Node 

(originator) 



Rochester 
Node 



Utica 
Node 



Albany 
Node 

(destination) 



Figure 2: A packet of data is being transmitted from Buffalo to Albany 
via a node in Rochester and a node in Utica. 



packets of data along the path, from 
node to node, until the packets reach the 
destination. A packet contains the data 
you type on your CoCo, along with 
information that each TNC uses to 
decide where to send your data (see 
Figure 3). Additional information in 
each packet is used for error checking 
and other packet network information. 

The nice thing is that your TNC takes 
care of all the "dirty work." You simply 
tell it who to establish a connection with 
and through which nodes. 

A node is a TNC and a radio which 
is left on. Every packet station can act 
as a node, receiving and re-transmitting 
packets to other nodes. A single node 
can be used by many users at the same 
time. In other words, your node may be 
part of many different connections (see 
Figure 4). You may also be using your 
TNC to talk to another computer while 
someone uses your TNC as part of his 
connection path. The TNC takes care of 
it all. The connection placed through 
your node remains transparent to you. 

Usually, amateurs tend to use a node 
with a wide coverage (i.e., capable of 
receiving and transmitting to a large 
area). These nodes generally consist of 
an amateur station with a TNC, a radio 
and sometimes a computer left on. 



These "super nodes" are referred to as 
digipeaters. 

Because of the frequency of operation 
where packet communications takes 
place (145 MHz 2-meter band), the 
radio signals have a range of about "line 
of sight." This limitation dictates high- 
elevation digipeaters (for a greater line 
of sight). Most digipeaters are located 
on mountains or where the elevation of 
the terrain is the highest for a given area 
(see Figure 5). Digipeaters in my area 
(New York state) typically have ranges 



from about 50 to 100 miles. 

One nice thing about Packet Radio is 
you can use up to eight nodes (digipeat- 
ers) to establish the communication 
path you want. These nodes don't have 
to be digipeaters per se, but may be local 
nodes. 

Now that you know what a digipeater 
is (actually just another node), I'll throw 
a new twist into the digital communica- 
tion network; gateways. A gateway is a 
means of access to another location 
other than the conventional node-to- 
node link. A gateway could be a high- 
speed link from the eastern U.S. to the 
west. It could also be a slow-speed link 
from east to west. 

Think of a gateway as a node that 
looks to you as being in your area, but 
links you to a similar gateway at a 
location very far away (see Figure 6). 
The actual radio link between gateways 
can be a variety of communication 
types. The gateway could be a slow- 
speed (300 Baud), high-frequency link 
(Figure 7a), a high-speed, land-based 



K20UT 



K2BUD 




W2HER 



KA2ME 

Figure 4: Your TNC may be used as part of other people's connection 
path. You may also use your TNC to communicate (blue) to another 
Ham while others use your TNC to rebroadcast their packets. 



44 THE RAINBOW November 1986 




Figure 5: Because of the Earth's curvature, digipeaters are usually 
located at high locations. Station A can send packets to Station B using 
Digipeater-1. 



communication channel (Figure 7b), or 
even a satellite link (Figure 7c). 

As mentioned before, the Terminal 
Node Controller which you connect 
your CoCo to (via an RS-232 cable) is 
actually a small computer. The TNC has 
a microprocessor, RAM, ROM and 1/ 
O. The TNC consists of four functional 
parts: the TNC computer, the TNC 
1200 Baud modem, the TNC-to-Color 
Computer interface and the TNC ROM 
software. 

The TNC computer uses a small 
eight-bit microprocessor. The MJF- 
1200 uses a Z80. The Heathkit model 
HD-4040 uses a 6809. Whichever mi- 
croprocessor is used, the TNC performs 
the same basic functions. The user 
interface is what really matters. 

All TNCs have a 1200 Baud modem 
built into them. This modem produces 
an analog signal from your CoCo's 
digital signal and vice versa. The TNC- 
to-CoCo interface is usually made via 
an RS-232 link. Run your terminal 
program and the TNC looks just like 
your phone modem — almost. 

When you connect to the TNC via the 
CoCo, you actually communicate with 
the TNCs computer. Most software 
built into the TNC computer follows the 
TARP standard. This standard is 
simply a set of commands used to tell 



the TNC to connect and disconnect to 
another node in the network. There are 
also commands to tell the TNC to 
perform a host of other tasks. Among 
them are telling the TNC to monitor all 
received packets, displaying and setting 
the time of day, sending beacon text, 
and far too many more to list here. For 
a good introduction to Packet Radio see 
Jim Grubbs' book, Get *** CON- 
NECTED to Packet Radio. 

There is as much available on Packet 
Radio as there are nodes to connect to. 
Packet Bulletin Board Services (PBBS) 
are popular. A typical PBBS covers a 
wide geographical area and allows 
message transfers from one PBBS to the 



next. If you could not connect to your 
buddy who is several states away, you 
might leave him an electronic mail 
message at his local PBBS. How does 
it get there? Simple. You connect to 
your local PBBS, leave him the message 
and direct the message to be sent to your 
friend's PBBS. During the early morn- 
ing hours, your message will be trans- 
ferred from PBBS to PBBS via the 
Packet Radio network! 

I should mention that almost all the 
PBBSs run the same software 
( WORLI). This frees you from learning 
the ins and outs of a new PBBS every- 
time you connect to a different one. 
Some PBBSs have gateway functions 
that allow you to "hop" from one 
network to another (or, more appro- 
priately, one frequency to another). 

Where Is Packet Going From Here? 

The new Japanese Amateur Satellite 
Number One (JAS-1), scheduled to be 
launched in August 1986, will allow 
packeters to transfer messages world- 
wide with only a 120 minute delay. JAS- 
1 will be a message store and forward 
system. JAS-1 will also allow packets to 
be sent in real time (ideal for chatting 



to friends around the globe). 

High-speed, land-based gateways will 
allow many local networks to commu- 
nicate to distant networks easily. A 
public Packet Radio network has also 
been proposed (FCC rule making RM- 
5241). The future of packet radio is 
looking very active! If you are a licensed 
Ham (Technician class or higher), give 
it a try. If you are a would-be Ham, get 
out the code practice tapes and the 
CoCo Morse code simulator software 
and get going. You might try contacting 
a local Ham and ask him to give, you a 
demonstration of Packet Radio. I'm 
sure that's all it will take to keep you 
awake nights . . . look at me! /R\ 




145.01 MH 145.05 MH 145.05 MHz 145.01MHz 



01-05 Gateway A 01-05 Gateway B 

Figure 6: A gateway is two nodes at one location that pass packets from 
one frequency to another (or one network to another). 




Figure 7: Gateway lints: A) Slow-speed, high-frequency link; B) High- 
speed microwave data link; C) Satellite data link. 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 45 



One Character 
Space at a Time 



By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



A the proud possessor of a 
working, original model, 
04K expanded to 16K ECB, 
cassette-based CoCo, I am constantly 
struck with the simplicity, power and 
versatility of Mr. CoCo. 

No matter how intriguing monster- 
sized keyboards are, how wide the color 
selections, how many function keys and 
other goodies to press may beckon, I 
have a tendency to return to the amaz- 
ing CoCo. The keyboard is so clutter- 
free and businesslike that whatever 
perceived or imagined short-comings 
there may be, it is a joy for the recruit 
as well as the veteran CoCo nut to sit 
down and tickle the keys. 

Just as a fledgling pilot learns to fly 
in a Piper Cub rather than a Lear Jet, 
so, too, will a newcomer learn best from 
a simple-to-manage computer, rather 
than an intelligence-insulting, icon- 
loaded moron machine with a zillion K 
memory. 

In the last tutorial, we worked with 
LEFTS, RIGHTS and MID$, displaying 
complete words or lines of print on the 
screen. The theme for today's lesson is 



Florida-based Joseph Kolar is a veter- 
an writer and programmer and special- 
izes in introducing beginners to the 
powers of CoCo. 



one character/ space at a time. Practi- 
cally every bit of text will be displayed 
on the screen one character/ space at a 
time. 

This means we shall use a variable in 
every LEFTS, RIGHTS and MIDS state- 
ment instead of a constant numeric 
value (the last value within the paren- 
theses). 

You may notice that I am very uni- 
maginative and use the string variable, 
R$, repeatedly. CoCo has a tendency to 
search out and select the last instance of 
a variable in a listing at the point where 
it is operating, so this presents no 
problem. You may prefer to use a 
different variable in each instance. 

Look at Listing 1, which is broken 
down into segments. Lines 0, 160, 340, 
540 and 650 begin the five segments. 
The GOSUB routine at Line 1000 is used 
to flesh out the first segment. Since it 
isn't essential, it was relegated to the end 
of the listing. 

Key in Listing 1 and run it. Not being 
too clever, I decided to print a heading 
with my daughter's name and address. 
But being egocentric, guess who's name 
I printed? Quick as a flash, it struck me 
that it was wrong. CoCo got cranky and 
showed me up with the flashing GOSUB 
1000 routine. So, chastised, my name 
was peeled off, one letter at a time. 



However, I would not give up center 
stage. I insinuated my name at the 
center just like a ham and, having 
upstaged one and all, strode off the 
screen. 

My daughter's name was printed at 
the heading, one letter at a time, but 
rolled up and off the screen. At this 
point, her husband, Jimy (sic), flashed 
his name on one letter at a time. How- 
ever, she was indignant and push came 
to shove and his name was removed to 
be triumphantly replaced by her own, 
which was my original idea. Whew! 

Now that you know the story, let's get 
a more detailed explanation. LEFTS, 
RIGHTS, MIDS and LEN were utilized to 
create all these interesting effects. List 
Line 100. It was decided to print the 
lines simultaneously, one letter at a 
time. The three lines were put into 
respective strings and assigned varia- 
bles. To accomplish the goal, a loop, T, 
was created to loop enough times to 
place all three lines, including the 
longest, on the screen. LEN(RS) was 
used as a counter. However, C$, was the 
longest line. The number of characters/ 
spaces in fi$, since it was chosen as the 
counter, had to be greater than or equal 
to those in C$. This was done simply, 
but effectively, by adding enough blank 
spaces into the AS string, so that it 



46 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



vould be a 'bit longer than the length of 

PRINTS locations were guesstimated 
m the first three screen rows, to be 
idjusted as required. LEFT$(fl$,T) 
nstructed CoCo to start from the left 
side of the string, R$, and print a letter, 
designated by T, at location 10. Then 
-EFTS ( B$ , T ) told CoCo to put the first 
letter, '0', at 40, and LEFTS (C$,T) to 
put the 0th letter, *S\ at 70. A tiny pause 
followed and then CoCo put on the next 
trio of letters, where T equals one. 

Rather than give you a possibly 
confusing burst of verbiage, edit Line 90 
so 51 becomes 510 and run. Study this 
slowed down version carefully and 
rerun it until you can see what is what. 
Notice how efficiently CoCo tacked on 
each batch of characters. 

In LEFTS (A$,T), T is an ever- 
increasing single digit number aug- 
mented by 1. Try adding STEP2 to Line 
5, and run. A jerky presentation results 
when T equals two characters. 

This is an unusual way to produce a 
three-line heading that you may want to 
save. A little pizazz goes a long way! 

Note that Line 100 could have been 
zapped and Line 90 could have ended 
in Z , T. It is not as qasy to see the outer 



loop, T. There is no law saying that you 
must compress or multiple-statement- 
line your program to death. Remember, 
when you run your program, you don't 
see the listing. You'll never see the 
debris, such as Line 105, if you forget 
to kill it. 

For the purpose of instruction, the 
rule for this tutorial is, "one statement 
— one program line," except for the 
FDR/ NEXT pause loops. 

You will notice a lot of lines like Line 
101, which are repeated in this listing 
and the next one. The programs really 
cry for G0SUB routines and, when you 
finalize your programs, you may prefer 
to make appropriate changes. 

Restore Line 90 to 51 and drop the 
5TEP2 from Line 5. List Line 105. We 
pause, have a short trip to the "wrong" 
G0SUB routine, and then return for 
another pause. Now delete Line 105. 
Run it to make sure it was a fossil. 

Now, look at the routine in lines 1000 
on. What we want to do is flash on 
"wrong" and blank it out 10 times with 
a small pause in each loop and then 
return to continue the tutorial. 

My favorite name was replaced by 
wrong !. Notice that a few spaces were 
prefixed to wrong!. It was not neces- 



sary to suffix any because without an 
ending semicolon, the rest of the line 
would be blanked out by CoCo. The 
blanking line could just as easily begin 
at Location 10, rather than stingy 13, 
(Line 1020) to match Line 1009. 

Make it a point to try all the minor 
alternates to see for yourself. Suppose 
you deleted up to NEXT in lines 1010 and 
1030? What would Line 1040 look like? 
Not very stimulating. Better replace the 
removed segments of the two lines. 

Coming back from the subroutine, 
we bump into another pause. The name 
reappears only to be picked off quickly, 
one letter at a time, beginning from the 
left side. 

List lines 110 to 150. LEN(fl$) was 
assigned a variable. To see what the 
value is, run it and press BREAK when 
the name is in process of being deleted 
from the screen. Type PRINT L and press 
ENTER. Now you know! The reason you 
must press BREAK while you are in the 
target area where L is being processed, 
is that the variable L is used later for 
other strings, and you might easily pass 
over into one of those areas and pick up 
the value of the wrong L. 

Itching to try out RIGHTS? Note lines 
120 and 130, where everything appears 



it 



Listing 1: HERDING 

0 "LISTING1" 
10 CLS 

20 A$=" JOSEPH KOLAR 
30 B$="824 NE 56TH ST. 
40 C$=" SEATTLE, WASHINGTON" 
50 FOR T= 0 TO LEN(A$) 
60 PRINT@10, LEFT$(A$,T) 
70 PRINT@40,LEFT$(B$,T) 
80 PRINTQ70, LEFT$(C$,T) 
9)3 FOR Z= 1 TO 51: NEXT 

100 NEXT 

101 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 

102 GOSUB 1000 

1)34 FOR X= 1 TO 500: NEXT 

1)35 Z$=A$ 

110 L=LEN (A$) 

120 FOR A=L TO 0 STEP-1 

13)3 PRINTS 30-A, " "RIGHT$ (A$ , A) 

140 FOR B=l TO 51: NEXT 

150 NEXTA 

160 '*** 

210 A$=" JOSEPH KOLAR" 

220 L-LEN (A$) 

230 FOR A=0 TO L 

240 PRINT@214-A,LEFT$(A$,A) 



250 FOR B=l TO 200: NEXT 
260 NEXT A 

300 FOR A=L TO 0 STEP-1 

310 PRINT@202,RIGHT$(A$,A) 

320 FOR B=l TO 200: NEXT 

330 NEXT $fclf 
340 

400 A$=" BETTY ANN WHITE" 
410 FOR T= 0 TO LEN(A$) 
420 PRINT@8,LEFT$(A$,T) 
430 FOR Z= 1 TO 50: NEXT 
440 NEXT 

450 FOR Z~ 1 TO 500: NEXT 

490 L=LEN(A$) 

500 FOR A~L TO 0 STEP-1 

510 'PRINT@8,RIGHT$(A$,A) 

511 PRINT@8,LEFT$(A$,A) 
520 FOR B=l TO 200: NEXT 
530 NEXT A 

535 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 
54)3 i*** 

600 A$="JIMY OWEN WHITE" 

605 PRINT@8,A$ 

606 FOR Z-l TO 200: NEXT 

610 FOR T« LEN ( A$ ) TO 0 STEP-1 
620 PRINT@8 , LEFT$ (A$,T) 
630 FOR X= 1 TO 200: NEXT 
640 NEXT 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 47 



to be backward. RIGHT$(A$,A) can be 
defined similarly to LEFT$(fl$, A), 
where RIGHTS (fi$,fl) signifies that in 
the string A$, beginning from the right 
end, count A characters. 

We expect to use RIGHTS to put on 
the characters, A, one at a time (5TEP- 
1). Note carefully, if we are using 
RIGHTS in Line 120, 0 is the rightmost 
character, proceeding letter after letter * 
5TEP-1, until the leftmost character L 
is reached. 

In effect, we are using RIGHTS from 
left to right exactly opposite from the 
way it is ordinarily used to mimic 
LEFTS's action. 

In order to find our PRINTS location 
for the first letter, 30 -A (the last char- 
acter is the first to be removed), the 
character is removed by the blank 
space, and RIGHTS ( AS , A ) tells 
CoCo which A value is to be blanked 
out. 

It might be wise to change 51 to 510 
in Line 140 to see this operation proceed 
slowly. To visualize it more readily, 
temporarily add the line 132 
PRINT@0,A;. Since the AS string is in 
Line 20, it contains the extra blanks 
which are harmless and go unnoticed. 
Now run your work. 



To make RIGHTS pull it from the 
rightmost position to the leftmost, mask 
Line 130 with a REM. Add the line 131 
PRINT09, " "+RIGHT$(A$,A). Run it 
and delete Line 132. 

Did you note that Line 130 removed 
the name one letter at a time going from 
right to left, and Line 131 pulled the 
letters away through a single location, 
9, one at a time? 

Now, we can get silly. Mask lines 120 
and 131. Unmask Line 130. Add 121 
FOR A = TO L and run. This displays the 
line one letter at a time, last letter first, 
working leftward. 

Finally, mask Line 130 and unmask 
Line 131. Can you guess what will 
happen? Run it and see. 

The line was pushed backward, out of 
the hole at location 9. Change 510 back 
to 51 in Line 140. Forget about these 
last two cockeyed presentations — 
unmask lines 120 and 130 and either 
mask or delete lines 121 and 131. 

List lines 210 to 330. In Line 210, we 
changed string AS by looping off all the 
trailing blank spaces (Line 20). We 
assigned a variable, L, to the length of 
AS. In a loop, using LEFTS, we pulled 
the name out of a hole, Location 214, 
and dragged it leftward until it was 



completely displayed, pausing for z 
reasonable time lapse to evoke i 
smooth, banner-like motion. 

Immediately, through the hole al 
Location 202, we stuffed it down b> 
using RIGHTS to maintain our leftward 
direction, letter by letter, yntil the entire 
name vanished down the rat hole. 

You may want to return to this pari 
of the program and pull it back out oi 
the hole at Location 202, drag it right- 
ward and bury it at Location 214. You 
can do it! An answer is given at the end 
of the tutorial. 

List lines 400 to 535. AS is a new 
string, which is placed on the screen 
using LEFTS, beginning at Location 8. 
T is incremented by +1 , from 0 up to the 
value of the last letter of the string. After 
a pause, it places each succeeding letter 
in the next available space heading 
rightward. A long pause sets the com- 
pleted name in place. Then, assigning L 
as the length of the string, from the last 
letter back to the first, the name is rolled 
up and off the screen using LEFTS (Line 
511). 

If Line 510 is unmasked and Line 51 1 
is masked, using RIGHTS, the name is 
removed by being pulled through the 
hole at Location 8. 



65)3 »*** 

700 A$="BETTY ANN WHITE" 

71)3 FOR T=0 TO 15 

720 PRINT@8,LEFT$(A$ / T) 

730 FOR X=l TO 200: NEXT 

74)3 NEXT T 

750 GOTO 750 

1000 1 

1005 FOR X= 1 TO 10 

1009 PRINT© 10 , " WRONG I " 

1010 FOR Z= 1 TO 20: NEXT 
1020 PRINT@13,» " 
1030 FOR Z= 1 TO 20: NEXT 
1040 NEXTX 

1050 RETURN 



Listing 2: HOMEWORK 

0 '<LISTING2> 
5 CLEAR 500 
10 CLS 

20 A$«"BETTY ANN WHITE" 
30 B$="824 NE 56 ST. 

40 C$="SEATTLE, WASHINGTON" 

41 PRINT @ 8 , LEFT$ (A$ ,5) ; : FORZ=lTO 



200 :NEXTZ 

42 PRINT MID$(A$,6,5) ; :FORZ=l TO 
200:NEXTZ 

43 PRINTRIGHT$(A$,5) 

44 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 

45 CLS 

46 '*** 

47 A$="JOSEPH KOLAR " 
50 FOR T= 0 TO LEN (A$) 

60 PRINT@9, LEFT$(A$,T) 
70 PRINT@41,LEFT$(B$,T) 
80 PRINT@70, LEFT$(C$,T) 
90 FOR Z= 1 TO 51: NEXT 

100 NEXT 

101 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 

102 GOSUB 2000 

103 PRINT@9,A$ 

104 FOR Z- 1 TO 500: NEXT 
110 L=LEN(A$) 

120 FOR A=L TO 0 STEP-1 

130 PRINT@30-A," "RIGHT$ (A$ , A) 

140 FOR B^l TO 51: NEXT 

150 NEXTA 

160 1 *** 

210 A$=" JOSEPH KOLAR'! 
220 L=LEN(A$) 
230 FOR A=0 TO L 

240 PRINT@213-A," "+LEFT$ (A$ , A) 



48 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



TANDY.. Better Again." 



The New 
C olor Com puter 3 

mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmum JL » ■ iimn iihiiwihhiimi—— 



More colors, superb graphics, 
greater power for only $ 219 95 




Introducing Radio Shack's new- 
est, most advanced version of our 
famous Color Computer. The Color 
Computer 3 (26-3334) is great for 
small business and home applica- 
tions such as education, program- 
ming, budgets, word processing, 
graphics, entertainment and more. 

The powerful Color Computer 3 
comes with 128K memory (expand- 
able to 512K), giving you greater 
programming and data processing 
power. With an optional high- 
resolution color monitor (like our 
new CM-8), you can create razor- 
sharp charts, graphs, or just-for-fun 
doodles and sketches with a palette 
of 64 brilliant colors. The special 
graphics mode lets you paint 
160 X 192 or 320 X 192 resolution 



graphics using 16 colors, or 

640 X 192 resolution with 4 colors. 

The Color Computer 3's Ex- 
tended BASIC features 21 new 
commands that allow you to alter- 
nate screens, colors, and back- 
grounds at a higher resolution and 
in a greater variety of colors than 
any previous Color Computer. 

Best of all, the new Color Com- 
puter 3 is compatible with software 
and accessories designed for the 
Color Computer 2, including a li- 
brary of educational, personal- 
management and game programs. 
And it's easy to expand with disk 
drives, printer, modem, and more. 

Visit your local Radio Shack to- 
day for a demonstration! 



Radio /hack 

The Technology Store 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 




I 

| 

I 
I 
I 



Send me an RSC-17 Catalog 




Mail To: Radio Shack, Dept. 87-A-707 
300 One Tandy Center, Fort Worth, TX 76102 

Name 



Address 

City 

ZIP 



Phone 



I 

I 



Price applies at Radio Shack Computer Centers and participating stores and dealers. Monitor, disk drives, Program Paks and printer sold separately. 



"Push your 
name in one 
direction and 
when it 
vanishes, pull 
out your 
mate's name 
from the rat 
hole and shoot 
it hack across 
the screen." 



List lines 600 to 640. The spot- 
usurping spouse, using the same string 
variable, R$, quickly slaps his name in 
the slot. It doesn't take long to kick him 
out of the area using LEFTS by pecking 
away at his name going from right to 
left. Note Line 610. It is equivalent in 
form to lines 490 and 500 combined into 
one program line. If it were in two lines, 
it would read: G10 L= LEN ( PIS ) and Gil 
FDR T=L TO 0 STEP-1. 

Finally, triumphant, she put her 
name firmly in the header slot in the 
simplest manner by using the old faith- 
ful Fi$ as the string variable containing 
her name, counting the characters/ 
spaces in her name, putting them into 
the FDR loop as T and using LEFTS, 
placing it on the screen, beginning at 
Location 7. 

Here is a solution to the problem 
mentioned before. Add lines: 

331 FDR F)=0 TO L:PRINT@202, RIGHTS 
(fl$,fl): FDR B=l TD 200: NEXT B,fl 

332 FDR fl=L TO 0 STEP-1 : PRINTS 
214-Fl," "LEFT$(fl$,fl) : FDR B=l TD 
200: NEXTB,FI 



If you have a problem, check lines 5 10 
and 511 to see if the proper one is 
unmasked. To produce a faster, re- 
peated push-pull banner, add 200 FOR 
C=l TO 10 and add , C to the end of Line 
332. 

In lines 250, 320, 331 and 332, change 
the pause value from 200 to 50. 

Here's an idea — push your name in 
one direction and when it vanishes, pull 
out your mate's name from the rat hole 
and shoot it back across the screen. You 
get a nice domestic quarrel effect. 

Note that in some instances, as, in 
lines 130 and 332, a blanking space was 
required. Remove each and check out 
the sorry state of affairs. 

Listing 2 is a homework assignment. 
It is one half of a demo program. Make 
sure you save it on tape. The other half 
will be a continuation of this listing. It 
is similar to Listing 1 but not quite. It 
is hoped that you crack open your 
notebook and analyze the listing. If you 
find any of the routines useful, you may 
want to put them into your Reference 
Notebook. □ 



250 FOR B=l TO 200: NEXT 
260 NEXT A 

270 FOR Z=1TO500:NEXT 

300 FOR A=L TO 0 STEP-1 

310 PRINT@202,RIGHT$(A$,A) 

320 FOR B=l TO 200 : NEXT 

330 NEXT A 
340 i*** 

400 A$=» BETTY ANN WHITE" 
410 FOR T= 0 TO LEN (A$) 
420 PRINT@8,LEFT$(A$,T) 
430 FOR Z» 1 TO 50: NEXT 
440 NEXT 

450 FOR Z= 1 TO 1000: NEXT 
460 '*** 

490 L=LEN(A$) 

500 FOR A=L TO 0 STEP-1 

510 »PRINT@8,RIGHT$ (A$,A) 

511 PRINT@8,LEFT$(A$,A) 
520 FOR Z=l TO 200: NEXT 
530 NEXT A 

535 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 
540 I*** 

600 A$=*"JIMY OWEN WHITE" 

605 PRINT@8,A$ 

606 FOR Z= 1 TO 500: NEXT 

610 'FOR T= LEN ( A$ ) TO 0 STEP-1 

611 FOR T=0 TO LEN (A$) 



620 PRINT@8 , LEFT$ (A$ , T) 
630 FOR X= 1 TO 200: NEXT 
640 NEXT T 

650 FOR Z=p TO 500: NEXT 
660 '*** 

700 A$=" BETTY ANN WHITE" 
710 FOR T=0 TO 15 
720 PRINT@8,RIGHT$(A$,T) 
730 FOR X=l TO 200: NEXT 
740 NEXT T 

750 FOR Z= 1 TO 500:NEXT 
800 •*** 

810 B$="JIMY OWEN WHITE" 

811 L=LEN(B$) 

820 FOR A= 0 TO L 

830 PRINT© 2 2 -A, " "+LEFT$ (B$ , A) 

840 FOR X= 1 TO 200: NEXT 

850 NEXT A 

860 FOR Z=1TO500:NEXT 
2000 ■ 

2010 FOR X= 1 TO 10 
2020 PRINT@9," WRONG!" 
2030 FOR Z= 1 TO 20: NEXT 
2040 PRINT@12," " 
2050 FOR Z= 1 TO 40: NEXT 
2060 NEXTX 
2070 RETURN 



50 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



Next to your computer, 





1 






' A 'iC- A- •*5»- 

• ■ m m 





\ 



nothing beats a Tandy printer 



High print quality — 
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print head that delivers supe- 
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in a single pass. Choose from 
micro, italic and double-high 
fonts, as well as bit-image 
graphics. In the draft mode, the 

Prices apply at Radio Shack Computer 



Radio /hack 

The Technology Store 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 




DMP 430 delivers a fast 180 
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The DMP 130 (26-1280, 
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IBM/Registered TM International Business Machines Corp. 



I 
I 

1 

I 
I 

I 



Send me a new 
RSC-17 
Computer Catalog. 

Mail To: Radio Shapk 

Dept. 87-A-706 
300 One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, TX 76102 




I 
I 
1 
1 



Name 



Company 
Address _ 



City _ 
State 



ZIP 




Phone 



AME 






..■■jgr 

■f n - - 




^^^^^^^ 



Ife* 





SSffiff™ 



'■■'>■■: 

■V"... : 



r- r .j 



V"!.' •. 1 



III 





■ 



3«0 
3? 



SpS? 75! 



ffTfJf-J'Vtti.U 




sM 1 



aiders f££ game requiring skill and concentration. 
Aliens are stealing supplies from the planet and you 
must stop them by docking with their ships. To dock 
with an alien ship, you must be directly above it and hot 
moving at the time of contact. The lower on the screen you 
are (closer to the bottom) at the time of contact, the more 
points you score. You must also avoid the bombs traveling 
up the screen. 

The game ends when time runs out or your ship is 
destroyed by bombs. To begin the game, press the firebutton 
l^iMM. while the theme song is playing on the title screen. 

(You may direct questions about this program to the 
^ author at U-251, Road 16, Rt. h Napoleon, OH 43545. 
Please enclose an SA SE for a reply.) □ 




is ob taining an associate degree in computer programming. 
He uses his Co Co to keep the farm's financial records and 
to do word processing. 




26 .... 
40 .... 
58 .... 
74 .... 
95 .... 
END .....254 



.110 
.180 

..69 
.246 
..70 



The listing; RfilDERS 



' ***** * * * * * * * * ************ ** * 



i * 

1 * 

i* 
>* 

• * 



RAIDERS 
BY 

DARREL BEHRMANN 
U-251 RD. 16 RT. 1 
NAPOLEON , OH 43545 
JANUARY, 1986 



* 

*; 
* 



,1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
$ 

8 i * * * ************************* 

9 POKE65495,0 

10 CLEAR 5>3p 

11 DIM EM (8, 12 ) , CS ( 8 , 12 ) ;, SS ( 8 , 12 
) ,AN$(15) 

12 GOSUB 9 5 1 GET LETTERS 

13 PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS0 : SCREEN1 ,1: PMOD 
E3,l fc 

14 COLOR3 , 4 

15 LINE (0 , 165 ) -(255, 192) , PSET , BF 

16 LINE (10 , 16 4 ) - , 104 ) , PRESET 

17 LINE- (40,94) , PRESET 

1 S LINE- (70 , 104 ) , PRESET 
ill LINE- ( 70 , 164 ) , PRESET 

20 LINE- (10, 164) , PRESET 

21 PAINT(40,104) ,4,4 

22 LINE (30 ,84 ) - (50 , 104) , PRESET, B 

23 LINE (10 ,74) -( 70, 84) , PRESET, BF 

24 CIRCLE (110, 154) ,10,4 

25 CIRCLE (150 ,154) , 10 , 4 : CIRCLE (1 
75,154) ,10,4 

2 6 PAINT (110, 154) ,2, 4 : PAINT (150, 
154) ,2, 4 : PAINT (17 5, 154 ) , 2 ,4 

27 DRAW » BM80 ,15 5 ; C3U10R10 E15R90D 
25L115" 

28 PAINT (90, 150) ,3,3 

29 LINE (105, 135) - (125, 145) , PRESE 
T,B 

30 PAINT (120, 140) ,2,4 

31 DRAW"BM16, 50 ; S16C2 "+AN$ ( 14 ) +A 
N$ ( 10) +AN$ ( 13 ) +AN$ ( 11) +AN$ ( 12) +A 
N$(14)+AN$(15) 

32 DRAW"C4S4" 

33 IFPEEK(65280) <>126 AND PEEK ( 6 
5280) <>254THENPLAY"T12L102ABD" : I 
FPEEK(65280)<>126 AND PEEK(65280 
) <> 2 5 4 THENPLAY " L2 CFO 1 ABD L2 CF " : GO 
T033 '. ;v 

34 PLAY H V10T255L255" 

35 PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS0 

36 CIRCLE ( 3 , 8 ) , 3 , 5: LINE (0 ,0 ) 



5 ) , PSET: LINE (3 , 0 ) - (3 , 5) , PSET : LIN 
E(7,0)-(3,5) ,PSET:PAINT(3,8) ,5,5 

37 GET (0 , 0 ) - (7 ,11) , EM 

38 PCLS0 

39 LINE (0 , 0 ) - ( 7 , 1 ) , PSET , BF : LINE ( 

3. 2) -(4, 3) ,PSET,BF:LINE(3,3)-(0, 

6) , PSET: LINE- (0, 11) , PSET: LINE- (7 
,11) , PSET: LINE- (7, 6) , PSET: LINE- ( 

4.3) , PSET : PAINT (3, 9) ,5 ,5 

40 GET (0,0) -(7, 11), CS 

41 PCLS0 

42 LINE (0 , 0 ) - ( 3,11) , PSET : LINE- ( 4 
,11) , PSET: LINE- (7,0) , PSET: LINE- ( 
0,0), PSET : PAINT (3, 3 ) ,5,5 

43 GET (0 ,0) - (7,11) , SS 

44 PCLS0 

45 POKE65495 ,0 : PH=16 : PV=1 : E1=0 : E 

2=0 : Gl=0 : G2=0 : SC=0 

46 SCREEN1,1:PCLS0:TIMER=0 

47 LINE (PH*8,PV*12) - (PH*8+7 , PV*1 
2+11) , PRESET, BF 

48 J=JOYSTK (0 ) : Jl=JOYSTK( 1) : GOSU 
B87 

49 IFJ<15THENPH=PH-1ELSEIFJ>45TH 
ENPH=PH+1 

50 IFJK1 5THENPV=PV- 1ELSE IF Jl > 4 5 
THENPV=PV+1 

51 I FPH> 3 1THENPH=3 IE LSE I FPH<0THE 
NPH=0 

52 I FPV> 1 5THENPV= 1 5 E LS E I FPV< 1THE 
NPV=1 



53 PUT(PH*8,PV*12) 


-(PH*8+7 


,PV*12 


+11) , SS 






54 IFE1=0ANDRND (5) 


=5THENE1 


=1:H1= 


RND(32) -1:V1=15 






55 IFE2=0ANDRND (5) 


=5THENE2 


=l:H2= 


0010 i| 


• 

i) ■ 


i. 




T 










i 



RND(32)-1:V2=15 

56 IFE1=1THENLINE (Hl*8 , Vl*12 ) - (H 
1*8+7, Vl*12+ll) , PRESET, BF ' 

57 IFE2=1THENLINE (H2*8,V2*12 ) - (H 
2*8+7, V2*12+ll) , PRESET, BF 

58 V1=V1-1 : IFVK1THENE1=0 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 53 



59 V2=V2-1:IFV2<1THENE2«0 

60 IFE1«1THENPUT(H1*8,V1*12)-(H1 
*8+7,Vl*12+ll) , EM 

61 IFE2-1THENPUT(H2*8,V2*12)-(H2 
*8+7,V2*12+ll) ,EM 

62 IF (V1=PV OR Vl-l-PV) AND Hl= 
PH THEN GOSUB 76 

63 IF (V2=PV OR V2-1-PV) AND H2= 
PH THEN GOSUB 76 

64 IFG1=0ANDRND(10)=10THENG1=1:H 
3=RND(32)-l:V3=15 

65 IFG2=0ANDRND(10)=10THENG2=1:H 
4=RND(32)-1:V4=15 

66 IFG1=1THENLINE(H3*8,V3*12)-(H 
3*8+7, V3*12+ll) , PRESET, BF 

67 IFG2=1THENLINE(H4*8,V4*12)-(H 
4*8+7, V4*12+ll) , PRESET, BF 

68 V3=V3-1:IFV3<1THENG1=0 

69 V4=V4-1 J IFV4<1THENG2=0 

70 IFG1«1THENPUT(H3*8,V3*12)-(H3 
*8+7,V3*12+ll) ,CS 

71 IFG2=1THENPUT(H4*8,V4*12)-(H4 
*8+7,V4*12+ll) ,CS 

72 IF V3-1=PV AND H3=PH THEN GOS 
UB79 

73 IF V4-1=PV AND H4=PH THEN GOS 
UB79 

74 GOSUB 81 

75 GOTO 47 

76 PLAY "V1":FORY=1TO30:PLAY"ABA 
V+ ; " : CIRCLE ( PH*8+4 , PV*12-4 ) , RND ( 
15) ,RND(4) : NEXT Y : PLAY "V31 11 :FORY= 
1TO30 : PLAY"CDCV-; " : CIRCLE (PH*8+4 




Hint . . . 





Here is a little routine that alters the cursor in an 
interesting way. Type it in and give it a try. You may 
want to do a little disassembly (a manual one, that is) 
and apply the technique to other areas of Color 
Computing. 

10 DATA 26,80,142,128,0,166,132, 

183,255,223,167,128,140,224,0,39 

,5,183,255,222,32,2 39, 28, 175,57 

20 FORA=3072 TO 3096: READB : POKE 

A,B:NEXTA:EXEC3072 

30 FOR A*l TO 255: POKE 41384, A 

40 NEW 



Jim Knoppow 
Kent, WA 



,PV*12-4) ,RND(15) ,RND(4) : NEXTY 

77 PLAY "V10" 

78 GOTO 94 

79 SC=SC+PV: SOUND PV*16,1 

80 RETURN 

81 'SCORING DISPLAY 

82 PLAY "AABB" 

83 LINE(0, 0)-(32, 12) , PRESET, BF 

84 TH=INT(SC/1000) : HD-INT ( (SC-TH 
*1000)/100) :TN=INT( (SC-TH*1000-H 
D*100) /10) :OE=SC-TH*1000-HD*100- 
TN*10 

85 DRAW "BM0,11;"+AN$(TH)+AN$(HD 
)+AN$(TN)+AN$(OE) 

86 RETURN 

87 ' TIMER DISPLAY 

88 LINE(120,0)-(136,12) , PRESET, B 
F 

89 TI-100-TIMER/60 

90 TN=*INT(TI/10) :OE=TI-TN*10 

91 IF TIMER/60 >100 THEN GOTO 94 

92 DRAW»BM120, 12 ; "+AN$ (TN) +AN$ (0 
E) 

93 RETURN 

94 POKE65494,0:IF PEEK(65280) =12 
6 OR PEEK(65280)=254 THEN 45 ELS 
E 94 

95 AN$(0)="BE1BU1U7E1R3F1D7G1L3U 
1E1U2E1U2E1BD9BR3 11 • 0 

96 AN$(1)="BE1R5L2U9G3BD7BR6 , » '1 

97 AN$(2)="BU8BR1E2R2F1D2G2L1G2D 
2R6BF1" '2 

98 AN$(3)=»BE1BU1F1R2E2U2H1NL3E1 
U2H1L3 G2 BD8 BR8 " r 3 

99 AN$(4)="BU9BR1D3R5L1U4D9BD1BR 
3"' 4 

100 AN$(5)="BE1BU1F1R2E2U2H1L1H1 
L1H1U2R6BD10BR1" 1 5 

101 AN$(6)=»"BE2BU2E1R2F1D2G1L2H2 
U5E1R1E1R1F1BD9BR2" • 6 

102 AN$(7)="BU8BE1E1R4D2G1D2G1D3 
BD1BR4"'7 

103 AN$ (8) ="BR3BU1H2U1E2H2E2R1F2 
G2F2D1G2BD1BR4" 1 8 

104 AN$(9)="BR5BU1U9L3G1D2F1R3BR 
3BD6'"9 

105 AN$(10)="BE1U4E1U3E1R1F1D3F1 
NL4D4BF1BR1" 'A 

106 AN$(11)="BE1U9R2F1R1F1D5G1L1 
G1L2BD1BR7" ' D 

107 AN$ (12 ) ="BE1U9R5L5D4R3L3D5R5 
BD1BR2" 1 E 

10 8 AN $ ( 1 3 ) - " BE 1R5L3U9 L2 R5 BD 10 BR 
2" 'I 

109 AN$(14)="BE1U9R3F2D1G2L2F4BF 
1BR1"'R 

110 AN$(15)="BE1BU1F1R2E2U1H2L1H 
2E2R2F1BD9BR2" ' S 

111 RETURN 



54 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



A fix to use the Old-Time Banner Printer with a disk system 



The O Id-Time Fix 



By Horace D. Vaughn 



When I opened my May 1986 
issue of RAINBOW, I was disap- 
pointed to find that the Old- 
Time Banner program [Page 1 50] would 
not work with my disk system. I set out 
to solve this situation and will now 
share it with the rest of the CoCo 
Community. 

First, if you haven't done so already, 
save a copy of the Banner program on 
tape using the procedures mentioned in 
the article. Now, unplug the disk drive 
from the cartridge port. Then type POKE 
25, G: NEW. Load in the Banner program 
and delete all lines from 101 on. Save 
this to another tape as BAN1. 

Reload the original banner program. 
This time, delete all lines up to and 
including Line 100. Also, delete lines 
160, 998 and 2008. Move the last 

Horace Vaughn is a retired Navy chief, 
presently employed as a marine electri- 
cian in Virginia Beach. He has been 
programming on the CoCo for four 
years. 



PRINTttJ, Y$P$B$R$D$U$N$D$T$V$Z$ 
statement in Line 117 to the beginning 
of Line 118. Save this version to tape as 
BAN2. 

Plug the disk controller back into the 
computer and enter POKE 25,14 : POKE 
35B4,0:NEW. 

Load BAN1 from tape and save it to 
disk as "BAN1/BAS",A. Load BAN2 
from tape and save it to disk as "BAN2/ 
BAS",A. Type in, save to disk and run 
Shorten. 

The first time through Shorten use 
BAN1/BAS as the input filename and 
BAN11/BAS as the output filename. 
Run Shorten again, but this time use 
BAN2/BAS as the input filname and 
BAN22/BAS for the output filename. 
Now load BAN11/BAS from the disk. 
Type MERGE "BfiN22/BfiS". This creates 
a shortened version of the Banner 
program in memory. It might be wise 
before we start editing things for you to 
save this to disk as BANNER/ BAS. 

Now comes the fun part. If you don't 
have much experience, you may want to 



brush up on the EDIT command of 
Extended BASIC, but what we will be 
doing isn't really all that difficult. 

At the beginning of Line 1, add 
F0RX = 1T03: PRINTttJ, YY$X$Z$ 
: N E XT : . Add $Z$ to the end of 
lines 16 and 1070. Add :G0T01 to the 
end of Line 159. Change Line 161 to 
read F0RX=1T012: PRINTttJ, YY$X$Z$ 
:NEXT:G0T01. Add :YY$=Y$:Y$= 
Y$+V$ to the end of 2028. Add FORX 
=1T0G:PRINT»J,YY$X$Z$:NEXT: to 
the beginning of Line 2034. 

The changes should now be complete. 
Resave this program to disk as 
BANNER/ BAS. Always remember to 
use POKE25,14:POKE35B4,0:NEW be- 
fore running the program. Happy "ban- 
nering" with disk! 



(You may direct your questions 
about this modification to Mr. Vaughn 
at 4824 Peach Creek Lane, Virginia 
Beach, VA 23455, 804-499-1741. Please 
enclose an SASE when writing.) □ 



'■■*V* S " '• A'. 



The listing: SHORTEN 

10 ' SHORTEN FOR BANNER MAY 1986 
RAINBOW 

20 'BY H.D.VAUGHN 
30 '4824 PEACHCREEK LN. 
40 'VA. BEACH VA. 23455 
50 CLEAR1000:CLS 

60 INPUT" INPUT F I LENAME / EXT a === as = 
========>« ;DF$ 

70 INPUT "OUTPUT FILENAME/ EXT==== 
========>"; DO $ 

80 OPEN"I" , #1/ DF$ :OPEN"0" , #2 , DO$ 
90 IF EOF(l)= -1 THEN 180 



100 LINE INPUT#1,D$ 

110 CLS : PRINTD$ 

120 FOR X=5TO LEN ( D$ ) 

130 IF MID$(D$,X,3)="J,Y"THEN190 

140 IF MID$(D$ / X / 3)=»998"THEN210 

150 NEXT X 

160 PRINT #2,D$ 

170 GOTO90 

180 CLOSE: END 

190 IF MID$ ( D$ , X+4 , 1 ) =" VTHEN2 20 
200 L$=LEFT$ ( D$ , X+2 ) : R$=RIGHT$ (D 
$,LEN(D$) -X-2) :D$=L$+"Y"+R$:GOTO 
230 

210 L$=LEFT$ (D$,X-16) :R$=RIGHT$( 
D$ , LEN ( D$) -X-8 ) : D$=L$+R$ : X=X-10 : 

GOTO 2 30 

220 L$=LEFT$ (D$,X+3) :R$=RIGHT$ (D 

$ , LEN (D$) -X-5) :D$=L$+R$ 

230 CLS : PRINTD$ t GOTO150 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 55 




EARS 



TM 



Electronic 
Audio 
Recognition 
System 



$99.95 



• SPEECH 
RECOGNITION 

• HANDS OFF 
PROGRAMMING 

•HIGH 

QUALITY 
SPEECH 

REPRODUCTION 
EARS Does It All! 




Two Years In the Making. Speech Systems 
was formed to develop new and innova- 
tive speech products. After 2 years of in- 
tensive Research and Development, we 
have created a truely sophisticated 
speech recognition device. Recognition 
rates from 95% to 98% are typical. Until 
now, such a product was outside the 
price range of the personnel computer 
market, and even small businesses. 

EARS is trained by your. voice and capable 
of recognizing any word or phrase. 
Training EARS to your particular voice 
print takes seconds. Up to 64 voice prints 
may be loaded into memory. You may 
then save on tape or disk as many as you 
like so that your total vocabulary is virtu- 
ally infinite. 

Speech and Sound Recognition. EARS is re- 
ally a sound recognition system, so it re- 
ally doesn't matter whether you speak in 
English, Spanish, or French. Infactyoudo 
not have to speak at all, you can train 
EARS to understand sounds such as a 
musical note or a door slamming. 

Hands Off Programming. Imagine writing 
your own BASIC programs without ever 
touching the keyboard. Everything that 



you would normally do through a 
keyboard can now be done by just 
speaking. 

Programming EARS Is Easy. LISTEN, 
MATCH and other commands have been 
added to BASIC so that programming 
EARS is a piece of cake! The single BASIC 
line: 10 LISTEN: MATCH will instruct 
EARS to listen to you and return the 
matching phrase. 

It Talks. EARS is also capable of high qual- 
ity speech. We mean REALLY high quality. 
The speech is a fixed vocabulary spoken 
by a professional announcer. Speech 
Systems is currently creating a library of 
thousands of high quality words and 
phrases. For a demonstration call (312) 
879-6844, you won't believe your ears or 
our EARS. 

DISK OWNERS, EARS will work with any 
disk system With either a MULTI-PAK or 
Y-CABLE. Our new Triple Y-CABLE was 
specifically developed for those wishing 
to add SUPER VOICE as a third device. 

You Get Everything You Need. You get ev- 
erything you need including a specially 
designed professional headset style noise 



cancelling microphone. The manual is 
easy to use and understand. Several 
demonstration examples are included so 
you don't have to write your own pro- 
grams unless you want to. EARS will work 
in any 32K or 64K Color Computer. 

SUPER VOICE $20 OFF 

Imagine talking to your computer and it 
talking back to you. When you need an 
unlimited vocabulary, you can't beat 
SUPER VOICE. For a limited time, we will 
give you the SUPER VOICE for $59.95 with 
your EARS purchase. Even if you already 
have another speech unit, here is your 
chance to buy the best and save $20. 

VOICE CONTROL 
Applications for EARS are astounding. 
Here is our first of many listening pro- 
grams to come. VOICE CONTROL is a 
program specifically designed to allow 
you to control any appliance in your 
house with your voice and our HOME 
COMMANDER (sold separately) or the 
Radio Shack Plug 'N' Power controller. 
For example, you can control your TV by 
saying "TV ON" or "TV OFF". . $24.95 





Dealer Inquiries 
Invited 



emd 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6Va% sales tax 



•Speech. Sy$t< 

38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (TO ORDER) 



CALL ANY DAY TO ORDER. ALSO ORDER BY MAIL 



COCO'S MOST ADVANCED 
SPEECH SYNTHESIZER. 

IT TALKS, SINGS AND 

MORE, 
only . . . $79.95 

WITH EARS PURCHASE 
only . . . $59. 95 




r^-Skl » ,u t- £ W 



■■ m m<i I 



SUPER VOICE is no ordinary speech synthesizer. It uses Silicon 
Systems, Inc. SSI-263, the most advanced speech/sound chip 
available. SUPER VOICE is not only capable of highly intelligible 
speech, sound effects, and singing over a 6 octave range, but now 
we have turned SUPER VOICE into a monophonic Super Music 
Synthesizer with our PIANO KEYBOARD. 

IT TALKS. A free TRANSLATOR text-to-speech program makes 
writing your own talking program as easy as SAYING "HELLO." 

SUPER VOICE works in any 32K or 64K computer. A disk system 
requires a Y-Cable or Multi-Pak. 

Here are the facts; 
the decision is yours. 






SUPER VOICE 


REAL TALKER 


RS SPEECH 
CARTRIDGE 


VOICE-PAK 


Synthesizer Device 




SC-01 


SP-256 


SC-01 


Speaking Speeds 


M « x * J 


1 


1 


1 


Volume Levels 


"^ssil 


i ' 


1 


1 


Articulation Rates 


,„-■„„„-,—-„-■- 

;i v ^ 


1 


1 


1 


Vocal Tract 
Filter Settings 


i 1 

m J 


1 


1 


1 


Basic unit 
ol Speech 


M phiiiifwrt 


64 phonemes 


64 allophones 
S pause lengths 


64 phonemes 


Pitch Variations 


4896 (32 absolute fifirr 
with 8 intloction taeeds) 


4 


1 


4 



SUPER TALKING HEADS 

Paul and Pauline, our talking heads program is normally $24.95. Until 
Dec. 15 we will include them with each SUPER VOICE order. 




FREE 
BLANK DISK 

OR TAPE 
WITH EVERY 

o* DER ^ 



VISA* 

' ' v < > ■ 




Dealer Inquiries 
Invited 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6V<% sales tax 



'//> 



Speech Stfdtemd 



38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (TO ORDER) 
coloS(312) 879-6811 (24 HR. BBS) 

CALL ANY DAY TO ORDER. ALSO ORDER BY MAIL OR BBS. 




TM 



LEGE 



FILE EDIT hIDI HISC 



All Voices Un 
Tine Signature 
Key Signature 
Tenpo 

Reset block 



FILE EDIT MIDI MISC 



Block delete 



o^ 1 



6^: * 3- 


.j A ^_ 













LEGEND 
82 



g 



■ 



4—3 



OB§§0[ 

- ts cf t= t33= == 



J5 



I 



LYRA is the most powerful music composition program we have seen on 
any computer. We don't mean just the COCO, we really mean any com- 
puter. Whether you are a. novice trying to learn music or a professional 
musician with MIDI equipment you will find LYRA a powerful tool. You 



see, we wrote LYRA for musicians that hate computers. If you want proof, 
purchase a LYRA demo for $7.95. We will apply the demo price to your 
purchase. MIDI output requires the LYRA MIDI cable (#MC158) or COCO 
MIDI Seq/Editor (#CM147). 



Ultra Easy to use, just point with joystick or 
mouse and click. 

Compose with up to 8 completely 
independent voices. 

Room for over 18,000 notes. (This is not 
misprint!) 

Super Simple Editing Supports: 



Note insert 
Note delete 
Note change 
Output music to: 
TV Speaker 
STEREO PAK 
SYMPHONY 12 
MIDI Synth 



Block insert 
Block delete 
Block copy 

Monitor Speaker 
ORCHESTRA 90 
COCO MIDI S/E 
MIDI Drum Machine 



Output up to 4 voices without additional 
hardware. 



Output all 8 voices using either SYMPHONY 
12 or one or more MIDI synthesizers and 
drum machines. 

Output any voice on any of the 8 MIDI 
channels. 
^ Transpose music to any key. 
Modify music to any tempo. 
Automatically inserts bar for each measure 
as you compose. 

Key signature lets you specify sharps and 
flats only once, LYRA will do the rest. 
Plays MUSICA 2 files using LYRA CONVERT 
(#LC164).- 

\* Each voice may be visually highlighted or 
erased. 

\* Each measure is numbered for easy 
reading. 



j> Solo capability 

Block edits are highlighted. 

Tie notes together for musical continuity. 
& Name of note pointed to is constantly 

displayed. 
*> Jump to any point in the score 

instantaneously. 
*> Memory remaining clearly displayed, 

however you will have plenty of memory 

even for the most demanding piece. 

Help menu makes manual virtually 

unnecessary. 
V LYRA is 100% software, no need for extra 

hardware unless you want more power. 

Music easily saved to tape or disk. 

Requires 64K and mouse or joystick. 
LYRA (Disk only) #LY1 22 $54.95 



— LYRA OPTIONS 

These LYRA options are not required. They are provided for those wishing additional flexibility. 



LYRA CONVERT 

A program to convert MUSICA 2 files to LYRA 
files. 

(T or D) #LC164 $14.95 

LYRA STEREO ENHANCER 

Gives the LYRA stereo output when used with 

the STEREO PAK or ORCHESTRA 90. 

(T or D) #LS149 ^ $14.95 

LYRA MIDI CABLE 

A cable to connect your computer to your MIDI 
synthesizer. 

#MC158 $14.95 

We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD Charge $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6'/*% sales tax. 



LYRA SYMPHONY 12 ENHANCER 

Lets LYRA play all 8 voices through SYMPHONY 
12. 

(T or D) #LS1 77 $19.95 

STEREO PAK 

Plugs into the COCO ROM cartridge slot allow- 
ing easy connection to your stereo system. 
#SP193 $39.95 

SYMPHONY 12 

A real hardware music synthesizer, lets LYRA 

play all 8 voices in stereo. 

(T or D) #SY149 $69.95 



COCO MID Seq/Editor 

A professional quality MIDI interface for MIDI 
synthesizers. 

(Disk only) #CM147 $149.95 

MUSIC LIBRARY 

A collection of over 800 songs. When used with 
CONVERT, it gives an incredible LYRA library. 
Each volume 100 songs. 

(T or D) #MLXXX . . . . $29.95 



COCO MAX is a trademark of Colorware. 
ORCHESTRA 90 is a trademark of Radio Shack. 



«• * - 



38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 




FILE EDIT MIDI 


MISC 






p d t n © n 




fl 


rara 


ffl ra \F) FTI iTTI 


MIDI 


I Tis t runeii t s '• 






■D 

"1 


: U01 
■ 006 


Brass 
Piano 


1 

3 


: 005 
! 009 


String 
Gui t ar 




: 013 


E Organ 


5 


: 014 


P Organ 




y 61 


003 


Trunpet 


7 


» 016 


Flute 




0 8: 


018 


Oboe 


9 


: 019 


Clarnet 






021 


Vibrphn 


B 


: 026 


Harpsch 




C; 


025 


Clavier 


D : 


032 


Tinpani 




El 


043 


Snaredr 


Fs 


045 


Percusn 
. 







1 1 1 f » 1 1 1 \ 1 1 

I i i t i i i \ i i i 

I t 1 I ! I I I I ( , 
« * > » I I I I | 






Now your COCO can talk to your MIDI music synthesizer. 
Whether you have a Korg, Roland, Casio, Yamaha, or Moog, it 
doesn't matter as long as it's MIDI equipped. Choose from our 



entry level MUSICA MIDI system that plays MUSICAjites or our 
Professional COCO MIDI 2 system.' 



V Supports 16 Track recording and playback. 

i> Adjustable tempo. 

)S Over 45 Kbytes available 

(Over 15,500 MIDI events possible). 

\* Record to any track. 

Low Level track editing. 
v> LYRA editing, (one voice per track). 

Playback from any number of tracks. 

Quantizing to Vie, 1 /32, Vba intervals. 



Filter out MIDI data: _ 

Key pressure Control Change 

Program change Channel Pressure 

Pitch wheel System Message 

v Graphic Piano Keyboard Display in both 
record and playback mode. 

Adjustable Key (Transposition). 

i> Save recording to disk for later playback or 
editing. 

\* Syncs to drum machine as MASTER or 
SLAVE. 



\* Sequencer features. 
^ 100% machine code. 

"Musician Friendly" Menu Driven. 

Metronome 

Many songs included. 
Includes MIDI hardware interface, 2 MIDI ca- 
bles, detailed manual, and software. Requires 
64K CoCo, Y-Cable or Multi-Pak. 
COCO MIDI 2 (disk only) #CM147 . $149.95 
DOUBLE Y-CABLE #DY181 $28.95 
TRIPLE Y-CABLE #TY173 $34.95 



W LIBRARIAN 



TM 



Save and load voice parameters for the Yamaha DX series of syn- 
thesizers (DX-7, DX-100, DX-21 etc.). Save sounds individually 
or as a group letting you load the entire synthesizer in seconds. 



Comes with professionally developed voices for the DX-7 worth 
10 times the price. Requires COCO MIDI hardware interface. 
DX LIBRARIAN (Disk only) #DX143 $39.95 



CASIO LIBRARIAN 



Save and load voice parameters for any Casio synthesizer (CZ-101, 
CZ-1000, CZ-5000etc.) You can save from the: presets, cartridge, 



memory or buffer. Requires COCO MIDI hardware interface. 
CASIO LIBRARIAN (Disk only) #CL169 . . $39.95 



MUSICA MIDI 



MUSICA MIDI takes any MUSICA 2 music file and plays it through 
your MIDI synthesizer. We offer you over 800 tunes from our 
MUSIC LIBRARY series (sold separately) or create your own music 



using MUSICA 2. Inlcudes: documentation, plenty of music, and 
the cable to connect between the COCO and your synthesizer. 
MUSICA MIDI Complete (Disk Only) #CM126 $39.95 



MIDI KEYBOARD 



If you own the Casio CZ-101 or similar MIDI synth, you know 
that the mini keys and the short 3 or 4 octave keyboard is limiting. 
MIDI KEYBOARD when used with our full size 5 octave keyboard 



gives you the flexibility you need. Comes with cable to connect 
the COCO to your MIDI synth. 

MIDI KEYBOARD (Disk only) #MK167 $29.95 




CHRISTMAS FANTASIA 

We got so many compliments last year for Christmas Fantasia Volume 1, we added 
a second all new version. 

Christmas Fantasia is a collection of traditional Christmas music combined with 
beautiful high resolution Christmas scenes. Christmas Fantasia picks one of more 
than a dozen Christmas scenes and music selections from tape or disk, displays 
the picture and plays the music. Upon completion, another scene and piece of 
music is loaded and played. The Christmas scenes are beautiful. One shows a 
chapel nestled in a valley with snow actually falling. The low price is our way of 
saying "SEASONS GREETINGS" from Speech Systems. 64K required. 

Volume 1 (Tape or Disk) #CF125 $19.95 

Volume 2 (Tape or Disk) #CF126 : . $19.95 



MUSICA 





•When in stereo mode, music is 
played through our STEREO PAK 
(purchased separately). 

• Loudness of each voice may be 
individually specified. 

• Memory available is constantly 
displayed. 

• Voice waveshapes may be 
exchanged between voices at any 
point. 

•Tempo may be specified and may 
even be altered as the music plays. 

• Flats and sharps supported. 

• Billions of timbre combinations. 

• High resolution graphic display, 
looks just like sheet music. 



•MUSICA 2 is 100% software, no need for 
hardware unless you want music produced in 
STEREO. In that case, the STEREO PAK may be 
purchased separately. It's a must for the 
audiophile! 

• Repeat bars allow repeating of music without 
re-inserting music a second or third time. 

• 30 page manual describes all. 

• Requires 64K. 



1 9:97445100 2 ?: 98750 00 8 
3 3s 955770 00 4 9: 95443201 



r048 = HEHQPTf 



. _ I ft 1 

— Lr i 



• Output music to your printer 
(Gemini 10X, Epson, R.S. printers). 




$29.95 




Tape or Disk 



• Allows you to specify key signature. 

• Voice timbre (waveshape) may be 
altered by specifying harmonic 
content just like stops on an organ. 

• During editing, voice being inserted 
is displayed. 

• Each measure is numbered for easy 
reading of music. 

• Measure bars aid in reading and 
developing music. 

• Each voice may be visually 
highlighted for easy identification. 

•4 Voices produced simultaneously. 

• Input notes from Coco keyboard, 
joystick, or Piano Keyboard. 



• Play music from your own BASIC program. 

• Block copy music for easy music development. 

• 100% machine language so it is lightning fast. 

• Vibrato effect easily produced. 

• With STEREO PAK, voices may be switched 
between left and right speakers as music plays. 

• Durations include: whole, half, quarter, 
eighth, sixteenth, thirty-second, sixty-fourth, 
and triplet. 



MUSIC LIBRARY 



TM 



The MUSIC LIBRARY series consists of 8 volumes: 100 through 
800 each sold separately. Each contains over 100 four voice music 
selections with a playing time of over 3 hours each. The disk 
version is shipped on 5 full disks. When coupled with STEREO 
PAK, the music is reproduced with unsurpassed realism. 

A JUKEBOX program is included to allow you to select specific 
songs or automatically play each. These songs are ready to go, 
you don't need MUSICA 2 or a knowledge of music. MUSICA 2 
users may customize each song. Each volume sold separately, 

specify tape or disk. #MLXX*L $29.95 

List of 800 songs #LS800 . . $3.00 



MUSIC LIBRARY 100 

Stage, Screen, & TV 
Music of the 70's 
Music of the 60's 
Music of the 50's 
Old Time Favorites 
MUSIC LIBRARY 200 
MUSIC LIBRARY 300 
MUSIC LIBRARY 400 
MUSIC LIBRARY 500 
MUSIC LIBRARY 600 
MUSIC LIBRARY 700 
MUSIC LIBRARY 800 



Classical 

Christmas (popular) 

Christmas (traditional) 

Patriotic 

Polka Party 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 



Entire Library 
30 Hours of 
Music! 
40 disks 
or 

25 tapes 




TM 



SYMPHONY 12 



FILE EDIT RID I HISC 



B(30@ 




# 0 ' ^ 



.0 



id 



4 



s ?f££ri° N 




If you want to compose music, experiment, or STEREO AND MONO. By connecting SYM- PIANO KEYBOARD. For those wishing to turn 

just listen to music, LYRA is the tool you need. PHONY 12 to your home stereo system, music is SYMPHONY 12 into a real polyphonic synthe- 

LYRA represents the new state-of-the-art super produced in stereo, 6 voices from each channel. sizer we offer a full size 61 note piano 

user friendly software. Pull down menus and However, you don't need to have a stereo system, keyboard. 

icons make composing music as easy as pointing all 12 voices also come out of your TV or monitor. . u ;l cvuouAMvn a *l 

... i ° I I* i * ,, /nA • Tape users using both SYMPHONY 12 and the 

with a oystick or mouse and clicking. LYRA is rrrr „ e . „ diam^ ^r VD mnn ...hi ™ • „ vr-Acnc 

capable of 8 individually controlled voices. You SOV " D E " ECTS - SYMPHONY 12 is a sophist!- PIANO KEYBOARD will require a Y-CABLE. 

may take advantage of the 8 voice power of "ted sound generator. 12 voices and 4 noise ^ systems require a Triple Y-CABLE or 

LYRA using external MIDI synthesizers or SYM- ^"erators give you incredible sound effect capa- ^LTI-PAK 

PHONY 12. We believe that LYRA and SYM- bll "V- We have included gun shot, explosion, rac- f™f™22*"£ °1 SLf^L ' " $69,9S 

PHONY 12 was a match made in heaven. For a ln 8 car and more. LYRA SYMPHONY 12 ENHANCER 

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» 



By Fred B. Scerbo 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Editor's Note: If you have an idea for 
the "Wishing Well/' submit it to Fred 
c/o THE RAINBOW. Remember, keep 
your ideas specific, and don 't forget that 
this is BASIC. All programs resulting 
from your wishes are for your use but 
remain the property of the author. 



Now that November is upon us, 
our thoughts naturally turn 
toward that day of culinary 
feasting: Thanksgiving. While I trust 
that few of you carve the big bird by the 
green glow of your CoCo screen, I 
figured that this would be a perfect time 
to offer my own Thanksgiving gift to 
help instruct in a skill that will benefit 
any kitchen adventurer. So before we 
roll out the cranberries and stuffing, 
let's take a look at our latest "Wishing 
Well" presentation, Liquid Measure. 



Fred Scerbo is a special needs instructor 
for the North Adams Public Schools in 
North Adams, Massachusetts. He holds 
a master's in education and has pub- 
lished some of the first software avail- 
able for the Color Computer through 
his software firm, Illustrated Memory 
Banks. 



The Wish 

How many of you have actually tried 
to convince your spouse that investing 
in a Color Computer would help her in 
the kitchen? (Gee, Honey, you could put 
all your recipes on it.) I know a few 
people who have actually used this 
approach. Fortunately, the spouses 
usually agreed to the purchase for mpre 
practical reasons, such as their own 
interest in learning computer skills. 

One of those practical reasons is 
educational in nature. Followers of the 
"Wishing Well" will by now be familiar 
with the fact that education is my 
primary reason for using the CoCo. I 
have always tried to find new ways to 
meet my students' needs using my CoCo 
while trying to accommodate your 
wishes as well. Since many of you have 
written about skills you would like to 
see serve as the basis for a "Wishing 
Well" program, Liquid Measure seemed 
to be the next progression. Rather than 
make it part of our Life Skills series, I 
have chosen to include some different 
elements to make the program more 
exciting and graphically interesting. 

For anyone who ever had difficulty 
finding a way to express certain liquid 
measurement values in an understanda- 



ble manner, Liquid Measure should be 
a big help for you or your youngsters. 
Using the text character graphics, we 
will display the material we want pre- 
sented and then quiz it in a very attrac- 
tive fashion. 

The Program 

Written to work on a 16K machine, 
Liquid Measure uses only the graphics 
capabilities of the CoCo found outside 
Extended Color BASIC. There are sev- 
eral reasons for this. 

Since a good part of our material is 
covered in written form, we would 
naturally want to use our text charac- 
ters for this purpose. If we were to use 
the high resolution graphics in Ex- 
tended BASIC, we would need to create 
a whole graphics character set. While 
previous "Wishing Well" programs have 
done just that, our 16 by 32 text format 
is perfectly suited for our purposes. 
Also, since we are presenting informa- 
tion in small amounts, using the regular 
text characters makes our information 
appear much more visible on the screen. 

The next major innovation I have 
used in this program is a completely 
inverted screen. Instead of using our 
green screen with black text, I have 
made all of the screens except the score 



62 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



;ard into an inverted black screen with 
nverde video characters. My reasons 
or this are two-fold. First, the graphics 
Df thfc cups, pints, quarts, etc. look 
much' more dramatic on a black field. 
Using regular characters would only 
detract from our intended effect. 

Secondly, I was getting a little sick of 
:he big black border around our green 
screen. Why not have our programs 
look as classy as the more expensive 
machines. Therefore, the time was right 
for an inverted screen. Presto! 

One thing which I did not do with this 
program, however, is make it work on 
an MC-10. Adding the offset value to 
the sqreen pokes would slow down this 
program more than I would like. Those 
who need to translate the program to 
MC-10 should not have too much dif- 
ficulty. I am starting to feel that very few 
of you are still using this mini-CoCo at 
all. 

The subroutine that inverts the text 
is quite simple, actually. Our text is 
made equal to T$. We then evaluate 
each character of T$ and poke the 
inverted value to a given screen loca- 
tion. Therefore, be sure to save this 
program to tape or disk before you run 
it. A typo in one of the pokes could lock 
up your machine. Nothing is more 
frustrating than a locked-up machine 
when you have taken the time to type 
in a long listing from these pages. Be 
safe; save it first. 

One special feature, which I included 
in the title card this time, was a rotating 
border like you would normally see at 
an old movie theater. Little flashing 
lights run circles around the words 
Liquid Measure until the user presses 
either ENTER to begin or 'Q' to skip 
directly ahead to the quiz section. I felt 
this kind of a change in outlook was a 
little overdue. I hope you like it. 



Using the Program 

If you chose to press enter at the 
start of the program, you are slowly 
walked through a display of the equiva- 
lent values, from one cup through one 
gallon. Since we are using the poke 
method of string evaluation mentioned 
earlier, the text slowly scrolls onto the 
screen character-by-character. To pro- 
ceed to the next screen, the user need 
only press ENTER as the screen prompts 
appear. 

At the end of the display, the program 
proceeds to a short quiz based on the 
Homonym Quiz from a previous 
"Wishing Well." The big difference 
between this version and the original is 
the use of the inverted black screen. I 
have also adapted any screen references 
to the homonyms so this quiz section is 
uniquely designed for the liquid meas- 
urement material. 

The quiz only contains about 14 
possible examples. However, if you 
want to add any extra quiz problems 
along the same format, you may enter 
additional examples (up to 50) in the 
data statements at the end of the listing. 
Just be sure that all data is in groups of 
three items: The first is the value, the 
second is the correct answer and the 
third is an incorrect response. 

An example might be something like: 



1000 DRTR TWO QUARTS, 1/2 
GALLON ,1^2 PINT 



When asked to match the value of two 
quarts to the two possible choices, the 
answer would naturally be l A gallon. All 
of my examples are singular expressions 
(one gallon, one pint, etc.) You may 
want to use plural examples like the 
sample I have just shown. Just be sure 



to delete my last data line with the end 
statements in it and replace it with: 




This adds your problems to my own 
listing. I have put more than one prob- 
lem in a data line in order to conserve 
space, although I would suggest that 
you use one line for each problem you 
create. You may even choose to delete 
all of my data. Just be sure to include 
the triple end statements in the final 
data line and not to exceed 50 problems. 
When the program is run, it jumbles the 
order of the problems and ensures that 
the appearance of the choices are also 
jumbled. The user needs only press the 
letter 'A' or 'B' for an answer in this 
multiple choice quiz. Pressing the '(§)' 
key ends the quiz early and skips di- 
rectly to the score card. You may either 
rerun the program by pressing *Y* for 
yes or end by pressing 'N' for no. 

There is no CPL (Computer Paced 
Learning) in this program as found in 
some of my recent programs. Once you 
run this listing, you will understand why 
including this feature was not necessary. 

Conclusion 

While the skills presented in this 
program might seem elementary to 
some of you, I think you will find it very 
useful with youngsters who have not 
mastered these measurement skills. It 
also serves as a program guide for those 
of you who want to examine the pro- 
gram lines to get some ideas on using 
strings for graphics or text inversion. 

Next month, IH offer a special hol- 
iday gift to my readers. Until then, keep 
your ideas and suggestions coming. □ 



130 77 

175 202 

265 107 

345 47 

415 223 

460 198 



515 10 

580 196 

685 45 

790 163 

END 32 



The listing: LIQUID 

10 REM************************** 

2) 3 REM* LIQUID MEASURE * 

3) 3 REM* BY FRED B.SCERBO * 

4) 3 REM* COPYRIGHT (C) 1986 * 



5) 3 REM* 6)3 HARDING AVENUE * 

6) 3 REM* NORTH ADAMS, MA )31247 * 
70 REM************************** 

8) 3 CLEAR15)3)3:U$=CHR$(152) :V$=CHR 
$ (232 ) 

85 CLS)3:F0RI=1T016:PRINTCHR$ (152 
)CHR$(232) ; : NEXT : PRINTCHR$ ( 2 3 2 ) ; 
:PRINT@63,CHR$(152)CHR$(152) ; 

9) 3 F0RI=1)389T0128J3:READA 
95 POKEI,A+128:NEXT 

1)3)3 PRINT@287,CHR$ (232) ;:FORI=lT 
016:PRINTCHR$(232)CHR$(152) ; :NEX 
T 

1)35 F0RI=1T017:READA:P0KE1382+I, 
A : NEXT : FORI=lT019 : READA : POKE 1413 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 63 



+1, A: NEXT 

110 SH=1472:T$=" PRESS <ENTER 
> OR <Q>UIZ.":GOSUB195 
115 DATA, ,, ,47,32,32, ,36,47,4)3, , 

,47,32,47, ,36,47,40, ,47 
,104,104 

,47,32,47, ,32,47,32, ,47 
,24,24 

,,,44,44,44, ,36,44,40,, 
,44,44,44, ,36,44,40, ,44 
,104,104 

63,50,49,63, ,63,60,60, , 
,63,60,60, ,63,48,63, ,63 



47,44,47 

,44,43,, 

120 DATA 

47,33,47 

,32,47,, 

125 DATA 

44,44,46 

/44,40,, 

130 DATA 

55,60,59 



135 DATA 
63,60,63 



140 DATA 
60,48, 60 



,60,63, ,63,60,60, ,24,24 



63,52,56,63, ,63,60,60, , 
,60,60,63, ,63,48,63, ,63 



,61,50, ,63,60,60, ,104,104 



60,48,48,60, ,60,60,60, , 
,60,60,60, ,60,60,60, ,60 
,48,60, ,60,60,60, ,24,24 
145 DATA2,25,32,6,18,5,4,32,2,46 
,32,19,3,5,18,2,15 

150 DATA3,15,16,25,18,9,7,8,20,3 
2,40,3,41,32,32,49,57,56,54 
155 FORI=lT016:OW$=OW$+CHR$ (232) 
+CHR$(152) :WO$=WO$+CHR$ (152)+CHR 
$(232) :NEXT 

160 PRINT@0,OW$; :PRINT@63,V$; : PR 
INT@95,U$; :PRINT@127,V$; :PRINT@1 
59,U$; :PRINT@191,V$; :PRINT@223,U 
$; :PRINT@255,V$; :PRINT@287,U$7 
165 PRINT@288,WO$; : PRINT@256 ,U$ ; 
:PRINT@224,V$; : PRINT@192 ,U$ ; :PRI 
NT@160,V$7 :PRINT@128,U$; :PRINT@9 

6,V$; :PRINT@64,U$; :PRINT@32,V$; 

170 W$=INKEY$:IFW$=CHR$ (13)THEN1 

85ELSEIFW$="Q"THEN575 

175 PRINT@0,WO$; :PRINT@63,.U$; : PR 

INT@95,V$; :PRINT@127,U$; :PRINT@1 

59, V$; :PRINT@191,U$; :PRINT@223,V 
$; :PRINT@255,U$; : PRINT@287 , V$ ; 
180 PRINT@288,OW$; :PRINT@256,V$,• 
:PRINT@224,U$; :PRINT@192,V$; :PRI 
NT@160,U$; :PRINT@128,V$; :PRINT@9 

6,U$; :PRINT@64,V$; :PRINT@32,U$; : 

GOTO 160 
185 CLS0 
190 GOTO230 

195 SH=SH-1 : T=LEN(T$ ) : IFT<=32THE 
N215 

200 FORZ=32TO0STEP-l:IFMID$(T$,Z 
,1)=" "THEN 2 10 
205 NEXTZ:GOT0215 

210 S$=LEFT$(T$,Z)+STRING$(32-Z, 
32) :GOSUB220:T$=RIGHT$ (T$,T-Z) :S 
H=SH+33:GOT0195 

215 S$=T$+STRING$(32-T,32) : :GOSU 



B2 20: RETURN 

220 S=LEN(S$) :FORI=lTOS:Y=ASC(MI 
D$(S$,I,1) ) :IFY>64THENY=Y-64 
225 POKESH+I,Y?NEXTI: RETURN 
230 CLS0. 

235 EQ$=CHR$(179)+CHR$(179)+CHR$ 

(179)+CHR$(179) 

240 RR$=CHR$(204) 

245 R$=CHR$(128) 

250 L$=" 11 

255 CP$= ,I C. ,, 

260 PT$="PT" 

265 QT$="QT" 

270 GH$= ,, HALF":HG$= ,, GAL. ,, - 

275 D$=RR$+RR$+RR$+RR$+R$ 

280 E$=CHR$ (205)+L$++L$+CHR$ (206 

)+R$+R$+R$ 

285 F$=CHR$(207)+L$++L$+CHR$(207 
) +R$+R$+R$ 

290 G$=CHR$(205)+L$+L$+L$+L$+CHR 
$(206)+R$ 

295 H$=CHR$ (207)+L$+L$+L$+L$+CHR 
$(207)+R$ 

300 J$=CHR$(204)+CHR$(204)+CHR$( 
204)+CHR$(204)+CHR$(204)+CHR$(20 
4)+R$ 

305 GA$=CHR$(205)+L$+L$+L$+L$+L$ 
+L$+CHR$(206)+R$ 

310 GB$=CHR$(207)+L$+L$+L$+L$+L$ 
+L$+CHR$(207)+R$ 

315 GC$=RR$+RR$+RR$+RR$+RR$+RR$+ 
RR$+RR$+R$ 
320 GOT0395 
325 REM CUP 

330 PRINT@L+32,CHR$(207) "C."CHR$ 
( 207 ) CHR$ (205) R$ ; : PRINT@L+64 , D$ ; 
: RETURN 
3 35 REM PINT 

340 PRINT@L,E$; : PRINT@L+32 , F$ ; :P 
RINT@L+64,D$; :PRINT@L+33,PT$; :RE 

TURN 

345 REM QUART 

350 PRINT@L+32,E$; :PRINT@L+64,F$ 
; :PRINT@L+96,F$; : PRINT@L+128 , D$ ; 
: PRINT@L+97 , QT$ ; : RETURN 
355 REM HALF GAL 

3 60 PRINT@L,G$; :PRINT@L+32,H$; :P 
RINT@L+64,H$; :PRINT@L+96,H$; : PRI 
NTOL+128, J$; :PRINT@L+65,GH$; :PRI 
NTOL+97 , HG$ ; : RETURN 
365 REM GALLON 

370 PRINT§L,GA$; : PRINTQL+32 , GB$ ; 
: PRINT@L+64 , GB$ ; : PRINT@L+96 , GB$ ; 
: PRINT6L+128 , GBJ$ ; : PRINT@L+160 , G 
C$; :PRINT@L+130,HG$; : RETURN 
375 REM HOLD SCREEN 
380 T$=" PRESS <ENTER> TO CONT 
INUE . 11 : SH=1504 : GOSUB195 



64 THE RAINBOW November 1986 






7*a 9& z * 6ti 




80d "So S 



or 




HOW DO YOO TOTE A RAINOOW? 

It's simple — Give a RAINBOW gift certificate . . . 



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385 IFINKEY$OCHR$(13)THEN385ELS 
ERETURN 

390 S=LEN(S$) :F0RI=1T0S:SS=ASC(M 
ID$ (S$ , I , 1) ) : SS=SS-64 : IFSS=-32TH 
ENSS=32ELSEIFSS=-18THENSS=46 
395 L=172:GOSUB330:SH=1088:T$=" 

THIS IS ONE CUP.":GOSUB195 
400 T$=" ONE CUP IS THE SAME AS 
EIGHT FLUID OUNCES. H :S 

H=1344:GOSUB195 
405 GOSUB380 

410 CLS0:L=141:GOSUB340:SH=1088: 
T$=" THIS IS ONE PINT.": GO 

SUB195 

415 SH=1248:T$=" ONE PINT IS THE 
SAME THING AS TWO CUPS AND IS S 
IXTEEN OUNCES . " : GOSUB195 
420 L=323:GOSUB340:L=335:GOSUB33 
0 : L=343 : GOSUB3 30 : PRINT@329 , EQ$ ; : 
PRINT@361,EQ$; :GOSUB380 
425 CLS0:L=77:GOSUB350:SH=1056:T 
$=" THIS IS ONE QUART." :GOS 

UB195 

430 SH=1248:T$=" ONE QUART IS TH 

E SAME AS TWO PINTS AND IS THIRT 

Y TWO OUNCES. ":GOSUB19 5 

435 L=291:GOSUB350:L=367:GOSUB34 

0 : L=3 7 5 : GOSUB3 4 0 : PRINT @ 3 6 1 , EQ$ ; : 

PRINT@393 , EQ$ ; : GOSUB380 

440 FORI=224T0287:PRINT@I,CHR$(l 

28);: NEXTI 

445 SH=1248:T$="ONE QUART IS ALS 
0 THE SAME AS FOUR CU 

PS.":GOSUB195 

450 L=303:GOSUB330:L=3 67:GOSUB33 
0 : L=3 11 : GOSUB3 30 : L=3 75 : GOSUB3 3 0 : 
PRINT@361,EQ$; :PRINT@393,EQ$; :GO 
SUB380 

455 CLS0:L«76:GOSUB360:SH=1024:T 
$=•• THIS IS ONE HALF GALLON.": 
GOSUB195 

460 SH=1248:T$=" ONE HALF GALLON 
IS THE SAME AS TWO QUARTS OR SI 
XTY FOUR OUNCES.":GOSUB195 

465 L=322:GOSUB360:L=335:GOSUB35 

0 : L=3 4 3 : GOSUB3 50 : PRINT© 3 61, EQ$; : 

PRINT@393,EQ$; :GOSUB380 

470 FORI=224T0287:PRINT@I,R$; :NE 

XTI 

475 SH=1248:T$=" A HALF GALLON I 
S ALSO THE SAME AS FOUR 

PINTS. ":GOSUB195 

480 L=303:GOSUB340:L=399:GOSUB34 
0 : L=311: GOSUB340 : L=407 : GOSUB340 : 
PRINT@361,EQ$; :PRINT@393,EQ$; :GO 
SUB385 

485 CLS0:L=76:GOSUB360:SH=1024:T' 
$=" ONE HALF GALLON IS ALSO": 



EQUAL TO E 



GOSUB195 

490 SH=1248:T$=" 
IGHT CUPS.":GOSUB195 
495 FORL=290TO316STEP7:GOSUB330: 
NEXTL:FORL=354TO380STEP7:GOSUB3 3 
0:NEXTL:GOSUB380 

500 CLS0:L=44:GOSUB370:SH=1024:T 
$=" THIS IS ONE WHOLE GALLON. 
":GOSUB195 

505 SH=1248:T$=" ONE GALLON IS 
EQUAL TO ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY 
EIGHT OUNCES. " : GOSUB195 : GOSUB38 

510 FORI=224T0287:PRINT@I,R$; :NE 
XTI : FORI=0TO3 1 : PRINT© I , R$ ; : NEXTI 
515 SH=1024:T$=" ONE WHOLE GALLO 
N IS THE SAME AS" : GOSUB195 : SH=12 
48:T$=" TWO HALF GALLONS. 

" :GOSUB195 

520 FORL=328TO338STEP10:GOSUB360 
:NEXTL:GOSUB385 

525 FORI=224T0479:PRINT@I,R$; :NE 
XTI 

530 SH=1248:T$=" FOUR Q 

UARTS . " : GOSUB195 . 

535 FORL=325T0345STEP6 : GOSUB350 : 

NEXTL:GOSUB385 

540 FORI=224T0479:PRINT§I,R$; :NE 
XTI 

545 SH=1248:T$=" EIGHT 
PINTS. " :GOSUB195 

550 FORL=293TO313STEP6:GOSUB340: 
NEXTL: FORL=389TO409STEP6 : GOSUB34 
0:NEXTL:GOSUB380 

555 FORI=224T0479:PRINT@I,R$; :NE 
XTI 

560 SH=1248:T$=" SIXTEEN 

CUPS. " :GOSUB195 
565 L=186:GOSUB3 30:FORL=226TO251 
STEP6 : GOSUB3 3 0 : NEXTL : FORL=2 90TO3 
15STEP6 : GOSUB330 : NEXTL: FORL=354T 
03 80STEP6 : G0SUB3 3 0 : NEXTL: G0SUB3 8 
5 

570 PRINT@480, ""; 
575 CLS0 

580 DIM A0(51) ,A$(51) ,B$(51) ,C$( 
51) ,NP(51) 

585 SW=30 :KZ=RND( -TIMER) :F0RJ=1T 
051 

590 READ A$(J) ,B$(J) ,C$(J) : IF A$ 

(J)="END" THEN600 

595 NEXT J 

600 J=J-1 

605 F0RI=1 TO J 

610 AO(I)=RND(J) 

615 IF NP(A0(I))=1 THEN610 

620 NP(AO(I) )=1: NEXTI 

625 FOR P=1T0J 



! 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 67 



630 FORI=1024TO1535 : POKEI , 32 :NEX 
T 

635 SH=1056:T$=" REVIEW EXAMPLE 

NUMBER" +STR$ (P) +« . " : GOSUB195 
640 SH=1120:T$=" "+A$(AO(P) )+" 
IS EQUAL TO WHICH":GOSUB195 
645 SH=1152:T$=" OF THE FOLLOWI 
NG CHOICES ?":GOSUB195 
650 JK$=A$(AO(P) ) 
655 D=RND(20) :IFD=>11THEN665 
660 F$=B$(AO(P) ) :H$=C$(AO(P) ) :J$ 
="A":M$="B":GOTO670 
665 F$=C$(AO(P) ) :H$=B$(AO(P) ) :J$ 
="B" : M$="A" : GOTO670 
67)3 SH=1221:T$="A) "+F$ :GOSUB195 
675 SH=1285:T$="B) "+H$:GOSUB195 
680 G$=INKEY$:IF G$=""THEN680 
685 IF G$=J$THEN705 
69)3 IF G$=M$THEN705 
695 IF G$="@"THEN755 
7)30 GOT068)3 
7)35 IF G$=J$THEN72)3 
71)3 GOT073)3 

715 IF C(F(G) )<>AO(P) THEN73)3 
72J3 SH=1349:T$="YOU ARE CORRECT! 
" :GOSUB195 
725 CR=CR+l:GOT074)3 

73) 3 SH=1344:T$=" SORRY! THE COR 
RECT ANSWER IS" : GOSUB195 : SH=1378 
:T$=B$(AO(P) )+". ":GOSUB195 

735 IR=IR+1 

74) 3 SH=1442:T$=" (PRESS <ENTER> T 
O CONTINUE .)":GOSUB195 

745 IFINKEY$OCHR$(13)THEN745 

75) 3 NEXTP 

755 CLS : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT 

76) 3 PRINT" NUMBER CORRECT = " 
CR 

765 PRINT 

77) 3 PRINT" NUMBER WRONG = " 
IR 

775 J=CR+IR:IFJ=0THENJ=1 



78) 3 PRINT: PRINT" STUDENT SCOR 
E = ";INT(CR*100/J) /"%" 

785 PRINT: PRINT" ANOTHER TRY 
(Y/N) " ; 

79) 3 W$=INKEY$:IF W$=""THEN790 
795 IF W$="Y" THEN RUN 

80) 3 IF W$="N" THEN CLS: END 
805 GOTO790 

810 REM ENTER DATA AT LINE 1000 
815 DATA ONE CUP, EIGHT OUNCES, FO 
UR OUNCES, ONE PINT, TWO CUPS, FOUR 
CUPS, ONE PINT, SIXTEEN OUNCES, EI 
GHT OUNCES 

820 DATA ONE QUART, TWO PINTS, TWO 
CUPS, ONE QUART, FOUR CUPS,SIXTEE 
N OUNCES, ONE QUART, 32 OUNCES, FOU 
R PINTS 

825 DATA 1/2 GALLON, TWO QUARTS, T 
WO PINTS, 1/2 GALLON, FOUR PINTS, E 
I GHT PINTS, 1/2 GALLON, EIGHT CUPS 
,32 OUNCES, 1/2 GALLON, 64 OUNCES, 
128 OUNCES 

830 DATA ONE GALLON, FOUR QUARTS, 
FOUR PINTS, ONE GALLON, EIGHT PINT 
S,FOUR PINTS, ONE GALLON, SIXTEEN 
CUPS, SIXTEEN OUNCES 
835 DATA ONE GALLON, 128 OUNCES, 6 
4 OUNCES 

840 DATA END, END, END 




ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING for the TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 



At last - The book exclusively for you and your CoCo !! 
You've learned BASIC and are now ready to learn assembly 
language programming. This hands-on guide begins* %^th 
the basics and prog^sses to the expert Aevel: 
revealing programming qpnyentions and techniques and 
all the internal c amenities of the TDP-i^^CoCo 1 
and 2. At every stejgV>f the way are illta* rat ions, 
sample programs, *ancr plain English ex| 
sample programs^^ne shown as asseml 
Shack's EDTASMC^artridge. Plus, a 
explains how ^bS^jse all EDTASM+ capab|*lji 
describes ljpr\o write subroutinesjSrrTferrupt handlers, 
programs w|t control the graphics display modes, 
cassette, disk, keyboard, sound, joysticks, serial I/O, 
interrupts, and use of ROM resident subroutines. Also 
covered are the HC6809E microprocessor, the video 
display generator <VDG), peripheral interface adapters 



anations. All 
with Radio 
iplete chapter 
es. This book 



(PIA), SAM, memory, and how they all work together. 
Suitable as a high school or college textbook. 
CHAPTERS : The Binary Number System - Memory and Data 
Representation - IntrcKtajjtion MC6809E Microprocessor - 
Addressing Modes of th#?M€6809E - MC6809E Instruction 
Set • Assembly LargSj|Se Programming withXEDTASM* - 
Assembly Language Programming - Assembly Language and 
Extended Color BAfriC - Internal Control ^JJ^raphics 
Technical Detail^V 

289 pages 

soft cover 
$16.00 U.S. p 



& ED' 




RI resid 
volume dis 

Published and 

sold by 



TRS-80 & EDTASM+ are 
trademarjAo^ Tandy Corp 
$1 .50 shipping. ChagKjtor money order, 
'please add 6% safeVtax. Inquire about 
ts. * 

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30 Water Street 
Portsmouth, RI 02871 



68 THE RAINBOW November 19B6 



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PRINTERS AND ACCESSORIES 



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SUPER SOFTWARE 




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TFT FCOMMIJNTCATTONS 


32K 






Disk | 





A modification to use 
Remote2 with 
an RS-232 Pak 



The Evolving 

REMOTE 



By Mark Crosby 



I have changed Scott Taylor's Re- 
mote2 improved remote terminal 
driver [November 1985, Page 106] 
to operate with a modified RS-232 
Program Pak. By slightly modifying the 



E2 separates the IRQ of the ACIA from 
positions 4 and 8 of the cartridge con- 
nector. 

If the jumper is not cut, any data 
input causes the IRQ to become active, 



RCV 



P5H5 


B 


saue the contents of B 


LDB 


$FF6B 


get status of RCIfl 


RNDB 


»$08 


check for full receive register 


BEQ 


NDIN 


no input, jump out 


RNDB 


tt$07 


check for receive errors 


BNE 


ERR 


jump to error section 


LDfi 


$FF6B 


load R with data input 


PULS 


B 


retrieve B 


RTS 




go back to calling section 



Figure 1 



RS-232 Pak, it can be adapted to work 
with a Y cable and disk drive. 

Removing the ROM chip (U3) elim- 
inates the memory conflict between 
Disk BASIC and the Pak ROM. Cutting 
the wire jumper connecting pads El and 



Mark Crosby, from Hyrnera, Ind., is a 
senior at Indiana State University 
majoring in applied computer technol- 
ogy. He has owned a Co Co for two 
years and is currently compiling infor- 
mation to construct an interactive space 
flight Simulation. 



which triggers the non-maskable inter- 
rupt and the cartridge interrupt detec- 
tion input of the computer. When the 
CART Pin is active, the computer 
resets. If you have the disk controller 
connected, the computer shows the 
opening credits. 

After all the hardware modifications 
are done, it is just the exchange of 
routines to be able to communicate 
through the Pak. 

The input routine could look like that 
in Figure 1. 

The output routine could look like 
that in Figure 2. 



70 



THE RAINBOW November 1986 



OUT 


P5H5 


B 


sawe ths contents of B 


0UT1 


LDB 


$FF6g 


get status of RCIR 




RNDB 


8$10 


check for full transmit register 


• 


BEQ 


□UT1 


if full, go back and check again 




STfl 


$FF6B 


t ransmi t data 




PULS 


B 


retrieve B 




□ T C 

H 1 b 




go dacK to calling section 




• 




Figure 2 



These lines replace all programming 
required for the bit-banger method, and 
it is a lot faster too. 

In addition to making the hardware 
change and using Remot232 program 
or some other routine, you need to tell 
the 6551 AC1A what communication 
parameters you want to use. You can do 
this by poking certain values into the 
control register (location $FF6B) and 
the command register (location 
SFF6A). To configure the RS-232 Pak 
for 300 Baud, one stop bit, 7-bit word 
length, even parity and no echo, the 
following values need to be poked to the 
registers before loading Remot232\ 



PDKE$HFF6B , 54 (press ENTER) 
PD!<E$HFF6fl , 107 (press ENTER) 

For different settings, consult pages 
15 and 16 of the manual that came with 
your RS-232 Pak. 

One you have made all modifications 
and poked the cpntrol and command 
registers, LDRDM and execute 
Remot232. Now you may control your 
CoCo via an external terminal, say a 
Model 100 or a full 80-column terminal. 

I tested the modification by changing 
the RS-232 routines in the Remote2 
program. It worked well at 300 Baud 
and allowed the use of the printer. □ 



To 

Cartridge 
Connector 



To 
DB-25 
Connector 



Cut this jump wire. 
U1 



t R1 u 



To Cartridge E 
pins 4 and 8. X 




U3 




Remove this chip 
to make sure that 
there is not any 
competition for 
address between 
Disk basic and 
Cartridge ROM. 



Figure 3 



7D00 




01 


00330 


BREAK 


FCB 


$01 


7D01 




01 


00340 


CORNER 


FCB 


$01 


7D02 




01 


00350 


LFFLG 


FCB 


$01 


7D03 




00 


00360 


PRTFLG 


FCB 


$00 


7D04 




00 


00370 


ICASE 


FCB 


$00 


7D05 




00 


00380 


0CASE 


FCB 


$00 


7D06 




9F 


00390 


CURSOR 


FCB 


$9F 


7D07 




0400 


00400 


NOSCRL 


FDB 


$400 


7D09 




00 


00410 


COUNTR 


FCB 


$00 


7D0A 






00420 


TABLE 


RMB 


$28 








00430 


^INITIALIZE RAM 


HOOKS 


7D32 


BE 


0168 


00440 


START 


LDX 


1+OHOOK 


7D35 


AF 


8D 012D 


00450 




STX 


1+NTSCRN,PCB 


7D39 


BE 


016B 


00460 




LDX 


1+IHOOK 


7D3C 


AF 


8D 0193 


00470 




STX 


1+IRET2 , PCR 


7D40 


86 


7E 


00480 




LDA 


#$7E 


7D42 


B7 


0167 


00490 




STA 


OHOOK 


7D45 


B7 


01 6 A 


00500 




STA 


IHOOK 


7D48 


30 


8D 0048 


00510 




LEAX 


OUT, PCR 


7D4C 


BF 


0168 


00520 




STX 


1+OHOOK 


7D4F 


30 


8D 0115 


005 30 




LEAX 


IN, PCR 


7D53 


BF 


016B 


00540 




STX 


1+IHOOK 








00550 


* MOVE 


TABLE OF 


ROM ADDRESS 








005 60 


*SET INKEY$ TO RAM BASED ROUTINE 


7D56 


8E 


AA29 


00570 


M0VTBL 


LDX 


#$AA29 


7D59 


31 


8C AE 


00580 




LEAY 


TABLE , PCR 


7D5C 


10BF 0128 


005 90 




STY 


$128 


7D60 


EC 


81 


00600 


GETADD 


LDD 


,X++ 


7D62 


ED 


Al 


00610 




STD 


,Y++ 


7D64 


8C 


AA51 


00620 




CMPX 


#$AA51 


7D67 


26 


F7 


00630 




BNE 


GETADD 


7D69 


30 


8D 0005 


00640 




LEAX 


INKEY , PCR 


7D6D 


31 


3C 


00650 




LEAY 


-4,Y 


7D6F 


AF 


A4 


00660 




STX 




7D71 


39 




00670 


RET 


RTS 





Editor's Note: Remot232 will be 
included on RAINBOW ON TAPE as 

well as RAINBOW ON DISK. To 

transfer the file from tape to disk, 
type CLOfiDM "REM0T232 ~ and 
press ENTER. When the file has 
loaded from tape, enter SRVEM 
"REMQT232", & H7D00, S.H7E 
E4,&H?D32 



The listing: REMDT232 



7D00 



016A 
0167 
A000 
006F 
0070 



00100 
00110 
00120 
00130 
00140 
00150 
00160 
00170 
00180 
00190 
00200 
00210 
00220 
00230 
00240 
00250 
00260 
00270 
00280 
00290 
00300 
00310 
00320 



* REM0TE2 * 

* AN IMPROVED REMOTE * 

* TERMINAL * 

* DRIVER FOR THE COCO BY* 

* SCOTT TAYLOR RAINBOW * 

* 11/85 

* FROM THE ORIGINAL 

* REMOTE PROGRAM BY 

* DAN DOWNARD RAINDOW 

* 11/83 

* SET TO OPERATE ON A 

* MODIFIED RS232 PROGRAM* 

* PAK BY MARK CROSBY * 

* 3/86 * 

ORG $7D00 
^EQUATES FOR ROM & RAM 

IHOOK EQU $01 6 A 

OHOOK EQU $0167 

POLCAT EQU $A000 

DEV EQU $6F 

FLAG EQU $70 



* 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 71 



1 






n n £ r> /it 
00680 


*CHECK KEYBOARD 


AND 








00690 


*RS232 FOR INKEY$ 255 








ftftt n n 
00700 


*TIMES IF NOTHING IN $87 


7D7Z 


96 


Q 1 

8 7 


00710 


INKEY LDA 


<$87 


7D74 


o f 

26 


15 


ft ft *1 f\ fl 

00720 


BNE 


YES 


7D76 


86 


FF 


ft fti /t 


LDA 


#$FF 


7D78 


B7 


7D09 


rtft^ i ct 
00740 


STA 


COUNTR 


7D7B 


AD 


9F A000 


Of Of ™T r~ 

00750 


INKEY2 JSR 


[POLCAT] 


7D7F 


26 


0A 


Of Of ^ ^ Of 

00760 


BNE 


YES 


7D81 


T1 TV 

BD 


7E88 


00770 


JSR 


REMIN 


7Do*f 


O £ 
Z 0 


Of c 

05 


or m o Of 
00780 


BNE 


YES 


/Dob 


H A 

7A 


"7 F\Of Q 

7D>jy 


Of Of "7 OOf 

00790 


DEC 


COUNTR 




Z 0 




ororo of of 
00800 


BNE 


INKEY 2 








Of Of O 1 /Tf 

00810 


^CHARACTER IN A 


REGISTER 








Of Of O O Of 

00820 


^BRANCH IF BREAK (A=$03) 








OfOfQ OOf 

008 J0 


^CONVERT TO STRING 


/Do d 


o 1 

81 


ft 0 


ft ft a / ft 
00840 


YES CMPA 


#$03 


7D8D 


1 ftn t 

1027 


O (Tf "7 O 

3078 


ft ft n c ft 

00850 


LBEQ 


$AE09 


7D91 


7E 


A56B 


Of Of Oi ^ Of 

00860 


JMP 


$A56B 








00870 


*OUTPUT CHARACTER IF DEV-0 


# 






Of a r> /V 

00880 


* INSERT LINE FEEDS IF NEEDED 








ft ft a ft ft 

00890 


*USE NEW PRINT 


ROUTINE 


7D94 




06 


n n r\ ft ft 
00900 


OUT PSHS 


A, B 


/ijy o 


0D 




Ot Of O 1 Of 

00910 


TST 


<DEV 


7D98 


i n o £ 
1026 


n n t 

00C7 


ft ft ft r\ ft 

00920 


LBNE 


NTSCN1 


7D9C 


81 


08 


of or n o of 

00930 


CMPA 


#$08 


7D9E 


11 


1 A 

1A 


ft n n / ft 
00940 


BEQ 


RM0UT2 


"J T> A Of 

7DA0 


81 


rt TV 

0D 


Of Of Oi C Of 

00950 


CMPA 


#$0D 


•In I n 

7DA2 


26 


fly* 

0E 


Of Of Ok O^ Of 

00960 


BNE 


REMOUT 








Of Of ft ™T Of 

00970 


*CHECK IF LINE 


FEEDS ARE 








ft ft ft O Of 

00980 


*T0 BE SENT TO 


REMO-TERM 


/DA*+ 


r o 




or or O ft or 

00990 


LDB 


LFFLG 


*7T\ A T 

7DA7 


2.1 


11 


or i ft it ft 
01000 


BEQ 


RM0UT2 


/DA9 


86 


ft A 

0A 


on on or 
01010 


LDA 


#$0A 


7 DAB 


BD 


"7 17 Tv C 

7ED5 


Of 1 Of ft Of 

01020 


JSR 


RSOUT 


TTV A T7 

7 DAE 


86 


ft TV 

0D 


Of 1 Of O Of 

01030 


LDA 


#$0D 


7DB0 


20 


0o 


Of i or / or 
01040 


BRA 


RM0UT2 








OM ft C ft 

01050 


*ECHO CHARACTER 


IN PRTFLG 








on ft c. ft 
01060 


*IF IT IS NOT = 


TO 0 


7DB2 


F6 


7D03 


Of 1 Of T Of 

01070 


REMOUT LDB 


PRTFLG 


7DB5 


27 


03 


Of 1 Of O Of 

01080 


BEQ 


RM0UT2 


■1 TX TX ^ 

7DB7 


B6 


^ T> Of Ot 

7D03 


Of 1 Of Of 

01090 


LDA 


PRTFLG 








or i i of or 
01100 


*CHECK OUTPUT FOR UPPER-C 








of i i i or 
01110 


*0R LOWER- C AND 


SEND IT 


7DBA 


F6 


7D05 


or i 1 ft or 

01120 


RM0UT2 LDB 


OCASE 


7DBD 


BD 


7EAC 


Of ^ 1 A /t 

01130 


JSR 


CKCASE 


7DC0 BD 


7ED5 


Of ^ ^ / Of 

01140 


JSR 


RSOUT 


7DC3 


35 


06 


Of ^ ^ r or 

01150 


0RET1 PULS 


A, B 


7DC5 


34 




Of 1 1 £ Of 

01160 


0RET2 PSHS 


B,X,Y 








01170 


*CHECK FOR BREAK KEY 


7DC7 


F6 


0154 


01180 


LDB 


$154 


7DCA 


CI 


BF 


Of ^ 1 A Of 

01190 


CMPB 


#$BF 


7DCC 


27 


2C 


or i n or or 
01200 


BEQ 


PULL 


7DCE 


9E 


o o 

88 


Of 1 ft 1 Of 

01210 


LDX 


$88 


7DD0 


81 


08 


01220 


CMPA 


#$08 


7DD2 


27 


JO 


Ofl O QOf 

01z J0 


BEQ 


BKSPC 


7DD4 


81 


0D 


01240 


CMPA 


#$0D 



\ 



CHECKING ACCOUNT INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Let your CoCo ease the task of aanagino your checkin 
accounts with CAIS. Record deposits, checks, AT 
transactions, interest, service charges and other 
debit/credit transactions. Reconcile and balance your 
accounts in iinutes. Search and edit capabilities. 

Requires 32K and 1 disk drive (ain). Printer optional. 

To order, send check or MO for 24.95 plus 2.50 S/H to: 
(SC res. add 51 sales tax) 

After Five Software 
P.O. Sox 210975 
Cohibii, S.C, 29221-0975 

(Reviewed in RAINBOW April '86 issue, pg. 1B5) 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



7DD6 

7DD8 
7DDA 
7DDC 
7DDE 
7DE0 
7DE2 



7DE4 
7DE6 
7DE8 
7DEA 
7 DEC 
7DEE 
7DF0 
7DF2 
7DF4 
7DF6 
7DF8 
7DFA 
7DFD 
7DFF 
7E01 
7E03 
7E04 
7E06 
7E08 
7E0A 
7E0C 
7E10 
7E13 
7E15 
7E17 



7E19 

7E1C 

7E1F 

7E21 

7E24 

7E26 

7E29 

7E2C 

7E2E 

7E31 

7E33 

7E35 

7E37 

7E39 

7E3C 

7E3E 



7E3F 
7E41 
7E43 
7E45 
7E47 
7E49 
7E4B 
7E4D 
7E50 
7E52 
7E54 
7E56 
7E57 
7E59 
7E5B 
7E5D 
7E5F 
7E62 



27 
81 
25 
81 
22 
86 
20 



81 
22 
8B 
20 
81 
22 
20 
81 
22 
80 
20 
8C 
26 
8D 
35 
39 
A7 
9F 
86 
20 

108E 
10AF 
9F 



86 
20 



BE 

8C 

25 

8C 

25 

8E 

E6 

E7 

8C 

26 

9F 

C6 

E7 

8C 

26 

39 



96 
81 
25 
80 
20 
C6 
E7 
8C 
26 
8D 
20 
4C 
81 
26 
9F 
35 
CC 
39 



67 
20 
25 
IF 
04 
60 
20 



3F 

04 

40 

18 

5F 

02 

12 

7F 

0E 

60 

0A 

0600 

02 

18 

34 

80 

88 

0A 

EE 

6060 

82 

88 

0A 

E8 



7D07 
0400 
05 

05E0 
03 

0400 
88 20 
80 

05E0 

F6 

88 

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88 
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01260 

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01300 

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01340 

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01370 

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01390 

01400 

01410 

01420 

01430 

01440 

01450 

01460 

01470 

01480 

01490 

01500 

01510 

01520 

01530 

01540 

01550 

01560 

01570 

01580 

01590 

01600 

01610 

01620 

01630 

01640 

01650 

01660 

01670 

01680 

01690 

01700 

01710 

01720 

01730 

01740 

01750 

01760 

01770 

01780 

01790 

01800 

01810 

01820 

01830 

01840 

01850 

01860 

01870 

01880 

01890 

'01900 

01910 

01920 

01930 

01940 

01950 

01960 

01970 



BEQ ENTER 

CMPA #$20 

BLO PULL2 

CMPA #$1F 

BHI CMP2 

LDA #$60 

BRA PUTIT 
★TRANSLATE ASCII VALUE 



TO 



★SCREEN 
CMP 2 



CHAR VALUE 



CMP 3 



CMP4 



PULL 



PULL2 

PUTIT 
FIXCUR 



BKSPC 



CMPA 


#$3F 


BHI 


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ADDA 


#$40 


BRA 


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CMPA 


#$5F 


BHI 


CMP 4 


BRA 


PUTIT 


CMPA 


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BHI 


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BNE 


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★CHECK IF SCROLL PROTECTED 
★AREA IS IN RANGE OF $400 
★TO $5E0, SCROLL SCREEN 
SCROLL 



MAKEX 
SCROL2 



LASTLN 



LDX 


NOSCRL 


CMPX 


#$400 


BLO 


MAKEX 


CMPX 


#$5E0 


BLO 


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LDX 


#$400 


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$20, X 


STB 


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CMPX 


#$5E0 


BNE 


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★CLEAR 
* f ENTER 
ENTER 
COMP 



TO END OF LINE IF 
KEY IS PRESSED 



ENT 



INCRE 



FINISH 



LDA 

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$89 

#$20 

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#$60 

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SCROLL 

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#$20 

ENT 

$88 

B,X,Y 

#$0A01 



72 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



7E63 


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02190 *NEW RS232 INPUT FROM CART 




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M ulti-Pak Versatility 



Many owners of the Multi-Pak Interface (MPI) 
have found it frustrating that they cannot switch 
to any of the four slots while remaining in Disk 
BASIC. Here is a simple method to accomplish this. 

The control port at SFF7F controls two cartridge 
select lines, the CTS and SCS lines. This location 
contains an 8-bit value. The high-order four bits 
control the CTS and the low-order four bits control 
the SCS. The value of each of these nibbles can 
range from $0 to $3. In rough terms, the CTS nibble 
selects which slot the processor is using for software 
and the SCS nibble selects which slot is to be used 
for I/O. 

To select Slot 4 for Disk BASIC and disk I/O, 
enter P0KE&HFF7F,&H33. As another example, 
suppose you want to keep Disk BASIC software but 
want to perform I/O out of an RS-232 Pfck in Slot 
2, Then you would enter P0KE&HFF?F,&H3l. The 
idea is that the first hexadecimal digit represents 
the slot number for software after subtracting a 
value of one. The second hexadecimal represents 
the slot desired for I/O after subtracting a value 
of one. 

Stephen R. Wilson 
Riverside, CA 



10 FREE DISKS GIVEN FOR EACH 
PROGRAM PURCHASED 

B-FILES 

THE NEW EXTRAORDINARY FILE SYSTEM 

FOR THE BASIC PROGRAMMER 

Now for the first time there Is a file system which utilizes the 8k of unused 
memory locate above Disk Basic. B-Files is a file system which does not 
need an array to dump Its date Into. Access to any record in the file is done 
by using only one string variable. Since each file Is saved to high RAM and 
since no array is needed to hold the data, B-Flles saves program memory. 
Example: Load 1111 seven character words into the computer at one time 
and save a total of 13327 bytes of program memory. Use B-Flles to save 
words, graphic characters, adventure game descriptions, video tape data, 
or anything else you can think of. B-Flles are faster loading than seqentlal 
or random files. B-flies have already been used in many of our programs 
which are on the market today. Never before has such a file system been 
used for the COCO. B-Flles comes complete with learning manual and 
demonstration programs on disk. 

64k COCO, COCO II, One Disk Drive $29.98 

THE FILE VIEWER 

With this program on any of your disk, you'll never have to remember a file 
name again. Simply call up this program and every file on the disk will be 
displayed on a Hl-Res. screen. It will also tell you If the file Is a Basic, machine 
language, Basic data, or text editor source file. Simply move the file marker 
on the screen to the file you wish to load and press ENTER. The file will 
load and start for you. Also, use File Viewer to name your disk. The disk 
name will then appear at the top of the Hi-Res screen, above the desk file 
names. If you have a large library of disks, then you'll need File Viewer, the 
simple and easy way of loading programs. 

64k COCO, COCO II, One Disk Drive, $24.98 
SECA, P.O. Box 3134, Gulf port, MS 39505(601) 832-8236 

Ms. Res. add 6% aales tax. Include S3 for S/H. Make funds payable to SECA. New authors 
needed. Dealer Inquires welcomed. No Refunds or Exchanges. See previous Issues for other 
software. 

10 FREE DISKS GIVEN FOR EACH 
PROGRAM PURCHASED 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 73 



EDUCATION NOTES 



16K 
ECB 



Word Fun: The Three 
Bears Come of Age 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Once upon a time, there were 
three bears. Wait a minute! Why 
do we always have to hear about 
bears? Why can't it be chickens or cows 
instead? Talking cows living in a house 
in the woods are really no more or less 
preposterous than talking bears. And, 
for that matter, can't bears jump over 
the moon? 

This month we have a short, fun 
program. There is really no skill devel- 
opment intended except to develop 
familiarity with using language. A one- 
page screen showing the beginning of 
The Three Bears is shown. Five of the 
keywords in the story are left out and 
replaced by stars. At the bottom of the 
screen is a word list. 

The appearance of the program's 
screen is that of a Cloze exercise. But 
a Cloze program looks for correct 
answers. We are hoping only for a 
pleasant reading experience. Any of the 
words from the word list may be se- 
lected. Use the right-arrow to get the 



Steve Blyn teaches both exceptional 
and gifted children, holds two master's 
degrees and has won awards for the 
design of programs to aid the handi- 
capped. He owns Computer Island and 
lives in Staten Island, New York, 



special cursor to the word you want to 
use and press ENTER. 

Any of the words may be inserted 
anywhere in the story. Use the right- 
arrow to position the word underneath 
any part of the story and press ENTER. 
Make sure the last letter of the chosen 
word is directly underneath the last 
letter of the word or star line to be 
replaced. The word you are using will 
jump up and take the place of the word 
above. 

Youngsters and slow readers espe- 
cially enjoy this type of program. There 
are no right or wrong answers. The child 
gets an opportunity to manipulate story 
pieces in a creative experience or a just- 
for-fun activity. There is no real begin- 
ning or end. The child can stop at any 
time to read his story and continue to 
edit and change it indefinitely. 

The story the child creates can be very 
sensible, very humorous or absolute 
nonsense. It really doesn't matter 
which. We are hoping that the children 
work on using words and creating 
original thoughts. Sometimes it seems 
to take a bulldozer to get reluctant 
readers to become involved in a story. 
We found that this type of fun approach 
can often break the ice with these 
students. Active and enthusiastic partic- 
ipation is certainly better than reluc- 



tance and anxiety, and creates a positive 
and receptive attitude for the expe- 
rience. 

The program can be ended by the 
child anytime while selecting a new 
word. Pressing the letter 'E' clears the 
screen and ends the program. 

Lines 80 to 120 print the original 
story with the keywords starred out. 
Line 150 prints the 16 words we have 
selected to use. They are contained in 
the DRTR lines 380 to 410. These words 
can be changed, of course, to add 
variety to the program. The children 
should be encouraged to come up with 
alternative sets of suitable or humorous 
words of their own. These may be 
substituted by you into the DRTR lines. 

Lines 170 to 260 contain the routine 
for going through the choice of words 
to use. The cursor, CHR$(201), is 
moved from word to word by pressing 
the right-arrow key, CHR$(9). If 
ENTER, CHR$(I3), is pressed, then that 
word is selected. If the 'E' is pressed, the 
program ends. 

Lines 280 to 360 contain the routine 
for moving the selected word through 
the story. Line 350 waits for ENTER to 
be pressed. When it is pressed, the word 
is inserted in the story immediately 
above its current position. 

We hope your children enjoy working 



74 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



vith this program. We encourage you to the story itself. This will enable you to Children most enjoy those programs 
lelp them alter the data words and even create new versions to save and enjoy, they have had a hand in creating. □ 



#f — 

V/ 150 205 

310 254 

END 110 




The listing: FUNWORDS 

10 REM" FUN WITH WORDS " 

20 REM" STEVE BLYN , COMPUTER ISLAN 

D,NY,1986" 

30 C=l 

40 GH$=STRING$(32,2j37) 
50 DIM A$(18) 

60 FOR T= 1 TO 1 6 : READ A$(T):NEX 

T T • 
70 CLS5 

B0 PRINT@0," ONCE UPON A TI 
ME THERE" 

90 PRINT© 6 4, "WERE 3 ****. THEY 

WENT FOR A" ; 
100 PRINT @ 12 8 , "WALK IN THE ** 
**. A LITTLE" 

11J3 PRINT@192, "**** CAME TO T 
HEIR ****.SHE" 

120 PRINT §2 5 6, "JUMPED ON THE 
BABY'S ****. " ; 

130 PRINT @ 3 20, " =======WORD====== 

===LIST========" ; 

140 PRINT@352," " ; : FOR T= 1 TO 4 
: PRINT: NEXT T 

150 C=l:FOR T= 1 TO 16: PRINT @3 4 

5+(8*T) ,A$(T) :NEXT T 

160 J$=CHR$(201) 

170 M=352:PRINT@M, J$; 

180 B$=" BEARS" 

190 EN$=INKEY$ 

200 IF EN$=CHR$(13) THEN GOTO 27 
0 

210 IF EN$="E" THEN CLS : END 
220 IF EN$=CHR$(9) THEN 240 
230 GOTO 190 

240 K=8 : PRINT @M,CHR$( 143 ) ; : PRINT 
@M+K, J$; :M=M+K:C=C+1:B$=A$ (C) 
250 IF C>16 THEN M=344 : C=0 : PRINT 
@480,CHR$(207) ; 
260 GOTO 190 

270 X=l:GOSUB 370:PLAY"O3L25BEG" 

:P=34:PRINT@P,B$; 

280 EN$=INKEY$ 

290 IF EN$=CHR$(9) THEN PRINT@P+ 
X-1,CHR$(207) ; :PRINT@P+X,B$; :X=X 
+ 1 



300 IF P+X=59 THEN P=97 : X=0 : GOSU 
B 370 

310 IF P+X=124 THEN P=161:X=0:GO 
SUB 370 

320 IF P+X=188 
SUB 370 

330 IF P+X=252 
SUB 370 

340 IF P+X=316 
UB 370 



THEN P=225:X=0:GO 
THEN P=289:X=0:GO 
THEN P=34:X=0:GOS 



350 IF EN$=CHR$(13) THEN PRINT@P 
+X-33,B$; :PLAY"O4L50CEG":GOSUB 3 
70: GOTO 140 
360 GOTO 280 

370 PRINT§32,GH$; :PRINT@96,GH$; : 
PRINT@160,GH$; :PRINT@224,GH$; : PR 
INT@288,GH$; : RETURN 
380 DATA BEARS , GIRLS , BOYS , COWS 
390 DATA SAND, CITY, WOODS, FIELD 
400 DATA DOG, GIRL, MOUSE, SMURF 
410 DATA HOUSE, ROOM, TOYS, BED 
420 DATA 



t I 



BACK TO COMPUTING! 


Name Brand 

DISKS 
$1.00 1 

DS DD wl Tyvek Sleeves 
Buy 5 get FREE Case 
Buy 10— Color Case 

C-10 Cassettes 59c 


Dot Matrix/Graphics 

PRINTER 
$199 

Cilzen 12CO/NLQ 

Silver Reed DW 
$289 


SOFTWARE 

over 180 titles 
discounted 

Games up to 50% 
Books/Others20% 
CoCoMaxll w/Y 
Cable $95 


Composite 

MONITORS 

start at 
$79 

12" Samsung amber 
12 "Sakata HIRES , .399 
13 "Color/Sound .$159 


5V4 40-Track Slim 

DISK DRIVES 

$90 

DS DD Hi-Tech (u.s.) 
W/Case/Pwr $139 
TeacDS . . .$109 


Smart Auto 

MODEMS 

$189 

300/1200 Baud 
Hayes Comp 
Free Cable! 


SYSTEMS 

IBM Compatible 
S499 

256K Kit/135WPS/ 
Enh Keybd/Color/ 
Flip Case/360K Drive 


MISCELLANEOUS 

Keyboards from $25 
Disk Cases/60 . .$16 

Printer Intf $40 

Video Driver . . .$24 
Power Strip , . . . $16 
Swivel Base, . , , $16 


PARTS 

•EPROMS •ROMS 

•CONTROLLERS 
•MEMORY DRAMS 
•CABLES -KITS -ICS 
•PAPER -LABELS 
• RIBBONS 
•DAISY WHEELS 



POLYGON COMPUTERS 

1316 Wltshlr© Blvd., Suit© 206 ' ' 

Los Angeles, CA 9001 7 

(2 13)463 83 3 8 Shipping Charges: 

Calif, res. add 6V 3 % tax 2% or $3.00 mln. 

Ail prices subject Monitors/Printers 

to change/stock avail. Hardware extra 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 75 



Derringer Software. 



Max Fonts 

New for CoCo Max 

Now you can have up to 72 fonts for creating 
dazzling type-set titles and special displays! 

3 SETS OF 24 FONTS 

WHICH ARE OUT OF THIS WORLD! 



$ 



OA 



95 



each 



3/m 



95 



Wrilten by Wally Bayer and Mike Shawaluk 



Max Edit 



© 1985 Snard Enterprises 



A FONT EDITOR FOR 
COCO MAX 

• Edit current fonts 

• Create new fonts 

• Design symbol fonts 

• Comes with pre-defined fonts 

• CoCo Max I & II compatible 



CoCo's Best 
& Fastest 
Spreadsheet 

RS-DOS 
VERSION 



FOR 64K 
DISK SYSTEMS 






(Disk Only) 



• 51 x 24 

Display with 

Lower Case 

Super-fast Smart 
Screen Refresh 

• Auto-Repeat 
Keyboard Driver 

• Fast 16-Digit Arithmetic 
with Scientific Functions 

Two-way communications 
with PRO-COLOR-FILE 

★ Enhanced* 



Written by: Michael W. Shawaluk 

CoCo Max* is a registered trademark of Colorware. 



Serving the Color 
Computer for 4 Years. 



PROCOLORFILE 

© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

ENHANCED 2.0 

60 Data Fields for each record 
1020 spaces available per record if needed 
Maximizes multiple drive operation 
28 equation lines (h — V) 
IF-THEN-ELSE logic test in equations 
Full Screen editing on up to 4 data entry screens 
Key click and auto key repeat 
Stores custom designed report formats 
Obtain totals, averages, or summaries for any field 
Output reports to printer, screen, or disk file 
Send data out to a DYNACALC compatible file 
Separate label generator for up to 10 across labels 
Pre-define up to 16 indexes for searching/reporting file 
Sorts 750 records in under 5 minutes 
User defined selection menus 
Repeated tasks performed with one keystroke 
Comes with 75 pages of documentation in a 3 ring binder 
Supported by a national users group 
Full time programmer support 
Supplied on an unprotected disk 



$ 59 



95 



PRO-COLOR-FORMS 2.0 

© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

PRO-COLOR-FORMS will access data f iles created with 
PRO-COLOR-FILE and merge them with a letter or place them 
on pre-printed forms. 

• STORE UP TO 6 FORMATS • USER DEFINED PAGE SIZE 

• SUPPORTS SPECIAL PRINTER CONTROL CODES • RIGHT 
JUSTIFICATION • PASSWORD PROTECTION • MERGES 
WITH GRAPHICS FROM MASTER DESIGN OR 
TELEGRAPHICS ■ 

PR0C0L0RDIR 

- <& 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

PRO-COLOR-DIR will read your directories and create a 
master data file that can be accessed by PRO-COLOR-FILE 
for sorting and reporting, 1000 + records can be stored on 
one diskette with valuable information about each program. 

You can obtain hard copies of the information and create 
labels of the filenames for placing on the diskette itself, 

• DISK ID NAME ■ FILENAME/EXT • TYPE OF FILE 

• DATE CREATED • DATE UPDATED • NUMBER OF 
GRANS ALLOCATED • NUMBER OF SECTORS 
ALLOCATED AND USED • MACHINE LANGUAGE 
ADDRESSES • 



95 



FOR BOTH 



DYNACALC" 

SPREAD SHEET FLEXIBILITY 

(Includes Dynagraph, Sidewise) 

$JQ95 

Telewriter-64,. 

WORD PROCESSOR POWER 

$5Q95 

Coco Max II 

GRAPHICS SUPERIOR 

$JQ95 



@ SUMMARY 

© 1985 Derringer Software, Inc. 

If you use your spreadsheet program to keep track of your 
expenses then ©SUMMARY can help you analyze those 
expenses. For example, if you indicate a "Category" for each 
expense then @ SUMMARY will produce a report that shows 
a total for each category, the highest amount, the lowest 
amount and the average amount. In addition, ©SUMMARY 
can produce a hi-res line graph or bar graph of the analysis 
and allow you to place titles on the graph. A hardcopy of the 
graph can also be generated as wed as saved to disk. 

The analysis can be saved in a "data file" which can be 
loaded into DYNACALC or read in by @ SUMMARY for future 
additions to the analysis. If you use other Spreadsheets such 
as ELITE*CALC then you have added a graphing feature to 
your spreadsheet applications. The analysis can also be saved 
in an ASCII file which can be read by word processors for 
inclusion in a report. 

@ SUMMARY is compatible with any spreadsheet program 
that can generate an ASCII text file of worksheets. 



Specify RS-DOS 
or 0S9* 



(disk only) 



S1Q95 



*0S9 version does not 
have Hi-Res graphing 
and requires Basic09. 



DYNACALC ' is a registered trademark of Computer Systems Center 

ELITE* CALC is a trademark of Elite Software 

0S9 is a registered trademark of MICRO WARE and MOTOROLA. 



SIDEWISE 

€ 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

Add a new "twist" to your printer's capabilities! 

SIDEWISE makes your printer do something you never 
thought possible- print side ways! 

SIDEWISE will read in any ASCII text file and print it out 
side ways using a Radio Shack, Epson, Okidata, C-ltoh or 
Gemini printers having dot-graphics ability. 

SIDEWISE 0S9 is compatible with DYNACALC OS9 and 
requires Basic09 

SIDEWISE 0S9 
(Disk only) 



SIDEWISE RS-DOS 



$3Q95 
$2495* 



* RS-DOS version included FREE with DYNACALC 

0S9is a registered trademark of MICROWARE and MOTOROLA. 

TELEGRAPHICS 

© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

PRINT HI-RES GRAPHICS USING TELEWRITER-64! 

Use CoCo Max, Graphicom or other graphics programs to 
create letter heads and print them while using Telewriter-64. 

Telegraphies interfaces with Radio Shack, Epson, Gemini, 
C-ltoh and Okidata printers having dot-addressable graphics. 
A simple modification to Telewriter-64 will allow you to exit 
Telewriter via the DISK I/O MENU and print out the graphic 
without affecting any of your text in the buffer. 

This is the same feature that is included in our MASTER 
DESIGN program. Since we felt you don't need to buy two 
graphics editing programs, we have made this feature available 
at a reduced price. 



$2495 



(Available Only On Disk) 

NO OTHER DISCOUNTS APPLICABLE 



MASTER DESIGN 

© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

Generates lettering in hi-res graphics that can be different 
sizes, skinny, bold, textured, droj) shadowed, raise shadowed 
or tall. Also interfaces with the telewriter-64 word processor 
for printing hi-res displays with your letters. 

Take full advantage of al I the extended BASIC hi-res graphic 
commands including boxes, circles, lines, copy displays and 
utilize GET and PUT features. Added commands include mirror 
reflection, turn displays backwards or upside down. Squish 
displays, create dot patterns for shading or diagonal lines. 

The Letterhead Utility allows you to access hi-res graphics 
from Telewriter-64, your own BASIC programs or 
PRO-COLOR-FORMS. 

Interfaces with dot matrix printers having dot addressable 
graphics. 



$2995 



See reviews in' 

July 84 Rainbow. Oct. 84 Hot CoCo 




Derringer Software, Inc. 

PO Box 5300, Florence, SO 29502-5300 

To place an order by phone, call: (803) 665-5676 
10 AM and 5 PM EOT 

Check, Money Order, VISA or MasterCard 



South Carolina residents add sales tax. 

Include $3.00 for UPS Shipping - $5.00 U.S. Mail - $9.00 Air Mail 

Canadian Distributor-Kelly Software 
Australian Distributor-Computer Hut Software 



CORRECTIONS 



"The Meaning of Life" (June 1986, Page 196): 

William Barden has written to offer a correction for 
Listing 3, Driver \ which appears on Page 204. Line 490 
should read: 

49J3 DATA &HCC, &H7F, &H5F, &HFD 



"Do-It- Yourself Video Output Board" (September 
1986, Page 171): Tim Mcintosh has written to correct 
the article which appeared with his video driver 
schematic. The article states that the driver will 
properly drive a color composite monitor as well as 
a monochrome monitor. This, however, is not the 
case. The driver will not work with a color composite 
monitor. We thank Tim for this correction and 
apologize for any inconvenience it has caused. 



"The Adventure Processor" (August 1986, Page 26): 
Bill Cook writes to tell us of an inadvertent omission 
from his Adv-Pro program. Lines 630 and 640 create 
strings consisting of the first four characters of each 
verb and object keyword. For proper operation, each 
verb and keyword must contain at least four charac- 
ters. The program can be corrected by making the 
following changes: 

630 A$= ,I NV="+STR& (NV) +" : FORI=lTO 
NV":GOSUB172 

631 A$="TFLEN(V$(I) )<4 THEN V$(I 
)=V$(I)+CHR$(32) :GOTO»+STR$(LN) : 
GOSUB172 

632 A$="V1$=V1$+LEFT$ (V$ (I) , 4) :N 
EXT M :GOSUB172 

640 A$="FORI=lTO 0":GOSUB172 

641 A$="IFLEN(0$(I,2) ) <4 THENO$ ( 
I , 2 ) =0$ ( I , 2 ) +CHR$ (32): GOTO"+STR$ 
(LN) :GOSUB172 

642 A$= ,, Nl$=Nl$+LEFT$(0$(I / 2) ,4) 
-.NEXT" :GOSUB172 



A previously generated Adventure can be corrected 
by adding spaces to verb strings consisting of less than 
four characters. Object keywords which contain less 
than four characters and appear in data statements 
must be enclosed with quotes and additional spaces 
added to bring the total number of characters to four. 



"Junk Food" (November 1984, Page 90): David 
Taylor has writtetl to offer a modification for Junk- 
food. This modification allows the program to load 
from disk. Enter the following program, Jnkfix, and 
follow the saving procedures listed after it. 



10 READ W:IF W=0 THEN2J3 ELSE POK 
E W,4:GOT01j3 

2 ft READ W: IF W=0 THEN 3 p ELSE POK 
E W,5:GOT02j3 

30 READ W,Q:IF W=J3 THEN40 ELSE P 



OKE W,Q:GOTO30 
4.0 W=16084 

50 READ Q:IF Q=0 THEN60 ELSE POK 
EW , Q : W=W+ 1 : GOTO50 
60 END 

100 DATA14572 , 14583 , 14593 ,14599 , 

14605, 14621, 14631, 14680, 14702 ,14 

724,14798,14911,14967,14977,1498 

8 , 15064 , 15073 , 15102 ,0 

110 DATA14809 , 14865 , 14947,14998, 

15041,15114,0 

120 DATA12314,126,12315,62,12316 
,212,14532,201,14535,202,14578,6 
, 14637 , 6 , 14642 , 126 ,14643 , 62 , 1464 
4,224,0,0 

130 DATA183,255,199,183,255,200, 
183,255,203,126,48,29,183,255,19 
8,183,255,201,183,255,202,126,57 
,53,0 



Enter the program carefully and save it. Then 
perform the following steps: 

1) PCLEAR1 (press ENTER) 

2) RUN (Listing 1) 

3) RUN (Listing 2) 

4) RUN (Listing 3) 

5) RUN (Listing 4) 

6) RUN JNKFIX 

7) SflVEM" JUNKF00D" , 12288, 1G107, 12288 



Now LORDM Junkfood from disk and execute it. 



For quicker service, Corrections will be posted on 
Delphi as soon as they are available in the Info on 
Rainbow topic area of the database. Just type DATR at 
the CoCo SIG prompt and INFO at the Topic? prompt. 



78 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



twans 



W^t CoOIo (Halltgrapipr 



Use your C0C0, your 8-bit dot addressable graphics 
printer and the C0C0 Calligrapher to create beautiful 
signs, invitations, flyers, greeting cards, diplomas, cer- 
tificates, awards and love letters. 

The original Calligrapher letters are 36 points ( 1 12 inch) 
high and variably spaced. It includes an easy-to-use , 
menu-oriented program and these three typestyles: 



Cartoon 



Old English 

<D1<I JZnuli^h Cort*«n 

Gay Nineties 

G©D Nineties 

The C0C0 Calligrapher requires 32K ECB. 
Tape $24.95/Disk $29.95 



ADDITIONAL TYPESTYLES 

These tapes of additional typestyles are available for 
$19.95 each. They can be easily moved to disk. The 
original Calligrapher program is required. 

Tape 1 - Reduced, Reversed, and Reduced-Reversed 
versions 



Old English 



Gay Nineties 



Cartoon 



Alt typestyles on Tapes 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 include Stan- 
dard (1/2 inch), Reversed, Reduced, and Reduced- 
Reversed unless otherwise noted. 



Tape 2: Broadway/Old Style 



t 



Tape 3: Business/Antique 

Business f$?titiqti€ 



These disks of additional typestyles are 
available for $49.95 each. 

Disk 1 - all type styles on Tapes 1 , 2 and 3. 
Disk 2 - all type styles on Tapes 4, 5 and 6. 

Tape 4: Wild West/Checkers 

Wild West CGecGer 



Tape 5: Star 



Hebrew 



Victorian (Standard and Reverse only) 
Tape 6: Block/Computer 

Block 

CompuTEPi 



%\\t ©^-9 Olalligraplier 

These disks of additional typestyles are available for 
$39.95 $49.95 each. They are not compatible with the C0C0 

Requires OS-9 Version 01 .01 .00 and a dot matrix print- Calligrapher typestyles or program. OS-9 typestyle 
er. The OS-9 Calligrapher reads a standard input text disk must be used with the OS-9 Calligrapher. 
file which contains text and formatting directives to pro- 
duce standard utput for printer or disk. You can specify Disk 1 - OS-9 version of all type styles on Tapes 1 , 2 and 
which font to use; centering; left, right or full justification; 3. 

line fill; narrow mode; margin; line width; page size; Disk 2 -OS-9 version of all type styles on Tapes 4, 5 and 
page break and indentation. 6. 



Dealer and author inquiries are al- 
ways welcome. Canadian dealers 
should contact Kelly Software Dis- 
tributors, Ltd., P.O. Box 11932, 
Edmonton, Alberta T5J-3L1, (403) 
421-8003. 

Disk software compatible with Radio 
Shack DOS only. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 7446 
Hollywood, Florida 33081 
(305) 981-1241 

A complete catalog of other sweet 
Sugar Software products is available. 



Add $1.50 per program for postage and 
handling. Florida residents add 5% sales tax. 
COD orders are welcome. CIS orders EMAIL 
to 70405, 1374. No refunds or exchanges. 













is?"! 



1 



A useful update 

for the 
CoBBS system 



CoBBS Message Editor 



By Richard Duncan 



The Co BBS system was presented in 
November 1985, and quite a few 
BBSs use it. There are editors for 
just about every file in use on the 
system, except for handling the message 
base for certain problems or desires. 
The CoBBS Message Editor is written 
to handle some of the problems that 
occasionally occur during normal BBS 
operation. 

SMH/EDI goes into the message 
base and allows the user to modify 
information contained in the header of 
that message (e.g., menu number it was 
posted to, active/deleted, private/ 
public, or the to/from/ subject informa- 
tion). In addition, there is a renumber- 
ing routine that allows a sequential 
assignment of message numbers start- 
ing at whatever the SysOp designates. 

The routine can be used offline and 
does not require that the driver be 
loaded. There is no error trapping or 
checking for carrier detect. This editor 



Richard Duncan built a UHF television 
station in Little Rock and is currently 
the director of engineering for the 
station. He is active in amateur radio 
[WD5B] and especially interested in 
packet communications, Richard lives 
in Little Rock, Arkansas. 



would normally only be used by the 
SysOp and would not require these 
features. Error trapping and carrier 
check could easily be added to the 
routine if required. 

Booting Up 

On running SMH the routine checks 
the drives assigned to three files; 
MENU/SYS, HDR/SYS and MSG/ 
SYS. These values will not be correct if 
the editor is run before the BBS system 
itself has been booted. When this oc- 
curs, you are asked which drive each file 
is on. Once this is taken care of, the 
system loads in the name of the various 
menus you have on the board and then 
goes directly into the editor. 

A menu is displayed before any mes- 
sage information. This is the help menu 
and can be seen or redisplayed by using 
the H command. There are 16 com- 
mands available. 

Move Options 

There are five commands that affect 
movement around the message base. 
Two commands, + and -, move forward 
or backward respectively through the 
message base. The GOTO command 
locates a particular message number 
within the base if available. ALL mes- 
sages are displayed whether they are 
active or deleted. 



80 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



Initially, every message is displayed 
when entering the editor. If you only 
want to view one particular area (menu 
number), use the SET MENU com- 
mand. When prompted, enter the menu 
number you want to look at. Return to 
viewing all messages by using this 
command and responding with ALL 
instead of a menu number. 

There is a search feature that thumbs 
through the header information for a 
match. The SEARCH option prompts 
for the string you want a match to. This 
is a global search that checks the to, 
from and subject at one time. The 
search starts from the current location 
to the end of the file. If a complete 
search of the message base is desired, go 
to the first message in the base before 
starting the search. 

Toggles 

Four toggle commands are available. 
The PUBLIC/PRIVT toggle deter- 
mines whether the message is public or 
private. A message may be deleted or 
reactivated by the use of the K and A 
commands. The KILL command is 
used to delete the current message and 
the ACTIVATE command allows a 



deleted message to be reinstated. A 
message that has been received can be 
changed bapk to waiting on the user to 
call again by the TOGGLE RCVD 
command. 

Modifiers 

Occasionally, there is the need to 
change the header information of who 
the message is from, to or its subject. 
The CHANGE HEADER command 
allows this. Each particular part of the 
address is displayed showing what the 
original information is and requesting 
the change. If just ENTER is pressed, the 
current information will be retained, 
while entering anything on this line 
causes that part of the address to be 
changed. 

A message can be re-posted to a 
different menu number by use of the 
BOARD POST command. Type the 
new menu number and press ENTER. 

There is always a difference in opin- 
ion about how a message board should 
be operated. Co BBS was originally set 
up to sequentially count the number of 
messages entered from day one. Some 
operators like to limit or change the 
overall message count from time to 



time. Using the RENUMBER com- 
mand allows the SysOp to change each 
message in a sequential order. It is best 
to do this when there are no deleted 
messages in the base or the renumbering 
will appear broken to a user and will 
disappear at the next message purge. 

Other Commands 

Once the message header appears, the 
SysOp can then view the message text 
by using the MESSAGE command. As 
the text appears, pressing any key stops 
the scroll and pressing any key again 
restarts the viewing. Pressing the 'S' key 
stops the display and returns to the 
command menu. Scroll control is only 
available from the keyboard. 

The complete message may be 
dumped at one time to either the screen 
or the printer with the DUMP MES- 
SAGE command. After selecting this 
command, choose whether a screen 
print or printer dump is desired. 

The QUIT command allows termina- 
tion of the message editor and the 
option of going into BASIC or returning 
the BBS. 

The editor can be used online with the 
CoBBS system. Again, note that there 




100 137 

215 123 

300 142 

360 29 

470 59 

590 115 

720 159 

840 160 

END 63 



The listing: SMH 

0 ' SMH/EDI BY RICHARD DUNCAN 
10 CLEAR 5000 
15 DIM BN$(255) 

20 DR$(0)="0":DR$(1)="1" :DR$(2) = 
"2" : DR$ ( 3 ) -"3" : NU$=CHR$ (0 ) : MD=-1 
25 CLS : PRINT" SYSTEM MESSAGE 

EDITOR" 

30 FOR X=4670 TO 4673 : IFPEEK (X) < 
4 THEN 60 

35 PRINT: PRINT "ERROR IN DRIVE NU 
MBERS " 

40 INPUT "MENU/ SYS DRIVE" ; X : POKE 4 
673, X 

45 INPUT" HDR/SYS DRIVE" ;X: POKE 4 
670, X 



50 INPUT" MSG/SYS DRIVE" ; X : POKE 4 
671, X 

55 G0T065 ' 
60 NEXTX 

65 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT "WAIT ":P 

RINT" GETTING MENU: " 
70 REM - MENU/SS 
75 G0SUB945 

80 FOR R=l TO K2 STEP 4 ' 
85 GET#2,R:BN$=M5$:BN=ASC(M1$) 
90 PRINTBN;TAB(10) ;M5$ 
95 K=INSTR(BN$,NU$) :IFK=0THEN K= 
LEN(BN$)+1:BN$ (BN)=LEFT$ (BN$,K-1 

) 

100 BN$ (BN) =LEFT$ (BN$ , K-l) :NEXT 
R: BN$ (255) =" SYSOP MSG" 
105 CLOSE :GOSUB8 95 :GOSUB920 
110 GET#1,1:RE=CVN(H1$) :MH=RE 
115 FORB=2 TO Kl : GET#1 , B : F$=H2$ : 
GOSUB130 : IFMID$ (F$ , 2 , 1) <>"1"THEN 

RS=CVN(H1$) ELSE NEXT B:RS=RE 
120 ML=RS:GET#1,1:R=1 
125 GOSUB205:GOTO270 
130 REM 

135 F=ASC(F$) :E=128:F$="" 
140 FOR Q=l TO 8 
145 J=INT(F/E) 

150 IF J=0 THEN F$=F$+"0"ELSEF$= 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 81 



"The editor can 
be used online 
with the CoBBS 
system." 



is no error trap or carrier detect while 
in the message editor. To modify 
CoBBS for online access to this file, 
follow this procedure: Load COBBS/ 
SYS. Retype Line 34 to read 34 
L0fiD"5MH/EDI",R. Save COBBS/ 
SYS. 

The message editor returns to CoBBS 
by using the QUIT command and an- 
swering *Y' to the option. There are no 
other modifications required. Save this 
editor on Drive 0 under the filename 
SMH/EDL 

After the modification is made to 
COBBS/ SYS, the editor can be called 
from the BBS by using a type " com- 
mand. No additional data is required. 

The Co BBS software originally came 



out last fall in RAINBOW [November 
1985, Page 135] and is available through 
back issues of rainbow and rainbow 

ON TAPE. 

If you are operating a CoBBS system, 
please send me your phone number, 
BBS number and hours of operation 
because I am compiling a directory of 
CoBBS systems. In a future article I will 
correct some problems in the original 
CoBBS and look at some new addi- 
tions. My address is 9821 Margie Circle, 
Little Rock, AR 72209-6521. Please 
enclose an SASE when writing. All 
letters will be answered as soon as 
possible. You can also find me on 
Delphi (username RICH4COBBS). □ 



F$+"l n 

155 F=F-(E*J) :E=E/2 
160 NEXT Q 
165 RETURN 
17 j3 REM 

175 E=1;F*=0 I 

180 FOR Q=8 TO 1 STEP -1 

185 IFMID$(F$ / Q / 1)="1"THEN F=F+E 

190 E=E*2:NEXTQ:F$=CHR$(F) 

195 RETURN 



PLUG THIS INTO YOUR COCO 

Engage mind and Connect the world 

(or at least the electrical signals used to control 
outside devices and instruments) 




• Expansion Connector Breadboard, CC-100 accesses 
the data, address, and control buses, $34.95 

• TRS-80 Color Computer Interfacing, With Experi- 
ments, No. 21893, explains and illustrates principles, 
$14.95 

• Experiment Component Package, CC-150, contains 
the parts needed to do the experiments, $67.50 

Add $1.50 per item for shipping or get all three for 

$105.00 plus $3.00 shipping. 

Maryland residents add 5% sales tax. 

VISA/Master Card accepted. Call 301-298-5716. Free 

catalog available. 



PUTTING 
HANDS 
AND 
MINDS 
TOGETHER 




RMNIOW 



Qroup Sfechnology, JSlJ. 



6925 Dogwood Road 
Baltimore, MD 21207 



200 GOSUB295 
205 PRINT: PRINT 

210 IF MD=-1 THENPRINT"ALL MENUS 
" ELSE PRINT"MENU: " ;MD; "/ " ;BN$( 
MD) 

215 PRINT "MESSAGES" ;ML; "TO" ;MH 
220 PRINT"<+>NEXT MSG # <G>OTO 



ii 



<M>ESS 
<P>UBL 
<D>UMP 



<S>ET 

<T>OGG 

<Q>UIT 



225 PRINT"<->LAST MSG 
AGE TEXT" 

230 PRINT "<?>SEARCH 
IC/PRIVT" 

235 PRINT "<K>ILL MSG 
MESSAGE" 

240 PRINT"<A>CTIVATE MSG <R>ENU 
MBER" 

245 PRINT "<B>OARD POST 
MENU" 

250 PRINT "<H>ELP MENU 
LE RCVD" 

255 PRINT "<C>HANGE HDR 
260 RETURN 
265 GOSUB295 

270 LINE INPUT "COMMAND: ";CH$ 

275 IFCH$=""THEN265 

280 ON INSTR ( "H — GM?PKDARCQHSBT" , 

CH$)+1 GOTO 270,370,395,420,450, 

505,545,575, 600,655,680,735,2 85, 

125,795,825,865 

285 CLEAR100: LINEINPUT "RETURN TO 

BBS? ";A$ 
290 X$=LEFT$ (A$, 1) : IFX$="Y"ORX$= 
"y"THEN CLOSE : UNLOAD : LOAD" COBBS/ 
SYS",R ELSE END 
295 REM-HDR PRINT 

300 IF MD>-1ANDASC (H8$) OMD THEN 
RETURN 

305 PRINT#SC:PRINT#SC 

310 IF R=l THENPRINT" SYSTEM RECO 

RD #1!" 



82 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



315 Mj3=CVN(Hl$) :KF=INSTR(H5$,NU$ 
) :MF$=LEFT$(H5$,KF-1) 
32j3 F$=H2$:GOSUB130:IFMID$(F$,2, 
1) ="1"THENPRINT#SC; "-DELETED-" 
325 KT=INSTR(KF+1,H5$,NU$) :XX=KT 
-KF-1 : IFXX<1THEN MT$=" " : GOTO330E 
LSE MT$=MID$(H5$,KF+1,XX) 
330 KS=INSTR(KT+2 ,H5$,NU$) :XX=KS 
-KT-1 : IFXX<1THEN MS$=" " : GOTO 3 3 5E 
LSE MS$=MID$(H5$,KT+1,XX) :PF=0 
335 IFMID$ (F$ , 1, 1) ="1"THENPRINT# 
SC, "PRIVATE" 

340 IFMID$(F$,3,1)="1"THEN X$=" 
<RCVD>" ELSE X$="" 

345 F5=1:PRINT#SC, "MESSAGE #";M0 
.h »;BN$(ASC(H8$) ) 

350 PRINT #SC,RIGHT$ (STR$ (ASC (LEF 
T$(H3$,1) ) ) ,2) ;"/";RIGHT$(STR$(A 
SC(MID$(H3$,2,1) ) ) ,2) ;"/";RIGHT$ 
(STR$(ASC(RIGHT$(H3$,1) ) ) ,2) ;" 

";STR$ (ASC(LEFT$(H4$,1) ) ) ;": "; 
355 A$=RIGHT$(STR$(ASC(RIGHT$(H4 
$,1) ) ) ,2) :IFVAL(A$) >9THENPRINT#S 
C, A$ELSEMID$ (A$ , 1, 1) ="0" : PRINT#S 
C A$ 

360 PRINT #SC, "FROM: ";MF$:PRINT# 

SC," TO: " ;MT$;X$:F5=1:F4=1:PRI 

NT#SC,"SUBJ: "; MS $: PRINT #SC 
365 RETURN 
370 REM- + 

375 R=R+l:IF R>K1 THEN R=l 
380 GET#1,R:SA=0 

385 IF MD>-1 AND ASC(H8$)OMD TH 

EN 375 

390 GOT0265 

395 REM 

400 R=R-1: IF R<1 THEN R=K1 
405 GET#1,R:SA=0 

410 IF MD>-1 AND ASC(H8$)OMD TH 

EN 405 

415 GOT0265 

420 REM- G 

425 PRINT :LINEINPUT "MESS AGE #";N 
$ 

430 N=VAL(N$):IF N<ML OR N>MH TH 
EN PRINT"OUT OF RANGE .": GOT02 70 
435 FOR X=l TO Kl 

440 GET#1,X:IF CVN(H1$)=N THEN R 
=X:GOT0265 

445 NEXTX: PRINT "MSG NOT AVAILABL 

E":GOTO270 

450 REM- M 

455 GOSUB460:SC=0:GOTO270 

460 R1=CVN(H6$) :R2=CVN(H7$) 

465 FOR X=R1+1 TO R2 

470 GET#2,X:A$=MG$:IFA$=STRING$( 

80,255) THENPRINT # SC : RETURN 

475 FOR Y=l TO LEN(A$) 



480 PRINT#SC,MID$(A$,Y,1) ; :X$=IN 

KEY$ : IFX$=" "THEN490 

485 IFX$="S"ORX$="S"THEN500ELSEI 

FINKEY$=" "THEN485 

490 NEXTY 

495 NEXTX 

500 PRINT#SC: RETURN 
505 REM- ? 

510 U=R: PRINT: LINE INPUT "SEARCH S 

TRING ! " ; S $ 

515 IF S$=""THEN270 

520 FOR X=U+1 TO Kl 

525 GET#1,X 

530 IFINSTR(H5$,S$) >0 THEN R=X:G 
OT0265 

535 NEXT X:GET#1,U 

540 PRINT "NOT FOUND. ": GOT02 70 

545 REM- P 

550 F$=H2$:GOSUB130 

555 IFMID$ (F$, 1, 1) ="1"THENMID$ (F 

$,1,1)="0":GOTO565 

560 MID$(F$,1,1)="1" 

565 GOSUB170:LSET H2$=F$ 

570 PUT # 1,R: PRINT: GOT02 70 

575 REM- K 

580 F$=H2$:GOSUB130 

585 MID$(F$,2,1)="1":GOSUB170 

590 LSET H2$=F$:PUT#1,R 



TQTHIAN SOFTHARE 



COCO TESTEM 

Make multiple choice, matching, true/false, 
completion, short answer tests. Complete 
randomizing function. Requires printer with 
underline ability. Works with tape or disk. 
32K ECB tape. $19.95 

TEACHER PAK 

Both weighted and regular grading, seating 
charts, alphabetizing, statistical analysis. 
Works with tape or disk. 16K ECB tape. $34.95 

BOTH COCO TESTEM AND TEACHER PAK - $47.95 

D I SKMAN 

Backup, reorganize, and alphabetize RS disk 
directories. Examine & change sectors. Catalog 
disk files. Printouts. 32K disk. $21.95 

HOMEWARE 

Versatile home management package. Use with 
tape or disk. Five 16K ECB/ML modules on tape: 

CALENDAR - Draw calendars. Various formats. 

SAVINGS/LOANS - Personal finance calculators. 

DIRECTORY - Keep track of phone numbers. 

addresses, etc. Print address labels, 

INVENTORY - For home records, hobbies, etc. 

HOME-WRITER - Simple ML word. processing . 

Single modules: $19.95 Whole set: $49.95 

Pa. residents add G%. Send check or money 
order - no cash - to: 

Tothian Software, Inc. 
Box 663 
Rlmersburg, Pa. 16248 



November 1986 



THE RAINBOW 



83 



595 GOTO270 

600 REM- D 

605 PRINT: PRINT 

610 PRINTTAB(5) ;"1-SCREEN" 

615 PRINTTAB (5) ; " 2 -PRINTER" 

620 LINEINPUT" >";CH$ 

625 0NINSTR("12",CH$)+1 GOTO 270 

,630,635 

630 SC=0:GOTO640 

635 SC=-1 

640 GOSUB295 . 

645 GOSUB460 

650 GOTO270 

655 REM- A 

660 F$=H2$:GOSUB130 

665 MID$(F$,2,1)="0":GOSUB170 

670 LSET H2$=F$:PUT#1,R 

675 GOTO270 

680 REM- R 

685 PRINT :PRINT"MESSAGE RENUMBER 
I it 

• 

690 LINEINPUT" STARTING NUMBER: " 
;S$:S=VAL(S$) 

695 IF S=0 THEN 270 ELSE ML=S 

700 S=S-1 

705 FOR X=2 TO Kl 

710 GET#l,X:S=S+l:LSET H1$=MKN$ ( 
S) 

715 PUT#1,X:NEXTX 

720 GET#1,1:LSET H1$=MKN$ (S) : PUT 
#1,1 

725 MH=S 

730 GET#l,2:GOT0125 
735 REM- C 

740 PRINT: PRINT "FROM: ";MF$ 

745 LINEINPUT "FROM: ";CH$ 

750 IFCH$=""THEN755ELSEMF$=CH$ 

755 PRINT" TO: ";MT$ 

760 LINEINPUT" TO: ";CH$ 

765 IFCH$=""THEN770ELSEMT$=CH$ 

770 PRINT"SUBJ: ";MS$ 

775 LINEINPUT "SUB J: ";CH$ 

780 IFCH$=""THEN785ELSEMS$=CH$ 



MAILING LIST 
DATA INFORMATION PROGRAM 



More than just another 
mailing list program 



See Rainbow Reviews 
August '86, pg. 149 



Requires 16K or 64K Tape or 64K Disk System 

Price: $29.95 



CROCKETT SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 1221 
St. Ann, MO 63074 
(314) 441-9278 



We welcome: 
Checks 

C.O.D. (Add $3.00) 



r j 



785 LSET H5$=MF$+CHR$(0)+MT$+CHR 
$(0)+MS$+STRING$(80,0) 
790 SA=1:GOTO270 
795 REM- S 

800 PRINT: LINE INPUT "MENU # OR AL 
L: "?CH$ 

805 IFCH$=""THEN270 

810 IFCH$="ALL" THEN MD=-1 ELSE 

MD=VAL ( CH$ ) 

815 IF MD<0 OR MD>255 THENPRINT" 
MENU OUT OF RANGE. ":MD=0 
820 GOTO270 
825 REM- B 

830 PRINT: PRINT "PRESENT MENU: " ; 
BN$(ASC(H8$) ) 

835 LINEINPUT"POST TO #";CH$ 

840 IFCH$=""THEN270 

845 X=VAL(CH$) :IFX<0ORX>255THENP 

RINT "VALUE OUT OF RANGE" : GOT08 30 

850 PRINT" POSTING TO: ";BN$(X) 

855 LSET H8$=CHR$(X) :PUT#1,R 

860 GOTO270 

865 REM- T 

870 F$=H2$:GOSUB130 

875 IFMID$(F$,3,1)="1"THEN MID$ ( 

F$,3,1)="0":GOTO885 

880 MID$(F$,3,1)="1" 

885 GOSUB170:LSET H2$=F$ 

890 PUT#1,R:GOTO270 

895 '-OPEN MSGHDR/SYS- 

900 F$="HDR/SYS: "+DR$ (PEEK (4670) 

) 

905 OPEN"D",#1,F$,110 

910 FIELD#1,5 AS Hl$,l AS H2$,3 

AS H3$,2 AS H4$,80 AS H5$,5 AS H 

6$, 5 AS H7$,l AS H8$,8 AS SP$ 

915 Kl=LOF ( 1 ): RETURN 

920 '-OPEN MSG/SYS- 

925 F$="MSG/SYS: "+DR$ (PEEK (4671) 

) 

930 OPEN"D",#2,F$,80 

935 FIELD#2,80 AS MG$ 

940 K2=LOF (2 ): RETURN 

945 '-OPEN BOARD MENU- 

950 FF$="MENU/SYS: "+DR$( PEEK (467 

3)) 

955 OPEN"D",#2,FF$,250 
960 FIELD#2,1 AS Ml$,l AS M2$,l 
AS M3$,l AS M4$,16 AS M5$,230 AS 
M6$ 

965 K2=LOF (2 ): RETURN 



84 



THE RAINBOW November 1986 



4 



Metric Industries Inc. 



Printer-Interface Package 

239.95 



*Free shipping 

Seikosha SP-1000A 
Printer 



the new cou 




Printout Sample 



"7 O Ci * 



7C8ABCDEF 



<=>?<5ABCDEFGH IJKLM 
789: ;<=>?<9ABCDEFGHI 

/0123d5&739: ;<=>?@AGCDEFGHI 
789 : ; 0=> 7&ABCDEF 
<=> ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLM 
789: ; <=>?@ABCDEFGHI 
HP^GH X JT KITL, 

EFOHIJfCLMNOPQ 

789: ; <->?#AfiCD 



Graphics 

6 kinds of horizontal graphic density %^ 
(480/ 576/640/720/960/1 ,920 dots/line) % 
Multiple copies 
Original plus 2 copies 
Line spacing 

1/6, 1/8, 7/72, n/144, n/216 (n = 0-255) 
inches 

Line space feed 

6.7 lines/sec (6 lines/inch). 
10 lines/sec (9 lines/inch). 

Paper width 

Pin and friction (4" to 10"). 
Dimensions 

390Wx119Hx278D(mm) with tractor 
(15.4WX4.7HX10.9D inches) 

Weight 

4.9kg (10, 9 lbs) 



Features of SP-1000A 

• Centronics parallel. 

• Impact dot matrix method, bi- 
directional in logic seeking, uni- 
directional in graphic printing. 

• 100 (Draft mode), 20 cps (Near 
Letter Quality) print speed, with 
reduced noise level. 

• Pin-feed or friction-feed. 

• Automatic paper loading function. 

• A variety of functions including 
Under line, Bold print, Double 
striking. 

• A variety of print character sets 
including Pica, Elite, Italics, 
Super/Subscripts, Proportional, 
Elongated, Condensed, and Italic 
Super/Subscripts. 

• Standard 1.5K buffer. 

Printer is covered with a two-year 
warranty. 




Call for prices on the 
SP-1000A and other 
Seikosha printers. 



Metric Industries 
Model 104 Interface 
with Modem Switch 




The Model 104 is a serial to parallel 
interface with the added feature of a 
serial port (sometimes referred to as a 
modem switch). This feature allows the 
connection of a parallel printer and 
any serial device (modem, serial printer 
etc.) to your computer. You may then 
select either output, serial or parallel, 
with the flip of a switch. The 104 is 
only 4.5" X2.5" X1.25" and comes 
with all cables and connectors for your 
computer, You supply the serial cable 
for your modem or other serial device. 

Interface is covered with a one-year 
warranty 



Ordering Information 

*Free shipping and insurance in the 
United States except Alaska and 
Hawaii. 

Ohio residents add 5.5% sales tax. 

Call (513) 677-0796 and use VISA, 

MASTERCARD or CO.D. 

or send check or money order to: 

Metric Industries Inc. 

RO. Box 42396 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
45242 



A switching system for your BBS 





L I HE 



Dm 




By Ted Kyte 



*W order to operate a two-CoCo 
I W^system you will need two 
A A J.C0C0S, a BBS program, disk 
drives (as many as you like on each 
system), and an auto-answer type 
modem. 

The system I run has four single-sided 
Radio Shack disk drives on the first 
CoCo and two double-sided Qumes on 
the second CoCo. 

I run OCCCS BBS (Online Color 
Computer Comunications System), 
written by Steve Odneal, and ASCII 
Express, written by Erik Gavriluk and 
Greg Miller. The reason for this is that 
the OCCCS BBS program is a complete 
BBS program to run the main system, 
and the ASCII Express is an in-memory 
BBS system which leaves all the disk 
drives free for downloads. On CoCo 
number one there are two drives for 
downloads and two drives to handle the 
system and mail. This leaves CoCo 
number two with four drives for down- 



Ted Kyte is 35 years old and lives in 
Blairmore, Alberta. Ted owns his own 
Rewind business which he has been 
operating for 12 years. He has three 
Co Cos and has written some specialized 
business programs that may be mar- 
keted in the future. 



loads, for a total of six download drives. 

The Program 

The line numbers I am using are for 
example purposes only. Do not use line 
numbers that already exist in your BBS 
programs unless you know what you're 
doing. 

The OCCCS BBS program has been 
edited to add a function that permits the 
SysOp to tell CoCo one whether CoCo 
two is online. Let's assume that in your 
BBS program the password is the var- 
iable PAS, and let's assume your pass- 
word is SYSOP#l. Then insert the 
following lines in your program: 

500 IF Pfi$=''SYSOPttl'' THEN 
LINEI NPUT "I S SYSTEM U2 
ONLINE Y'N;"SS$ 

510 IF SS$=~Y" THEN PRINT 
"SYSTEM »2 IS ON LINE" ELSE 
PRINT "SYSTEM 82 IS NOT ONLINE" 

When the SysOp logs on, this enables 
him to activate access to CoCo two. 
This can be also be done from a remote 
terminal. If the power on/ off switch is 
not on and you activate access to CoCo 
two, then a user attempting to go to 
CoCo two is quickly logged off. 

In your BBS you will have a routine 
to handle which subroutine the user will 
go to after making a menu selection. 





Now let's assume the variable handlir 
the menu selection is MS. Then yc 
need to add a line something like this 

800 IF M$"0" AND 55$= "Y " THEN 
GOSUB 1000 ELSE IF M$="0" 
AND SSSO"Y" THEN PR INT "SORR 

: SYSTEM 2 IS NOT ON LINE": 
RETURN 

In this line we have assumed the 
routine handling the switch to systei 
two is in Line 1000. If the variable 
equals O and variable SSS equal* 
then the program control shifts to the 
routine in Line 1000 to handle the 
switching. If either variable does not 
match, the user will be told "Sorry 
system two is not on line," and control 
will be returned to the menu routine. 

If everything is OK for going to 
system two, you can add the routine 
starting at Line 1000. This can tell the 
user about any special features of sys- 
tem two he may not be familiar with, or 
you can switch them right over. We have 
to add a few lines to handle the switch- 
ing and they should be something like 
this: 

1000 PRINT "YOU WILL NOT BE ABLE 
TO LEAVE ANY MESSAGES OR MAIL ' 
IN SYSTEM 2 SO PLEASE LEAVE THEM 
IN SYSTEM 1 BEFORE YOU GO . " 

1010 PRINT: LINEI NPUT "GO TO 
SYSTEM 2 Y/N";q$ 

1020 IF Q$0"Y"THEN RETURN 

1030 PRINT "PRESS <H>" 

1040 3 M0T0R0N : M0T0R0FF 

1050 GOTO 'LOGOFF ROUTINE' 

Line 1000 is self-explanatory. Line 
1010 is an opportunity for users to back 
out if they do not want to go to system 
two. Line 1030 is important; when they 
are switched to system two, they won^t 
see anything. The user will see PRESS 
<H> as the last thing on his screen before 
the switch is actually made. This gives 
them the help list for system two, and 
they are off and running. 

Line 1040 simply makes the modem 
switch to system two. 

Line 1050 sends the control of system 
one to the logoff routine and restarts 
system one. You don't have to worry 
about your modem control codes in the 
logoff routine because the modem has 
already been switched to system two 
and does not see those codes. The 
reason for logging off system one is to 



86 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



Schematic 



Parts Description 



A) 


12-volt adapter 


RS# 2734652 


B) 


12-voll DC DIMM relpy 


RS# 275-8206 


C) 


12- volt DC pilot light 


RS# 272-334 




12-volt DC DPDT relay 


RSti 275-8214 


E) 


12-volt DC DP DT relay 


RS# 275-S206 


F) 


4-pin DIM male plug 


RS# 274-007 


G) 


4-pin DIN male plug 


RSfr 274-007 


H) 


SPST toggle switch 


RSff 275-662 


1) 


Cassette cable 


RS# 26-1207 


i) 


Cassette cable 


RS# 26-1207 


IQ 


SPST toggle switch 


RStt 275-662 




Utility box 


RStf 270-233 




Component Functions 




ccicn 



A J 

B) 
C) 

G) 

H) 



* 



K) 



_ 



Converts 115- volt AC house voltage to 12 volts DC to operate the Low 
voltage relays. 

Control relay to witch modem from CoCo two to CoCo one, both 

contacts are normally closed. 

Pilot light to indicate power on or off. 

Main relay Lo switch modem from CoCo one to CoCo two and back, 
Control relay to switch modem from CoCo one to CoCo two; both 
contacts are normally open. 

Plug to connect main relay to serial port of CoCo one. 

Plug to connect main relay to serial port of CoCo two, 

Switch to enable manual or automatic operation. 

Cassette cable to connect CoCo one cassette relay to switching device. 

(See special note.) 

Cassette cable to eonncet CoCo two cassette relay to switching device. 

(See special note.) 

Main power on/ off switch. 

Utility bo a holds all components and makes a neat finished project. 



speed up the total reset time when 
system two is logged off. The instant the 
user is logged off system two, system 
one is ready for another call. 

In system two; the only lines really 
required to end the whole two-system 
switching sequence are as follows: 

?m L1NEINPUT -TO YOU REALLY 
WISH TO IUB OFF y^N";0* 

710 IF QSO"Y" RETURN 

720 PRINT "THANKS FOP CALLING 
fc * . BVE NOW 

730 PRINT GHES[43)5CHRS(43] ; 
CHRS(43):PRINT "flTSB-r 

740 MOTOR DN : I1D T □ ROF F 

Your BBS program probably has a 
line similar to Line 700. If the user 
selects *Y\ control is passed to Line 720 
for the thank you line, then to Line 730, 
which needs the codes your modem 
requires to hang up and be reset to the 
answer mode. 




Sequence of Operation 

To start the switching sequence, 
CoCo one does a M0TDR0N. This closes 
the internal cassette relay of CoCo one 
and causes the normally open contacts 
of relay (E) to close. This activates relay 
(D) and switches the modem to CoCo 
two. Then relay (E) acts as its own 
holding contact as CoCo one does a 
M0TDR0FF. 

The modem has switched to CoCo 
two and CoCo one has returned its 
internal cassette relay back to the open 
position. However, relay (E) is still in 
the closed position. 

To return the modem to CoCo one, 
CoCo two must do a.MOTORQN. This 
opens the normally closed contacts of 
relay (B) and switches the modem back 
to CoCo one. 

When CoCo one does a M0T0RDN 
then an immediate MDTDRDFF, it is sent 
to the normal logoff sequence the BBS 
provides. This updates the user log and 



keeps track of the time and date of last 
user. 

Special Note 

The cables (I and J) in the schematic 
can either be cassette cables with the 
sub-mini phono plugs that normally go 
to the remote on the cassette, which can 
be used with female sub-mini plugs 
(RS# 274-292) on the switching device, 
or they can be a separate cable made up 
with a five-pin DIN male plug (RS# 
274-003). Use pins 1 and 3 to go to a sub- 
mini phono plug (RS# 274-290) then to 
the female sub-mini (RS#274-292) on 
the switching device. 

On the main switching relay (D) be 
sure to have the pin numbers matched 
up. If you take Pin 1 from the modem, 
it must end up being Pin 1 on both 
CoCo one and CoCo two when the relay 
is activated or non-activated. 

The cable and plug that runs from the 
modem to the switching device can be 
the existing cable your modem has and 
a female plug to match it on the utility 
box. 

This switching system has been run- 
ning for about six months on a part- 
time basis. The hours for a one-CoCo 
system are 24 hours a day, seven days 
a week, and for the two-CoCo system, 
seven days a week, from 12:00 midnight 
to approximately 3:00 p.m. (MST). 

I hope some of the RAINBOW readers 
will benefit from this little project. I can 
say it has increased the joys of being a 
CoCo SysOp. 

If any readers would like more infor- 
mation on this system, they can call the 
Wes-Can Color Board at (403) 564- 
4118, anytime seven days a week, or 
write to Ted Kyte, Box 818, Blairmore, 
Alberta, Canada T0K 0E0. /R\ 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 87 



More on the New 

Video Display Generator 



By Tony DiStefanc 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



tions work for just about every CoCo 
and CoCo 2, but on certain models, the 
VDG and other parts involved are 
soldered directly onto the PC Board. 
That means you have to unsolder the 
chips and insert a socket. This can be 
done, and I have done it many times, 
but it requires a solder sucker or chip 
remover. Soldering experience is neces- 
sary. Also, before you start, be fore- 
warned! The jumpers I will tell you to 
install in the *F* board may be different 
on different boards. But, not all is 
gloom and doom. A little trial and error 
and you should find the right pin 
numbers. 

There are two parts you need. The 
first is the VDG, Motorola part number 
MC6847T1. If you cannot get this part 
at your local electronics store, try Radio 
Shack. The part number is MX-6551. 
The next part is just a plain and simple 
resistor. The resistor value is IK or 1000 
ohms quarter watt or half watt. That's 
it; the rest is a little bit of work. 

Unplug the computer, undo the case, 
remove the keyboard, etc. You know, all 
those boring things. 



Last month I described the new 
VDG (Video Display Generator) 
MC6847T1 and the modes that 
are possible. I also showed you how to 
hook up a few switches in order to 
access these modes. The only problem 
with this is the new VDG is only avail- 
able in the CoCo 2 'B' model. At home, 
I have the regular white CoCo. They call 
it the 'F board. I wanted the new Tl 
chip in my CoCo, too. So, with the help 
of Bill Warnica, I modified my S F' board 
CoCo to work with this new chip. 

The new VDG and the old VDG are 
very similar but not pin-for-pin compat- 
ible, so you can't just pull the old one 
out and plug the new one in. It is/ 
however, not too difficult to modify the 
computer board to make it fit. The new 
VDG also has built-in hardware that 
saves two chips on the computer board. 



Tony DiStefano is a well-known early 
specialist in computer hardware pro- 
jects. He lives in Laval Quest, Quebec. 



The chips that are saved are no longer 
on the 4 B' board. That is why the new 
board is smaller than the older boards. 
The two chip numbers saved are the 
74LS244 and 74LS273. These chips are 
TTL logic gates used to isolate the CPU 
data bus from the video data bus. 

Without getting into too much detail, 
these two chips are now part of the 
VDG and are no longer needed on the 
main board. At first, it was thought that 
both of these chips had to be removed 
from the old PC board and the new 
VDG completely rewired to fit in. 
Luckily, it turns out that only one of 
these chips has to be removed. This 
saves a lot of wiring. 

Like most of my projects, this one 
requires you to open the computer and 
dig inside with a soldering iron and 
some tools. A good hardware hacker 
with experience is needed to do this one. 
To do this project, you will need a 
soldering iron, tools, wire, solder and, 
of course, a new VDG. More on the 
parts later. 

The upgrade I did was on an 'F' board 
CoCo. As far as I know, these instruc- 



88 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



Now comes the fun part. The first 
thing you must do is remove the VDG. 
That's simple. It's the chip marked 
MC6847, or U9 on the 'F board. On 
other boards, the U number might be 
different but it will always be the 
MC6847. On some boards the VDG is 
soldered in. In that case, you must 
unsolder the VDG and insert a 40-pin 
socket. Prepare the new VDG (Tl) in 
the following manner. Cut the resistor 
leads so that it will just fit between pins 
25 and 1 1 . Put the resistor across the top 
of the VDG and solder one end of the 
resistor to the top part of Pin 25. Make 
sure the solder doesn't leak down the 
pin. Next, solder the other end to Pin 
1 1 (same precaution). Now pry out Pin 
31 vertically, so it does not insert into 
the socket when you plug the new VDG 
in. 

Insert the new VDG into the socket. 
Make sure Pin 1 is in the right place. 
Now solder a short piece of wire-wrap 
wire to Pin 1 of the VDG. Don't solder 
the pin to the socket. You won't be able 
to get the chip out if you do. (If you 
prefer, solder all connections to these 
pins before inserting the chip into the 



socket.) Solder the other end of this wire 
to Pin 31, the one that you bent up 
before. Solder a second wire to Pin 12 
of the new VDG. Run this wire to Pin 
10 of the SAM (Synchronous Address 



"Never connect two 
outputs together, and 
never connect two 
inputs together." 



Multiplexer). You remember ol' SAM, 
she's the one that does all the timing in 
the CoCo. I did an article on her not 
long ago in this magazine. Her name is 
MC6883 or SN74LS783N. 

It was said, by whom I don't know, 
that you needed the new MC6885 or 
SN74LS785N SAM in order to make 
this new VDG work, but this rumor 
turns out to be false. The old one works 
just fine. As a matter of fact, I have the 



old SAM in my CoCo and it just purrs 
along. Anyway, back to work. Solder a 
third wire from Pin 13 of the VDG to 
Pin 12 of the SAM. That's about it for 
the VDG. But there is a little more work 
to do. 

The next stage of this project deals 
with the buffer chip I mentioned earlier. 
Start off by removing the chip, number 
74LS273, from its socket. You no longer 
need this chip, but keep it in your parts 
bin for a rainy day or in case you decide 
to remove the modification and replace 
the old VDG chip. The modification I 
did is on the so called 'F' board and the 
74LS273 chip labeled U13 on the PC 
board. It also was not soldered in. It had 
a socket; all I had to do was pull it. If 
you are doing this on another board and 
the IC is not socketed, you must do a 
little more work. First, remove the old 
chip. Then solder in a 20-pin socket. 
You need the socket for this next step. 

Prepare eight (about 1.5 inches) short 
pieces of wire by stripping 3/16 inch of 
insulation off each end. Use a number 
22 or 24 gauge solid wire. Old Bell wire 
is best. Now insert each wire into the 
pins of the 20-pin socket as follows. 



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November 1986 THE RAINBOW 89 




OWL-WARE 



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OWL-WARE 

P.O. Box 116-D 
Mertztown. PA. 
19539 

4 

PA Res Include 6% Tax 

PA (215) 682-6855 



OWL TIP: In answer to your questions: 
Our drives also work on the CoCo 3. 
Ours have gold contacts and provide 
more storage per bu&k 

OWL-WARE Software Bundle 

Disk Tutorial ) Utilities 2 Games 

DISK TUTOR 

LEARN EVERYTHING ABOUT DISK BASIC 
FROM THIS MACHINE LANGUAGE 
PROGRAM. THE TUTOR TAKES YOU STEP 
BY STEP THROUGH THE LESSONS AND 
CORRECTS YOUR MISTAKES A MULTI- 
LESSON TUTORIAL THAT WILL GIVE YOU 
QUICK , PAINLESS KNOWLEDGE OF DISK 
BASIC (THIS PROFESSIONALLY WRITTEN 
TUTOR IS EASILY WORTH THE BUNDLE'S 
TOTAL PRICE). 

OWL DOS 

AN OPERATING SYSTEM THAT GIVES 
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CORRECTS FLOATING POINT NUMBER 
ERROR. 

COPY-IT 

QUICKLY COPIES SELECTED PROGRAMS 
FROM DISK. USE WILD CARD OPTION 
SEARCH TO SELECT GROUPS OF 
PROGRAMS FOR COPY (NOT FOR PRO- 
TECTED PROGRAMS) 

VERIFY 

VERIFIES READING EACH SECTOR. BAD 
SECTORS ARE LISTED ON THE SCREEN. 

2 GAMES 

2 GAMES FROM OUR STOCK. 
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IF SOLD SEPARATELY OVER 
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only $27.95 
(or even better) 
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DISK DRIVE PURCHASE!!! 



One End Other End 

15 
9 
6 

• m ' 

16 




Pins 1, 10, 11 and 20 are left empty. 
Do not connect anything to these pins. 
(Pin 10 is ground and Pin 20 is the 5- 
volt supply. You may use them if you 
need these power connections in other 
projects.) 

Now, this chip is called an Octal D- 
type flip-flop. If you recall, many 
moons (monthly articles) ago, I de- 
scribed flip-flops; they are no more than 
a sort of latch. This particular chip has 
eight latches. One for each of the eight 
data bits of the CPU. Each of these bits 
has an input and an output. I have 
arranged the pin numbers in such a way 
that the One End column pin numbers 



are all inputs and all the pin numbers 
in the Other End column are outputs. 
This is important to know. Notice that 
one jumper exists for every in/ out pair. 
If you are trying to modify a board 
other than the *F* board, the pin 
numbers may not match. Not having 
tried all the CoCos and CoCo 2s, 1 
cannot print every pin diagram. Try to 
wire the connections as they stand 
above, but if the screen looks confused 
and you do not get the same letters on 
the screen you type on the keyboard, it's 
because the pinout is different. 

In that case you will have to do a trial 
and error method to get the right com- 
bination. There are two rules to follow: 
Never connect two outputs together, 
and never connect two inputs together. 
The first may cause permanent damage 
to your computer. Jumper all eight 
wires and try it. If it is not right, make 
note of the combination you did and try 
another. If you do combinations in 
order, you will eventually get the right 
combination. When you do, if you send 



me the pinout combination and which 
computer board you did it on, 1 will 
print them in the next article I write and 
give you credit for it. 

That's all there is to it! Plug every- 
thing back in and turn it on. You now 
have the new VDG in your CoCo. If you 
want to access the new modes of the new 
VDG, you will have to do a little more 
work. Last month, I wrote on how to 
access the new modes using switches or 
software. It works for this modification 
perfectly. All you have to do is follow 
the instructions and use the method that 
suits you best. Next month, I'll show 
you how to use the new modes without 
switches. All you will need are a few 
electronic parts. When you change 
modes from text to graphics, you won't 
have to throw all your switches — the 
electronics will do it for you. 

For those who are interested, Figure 
1 shows the pinouts of the old and the 
new VDGs side by side so you can 
compare the differences between 
them. v n 



VS5 




1 


DD6 




2 


DDO 


Cm 


3 


DDt 


Cmm 


4 


DD2 


c 


5 


DD3 


Cm 


6 


DD4 


cz 


7 


DD5 




8 


cm 




9 


OB 




10 


OA 


E 


11 


MS^ 


E 


12 


DAB 




13 


DA6 




14 


DA7 


e 


15 


DA8 




16 


VCC 




17 


DA9 


czz 


18 


DA10 


e 


19 


DA11 




20 



MC6847 



40 
39 
38 



36 



34 
33 
32 
31 
30 
29 
28 



24 

22 



m3 
Z] 

•hmJ 



DD7 

CSS 

FS 
RP 



A/S 
G/K 
INV 

INT/EXT 

GM0 
GM1 

Y 

GM2 
DA4 
DA3 
DA2 



DA0 
DA 12 



DD5 C 



DD3 



DDI 
DDO 



0B 



Cm 

DDCLK 
D 1/0 7 
D I/O 6 
D I/O 5 E 

VCC C 

D I/O 4 

■ • ; • . .■• .. , ■< 
■ * ' ."\\ v , 

D 1/0 3 E 

Di/62 



1 

a 
3 
4 

5 

6 
7 

a 
9 

10 
11 
12 

13 

14 
15 
16 

17 

18 
19 
20 



New VDG 
MC6847T1 



40 
39 
38 
37 
36 

35 
34 
33 

32 
31 
30 

29 

28 
27 
26 

25 
24 

23 
22 
21 



ZI3 



DD7 
CSS 
HS 

FS 
RP 

A/G 



VCLK 



INT/EXT 



GM1 
Y 

GM2 
BURST 



3 BURSTPC 



MRD 

D I/O 0 

DA0 

Dl/O 1 



92 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



COCO 3 CAPABILITIES 



128K 
Disk 




Coming to Terms' 



With the CoCo 3 



By Rick Adams and Dale Lear 



Term J is a simple terminal pro- 
gram for the Color Computer 3. 
It has few features; the purpose 
of this program is to demonstrate the 
fact that reliable 1200 Baud RS-232 
communication out the CoCo's "bit- 
banger" port may be obtained by uti- 
lizing the programmable interrupt timer 
included with the Color Computer 3. 

Sharp-eyed, technically-oriented 
users will note that the interrupt routine 
is driven by setting the new timer at, 
seven times the Baud rate, making the 
sampling rate on the bit-banger port 
fast enough for reliable start-bit detec- 
tion. This luxury is not available on the 
Color Computer 2. There are only two 
fixed-rate interrupt clocks built in; one 
is too fast to use for this purpose, while 
the other is too slow! 

Despite the simplicity of Term 3, it 

Rick Adams is a systems programmer 
for a company that develops 68000- 
based systems software. In addition to 
writing games, he likes science fiction 
and is the author of Radio Shack's 
Temple of ROM. Rick lives in Rohnert 
Park, California. 

Dale Lear owns Dale Lear Software 
and makes his living developing pro- 
grams for the Color Computer. He has 
authored games and other software 
such as Double Back, Baseball, 
TSEDIT, TSWORD and D.L. LOGO. 
Dale, his wife Laurel and their six 
children live in Petaluma, California. 



does have some things going for it: it 
supports true upper- and lowercase 
letters in the 40- or 80-column modes 
available on the Color Computer 3, and 
both input and output are fully buf- 
fered, allowing type-ahead. 

With a little experimentation, Color 
Computer users with moderate 
assembly-language experience could 
add features to this bare-bones com- 
munication demo such as ASCII buffer 
uploading and downloading, use of the 
function keys (welcome addition) to 
generate user-defined text strings, and 
so on. 

TERM3.BAS is the BASIC program 
that pokes a number of communica- 
tions parameters into memory, loads 
the machine language portion of the 
package and starts things going. The 
comments regarding the parameters are 
fairly self-explanatory; the defaults 
shown will do nicely in the majority of 
cases. (Note that setting the left margin 
to 4 2' avoids the problem of the width 
40 mode on a TV set causing the first 
two characters to disappear.) 

The assembly language portion of 
Term 3 is named TERM3.BIN. Users 
with assembly language experience may 
use the source listing shown as 
TERM 3. SRC (and their favorite as- 
sembler) to produce this file. 

Perhaps we'll see some of you on 
Delphi as you take your Term 3 pro- 
gram out for a test drive through the 
telecommunications network. We hope 
to see you there! □ 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 93 



Listing 1: TERM3BAS 



10 CLS 

20 PRINT " 



TERM3 VERSION 1,0 



520 POKE &H2J36,T2 
530 POKE &H207,AUTOL 
540 POKE &H208, DUPLEX 

550 LOADM "TERM3 " 
560 EXEC 



30 PRINT " 
ii 

40 PRINT 11 COPYRIGHT 1986" 

50 PRINT 11 DALE LEAR AND RICK AD 
AMS " 

60 PRINT "====================== 



ii 



70 

80 

90 
100 

110 
120 

) 

130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
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290 

300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
360 
370 
380 
390 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 



i*** PARAMETERS *** 



i DISPLAY MODE 



NUMBER OF COLUMNS (40 OR 80 



CMAX=40 
i 

'NUMBER OF LINES 
LMAX=24 



(24) 



•LEFT MARGIN (FOR TV) 

LFMAR=2 
i 

'FOREGROUND COLOR (WHITE) 

FCOLOR=255 
i 

•BACKGROUND COLOR (BLACK) 

BC0L0R=J3 
i 

1 BAUD RATE 

BAUD=12J30 
i 

1 TIMER SET TO 7X BAUD RATE 

T=INT( (14 318181/4)/ (BAUD*7) ) 

Tl=INT(T/256) 

T2=T-256*T1 
i 

1 AUTOLF 

AUT0LF=J3 

1 0-NO 

' 1-YES 
i 

1 DUPLEX 

DUPLEX^ 

1 0-FULL 

1 1-HALF 
i 

WIDTH CMAX 
POKE &H2j3j3,CMAX 
POKE &H2j31,LMAX 
POKE &H2j32,LFMAR 
POKE &H203,FCOLOR 
POKE &H2j34,BCOLOR 
POKE &H2$5,T1 



Listing 2: TERM3 



0020 
0003 
000D 
000A 
0008 
0100 
0100 
0000 



0000 



0000 
0000 
0001 



0002 
0003 
0004 
0005 
0006 
0007 
0008 
0009 



000B 
000D 

000F 

mi 



?200 
0200 
0201 
0202 
0203 
0204 
0205 
0207 
0208 



4000 
4000 
5800 
5900 



00010 
00020 
00030 
00040 
00050 
00060 
00070 
00080 
00090 
00100 

00110 
00120 
00130 
00140 
00150 
00160 
00170 
00180 
00190 
00200 
00210 
00220 
00230 
00240 
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00260 
00270 
00280 
00290 
00300 
00310 
00320 
00330 
00340 
00350 
00360 
00370 
00380 
00390 
00400 
00410 
00420 
00430 
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00460 
00470 
00480 
00490 
00500 
00510 
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00540 
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00590 
00600 
00610 
00620 
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00640 
00650 
00660 
00670 
00680 
00690 
00700 
00710 
00720 
00730 
00740 
00750 



* TERM3 VERSION 1.0 

* COPYRIGHT 1986 
★DALE LEAR AND RICK ADAMS 



* TERM3 IS A SIMPLE TEMINAL 

* PACKAGE FOR THE COCO 3 

* UTILIZING THE PROGRAMMABLE 

* INTERRUPT TIMER TO CONTROL 

* THE SERIAL PORT. 



* EQUIV DEFINITIONS 
* 

BLANK EQU 32 

BREAK EQU 3 

CR EQU 13 

LF EQU 10 

BS EQU 8 

SZOUT EQU $100 SIZE OF OUTPUT BUFFER 

SZIN EQU $100 SIZE OF INPUT BUFFER 

ATTR EQU $0 



★ 

★DIRECT PAGE COMMON 

ORG 0 



* 

★SCREEN DISPLAY COMMON 
* 

LINCOL 

LIN RMB 1 CUR LINE 

COL RMB 1 CUR COL 
★ 

* COMMUNICATIONS COMMON 



XSLICE 
XBIT 
XCHAR 
RSLICE 
RBIT 
RCHAR 
BHOLD 
XHOLD 




RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 
RMB 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 



* BUFFERED I/O POINTERS 
* 

GETOUT RMB 2 
PUTOUT RMB 2 

GETIN RMB 2 
PUTIN RMB 2 

* 

* PARAMATERS POKED IN BY BASIC 

ORG $200 
1 



CMAX RMB 
LMAX RMB 
LFMAR RMB 
FCOLOR RMB 
BCOLOR RMB 
BAUD RMB 
AUTOLF RMB 
DUPLEX RMB 
★ 

★BUFFERS 
* 

ORG $4000 
VIDBUF RMB $1800 
INBUF RMB SZIN 
OUTBUF RMB SZOUT 



1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 



MAX COL 
MAX LINE 
LEFT MARGIN 
FOREGROUND COLOR 
BACKGROUND COLOR 
BAUD RATE CONSTANT 
0-NO, 1-YES 
0-FULL, 1-HALF 



SCREEN 
INPUT BUF 
OUTPUT BUF 



94 THE RAINBOW * November 1986 



MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 



MORE GOOD SOFTWARE 

3RAPH1COM 

3 disk package $29.95 

64K EXB disk 
SAM DIAMOND 

graphic adventure .... $29.95 

32K EXB disk 
HOT SLOT 

casino simulation .... $24.95 

32K EXB disk or tape 
ECLIPSE 

excellent pixel editor. . $19.95 

64K EXB disk 



THE MOTION PICTURE 

Animation tool . . , 

64K Disk Only . 

FANTASY CLIP ART 
Cocomax or Graphicom 
64 K Disk 

BJORK BLOCKS 
Graphics with Animation 
32K EXB Tape 



GOOD SOFTWARE 

FILE CABINET 
. . $39.95 Data Base for tape 

16K EXB Tape 



$14.95 



$34.95 



$29.95 



COCO WRITER TWO 

Tape Version 

16K EXB Tape 

Disk Version 

32K Disk 

Business Software Call Us 



$34.95 
$44.95 



A SUPER COLOR PRINTER 
The OK I MATE 2 0 
AT A SUPER LITTLE PRICE! 

'rints ten characters to the inch, 
welve characters fifteen characters to the inch, 
iJj'cs, I tal ics. I tali cs . 



nder 1 ine 



Sjperscr 



o t 



Subscript 



Small. Light w 
'rints up to oO ch 
'rints four color 
isk software for 
:olor and four col 
lolor Computer hi 

Okimate 20, P 
iaper, black and c 
nstructions, soft 



■arallel $220.00 
ilO.OO Shipping 



The only color Okimate 
20 Screen Dump Now 
Available for the CoCo. 



eight. Quiet, 
aracters per second, 
graph ics. Includes 
black and white, two 
or screen dumps of 
res graphics, 
lug v n * Print, 
olor r ibbon , 
ware and cable for: 



••INT i •!' ; ""!<•• ' iniii"^!'-'!!'!'!*; • jviijiii'vv ,"" '"Tin !•:""' T 




ri x 




u\on Sdnta tjaroar a vounaea i ■= fit> 




Guaranteed Pretested 



64K UPGRADES 

E Board (solderless - 

pictured) $39.95 

F Board $26.95 

CoCo 2 (except 26-3134A&B and 

26-3 136 A&B) $26.95 

CoCo 2 (models 26-3134A&B and 
26-3136A&B $39.95 

Having trouble with your CoCo? We 
have the chips you need. Call us. 
(805) 962-3127' 



SELECTED REPLACEMENT CHIPS FOR THE COCO 

The "COCO CORRECTION" 
Chips for Ull and U29 

Presoldered assembly for E boards upgrades. $12.95 

SN74LS785N (The SAM chip) $28.95 

6809E (Microprocessor) $19.95 

6822P (PIA) $13.95 

6821P (PIA) ' $ 8.95 

1372 (Color Mixing Chip) . $10.95 
Extended basic (EXCEPT models 26-3127B, 

26-3134A/B and 26-3136A/B $29.29 



DOUBLE DRIVER I 

The BEST monitor driver available. 
Color composite, monochrome and 
audio output. For original CoCo D, E 
and F boards. $24.95. 

MONO II 

Mono II for Color Computer 2. An 
excellent monochrome monitor driver 
that has audio output also. Specify 
model needed. 

$24.95. 




DOUBLE DRIVER II 

Finally a monitor driver for 
the Color Computer II that 
lets you use a monochrome 
and a color monitor 
simultaneously. We're proud 
of this new driver. The six 
transister circuit provides op- 
timal signal mixing and signal 
gain. Excellent monochrome 
output and better quality 
resolution in the color ouput 




than any driver we have 
seen. Audio output also. Fits 
all models of the Color Com- 
puter II. $29.95. 




THE COCO-SWITCHER 

A QUALITY PIECE OF HARDWARE ' 

The CoCo Switcher allows you to hook up 
three peripherals to your RS-232 jack. Con- 
nect your modem, printer and any other 
RS-232 compatible peripheral to the CoCo 
Switcher. An LED on the CoCo Switcher 
shows if your computer is on or off at a glance, 
The LED flickers when transmitting or receiv- 
ing data. 

$39.95 plus $2.00 shipping and handling 



MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Bay laboratory 
316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

Ordering information 

Send $2.00 shipping and handling per order. We ship 
within 1 working day on receipt of order. Blue Label 
Service available. California residents add 6% sales tax. 




S000 

6000 



6000 


7F 


FF40 


6003 


7F 


FFD9 


6006 


17 


0138 




OL 




600C 


9F 


03 


600E 


9F 


0D 


6010 


8E 


5800 


6013 


9F 


0F 




9F 


11 


6017 


108E 


0200 


601B 


C6 


FF 


601D 






601D 


E7 


80 


601F 


31 


3F 


6021 


26 


FA 


6023 


17 


016E 



6026 






6026 


17 


0035 


6029 


81 


FF 


602B 


27 


05 


602D 


17 


0075 


6030 


20 


F4 


6032 






6032 


17 " 


0040 


6035 


81 


FF 


6037 


27 


ED 


6039 


7D 


0208 


603C 


27 


03 


603E 


17 


0064 


6041 






6041 


17 


0002 


6044 


20 


E0 


6046 






6046 


34 


02 


6048 


9E 


0D 


604A 






604A 


E6 


84 


604C 


CI 


FF 


604E 


26 


FA 


6050 


A7 


80 


6052 


8C 


5A00 


6055 


26 


03 


6057 


8E 


5900 


605A 






605A 


9F 


0D 


605C 


35 


82 


605E 






605E 


9E 


0F 


6060 


A6 


84 


6062 


81 


FF 


6064 


27 


0C 


6066 


C6 


FF 


6068 


E7 


80 


606A 


8C 


5900 


606D 


26 


03 


606F 


8E 


5800 


6072 






6072 


9F 


0F 


6074 


39 





00760 
00770 
00780 
00790 
00800 
00810 
00820 
00830 
00840 
00850 
00860 
00870 
00880 
00890 
00900 
00910 
00920 
00930 
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00960 
00970 
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00990 
01000 

01010 

01020 

01030 

01040 

01050 

01060 

01070 

01080 

01090 

01100 

01110 

01120 

01130 

01140 

01150' 

01160 

01170 

01180 

01190 

01200 

01210 

01220 

01230 

01240 

01250 

01260 

01270 

01280 

01290 

01300 

01310 

01320 

01330 

01340 

01350 

01360 

01370 

01380 

01390 

01400 

01410 

01420 

01430 

01440 

01450 

01460 

01470 

01480 

01490 

01500 

01510 

01520 

01530 

01540 

01550 

01560 

01570 

01580 

01590 

01600 
01610 
01620 
01630 
01640 
01650 



★ 



MAINLINE 



ORG $6000 



MAIN 



TURN OFF DISK MOTOR 
SPEED UP CPU 
CLEAR SCREEN 

CLEAR I/O BUFFERS 



INITIALIZATION 
* 

CLR $FF40 
CLR $FFD9 
LBSR CLRSCN 

* 

LDX #OUTBUF 
STX GETOUT 
STX PUTOUT 
LDX #INBUF 
STX GETIN 
STX PUTIN 
LDY #SZIN+SZOUT 
LDB #-1 
ISET 

STB ,X+ FILL BUFS ff/-l*S 
LEAY -l t Y 
BNE ISET 

* 

LBSR TIMER START TIMER 



*BODY OF MAINLINE 
* 



LOOP1 
LBSR RECV 
CMPA #-1 
BEQ LOOP2 
LBSR PUT 
BRA LOO PI 

* 



RS232 -> A REG 



A REG -> SCREEN 
(TIS MORE IMPORTANT TO 
RECIEVE THAN TO TRANSMIT) 



KEYBOARD -> A REG 



LOOP2 
LBSR GET 
CMPA #-1 
BEQ LOOP1 

TST DUPLEX SKIP IF FULL DUPLEX(0) 
BEQ LOOP3 

LBSR PUT A REG -> SCREEN 
LOOP3 
LBSR SEND 
BRA LOOP1 



A REG -> RS232 



★SEND CHARACTER TO SERIAL PORT 

* (VIA OUTBUF) 

* ENTER W/ CHAR IN A REC 
* 

SEND 

PSHS A 

LDX PUTOUT 
SND1 

LDB ,X 

CMPB #-1 

BNE SND1 WAIT FOR LAST XMIT 
STA ,X+ PUT CHAR IN BUFFER 
CMPX #OUTBUF+SZOUT 
BNE SND2 
LDX #OUTBUF 
SND2 
STX PUTOUT 

PULS A, PC 
* 

*RCV CHARACTER FROM SERIAL PORT 

* (VIA INBUF) 

* RETURN W/ CHAR IN A REG 

* -1 IF NOTHING RECEIVED 
* 

RECV 
LDX GETIN 
LDA ,X 
CMPA #-1 
BEQ RCV1 
LDB #-1 
STB ,X+ 

CMPX #INBUF+SZIN 

BNE RCV1 
LDX #INBUF 
RCV1 
STX GETIN 
RTS 

* 



6075 






6075 


17 


0090 


6078 


E6 


01 


607A 


34 


14 


607C 


C6 


C0 


607E 


EA 




6080 


E7 




6082 


AD 


9F A000 


6086 


27 


16 


6088 


84 


7F 


608A 


C6 


EF 


608C 


F7 


FF02 


608F 


F6 


FF00 


6092 


C4 


40 


6094 


26 


0A 


6096 


81 


3D 


6098 


27 


04 


609A 


84 


IF 


609C 


20 


02 


609E 






609E 


86 


FF 


60A0 






60A0 


35 


14 


60A2 


E7 




60A4 


39 





60A5 



60A5 


34 


12 


60A7 


81 


20 


60A9 


24 


IE 


60AB 


81 


0D 


60AD 


27 


0C 


60AF 


81 


0A 


60B1 


27 


12 


60B3 


81 


08 


60B5 


26 


ID 


60B7 


0A 


01 


60B9 


20 


17 


60BB 






60BB 


F6 


0202 


60BE 


D7 


n 


60C0 


7D 


0207 


60C3 


27 


0D 


60C5 






60C5 


0C 


00 


60C7 


20 


09 


60C9 






60C9 


17 


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60CC 


A6 


E4 


60CE 


A7 


84 


60D0 


0C 


n 


60D2 






60D2 


8D 


02 


60D4 






60D4 


35 


92 


60D6 






60D6 






60D6 


DC 


00 


60D8 


Fl 


0200 


60DB 


24 


0C 


60DD 


Fl 


0202 


60E0 


25 


10 


60E2 


Bl 


0201 


60E5 


24 


19 


60E7 


20 


IE 



01660 

01670 

01680 

01690 

01700 

01710 

01720 

01730 

01740 

01750 

01760 

01770 

01780 

01790 

01800 

01810 

01820 

01830 

01840 

01850 

01860 

01870 

01880 

01890 

01900 

01910 

01920 

01930 

01940 

01950 

01960 

01970 

01980 

01990 

02000 

02010 

02020 

02030 

02040 

02050 

02060 

02070 

02080 

02090 

02100 

02110 

02120 

02130 
02140 
02150 
02160 
02170 
02180 
02190 
02200 
02210 
02220 
02230 
02240 
02250 
02260 
02270 
02280 
02290 
02300 
02310 
02320 
02330 
02340 
02350 
02360 
02370 
02380 
02390 
02400 
02410 
02420 
02430 
02440 
02450 
02460 
02470 
02480 
02490 
02500 
02510 
02520 
02530 
02540 
02550 



CALL BASIC KBOARD ROUTINE 



CHECK CTRL KEY 



BASIC KB DRIV GIVES A 
PHONY ON CTRL KEY 

IF DOWN REMOVE BITS 5+6 



* GET CHAR FROM KEYBOARD 

* RETURN W/ CHAR IN A REG 

* -1 IF NOTHING RECEIVED 
* 

GET 

LBSR XYCALC 

LDB 1,X 

PSHS B,X 

LDB #$C0 

ORB 1,X 

STB 1,X 

JSR [$A000] 

BEQ GET8 

ANDA #$7F 

LDB #SEF 

STB $FF02 

LDB $FF00 

ANDB #$40 

BNE GET9 

CMPA #'- 

BEQ GET8 

ANDA #$1F 

BRA GET9 
GET8 

IDA #-1 
GET9 

PULS B,X 

STB 1,X 

RTS 

* 

* PUT CHAR TO SCREEN 

* ENTER ff/ CHAR IN A REG 
* 

PUT 
PSHS A.X 
CMPA #32 
BHS PUTS 

★TEST FOR CONTROL CHARACTER 
CMPA #CR 
BEQ PUT1 
CMPA #LF 
BEQ PUT2 
CMPA #BS 
BNE PUT 9 

*BACK SPACE 

DEC COL 
BRA PUT8 

★CARRIAGE RETURN 
PUT1 

LDB LFMAR 

STB COL 

TST AUTOLF 

BEQ PUT 8 

★LINE FEED 
PUT 2 

INC LIN 

BRA PUT 8 

★PRINTABLE CHARACTER 
PUT 3 

LBSR XYCALC (CALC SCREEN LOC) 
LDA ,S 

STA ,X (STORE CHARACTER) 

INC COL 



★FIX X-Y LOC 
PUT8 

BSR XYFIX 
PUT9 

PULS A,X,PC 
* 

* BRING LINE/COL IN VALID RANGE 
* 

XYFIX 
XY1 

LDD LINCOL 

CMPB CMAX 

BHS HICOL 

CMPB LFMAR 

BLO LOCOL 

CMPA LMAX 

BHS HILIN 

BRA XY9 



* COLUMN TOO HIGH, 



96 THE RAINBOW November 1986 







O C C ft 


- i - f\ TTif\. »tr>vm ~t t»^t^ 

* GO TO NEXT LINE 


c nv a 
6JJE9 




02570 


HICOL 




ni no 


no con 


LDB LFHAR 


f ftT* f* m 

bfJEC D7 


Ml 

01 


02590 


A^nn a^>^ 

STB COL 


6J?EE >3fC 


ft ft 

99 


02600 


INC LIN 


/• rtvri on 


E4 


02610 


BRA XY1 






not o n 
0ZbZ0 








flo £ *in 


* fnl TTXfKI Tf\f\ T rtTT 

w UUL.UnW 1UU LUW , 






jrf^ O'lJJ 








no£ en 


t ncm 


CAE"} VC 

bjtfr/ cb 


02J9JJ 


no can 
0Zbb0 


LDB CnAX 


6JIF5 5 A 




no £ i n 
02670 


DECB 


60F6 D7 


?1 


nn / (jn 

02680 


STB COL 


6JJF8 ylD 


ft ft 

99 


02690 


TST LIN 


6JJFA 27 


DA 


02700 


BEQ XY1 


6J7FC £A 


ft /V 

00 


02710 


DEC LIN 


6J7FE 2J? 


Tȣ 

D6 


02720 


BRA XY1 






02730 








n o t /. n 
02740 


- » - T TVTT? rri « ^> ITT/111 

* LINE TOO HIGH 






02750 


•A* C* f*Ti f\T T 

* SCROLL 


6100 




/7 oi £ n 
02760 


HILIN 


olJJjJ L7 


0016 


r| rv -l -y <n# 

02770 


LBSR SCROLL 


61JJ3 JJA 


99 


02780 


T\T7 lA T "T* »t 

DEC LIN 


6105 


CF 


no t ft n 
0Z790 


BRA XY1 






n f\ t> net 

02800 




bl)S7 




no a 1 n 
0Z810 


wft 

XY9 


olj?7 39 




ft n o o ft 

02820 


n m a 

RTS 






02830 








AO O / ft 

02840 


* CALCULATE X/Y SCREEN LOC 






AO O C ft 

02850 


* ENTTRY LINE/COL 






ft O O C ft 

02860 


* EXIT X-SCREEN LOC 






rt o q *t /* 

02870 


W 


t 1 no 

61)98 




A O ft O ft 

02880 


XYCALC 


/4 Mil O t-» 

61)98 8E 


4000 


ft fy f% rt /V 

02890 


LDX #VIDBUF 


61JJB 96 


00 


02900 


LDA LIN 


610D F6 


0200 


02910 


LDB CMAX 


f. \ ■* ft C ft 

611JJ 58 




At AAA AJ 

02920 


LSLB (ACCOUNT FOR ATTRIBUTE BYTE) 


£111 1T\ 

6111 3D 




AJ A A A AJ 

02930 


\j 1 IT 

HDL 


£111 

6112 3J# 


SB 


02940 


LEAX D,X 


bllH DO 


01 


n o o k n 
0Z9 50 


T nn rt rt, ▼ 

LDB COL 


£1 1 £ CO 

6116 59 




ft 1 Q £ ft 

0Z960 


T nT o V a rt rt rt TTAlfn ▼■trt.n a mmn ftm n n %*fn n v 

LSLB (ACCOUNT FOR ATTRIBUTE BYTE) 


£1 1 1 1A 

611/ JA 




no a in 
02970 


_ABX 


£ 1 1 O 1ft 

6118 39 




ft O ft O ft 

jJZ98)J 


n m rt 

RTS 






mo ft ft A 

02990 


- ■ - 






AT A ft ft ft 

03000 


- * ■ rt y-\ T T rt rt T1 l - * XT if t*i % t V -r- »t 

*SCR0LL SCREEN UP ONE LINE 






AJ 1 AT * AT 

03010 


it 


£ 1 1 ft 

6119 




/Tf A AJ A AJ 

03020 


SCROLL 


6119 8E 


/ ft ft ft 

4000 


At A AT A AJ 

03030 


LDX #VIDBUF 


CIIO T?£ 

611G F6 


0200 


/J A AT / A* 

03040 


LDB CMAX 


£111? CO 

bllr bo 




03050 


T rt T TJ / a' rt rt rt. TTVtrn Tf»r>n a rp mn t* T* TTrn ts VfriT? \ 

LSLB (ACCOUNT FOR ATTRIBUTE BYTE) 


£ 1 O ft /.V 




nmcn 
0 3060 


vJLKA 


£101 1\ 
olZl Jj 




ni mn 
03070 


LEAU D , X 


£ 1 1 1 O £ 
blZJ DO 


0201 


ni no n 
03080 


7 T\ A T If A V 

LDA LnAX 


£ 1 1 £ Ik 

6126 4A 




At A AT A AJ 

03090 


T\np i 

DECA 


6127 3D 




At A ^ AT At 

03100 


HUL 


£ 1 ft O IP 

6128 IF 


02 


ni 1 1 /i 

03110 


TFR D,Y 


£ 1 O A 

612A 




m 1 o n 
03120 


SCK.1 


612A EG 


CI 


n 1 1 i n 
03130 


LDD , U++ 


61ZC ED 


Q 1 

01 


n 1 1 /. n 
03140 


rt fTlTX t& 1 i 

blD f X++ 


£ 1 OTT 11 


117 

3E 


nil Rfl 
03150 


TfflV 0 V 

LEA I -4,1 


£ i in 0 £ 
613)4 Zo 


r o 


nil en 




£1 1ft Q£ 
OlJZ DO 




031/0 


i-JJA UflAA 


0 IJj 




Gfii an 


S\jI\C 


£1 1 C £ 

6133 Cb 


ft A 

20 


ni 1 o n 
03190 


t |\n ii n T a XT V 

LDB #BLANK 


£1 n ci 
6137 E7 


8 0 


ni o nn 
03200 


STB # X+ 


£ 1 1 Q f*C 

6139 Cb 


00 


ni o 1 n 
03210 


T T\T] ■JAA r P r PT5 

LD a # A 1 1 R 


£ i 1 1> n 
613B E7 


80 


ni o o n 
03220 


STB ,X+ 


613D 4A 




At A A A AT 

03230 


DECA 


613E 26 


F5 


nil /.n 
03Z40 


t> v*r T7 rt An o 

BNE SCR2 


4? 1 / ft O rt 

614)3 39 




ni o c n 

03250 


n>m at 

RTS 






A« a a £ nr 

03260 


- A - 






Af A A •* AJ 

03270 


. a . rt t i n rt rt n rt at 

* CLEAR SCREEN 






At A A A AT 

03280 


* 


6141 




ft O O ft AT 

03290 


rtT n rt hit 

CLkS.CN 


6141 F6 


0203 


rw A A M 

03300 


LDB FC0L0R SET FOREGROUND COLOR 


6144 F7 


FFB8 


At A A 1 AT 

03310 


STB $FFB8 


6147 F6 


0204 


03320 


LDB BCOLOR SET BACKGROUND COLOR 


614A F7 


FFB0 


A 1 A A A AT 

03330 


STB $FFB0 


614D F7 


FF9A 


03340 


STB $FF9A AND BORDER 


615J? C6 


4C 


AT A A C ft 

03350 


LDB #$4C 


6152 F7 


FF9J3 


ft A A f ft 

03360 


STB SFF90 SET INITIALIZATION REGI 


6155 C6 


03 


ft A *% *1 AT 

03370 


LDB #3 


6157 F7 


A 

FF98 


AJ A A ft AT 

03380 


rt m A A 7*^ T - 1 A A rt m * * T T~y rt tf A 7~i t~« i— * rtj T" rt m n 

STB $FF98 SET VIDEO MODE REGISTER 


615A C6 


05 


AO O rt ft 

03390 


▼ t*\ n a A C 

LDB #S5 


615C B6 


0200 


ft O / AT AJ 

03400 


LDA CMAX 


615F 81 


50 


AT A / 1 AT 

03410 


rt\_f"T^ A ii A AT 

CMPA #80 


6161 26 


02 


03420 


BNE CL1 


6163 C6 


15 


03430 


LDB #$15 


6165 




03440 


CL1 


6165 F7 


FF99 


03450 


STB $FF99 SET VIDEO RES REGISTER 




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• Graphics 

• 1.5 K buffer 

• 2 yr. Warranty 




REVIEWED IN 
OCTOBER 86 RAINBOW 



Parallel printer 

with Metric Industries 
Model 104 interface. . 



With pbh-64 interface with 64K BUFFER! 



$209. 00 
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includes 




Coco Man 



The Complete . TT 0 

MM. 




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fr I and Y-cabl* 



stick 



i i 



COCOMQH II 

mitrt v-cable 
mith Joystick 







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99.95 



*r fr It. , f. ,rrrr, ft, , : tt i , ■ i *- f . / K 

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LATEST VERSION 
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UPGRADES AVAILABLE 

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Tape I to Disk II 

25 00 

Max Edit 19.95 
Picture disks 29.95 
set of 3 



IfaM* DELUXE JOYSTICK 



FOR COLOR COMPUTER 

• Open gimbal design 

• Self-centering or free-floating operation 

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REVIEWED IN AUGUST 86 RAINBOW 




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$49.95/pair 



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SHIPPING will t>c charged *i our ACTUAL COST 
Ohio rmdenu add S V „ Sa>ei Tai COO add 2 00 




November 1986 THE RAINBOW 97 



6168 


CC 




03460 


LDD #VIDBUF 




61F7 


26 


20 


04310 


BNE XMI3 




616B 


44 




03470 


LSRA 




61F9 






04320 


XMI1 




616C 


56 




03480 


RORB 




61F9 


9E 


0B 


04330 


LDX GET OUT 




616D 


44 




03490 


LSRA 




61FB 


E6 


84 


04340 


LDB ,X 


ON NEXT BYTE IN BUFFER 


616E 


56 




03500 


RORB 




61FD 


CI 


FF 


04350 


CMPB #-1 


-1 


616F 


44 




03510 


LSRA 




6 IFF 


27 


26 


04360 


BEQ XMI8 




6170 


56 




03520 


RORB 




6201 


D7 


04 


04370 


STB XCHAR 


ELSE 


6171 


8A 


E0 


03530 


ORA #$E0 




6203 


C6 


FF 


04380 


LDB #-1 




6173 


B7 


FF9D 


03540 


STA $FF9D SET VERT OFFSET REGISTERS 


6205 


E7 


80 


04390 


STB ,X+ 




6176 


F7 


FF9E 


03550 


STB $FF9E 




6207 


8C 


5A00 


04400 


CMPX #OUTBUF+SZOUT 


6179 


7F 


FF9F 


03560 


CLR $FF9F 




620A 


26 


03 


04410 


BNE XMI2 










03570 






620C 


8E 


5900 


04420 


LDX #OUTBUF 


617C 


8E 


4000 


03580 


LDX #VIDBUF 




620F 






04430 XMI2 




617F 


108E 


078? 


03590 


LDY #80*24 




620F 


9F 


0B 


04440 


STX GETOUT 


ADVANCE BUFFER POINTER 


6183 


CC 


2000 


03600 


LDD #BLANK*256+ATTR 




6211 


C6 


0A 


04450 


LDB #10 




6186 






03610 


CL2 




6213 


D7 


03 


04460 


STB XBIT 


XMIT 10 BITS 


6186 


ED 


81 


03620 


STD ,X++ CLEAR SCREEN 




6215 


1C 


FE 


04470 


ANDCC #$FE 


START BIT->CARRY 


6188 


31 


3F 


03630 


LEAY -1,Y 




6217 


20 


07 


04480 


BRA XMI4 




618A 


26 


FA 


03640 


BNE CL2 




6219 






04490 XMI3 




618C 


0F 


00 


03650 


CLR LIN 




6219 


D6 


04 


04500 


LDB XCHAR 




618E 


F6 


0202 


03660 


LDB LFMAR 




621B 


1A 


01 


04510 


ORCC #1 


STOP BIT->CARRY 


6191 


D7 


01 


03670 


STB COL 




621D 


56 




04520 


RORB 


DATA BIT->CARRY 


6193 


39 




03680 


RTS 




621E 


D7 


04 


04530 


STB XCHAR 










03690 






6220 






04540 XMI4 










03700 


* SET DP PROGRAMMABLE 




6220 


C6 


99 


04550 


LDB #0 










03710 


* INTERRUPT TIMER 




6222 


59 




04560 


ROLB 


CARRY->RS232 OUT 








03720 


* 




6223 


59 




04570 


ROLB 




6194 






03730 


TIMER 




6224 


F7 


FF20 


04580 


STB $FF20 










03740 


* 




6227 






04590 XMI8 










03750 


*SET UP INTERRUPTS 




6227 


9E 


09 


04600 


LDX XHOLD 




6194 


1A 


50 


03760 


ORCC #$50 OFF FOR NOW 




6229 






04610 XMI9 










03770 


* 










04620 












03780 


*TURN OFF OLD IRUPTS 










04630 


* 




6196 


C6 


2C 


03790 


LDB #$2C 










04640 *SERVICE RECEIVER 


6198 


F7 


FF01 


03800 


STB $FF01 










04650 


* 




619B 


F7 


FF03 


03810 


STB SFF03 




6229 


D6 


06 


04660 


LDB RBIT 


IF NOT RECEIVING 


619E 


F7 


FF23 


03820 


STB $FF23 




622B 


27 


06 


04670 


BEQ RCI1 


GO CHECK FOR START BIT 


61A1 


F7 


FF23 


03830 


STB $FF23 




622D 0A 


05 


04680 


DEC RSLICE 


ELSE 


61A4 


F6 


FF00 


03840 


LDB $FF00 




622F 


27 


18 


04690 


BEQ RCI3 


CONTINUE TO RECEIVE 


61A7 


F6 


FF02 


03850 


LDB $FF02 




6231 


20 


3D 


04700 


BRA RCI9 




61AA 


F6 


FF20 


03860 


LDB SFF20 




6233 






04710 RCI1 




6 IAD 


F6 


FF22 


03870 


LDB $FF22 




6233 


F6 


FF22 


04720 


LDB $FF22 


WATCH FOR START BIT 








03880 


* 




6236 


56 




04730 


RORB 




61B0 


30 


8D 0029 


03890 


LEAX DOFIRQ.PCR 




6237 


24 


04 


04740 


BCC RCI2 




61B4 


BF 


0110 


03900 


STX $110 SET FIRQ PROGRAM 


6239 


0F 


05 


04750 


CLR RSLICE 


NO START, CLEAR COUNTER 








03910 


* 




623B 


20 


33 


04760 


BRA RCI9 










03920 


* SET-UP TIMER INTERRUPT 




623D 






04770 


RCI2 




61B7 


C6 


60 


03930 


LDB #$60 




623D 0C 


05 


04780 


INC RSLICE 


POSSIBLE START, INC COUNTER 


61B9 


F7 


FF91 


03940 


STB $FF91 SELECT CLOCK 




623F 


D6 


05 


04790 


LDB RSLICE 


61BC 


7F 


FF92 


03950 


CLR $FF92 




6241 


CI 


04 


04800 


CMPB #4 


IF 4 X'S, START RECEIVER 


61BF 


C6 


20 


03960 


LDB #$20 




6243 


26 


2B 


04810 


BNE RCI9 


61C1 


F7 


FF93 


03970 


STB $FF93 ENABLE TIMER 


INTERRUPT 


6245 


C6 


0A 


04820 


LDB #10 


RECEIVE 10 BITS 


61C4 


C6 


5C 


03980 


LDB #$5C 




6247 


D7 


06 


04830 


STB RBIT 


61C6 


F7 


FF90 


03990 


STB SFF90 ENABLE GIME FIRQ 


6249 




04840 


RCI3 




61C9 


FC 


0205 


04000 


LDD BAUD 




6249 


0A 


06 


04850 


DEC RBIT 




61CC 


F7 


FF95 


04010 


STB $FF95 




624B 


27 


0F 


04860 


BEQ RCI4 


SEE IF FINISHED BYTE 


61CF 


B7 


FF94 


04020 


STA $FF94 SET UP TIMER 


COUNT 


624D 


F6 


FF22 


04870 


LDB $FF22 










04030 


* 




6250 


56 




04880 


RORB 


DATA BIT -> CARRY 








04040 


* INIT XMITTER/RECVR 




6251 


D6 


07 


04890 


LDB RCHAR 




61D2 


0F 


05 


04050 


CLR RSLICE 




6253 


56 


04900 


RORB 


CARRY ->RECV BYTE 


61D4 


0F 


02 


04060 


CLR XSLICE 




6254 


D7 


07 


04910 


STB RCHAR 




61D6 


0F 


06 


04070 


CLR RBIT 




6256 


C6 


07 


04920 


LDB #7 




61D8 


0F 


03 


04080 


CLR XBIT 




6258 


D7 


05 


04930 


STB RSLICE 


SET COUNTER FOR NXT BIT 


61DA 


1C 


AF 


04090 


ANDCC #$AF ENABLE INTERRUPTS 


625A 20 


14 


04940 


BRA RCI9 




61DC 


39 




04100 


RTS 




625C 






04950 


RCI4 










04110 






625C 


9F 


09 


04960 


STX XHOLD 










04120 


* PROCESS TIMER INTERRUPT 




625E 


9E 


11 


04970 


LDX PUTIN 




61DD 






04130 


* 




6260 D6 


07 
80 


04980 


LDB RCHAR 








04140 


DOFIRQ 




6262 


E7 


04990 


STB ,X+ 


DELIVER CHAR TO BUFFER 


61DD 


D7 


08 


04150 


STB BHOLD 




6264 


8C 


5900 


05000 


CMPX #INBUF+SZIN 


61DF 


7F 


FF93 


04160 


CLR $FF93 CLEAR TIMER 


INTERRUPT 


6267 


26 


03 


05010 


BNE RCI5 




61E2 


C6 


20 


04170 


LDB #$20 




6269 


8E 


5800 


05020 


LDX #INBUF 




61E4 


F7 


FF93 


04180 


STB $FF93 




626C 




05030 


RCI5 










04190 






626C 


9F 


11 


05040 


STX PUTIN 










04200 


* 




626E 


9E 


09 


05050 


LDX XHOLD 










04210 


★SERVICE TRANSMITTER 




6270 




05060 RCI9 










04220 


* 




6270 


D6 


08 


05070 


LDB BHOLD 




61E7 


0A 


02 


04230 


DEC XSLICE 




6272 


3B 


05080 


RTI 




61E9 


26 


3E 


04240 


BNE XMI9 










05090 






61EB 


9F 


09 


04250 


STX XHOLD 








6000 


05100 


END MAIN 




61ED 


C6 


07 


04260 


LDB #7 
















61EF 


D7 


n 


04270 


STB XSLICE 




00000 TOTAL ERRORS 








61F1 


D6 


03 


04280 


LDB XBIT 
















61F3 


27 


04 


04290 


BEQ XMI1 
















61F5 


0A 


03 


04300 


DEC XBIT 






































£9* 



98 THE RAINBOW November 1986 




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Services Returns: It is our policy to repair all service 
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1 986 Software Support, Inc. All rights reserved 
1986 MicroSmart, Inc. All rights reserved 
TURBO M ' of MicroSmart Inc 



DELPHI BUREAU 




Using Mail In the SIG 



By Cray Augsburg 
Rainbow's CoCo SIGop 
Username: RAINBOWMAG 



7 all know that a lot of 
^y^/ £k time is involved in read- 
T T ing and answering mail. 
I wanted to find a way to make the job 
easier, and with a lot of searching, I 
found a way. That has prompted me to 
devote this column to some of the 
features and commands found in Del- 
phi Mail. 

For starters, how do we get to Mail? 
Well, you can enter MAIL from the 
CoCo SIG prompt or the forum 
prompt. You can also enter /MAIL while 
in conference. Keep in mind that, upon 
using CONTROL-Z, you return to the 
area of Delphi from which you entered 
Mail. In the Mail section you have 
access to different files, each of which 
may contain several folders. When 
entering Mail you will be in your 
MAIL. MAI file. Within that file, you 
can create new- folders, each of which 
can hold several letters. This is the basic 
structure of the Mail system. The de- 
fault folder on entering Mail is your 
NEWMAIL folder. It contains any 
letters that you have not yet read (or 
received). 

To see the messages in your NEW- 
MAIL folder, enter DIRECTORY. As 
with other Delphi commands you can 
abbreviate this to DIR. You should see 
a complete list of waiting Mail mes- 
sages. If you don't, then you have no 
waiting Mail. To see a list of all the 
folders within your MAIL.MAI file, 
enter DIRECTORY/FOLDERS or DIR / 
FOLDERS. Once you have this list, you 
can get a directory of one of these 
folders by entering DIR (foldername). 



Cray Augsburg is rainbow's technical 
assistant and has an associate's degree 
in electrical engineering. He and his 
wife, Ruth Ann, have two children and 
live in Louisville, Kentucky. His user- 
name on Delphi is RAINBOWMAG. 



This sets your new default folder to the 
name of the folder you chose and then 
lists a directory of that folder to your 
terminal. When you finish and leave the 
Mail section, if you come back into 
Mail, your default folder is automati- 
cally reset to NEWMAIL. 

You say you only have one folder, 
NEWMAIL, in your MAIL.MAI file? 
Well, we can correct that situation and 
make your life a lot easier in the process. 
When you read a message from another 
user you have several options. First, you 
can choose whether or not you want to 
reply. Then you can either delete or save 
the message. Deleting a message is easy 
and gets it out of your hair. When you 
have finished reading the message and 
replied to the sender, just enter DELETE. 
The message will be wiped out. But, 
what if you want to save the message? 

Saving a Mail message is just as easy. 
Instead of typing DELETE, enter FILE 
(foldername). This files the message in 
the folder you specify. If the folder does 
not exist, Delphi asks if you want to 
create it. This can come in very handy. 
I have folders named IMPORTANT, 
PENDING, TODO, JOKES, OS9, and 
several others. You get the idea. Create 
as many folders as you need to keep 
your mail organized. Now when you do 
a DIR, you will be able to see how your 
mail setup is structured. 

Let's assume you read a message from 
another user and decide it isn't impor- 
tant, so you delete it. Then your room- 
mate r comes in and wants to see the 
message. What can you do? The Mail 
system does have safety valves. When 
you delete a message, it really goes to 
another folder in your mail system. This 
folder is named WASTEBASKET. Just 
enter DIR WASTEBASKET and youH see 
your deleted messages there, provided 
you have not used CONTROL-Z to leave 
Mail. When you delete a message, a 
special folder named WASTEBASKET 
is created. All deleted messages in the 
same Mail session go there. WASTE- 



BASKET is emptied when you press 

CONTROL-Z. 

You can file messages from any foldei 
to another folder. The message appears 
in the new folder and disappears in the 
present folder. The only requirement is 
that you read the message first. Any 
message you are able to read, you are 
also able to act on. 

If you don't delete or file a message 
you have just read, where does it go? It 
goes into another folder named MAIL, 
It's as simple as that. If you read a 
message in NEWMAIL and don't delete 
or file it, it is automatically filed in your 
MAIL folder on leaving Mail. 

To send a copy of a letter to another 
Delphi user, enter FORWARD after read- 
ing the message. Delphi asks to which 
username to send the copy and then 
asks for the subject. Enter the appro- 
priate responses and the message will be 



DATABASE REPORT 

'W^J T have been fortunate in 
VVP having Steve Bjork 
▼ TV/ (6809ER) and Dale Lear 

(DALELEAR) to whom Tandy chose to 
give CoCo 3s, as frequent visitors to our 
service. Dale Lear is our OS-9 section 
leader. Thanks to them, and to Tandy, 
who released some of their information 
to the public, we have been able to supply 
accurate and detailed information about 
the machine to our members. 

Because there has been so much inter- 
est in this successor to the CoCo 2, we 
have created a special topic area (CoCo 
3 News) dedicated to news about and 
programs for the CoCo 3. Among other 
things we hope to have will be full 
specifications for the GIME chip, just as 
soon as Tandy feels comfortable about 
allowing us to publish them. I also expect 
that section to be used for folks to report 
any problems they find with the machine. 
In the meantime, we should be able to 
answer many of your questions about it. 

One of the most striking additions to 
our Graphics topic area is a Macintosh 



1 02 THE RAINBOW November 1 966 



;opied to the other user. You also retain 
t copy which you may then file. FOR- 
WARD works just like the SEND com- 
nand, only it acts on a letter you have 
eceived rather than a new one you want 

0 send. To send a new letter to another 
lser, just enter SEND at the Mail 
)rompt. Then, answer the questions 
ind type your letter. When you are 
inished, press CONTROL-Z to send the 
etter and return to the Mail prompt. 

If you send a letter to someone and 
vould like a copy sent to someone else, 
here are two things you can do. First, 
nclude both names at the TO: prompt 
)f the send command. Separate the 
lsernames with commas. You can send 

1 letter to as many people as you want 
ising this technique. Another way to 
;end a copy is to enter SEND/LRST. This 
vorks just like the SEND command 
)nly it sends the same letter you just sent 
o the first user. This only works if used 
mmediately after the original SEND, 
rou can also send letters to yourself 
ising any of the above techniques. This 
s great if you need to keep a copy of 
in important letter you are sending 
;omeone. 

To reply to a letter you receive, enter 
3EPLY at the Mail prompt following the 
etter. You are put into the edit mode to 
create a letter of reply. When you use 
20NTR0L-Z, the reply will be sent to the 
same person who sent the message. 

The READ command is the simplest 
:ommand in the Mail system, yet it can 
sometimes be tricky. On entering Mail, 
you are in the NEWMAIL folder. You 
:an now enter READ or just press ENTER. 
In either case, your oldest unread mes- 
sage scrolls on the screen. Another READ 
or ENTER causes the second oldest 
message to be read. But, what if you 
want to read the 12th letter? Just enter 
READ 12. You are taken to the 12th 
message and subsequent READs or en- 
ters take you from there. When you 
have read the last message in your 
NEWMAIL file, another READ causes 
the message "No more messages" to 
appear on the screen. Another READ 
beyond this causes the first message to 
be read again. The Mail system works 
in a circle. 

The READ command can also be 
used to change to a new folder. Just 
enter READ (foldername). Your default 
folder will be changed to the new folder 
and you'll see the first message filed in 
that folder come across your screen. If 
you want to change to a new folder, but 
don't want to read the first message files 
there, use DIR (foldername). 



Next month we'll see another way to 
select default folders and do many fancy 
things in the Mail system. Well try to 
cover some new features to be found in 
Workspace. Till then, keep up the 
experimentation. Now that you have an 
idea of how Mail works, go in there, 

Picture Converter, written by Erik 
Gavriluk (ERIKGAV), co-author of 
McPaint. This utility, like the Commo- 
dore 64 converter that Eric and I co- 
authored some time ago, allows CoCo 
owners to download Macintosh Mac- 
Paint pictures from bulletin boards, then 
view those pictures on the Co Co. Mac- 
Paint pictures may be found on Delphi 
in the Micro Artists SIG in the Macin- 
tosh topic area of the database. Also, I 
have begun the process of uploading 
images from the "CoCo Gallery" to the 
Graphics database for downloading. 
(These files, unlike the rainbow on tape 
files, are free.) 

In the OS-9 topic area Dale Lear has 
reorganized some of our older files, 
grouping them more conveniently in 
logical packages. He's also written an 
index of all the material in the OS-9 
database, which he plans to keep up to 
date. Milt Webb (MILTWEBB) has 
given us a tutorial for printing horizontal 
bar graphs to the screen under OS-9. Bob 
Montowski (GRAPHICSPUB) has sent 
us tutorials for novice OS-9 users. He 
also has given us some fundamental 
pieces of an OS-9 BBS system, including 
RS-232 Pak port drivers, and some extra 
commands for BASIC09. Andrew Ellinor 
(CROPPER) has uploaded to us an 
OS-9 terminal program that features 
Xmodem support, written under BAS1C09. 

In the General topic area are four new 
articles by Dale Lear, Rick Adams 
(RICKADAMS), Cray Augsburg 
(RAINBOWMAG) and me. Three of 
them concern information about the 
CoCo 3, and one is a humorous account 
of an adventure Rick and I had. 

Don Hutchison (DONHUTCHISON) 
has uploaded some new material to the 
Source Code for 6809 Assemblers sec- 
tion. Larry Wimble (THEAS 
SEMBLER) has provided us with in- 
structions for putting a pause control on 
the CoCo. 

Our Utilities section is bulging with 
new additions. Doug Masten 
(DMASTEN) has given us a revised 
command file for BASIC. Larry Wimble 
has given us Demon Dialer, Circuit 
Drawer^ a basic database program, and 
others. Jerome Kalkhof (GRUMCLUB) 
has given us some modem/ buffer print- 
ing utilities. Richard Trasborg (TRAS) 
has contributed a disk catalog utility. 
Milt Webb has given us an encryption 
program. Robert £. Pierce (RPIERCE) 
has sent us an edit/display utility. 

Our Music topic has received over a 



enter ? and see some of the other 
commands. See what they do and how 
they work. I guarantee you will be 
amazed with how sophisticated the 
Mail system really is. And it beats U.S. 
Mail to pieces as far as delivery time is 
concerned! □ 

hundred new files in the last month. 
Dozens of files were contributed by Scott 
Milliken (IDIOT), Stephen Scherock 
(SFSCHEROCK) and Tom King 
(CAPNCRUNCH). Other contributors 
to the Music topic area this month are 
Shawn J. Bush (SBUSH), Ned Smith 
(NEDSM), Ray Wright (RAYWRI), Jim 
Brooks (X ANTHA) and Thomas Patrick 
Daly (TPD). 

In addition to the Macintosh Convert- 
er and "CoCo , Gallery " material men- 
tioned, our Graphics topic area has 
swelled with the addition of over 50 new 
images and programs. Bob Montowski 
has been one of the principle contribu- 
tors, as has Richard Trasborg who has 
uploaded some studies of the female form 
by Mike Trammell. Bruce Henry (OZ), 
John Fitzgerald (FITZ), Ray Wright and 
Andrew Ellinor are other contributors. 

Loren J. Howell (XENOS) has con- 
tributed to our Games topic area The 
Catacombs of Yendor, and Larry Wim- 
ble has given us a logic game. Truman 
Bryerton (GRANDAD) has given us Exit 
Left and Mike Lucash (MIKELUCASH) 
has given us Miner. 

In the Data Communications topic 
area we have received a new version of 
ASCII Express (Version 2.0) from Erik 
Gavriluk and Greg Miller (GREG 
MILLER). This is a powerful combina- 
tion terminal program and mini bulletin 
board system. Mike Banks (KZIN) has 
given us a list of CoCo bulletin boards, 
and Greg Miller has sent us a useful disk- 
to-disk transfer program that sends an 
entire disk of data from one CoCo to 
another with error detection and correc- 
tion. 

Don Hutchison, who officially joined 
our staff last month, has been tirelessly 
at work enabling new files in the database 
and uploading past issues of rainbow on 
tape material. We have the past three 
years of rainbow on tape files now 
available online. Eric Tilenius (TILE 
NIUS) has been enhancing the keywords 
used in the rainbow on tape database. 

We are staying on top of developments 
regarding the CoCo 3 on a minute-to- 
minute basis, while greatly increasing our 
already huge storehouse of programs, 
articles and images written for and on the 
CoCo 1 and 2. Overall, this has been a 
very active month, and I encourage you 
to drop by and check us out. 

— Marty Goodman 
(MARTYGOODMAN) 
Delphi CoCo SIG Database Manager 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 03 



GO TEAM, GO! The Professional 
Football Handicapping System has 
been introduced by Software Exchange. 
This program allows anyone to handi- 
cap the weekly NFL games using infor- 
mation found in the daily newspaper's 
sports section. The system is available 
on cassette or disk for the Color Com- 
puter at $39.95 plus S2S/H. For further 
information, contact Software Ex- 
change, P. O. Box 5382, West Bloom- 
field, MI 48033, (313)626-7208. 



ALL SYSTEMS GO A six-outlet surge 
protector for personal computers has 
been introduced by Microcomputer 
Accessories, Inc. (MCA). Designed to 
protect your system from surges, spikes 
and noise interference, MCA's Surge 
Protector cuts power in less than one 
nanosecond and provides surge protec- 
tion on all three surge paths. Should 
power intervention occur, the device 
can be reactivated with the built-in 
Reset button. The price is $39.95. For 
more information, contact Department 
L, Microcomputer Accessories, Inc., 
5405 Jandy Place, P. O. Box 66911, Los 
Angeles, CA 90066-0911, (213) 301- 
9400. 



PAPER CACHE hi-tech Stationery 
now produces a complete line of busi- 
ness and personal stationery designed 
for computer systems. The stationery, 
which comes in a wide variety of pat- 
terns, has pinholes down both edges for 
operation with the tractor-feed mechan- 
ism found on most personal printers. 
Each order contains 50 continuous 
pages of stationery and 25 #10 enve- 
lopes. The price ranges from $5.95 to 
$9.75. Custom letterhead stationery 
priced per order. Contact hi-tech Sta- 
tionery, 5901 Warner Avenue, Suite 
270, Huntington Beach, CA 92649, 
(714) 840-6038. 



CLEAN SWEEP Ohm/ Electronics 
continues to support its Scooter Prod- 
ucts line of protective computer acces- 
sories with the introduction of easy-to- 
use disk drive cleaning kits. Model 
SCK5.25 is intended for use with Sc- 
inch disk drives and includes a cleaning 
disk and cleaning fluid. The kit also 
provides for cleaning either single-sided 
or double-sided drives. Price for the 
SCK5.25 is $6.95. Contact Scooter 
Products, Ohm I Electronics, Inc., 746 
Vermont Street, Palatine, IL 60067, 
(800) 323-2727 (Illinois, call 312-359- 
6040). 

ON THE MOVE Spectrum Projects has 
notified us of a recent change of ad- 
dress. The new address is: Spectrum 
Projects, P.O. Box 264, Howard Beach, 
NY 11414. The C.O.D. order line 
number is now (718) 835-1344. 

FREE CATALOG Support Systems 
International Corporation has just 
released a free catalog for computer 
cables and accessories. The new catalog 
covers nearly all necessary items for 
installing your computer system and 
runs the gamut from data transfer 
switches to wall outlet plates. Free 
catalogs are available by contacting 
Support Systems International Corpo- 
ration, 150 South Second Street, Dept. 
ES, Richmond, CA 94804, (415) 234- 
9090. 

BOOKWORM Howard W. Sams & Co. 
has recently added two new selections 
to its wide line of technical publications. 
Understanding Advanced Solid State 
Electronics, a 272-page book, covers 
such topics as logic cells and arrays, 
microprocessors, graphics processors, 
linear integrated circuits and bit-slice 
systems. Glossary, index and chapter 
review questions and answers are in- 
cluded in this $14.95 book. John D. 
Lenk's Troubleshooting & Repair of 
Microprocessor-Based Equipment is 



another offering from Sams. This 250- 
page manual, which retails for $21.95, 
contains general procedures, techniques 
and tips for troubleshooting equipment 
containing microprocessors. Topics 
include test equipment, associated 
problems in troubleshooting, flip-flop 
and register troubleshooting, current 
flow analysis and step-by-step proce- 
dure for troubleshooting the VCR. All 
Sams Books are available through 
bookstores, electronic distributors, or 
directly from Sams by calling (800) 428- 
SAMS. 

SPEEDSTER The Pro Writer Jr. dot- 
matrix printer from C. Itoh Digital 
Products has been upgraded to a speed 
of 120 cps in draft mode, an increase of 
14 percent. The compact Pro Writer Jr. 
also features high resolution graphics, 
one-button selection of near-letter 
quality and a short paper tear-off capa- 
bility. Retailing for $349, the ProWriter 
Jr. is compatible with most popular 
personal computers. For more informa- 
tion, contact C. Itoh Digital Products, 
Inc., 19750 South Vermont Avenue, 
Suite 220, Torrance, CA 90502, (213) 
327-2110. 



DOWN ON THE FARM Based on a 
recently released survey, Farm Comput- 
er News has reported that, not only do 
most of their subscribers own their own 
computers, but nearly half of them plan 
to buy another one. The survey also 
indicated that the most common use for 
those computers is spreadsheets, with 
fully 80 percent of the respondents 
saying that was their primary function 
on the computer. The next most com- 
mon use was word processing (76 per- 
cent). Apple took the biggest bite out of 
the ownership market with a 32 percent 
share. IBM holds a 25 percent share, but 
Radio Shack is still holding its own with 
17 percent. 



1 04 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



GREAT COCO 




SECRETS REVEALED 

An introduction to the 
Color Computer III II! 
Compares differences 
between the CoCo l/ll 
and the NEW CoCo 

GIME chip specs 

New Ext. Basic 2.0 cmds 
New Memory Map 

128K Memory Tester 

$14.95 



PRODUCTS 





$29.95 



C III GRAPHICS 

It's here! A drawing 
program for the CoCo III 
using the new Enhanced 
graphic features. Requires 

128K CoCo III w/Disk 

Uses 320x192 graphics 
16 of any 64 colors 
Save & Load 32K screens 
Dual joystick button 

$19.95 



SUPER RAM - 

The first 256K/512K memory board for the CnOn I f ! 256K/512K of memory resides 

IN THIS STURDY, LOW NOISE METAL CASE AND ALL THE SUPPORT CIRCUITRY TO ACCESS IT 
AS A HIGH SPEED RAMP I SK ! OOMPATIRI F WITH AIL CoOo II 's . EVEN THE 26-3 127R AND 

26-3134A/B . (see June '86 Rainbow Review) Requires a RS Multi-Pak. 

25K Board - $129.95 5J2K Board (Recommended for QS=1 users) - $169.95 

QS=1 Driver - $24.95 



SUPER CONTROLLER - 

The most AMAZING CoCo Disk Controller ever ! Switch up to four DQS's (up to 16K) 
via a single software POKE. Choose between R/S 1.0/1.1, Spectrum DOS, ADOS, JDOS 
Stearman DOS - $99.95 ( Spectrum DOS $29.95 or ADOS $39.95 with purchase of the 
Super Controller - Buy 'em both for $59) 

Fnhancfd Display BQ - Add an 80X24 display. Real Time Clock and Centronics 
parallel printer interface to your Super Controller ! Includes SMOOTH SCROLLING, 
Switchable Video Input - $149.95 (NEW OS-9 Driver for Display 80 - $24.95) 
EPR0M Programmer for the Super Controller - $69.95 (Uses 2764's ($4.95) or 
271 28' s ($6.95) EPROMS) 



COMING SOON 

COCO III 512K UPGRADE - ENHANCED COCO III DOS 

All orders plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) - COD add $2.00 extra - NYS Residents add Sales Tax 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

PO BOX 264 
HOWARD BEACH NY 11414 

COD ORDER HOT LINE 718-835-1344 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 

COLORFUL COMPUTING 



COMMUNICATION 



■ 




CQLORCQH/E - A complete smart 
terminal package! Upload, 
Download, Hi-Res (51X24) 
screen, 300/1200 Baud, Offline 
Printing. 32/64K Disk* - $39.95 
*- Now with DELPHI & Compuserve 
XMODEM support! Download ML! 
COMPUSERVE Starter Kit $14.95 




MODEMS 




^minium 




KEYBOARDS 



WORD PROCESSING 





1 200 BAUD 

$129.95** 

Hayes compatible! Super for the 
DELPHI & C ompuserve CoCo Sig! 
300/1200 Baud, Auto -dial / answer 
** Requires Modem cable .$19.95 

« 




p iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 





R S 26-3016 Low Profile CoCo 
Keybd. Fits all CoCoII's, "F" & 
TDP-100's WA5 ~$39.95 NOW $19.95 
Adapter for D/E CoCoI's - $9.95 




IS 



TELEWRITER-64 - Three Hi -Res 
screens, true lowercase char's 
right justify, full screen 
editor. Tape $49.95 Disk $59.95 
TELEPATCH - A TW-64 enhancer ! ! ! 
True block move, O verstri ke & 
T SPOOL mode. Type Ahead Buffer 
FASTER Disk I/O 64K Disk $19.95 





SEIKOSHA 

SP-1000A 

• 100 cps draft 

• 20 cps NLQ 

• Friction and tractor 

• Front panel Controls 

• 1.5 K buffer 

$219.95 



PRINTERS 

Diiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiij i 




GEMINI NX-10 - 120 cps, tract- 
frict feed, NLQ mode, 5K buffer 
Front Panel Controls! - $249.95 
KAMELEON -Low cost Parallel Ptr 
Interface! 600/9600 Baud $49.95 
PBH-64 - A combo Parallel Ptr 
interface & 64K Print Buffer ! 
COMPUTE while you PRINT $149.95 



51III1IIIIN mm iiiiiinffl— 

MONITORS 

PIIIHIIIIH I IIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIlip 









i £Rtsg RGB 


□ 






I 1PONITOR 
1 for CoCo III 
L $399.95*J 


e 
e 













MONOCHROME 
MONITORS 

80x24 Hi-Res screens! $89.95 
Universal Video Driver - Works 
w/all monitors & CoCos!- $29.95 
1 3 7r K)L0R Monitors $169.95 



el 



$10 



Monitor Stand $24.95 
*Dual RGB modes I ! I 

OFF COLORCOM/E WITH A HAYES MODEM 

OFF TELEWRITER-64 WITH ANY PRINTER, 
KEYBOARD OR MONITOR 

SPEEDY COD ORDER HOT LINE - CALL 718-835-1344 






$10 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 

COLORFUL COMPUTING 




SPREADSHEET 
DATA DASE MANAGER 




PRO-COLOR FILE - 60 Data Fids, 
8 Report Frnts, 4 Screen Fmts. 
FAST ML Sort, Global Search, 
1020 bytes/record - Disk $49.95 
DYNACALC - Visicalc and format, 
51x24 Screen, Hi-Res Graphics, 
New LOW price! 64K Disk $69.95 
Buy' em *B0TH* for only $99.95 




i 





COCO MAX II 




Feature packed Hardware and 
Software graphics system!!! 
Pul 1-Down menus. Multiple font 
styles, Full graphic editing, 
256x1 92 Joystick input module. 
64K Disk $79.95-w/Ycable $99.95 
CoCoMax I-II Dsk Upgrade $19.95 
MaxEdit-$19.95 MaxFonts-$64.95 





DISK DRIVES 

pi hi immiimfnnnmnfinnins 



DOUBLE SIDED 
DRIVE 0 

$239.95 

Top FD-501 Drive 1 (#26-3131) — 
Easy install! (SAVE $60) $139.95 



tnwiuii mi mnninm 

TANDY 1000 





Want to upgrade your $699/$999 
Tandy 1000 ? (See below ! ! !) 
640K Upgrade - Take your 128K 
Tandy 1000 up to 640K and SAVE 
(Why pay up to $520 ?*) $169.95 
Tandy 1000 2nd Drive - Add 360K 
of storage & SAVE MORE- $149.95 
Buy 'em BOTH for only - $299.95 




IS 





4 



► 




'You judge' 



GAME CONTROLLERS 




TRACKBALL 

$19.95* 

IjiMco Command Adapter - Now you 
can hookup 2 Atari type joystks 
to your CoCo for only $19.95! 
* Reg. $69.95 (See 9/86 review) 



MINIMI Illllllll Illlllllll lllll 

COCO II UPGRADES 




Want to upgrade your new $69/ 
$88 CoCo II? (See below !!) 
4464 DRAMs - two chip 64K 
upgrade for 26-31 3 4A and 26- 
3134B Korean CoCo IlT ..$39-95 
Extended BASIC - 28 pin ROM for 
26-3134 A7fTCoCo It's --.$34.95 
Buy 'em BOTH for only - $69.95 



-Cost of RS Memory PLUS 
Expansion Board (25-1011) & 
256K RAM kit (26-6019) 
1986 Computer Catalogue - P.94 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS, Inc. 

PO BOX 264 
HOWARD BEACH, NY 11414 






CoCo Club/Dealer 
inquiries invited ! 
Software/Hardware 
submissions welcomed ! 
Looking for CoCo III software 



All orders plus $3,00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) - COD add $2.00 extra - NYS Residents add Sales Tax 



Use low resolution graphics to create sharp logon messages 



Graphically Speaking: 

The Artistic BBS 

By Eric Bailey 

4 



The world of telecommunications 
is expanding rapidly and the 
CoCo is growing with it. One of 
the things coming our way soon is 
telecommunicating with graphics. No 
one has produced a terminal program 
for the Co Co that can transfer high 
resolution graphics, yet. But low reso- 
lution graphics are possible through a 
modem. 

I have tried to send graphics of the 
highest resolution for the CoCo, but it 
takes over five or 10 minutes for a 
simple picture. I have experimented to 
find a way to transfer the high resolu- 
tion graphics, but have not found a way 
to make it easy to add to a BBS (Bulletin 
Board System). A new terminal pro- 
gram and BBS software would have to 
be written. 

I decided to write a program that 
allows you to create and edit low reso- 
lution graphics. Then, if you have a 
BBS, you can use the data files to create 
logon messages. 

Some bulletin board systems create 



Eric Bailey is a 14-year-old self-taught 
programmer from Urbana, Illinois. He 
has programmed on several of the 
Tandy computers and found the Color 
Computer to be his favorite. 



graphics with text. They use the slashes, 
plus and minus signs, etc. The idea is 
good, and the systems using graphics 
seem to attract more people. I used this 
idea and added a little more. 

For a remote terminal to see these 
graphics, it must be using a CoCo and 
the terminal program must show the 
character strings 128 through 255. 
Some of the new communications pack- 
ages are in high resolution and do not 
show these character strings, so the 
graphics won't appear correctly. 

My program, LWRSEDIT, creates 
the graphics with the SET and RESET 
commands. The save routine PEEKs 
each character of the screen and saves 
it in ASCII format. These graphics are 
in low resolution (64 by 32 pixels), but 
it is still possible to make some very nice 
pictures. Pictures can really add excite- 
ment to your bulletin board. 

Type in the program listing and save 
it. When run, it asks whether you want 
to see a command summary or start. 
The command summary lists all the 
commands you can use while the pro- 
gram is running. 

The program asks for a color. This 
color is just to start with; you may 
change it anytime while in the edit 
mode. It then asks for the name of the 



picture to edit. After these questions are 
answered, the screen turns black and 
there is a flashing cursor in the color you 
chose at the first prompt. 

To move the cursor, use the four 
arrow keys. To make a dot the same 
color as the cursor, press the space bar. 
The color can be changed by pressing 
'C\ When the cursor stops blinking, 
press the number of the color wanted. 
Use the colors listed in the main menu. 
These are the same as the values the 
CoCo uses in BASIC. 

After the color has been changed, 
some problems may occur. When the 
cursor is moved over another color, the 
other colors flash on and off. This is to 
warn you that if you press the space bar 
(to make a dot), then all those blinking 
colors will change too. This is because 
the CoCo can only mix a color with 
black. This only happens in a block of 
four pixels. My advice is to carefully 
space your picture if you plan to use 
many colors. 

For the text mode, press 'T*; the 
program offers text with your graphics. 
Use lowercase for the characters to mix 
with the background. 

To save a picture, press 'S\ It uses the 
last name you used. To change the 
filename, use 'F\ 



1 08 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 




A 



SHOPPING LIST 




CHIP -SALE- ... 

6821 Standard PIA^drftS" $4.95 

Basic ROM 1.1 ChipIfcWrfS* $7.95 

6847 VDG Chip M: $9.95 

6809E CPU Chip^rfST $9.95 

27256 EPROM (Fits CoCoIII ROM) ...$19.95 

Orig SAM Chip (6883) $2»t95: $19.95 

Basic ROM 1.3 ( Newest version) ...$19.95 
68766 (Fits all Basic ROMS) EPROM $19.95 
Disk ROM 1.1. (Needed for CoCoIII ) $29.95 
New SAM Chip w/heatsink (74LS785) $29.95 
Ext Basic 1.1 ROM - NEW LOW PRICE $29.95 
CoCo First Aid Kit - includes two PIA's, 

6809E CPU & SAM Chips 359*33: $39.95 

EPROM Eraser - 3 min erasure time $49.95 
EPROM Prgmr - 271 6" s up to 27512 ! Super 
fast programming-See 4/86 review $149.95 

COCO LIBRARY... 

A History of the CoCo / 1980-1986 .$3.95 
New! 200 MORE Pokes, Peeks 'N Execs $9.95 
Basic Programmi ng Tricks Revealed. $14. 95 

CoCo Memory Map ...$16.95 

500 Pokes, Peeks 'N Execs $16.95 

Basic 09 Tour Guide ....$19.95 

Assembly Language Programmi ng ....$19.95 

Color Basic Unraveled $19.95 

Extended Basic Unraveled $19.95 

Disk BasicTTTO/1 . 1 ) Unraveled ...$19.95 

Newl CoCo H Service Manual* $24.95 

CoCo III Service Manual $39.95 

Official MICROWARE 0S9 Manual Set $49.95 
The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS9.$19.95 
W/Two Disk Package of demo pgms ..$49.95 
Color / Extended / Disk Basic Unraveled - 
Complete disassembly of the CoCo ROMS! 
Complete 3 Book Set - Save $10! ..$49.95 

MORE GOOD STUFF... 

DELUXE JOYSTICK - Now only $29.95 

Computi^e "Y" Box - More positive 

connections than a "Y" Cable $29.95 

PBJ WORDPAK-RS - Newest version ! Hi Res 
80x24 display. Comes w/0S-9 drivr $99.95 
Micro Works DS-69A Digitizer ....$149.95 

51 2K Color Computer 3 $349.95 

* - Specify CoCo II Catalogue Number 

All orders plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) 
COD add $2.00 extra 
NYS Residents add Sales Tax 



COCO CABLES AND... 

Pri nter/Modem 15' Extender Cable .$14.95 
Tired of unplugging devices from your 
RS232 port? Try a RS232 "Y" Cable . $19. 95 
Disk Drive Cable (34"pin - 34pTnT. $1 9. 95 
Modem Cable - 6ft (DB25-DB25) ....$19.95 

Joystick7Mouse 10' Ext Cable $19.95 

Dual Disk Drive Cable (3-34pin) ..$24.95 
Null Modem Cable - 4 pin to DB25 .$24.95 
TS^ Multi-Pak/Rom Pak Extender - Move 
your Multi/ROM Paks further away . $27. 95 
40 Pin Dual "Y" Cable - Hook up a Disk 
w/Voice. Word Pak. CoCo Max, etc ..$29.95 
Triple RS232 SwitcHer ^ow select one 
of any three RS232 peripherals ...$39.95 
40 Pin Triple "Y" Cable - Hook up any 3- 
Voi ce7Word/RS232/Dl giti zer PAKs ..$39.95 
Special! 4 Drive Disk Cable $49.95 

OTHER GOOD STUFF... 

C— 10 tapes in any quantity .....49 cents 
5 1/4 " Diskettes , any quantity .79 cents 

0S-9 Quick Reference Guide $3.95 

VHS T-120 Video Tapes $7.95 

Rompak w/Blank PC Brd-27xx series .$9.95 
Video Clear - This cable will reduce TV 
interference created by CoCo! ....$19.95 

The Mag i c Box - Load Mod I/I 1 1 Basic 
program tapes Into the CoCo ......$24.95 

DOS Switcher - Select from any two DOSs 
T&Tsk 1.0 1.1, JD0S) in J&M ctlr .$29.95 
Orig CoCo I "D" Rev motherboard . Includes 
all chips (SAM, CPU, PIA's, VDG) except 
RAM and Ext Basic ! Spare Parts ! $39.95 

256K RAM Chips (Set of 8) $39.95 

Model 100 8K Upgrade $39.95 

HJL-57 Keyboard - Save $7.00!!! ,.$72.95 

Specify Model /Revision Board 

HPS Controller w/1.1 R0M(SAVE$20) $79.95 
Amdek Drive System w /con troll er .$239.95 



HOWARD BEACH NY 11414 



HOT LINE 
-1344 



■718-835 





Something possibly wrong with your CoCo? ?? CoCo CHECKER is the answer! ! Will test your ROMs, 
'RAM's v Disk Drives & Controller, Printer, Keyboard, Cassette, Joysticks, Sound, PIAs, VDG, Internal 
Clock Speed, Multi-Pak Interface and more!! 16K TAPE/DISK $21.95 (see Jan '85 Rainbow Review) 



MULT1-PAK CRAK 



Save ROM PAKs to your .64 K Disk System using the RS Multi-Pak Interface. Eliminate constant 
plugg in g in of ROMPAKs now by keeping all your PAK software on disk . Includes POKE s for 
"P ROBLEM " ROMPAKs- including the NEW 16K PAKSI (Demon Attack,Dragons Lair,etc) 64K DISK $24-95 




7MI the FEATURES of TELE PATCH plus the classically proportioned characters of the WIZARD 
($19.95) font w/TRUE lowercase descenders! Get BOTH & SUPERCHARGE your T W-64 for only $29-95 



SPIT N IMAGE 



A super upgrade from Disk Omni Clone! Back everything up! This amazing program handles non 
standard " disks with ease. We haven't found any disk yet that it can't handle. Don't ever be caught 
without a backup again! Lowest price too! Beats most " copy protection" programs! 32K DISK $29-95 



COCO SCREEN DUMP 



The best screen dump program for the Panasonic, Epson & Gemini printers ever! Have the option of 
standard or reverse images w/regular or double sized proportional pictures. 600-9600 Baud too! A 
must for Graphicom and CoCo Calendar users. 16K TAPE/DISK $21.95 (see Nov '84 Rainbow Review) 



DISK UTILITY 2.1* 



A multi-featured tool for USER FRIENDLY disk handling. Utilize a directory window to selectively 
sort, move, rename and kill file entries. Lightning fast Disk I/O for format, copy and backup. 
Examine contents of files, the Granule Table, plus the size, load addresses and entry points of all 
programs. Single command execution of both Basic and ML programs. 32K/64K DISK $24.95 "Disk 
Utility has proven itself very quickly at, my house" - Ed EHers Oct '84 Rainbow Review pg. 220 



SPECTRUM FONT GENERATOR 



Now you can write files using any CoCo Word Processor (Telewriter-64, VIP Writer, etc.) and convert 
them to special Highly Detailed character sets ! Some of the character sets supported are italics , 
Old English , Futuristic and Block . A character set ed itor is included to create custom sets or 
modify existing ones! Supports most dot-matrix printers! DISK $29.95 (see Dec '85 Rainbow Review) 



SPECTRUM DOS 



Add 24 NEW Disk commands with 2 Hi -Res screens! Supports 40 track & Double -Sided drives, 6 ms 
stepping, auto disk search, error trapping & " EPROMABLE ", 64K DISK jfe*9^5: New LOW price!! $24.95 



SCHEMATIC DRAFTING PROCESSOR 



Save tim e and design pro looking diagrams using a 480X540 pixel worksheet w/6 viewing windows . 
Over electronic symbols w/10 definable symbols . (Even Logic gates & Multipin chips!) Print hard 
copy and save to disk . 64K DISK $4$t&5l New LOW price!!! $29.95 (see Jan '84 Rainbow Review) 



THE MEMORY MANAGER 



Now you can use; the SECOND 32K memory bank of your 64K CoCo as a SUPERFAST Ramdisk ! Also 
CHAIN a long Basic program from the first bank Into the second or LOAD Basic programs into both 
32K banks and RUN from either bank! USER FRIENDLY & completely MENU DRIVEN. 64K DISK $29.95 



COCO c 




Use your CoCo to keep track of your checking and savings accounts! Printout individual personal 
Checks! 32K/64K TAPE $19.95 DISK $29.95 (see April f 85 pg. 210 & Oct'85 pg. 197 Rainbow Reviews) 



THE ULTIMATE GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 



Wizard's Castle is a graphic adventure game with deadly creatures , magic spells and traps of all 
types which are RANDOMIZED at the beginning of each session so that no 2 adventures will be the 
same! REAL TIME ACTION keeps the game's characters interacting even though you may be waiting to 
make a move. Includes three skill levels, 60 Hi -Res screens & Game Save Feature. 64K DISK $24.95 



XPRESS ORDER A 
YOUR LOCAL RADIO SHACK STORE1I! 



ASK TO SEE THE RADIO SHACK 
DEMO DISKS - FC#0249 & FC#0919!I! 




Y ANY 5 PROGRAMS 
GET A DOUBLE SIDED 
DRIVE 0 FOR $199.95 
O OTHER DISCOUNTS CAN BE APPLIED 



><N> COLORFUL UTILITIES ooo 




G CARD 




Create custom greetings for any occasion: Birthdays, Anniversaries, Holidays, etc. The program can 
be used to make custom Thank-You, Invitations, Get-Well cards and Announcements! Easy to use and 
includes a library of pre - drawn Hi -Res graphics- Includes a screen & font editor- 32K DISK $24,95 



COCO VIDEO TITLER 



Start your VCR tapes with dazzling title frames followed by professional countdown to black fade- 
outs! Use a title page editor with several sizes of text & background colors ! 32K DISK $24.95 



PENPAL 



it^sl'lerel; CoCo's answer to 1-2-3! PENPAL combines Word Processing, Communications, Graphics, 
Data Base & Spread-sheet into a single integrated software package! 64K DISK INTRO PRICE $69-95 



64K DISK UTILITY PACKAGE 



Take advantage of an expanded 64K machine. Make an additional 8$ of RAM available by relocating 
the Ext Basic ROM from $8000 to fP800. Copy ROMPAKS to disk (even protected" PAKS) and create 
a 32K SPOOL buffer for printing. DISK $24.95 (see July '83 Rainbow Review) 



TAPE /DISK UTILITY 



A powerful package that transfers tape to disk and disk to tape automatically. Does an automatic 
copy Of an entire disk of programs to tape. Ideal for Rainbow On Tape to disk. Also copies tape to 
tape & prints tape & disk directories. TAPE/DISK $24.95 (see Sept '83 Rainbow Review) 



^ A J 



SUPER DUPER UTILITIES 



Tinally! At last! A "SUPER DUPER" utility software package all rolled up into ONE!!! Includes such 
great utilities as: CoCo Disk Zap, Disk Encryption, Disk Mailing List, EZ Disk Master, Graphics 
ZOOM, Banner Creator, Function KEYS, Super INPUT/LINEINPUT, Basic Program PACKER, Alpha 
Directory, Basic SEARCH and much, much more!!! 32K DISK $29.95 (see June f 86 Rainbow Review) 



CDC 



Get organized for '86 TODAY with the CoCo Calendar! Designed for recording the entire year f s 
occassions and daily appointments so you can plan ahead. You can store HUNDREDS of entries and 
our GRAPHIC Calendar will show all MEMOS! 32K DISK $19.95 (see Mar '86 Rainbow Review) 



THE OS-9 SOLUTION 




NOW, a program that creates a "USER FRIENDLY " environment within OS-9! The OS-9 SOLUTION 
replaces 19 of the old " USER HOSTILE " commands with single keystroke, menu driven commands. No 
more typing in complex long pathnames or remembering complicated syntaxes! Set all XMODE 
parameters at the touch of keys !J$39f95T New LOW price!!! $24.95 (see Sept '85 Rainbow Review) 



COCO-UTIL 



Now you can have the power to easily transfer Radio Shack Color Computer disk files to your MS- 
DOS machine - including the Tandy 1 000 & JBM PCHI You can also transfer MS-DOS files to your 
CoCo disk, even format CoCo disks! CoCo-Util will save you countless hours of retyping ! No need to 
move your computer or printer anymore! Requires 128K MS-DOS computer w/2 disk drives - $29.95 



TTre 



SOFTWARE BONANZA PACKAGE 




reate an instant library of Spectrum Projects TOP Colorful Utility software. Select any of the 
following 12 programs to customize your own SPECTACULAR SOFTWARE BONANZA ! CoCo Checker, 
Multi-Pak Crak, CoCo Screen Dump, Disk Utility 2.1, Spectrum Font Generator, Tape/Disk Utility, 
Fast Dupe II, 64K Disk Utility, Spectrum DOS, CoCo Calendar, Schematic Drafting Processor, OS-9 
Solution, Basic Plus, EZ Base or Blackjack Royale (a $300 plus value) for only $99.95!!! 



FRANK HOGG S O-PAK 



A Hi-Res Screen & Utilities package for OS-9 users! Use one of the available Hi -Res character sets 
(42X24, 64X19, 85X24, etc.) or create your own. Mix graphics with text on a screen with unlimited 
flexibility. Copy files between OS-9 and Radio Shack DOS , 64K DISK $39.95 




H( 

COD add $2 extra 
S Residents add Sales Tax 
COD ORDER LINE 718-835-1344 




HOWARD BEACH NY 11414 

• • ■ . . _ _ ... >, 



Finally, there is the load command; 
press 'L\ which loads any picture al- 
ready created, or it will load the first 512 
characters of any data file in ASCII 
format. 



Modifications 

• With a few modifications, you can 
change the program to work on a 
cassette system. Change the save and 
load routines starting at lines 360 and 
420, respectively. Change each expres- 
sion of ttl to read 8-1. Line 470 needs 
to be changed to a REM statement. It 



should not be removed, because it 
begins a subroutine. 

The following listing is a short sub- 
routine that can be inserted in a BBS to 
add graphics. Change the name of the 
data file to your needs. A short prompt 
added to the login of your BBS will tell 
if you should send graphics to them. 
The question could be, "Are you using 
a CoCo in 8-bit mode?" This ensures 
people with other computers won't 
receive garbage characters. 

If the program does not work, try 
changing Line 40 to 40 PRINT 
■CHR$(fl) ;. 



10 OPEN "I",l, "TEST'DfiT 
20 FDR X = 1 TO 512 

30 INPUT ttl,fl 

40 POKE 1023 + X,P 

50 NEXT X : CLOSE 



(You may direct questions about this 
program to the author at 2016 Vawter 
#4, Urbana, IL 61801 217-384-5083. 
Please enclose an SASE when writ- 
ing.) ' □ 




150 .. ...204 
410 ... /. .64 

580 140 

EN D . . . . .128 



it • 



The listing: LWRSED IT 

10 1 LOW-RES GRAPHICS EDITOR 

COPYRIGHT 1986 

BY ERIC BAILEY 
20 CLS : PRINTTAB ( 3 ) +STRING$ (25, 19 
1) -HSTRINGf (7 , « Ir ) +CHR$ (191)+" LOW 
-RES GRAPHICS EDITOR » + CHR $ (191)+ 
STRING$ ( 7 , " M ) +STRING$ ( 25,191) 
30 PRINTTAB (8) "BY ERIC BAILEY" 
RINT 

4J3 INPUT "COMMAND SUMMARY 

enter TO START 
COMMAND" ;Q$ 
50 IFQ $= " C " ORC$= " C "THENGOTO 560 
60 CLS: PRINT "CHOOSE COLOR 

1 -GREEN 2-YEL 
LOW 3 -BLUE 4 -RED 

/B 5-BUFF 6-CYA 
N ; 7-MAGENTA 8-ORA 



NGE" 

10 INPUT C : IFC<10RC>8THENGOT07j3 
8J0 INPUT "WHAT IS THE NAME OF YOU 
R PICTURE" ;F$ 

90 IF F$="" THENPRINT " YOU MUST C 
HOOSE SOMETHING. ":GOT08p 
100 I FLEN ( F$ ) >8THENPRINT "TOO LON 
G. REDO" :GOT08# 
lip CLS(p) :X=32:Y=16 
120 A4=INT(Y/2) :A5=INT(X/2 ) :A6= ( 
A4 * 3 2 ) +A5 z CP=PEEK ( ;XJB 2 4 +A6 ) 
130 F0RT=1T025 :NEXTT: SET (X, Y, C) 1 
F0RT=1T02 5 : NEXTT : RESET (X, Y) 
I$=INKEY$ 
GOSUB 540 

IFI $=» " THENGOTO 120 
I F I $ = " a 1 1 THEN Y= Y - 1 
I FI$=CHR$( 12 ) THENCLS 0 ) 
IFI$=CHR$(lp) THENY=Y+1 
IFI$=CHR$ (9 ) THENX=X+1 
210 IFI$=CHR$ (8 ) THENX=X-1 
220 IFI $= " E " ORI $= " e " THENGOSUB5 50 
230 I FI $ = " Q " ORI $= " q" THEN END 
240 IFI$=" " THENGOSUB3 5 0 
250 IFI $=" S "ORI $= " s 11 THENGOTO 3 10 
2 60 I FI $*= " L" ORI $-" 1 "THENGOTO 43 0 



180 



200 



couiin 

BETICES 
P. O. BOX C 
S AUG US. CA. 91350 



TM 




Precision 1 

Mfg. by Xidex/Dysan 
High Quality at low 
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3-9 10 up 

$9.20 $8.40 



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Add $1.50 for CODs. 
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DEALER INQUIRIES 
INVITED 



Catalog? 


Description 


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12 up 


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101-2240 


Epson LX80 (Nylon) 


$ 5.95 


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$ 4.95 


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Gemini 10/10X/15/15X (Nylon) 


$ 2.20 


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Gorella Banana (Nylon) 


S 6.60 


$ 6.15 


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NEC Spinwriter 5500/7700(Nylon) 


$ 5.50 


$ 5.05 


S 4.75 


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Okidata(Microline) 80/82/83/92/93(Ny ) 


$ 2.20 


S 2.00 


S 1.90 


101-4515 


Okidata(Microline) ML84 (Nylon) 


S 5.15 


$ 4.70 


$ 4. 45 


101-4700 


Panasonic KX-P1090/91/92 (Nylon) 


$11.15 


S10.45 


$10.10 


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Radio Shack LP VI/VI 1 1 (Nyl on ) 


$ 5.80 


$ 5.30 


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$ 6.60 


S 6.15 


$ 5.95 


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S 5.85 


$ 5.20 


$ 5.05 



102-1505 



102-4505 



C.Itoh Prowriter I&II/Apple Imagewriter 

Box of 5 colors (Red, Green, Yel low, Blue, Brown) S25.75box | 
Okidata 80/82/83/92/93 Box of 5 Colors 
Gemini 1Q/10X/15/I5X (Red, Green, Yel ,B1 ue, Brown) $12.50box | 



Ribbons for most printers are available. Write for catalog or call on 
the Data Line. Quantity discounts available in larger quantities. OK 
I to mix ribbons for quantity prices (Minimum 6 per Type). ALL GUARANTEED! 



112 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



270 IFI$="C"0RI$="C»THENG0SUB62J3 

28J3 IFI$="T"ORI$»"t l, THENGOSUB66j3 

290 IFI $= 11 F 11 ORI $= " f " THENGOSUB7 3 f5 

3pp IFX<0THENX=j3 

310 IFX>63THENX=63 

320 IFY<jZfTHENY s =j3 

330 IFY>31THENY=31 

34j3 K=j3:GOTO120 

350 SET (X, Y, C) : RETURN 

360 'SAVE ROUTINE 

370 GOSUB540:OPEN"O" / #1,F$ 

380 FORQ=1024TO1535 

390 W=PEEK(Q) : PRINT #1,W 

400 NEXTQ 

410 CLOSE#l:GOTO120 

420 'LOAD ROUTINE 

430 CLS:LINEINPUT"FILE YOU WISH 

TO LOAD (INCLUDE EXTENSION) ";F 

F$ : IFFF$=" "THENGOT03 40 

440 IFINSTR (1,FF$ , "/" ) =0ANDINSTR 

( 1 , FF$ , " .:" ) =0THEN4 60 

450 GOTO470 

460 PRINT "MUST INCLUDE EXTENSION 

" : FORT=1TO1000 : NEXTT : GOTO 4 30 

4 70 OPEN" D" , # 1 , FF$ : E=LOF ( 1 ) : CLOS 

E#1:IFE=0THENPRINT"FILE NOT FOUN 

D" t CLOSE#l : KILLFF$ : FORT=1TO1000 : 

NEXTT : GOT04 3 0 

480 OPEN"I",#l,FF$ 

490 FORQ=1024TO1535 

500 IFEOF(1)THENGOTO520 

510 INPUT#l,W:POKE Q,W 

520 NEXTQ :CLOSE#l 

530 F$=FF$:X=l:Y=l:GOTO120 

540 POKE (1024+A6) , CP: K=0: RETURN 

550 RESET (X, Y) : RETURN 

560 CLS 'COMMAND SUMMARY 



570 PRINT" 


UP 


ARROW 




MOVE CURS 


OR UP 


DOWN 


ARROW 




MOVE CURS 


OR DOWN 


RT. 


ARROW 




MOVE CURS 


OR RIGHT 


LT. 


ARROW 




MOVE CURS 


OR LEFT 




•S' 




SAVE PICT 


URE 




•L' 




LOAD PICT 


URE 




•E' 




ERASE AT 


CURSOR" 










580 PRINT" 








LOCATION 


<SPACE> 




PUT DOT A 


T CURSOR 




'C 




PROMPTS C 


OLOR 








CHANGE, H 


IT 1-8 




I'm i 




TEXT MODE 


, STARTS 








ABOVE CUR 


SOR HIT 








<ENTER> T 


0 LEAVE" 










590 PRINT" 








QUIT 



600 INPUT"PRESS <ENTER> TO START 
";T$:RUN 

610 'CHANGE COLOR 



620 I$=INKEY$ : IFI$=""THENGOTO620 
630 D=VAL(I$) : IFD<10RD>8THENRETU 
RN 

640 C=D:GOTO120 
650 'TEXT MODE 

660 W=INT(Y/2) :Z=INT(X/2) :0=(W*3 
2)+Z:0=0+l 

670 IFO<1ORO>510THENRETURN 

680 I$=INKEY$ : IFI$=""THENGOTO680 

690 IFI$=CHR$ (13) THENRETURN 

700 IFI$=CHR$(8)THENO=0-l:PRINT@ 

0," ";:GOTO680 

710 PRINT@0,I$;: 0=0+1 

720 GOTO670 

730 FOR XX-1024 TO 1056 

740 Z=PEEK(XX) :POKE 30000+XX,Z 

750 NEXT XX 

760 PRINT @0 , ""; : INPUT "FILENAME" ; 
F$ 

770 IF LEN(F$)>8THENGOTO760 

780 FOR XX=1024 TO 1056 

790 Z=PEEK(30000+XX) :P0KE XX, Z 

800 NEXT XX 

810 RETURN 





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on 32k & 64k (71 0 accounts & entries on 1 6k) {disk only). Version 1 .2 has screen 
printouts. Rainbow Reviews 1,1 - 9/84 : 1.2-4/85 

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Filing data base. File any information with Omega File. Records can have up to 16 
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any field. User friendly menu driven. Manual included (32k/64k disk only). 

Rainbow Review 3/85, Hot CoCo 10/65 

BOB S MAGIC GRAPHIC MACHINE 

Can generate BASIC code to use in your programs. Easy drawing and manip- 
ulation of circles, etipses, boxes, lines and ARCS. Single joystick operation with on 
line HELPS at ail times. Allows text on the graphics screen & movement of objects 
on the screen. Can be used as a stand-alone graphics editor. Instruction Manual. 
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I 

* 

I 

* 

I 

■ 

I 
I 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 113 



Checkers with a modem offers a new 
twist for an old favorite 



Long Distance Draughts 



By Greg Miller and Erik Gavriluk 



Each day more and more CoCo 
users are becoming interested in 
telecommunications and are pur- 
chasing modems Lo explore this exciting 
new world. 

We are proud of our new program T 
McCheekers^ which combines both 
modem programming and some of the 
graphics programming tricks we 
learned while writing MvPaitu. We are 
aJso very pleased to be able to share this 
program wkh a larger audience than 
was possible hcfore T thanks 10 THE 
rainbow's support. 



Greg M titer, !S r is a college freshman 
mnjormgm electronic engineering. Erik 
Gavriluk, I5 r is a high-school junior. 



The Program 

Mc Checkers is a machine language 
checkers game two people play over the 
modem. This means any two people 
having this program and a modem can 
p!ay n whether they live across town, or 
across the country. 

To make the file necessary to play 
McL'hecker*\ you need lo use two pro- 
grams. The first, shown in Listing U is- 
a BASIC program that draws the graph- 
ics checkerboard on which the game is 
played. Type in and run this program. 
After the display is generated, press any 
key to save the graphics screen. Be sure 
to save a copy of the Basic program as 
well 

Listing 2 is a basic program to gener- 
ate the machine language checkers 




THE RAINBOW 115 




The Ultimate 
Color Computer 

Enhancements 

for Productivity 

from HJL Products I 





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Color Computer. 

The Keyboard * $79.95 

The overwhelming favorite of serious 
Color Computer users worldwide, the 
HJL-57 keyboard has the smooth, 
consistent feel and reliability you need 
for maximum speed with minimum 
input errors. Includes 4 Function Keys 
and sample function key program. 
Installs in Just a few minutes with no 
soldering. 

The Numeric Keypad - $89.95 

The Number Jack is a self-contained, 
cable-connected keypad for heavy-duty 
number-crunchers. Besides the number 
keys, it has all the cursors, symbols 
and math keys, Including autoshlfted 
(one-touch) ADD and MULTIPLY. 
Comes complete with 3-foot cable and 
all necessary connectors for quick and 
easy installation without soldering. 



The Monitor Adapter - $25.95 

This universal driver works with all 
monochrome monitors, and is easily 
installed without clips, jumpers or 
soldering (except in some later CoCo 2s 
with soldered-in video chips). Here's 
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with all the reliability you've come to 
expect from HJL Products. 

The Monitor - $89.95 

The GoldStar high-resolution amber 
monitor brings you the monochrome 
display that's preferred by most 
computer professionals today. Once 
you've used it you'll never connect your 
computer to a TV set again. The 12- 
inch diagonal CRT has an etched non- 
glare faceplate. (Requires adapter sold 
below) 

The BASIC Utility - $25.95 

Quick Basic Plus, a high-performance 
programming utility, can be used with 
any color computer that has four func- 
tion keys. 26 pre-defined BASIC 
statements, 10 user-defined macros at 
a time (you can save as many sets of 
macros as you like), automatic line- 
numbering, word wrap, global search, 



and instant screen dump to printer, 
make this software the BASIC pro- 
grammer's dream come true. Comes 
with re-legendable 3-way reference 
chart Specify disk or cassette. 

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Every HJL product comes with a full, 
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HJL 15-day unconditional guarantee 
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Ordering Information; Specify model (Original, F-verslon, or CoCo 2 Model Number). Payment by C.O.D,, check, 
MasterCard, or Visa. Credit card customers Include complete card number and expiration date. Add $2.00 for 
shipping, 3.50 to Canada; except monitors (call for shipping charges before ordering monitors). New York state 
residents add 7% sales tax. Dealer Inquiries Invited 



PRODUCTS 

Dlv. of Touchstone Technology Inc. 

965 Buffalo Road • PA Box 24954 
Rochester, New York 14624 



1 



Same. If you get the Checksum Error 
message, check the data lines, because 
it is likely that one or more of them 
contain an error. Also be sure to save 
a copy before you run the program; an 
;rror in typing could crash the comput- 
e- 
After running Listing 2, save the 

completed program on cassette by 
typing CLDRDM "CHEKBORD " , & HB00 
and press enter. Then type CSRVEM 
"CHECKERS " , &HE00 , &H3300 , &H2600 
and press enter. For disk, type LOfiDM 
"CHEKBORD" and press ENTER. Then 
type SftVEM"CHECKERS'\&HE00,&H 
3300,&H2G00 and press ENTER. 

How to Play 

Load the game and type EXEC, You 
will see a banner, along with the prompt 
"Originate or Answer?" The person 
using the answer mode on his modem 
should use Answer; the other person 
should use Originate. The person using 
Originate goes first. 

Next, you are put into the type mode, 
where you can send commands to your 
modem (if it responds to commands like 



a Hayes Smartmodem). If you have not 
already done so, you must now establish 
carrier between you and your opponent. 
Press break to begin the game. 

Both players move the white pieces 
on the bottom of the board. The pro- 
gram automatically displays the other 
player's pieces as black. 

McCheckers is a complete implemen- 
tation of checkers; the usual rules apply. 
Here's a brief overview: 

• Pieces only move diagonally for- 
ward. A piece may be moved backward 
only if it is a king. A piece becomes a 
king when it reaches the last row of the 
opposing player (the top row on the 
screen). 

• A piece must "jump" if at all possible. 
(This is an official rule of checkers, but 
is most often ignored in casual play.) 

• The game ends when one player has 
captured all his opponent's pieces, or 
when a player has no possible move. If 
a player has no possible move, then the 
other player wins. 

To move a piece, point the arrow to 



the piece you want to move, and then 
to the destination square. If you make 
an illegal move, you are told so. You can 
only move a piece when the arrow 
appears on the screen. If the arrow does 
not appear on your screen, it means that 
the other player is in the process of 
moving. You must wait for the arrow to 
appear before you can move. When it 
is your turn (the arrow appears on the 
screen), you may send a short message 
to the other player by pressing CLEAR 
and then typing your message. Mes- 
sages are displayed on the top line of the 
screen. If you receive a message, press 
the joystick button after reading the 
message; the other player will not be 
able to continue his turn until after you 
have done so. 

At the end . of a game each player is 
notified as to whether he won or not, 
and is again put into the type mode, 
where pressing BREAK begins a new 
game. 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to the authors at 3101 Link 
Road #32, Lynchburg, VA 24503. 
Please enclose an SASEfor a reply Jd 



240 . 
490 . 
590 . 
END 



.242 
.207 
.128 
.155 



Listing 1: MCDRAW 

1 1 BASIC PROGRAM TO DRAW 

2 ' CHECKERBOARD FOR McCheckers 

3 ' 

10 PMODE 4,1: PCLS1 : SCREEN 1,1 

20 DIM B(500) , B2 (500) 

30 FOR Y=0 TO 30 STEP 6 

40 LINE (0 , Y) - (255 , Y) , PRESET 

50 LINE (0 , Y+l) - (255 , Y+l) /PRESET 

60 NEXT Y 

70 X1=58:Y1=45:X2=195:Y2=180 
80 LINE(X1,Y1)-(X2,Y2) , PRESETy B 
90 LINE ( X1+ 1 , Yl+1 )-( X2 -1,Y2-1 ) , P 
RESET, B . 



LINE (62, 48) - ( 191 ,17 7 ) , PRESET 

GET (0,40) -(13,53) ,B 
FOR X=64 TO 190 STEP 32 
FOR Y=50 TO 160 STEP 32 

(X,Y) - (X+13,Y+13) ,B,PSET 



100 
,BF 
110 
120 
130 

140 PUT 
150 NEXT Y,X 

160 FOR X=80 TO 176 STEP 32 
170 FOR Y=66 TO 176 STEP 32 
180 PUT(X,Y)-(X+13,Y+13) ,B,PSET 
190 NEXT Y,X 



200 FOR Y=32 TO 44 
210 IF Y/2=INT(Y/2) THEN A=204 E 
LSE A=51 

220 LC=&HE00+Y*32 

230 FOR T=0 TO 3 1 : POKE LC+T,A:NE 

XT »***<y> 

240 NEXT Y 

250 GET (0,33) -(255,44) ,B 
260 PUT (0 , 18 1) -(255, 192) ,B 
270 GET (0,32) -(57,44) ,B,G 
280 GET (196, 32) -(255,44) , B2 , G 
290 FOR Y=32 TO 180 STEP 12 
300 PUT(0,Y)-(57,Y+12) ,B,PSET 
310 PUT(196,Y)-(255,Y+12) ,B2,PSE 
T 

320 NEXT Y 

330 FOR Y=4 TO 2 6 

340 LC=&HE00+Y*32 

350 FOR A=7 TO 24 

360 READ B:POKE LC+A , B : NEXT A 

370 NEXT Y 

380 A$=INKEY$ : IF A$="" THEN 380 
390 CLS : PRINT" SAVING. .. " 
440 A=PEEK(&HC000) 

450 IF A=68 THEN SAVEM" CHEKBORD" 
, &HE00 , &H25FF , &HA027 : END 
460 CSAVEM"CHEKBOARD" , &H600 , &H1D 
FF, &HA027 :END 

470 DATA 255,252,15,255,255,192, 
24,31,255,255, 255,2 55,255,255,25 
5,255,255,255 >M 
480 DATA 255,249,136,31,255,31,3 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 117 



255,255 ,255, 1 2 , 2 2 2 , 1 2 , 3 2 , 10 8 , 1 3 , 22 4 , 9 6 ,231, 1 



DATA 255 , 243 ,131,31,254 ,113 , 
,31, 255, 255 , 255 ,192, 255, 255, 2 



• jr.?''- • 



DATA 254,97,134,97,6,63,222, 
,240,12,32,120,31,0,97,224, 120 



, 2 5 5 , 2 55 
255,2**/ , 

198,31,255, 255, 255,216,255 , 255,2 



§ 255 b 255 



DATA 254,193,134,99,246/31,2 
, 12, 192, 12, 126,240,12, j3, 97, 

, 63 . iSl^^^^lllSSiSi: 
DATA 254,192,12,99,243,28,28 it 
24,192,44, 12 6, 2 16, 76, 2, 99 



, 255 ,255,255, 152 , 255 , 2 55 ,2 / t 
,255 S&3SS&tS-K : # 63 

,237,155, 24, 3,0,204 , 630 DATA 252 , 192,12, 98,3, 1, 156,2 x 




63, 192 ,15,0,176,252,0,3, 255 , 255, 



- m. 



,155,3,195,5, 

t , 6 , 



, 12 ,j3, 195, 224, 6, 6 



#,159,132, 



y"'"<.'j'.'^—>'' '■; J?M 



540 DATA 255 ,217,179, 14,102, 12 , 1 
2,240, 
2 , 252 , 63 

DATA 2 55 ,153 , 179 ,24 , 54 ,2 8, 
,96,99,6,48,6,6,60,99,134, 
DATA 255 , 177,227,48,54,28,27 
,96,102,6,96,198,6,56,6,6,63 
DATA 255,49,230,48,102,63,21 
9,12, 




,24 , 198 , 12 , 12 , 



^ , 2 3 «4iv' 



4,24,192, 

6,6,63 aiiiWISSisiS 

DATA 253,135,236,49,128,126, 
,48,99, 



/ 



">:;> : cv* 



* 9 & 



580 DATA 255,97,198,96,6,63,222, 
12 , 195 , 140 ,0 , 103 , 12 ,56,48, 12 , 0 , 6 

j^i^. It^ l .>■:l*f;. : ■■; !^.^-^<;sf%>s^s^*' ^^.^■„^^^-"£=":". , '-.\;- ■•- : jvi^. 1 ^x.fat*^." "s™ = .* .■'V s 

590 DATA 255,97,198,97,6,63,222, 



,195,6,56,195,231 

DATA 253,135,224,31,0,0,24, 
8 , 62 , 3 , 224 , 193 , 131, 224 , 199 , 225,2 

DATA 252,15,224,0,4,0,0,128, ||* 
,0,0,0,0,0,7,224,0,63 ||i 
680 DATA 252,15,224,0,15,0,0,129 
,0,0,0,0,0,0,7,240,0 
DATA 252,15,255 

,128,56,2,4,8,2,7,252,0,25 






. ; -:;-;;.;..-:"'--;.;iv .. . 



'I 'I " "." 



• 9 « * * ■ 



■X:V.. 



a? 



•' •"•H^i'-^i'i '"^T^VS 



. * . * ♦ » iyv 

dA 010 lit 

, . ij . . ,13? 223 . . 8 

212 .86 EN D . * . ♦ , * 85 



» ' . ' ! ' .. ... ..... . . . . "" I "'"" 

Listing 2: MCLDRD 




BASIC loader for McCheckers \ 



» Mi* 



P "A'*,;^:■< / f^""i■•. , : 



3 GOTO lj3 

4 GOTO 20 

10 CLEAR 1000 : PCLEAR 8: GOTO 4 
20 CLS:AD=&H2600 

FOR T=29 TO 1 STEP -1 
PRINT T; 
READ A$ 

60 Z $*LEFT$ (A$,2) : A$=MID$ (A$, 3 ) 
70 V=VAL ( " &H"+Z $ ) : CK=CK+V 
POKE AD,V 

AD=AD+1:IF A$<>»" THEN 60 
NEXT T 
110 PRINT : PRINT 

120 IF CK<>285767 THEN PRINT "CHE 
CKSUM ERROR" ELSE PRINT "DATA COR 



CFD2C14C10826E5BD 

DATA 2B1A8E290FC60C3404EC81F 

!8 



OX 



' ' ' .• 



202 DATA CC0707B0315FF03160FD2C1 



■ Si 



/ tie 

'. *>■ ■ '(I. ' 



II I* 



118 



THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



ECC8E2765BF2ECA8E 

203 DATA 2DF1BF2FBC7E2EDD39FC2FB 
AFD2C14BD29927D2C121J32B/3645FC2C1 
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5FDFC2C07FD2C14BD 

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68101102 60564 6F84BD297FBE2C14BF2 
C0 9 8 6FFB7 2 C0 3BD2 9D5 2 607 7 D2 C0 3 102 
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C2C0B5D2616FC2C07FD2C14BD29C7A68 
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C0DFD2C14BD297F7F290B7D2C032717F 
C2C0BFD2C14CC0707FD2C04BD29EB260 
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52581C02421C13325 

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4 4 4B7 2 C 12 4 FC 1 102 50 5C0 104 C20 F7 B7 2 





Back copies of many issues of the 
rainbow are still available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue 
cover price. In addition, there is a $3.50 
charge for the first issue, plus 50 cents 
for each additional issue for postage and 
handling if sent by United Parcel Service. 
There is a $5 charge for the first issue, 
plus a $1 charge for each additional issue 
on orders sent by U.S. Mail. UPS will not 
deliver to a post office box or to another 
country. 

Issues July 1981 through June 1982 
are available on white paper in a reprint 
form. All others are in regular magazine 
form. VISA, MasterCard and American 
Express accepted. Kentucky residents 
please add 5 percent state sales tax. In 
order to hold down costs, we do not bill 
and no C.O.D. orders are accepted. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you 
order the back issues you want now while 
supplies last. 

To order, just fill out the form on the 
next page and mail it with your payment 
to: 



THE RAINBOW 

The Falsoft Building 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 




November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 119 



BACK ISSUE ORDER FORM 

(See overleaf for instructions.) 
(Payment must accompany back issue orders. We do not bill.) 

□ Please send me the following back issues: 





MONTH 


VOLUME 1 






NO. 


YEAR 




PRICE 


1 


JULY '81 


PREMIER ISSUE 


$2.00 


□ 


2 


AUG. '81 




$2.00 


□ 


3 


SEPT. 81 


EDUCATION 


$2.00 


□ 


4 


OCT. '81 


PRINTER 


$2.00 


□ 


5 


NOV. '81 




$2.00 


□ 


6 


DEC. '81 


HOLIDAY 


$2.00 


□ 


7 


JAN. '82 




$2.Q0 


□ 


8 


FEB. '82 




$2.00 


□ 


9 


MAR. '82 




$2.50 


□ 


10 


APR. '82 




$2.50 


□ 


12 


JUNE '82 


VOLUME 2 


$2.50 


□ 


11 


JUNE *83 


PRINTERS 


$2.95 


□ 


12 


JULY '83 


ANNIVERSARY 
VOLUME 3 


$2,95 


□ 


1 


AUG. '83 


GAMES 


$2.95 


□ 


2 


SEPT. '83 


EDUCATION 


$2.95 


□ 


3 


OCT. '83 


GRAPHICS 


$3.95 


□ 


v 4 


NOV. '83 


DATA COMM. 


$3.95 


□ 


5 


DEC. '83 


HOLIDAY 


$3.95 


□ 


8 


MAR. '84 


BUSINESS 


$3.95 


□ 


9 


APR. '84 


GAMING 


$3.95 


□ 


10 


MAY. '84 


PRINTER 


$3.95 


□ 


11 


JUNE '84 


MUSIC 


$3.95 


□ 


12 


JULY '84 


ANNIVERSARY 
VOLUME 4 


$3.95 


□ 


1 


AUG. '84 


GAMES 


$3.95 


□ 


2 


SEPT. '84 


EDUCATION 


$3.95 


□ 


3 


OCT. '84 


GRAPHICS 


$3.95 


□ 


4 


NOV. '84 


DATA COMM. 


$3.95 


□ 


5 


DEC. '84 


HOLIDAY 


$3.95 


□ 


6 


JAN. '85 


BEGINNERS 


$3.95 


□ 


7 


FEB. '85 


UTILITIES 


$3.95 


□ 


8 


MAR. '85 


BUSINESS 


$3.95 


□ 


9 


APR. '85 


SIMULATIONS 


$3.95 


□ 


10 


MAY '85 


PRINTER 


$3.95 


□ 


11 


JUNE '85 


MUSIC 


$3.95 


□ 


12 


JULY '85 


ANNIVERSARY 
VOLUME 5 


$3.95 


□ 


1 


AUG. '85 


, GAMES 


$3.95 


□ 


2 


SEPT. '85 


EDUCATION 


$3.95 


□ 


3 


OCT. '85 


GRAPHICS 


$3.95 


□ 


4 


NOV. '85 


DATA COMM. 


$3.95 


□ 


6 


JAN. '86 


BEGINNERS 


$3.95 


□ 


7 


FEB. '86 


UTILITIES 


$3.95 


□ 


8 


MAR. '86 


BUSINESS 


$3.95 


□ 


9 


APR. '86 


HOME HELP 


$3.95 


□ 


10 


MAY '86 


PRINTER 


$3.95 


□ 


11 


JUNE '86 


MUSIC 


$3.95 


□ 


12 


JULY '86 


ANNIVERSARY 
VOLUME 6 


$3.95 


□ 


1 


AUG. '86 


GAMES 


$3.95 


□ 


2 


SEPT. *86 


EDUCATION 


$3.95 


□ 


3 


OCT. '86 


GRAPHICS 


$3.95 


□ 


4 


NOV. '86 


DATA COMM. 


$3.95 


□ 



RAINBOW INDEX A complete index to our first three years, July 1981 
through June 1984, is printed in its entirety in our July 1984 issue. 
Separately bound copies are also available. $2.50 □ 



Note: Our Fourth and Fifth Year Indexes, including RAINBOW ON TAPE 
indexes, are included in the July 1985 and 1986 issues, respectively. 

TOTAI 

KY RESIDENTS ADD 5% 

. U.S. MAIL CHARGE 

SHIPPING 8. HANDLING 

U.P.S. CHARGE 

TOTAL AMOUNT 

ENCLOSED 

Name 



Address 

City Stale ZIP 

□ Payment Enclosed, or charge to my: 

□ visa Dmc Dae 

CARD # 



EXPIRATION DATE PHONE # 



SIGNATURE 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. EST. All other inquiries call (502) 228-4492. 



120 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



C1339 86FFB7 2 C 1 2B72C 1 3 39 F62C15585 
8 5 8FB2C 1 4 8 E2 BBD3 A3 9 8 E0000 BF2 C0 4 8 
60 2 B72C008604B72C01BD2B415D2 6 2BB 
D29C7A68 48 1032 51086FFC 6018D2C261 
D8601C6018D2426158601C6 FF8D1C2 60 
08 6FFC6FF8D142 6J05 

209 DATA 20CF1CFB391A04393 510BF2 
C141A04390000FD2A24BE2C14 3 4 10 ABE 
48107 22E8B72C14EB61C10722 DFF7 2 CI 
5 BD 2 9 C 7 A 68 48 10 1 2 7J0 4 8 10 3 2 6CF86027 
D2A2 4 2A0286FEC6027D2A252A02C6FEA 
BE 4 EB618 1072 2B5C10722B1 FD2 C 14BD2 
9 C7A6 84102 6FFA5 3510BF2C141CFB39C 
C00003406ECE4FD2C 

2 10 DATA 14BD29C7A684B12C00271BB 
12C012 716ECE44C81082 50B4 F5CC10 8 2 
5053262 1A0439EDE420D632621CFB39C 
C0000FD2C04BD2B415D2658BD2 9C7FC2 
C14FD2BFEA684B72BFD8102271A7A2C1 
47C2C1 5BD2 9 C7A6 8 427 367C2 C147 C2 CI 

4BD29C7A6842729B62BFD81012720FC2 
BFEFD2C147A2C147A 

211 DATA 2C15BD29C7A684270F7C2C1 
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C8108 2607 4F5CC 10 82 60 1 3 9 FD2 C0 4BD2 
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C012 6D65F39AD9FA0 

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0FFFF00FF00FF00FF0002FF02FF02FF0 
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2FF00000000000000 00 000 0000000000 
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00000000000000000 

213 DATA 000 0 0 00000000 000 0 0 00000 
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214 DATA 6E617465206F72203C413E6 
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02D2D594F552057494E2054 4 84 9 5 3204 
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November 1986 THE RAINBOW 121 




WE'RE BRINGING THE COCO 



RAINBOW'S 
BROADENING ITS 
SPECTRUM 

the rainbow and the Delphi Infor- 
mation Utility have joined together 
to allow CoCo owners all over the 
world to connect with one another! 

Delphi is a full-service information 
utility. It offers everything from up- 
to-the-minute news stories from The 
Associated Press to electronic mail 
services. But, best of all, it now has 
a special forum for Color Computer 
owners, and if s operated by the 
people who bring you the rainbow 
each month. 

The CoCo Special Interest Group 
(SIG) features a variety of services, 
including an open forum where you 
can send and receive messages 
from Color Computer owners all 
over the world. It also has several 
databases to which you can upload 
your favorite programs and from 
which you can download programs 
written by other CoCo enthusiasts. 
Some of these databases are basic 
programming, OS-9 and home ap- 
plications. 

When setting up your account with 
Delphi, if you do not have a credit 
card or prefer not to use it, Delphi 
requires that you send $20 to give 
your account a positive balance. This 
will be refunded after your first free 
hour if you choose to no longer use 
the system or it will be applied to 
future connect charges. If you do hot 
maintain a positive balance, you will 
be charged $3.50 each month for 
direct billing. 



PEEK INTO THE 
RAINBOW 

The CoCo SIG's conference feature 
allows you to meet electronically 
with other members of the CoCo 
Community. You can join conferen- 
ces with notables such as Dale 
Puckett, Cray Augsburg, Marty 
Goodman, Don Hutchison, Jim 
Reed, Lonnie Falk and others — 
on a regular basis. Conference • 
schedules will appear in the rain- 
bow each month. Be sure to check 
online announcements for changes 
and additions. 



THE OTHER SIDE 
OF THE RAINBOW 

On Delphi, you also are able to buy 
rainbow on tape — order a whole 
set, or download an individual pro- 
gram immediately. You can also 
renew your rainbow subscription, 
make a fast and easy order for soft- 
ware or hardware from a multitude 
of vendors, or inquire about prod- 
ucts on the CoCo SIG. 

We also have a number of programs 
that you can download and use, just 
for the cost of the time you spend 
transferring them. There'll also be 
corrections for rainbow articles, 
helpful hints and many other useful 
features. 



FREE LIFETIME 
MEMBERSHIP 

the rainbow is offering subscribers 
a free lifetime subscription to Delphi 

— a $24.95 value — and a free hour 
of connect time — a $7.20 value at 
either 300, 1200 or 2400 Baud — so 
you can sample Delphi and the rain- 
bow CoCo SIG. That's right. Your 
subscription to the rainbow entitles 
you to this $32.15 value as a free 
bonus! 

If you're not a rainbow subscriber, 

just enter your order when you sign 
on with Delphi and you'll get the 
same great deal! For our $31 sub- 
scription fee, you'll get the finest 
Color Computer magazine ever, a 
free lifetime subscription to Delphi 
and a free hour of connect time. 

SAVE EVEN MORE 

Want to save even more? While 
you're online you can order, for only 
$29.95, a deluxe package which in- 
cludes the Delphi membership, the 
Delphi Handbook and Command 
Card ($21 .95) and a total of three 
hours of connect time ($21.60). 

Delphi provides us all with Imme- 
diate CoCo Community. Check it 
out today. After all, you can sample 
it for free! 



Problems? Call Delphi: 

(800) 544-4005 
(617) 491-3393 



DELPH I 



TYPE: 

GROUP COCO 




COMMUNITY TOGETHER 



How to reach RAINBOW'S Color Computer SIG . . . 



There are several ways to connect to Delphi and the 
rainbow's CoCo SIG. In most cities you will not even have 
to pay long distance charges; you can use special data 
communications networks like Uninet, Tymnet and the 
Canadian Datapac network. 

First, set your terminal program to operate at either 300 
or 1200 Baud (depending on the modem you have), and 
, also select either 1 bits with even parity or 8 bits with no 
parity, and one stop bit. (If one combination doesn't work, 
try another.) 

Decide which network you should use. There is no 
surcharge for Uninet or Tymnet. Canadian residents using 
Datapac will be charged an additional $12 (U.S.) per hour. 

On Uninet: Call (800) 821-5340 to get the Uninet number 
for your area. After you call the appropriate number for 
your own area and make connection, youH see a prompt 
of "L?" Press enter, the period key (.) and enter again. 
At the "service:'* prompt, type GVC (for General Videotex 
Corporation) and enter. 

On Tymnet: Call (800) 336-0149 to get the Tymnet 
number for your area. After you dial your designated 
number and connect, you will see either "garbage" or a 
message saying "please type your terminal identifier." At 
this point, even if the screen is garbled, simply press 4 A\ 
When "please log in:" appears, type DELPHI and press 
enter. 

From Canada (on Datapac): Call Delphi Customer 
Service at (617) 491-3393 to get the Datapac number for 
your area. After you connect, press the period key (.) and 
enter (use two periods if you're using 1200 Baud). Type 
SET 2:1, 3:126 and press ENTER. Now type p 1 3106, 
DELPHI ; and press enter. Delphi's new rates indicate an 
additional $12 hourly surcharge for evening use of 
Datapac, which means a total of $18 (U.S.) for connect 
time. 

From other countries: Many countries have their own 
data networks that can connect to either Uninet or Tymnet. 
Check with the telephone authorities in your country for 
details on how to sign up for this service. When you have 
an account set up, you can reach Delphi with a "host code" 
of 312561703088 through Uninet, or 310600601500 
through Tymnet. (YouH have to pay the toll charges for 
this connection.) 

Type in Your Usernamc 

If you're already a subscriber to THE rainbow, at the 
"USERNAME:" prompt, type RRINBOWSUB and press 



enter. At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type your individ- 
ual subscription number from the mailing label of your 
latest issue of the rainbow. (If there are one or more zeros 
at the beginning of this number, include them.) 

If you don't already have a subscription, at the "USER- 
NAME:" prompt, type RfllNBOWORDER and press ENTER, 
At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type SENDSUB and press 
enter. Have your MasterCard, VISA or American 
Express card ready, because youll be led through a series 
of questions that will enable us to put your RAINBOW and 
Delphi subscriptions into effect. In an effort to hold down 
non-editorial costs, we do not bill for subscriptions. 

If you make a typing error, just press ENTER and start 
over. Remember that at any point, when you're on Delphi, 
you can type HELP to get help on how to use the system. 
To get off the system just type BYE. 

If you find that you're unable to log on to Delphi and 
enter the CoCo SIG after following these instructions, call 
us during afternoon business hours at (502) 228-4492. Well 
be glad to offer assistance. 

Come Visit Us! Type: GROUP COCO 

After you sign in, you'll be prompted to set up your own, 
personal "user name" — Delphi is a friendly service, no 
numbers to remember — and youll be asked a number 
of questions so Delphi can set up your account. Youll also 
be assigned a temporary password. No time is assessed 
against your free hour of service while you answer these 
questions. 

Delphi will tell you that your account will be ready after 
6 p.m. the same day if you sign up before noon (Eastern 
time zone.) If not, your account will be ready at 6 p.m. 
the next day. Once an account is opened, each RAINBOW 
subscriber will be credited with an hour of free time! 



When you log back in, use your chosen username and 
your temporary password to access the system. At that 
point, you will meet Max, who will help you configure 
things and will change your temporary password into 
your own persona! password. This is the password you 
will use for subsequent sessions — or until you change it. 

After Max bids you goodbye, youll wind up at the 
Delphi Main Menu; type in GROUP COCO and join us on 
the CoCo SIG! 



More than a book . . . 

A MILESTONE 




GUIDE TO 



t modules of 




1 1-^ 




□ Please send me The 
Complete Rainbow Guide To 
OS-9 for $19.95.* 



Name 



□ Please send me The Rainbow 
Guide To OS-9 Disk (a 
package of two disks) for 
$31.* Does not include book. 

Signature 




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is enclosed. 



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MasterCard) 




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Account Number 

Mail to: 

The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call 800-847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. 
H For other inquiries call 502-228-4492. 

*Add $1.50 per book shipping and handling in U.S. Outside U.S. add $4 per book. Allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. KY residents 
add 5% sales tax. In order to hold down costs, we do not bill. ALL ORDERS IN U.S. FUNDS. 

OS-9 is a trademark of Microware Systems Corporation. 



CROSSWORD CONTEST WINNER 




And the winner is Dick McGrath 
of Montreal, Quebec! Dick's entry in 
our Crossword Creator Contest was 
clever enough to win the judges 
over. For this winning acrostic, Dick 
will receive $25. 

Sharpen your pencils and put on 
your thinking caps. For your 
entertainment we present Dick's 
puzzle and his tricky clues. 

Good Luck! 



By Dick McGrath 



1 c 


2 r 


3 

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4 s\ 




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5 


£ 




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£ 


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2 n 


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T 




26 


27 


28 


34 






37 






41 






45 








51 


52 


53 




58 








62 






> 


65 










|10 


11 


12 


13 


16 








19 

















H 




56 

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57 


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Across 

<k CoCo "hearts" 
5. "First" competitors? 
10. His CoCo is in the tent 
4* 2, 8, or 10 

15. Business language 

16. Desk 

+7: CoCo power (abbr.) 

18. Use<CLEAR> 

19. Early memory core material 
Reset pointer 

22. Characteristic 
2*. Logical operators 

25. Reverse rocket 

26. Modem type 

29r A cat, dog or CoCo 
30. Disk divisions 



34. Teaching acronym 

35. Decimal base 

36. Time shares 

37. Whole number (abbr.) 
OS. Handles 

40. Confederate States of America 

41. 7" alternative 
4& String location 

44. Dock 

45. Palm leaf 

46. Pac people 

47. Yiddish Sarah (fam.) 

48. Greek isle 

50. Not Garfield, but 

51. Warranted 

54. Indicated in the stack 
58. Elite or VIP 



59. Motor or on 

61 . OZ pooch 

62. General assistant 

63. Fore & aft rigged craft 

64. Slaughter 

65. Triple helices 

66. Avid CoCo age group 

67. "Work force" 

Down 

Pre-CoCo hacker 
-2? Programmer's complexion 
3t Employs 
Ar Parts of 30 across 

5. Maples (species) 

6. If not B or C try 

7. Father, in Syria 

8. Semi-conductor type 

9. Freezing rain 

10. Start anywhere (OS-9) 

11. Oriental CoCo transport 

12. near 

13. Louis' queen 
-in-. Table scrap 
23. Greek guardian 
25: Changes title 

26. Search a cassette 

27. Mr. Dig 

28. blast 

29r. pal 

31. Cast of characters 

32. Snooted 

33. Error trap? 
35. Youngster 
3& Flashy diode 

3Sr Ma Bell connection 

-39-. Sloe fizz 

42. Back pages, usually 
44. Colored an area 

46. Component combination 

47. Reagan's initiative 

49. One of the significant bytes 

50. Graphicom "gooof" fixer 

51. Our own design aid (init.) 

52. Reclined 

53. "Dr." Alan 

54. Pi-meson 

-55. Mr. "Turn of the Screw" 

56. English school 

57. Measured amount 

60. Bambi's mom 

November 1 966 THE RAINBOW 1 25 



MODIFICATION 




1 32K 




1 Disk | 





the 



Keycad/Keyflow: 
CoCocad and CoCoflow Modification 



By James Ventling 



This is a modification for those 
who don't always have a joystick 
or mouse handy to use with 
either the CoCocad (Oct. '85) or the 
CoCoflow (Mar. '86) programs. I 
wanted to use CoCoflow with some of 
my students but didn't have joysticks to 
go around. Instead, I changed the 
program to accept keyboard input. In 
place of the joystick, the arrow keys are 
used for cursor movement. The arrow 
keys may be held down for continuous 
movement or, for faster movement, 
hold the \P key (for jump) while using 
the arrows. The CLEAR key is used in 
place of the firebutton. When making a 
selection from the icons at the top of the 
screen, be sure to press the down arrow 
key until the cursor reappears or the 
option may de-select before you have a 
chance to use it. 

While using CoCoflow, we found 
that the symbols for decision and con- 
nection were too small to place text 
information in. I made a further mod- 
ification to increase the size of these 
shapes. We also dicovered that a screen- 
print utility could be added to CoCo- 
flow due to its smaller memory require- 



James Ventling lives in Xenia, Ohio and 
teaches computers and art. He has two 
daughters and has been programming 
since 1981. 



ments. In the original CoCocad and 
CoCoflow, to do a screen-print you had 
to dump all nine screens to disk and 
then use a separate screen print pro- 
gram. This used 28 grans of disk space! 
By adding a screen-print routine to the 
end of CoCoflow, you can print directly 
from memory. 

Lines 20 through 30 replace the joy- 
stick input with keyboard input. PEEK 
is used to read the keyboard so you can 
tell if a key is being held down. The 
keyboard table is cleared in Line 20 so 
you can tell when a key has been re- 
leased. Then the program looks to see 
if the T key, any of the arrow keys, or 
the CLEAR key is being pressed. 

Variables "XX" and "YY" are used to 
simulate a joystick input. The variables 
'X' and 'Y' are not incremented directly 
because these variables are also used in 
some subroutines and could be changed 
when you least want it. Lines 29 and 30 
check to make sure 'X' and *Y' don't go 
out of bounds. 

Line 121 starts the cursor at a conven- 
ient location at the top of the screen 
near the icon selection. You also have 
to keep the use of the clear key from 
being misinterpreted as a keystroke 
when placing text on the screen. Chang- 
ing Line 550 so as to ignore the CLEAR 
key takes care of this. 

To change the size of the decision and 
connect symbols in CoCoflow, you 



must change lines 120, 910 and 930. Ir 
Line 120, array sizes are increased tc 
accommodate the larger symbols. The 
new DRAM strings and GET-PUT sizes foi 
the larger symbols are in lines 910 and 
930. 

To add a screen-print routine tc 
CoCoflow, first eliminate the screen 
dump in lines 1970 and 1980. Keep the 
page-display routine in Line 1980 and 
add you own screen-print routine start- 
ing at Line 2000. I have included a 
simple BASIC screen-print routine for 
the C-ITOH Prowriter. 

Many thanks to Peter Kerckhoff for 
creating the original CoCocad and to 
Dennis Page for the CoCoflow modifi- 
cation. Remember to give credit to 
CoCocad or CoCoflow if you publish 
any graphics created with these pro- 
grams. 

To make the modification for key- 
board input, load Cococad or Cocoflow 
and type in Listing 1. 

To make the modification for larger 
decision and connection symbols in 
CoCoflow type in Listing 2. 

To add a screen-print routine, change 
lines 1970, 1980 and 1990. Add the 
screen-print routine at Line 2000. Don't 
forget Line 3000. 

(You may direct your questions to the 
author at 2400 Cornwall Drive, Xenia, 
OH 45385, 513-376-2074. Please en- 
close an SASE when writing.) 



126 



THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



Editor's Note: The following program listings will be 
saved in ASCII on this month's rainbow on disk to 
facilitate merging with the original CoCocad and 
CoCoflow programs. To use from RAINBOW on tape, 
you will first need to save the files to disk in ASCII 
format, then use the MERGE command. To use MERGE, 
load in the original CoCocad or CoCoflow listing and 
type MERGE "f ilenamB". The filename refers to the 
ASCII save of either CoCoMODl, CoCoMOD2 or 
CoCoMOD3, depending on which modification is 
being used. 



Listing 1: CDC0M0D1 

20 FORQZ=339T0344:POKEQZ,255:NEX 
T:JK=PEEK(340) 

21 I FPEEK ( 3 4 1 ) = 2 4 7 THEN Y Y= Y Y - 1 : 1 F 
JK=253THENYY=YY-7 

22 IFPEEK ( 3 4 2 ) =2 4 7 THEN Y Y= Y Y+ 1 : 1 F 
Y Y< 7 THENY Y=Y Y+ 1 2 ELSE I F JK=2 5 3 THEN 
YY=YY+7 

23 IFPEEK(343)=247THENXX=XX-1:IF 
YY< 6THENXX=XX-1ELSEI F JK=2 5 3 THENX 
X=XX-7 

24 IFPEEK(344)=247THENXX=XX+1:IF 
YY<6THENXX=XX+1ELSEIFJK=253THENX 
X=XX+7 

25 IFPEEK (339) =19 lTHENP=3ELSEP=p 

29 X=XX*4:IFX<3THENX=3:XX=1:ELSE 
IFX>252THENX=252 : XX=63 

30 Y=YY*4 : IFY<3THENY=3 : YY=1 : ELSE 
IFY>188THENY=188 : YY=47 



121 XX=16:YY=9 



550 GOSUB60:A$=INKEY$:GOSUB70:IF 
A$=»"THEN550ELSEIFASC(A$)=12THEN 
550 ELSEPLAYB$ : IFA$=CHR$ ( 13 ) THEN 
POKEAD(PG) ,255: AD(PG)=AD(PG)+1: 
POKEAD(PG) , 0:GOSUB110: GOTO520 



Listing 2: C0C0M0D2 



12)3 DIM C$(3) ,A(8) ,AD(8),C1(1) ,C 
2(1) ,C3(1), Ll(6) ,L2 (6) ,L3 (6) ,L4 
(6) ,CM(45) ,CO(45) ,MD(255) , MO(25 
5) :B$="V31L10J3O4B":NF$="NONE" 



910 DRAW" BD16M+2 4,-1 6M+ 2 4 , + 1 6M- 2 




4 , + 1 6M- 2 4 , -16":XW=4 8 : YW=33: RETUR 
N: 'DECISION 



930 DRAW" BD9U3 EUE 3 RER3 FRF3 DFD3 GD 
G3LGL3HLH3UHU2 " : XW=17 : YW=17 : RETU 
RN: 'CONN 



Listing 3: C0C0M0D3 



1970 • 

1980 FOR PG=0 TO 8 : PMODE4 , 1 : SCRE 
EN1 , 1 : COLOR0 , 1 : PCLS : GOSUB1790 
1990 ' 

2000 'PUT YOUR SCREEN PRINT ROUT 
INE HERE 

2010 CLS: PRINT" GRAPHICS PRINT-OU 
T FOR 

PROWRITER" : INPUT "READY PRINTER" ; 
QQ 

2020 PRINT :PRINT"WHAT SIZE PRINT 
-OUT?" : INPUT" 1 OR 2»;NN:IFNN<1 0 
R NN>2THEN2020 

2050 PRINT #-2 , CHR$ (27) CHR$ (84) "1 

6 " ; : PMODE4 , 1 : SCREEN1 , 1 

2060 A1=3:A2=12:A3=48:A4=192:Z5= 

0:ONNN GOTO2180,2210 

2 180 FORY5=0TO190STEP8 : PRINT#-2 , 

CHR$(27)CHR$(83) "0256"; :FORX5=0T 

0255 : P5=Z5 : FORYY=0TO7 

2190 IFPPOINT (X5 , Y5+YY) <1THENP5= 

P5+2yY 

2200 NEXTYY : PRINT # -2 , CHR$ ( P5 ) ; :N 
EXT : PRINT#-2, CHR$ (13 ) ? : NEXT : GOTO 
3000 

2210 FORY5=0TO188STEP4:PRINT#-2, 
CHR$(27)CHR$(83) "0512" ; : FORX5=0T 
0255:P5=Z5 

2220 IFPPOINT (X5 , Y5 )<1THENP5=A1 
2230 IFPPOINT (X5 , Y5+1 ) <1THENP5=P 
5+A2 

2240 IFPPOINT ( X5 , Y5+2 ) <1THENP5=P 
5+A3 

2250 IFPPOINT (X5 , Y5+3 ) <1THENP5=P 
5+A4 

2260 PRINT#-2 , CHR$ (P5)CHR$(P5) ; : 
NEXT: PRINT* -2 , CHR$ (13) ; : NEXT : GOT 
03000 

3000 NEXTPG 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 127 



STAR NX-10 COMPLETE SYSTEM 




Easy-to-use and ready for the heavy workloads 
from your TRS-80 Color Computer 1, 2, 3 or PC 
compatible. Control pitch, margins, NLQ, Italics 
and more from the Front Control Panel. Stuff the 
5K data buffer with your own unique character set 
or use one of the 11 built in charater sets. 1 Year 
limited warrany serviceable nationwide. Deluxe 
Users manual. System includes the NX-10 Dot 
Matrix printer with BLUE STREAK II serial to 
parallel interface and our Software Trio (see 
below). 



SPECS: 120cps Draft, 30cps NLQ, Italics Sub & Superscripts, 
Emphasized, Doublestrike, Proportional, International, Down Loadable 
Char., Left, Right, or Center Justification, Underline, Vertically Enlarged 
2X/4X, 5, 6, 8.5, 10, 12, & 17 CPI, Graphics 480-1920 dots/line, Horz.& 
Vert. Tabs, Forward or Reverse n/216" Line Feeds, Hex Dump, Friction 
& Push Tractor, 5K Data Buffer. 



$29995 



+$10 Shipping 
and Insurance 



COMPLETE 



SEIKOSHA SP-1000A COMPLETE SYSTE 



Triple Mode Dot Matrix printer with serial 
interface, cable and our Software Trio (see 
below). Ready to run single sheet or 4" to 10" 
tractor paper from your TRS-80 Color Computer 
1, 2, or 3. Compatible with your programs that 
let you control your baud rate, like CoCoMax, 
VIP, Basic and OS-9 etc. 24 month limited 
warranty. 76 page users manual. 



SPECS: 100cps Draft, 20 cps NLQ, Italics, Sub & Superscripts, Bold, 
Doublestrike, Proportional, International, Underline, 5, 8, 8.5, 10, 12, & 
17 CPI, Graphics 480-1920 dots/line, Horizontal and Vertical Tabs, 
n/216"' Line Feeds, Hex Dump, Friction and Tractor Paper Feed, 



$21995 



+$10 Shipping 
and Insurance 



COMPLETE 






CITIZEN 120D COMPLETE SYSTEM 



BLUE STREAK II 



Triple Mode, High perfomance Dot Matrix 
printer with serial interface, cable, and our 
Software Trio (see below). Ready to run with 
v your TRS-80 Color Computer 1, 2, or 3. Load 
single sheets with one button ease or use the 
adjustable tractor with rear or bottom feed. Fill 
the 4K buffer with text and graphics from your 
favorite programs such as CoCoMax, VIP and 
Basic at rates up to 9600 baud. 18 month limited 
warranty. Deluxe users manual. 



Serial to jParallel 



SPECS: 120 cps Draft, 25 cps NLQ, italics, Sub & Superscripts, 
Emphasized, Doublestrike, Proportional, International, User Defined 
Characters, Left, Right, Center or Full Justification, Undrline, Oversoore, 
Reverse Print, Vertically Enlarged 2X, 5, 6, 8.5, 10, 12, 17, & 20 CPI, 
Graphics 480-1920 dots/line, Horz. and Vert. Relative & Absolute Tabs, 
n/216" Line Feeds, Hex Dump, Friction and Tractor, 4K Buffer. 



$229 95 



+$10 Shipping 
and Insurance 



COMPLETE 




Transfer your data from CoCo 1, 2, 3 to your 
parallel printer with a fury. The Blue Streak can 
increase your data transmission 4 fold over 
convetional-compatible interfacing and increase 
printer through put. An additional serial I/O port 
permits port sharing with another serial device 
without recabling. 



SPECS: 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 0600 Swithcable Baud Rates. 
Power Supply 276-1 431 A UL Listed, 1 Year Warranty, Input 4 Pin Serial, 
Output 36 Pin Parallel and 4 Pin Serial, Total Cable Length 54 Inches, 
Box4"x2"x1". 



$49 95 without power ^ d s S 
$54 95 wi * Power UffiSS, 




SOFTWARE TRIO 





ion'* 

WORD PROCESSOR 2.2 

TAPE OR DISK VERSION A FULL 8"Xir SCREEN DUMP PROGRAM 

A feature packed program that turns your CoCo A well-written and documented program written 

into an office machine. Create and save letters in machine language position independent code, 

and documents with the Word processor tailored Features include user definable color shading and 

for your printer. printing in all 5 Pmodes. Tape transferable to 

disk. Requires 16K extended color basic. 



TYPE SELECTION 
TUTORIAL PROGRAM 

Menu driven program for the CoCo. Teaches 
and shows the new user the numerous features of 
their printer. (Specify printer when ordering) 



ALL THREE 
PROGRAMS 



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DAYTON, OHIO 45424 
OHIO RESIDENTS ADD 6.5% SALES TAX • C.O.D. ADD $2.00 

TRS HO Color Computer® Tandy Corp., CoCoMax® Colorwaro Inc., VIP® Softluw Corp. All data subject to change without notice. 



RAINBOW REVIEW 



CoCo Util II 

An Improved Way to Transfer Data/Mark Data Products .. . ., ... ,136 

CoCoachiever 

Organize Your Amway Business/ T&M Enterprises . . . . , . , . .... 1 46 

Code Practice 

Improve Morse Code Skills/Sunr/se Software . . . ... 134 

The Computer Phone Book 

Learn About Computer Communications/A/ew American Library 135 

CyberTank 

Simulation Requires Good Strategy/Mar/c Data Products 149 

Digisector DS-69A 

Produces Digitized Printouts of Video Pictures/77?e Micro Works. .< . . . . .140 
Dragon Blade 

High Resolution Adventure Game/ Prickly-Pear Software . . . ...... , . 150 

Drive 1 Upgrade 

Add a Second Disk Drive in Minutes/Specfrum Projects, Inc. . . . . . . .151 

Flash Card Drill 

Educational Program/ Thompson House . 148 

LEO 

Challenging Game Keeps You on Your Joes/Lomiq Inc 145 

LISTER 

Structure BASIC Programs/CMD Micro ... 139 

PBH-64 Print Buffer 

Provides a Serial-to-Parallel Interface/Specfrum Projects, Inc. . ; , . . ..144 

Paper Route 

64K Action Game/ Diecom Products ... .147 

Probaloto Version 2.0 

Pick a Winner/Gary Olander 143 

The Quest for Reality 

Adventure Game with Magic and MysXery/Brainbank Software 150 

Ultra Telepatch 

Improves the "Perfect" Word Processor/Sob van der Poel Software . . . . .138 



The magazine for Tandy portable and MS-DOS users 



Not only does Tandy produce our favorite CoCo, we think they produce the best and best-priced lap- 
top portable and MS-DOS computers as well. We've found that when satisfied Color Computer users 
decide to add portability or move to MS-DOS, many stick with Tandy. For these people we publish PCM, 
The Personal Computer Magazine for Tandy Computer Users. 

Each month in RCM, you'll find information and programs for the Tandy 100, 102, 200 and 600 portable 
computers. And you'll find even more coverage for their MS-DOS machines, the 1000, 1200, 2000 and 
3000, along with the great new 1000 EX, 1000 SX and 3000 HL. 

FREE PROGRAMS! 

We learned from the rainbow that readers want programs to type in, so each month we bring you an 
assortment of them: games, utilities, graphics, and home and business applications. 

BAR CODE LISTINGS AND PROGRAM DISKS! 

For portable users, PCM is the only home computer publication in the world that brings you programs 
in bar code, ready to scan into memory like magic with the sweep of a wand! For those who don't have 
time to type in listings, we offer a companion disk service with all the programs from the magazine. 

TUTORIALS AND PRODUCT REVIEWS! 

As if all this weren't enough, we offer regular tutorials on telecommunications and hardware; assembly 
language, basic and pascal programming tips; and in-depth reviews of the new software, peripherals 
and services as they are released. Add it all up and we think you'll find PCM to be the most informative 
and fun magazine for this market today! 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call 800-847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. For other inquiries 
call 502-228-4492. 

□ YES! Please send me a one year (12 issues) 
subscription to PCM for only $28/ A savings of 22% 
off the newsstand price. 

Name 

Address 

City State ZIP 

In order to hold down costs, we do not bill. 

□ My check In the amount of is enclosed. 

Charge to my: VISA MasterCard I | American Express 

Acct. # Expiration Date 

Signature 

* Canadian subscribers U.S. $35. Surface rate elsewhere $64, airmail $85. Allow 6 to 8 weeks for first copy. Kentucky residents add 5% sales lax. 

U.S. currency only, please. 

Mail to: PCM, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect KY 40059 




REVIEWING 




OS-9 Version 2.0.0 

Editor: 

I have been an avid reader of your mag- 
azine for well over a year now and consider 
it an indispensable part of my software 
library. Although I am not one to write to 
magazines very often, the review that I read 
on OS-9 Version 2.0.0 [September 1986, 
Page 146] has prompted me to write to you 
today. 

In the review it states that it is not possible 
to make a bootable disk with the config 
program. This is simply not true. Insert a 
backed-up copy of the config disk into Drive 
0 and type chx /d0/cmds and chd /d0. 
Then type config and follow the prompts. 
It eventually prompts you to insert a format- 
ted disk into Drive 1 and installs the new 
boot file you have designed onto the disk. 
Then it allows you to install the CMDS and 
other directories if you want. 

The config program allows you to put 
your own device descriptors and drivers into 
the selection process (at config run-time) by 
appending their names with .dd for device 
descriptor and .dr for device driver. It lets 
you put in your own file managers by the 
same process. I have done this with software 
for the J&R Banker RAMDisk. 

The reviewer didn't mention that the 
Tandy version of OS-9 still hard codes the 
description of its floppy drive's disk step rate 
and number of sides into the CCDISK 
module. He also failed to mention that some 
third-party software will not work with 
Version 2.0.0. I had just purchased a 51- 
column software screen with various other 
utilities and was quite saddened to watch my 
screen "blow up" when I tried it with OS- 
9 Version 2.0.0 He didn't mention the park 
command, which is used just before the 
powering down of hard disks. 

Thank you for the best Color Computer 
magazine in the world and keep up the good 
work! 

Mark F. Sanderson 
Houston, TX 



OTERM 



Editor: 

I would like to pass on a compliment to 
Bernard Pluth, author of OTERM. This is 
a must terminal program for anyone inter- 
ested in OS-9. After reading the manual, the 
first and only time, I was impressed with the 
ease of use of this program. The gentleman 
who reviewed it in the July 1986 issue of 
RAINBOW [Page 148] must not be familiar 
with OS-9. 1, myself, have a long way to go 
with OS-9, but I found reading the manual 
only once was enough. Thanks, Bernie. 

David duess 
Princeton, KY 



Casper CoCo Quick Assembler 

Editor: 

The loading problem with the Casper 
CoCo Quick Assembler reviewed in the 
September rainbow [Page 137] was the 
PCLEAR bug. The older ROMs fail to update 
one of their pointers when they move the 
BASIC program. The PCLEAR 1 fix I remem- 
bered from one of my old rainbows was: 

1 GOTO 333 

2 (program) 

9999 PCLEAR 1:RUN 2 

Earl W. Casper 
Phoenix, AZ 



Memory Manager 



Editor: 

Thank you for reviewing our Memory 
Manager program [October 1986, Page 
139]. I would like to comment on some of 
the statements that Mr. Church made. 

First of all, he said, "The all-RAM mode 
allows approximately 8K of RAM for 
storage of a short program or data." He left 
out the important point that programs can 
be stored in the upper 8K of memory leaving 
all of the 32 K of lower memory available for 
strings or data. 

For saving programs Mr. Church stated, 
"Both basic and ML programs may be 
saved, but the beginning, ending and execu- 
tion addresses must be known for ML 
programs." Can ML programs be saved to 
a floppy disk or tape without giving the 
beginning, ending and execution addresses? 

A paragraph is devoted to explaining how 
inconvenient it is to have a program auto- 
matically run. It is much simpler to press the 
break key to stop the program than to type 
RUN and press ENTER to start it. Most 
programs have a menu with options to be 
selected, and pressing the break key stops 
the program. 

Mr. Church also explains how inconven- 
ient it is to save a copy of a development 
program to the RAMdisk with a disk or tape 
being preferred. The purpose of the RAM- 
disk is to quickly save programs. What could 
be faster than saving a copy of the develop- 
ment program in the RAMdisk and then 
running it? Also the Memory Manager 
program allows the first 32K memory bank 
to be copied into the second 32K bank. This 
can be used to save a copy of a development 
program. 

I don't understand the implication that a 
program can lock up the RAMdisk. The 
RAMdisk occupies the upper 4K bytes of 
memory in the first 32 K bank and stores 
programs in the second 32K bank. The lower 
28 K can be used for any program, although 
Mr. Church implied that complex programs 
will not run with the RAMdisk installed. Of 
course programs that use the memory 
reserved for the RAMdisk will not work. 



Two programs included in the package are 
RAMdisk and Memory Manager. RAM- 
disk stores programs in the second memory 
bank. Memory Manager allows BASIC pro- 
grams to be run in either of the 32K memory 
banks. Mr. Church states, "The two main 
purposes here are to use memory, either in 
two banks or an 8K block of memory for 
data or program storage." Programs up to 
32K long can be placed in both banks. The 
8K block is for the all-RAM mode where a 
program can be placed in the upper 8K of 
memory leaving the lower 32K for strings or 
data. 

The last paragraph implies that only 
machine language programmers can benefit 
from the programs because of the quirks in 
the program. We have not received a single 
complaint from our customers and I am sure 
that most are not machine language pro- 
grammers. If any problems do arise, we will 
gladly correct them. 

Bill Chappie 
Dynamic Electronics 



Penpal 

Editor: 

I would like to bring a few items to your 
attention with regard to the review of Penpal 
[April 1986, Page 184]. 

When used on a CoCo 2, it intermittently 
prints a@a@a@a@a@a@ when 'a' is de- 
pressed or ihihihihihi when V is depressed. 
This is very frustrating when using the WP 
package and prevents text where an 'a' is 
used in the spreadsheet. Four Star knows 
about this problem and says nothing can be 
done. 

I originally purchased Version 1, then 
upgraded to Version 2. 1 phoned and wrote 
Four Star Software on many occasions. 
They told me that Version 2 was replaced by 
Version 2.1 and that they would send it to 
me. Since then they have repeatedly ignored 
my complaints. 

If these problems could be resolved, I 
would have no complaints about this pack- 
age of software. I feel it is disgusting the way 
that Four Star treats customers. I originally 
complained well within the 30 day warranty 
period (after proving the problem was not 
on my system). A classic case of the buyer 
beware. 

Graham Langford 
Pickering, Ontario 



We welcome letters to "Reviewing Re- 
views" and remind you that they may also 
be sent to us through the MAIL section 
of our new Delphi CoCo SIG. From the 
CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then 
type SEND and address to: EDITORS. Be 
sure to include your complete name and 
address. 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 31 



RECEIVED AND CERTIFIED 



The following products have recently been received by THE RAINBOW, 
examined by our magazine staff and approved for the Rainbow Seal of 
Certification, your assurance that we have seen the product and have 
ascertained that it is what it purports to be. 

This month the Seal of Certification has been issued to: 



Battle Hymn — the battle of Gettys- 
burg, a 64K ML game with Hi-Res 
graphics. Recreate the Battle of Gettys- 
burg from the absence of J.E.B. Stuart 
to Pickett's charge; from Johnson and 
Early's failure at Culp's Hill to Hood's 
victory at Devil's Den; from the attack 
at Big Round Top to McLaw's run at 
Peach Orchard. Take charge of 1 1 
Confederate divisions and maneuver 
your forces against the Union line. Ark 
Royal Games, Box 14806, Jacksonville, 
FL 32238, $29 plus $2 S/H 

B.E.S.T. Expert System Toolkit, 64K 

artificial intelligence program. This 
menu-driven approach lets you gener- 
ate your own rule-based backward 
chaining expert system. After answer- 
ing a series of questions, a graph of the 
responses and correct solutions is dis- 
played. Thinking Software, 46-16 65th 
Place, Woodside, NY 13377, $79.95. 

CK.BAS, a copy/ kill program that 
copies any number of files with any 
number of tracks up to 80, and kills any 
or all files on the source drive. Includes 
T40 and T80 (64K) ML programs that 
support up to four drives and supports 
all versions of Radio Shack ROMs. 
CoCosoft, 1 159 East 9th Avenue, Mesa, 
AZ 85204, $34.95. 

CoCo Hymnal, a collection of 40 hymns 
for the Color Computer. Each of five 
menus offers a choice of eight hymns. 
Sovereign Grace Software, 221 High- 
view Drive, Ballwin, MO 63011, disk 
$9.95 plus $2 S/H. 

The CoCo Hymnal II, requires 64K and 
disk drive. This program contains 29 
hymns arranged in four voices. Four 
different menus allow the selection of 
the hymns. While the music plays, 
words to the verses of each song are also 
displayed on the Hi-Res screen. Sover- 
eign Grace Software, 221 Highview 
Drive, Ballwin, MO 63011, $9.95 plus 
$2 S/H. 

DDAY, a 64K Hi-Res machine lan- 
guage wargame. Use your historical 
knowledge of the Allied invasion of 



France in a game of tactics and strate- 
gies. Ark Royal Games, P.O. Box 
14806, Jacksonville, FL 32238, tape 
$23, disk $25. plus $2 S/H. 

Disk Programming Package, four util- 
ity programs for the Color Computer. 
ADD ML appends machine language 
code to the end of basic programs; 
UNPACKER converts compressed 
BASIC program into single-line state- 
ments; MLB A SIC converts BASIC pro- 
grams into pseudo-machine language, 
which can be loaded and executed; 
JOIN links machine language modules 
and adds auto-execute. CMD Micro 
Computer Services Ltd., 10447 124th 
Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 
T5N 1E1, Disk $14.95 plus $2 S/H 

Drive 1 Upgrade, single-sided drive that 
mounts in RS Disk 0 cabinet. Spectrum 
Projects, Inc., P.O. Box 264, Howard 
Beach, NY 11414, $139.95 plus $3 S/H 

Filesafe, 32K or 64K disk file encryp- 
tion program with Radio Shack Disk 
BASIC 1.0, 1.1 or JDOS. The program 
encodes all types of standard Disk 
BASIC disk files with a user supplied 
password, and features fingerprint and 
encoding routine. Emerald Island Soft- 
ware, P.O. Box 1126, Cleveland, OH 
44111, $22 plus $2.50 S/H 

FRED, a French electronic verb dic- 
tionary that runs on a 16K disk system. 
Use the program to look up verb forms 
of any infinitive typed in and display 
them on the screen. David Compton, 
252 N. Main Street, Suffield, CT 06078, 
disk $12.95 plus $3 S/H. 

Library of FORTH Routines and Utili- 
ties, a collection of professional-quality 
FORTH codes. This book includes rou- 
tines which show how FORTH's 
command-building properties can be 
used to create almost any kind of appli- 
cation. New American Library, 1633 
Broadway, New York, NY 10019, 
$22.95; $31.95 Cnd. 

LYRA, an eight-voice music editor 
utilizing a complete point-and-click 



user interface. Lyra allows four-voice 
music output to the TV speaker, but 
supports eight voices when output is 
directed to Symphony 12 or to a MIDI 
synthesizer. Speech Systems, 38 W. 255 
Deer path Road, Batavia, IL60510, disk 
only, $54.95. 

McWord, a machine language word 
processor. Program is written in 6803 
assembly language and requires MC-10 
microcomputer with 20K RAM and 
cassette recorder. Michael Fahy, RD 
#1, Box 480, Central City, PA 15926, 
$25. 

Music Libraries 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 

for the Color Computer. Each volume 
contains over 100 four-voice transcrip- 
tions of favorite tunes. Musica or a 
knowledge of music is not required. 
Speech Systems, 38 W. 255 Deerpath 
Road, Batavia, IL 60510, tape or disk, 
$29.95 each volume. 

PBH-64 Print Buffer, a printer buffer 
combining 64K RAM and a serial-to- 
parallel interface. Includes complete 
instructions. Spectrum Projects, P.O. 
Box 264, Howard Beach, NY 11414, 
$149.95 plus $3 S/H 

Packer, a program compressor utility 
which strips BASIC programs of re- 
marks, unnecessary spaces, colons, 
semicolons and GDTQs; deletes LET 
statements; and joins lines together. 
Each option can be executed individu- 
ally or all six can be executed in one 
pass. CMD Micro, 17435 57th Avenue, 
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6M1E1, 
$14.95 plus $2 S/H 

Picture Perfect, a 16K ECB graphics 
screen dump. The program is a combi- 
nation of BASIC and machine language 
programs that allows you to print out 
full-page copies of graphics pictures on 
any dot-matrix printer that has bit 
image graphics capabilities. Hawkes 
Research Services, 859 Stanford 
Avenue, Oakland, CA 94608, $25. 

Print V Wear, specially treated transfer 
sheets (8!4 by 11 inches) that enable the 
user to computer-design and print iron- 
ons with dot-matrix or thermal ribbon 
printers. Print V Wear transfers require 
Koala Pad or any type jof graphics 
program, hand iron and Print 'n' Wear 
paper. Foto-Wear, Inc., 62 Herbert 
Drive, East Brunswick, N J 08816, $8.95 
for 4Pak; $19.95 for WPak. 



1 32 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



Metric Industries 




Smart Speller, a spelling checker pro- 
gram that searches and replaces com- 
mon misspellings in OS-9 files. Works 
with any version of OS-9 and corrects 
files created with any OS-9 word pro- 
cessor. The disk includes a dictionary 
and menu-driven dictionary editor to 
allow altering and customizing of dic- 
tionary file and OS-9 assembly source 
code. Spectacular Software, Box 363, 
Mansfield Center, CT 06250, $9.95. 

Studies in the Parables, a Color Com- 
puter 64K disk Bible study program. 
Sovereign Grace Software, 221 High- 
view Drive, Ballwin, MO 63011, $9.95 
plus $2.50 S/H. 

Underware Ribbon, lets you create 
iron-on transfers with your printer. 
These ribbons come in a variety of 
colors and can be used on a wide range 
of printers. (Prices depend on type of 
printer used.) Diversions, Inc., 505 
West Olive Avenue #520, Sunnyvale, 
CA 94087, black ribbons, $14.95 to 
$19.95; color ribbons, $16.95 to $21.95; 
ColorPens, $14.95. 

White Fire of Eternity, 64K graphics 
Adventure. The scenario places you in 
the village of Faernarn during the age 
of monsters and magic, the time of gods 
and loremasters. Your hunger for 
knowledge puts you at odds with the 
loremasters and you storm out of the 
village only to discover you have be- 
come lost in the Forbidden Wood. Your 
quest for knowledge of the White Fire 
begins. Saguaro Software, 4137 E. 
Bermuda, Tucson, AZ 85712, Disk 
$24.95. 

Word Processor, 64K Disk Extended 
BASIC printer page editor. KolesarjBS, 
7 Ladd Road, Westfield, PA 16950, 
$16.95 plus $2 S/H. 

The Seal of Certification program is 
open to all manufacturers of products 
for the Tandy Color Computer, 
regardless of whether they advertise in 

THE RAINBOW. 

By awarding a Seal, the magazine 
certifies the product does exist — that 
we have examined it and have a 
sample copy — but this does not 
constitute any guarantee of 
satisfaction. As soon as possible, these 
hardware or software items will be 
forwarded to THE RAINBOW reviewers 

for evaluation. 
— Judi Hutchinson 



Model 101 Interface $39.95 

The Model 101 is a serial to with all cables and connectors for 

parallel interface intended for use your computer and printer. 

with a COCO and any Centronics 

compatible parallel input printer. 

The 101 has 6 switch selectable 

baud rates (300-9600). The 101 

is only 4* x 2" X 1 " and comes 

The Model 104 Deluxe Interface $51.95 



The Model 104 is a serial to 
parallel interface like the Model 
101 but it has the added feature 
of a serial port (sometimes 
referred to as a modem switch). 
This feature allows the connection 
of a parallel printer and any 
serial device (modem, serial printer 



etc.) to your computer. You may 
then select either output, serial or 
parallel, with the flip of a switch. 
The 104 is only 4.5* x 2.5" x 1 .25" 
and comes with all cables and 
connectors for your computer. You 
supply the serial cable for your 
modem or other serial device. 



Model 102 Switcher $35.95 



The Model 102 has 3 switch 
positions that allow you to 
switch your computer's serial 
output between 3 different 
devices (modem, printers or 
another computer). The 102 has 
color coded lights that indicate 
the switch position. These 



lights also act as power 
indicators to let you know your 
computer is on. Supplied with 
the 102 are color coded labels 
that can be applied to your 
accessories. The 102 has a heavy 
guage anodized aluminum cabinet 
with non-slip rubber feet. 




Cassette Label Package $15.95 

Organize Your Tapes, Label Your Save $8.40 when you purchase the you pay only $15.95. When 



Data Tapes, Color Code Your 
Tapes, Label Your Audio Tapes 




Cassette Label program and label 
package. You get the Cassette 
Label program, 100 WHITE labels, 
100 RED labels, 100 BLUE labels, 
100 YELLOW labels, and 100 TAN 
labels. A value worth $24.35, but 



ordering, specify the Cassette Label 
PACKAGE. 



Cassette Label Program $6.95 



New Version 1.2-Tape transferra- 
ble to disk. Now save and 
load Labels from tape or disk. 

This fancy printing utility prints 
5 lines of information on 
pinfeed cassette labels. "Cas- 
sette Label" is menu driven and 
is very easy to use. It uses the 
special features of your 
printer for standard, expanded 
or condensed characters. Each 
line of text is automatically 
centered. Before the label 
is printed, it Is shown on your 



THE 101, AND 104 
REQUIRE POWER IN ORDER TO 
OPERATE. MOST PRINTERS 
CAN SUPPLY POWER TO YOUR 
INTERFACE. STAR, RADIO 
SHACK, AND OKI DATA ARE JUST 
A FEW THAT DO. EPSON DOES 
NOT THE INTERFACES CAN 
ALSO BE POWERED BY AN AC 
ADAPTER (RADIO SHACK MODEL 
273-1431 PLUGS INTO ALL 
MODELS). IF YOU REQUIRE A 
POWER SUPPLY, ADD A "P" TO 
THE MODEL NUMBER AND $5.00 
TO THE PRICE. (MODEL 101 P 
$44.95, MODEL 104P $56.95) 



CRT — enabling you to 
make changes if you like — 
then print 1, 2 or 100 labels. The 
program comes on tape and it 
is supplied with 24 labels to 
get you started. 16K ECB 
required. 



tAMu minttm utility 



Other Quality Items 

High Quality 5 Screw Shell C-10 
Cassette Tapes $7.50 per dozen 

Hard Plastic Storage Boxes for 
Cassette Tapes $2.50 per dozen 

Pin Feed Cassette Labels 
White $3.00 per 100 
Colors $3.60 per 100 (Red, Blue, 
Yellow or Tan) 



K> AM KICK 



txcwi, tm 



« 





The Model 101, 102 and 104 
will work with any COCO, any 
level basic and any memory size. 
These products are covered by 
a 1 year warranty. 

The Model 101 and 104 work 
with any standard parallel input 
printer including Gemini, Epson, 
Radio Shack, Okidata, C. loth and 
many others. They support 
BASIC print commands, word 
processors and graphic com- 
mands. 

We manufacture these products. 
Dealer inquiries are invited. 



To order call our 24 hour order 
line 513-677-0796 and use 
your VISA MASTERCARD, 
request C.O.D.or send check or 
money order to: 

Metric Industries 
P.O. Box 42396 
Cincinnati, OH 45242 

Free shipping on orders over 
$50.00. Ohio residents add 5.5% 
sales tax. 

Orders under $50.00 please add 
$2.50 for shipping. 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 33 



Software ReviewSSSSSSSS^SSSSSSSSS SZ\ 

Sharpen Morse Code Skills 
With Code Practice 

About 25 years ago, my good friend, Steve, and I decided 
to become hams; no, not actors, but amateur radio 
operators. The first thing we found out about getting our 
FCC license was that we needed to learn Morse code. So 
we got ourselves the Novice Bible written by the Amateur 
Radio ReJay League and read all about code. 

I remember we walked around the neighborhood (we 
were teenagers then) "reading" store signs and street signs 
to each other in code — di-di-di-dit di-dit (hi). I'm sure 
people thought we had a few screws loose. Eventually, we 
both got our Novice licenses (five words per minute) and 
had lots of fun talking to other hams all over the world. 

As we progressed in the hobby, our code speed gradually 
increased, but for me it was a struggle. Copying other hams' 
imperfect "fists" was not a very good way to become 
proficient (hams used to use mechanical hand keys to send 
code). There were some mechanical code machines to rent, 
but they cost several hundred dollars to buy. I needed all 
my money to purchase the radio equipment I needed to be 
a ham. 



rNet Form* 




f P.O. Box 1061 
Wilkes-Barre, PA. 18782 



Introduces 

8>§£abel master fo 

We are pleased to announce the addition of the 
LABELMASTER to our line. 

The LABELMASTER is compatible with ANY 
printer that can print text!!! 

With LABELMASTER you can: 

* Make customized diskette jackets 1 By using your favorite 
dump program, you may add your own personalized graphics 
design! 

* Print jackets with the disk's directory, on the front cover! 

* Print professional looking labels for your disks! 

* Print Blank, or personally customized Cassette labels! 

* Prepare and Maintain Mailing Labels! You may print an un- 
limited number of every label on the disk in one operation! 

* Save Money!!! LABELM ASTER'S DISK-TWIN will allow you 
to easily double the storage capacity of each diskette! 

ORDER NOW! 

Only $19.95 

ALSO, 

••* very high quality generic ssdd disks - $.85 each *"* 
NO QUANTITY LIMIT. 



Now, however, for a mere $9.95 and your CoCo with a 
disk drive, you can purchase a program called Code Practice 
from Sunrise Software. This BASIC program, written by 
Brian Sokol (KA9SRK), is billed as being "written for those 
who would like to learn or improve their skills with the 
International Morse Code." 

Typing RUN "CODE" starts the program. Short title and 
copyright screens appear before the first menu is shown. 
This menu gives you the choices of changing the speed at 
which you want the code sent (between two and 99 wpm), 
changing the tone of the code being sent, selecting the code 
practice mode and exiting. The first two options allow you 
to customize the program for your own personal preference. 

The third option sends you to another menu. This menu 
gives you three choices: random characters, random QSO 
(a ham buzzword that means a conversation on the radio) 
and exit, which returns you to the first menu. The random 
characters are the alphabet, numbers and puncuation 
marks. There are 200 characters sent in groups of five. The 
random QSO is a typical first exchange that most hams use 
when first making a new "contact." It's almost in plain 
English, but does contain some ham buzzwords. At the end 
of either practice session, what has just been sent appears 
on the screen so you can see how well you're doing. 

The disk is not copy protected but it is run protected. You 
have to plug the code plug, supplied with the program, into 
the right joystick connector for the program to run. This 
is a minor nuisance, but it's much nicer than being copy 
protected. 

The manual consists of one and a half dot-matrix pages 
containing most of the information needed to run the 
program. Memory capability for the CoCo is not specified, 
nor is the range of code speeds permissible under the 
"change speed" selection. 

The only thing I question about this program is whether 
you can really learn Morse code using it. There are no 
instructions for learning the code. It takes a bit more than 
an automatic sender to learn it. You need to be told how 
each character is represented in Morse code — the dots and 
dashes that define each character. None of this basic 
information is provided. YouH have to round up the old 
Novice Bible, if they stilt print it, or find someone to help 
you get started. (Just about any ham would be happy to 
help; you can find them by walking around the neighbor- 
hood looking for the 15 antennae on the roof.) 

The program could be a great help in building your 
proficiency once you've learned the basics. As long as you 
realize this limitation, I would recommend this program to 
anybody, from the rank amateur (pun intended) to the guy 
like me who has forgotten a lot of dots and dashes. 

So for now, 73 (best regards) ES (and) QRT (I have to 
sign off now) DE (from) K9AKC. 



(Sunrise Software, 8901 NW 26 Street, Sunrise, FL 33322, 
$9.95 plus $2 S/H) 



VISA 



CREDIT CARD ORDERS, CALL (717) 821-2946 



[MasterCard .1 



PLEASE ADD $2.00 S&H. PA ORDERS ADD 6% SALES TAX 



— C.L. Pilipauskas 



134 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



3ook Reviewi 



Learn About Computer 
Communications With 
The Computer Phone Book 



Reaching out and touching someone over the telephone 
is easy — pick up the handset, dial the number and voila!, 
you're talking to the person on the other end. You don't have 
to be concerned about all the technology that resides 
between your phone and the person you're calling. 

Unfortunately, the state of computer-to-computer 
communications has not reached the level of simplicity that 
phone-to-phone communications have. If one wants to get 
the most out of his computer by linking it with another 
computer, it is necessary to understand some basics of 
computer communications. 

User documentation is often more of a hindrance than 
a help. Whoever writes these masterpieces of confusion 
assumes that you know all there is to know about the basics, 
so it's easy for a beginner to get lost. 

Coming to the assistance of the computer owner who 
would like to learn the basics of computer communications 
is a book entitled The Computer Phone Book. 

The Computer Phone Book is divided into two volumes. 
The first, A Guide to Using Online Systems, starts by 
explaining, in a well-organized, simple manner, what 
computer communications consist of. It includes what 
hardware and software are necessary, what features are 
required and desirable, and what you can expect to find at 
the other end of the line. 

Although I've been online for over five years, I found the 
introduction section of the book very informative. The 
author, Mike Cane, explains complex concepts in a simple, 
understandable manner. Anyone looking for a detailed 
explanation of telecommunications, however, should look 
for another book. Only the basics are to be found here. 

Book / is intimidating at first glance; it's 493 pages long. 
However, only the first 25 pages deal with the basics of 
computer telecommunications. The remainder of the book 
deals with the various services which can be accessed when 
one is online. 

Before reviewing the book, I was unaware of some of 
these services and what they had to offer. I discovered that 
some of the financial information I gather through online 
systems can be retrieved at a lower cost using other services. 

The Complete Phone Book, Book II, A Directory of 
Online Systems, resembles your standard phone book, in 
that it contains listings of the world's major electronic 
libraries. It includes an overview of available information, 
names, numbers, profiles of hundreds of systems large and 
small, special services, and overseas and Canadian systems. 

This has to be the largest list of online systems available. 
Book II is 685 pages long, divided into sections covering 
United States National Systems, United States Local 



Systems, United States Bulletin Board Systems, Canadian 
Bulletin Board Systems and United States Special Services. 
Where appropriate, these sections are subdivided into 
geographic areas, making it easy to find systems which are 
accessible without paying for a long distance call. Each 
listing contains such information as telephone number, 
operating hours, costs (if any) and contacts, as well as frank 
commentary by the author. 

While this is great information, it's only useful if it is 
accurate. Hopefully, the publisher will strive to keep the 
book current. Purchasers are invited to register for free 
updates. The first printing, June 1986 was very current at 
the time of this review. In my 303 area code there were 15 
Bulletin Boards listed. I was aware of only three of these. 
The discovery of the additional 12 local boards alone would 
have justified the cost of the book. 

If you are getting started in telecommunications, both 
volumes of the Computer Phone Book will be of use. 
Experienced onliners will find new friends through Book 
IL 



(New American Library, P.O. Box 999, Bergenfield, NJ 
07621, The Computer Phone Book— Book I, $U.95\Book 
H, $18.95) 



— Bruce Rothermel 



THE SOFTWARE HOUSE 

A DIVISION OF DATAMATCH, INC. 
DATAMATC 






DS/DD-2 NOTCHES-2 ID HOLES 
10/*9.95 100/*95.00 

DATAMATCH DISKETTES 
SINGLE SIDE /DOUBLE DENSITY 
10/*9.00 100/485.00 

PROGRAMMER'S DISKS 
SS/DD 10/*8.00 100/473.00 
DS/DD 10/S9.00 100/485.00 

ALL DISKS CONE WITH TYVEK SLEEVES, LABELS, W. P. TABS 

HEAT TRANSFER (IRON-ON) RIBBONS 

BLACK - RED - BLUE - YELLOW 
GEMINI /OKI PRINTERS 43.95 EA. 

COLOR RIBBONS: Red, Green, Blue, Brown 
GEM/OKI 4/S10.00 
EPSON 4/S24.00 
APPLE/NEC 4/S24.00 

ALL ITEMS 1 00% GUARANTEED! 

Add $2.50 S/H in U.S.A - Canada Add $3.50 

Michigan Residents Add 4% Sales Tax 
Send check or money order payable to: 

THE SOFTWARE HOUSE 

9020 Hemingway, Redford, Ml 48239 

(31 3) 937-3442 «KI 

Send Card Number and Exp. Date ffl 3| 




Min. Charge Order $20.00 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 135 



Software Review Z^^^^SESSSSSSSS^Sf7?\ 

CoCo-Util II: An Improved 
Way to Transfer Data 

There is good news for those of you who need to transfer 
data between the Color Computer and an MS-DOS 
machine. Mark Data has released a sequel to its powerful 
programming utility, CoCo-Util. 

CoCo-Util II provides the capability to migrate disk files 
from one system to the other. It requires an IBM/ PC or 
compatible, 128K RAM, two floppy disk drives or a floppy 
and a hard drive and PC/ MS-DOS Version 2.00 or higher. 

As you can see from the requirements, you use CoCo- 
Util on an MS-DOS machine. So if you have an MS-DOS 
machine at work and a CoCo at home, you can create data 
files on your CoCo at home and transfer them to the MS- 
DOS format at work. When CoCo-Util is loaded into the 
MS-DOS machine, it adjusts itself for the type of video 
system and the color or graphics card that is active. 

The new version has many enhancements. One is the 
improved use of colors and the screen layout, which includes 
an option to change the color scheme. If you want the 
change to be permanent, you can create a configure file that 
loads each time you call up CoCo-Util. 

The CoCo-Util screen was designed to display as much 
information as possible without confusion. The layout 
includes seven areas. The first area, the Dir Info Box, gives 
information about the current directory that is loaded. This 
includes the free space left on the drive, and if it is MS-DOS, 
it displays the pathname to'the current directory. 

The Date Box displays the day of the week and the system 
date, along with the DOS version in use. The Files Info Box 
displays the number of files loaded and the maximum 
number of files that CoCo- Util has room to store in memory 
at one time. This number is dependent on the amount of 
RAM. A minimum system of 128K should show a maxi- 
mum number of between 800 and 900 files. A full 640K has 
room for 9,999 files. 

The Drive Assignment Box displays which drive is 
assigned to be a CoCo drive and which is the MS-DOS 
drive. This box is very important when you plan to format 
a CoCo disk. If you pick the wrong drive, all the data on 
the disk will be lost. The File Display Box is the largest area. 
This is where the filenames of the current directory are 
displayed. The display can show up to three columns of 15 
(45 filenames at one time). If there are more than 45 files, 
you can page up or down through the files. You can also 
have the displayed files sorted. You have several sort 
sequence options. 

The next area is the Message Line Area. This is the 
bottom line of the screen and is used to display messages 
from the program and error messages. The last area is the 
Menu Box, which is used to display the options available. 
Since most of the functions are menu driven, another level 
of options is displayed when many of the options are 
selected. When Co Co- Util first initializes, the primary menu 
is displayed. The primary menu consists of the following 
options; Copy, Dir, Erase, Format, Insert, Options, Print, 
Remove, Shell and View. 

The Copy option brings up another menu that allows you 
to copy between MS-DOS and CoCo files. You can use the 



arrow keys to mark the files you want copied or you can 
use the wild card feature. The asterisk (*) and the question 
mark (?) are used the same way as in MS-DOS. These files 
will probably be ASCII files, but CoCo-Util also transfers 
binary files. This can be either an M/L program or a binary 
basic or data file. While a binary file may not run on a 
different machine, you can modify it in a word processor 
and transfer it back, or possibly use it for transferring over 
a modem. In any case, it will transfer it; it is up to you how 
you will use the file. 

The Dir and Erase options are self-explanatory. The 
Format option allows you to format a CoCo compatible 
disk. I do have a suggestion here. The format is only 35 
tracks, and there are many people who use 40 tracks. I 
would like to see an option to allow CoCo-Util to format 
either 35 or 40 tracks. 

The Insert option is used to insert a line feed following 
each carriage return. Normally, CoCo text files have lines 
that are terminated with carriage returns only. In the MS- 
DOS world, a line feed is used, too. This option should only 
be used on ASCII text files because if it is used on a binary 
file, the file will be unusable. 

The Remove option is the reverse of Insert, and again 
should only be used on ASCII text files. If Insert is used 
on a binary file, you may try to Remove them, but do not 
be too hopeful. 

The Print option allows you to dump any file to your 
printer using either an ASCII or a Dump format. This is 
good for printing an ASCII file or for printing out ASCII 
text in a binary file. You Adventure gamers may find a use 
for that. The Dump format prints a file in ASCII and Hex, 
and prints the relative displacement of each byte. In both 
formats, non-printable characters are replaced with periods. 

The Shell option allows you to temporarily leave CoCo- 
Util and perform something in MS-DOS. The View option 
is similar to Print, but the file goes to your screen. 

I was very impressed with this new version of CoCo-UtiL 
The screen layout and use of colors add a professional 
touch. I would like to see the 40/35 track option for the 
CoCo disk, but overall I liked the program. I recommend 
it highly to anyone who needs the capability of transferring 
data between computers. It is very useful if you have text 
files to transfer. It can also be used to transfer programs 
written in CoCo Extended BASIC to an MS-DOS machine, 
modify them, then compile them to run under MS-DOS. 
If you already have the original CoCo-Util, you can get an 
upgrade to CoCo-Util //for $12.95 including shipping and 
handling. 

(Mark Data Products, 24001 Alicia Parkway, #207, Mission 
Viejo, CA 92691, $39.95) 

— Dale Shell 



DON'T MISS THE FUN 

DON'T MISS THE INFORMATION 

Make plans now for 

RAINBOWfest Chicago 

and we'll see you at the 

Hyatt Regency Woodfield on 

April 10-12 

The excitement's just begun! 



136 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



Telewriter-64 

the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns X 24 lines 

True lower case characters 

User-friendly full-screen 
editor 

Right justification 

Easy hyphenation 

Drives any printer 

Embedded format and 
control codes 

Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 

Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 

The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fan. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 




...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
dori't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/VIII, DMP-100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 

Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for su'-e saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 

Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



...truly a state of the art word processor... 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Street 

Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 (weekdays, 
8AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries invited. (Add 
$2 for shipping. Californians add 6% state tax.) 

Available at 
Radio /hack stores 
via express order 

catalogue #90-0253 
90-0254 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a trademark 
of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp; MX-80 is 8 
trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



Software Review* 



Ultra Telepatch Improves the 
f Perfect' Word Processor 



Telewriter-64 is, in my opinion, the most popular word 
processor available for the Color Computer. I base that on 
the number of program submission articles written with 
TW64 that are sent to the RAINBOW by the CoCo commun- 
ity. I use TW64 on almost a daily basis and have been 
delighted with its service. 

Many reviews have appeared in the pages of the RAINBOW 
describing Telewriter and many of its enhancements. I 
recently reviewed Telepatch II, written by Bob van der Poel, 
and was pleased with the extra features it afforded. I 
honestly thought Telewriter-64 had been perfected, but boy 
was I wrong! 

Just about the time we think something is perfect, 
someone comes along and improves it. This is the case with 
the latest endeavor by Mr. van der Poel, called Ultra 
Telepatch Version 3.0. A lot has already been said about 
Telewriter , so I will just point out the main improvements 
of this latest effort. 

Disk I/O — Telepatch II gave the option of calling the 
I/O from disk or memory. The reason for the option was 
that buffer space was used if you chose to use the memory 



"XPNDR2 and SuperGuide - 
an Ideal Expansion Card Set" 



— RAINBOW 2/86 
HARDWARE REVIEW 




XPNDR2 $39.95 each or 2/$76 
This prototype card features a 40 pin 
connector for projects requiring an on- 
line disk system or ROM paks. The 
CoCo signals are brought out to wire- 
wrap pins. Special gold plated spring 
clips provide reliable and noisefree 
disk operation plus solid support for 
vertical mounting of the controller. The 
entire 4.3 * 7 inch card is drilled for ICs. 
Assembled, tested and ready to run. 

XPNDR1 $19.95 each or 2/$36 
A rugged 4.3*6.2 inch bare breadboard 
that brings the CoCo signals out to 
labeled pads. Both XPNDR cards are 
double-sided glass/epoxy, have gold 
plated edge connectors, thru-hole 
plating and are designed with heavy 
power and ground buses. They're 
drilled for standard 0.3 and 0.6 inch 
wide dual in-line wirewrap sockets; 
with a 0.1 inch grid on the outboard end 
for connectors. 

SuperGuide $3.95 each 
Here is a unique plastic insert that 
aligns and supports printed circuit 
cards in the CoCo cartridge port. Don't 
forget to ORDER ONE FOR YOUR 
XPNDR CARDS 



Included with each XPNDR card 
are 8 pages of APPLICATION 
NOTES to help you learn about 
chips and how to connect them to 
your CoCo. 



To order or for technical informa- 
tion call: 

(206) 782-6809 

weekdays 8 a.m. to noon 

We pay shipping on prepaid orders. 
For immediate shipment send 
check, money order or the number 
and expiration date of your VISA or 
MASTERCARD to: 



ROBOTIC 




MICROSYSTEMS 



BOX 30807 SEATTLE, WA 98103 



option. In the Ultra version, the disk I/O is stored in 
memory with no loss of buffer space. This is the best of both 
worlds — speed and efficiency. 

Word Delete — The original TW64 features a character 
delete, but most of us think in words, not characters. The 
Ultra version features word delete. Just move the cursor to 
the blank space in front of the object word and press CLEAR 
and *Y' (for yank). All characters in the word will be deleted 
to the next space or carriage return. 

Insert Space — Pressing CLEAR and the space bar will 
now insert a space at the cursor position. 

Braces — The special characters { and } can be generated 
by pressing CLEAR-'H' and CLEAR-T combinations. 

Find and Global Replace — This enables searches and 
replacements of control characters as well as normal text 
characters. 

Queuing Files — Now you can use a period (.) as well 
as a slash (/) for filenames. 

The Ultra Telepatch disk also contains some new files of 
special interest that can be merged with the T/BAS boot 
program: 

2COLDIR/BAS — Provides a two-column, on-screen 
directory format. 

TODISK — Forces TW64 to display the disk menu on 
start up. This is very helpful if, for example, you need to 
load in an initialization file. 

TPRINT — Provides automatic printing of multiple 
copies of your text files. No longer do you need to sit in 
front of your CoCo pressing 'P* for each copy. 

The boot program is fully remarked so that the program 
can be tailored to most individual needs. Here you can select 
your disk drive stepping rate, turn on and off key clicks and 
all the other useful features added in the earlier enhance- 
ment versions. Extra lines have also been added for the 
user's special requirements, such as defeating reset protec- 
tion with POKE 113,3 or maybe adding special printer 
control codes. 

One other thing. Remember how you used to have to 
press CLEAR-UP-ARROW after reading in a file, so it would 
unfold on the screen? No more. Now the text unfolds 
automatically as soon as the file has read into the buffer. 

I discovered one potential problem quite by accident. 
After a lot of frustrated searching for both hardware and 
software problems, I discovered that if either joystick is 
plugged in and is approximately in the 10 to 11 o'clock 
position, the computer appears to lock up while attempting 
to run the boot or patcher programs. This is not a flaw in 
the program, but apparently the USR(X) calls in these 
programs conflict with the joysticks. Maybe Mr. van der 
Poel can solve this little quirk on subsequent releases. 

Ultra Telepatch is supplied on disk only and requires 64K 
RAM and an unpatched version of Telewriter-64. It can be 
backed up for safekeeping, and comes with an 11-page 
instruction manual that is easy to follow. 

I believe you will find Ultra Telepatch as impressive as 
I have. I've learned that with CoCo, anything is possible. 



(Bob van der Poel Software, 17435-57 Avenue, Edmonton, 
Alberta, Canada T6M 1E1, $19.95 plus $2 S/H) 



— Jerry Semones 



1 38 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



Software Review ^^^^SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSr^\ 

Structure Your BASIC 
Programs with LISTER 

One of the first things I learned as a programmer is that 
the most important part of any program is its documenta- 
tion. The design and a well-commented listing are as 
important as the code, if not more so. I had to learn how 
to comment and arrange listings so that they were readable 
by other software engineers. 

The word that best describes all these things is structure. 
Structured design, structured coding and structured testing 
add up to a well-organized, easily read document, created 
by taking a big problem and breaking it into little, 
manageable pieces. 

The listings printed in the magazines and by our CoCo 
are dictated by hardware constraints: Every character uses 
memory (even spaces), the screen can only have so many 
characters and the page has only so much area (although 
RAINBOW listings are 32 characters wide to match the screen 
and aid in finding typos — thanks folks!). Once the program 
is in your hands and you want to understand or modify it 
for yourself, it would be helpful to have the listing 
"structured" and have plenty of "white space" for easier 
reading. 

How does one achieve all this structure and white space 
when it isn't an original program? How about a utility that 
makes CoCo do all the work, with a little help from your 
printer? There is a handy little utility that performs all this 
magic for you. LISTER, written by Bob van der Poel, is 
a machine language program that takes a BASIC listing and 
breaks up (structures) a long statement (line of BASIC code) 
into small, understandable pieces. It indents all FOR/ NEXT 
and IF/THEN/ELSE groups up to 11 levels to show where 
they start and end, with everything else in between. Nesting 
of those structures in a normal listing makes understanding 
almost impossible. But structure the listing and the nesting 
leaps out from the paper. If your printer is capable of 
printing in an emphasized mode (darker, not bigger) and/ 
or in some other character set (e.g., italics), the results can 
be downright startling. 

This program uses no programming memory. It loads in 
the area of memory that BASIC reserves for graphics. Since 
we are only going to make new listings and not actually 
execute (RUN) the BASIC program, that memory isn't needed. 

The author claims the program will run on any model 
CoCo. It can be purchased on cassette or disk, and is not 
copy protected. It comes with a well-written manual 
(though in places it is hard to read because of poor 
reproduction) and explains in detail what this utility will 
do and how to do it. 

The program is menu driven, prompts for all necessary 
information and allows you to print the whole program or 
any range of line numbers. You can print the listing to the 
screen, a printer, a disk file or to cassette. You can request 
pagination, which prompts you for the date and title, 
though you can put whatever you want for the header. The 
emphasis can be on or off. 

The utility is not formatted for any particular printer, so 
a BASIC program is also provided to customize the LISTER 



program for your particular brand of printer. The program 
prompts you for the control codes to make the printer do 
its thing (emphasis, italics, etc.). The BASIC program loads 
LISTER, modifies it and saves the new version to disk or 
cassette. This also makes a neat backup program or cassette- 
to-disk transfer program. 

The only problem I had with this utility is that the first 
time I used it, garbage was printed on my DMP-200 printer. 
I had it set for 1200 Baud, and the program assumes you 
are using the Radio Shack standard 600 Baud. j 

When listing BASIC programs to the screen,) especially 
long ones, it can be a pain stopping them to read a section 
of code. Mr. van der Poel thought of that, too. The listings 
to the screen are slowed way down for easier reading. Want 
to whiz past a section of code? Just hold down the space 
bar and the listing will rip by. Want to stop it somewhere 
to study a section? Press ENTER and the listing stops; press 
any other key to resume. The listing is not particularly neat 
on the screen, but after all, this program was designed to 
dump to an 80-column printer. 

If you do a lot of BASIC programming or modifying and 
maintenance of BASIC programs, this utility could be very 
useful. Although I tried, I couldn't make this program crash. 
It certainly did everything it claimed to do, and it did it quite 
well. 

(CMD Micro Computer Services Ltd., 10447 124th Street, 
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T5N 1R7, $14.95 plus $2 
S/H) 

— C.L. Pilipauskas 



J&R ELECTRONICS 

Complete 256K and 51 2 K Memory Expansion Systems 
(Hardware, Software and documentation included) 
User friendly software, programmer not required 

Easy, Solderless Installation 

★ We have eliminated the necessity to piggyback for 51 2K versions! * 
RAH DISK — Fast disk I/O, 35/40 track (two RAM drives with 512K) 

PC0PYM0H — More than 30 PM0DE 4 screens in memory at once! PC0PY command modified to accept 
PC0PY 1 to 128. More than 70 PM0DE 4 screens and PC0PY 1 to 302 with 51 2K versions (or 30 PMODE 
4 screens with one RAMDISK). 

SPOOLER — HUGE printer buffer for offline storage inside your computer while the printer's busy. Custom- 
izable from 30K to over 200K (500K with 51 2K versions). Buffer can be turned off /on copied using simple 
PRINT CHR$ commands. ✓ 

089 Hamcfisk — Fast OS-9 disk I/O! 35/40 track single sided or 40 track double sided (51 2K) Ramdisk 
under 0S9! GOOD'S 0S9 Ramdisk (Rainbow Feb '86) with fully commented source code and install files 
added by J&R. (Requires 0S9 operating system) 
ALL software above is configurable for 256K/512K operation. 

Software shipped on disk, add $10.00 for software on tape. (0S9 RAMDISK not available on tape). 

ALL boards below are 256K/512K capable, software & documentation included. 

New SAM (74LS785) not included (use your 74LS783), 74LS785 recommended for 2.0 MHz operation. 



Pirt miflibir 


Pries 


Description 


#1001 


$39.95 


Banker II bare board (with long pin socket, does not include memory 






Expansion Board) 


#1002 


$69.95 


Banker II bare board + parts {does not include Memory Expansion Board) 


#1003 


$89.95 


Banker II assembled & tested (no memory) 


#1004 


$129.95 


Banker II (256K. upgradable to 51 2K) assembled & tested with memory 


#1005 


$169.95 


Banker II (512K) assembled & tested with memory 


#1006 


$15.00 


Memory Expansion Board 


#1007 


$29.95 


Memory Expansion Board + parts 


#9000 


$89.95 


Down Under Controller. Ram Pack size controller with BDOS Gold 






plated, high reliability edge connectors, jumpers for 24/28 pin ROM. 






Compatible with COCO I and COCO !i. 


#9001 


$35.00 


BDOS (Enhanced DOS on 27128 EPROM) 


#9002 


$5.00 


64 K switch 


#9004 


$24.95 


New SAM 74LS785 (required only for 2.0 MHz operation) 


#9005 


$24.95 


★ New!* PowerBasic — Introductory Price. (Requires RSDOS 1.0 or 






1.1 and 256K or 512K Banker) Utilize the extra memory for variable 






storage and pass variables between programs in different pages of 






memory. Split a large BASIC program into smaller pieces and GOTO or 




r 


GOSUB a line in another page of memory. . . and more features included. 






(disk only) 


#9006 


$10.00 


•S/W Pac upgrade. 1.XXto2.XX 



To place an order, write to J&R Electronics, P.O. Box 2572, Columbia, MD 21045, 
OR call (301 ) 987-9067 — Jesse or (301 ) 788-0861 — Ray. 
HDURS; Weekdays 7 p.m.-9 p.m.; Sat. Noon-5 p.m, EASTERN TIME. 

Add $4.00 shipping & handling (FOREIGN ORDERS $7.00), COD charge $3.00. Maryland residents add 
5% state tax. 

CHECKS, MONEY ORDERS OR COD's only please (personal check— 2 weeks for clearance). IMME- 
DIATE DELIVERY. Give COCO Radio Shack model # (i.e. 26-3136), Disk or Tape when ordering. 
QUANTITY DISCOUNT AVAILABLE. For information on shipping or previously placed orders call (301) 
788-0861. COCO II 26-31 XX owners call (soldering experience may be required). 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 39 



Hardware Reviem 



7Z\ 



Diary of a Digitizer: 
Digisector DS-69A 

» 

By Kerry Armstrong 

* 

FRIDAY, P.M. Wife calls me at work to tell me a 
package from RAINBOW has arrived. Excitedly, I ask her to 
open it and tell me what is inside. With computer widow 
disinterest she reports it is a request for a review of The 
Micro Works' Digisector DS-69A, and that the package 
includes a disk, a manual and a ROM Pak. I can hardly 
wait to get home. She informs me that because it's both 
Friday and payday, she expects to be taken out to eat this 
evening. Darn, I wanted to rush home and play with the 
Digisector. I already know the purpose of the DS-69 A is 
to produce digitized printouts of video pictures. (IVe been 
reading ads in rainbow, much to my wife's chagrin — she 
knows that usually means more strain on the charge cards.) 
At least I will get a chance to read the manual late tonight. 

SATURDAY, A.M. Unlucky break again. Two week- 
ends a year I have to work. This is one of them. I would 
rather have done some "serious" work on the DS-69A 
review. Oh, well. Nothing is planned for this evening. I take 
the manual to work with me, though. IH sneak a few peeks 
at its 26 pages whenever I get a chance. 

SATURDAY, P.M. Home from work at last. Time for 
some hands-on use of the Digisector. By now I have 
thoroughly read the manual and learned that the DS-69A 
is an improved version of the original DS-69. This new 
version supports the use of a color video camera and a 6 Y' 
cable for disk operations, and digitizes a picture four times 
faster than the original. I've also learned that the DS-69A, 
like the DS-69, comes in either a cassette or disk version, 
and functions identically except for the 1/ O. The manual 
indicates that the first step is to run the config program on 
the C-SEE III program disk. 

I determine that you dont need to have the hardware/ 
video part set up just to configure the system. I run the 
config basic program. It asks if I have DS-69 or DS-69A 
and whether I am using a PBJ C-C Bus, Radio Shack 
Multipak or a 'Y' cable. (I have the Multipak.) Then it asks 
which slot I'll be using for the DS-69 A ROM Pak. Next, 
it asks whether I'll be using Co Co Max or MagiGraph, so 



it can automatically add the proper extension to the five- 
level mode pictures when saved to disk. (The 16-level picture 
disk saves use the extension PIX.) 

Finally, it lists about 15 different printer types and asks 
which one I'll be using. Epson is one of them and I have 
an old Epson, but I have my Tandy DMP-130 hooked up 
to the system. The DMP-130 is not listed on the screen 
menu, so I try putting the DMP-130 in the IBM mode,, 
which is supposed to be the same as an Epson. No go. It's; 
got all those extra little line feeds that make the printout 
look like it has been run through a paper shredder. (Micro 
Works includes three demo pictures on the disk that can be 
loaded in and printed out for this testing.) 




- | ■ I I 1 IV( 

• .mm 





■ 



Sample DS-69 A Digisector screen dump 

While the DMP-130 is still in the IBM print mode, I try 
the Gemini printer driver (IVe had success with this before). 
I get a whole printout, but it is really squashed. Got to be 
something better than this. I check the manual, which has 
several pages about printer drivers. It gives technical data 
on how to write a custom driver in machine language. It 
says you can even receive sample source codes from Micro 
Works to use as a guide in writing one. It also mentions that 
if you do write a custom driver, they would like you to pass 
a copy on to them and they will distribute it as public 
domain software to others who might need a similar driver. 
Finally, they indicate that you should give them a call before 
you write a driver, because they might already have one they 



ORDER PHONE (416) 456-0032 

To order or for further information or program suggestions please write: 
Duck Productions, 18 Rowe Court, Brampton, Ontario, Canada L6X 2S2 
WATCH FOR MACHINE GENESIS, a three program utility and tutorial for 
begi nner exploration of machine language prog amming. COMING S00NI 

keepIngtrack 

NINE PROGRAMS, 10 auy they're almost user independent! More 
thin the avirage diskette management sysyem, ITS A BOOT UTILITY! 

YOU'LL WANT THIS KEYSTROKE BOOT EVERYTIME YOU POWER UP! 

Creator builds the "Directory program with your inputed I.D. names 
on your disks. 0 will load and run basic or binary programs, on any 
drive, with a single keystroke. D gives continuous access to direct- 
ories without retyping DIR and auto displays the disk I.D. names, 
program names/ext/type/size and free disk space. Directory (Vint 
accesses D for your disk I.D., programs and free space to format and 
output your program catalogue, to your printer. Comparison backup 
utility, compares backup disks and by keystroke, copies missing files 
to either disk. Directory Saver copies directories to a safe area. On dir 
crash, a keystroke will repair the damage. Other programs include 
Alpha Directory reorder, Oisk Address finder, and True Drive Test. 
All programs fully documented. $29.95, ($38.95 CDN) 




DHJCK OUflUTV 



COMPUT6R PRODUCTS 



PK CPtJCTI O 

MICRO • FIR€ 





RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 




MAP'n ZAP 



The laymans kit for disk repair. Step by step procedure to repair 
directories and grain tables. Locates errors, maps out disk contents 
with printer or screen output, will backup any flawed disk, and prompts 
built in disk zap for repair. Complete with documented tutorial on disk 
input/output operation, access. $1 9.95, ($24.95 CDN) 



Have you beat your thumbs more than the aliens? 
You need a secret weapon! This automatic rapid fire 
circuitry package can be added to any joystick. It 
has on/off control and does not affect computer 
when not in use. No extra power supply required, installation in 
minutes, preassembled hardware comes with complete instructions. 
Custom component has adjustable rate of fire and comes with a full 
calibration program. $19.95, ($24.95CDN) 

CODE BUSTER disassembler 

Explore machine language programming with an easy, accurate 
breakdown of any binary program. Screen or full printer output with 
helpful hints to understanding your ROM. Simple prompted 
procedure will answer questions in your study. Fully documented 
instructions. $19.95, (S24.95CDN) 



1 40 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



could send you. This is Saturday, however, so I can't call. 

Back to the printer menu on the screen. I notice quite a 
few Tandy. DMP printers listed, but not the DMP- 130, so 
I put the printer back into the Tandy mode and begin trying. 
The DMP-120 and DMP-245 drivers don't work. I try the 
DMP- 100 driver. Eureka! Success at last. The five-level scan 
picture, BEAR/ MGF, prints a small 2% by 4*4 inch picture. 
The two 16-level pictures produce 6!4 by 8 inch pictures. 
(I later learn the pictures are about the same size on the 
Epson printer, but that they may vary greatly in size on 
other printers.) Time for a break while I study the manual 
for the hardware/ video set-up. 

SATURDAY, MUCH LATER P.M. Time for serious 
use of the CoCo. I install the DS-69A ROM Pak in the 
Multipak slot one, and hook up my VCR (the Digisector 
will use any standard NTSC direct video input). Then I run 
a standard RCA plug-type video cable from the direct video 
output of the VCR to the RCA socket on top of the DS- 
69A ROM Pak. Now it's time to fire up the VCR and the 
CoCo and boot up the configured C-SEE III program. 

The program is menu driven, and optional joysticks may 
be used instead of keyboard input. I start a prerecorded 
video tape running and start out with the five-level scan, 
command 'G' on the menu. I learned from the manual that 
the five-level scan is the quickest of all the digitizing modes. 
The DS-69A breaks up a video picture into five different 
gray levels or brightness levels. If you look at a black and 
white photograph in a newspaper with a magnifying glass 
youll get a good idea of what I'm talking about. Notice that 
the different areas in the news photo are made up of tiny 
dots and the density of those dots creates the light and dark 
areas of the photo. A proper five-level printout should have 
five distinct areas of grayness or brightness, with the totally 
black areas being completely filled with dots and the totally 
white areas being completely devoid of dots. 

The C-SEE III program provides me with some control 
over these areas, since it has on-screen brightness and 
contrast controls that operate much like they would on a 
television set. By using these in conjunction with the 'G' 
command I can just watch my CoCo monitor, make any 
adjustments to the display, and then press the T' key on 
the keyboard or the left joystick firebutton to save a video 
picture. The picture is "taken" almost instantaneously. I can 
review the picture by using the 'NT command, which toggles 
back and forth between the menu and the five-level picture 
graphics page. (If the action on the VCR is too fast, the 
manual recommends freezing the picture before "taking" or 
digitizing it.) 

Next, I shift to the printer menu, make sure the printer 
Baud rate is correct, press the menu command to print a 
five-level picture and watch the printer go. Pretty neat so 
far. If I want to save this picture I can go back to the main 
menu, then to the disk menu, and save it to disk. Uh oh, 
look at the clock. I have to work tomorrow too. Reluctantly, 
I shut everything down for the night. 

SUNDAY, P.M. Home from work, chores done. Now 
back to the CoCo and the DS-69A. Yesterday, I was 
working on the five-level pictures. These are the only ones 
that are saved as binary picture files, which can be loaded 
and displayed from a basic program or loaded into several 
of the numerous graphic drawing programs and worked on. 
You merely have to change the extension in some cases. The 
C-SEE III program will even save them on a Graphcom 
Picture Disk in the Graphcom format. The possibilities of 
editing, manipulating and printing are endless. This also 



means that if you are unsatisfied with the smallness of the 
C-SEE III five-level printout, you can load the file into 
another program that makes a bigger printout. Addition- 
ally, it means that you can share your digitized pictures with 
others and they don't have to have a DS-69 or DS-69A 
system to print them out. 

Today though, I am going to work on the 16-level gray 
scale pictures. The five-level pictures are good but the 
picture resolution is rather limited, with only five tones of 
brightness. Since the human eye normally is only able to 
perceive 20 to 30 levels of brightness at one time, 16 levels 
should be great. 

The Digisector with the C-SEE program has two modes 
of 16-level reproductions. One mode scans 128 vertical by 
128 horizontal points of brightness across a video picture; 
the other mode is 256 by 256. Each one of these points is 
classified by the computer into one of the 16 levels of 
grayness or brightness and stored in an array in the 
computer's memory. Because of the hardware limitations of 
the CoCo, a full 16-level picture cannot be displayed on the 
screen. What you get is an averaged three-level picture on 
the screen. You still have the ability to control the brightness 
and contrast as in the five-level mode, though. Therefore, 
you have to do some experimenting to get the right levels 
for printing out. Also, the scans take much longer, 
particularly the 256 by 256 mode, so "freeze frame" on the 
VCR is essential. 

The resulting picture is not saved to the disk as a binary 
picture file, but as a data file just as it is stored in memory. 
The 128 by 128 mode makes a four-granule file, and the 256 
by 256 modes make a 15-granule data file. Therefore, you 



State: Zip: 

( ) Check enclosed ( ) Visa ( ) MasterCard 

Card # Exp. Data: 

Mail to: SPECTROGRAM MAGAZINE / 

P.O. Box 138 (815)968-9600 / ^JJ 

Rockford, IL 61105 jL. .Ajg^f 

Foreign subscriptions : t 26 Canada, all others $34 j 1nrf/i. / 

Groups : $15 with 5 or »ore subscriptions r^V , "." 

November 1986 THE RAINBOW 141 




wz 



MAGAZINE FOR COLOR COMPUTER USERS. 

Spectrogram Magazine provides useful and interesting support 
material with a wide range of programs and articles by some of 
the best writers and programmers available. 

*TELEGRAM by Bobby Ballard: A monthly column concern- 
ing the Color Computer and its use in telecommunications. 
*DOWNTIME by Rush Caley: Little-known facts, new and 
different ideas, opinions, and an occasional criticism or two. 
*BASIC HELP by Bill Bernico: Answers to your questions 
concerning the Color Computer and the BASIC language. 
*PASCAL PROGRAMMING by Delmar Searls: An in-depth 
study of Pascal and how to use it effectively. 

Assembly, C, OS-9, REM statements as data storage, floating 
point math, and graphics animation are covered with an emphasis 
on understanding. Utilities, games, business and home management 
programs are a steady diet, and all the programs in Spectrogram 
are available on tape or disk. Spectrogram Magazine could become 
the most Informative addition to your Color Computer system! 



cannot load and display these files with a regular graphics 
program. 

I "shot" a few 16-level pictures from the VCR tape and 
printed them out. They made remarkable graphic pictures. 
The best were close-ups of the actors with light backgrounds 
and front-lighted faces. However, getting good printouts at 
the 16-level modes does require a good deal more "fiddling" 
with the contrast and brightness controls of the C-SEE 
program. Time to hit the sack again. More "serious" work 
tomorrow after work. 

MONDAY, P.M. Time to hook up a video camera and 
see what the DS-69A will do. I dig out my color video 
camera and plug it into the VCR. (It is possible to get an 
old closed-circuit video camera and plug it directly into the 
DS-69A ROM Pak.) This time, as recommended by the 
Digisector manual, I also hook up a monitor off a tee on 
the line between the VCR and the DS-69 A ROM Pak, so 
I can compose my shots with the video camera. 

I soon learn that even though I am using one of those 
"low-light" video cameras, I get better indoor pictures if I 
use an augmented light source. Front lighting and a light 
background work best. I draft the kids as models. The five- 
level picture is fast and works fine. Even the 16-level, 128 
by 128 mode is pretty fast, but the 16-level, 256 by 256 mode 
soon gets to be a chore for active kids. Even a few seconds 
of absolute stillness seems like an eternity to them. I do get 
some very good printouts though. 

Since it begins to look like 111 have to bind my models 
to the chair, I decide to try another test. I cut out a few 
pages of models from a clothing catalog. With the zoom lens 
on my video camera, they make perfect models. They don't 
move, they don't chew gum, they don't blink, and they don't 
suddenly have to go to the bathroom in the middle of a long 
scan. 



COLOR BANKBOOK 

BUSINESS BANKBOOK 

SYSTEM ONE 

FOR ONE DISK DRIUE 

SYSTEM TWO 

FOR TWO DISK DRIUES 

OCR FILE 

SUPEROISK UTILITY 

SEE REVIEW IN MAY 'SS 
RAINBOW PAGE 191 



$19.95 



$49.95 



$49.95 
$19.95 



$ 9.95 



SEE REVIEW IN MAY '86. 
RAINBOW PAGE £09 

CODE PRACTICE 

ORDERS OR INFORMATION 

CULL 1-800 628-2C28 
EXTENSION 552 

ALL PROGRAMS INCLUDE MANUALS , 
REQUIRE 3£K AND 1 DISK DRIVE. 
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SUNRISE, FL 33322 



I spend the rest of the evening "shooting" pictures, trying 
different light arrangements, saving pictures to disk, 
printing reams of paper — in short, running the DS-69A 
and C-SEE III software through all the various tests I can 
devise. I only come up with two complaints. First, the speed 
limitations of the CoCo and the time it takes to do a 16- 
level, 256 by 256 mode scan, and second, the lack of an 
"abort print" command to abort a printout of the larger 16- 
level picture. It only takes a few printed lines to tell you 
that you didn't quite get this one right. 

TUESDAY, P.M. Home from work. Time to get to the 
technical part of the review. First, the manual. As I 
mentioned it is 26 pages long. It contains sufficient 
information for the beginner, as well as more detailed 
information for the technically oriented user or pro- 
grammer. It explains how to use some of the additional 
programs on the C-SEE disk to get 64 gray levels and 256 
by 256 resolution. (The resulting picture file will be 29 
granules long or a full 64K in length!) Also, there is 
information on how to use the DS-69 A as a motion detector 
in a program called Burglar/ Bas. As mentioned before, 
there is information on writing your own custom printer 
driver. It would have been helpful if Micro Works had 
included the source codes in the manual for a couple of the 
printer drivers, like the Epson and Radio Shack ones. Also, 
a little more needs to be said in the manual about modifying 
the config basic program to install a custom printer driver. 

OK then, time to examine the hardware. The ROM Pak 
is black plastic, without a sliding door to protect the card 
edge connector. The manual warns that it contains MOS 
integrated circuitry, which may be damaged by static 
electricity, so don't touch the exposed card edge. In addition 
to the RCA socket for the video cable connection, it also 
has a small screwdriver access hole so that some adjustments 
can be made to the width of a picture to adjust those printers 
that cannot seem to get the width-to-height aspect ratio 
right. The edge connector is not gold plated. 

WEDNESDAY, P.M. Time to write the review. If I can 
get this thing done, 111 have a long weekend to play before 
I have to start getting ready to ship everything to RAINBOW. 
I collect all my notes and reams of printed out pictures. I 
need a new printer ribbon. The newer the ribbon, the better 
the picture quality. 

Micro Works' advertisements indicate they have been 
working in the area of video digitizers since 1977. Their 
expertise really shows in the DS-69A; it does an excellent 
job. The results are every bit as good as the digitized photos 
you get at the local fairgrounds. In fact, with recent 
advertisements for transfer printer ribbons, if someone 
would come up with a program to "flip" the 16-level gray 
scale pictures, you could probably print your own photo 
T-shirts, calendars, and scarfs with your favorite Digisector 
DS-69A digitized photo. 

Micro Works provides a one-year warranty on hardware, 
as long as the case is not opened. They also offer a refund- 
satisfaction guarantee. If you are not completely satisfied 
with the performance of the DS-69 A, you may return it, 
undamaged, within 10 days for a full refund. They'll even 
pay for the return shipping cost. However, from my all-too- 
brief experience with it, I bet they don't have very many 
folks taking them up on their refund offer. 

« 

(The Micro Works, P.O. Box 1110, Del Mar, CA 92014, 
64K disk or cassette, $149.95) 



1 42 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



Software RevieWi 



Pick a Winner: 
Proboloto Version 2.0 



Probaloto by Gary Olander is a program used for 
selecting lottery numbers and numbers for other games of 
chance. I refer readers to the review of the first version, 
which appeared in the October '85 issue, for details of 
program operation. 

Probaloto can be used to choose numbers from a selected 
range to suit the requirements of the particular lottery to 
be played. For example, when used for what is called the 
regular lottery game, Probaloto can pick six numbers from 
one to 40. The numbers selected can be strictly random if 
desired, but the real power of the program is geared towards 
making weighted random selections. To utilize this feature, 
lists of past winning numbers (available at ticket sales 
locations) are entered into a data file. Using this data file, 
selections can be weighted towards either the most picked 
or least picked numbers, depending on your philosophy 
regarding the workings of lady luck. The weighted selection 
procedure operates as if you place numbers in a hat in 
proportion (direct or inverse) to how many times that 
number has been picked. Selection from the hat is then 
random, but weighted. All of this is easily accomplished 
with this menu-driven program. 

Version 2.0 includes several new features and improve- 
ments over the first version. After printing or saving a data 
file with the old version, the user was returned to the 
beginning of the program with initial questions about the 
particular lottery being played. I suggested it would be more 
efficient to return to the main menu at this point, and 
Version 2.0 does just that. The new version also makes it 
easy to return to the main menu if you make an error while 
entering a data file, or to exit Probaloto without going to 
the main menu. The new Reset option makes it easy to reset 
the printer or the specifications of the lottery. In addition, 
Probaloto now checks the amount of memory and automat- 
ically adjusts the data file to that size to allow large data 
files to be used even with 16K machines. 



CoCo Trend 



Name brand software 
at least 20% off 
suggested retail. 



15001 Glory Dr. Huntsville, Alabama 35803 
(205) 880-COCO (2626) 
Call or write for free catalog. 



For most purposes, Probaloto sorts the numbers selected. 
When selecting three or fewer numbers with Version 2.0, the 
numbers are not sorted. This is so the weighted selection 
procedure can be used to pick win, place and show in ahorse 
race. With the printed odds entered into a data file and 
weighting done towards the least picked, first, second and 
third places can be selected randomly, weighted by the odds. 

Of my criticisms mentioned in the prior review, only one 
remains. The data file printout still consists of a narrow 
column of figures near the left margin, using more paper 
than would be necessary if it were better formatted. Mr. 
Olander responded, pointing out that not knowing how 
many numbers are to be printed makes formatting difficult. 
From my programming experience, I have to agree — but 
I know it can be done. As the printout for a one to 48 lottery 
still takes less than one sheet, my criticism is very minor. 

Probaloto is easy to use and does just what it purports 
to do. Version 2.0 does it even better. I would recommend 
it to anyone interested in using their CoCo to attempt to 
pick winners. 



(Gary Olander, 322 Haymarket PI., Gahanna, OH 43230, 
16K ECB tape or 32K ECB disk, $19.95) 



— Stanley Townsend 



TANDY COMPUTER 
DISCOUNTS 



COLOR COMPUTERS 



26-3127 64k color comp 
26-3131 1st disk drive 



140.00 
269.95 



PRINTERS 



26-1276 DMP105 
26-1277 DMP-430 
26-1280 DMP-130 



160.00 
580.00 
269.00 



MODEL 4 and MSDOS COMPUTERS 



25-1050 Tandy 1000 EX 
25-1051 Tandy 1000 SX 
25-01011 Plus expansion board 
25-1005 2nd drive mod 1000 

25- 1020 VM-4 Monochrome monitor 

26- 1070 mod 4D 64k 2dr. 



650.00 
950.00 
155.00 
145.00 
110.00 
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We Carry the Complete Line of Tandy 
Computer Products at Discount Prices 

CALL FOR A FREE PRICE LIST 800-257-5556 
IN N.J. CALL 609-769-0551 

WOODSTOWN ELECTRONICS 

Rt. 40 E. WOODSTOWN, N.J. 08098 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 43 



Hardware Reviewi 



Liberate Your CoCo With 
PBH-64 Print Buffer 



Most of us are familiar with the advantages of a software 
printer spooler that stores text in protected RAM, allowing 
the computer to do other tasks while the printer prints the 
stored text. On the CoCo, however, there are distinct 
disadvantages to software spooling — specifically, that 
valuable memory is used and computer I/O functions are 
slowed down. 

The PBH-64 Print Buffer solves both of these problems, 
and at the same time provides a serial-to-parallel interface. 
With this easily-attached device, your text is stored in its 
own 64K memory leaving CoCo completely free to go about 
other tasks without I/O slowdown. It still takes time, 
however, to fill the PBH's memory, so the longer the text 
or program listing, the longer it will take for CoCo to be 
ready to do something else. 

As a test, I printed out a 10K Telewriter-64 file at 9600 
Baud through both the PBH and my trusty old serial-to- 
parallel interface. The difference was impressive! The PBH 
was filled in 18.54 seconds. At that point, my CoCo was 
able to go about any other task I wanted it to do because 
the printer was now being controlled by the PBH-64 Print 
Buffer. It took two minutes and 39 seconds to print the file 
through my parallel-to-serial interface. I was so impressed 



Formaker 

clean paperwork for business 

"It will give the small or home business professional-looking 
forms and effortless, errorless totals, accounting for taxes, 
discounts, shipping and deposits" 

The rainbow, May 1986 

RAINBOW 



CERTIFICATION 



menu driven 

customize for your company 
on screen Instructions 
creates: Invoice, quote, purchase order, 

mall order, receipt, letter 
printer customization £ /l n 

and much, much more ^4SJ 

"You have to look good to the customer . . 
helps . . . by providing neat, well-prepared forms . . " 

The rainbow, May 1986 



32K ECB dlSC 

This program 




Makes learning so much fun . . 
. . . that kids think it's a game! 

Letter and number recognition. Ages 2 to 6 



RAINBOW 



CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



$24 



32K ecb disc or tape 

"if you are looking for a program to teach young children 
the alphabet, numbers and early vocabulary, SUPER TUTOR 
may fit the bill." The rainbow, June 1986 

Send for more information: 

Challenger Software 

42 4th Street 
Pennsburg, PA 18073 
Call (215) 679-8792 (Evenings) 



with the ability of the PBH to control the printer, I even 
turned off the computer while printing continued! This is 
not recommended, since AC-line spikes can occur which 
could cause malfunctions in printing, but is does make you 
a believer. 

There is no printer Baud rate select switch on the PBH- 
64 Print Buffer. All there is, besides a power-on light, is 2 
button labeled CLEAR that must be pressed whenever you 
want to load in different text or change the printer Baud 
rate from its previous speed. You can select printer speed 
by simply typing the familar POKE 150 , X or adding the POKE 
into your BASIC programs. Just like CoCo, this device 
defaults to 600 Baud. 

The only negative point I can see with this unit is that 
it does not contain a "repeat" or a "copy" button to allow 
multiple copies of the text in its memory. After talking to 
PBH's president, Jim Baxter, I learned that while he agrees 
it would be a desirable feature, it would require additional 
I.C. chips and components that would not fit on the existing 
printed circuit board. He felt the added cost could not be 
justified in terms of added sales. Who knows, maybe if they 
get enough requests for the feature it can be added on later 
models. Or perhaps some hardware hacker will come up 
with a modification to this current version that will 
incorporate the feature. 

The unit is well-built and housed in an off-white plastic 
box to match the present CoCo color. It comes well- 
packaged, and includes a plug-in wall transformer for its 
power source. Also furnished is a cable to attach the unit 
to any Centronics-compatible printer. (I used it with a 
Gemini-lOX.) 

Hook-up is a snap. Plug in the power source and connect 
the furnished ribbon cable between your printer and the 
PBH-64. You will have to supply your own serial printer 
cable (RS 26-3020) to connect your CoCo to the PBH-64. 

I like this product. It's easy to use and comes with an 
illustrated four-page instruction manual that even includes 
a schematic. (How about that, hardware hackers?) So, if you 
would like the convenience a hardware printer spooler 
offers, you will like what this product can do. 

(Spectrum Projects Inc., P.O. Box 264, Howard Beach, NY 
11414, $149.95 plus $3 S/H) 

— Jerry Semones 



CoCo Repairs 
• • • $25 Plus Parts • • • 

HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS 



Front Panel Controls 
Monitor Drivers 
UPS Memory Backup 



Memory Upgrades 
Keyboard Upgrades 
ROM Upgrades 



AND MANY MORE! 



Special Requirements? Just let us know. 
Rowe Electronics Co., Inc. 
5137 Goldman Dr. • Birmingham, Al 35210 

(205) 956-4943 



144 



THE RAINBOW November 1986 



Software Review* 



Challenging LEO 
Keeps You on Your Toes 



In this game you must explore the planet Leonax. 
Although you have a tank with an adjustable cannon, your 
fuel and ammunition are limited. As you go exploring, you 
will notice Leo eggs scattered through the levels. From these 
eggs hatch various types of Leo creatures who do their 
utmost to destroy you. Your ultimate goal is to survive as 
long as possible. 

LEO requires 64K and two joysticks, is available in disk 
or cassette versions and uses the high-speed POKE. If your 
computer can't utilize the high-speed POKE, this software 
won't run. 

The game is nicely packaged, but the instruction sheet 
contains only the barest minimum to get you started. 




Figure 1: Although the photo is shown in black and white, 
the actual Hi-Res game screen is in color. 

Learning to play the game is a matter of trial and error as 
you try to figure out what is going on. For instance, you 
are told that flags and pylons replenish your fuel and 
ammunition, but you are not told that you must leave the 
tank in order to pick them up. 

After loading and executing this machine language game, 
you are treated to a lengthy display of the title and copyright 
with some cute graphics. Unfortunately, any time you are 
killed you must sit through this long display before you can 
start playing again. 

You need to use both joysticks, the space bar and the 
ENTER key to play. The left joystick controls the forward 
speed of the tank as long as you still have fuel. The right 
joystick aims the cannon. Shooting straight up or down 
usually destroys the tank. Pressing the space bar fires the 
cannon. Of course, this only works if you are in the tank 
and have ammunition left. Pressing the enter key allows 
you to exit the tank. While on foot you can move forward 
or backward, and traveling on foot conserves fuel. 

Each screen consists of eight floor levels scattered with 
Leo eggs, fuel flags and ammunition pylons. (See Figure 1.) 
The Hi-Res graphics are cute but unsophisticated. You must 
work your way down the eight levels and leave the screen 
to get to the next screen. The types of Leos and the 



placement of flags and pylons are different each time, but 
otherwise the screens are identical. 

There is no score other than the number of screens you 
survive. Your tank cannon is a stun gun and can be used 
to blow holes in the floor (for a shortcut) or to immobilize 
a Leo. If you take too long to reach the bottom of the screen, 
the Leo will wake up and chase you again. 

In order to collect flags and pylons you must leave the 
tank and travel on foot. This is also the only way to travel 
backward. If the tank is destroyed or runs out of fuel (or 
if you simply like danger), you can abandon it and continue 
on foot. You can sometimes maneuver a Leo into cutting 
through the floors and you can then use the holes as 
shortcuts. If you lose or abandon the tank, you receive a 
new tank when you reach the next screen. 

Occasionally, between screens, a bonus round of target 
practice gives you extra fuel and ammunition. There seems 
to be no way, however, to predict when these bonus rounds 
will occur. 

LEO is fun and challenging to play. There is no single 
strategy or easy pattern to follow. Instead, you can easily 
spend many enjoyable hours trying out new tricks to get 
past the Leos. 

If you are tired of mindless shoot-'em-ups, give LEO a 
try. 

(Lomiq Inc., c.p. 105, Succursale A, Jonquiere, Quebec, 
Canada G7X 7V8, cassette $24; disk $26.95) 

— James Ventling 



ADOS 



ENHANCED, EPROM-ABLE 
DISK BASIC 



Now, you can supercharge Basic with an impressive array of extra features 
WITHOUT sacrificing compatibility! ADOS is compatible with virtually 100% of 
commercial software, Customizing utilities are provided to allow user-defined 
command abbreviations, baud rate, step rate, tracks per disk (35 or 40). support of 
double-sided drives, and more. After customizing ADOS, you can have it burned into 
an EPROM that plugs into the Disk Basic ROM socket, or just use it in RAM as a 64K 
disk utility. (EPROM + burning will cost about $20-we provide information 
concerning how you can have this done.) Features include: • repeat and edit of the 
last direct-mode command • 26 definable control-key abbreviations • automatic line- 
number prompts • DOS command • lowercase command entry (a fine complement to 
a Lowerkit or PBJ WordPak) • COPY (filename) to (drive number) • AE error override 
oplion ■ RAM command (64K) • RUNM command • text echoing to printer • ML 
monitor • text file scan • enhanced directory ■ error trapping • hi res text utility 
included (42. 51. or 64 characters per hnel 

"I COULD NOT FIND ANY SOFTWARE THAT WOULD NOT RUN UNDER ADOS." 

THE RAINBOW, December 1984 
7 LOVB ADOSI -..A GENUINELY FIRST RATE PRODUCT." 

Color Micro Journal, February 1985 
"I WONT PART WITH MY AOOS EPROM FOR ANYTHING . . . NO COMPATIBILITY 
PROBLEMS." 

Hot CoCo.May 1985 

Disk S27.95 



THE PEEPER 



ML PROGRAM TRACER 



Monitor machine-language programs AS THEY ARE RUNNING! Peeper actually 
timeshares with the target program, giving FULL CONTROL as ML programs run. 
Switch instantly between watching regular program output and Peeper s trace of 
registers and stack on screen or printer. Inspect memory in any of 26 display modes. 
Execution speed can be varied from full speed to the barest crawl, or halted entirely, 
as programs run. Single-stepping, breakpoints, memory or register examine/change. 
Relocatable, supports 64K use (16K required) See February '85 review. 
Disk. $23.95 Tape $21.95 Assembler source listing Add 3.00 

THE NEXT BEST THING TO A DISK DRIVE 

Fastape allows cassette I/O at 3000 baud -TWICE NORMAL SPEED. It uses the high- 
speed (POKE 65495.0) mode, and makes it convenient to stay in this mode 
throughout. Features automatic adjustment of cassette and printer parameters when 
speod mode is changed. Control-key functions for many Basic commands and for 
changing speed modes Compatible with all file types, and can be used with 
Telewriter 64 and many other tape utilities (16K required) See July '83 review. 
T^w . . .t**rfe 11 i.W ; HEff DlfrCOUH? pmr.w i 



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November 1986 THE RAINBOW 145 



Software Review! 



Organize Your Amway 
Business With CoCoachiever 



CoCoachiever was developed for the Color Computer by 
T&M Enterprises. It requires a 64K Color Computer and 
one disk drive. The program was written by and for Amway 
businesses and distributors, and allows you to keep track 
of distributors, orders, PV-BV bonuses and price lists. The 
current version of the program contains prices for May 1, 
1986. 

The system contains a loader menu which allows you to 
select a printer Baud rate. Once selected, the program loads 
in the Master menu. Before the menu is displayed, the 
computer loads the stock numbers. In fact, the stock 
numbers are loaded every time you go from one part of the 
program to another. This is because each menu application 
has its own basic program, which is automatically loaded. 
This is great for organization and development of a software 
package, but it does slow things down a bit! 

Distributors are entered into the program by name and 
ADA number. There are prompts for Sponsor's Name and 
PV-BV. 

Other items on the Distributor menu allow you to List 
Distributors, Review/ Revise PV-BV, Calculate PV-BV 
Bonuses, Add Miscellaneous PV-BV Items and Return to 



the Master menu. For most functions, a hard copy can be 
obtained by answering the prompts. Your printer must be 
online or the program will hang up. 

The Master menu has three items: Input or Check Orders, 
Distributors menu and Price List menu. To enter or check 
orders, insert the date and distributor number, then list 
quantity and item number (stock number). The printed copy 
is an invoice or packing list for filled orders. There are some 
nice features here, including the capability of handling 
returns, exchanges, tax and charges. By entering the stock 
number, the items are listed (or printed) out with all 
information, including the price that was stored on the 
program disk. The completed order contains the item totals, 
the PV and BV, the wholesale and retail amounts, sales tax 
and handling charge. 

The Price List menu requires a password. Once entered, 
you can input/ add to the price list, change the price list by 
stock number, change the price list by record number or 
print the price list. 

The CoCoachiever is a menu-driven system that is well- 
developed and easy to use. The printed documentation is 
brief (five pages) but adequate. For someone in the Amway 
business, this program could help tremendously in organ- 
izing and keeping up with records. In the words of the 
Amway system, "Go arid grow, and we will see you at the 
top!" 

(T&M Enterprises, 2301 Cromwell Drive, St. Maries, ID 
83861, $49.95) 

— J.D. Ray 



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THE RAINBOW November 1986 



PA residents 
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sales tax 



Software Reviewi 



Paper Route Delivers Action 



Ever since I saw the first few Diecom games, I have had 
an admiration for their quality and graphics. So I was 
thrilled to receive Paper Route to review. When I opened 
the package, I thought WOW!, this is going to be great, and 
I was right. Paper Route is an excellent example of 
Diecom's commitment to superior quality and graphics. 

Paper Route is a 64K action game that requires one 
joystick. It is made for only one player. The object of the 
game is to direct a paperboy along his normal route, while 
delivering newspapers to his customers. This is by no means 
an easy task. The customers' houses are marked with red 
doors. You must deliver a newspaper to each house every 
day, or the customer will cancel his subscription. 

You start out with 10 newspapers to deliver. At various 
points along the way, you find extra papers (in stacks of 
10) that you can pick up by riding over them with your bike. 
As the game progresses, these papers will be in fewer and 
harder places. 

Bonus points are awarded for many things. First, 
breakage points are awarded for knocking over garbage 
cans and tombstones, and for smashing windows. Also, at 
the end of each delivery, you are awarded 250 points for 
each house you successfully deliver to. If you deliver to all 
the houses, then you have made a "perfect run" and you 
get 500 points for each house. Your accumulated bonus, or 
breakage points, are added to your score at the end of each 
day's delivery. Also, bonus men are awarded every 20,000 
points. 

Your delivery is not an easy task at all. There are many 
obstacles that get in the way, such as potholes in the 
sidewalk, people on the sidewalks (some are throwing 
boomerangs), fences, holes and cars. In the later screens, 
you encounter running dogs and remote-controlled mini- 
cars. If you purchase this game, don't expect to get past the 
first screen the first week you have it. This game is not easy! 

Paper Route has a pause function and a high-score board, 
which is erased each time you turn the computer off. 

A slight problem with this game is the sound effects. 
However, I enjoyed it from the day I opened the package, 
and I highly recommend Paper Route for all CoCo game 
players. Diecom knows what it's doing. 

(Diecom Products, 6715 Fifth Line, Milton, Ontario, 
Canada L9T 2X8, tape or disk, $28.95, $38.95 Cnd.) 

— Pat Downard 



'T MISS THE FUN 
DONT MISS THE INFORMATION 
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Introducing 



White Fire 

Of Eternity 




White Fire is a full 64K 
super animated graphic 
adventure. In an age of 
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Disk $24.95 



CGP-220 
Screen Dump 

A graphics screen dump utility for the 
CGP-220 Ink Jet Printer. Features include 
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By Scott Cabit 

An animated graphics adventure Battle 
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Atalonta. the swift-running huntress But 
beware of the perils and obstacles that 
stand in your way as you joumey througn 
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Marooned! 

Graphic Adventure. 32K Disk 

Blackjack Dealer 

With Feeler Dealer. 32K 

Alpha 40+ 

Formats 40+ Tracks. 32K Disk. 



$2195* Maycode $21.95* 

6809 Disassembler, 32K 

$24.95 Menu Maker $19.95 

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November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 47 



Software Revie iv— JS^ S 

Facilitate Learning With 
Flash Card Drill 

If you're a teacher, parent or student preparing for a test, 
you may want to be aware of Flash Card Drill by Thompson 
House. This program helps drill students and others, just 
like the familiar "flash cards" used in classrooms and homes 
by teachers and parents. 

Almost everyone has come into contact at one time or 
another with the "flash card" concept. A word or picture 
is shown to a student and a short response is needed. For 
example, for learning state capitals, the state Washington 
is shown and the correct response would be its capital, 
Olympia. (Dont feel bad if you missed it — that's a tricky 
one!) 

The CoCo and the Flash Card Drill program can help 
in this endeavor. And the program can be customized to 
meet your needs — whether they be state capitals, foreign 
language words or any other topic that needs short 
responses such as a flash card calls for. Being a math teacher, 
I found that it also generates math flash card lessons such 
as addition and multiplication facts. 

Flash Card Drill is on disk and consists of two specific 
programs — FLASH/ BAS and FCD/ BAS. With these core 
programs, separate data files for various flash card types 
can be generated and saved for further use. 

Unfortunately, no other documentation is sent with the 
disk. Thompson House could help immensely by providing 
start-up instructions and perhaps taking the user through 
a sample session. 

To start Flash Card Drill, type RUN "FLASH ". A title screen 
appears and then the program automatically runs FCD/ 
BAS. 

At this point, there is a prompt for whether teacher 
instructions are needed. The instructions given on the screen 
prompt the teacher through a process to develop a practice 
lesson to be run by the student. 

The main menu consists of three options: Teacher Menu, 
Student Menu and Run a Program. The Teacher Menu 
allows composing lessons, saving lessons and an option to 
return to the main menu. The Student Menu allows the user 
to make his own lesson, load a previously-saved lesson, load 
a lesson consisting of errors from a previous session or run 
a program. 

When the user begins to compose a lesson, one drawback 
is immediately apparent. Flash Card Drill uses the CoCo's 
graphics screen display, and because of this and the size of 
the characters produced by the program, the length of the 
questions and answers is limited to a maximum of 12 
characters. This is fine for many purposes, but being a 
teacher, I found it a little restrictive. However, since the 
flash card concept usually involves very short responses, this 
may not be a problem for many users. This drawback is not 
a fault of the program, but simply the result of using the 
graphics display screen with the large characters developed 
for the program. 



Up to 30 questions and answers can be entered per lesson, 
a reasonable number to work with during a session. Aftei 
entering your desired questions and answers, an edit feature 
is built in, which helps perfect and correct your lessons. 
They can then be saved on tape or disk. 

The flash card lesson itself consists of a graphics screen 
with general instructions such as Give answer, Name 
capital or any other desired directions, along with the 
questions. The questions can be displayed either randomly, 
or in the order they were entered. 

As you progress through the lesson, a scorecard of the 
number of correct responses is given at the bottom of the 
screen. If an incorrect response is given by the student or 
child, the same question appears again and again until the 
correct response is entered. This can be a very frustrating 
experience for the user. It would be better if, after a pre- 
determined number of incorrect responses, the correct 
response were provided and a new question displayed. If 
the student does get stuck on a question, he can press the 
slash key ( / ) to move on to the next question, but this does 
not help him learn what the correct response was. 

The sessions consist of at least 10 questions, even if your 
initial set-up had less than 10 questions. (The questions are 
repeated until at least 10 questions have been asked.) If you 
have a file of more than 10 questions, then 30 questions are 
asked, with some of them repeated, until 30 questions have 
been presented. Remember that a maximum of 30 questions 
is possible with Flash Card Drill. 

After a session, the user is given a listing of the missed 
questions and answers. This error trapping is useful for both 
student and teacher, since feedback is a necessary part of 
the educational process. 

After viewing the missed questions and answers, an 
option is given to either save errors or continue to practice. 
There is no option to end the session or return to the main 
menu at this point, which is another choice that should be 
offered to the user. 

The Save Errors option enables the user to save the 
missed problems on disk, tape or printer. The printer option 
produces a nicely formatted "report card" of missed 
questions and answers. 

In summary, Flash Card Drill is an educational program 
for the CoCo that is simple to use by teacher, parent, student 
or child. It enables lessons to be composed by the teacher, 
or even by the student, in a relatively easy way. Lessons can 
be saved and then loaded for further use, and the program 
is error-trapped for convenience and feedback. It can be 
used for words, short phrases and math problem flash card 
generation. 

Flash Card Drill is definitely worth a place in many 
educational and home environments. If you're a teacher or 
parent who likes to customize lessons for your class or child, 
then Flash Card Drill is a program you may want in your 
software library. 



(Thompson House, P.O. Box 58, Kamloops, British 
Columbia, Canada V2C 5K3, 32K disk, $22.95) 



— Donald A. Turowski 



1 48 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



Software Review* 



CyberTank Won't Let You Go 



To tell the truth, when I first realized I was to review a 
game, I was somewhat disappointed. It seems that most 
games IVe run across become uninteresting and even 
annoying after several plays. If you are one of the many 
people who feel the same way, I think you will be in for 
a pleasant surprise with CyberTank from Mark Data 
Products. 

CyberTank is a Simulation in which you find yourself in 
a futuristic tank besieged by Autonomous Land Vehicles 
(ALVs), which are actually four different types of enemy 
tanks with varied armaments and capabilities. 

You, of course, are not left defenseless. Along with a non- 
renewable shield, you have many types of weapons at your 
disposal, including B-l stealth plating, radar, cannon and 
rockets. However, you only have a limited supply and must 
use them judiciously lest you become destroyed before you 
can re-supply. 

One of the things that makes the game interesting is that 
you must be, in effect, three people: the gunner, the loader 
and the commander. You have a separate screen for each 
one; when and how well you change screens can affect how 
long you stay alive. 

The gunner's screen is where you will spend most of your 
time while in combat. (See Figure 1.) From here you aim 
and fire on the enemy. You have a small radar indicator, 
so you know from which direction you are being attacked. 
You also have fuel and shield gauges. 

The loader's screen is where you decide what type of 
weapon and munitions to use and make them ready to use. 
You also access the supply depot from here. 



HO 

TIKE 




Figure 1: Although 
the photo is shown in 
black and white, the 
actual Hi-Res game 
screen is in color. 



FUEL 



The last screen, the commander's screen, is a cumulative 
radar map of the sector you are in currently. (See Figure 
2.) The effectiveness of your radar screen is determined by 
equipment used by the loader. 

a small number of weapons to call upon. However, as you 
progress to different sectors via the teleport device you pick 
up at the munitions depot, you accumulate more and 
deadlier weapons. 

The documentation mentions no ultimate goal other than 
to kill the enemy and stay alive, and I didn't find a way to 
finally win. But to be fair, I only got as far as Sector 7, so 
I don't know what happens in later sectors. 

The program comes in a nice, black vinyl book, is on a 
copy-protected disk and has six pages of documentation. 



To use CyberTank you need 64K and one disk drive. 
Joysticks are not necessary. 

The main complaint I have with CyberTank is the lack 
of understandable documents. The reference manual makes 
sense after youVe figured out how to play the game, but 
doesn't help much the first few times you play. 

Figure 2: 
Although the 
photo is shown in 
black and white, 
the actual Hi-Res 
game screen is in 
color. 




To sum up, CyberTank takes good strategy and quick 
hands to survive, and I've had many enjoyable late night 
marathons with it. Hopefully, the documentation will be re- 
written; in spite of that, I highly recommend CyberTank, 
especially to all of you who have become bored with games. 

(Mark Data Products, 24001 Alicia Parkway, No. 207, 
Mission Viejo, CA 92691, disk only, $27.95.) 

— Bill Totttngham 



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November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 49 



Software Review <Z> Hardware Review— 



Magic and Mystery Surround 
The Quest for Reality 



Here is an interesting action game for Adventure lovers. 
Quest for Reality comes on tape and works on your 32K 
ECB CoCo with one joystick. (You must remove your disk 
controller.) 

As is customary in most Adventure games, you use two- 
word commands to move through a maze or cavern in which 
you encounter many evil creatures to thwart your progress 
toward the goal of locating the "Orb of Reality." At the start 
of the Adventure you are supplied with a torch that will burn 
for eternity. This torch, a magical bow and an infinite supply 
of arrows are all you need to solve this Adventure. 

You press N, S, E or W to move about the caverns in which 
you have been placed by a mysterious being. The creatures 
you encounter soon drain your strength, so you must align 
the small, square bow sight over your target and fire quickly. 
The creature's strength can be measured during your battle 
by the vertical line next to the combat screen. As the 
creature's strength decreases, so does the line. 

There is also a MAP command you can use to orient 
yourself, but I found it to be of little help because of its small 
size. As in most Adventures, you also have to gather items 
to assist you in your quest. 

While this Adventure is OK, it's not great. Quest for 
Reality is fun and will keep your interest for a while, but 
eventually the action becomes predictable. I did like the 
moving eyeball that frequently appeared in the text screen 
as if to watch my next move! I enjoy Adventures and I'd 
rank this one above average. 

(Brainbank Software, Rt.2 Box 1015, Friendsville, TN 
37737, $21.95 plus $1.50 S/H) 

— David Gerald 



PRINTERS!!! 

IjEWL Star Micronics NX- 10 s 295 

Okidata 192 (Parallel) s 370 

Okidata 192 (Serial) $ 425 

Okidata 182 $ 240 

Silver Reed 550 (Daisy Wheel) *395 

Silver Reed 400 (Daisy Wheel)(Par. or Serial) s 200 



Other Printers, Monitors, and Accessories for CoCo and IBM upon request. 

* 15 off interface with purchase of printer. 

Find your cheapest published price and we'll beat it!!! 

SP-2 INTERFACE for EPSON PRINTERS: 

■ 300-19,200 BAUD rates 

■ Fits inside printer — No AC Plugs 

■ Optional external switch (*5°° extra) frees parallel port 
for use with other computers 

■ M9" (plus *3» shipping) 

SP-3 INTERFACE for MOST OTHER PRINTERS: 

■ 300-19.200 BAUD rates 

■ External to printer — No AC Plugs 

■ Built in modem /printer switch — no need for Y-cables or 
plugging/ unplugging cables 

■ $ 64 M (plus *3«> shipping) 

Both also available for IBM, RS-232 and Apple IIC computers. 



Add a Second Disk Drive In 
Minutes With Drive 1 Upgrade 

Here is a project that will not only upgrade your present 
single-drive system to two drives, but will save you money 
at the same time. Although the upgrade does require 
breaking the warranty seal on your Radio Shack Drive 0, 
the process is simple and quick. And best of all, you will 
be proud that you did it yourself. 

Drive 1 Upgrade is a single-sided, half-height TEC FB- 
501 drive that takes just minutes to mount in your Radio 
Shack FD-501 Color Thinline Disk #0 Cabinet (RS #26- 
3131). The only tool required is a Phillips head screwdriver. 
The seven necessary steps are explained in an easy-to- 
understand installation sheet that comes with the well- 
packaged disk drive. 

After turning off the computer and unplugging the disk 
drive, simply unplug the ribbon cable from the rear of your 
existing Drive 0. Then remove the six screws (three on each 
side) that hold the top of the drive case to the bottom. After 
taking off the top cover, remove the black plastic cover on 
the front of the drive above Drive 0. This cover will noj 
longer be needed. 

Next, mount the new Drive 1 above Drive 0 onto the 
brackets extending from Drive 0. Four screws for this are 
provided with the new drive. Now the power connection is! 
made. A white connector with four wires (yellow, white, 
black and red) is plugged into the mating connector on the 
Drive 1 circuit board. It will only go in one way, so don't 
worry about putting it in wrong. The flat ribbon cable 
supplied with your Drive 0 has a second connector that up 
to now was not being used. Simply plug this gray connector 
onto the circuit board, making sure the red line on the cable 
is facing the outside of the drive case. The other gray 
connector connects to Drive 0 as it did originally. Put the 
top cover back on and fasten it with the six screws you took 




P.O. Box 293 
Raritan, NJ 08869 
(201) 722-1055 




ENGINEERING 



DISK DRIVE SYSTEMS 



ALL Vi HEIGHT DOUBLE SIDED 

Drive 0 (addressed as 2 drives!) J 235 

Drive 0,1 (addressed as 4 drives!) $ 350 

All above complete with HDS controller, cable, & drive 

in case with power supply 

Bare Double Sided Drives $ I09 

Dual 'A Height Case w/ Power Supply t $ 49 

Double Sided Adapter $ 25 

HDS Controller, RS ROM & Instructions $ 99 

25 CDC DS/DD Diskettes $ 32 & $ 3 s/h 

We use the HDS controller exclusively. Can use 2 different DOS ROM's. 



Shipping Costs: $ 5/drive or power supply, $ I0 max. 

Co Co Serial Cables IS ft. — *I0. Co Co/RS-232 Cables 15 ft.— $20. 
Other cables on request. (Add $ 3 0t) shipping) 



1 50 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



lot easier for programmers. With OS-9 
Level II the limited memory problems 
all but disappear and the new window- 
ing environment makes programming 
point-and-click software much easier. 

So, what would we like to see in our 
software Christmas stocking next 
Christmas? Let's dream. 

Since OS-9 Level II is made for multi- 
tasking and multi-view makes window- 
ing a snap, maybe someone will come 
' up with a management tool like this for 
OS-9. Think about the possiblities: In 
one window you can access your ro- 
lodex with a click of the mouse. Select 
a name, click the mouse again and dial 
the phone. While you are on the phone 
you can study your "to do" list in 
another window. Or, open a document 
window under one of your headlines 
and take notes from the call. If you want 
to keep a record of your calls for billing 
purposes, you can use the program's 
date and time stamp to put the time at 
the beginning and end of the notes from 
the call. When you hang up, click on 
another window and you can look at 
your calendar. Select the amount of 
time in each segment of your day and 
push another button and More creates 
a subheadline for each period of the day. 
At this point you only need to add your 
own assignments or meeting notes. 

What else can you do? Select a section 
of your outline and pick an option from 
a pull-down menu and it instantly prints 
a bullet chart you can print directly on 
an overhead transparency. If you would 
rather have things printed in neat little 
boxes, make another menu selection 
and a neatly formatted organization 
chart pops onto your screen. 

What about the items in your "to do" 
list that require you to write a letter or 
memo? Do you need to quit the pro- 
gram and start up a word processing 
program? No! You simply click twice on 
a marker in front of your headline and 
a text window opens and you can create 
a document of any length. Of course, 
you can also put a document containing 
graphics under a headline. Finally, all 
or any part of your outline can be 
exported to any other word processing 
program. 

This is advanced idea processing 
combined with desktop publishing. I 
cant wait to run it on the new CoCo 3. 

UNIX Comments From Kevin Kuehl 

Kevin Kuehl of Valparaiso, Indiana, 
has contributed many excellent pro- 
grams to these pages. Recently, after we 
published a description of Brian Lantz's 



KShell, Kuehl wrote to let us know that 
the quote expansion feature Brian 
added was not pure UNIX. In fact, he 
quoted from a paper and book by 
Steven Bourne, author of the famous 
Bourne Shell 

"There are three quoting systems 
used on UNIX systems, the single 
quote, the double quote and the escape 
character," Bourne wrote. "The single 
quote transfers whatever is inside the 
pair verbatim to the program. The 
double quote transfers everything but 
single quotes and escape characters. 
The escape character transfers the next 
single character to the program." 

Kuehl, calling for correct informa- 
tion about UNIX in rainbow also gave 
examples from a book named The 
UNIX System: 

echo \?yields? 
echo \\yields\ 
echo xx'***'xx 

yieldsxx***xx 

echo The date is •date 1 

.yieldsThe date is date. 

Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 
Brings Hackers Together 

Kevin Darling has sent us a great 
story from North Carolina. It seems 
that Steve Croom was having problems 
with his hard disk drive. When Darling 
found out that Croom, a Navy man 
stationed on the West Coast, was from 
North Carolina, too, and was planning 
to come home on leave soon, he sug- 
gested that Croom bring the drive and 
he would try to fix it. 

"As I prepared to leave for the airport 
I realized we had no idea of what each 
other looked like," Darling said. Trying 
to think of an identifying object, I 
grabbed The Complete Rainbow Guide 
to OS-9 on the way out. When I reached 
the arrival gate, I simply sat down and 
laid the book on the table next to me. 
Sure enough, Steve spotted the book. 

"We still can't believe that we never 
met before, except on the OS-9 SIG, 
and he gave me a $700 hard disk drive 
on faith. The only ID he ever saw from 
me at the airport was The Complete 
Rainbow Guide to O^-P." 

We also received a short thank you 
note from Eric W. Tilenius. We men- 
tioned several months ago that he was 
looking for some talented pro- 
grammers. 

"Thanks to you, IVe been in touch 
with some very talented and interesting 
people," Tilenius said. He promised us 



one of the very first copies of Print Shop 
when it comes out. Should be fun! 

Databases Are Gold Mines 

Since we're talking about telecom- 
municating, here's a tip. The databases 
managed by the many Special Interest 
Groups (SIGs) on most of the commer- 
cial services are a gold mine. For exam- 
ple, the OS-9 section on RAINBOW'S 
CoCo SIG on Delphi is really beginning 
to take shape. 

Check out Steve Bjork's fantastic 
bouncing ball demo program. YouH 
have a fantastic demo to show off your 
Color Computer if you download the 
binary code. And, if you download the 
source code, youH see how Steve makes 
magic with graphics and animation. If 
you need a good screen-oriented editor, 
download the Dolphin Technology 
Text Processing System from the CoCo 
SIG's OS-9 database. It's written in C 
and has many machine language rou- 
tines to speed up crucial sections of the 
program. If you contribute more than 
$20 to the author youH receive Version 
2.00 of this editor. Version 2.00 has been 
expanded and includes merge, block 
duplicate, printer output and display 
memory, as well as search and replace 
features. 

OS-9 Level II Program Development 
System Has Screen Editor 

When you buy OS-9 Level II for 
$79.95, you get BASIC09 with it. Now 
that's a bargain for high level language 
programmers. 

There is also a program development 
system available that features a screen 
editor, assembler and linker. 

The screen editor is the SCRED 
editor that has been available for other 
OS-9 Level II and 68000 systems for 
several years. 

SCRED is straightforward and easy 
to use. It can be used to create or modify 
any text file. It lets you do either line 
or character oriented editing. 

SCRED has three modes, Command, 
Edit and Insert. A set of commands is 
available in both the Command and 
Edit modes. The top line of the terminal 
displays the line number your cursor is 
on, the column number, the name of the 
file being edited, the amount of space 
left in your buffer and the mode you are 
working in. If your file is larger than the 
memory buffer used by SCRED, simply 
issue the (More) command when you 
want to write out the section of text you 
are working on and read in another. 
SCRED displays 80 characters on the 



200 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



KISSable OS-9 



Looking At Blue Sky 
For OS-9 Level II 



By Dale L. Puckett 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



It's been a long wait — but well 
worth it. The new Color Computer 
3 is simply outstanding. The graph- 
ics knock your socks off. With the new 
windowing capability that is now a part 
of OS-9 Level II and the promised 
Multi- View visual shell, we should see 
some really super software soon. 

It's Time for Frank to 
UnFLEX His Bias 

As I stared at the outstanding reso- 
lution, bright colors and amazing ani- 
mation on the new Color Computer 3's 
screen, I couldn't help but remember the 
debate we had with Frank Hogg in the 
May 1984 issue of THE rainbow. Here's 
a sample from Frank's article titled, "On 
OS-9 Matters, Frank FLEXes His 
Bias." 

"First, Tandy did not do a pure OS- 
9. Close, but not pure. The disk driver 
will only support single-sided drives and 
at the maximum, only 40 tracks. To put 
BASIC09 on the system disk, you have to 

Dale L. Puckett, who is author of The 
Official BASIC09 Tour Guide and co- 
author, with Peter Dibble, of The 
Official Rainbow Guide to OS-9, to a 
free-lance writer and programmer. He 
serves as director-at-large of the OS-9 
Users Group and is a member of the 
Computer Press Association. Dale 
works as a US. Coast Guard chief 
warrant officer and lives in Alexandria, 
Virginia. 



delete files; otherwise it won't fit. A 
single-drive user is plumb out of luck. 
You can't change the stepping speed of 
the drives either. So, if you have drives 
better than Tandy's, you will not be able 
to utilize the extra speed. 

"Second, Tandy does not provide a 
Hi-Res screen with OS-9. You are left 
to work with the pathetic 16 by 32, 
uppercase only screen 

I debated Frank then because we were 
already publishing articles that told 
how to work around the limited disk 
size and upgrade the performance of 
OS-9 on the CoCo. Level I OS-9 on the 
original Color Computer 2 was and is 
a bargain. Level II OS-9 on the Color 
Computer 3 is a steal. 

It's time for Frank to unflex his bias. 
Tandy has listened to us and eliminated 
many of our complaints. For example, 
the disk drivers in OS-9 Level II read 
information about the physical config- 
uration of your disk drives from the 
device descriptors like they're supposed 
to. There is now a Hi-Res screen. In fact, 
with the new windowing capability of 
OS-9 Level II, we can view our text on 
24 80-character lines and create several 
windows onscreen containing high 
resolution graphics or additional text. 
Since OS-9 is multi-tasking we can have 
the output from a different task going 
to each of these windows. The promised 
Multi- View shell makes the windowing 
features so easy to use that anyone can 
use them. 



Volkswriter Deluxe for OS-9 

On the OS-9 68000 scene, Micro- 
TRENDS has announced that Volks- 
writer Deluxe is being ported to OS-9. 
The program was named the best of 
1984 by the editors of PC Magazine. It 
is fast, reliable and easy to use. All 
commands are logical and concise, 
requiring the fewest keystrokes per 
function of any word processor. 

Volkswriter Deluxe OS-9 features 
text merge, note pad, horizontal scrol- 
ling, multi fonts, expanded document 
size, unlimited moves, onscreen tutorial 
and help keys, special characters and 
printer installation. It runs on the 
MicroTRENDS 68000 Jonathan card 
that plugs into the Apple II. 

If this program is written in a high 
level language maybe the folks at Mi- 
croTRENDS will convince Lifetree 
Software to move it on to the new Color 
Computer 3. We can only hope. 

During his address to the OS-9 Users 
Group Community Buffet at RAIN- 
BOWfest Palo Alto, Computerware's 
Paul Searby called on software develop- 
ers "to set as a priority the task of 
making OS-9 on the CoCo more user 
friendly." At the time he praised Tandy 
for releasing products like Deskmate, 
Micro Illustrator, OS-9 Profile and 
Robot Odyssey. He also put his money 
where his mouth is by supporting Mike 
Bailey's The Last Word. 

The great news is that the new Color 
Computer 3 is going to make it a whole 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 



199 



to the current program counter location plus $39, location 
$442. This location is in the screen area and has been filled 
with a $39 previously. The $39 is executed as an RTS 
instruction which causes a return to the BASIC program. The 
"DONE!" message is then displayed at the screen start. All 
of which goes to prove that video memory is simply computer 
memory after all! 

1 1) The annotated code for this problem is: 





LDX 


#0 


clear count of men«women 




CLR 


CNT 


clear 255 to 0 value 


LOOPl 


CLRB 




clear count of Is (men) 




DEC 


CNT 


got next value 




LDA 






BEQ 


,i;;out 


go if 256 tiroes 


LOOP2 


LSLA 




shift out next bit of 8 




BCC 


NEXTl 


go if 0 (woman) 




INCB 




bump count of men 




TSTA 




set CC 




BEQ 


FIN 


stop if no more is (men) 


NEXT! 


BRA 


LOOP2 


loop, counting men 


FIN 


CMPB 


#4 


4 men counted? 




BNE 


NEXT2 


go if not 




XjEAX 


IfX 


bump count of men^women 


NEXT2 


BRA 


LOOP! 


continue for 256 permut'ns 


OUT 


RTS 




return ..... 


CNT 


RMB 




count of 255 to 0 



This code determines the probability that the number of 
men will equal the number of women. A probability of one 
means that the number of men will always equal the number 
of women. A probability of zero means that the number of 
men will never equal the number of women. The probability 
here is obviously somewhere in between. 

In this problem there are eight users at a table. We're not 
told whether they are men or women. If we let each bit of 
a byte represent an individual user, however, we can use the 
assembly language subroutine to figure out the probability. 
Men are represented by a 1 bit while women are represented 
by a 0 bit. Let's try a simpler case first. Suppose that there 
are only four users at a table. The possible permutations are: 



0000 


4 


women 






0001 


3 


women f 


1 


man 


0010 


3 


women, 


1 


man 


0011 


2 


women, 


2 


men 


0100 


3 


women , 


1 


man 


0101 


2 


women , 


2 


men 


0110 


2 


women, 


2 


men 


0111. 


1 


woman, 


3 


men 


1000 


3 


women , 


1 


man 


1001 


2 


women, 


2 


men 


1010 


2 


women, 


2 


men 


1011 


1 


woman, 


3 


men 


1100 


2 


women, 


2 


men 


1101 


1 


woman, 


3 


men 


1110 


1 


woman , 


3 


men 


1111 


4 


men 







The probability here is the number of times that men equal 
women divided by the total number of cases, or 6/16 + 
3/8 + .375. 

You can see that the number of times women equal men 
can be computed by generating the binary numbers from zero 
to 1 5 and then counting the number of cases where there are 
two ones. The same thing can be done for a group of eight 
users (or any size group). The previous code generates the 
binary numbers from 00000000 through 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 and then 
counts the cases where the number of ones is four. The result 
is 70/256, or a probability of .273 that the number of male 
CoCo users will equal the number of female CoCo users. This 
little program is great for those Color Computer social 
gatherings. 

12) 111 bet you forgot about the obscure ABX instruction! 
This instruction takes the contents of B, treated as an 
unsigned number, and adds it to the X Register, with the 
result going into X. This is a handy way to increment the X 
Index Register when it is used as a pointer, which it often 
is. 

Pi Revisited 

The column on generating pi drew a lot of interest from 
readers. First to respond was Carey Bloodworth of Swink, 
Okla., who noted a more efficient way to generate pi and 
informed me that his program ran three times as fast as the 
one in the column. (At that point I had produced a program 
that was twice as fast as the one appearing in the column, 
but Carey's sounds faster). If you're interested in this 
problem, contact Carey at P.O. Box 17, Swink, OK 74761. 

Andre Needham of Renton, Wash, sent a pi formula that 
converges much faster. He also noted that he has memorized 
pi to 42 places. Bruce Arsenault of Nova Scotia also sent a 
long letter detailing a faster algorithm. 

Michael Frank, 4515 Oak Hill Road A-5, Chattanooga, TN 
37416, sent a program that calculates 1000 digits of pi in six 
minutes by an efficient divide routine. Sounds like Carey and 
Michael should communicate. 

Edward Freeman Yendall of North Fort Meyers, Fla.^ sent 
a fascinating letter describing computer processing of a 
special form of prime numbers called Mersenne primes. His 
original work (he included a printout) was done in the 1950s 
on a Burroughs Datatron computer! Edward has now 
duplicated the work on the CoCo. 

If enough readers are interested in problems of this sort, 
I'd be happy to oblige you in future columns. Let me and 
RAINBOW know. 

Next month, I'll be back with more CoCo assembly 
language topics. Till then, keep assembling. /zs 



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198 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



7) Sorry, I just couldn't resist this one. Admittedly, this 
application has limited use. However, the code is: 



ADDA 
DAA 



one 

decimal adjust 




The DAA instruction is one you may never have used. It 
is a "decimal adjust" that allows BCD, or binary-coded- 
decimal operations. In BCD, the decimal digits of zero 
through nine are coded in each four bits. Each four-bit chunk, 
called a "nibble" or "nybble," can only contain values of 
00000, 0001, 0010, 0011, 0100, 0101, 0110, 0111, 1000, or 
1001, and cannot contain the values 1010, 1011, 1100, 1101, 
1110, and 1111. The DAA is used after an add or subtract 
to adjust the binary add back to proper BCD form. If this 
were not done, the add: 

WJ81ipj3^v(19 in bed) 
+00 il0XffiC f ( 3 5 in bod) 



would result in 



+00110101 
01001110 

instead of 



(19 in bed) 
(35 in bod) 

fnot 54 in bed 3) 



00011001 (19 in bed) 

+00110101 ( 35 in bed) 
01010100 (54 in bed) 

The adjustment is made by adding +6 to either or both 
nibbles. In the problem here, the DAA causes the adjustment 
of the least significant nibble if the result is 10 to 16. 

8) The answer is a snap if you know your shifts: 

2 




ASHA divide by 4 

*Hv4de by 8 



divide 




As you probably know, shifting right by one bit divides 

by two, by two bits divides by four, and so forth. Dividing 

by any power of two can be done by the appropriate number 

of right shifts. However, if the number to be shifted is a 

signed, two's complement number, a logical shift (LSR, LSL, 

etc.) won't work. The two's complement number -100 is 

10011100. Shifting right one bit logical results in 01001110, 

or a value of +80. However, shifting right one bit arithmetic 

results in the correct result of 1 1001 1 10, a value of -50. 
If the value cannot be evenly divisible by a power of two, 

a negative result is sometimes rounded down by one. The 

number -105 in two's complement form is 100101 1 1; shifting 

right arithmetic results in 1 100101 1, or -53. 

9) The code here is a bubble sort that sorts the data in 
buffer into ascending order. Values of 23, 56, 1,3 and 17, for 
example, would be sorted into 1, 3, 17, 23 and 56. The bubble 
sort is a simple sort, but not very fast. Here's the annotated 
code: 

load "swap" flag 
point to start 

get two entries t and bump 
compare pair 
go if in order 
set swap flag 
exqhage the two 
store swapped pair 
at end 

go if not at end 
test for swap 
go if still unsorted 



LOOP1 


LDY 
LDX 


m 

# BUFFER 


LOOP2 


LDD 


,x+ 




CMPA 


>x 




BtiO 


NEXT 




LDY 


#1 




EXG 


A,B 




STD 


**1- X 


NEXT 


CMPX 


#5UFEND 




BNE 


LOOP2 




LEAY 


-1,Y 




BEQ 


LOOPl 




The bubble sort compares two entries at a time, starting 
from the top of the table. (See Figure 2.) If the second entry 
is less than the first, the two bytes are swapped and a "swap 
flag" is set to one. One complete pass is made through the 
table and the swap flag is checked. If at least one swap 
occurred, another pass is made. This process continues until 
no swaps have been made, indicating that the data is sorted 
in numerical order. The LEAY -1,Y above is a tricky way 
to test that Y contains a one. If Y contains a one, a zero results 
after the LEAY and the zero condition code is set, otherwise 
the zero condition code is not set. 



Buffer 



9 



10 



12 



11 



35 



16 



30 



40 



Scan 
direction 



*k These entries 

jj swapped at 1 2 > 1 1 



- 



Bufend 



8 



100 



Scan again 
if at least 
one swap 



Figure 2: Bubble Sort Action 



10) There's no reason why assembly language code can't 
be located in the text screen area. Of course, it has a tendency 
to be destroyed by data displayed on the screen! This 
subroutine can be relocated to the screen by a basic program 
as follows: 



, &H8E / , &RJ5f& , &HA7 , &H82 , &H2 j3 , fiHPC 

•\'*$:\ " A-j'J?*- . ■ i". ' * .V. "i. •. V-*, " • {!'' 



100 DATA &H86, 
110 CLS 

120 FOR 3>&H4/30 to &H40/8+8 
130 READ A: POKE I, A 
140 NEXT I 
150 DEFUSR0=&H4#J3 
160 A«USR0(0) 
170 PRINT "DONEi"! 
180 GOTO 180 

The subroutine is relocated to the first portion of the text 
screen. You'll see garbage characters fill up the first nine 
screen bytes. These garbage characters represent the machine 
language bytes of the assembly language program. The USR0 
transfers control to the subroutine and it starts storing ASCII 
$39 characters to the text screen, starting from the screen end. 
An ASCII $39 is a "9" character, and therefore, nines start 
filling up the screen. When a $39 replaces the second byte 
of the BRA LOOP instruction, however, the branch is done 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 97 



Still puzzled? This routine finds the square root to the next 
lowest integer of the number in OP. For example, if OP 
contained 41,000, the result in the U Register would be 202. 
The crux of the algorithm is the fact that the square root of 
a number is equal to the total number of odd integers in the 
number. The square of 100, for example, is 100 - 1 = 99 - 
3 = 96 - 5 = 91 - 7 = 84 - 9 = 75 - 11 = 64 - 13 = 51 - 15 
= 36 - 17 = 19 - 19 = 0. The number of odd integers is 10 
— 1,3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 19. 

4) The huge program that solves this problem is shown 
below: 



SEX 



sign extend B into A 



This instruction is one of the more interesting in the 6809 
repertoire, but it does nothing more than "sign extend" the 
operand in B into the A Register. If the sign bit, Bit 7, of 
the B Register is zero (positive), zeroes are put into the A 
Register. If the sign of the B Register is one (negative), all 
ones are put into the A Register. 

In case you're hazy about two's complement notation, 
remember that it's a way of expressing both positive and 
negative numbers. An eight-bit register can hold values of 
-128 through +127 in this format. Positive numbers have the 
sign bit set to zero and the number in bits 6 through 0 of 
the Register. A +100 would be 01100100, for example. 
Negative numbers have the sign bit set to one and the two's 
complement of the value in bits 6 through 0. A -100 would 
be 10011100. 

Why SEX? Since 16-bits adds and subtracts, and other 
arithmetic processing is done in the D Register (A and B 
combined), it's a handy way to make a 16-bit signed number 
out of eight bits. 

5) Some of the possible ways to load A with the contents 
of Location S3E00 are: 



LDA $3E00 

LDA -$1FF,X 

LDA $40,Y 

LDA $3E^0 

LDA B,Y 



extended addressing 
indexed addressing 
indexed addressing 
direct page addressing 
accumulator offset addressing 



LDA $3E00,PCR program counter relative addr 

A dark horse candidate is: 

LDD $3E00 

which loads A, but also clobbers the contents of the B register. 

The extended addressing mode specifies the memory 
address in the last two bytes of the three-byte instruction. The 
indexed X-addressing example adds the contents of the X 
Register, S3FFF and -S1FF to get the effective address of 
S3E00 before the load is done. The indexed Y addressing adds 
S3DC0 in Y to $40 to get the same effective address. The 
direct page addressing example computes the effective 
address by using the contents of DP as the upper eight bits 
of the address and the second byte of the instruction — $3E, 
$00 in this case. The accumulator offset adds the contents 
of index Register Y and the contents of B. The PCR example 
puts an offset of -$104 in the last two bytes of the four-byte 
PCR instruction. The effective address is computed by 
adding the current contents of the program counter $3F04 
(the start of the instruction after the LDA) to an offset of 
-$104 to get an effective address of $3E00. 

That wasn't too bad, was it? 



6) This problem isn't hard to follow if you write down the 
results. The X Register points to an open-ended buffer area 
as shown in Figure 1. Each entry in the buffer is made up 
of two bytes. Zero is put into the first entry and one into the 
next to initialize the subroutine. The FIBO loop adds the nth 
entry to the (n + 1) entry. The result is put into the (n + 2) 
entry. The pointer in X is then bumped by two. A BSR then 
calls the FIBO code again. Why the BSR instead of a BRA? 
No reason other than to demonstrate a simple case of 
recursion. The FIBO code is called repeatedly until the result 
is so large that overflow results. In this case the RTS is 
executed to return from the subroutine. Since there are many 
levels of BSRs at this point, each return is made to the first 
RTS repeatedly, much like peeling the layers of skin on an 
onion. 



Buffer 






0 






1: 


1 

- V 2 Bytes/entry 




f ' 1 






2 








4 X points to 




3 


- current entry 




5 






8 






13 






i ; 












Figure 1: Fibonacci Buffer Area 



The results in the buffer area look like this: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 
5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, 2504, 
4181, 6765, 10946, 17711, 28657. Each term is computed as 
the sum of the two preceding it. This sequence is a famous 
mathematical sequence known as the Fibonacci series, with 
applications in diverse areas, including computer algorithms. 

Overflow occurs when the 23rd term is reached with a result 
of 46,368. At this point, the stack is 23 levels deep and uses 
46 bytes for return addresses! If you run this code, make 
certain you have enough room for the stack. The annotated 
code is: 



FIBOS 



FIBO 



OUT 

BUFFER 



LDX 

LDD 

STD 

LDD 

STD 

LDD 

ADDD 

BVS 

STD 

LEAX 

BSR 

RTS 

RMB 



#$ BUFFER 



#1 

+2,X 
,X 

+2,X 

OUT 

+4,X 

+2,X 

FIBO 

1W 



start of buffer 
initialize first term 
in first 2 bytes 
initialize 2nd term 
in second two bytes 

get nth term 

add nth+1 

go if too large 

store nth+2 

blimp 

call compute term 
many happy returns 



196 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



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Automatic Key Repeat for Buffer Editing. 

9 Variable length, Programmable Macro Key buffers can store 

entire programs. Only limited by the size of available memory. 

Programmable Control Character Trapping. 

Programmable Prompt Character or Delay to send next line. 

Programmable Printer rates from 110 to 9600 Baud. 

Send Files directly from the Buffer or Disk. 

Supports True Line Break Transmission. 

Save and Load Text Buffer and Program Key to Tape or Disk. 

Disk Commands include: Load, Save, Kill and Directory. 

Display on Screen or Print the contents of the Bufferr, 

Automatic Memory Sense 16-64K (32K required for Hi-Res ). 

Program and Memory Status Displays. 

Built in Command Menu (Help) Display. 



Auto-Log: is a communications programming language that will enable you to automatically have DPII+ Dial the phone, wait for and respond 
to a log-on prompt, send commands to a remote system, or even to send an entire program automatically. 

AUTOPILOT: is a executive command processor that will automatically process a command file containing a sequence of DPII+ commands 
including Auto-Log commands. 

SUPPORTS: PBJ Word-Pak I. II, R.S. and Double Density 80 Column Cards Not Compatible vith JDOS 

Disto Super Controller w/80 column card & parallel printer Requires 32K & Disk 

PBJ Parallel Printer Card and Dual Serial Port (2SP-Pak) Only 159 00 

Radio Shack Modem-Pak & Deluxe RS-252 Pale, even with Disk. y 

Do you want to write fast efficient machine language programs but you don't want to spend 
the next few years trying to learn how to write them in Assembly language? 
Well with CBASIC. you could be writing them right now! 

CBASIC has its own completely integrated Basic Program Editor 
which allows you to load, edit or create programs for the compiler. 
It is a full featured editor designed specifically for writing and 
editing Basic programs, most likely you'll find you want to use it for 
writing all your Basic programs. It has block move & copy, program 
renumbering, automatic line numbers, screen editing, printer control 
and much more. . 

"The fditor is a very good one and could be the subject for review 
all by itself... • --The RAINBOW, March I $86 

'Comparing fCBs edit mode to CM SIC 'a text editor is like comparing a 
World War II jeep to a modem sedan. Both get you to your destination, 
but what a difference in the ride. — Hot CoCo, Feburary I W6 

The documentation provided with CBASIC is an 8 1/2* 11 Spiral 
Bound book which contains approximatly 120 pages of real 
information. We went to great lengths to provide a manual that is 
not only easy to use and understand, but complete and comprehensive 
enough for even the most sophisticated user. 

"CBASIC's manual is easy to read and written with a minimum of 
technic a/ese. ' —Hot CoCo February , 1 Qo6 

The price of CBASIC is $ 149.00. It is the most expensive Color 
Basic Compiler on the market, and well worth the investment. 
Compare the performance of CBASIC against any Color Basic 
compiler. Dollar for dollar, CBASIC jives you more than any other 
compiler available. Requires 64K & Disk, not JDOS compatible . 



CBASIC is the only fully integrated Basic Compiler and program 
editing system available for the Color Computer. It will allow you to 
take full advantage of all the capabilities available in your color 
computer without having to spend years trying to learn assembly 
language programming. CBASIC allows you to create, edit and 
convert programs from a language you are already familiar with 
Extended Disk Color Basic, into fast efficient machine language 
programs easily and quickly. We spent over 2 years writing and 
refining CBASIC to make it the Best Color Basic compiler available 
for the Color Computer. We added advanced features like a full 
blown program editor, Hi-Res text Displays and 80 column hardware 
support for editing, compiling and even for your compiled programs. 
Plus we made it exceptionally easy to use, CBASIC is the friendliest 
and easiest compiler available for the Color Computer. 

"The most complete fdiior/Compiler I have seen for the CoCo... ' 

-The RAINBOW, March I W6 

CBASIC is Tor BEGINNER & ADVANCED USERS 

CBASIC is a powerful tool for the Beginner as well as the 
Advanced Basic or Machine Language programmer. You can write 
programs without having to worry about the Stack, DP Register, 
memory allocation and so on, because CBASIC will handle it for you 
automatically. For Advanced users. CBASIC will let you control 
every aspect of your program, even generating machine code 
directly in a program easily. 

CBASIC adds many features not found in Color Basic, like 
Interrupt, Reset and On Error handling, and much more. 

Commands and Extensive Hardware Support 

CBASIC features well over 100 compiled Basic Commands and 
Functions that fully support Disk Sequential and Direct access files. 
Tape. Printer and Screen I/O. CBASIC supports ALL the High and 
Low Resolution Graphics, Sound, Play and String Operations available 
in Extended Color Basic, including Graphics GET. PUT. PLAY and 
DRAW, all with 99 .98 syntax compatibility. CBASIC also supports 
the built in Serial 1/0 port with separate programmable printer & 
serial I/O baud rates. You can send and receive data with easy to 
use PRINT. INPUT and INKEY commands; 

CBASIC is the only Color Basic Compiler that includes its own 
Hi-Res 5 1 , 64 or 85 by 24 line display, it also supports the PBJ 
"Word-Pak" I, II and R.S. versions as well as the Disto and Double 
Density 80 column displays. All as part of the standard CBASIC 
package. You can even include them in your compiled programs by 
using a single CBASIC command. 

CBASIC makes full use of the power and flexibility of the 6883 
SAM in the Color Computer. It will fully utilize the 96K of address 
space available in the CoCo during program Creation, Editing and 
Compilation. There is a single CBASIC command for automatic 64K 
RAM control, to allow use of the upper 32K of RAM automatically. 
When used in compiled programs it will automatically switch the 
ROMs and RAM in and out when needed. Plus there are two other 
commands to control of the upper 32K of RAM manually in a 
program. 



"The price tag it carries seemed a bit steep for an integer compiler on first 
glance, but when you add6 4 IK, hi'res drivers, andfult-screenediting, CBASIC 
begins to look more like a bargain.. - — Hot CoCo February, 1 966 
"A Complete Editor/Compiler Well Worth its Price "-RAINBOW March 1066 

COMMANDS SUPPORTED 
I/O COMMANDS: CLOSE. CLOADM, CSAVEM, DRIVE, DSKI$, DSKO$, FIELD, FILES, GET, 
INPUT, LINE INPUT, KILL, LSET, LOADM, OPEN, PRINT, PR INT», PUT, RENAME, RSET, SAVEM, 
WRITE 

CONTROL STATEMENTS: CALL.CHAIN, END, EXEC, FOR, NEXT, STEP, GOTO, GOSUB, 
RETURN, IF, THEN, ELSE, STOP, END, RUN, ON/GOTO, ON/GOSUB, ON ERROR GOTO, ON NMI 
GOTO, ON IRQ GOTO, ON SWI GOTO, ON FIRO GOTO, ON RESET GOTO, IRQ ON, IRQ OFF, 
RAM ON, RAM OFF, RAM64K, IRQ, FIRO, NMI, SWI, STACK, RETI 

COMPILER DIRECTIVES: BASE, ORG, DIM, HIRES, DPSET, GEN, PCLEAR, TRACE ON, TRACE 
OFF, MODULE 

GRPAHICS/SOUND STATEMENTS: PLAY, SOUND, COLOR, CLS, CIRCLE, DRAW, LINE, PAINT, 
PaS, PCOPY, PMODE, PRESET, PSET, RESET, SET, SCREEN, POINT, PPOINT, GET, PUT 
NUMERIC FUNCTIONS: ABS, POS, RND, PEEK, DPEEK, TAB, ASC, LEN, INSTR, VAL, ERR, ERL, 
EOF, SWAP, LOF, LOC, FREE, CVN, VARPTR, JOYSTK, SGN, TIMER, OVEREM, DSEARCH, 
SWITCH POSt INKEY 

STRING FUNCTIONS: CHRt, LEFT$, RIGHTt, MBX, SHU, TRMJ, STRINGS, MKNt,NKEYt, BUFt, 
SWAP!, SWITCH*, HEX1 

OTHER/SPECIAL COMMANDS: AUDIO ON/OFF, DATA, DIM, MOTOR ON/OFF, POKE, DPOKE, 
READ, RESTORE, CBLINK, UNLINK, BR ATE, PRATE, MIDt=,STACK, VERIFY ON/OFF 

To order b y mail, send check or money order for the amount of the program plus 
13.00 lor shipping and handling to the address listed below. 

To order by VIAS, MASTERCARD or COD call us at : (702) 452-0632 (Monday thru 
Saturday, 6am to 5pm PST). 

CER-COMP 
5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas. NV 891 10 
(702)-452-0632 



HI-RES II SCREEN COMMANDER 

Are you tired of looking at the 16 line by 32 character display on 
your CoCo? Do you wish you could see more lines and characters? 
Then HI-RES II is the answer, it can give you the big screen display 
you've always wanted. It will display 24 lines of 32, 42, 5 1 , 64 and 
even 85 true upper and lower case characters per line without any 
hardware modifications. 

HI-RES II is the most powerful screen enhancement package 
available for the Color Computer, yet it is the least expensive. It is 
completely compatible and transparent to Basic. Once the program 
is loaded, everything works the same as before, only you have a 
much better display to work with. It even allows you to have mixed 
text and Hi-resolution graphics on the same screen or have separate 
text and graphics screens. It also has an adjustable automatic key 
repeat feature and allows you to protect up to 23 lines on the 
screen. HI-RES II features over 30 special control code functions 
that allow you to change characters per line, protect display lines, 
change background color, position cursor, switch normal/reverse 
video, underline, double size characters, erase line/screen/to end of 
screen, home cursor, character highlight and much more. It works 
on all models of the CoCo with 16, 32 or 64K and provides 
automatic reset control so HI-RES II won't disappear when you 
press reset. 

Only $24,95 for Tape and $29.95 for Disk 

EDT/ASM 64D 

64K DISK EDITOR ASSEMBLER w I DEBUG 

EDT/ASM 64D is a Disk based co-resident Text Editor & 
Assembler. It has a Hi-Resolution 51 , 64 or 85 column by 24 line 
display; so you see your program listings easily. It also supports the 
PBJ 80 Column Word-Pak cards. The disk also contains a free 
standing Machine Language Debug Monitor, to help you debug 
your assembled programs. 

The Editor in EDT/ASM 64D is the most powerfull, easy to use 
Text Editor available in any Editor/Assembler package for the Color 
Computer. It even has automatic line number generation for easy 
entry of program material. Some of it's features include: 

<& Local and Global string search and/or replace. 

ir> Full screen line editing with immediate line update. 

c> Easy to use Single keystroke editing commands. 

<& Load & Save standard ASCII formatted Tape/Disk files. 

<& Move or Copy single & multiple text lines. 

t> Create and Edit disk files larger than memory. 

t? Hi-Res Text Display 28 to 85 columns by 24 lines. 

t> Supports the PBJ 80 Column cards Word-Pak I & II. 

The Assembler portion of EDT/ASM 64D is the part that creates 
the Machine Language program. It processes the source file(s) 
created or edited by the text editor and creates a LOADM or 
CLOADM binary file on either Disk or Tape. Using library files you 
can assemble an unlimited size file, using several different disk 
drives. 

i> Supports conditional IF/THEN/ELSE assembly. 
& Supports Disk Library files (include). 
c> Supports standard motorola assembler directives 
t> Allows multiple values for FDB & FCB directives. 
& Generates listings to Hi-Res text screen or printer. 
<r> Assembles directly to disk or tape in LOADM format. 
i> Supports up to 9 open disk files during assembly. 
& Allows assembly from editor buffer, Disk or both, 
c?* Full description text error messages. 

DEBUG is a free standing program debugger which provides all 
the functions supported by most system monitors. Some of them 
include: 

Examine and change the contents of memory. 
a> Set and display up to 10 breakpoints in memory. 
ir> Remove single or multiple breakpoints. 
t> Display/Change processor register contents, 
c?* Dump Memory in Hex and ASCII format. 
& Fill Memory range with a specified data pattern. 
t> Move a block of memory. 
& Search memory range for data pattern. 
c? Disassemble memory into op-code format. 

Requires 32K and Disk $59.00 



"The Source" 

Now you can easily Disassemble Color Computer machine lan- 
guage programs directly from disk and generate beautiful, Assemb- 
ler Source Code for a fraction of the cost of other Disassembler/ 
Source generator programs. And, the Source has all the features 
your looking for in a Disassembler. 

<r> Automatic Label generation. 
<r> Allows specifying FCB, FCC and FDB areas. 
t> Save, Load and Edit FCB, FCC, and FDB map on Disk. 
<r> Disassembles programs directly from Disk 
c> Output complete Disassembled listing with labels to the Printer, 
Screen or both. 

<r> Generates Assembler compatible source files directly to disk. 

<r> Generated source files are in standard ASCII format. 

ir> Built in Hex/ASCII dump/display to locate FCB, FCC and FDB 

areas in a program, 
o Built in Disk Directory and Kill file commands. 
<r> Menu display with single key commands for smooth, Easy, 

almost foolproof operation, 
o Written in fast machine language, one of the quickest and 

easiest to use Disassemblers available. 

Requires 32K and Disk $34,95 

TEXTPRO III 
"The Advanced Word Processing System" 

<r> 9 Hi-Resolution Display Formats from 28 to 255 columns by 24 
lines. 

<r> True Upper and Lower Case display format. 
<r> Three Different Programmable Header lines, re-definable at 
anytime. 

<r> Programmable Footer line & Automatic Footnote System. 
<r> 10 Programmable Tab stops & 7 Tab Function Commands, 
o Automatic Line Justification, Centering, Flush left and Flush 
right. 

On screen display of underlining and Double size characters. 
O Change indents, margins, line length, etc. at anytime in a 
document. 

<r? Create and Edit files larger than memory, up to the size of a 
full disk. 

<r> Easily imbed any number of format and control codes for 
printers, 

<r> Automatic Memory sense 16-64K with up to 48K of 
workspace. 

<r> Typist Friendly line and Command format entry w/ auto key 
repeat. 

<r> Fully supports the use of 80 column hardware cards. 
TEXTPRO III is an advanced word processing system designed 
for speed, flexability and extensive document processing. It is not 
like most of the other word processing programs available for the 
Color Computer. If you are looking for a simple word processor to 
write letters or other short documents, then most likely you'll be 
better off with one of the other word processors. But, if you want a 
powerful word processing program with extensive document 
formatting features to handle large documents, term papers, man- 
uals, complex formating problems and letter writing, then TEX- 
TPRO is what, your looking for. TEXTPRO works in a totally 
different way than most word processing programs. It uses simple 2 
character abbreviations of words or phrases for commands and 
formatting information that you imbed directly in your text. There 
are over 50 different formating commands you can use without ever 
leaving the text your working on. There are no time comsuming, 
and often furstrating menu chases, you are irv total control at all 
times. The formatted output can be displayed directly on the screen, 
showing you exactly what your printed document will look like 
before a single word is ever printed. This includes margins, head- 
ers, footers, page numbers, page breaks, underlining, column 
formating and full justification. 

Disk $59.95 Tape $49.95 

To order products by mail, send check or money order for the amount of 
purchase, plus $3.00 for shipping & handling to the address below. 

To order by VISA, MASTERCARD or C.O.D. call us at the 
number listed below (Monday thru Saturday, 8am to 5pm PST). 

CER-COMP 
5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 
© (702) 452-0632 S 



) The A Register contains a value of zero through 14. Write 
a routine to convert the values as follows: 

Zero through eight become one through nine 

Nine through 15 become 16 through 22 



The routine must consist of fewer than 10 instructions. 

) This one shouldn't be too bad. The A Register contains 
a two's complement number. Divide this number by 8. The 
result must be valid for either positive or negative 
numbers. As an example, -100 divided by 8 must produce 
a result of -12. and +100 divided by 8 must produce a result 
of +12. 

) A table containing values of zero through 255 starts at 
BUFFER and ends at BUFEND. What does this code do? 



LOOPl 


LDY 


n 




LDX 


# BUFFER 


LOOP2 


LDD 


,x+ 




CMPA 


V 




BLO 


NEXT 




LDY 


#1 




EXG 


A, B 




STD 


-i,x 


NEXT 


CMPX 


# BUFEND 




BNE 


LOOP2 




LEAY 






BEQ 


LOOPl 



)) This is an assembly language subroutine that's called 
from a BASIC program. It starts at Location $400, the 
beginning of the text screen. What does it accomplish? 
Or does it even run? 



LDA #$39 

LDX #$600 

LOOP STA , -X 

BRA LOOP 



) At a recent Color Computer User's Group party, there 
were eight CoCo freaks at a corner table. The following 
program determines which of these probabilities? 

a) The probability that there will be twice as many men 
as women among the users. 

b) The probability that there will be an equal number 
of men and women among the users. 

c) The probability that there will be more men then 
women among the users. 

d) The probability that the user on the left will have 
an autographed copy of The Complete Rainbow Guide 
to 





LDX 


n 




CLR 


CNT 


LOOPl 


CLRB 






DEC 


CNT 




LDA 


CNT 




BEQ 


OUT 


LOOP2 


LSLA 






BCC 


NEXT1 




INCB 






TSTA 






BEQ 


FIN 


NEXT1 


BRA 


LOOP2 


FIN 


CMPB 


#4 




BNE 


NEXT2 




LEAX 


1,X 


NEXT2 


BRA 


LOOPl 


OUT 


RTS 




CNT 


RMB 


1 



12) Finally, the last problem: Which two registers in the 6809 
can be added together with one instruction? 

The Answers 

1) This should have been an easy one if you remembered 
that the 6809 has a multiply instruction called MUL. The 
code is this: 

LDA #230 load A with decimal 23)3 
LDB #15 load B with decimal 15 
MUL find product in D 

The result, 3450, is in D after multiplying 230 in A and 
15 in B ($E6 in A and $0E in B). Remember the MUL 
instruction is an unsigned multiply. This means each operand 
in A and B can be zero through 255 and represents only 
positive numbers. The maximum product will be 255 times 
255 or 65,025 ($FE, $01). 

2) The code in the question is reproduced again with 
comments below: 





LDD 


OP1 


load D with operand 1 




LDU 


#0 


clear quotient 


LOOP 


SUBD 


OP2 


subtract divisor 




BLO 


OUT 


go if residue < 0 




LEAU 


if u 


bump quotient 




BRA 


LOOP 


loop 'til residue < 0 


OUT 


JMP 


OUT 


dummy 


OP1 


FDB 


XXX 


16-bit dividend 


OP2 


FDB 


XXX 


8-bit divisor 



This code is a divide routine that divides a 16-bit operand 
in D by an eight-bit operand in memory. The quotient result 
is in U at the end of the divide. Unfortunately, the 6809 
doesn't have a divide instruction, so any division has to be 
accomplished in software. The division here is not a 
particularly effective division because it divides by repetitive 
subtraction. If OP1 is 65535 (SFFFF) and OP2 is one, for 
example, the loop is executed 65536 times! However, the code 
here is uncomplicated compared to a bit-by-bit divide and 
it's not bad to use occasionally. 



3) The code in the question is reproduced again with 
comments below: 





LDD 


#1 


integer 




STD 


INT 


store for subtract 




LDU 


#0 


clear result 




LDD 


OP 


get square 


LOOP 


SUBD 


INT 


subtract 1, 3, 5, etc. 




BLO 


DONE 


go if residue < p 




LEAU 


i,u 


bump result 




LDX 


INT 


set next odd integer 




LEAX 


2,X 






STX 


INT 






BRA 


LOOP 


loop *til residue < 0 


DONE 


JMP 


DONE 


dummy 


DONE 


JMP 


DONE 


dummy 


OP 


FDB 


XXX 


number to find SQR 


INT 


RMB 


2 


holds odd integers 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 93 



BARDEN'S BUFFER 





dentin 


g a Quiz for Color 


Coi 


tnputer 


Assembly Language 



By William Barden, Jr. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Our local Color Computer Users Group in Orange 
County, Calif., is an organization with somewhat 
eclectic interests. Within the organization are special 
interest groups on BASIC, assembly language, sushi and 
automatic weapons. In spite of the weird aspects of the user's 
group, it's fun to attend the meetings. At the last meeting, 
the chairman of the SIG on assembly language, presented an 
enjoyable little assembly language quiz. (Actually, it wasn't 
that enjoyable. The doors were locked and we couldn't get 
out until we had tried the quiz.) 

The quiz is reproduced in this month's column so you can 
test yourself and see if you really know assembly language 
as well as you think you do. Readers who get all answers 
correct will be treated to a sushi lunch and a used AK-47 
assault rifle the next time they're in Orange County. The 
answers to all questions are at the end of this column. A score 
of 10 to 12 qualifies you as a master assembly language 
programmer, 7 to 9 indicates that you are a professional AL 
programmer, 4 to 6 marks you as a journeyman AL 
programmer, and less than 4 means you better go back and 
hit the books to brush up on your programming skills. 

The Quiz 

1) Here's an easy one to begin with. Write an assembly 
language program to load the A Register with decimal 230 
and the B Register with decimal 15, and then find the 
product of the two numbers in the D Register (A and B). 



2) What does this code do? 




A. , 



LDD 
LD0 

libOF SUBD 
BLO 
LEAU 
BRA 
OUT JMP 
0P1 FDB 
OP2 FDB 



OP1 

#2 

0P2 
OUT 
1>U 
LOOP 

OUT 



XXX 







Bill Barden has written 27 books and over 100 magazine 
articles on various computer topics. His 20 years experience 
in the industry covers a wide background: programming, 
systems analyzing and managing projects ranging from 
mainframes to microcomputers. 



3) Here's a relative toughie, but if you write down the results 
for a few test cases, you should be able to see what this 
code accomplishes: 




LDD 


#1 


STD 


INT 


LDU 


#0 


LDD 


OP 


LOOP SUBD 


INT 


BLO 


DONE 


LEAU 


1,U 


LDX 


INT 


LEAX 


2,X 


STX 


INT 


BRA 


LOOP 


DONE JMP 


DONE 


OP FDB 


XXX 


INT RMB 


2 



4) If you're reeling from the last problem, here's one that 
should be easier. The B Register contains a two's comple- 
ment number. Write a short piece of code to put a zero 
into the A Register if B is positive, or a -1 into A if B is 
negative. Hint: The 6809 instructions RELGN and 
POLITCS are not used in the code. 

5) This one tests your addressing mode capability. Location 
$3E00 contains a constant. The X Register contains a value 
of $3FFF. The Y Register contains $3DC0. The DP 
register contains a value of $3E. The B Register contains 
$40. Write down at least four ways to load the A Register 
with the constant. Assume the instruction to be used is 
located at S3F00. 

6) Here's a tricky one. What does this code accomplish? 



FIBO 



OUT 



LDX 




LDD 




STD 


,x 




#1 


STD 


+2,X 


LDD 


m 


ADDD 


+2,X 


BVS 


OUT 


STD 


+4yX++, 


BSR 


FIBO : 


RTS 




RTS 





192 



THE RAINBOW November 1 986 





TUTORIAL 



Readable 



Equivalents 

toC 



By Calvin Dodge 



When I first began programming in C, I had a problem 
remembering which conditional operators did what 
(like "!=" for not equal rather than "< >"). Fortu- 
nately, the c pre-processor statement "#define" made it easy 
to rename things and help my memory. I created a file in 
/dl/DEFS called logic.h containing the following: 

#define TRUE 1 
#define FALSE 0 

Jdefine EQUALS == 
#define NOTEQUALTO != 

/* bitwise operations */ 
#define AND & 
#define NOT ~ 
#define XOR A 
#define OR 



/* logical operations */ 
#define LAND && 
#def ine LOR | | 
#define LNOT ! 

#def ine MOD % 

/* end of "logic.h" */ 

Now, in every program I have a line near the beginning that 
says ttinclude<logic.h>. When I type if (a EQUALS b), the 
compiler knows I mean if (a == b). This makes it easier to 
avoid typing i f ( a=b ) , which means "make a equal to b, then 
see if a is non-zero." 

I hope this technique helps make your programming easier 
and your programs more readable. A c program can use all 
the readability it can get! 

(Questions about this tip may be directed to the author at 
4490 North Yukon Court 2 A, Wheatridge, CO 80033, 303-420- 
9758. Please enclose an SASE when writing.) 



Calvin Dodge is a self-employed programmer I consultant. He 
enjoys OS-9 and C and loves his CoCo. His wife, Elsi, teaches 
emotionally and behaviorally disturbed children and uses the 
CoCo to write assignment sheets, reports, and so on. They live 
in Wheatridge, Colorado. 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 191 



Let's get into edit mode and call our 
procedure sieve: 



B:b sieve 

PROCEDURE SIEVE 
* 

£■;"'' 



A common error I make is to forget 
the ending quote when I print a string. 
Here is what happens when I make that 
mistake: 

t: print "Missing quote 
print "Missing quote 

i ffcrar 8041 ^l^MM^^A . 
, ;*fNo Ending ^kkfM'fff ■ 
*0000 ERR print "Missing quote 



... 



When a syntax error like this is 
detected, the cursor is positioned just 
before the offending line in the proce- 
dure as indicated by the '*'. To correct 
the error, type a c in the control char- 
acter position. Follow it with a delimiter 
character which can be a slash or any 
punctuation character. Next comes the 
character(s) to change. Here we need to 
add a character, so enter an e to posi- 
tion where the added character is to go, 
following with a delimiter matching the 
first one and then b". Here is how it 
looks and the result: 



. .,1 ' -\o ■ ■ 



E: 



print *M i ss 1 ng qu □ ta 1 



The cursor is now just past the line 
in the program. If you go back to look 
at the line again by typing a dash as a 
control character, it looks different: 




E ■ 

*0000 



PRINT "Mia&ing quota 



Once the line is right, BASIC09 com- 
piles it. On going back, the line was 
decompiled and the keyword PRINT 
was capitalized. It is good practice to 
enter programs in lowercase. Then, 
when you go back over the code or list 
it to the printer, only the keywords are 
capitalized. The program will be easier 
to follow. Now issue a control character 
*d' to delete the line: 




PROCEDURE sieve 
DIM sizeof: INTEGER 
sizeof :=8190 
BASE fl 

DIM flags ( 8195 ): BOOLEAN 

DIM i , prime ,k, count , iter: INTEGER 

PRINT iterations" 

SHELL "date t" 

FOR iters«l TO 10 

count 

FOR i:»p TO sizeof 
flags (i) :*TRUE 
NEXT i 

PRINT "initialized" 
FOR i:=p TO sizeof 
IF flags (i) THEN 
prime :=»i+i+3 
(* print prime *) 
k:»i+prime 
WHILE k<«sizeof DO 
flags (k) :*FALSE 
k:«k+prime 

ENDWHILE 

count : ^count+ 1 
ENDIF 
NEXT i 
NEXT iter 
SHELL "date t" 
PRINT count; "primes" 

END 

Now we can start looking at some of 
the parts that will be in most BAS1C09 
procedures. Like pascal, BAS1C09 lacks 
the dynamic memory management in 
conventional basics. Therefore, varia- 
bles must be dimensioned to inform 
BASIC09 how to arrange data memory. 

DIM sizeof: INTEGER 
sizeof :=8190 
BASE G 

DIM f lags (8195 ) : BOOLEAN 

DIM i , prime, k, count, iter: 1? 

INTEGER 

There are a variety of variable types 
in BASIC09, but only Boolean and In- 
teger appear in our example. The var- 
iable flags (B195) is an array starting 
with a Oth member (base 0) with 8195 
members. A Boolean variable uses only 
one byte, so the array flags (8195) 
uses 8196 bytes with its 0 member. 
Integer variables use two bytes each — 
more bytes are used to dimension them 
than their data uses. 

Variables are not automatically in- 
itialized when the program is run. A 
variable is assigned memory space. That 
space may contain any sort of garbage. 
The following code makes 10 passes 
through the program and initializes the 
variable count and array flag (8195) 
at the beginning of each pass: 

FOR lter:=l TO 10 
count :=0 

FOR i :=0 TO sizeof 
flags(i) :=TRUE 
NEXT I 

PRINT "initialized 




Now enter the following sieve program. Following the initialization is the 



program code that does the real work. 
BASIC09 custom calls for assignments to 
be made with ":=" rather than just *=\ 
This follows PASCAL practice. For ex- 
ample, the line count :=0. However, if 
we wanted to know if count were a zero 
in an IF statement, the Vis not used and 
will give an error. The right way is IF 
count=0 THEN. 

OS-9 modules can be called from a 
running BASIC09 program. Shell "date t" 
is an example. The sieve program prints 
the date and time when the program 
starts and, when it has finished, it serves 
as a timer except you need to subtract 
the start time from the finish time to get 
elasped time. 

With the program properly entered, 
type the control character q and press 
enter to leave edit mode. Now BASIC09 
checks that variables have all been 
declared and that all control structure 
keywords match up properly. If you get 
error messages, from system mode type 
e and press enter which puts you back 
in edit with your procedure to make 
corrections. Many times a bunch of 
error messages show up. One missing 
NEXT or ENDIF near the front of the 
precedure confuses BAS1C09 and it pro- 
duces an error message for each suc- 
ceeding control structure. When this 
happens, I list the program from system 
mode to the printer with the command 
list myprogram >/p. All error mes- 
sages produced on leaving edit are 
printed at the end of the listing. 

Let's assume you escaped edit mode 
without incident. Type save sieve to 
save the program to your current data 
directory. Finally type run sieve. 

OK, how fast is fast? The C version 
compiled with the Microware C com- 
piler under OS-9 on my CoCo executed 
in 24 seconds. Not bad for a machine 
running at .9 MHz. For comparison, a 
22 second time was reported for a C 
compiled program on an IBM PC at 
4.77 MHz clock. Because of lack of 
integers and memory, the sieve cannot 
be run under CoCo basic, basica on 
an IBM PC was reported with a 1,990 
second benchmark running integer 
variables. 

Fanfare please! The BASIC09 sieve 
took 450 seconds on my CoCo. There 
was no difference between running 
source code in the compiler and packed 
code. More about packing in a later 
column. I expect doubling the clock rate 
on the CoCo 3 will halve the run time. 
Now you know one reason I have not 
moved to a Tandy 1000 or something 
similar. 



190 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



Whenever you are in system mode 
you can press ENTER and a directory of 
BASIC09 procedures in your workspace 
is displayed. An asterisk (*) appears to 
the left of the last active procedure. This 
directory also lists the size of each 
procedure in the workspace, its data 
space requirements and available 
workspace memory. Since none of the 
procedures is running at this time, no 
data space is allocated. The situation 
arises when the data space needed by a 
procedure is larger than available 
workspace memory. BASIC09 flags this 
by printing a question mark after the 
data space requirement for the proce- 
dure. 

You cannot run a procedure when 
there is insufficient data space. It is 
important that you be able to run the 
source code version of your program 
from BASIC09 system mode because 
Debug mode is available. There are a 
number of strategies available to make 
this happen. One is to enlarge the 
workspace to use all available memory. 
A second is to keep procedures small 
and load them only as needed. A third 
is to limit data memory requirements 
until the procedure is totally debugged. 



This third option depends on how you 
dimension variables. We'll discuss that 
in a later column. 

Now it's time to write a short pro- 
gram and get some hands-on expe- 
rience. With the new CoCo 3, it is going 
to be fun to measure just how much 
faster it is at the 1.7 MHz clock rate. 
There are lots of possible benchmark 
measures, but one that is generously 
documented is the Sieve of Eratos- 
thenes program to calculate prime 
numbers. Versions of the program in 
various languages including c and 
PASCAL, along with execution times on 
various microcomputers were pub- 
lished in "Eratosthenes Revisited: Once 
More Through the Sieve," by Jim 
Gilbreath and Gary Gilbreath, Page 
283, Byte Magazine, January 1983. 

In BASIC09 system mode, type e 
sieve. This puts you into edit mode, 
ready to type in the program. You know 
you are in the editor because the B: 
prompt of system mode is replaced with 
an E: prompt. The cursor sits in the 
space after the colon. Chapter 4 of the 
BASIC09 manual gives a good descrip- 
tion of how to use the editor. 

The first character entered after the 



E: prompt is the command character. 
BASIC09 source code may be line num- 
bered or not. The ability to eliminate 
line numbers is one of the language's 
major strengths, A space typed at the 
control character position permits entry 
of any characters that follow as a string. 
When the ENTER key is pressed, BASIC09 
attempts to compile the preceding string 
to a condensed form known as I code. 
If it can, all is well and the E: prompt 
returns for entry of the next line or a 
control character. If the line cannot be 
compiled, it is reprinted on the screen 
with an arrow pointing to the suspected 
error point along with an error message. 
At minimum, the message may look like 
this example from the manual: 01FC 
ERR 843. 

The 0 1 FC is the number of bytes f r o m 
the beginning of the procedure to the 
error that was interpreted to be #43. 

To illustrate, let's do a step-by-step 
example. BASIC09 is loaded and we are 
at the B: prompt: 

Basic09 

ready 

B: 



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November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 89 




BASIC09 

OS-9 



a 



BITS AND BYTES OF BASIC 



BASIC09 on the CoCo 3 



By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



The new Color Computer 3 is here 
and it's what many of us had 
been waiting for in a new CoCo. 
As expected, Level II OS-9 is provided 
which can fully utilize a 512K machine. 
The Level II OS-9 package includes 
BASIC09 rather than an assembler and 
sells for a modest $79.95. 

While all software that runs on a 
CoCo 2 will run on the new machine 
(provided undocumented ROM calls 
are not used), these programs run in the 
CoCo 2 mode and do not use the en- 
hancements in the CoCo 3. Current 
BASIC09 provides some graphics support 
for CoCo 2 modes. Level II BASIC09 is 
expected to support the new graphics 
modes. This, coupled with the fact that 
BASIC09 comes with Level II OS-9, 
should drastically increase its popular- 
ity. Up to now, there has been little 
incentive for the more casual user to buy 
BASIC09. The only available software for 
BASIC09 comes from the OS-9 Users 
Group. Because of the small group of 
owners, there has been no commercial 
BASIC09 software. This may change. 

BASIC09 has always had major advan- 
tages over Extended Color BASIC. Two 
of these are speed and programming 
ease. Provided adequate graphics com- 
mands are available in the new version, 
it will be possible to write game pro- 
grams that otherwise would need to be 
written in assembly language or C. This 
is not to say BASIC09 rivals machine 
language in speed; it doesn't. But it is 
much faster than Extended Color BASIC 
or, for that matter, GW-BASIC running 



Richard White lives in Fairfield, Ohio, 
has a long background with microcom- 
puters and specializes in BASIC pro- 
gramming. With Don Dollberg, he is 
the co-author of the TIMS database 
management program. 



on MS-DOS machines. Couple this 
with the 1.7 MHz microprocessor 
speed, and all sorts of programming 
doors open. 

In most respects, BASIC09 is a pro- 
grammer's dream. First, it is very mod- 
ular. Separate procedures may be saved 
separately and loaded as needed from 
the disk. When the procedure has been 
used and is no longer needed, it can be 
killed, freeing memory for other proce- 
dures. 

Though the current BASIC09 editor is 
a line editor, it does do syntax checking 
as each line is entered. I will put up with 
a line editor just to get this feature. 
Further, other checks are made when 
you leave the edit mode. Forget a NEXT, 
for example, and you are told. 

The Debug mode is another highly 
appreciated feature. The syntax and 
other program details may be correct 
and the darned thing still won't work. 
With Debug, you can single step 
through the program and really see 
what is happening. 

In the February RAINBOW (Page 23 1), 
I talked about how to get set up to use 
BASIC09. Those instructions may not 
necessarily apply to the Level II version. 
Still, if you are just getting started with 
BASIC09, you may want to study that 
column. In March, I discussed what 
happens when you first get BASIC09 up 
and running (Page 226). I'm going to 
summarize some of that material, but 
you may want to read that article, too. 

The BASIC09 distribution disk comes 
with four files. At minimum, two of 
these, basic09 and runb must be copied 
to the CMDS directory of your system 
disk. We'll worry about the other files 
later. With the CMDS as your execu- 
tion directory, type EX BfiSIC09 810K. 
BASIC09 loads and you are in its system 
mode. The #10K provides 10K bytes of 
workspace. If you don't do this, BASIC09 



defaults to a 4K byte workspace of 
which a little over IK is allocated for 
BASlC09's own use. You can change the 
workspace size from system mode. Type 
mem 10000 to get 10K bytes. Type mem 
and available workspace memory is 
displayed. Available memory for the 
workspace depends on which proce- 
dures are loaded when you boot OS-9. 
I can use as much as 14K and still have 
some memory left outside BASIC09 for 
loading and using disk-resident OS-9 
utilities. 

You can do a number of things in the 
system mode. Type e or edit, and a 
procedure name, and you enter the edit 
mode. This is the line editor which 
permits you to write a program module 
or edit one whose source code was 
loaded while you were in the system 
mode. Once you have entered and 
edited your program, you will want to 
run it to see if it works. While in edit 
mode, type q and press ENTER to return 
to system mode. Now you can type run 
and the procedure name to run the 
program. Note that in BASIC09, pro- 
grams or program modules are called 
procedures. 

Despite the syntax checking the ed- 
itor does as you enter program lines and 
the checking done when you quit the 
editor, there may still be problems in 
your program. Some of these BASIC09 
will find as the program runs. In this 
case, it puts you into Debug mode and 
displays the offending line along with an 
error message. If you have printerr in 
your boot and the file of error messages 
on your system disk, you get an error 
number and message. Otherwise, you 
get only an error number which you can 
look up in the BASIC09 manual. At this 
point, make sure you understand which 
line has offended BASIC09 and the type 
of error, and press ENTER to return to 
the system mode. 



1 88 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



HT=(RND(S<d2G)+l<d) :GDSUB HT 

However, this a/ways sends the com- 
puter back to Line 0. Hopefully there is 
a simple answer to this problem and I 
will feel foolish when I see it. 

Kurt Hegle 
Duluth, MN 

I have seen the following lines in a few 
programs: 

10 X=RND(10):IF X=0 THEN 10 

20 ON R GOTO 30,40,50,60,70,80, 

90,100,110,120 

i 

See if this method will work for you, 
Kurt. 



• / have written a mailing list program 
which writes a disk file containing all 
the information. Since I own a CoCo 
that won't handle the speed-up poke, 
the program is extremely slow. I have 
been contemplating rewriting the pro- 
gram in machine language but I can't 
figure out what to do with the disk 
routine. The disk manual lists only one 
built-in subroutine and it doesn 't tell me 
how to update the directory. How is the 
directory set up and how do I update it? 

Blair G. Learn 
Trafford, PA 

It sounds like it would be simple, 
doesn't it Blair? Well, it's not. Commu- 
nication between the CoCo and disk 
files is accomplished by the use of FCBs, 
or file control blocks of data. A descrip- 
tion of how all of this works is beyond 
the scope of this column, but if you can 
follow an assembly listing of the ma- 
chine code I would recommend Disk 
BASIC Unraveled, available from 



Spectrum Projects. This book also 
explains how all of this works, but it's 
not for casual reading. 



• / am interested in writing some as- 
sembly programs to access the disk 
drive directly without calling 
DSKCON. I have the addresses for the 
controller's registers, but I need the 
specifications for these registers. For 
example, I know that the status/ com- 
mand register is at SFF48 but I don't 
know what the status bits represent. I 
know several of the commands, but I 
am looking for a complete list. I am 
hoping to write a CoCo-MS-DOS util- 
ity that would allow cross copying and 
formatting similar to the one published 

in THE RAINBOW. 

David Fulmer 
Herminie, PA 

David, I would again suggest Disk 
BASIC Unraveled. It has an extensive 
explanation of the WD 1793 Floppy 
Disk Controller, including commands 
and the buffer addresses you mention. 



• My printer requires receipt of an 
actual line feed character to perform 
this function. It cannot be derived from 
carriage return. Is there a poke or 
relatively simple software modification 
to cause the carriage return! line feed 
combination? 

David Schoepf 
Vicksburg, MS 

We have printed a program for gener- 
ating LFs several times in the RAINBOW. 
If you want to obtain a copy of the 



program without looking through the 
back issues, try the basic database on 
Delphi. Look for a program called 
LFCR, David, submitted by you-know- 
who. I use this program all the time. 



• What are the advantages / disadvan- 
tages of a Multi-Pak versus a triple Y 
cable? 

If I only have three ROM Paks, is 
there a reason why I should consider a 
Multi-Pak? 

Philip Raleigh 
Augusta, MI 

If you are using ROM Paks, Philip, 
you have to have a Multi-Pak. ROM 
Paks have no address decoding scheme 
to distinguish where they are located in 
memory. Another way to state the same 
thing is that all ROM Paks are at the 
same memory address, SC000. By using 
a Multi-Pak you select the one you want 
to use by enabling the chip select line for 
that particular slot. Some other hard- 
ware has address decoding circuitry, 
therefore a Multi-Pak is not necessary. 



Your technical questions are welcomed. 
Please address them to: Downloads, the 
rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit for 
space and clarity. Due to the large volume 
of mail we receive, we are unable to answer 
letters individually. 

Your technical questions may also be sent 
to us through the MAIL section of our new 
Delphi CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> 
prompt, pick DELPHI MAIL, then type 
SEND and address TO: DANDOWNARD. 
Be sure to include your complete name and 
address. 



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November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 87 



t 



DOWNLOADS 



Extending Your 

BASIC ROM 

4 

By Dan Downard 
Rainbow Technical Editoi 



• A few months ago, one of my relatives 
bought a 16K CoCo 2 with standard 
Color BASIC. It was child's play to 
upgrade it to 64K, and I can easily buy 
an Extended BASIC ROM in Montreal 
Do I only have to replace the chip or 
is there any jumper or soldering needed 
to complete the job? 

Alain Hetu 
Montreal Quebec 

On the original Color Computer and 
most CoCo 2 models, Alain, the Ex- 
tended BASIC ROM is a 24-pin chip that 
simply plugs into the empty socket next 
to the existing Color BASIC ROM. With 
this version, no jumper changes are 
necessary. 

On a number of CoCo 2s manufac- 
tured in Korea, the existing Color BASIC 
24-pin chip is installed in a 28-pin 
socket; to install Extended BASIC, you 
replace this chip with a different 28-pin 
device that contains both Color BASIC 
and Extended BASIC. In addition, sev- 
eral jumper wires (marked 64K next to 
the wire and 128K near an adjacent 
hole) will have to be changed so that the 
128K side is connected to the center 
hole. 

Check your machine before buying a 
ROM to install in it, and make sure the 
dealer sells you the right chip for your 
version of the CoCo. 



Dan Downard is an electrical engineer 
and has been involved in electronics for 
27 years through Ham radio (K4KWT). 
His interest in computers began about 
eight years ago and he has built several 
68 XX systems. 



1 86 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



• lam working on a BBS program right 
now and was wondering how to make 
the user's screen clear in this program. 
I know it is a type of character code but 
I don't know what the code is. 

Steve Slack 
Bear, DE 

It depends on what type of terminal 
software the BBS user has, Steve. Nor- 
mally an escape sequence is used by 
most modern terminal emulation soft- 
ware to clear the screen and home the 
cursor. Unless your BBS has the capa- 
bility of customizing the user in terms 
of his terminal type, I wouldn't even try 
to send a clear screen code. 



• I have an Adds- Regent-200 Terminal. 
Is there any way to use the monitor with 
my CoCo? The Regent monitor uses 
separate horizontal vertical and video 
inputs. Could it be interfaced with the 
RS-232 Ij O? 

John G. Wood 
Schenectady, NY 

John, there are two ways to use the 
terminal, but you can't use just the 
monitor. The Remote2 program in this 
issue of the rainbow permits operation 
of your CoCo from a remote, terminal. 

Another way to accomplish this task 
is by using the multi-user features of 
OS-9. OS-9 has the ability to be shared 
by a remote terminal either through the 
serial I/O input on the rear of your 
CoCo, or by use of an RS-232 Pak. 



• I'm attempting to start a new BBS ir 
San Diego and Denver for the Coloi 
Computer. The problem is that I can', 
find an Ij O driver for a BASIC program 
If you can help me at all I would reall) 
appreciate it. 

Matthew Lemons 
San Diego, CA 

Matthew, the Remote2 progam men- 
tioned in the previous letter will also 
solve your problem, and for the price ol 
your rainbow magazine. 



• lam using a 64 K Color Computer it 
Mexico City which is at an altitude q 
7,250 feet above sea level In the envi 
ronmental specifications for the CoCc 
it says: altitude -100 to 6,000 feet abovi 
sea level. Why? Will I have any prob 
lems? So far it's working just fine. 

A. Bromberz 
Mexico City, Mexico 

I am sure your CoCo will work fine 
in Mexico City, but I do not know the 
reason for the altitude limitation. Fir 
sure we have someone reading the 
column who can satisfy our curiosity, 
though. 



• / am writing a program in which 1 
would like to GDSUB a random choice 
of lines between 11 and 5036. Here is 
how I am attempting to do this: 



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school use provide drill and practice with 
basic "-/+/-*-/x" Grades 1-6. 

32K Ext. Basic 
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Vocabulary Management System— Helps 
children learn and practice using vocabu- 
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including three printer segments for tests, 
puzzles, worksheets and five games; many 
features make this a popular seller! 

Requires 16K Ext. Basic/ 

32K for Printer Output 
Tape $39.95 Disk $42.95 

Fractions— A Three-Program Package. 
1 /Mixed & Improper 2/Equivalence 
3/Lowest Terms. Practice, review and defi- 
nitions make learning easy. 

32K Ext. Basic 
Tape $30.95 Disk $35.95 




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• / have a Co Co I (Catalog No. 26- 
3003) I have upgraded to 64 K. I cannot 
get the high-speed poke (POKE 
65495,0,) to work. 

Ronald J. Hauck 
Hilton, NY 



Neither the CoCo 1 nor 2 was de- 
signed to run with either high-speed 
poke. The chips on the board and the 
layout of those chips and their support 
circuitry were not designed for reliable 
operation at those speeds. It is true that 
some CoCo Is and most CoCo 2s do 
appear to run faster after the high-speed 
poke, but I recommend never using it 
for any serious computing. All models 
of CoCo 1 computers are less likely to 
even appear to run properly at higher 
speeds because of RFI "smog-control" 
capacitors on the *E' and 4 Q' clock that 
distort the clock signals. These capac- 
itors are best yanked out in the interests 
of cleaner operation at the normal 
speed. On your 'F' or "NC" board 
revision model of CoCo, this means 
cutting out C36 and C37 (both small 56 
pF [picofarad] disk capacitors). On 
earlier 'D' and board CoCo 1 mod- 
els, these are numbered C73 and C75. 
While you are at it, I suggest you cut out 
C30 (also a 56 pF capacitor). On T>' and 
'E' board CoCo Is that means cutting 
out C86 (a 220 pF capacitor). 

The CoCo 3 was designed from the 
start to properly operate at full double 
speed. 



* I am attempting to use my CoCo as 
a terminal for my IBM PC compatible. 
I use the MODE command and 
changed consoles to COM1 using MS- 
DOS' CTTY command. Iam using VIP 
Term on my CoCo, but I cannot get this 
to work. I suspect a problem in the way 
I wired my null modem cable. 

Bruce Bell 
Rockmart, GA 

* I am trying to use Deskmate's Tele- 
com to transfer data between my CoCo 
and my Tandy Model 100. I can get 
keypresses on the M 100 to display on 
the CoCo screen but not the other way 
around. I also tried using the software 
in my RS-232 Program Pak for my 
CoCo, but had the same problem. Can 
you help? 

Graeme Mead 
Kuala Belait, Brunei 



I own both a Model 100 and an IBM 
PC XT-compatible, and I, too, had 
problems getting my CoCo to talk 
properly to them. I use the PBJ 2SP 
dual RS-232 Pak and Mikeyterm on my 
CoCo, and use PROCOM on my PC 
compatible and either normal Telecom 
or Telecom enhanced by Sigea System's 
XT EL on my Model 100. The solution 
to my cable problem involved arranging 
for proper handshaking on the RS-232 
control line(s). Those using PBJ 2SP- 
Pak or the bit-banger port itself should 
use the following cable: 



CoCo bit banger Model 100 or PC compatible 
or PBJ 2S P port DB25 coiraectoic 
four-pin DIN connector 



Pin I 

(carrier detect) 



Pin 2 (RD) 
Pin 3 (gnd) 
Pin 4 (TO) 



Pins 6, 8 and 20 
(short those pins and 
hook them to Pin 1 of 
CoCo) 

Pin 2 (TD) 

Pin 7 (gnd) 

Pin 3 (RD) 




In addition, on the DB25 connector 
that plugs into the M 100 or PC com- 
patible, short Pin 4 to Pin 5. 

If you are using an RS-232 Pak, the 
needed null modem connector will have 
DB25 connectors at both ends: 



CoCo RS-232 Pak 
DB25 connector 


PC Compatible or M 100 
DB25 connector 


Pin2(TD) 


Pin3(RD) 


Pin 3 (RD) 


Pin2(TD) 


Pin 1 (gnd) 


Pin 7 (gnd) 


Short together 
pins 5, 6 and 8 
of CoCo RS-232 Pak 
DB2S connector 


Short together pins 

4 and 5, and 

short pins 6, 8 

and 20 of the M 100 or 

PC compatible 

connector. 



(On the PC compatible, pins 4 and 5 are 
not connected to pins 6, 8 and 20.) 

In general, the problem Mr. Mead 
described is one in which the DCD or 
DSR line going to the UART of the RS- 
232 Pak is not properly activated, 
causing the transmitter part of the 
UART to shut down. Shorting the pins 
as I described should tie those lines high 
and allow proper functioning of the RS- 
232 Pak, for Pin 5 of that pack is 
internally tied high (active). Note there 



is no such thing as an "all purpose" null 
modem connector. Such a connector 
must always be tailored to the idiosyn- 
cracies of the particular implementation 
of the RS-232 lines of the machines 
being used. 

• I just looked inside my CoCo 2 (Ca- 
talog No. 3 134 A) 16 K Color BASIC 
(non- Extended) computer, preparing to 
upgrade it to 64 K using two 4464 
DRAM chips. I saw five jumpers near 
the ROM socket (four above it and one 
to the side of it) labeled 128K/64K. 
Does this mean lean upgrade my CoCo 
2 to 128K? 

Greg Vargo 
Oklahoma City, OK 

Those five jumpers have nothing to 
do with the RAM memory of your 
computer, which cannot be upgraded 
beyond 64K. Rather, they relate to the 
number of bits in the ROM chip used 
for the BASIC operating system. They 
are provided to allow upgrading from 
Standard Color BASIC to Extended 
Color basic. Previously, such an up- 
grade consisted of adding an extra 24- 
pin, 8K-by-8 Extended basic ROM. 
This ROM had a total of 64K bits of 
data on it. On your model of computer, 
however, the upgrade to Extended 
Color basic consists of removing the 
old 64K, 24-pin ROM chip, moving all 
five of those jumpers to the 128K po- 
sition, and inserting a 28-pin, 128K 
ROM chip ($40, Catalog No. 26-3018). 
You will have to use a wire cutter and 
soldering iron to move those five 
jumpers. 



Your technical questions are welcomed. 
Please address them to CoCo Consultations, 
THE rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. 

We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit for 
brevity and clarity. Due to the large volume 
of mail we receive, we are unable to answer 
letters individually. 

For quicker response time, your questions 
may also be posted in the FORUM section 
of rainbow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. In 
FORUM, type RDD and address your ques- 
tions to the username MARTYGOOD- 
MAN. Marty is on most every evening to 
respond to FORUM messages. Other CoCo 
SIG members may also reply to questions 
posted in this public message area. Please be 
sure to leave your name and address in any 
FORUM questions, since those of wide 
interest will be selected for publication in 
this column. 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 83 



COCO CONSULTATIONS 




Memory Expansion Magic 



By Marty Goodman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



• While upgrading a Co Co 2 (Catalog 
No. 26-3 134B) from 16K to 64K, I 
noticed board pads for eight 4164 (64K 
by 1) chips and sockets for two 4464 
(64K by 4) chips. Can memory be 
increased either way or can both be 
added for 128K with switching? 

I am interested in upgrading my 
CoCo to 128K using the Polycom 
board. Is this feasible? 

Phil Creasy 
Hermitage, PA 

I have seen the board you refer to. 
The CoCo 2 in question was not de- 
signed to be upgraded to more than 64K 
by Radio Shack. The upgrade using two 
4464 chips is by far the preferred ap- 
proach. 

Martin H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics tinkerer and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Cose 11 of the CoCo world. 
Marty is the database manager of rain- 
bow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. His non- 
computer passions include running, 
mountaineering and outdoor photo- 
graphy. Marty lives in San Pablo, 
California. 



All 128K CoCo 1 or CoCo 2 upgrades 
are obsolete. The only memory up- 
grades to even consider are the 256K 
and 512K upgrades. Of these, the two 
to consider are the J&R Banker and the 
Disto RAM Disk Card, both advertised 
in rainbow. The J&R Banker has the 
advantage of not requiring a multipack, 
but unless you make a correction in its 
design (outlined in a file on Delphi in 
the hardware hacking topic area) it 
causes incompatibilities with existing 
software. It is installed inside the CoCo 
and requires some electronic ability. 
The Disto RAM card requires a multi- 
pack and is less flexible than the J&R 
Banker in that video memory cannot be 
addressed to it and access is slower. 
However, it will work with all models 
of CoCo, including the CoCo 3, and it 
can be upgraded to 5 1 2K or even to one 
megabyte. Installation is easy, just plug 
it into the multipack. 

Neither upgrade works well as a 
RAM disk under Disk BASIC, but both 
work excellently as a RAM Disk under 
OS-9. 



• / want to offset load an ML progran 
to an address in memory below tht 
address it normally goes to. The Dish 
BASIC Manual only tells me how tc 
offset load it to an address above when 
it normally goes. Can you help me? 

Andrew Elliner (CROPPER, 



The offset load address works ir 
groups of 65,536 address locations 
(Modulo Hex 10000). That is, if you 
have an ML program that normall} 
loads starting at Hex 8000 and you wanl 
to load it in starting at Hex 4000, type 
LDflDM "filename", &HC000. Af 
another example, if you saved youi 
Disk BASIC ROM to disk using SfiVEf 
"ROM"' , &HC000,&HDFFF,&HA027, 
and now want to load it into memory 
starting at Hex 3000 in RAM, just type 
LDRDM "RDM", &H7000. In general, tc 
offset load an ML file that normally 
loads in at Address S to Address N 
(where N is smaller than S), type: LDflDf 
"filename", (65536-S)+N 



182 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



t 



0329 
032B 
0336 
033D 
0341 
0345 

036D 
0398 
03BD 
J33C1 
03D6 
03E2 
03E9 
03ED 
03F4 
03F6 
040B 
0423 
0443 



ENDIF 

NEXT count 

erase=l 
ENDLOOP 
REM * 



this subroutine uses an input value 

of 0 to 60 to draw a hand on the clock 
at the 0 to 360 degree positions 



10 



REM * 

REM * 
REM * 
REM * 

angle=360/60*lasttime (count) 
IF count=3 THEN 
radius=120 

ELSE 

radius=160 

ENDIF 

x2=xl+SIN (angle) *radius 
y2=yl-COS (angle) * (radius/2) 
RUN gfx2 ("Iine",xl,yl,x2,y2) 

RETURN 



BASIC COMPILER 

VASATCHKAHE oelievKB that users of the Color Computer deserve the 
right to use all 64k of RAM that Is available In the computer, and have 
fast machine language programs that use the full potential of the 680a 
microprocessor. That is why the BASIC compiler, called MLBASIC was 
developed. Here are some of the reasons that make this compiler one of 
the best bargains in this magazine: 

- Uie p?? 64k of RAM for program storage and/or variables 
Tu.il floating Point arithmetic expressions with functions 

« P>i7.:>. sequential and direct access disk flleB allowed 

- BASIC source and M.L. output I/O to disk, tape or memory 

- Many new comaands that expand your programming capability 



Commands Supported 



"1. I/O -Commands 



CLOSE CLOADU CSAVEM 
GET IK PUT KILL 


DIR 
LSET 


DRIVE 
OPEN 


DSKIS 
PRINT 


DSKOS 
PUT 


FIELD 
RSET 


FILES 
USISG 


Program Control Commands 
CALL END EXEC FOR 
THEN ELSE ERROR ON.. GO 


STEP 
RETURN 


NEXT 
STOP 


GOSUB GOTO 
SUBROUTINE 


IF 


Math Functions 
ABS ASC ATN 
INT LEN LOG 
SGN SIN SQR 


COS 
LOC 
TAN 


CVN 
LOF 
TIMER 


EOF 

PEEK 

VAL 


EXP 
POINT 


FIX 

PPOINT 


INSTR 
RND 


String Functions 
CHRS INKEYS LEFTS 


MIDS 


MKNS 


RIGHTS 


STRS 


STRINGS 




Graphic/Sound Commands 
COLOR CLS CIRCLE 
PMODE PRESET PSET 


DU A* 
RESET 


LINE 
SCREEN 


PAINT 
SET 


PCLEAR 
SOUND 


PCLS 


PLAY 


Other/Special Commands 
DATA DIM LLIST 
TAD VERIFY DLD 
REAL SREG SWP 


MOTOR 

DST 

VECTD 


POKE 

IBSHFT 

VECTI 


READ 
LREG 


REM 

PCOPY 


RESTORE 
PMODD 


RUN* 
PTV 



Cowpiled Program Speed (Time in minute* ; seconds ) 



Program Interpreter MLBASIC 

Eratosthenes Sieve 6:58.7 0 : 06 . 3 
Matrix Fill, Mult .Sum 

10x10 0:30.9 0:02.5 

String Manipulation 6:22.5 2:17.7 

Floating Point 0:32.6 0:30.6 

Disk I/O 

(2000 PRINT/INPUTb) 2:21.3 0;27.6 



RAINBOW 

CfftTTfXATKM 



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loth - $74.95 



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Check ot Money Orders Only (No C.O.D.) 

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LOW PRICES, (SHIPPING INCLUDED) 
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Tandy 1000SX 

DMP-105 
DMP-130 
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CoCo II $120 

CoCo 3 $170 

Drive 0 $185 

Multipack . $75 

i5* OFF ALL OTHER TANDY HARDWARE !! 
20* OFF ALL OTHER TANDY SOFTWARE !! 

Prices & availability 
subject to change 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 181 



Listing 4: clocl<4 



0000 REM * 

0004 REM * clock4 

000F REM * run the clock 

0021 REM * 

0025 REM * define the variables to use 

0045 REM * 

0049 DIM Xl,yl,x2,y2 : INTEGER 

005C DIM count, erase, radius, angle: INTEGER 

006F DIM time (3) ,lasttime (3) : INTEGER 

0084 DIM gettime: STRING 

008B REM * 

008F REM * initialize the variables 

00 AC REM * 

00B0 Xl=320 

pj3B8 yl=95 

00BF erase=0 

00C6 DEG 

00C8 REM * 

00CC REM * set the drawing color to "cyan" 

00F0 REM * and the drawing mode to "XOR, " 

0113 REM * producing "red" hands on the 

0134 REM * white portion of the clock face 

0158 REM * 

015C SHELL "display lb 32 06" 

0170 SHELL "display lb 2f 03" 

0184 REM * 

0188 REM * this is the actual time-keeping 

01AC REM * loop 

01B5 REM * 

01B9 REM * 

01BD REM * wait for the time to change 

J31DD REM * 

01E1 LOOP 

J31E3 WHILE DATE$=gettime DO 

01EE ENDWHILE 
01F2 REM * 

01F6 REM * get the time, convert to integer, and save in time array 

0233 REM * 

0237 gettime=DATE$ 

023D time (1)=VAL(MID$ (gettime, 16, 2) ) 

024F time(2)=VAL(MID$(gettime,13,2) ) 

02 61 time ( 3 ) =5*VAL(MID$ (gettime , 10 , 2 ) ) +time ( 2 ) /12 

0281 REM * 

0285 REM * determine whether hours, minutes and/or 

02B1 REM * seconds changed, if so, redraw the hand 

02DD REM * 

02E1 FOR count=l TO 3 

02F1 IF time (count) olasttime (count) THEN 

0304 IF ers.se<>0 THEN 

0310 GOSUB 10 

0314 ENDIF 

0316 lasttime (count) =time (count) 

0325 GOSUB 10 



180 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



Recommended Reading for Your CoCofrom . . . 




The Rainbow Bookshelf 







The Complete Rainbow Guide To OS-9 

The book that demystifies the state-of-the-art operating system 
for the Tandy Color Computer. Authors Dale L Puckett and Peter 
Dibble show you how to take advantage of OS-9's multi-tasking 
and multi-user features, and the capability of redirecting input 
and output commands at will. An easy-to-read, step-by-step guide 
packed with hints and tips, tutorials and free software in the form 
of program listings. 

Book $19.95, Disk $31.00 (2 disks, book not included) 

The Rainbow Book of Simulations 

Features 20 award-winning entries from THE RAINBOW'S first 
Simulation programming competition. You are the Commander- 
in-Chief of the Confederate Army during the Civil War, an air 
traffic controller at one of the nation's busiest airports, the owner 
of your own software business, a civil defense coordinator in 
charge of saving Rainbow City from a raging flood, a scientist 
conducting experiments on Mars . . . Your wits are on the line. 
Book $9.95, Tape $9.95 



Coming soon 
The Rainbow Guide to Introductory Statistics 
The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations 



I want to start my own Rainbow Bookshelf! 

Please send me; 

□ The Rainbow Book of Simulations $ 9.95 

□ Rainbow Simulations Tape $ 9.95 

□ The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 

(book only) $1 9.95 

□ Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Disk Package (2 disks) $31 .00 



Name 



□ The Rainbow Book of Adventures (first) 

□ Rainbow Adventures Tape (first) 



$ 7.95 
$ 7.95 



□ The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures $13.95 

□ Second Rainbow Adventures Tape $13.95 
Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax 

Add $1.50 per book Shipping and Handling in U.S. 
Outside U.S., add $4.00 per book 

(Allow 6 to 8 weeks for delivery) Total 



Address 
City 
State 




The Rainbow Book of Adventures 

A collector's item containing 14 winning programs from THE 
rainbow's very first Adventure contest. Includes such favorites 
as Sir Randolf of the Moors, Search for the Ruby Chalice, Deed 
of the York, Horror House, One Room, The Door and Dr. Avaloe. 
Plus, hints and tips on solving Adventures. 
Book $7.95, Tape $7.95 



The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures 

Our newest arrival features 24 of the most challenging Adventure 
games ever compiled. Meet the Beatles and battle the Blue 
Meanies, find a hidden fortune, or win the heart of a beautiful 
and mysterious princess. Experience the thrills and chills of the 
most rugged Adventurer without ever leaving your seat. Ring 
Quest, Secret Agent Man, Dark Castle, Curse of Karos, Island 
and morel 

Book $13.95, Tape $13.95 



••■ : \;.\?.>X 



□ Payment Enclosed, or □ Charge to: 
□ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 



Account Number 



Card Expiration Date 
Signature 



Mail to: Rainbow Bookshelf, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 

Please note: The tapes and disks offered by The Rainbow Bookshelf are not stand-alone products. That is, they are intended to be an 
adjunct and complement to the books. Even if you buy the tape or disk, you will still need the appropriate book. 
OS-9® is a registered trademark of the Microware Systems Corporation. 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call 800-847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. For other Inquiries call 502-228-4492. 



_ 




t 



Listing 3: clocl<3 




f% fH f% f% 

FFPP 






(% fA ffi A 


REM * 


clocks 


o( fIL T^i 

pppr 


REM * 


draw the hour numbers 


pp zv 


REM * 




(A (A OV\ 
Pp ZD 


REM * 


define the variables to use 


(ACHATS 


REM * 




(A (A 1 
ppD ± 


DIM Xl,yl,x2,y2, a: INTEGER 


(A(A&Q 
ppoo 


REM * 




(A 05 £f 


REM * 


set drawing mode to "store" 


(AfAQn 


7 «\ mm) m m ■ 

REM * 




(A (A Q (A 
Pyj^P 


SHELL 


"display lb 2f j3^" 


ppt\ t ± 


m >\ mm| m m m 

REM * 




(A (A A Q 


REM * 


set the foreground color to " 


ppup 


REM * 




(A(AT\A 


SHELL 


"display lb 32 J3j3" 


(A (AX? Q 
PpttO 


REM * 




ft ft, TTl /"I 

pjuhiQ 


REM * 


the following data statements 


P±jO£j 


REM * 


define the roman numerals for 


(Al O (A 
P±Op 


REM * 


the 3, 6, 9 and 12 o'clock 


fill >| p 

J314r 


REM * 


positions 


J015D 


REM * 




J0161 


DATA 


296,16,312,32 


0M "7 *3 


DATA 


312,16,296,32 


fl(T QC 

J0 lo D 


DATA 


32j3, 16, 32j3, 32 


J0197 


DATA 


336, 16,336, 32 




DATA 


292,16,34j3,16 




DATA 


292 , 32 , 34j3, 32 




m, mm* 

DATA 


44j3,87,48j3,87 


n< i Pit? 


DATA 


44j3, lj33 , 48J3, 1J33 


011 ITT 

J01r X 


DATA 


444, 87,444, 1J33 


(AO (AO. 
p Zp J 


DATA 


46j3,87,46j3,lj33 


pZ±D 


DATA 


476, 87,476, 1J33 


(Ao on 

p Z Z / 


DATA 


^4 ft ™ | PM> Mk A ^ M MB ^\ 

30fS , 159 , 332 , 159 


(A 0 0. Q 
p Z 3z) 


DATA 


300, 175, 332 , 175 


(AO A 15 


DATA 


304,159,312,175 




DATA 


312,175,320,159 


fit O ^ "P 

)0z or 


DATA 


328,159,328,175 


pZoX 


DATA 


160,87,192,87 


(AO Ol 
pZ¥ ± 


DATA 


160,103,192,103 


P Zi\± 


DATA 


164,87,164,103 


(% o n t 
pZnL 


DATA 


172,87,188,103 




DATA 


172,103,188,87 


pZU± 


REM * 




PZUD 


REM * 


start drawing 


/T( T-| »"7 

J02E7 


REM * 




j32EB 


FOR a 


=1 TO 21 


pzr id 


READ Xl,yl,x2,y2 


(Ai (Ar* 
pjp\~ 


RUN 


gfx2 ("Iine",xl,yl,x2,y2) 


032C 


NEXT 


a 


0337 


REM * 




033B 


REM * 


finished, "chain" to run 


0358 


REM * 




035C 


CHAIN 


"ex basic09 clock4" 



1 78 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



J3592 SHELL "display lb 40 00 c9 00 5f" 

J35AF SHELL "display lb 4a 01 b7 00 9d" 

05CC REM * 

05D0 REM * finished with the background, 

05F2 REM * "chain" to the ticker 

060C REM * 

0610 CHAIN "ex basic09 clock2" 



Listing 2: clocl<2 


0000 


REM * 


0004 

r r r 


REM * clock2 


0007 


REM * draw the tick marks around the face 


0037 


REM * 


003B 


REM * define the variables to use 

X \XJ1 X «A ^b* bbb> X bY Kb* A X V M X bbb> M X/ aXa »bb» bbJ V** \/ Wi BbV 


005B 

JL/ JL/ «^ X-S 


REM * 

X \^ x x 


005F 


DIM angle . color f xl f yl f x2 , y2 f x3 f v3 , a f b : INTEGER 

mm B^Bl A A BPB» •> . ™J B BbB" ^P" 1 MFS BHB Mf B* Bh BBB> V »~ SBB> _f B> Bk BBB ■ W~ mm W BB Bk BBF W W mm V BM W ^BB» BJ BS B> B ^tart ^B» A^BI BB Bj 


008A 


REM * 


008E 


REM * initialize the variables 


00AB 


REM * 

BB BBBBSi B> 


013 AF 


Xl=320 

• ■ bbj bbf mm Mm* 


00B7 


Vl=95 

W mam mw mm 


00BE 

JL/ X/ J_/ J_J 


color=] 


00C5 


DEG 


00C7 


REM * 


00CB 

JL/ X/ J—/ 


REM * set the drawincr mode to "XOR 11 


00ED 

JL/ mJ X^ x^ 


REM * 

X XI IX X 


00F1 


SHELL "disolav lb 2f 03" 


0105 


REM * 

1 


0109 


R*RM * draw the ticks 


011C 


REM * 


011 901 


FOR a = 01 TO 1 1 


01 1 ^01 


FOR h=0 TO 4 


0H 401 
px<ip 


ancrl p=a*^ 0+b*fi 


011 f^O 
J0 xD 6 




Oil £1 


_y — ^uo ^ allele y -? j 


p ± / p 


ir jj — p ± niLiN 








\7*^ =POQ f a "n r*f 1 a\ 4f QO 
y j-l-vo ^ cii i^ ic j ** o ^ 


019A 


ELSE 


019E 


x3=SIN (angle) *175 * 


plAD 


y3=C0S (angle) *87 


plBC 


ENDIF 


01BE 


color=color+l 


01C9 


IF color=8 THEN 


01D5 


color=l 


j31DC 


ENDIF 


01DE 


RUN gf x2 ( "color" , color) 


01FJ3 


RUN gfx2 ("Iine",xl+x2 / yl-y2,xl+x3,yl-y3) 


021C 


NEXT b 


0227 


NEXT a 


0232 


REM * 


0236 


REM * end of ticker, "chain" to numbers 


025C 


REM * 


0260 


CHAIN "ex basicj39 clock3" 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 77 




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Use with a black and white or color camera, a VCR or tuner. 

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Software on disk will get you up and running fast! . 



POWERFUL C-SEE ™ SOFTWARE 

C-SEE is the menu driven software package included with your DS-69A. Available on disk or cassette, it provides 
lightning fast 5 level digitizing to the screen, high precision 16 level digitizing for superb hard copy printout and 
simple keyboard or joystick control of brightness and contrast. Or call our driver routines from your own Basic 
program for easy 64 level random access digitizing. Pictures taken by the DS— 69A may be saved on disk or 
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02 6B REM * for the next circle 

0283 REM * circle 1 

0290 REM * 

0294 SHELL "display lb 50 00 bf" 

02AB SHELL "display lb 4f" 

02BC SHELL "display lb 32 06" 

02D0 REM * 

02D4 REM * circle 2 

02E1 REM * 

02E5 SHELL "display lb 50 00 77" 

02FC . SHELL "display lb 4f" 

030D SHELL "display lb 32 05" 

0321 REM * 

0325 REM * circle 3 

0332 REM * 

0336 SHELL "display lb 50 00 66" 

034D SHELL "display lb 4f" 

035E SHELL "display lb 32 04" 

0372 REM * 

0376 REM * circle 4 

0383 REM * 

0387 SHELL "display lb 50 00 55" 

039E SHELL "display lb 4f" 

03AF SHELL "display lb 32 03" 

03C3 REM * 

03C7 REM * circle 5 

03D4 REM * 

03D8 SHELL "display lb 50 00 44" 

03EF SHELL "display lb 4f" 
0400 . SHELL "display lb 32 02" 

0414 REM * 

0418 REM * circle 6 

0425 REM * 

0429 SHELL "display lb 50 00 33" 

0440 SHELL "display lb 4f" 

0451 SHELL "display lb 32 01" 

0465 REM * 

0469 REM * circle 7 

0476 REM * 

047A SHELL "display lb 50 00 22" 

0491 SHELL "display lb 4f" 

04A2 SHELL "display lb 32 00" 

04B6 REM * 

04BA REM * circle 8 

04C7 REM * 

04CB SHELL "display lb 50 00 11" 

04E2 SHELL "display lb 4f" 

04F3 SHELL "display lb 32 07" 

0507 REM * 

050B REM * this section draws a white "bar" 

0530 REM * over the bottom half of all the 

0554 REM * circles, leaving the upper half as 

057B REM * the "rainbow." 

058E REM * 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 175 



Editor's Note: To modify these routines for operation 
on a 128K CoCo 3, follow these steps; 

1) Delete the merge and shell lines from windowl 
and do not use the procedure file to create window 

1 yet. 

2) Start BASIC09 and enter the listings. On clockl, 
clock! and clock3> however, do not enter the chain 
command lines which appear at the end of each of 
these listings. 

3) Use pack to place each of the four clock listings 
in your CMDS directory. 

4) Type chckd0/cmds and press enter. Then enter 
the following command line: 

merge clockl clocl<2 clocl<3 
clock4 runb>/d0/c locks ENTER 

Then type chd'd0 and press ENTER. 



5) Enter the following command line: 

attr /d0/clocks r e u pr pe pw ENTER 

6) Type windowl and press enter to create window 

i, ;.. 

7) Enter load /d0/c locks and then enter the 
following commands while still in the normal 
window: 

clockl>/wl ENTER 
clocl<2>/wl ENTER 

clocl<3>'ul ENTER 
clock4>/wl& ENTER 

8) Now you may use the clear key to enjoy your 
Co Co clock. Keep in mind, because of the graphics 
memory requirements, you will not have any 
working memory left while the clock is running. 



Listing 1: clockl 



(5(5(5(5 REM ****************************** 

(5(521 REM * RainbowTime 

(5(531 REM * 

(5(535 REM * Programmed by Greg L. Zumwalt 

(5(557 REM * 

(5(55B REM ****************************** 

(5(57C REM * 

(5(58(5 REM * clockl 

(5(58B REM * draw the clock face background 

j3j3AE REM * 

(5(5B2 REM * set the drawing mode to "store" 

(5(5D6 REM * 

j3j3DA SHELL "display lb 2f j3j3" 

J3)3EE REM * 

j3j3F2 REM * set the foreground color to "white" 

j311A REM * 

j311E SHELL "display lb 32 j37" 

j3132 REM * 

J313 6 REM * set the background color to "blue" 

J315D REM * 

J3161 SHELL "display lb 3 3 J34" 

j3175 REM * 

J3179 REM * clear the screen 

J318E REM * 

J3192 SHELL "display J3c" 

J31AJ3 REM * 

J31A4 REM * place the draw pointer in the center of the screen 

j31DB REM * 

J81DF SHELL "display lb 4j3 (51 4(5 (5p 5f" 

J31FC REM * 

(52(5(5 REM * the following "circle" sequences 

0225 REM * draw a circle, then fill it, 

J324 6 REM * then change the foreground color 



1 74 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



RainbowTime to run; eliminating them 
will save typing time). After you enter 
the last line, type: 

q 

This puts you back in the BASIC09 
command mode. Continue by typing: 

save 
kill 

The clockl program is now on the 
disk, and BASIC09 is ready for clock2. 
Follow the same procedure for entering 
the clock2, clock3 and clock4 programs 
substituting clock2, clock3 and clock4 
as the name of the program to edit. 

Running RainbowTime 

Now that the four RainbowTime 
programs have been entered and saved 
on the disk, we start the clock by typing 
in the following: 

kill 

load clockl 
run 

You see the clock being built, one 
section at a time, and as one program 
chains to the next, you see the name of 
the next program appear on the screen. 
When clock4 begins, three hands ap- 
pear (hours, minutes and seconds) with 
the second hand moving as each second 
passes. 

Each of the four RainbowTime pro- 
grams use OS-9 Level II graphics com- 
mands in drawing the various parts of 
the clock. As you can see in the program 
listings, there are a variety of methods 
available to send these commands 
(SHELL, PRINT CHR$, etc). The 
RainbowTime programs intentionally 
use the various methods for the purpose 
of illustration. Examine each method 
carefully, as each has its own advan- 
tages and disadvantages. 

The clock face is created by the 
programs clockl, clock2 and clocks. 

Clockl starts the drawing of the clock 
face by setting the screen background to 
blue, drawing a white circle, then filling 
it. It then draws seven smaller concen- 
tric circles, filling each in a different 
color. Finally, the BAR conSnand is used 
to erase the lower half of the seven 
smaller circles, leaving the upper half as 
the rainbow. Notice that clockl uses 
SHELL "display - „ . . " to send 
graphic commands. Clockl finishes by 
performing the chain to clock2. 

Clock2 draws the tick marks on the 



clock face. After initialization, a dual 
FOR/NEXT loop is entered. The two 
loops draw four short tick marks and 
one long tick mark (for the hours) 
around the outside edge of the clock 
face, 12 times. Notice that clock2 uses 
the command RUN GFX2 to set the 
foreground color and draw the tick 
mark lines. This method of issuing 
graphic commands uses the BASIC09 
graphics interface module GFX2. The 
end result is the same; however, the 
GFX2 method requires the GFX2 mod- 
ule in memory, thus leaving less for your 
programs. Clock2 finishes by perform- 
ing the chain to clocks. 

Clocki draws Roman numerals at the 
3, 6, 9 and 12 o'clock positions using 
LINE DRfiW commands. The data state- 
ments contain the starting and ending 
points for each line in each Roman 
numeral. A FOR/ NEXT loop reads the 
data statements and sends them to 
GFX2 as line drawing commands. 
Clock3 finishes by performing the chain 
to clock4. 

Time Keeping for RainbowTime 

Clock4 is the run time program of 
RainbowTime. After declaring and 
initializing variables and setting up for 
screen drawing, a loop is entered that 
performs the time keeping function. 

The WHILE statement waits for the 
time to change by comparing the time 
with the string variable GETTIME. If 
the current time is different from GET- 
TIME, the current time is copied to 
GETTIME and a conversion process 
from string to integer begins. 

The integer time is saved in the three- 
element array, TIME. The three ele- 
ments in the array represent seconds, 
minutes and hours, respectively. The 
seconds and minutes are simply con- 
verted from string to integer. However, 
the hours are modified. The hours are 
first multiplied by five to place them in 
the range of five to 60, like the seconds 
and minutes (this is so the hand drawing 
subroutine at Line 10 can use the same 
equation for determining where the 
hands should point). Then, the value 
(minutes/ 12) is added to hours. This 
gives the hour hand five distinct posi- 
tions between the hours tick marks. 

The time array is then compared 
element by element with a second three- 
element array, LASTTIME. If a differ- 
ence is found, the hand associated with 
the difference (seconds, minutes and/ or 
hours) is erased from the LASTTIME 
position and drawn at the LASTTIME 
=TIME position. 



The subroutine at Line 10 converts 
the zero to 60 value passed to it in the 
LASTTIME(COUNT) element to the 
zero to 360 degree angle, ANGLE. 
ANGLE, using the BASIC09 SIN and 
COS functions, defines the X and Y 
endpoints (X2 and Y2) of the clock 
hand using radius as the vector length. 
The origin of the hand (XI and Yl) is 
always in the center of the clock. Note 
that radius is set to 120 if COUNT 
equals three, otherwise it is set to 160. 
(When COUNT equals three, the hours 
variable is being redrawn, so the hand 
is shorter.) 

So there you have it — Rainbow- 
Time. What if you decide it would be 
nice to have RainbowTime on the 
screen while you work on other pro- 
grams in another window, but on the 
same screen? Well, this requires a scaled 
down version of RainbowTime, de- 
signed for a smaller window. 

What? You don't want to type in the 
entire program again changing each and 
every data value? I don't blame you. 
Refiguring all of those values for a 
smaller window would take hours! 

Well, relax, OS-9 Level II and the 
windowing system come to the rescue. 
The windowing system's scaling mathe- 
matics convert the 640-by-192 screen 
coordinates of RainbowTime into 
whatever size window you define, auto- 
matically! Whenever you design a pro- 
gram that generates graphics, always 
base the graphic coordinates on the 640- 
by-192 screen size. Then, OS-9 will 
properly scale the coordinates for any 
size window your program is run on. 

Experiment With RainbowTime 

I hope you enjoy RainbowTime. It 
was designed to illustrate the use of a 
wide variety of the OS-9 Level II graph- 
ics commands. 

Try running RainbowTime on a dif- 
ferent size window, or even a different 
graphics screen type. Experiment with 
the colors and the color palette. Try 
adding the remaining hour numbers. 
Add an alarm function by comparing 
GETTIME with a date/time string the 
user can enter. 

Remember, RainbowTime is running 
as one task on a multi-tasking computer 
system. This means that RainbowTime 
can run while you do other program- 
ming. By experimenting, you will see 
how easy it is to create your own pow- 
erful multi-tasking environment using 
Microware's OS-9 Level II, BASIC09, 
windows and graphics on the Tandy 
CoCo 3. □ 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 173 



Those Great RAINBOW Programs 

Without All The Fuss! 
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Every month, rainbow on tape brings as many as two dozen ready-to-run 
programs right to you. Using the current issue of the rainbow as documen- 
tation, all you have to do is load and run them. Just a one-year subscription 
gives you more than 230 new programs! The typing time saved is time that 
can be spent with the CoCo. (rainbow on tape does not include OS-9 
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DISK USERS: RAINBOW ON DISK 
IS NOW AVAILABLE! 

All the programs from the rainbow — includ- 
ing OS-9 — are now available on disk. For 
more information, see page 159 of this issue. 



NOW AVAILABLE ON DELPHI! 

For your convenience, RAINBOW ON TAPE can also be 
ordered via the Delphi Information Network, in our Shopping 
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The individual programs from ou r past November issues are 
also available for immediate download in the RAINBOW ON 
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rainbow ON TAPE is not a stand-alone product, but is 
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Even if you purchase RAINBOW ON tape, you will still need 
the magazine for loading and operating instructions. 

To order by phone, (credit card orders only) call 
800-847-0309, 8 a.m. - 5 p.m. EST. All other 
inquiries call 502-228-4492. 




Programs from Our Past 
Telecommunications Issues: 

November 1985 — Computer Trapshooting, a game that 
simulates the real-life sport of skeet shooting; XFER16, a 
communications program for transferring files over tele- 
phone lines; C-QSL, a Ham utility that logs entries and writes 
out QSL cards; Remote2, an enhanced version of Remote, a 
remote terminal driver published in the November 1983 
Communications Issue; Horse, a two-player Simulation of the 
popular basketball game; CoBBS, part one of a complete 
bulletin board system; Screen Pokes Made Easy, several 
programming utilities that demonstrate how to hide credit 
lines in poke statements; Little Black Book, a personalized 
phone and address directory; Coax, a Ham utility that 
determines the various factors related to transmission line 
loss; BASIC Training, creates jargon from Latin prefixes, 
roots and suffixes; and Education Notes, demonstrates the 
uses of Radio Shack's Electronic Learning Book and a 
number-matching game for preschoolers. 

November 1984 — EZ List, a utility that allows the use of arrow 
keys to list program lines one at a time; The Message Center, 
a bulletin board for saving and displaying messages at home; 
fload Race, a game for racing fans in which you must finish 
a given driving course without blowing your engine; Rain- 
Board, programs to help set up a BBS; CC-Taik, a smart 
terminal package; Junkfood, a game in which you eat all the 
"edible" foods to gain points; Handler, the first of three parts 
on disk file organization; CLOAD Command Fixer, a tape 
utility that searches for the end of a file; Personal Savings, 
a personal savings and loan calculation program; and 
DosStart, a disk utility to store a BASIC command in Drive 0 
and have it executed by typing DOS. 




r Island Educational Software 



: 4ai^ 

■ 3|K E%~ $2195 tape$&>6;95 disk 
Six menu driven games for young 
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• trf|># fc^a ^^#afrt^ include; 
tl&YBOQ, Bi^ERFLY, ARROW 
IVIATCH, KALEIDOSCOPE, RABBIT, 
and DOODLE. Colorful graphics. 

'FlfifSTOJ^lES 

32K Ext. - $24.95 tape/$29.95 disk 
First Games contains 6 menu driven 
p^rai^i te flight and teach your 
early iSimeii (ages 3-6). These 
games en|)ch:^5l^rning of colors, 
numbers, lower case letters, shapes, 
nfj^ory^ visual discrimination #nd 
cocfhtihg. ' ' v — ' ' :: -0' :<: : t 




1/ 




; ICLOZE STORIES 
32K Ext. - $19.95 Tape/$24.95 Disk 
These programs give students prac- 
tice using the popular CLOZE read- 
ing technique. Each program contains 
grade appropriate short stories with 
key missing words to be deduced by 
the student Available for grades 3, 4, J 
5, 6, OR 7. Please specify. 

DRAWING CONCLUSIONS 

32K Ext. - tape $19.95/disk $24.95 
These programs contain short stories. 
Each story has two accompanying 
questions that ask the student to draw 
conclusions from the text. Available 
for grades 3-4 OR 5-6. Please specify. 

ji .:^:^r-;.':-. : '.^V-. ■■ 

— ' —*'**" ^— ~— ,,,, | -. |M ■ - 



LOCATING STORY DETAILS 

32K Ext. - disk only - $24.95 
These programs contain short stories, 
Each has an accompanying picture. 
Questions about story details refer to 
either the text or pictures. The disk 
generated graphics are an integral 
part of these attractive programs. 
Available for grades 2-3 OR 4-5. 
Please specify. 




FOREIGN LANGUAGE GAMES 

32K Ext. - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 

(500 words) 
French or Spanish Baseball 
Score base hits or home runs for 
correct answers. You're out if wrong. 
Correct answers supplied. Fun way 
to learn and practice vocabulary. 
PLEASE SPECIFY LANGUAGE. 




PUNCTUATION PRACTICE 

32K Ext. - tape $19,95/disk $24.95 
On screen practice in proper usage 
of the familiar punctuation marks. 
Grades 3-7. 




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16K Ext. 

These tutorials take the child through 
each step of the example. All pro- 
grams include HELP tables, cursor 
and graphic aids. Ail allow user to 
create the example, or let the com- 
puter choose. Multi-level. Great 
teaching programs. 

LONG DIVISION TUTOR 
$14.95 tape/$1 9.95 disk 
MULTIPLICATION TUTOR 
$14.95 tape/$1 9.95 disk 

FACTORS TUTOR 
$19.95 tape/$24,95 disk 
FRACTIONS TUTOR (addition) 
$19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
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£ $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
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$19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 



COMPUTER LITERACY 

32K Ext. - $1 9.95 tape/$29.95 disk 
A computer literacy quiz exclusively 
for the Color Computer. Tests and 
scores from over 60 questions on a 
Hi-res upper and lower case screen. 
Reviews computer literacy and 
beginning programming knowledge. 
Ages 10 and up. 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 





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Dept. R 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 

Send for catalog with complete descriptions. 
Please add $1 .00 per order for postage. N.Y. residents, please add proper tax. FREE set of BINARY DICE, including full directions, with 
orders of 2 or more items. 



"5 ik 1 



Dealer Inquiries Invited 



TRS-80 Color Computer 



All Payments in U.S. Funds. 



Living 



on Rainbow Time 



By Greg L. Zumwalt 



I have been using the CoCo 3 for 
quite some time now. I must say, my 
enthusiasm for this machine hasn't 
waned a bit. I've seen a variety of 
benchmarks comparing machine X with 
machine Y using "mflops," "FFTs," etc. 
Well, I've got my own benchmark for 
computers that reads: The power of a 
computer is directly proportional to the 
length of time it holds my attention. 

And that's the reason for Rainbow- 
Time. Rainbow Time is a real-time 
analog clock that remains on the CoCo 
3 screen while I work (to remind me that 
after 12-14 hours of CoCo 3 experi- 
menting, its time to sleep). 

In our previous window discussion, 
"The Color Computer 3 Does Win- 
dows, and More" (September 1986, 
Page 20), we created examples of win- 
dows using text only output. This time, 
well put the CoCo 3 into high gear and 
experiment with the graphics displays. 

OS-9 Level II Graphics 

The OS-9 Level II windowing system 
supports six screen types summarized in 
Figure I. 

Using the DWSET command (the 
"create a device window" command), 
the user has the choice of any of the six 
available screen types. 

Notice that screens five, six, seven 
and eight are graphics screens. In our 
last discussion on windows, we used 
Screen 7, a graphics screen, as a text 
display by merging a graphics character 
set with it. This time, we're using Screen 
8, again merged with a character set, but 
also including the use of some of the 
OS-9 Level II graphics commands. 

BASIC09 and Chains 

Rainbow Time is written as four sep- 

An independent programmer and com- 
puter designer, Greg Zumwalt is one of 
the select few writing Tandy software 
for the new Color Computer 3. He owns 
ZCT Software of Tulsa, Oklahoma. 



arate BASIC09 programs. The first three 
build the "static" portion of the clock; 
the last is the running portion. Each 
program performs a specific task, and 
when finished, calls the next. This 
process continues until the fourth pro- 
gram is called and the clock begins 
running. 

In BASIC09, the process of calling 
programs in this manner is called chain- 
ing. The advantage of chaining is that 
when a program has completed its task, 
it can be erased, and the next program 
loaded in its place. In our example, once 
the clock face has been created, the 
programs that created it are no longer 
required. By using chaining, these 
programs are removed from memory, 
leaving more memory for other tasks. 

Getting Started 

We need to create a type eight device 
window. Remember the OS-9 build 
command? We will use it to build a 
procedure file to create the window. At 
the OS-9 prompt, enter the following: 

bui Id uindoul 
iniz ul 

merge sys'stdfonts >/ul 
display lb 20 08 00 00 28 18 07 

00 00 >^ul 
shell i=/wl& 



After the last line, press ENTER twice. 
When the OS-9 prompt appears, con- 
tinue by typing: 

windoul 

When the OS-9 prompt appears this 
time, press the CLEAR key, and Device 
Window type eight appears on the 
screen. We are now ready for BASIC09. 

The four BASIC09 programs that 
create Rainbow Time are entered and 
saved on the disk individually. To do 
this, we must first enter BASIC09. From 
the OS-9 prompt on Window 1 type: 

basic09 »12l< 

This loads BASIC09 into the CoCo 3 
and allocates 12,000 bytes of memory 
for us to use. 

Now we will enter the clockl pro- 
gram. At the BASIC09 prompt on Win- 
dow 1 type: 

e clockl 

This tells BASIC09 the name of the 
program to edit, clock 1. BASIC09 re- 
sponds with a PROCEDURE clockl 
followed by the BASIC09 edit prompt. 
Proceed from here by carefully typing 
in the clockl program shown in Listing 
1 (the programs contain many REM 
statements that are not necessary for 



Number 


Size 


Color 


Memory 


Type 


01 


40 by 24 


8 &8 


1600 


Text 


02 


80 by 24 


8 &8 


4000 


Text 


05 


640 by 192 


2 


16000 


Graphics 


06 


320 by 192 


4 


16000 


Graphics 


07 


640 by 192 


4 


32000 


Graphics 


08 


320 by 192 


16 


32000 


Graphics 



Figure 1: Screen Types 



170 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



e 

•o 
o 

2 



Cl 
2 
Q 
O 



r" 
v— 

OL 
O 

o 

o 



© 
u 

a. 



o 
O 

O 
< 
o 



W 




LED 



/- 



SPST 



R v i 



y ^=V=7 



To CPU 
I/O 



LED 



R2 



R 
G 

Y 
W 



1 — 1 7 



4 



CGP G 



Y DMP 



+ R3 
LED 



AC Power Switch 



Pin 
Numbers 

1 - Y 

2 - G 

3 - R 

4 — W 



MOD G 



DMP G 



Reset Switch 



R1.R2.R3 
1000^ 




DMP R 



W CGP 



Figure 4: Four-Pole, Three-Position Rotary Switch 



computer again, so I figured out 
another way to connect the A/ C on/ off 
switch. I opened up one lead of the 
power cord and, using "wire nuts," 



spliced the leads from the remote 
switch. Also shown is the two-prong 
miniature plug which connects the 
remote Reset switch to the internal 




Figure 3 

Reset switch. These can be seen in 
Figure 2. 

The cables I used are serial printer 
and modem interface cables, Radio 
Shack part number 26-3020. For my 
purposes, cutting two cables gave me 
the required four needed to intercon- 
nect the two printers and the modem to 
the CPU. Figure 3 shows an inside view 
of the completed switcher. 

Finally, I dressed up the box with 
some scraps of the contact paper I used 
when I built my computer table, which 
blends it in and gives it a finished 
appearance. 

I haven't been using this device too 
long; however, I can already say that I 
wish I had built it sooner because it's a 
real convenience. In particular, I like 
having the A/C power and Reset 
switches located where they are easy to 
reach. 

( Questions about this project may be 
directed to the author at 8350 East 
McKellips Road, Apt. Ill, Scottsdale, 
AZ 85257. Please enclose an SASE for 
a reply,) /R\ 



DAft/t... COMB &tf 
AA»M„ £A5/(...EA5/! 




0OP5{ <2/tt'605#{ 




— 



&OT /TL 




J Jl/ST LOVE ALL 
Tff/S G0/yf(/7E# TALKi 




November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 69 



HARDWARE PROJECT 



The Super Switcher 



This device incorporates several 
features which, individually, 
have been described in the past, 
but not in this combination or format. 
Collectively, they are very useful in 
conjunction with the CoCo. 

It started out as a simple switching 
device consisting of a four-pole, three- 
position rotary switch and a 2 by 2 by 
2 l A inch mini-box built to switch the 
computer serial I/O port between my 
modem and CGP-115 graphics printer. 
Later, when I acquired a dot-matrix 
printer, it became necessary to switch 
three peripherals. 

Then an article was published in THE 
RAINBOW (October 1984) which de- 
scribed how to connect the modem and 
printer by a switch, so what was fed into 
the computer from the modem would 
also drive the printer making a hard 
copy of what appeared on the screen. 
This seemed like a good idea and I 
decided to add that feature to the 
switcher, along with three LEDs to 
indicate which peripheral was con- 
nected to the computer's I/O port. 

Since one of the three LEDs would 
always be lit when the computer was on, 
it would also serve as an on/ off indica- 
tor. The idea seemed to grow, and 
before long I decided I would add 
remote control switches to control the 
computer on/ off and reset functions. 

The original mini-box was now much 
too small, so I obtained a larger box 
which measured 4 by 2 l A by 2!4 inches. 
The rotary switch, mentioned before, 
came out of my junk box. The LEDs are 
Radio Shack part number 276-018 — 
they come two to a package. The AC 
power on/ off switch is a Radio Shack 
square push putton switch (push-on/ 



Bob Merryman has been a licensed 
Ham Radio operator for the past 50 
years and has built many pieces of 
electronic equipment. Two years ago he 
added computing to his list of hobbies 
and has built several items associated 
with this hobby, too, 

1 68 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



By Robert C. Merryman 

push-off) rated at 3 amps, and is part 
number 275-617. The Reset switch is a 
Radio Shack square push-button 
switch (part number 275-618). The 
SPST toggle switch also came from the 
junk box, but any switch will work. The 
rubber grommets, miniature two-prong 
connector, together with the scrap 
metal for the mounting brackets and 
cable holding shelf, were also from the 
junk box. 

Figure 1 illustrates the completed 




Figure 1 



device mounted under the shelf and to 
the right of the keyboard, by means of 
two L brackets. The three LEDs are 
labeled "CGP," "MOD" and "DMP" 
(color graphics printer, modem and 
dot-matrix printer, respectively). Below 
the knob, on either side of the toggle 
switch, are labels "P/M" and "OFF" 
(printer and modem connected, or off). 
Beneath the two push-button switches 
are labels reading "A/C PWR," on the 
left side, and "RESET" on the right. 
The labels were made with a Dymo label 
maker. 

Figure 2 illustrates how the cables are 
fed through the rear of the box, through 
loosely fitting grommets, to allow re- 
moval of the back cover for access to the 
parts. I labeled the cable alongside of 
the grommet so I wouldn't get confused 
while wiring the device. To hold the end 
of the cables in the box so there would 
be no strain on the wires, I used a small 
piece of aluminum bent into a 90 degree 
angle. Holes were then drilled to receive 
the four grommets, which were suffi- 



ciently small to really grab the cable 
tightly. The bracket is fastened to the 
side wall of the box by means of pop- 
rivets. After stripping off about two 
inches of the outer covering from the 
cable, I pushed the cable end into its 
proper grommet (lined up with 
grommets on back cover) and with a 
twisting motion, pushed the cable 
through just far enough to have the 
outer cover show beneath the grommet. 
This was done one cable at a time, 
soldering the four connections before 
proceeding to the next cable. 

The two zip-cord wires going to the 
A/C and Reset switches, are also fed 
through grommets in the back of the 
box and then tied in a knot to prevent 
them from being pulled out. They are 
then soldered to their respective 
switches. 

Before I completed the switcher, I 
replaced the keyboard with an up- 
graded board (Figure 1 was taken 
before the upgrade). While the case was 
open, I soldered the miniature two- 
prong plug leads (female end) to the 
internal Reset switch using the two 




Figure 2 

r 

terminals on the right side and closest 
to the front of the computer. After 
securely soldering the wires to the Reset 
switch terminals, I fed them out of the 
case under the Reset switch button. 
There was plenty of room without 
having to cut or drill the case. 

When I finally finished my switcher 
project, I didn't feel like opening the 




Group activities are wonderful 
things, but individual parental activities 
can be very helpful also. Of course, 
encouragement for your own child is 
necessary. Parents should encourage 
their children to learn on the computer, 
and to engage in a variety of activities, 
not just playing Simulation games or 
programming in BASIC. I assume that 
most people reading this have a Color 
Computer in the home. A home com- 
puter is helpful for the school child, but 
not really needed. Parents can provide 
encouragement by looking at work 
brought home from school, suggesting 



"Just as education 
begins with parents, 
so it can also end 
with parents." 



after-hours projects for their child, and 
a host of other activities limited to the 
school computer. A home computer is 
simply an added attraction, although 
one I would strongly recommend. 

Encouragement, however, does not 
need to stop with your own child. 
Parents can provide encouragement for 
their local computer education program 
and for the school. A simple note 
delivered to school expressing your 
encouragement will go a long way 
toward staff morale. Just like you, 
teachers like to receive recognition for 
their efforts. 

Parents can show support for the 
computer program in their local schools 
in a variety of ways. A show of support 
for the program at school board meet- 
ings will long be remembered. Perhaps 
you are in a position to help the pro- 
gram receive publicity, through your 
local newspaper, radio station or tele- 
vision station. A story, for example, 
about a class having an art lesson on 
computers might attract the local news 
media. Our culture is still impressed 
with the creativity of young children 
when dealing with computers. News 
reporters love to interview a child who 
uses jargon terms to explain what a 
computer program does. 

Perhaps you are in a position to 
arrange a field trip for a class to a 
computer facility, or a business that 
uses computers. Perhaps your own 
business uses computers in ways that 
would be interesting for a field trip. This 



type of lesson can tie in well with a 
career awareness activity, and might be 
welcomed by school people. 

You can contribute time to your 
school, without having a major event 
like a field trip. You might volunteer to 
do a presentation on the way you use 
your computer. If you use a microcom- 
puter in some unusual way, your school 
might enjoy a visit from you to explain 
your particular application. 

Parents can contribute more than 
time and funds raised through a group. 
You can contribute your expertise (and 
your own child's expertise) by such 
things as reviews of programs. Reviews 
by parents might be especially impor- 
tant for any software purchased by a 
PTA. Teachers, even when they have the 
monetary resources for reviews, are 
hard pressed to find time to provide 
adequate reviews for all educational 
software available today. Parents can 
help screen software, and provide a 
focus for teacher reviews. In fact, it may 
be worthwhile to have several parents 
review the same software, in order to get 
a wider perception of quality. 

This article would not be complete 
without a special note for those parents 
who are not interested in computers. It 
may well be that in your home, one 
adult is interested in computer applica- 
tions, and one adult has a strong aver- 
sion to electronic equipment. The com- 
puter hater still has a parental 
obligation to be involved in the child's 
education. If you are such a person, and 
forced to read this by a loving spouse, 
please realize that when your children 
are older, they will have to be more 
involved with machines than you. You 
can still provide support for your child's 
computer education, without having to 
touch a keyboard. Go ahead, get in- 
volved with the computer program, 
even if not with the computer. 

Just as education begins with parents, 
so it can also end with parents. Parents 
cannot help but demonstrate their 
attitudes toward education. With the 
right attitudes and behaviors, children 
will realize that education is a life-long 
effort, not something that ends with 
formal schooling. Computer learning 
should not end with formal schooling, 
any more than other areas of study. 

Your comments, thoughts, sugges- 
tions are welcome. Please write me at 
829 Evergreen, Chatham, IL 62629. 
Until next month, keep on learning, and 
demonstrating that learning never ends. 
Share the fun. ^ 




November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 67 



EDUCATION OVERVIEW 



The Most Important 
Educators of All 



By Michael Plog, Ph.D. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



When we think of the process 
called schooling, we often 
think of people. Generally, 
the relationship between teachers and 
students is the first thought we have 
concerning the schooling process. 
Sometimes we expand those initial 
thoughts to include administrators. We 
know that principals are extremely 
important in a child's education. Upon 
further reflection, we all admit that 
program directors, central office ad- 
ministrators and superintendents are 
also crucial to the education process, 
even if never seen by a child. 

In moments of rationality, we may 
even include all the support staff that 
helps to keep a school going. Bus driv- 
ers, lunchroom workers, and all the 
other people involved in education play 
a role (even if not immediately noticed) 
in the lives of children. 

These are all very important, but we 
often ignore the most important people 
in the education of a child — parents. 



Michael Plog received his doctorate 
degree from the University of Illinois. 
He has taught social studies in high 
school, worked in the central office of 
a school district and is currently em- 
ployed at the Illinois State Board of 
Education, 



166 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



The education process begins with 
parents, long before the child goes to 
school. During the school years, parents 
shape the way a child approaches les- 
sons, the classroom, teachers, the entire 
institution. The attitudes a child has 
toward school are heavily dependent on 
the behaviors of parents. Positive be- 
haviors, in the form of interest and 
support, can help a child do well in 
school; behaviors showing a lack of 
interest are reflected in the child's lack 
of enthusiasm. 

It is important for parents to realize 
that teachers have the best interests of 
the child in mind, even when parents 
disagree with teachers about those 
interests. Conversely, teachers should 
realize that parents also have the best 
interests of their child in mind, even 
when the two groups disagree. All 
players — parents as well as school 
personnel — have a role to play in the 
educational process. A parent ignoring 
that role diminishes the value of school 
for the child. 

The importance of parents extends 
beyond the general notion of schooling 
to the more specific components of the 
educational system, such as computer 
education. What should the role of 
parents be in the area of computer 
education? 



Some roles for parents include group 
activities; some are individual efforts. 
One obvious group activity is to provide 
funds for hardware and software for 
classes. Schools are always in need of 
materials. Tax dollars need supplement- 
ing for those things necessary for a 
quality education. Parent organiza- 
tions, such as PTAs (Parent-Teacher 
Associations) raise funds for school use. 
Some of those funds could be directed 
toward computer hardware and soft- 
ware. Does the school need a new 
printer? How about a large television set 
or monitor connected to the classroom 
computer, so a demonstration can be 
viewed by more than a few students? I 
am positive that your school could use 
something in the way of computer 
equipment or supplies, possibly a hard 
disk or extra paper. 

Football teams and marching bands 
have booster clubs of interested parents. 
What about the computer club? Does 
your community have a support group 
for the computer club? Does your 
school even have a computer club? 
Perhaps a discussion with school per- 
sonnel would lead to the creation of 
such a support group. (A side thought 
— wouldn't it be interesting to have a 
bake sale with the prices listed in binary 
code?) 




e Best Money Can Buy 




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Radio Shack ROM (current version) . , S20. 

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20 IFCO76450THENPRINT"DATA ERRO 
R" : STOP 

30 PRINT@162,"IF YOU HAVE NOT AL 
READY SAVED STAR GETPUTPAINT, 
DO SO NOW. 

40 PRINT: PRINT" OTHERWISE, TYPE 

CONT AND PRESS ENTER." 

50 STOP 

60 X=256*PEEK(27)+PEEK(28)+699:A 

=INT(X/256) :B=X-256*A 

7 0 POKE 4 7 4 , A : POKE475 , B : POKE 2 7 , PE 

EK(474) :POKE28,PEEK(475) : CLEAR 

80 X=256*PEEK(27)+PEEK(28) :M=X-6 

99 : FORI=M TOM+69 8 : READD$ : D=VAL ( " 

&H"+D$) :POKEI,D:NEXT 

90 FORJ=0TO2 : POKEM+7+ J , PEEK (401+ 

J) tNEXT: DEL10- 

100 DATA 16, 1,1B,81,AD, 27, 3, 7E,C 
2 , 4D, 9D,9F,81 , C4 , 27 , 4, 81, C5 , 26 , E 
C,34,2 'Br 
110 DATA 86,4,97,7C,9D,9F,BD,B7, 
3 D , 3 4 , 10 , BD , B 2 , 6 D , A , 7 G , 2 6 > F 4 , 9 7 
120 DATA 7C,9D,9F,E6,67,54,54,54 
, E7 , 67 , EC, 62 , 54 , 54 , 54 , E0 , 67 , 2B 
130 DATA 3D,5C,DD,41,CC,20,20,D0 
,42,D7, 50,E6,65,3D,E3,66,D3 # BA 
140 DATA IF, 2, E6, 61, El, 65,25, 24, 
CI, BF, 22 , 20 , E0 , 65 , 5C, D7 , 43, 96,42 
150 DATA 3D,DD / 44,9E,27,30,1,A6, 
80,91,7C,27,6C,84,C0,81,40,2 6,B 
160 DATA EC, 81, 30, 8B, 20, EE, 32, 69 
, 7E , B4 , 4A, A6 , 68 , 81 , C4 , 2 6 , F5 , 10 
170 DATA DF,7D,DC,21,93,7D,DD,7D 
, DC, 27, 93, 44, 83 , 0 , 3, DD , 27, DD , 2 3 
180 DATA DC, 21, 93, 44, 83,0, 3, DD, 2 
1,93,7D,1F,3,9E,7D,DD,7D,35,4,E7 
190 DATA C0,30,1F,8C,0,0,26,F5,1 
0 / DE,7D,DE,27,33 ,41, 96, 7C, A7 , C0 
200 DATA 9E,44,AF,C1,D6,42,A6,A0 
,A7,C0, 30,1F,5A,26,F7,8C,0,0,27 
210 DATA 48,96,50,31,A6,20,EA,1F 
, 1 3 , A6 , 6 8 , 8 1 , C4 , 2 6 , A , AE , C 1 , 9 C , 4 4 
,25,92,9E,44,20,D8 

220 DATA 9E,44,33,42,9D,9F,81,B0 
,27,7,81,B1,27,6,86,A6,8C, 86, A4 
230 DATA 8C,86,AA,A7,8C,4,D6,42, 
A6,A4,A6,C0,A7,A0,5A,26,F7,A,43 
240 DATA 27 / 6,96,50,31,A6,20,EB, 
9D,9F,32,6B,39 

250 DATA 81,C3,27,25,8B,79,81,AA 

,27 ^Mi: 

260 DATA 7,44,81,55,10,26,FE,DE, 
97 , 50 , 9E , BA, 3 3 , 89 , 18 , 0 , DF , 5 1 , 9D , 
9F,A6 

270 DATA 84, 98, 50, A7, 80,9C,51,26 
,F6, 35,90,86, 3 , 97 , 7C, 9D, 9F, BD 
280 DATA B7,3D,34,10,32,61,BD,B2 
,6D,A,7C,26,F2,BD,B7,3D,9F,42 



290 DATA 35, 54, D7, 42, D7, 45, IF, 10 
,C6,20 / 3D / D3 / BA / 1F,3,1F,10,54 
300 DATA 54 , 54 , 8D, 2B, F, 44 , IF, 32 , 
8D, 11, 3 ,70,06,50, 80,^,33^8^0 
310 DATA D6,43,D7,45,C6 / FF,D7,44 
, IF , 3 1 , DC , BA , C3 , 17 , E 1 , DD , 7 D , 9C 
320 DATA 7D / 25,1,39,1F,30,93,BA, 
2A, 9 , IF, 98 , DD, 50 , 5A, 4C, DD, 52 , 39 
330 DATA D6,51,3A,A6,84,5C,D1,52 
,26,59,5A,D1,53,2 6,17,81,FF,27 
340 DATA EC,84,3,81,3,27 / 5E,A6,1 
,81,FF,27,6,84,C0,81,C0,27,52,39 
350 DATA 5A,D1,53,22,26,81,FF,27 
, 48 , E6 , IF , CI , FF , 2 6 , 4 ,C, 53 ,20 , DA 
360 DATA 84,C0,81 / C0,26,8,A,51,A 
, 52, 30, IF, 20, 30, A6, 84, 84, 3, 81, 3 
370 DATA 26,CA / 20,26,81,FF,27,22 
,A,51 / 30 / lF / A6,84,81,FF,27,18,A 
380 DATA 52 / 20,D2,5A / 5A,Dl,53 / 22 
,E,81,FF,27 / A,E6,1 / C1,FF,26,A0 / C 
390 DATA 51,3^,1,96,51,97, 53, E6, 
84,C1,FF, 26 , 3C, D6, 45 ,E7 , 84 , 30, IF 
400 DATA A,53,2A,F0,D6,51,1F,31, 
5C,3A,D7,52,E6,84,C1,FF,26,4B,D6 
410 DATA 45,E7,80,C,52,C6,20,D1, 
52,26,EE,33,C8,E0,D,7C,26,3,33 
420 DATA 08,40,3,44,26,3,96,42,8 
0, 96 , 43 , 97 ,45 , 16 , FF, 26, E6 , 84 , 57 
430 DATA 24,C9,57,24,C6,57,24,F, 
57,24 / C,57,24,C,57,24,9,E6,84,D4 
440 DATA 45,20,9,C6,F0,8C,C6,C0, 
DA,45,E4,84,E7,84,20,A7 / E6 / 84,58 
450 DATA 24,BC,58,24,B9,58,24,F, 
58,24, C, 58,24, C, 58 , 24 ,9 , E6 , 84 , D4 
460 DATA 45,20,9,C6,F,8C,C6,3,DA 
,45,E4,84,E7,84,20,9A,16,FD,4B,0 



Listing 4: GETPUT4 

1 REM *** STAR GETPUTPAINT *** 

BY H. ALLEN CURTIS 
COPYRIGHT (C) 1985 

2 POKE334, 158:POKE335,27:POKE336 
,110^0^337,26^0^401, 126: POKE 
402,l:POKE403,78 

10 PMODE 4,1: PCLS 1 : COLOR0 , 1 : S CREE 
Nl,l 

20 LINE(0,96)-(127,191) ,PSET,B 
30 CIRCLE (64 ,144) , 40 : CIRCLE (120 , 
96), 70 

40 *PAINT84 / 164 / 170,170:*PAINT12 

0,60,116,248:*PAINT114,150,170,8 

5 : *PAINT60 , 104 , 170 , 85 

50 *GET0,96,127,191,C 

60 *PUT128,0,255,95,C,PSET 

500 GOTO500 



164 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



Editor's Note: Listings 2 and 4 use the 
*GET and *PUT routines generated for 
Disk BASIC 1.0. For any other system 
configuration, including cassette, you 
will need to run Listing 1 and/or Listing 
3 to generate the proper routine for your 
specific system. 




70 32 
1 30 ♦ « , . • 42 

200 90 

END 46 



Listing 1: GETPUT1 

1 REM *** STAR GETPUT *** 

BY H. ALLEN CURTIS 
COPYRIGHT (C) 1985 

2 REMPOKE3 3 4 , 158 : POKE 3 35,27: POKE 
336,110:POKE337,26: POKE401, 12 6 : P 
OKE402,1:POKE403,78 

1)3 FORI=0TO288 : READD$ : D=VAL( "&H" 
+D$ ) : C=C+D : NEXT : CLS 
20 IFC<>33110THENPRINT"DATA ERRO 
R" : STOP 

30 PRINT@162,"IF YOU HAVE NOT AL 
READY SAVED STAR GETPUT, DO SO 
NOW. 

40 PRINT: PRINT" IF YOU HAVE SAV 
ED STAR GETPUT, TYPE CONT AND P 
RESS ENTER." 
50 STOP 

60 X=256*PEEK(27)+PEEK(28)+289:A 
=INT(X/256) :B=X-256*A 

70 POKE474,A:POKE475,B:POKE27,PE 
EK(474) :POKE28, PEEK (475) : CLEAR 
80 X=256*PEEK(27)+PEEK(28) :M=X-2 
89 : FORI=M TOM+288 :READD$ : D=VAL( " 
&H"+D$) :POKEI,D:NEXT 
90 FORJ=0TO2:POKEM+4+J, PEEK (401+ 
J) :NEXT:DEL10~ 

100 DATA 8 1 , AD , 2 7, 3 , 7E , C2 , 4D , 9D , 
9F, 81 ,04,27,4,81,05,26^3, 34, 2 
110 DATA 86,4,97,7C,9D,9F,BD,B7, 
3D, 34 , 10 , BD, B2 , 6D, A, 7C, 26 , F4 , 97 
120 DATA 7C,9D,9F,E6,67,54,54,54 
, £7,67^0, 62, 54, 54, 54, E0 , 67, 2B 
130 DATA 3D,5C,DD,41,CC,20,20,Dj3 
, 42 , D7 , 50 ,E6 , 65 , 3D, E3 , 66, D3 , BA 
140 DATA IF, 2, E6, 61, El, 65, 25, 24, 
Cl,BF,22,20,Ei},65,5C,D7,43,96,42 
15J3 DATA 3D,DD,44,9E,27,3j3,l,A6, 
833,91,70,27,60,84,00,81,40,26,6 
16j3 DATA EC, 81, 30, 8B, 20, EE, 32, 69 



, 7E, B4 , 4A, A6 , 68 , 81 , C4 , 2 6 ,F5, 10 
110 DATA DF,7D,DC,21,93,7D,DD,7D 
, DC, 27, 93, 44, 83,0, 3, DD, 27, DD, 23 
180 DATA DC, 21,93, 44, 83,0, 3, DD,2 
1,93,7D,1F,3,9E,7D,DD,7D,35,4,E7 
190 DATA C0,30,1F,8C,0,0,26,F5,1 
0,DE,7D,DE,27,33,41,96,7C,A7,C0 
200 DATA 9E,44,AF,C1,D6,42,A6,A0 
,A7 > C0,30,1F,5A,2 6,F7,8C,0,0,27 
210 DATA 48,96,50,31,A6,20,EA,1F 
,13,A6,68,81,C4,2 6,A,AE,C1,9C,44 
,25,92,9E,44,20,D8 
220 DATA 9E,44,33,42,9D,9F,81,B0 
,27,7,81,B1,27,6,86,A6, 8C,86,A4 
230 DATA 8C, 86,AA, A7 , 8C, 4, D6, 42, 
A6 , A4 , A6/ C0 , A7 , A0 , 5A, 26, F7 , A, 43 
240 DATA 27, 6, 96, 50,31, A6, 20, EB, 
9D,9F,32,6B,39,16,FE,E2,0,0,0 



Listing 2: GETPUT2 

1 REM *** STAR GETPUT *** 

BY H. ALLEN CURTIS 
COPYRIGHT (C) 1985 

2 POKE334,158:POKE335,27:POKE336 
, 110 : POKE337 , 26 : POKE401, 12 6 : POKE 
402,l:POKE403,78 

10 PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS1 : COLOR0 , 1 : SCREE 
Nl,l 

20 LINE(0,96)-(127,191) ,PSET,B 
30 CIRCLE (64, 144) ,40: CIRCLE (128, 
96) ,70 

40 POKE178, 1:PAINT(64, 144) , ,0:PO 

KE178,5:PAINT(120,90) , ,0:POKE178 

,139: PAINT (120, 100) , ,0 

50 *GET0,96, 127, 191, C 

60 *PUT128, 0,255, 95, C,PSET 

500 GOTO500 



Listing 3: GETPUT 3 



70 . ......116 

130 41 
200 .......89 

260 44 

350 .,...169 
41 0 «»«•»«• .4 
END .... .114 



T 



1 REM *** STAR GETPUTPAINT *** 

BY H. ALLEN CURTIS 
COPYRIGHT (C) 1985 

2 REMPOKE334,158:POKE335,27:POKE 
336,110:POKE337,26:POKE401,126:P 
OKE402 , 1 : POKE403 , 78 

10 FORI=0TO698 :READD$ : D=VAL ( " &H" 
+D$) :C=C+D: NEXT: CLS 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 163 



allow sequential loading with a single 
CLOADM command. To learn about 
Link, see my article, "Link," which 
appeared in the January 1985 issue 
[Page 58]. 

In using Link, you need to know the 
lowest address of the *GET storage area 
as well as the highest RAM address. The 
addresses must be expressed in 
hexadecimal. The lowest address serves 
as both the entry and first address in 
Link's address scheme. The addresses 
can be derived as follows: After running 
to completion your BASIC program with 
*GETs, type and enter: PRINT 
HEX$ ( 256*PEEI< ( 39 ) +PEEK ( 40 ) +1 ) , 
HEX$(256*PEEI<(116)+255). Before 
applying Link, be sure to remove from 
your BASIC program the *GET state- 
ments and any commands that are no 
longer required for drawing and paint- 
ing. Then save the shortened BASIC 
program. 

For many applications, Star Getput 
will be ideal for generating graphics and 
animating them smoothly and quickly. 
However, there may be occasions when 
the shapes and sizes of display objects 
will depend on the program's current 
input data. For instance, the size and 
orientation of wedges in pie charts will 



be dependent on the data being entered 
during the current running of a pro- 
gram. Pre-stored *GET display infor- 
mation cannot be relied on in such 
cases. 

To increase the speed of graphics 
generation in programs of the foregoing 
type, I developed the program, Star 
Paint, in the previously mentioned 
article, "Festive CoCo." Star Paint adds 
the command * PAINT to CoCo's reper- 
toire of BASIC commands. *PAINT not 
only colors objects at speeds consistent 
with *PUT's execution rate, but also 
conveniently colors objects in a multi- 
' tude of hues. 

The programs, Star Getput and Star 
Paint cannot be employed together. 
Listing 3 was written to remedy this 
situation. With this program, called 
Star Getputpaint, you can make full use 
of all three commands, *GET, *PUT 
and * PAINT, in your BASIC programs. 

The purpose of Listing 3 is to produce 
a two-line version of Star Getputpaint, 
the analogue of the Star Getput two- 
liner. 

If there are any remains of the two- 
line version of Star Getput in your 
computer (such as stored *GET infor- 
mation), turn the computer off and on 



again before typing Listing 3. To 
shorten your typing chore, you may 
want to load Listing 1 and take advan- 
tage of the close similarity of lines 1 
through 240 in listings 1 and 3. 

After yo.u have correctly typed List- 
ing 3, save and run it. When the pro- 
gram has completed execution, it will be 
in two-line form. Without changing the 
rest of Line 2, delete the word REM. Then 
save the two-liner. 

Adding a few lines to the two-line 
version of Star Getputpaint yields 
Listing 4. This program illustrates the 
combined use of *GET, *PUT and 
♦PAINT. It executes much like Listing 
2 but faster. 

The use of Star Getput or Star Get- 
putpaint, places a small restriction on 
cassette-based systems: The functions 
U5R8 and U5R9 must not be employed 
in programs containing *GET, *PUT or 
♦PAINT. 

In conclusion, *GET going, and 
*PUT your new graphics capabilities to 
work. 

(You may direct questions about this 
program to Mr. Curtis at 172 Dennis 
Drive, Williamsburg, VA 23185, 804- 
229-7086. Please enclose an SASEwhen 
writing.) □ 



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162 



THE RAINBOW November 1986 



A final example will lead into a 
discussion of the means of turning 
*GET's memory retention to advan- 
tage: Delete lines 30, 40 and 80. Change 
the *GET in Line 50 to *PUT and then 
append a comma and PSET to the end 
of that changed statement. Running the 
program shows that the same designs 
are displayed as previously, even with- 
out the commands initially used to draw 
and paint them. Moreover, the designs 
are generated faster now. 

What this all implies is that if the 
*GET information stored in high RAM 
can be loaded along with the basic 
program, neither *GETs nor the com- 
mands used to generate the stored 
display information need to be included 
in the BASIC program. The elimination 
of all these commands will make the 
BASIC program both shorter and faster. 
Furthermore, Star Getput will not 
destroy any string information because 
it will no longer need to assign *GET 
storage areas. 

With disk systems it is a simple matter 
to load the *GET information with the 
BASIC program. It can be accomplished 
by the following steps: 



Run the BASIC program with the 
*GETs present to make sure all *GET 
storage areas are assigned and the 
needed information stored. 
Remove the *GET statements as well 
as all those commands which are now 
unnecessary for drawing and paint- 
ing. 

Save the *GET storage information 
by typing and entering: SAVEM"*ST0 
RE " , 256*PEEI< ( 39 ) +PEEK ( 40 ) +1 , 2 
5G*PEEI<(116)+255,0. 

The address 25G*PEE1<( 39)+PE 
El< ( 40 ) +1 is the lowest address in the 
♦GET storage area. The address 
25G*PEE!<(116)+255 is the highest 
RAM address. 

Now, determine precisely what the 
lowest *GET storage address is by 
typing and entering: PRINT256*PEEI< 
(39)+PEEK(40)+l 
Add to the BASIC program 3 IFPEEK 
(39)=PEEI<(116) AND PEEI<(40)> 
252THENCLERR100 ,1a :LDRDM 
"*ST0RE" where la has been used to 
represent the address determined in 
Step 4. Therefore, when typing Line 
3, insert the address determined in 
Step 4 in place of the letters la. In the 



case of our example program, the 
inserted address should be 11427 or 
27811 depending on whether you 
have a 16K or 32K byte RAM. 
• Save the BASIC program with the 
newly added line. 

If you try this six-step procedure on 
the example program, turn your com- 
puter off and on following the last step. 
This removes the *GET information 
from high RAM. Then type and enter 
RUN"EXRMPLE" where it is assumed that 
EXAMPLE is the filename you specified 
for the example program. The RUN 
command causes the program to be 
loaded; the program in turn loads the 
♦GET storage area, and then executes. 
If the program is stopped and rerun, it 
will not go through the now unneces- 
sary process of loading the *GET dis- 
play information. 

With cassette-based systems it is less 
straightforward to load *GET informa- 
tion along with the BASIC program. It 
can be readily accomplished with the 
aid of a machine language program 
such as Link which combines program 
files — BASIC and data — on tape to 



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November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 61 



comprising the *GET and *PUT ma- 
chine language routines. Lines 10 and 
20 provide a check on the accuracy of 
your typing of the DATA values. Lines 30 
through 50 inform you when to save 
Star Getput, Lines 60 through 80 store 
the machine language routines. Line 90 
makes sure the routines are compatible 
with your system. Special typing care 
should be taken with lines 2, 60, 70, 80 
and 90; errors in lines with PDKEs can 
cause program self-destruction. 

After you have correctly typed and 
saved Star Getput, run it. The program 
will stop at Line 50. To resume execu- 
tion, type CDNT and press ENTER. When 
Star Getput has completed execution, it 
consists of only two lines — the REM 
statements of lines 1 and 2. Line 90 
caused the deletion of all but those two 
lines. Hidden from listing view in the 
greatly shortened Star Getput are its 
*GET and *PUT routines, which are 
safely stored immediately after Line 2. 
Adding your own lines of programming 
to Star Getput will not overwrite the 
machine language routines, but merely 
move them to a position immediately 
following the last line of BASIC pro- 
gramming. 

To activate the machine language 
routines, you must delete the full word 
REM and nothing else from Line 2. After 
making the deletion, save the two-line 
version of Star Getput. It will necessar- 
ily be the basis of any program you write 
containing *GETs and *PUTs. The 
two-line version of Star Getput must 
always be used with the same system 
configuration as the one on which it was 
generated. 

If you used Rainbow Check PLUS as 
an aid in the accurate typing of Star 
Getput, turn off your computer now. 
This will erase Rainbow Check PLUS 
from your computer's high RAM which 
will be needed shortly. Then turn your 
CoCo on again and load the two-line 
version of Star Getput. 

Adding a few lines of BASIC program- 
ming to the two-line Star Getput yields 
Listing 2. This program and edited 
versions thereof will be used to illustrate 
the workings of *GET and *PUT. 

Run Listing 2. Lines 10 through 40 
serve to draw and paint the design in the 
lower-left quarter of the display. The 
*GET statement of Line 50 stores the 
design. The *PUT of Line 60 retrieves 
the design and rapidly places it in the 
upper-right quarter of the display. The 
rapidity of * PUT execution accentuates 
the slowness of BASIC'S PAINT com- 
mand. For a much faster method of 



painting consistent with *PUT's speed, 
see my article, "Festive CoCo" [July 
1986, Page 46]. 

To compare the speed of PUT with 
that of *PUT, stop the program by 
pressing the BREAK key and add the 
following lines to the program: 



45 GDTD400 
400 DIMR[30BJ:GET[0,3G]-IJ.2 

410 PUTf 12B,0)-(255 T 95) ,fl,p 
SET 



Run the changed program and notice 
how slowly the design is formed on the 
upper-right quarter of the display. 

Delete the entire GET statement from 
Line 400 and rerun the program. This 
time PUT forms a black rectangle in the 
upper quarter of the display. Without a 
previous GET, the 'A' array contains all 
zeros corresponding to black pixel 
codes. The program did not remember 
the design stored in the previous run of 
the program. 

Surprisingly, once display informa- 
tion has been stored by *GET, Star 
Getput can retain this information on 
subsequent runs with *GET deleted. To 
verify this, delete Line 50 containing 
♦GET Also, delete lines 45, 400 and 410 
to remove the remains of the GET/PUT 
part of the program. Then run the 
program to see that it accomplishes the 
same design transfer as before. 

Next, edit Line 60 by replacing the 
*PUT action, P5ET, with FIND. Running 
the program again shows that AND 
works just as fast as P5ET. If you are 
familiar with how RND functions with 
PUT, you will immediately realize that 
it works the same way with *PUT but 
much faster. Replacing RND with OR in 
Line 60 and running the program 
another time reveals that OR executes as 
fast as P5ET or RND and otherwise 
functions as it does with PUT. 

It is possible to * PUT a portion of the 
display information stored by *GET. To 
illustrate this, edit Line 60 by changing 
the y 1 value from zero to 48; also change 
DR to RND. Then run the program. This 
demonstrates that when the difference 
between y2 and yl in *PUT is less than 
a similar y-ordinate difference in *GET, 
*PUT will write a proportional part of 
the stored information on the screen. 
However, making the difference be- 
tween x2 and xl less in *PUT than in 
*GET results in a scrambling of the 
display information. This can be veri- 
fied by changing 128 to 228 in Line 60 
and running the program. 



Thus far, we have only discussed a 
single *GET, *PUT combination. A 
program may have several such combi- 
nations. To show this, make the follow- 
ing program changes: Restore xl and x2 
in *PUT to their original values by 
changing 228 to 128 and 48 to zero in 
Line 60. Delete Line 20. Delete the first 
CIRCLE command in Line 30. Delete 
from Line 40 all but the final POKE and 
PRINT. Insert Line 50 as follows: 

*GET1E,2E, 199*166, Z:*PUT5£, 




then run the program. 

The next example exhibits a peculiar- 
ity of the *GET command. Add the 
following three lines to the program and 
run it: 



70 S$~"TE5T"*TS="THI5 15 ft 

Si 

90 FOR J-l TO2000 ; NEXT : 5CRE1E:N0 , 
1 : CLS : PR I NTT$ 



After the graphics display is com- 
plete, there will be a slight pause and 
gibberish will be printed on the text 
screen. However, running the program 
again produces the expected text screen 
message, THIS IS R TEST. 

There is an explanation for this 
curious phenomenon. When Star Get- 
put assigns a high RAM area to each 
*GET command, it overwrites whatever 
is in the memory area where strings are 
stored. Star Getput assigns another area 
for strings but does not try to recover 
the lost string information. However, in 
rerunning the program, T$ was stored 
in the new string storage area which was 
left untouched by Star Getput because 
it had no new *GET areas to assign. 

The fact that the assignment of *GET 
memory areas will destroy string infor- 
mation would appear to be a serious 
defect. However, it is easily overcome. 
Merely write a line or two of dummy 
*GETs early in your program before 
forming any strings. The *GET areas 
will be assigned early. Later, when the 
corresponding real *GETs are exe- 
cuted, no new *GET memory areas will 
be assigned and there will be no string 
information loss. 

Remember, in a earlier example it 
was shown that the program would run 
without *GETs after their display infor- 
mation had been stored. This *GET 
capability can be turned to advantage to 
eliminate the string loss possibility, as 
well as providing memory and time 
savings. 



160 



THE RAINBOW November 1 986 




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Vastly increase GET and PUT speeds 

PUT Speedy GETzales 
to Work 



By H. Allen Curtis 



T j is pointed out in Radio Shack's 
I | manual, Going Ahead With Ex- 
JL \rtended Color BASIC, that in 
simulating motion, the GET and PUT 
statements can move objects faster than 
any other combination of ECB com- 
mands. Unfortunately, the GET/ PUT 
movement of relatively large objects is 
far from being fast enough. 

The goal of this article is to signifi- 
cantly increase the CoCo's PUT speed to 
permit fast and smooth GET /PUT move- 
ment of large objects. I have added two 
commands to CoCo's BASIC vocabu- 
lary. The two commands are new va- 
rieties of GET and PUT and will be 
referred to as *GET and *PUT, respec- 
tively. *PUT executes twenty times 
faster than PUT. This allows a BASIC 
programmer to generate graphics dis- 

H. Allen Curtis lives in Williamsburg, 
Virginia. He is interested in 17th and 
18th century history and enjoys biking 
through the colonial capital He balan- 
ces past and present with hi$ computer 
work. 



plays (stationary or animated) at ma- 
chine language speeds. 

The format of * GET is much like that 
of GET, but streamlined. Gone are the 
parentheses, minus sign and full graph- 
ics indicator, *G\ The format is as 
follows: *GETxl,yl,x2,y2,d, where 
xl and yl form the xl,yl coordinate of 
the upper-left corner of a rectangular 
area on the display; x2 and y2 form the 
x2,y2 coordinate of the lower-right 
corner of the same rectangular area and 
'd' is a letter A to Z denoting the 
destination memory area at which a 
copy of the rectangular area is stored. 

*GET does not store the rectangular 
display information in array form. For 
maximum speed, it stores the informa- 
tion directly in high RAM. *GET au- 
tomatically reserves the required 
amount of protected high RAM. The 
destination letter is not a variable but 
merely a label identifying the area in 
which the display information is stored. 

For increased speed, *GET and 
*PUT were designed to work in PM0DE4 
only. Limiting *GET and *PUT to 



PM0DE4 is no real disadvantage because 
of the many techniques that have beer 
developed to paint in a multitude ol 
colors in PMDDE4. 

In PMDDE4 there are 256 pictun 
elements (pixels) in a display line. Eact 
line is composed of 32 bytes containing 
eight pixels each. For increased speed, 
the whole byte in which the 'xi' (i=l,2" 
point is contained is transferred from 
display memory to RAM. For instance. 
*GET28 , 5 , 154 , 25 , fi would store in 21 
partial lines (five through 25), each 
consisting of 16 bytes containing points 
24 through 1 59. 

The format of *PUT is as follows: 
*PUTxl , yl , x2 , y2 , s , a, where xl and 
yl form the xl,yl coordinate of the 
upper-left corner of a rectangular area 
of the display; x2 and y2 form the x2,y2 
coordinate of the lower-right corner oi 
the same rectangular area; V is a letter 
A to Z denoting the source memory area 
containing the data to be displayed and 
'a' is one of three possible actions — 
P5ET, AND, OR. 

The three actions are defined as 
follows: PSET, set each display point in 
the source memory area; AND, form the 
logical AND of each byte in the rectan- 
gular display area with each corre- 
sponding byte of the source memory 
area and write it on the display; and OR, 
form the logical OR of each byte in the 
rectangular display area with each 
corresponding byte of the source mem- 
ory area and write it on the display. 

The three actions are not optional. 
One of the three must be specified for 
each *PUT given. *PUT does not sup- 
port PRESET and NOT actions in the 
interest of increased speed. Consistent 
with *GET, no partial bytes of *PUT 
are written on the display from the 
source memory. Every whole byte con- 
taining an xl or x2 point is written on 
the display. The whole byte requirement 
is an important factor in the extremely 
fast *PUT execution rate. 

Your computer's ECB ROM contains 
machine language routines for the 
execution of the statements GET and 
PUT. To add *GET and *PUT to CoCo's 
BASIC command repertoire, analogous 
machine language routines must be 
generated and stored in RAM. Listing 
1, called Star Getput, does the required 
machine language routine generation 
and storage. 

In the listing, the DATA values of lines 
100 through 240 contain the 289 bytes 



1 58 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 




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Dealer and author Inquiries are always welcome. Canadian 
dealers should contact Kelly Software Distributors, Ltd. 608, 
STNT, Calgary, Alberta T5H 2H2, (403) 236-2161 




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It even fixes those programs that load at hex 600 so they 
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ROMFREE now accomodates the larger 16K ROM packs. 
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Lizpac — Absolutely the most complete statistics package 
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/ can't find the P0KE25,6:NEW e- 
quivalent for a Disk BASIC system. 
Can you help? 

Kevin Armalay 
Pendel, PA 



Kevin, The equivalent is POKE 
25 , 14 : PDKE&HE00 , 0 : NEW. 



Is there a good Hi-Res screen dump 
for a DMP-100 printer? 
e> Harry H. Hull 

Martinsville, IN 

13 Radio Shack markets BW-Dump 
as part of their Hi-Res screen 
dump utilities package which is compat- 
ible with your printer. 

How can I get colors in PM0DE4? 

Ben Ariel 
Natanya, Israel 

13 You get the extra colors using 
*-}C artifacting, Ben. For example, if 
you draw two single pixel wide vertical 
lines on a PM0DE4 screen, the double 
pixel wide line will appear either red or 
blue. 

How do I speed up the clock on my 
Co Co as turbo enhancements do the 
IBM PCs? Has anyone heard any- 
thing about the new Co Co that was 
discussed at the Microware convention 
last year? 

Christopher Oxenreider 
Montevideo, MN 

13 The new CoCo 3 uses a 68B09 
with a 2-MHz clock for twice the 
speed of current CoCo 2s. Christopher, 
see the September 1986 RAINBOW for 
first impressions of the CoCo 3. 

/ would like to know the real differ- 
ences between a cassette and a disk 
drive. 

Pete Hagemeyer 
Bethlehem, PA 

13 Pete, the advantages of a disk 
-^^Lover tape include speed of data 

transfer, reliability of data transfer and 

direct access capability. 

/ would like to dump graphics 
screens from Radio Shack's Micro 
Illustrator which runs under OS-9. 
Would Radio Shack's OS-9 High Reso- 
lution Screen Dump program work 
with it? 

Charles Ward 
Louisville, KY 

13 It will work if you use one of 
/L Radio Shack's 9-pin dot-matrix 
printers. 



I have been having some problems 
trying to print text screens from my 
programs on my printer. I have 
included a sample program that is 
typical of the programs I am trying to 
print. They all work great on the com- 
puter screen, but I can't get my printer 
to reproduce them. Can you help? 

Helga Craig 
Uniondale, NY 

13 Insert GOSUB 1000 in your pro- 
v/C gram where you want it to dump 
the screen, Helga. 

1000 FOR 1=1024 TO 1535 STEP 32 

1010 A$="" 

1020 FOR J=I TO 1+31 

1030 fi$=fi$+CHR$(PEEI<( I+J) ) ; 

1040 NEXT J 

1050 PRINT tt-2, R$ 

1060 NEXT I 

1070 RETURN 

How can I change the print width 
for Disk Spectaculator (RS 26- 
3256)? 

David Bacus 
Detroit, MI 

13 David, to patch your Spectacula- 
/C tor program, type the following: 

PCLEflRB ENTER. 

LdflDM "SPEC/BIN" ENTER. 

POKE &H244E, <new printer 

Width +1> ENTER 

SflVEM "SPEC/BIN", &H1400, 

&H35FF, &H1400 ENTER 

Note: for the ROMpak version, the 
print width is at Address SDOAF. 



How can I fix the RND function so 
that it generates a different sequence 
of random numbers immediately 
after I power up my CoCo? 

Dan Frances 
. Kent, WA 

13 Insert X=RND ( -TIMER ) at the 
beginning of your program to 
seed the CoCo's random number gener- 
ator, Dan. 

/ saw several dump programs in the 
May 1986 issue of RAINBOW which I 
tried on my CoCo. None of the 
programs worked on my printer, a 
D MP- 110. Please send me a program 
for my printer or tell me where lean find 
a useful screen dump program for my 
machine. 

Danny Mc Vey 
Pendleton, IN 

13 Well Danny, Versadump is a 
user-configurable screen print 
utility for most 9-pin dot-matrix print- 



ers. It appeared in the March 1985 issue 
of HOT CoCo in an article entitled 
"Printer Answers." 

^ I have replaced my ROM BASIC LC 
CoCo with a CoCo that uses BASIC 
1.1. The only problem I have with ii 
is that my word processor, Telewriter- 
64, will not work with the BASIC LI. Is 
there any way I can make my word 
processor compatible with the updated 

BAS/C? Charles Ross 

Allentown, PA 
13 Charles, a program called Tele- 

A /L patch II, from Spectrum Pro- 
jects, allows you to use the 1.1 ROM. 
It also provides several additional 
features to enhance Telewriter-64. It 
sells for $29.95. 

H How do I disable the I I O Error 
when loading a BASIC program so 
that lean at least salvage the portion 
of the program up to the error? 

Charles Gibson 
Edwardsville, IL 

13 "Doctor ASCII" contained a 
-^^program that allowed you to load 
a BASIC program up to the point where 
the I/O Error was encountered. For 
more information, Charles, look in the 
November 1983 HOT CoCo. 

VIP Library refers to the LCA-47 
lowercase adapter and its attributes. 
Do you have any further information 
on this subject? 

Joseph Johnston 
Swanton, VT 

13 The article "80 Applications," in 
A X the November 1982 80 Micro- 
computing [Page 78] contains instruc- 
tions for building your own LCA-47 
lowercase adapter for the CoCo includ- 
ing schematic, Joseph. 

M I want to play games on my CoCo 
^ with a friend over the phone. Do you 
Sknow of anything available that will 
allow me to do this? 

Denis Bowers 
Ontario, Canada 

13 Denis, Bit 232 published in "Doc- 
A X tor ASCII" in HOT CoCo Feb- 
ruary 1986, allows two CoCos to send 
and receive information via the RS-232 
port using BASIC. Also, see the 
Mc Checkers game on Page 114 of this 
issue. 

For a quicker response, your questions 
may also be posted in the Forum section 
of rainbow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. In 
Forum, type ADD and address your 
questions to the username DOCTOR 
ASCII. You may also send questions to 
DOCTORASCII via Delphi Mail. 



156 THE RAINBOW November 1986 



available that will allow me to do this? 

A. Obner 
Hendersonville, NC 

f€. Only high level language source 
/C code such as c, pascal, basic, 
etc., saved in ASCII can be transferred 
to CoCo ASCII files. They may then 
need customization due to hardware or 
I/O differences. The program that 
allows you to do this is CoCo Util II. 
It sells for $39.95. Contact Mark Data 
Products, 24001 Alicia Parkway, No. 
207, Mission Viejo, CA 92691, (714) 
7768-1551. 



Does anyone offer FORTH for the 
CoCo? How about FORTH on a 
ROM chip to replace BASIC? 

Charles Beckers Jr. 
Middletown, RI 

O There are no FORTH ROM chips 
available for the CoCo that I 
know of, Charles. Frank Hogg Labor- 
atory offers eFORTH for FLEX or Disk 
BASIC for $79.95. Contact them at 77 
James St., Syracuse, NY 13203, (315) 
474-7856. 

/ have a Radio Shack Line Printer 
VIII which I use in my business. The 
printer works great except, due to my 
heavy use, the pins wear out and break. 
Radio Shack only offers the entire print 
head unit which costs $99, but I only 
need the pins. Do you know where I can 
obtain these pins separately? 

Marvin D. Petersen 
Sepulveda, CA 

ID The print head is sold by Radio 
Shack only as a unit. TEK's part 
number is HE82C1 17101 for the head. 
Marvin, I suggest you contact NEC 
and/ or C.Itoh, which are the other 
companies that import TEK printers 
under their labels. 

Where can I get a ribbon for my 
printer without having to buy the 
entire cassette the ribbon fits into? 

Marlene 
Fresno, CA 

X> BCCOMPCO, 800 South 17, 
A X Box 246, Somersville, MO 65571 , 
(417) 932-4196 is a supplier of ribbons 
without the cartridges for various pop- 
ular computer printers, Marlene. 
Another solution is to re-ink your 
ribbons with Maclnker from Computer 
Friends, 6415 S.W. Canyon Ct., Port- 
land, OR 97221, (503) 297-2321. 



How do authors split the screen so 
that the upper half is graphics and 
the lower half text? Vm interested in 



writing my own Adventure and would 
find this technique very useful. 

Jason Johnston 
Lillooet, British Columbia 

ID The text is generated with high 
resolution graphics using a pro- 
gram such as Computerware's 64 K 
Screen Expander software, Jason. 



How can I find the start address, 
length and end address of a machine 
language I binary file written on tape? 
I want to read these programs and store 
them on disk with the proper informa- 
tion so they can be loaded and run from 
disk. 

Paul L. Bishop 
Aurora, Ontario 

ID Load the program into memory, 

A X Paul - The start address is PRINT 
PEEK(487)*25G+PEEK(4B8). 
The end address is PRINT PEEK 
(126)*256 + PEEK (127) -1. The 
execution address is PRINT PEEK (157) 
* 25G + PEEK (158) - To obtain the 
length, simply subtract the end address 
from the start address and add 1 . 



Is there a disk-to-tape or tape-to- 
disk copier that I can use to transfer 
my files? How can I find out what 
type of board I have? 

Jason Munson 
Tucson, AZ 

ID See Roger Schrag's "The Limo- 
A /L sine Utility: A Tape to Disk 
Transfer Vehicle" (RAINBOW, January 
1984) for the transfer utility you want. 
Look at the lower right-hand corner of 
the printed circuit board for the serial 
number of your machine, Jason. CoCo 
board serial numbers ended with the 
letters *D\ 'E' and '285' or 'NC. The 
former are known as *D' and 'E' boards, 
and the latter as T* boards. 



I need a head alignment kit. Do you 
know where I can obtain one for my 
CoCo? I asked a salesman at Radio 
Shack and he had no idea. 

Ron Clifton, 
Charleston, SC 

ID J&M Systems, 15100-A Central 
A X SE Albuquerque, NM 87123, 
(505) 292-4182, sells Memory Minder, 
a disk drive diagnostics program and a 
special precision alignment disk with 
versions for single- and double-sided 
drives. [See review in RAINBOW Sep- 
tember 1986, Page 144.] 



Does anyone offer a program sim- 
ilar to Print-Shop? The program is 
used to make signs or posters on 
regular-size paper. 

David Jones 
Frostburg, MD 

ID CoCo MAX II from Colorware 
gives you the capability to put 
text and graphics together on the 
CoCo's screen much like the acclaimed 
Apple Mcintosh's MacPaint. Hope- 
fully, David, the makers of CoCo MAX 
//will come out with a super version for 
the new CoCo 3. 

/ am looking for a COBOL compiler. 
Do you know of any on the market 
at the present time? 

Robert Lett 
Columbus, MS 

ID Frank Hogg Laboratory sells 
A ;£both OS-9 and FLEX COBOL 

compilers for the CoCo, Robert. 

Crunch COBOL for FLEX is $99.95 and 

CIS COBOL for OS-9 is $400. 



/ need a BBS program for one or 
two disk drives. Do you know where 
I can obtain one? 

Paul Bolton 
Shreveport, LA 

ID Paul, RAINBOW published a bul- 
A T^letin board program in No- 
vember 1985 called Co BBS, by Richard 
Duncan. It was largely written in BASIC, 
thus easily customizable for your own 
computer applications, 

/ am looking for a word processor 
for my CoCo that would allow me to 
edit two files independently, but side 
by side. Do you know of any word 
processors in the works that would 
allow me to do this? 

Paul Whiting 
Madison, WI 

ID No, not for the CoCos 1 or 2, but 
/L with windows on the CoCo 3, the 
capability is there. You could have two 
Stylograph sessions operating in separ- 
ate windows and switch back and forth 
between them, Paul. 

/ just purchased a TRS-80 Touch 
Pad but cannot find any software 
advertised to work with it. 

Michael J. Fath 
Wadsworth, OH 

ID It simulates a joystick, Mike, so 
/C many joystick-compatible pro- 
grams will work with it. 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 55 



DOCTOR ASCII 



Introducing a new Rainbow column 



Rainbow to the Rescue 



By Richard E. Esposito 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 

with Richard W. Libra 



TT the fall of 1985, when Radio 
I *W\ Shack did not offer a "Super 
JLJIJLCoCo" to compete with the 
new Commodore and Atari offerings, 
the publishers of HOT Co Co magazine 
apparently assumed the CoCo was dead 
so they killed their magazine. In time, 
the people at Peterborough [CW Com- 
munications/Peterborough Inc.] evi- 
dently thought CoCo owners would 
switch over to the Tandy 1000. 

After the demise of HOT CoCo, my 
column, "Doctor ASCII," was switched 
to another of their magazines, 80 Micro. 
But, it was clear to me from the begin- 
ning that the days of Color Computer 
coverage in 80 Micro were numbered. 
I was given some hope when Tandy 
surprised everyone by releasing sales 
figures [first quarter, 1986] indicating 
that CoCo sales were still quite high; 
36,000 versus 42,000 for all of the Tandy 
MS-DOS systems [Editor's Note: These 
figures do not even include Christmas 
sales, in which the CoCo is always a 
clear standout!] But, alas, additional 
coverage of the Color Computer in 80 
Micro did not materialize and existing 
coverage was relegated to the rear of the 
magazine. 

Rather, 80 Micro reaffirmed their 
support for Tandy's Z80 and MS-DOS 
products, so it came as no surprise to 
me when I received a telephone call 
informing me that the "HOT CoCo" 
section of 80 Micro and, consequently, 
"Doctor ASCII" were being killed. 

Wanting to preserve my long estab- 

Richard Esposito is a project engineer 
for TRW's Government Systems 
Group. He holds bachelor's, master's 
and doctorate degrees from Polytechnic 
Institute of Brooklyn. He has been 
writing about microcomputers since 
1980. 




lished column, I immediately called the 
rainbow. Editor and Publisher Lonnie 
Falk and Managing Editor Jim Reed 
were both cordial and supportive. They 
understood my commitment to the 
CoCo Community and shared my en- 
thusiasm for carrying on. They, too, 
wanted "Doctor ASCII" to continue. 

So, thanks to THE rainbow, the 
tradition continues. [Editor's Note: 
With the gracious consent of Eric Mal- 
oney, editor-in-chief at 80 Micro, the 
column will continue to be known as 
"Doctor ASCII."] And, with the intro- 
duction of the new Color Computer 3, 
the CoCo is stronger than ever — a 
great new force in the home market. I 
am pleased to be affiliated now with 
the rainbow staff and with publisher 
Lonnie Falk, whose faith in the Color 
Computer has never wavered. 



How is the INKEYS statement used 
in programming? I'm attempting to 
write programs to assist me in per- 



forming research in my psychology 
classes. 

Scott Lam 
Walla Walla, WA 

15 The INKEYS function checks mo- 
/L mentarily to see if a key is de- 
pressed, Scott. If a program contains 
the statement 100 fl$=INKEY$, mosl 
likely AS will contain an empty string 
after it is executed unless you are 
Johnny-on-the-spot pressing the key 
the moment your CoCo looks for it. The 
usual code that uses it is as follows: 

100 R$=INKEY$: IF fi$ < THEN 

100 

With this code, the CoCo keeps execut- 
ing the INKEYS function until it returns 
a non-null character which can then be 
found in the variable A$. 

Is there a program on tape to con- 
vert the computer screen to 80 co- 
lumns instead of 32? 

Todd Johnson 
Rochester, MN 

T2j PBJ's Wordpak plugs into Radio 
A }L Shack's MultiPak interface and 
drives an 18-MHz or greater composite 
video monochrome monitor. Software 
drivers are available for FLEX, OS-9 
and Disk BASIC. Most Radio Shack 
software will not run using Wordpak 
unless it is specifically designed to use 
it, Todd. Elite Software and Cer-Comp 
are the leading marketers of Wordpak- 
compatible Disk BASIC software. Most 
FLEX and OS-9 software using PBJ's 
drivers uses the full 80 columns with 
little or no modification. 



/ need to use IBM-compatible pro- 
grams on my CoCo at times and was 
wondering if there is any software 



154 



THE RAINBOW November 1986 



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>ut when you started, and you're finished. The whole 
)rocess doesnt take over 10 minutes. 

Drive 1 Upgrade is of excellent quality, with a heavy, die- 
;ast frame and rigidly mounted printed circuit board. The 
lalf-height design is very popular and the TEC brand is 
vell-known in the drive industry. The drive is capable of 
iccessing 40 tracks and runs easily at 6 ms head stepping 
ate. The circuit board flat cable connector features gold- 
)lated contacts. It also incorporates a direct drive DC 
jrushless motor with no belt. I checked the speed of the new 
Irive and it was 298.8 RPM, which is well within correct 
)perating limits. I assume that the speed can be changed 
vith some internal adjustment, although it was not 
locumented. 

My only complaint with this upgrade is that it is noisy 
luring track-to-track access, but it's no worse than the 
iadio Shack Drive 0. Setting the stepping rate at 6 ms 
greatly reduces the noise, as many CoCo users have already 
liscovered. 

I believe this upgrade should be investigated by any CoCo 
iser interested in adding extra disk drives. It's not difficult 
o install (no soldering is required) and you can save $60 
>r more by doing it yourself. 



Software Review* 



(Spectrum Projects Inc., P.O. Box 264, Howard Beach, NY 
11414, $139.95 plus $3 S/H) 

- Jerry Semones 




o* 6 




THE RAINBOW'S 

ne-Liner Contest 
has now been expanded 
to include programs of 
either one or two lines. This 
means a new dimension and new 
opportunity for those who have "really 
neat" programs that simply just won't fit in 
one line. 

Here are the guidelines: The program must 
work in Extended basic, have only one or two 
line numbers and be entirely self-contained — 
no loading other programs, no calling ROM 
routines, no poked-in machine language code. 
The program has to run when typed in directly 
(since that's how our readers will use it). Make 
sure your line, or lines, aren't packed so tightly 
that the program won't list completely. Finally, 
any instructions needed should 
be very short. 

Send your entry 
(preferably on cassette) to: 




Become a Hi-Res Hero 
With Dragon Blade 



Those who like playing Adventure games are in for a 
treat. Prickly-Pear Software has created an animated, Hi- 
Res Adventure that sends you into the Middle Ages with 
style. 

The object of the game is to find the Dragon Blade, which 
is the only thing that will kill the ancient dragon that has 
been terrorizing your small medieval village. 

In its last attack, the dragon killed your father, the chief 
of the village. Now you must succeed him as chief, and 
somehow save the village from further attack. 

You begin your quest in the Forest of Lore, soon 
discovering that the quiet countryside holds mystery and 
danger. As you search for the Blade, you encounter 
gargoyles, witches and a menacing guardian. You may fall 
into an abandoned mine shaft and find yourself wandering 
in a dark maze, or facing a monster who can turn you into 
stone with a single look. Despite these risks you must forge 
ahead, gathering the tools and knowledge that will allow 
you to slay the dragon and save your village. 

Some Hi-Res Adventures are so slow you have to wait 
more than you play, but Dragon Blade is quick enough to 
keep the action rolling. The graphics are first-rate. (See 
Figure 1 .) They are well-designed and do a good job setting 
the stage for a medieval quest. Several screens bring the 
Adventure to life with animation. 




Figure 1: Although the photo is shown in black and white, 
the actual Hi-Res game screen is in color. 

Dragon Blade is definitely worth buying if you enjoy 
Adventure games — and it would make a great Christmas 
gift for your favorite CoCo nut. 

(Prickly-Pear Software, 213 La Mirada, El Paso, TX 79932, 
64K disk required, $29.95) 

— Andy Dater 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 151 




f \ . . pick an 
option from a 
pull-down 
menu and it 






insti 
a bullet chart 
you can print 

on an 




overhead trans- 



parency, 



99 




« ''av %: if k y JL " 



screen, although it can accept lines up 
to 256 characters long. 

So far I have only heard of two 
drawbacks to the Color Computer 3 as 
far as OS-9 Level II is concerned. The 
first is the fact that the Tandy Sound/ 
Speech Cartridge does not work with it 
because OS-9 always runs at 1.79 MHz 
and the Sound/ Speech Cartridge can 
only deal with .89 MHz. The good news 
is you can add a switch to bypass the 
XOR gate in the Sound/ Speech Car- 
tridge and it will work at the higher 
clock speed. The other drawback is that 
a modification must be made to the 
expansion interface to allow it to run. 
You need to take it to a computer center 
to have it modified. 

Larson's SysGo Revisited 

In May of this year we published an 
alternate SysGo module for OS-9 Level 
I, Version 1 .00 or Version 1.01. Also that 
month, we discussed various techniques 
you could use to force OS-9 to start up 
in a RAM disk. David Curtis, of Heath, 
Ohio, put the tips into action and sent 
us the completed product. It is listed 
here. Curtis also submitted a simple 
utility that takes the place of the Micro- 



soft BASIC CL5 command. Interestingly 
enough, we received another CL5 pro- 
gram from John Bowden of the U.S. 
Navy's COMTHIRDFLLT N-2 in 
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Bowden's code 
shows how to fork a new process since 
it clears the screen by calling the OS-9 
display command. If you have both 
display and CL5 loaded in memory, this 
method is fast, too. 

Version 2.00 

Along with his program listings, 
Curtis sent a question. "Why bother 
with OS-9 Level I, Version 2.00?" he 
asked. "The 80-column driver won't run 
my WordPak I. The disk driver wont 
handle double-sided drives. The hard 
drive Tandy supports is out of sight 
price-wise. The config program is nice 
and permits easy creation of a custom 
system disk. That's about it." 

I guess the answer to that question 
revolves around what you are going to 
do with your computer. If you plan on 
running all the new programs coming 
out for OS-9, youH most likely need the 
latest version of the operating system. 
Some programs operate across a 
number of operating systems; many 



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RAINBOW 

CtftWlCATION 
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ON EARTH JUST GOT BETTER! 



THAT'S RIGHT! THIS MONTH WE'VE DROPPED OUR YEARLY 
SUBSCRIPTION RATE AN UNBELIEVABLE »10.°° TO ENTICE YOU 
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CONTAINING OVER 120 QUALITY PROGRAMS. A SUBSCRIP- 
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NO WE ARE NOT THE SAME AS THE RAINBOW ON TAPE. IN 
FACT, MANY SUBSCRIBERS HAVE WRITTEN IN AND SAID THAT 
WE ARE MUCH BETTER THAN RAINBOW ON TAPE! 




1 YEAR (12 Issues) 
6 MO. (6 issues) 
1 1SSUE 



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OR DISK 

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60.00 
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Personal Checks Welcome! 



* 16K-64K ColorComputer OUR LATEST ISSUE CONTAINED 

* Over 4000 Satisfied Customers 1 . Computer I.O.U. 6. Haunted Staircase 
+ Back Issues Available From 2. Disk Disassembler 7. Canyon Bombers 

* July '82 (Over 500 Programs) 3. Bak Chekers 8. Dragon Adventure 
j£Z^^ 4 - Pachinko 9. Graphic Scroll 
ff^\\ 5 - stock Charting 1 0. Auto Border 



RAINBOW 

CCJITVWATIOM 



r T i 

■ MasterCard! 



T&D SUBSCRIPTION SOFTWARE, P.O. BOX 256C, HOLLAND, Ml 49423 (61 6) 396-7577 



November 1986 THE RAINBOW 201 



Protect and highlight 
gour important 
magazine collection 

with sturdy 
RAINBOW binders 




Distinctive, Durable RAINBOW Binders 

THE rainbow is a vital resource to be referred to 
again and again. Keep your copies of the rainbow safe 
in our quality, distinctive binders that provide com- 
plete protection. 

These attractive red vinyl binders showcase your 
collection and ensure your rainbows are in mint 
condition for future use. Each binder is richly em- 
bossed with the magazine's name in gold on the front 
and spine- They make a handsome addition to any 
room. 

Put an End to Clutter 

Organize your workspace with these tasteful bind- 
ers. Spend more time with your CoCo and eliminate 
those frustrating searches for misplaced magazines. 

A set of two binders, which holds a full 12 issues of 
the rainbow, is only $13.50 (plus $2.50 shipping and 
handling). 

Special Discounts on Past Issues 

To help you complete your collection of the rain- 
bow, we're offering a special discount on past issues 
of the magazine. 

When you place an order for six or more back issues 
of the rainbow at the same time you order binders, 
you are entitled to $1 off the regular back issue price. 
To order, please see the "Back Issue Information" 
page in this issue. 

Know Where to Look 

You may purchase the "Official And Compleat Index 
To THE RAINBOW" for $1 when you purchase a set 
of binders. This comprehensive index of rainbow's 
first three years (July 1981 through July 1984) is 
usually priced at $2.50. 



YES. Please send me 



set(s) of rainbow binders 




Take advantage of these special offers with your binder purchase: 

Save $1 off the single issue cover price for back issues. Minimum order of 6 magazines. Please 
enclose a back issue order form from a recent issue indicating magazines wanted. 

Purchase the "Official and Compleat Index to THE RAINBOW" for $1. (Regular price $2.50.) 



(These offers good only with the purchase of a rainbow binder set) 

Name , 

Address 

City , 



State 



ZIP 



□ My check in the amount of 

Charge to: □ VISA 

Account Number 

Signature 



is enclosed. (In order to hold down costs, we do not bill.) 

□ MasterCard □ American Express 

Expiration Date 



Mail to: Rainbow Binders, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 

Binders are $13.50 per two-binder set plus $2.50 shipping and handling. If your order is to be sent via U.S. mail to 
a post office box or foreign country, please add $2. Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax. U.S. currency only, please. 
In order to hold down non-editorial costs, we do not bill. 

For credit card orders call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST 

All other inquiries call (502) 228-4492. 



won't. Almost all of the new Tandy 
software products require OS-9 Level I, 
Version 2.00 to operate. 

Starting BASIC09 

Ray Preston of Rarotonga in the 
Cook Islands was one of a group of 
recent writers wanting to know how to 
get BASIC09 up and running. 

Here's the problem. Tandy did not 
put BASIC09 in the CMDS directory on 
the production disk. They put it in the 
root directory. If you have two disk 
drives, leave your system disk in Drive 



/ dO and plug the BASIC09 disk into Drive 
/dl, then type: 

OS9: chx /dl 
OS9: Basic09 

If you have a single-drive system, take 
out the system disk and plug the BASIC09 
disk in Drive /dO, then type: 

chx /dO 
basic09 

This should put you on the air once 
and for all. 



OS-9 Software Sourcebook 

The OS-9 Software Sourcebook writ- 
ten by Phyllis Casel can help you find 
that software you're looking for. It's 
available from Microware Systems 
Corporation, 1866 N.W. 114th Street, 
Des Moines, IA 50322, (515) 224-1929. 
Give them a call. 

If all goes well, by the time I write the 
next installment, we will be settled in 
here in New York City and will have had 
our hands on the new CoCo 3 for 
several weeks. Now if we can just get our 
hands on Level II OS-9! □ 



Listing 1: sysgo 



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ppLJ 2r 3230 


new&ir 


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cmds 


00013 


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0020 5368656C 


shell 


00015 


0025 0D 




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00017 


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0031 .55007412 


initdat 


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00021 


0039 FFDF7EF0 




00022 


003D 0C 




00023 






00024 


000D 


idatlen 


00025 






00026 


003E 308C55 


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00027 


0041 103F09 




00028 


0044 308CEA 




00029 


0047 CE0071 




00030 


004A C60D 




00031 


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ifpl 

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mod eom,naiiie, $C1, $81, start, $00C8 

fcs . /SysGo/ 

fcb 6 

fee M /Rj3 M 

fcb c.cr 

fee "/RJ3/ M 

fee /CMDS/ 

fcb c.cr 

fee /Shell/ 

fcb c.cr 

fee /Startup -p/ 

fcb c.cr ■ 

fcb $55,J3,$74 / $12 

fcb ^F^FF^S^B? 

fcb $FF, $DF, $7E, $Fj3 

fcb $J3C 

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i 

November 1986 THE RAINBOW 203 



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ft ft ft A A 

00044 


ft ft f T*V 

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OS9 


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008D 


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bcs 


infloop 


00056 


008F 


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f $wait 


00057 


W A A 

0092 


24EC 


bcc 


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00058 


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20 FE 


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pppDV 


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Listing 2: els 



00001 
00002 
00003 
00004 
00005 
00006 
00007 
00008 
00010 
00011 
00012 
00013 
00014 
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00016 
00017 
00018 
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* 

* 



Clear Screen Utility 

by David Curtis / Heath, OH 

To use els load els; link els and 

type els anytime you want tb clear the screen 









nam 


els 








if pi 










endc 




0000 


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mod 


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000D 


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type 


set 


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0081 




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set 


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equ 


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0011 


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#$0C 



204 THE RAINBOW November1986 



00022 


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0019 108E0001 




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00026 


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i$write 


00027 


0022 103F06 




os9 


f$ex'it 


00028 


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equ 


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* • 


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error (s) 








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$0028 


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es generated 




$0001 00001 data bytes 


allocated 






$18D0 06352 bytes used 


for symbols 




Listing 3: al te mat. els 






• 

■ 


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* Alternative version of 


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(% (% /% (% o 
pppp £ 


* to use the DISPLAY utility to clear your screen. 


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Pppptk 






nam 


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(% (% f% f% cr 
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f% f% f% (% *7 
PPPP 1 






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ppppo 










ft ft ft ftr\ 
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0000 87CD003E 




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0010 02 


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feb 


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0081 


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00015 


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equ 




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00017 


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shlstr 


f cs 


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00018 


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cmdstr 


fee 


/display 0C/ 


00019 


0020 0D 




feb 


$0D 


00020 










00021 


0021 308DFFEC 


Start 


leax 


shlstr, per 


00022 


0025 338DFFED 




leau 


cmdstr, per 


00023 


0029 108E000A 




ldy 


#$0A 


00024 


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#1 


00025 


002F 5F 




clrb 




00026 


0030 103F03 




os9 


f$fork 


00027 


0033 2503 




bes 


error 


00028 


0035 103F04 




os9 


f$wait 


00029 


0038 103F06 


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os9 


f$exit 


00030 


003B EA7E5C 




emod 




00031 


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clsend 


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* 


00032 






end 




00000 


error (s) 








00000 warning (s) 








$003E 00062 program byt 


es generated 




$012C 00300 data bytes 


allocated 






$18FD 06397 bytes used 


for symbols 















November 1986 THE RAINBOW 205 



THESE FINE STORES 
CARRY THE RAINBOW 



The retail stores listed below carry the rainbow on a regular basis and may have 
other products of interest to Tandy Color Computer users. We suggest you 
patronize those in your area. 



ALABAMA 

Birmingham 

Brewton 

Florence 

Greenville 

Madison 

Montgomery 

ALASKA 

Fairbanks 

ARIZONA 

Phoenix 
Sierra Vista 
Tempe 

Tucson 

ARKANSAS 

Fayetteville 
Little Rock 

CALIFORNIA 

Citrus Heights 
Grass Valley 
Half Moon Bay 
Hollywood 

Lompoc 
Los Angeles 

Sacramento 
Santa Rosa 
Sunnyvale 

COLORADO 

Westminster 

DELAWARE 

Middietown 

Mifford 

Wilmington 

FLORIDA 

Boca Raton 

Cocoa 

Davie 

Ft Lauderdale 
Jacksonville 



Melbourne 

North Miami 

Beach 
Orlando 
Panama City 
Pensacola 
Pinellas Park 
Sarasota 
Starke 

Sunrise 

Tallahassee 

Tampa 

Titusville 

GEORGIA 

Bremen 

Cummings 

Jesup 

Marietta 

Toccoa 

IDAHO 

Moscow 

ILLINOIS 

Aurora 
Belleville 
Champolgn 
Chicago 



Jefferson News Co. 
McDowell Electronics 
Anderson News Co, 
M & B Electronics 
Madison Books 
Trade *N' Books 

Electronic World 

TRI-TEK Computers 
Livingston's Books 
Books Etc. 
Computer Library 
Anderson News Co. 

Vaughn Electronics/Radio Shack 
Anderson News Co. 

Software Pius 
Advance Radio, Inc. 
Strawflower Electronics 
Levity Distributors 
World Book & News Co. 
L&H Electronics Emporium 
E.D.C industries 
Polygon Co. 
Tower Magazine 
Sawyer's News, inc. 
Computer Literacy 

Software City : ; 

DelmarCo. 

Milford News Stand 

Normal Inc.— -The Smoke Shop 

Software, Software, Inc. 
The Open Door 
Software Plus More 
Electronics Engineers 
Mike's Electronics Distributor 
The Book Nook 
Book Town 
Deano'sTV 
City Newsstand 
The Little Store 

Aimar Bookstore 

Book Mania 

Boyd-Ebert Corp. 

Anderson News Co. 

Wolfs Newsstand 

Family Computers 

Record Junction, inc. 

Radio Shack Dealer 

Sunn/s at Sunset, Inc. 

Anderson News Co. 

Fine Print Bookstore 

Sound Trader & Computer Center 

Computrac 

Bremen Electronics/Radio Shack 

Kent Radio Shack 

Radio Shack 

Act One Video 

Martin Music Radio Shack 

Johnson News Agency 

Kroch's & Brentano's 
Software or Systems , 
Book Market 
B. Dalton Booksellers 

N.Wabash St, 

West Jackson St. 
Bob's In Newtown 
Bob's News Emporium 





Bob's Rogers Park 




Book Market 




East Cedar 




North Cicero 




West Diversey 




E.B, Garcia & Associates 




Kroch's & Brentano's 




South Wobash 




West Jackson 




516 N. Michigan 




835 N. Michigan 




Porkway Drugs 




Parkwest Books 




Sandmeyer's Bookstore 




Univ. of Chicago Bookstore 




Univ, of Illinois Bookstore 




Y/iHcv^m<"*it In/* 1 

V IUOUI I IUI, H IU. 


Chlllicothe 


Book Emporium 


Danville 


Book Market 


Decatur 


Book Emporium 




K-Mart Pioza 




Northgate Mall 


East Moline 


Book Emporium 


Evanston 


Chicago-Moln News 


Geneseo 


8 & J Supply 


Kewanee 


Book Emporium 


Usie 


Book Nook 


Newton 


Bill's TV Radio Shack 


Oak Brook 


Kroch's & Brentano's 


Oak Park 


Kroch s a Bientano s 


Paris 


Book FmDorium 


Peoria 


Book Emporium 




Sheridan Village 




Wesfjake Shopping Center 




Book Market 




Illinois News Service 


Schaumberg 


Kroch's & Brentano's 


oKOKIG 


Krocn s « menrano s 


Snrtnafleld 


Book Fmoorlum 


Sanaamon Center North 




Town & Countrv ShODDlna Ctr 


Sunnvland 

WLJ 1 11 IYIUI Wu 


Book Fmoorium 


Wo<rf Frnnkfort 


Paosr Place 


vvi itjcxiii ly 


I lUI II 1 Ol ftJIU L/luH t\J% 0 


lUM Aid A 

INDIANA 




Berne 


White Cottaae Electronics 


Columbus 


Micro Computer Systems, Inc. 


Garrett 


Finn News Agency, Inc. 


Greenwood 


The Computer Experience 


Indianapolis 


Bookland, Inc. 




u>eimar (News 




maiana News 


Jasper 


tiex MarT 


rviaaison 


hi co Venice supplies 


Martinsville 


Radio Shack 


Wabash 


Mitting's Electronics 


IOWA 




Davenport 


Interstate Book Store 


KANSAS 




Topeka 


Palmer News, Inc. 


Town Crier of Topeka, Inc. 


Wichita 


Amateur Radio Equipment Co. 




Lloyd's Radio 


KENTUCKY 




Georgetown 


Goodwin Electronics 


Hazard 


Daniel Boone Gulf Mart 


Hopkinsvllle 


Hobby Shop 


Louisville 


The Computer Store 


Paducah 


Radio Shack 


Paintsville 


R-Kat Electronics 


Pikevllle 


Gus-Stan Enterprises 


Princeton 


Miller Electronics 


LOUISIANA 




Crowley 


Acadlana Newsstand 


Monroe 


The Book Rack 


MAINE 




Brockton 


Voyager Bookstore 


Caribou 


Radio Shack 


Waterboro 


Radio Shack 



MARYLAND 

Silver Spring Layhill Newsstand 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Brockton 
Cambridge 
Fitchburg 
Ipswich 
Uttleton 
Lynn 

MICHIGAN 

Allen Park ■ 
Dearborn 
Durand 
Harrison 
Lowell 

Mt. Clemens 



Muskegon 

Owosso 

Perry 

Roseville 
Royal Oak 
St. Johns 
Sterling 

Heights 
Wyoming 

MINNESOTA 

Minneapolis 
Willmar 

MISSOURI 

Farmington 
Jefferson City 
Kirksvifle 
Moberly 
St. Louis 



University City 

MONTANA 

Whiteflsh 

NEBRASKA 

Lincoln 
Omaha 

NEVADA 

Las Vegas 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

West Lebanon 

NEW JERSEY 

Cedar Knolls 
Clinton 
tawrencevijle 
. Unwood 
Marmora 
Montvaie 
Pehnsville 
River Edge 
Rockaway 

NEW MEXICO 

Alamogordo 
Albuquerque 

NEW YORK 

Brockport 
Elmira Heights 
r IFredonia 
^Hudson Falls 1 
v^,%> : Q Johnson City 
New York 



per f'.f~ 



Voyager Bookstore 
Out Of Town News 
Corners Book Shop 
Ipswich News 
Computer Plus 
North Shore News Co. 

Book Nook, Inc. 
DSL Computer Products 
Robbins Electronics 
Harrison Radio Shack 
Curf s Sound & Home Arcade Center 
Key Book Shop 
Michigan Radio 
The Eight Bit Corner 
C/C Computer Systems 
Perry Computers 
Perry Oil & Gas 
New Horizons 
Software City 
Clinton Electronics 

Sterling Book Center 
Gerry's Book Co. 

Read-More News 
The Photo Shop 

Ra/s TV & Radio Shack 
"Cowley Distributing : 
T&R Electronics 
Audio Hut 
Book Emporium 
Computer Xchange 
final Edition 

Consumer Electronics of Whiteflsh 
Hobby Town 

Computers & Components 

Hurley Electronics 

Verham News Corp. 

Village Computer & Software 
Micro World II 

Micro Con Software Center 
Software City 
Outpost Radio Shack 
Software City 
Dave's Elect. Radio Shack 
Software City 
Software Station 

New Horizons Computer Systems 
Desert Moon Distributors 
Page One Newsstand 

Lift Bridge Book Shop, Inc. 
Southern Tier News Co., Inc, 
On Line: Computer Access Center 
G A West & Co, 
Unicom Electronics 
Barnes & Noble— Sales Annex 
Coliseum Books 
Eastern Newsstand 

Grand Central Station, Track 37 

200 Park Ave., (Pan Am #1 ) 

55 Water Street 

World Trade Center #2 
First Stop News 
Idle Hours Bookstore 
International Smoke Shop 



206 THE RAINBOW November 1 986 



N. White Plains 
Pawilng 
Rochester 

Wood haven 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Aberdeen 

Cary 
Charlotte 

HavJock 
Hickory 
Marlon 

NORTH DAKOTA 

Forgo 

OHIO 

Blanchester 
Canton 
Chardon 
Cincinnati 
Columbiana 
Coshocton 
Dayton 

Fdirborn 
Girard 
Kent 
Kenton 
Lakewood 
Lima 

Miamisburg 
Mount Crab 
Rocky River 
Toledo 
Xenla 

OKLAHOMA 

Oklahoma 

City 
Tulsa 

OREGON 

Portland 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Allison Park 
Altoona 
Brookville 
Malvern 
Philadelphia 

Phoenlxville 
Pittsburgh 
Pleasant Hills 
Temple 
Wind Gap 
York 

RHODE ISLAND 

Warwick 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston Hts. 
Gaffney 
Greenville 
Spartanburg 
Union 

TENNESSEE 

Chattanooga 

Dickson 



Jonil Smoke 
Penn Book 
Software City 
State News 
Usercom Systems, inc. 
Walden Books 
World Wide Media Services 
Software City 

Universal Computer Service 
village Green 
World Wide News 
Spectrum Projects 

k 

King Electronics 
Radio Shack ' 
News Center In Cary Village 
Newsstand InH 
Papers & Paperback 
Computer Plus 
CP Books & Comics 
Boomers Rhythm Center 



GOmpyfer Associates 

JR Computer Control 
Little Professor Book Center 
Thrasher Radio & TV 
Cinsoft 

Fidelity Sound & Electronics 
Utopia Software 
Huber Heights Book & Card 
Wllke News 
News-Readers 
Girord Book & News 
The News Shop 
T.W. Hogan & Associates 
Lakewood International News 
Brunner News Agency 
Edu-Caterers 
Wllke News 

Mount Orab Radio Shack 
Programs Unlimited 
Leo's Book & Wine Shop 
Rne Print Books 



Merit Micro Software 
Sieve's Book Store 

IWh Ave, News 

Software CI1y 
Newborn Enterprises 
Larry's Stereo Shop 
Personal Software 
City Software Center 
Newsy 

Stevens Radio Shack 
All-Pro Souveniers 
Pitt Computer & Software 
Software Corner 
Micro World 

The Computer Center of York 

Software Connection 

Software Haus, Inc. 
Gaffney Book Store 
Palmetto News Co. 
Software City 
Fleming's Electronics 

Anderson News Co, 
Guild Books & Periodicals 
Highland Electronics 



KnooMlle 

Memphis 

Nashville 
Smyrna 
Union City 

TEXAS 

Elgin 
Orange 
San Antonio 

UTAH 

Murray 

VIRGINIA 

Gafton 
Norfolk 
Richmond 

WASHINGTON 

Seattle 
Tacoma 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Huntington 
Logan 
Madison 
Parkersburg 

WISCONSIN 

Appleton 
Cudahy 
Ladysmith 
Milwaukee 



WYOMING 

■ Casper 

ARGENTINA 

Cordoba 

AUSTRALIA: 

Kingsford 

CANADA: 
ALBERTA 

Banff 

Blairmore 

Bonnyville 

Brooks 

Calgary 

Claresholm 

Drayton Valley 

Edmonton 

Edson 
Fairview 
Fox Creek 

Ft. Saskatche- 
wan 
Grande 

Cache 
Grande 

Centre 
Hlnton 
Innisfail 
Leduc 
Lethbridge 
Lioydminster 
Okotoks 
Peace River 

St. Paul 
Stettler 
Strathmore 
Taber 



Anderson News Co. 

First Byte Computer Co, 

Computer Center 

Software, Inc. 

Mosko's Book Store 

Delker Electronics 

Cox Electronics Radio Shack 

The Homing Pigeon 
Northway Books & News 
CoCoNuts 

Deseret Book 

Electronics Marketing 
l-O Computers 
Software City 

Adams News Co. J nc, 
B & I Magazines & Books 
Nybbles 'N Bytes 

Nick's News 

Stan's Electronics & Radio Shack 
Communications, LTD 
Valley News Service 



Westlock 
Wetasklwin 



Westlock Stereo 
Radio Shack 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 



Badger Periodicals 

Cudahy News & Hobby 

Electronics, Etc. 

Book Tree 

Booked Solid 

Booked Solid II 

Harvey Schwartz Bookshop 

Univ. of Wisconsin Bookshop 

The Computer Store 



informatica Y Telecomunlcaciones 



Paris Radio Electronics 



Banff Radio Shack 
L & K Sports & Music 
Paul Tercier 

Double "D" A.S.C. Radio Shack 
Billy's News 

Radio Shack Associated Stores 
Langard Electronics 
CMD Micro 

Kelly Software Distributors 
Radio Shack 
D.N.R. Furniture & TV 
Fox City Color & Sound 
A.S.C. Radio Shack 

Ft Mall Radio Shack, ASC 

The Stereo Hut 

The Book Nook 
Jim Cooper 
L & S Stereo 

Radio Shack Associated Stores 
Datatron 

Lloyd Radio Shack 
Okotoks Radio Shack 
Radio Shack Associated Stores 
Tavener Software 
Walter's Electronics 
Stettler Radio Shack 
Wheatland Electronics 
Pynewood Sight & Sound 



Burnaby 


Compulit 


Bums Lake 


VT. video Works 


Campbell 




River 


TRS Electronics 


Chilliwack 


Charles Parker 


Coortenay 


Rick's Music & Stereo 


Dawson Creek 


Bell Radio & TV 


Golden 


Taks Home Furnishings 


Langley 


Langley Radio Shack 


N. Vancouver 


Microwest Distributors 


Nelson 


Oliver s Books 


Parksville 


Parksville TV 


Penticton 


DJ. s 






Salmon Arm 


Matrix Computing 


Sidney 


Sidney Electronics 


Smithers 


Walt's Home Furniture 


100 Mile 




House 


Tip Top Raaio & rv 


MANITOBA 




Altona 


LA. Wiebr Ltd. 


Lundar 


Goranson elec 


Moraen 


Central Sound 


The Pas 


Jodi's Sight* Sound 


Selkirk 


G.L Enns Elec. 


Virden 


Archer Enterprises 


Winnipeg 


J & J Electronics Ltd. 


NEW BRUNSWICK 




Moncton 


Jeffries Enterprises 


Sussex 


Dewitt Elec. 


NEWFOUNDLAND 




Botwood 


Seaport Elec. . 


Carbonear 


Slade Realties 


NOVASCOTIA 




Halifax 


Atlantic News 



ONTARIO 

Aurora 

Concord 

Exceter 

Hamilton 

Hanover 

Huntsville 

Kenora 

Kingston 

Listowel 

South River 



QUEBEC 

LaSaile 
Pont. Rouge 



SASKATCHEWAN 

Asslniboia 
Estevan 
Moose Jaw 
Nipiwan 
Regina 

Saskatoon 
Shellbrooke 
Tlsdale 
Unity 

YUKON 

Whltehorse 

JAPAN 

Tokyo 

PUERTO RICO 

San Juan 



Compu Vision . 
Ingram Software 
J. Macleane & Sons 
Dataman 

Modem Appliance Centre 

Huntsville Elec. 

Donny "B" 

T.M. Computers 

Modern Appliance Centre 

Max TV 

Dennis TV 



Messageries de Presse Benjamin Enr. 
Boutique Bruno Laroche 



Telstar News 
Kotyk Electronics 
D&S Computer Piqce 
Cornerstone Sound 
Regina CoCo Club 
Software Supermarket 
Everybody's Software Library 
Gee. Laberge Radio Shack 
Paul's Service 
Grant's House of Sound 



H & O Holdings 



America Ado, Inc. 

il 

Software City 



Also available at all B. Dalton Booksellers, and selected Coles Bookstores, 
Waldenbooks, Pickwick Books, Encore Books, Barnes & Noble, Little 
Professors, Tower Book & Records, Kroch's & Brentano's, and Community 
Newscenters. 



November 1 986 THE RAINBOW 207 



AD VER TISER 'S INDEX 




We encourage you to patronize our advertisers all of whdm support the 
Tandy Color Computer. We will appreciate your mentioning the rainbow when 
you contact these firms. 




>yi.: I a 




After Five Softwares . . . . 


72 


HJL div. of Touchstone 




Ark Royal Games . . .. . ...> . 


p h + ■ ■» . 1 3 


Technology, Inc. . . . + . 


» ... .116 


Canyon County Devices i . 


112 


Hogg, Frank Laboratories .• . 


»«.».. 189 


Ce r~Com p . . . * . . r *? < 


.194, 195 


Howard Medical * ^ 


^ .34,210 


Cha II enge r.;;.: * . 


144 


J & M Systems . . , * 9 * * „ w , 


w m . • » BC 


C/i nsof t ■•• »....«« • » .. . * + . . 


9 7 


J & R Electronics . . , * « . . * 


* . . + r 1 39 


CNR Engineering. , . 


* . ++ *15Q 


Johnson, D.P. . . . . >>.y . . . 


. . • • • 198 


CoCo Trend . * . . . . . * . . . > . 


■ ■ .1.1 43 


Kelly Software Distributors . 


♦ • • « .161 


Gognitec ...... • ■ ■ . • « ♦ » » • 


. ■ * * « 137 


Mark Data Products 


w . * . . . 69 


Colorware . , ; v . . . . , i 


>1,22, 23 


Metric Industries. 


. . .85, 133 








. .100, 101 

• -.»•)'* * 176 


Computer Center. 


■ . t . . ,35 


Micro Works, The 


Computer Island 


. . . 171 


Microcom Software ...... 


* . . 16, 17 


Computer Plus + + + < 


*. ...... 3 


Microtech Consultants Inc. . 


>.*.«• 31 


Computerware 


. . . 39, 41 


MicroWorld 


+ i * • . 181 


Computize, Inc. ... . . . ,: :t . . 


.146, 209 


Mix, Tom Software . ... . . . 


• .... 184 


Crockett Software . . . . . 


. .... .84 


Moreton Bay . . 


■ • » [f. . 95 


D & A Research , . . . . . . 


... * .187 


Novasoft * . . . . ♦ . ; . 


i . • . • 1 85 


Dayton Associates of 




Other Guys Software, The . 


a . . . V'113 


W. R. Hall, Inc. . | 


128 


Owl^Ware ......t. ...■««: 


.89, 90, 91 




. 1 22, 1 23 
...76, 77 


PCM ........... 




Derringer Software . . . , * ♦ 


Perry Computers . . . . . . *>, 


» * . • .1 67 


Dlecom* . ..•••.*.*..■ ■ ■ .. 


. , . . . * I FG 


Plan-Net Forms 


. 134 


CDjStO . • . » . . . • * .'« #'« • . L L * ■ . 


l l j j » ,65 


Polygon • • . . . . 


« . . .. . • 75 


Do rsett « •*.•*..*.» » ■ « * + * 


. . r r « I BC 


Preble's Programs, Dr. . , , . 


* m m ■ . . • 1 


Duck Productions . .. . . . . . 


1 40 


Prickly-Pear Software ..... 


. . . ♦ . 1 57 


Federal Hill Software , . 


• iif «1 62 


PXE Computing . 


■ * ... .7 




- 1* + 1 <f . 82 


Radio Shack ♦ . * • 

Rainbow OS-9 Book $ . . . . . 


* ..49,51 

p . * * * 124 


Hard Drive Specialists . . . . 


♦ ...» 165 


Hawkes Research Services 


■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 1 62 - ' 


Rainbow Binder . . . * ..... 


+ «<* • .202 




;V..-:> ; 



Rainbow Bookshelf . . ^^ ... . . .179 

Rainbow Gift Subscription ..,..,66 

Rainbow On Disk . . .159 

Rainbow On Tape .-. * . * ♦ . .172 

Robotic Microsystems ... . . imu 138 

Rowe Electronic Co., Inc. . .. . . .144 

S.D. Roberson ... . . . . v , . . + + . * + 187 

Saguaro Software ; .... 147 

S E ^\ ....................... ..' . • 73 

Selected Software ...... .37 

Software House, The ... ... .7. . .135 

Spectrogram * + + + ► ..... . 141 

Spectrosystems 145 

Spectrum Projects Inc. 

....105,106,107,109, 110,111 
Speech Systems 

..... ... . . .56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 

Sugar Software. . 79 

Su n rise Software ; . $ 1 42 

T & D Software . . . . . . . , . 201 

r C E ......... a * ' m ■ » « . . ■ .. ..... .: .... 1 4 

. Tepco ....... .'.*-;. .* ... . ... v .l . . v. 68 

Thinking Software, Inc. , ....... .24 

Tothian Software Inc ....... . .83 

True Data Products ... . . . .152, 153 

Wasatchware >•-. ... . . 181 

Woodstown Electronics . . . . . . . . 143 

York 1 0 . ■'. . . « ... »-»".:« . -4r;.= *. « ........ 1 49 

Zebra Systems + + . . . .20 



208 




Call: 

Shackleford, Nolan, Davis, Gregg and Associates 

Cindy Shackleford, president 

Shirley Duranseau 

Advertising Representative 

12110 Meridian South, Suite 5 

P.O. Box 73-578 

PuyaJlup, WA 98373-0578 

(206) 848-7766 



THE RAINBOW November 1986 



WA 



Calk 

Kim Vincent 

Advertising Representative 
The Faisoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

(502) 228-4492 



ft):::!::.- 
U>::;:::. 



Call: 

Jack Garland 
Garland Associates, Inc 
10 Industrial Park Road 
Hingham, MA 02043 

(617) 749-5852 




ALL SOFTWARE 
COMPATIBLE 
WITH 
COCO I & COCO II 
COMPUTERS 



SUPER BACK-UP 
UTILITY © 

...WITH S.B.U. FROM COMPUTIZE — 
YOU'LL NEVER NEED ANOTHER BACK- 
UP UTILITY FOR YOUR COCO!!! 
SUPER BACK-UP UTILITY WILL PER- 
FORM ALL OF THE FOLLOWING FUNC- 
TIONS: 

1. TAPE TO TAPE (Regardless of most protec- 
tion schemes!) 

2. TAPE TO DISK (Move Cassette programs to 
Disk!) 

3. AUTO RELOCATE (For those Cassette pro- 
grams that conflict with Disk operating 
systems.) 

4. DISK TO TAPE (Place Disk programs onto 
Cassette) 

5. DISK TO DISK (Our powerful Split-N-Image 
Program, Copies regardless of most protec- 
tion schemes!) 

» MENU DRIVEN 

» REQUIRES 32K EXTENDED COCO 
» REQUIRES 1 OR 2 DRIVES 
» ALL MACHINE LANGUAGE!!! 
COMPARE WITH OTHER INDIVIDUAL 
PROGRAMS COSTING IN EXCESS OF 
i 100.00 

WSK $49.95 Cat. No. 107CD 



SPIT-N-IMAGE© 

M/L Disk Back-Up Utility 

There is no need to suffer the heartbreak of 
trashed disks any longer. Spit-N-lmage will 
:reate a mirror image of your valuable disk pro- 
grams which do not respond to normal back-up 
unctions. Will also initialize and back-up in one 
)ass. Data processing experts always insist on 
laving a back-up — it's good practice. 

REQUIRES 32K CC 
DISK $34.95 Cat. No. 101CD 



TRIPLE TRANSFER 
UTILITY 



ransfer contents of disk to tape • Transfer con- 
mis of tape to disk • Automatically relocates 
assette programs that conflict with the disk 
perating system • Displays machine language 
rogram addresses • Copies ASCII, Basic, & 
lachine Language Programs • All contained in 
menu driven program! 

REQUIRES 32K CC EXT. 
)isk $24.95 Cat. No. 105CD 



'Y BOX 




you have ever owned a H Y" Cable you know 
)w easy it is to 'bump* or dislodge the cable 
om the computer. With the positive mechanical 
•nnection of the "Y Box" chances are greatly 
duced of the "V* coming dislodged. 

ne of the most common causes of a shorted 
ita bus in the CoCo is a misaligned or loose 
I"' Cable. Don't let your computer be the next 
:tim of a 4, Y" Cable, order the *'Y Box" from 
DMPUTIZE. 

NOISE FREE "GOLD CONTACT" TO 
YOUR COMPUTER 

POSITIVE MECHANICAL AND ELEC- 
TRICAL CONNECTION 

Catalog No. 162CH Only $29.95 



MASTER KEY II 

;w Improved Version! A hardware product that 
Ices control of any program regardless of protec- 
m. Now use with RS Multi-pak, "Y" cable or 
tlonal extender cable. Captures register coniants 
they were when Master Key II was engaged. 
)mpiete disassembler, memory save, and much 
are. Requires some familiarity with Assembly 
inguage. 

)M PAK Cat. No. 160HR $ 99.95 

t. No. 161HR Willi Ext. Cable $109.95 




VISA 



(215) 946-7260 P.O. BOX 207 • LANGHORNE, PA 19047 

Check or M.O. • Add $3.00 shipping • PA residents add 6% sales tax 




MasterCard 




★ ★★★★★★ THE LATEST IN COCO NEWS!!! ******* 



• Supports 4 Hi-Res display modes 

• 4 page animation mode 

• Color Palette with over 15 color patterns for use 
with Hi-Res artifact 

• Send/Receive pictures over modem 

• Supplied utility allows capturing Hi-Res screens 
from most COCO arcade games 

• Multiple Hi-Res character fonts (user re- 
definable) 

• Supplied utility for transferring Graph icom 
screens to Basic or other M/L programs. 

• Supplied utility for loading screens from Basic 
or other sources 

• Built in Hi-Res SCREEN PRINT (compatible 
with EPSON, C-ITOH, GEMINI-10, OKI, plus 
Radio Shack's LP-VII, LP-V1II, DM P- 100, 
DMP-200, and GCP-115 printers) from 110 to 
9600 baud 

• SEND/RECEIVE slow-scan television 

• Many additional features, operating hints, hard- 
ware mod's and suggestions, etc. 

REQUIRES 64K COCO, 1 DISK DRIVE, AND 2 
ANALOG JOYSTICKS 



QUICK BACKUP 
UTILITY $19.95 
Catalog No 185CD 

Deluxe backup utility for the Radio Shack Color 
Computer. 

• Backup a disk in as few as 32 seconds (in three 
passes) 

• Format and backup a full disk in one minute 

• Full error correcting features (retry, skip, in- 
finite retry) 

Displays the current track that is being processed, 
works with all ROM versions. Supports 1 or 2 disk 
drive. A great disk production tool. 



GRAPHICOM $24.95 

Catalog No 1UGD 

Simply stated • One of the finest graphic programs 
written for the Color Computer] 

FEATURES: 

• S U P E R U-S-E-R F-R-I-E-N-D-L-Y ! 




Announcing COLORSCAN, new software for the CGP-220. This program is a must for 
anyone who owns a Radio Shack Ink Jet Printer, and enjoys creating graphics with 
Graphicom, Graphicom Part 11, CoCo MAX, or any program that produces a standard 
6K binnary picture files. 

This program contains some of the popular features found in "HARDCOPY" such as 
lxl, 2x2 and posters; but color scan produce full color printouts of your favorite 6K 
graphics files. You can also create colorful banners up to 27' in length, or dump a disk's 
entire graphic contents to paper. 

Colorscan will print program listings in blazing color, make remarks in red, line numbers 
green, search for strings and print in blue, etc. All these features and more. 
Colorscan catalog number 184WD $29.95 



GRAPHICOM PART II 
Catalog No. 132WD . $24.95 

GRAPHICOM PART II DOES NOT 
REQUIRE GRAPHICOM TO RUN! 




I T H U:l .0 



Graphicom Part II is a video processing 
package that provides many functions 
that are missing in Graphicom. Here are 
just a few of the features provided by 
Graphicom Part II: 

ENLARGE/REDUCE/ROTATE 
Enlarge or reduce any portion of a graphic 
screen, just like a photographic enlarger! 
Rotate by any degree or fraction of a 
degree around any point on the screen. 



PAINT 

Paint or "fill-in" any irregular area on ihe 
screen! More than 50 different colored 
patterns available. Additional paint pat- 
terns may be user-defined. 

PAN & ZOOM 

"Zoom in" x2, x4, or x8 on any portion 
of the screen to do fine pixel work. Allows 
editing of Graphicom character sets with 
ease! 

TYPESETTER & FONT EDITOR 

Add text in 16 different sizes, also sup- 
ports user definable foreground & 
background colors. Design & Edit 
characters for use in the typesetter. 

PIXEL BLASTER 

Allows the user to easily substitute or 
remove colors. Widen lines, swap BLUE 
& RED without effecting BLACK & 
WHITE, etc. 

Graphicom Part II requires a 64K extend- 
ed disk basic system, and supports 1 to 4 
disk drives, keyboard or joystick (analog 
or switch type) input. It will load and save 
both Standard BIN files and Graphicom 
screens. All functions support color or Hi- 
Res operation, as wen as the 4 screen 
display modes. 



OUR 
GRAPHICOM 
DIGITIZER 
JUST GOT BETTER 
SEE PAGE 146 



ARE YOU LOOKING 
FOR A HI-RES GRAPHIC 
SCREEN PRINT 
PROGRAM? 




THE ULTIMATE PRINTER UTILITY 




©1984 W MITES m I T H U: l.G 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



HARDCOPY - Hardcopy is more 
than just a screen print utility, compare 
these features with any other graphic 
dump program on the market; 

• Full GRAPHICOM/GRAPHICOM 
PART II compatibility! Loads STAN- 
DARD 6K images, GRAPHICOM 
pictures, and COCO MAX pictures 
too! 

• BLACK & WHITE or GREY SCALE 
printing. In GREY SCALE printing, 
colors are printed as user definable 
patterns. Supports hi-res in all 4 
GRAPHICOM display modes! 

• Ix, 2x, 3x PRINTOUTS - Three menu 
options are reserved for the most fre- 
quently used printout sizes; lx 
(quarter page), 2x (half page), and 3x 
(full page). 

• GRAPHIC LABELS - The label prin- 
ting option allows the user to create 
custom mailing or disk labels with 
professional looking results. 

• GREETING CARDS - The greeting 
card option allows the user to custom 
design greeting cards using both text 
and graphics. 

• GIANT POSTERS - The poster op- 
tion provides the user with a means of 
reproducing a hi-res graphic to a 
multi-sheet poster. 

• SPECIAL EFFECTS ■ The special ef- 
fects option allows the user to directly 
control the printing directives; ROTA- 
TION, X/Y SIZE, X/Y FLIP, X/Y 
GRID, X/Y FILL, TAB, WINDOW, 
POS/NEG IMAGE, and more! 

• USER CALL - Have an application 
that HARDCOPY doesn't quite 
match? HARDCOPY routines can be 
added to EXTENDED BASIC 
through the USR command! 

HARDCOPY* requires a 64K Color 
Computer or Color Computer II, and at 
least one disk drive. It supports 1 to 4 disk 
drives, keyboard or joystick input. Please 
specify printer and cat. number when 
ordering. 

• Due to hardware differences, some 
features may function differently on cer- 
tain printers. 

IDS 480/560-G Cat. No. I70WD 

Oki 82A (Okigraph) Cat. No. 179WD 

Okidata 92 Cat. No. 171 WD 

Gemini 10X Cat. No. 174WD 

Gemini SG-10/15 Cat. No. I78WD 

DMP-105 Cat. No. 183WD 

Epson LX-80 Cat. No. 173 WD 

Epson MX-80 Cat. No. 172 WD 

Epson RX-80 Cat. No. 173WD 

Epson FX-80 Cat. No. 1 73 WD 

Riteman PLUS Cat. No. 177WD 

DMP-110 Cat. No. 180WD 

DM P- 1 20 Cat. No. 176 WD 

DMP-130 Cat. No. 182WD 

DMP-200 Cat. No. 175WD 

CGP-220 Cat. No. 181 WD 

HARDCOPY PRINT 
UTILITY $29.95 




Howard Medical Computers 



(800) 443-1444 



ORDERS 



PRINTER 




NEW 

Dual Mode 

EPSON LX-80 



The LX-80 QfferK draft or near letter quality plus a 1K Input buffer for much 
faster graphics printing speed LX-P package includes the LX~80, a Botek serial 
to parallel converter, and a Howard Printer Tutorial 



$Q-|7 ($7 shipping) 



Add $29.50 for tractor ET-1 



STAR 
NX-10 



le 



NX 10 is the latest generation of printers and offers built-in back tractor 
feed giving forward and backward movement of paper plus exceptional graphics 
printing capabilities. NX-P package includes the NX-10, a Botek serial to parallel 
converter and file Howard Printer Tutorial. 



($7 shipping) 




MONITOR 



123A 12" 

This 12" green screen high resolution mon- 
itor offers 80 column capability, Zenith quali- 
ty and a 30 day warranty valid at any of 
Zenith's 1200 locations. 

Retail $149 50 RtPACK 



Our price 



($7 shipping) 





122A Zenith 12" Amber Screen of- 
fers the same 640 dots x 200 dots 
resolution at 15MHz as the 123A 
and a 90 day warranty valid at our 
1200 locations. <RO O 

($7 shipping) O O 

Closeput Specials — only 14 in 
stock. We have a limited number of 
lesser known color monitors that 
have been discontinued but are 
brand new in their 1ft 
original boxes. w J 3/ 

($14 shipping) 

141 Roland 13" Color Monitor with 
speaker, 270 dots x 200 dots 
resolution, 4 MHz 




131 Zenith 13" Color Monitor has 
medium resolution with speaker 
and RGB jack. <& 4 f> 
($14 shipping) lOO 

All monitors require an amplifier 
circuit to drive the monitor and are 
mounted inside the color computer, 
They attach with spring connectors, 
with two wires extending out of the 
computer, one for audio and one for 
video. 

VA-1 for monochrome 
monitors only* fits ail 
color computers 

($2 shpg)^24*^ 

VC-4 for monochrome 
or color, fits all color 
computers 

($2 shpg)$39^ 




(312) 278-1440 



INQUIRIES AND ORDER STATUS 



DISK CONTROLLERS 




CP 



DC-3 
ADD-ON 

DC-38 Includes 80 column capaci- 
ty, parallel printer, real lime clock, 
and all software $138 

DC-256 2S6K RAM Board Includes 
software to access all RAM S*f 25 

DC-3P Mini EPROM Programmer 
includes all software to 
program 2764 or 27128 *55 

DC512 512K RAM Board $165 



Includes controller and 
C-DOS ROM chip. 

$ 98 ($2 shipping) 

BOARDS 

RS-1 Radio Shack's 1-1 ROM 
based operating system $2Q 

DD-2 Double sided 360K disk drive 
with Va height case $ . flfl 
and power supply 5 1 88 

CA-1 Cable to connect controller to 
one drive $2450 

CA-2 Two drive cable $2950 



EMOR 



84*E1 fof E Boards with complete 
Instructions, Remove pid chips end 
replace with preassembled pack* 
age— >no soldering AK 

or tmeg cut6t(f2 shpo) *2o» 45 

04*1*1 for f= Boards. No soldering 
needed, Capacitor 50A45 

leads mm be cut. ($a < h J« , 



64-2 for COCO 2. Kit requires one 
solder point, no m M AK 

trace cuts, ($2 shipping)* Z4 4D 
04-22 TWO chip tat tor 26-3134A 
and B, 26'3136A and B. Keren Col- 
or Computers require tllliw 
1 sower point *2a H9 

($2 shipping) 



■ 

SOFTWARE SPECIALS 

PAYROL/BAS™ 

Written In nonprotected basic for the color computer. This easy-to-use package 
of programs will simplify and decrease the time spent doing payroll. Rainbow 
May 1986 review says, "Elegant and professional." State and federal tables 
are already included. Send tor FREE 11 page reports guide. S*7Q95 

VIP LIBRARY 

Softlaw's integrated package includes VIP writer terminal, data base, call and 
disk zap which can fix a diskette that is giving i/O errors C4 Ar 

SAP-II BPA-1 



Stock analysis program organizes 
your portfolio and gives specific 
sell and stop- ^ j AQ r 
loss points. * 



Chart your blood pressure from daiiy 
readings taken in the comfort of 
your home $.jg95 



Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee Is meant to eliminate the uncertainty of 
dealing with a company through the mail. Once you receive our hardware, try 
it out; test it for compatabiiity. If you're not happy with it for any reason, return 
It in 30 days and we'll give you your money back, (less shipping). 



Howard Medical Computers 1690 N. Elston Chicago, IL 6062 




ORDERS 



(800) 443-1444 



INQUIRIES AND ORDER STATUS 

(312) 278-1440 



Showroom Hours: 
8:00-4:00 MonrFri. 

10:00-3:00 Sat. 



WE ACCEPT: VISA • MASTERCARD • AMERICAN EXPRESS 

C.O.D. OR CHECKS • SCHOOL RQ.'S 




. COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION 

. Educational Programs for Students Grade K-12 and Adult Self Studies 

EW PROGRAMS FOR YOUR TANDY 1000 
AND TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

Compatible with Apple - Atari - Commodore - TRS 80 I, III, 4 - IBM PC Jr. 

32 Programs on Disk Available for TRS 80 Color Computer 

♦ 

• NEW! VIDEO CASSETTES FOR VHS! ^JWfew 

InnerActive™ Video Tutorials 
Complete with audio narration , 'Wtlk 
4 caasetles with 8 programs in each of the j| EjU 

loltowing subject areas: M r\F 

• Basic Spanish Grammar ^41 1 y Q ' k^^^^ 

• B&sic Algebra ^ 

• Reading by Phonic * W I W Der/tape W It 

• Basic FracliOnfi ^ 
2 programs per tape. Running time: 45 minutes per tape. r m A 



95 



per/tape 



16 Programs on 8 VHS Tapes $159' 




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id in U usually just add 




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reduce your taxes by 



- income 
averag ing 

- income 
splitt ing 

- tax i I- tor 




Uhich? 



O sister 




One-sy'l IfttllG- adjectives that 
end in Lj usually just add | LJ 

M IS 

Uhich has one syllable? 



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Interactive Tutorial Programs for Home or Classroom Use 

Over 1000 programs for your selection with 32 now available on disk for the Color 

Computer and 500 now available for the Tandy 1000. 




"We're Your Educational 
Software Source" 

Subject No. of Programs 

Reading Development 256 (4 on disk) 
Reading Comprehension 48 (4 on disk) 

Mathematics 128 

Algebra 16 (16 on disk) 

History 32 (4 on disk) 

Spelling 16 

Government 16 

Physics i 16 (4 on disk) 

16 Programs in each 
of the following: 

Children's Tales - Carpentry - Electronics 
Health Services - Office Skills - Statistic^ 
First Aid/Safety - Economics - Business 
Accounting -Psychology -MUCH MORE! 

Send for our free catalog of over 1GfJ0 Dorsett educa- 
tional programs for Atari, TRS 80, Apple, IBM PG Jr . 
Conimudwe, Tandy lGtirj. 91c. 



Apple II, TRS 80 I, III, & 4, and 
Commodore 64 computers require 
respective conversion kits (plug-in board 
and stereo cassette player), $99.00. Atari 
400/600/800/1200 computers require the 
Atari cassette recorder and the Dorsett 
4001 Educational Master Cartridge, 
$9.95. For the IBM PC Jr. a cassette 
adapter cable and a good cassette 
recorder are required. The Tandy 1000 
requires the Dorsett M1001 speaker/PC 
board kit, $69.00, and a standard 
cassette recorder. A Radio Shack 
CCR-81 orCCR-82 is recommended. 

CASSETTES: $59.90 for an album con- 
taining a 16-program course (8 cassettes 
with 2 programs each); $8.80 for a 
2-program cassette. 

DISKS: $14.95 for a one-program disk; 
$28.95 for two disks; $48.95 for four 
disks. All disks come in a vinyl album. 



Dorsett Educational Software features: 

» Interactive Learning 

• User Friendly 

• Multiple Choice and Typed 

• Program Advance with Correct Response 

• Full-time audio narration (Cassette 
Programs Only) 

• Self-Paced Study . 

• High Resolution Graphics 
» Easy Reading Text 

For more information, or to order call: 

TOLL FREE 1-800-654-3871 
IN OKLAHOMA CALL (405) 288-2301 



VtSA* 



MasterCard 

V 



r^) DORSETT 

Wmmm^ Educational Systems, Inc. 

Box 1226, Norman, OK 73070 



4 



LOWEST CONTROLLER PRICE EVER! 

The New JFD-EC, Only $75 



JFD-EC DISK CONTROLLER 

The JFD-EConomical controller combines the best 

<p. - features of the 

original JFD-COCO 
with the two 
switchable ROM 
sockets, fully 
buffered data lines, 
and Memory Minder 
in ROM. The JFD- 
EC replaces the JFD- 
COCO in our 
product line at an 
even lower price. The controller 
includes JDOS, Memory Minder in ROM, and the 
JDOS manual. 

JFD-EC Disk Controller with JDOS $75 



4 1 

0 I 



JFD-CP DISK CONTROLLER 

Our new JFD-CP, compatible with both the orginal 
COCO and the COCO 2, features a parallel port to 

support a 
Centronics 
compatible 
printer or our 
hard drive, 
and an 

external ROM 
switch, which 
allows you to 
select JDOS or 
an optional RS 
DOS- type ROM. It comes in 
a case and includes JDOS 1 .2 and manual. JDOS 
implements all RS DOS commands, plus many 
more, including auto line numbering, error 
trapping, baud rate selection, OS/9* boot from 
floppy or hard drive, and Memory Minder**, our 
disk drive analysis program (Precision Alignment 
Disk not included). 

JFD-CP Disk Controller with JDOS $ 139 




DRIVE SYSTEMS 

Upgrade your Color Computer by adding our new 
JFD-CP disk controller, supercharged with JDOS 1.2 

operating 
system, and a 
top quality 
drive with case 
and power 
I supply. Comes 
complete with 
cable and JDOS 
manual. 





minder | 



Drive 0 System with" one double side drive $299 
Drive 0, 1 System with two double side drives $449 



MEMOkY MINDER** 

Memory Minder 
is a disk drive 
test program now 
included in 
JDOS. Used 
with a 
Precision 
. Alignment 
Disk, 
Memory 
Minder allows 
you to check 
your drives for speed, 
alignment, sensitivity, hysteresis, 
and more! You can actually align or adjust the drives 
while viewing the graphics on the screen. No special 
equipment needed! 

PRECISION ALIGNMENT DISKS (From Dysan) 
PAD-40X1: Tests single side disk drives $26 
PAD-40X2: Tests double/single disk drives $33 

< 

Memory Minder is available on diskette for those 
who don't own a JFD-CP or JFD-EC Controller with 
JDOS. Includes Precision Alignment disk. 






Memory Minder: single side package 
Memory Minder: single/ double side package 



*OS/9 is a registered trademark of Microware, Inc. 

** Memory Minder is a registered trademark of J&lM Systems, Ltd. 



$59 
$75 



NEW TERMS 

One-year warranty on parts &. labor; 30-day money 
back guarantee (except shipping) if not totally 
satisfied. Items must be returned in like new 
condition. 

Free shipping via UPS in continental United States 
for payment by VISA, MasterCard, or cashiers check. 
COD requires 10% prepayment by bank card plus 
3% shipping. Blue Label and foreign shipping extra. 



i//A 

J &M SYSTEMS, LTD 



1 51 GO-A CENTRAL SE 
ALBUQUERQUE. NEW MEXICO 871 23 
505/292-4182