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TANDY ''P coienc'd>*»UTFa] 



\ \ I I I | | | | , 
\\\\ \ \ \ \ \ \ 

Jill MM I 



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The Back Chair distributes your weight 
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Sitting in a conventional chair 
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body weight downward toward 
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Style B 

The Swivel Back Chair 

The added swivel feature makes 
this model ideal for office use. 



The Back Chair 

The Scientifically-designed Back 
Chair allows you to sit comfor- 
tably, spine and back muscles 
perfectly aligned, body weight 
shared by back and legs. 



ADJUSTABLE 
360° ROTATION 
METAL CONSTRUCTION 
CASTERS 
HEAVY-DUTY 



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The Adjustable Back 
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Adjusts to 3 different positions 

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4 casters allow you to move 
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BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000 1 Drive 128K 685.00 

Tandy 1200 10 Meg. 256K 1599.00 

Tandy 30001 Drive 51 2K 1969.00 

Mode! IVD 64K with Deskmate 889.00 

PRINTERS 

Radio Shack DMP-105 80 CPS 160.00 

Radio Shack DMP-130 100 CPS 269.00 

Radio Shack DMP-430 1 80 CPS 559.00 
RadioShackDWP-220DaisyWheel 359.00 
SilverReedEXP-SOOPDaisyWheel 229.00 

Star NX-10 120 CPS 279.00 

Star SG-15 120 CPS 410.00 

Panasonic P-1091 120 CPS 259.00 

Panasonic P-1092 180 CPS 339.00 

Okidata 292 200 CPS 529.00 

Okidata192160CPS 375.00 

Epson LX-80 100 CPS 275.00 

Epson FX-85 160 CPS 419.00 

MODEMS 

Radio Shack DCM-3 Modem 52.00 
Radio Shack DC Modem 

Program Pac 79.00 

Radio Shack DC Modem 2212 315.00 

Hayes 300 Baud Modem 1 69,00 



COLOR COMPUTER MISC. 

Radio Shack Drive Controller 139.00 

Extended Basic Rom Kit 39.95 

64K Ram Upgrade Kit 39.00 
Radio Shack Deluxe Keyboard Kit 24.95 

HJL Keyboard Upgrade Kit 79.95 

COCO Max Y Cable 27.95 

Color Computer Mouse 44.00 

Multi Pack Interface 89.00 

Botek Serial to Parallel Conv. 69.95 

Radio Shack CCR-81 Recorder 52.00 

Radio Shack Deluxe Joystick 26.95 

Amdek Video 300 Green Monitor 139.00 

Amdek Video 300 Amber Monitor 149.00 

Goldstar Green Monitor 85.00 

Goldstar Amber Monitor 85.00 

Radio Shack VM-4 Green Monitor 99.00 

Mark Data Universal Video Driver 29.95 

COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

TAPE DISK 

Approach Control Simul. 29.95 34.95 

Worlds Of Flight 29.95 32.95 

Mustang P-51 Flight Simul. 29.95 34.95 

Spectral Typing Tutor 19.95 22.95 

Dungeon Quest 24.95 27.95 



Major Istar 24.95 27.95 

Sam Sleuth Private Eye 24.95 27.95 

Mark Data Graphic Adven. 24.95 27.95 

COCO Util II by Mark Data 39.95 
COCO Max by Colorware 69.95 

COCO Max II by Colorware 79.95 

AutoTermbyPXEComputing39.95 49.95 

TelePatch by Spectrum 19.95 

TeleWriter 64 49.95 59.95 

Deft Pascal Workbench 89.95 

Deft Extra 39.95 

Pro Color File Enhanced 2.0 59.95 

Max Edit by Derringer 19.95 

Elite Calc 69.95 69.95 

Elite Word 69.95 69.95 

Elite File (disk only) 74.50 

DynaCalc (disk only) 99.95 

Word Pack RS by PBJ 99.00 

VIP Writer (tape & disk) 69.95 

VIP Integrated Library (disk) 149.95 

Order any 2 software pieces listed 
and take 10% off their listed price. 
All Radio Shack software 10% off list. 
Send for complete list. 



CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 

• SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 




P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 



Under 
The 



33 



49 



88 





Cover illustration copyright © 1986 
by Fred Crawford 



r^-i The small cassette tape 
symbols beside features 
and regular columns indicate that 
the program listings with those 
articles are on this month's RAIN- 
BOW on tape, ready to CLGflD and 
RUN. For full details, check our 
rainbow on tape ad on Page 147. 



FEATURES 

CoCo Better Agaln/Lonn/e Falk 



COMMENTARY Impressions of the new Color Computer 3 

A Whole Lot More/Greg Zumwalt 



TUTORIAL A look at the windowing on the CoCo 3 

A Programmer's Dream/Steve Bjork 

COMMENTARY More on CoCo 3 

What's Analog RGB?/£d Ellers 

TUTORIAL A look at the CoCo 3's analog RGB monitor 

New Commands on CoCo 3 



PRESS CONFERENCE NOTES More power for the Color Computer 

CoCo 3 Is Born 



PICTORIAL First-hand reports from New York 

Save the Astronauts/flene Camirand 



GAME It takes a bold captain to make a daring space rescue 

jgH Rational Thinking/Ke/ran Kenny 



MATH TUTOR Converting fractions to ratios and percentages 

Electronic Marquee/Ke/ran Kenny 



GRAPHICS A bold way to display your message 

The Teacher's PeX/Ron Powers 



ORGANIZATION Lighten the work load with this handy program 

Rattle Rattle Thunder Clatter//tf/cA?ae/ B. Kromeke 

S I M U L AT I O N Discover the inner workings of your ailing car 



sl Chronologist in CoCoLand/Denn/s Norton 



E DU CATION A clever aid for teaching time concepts 

I Before E Except After C/Donald Turowski. 



SPELLING TUTOR Recognize misspellings and develop word skills 

Graph-O-Matic/Jetf Harper. 



3-D GRAPHICS A fast way to plot 3-D functions with the CoCo 



[si Your Face or Mine?/M/7ce Rigsby 



E D U CAT I O N This delightful program teaches facial features 

Scrambled P\x/lra Goldwyn 



GAME These perplexing picture puzzles are tougher than you think 



S Wrlter-Zap//an Millard 



DISK UTILITY A modification for VIP Writer 

Hail To The Chief/f cfwarc/ 7. White 



H I STO R Y Learning fun with presiden tial facts 

CoCo Testmaker Revisited/Ron Powers 

ORGANIZATION An update of the matching test section 

Video Output Board/7/m Mcintosh 



HARDWARE PROJECT A neat project for do-it-yourselfers 

CoCo Mouse/Sieve Bjork 



MOUSE UTILITY The final installment of the point-and-pick interface 



18 



20 



26 



26 



29 



30 



33 



38 



41 



47 



49 



58 



78 



82 



88 



108 



116 



153 



160 



171 



180 



NEXT MONTH: The crisp, vibrant colors of autumn find their way onto the pages 
of the rainbow in October's Graphics issue. Nature's dazzling display is reflected in 
our many interesting and colorful programs sure to delight even the most discerning 
art critic. On your tour, be sure to stop by the "CoCo Gallery" and check out works 
by the newest artists. And don't forget our many games, columns, applications and 
tutorials just for your CoCo. 

Get in on the harvest of good things — get the rainbow, the number one information 
source for the Color Computer! 



COLUMNS 



SI BASIC Training/ Joseph Kolar 

Using inverse characters 



Building September's Rainbow/ Jim Reed. 

Managing Editor's comments 



CoCo Consultations/Marty Goodman 

Remedies from the Co Co clinic 



165 



16 



Delphi Bureau/Cray Augsburg 

Workspace, uploading and Marty Goodman's database report 



(HI Education Notes/Steve Blyn 



178 



172 



Word puzzles for spelling and vocabulary 

Education Overview/M/cA?ae/ P/og, Ph.D 

Tandy grants and the status of educational computers 



PRINT#-2,/ Lawrence C. Falk 

Editor's notes 



74 



76 



12 



Turn of the Screw/ Tony DiStefano 
A look at the Co Co 2B 

S Wishing Well/Fred B. Scerbo 



125 



98 



Updating the Color Change Quiz 

RAINBOWTECH 



Accessible Applications/ Richard White 

Reviewing Pen Pal applications 

Barden's Buffer/ William Barden, Jr 



The adventure of the too many printers 
Downloads/Dan Downard 



Answers to your technical questions 

KISSable OS-9/Da/e L Puckett 

Hard disk makes Co Co OS-9 fun 



DEPARTMENTS 

Advertiser Index 



188 



193 



186 



200 



Back Issue Information 
CoCo Cat 



208 
139 

_31 



One-Liner Contest 

Information 

Rainbow Info 



CoCo Gallery 
Corrections— 



122 
_77 



The Crossword Creator 
Contest 



Received & Certified 
Submitting Material 
to Rainbow 



Letters to Rainbow 
The Pipeline 



182 

__6 



Subscription Information 
These Fine Stores 



146 

_15 
131 



163 
166 
206 



104 



PRODUCT REVIEWS 

Product Review Contents. 



129 




September 1986 



Vol. VI No. 2 



Editor and Publisher 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor James E. Reed 
Senior Editor Tamara Renee Dunn 
Submissions Editor Jutta Kapfhammer 
Copy Editor Jo Anna Wittman Arnott 
Reviews Editor Judi Hutchinson 
Editorial Assistants Judy Brashear, 

Wendy Falk, Jody Gilbert, 

Angela Kapfhammer, Shirley Morgan 
Technical Editor Dan Downard 
Technical Assistants Cray Augsburg, 

Chris Wehner 
Contributing Editors William Barden, Jr., 

Steve Blyn, Tony DiStefano, Joseph Kolar, 

Michael Plog, Dale Puckett, Fred Scerbo, 

Richard White 
Consulting Editors Ed Ellers, 

Danny Humphress, Belinda C. Kirby, 

T. Kevin Nickols 



Art Director Jerry McKiernan 
Production Coordinator Cynthia L Jett 
Designers Judy Colgate, Tracey Jones, 

Heidi Maxedon, Kevin Quiggins, 

Sandra Underwood 

Chief of Typography Debbie Hartley 
Typography Services Jody Doyle, 
Suzanne Benish Kurowsky 

Falsoft, Inc. 
President Lawrence C. Falk 



General Manager Patricia H. Hirsch 

Asst. General Mgr. for Finance Donna Shuck 

Admin. Asst. to the Publisher Sue E. Rodgers 



Editorial Director James E. Reed 

Asst. Editorial Director Jutta Kapfhammer 

Creative Director Jerry McKiernan 

Chief Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Advertising Accounts Beverly Taylor 
Dealer Accounts Judy Quashnock 
Accounts Payable/ADP Lisa Ragan 

Fulfillment Services Director Bonnie Frowenfeld 
Fulfillment Services Asst. Dir. Sandy Apple 
Asst. Customer Service Mgr. Beverly Bearden 
Word Processor Manager Patricia Eaton 

Development Coordinator Ira Barsky 

Chief of Printing Services Melba Smith 

Pre-press Production John Pike 

Dispatch Janice Eastburn 

Asst. Dispatch Mark Herndon 

Business Assistants Laurie Falk, Sharon Smith, 
Monica Wheat, Pam Workhoven 

Advertising Coordinator Doris Taylor 
Advertising Representative Kim Vincent 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 

(502) 228-4492 

West Coast Advertising and Marketing Office 
Director Cindy J. Shackleford 
Advertising Representative Shirley Duranseau 
For RAINBOW Advertising and 
Marketing Office Information, see Page 208 



THE RAINBOW is published every month of the year by FALSOFT, Inc., The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059, phone (502) 
228-4492. the rainbow, RAINBOWfest and THE rainbow and RAINBOWfest logotypes are registered ® trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. • Second class postage paid Prospect, 
KY and additional offices. USPS N. 705-050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797). POSTMASTER: Send address changes to THE RAINBOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. Forwarding 
Postage Guaranteed. Authorized as second class postage paid from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. • Entire contents copyright © by 
FALSOFT, Inc., 1986. THE rainbow is intended for the private use and pleasure of its subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by any means is prohibited. Use 
of information herein is for the single end use of purchasers and any other use is expressly prohibited. All programs herein are distributed in an "as is" basis, without 
warranty of any kind whatsoever. • Tandy, Color basic, Extended Color basic and Program Pak are registered • trademarks of the Tandy Corp. CompuServe is a registered 
® trademark of CompuServe Inc. • Subscriptions to the rainbow are $31 per year in the United States. Canadian rates are U.S. $38. Surface mail to other countries 
is U.S. $68, air mail U.S. $103. All subscriptions begin with next available issue. • Limited back issues are available. Please see notice for issues that are in print and 
their costs. Payment accepted by VISA, MasterCard, American Express, cash, check or money order in U.S. currency only. Full refund after mailing of one issue. A 
refund of 10/1 2ths the subscription amount after two issues are mailed. No refund after mailing of three or more magazines. 



LETTERS TO THE U/k 




Wild Blue Yonder 



Editor: 

My full-time occupation is music teacher 
in a public middle school. In addition, I stay 
after school to supervise a computer/ avia- 
tion club. We use the Color Computer to 
learn basic flight theory and to model 
aircraft behavior, with Worlds of Flight, F~ 
16, P-51 and Flight Simulator to teach the 
basics of approach and landing. Approach 
Control is used when we discuss air traffic 
control to show the other side of the coin. 
This club evolved from the interest that the 
students had in my involvement in learning 
to fly and seeing me work with the Tom Mix 
simulator. It became a great challenge to my 
students. Seeing their interest sparked me to 
get my Basic Ground Instructor Certifica- 
tion. 

Mike Kello 
Nesquehoning, PA 



BACK TALK 



Editor: 

Just when I was about to give up on 
practical application programming because 
of negative responses to Cash vs. Financing 
(March 1986, Page 71), a letter came restor- 
ing my self-confidence. Thanks to rainbow 
readers like Steve Lente I'm again active and 
willing to branch out into unfamiliar areas. 
Like he says, if I don't branch out, life will 
get awfully boring, and I might overlook an 
area where I could eventually excel. 

Bill Bernico 
Sheboygan, Wl 

Cadprint on the DMP-105 

Editor: 

I would like to respond to a letter by R. W. 
Harper [June 1986, Page 8] about a problem 
getting the Cadprint modification program 
(February 1986, Page 103) to work on the 
DMP-105 printer. Here are the changes 
needed for proper operation: 

40 POKE150.1B: '2400 BAUD 

6 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



60 FQRPG=0TO2 

80 LOfiDM-PRT . PG"+RIGHT$ ( 5TR$ ( PG 
+3),1),&H4200 

90 L0GDM"PRT.PG"+RIGHT$(5TR$(PG 
+G),l),&H5fl00 

110 KILL~PRT„PG"+RIGHT$(STR$(PG) , 
1 ) : KILL"PRT.PG"+RIGHT$ ( 5TR$ ( P 
G+3) ,1) :KILL"PRT.PG"+RIGHT$(S 
TR$(PG+6),1):NEXTPG 

The original program loaded pages 0, 1, 
2 then 3, 4, 5 then 6, 7, 8 for printout which 
made the picture come out all wrong. With 
these changes, the program loads pages 0, 3, 
6, then 1, 4, 7 and finally 2 5 5, 8 for proper 
printout. 

Has anybody figured out how to get 
DeskMate for OS-9 to work at 2400 Baud? 
The DMP-105 only works at 600 or 2400 
Baud rates. It is a hassle to change the DIP 
switch on the printer every time I want to 
use DeskMate to write a letter. 

I can be reached at 12950 El Rio Road, 
92392. 

E. C. Blend, Jr. 
Victorville, CA 



HINTS AND TIPS 



Editor: 

Here's a quick change for those who have 
Co Co Max and want to use their Hi-Res 
Output Module with Co Co Cad, featured on 
Page 130 of the October 1985 issue. Maybe 
others are tired of unplugging and replug- 
ging their mouse too. Change Line 20 and 
add Line 25 as follows. 

20 PQR=PEEI< ( &HFF90 ) : Y=PEEK(&HFF91 
) : X=PEEI< ( &HFF92 ) : P=PEEI< ( &HFF93 
):IF*X<3 THEN X=3 ELSE IF X>252 
THEN X=252 

25 IF P<50 THEN P=3 

If anyone knows of a screen dump for the 
Okidata Microline 92, please drop me a line. 
It would be greatly appreciated. My address 
is 5522 West John Cabot Road, 85308. 

Tim Fadden 
Glendale, AZ 



See "Putting The Okidata ML92 
To Work*' by Joseph Kohn on 
Page 89 of the May 1985 issue. 

The CoCo Max Connection 

Editor: 

A short time after getting CoCo Max, I 
wished I could take the basic program I 
spent so much time drawing using basic 
commands, and put that picture into CoCo 
Max to improve and rearrange it. Here is the 
procedure I developed that enables me to do 
it. 

Run the basic program, and when it's 
completely drawn on the screen press the 
BREAK key. Type in uppercase letters the 
name of the program only (dark-colored 
letters) 5fiVEM"Nfif1E/EXT",&HE00, 
&H25FF,&HE00. This saves the screen to 
disk. 

For CoCo Max use the extension MAX; 
for Graphicom use the extension BIN. Then 
run CoCo Max or Graphicom and load in 
your newly saved screen. Do what you want 
with it and resave it to disk. Questions can 
be directed to me at 39 Haven Avenue, 
01013. Enclose an SASE please. 

James R. Demers 
Chicopee, MA 



«6 



Are You There? 

Editor: 

Information as to whether or not the 
printer is on (assuming your printer sends a 
busy signal when not ready) is contained in 
memory location 65314. The value in this 
location is five when printer is not ready and 
four (usually) when ready. 

I have designed this subroutine to incor- 
porate in my programs using the printer: 

10 CL5 

20 IFPEEK(G5314)O5THEN50 

30 PRINT00 , "PRINTER 15 NOT READY" 

40 GOTD10 

50 RETURN 

This subroutine can be used instead of the 
usual instruction to "get the printer ready." 

Jules E. Lafrance 
Nepean, Ontario 




YOU COULD FALL IN LOVE WITH 

AUTOTERM ! 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 



< 



WORLD'S 
SMARTEST 
TERMINAL 




GOOD 
LOOKIN' 



AUTOTERM shows true upper/ 
lower case in screen widths of 32, 
40, 42, 51, or 64 characters with 
no split words. The width of 32 
has extra large letters. Scrolling is 
forward, backward, and fast. Block 
graphics pictures are displayed 
automatically and can be scrolled. 

The screen's top line shows 
operating mode, unused memory 
size, memory on/off, and caps- 
lock on/off. It also gives helpful 
prompts. 



SWEET 
TALKIN' 



KEY-BEEP can be on/off. Unac- 
ceptable keystrokes cause a lower 
pitched BOP! This ERROR- 
BEEBOP can be on/off. 

Talks to other computers with 
Full or Half Duplex; Baud Rate of 
110, 150, 300, 600, 120T " irjty as 
even, odd, mark, space, none; 7 
or 8 bit Word; any Stop Bits; all 
128 ASCII characters; true line 
Break; XON/XOFF protocol; and 
optional line-at-a-time transmis- 
sion. Able to send and receive 
text, block graphics, BASIC and 
ML programs. A 64K machine 
holds up to 45,000 characters 
(33,300 in HI-RES). 

DUAL PROCESSING lets you 
review & edit while more data is 
coming in. 

XMODEM for disk file transfer. 



Fully supports D.C. Hayes and 
other intelligent modems. 

Talks to your printer with any 
page size, margins, line spacing, 
split word avoidance. Embed your 
printer's control sequences for 
boldface, underlining, etc. Narrow 
text can be automatically spread 
out. 



You'll also use Autoterm 
for simple word processing 
and record keeping 



You can display directories, 
delete files, transmit directly from 
disk, and work with files larger 
than memory. Easily maintain a 
disk copy of an entire session. 

Compatible with TELEWRITER 
(ASCII) & other word processors. 



SMOOTH 
WALK IN' 



AUTOTERM moves smoothly 
and quickly between word proces- 
sing and intelligent terminal 
action. Create text, correct your 
typing errors; then connect to the 
other computer, upload your text, 
download information, file it, and 
sign-off; then edit the received 
data, print it in an attractive 
format, and/or save it on file. 

Editing is super simple with the 
cursor. Find strings instantly, too! 
Any operating parameter, such as 
screen width, can be altered at 
any time. Uncompleted com- 
mands can be cancelled. 



PUTTY IN 
YOUR HANDS 



The word processor can be 
used to create, print, and/or save 
on file your personal KSMs. They 
let AUTOTERM act like you. For 
example, it can dial through your 
modem, sign-on, interact, perform 
file operations, & sign-off; an 
entire session without your help. 
KSMs can answer the phone, 
prompt the caller, take messages, 
save them, hang-up, and wait for 
the next call. The KSM potential 
is unbelievable! 

NO OTHER COMPUTER IN 
THE WORLD CAN MATCH 
YOUR COCO'S AUTOMATIC 
TERMINAL CAPABILITIES!!! 



WHAT THE 
REVIEWERS SAY 



"AUTOTERM is the Best of Class." 
Graham, RAINBOW, 6/83 

"The AUTOTERM buffer system is 
the most sophisticated — and one of 
the easiest to use. 
Banta, HOT CoCo, 9/84 

"Almost a full featured word 
processor. . ." 
Ellers, RAINBOW, 11/84 

"AUTOTERM's excellent error- 
handling routines, thorough docu- 
mentation, and logical, easy-to-use 
command structure make it stand 
out." 

Parker, HOT CoCo, 5/85 



AVAILABLE IN CANADA 

from 

Kelly Software Distributors 
Edmonton, Alberta 



CASSETTE $39.95 
DISKETTE $49.95 

Add $3 shipping and handling 

MC/VISA/C.O.D. 



PXE Computing 

11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson, Texas 75080 

214/699-7273 



Please hire the mentally retarded. They are sincere, hard working and 
appreciative. Thanks! Phyllis 



A Simpler Way 

Editor: 

This is in response to Marty Goodman's 
"Lap Keyboard" article [July 1986, Page 71]. 
He described a procedure for connecting 
ribbon cable to the plastic ribbon connector. 
I found the simplest and cheapest method is 
to take a 40-pin IC socket (preferably one 
with flat pins) and cut the two pin strips from 
the socket frame, remove the pins and 
carefully saw or cut away the plastic dividers 
between the pin holes on one of the IC strips. 
Replace the pins on this one modified strip 
and you should be able to plug the keyboard 
plastic ribbon into the new connector. 
Solder the connecting cable to the pin ends. 

At the other end of the extension cable, 
solder on the individual pins (female end) to 
the end of the cable wires and carefully put 
the pins back into the remaining IC strip. 
Plug the finished connector into the plastic 
ribbon socket on the computer board (CoCo 
'F board and CoCo 2) and that's it! 

Rodger Alexander 
Bellingham, WA 



me at 905 Remington Drive, 65202. Reason- 
able offers considered. 

Kerry L. Nye 
Columbia, MO 



DELPHI LINE 



REQUEST HOTLINE 

Editor: 

I am interested in finding someone who 
has a DMP-UO printer and the program 
Hardcopy. I have made several banners and 
greeting cards using the program and would 
very much like to exchange data disks. 
Anyone interested, please write to me at 88 
Steinmetz Road, 08502. 

Scott Enman 
Belle-Mead, NJ 

Habla Francais 

Editor: 

I am looking for a program (tape or disk) 
to help me in learning French and Spanish. 
Send any information to 1059 E. 6th 
Avenue, 85204. 

Arthur H. Packard 
Mesa, AZ 

CoCo, Par 2 

Editor: 

I own a CoCo 2 and am looking for a 
program to store and calculate golf handi- 
caps, on cassette only. My address is 982 
HolmanWay, 89431. 

Ted Tuso 
Sparks, NV 

Please read the review of Golf 
Handicaps on Page 215 of the 
August 1985 issue. 

Pot O' Gold 

Editor: 

I am attempting to complete my library 
of rainbow issues for 1983 and 1984. If any 
readers would be willing to sell me their 
copies of the January, February, March and 
May issues for 1983 or the January and 
February issues from 1984, please write to 



Editor: 

The Electronic Call Board is celebrating 
its one-year anniversary with the addition of 
a 1200 Baud Hayes and 128K of RAM. In 
our first year we have approached 8,000 calls 
and 3,000 messages. Now that we've added 
the new modem and additional RAM we 
expect that number to more than double in 
the coming year. To reach us, put your 
settings on 1200/300, E, 7, 1 and let 'er rip. 
Call NYC's first 128K CoCo BBS! 

Bobby Ballard 
(BOBBY BALLARD) 
Brooklyn, NY 



A Pat on the Back 

Editor: 

I enjoy your excellent magazine and join 
many others in praising its overall quality. 
I have learned a great deal, and the fact that 
you are the sole survivor in the CoCo world 
is testimony that you're doing things right. 
I have two suggestions to further improve 
the educational value of the rainbow. 

Refrain from publishing programs that 
consist only of machine language DATA 
statements read and POKEd by a basic 
program. Each machine language program 
should be accompanied by the source code, 
if readers are to gain any value from the 
article. 

Although I am a subscriber to rainbow 
on tape, I think you are doing your readers 
a disservice by not publishing any program 
listing for an article, such as was done with 
MUSIC+, (by Bob Ludlum in June 1986). 
This is an excellent program, and should not 
be limited to subscribers of RAINBOW ON 
TAPE. Otherwise, keep up the superb work! 

Chris Bergerson 
(CHRISB) 
Williamsville, NY 



INFORMATION PLEASE 

Editor: 

Having recently acquired a CoCo 2 with 
64K, I am trying to make full use of it. I am 
using cassette. I have purchased a copy of 
Telewriter and find it to be a very suitable 
word processor. I have also written some 
basic programs. 

I would like to be able to use the full 64K 
(instead of just the standard 32K) with my 
basic programs, but do not know how to do 
so. I feel sure that you have published an 
article on how to do this, but I do not know 
what month to look in. Could you advise 
me? 

A friend told me you published an article 
on increasing the CoCo's memory above 
64K, but could not remember the issue. 



Could you tell me what issue to look in? 

Telewriter has three features I find help- 
ful: saving fiJes in binary; verifying a save on 
tape and auto retry when searching for a file 
or verifying. Have you published any articles 
on achieving these functions? I want to 
incorporate these features into my pro- 
grams. My address is Route 4, Box 90, 
47122. 

Dave Hottell 
Georgetown, IN 

The CoCo is not designed to use 
the full 64K for basic. It can only 
use 32 K at a time. 

See "128K — The Easy Way" by 
Dennis Lewandowski on Page 162 
in the December 1984 issue. 

The Heart of the Matter 

Editor: 

I am trying to fix a 64K Extended basic 
CoCo 2, red tag special. I would like to see 
an article showing the guts and their work- 
ings plus a few test tricks for repairs. 

Fred Wise 
Clarion, PA 

See "An Introduction To The 
Inside Of The CoCo 2" by Tony 
DiStefano on Page 68 of the Jan- 
uary 1985 issue. Also look at the 
"Index to Rainbow" July 1984, 
1985 and 1986 issues for articles by 
Tony DiStefano. These will be 
most helpful. 

Mayday! Mayday! 

Editor: 

If someone has a copy of the superpatched 
EDTASM+ working on a 64K CoCo 2 with 
Disk basic 1.1, please contact me at 6321 
Bosker Lane, 48444. I can't get it to work 
right with my computer and I'm not good 
enough in assembly language to fix it. 

John Gormely 
^ Imlay City, Ml 

No Assembler Please 

Editor: 

I am writing to request a basic program 
to write machine language programs with- 
out an assembler. 

Zack Shelley 
Casper, WY 

Please see "Machine Code 
Loader" by Dennis Weide on Page 
144 in the July 1985 issue. 

Nonexistent OS-9 Errors 

Editor: 

I'm just getting into OS-9 and sometimes 
it gives me error messages I can't find in the 
manual. Where can I get a list or book of 
all the error codes? 

I have a 32K *E' board that I upgraded to 
64K. The upgrade did not include cutting 
and removing any parts. A number of 
programs don't seem to recognize it as 64 K, 
VIP Writer for one. Ghana Bwana tells me 



8 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



I have a bad byte in my 32K, and I have no 
sound. If I type in RUN the second time, 
the game runs, but still no sound. Help, 
please! My address is Box 1 132, V9Y 7L9. 

Dave Read 
^PortAlbern, British Columbia 

Read "RAM/ ROM Upgrade 
Roundup " on Page 49 of the May 
1984 issue. 

Transfer Troubles 

Editor: 

I go to Radio Shack once in a while to 
check out the educational programs on sale 
for my kids. Usually the programs are 
cassettes, and I have a disk system. I tried 
a popular copy program to copy tape to disk 
but it doesn't do the job. What can I do to 
get these tapes on disk? 

S. Brett Healey 
Logan, UT 

Try Roger Schrag's "A Tape To 
Disk Transfer Vehicle" on Page 48 
in the January 1984 issue. 



BOUQUETS AND BRICKBATS 

Editor: 

In the November 1985 rainbow, INFO- 
CO M placed an advertisement (pages 10-11) 
for their Four In One Infocom Sampler, 
which I ordered. Many weeks later I received 
a letter from INFOCOM saying that they 
were backordered and to be patient. Several 
weeks after the letter I received the Sampler 
disk only to find that it would not load or 
operate. After a phone call to INFOCOM, 
I sent the disk to their technical department 
and asked for replacement. Several weeks 
later a new disk arrived, with the same 
problems. I returned this disk and stated the 
difficulties I had. I explained that I would 
still be interested in their program if prob- 
lems could be corrected. 

Michael Garozzo 
Morrisvitle, PA 



Four In One Solution 

Editor: 

I appreciate your bringing Mr. Garozzo's 
letter to our attention. The technical loading 
problem of the Four In One Infocom 
Sampler is one which we discovered subse- 
quent to Mr. Garozzo sending his disk. It is 
encountered only by original CoCo owners 
(Version 1.0 Extended basic) who need to 
enter the basic program shown below as 
explained in the CoCo owners manual. 
Those with Version 1.1 will not encounter 
this problem. 

Customer satisfaction is extremely impor- 
tant to each of us at Infocom. We welcome 
feedback which helps us improve our service 
and the quality of our products. Hopefully 
this technical information will assist other 
CoCo users. 

To run the game, be sure to type: 
>D0S 



If you have Version 1 .0 Extended basic, 
you need to type in the following program 
in order to run the game. 
40 FDR 1=0 TO 70 
50 RERD fi$ 

60 POKE &H5000+I,VFIL(''&H''+FI$) 
70 NEXT I 

80 CLS:PRINT "INSERT STORY 

DISKETTE" 
90 PRINT "INTO DRIVE 0 FIND PRESS 

fi KEY" 

100 R$=INKEYS:IF R$=""THEN 100 
110 EXEC &H5000 
120 DATA 86,22,8E,26,00,8D,0D 
130 DRTfl FC,2G,00,10,83,4F,53 

140 DRTfl 26, 03, 7E, 26, 02, 39, 34 
150 DRTR 20,10,BE,C0,06,R7,22 
160 DRTR 86,02,R7,fl4,6F,21,6F 
170 DRTfl 23,6C,23,ftF,24,10,8E 
180 DRTfl C0,06,A6,23,B1,13,27 
190 DRTfl 12,AD,9F,C0,04,4D,27 
200 DRTfl 06,6C,23,6C,24,20,E9 
210 DRTR 7F,FF,40,35,R0,4F,20 
220 DRTR F8 

Under BASIC'S "OK" prompt, type RUN and 
press enter. You should save this to a basic 
format disk for future use. Note: Do not save 
this program to your Infocom Diskette. 

Dorene B. Woodrow 
INFOCOM 
Cambridge, MA 

hi-tech Compliments 

Editor: l \ 

I would like to compliment one of your 
new advertisers — hi-tech Stationery. After 
seeing their ad in the June 1986 rainbow, 
I sent for the brochure and free sample of 
stationery. Within a week I had received the 
promised items. A lot of mail order station- 
ery companies send a catalog with pictures 
of the stationery. Not hi-tech. They sent 
actual full-size samples of the stationery. 
Needless to say, I was impressed. Will I 
order from them? You bet! Quality maga- 
zines such as yours will continue to attract 
the best of these advertisers. 

Jill Mead 
Lansing, MI 

Faster Than a Speeding CoCo 

Editor: 

I just had to write concerning the speed 
with which one of your advertisers, Derrin- 
ger Software of South Carolina, responded. 
On June 9, in the July 1986 issue, I found 
their interesting Max Fonts ad on Page 94. 
I called at noon requesting they send me all 
three sets. I was told they would be mailed 
the next day. Today is June 11 and the 
mailman just delivered them to me. 

I would like to thank rainbow magazine 
for all the help it gives; I am far from being 
an expert, but with your help, I have a very 
good hobby. 

George Levka 
Chicago, IL 

Above and Beyond 

Editor: 

HJL Products, a division of Touchstone 
Technology Inc., deserves special recogni- 



tion for customer concern to match their 
excellent keyboard. Though it was well 
beyond the warranty period and it took two 
tries, they put me back in business with a 
working HJL keyboard at no charge. 

Gerry Odell Wood 
Los Alamos, NM 



KUDOS 

Editor: 

I just received the July 1986 issue of THE 
rainbow and wanted to tell you how much 
I enjoyed "The Faces of Falsoft: the Rain- 
bow Makers" (Page 37). It was just great. 
Thanks! 

I would like to suggest that you consider 
including pictures of the authors, in addition 
to the biographical data that accompanies 
each article. 

Mike Rozek 
Winona, MN 



CoCo Cat Art 



Editor: 

This is my version of how our CoCo Cat 
should be colored. Thanks for providing the 
iron-on. Great idea! 

David Reneer 
Novato, CA 




BBSers Sought 

Editor: 

The CoCo Communications newsletter 
still needs users! This newsletter deals with 
CoCo telecommunications with a list every 
other month of BBSs around the world. 
There are reviews on BBS programs, termi- 
nal programs, modems and other software. 
There's also a mailbag to ask questions or 
leave your BBS number, or just to have a 
modem pal! To get this newsletter, send $2 
to 301 Caravel Drive, 19701. 

Steve Slack 
Bear, DE 



September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 



A Job Well Done 

Editor: 

In your January 1986 issue [Page 88], you 
had a program by Mary and James Lamon- 
ica called Co Co Math Class. I typed in this 
program for my wife — she has a slight 
learning disability — but she could not use 
it. In order to use it she had to write the 
problem then enter the answer. 

I contacted the Lamonicas with this 
problem to see what I could do about 
straight entry of the answer. Two days later 
Mr. Lamonica called me. He had modified 
the program and was sending the updated 
copy to me, 

I feel the Lamonicas deserve a large round 
of applause and, from me, many thanks. I 
would like to see more of their work in the 
RAINBOW — I feel everyone will benefit from 
their knowledge and help. 

Richard Mullicane 
Rancho Cordova, CA 



PEN PALS 

Editor: 

I am 15 years old and looking for a pen 
pal. I have a 64K CoCo 2, two disk drives 
and a cassette recorder. I have a lot of games, 
pokes and some Adventure games. Write to 
me at 2070 62nd Street North, 33520. 

Dino Sanchez 
Clearwater, FL 

• I am a retired person and would appre- 
ciate hearing from another retiree with the 
thought of mutual help in using programs 
from THE RAINBOW and in elementary pro- 
gramming on my 64K CoCo. I have a #10 
printer and tape recorder — no disk. My 
address is Box 342, 32735. 

Flora Swingle 
Grand Island, FL 

• I am 15 years old and would like to get 
in touch with other CoCo users in Florida. 
I have a 64K CoCo 2 with two drives and 
a DCM-5 modem. Call me at (8 1 3) 859-2629 
or write to 1 109 Old Polk City Road, 33809. 

Steve Dale 
Lakeland, FL 

• I am a CoCo games nut. It doesn't 
matter if it is basic, binary, graphics, 
Adventures, etc. — I just love games. I'm 
looking for pen pals. Contact me at 5753 S. 
Laflin, 60636 or phone (312) 737-5716 from 
6-8 p.m. Mon.-Fri. or 12-8 p.m. Sat. and 
Sun. 

Kevin Adair 
Chicago, IL 

• I am 15 years old, own a 64K CoCo 2, 
cassette drive and a Centronics model 308 
printer. I would like a pen pal with the same 
or a close setup. My main interests are 
Adventure games and programs for my 
printer. My address is P.O. Box 56, 67103. 

Brian Daily 
Mayfield, KS 

• I am 1 1 years old and would like to have 
a pen pal around my age. I have a 64K ECB 



CoCo with disk drive. My address is 1204 
Tara Lane, 63303. 

Bradley Calise 
St. Charles, MO 

• Anyone wishing to have a pen pal in the 
U.S. or abroad, please mail in your name, 
address and, if you like, some of the things 
you are interested in. I will, in turn, mail a 
list back to you. Send to 847 Rosewood 
Terrace, 13760. 

Christopher Smith 
Endwell, NY 

• I am 1 1 years old and would like a pen 
pal. I have a 64K CoCo 2 with one disk drive 
and cassette deck. Send letters to 33 Scenic 
Pt. Drive, 12941. 

David Endersbee 
Jay, NY 

• I am looking for a Color Computer pen 
pal. Write me at 82 Hayes Street, 1 1762. 

Chris Romance 
Massapequa Park, NY 

• Looking for pen pals. Send correspond- 
ence to 24 Parkmere Road, 14617-1912. 

Herbert E. Crumrine 
Rochester, NY 

• I am interested in starting a computer 
pen pal service. Please send type of compu- 
ter, disk drive or cassette and printer type 
to RD #2, Box 252, 18222. 

Wesley Laubach 
Drums, PA 

• Any CoCo 2 owner with a Radio Shack 
modem having a 300 Baud rate please 
contact me and be a pen pal. I am looking 
mostly for pen pals in Pennsylvania. Write 
me at 3107 Tanker Street, 19145. 

Jesse Mosley 
Philadelphia, PA 

• Anyone looking for a pen pal can write 
to me. My address is 1369 Miles Drive, 
29407. 

Raleigh Rivers 
Charleston, SC 

• I would like a CoCo pen pal from 
Dekalb county who has a TRS-80 CoCo. 
Write me at RR 2, Box 90, 37095. 

June Elliot 
Liberty, TN 

• I am looking for a CoCo pen pal to share 



ideas with and chat with via U.S. mail. My 
address is P.O. Box 26689, 76126. 

Chris Young 

■ Beribrook, TX 

• I am 14 years old and own a 64K CoCo 
system. I would like to have some pen pals. 
Write to me at 6118 83rd Ct. E, 98371. 

Chris Nitz 
Puyallup, WA 

• I would like some pen pals. My address 
is 920 North 16th Street, 53081. 

Todd Preder 
Sheboygan, WI 

• I am 15 years old and a new CoCo 2 
owner. I would like pen pals from anywhere 
around the world. My computer is 16K with 
a cassette recorder which I plan to expand 
to 64K ECB soon. My address is 6492 Riesch 
Road, 53095. 

Amy Mills 
West Bend, WI 

• I would like a pen pal. I am 16 years old 
and own a CoCo 2 with a disk drive and 
printer. 

B. Florence 
30 Robinson Street 
Croydon, New South Wales 
Australia 2208 

• I live in the suburbs of Paris and am a 
Tandy TRS-80 32K Color Computer user 
with diskette adapter and cassette reader. I 
would like to correspond with other CoCo 
users. 

Dombret Philippe 
5 Vol De L'eperon 
78570 Andresy 
France 



the rainbow welcomes letters to the 
editors. Mail should be addressed to: Letters 
to Rainbow, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. Letters should 
include the writer's full name and address. 
Letters may be edited for purposes of clarity 
or space. 

Letters to the editors may also be sent to 
us through the MAIL section of our Delphi 
CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> prompt, 
pick MAIL, then type SEND and address to: 
EDITORS. Be sure to include your complete 
name and address. 



L 



AR 



TS AND L 



ETTERS 



32* DURHAM ST. 
WAIKERTDH ,0Nt> 
N0G-2VO 



Her* tJi"* •fat* 
at, «l 0*«»3 ) 



i f;i!is3~iri i I 
\ on y l 




THE FALSOFT BUILDING, 
P.O. BOX 385. 
PROSPECT, KY f005<? 





Envelope of the Month 



The Golden Wheel 
Walkerton, Ontario 



10 



THE RAINBOW September 1986 




Use The Brains Yom Tandy 

Wasn't born with. 

Enjoy other useful services too, like 
electronic editions of your favorite maga- 
zines, newsletters and articles, including 
the Tandy Corporate Newsletter, TCBUG 
(the Tandy Computer Business Users 
Group), and the Fort Worth Computer 
Chronicles. 

All you need is your Tandy computer 
and a modem ... or almost any other 
personal computer. 

To buy your CompuServe Subscrip- 
tion Kit, see your nearest computer 
dealer. Suggested retail price is $39.95. 
To receive our free brochure, or to order 
direct, call 800-848-8199 On Ohio, call 
614-457-0802). If you're already a 
CompuServe subscriber, just type GO 
TANDYNET at any ! prompt and see 
what you've been missing, 

CompuServe 

Information Services, RO. Box 20212 
5000 Arlington Centre Blvd., Columbus, Ohio 43220 

800-848-8199 

In Ohio, call 614-457-0802 
An H&R Block Company 



Right at your fingertips 
in CompuServe's Tandy® 
Forums. 

Our Tandy forums involve thousands 
of Tandy users worldwide. These forums 
will show you just how easy it is to get 
the most from your Tandy computer. 

The Tandy Professional Forum 
supports users of the larger Tandy 
computers, including the MS-DOS and 
XENIX operating systems, encompass- 
ing the largest spectrum of Tandy 
microcomputer users of any of our 
Tandy forums. 

The Model 100/Portables Forum 
is for users of Tandy laptop computers, 
providing functionality and portability 
in one package. 

The Color Computer Forum is for 
the dual personalities of the Tandy Color 
Computer, the perfect home computer 
and highly respected microcomputer. 

The OS-9 Forum provides support 
to an international group of users linked 
by a common operating system. 



The LDOS/TRSDOS® Forum 

supports users of the LDOS operating 
system for Tandy Model 1 and 3 com- 
puters, as well as TRSDOS-6 users 
on the Tandy Model 4. 

Easy access to free software. 

• Download first-rate, non<ommercial user- 
supported software and utility programs. 

• Take advantage of CompuServes 
inexpensive weeknight and weekend rates 
(when forums are most active, and standard 
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• Go online in most major metropolitan 
areas with a local phone call 

• Receive a $25.00 Introductory Usage 
Credit when you purchase your CompuServe 
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Information you simply can't find 
anywhere else. 

Use the Forum Message Board to 
exchange mail with fellow members. 
Join ongoing, real-time discussions 
in a Forum Conference. Scan Forum 
Data Libraries for free software, 
documentation and contributions 
from Tandy enthusiasts. 



The Color Computer 3: 

An Amazing Product 
Well Worth 
the Wait 

NEW YORK, JULY 30 — 

The night before I first laid eyes on the Color Computer 3, 1 kept 
wondering whether it was going to be worth the wait. 
For more than a year now, the rumors have been hot and heavy 
about the new CoCo and I was hoping we wouldn't see just an upgrade 
here and there — a little more memory, a few more colors — that would 
have to come under the classification of "nice" but hardly worth the 
months of waiting and speculation. 

The next day, as I heard about the technical part of it all, as I held 
a CoCo 3 in my hands for the first time, I really wasn't sure. An hour 
later I was very sure. 

In that hour, I watched a CoCo 3 in action. First came a demonstration 
(which, as a very nice touch if you ask me, features a rainbow in it) that 
absolutely blew me away. Then came disks with some programs — in 
BASIC, in machine language and written under OS-9. None of them was 
commercial stuff, just things that people at Tandy had been tinkering 
with. 

Oh, wow! 

I then spoke with one of the outside vendors who has been developing 
some programs for the new machine. If anything, veteran programmer 
Greg Zumwalt is even more enthusiastic than I am. "The things I can 
do with this are really amazing," he told me. 

I saw a demo that easily rivals, and in many instances surpasses, Atari's 
ST and Commodore's Amiga. I heard about a windowing environment 
that absolutely blows Macintosh away. I saw speed, animation, graphics 
and colors, screen displays, plus upper- and lowercase (and foreign!) 
character sets. The list goes on. 

The standard that has been used to compare the newer non-IBM 
computers has been the "bouncing ball demo." Amiga started it with 
a ball that bounces around the screen, demonstrating graphics and 
animation. Atari commissioned someone to do one for them to prove 
they could do it better. Which one actually is better is a matter of debate. 
But CoCo 3's demonstration program does many things and a bouncing 
ball is just one them. You know, the ball bounces faster and more 
smoothly on the CoCo 3. 

So what? Well, that's not the heart of the CoCo 3 demo. What blows 
you away is watching the sun rise over a landscape while the shadows 
and definition of the hills and valleys change and brighten as the sun 
moves higher in the sky. And then a color-changing rainbow. Beautiful! 
Go see it at your Radio Shack store. 

When the Color Computer was first introduced five years ago, it was 
something new, special and different. Even today it can do things that 
far more costly machines cannot. The people at Tandy decided more 



Computerware's OS-9 Library 




Advanced Utilities 



by Brian Lantz 
This set is designed for the advanced OS-9 user who 
wants serious tools. KSHELL totally transforms your 
system by allowing wildcards with any utility. The 
PATH command sets up multiple path directories to 
be searched when a command is given. UNLOAD is a 
repetitive unlink utility to remove modules. FLINK 
allows you to have many different boot files on a 
given disk & set which one to boot from next time. 
ARCHIVE backs up large disk media onto small disk 
media. CPY copies multiple files to a given directory. 

S29.95 




by Chris Bone 

RAID is a screen oriented debugger with a built in 
disassembler, single step capabilities, memory win- 
dow and access to the OS— 9 shell. It even has a built 
in hexidecimaf calculator! These are commands to 
modify the register, locate any module in physical 
memory, edit memory, set and kill break points, do 
selective disassemblies, execute modules by name or 
position, run shell commands, set offsets, single step 
from the program counter through the code, view the 
graphic screen, and much morel 



Disk Fix 



by Harry Hardy 
Unleash the real power of OS-9. Disk Fix supports true 
double-slded/double density, 40 tracks, and 

step rates of up to 6 ms and each drive is separately 
configurable. (CCDISK included) DMODE allows 
super easy modification of drive descriptors. DIRCOPY 
is the most powerful of OS-9 copy utilities. PATCH is a 
user-friendly program for inspecting and modifying a 
disk file. FILELOOK displays file modules without 
loading them into memory. COMPARE compares a 
disk file to memory. 



OS-9 BASIC 

Sourcerer . L^^^hbhhhJ The Last Word 



by Frank Delargy 

The Sourcerer is a menu driven symbolic 6809 dis- 
assembler that produces symbolic source code that 
can be assembled. It is compatible with most editor/ 
assemblers that produce ASCII files. 

S39.95 



ALSO AVAILABLE: 



Enjoy programming under OS-9 without the struggle 
of assembly language. This is a full-featured, easy to 
use, high level language for OS-9 users. Since you can 
invoke OS-9 commands from within a program, you 
can write many of those needed utilities with BASIC. 
Extraordinary file handling capabilities for fast data 
access and a very efficient file design. BASIC also fea- 
tures 9 & 11 digits of precision using BCD arithmetic, 
flexible user input commands for conversational pro- 
gramming, and easy output formatting. $4995 



by Michael Bailey 

This OS-9 word processor offers fast, on-screen for- 
matting using your choice of mouse, joystick, or key- 
board. The popdown menu is accessible at all times 
while inputting text so it is easy to use. You can move, 
insert or delete blocks of text with one touch. 

S49.95 



TEXTOOLS, COLOR CONNECTION II, ADVANCED EDITOR, & MACRO ASSEMBLER 



Make work FUN with 



C0C0 Cookbook 



by Norman Manchevsky 

This is more than a recipe index, it's a true free for- 
mat data bate! Designed to store and retrieve a 
large number of recipes, each can use up to 3040 
characters with title, ingredients, and instructions. The 
powerful keyword search lets you find entries with 
any special word, or ingredient. Over 200 recipes are 
included to get you started. Organize your VCR tapes, 
music collection, real estate, each title and description 
stored for easy retrieval. You don't have to be a chef to 
appreciate the power of this system. 



Merge 'n Mall 



by Cris Ervmg 
Merge 'n Mail is a sophisticated mall list manager 
with a mall-merge feature that can insert your 
name and address information into letters created 
with your word processor. It's 8 preset fields include 
last name, first name, company name, address, city, 
state, zipcode, and phone number. 12 additional pro- 
grammable fields allow you to store extra information 
according to your needs. It sorts by last name, or zip- 
code. Label formats are easy to specify at print time. It 
can be used with any ASCII editor. 



Personal Finance System 



by BJ Chambless 
Your C0C0 is your personal bookkeeper. Set a 
monthly budget, personal chart of accounts, and 
then enter each transaction. PFS compares monthly 
expenses with your budget and prints personal finan- 
cial reports. Tax time is so much easier! The special 
Investment and loan module calculates details 
of financial transactions like mortgage payments, 
principals, amortization tables, interest rates, and 
more so you can analyze your current and future 
investments. With PFS you can budget, and analyze 
for the future. 



Requires 32K 



Disk S32.95 If eq ul res 64K 



Disk $32.95 



Requires 32K 

80 Column printer 



Disk $32.95 



Ask for our FREE CoCo Catalog! 




NAP Monochrome Monitors 

The 20 mhz band with 800 line resolution, 
and 80 x 25 display insure a crisp picture. 
Plus — it has audio input! 

Green 12" Amber 12 



$114.95 
plus $5 shipping 



SAKATA Color Monitor 

Beautiful 13" color display with 280 x 300 line 
resolution. Includes composite video color, 

and audio si 75 plus $1S shipping 



Put a Monitor on Your CoCo with the 
Universal Video Plus 

Heavy duty construction evidenced Our advanced design gives the highest 
by sturdy leads and connectors. quality display. 



All cables {audio & video) are 
Included. No need to buy extenders or 
extra cables as required by other drivers. 

Shielded audio A video cables 

insure that no extra RF interference is 
introduced from the Universal Video 
Plus. 



Installation Is easy There is no 
soldering and no dismantling of the RF 
shield. 

The Universal Video Plus works with 
every CoCo. Easy to follow, clear 
instructions are included. 
Universal Video Plus S34.95 



Call or Write to: 




COMPUTERWARE @ 16,91 436 35,2 

Box 668 • Enclnltas, CA • 92024 



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Address 
City 



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Shipping 6% Calif. Sales Tax 

Surface — S2 minimum. COD Add $5 

2% for orders over $100 - Shipping* 
Air or Canada — $5 minimum. TOTAL 

5% for orders over SI 00 
Checks are delayed for bank clearance 




than a year ago that when they devel- 
oped a new machine it would, like the 
original CoCo, be on the leading edge 
of technology. With all they have done,, 
the new CoCo 3 is not on the leading 
edge, it is the leading edge. 

Don't be fooled by the bare specifi- 
cations of this machine; look at what it 
actually does. And the potential is 
waiting to be tapped by others. In this 
case, it is the true inheritor of the CoCo 
tradition: years' worth of potential — 
things you never dreamed could be 
done. 

Let me make several points: 

Forgetting price (I'll come to that in 
a minute), the CoCo 3 is the computer 
of choice in the forseeable future. Its 
technical superiority is so vast that it 
offers virtually unlimited potential for 
the person who owns one. 

Forget about the eight-bit/ 16-bit/ 32- 
bit CPU debate. By designing a custom 
chip called the GIME, Tandy is on the 
threshhold of unleashing the full power 
of the 6809E. It's not what ya' got, it's 
what ya' do with it that counts. 

There is no known interface method- 
ology that CoCo 3 cannot take advan- 
tage of. The most obvious is windowing, 
of course. The ability to have a window/ 



graphics interface will bring millions 
into the world of computers because 
they can just use them — they don't 
have to understand them. , 

Those millions of people will pay no 
more than $219.95 for the basic box 
with all this potential. With only half 
the capabilities, it would still be a 
substantial bargain. Considering every- 
thing we know today that CoCo 3 can 
do, Tandy is practically giving their 
machine away. I expect the ranks of the 
CoCo Community to be swelled to huge 
proportions. 

With the ease of programming and 
the general decline in the price of 
software in other markets, I expect a 
great influx of new material for the 
CoCo. Those third party people who 
have been in this market for some time 
now will enhance their present products 
and offer new ones. The great potential 
of the machine will attract many new 
writers to the market. 

In line with that, let me share some 
information from Greg. He told me how 
easy it was to program some of the 
offerings he is doing for Tandy because 
he was able to assemble the program in 
one window and edit his errors in 
another — at the same time! Think of 



how much easier that will make pro- 
gramming. 

Again, our hat is off to Tandy for 
making CoCo 3 backward compatible. 
No sir, you don't have to throw away 
your software library (or your hard- 
ware, either). Assuming programmers 
followed the guidelines Tandy set down 
(for just this reason), virtually every 
piece of software you have now will run 
on CoCo 3. Every printer, modem, disk 
drive, cassette recorder and the like will 
simply plug in to the same place on 
CoCo 3. 

The Color Comptuer 3 is a major 
achievement by Tandy Corporation. 
Tandy's new advertising slogan is "Bet- 
ter Again," and in no case is it more 
evident than in the CoCo 3. Indeed, 
CoCo 3 sets a new standard of ability 
and capability, ease of use and friend- 
liness, usefulness and value that no one 
else can — or likely will — match today 
or in the near future. 

Was CoCo 3 worth the wait? 

Yes, is was — every second of every 
minute of every day. 

And more. 



— Lonnie Falk 




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1 4 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 






How To Read Rainbow 



Please note that all the basic program 
listings in the rainbow are formatted for 
a 32-character screen — so they show 
up just as they do on your CoCo screen. 
One easy way to check on the accuracy 
of your typing is to compare what char- 
acter "goes under" what. If the charac- 
ters match — and your line endings 
come out the same — you have a pretty 
good way of knowing that your typing is 
accurate. 

We also have "key boxes" to show you 
the minimum system a program needs. 
But, do read the text before you start 
typing. 

Finally, the little cassette symbol on 
the table of contents and at the begin- 
ning of articles indicates that the pro- 
gram is available through our rainbow 
on tape service. An order form for this 
service is on the insert card bound in the 
magazine. 



What's A CoCo? 



CoCo is an affectionate name that was 
first given to the Tandy Color Computer 
by its many fans, users and owners. 

However, when we use the term 
CoCo, we refer to both the Tandy Color 
Computer and the TDP System-100 
Computer. It is easier than using both of 
the "given" names throughout the rain- 
bow. 

In most cases, when a specific com- 
puter is mentioned, the application is for 
that specific computer. However, since 
the TDP System-100 and Tandy Color 
are, for all purposes, the same computer 
in a different case, these terms are 
almost always interchangeable. 



The Rainbow Check Plus 



The small box accompanying a pro- 
gram listing in the rainbow is a "check 
sum" system, which is designed to help 
you type in programs accurately. 

Rainbow Check PLUS counts the 
number and values of characters you 
type in. You can then compare the 
number you get to those printed in the 
rainbow. On longer programs, some 
benchmark lines are given. When you 
reach the end of one of those lines with 
your typing, simply check to see if the 
numbers match. 



To use Rainbow Check PLUS, type in 
the program and csrve it for later use, 
then type in the command RUN and press 
enter. Once the program has run, type 
new and press enter to remove it from 
the area where the program you're typ- 
ing in will go. 

Now, while keying in a listing from the 
rainbow, whenever you press the down- 
arrow key, your CoCo gives the check 
sum based on the length and content of 
the program in memory. This is to check 
against the numbers printed in the 
rainbow. If your number is different, 
check the listing carefully to be sure you 
typed in the correct basic program code. 
For more details on this helpful utility, 
refer to H. Allen Curtis' article on Page 
21 of the February 1984 rainbow. 

Since Rainbow Check PLUS counts 
spaces and punctuation, be sure to type 
in the listing exactly the way it's given in 
the magazine. 

10 CL5:X=25G*PEEK(35)+17B 

20 CLERR 25,X-1 

30 X=25G*PEEI< (35)+178 

40 FDR 2=X TO X+77 

50 RERD Y:W=W+Y:PRINT Z,Y;W 

G0 POKE 2, Y: NEXT 

70 IFU=7985THEN80ELSEPRINT 

"DRTfl ERR0R":ST0P 
B0 EXEC X:END 

90 DRTR 1B2, 1, 10G, 1G7, 140, G0, 134 
100 DRTR 126, 1B3, 1;, 10G, 190, 1, 107 
110 DRTR 17S, 140, 50, 48, 140, 4, 191 
120 DRTR 1, 107, 57, 129, 10, 38, 38 
130 DRTR 52, 22, 79, 158, 25, 230, 129 
140 DRTR 39, 12, 171, 128, 171, 128 
150 DRTR 230, 132, 38, 250, 48, 1, 32 
1G0 DRTR 240, 183, 2, 222, 48, 140, 14 
170 DRTR 159, 166, 166, 132, 28, 254 
180 DRTR 189, 173, 198, 53, 22, 12G, 0 
190 DRTR 0, 135, 255, 134, 40, 55 
200 DRTR 51, 52, 41, 0 



Using Machine Language 



Machine language programs are one 
of the featu res of the rainbow. There are 
a number of ways to "get" these pro- 
grams into memory so you can operate 
them. 

The easiest way is by using an editor/ 
assembler, a program you can purchase 
from a number of sources. 

An editor/assembler allows you to 
enter mnemonics into the CoCo and 
then have the editor/assembler assem- 
ble them into specific instructions that 
are understood by the 6809 chip, which 
controls your computer. 



When using an editor/assembler, all 
you have to do, essentially, Is copy the 
relevant instructions from the rainbow's 
listing into CoCo. 

Another method of getting an assem- 
bly language listing into CoCo is called 
"hand assembly." As the name implies, 
you do the assembly by hand. This can 
sometimes cause problems when you 
have to set up an ORIGIN statement or 
an EQUATE. In short, you have to know 
something about assembly to hand- 
assemble some programs. 

Use the following program if you wish 
to hand-assemble machine language 
listings: 

10 CLERR200 , &H3F00 : I =&H3F80 

20 PRINT "RDDRESS:";HEX$(I); 

30 INPUT "BYTE"; 8$ 

40 POKE I,VRL("&H"+B$) 

50 1=1+1 :GDTD 20 

This program assumes you have a 1 6K 
CoCo. If you have 32K, change the 
&H3F00 in Line 10 to &H7F00 and change 
the value of I to &H7F80. 



The Rainbow Seal 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

The Rainbow Certification Seal is our 
way of helping you, the consumer. The 
purpose of the Seal is to certify to you 
that any product that carries the Seal 
has been physically seen by us, that it 
does, indeed, exist and that we have a 
sample copy here at the rainbow. 

Manufacturers of products — hard- 
ware, software and firmware — are 
encouraged by us to submit their pro- 
ducts to the rainbow for certification. 
We ascertain that their products are, in 
actuality, what they purport to be and, 
upon such determination, award a Seal. 

The Seal, however, is not a "guarantee 
of satisfaction." The certification pro- 
cess is different from the review process. 
You are encouraged to read our reviews 
to determine whether the product is 
right for your needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship 
between advertising in the rainbow and 
the certification process. Certification is 
open and available to any product per- 
taining to CoCo. A Seal will be awarded 
to any commercial product, regardless 
of whether the firm advertises or not. 

We will appreciate knowing of in- 
stances of violation of Seal use. 



September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 5 




BUILDING SEPTEMBER S RAINBOW 



Holding the presses . . • 
Chomping at the bit ... 

To introduce the new CoCo 3 

A monthly magazine such as THE RAINBOW is not the medium of choice 
for fast-breaking news. Not in this age of telecommunicating and 
broadcast journalism. In fact, about the only thing a monthly magazine 
can "scoop" is a high school annual, such as provides the background for this 
month's Education issue cover. 

But we do try. If this issue of the rainbow reaches you with a large blank 
space on the cover saying "This Space for Notes," youll know we rolled the 
dice and lost. On the other hand, if our cover artist has the chance before 
absolute deadline to get a glimpse of the new Tandy Color Computer 3, then 
well have taken a chance and won! Knock on wood. 

At the same time, if the first two or three articles in this issue are about 
anything except the CoCo 3, you'll know that we could not hold the presses 
any longer, but we think we might just make it. Our current plan — with few 
contingencies — calls for attending a mid-morning Tandy press conference on 
July 30 at New York's famed Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. Then we hope to scurry 
away with "grab photos" and specs under our arms and jet back to Prospect 
to process the pictures, digest the new machine's specifications and get it all 
into the magazine in a matter of hours. Let me tell you, it is no sure thing. 

Our plan also calls for transferring files by phone lines, reading over the 
typesetters' shoulders, editing on the run and laying out the pages in record 
time. Similar standby-then-fly procedures are scheduled right on down the 
umpteen steps along the production line. This is so we can cover the press 
conference as well as include material from some "insiders" who cannot release 
their material until after the formal announcement. At this point, they still cling 
to saying, "//"there is a new machine . . .." 

While the rest of the world keeps on keeping on, Prospect is aflutter. This 
is not business as usual. (To add to the problem, remember that we produce 
two Tandy magazines! PCM is reporting on the new MS-DOS developments.) 
Editors are rolling their eyes and audibly sighing, artists are biting their nails, 
the technical staff is pacing around, hypothesizing about all the possibilities 
and potential, and production folks are wondering if another "all nighter" is 
in store. The pre-press and printing people are anxiously tapping their toes, 
wondering what all the big deal is. 

Well, for the CoCo Community, we think it is the biggest deal since the CoCo 
was introduced. We expect the new features to be top-notch and the price to 
be highly competitive. We expect the CoCo 3 to bring new excitement, new 
challenges and bright new promise to the CoCo Community. We think you'll 
be pulling that old machine out and sliding a new one right into place and then 
rediscovering the same sort of computing thrill you felt when you powered up 
your first CoCo. 

At this point, though Tandy is still as stony silent as Mount Rushmore, the 
rumors are crystalizing into fact and the likelihood of three text modes 
(including true lowercase, underline and blinking) and dazzling graphics 
possibilities seems certain. Tandy's competition will pale in comparison to this 
new 128/512K machine. 

In order to get a complete report to you, we are pushing deadlines back several 
days and then rushing to make up time. Probably we won't be able to catch 
up entirely, so this issue is likely to arrive a few days later than usual. We think 
you'd much prefer this to having to wait another month for the big story weVe 
all been eagerly anticipating for a year or more. 

In upcoming issues, we'll delve more deeply into the power of the new CoCo 
3 and we'll begin examining and previewing all the new programs as they are 
rushed to market. Well report on what present products will work (the vast 
majority of existing programs and hardware) and what needs "patching" or 
whatever. To keep up with all that's coming down the road, you'll need THE 
RAINBOW more than ever, so if you haven't joined the tens of thousands who 
find THE rainbow in their mailbox every month, why not learn about the new 
CoCo with a new subscription? 

— Jim Reed 



500 

POKES, 

PEEKS, 

EXECs 



FOR THE TRS-80 COCO 




MEYER BEFORE has this infor- 
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MERGE, RENAME, DSKIP11, 
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★ Disable BREAK KEY, CLEAR KEY 
and RESET BUTTON. 
Generate a Repeat-key. 
Transfer ROMPAKS to tape (For 
64K only). 

Speed Up your programs. 

Reset, MOTOR ON/OPP from 
keyboard. 

★ Recover Basic programs lost by 
NEW 

★ Set 23 different 
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1 6 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



UTILITIES/BOOKS 




UTILITY ROUTINES for the 
TANDY & TRS-80 COCO (Vol 1) 

This powerful book for Basic and ML 
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RAINBOW GUIDE TO OS-9 (Book): $18.95 
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• 500 POKES, PEEKS N EXECS is a prerequisite 

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• LList Enhancer (with page numbering!) 

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• LARGE DMP Graphics Dump 

• X-Rel for Basic Programs 

• Hidden 32 K (Use the "hidden" 32K from your 64K CoCo) 

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• Single Key Printer Text Screen Oump 

AND MUCH. MUCH MORE!!! 

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OTHER SOFTWARE... 

Telewriter-64 (Cas) $47.95 (Dsk) 57.95 

Telelorm: Mail Merge for TW-64® 1 9.95 

Telepatch (Dsk) 19.95 

CoCo Max (Cas) 67.95 

CoCo Max II (Dsk) 77.95 

CoCo Max Upgrade (Dsk) 18.95 

Pro Color File( Dsk) (includes SIMON) 54.95 

Dynacalc (Dsk) 79.95 

Autoterm (Cas) 36.95 

(Latest Version) (Dsk) 46.95 

COCO UTIL II (Latest Version): Transfer 
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OISK ANTI-PIRATE: Best copy- protection 
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CABLES/HARDWARE 

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INTRONICS EPROM PROGRAMMER: Best 
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Y CABLE: Use your Rompak with your 
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Phone (71 6) 223-1477 



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HARDWARE PREVIEW 






Impressions of 
the new CoCo 3 



By Lonnie Falk 
Editor and Publisher 



NEW YORK JULY 30 — 

After anticipating the new Color 
Computer for more than a year, the 
finished product is more than well 
worth the wait. The new machine is 
called a Color Computer 3 (not partic- 
ularly surprising) but it might be called 
Warp Factor 3 instead. 

First, the obvious things. The CoCo 
3 general specifications go something 
like this: 

• 128K RAM standard, upgradable 
to 51 2K in one step only. 

• 64 different colors, 16 available at 
a time. 

• Graphics resolution of 640 by 192. 

• Standard Microsoft BASIC, Ex- 
tended BASIC and Disk basic, with a 
number of very fancy enhancements 
written by Micro ware Systems Corp. 
(the OS-9 people). 

• A new keyboard much 
the same as 



For Lonnie 
Falk's editorial 
comments on the 
CoCo 3, see his 
"Print #-2'; col- 
umn on Page 12. 



18 




THE RAINBOW September 1986 



the deluxe keyboard now offered (with 
a control and alternate key and 
two function keys), but with a newly 
designed cursor keypad in a diamond 
configuration. 

• A slightly new color scheme for the 
case, using the now-familiar cream 
color and a light gray around the edge 
of the keyboard. 

• A choice of 32, 40 and 80 column 
widths with upper- and lowercase and 
true descenders. 

• Fully compatible with all the soft- 
ware you own now. The caveat to that 
is software writers cannot have made 
undocumented calls to the ROM. 
Tandy developed guidelines for soft- 
ware developers years ago — if authors 
followed those "rules," their software 
will work with CoCo 3. 

• OS-9 Level II operating system for 
a true multi-tasking, multi-using envi- 
ronment. More on this later. 

• Fully compatible with all the hard- 
ware you own now. Just unplug your 
disk drive, tape recorder, printer and so 
on, replace your present "box" with a 
CoCo 3, and plug everything in again. 
It all works. (There will be a small 
problem running OS-9 with older mod- 
els of the Multi-Pak Interface. Tandy 
will make the fix for about $6, excluding 
installation.) 

• A new interface for a new analog 
RGB monitor available from Tandy. 
The new monitor's color scheme 
matches the CoCo 3. 

• Retail price: $219.95. 

On the surface, these changes are 
pretty exciting, but not astounding. Yet 
CoCo 3 is an astounding machine. It is 
not the changes in the specifications so 
much as what has been done with the 
specifications that makes the CoCo, 
once again, the best possible computer 
buy for the home or small business 
market, bar none. 

An example: Combining the new 
analog RGB monitor (a CM-8.by Tan- 
dy's designation) and Co Co 3, the 
resolution on graphics screens appears 
better than that of an MS-DOS 
computer. Why? By using analog tech- 
nology, the resolution appears to be of 
higher quality than it really is. I can see 
software writers frothing at the mouth 
to get at this stuff. 

Another example: The CoCo 3 can 
run at about 2 megahertz, unlike the 
CoCo and CoCo 2. But, by designing 



and building a special chip, called a 
G1ME Chip, effective speeds increased 
even more. In a quickie benchmark we 
performed here, CoCo 3 animation 
zapped an IBM PC and a Macintosh. 
CoCo 3's bouncing ball demonstration 
is faster and smoother than Amiga's or 



window (windows mean both programs 
are running at the same time and are 
displayed on the screen at the same 
time). The person on the other end 
could be explaining how something 
looks and while he is explaining it, you 
could be drawing it. Then, to be sure 



Tandy has done it again 



the Atari ST's. 

There are two versions of what the 
term "GIME" stands for. I like the one 
that says Tandy went out and said they 
needed to be able to do this thing, that 
thing and so on, so please "Gimme a 
chip that'll work." Officially, though, 
GIME stands for Graphic Interrupt 
Memory Enhancer. Take it either way, 
this HT fellow makes CoCo 3 a super 
special machine. 

I confess to not understanding hard- 
ware like the Tony DiStefanos and 
Marty Goodmans of the world. And I 




you got it right, you could send your 
drawing to the telecommunications 
program window and it would appear 
on the other person's screen. That 
person could make some changes and 
send it back to you, and so on! 

CoCo 3 has, under OS-9 Level II, a 
user interface much like the Macintosh, 
but far faster and in full color. For the 
CoCo 3, OS-9 has become virtually 
invisible to the user who wants it that 
way — in other words, you can deal 
with the applications and programs you 
want, and pretty much ignore the 

operating system unless 
you want to use it. 

In short, CoCo 3 is a 
new generation of home 
and small business com- 
puter — fully as revolu- 



7 



am certain that, over the coming 
months, they will be able to tell you a 
great deal of technical stuff about it. But 
suffice it to say now that this new chip 
manages memory through interrupts, 
and speeds everything along its way far 
more swiftly than the old VDG and 
SAM chips (which are not in the CoCo 
3) did. 

For one thing, GIME makes true 
multi-user, multi-tasking possible. It 
allows some of the most sophisticated 
(and easy-to-use) windowing available 
on any computer available today. As an 
example, you could be connected 
through a modem to someone else with 
a CoCo 3 in one window, and have a 
graphics drawing program in a second 



tionary as the original 
Color Computer was five 
years ago. Its great ad- 
vantage is that it already 
has one of the largest 
bases of software (and 
hardware for that matter) 
of any machine on the 
market, plus a raft of OS- 
9 Level II software which 
has been around for some time. 

All that aside, where it will shine most 
brightly will be when both in-house and 
third party software and hardware 
people begin writing specific programs 
which take advantage of the GIME 
chip, the windowing environment and 
all the other marvelous features of 
CoCo 3. 

Even at $600, CoCo 3 would be the 
best single home and small business buy 
in the world of computers. At $219.95, 
it is not only a stupendous machine, but 
an immense bargain as well. With the 
Color Computer 3, Tandy has moved to 
the cutting edge of technology and 
made the technology affordable for 
virtually everyone. fc\ 



September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 9 



TUT0RJA1 



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THE RAlNffOW Soptomber 1986 



ating System. For those of you not 
familiar with OS-9, 1 would suggest that 
now there is a real reason to develop an 
interest in it. Lor those of you familiar 
with Level 1 OS-9, you will really enjoy 
Level II, l evel II is designed to exploit 
the expanded RAM capaeities of the 
Color Computer 3, like Level 11 on 
other systems. But there is a difference. 
Level II OS-9 for CoCo 3 supports 
windowing, a feature that, after having 
used it, I don't ever want to give up. 

i 

j 

Windows 

A window is an area appearing on the 
screen that acts just like a regular 
display, the main difference being you 
can assign more than one window to the 
same screen. Lor example, as an appli- 
cations programmer, I am constantly 
switching between a text editor, an 
assembler, the application and a de- 
bugger. Anyone who has written assem- 
bly language programs knows that this 
cycle often repeats, sometimes many 
times, resulting in lots of typing and 
typing errors. 

With windowing, 1 simply place a text 
editor window in the upper left-hand 
corner^ of the screen, an assembler 
window in the upper right-hand corner 
of the screen, a debug window in the 
lower left-hand corner of the screen, 
and finally, an application window in 
the lower right-hand corner of the 
screen. Lach of these windows now acts 
as though 1 have four separate Color 
Computers. While the application is 
running; I can edit, assemble and debug 
all at the same time. Output from any 
of the programs appears instantly on 
the associated window. To direct input 
to a particular program, all I have to do 
is press the eu-AR key on the keyboard 
until the cursor appears on that win- 
dow, then type, OS-9 allows me to 
define the size and location of each 
window. I can even define a window as 
the entire screen, in which case OS-9 
switches screens when I want to work 
on another. 

How does this work? OS-9 is what is 
known as a multi-tasking/ multi-user 
operating system. This means OS-9 is 
designed to allow more than one pro- 
gram (called a task) and more than one 
user at a time to *>hare the same com- 
puting resources. Level II OS-9 for the 
CoCo 3 takes this concept one step 
lurther by providing more than'one 
screen (the window) to accomplish this. 
Let's go through the process of creating 
a window using the OS-9 Build utility. 



Building Your First Window 

The Build utility allows us to create 
an OS-9 procedure file. A procedure file 
is simply a disk file containing a series 
of OS-9 commands that OS-9 executes 
in order. To create the procedure file, at 
the OS-9 prompt, type the following: 

i 

bui Id uindou 

The Build utility responds with a 
question mark followed by a space. 
Now type the following: 

iniz ul 

merge sys's tdf onts >/uil 
display lb 20 07 00 00 20 0b 00 

07 07>/ud 
shell 

Press FN I FR twice after this last line. 

After the last ENTER, the Build utility 
returns to OS-9. There is now a proce- 
dure file on the disk called Window L To 
run the procedure, at the 05-9: prompt 
type: 

uindowl 

OS-9 responds with the symbol 
followed by a number. This verifies that 
the Window I procedure accomplished 
its task. To see what happened, press the 
CFFAR key on the keyboard. A new 
screen appears with a window in the 
upper left-hand corner containing the 
OS-9 prompt. This window, with its 
shell, allows you to execute OS-9 com- 
mands just like the original screen. In 
effect, you have two computers. Press 
the CLFAR key again, and the original 
screen reappears. Let's examine the 
procedure file we created and see how 
it works. 

Under OS-9 Level II, a window is 
treated as simply another OS-9 device. 
The device name for a window contains 
the window descriptor (the l w 1 ) and the 
window number (in thhf case I). There- 
fore, to talk IB window one the descrip- 
tor wl is used. 

The first command, Iniz, initializes 
wl. This is similar to an Iniz of any 
other OS-9 device. 

The second command, Merge, tells 
OS-9 which character set is to be used 
with w I (a variety of character fonts are 
now possible with the -Color Computer 

3). 

The third command, Display, sends 
the command sequence to OS-9 that 
creates the window. The command 
sequence contains 10 bytes describing to 
OS-9 the command, type, location, size 
and color of the window to create. The 
first two bytes following Display are the 
create a window command. The third 



byte defines the window type; in our 
example, a 640 by 1 92 four-color gra- 
phics window. The fourth and fifth 
bytes decribe the "X' and V character 
location of the upper left-hand corner 
of the window. The sixth and seventh 
bytes define the V X' and k Y' character 
size of the window. Finally, the eighth, 
ninth and 1 0th bytes describe the lore- 
ground, background and border colors 
for the window. 

The fourth command, Shell, creates 
a shell for wl. The shell is what allows 
you to execute any of the OS-9 com- 
mands or applications. 

Building Your Second Window: 
A BASIC Approach 

To further illustrate, let's create a 
second window. However, this time let's 
create it using BAStcoy (which, by the 
way, is included with the OS-9 Level ll 
operating system), and place it on the 
same screen that wl occupies, but in the 
upper right-hand corner. Press the 
Cl.FAR key to display wl, then at the . 
□S-9: prompt, type: 

Basic09 

The BASK09 prompt appears, fol- 
lowed by B:. Krom here, type in the 
following: 

e windou2 

shell "iniz uj2" 

dim command, path: by te 

dim count: integer 

data 27,32,0,40,0,32,11.7,0.? 

open ttpa th, "/w2" : ur i te 

for count = l to 10 

read command 

put ttpa th , command 

next count 

shell "shell i^w2&" 

end 

q 

run 

A second window appears just to the 
right of the first, whose foreground/ 
background colors are opposite those of 
, wl. Now press the CLEAR key. Notice 
the cursor on wl disappears, while a 
cursor appears on w2. Lach time the 
CLEAR key is pressed, the next window 
is selected for keyboard input in round 
robin fashion. 

Tbe BASK' approach appears some- 
what different from the procedure file 
approach; however, they both accom- 
plish the task in a similar manner, The 
first line oi the BASK' approach calls the 
BASIC09 editor, allowing you to type in 
the program. The second line tells 
BASIC09 to send the Iniz w2 command 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 21 



You'll use it all the time and love using it 



What isCoCo Max? 

Simply the most incredible graphic 
and text creation "system" you have 
ever seen, A Hi-Res Input Pack (more 
on the pack later) is combined with 
high speed machine language 
software. The result will dazzle you. 




CoCo Max disk system, with Y-cable. 

Is CoCo Max for you ? 

Anyone who has ever held a pencil or 
a crayon for fun, school or business 
will love it. A 4 year-old will have fun 
doodling, a 15 year-old will do class 
projects and adults will play with it for 
hours before starting useful 
applications (illustrations, cards, 
artwork, business graphics, flyers, 
charts, memos, etc.) This is one of the 
rare packages that will be enjoyed by 
the whole family. 

What made CoCo Max an 
instant success? 

First there's nothing to learn, no 
syntax to worry about Even a child 
who can't read will enjoy CoCo Max. 
Its power can be unleashed by simply 
pointing and clicking with your 
mouse or joystick. With icons and 
pull down menus, you control CoCo 
Max intuitively; it works the same way 
you think. 

Don't be misled by this apparent 
simplicity. CoCo Max has more power 
than you thought possible. Its blinding 
speed will astound you. 
It lets you work on an area 3,5 times 
the size of the window on the screen, 
it's so friendly that you will easily 
recover from mistakes: The undo 
feature lets you revert to your image 
prior to the mistake. As usual, it only 
takes a single click. 
Later, we will tell you about the 
"typesetting" capabilities of CoCo 
Max II, but first let's glance at a few of % 
its graphic creation tools: 



With the pencil you can draw free 
hand lines, then use the eraser to 
make corrections or changes. For 
straight lines, the convenient rubber- 
banding lets you preview your lines 
before they are fixed on your picture. 
It's fun and accurate. Lines can be of 
any width and made of any color or 
texture. 

The paint brush, with its 32 
selectable brush shapes, will adapt 
any job, and make complicated 
graphics or calligraphy simple. 
For special effects, the spray can is 
really fun: 86 standard colors and 
textures, all available at a click. It's 
like the real thing except the paint 
doesn't drip. 

CoCo Max will instantly create many 
shapes: circles, squares, rectangles 
(with or without rounded corners), 
ellipses, etc. Shapes can be filled with 
any pattern. You can also add 
hundreds of custom patterns to the 
86 which are included. 
The Glyphlcs are 58 small drawings 
(symbols, faces, etc.) that can be used 
as rubber stamps. They're really great 
for enhancing your work without effort. 



There is so much more to say, such as 
the capability to use CoCo Max 
images with your BASIC programs, 
the possibility to use CoCo Max's 
magic on any standard binary image 
file. There are also many advanced 
features such as the incredible lasso. 





If I a 1 1 Gnodift t on I xtuir 




1 — I UlttBKXKG.-: 

I — ■■■■■ *2Sikb*:vW 



Pulldown menus 



Zoom In I 



Control Over Your Work 

CoCo Max's advanced "tools" let you 
take any part of the screen, (text or 
picture) and perform many feats: 
• You can move it around • Copy 
it •Shrink or enlarge it in both 
directions • Save it on the electronic 
Clipbook • Flip it vertically or 
horizontally • Rotate it • Invert 
it • Clear it, etc. etc. 
All this is done instantly, and you can 
always undo it if you don't like the 
results. 

For detail work, the fat bits (zoom) 
feature is great, giving you easy 
control over each pixel. ' 
To top it all, CoCo Max II works in 
color, imagine the pictures in this ad 
in color. If you own a Radio Shack 
CGP-220 or CGP-1 15, you can even 
print your work in full color I 



Inside the Hi-Res Input Pack 

Why a Hi-Res Input Pack ? 

Did you know that the CoCo joystick 
input port can only access 4096 
positions (64x64)? That's less than 
1 0% of the Hi-Res screen, which has 
491 52 points! (256x1 92). You lose 
90% of the potential. The Hi-Res Input 
Pack distinguishes each of the 491 52 
distinct joystick or mouse positions. 
That's the key to CoCo Max's power. 
The pack plugs into the rom slot (like 
*a rom cartridge). Inside the pack is a 
high speed multichannel analog to 
digital converter. Your existing 
joystick or mouse simply plugs into 
the back of the Hi-Res Pack. 

Electronic Typesetting... 

You'll be impressed with CoCo Max's 
capability. Text can be added and 
moved around anywhere on the 
picture, (You can also rotate, invert 
and flip it...) At a click, you can choose 
from 1 4 built in fonts each with 1 6 
variations. That's over 200 typestyles I 




Examples of printouts 



Printing Your Creations 

There are a dozen ways to print your 
work. All are available with a click of 
your joystick (or mouse) without 
exiting CoCo Max. Your CoCo Max 
disk includes drivers for over 30 
printers ! 



All the CoCo Max pictures are un retouched screen shots or printouts (Epson RX-80) 





The whole family will enjoy 
CoCo Max. Here are a few 
examples of the possibilities. 

All these pictures are unretouched screen photos 
or printouts (on an Epson RX-80). 



jettison lUport 



no mfljoH ii ews today 

Reporters Desperate ™ 

"T&ty »l»»ri iir Xo n»»i 
it |3o4 mti bui hack 1 I 
could tost ay jofc if ,oat- 
ttifif do«tn I h.pptn quick 1 ' 
S.porior I.rl Schtaidt it t 
fcjrtd *RJ unh.ppy ca.n 
"1 ruiir dom cart Thtt io) 
>imki Mothinf «y,r hieeini 
•round hert " jin Schmi' 
Sihuidi t )1 fur ol) nttl't 
or ihe cny fcti ofl.n coat 
is ro lb, nt.it.otr offic, 
Tiihoui • <in|lt fiory Bui 
till j Ti#i ii difr.r.m 1C- 
sofiiai to Schaidi i to cob- 
tidifH coaaniini t trie, 
nytoir iusi 10 brook th« 
oaidrumi bur I con 1 think 
of onyhini otvivortlir tk»t 
rouldn ' («i at in trouble 
rittor Iia Jtnuon rho*j 
Istut lycfuhy (or the an- 
Ucfcy cre» Vhtn I *«t * 
rtoorttr ve ittytr ht<J ihi> 
probitE I ihtnk ihete (uyt 
ire the l.ritit bunch of bust 
1 v, »y». t..n Miior Itniton 




Wbg is this Udg SmUinn? 

Lou Schvtri: of SI? C 6th St 
vol mforo.d sondty Ihtt 
■h« htd von {10 40, the fU»« 
Svt.pfl.kti Ste yt|e l- 




Life in the fast lana not all 
it's cracked up to ba 

So 1 You ihiak you »tni 10 
|0 into foae fttaoroui field 
Itkt Tettviston ?r N.vipiporJ 
You think you too would 
like to brint in the bit bu<k> 

• no rub noiei vith the :tieb- 
nli«»> Veil (cr(ti 11 Sutintni 

• ntvto.ptr jojni: like fun 
! knsv but btfore vou 10 off 
hsir- :ocked »r,c ittrt vour 
ovn ftper or tav » ! t 
tttnon listen ti ihe voice or 
r titer) 

!■ nkes o lot of money to 
run * nevspiptr For titai'lt 
I'irtmt even • ptfer 
could :o?t over in 930 Beer 




AMERICAN 



SCHNOIO 



CORP! 



1985 



PROFIT _} 

2'4 




Pulley 




Table 



RECORDING 



SPRING 
MASSES BAIANCE 



©Business graphs, charts, 
diagrams. Also memos 



TIMER: / \ 

CART 



Iran I 
stimulating creativity. 



Q Fun tor children while 



O 



Publish a newsletter 
or bulletin & 



COCO MAI 



COCO MOH 
COCO NOM 



CoCo Atax CoCo flax 
CoCo Man CoCo rtax 

coc.M« CoCoAtax 

mm& CoCo Max 
E°E° !E ax OqOo 

f oc : m i x Mb 1 

€sU max ™rl 




Junior's homework 
and science projects. 
Term papers too I 




Video portrait 
(with optional 'digitizer). 




© T/i/s /$ a cartoon. 



I CoCo max ffite 
'CoCo max 
CoCo Max ®^ 

coco Max mmmm 

Over 200 typestytes to 
ftj choose from! 
generate flyers. 



M 1 






A new way to express 
your imagination. 





CcCoftaxTL 




CoCo Max II 



schematics 
and floor plans 




Logos and letterheads. 



System Requirements: 

Any 64K CoCo and a standard joystick or 
mouse. (The koala pad and the track ball work, 
but are not recommended.) 
Disk systems need a Multi-Pak or our Y-Cable. 
CoCo Max is compatible with any Radio Shack 
DOS and ADOS. 

Note: the tape version of CoCo Max includes 
almost all the features of CoCo Max II except 
Shrink, Stretch, Rotate, and Glyphics. Also, it 
has 5 fonts instead of 1 4. 
CoCo Max is not compatible with JDOS. 
DoubleDOS, MDOS, OS-9, the X-pad, and 
Daisy Wheel Printers. 

Printers Supported: 

Epson MX, RX, FX and LX series, Gemini, Star, 
Micronix, Delta 1 0, 1 0X, 1 5, 1 5X, SG- 
10,Okidata 82A, 92, 93, C. Itoh Pro-writer, 
Apple Image-writer, Hewlett-Packard Thinkjet, 
Radio Shack DMP 100, 105, 110, 120, 200, 
400, 500, Line Printer 7, Line Printers, TRP- 
100, CGP-220. (DMP-130 use Line Printer 8), 
PMC printers, Gorilla Banana. 
Color printing: CGP-200, CGP-1 15 



Pricing 



CoCo Max on tape $69.95 

with Hi-Res Pack and manual. 

CoCo Max If (disk only)..,,.,.. . , $79.95 

with Hi-Res Pack and manual 

Upgrade: CoCo Max to CoCo Max II 

New disk and manual. i* «.$ 1 9*95 

New features of CoCo Max II: 1 4 fonts and glyphic 
font, dynamic shrink and stretch, rotate, multiple drive 
capability, 68 page scrapbook, point and click file 
load, color printer drivers, full error reporting. 

Upgrade: CoCo Max tape to disk 

manuals, disk and binder $24.95 

Y-Cable: Special Price. . ....... . . $19.95 

Super Picture Disks #1 , #2 t and #3 

each: $14.95 

All three picture disks , , $29.95 

Guaranteed Satisfaction 

Use CoCo Max for a full month. 
If you are not delighted with it, 
we will refund every penny* 



Font Editor Option 

A font is a set of characters of a 
particular style. CoCo Max includes 
1 5 fonts. You can create new fonts of 
letters, or even symbols or graphics 
with the font editor. Examples: set of 
symbols for electronics, foreign 
alphabets, etc ,,,,,, , . ... $1 9.95 



Video Digitizer DS-69 

This new Low Cost Digitizer is the 
next step in sophistication for your 
CoCo Max system. With the DS-69 ' 
you will be able to digitize and bring 
into CoCo Max a frame from any video 
source: VCR, tuner, or video camera. 
Comes complete with detailed 
manual and C-SEE software on disk. 
Multi-Pak is required. 

New Low Price Save $50 $99.95 

New: faster DS-69A. . .. $149.95 



Colorware Incorporated 
COLORWARE ™-04A Jamaica Avenue 

Woodhaven, NY 11421 



800 221-0916 

Orders only. 

NY & Info: (71 8) 296-591 6 
Hours: 9-5 Eastern time. 



Add S3. 00 per order tor shipping. 
We accept Visa, MC, checks, M.O. 
C. Q. D. add S3. 00 extra. ltlvvvV | 
NYandCT: add safes tax. jpj " 
Shipping to Canada is SS.00 
Overseas, FPO, APO add 10% 



— 



to OS-9, the miihc as Iniz wl of the 
procedure file nipproach. The ihird and 
fourth lines define the variable types to 
be used in the program (a requirement 
of HASic W. The tilth line is a DRTR 
statement containing the command 
sequence that crcsilcs the window. The 
sixth line it pens a path allowing BASIC 
to eommuniease with window two, The 
seventh, eighth, ninth and i()th lines are 
a FOR'NEXT loop, reading data from the 
DRTR stale i ne n I and sending it through 
the path to window (wo. The 1 1th line 
creates a shell on window two. The 12th 
line ends the program, The 13th and 
1 4th lines exit the BASK 09 editor and 
run the piny La in. 

rutting Windows to Work 

It is important to realize that even 
though a vvinduvv is not seleeted for 
keyboard inpui. the program on it is still 
running. To ilhi^nue, let's put the two 
windows we have created to work. We 
will make window one (wl ) a clock that 
displays date and lime continuously. 
Then, on uuulow two (w2) we'll illus- 
trate another windowing concept. 

Press the ( I ! AR key on the keyboard 
until the cursor appears on wl. Then 
from the basici^B: prompt, type: 

J 

l< i 1 I u indoui2 
e c J qcI< 

dim i lme: b i. r i ng 

print. chr$( 12) 

10 if daleti-time then goto 10 
e J se 

Lime-dat e?S 
print chr$( 1 ) 
pr i nt t i me 
end i f 
goto 1 0 

q 

run 

A bask (W program called (lock is 
now running on w I , displaying the time. 
Now press the CM AK key. Notice that 
I he cursor moved to w2, but the clock 
nnnirijun on wl is still running. This is 
nil example of how multi-tasking, 
multi-user and, of course, windowing 
really shine. W2 is now available to 
write another program, run a game, or 
whatever, while wl continues to run the 
clock! Another pins from the OS-9: 
prompt on w2, type: 

Now you have both wl and w2 avail- 
able for BASK programs, but the real 
plus is both wl and w2 share the same 

24 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



copy of BASK 09. No need for a second 
copy. The design of OS-9 allows pro- 
grams to be re-entrant, essentially 
meaning that the same program can be 
used by more than one person at the 
same time, providing big savings in 
memory. 

The Overlay Window 

The windowing system provides a 
second type of window, the overlay 
window, which does what the name 
suggests. An overlay window overlays 
an existing device window (windows w 1 
and w2 that we previously created are 
device windows). Overlay windows are 
useful when an application needs to 
prompt the user for input, display menu 
selections, announce messages and so 
forth, because they can be designed to 
really attract the user's attention. 

Creating an overlay window is rela- 
tively simple. So while our clock is 
running on wl, we will use BASlcoy on 
w2 to create our first overlay window. 

From the BASIUW B: prompt on w2, 
type: ^ j 

e overlay 

dim count : in teger 
dim command , pa th : by te 
data 27,34,1,2,2,12,4,0,7 

open 8pa th , 'V w 2 " r : ur i te 

for count = l to 9 

read command 

put ttpa th , command 

next count 

print * this is an" 

print " overlay" 

print * window" 

10 goto 10 

end 

q 

run 

The program creates an overlay win- 
dow on window two with the message 
thLs is an overlay window. The 
program is similar to the window two 
program we wrote earlier. However, the 
data in the DRTR sequence contains nine 
bytes. The first two bytes are the create 
an overlay window command. T he third 
byte tells OS-9 to save the area under 
the overlay window, and restore it after 
we are finished with it (we will see this 
in a moment). The fourth and fifth bytes 
are the 'X 1 and "Y* location of the upper 
left- hand corner of the overlay window 
in relation to the device window (w2). 
The sixth and seventh bytes are the 
and k Y' size of the overlay window. The 
eighth and ninth byt es are the lore- 
ground and background colors respec- 
tively. 



Notice in the basic program, Line 10 
calls itself. This was to stop the program 
before the END statement was encoun- 
tered. Now press the BRJ-AK key. The 
program is stopped, but all output to 
window two is still appearing within the 
overlay window. For example, let's list 
the overlay window program using the 
BASK09 list function. From the B: 
prompt type: 

list ouer I ay 

The overlay window program is listed 
in the overlay window. When you create 
an overlay window, all subsequent 
output to the device window containing 
the overlay window will appear in the 
overlay window. The overlay window 
must be turned off with the turn off 
overlay window command. To send the 
turn off command from BASlt'09 at the 
B: prompt, type: 

$displaylb23 

Notice that OS-9 restored the original 
image that was under the overlay win- 
dow. This is because in the create an 
overlay window command we told OS- 
9 to save the area under the overlay 
window by setting the third byte of the 
command sequence to a value of one. 
If you set this value to zero, OS-9 will 
not save the area under the overlay 
window, and thus will not restore the 
area when the overlay window is turned 
off. 

Implications 

Imagine using your Color Computer 
3 as a home security system, and at the 
same time typing a letter to a friend or 
business associate. Meanwhile a large c 
language program is compiling, and a 
telecom program is downloading the 
latest stock quotes from an online 
information service, all at the same 
time, all on the same screen, and all 
without ever having to disable the home 
security system. 

Sound impossible? The Tandy Color 
Computer 3 teamed with Micro ware's 
Level I! OS-9 and the Windowing 
System is designed for easy implemen- 
tation of just such an environment. As 
we have illustrated, it is not just a fancy 
display package, it is a powerful tool for 
both user and programmer, providing 
the real benefits of a multi-tasking/ 
multi-user operating system in a 
manner that doesn't require an assem- 
bly language applications programmer 
to implement. /E\ 




What will you do with it ? 





An A- BUS system with 2 Motherboards and 9 Cards. 




SHEILA wanted to set up a variety of experi- 
ments in her lab. With an A-BUS, the computer 
can watch the mice instead of Sheila. 
HARRY has a model railroad layout that he wished 
to automate. Now his home computer controls the engine^ 
gates, signals, etc. through the A-BUS. 

BOB tests electrical fixtures as they leave the assembly line. H_ 
develops test equipment quickly with inexpensive, off-the-shelf, 
and easy to use A-BUS cards. 

But what's an A-BUS ? It's the easiest way to connect a variety of 
cards that sense and control anything outside the computer. With 
the A-BUS, your CoCo becomes an incredible machine. 
What would I need? First, an A-BUS Adapter to convert your 
computer bus to the A-BUS standard. Then a Cable (with one or two 
slots) to connect one or two A-BUS Cards. If you need more than 
two cards, the cable will be connected instead to the A-BUS 
Motherboard, which has five slots. Up to five motherboards can be 
chained. Finally, add you choice of A-BUS Cards tofit your project. 
I'm not an engineer. Can I use the A-BUS ? If you can wire a 
switch, you can use the A-BUS. No computer hardware knowledge 
is needed ! A screwdriver is all you need for many projects. 
What about software? Simple PEEK and POKE commands con- 
trol the whole system, whether you read the time on the clock, 
switch the relays, take a temperature reading, or turn a motor. 
What if I change computers ? Incredibly, this is as simple as 
replacing the inexpensive adapter card. 



A-BUS Adapters 



CoCo to A-BUS Adapter AR-1 38: $49 

Works with ail CoCo's. Plugs into rom slot or Muitipak. 
Disk systems without Muitipak need Y-cable ($19.95) 

A-BUS adapter for. AApple II, II+, lie. AR-1 34...S49 
IBM PC, XT, AT and all compatibles. 
TRS-80 Models 1 00, 200. 
TRS-80 Mod 3,4,4D. Fits 50 pin I/O bus. 
TRS-80 Model 4 P. Includes extracable. 
TRS-80 Model I. Plugs into40 pin I/O bus 



AR-1 33... $69 
AR-135...S69 
AR-1 32. ..$49 
AR-137...$62 
AR-1 31. ..$39 




A-BUS Motherboard mb-1 20: $99 

Will accomodate five A-BUS cards. A sixth connector 
allows a second motherboard to be added to the first 
(with connecting cable CA-161 ...$1 2). Up to five 
motherboards can be joined this way to a single 
adapter. The motherboard is mounted on a sturdy 
aluminum frame with card guides. 

A-BUS Cable (3 ft.) ca-163: $29 

Connects Adapter to 1 A-BUS card or Motherboard. 
Special Cable fortwo A-BUS cards CA-162...$39 

Relay Card re-140:$129 

8 industrial relays on board. Contacts are rated at 3 
amps. You can control up to 64 cards (512 relays) 
using several motherboards. Jumpers are used to 
simply select the card address. The card is easily 
controlled in BASIC with "OUT* or "POKE". For 
example, OUT 1 ,0 turns all the relays off on card # 1 . 
Eight LED's show which relays are on. 

Digital Input Card in-141: $49 

Ifs safe and easy to connect and read switches, 
keypads, thermostats, alarm loops, etc. The eight 
inputs can monitor the presence of voltage or switch 
position. Simple INP or PEEK commands read the 
status (On or Off) of the inputs. Each input is optically 
isolated for convenience and safety. 

Analog Input Card AD-142:$119 

With this 8 bit, 8 channel A/D converter, your comp- 
uter can read voltages, temperatures, pressures, 
light levels, etc. Take over 1 00 readings per second 
in BASIC (several thousand with machine language). 
It's simple to use, for example: OUT 1,3 selects 
channel #3, then A=INP(1 ) reads the voltageon that 
channel. Input range: 0 to 5.1V. Resolution: 20mV. 
Conversion time 1 20us. 

Prototyping Card pr-1 52: $1 5 

Protocard is 3 1 /2 by 4Vfc In. and accepts up to 1 0 IC's. 





1 2 Bit A/D Converter an-1 46:$1 09 

This high performance analog to digital converter 
features accuracy to 0.025%, 130ms conversion 
time, sign and over range indication. The basic input 
range is —5 to +5 volts, with 1.2mV resolution, but 
the gain of the on-board amplifier can be set to 
measure microvolts. Ideal for a strain gauge, thermo- 
couple, pH meter, etc. 

Motor Controller st-143:$69 

Stepper Motors are the ultimate in motion control. 
The special package (below) includes everything 
you need to get familiar with stepper motors: Each 
controller card drives two stepper motors (1 2V, 
bidirectional, 4 phase). 

Motor 48 steps/revolution, 300 steps/second, W 
shaft: MO-103...S15. Power supply: PS-126...$10 
Special Package: the controller card, two stepper 
motors, and power supply: PA-1 81 ...$99 

Clock with Alarm CL-144:$89 

Ifs the most powerful clock/calendar available. The 
features: • 5 second/month accuracy. • Keeps 
time, date, and alarm for 5 years (even with computer 
off). • Can time events down to 1/100 second. 

• Periodic "chime". • Full time and date alarm. 

• Four alarm outputs: Computer, LED, Buzier, and 
Reed Relay. • Easy to use,: for example H=INP(1) 
reads the hours, Y=INP(6) reads the year, etc. 




Latest Developments 

Voice Synthesizer 

1 5 Bit Analog to Digital Converter 

Intelligent Stepper Motor Controller 

Digital to Analog Converter 

LCD Display (one and two line) 

Touch Tone® Decoder 

Counter Timer 

24 Line TTL Input/Output 



VS-1 53 
AD-155 
ST-154 
DA-1 47 
LD-151 
PH-145 
CT-154 
DT-148 



— i n m 



£S ine 800 221-0916 

Info and NY orders: (71 8) 296-591 6 
Technical info: (203) 656*1806 

All lines open weekdays 9 to 5 NY time. 



Add $3.00 per order tor shipping. 
We accept Visa. MC, checks, M.O. 
CO D add $3.00 extra. 
N.Y. residents add sales tax. 
Shipping to Canada is $5.00 
Overseas, FPO, APOadd 10% 



COLORWARE 



Colorware Inc 
79-04 Jamaica Ave 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 



COMMENTARY 



Aft 





1 










J 


El 








J i 


J LJ jWtt 





























HI 



By 

Steve 
Bjork 





ile I was writing this article 
ibout the new Color Compu- 
ter 3, 1 realized that the CoCo 
has been the same basic computer for 
over six years! In this day of ever- 
changing computers, that's a long time. 
True, Tandy repackaged our lovable 
little CoCo (called the Color Computer 
2), but with no real hardware or soft- 
ware changes. 

Programmers have learned how to 
push the Color Computer to its outer 
limits. But with the old CoCo hardware, 
we just can't break any new ground. 
That's why Tandy is introducing the 
Color Computer 3. 



Steve Bjork has been a programmer for 
over 15 years. In his association with 
Datasoft he has authored such pro- 
grams as Zaxxon, Sands of Egypt and 
Mega-Bug. He now handles product 
development for his own company, 
SRB Software, He is one of the people 
chosen by Tandy to write programs for 
the new Color Computer 3, 



The new Color Computer 3 is on the 
cutting edge of technology. The power 
of Color Computer 3 is gained by using 
a new custom chip called the GIME 
(Graphics Interrupt Memory Enhance- 
ment) in place of the older SAM and 
VDG chips. This new chip allows up to 
512K of memory controlled by a Mem- 
ory Management Unit (MMU for 
short), and a 640 by 225 super Hi-Res 
graphics screen at twice the old Color 
Computer speed. Using the analog 
RGB monitor, 225 scan lines are the; 
maximum supported; however, new 
software must be written to take advan- 
tage of it. Radio Shack only supports 
192 scan lines for use with TV viewing 
devices. Not bad for one chip! 

But how can these hardware changes 
help the programmer? Take a look at 
graphics game called Marble Maze, 
Before, it was just a little too slow. But 
with twice the speed on the new CoCo, 
it is at the right pace and I am having 
a grand old time playing it! Soon we will 
see programs on this new computer that 
would have been too slow before. 



The new text display modes are going 
to be a real help to programmers. 
Before, the text screen had only 16 lines 
of 32 characters each and no true low- 
ercase. On the CoCo 3 the text display 
mode has 24 lines and up to 80 charac- 
ters per line. Not only has lowercase 
been added, but also underlining and 
blinking attributes , for each character 
on the screen. Because this is a color 
computer, the attributes also include 
eight foreground colors and eight back- 
ground colors for each character. 

With these additions, it is very easy 
to write a word processor that not only 
shows more of the text, but also shows 
any spelling errors by highlighting them 
in red lettering. 

For a graphics programmer, the new 
graphic modes of the Color Computer 
3 are a dream come true. Not only do 
we have about four times the dot reso- 
lution, but up to 16 colors on the screen 
at one time. On the ofd Color Computer 
there was a maximum of four colors 
with the colors never changing in that 
mode. The Color Computer 3 has up to 
16 colors per screen with 64 colors to 
choose from. When a dot is placed on 
the screen only the color register (or 
palette) is selected. The color register 
holds the true color to be displayed. If 
a programmer wants to change all the 
red on the screen to yellow, all he needs 
to do is change that palette from the red 
to the yellow color code. 

Let's use a picture of the New York 
sky line at day for example. By changing 
a few color registers this daytime scene 
slowly changes to one of dusk, then to 
a nightime scene with twinkling stars. 
All of this done by a BASIC program 
using the palette command! 

One problem with a higher resolution 
display mode is it can take up to 32K 
of memory to display one screen. In just 
using two graphics screens all 64K of 
memory the 6809 can address would be 
used up. This is where the Memory 
Management Unit comes into play. 
Only one graphics screen needs to be 
addressed by the 6809 at one time, so 
the MMU is programmed to select one 
screen and place it in the 6809 address 
range. 

The new BASIC: ROM in the Color 
Computer 3 takes this one step further. 
The new higher resolution display 
modes do not use any of the basic 
program space as did the older Color 
Computer's graphics modes. This gives 



26 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



the BASIC programmer about 27K of 
memory (after doing a PCLEAR 1) for 
programs and variables, while still using 
a maximum size graphics screen of 32K! 

A Programmer's Dream: OS-9 
on the Color Computer 3 

Tandy did not stop at hardware when 
they were improving the Color Compu- 
ter; it takes software to run any compu- 
ter. A more powerful and upward com- 
patible version of OS-9 called Level II 
is the real key to the power of the Color 
Computer 3, This OS-9 Level II is able 
to give each program up to 63. 5 It of 
memory to work in. That is a lot work- 
space on a 512K system! On the old 
Color Computer there was only 35K to 
40K to work with. 

With OS-9 being a multi-tasking/ 



multi-user operating system it would be 
kind of nice to use one screen -lor 
compiling a program while using 
another for editing a different program. 
By adding the Multi-View windowing 
system, it is as easy as pressing the 
CLEAR key to move from window to 
window. In one window you could be 
editing a program, then in the next 
window be running a test version of the 
program, and have all debug data in yet 
another window. 

Each window can be in textor graph- 
ics modes and can take up all or only 
part of each screen. You can even put 
several windows on the same screen as 
long as they don't overlap. 

If that is not enough to get a pro- 
grammer drooling, there is a full point- 
and-click interface with drop-down 



menus built into the Multi-View pack- 
age. A full set of graphics drawing 
commands like LINE, BOX, FILL, CIR 
CLE, EL IPSE and GET/PUT buffers are 
included to round out the package. 

The Multi-View package holds most 
of what a programmer needs to do 
programs like the CoCo Max, As a 
matter of fact, this package already has 
about 80 percent of the code that Tim 
used in that landmark program for the 
older Color Computers. It will not be 
long before we see many top of the line 
drawing programs under OS-9. 

This is one programmer's view of the 
Color Computer 3. It has a lot of what 
we've been asking Tandy for in the way 
of power. So, I better get back to work; 
I have a few programs to develop that 
will knock your socks off! /£\ 



What's an Analog RGB Monitor Anyway? 

By Ed Ellers 



The Color Computer has had an RF 
output ever since its inception way back 
in 1980. This means the CoCo can be 
used with a standard TV set instead of a special 
monitor, and also that the display quality is 
affected by the limitations of TV (which were 
never intended for computer displays anyway). 
Many CoCo buyers have added video output 
jacks to their computers in order to use mon- 
itors. 

Now, we have the (Solor Computer 3 4iiid it 
has the same TV jack on the back panel along 
with the Channel 3|4 switch, so it still works 
with home TV sets. Tandy has also added video 
and audio output jacks to allow a factory- 
approved connection to a monitor (or to a 
VCR). It sounds like the answer to a bleary-eyed 
hacker's dream but wait! On the bottom 
there's a strange seven-pin socket. What for? It 
turns out that Tandy has introduced a new 13- 
inch analog RGB monitor — the CM-8 — that 
displays the CoCo 3's text and graphics much 
more clearly than a composite monitor can. 

RF Output 

The R F output is the TO TvouLpuL LMt feeds 
into your TV set on Channel 3 or 4; the signal 
is much the same as what you would receive 
from a broadcast station or cable. The problem 
with this isn't so much that the RF modulator 
inside the computer is distorting the signal, but 
that the tuner and especially the IF amplifier in 
most TV sets do terrible things to the incoming 
signal in the process of changing it back into raw 
video. If you were to use an oscilloscope to look 
at the signal going into the video amplifier stages 
of your TV set and compare this with what goes 
into the modulator of your CoCo, you'd be 
surprised that the picture you see looks as good 
as it does. 

Many newer TV sets have improved circuitry 
that gives a flatter frequency response and 
causes less signal distortion, but using an RF 
hookup is still a roundabout way to do it and 
far from ideal. That's why the more expensive 
color TV sets nowadays have video input jacks 
for better pictures from VCRs, videodisc players 



and satellite receivers; more to the point, it's also 
why many CoCo users have ignored the RF 
output in search of something better. 

Composite Video 

Composite video is the output from a TV 
camera or from the VIDEO OUT jack on a 
VCR; it's also what you get from a monitor 
adapter board for a CoCo, and from the video 
output on the CoCo 3. Composite means the 
signal includes horizontal and vertical syn- 
chronizing pulses and blanking pulses as well as 
video; it's the same as the signal that goes into 
the RF modulator in the CoCo (or into the TV 
station's transmitter). In black and white, a 
composite signal carries a lot more detail than 
an RF signal does, and with a good mono- 
chrome monitor (which can be black and white^ 
but is more often green or amber) you get very 
clear text and graphics. 

However, a composite color signal has many 
of the same problems that the RF method had. 
To squeeze three colors, which logically would 
take up as much space as three black and white 
signals, into the space of one TV channel and 
still have a useful black and white picture at the 
same time, color TV systems create a black and 
white signal from the three colors and then 
create a subcarrier to carry the added color 
information. The subcarrier can't handle as 
much detail as is present in the monochrome 
"luminance" signal; this works out reasonably 
well for regular TV viewing, but definitely 
doesn't when you're looking at Hi-Res graphics 
at close range. 

There are also various imperfections in the 
process of separating the subcarrier from the 
luminance signal (we'll get to one of them later). 
With the Color Computer 3 there's a better way. 

Analog RGB 

RGB simply stands for red, green and blue, 
the three primary colors of color TV and 
computer displays. This method involves send- 
ing each color signal to the monitor over its own 
wire in the monitor cable. The signals are never 
mixed together, so there's no problem In 



separating them, and since the signals are only 
traveling a few feet there's no problem with band 
width. 

This is the ideal way to display color graphics, 
but you do need the red, green and blue signals 
coming from the computer and a monitor that 
can handle them. The output is taken care of by 
the new GIME chip in the CoCo 3; the monitor 
is Tandy's new CM-8, which, at $299, is quite 
a bit less expensive than the analog RGB 
monitors sold for use with Commodore's Amiga 
and the Atari ST series computers. 

"Analog" means the voltage fed to the mon- 
itor varies with the signal level for each color. 
In a digital RGB monitor, such as the ones used 
with the Tandy 1000 and the IBM PC, the red, 
green and blue signals simply go on and off. A 
digital RGB monitor generally only shows 
sixteen colors with four signal lines; the colors 
available with analog RGB monitors are limited 
only by the computer. 

The CoCo 3 and the CM-8 monitor provide 
the best picture quality the CoCo has ever had 

and this benefit is realized even with existing 
CoCo programs running on the CoCo 3. Com- 
paring the CM-8 with what you get on a normal 
TV is like comparing night to day. However, 
there are some minor idiosyncracies in the CoCo 
3's RGB output. One is the lack of artifact colors 
in PMODE A graphics intended to run on previous 
CoCos. These red and blue colors were caused 
by the dots in the display being misinterpreted 
by the TV or monitor's color circuits; this 
confusion just doesnt happen with RGB dis- 
plays, so the dot patterns are now seen as dots 
instead of colors. 

Also, for some reason the colors that the 
CoCo 3 provides are seen differently on the 
RGB monitor than they are On TV sets and 
composite monitors. Because of this, Extended 
BASIC includes the PALETTE RGB and PRLETTE 
CMP (composite) commands that can be used to 
switch from one mode to the other. (The pictures 
of CoCo 3 graphics shown in this issue were 
taken from the CM-8 monitor, but the program 
was configured for composite monitors.) 

The CM-8 monitor shows all the high-quality 
text and graphics the Color Computer 3 is 
capable of providing. However, those who want 
to use color composite monitors or TV sets with 
the new computer can do so, just as they did with 
previous CoCos. The CM-8 monitor can be 
added at any time. /^\ 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 27 



□ISTD 



SUPER CONTROLLER 



RAINBOW 




55 




A. 



A. >S 



LA 



ILY $99.95 



A 



A 

i.A 



4 



;<« ..Cn<; 



IJJ"" ' 




i H 



WD1773-PH 
00-01 8522 



FEATURES: ^p. ^ 

• Gold cEjntaGts oia all connectors. 

• Shielded metal box for low RF notee. 

• 4 28-pin sockets tor software eipandeblllty. 

• Uses 2764 orZ7128 EPROMS, 

• EPROMS are software selectable 

• Internal Mini Expansion Bus interface tor; 
^^80 Columns 



RTIMF 



^Pk Sn 



4 



- Real Time Clock ai 

- Parallel Primer or 



ock and/or 



- EPfiDfYt Programmer or 

- User Projects. ^^Al 
Complete Radto Shack compatibility. 
New lechrKilogy, no adjustments needed. 
Very Accurate 1 Bmhz High Speed Master Clock. 



* Very 
■■ 



■rib 1 <^ 

[s needed. \ ^\ 
;(| Master Clock.^r \ 

all COCOs or COCO Hs, ^£ 



RTIME 

The second is a Real Time Cluck. This is a clock chip that will 
keep the proper time, date and year. A small battery keeps the 
time when the Computer is off, retreive and set Ihe time by using 
simple Basic POKES. Also available with the Real Time Clock 
is the optional Centronics Compatible Parallel Printer adapter, 
Software to set the clock and printer driver included. 

MPR OM , A ^^^X.^ 



MPROM _ 
The third is a Mini EPROM Programme Yes, a low cost 
programmer that attaches to the disk controller. A must foi the 
DISTO Super Controller. Program thoM often used utilities 
into EPROM and plug them directly inteyour controller. Will 
program 2764 s or 27128 s, a perfect mate for the OtSTO Supei 



Controller. 
DISPLAY80 



is a 



• Needs i 5 volts only, works on all COCOs or COCO Us . 
EXPANSION ADD-ONS: 

Ttiere are currently lour add-ons available from DiSTO for 
this sonl roller; ~4 



The fourth is a real knack-out This is a three in one card. If: 
major function is to add an Q0 != 24 display to your computer. 
A leal Lire packed package also includes HTtME and PPRINT. 



All in one neat package that fits inside the controller. 
0S9 software available. Call for more information. 



TT""I« I 

The first is a Centronics Compatible Parallel Printer adapter. 
This adapter will allow you to connect a Centronics compatible 
printer diredly to your controller, leaving the serial pert ot your 
computer tree for your modem. Printer driver software fntlurieii. 



ware available 

CREDITS: X.<^\ 

Tlio DiSTO Super CoMrtiHer, adiJ-mis and all tts documentation are conceived 
and designed by To-ny PtaUtrano The DISTO Super Controller and add-ons are 



information. 



manijf atmred and distributed Irft C. RX. COMPUTER INC 
irtBQfc La [tun esse, Moolreal , Quiih.ec, Canada H3L 2EH 1-51 4-3B3-52S3. 

UI5T0 and CRC Computers are n-gisrensd trade marks. The DISTO Super 
Cnrvirftlipr and add-ons are copywjil^el DISTO. jr 



New Commands Increase 
CoCo 3's Power 



A standing-room-only crowd of about 300 was on hand in the 
Astor Salon of New York's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, July 30, 
for Tandy's unveiling of five new computers, three printers 
and two new software products. 

The announcement we'd been waiting for was the new CoCo 3. 
And, we were assured that with more than a million Color 
Computers out there already, Tandy fully intends to keep supporting 
our favorite machine. When you power up the new CoCo 3, you'll 
witness a whole new ball game! 

The basic in the new machine is Microsoft Extended basic with 
enhancements by Microware. Upon turning the power on, all ROM 
is copied into RAM. This includes the disk controller ROM. This 
means you must have Disk Extended basic 1.0 or 1.1 in your 
controller. It also means that any programs that use the 96K method 
of switching ROMs in and out will not operate correctly on the 
Color Computer 3. 

All this aside, we have had a chance to use the new Color 
Computer for a short period of time and thought you might be 
interested in some of the commands added to the system. 

The new Hi- Res (320 by 192 and 640 by 192) graphics do not use 
up any memory in the basic memory area. They are controlled with 
the following new commands: HBUFF, HCIRCLE, HCLS, HCOLOR, 
HDRAW, HPDINT, HGET, HLINE, HPRINT, HPUT, HRESET, H5CREEN 



and H5ET. Text is allowed on the graphics screens and is controlled 
with HPRINT, HSTflT and LDCRTE. Also, you can select the 32-, 40- 
or 80-column text-screen with NIDTH. 

You may choose from 64 colors on the new Color Computer 3. 
These are selected and manipulated with RTTR, PRLETTE and the 
standard CL5. 

New error trapping as well as break trapping commands are 
present: ON BRK GOTO, ON ERR GOTO, ERLIN and ERNO. 

What we now know as "the 64K" is located in the memory map 
of the Color Computer 3 in locations $70000 to S7FFFF. To access 
other memory locations, the LPOKE and LPEEK commands have been 
added. What this means is that PEEI<(0) returns a value from the 
same memory location as LPEEK ( $70000 ) . LPEEK and LPOKE allow 
us to access memory locations outside the "normal" 64K address 
space. 

Finally, the Color Computer 3 software allows proper reading of 
both buttons on the Radio Shack Deluxe joysticks. The BUTTON 
function can be used to read each of four buttons (two on each of 
the left and right joysticks). 

Keep in mind that these added commands do not replace the 
command set in the existing Extended basic. Rather, they 
complement it and allow for greater control of the Color Computer 
3's new power and capabilities. /R\ 



CoCo Cat 





J8\ 



MicroWorld 



3 



230 Moorestown Rd. Wind Gap, PA 18091 

(215) 759-7662 

Call or write for Price List 

LOW PRICES ON 100% 
Radio Shack Equipment 

(with full warranty) 

New Slimline Drive 0 $235.00 

Slimline Drive 0 & 1 installed $399.00 

Prices subject to change! 
Prices include shipping! 

64K Extended $145.00 

Sakata 13" Monitor $180.00 

With monitor driver $210.00 

Multipack Interface $ 70.00 

DMP-105 $159.00 

DMP-130 $275.00 

Diskettes, any quantity, lifetime warranty $ 1.50 
Tandy 1000 $695.00 

Quantities are limited! 

10% off Computerware 
10% off all Radio Shack Sale Items 
15% off Radio Shack Hardware 
20% off all Radio Shack Software 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 29 



The CoCo 3 is unveiled to a packed house of news media representatives by Tandy Chairman John Roach in the Waldorf- 
Astoria Hotel in New York. 



^ery impressive. This is an excellent, 
important upgrade to the CoCo. It will 
breathe new life into the CoCo Com- 
munity. With the new graphics capabil- 
ity, software developers for rival ma- 

— Jeff Parker 






Lonnie Falk and Micro- 
soft Chairman Bill Gates 
compare notes after the 
news con Terence. 




Tandy's Mark Sie- 
ge! (above left) 
chats with RAIN- 
BOW columnist 
Dale Puckett while 
(left) John Roach 
and Lonnie Falk 
both are pleased 
with media reac- 
tion to CoCo 3, 




Tandy staff (from left) Mark Siegel, Barry Thompson and Tana Grubb listen 
as CoCo 3 makes its debut. 




30 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



"The resolution of the graphics screen is superb 
and the high-quality CM -8 color monitor is 
super! As a professional visual communicator, I 
think the possibilities are unlimited for the prep- 
aration of color transparencies for business pres- 
entations. " 

— Dale Puckett 






Tandy's Mark Yamagata and Lonnie Falk go over CoCo 3 
details. 




"/ am impressed! I ex- 
pected better graphics, 
but not this good; I ex- 
pected more speed, but 
not this fast! I estimate 
the CoCo 3 will beat 
any IBM compatible by 
about 30 percent in exe- 
cution time. " 

— Bruce Warner 



MOTD Editor Bruce Warner, CompuServe's Sandy Trevor and OS-9 Users Group President Brian Lantz 
listen to Tandy's Barry Thompson. 



s 




"An exceptional ma- 
chine and an excep- 
tional value. " 

— Brian Lantz 



"Are We Having Fun Yet?" Mark Siegel, Lonnie Falk and 
Barry Thompson confer minutes before CoCo 3's debut. 



"The speed, ^r£^^^ power 
are stunning!" 

— Bob Rosen 




RAINBOW Managing Editor Jim Reed gets some CoCo 3 "hands on" while Tandy's 
Barry Thompson watches. 



September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 31 








XTERM 

OS-9 Communications program. 



■ Menu oriented 

* Upload/download. Ascii 
or XMODEM protocol 

• Execute OS-9 commands 
from within XTERM 



• Definable macro keys 

• Works with standard serial port, RS232 

PAK, or PBJ 2SP Pack, Includes all driven. 

• Works with standard screen. XSCREEN, or 
WORDPAK 80 column board. 



$49.95 with source $89.95 



XMENU 

Creates a menu driven environment for OS-9. 

Create your own menus " Worics with slandard k™** 

y XSCREEN, WORDPAK, O-PAK 

$29.95 with sourcc$59.95 



XSCREEN 

OS-9 hi-res screen 
• 5 1/64/85 chars per line • Easy menu operation 

$19.95 with source $39.95 



XDIR & XCAL 

Hierarchial directory OS-9 calculator 

• Full sorting • Decimal, Hex, Binary 

- Complete pattern matching • +, -, * /, AND.OR, XOR, NOT 

$24.95 with source $49.95 



XDIS 

OS-9 disassembler 
$34.95 with source $54.95 



XWORD 

OS-9 word processing system 

Works with standard text screen, XSCREEN, WORDPAK, or O-PAK 

True character oriented full screen editing 

Full block commands 

Find and Replace commands 

Execute OS-9 commands from within 

Proportional spacing supported 

Full printer control, character size, emphasized, italics, 

overs trike, underline, super/sub-scripts 

10 header/footers 

Page numbering in decimal or Roman numerals 

Margins and headers can be set different for even and odd pages 

$69.95 withsource$124.95 

XMERGE 

Mail merge capabilities for XWORD 

$24.95 with source $49. 95 



XSPELL 

OS-9 spelling checker, with 20000 and 4 

$39.95 



word dictionaries 



XTRIO 

XWORD/XMERGE/XSPELL 
$114.95 with XWORD/XMERGEsoure«1 99.95 

XED 

OS-9 full screen editor 

$39.95 with source $79.95 







SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

This sales-based accounting package is designed 
for the non-accounting oriented businessman. It 
also contains the flexibility for the accounting ori- 
ented user to set up a double entry journal with an 
almost unlimited chart of accounts. Includes Sales 
Entry, transaction driven Accounts Receivable and 
Accounts Payable, Journal Entry, Payroll Disburse- 
ment, and Record Maintenance programs. System 
outputs include Balance Sheet, Income Statement, 
Customer and Vendor status Reports, Accounts 
Receivable and Payable Aging Reports, Check Reg- 
ister, Sales Reports, Account Status Lists, and a 
Journal Posting list. $79.95 

INVENTORY CONTROL/SALES ANALYSIS 

This module is designed to handle inventory control, 
with user defined product codes, and produce a detailed 
analysis of the business' sales and the sales force. One 
may cVtfci/update inventory data, enter sales, run five 
sales analysis reports, run five inventory reports, set up 
product codes, enter /update salesman records, and 
update the SBAP inventory. $59 95 



PAYROLL 

Designed for maintaining personnel and payroll 
data for up to 200 hourly and salaried employees 
with 8 deductions each. Calculates payroll and tax 
amounts, prints checks and maintains year-to-date 
totals which can be automatically transferred to the 
SBA package. Computes each pay period's totals 
for straight time, overtime and bonus pay and det- 
ermines taxes to be withheld. Additional outputs 
include mailing list, listing of employees, year-to- 
date federal and/or state tax listing, and a listing of 
current misc. deductions. Suited for use in all states 
except Oklahoma and Delaware. $59.95 



These tffdgra^ 

driven* Sample transactions areincluded. Each 
package features a hi-res screen, Each requires 
a primer, a minimurn of i32k and at least 1 disk 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Includes detailed audit trails and history reports 
for each customer, prepares invoices and monthly 
statements, mailing labels, aging lists, and an alpha- 
betized customer listing. The user can define net 
terms for commercial accounts or finance charges 
for revolving accounts. This package functions as a 
standalone A/R system or integrates with the Small 
Business Accounting package. $59 95 



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Designed for the maintenance of vendor and A/P 
invoice files. The system prints checks, voids 
checks, cancels checks, deletes cancelled checks, 
and deletes paid A/P invoices. The user can run a 
Vendor List, Vendor Status report, Vendor Aged 
report, and an A/P Check Register. This package 
can be used either as a standalone A/P system or 
be integrated with the Small Business 



can 



Accounting Package. 



$59.95 




MICROTECH 
CONSULTANTS 

I INI w V st - Paul > W^M^M$BS§ 

P$mkr Jnquiri0M /nvftaf 

: :;j :j: y&S-9 / is iradtmark of Miei 




Ordering Information 

Add $3.00 shipping & handling, MN residents add 6% sales tax. 
Visa, Mastercard, COD (add $2.50), personal checks. 



(612) 633-6161 



lurowmr* 



Washington is counting on you to . . . 






By Rene Camirand 



There has been an explosion on a space station. Twenty 
astronauts have escaped and are floating in the atmos- 
phere. You are the captain of the space ship Entrepise. 
Your orders from Washington are to recover as many men as 
possible. Will you have enough fuel to pick them all up? 

In Salvage of the Astronauts you must land every so often 
to refuel and then return to save more astronauts. There are six 
refueling chances before the game ends. Watch out for the 
mountains! If you get too close, your ship will stop. Every 
astronaut saved earns 10 points. Each fuel landing gets you 100 
points. To speed up the game, change Line 5 to POKE 65495,0. 

(Questions about this program may be directed to the author 
at App.3 5035 Bourbonniere, Montreal, Quebec H1X2M7, 514- 
722-0423. Please enclose an SASE when writing.) □ 

Rene Camirand is an active member of his local Co Co Club. He holds a 
degree in mechanics and electronics, and has received a science exposition 
trophy for excellence. Rene is retired and keeps young by being creative on 
his CoCo. 




September 1986 THE RAINBOW 



Howard Medical Company 

1690 N, Elston Chicago, Illinois 60622 

(312) 278-1440 



® 





WE ACCEPT 




VISA 

MasterCard 
American Express 
COD or Checks 
School P.O.'s 



DC-2 



New Dual Mode EPSON 

The new Epson LX-80 offers printing flexibility in 
two modes: one mode allows you to print in a quick 
(100 cps) dot-matrix style for programming and 
graphics, and the Near Letter Quality mode (16 
cps) produces precise (240 dots per inch), 
beautiful type for correspondence, reports, and 
similar purposes. The LX-80 offers 160 different 
type-style combinations, including Pica, Elite, 
Enlarged, Emphasized, Condensed, Subscripts 
and Superscripts, and type-styles can be selected 
quickly from the top control panel or from program 
control. Comes standard in friction feed; tractor op- 
tion is also available. 

LX-P package includes an LX-80, a serial inter- 
face, a Color Computer to Epson cable, and 
Printer Tutorial that teaches you how to pro- 
gram the different type styles ($29,95 value), 

* LX-P: LX-80 package $317 ($7 shpg) 
ET-1 tractor option for LX-80. $29.50. 

SF-1 Single-sheet feeder for the LX-80. $145 ($7 

shpg) 



Epson 


RX-80 FT repack 


$207. 


Epson 


LX-80 New 


$249. 


Botek 


Serial to parallel converter 


$68.45 


Howard 


CoCo to Epson cable 


$25. 



DM-1 Disk mailer holds from one 
to five diskettes 
200 lb. cardboard construction 
25 mai!ers/box 



$20. 



MONITORS 



123 Zenith 12" Green Screen, 640 dots x 200 dots 
resolution, 15 MHz band width. $114 ($7 shpg) 



123A Zenith 12" Green Screen Special, $67.50 

($7 shpg) 80 Column non glare 



122 Zenith 12" Amber Screen, 640 dots x 200 dots 
resolution, 15 MHz band width. $117 (7 shpg) 

141 Roland 13" Color Monitor with speaker, 
270 dots x 200 dots resolution, 4MHz band width 
$247 ($12 shpg) 

All monitors require video controller. 

Reverse video free with monitor Order. 

MEMORY 

64K Upgrades^-1 Year Warranty 

64-E1 for E Boards with complete instructions. Re- 
move old chips and replace with preassembled 
package— no soldering or trace cuts $28.45 ($2 
shpg) 

64-F1 for F Boards. No soldering needed. Capacitor 

leads must be cut. $24.45 ($2 shpg) 
64-2 for COCO 2. Kit requires one solder point, no 
trace cuts. $24.45 ($2 shpg) 




DD-2 




CONTROLLERS 

New Controller from J&M: Has switch that allows 
either JDOS or RS DOS to be the disk operating 
system; eliminates software compatibility problems, 
while preserving the advantages of J&M's gold con- 
tacts and data separator. Also added to the DC-2 is 
a parallel port, which means a serial interface is no 
longer needed to make a parallel printer (like the 
Epson) work, 

DC-2 Disk Controller with JDOS. $128 ($2 shpg) 
RS-1: RS DOS ROM Chip. $20.00 ($2 shpg) 
DC-1 Disk Controller reads and writes to 35 and 40 
track single and double-sided drives for all models 
of the Color Computer w/ JDOS. $128 ($2 shpg) 
VC-1 Video Interface mounts inside Color Computer 
by piggy-backing !C on top of interface— no solder- 
ing, no trace cuts. All models give composite video 
& sound. $24.45 ($2 shpg) 
VC-2 for COCO 2— mono only $26.45 ($2 shpg) 
VC-3 for COCO 2— both color or monochrome 

$39.45 ($2 shpg) 
VC-4 for new Color Computer (no sockets, chips are 
soldered to mother board), Attaches with spring- 
loaded clips. Color or mono. $39.45 ($2 shpg) 



DD-2 Double sided 360K disk with . 




V* height case & heavy 


$188. 


duty power supply 


GA-1 Disk drive cable 


$24.50 


CA-2 Two drive cable 


$29.60 


DE-1 Disk enclosure !6 height with 




power supply 


$58. 




EPSON AND J&M 

The EJ-P Package 

The Epson LX-80 Printer teamed with our new 
J&M DC-2 Controller gives you top printing 
capabilities plus built-in switch gives JDOS or 
Radio Shack DOS so all software can run on your 
Color Computer. Package includes: Epson LX-80 
Printer with ET-1 tractor; DC-2 controller; 
parallel Color Computers to J&M cable; 
Epson Printer Tutorial ($29.95 value). 

Complete EJ-P package $425.00 ($7 shpg) 



HOWARD QUALITY STANDS 

New TS-1X Mon- 
itor Stand: De- 
signer-beautiful 
stand with clear 
corner posts, 
easy side access 
to ROM port, re- 
set and on/off 
buttons. $39.50 
($3 shpg) 

TS-1: Standard 13" monitor stand for the original Color 
Computer. Specify black, ivory or clear, 15" x11" x4". 
$29.50 ($3 shpg) 

TS-2: Same as above for the COCO 2. $29.50 ($3 
shpg) 

PS-1X Printer Stand features new noise-suppressing 
foam top and cork base. 15" x11" x2Vz". $24.95 ($3 
shpg) 

GUARANTEE 

Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee Is meant to 
eliminate the uncertainty of dealing with a com- 
pany through the mail. Once you receive our 
hardware, try It out; test it for compatibility. If 
you're not happy with it for any reason, return it 
in 30 days and we'll give you your money back, 
(less shipping). 

Hours: 8:00-4:00 Mon.-Fri. 
10:00-3:00 Sat. 



SeFiwara lyalem raqu'rarnonis: CnCn wiih 1 fliak. 32K RAM. BO-flotumn primer 

Add 12 1rjr shipping. 



ORDERS 
(800) 
443- 
1444 



PAYROL/BAS 
39.95 

LEDGER 
free with 
PAYROL/BAS 

STATE TAX 

39.95 

941 

29.95 

CHECKS 



VIP LIBRARY 

S125 



SAP- 1 1 
19.95 
BPA-1 
19.95 



SOFTWARE CORNER 

Automatically calculates FED & PICA and 3 
additional user defined deductions. 
TABLES ARE ALREADY ENTERED. 
Prints checkbook with up to 30 user 
definable ledger numbers a $39/VALUE 

WITH PAYROL/BAS YOU WILL ALSO WANT 
Automatically calculates state withholding 
including graduated taxes, TABLES ALREADY ENTERED 
Prints totals by quarter per employee 
Ideal for Federal 941 and state unemployment 
500 pin-feed checks specify blue green or brown $57.25 
Softlaw's integrated package includes 
VIP Write, terminal, Database, SpeJIerand CALC 
Stock analysis program organizes your portfolio 
and give specific sell & stop-loss points 
Chart your blood pressure from dally readings 
taken in the comfort of your home. 




The Biggest 



The Best 




The Indispensable 



The 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



It's called the premier Color Computer magazine for good 
reason, THE RAINBOW is the biggest, best, brightest and most 
comprehensive publication a happy CoCo ever had! Is there any 
wonder we get letters daily praising THE RAINBOW, the 
magazine one reader calls "A Pot Of- Gold" for his Color 
Computer. 

THE RAINBOW features more programs, more information 
and more in-depth treatment of the Tandy Color Computer than 
any other source. 

A monthly issue contains 260 or more pages and two dozen 
programs, 15 regular columns and as many as 20 product 
reviews. And advertisements: THE RAINBOW is known as the 
medium for advertisers — which means every month it has a 
wealth of information unavailable anywhere else about new 
products! Hundreds of programs are advertised In its pages 
each month. 

But what makes THE RAINBOW is its people. Nationally 
known people like Bill Barden, who has written 27 books on 
computer topics and writes for us each month. Or, Fred Scerbo, 
who writes special programs at the request of readers. Experts 
like Dick White and Joseph Kolar, two of the most knowledge- 
able writers on BASIC. Communicators like Marty Goodman and 
Cray Augsburg, who stay abreast of telecommunications 
advances. Or, Dan Downard, RAINBOW technical editor, who 
answers our readers' toughest questions. Educators like Dr. 
Michael Plog and Steve Blyn, who show how CoCo can be used 
at home or school. Advanced programmers like Dale Puckett, 
who guide you through the sophisticated OS-9 operating 
system. Electronics experts like Tony DiStefano, who explain 
the "insides" of the CoCo. These people, and many others, visit 
you monthly through columns available only in THE RAINBOW. 

Every single issue of THE RAINBOW covers the wide 
spectrum of interests in the Tandy Color Computer — from 
beginners' tutorials and arcade games to telecommunications 
and business and finance programs. Helpful utilities and do-it- 
yourself hardware projects make it easy and fun to expand your 
CoCo's capabilities. And, monthly reviews by independent 
reader reviewers take the guesswork out of buying new software 
and hardware products. 

Join the tens of thousands who have found THE RAINBOW 
to be an absolute necessity for their CoCo, With all this going 
for it, is it surprising that more than 90 percent of THE RAINBOW 
subscribers renew their subscriptions? 

We're willing to bet that, a year from now, you'll be doing the 
same. For more information call (502) 228-4492. Or, for credit 
card orders only, you may call (800) 847-0309. 



C 

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• • • • • • • 




What goes well with 
the Rainbow? 




Rainbow On Tape! 



We call it the other side of THE RAINBOW and we may 
have to raise the price just to call your attention to it. With 
as many as two dozen programs every month, RAINBOW 
ON TAPE is a luxury service at a bargain basement price. 

What is it? RAINBOW ON TAPE is a monthly cassette 
tape adjunct to THE RAINBOW and it's brimming with all 
the programs (those over 20 lines long) that fill the pages 
of the magazine. All you do is pop the cassette in your tape 
recorder and they're ready to run. No more lost weekends 
— or week nights — typing, typing, typing. With RAINBOW 
ON TAPE, you can read the article in the magazine then, 
in seconds, you load it up and run it. Yes, you could type 
them in yourself, as many people do. But all of them? Every 
month? There simply isn't enough time. 

Isn't it time your CoCo became a full-time computer 
instead of a typewriter? Think how your software library 
will grow. With your first year's subscription, you'll get 
almost 250 new programs: games, utilities, business 
programs, home applications — the full spectrum of THE 
RAINBOW'S offerings without the specter of keying in 
page after page and then debugging. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE — the "meat'' of THE RAINBOW at 
a price that's "small potatoes." Food for thought. To get 
your first heaping helping, just fill out and return the 
attached reply card. No postage necessary. 

Discover the other side of THE RAINBOW. It's not only 
a time-saver, it's the key to a whole new outlook! 




4 I'luid Run rua nit mmm 

(•■«r«*ll, 



■Kansas 



Kits* I /'.. <■> a 

I 
I 



269W 




Drive 0 and 1 

^ne%mW%sided drive with doubler board and new RS 
controller so you can have the equivalent of 2 drives in 
One. You can even backup from 0 to 1 . Works with all 
CoCo's. 



Epson's Gomrex 5650 has a 12" screen with 
Resolution for 80 column text and 18 MHZ band width, 
retail price was 139.95. 13" Color Monitor (not shown), 
now only $139.95. These are new, in factory sealed 
cartons, NOT used, repacked, or refurbished. Add 7.00 
s/h. 






Both our drive 0 and 1 in one case, with cable and R;S. 
controller. The best just got better! 



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170 228 

300 62 

550 70 

END 36 



80 PRINTQ226, "** MONTREAL P. 

Q, **" 

90 PRINT@258,"**":PRINT@283, "**" 
100 PRINT@290 , "***************** 
*********** 

110 PRINT@333, "COPY RIGHTS REG." 
120 PRINT@448, "PRESS ANY KEY FOR 

INST. " 
130 EXEC 44539 



The listing: RSTRONRT 



5 POKE 65494,0 

10 CLS: PRINT@2 ,"**************** 
***********" 

20 PRINT@34,"** SALVAGE OF ASTRO 
NAUTS **" 

30 PRINT@66,"**":PRINT@91, "**" 

40 PRINT@98,"** BY 
**•• 

50 PRINT@130 , "**" : PRINT@155, "**" 
60 PRINT@162, "** RENE CAM IRA 

ND **" 

70 PRINT@194, "**":PRINT@219, "**" 





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"I 

* 

I 

* 

I 

* 

I 

* 

I 

* 

I 

* 

I 

* 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 

* 

I 
I 

I 

* 

I 

* 

I 

* 
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I 

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1 t 
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1 * 

• 

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140 CLS : PRINT@0, "USING THE SHIP 
<ENTREPISE> YOU HAVE TO SAVE AS 
MANY ASTRONAUTS AS POSSIBLE WIT 
HOUT MISSING FUEL 

GET POINTS FOR 
ASTRONAUTS SAVED PLUS 100POINTS 
FOR FUEL LANDING" 

150 PRINT@224, "CKECK THE FUEL GA 
UGE AT LEFT OF THE SCREEN <NO FU 
EL: NO GO> USE THE RIGHT JST 

K FOR MOVING" 

160 PRINT@352 , "YOU HAVE < 6 > FUEL L 
ANDING TO SCORETHE MOST POINTS. T 
HEN IT END" 

170 PRINT@448 , "PRESS ANY KEY FOR 

ACTION" 
180 EXEC44539 

190 DIMZ (42,12) :DIM L$(50) 
200 CLS:BB=0 

210 PRINT@70,"1- SLOW":PRINT@19 
8, "2- MEDIUM" :PRINT@32 6, "3- FA 



36 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



ST":PRINT@448," > YOUR CHOICE 

• 

220 B$=INKEY$ : IF B$=" "THEN220 EL 
SE IF B$="3" THEN GOTO 25)3 ELSE 
IF B$="2" THEN GOTO 24)3 ELSE IF 
B$="l" THEN GOTO 23)3 ELSE GOT022 
0 ■■ m5,;: ^ ; - 
23)3 BB=l:GOTO 260 
240 BB=1.25:GOTO 26)3 
250 BB=1 . 5 : GOT02 6)3 

26) 3 PM0DE3 , 1 : PCLS : SCREENl ,0 : POKE 
179,0 

27) 3 QQ=)3 

280 POKE 178,2 

290 DRAW"BM0,168E4R4E6R3E6R2F12R 

6F8E8R6E8R4E2R2F18R4E4R4U6E6R3F1 

0R3F5R4E12R2F6R3F6E3R4E10R2F10D2 

6 " : REM ; PAINT ( 2 ,17)3) , 4 , 4 

30)3 POKE179,4:PAINT(2,170) 

310 FORB=0TO200 STEP2 : LINE (B, 190 

-RND(18) )-(B,190) , PRESET :NEXTB 

320 PMODE4 > 1 : SCREEN! , 1 

330 FORT=8TO130 STEP6 

340 L$="S"+STR$ (RND(5)+1)+"BM"+S 

TR$ (RND(220) +10) +" , "+STR$ (T) +"S4 

; R3 D1L5D1R7 BL2 L5BR2R3 BL3 D1R2 D1L2 

D1R3" 

350 POKE178 / 2 

360 DRAW L$: NEXTT 

370 DRAW"BM0 ; 13 6R10D1L10" 

380 PMODE4 , 1 

390 DRAW"S4;BM221 / 167R22F2G2L2BL 

5BU2L14G2BE2H2BF2BG2L4H2E2R3U4R3 

L6R3D4R2E1R2U1R2E1R2BR1R2F1R2D1R 

2F1R2U4R3L6R3D4L2D1G1F2R1" 

400 X=223 :Y=162 

410 get(x-14,y-6)-(x+28, y+14) , z , 

g . ; * 

420 A=223:B=162 

430 Al=A:A=A+INT(JOYSTK(0)/6)-5 
440 B1=B : B=B+INT ( JOYSTK (l)/6 ) -5 
450 I FA OR B=LEN(A$) THEN P=P+1 
4 60 QQ=QQ+BB : LINE ( 0 ,0 ) - ( 5 , QQ) , PS 



ET,BF:IF QQ=135THEN GOTO 600 ELS 
E480 

470 IF B>=185 THEN U=U 

480 IF B>=185 THEN 570 

490 IF A<=214 AND B=>140 THEN A= 

A1:B=B1 

500 IF B=<10 THENB=10 

510 IFA>=217 THEN A=217 

520 IF A=<20 THEN A= 20 

530 IF A=>205 AND B<186 THEN GOT 

0 550 

540 IF A=>205 AND B=>186 THEN B= 
Bl : GOTO550 

550 PUT (A-14 # B-6 ) - (A+2 8 , B+14 ) ,Z, 
PSET: Z=0 
560 GOTO 430 

570 CLS:P=P+100:PRINT@139 / "SCORE 

: " ; P; :PRINT§390 f "FELICITATIO 

N FOR THAT FUEL LA 

NDING" 

580 K=1000 : IFU=5THEN K=1000 

590 FORT=lTOK : NEXTT : U=U+ 1:1 FU= 6T 

HEN620 ELSE GOTO260 

600 CLS : SCREEN1 ,05 PRINT@130 , "SOR 

RY MAN YOUR A DEAD DUCK" : PRINT@2 

90, "I TOLD YOU <NO FUELXNO GO> 

<NO POINTS >" 
610 FORT=1TO3000 : NEXTT : P=0 : GOT06 

30 

620 PRINT 6203, "FINAL SCORE" :PRIN 
T@295, "HOURRA ! ! CHAMPION ! ! " : FO 
RT=1T02 500 : NEXTT 

630 CLS:PRINT§232,"ANOTHER GAME 
?":PRINT@458,"< Y / N >" 
640 WW$=INKEY$ : IF WW$=""THEN640 
ELSE IF WW$="N" THEN 660 ELSE 65 

0 

650 P=0:U=0:GOTO 200 
660 CLS: PRINT© 16 2," HOPE YOU HAD 
A GOOD GAME " : PRINT@290 , " BYE I 
. . .BYE 1 . . . " : FORT=1TO2000 : NEXTT : P 
OKE113, 3 : EXEC40999 




1 1 




p3 




4f| 


1 1 



MAGAZINE FOR COLOR COMPUTER USERS. 

* Programs for business, home 
management, self-improvement, 
games, utilities 

* Reviews of Color Computer 
products 

* Tutorials on programming in 
Assembly, C, Pascal, and Basic 

* Contests 



GROUP RATES: $15 with orders 
of 5 or ■ore subscriptions! 





SPECIAL OFFER 

As an introductory offer, 
you can order the first year 
of SPECTROGRAM Magazine 
at 40% off the cover price. 
For $18, you will receive 
1 2 issues of the magazine 
that could become the most 
informative addition to 
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3 




September 1986 THE RAINBOW 37 




MATH TUTOR 



1 16K 




ECB 





the 




RAINBOW 



Rational Thinking 



'W'^atios is a hands-on exercise in 
A^^converting fractions to ratios 
JL m. and percentages; the sort of 
exercise which enables a pupil to in- 
crease familiarity and skill by means of 
unlimited repetition. 

If you enter the numerator and the 
denominator of a fraction, you have 
control over the level of difficulty. If you 
let CoCo enter random numerators and 
denominators, the level of difficulty is 
controlled by the magnitude of the 
numerator you choose (Line 370). In 
either case, the numerator is restricted 
to two digits and the denominator to 
three, which keeps the program within 
the ability limits of a disadvantaged 
pupil. Increase the level of difficulty by 
changing the values of LEN(fl$) and 
LEN ( B$ ) in lines 130 and 140 and 
VAL(CR$) in Line 370. After five at- 
tempts, you are given the choice of 
entering your numbers or random 
numbers again. 

In entering answers to questions, you 
are restricted to seven characters includ- 
ing a decimal. Illegal entries are erased 
and a new entry can be made. The 
instructions ask you not to type the 



Keiran Kenny lives in The Hague, 
Holland, and began programming after 
seven years of retirement. He holds a 
degree in modern European languages, 
and has a special interest in the graphics 
and math possibilities of the Co Co. 



percent (%) sign because this is added 
to your answer. 

After an answer has been entered, the 
screen shows either RIGHT or WRONG and 
the correct answer in both cases. The 
entries in lines 50 and 60 ensure that 
CoCo's correct answer (P$) is the same 
length as your correct answer (E$). If 
you enter 33.3 as the percentage equiv- 
alent of % then you get ANSWER WAS 
33.3*. If you enter 33.3333, then 
CoCo's correct answer will be 
33.3333%. If your answer is wrong, then 
CoCo's correct answer may vary in 
length. This is followed by an X RIGHT 
OUT OF Y message and a score expressed 
as a ratio and a percentage in keeping 
with the theme of the exercise. 

All the subroutines are at the begin- 
ning of the listing in lines 20 through 
220. This should make it easier if you 
want to use them in your own programs. 
Change Line 20 to read X=A/B and Line 
190 to read PR INT© 162, STRINGS 
(!_,"-")"="; : RETURN and you have a 
basis for using the fraction for division 
exercises beginning at Line 240. Note 
that lines 180 and 190 ensure the frac- 
tion line has the length of whichever of 
the two, numerator or denominator, is 
longer. 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to the author at van Mont- 
foortlaan 31, 2296 SP The Hague, 
Holland. Please enclose an SASE when 
writing.) □ 



38 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 




"i An 


04 A 


OCA 


«n 


Ann 




mm mm j\ 

550 . . . 


n ^ 


660 


141 


730 


.153 


END 


....93 



The listing: RATIOS 

1J3 CLS:GOTO230 
20 X=B/A:GOTO40 
30 X=(A/B)*100 
40 X$=STR$(X) 

5J3 E$=STR$ (E) : EX=LEN (E$) -LEN (STR 
$(INT(E))) 

60 IFE=INT(E)ANDX<>INT(X)THENP$= 
LEFT$ (X$ , 5 ) ELSEP$=LEFT$ (X$ , LEN ( S 
TR$(INT(X) ) )+EX) 
70 RETURN 

80 IFE$=P$THENR=R+1:PRINT@268, "R 
IGHT 1 " : A$=" ANSWER WAS "+P$ : PRINT@ 
303-INT(LEN(A$)/2) , A$ ; : IFQ=1THEN 
PRINT"%" :GOTO100ELSE100 
90 IFE$OP$THENWR=WR+l:PRINT@2 68 
, "WRONG! 11 :A$=" ANSWER WAS"+P$ : PRI 
NT@303-INT(LEN(A$)/2) ,A$; :IFQ=1T 
HENPRINT"%" 

100 A$=STR$(R)+" RIGHT OUT OF"+S 
TR$(R+WR)+" "+CHR$(8) :PRINT@3 3 6- 
INT(LEN(A$)/2) ,A$+" !" 
110 IFR>j3THENE= (R+WR) /R: IE$="THA 
T IS 1 :"+LEFT$(STR$(E) ,5)+" OR" 
+LEFT$ (STR$ (R/ (WR+R) *100) , 6) +"%" 
:PRINT@3 67-INT(LEN(IE$)/2) ,IE$ 
120 RETURN 

130 LINEINPUTA$:A=VAL(A$) : IFAOI 
NT (A) ORLEN (A$) >2THENPRINT@130 , CH 
R$(31) :PRINT@130,"" ; :GOTO130ELSE 
RETURN 

140 LINEINPUTB$:B=VAL(B$) :IFBOl 
NT (B) ORLEN (B$) >3THENPRINT@194 , CH 
R$(31) : PRINT© 194,"" 7 : GOTO140ELSE 
RETURN 

150 LINEINPUTC$:IFLEN(C$)>7THENP 
RINT@160+L+9,CHR$(8) :PRINT@160+L 
+9 , " " ; : GOTO150ELSEC=VAL ( C$ ) : RETU 
RN 

16J3 LINEINPUTD$ : IFLEN ( D$ ) >7THENP 
RINT@160+L+LC+12 , CHR$ (31): PRINT @ 
160+L+LC+12, "" ; :GOTO160ELSED=VAL 
(D$) : RETURN 

170 F0RX=P TO P2STEP32:PRINT@X,C 
HR$ ( 3 1 ) : NEXT : RETURN 
180 IFLEN (A$) >LEN (B$) THENL=LEN (A 
$ ) ELSEL=LEN ( B$ ) 

190 PRINT@162,STRING$(L, "-") " = 



1 : " ; : RETURN 

200 FORD=1TO1500 : NEXT: RETURN 

210 PRINT@487 , "PRESS ANY KEY."; 

220 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=""THEN220ELSE 

RETURN 

230 CLEAR2 0 0 

240 PRINT@139 , "<RATIOS>" , , , , , "BY 

KEIRAN KENNY, THE HAGUE, 1985" 
250 PRINT@320, "<ENTER> YOUR NAME 
, PLEASE (MAX. 14 CHARACTERS ==>" 
; : LINEINPUTNM$ 

260 IFLEN (NM$) >14THENP=320 : P2=41 

6 : GOSUB170 : GOT02 50 

270 PRINT@ 4 2 2, "INSTRUCTIONS? Y/N 

280 GOSUB220 

290 IFK$="Y"THENCLS:GOTO640 
300 IFK$="N"THENCLS:GOTO320 ' 
310 GOTO280 

320 PRINT@128, "MAKE YOUR CHOICE: 
" : PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 5 ) " rANDOM NUMBE 
RS , OR" : PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 5 ) " eNTER 
YOUR OWN NUMBERS .": PRINT : PRINTTA 
B (5) "PRESS <R> OR <E>:"; 
330 GOSUB220 

340 IFK$="R"THENX=RND( -TIMER) :V= 
1:PRINT"R" :GOTO370 
350 IFK$="E"THENV=0:CLS:GOTO380 
360 GOTO330 

370 PRINT: W$=NM$+" WANTS A NUMER 
ATOR" : PRINT@400-LEN (W$) /2 , W$ : PRI 
NT@456,"NO LARGER THAN: " ; : LINEIN 
PUTCR$ : IFVAL ( CR$ ) <1 ORLEN ( CR$ ) >2T 
HENP=448 : P2=448 : GOSUB170 : PRINT@4 
48, "" ; :GOTO370ELSEGOSUB200:CLS:G 
OTO400 

380 CLS : IFK$="E"ORK$="Y"THENPRIN 

T@ 3 2, "ENTER NUMERATOR (THE TOP N 

UMBER IN A FRACTION) . " 

390 PRINT0130, ""; :GOTO410 

400 I FK$= " R " ORK$ = " Y " THENA=RND (VA 

L(CR$) ) :A$=RIGHT$(STR$(A) , LEN (ST 

R$(A) )-l) :PRINT@130,A$:GOTO440 

410 GOSUB130:P=32:P2=64:GOSUB170 

420 PRINT@32, "ENTER DENOMINATOR 

(THE BOTTOM NUMBER)." 

430 PRINT@194, "" ; :GOTO460 

440 B=A+RND ( VAL ( CR$ ) ) 

450 B$=RIGHT$(STR$(B) ,LEN(STR$(B 

) ) -1) :PRINT@194,B$:GOSUB180:GOTO 

490 

460 GOSUB140:GOSUB180 
470 IFB<A THENPRINT@224,"TOO SMA 
LL! TRY AGAIN! " : GOSUB200 : P=194 : P 
2=224 :GOSUB170:GOTO430 
480 P=32:P2=64:GOSUB170 
490 PRINT @ 3 2, "ENTER NUMBER AFTER 
COLON (WITH DECIMAL WHERE NECE 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 39 



SSARY) . 

500 print@160+L+9,"" ; :P=320:GOSU 

B150:E=C 

510 GOSUB20:GOSUB80 
520 PRINT@32 , "ENTER THE EQUIVALE 
NT PERCENTAGE (WITH DECIMALS IF 
NECESSARY) ." 

530 LC=LEN(C$) :PRINT@160+L+LC+10 

, "= " ; : GOSUB160 : PRINT @ 1 6 0+L+LC+1 

1+LEN(STR$(D) ) / "%":E=D 

540 GOSUB30:P=256:P2=352:GOSUB17 

0:Q=1:GOSUB80 

550 PRINT@457, "ANOTHER? Y/N" 
560 GOSUB220 

570 IFK$="Y"AND(R+WR)/5=INT( (R+W 

R) /5 ) THENQ=0 : CLS : GOT03 2 0 

580 IFK$=" Y"ANDV=1THENCLS : Q=0 : GO 

TO400 

590 IFK$="Y"ANDV=0THENQ=0:GOTO38 
0 

600 IFK$="N"THENCLS:GOTO620 
610 GOTO560 

620 TK$=" THANKS "+NM$+" ! " : PRINT© 
112 -INT (LEN (TK$) /2 ) , TK$ : PRINT@16 
0," I HOPE YOU LIKED THE TEST AN 
D LEARNED SOMETHING FROM IT.": 
PRINT@455, "TO END PROGRAM" : GOSUB 
210 

630 CLS: END 



ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 

FOR YOUR COCO 



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1. CoCo EXPERT — INCREASE YOUR HAPPINESS 

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COMPLETE DOCUMENTATION INCLUDES 
"THE HISTORY OF Al" 

ALL JUST $34.95 (SPECIFY TAPE OR DISK) 




640 PRINT© 7 , "***INSTRUCTIONS***" 
: PRINT© 3 2, "GIVEN THE NUMERATOR ( 
THE TOP NUMBER) OF A FRACTION 
LIKE THIS: " : PRINT@101,CHR$ (159) 
:GOSUB200 

650 PRINT@100 , 3 : GOSUB200 : PRINT@8 

6,CHR$(31) :PRINT@85,";" 

660 PRINT@96, "THEN THE DENOMINAT 

OR (BOTTOM NUMBER) , LIKE THIS 

: " : PRINT© 16 4 , 3 : PRINT© 197 , "-" : PRI 

NT@229,CHR$(159) :GOSUB200 

670 PRINT@228,4:GOSUB200:PRINT@1 

35,CHR$(31) :PRINT@135,"; H 

680 PRINT© 1 60, "<ENTER> THE NUMBE 

R AFTER THE COLON ( ' : 1 ) LIKE 

THIS : " : PRINT© 2 28,3 : PRINT@2 61,"- 

= 1 : "+CHR$(159) :PRINT@292,4:GO 

SUB200 

690 PRINT@268,1.33:GOSUB200:PRIN 
T©204,CHR$(31) : PRINT@203 , " ; " 
700 PRINT© 2 2 4, "AND THEN CONVERT 
THE FRACTION INTO A PERCENTAGE 
LIKE THIS: ":PRINT@2 92,3 :PRINT@3 
25,"- » 1 : 1.33 = "+CHR$(159) :P 
RINT © 3 5 6 , 4 : GOSUB2 0 0 
710 PRINT@340, "75%":PRINT@416,"I 
•M NOT GOING TO TELL YOU HOW TOD 
0 YOUR ARITHMETIC! 11 :K$=INKEY$: GO 
SUB210 

720 CLS:PRINT©0, "YOU CAN <ENTER> 
YOUR OWN NUMBERSABOVE AND BELOW 
THE LINE OR LET THE COMPUTER EN 
TER A NUMERATOR AND A DENOMINAT 
OR AS RANDOM NUMBERS. IN THI 

S CASE YOU CAN CHOOSE THE HIGH 
EST VALUE FOR THENUMERATOR (MAXI 
MUM 99) . " 

730 PRINT: PRINT 11 BEGIN WITH SMALL 
NUMBERS AND TRYTO CALCULATE THE 
ANSWERS IN YOURHEAD AS AN EXERC 
ISE IN MENTAL ARITHMETIC. TRY 
LARGER NUMBERS TOO AS AN EXERCI 
SE IN USING YOURCALCULATOR OR IN 
MAKING CALCUL- ATIONS ON PAPER. 
":GOSUB210 

740 CLS : PRINT@0 , "<ENTER> NUMBERS 
AS FOLLOWS : " : PRINT : PRINT "NUMERA 
TOR, 1-2 DIGITS, NO DECI- MAL. M 
AXIMUM 99;" 

750 PRINT: PRINT "DENOMINATOR, 1-3 
DIGITS, NO DEC-IMAL. MAXIMUM 99 

9;" 

760 PRINT: PRINT "ANSWERS, MAXIMUM 
WITH DECIMAL SEVEN CHARACTERS 
. DO NOT TYPE THE '%' SIGN." 
770 PRINT: PRINT "ILLEGAL ENTRIES 
WILL SELF-ERASE AND YOU CAN TRY 
AGAIN!" 

780 GOSUB210:CLS:GOTO320 /R\ 



40 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



W^^isplay uses the SET command 
m #to put the message of your 
JLtJ choice on the screen to attract 
attention to your store display, garage 
sale or what have you. It displays in big 
letters using all the colors CoCo has to 
offer. The horizontal and vertical SET 
values for most characters are in DATfi 
lines 100, 1 10, 120 to 210 and 220 to 470. 
The data in lines 500 to 510 set the 
starting and finishing sequence number 
for each character as in data lines 100 
to 470. 

The character set includes the dollar 
sign, hyphen, numbers zero through 
nine and the letters A to Z. In addition, 
lines 550 to 570 in subroutine 540 set the 
coordinates for the period (.), spacebar 
and the exclamation (!) sign. These 
characters have spacing requirements 
which differ from the other characters. 

The screen has four text lines and you 



Keiran Kenny lives in The Hague, 
Holland and began programming after 
seven years of retirement. He holds a 
degree in modern European languages, 
and has a special interest in the graphics 
and math possibilities of the Co Co. 



can put up to eight letters or numbers 
in each line. As in Line 990, you can also 
get away with seven letters or numbers 
plus a space and two punctuation signs. 

To put text on the screen, follow the 
examples beginning at Line 690. PP is 
the horizontal coordinate at which text 
begins. For a line consisting of eight 
letters or numbers you need PP equal 
to zero but, for less, you can vary the 
value of PP in order to center your text. 
The lines are numbered one to four 
from top to bottom and the line number 
is labeled LL. The vertical position of 
the lines cannot be varied. 

You have nine choices of color estab- 
lished by the variable CC: the familiar 
one through eight colors, and nine, 
which gives the multicolored effect as in 
the words rainbow in Line 690 and 
COLOR T.V. in Line 990. Actually 
there is another choice, CC=RND(B), 
which gives (usually) a different but 
uniformly colored word each time you 
repeat the display. I have not used it here 
because I prefer to choose my colors 
rather than leave them to chance. Your 
text is put into a string labeled W$ 
followed by GOSUB 540. 



September 1986 



Radio Shack has the 



Computer System 
Furniture 



flfj Reg. Separate 
Items 319.80 




Spacious modular worksta- 
tion is ideal for home or of- 
fice. Features simulated oak 
finish. Easy to assemble. 

H System Desk. Twin cable 
management slots for easy 
connections. 

26-1356 119.95 

IH Storage Hutch. Mounts 
on system desk. Features 
adjustable "second shelf 
on either side. 
26-1359 59.95 

Half-Width Hutch. (Not 
shown). 26-1374 . . . 54.95 

El Corner Section. Con- 
nects system desk and 
printer stand for a conven- 
ient "work corner." 
26-1358 39.95 

ElPrinter Stand. With out- 
put paper catcher and stor- 
age shelf. 

26-1357 99.95 



Monitor Pedestal 




16 95 

Adjustable platform ro- 
tates and tilts. Holds all 
Tandy monitors. Color 
and finish match moni- 
tors. Base: 11 X 10^4 ". 
(26-1369) 



Printer Supports 




Elevates printer so fan- 
fold paper can be placed 
underneath. Use with 
80-column printers. Du- 
rable crystal polystyrene. 
Easy to assemble. 
(26-1367) 



Diskette Storage 




3 l l2". Holds 30. 

26-1381 12.95 

5 l U". Holds 50. 
26-1362 14.95 

8': Holds 50. 

26-4953 24.95 



Disk Drive Head 
Cleaning Kits 



Low 
As 

795 

I Each 




Disk Size 


Cat. No. 


Each 


*3V 2 " 


26-419 


9.95 


5V4" 


26-408 


7.95 


8" 


26-4957 


8.95 



'Single sided only 



Fanfold Printer Paper 



Mailing Labels 




9V4x11" 



Computer Paper 



Computer 
Paper 



Computer 
Paper 



Pressure- Sensitive Fanfold 



Low As 

95 



Size 


Parts 


Design 


Vertical 


Qty. 


Cat. No 


Price 


14?/ax11" 


1 


Greenbar 


No 


500 


26-1330 


11.95 


147/ax11" 


1 


Greenbar 


No 


1500 


72-300 


34.95 


14 7 /bx11" 


1 


Greenbar 


No 


3500 


26-1417 


69.95 


147/8 x 11" 


1 


White 


No 


1500 


72-303 


34.95 


9 1 /zx11" 


1 


Greenbar 


Yes 


1500 


72-304 


24.95 


9V2X11" 


1 


Greenbar 


Yes 


3500 


26-1403 


49.95 


9V2X11" 


1 


White 


Yes 


500 


26-1423 


8.95 


9V2X11" 


1 


20# White 


Yes 


500 


26-1387 


10.95 


9V2X11" 


1 


20# White 


Yes 


1250 


26-1427 


24.95 


9V2X11" 


1 


20# White 


Yes 


2500 


72-31 1 


44.95 


9V2X11" 


2 


White 


Yes 


750 


72-305 


34.95 



6 



r 





1-Wide. 4V2" carrier. Pkg./lOOO. 26-1328 6.95 

1- Wide. 4V2" carrier. Pkg./5000. 72-402 24.95 

2- Wide. 9V2" carrier. Pkg./2000. 72-401 15.95 

3- Wide. 9V2" carrier. Pkg./3000. 72-400 16.95 

2-Wide. Dry gum. 9V2" carrier. Pkg./2400. 26-1456 . . . 9.95 



Items Shown With Optional Computer Components (Not Included). 



best of everything* 



LowCost, Compact 
Computer Workcenter 



89 



95 



Organize Your Computer System With 
This Compact, Efficient Workstation 

Beautifully Designed and Finished 
to "Fit In" with Other Furniture 



Our beautifully styled, simulated oak finish workcenter 
features a full-width monitor shelf (41 1 /2 x 14 3 /4 /r ), space 
for computer and printer, plus plenty of workspace. This 
easy-to-assemble workcenter comes with adjustable 
glides. (26-1350) 




Perfect for Home, Office or School 



Data Communications Modem 




59 



DCM 3. 300-bps modem plugs di- 
g-ym* rectly into modular phone outlet. 
DB25 and 4-pin DIN connectors. 
Bell 103 compatible, full duplex. 
FCC registered. (26-1178) 



Certified 
Unformatted 
Diskettes 

■ Double Density j^^^J 

■ Manufactured to the 
Highest Standards 
of Excellence 

■ Buy in 10-Pack Quantities and Save 




Single Sided 



Double Sided 



Size 


Tracks 


Quantity 


Cat. No. 


Price 


3V2" 


80 


3 


26-415 


15.95 




80 


10 


26-416 


44.95 




40 


1 


26-305 


2.19 


5V4" 


40 


3 


26-405 


5.95 




40 


10 


26-406 


15.95 


8" 


77 


3 


26-4904 


10.95 


77 


10 


26-4906 


34.95 



Size 


Tracks 


Quantity 


Cat. No. 


Price 




40 


3 


26-411 


6.95 




40 


10 


26-412 


16.95 


5V4" 


80 


3 


26-409 


8.95 


80 


10 


26-410 


24.95 




80(high 
density) 


3 


26-421 


15.95 




10 


26-422 


44.95 




77 


3 


26-4961 


12.95 


8" 


77 


10 


26-4960 


39.95 



Radio /hack 

The Technology Store 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



r 

I 

I 

I 

L 



Send me an RSC-17 
Computer Catalog. 

Radio Shack 
Dept. 87-A-21 
300 One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, Texas 76102 



Name 



Address 
City 



1 



State 



ZIP 



Phone 



Prices apply at Radio Shack Computer Centers and participating stores and dealers. 



To erase a line, enter the line number, 
LL and G05UB 530. In the program, by 
way of example, the eraser is used to 
erase lines one at a time by means of 
separate entries or, as in Line 800, three 
at a time using a loop. 

I have tried to ensure that Display 
will also fit a 16K ECB machine. Thus, 
in Line 30, I took as many bytes as I 
could from CoCo's statutory 200 bytes 
reserved for string space. If you get an 
OS Error when trying to save the pro- 
gram, then increase the CLERR8 in Line 
30 to a slightly higher number. m 

Be very careful when you type the 
DRTfl lines 100 to 470 and 500 to 510, 
especially with the commas, which 
represent zero. If you make a mistake 



in typing you should get a DATA Error 
message, but that is not always com- 
pletely reliable. You could type a two for 
a three and then a three for a two a few 
values later and the checksum remains 
correct. Your best guide is the appear- 
ance of the letters and numbers them- 
selves. If you find a blob sticking out 
where it obviously should not be, then 
check the DATA line for the offender. 
Each character has its own line in 
numerical or alphabetical order. 

If you do not have Extended Color 
BASIC, then I hope you have Little E 
[October 1984, Page 119] so you can 
edit any necessary corrections into a line 
instead of having to retype the whole 
line. 



Note the high speed POKE in Line 20. 
If your CoCo cannot take it, delete or 
leave it out. 

In the demonstration program, the 
two displays keep on repeating. This 
ensures some movement on the screen 
and that is what attracts notice and 
holds attention. Movement can be 
anything, like erasing or entering lines, 
but it must be slow enough to be per- 
ceptible. I think the speed in this pro- 
gram, with or without the high speed 
POKE, is just about right. 

(You may direct questions about this 
program to Mr. Kenny at van Mont- 
foortlaan 31, 2296 SP The Hague, 
Holland. Please enclose an SASEwhen 
writing.) □ 



208 520 84 




The listing: DISPLAY 

0 '16K ECB PCLEAR1 BEFORE YOU 

LOAD THIS PROGRAM • 
10 CLS 

20 POKE65495,0 
30 CLEAR8 

4) 3 PRINT@138,"*DISPLAY*" 

5) 3 PRINT@224,"BY KEIRAN KENNY, T 
HE HAGUE, 1986" 

6) 3 PRINT: PRINT "PLEASE EXCUSE THE 
SLIGHT DELAY, I HAVE A LOT OF D 

ATA TO DIGEST!" 

7) 3 DIM H(678) ,V(678) ,A(38) ,B(38) 

8) 3 FORI=lT0678:READHH,W:H(I)=HH 
: V ( I ) =W : DE=DE+HH+ W : NEXT 

9 0 I FDE< > 3 8 9 5THENPRINT : PRINT 11 DAT 
A ERROR LINES 1)30-47)3 !": STOP 
99 ■$ 

1)3)3 DATA 3,,, 1,1, 1,2,1, 3,1,4,1,5 
,1,6,1, ,2, 3, 2, ,3,1, 3, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4 
,4,3,5,3,6,3,6,4,6,5,5,5,4,5,3,5 
,3,6,2,5,1,5, ,5 

109 ' - 

110 DATA 2,4,3,4 

119 '0-9 

120 DATA 2,, 3, ,4, ,1,1, 5,1, ,2, 6 , 2 
,,3,6, 3,, 4, 6, 4, 1,5, 5, 5, 2, 6, 3, 6, 4 
,6 

130 DATA 3, ,2, 1,3, 1,3, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 
3,5,3,6,2,6,4,6 

140 DATA ,1,1, ,2, ,3, ,4, ,5,1,6,2, 
5, 3, 4, 4, 3, 4, 2, 4, 1,4,, 4,, 5,, 6, 1,6 
,2,6,3,6,4,6,5,6,6,6 



150 DATA 
5,3,4,3,3 
1,6, ,5 
160 DATA 
5,3 ,5,4,5 
170 DATA 
1,2,2,2,3 
3,6,2,6,1 
18)3 DATA 
2/ ,3,1,3, 
,5,6,4,6, 
190 DATA 
,5,2,4,3, 
2)30 DATA 
5,3,4,3,3 
6,3,6,4,6 
210 DATA 



,1,1, ,2, ,3, ,4, ,5,1,6,2, 
,3,6,4,5,5,4,6,3,6,2,6, 



/ f fl f f^t / 3, ,4, ,5, 
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/ ? 1 1 r 2 , ,3 , ,4, ,5, , 
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, 6, , 5 

6/1/5, ,4, ,3, ,2, ,1 
2,3,3 ,3 ,4,3,5,3,6 
3,6,2,6,1,6, ,5, ,4 

/ / 1 9 9 % , , 3 , 9^9 9 5 , , 

3,4,2,5,1,6 
1 9 9 2 / /3, ,4, ,5, ,6, 
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l//2,,3, ,4, ,5, ,6, 



1,5,2, 

9 1 9 9^9 

5,4,6, 

9 9 9 1 9 9 

,4,6,5 

6, ,6,1 

1,6,2, 
1,6,2, 
2 

1,6,2, 




fl I N60 
HAS MANY 






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6,3,6,4,6,5,6,6,5,6,4,6,3,6,2,6, 


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220 DATA 6 5 4 3 

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440 DATA 1 2 34R61R 
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,o,z, 0,0, 0,4,0 ,0,0,0 










69p PP=4 : LL=1 : CC=9 : Wy="RAXNBOW" : 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 45 



* 

GOSUB540 

w Km* mm* Smf * *^ 






700 PP=2:LL=2 :CC-1:W$="HAS MANY" 


870 LL=3 :GOSUB53 0 




:GOSUB540 

V Mm* Km* * Jfc^ 


880 PP=10 : TiTi=3 : CC=2 • WS 


="S31 00"* 


710 PP=0:LL=3:CC=2:W$= ,f PROGRAMS lf 


GOSUB540 

V»J W W J_>> ^1 K/ 




: GOSUB540 


8 9 0 IjIj=4 • GOSTIR5 3 0 




720 PP=6:LL=4 : CC=3 :W$="FOR YOU." 

9 4k* mm> Km* m m\md-mmm§ * • te^ V 11 ■y' X VJk\ mm, X^ X^ • 


900 PP=0 : LL=4 : CC=7 : WS= 


"PER YEAR' 

X XJ 1\ X XJ fll\ • 


:GOSUB540 

• X^ Km* -mtrnf Km* ■ 


11 :GOSUB54 0 




730 GOSUB670 

W Km* Mm* Km* Km* mm* Km* ■ m* Km* f 


910 GOSUB670 




740 LL=2 :GOSUB53 0 






750 PP=12 : LL=2 : CC=4 : WS^'GAMES" : G 


z? J jU x x vj • 1 1 1 1 <■ • \^v^ ^ • r»«y' 




OSUB540 


GOSUR54 0 

VJvUU JJJ1 




760 LL=3:GOSUB530:LIr=4:GOSUB530 

# W ^m* Km* mttw Km* mmm* ^m* mm mm* m mmmm * V ^mw ^mr mf Mmf 


940 T,T,=3 • GOSTTR^^ 0 

^ I jU XJXJ -J • uWu U U J J 




77j3 PP=2:LL=3:CC=5:W$= M ADVEN- M :G 


950 PP=10 : LL=3 : CC=2 :W$ 


="$80.00" ! 


OSUB54j3 


GOSUB54 0 


780 PP=18 : LL=4 : CC=5 : W$="TURES 11 : G 

9 Km* 9b* mm> ^m mrm Km* W mm** bbb4 St W Km* ^m* mt* W TV Km* A ^ fc J V X^ 


960 GOSUB670 




OSUB540 


97 0 CLS0 




790 GOSUB670 


980 PP=2 : LL=1 : C=8 : WS=" 

Z/ \J fJ XX £t • XJXJ X. • V«« O • f T lyP 


FOR SAIjE ,i# 


800 FORLL=2T04 : GOSUB530 :NEXT 






8 10 PP=0 : LL=2 : CC=6 : W$== " S IMUL- 11 : G 


990 PP=0 : LL=2 : CC=9 :WS= 


"COLOR T.V 

WXJwX\ X • V 


OSUB540 


M • GOSTJRS40 




820 PP=12 : LL=3 : CC=6 : W$="ATIONS" : 


1000 PP=2 : LL=3 : CC=4 : WS 

j. )l/ k/ iL/ xx Xj • xjxj *j • ~ • n y 


=" BARGAIN 1 


GOSUB540 


11 •GOSUB54 0 




830 PP=0 : LL=4 : CC=7 : W$= n AND MORE. 

Wmf Mmf i-k» V • ■ * * V> X^ X^ » f) T V A M T +bS A A X^ X ^AbJ 9 


1010 PP=6 : LL=4 : CC=5 : W$ 

Mm* m»m Mmf Am mm, X^ • mmmJ mmmJ VJ X^ X^ VJ TV V 


="5126 . 75" 


11 :GOSUB540 


:GOSUB540 

V) Xgi X^ mmf %mf +m* *m* mS Mm* 




840 GOSUB670 


1020 GOSUB670 

mmm 9mf 4mm Mmf X^ X^ Km* JU-/ V# » 




85j3 LL=2:GOSUB53j3 


103J3 GOT068J3 




860 PP=2 : LL=2 : CC=8 : WS="FOR ONLY" 







\ 




To make the'rnost of your new Dragon microcomputer from Dragon-Tano, you need Dragon User 

— the international, independent magazine for Dragon owners. 



Each issue of Dragon User contains: 

• reviews of the latest software 

• programming advice for beginners 

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last year. Since then we have developed a knowledge 
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for 12 issues airspeeded to you — or take advantage of 
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program listings covering games and utilities 
reviews of Dragon peripherals and add-ons 
technical advisory service 
programming articles for users 





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□ US$53.90 for 24 issues □ US$71. 90 for 36 issues. Send this form to 
Dragon User, % Business Press International, 205 E. 42nd St., New*York, NY 10017 





46 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



ORGANIZATION 



1 16K 




f the 1 


im 


| ECB 




RAINBOW 











Lighten the end-of-semester work load 
with this handy program that's sure to 

become . . . 




rp 1 

Teacher 




The end of a grading period is 
always hectic. At such a time a 
computerized grade calculator 
can save a lot of headaches. A program 
like this can also be used at the midpoint 
of a grading period when parent-teacher 
conferences are often held. 

I operate on a point system and keep 
raw scores in my gradebook. This way 
I can also keep track of scores for 
workbook lessons, homework, quizzes, 
tests and written and oral reports. That 
way I am not always having to calculate 
percentage grades. The percentage and 
letter grades are Calculated by The 
Grade Calculator. 

The Grade Calculator does not store 
data to either tape or disk files, but 
prints out the results for each student as 
they are entered. 

When the program is run, you are 
asked to enter the class, such as English 
I-A. This will be printed on each student 

Ron Powers lives in Davenport, North 
Dakota and teaches high school Eng- 
lish. Before reentering the teaching 
profession in 1985, he spent 20 years as 
a broadcast journalist. A Co Co owner 
for three years, Ron has only had a 
serious interest in programming for less 
than a yean 




By Ron Powers 



JIM 


MATH 




GRADE # 


SCORE 


PERFECT SCORE 


i 


98 


100 


2 


83 


1 00 


KM 

3 


87 1 


1 00 


4 


91 


1 00 


TOTALS 


359 


400 


PERCENT GRAD 


E - 89.75 




LETTER GRADE 


***** T . I 


Sample Printout 



report. Next, you are asked to enter the 
number of scores to be averaged. This 
figure is used to dimension variables. 
Then you are asked to enter the perfect 
scores. The perfect scores, once entered, 
are kept in memory. 

Next, you are prompted to enter a 
student's name. At this point, the class 
name, student name and column head- 
ings are printed. Enter the student 
scores, and, as each is entered, the 
printer prints what number score that is, 
the student score and the corresponding 
perfect score. When all the scores are 
entered, a percentage grade is calculated 
and printed, followed by a letter grade. 

Line 60 dimensions the student score 
variable, A(S), and the perfect score 
variable, B(S). Lines 70 to 90 allow 
entering perfect scores. Line 100 is for 



entering the student's name and print- 
ing the headings. Lines 120 to 170 create 
a FOR/NEXT loop for entering student 
scores; printing score #, perfect score 
and student score; and keeping running 
totals of both sets of scores. Line 190 
calculates the percentage grade, and the 
subroutine beginning at Line 300 
chooses the proper letter grade. 

While The Grade Calculator is a very 
simple program, it does the job in much 
less time than figuring grades by hand 
or with a pocket calculator. Printing 
each individual score lets you double- 
check that all entries were properly 
made. 

(You may direct your questions to the 
author at Rt. 1 Box 43, Davenport, ND 
58021, 701-347-4321. Please enclose an 
SASEfor a reply.) □ 

September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 47 



The listing: GRfiDCflLC 



END 



131 
.71 



1 GOTO 1J3 

2 S AVE " GRADCALC " : SAVE"GRACAL2 " , A 

: END 

3 i *****GRADCALC/BAS***** 

4 i *****COPYRIGHT 1985***** 

5 «*****RON POWERS***** 

6 • *****DAVENPORT, ND 58021**** 
10 CLEAR 5pp0 

20 CLS: PRINT" SCORE TO PERCENT 

CALCULATOR" 
30 PRINT: PRINT "MAKE SURE PRINTER 

IS TURNED ON AND PAPER IS POSI 
TIONED PROPERLY" 
4jS LINE INPUT "CLASS ==> ";G$ 
50 PRINT '.INPUT "NUMBER OF SCORES 

TO BE AVERAGED" ;S 
60 DIM A(S) , B(S) 
70 FORX=lTOS 

80 INPUT "PERFECT SCORE ";B(X) 
90 NEXT X 

100 CLS: LINE INPUT "NAME ==> ";N 
$:PRINT#-2,TAB(5)N$;TAB(25) ;G$ 
110 PRINT#-2,TAB(5) "GRADE #";TAB 
(17) "SCORE" ;TAB(35) "PERFECT SCOR 
E" 

120 FORX=lTOS 



130 INPUT "STUDENT SCORE ";A(X) 

140 PRINT#-2,TAB(5)X;TAB(17)A(X) 

;TAB(35)B(X) 

150 G=A(X) :G1=G+G1 

160 H=B(X) :H1=H+H1 

170 NEXTX 

180 PRINT#-2,TAB(5) "TOTALS" ;TAB ( 

17)G1;TAB(35)H1 

190 R=G1/H1*100 

200 PRINT#-2, TAB (5) "PERCENT GRAD 

E = ";R 

210 GOSUB300 

220 PRINT #-2, TAB (5) "LETTER GRADE 

= ";L$ 

225 PRINT#-2,"":PRINT#-2,"" 
230 G=0:G1=0:H=0:H1=0:GOTO 100 
300 IF R>=96 THEN L$= " A" : RETURN 
310 IF R>=94 THEN L$ =" A- ": RETURN 
320 IF R>=92 THEN L$="B+" : RETURN 
330 IF R>=89 THEN L$="B" : RETURN 
340 IF R>=87 THEN L$="B-" : RETURN 
350 IF R>=85 THEN L$="C+" : RETURN 
360 IF R>=82 THEN L$="C" : RETURN 
370 IF R>=80 THEN L$="C-" : RETURN 
380 IF R>=78 THEN L$="D+" : RETURN 
390 IF R>=76 THEN L$="D" : RETURN 
400 IF R>=75 THEN L$="D-" : RETURN 
410 IF R<75 THEN L$="F" : RETURN ^ 



□□□□□ 
□□□□□ 

□□□□□ 
□□□□□ 























5M 



COLOR COMPUTERS 



LIST OUR 
PRICE PRICE 



TANDY COMPUTERS prPce price 

26-1070 Model 4D Desktop 64K 2FD& Deskmate$1 1 99.00 $ 895.00 

25-1000 Model 1 000 1 FD 1 28K & Deskmate 999.00 705.00 

25-1001 Model 1000 1 FD & 10 Meg HD 256K 1999.00 1475.00 

25-3000 Model 1200 1 FD & 10 Meg HD 256K 2499.00 1525.00 

25-3001 Model 1200 Two FD 256K 1499.00 1200.00 

25-4000 Model 3000 One FD 51 2K 2599.00 1900.00 

25- 4010 Model 3000 1 FD & 20 Meg HD 51 2K 3599.00 2600.00 

26- 3901 Model 600 Port Comp 32K 1 3 1 / 2 Disk 1 599.00 1 1 95.00 

25-1021 CM4 Color Monitor 299.95 225.00 

25-1022 CM10 Color Monitor 459.95 380.00 

25- 3010 VM-3 Monochrome Monitor 219.00 185.00 

26- 5111 VM-1 Monochrome Monitor 199.95 165.00 

26-5112 CM-1 Color Monitor 599.00 510.00 

25-3043 Graphics Adaptor T-1200, T-3000 . 299.00 185.00 

25-3047 Deluxe Graphics Adapt T-1 200, T-3000 499.95 395.00 

25-3130 MS-DOS 2. 11 /Basic Tandy 1200 . 89.95 75.00 

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CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-248-3823 

For Technical Questions and Information on our complete line of 
computer accessories and current prices: 

CALL 1-517-625-4161 

Mon.-Fri. 9-5, Sat. 9-3 

All prices and offers may be changed or withdrawn without notice. Advertised prices are 
cash prices. C.O.D. accepted ($10.00 charge per carton on C.O.D. Call for further 
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124 SOUTH MAIN STREET • PERRY, Ml 48872 




26-3136 16K Standard Color Computer 2 . . $119.95 $ 99.00 

26-3127 64K Extended Color Computer 2 , 199.95 169.00 

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26-3008 Joystick . . 1 9.95 1 6.95 

26-3012 Deluxe Joystick (EACH) 29.95 25.00 

26-3018 Extended Basic Kit 39.95 36.00 

26-1208 CCR-81 Tape Recorder 59.95 50.00 

26-1 173 DCM-3 Direct Connect Modem . . . 59.95 50.00 



SOFTWARE 



30001210 Telewriter 64 Tape $ 49.95 $42.00 

30001220 Telewriter 64 Disk 59.95 49.00 

30001110 VIP Writer 69.95 59.00 

30001140 VIP Database 59.95 49.00 

30001150 VIP Terminal Disk 49.95 45.00 

30001170 VIP Integrated Software 149.95 139.00 

30001130 SS/DD 10 Pack Diskettes 21.00 14.00 

PRINTERS AND ACCESSORIES 

26-1276 DMP-105 80 cps Dot Matrix $199.95 $169.00 

26-1280 DMP-1 30 Dot Matrix 349.95 285.00 

20001025 EPSON LX-80 Printer 369.95 225.00 

20001515 EPSON LX-80 Tractor Feed 29.95 25.00 

20021070 OKI DATA 182 Printer 299.00 245.00 

20041020 STAR SG-10 Printer 299.00 250.00 

300091 1 0 BOTEK Serial to Parallel Interface 59.00 

PERRY COMPUTERS • 



48 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



1 MHM 16K 


■ 


16K 




f the ] 

• warn 




SIMULATION 


| ECB 




Mod. 




RAINBOW 





Rattle Rattle 
Thunder Clatter 
Boom Boom Boom 

Discover the inner workings of your ailing car 



By Michael B. Kromeke 




his program allows you to see 
some of the internal workings of 
a running engine. The engine is 



Michael Kromeke holds an associates 
degree in electronics engineering tech- 
nology and is a technician with AT&T 
Communications in Albuquerque, New 
Mexico. Mike enjoys programming the 
Co Co, photography and coin collect- 
ing. 



started by pressing k S\ As it starts, the 
car key moves into the ignition switch 
and turns. The oil warning light comes 
on, the fuel gauge goes from empty to 
full, the fan starts to turn and the oil 
warning light goes off. The four pistons 
start moving up and down and the spark 
plugs fire. 

When the engine is running, press *T' 
for a trouble selection. This puts one of 
five troubles into the engine in random 
order. You must try to start the engine 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 49 



Next to your Tandy* or 





nothing beats a 



High-quality printers — at 
hard-to-beat prices! 

Now that you have the 
home or office computer you 
wanted, get the printer you 
need. A Tandy printer! 

Tandy printers are designed 
to give you exceptional print 
quality, graphics and high 
performance — all at afford- 
able prices. Your nearby Radio 
Shack Computer Center has a 
complete line of printers, from 
high-speed dot matrix to 
letter-quality daisy wheels. 
There's sure to be one that 
will suit your particular print- 
ing requirements — and 
budget — to a tee. 



Budget-priced high 
performer 

The DMP 105 (26-1276, 
$199.95) is the low-cost solu- 
tion for data-processing and 
general-purpose use. The 
DMP 105 features a bidirec- 
tional head that prints 80 
characters per line at 43 lines 
per minute (10 cpi). Elon- 
gated and condensed modes 
are also available. Prints up to 
80 characters per second. Par- 
allel and Color Computer- 
compatible serial interfaces. 

Triple -mode "personal 
printer" 

The low-cost, versatile 
DMP 130 (26-1280, $349.95) 



features word-processing and 
data-processing, as well as 
dot-addressable graphics 
modes. You can choose from 
four character styles: standard 
or italic cursive, in draft or 
correspondence modes. The 
DMP 130 supports super/ 
subscripts, double-width, 
bold, double-strike and micro- 
fonts. The bidirectional, logic- 
seeking print head prints 
original, plus two copies on 4" 
to 10" fanfold paper or single 
sheets. Prints up to 100 char- 
acters per second. Built-in 
tractor. Parallel and Color 
Computer-compatible serial 
interfaces. IBM® PC 
compatible. 



PC^ compatible computer, 




Tandy printer* 

Low -cost business printer 

The DMP 430 (26-1277, 
$699.00) is a dot-matrix 
printer with an 18-wire print 
head that delivers superior 
correspondence fonts in a sin- 
gle pass. Prints 10, 12, or 16.7 
cpi, plus elongated, standard, 
elite and condensed. You can 
also get micro, italic and 
double-high fonts. Prints origi- 
nal, plus two copies at 1 80 
characters per second. IBM 
PC compatible. 

Power for business 

Get high speed and high 
performance with our finest 
printer, the DMP 2200 
(26-1279, $1695.00). Efficient, 



fast printing means no long 
and costly delays for reports. 
Supports elongated, double- 
high, bold, underline, super/ 
subscripts, italics and 
double-strike modes, plus bit- 
image graphics. Prints up to 
380 characters per second. 
Features a true pin-driven 
tractor — not sprocket. Prints 
original, plus up to six copies. 
Parallel interface only IBM 
PC compatible. 

In Business . . . 

for Business 

For the best value and se- 
lection in printers, shop Radio 
Shack. We've got the right 
match for your machine! 



Radio /hack 

The Technology Store 1 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



pa w 

Send me an RSC-17 Computer Catalog. 

I 
I 

Name 

j Company 




Mail to: Radio Shack, Dept. 87-A-53 
300 One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, Texas 76102 



I 
I 



Address 

9| City 

State 

ZIP 

Phone _ 



1 

1 

-1 

'J 



Prices apply at Radio Shack Computer Centers and at participating 
stores and dealers. The DMP 430 may require special order. 
IBM/Registered TM International Business Machines Corp. 




again. If it fails to start or does not run 
properly, you must go to the checklist 
by pressing fc C\ 

The checklist gives 11 different pos- 
sibilities. Choose one of the possibilities 
and information about that kind of 
trouble is displayed. You will be told 
whether you have correctly identified 
the problem or not. 

If an incorrect answer is picked, you 
are sent back for another look at the 
trouble. A correct answer returns you to 
a properly running engine. After cor- 



rectly finding all five troubles, your 
score and skill level are displayed. The 
three skill levels are beginner, shade tree 
mechanic and master mechanic. 

Anytime the engine is running, even 
improperly, you may stop and start it 
by pressing *S\ 

To run this program with only 16K, 
delete all REM statements. Deleting the 
following lines will not affect the pro- 
gram: 30, 34, 38, 42, 48, 70, 84, 88, 92, 
96, 100, 106, 1 12, 120, 176, 180, 184, 188 
and 216. 



52 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



Variables 




A 




answer 


B 




miscellaneous counter 


CI 




cylinder 1 


C2 




cylinder 2 


C3 




cylinder 3 


C4 




cylinder 4 


■pv 

D 




number of trouble 


E 




oil leak counter 


F 




vertical location of cylinder 


G 




picture of piston 


H 




picture of key in slot 


I & M 




trouble in engine 


K 




number of right answers 


W 




wrong answer counter 


Y 




horizontal location of 






cylinder 


A$ 




draw picture of fan not 






turning 


Z$ 




miscellaneous input 



(Mr. Kromeke can be reached at 9940 
Academy Knolls N.E., Albuquerque, 
NM 87111. Please enclose an SASE 
when writing.) □ 



fiim I I ' f ll 




*. niL 



an TT.j 



FUEL DIL V O LT 5 
PRESS "T" FDR TROUBLE 




K EY 



** CHECK LIST ** 

1) MISSING U-JOINTS 

2) FUEL TANK EMPTY 

3) ROTATE TIRES 

4) BATTERY IS DEAD 

5) REPLACE MASTER CYLINDER 

6) SPARK PLUG NOT FIRING 

7) FLUSH COOLING SYSTEM 

8) OIL LEAK 

9) CATALYTIC CONVERTER 

10) AIR INTAKE BLOCKED 

11) OIL PRESSURE LOW 
CHOOSE ONE OF THE ABOVE 




* - .'V:. 



24 ... 


....140 


148 ... 


» . . > 99 


54 ... 


....180 


160 ... 


...249 


64 ... 


....165 


174 ... 


...237 


90 , 


201 


196 


12 


114 .. 


30 


END .. 


...111 


136 .. 


68 







(.-.v.. t 



T 



: ENGINE 



2 CLEAR20J3 : DIM A, B, CI , C2 , C3 , C4 , D 
,E, F,G(7) ,H(18) , I,M,R: Cl=12 : C2=3 
:C3=9:C4=6:B=RND( -TIMER) 
4 GOSUB196:GOT05j3 
6 ON F GOSUB36,40,44, 40,36,32, 36 
, 4 J3 , 4 4 , 4J3 , 3 6 , 3 2 : RETURN 
8 SCREENl : Y=/3 : F=C1 : GOSUB6 : C1=C1+ 
IMF Cl=13 THEN DRAWBM86 , 51C4ND 
2 " : PLAY"T255A" : GOSUB2 8 : DRAW" C1ND 
2»:C1=1 

10 Y=23 : F=C2 : G0SUB6 : C2=C2+1 : IFC2 
«13 AND DO 3 THEN DRAW"BM109 , 51C4 
ND2" : PLAY "A" : GOSUB2S : DRAW"C1ND2" 
02 X 

12 IF C2=13 THEN C2=l 
14 Y«46 : F=C3 : GOSUB6 : C3=C3+1 : IFC3 
-13 THEN DRAWBM132 , 51C4ND2" : PLA 
Y"A" : GOSUB28 : DRAWC1ND2 » : C3=l 
16 IF D=4 THEN PSET(126+RND(44) , 
112+RND (7) ,2) : E=E+1 : IF E>100 THE 
N: PAINT (80,144) ,4,3: SOUND2 ,20: GO 
HO220 

18 Y=69 : F=C4 : GOSUB6 : C4=C4+1 : IFC4 
tftffc THEN DRAW»BM155 , 51C4ND2 " : PLA 



Y"A» : GOSUB2 8 : DRAWC1ND2 " : C4=l 
20 Z$=INKEY$:IFZ$=""THEN8 
22 IF Z$="T"AND D=0THEN 1=1+1 :D= 
M(I) :GOTO50 

24 IF Z$="C"AND D<>0 THEN122 

2 6 IF Z$="S"THEN116 ELSE 8 

28 FORB=1TO1J30 : NEXTB : RETURN 

30 'CYLINDER MOVEMENT POSITION 1 

32 PUT(8j3+Y,55)-(92+Y,71) ,G,PSET 

: RETURN 

34 'POSITION 2 

36 PUT(8j3+Y,59) -(92+Y,75) ,G,PSET 
: RETURN 

38 'POSITION 3 

4 0 PUT (8J3+Y, 63) - (92+Y, 79) , G, PSET 
: RETURN 

42 'POSITION 4 

44 PUT(8j3+Y,67)-(92+Y,83) ,G>PSET 
* RETURN 

4 6 PRINT© 4 88," PRESS <RETURN> " ; : L 
INEINPUTZ$ : RETURN 
48 'MAIN SCREEN 

5 0 PMODE3 , 1 : PCLS : SCREENl , 0 : DRAW" 
BM0 , 0 C2R2 5 5 Dl 2 j3 L2 5 5U 1 20 BM7 0 , 4 6 C 4 
RlJ30D40L10j3U40H4U4E4R10j3F4D4G4L4 
4BU12U10R2J3E4U8H4L6J3G4L16H2L2D12 
R2E2R16F4R16NR22D10BMj3, 191R255" 
52 A$="BM6J3, 68C3H10U14E4F4D14G8D 
4F4NE4G4D14F4E4U14H4 " : DRAW"BM7j3 , 
86C4D6F4R4J3F6D6F2R42L2D2L3U2R5E6 
U18BM70 , 60L10D14NR10" : DRAW"XA$ ;B 
M154 , 34RU12E4R4F4D12BM130 , 94NR4D 
5R4U5BR4D5BR4NU5R3BL14BD4ND5R4D2 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 53 



54 DRAW"BM36, 28C2NR4D2NR4D3BR8U5 

, 19C4U3NR 



it 



56 DRAW"BM204 , 98C4R40D18L40U18R6 
U2R4D2R4U2R4D2R4U2R4D2R4U2R4D2L3 
0BD6ND6C3R4D3NL4D3NL3BR4U6R4D3NL 



ii 



58 DRAW»BM78,79C4U25R16D25BR7U25 
R16D25BR7U25R16D25BR7U25R16D25BM 
86, 50C3R68E8U18L2D18G7L44BM14 , 64 



0U3 9 " : P0KE17 8 , 207 : PAINT (34,55) , , 

3 : P0KE178 , 3 : G0SUB8 6 

6j3 DRAW"BM14, 126C3NR4D3NR2D3BR8N 



4D6R4U6NL4BR4D6BR4NU6R4BR32H2U4B 



L2R2BR4NR4D3R4D3L4BM8 , 138NR4D3NR 
2D3R4" 

62 DRAW"BR32U3NR2U2R4BR18NR26D12 
R2 6U12BR18NR4D6R4U3L4U3BR24 BU4 NR 



3R4BM26 , 164C2H16BM214 , 54C4ND8R12 
D2NL12D6L12R5D4BR3U6L3D2 " : GET (21 



4 , 50 ) - ( 2 2 6 , 6 6 ) , G , G : LINE ( 2*4,50)^ 
(226,66) , PRESET, ^Mkf$m0m0S,^m 

64 DRAW" BH13 6, 164C2" : IF D«=2 THEN 
DRAW"H16"ELSEDRAW"E16" ! f 
66 CIRCLE ( 2 2j3, 58) ,14,3, . 9 : DRAW»B 
M212, 64C3NE14F3E14": PAINT (220, 58 
) ,4 ,3:GET(206,46) -(234, 70) ,H,G:L 
INE (206 , 46) -(234,70) , PRESET, BFsG 
OSUB102 

68 IF D=5 THEN PAINT(64,20) ,2,4: 
G0T0182 

70 ^^^^w^k^i^^-Wt^^ 

72 IF INKEY$<>"S"THEN72 ELSEGOSU 
B90 

74 IF D=l ^^B^m^^M^hM^ 
76 IF D=2 THEN178 
78 GOSUB94 : FORB=0TO52STEP3 : LINE ( 
50, 42+B) - (58 , 42+B) , PRESET: PLAY" T 
140O1AF " : NEXTB : PAINT (80, 144) ,1 ,3 
5GOSUB9S 

80 IF D=3 OR D=4 THEN GOSUB108 E 
LSE GOSUB114 
82 GOT08 

84 'DRAW KEY , CIRCLE & WORD KEY 
8 6 CIRCLE ( 190,140) ,14,3, .9: DRAW" 
BM188 , 150C3U20R4D20BR20NH4E4F4E4 



Two- Liner Contest Winner . 

For this game, use the 
target up and down and 
them get by you, though. 

The listing: 



joystick to move the 
the arrows. Don't let 



1 CLS0:A$=CHR$(191) : B$=CHR$ (12 7 ) 
: C$=CHR$ (128) : Q=2:Y=13/63 :C=32:C 
A=3 : PRINT@9 , "ARROW CATCH" ; : PRINT 
@34 , "ARROWS : " , "CATCHERS : » / : FORZ= 
1T09 : Z»l : R=RND ( 14 ) *32+64 :FORX=Q 
TO30:J=JOYSTK(0) : J- (INT (JOYSTK (1 
)*Y)*C+64) :IF LOJ THENPRINT@L, C 
$;:PRINT@J,A$;:L=J 

2 PLAY"T25503A" :PRINT@R-X, C$ ; : PR 
INT@R-X-1 , B$ ; :.NEXTX : CA=( INT (AR/5 
0 )+3-SU) : Q=2+INT(AR/10 ) :PRINT@57 
,CA; : PRINTQR-X, C$ ; : IFR-X=J+1THEN 
SOUND 100 , 1 : AR»AR+1 : PRINT® 42, AR ; : 
NEXTELSESU=SU+1: CA=CA-1 : PRINT@57 
, CA ; : IFCA=0THENPRINT, "BY KEVIN D 
ERB Y " ELSENEXT 



Kevin Derby 
Lubbock, TX 



(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



Two- Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Nitstrik is a neat little shoot~em-up. Center the 
enemy's chopper in your sights using the joystick and 
fire when ready. Caution: It isn't as easy as it sounds! 

The listing: 



'r.<n 



1 PM0DE4 : SCREEN 1 , 1 : PCLS : 0=12 8 : P» 
96 : C$=*"U1NL8NR8D1L1G1D1F1NG2R2NF 
2E1U1H1NL1G1NR2NL2H1" : FORJ»1TO10 
00: PCLS :X= JOYSTK (0) *4 : Y=JOYSTK( 1 
) *3 : CIRCLE (X, Y) ,8 : H=-RND(10) : V»RN 
D (10) : 0=0+H-5 : P=P+V-5 : DRAW'S 8 BM" 
+STR$(0) +»,"+STR$(P)+C$ 

2 Q=rPEEK (65 280 ) :IFQ=127 0RQ=255 
ORX+3<0 0RX-3>0 0RY+3<P ORY- 
THENNEXT : ELSEP0KE359 , 126 : CLS : ' 
NT " N I GHT - S TRI KE REPORT: ", "ENEMY 
KILLED IN "J "MOVES", "AGAIN (Y/N) " 

; : INPUT D$ : I FD$ <> " Y "THENPRINT "MI 
SSION TERMINATED" : END : ELSE RUN 



Searcy, A H 

(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion the Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



54 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



NR4U3 NR2U3 R4 BR4 D2R4NU2 L2 D4 >' : PAIN 

T(216,144) ,2,3:RETURN 

88 'KEY TO START POSITION 

90 LINE (208 , 135) - (248 ,153 ) , PRESE 

T, BF:PLAY"T80ABCDEF" : PUT ( 176 ,128 

)- (204, 152) ,H,PSET: RETURN 

92 'FUEL GAGE FROM E TO F W< 

94 PAINT (80 , 144 ) , 4 , 3 : GOSUB28 : DRA 

W"BM2 6 , 164C1NH16 » : GOSUB2 8 : DRAW" C 

2NU16" :G0SUB28:DRAW"C1NU16» :GOSU 

B28 :DRAW"C2E16»: GOSUB28 : RETURN 

96 'BLANK BOX 

98 LINE (44, 176) -(255, 19/3) , PRESET 
, BF : RETURN 

100 'DRAW PRESS S FOR START 

102 DRAWBM0, 182C3ND6R4D3L4D3BR8 



>.>:-vA'l." 



NR4D3R4D3NL4BR4BU4U2BR8R2NR2D6BR 
6NR4U6R4D6BR9BU6NR4D3R4D3NL4BR6U 
6L2R4 BR4ND6R4 D3NL4 D3 BR4U6R4 D3L4R 
2F3BR6U6L2R4" 

104 DRAW" BR8NR4 D6R4U6BR4ND6R4 D3 L 
4RF3BR10BU6NR4D3R4D3NL4BR6U6L2R4 



1 



106 'DRAW C FOR CHECK LIST 
108 DRAWBM45, 182C3ND2BR4NR4D6R4 



6R4BR4D3R2NE3NF3L2D3 " Ifiil^i?i|ill4 
110 DRAWBR16NU6R4BR4U6BR4NR4D3R 
4D3NL4BR6U6NL2R2 " : RETURN 
112 'DRAW T FOR TROUBLE 
114* DRAW" BM4 5 , 182C3ND2BR4R2NR2D6 
BR6BU4U2BR7NR4D3NR2D3BR8NR4U6R4D 
6BR4U6R4D3L4R2F3BR12U6NL2R2BR4ND 
6R4D3 L4RF3 BR4NR4U6R4 D6BR4NU6R4U6 
BR4 D6R4U3NL4U3NL4 BR 4 D6R4 BR4NR4U3 
NR3U3R4": RETURN 

116 DRAW"XA$ ; BM2 6 , 1 6 4 CINE 1 6 " : GOS 
UB28 : DRAW"C2NU16": GOSUB28 J DRAW'C 
1NU16C2H16" : LINE (176, 126) - (250, 1 
52 ) , PRESET , BF : GOSUB98 : GOSUB86 : GO 
SUB102:GOTO72 

118 PRINTS487, "PRESS <RETURN> " ; 
: LINEINPUTZ $ : RETURN 
120 'CHECK LIST pM'&SI&M vJ$&: 
122 CLS : PRINTS 8 , "** CHECK LIST * 
*":PRINT@68,"1) MISSING U-JOINTS 
" : PRINTS 100 , " 2 ) FUEL TANK EMPTY" 
124 PRINT© 13 2 ,"3 ) ROTATE TIRES": 
PRINTS164,"4) BATTERY IS DEAD" 
126 PRINTS 196, "5) REPLACE 

CYLINDER" : PRINT (§2 28 , " 6) S PARK P 
LUG NOT FIRING" *m 
128 PRINTS 2 60, "7) FLUSH COOLING 



ERTER" : PRINTS 3 55," 10) AIR INTAKE 
BLOCKED" 

132 prints387,"11) oil pressure 
low" „;'■,,.:",;, 

134 prints 4 50, "choose one of the 
above" ; : inputz$ : a=val ( z $ ) 
136 if a<1 or a>11 then sound1 , 1 

IGOT0134 

138 ON A GOTO140, 142 , 146, 150, 154 

,156,160,164,168,172,174 

140 CLS: PRINTS 4,"** MISSING U-JO 

INTS **" : PRINTS 65, "THE U-JOINTS 

CONNECT THE DRIVE- SHAFT TO THE 

DIFFERENTIAL WHICH TURN THE WHEE 

LS. THE U-JOINTS ARE NOT IN TH 

I S PROGRAM . " : GOTO 1 90 

142 CLS:PRINTS6,"** FUEL TANK EM 

PTY * * " : PRINTS 6 5 , " LOCATED ON THE 

LEFT SIDE OF THE SCREEN, THE E 
STANDS FOR EMPTY AND F STANDS F 
OR FULL. GASOLINE IS MADE FROM P 
ETROLEUM THAT IS A NATURAL FLAM 
MABLE LIQUID" 

144 PRINT" HYDROCARBON MIXTURE T 
HAT COST AN ARM AND A LEG.": GO 
TO190 

146 CLS:PRINT§6,"** ROTATE TIRES 
' * * " : PRINTS 6 5 , "YOU CAN INCREASE 
THE LIFE OF YOUR TIRES BY ROT 
ATING THEM ONCE EVERY 5000 M 

ILES OR SO. CARS WITH FRONT-W 
HEEL DRIVE SHOULD NOT BE ROT 

ATED. TO GET MAXIMUM TIRE LIFE 

YOU SHOULD" 
148 PRINT" CHECK AIR PRESSURE EV 
ERY 30 DAYS WHEN TIRES ARE C 

OLD FOR MANUFACTURER RECOMMEN 
DED PRES- SURE . " : GOTO190 : GOSUB 

150 CLS:PRINTS6, »** BATTERY IS D 
EAD **" :PRINT@65, "THIS CAR IS RU 
NNING ON A 12 VOLT SYSTEM. C 

KECKING THE VOLTAGE READIN 

G ON THE INSTRU- MENT PANEL WE 
CAN SEE IF WE HAVE THE PROPE 

R READING. ANY- THING ABOVE 9. 
6 VOLTS AFTER 15" 

152 PRINT" SECONDS OF CRANKING T 
HE ENGINE SHOULD BE ADEQUATE.": 
GOTO190 

154 CLS:PRINT@2,"** REPLACE MATE 
R CYLINDER **" : PRINTS 6 5 , "THE MAS 
TER CYLINDER IS NOT SHOWN I 

N THIS DIAGRAM. IT IS A VERY IM 
PORTANT PART OF THE BRAKE S 

M.":GOTO190 
156 CLS:PRINT@2,"** SPARK PLUG N 



SYSTEM" : PRINTS 2 9 2 , " 8 ) OIL LEAK" 
130 PRINTS324,"9) CATALYTIC CONV 



: >•->. 



OT FIRING **":PRINT§65,"THE IGNI 
TION SYSTEM IS DESIGNED TO IGNIT 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 55 



E THE AIR/ FUEL MIXTURE THAT IS 

DRAWN INTO THE ENGINE THROUGH 

THE CARBURETOR. IF THE SPARK PL 

UGS FAIL TO FIRE THEN" 

158 PRINT" YOUR ENGINE WILL NOT 

RUN PROP- ERLY.":GOTO190 

160 CLS .'PRINTS 2,"** FLUSH COOLIN 

G SYSTEM **": PRINTS 65, "THE COOLI 

NG SYSTEM SHOULD BE DRAINED A 
ND FLUSHED EVERY TWO YEARS, AN 
D NEW COOLANT ADDED. THE RADIA 
TOR IS SHOWN IN THIS DIAGRAM A 
ND HELPS KEEP THE" 
162 PRINT" ENGINE FROM OVER HEAT 
ING BUT DOES NOT EFFECT ITS R 
UNNING.":GOTO190 

164 CLS 'PRINT S9y " ** OIL LEAK **" 
: PRINTS 65, "KEEP YOUR EYES ON THE 
OIL PAN . IF IT STARTS TO LEAK 
WE WILL SEE THE OIL WARNING L" 
IGHT COME" 

1 66 PRINT " ON JUST BEFORE THE EN 
GINE FREEZES UP, DO TO LACK 

OF ",» LUBRICANT . ": GOTO 19J3 
168 CLS : PRINTS 3, "** CATALYTIC CO 
NVERTER **": PRINTS 65, "THIS UNIT 
CONVERTS HYDROCAR- BONS AND C 
ARBON MONOXIDE INTO CARBON DIO 
XIDE AND WATER VAPOR. EXPECTED S 
ERVICE LIFE IS ABOUT" 
170 PRINT" 50,000 MILES AND IS N 
OT IN THIS PROGRAM. » : GOTO190 1 
172 CLS: PRINTS 3,"** AIR INTAKE B 
LOCKED * * " : PRINTS 65," THE AIR CLE 
ANER HAS A DISPOS- ABLE FILTER 

ELEMENT THAT SHOULD BE CHANGED 
WHEN IT BECOMES BLOCKED WIT 

H DIRT. IF AIR CAN NOT GET TO 
THE CARBURETOR WE WILL FAIL T 
0 GET IGNITION. " :GOTO190 
174 CLS:PRINTS4, "** OIL PRESSURE 

LOW **» : PRINTS 6 5 , "THE RED WARNI 
NG LIGHT WILL COME ON WHEN OIL P 
RESSURE IS LOW. THIS LIGHT WI 
LL COME ON MOMEN- TARILY WHEN S 
TART ING ENGINE .": GOTO190 
176 'BATTERY DEAD 

178 GOSUB98 : GOSUB108 : IF INKEY$=» 

CTHEN122ELSE178 

180 'AIR INTAKE BLOCKED 

182 IF INKEY$<>"S"THEN182 ELSEGO 

SUB90 : GOSUB9 4 : PAINT (8JZJ, 144 ) , 1, 3 

184 'NO GAS 

186 GOSUB9 8 : GOSUB108 : FORY=1T03 : P 
LAY" T30ABCDEEDCBA" : GOSUB2 8: NEXTY 
:IF INKEY$«"C"THEN122 ELSE186 
188 1 CORRECT ANSWER OR NOT 
190 IF A=D*2 THENPRINTS422,"* CO 
RRECT ANSWER *":R=R+1:D=0 : SOUND1 



40 , 11 : SOUND180 , 11 : S0UND176 , 4 : SOU 
ND165 , 4 : SOUND154 , 4 :SOUND200, 12 : S 
OUND180 , 17 : GOSUB4 6 : IF R=5 THEN 20 
8 ELSE50 

192 PRINTS425,«WRONG ANSWER" : SOU 
ND1/4 : W=W+ 1 : GOSUB4 6 m fMfifM 

194 SCREENl , 0 I ON D GOT0186, 178,8 
, 8 , 186 

196 CLS0: PRINTS TRING $ ( 160 , 191) ;S 

TRING$ (160 ,207) ;STRING$ (160, 175) 
; : PRINTS 7 1 , "4 CYLINDER ENGINE" ; : 
PRINTS2 30, "EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM" ; 
: PRINTS3 91 , "MICHAEL B KROMEKE"; 
198 A=A+1 

200 M=RND ( 5) : F0RB=1T05 
202 IF M=M ( B ) THEN2 0 0 S 
204 NEXTB : M ( A) =M : IF A<5 THEN138 
206 GOSUB2 18: RETURN HrlS?^ 
208 D=5/(5+W) : CLS: PRINTS 7 2, "NUMB 
ER CORRECT 5" : PRINTS 136 , "NUMBER 
WRONG"W: PRINTS 200 , "SCORE ="INT(1 
00*D) »%":GOSUB218:IF D<.5 THEN P 
RINTS264 , "BEGINNER" 
210 IF D>.49 AND D<1 THENPRINTS2 
62, "SHADE TREE MECHANIC" 
212 IF D=l THENPRINTS264 , "MASTER 
MECHANIC " »'WB- ? 5 

214 GOSUB218:PRINTS328,'»PLAY AGA 
IN Y/N " ; : INPUTZ $ : IFZ$="N"THEN EN 
D ELSE RUN 

•:216 'JOPLIN'S ENTERTAINER | 

218 PLAY"V30T2O2L8DD+EL4O3CO2L8E ! 

03L4C02L8E03CL2CL8CCDD+ECDEE02BO 

3 DL2.CL4": RETURN 

220 CLS4: PRINTS 192," OIL LEAKED 
OUT OF ENGINE AND IT FROZE UP. Y 
OU LOST YOUR ENGINE AND THE GAM 
E. SORRY 11!" H 




56 



THE RAINBOW September 1986 




s Battle the 
t of Disk Drives 



New Lower Price 

Un-DISK Drives $4&35? 

34.95 

You Bet! There are empty spaces in your 32K 
and 64K CoCo. The Preble VDOS Un-DISK 
helps you fill them up with PROGRAMS! 



Un-DISK uses your computer's extra 
memory like a fast disk drive. 

Un-DISK can store BASIC and MACHINE 
LANGUAGE programs. 

Un-DISK is INVISIBLE. Yup! Un-DISK 
does not interfere with normal Color Com- 
puter Operation. 

Un-DISK appears only when you type the 
magic word VDOS. 

Un-DISK comes with comprehensive in- 
structions which you may not need be- 
cause: 

Un-DISK is self-prompting and easy to 
use! 

Un-DISK is provided on cassette. 

Un-DISK is faster than a slow clumsy 
DISK DRIVE and best of all . . . 

Un-DISK is CHEAPER than a DISK DRIVE! 

Un-DISK will work even if you already own 
a disk but WHY BUY A DISK AT ALL? 

Un-DISK should be in the library of every 
serious CoCo user even if you own a disk 
says Frank J. Esser, independent reviewer 
for rainbow Magazine! 



OK sure, disk drives ARE NICE. I own one. 
But if yourfinances are limited, the Un-DISK 
can give you much of the power of the 
mechanical drive. Even if you already own a 
disk the Un-DISK can work like a super fast 
extra disk. 

EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . 
Additional Power For $14.95 

Only with VDUMP for the Un-DISK! 

• VDUMP lets you make a cassette backup 
copy of everything stored in the Un-DISK. 

• VDUMP lets you save 5, 10, 15 or more 
programs on a single cassette tape file. 

• VDUMP lets you switch Un-DISKs. With a 
single load operation replace a group of 
financial programs with a set of children's 
programs. (The new VDUMP tape over- 
writes the old.) 

• VDUMP can allow you to save a whole lot 
of rainbow on tape in a SINGLE file. 

• VDUMP is the perfect companion to the 
Preble VDOS Un-DISK. 

Available from Doctor Preble's Programs, 
naturally! Bringing you fine Color Computer 
Products Since 1983! 




The Preble VDOS Un-DISK $34.95 

The Preble VDUMP $14.95 

Shipping & handling 

U.S. and Canada $1.50 

or $5.00 to other foreign points 

VISA and MasterCard accepted 




Order From: 
Dr. Preble's Programs 

6540 Outer Loop 
Louisville, KY 40228 
(502) 966-8281 
Canadians may order from Kelly Software 



EDUCATION 




The time has come, " the parent said, 
To learn about the clock. 
Of hours and numbers and second 

hands, of minutes and things, 
Why the six is 30 called, 
And whether on 12 it rings. " 






One of the skills all children must 
learn is how to read a clock. The 
schools teach children how to 
tell time, but I feel most children could 
learn this skill sooner and more easily 
if they had the proper help at home. I 
wrote Clock for the Color Computer to 
assist parents in teaching their children 
how to tell time. Please note that this 
program is not intended to be a self- 

Dennis Norton lives in Quincy, Illinois 
and has owned his Co Co about four 
years. He is a self-taught programmer 
who enjoys using the computer to solve 
problems and lessen the drudgery of 
household tasks. 



teaching program. It requires a teacher 
to explain the significance of the screen 
exercises; however, it can be used by a 
child alone after he becomes familiar 
with it. Preschoolers will also gain 
practice in handling numbers; for exam- 
ple, they will learn that twelve is 12, not 
21. 

Using the program is a simple matter; 
just type it in and run it. You see a title 
screen and then there is a delay of about 
forty seconds while the computer is 
calculating the necessary data for the 
clock display. When the blinking line 
appears below the clock face, the pro- 
gram is waiting for you to type in the 
time shown on the clock. 





■ KTJ 




58 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



Figure 1. Level one screen display after giving correct 
answer on second try. 



Figure 2. Level four screen display with user-control 
feature. 



The program has five levels which 
introduce different formats and degrees 
of difficulty. In the first level all times 
shown are on the hour. There are re- 
strictions on what key input will be 
accepted, but the left-arrow key can be 
used to backspace and change answers. 

When you have typed in an answer, 
press ENTER and the computer tells you 
if you are correct. As in all the levels, 
a wrong answer causes a short, disap- 
proving sound, then your answer disap- 
pears and you have a second chance to 
type in the correct time. After a second 
try, or a correct first try, you must press 
any key to continue to the next time 
question. Figure 1 shows how the screen 
appears after a correct answer on the 
second try. 

The computer displays time ques- 
tions until all the possibilities at this 
level have been answered correctly. 
When that occurs, if you have given 
more than three wrong answers, the 
program recycles to the beginning of 
level one. 

On level two, answers are expected in 
the form XX minutes after XX o'clock. 
Possible times of 0-30 minutes in incre- 
ments of five after a random hour are 
displayed. This level recycles if more 
than two wrong answers are recorded. 

The third level requires answers in the 
form XX minutes before XX o'clock. 
Times of 0-30 minutes in five minute 
increments before a random hour are 
displayed. This level also recycles if 
more than two wrong answers are 
recorded. 

The fourth level displays a random 
time in increments of five minutes. The 
student is required to enter the minutes, 
whether it is before or after, and the 
hour. A correct answer causes the time 



to be displayed in digital format in 
addition to the normal display. More 
than two wrong answers causes level 
four to recycle. 

The fifth and last level displays a 
random time and requires the answer to 
be given in digital format. This level 
recycles if more than four wrong 
answers are given before 24 correct 
answers are attained. 

After all five levels are completed, 
your record of right and wrong answers 
is displayed, and a rendition of Grand- 
father's Clock by Henry Work is played. 
Then you're asked to choose what level 
you would like to re-enter for more 
practice. An out-of-range entry causes 
the program to end. 

Since this program is a tool to be used 
by an adult in teaching children, I 
included a user-control feature to help 
you answer your child's questions and 
supply additional information. When- 
ever the program is waiting for a key to 
be pressed after a correct answer (or two 
incorrect answers), press the up-arrow 
key instead. The clock hands disappear 
and a blue rectangle appears in the 
upper-right section of the screen, leav- 
ing the remainder of the screen undis- 
turbed. The line cursor in the rectangle 
waits for you to type in a time in digital 
format. The space and backspace do not 
register, but incorrect times (e.g., 09:63) 
are ignored. 

Once you have entered the four digits 
of a valid time, the clock face displays 
that time. The program then accepts 
one of three key commands: T\ 'R' and 
the down-arrow key. l T' clears the 
displayed time and allows you to enter 
a new time. 'R' runs the clock; the 
present time is increased by one minute 
and this new time is displayed on the 



screen. The clock continues to run until 
the 'S' key is pressed. The down-arrow 
key returns to the main program which 
then continues as if there has been no 
interruption. Figure 2 shows an exam- 
ple of this feature being used in level 
four. 

After using the program a while, you 
may find you would like to change two 
factors. Each level has a certain number 
of possible choices of time to display. If 
the student doesn't answer a display 
correctly, that choice is put back into 
the pool of possible choices. The pro- 
gram will not advance to the next level 
until all available choices have been 
answered correctly. However, this can 
be tiresome during debugging or for a 
child who has mastered the early levels. 
For level one, Line 1390 checks NR 
(number of right answers) against 12 
(number of possible right answers) to 
see if another loop through the level is 
desired. 

If you do not want to display all 
possible choices, decrease 12 to the 
number of choices you want to use. Do 
not use a number larger than 12 or the 
program will be caught in an endless 
loop. The lines for levels two through 
five are 2390, 2390, 4590 and 5340. 

The second thing you might want to 
change involves the number of wrong 
answers allowed before a level is re- 
peated. For level one, Line 1410 checks 
NW (number of wrong answers) against 
three, which is an arbitrary number I 
chose to indicate the need for more 
practice before advancing to the next 
level. You can change this number to 
suit your own situation, but it should 
not be a negative number. The corre- 
sponding lines for levels two to five are 
2420, 2440, 4610 and 5360. 



60 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



If you are considering typing in the 
program, you may be discouraged by its 
length, but it is not necessary to type the 
entire program to use part of it. If you 
aren't sure the program is worth the 
effort, type in all lines up to 1420 and 
you will have level one. Additional 
levels can by typed as your fingers 
recover. The user-control feature will 
not operate at any level unless you have 
also typed lines 8000 to 8390. 

As a bonus for typing the program 
you will acquire an adaptable clock face 
routine. The routine is based on the 
coordinates of the center of the circle 



(XX,YY) and the radius of the circle 
(R). By changing these three variables 
found in Line 106, you control the size 
and position of the clock on the screen. 
The only exception is that the size of the 
numbers on the face will not change. To 
draw the hands on the clock, set Z equal 
to the minutes (0-60) and HH equal to 
the hour (1-12) and G0SUB 50. For 
example, if you want to display a time 
of 10:23, let Z=23 and HH=10. To erase 
the hands use a line similar to Line 1 380, 
first setting the draw color to the clock 
face color. The lines needed by the 
routine are 100 to 106, 150 to 174 and 



300 to 620 to set up the data and display, 
and the subroutine 50 to 68 to draw the 
clock hands. 

I'm sure parents have used many 
different methods to teach their chil- 
dren how to tell time, but this program 
can help if you are willing to invest time 
and knowledge. I hope you find Clock 
adds a little fun and encouragement to 
your child's learning experience. 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to Mr. Norton at 425 Carol 
Drive, Quincy, IL 62301. Please enclose 
an SASE for a reply.) □ 











4320 . , 


125 


28 ... . 


, 167 


1020 


224 


4500 . . 


18 


57 


203 


1220 . , 


, 207 


4620 . . 


39 


74 


251 


2000 


...250 


5190 


211 


150 . , 


, 178 


2160 


245 


5340 , 


80 


180 


106 


2330 . . 


• . s. .51 


8070 . . 


186 


380 


154 


4040 


229 


8250 . . 


200 


500 


106 


4210 


16 


END 


...163 



The listing: CLOCK 

2 1 COPYRIGHT (C) 198 6 BY DENNIS 
NORTON 

4 • "CLOCK" 1.12 32K ECB 

6 1 ORIGINAL BY D.N.; AID TO TEA 

CHING CHILD HOW TO TELL TIME 

10 CLEAR2000:PCLEAR4:PMODE3,1:Z= 
RND( -TIMER) :CLS5 

11 PRINT@109 , "Clock" ;,: PRINT@194 , 
" (C) 1986 BY DENNIS NORTON " ; : P 
RINT@ 2 90, "MUSIC: GRANDFATHER'S CL 
OCK" ; : PRINT@332 , "BY HENRY C. WOR 
K" ; : PRINT@457 , 11 PLEASE WAIT . " ; : 
GOTO100 

14 IFPPOINT (24 ,191)03. THENDRAW" 
C3" ELSE DRAW'Cl" 

16 DRAW"S4BM22,191R22" :FORJ=lT05 
: NEXT J : RETURN 

18 IFPPOINT (VAL(S1$ (C) ) ,191)<>3 
THENDRAW" C3 " ELSE DRAW'Cl" 
20 DRAW"BM"+S1$ (C) +"R9" : FORJ=lTO 
5 : NEXT J : RETURN 

22 IFPPOINT (VAL(LEFT$(S1$(C) ,3) ) 
,VAL(RIGHT$(S1$(C) ,3) ) )<>3 THEND 
RAW"C3" ELSEDRAW'Cl" 
24 DRAW'S 4 BM"+S1$ (C) +"R9" : RETURN 
26 IFPPOINT (88,188)03 THENDRAW" 
C3" ELSEDRAW'Cl" 

28 DRAW"BM8 8,188 "+BB$+ "BR2 4 "+AA$ 
: RETURN 

30 IFPPOINT (VAL(LEFT$ (Sl$ (CO) ,3) 

),16)=3 THENDRAW " C2 " ELSEDRAWC3 
ii 



32 DRAW"BM"+S1$ ( CO ) + " 1 6R9 " : RETUR 
N 

34 DRAW"S4BM210,70BD35BL14 D2RFD 
RFRFR3 FR3 FR3 ER3 ER3 ERERUERU2 ; BL17 
BU35" :GOTO40 

36 DRAW"S4BM210,70BD35BL14 D2RFD 
RFRFR3 FR3FR3 ER3 ER3 ERERUERU2 ; BL17 
BU35" 

38 DRAW"S4BM210, 70BD44BL14 U2REU 
RERER3ER11FR3FRFRDFRD2 ;BL17BU44" 
40 DRAW" L6GL3 GLGLGLDGLGLDGLD2 GLD 
2GLD4GLD13R1 ; FD4RFD2RFD2RFDRFRFD 
RFRFRFRFRFRFR1 1 ; ERERERERERERUERE 
RUERU2 ERU2ERU4ERU 1 3 LI ; HU4LHU2 LHU 
2 LHULHLHULHLHLHL3HL9 " 
42 DRAWBD16BL5LHLHL3GLGLDRFRFR3 
ERERU1 ; BR2 4 LHLHL3 GLGLDRFRFR3 ERER 
Ul ; BD5BL19DGLD3GLD4RFRFR4 " : RETUR 
N 

44 FORI=lTO L: DRAW"BM"+STR$ (8* (I 
- 1 ) ) + " , 0R5L3 D5L2R5 " : NEXT I : RETURN 

50 IFZ>54 THENW=HH*5+5:GOT055 

51 IFZ>42 THENW=HH*5+4:GOT055 

52 IFZ>30 THENW=HH*5+3 :GOT055 

53 IFZ>19 THENW=HH*5+2 :GOT055 

54 IFZ>7 THENW=HH*5+1 ELSEW=HH*5 

55 WW=W+15: IFWW>60 THENWW=WW- 60 

56 IFW>60 THEN W=W-60 

57 H1$="M"+STR$(H(W,4) )+","+STR$ 
(H(W,5)) 

58 H2$="M"+STR$(H(WW,4) )+", "+STR 
$(H(WW,5) ) 

59 IFW=0 THENH3$="M"+STR$(H(60,0 
) )+","+STR$(H(60,l) ) :GOT061 

60 H3$="M"+STR$(H(W-1,2) )+","+ST 
R$(H(W-1,3) ) 

61 H4$="M"+STR$ (H (W,0) ) +" , "+STR$ 
(H(W,1)) 

62 H5$="M"+STR$(H(W+1,2) )+", "+ST 
R$(H(W+1,3) ) 

63 M1$="M"+STR$(M(Z,2) )+","+STR$ 
(M(Z,3)) 

64 ZZ=Z+15:IFZZ>60 THENZZ=ZZ-60 

65 M2$="M"+STR$(M(ZZ,2) )+","+STR 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 61 



Prices Change 
Every Day. 
Please Call 

1-800-343-8841 



1 DEALER 




INQUIRIES § 


llNVITED 





I PRICE 



Sizzling Summer Specials 
Announcing MEGADISK PLUS + 

Complete Systems! for the TRS 80 Model I/III/IV/4P, Color Computer, IBM-PC & AT, Max/80 
Software Drivers: LDOS, NEWDOS/80, DOSPLUS, TRSDOS 6.x, CP/M available 





Drive a 5 to 40 Megabyte Hard Bargain Starting at $399* 95 

REMOVEABLE CARTRIDGE Systems Now Available!!! 

MEGAPLEX your Megadisk — 2 to 10 Port Systems 

Prices Start at a LOW $199.95 
Models III/IV4P 

Call Toll Free Ordering 1-800-343-8841 



CoCo Floppy Drives 



Drive 0 

$189.95 



Drive 0 & 1 

$249.95 



FCC APPROVED UL LISTED 



CANADIAN CUSTOMERS PLEASE CALL 514-383-5293 



Software Support Inc. — MiCTOSmart Inc. 



TERMS and CONDITIONS: 

All prices are cash discounted. However, we do 
accept MC, VISA, AMEX & DISCOVER credit cards. 
C.O.D.'s are accepted-No deposit required. 
Purchase Orders-Corporate, Government & School 
P.O.'s are accepted. Please call for details. 
Shipping Costs are calculated per order. 
Please call for total. 

Shipments of all in-stock products are made within 

24 hours. Same day service is available upon 

request — no added cost. 

Not responsible for typographical errors. 

Terms and Specifications may 

change without notice. 



** H< 



1-617-881-1800 c O?9 
200 Homer Ave 
Ashland MA 01721 *3r> 

ours: Mon.-Fri. 10 am to 5:30 pm (est) Sat 4:00 pm 

Toll Free Ordering^ 1-800-343-8841 

Dealer Inquiries 



Service & Returns: It is our policy to repair all service 
returns within 24-48 hours. Normally same day turn- 
around is accomplished. It is necessary to have a 
(R)eturn (M)aterial {Authorization to insure 
speedy service. 

IBM, TAVA, COLUMBIA, 5151, COMPAQ, EAGLE, 
TRS/60, HEATH/ZENITH are registered trademarks 
of IBM Corp., Tava Corp., Columbia Computer Corp, 
Key Tronics Corp, Compaq Corp, Eagle Computer, 
Tandy Corp, Zenith Corp, respectively. 

1 986 Software Support, Inc. Alt rights reserved. 

1986 MicroSmart, \ncAH rights reserved. 




BREAKTHROUGH 



DEALER 



INQUIRIES 



INVITED 



Prices Change 
Every Day. 
Please Call 
1-800 343-8841 
For Lower Prices 



MEGADISK " HARD DISK DRIVE SYSTEMS 



TOLL FREE ORDERING 1-800-343-8841 



For the 



IBM/PC, Tandy 1000, TRS/80 Models I/III/IV/4P, Compaq, Tava, PC Workalikes, Color Computers, Heath/Zenith, Max/80 
Complete with Hardware, Cables, Software and Quikfit Installation 

6 Megabytes Internal Mount IBM/PC \A/r\\ms Starting at $229.95 

11 Megabytes Internal Mount IBM/Tandy 1000 r »UVy' AfCU# starting at 349.95 

22 Megabytes Internal Mount IBM/Tandy 1000. P a fi + * ''CVV r\w^ startingat 

6 Megabytes External System 7?. a " TOf PR/f^Co startingat 

10 Megabytes External System 77. **QV&rtic*% j startingat 

20 Megabytes External System ' M5©Q CK flA - .... startingat 

Tape Backup System — Internal or External (IBM/PC) .""CfS/g. . startingat 

IBM/Heath — DOS, 1.0. 2.0. 2.1, 3.0, 3.1 or later 

TRS/80- LDOS, TRSDOS 6.x. Newdos/80. Dosplus, CP/M. COCO DOS, Max/80 LDOS, 0S9 



459.95 
399.95 
599.95 
749.95 
449.95 



DOS Drivers: 



FULLY WARRANTEED - PARTS AND LABOR — CALL TOLL FREE - 1-800-343-8841 



FLOPPY DISK DRIVES. POWER SUPPLIES AND CABINETS 

Our Disk Drives are UL approved — Our Floppy Drive Cabinets and Power Supplies 
are Underwriters Laboratory Listed and have passed the required Federal 
Communications Part 15 Section B-EMI/RFI tests. 

Warranty on all disk drives is one full year parts and labor. Warranty on floppy disk 
drive power supplies is five (S) years. In warranty or out of warranty service is 24 hour 
turn-a-round on all disk drives and power supplies. 

Full Height — Tandon 

100- 1 Sin * le sided 40 lk Bare $99.95 

In Case with Power Supply 139.95 

Dual Drives in One Cabinet 239.95 

,00-2 Dual Sided 40 tk Bar c * 109.95 

In Case with Power Supply 1 

Dual Drives in One Cabinet 259.95 

Half High Drives 

Single Sided 40 tk Bare 79.95 

In Case with Power Suppl v 1 1 9.95 

Dual Drives in One Cabinet 209.95 

Dual Sided 40 tk Bare 109.95 

In Case with Power Supply 149.95 

Dual Drives in One Cabinet 259.95 

Apple/Franklin Disk Drives 

35/40 Track in Case with Cable and Software 129.95 



TURBO-M " PC 

CALL 
800-343-8841 



COLOR COMPUTER DISK DRIVE SYSTEMS AND ADD IN PRODUCTS 

40 Track Single Head Drive with Case. Power Supply. Cable 

Controller. Instruction Booklet. Diskettes , $199,95 

Above with Dual Drives in One Cabinet 269.95 

40 Track Dual Head with Case. Power Suply. Cable. 

Controller. Instruction Booklet. Diskettes 249.95 

Above with Dual Drives in One Cabinet 359.95 

Dual DOS Switch 29.95 

With Second DOS System — JDOS. RSDOS. and Booklet , 69.95 



CALL FOR MODEM SPECIALS 

Modem Special 300/1200 $199. 95 



ALL IN-STOCK ITEMS SHIPPED WITHIN 24 HOURS. SAME DAY SHIPPING 
PROVIDED BY REQUEST WITHOUT ANY EXTRA HANDLING CHARGES. 



PRINTERS 

Dot Matrix 

Citi/cn , S Call 

Star Micronics S.G. Series starting at S299. 95 

Daisy Wheel 

Silver Reed 440 80 Column I2CPX 315.95 

550 132 Column 19 CPS ...439.95 

770 132 Column 36 CPS 895.00 

Olympia 132 Column 14 CPS WITH Form and Tractor Feed 399.95 

Printer Cables startingat 19.95 

Printer Paper Micropcrf Edge 1000 Sheets 16.95 

ELECTRICAL 

Surge Protectors - Line Filters SL Wabcr 6 Outlets with Switch S 39.9? 

Uninterruptible Power Supplies 399.45 

MISCELLANEOUS 
Diskettes in 10 Pack from $ 9.95 

Two print Switches from 99.95 

Disk Drive Cables from 16.00 

Maintenance Cleaning Kits . . , , , 1 2,00 

Parallel Prime Butlers HK 149.95 

Floppy Disk Drive Cables 

1 Drive 16.00 

2 Drives ...18.95 

Heath 'Zenith 2 Drive Cables Shielded 24.95 



Software Support Inc. — MicroSmart Inc. 



TERMS and CONDITIONS: 

All prices are cash discounted. However, we do 
accept MC, VISA, AMEX & DISCOVER credit cards. 
CCD 's are accepted-No deposit required. 
Purchase Orders-Corporate. Government & School 
P.O.'s are accepted. Please call for details. 
Shipping Costs are calculated per order. 
Please call for total. 

Shipments of all in-stock products are made within 

24 hours. Same day service is available upon 

request — no added cost. 

Not responsible for typographical errors. 

Terms and Specifications may 

change without notice. 



1-617-881-1800 o2fo V" 



200 Homer Ave 
pS> V Ashland MA 01721 

Hours: Mon.-Fri. 10 am to 5:30 pm (est) Sat 4:00 pm 



Toll Free Ordering 1-800-343-8841 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



Service & Returns: It is our policy to repair all service 
returns within 24-48 hours. Normally same day turn- 
a-round is accomplished. It is necessary to have a 
(R)eturn (M)aterial (A)uthorization to insure 
speedy service. 

IBM, TAVA, COLUMBIA, 5151, COMPAQ, EAGLE. 

TRS/80, HEATH/ZENITH are registered trademarks 

of IBM Corp.. Tava Corp., Columbia Computer Corp. 

Key Tronics Corp, Compaq Corp. Eagle Computer. 

Tandy Corp, Zenith Corp. respectively. 
1986 Software Support. Inc. Alt rights reserved 
1 986 MicroSmart, Inc. All rights reserved 

TURBO M " of MicroSmart Inc. 



$(M(ZZ,3)) 

66 M3$="M"+STR$(M(Z,0) )+","+STR$ 
(M(Z,1)) 

67 M4$="M"+STR$(M(Z+1,0) )+" / "+ST 
R$(M(Z+1,1) ) 

68 DRAW" C4B"+H1$+H2 $+H3 $+H4 $+H5 $ 
+H1$+"C3B"+M1$+M2$+M3$+M4$+M1$:R 

ETURN 

70 DRAW"C1S10BM0,161"+N$(1) :RETU 
RN 

72 DRAW"C4S10BM22 , 161"+N$ (I) :RET 
URN 

74 DRAW"C1S10BM22 , 161"+N$ (I) :RET 
URN 

76 DRAW I, BM32 / 188"+MM$+II$+NN$+"B 
L2UDBM186, 188"+OO$+"BL2BU10D2BD8 
BR4"+CC$+LL$+00$+CC$+KK$ : RETURN 
78 DRAW"BM26, 173 "+BB$+EE$+FF$+00 
$+RR$+EE$+"BM+2 , -5R2E2G2DBR2BDRB 
H2R16L2H2F2DBL2BDLBM+12 ,3": DRAWA 
A$+FF$+TT$+EE$+RR$ : RETURN 
10 0 DEFFNA(X)=INT(X+.5) 
103 DIMX(60,1) ,Y(60,1) ,X1(12,1) , 
Yl(12,l) ,N$(12) ,11(61,3) ,H(61,5) , 
Sl$(13) ,RS$(4) 

106 XX=80:YY=80:R=80:RA=57. 29577 
95 : R0=R-18 : RI=R-2 1 : RN=R-10 : RE=R- 
25:RF=RE-1: Hl=.7: H2=.6: RM=4: 
RH=8 

10 9 FORI= 1T0 1 3 : READS 1 $ ( I ) : NEXTI 
112 DATA "52, 191", "66, 191", "86,1 
91" , " 100 , 191" , "000 , 191" , "014 , 191 
» , "154 , 191" , "168 , 191" , "180, " , "19 

4, ","214, ","228, ","242," 
115 W$="T502L1. . .FC":RS$="GL4F#G 
L2AL4GAL2BL40+CO-BL2E" :RS$ (0) ="T 
502L2D"+RS$ :RS$ (2) ="02L4DDL2"+RS 

$ 

118 RS$="L4AAL2GL4GGL2F#L4EF#L2. 
. .GP4":RS$(1)="02"+RS$:RS$(3)=RS 

$(D 

121 RS $= " L4 GBL2 0+DO-L4 BAL2 GL4 F # G 

» :RS$ (4) ="02 ;XRS$ ;AGF#EL2D" 

150 N$ (0) ="BDD9RFR5ERU9LHL5G1 ;BU 

BR13" : 1 10X12 +4 NUMERALS 

152 N$(1)="BR6D11;U11BR8" 

154 N$(2)="BD1RER5FRD3LGLGLGLGLD 

3R8;BU11BR6" 

156 N$ (3) ="BD1RER3FRFRD2LGL3R3FR 

D3LGLGL3HL1 ; BU10BR14 " 

158 N$ (4) ="BD1D6R9L3U7D11 ;U11BR8 
it 

160 N$ (5) ="NR8D6R3ER3FRD4LGL5HL1 
;BU10BR14" 

162 N$ ( 6 ) = " BR7 LDGLDGLDGLD 4 RFR5 ER 
U2LHL6;BU7BR13" 

164 N$ ( 7 ) = " BD 1RER7 D4 LGLD6 ; BU11BR 
7" 

166 N$(8)="BDD3RFGLD4RFR5ERU4LHE 



RU3LHL5GLRBD3FR5E1 ; BU4BR6 " 

168 N$(9)="BR2R5FRD10U6L7HLU3RE1 

; BR12 " 

170 N$(10)="BL6"+N$(1)+"BL4"+N$( 
0) 

172 N$ (11) ="BL6"+N$ (1) +"BL4"+N$ ( 
1) 

174 N$ (12)="BL8"+N$ (1)+"BL4"+N$ ( 

2) 

176 AA$="U8RE2RF2RD4L7R7D4BR5": ' 
8X11 +4 LETTERS 

178 BB$="U10R5FRD3LGL5R5FRD3LGL5 
BR12" 

180 CC$="BR7BULGL3HLU8RER3FRDBD8 
BR5" 

182 DD$="U10R3FRFRD6LGLGL3;BR12" 
184 EE$="U10R7BD5BL3L4D5R7BR5" 
186 FF$="U10R7BD5BL3L4D5BR12" 
188 II$="BR2R5L3U10L2R5BD10BR5" 
190 KK$="U10D5R3E4UDG4DF4BR5" 
192 LL$="U10D10R7BR5" 
194 MM$="U10RFRFD3RU3ERERD10BR3" 
: '10WIDE 

196 NN$="U10D2F7U9D10BR5" 

198 OO$="BR2HLU8RER3FRD8LGL3BR10 
ii 

200 RR$="U10R5FRD3LGL5R2F2RF2DBR 
5" 

202 TT$="BU10R7L3D10BR8" 

204 ND$="BM194,49"+N$ (2)+"BDll"+ 

NN$+DD$ 

300 FORO=0 T015 

310 Q=0*6/RA:S=SIN(Q) :C=COS(Q) 
320 X(O,0)=FNA(RO*S) :X(30-O,0)=X 
(0,0) :X(30+O,0)=-X(O,0) :X(60-O,0 
)=-X(O,0) 

330 X(0,1)=FNA(RI*S) :X(30-O,1)=X 
(0,1) :X(30+O,1)=-X(O,1) :X(60-O,1. 
)=-X(0,l) 

340 Y(O,0)=FNA(RO*C) :Y(30-O,0)=- 
Y(O,0) : Y(30+O,0)=-Y(O,0) :Y(60-O, 

0) =Y(O,0) 

350 Y(0,1)=FNA(RI*C) :Y(30-O,1)=- 
Y(0,1) :Y(30+O,1)=-Y(O,1) :Y(60-O, 

1) =Y(0, 1) :NEXTO 
380 FORO=0TO3 

390 Q=30*O/RA:S=SIN(Q) :C=COS(Q) : 
X1(O,0)=FNA(RN*S) 

400 IFXl(O,0)/2<>INT(Xl(O,0)/2) 

THENX1(O,0)=X1(O,0)+1 

410 X1(6-O,0)=X1(O,0) :X1(6+O,0)= 

-X1(O,0) :X1(12-O,0)=-X1(O,0) 

420 Y1(O,0)=FNA(RN*C) : Yl(6-O,0)= 

-Y1(O,0) :Y1(6+O,0)=-Y1(O,0) :Y1(1 

2-O,0)=Yl(O,0) 

430 X1(0,1)=FNA(RE*S) :X1(6-0,1)= 
X1(0,1) :X1(6+0,1)=-X1(0,1) :X1(12 
-0,1)=-X1(0,1) 



64 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



RAINBOWfest is the only computer show 
dedicated exclusively to your Tandy 
Color Computer. Nowhere else will you 
see as many CoCo-related products or be able to 
attend free seminars conducted by the top Color 
Computer experts. It's the next best thing to re- 
ceiving the latest issue of the rainbow in your 
mailbox! 

RAINBOWfest is a great opportunity for com- 
mercial programmers to show off new and inno- 
vative products for the first time. Princeton is the 
show to get the jump on new capabilities for the 
new CoCo 3. In exhibit after exhibit, there will be 
demonstrations, opportunities to experiment 
with software and hardware, and special RAIN- 
BOWfest prices. 

Set your own pace between visiting exhibits 
and attending the valuable, free seminars on all 
aspects of your CoCo — from improving basic 
skills to working with the sophisticated OS-9 op- 
erating system. 

Many people who write for the rainbow — as 
well as those who are written about — are there 
to meet you and answer questions. You'll also 
meet lots of other people who share your interest 
in the Color Computer. It's a person-to-person 
event and a tremendous learning experience in a 
fun and relaxed atmosphere. 

To make it easier for you to participate, we 
schedule RAINBOWfests in different parts of the 
country. If you missed the fun in Chicago, why 
don't you make plans now to join us in Prin- 
ceton? For members of the family who don't 
share your affinity for CoCo, RAINBOWfest is lo- 
cated in an area with many other attractions. 

The Hyatt Regency Princeton offers special 
rates ($79, single or double room) for RAIN- 
BOWfest. The show opens Friday evening with a 
session from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. It's a daytime 
show Saturday — the CoCo Community Break- 
fast (separate tickets required) is at 8 a.m., then 
the exhibit hall opens promptly at 10 a.m. and 
runs until 6 p.m. A special Saturday evening 
round table examining the new CoCo 3 (6:30 
p.m.) is sure to be a highlight. On Sunday, the 
exhibit hall opens at 1 1 a.m. and closes at 4 p.m. 

Tickets for RAINBOWfest may be obtained di- 
rectly from the rainbow. We'll also send you a 
reservation form so you can get your special 
room rate. 

The POSH way to go. Have your travel arrange- 
ments and hotel reservations handled through 
rainbow affiliate, POSH Travel Assistance, Inc., 
of Louisville. For the same POSH treatment 
many of our exhibitors enjoy, call POSH at (502) 
893-3311. All POSH services are available at no 
charge to RAINBOWfest attendees. 

Show Schedule: 

Friday evening 

— Exhibits open from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. 
Saturday 

— CoCo Community Breakfast at 8a.m. 

— Exhibits open at 10 a.m. and close 
at 6 p.m. 

— Special round table at 6:30 p.m. 

Sunday 

— Exhibits open from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. 



Free Seminars 

Mark Siegel 

Product Manager, Software Engi- 
neering, Tandy/Radio Shack 

An Insider's View 
of the New CoCo 3 

Jim Reed 

rainbow Managing Editor 

Writing for Publication 

Jeffrey Parker 

Independent Programmer 
and Author 

Getting Your CoCo To 
Talk To Your MS-DOS 

Fred Scerbo 

RAINBOW Contributing Editor 

Using Computers in 
Education 



Bill Barden 

Independent Programmer 
and Author 

Beginning Assembly 
Language 

Brian Lantz 

President, National OS-9 
Users Group 

OS-9 Overview 

George Dorner 

OS-9 Veteran Programmer 

The OS-9 Environment- 
Tools and Pipes 

Dan Downard 

rainbow Technical Editor 

A Look at Peripherals 



Dale Puckett 

RAINBOW Contributing Editor 

Beginners' Guide To OS-9 
and BASIC09 

Leonard Hyre 

Freelance Author and Programmer 

Introduction to BASIC 

Cray Augsburg 

rainbow Technical Assistant 

Intro to our Delphi 
CoCo SIG 

Paul Hoffman 

Graphic Artist and Programmer 

Inside CoCo Graphics 



A A A A 

Steve Bjork 

President of SRB Software 

Getting the Most from 
Your CoCo 3 

John Gibney 

Delphi National Safes Director 

National Information 
Services vs. Local 
Bulletin Boards 

Bill Turner 

Vice President National 
OS-9 Users Group 

Business Applications 
of OS-9 



CoCo Community Breakfast 

Greg Zumwalt — CoCo 3 Programmer 

Our keynote speaker for the traditional CoCo Community Breakfast is Greg Zumwalt, 
one of the early CoCo specialists who has created everything from flight simulators 
to computer games. An independent programmer and computer designer, Greg is 
one of the select few writing Tandy software for the new Color Computer 3. He owns 
ZCT Software, of Tulsa, Okla., and also writes software for business applications in 
such areas as aviation, the oil industry and the medical field. 



A SPECIAL EVENTi 

Saturday Evening Round-Table Discussion at 6:30 p.m. 

The Design, Development and Marketing of the Color Computer 3 

Exclusive: Listen to the key people in the design and development of 
the Color Computer 3! Featured Speakers: Barry Thompson, Buyer, 
Computer Merchandising, Tandy/Radio Shack; Mark Siegel, Product 
Manager, Software Engineering, Tandy/Radio Shack; Steve Bjork, 
President, SRB Software; and Greg Zumwalt, President, ZCT Software. 



RAIN BO Wf est - Princeton, New Jersey 
Dates: Oct. 17-19, 1986 
Hotel: Hyatt Regency Princeton 
Rooms: $79 per night, single or double 
Advance Ticket Deadline: Oct. 10, 1986 

Join us at a future RAlNBOWfest! 

RAINBOWfest - Chicago, Illinois 
Dates: Early April 1987 
Hotel: Hyatt Regency Woodfield 
Rooms: $60 per night, single or double 
Advance Ticket Deadline: March 25, 1987 

FREE T-Shirt to first five ticket orders received from each state, 

A A A A A A 



YES, I'm coming to Princeton! I want to save by buying tickets now at the special advance sale price. 
Breakfast tickets require advance reservations. 



Please send me: 



total 



Three-day tickets at $9 each 

One-day tickets at $7 each total 

Circle one: Friday Saturday Sunday 

Saturday CoCo Breakfast at $1 2 each total 

Handling Charge $1 

TOTAL ENCLOSED 

(U.S. Currency Only, Please) 

□ Also send me a hotel reservation card for the Hyatt 
Be&anc^ Pmceton ($79, single or double room). 



Name (please print) 

Address 

City 



State 



Telephone 
Company 



ZIP 



$1.00 



□ Payment Enclosed, or Charge to: 
□ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

Account Number 

Exp. Date 

Signature 



Advance ticket deadline: Oct. 10,1986. Orders received less than two weeks prior to show opening will be held for you at the door. Tickets will also 
be available at the door at a slightly higher price. Tickets will be mailed six weeks prior to show. Children 4 and under, free; over 4, full price. 

Make checks payable to: The RAINBOW. Mail to: RAINBOWfest, The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. To make reservations by phone, in Kentucky call (502) 228-4492, or outside Kentucky call (800) 847-0309. 



440 Y1(0,1)=FNA(RE*C) :Y1(6-0,1)= 

-Y1(0,1) :Y1(6+0,1)=-Y1(0,1) :Y1(1 

2-0,l)=Yl(0,l) tNEXTO 

450 PCLS : SCREEN1,0 : CLS : CIRCLE (XX 

,YY) , R: PAINT (XX, YY-R+1) , 2,4:PSET 

(XX,YY,1) 

460 FORZ=0 TO 60 : DRAW"BM"+STR$ (X 
X+X(Z,0) )+","+STR$(YY-Y(Z,0) )+"M 
"+STR$ (XX+X(Z , 1) ) +" , "+STR$ (YY-Y ( 
Z,l) ) :NEXTZ 
470 F0RZ=1T012 

480 DRAW"BM"+STR$ (XX+X (Z*5 , 1) ) +" 
, "+STR$ (YY-Y(Z*5 , 1) ) + M M"+STR$ (XX 
+X1(Z,1) )+","+STR$(YY-Yl(Z,l) ) 
49/3 DRAW"BM"+STR$ (XX+X1 (Z ,0) -4) + 
" , "+STR$ ( YY-Y1 ( Z , 0 ) -5 ) +N$ ( Z ) : NEX 
TZ 

500 F0RZ=1T015 

510 Q=(Z*6-3)/RA:S=SIN(Q) :C=COS( 
Q) 

520 T=FNA(RF*S) :M(Z,0)=XX+T:M(31 
-Z,0)=XX+T:M(30+Z,0)=XX-T:M(61-Z 
,0)=XX-T 

530 T=FNA (RF*C) :M(Z , 1) =YY-T:M(31 

-Z,1)=YY+T:M(30+Z,1)=YY+T:M(61-Z 

,1)=YY-T:NEXTZ 

540 FORZ=1TO60 

55J3 Q=(135+6*Z)/RA 

560 S=SIN(Q) :M(Z,2)=FNA(RM*S)+XX 

:H(Z , 4) =FNA (RH*S) +XX 

57j3 C=COS(Q) :M(Z,3)=YY-FNA(RM*C) 

:H(Z,5)=YY-FNA(RH*C) 

58J3 H(Z,p)=XX+FNA(X(Z,l) *H1) :H(Z 

,1)=YY-FNA(Y(Z,1) *H1) 

590 H(Z,2)=XX+FNA(X(Z,1) *H2) :H(Z 

,3)=YY-FNA(Y(Z,1) *H2) :NEXTZ 

6j30 M(J3,J3)=M(6J3,J3) :M (J3 , 1) =M (6J3 , 1 

) :M(J3,3)=M(6J3,3) :M (J3 , 2 ) =M (6J3 , 2 ) 

61J3 M(61,J3)=M(1,J3) :M(61, 1) =M(1, 1 

) :M(61,2)=M(1,2) :M(61,3)=M(1,3) 

620 H(0,J3)=H(6J3,J3) ^(0,1)^(60,1 

) :H(0,2)=H(60,2) :H(61,2)=H(1,2) : 

H(0,3)=H(60,3) :H (61,3) =H( 1,3) :H( 

0,4)=H(60,4) :H(0,5)=H(60,5) 

100 0 1 level 1 

1010 L=l:DRAW"S4C4":GOSUB44 

1020 DRAW"C4BM70,186S10"+OO$+ II BU 

10D2BD8BR4"+CC$+LL$+OO$+CC$+KK$ 

1030 D$="" :NW=0:NR=0:Z=0:T=0 

1040 HH=RND (12 ) 

1050 IFINSTR(l,D$,CHR$(HH+64) )<> 
0 THEN1040 

1060 DRAW"S4":GOSUB50 
1070 'GET ANSWER 

1080 GOSUB14 : R$=INKEY$ : IFR$=" "TH 
EN1080 

1090 IFASC(R$)<49 OR ASC(R$)>57 
THEN1080 



1100 IFR$="1"THENDRAW ,I C4BM0 , 186S 
10BU10"+N$(1) :I=1:GOTO1130 
1110 I=VAL(R$) 
1120 GOSUB72 
1130 A$=R$ 

1140 GOSUB14 : R$=INKEY$ : IFR$=" "TH 
EN1140 

1150 IFR$=CHR$(13)THEN IFA$= I, 1 ,, T 

HENGOSUB70:DRAW"C4BM22 , 161"+N$ (1 

):GOTO1270 ELSE1270 

1160 IFR$OCHR$(8) THEN1190 

1170 IFVAL(A$)=1 THENGOSUB7 0 ELS 

EGOSUB74 

1180 A$= ,,M :I=0:GOTO1080 

1190 IFA$<>"1" THEN1140 

1200 IFASC(R$)<48 OR ASC(R$)>50 

THEN 1140 

1210 I=VAL(R$) 

1220 GOSUB72 

12 30 A$=A$+R$ 

1240 GOSUB14:R$=INKEY$:IFR$=""TH 
EN1240 

1250 IFR$=CHR$(8)THENGOSUB74:A$= 
LEFT$ (A$ , 1) : 1=0 : GOTO1140 

12 60 'CHECK ANSWER 

1270 DRAW"C1S4BM2 2 , 191R22" : IFVAL 
(A$)=HH THEN13 20 

1280 DRAW"C4":GOSUB38:PLAYW$:NW= 
NW+1: IFTO0 THEN T=0:GOTO13 30 
1290 IFLEN(A$)=2 THENGOSUB7 0 
1300 GOSUB74 

1310 DRAW" CI" :GOSUB3 6:T=l:DRAW"C 
4S4XND$;" :GOTO1080 
1320 DRAW"C2" :GOSUB34 :PLAYRS$ (0) 
: NR=NR+ 1 : D$=D$+CHR$ (HH+64 ) : T=0 
1330 R$=INKEY$:IFR$="" THEN1330 
1340 IFR$=" A " THENGOSUB8000 
1350 DRAW'Cl" :GOSUB3 6:DRAW"S4XND 
$ ; " 

13 60 IFLEN(A$)=2 THENGOSUB70 
1370 GOSUB74 

13 80 DRAW"S4C2B"+M1$+M2$+M3$+M4$ 

+M1$+"B"+H1$+H2$+H3$+H4$+H5$+H1$ 

1390 IFNR<12 THEN1040 

1400 PRINT" LEVEL 1 RIGHT" ;NR;" 

WRONG" ; NW : SCREEN 1 , 0 
1410 IFNW>3 THEN1030 
1420 DRAWC1BM70, 186S10"+OO$+"BU 
10D2BD8BR4 "+CC$+LL$+00$+CC$+KK$ 
2000 ' levels 2 & 3 
2010 L=2:DRAW"C4S4":GOSUB44 
2020 DRAW"C4" :GOSUB76 
2030 IFL=2 THEN DRAWBM76 , 188BR6 
"+AA$+FF$+TT$+EE$+RR$ ELSEGOSUB4 
4 : DRAW" BM7 6 , 188 "+BB$+EE$+FF$+00$ 
+RR$+EE$ 

2040 D$="":E$="":NW=0:NR=0 
2050 HH=RND ( 12 ) 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 67 



2060 IFINSTR(l,D$,CHR$(HH+64) )<> 
0 THEN2050 
2070 M=RND ( 7 ) 

2080 IFINSTR(1,E$,STR$(M) )<>0 TH 
EN2070 

2090 IFL=2 THENZ=5* (M-l) ELSEZ=5 
*(M+5) 

2100 DRAW"C2BM"+S1$ (5) +"R9BM"+S1 
$ (6) +"R9BM"+S1$ (7) +"R9BM"+S1$ (8) 
+ "R9" 

2110 GOSUB50 
2120 A$="":C=5 

2130 G0SUB2 2 : R$=INKEY$ : IFR$=" "TH 
EN2130 

2140 IFR$=CHR$ (32) THENDRAW" C1BM 
"+S1$(C)+"R9" :GOTO2180 
2150 IFR$=CHR$(8) THEN IFC=5THEN 
2130 ELSEC=C-1:DRAW"C1BM"+S1$(C) 
+"BU14 "+N$ (I) : A$=LEFT$ ( A$ , LEN ( A$ 
)-l) :I=VAL(RIGHT$(A$,1) ) :GOT0213 

2160 IFASC(R$)<48 OR ASC(R$)>57 
THEN2130 

2170 I=VAL(R$) :DRAW"C4BM"+S1$(C) 

+"BU14"+N$ (I) +"BM"+S1$ (C) +"C1R9 " 

2180 A$=A$+R$ 

2190 C=C+1 

2200 IFCOTHEN2130 

2210 C=8 

2220 GOSUB2 2 : R$=INKEY$ : IFR$=" "TH 
EN2220 

2230 IFR$=CHR$(8) THENDRAW" C1BM" 
+S1$(C)+"BU14"+N$(I) :A$=LEFT$(A$ 
,LEN(A$)-1) :I=VAL(RIGHT$(A$,1) ) : 
GOTO2130 

2240 IFR$OCHR$(13) THEN2220 
2250 DRAW"C1BM"+S1$(C)+"R9" 
2260 IFL=3THEN2280 

2270 IFVAL(LEFT$(A$,2) )-Z AND VA 
L(RIGHT$(A$,2) )=HH THEN2 330 ELSE 
2300 

2280 H=VAL ( RIGHT $(A$,2) ) -1:IFH<1 
THENH=12 

2290 IFVAL(LEFT$(A$,2) )=60-Z AND 

H=HH THEN2 3 30 
2 300 DRAW" C4 " : GOSUB3 8 : NW=NW+1 : PL 
AYW$:IFT<>0 THENT=0 : GOTO 2 340 
2310 DRAW" CI" : GOSUB36 : FORI=5T08 : 
DRAW"BM"+S1$(I)+"BU14"+N$ (VAL(MI 
D$(A$, 1-4,1) ) ) :NEXTI 
2320 T=1:DRAW"C4XND$;" :GOTO2100 
2330 DRAW"C2":GOSUB34:PLAYRS$(L- 
1) :NR=NR+l:D$=D$+CHR$(HH+64) :E$= 
E$+STR$ (M) :T=0 

2 340 R$=INKEY$:IFR$="" THEN2340 

235,0 IFR$= ,IA " THENGOSUB8000 

23 60 DRAW"C1XND$;":G0SUB3 6 

2 370 FORI=5T08 : DRAW" C1BM"+S1$ ( I ) 

+"BU14"+N$ (VAL(MID$ (A$,I-4, 1) ) ) : 



NEXTI 

2380 DRAW "C2B" +M1 $+M2 $+M3 $ +M4 $+M 

1$+»B»+H1$+H2$+H3$+H4$+H5$+H1$ 

2390 IFNR<7 THEN2050 

2400 IFL=3 THEN2 430 

2410 PRINT "LEVEL 2 RIGHT" ;NR;" 

WRONG" ; NW : SCREEN 1 , 0 
2420 IFNW<3 THENL=3 : DRAW"BM76 , 18 
8C1R6"+AA$+FF$+TT$+EE$+RR$+"C4": 
GOTO2030 ELSE2040 

2430 PRINT "LEVEL 3 RIGHT" ;NR;" 

WRONG " ; NW : S CREEN 1 , 0 
2440 IFNW>2 THEN2040 
2450 DRAW"C1BM76,188"+BB$+EE$+FF 
$+00$+RR$+EE$ : GOSUB7 6 

4000 1 level 4 

4010 L=4 : DRAWS4C4 " : GOSUB44 : GOSU 
B76:AR$="BM110,18 3R9L2H2F2DBL2BD 
LBE2L16R2E2G2DBR2BDR" 
4020 D$="" :E$="":NW=0:NR=0 
4030 HH=RND ( 12 ) 

4040 IFINSTR(l / D$ / CHR$(HH+64) )<> 
0 THEN4030 
4050 M=RND(12) 

4060 IFINSTR(l,E$,CHR$(M+64) )<>0 

THEN4050 
4070 Z=(M-1) *5:GOSUB50 
4080 A$="":C=5 

4090 DRAW"C2XAR$;BD3BL17"+BB$+"B 

R24"+AA$ 

4100 GOSUB78 

4110 DRAW"C2BM"+S1$ (5) +"R9BM"+S1 
$(6)+"R9BM"+Sl$(7)+"R9BM"+Sl$(8) 
+ "R9" 

4120 GOSUB22 :R$=INKEY$:IFR$=»" T 
HEN4120 

4130 IFR$=CHR$(32) THENDRAW" C IBM 

"+S1$(C)+"R9":GOTO4170 

4140 IFR$=CHR$(8) THEN IFC=5 THE 

N4120 ELSEC=C-1:DRAW"C1BM"+S1$ (C 

) +"BU14 "+N$ (I) : A$=LEFT$ (A$ , LEN (A 

$)-l) :I=VAL(RIGHT$(A$ / 1) ) : GOT04 

120 

4150 IFASC(R$)<48 OR ASC(R$)>57 
THEN4120 

4160 I=VAL(R$) :DRAW"C4BM"+S1$(C) 
+"BU14"+N$ (I)+"BM"+S1$(C)+"C1R9" 
4170 A$=A$+R$ 
4180 C=C+1 

4190 IFC<7 THEN4120 ELSE42 30 

4200 DRAW"C2":GOSUB78 

4210 IFRT$="A" THENDRAW"C1BM82 / 1 

88"+AA$+FF$+TT$+EE$+RR$ ELSE DRA 

W"ClBM76,188"+BB$+EE$+FF$+00$+RR 

$+EE$ 

4220 DRAW"C2XAR$;" 
4230 GOSUB2 6 :RT$=INKEY$ : IFRT$=" " 
THEN4230 

4240 IFRT$=CHR$ (8) THENDRAW" C2 BM 



68 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



88 , 188"+BB$+"BR24"+AA$ : C=C-1 : DRA 
W»C1BM"+S1$(C)+"BU14"+N$(I) :A$=L 
EFT$(A$,LEN(A$) -1) : I=VAL(RIGHT$ ( 
A$,l) ) :GOT0412)3 

425) 3 IFASC(RT$)<65 OR ASC(RT$)>6 
6 THEN423J3 

426) 3 DRAW"C1XAR$;BD3BL17"+BB$+"B 
R24"+AA$ 

4270 GOSUB78 

428) 3 IFRT$="A" THENDRAW"C4BM82 , 1 
88"+AA$+FF$+TT$+EE$+RR$ ELSEDRAW 
"C4BM76, 188"+BB$+EE$+FF$+00$+RR$ 
+EE$ 

429) 3 G0SUB22:R$=INKEY$:IFR$="" T 
HEN429)3 

43) 3)3 IFR$=CHR$ (32) THENDRAW'CIBM 
"+S1$ (C) +"R9" :GOT0434)3 

431) 3 IFR$=CHR$(8) THEN IFC=7 THE 
N4 2 )3 )3 ELS EC=C- 1 : DRAW" C1BM"+S1$(C 
) +"BU14 "+N$ (I) : A$=LEFT$ ( A$ , LEN (A 
$)-l) :I=VAL(RIGHT$(A$,1) ) : GOT04 
29)3 

432) 3 IFASC(R$)<48 OR ASC(R$)>57 
THEN429)3 

433) 3 I=VAL(R$) : DRAW"C4BM"+S1$ (C) 
+"BU14"+N$(I)+"BM"+S1$ (C)+"C1R9" 

434) 3 A$=A$+R$ 

435) 3 C=C+1 

436) 3 IFC<9 THEN4290 

437) 3 C=8 

438) 3 GOSUB22:R$=INKEY$:IFR$=»" T 
HEN4380 

439) 3 IFR$=CHR$(8) THENDRAW'CIBM" 
+S1$ (C) +"BU14"+N$ (I) : A$=LEFT$ (A$ 
,LEN(A$)-1) :I=VAL(RIGHT$(A$,1) ) : 
G0T0429)3 

44) 3)3 IFR$OCHR$(13) THEN438J3 

441) 3 DRAW"C1BM"+S1$ (C)+"R9" 

442) 3 Z$=RIGHT$(STR$(Z) ,2) 
443J3 IFRT$="A" THEN447)3 

444) 3 IFZ=)3 THENH=VAL (RIGHT$ ( A$ , 2 
) ) :Z=6j3:GOT0446j3 

445) 3 H=VAL(RIGHT$(A$,2) )-l:IFH<l 
THENH=12 

446) 3 IFVAL(LEFT$(A$,2) )=6)3-Z AND 
H=HH THEN452)3 ELSE4480 

447) 3 IFVAL(LEFT$ (A$ ,2) ) =Z AND VA 
L(RIGHT$(A$,2) )=HH THEN452)3 

448) 3 DRAW"C4":GOSUB38:PLAYW$:NW= 
NW+1:IFT<>0 THENT=)3:GOTO4530 

449) 3 C=5:T=1:F0RI=5T08:DRAW"C1BM 

"+S1$ (I) +"BU14"+N$ (VAL(MID$ (A$, I 
-4,1) ) ) :NEXTI 

45) 3)3 IFRT$="A" THENDRAW" BM8 2 , 188 
"+AA$+FF$+TT$+EE$+RR$ ELSEDRAW" B 
M76 , 188"+BB$+EE$+FF$+00$+RR$+EE$ 

451) 3 G0SUB3 6 : DRAW"C4XND$ ; 11 : G0T04 
J38J3 

452) 3 T=)3 : DRAW" C4BM1 8)3 , 3)3"+N$ (HH) 



+"BD3DBD3DBU8BR6"+N$(VAL(LEFT$(Z 
$,1) ) )+N$(VAL(RIGHT$(Z$,l) ) )+"C2 
" : GOSUB34 : PLAYRS $ ( 3 ) : NR=NR+ 1 : E$= 
E$+CHR$(M+64) :D$=D$+CHR$(HH+64) 

453) 3 R$=INKEY$:IFR$="" THEN453)3 

454) 3 IFR$=" A " THENGOSUB8)3)3)3 

455) 3 IFRT$="A" THENDRAW "C 1BM82 , 1 
88"+AA$+FF$+TT$+EE$+RR$ ELSEDRAW 
"C1BM7 6, 188"+BB$+EE$+FF$+00$+RR$ 
+EE$ 

456) 3 DRAW"ClXND$;BM18)3 / 3)3"+N$(HH 
) + » BD3 DBD3 DBU8BR6 "+N$ ( VAL ( LEFT$ ( 
Z$,l) ) )+N$(VAL(RIGHT$(Z$,l) ) ) :G0 
SUB36 

457) 3 F0RI=5T08 : DRAW"C1BM"+S1$ (I) 
+ "BU14"+N$(VAL(MID$(A$, 1-4,1) ) ) : 
NEXT I 

4 5 8)3 DRAW " C2 B " +M1 $+M2 $+M3 $ +M4 $ +M 
1$+"B"+H1$+H2$+H3$+H4$+H5$+H1$ 
459)3 IF NR<12 THEN4)33)3 
46)3)3 PRINT "LEVEL 4 RIGHT" ;NR;" 
WRONG" ; NW : SCREEN1 , )3 

461) 3 IFNW>2 THEN4)32)3 

462) 3 DRAW"C1":G0SUB76 
5)3)3)3 • level 5 

5)31)3 L=5:DRAW"C4" :GOSUB44 

5)32)3 D$=" " : NW=)3 : NR=)3 : DRAW"C4BM8)3 

, 185UBU3U" 

5)33)3 DRAW"C2BM52 , 191R9BR5R9BR11R 
9BR5R9" 

5)34)3 H=RND(24) 

5)35)3 IFINSTR(l,D$,CHR$(H+64) )<>)3 
THEN5)34)3 

5)36)3 IFH>12 THENHH=H-12 ELSEHH=H 
5)37)3 Z=RND(6)3)-1 
5)38)3 GOSUB5)3 
5)39)3 A$="":C=1 

51)3)3 G0SUB18 : R$=INKEY$ : IFR$=" "TH 
EN51)3)3 

511) 3 IFR$=CHR$(32) THENA$=A$+R$ : 
DRAW"C1BM"+S1$ (C) +"R9" :GOT0516)3 

512) 3 IFR$=CHR$(8) THEN IFC=1THEN 
51)3)3 ELSEC=C-1:DRAW"C1BM"+S1$(C 

) +"BU14 "+N$ (I ) : A$=LEFT$ (A$ , LEN (A 
$)-l) :I=VAL(RIGHT$(A$,1) ) :G0T051 

513) 3 IFASC(R$)<48 OR ASC(R$)>57 
THEN51)3)3 

514) 3 I=VAL(R$) :DRAW"C4BM"+S1$(C) 
+"BU14"+N$ (I) +"C1BM"+S1$ (C) +"R9" 
5150 A$=A$+R$ 

516) 3 C=C+1 

517) 3 IFC<5 THEN51)3)3 

518) 3 C=4 

519) 3 G0SUB18:R$=INKEY$:IFR$=""TH 
EN519)3 

520) 3 IFR$=CHR$(8) THENDRAW'CIBM" 
+S1$ (C) +"BU14"+N$ (I) : A$=LEFT$ (A$ 
,LEN(A$)-1) :I=VAL(RIGHT$(A$, 1) ) : 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 69 



GOT051j3jZI 

5210 IFR$OCHR$(13) THEN519J3 
5220 DRAW"C1BM"+S1$ (C)+»R9" 
523j3 IFVAL(LEFT$(A$,2) )=HH AND Z 
=lj3*VAL(MID$ (A$, 3 , 1) ) +VAL(RIGHT$ 
(A$,l)) THEN527J3 

5240 DRAW"C4 H :GOSUB3 8:PLAYW$:NW= 
NW+1:IFT<>0 THENT=0:GOTO5280 
5250 F0RI=1T04 : DRAW"C1BM II +S1$ (I) 
+"BU14"+N$ (VAL(MID$ (A$,I, 1) ) ) : NE 
XTI 

52 60 DRAWCl" : GOSUB3 6 : T=l : DRAW'C 
4XND$ ;C2BM52 , 191R9BR5R9BR11R9BR5 
R9":GOTO5090 

5270 DRAW"C2 " : GOSUB3 4 : PLAYRS$ (4 ) 
:NR=NR+l:D$=D$+CHR$ (H+64) :T=0 
5280 R$=INKEY$:IFR$="" THEN5280 
5290 IFR$=" A " THENG0SUB8 0 00 
5300 DRAW"C1XND$;":G0SUB3 6 
5310 F0RI=1T04 

5320 DRAW"C1BM"+S1$ (I) +"BU14"+N$ 

(VAL(MID$(A$,I,1) ) ) :NEXTI 

5330 DRAW I, C2B"+M1$+M2$+M3$+M4$+M 

1$+"B"+H1$+H2$+H3$+H4$+H5$+H1$ 

5340 IFNR<24 THEN5030 

5350 PRINT "LEVEL 5 RIGHT" ;NR; 11 

WRONG" ; NW : SCREEN 1 , 0 
5360 IFNW>4 THEN5020 
5370 DRAW"C1BM80 , 185UBU3U" : GOSUB 



44 

5380 PRINT: PRINT" YOUR ANSWERS A 
RE SHOWN ABOVE . " : FORI=0TO4 : PLAYR 
S$(I) :NEXTI:PLAYRS$+"L2. . .AP4;L4 
DDGP4P2AP4P2L8BBL4BO+CO-BL2EL4AA 
L1GF#L2 . . .G" 

5390 PRINT "FOR MORE PRACTICE, WH 
ICH LEVEL WOULD YOU LIKE TO STA 
RT AT?": INPUT" TYPE LEVEL (1-5)" 

;L 

5400 PRINTSTRING$ (32 , 195) :L=ABS ( 
L) :SCREEN1,0 

5410 ON L GOTO1000,2010, 2020,401 

0,5000 

5420 END 

' user control 

COLOR3 , 1 
ZT=Z:HT=HH 

LINE(176,0)-(253,17) ,PSET,B 



8000 
8010 
8020 
8030 
F 

8040 
8050 



COLOR4 , 1 

DRAW"S4C2B"+M1$+M2$+M3$+M4$ 
+M1$+"B"+H1$+H2$+H3$+H4$+H5$+H1$ 
: DRAW"C1BM208 , 5DBD3D" 
8060 DRAW"C4BM180, 16R9BR5R9BR11R 
9BR5R9BR5R9" 
8070 CO=9:Al$="" 

8080 GOSUB30:R$=INKEY$:IFR$="" T 
HEN8080 



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70 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



8090 IFASC(R$)<48 OR ASC(R$)>57 

THEN8J38J3 

8100 A1$=A1$+R$ 

811j3 DRAW"C1BM"+S1$ (CO)+"2"+N$ (V 

AL(R$) )+"C3BM"+Sl$(CO)+"16R9" 

8120 CO=CO+l 

813J3 IFCO<13 THEN8J38J3 

814j3 Z=VAL(RIGHT$(A1$,2) ) :HH=VAL 

(LEFT$(A1$,2) ) 

815J3 IFHH>12 OR HH<1 OR Z>6j3 THE 
N826J3 

8160 GOSUB5j3 

817j3 GOSUB3j3:R$=INKEY$:IFR$= IIM T 
HEN817J3 

818/3 IFR$="T" THEN825j3 
IFR$="R" THEN829J3 
IFR$<>CHR$(10) THEN8170 
LINE(176,j3)-(253,17) , PRESET 



819J3 
8200 
8210 
, BF 



8220 DRAW ,, C2B"+M1$+M2$+M3$+M4$+M 
1$+»B"+H1$+H2$+H3$+H4$+H5$+H1$ 
823J3 Z=ZT:HH=HT 
824J3 RETURN 

825j3 DRAW"C2B"+M1$+M2$+M3$+M4$+M 
1$+"B"+H1$+H2$+H3$+H4$+H5$+H1$ : 1 

new time 

8260 CO=9:Nl=INT(HH/lj3) :N2=HH-N1 



*1J3:N3=INT(Z/10) :N4=Z-N3*10 
827J3 DRAW"C3BM"+S1$ (CO) +"2"+N$ (N 
1) +N$ (N2 ) +"BM"+S1$ (CO+2) +"2"+N$ ( 
N3)+N$ (N4) 
8280 GOT08j36j3 

8290 C0=9:HN=HH:N1=INT(HH/1J3) :N2 
=HH-N1*10:N3=INT(Z/1J3) :N4=Z-N3*1 

0: ' run clock 

8300 ZN=Z+1 

831J3 IFZN>=6j3 THEN Z N= 0 : HN=HH+ 1 1 1 
FHN>12 THENHN=1 

832,0 R$=INKEY$:IFR$="S" THENCO=l 
3:GOTO8170 

833J3 DRAW"C3BM"+S1$ (CO)+"2 M +N$ (N 
1) +N$ (N2 ) +"BM"+S1$ (CO+2) +"2"+N$ ( 
N3)+N$(N4) 

834)3 DRAW"'C2B"+M1$+M2$+M3$+M4$+M 
1$+»B"+H1$+H2$+H3$+H4$+H5$+H1$ 
835J3 Z=ZN:HH=HN 
836j3 GOSUB5j3 

8370 Nl=INT(HH/lj3) :N2=HH-Nl*lj3:N 

3=INT(Z/lj3) :N4=Z-N3*10 

8380 DRAW"C1BM"+S1$ (CO) +"2"+N$ (N 

1) +N$ (N2) +"BM"+S1$ (CO+2 ) +"2"+N$ ( 

N3)+N$ (N4) 

839j3 GOTO8300 

09k 



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COLOR COMPUTERS 



26-31 27 64k color comp 
26-3131 1st disk drive 



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PRINTERS 



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MODEL 4 and MSDOS COMPUTERS 





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25-01011 Plus expansion board 

25-1005 2nd drive mod 1000 

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Computer Products at Discount Prices 

CALL FOR A FREE PRICE LIST 800-257-5556 

IN N.J. CALL 609-769-0551 

WOODSTOWN ELECTRONICS 

Rt. 40 E. WOODSTOWN, N.J. 08098 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 71 



OWL-WARE 

WINCHESTER BASIC 



CREATE 9EAUTIFUL PICTURES WITH 



ANNOUNCING... the Development of a Major Breakthrough in 
HARD DRIVE SYSTEMS for the COLOR COMPUTER!!! 

Several months ago OWL-WARE introduced the Finest OS9 Hard Drive System for the Color Computer. 
Now we are about to introduce the only RSDOS Interface System worthy of our computer, OWL-WARE 
Winchester Basic. For the first time you have available a true Winchester System, although there are 10 
directories made available to BASIC, the only limit to size of any file is the size of your drive. On a 
10 meg drive you could have a 8 meg file on directory 5 and a 1 meg file on directory 8 and small fifes 
everywhere. You turn the computer on and you can immediately access your drive from BASIC or any language 
using commands you already know. You do not have to know or use OS9 to use OWL-WARE WINCHESTER 
BASIC, but if you do, all files saved from RSDOS are available to OS9. All files generated from OS9 can 
be made available to RSDOS by copying to the WINCHESTER BASIC directories. There are no partitions to 
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Call for further details and availability on this breakthrough product!!! 




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lent, on-icreen menu 
f input fton x-PflO, 
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is pleased to announce 
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INSTALL IN ANY SLOT OF 
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UIEU 3-DIHENSICWAL OBJECTS FROM ANY 
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Convenient, on-screen menu 
* supports input from X-PAD, 

TOUGH-PAD, (1DU8E Or JOYSTICK 
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BUNDLE: DISK TUTORIAL 

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DISK TUTOR 

LEARN EVERYTHING ABOUT DISK BASIC 
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Word Puzzles 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



This month's column presents a 
program to help learn spelling or 
vocabulary lists. Depending on 
the words used, this program could be 
applied to any grade level. We arbitrar- 
ily entered typical fourth-grade spelling 
words. 

The words are entered on the pro- 
gram's DATA lines. These are contained 
in lines 370 on. Each DATA line contains 
a spelling word and a key word to act 
as a clue. They are used by the program 
as A$ and B$. If you wish to convert this 
program to a foreign language pro- 
gram, the key word could be the English 
equivalent of the mystery word. 

This program actually contains two 
games in one. They both use the idea of 
finding the correct spelling of the mys- 
tery word. The students who tested this 
game for us found the second game was 
a little more difficult than the first game. 
The games are chosen randomly by the 
program. 



Steve Blyn teaches both exceptional 
and gifted children, holds two master's 
degrees and has won awards for the 
design of programs to aid the handi- 
capped. He owns Computer Island and 
lives in Staten Island, New York. 



The first game presents a partial 
mystery word such as "xfra" along with 
a key word given as an aid, such as 
"border." The clues given would be 
"-x" and "+me." This appears on the 
screen as: 

XFRA r X + ME 

The student subtracts the first clue (x) 
from the beginning of the word and 
adds the next clue (me) to the end of the 
word. The mystery word is therefore, 
"frame." The routine for the first game 
is contained in lines 150 to 200. 

The second game is slightly more 
difficult. A key word is also supplied as 
an aid, but the clue is harder to apply. 
Let's suppose the word we are looking 
for is "frame" once again. The word 
"frame" is given, minus any one of its 
letters such as: 

FRME +A or FRAE +M 

The solution to this type of puzzle 
requires a higher order of thought 
process than the first game. The routine 
for the second game is contained in lines 
220 to 280. 

Line 290 prints the key word clue for 
either game. The clue is the same for 



both games. Lines 300 to 330 ask for the 
student's answer, which is AN$. AN$ is 
then compared to the correct answer 
A$(R). If the student is incorrect, the 
correct answer is displayed. 

Each type of game appears randomly. 
Lines 130 and 140 randomize the use of 
the two. The beginning routine for the 
first game is contained in lines 150 to 
200, and those for the harder game are 
in lines 220 to 280. Lines 290 through 
360 contain the rest of the program 
needed for both games. 

It is possible that only one of the two 
games is suitable for your child or 
students. Customize this game to an 
easier or harder level by deleting the 
lines of the routine you want to omit. 
We found that having the two ways of 
playing increased student interest in the 
game. The element of surprise added to 
the enjoyment of using the program. 

We have not included scoring in this 
game. We felt this is the type of program 
where the student shortly masters all of 
the material. You may of course, add a 
scorecard after every ten or twenty 
turns. Line 60 would be a convenient 
place to add a counter for turns and 
Line 320 would be the place to insert a 
counter for correct responses. 



74 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



After each example, the child may 
press either 'E' to end the progam or 
ENTER to go on to the next example. As 
written, the program continues until the 



child presses the 'E' key. We would hope 
that the material being tested is mas- 
tered at that point. 

We at Computer Island are always 



interested in hearing from our readers. 
Your experiences with our programs 
and suggestions for changes are most 
helpful to us. O 



260 FOR A=X+2 TO L: PRINT MID$ ( (A 
$ (R) ) / A, 1) ; : SOUND 24j3,2:NEXT A 
27j3 PRINT" + " ;MID$ (A$ (R) ,X+1, 

1) 

280 PRINTS 3 2 0, "ADD THE EXTRA LET 
TER SOMEWHERE." 
29j3 PRINT@145 , B$ (R) 
300 PRINTS 2 10, "" ; 
310 LINE INPUT AN$ : PRINT@32,0, "" 
32j3 IF AN$=A$(R) THEN PRINT§3 32, 
"CORRECT" ; : PLAY"O4L2j30ECEGGEC" : G 
OTO 34j3 

3 3j3 PRINT§3 20," SORRY, THE ANS 

WER IS - ":PRINT§362,A$(R) ; 

34J3 PRINT@422, "PRESS ENTER TO GO 

ON" ; 
350 EN$=INKEY$ 

360 IF EN$=CHR$(13) THEN 60 ELSE 

IF EN$="E" THEN END ELSE 350 
370 DATA SNEAKERS , SHOES 
380 DATA SCOLD, YELL 
390 DATA PRICE, COST 
\00 DATA MIDDLE, CENTER 
M0 DATA OCEAN, SEA 
42J3 DATA LAUGH, SMILE 
43J3 DATA LESSON, LEARN 
44J3 DATA FRIENDS , BUDDIES 
45J3 DATA HAMMER, NAILS 

46J3 DATA GOWN, DRESS 
M0 DATA FRIED, COOKED 
48j3 DATA FRAME, BORDER 
49J3 DATA DELIVER, GIVE 
500 DATA EARTH, SOIL 
510 DATA EVERYONE, ALL 
520 DATA FEAST, EAT 
530 DATA ENJOY, LIKE 
54J3 DATA CANDLE, BURN 
550 DATA BASEBALL, BATS 
560 DATA WHEEL, ROUND 



160 . 
290 . 
430 . 
END 



178 
171 

.22 
207 



The listing: SPELPUZL 



10 REM " S PE LLI NG PUZZLES-GRADE 4" 

20 REM "STEVE BLYN , COMPUTER ISLAN 

D SOFTWARE, NY, 1986" 

30 CZ=RND( -TIMER) 

4J3 N=2j3:DIM A$'(N),B$(N) 

50 FOR T=l TO N : READ A$(T),B$(T) 

: NEXT T 

60 CLS RND(8) :PRINT§8, "WORD PU 

zzles 1 '; 

10 PRINT§64, "PUZZLE- 11 

80 PRINT@128,"YOUR KEY WORD -" 

90 PRINT© 19 2 , "MYSTERY WORD ? -" 

100 R=RND (N) : 1 CHOOSE A RANDOM # 

llj3 L=LEN(A$(R) ) 

12J3 H=64+RND(26) 

13 0 G=RND(2) 

14J3 IF G=l THEN 150 ELSE 22j3 

150 REM" EASIER GAME" 

160 PRINT@73,CHR$(H) ; 

110 FOR A=l TO L-2 :PRINTMID$( (A$ 

(R) ) , A, 1) ; : SOUND 240, 2: NEXT A 

180 PRINT" ";"- ";CHR$(H);" + 

190 PRINT RIGHT$(A$(R) ,2) 

200 PRINT§ 320 FOLLOW THE 2 CLUE 

S AT THE TOP." 

21J3 GOTO 29J3 

220 REM "HARDER GAME" 

23j3 X=RND(L)-2 

24J3 IF X<2 THEN 2 3 0 : 1 PREVENT BEL 
OW ZERO 

250 PRINT@73, LEFT$ (A$ (R) , X) ; 



/55\ 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING for the TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 



At last - The book exclusively for you and your CoCo !! 
You've learned BASIC and are now ready to learn assembly 
language programming. This hands-on guide begins with 
the basics and progresses to the expert level; 
revealing programming conventions and techniques and 
all the internal capabilities of the TDP-100, CoCo 1 
and 2. At every step of the way are illustrations, 
sample programs, and plain English explanations. All 
sample programs are shown as assembled with Radio 
Shack's EDTASM+ cartridge. Plus, a complete chapter 
explains how to use all EDTASH+ capabilities. This book 
describes how to write subroutines, interrupt handlers, 
programs that control the graphics display modes, 
cassette, disk, keyboard, sound, joysticks, serial I/O, 
interrupts, and use of ROM resident subroutines. Also 
covered are the MC6809E microprocessor, the video 
display generator (VDG), peripheral interface adapters 



(PIA), SAM, memory, and how they all work together. 
Suitable as a high school or college textbook. 
CHAPTERS : The Binary Number System - Memory and Data 
Representation - Introduction MC6809E Microprocessor - 
Addressing Modes of the MC6809E - MC6809E Instruction 
Set - Assembly Language Programming with EDTASM+ - 
Assembly Language Programming - Assembly Language and 
Extended Color BASIC - Internal Control and Graphics - 
Technical Details. 

289 pages TRS-80 & EDTASM+ are 

soft cover trademarks of Tandy Corp 

$16.00 U.S. plus $1.50 shipping. Check or money order. 
RI residents please add 6% sales tax. Inquire about 
vol ume d i scounts . 

Published and TEPC0 
sold by 30 Water Street 

Portsmouth, RI 02871 



September ig86 THE RAINBOW 75 



EDUCATION OVERVIEW 



Tandy Grants and the Status 
of Educational Computers 



By Michael Plog, Ph.D. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



The September issue, and school is 
starting. It's time to leave the fun 
of summer for the rigors of class- 
rooms once again. For those using 
computers in classrooms, there is some 
good news. The Tandy Corporation 
supports proposals for those interested 
in using Tandy/ Radio Shack compu- 
ters for instruction. You can write a 
proposal to Tandy and possibly get 
money for your pet project. 

The Tandy grant program started in 
1982. Since then, Tandy has awarded 
more than one million dollars in com- 
puters and software equipment to non- 
profit educational institutions and 
individual educators. The company 
typically receives 150 to 200 proposals 
per grant cycle and funds about 10 
percent of them. The competition is 
rather stiff for these grants. 

This grant cycle from Tandy has two 
areas of competition. One is for creative 
use of microcomputers in education. 



Michael Plog received his doctorate 
degree from the University of Illinois. 
He has taught social studies in high 
school, worked in a central office of a 
school district and currently is em- 
ployed at the Illinois State Board of 
Education. 



Give your dreams free rein if you write 
for this one. The proposal must indicate 
a "creative" use of microcomputers in 
education. The deadline for this grant 
is September 30 (better hurry). 

The second type of grant is for using 
microcomputers in instructional man- 
agement. This is not computer-assisted 
instruction, but management of instruc- 
tion with computers. The deadline for 
this grant is December 3 1 . 

If you are interested in writing for 
either of these grants, contact Bill 
Gattis, Tandy Educational Grants Pro- 
gram, 1400 One Tandy Center, Fort 
Worth, Texas 76102,(817)390-3832. He 
will send you all the details on how to 
apply. Grants are awarded in the form 
of TRS-80 hardware, software and 
accessories from Tandy's Radio Shack 
division. Awards do not exceed $ 10,000. 
Of course, you can buy a lot of Color 
Computer equipment for that amount. 

If you write for a Tandy grant, you 
might help determine how computers 
are used in your schools. A lot of 
schools have computers and are using 
them in a variety of ways. Johns Hop- 
kins University is interested in how 
computers are used in schools and has 
conducted the Second National Survey 
of Instructional Uses of School Compu- 
ters. This study gathered information 



about the 1984-85 school year from 
more than 10,000 teachers and princi- 
pals in over 2,300 elementary and secon- 
dary schools, and is the most extensive 
survey on school computer use to date. 

Computer use in schools has grown, 
as you might expect. Nearly all secon- 
dary schools and elementary schools 
have begun to use computers in instruc- 
tional programs. Ninety percent of U.S. 
school children attend schools that have 
at least one computer. However, this 
does not mean ninety percent of stu- 
dents use computers. During the 1984- 
85 school year, nearly half of elemen- 
tary and middle school pupils, and as 
many as one-third of high school stu- 
dents made some use of computers at 
school. There are computer-using 
schools and there are schools where 
computers are not used to any great 
extent. 

During an average week at a typical 
computer-using school, more than one- 
quarter of the student body used com- 
puters. At a typical kindergarten 
through sixth grade computer-using 
school, 30 percent of students used 
computers during an average week. At 
a typical high school, 21 percent of 
students used computers. 

One-fourth of all U.S. teachers used 
computers regularly with students dur- 



76 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



ingthe 1984-85 school year. Elementary 
teachers tend to use computers more 
'regularly" than secondary teachers: 37 
percent for elementary teachers and 15 
percent for secondary teachers. Because 
secondary schools are larger than ele- 
mentary schools, roughly the same 
number of teachers used computers 
regularly during the yean Whether at 
elementary, middle or high school, 
about five teachers per school are 
regular users. 

The ways students use computers 
differ by grade level. In elementary 
schools, more than half of computer use 
by students involves drill and practice 
and tutorial programs. The tutorial 
programs are generally computer as- 
sisted instruction (CAI). Only about 12 
percent of elementary students' time is 
spent writing computer programs. 
Mathematics and language arts (Eng- 
lish and reading) are the major subjects 
using computers at this level. In 1983, 
the typical elementary school student 
using computers was on the machine 
about 20 minutes per week. In 1985, the 
time spent with the machine had in- 
creased to 35 minutes each week. 

High school students, by contrast, 
spend only 16 percent of their computer 
time on CAI, but half of the time 
dealing with programming. Computer 
literacy and programming are the dom- 
inant subjects for high school students, 



with business education and mathemat- 
ics next. Time with the machines has 
increased at the secondary school also. 
In 1983, secondary students spent 45 
minutes per week dealing with compu- 
ters. By 1985, this had increased to 90 
minutes each week. There are two 
reasons for more computer time per 
student at upper grades. More compu- 
ters are available at each school and 
each computer is used more than in 
elementary schools. 

Across all school levels, time spent on 
computers can be divided into thirds. 
About one-third of the time is for CAI, 
one-third for programming, and one- 
third for all other academic work, 
including discovery learning and word 
processing. 

In elementary schools, computers 
tend to be spread out, with a smaller 
number of machines at each location, 
but more locations. High schools tend 
to cluster computers, such as establish- 
ing a computer lab. Middle schools tend 
to have computer labs even more than 
elementary or high schools. More than 
three-fifths of all computers in middle 
schools are in labs, and the labs are just 
as large (as many machines) as the ones 
in high schools. 

Computers in labs tend to be used 
more than computers in classrooms. 
This is partly because students doing 
programming use more computer time 



than students doing CAI, and lab loca- 
tions tend to be more devoted to pro- 
gramming. 

The Johns Hopkins study considered 
all computers used in schools during 
1985. The Color Computer was not 
reported separately, but in the category 
of "other low-cost color" machines. 
About three-fourths of the machines in 
this category were used in eighth grade 
or lower. We can deduce, therefore, that 
the Color Computer is primarily an 
elementary school machine. Over half 
of terminals used in secondary schools 
were connected to mainframes, 16-bit 
microcomputers and the rest of the 
TRS-80 line. 

This is a brief presentation of the 
findings of the computer use survey. 
There are six newsletters containing 
results of the entire study. If you want 
the complete series of all six newsletters, 
send S7.50 to Computer Survey News- 
letters, Center for Social Organization 
of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, 
3505 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 
21218. 

This survey might be useful to you if 
you decide to write for one of the Tandy 
grants. Background information will 
strengthen the proposal. If anyone 
reading this does apply for the Tandy 
grants, please let me know. Write to 
me at 829 Evergreen, Chatham, IL 
62629. /R\ 



CORRECTIONS 







"CoCo Dares You to Name That Tune" (June 1986, 
Page 66): Marge Rutter has written to clarify some points 
on her program. First, there is a comma missing from 
Line 852 of Listing 2. This problem occurred due to a 
printing error. Line 852 should read: 

852 PR I NT@238 ^"ftNCr 

Secondly, Marge neglected to mention the proper 
procedure for passing in the Bid-A-Note section. In order 
to pass, you must enter PRSS or P. Just pressing ENTER 
does not work and will eventually cause an error. 



"Picprt: Good Things Gome in All Sizes" (May 1986, 
Page 72): Mark Sullins has written to correct an error 



in his Picprt routines. In one portion of Normal, Mark 
used commands to set the Baud rate at 2400. Unfortu- 
nately this overrides the Baud rate that the user sets. To 
correct the situation, add the following line to Listing 1. 
This replaces the offending bytes with NOP instructions. 

33 FOR 3>&H7Dj35 TO &H7D$8:POKE I 
,&H12:NEXT I 



For quicker service, Corrections will be posted on 
Delphi as soon as they are available in the Info on 
Rainbow topic area of the database. Just type DflTR at 
the CoCo SIG prompt and INFO at the Topic? prompt. 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 77 



Develop spelling skills and the ability 
to recognize misspelled words 

I Before E 
Except A fter C 

(Or when it's like 
A as in Neighbor 
and Weigh) 



By Donald Turowski 



Let's see, what's the correct spell- 
ing? Is it "received," "recieved," 
or "reserved"? 
Need a program to help you with 
your child's spelling words? I know — 
you already have a couple. In fact, 
you're probably saying that these pro- 
grams are more trouble to run than 
simply sitting down and asking the 
children their words. Well, you may be 
right! But, if you're looking for a pro- 
gram that will help your child's spelling 
skills and also the ability to recognize 
when a word is misspelled, then SPEL- 
DRIL is the answer. 



Donald Turowski has a bachelor's 
degree in education and teaches algebra 
and computer literacy in the Burrells 
School District in Natrona Heights, 
Pennsylvania. He is married and has 
two children. 



SPELDRIL is set up like some stand- 
ardized tests in schools. Three spellings 
of a word are shown to the child and 
then he must choose the correct one. 
This type of approach helps the child 
recognize potential misspelled words 
while also developing the skills for 
correct spelling. 



Once the child determines the correct 
spelling, then he must carefully type in 
the word. This also helps with keyboard 
layout recognition on the computer. 

This program has been used both at 
the elementary and middle/junior high 
school levels. It generates a printer copy 
as a sort of "report card" for the parent 
or teacher. 

For teachers, this program can be 
used for each unit or chapter through- 
out the year. Since each file only uses 
one granule on a diskette, over 60 units 
or chapter lists can be kept on file for 
review or for the next year's classes. 

After loading and typing RUN, a title 
screen and then a menu appears with 
five choices: Prepare a new word list, 
Save a word list, Load a word list, Start 
spelling recognition and End. 

A printer copy can be selected (or a 
screen report card). This provides feed- 
back, and is helpful if the student or 
child retakes the same list of words for 
reinforcement. If a word is missed, the 
correct spelling is presented. This is, of 
course, the type of immediate feedback 
the child needs. Various messages and 
audible feedback on correct and incor- 
rect responses are provided, 

SPELDRIL was written on a 64K 
CoCo with a single disk drive option. 
However, it should be able to run on 
16K Extended BASIC Color Computers 
with no problems. A cassette option was 
not included, but it should be easy to 
adapt it for cassette, 

(You may direct questions about this 
program to the author at 1236 Ninth 
Avenue, Natrona Heights, PA 15065, 
412-224-6529. Please enclose an SASE 
when writing.) □ 



Sample Report 

JIMMY'S REPORT: 

Word List is ==>TESTFILE 



YOU MISSED == > F E BRU AR Y 
YOU MISSED ==>RECEIVED 
YOU MISSED ==>RECOMMEND 
YOU MISSED ==>RESPONSIBLE 
YOU MISSED ==> PARALLEL 



JIMMY > 15 CORRECT OUT OF 2J3 



78 THE RAINBOW September 1986 




Editor's Note: To modify this program for cassette 
operation, change #1 in lines 2030, 2070, 3030 and 3070 
to #-1. This causes a data file to be opened on cassette 
rather than disk. Also, you will need to use PRINT#-1 
in Line 2050 instead of WRITE#1. 



The listing: SPELDRIL 

10 REM PROGRAM TO RECOGNIZE 
SPELLING PATTERNS, ETC. 

14 CO=0:WR=0 

15 CLEAR 3000:DIM A$ (20) , B$ (20) , 
C$(20) ,D$(20) 

20 CLS (RND(8) ) :PRINT@32*6+5, "spe 
lling recognition"; : PRINT@32*13+ 
1, "programmed by d. turowski (198 6 
) " ; :PRINT§3 2*15+1, " [suggestions 
by t. gallagher]"; 

25 PLAY"L1603GF#GEFGL8AL16GF#GL2 
8CDEFGAB04CP8":FOR WW=1 TO 1000: 
NEXT WW 

26 CLS(8):FOR WW=1 TO 16:PRINTTA 

B(5) ; "spelling recognition" : NEXT 
WW: FOR WW=1 TO 21:PRINT§32*15+W 
W , " GET READY ! " ; : SOUND 200 , 1 : FORX 
X=1TO100:NEXT XX:PRINT@32*15+WW, 
» ";:NEXT WW 

30 FOR D=l TO 20: SOUND D,1:NEXT 
D:CLS(RND(8) ) 

40 CO=0:WR=0:CLS(RND(8) ) :PRINT@3 
2+6 , "spelling recognition" ; : PRIN 

T@32*3, "<1>PREPARE NEW WORD LIST 
ii 

50 PRINT§32*4, "<2>SAVE WORD LIST 
ii 

60 PRINT@32*5, "<3>LOAD WORD LIST 
ii 

70 PRINT§32*6, "<4>start SPELLING 

RECOGNITION PROGRAM" 
80 PRINT@32*7, "<5>END SESSION 
90 PRINT@32*10+5, "**enter your c 
hoice**";: INPUT C:PLAY"T22405L6 
CECE" 

100 IF C<1 OR C>5 THEN 40 

110 ON C GOTO 1000,2000,3000,400 

0,5000 

1000 REM ROUTINE TO PREPARE NEW 

WORD LIST 
1010 CLS(RND(8) ) :PRINT"YOU WILL 
BE PERMITTED TO ENTER 20 WORDS 
FOR EACH FILE. FOLLOW TH 

E PROMPTS ON THE SCREEN" 

1015 PRINT "you must enter the co 
rrect spelling as one of th 



e three choices !!!!!!!!!!!!!! 

" : PRINTSTRING$ (32,".") 

1020 FOR X=l TO 20 

1025 PRINT" FILE WORD #";X: PRINTS 

TRING$(32,"=") 

1030 INPUT"enter spelling #1"/A$ 
(X) 

1040 INPUT"enter spelling #2";B$ 
(X) 

1050 INPUT"enter spelling #3";C$ 
(X) 

1060 PRINT"is correct spelling 1 
,2, or 3 ?": INPUT B 

1061 IF B<1 OR B>3 THEN PRINT "EN 
TER ONLY 1,2, OR 3!":GOTO 1060 

1062 IF B=l THEN D$(X)=A$(X) 

1063 IF B=2 THEN D$(X)=B$(X) 

1064 IF B=3 THEN D$(X)=C$(X) 
1070 NEXT X 

1080 SOUND 200, 3: SOUND 200,3:PRI 
NT"**BE SURE TO SAVE THIS FILE!! 
**":PRINT"do you want to save it 
now?"; : INPUT V$:IF LEFT$(V$,1)= 
uyn THEN 2000 

1090 PRINT"press <enter> to retu 
rn to menu": INPUT RR$:GOTO 40 

2000 REM ROUTINE TO SAVE WORD 

LIST TO DISK 
2010 CLS (RND(8) ) :PRINT@8, "save f 

ile routine"; 

2020 PRINT@32*3 , "enter name for 
file" : INPUT F$ 

2030 OPEN"0",#l,F$ 

2040 FOR X=l TO 20 

2050 WRITE#1, A$(X) ,B$(X) ,C$(X) , 

D$(X) 

2060 NEXT X 
2070 CLOSE #1 

2080 SOUND 123, 2: SOUND 123,2:PRI 
NT" file saved to disk! !!!!!!!!!" 

2090 PRINT§32*14, "press <enter> 
to return to menu" ; : INPUT RR$ 
2100 GOTO 40 

3000 REM ROUTINE TO LOAD WORD 

LIST FROM DISK 
3010 CLS(RND(8) ) : PRINT@8 , "load f 
ile routine"; 

3020 PRINT@32*3,"enter name of f 
ile": INPUT F$ 
3030 OPEN"I",#l,F$ 
3040 FOR X=l TO 20 

3050 INPUT#1,A$ (X) ,B$(X) ,C$(X) ,D 
$(X) 

3060 NEXT X 
3070 CLOSE#l 

3080 SOUND 123, 2 '.SOUND 123,2:PRI 

NT" file loaded from disk! !!!!!!! 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 79 



! ! " ; 

3090 PRINT§32*14, "press <enter> 
to return to menu";: INPUT RR$ 

31)3)3 GOTO 4)3 

4)3)3)3 REM ROUTINE TO REVIEW WITH 

STUDENT THE VARIOUS 

SPELLINGS OF WORDS 
4)31)3 CLS(RND(8) ) : IF A$(l)="" THE 

N PRINT" sorry, there are no word 
s loaded into this program 

! ! ! ! ! 1 ! " : PRINT"please check if a 

file has been loaded press < 

enter> to return to menu" : I 

NPUT RR$:GOTO 4)3 

4)315 PRINT "PLEASE <ENTER> YOUR N 

AME": INPUT NA$: PRINT" DO YOU HAVE 
A PRINTER ON";: INPUT Z$:IF LEFT 
$(Z$,1)="Y" THEN FL=1 ELSE FL=)3 : 
4)316 SOUND 2)3)3,3:CLS(RND(8) ) 
4)317 IF FL=1 THEN PRINT#-2 , NA$ ; " 
•S REPORT: " :PRINT#-2, "Word List 
is ==>";F$:PRINT#-2,STRING$(60, " 

"") 

4)318 GOSUB 6)3)3)3 

4)32)3 FOR X=l TO 2)3 

4)33)3 PRINT@32*2+9, "word number"; 

X; 

4)34)3 PRINT@32*5 , "type the correc 
tly spelled word"; 

4)35)3 PRINT@32*6,A$(X) 
4)36)3 PRINT§32*7,B$(X) 
4)37)3 PRINT@32*8,C$(X) 
4)38)3 PRINT@32*10 , "the correct sp 

elling is " :PRINT@3 2*13 , 

" " ; : INPUT AN$ 

4)385 IF FL=1 AND AN$<>D$(X) THEN 
PRINT#-2,"YOU MISSED ==>";D$(X) 

4)39)3 IF AN$=D$(X) THEN 42)3)3 ELSE 
43)30 

41)3)3 FOR QQ=1 TO 2)3)30: NEXT QQ:CL 
S(RND(8) ) : NEXT X 

411) 3 PRINT"YOU GOT ";CO;" CORREC 
T OUT OF 2)3 POSSIBLE CORR 
ECT" 

4115 IF FL=1 THEN PRINT#-2 , STRIN 

G$(6)3, "=") :PRINT#-2,NA$;" >"; 

CO;" CORRECT OUT OF 2)3" : PRINT#-2 
,STRING$(6)3 / "=") 

412) 3 IF CO>=16 THEN PRINT "NICE 
JOB, YOU DID VERY WELL! ": PLAY "VI 
9;T403L3C02L8B03L4DCP8L3FL8EL4GF 
P8AP16AP16AP16AP16L2AP2L4GFGA-AL 
3B-L4FGAB-04CD03L3AL8GL2F" : GOTO 
4)3 

413) 3 IF( CO<16 AND CO>=14) THEN 
PRINT "NOT BAD. NEXT TIME, TRY 
TO GET AT LEAST 16 CORRECT IF Y 
OU CAN." :PLAY"L1603GF#GEFGL8AL16 



'EXCELLENT! " :GOTO 41)3 
'GOOD JOB!!":GOTO 41)3 
•ALL RIGHT! ":GOTO 41)3 
•YOU'RE RIGHT!": GOTO 



GF#GL28CDEFGAB04CP8" :F0RTT=1T015 
)3)3:NEXT TT: GOTO 4)3 

4135 PLAY"V25T303P4L2CL3CL8CL2CE 
-L8DL3DL8CL3C02L8B03L2CP2" 
414)3 PRINT" YOU NEED TO TRY THIS 
PROGRAM AGAIN UNTIL YOU GET A 
T LEAST 14 CORRECT. STAND BY 
, THE PROGRAM WILL RE-START 

SHORTLY .": FOR QQ=1 TO 3 5)3)3: NEXT 

QQ : CO=)3 : GOTO 40)3)3 
4 2)30 PLAY " T2 50 ; 03 ABCDEFGABCDEFGA 
BCDEFG" : C0RRECT=C0RRECT+1 : Z=RND ( 

5) 

4210 ON Z GOTO 4220,4230,4240,42 
50,4260 

4220 PRINT "VERY GOOD!": GOTO 410 

4230 PRINT 
0 

4240 PRINT 
0 

4250 PRINT 

4260 PRINT 
4100 

4300 REM WRONG RESPONSES 

4310 PLAY"T20O2ACACACACAC" : WRONG 

=WR0NG+1:Z=RND(5) 

4320 ON Z GOTO 4330,4340,4350,43 
60,4370 

4330 PRINT"NOPE! IT IS ";D$(X):G 
OTO 4100 

4340 PRINT "SORRY ! IT IS ";D$(X): 
GOTO 4100 

4 350 PRINT "NOT QUITE. IT'S ";D$( 
X) :GOTO 4100 

4360 PRINT"OOPS, IT'S ";D$(X):GO 
TO 4100 

4 370 PRINT"NO, IT'S REALLY ";D$( 
X) SGOTO 4100 
5000 END 

6000 REM ROUTINE FOR QUICK LOOK 

AT FILE WORDS 
6010 CLS(RND(8) ) : PRINT "YOU WILL 
BE GIVE A SHORT, QUICK LOOK AT T 
HE WORDS IN THIS PROGRAM. . 

. LOOK AT THEM QUICKLY!" 
6020 PRINT§32*14+3 , "press any ke 
y to continue" ; :EXEC44539 

6030 CLS (RND (8) ) 

6040 FOR X=20 TO 1 STEP -1 

6050 PRINT D$(X) , 

6060 NEXT X 

6070 FOR W=l TO 3 500: NEXT W 
6080 PRINT@32*15+10, "time is up! 
!!";:SOUND 200, 2: SOUND 200, 2: FOR 
W-l TO 400: NEXT W: CLS: RETURN 



80 



THE RAINBOW September 1986 



i 




the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 

True lower case characters 

User -friendly full -screen 
editor 

Right justification 

Easy hyphenation 

Drives any printer 

Embedded format and 
control codes 

Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 

Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 

The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 5 1 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 




...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— - 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPV1I/VIII, DMP-100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable /disable justification. 

Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save ail or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for su r e saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 

Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



...truly a state of the art word processor... 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Street 

Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 (weekdays, 
8AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries invited. (Add 
$2 for shipping. Californians add 6% state tax.) 

Available at 
Radio Shaek stores 
via express order 

catalogue #90-0253 
90-0254 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a trademark 
of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp; MX-80 is e 
trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



Graph-O-Matic 



By Jeff Harper 



A fast way to plot 3-D functions using the CoCo 



wTprogram, 3DFNCPLT, 
I W is a three-dimensional 

J function plot which 
quickly graphs any function in a 3-D 
Cartesian coordinate system. 

To achieve 3-D graphing, the pro- 
gram plots the function over the range 
of *Y' coordinates (from smallest to 
largest) for each 'X 1 coordinate. It then 
graphs the function over the range of 'X 1 
coordinates (again from smallest to 
largest) over the range of 'Y 1 coordi- 
nates. This produces a stunning graph 

Jeff Harper is a high school math 
teacher who enjoys programming the 
Co Co as a hobby. He is also a computer 
programming instructor for enrichment 
classes held each summer. 



of the function which resembles a net 
having been draped over a solid of the 
function. 

The program first asks if you want to 
have the 'X 1 , 'Y\ 4 Z' coordinate axes 
drawn on the screen. Then you are 
prompted to enter the function to be 
plotted. The computer displays Z= at 
which point you should enter a func- 
tion. A typical response might be COS 
(Y)+SIN(X), 

The computer then requests the smal- 
lest and largest 4 X' and 4 Y' coordinate 
values. These values can have any range 
dependent only upon the function to be 
plotted. I usually get a good idea of 
what a particular function looks like by 
using a range of values from -3 to 3 for 
both the 'X' and *Y' coordinates. At- 



tempts to plot off of the screen are 
cropped so as not to result in an error. 
'X' coordinate values are graphed com- 
ing toward you from the back of the 
screen, 4 Y' coordinate values are 
graphed horizontally and 'Z' coordinate 
values are graphed vertically. 

A unique and particularly useful 
feature of this program is that it lets the 
user enter the function to be plotted 
while the program is running. The user 
does not need to stop program execu- 
tion, change a program line and then 
rerun the program. The transformation 
of your function into a line of BASIC 
code is simple but interesting. 

Once the function to be plotted is 
entered, the routine beginning in Line 
970 looks for the location of Line 410 




Press any key tn continue 




zH"l9-x 2 -y 2 
x=[~3,3], y=[-3,3] 



z=cosy+sinx 
x=[-3,3],y=[-3,3] 



82 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



in memory. Once located, the string 
containing your function is tokenized 
into BASIC program Line 4 10. Note that 
this is done before the program ever 
reaches Line 410. Once the tokenizing 
is complete, the program continues and 
eventually executes Line 410 in the 



subroutine beginning at Line 360. This 
technique can easily be applied in other 
programs of your own creation. 

While 3DFNCPLT requires a 16K 
Extended CoCo, the routine that trans- 
forms the function into a BASIC pro- 
gram line will work on any size or 



system configuration including Color 

BASIC. 

( You may direct questions about this 
program to Mr. Harper at 430 Swing 
Avenue, Fincllay, OH 45840, 419-423- 
8878. Please enclose an SASE when 
writing.) □ 



Editor's Note: In Line 410 of the listing below, replace 
the REM marks (') with spaces. This line is used for 
entry of the function you wish to plot and the spaces 
are required in order to reserve space for your 
function. 

The listing: 3DFNCPLT 



10 

20 
2fd 
4j3 
5j3 
6j3 
70 
80 
9J3 

W 
110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 

190 

200 



3 DIMENSIONAL FUNCTION PLOT 
WITH INTERACTIVE FUNCTION 
DESIGNATION 



BY 



JEFF HARPER 
02/15/85 

PMODE 4,1 
COLOR 0,1:PCLS1 
LINE (0,0) -(255,191) ,PSET,B 

'* STEP VALUES FOR DETAIL * 

'* AND STRIPE SPACING * 
*************************** 

S1=.5:S2=.5:S3=1 
i 

CLS 

PRINT"AXES DRAWN ON SCREEN ( 420 



Y/N)?»; 

210 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 210 
ELSE IF A$<> ! 'N" AND A$<> ,, Y ,t THEN 

210 ELSE PRINT A$ : PRINT 
220 

230 **************************** 
240 1 *FIND LINE 410 IN MEMORY, * 
250 1 *GET EQUATION & TRANSFORM * 
260 '*IT INTO BASIC CODE AT * 
270 1 *LINE 410 BEFORE WE GET * 
280 1 *THERE IN THE PROGRAM. * 
290 **************************** 

300 GOSUB 1270 
310 GOTO540 
320 

*********************** 

* RADIAN TRANSFORMATION* 
*********************** 

360 RADIAN=(X*-. 7071068) 
370 

************************* — 

*FUNCTION TO PLOT IN 410*^ 
************************* 

Z=X A 2+Y A 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 •■''«'■■''•» i 
i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i j *i i i i i i i i i i 

i i i i t i i i i i i i i i i i 



330 
340 
350 



380 
390 
400 
410 



i i i i 
i i i i 



PRINTERS!!! 

neWI Star Micronics NX- 10 s 295 

Okidata 192 (Parallel) J 370 

Okidata 192 (Serial) J 425 

Okidata 182 J 240 

Silver Reed 550 (Daisy Wheel) J 395 

Silver Reed 400 (Daisy Wheel)(Par. or Serial) $ 200 

Other Printers, Monitors, and Accessories for CoCo and IBM upon request. 

1 15 off interface with purchase of printer. 

Find your cheapest published price and we'll beat it!!! 

SP-2 INTERFACE for EPSON PRINTERS: 

■ 300-19.200 BAUD rates 

■ Fits inside printer — No AC Plugs 

■ Optional external switch ( $ 5°° extra) frees parallel port 
for use with other computers 

■ s 49 95 (plus *3°° shipping) 

SP-3 INTERFACE for MOST OTHER PRINTERS: 

■ 300-19,200 BAUD rates 

■ External to printer — No AC Plugs 

■ Built in modem /printer switch — no need for Y-cables or 
plugging /unplugging cables 

■ $ 64 9S (plus *3°° shipping) 

Both also available for IBM, RS-232 and Apple IIC computers. 



DISK DRIVE SYSTEMS 

ALL Vi HEIGHT DOUBLE SIDED 

Drive 0 (addressed as 2 drives!) $ 235 

Drive 0,1 (addressed as 4 drives!) $ 350 

All above complete with HDS controller, cable, & drive 

in case with power supply 

Bare Double Sided Drives $ 1 09 

Dual Vi Height Case w/Power Supply $ 49 

Double Sided Adapter $ 25 

HDS Controller, RS ROM & Instructions $ 99 

25 CDC DS/DD Diskettes $ 32 & $ 3 s/h 

We use the HDS controller exclusively. Can use 2 different DOS ROM's. 
Shipping Costs: $ 5/drive or power supply, $ I0 max. 

Co Co Serial Cables 15 ft. — HO. Co Co/RS-232 Cables 15 ft.— $20. 
Other cables on request. (Add $ 3 00 shipping) 

CP.O. Box 293 
Raritan, NJ 08869 
(201) 722-1055 

R ENGINEERING 




September 1986 THE RAINBOW 83 



4 3)3 ************************ 

44j3 1 *SCALE IMAGE TO SCREEN* 
45J3 ************************ 

46j3 NX=1J3*(Y+RADIAN)+128 
47j3 NY=192-(lj3*(Z+RADIAN)+96) 
48j3 IF NX<j3 THEN NX=J3 
490 IF NX>255 THEN NX=2 55 
5J3J3 IF NY<J3 THEN NY=j3 
51J3 IF NY>191 THEN NY=191 
52,0 RETURN 
53j3 1 

54j3 PRINT: INPUT "SMALLEST X VALU 
E" ;BX 

55,0 INPUT" LARGEST X VALUE"; EX 
56j3 INPUT "SMALLEST Y VALUE" ;BY 
57J3 INPUT "LARGEST Y VALUE" ;EY 
580 SCREEN 1,1 
590 IF A$="N" THEN 72J3 

610 ************************ 

620 **DRAW X, Y, AND Z AXIS* 
630 ************************ 

640 LINE(128,51)-(128,96) ,PSET:L 
INE-(178,96) , PSET: LINE (127, 96) -( 
103,120) ,PSET 

650 DRAW"BM190,98 U2NH2E2" 
66,0 DRAWBM96 , 130 E2NH2NE2F2" 
670 DRAW "BM126 / 42 NR4E4L4" 
680 ' 

690 '********************** 

700 '*PLOT FUNCTION VALUES* 
710 *********************** 

720 FOR X=BX TO EX STEP SI 
730 FOR Y=BY TO EY STEP S2 
740 GOSUB 360 

750 IF Y=BY THEN LINE (NX, NY) - (NX 

,NY) ,PSET:GOTO770 

760 LINE- (NX, NY) , PSET 

770 NEXT Y 

780 NEXT X 

790 1 

800 ********************* 



810 »*PLOT CROSS STRIPES* 
820 '******************** 

830 X=BX 

840 FOR Y=BY TO EY STEP S3 
850 GOSUB 3 60 
860 X2=NX:Y2=NY 
870 X=X+.5 

880 IF X>EX THEN X=BX:GOTO 910 
890 GOSUB 3 60 

900 LINE(NX,NY)-(X2,Y2) , PSET: GOT 
0 860 

910 NEXT Y 
920 1 

930 DRAW" BM40, 189 U8R4D4NL4BR4 " 

940 DRAW"ND4R4BR4" 

950 DRAW"D4R4BU2NL4U2NL4BR4" 

960 DRAW "NR4 D2 R4 D2 NL4 BR4 11 

970 DRAW"R4U2L4U2R4BR8" 

980 DRAW"R4D2L4D2R4U4BR4" 

990 DRAW" ND4 R4 D4 BR4 " 

1000 DRAW"R4U2L4U2BR4ND2BR8" 

1010 DRAW"NU4D1ND3NE3NF3E1BR6" 

1020 DRAW"D4R4BU2NL4U2NL4BR4BD4 " 

1030 DRAW"R4U2L4U2BR4ND2BR8" 

1040 DRAW"BU1R2NR2NU2D5BR4" 

1050 DRAW"U4R4D4NL4BR8" 

1060 DRAW"NR4U4R4BR4" 

1070 DRAW"ND4R4D4NL4BR4" 

1080 DRAW"U4R4D4BR4" 

1090 DRAW" BU5R2NR2NU2 D5BR5 " 

1100 DRAW"U4BU2U1BD7BR4" 

1110 DRAW"U4R4D4BR4" 

1120 DRAW"NU4R4NU4BR4" 

1130 DRAW"NR4U2NR4U2R4D2" 

1140 A$=INKEY$:A$="" 

1150 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 115 

0 ELSE 100 

1160 1 

1170 *************************** 
1180 1 * A BASIC SELF-PROGRAMMER* 
1190 '* AND INTERPRETER * 
1200 f * BY JEFF HARPER * 



S*S*S OUTUNER 



1 SNAP ■ STUDY- SYSTEM 



* UNIQUELY FRIENDLY, learn in minutes, 

*NO FORMS to set up. Just start entering 
records o Use ARROW keys to change levels, 
browse MAIN headings, SUB-headings, ITEMS. 

*ADD - REVISE - DELETE at any level. 

*NO FILE NAMES TO REMEMBER. Just choose 
a file box (A-H) from the screen listing. 

*3 SAMPLE FILES and examples included. 

♦PRINT REPORT (printer codes permitted) 

♦NOT COPY PROTECTED ♦CLEAR MANUAL 

Best used every day to plan, check, review. 
Plan an outline for reports, jobs, duties, 
ideas, things to do. Reference notes for 
studies, books, checklists etc, etc. 



JOBS FILE PARTIAL FI^IT-murr 
HOME 

HOUSE MAINTENANCE 

Oianqe kitchen washers 
Faint utility room 
ch&ck smoke alarm **** 
Car service MCN 9AM 

YZkRD 

Prune hedge, shrubs 
Gate hinoes fix 
Clean out eave troughs 
Marigolds-seed MAR 1st 

PROJECT ' 200 
Preliminary plan 
Call traffic consultant 
re TUes 8:45 meeting 



BE ORGANIZED! 



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PRINTER RECOMMENDED 

ONLY $19.95 

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COZY SOFTWARE 

25142 53RD Ave 
ALDERGROVE, B.C. 
CANADA VOX 1A0 



84 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



12 10 
122)3 
1230 
124)3 
1250 
126)3 



•* 08/02/84 * 
» * * 

•♦ADAPTED FOR THE ECB COCO* 

' *FROM AN ARTICLE IN US-80* 

•* MAY/JUN 1981 PG.90 * 
■ ************************** 

1270 MM=PEEK(25) *256+PEEK ( 2 6) 
1280 LN=410 

1290 MS=INT(LN/256) :LS=LN-256*MS 
1300 M=MM 

1310 IF PEEK(M+3)OLS OR PEEK(M+ 
2)<>MS THEN M=PEEK(M) *256+PEEK(M 
+1) :GOTO1310 
1320 ML=M+4 

1330 PRINT" ENTER FUNCTION TO PLO 
T" 

1340 LINE INPUT " Z ==" ;E$ 
1350 E$="Z="+E$ 
1360 M=ML 

1370 FOR N=l TO LEN(E$) 
1380 Q=ASC(MID$(E$,N,1) ) 
1390 IF Q=43 THEN Q=171 : GOTO1510 
• + 

1400 
i _ 



1420 IF Q=47 THEN Q=174 : GOTO1510 

V 

1430 IF Q=61 THEN Q=179 : GOTO1510 



i — 



1410 
• * 



IF Q=45 THEN Q=172 : GOTO1510 
IF Q=42 THEN Q=173 : GOTO1510 



1440 IF Q=94 THEN Q=175 : GOTO1510 

I A 

1450 IF Q=67 THEN Q=255 : Ql=149 :N 
=N+2:GOTO1510'cos 

1460 IF Q=84 THEN Q=255 : Ql=150 : N 

=N+2:GOTO1510'tan 

1470 IF Q=76 THEN Q=255 : Ql=153 : N 
=N+2:GOTO1510'log 

1480 IF Q=73 THEN Q=255 : Ql=129 : N 

=N+2:GOTO 1510' int 

1490 IF Q=83 THEN N=N+2 : IF MID$ ( 
E$,N-1, 1)="I"THEN Q=255:Q1=133 E 

LSE Q=255:Q1=155 ' sin or sqr 

1500 IF Q=65 THEN N=N+2:IF MID$ ( 
E$,N-1,1)="T"THEN Q=255:Q1=148 E 

LSE Q=255 :Q1=130 1 atn or abs 

1510 POKE M,Q:IF Q=2 55 THEN M=M+ 
l:POKE M,Q1 
1520 M=M+1 
1530 NEXT 

1540 IF PEEK(M)<>0 THEN POKE M, 3 
2:M=M+1:GOTO1540 
1550 RETURN 



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TRACTOR FEED • DIE-CUT 
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WHITE J3 00/100 S20 00/1000 
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ORDER NOW... MAIL TO - 

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Chatsworth, CA 91311 
ORDER FORM - -----------^ 

Each cassette includes 2 labels only. Boxes sold separate- 
ly. In Continental U.S. shipment by U.P.S. If Parcel Post 
preferred, check here. Q 

Check or M O. enclosed [~] Send Quantity Discounts Q 
Charge to credit card: VISA H MASTERCARD f] 



Card No 



Name 



Exp,. 



I 
I 
I 
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Ask about our DUPLICATING SERVICE ■ 



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Formaker 

clean paperwork for business 

"it will give the small or home business professional-looking 
forms and effortless, errorless totals, accounting for taxes, 
discounts, shipping and deposits:' 

The RAINBOW, May 1986 
RAINBOW 



CtMT>*lCATM>4 
UAL 



menu driven 

customize for your company 
on screen Instructions 
creates: Invoice, quote, purchase order, 

mall order, receipt, letter 
printer customization a m 0% 

and much, much more 9^ 

"You have to look good to the customer . . 
helps . . . by providing neat, well-prepared forms . . " 

The rainbow, May 1986 



32K ECB dlSC 

This program 




Makes learning so much fun . . . rainbow 
. . . that kids think it's a game! Ci "«r~ 

Letter and number recognition. Ages 2 to 6 

$24 32K ECB disc or tape 

"If you are looking for a program to teach young children 
the alphabet, numbers and early vocabulary, super tutor 
may fit the bill" The rainbow, June 1986 

Send for more information: 

Challenger software 

42 4th Street 

Pennsburg, PA 18073 

Call (215) 679-8792 (Evenings) 



September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 85 



Computer Island 

227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, 

(718) 948-2748 





10312 



PROGRAM TITLE 



GRADES MEM OR Y PRICE PROG RAM TITLE 



GRADES MEMORY PRICE 



PRESCHOOL 

Preschool I - counting Pre-K 

Preschool II - adding Pre-K 

Preschool III - alphabet Pre-K 

Music Marvel-play songs Pre-K, 1 

Arrow Games - 6 games Pre-K, 1 

Fi rst Games - 6 games ; Pre-K, 1 

Mr. Cocohead-facemaker K-3 
Bentley Bear v 



1 6K Ext; 
16K Ext. 
16KExt; 
16K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 

16K-Ext, 
32K-Disk 



LANGUAGE ARTS 

Beyond Words 1-3 parts 3-5 
Beyond Words 2-3 parts 6-8 
Beyond Words 3-3 parts ?i§ii2 
Vocabulary 1-1000 words 3-5 
Vocabulary 2-1000 words 6-8 
Vocabulary 3-1000 words 9-12 
Context Clues 4,5,6,or 
Cocojot - jotto game 3-up 
Reading Aids - 4 parts 2-4 
King Author - writing tool 2-6 
Cocowheel of Fortune 4-up 



■ ft V s " 1 * \. 



Context Clues 



2-3 



32K-Ext. 

32K-Ext. 

32K-Ext. 

32K-Ext. 

32K«Ext. 

32K-Extl 

1 6K-Ext. 

16K 

1 6K-Ext, 
16/32 Ext 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext< 



..iPr : -' 



FOREIGN LANGUAGES 

French Baseball-200wds. 4-up 
French Baseball-500wds. 4-up 
Spanish Baseball-200wds 4-up 
Spanish Baseball-500wds 4-up 
Italian Baseball-200wds; 4-up 
Hebrew Alphabet beginners 

Hebrew Utility drawing utility 

CRITICAL THINKING PROBLEMS 

Memory Castle-Sunburst 4-up 
Factory by Sunburst 4-up 
Pond by Sunburst 2-up 
Teasers by Tobbs-Sunb. 4-up 
Inner City - simulation 7-up 
Find The Math Sequence 4-up 
Stranded-graphic advent. 4-up 

TEACHER/STUDENT AIDS 

Colorgrade - gradebook Adult 
Quizmaker - write quizzes 5-up 

ETT typing tUtOr (CocoWarehouse) 4-up 
The PuZZter (ColorConnection) 4-up 



16K-Ext. 
32K-Ext 
T6K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 



16K-Ext. 
1 6K-Ext. 



32K-disk 
32K-disk 
32K-disl< 
32K-disk 
32K-disk 
32K-Ext. 
32K-disk 



32K-disk 
32K-Ext. 
1 6K-Ext. 
32K-disK 



1 1 .95 
1 1 ,95 
1 1 .95 
11.95 
21 .95 
24.95 
16.95 
29.95 



19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
17.95 
1 1 .95 
19,95 
29,95 
19,95 
19.95 



11.95 
19.95 
11 .95 
19.95 
11.95 
11.95 
15.95 



44.95 
44.95 
44.95 
44.95 
49.95 
19.95 
24.95 



29.95 
24.95 
21.95 
29.95 



MATH 

Opening a Bank AccountS4*7* 



2- 4 

3- 5 

2- 5 

3- 7 
7-up 
1-8 
2*5 
5-3 

3-7 
3*7 



Dollars & Sense 
McCoco's Menu 
Moneypak 
Graph Tutor 
Graph-It 
Math Invaders 
Mathquiz - 4 operations 
Addition & Subtraction 

Skill Tutor Series 
Division Tutor 
Multiplication Tutor 
Factors Tutor 
Fractions Tutors <3 programs) 

addition, subtraction or multiplication 4-8 

Trigonometry 8-10 
Equations Linear 7-9 
Equations Quadratic 8-1 1 
Arith. Diagnostic Disk 3-8 
Fraction Diagnostic Disk ; J£9u> 
Verbal Problems Series 

Distance Problems J£t^&§0:;& 
Area & Perimeter 5-8 
Pizza Game yM 
Sales & Bargains 6-8 
Comparison Shopping 4^7' - 
Binary Dice Game ■ 4-up 

SOCIAL STUDIES 

Know Your States 
History Game 
States & Capitals 
Explorers & Settlers 
Famous American Women 6-up 
Street Map Game 3-5 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Name That Song 1 ,2,or 3 2-up 



5-up 
5-up 
&up 



Music Drill 
Science Game v 
Computer Literacy 



3-up 



6-up 



5 Educational Programs 1-2 or 



with Lightpen 
Chemistry Tutor 



3-6 



-up 



32K-disk 
16K-Ext. 
16K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
16K-Ext. 
16K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 



24.95 
14.95 
14.95 
24.95 
19.95 
14.95 
17.95 
19.95 



• • • j- a ■ 



16K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K.Ext. 
32K-disk 
32K-disk 

32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 



32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 



16K-Ext. 
16K-Ext. 
32K-disk 
32K-Ext. 



Disk indicates available on disk only. 

prices given. 
Add $5.00 for any program on disk. 



16K-Ext. 14. 
16K-Ext. 14.95 
16K-Ext. 19.95 



I9.95ea. 
24.95 
19.95 
19.95 
49.95 
49.95 

.v-> vfii : ... ■ - .•>■,' 

: >• • ■*:■■], 

19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
19.95 



19.95 
14.95 
19.95 
19.95 
.95 



11 .95 
19.96 
29.95 
19.95 



32K-disk 44.95 
32K-disk 29.95 



SCIENCE GAME , 

32K EB * disk only/$29.95 
Over 600 questions in 9 categories. 
Makes learning science facts fun. 
Game format, 1 or 2 players, teams. 
Grade 8 and up. 



VERBAL MATH PROBLEMS 




STREET MAP GAME 

:>v32K^ $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
Hi-res. screen and graphics portray 
a typical section of a street map. This 
one shows people's homes, the 
school, the park, etc. Questions on 
how to get from one place to another 
are asked and the footsteps are 
shown. 

CHEMISTRY TUTOR 

32K - disk only - $29.95 
A ht-res. 4 part program that drills 
high school students in Elements, 
Symbols, Naming Compounds, 
Common Ions, and Balancing Equa- 
tions. Correct answer given after 2 in- 
correct responses. A valuable tool for 
studying chemistry. 

5 LIGHTPEN PROGRAMS 

32K EB - $44.95 
Five menu driven educational pro- 
grams designed for children in grade 
1 and 2, and special educational 
students. Basic addition, basic 
multiplication, shape series mat- 
ching, number series matching and 
word rhyming are included. AH on a 
HI-RES screen, with graphics. User 
need only to use the light pen to 
operate the programs. (LIGHT PEN 
INCLUDED) 



PIZZA GAME 
32K EB - tape/$19.95 
Learn to locate coordinates on a 
grid. HI-RES text and graphics. 



lp AREA & PERIMETER 

■-0- 32K EB - tape/$19.95 

Triangles, rectangles, and circles 
are covered in this HI-RES text and 
graphics program. 



SALES & BARGAINS 

32K EB - tape/$1 9.95 
Learn to find the discounted price. 
HI-RES text and beautiful graphics. 



DISTANCE PROBLEMS 

32K EB - tape/$ 19.95 
Moving graphics and text combines 
on a HI-RES screen. Rate x Time * 
Distance in all its forms. 



STREET MAP GAME 32RE.B. 
$19.95 Tape $24.95 Disk 

Hi - res screen and graphics por- 
tray a typical section of a street 
map. This one shows people's 
homes, the school, the park, the 
post office, etc. Questions are ask- 
ed on how to get from one place to 
another and the footsteps are 
shown after response, A fun way 
to improve map skills. 



OPENING A BANK ACCOUNT 

32K - Disk Only - ^.95 
A set of programs designed id in- 
troduce and provide practice ih the 
skills of filing out bank applications, 
deposit and withdrawal ^lips* and 
computing bank account balances. 
Loaded with graphic preSeniSiSnk: 
Grades 3-6, 



tit 4t tit 



DOLLARS & SENSE 

16K-Ext. - $14.95 tape/$1 9.95 disk 
Learn to make purchases; graphic 
displays of items kids love. Player 
buys items using dollars and coins 
to practice using money correctly. 
Solutions given. 

MeCOCO'S MENU 

16K-Ext. - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
America's favorite pastime-going out 
to eat. Learn to buy and add up your 
purchases from a typical fast food 
restaurant menu. Gain skill in using 
money. Different prices each time. 

COCO WHEEL OF FORTUNE 

32K - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
Hi-res. graphics and screen in this 
version of the popular TV show. 1-6 
players. Spin the wheel for points 
and guess a letter to solve one of the 
200 puzzles. Have fun while 
strengthening LA skills. 

COLORGRADE 

32K - disk only - $29.95 
An easy to use classroom grading 
program. Keeps grades for up to 6 
classes of up to 40 students per 
class. Many options including 
weighted averages and hard copy to 
printer. 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



ComputeWrlsland 




(718) 948-2748 
Dept. R 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 

Send for catalog with complete descriptions. 



Please add $1.00 per order for postage. N.Y. residents, please add proper tax. FREE set of BINARY DICE, including full directions, with 
orders of 2 or more items. 



Dealer Inquiries Invited. 



TRS-80 Color Computer 



All Payments in U.S. Funds. 



■ 




This delightful game teaches facial features while 
entertaining your youngsters 



XUU.J- J. dl^vC 



By Mike Rigsby 



M 




any people are purchasing 
computers to help their child 
prepare for the new techno- 
logical age. Face is a game de- 
signed to catch the attention 
of very young children be- 
cause it requires nothing but 
pounding on the keyboard. 
Loosely based on the old po- 
tato toy that had changeable 

face parts, 
the voice 
output and 
graphics 
enable a 
user to 
create 

hundreds of 
faces by 
swapping 
parts elec- 
tronically. 
Operation 
of Face re- 
quires 32K Extended Color 
basic and will not run with 
the disk controller plugged in. 
The game will operate on a 
16K machine if voice output 
is deleted. 

The game begins with pro- 
duction of a pleasant face ac- 



companied by five key words: 
eyes, ears, nose, mouth and 
hair. A cursor slowly rotates 
past these words. Press any 
key (except shift, which does 
nothing, or break, which 
stops the program) and the 
screen changes to a display of 
appropriate parts and pro- 
nounces the name of the part. 
The new display shows a 
choice of features complete 
with rotating cursor awaiting 
another keyboard entry to 
signify a choice. When a key 
is pressed, a beep is heard and 
the face is redrawn with the 
newly selected part in place. 

Tiny youngsters are ex- 
posed to the keyboard in a 
friendly manner; they learn to 
read the five key words, they 
develop a longing "to 'play' 
on the 'puter" and they enjoy 
themselves. It's also fun to 
watch adults creating faces. A 
hazard in this game is the 
break key because it halts the 
action and requires a restart. 

Extensive basic graphics 
are used in the game, but al- 
phanumeric characters are 



Mike Rigsby, author and inventor, builds animated display windows 
and repairs antique toys. He also invented a program so that Teddy 
Ruxpin's 1 * animation will fit any voice on tape. 



88 THE FAI NBOW Septsm ber *986 



And even then you couldn't 
access as many CoCo 
goodies as you get in 
Public Domain Software 
Copying Company's special pre- 
selected package deals. Check 
it out: 

1 TOOLS— 4 disks, 62 files. 
Includes: Basic 64, BSearch 
DiskTest, DOS64, DSBoot, 
Print-DIR, Recover, Romback, 
Romfix, Scrn51, Backup, Unlock, 
MultBack, Spell & Fix Free Ware, 
Manual, Diet, Build, List, Append, 
Addword. Teleterm, Ker- 
mit, Superforth, dhi 
16KForth. Editor, 
32K Forth. Manual. 



r\er- 

25 



2 GAMES— 4 disks, 59 files. 
GAMES IN BASIC include: 
Gunner, Life, Poker, Bio 
rythm, Hangman, Go, Fractal, 
World 3D, Lovetrek, Nude, Star- 
trek, Reverse, Scramble, Pizza. 
FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE: 
Pong, Squash. Blockade, Germ, 
Grid, 3D-Tictac, Zerog. SIMULA- 
TIONS & ADVENTURE: Cave, 
Wargamu. NORAD.4^^% HP 
arcoyle. KingTUT,N*^# 



Civilwar, Icewar. 



3MUSICA MANUAL & 
UTILITIES— 4 disks, 80 
files. Includes: Addplay, 
Boogie, Circus, Clowns, Hyden, 
JBGood, Sonata3. Straw, #3 Foggy, 
Funeral, Hardday, Joplin, Peanuts, 
Rock, Stranger, Camelot, Dia- 
mond. Fantasyll. Greengras, Star- 
Wars, Superman, RootBeer, Ghos- 
Bust, Mash. 201, Stelmo, Balstar. 
Messiah, Raiders, WK0 
Watermus, Toc-N*^#J^ 



cata, Fuge, etc. 



4GRAPHIC0N PICTURES— 
these pictures demonstrate 
the ability of the Color 
Computer to produce exciting art. 
Graphicon need- ^< 
ed. Modifyable. 
4 disks. 



liAcuuiy ail. 

25 



5 PICTURE DISKS— 2 disks, 
35 files. Turn your CoCo into 
a Mac includes: McPaint, 
Icons, Epson/DRV, Animate, Bal- 
loon, Hebrew, Typing, RSDMP/ 
DRV. Animation Disk includes Ro- 
tate, Shuttle, 
Triangle, Glass, Star, 
Baseball, Donduck. 



an mi 

$ 



15 



6 FOR THE 0S9 OPERATING 
SYSTEM— 2 disks, 20 + 
files. Includes programs 
from BASIC09, ASM and C: 
Finance, Clk, MathDemo.c, 
Bounce.c, rafDemo.c, Primes.c, 
WCc, Six text ad- 
ventures for 0S9 
operating system. 



$ 



7 



ALL THE 
ABOVE— 
l 130 value: 



$ 



15 
80 



G 




> 




ORDERS: Include full name, com- 
plete address, phone with area 
code (important!). Specify for 
CoCo. Include $3 P/H per ord. 
Phone: credit cards only. Over- 
seas: add 80C per disk U.S. post- 
age. N. Y include 8,25% tax, pre- 
paid only. Canada: postal money 
orders, U.S. $ only. We also have 
P.D. Software for Ms.Dos, CP/M. 
Catalogs: $4. We sell 2 Drive 
Ms.Dos portable 512k, $895. We 
are a copying service providing 
programs from Users Groups; cor- 
rections solicited. Please include 
$2.40 handling with any returned 
(postal mangled etc.) disk. Con- 
tent not warranteed. 



The Public Domain Software 
Copying Company 

(est. 1983) 

33 Gold Street, New York City 10038 
212/732-2565 




not supported in the graphics mode. 
Lines 10 through 260 (A$ through Z$) 
represent the letters 'A' through 'Z\ 
Although they are not all used in this 
program, I left them for anyone desiring 
a ready-made alphabet. Lines 720 
through 1210 cause the cursor to rotate 
past the words on the face screen. 

Pressing a key moves execution to 
Line 2000 where selection of the proper 
alternate screen is made, those choices 
being Line 2050 for eyes, 2200 for ears, 
2400 for nose, 2600 for mouth and 2800 
for hair. Within these routines a choice 
is made by key depression and control 
is transferred to Line 1. Actual drawing 
of the face and words takes place be- 
tween 320 and 710. 

To operate Face without voice output 
(required for 16K operation), delete 
lines 2054, 2204, 2404, 2604 and 2804. 
Operation of Face with voice requires 
that both a machine language program 
and Face be loaded. 

To develop the voice code (machine 
language program) I used Radio 
Shack's EDTASM+. In EDTASM+ 
editor mode, type in the Sound listing. 
Sound is a modified version of a routine 
written by Richard Seymour. For Mr, 
Seymour's excellent discussion on 
sound storage and retrieval see "Teach 
Your Computer To Talk," 80 Micro 
Special Anniversary Issue, 1983. As- 
semble this text in memory with the A/ 
IM/AO command. Escape to basic 
with the Q command. Enter or load in 
the BASND program (written in 
BASIC). Voice input comes through the 
black plug in the cassette cable. With 
only the black plug attached to the 
recorder, and the record and play but- 
tons pressed, the cassette machine acts 



an an amplifier. I recommend using a 
separate amplifier and microphone to 
get better quality sound. 

Run BASND. You are asked EYES? 
Press enter and say "eyes" into the 
microphone. Do the same with all five 
words. Next the opportunity is pre- 
sented to hear the five words, one at a 
time (be certain that volume is not off 
on the television/monitor). You are 
asked LISTEN RGRIN? Pressing 'N 1 
allows the words to be rerecorded; any 
other response permits the words to be 
heard once more. 

When word clarity is acceptable, 
press BREAK and type EXEC 49152. 
Now the editor message appears. Enter 
Z. Prepare the tape recorder to record 
the machine language data. Enter P 
FfiCE 42GB G37B 426B. This is the 
machine code which is called upon by 
the BASIC program to produce verbal 
output. 

To use the program, load or type in 
Listing 1. Then CL0RDM the voice ma- 
chine code you have just created. Type 
RUN and marvel as the computer talks 
with your own voice. 

My young daughter can read the 
words (even written on a sheet of paper 
by hand) and she loves to type. Expos- 
ing girls to computers early in life might 
close the gap of interest in computers 
which threatens to shut women out of 
many good jobs in the future. Re- 
member that your child enjoys having 
you participate; the computer without 
a friend is just another set of toy blocks. 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to Mr. Rigsby at 2210 
Kamino Del Mar, Sanibel, FL 33957. 
Please enclose an SASE when writ- 
ing.) □ 





Half-pint hacker Ember Rigsby plays another round of Face. 



90 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



340 . 
440 . 
530 . 
800 . 
1110 



.73 
.18 
217 

. . .9 
.53 
.85 



2130 253 

2270 147 

2500 23 

2725 1 

2810 133 

2930 64 

END 89 



Listing 1: FACE 

0 GOTO 5000 

1 PM0DE1,1 

3 SCREEN1, 1 

4 COLOR8,5 

5 PCLS 

lj3 A$="U2 ;E2;U6;R4;D6;L2 ;R2 ;F2 ;D 

2; BM+6,0" 

20 B$="U10 ; R6 ; D6 ; L4 ; R4 ; D4 ; L4 ; R4 ; 

BM+6,0" 

30 C$="R4 ;L4;U10 ;R4 ;BM+6 ,10" 

40 D$="R2;E4;U2;H4;L2 ;D10;BM+12, 

0" 

50 E$="R6;L6;U4;R4;L4 ;U6;R6;BM+6 
,10" 

60 F$="U4 ;R4 ;L4 ;U6 ;R6 ;BM+6, 10" 
70 G$="R6 ;U4 ; L2 ;R2 ; D4 ;L6 ;U10 ;R6 ; 
BM+6,10" 

80 H$="U10;D6;R4;U6;D10; BM+6,0" 

90 I$="U10;BM+6, 10" 

100 J$="U2 ;D2 ;R4 ;U10 ;L4 ;R8 ;BM+6, 

10" 

110 K$="U10 ; D4 ; R2 ; E4 ; G4 ; F4 ; D2 ; BM 
+6,0" 

120 L$="U10;D10;R4; BM+6,0" 

130 M$="U10 ;F4 ;D2 ;U2 ;E4 ; D10 ;BM+6 

,0" 

140 N$="U10;F4;D2;R2 ;U6;D10;BM+6 

,0" 

150 O$="U10;R4;D10;L2;R2; BM+ 6,0" 
160 P$="U10 ; R6 ; D6 ; L6 ; D4 ; BM+12 , 0 " 
170 Q$="U10;R6;D6;L2 ;R2 ;D4;L4 ;R6 
; BM+6,0" 

180 R$="U10 ;R4 ; D2 ; G2 ; F4 ; D2 ; BM+6 , 
0" 

190 S$="R6 ;U4 ; L6 ;U6 ;R6 ; BM+6 ,10" 
200 T$="BM+4 , 0 ;U10 ; L4 ;R8 ; BM+6 , 10 



; F8 ; R2 ; F2 ; R6 ; D2 ; R2 ; D2 ; R6 ; LI 4 ; D2 4 
; R8 ; E2 ; R6 ; E2 ; R2 ; E2 ; Ul 6 ; L6 ; " 

3 30 A2$="R20 ;D16 ;L12 ;R2 4 ;F2 ;R10; 
U2 2 ; L12 ; G2 ; L6 ; G2 ; BM+16 , -6 ; E4 ; R2 ; 
E2 ; R2 ; U2 ; E2 ; U2 ; E4 ; U4 ; R2 ; L10 ; E10 ; 
D8 ; L6 ; R2 ; U2 ; R2 ; U2 ; R2 ; U2 6 ; H2 ; U2 ;H 
2 ;U2 ;H2 ;U2 ;H2 ;U2 ;H2 ;U2 ;H2 ;U2 ; " 
340 DRAWA1$ : DRAWA2 $ 

350 PAINT(84,126) ,6,8 

352 PAINT (106, 12 6) ,7,8 

354 PAINT(64,126) ,7,8 

360 B1$="L2 ;G2 ;H6;U2 ;H2 ;U2 ;E4 ;R2 

; E2 ; R2 ; F2 ; BM+9 6 , -2 ; R6 ; F4 ; D4 ; G2 ; D 

2 ; G4 ; L4 ; " 

3 70 B2 $=" L4 ; G6 ; U4 ; E2 ; U4 ; E2 ; U2 ; H2 
;U8 ;H2 ;U10 ;R2 ; F2 ; D2 ; F2 ; D2 ; F4 ; BM+ 
96,0;R2 ;E2 ;U2 ;E2 ;U2 ;E2 ;U2 ;E2 ;G2 ; 
D10 ; G2 ; D16 ; F2 ; D6 ; F2 ; D2 ; L4 ; H2 ;U2 ; 
H4 ; " 

380 B3$="G14 ;L4 ;G2 ; L6 ;U8 ;E2 ;U2 ;E 
2 ;U2 ;R2 ;U2 ;E12 ;R2 ;E4;R2 ;BM+0 , 8;L 
2 ; G10 ; D2 ; R6 ; E6 ; BM+9 6 , -14 ; R2 ; F2 ; R 

4 ; F12 ; D2 ; F4 ; D4 ; F2 ; D2 ; G2 ; L6 ; H4 ; L2 
; H2 ; L4 ; H4 ; L2 ; H2 ; BM+0 , -8 ; F4 ; R2 ; F4 
; R4 ; U6 ; H2 ; L2 ; H2 ; L2 ; H2 ; L2 ; " 

390 DRAWBM32 , 78 ;XB5$ ; " 

400 C1$="E6;R2;E2;R2;E2;R4;E2; ;E 

2 ; R2 2 ; F2 ; R4 ; F12 ; R2 ; F2 ; " 

410 C2$="E28 ;R8 ;F2 ;L14 ;D2 ;R16;D2 

; L20 ; D2 ; R2 4 ; D2 ; L2 8 ; D2 ; R3 2 ; D2 ; L3 6 

;D2;R40;F14;" 

420 C3$="E10 ;R4 ;U2 ;D2 ;R4 ;U2 ;D2 ;R 
2 ; D2 ; U2 ; R2 ; U4 ; D4 ; R2 ; D2 ; U2 ; R2 ; U2 ; 
D2 ; R6 ; U4 ; D6 ; R4 ; U4 ; D2 ; R4 ; U6 ; D6 ; R2 
; D4 ; U4 ; R4 ; U2 ; D2 ; R4 ; U2 ; R4 ; F10 ; D2 ; 




September 1986 THE RAINBOW 91 



47)3 


DRAW"BM56 , 66 ;XD5$ ; " 


1000 


C0L0R5 . 5 : DRAWBM150 , 72 7 XCU$ 


480 


El?= i "U4 ;E2 ;R4 ;F2 ; D2 /G4 ;L2 " 


7 " : C0L0R8 


485 


REM"WRITTEN BY MIKE RIGSBY, 


1010 


DRAW"BM150,102 ;XCU$; n 


DECEMBER 1982" 


1020 


Q=0 


500 


E2 S="BM-2 , 0 ; E4 ; R2 ; F12 ; L2 6 ; E8 


1030 


Q1$=INKEY$ 


; BM+2 , 4 7 U0 ; BM+6 , 0 ; U0 ; " 


1040 


IF Q1$=""THEN1060 


510 


E3 $="U4 ; E2 ;R2 ; F2 ; D4 ; F2 ; R2 ; F2 


1050 


R6=R4:GOTO 2000 


; G2 ; L14 ; H2 ; E2 ; R2 ; » 


1060 


Q=Q+1:IFQ=50 THEN 1100 


520 


DRAW" BM7 8 , 8 2 7 XE5 $ 7 " 


1070 


GOTO 1030 


530 


F1$="G4 ;E4 ;R26 ; F4 ; " 


1100 


C0L0R5 , 5 : DRAW" BM1 50,1027 XCU 


540 


F2 $="H4 ; F4 ; R2 6 ; E4 ; " 


$ 7 " : C0L0R8 


550 


F3 $=" BM+4 , 0 ; E2 ; R2 ; E2 7 R8 ; F2 ; R 


1110 


DRAW"BM150 ,132 7XCU$ 7 " 


2 ; F2 ; G2 ; L2 ; G2 ; L8 / H2 ; L2 ; " 


1120 


Q=0 


560 


F4$="E4 7R4 7D2 ;U2 ;R12 7F4 ;G2 7L 


1130 


Q1$=INKEY$ 


6;U2;L2;D2;L12;" 


1140 


IF Q1$=""THEN 1160 


57)3 


, — » m m- ■ m h m «m m. • mm*. mW ft ■ 

DRAW" BM68 , 98 ;XF5$ ; " 


1150 


R6=R5:GOTO 2000 


MM 

58)3 


Ey$="XE$ ;XY$ ;XE$ ;XS$ ; " 


1160 


Q=Q+1:IFQ=50 THEN 1200 


MM — . /M» 

59)3 


EA$="XE$ ;XA$ ;XR$ ;XS$ ; " 


1170 


GOTO 1130 


6)3)3 


NO$="XN$ ;X0$ ;XS$ ;XE$ ; " 


1200 


C0L0R5 , 5 : DRAW"BM150 , 132 7 XCU 


61)3 


MO$="XM$ ; X0$ ; XU$ ; XT$ ; XH$ ; 11 


$ 7 " : C0L0R8 


62)3 


K _ «JW ■ ■ M> M-MV M> « B Ml M MB MM ^M M MMMh ■ A 

HA$= M XH$ ; XA$ ; XI $ ; XR$ ; 11 


1210 


GOTO 72j3 


625 


W1$=EY$ 


*\ w w w 

2j3j3j3 


GOTO 2)3)31 


630 


W2$=EA$ 


^-K. —J K 

2j3j31 


IF R6=2j35j3 THEN 2)35)3 


640 


W3$=N0$ 


2002 


MMl MMB M^ ^* jMk ^ Mf MMM M> Ml Ml M M> jM> A /V 

IF R6=22)3j3 THEN 2 2)3)3 


650 


W4$=M0$ 


2004 


H ^bk. M^ B Mt Mf MMM M> M> «HM M B M J| ^M# 

IF R6=2400 THEN 2400 


660 


W5$=HA$ 


2006 


IF R6=2600 THEN 2600 


665 


CU$="Ulj3 ;R2 ;Dlj3 ;R2 ;Ulj3 ; M 


2008 


IFR6=2800THEN 2800 


670 


DRAW n BM158 , 12 ; XW1$ ; 11 


2010 


STOP 


680 


DRAW" BM1 58,427 XW2 $ 7 " 


2020 


GOTO 2020 


690 


DRAW" BM15 8 ,727 XW3 $ 7 " 
DRAW" BM158 , 102 7 XW4 $ 7 " 


2050 


B=&H42 : C=&HCC: D=&H4A: E=&H38 


700 


2052 


GOSUB 7000 


710 


DRAW" BM15 8 ,132? XW5 $ 7 " 


2054 


A=USR1(0) 


720 


DRAW "BM150,12 7XCU$7" 


2058 


PCLS5 


730 


Q=0 


2060 


DRAW" BM2 0 , 50 7 XD1 $ 7 " 


740 


Q1$=INKEY$ 


2070 


DRAW"BM140, 50 ?XD2$ ; » 


750 


IF Q1$=""THEN770 


2080 


DRAW " BM4 0 , 1 4 0 7 XD3 $ 7 " 


760 


R6=R1:G0T0 2000 


2090 


DRAW" BM2 5,707 XCU$ 7 " 


770 


Q=Q+1 


2100 


GOSUB 6000 


780 


IF Q=50 THEN 800 


2110 


IF SD=0 THEN 2130 


790 


GOTO 740 


2120 


D5$="XD1$7" 


800 


C0L0R5 , 5 : DRAW"BM150 , 12 ?XCU$ 7 


2125 


GOTO 1 


it 




. 2130 


C0L0R5 : DRAW"BM25 , 70 7XCU$ 7 11 


810 


C0L0R8 : DRAW"BM150, 42 ?XCU$ 7 " 


2135 


COL0R8 : DRAW"BM145 , 70 ?XCU$ 7 " 


820 


Q=0 


2140 


GOSUB 6000 


830 


Q1$=INKEY$ 


2145 


IF SD=0 THEN 2160 


840 


IFQ1$=""THEN8 60 


2150 


D5$="XD2$7" 


850 


R6=R2:GOTO 2000 


2155 


GOTO 1 


860 


Q=Q+1:IFQ=50 THEN 900 


2160 
11 


COLOR 5:DRAW"BM145,70 7XCU$7 


870 


GOTO 830 




900 


C0L0R5 , 5 : DRAWBM150 , 42 7XCU$ 7 


2165 


C0L0R8 : DRAW"BM45 , 160 ; XCU$ 7 " 


" : C0L0R8 


2175 


GOSUB 6000 


910 


DRAW"BM150 ,72 7 XCU$ 7 " 


2180 


IF SD=0 THEN 2190 


920 


Q=0 


2185 


D5$="XD3$7" 


930 


Q1$=INKEY$ 


2187 


GOTO 1 


940 


IF Q1$=""THEN960 


2190 


C0L0R5 : DRAW"BM45 , 160 ; XCU$ 7 " 


950 


R6=R3:GOTO2000 


2195 


COLOR8 7GOTO2090 


96/Zf 


Q=Q+1:IFQ=50 THEN 1000 


2200 


B=&H4A : C=&H39 : D=&H52 : E=&H08 


970 


GOTO 930 


2202 


GOSUB 7000 



92 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



2 2)34 A=USRl(j3) 

22) 38 PCLS5 

221) 3 DRAW" BM2)3, 5)3 ;XB1$;" 

222) 3 DRAW" BM14)3, 1)3)3 ;XB2$; M 

223) 3 DRAW"BM40 / 14j3;XB3$; M 

224) 3 DRAW"BM25,7)3;XCU$; M 
2245 GOSUB6)3)3)3 

225) 3 IF SD=)3 THEN226)3 
2255 B5$="XB1$;'* 
2257 GOTO 1 

226) 3 COLOR5:DRAW lf BM25,7)3;XCU$;' 1 

22 65 COLOR8 : DRAW"BM145, 12)3 ;XCU$ ; 
it 

227) 3 GOSUB6)3)3)3 

2275 IF SD=)3 THEN 229)3 

228) 3 B5$= f, XB2$; M 
2285 GOTO 1 

229) 3 COLOR5:DRAW"BM145, 12)3;XCU$; 
ii 

2295 COLOR8 : DRAW 11 BM4 5 , 1 6)3 ; XCU$ ; 11 

23) 3)3 GOSUB 6)3)3)3 

231) 3 IF SD=)3 THEN 233)3 

232) 3 B5$="XB3$;" 
2325 GOTO 1 

2 3 3) 3 COLOR5 : DRAW" BM4 5 , 1 6)3 ; XCU$ ; 11 

234) 3 COLOR8:GOT0224)3 

24) 3)3 B=&H52:C=&H)39:D=&H59:E=&H)38 
24)32 GOSUB 7)3)3)3 



245) 3 IF SD=)3 THEN 247)3 

246) 3 E5$="XE1$; M 
2462 GOTO 1 

2 4 7)3 COLOR5 : DRAW " BM2 5 , 7)3 ; XCU $ ; " 
2475 COLOR8 : DRAW M BM145 , 75 ;XCU$ ; " 

248) 3 GOSUB 6)3)3)3 

2485 IF SD=)3THEN 25)3)3 

249) 3 E5$="XE2$;" 
2493 GOTO 1 

2 5)3)3 COLOR5 : DRAW "BM145 , 75 ; XCU $ ; 11 

251) 3 COLOR8 : DRAW n BM45 , 16)3 ;XCU$ ; 11 

252) 3 GOSUB 6)3)3)3 

253) 3 IF SD=)3 THEN 255)3 

254) 3 E5$= M XE3$7" 
2545 GOTO 1 

255) 3 COLORS : DRAW M BM45 , 16)3 ;XCU$ ; 11 

256) 3 COLOR8:GOT0244)3 

2 6)3)3 B=&H59:C=&H)39:D=&H61:E=&HA8 
26)32 GOSUB 7)3)3)3 
2 6)34 A=USR1()3) 
26)38 PCLS5 

261) 3 DRAW" BM2)3, 5)3 ;XF1$;" 

262) 3 DRAW I, BM140 / 50;XF2$;" 
2 63)3 DRAW" BM4)3 , 14)3; XF3$; 11 
264)3 DRAW"BM14)3, 14)3;XF4$;" 
2 65)3 DRAW"BM2 5,7)3;XCU$7 n 
2655 GOSUB6)3)3)3 

266)3 IF SD=)3THEN 268)3 




24)34 A=USR1()3) 

24)38 PCLS5 

241) 3 DRAW ,, BM2)3 / 5)3;XE1$; 11 

242) 3 DRAW I, BM14)3,5)3;XE2$; 11 

243) 3 DRAWBl^^^XES^;" 

244) 3 DRAW"BM25,7)3;XCU$;" 
2445 GOSUB 6)3)30 



S.T.A.G. 
A GRADEBOOK 

A full year gradebook. Track 
students not just for a 
semester, but for a full school 
year. Includes all the features 
you normally expect of a 
gradebook; weighted averag- 
ing of tests, homework scores, 
semester tests; correct, 
change or delete any student 
record; statistical analysis of 
scores; plus many more 
features not found in any other 
gradebook program. Included 
is a complete report writer for 
your printer. Frankly, we 
believe S.T.A.G. to be the best 
full year gradedbook program 
on the market today. Write for 
details. 

64k-Disk $46.00 
SECA 

TEACHER TESTED 
SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 3134 
GULFPORT, MS 39505 
(601) 832-8236 

Ms. res. add 6% sales tax. In- 
clude $3 shipping/handling. 
Make checks payable to SECA. 
Dealers and authors inquiries 
welcome. No refunds or 
exchanges. 



THE WORD FACTORY'S 
WORD MEANINGS 

Captivating Graphic Game 
New Word List Maker 
Test Sheet Printer 
1144 Words & Meanings 
An aid for learning new words 
and their meanings. Create ad- 
ditional lists for game use or 
classroom printed tests. New 
lists created can be for any age 
group. 

Grade 2-Adult. 64k-Disk 
$34.50 

PUZZLE MATH 

Hi-Res graphic game for rein- 
forcing addition, subtraction, 
multiplication, and division. 
Four levels of difficulty. Comes 
with 18 graphic pictures to 
start with. Add more if you 
wish. Each picture can be us- 
ed as an 8 to 48 piece puzzle. 
A favorite with kids. 
Grade 2-5. 64k-Disk $29.50 

THE WORD FACTORY'S 
SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS 

Hi-Res Graphic Game 
New Word List Maker 
Test Sheet Printer 
5760 Combination Printer 
An aid for learning synonyms 
& antonyms. Create additional 
word lists for game use or 
classroom printed tests. 
Grade 2-Adult. 64k-Disk 
$34.50 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 93 






/ Max Fonts Max Edit 



/Veil/ /br CoCo Max 

/Vow yotf ca/7 /?ai/e to 72 fonts for creating 
dazzling type-set titles and special displays! 

3 SETS OF 24 FONTS 

WHICH ARE OUT OF THIS WORLD! 



$2^5 



each 



Written by Wally Bayer and Mike Shawaiuk 



3m 



95 



© 1985 Snard Enterprises 



A FONT EDITOR FOR COCO MAX 

• Edit current fonts 

• Create new fonts 

• Design symbol fonts 

• Comes with pre-defined fonts 

• C0C0 Max I & II compatible 



$ 




95 



(Disk Only) 



Written by: Michael W. Shawaiuk 

C0C0 Max 9 is a registered trademark of Colorware. 



SET ONE 



SET TWO 



SET THREE 



Digital Small 

Digital Largs, 

Futura 

Ifiij rid Smnli 

GRID LRRGE 

mm® 

mi 



® 



DQlEsKsiBiODDlliH 1 






Victory 

Baby T«»th Sm«II 




Plni Print 



NorrnandG Small 

Mormande Medium 

NORMANDE LG. 

Piano 

1 



cHrcifclow 

Koloti 



m 




BE 

SmaU 

Pebqnot Larqe 

FPCCPnfll SfTtRLL 

psccnKm itieqiliete 

B'utisra BKI:i«:k Small 

^]IMIIBIIMIIMIIM1IM11B1 



t_ 1 ^ 1 LJ 1 1 it. 

Mocnoa Cmbj^ 

MocnoH JIapre 
Q B fl ^ 

PRIHTDUT LFiROE 

2» lUr 




Bocklin 

Crcadway 

IB 112 <D A ID W A V EN46IR.. 

Dot Mr*tr i * : - ; * 



Old Bn^lisii 

X£KX<5 M€>IUM 



MNMR Mi 

STISNCII. 






<*p% ****** 





T 

Tip Top 



iStk .uu M bh, A i 4 iiJi^ tfii^/^S ^-liiJW djii 




PRO-COLOR-FILE 

© Gy Derringer Software, Inc. 

ENHANCED 2.0 

60 Data Fields for each record 
1020 spaces available per record if needed 
Maximizes multiple drive operation 
28 equation lines (H — */) 
IF-THEN-ELSE logic test in equations 
Full Screen editing on up to 4 data entry screens 
Key click and auto key repeat 
Stores custom designed report formats 
Obtain totals, averages, or summaries tor any field 
Output reports to printer, screen, or disk file 
Send data out to a OYNACALC compatible file 
Separate label generator for up to 10 across labels 
Pre-define up to 16 indexes for searching/reporting file 
Sorts 750 records in under 5 minutes 
User defined selection menus 
Repeated tasks performed with one keystroke 
Comes with 75 pages of documentation in a 3 ring binder 
Supported by a national users group 
Full time programmer support 
Supplied on an unprotected disk 



PRO-COLOR-FORMS 2.0 

© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

PRO-COLOR-FORMS will access data files created with 
PRO-COLOR-FILE and merge them with a letter or place them 
on pre-printed forms. 

• STORE UP TO 6 FORMATS • USER DEFINED PAGE SIZE 

• SUPPORTS SPECIAL PRINTER CONTROL CODES • RIGHT 
JUSTIFICATION • PASSWORD PROTECTION • MERGES 
WITH GRAPHICS FROM MASTER DESIGN OR 
TELEGRAPHICS • 

PRO-COLOR-DIR 

© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

PRO-COLOR-DIR will read your directories and create a 
master data file that can be accessed by PRO-COLOR-FILE 
for sorting and reporting. 1000 + records can be stored on 
one diskette with valuable information about each program. 

You can obtain hard copies of the information and create 
labels of the filenames for placing on the diskette itself. 

• DISK ID NAME • FILENAME/EXT • TYPE OF FILE 
■ DATE CREATED • DATE UPDATED • NUMBER OF 
GRANS ALLOCATED • NUMBER OF SECTORS 
ALLOCATED AND USED • MACHINE LANGUAGE 
ADDRESSES • - 

FOR BOTH f 




DYNACALC 

SPREAD SHEET FLEXIBILITY 

(Includes Dynagraph, Sidewise) i 

Telewriter-64. 



WORD PROCESSOR POWER. 



$RQ95 



coco Max 11 

GRAPHICS SUPERIOR ^ I 

■79- jgtfr* 



@ SUMMARY 

© 1985 Derringer Software, Inc. 

If you use your spreadsheet program to keep track of your 
expenses then ©SUMMARY can help you analyze those 
expenses. For example, if you indicate a "Category" for each 
expense then @ SUMMARY will produce a report that shows 
a total for each category, the highest amount, the lowest 
amount and the average amount. In addition, ©SUMMARY 
can produce a hi-res line graph or bar graph of the analysis 
and allow you to place titles on the graph. A hardcopy of the 
graph can also be generated as well as saved to disk. 

The analysis can be saved in a "data file" which can be 
loaded into DYNACALC or read in by @ SUMMARY for future 
additions to the analysis. If you use other Spreadsheets such 
as ELITE*CALC then you have added a graphing feature to 
your spreadsheet applications. The analysis can also be saved 
in an ASCII file which can be read by word processors for 
inclusion in a report. 

@ SUMMARY is compatible with any spreadsheet program 
that can generate an ASCII text file of worksheets. 



Specify RS-DOS 
orOS9* 



(disk only) 



$1995 



*0S9 version does not 
have Hi-Res graphing 
and requires Basic09. 



DYNACALC is a registered trademark of Computer Systems Center 

ELITE* CALC is a trademark of Elite Software 

0S9 is a registered trademark of MICROWARE and MOTOROLA. 



SIDEWISE 

© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

Add a new "twist" to your printer's capabilities! 

SIDEWISE makes your printer do something you never 
thought possible -print side ways! 

SIDEWISE will read in any ASCII text file and print it out 
side ways using a Radio Shack, Epson, Okidata, C-ltoh or 
Gemini printers having dot-graphics ability. 

SiDEWiSE 0S9 is compatible with DYNACALC OS9 and 
requires Basic09 

SIDEWISE 0S9 
(Disk only) 




SIDEWISE RS-DOS 



s&&4 \<0> 

* RS-DOS version included FREE with DYNACALC 

0S9is a registered trademark of MICROWARE and MOTOROLA. 

TELEGRAPHICS 

© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

PRINT HI-RES GRAPHICS USING TELEWRITER-64! 

Use C0C0 Max, Graphicom or other graphics programs to 
create letter heads and print them while using Telewriter-64. 

Telegraphies interfaces with Radio Shack, Epson, Gemini, 
C-ltoh and Okidata printers having dot-addressable graphics. 
A simple modification to Telewriter-64 will allow you to exit 
Telewriter via the DISK I/O MENU and print out the graphic 
without affecting any of your text in the buffer. 

This is the same feature that is included in our MASTER 
DESIGN program. Since we felt you don't need to buy two 
graphics editing programs, we have made this feature available 
at a reduced price. 





(Available Only On Disk) 

NO OTHER DISCOUNTS APPLICABLE 



MASTER DESIGN 

© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

Generates lettering in hi-res graphics that can be different 
sizes, skinny, bold, textured, drop shadowed, raise shadowed 
or tall. Also interfaces with the telewriter-64 word processor 
for printing hi-res displays with your letters. 

take full advantage of all the extended BASIC hi-resgraphic 
commands including boxes, circles, lines, copy displays and 
utilize GET and PUT features. Added commands include mirror 
reflection, turn displays backwards or upside down. Squish 
displays, create dot patterns for shading or diagonal lines. 

the Letterhead Utility allows you to access hi-res graphics 
from Telewriter-64, your own BASIC programs or 
PRO-COLOR-FORMS. 

Interfaces with dot matrix printersjiaving dot addressable 
graphics. 




See reviews in; 

July '84 Rainbow. Oct. '84HotCoCo 



Derringer Software, Inc. 

PO Box 5300, Florence, SC 29502-5300 

To place an order by phone, call: (803) 665-5676 

10 AM and 5 PM EDT 

Check, Money Order, VISA or MasterCard 



South Carolina residents add sales tax. 

Include $3.00 for UPS Shipping - $5.00 U.S. Mail - $9.00 Air Mail 

Canadian Distributor-Kelly Software 
Australian Distributor-Computer Hut Software 

This SUMMER SIZZLER SALE may end without notice. 



267)3 F5$="XF1$;" 
2671 GOTO 1 

2680 COLOR5:DRAW"BM25, 70;XCU$; " 

2685 COLOR8 : DRAW"BM145 , 70 ; XCU$ ; " 

2690 GOSUB 60)3)3 

2695 IF SD=0THEN 2710 

2700 F5$="XF2$;" 

2705 GOTO 1 

2710 COLOR5 : DRAWBM145 , 70 ;XCU$ ; " 

2720 COLOR8 : DRAWBM45 , 160 ; XCU$ ; " 

2725 GOSUB 6000 

2730 IF SD=0 THEN 2750 

2735 F5$="XF3$;" 

2740 GOTO 1 

2750 COLOR5 : DRAW"BM45 , 160 ;XCU$ ; 11 

2755 COLOR8 : DRAW" BM1 4 5 , 1 60 ; XCU$ ; 
ii 

2760 GOSUB 6000 
2765 IF SD=0 THEN 2780 
2770 F5$="XF4$;" 
2775 GOTO 1 

2780 COLOR5:DRAW"BM145, 160;XCU$; 
ii 

2785 COLOR8: GOTO 2 650 

2800 B=&H61:C=&HA9:D=&H69 :E=&H78 

2802 GOSUB 7000 

2804 A=USR1(0) 

2808 PCLS5 



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2810 

2820 

2830 

2840 

2845 

2850 

2855 

2860 

2870 

2875 

2880 

2885 

2890 

2895 

2900 

2905 

2910 

2915 

2920 

2925 

2930 
ii 

2940 
5000 
2600 
5001 
5005 
5010 
5012 
5014 
5016 
5018 
5020 
6000 
6010 
6020 
6030 
6032 
6035 
6040 
6050 
6060 
6080 
6090 
7000 
7010 
7020 
7030 
7040 



DRAW" BM2 0 , 50 ; XC1 $ ; " 
DRAW" BM140 , 50 ; XC2 $ 7 " 
DRAW" BM4 0 , 1 4 0 ; XC 3 $ ; " 
DRAW"BM25, 70 ;XCU$ ; " 
GOSUB 6000 
IF SD=0 THEN 2870 
C5$="XC1$;" 
GOTO 1 

COLOR5 : DRAW" BM2 5,70; XCU$ ; " 

COLOR8 J DRAW"BM145 , 70 ; XCU$ ; " 

GOSUB 6000 

IF SD=0THEN 2900 

C5$="XC2$;" 

GOTO 1 

COLOR5 : DRAW"BM145 , 70 ;XCU$ ; " 
COLOR8 : DRAW" BM4 5 , 160 ; XCU$ ; " 
GOSUB 6000 
IFSD=0 THEN 2 930 
C5$="XC3$;" 
GOTO 1 

COLOR 5:DRAW"BM45, 160;XCU$; 

COLOR8:GOTO 2840 
R1=2050:R2=2200:R3=2400:R4= 
:R5=2800 
DEFUSR1=17032 
PCLS 

B5$="XB1$;" 

C5$="XC1$;" 

D5$="XD2$;" 

E5$=»XE1$;" 

F5$="XF2$;" 

GOTO 1 

Q=0 

L9$=INKEY$ 

IF L9$=""THEN6040 

SD=1 

SOUND175, 3 

RETURN 

Q=Q+1 

IF Q=50 THEN 6080 

GOTO 6010 

SD=0 

RETURN 

POKE&H429E,B 

POKE&H429F,C 

POKE&H42B2,D 

POKE&H42B3 ,E 

RETURN 



Listing 2: BflSND 

10 CLEAR200, 17000 
20 DEFUSR0=17000 
30 DEFUSR1=17032 

32 B=£tH42 :C=&HCC:D=&H4A:E=&H38 

34 GOSUB 500 

40 INPUT"EYES";B$ 



96 



THE RAINBOW September 1986 



&HJ38 



!=&HJ38 



5J3 A=USR0(j3) 

6J3 B=&H4A:C=&H39:D=&H52 :E= 
7j3 GOSUB 
8j3 INPUT "EARS" ;B$ 
9J3 A=USRj3(j3) 

Ij3j3 B=&H52:C=&Hj39:D=&H59:E=&Hj38 

11J3 GOSUB 5J3J3 

12j3 INPUT"NOSE" ;B$ 

13j3 A=USRj3(j3) 

140 B=&H59:C=&Hj39:D=&H61:E=&HA8 

15j3 GOSUB 5j3j3 

160 INPUT"MOUTH" ;B$ 

165 A=USRj3(j3) 

170 B=&H61:C=&HA9:D=&H69:E=&H78 

180 GOSUB 500 

190 INPUT"HAIR" ;B$ 

200 A=USR0(0) 

210 B=&H42 :C=&HCC:D=&H4A:E=&H38 
220 GOSUB 600 
230 INPUT 11 HEAR EYES";B$ 
240 A=USR1(0) 

250 B=&H4A:C=&H39:D=&H52:E< 
260 GOSUB 600 
270 INPUT "HEAR EARS";B$ 
280 A=USR1(0) 

290 B=&H52:C=&H09:D=&H59:E=&H08 

300 GOSUB 600 

310 INPUT "HEAR NOSE";B$ 

315 A=USR1(0) 

320 B=&H59:C=&H09:D=&H61:E=&HA8 

3 30 GOSUB 600 

340 INPUT "HEAR MOUTH" ;B$ 

345 A=USR1(0) 

350 B=&H61:C=&HA9:D=&H69:E=&H78 

360 GOSUB 600 

370 INPUT "HEAR HAIR";B$ 

375 A=USR1(0) 

380 INPUT"LISTEN AGAIN" ;B$ 

390 IF B$="N" THEN 10 

400 GOTO 210 

500 POKE &H42 6E,B 

510 POKE &H426F,C 

520 POKE &H4283,D 

530 POKE &H4284,E 

540 RETURN 

600 POKE &H429E,B 

610 POKE &H429F,C 

620 POKE &H42B2,D 

630 POKE &H42B3,E 

640 RETURN 

Listing 3: SOUND 



4268 




00090 


ORG 


17000 


4268 1A 


50 


00100 RECORD 


ORCG 


#$50 


426A CE 


FF20 


00110 


LDU 


#$FF20 


426D 8E 


42CC 


00120 


LDX 


#17100 


4270 86 




00130 


LDA 


#$01 


4272 5F 




00140 HIGH 


CLRB 




4273 5C 




00150 HLOOP 


INCB 





4274 


A5 


C4 


00160 


BITA 


,u 


4276 


26 


FB 


00170 


BNE 


HLOOP 


4278 


E7 


80 


00180 


STB 


,x+ 


427A 


5F 




00190 


CLRB 




427B 


5C 




00200 LOW 


INCB 




427C 


A5 


C4 


00210 


BITA 


,u 


427E 


27 


FB 


00220 


BEQ 


LOW 


4280 


E7 


80 


00230 


STB 


,x+ 


4282 


8C 


4 A3 8 


00240 


CMPX 


#19000 


4285 


25 


EB 


00250 


BLO 


HIGH 


4287 


39 




00255 


RTS 




4288 


1A 


50 


00260 PLAY 


ORCC 


#$50 


428A 


CE 


FF20 


00270 


LDU 


#$FF20 


428D 


6F 


43 


00280 


CLR 


3,U 


428F 


CC 


F83C 


00290 


LDD 


#$F83C 


4292 


A7 


42 


00300 


STA 


2 ( U 


4294 


E7 


43 


00310 


STB 


3,U 


4296 


CC 


B435 


00320 


LDD 


#$B435 


4299 


A7 


5D 


00330 


STA 


-3,U 


429B 


E7 


5F 


00340 


STB 


-I/O 


429D 


8E 


42CC 


00350 


LDX 


#17100 


42A0 


86 


60 


00360 HIOUT 


LDA 


#$60 


42A2 


E6 


80 


00370 


LDB 


,x+ 


42A4 


A7 


C4 


00380 HILOOP 


STA 




42A6 


5A 




00390 


DECB 




42A7 


26 


FB 


00400 


BNE 


HILOOP 


42A9 


4F 




00410 


CLRA 




42AA 


E6 


80 


00420 


LDB 


>x+ 


42AC 


A7 


C4 


00430 LOLOOP 


STA 


,u 


42AE 


5A 




00440 


DECB 




42AF 


26 


FB 


00450 


BNE 


LOLOOP 


42B1 


8C 


4A38 


00460 


CMPX 


#19000 


42B4 


25 


EA 


00470 


BLO 


HIOUT 


42B6 


39 




00480 


RTS 




MISSING 


END 









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September 1986 THE RAINBOW 97 



Updating the Color Change Quiz 



By Fred B. Scerbo 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Editor's Note: If you have an idea for 
the "Wishing Well/' submit it to Fred 
c/o THE RAINBOW. Remember, keep 
your ideas specific, and don 't forget that 
this is BASIC. All programs resulting 
from your wishes are for your use but 
remain the property of the author. 



September brings our annual edu- 
cation issue and the advent of 
another school year, so what 
better time for us to update and enhance 
one of our more popular "Wishing 
Well" programs, the Color Change 
Quiz. Therefore, this month you will 
find listed a new, advanced sequel to 
that highly popular offering which picks 
up where the first program left off. To 
achieve this, we will generate graphic 
representations of the more commonly 
used paper bills and present them in a 
format the user can easily identify. 



Fred Scerbo is a special needs instructor 
for the North Adams Public Schools in 
North Adams, Massachusetts. He holds 
a master's in education and has pub- 
lished some of the first software avail- 
able for the Color Computer through 
his software firm, Illustrated Memory 
Banks. 



The Wish: More of the Same 

When Color Change Quiz was first 
listed in the pages of the "Wishing 
Well," I received a great deal of mail 
from parents and teachers who found it 
to be a useful addition to their educa- 
tional software collection. The program 
drew very recognizable images of a 
quarter, dime, nickel and penny, right 
down to George Washington and 
Thomas Jefferson's ponytails. While 
the program was only a quiz, and not 
an example of CAI (Computer Aided 
Instruction), it could serve as instruc- 
tion since repetition of the use of money 
in and of itself can be educational. 

I had limited the display to the coins 
mentioned for two reasons. First, they 
are the most commonly used coins. 
Neither half dollars nor silver dollars 
are in great circulation. Secondly, 
limited screen space does not allow for 
display of larger coins, or, as I felt at the 
time, currency. I was also reluctant to 
try to generate a green color in PNDDE4. 

Color Change Quiz II was designed 
to display up to 15 of these coins on the 
screen at one time. The program easily 
fits into 16K Extended BASIC. My own 
students used this program extensively, 
but as is the case with all instructional 
materials, the need for more difficult 



and advanced material increased the 
more they used the program. Taking the 
comments I received from parents and 
teachers into consideration, I decided 
that now was the time to make a second 
generation of the Color Change Quiz. 
The task, however, was not as simple as 
I hoped. 

Making the Program 

The first problem I had to overcome 
in making Color Change Quiz II was 
finding a way to display paper currency 
without either reducing the size of the 
graphics or filling up the whole screen 
with just a few bills. I solved this 
problem by using the same scale I used 
for the coins from the first program, and 
only displaying the left-hand quarter of 
any given bill. This created the image of 
a folded bill, which is not that uncom- 
mon. Once I had designed the frame for 
the one dollar bill, superimposing a five 
and a 10 in the frame was not that 
difficult. 

Part of the problem I had to deal with 
was finding a way to display the green 
color for the bills. After taking a close 
look at some bills, I came to the con- 
clusion that our currency is really not 
that green after all. It is closer to an olive 



98 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



The Ultimate 
Color Computer 

Enhancements 

for Productivity 
from HJL Products 



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PR O DUG T S 

Div, of Touchstone Technology Inc. 

955 Buffalo Road • P.O. Box 24954 
Rochester, New York 14624 



shade. Therefore, it was just as easy to 
draw the bills in blue. Once you see the 
graphics display on the screen, I think 
you will agree that it is attractive 
enough and close enough to the actual 
appearance so as not to cause any 
confusion. 

The next problem was one of mem- 
ory. Each bill would have to take up 
much more graphics array memory 
than the coins in the original program. 
Since the program had to include these 
coins as well as the bills, the program 
soon became too large to fit into a 16K 
machine. (It was written on a 64K 
CoCo.) To get around this problem it 
became necessary to redesign the GET 
and PUT statements for the coins in the 
original program. 

The original program had the size of 



The screen display also had to be 
redesigned to fit the new graphics and 
dollar amounts. The score box was 
changed to four digits (SXX.XX) and 
the size of the word correct was reduced 
to allow it to fit next to the now larger 
answer box. The size of the bills also 
required that only ten coins or bills 
could be displayed at one time, as 
opposed to the maximum of 15 on the 
original program. This is acceptable, 
since we are dealing with larger dollar 
amounts by using bills and it remains 
consistent with the increasing difficulty 
level from the first program. 

With a few adjustments to the title 
card and a redesign of the score card to 
make it consistent with our Life Skills 
series, the program was finally crunched 
down small enough to fit into 16K. 




each coin array the same. Therefore, the 
box holding the graphics of a dime 
included the surrounding white space 
and was just as large as the array 
holding the much larger image of a 
quarter. This memory was naturally 
wasted. It was easier to write the orig- 
inal program with identical sized arrays, 
since the variables for each would be the 
same. Once we got to the memory 
crunch, however, I had to reduce each 
of these arrays to the smallest size box, 
and adjust the variables in each PUT 
statement to correspond to this. With a 
little work, the task was accomplished 
and a sizeable chunk of memory was 
free for other use. 

I was also able to free some additional 
memory by reducing the CLERR state- 
ment to the smallest amount of string 
space needed. This is accomplished by 
reducing the CLERR value to the smallest 
possible value until you get an ?OS 
Error (out of string space). Pulling back 
to a larger value gives just what you 
need. 



Some of you may be wondering why 
this program was not included in our 
Life Skills series. First, I wanted the 
program to appear as a logical successor 
to Color Change Quiz, Retaining the 
title card would allow this program to 
go hand in hand with the original. It 
does not replace the original; it is just 
the next logical step after mastering it. 
Secondly, the programs in the Life 
Skills series are designed to work in 
Color BASIC without the Extended 
commands as well as in MC-10 Color 
BASIC. The use of graphics makes the 
program unworkable on those two 
machines. 

The last feature I wanted to include 
was the use of CPL, or Computer Paced 
Learning, which I introduced in last 
month's "Wishing Well." If the user gets 
a score of 95 or greater after 10 prob- 
lems or after checking the score, the 
difficulty level increases. If the user gets 
below a 70, the level decreases. There- 
fore, the program keeps advancing with 
the student as his or her skill increases. 



Using the Program 

Upon running the program, the 
screen displays the title card. You are 
asked to select the number of units 
(coins and bills) you want to have 
displayed up to a maximum of 10. The 



. . our currency is 
really not that green 
after all." 



screen then clears and asks you to select 
the red-colored letter, either 'A' or *B\ 
This gives us the correct color set to 
ensure red pennies and blue bills with- 
out having to press the Reset button. 

The screen next displays a random 
selection of coins and bills. Sometimes 
the screen displays all of one kind of 
coin or bill with the exception of 10 
dollar bills. The screen is not designed 
to take an answer larger than $99.99 as 
an input. If the user makes a mistake 
prior to pressing a number for the last 
digit, the backspace arrow can be used 
to correct and clear the answer box. 
Once the last digit is pressed, however, 
the answer is taken. 

If the answer is correct, the screen 
prints CORRECT. Unlike the original 
program, it does not proceed directly to 
the next problem. The user must press 
ENTER to move on to the next problem. 
Pressing the '@' key during a problem 
presents the score card. You may not 
press '@' while the word "correct" is on 
the screen. You must proceed to the next 
screen and then press '@\ 

After seeing the score, you may press 
'Y' to rerun the program, 'N' to exit the 
program and 'C to continue where you 
left off. Therefore, you can monitor a 
student's progress, yet continue without 
restarting the program. The original 
Change Quiz did not allow this. 

Conclusion 

Some of you wrote saying you could 
not get Color Change Quiz to work. 
(There were no errors in the listing and 
it is not possible for me to debug your 
programs, even with an SASE. There 
just isn't enough time.) This program 
has been run and run again to make sure 
it is bug free. If you have any problems, 
recheck it line for line or get a rainbow 

ON TAPE. 

I hope this program becomes a useful 
addition to your software library. 
See you next month. □ 



1 00 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



90 .. 
150 . 
175 . 
210 . 
270 . 
375 . 
435 . 
END 



.27 
253 
149 
158 
133 
105 
20 
164 
.54 



The listing: CHNGQUIZ 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



************ **************** 

* COLOR CHANGE QUIZ II * 

* BY FRED B. SCERBO * 



* COPYRIGHT (C) 1986 * 

* 60 HARDING AVE . N . ADAMS , MA* 
**************************** 

10 CLEAR150:CLS0:FORI=0TO64STEP3 
2 :FORY=1062TO1080:READA: POKEI+Y, 
A+128:NEXTY,I 

15 FORI=0TO64STEP32 : FORY=1156T01 
179 : READA : POKEI+Y , A+12 8 : NEXTY , I : 
FORI=0TO64STEP32 :FORY=1253T012 67 
: READA: POKEI+Y , A+12 8 : NEXTY , I 
20 FORI=46T049STEP3 : FORY=14T018 : 
SET (I , Y, 7 ) : NEXTY , I : FORY=14T018ST 
EP4 : FORI=45T05 0 : SET ( I , Y , 7 ) : NEXTI 

25 DATA63,60,60, ,63,60,63, ,63,48 

,48, ,63, 60, 63, ,63,60,63 

30 DATA127, 112, 112, ,127,112,127, 

,127,112,112, ,127,112,127, ,127,1 

25,114 

35 DATA44, 44, 44, ,44,44,44, ,44,44 

,44, ,44,44,44, ,44,32,44 

40 DATA95, 92, 92, ,95,80,95, ,87,92 



,91, ,95,91,80,95 
2,92 

45 DATA95 , 80 , 80 , 
,95, ,95,84,91,95 
2,92 

50 DATA92,92,92 / 
,92, ,92,80,84,92 
2,92 

55 DATA47,44,47, 
,40, ,44,44,47 
60 DATA47,33,47 / 
,32, ,35,44,32 
65 DATA44,44,46, 



,95,92,92, ,95,9 

95,92,95, ,95,92 
,95,84,95, ,95,9 

92,80,92, ,92,80 
,92,92,92, ,92,9 

47,32,47, ,36,47 

47,32,47, ,32,47 

44,44,44, ,36,44 



40, ,44,44,44 
70 DIMD(18) ,P(23) ,N(34) ,Q(55) ,A( 
8),CV(7) ,TV(10) ,N$(9) ,CS(15) , PS ( 



15) ,DB(62) ,FD(62) ,TD(62) 
75 DATA BL2L3H2U7E2R3F2D7G2,BLL6 
R3U11LGD,NU2L7U3E2R3E2U2H2L3G2D2 
, BH4BL3D2F2R3E2U3H2NL2EU2HL3GD, L 
3R2U11LG5D2R8 , BL7BU2F2R3E2U3H2L3 
G2U6R7D2 , BU10BLHL3G2D7F2R3E2U3H2 
L3G2 , BL6E6U5L7D3 , BU2G2L3H2U3E2HU 
2ER3FD2GNL3F2D3 , BL5NHR3E2U7H2L3G 
2D3F2R3E2 

80 FORI=0TO9:READN$(I) :NEXT:JK(1 

)=1000: JK(2)=100: JK(3)=10: JK(4)= 
1 

85 R=5:PRINT@3 52, " BY FRED 

B. SCERBO" : PRINT" COPYRIGH 
T (C) 1986" 

90 PRINT@416," ENTER NUMBER OF U 

NITS (MAX. 10) ": PRINT: PRINT© 4 60, " 

" ; : INPUTQW: IFQW>10THEN90ELSEIFQW 
=0THEN90 

95 T=1:IFQW>5THENDL=2 

100 PMODE4,l:PCLSl:SCREENl,l 

105 CV(l)=l:CV(2)=5:CV(3)=10:CV( 

4)=25:CV(5)=100:CV(6)=500:CV(7)= 

1000 

110 PMODE3 : FORI=lT03 : DRAW"S16BM" 
+STR$ (1+84) +" , 13 6C7U3NR4U2END6R2 
ND6FD5BR12C6U6RND6R2FDGNL2RFDGL3 
" : NEXTI 

115 DRAW"S12BM3 6,50C1U6R3FDGNL3B 
D3BR3U6R3FDGL3R2F2DBR3NR3U3NR2U3 
R3BR3BD6R3U3L3U3R3BR3BD6R3U3L3U3 
R3BR2" 

120 DRAWBD6BR16U6L2R4BR3D6U3R4U 

3D6BR3NR3U3NR2U3R3 " 

125 DRAWBM27 , 88U6R3FDGL3R2F2DBR 

3NR3U3NR2U3R3BR3ND6R2F2D2G2L2BR1 

8NU6R3BR3NR3U3NR2U3R3BR3R2ND6R2B 

R3R2ND6R2BR3NR3D3NR2D3R3BR3U6R3F 

DGL3R2F2D" 

130 X$=INKEY$:IFX$="A"THEN13 5ELS 
EIFX$="B"THEN140ELSE130 
135 L=7:B=2:GOT0145 
140 L=6:B=3 

145 CLS0 : PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS1 : SCREEN0 , 
1: CIRCLE (40, 40) ,14,0, .9:DRAW"S4C 
0BM48 , 44NG5U3EU4HULH2L2HL5GLGDGD 
2 FG2DRD2NR3 D2 FR2 FRFDRFRBU6GLREBU 
2 REU2 HL2BL3 BDNL2 NGHLHLBU 4R4 BFGBG 

150 CIRCLE(40,40) ,12,0, .9, .4, .2: 
GET (26, 28) -(54,52) , D, G : PCLS1 : CIR 
CLE (80, 40) ,16,0, .9:PAINT(80,40) , 
0,0:PMODE3 : PAINT (80, 40) ,L,8:PMOD 
E4: CIRCLE (80, 40) ,16,0, . 9 : CIRCLE ( 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 101 



81,4)3) ,16,0, .9, .6, .3 

155 LINE(6j3,26)-(lj3j3,54) ,PSET,B: 

CIRCLE (8j3,4j3) ,14,j3, .9, .15, ^rCIR 

CLE(8J3,40) ,14,j3, .9, .65, .9 

160 FORI=70TO71:DRAW M C0BM"+STR$( 

1 ) + " , 4 6UE 3 UBRN F 2 BLUE 2 UHU 2 HR2 E 2 UR 

BRR2 FRFRDR2 D 2 G4 F 2 DRBL4 F 6 BL4 NH 3 BL 

4NH4BU11U2R3BD2DBD5BR4NR4BL8BU4L 

3 NU2 BL3 BD2 L5 " : NEXT : GET ( 6 4 , 2 6 ) - ( 9 

6,54),P,G 

165 FORI=0TO1: CIRCLE (135,40) ,20+ 
1,0, . 8 : NEXTI : C0L0R1 , 0 : LINE ( 1 ]J3 , 2 
4) -(160,56) ,PSET,B:FORI=17T019ST 
EP2: CIRCLE (135, 40) ,1,0, .8, .4, .7: 
CIRCLE (135, 40) ,1,0, .8, .9, . 1 : NEXT 
170 DRAW"C0BM125,52U2ENR3U2E3R3E 
R6FD2FD2FD2BR3U2HU2HU2NL4U3L3D3R 
3U3E2UEUHU2HU2HLHL12GLGD2NR3GDNF 
2 FDG2 DNR3R2 DGDNR3 GF2 R2 " : FORI=2TO 
6STEP4: CIRCLE (13 6, 34) ,1,0,1.3, .2 
, .5:NEXT: CIRCLE (138, 50) ,6,0, .7, . 
5, .8 

175 GET(115,24)-(156,56) ,N,G:FOR 
I=20TO22: CIRCLE (200, 40) ,1,0, .9, . 
6, .9:CIRCLE(200,40) ,1,0, .9, .2, .3 
: NEXTI : COLOR1,0 : FORI=180TO210STE 
P5: LINE (I, 20) -(1+2,90) ,PSET,BF:N 
EXTI 



"XPNDR2 and SuperGuide - 
an Ideal Expansion Card Set" 



— RAINBOW 2/86 
HARDWARE REVIEW 




XPNDR2 $39.95 each or 2/$76 
This prototype card features a 40 pin 
connector for projects requiring an on- 
line disk system or ROM paks. The 
CoCo signals are brought out to wire- 
wrap pins. Special gold plated spring 
clips provide reliable and noisefree 
disk operation plus solid support for 
vertical mounting of the controller. The 
entire 4.3x7 inch card is drilled for ICs. 
Assembled, tested and ready to run. 

XPNDR1 $19.95 each or 2/$36 
A rugged 4.3*6.2 inch bare breadboard 
that brings the CoCo signals out to 
labeled pads. Both XPNDR cards are 
double-sided glass/epoxy, have gold 

ted edge connectors, thru -dole 
plating and are designed with heavy 
power and ground buses. They're 
drilled for standard 0.3 and 0.6 inch 
wide dual in-line wirewrap sockets; 
with a 0.1 inch grid on the outboard end 
for connectors. 

SuperGuide $3.95 each 
Here is a unique plastic insert that 
aligns and supports printed circuit 
cards in the CoCo cartridge port. Don't 
forget to ORDER ONE FOR YOUR 
XPNDR CARDS. 



Included with each XPNDR card 
are 8 pages of APPLICATION 
NOTES to help you learn about 
chips and how to connect them to 
your CoCo. 




i 



To order or for technical informa- 
tion call: 

(206) 782-6809 

weekdays 8 a.m. to noon 

We pay shipping on prepaid orders. 
For immediate shipment send 
check, money order orthe number 
and expiration date of your VISA or 
MASTERCARD to: 



ROBOTIC 




MICROSYSTEMS 



BOX 30807 SEATTLE, WA 98103 



180 FORI=0TO1: CIRCLE (200, 40) ,24+ 
1,0, . 9 tNEXT: CIRCLE (200 ,40) ,19,0, 
.9, .15, . 35:DRAW"C0BM212,52U2LU2H 
2U2H2R2F3D2RD3BL4BU8R2E2U2HL2HL2 
H2L2GDBR8U3HU2H2UHUL11GLGLDLD2LD 
LDBRF 2 BDG 3 DR3 LD2NR2 D2F2R2FD3G3DG 
BR8BU9NE4BL11BD2L4BH2R7BR7BU10H2 
NLBD2D" 

185 GET(176,18)-(224,62) ,Q,G:PM0 
DE4,1:PCLS1 

190 LINE(0,0)-(40,60) , PRESET, B:L 
INE(4,4) -(40,56) , PRESET, B 
195 CIRCLE(14, 16) ,9,0,1. 3:CIRCLE 
(14,48) ,8,0,1.1 

200 DRAW"BM40,8C0L10U2H2L2D2LD2L 
2ND2R2F4NU4E2RD4G4LNU8R4F2D2L2H4 
F2D6G2NU9LH2U4NE4G4L4D14L2U14G6U 
4E2RD4U2H4D10R4E3D4G2L2H2L2D6E2R 
4D2BM40 , 52L20F4E4F4E4F4L2H4G4H4G 
4" 

205 DRAW"BM40,8H4G4H4R2F4E4":PMO 
DE3 : CIRCLE ( 14, 16), 8, B, 1.3: PAINT ( 
14,16) ,B,B:CIRCLE(14,48) ,7,B,1.1 
:PAINT(14,48) ,B,B 

210 DRAW"BM16,10D10R2DL6UR2U8G2B 
D32E2D6RNR2L2 " : PMODE4 : FORI=0TO4S 
TEP2 : CIRCLE (40, 32) ,9-1,0, .9, .25, 
.75: NEXT 

215 DRAW"C0BR16U2BU2U4NR2D2NR2D2 
R2BR4U4BR4D4BU32BL2U4L2R4" : GET (0 
,0)-(40,60) ,DB,G 

220 PMODE3: CIRCLE (14, 16) ,8,B,1.3 
:PAINT(14,16) ,B,B:CIRCLE(14,48) , 
7,B,1.1:PAINT(14,48) ,B,B 
225 DRAW"BM12 , 10NR6DNR6D3NR4DR4F 
2 D2G2L2H2 BD2 6NR4D2R2 F2 DGLH" : GET ( 
0,0)-(40,60) ,FD,G 

230 COLORB,B:LINE(5,6)-(24,24) ,P 
RESET , BF : LINE (6,44)-(24,52), PRES 
ET,BF 

235 DRAW"BM6,50C4U4NL2R2BR2NR2D2 
NR2D2R2 BR4U4F4R2U4BU24BL4L2H2U10 
E2R2F2D10G2BL8L4UR2U12NG2ED13R2 " 
:GET(0,0)-(40,60) ,TD,G 
240 PM0DE4,1:PCLS5:SCREEN1,1 
245 KC=0:PMODE3 

250 HL=RND(32) :IFHL<=27THEN265 
255 IFQW=1THENCS (1)=RND(7) :GOT02 
70 

260 FOR RT=1T0QW:CS(RT)=HL-2 6:NE 
XTRT:GOTO270 

265 CS (l)=RND(3)+4:FOR RT=2TOQW: 
CS(RT)=RND(7) : : NEXTRT 
270 SR=0 

275 FOR RT=lTOQW-l:IFCS(RT)<CS(R 
T+1)THEN285 

280 NEXT RT:IFSR=1THEN270ELSE290 
285 TEM=CS(RT) : CS (RT) =CS (RT+1) :C 



102 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



S (RT+1) =TEM: SR=1 : GOT028J3 

29 p D=j3: JC=j3:F0RY=lT0 DL: 0=2: FOR 

I=T TO R:JC=JC+1 

295 F=CS(JC) 

3 j3 j3 TV=TV+ CV ( F ) : KC=KC+ 1 

305 ON F 0010310,315,32)3,325,33)3 

,335,34)3 

31) 3 PUT(C+8,D+8)-(C+4)3,D+36) ,P,P 
SET:G0T0345 

315 PUT(C+4,D+6)-(C+45,D+38) ,N,P 
SET:G0T0345. 

32) 3 PUT(C+l)3,D+l)3)-(C+38,D+34) ,D 
,PSET:GOT0345 

325 PUT(C,D)-(C+48,D+44) ,Q,PSET: 
GOT0345 

33) 3 PUT(C,D) -(C+4)3,D+6)3) ,DB,PSET 
:GOT0345 

335 PUT (C,D) -(0+4)3,0+6)3) ,FD,PSET 
:GOT0345 

34) 3 PUT (C, D) - (0+4)3 , D+6)3) , TD, PSET 
345 C=C+5)3:IF KC=QW THEN36)3 

35) 3 NEXT I 

355 D=D+62:NEXTY 

360 COLOR8,6:LINE()3,144)-(182,18 
2) , PRESET, BF 

365 FORK=)3TO120STEP4)3:LINE(32+K, 
148)-(56+K,178) , PSET , BF : NEXTK 
370 DRAW"C5S4BM102, 178U3R2D3" 
375 COLOR7,5:LINE(0,144)-(182,18 
2) , PRESET ,B 

380 DRAW"S8BM10,170C8FRND3NU12R2 

ND3NU12REU3HL5U3ER4F" 

385 PV=1:FORK=0TO120STEP40:DRAW" 

BM"+STR$ (K+44 ) +» , 140C7NU6NH2E2L3 
ii 

390 X$=INKEY$:IFX$=CHR$ (8) THEN44 
0ELSEIFX$="@"THEN455ELSEIFX$=""T 

HEN390 

395 KP=ASC(X$) :IFKP<48THEN390ELS 
EIFKP>57THEN390 

400 KP=KP-48 : DRAW"BM"+STR$ (K+51) 

+» , 174C7"+N$ (KP) +"BM"+STR$ (K+44) 

+",140C8NU6NH2E2L3" 

405 AV=AV+KP* ( JK (PV) ) : PV=PV+1 : NE 

XTK 

410 IF AVOTV THEN435 

415 NR=NR+l:DRAW"S8BM189,168C7HU 

3ERFBD3GNLBR4HU3ERFD3GNLBR4U5R2F 

DGNL2 FDBR2U5R2 FDGNL2 FDBR2U5NR3 D2 

NR3D3R3BR3HU3ERFBD3GNLBR4U5L2R4 " 

:SOUND200,4 

420 FORP=1TO300:NEXTP 

425 CL=CL+l:IFGL<10THEN445 

430 CL=0:GOSUB470:GOTO445 

435 NW=NW+1 : FOR BQ=1T03 : PM0DE4 : S 

CREEN1 , 0 : S0UND19 , 5 : SCREEN1 , 1 : SOU 

ND1 , 5 : PMODE 3 : NEXT BQ : AV=0 : KP=0 : G 

OTO360 



440 DRAW"BM"+STR$ (K+44 ) +" , 140C4N 
U6NH2E2L3 " : AV=0 : KP=0 : G0T03 60 
445 X$=INKEY$:IFX$OCHR$ (13) THEN 
445 

450 AV=0:C=0:D=»J3:TV=0:GOTO240 
455 CLS: PRINTS 101, "YOU TRIED"NR+ 
NW" PROBLEMS &": PRINT@165 , "ANSWER 
ED"NR"CORRECTLY" 

460 PRINT© 2 2 9, "WHILE DOING"NW"WR 
ONG . " 

465 GOSUB470:GOTO510 

470 NQ=NR+NWMFNQ=0THEN NQ=1 

475 MS=INT(NR/NQ*100) 

480 IFMS<70THENQW=QW-1 

485 IFQW<1THENQW=1 

490 IFMS>95THENQW=QW+1 

495 IFQW>10THENQW=10 

500 I FQW> 5 THENDL=2 ELS E DL= 1 

505 RETURN 

510 PRINT @ 2 9 3 , ''YOUR SCORE IS"MS" 



9- ■* 



515 PRINT@3 57, "ANOTHER TRY (Y/N/ 

C) ?"; 

520 X$=INKEY$ : I FX $ = " Y " THENRUN 
525 IFX$="N"THENCLS : END 
530 IFX$="C"THEN450 
535 GOTO520 



THE SOFTWARE HOUSE 

A DIVISION OF DATAHATCH, INC. 



DS/DD-2 NOTCHES-2 ID HOLES 



10/*9 



100/*95.00 





DATAMATCH DISKETTES 
SINGLE SIDE/ DOUBLE DENSITY 
10/*9.00 100/*85.00 

PROGRAMMER'S DISKS 
SS/DD 10/*8.00 100/475.00 
DS/DD 10/49.00 100/485.00 

ALL DISKS CONE WITH TYVEK SLEEVES, LABELS, W.P.TABS 

HEAT TRANSFER C I RON— ON ) RIBBONS 

BLACK - RED - BLUE - YELLOW 
GEMINI /OKI PRINTERS 45.95 EA. 

COLOR RIBBONS: Red, Green, Blue, Brown 
GEM/OKI 4/$ 10.00 
EPSON 4/$24.00 
APPLE/NEC 4/S24.00 

ALL ITEMS 100% GUARANTEED! 

Add $2.50 S/H in U.SA - Canada Add $3.50 

Michigan Residents Add 4% Sales Tax 
Send check or money order payable to: 

THE SOFTWARE HOUSE 

9020 Hemingway, Redford, Ml 48239 

(31 3) 937-3442 aHE) 

Send Card Number and Exp. Date ^^^^A 



i 



Min. Charge Order $20.00 



September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 03 




iiiil 



L 




catalog features new programs intro- 
duced for the 1986/ 1987 school year, as 
well as improved versions of programs 
from previous years. The programs 
range from educational games for K-6 
to study aids for high school and col- 
lege, and are available in both tape and 
disk versions. Contact CTC, P.O. Box 
652, Cedar Crest, NM 87008. 



DRIVE IT! Derby City Software & 
Microtechnologies has announced the 
start of production for two new Color 
Computer hardware devices. The first 
device is a monitor driver available in 
three configurations. The V.D.I is 
designed to drive a color or mono- 
chrome monitor with sound capability. 
The V.D.2 can be used for monitors 
without sound and the V.D.3 will drive 
both a color and a monochrome mon- 
itor simultaneously. These drivers, 
which retail for $28.95, include instruc- 
tions and require no soldering for 
installation. 

The second device is a DOS switcher 
for older J & M disk controllers. The 
switcher is jumper selectable for any 
combination of 24- or 28-pin EPROMs. 
No soldering is required for installation, 
and the switcher has all gold contacts. 
The DOS switcher retails for $34.95. 
Contact Derby City Software & Micro- 
technologies, 3025 Kozy Kreek Drive, 
Louisville, KY 40220-2567, (502) 459- 
2626. 

SWITCH IT! Telebyte Technology, Inc. 
is offering a solution to the problem of 
data routing between multiple peripher- 
als. Operator routing between a single 
source and two output devices, or from 
two sources to one output can be ac- 
complished with the new Model 312 and 
Model RS-313. The Model 312 is in- 
tended for use with RS-232 ports uti- 
lizing DB-25 connectors, while the 
Model RS-313 is designed to be used 
with Centronics-type ports. Port selec- 
tion is made using large push buttons 
marked 'A' and 'B'. Neither unit re- 
quires power and each retails for $79.95. 
Contact Telebyte Technology, Inc., 270 
East Pulaski Road, Greenlawn, NY 
11740, oj call (800) 835-3298 or in New 
York state, (516)423-3232. 



LITERATURE Two new publications 
being offered by Howard W. Sams & 
Company are Printer Connections 
Bible and Modem Connections Bible. 



With the many different computers, 
printers and cables presently on the 
market, making a printer-computer 
connection can be frustrating. The 
Printer Connections Bible contains the 
information necessary to make proper 
hardware connections. The book fo- 
cuses on the main interface — the cable 
itself. Also included are several tables 
and diagrams plus information on 
various computers and printers. The 
companion book, Modem Connections 
Bible, is intended for those who want to 
connect a computer to a modem, inter- 
connect several modems or just want to 
know more about modems. The heart 
of the book is a collection of drawings 
of the RS-232-C interfaces on a number 
of popular microcomputers, the interfa- 
ces on the modems and the cables that 
connect the two. The books retail for 
$16.95 each. Contact Howard W. Sams 
& Co., Dept. R44, 4300 W. 62nd Street, 
Indianapolis, IN 46268, (317)298-5723. 

COLORFUL PRINTS C. Itoh Digital 
Products, Inc. has introduced a seven- 
color version of its popular 80-column 
Pro Writer C-310 and its wide-carriage 
Pro Writer C-315 dot-matrix printers. 
The letter-quality printers are designed 
to handle any home, business or office 
printing task, and now produce color 
graphics up to 240 by 216 dots per inch. 
Both printers print at speeds up to 300 
cps in draft mode, 50 cps in the near- 
letter-quality mode and 33 cps in the 
letter-quality mode. The printers also 
come with a variety of resident charac- 
ter fonts and optional font cartridges. 
Retail price for the color C-310 is $739 
and the price for the color C-315 is $909. 
Contact C Itoh Digital Products, Inc., 
19750 South Vermont Avenue, Suite 
220, Torrance, CA 90502, (213) 327- 
2110. 

FREE CATALOG A free catalog of 
educational software for home and 
school is available from Creative Tech- 
nical Consultants, a leading developer 
of educational software for the Color 
Computer for over four years. The 



SAVE YOUR MODEM'S LIFE Elec- 
tronics Specialists, Inc. now produces 
protection for your modem. Model 
PDS-11/SUP is intended to suppress 
damaging telephone and power line 
spikes caused by lightning, spherics or 
office phone switch gear. It offers 
suppression on the red and green lines 
while allowing the yellow and black to 
run straight through. A 6500 amp 
suppressor protects the AC power line, 
while MOVs and Gas Discharge Tube 
suppression techniques are used for 
overall protection. Price for the PDS- 
11/SUP is $109.05. Contact Electronic 
Specialists, Inc., 171 S. Main Street, 
P.O. Box 389, Natick, MA 01760, (800) 
225-4876. 

CLEAN 'ER UP! Philips ECG, Inc. has 
recently added a computer care kit to its 
Hi-Tech Chemical line. This complete 
kit, which retails for $39.95, includes a 
floppy disk head cleaner, magnetic 
tape/ head and disk spray, antistatic 
spray, Jet Air cleaner, screen wipes, lint- 
free wipes and swabs plus complete 
instructions. The kit allows you to 
maintain your system for years of 
reliable service. Contact Philips ECG, 
Inc., P. O. Box 3277, Williamsport, PA 
17701, (800)233-8767 (in Pennsylvania, 
800-222-9308). 

AGAIN WITH SWITCHING? Ohm/ 
Electronics has announced the availa- 
bility of their new family of slimline 
Scooter(R) Data Switches. Only two 
inches high, these switches allow you to 
put any of two or three compatible 
peripherals online by pushing a button. 
The data switches require no power and 
are available with either two or three 
switch connections, in either serial or 
parallel operation. Model AB25 (serial) 
and Model AB36 (parallel) offer two 
device controls, while Model ABC25 
and Model ABC36 will switch among 
three devices. Suggested retail prices 
are: Model AB25, $79; Model AB36, 
$85; Model ABC25, $84; Model 
ABC36, $96. Contact Scooter Pro- 
ducts, Ohm I Electronics, Inc., 746 Ver- 
mont Street, Palatine, IL 60067, (800) 
323-2727 (in Illinois 312-359-6040). 



104 THE RAINBOW September 1986 





D 

LT 





□ 



QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 



SUPER RAM - 

The first 256K/512K memory board for the CoCo II ! 256K/512K of memory resides 

IN THIS STURDY, LOW NOISE METAL CASE AND ALL THE SUPPORT CIRCUITRY TO ACCESS IT 

as a high speed RAMDISK! Compatible with all CoCo 1 1 " s , even the 26-3127B and 
26-3134A/B. (see June '86 Rainbow Review) Requires a RS Multi-Pak. 

256K Board - $129.95 512K Board (Recommended for OS-9 users) - $169.95 

OS-9 Driver - $24.95 



NOW add 68008 CPU processing power to the CoCo ! Simply plug the 68K board into 

THE ROMPAK PORT OF YOUR CoCo AND ATTACH YOUR DlSK CONTROLLER INTO THE 68K BOARD. 

Features 8/16/32 bit internal processing, parallel port, and fast DMA operation. 
256K Board - $349.95 (Metal case $39.95) 256K RAMDISK Driver - $59.95 

OS-9 Driver - $29.95 



The most AMAZING CoCo Disk Controller ever ! Switch up to four DOS's (up to 16K) 
via a single software POKE. Choose between R/S 1.0/1.1, Spectrum DOS, ADOS. JDOS 
Stearman DOS - $99. 95 (Spectrum DOS $29.95 or ADOS $39.95 with purchase of the 
Super Controller - Buy 'em both for $59) 

Enhanced Display 80 - Add an 80X24 display. Real Time Clock and Centronics 
parallel printer interface to your Super Controller ! Includes SMOOTH SCROLLING, 
Switchable Video Input - $129.95 (NEW OS-9 Driver for Display 80 - $24.95) 
EPROM Programmer for the Super Controller - $59.95 (Uses 2764's ($6.95) or 
27128's ($14.95) EPR0MS) 



COMM-4 - 

Enhance the MULTI-TASKING & MULTI-USER features of OS-9 by providing (4) serial 

INDEPENDENT DEVICES VIA DB-25 PLUGS ON A PLUG-IN CARTRIDGE. ALLOWS 
YOU TO HOOK UP ANY COMBINATION OF UP TO (4) TERMINALS, MODEMS OR PRINTERS. A 

must for Bulletin Board Sysops ! (Call 504-340-7609 C0MM-4 BBS to see a demo - 
300/1200 Baud, 8 Bits, No Parity) $99.95. Requires a RS Multi-Pak. 



COCO MAX II - 

Feature packed hardware & software Graphics System ! Includes: Pull-Down Menus, 
Icon processing, multiple Font styles, full graphic editing plus a special Input 
Module for 256X192 joystick input. 64K DISK $79.95 - with a 'Y' Cable $99.95 
CoCo Max I-II Disk Upgrade $19.95 - CoCo Max TAPE $69.95 - Mouse Pad $14.95 



QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQGQQQQQQQGQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ 

All orders plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) - COD add $2.00 extra - NYS Residents add Sales Tax 



WOODHAVEIM IMY 11421 

COO ORDER HOT LINE 718-835-1 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 

COLORFUL COMPUTING 



COMMUNICATION 



C0L0RC0M/E - A complete smart, 
t e r mi n aT" package! Upload, 

Download, Hi-Res (51X24) 

screen, 300/1200 Baud, Offline 

Printing. 32/64K Disk* - $39.95 

*- Now with DELPHI & Compuserve 

XMODEM support! Download ML! 

COMPUSERVE 5hr Start Kit $19.95 



MODEMS 



5^ 



WORD PROCESSING 



i 




TELEWRITER-64 - Three Hi -Res 
screens, true lowercase char's 
right justify, full screen 
editor. Tape $49.95 Disk $59.95 
TELEPATCH - A TW-64 enhance r! ! ! 
True bjock move, Qv erstrike & 
TSP00L mode. Type Ahead Buffer 
FASTER Disk I/O 64K Disk $19.95 



PRINTERS 




annnniMnMiMiim« 



1 200 BAUD 
$129.95 



** 



Hayes compatible! Super for the 
DELPHI & C ompuserv e CoCo Sig! 
300/1200 Baud, Auto-dial/ answer 
** Requires Modem cable .$19.95 




KEYBOARDS 




puiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iniiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiii^ 



GEMINI N X-10 - 120 cps t tract- 
frict feed, NLQ mode, 5K buffer 
Front Panel Controls! - $249.95 
KAMELEON -Low cost Parallel Ptr 
Interface! 600/9600 Baud $49.95 
BriteFace-The first INTELLIGENT 




iffllllHIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIHIIIIII IM 





RS 26 z 3016 Low Profile CoCo 
Keybd. Fits alj CoCoII's, "F" & 
TDP-100's WAS $39.95 NOW $14.95 
Adapter for D/E CoCoI's - $9.95 




iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii imnnn 



$10 



is 




Monitor Stand $24.95 



[mmnnnTTTfniniiiniiiiiiiniiiiinnmnm^ 



MONOCHROME Monitors - CRISP 
80x24 Hi-Res screens! $79.95 
Un i versa 1 Video Driver - Works 
w7aj_l monitors & CoCos!- $29.95 

Anti-Glare Screen $24.95 

TT ^COLQR Monitors $169.95 

TAXAN Tuner-Receive TV channels 



on any composite monitor $99.95 



OFF COLORCOM/E WITH A HAYES MODEM 

OFF TELEWRITER-64 WITH ANY PRINTER, 
KEYBOARD OR MONITOR 



$10 




SPEEDY COD ORDER HOT LINE - CALL 718-835-1344 



ftftftftftftftftftftftftftftftftftftftftft 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 

COLORFUL COMPUTING 



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SPREADSHEET 




Screen 32X16 51X24 

Precision 9 digits 16 digits 
Hi-Res Graphics NO YES 
Visicalc cmd format NO YES 
New low price! 64K Disk S69-95 
Side "Wise -Print DYNACALC files 
up to 255 chars- si dcway s ! - 95 




DISK DRIVES 



DOUBLE SIDED 
DRIVE 0 

$239.95* 

Disk Drive - 1,2 or 3 - $119.95 
* Super Control ler -Manual - Cable 





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ATA DASE MANAGER 




PRO-COLOR FILE 2.0-60 Data 
Fids, 8 Report Fmts, 4 Screen 
Fmts, 1020 bytes/record, Sort 3 
Fields, Global Search, FAST ML 
Sort, Create Files Compat ible 
w/DYNACALC! - Disk $49.95 
Pro Co^or Di^r and PCF Forms - 
Buy r em both for only "$29.95 



i= 




GAME CONTROLLERS 



Wjco C ommand Adapter - Now you 
can hookup 2 A tari type joystks 
to your CoCo for only $19.95! 
Wico Trackbal 1 -Rapid f i re & 36Cf 
action! Reg. $69. 95 - Now $19.95 
DELUXE Joystick - 360 Degree 
control with c ente r return or 
analog positioning - $27.50 




DISK SOFTWARE 



** 



pilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllHIIIIII BHI 

1. Fast Dupe II $14.95 

2. CoCo Keybd Software ..$14.95 

3. Wizard (TW-64) $19.95 

4. EZ Base (Database) ...$24.95 

5. Graphicom $24.95 

6. Blackjack Royale $24.95 

7. Color Forth $24.95 

8. Spect'm Adv Generator $29.95 





COCO II UPGRADES 




Want to upgrad e your new $69/ 
$88 CoCo II? TSee below ! !) 
4464 DRAMs - two chip 64K 
upgrade for 26 -31 3 4A and 26- 
3134B Korean CoCo I I 1 ! ..$39.95 
Extended BASIC - 28 pin ROM for 
26-3134 A7B~CoCo IPs ...$34.95 
Buy 'em BOTH for only - $69.95 




i 



[?7 



t 



**~ SAVE $100 ! ! ! 
Buy the ABOVE 8 
programs for only 
$79.95 



t 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS, Inc. 

PO BOX 21272 
WOODHAVEN NY 11421 



FREE - Send for our 
CoCo catalog flier 111 
Dealer inquiries invited I 
Software submissions 
welcomed I 



All orders plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) - COD add $2.00 extra - NYS Residents add Sales Tax 





16K 
Disk 




f the } 




GAME 




RAINBOW 







Jerpl 



exing 




icture 




uzzles 




By Ira Goldwyn 



s.' -?y* < ' 



;.r.i 



There have been several attempts 
to simulate the seemingly child- 
ish game where a picture is di- 
vided into 16 boxes, scrambled and 
must be reassembled. Each attempt has 
had two problems: They were limited to 
simple DRRW pictures embedded in the 
program, and the random scrambling of 
the screen often caused the puzzle to be 
unsolvable. 

I have found a solution to both of 
these problems. Scrambled Pix lets you 
use any saved screen in the puzzle. You 
can use any 6K picture. Co Co Max 
pictures can be used if they are saved as 
a single screen. 

The scrambling at the beginning of 
the program is random, but only allows 
for legal moves. It is done quickly 
because no DRRW, LINE, PRINT or other 



Ira Goldwyn is the graphics master of 
his users group. He lives in Great Neck, 
New York and is currently enrolled in 
a master's program and hopes to soon 
be an English teacher. 



. ! 



graphics drawing statements are used. 
The picture is manipulated by PUT and 
GET statements. 

A unique feature is the ST$ array. For 
each of the sixteen boxes, I encoded the 
boxes that were legal to be moved. The 
computer simply checks the "box to be 
moved from" code and checks if "box 
to be moved to" is legal/ The arrows 
control the action. Simply press the 
arrow to tell the computer which box 
you want to move into the empty box. 
An illegal move gives a beep. If you are 
lost, press the space bar and it will show 
you what the picture should look like. 
This is done by having the original 
picture copied to the upper pages of 
graphics memory before the picture is 
scrambled. 

I have had a good time with this 
program; it's not as easy as it seems. 
Have fun! 

(You may direct questions about this 
program to Mr. Goldwyn at 12 Tain 
Drive* Great Neck, NY 11021, 516-482- 
3049. Please enclose an SASE when 
writing.) □ 



108 



THE RAINBOW September 1986 




A 



SHOPPING LIST 



SUMMER CHIP -SALE- ... 

RF Shield for D/E CoCo V% $3.95 

6821 Standard PIA }9r85: $4.95 

(8) 4517 16K Chips - 5 volts $4.95 

Basic ROM 1.1 Chip 153*3$ $7.95 

Orig SAM Chip (6883) ~t&e35. $9.95 

6847 VDG Chip^JSsSS. $ 9 - 95 

6809E CPU Chip 13^*35 $9.95 

Basic ROM 1.3 ( Newest version) ...$19.95 
68769 (Fits all Basic ROMS) EPROM $19.95 
Disk ROM 1.1 (New DOS Command ) ...$29.95 
New SAM Chip w/heatsink (74LS785) $29.95 
Ext Basic ROM - NEW LOW PRICE $29.95 
CoCo First Aid Kit - includes two PIA's, 

6809E CPU & SAM Chips -$5&*95L $29.95 

EPROM Eraser - 3 min erasure time $49.95 
EPROM Prgmr (2ms speed/2K-16K) ..$149.95 
Tandy! 0150 51 2K Upgrade-SAVE $350 $169.95 

COCO LIBRARY... 

A History of the CoCo / 1980-1986 .$3.95 

CoCo Memory Map ....$14.95 

Basic Programming Tricks Revealed. $14. 95 

500 Pokes, Peeks 'N Execs $16.95 

Basic 09 Tour Guide $19.95 

Assembly Language Programmi ng ....$19.95 

Color Basic Unraveled $19.95 

Extended Basic Unraveled $19.95 

Disk BasicTU)/l . 1 ) Unraveled ...$19.95 

New! CoCo II Service Manual* $24.95 

SECOND Book & Jape of Adventures .$29.95 

0fficial~ 0"S9 Manual Set $39.95 

The Complete Rainbow Guide to 0S9. $19.95 
W/Two Disk Package of demo pgms ..$49.95 
Color / Extended / Disk Basic Unraveled - 
Complete disassembly of the CoCo ROMS ! 
Complete 3 Book Set - Save $10! ..$49.95 

MORE GOOD STUFF... 

CoCo Light Pen -^24*95L Save $5!.. $19. 95 

Computjze "Y" Box - More positive 

connections than a "Y" Cable $29.95 

PBJ WORDPAK-RS - Newest version ! HiRes 

80x24 display. Comes w/0S-9 drivr $99.95 

Micro Works DS-69A Digitizer $149.95 

Tandy 1000 2nd Drive (SAVE $40) .$159.95 

* - Specify CoCo II Catalogue Number 

All order* plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) 

COD add $2.00 extra 
NYS Residents add Sales Tax 




r 



COCO CABLES AND... 

Printer / Modem 15' Extender Cable .$14.95 
T i red of u npl uggi ng device s from your 
RS232 port? Try a RS232 "Y" Cable . $19. 95 
Disk Drive Cable (34pin - 34pin) .$19.95 

Modem Cable - 6ft (DB25-DB25) $19.95 

Joystick / Mouse 10' Ext Cable $19.95 

Dual Disk Drive Cable (3-34pin) ..$24.95 
Null Modem Cable - 4 pin to DB25 .$24.95 
Disk Interface/Rom Pak Extender - Move 
your disks/ROM Paks further away .$24.95 
40 Pin Dua l "Y" Cable - Hook up a Disk 
w/Voice, Word Pak. CoCo Max , etc ..$29.95 
Triple RS232 Switcher - Now select one 
of any three RS232 peripherals ...$39.95 
40 Pin Triple "Y" Cable - Hook up any 3- 
Voi ce7Word/RS232/Di gi t i zer PAKs ..$39.95 
15" Multi-Pak Extender I^S^^SST $27.95 



C-10 tapes 1n any quantity 49 cents 

5 1/4 " Diskettes , any quantity .99 cents 

OS-9 Quick Reference Guide $3.95 

Rompak w/Blank PC Brd-27xx series .$9.95 
Video Clear - This cable will reduce TV 
interference created by CoCo! ....$19.95 

The Magic Box - Load Mod I / I I I Basic 
program tapes into the CoCo ......$24.95 

DOS Switcher - Select from any two DOSs 
(Disk 1.0 1.1, JDOS) in J&M ctlr .$24.95 
Orig CoCo I "D" Rev motherboard . Includes 
all chips (SAM, CPU, PIA's, VDG) except 
RAM and Ext Basic ! Spare Parts ! $29.95 

256K RAM Chips (Set of 8) $39.95 

Model 100 8K Upgrade $39.95 

HJL-57 Keyboard - Save $7.00!!! ..$72.95 

Specify Model/Revision Board 

HPS Controller w/1.1 ROM $79.95 

Amdek Twin 3" Drive System $139.95 

Amdek Drive System w/controller .$239.95 



PO BOX 21272 
WOODHAVEN NY 11421 



ORDER HOT LINE 

•-1 344 



s 

p 

E 
C 
I 

A 
L 

6 
4 
K 

R 
A 
M 

C 
H 
I 

P 

S 

$ 
1 
9 

9 
5 



718-835- 



J TIES <»<M> 



COCO CHECKER* 



Something;: w rong; wi th your CoCo??? CoCo CHECKER 1r t he: an s wer ? ! V : test yftu r ROMs, 
RAM Si DJ;$.kS©Sli Si Controller, Printer^ Keyboard, Cassette, Joysticks, Sound, f?fe VDQ, Internal 
Clock $#§$$1 Mulr.-Pak Interface and more!! 16K TAPE/DISK $19-95 (see Jan f 85 Rainbow Review) 



MULTI-PAK CRAK 



Save ROM PA Kg to your 64K Disk system using the RS Multi-Pak Interface. Eliminate constant 
p Jugging in of ROMPAKs now by keeping all your PAK software on disk . Includes POKEs for 
" PROBLEM 11 ROMPAKs- including the NEW J6K PAKSI (Demon Attack,Dragons Lair,etc) 64K DISK $24.95 



9 




r A\\ the FEATURES of TELEP ATCH plus the classically proportioned characters of the WIZARD 
($1.9.95) font w/TRUE lowercase" descenders! Get BOTH & SUPERCHARGE your TW-64 for only $29-95 



SPIT N IMAGE 



0 



A super '■ : iJ0WM#W ffiMM Disk Omni Clone! Back everything up! This .a mazin g pn6^fani hah dies 
standard " : : d i ^ : : S:^^t!^^ ^ s e . We haven't found any disk yet that it can't handle, Donfcever be caught 
without a: backtfp ' aga^nl Lowest price tool Beats most t f copy protection " p r og r^Ajsj; 4%K D I S K $29.95 



COCO SCREEN DUMP 



The best screen dump program for the Panasonic , Epson & Gemini printers ever! Have the option of 
standard or reverse images w/regular or double sized proportional pictures- 600-9600 Baud too! A 
must for Graphicom and CoCo Calendar users. 16K TAPE/DISK $19-95 (see Nov f 84 Rainbow Review) 



DISK UTILITY 2.1* 



A multi-featured tbpl foY USER FRIENDLY disk handling. Utilize a directory window to selectively 
sort, move, rename \&ffd krf I J file entries. Lightning fast Disk I/O for format, copy and backup. 
E xamine conu.-nis of files, the Granule Table, plus the size, load addresses and entry points of all 
programs., Single command execution of both Basic and ML programs. 32K/64K DISK $24.95 "Disk 
Ut ility has proven m-eir very quickly at my house" - Ed Ellers Oct '84 Rainbow Review pg. 220 



SPECTRUM FONT GENERATOR 



Now you can write files using any CoCo Word Processor (Telewriter-64, VIP Writer, etc); and convert 
them to special Highly Detailed character sets ! Some of the character sets supported are Italics , 
QL<1 English, F utur is t i c a n d Block . A character set editor is included to create custom sets or 
modify existing ones! Supports most dot-matrix printers! DISK $29.95 (see Dec '85 Rainbow Review) 





Add 24 N EW Disk commands with 2 Hi-Res screens! Supports 40 track & Double - Sided drives, 6 ms 
stepping, auto disk search, error trapping & "EPROMABLE". 64K DISK 3*49*851 New LOW' price!! $24.95 



SCHEMATIC DRAFTING PROCESSOR 



Save time and design uro looking diagrams using a 480X540 pixel worksheet w/G viewing windows. 
0ver 30 ejfic tr o-flic symbols 'vw/10 d efinable symbols . (Even Logic gates & fvk^^m chips!) Print hard 
copy and save to disk . 64K DISK Sffl&S, New LOW price!!! $29.95 (see Jan %A hiambdw Review) 



ASIC+ 



Basic+ provides (23) of the most used BASIC cmds w /one keystroke plus scrolling & editing 
w/single key! Also included is a 32 character typahead BUFFERED keybd w /auto key & repeat plus 
a 32K Print Spooler & Ptr Echo!! 64K DISK $29.95 (see Jan '86 Rainbow Review pg. 192) 

Use your CoCo to keep track of your checking and savings accounts! Printout individual personal 
checks! 32K/64K TAPE $19.95 DISK $29-95 (see Apr! 1*85 pg. 210 & Oct'85 pg. 197 Rainbow Reviews) 



THE ULTIMATE GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 



r 

Wizarrr's Castle is a graphic adventure game with deadly creatures , mapic spells and traps of all 
types which are RANDOMIZED at the beginning of each session so that no 2 adventures will be the 
same! REAL TIME ACTION keeps the game's characters interacting even though you may be waiting to 
make a move. Includes three skill levels, 60 Hi-Res screens & Game Save Feature. 64K DISK $24-95 



Mi 



ROQR 



GET A DOUBLE SIDED 
DRIVE 0 FOR $199.95 
O OTHER DISCOUNTS CAN BE APPLIED 




W AVAILABLE BY EXPRESS ORDER 
YOUR LOCAL RADIO SHACK STORE!!! 

ASK TO SEE THE RADIO SHACK 
DEMO DISKS - FC#0249 & FC*0919!H 




ireate custom greetings for any occasion; Birthdays, Anniversaries, Holidays, etc. The program can 
be used to make custom Thank-You, Invitations, Get -Well cards and Announcements! Easy to use and 
includes a library of pre - drawn Hi-Res graphics. Includes a screen & font editor. 32K DISK $24.95 



COCO VIDEO TITLER 



Start your VCR tapes with dazzling title frames followed by professional countdown to black fade- 
outs! Use a title page editor with several sizes of text & bac_k flrQund colors I 32K TAPE $19.95 



PENPAL. 



It's here! CoCo's answer to 1-2-3 ! PENPAL combines Word Processing, Communications, Graphics, 
Data Base & Spread-sheet into a single integrated software package! 64 K DISK INTRO PRIC E $69.95 



64K DISK UTILITY PACKAGE 



Take advantage of an expanded 64K machine. Make an additional 8K of RAM available by relocating 
the Ext Basic ROM from $8000 to fD800 . Copy ROMPAKS to disk (even protected " PAKS) and create 
a 32K SPOOL buffer for printing. DISK $24.95 (see July '83 Rainbow Review) : 



TAPE /DISK UTILITY 



A powerful package that transfers tape to disk and disk to tape automatically. Does an automatic 
copy of an entire disk of programs to tape. Ideal for Rainbow On Tape to disk. Also copies tape to 
tape & prints tape & disk directories. TAPE/DISK $24.95 (see Sept f 83 Rainbow Review) 



SUPER DUPER UTILITIES 



Finally! At last! A "SUPER DUPER" utility software package all rolled up into ONE!!! Includes such 
great utilities as: CoCo Disk Zap, Disk Encryption, Disk Mailing List, EZ Disk Master, Graphics 
ZOOM, Banner Creator, Function KEYS, Super INPUT/LINEINPUT, Basic Program PACKER, Alpha 
Directory, Basic SEARCH and much, much more!!! 32K DISK $29.95 (see June '86 Rainbow Review) 



COCO CALENDAR 



Get organized for '86 TODAY with the Co Co Calendar! Designed for recording the entire year f s 
occassions and daily appointments so you can plan ahead. You can store HUNDREDS of entries and 
our GRAPHIC Calendar will show all MEMOS! 32K DISK $19.95 (see Mar '86 Rainbow Review) 



THE OS-9 SOLUTION 



NOW, a program that creates a " USER FRIENDLY" environment within OS-9! The OS-9 SOLUTION 
replaces 19 of the old " USER HOSTILE" commands with single keystroke, menu driven commands. No 
more typing in complex long pathnames or remembering complicated syntaxes! Set all XMODE 
parameters at the touch of keys!J$99s95TNew LOW price!!! $24.95 (see Sept '85 Rainbow Review) 



COCO-UTIL 



Now you can have the power to easily transfer Radio Shack Color Computer disk files to your MS- 
DOS machine - including the Tandy 1000 & JBM PC!!! You can also transfer MS-DOS files to your 
CoCo disk, even format CoCo disks! CoCo-Util will save you countless hours of retyping ! No need to 
move your computer or printer anymore! Requires 128K MS-DOS computer w/2 disk drives - $29.95 



FTWARE BONANZA PACKAGE 



;rsate an instant library of Spectrum Projects TOP Colorful Utility software. Select any of the 
following 12 programs to customize your own SPECTACULAR SOFTWARE BONANZA! CoCo Checker, 
Multi-Pak Crak, CoCo Screen Dump, Disk Utility 2,1, Spectrum Font Generator, Tape/Disk Utility, 
Fast Dupe II, 64K Disk Utility, Spectrum DOS, CoCo Calendar, Schematic Drafting Processor, OS-9 
Solution, Graphicom, EZ Base or Blackjack Royale (a $300 plus value) for only $99.95!!! 



FRANK HOGG S O-PAK 



A H'-Res Screen & Utilities package for QS-9 users! Use one of the available Hi-Res character sets 
(42X24, 64X19, 85X24, etc.) or create your own. Mix ; graphjc_s with text on a screen with unlimited 
fJexiWty, Copy files between OS-9 and Radio Shack DOS. 64K~DISK $39.95 





All orders plus $3 S/H (Foreign $5) 
COD add $2 extra 
NYS Residents add Sales Tax 
COD ORDER LINE 718-835-1344 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS I IMC 



WOQDHAVE IM IMY 11421 



Vr mi 



100 . 
240 . 
530 . 
1010 
END 



247 
.96 
162 
154 
239 



The listing: SCRAMBLE 

10 CLS : PCLEAR8 : DIM A(32 , 24) ,ST$ ( 

16) :B=16:A=16:GOSUB510 

20 INPUT "PICTURE FOR PUZZLE" ;F$ 

30 INPUT"DRIVE";D$ 

40 F$=F$+":"+D$ 

50 LOADM F$ 

51 LINE (0,0) -(255,5) , PRESET, BF: L 
INE (0,186) -(255,191) , PRESET, BF:L 
INE (0,0) -(5, 191) , PRESET, BF:LINE( 

250,0)-(255,191) , PRESET, BF 

52 FOR C=1T04 

53 PCOPY C TO C+4 

54 NEXTC 

60 CLS0: PRINT© 130, "PLEASE WAIT"; 

65 PM0DE4,1:SCREEN1,1 

70 LINE (189, 141) -(252,188) ,PSET, 

BF 

80 FORS=1TO40 

90 Z=RND (LEN (ST$ (B) ) ) 

100 IF Z/2=INT(Z/2) THEN Z=Z+1 

llj3 IF Z>LEN(ST$(B) ) THEN Z=Z-2 

120 A=VAL(MID$(ST$(B) ,Z,2) ) 

125 IF A=CK THEN 90 

130 GOSUB310 

140 NEXTS 

150 PMODE4 , 1 : SCREEN1 , 1 
155 A=B 

160 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 160 
110 IF A$=CHR$(94) THEN A=A+4:GO 
TO220 

180 IF A$=CHR$(10) THEN A=A-4:GO 
TO220 

190 IF A$=CHR$(9) THEN A=A-l:GO 
T022p 

200 IF A$=CHR$(8) THEN A=A+l:GO 
T022J3 

210 IF A$=CHR$(32) THEN GOTO2000 

220 IF A>16 OR K<0 THEN 250 

221 FOR C=l TO LEN (ST$ (A) ) STEP2 

222 V$=MID$(ST$(A) ,C,2) 

230 IF VAL(V$)=B THEN GOSUB 310: 

GOTO150 

240 NEXTC 



250 SOUND40,4:A=B:GOTO150 
310 Q=A: GOSUB 1000 
315 X1=D: Y1=E 

325 Q=B:GOSUB1000 

326 A1=D:B1=E 

330 GET (Xl / Yl)-(Xl+63,Yl+47) ,A, 

G 

340 PUT (Al,Bl)-(Al+63,Bl+47) ,A, 
PSET 

350 LINE(Xl,Yl)-(Xl+63,Yl+47) , PS 
ET, BF 

3 60 CK=B : B=A 
370 RETURN 
510 ST$(1)="0205" 
520 ST$(2)="010306" 
530 ST$(3)=»020407" 
540 ST$(4)="0308" 
550 ST$ (5) ="010609" 
560 ST$(6)="02050710" 
570 ST$(7)="03060811" 
580 ST$(8)="040712" 
590 ST$(9)="051013" 
600 ST$ (10) ="06091114" 
610 ST$ (11) ="07101215" 
620 ST$ (12) ="081116" 
630 ST$(13)="0914" 
640 ST$(14)="101315" 
650 ST$ (15) ="111416" 
660 ST$(16)="1215" 
670 RETURN 

1000 ON Q GOTO 1010,1020,1030,10 

40,1050,1060,1070,1080,1090,1100 

,1110,1120,1130,1140,1150,1160 

1010 D=0 : E=0 : RETURN 

1020 D=63:E=0: RETURN 

1030 D=12 6 :E=0: RETURN 

1040 D=189:E=0: RETURN 

1050 D=0:E=47: RETURN 

1060 D=63:E=47: RETURN 

1070 D=12 6 :E=47: RETURN 

1080 D=189:E=47: RETURN 

1090 D=0:E=94: RETURN 

1100 D=63 : E=94 : RETURN 

1110 D=12 6 :E=94: RETURN 

1120 D=189:E=9 4: RETURN 

1130 D=0:E=141: RETURN 

1140 D=63:E=141: RETURN 

1150 D=12 6 :E=141: RETURN 

1160 D=18 9 :E=141: RETURN 

2000 PM0DE4,5:SCREEN1,1 

2010 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 201 

IS 

2015 PMODE4 , 1 : SCREEN1 , 1 
2020 GOTO150 

fib 



112 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



HOW DO YOO TOTE A RAINBOW? 

It's simple — Give a RAINBOW gift certificate . . . 



Let a gift subscription to the 
rainbow carry the premier Color 
Computer magazine right to 
your friends' doorsteps, the 
rainbow is the information 
source fortheTandy Color Com- 
puter. 

Each month, your friends will 
enjoy the intelligent programs, 
reviews and articles written ex- 
clusively for their CoCo. 

First, your gift will be an- 
nounced in a handsome card. 
Then, all year round, they'll re- 
member you and your thought- 
fulness when they get each edi- 
tion of the rainbow — over 250 
pages loaded with as many as 24 
programs, 15 regular columns 
and lots of helpful hints and tips. 

Generosity benefits the giver, 
too. There'll be no more search- 
ing for lost copies of the rain- 
bow. Your collection will be safe 
at home. 

Give a rainbow gift certificate 
and let your friends in on the fun. 
the rainbow is the perfect com- 
panion for the Color Computer! 



Please begin a one-year (12 issues) gift subscription to 

THE RAINBOW for: 

Name 

Address 

City State ZIP 

From: 

Name 

Address 

City State ZIP 

□ My payment is enclosed 

Bill to: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 
Acct. # Exp. date 

Signature 

Mail to: 

Rainbow Gift Certificate, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, 
KY 40059 

For credit card orders call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. 

All other inquiries call (502) 228-4492. 

Subscriptions to the rainbow are $31 in the United States; U.S. $38 in Canada. The surface rate 
to other countries is U.S. $68; the air rate, U.S. $103. Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax. U.S. 
currency only, please. All subscriptions begin with the current issue. Please allow 6 to 8 weeks for 
delivery. In order to hold down non-editorial costs, we do not bill. 




WE'RE BRINGING THE COCO 



RAINBOW'S 
BROADENING ITS 
SPECTRUM 

the rainbow and the Delphi Infor- 
mation Utility have joined together 
to allow CoCo owners all over the 
world to connect with one another! 

Delphi is a full-service information 
utility. It offers everything from up- 
to-the-minute news stories from The 
Associated Press to electronic mail 
services. But, best of all, it now has 
a special forum for Color Computer 
owners, and it's operated by the 
people who bring you the rainbow 
each month. 

The CoCo Special Interest Group 
(SIG) features a variety of services, 
including an open forum where you 
can send and receive messages 
from Color Computer owners all 
over the world. It also has several 
databases to which you can upload 
your favorite programs and from 
which you can download programs 
written by other CoCo enthusiasts. 
Some of these databases are basic 
programming, OS-9 and home ap- 
plications. 

When setting up your account 
with Delphi, if you do not have a 
credit card or prefer not to use it, 
Delphi requires that you send $20 to 
give your account a positive bal- 
ance. This will be refunded after 
your first free hour if you choose to 
no longer use the system or it will 
be applied to future connect 
charges. 



PEEK INTO THE 
RAINBOW 

The CoCo SIG's conference feature 
allows you to meet electronically 
with other members of the CoCo 
Community. You can join conferen- 
ces with notables such as Dale 
Puckett, Cray Augsburg, Marty 
Goodman, Don Hutchison, Jim 
Reed, Lonnie Falk and others — 
on a regular basis. Conference 
schedules will appear in the rain- 
bow each month. Be sure to check 
online announcements for changes 
and additions. 

THE OTHER SIDE 
OF THE RAINBOW 

On Delphi, you also are able to buy 
rainbow on tape — order a whole 
set, or download an individual pro- 
gram immediately. You can also 
renew your rainbow subscription, 
make a fast and easy order for soft- 
ware or hardware from a multitude 
of vendors, or inquire about prod- 
ucts on the CoCo SIG. 

We also have a number of programs 
that you can download and use, just 
for the cost of the time you spend 
transferring them. There'll also be 
corrections for rainbow articles, 
helpful hints and many other useful 
features. 



Between now and August 31st, take 
advantage of our "Late Rates." This 
summer discount applies between 2 
a.m. system time (EDT) and 7 a.m. 
local node time. 



FREE LIFETIME 
MEMBERSHIP 

the rainbow is offering subscribers 
a free lifetime subscription to Delphi 

— a $24.95 value — and a free hour 
of connect time — a $7.20 value at 
either 300, 1200 or 2400 Baud — so 
you can sample Delphi and the rain- 
bow CoCo SIG. That's right. Your 
subscription to the rainbow entitles 
you to this $32.15 value as a free 
bonus! 

If you're not a rainbow subscriber, 

just enter your order when you sign 
on with Delphi and you'll get the 
same great deal! For our $31 sub- 
scription fee, you'll get the finest 
Color Computer magazine ever, a 
free lifetime subscription to Delphi 
and a free hour of connect time. 

SAVE EVEN MORE 

Want to save even more? While 
you're online you can order, for only 
$29.95, a deluxe package which in- 
cludes the Delphi membership, the 
Delphi Handbook and Command 
Card ($21.95) and a total of three 
hours of connect time ($21.60). 

Delphi provides us all with Imme- 
diate CoCo Community. Check it 
out today. After all, you can sample 
it for free! 



Problems? Call Delphi: 

(800) 544-4005 
(617) 491-3393 



DELPH I 



TYPE: 

GROUP COCO 




How to reach RAINBOW'S Color Computer SIG . . . 



There are several ways to connect to Delphi and THE 
rainbow's CoCo SIG, In most cities you will not even have 
to pay long distance charges; you can use special data 
communications networks like Unmet, Tymnet and the 
Canadian Datapac network. 

First, set your terminal program to operate at either 300 
or 1200 Baud (depending on the modem you have), and 
also select either 7 bits with even parity or 8 bits with no 
parity, and one stop bit. (If one combination doesn't work, 
try another.) 

Decide which network you should use. There is no 
surcharge for Uninet or Tymnet. Canadian residents using 
Datapac will be charged an additional $12 (U.S.) per hour. 

On Uninet: Call (800) 821-5340 to get the Uninet number 
for your area. After you call the appropriate number for 
your own area and make connection, you'll see a prompt 
of "L?" Press ENTER, the period key (.) and ENTER again. 
At the "service:" prompt, type GVC (for General Videotex 
Corporation) and enter. 

On Tymnet: Call (800) 336-0149 to get the Tymnet 
number for your area. After you dial your designated 
number and connect, you will see either "garbage" or a 
message saying "please type your terminal identifier." At 
this point, even if the screen is garbled, simply press 'A*. 
When "please log in:" appears, type DELPHI and press 

ENTER. 

From Canada (on Datapac): Call Delphi Customer 
Service at (617) 491-3393 to get the Datapac number for 
your area. After you connect, press the period key (.) and 
ENTER (use two periods if you're using 1200 Baud). Type 
SET 2:1, 3:126 and press ENTER. Now type p 1 3106, 
DELPHI ; and press enter. Delphi's new rates indicate an 
additional $12 hourly surcharge for evening use of 
Datapac, which means a total of $18 (U.S.) for connect 
time. 

From other countries: Many countries have their own 
data networks that can connect to either Uninet or Tymnet. 
Check with the telephone authorities in your country for 
details on how to sign up for this service. When you have 
an account set up, you can reach Delphi with a "host code" 
of 312561703088 through Uninet, or 310600601500 
through Tymnet. (YouH have to pay the toll charges for 
this connection.) 

Type in Your User name 

If you're already a subscriber to the rainbow, at the 
"USERNAME:" prompt, type RfllNBOWSUB and press 



ENTER. At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type your individ- 
ual subscription number from the mailing label of your 
latest issue of THE RAINBOW. (If there are one or more zeros 
at the beginning of this number, include them.) 

If you don't already have a subscription, at the "USER- 
NAME:" prompt, type RfllNBOWORDER and press ENTER. 
At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type 5ENDSUB and press 
ENTER. Have your MasterCard, VISA or American 
Express card ready, because you'll be led through a series 
of questions that will enable us to put your rainbow and 
Delphi subscriptions into effect. In an effort to hold down 
non-editorial costs, we do not bill for subscriptions. 

If you make a typing error, just press ENTER and start 
over. Remember that at any point, when you're on Delphi, 
you can type HELP to get help on how to use the system. 
To get off the system just type BYE. 

If you find that you're unable to log on to Delphi and 
enter the CoCo SIG after following these instructions, call 
us during afternoon business hours at (502) 228-4492. Well 
be glad to offer assistance. 

Come Visit Us! Type: GROUP COCO 

After you sign in, you'll be prompted to set up your own, 
personal "user name" — Delphi is a friendly service, no 
numbers to remember — and youH be asked a number 
of questions so Delphi can set up your account. You'll also 
be assigned a temporary password. No time is assessed 
against your free hour of service while you answer these 
questions. 

Delphi will tell you that your account will be ready after 
6 p.m. the same day if you sign up before noon (Eastern 
time zone.) If not, your account will be ready at 6 p.m. 
the next day. Once an account is opened, each rainbow 
subscriber will be credited with an hour of free time! 

When you log back in, use your chosen username and 
your temporary password to access the system. At that 
point, you will meet Max, who will help you configure 
things and will change your temporary password into 
your own personal password. This is the password you 
will use for subsequent sessions or until you change it. 

After Max bids you goodbye, you'll wind up at the 
Delphi Main Menu; type in GROUP COCO and join us on 
the CoCo SIG! 




DISK UTILITY 



A modification for VIP Writer 




By Ian Millard 



¥TT 7 have all heard the talk 

about enhanced word 
T T processors for the CoCo. 
At my company, Duck Productions, we 
use Vip Writer to produce the prelimi- 
nary phases of design, charting and 
documentation for our utility pro- 
grams. I want to compliment VIP Tech- 
nologies on the simplicity and full- 
featured quality they have developed in 
this application software. As consu- 
mers, we have not found any short suits 
during the everyday marathon usage we 
have. 

However, we are not average users 
either, since we answered the only 
negative aspect of Writer long ago. We 
know the value in modifying start-up 
parameter defaults (e.g., page formats, 
tabs and printer codes) to avoid repet- 

Ian Millard is the president of Duck 
Productions, a computer products 
company new to the Co Co Community. 
His previous responsibilities have been 
dedicated to electronic and computer- 
ized medical equipment systems for use 
in hospital operating rooms throughout 
southern Ontario, 



itive keying of the same things. We use 
three printers, all using different Baud 
rates, and each operation works to 
different page/ tab parameters. We 
answered this need with a utility to 
modify a separate VIP Writer for each 
document application. 

As a new company, Duck Produc- 
tions would like to present this VIP 
Writer utility modification to all CoCo 
users. 

Writer Zap is a disk zap dedicated to 
the mission of defining your own (47) 
defaults in VIP Writer. Operation is 
prompted for ease of use. We recom- 
mend you back up a fresh copy of VIP 
Writer for the modification. (Do not 
modify the original VIP/Softlaw disk 
or material.) 

Type in Writer Zap and run. You may 
want to get out the printer manual in 
advance, or think about the margins 
and other defaults you are able to 
change. Writer Zap automatically looks 
for and modifies either VIP Writer 
alone or the Desktop Writer version. 
Writer Zap is error trapped and will not 
modify any disk other than VIP Writer 
or Desktop. 



Writer Zap provides the current 
memory value for tab positions, print 
format parameters and printer codes 
with each prompted option for default 
change. If no change is desired, a simple 
carriage return (ENTER) leaves the value 
unchanged. 

Note: Printer control codes are usu- 
ally preceded by an escape code (e.g., 27 
as in 27; 10); however, some codes, like 
underline codes, are not. VIP Writer 
has provided the (CLEAR) three or four 
positions for such solo codes. As a 
result, these two positions do not lend 
themselves to change as they will not 
accept the two-digit escape code needed 
by most other printer functions. 

By the way, during the course of 
running this program, it will also mod- 
ify your VIP Writer disk to auto-boot 
by typing the BASIC command DOS. You 
only receive this little extra when Writer 
Zap determines there is enough disk 
space to accommodate the function. 
There is not enough space to do this 
with Desktop. 

We hope this utility gives you many 
hours of enjoyment in what you don't 
have to do, Happy computing! □ 



THE RAINBOW September 1966 



The listing: WRITRZflP 



130 
330 



169 
168 



440 



250 



540 235 

END 169 



T 



10 CLEAR 2000:DIM FP$ (27) : VERIFY 
ON 

20 FOR A=1T027:READ FP$(A):NEXTA 
30 FOR A=3584 TO 3652:READ B:POK 
E A, B: NEXT A:EXEC&HE00 
40 PRINT©160," VERIFY FUNCTION 
ON [Y/N]":EXEC4453 9:A$=INKEY$ 
:IF A$="N" .THEN V$="N" ELSE IF A 
$<>»Y" THEN 40 

50 PRINT© 2 5 6," INSERT THE SUB J 
ECT DISK IN DRIVE 0 AND P 

RESS ENTER" 

60 EXEC44539:IF INKEY$<>CHR$ (13) 
THEN 60 

70 FOR C=3 TO 5:DSKI$0,17,C,A$,B 

$ : A$=A$+LEFT$ ( B$ , 12 6 ) 

80 FOR D=l TO 254 STEP 32 

90 IF MID$ (A$,D, 6)=" WRITER" THEN 

A=2 : B=3 : GOSUB 540: GOTO 120 
100 IF MID$(A$,D, 7)=" DESKTOP" TH 
EN A=8:B=6:GOTO 120 
110 NEXT D:NEXT C : PRINT© 384 , " 
NO VIP WRITER ON THIS DISK": END 
120 CLS: PRINT© 35, "PART ONE - TA 
BS -" 

130 DSKI$0 / A,B,A$,B$:POKE65344 / 0 
:E=58 

140 IF MID$(B$,57,3)O"[D0" THEN 
PRINT@384," INCOMPATIBLE V 

ERSION" :END 

150 FOR C=95 TO 104 : E=E+32 : PRINT 

"#"C-94"IS NOW"ASC(MID$(B$,C,l) ) 

;: INPUT" NEW VALUE" ;D 

160 IF D=0 THEN PRINT@E , ASC (MID$ 

(B$,C,1) ) :GOTO 180 

170 MID$(B$,C,1)=CHR$(D) 

180 NEXT C 

190 GOSUB 530: IF AN$="N" THEN130 

200 DSKO$0,A,B,A$,B$ 

210 CLS:T$="PART 2 - PRINTER CON 

TROL CODES" : PRINT© 33, T$ 

220 DSKI$0,A,B,A$,B$:POKE5344,0 

230 C$=B$:C=126:D$="1": GOSUB 340 

240 DSKO$0,A,B,A$,C$:B=B-1 

250 DSKI$0 / A / B / A$,B$:POKE65344 / 0 

260 C$=A$:C=1:D$="2": GOSUB 340 

270 C=8:D$="5": GOSUB 340 



280 
290 
300 
310 



C=ll 
C=14 
C=17 
C=20 



320 C=23 



D$="6" 
D$="7" 
D$="8" 
D$="9" 
D$=":" 



GOSUB 340 
GOSUB 340 
GOSUB 340 
GOSUB 340 
GOSUB 340 



330 DSKO$0,A,B,C$,B$:GOTO 420 
340 CLS:PRINT@33,T$:E=ASC(MID$(C 
$,C,1)) :F=ASC(MID$(C$,C+1,1)) 



350 PRINT@132, "<CLEAR> "D$ 

360 PRINT@192, "ESCAPE CODE IS"E; 

: INPUT" NEW CODE", *G: IF G=0 THEN 

G=E 

370 PRINT@220,G:PRINT@256, "CONTR 
OL CODE ="F; : INPUT" NEW CODE";H: 
IF H=0 THEN H=F 

380 PRINT@284 / H: GOSUB 530: IF AN$ 
="N" THEN 350 

390 MID$(C$,C,1)=CHR$(G) :MID$(C$ 

,C+1,1)=CHR$(H) :RETURN 

400 DATA AL^S^DfBL/BMjBS^L^S 

,HL,HS , IP, JU, LF, LM, LS 

410 DATA NL f NP f PA,PC,PG,PH f PL, PN 

,PP,RM,TM,WD 

420 CLS:T$="PRINTER FORMAT CODES 
":PRINT@38,T$ 

430 A=A+3:DSKI$0,A,B,A$,B$:POKE6 
5344,0 

440 P=0:FOR C=37 TO 64: IF C=59 T 
HEN 510 

450 P=P+1:D=ASC(MID$(B$,C,1) ) : IF 
D<191 THEN D$=RIGHT$ (STR$ (D) , LE 
N(STR$(D) )-l) :GOTO 470 
460 D=D-128:D$=CHR$(D) 
470 PRINT© 12 8, "CODE "FP$(P)" NOW 
="D$; : INPUT" CHANGE TO" ;E$ :TF 
E$="" THEN E$=D$ 

480 GOSUB 530: IF AN$="N" THEN 47 

490 E=VAL(E$):IF E=0 THEN E=ASC( 
E$):IF E>64 THEN E=E+128 ELSE E= 
E-48 

500 MID$(B$,C,1)=CHR$(E) 
510 NEXT C 

520 DSKO$0,A,B',A$,B$:POKE65344,0 

: CLS : PRINT" FINISHED" : END 

530 IF V$="N" THEN RETURN ELSE P 

RINT@485,"IS THIS CORRECT [Y/N] 

",* :EXEC44539:AN$=INKEY$:IF AN$<> 

"Y" AND AN$<>"N" THEN 530 ELSE R 

ETURN 

540 DSKI$0,17,2,A$,B$:IF MID$ (A$ 

,67,1)=CHR$(255) THEN MID$(A$,67 

,1)=CHR$(193) ELSE RETURN 

550 DSKO$0, 17,2, A$,B$:DSKI$0, 2,1 

,A$,B$ 

560'mID$(A$,1,5)="OS"+CHR$(0)+CH 
R$ (0) +CHR$ ( 18 ) : DSKO$0 , 3 4 , 1 , A$ , B$ 
: RETURN 

570 DATA 198,32,189,169,42,142,4 

,42,49,141,0,2 3, 141, 2,32,13,166, 

160,129,64,38,1,57,128 

580 DATA 64,167,128,32,243,142,4 

,101,141,238,57,87,82,73,84,69,8 

2,96,90,65,80,64,70,82 

590 DATA 79,77,96,68,85,67,75,96 

,80,82,79,68,85,67,84,73,79,78,8 

3,64,18 




TM 



Coco 



oJ 



LEGE 



FILE EDIT HIDI HISC 



All Voices On 
Tine Signature 
Key Signature 
Tenpo 

Reset block 



EJ 



ic YOU ^ 
Sg8 gS^""* 



FILE EDIT MIDI MISC 




Block delete 



| Block copy 



IA 



LEGEND 



00110 




use pS 



LYRA is the most powerful music composition program we have seen on 
any computer. We don't mean just the COCO, we really mean any com- 
puter. Whether you are a novice trying to learn music or a professional 
musician with MIDI equipment you will find LYRA a powerful tool. You 



see, we wrote LYRA for musicians that hate computers. If you want proof, 
purchase a LYRA demo for $7.95. We will apply the demo price to your 
purchase. MIDI output requires the LYRA MIDI cable (#MC158) or COCO 
MIDI Seq/Editor (#CM147). 



Ultra Easy to use, just point with joystick or 
mouse and click. 

Compose with up to 8 completely 
independent voices. 

Room for over 18,000 notes. (This is not 
misprint!) 

Super Simple Editing Supports: 



Note insert 
Note delete 
Note change 
Output music to: 
TV Speaker 
STEREO PAK 
SYMPHONY 12 
MIDI Synth 



Block insert 
Block delete 
Block copy 

Monitor Speaker 
ORCHESTRA 90 
COCO MIDI S/E 
MID! Drum Machine 



Output up to 4 voices without additional 
hardware. 



* Output all 8 voices using either SYMPHONY 
12 or one or more MIDI synthesizers and 
drum machines. 

^ Output any voice on any of the 16 MIDI 
channels. 

Transpose music to any key. 
Modify music to any tempo. 
Automatically inserts bar for each measure 
as you compose. 

Key signature lets you specify sharps and 
flats only once, LYRA will do the rest. 
Plays MUSICA 2 files using LYRA CONVERT 
(#LC164). 

Each voice may be visually highlighted or 
erased, 

^* Each measure is numbered for easy 
reading. 

LYRA OPTIONS - 



Solo capability 
Block edits are highlighted. 
Tie notes together for musical continuity. 
Name of note pointed to is constantly 
displayed. 

Jump to any point in the score 
instantaneously. 

Memory remaining clearly displayed, 
however you will have plenty of memory 
even for the most demanding piece. 
Help menu makes manual virtually 
unnecessary. 

LYRA is 100% software, no need for extra 
hardware unless you want more power. 
Music easily saved to tape or disk. 
Requires 64K and mouse or joystick. 
LYRA (Disk Only) #LY122 $54.95 



These LYRA options are not required. They are provided for those wishing additional flexibility. 



LYRA CONVERT 

A program to convert MUSICA 2 files to LYRA 
files. 

(T or D) #LC164 $14.95 

LYRA STEREO ENHANCER 

Gives the LYRA stereo output when used with 

the STEREO PAK or ORCHESTRA 90. 

(T or D) #LS149 $14.95 

LYRA MIDI CABLE 

A cable to connect your computer to your MIDI 
synthesizer. 

#MC158 $14.95 

We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD Charge , $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6'A% sales tax. 



LYRA SYMPHONY 12 ENHANCER 

Lets LYRA play all 8 voices through SYMPHONY 
12. 

(T or D) #LS1 77 $19.95 

STEREO PAK 

Plugs into the COCO ROM cartridge slot allow- 
ing easy connection to your stereo system. 
#SP193 $39.95 

SYMPHONY 12 

A real hardware music synthesizer, lets LYRA 

play all 8 voices in stereo. 

(T or D) #SY149 $69.95 



fx £ui.t i 



COCO MID Seq/Editor 

A professional quality MIDI interface for MIDI 
synthesizers. 

(Disk only) #CM147 $149.95 

MUSIC LIBRARY 

A collection of over 800 songs. When used with 
CONVERT, it gives an incredible LYRA library. 
Each volume 100 songs. 

(T or D) #MLXXX $29.95 

COCO MAX is a trademark of Colorwave. 
ORCHESTRA 90 is a trademark of Radio Shack. 

38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 



COCO MIDI 
SEQUENCER/EDITOR 



Mow your COCO can talk to your MIDI music synthesizer. Whether 
/ou have a Korg, Roland, Casio, Yamaha, or Moog, it doesn't 
matter as long as it's MIDI equipped. Choose from our entry level 



MUSICA MIDI system that plays MUSICA files or our Professional 
COCO MIDI SYSTEM. 



• Supports up to 16 tracks. 

• Up to 8000 events per track. 

• May be used as a sequencer. 

• User friendly graphics 'display. 

• Menu driven. 

• Metronome available. 

• Real time recording. 

• Save your masterpiece to disk. 



r\\vw»y» , » , . , .Ti 

i yy> .y.v.v .u 1 




Playback any or all tracks at any tempo. 

Tracks may be deleted, copied, transposed, or mixed. 

Filter out unwanted channel or type of MIDI data. 



• Tempo may be modified. 

• Quantizing to 32nd or 64th. 

• Simple music editing. 

• Requires 64K disk system. 

• Transposition. 

Comes complete with Rom Pak 
Hardware interface, cables, 
manual, and software. Requires 
Y-Cable or Multi-Pak. 
Disk only. #CM147 . . . $149.95 



MUSICA MIDI 



TM 



MUSICA MIDI takes any MUSICA 2 music file and plays it through 
your MIDI synthesizer. We offer you over 800 tunes from our 
MUSIC LIBRARY series {sold separately) or create your own music 



using MUSICA 2. Includes: documentation, plenty of music, and 
the cable to connect between the COCO and your synthesizer. 
Tape or Disk. #CM126 $39.95 



DX-7 LIBRARIAN 



TM 



RAM cartridges for the Yamaha DX-7 aren't cheap and don't hold 
all the sounds you would like. The DX-7 LIBRARIAN is a program 
that when used with COCO MIDI, lets you save and load any 



number of sounds. Save sounds individually or as a group letting 
you load the DX-7 in seconds. 

Disk only. #DX143 $29.95 



MIDI KEYBOARD 



If you own the Casio CZ-101 or similar MIDI synth, you know 
that the mini keys and the short 3 or 4 octave keyboard is limiting. 
MIDI KEYBOARD when used with our full size 5 octave keyboard 



gives you the flexibility you need. Comes with cable to connect 
the COCO to your MIDI synth. 

#MK167 $29.95 



MUSICA TO COCO MIDI 



This program is for COCO MIDI users that wish to convert MUSICA synths to our MUSIC LIBRARY and much public domain music, 
files so they can be played by COCO MIDI. It opens your MIDI Disk only. #MC193 $29.95 



MUSIC LIBRARY 



TM 



The MUSIC LIBRARY series consists of 8 volumes: 100 through 
800 each sold separately. Each contains over 100 four voice music 
selections with a playing time of over 3 hours each. The disk 
version is shipped on 5 full disks. When coupled with STEREO 
PAK, the music is reproduced with unsurpassed realism. 

A JUKEBOX program is included to allow you to select specific 
songs or automatically play each. These songs are ready to go, 
you don't need MUSICA 2 or a knowledge of music. MUSICA 2 
users may customize each song. Each volume sold separately, 

specify tape or disk. #MLXXX $29.95 

List of 800 songs #LS800 $3.00 



MUSIC LIBRARY 100 

Stage, Screen, & TV 
Music of the 70's 
Music of the 60's 
Music of the 50's 
Old Time Favorites 
MUSIC LIBRARY 200 
MUSIC LIBRARY 300 
MUSIC LIBRARY 400 
MUSIC LIBRARY 500 
MUSIC LIBRARY 600 
MUSIC LIBRARY 700 
MUSIC LIBRARY 800 



Classical 

Christmas (popular) 

Christmas (traditional) 

Patriotic 

Polka Party 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 
(another 100 selections) 



Entire Library 
30 Hours of 
Music! 
40 disks 
or 

25 tapes 




TM 



M 



SYMPHONY 12 



.O 



FILE EDIT MIDI HISC 



LEGEND QB 

P ft I* 



01)01 



B2 



i 



» -al — 



-a 



i 



sP|2jfrioN 



o 



8J 



^^«>l»^ir(ii^\Ci*Wi : iiii..'i«>ti-iii)tyii : n< 





If you want to compose music, experiment, or STEREO AND MONO. By connecting SYM- PIANO KEYBOARD. For those wishing to turn 

just listen to music, LYRA is the tool you need. PHONY 12 to your home stereo system, music is SYMPHONY 12 into a real polyphonic synthe- 

LYRA represents the new state-of-the-art super produced in stereo, 6 voices from each channel. sizer we offer a full size 61 note piano 

user friendly software. Pull down menus and However, you don't need to have a stereo system, keyboard. 

icons make composing music as easy as pointing all 12 voices also come out of your TV or monitor. T users us| boih SYMPHONY 12 and the 

^^XZI^S^.^ SOUND EFFECTS. SYMPHONY 12 is a sophisti- PIANO KEYBOARD will require a Y-CABLE 

may take advantage of the 8 voice power of « ted s ° und 8 enerator - l 2 u vo.ces and 4 no,se D sk systems require a Tnple Y-CABLE or 

LYRA using external MIDI synthesizers or SYM- S e , nera '° rs 8 lve X 0 " incredible sound effect capa- ^LTI-PAK 

PHONY 12. We believe that LYRA and SYM- b.l.ty. We have included gun shot, explosion, rac- ESfSJ^J % °» * S ^l R ' ' $69 - 95 

PHONY 12 was a match made in heaven. For a mg car and more. LYRA^SYMPHONY 12 ENHANCER ^ 

limited time when you Purchase both we : will SYMPHONY 12. You get over a dozen music and PIANO KEYBOARD #PK1 85 $169195 

include free the LYRA SYMPHONY 12 CONNEC- sound effect se | ections and comp | ete documenta- DOUBLE Y-CABLE #DY181 $28.95 

TION, a $19.95 value. tion software is shipped on Tape or Disk. TRIPLE Y-CABLE #TY173 $34.95 

GUITAR CHORD BOOK 

This program, written by a guitar instructor of 17 years, displays in high Whether you are a beginning guitar student or an advanced player, you 

resolution graphrcs the exact fingering for over 100,000 chord combina- will find this quick reference to guitar chords invaluable. 

tions. You may even tune your guitar to the computer and play along. 32K Disk only #GC153 $29.95 

MUSIC THEORY 

COURSE 1 COURSE 2 

This course covers all the basics from music notation & duration, key A more advanced course that deals with: Major and Harmonic Minor 

signatures, tempo, to an introduction of the keyboard. This is an entry scales, interval spelling, Triad (Chord) theory, Inversions, Dominant 7th 

level course recommended as a prerequisite for Course 2. chords, and ear training of the intervals. 

32K Disk only. #MT101 $49.95 32K Disk only #MT102 $49.95 



EARS 



TM 



Electronic 
Audio 
Recognition 
System 



$99.95 



*3 ■ 11D 



• SPEECH 
RECOGNITION 

• HANDS OFF 
PROGRAMMING 

•HIGH 
QUALITY 
SPEECH 

REPRODUCTION 
EARS Does It All! 



0&> 




Two Years In the Making. Speech Systems 
was formed to develop new and innova- 
tive speech products. After 2 years of in- 
tensive Research and Development, we 
have created a truely sophisticated 
speech recognition device. Recognition 
rates from 95% to 98% are typical. Until 
now, such a product was outside the 
price range of the personnel computer 
market, and even small businesses. 

EARS is trained by your voice and capable 
of recognizing any word or phrase. 
Training EARS to your particular voice 
print takes seconds. Up to 64 voice prints 
may be loaded into memory. You may 
then save on tape or disk as many as you 
like so that your total vocabulary is virtu- 
ally infinite. 

Speech and Sound Recognition. EARS is re- 
ally a sound recognition system, so it re- 
ally doesn't matter whether you speak in 
English, Spanish, or French. In fact you do 
not have to speak at all, you can train 
EARS to understand sounds such as a 
musical note or a door slamming. 

Hands Off Programming. Imagine writing 
your own BASIC programs without ever 
touching the keyboard. Everything that 



you would normally do through a 
keyboard can now be done by just 
speaking. 

Programming EARS Is Easy. LISTEN, 
MATCH and other commands have been 
added to BASIC so that programming 
EARS is a piece of cake! The single BASIC 
line: 10 LISTEN: MATCH will instruct 
EARS to listen to you and return the 
matching phrase. 

It Talks. EARS is also capable of high qual- 
ity speech. We mean REALLY high quality. 
The speech is a fixed vocabulary spoken 
by a professional announcer. Speech 
Systems is currently creating a library of 
thousands of high quality words and 
phrases. For a demonstration call (312) 
879-6844, you won't believe your ears or 
our EARS. 

DISK OWNERS. EARS will work with any 
disk system with either a MULTI-PAK or 
Y-CABLE. Our new Triple Y-CABLE was 
specifically developed for those wishing 
to add SUPER VOICE as a third device. 

You Get Everything You Need. You get ev- 
erything you need including a specially 
designed professional headset style noise 



cancelling microphone. The manual is 
easy to use and understand. Several 
demonstration examples are included so 
you don't have to write your own pro- 
grams unless you want to. EARS will work 
in any 32K or 64K Color Computer. 

SUPER VOICE $20 OFF 

Imagine talking to your computer and it 
talking back to you. When you need an 
unlimited vocabulary, you can't beat 
SUPER VOICE. For a limited time, we will 
give you the SUPER VOICE for $59.95 with 
your EARS purchase. Even if you already 
have another speech unit, here is your 
chance to buy the best and save $20. 

VOICE CONTROL 

Applications for EARS are astounding. 
Here is our first of many listening pro- 
grams to come. VOICE CONTROL is a 
program specifically designed to allow 
you to control any appliance in your 
house with your voice and our HOME 
COMMANDER (sold separately) or the 
Radio Shack Plug 'NT Power controller. 
For example, you can control your TV by 
saying "TV ON" or "TV OFF". . $24.95 





Dealer Inquiries 
Invited 



-/A 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6V4% sales tax 



Speech Sifstemd 

38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (TO ORDER) 




Beyond 

Charles Farris 

Utilizing the abilities of CoCo Max, 
Charles takes us into another world of 
dimensional arrays. Charles created 
this while serving in the United States 

Air Force. 



p 

R 
I 

t 





P 

R 
I 

Z 
I 



Oratory 

Michel Gravel 

From Sherbrooke, Ontario, Michel 
commences the gallery with this illus- 
tration of divinely inspired architecture 
created with basic. 





P 
R 
1 

Z 
E 



Truck 

Stephen Brink 

Truckin' on for third prize from St. Paul 
Minnesota is Stephen's conception of 
"CoCo Cruisin," created with CoCo 
Max. 



122 THE RAINBOW September 1986 




Independence Hall 

James Stewart 

Depicting one of America's historical 
edifices, James, who lives in Highland 
Falls, New York, used CoCo Max for 

this memorable creation. 




Robot 

Jamie Flamm 

Taking the patrons of the gallery into 
the sphere of automation, Jamie 
created this mechanical man with the 
use of basic from his hometown of 

Peabody, Massachusetts. 




n 



N 




E 



SHOWCASE YOUR BEST! 

You are invited to nominate original work for inclusion in 
upcoming showings of "CoCo Gallery." Share your crea- 
tions with the CoCo Community! 

Be sure to send a cover letter with your name, address and 
phone number, detailing how you created your picture (what 
programs you used, etc.) and how to display it. Also, please 
include a few facts about yourself. 

Don't send us anything owned by someone else; this 
means no game screens, digitized images from TV programs 
or material that's already been submitted elsewhere. A 
digitized copy of a picture that appears in a book or 
magazine is not an original work. 

We will award a first prize of $25, a second prize of $15 
and a third prize of $10. Honorable mentions will also be 
given. 

Jody Doyle, Curator 



inOEPEflOEJlCE 

HULL 

PMIA&IVMA. PA 






fed " 1' ■ 





The Knight 

Wayne Finlay 

Wayne, who lives in Scarborough, 
Ontario, used CoCo Max for his renais- 
sance of a robust knight in shining 
armor. 




Send your entry on either tape or disk to: 

CoCo Gallery 
THE RAINBOW 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 
Attn: Jody Doyle 



\ 



September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 23 



The monthly magazine that's reader-friendly 

If you're interested in the highly popular Model 100, the Tandy 200, the brand new portable Tandy 
600 or Tandy's new generation of MS-DOS computers — the 1000, 1200, 2000, or the exciting new 
Tandy 3000 — PCM is for you! 

-PCM, The Personal Computer Magazine for Tandy Computer Users, is brought to you by the same 
people who bring you THE RAINBOW, the premier magazine for the Color Computer, Need we say more? 

So, if you're ready to add portability or step up to MS-DOS, stay with Tandy and THE RAINBOW family 
by subscribing to PCM! 



FREE PROGRAMS! 



We learned from THE RAINBOW that readers want programs to type in , so each month we bring you 
an assortment of them, including games, utilities, business applications and graphics. 

BAR CODE, TOO! 

Also, PCM is the only computer publication in the world (that we know of) that brings you programs 
in bar code, ready to scan into memory with the sweep of a wandl 



TUTORIALS GALORE 

Add to this our regular tutorials on telecommunicating, hardware and machine language, as well 
as BASIC programming tips and product reviews, and we think you'll find we're one of the most 
informative and fun magazines on the market today. 

So if you're ready to add portability or step up to MS-DOS, stay with Tandy and THE RAINBOW family 
through PCM. 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call 800-847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. For other inquir- 
ies call 502-228-4492. 



YES! Please send me a one year (12 issues) 
subscription to PCM for only $28/ A savings of 22% 
off the newsstand price. 



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In order to hold down costs, we do not bill. 

□ My check in the amount of is enclosed. 

Charge to my: VISA MasterCard American Express 

Acct. # Expiration Date 

Signature 

Canadian subscribers U.S. $35. Surface rate elsewhere $64, airmail $85. Allow 6 to 8 weeks for first copy. Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax 
U.S. currency only, please. 

Mail to: PCM, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059 




TURN OF THE SCREW 



Let's Take a Look 
at the CoCo 2 B 



By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



This week I had the honor of 
repairing an old 'D' board Color 
Computer belonging to "KlSSa- 
ble OS-9" author Dale L. Puckett. 
Although there are a lot of old CoCos 
still out there, you can't get any more 
of them. Today, Radio Shack is ped- 
dling a CoCo with the letter in the 
catalog number. I don't know what the 
'B' stands for, but there are a few 
changes inside. I bought one at the Palo 
Alto RAINBOWfest. What I want to do 
here is explain some of the changes 
Radio Shack has made. 

The first thing I noticed when I 
opened the box is that it says Tandy on 
the computer and not Radio Shack. It 
also says Color Computer and not 
CoCo 2. This is the smallest PCB 
(Printed Circuit Board) I have seen for 
a CoCo. Small is good in many ways. 
First, it costs less to produce. It also has 
the least parts count of all the CoCos 
ever made. Not only is this good for 
production costs, it's also good for 
users. The lower the parts count in a 
computer, the less likely a breakdown. 
Then there is the question of heat; all 
electronic parts, whether digital or 
analog, dissipate heat. How many times 

Tony DiStefano is well-known as an 
early specialist in computer hardware 
projects. He lives in Laval Ouest, Que- 
bec. 



have you heard that the computer 
crashes when it is too hot? Fewer parts 
mean less heat. 

This computer does not have any 
regulated 12 volts, the same as the other 
CoCo 2s. There is no negative voltage 
available except on the SALT chip, 
which buffers and converts the RS-232 
signals. In theory, RS-232 specifies that 
the signal be +/-12 volts. This new 
CoCo 2 (and all other CoCo 2s) have 
only +/-5 volts. While this will work 
with most RS-232 devices, check the 
specifications to be sure. Again, as with 
the other CoCo 2s, there are about 12 
volts unregulated at the power diodes, 
which can be used for devices needing 
the voltage. The diodes are numbered 
D10 and Dl 1. Remember, the side with 
the white band is the positive side. 

The next interesting part in this CoCo 
2 B is a PIA (Peripheral Interface 
Adapter). The first CoCos had two 
PIAs of the same kind. They were both 
MC6821s by Motorola. The next stage 
of the CoCo had one MC6821 and one 
MC6822. This 6822 is called an IIA 
(Industrial Interface Adapter). There is 
just a small difference between the two. 
Now the second PIA in the CoCo 2 B 
is no longer an MC6822, but an 
SC67331P. It is a Motorola part, and 
compatible with the MC6822. The 
difference is in the impedance matching 
between the keyboard and the PIA — 



custom made for Tandy, no doubt. If 
you happen to destroy this part, a 
regular MC6822 will work. The key- 
board matrix is the same. 

As with the CoCo 2 A, there are six 
jumpers, Jl to J6. One of the jumpers 
is used to detect the presence of 64K 
memory RAM. The other five jumpers 
are labeled 64K/ 128K. A lot of people 
think that this means you can have 
128K of RAM. This is not true. Look 
again; there is only one place for ROM. 
Before, there were two sockets, one for 
the BASIC ROM and the other for the 
Extended BASIC ROM, each ROM 
being 8K long. A ROM's capacity is 
usually expressed in bits. In the CoCo, 
the data bus is eight bits wide. Therefore 
an 8K ROM has 8K times eight bits, 
giving you 64K bits. Starting to get the 
picture? Since there is only one place on 
the PCB for BASIC and Extended BASIC, 
a new chip with both 8K ROMs (or 64K 
bits) gives you 16K or, like the label 
says, 128K. 

If you bought the computer without 
Extended BASIC, you got a socket and 
an 8K ROM in a 28-pin package. The 
jumpers are set to the 64K position. If 
you bought an Extended BASIC ma- 
chine, you got a soldered-in 16K ROM 
with the jumpers set to the 128K side. 
In both cases you got a new version of 
BASIC, Version 1.3. If you have Ex- 
tended BASIC, then you only see the 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 125 







Pin 

r in 


f uncuun 


1 
1 


VJli L-^ 


z 


~ J V 


J 




A 




<s 

J 


rvv 


A 
u 


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7 


WF 

TV I— ( 


o 




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7 


Finn 


10 


DQ3 


11 


DQ2 


12 


GND 



Figure 1 



Extended BASIC Version, LI. To see the 
BASIC version type in EXEC 41175. 

To take this further, the two ROMs 
Tandy uses, 8K and 16K, are pin-for-pin 
compatible with two EPROM counter- 
parts. The 28-pin BASIC ROM is com- 
patible with the Intel 2764 EPROM. 
The 28-pin Extended BASIC ROM is 
compatible with the Intel 27128 
EPROM. Now you can see where the 
64K/ 128K numbers come from. If you 
have an EPROM programmer, modify 
these ROMs to suit yourself and plug 
them right in. Of course, if the ROM is 
soldered in, you will have to desolder it 
and put in a socket. Don't forget to 
change the jumpers to the right place. 
More on this later. 

The RAM portion is quite impres- 
sive. There are three ways to add 64K 
to this CoCo 2 B. If you have 16K of 
RAM on the computer, chances are the 
chips Tandy used are two 4416 RAM 
chips. These chips are 16K by four bits 
each. Since the CoCo needs eight bits, 
there are only two of these chips. These 
chips are in the two 18-pin sockets 
between the two white connectors. The 
first way to upgrade this 16K computer 
is to change these two chips for the 64K 
counter part. The number to this is 
4464. There are a lot of different 
numbers that are compatible with this 
chip. Just ask for a 4464, a 64K by four 
DRAM or an equivalent. 

With the computer turned off, re- 
move the two memory chips and install 
the two new ones. On the left side, there 
is a white box marked J6, jumper 6. You 
must solder a jumper across the two 
pins inside this box. This tells the 
software that there are 64K memory 
chips installed. That's all there is to it. 

The next way to upgrade is using the 
two white connectors. These connectors 
consist of all the lines necessary to 
connect 64K of memory. A small PCB 
will be necessary. The pinouts to the 
connectors are in Figure 1. 

There are two reasons why I'm not 
going into details on how to construct 
this piggyback board. The first is that 
it is available, fully assembled and 
tested, from CRC Inc. (514) 383-5293 
for a modest price, and the other reason 
is that there is a third method of up- 
grading this CoCo 2 B. 

If you have some 64K chips lying 
around gathering dust, you'll like the 
third way to upgrade. See all those holes 
filled with solder? Do you see the eight 
empty IC names soldermasked on the 
PCB? These eight blank areas are made 
for 64K memory chips. The regular run 



of the mill 4164s. All you have to do is 
add eight sockets and plug them right 
in. There is a small catch: The holes for 
these ICs are filled with solder. You 
must first empty the holes of their 
solder. You can use a device such as 
Radio Shack's desoldering pump (less 
than $20). Just heat up the hole to be 
cleaned with a hot soldering iron. Then 
bring the desoldering pump to the hole. 
Remove the iron, press the pump to the 
hole and press the pump button. Go 
through all the holes of each pin. It 
would be wise to solder in sockets, not 
the chips directly. On some boards, the 
eight decoupling capacitors are also 
missing. Insert eight .1 UF capacitors. 
As with any upgrade to 64K, don't 
forget to jumper the connections at J6. 
That's all there is to it. 

There are a few more changes in the 
CoCo 2 B. Until now, all CoCos used 
the Motorola MC6847 as a display 
processor. This is the chip that gives the 
text on the screen and all of the graphics 
modes. Text on the screen has been 
green with black letters. When typing in 
lowercase letters, they would appear as 
inversed blocks of black with green 
letters. The new chip that Tandy uses on 
this CoCo 2 B is slightly different. It is 
an MC6847T1. (This chip might also 
have the part #XC80652P.) This chip is 
different. It has built-in real lowercase 
characters and you can also get rid of 
that border in certain cases. This is a 
real nifty improvement to the CoCo's 
display. The only problem with this is 
that Extended BASIC will not let you use 
these added features. Next month, I'll 
get my soldering iron out and add a few 
switches to change the default values. 

The last change the good people at 
Tandy made was in the SAM (Synchro- 
nous Address Multiplexer). With all 




7 DQ6 

8 DQ5 

9 DQ7 

10 DQ4 

1 1 CAS 

12 GND 



these changes to memory, video and 
circuitry, a new SAM chip is needed. It 
is the SN74LS785. A Motorola part 
that is upward compatible with the old 
SN74LS783 or the MC6883. 

Back to the 28-pin ROM. Earlier, I 
mentioned that the ROM Tandy used is 
pin-for-pin compatible with an 
EPROM. A long time ago, a reader 
asked if there was a way to add a DOS 
chip inside the CoCo. Now there is. 
There are many ways to do this. Differ- 
ent people like to solder things together 
in different ways. I like the fastest and 
easiest way. Some people like to make 
it neat. The chip you must use is either 
a 2764 or a 27128. All of the address 
lines, data lines and power lines are the 
same. The only line that is different will 
be the chip select line. We'll get that line 
from another chip. The chip enable line 
on an EPROM is pins 20 and 22. These 
are the pins that must connect to the 
extra enable. The thing to do is connect 
all the pins except the two enable pins. 
Here is where some people differ. I used 
a 28-pin socket and soldered all the pins 
(except 20 and 22) to the 28-pin ROM. 
I bent pins 20 and 22 up and soldered 
them together, running a wire to Pin 12 
of the 74LS138. That's the easy way. 

Now, plug in the new EPROM and 
the cartridge area socket will be inside 
the CoCo. Some people don't like to 
solder directly to a ROM. Use a wire 
wrap socket and solder a second socket 
to the legs about halfway down. Cut 
pins 20 and 22 from the top socket. 
Solder these two pins to the 74LS138 
mentioned above. Plug the ROM into 
the lower socket and the EPROM into 
the upper socket. The same results 
happen, but it is neater. No soldered 
ROM, but it is also a little more trouble. 
Take your pick. 



126 THE RAINBOW September 1986 




azine Collection With . . . 



DISTINCTIVE, 
DURABLE 
RAINBOW BINDERS 



Each issue of THE RAINBOW is a vital resource that you 
will refer to again and again, to gain insights, to explore 
new areas of interest or simply to refresh your memory. So, 
you need to keep yo'ur copies of THE rainbow safe — in 
high-quality, vinyl binders that provide complete protec- 
tion. ' ' ; ".; 

These distinctive red binders not only ensure that your 
RAlNBOWs stay in mint condition, but they showcase your 
collection as well. Each binder is clearly embossed with the 



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spine. They're a handsome addition to any room. 

They also make it possible for you to organize your work 
space and eliminate the clutter on a permanent basis. You'll 
spend more time on your CoCo and eliminate those 
frustrating searches for misplaced magazines. 

A set of two handsome binders, which hold afull 12 issues 
of THE RAINBOW, is only $13.50 (please add $2.50 for 
shipping and handling). 



Special Discounts On Past Issues With This Offer 



To help you complete your collection of THE RAINBOW, 
we're offering a special discount on past issues with the 
purchase of one or more sets of binders. 

When you place an order for six or more back issues of 
THE RAINBOW at the same time you order your binders, you 
are entitled to $1 off each magazine, which normally sells 
for the single issue cover price. For an order form, please 
refer to our "Back Issue Information" page (check Table of 



Contents under departmental listings). Also with this offer, 
copies of the "Official And Compleat Index To THE 
RAINBOW" (a comprehensive index of rainbow's first three 
years, July 1981 through June 1984), usually priced at $2.50, 
may be purchased for only $1 with a set of binders. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you order back issues 
now while supplies last. 



a • • • a --• '» mSjft a. a . « l 



»».**. ..-iri ■»•••« 



• «•'<« a a a a * « « « • • • • • a>- a :*,t i i i ♦ a » 



YES. Please send me 



Set(s) Of RAINBOW binders at $13.50 per two- 



binder set (plus $2.50 per set for shipping and handling). If your order is to be sent via U.S. Mail 
to a post office box or to another country, please add $2. Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax. 
U.S. currency only, please. 

Order one or more sets of binders and take advantage of these exciting offers: 

I also want to take advantage of a special savings of $1 off the single issue cover price for back 
issues with the purchase of a set of binders. (Minimum order of 6 magazines. An order form from 
a recent issue indicating the back issues you wish to receive should accompany this order.) 

I want to purchase the first three-year index to the rainbow (July 1981 through June 1984) at 
the special price of $1 (regular price $2.50) with my purchase of one or more sets of binders. 



Name _ 
Address 
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Charge to: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

Account Number Expiration Date 

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Mail to: Rainbow Binders, The Falsoft Building, Prospect, KY 40059. 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call 800-847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. 

For other inquiries call 502-228-4492. 




THE NEW GENERATION 





WORD PROCESSOR 2.2 

TAPE OR DISK VERSION 

A feature packed program that turns your CoCo into an of- 
fice machine. Create and save letters and documents with the 
Word processor tailored for the NX- 10. 



COMPLETE NX-10 

PRINTER SYSTEM 



• 5K BUFFER • IMPROVED NLQ • QUAD HIGH & 
WIDE PRINTING • EXTENDED CHARACTER 
SETS • 10 INTERNATIONAL FONTS • IN-THE- 
CASE ADJUSTABLE TRACTOR • REVERSE 
LINE & FORM FEEDS • 120 CPS (DRAFT) 30 
CPS (LQ) • FONT CONTROL & MARGIN CON- 
TROL FROM CONTROL PANEL • 1 YEAR 
WARRANTY SERVICEABLE NATIONWIDE • 
AUTOMATIC LINE CENTERING • LEFT OR 
RIGHT HAND JUSTIFYING • SINGLE 
SHEET PAPER FEED • 7 GRAPHICS MODES 

COMPLETE SYSTEM 

NX-10 • BLUE STREAK II • SUPER GEMPRINT 
TYPE SELECTION/TUTORIAL • WORD PROCESSOR 2.2 



$309 95 



+ $10 Shipping 
and Insurance 



BLUE STREAK II 

SERIAL TO PARALLEL INTERFACE 



• RUN COCO I or II to PARALLEL PRINTER 

• HIGH QUALITY TOGGLE SWITCH ELIMINATES CABLE SWITCHING 

• 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 SWITCHABLE BAUD RATES 

• AC POWER OPTION AL-NOT NEEDED WITH NX-10 PRINTER 

• COMPLETE WITH ALL CABLES AND CONNECTORS 

• THRU-PUT EQUIVALENT TO . SHTPPTNP ' 
BUFFERED INTERFACES //TNfl * S4 5Himfgtj 

• 1 YEAR WARRANTY 



RAINBOW 



PAID! 





SUPER GEMPRINT 

CUSTOM SOFTWARE 



"Overall, Super Gemprint is very well- written and documented. 

—Rainbow December 84 review. 



BONUS! TYPE SELECTION/TUTORIAL PROGRAM 

FREE WITH SUPER GEMPRINT 

Menu driven program for the CoCo. Teaches and shows the new 



user the numerous features of the NX-10. 



SUPER GEMPRINT AND 

TYPE SELECTION/TUTORIAL PROGRAM 



$ 



17 



95 + $2 Shipping 
and Handling 



DAYTON ASS 



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RAINBOW REVIEW 




1986 Tax Estimate 

Fast and Convenient/ Try- O-Byte , 148 

Alphabetizing 

Improves Reading SMUs/ Aquarius People Materials, Inc. . , ... 135 

Bowling League Secretary 

Calculate Stats Easily/ Tomela *Co ♦ ^ , , . 141 

Casper CoCo Quick Assembler 

Ideal for Beginners/Ear/ W. Casper, , , , 137 

Eagle Lander 

Lunar Lander Si m u lation/Saguaro Software . > , , , . , , 1 34 

Hall of the King II: The Inner Chamber 

Graphics Adventure/ Prickly-Pear Software . , , * , , , , , . 1 40 

Kameleon 

Parallel Printer Interface/Spectrum Projects, inc. , . r , . .133 

Karate 

Lots (if Punches and Kicks/D/ecom . . ...... . . . > . . ...... .. . 145 

Math pack 

Simplifies Calculus/H.D.R Software 132 

Memory Minder 

Disk Drive Analysis/ J & M Systems . , + , . , : , * * ,144 

OS-9 Utilities 

Additional Power for OS-9/ The Other Guy's Software 1 46 

Plateau of the Past 

Swashbuckler of an Adventure/Zyfe/c, * 1 39 

Psycho I 

Analyze Perceptions/Lom/g + . + , . h + < . . .138 

Uninterrupted Power Source 

Prevents File Loss/Dynam/c Electronics Inc. . T 1 49 

Wico Command Control Trackball 

Beats a Joystick/Specfrum Projects, Inc. ♦ + * , . ♦ •■;.>,, .136 



More than a book 



A MILESTONE 




THE COMPLETE RAINBOW GUIDE 



is. The 




iso Available! 

*bow Guide To OS-9 Disk, An 3C 



□ Please send me The 

Complete Rainbow Guide To 
OS-9 for $19.95.* 



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Mail to: 

The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call 800-847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. 

For other inquiries call 502-228-4492. 

*Add $1.50 per book shipping and handling in U.S. Outside U.S. add $4 per book. Allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. KY residents 
add 5% sales tax. In order to hold down costs, we do not bill. ALL ORDERS IN U.S. FUNDS. 

OS-9 is a trademark of Microware Systems Corporation. 



RECEIVED & CERTIFIED 



THE FOLLOWING PRODUCTS have 
recently been received by the rainbow, examined by our 
magazine staff and approved for the Rainbow Seal of Certification, 
your assurance that we have seen the product and have ascertained 
that it is what it purports to be. 

This month the Seal of Certification has been issued to: 



Checkers, a 32K computer version of 
one of the most popular board games. 
This program is designed to give many 
hours of entertaining, instructive and 
challenging action to players with var- 
ied levels of skill. Applied Machine 
Intelligence, P.O. Box 358, Salida, CO 
81201, tape or disk $3.95 plus $.85 
S/H. 

Adventure Island, a 32K ML graphics 
Adventure. Your plane has crashed on 
a deserted island and you must use all 
your wits to stay alive. Half-screen 
picture graphics take you through 
jungle and beach. Comes on two disks. 
Ark Royal Games, P.O. Box 14806, 
Jacksonville, FL 32238, $23. 

LISTER, a machine language utility 
program. This print utility lists BASIC 
programs to the screen, printer or disk/ 
cassette files in an understandable 
manner. Included are spaces between 
keywords, hierarchical indentation of 
FOR/NEXT and IF/THEN/ELSE struc- 
tures making it easier to debug pro- 
grams. The program requires Extended 
Color BASIC and 16K. CMD Micro 
Computer Services Ltd., 10447 124th 
Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 
T5N IR7, $14.95 plus $2 S/H. 

Seikosha SP-1000A Dot Matrix Print- 
er, features a near-letter-quality mode 
as well as the standard data processing 
mode. Other features include italic font, 
front-panel control of margins, auto- 
matic paper ejection, a 1.5K buffer and 
95 user-definable characters. This print- 
er uses a nine-pin head and supports 
super- and subscripts. Paper can be fed 
to the printer by either the friction feed 
or the tractor feed mechanisms. Distrib- 
uted by Cinsoft, 2235 Losantiville 
Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45237, (513) 
396-7638, with interface $269, without 
interface $225. 



Mission: F-16 Assault, a 64K game 
requiring one joystick. Defeat the evil 
enemy forces by flying your F-16 jet 
fighter over enemy lines. Diecom Prod- 
ucts, 6715 Fifth Line, Milton, Ontario, 
Canada L9T2X8, tape or disk, $28.95 
U.S.; $38.95 Canada. 

Wall Street, a stock-market Simulation 
game requiring 16K Extended BASIC. 
Drayon Software, P.O. Box 25 16, Ren- 
ton, WA 90856, tape or disk $6. 

Map 'ti Zap, the layman's kit |pr disk 
repair. Map M Zap includes step-by- 
step instructions for repairing disk 
directories and granule tables. It also 
locates errgrsi maps out disk contents 
to p|iiiter jb| |qte|0-]backs up any 
flawed disk and prompts built-in disk 
zap f<$r repair. Duck Productions, 18 
Rowe Court, Brampton, Ontario, Can- 
ada, L6X 2S2, $19.95 U.S., $24.95 
Canada. 

Micro-Fire, a rapid-fire circuitry pack- 
age that can be added to any joystick. 
It features on/ off control and requires 
no extra power supply. Micro-Fire also 
has adjustable rate of fire. The preas- 
sembled hardware comes with a calibra- 
tion program listing and complete 
instructions. Duck Productions, 18 
Rowe Court, Brampton, Ontario, Can- 
ada L6X 2S2, $19.95 U.S.; $24.95 
Canada. 



Grafplot, a Color Computer high reso- 
lution data-graphing program that 
draws lines and/ or scatter plots of user 
data. Mistakes are easy to correct and 
revised graphs are drawn in seconds. 
Grafplot lets you go effortlessly from 
raw data to a printed graph of profes- 
sional quality. Hawkes Research Serv- 
ices, 859 Stanford Avenue, Oakland, 
CA 94608, tape $40, disk $45. 

Cybertank, a 64K real-time tank Sim- 
ulation. Penetrate deep into enemy 
territory with powerful intelligence- 
gathering devices and sophisticated 
armaments. Your survival depends on 
careful and effective management of 
resources as well as tactical decisions. 
Includes Hi-Res radar map and graph- 
ics screens. Mark Data Products, 24001 
Alicia Parkway #207, Mission Viejo, 
CA 92691, disk $27.95 plus $2 S/H. 

GRX-Dump, a graphics screen dump 
utility. The cassette is formatted for 
both 16K and 32K versions. Use with 
any printer that has bit-image graphics. 
Sigma Software, 14024 152nd Avenue 
S.E., Renton, WA 98056, $7.95. 

CoCo Kameleon, serial-to-parallel 
printer interface for the Color Compu- 
ter. Power is derived from the serial port 
and the printer data lines eliminating 
the need for external power source. 
Spectrum Projects, Inc., P.O. Box 
21272, Woodhaven, NY 11421, $49.95 
plus $3 S/H. 

Wico CoCo Trackball Command Con- 
trol, an input device designed to replace 
your CoCo joystick for games as well as 
other programs and applications. Spec- 
trum Projects, Inc., P.O. Box 21272, 
Woodhaven, NY 11421, $19.95 plus $3 
S/H. 



The Sea/ of Certification program 
is open to manufacturers of products for the 
Tandy Color Computer, regardless of whether they advertise in 

THE RAINBOW. 

; ; By awarding a Seal, the magazine certifies the product does 
exist — that we have examined it and have a sample copy — 
but this does not constitute any guarantee of satisfaction. 
As soon as possible, these hardware or software items 
will be forwarded to the rainbow's reviewers for evaluation. 

— Judi Hutchinson 



September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 131 



Software Review! 



Full-featured Mathpack 
Simplifies Calculus 

By John McCormick 

This is the first program I have seen that attempts to 
handle real calculus problems on the CoCo, and it does a 
fine job. 

The basic concept of numerically solving problems in 
integration isn't very complicated or new; it is shown in 
many BASIC text books. The most common is an implemen- 
tation of Simpson's Rule, which breaks the problem into 
many small steps and solves it piece by piece. 

The problem with Simpson's Rule is that a large number 
of calculations is required if you are trying to get an accurate 
answer, often 100 or more. 

Mathpack is written in BASIC, but the calculations are 
finished in a reasonable time. This program also does root 
finding along with Cartesian, polar and parametric 
graphing. 

When you get through the opening display and on to the 
main menu you find something interesting. The main menu 
is quite plain, with just a list of the program functions and 
none of the fancy art work that makes some programs more 
difficult to use by cluttering the screen. The really interesting 
part is the lettering; it is in true lowercase and quite easy 
to read. 



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The menu gives six options: Integration, Root Finding, 
Cartesian Grapher, Polar Grapher and Parametric Grapher 
along with End. 

I won't attempt to explain any of these functions in depth 
because the program is not aimed at beginning students but, 
rather, at teachers and students already familiar with 
elementary calculus. If the program is suitable for your 
needs you will know what parametric graphs are, so I will 
only describe how the program works. 

When you select Integration, you are first asked if the 
equation is a polynomial. If it is, there is a special procedure 
for entering the equation that will take a minute's study but 
really is quite simple. Essentially you just enter the 
coefficients of each term, using zero where appropriate, 
leaving out the 'X\ 

This is easier to learn than it sounds and the documen- 
tation uses several examples to demonstrate. The program 
leads you through this section one step at a time, using 
prompts. 

Polynomials are evaluated both analytically and using 
Simpson's Rule, and the results are displayed along with 
the actual difference and the percentage difference. 

I entered an equation of the 20th degree and Mathpack 
solved it with Simpson's Rule in about 45 seconds and 
analytically in a couple of seconds, with a difference of 
about 0.001 percent between the two answers. 

If your equation isn't a polynomial, you are asked to enter 
f(X). The example given in the documentation is sin(X) + 
exp(X). After entering the equation, you are asked for the 
start and end points to integrate across. This interval can 
be expressed as numbers or numerical expressions (e.g., 0, 
2, PI, log(2), etc.). 

You are then asked how many steps are to be used in the 
integration. I chose start:0, end:3 and 30 steps. The answer 
given was 21.0755411. 

I checked a number of functions and found the program 
to be quite accurate; it was also very fast. 

Back to polynomial expressions for a moment. This 
program isn't just for kidding around; you can enter a 



One- Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Enter the letter that appears on the screen as quickly 
as you can. 

The listing: 

0 CLS5 : T=3^3j3 : : PRINT§1 , "time" 
; :PRINT@21, "score"; :F0RA=1T0999 ; 
L=RND (2 6) +64 : P=RND (478) +32 : PRINT 
@P, CHR$ (L) ; :FORB=lT03pj31:I$=INKE 
Y$ : IFI$=" "THENT=T-1 : IFT=£JTHENPRI 
NT@32 , "" ; : ENDELSEPRINT@6 , T ; :NEXT 
B ELSEIFI$=CHR$ (L) THENS==S+1: PRIN 
T@27 , S ; : NEXTA ELSENEXTB 

Murk M, Breznai 
Lorain, OH 



* contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
>k of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 



: or this winning one- 
of both The Rainbo$ 
Simulations Tape.) 



1 32 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



polynomial expression with a maximum degree of fifty! 
Certainly enough to be useful. 

The root finding section of the program prompts you to 
enter f(X) and will find 'X' such that f(X) = 0. Again you 
are asked for a start and end number along with how many 
intervals to test over the entire range. You are also asked 
to select a maximum error. The maximum error can be made 
so small that the round off of numbers will cause the 
program to continue forever, so this section definitely 
requires some knowledge and understanding of the 
problem. 

Mathpack uses an interval-halving procedure to solve for 
zeros. Newton's Method is much faster but won't work with 
many functions, so Mathpack's programmer(s) chose to go 
with a slower but more useful method of solving these 
equations. 

Cartesian grapher took 50 seconds to solve x^2 + 2x + 
1 and graph about 250 points between x = 0 and 100. 

Cartesian, polar and parametric grapher all work: about 
the same way. The program requests you enter the appro- 
priate function, then asks for the range of numbers over 
which you want the equation graphed. 

The program starts solving the equation for a large 
number of points and then draws a simple line graph filling 
the entire screen. 

One nice touch I really liked was the display of a running 
count of the number of calculations being performed. This 
lets the user know the program is actually working during 
the wait for a solution. Since it shows a countdown, the user 
can also tell about how long the solution will take. You can 
decide at a glance whether to go for coffee, abort the 
solution, or just wait. 

In the parametric graph section you are asked for Y(T) 
in addition to X(T) and also asked whether you want the 
Y-scale to be the same as the X-scale; otherwise, the 
procedure is similar for all three graph sections. 

The Cartesian grapher preselects the number of intervals 
at 250, and the other two offer a choice of 10 to 300 steps. 

Mathpack comes with seven pages of documentation that 
are completely adequate to instruct any calculus user in the 
use of this program. The final page also includes an 
explanation of Simpson's Rule, interval-halving and some 
suggestions for equations that will produce interesting 
graphs. 

There is little onscreen help, other than the prompts, but, 
for all its advanced mathematics, this program is very easy 
to use and needs no further documentation than the few, 
easy-to-understand pages in the documentation. 

Mathpack performs accurate numerical solutions using 
Simpson's Rule and does sophisticated root finding, along 
with performing simple graphing of complicated equations. 
If I were studying or teaching calculus again, I wouldn't 
hesitate to buy a copy of this program. 

Mathpack is not a stand-alone program. You must have 
a copy of H.D.R. Software's Enhancer program ($18 U.S., 
disk or tape). This isn't a review of Enhancer, so I'll just 
say Enhancer contains a lot of nice utilities, including the 
lowercase driver. 

In addition to Enhancer, Mathpack requires a 64 K Color 
Computer with at least one disk drive. 

(H.D.R Software, 27 Doyle Street, St. John's, Nfld., 
Canada A1E 2N9, $21.95) 



Hardware ReviewSZESSSSSSESS^^SS^fZs 

Change Baud Rates 
with CoCo Kameleon 

> 

The CoCo Kameleon is a very small and compact serial- 
to-parallel printer interface for use with a CoCo and any 
parallel printer with a Centronics-compatible connector. 

This unit is housed in a small plastic box with a slide 
switch on one side to select either 600 or 9600 Baud. Two 
cables extend from each end. A round cable attaches to the 
CoCo's RS-232 port and is five feet long, while the flat 
ribbon cable which attaches to the printer's Centronics 
connector is about 20 inches long. Hookup is a snap; just 
plug it in and go. 

No external power is required, even when used with 
Epson printers. The use of low current drain electronic 
components enables power to be derived from the RS-232 
port and the printer's data lines. 

I hooked up the interface to my Gemini- 1 OX and used 
it to print out a couple of program listings at both of the 
available Baud rate settings. The unit worked perfectly at 
both speeds. The CoCo defaults to 600 Baud whenever you 
turn it on, so if you LL 1 5T a program in the 600 Baud switch 
setting everything works fine. If you want to print at 9600 
Baud, it's a simple matter to type POKE 150 , 1 and with the 
switch in the 9600 position everything works great. 

But what about speeds between these two extremes? It 
is a simple task to edit most BASIC programs to use 9600 
Baud by inserting the POKE 150,1 somewhere in the 
beginning of the program, but what do you do if the 
program is in machine language? ML programs can be 
modified to utilize the 9600 Baud speed, but it's a lot more 
difficult than it is in BASIC. 

I have several machine language programs with printer 
output speeds that are menu selectable from 600 to 2400 
Baud. Luckily, my interface has a switch that allows me to 
select 2400 Baud, and all the others if I ever need them. I 
make this point only because I feel there are times when 
Baud rates other than 600 and 9600 will be needed. I believe 
the price is too high considering its limitations. The wise 
CoCo shopper may discover better bargains. 

(Spectrum Projects, Inc., P.O. Box 21272, Woodhaven, NY 
11421, $49.95 plus $3 S/H) 

— Jerry Semones 



See You at 
RAINBOWfest-Princeton 
October 17-19 



SeptembeM986 THE RAINBOW 133 



Software Reweiv^^^^^^^^B/^N 

Eagle Lander 
is True to Life 

What is an Adventurer to do? After managing thousands 
of nuclear power plants, averting numerous air disasters and 
conquering many kingdoms, what is there left to do? 
Conquer the moon? That's exactly the task you are given 
as the owner of Saguaro Software's lunar lander Simulation 
entitled Eagle. 

The idea of a computer-simulated lunar landing is 
certainly not a new one. These simulations first appeared 
on computer networks that predate the CoCo by many 
years. The makers of Eagle, however, have taken the lunar 
lander idea quite a bit forward. Eagle is controlled with 
joysticks on the high resolution (PMODE 4) screen. The 
bottom portion of the screen plots the position of the craft, 
providing a graphics representation of the craft in flight. 
Meanwhile, the top portion of the screen provides the pilot 
with a host of instrumentation which reports such impor- 
tant data as relative position, altitude, horizontal and 
vertical airspeed, acceleration, percentage of rocket thrust, 
fuel remaining and time elapsed. All these indicators help 
the would-be pilot appreciate the difficulties involved in 
managing such a complex operation as a moonshot. 

The complexity increases as the craft approaches one of 
the two possible landing sites. Both horizontal and vertical 
airspeed must be brought down to near zero precisely when 



the craft is located in the proper position. This is an 
extremely difficult task, which requires many trials to 
achieve reasonable adeptness. To make life more dangerous, 
the user can "play damage control" by choosing the 
advanced difficulty level. It introduces such emergencies as 
fuel leaks, maneuvering problems and computer screen 
failures. These malfunctions provide extra challenges and 
require greater mastery of the craft's abilities to perform a 
successful landing. 

Other operational commands allow the user to adjust the 
attitude window for fine or coarse control of direction (a 
very important feature when trying to land), perform a fuel 
dump and predict future position based on present course 
and speed values. Using the latter command, the user may 
jump ahead in time and accept the predicted values and 
position just as if he had maintained the course for the 
prescribed time. All these functions add greatly to the 
playability of the Simulation (not to mention saving the 
keyboard from frustrated thrashings). 

Despite Eagle's complex nature, the user manual provides 
excellent insight and interpretation of the physics involved 
in an actual lunar landing and how the user can apply these 
to his advantage. The manual also accurately describes the 
command structure and flow of the game. The documen- 
tation is complete in every respect, including a guarantee 
to replace defective disks unloadable by the original owner. 

The author of Eagle, Art Martin, has done an excellent 
job in producing a realistic Simulation of a lunar landing. 
The Simulation is so true to life, in fact, a certain sense of 
"harsh reality" is incorporated into the program. This is not 
an easy-to-master Simulation, rather, it's a reflection of a 
technologically advanced procedure and requires consider- 
able practice to perform a successful landing. Therefore, this 
program is excellent for hardened game players who are 
looking for a considerable software challenge which won't 
sit on the shelf after the first few successful landings. 

(Saguaro Software, P.O. Box 1864, Telluride, CO 81435, 
$24.95 tape, $29.95 disk, requires 32K and two joysticks) 



TV PINNERS Co Co DlA/WEflS 




— Eric Oberle 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

According to Francois, rain is rare in Australia so 
he wrote this program to remind his children of what 
it looks and sounds like. 

The listing: 

J8 PCLEAR8 : F0RS=1T08 : PMODEJ3 , S : POL 
S : FORR=1TO10STEP2 : CIRCLE (12 6 , 94) 
,R*S :NEXTR, S : FORK=lTO10j3j30: FOR]> 
1T04 : POKE14J3 , 1/ajj+RND (15)3) : EXEC43 
3 45: PMODE 4 , I : SCREEN! , 1 i FORJ=lTOR 
ND(50) : NEXT J , I , K 

'•""< : s*jf-''"i' ' : , i ;•>;•.;■ A! yj- ■ 

Prancois^olk 
Australia 

(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



1 34 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



Software Review* 



Improve Reading Skills 
with A Iphabetizing 

When I received this program for review, it was obvious 
that it was aimed at two distinct markets — concerned 
parents and school systems. I am one of those two markets. 
I have two children, one too old for the product. What to 
do? I asked David (age 10) for help, and in true Tom Sawyer 
fashion he soon had every neighborhood child from age 3 
through second grade lined up for user testing of the 
program with himself as teacher. This review is a combined 
effort by him and his 4-year-old sister, with occasional 
comments by Dad. 

The catalog from Aquarius which came with this program 
mentions that it won the Topp Award, which implies a lot 
of respect for this approach within the educational 
establishment. This catalog also shows that the program is 
available on many other computers, and indicates this firm 
has an entire line of programs for nursery school through 
high school or college. 

The package includes a good set of teacher aid samples 
in a well-made ring binder. Any certified teacher would 
know all they needed to use the package except how to start 
the program on the computer. The program is in BASIC and 
that is not a major problem, but it did frustrate our young 
teacher. 

Alphabetizing, The Pathway to Reading uses random 
number generation to provide a new set of test material each 
run. At each run and at each level, the student indicates 
whether things are in correct alphabetical order. Sometimes 
a missing letter must be filled in, sometimes the letter before 
or after the letter shown must be stated. Sometimes a group 
of words is shown, and you must put them in order. There 
are many different games, each of which requires alphabet- 
izing. Some of these were a lot of fun, others were just 
normal school drills. 

The right answer gets a rainbow drawn on the screen, but 
a wrong answer gets a rain cloud. Lizzie (age 4), got bored 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

This one creates a moving sine wave by drawing 
eight pictures in different graphics areas.. 

The listing: 

63999 CLS5:PCLEAR8:F0RA==1T08:PM0 
DEj3 , A: PCLS : FORB=2T0252STEP2 : LINE 
(B,96-84*SIN( (B*45/32+A*45)/57 . 3 

) ) - ( B ,188 ) , PSET : NEXTB : SCREEN1 , 0 : 
N E XT A : F ORA= j3 TO 1 E 3 8 : PMO DE jd , ( 7 AN DA 
) +1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 : OC+4 : SOUND12 8+127 
*SIN (C/57 .3) ,1 : IFINKEY$<>" "THEN 
NEXTA ELSECLS : END 

Walter Pullen 
WA 



(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape .) 



more rapidly than with her Sesame Street programs. But 
she said to be sure to mention that she liked the game in 
which Snoopy lies on his dog house while she picks out 
letters. 

Our friends who came to help test this program enjoyed 
it and seemed to pick up speed as they used it. 

Dad had to run the printer. The program let me test the 
kids and then print out their answers. If I were a real teacher 
that would be a help. With only a few kids it isn't really 
needed, but it did make the kids feel like they had used an 
important program. One of them even took his test score 
home. 

This program is probably better suited for the school than 
the home because there is only a relatively short time span 
(one or two years) when the child is at just the right stage 
of development for the program. Earlier, the child gets 
distracted. Later, the child gets bored. That is probably a 
problem with most educational software, but it emphasizes 
why the program is better off in the school than in the home 
in this instance. 

Note that this criticism does not detract from the effort 
by Aquarius to have many different games at varying levels 
of difficulty in one program. The varying levels of difficulty, 
all built around drills that improve reading skills through 
alphabetizing, can probably be made very effective in the 
classroom. 

(Aquarius People Materials, Inc., P.O. Box 128, Indian 
Rocks Beach, FL 33535, $69) 

— Elizabeth and David Elman 




.- 



Keyboard Cover 
& Disc Marker 



Keyboard cover made of 
high-impact plastic that 
complements ^* 
your TRS-80 

• Keeps dust 
& unwanted 
fingers from your 
keyboard 

• Five-color 
decal inside, lists 
many helpful hints 
& programming 
information, inclu- 
ding keyboard memory locations „ s 

& baud rates 

• Fits all CoCo keyboard modifications we know of 

• $9.95 



RAINBOW 



Model I & III covers also available @$12.50 ea. 




DISC MARKER 
$1.49 

Send For Free Catalog Of CoCo Software & Computerware 
• For Fastest Service Send Money Order Or Certified Check 
• Add $2.50 Shipping For Continental U.S. 
• Add $4.00 Shipping For: AK, HI, APO's, P.O. Boxes, & Canada 
• Add $15.00 Shipping For Overseas 
• Add $3.00 For 220-250 Volt Model 
• California Residents Add 6 l A% Sales Tax 
• Add $3.00 For C.O.D. 



REM Industries, Inc. 

9420 "B"LurlineAve., Chatsworth, CA 9131 1 

(818) 341-3719 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 135 



Hardware ReviewSSS^^SSSSSSSS^^ 

Wico Command Control 
Trackball Takes 
the Punishment 

There must be an easier way to get a better score without 
causing serious harm to your trusty CoCo. We all tend to 
get carried away during the heat of battle, and this 
excitement is often transferred into "white knuckle" 
treatment of some relatively fragile plastic parts. 

It's only human nature to get excited during competition. 
Have you ever noticed that many commercial arcade games 
use a trackball control instead of a joystick? The action at 
these arcades often got so intense, the manufacturers had 
to find a more reliable alternative. Well, that alternative is 
available for the CoCo in the form of the Wico Command 
Control Trackball. 

This device replaces your joystick and is very rugged. It 
measures 5 by 6 by 1 % inches and weighs a little over one 
pound. It uses, of all things, a billiard ball as the primary 
user interface. A f irebutton is located at the upper left corner 
on top so it's easy to get to with your left thumb. If you 
want to put it on your computer table, it won't slide around 
easily because it has flat rubber feet on the bottom. It does 
require a separate power source, which is included in the 
form of a plug-in wall transformer. The other cable 



terminates in a standard five-pin DIN plug to fit the CoCo 
joystick connector. 

Operation is simple. You get full 360 degree movement 
by just moving the ball with fingers or palm. It's easy to 
use and allows controlled movement by simply moving the 
ball fast or slow. It's a unique feeling and one you have to 
experience to fully appreciate. I tried it on several games 
and was able to get higher scores than I could with my 
joystick. I also used it with CoCo Max and liked the smooth 
feel and easy positioning of the cursor. The only drawback 
I noticed on CoCo Max was it took longer to go from the 
workspace to the menu due to the vernier action of the 
device. 

The device boasts the use of a microprocessor control 
circuit using photosensors and a built-in analog-to-digital 
convenor with an eight-bit output. Since the CoCo only has 
a six-bit joystick port, that probably explains some slight 
positioning errors with programs like CoCo Max. Wico is 
aware of this problem and even discusses it in the instruction 
booklet. 

This device is best suited for CoCo games, although it 
will most certainly provide excellent service in other 
programs normally requiring a joystick. 

Wico guarantees the Command Control for one year 
which attests to its durability. This device can take all the 
punishment you can give it — so bring on the Klingons! 

(Spectrum Projects, Inc., P.O. Box 21272, Woodhaven, NY 
11421,519.95 plus $3 S/H) 

— Jerry Semones 




VISA 



DERBY CITY TECHNOLOGIES 

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2764 Eprom -28 pins - CMOS-250ns, 90 Day Guarantee!. . . $ 7.00 




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There is no better Eprom programmer for the CoCo. 
UNIVERSAL MONITOR DRIVERS 



These monitor drivers are truly "universal"! All Drivers work w/any 
color or monochrome monitor & work with EVERY model CoCo! 

V.D.I — For monitors that have sound already $29.00 

V. D. 2 — Adds sound to monitors without sound . , $29.00 

V.D.3 — Drives color & monochrome simultaneously I $29.00 

The V.D.x Drivers come with full instruct "is for every model of 
the CoCo, Installation does not require soldering. All V.D.x 
Drivers come with a full one year warranty! 

PRINTER INTERFACE with 64K BUFFER 

DCT-1 -64K Serial to Parallel lnterface/64K Buffer $99.95 

The DCT-1 is baud selectable for 300 to 9600 baud rates. The 
DC-1 is a 7 or 8 bit — Centronics compatible interface. 

DCT-2-64K Serial to SeriaI-64K Buffer $84.95 

The DCT-2 is designed to fit in between the CoCo and a serial to 
parallel interface. Why buy another interface when you already 
have one? Also designed to work with all Radio Shack serial 
printers. 

NOTE. Both of the above come with switches for "Pause Print" , 
"Repeat Print" and "Clear Buffer". No more waiting for the 
printer to finish printing! Full two year warranty! Compare ours 
with the others! 

SWITCHES, CABLES & MISC. 

RS-232c 2-Position Switch $29.00 

All four lines are connected in this switch which allows all auto 
dial/answer modems to function correctly! Comes with a full 
one year warranty! 

40 pin Dual "Y" Cable $29.00 



3025 Kozy Kreek Drive, Louisville, Kentucky 
All orders $3 shipping & handling. KY residents add 5% sales tax. COD(add $2)/VISA/MasterCard/Cash 




136 



THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



Software R e vie /^\ 

Casper CoCo Quick 
Assembler: Ideal 
for Beginners 

Casper CoCo Quick Assembler is a fast combination of 
monitor, editor, assembler and debugger. To get this extra 
speed, the editor looks up the symbols and opcodes and 
saves indexes into tables instead of characters. The program 
comes with both a 32K version and a 64K version. The 64K 
version places the machine language portion of the program 
and your source code file in high RAM leaving most of low 
RAM for your machine language program. I like this 
program but there is good news and bad news. 

First the good news. This is a delightful program. It is 
easy to learn and easy to use, ideal for a beginner. The BASIC 
loader boots the system and sets certain parameters. From 
this portion of the program you can save and load source 
code files and machine language files. The program can 
create its own backup copy onto a blank disk. From this 
part of the program simply press l M' to go to the monitor. 

The monitor-debugger is also the command level. It is 
here you perform most operations. You can examine and 
change memory, assemble source code, print out source 
code or object code, set up to eight breakpoints, search up 
or down through source code for a target string, execute 
machine code and view the registers as you go. You can 
scroll up or down through the source file line by line. 
Numbers can be displayed in hexadecimal or decimal. 

The screen used by the program is different from the text 
screen. You can view the usual text screen at any time. Block 
move, block copy, block delete and block print can be 
performed on the source file. You can ask for the number 
of the line you are in, and you can jump to any line in the 
source file by entering the appropriate line number. When 
executing machine code, you can walk through the program 
one line at a time, a number of lines at a time, or execute 



until you reach a breakpoint or a certain number of 
breakpoints. 

The editor is where you type in the source code. You can 
edit, insert and delete lines of code or simply scroll up or 
down one line at a time. If you enter an improper opcode 
or an obvious syntax error, the program alerts you with a 
beep. 

The assembler is activated from the monitor. If an error 
is encountered, the monitor jumps to the problem line for 
debugging. 

Now for the bad news. I had a lot of trouble booting this 
program. On my old (gray) 'D' board 64K CoCo I get an 
error message. Typing RUN over again solves the problem 
for this old CoCo. On the newer (white) 64K CoCo 2 the 
computer hangs up completely. I managed to get the 32K 
version to run on the 64K CoCo 2 by resetting the computer 
and then typing RUN again. I suspect that this is a minor 
problem with the BASIC loader and may be corrected in 
future versions. 

Another problem in the BASIC loader is the printer Baud 
rate. The manual suggests that you can set the Baud rate 
in Line 50 of the loader. After having some trouble with the 
printer, I discovered that the Baud rate had already been 
set at 9600, (easy enough to fix once found). 

The manual is not clear enough in explaining how to save 
machine code once it has been assembled. Also unexplained 
is the Load command. This command lets you load machine 
language into memory. However, there seems to be no way 
to access it. The program deals only with source code and 
machine code that has just been assembled from source 
code, not machine language files. There is no disassembler 
in this program. This means that you cannot examine 
machine language portions of memory (such as the basic 
ROM) in terms of assembly language. Advanced users may 
find this a drawback. 

Except for the bugs I have mentioned, however, this is 
a good program and has a reasonable price. 

(Earl W. Casper, 6012 S. 14 Place, Phoenix, AZ 85040, $20) 

— James Ventling 



Two-Liner Contest Winner > , < 

And they're off! Pick a horse to win out of a field 
of seven. If you press ENTER when they are at the line, 
the horses will run. You and your friends can then pick 
the horse you want. 

The listing: 

J3 POKE65495,J3:DIMH(20,20) :PMODE3 
, 1 : PCLS : DRAW"BMlj3j3 , 99U8R1J3U6R8D4 
L2 Dlj3 L4U3 L8 D3 L4 " : GET ( 9j3,83)-(121 
, 101 ) , H, G : PCLS : SCREEN1 , J3 : FORX=lT 
Ol91STEP27:PUT(j3,X) -(31,X+18) ,H, 
PSET : U-U+l : P (U) =X : NEXTX : DRAW"C3 11 
:LINE(240,0)-(255,191) ,PSET,BF:E 
XEC445 3 ii : PLAY " O 3 LI 8CL4F 11 



1 F0RX^lTO7:M(X)==M(X)+RND(lj3) :PU 
T(M(X) ,P(X) )«(M(X)+31,P(X)+18) ,H 
, PSET : IFPPOINT (M (X) +3 3 , P (X) +9 ) <> 
lTHENPLAY^OSLHSCDDEFFGAAB 1 ' : FORT 
=lT01j3 : PUT(M (X) , P (X) ) - (M(X) +31, P 
(X)+18) , H, PRESET: PUT (M(X) , P ( X) )- 
(M(X)+31,P(X)+18) , H , PSET : NEXTT : E 
XEC44539 : RUNE LSENEXTX: GOTO! 

Mike Cooney 
Mansfield, OH 



(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Sim ulations Tape. ) 



September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 37 




Software Review* 



PROGRAMS • PERIPHERALS • SUPPLIES • SERVICE 




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Parallel printer $225. 
with Metric Industries Model 104 interface $269. 00 

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LATEST VERSION 
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Max Edit 19.95 
Picture disks 
available 



deluxe joystick 



EXCELLENT FOR COLOR COMPUTER 
USE IT FOR GRAPHICS, GAMES, ETC. 

CoCo owners will appreciate this high quality, 
durable joystick. Open gimbal design ... self- 
centering or free-floating operation. Mechanical 
trims on both axes ... eight foot cable ... firing 
button has lifetime 5,000,000 presses. A two- 
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SHIPPING will be charged at our ACTUAL COST 
Oh>o residents add 5 V , Sales Ta» COD add 2 00 



Analyze Perceptions 
with Psycho I 



In spite of the name, you don't have to be afraid to use 
Psycho I. Using a loose interpretation, this program could 
be called a game, but it has more possiblities than being just 
a game. In a school setting it would be a fun way for school 
psychologists to learn more about the perceptions of their 
students. I had an enjoyable time going through the 
programs and seeing my reaction time or accuracy in 
remembering shapes. 

The collection of programs sold as Psycho I is a series 
of eight programs created as classical exercises for the 
psychological laboratory. The programs are Illusion, which 
measures the strength of three illusions (Muller-Lyer, Opel- 
Kundt, Helmholtz); Observer, which are exercises to test 
observation skills; Reaction, which measures visual and 
auditory stimuli; Pyramide, where you find the solution to 
a pyramid puzzle by trial and error; Series, where you find, 
by logic, the permutations of five numbers; Memoire, in 
which you memorize numbers and letters; Optiques, where 
you draw impossible and reversible figures on the screen; 
and Fechner, for drawing G.T. Fechner's picture on paper. 

The program and documentation are written in three 
languages: French, Spanish and English. You choose which 
language to use when first starting the program. Each of 
the programs is self-explanatory, giving plenty of informa- 
tion in order to run the program and to interpret its results. 
The BREAK key has been disabled, so in order to get out 
of programs, press the slash (/) key. You could also press 
the Reset key, which gives a warm start and returns you to 

BASIC. 

The directions and helps are easy to understand, except 
in the back of the manual where each program is explained. 
There, things are explained in each language, but it is not 
organized to differentiate between the languages, and it 
took me a while to see that the explanations started in 
French, then were in Spanish, with the last lines in English. 
The English documentation in the manual and the expla- 
nations and instructions in the program were filled with 
spelling errors. They were not the kind that made things 
hard to understand, but were an annoyance. 

The programs are well-done and interesting, as well as 
useful in determining children's aptitudes for abstract 
thought. The graphics and layout of the programs were 
excellent. I think the tests or exercises would be fun for 
children. Since so many standardized tests have sections for 
abstract thought, these programs may even be useful to 
familiarize children with this type of thinking activity. 



(Lomiq, c p 105, Succursale A, Jonquiere, Quebec, Canada 
G7X 7V8, 64K required, one disk, $34 U.S., $45 Can.) 



— Thomas E. Nedreberg 



1 38 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



Software fleWeiv^^^SSS^S^^^SS^^/^N 



Innovative Plateau of the 
Past is a Swashbuckler 

After many years and many Adventures, it would take 
something uncommon to really stir my interest. Not just 
another dragon to slay, another cave to explore, another 
300K monstrosity, but . . . well, something different that 
could really offer an interesting challenge. Something new. 

Enter Plateau of the Past — just the thing to whet your 
whip-cracking appetite. 

Almost as soon as you begin Plateau, you will be 
reminded of Indiana Jones. Rather than a classic text or 
a modern graphics Adventure alone, this Adventure 
combines a little of both. A dash of animation and a 
separate fight screen help add to the challenge and the 
difference of Plateau. This is not an easy Adventure to solve! 
One nice feature of this program is that authors Chuck Jager 
and Jim O'Keefe have waxed philosophical, and the text 
and gravestones have interesting sayings. Death, my dear 
fellow Adventurers, is no longer boring! 

The program is composed of three major components 
plus start-up routines and so forth. They are the text 
window, generally the lower half of the screen, and the map 
window, a Hi-Res 2-inch by 2-inch area in the upper center 
of the screen. The map window reads like a map from above, 
but displays the moves of the characters in the Adventure, 
as well as your progress, major events and confronted 
meanies. The third screen is the fight screen. It pits you 
against the enemies, displays your and their attributes and 
describes the fights with blow-by-blow descriptions. Fights 
are resolved when one side's stamina has dropped to zero. 

Several things make the game smoother and more 
enjoyable. These include the compass that charts your 
progress; being able to check your ability, stamina and luck; 
selecting and reviewing your weapons; and even the 
opportunity to eat. The documentation is well-written and 
clear and tells you all you need to know. The rest is up to 
you and fate, because luck plays a large part in Plateau of 
the Past. 

Good as it is, I found several drawbacks to Plateau. First, 
there is no game-save feature. It could be argued that one 
is not necessary, however, a save routine would have been 
a nice extra. Second, you must restart the entire Adventure 
each time you die. This is tedious, and a shortcut (save 
routine) would have come in handy. Third, the fight 
routines, while being creative and well-represented, are 
somewhat reminiscent of the sound effects portrayed on- 
screen in the Batman television series. Substituting graphics 
here instead of words would make worlds of difference. A 
slightly larger map window would have been better, too. 

All of these are minor points, however, when considering 
this extremely well-written, well-presented, innovative 
Adventure program. Plateau of the Past is a good, rollicking 
swashbuckler of an Adventure to keep even Indiana Jones 
proteges happy for a long time! 

(Zytek, Ltd., P.O. Box 701, Blue Island, IL 60406, 32K disk 
only $26.95 plus $2 S/H) 

— Jeffrey S. Parker 




Back copies of many issues of the 
rainbow are still available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue 
cover price. In addition, there is a $3.50 
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There is a $5 charge for the first issue, 
plus a $1 charge for each additional issue 
on orders sent by U.S. Mail. UPS will not 
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Issues July 1981 through June 1982 
are available on white paper in a reprint 
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September 1986 THE RAINBOW 1 39 



BACK ISSUE ORDER FORM 

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Software Review* 



7£\ 



A Winner — Hall of the 
King II: The Inner Chamber 



Prickly-Pear Software has come up with another winner 
for CoCo Adventure addicts. Sequels seem to be the "in" 
thing lately, and Glen Dahlgren has created a very good one. 
Hall of the King II: The Inner Chamber begins another 
quest for the legendary Earthstone. You do not need to be 
familiar with the original Hall of the King, but after going 
through these two disks you may want to check out the 
original. 

Yes, this is another two-disk graphics Adventure. The 
detail in the graphics is very well done. Be ready to make 
a detailed map of the many areas of the Adventure; you'll 
need it. The difficulty level is intermediate leaning toward 
advanced, mainly due to the length of the Adventure. You 
should plan on being tied up for a while with the CoCo. 
It is often hard to review an Adventure without giving away 
the best parts. Do not overlook anything. All I will say is 
that there is a clue in the first paragraph of this review. 

No matter how good an Adventure, or any program, 
there is always someone who thinks it can be improved. The 
game has a save and load feature, but it will only save one 
game at a time. There is a way to get around this, but I would 
like to see a multigame save feature, if there is room on the 
disks. The only way to save more than one game is to back 
up the disks and save different games on different disks. 

The Adventure requires 64K and one or two disk drives. 
I have two drives, but found I liked to know which disk 
was being used, so I used only one drive. If you have double- 
sided drives configured so that each side is accessed as a 
different drive, you can back up each game disk to opposite 
sides of one working disk. Prickly-Pear suggests you only 
use the backups and store the originals in a safe place. 

While the documentation is not extensive, it is adequate. 1 
Like most other Adventures, all you need is a little 
information to start. You get all the rest from the Adventure 
itself. The packaging is standard for Prickly-Pear, with a 
vinyl container giving a compact, safe place to store the 
original. This is the third two-disk Adventure from Prickly- 
Pear, and while I have not seen Hall of the King, I know 
the other two are very well-done. With this type of software 
and support, the CoCo will be around for a long time. 

(Prickly-Pear Software, 2640 N. Conestoga Ave., Tucson, 
AZ 85749, two disks $39.95 plus $1.50 S/H) 

— Dale Shell 



See You at 
RAINBOWfest-Princeton 
October 17-19 



140 



THE RAINBOW September 1986 



Software ffewewMM^^^^w/^ 

Bowling League Secretary- 
Makes Calculating Stats Easy 

Aside from the computer hobbyist, most of us buy 
computers to ease the chores of modern living. One such 
chore is the collection and maintenance of data associated 
with a particular function such as a club roster. However, 
the standard database programs are not always easily 
adapted to the chore to be done — in this case the data 
management of one of America's favorite pastimes, 
bowling. 

With the introduction of Bowling League Secretary from 
Tomela*Co, we should soon see CoCos popping up all over 
bowling land. Will it take over the local bowling alley? 
Maybe not. But at least the poor bowling league secretary, 
who spends many hours each week calculating team 
standings and other bowling statistics, will now have more 
time for other things. 

When Bowling League Secretary arrived for review, 1 was 
somewhat hesitant to do the review since I am not a bowler. 
But, this program is just a very specialized database 
manager. Having had considerable experience with data- 
base programs, all I needed was the "technical" know-how 
of what a bowling league secretary does. As it turns out, 
my boss is a real bowling aficionado who has served several 
years as secretary for a local bowling league. He was quite 
impressed with this BASIC program which keeps track of all 
bowling records for a league. 

Bowling League Secretary is a well-organized menu- 
driven program with very good documentation. The 
program is almost self-documenting, with many screens 
describing what is expected from the user. Using the 
program is easy because it follows a very logical progres- 
sion. You start by defining the league, then each team in 
the league and finally the members of each team. In 
addition, information such as the number of games per 
night, and the number of blinds and handicaps allowed by 
the league are to be entered. Once this information has been 
entered, you are ready for the bowling season! 

Each week, the league secretary must record the scores 
for each player for the number of games played that night. . 
When all of the scores are entered, the CoCo takes over and 
produces five weekly reports. The first is weekly scores by 
player which lists all bowlers alphabetically, and shows the 
current week's scores for the three-game series and the 
average for the night, as well as a summary of the season 
to date of high game, high series, total pins, and cumulative 
average. 

The second report is a team standings and high scores 
summary report which shows team standings, individual 
high scores and team high scores. The individual high scores 
section of the report shows the average, high game and high 
series for the leading player of each team. The team high 
scores section shows high game and high series for each 
team. The individual averages report lists, by team, the 
cumulative game average and total pins for all players in 
the league. The team data listing report shows, for the team, 
total pins for each game played in the evening as well as 
high game, high series, and total pins. The player data listing 



is an alphabetical listing of players showing total games 
played, total pins, game average, high game and high series. 

The preparation of these reports takes many hours of 
work when done by hand, even with a calculator. With 
Bowling League Secretary and a CoCo you end up with a 
weekly set of reports neatly printed in much less time. 

One particularly nice feature of the program is what the 
author refers to as disaster recovery. It maintains a backup 
feature that contains the final results for the previous week. 
If you happen to do something wrong while entering the 
new data, or have a power failure, etc., select disaster 
recovery and you'll have all the data back except for the 
current week. This is an excellent feature. 

Bowling League Secretary is a well-planned program 
which does what it was designed to do. As with any piece 
of software, there are areas for improvement. Unless 1 have 
missed something, my expert claims there is one very 
important report it does not produce. It is my understanding 
that the league secretary prepares, at the end of a season, 
a final tally sheet for each player. This report contains all 
of the scores accumulated each week by the player and gives 
a final cumulative game average, high game and high series. 
Such a report should be added to the program. 

The reporting capability is nicely done. The author has 
taken the time to produce neat and attractive reports. 
However, these reports are designed for a Gemini 10X 
printer and make use of special features of the Gemini using 
CHR$ codes. The codes would not work on my printer. 
Fortunately, the author provides an appendix that docu- 
ments all of the BASIC lines containing printer codes. Those 
with different printers will have to change these codes. In 
my case, I simply removed all of the codes and had no 
problem. 

I would strongly recommend Bowling League Secretary 
to all those volunteer league secretaries who maintain league 
records. 

(TomeIa*Co, P.O. Box 2162, Doylestown, PA 18901, $49.95 
disk only) 

— Donald D. Dollberg 



One- Liner Contest Winner » . . 

Enter a message and use the space bar to stop and 
start it as it scrolls across the screen. When stopped, 
its PRINT© location will be in the upper-right corner 
of the screen. 

The listing: 

10 CLS : INPUT 11 ENTER PHRASE" ;A$ : FO 
RX=1T04 8 ft : Y=X : CLS : PRINT@X , A$ ; : FO 
RZ=lTO10j3:NEXTZ:IFINKEY$=" "GOTO 
20 ELSE IF X>=48J3 THEN X=l ELSE 
NEXT X 

20 PRINT@27,Y:IF INKEY$<>" "THEN 
GOTO20 ELSE NEXTX 

Daniel Bisbee 
Chesterfield, MA 

(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



September1986 THE RAINBOW 141 



HI-RES II SCREEN COMMANDER 

Are you tired of looking at the 16 line by 32 character display on 
your CoCo? Do you wish you could see more lines and characters? 
Then HI-RES II is the answer, it can give you the big screen display 
you've always wanted. It will display 24 lines of 32, 42, 5 1 , 64 and 
even 85 true upper and lower case characters per line without any 
hardware modifications. 

HI-RES II is the most powerful screen enhancement package 
available for the Color Computer, yet it is the least expensive. It is 
completely compatible and transparent to Basic. Once the program 
is loaded, everything works the same as before, only you have a 
much better display to work with. It even allows you to have mixed 
text and Hi-resolution graphics on the same screen or have separate 
text and graphics screens. It also has an adjustable automatic key 
repeat feature and allows you to protect up to 23 lines on the 
screen. HI-RES II features over 30 special control code functions 
that allow you to change characters per line, protect display lines, 
change background color, position cursor, switch normal/reverse 
video, underline, double size characters, erase line/screen/to end of 
screen, home cursor, character highlight and much more. It works 
on all models of the CoCo with 16, 32 or 64K and provides 
automatic reset control so HI-RES II won't disappear when you 
press reset. 

Only $24.95 for Tape and $29.95 for Disk 

EDTIASM 64D 

64K DISK EDITOR ASSEMBLER w/DEBUG 

EDT/ASM 64D is a Disk based co-resident Text Editor & 
Assembler. It has a Hi-Resolution 51 , 64 or 85 column by 24 line 
display, so you see your program listings easily. It also supports the 
PBJ 80 Column Word-Pak cards. The disk also contains a free 
standing Machine Language Debug Monitor, to help you debug 
your assembled programs. 

The Editor in EDT/ASM 64D is the most powerful 1, easy to use 
Text Editor available in any Editor/ Assembler package for the Color 
Computer. It even has automatic line number generation for easy 
entry of program material. Some of it's features include: 

t> Local and Global string search and/or replace. 

c> Full screen line editing with immediate line update. 

c> Easy to use Single keystroke editing commands. 

c> Load & Save standard ASCII formatted Tape/Disk files. 

<& Move or Copy single & multiple text lines. 

<c> Create and Edit disk files larger than memory. 

0- Hi-Res Text Display 28 to 85 columns by 24 lines. 

<r> Supports the PBJ 80 Column cards Word-Pak I & II. 

The Assembler portion of EDT/ASM 64D is the part that creates 
the Machine Language program. It processes the source file(s) 
created or edited by the text editor and creates a LOADM or 
CLOADM binary file on either Disk or Tape. Using library files you 
can assemble an unlimited size file, using several different disk 
drives. 

<r> Supports conditional IF/THEN/ELSE assembly. 
c> Supports Disk Library files (include). 
ir> Supports standard motorola assembler directives 
<c> Allows multiple values for FDB & FCB directives. 
<r> Generates listings to Hi-Res text screen or printer. 
<c> Assembles directly to disk or tape in LOADM format. 
<&■ Supports up to 9 open disk files during assembly. 
<r> Allows assembly from editor buffer, Disk or both. 
<r> Full description text error messages. 

DEBUG is a free standing program debugger which provides all 
the functions supported by most system monitors. Some of them 
include: 

<c> Examine and change the contents of memory. 
O Set and display up to 10 breakpoints in memory. 
<r> Remove single or multiple breakpoints. 

Display/Change processor register contents. 
<& Dump Memory in Hex and ASCII format. 
<& Fill Memory range with a specified data pattern. 
<& Move a block of memory. 
c> Search memory range for data pattern. 
<r> Disassemble memory into op-code format. 

Requires 32K and Disk $59.00 



"The Source" 

Now you can easily Disassemble Color Computer machine lan- 
guage programs directly from disk and generate beautiful, Assemb- 
ler Source Code for a fraction of the cost of other Disassembler/ 
Source generator programs. And, the Source has all the features 
your looking for in a Disassembler. 

Automatic Label generation. 
t> Allows specifying FCB, FCC and FDB areas. 
<& Save, Load and Edit FCB, FCC, and FDB map on Disk. 
t> Disassembles programs directly from Disk 
<& Output complete Disassembled listing with labels to the Printer, 
Screen or both. 

<r> Generates Assembler compatible source files directly to disk. 

ir> Generated source files are in standard ASCII format. 

<& Built in Hex/ ASCII dump/display to locate FCB, FCC and FDB 

areas in a program. 
z? Built in Disk Directory and Kill file commands. 
c> Menu display with single key commands for smooth, Easy, 

almost foolproof operation. 
c> Written in fast machine language, one of the quickest and 

easiest to use Disassemblers available. 

Requires 32K and Disk $34.95 

TEXTPRO III 
"The Advanced Word Processing System" 

<& 9 Hi-Resolution Display Formats from 28 to 255 columns by 24 
lines. 

ir> True Upper and Lower Case display format. 
ir> Three Different Programmable Header lines, re-definable at 
anytime. 

ir> Programmable Footer line & Automatic Footnote System. 
<& 10 Programmable Tab stops & 7 Tab Function Commands. 
<r> Automatic Line Justification, Centering, Flush left and Flush 
right. 

ir> On screen display of underlining and Double size characters. 
<& Change indents, margins, line length, etc. at anytime in a 
document. 

<& Create and Edit files larger than memory, up to the size of a 
full disk. 

ir> Easily imbed any number of format and control codes for 
printers. 

<r> Automatic Memory sense 16-64K with up to 48K of 
workspace. 

ir> Typist Friendly line and Command format entry w/ auto key 
repeat. 

<r> Fully supports the use of 80 column hardware cards. 
TEXTPRO III is an advanced word processing system designed 
for speed, flexability and extensive document processing. It is not 
like most of the other word processing programs available for the 
Color Computer. If you are looking for a simple word processor to 
write letters or other short documents, then most likely you'll be 
better off with one of the other word processors. But, if you want a 
powerful word processing program with extensive document 
formatting features to handle large documents, term papers, man- 
uals, complex formating problems and letter writing, then TEX- 
TPRO is what your looking for. TEXTPRO works in a totally 
different way than most word processing programs. It uses simple 2 
character abbreviations of words or phrases for commands and 
formatting information that you imbed directly in your text. There 
are over 50 different formating commands you can use without ever 
leaving the text your working on. There are no time comsuming, 
and often furstrating menu chases, you are in total control at all 
times. The formatted output can be displayed directly on the screen, 
showing you exactly what your printed document will look like 
before a single word is ever printed. This includes margins, head- 
ers, footers, page numbers, page breaks, underlining, column 
formating and full justification. 

Disk $59.95 Tape $49.95 

To order products by mail, send check or money order for the amount of 
purchase, plus $3.00 for shipping & handling to the address below. 

To order by VISA, MASTERCARD or C.O.D. call us at the 
number listed below (Monday thru Saturday, 8am to 5pm PST). 

CER-COMP 
5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 
S (702) 452-0632 ST 



DISK 

$ 44.95 



Introducing The "Super Smart" 

DATA PACK II 

TERMINAL COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 

Also Supports The PBJ 80 Column "Word Pak", Deluxe RS-232 Pak, 

Parallel Printer Card and PBJ 2SP Pak 



"FEATURES' 



No Lost Information When Using Hi-Resolution Display On Line 

ASCII Compatible File Format 

Full Text Buffering 

Terminal Baud Rates 300 to 9600 

Automatic Word Wrap Eliminates Split Words 

Full /Half Duplex 

Automatic File Capture 

Programmable Word Length, Parity and Slop Bits 

Save and Load Text Buffer and Program Key Buffers to Tape 

or Disk 

9 Hi-Resolution Display Formats, 28 to 255 x 24 
True Upper/ lower Case Display 
Kill Graphics Option for an Extra 6K 
Supports Line Break 



Freeze Display and Review Information On Line 

Send Files Directly from Buffer or Disk 

Full Disk Support for Disk Version 

Send Control Codes from Keyboard 

Separate Printer Baud Rates 110-9600 

Display on Screen or Output Contents of Buffer to Printer 

Automatic Memory Sense 16-64K 

9 Programmable Function Key Variable Length Macro Buffer 
Programmable Prompt Character or Delay to Send Next Line 
Programmable Control Character Trapping 
Programmable Open 'Close Buffer Characters 
Automatic Key Repeat For Editing 
Program and Memory Status Displays 



TAPE 

$ 34.95 





"The Source" 

has arrived! 



The Source brings the cost of Disassembler and Assembler Source code 

generation down to Earth. 

Now you can Disassemble Color Computer machine language programs and generate 
beautiful, Assembler Source Code for a fraction of the cost of other Disassembler/Source 

Generator programs. 

The Source has all the features and functions you are looking for in a Disassembler. 

Automatic label generation. 
Allows specifying FCB. FCC and FDB areas. 
Disassembles programs directly from Disk. 
Supports multiple origin disk files. 

Output complete Disassembled listing with labels to the Printer, Screen or both. 
Generates Assembler compatible source files directly to disk. 

Generated source files are in standard ASCII format that can be edited by most word processors. 
Built in Hex/Ascii dump/display to help locate FCB, FCC and FDB areas In a program. 
Fast Disassembly mode for testing & checking FCB. FCC and FDB mapped areas. 
Built In Disk Directory and Kill file commands. 

Menu display with single key commands for smooth. Easy, almost foolproof operation. 



Starship Falcon 

Graphics Adventure Game 



U 



32K Disk $34*95 




EC 



Six months ago a terrorist group demanded to be designated the rulers of 
Alpha Sigma III, under the threat of world starvation on the planet Earth. The 
Federation denied their demands, so they released a biological weapon which 
has destroyed all known edible plant species from throughout the known gal- 
axy. To date no plant life has been able to survive on Earth. Recently, Federation 
undercover agents have reported a story told by a roving space trader, of a 
planet with abundant edible plant life. These plants have a reputation of being 
able to survive in all climates and in fact, are supposed to grow at an incredible 
rate. The Federation is desperate! If Earth's food source is not replaced soon, 
the Federation will have to evacuate all animal and Human life. Your mission 
is to go to the planet Zephyr and obtain the seed of these plants and return to 
Earth. Several Federation agents have been sent to obtain the seeds and none 
has returned! Can you get the seed and survive??? GOOD LUCK! 



32K Disk $21.95 



Screen Enhancement Program Comparison Chart 

PROGRAM FEATURES HI RES II HI-RES I BRAND X 

NEW OLD 



NEW IMPROVED VERSION 

- UP TO 85 CHARACTERS PER LINE 
READABILITY 

- ADJUSTABLE A UTOMA TIC KEYREPEA T 
> PROPTECT 1-23 SCREEN LINES 

- CONTROL CODE KEYBOARD 

FULLY BASIC COMPATIBLE 

DISPLAY FORMATS OF 2H to 255 CHARACTERS PER LINE 
FULL 96 UPPER/LOWER CASE CHARACTERS 
MIXED GRAPHICS & TEXT OR SEPARATE 
GRAPHIC & TEXT SCREENS 
INDIVIDUAL CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING 
REVERSE CHARACTER HIGHLIGHT MODE 
WRITTEN IN FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE 
AUTOMATIC RELOCATES TO TOP OF 16/32K 
AUTOMATICALLY SUPPORTS 64 K of RAM WITH RESET CONTROL 
REVERSE SCREEN 
ON SCREEN UNDERLINE 
DOUBLE SIZE CHARACTERS 
ERASE TO END OF LINE 
ERASE TO END OF SCREEN 
HOME CURSOR 
BELL TONE CHARACTER 
HOME CURSOR & CLEAR SCREEN 
REQUIRES ONLY 2K OF RAM 
COMPATIBLE WITH ALL TAPE & DISK SYSTEMS 



Hl-KES 11 SCREEN UULliy 

■f- gatw i M' j o u b i e H e i ? h 1 ct i drarJfcr i 



□n Screen . 
P r o t e c t r r oh 1 to 5 <x r * e n I i fr <p j 
F 11 1 1 s * t of Cursor Control F unc 1 1 oh s 
Tru<? Upper Loner case character r*t 

lanngM 'ttifTMiiffiiUfiiiiBiiM 

Adjust at I * line lengths fron 28 to 255 characters 
J 8 Character? per line 
J 2 ( h i r k t » r ; per line 
> 6 Characters per line 
42 Char act erf per line 
51 Characters per line 
*1 Chjr |c!»l i t*r I in» 

IS fKftf+tS NT III* 

Ful I (ontroT Code Keyboard 4 flvtoriatic Ke- Rereat 
Hi wed Text and Graphics in PMDDE 4 and Much More. 

fill functions are easi I •■ pro9r awn sbl e thru BflSI'! 
Fullv BflilC COMPATIBLE including CLS * PS'IHl 3 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Buff/Biack 

Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 



$94.95 $oq 

Mm* TAPE mmt <Jr 



95 

DISK 



ALL ORDERS SHIPPED FROM STOCK 
ADD $2.50 POSTAGE 



r 



Circle Reader Service card #335 



cump 

5566 Ricochet Avenue Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 

(702) 152-0632 



Upper/Lower case characters Yes 
Mixed Text and Graphics 
Separate Text & Graphics 
Print @ fully implemented 
Print @ nn all Ime lengths 
Different line lengths 
Automatic Kev Repeat 
Adjustable Kev Repeab 
Auto Repeat Disable 
Erase to end of line/screen 
Home Cursor 
Solid or Blinking Curr.or 
CLS command supported 
X.Y Coordinate Cursor 

Positioning 
Double Size Characters 
Individual/Continuous 

Highlighting 
On Screen Underlining 
Clear Key functional 
16 32 & f)4K Supported 
Green or Black Background 

Color 

Dual Character sets for 

Enhanced 64 and K5 

Characters per line display Yes 
Protected Screen Lines 

(programmable) 1 to 23 

Full Control Code Keyboard 

for Screen control directly 

from the keyboard Yes 
Programmable Tab Character 

Spacing Yes 
Full Screen Reverse Function Yes 
Switch to & from the Standard 

16 by 32 Screen for full 

compatabilitv 
On Error Goto Function 
Extended Basic Required 
All Machine Language ProyramYes 
RAM Required in addition lo 

Screen RAM 2K 
Program Price (Tape) $24 95 



Yes 

Yes Yes 
Yes Yes 
Yes Yes 
Yes Yes 
28 to 255 {9)28 to 255 (9) 



Yes 
N - 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
No 

Buff/ Black 

Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 



C)ear/L keysClear kev 



Yes 
Yes 



Yes 

No 

No 



Yes 
No 



No 
No 



No 

No 
Yes 



No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 

2K 

$19 95 



Yes 
Yes 
No 
Yes 

51 only 
51 only(l) 
Yes 
b 

Y^s 
Yes 
Yes 

Buff/Black 

No 
No 

No 
No 
No 
Yes 

No 



No 
No 

No 

No 
No 



No 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

2K 

$29 95 





VISA. MASTERCARD AND C.O.D. ACCEPTED 



Software ReviewA 



7£\ 



Memory Minder: Insurance 
Against Costly Repairs 



By Dale Shell 



J & M has supported our CoCo in the past and is 
continuing with its new and improved disk controller, a 
nicely packaged disk drive and Memory Minder, a disk 
drive test program. All three products interlink and are very 
good. 

The new disk controller is well made, with J & NTs 
standard metal case and gold contacts on the circuit board. 
It is compatible with both the original CoCo and the new 
CoCo 2s. The new features include a parallel port which 
supports either a Centronics compatible printer or J & M's 
new hard drive. Another new feature is an external ROM 
switch, which allows switching between two ROM (DOS) 
chips. The controller comes with the new version of JDOS 
and the associated manual. The new JDOS comes on a 
27128, 16K EPROM. This is a 28-pin chip. This socket also 
accepts a 2764, 28-pin EPROM. The other socket inside the 
controller accepts the standard 24-pin chip. This can be a 
Radio Shack Disk BASIC ROM, a 68766 or 68764 EPROM. 

Therefore, you can have two DOSs installed and can 
switch between the two. While the new JDOS is much more 



BASIC COMPILER 

WASATCH* ARE believes that users ol The Color Computer deserve the 
right to use all 64k of RAM that Is available in the computer, and have 
fast machine language programs that use the full potentlul of the 6H(iy 
microprocessor. That is why the BASIC compiler, called MLBASIC *us 
developed. Here are some of the reasons that make this compiler one of 
the beat bargains in this magazine: 

- U«e 64k of RAM for program storage and/or variables 

• Tuil floating Point arithmetic expressions with functions 
*• T^Ml sequential and direct access disk files allowed 

- BASIC source and M.L, output I/O to disk, tape or memory 

- Many new commands that expand your programming capability 

Commands Supported 



1. I/O -Commands 

CLOSE CLOADM CSAVEM DIR DRIVE 

GET INPL'T KILL LSET OPEN 

2. Program Control Commands 

CALL END EXEC FOR STEP 

THEK ELSE ERROR ON.. CO RETURN 



3. Math Functions 
ABS ASC ATN 
INT LEN LOG 
SGN SIN SQR 

4. String Functions 
CHR$ 1NKEYS LEFTS 



COS CVN 
LOC LOF 
TAN TIMER 



DSKIS 
PRINT 



NEXT 
STOP 



EOF 

PEEK 

VAL 



DSKOS 
PUT 



FIELD 
RSET 



GOSUB GOTO 
SUBROUTINE 



EXP 
POINT 



FIX 

PPOINT 



FILES 
USING 



IF 



IN5TR 
RND 



MIDS 



MKKS 



RIGHTS STRS 



STRINGS 



5. Graphic/Sound Commands 
COLOR CLS CIRCLE DRAK 
PMODE PRESET PSET RESET 

6. Other/Special Commands 

DATA DIM LL1ST MOTOR 

TAB VERIFY DLD DST 

REAL SREG SWP VECTD 



LIKE PAINT 
SCREEN SET 



POKE READ 
IBSHFT LREG 
VECTI 



PCLEAR PCLS PLAY 
SOUND 



REM 

PCOPY 



RESTORE RL S 
PMODD PT\ 



Compiled Program Speed 

Program Interpret e r 

Era tosthenes Sieve 6:58.7 
Matrix Fill , Mult , Sum 

10x10 U:30.9 
String Manipulation 6:22.5 
Floating Point 0:32,6 
Disk I/O 

(2000 PRINT/INPUTS) 2:21.5 



(Time in nlnu tee. ; seconds ) 

MLBASIC 

0:06. 3 



0:02.5 
2:17.7 
0:30.6 

0:27.6 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



DON'T HESITATE. . . BUY MLBASIC TODAY 



Disk - $69.95 
Tape - $69.95 
Both - $74.95 



64 K REQUIRED 



Include $4.00 Shipping and Handling 

Utah residents add 5.75 % tax 

Check or Money Orders Only (No C.O.D.) 



WasatchWare 

7350 Nutree Drive 
Salt Lake City, UT 
84121 



CALL (801) 943-6263 



compatible with existing software, this switch allows the use 
of a Radio Shack DOS in the second socket, thereby 
eliminating all compatibility problems. If you want to, you 
can replace the JDOS chip with a DOS burned into a 27128 
or 2764 EPROM. With both sockets available and the 
ability to use either 2764s or 27128s in one of the sockets, 
this really leaves open a host of options. The new JDOS 
includes all the older JDOS commands plus the ability to 
boot OS-9 from either a floppy disk or a hard drive. It can 
also boot Memory Minder, the disk drive analysis program, 
but more on that option later. 

The parallel port can be used for either a printer or hard 
drive. At this time, J & M has the five meg and 10 meg drives 
available, with the 20 meg promised by the time this review 
is published. The hard drives work with OS-9. The hard 
drive memory can be broken up into as many as seven 
partitions, but none can be larger than five meg. 

The printer option allows the use of the serial port for 
other purposes, but it does have a few drawbacks. First, it 
does not come with a printer cable. Secondly, if you have 
a printer that requires a pulse width of six ms or larger, you 
will have to use a pulse extender. This can be purchased from 
J & M for $25. You need to check your printer manual and/ 
or call J&M to find out. Some of the printers that need the 
extender include the Epson RX-80, Riteman Plus, Oxidata 
Microline 83, and all Olivetti printers. 

You can get the new JDOS controller alone or with a drive 
system. The drive system includes the new JFD-CP disk 
controller, complete with the new version of JDOS 
operating system, and a drive with case and power supply. 
The options include either a single- or double-sided drive. 
I really like the horizontal mounting that J&M uses, and 
the case seems to be very sturdy. 

With JDOS, using double-sided drives, the smallest 
program takes up the equivalent of two granules. There is 
really very little that can be said about disk drives. J & M's 
have well-built cases and they are reasonably quiet. 

The last part of this trio is the Memory Minder. With this 
you are presented with a menu for clamping test, spindle 
speed test, index hole timing test, alignment sensitivity test, 
head alignment test, directional seek test, head rotation test, 
a special quick test and options for an analog alignment aid 
or change test parameters. 

The test provides a quick summary indication of your 
disk drives for all the tests listed. Once this test is started, 
it runs to completion. On each of the seven tests you will 
get either a pass, marginal or fail indication for that test. 
If you get a marginal or fail, you should test that section 
more closely, or have it tested by a qualified technician. 

A word of warning, however: If you find an error and 



See You at 
R Al N BO Wf est-Princeton 
October 17-19 



1 44 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



you are not technically familiar with the hardware, I suggest 
you get expert advice before adjusting anything, since you 
may make it worse. Some test conditions are affected by 
other factors and not just the one that is being tested. As 
in the clamping test, the quality of diskette clamping is 
normally a function of how well the diskette is rotating in 
a circle, but if the drive is out of alignment, the clamping 
test results may be meaningless. Make sure you read all the 
notes in the DDA manual. If you do get a fail on the 
clamping test and the diskette is not the problem, then the 
problem should be referred to the manufacturer. 

The spindle speed test measures the rotational speed of 
the disk drive. The speed should be between 294-306 RPMs. 
If you have a disk drive manual, this should be easy to 
adjust. Just remember, if you have not done this before, be 
careful. The next test, the index hole timing test, measures 
the time difference between the leading edge of the index 
hole and the beginning of the sector ID mark. Ideally, the 
time will be 200 microseconds, but can be in the range of 
100-300 ms. This is a fairly large margin, but if the timing 
is out, the DDA manual gives the procedure for adjustment. 

Another feature of the test allows you to determine the 
skew of the head. This is to determine if the head is 
perpendicular to the disk surface. To do this test, just 
compare the difference of hole timing from the inside and 
outside tracks. This is not something you can adjust, so let 
us hope it is OK. If the head skew is out, you will have to 
return the drive for refurbishment. 

The alignment sensitivity and head alignment tests are 
used during head alignment. The alignment sensitivity test 
relates to how tolerant the drives will be to a slight head 
misalignment. 

The directional seek test gives a measurement of how 
precisely the drives can repeatedly position the head over 
any track on the disk. The test measures the radial alignment 
when the head is moved in to a test track and then when 
it is moved out of the test track. The two measurements are 
compared; any discrepancies are probably due to hysteresis, 
and if excessive, the drive should be refurbished. 

The last test is the head rotation test. This test determines 
how close to the center line of the tracks the head moves. 
The optimum alignment will have the head center line 
parallel to the track tangent line. 

The analog alignment aid is not a test, but is very useful 
if you are testing drives in the traditional manner using an 
oscilloscope and an analog alignment disk. This section 
allows you to start and stop the drive motor, and position 
the drive head. There is very little that is automatic. This 
is useful to the more experienced. 

Overall, 1 think the DDA is a good product to have 
around. A technician can use it in his day-to-day work and 
the casual user can periodically check the different 
parameters of the drives to see if a technician is needed. 
Early detection of a problem can reduce or eliminate costly 
repairs. 

The price varies according to what controller you have, 
but $59 for single-sided and $75 for double-sided drives can 
be thought of as insurance against repairs in the future. 



(J & M Systems Ltd., 15100- A Central SE, Albuquerque, 
NM 87123, Drive 0 (SS) $279, controller $139, Memory 
Minder (SS) $59, (SS or DS) $75) 



Software ReviewSSZ ZSZSS^/^n 



Get a Kick from Karate 



Karate is a game for either one or two players requiring 
a 64K ECB Color Computer and joysticks. The software 
is available on either disk or tape, and is copy protected. 

After loading the program, you are greeted with a color 
test screen. Here you are given the opportunity to correct 
the color by resetting the computer. The main title screen 
follows and has spaces to list the top 10 scores. After 
selecting either one or two players, you are ready for action. 

The object of Karate is to knock down your opponent 
using various karate moves, kicks and punches to score 
points. Your points are displayed at the top left of the screen. 
In a two-player game, the first player to win two matches 
is the winner. The number of matches won for each player 
is displayed at the bottom of the screen. In the one-player 
matches the opponent is the computer. 

Action is controlled by the joystick(s) and the following 
karate moves are possible: low kick (trip), forward kick to 
body, backward kick to body, front punch to head, front 
punch to body, front kick to head, backward kick to head 
and drop kick. In addition to these moves, your man can 
do either forward or backward flips. The moves and 
punches appear authentic. Obviously the programmer, 
Dave Dies, knows something about this popular Oriental 
sport. 

The graphics are really outstanding, and unique sounds 
are used with the score screen. One man has a blue belt and 
hair, while the other has a red belt and hair. 

My only complaint, after learning that the software is 
copy protected, is that no mention is made in either the 
documentation or the RAINBOW ads about a warranty. 
Certainly the author has a right to protect his software, but 
he should also tell the customer what can be done in the 
event a problem develops with the program. 

If you are into karate, you will get a kick out of this 
program. But even if you're not, you will find it an 
interesting game and a pleasant diversion from typical 
computer fare. 

(Diecom Products, 8715 Fifth Line, Milton, Ontario, 
Canada L9T 2X8, tape or disk $28.95 U.S., $38.95 Can. plus 
$2 S/H) 

— Jerry Semones 



CoCo Trend 

Name brand software 
^ c, at least 20% off %J^A 

Cry$P suggested retail. %/ h ^ 

15001 Glory Dr. Huntsville, Alabama 35803 
(205) 880-COCO (2626) 
Call or write for free catalog. 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 145 



Software Review, 



OS -9 Utilities Give 
Added Power to OS-9 

One of the nicest things about OS-9 is you are not limited 
to the utilities that come with the package. The Other Guy's 
Software is offering a package with some interesting and 
useful utilities you just might want to try. 

I received OS-9 Utilities on a disk setup in the popular 
style having the programs located in their own subdirectory 
called /cmds. The utilities supplied in the package are: 
Bmode, changes parameters on random block file managers 
(i.e., disk drives); Calc, a scientific calculator with memory; 
Cat, lists files to the standard output; Cptree, copies all of 
one directory (including any subdirectories) to another 
directory; CP, copies one file to another file; Crypt, 
encrypts/ decrypts files; FRS, reads a Radio Shack DOS 
text file under OS-9; Grep, a patterned search routine; 
Hcalc, a hexadecimal calculator; Help, provides help on a 
user-specified topic; Locate, locates all occurrences of a 
specified filename in a specified directory (includes all of 
its subdirectories); Lower, changes all uppercase letters in 
a specified file to lowercase letters; Mkdir, makes directo- 
ries; MV, moves files from one place to another, deleting 
the old file as it writes the new one; RM, deletes a specified 
file or files; Split, splits one file into several files of specified 
lengths; TF, formats text for display or printing; TRS, 
writes an OS-9 file on a Radio Shack DOS disk; Upper, 



o* 6 





THE RAINBOW'S 

ne-Liner Contest 
has now been expanded 
to include programs of 
either one or two lines. This 
means a new dimension and new 
opportunity for those who have "really 
neat" programs that simply just won't fit in 
one line. 

Here are the guidelines: The program must 
work in Extended basic, have only one or two 
line numbers and be entirely self-contained — 
no loading other programs, no calling ROM 
routines, no poked-in machine language code. 
The program has to run when typed in directly 
(since that's how our readers will use it). Make 
sure your line, or lines, aren't packed so tightly 
that the program won't list completely. Finally, 
any instructions needed should 
be very short. 

Send your entry 
(preferably on cassette) to: 




changes all occurrences of lowercase letters to uppercase 
letters in a specified file; Rsdir, reads the directory of a 
Radio Shack DOS disk under OS-9. 

In addition to these twenty utilities, the package also 
contains three devices. They are MEM, a RAM disk; NUL, 
a null device; QUE, a device for ordering command 
processing 

I am not familiar with OS-9 packaged for applications 
other than the Color Computer. Some of the utilities 
included in the package duplicate utilities that come with 
CoCo OS-9 packages. These are RM, which seems to be 
the same as the OS-9 DEL command, CA T, which seems 
to be the same as the OS-9 LIST command, and MKDIR, 
which does the same job as the OS-9 MAKDIR command. 

All of the utilities ran without a hitch, except Bmode, 
which the documentation warns will probably not work 
with the standard CoCo OS-9 drivers. 

It would be hard to pick one utility over the others. I liked 
several of them. The ones I would use most often would 
be Cptree to copy all the files in a / cmds directory, and MV, 
which allows you to move a file from one place to another, 
deleting the file from its former position as it copies it to 
its new position. 

The only minus mark for this package is for the docu- 
mentation. The package comes with almost no documen- 
tation and the user is expected to get instructions from the 
Help files. The package does come with a three-page 
photocopy of the installation instructions. I solved the 
problem of documentation by loading List into memory and 
then listing each of the Help files to the printer. This gave 
me a pretty respectable set of instructions. 

An unfortunate fact of CoCo OS-9 life is a shortage of 
both disk and memory space. For this reason I would 
suggest that a new purchaser of this package load each of 
these utilities into memory one at a time and then execute 
them to evaluate whether they deserve a spot in the /cmds 
directory or not. I believe you will find a spot for at least 
one or two. 

Of the four qualities I look for in a utility — ease of use, 
usefulness, relative freedom from bugs and value for the 
price — this package qualifies on all four. I have already 
purchased two of these utilities separately for much more 
than the price of the entire package from The Other Guy's 
Software. 

I recommend OS-9 Utilities without reservation to 
anyone who uses OS-9. 

(The Other Guy's Software, P.O. Box H, Logan, UT 84321, 
$19.95 plus $2.50 S/H) 

— Larry Goldwasser 



CHECKING ACCOUNT INFORMATION SYSTEM 

Let your CoCo ease the task of nanagino your checking 
accounts with CAIS, Record deposits, checks, ATn 
transactions, interest, service charges and other 
debit/credit transactions. Reconcile and balance your 
accounts in ainutes. Search and edit capabilities. 

Requires 32K and 1 disk drive (ain). Printer optional. 

To order, send check or HO for 24.95 plus 2.50 S/H to: 
(SC res. add 5Z sales tax) 



After Five Software 
P.O. Box 210975 
CoJuilua, S.C. 29221-0975 

(Reviewed in RAINBOW April '86 issue, pg. 185) 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



146 THE RAINBOW September 1986 




v 



Those Great RAINBOW Programs 

Without All The Fuss! 
Subscribe to RAINBOW ON TAPE! 



Every month, rainbow on tape brings as many as two dozen ready-to-run 
prog rams rrght to you. Using the current issue of the rainbow as documen- 
tation, all you have to do is load and run them. Just a one-year subscription 
gives you more than 230 new programs! The typing time saved is time that 
can be spent with the CoCo. (rainbow on tape does not include OS-9 
programs or those less than 20 lines.) 





Need a back issue of rainbow on tape? 
Issues available beginning with April 1982 



Subscribe to rainbow on tape Today! 

LOOK FOR OUR ORDER CARD 
BETWEEN PAGES 34 AND 35 

The cost for a single copy of rainbow on 
tape is $10 within the United States; U.S. $12 
in all other countries. The annual subscription 
rate for rainbow on tape is $80 within the U.S.; 
U.S. $90 in Canada; and U.S. $105 for all other 
countries. U.S. currency only, please. In order 
to hold down non-editorial costs, we do not 
bill. 



NOW AVAILABLE ON DELPHI! 

For your convenience, RAINBOW ON TAPE can also be 
ordered via the Delphi Information Network, in our Shopping 
Service area of THE rainbow's Color Computer SIG (Special 
Interest Group). 

The individual programs from our past September issues 
are also available for immediate download in the rainbow 
ON TAPE Database area in THE rainbow's Color Computer 
SIG on Delphi. There is a $3.50 per program surcharge. 



RAINBOW ON TAPE is not a stand-alone product, but is 
intended as an adjunct and complement to the magazine. 
Even if you purchase RAINBOW ON TAPE, you will still need 
the magazine for loading and operating instructions. 

To order by phone, (credit card orders only) call 
800-847-0309, 8 a.m. - 5 p.m. EST. All other 
inquiries call 502-228-4492. 



Programs from Our Past 
Education Issues: 

September 1985 — CoCo Testmaker, a test-writing program 
to aid teachers and students; Hand Sign, demonstrates the 
manual signs and gestures used in sign language; Pictograph, 
illustrates children's daily schedules; Teacher's Aid, calcu- 
lates grade averages and determines letter grades for up to 
35 students; Starfinder, displays 12 of the more picturesque 
constellations and provides educational information on each 
one; Vocabulary, a personalized computer dictionary; 
Baseball Fever2, depicts the graphics logo of each of the 
National League teams; Tricky Words, a language program 
for practice in the correct use of contractions and posses- 
sives; Canada, a quiz on capital cities and provinces of 
Canada; Col-Poem, composes poems by user's entered 
statements; Diving, both a springboard and platform diving 
game; Oratory, compiles and prints contest scores; and 
Bookmark, a computerized Dewey Decimal System. 

September 1984 — Clock, teaches youngsters to tell time; 
Goldpile, displays or prints out how your stashed accounts 
are growing; MC Quiz, aids in making multiple-choice tests; 
Cooking With CoCo, a recipe for patch addresses; Mystery, 
a learning game designed to test on various countries in the 
world; Database Manager, part III on creating a disk mailing 
list; Word Scrambler, provides drill and practice of assigned 
spelling words; Mad Adder, a logical math exercise; ABC 
Game, a learning tool for preschoolers; CoCo School Marm 
Part I, creates spelling and pronunciation drills using the 
cassette recorder; Map, a colorful states and capitals quiz; 
Education Notes, a calendar creator; and Wishing Weil, a 
multi-math driller. 



Software Revie ivZ^^ M "^"*'"'S^ 

1986 Tax Estimate: 
A Good Deal 

I am not the typical customer for tax preparation 
programs. Having done my own income tax returns for over 
20 years, I expect an unusual degree of both sophistication 
and user friendliness. When I reviewed Try-O-Byte's Try- 
O-Tax program some months ago, I criticized formatting 
and a number of other details. At that time, I remarked that 
the best part of the package, good enough to be sold as 
stand-alone software, was a short program which estimated 
one's tax liability for next year so rapidly that it could 
conveniently be used to ask "what if" one changes withhold- 
ing, establishes an IRA, swaps jobs, and so forth. 

1986 Tax Estimate is an upgraded development of that 
small program, and it is so well-done that I look forward 
with great anticipation to this firm's future efforts. In an 
estimation program, many of the items I discussed earlier 
are of no consequence, and 1986 Tax Estimate is not Try- 
O- Tax for 1986. However, the quality is superb, and implies 
one should give serious consideration to Try-o-Byte 
products. 

1 only tested the disk version. However, the total program 
storage is under 9K. Try-O-Byte has had tax programs 
running in 16K cassette systems for years, so this one should 
do so easily. A PCLERR might be needed, but that is about 
all. 

TE86 is sold at or below cost as a sales gimmick; I can- 
not think of a better way to advertise a tax program. At 
$5, with the back side of the disk totally blank and with 
over 90 percent of the front side also empty, this is too good 
a deal to pass up. Use the disk for a tax record scratch pad 
storage area, and consider the program almost free. 

No documentation is supplied, but in this case, the menu- 
driven program is adequately clear and the user probably 
does not need added documentation. 

The user enters estimated values for various items of tax 
data such as wages, interest income, dividends and similar 
things. The input includes such categories as income data, 



deduction data, credits for taxes paid or withheld and so 
on. From this information a rapid estimate of tax liability 
can be made of payment due or refund expected. The speed 
of operation (three to five minutes including agonizing over 
input values) allows one to play games with how various 
decisions will affect your income taxes. Most users will 
simply use it to see if their withholding is correct and 
adequate, but the capability to analyze more elaborate 
issues exists. If a particular input item is of little conse- 
quence in your case, or the data is not available, an entry 
of zero is acceptable. 

There are some glaring omissions — for example, there 
is no entry location for unemployment compensation or for 
social security benefits for those cases where these are 
taxable income items, nor is separate entry provided for 
refunds of state income tax when the refund is taxable 
income. There is no calculation for excess social security 
taxes paid because of multiple employers. However, most 
users faced with these situations are aware of them and are 
likely to make compensating adjustments at the other 
option. Still, the omissions are somewhat surprising 
considering how carefully the author considered other 
categories such as dividends, interest, etc. 

The items entered are not recorded in any manner, and 
are lost at the end of the run. I found this forced me to keep 
a small scratch pad handy. Normally I would severely 
criticize any program that did that, but in this case I consider 
the decision justified. The input list, while fairly compre- 
hensive (about two dozen items), is still short enough for 
rapid regeneration, and most users will find over half the 
list is entered as zero because many categories may not 
apply. And, more important, the confidentiality of financial 
information is protected by the lack of printout. 

The program outputs to an optional printer; just 
remember to set the Baud rate prior to the run. The output 
is very short — Estimated Taxable Income, Estimated Tax 
Liability and Estimated Payment or Refund. 

In summary, 1986 Tax Estimate is worth getting, and if 
you like it you should consider Try-O-Byte's other products. 

(Try-O-Byte, 1008 Alton Circle, Florence, SC 29501, disk 
or tape $5) 



— H. Larry El man 



CAMION COUNTY DETICES 

P. 0. BOX C kH!MlMI;l.UmaSSl 

SAUGUS, CA. 91350 




SOFT SECTORED 

DISKS 

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PER PACK 3 PACKS 



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WITH HUB RINGS, SLEEVES, 
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100% ERROR FREE WARRANTY 

COLORS AVAILABLE. ALSO 3.5 in. 
MICRO DISKS AT SIMILAR SAVINGS, 
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10% DISCOUNT 
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No handling charge on orders 
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add $1.50 COD charge. 
Calif, sales add 6.5% tax. 




Cataloa# 



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All Guaranteed 

Discription 



Per 

Ri bbon 



Brother HR 15/25 (nylonT 



Centronics 150/152-2/159 



C.Itoh Prowriter I & 1 1 



Epson LX80 Spectrumf nyl on) I $ 5.95 



$ 6.60 



$ 6.15 



$5.05 



Epson MX/ FX/RX70/80( nylon 



Epson MX/FX/RX 100 (nylon 



IBM SelectricIKCorrectbl 



NEC 5500/7700 Spinwriter 



Okidata ML80/82/83/92793 



Okidata ML84 (nylon) 



$ 4.95 



5 6.85 



$1.95 



Box 
of 6 



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$ 33.65 



S 27.75 



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$50-$150 
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5 7.401$ 40.60 



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Okidata Mi croline 182/192 



RadioShack TRS-80 LP VI 1 



Gori 11a Banana (nyl on) 



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Ribbons for most printers available. 
& discription of printer for Quote & 
Quantity Discount Prices available i 
mix ribbons (minimum 1 box per Ijrpe] 
Colors available in some popytar tyn 



$ 8.90 



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Send us your name, address, 
Catalog. 

n larger quantities. OK to 
for Discounts. 
t%. SEND FOR CATALOG. 



1 48 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



Hardware Review! 



Uninterrupted Power Source 
Prevents File Loss 



The Uninterrupted Power Source is a hardware peri- 
pheral for the Color Computer from Dynamic Electronics 
Inc. UPS should be seriously looked at by the user of the 
CoCo who is concerned about losing files due to a sudden 
power loss. Businesses and schools using the CoCo should 
be very interested in this product. 

Of course, if you make frequent backups of your files, 
then perhaps a sudden loss of data and/ or programs may 
not be devastating. But, UPS can help even the casual user 
in some instances. I was particularly interested since I teach 
computer literacy with 12 CoCos connected to a Network 
2 controller. I have experienced intermittent loss of power 
when teaching a lesson, which meant reloading the host 
computer, and then resending the program to the class via 
the Network. 

The Uninterrupted Power Source is designed to provide 
backup power to five-volt memory chips when commercial 
power fails, preventing the loss of data and programs. UPS 
consists of a rechargeable battery, an electronic control 
circuit, a light emitting diode (LED) and a small toggle 
switch. If youVe ever lost power before making a backup, 
then you know the frustration. Uninterrupted Power Source 
prevents this with a simple installation. 

UPS comes with one page of instructions. The installa- 
tion is relatively simple and the only equipment needed is 
a soldering iron for one connection and a small drill for the 
LED and toggle switch. 

Installation consists of removing the CoCo's cover and 
finding various components on the board. The instructions 
state clearly which component to solder one lead to from 
the rechargeable battery, depending on the model of CoCo 
you have. 

Then, the two other leads from the battery can be placed 
on either designated pins of the BASIC or Extended BASIC 
ROM chips, or designated pins of any RAM chip using 



One- Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Enter the number of grades to be 
program tells how you are doing, 
grade inputs on a 100-point scale. 

The listing: 



averaged and this 
The program bases 



J3 CLS : INPUT" ENTER # OF GRADES TO 
BE ENTERED 11 ;N: FORX=lTON: INPUT 11 E 
NTER GRADES" ;G: S=S+G:NEXTX : A=S/N 
: PRI NT " NUMBER OF GRADES"N: PRINT" 
TOTAL POINTS 11 S : PRINT "AVERAGE "A 

- Tom Baylie 
Chicago, IL 



(For this winning one-Uner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 







eyelets which are easily slid over the correct pin. Then 
reinsert the chips. I chose the RAM-chip option and the 
entire operation with the leads and soldering took only 10 
minutes. 

The rest of the installation involves drilling the holes in 
the case for the LED and the toggle switch. The recharge- 
able battery should then be placed under the keyboard. I 
discovered the best place on my machine is on the right side 
of the center post. The fit was not as tight and the cover 
could be reset very easily. 

Then came the acid test. I loaded a program into the 
machine and switched the toggle switch to enable the UPS. 
Then, 1 turned off the CoCo and turned it back on. Lo and 
behold, the program was still in memory and would even 
still run. According to Dynamic Electronics, the battery 
should retain the memory for "a couple of hours." 

The toggle switch can be moved to the disable position 
if you do not want to protect memory during a session on 
the computer. The LED is a visual aid in determining 
whether memory is being protected once the machine is off. 
The battery is recharged when the CoCo is on, and the 
electronic circuit prevents overcharging. 

In summary, the Uninterrupted Power Source is a 
product 1 can see a need for in many computing situations. 
If you're using the CoCo for important data, then UPS 
could be a wise investment. If it saves an important data 
file only once, then it may be worth it. 

(Dynamic Electronics Inc., P.O. Box 896, Hartselle, AL 
35640, $59.95) 

— Donald A. Turowski 



ADOS 



ENHANCED, EPROM-ABLE 
DISK BASIC 



Now, you can supercharge Basic with an impressive array of extra features 
WITHOUT sacrificing compatibility! ADOS is compatible with virtually 100% of 
commercial software. Customizing utilities are provided to allow user-defined 
command abbreviations, baud rate, step rate, tracks per disk (35 or 40), support of 
double-sided drives, and more. After customizing ADOS, you can have it burned into 
an EPROM that plugs into the Disk Basic ROM socket, or just use it in RAM as a 64K 
disk utility. (EPROM + burning will cost about $20--we provide information 
concerning how you can have this done.) Features include: • repeat and edit of the 
last direct-mode command • 26 definable control-key abbreviations • automatic line- 
number prompts • DOS command • lowercase command entry (a fine complement to 
a Lowerkit or PBJ WordPak) • COPY (filename) to (drive number) • AE error override 
option • RAM command (64K) • RUNM command • text echoing to printer • ML 
monitor • text file scan • enhanced directory • error trapping • hi-res text utility 
included (42, 51. or 64 characters per line) 

"/ COULD NOT FIND ANY SOFTWARE THAT WOULD NOT RUN UNDER ADOS." 

THE RAINBOW, December 1984 
"/ LOVE ADOSt ...A GENUtNEL Y FIRST RATE PRODUCT." 

Color Micro Journal, February 1985 
*7 WON'T PART WITH MY ADOS EPROM FOR ANYTHING ...NO COMPATIBILITY 
PROBLEMS." 

Hot CoCo.May 1985 

Disk. $27.95 



THE PEEPER 



ML PROGRAM TRACER 



Monitor machine-language programs AS THEY ARE RUNNING! Peeper actually 
timeshares with the target program, giving FULL CONTROL as ML programs run. 
Switch instantly between watching regular program output and Peeper's trace of 
registers and stack on screen or printer. Inspect memory in any of 26 display modes. 
Execution speed can be varied from full speed to the barest crawl, or halted entirely, 
as programs run. Single-stepping, breakpoints, memory or register examine/change. 
Relocatable, supports 64K use (16K required) See February '85 review. 
Disk. $23.95 Tape. $21.95 Assembler source listing ... Add 3.00 

THE NEXT BEST THING TO A DISK DRIVE 

Fastape allows cassette I/O at 3000 baud- TWICE NORMAL SPEED. It uses the high- 
speed (POKE 65495,0) mode, and makes it convenient to stay in this mode 
throughout. Features automatic adjustment of cassette and printer parameters when 
speod mode is changed. Control-key functions for many Basic commands and for 
changing speed modes. Compatible with all file types, and can be used with 
Telewriter 64 and many other tape utilities. {16K required) See July '83 review. 
-T«p . . .-fWUi 11 I II |NEW DMCPUHT FHIQlll 



SPECTRClSYSTEMS^^pF si 

No delay on pcra-unal checks (3i 
Plenst* ( idi1 0U shipping buiry no credit t.ards or COD s 



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September 1986 THE RAINBOW 149 



NEW 



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DISK 
DRIVES 



STARTING AT 



. 40Tks 6Ms 
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Double Density 

40 or 80 Tracks 
1/2 Hght.Teac/Panasonic 



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PRICES 



Speed 6 ms tk to tk and up 
Capacity 250k unformatted 
Tracks 40 

Warranty now 1 YEAR 
We carry only the finest quality disk drives *no seconds* no surplus 

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED!! ALL DRIVES FULLY TESTED&WARRANTEED 

Complete Disk Drive with Power Supply&Case t??9 $129.95 

Two Drives in Dual Case & Power Supply t*?9 

1/2 ht double sided double density Disk Drives (PanasQnic/Teac)$ $119.95 

1/2 ht double sided double density Disk Drive withps&case!.. # . rf ^$499^5 CALL 
low to use your new drive system on audio cassette 

Single ps&case $44.95 Dual 1/2 ht ps& case $54.95 Dual ps&case.., CaH 



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Color Computer Controller fj&Ml 

DRIVE 0FOR RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTER 

TANDON, MPI OR TEAC DRIVE (SINGLE SIDED 40 TRACKS SPEED 5 MS TRK TO TRK & UP) 
POWER SUPPLY and CASE.TWO DRIVE CABLE WITH ALL GOLD CONNECTORS . 
.c^J&M CONTROLLER, MANUAL and DOCUMENTATION $ SALE! 

^ . DRIVE (ft FOR RADIO SHACK COLO R COMPUTER 

P ^ PANASONIC 1/2 HEIGHT DOUBLE SIDED DOUBLE DENSITY DRIVE 500K unformatted 



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TAKE ADDED SAVINGS ON TWO DRIVE SYSTEMS ttKMm * Dinettes 

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DISKETTES with free library case 

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Drives cleaned,aligned& tested ... _ 

TECHNICAL STAFF ON DUTY, PLEASE CALL FOR ASSISTANCE. 
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The Handicappers! 



The Pros 



Tired of wrestling with Sunday point 
spreads? Let your Color Computer 
do it for you! Pigskin Predictions, the 
best-selling NFL handicapper, is 
ready for 1985. Spend a few minutes 
typing in scores each week, and 
here's what it will do: 

■ Menu-driven selection of 
schedules, ratings, division races, 
predictions or results by team or 
week. Seven different reports avail- 
able. 

■ Easy once-a-week entry of 
scores-no complex, meaningless 
stats. 

■ Predicts scores of all games for remainder of sea- 
son each week! 

■ Calculates projected won-lost records for all 
weeks. 

■ Maintains home field advantage and power rat- 
ings for all teams. 

■ 1985 schedule data file included free. 

■ 32/64K enhanced version features dazzling Rain- 
bow Writer Screen display. Seeing is believing! Stan- 
dard 16K version included, too. 

■ You'll be amazed at the power of this program. 
16/32K ECB required (32K for disk). Only $39.95 on 
tape or disk. 1985 Data tape or disk for previous own- 
ers, just $13.95. 




College 



After two years of searching, we've 
finally found a college football handi- 
capper! We think it's a winner! The 
Lockmaster® maintains stats on 
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me 




HISTORY 


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Test your knowledge of America's 
presidential past with this challenging 
and enlightening program 




By Edward T. White 



Hail 
to 
the 
Chief 



Quick — which president pre- 
ceded Zachary Taylor? Who 
was president on June 3, 1848? 
Which president had George M. Dallas 
as his vice-president? If you know the 
answers to all these questions, then 
move along to the next article. If not, 
read on. 

The Presidents is a program for the 
16K Color Computer which provides 
information about the presidents of the 
United States. The program operates in 
either the question mode, in which the 
user is quizzed about facts concerning 
the presidents, or the answer mode, in 
which the program supplies answers to 
questions entered by the user. The 
program has six categories: List the 
Presidents in Order, Who Was President 
On (a given date), Vice Presidents, How 
Many Terms, Native States and Polit- 
ical Parties. 

16K owners must type PCLERR1 be- 
fore loading the program. The title 
appears and you hear the first two bars 
of "Hail to the Chief/' Then you need 
only follow the directions in the pro- 
gram. To give some idea of what The 
Presidents contains, a description of its 
operation follows. For those who 
quickly tire of typing, the first two 
categories can be entered intact by only 
typing in lines 10 to 95 and 165 through 
600. 



Edward White is an assistant professor 
of mathematics at Frostburg State 
College in Frostburg, Maryland, 



The Presidents is meant to be more 
a recreational activity and learning tool 
than a test, so no score is kept. The 
names of presidents are accepted in a 
number of forms. William Howard Taft 
would be acceptable, as would Taft, W. 
Taft, W. H. Taft, William Taft and 
William H. Taft (spaces and periods are 
required). This flexibility was built into 
the program in order to make it more 
pleasant to deal with. However, in the 
question mode this may create an am- 
biguity — Johnson would be accepted 
for either Andrew Johnson or Lyndon 
Johnson. To avoid misunderstanding, 
and for reinforcement, whenever only 
the last name is entered, the program 
prints CORRECT along with the full name 
of the president. In the answer mode, 
asking a question about Johnson causes 
the program to give information about 
the first Johnson it finds, namely An- 
drew Johnson. To find out about Lyn- 
don Johnson, the user must enter at 
least L. Johnson. 

Category one, List the Presidents, 
operates in the question mode only and 
allows several formats. The user may 
opt either to list the names in a contin- 
uing sequence from a chosen or random 
starting point, or to provide the next 
president with respect to a random 
president chosen by the program. The 
listing in either option may be chosen 
to proceed either forward or backward. 

In category two, Who Was President 
On . . the program calculates which 
president was in office on a given date 
from 1789 to 1983. In the question 
mode, a date is given and a president 
asked for. In the answer mode, the user 
enters a date (according to instructions 
in the program) and the program prints 
the name(s) of the correct president(s). 
The program can recognize invalid 
dates, and is equipped to manage leap 
years and inauguration days. 

In the question mode, category three, 
Vice Presidents, provides the name of a 
vice-president and asks for the corres- 
ponding president. In the answer mode, 
the user enters a president and the 
program lists all his vice-presidents. 

Category four, How Many Terms, 
prints the name of a president in the 
question mode, and the user must enter 
(according to instructions in the pro- 
September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 153 



gram) a code representing the number 
of terms, whole or partial, served by the 
president. In the answer mode, the user 
enters a president, and the program 
prints out a sentence describing the 
number of terms the president served. 
In either mode, the program prints the 
specific years involved. For example, 
(1961-1963). 

In categories five and six, Native 
States and Political Parties, the pro- 
gram prints the name of a president in 



the question mode, and the user must 
respond with the appropriate informa- 
tion. The answer mode works the same 
way, except that the roles of user and 
program are reversed. In category six, 
some abbreviations are accepted for 
political parties — Rep. for Republican, 
for example. 

In either the question or answer 
mode, entering MENU as the answer to 
a question returns the user to the menu 
to choose a new category. In the ques- 



tion mode, pressing ENTER as the 
answer to a question causes the pro- 
gram to give the correct answer, so a 
little time with the program can give you 
a lot of information. Have fun! By the 
way, the answer to all three questions 
at the beginning of this article is our 
1 1th president, James K. Polk. 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to the author at 104 Ormond 
Street, Frostburg, MD 21532. Please 
enclose an SASE for a reply.) □ 



60 107 

90 102 

125 101 

180 209 

275 211 

350 82 

420 19 



475 74 

570 42 

640 40 

730 165 

800 240 

890 204 

END 235 



The listing: PRESIDNT 



5 1 THE PRESIDENTS, EDWARD T. WHI 
TE 1986 

1J3 CLS : PRINT @ 2 J3J3 , 11 THE PRESIDENTS 
ii 



— — r~ /- i — 

ii 

15 PLAY"02T3L2GL4ABL203C02L4BAL4 
. GL8AL4GEL2DC" 

2J3 PRINT@485 , "PRESS ANY KEY ~" " 
EGIN" ; 

25 A$=INKEY$:RR=RND(j3) : IFA$ 
EN25 



TO B 



" "TH 



M$(J)=M 



4J3 FOR J=l x« «. x VV 
,L$(J) 

45 IF M$ (J)=""THEN5j3ELSE „ TX _ 
$(J)+" " 

5J3 NEXTJ:F$ (#)="NOBODY":MS$(j3)=" 

INCORRECT " : MS $ ( 1 ) = " CORRE CT » 
55 DATA GEORGE, WASHINGTON, JOHN, 
, ADAMS , THOMAS , , JEFFERSON , JAMES , , 
MADISON , JAMES , , MONROE , JOHN , QUINC 
Y, ADAMS, AN DREW, , JACKS ON, MART IN, , 
VAN BUREN, WILLIAM, HENRY, HARRISON 
, JOHN , , TYLER , JAMES , KNOX , POLK , Z AC 
HARY, , TAYLOR, MILLARD, , FILLMORE, F 
RANKLIN, , PIERCE 

60 DATA JAMES, , BUCHANAN, ABRAHAM, 
, LINCOLN, ANDREW, , JOHNSON, ULYSSES 
, SIMPSON, GRANT, RUTHERFORD, BIRCHA 
RD , HAYES , JAMES , ABRAM , GARFIELD , CH 
ESTER, ALAN, ARTHUR, GROVER, , CLEVEL 




, JOHN C. CALHOUN , MARTIN VAN BUR 
EN, RICHARD M. JOHNSON, JOHN TYLE 
R, GEORGE M. DALLAS , MI LLARD FILLM 
ORE, WILLIAM R. KING, JOHN C. BREC 
KENRIDGE 

120 DATA HANNIBAL HAMLIN , ANDREW 
JOHNSON, SCHUYLER COLFAX, HENRY WI 
LSON, WILLIAM A. WHEELER, CHESTER 



154 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



A. ARTHUR , THOMAS A. HENDRICKS, LE 
VI P. MORTON, ADLAI E. STEVENSON, 
GARRET A. HOBART , THEODORE ROOSEV 
ELT, CHARLES W. FAIRBANKS , JAMES S 
. SHERMAN 

125 DATA THOMAS R. MARSHALL, CALV 
IN CO 0 LI DGE , CHARLES G. DAWES, CHA 
RLES CURTIS, JOHN N. GARNER, HENRY 
A. WALLACE , HARRY S. TRUMAN, ALBE 
N W. BARKLEY, RICHARD M. NIXON, LY 
NDON B. JOHNSON, HUBERT H. HUMPHR 
EY,SPIRO T. AGNEW, GERALD R. FORD 
, NELSON A. ROCKEFELLER 
13,0 DATA WALTER F. MONDALE , GEORG 
E BUSH 

135 SB$="12111234115146785999: ;9 
;94919:<4=>2>?@AB" 

140 FOR J=l TO 18: READ ST$(J):NE 
XTJ 

145 DATA VIRGINIA, MASSACHUSETTS, 
SOUTH CAROLINA, NEW YORK, NORTH CA 
ROLINA, NEW HAMPSHIRE , PENNSYLVANI 
A, KENTUCKY, OHIO, VERMONT, NEW JERS 
EY, IOWA, MISSOURI , TEXAS , CALIFORNI 
A, NEBRASKA. GEORGIA, ILLINOIS 



IC-REPUBLICA 

EM, WHIG, WHIG, KBJfUBijlUAJM , K£i.f 

165 GOTO280 

170 AN=1:IF N$=L$ (R) THENGOSUB2 2 
0:AN=3 :MS$ (3)=MS$ (1) + " — "+NM$:RE 
TURN 

175 IF N$><F$(R)+" "+L$(R) THEN 
185 

180 IF R=6 AND N$="JOHN ADAMS" T 
HEN GOSUB220:AN=3:MS$(3)=MS$(1)+ 
ii — "+NM$ : RETURNELSERETURN 
185 IF N$=F$(R)+" "+M$(R)+L$(R) 
THEN RETURN 

19J3 IF N$=LEFT$(F$(R) ,1) + " . "+L$ 
(R) THENRETURN 

195 IF N$="JIMMY CARTER" OR N$=" 
TEDDY ROOSEVELT" THEN RETURN 
200 IF M$(R)=""THEN AN=0 : RETURN 
205 IF N$=F$(R)+" "+LEFT$ (M$ (R) , 
1)+". "+L$(R) THEN RETURN 
210 IF N$=LEFT$ (F$ (R) , 1) +" . "+LE 
FT$(M$(R) ,1)+". "+L$(R) THEN RET 
URN 

215 AN=0: RETURN 

220 IF M$(R)=""THENM$="":GOTO2 30 
225 IF R=6 OR R=9 THEN M$=M$ (R) 
ELSE M$=LEFT$(M$(R) ,1)+". " 
230 NM$=F$(R)+" "+M$+L$(R) 
235 RETURN 



240 INPUT "PRESIDENT" ;N$ 

245 IF N $=" MENU "THENAN= 2 : RETURN 

250 N1$=RIGHT$(N$,4) 

255 FOR R=l TO N 

260 IF N1$XRIGHT$ (L$ (R) , 4 ) THEN 
AN=0:GOTO270 

265 GOSUB170:IF AN=1 OR AN=3 THE 
N RETURN 
270 NEXT R 

275 PRINT "NOT FOUND. IS YOUR SP 
ELLING CORRECT? " : RETURN 

280 CLS: PRINT "CHOOSE CATEGORY" 
285 PRINT "1 LIST THE PRESIDENT 
S IN ORDER" 
290 PRINT "2 WHO WAS PRESIDENT 
ON. . .?" 

295 PRINT "3 VICE PRESIDENTS" 
300 PRINT "4 HOW MANY TERMS...? 



ii 



305 PRINT "5 NATIVE STATES" 
310 PRINT "6 POLITICAL PARTIES" 
315 INPUTQ: PRINT :IFQ<10RQ>6 THEN 
PRINT@319," ";:GOT0315 
320 CLS: PRINT "CHOOSE: " :PRINT"Q 
THE PROGRAM ASKS QUESTIONS , ORA 
THE PROGRAM WILL ANSWER YOUR 
QUESTIONS" : PRINT 
325 IF Q=l THEN340 

330 INPUT "Q OR A";MD$:IF MD$><" 
Q" AND MD$X"A" THEN330 
335 IF Q=2 AND MD$="A" THEN355 
340 CLS: PRINT "TO RETURN TO THE M 
ENU, ENTER MENU AS THE ANSWER 

TO A QUESTION" 
345 IF MD$X"A" THEN PRINT" DURIN 
G YOUR CATEGORY, PRESS <ENTE 
R> IF YOU WANT TO REVEAL THE A 
NSWER TO A QUESTION" 
350 PRINT: PRINT "NOW PRESS <ENTE 

R> TO BEGIN YOUR CATEGORY" : INPUT 
A$ 

355 CLS: ON Q GO TO 360,445,605,7 
50,885,945 

3 60 CLS: PRINT "CATEGORY: LIST TH 
E PRESIDENTS" : PRINT 
3 65 RF$=" 11 : PRINT "1 LIST PRESIDE 
NTS FROM A CHOSEN STARTING POI 
NT TO END, OR" -.PRINT" 2 ANSWER RA 
NDOM SINGLE QUESTIONS" 7 : INPUT SF 
$ : PRINT : SF=VAL(SF$ ) : IFSF$="MENU" 
THEN2 80 

370 IF SF<10RSF>2THEN365 

375 PRINT "LIST PRESIDENTS" : PRIN 

T"F FORWARD, OR":PRINT"B BACKW 

ARD" : INPUTFF$ : IF FF$="B" THEN FF 

=-1 ELSE FF=1 

380 IF FF$="MENU"THEN2 80 

385 IF SF=1 THENPRINT: PRINT "BEGI 

NNING WITH. ..?": PRINT "ENTER THE 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 155 



NAME OF A PRESIDENT, OR PRESS < 
ENTER> FOR A RANDOM STARTING P 
OINT":INPUTRF$ 

390 CLS:IFRF$=""THEN P=RND(N) :GO 
TO405 

395 N$=RF$:GOSUB245:P=R:IFAN=0 T 
HEN385ELSE IF AN=2THEN280 
400 CLS 

405 R=P:P1=P+FF:IF P1=0 OR P1=N+ 
1 THEN 44J3 

410 IF SF=0 THEN 420 

415 GOSUB 220: PRINT STR$(P);"."; 

NM$:IF SF=1 THEN PRINT 

42)3 P=P1 : R=P : PRINT STR$ (P) ; " . " ; : 

INPUTN$:IF N$=" "THEN GOSUB 220:P 

RINT: PRINT STR$ (P) ; " . " ;NM$ : PRINT 

:GOT0435ELSE IF N$="MENU"THEN280 

425 GOSUB170: PRINT MS$(AN) 

43J3 PRINT: IF AN=0 THEN 420 

435 IF SF<=1 THEN SF=0:GOTO 405 

ELSE P=RND(N) :GOTO405 

440 IF SF<=1 THEN INPUT "PRESS E 

NTER TO RETURN TO THE MENU " ; Q 

$ : GOTO280ELSEGOTO390 

445 PRINT "CATEGORY: WHO WAS PRES 

IDENT ON. . . 11 

450 IF MD$X"A" THENM1=RND(12) :D 
1=RND(DY (Ml) ) :Y1=RND(186)+1797:G 
OT0515 

455 PRINT "ENTER MONTH , DAY , YEAR ( 
1789-1983) SEPARATED BY COMMAS (F 
OR EXAMPLENOV, 13,1949 OR 11,13,1 
949) . TO RETURN TO THE MENU, EN 
TER MENU, 0,0" 

460 PRINT: INPUT "DATE" ;M1$ , Dl$ , Y 
1$:M1=VAL(M1$) :D1=VAL(D1$) :Y1=VA 
L(Y1$):IF M1$="MENU"THEN280 
465 IFM1>0 AND MK13 THEN490 
470 F0RM1=1T012 

475 IF LEFT$(M1$,3)=LEFT$(M0$(M1 
) ,3)THEN490 
480 NEXTM1 

485 PRINT" INVALID MONTH" : GOT04 60 
490 IF Yl=1789 AND Dl=30 AND Ml= 
4 THENPRINT" GEORGE WASHINGTON BE 
CAME THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF T 
HE UNITED STATES. ":GOT04 60 
495 IFY1=1900 OR Yl=1800 THEN 50 
5 

500 IF Dl=29 AND Ml=2 AND Y1=4*I 
NT(Yl/4) THEN 5 10 

505 IF DK1 OR D1>DY(M1) THENPRI 
NT" INVALID DATE":GOTO460 
510 IF YK1789 OR Yl>1983 THENPR 
INT" YEAR OUT OF RANGE" : GOT04 60 
515 IF Yl=1849 AND Dl=4 AND Ml=3 
THEN Dl<=5 : IFMD$="A"THENPRINT" JA 
MES K. POLK LEFT OFFICE ON MA 
R.4, BUT ZACHARY TAYLOR WAS NO 



T INAUGURATED UNTIL MAR 5.": GOTO 
460 

520 FORJ=lTON 

525 YR=VAL(MID$(IY$,2*J-1,2) ) +18 

00+100*INT( (J-3)/23) 

530 IFYR>=Y1 THEN540 

535 NEXTJ : J=N : GOTO570 

540 J=J-1:MN=ASC(MID$(IM$, J+1,1) 

)-48:DN=ASC(MID$(ID$,J+l,l) ) -48 

545 IFYR>Y1 THEN 5 70 

550 IFMN<M1 THENJ=J+1:GOTO570 

555 IFMNXM1 THEN570 

560 IFDN<D1 THENJ=J+1 

565 IFDN=D1 THEND1=D1+1 : J=J+1 : IF 

MD$="A"THEN595 

570 IFMD$="A"THENR=J:GOSUB220:PR 
INTNM$:GOTO4 60 

575 PRINT: PRINT "WHO WAS PRE SI DEN 
T ON" : PRINTMO$ (Ml) ;STR$ (Dl) ; » , " ; 
Yl;"?" 

580 INPUTN$ : IFN$=" "THENR=J : GOSUB 

220: PRINTNM$ : GOT04 5 0 

585 IFN$="MENU"THEN280 

590 R=J:GOSUB 170 : PRINTMS$ (AN) : I 

FAN=0THENPRINT : GOT05 80ELSE4 50 

595 R=J-1:GOSUB220:P1$=NM$:R=J:G 

OSUB220:P2$=NM$ 

600 PRINT "THE PRESIDENCY PASSED 
FROM" : PRINTP1$ ; " TO" : PRINTP2$ : GO 
TO460 

605 PRINT "CATEGORY: VICE PRESID 
ENTS" : PRINT 

610 PRINT: IF MD$X"A" THEN R1=RN 
D(VN) ELSE 665 

615 P=VAL(MID$(T$,2*R1-1,2) ) 
620 R=P:GOSUB220 

625 PRINT "WHICH PRESIDENT HAD": 
PRINT VP$ (Rl) : PRINT "AS HIS VICE 

PRESIDENT?" 
630 INPUT N$ 

635 IF N$="MENU" THEN 280 

640 IF N$=" "THEN PRINT NM$:GOT06 

10 

645 R=P:GOSUB170 

650 IF Rl=4 AND AN=0 THEN R=4 : GO 
SUB170 

655 IF Rl=7 AND AN=0 THEN R=7:GO 
SUB170 

660 PRINT MS$(AN) :IFAN=1 OR AN=3 

THEN610ELSE630 
665 GOSUB 240: PRINT: ON AN+1 GOTO 
665,670,280,670 

670 IF R<N+1 THEN GOSUB220 : NV=0E 
LSE 610 
675 L=2*VN 

680 FORJ=l TO L STEP 2 

685 V=VAL(MID$(T$,J,2) ) 

690 IF R=V THEN NV=NV+1 : V$ (NV) =V 

P$((J+l)/2) 



1 56 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



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the race, or the end of you! 

Four challenging raceways, complete with obstacles and 
colorful 3-D scenery, put your skills to the test in this Pole 
Position™ type game. 

32K Color Computer required. $34.95 




Rommel 3-D by Kary McFadden 

You clutch the tank controls, searching for any sign of the 
enemy. Suddenly a blip appears on radar! Frantically, you 
move your tank into position. At last you spot the elusive 
enemy tank! Facing it, you race to lock sights and fire before 
he does! 

Enter the ultimate battle-zone in this exciting 3-D tank com- 
bat game. Strategy, speed, and your tank's cannon are your 
only hope as you wind through a three-dimensional course 
inhabited by impenetrable barriers and enemy tanks. 

Dazzling graphics and lifelike sound take you a step beyond 
the ordinary in this fast, machine-language arcade game. Enter 
the next dimension, ROMMEL'S troops are waiting for you! 

32K Color Computer required. $29.95 



576 S. Telegraph, Pontiac, MI 48053 
Orders and Information (313) 334*5700 
Prices Do Not Include Shipping and Handling 



695 IF R<V THEN 705 
700 NEXT J 

705 IF NV=0 THEN 745 

710 IF J=ll THEN NV=2:V$(2)=V$(1 

) :V$(1)="GE0RGE CLINTON" 

715 IF J=17 THEN NV=2 :V$ (2)=V$ (1 

) : V$ ( 1) =" JOHN C . CALHOUN" 

720 IF J=2*VN+1 THEN R=N:GOSUB22 

0: PRINT NM$;" 'S": PRINT "VICE PRES 

IDENT IS ";VP$(VN) :GOTO610 

725 IF J=43 THEN NV=2 : V$ (2) ="ADL 

AI E. STEVENSON" 

730 IF NV=1 THEN SX$="" ELSE SX$ 
="S" 

735 PRINT NM$ ; " HAD": PRINT RIGHT 
$(STR$(NV) ,1) ;" VICE PRESIDENT"; 

SX$ ; " : » 

740 FOR K=l TO NV : PRINT " — " ;V$ ( 
K) :NEXTK:GOTO610 

745 PRINT NM$; " HAD": PRINT "NO V 
ICE PRESIDENTS": GOTO 6 10 
750 PRINT "CATEGORY: HOW MANY TE 
RMS . . . " : PRINT 

755 IF MD$="A" THEN 760 ELSEPRIN 
T "ANSWER IN THE FORM": PRINT " 1 

(LESS THAN ONE TERM) "'.PRINT 
" 1 (EXACTLY ONE TERM)": PRINT 
"2- (MORE THAN ONE TERM, BUT 

LESS THAN TWO)": PRINT "E 

TC." 

760 IF MD$="Q" THEN R=RND(N-1):P 
RINT : GOTO 770 

765 PRINT:GOSUB240:ON AN+1 GOT07 
65,770,280,770 

770 R1=R:IF R=22 OR R=24 THEN CF 

=1 : TR$="2 " : GOTO 800 

775 IF R=N THEN PRINT "HE'S NOT 

FINISHED YET":GOTO760 

780 YI=VAL(MID$(IY$,2*R-1,2) )+18 

00+INT ( (R-3 ) /23 ) *100 

785 YL=VAL(MID$(IY$,2*R+1,2) ) +18 

00+INT ( (R-2)/23) *100 

790 TR=.5*(ASC(MID$(NT$,R,1) ) -64 

) :TS=INT(TR) 

795 IF TR=TS THEN TR$=RIGHT$ (STR 

$ (TR) , 1) ELSE TR$=RIGHT$ (STR$ (TS+ 

1) ,1)+"-" 

800 GOSUB220 

805 IF MD$="A" THEN 850 

810 PRINT "HOW MANY TERMS DID ": 

PRINTNM$ ; " SERVE" 7 : INPUT TU$ 

815 IF TU $= " " THENPRINT TR$:GOT08 

35 

820 IF TU$="MENU" THEN 280 

825 IF TU$><TR$ THEN 845 

830 PRINT "CORRECT" 

835 IF CF=0 THEN PRINT "("; RIGHT 

$(STR$(YI) ,4) ;"-";RIGHT$(STR$(YL 

) ,4) ;") ":GOTO760 



840 CF=0:PRINT "(1885-1889, 1893 
-1897) ":GOTO760 

845 PRINT "INCORRECT": INPUT TU$: 
GOT0815 

850 VL=VAL(TR$) :IF VL=1 THEN EX$ 

="TERM" ELSE EX$="TERMS" 

855 IF LEN(TR$)=1 THEN TR$=TR$+" 

":GOT0875 
860 IF VL=1 THEN TR$="LESS THAN 
ONE ":GOT0875 

865 NO$=EX$:IF VL=2 THEN NO$="TE 
RM" 

870 TR$="MORE THAN"+STR$ (VL-1) +" 
"+NO$+" BUT LESS THAN "+STR$(VL 
)+" » 

875 PRINT NM$ ; " SERVED" : PRINT TR 
$ ; EX$ 

880 GOTO 835 

885 PRINT "CATEGORY: NATIVE STAT 
ES" 

890 PRINT : I FMD$= " A " THENGOSUB2 40 : 
ON AN+1 GOTO890,900,280,900 
895 R=RND(N) 

900 S=ASC(MID$(SB$,R,1) )-48 
905 S$=ST$(S) 
910 GOSUB220 

915 IF MD$="A" THEN PRINT NM$:PR 
INT "WAS BORN IN ";S$:GOTO890 
920 PRINT "IN WHICH STATE WAS":P 
RINT NM$ ; " BORN?" 
925 INPUTA$ 

930 IF A$="MENU" THEN 280 

935 IF A$="" THEN PRINT S$:GOT08 

90 

940 IF A$=S$ THEN PRINT "CORRECT 
":GOTO 890 ELSE PRINT "INCORRECT 
":GOT0925 

945 PRINT "CATEGORY: POLITICAL P 
ARTIES" 

950 PRINT: IF MD$="A"THENGOSUB240 
:ON AN+1 GOTO950,960,280,960 
955 R=RND(N) 

960 PT=ASC(MID$(PP$,R,1) ) -47 
965 T1$=PT$(2*PT-1) :T2$=PT$(2*PT 

) 

970 GOSUB220:IFR=N THENVB$="IS " 
: VC$="DOES"ELSEVB$="WAS " :VC$="D 
ID" 

975 IF MD$="A" THEN PRINT NM$ : PR 
INT VB$;"A ";T1$:GOTO950 
980 PRINT "TO WHICH POLITICAL PA 
RTY ";VC$: PRINT NM$ ; " BELONG?" 
985 INPUT A$ 

990 IF A$="" THEN PRINT Tl$:GOTO 
950 

995 IF A$="MENU" THEN 280 
1000 IF A$=T1$ OR A$=T2$ THEN PR 
INT "CORRECT" :GOTO950 ELSE PRINT 
"INCORRECT" :GOT0985 /R\ 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 159 



This version includes an updated 
matching test section for true 
randomizing of pairs 



CoCo Test maker Revisited 

By Ron Powers 




found Co Co Test maker by Lynn 
C. Sherman and Walter Baldas- 
saro (September 1985, Page 30) 
to be a fine and useful program. 
1 1 have used it this school year to 
compose several tests. There was one 



Ron Powers lives in Davenport, North 
Dakota and teaches high school Eng- 
lish, Before reentering the teaching 
profession in 1985, he spent 20 years as 
a broadcast journalist. A Co Co owner 
for three years, Ron has only had a 
serious interest in programming for less 
than a year. 



section, however, that I didn't like. The 
matching test always gave the same 
answer key. It was not truly randomiz- 
ing the pairs. I have rewritten that 
section of the CoCo Testmaker. 

I found their line numbering a little 
disconcerting and renumbered the pro- 
gram to suit my own style. I also 
changed their INPUT statements to LINE 
INPUT statements, so punctuation 
marks can be used without losing some 
of the questions or statements. 

In lines 6060 through 6090 a FDR/ 
NEXT loop assigns the pairs of state- 
ments to strings G$(X) and H$(X). 
Lines 6110 through 6170 randomize the 
pairs of statements with lines 6130 and 



6 1 50 as counters to eliminate statements 
already used. 

I plan to further refine other parts of 
the Testmaker to make the program a 
little easier to use. Nonetheless, 1 offer 
the original authors my heartfelt thanks 
for getting me started on computerized 
test writing. 

Note that 1 have changed the Print 
Test Heading section a little so that 
Class or Subject, Test Title, Date and 
a space for Name are all printed. 

(Questions about this program may 
be directed to Mr. Powers at Rt. 1 Box 
43, Davenport, ND 58021, 701-347- 
4321. Please enclose an SASE when 
writing.) □ 




1040 6 5120 

2090 117 6135 

4000 95 END 

4310 110 



T 




The listing: TESTMRKR 

1 GOTO 5 

2 SAVE"TESTMAKR" : SAVE 11 TESTER" , A: 
END 

5 CLS: CLEAR 2000 

10 PRINT "MAKE SURE PRINTER IS ON 



AND PAPER IS SET TO TOP OF 

PAGE 

20 PRINT"PRESS A KEY TO BRING UP 

MENU" 
30 INPUT A$ 
40 CLS 

50 INPUT" 1 PRINT TEST HEADING 

2 MULTIPLE CHOICE 

3 FILL IN THE BLANK 

4 ANSWER QUESTIONS 

5 TRUE FALSE 

6 MATCHING" ;N 



160 



THE RAINBOW September 1986 



II. 



ftware 



For the serious student . . . 
, from Preschool to College 



Ages 3-5 

Hand-eye coordination 
Colors 
Shapes 
Numbers 

Great graphics and music 
Reading readiness skills 
Capital letters 
Small letters 

Learn to associate letters and letter blends with the 

sounds they make 

Requires 32K ECB and joysticks 




PreReader 



A 



J R V 

CORRECT 




$19.95 -Tape 
$24.95 - Disk 



GALACTIC 
HANGMAN 




SUGAR 

Both 16K ECB and 
32K ECB versions 
included on tape 
$17.95 

For grade 2 and up 

Exciting version of popular word guessing game 
Play against the computer or a friend 
Outstanding high-resolution graphics and animation 
Great sound effects and music 
700 word vocabulary included 
Create your own word files 

- your child's spelling list 

- foreign language vocabulary 

- specialized word list, i.e., geographic, chemistry, 
physics 

Broaden your vocabulary 

Both 16K ECB and 32K ECB versions included on 
tape 

Easily moved to disk 



MRTH MISSION 



, 5HDT TIMER 
PQWEPLEUEL 



>l,!<!,U,l ( |,i,hU.I,l,l,U,!,l,U 



u 

\ □ 

; m 

EL 
UJ 

a 

z 

[E 

LJ 



94J [55 



55 



3 1 



m on 



a 

Z 
cn 
m 

N 

a 

z 
rn 



L 





5T= 29 



PL= 40 



511=100 



Math Mission is an educational game designed to rein- 
force early math skills in the four math operations: 

Addition 
Subtraction 
Multiplication 
Division 

• Can be played on any of four optional levels of 
difficulty 

• Joystick oriented to develop hand-eye 
coordination 

• Shot timer simulates a classroom time test 

• Picture, sound, and word rewards 

MATH MISSION requires 32K ECB and 

1 joystick 

Available on both Tape and Disk 
$24.95, either version 



Dealer and author inquiries are al- 
ways welcome. Canadian dealers 
should contact Kcllv Software Dis- 
tributors, Ltd., P.O. Box 11932, 
Edmonton, Alberta T5J-3L1, (403) 
421-8003. 

Disk software compatible with Radio 
Shack DOS only. 



SOFTWARE 
1710 North 50th Avenue 
Hollywood, Florida 33021 
(305) 981-1241 

A complete catalog of other sweet 
Sugar Software products Is available. 



Add Si. 50 per program for postage 
and handling. Florida residents add 
5% sales tax. 

COD orders are welcome. CIS orders 
EMAIL to 70405, 1374. No r efunds or 
exchanges. 









> 







!l 



60 IF N <1 OR N >6 THEN 50 

70 ON N GOSUB 1000, 2000, 3000, 

4000 , 5000 , 6000 

1000 CLS: INPUT "CLASS OR SUBJECT 
" / C$ 

1010 INPUT "TEST TITLE" ;T$ 
1020 INPUT "DATE AS 00/00/00" ;D$ 
1030 PRINT#-2, "":PRINT#-2, "" :PRI 
NT#-2," ":PRINT#-2," 

"+C$:PRINT#-2, "" 
1040 PRINT#-2," 

"+T$:PRINT#-2, " " 
1050 PRINT#-2," 

"+D$:PRINT#-2 

1060 PRINT#-2," NAME 

PERIOD... 

. .":PRINT#-2 
1070 CLS: GOTO 5J3 

2000 PRINT#-2, "Circle the best a 
nd most correct answer for each 
statement . " 
2010 J=0 
2020 CLS 

2025 PRINT "MULTIPLE CHOICE" 

2030 PRINT "TYPE STATEMENT OR QUE 

STION. WHEN FINISHED, SELECT 

IONS WILL APPEAR A-B-C-D. 

THEN TYPE IN YOUR SEL 

ECTIONS. WHEN FINISHED ALL STA 

TEMENTS ANDSELECTIONS PRESS <BRE 

AK> AND <RUN> FOR MENU AGAIN . 
ii 

2040 PRINT"THIS SECTION WILL ACC 
EPT TWO LINES. SPACE TO A TO 

CONTINUE . " 
2045 PRINT" A " 
2050 LINE INPUT C$ 
2060 CLS 

2070 J1=1:J=J1+J 

2080 PRINT # - 2 , " " : PRINT # - 2 , J ; TAB ( 
5)C$:PRINT#-2, 11 " 

2090 C2 $=" A . " : C3 $=" B . " : C4 $=" C . " : 
C5$="D." 

2100 LINE INPUT "A. ";A$:LINE IN 
PUT"B. ";B$:LINE INPUT"C. ";C$:L 
INE INPUT" D. ";D$ 

2110 PRINT#-2 / TAB(10)C2$+A$:PRIN 
T#-2 , TAB ( 10) C3 $+B$ : PRINT#-2 , TAB ( 
10) C4$+C$ : PRINT#-2 , TAB ( 10) C5$+D$ 
2120 GOTO 2040 

3000 CLS:PRINT"FILL IN THE BLANK 
S" 

3010 PRINT#-2,"Fill in the blank 
s of each of the statements .": PR 

INT#-2,"" 

3020 PRINT"THIS SECTION WILL ACC 
EPT TWO LINES PLUS CHARACTERS 
TO THE A . IF MORE SPACE IS NEED 
ED, PRESS <ENTER> TO CONTINUE Q 



UESTION. " 

3030 PRINT "STATEMENT OR QUESTION 

3040 LINE INPUT F$ 
3050 J1=1:J=J1+J 

3060 PRINT#-2, J;F$:PRINT#-2, "" 

3070 INPUT "PRESS 1 FOR SPACE IF 

NEEDED" ; A: ON A GOSUB 3090 

3080 GOTO 3020 

3090 LINE INPUT AA$ 

3100 PRINT#-2,TAB(3)AA$:PRINT#-2 
ii ii 

3110 GOTO 3020 

4000 CLS: PRINT "ANSWER QUESTION" 

4010 PRINT#-2 , "Answer questions 
on lines provided. ": PRINT#-2 , "" 

4020 CLS: PRINT" THIS SECTION WILL 
ACCEPT TWO LINES PLUS CHARAC 
TERS TO THE A . IF MORE SPACE IS 
NEEDED, PRESS <ENTER> TO CONTIN 
UE. " 

4030 PRINT"QUESTION 

A II 

4040 LINE INPUT Y$ 

4050 YY$=" 



4060 J1=1:J=J1+J 

4070 PRINT#-2,J;Y$:PRINT#-2, "" 

4080 INPUT"PRESS 1 FOR SPACE IF 

NEEDED"; A: ON A GOSUB 4100 

4090 GOTO 4150 

4100 LINE INPUT AA$ 

4110 PRINT#-2,TAB(3)AA$:PRINT#-2 

4150 INPUT "HOW MANY LINES 1-2-3 

-4 ";H 

4160 ON H GOSUB 4200, 4300, 4400 
, 4500 

4200 PRINT#-2,YY$:PRINT#-2, "" 
4210 GOTO 4020 

4300 PRINT#-2,YY$:PRINT#-2, "":PR 

INT"-2,YY$:?#-2 

4310 GOTO 4020 

4400 PRINT#-2 , YY$ : PRINT#-2 , " " : PR 
INT#-2,YY$:PRINT#-2, " " :PRINT#-2, 
YY$, :PRINT#-2, "" 
4410 GOTO 4020 

4500 PRINT#-2 , YY$ : PRINT#-2 , " " : PR 
INT#-2 , YY$ : PRINT#-2 , "" : PRINT#-2 , 
YY$ : PRINT#-2 , " " : PRINT#-2 , YY$ : PRI 
NT#-2 " " 
4510 GOTO 4020 

4999 END 

5000 PRINT#-2, "Circle TRUE if th 
e statement is true. Circle FAL 
SE if the statement is false. ":P 

RINT#-2, "" 
5010 CLS 
5020 J=0 



162 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



5030 PRINT "TRUE - FALSE QUESTION 
S" 

5j34j3 PRINT"THIS SECTION WILL PRI 
NT 5j3 CHARACTERS PER LINE. 

TYPE UP TO THE FIRST A ON THE 
SECOND LINE THEN SPACE TO TH 
E SECOND A TO CONTINUE" 
50 50 PRINT" A 

A II 

LINE INPUT A$ 
B$="TRUE - FALSE " 

Q$=" " 
Jl=l 

J=J1+J 

PRINT#-2, J;B$;Q$;A$:PRINT#- 



5060 
5010 
50Q0 
5090 
5100 
5110 
2 , " " 
5120 
5130 
6000 



CLS:GOTO 5030 
END 

PRINT#-2, "Match column A wi 
th column B in space provided.": 
PRINT #-2, " " 

6005 CLEAR 2000 

6010 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" MA 
TCHING TEST" 

6020 PRINT"THIS SECTION WILL RAN 
DOMIZE TEN ITEMS IN COLUMN A WIT 
H TEN ITEMS IN COLUMN B" 



6030 PRINT: PRINT "COLUMN A CAN BE 
UP TO THE A ON ONE LINE. COLU 
MN B CAN BE UP TOTHE A ON THE SE 
COND LINE" 
6060 FORX=1TO10 
6065 PRINT" 



A II 



6070 
6015 
6080 
6090 
6095 
6100 
6110 
6120 
6130 
6135 

6140 
6150 
6160 
6110 
6200 
6205 
6210 
X;"- 
6220 
6230 



";G$(X) 

A II 



LINE INPUT "A- 
PRINT" 
LINE INPUT "B- ";H$(X) 
NEXT X 

CLS: PRINT @ 2 36, "WORKING" 
DIM A$(10) ,B$(1J3) 
FORY=lTOlj3 
X=RND(lj3) 

IF A$(X)<>"" THEN 6120 
A$(X)=G$(Y) 

X=RND(10) 

IF B$(X)<>""THEN 614J3 
B$(X)=H$(Y) ^ 
NEXT Y 
F0RX=1T01J3 
L2$=" ..." 

PRINT#-2,L2$;A$(X) ;TAB(30) ; 

";B$(X) 

PRINT#-2 , "" 

NEXT X /R\ 



Submitting Material 
To Rainbow 



Contributions to THE RAINBOW are welcome from 
everyone. We like to run a variety of programs that 
are useful/helpful/fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and 
it is best to make several saves, at least one of them 
in ASCII format. We're sorry, but we do not have time 
to key in programs. All programs should be supported 
by some editorial commentary explaining how the 
program works. Generally, we're much more inter- 
ested in how your submission works and runs than 
how you developed it. Programs should be learning 
experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of 
criteria. Tnose wishing remuneration should so state 
when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed 
information on making submissions, please send a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope (SASE) to: Submis- 
sions Editor, THE RAINBOW, The Falsoft Building, P.O. 
Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. We will send you some 
more comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently 
submitted to another publication. 



J&R ELECTRONICS 

Complete 256Kand 51 2K Memory Expansion Systems 
(Hardware Software and documentation included) 
User friendly software, programmer not required 

Easy, Solderless Installation 

* We have eliminated the necessity to piggyback for 512K versions! * 
RAMDISK — Fast disk I/O, 35/40 track (two RAM drives with 512K) 

PC0PYM0R — More than 30 PMODE 4 screens in memory at once! PCOPY command modified to accept 
PCOPY 1 to 128. More than 70 PMODE 4 screens and PCOPY 1 to 302 with 512K versions {or 30 PM00E 
4 screens with one RAMDISK). 

SPOOLER — HUGE printer buffer for offline storage inside your computer while the printer's busy. Custom- 
izable from 30K to over 200K (500K with 51 2K versions). Buffer can be turned off /on copied using simple 
PRINT CHRS commands. 

0S9 Ramdisk — Fast OS-9 disk I/O! 35/40 track single sided or 40 track double sided (512K) Ramdisk 
under 0S9! GOOD'S 0S9 Ramdisk (Rainbow Feb '86) with fully commented source code and install files 
added by J&R. (Requires 0S9 operating system) 
ALL software above is configurable for 256K/512K operation. 

Software shipped on disk, add S10.00 for software on tape. (0S9 RAMDISK not available on tape). 

ALL boards below are 256K/512K capable, software & documentalion included. 

New SAM (74LS785) not included (use your 74LS783), 74LS785 recommended for 2.0 MHz operation. 

Description 

Banker II bare board (with long pin socket, does not include memory 
Expansion Board) 

Banker II bare board + parts (does not include Memory Expansion Board) 
Banker II assembled & tested (no memory) 
Banker II (256K, upgradable to 51 2K) assembled & tested with memory 
Banker II (51 2K) assembled & tested with memory 
Memory Expansion Board 
Memory Expansion Board + parts 

Down Under Controller. Ram Pack size controller with BDDS Gold 
plated, high reliability edge connectors, jumpers for 24/28 pin ROM. 
Compatible with COCO I and COCO II. 
BDOS (Enhanced DOS on 27128 EPR0M) 
64K switch 

New SAM 74LS785 (required only tor 2.0 MHz operation) 
★ New!* PowerBasic — Introductory Price. (Requires RSOOS 1.0 or 
1.1 and 256K or 51 2K Banker) Utilize the extra memory for variable 
storage and pass variables between programs in different pages of 
memory. Split a large BASIC program into smaller pieces and GOTO or 
GOSU B a line in another page of memory. . . and more features included, 
(disk only) 

S/W Pac upgrade. 1.XX to2.XX 



Part number 


Price 


#1001 


$39.95 


#1002 


$69.95 


#1003 


$89.95 


#1004 


$129.95 


#1005 


$169.95 


#1006 


$15.00 


#1007 


$29.95 


#9000 


$89.95 


#9001 


$35.00 


#9002 


$5.00 


#9004 


$24.95 


#9005 


$24.95 



#9006 



$10.00 



To place an order, write to J&R Electronics, P.O. Box 2572, Columbia, MD 21045, 
OR call (301 ) 987-9067 —Jesse or (301 ) 788-0861 — Ray. 
HOURS: Weekdays 7 p.m.-9 p.m.; Sat. Noon-5 p.m. EASTERN TIME. 

Add $4.00 shipping & handling (FOREIGN ORDERS $7,00), COD charge $3.00. Maryland residents add 
5% state tax. 

CHECKS. MONEY ORDERS OR COD's only please (personal check— 2 weeks for clearance). IMME- 
DIATE DELIVERY. Give COCO Radio Shack model (i.e. 26-3136), Disk or Tape when ordering. 
QUANTITY DISCOUNT AVAILABLE. For information on shipping or previously placed orders call (301) 
788-0861. COCO II 26-31 XX owners call (soldering experience maybe required). 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 163 



PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED 



HALL OF THE KING 

This program combines all the things you lookfor in a great 
two disk graphics adventure program. The Hi-Res graphics 
are superbly done. The text portion of the screen and the 
graphics change quickly as you move through the HALL 
OF THE KING. You can move freely from one portion of 
the adventure to another. Call up your inventory at any 
time. You can even save or load a game at ANY time. HALL 
OF THE KING will challenge even the most seasoned 
adventurer. 

HALL OF THE KING requires 64K EB and one disk drive. 
This exciting two disk adventure comes packaged in a 
vinyl case $39.95 

HALL OF THE KINO II - THE INNER CHAMBER 

Continue your quest for the Earthstone in The Inner 
Chambers of the HALL OF THE KING. Outstanding 
graphics help show the way to success in your search to 
help restore the legendary power of the Earthstone to the 
dwarven race. The deeper you travel into the inner 
chambers, the more difficult your progress becomes. 
HALL OF THE KING II has all the fine feature of the first 
adventure. It is designed to follow the original HALL OF 
THE KING but may be played as a stand-alone adventure. 
The adventure fills two disks and comes packaged in a 
handsome vinyl folder. It requires one disk drive and 64K. 
$39.95 

WARP FACTOR X 

If you have been waiting for a game for your color computer 
that has everything, your wait is over. WARP FACTOR X is 
here. This all graphics simulation game requires strategy, 
fast thinking, an eye for detail, and above all experience in 
knowing the capabilities of your starship and its computer. 
(See review in Feb. 85 issue of Rainbow.) It requires 32K 
one disk drive and comes packaged in a vinyl library pase. 
$34.95 

DARKMOOR HOLD 

You and your comrades will explore the levels of Darkmoor 
Hold in an effort to gain great riches and defeat the dark 
wizard. The Wizard will soon realize the threat you pose 
and the many monsters you meet and battle will become 
stronger and more powerful as you move through the 10 
levels of Darkmoor. A keen eye will help you find weapons 
and armor to aid your battle along with treasures for you to 
keep. Your party consists of a Dwarf, an Elf, and you, the 
Human, each with their own special attributes. The 
weapons, armor and treasure are placed randomly in each 
level to provide a new challenge each time you play. You 
may also save the game you are playing since defeating 
the evil Wizard is not an easy task. It has great graphics 
and an impressive text screen to give you more fun than a 
barrel of elves. Requires 64KEB and 1 disk drive. $29.95 




DRAGON BLADE 

Animated Graphics Adventure 

This 100% hi-res graphics adventure features many 
animated screens which will delight the avid adventurer. 
You search for the magic Blade which is the only way to rid 
your homeland of the fearsome dragon which has risen 
from a long rest to terrorize your village. Fill your screen 
with super graphics as your try to solve the difficult 
challenge the village leaders have set before you. Dragon 
Biade requries 64K Extended Basic and 1 disk drive. 
$29.95 

UTILITIES 

Oracle II — The ultimate monitor. $29.95 

• 

RTD Trio — Take advantage of this special offer. This 
package of three utility programs includes our new DISK 
TO TAPE, TAPE TO DISK (version 2.0), and ROMFREE 
(version 2.0). TAPE TO DISK moves BASIC, ML and DATA 
files from tape to disk automatically — one program or an 
entire tape. It even fixes those programs that load at hex 
600 so they work on a disk system. ROMFREE moves 
ROM packs to tape or disk easily, and fixes them so you 
just load and EXEC. ROMFREE now accomodates the 
larger 1 6K ROM packs. You won't believe how easy it is to 
protect your software library! These programs are shipped 
on tape. Requires 1 6K. $49.95 ($24.95 each if purchased 
separately) 

Prickly Pear Mail list — Ver. 2.0 — You won't find a mailing 
list program anywhere that will out-perform this one. Req. 
32K and one disk drive. Only $29.95 

STATISTICS 

Lizpac - Absolute the most complete statistics package we have 
seen for ANY computer anywhere. Lizpack is 850,000 Bytes of 
programming filling 7 disks with an eighth disk containing data 
files to be used in the examples. The 200 page manual completely 
explains all that Lizpac has to offer. It is user friendly. Req. 32K 
disk only, $195.00 



POLICY ON PROTECTION 

We believe our customers are honest — all of our 
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Using Inverse Characters 



By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



I sit here, weak and weary, 
pondering the subject of 
this article, my mind wan- 
ders rapidly over an arpeggio of CoCo 
statements and commands. 

Over the past several years, a variety 
of topics have been touched upon that 
are a constant source of interest to 
beginners eager to learn a little and 
create a lot. 

Often, mulling over a topic I am eager 
to explore together with the newcomer, 
I have the vague sense of having covered 
that phase of CoCo's repertoire a few 
years ago. Repeating material is unfair 
to the faithful veterans who have 
marched through these tutorials. Hope- 
fully, the veterans will pass on to greater 
glory and allow the new recruits to have 
their turn at BASIC Training. 

As there will always be a Britannia, 
so too will there always be new recruits 
to augment the vast army of CoConuts. 

Newcomers may not realize how 
much valuable information is stored in 
the treasury of back issues of THE 
RAINBOW. You should consider picking 



Florida-based Joseph Kolar is a veter- 
an writer and programmer and special- 
izes in introducing beginners to the 
powers of CoCo, 



up some of the back issues. Of course, 
the ideal solution is to purchase those 
available. 

Starting with the July 1983 Anniver- 
sary issue, a yearly index of articles has 
been presented. Since you might only be 
interested in selected topics, you may 
want to purchase Anniversary issues 
first. If you see some topic near and dear 
to your heart, pick up the back issue 
containing the desired article. 

Let me caution you — the more of 
CoCo's secrets you become privy to, the 
more you want to explore. Rest assured, 
a vast storehouse of CoCo wisdom 
resides in the back issues of our favorite 
computer magazine waiting to be 
tapped. Remarkably, just a mere frac- 
tion of the treasure trove is obsolete. Go 
back and review the state of the art in 
1981 up until you joined the ranks of 
CoConuts. 

Isn't it tempting to traipse down 
memory lane and discover something 
new and intriguing you may have over- 
looked or not been aware of? 

On occasion, the newcomer comes 
across an interesting program listing 
that may be Greek to him, but is never- 
theless fascinating. He has an itch to 
understand how it works. 

The beginner is urged to investigate. 
You are encouraged to take chunks of 



a large listing or the entire listing, if it 
is short and analyze it. 

For this purpose, you need a regular 
40-page, lO l / 2 by 8-inch, ruled, one- 
subject notebook. You may want a few 
notebooks to store different categories 
of notes. As so often happens, you 
discover an interesting routine you want 
to preserve for future use and want a 
permanent copy of it in words that 
make sense to you for ready reference. 

We'll start out using Listing 1, the 
tutorial for today. This program is 
meant to display material in inverse 
characters. Key in this listing and run 
it with the volume up. 

On the inverse screen, (CLS0), using 
the ASCII character codes for lower- 
case (inverse colors) in a DftTfl state- 
ment, I displayed my name to give this 
tutorial a personal flavor. In Line 60, 
substitute values that spell out your 
name. Refer to the manual. Use decimal 
code A=97 through Z=122. Use 'blank 
space ' =12B to separate the names. Do 
not skip any spaces and separate each 
value with a comma. 

Count the number of characters in 
the revised Line 60. 

In the FOR X= and FOR Y= statements 
in Line 10, counting up from and in- 
cluding 10, calculate the number of 
letters/ spaces in your name. If the total 




September 1986 THE RAINBOW 165 



is not 12, (which ends at 21), edit this 
value to reflect the proper number. Run 
your work. 

Chances are you want to be neat and 
recenter your name. Adjust both values 
in the two FDR statements, plus or minus 
the same amount. Thus, if your name 
is 16 characters long, move the first 
letter to begin two spaces to the right, 
10-2 to 25-2, (8 to 23) in both FDR 
statements. Run it, adjust to your 
satisfaction and then press BREAK. 

List Line 60 and crack open the 
analysis notebook. Number all the 
pages. Leave the first page blank and 
use it for the table of contents. 

At the top of the second sheet, to the 
left of the red vertical line, write the first 
line number. On the right side, copy the 
line from the screen. If it is a multiple- 
line statement, consider each statement 
to be a single entry in the analysis. 

On the next line to the right of the red 
vertical line, write, in pencil, an expla- 
nation or the significance of the state- 
ment in your own words, because it 
must have meaning to you. If you 
cannot determine the meaning or use of 
the line, skip a few lines and enter the 



next statement. You can always go back 
to unannotated statements. 
It would begin like this: 

0 LISTING1 

Title. 
10 CLSO 

Clear screen to black to print inverse 
characters. 

FORX= 10 TO 21: 

Total of number of letters to be 
displayed. 

21-10+1=12. 

Locates PRINTS locations to begin 
with J at Print@10. 

PLAY"L200V15B:" 

A dual-purpose statement, (sound 
plus time elapsed). Musical note B in 
default octave, 02; also volume 
default V15, even though used, has 
a short duration of L200, which 
determines the time between dis- 
played characters. 

READA: 

This refers to the only DATA state- 
ment at Line 60, which is to be read 
into memory. 

At this point, you may want to list 



Line 60, even though it will be out of 
sequence. Remember, this is your anal- 
ysis so do it any way that makes sense 
to you. 

60 DATA106,11 1,1 15,101,1 12,104,128, 

107,111,108,97,114 

This is number of characters/ spaces, 
12, in reversed lowercase ASCII 
code. The first letter read is 
CHR$(106), J to be located at X, 10. 
The second letter is CHRS(lll), O, 
to be located at X+l, etc. 

CONT10 PRINT@X,CHRS(A);: 
Prints selected characters, A, in turn, 
at selected location, X. Note V is 
used to chop off trailing line, which 
would destroy the effect. 

And so forth, statement by statement. 
If you can't puzzle out the significance 
of a statement, change values and note 
any differences. This may give a clue. 

For instance, change 30 in Line 20 to 
300 and run. This allows you to view 
the sequence of character movement in 
slow motion. Change it to 3 and run. 
This should tell you that if you speed up 
or slow down the duration of the sound, 



About Your Subscription 



Your copy of the rainbow is sent second class 
mail. If you do not receive your copy by the 5th 
of the month of the publication date, send us a card 
and we will mail another. Canadian subscribers 
and foreign airmail allow two additional weeks. 

You must notify us of a new address when you 
move. Notification should reach us no later than 
the 15th of the month prior to the month in which 
you change your address. Sorry, we cannot be 
responsible for sending another copy when you 
fail to notify us. 

Your mailing label also shows an "account 
number" and the subscription expiration date. 
Please indicate this account number when renew- 
ing or corresponding with us. It will help us help 
you better and faster. 

For Canadian and other non-U. S. subscribers, 
there may be a mailing address shown that is 
different from our editorial office address. Do not 
send any correspondence to that mailing address. 
Send it to our editorial offices at Falsoft, Inc., The 
Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 
This applies to everyone except those whose 
subscriptions are through our distributor in 
Australia. 



166 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



LOOSE STRINGS / by Tron 

THIS U) AS A HARD PROGRAM 
TO UURITE ! IT TOOK N\E 
THREE WEEKS JUST TO 




you zap the desired sound effect, not to 
mention the time lapse. 

Another example: Temporarily de- 
lete from Line 20 : GOSUB 70, and at end 
of Line 30 add : GOSUB 70. Now run. 

The major program parts are: nested 
loop (lines 10 through 40), data (Line 
60) and the music GOSUB routine (lines 
70 through 110). The CHR$ ( RND( 26 ) 
+96 ) ; displays one randomly chosen 
lowercase letter from 'A' through 'Z' 
(26). Since the ASCII codes begin at 97, 
to eliminate all unwanted characters, 96 
is added to the random number chosen. 
Thus, RND ( 1 ) +96=57 displays a reverse 
'A', RND(2)+96=9B displays a reverse 
'B\ and so on. 



The GOSUB routine chooses at ran- 
dom one of two volumes. A choice of 
four notes is randomly selected so that 
one of them will be sounded at one of 
the two volume levels every time a 
character is displayed. 

If you returned GOSUB 70 to its 
original location, put a REM marker in 
front of it. Run and note the effect. 

Do not be afraid to change values in 
order to see what happens. 

Here is an interesting one: Count the 
number of letters in your surname. 
Subtract from the high value in the FOR 
Y statement in Line 10. For example, 
Kolar has five letters, so 21 minus five 
equals 16. Substitute this for the low 



value (in our example it would be FOR 
Y=16 TO 21), and run it. This is a 
confusing, but effective version. The 
given name is displayed one letter at a 
time while the surname is jumbled. 
After the first name is completely dis- 
played, the second name unravels. 

During analysis, there may be rou- 
tines you want to save for future refer- 
ence. There is no need to commit them 
to memory. Copy them, with an expla- 
nation, into one of the reference note- 
books. 

This last version of displaying a name 
evolved through a dozen transforma- 
tions that produced two allied fun 
programs for your entertainment. 



Listing 1: INVERSE 
0 , <LISTING1> 

1J3 CLSj3:FORX=lj3T021:PLAY M L2j3pV15 
B":READA:PRINT@X,CHR$(A) ; : FOR Y= 
1J3T021 

2J3 FORZ=lT03j3:NEXT:GOSUB7j3 

3J3 IF Y>X THEN PRINT@Y , CHR$ (RND ( 

26)+96) ; 

4j3 NEXTY,X 

5)3 GOT05j3 

6J3 DATAlj36 , 111 , 115 , 101 , 112 , 1J34 , 1 
28 , 1)37 , 111 , 1)38 , 97 , 114 

7) 3 P=RND(2):IF P=l THEN PLAY"V15 
" ELSE PLAY"V25" :Q=RND(4) : ON Q 
001080,9)3,1)3)3,11)3 

8) 3 PLAY 11 A": RETURN 

9) 3 PLAY 11 C 11 : RETURN 

I) 3)3 PLAY 11 F": RETURN 

II) 3 PLAY "E 11 : RETURN 

Listing 2: STUTTER1 
0 ! <STUTTER1> 

1)3 CLS0:FORX=9TO21:PLAY"L255O5CC 
" : READA: PRINT @X, CHR$ (A) ; : FORY=ll 



TO 21 STEP2 

2) 3 IF Y>X THEN PRINT@Y , CHR$ (RND ( 
26)+96); 

3) 3 PLAY"B-L2)3)3EF+ ,I :NEXTY,X 
32 N=J3 

35 N=N+1 

4) 3 READQ$ 

41 PRINT@32," M ; 

5) 3 Q$=Q$+" 11 : FOR R=l TO LEN (Q$) : 
S$=MID$(Q$,R,1) 

51 V=VAL(S$) :IFV AND R=l THEN PR 
INT@31,"" ; 

52 IF V OR S$=" "THEN S$=CHR$(12 
8) ELSES$=CHR$ (ASC (S$) +32) 

53 PLAY n F":P$=P$+S$ 

54 IF S$=CHR$(12 8) THEN IF LEN (P 
$)+POS()3)<3 3 THEN PRINTP$ ; : GOT05 
7 

55 IF S$=CHR$(128) THEN PRINTSTR 

ING$(32-POS (J3) ,128) ; : PRINTP$ ; :P$ 
= u ii 

57 NEXT 

6) 3 GOSUB7)3:IF N=3 THEN PRINT@427 

, ll the ,, +S$+ ll end"+S$+ l, end 11 ;ELSE IF 

N<3 GOT035 
61 GOT061 



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September 1986 THE RAINBOW 167 



Type NEW and key in Stutter 1. Copy 
the listings very carefully. Be certain you 
press ENTER after the last letter of each 
of the 2000 series DflTfi lines. Do not 
leave a blank trailing space. Note that 
Line 2010 doesn't make sense but copy 
it as is. Run the program. 

My original goal was to get a 
stammer-free display. In Line 50, insert 
in front of GOTO 57, P$="":. In Line 
2010 insert CDCD5PRCEBRR immediately 
after DfiTfi without leaving a blank 
space. Run your work. 

To indent each line in Line 41, change 
32 to 34 and run. Now, to get another 
stammer, restore Line 41 to 32. In Line 
55, change 32- to 33+ and run. If 
desired, CSflVE now. 

Type NEW. Key in Stutter 2 for a 
modification and run. The stutter is too 
pronounced. To eliminate most of it, 
add at the end of Line 54 :GDTD 57. In 
Line 55, change 0+ to 32- and run. For 
one final stammer, change Line 55 from 
32- to 8+ and run. 

We gave CoCo some workout! Notice 
we did not use any punctuation. In 
order to use inverse punctuation marks, 
we must POKE them into the memory 
locations 1024 to 1535, which are equiv- 



alent to 0-511, (the Print @ screen). It 
is not practical to use them in this 
program. 

That doesn't mean that it can't be 
done. As long as you can think of a 
problem, you are on the way to solving 
it. CoCo usually has the capability to 
solve it; the trick is to coax it into 
revealing its secrets. 

CLORD Stutter 1 if you saved it, 
otherwise key it in again. 

In Line 41, change 32 to 34; in Line 
54, insert in front of GOTO 57, P$="":; 
in Line 60, insert GDSUB 500 at the 
beginning; and in Line 2010, after DRTfi 
insert CDCD SPRCEBRR. 

Add the following lines: 

58 P=PDS(0) 

500 IF P=13 GDTD600 ELSE IF 
P=18 GDTDG01 ELSE IF P=30 
GDTDG02 

G00 PDKE1132,4G:RETURN 
G01 POKE1105,4G:RETURN 
G02 P0KE1149 , 46 : RETURN 

OK, run your handiwork. How was 
the value of *P' determined? On Line 58 
:PRINTP; was added. Add this tempo- 
rary modification and discover a useful 
programming trick. 



The cursor locator, POS(0), was 
placed right after a sentence was dis- 
played. It was given a value *P\ 
PRINTP; gave the value of the location 
of the cursor along the row, from zero 
through 3 1 . 

How was the POKE location figured 
out? 

By guesstimation. One of several 
methods is to set the POKE at some 
arbitrary location such as 1100 in lines 
600 through 602 and POKE 46, the 
inverse period at that location. It was 
tried and adjusted until it rested after 
the last character in the sentence. 

A problem would arise if the same 
cursor location, PO5(0), was revealed 
to be the same value for two or more 
sentences, but on different rows. You 
might like to set up a problem and work 
it out. Being lazy, I would revise one or 
the other of the sentences to ensure I 
would get a new cursor location. 

We worked with the screen cursor 
locator, POS ( 0 ) , and managed to create 
our usual useless but amusing pro- 
grams. We got a bit more programming 
under our belts and stored some impor- 
tant notes in our reference notebooks. 
Not a bad day's work! □ 



70 PRINT0419, "press ,l +S$+ ll any"+S$ 
+ H key"+S$+ M to"+S$+" continue" ; 
80 EXEC44539:FORW=3 2 T0448 STEP3 
2 : PRINT@W , STRING$ (32,128) ; : NEXT : 
RETURN 

1000 DATA 116,1)34,1)31,128,115,11 
6,117,116,116,101,114,101,114 
2000 DAT AMY TEETH CHATTER SO MUC 
H WHEN I STUTTER THAT I HATE EVE 
N TO TALK TO COCO 

2010 DATA IS THE NAME OF A VERY F 
RIENDLY COMPUTER 

2020 DATA I LOVE TO HACK AWAY AT 
MY COMPUTER ALL DAY AND NIGHT BE 
CAUSE IT NEVER LAUGHS AT ME 

Listing 3: STUTTER2 
0 ! <STUTTER2> 

10 CLS0:FORX=9TO21:PLAY"L255O3EB 
" : READA: PRINT @X, CHR$ (A) ; : FORY=ll 

TO 21 STEP2 
20 IF Y>X THEN PRINT@Y , CHR$ (RND ( 
26)+96) ; 

30 PLAY"B-L200EF+ n :NEXTY,X 
32 N=0 
3 5 N=N+1 

40 READQ$ 

41 PRINT@32, IMI ; 

50 Q$=Q$+" ":FOR R=l TO LEN(Q$): 
S$=MID$(Q$,R,1) 



51 V=VAL(S$) :IFV AND R=l THEN PR 
INT@31, M "; 

52 IF V OR S$=" "THEN S$=CHR$(12 
8)ELSES$=CHR$(ASC(S$)+32) 

53 PLAY"A" :P$=P$+S$ 

54 IF S$=CHR$(128) THEN IF LEN(P 
$)+POS(0)<3 3 THEN PRINTP$ ; : P$=" 11 

55 IF S$=CHR$(128) THEN PRINTSTR 
ING$(0+POS(0) ,128) ; :PRINTP$; : 

57 NEXT 

60 GOSUB70:IF N=3 THEN PRINT@427 
, M the M +S$+''end , '+S$+ n end 11 ; : PRINT@ 
481, S$+S$ ; : ELSEIF N<4 GOT035ELSE 

IF N<3 GOT035 

61 GOT061 

70 PRINT@426, "PRESS"+S$+"ANY ,, +S$ 
+ 11 KEY 11 ; 

80 EXEC44539:FORW=32 T0479 STEP3 
2:PRINT@W,STRING$(32,128) ; : NEXT : 
RETURN 

1000 DATA 116,104,101,128,115,11 
6,97, 109 , 109 , 10 1 , 114 , 101 , 114 
2000 DATAMY TEETH CHATTER SO MUC 
H WHEN I STUTTER THAT I HATE EVE 
N TO TALK TO COCO 

2010 DATACOCO IS THE NAME OF A 
VERY FRIENDLY COMPUTER 
2020 DATA I LOVE TO HACK AWAY AT 
MY COMPUTER ALL DAY AND NIGHT BE 
CAUSE IT NEVER LAUGHS AT ME /R\ 



168 THE RAINBOW September 1986 




: .-• ■ 



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Do-lt-Yourself 
Video Output Board 

By Tim Mcintosh 

* 



I use my CoCo quite extensively on 
a daily basis. The bulk of my work 
revolves around word processing. I 
quickly discovered that using a televi- 
sion for a monitor was inadequate. 

About a year ago, I began to look 
around for a monitor and a way to drive 
it. I was unaware of the many advertis- 
ers who market just such devices. So, I 
set out to build my own. The project 
presented here required about a half 
day's labor and $8 worth of parts. 

As the schematic shows, this monitor 
driver requires two common transistors 
and a handful of support components. 
Most experimenters should have an 
abundant supply of these. The driver 
works with color as well as mono- 
chrome composite video monitors. The 
pin numbers given in the schematic refer 
to the MC6847 VDG chip in the Color 
Computer. The descriptions of these 
pins are as follows: Pin 1 — GND 
(signal ground); Pin 17 — Vcc (+5v 
DC); and Pin 28 — Composite video 
signal. 

Construction of the driver is rela- 



Tim Mcintosh is a minister for a small 
congregation in Greenville, Alabama. 
He is an amateur programmer and uses 
his CoCo for office applications. 



tively simple. I used a small project 
board from Radio Shack to mount the 
components. I ran the connecting wires 
(any standard jumper wire will do) to 
the points on the circuit board where the 
6847 is soldered. Be careful when count- 
ing to the proper pin locations. A 
mistake could damage your CoCo. 

Many of you will want to run a length 
of shielded cable with an RCA plug on 
it out of the computer directly to the 
monitor. I chose to tidy up the project 
by mounting an RCA jack on the back 
of the CoCo and running the shielded 
wire to this. Not only did this improve 



Video Board Schematic 



the appearance of the project, but I can 
now relocate my CoCo without trailing 
a mess of wires behind me. 

Although I use this new monitor 
driver on a CoCo 2, it should work on 
any Color Computer as well. Re- 
member: Opening your CoCo voids the 
warranty. It is not advisable to attempt 
this project without some prior knowl- 
edge of electronics. 

(Any questions you may have about 
this project can be sent to the author at 
416 Oak St., Greenville, AL36037, 205- 
382-7358, Please enclose an SASEwhen 
writing.) ^ 



PIN 17 




A Look At Workspace 



Let's continue our trek into the 
database. Last month, we dis- 
cussed some of the technical 
aspects of file transfers as well as 
methods of downloading. Before we 
cover methods of uploading, we need 
to learn about the "Workspace." 

Personal Workspace 

Delphi gives each user a personal 
area known as Workspace. It's a. 
chunk of memory on the Delphi 
computer that belongs solely to you 
for as long as you are a member. 
There are two ways to get to your 
personal Workspace: from a data- 
base topic area type WO or, thanks to 
Jim Reed (JIMREED), type WD from 
the main CoCo SIG menu. 

(Jim, our CoCo SIG manager, 
also persuaded Delphi to adopt 
lower "Late Rates," in effect now 
through the end of August. After 
midnight is the best time to catch Jim 
and many RAINBOW authors and 
editors.) 

Warning! Be very careful when in 
your Workspace. All setup files that 



Cray Augsburg is RAINBOWS techni- 
cal assistant and has an associates 
degree in electrical engineering. He 
and his wife, Ruth Ann, have two 
children and live in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, His username on Delphi is 
RAINBOWMAG. 



connect you with Delphi reside there. 
The logon default settings you chose 
for screen width and length, prompt 
level, etc. are stored there. If they are 
deleted, they are troublesome to 
replace. All of your Mail folders and 
new Mail messages are kept in files 
in your Workspace. Be careful not to 
alter any Workspace files that you 
yourself did not create or upload. 

So, now you're in Workspace. 
What do you do? First, type DIR. 
This gives a complete listing of files 
stored there. Now, type ? and press 
ENTER. You should see a list of 
commands. One interesting com- 
mand is called CREATE. If you type 
CREATE, you are prompted to pro- 
vide a filename. Then, you are asked 
to enter text and do a CONTROL-Z 
when finished, or CONTROL-C to 
abort. Try it! Type a message to 
yourself and use CONTROL-Z when 
finished. This stores the message in 
your Workspace area. Type DIR and 
you should see the filename you 
chose. Keep in mind, if you don't 
enter an extension with the filename, 
Delphi automatically places a period 
at the end of it, but no extension. 

Now, what do we do with that file? 
Type LIST (filename) and the file will 
scroll down the screen. This is a nifty 
way to keep messages to yourself. 
Another interesting use is to create 
files in this manner to be sent via 



By Cray Augsburg 
Rainbow's CoCo SIGop 
Username: RAINBOWMAG 



Mail. When you are in Mail, type 
SEND "filename" and that file is sent 
to the user you specify. If you want 
to alter a file, type EDIT "filename." 

Did you notice some strange look- 
ing filenames when you typed DIR? 
These names have the letters "MAI" 
in them and are extra long. These are 
Mail files. To see your directory 
without these filenames, use the / 
exclude option with the DIR com- 
mand. Just type: 

DIR /EXCLUDE=*.MfiI 

Notice that your directory is in 
alphabetical order. Delphi automat- 
ically alphabetizes the files in Work- 
space. 

Another useful Workspace com- 
mand is DELETE. Type this on its own 
command line and Delphi prompts 
for the filename to delete. Another 
method is to type the filename on the 
command line in the form: 

DELETE "filename" 

Either way, Delphi lists the filename 
to the screen and asks for confirma- 
tion to delete the file. Answer with *Y' 
or 4 N' followed by ENTER. 

Let's try an experiment. Use 
CRERTE to build another file with the 
same filename used before. When 
finished, use CONTROL-Z to save the 



172 



THE RAINBOW September 1986 



file. Type DIR. You should now see 
both files in the directory listing. 
Why didn't the second file overwrite 
or replace the first file? Delphi allows 
multiple versions of the same file in 
your Workspace. 

Look at the end of the filenames 
in the listing. You should see a semi- 
colon followed by a number. This 
number is the version number. This 
allows you to create or upload sev- 
eral versions of the same file. If you 
use the DELETE command to delete 
any of these files, you are prompted 
for each version number separately. 
In this way, all versions of the same 
file can be deleted once you have the 
final, bug-free version. However, 
there is an easier way; type PURGE 
(filename). This deletes all versions 
of the file except the most recent. * 

To put a file created offline in the 
Workspace is easy. Just upload them 
to the system. All files you want to 
upload to Delphi, whether for your 
own use or for posting them publicly, 
must be uploaded to your Workspace 
before anything else can be done with 
them. 

Uploading Files 

By far the easiest and most reliable 
method for uploading is by the use 
of the "Xmodem" protocol. The 
reasons for this were discussed last 
month. Before starting an Xmodem 
upload, make sure the file is loaded 
into your terminal program's buffer. 
It doesn't matter whether the file is 
in ASCII or binary format. When 
you are sure the file is in the buffer, 
initiate the Xmodem upload by typ- 
ing XUPLDflD or just XUP. Delphi 
prompts for the filename. Enter the 
filename as you want it to appear in 
your Workspace. Do include some 
form of extension. Next, Delphi asks 
if the file is a text file. This is really 
asking if the file is in ASCII or 
binary. Enter Y if the file is ASCII or 
N if the file is binary. It is essential you 
answer this prompt correctly! 

Delphi tells you to type three 
consecutive CONTROL-Cs if you want 
to abort the upload at this time. It 
also says OK, send! (blocked). If 
you told Delphi you are sending an 
ASCII file, the word "blocked" is 
replaced with the word "text." Now, 
go to your terminal program's com- 
mand mode (CONTROL-7 on Mikey- 
term) and initiate Xmodem upload 
there (use CONTROL-3 on Mikey- 



term). Your terminal program should 
ask if the file is ASCII. Answer 'Y' 
or 'NT according to what you told 
Delphi. Again, answer this prompt 
correctly. 

When file transfer is complete, the 
ND> prompt returns. You should see 
the words FINfiL STATUS = 
Transfer Successful on the 
screen. 

If your terminal program does not 
support Xmodem protocol, you are 
limited to uploading only ASCII 
files. To perform an ASCII upload, 
load the file into your buffer. Then 
go to Workspace and type UPLDAD or 
just UP. Delphi asks for the filename. 
Answer this prompt as explained. 
Delphi will ask if you want a linefeed 
sent to your terminal program after 
each line uploaded. In most cases a 
"no" answer works fine. You may 
have to experiment with this. Delphi 
then tells you that the lines of text in 
the program you are uploading 
should be terminated with a <CR> 
only (they should not end with a 
<CR> and linefeed). Then you will 
be prompted to enter (or send) the 
data. Go to your terminal package's 
command mode and "send" the 
buffer. This is done with CONTROL- 
9 on Mikeyterm. Terminate the up- 
load with a CONTROL-Z or you may 
abort it with a CONTROL-C. 

Use HELP to find out more about 
the other commands. 

Next month, we'll cover more 
Workspace commands and dive into 
the specifics of submitting a pro- 
gram. If you are brave, though, you 
may want to give the SUBMIT com- 
mand a try. It really isn't all that 
difficult. 

Free Time 

As Marty says in his report this 
month, our offer of free time for 
uploading programs to the CoCo 
SIG has been quite successful. Sev- 
eral members have taken advantage 
of this offer. If you have programs to 
submit and would like a little time to 
do so, go to the Questions section of 
the SIG and READ the article on free 
time. You will be prompted for the 
information to set you up. 

On Other Matters 

Several members of the CoCo SIG 
chose not to give their real names or 
their complete names when they first 
joined the SIG. There is a command 



users can issue when at the main 
CoCo SIG prompt that will tell them 
the real name for a given username. 
Type: 

ENT username 

and replace "username" with your 
username. Delphi will tell you the 
name you used when you joined the 
SIG and will also report the last time 
you were on the system. You can use 
this to find the real name for any 
member, provided they have sup- 
plied their correct name. Please use 
the ENT command to see how your 
real name is recorded. If you are not 
satisfied with its appearance, let Jim 
Reed or me know via Mail. We will 
alter it accordingly. 

On a related matter, several new 
members have joined our SIG. Many 
of them have not filled out a user 
profile. Please, if you have not done 
so, go to the Member section of the 
SIG and fill out a profile. Also, go 



Database Report 

By Marty Goodman 

MM the time you read this, it 
Wm Y is very likely the NEW 
J Color Computer will have 
been announced, and the Delphi 
CoCo SIG will be buzzing with infor- 
mation about it. Its arrival will pro- 
foundly affect the extent of our sup- 
port for OS-9, as the new machine is 
rumored to be oriented nearly exclu- 
sively to the use of that operating 
system. i 

I want to extend a special welcome 
to Don Hutchison (DONHUTCHI- 
SON), who has officially joined our 
staff on the Delphi rainbow CoCo 
SIG. Don is an experienced electron- 
ics professional, with excellent knowl- 
edge of both hardware and software. 
He has been active for years on Com- 
puServe and, some months ago, be- 
came a fixture on Delphi. Don is now 
the section leader for our Source Code 
for 6809 Assemblers section and will, 
in general, be assisting with all up- 



loads to the database. If you submit 
a file to us, it is quite possible that it' 
will be Don who has the pleasure of 
checking it out, enabling it and thank- 
ing you for it. He is available in our 
Forum (message base) area to assist 
with questions. Over the years, I have 
grown to appreciate both his knowl- 
edge and wry sense of humor, and so 
am delighted he has joined our family. 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 173 



MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 



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ECLIPSE 

excellent pixel editor. . $19.95 

64K EXB disk 



THE MOTION PICTURE 

Animation tool 

64K Disk Only 

FANTASY CLIP ART 
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SELECTED REPLACEMENT CHIPS FOR THE COCO 

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SN74LS785N (The SAM chip) $28.95 

6809E (Microprocessor) $19.95 

6822P (PIA) $13.95 

6821P (PIA) $ 8.95 

1372 (Color Mixing Chip) $10.95 
Extended basic (EXCEPT models 26-3 127B, 

26-3134A/B and 26-3136A/B $29.29 



DOUBLE DRIVER I 

The BEST monitor driver available. 
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audio output. For original CoCo D, E 
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MONO II 

Mono II for Color Computer 2. An 
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that has audio output also. Specify 
model needed. 

$24.95. 




DOUBLE DRIVER II 

Finally a monitor driver for 
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THE COCO-SWITCHER 

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The CoCo Switcher allows you to hook up 
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Switcher. An LED on the CoCo Switcher 
shows if your computer is on or off at a glance, 
The LED flickers when transmitting or receiv- 
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Ordering information 

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within 1 working day on receipt of order. Blue Label 
Service available. California residents add 6% sales tax. 




to the main Delphi menu and select 
People on Delphi and fill out a 
profile there. Once you have done 
this, other members can type: 

/WHO 1 5 username 

and find out a little background 
information on you. 

Editing in Mail 

When you are going to send a Mail 
message, type SEND/EDIT or REPLY/ 
EDIT appropriately. This puts you in 
the editor for creating a message. In 
this way you can edit the message 
fully before sending it. 

Freedom for Montreal Members! 

Andre Mallette (MODEM IT1S) 
has given us a little tidbit that could 
be important to members in the 
Montreal area. Now those people 
can access Delphi through Tymnet 
by dialing 748-105 1 . At the "terminal 
identifier" prompt press 'A'. When 
asked to log in, enter DELPHI. You 
can then proceed with username and 
password. Not only will this reduce 
connect costs, but you will have 
much less trouble downloading pro- 
grams using the Xmodem protocol. 

Outside Support 

Many thanks to Scott Lampton of 
Sullivan, Indiana. Although Scott 
has been unable to join us online, he 
wanted to show support by sending 
in some files for uploading to Delphi. 
Scott sent three files in answer to our 
call for music files. You can now find 
Snowbird, Almost Like a Song and 
You and I in the Music database. 
Again, we thank Scott for his sup- 
port of a service he is presently 
unable to enjoy. 

Late Rates 

Are you having trouble getting to 
sleep on those hot summer nights? 
Maybe you are thinking about Del- 
phi. Delphi is definitely thinking of 
you! As mentioned earlier, until 
August 31, 1986, Delphi is offering 
"Late Rates." From 2 a.m. EDT until 
7 a.m. in your local time zone, you 
will receive one free minute of access 
time for every ten minutes online. 
That's six free minutes for every 
online hour for Conferences, Delphi 
Mail, downloading files and acces- 
sing information — everything you 
use Delphi for. Take advantage of 
this offer. 



We have successfully initiated our 
program on the SIG of offering free 
connect time for those who want to 
upload material to us. Several 
members have already taken advan- 
tage of this. If you have material to 
upload to us, go to the Questions & 
Feedback area from the CoCo SIG 
main prompt, and select the form that 
is a "Request for Free Upload Time." 
You will be asked why you want the 
time, when you want it and you will 
be informed of the terms of this offer. 
If the request is approved (it usually 
is), you will be notified via Delphi 
Mail. We typically give you time to 
upload material and a little left over 
for you to briefly browse around the 
SIG, as our way of saying thank you 
for helping us out. 

In June, the greatest number of new 
uploads were to our Graphics data- 
base. Ira Goldwyn (I RAG) has been 
Very busy using his newly acquired 
1200 Baud modem to send us nearly 
a hundred new pictures. Derrick 
Kardos(DTG) has supplied us with a 
basic program that generates logos of 
popular rock groups. Roger Bou- 
chard (HA RBI E) has provided us 
with some routines for the Epson for 
printing teletype, text-type printer art. 
He also has given us some lovely 
animal pictures and some digitized 
scenes from Trort. Steve Hancock 
(KA4ULE) has contributed a picture 
of a CoCo. Loren J. Howell (XENOS) 
has given us a simple BASIC utility for 
drawing using the eight-color high 
resolution semigraphics-24 mode. 

In the Hardware Hacking database, 
Roger Bouchard has sent us a review 
of the Hitachi 6309, a CMOS, 3- 
MHz-capabie version of the Motor- 
ola 6809. He has also sent us schemat- 
ics and instructions for several hard- 
ware projects. John Beveridge 
(JOHNTORONTO) has given us 
both text and pictures describing the 
use of Motorola gas discharge surge 
protectors. It is from him that I 
learned of these devices, and was able 
to mention them in my "CoCo Con- 
sultations" column (Page 178) this 
month. Don Hutchison and I have 
uploaded a much-revised version of a 
set of pictures and instructions on 
how to build a simple but effective 
dual or triple voltage linear power 
supply (+5, +12 and -12 volts). We 
provide full schematic diagrams and 
an extensive description of how it all 
works. This circuit has the desirable 
property of using a minimum of com- 
ponents to develop all those regulated 
voltages. 

Our Music topic area is beginning 



to grow. Erik Gavriluk (ERIKGAV) 
has given us a Rahi|pnit Music gener- 
ator. Don Hutchis^ri has provided us 
with a couple of new songs; "Country 
Roads" and "The ^^v%u^Afe..: ,, 
George McCashiii i(<JMCC) has sent 
us both the PL^XMN program that 
plays Musica II files, documentation 
for same, and an assortment of Mu- 
sica II compositions: We eagerly 
solicit uploads of more music mate- 
rial, and offer free connect time to 
help facilitate getting the data to us. 

Our Source Code for 6809 As- 
sembers topic area has been enriched 
by a Disk Editor program from Ed- 
ward Coen (EDCOEN). Don Hutchi- 
son has contributed two sets of source 
code for graphics dumps to fepson LX 
and other printers. Ronald Cole 
(RONALDCOLE) has given us 
source code for a 32K Printer Spooler. 

In the Utilities database, Eric Tile- 
nius (TILENIUS) has given us an 
envelope addresser and a logarithm 
program. Dave Archer (DAVE- 
ARCHER) has sent a disk directory 
database program. Steve Hancock 
(KA4ULE) has provided a multiplica- 
tion table drill progam, and Rodger 
Alexander (SALZARD) has contrib- 
uted a monthly report card program. 
Mike Brant (MB RANT) has given a 
conversion table utility. 

In our Games topic area, Richard 
P. Trasborg (TRAS) has uploaded 
Pinball, and Ronald Cole has sent us 
a game called Escape2. Michael 
Schneider (MSCHNEIDER) has 
given us Slot Machine. 

To the Product Reviews section 
Denny Skala (DENNYSKALA) has 
contributed a comprehensive and 
professional review of the OS-9 word 
processor, The Last Word, 

Our Data Communications area 
has been enriched by Rob Wyatt's 
(ROBERT J R) Dazzelterm, a termi- 
nal program oriented to transmission 
of images and sound. Roger Bou- 
chard has given us DCMI6, a dedi- 
cated disk transfer program. 

The OS-9 topic area now features 
two new graphics demo programs by 
Steve Bjork (6809ER), one similar to 
the familiar Amiga bouncing ball 
demo, and one which outdoes the 
Amiga demo by depicting many 
bouncing balls. Steve has also given us 
a line feed remover program. 

Our thanks to all of you who have 
helped our database grow. See you all 
i! 



Marty 

(MARTYGOODMAN) 
Delphi CoCo SIG Database Manager 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 175 



Look What's New at NOVASOFT! 



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well-known authors in 6809 
Machine Language 




Di recti ons :<Hest,HorTbV 
Vou're driving 
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jjut t r t ririr i t' t i i t t > PM 



IMMHM 

wtxmn* 




c rri f flf— 1 128 Click to stop 



1 New Release 



Maui Vice 

Step into the shoes of Crockett & Tubbs, 
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64K Ext. Basic & Joystick Required 

Disk $21.95 



IB 




fx. 



'!ftt::!iil!:K:v 



■- v'- 



IJVou see a cave. 
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| == 



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The Misadventures of Eddie 

Another great Novasoft adventure. The ol' 
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Requires 64K 
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Goldrunner 

Travel the maze in your never-ending search 
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64K Joystick or Keyboard 

Tape $14.95 Disk $17.95 




i 



? ? 



I 



• H -; 



Moneyopoly 

Play the popular board game on one of 
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32K Joystick Required 
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CREDITS 



PLAY *J CQIHS 



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coins 

IM 0 RETURN HANDLE 



Vegas Game Pak 

Six games in all! Blackjack, Keno, Video 
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1 6K Ext. Basic Required 
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P-51 Mustang 
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The ultimate video experience! Link two 
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32K Machine Language 
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?B 9 9 »B%K? 

mm 



KIAS 



ft rv 



sESSffl 



TftCH 



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HE* 



m If bsgp- 



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Worlds of Flight 
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Real-time simulation generates panoramic 
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Teachers Database II -Allows teachers 
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Recently updated with many new features! 

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COCO CONSULTATIONS 



To *Y\ or Not to <Y'? 

By Marty Goodman 



In the second installment of "CoCo 
Consultations," the following are all ques- 
tions that have come from users of rain- 
bow's CoCo S1G on Delphi. These have 
been asked either in the CoCo SIG forum 
or via Delphi Electronic Mail. 

• / installed a 1 Y' cable on my disk drive and 
now it acts up sometimes. I really don't have 
room for a multipack and would prefer not 
to get one. What can I do? 

(TRASS) 
Tom Rasmussen 
Davenport, I A 

You probably do need a multipack. The 
naked CoCo system bus (the signals avail- 
able at the ROM pack port) are often too 
weak to drive two devices. The multipack 
provides buffering and amplifying circuitry. 
The extra device on the *Y' cable can also 
overload the power supply. Sometimes l Y' 
cables work with some hardware combina- 
tions, but often they result in intermittent 
disk malfunctions. Keeping the 'Y' cable 
short (under three inches) increases the 
chance it will work properly. I recommend 
using a multipack when you need to run two 
or more plug-in cards. 



• Are the old gray multipacks any different 
from the old white multipacks or from the 
newer small white ones? 

(IRA G) 
Ira Goldwyn 
Great Neck. NY 

Martin H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics tinkerer and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Cose 11 of the CoCo world. 
Marty is the database manager of rain- 
bow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. His non- 
computer passions include running, 
mountaineering and outdoor photo- 
graphy. Marty lives in San Pablo, 
California. 



All multipacks should be interchangeable. 
The new white ones use different (more 
advanced and less expensive) circuitry than 
the older ones, but should behave identically 
to the older variety. 



• My modem and RS-232 Pak were fried by 
either the telephone company or lightning. 
What precautions can I take to prevent this? 

(THEPROFESSOR) 
Richard Steinbrueck 
Brandon, FL 



By placing MOVs (Metal Oxide Varistors) 
rated at 130 volts, 220-volt dual Zener 
Diodes, and/ or 250-volt Gas Discharge 
Tubes in parallel with your incoming phone 
line, you can significantly decrease the 
chance of spikes harming equipment. Sev- 
eral commercial firms sell surge protectors 
for the phone line that use some of those 
devices. None of these measures guarantees 
protection from a direct hit by lightning. 



• Is there any reason why I should get an 
RS-232 Pak, other than allowing me to run 
at 1200 Baud? Why is the bit banger port 
alleged to be unsuitable for 1200 Baud 
telecommunications when I use it at 4800 
Baud to talk to my printer? 

(RRIES) 
Richard Ries 
Copiaque, NY 

• / understand Mikeyterm supports the 
Radio Shack RS-232 Pak at Baud rates 
above 300. How does this work if one only 
has a 300 Baud modem? If a modem that can 
work at greater than 300 Baud is needed to 
operate at speeds greater than 300 Baud, 
what advantage does the RS-232 Pak offer? 

(GMCC) 
George McCashin 
Chattanooga, TN 



The RS-232 Pak allows you to leave the 
printer connected while online, and you'll 
find it more convenient to print out what 
you receive online. As the price of 1 200 Baud 
modems continues to decrease, the Pak will 
be more useful. Under OS-9, you will not be 
able to hook a terminal to the system unless 
you use a hardware RS-232 (RS-232 Pak). 
You cannot use 1200 Baud even though your 
terminal and RS-232 Pak support such 
speeds. You must have a modem that can 
also handle such information speeds. 

When the computer uses the bit banger to 
talk to the printer, it is only sending data to 
the printer. It is not receiving. This is simplex 
communication. When the port is being used 
to talk to a modem, it is called upon to send 
and receive data simultaneously. In simplex^ 
mode, the bit banger has no trouble talking, 
even at 9600 Baud. 



• Is there any advantage to replacing the 'E' 
boards original SAM (74LS783) with one 
of the new 7 4 LSI 85 type SAM chips? Is 
there any reason to replace the 6821 on an 
'E' board with a 6822? I have heard the 6847 
VDG has been replaced with a newer, more 
efficient chip. Is this true? 

(BUG MAN) 
Harold Dow da 
Columbia, SC 



The newer 74LS785 SAM chip timing has 
been arranged more precisely to fix some 
problems associated with some older SAM 
chips. It runs cooler than its predecessor. It 
supports 256 cycle refresh four-bit wide 
dynamic RAM chips in addition to the older 
one-bit wide 128 cycle refresh RAM chips 
used in the older CoCos. If you are having 
intermittent crashes that you trace to a bad 
SAM chip, 1 recommend the 74LS785 
(which is backwards compatible to the 
machines using the 74LS783). But if you are 
not having problems related to the SAM, 



178 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



leave it alone. The new SAM is Radio Shack 
number MX 6433. 

The 6822 is not a drop-in replacement for 
the 6821. Do not consider putting it into 
your 'E' board computer. Although the 
descriptions of the pins are the same for both 
the 6822 and the 6821, the 6822 uses open 
collector gates on the output for one of its 
two ports. Conversion is a tedious job, and 
not necessary. 

The 27-3 134B model CoCo used a variant 
of the 6847 called the 6847-T1. This chip 
behaves much like the older VDG, but it has 
support for true lowercase as well. It is not 
easily installed in older model CoCos. 



• I have a new model J & M controller with 
a built-in parallel port. I am using OS-9 at 
present. My old Disk BASIC programs will 
not print out through that port. What can 
I do? Can I format new disks under OS-9 
and copy Disk basic formatted disks? 

(BON IE) 
Mike Bonie 

Sorry, but that parallel port demands 
special driver software to be custom in- 
stalled in most Disk basic applications 
programs to use it. OS-9 is much better 



suited for adding hardware like the parallel 
port, because all programs designed to run 
under it must speak to their ports through 
device drivers and descriptors. 

Although OS-9 and Disk basic use sim- 
ilar fundamental disk formats (both use 256- 
byte sectors and 35 tracks, and use the same 
numbering of their sectors and tracks), there 
may be problems using one to back up the 
other's disks. If you are using OS-9 config- 
ured for 35-track, single-sided disks the 
DSKINI and BACKUP commands will make 
an exact copy of an OS-9 disk. If you are 
using 40-track and/ or double-sided drives 
under OS-9, and have the OS-9 configured 
for the same, you will run into problems. 
Best keep things under one operating sys- 
tem. 



• I'm starting my own BBS and need an 
auto-answer modem. I own a DC-3 from 
Radio Shack. Can you tell me how to use 
it for auto-answer? 

(CGR) 
Christian Ross 
Williamsport, PA 

The DC-3 does not support auto-answer. 
A while ago, RAINBOW ran an article on how 



to convert a DC-1 modem to allow it to 
auto-answer. If you are an experienced 
hardware hacker, that conversion could 
probably be adapted to the DC-3. But my 
advice is such a conversion would be a waste 
of time and money, considering the low price 
these days of auto-answer modems. 



Your technical questions are welcomed. 
Please address them to CoCo Consultations, 
the rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. 

We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit for 
brevity and clarity. Due to the large volume 
of mail we receive, we are unable to answer 
letters individually. 

For quicker response time, your questions 
may also be posted in the FORUM section 
of rainbow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. In 
FORUM, type ADD and address your ques- 
tions to the username MARTYGOOD- 
MAN. Marty is on most every evening to 
respond to FORUM messages. Other CoCo 
SIG members may also reply to questions 
posted in this public message area. Please be 
sure to leave your name and address in any 
FORUM questions, since those of wide 
interest will be selected for publication in 
this column. /£\ 



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September 1986 THE RAINBOW 179 



The last installment, of the point-and-pick interface 

CoCo Mouse: 
The Final Chapter 

By Steve Bjork 



refresh your memory, The 
H ^^^kMouse is an assembly lan- 

ML guage program that dis- 

plays and moves a cursor and prints 
upper- and lowercase text on the Hi-Res 
graphics screen. A BASIC program may 
access this interface by 13 user functions 
and the PRINT command. 

Last month we covered the assembly 
language side of the USR function and 
PRINT command, along with the code 
for drawing the cursor (pointer). We 
also looked at how the joystick and 
button information is polled. 

This month we have the second half 
of the source code, bell and clock 
sounds and the Hi-Res screen text 
driver and its character shape data. 

Before getting started I want to re- 
mind you that The Mouse and its source 
code are copyright 1986 by SRB Soft- 



Steve Bjork has been a programmer for 
over 15 years. In his association with 
Datasoft he has authored such pro- 
grams as Zaxxon, Sands of Egypt and 
Mega-Bug. He now handles product 
development for his own company, 
SRB Software, and has produced Stel- 
lar Life Line, Ghana Bwana and PitFall 
II among others. Steve lives in Simi 
Valley, California 



ware with all rights reserved. It is 
presented in RAINBOW magazine for 
private use only, and can't be used (all 
or part) in any marketed product with- 
out written consent from SRB Soft- 
ware. 

Makin' Some Noise! 

The first subroutine of Listing 1 
(MOUSE3/ ASM) generates the bell 
sound used in function 7. The bell sound 
is generated by playing a steady tone 
that decreases in volume as it is played 
(see Figure 1). 

So the sound can be heard, the bell 
routine first enables sound to the TV 
and selects the six-bit DAC as the sound 
device by calling SNDON. Next, the 
interrupts are disabled so the timing 
loops are not distorted and the starting 
volume is selected. 

Lines 600 to 1900 generate the enve- 
lope in Figure 1. After bell sound is 
completed, the interrupts are turned 
back on and the TV sound is disabled. 

The click sound does not change in 
volume like the bell, but does become 
lower in pitch as it is played. With click 
being so fast, the interrupts do not need 
to be turned off as before. Lines 4600 
through 5400 flip the bits of the six-bit 
DAC with a longer delay each time to 
generate its wave form. 



PRINT @ 

The Hi-Res screen text driver has 32 
characters per line, just like the stand- 
ard green text screen. But eight lines 
must be added to make a total of 24 and 
give an extra 256 positions. This does 
present a little problem; the PRINT 




Figure 1: Bell Sound 



command's 4 @' can't address these new 
lines. So The Mouse intercepts the 
PRINT command to handle the 4 @' 
function for screen location in NPRINT, 
lines 6300 to 9400 of Listing 1. 

NPRINT jumps to the old PRINT 
command vector (in OLDPRT) if there is 
no '@' after the word PRINT. If there is 
an '@', a 16-bit number subroutine of 
Color BASIC ROM is called to find the 
new location. If this number is larger 
then the window size, then an FC Error 
is generated. With everything OK, the 
cursor is moved to the new location and 



180 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



rxiiiern 


uinary 


Way 


UcCimal 


* * ♦ 

• • • • • 


AAA 1 1 1AA 
UUU 111 VK) 


J>1^ 


OQ 
Zo 




A A 1 AAA 1 A 
UUiUUUlU 


coo 






AA 1 AAAAA 


con 




• • ■ • • 


AAA 111 AA 
UUU1 1 1UU 




Oft 
Zo 


* 


OAAAAA 1 A 


CAO 


z 


* * 


00100010 


$22 


34 


*** 

• • • » « 


00011100 


SIC 


28 




00000000 


$00 


0 



Figure 2: Dot Format for *S' 



the old PRINT command handles the 
rest of the line. 

Outgoing Intercepters 

All characters that would normally 
go to the text screen are intercepted by 
The Mouse. This is done by redirecting 
the standard output path through 
SPRINT at Line 10500. This routine 
calls CHR (Hi-Res text driver) if a Hi- 
Res graphics screen is selected. If a Lo- 
Res graphics or text screen is displayed 
at the time, then the old standard output 
path is used. 

The routine that prints a character to 
the Hi-Res screen, CHR, must first 
decide what mode it is in. These modes 
are Standard, Set Cursor Position and 



Set Window. Standard prints the char- 
acter, does a control code or sets up the 
other two modes. Set Cursor Position 
mode takes the next two characters (X 
and Y position) and moves the cursor 
(lines 13600 through 15100). The Set 
Window mode takes the next four 
characters and sets up a new scroll- 
protected window (lines 10400 through 
15400 of Listing 2). 

Standard mode first tests if the char- 
acter is a control code, 0 to 13, with 
CHRTAB holding the offset vector for 
these routines. Some of the routines are 
Line Feed, Clear Screen, Carriage 
Return, Set Window and Set Cursor 
Position. 

Next is a test for displayable range (32 



to 127). If it is in range, then the char- 
acter's shape is selected out of 
CHRDAT shape data. The Shape Data 
format is one byte (eight dots) wide and 
eight bytes (lines) high. 

MOUSE4/ ASM (Listing 2) is the 
CHRDAT shape data table for all 96 
displayable characters. Each character 
shape consists of one byte (eight dots) 
wide by eight bytes (scan lines) high. If 
the bit is a zero, then a black dot is 
placed or the screen. And of course, if 
the bit is a one, then a white dot is 
displayed. Dot format for ? he letter "S" 

is shown in Figure 2. 
Each line of the CHRDAT shape data 

table has eight bytes (four word length) 

per line. Some assemblers do not allow 

for more then one expression per line. 

If this is the case with your assembler 

then all 96 FDB lines must be replaced 

by four FDB lines with one expression 

each. 

That's all the source code. If you have 
any questions about The Mouse or its 
source code just drop me a line, or better 
yet, look for me (6809er) at rainbow's 
Color Computer SIG on Delphi. 

(You may contact Mr. Bjork at 2529 
Ellington Court, Simi Valley, CA 
93063. Please enclose an SASE when 
writing.) □ 













04800 


BNE 


CLICK2 














04900 


LDB 


3FF20 


GET DAC PORT 


Listing 1: 








05000 


EORB 


#$F0 


FLIP TOP 4 BITS 








05100 


STB 


3FF20 


SAVE SET PORT 










i 


05200 


INGA 




MAKE DELAY LONGER 










05300 


CMPA 


#76 


ALL DONE? 


00100 


* SOUND 


AND SCREEN DRIVERS 


05400 


BLO 


CLICK1 


NO, LOOP BACK 


00200 


PING 


BSR 


SNDON 


GET SOUND FROM 6 BIT DAC 


05500 


BRA 


SNDOFF 


ELSE SOUND OFF AND EXIT 


00300 




PSHS 


CC 


SAVE IRQ FLAGS 


05600 








00400 




0RCC 


#$50 


TUEN OFF IRQS 


05700 FNERR 


LDB 


#4*2 


GO HERE FOR ?FN ERROR 


00500 




LDA 


#230 


HOW LONG TO DO SOUND 


05800 


FCB 


S8C 




00600 


PING1 


BSR 


PING5 


DO A TIME DELAY 


05900 SNERR 


LDB 


#2 


GO HERE FOR ?SN ERROR 


00700 










06000 


JMP 


$AC46 


JUMP TO ERROR (OF BASIC) 


00800 




TFR 


A,B 


GET TIME COUNT 


06100 








00900 




ANDB 


#$F7 


USE ONLY THE TOP 5 BITS 


06200 *M0USE* 


S NEW 


PRINT COMMAND 




01000 




ORB 


#2 


SET PRINTER BIT HIGH 


06300 NPRINT 


BEQ 


O PRINT 


SKIP IF NO PRINT DATA 


01100 




STB 


3FF20 


SEND IT OUT THE DAC PORT 


06400 


CMPA 


#64 


IS THE FIRST CHAR. A "@"? 


01200 










06500 


BNE 


0PRINT 




01300 




BSR 


PING5 


DO A TIME DELAY 


06600 


PSHS 


A 




01400 




LDB 


#2 


CLEAR ALL BITS BUT PRINTER 


06700 


LDA 


3FF22 


GET GRAPHICS MODE 


01500 




STB 


9FF20 


ON DAC PORT 


06800 


ANDA 


#3E0 


IS SCREEN A PM0DE 3 TO 4 


01600 




DECA 




MAKE BALL SOUND SMALLER 


06900 


E0RA 


#$E0 




01700 




DECA 




BY 2 


07000 


PULS 


A 




01800 




CMPA 


#18 


IS BELL DONE? 


07100 


BNE 


OPRINT 


NO, THEN USE OLD PRINT COMMAND 


01900 




BHS 


PING1 


NO, THEN LOOP 


07200 








02000 




PULS 


CC 


TURN ON IRQS 


07300 


JSR 


$B3E4 


GET VAL FOR THE @ POSITION 


02100 


SND0FF 


LDA 


5FF23 


TURN OFF DAC SOUND 


07400 


PSHS 


U 


SAVE U, NEED FOR VARIABLE BLOCK 


02200 




ANDA 


#$F7 


BY RESETTING THE BIT 


07500 


LEAH 


DATA ,'PCR 


GET VARIABLE POINTER 


02300 




STA 


$FF23 




07600 


CLR 


COUNT, U 


CLEAR LINE COUNT 


02400 




CLRB 




MAKE RETURN ZERO 


07700 ATI 


INC 


COUNT, U 


ADD ONE TO LINE COUNT 


02500 




RTS 




AND RETURN 


07800 


SUBB 


WDKLEN.U 


SUB ONE LINE WIDTH 


02600 










07900 


SBCA 


#0 


(DO 16 BIT SUB) 


02700 


SNDOH 


LDA 


$FF23 


TURN ON THE SOUND BY 


08000 


BCC 


ATI ' 


LOOP TILL NEC 


02800 




0RA 


#8 


SETTING THE SOUND ON BIT 


08100 


ADDB 


WDKLEN.U 


ALWAYS ONE TOO MANY 


02900 




STA 


$FF23 




08200 


LDA 


COUNT, U 


GET LINE COUNT 


03000 




LDA 


SFF01 


GET LSB OF JOY/AUDIO 


08300 


DECA 




ALWAYS ONE TOO MANY 


03100 




ANDA 


#?FF-8 


PORT AND RESET IT 


08400 


CMPA 


WDYLEN.U 


IS THE LINE OUT OF THE WINDOW 


03200 




STA 


$FF01 


AND PUT IT BACK 


08500 


BHS 


FNERR 


FM ERROR IF OUT OF RANGE 


03300 




LDA 


SFF03 


GET MSB OF J0Y/AUDI0 


08600 


STD 


YCPOS.U 


SAVE THE LINE & COLUMN POSITION 


03400 




ANDA 


#$FF-8 


PORT AND RESET IT TOO 


08700 


PULS 


U 


RESTORE U REG. 


03500 




STA 


$FF03 


AND PUT IT BACK 


08800 








03600 




RTS 




NOW EXIT 


08900 


JSR 


$A5 


GET NEXT CHAR. 


03700 










09000 


BEQ 


OPRINT 


END IF END OF PRINT DATA 


03800 


PINGS 


LDB 


#180 


TIME DELAY USED BY BELL (PING) 


09100 


CMPA 


#82C 


IS THE CHAR. A ", n ? 


03900 


PING6 


DECB 






09200 


BNE 


SNERR 


NO. THEN ?SN ERROR 


04000 




BNE 


PING6 




09300 


JSR 


$9F 


SET FLAGS FOR CHARACTER 


04100 




RTS 






09400 0PRINT 


JMP 


[OLDPRT+DATA.FCR] 


04200 










09500 








04300 


★HAKE A 


SMALL 


CLICK SOUND 


09600 FHTAB 


FDB 


CHR1-PMTAB 


TABLE USED FOR PMODE TYPE 


04400 


CLICK 


BSR 


SNDON 


TURN SOUND ON TO DAC 


09700 


FDB 


PM0DE1-PMTAB 




04500 




LDA 


#10 


START TIME DELAY SHORT 


09800 


FDB 


PMODE2 - PMTAB 




04600 


CLICK1 


TFR 


A,B 


DO A DELAY (USE COUNT) 


09900 








04700 


CLICK2 


DECB 




GET LONGER EACH TIME 


10000 


FDB 


WMODEl-PMTAB 





September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 81 









The Crbs 


3WU1 U 




reator 




Can you crpate a totally symmetrical 
crossword puzzle using the Word* pro- 
gram and the specifications outlined in 
the accompanying article on Page 38 of 
the May 1986 issue of the rainbow? If s<3, 
you may wish to enter The Crossword 
Creator Contest. And, if we choose to 
print your crossword puzzle, you will be 
awarded a special prize;. 

Send us a disk or cassette copy of the 
data file of your puzzle created by Word+ 
along with a printed copy of the cross- 
word puzzle — including the clues and 
answers. Be sure to put a title on the 
puzzle and if possible, follow a general 
interest theme, i a 

Entries will be judged on the following 
criteria: 

I J 
Puzzle symmetry 

Number of words 

Spelling ■ 

Creativity j. . 

Thematic originality 

I Understandability 

Ease of loading data 



Neatness 
Packaging 



mmm 



m 



Enter as often as you like! Please note: 
We consider your act of entering the 
contest as consent to publish your cFeap 

The Crossword Creator Contest is 
open to all rainbow readers, advertisers 
and employees of Falsoft, Inci 

Send entries to: 
Crossword Creator Contest 
c/o THE RAINBOW 
The Falsoft Building 
P.O, Box 385 ™ 



KY 







10100 




FDB 


WM0DE2 - PMTAB 




10200 




FDB 


VM0DE3 - PMTAB 




10300 




FDB 


WM0DE4- PMTAB 




10400 










10500 


SPRINT 


PSHS 


B 


SAVE IT'S DATA, I NEED TO USE IT 


10600 




LDB 


$FF22 


GET SCREEN MODE 


10700 




EORB 


#$E0 


COMPLEMENT HI -RES BITS 


10800 




ANDB 


#$E0 


ONLY USE THOSE BITS 


10900 


* IP THE SCREEN 


IS IN THE HI-RES 


(6K) MODE THEN B-0 


11000 










11100 




ORB 


S6F 


GET I/O PATH NUMBER 


11200 


* IF THE 1/0 PATH IS THE SCREEN 


(ZERO) THEN B STILL WILL BE ZERO 


11300" 










11400 






D 
D 


GET B OLD DATA 


11500 








SKIP IF FOR HI -RES SCREEN 


11600 




THV 


frtTnTrto.nATA pro 1 


ELSE USE OLD I/O PATH CALL 


11700 










11800 




T PA«J 




REMOVE PATCH-CALL ADDRESS 


11900 










12000 


CHR 


PSHS 


U.Y.X.D 


SAVE ALL REGS. 


12100 




LEAD 


DATA, PGR 


GET ADDRESS OF VARIABLES 


12200 




LDB 


FM0DE , U 


GET PRINT MODE 


12300 




LEAX 


PMTAB, PCR 


GET PRINT HODE OFFSET TABLE 


12400 




LSLB 




MAKE PRINT MODE *2 FOR 16 OFFSET 


12500 




LDD 


B,X 


GET PRINT MODE'S 16 BIT OFFSET 


12600 




LEAX 


D,X 


MAKE X POINT THE SUBR. 


12700 




LDA 


.s 


GET CHARACTER TO PRINT 


12800 




JSR 


,x 


CALL IT 


12900 




LDB 


xcpos.o 


GET PRINT CURSOR X POSITION 


13000 




ORB 


#$E0 


MAKE IT BOTTOM LINE 


13100 




LDA 


#5 




13200 




STD 


$88 


PUT IT IN BASIC'S CURSOR POSITION 


13300 




PULS 


PC,U,Y,X,D 


RESTORE REGS AND EXIT 


13400 










13500 *SET TEXT CURTS0R Y POSITION 




13600 


PM0DE2 


CMPA 


WDYLEN U 


IS Y POSITION BIGGER THEN THE 


13700 




BLO 


PMODEA 


WIND0W7 NO, USE IT1 


13800 




LDA 


WDYLEN ,U 


ELSE USE THE MAX POSITION 


13900 




DECA 






14000 


PMODEA 


STA 


YCPOS U 


STORE IT 


14100 




CLR 


PMODE , D 


RESET PMODE TO NORMAL 


14200 




RTS 




AND EXIT 


14300 










14400 *GET X 


POSITION 






14500 


PM0DE1 


CMPA 


WDXLEN ,0 


IS THE X POSITION TOO BIG? 


14600 




BLO 


PM0DEB 


NO, USE IT! 


14700 




LDA 


WDXLEN. 0 


ELSE USE THE MAX X POSITION 






DECA. 










STA 


XCPOS D 


STORE IT 






INC 


PMODE D 


MOVE TO NEXT PRINT MODE 


15100 




RTS 




AND EXIT 


15200 










15300 


CHRTAB 


FDB 


NUL- CHRTAB 


CONTROL COD: VECTORS 


15400 




FDB 


SETPOS- CHRTAB 




15500 




FDB 


SVI DEO -CHRTAB 




15600 




FDB 


I VIDEO- CHRTAB 




15700 




FDB 


SETWIN- CHRTAB 




15800 




FDB 


LEFT -CHRTAB 




15900 




FDB 


RIGHT -CHRTAB 




16000 




FDB 


PING -CHRTAB 




16100 




FDB 


BACKSP-CHRTAB 




16200 




FDB 


TAB -CHRTAB 




16300 




FDB 


LF- CHRTAB 




16400 




FDB 


UPLINE- CHRTAB 




16500 




FDB 


CLS- CHRTAB 




16600 




FDB 


CR- CHRTAB 




16700 










16800 


CHRl 


CMPA 


#13 


IS THE CHARACTER A CONTROL CODE? 


16900 




BHI 


CHR20 


SKIP IF NOT 


>, 17000 




LSLA 




ELSE JUMP TO IT VECTOR 


17100 




LEAX 


CHRTAB , PCR 




17200 




LDD 


A.X 




17300 




JMP 


D.X 




17400 










17500 


CHR20 


SUBA 


#32 


IS IT A PRINTABLE CODE? 


17600 




CMPA 


#96 




17700 




BHI 


CHR29 


NO, THEN SKIP TO EXIT 


17800 










17900 




LBSR 


H0LDIT 


PUT MOUSE CURSOR ON HOLD 


18000 




LDB 


XCPOS , D 


GET X- POSITION ON SCREEN 


18100 




CMPB 


WDXLEN ,0 


PAST RIGHT SIDE? 


18200 




BLO 


CHR21 


NO, JUST PRINT IT 


18300 




CLR 


XCPOS, U 


ELSE BACK TO LEFT SIDE 


18400 




INC 


YCPOS, D 


AND MOVE DOWN LINE 


18500 




BSR 


SCROLL 


IF NEEDS TO SCROLL, THEN SCROLL! 


18600 










18700 


CHR21 


LEAY 


>CHRDAT,PCR 


GET CHR DATA TABLE 


18800 




LDB 


#8 


INDEX TO THE CHAR. DATA 


18900 




MOT 






19000 




LEAY 


D,Y 




19100 










19200 




LDD 


WDYPOS,0 


GET WINDOW START POSITION 


19300 




ADDD 


YCPOS, U 


GET TEXT CURSOR POSITION 


19400 




ADDA 


S START 


ADD SCREEN START IN MEMORY 


19500 




TFR 


D,X 


AND POINT X TO IT 


19600 




LDB 


#8 


NUMBER BYTES PER CHAR. 


19700 


CHR22 


LDA 


,Y+ 


GET DATA BYTE 


19800 




EORA 


INVERT ,0 


INVERT IF FLAG IS ON 


19900 




STA 


,x 


PUT IT ON THE SCREEN 


20000 




LEAX 


32, X 


NEXT LINE ON SCREEN 


20100 




DECB 




ALL BYTES DONE??? 


20200 




BNE 


CHR22 


LOOP IF NOT 


20300 










204OO 




INC 


XCPOS, u 


NEXT POSITION ON SCREEN 


20500 


CHR29 


RTS 







182 



THE RAINBOW September 1986 



Listing 2: 



nm nn 

UU1UU 


★M0USE5/ASM 


PART 2 OF SCREEN DRIVER 


uuzuu 










UUJUU 


★THIS ONE DOES A RETURN ON 




nnAnn 

UUHUU 


CR 


LDB 


WUXTFN TT 

IT 9 U 


PPT T TMT7 T TTUPTU 


nn^nn 




SUBB 


xcpos n 

A\J 1 wij j U 


PPT DVTr T T7TTT AM T TH.TT7 


UUDUU 


CRl 


DECB 




A VTV BVTFC T PPT AM TTMP9 


f\mt\f\ 
uu/uu 




BMI 


CR2 


eVTp TT7 MAT 






PSHS 


1 
O 


CAVP PnTTMTPO 






IDA 


#32 


PPT CPAPP '» « 


U1UUU 




LBSR 


fUD 9 A 


PRTMT TT fiN CPDPPM 


oi i no 

U1LUU 




POLS 


Q 
O 


PPT PPTTHTPB 


oi 9on 




BRA 


PR 1 


T HAD TTT T TPVTT\ nr T THE 

lAJUr IILL hNU OF L1NL 


m inn 

U1JUU 










oi Ann 


CR2 


CLR 


YPPPC TT 


TJl Iffl TP V ( M ^TTDOATJ A *P CPABT AT* T T VT T7 

rUT TEXT CURSOR AT START OF LINE 


m cnn 










m cnn 
Ulbuu 


*D0 A LINE FEED 






ni TOO 

Ul/UU 


LF 


TNC 

J, LI \J 


vppnc n 
1 l< ruj , u 


UATTP nATJTJ AVTP T TMP 

tlUVt JJUWW UNt L1CJL 


m ann 


SCROLL 


PSHS 


A 
A 


CAVP PD TMTTMP PUAD 


m onn 




LDB 


ycpoc n 


PPT T TW1? DACTTTAM 


n?nnn 




CMPB 


UTiYT FN TT 


TP TTJTC T TMP ATTTJ CFVUVKIt 


no 1 nn 




BLO 


erpnT T 9 


Mfi ClfTP inn PTTT 

nu, 3M1 atiu rj.11 


09900 




DEC 


YCPOS TT 


PT CP WnTJP TIP A T TMP 


09100 










09 aoo 




BSR 


HOLD IT 

I Alt JL X 


TTTPTJ rttflf PTTBCnP POP PP TMTTMP 


02500 




IDA 


#15 




09600 




STA 


HOLD n 


MAlf P TPP HPT n A T TTTT P T PMPPP 


09700 
uz / yv 




LDA 




PPT MTTMRPP T TMP TM UTHPrtU 






DECA 




T)rtM>T CPPPTT TUP TACT T TMP 


O9Q0O 




BEQ 


SCROLLS 


CVTP PMT V PHP T TMP 


01000 










01100 




LDA 


WDYP0S U 


PPT TPYT UTNTiOU T TNP PrtCTTTPN 
uCl 1LA1 wllrUUW i_ln_- rUolllUCi 


01900 




ADDA 


S START 


Ann THP CPRFPM CTABT PPCTTTPM 


01100 




LDB 


VJDXP0S U 


PET WINDOW P PPCTTTfiN 


03400 

VvTVV 




TFR 


D,X 


AND MAKE X POINT TO IT 

A_L1 U I iXVXV-L-i A 4 Willi JL W -L JL 


03500 




IDA 


WDYLEN, U 


GET NUMBER OP T TNES IN V7TND0W 

v£f JL 11 V 1 1 L> LilV wf JLi J. Ll J-i *J J. LI ff ^. Ll L/ W n 


03600 




DEGA 




DON'T SCROLL THE LAST ONE 

l»* W L 1 JL J Ui\U 1 il 1 JL41JW Mflw JL wLlb 


03700 




LSLA 




MUL BY 8 SCAN LINES 

liv A_i aJ L. w »J* WVi 1 ui,t1L_ w 


03800 




LSLA 






03900 




LSLA 






04000 


SCR0LL1 

fcrf x»^^w -mm 


PSHS 


X,A 


SAVE SCAN LINE COUNT & POINTER 


041 00 




LDB 


VJDXLEN D 


RFT UTNOOtf Y T FNPTH 

VfC«A n lliUwn A LLLluln 


049OO 




LSRB 




DTT7TnP RY 9 

AJX V l^t DA i. 


nAinn 




BCC 

AJ W w 




CVTP TP FVFN 


niAnn 




T DA 


956 X 


movp onp rytp tp nnn 


n/. *nn 




CTA 
a aa 






n/. cnn 
U4oUU 


CPRPTT 9 
ourvUiiXi^ 


CTR 


COUNT U 


CPT RVTF PPITNTPP 
JLi Dii£i uuuni LA 


U4/UO 




Rrn 


SCR0LL4 


Clf TP TP OMT V OHF RYTP T(\ MPUP 
OfvlL IF UliLiI UnCi DL1L lv CluVL 


ft/.Drtrt 
UHoUU 


cppptt 1 


t nn 

LtLfLJ 


256 X 


PT CP MOVF TUn RYTFC AT ONPF 


nAonn 




ctti 


t ATI 




o^noo 




twp 




TrjOP TTTT ATT RYTFC ARF nONF 

lAVur 1 ALu A Li Li DL1LJ AAVCi UUlTCi 


0S1 00 




RNF 


SCR0LL3 




05900 


CpppT T 4 


PtTLS 

A U 1 ■ > 




RFCFT RAP? TO CTART OP T TMP 

AXtOCiX DAvAi Aw OXAA\X wT XiXriCi 


05 100 




LEAX 


32 X 


MOVF TO NFYT CP AN T TNP 


05400 




T1FPA 




AT T T TMP MnUPn? 


05500 




RNF 


SCR0LL1 


T/IOP TP NOT 












05700 


COROT T 5 


LDB 

HI 0 


#fi 


T TMPC TO RP RT AHVFn 
XiXnCS 1U DL DliAnlvCiU 


Uj 0 UU 




t ni 

LUA 


TNVFTJT TT 


PPT RAPVPPlTMn ^RTAflf PP LTtlTTP N 


u^y uu 


CPU at T A 


rbnb 


A , D 


CATTP T TMP CTADT A MFI rrtlTHTFT) 

bAvt 1.1 Nr. a 1 AK1 AXi 11 UUUn 1 LK 


UoUUU 




T TITS 

LDB 


UT1TT FH TT 


prip VTT riyf DTD AP DVTPO OPD T TUP 

UL1 NUrlDLR Or Diltb rLR LINE 


f\c 1 nn 
Uo luu 


SCR0LL7 


STA 


t 


rUT DOWN dauKROUND 


nconn 




DECB 




ATT nrtUff UTTU TOT C T TTJP 9 
ALL UUWt W11M Inlb LlNbr 


nc inn 
udjuu 




IS VTT? 

BNE 


ef*RnT T 7 


MP TUPM T HrtP 


nc Ann 




BTTT 

rULS 


T R 
A. t D 


PPT PPTTMT X- CTABT PP T TMP 
uLl UUUH1 a alAtll ur 1 ■ 1 w r. 


nc Rnn 

Uo OUU 




LtAX 


19 T 


MPUP TP HFTT T TMP 


nccnn 

UO OUU 




DfcCB 




AT T T TMPC nPMP 


n<7nn 
uo / UU 




BNfc 


erDOT T 6 


TilPD TP MPT 
UJUr Xr NUI 


uoouu 




t n a 
LDA 


#2 


RPCPT HOT n 
rue sci nui*u 


oaqoo 

UO 7 UU 




STA 


HOLD U 






C 1 f TJ AT T A 

SCROLL? 


OTTT C 

PULS 


PC A 


AMn PTTT 
Ail Li JLAX 1 


n7i no 

U f 1UU 










07900 


H0LDIT 


PSHS 


n T TT T 


CAVP ATT RFPC 
SAVE. AXjXj d_LLto 


07 IOO 




T A A 

LDA 


4A0 
#«i 


HPT AV PTTPCPD PPP 9 TDAC 


n7Ann 




STA 


UrtTT\ TT 

HuLD , U 




m cnn 

U / jUU 




LBSR 


ITTD AT? 17 


TURN OFF CURSOR 


07600 




PULS 


TJ^ TT V r\ 

rG , U, Y , X, D 


RESTORE AND EXIT 


07700 










AT AAA 

07800 


CLS 


BSR 


HOLD1T 


PUT CURSOR ON HOLD 


a -j a a a 

07900 




LDA 


#10 


T"i fry T* fTl AVI ff AT T\ a T TrTlrTIT T* T 

PIT IT ON HOLD A LITTLE LONGER 


AnAAA 

08000 




STA 


T> AT T\ TT 
HOLD , U 




08100 




LDD 


TTT\VTSAff TT 

WDYP0S ,U 


AT*ffl rTT\1 T\ AT T T% A A Till t AIT 

GET WINDOW POSITION 


A A 1 A A 

08200 




ADDA 


S START 


ADD START OF SCREEN MEMORY 


Uo JUO 




TFR 


T\ V 

u , A 


\jf a 1 7 TT" tt ihi *i Turn Tt nt a a a a t™ \ t 

MAKE X THE POINTER TO SCREEN 


no /. nn 
UohUU 




LDA 


T M U P *D T 1 TT 


GE1 dACKKOUhD COLOR 


no cnn 




LDB 


rmvr T?VT |T 


ppm HTTWtJFD HT7 T TMTTC 


uoouu 




LSLB 




o LINEb FKR. T£LXT LINh 


ao "rnn 
(Jo /UU 




LSLB 






ao onn 
Uoouu 




LSLB 


- 




as Ann 
UoVUU 


CLS1 


PSHS 


B,X 


A A TTC T TMP A At tVT'T 1 C TJATMrnPT) 

SAVE LINE COUNT & POINTER 


AA AAA 

09000 




LDB 


WDXLEN, U 


GET NUMBER OF BYTES PER LINE 


A A ^ A A 

09100 


GLS2 


STA 


,X+ 


PUT BAGKR0UND ON SCREEN 


09200 




DECB 




ARE ALL BYTES DONE ON LINE 


09300 




BNE 


CLS 2 


NO, THEN LOOP BACK 


09400 




PULS 


X,B 


GET LINE COUNTER & START OF LINE 


09500 




LEAX 


32.X 


MOVE TO NEXT SCAN LINE 


09600 




DECB 




ALL SCANS DONE? 


09700 




BNE 


CLS1 


NO, THEN LOOP 


09800 




CLR 


YCP0S.U 


PUT TEXT CURSOR AT 


09900 




CLR 


XGP0S.U 


TOP OF WINDOW 


10000 




LDA 


#2 


RESET HOLD TO STANDARD 



10100 


CTA 
O XA 


unT r\ n 
HOLD , u 




10200 


RTC 
til o 


AND EXIT 


10300 






10400 SVIDE0 


CLR 


TMVPPT TT 


MAKE WHITE ON BLACK 


10500 NUL 


RTC 




10600 








10700 SETP0S 


LDA 


#1 


START GET CURSOR POSITION 


10800 


CTA 
v A A 


PMODE , U 


10900 


RTC 






11000 








11100 SETWIN 


LDA 


#3 


CTADT AT7TI LfT HT\AI T AT*7r ^ t^^ — -.-— — ^.. 

oiAKl ULl WINDOW SIZE & POSITION 


11200 


STA 


PMODE n 


11300 


RTS 




11400 








11500 VM0DE1 


CMPA 


#31 


lo WINDOW X START POS <31 


11600 


BHS 


WERROR 


TTT IJArp rpTj a rp rn n An 

It WO I THAT ERROR 


11700 


STA 


WDXPOS U 

~ WAV4 W f W 


11800 


NEGA 




A T7 fl "1/ A TF [TT VT n ATT T7 •* n n a *». . 

«ti MAX WINDOW X LEG FOR THAT 


11900 


ADDA 


#32 


START PS0ITI0N 


12000 

±. 4U \J \J\J 


CTA 
o 1 A 


wDXLEN.U 


AND USE IT FOR NOW 


12100 


PT P 


ITAnAA TT 

YCPOS , U 


HOME TEXT CURSOR TO TOP 


12200 


CLR 


XCPOS U 


T PPT fW tTTXTY\rtTT 

mri Or WINDOW 


12300 


INC 


pmodf it 


MOVE TO NEXT PRINT MODE 


12400 


RTC 

aid 




12500 








12600 VM0DE2 


CMPA 


#23 


IS WINDOW Y START POS <23 


12700 


BHS 


TJFRRPP 


F \ T /~ \ III rf*T TT T^ 1 T M wm A _ 

IF NOT THEN ERROR 


12800 


STA 


WDYPOS U 


12900 


MPP A 




GET MAX WINDOW X LEN FOR THAT 


13000 


a nn a 




STARTING POSITION 


13100 


STA 


WDYLEN TT 


13200 


ING 


PMODE T7 


MOVE TO NEXT PRINT MODE 


13300 


PTC 
Al S 




13400 








13500 WERR0R 


CLR 


PMODE U 


.nX.OA.1 rKlNl flODE 


13600 


LBRA 


FN ERR 


aWi) uivt. A 7 FN ERROR 


13700 






13800 VM0DE3 


BE0 


WFRROR 

TV Li£\iWi\ 


ERROR IF 0 BYTES PER LINE 


13900 


nip* 


ttt\ itt rvi tt 

WDXLEN t U 


IS THIS WINDOW TOO BIG? 


14000 


BUT 

Drll 


TTt«Tj n f\D 

WLKKOR 


?FN ERROR IF SO 


14100 


STA 


WDXLEN TT 

" UiLXALfil j y 


TTT CI? CT?T T TMP T c vt a *m v 

HL.bc. bcT LINL LENGTH 


14200 


INC 


PMODE U 

» At AW W 1^ y \J 


nuvw iu Nc XT PRINT MODE 


14300 


RTS 




14400 








14500 WM0DE4 


BEQ 


WERROR 

■1 UAU\vi\ 


FRROD T T? T ITMnTTJ TP fir>n a 

EiIsauk ±r ULLNLi in IS ZERO 


14600 


CMPA 


VDYT FN TT 

n U 1 1 .r. Li , U 


lo THE SIZE TOO BIG? 


14700 


RHT 
onx 


lTTTO D rtTJ 
WLKKUK 


FN ERROR IF SO 


14800 


CTA 
S 1A 


TTT\ VT CM TT 


ELSE SET IT 


14900 


PT R 
U LA 


TJTrfnTM? TT 

rflUDL t U 


RESET PRINT MODE 


15000 


PTC 

Ala 




AND EXIT 


15100 








15200 IVIDE0 


LDA 


rTmmJ J 


CFT RT_APK ON TJTJTTF VTnFP 
OCil DLAuA wll wrtxir* V 1JJLU 


15300 


STA 


TNVFRT TT 

X Ll V Ci A 1 iU 




15400 


RTS 






15500 








15600 *THIS IS A BACK 






15700 BACKSP 


LDD 


YfiPO^ TT 

L w 17 VJ w ^ U 


PPT TPTT PTTRCPR PPCTTTPM 
Uiil ir*Al UUAaUA rvdlllUu 


15800 


DECB 




BACK TIP ONF 

Uftuft uf VJ1T£. 


15900 


BPL 


BACKS 1 


USE TT IF STILL ON THE SAME T TNP 

Ww Lm\ X -Li w X x ajaj ULl 1 LLLi yiuly 1 - 1 LX Ci 


16000 


LDB 


WDXLEN U 


ELSE MOVE CURSOR TO END 

Aw W A W T lw w U A7V w w t\r X W b LI tmf 


16100 


DECB 




OF LINE 

W AV Ulll Xv 


16200 


DECA 




AND MOVE UP ONE T TNE 


16300 


BPL 


BACKS 1 


USE IT IF NOT THE TOP OF WTNDOtf 


16400 


INCA 




FT^E HACTT THP TflP T TNF 

Aw 1 Jiil Hi AJA WAX iVi IU AT JwXLl Aw 


16500 


CLRB 




ANH ^TABT OF THF T TNF 


16600 BACKS 1 


STD 


YCPOS U 

X Ui WU f U 


STORF NFU TFYT CTTP^nT? PH^TTTHN 

ulUL\Ci LI Aw ff A. AX/Vi J. W U AA.W VJaA L Vwll IvLl 


16700 


LDA 


#32 


CTaFAB. fRTANK^ THF NFW TFVT 

W LamTLA V. O LlUl(\ y J> LlAw LI Aw ff X 1. A. X 


16800 


LBSR 


CHR20 


CURSOR POSITION 

W U A\W WA A W W JL 1 A V LI 


16900 


DEC 


XCPOS u 


MOVE BACK TO THAT PLACE 

A 1W V Ipt W A w AV A> V/ X ALTV X A UlU Aw 


17000 


RTS 




AND EXIT 


17100 








17200 LEFT 


LDA 


xppos n 

AuL wJ y U 


GET TEXT CURSOR' C T POCTTTON 

ULl J. L«A A VU L\w wA w A L VOL A X wLt 


17300 


DECA 




MOVF RACK ONF 


17400 


BPL 




TP CTTT T PMF T THP9 TUPM TTCP TT 

x r oi ill uti r. XiXnGdf i nr.ri uor. xi 


17500 


LDA 


TJTWT pu TT 


PT CF MAKE TT THF MAT RTPHT 
llol fiAr^r. xi inc. rUvA AlUtll 


17600 


DECA 




POCTTTON ON T TNF 


17700 LEFT1 


STA 


YCPOS U 


AND STORF TT 

Ally W A ULvLi JL Jm 


17800 


RTS 




ALL DONE AND F7TT 


17900 








18000 RIGHT 


IDA 


XCPOS U 


GET TEXT CURSOR'S X POS TT TON 

<J Aw X A AwJJV A W \J C\W v£\ w A A WW X A 1 VII 


18100 


INCA 




MOVE TO RIGHT 

A AW T mm* 4m \mf AV-Ar ULL A 


18200 


CMPA 


WDXLEN U 


GONE TOO FAR? 

WL1 Aw LUU AV /XA\ 1 


18300 


BLO 


RIGHT 1 


NO THEN USE IT ["SKIP"} 

Llw | ALlAwLl WWlrf JLA 1 w CvX A J 


18400 


CLRA 




FT ^F MOVF TO FAR T FPT 


18500 RIGHT 1 


STA 


TPPPC TT 


AMT) CTPPP TT 
All LI a 1UAX XI 


18600 


RTS 




ATT nnmi PVTT 
A LIUWN i cJLXl 


18700 








18800 UPLINE 


DEC 


vnirto n 
XLrOs , u 


rlUvr. ltAl LUrlbUK Ur ONE. LINE. 


18900 


BPL 


TTPT TM1 


MPTjp npp np tot* rip UTMnnu* un cvtp 
nuvr. urr Ur lvlr Ur mLNUUmi, IHU sMl 


19000 


IDA 


irnVT PM TT 


CFT TP RPTTPM PP (ITMnrtl? 

oci iu uuiiun up wxituum 


19100 


DECA 






19200 


STA 


VPPPC TT 




19300 UPLIN1 


RTS 






19400 








19500 TAB 


LDB 


TPPPC TT 


PFT TPTT PTTRCPR PPCTTTPM 
u r. i iavai v. u ivo uiv rudiiiun 


19600 


ANDB 


#7 


GET OFFSET FROM TAB STOP ^ EVERY 8^ 

ULl C w Aw A £ l\vL 1 A AV A? W A w A y Aw V LwAV A VJ J 


19700 


NEGB 




GET NUMBER TO NEXT NEXT ONE 

W AW A> L « W A A AJ ulti A W X ■ 1 i « i. X XT 1 I IW A. w 1 T Aw 


19800 


ADDB 


#8 




19900 


LDA 


#32 


GET A SPACE " " 

V. AW A 4 k & 11 W 


20000 TAB1 


PSHS 


D 


SAVE BOTH 

Mil T AW U V A Al 


20100 


LBSR 


pud 9 n 
UrLK/U 


PPTMT THAT CPAfP 


20200 


PULS 


D 


GET BOTH 


20300 


DECB 




AT NEXT TAP STOP 7 


20400 


BNE 


TAB1 


NO, THEN LOOP 


20500 


RTS 







September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 83 



Listing 3: 



00100 * CHARACTER SHAPE DATA 

00200 * EACH ONE IS 8 BYTES LONG (A 8 BY 8 DOT SIZE) 
00300 * THERE ARE 96 CHARACTERS 

00400 * THE ASSEMBLER THAT I USE ALLOWS FOR MORE THEN ONE EXPRESSION PER LINE 
00500 * IF YOff ARE USING THE RADIO SHACK ASSEMBLER YOU MAY HAVE TO 
00600 * PUT EACH EXPRESSION ON IT'S FDB LINE 



00700 








00800 CHRDAT 


FDB 


0.0,0,0 


i 


00900 


FD8 


2056,2056,2048,2048 


I 


01000 


FDB 


2570,2560,0,0 


»» 


01100 


FD8 


2570,7946,7946,2560 


# 


01200 


FDB 


2078,10268,2620,2048 


8 


01300 


FDB 


12850,1032,4134,9728 


% 


01400 


FDB 


4136,10256,10788,6656 


& 


01500 


FDB 


2056,4096,0,0 


i 


01600 


FDB 


1032,4112,4104,1024 


( 


01700 


FDB 


2052,514,516,2048 


) 


01800 


FDB 


2090,7230,7210,2048 


* 


01900 


FDB 


8,2110,2056,0 


+ 


02000 


FDB 


0,0,2056.4096 


» 


02100 


FDB 


0,62,0,0 


- 


02200 


FDB 


0.0,8,2048 


» 


02300 


FDB 


514.1032,4128,8192 


/ 


02400 


FDB 


7202,9770,12834,7168 


0 


02500 


FDB 


2072,2056,2056,7168 


1 


02600 


FDB 


7202,524,4128,15872 


2 


02700 


FDB 


7202,524,546,7168 


3 


02800 


FDB 


1036,5182,1028,1024 


4 


02900 


FDB 


15904,8252,514,15360 


5 


03000 


FDB 


7202,8252,8738,7168 


6 


03100 


FDB 


15906,1028.2056,2048 


7 


03200 


FDB 


7202, 8732, 8738, 716B 


8 


03300 


FDB 


7202,8734,546,7168 


9 


03400 


FDB 


8,0,2048,0 


i 
• 


03500 


FDB 


8,2048,2056,4096 


• 
9 


03600 


FDB 


1032,4128,4104.1024 


< 


03700 


FDB 


0,15872,15872,0 




03800 


FDB 


4104,1026,1032,4096 


> 


03900 


FDB 


7202,516,2048,2048 


? 


04000 


FDB 


7202,538,10794,7168 


@ 


04100 


FDB 


7202,8766,8738,8704 


A 


04200 


FDB 


15394,8764,8738,15360 


B 


04300 


FDB 


7202,8224,8226,7168 


G 


04400 


FDB 


14372,8738,8740,14336 


D 


04500 


FDB 


15904,8252,8224.15872 


E 



TCTTHT +AN Saf^TWAXRB 



COCO TESTEM Make multiple choice, matching, 
true/false, completion, short answer tests. 
Requires printer with underline ability. Works 
with tape or disk. 32K ECB tape. $19.95 

TEACHER PAK Both weighted & regular grading, 
seating charts, alphabetizing, statistics. 
Works with tape or disk. 16K ECB tape. $34.95 

TEACHER PAK PLUS The above pair. $47.95 

TIME MASTER Party tun. Calendars, biorhythms, 
human compatibility, more. 16K ECB tape. $19.95 

PERPETULIFE Challenging board game based on 
Life. 1 or 2 players. 16K ECB/ML tape. $19.95 

GRAPHIC ECHO Graphic screen dump for RS dot 
matrix printers. Includes enlarged & negative 
images, adjustable margin. Works with disk and 
all 5 PM0DES. 16K/32K ML tape. $14.95 

DISKMAN Backup, reorganize, alphabetize RS disk 
directories. Examine & change sectors. Catalog 
disk files. Printouts. 32K disk. $21.95 

HOMEWARE Home management package. Use with 
tape or disk. Five 16K ECB/ML modules on tape: 

CALENDAR - Draw calendars, Various formats. 

SAVINGS/LOANS - Personal finance calculations. 

DIRECTORY - Keep track of phone numbers, 

addresses, etc. Print address labels. 

INVENTORY - For home records, hobbies, etc. 

HOME-WRITER - Simple, easy ML word processing. 

Single modules: $19.95 Whole set: $49.95 

Send check or money Tothian Software, Inc. 

order - no cash. Pa. Box 663 

residents add 6%. Rimersburg, Pa. 16248 



04600 


FDB 


15904,8252,8224,8192 


F 


04700 


FDB 


7202,8238,8738,7168 


0 


04800 


FD8 


mm mm MM, mm MW mmm W mW mm mmm mm mm. mm mm JK. M 

8738,8766,8738,8704 


H 


04900 


FDB 


m mW j% a A _J% JK. mW m* ■_ jwl mm m mm mm mmm mm. 

15880,2056 ,2056,15872 


I 


05000 


FD8 


mm mm M Jh mW m A* m* JB A Jm JU — £ A 

3842,514,530,3072 


J 


05100 


FD8 


8740,10288,10276,8704 


K 


05200 


FD8 


8224,8224,8224,15360 


L 


05300 


FD8 


8758,10794,8738,8704 


H 


05400 


FDB 


8754,12842,9766,8704 


N 


05500 


FDB 


7202,8738,8738,7168 


0 


05600 


FDB 


15394,8764,8224,8192 


P 


05700 


FD8 


7202,8738,10788,6656 


Q 


05800 


FDB 


15394,8764,10276,8704 


R 


05900 


FD8 


7202,8220,546,7168 


S 


06000 


FDB 


15880,2056,2056,2048 


T 


06100 


FD8 


8738,8738,8738,7168 


0 


06200 


FDB 


8738,8738,5140,2048 


V 


06300 


FDB 


8738,8746,10806,8704 


V 


06400 


FDB 


8738,5128.5154,8704 


X 


06500 


FDB 


8738,5128,2056,2048 


Y 


06600 


FDB 


15874,1032,4128,15872 


z 


06700 


FDB 


14368,8224,8224,14336 


C 


06800 


FDB 


8224,4104,1026,512 


BACK »/" 


06900 


FDB 


3586,514,514,3584 


] 

A 


07000 


FDB 


2076,15880,2056,2048 


07100 


FDB 


8,6206,6152,0 


LEFT ARROW 


07200 


FDB 


0,0,0,0 


BLANK (ADD YOUR OWN) 


07300 


FDB 


0,3074,3602,3328 


a 


07400 


FDB 


8224,15394,8738,15360 


b 


07500 


FDB 


0,7202,8226,7168 


e 


07600 


FDB 


514,7714,8738,7680 


d 


07700 


FDB 


0,7202,15904,7168 


a 


07800 


FDB 


1034,2076,2056,2048 


f 


07900 


FDB 


0,7202,9754,540 


g 


08000 


FDB 


8224,11314,8738,8704 


h 


08100 


FDB 


2048,6152,2056,7168 


1 


08200 


FDB 


24,2056,2056,10256 


J 


08300 


FDB 


8224,9256,12328,9216 


k 


08400 


FDB 


6152,2056,2056,7168 


1 


08500 


FDB 


0,30281,18761,18688 


m 


08600 


FDB 


0,11314,8738,8704 


n 


08700 


FDB 


0,7202,8738,7168 


o 


08800 


FDB 


0,11314,12844,8224 


P 


08900 


FDB 


0,6694,9754,514 


q 


09000 


FDB 


0,11314,8224,8192 


r 


09100 


FDB 


0,7200,7170,7168 


9 


09200 


FDB 


2056,7176,2058,1024 


t 


09300 


FDB 


0,8738,8742,6656 


11 


09400 


FDB 


0,8738,8724,2048 


V 


09500 


FDB 


0,16705,18761,13824 


V 


09600 


FDB 


0,8724,2068,8704 


X 


09700 


FDB 


0.8738,7682,540 


y 


09800 


FDB 


0,15876,2064,15872 


X 


09900 


FDB 


1032,4104,4104,1024 


( 


10000 


FDB 


2056,2048.2056.2048 


• 


10100 


FDB 


2052.516,516,2048 


) 


10200 


FDB 


0,8272,2564,0 


WAVE 


10300 


FDB 


65535,65535,65535,65535 


DELETE (ALL ON) 


10400 









One- Liner Contest Winner . > . 

Enter your text and the computer tells you what 
vowels you have used and how many times. 

The listing: 

10 CLEAR 40)3 

2j3 LINEINPUT" TEXT : " ; A$ : FORC=lTO 
LEN ( A$ ) +1 : X$=MID$ ( A$ , C , 1) : IFOLE 
N (A$) +1THENPRINT" A E I O U" 
: PRINTA ; E ; I ; O ;U: E LS E I FX $ = " A "THEN 
A=A+1 : NEXTELSE IFX$= " E " THENE=E+1 * 
NEXTELSEIFX$=" I"THENI=I+1 : NEXTEL 
SEIFX$="0»THENO=b+I : NEXTELSEIFX$ 
="U"THENU=U+1 : NEXTELSENEXT 

Frank Marino 
Kissimmee, FL 



(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



184 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



Recommended Reading for Your CoCo from . 




The Rainbow Bookshelf 





SIMULATIONS 



■ 



I 




lid in--* fMif# n>r-n* roVFiiH* 





The Complete Rainbow Guide To OS-9 

The book that demystifies the state-of-the-art operating system 
for the Tandy Color Computer, Authors Dale L. Puckett and Peter 
Dibble show you how to take advantage of 0S-9's multi-tasking 
and multi-user features, and the capability of redirecting input 
and output commands at will. An easy-to-read, step-by-step guide 
packed with hints and tips, tutorials and free software in the form 
of program listings. 

Book $19.95, Disk $31.00 {2 disks, book not included) 

The Rainbow Book of Simulations 

Features 20 award-winning entries from THE RAINBOW'S first 
Simulation programming competition. You are the Commander- 
in-Chief of the Confederate Army during the Civil War, an air 
traffic controller at one of the nation's busiest airports, the owner 
of your own software business, a civil defense coordinator -in 
charge of saving Rainbow City from a raging flood, a scientist 
conducting experiments on Mars . . . Your wits are on the line. 
Book $9.95, Tape $9.95 



The Rainbow Book of Adventures 

A collector's item containing 14 winning programs from THE 
rainbow's very first Adventure contest. Includes such favorites 
as Sir Randolf of the Moors, Search for the Ruby Chalice, Deed 
of the York, Horror House, One Room, The Door and Dr, Ay aloe. 
Plus, hints and tips on solving Adventures. 
Book $7.95, Tape $7.95 



The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures 

Our newest arrival features 24 of the most challenging Adventure 
games ever compiled. Meet the Beatles and battle the Blue 
Meanies, find a hidden fortune, or win the heart of a beautiful 
and mysterious princess. Experience the thrills and chills of the 
most rugged Adventurer without ever leaving your seat. Ring 
Quest, Secret Agent Man, Dark Castle, Curse of Karos, Island 
and morel 

Book $13,95, Tape $13.95 



Coming soon 
The Rainbow Guide to Introductory Statistics 
The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations 



I want to start my own Rainbow Bookshelf! 

Please send me: 

□ The Rainbow Book of Simulations $ 9.95 

□ Rainbow Simulations Tape $ 9.95 

□ The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 

(book only) $19.95 

□ Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Disk Package (2 disks) $31 .00 



Name 




□ The Rainbow Book of Adventures (first) 

□ Rainbow Adventures Tape (first) 



$ 7.95 
$ 7.95 



□ The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures $13.95 

□ Second Rainbow Adventures Tape $13.95 
Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax 

Add $1.50 per book Shipping and Handling in U.S. 
Outside U.S., add $4.00 per book 

(Allow 6 to 8 weeks for delivery) Total 



Address 

City 

State 



ZIP 



□ Payment Enclosed, or □ Charge to: 
□ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 




Account Number 



Card Expiration Date 
Signature 



.Mail to: Rainbow Bookshelf, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 

Please note: The tapes and disks offered by The Rainbow Bookshelf are not stand-alone products. That is, they are intended to be an 
adjunct and complement to the books. Even if you buy the tape or disk, you will still need the appropriate book. 
OS-9® is a registered trademark of the Microware Systems Corporation; 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call 800-847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. For other inquiries call 502-228-4492. 



DOWNLOADS 



Telepatch to the Rescue 



• / am using an old copy o/Telewriter-64, 
disk version, for my word processing. When 
I purchased a new disk controller for my 
disk drive (Disk basic 1.1), I found that 
Telewriter no longer goes to the disk I/O 
menu, I get an FC Error. When I switched 
my new controller for an old controller 
(Disk BASIC LO), the Telewriter worked fine. 
So the problem is definitely the controller. 

Do you have any information on a fix for 
this problem? 

Jeffrey Mofenson 
Mineola, NY 

Jeffrey, Telewriter-64 is different for Disk 
basic 1.0 and 1.1. Since the machine lan- 
guage routines have been moved in the 1.1 
ROM, a different version of Telewriter was 
necessary. There's nothing wrong with your 
controller. 

There are two solutions to your problem. 
The first is to find an updated version of 
Telewriter, one for your 1.1 ROM. The 
second solution is to buy Telepatch, an 
enhancement program that adds several 



Dan Downard is an electrical engineer 
and has been involved in electronics for 
27 years through Ham radio (K4KWT). 
His interest in computers began about 
eight years ago and he has built several 
68 XX systems. 



improvements to Telewriter-64. Telepatch 
also allows you to use either 1.0 or 1.1 Disk 
BASIC. Telewriter was one of the first and, 
in my opinion, best programs written for the 
CoCo. 



What's OS-9 For, Anyway? 

• I own a 64 K Co Co 2, single drive and a 
DMP-105 printer. I purchased OS-9 about 
four months ago hoping that it would allow 
me to use and teach me to write assembly 
language programs. So far I can find no use 
whatsoever for my OS-9 system aside from 
buying software for it or buying something 
like BASIC09. If anyone knows of a good 
book to teach a newcomer how to program 
in assembly language, or if anyone has done 
something with OS-9 either with or without 
the assembler, let me know what it was you 
did and how you did it. I can be reached at 
2026 Lardner St., 19149. • 

Michael Keefe 
Philadelphia, PA 

OS-9 is just an operating system, Michael, 
not a language, per se. If you want to learn 
assembly language programming, I suggest 
obtaining Assembly Language Program- 
ming for the TRS-80 Color Computer, by 
William Barden, Jr. This book is sold in all 
Radio Shack Computer Centers. It explains 



By Dan Downard 
Rainbow Technical Editor 



assembly language programming, but has 
nothing to do with OS-9. 

After you understand the principles of this 
book, I suggest moving up to OS-9. An 
adequate portion of TTie Complete Rainbow 
Guide to OS-9 by Dale Puckett and Peter 
Dibble is devoted to OS-9. People used to 
assembly language programming find OS-9 
tedious at first, but learn to appreciate its 
flexibility. 

My last bit of advice comes from expe- 
rience. Don't even bother with assembly 
language programming unless you have a 
good reason. That's what higher level lan- 
guages such as BASIC were written for — to 
eliminate the need for assembly language 
programming. 



Serial Conversion 

• In the May 1986 "Downloads" you re- 
vealed the secret to interfacing DB-25 RS- 
232 printers to the Co Co. Is there a similar 
method to wire into the Centronics Parallel 
Port Printers? 

1 know that commercial serial to parallel 
interfaces are available, but I'd rather go 
direct, if possible. Would it be simpler to 
install a Centronics Port in the Co Co? 

R. Stanwood 
Lang ley, British Columbia 



1 86 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



9 



The DB-25 is the standard for RS-232, or 
serial interfaces. The key to your question 
is serial vs. parallel. Serial data communi- 
cations sends data one bit at a time. Parallel 
data is sent one byte, or eight bits, at a time. 
A strobe pulse is used to sync the parallel 
transmission. Therefore, you must first 
convert the serial data to a parallel format 
before sending it to a Centronics compatible 
port. 



Hazardous TVI Solution 

• This is in reference to your reply to Mr, 
Biggs' TV interference problem in the 
February 1986 "Downloads/' 

Mr. Biggs was told that one method of 
eliminating or reducing his TVI problem 
consisted of spraying a metallic coating on 
the inside surface of his CoCo's case. This 
is an excellent way of controlling a TVI 
problem. It should be noted, however, that 
there are possible hazards associated with a 
metallic aerosol coating. If the coating is not 
designed to adhere to the surface it is being 
applied to, or is not applied per the written 
instructions, the coating may peel off and 
come in contact with uninsulated conduc- 
tors. If the coating falls across low voltage 
logic circuits there is a possibility of data 
errors or IC chip damage. If the coating falls 
across high voltage power circuits, an 
increased shock or fire hazard is presented. 

There are several possible alternatives to 
using a metallic coating. You may try simply 
moving the computer a foot or two in any 
direction, or try plugging the computer into 
a power receptacle of a different circuit. If 
these methods fail, a metallic coating might 
be a good solution, but please use caution! 

Kurt Stefans 
Roselle, IL 

Kurt, first of all, I am not aware of any 
high voltages present inside a CoCo. Any 
type of modification to electronic devices 
requires a certain amount of care in dealing 
with conductive materials. Some of the 
worst disasters I have seen inside CoCos 
have been caused by improper soldering 
techniques. I have never seen one catch on 
fire, but who knows? 

I agree that you should not modify any 
electrical device without using proper care 
and craftsmanship. At the same time, I don't 
see too many unmodified CoCos around 
anymore. 



OS-9 Copy Malfunction 

• / recently purchased the OS-9 system and 
was quite frustrated to find I could only 
make one copy of the master disk, and even 
then only after many attempts. I assume the 
original disk is all right since one copy was 
made and there is nothing wrong with the 
drive (the speed was checked) and all my 
other disks work fine, including the one copy 



of the OS-9 disk (except for the copy 
routine). I've tried everything lean think of 
and have come to the end of my rope. I wrote 
to Tandy but they were only able to suggest 
a speed check. I was wondering if you had 
heard of this problem before. Any informa- 
tion would be helpful. I have a Co Co (E' 
board) with 64 K, a single disk drive with 
DOS LI and an SG-10 printer. 

Andrew Richardson 
Orleans, Ontario 

The original release of CoCo OS-9 had a 
speed check program on the Boot disk, 
Andrew. As you have checked the speed of 
both drives, I assume this is not the problem. 

Try backing up the backup copy. It is the 
same as the original for OS-9 Version 
01.00.00. Maybe you inadvertently wrote 
something onto the master disk. There is no 
reason you shouldn't be able to back up the 
master. 

Version 02.00.00 is a different situation. A 
configuration disk is included in the package 
to allow for different drivers. Even in this 
case, once you have made a system disk, you 
should be able to use the Backup command 
to make a duplicate. 



Ham-ware Discovered 

• In answer to your request for commercial 
software for Ham radio, I suggest Spec-Corn 
for RTTY, Sloscan, CW and many other 
software programs on disk and cassette. A 
catalog of CoCo software may be obtained 
by sending an SASE to: Spec-Corn, P.O. 
Box H, Low den, I A 52255. 

Bob Garber 
El Paso, TX 

I have received numerous letters request- 
ing Ham software, Bob. I have not seen any 
of the programs you mention, but thanks for 
the help. 



Secret Software 



• Is there a way to hide programs on disk 
so they are unable to be seen with D1R? How 
would one undo this function? How many 
ways are there to do this sort of thing? 

Marc Mundt 
Louisville, KY 

Marc, the easiest way I know of to protect 
programs from being loaded is to make one 
of the characters a control code. It will not 
appear in the directory, but loading the 
program is a little tedious. 

There are several other ways to load 
programs using direct calls to the Disk 
ROM. A commercial one is available to do 
this. Look through the ads in this issue. 



EDTASM+ Answer Correction 



• In June 1986 you told Dean Pace he could 
set Super-Patched EDTASM+ to the 32K 
mode and disassemble Disk basic by chang- 
ing memory location $FFDE. This won't 
work. SPEDTASM is patched so that it 
displays 64 K RAM, but flips back to ROM 
for operations such as reading a key or 
printing a character. If he uses ZBUG to 
change $FFDE, SPEDTASM flips the 
ROM- RAM switch at least twice before he 
even sees the result displayed onscreen. 
What Mr. Pace needs to do is assemble a 
short program into memory and copy ROM 
to upper RAM. 

Because SPEDTASM operates from 
ROM, Mr. Pace can single-step through the 
RAM image, change it and experiment to 
his heart's content. 

This program ought to do the trick for 
him: 



START 



LOOP 



ORCC 


tt$50 


LDS 




LEfiU 


,s 


STR 


SFFDE 


LDY 


.--s 


LDX 


• ~s 


LDD 


,--s 


STR 


$FFDF 


PSHU 


Y,X,D 


CMPU 


BS8000 


BHI 


LOOP 


RNDCC 


tt$RF 


sun 




END 


STRRT 



Fred Sawtelle 
Huntsville, TX 



Thanks for the info, Fred. Your program 
also gives all our readers a lesson in assembly 
language programming. 



Your technical questions are welcomed. 
Please address them to: Downloads, the 
rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit for 
space and clarity. Due to the large volume 
of mail we receive, we are unable to answer 
letters individually. 

Your technical questions may also be sent 
to us through the MAIL section of our new 
Delphi CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> 
prompt, pick DELPHI MAIL, then type 
SEND and address TO: DANDOWNARD. 
Be sure to include your complete name and 
address. 



September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 87 




ACCESSIBLE APPLICATIONS 



Reviewing PenPal 
Applications 



By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Last month we began a discussion 
of the PenPal integrated soft- 
ware package from Four Star 
Software in Canada. This month we will 
discuss additional modules, starting 
with Calc. 

Calc alone is a good, if not great, 
spreadsheet. It lacks an IF . . . THEN 
. . . ELSE statement and lookup ta- 
bles, so you won't want to try to write 
an iricome tax spreadsheet with it. But 
it has a few neat features that make up 
for these omissions. If you want to plot 
data directly from spreadsheet files, the 
Graphit module is excellent. To make 
graphs, bar charts or pie charts, the 
Calc/ Graphit combination may be the 
best available for the CoCo today. 

As with all PenPal applications, Calc 
is function-key driven with a function- 
key strip displayed on the bottom two 
lines of the 51 character by 24 line 
screen. There are enough functions to 
require a primary and a secondary key 



Richard White lives in Fairfield, Ohio, 
and has a long background with micro- 
computers and specializes in BASIC 
programming. With Don Dollberg, he 
is the co-author of the TIMS database 
management program. 



strip. These are toggled by pressing 
CLEAR and '0'. 

Spreadsheet size is 255 columns by 
255 rows. Of course, you cannot use all 
of the cells at one time due to memory 
limitations. Still, you can use quite a 
few, since Calc is conservative in its use 
of memory. It seems to be quite compet- 
itive with DynaCalc in this regard. You 
start with 26,458 bytes of buffer space, 
so very sizable spreadsheets are possi- 
ble. 

Calc saves memory in other ways. 
Numbers are saved with nine place 
accuracy using only five bytes per entry. 
This is sufficient accuracy for most 
applications. If you need more, Dyna- 
Calc works to 16 digit accuracy, but 
needs a few more bytes to store each 
number. 

When a cell is used, some memory is 
allocated for the cells in the block 
between cell Al and the newly used cell. 
This is true of most spreadsheets. If you 
delete some of the columns or rows in 
that block, you don't immediately get 
back all the memory involved. How- 
ever, if you save and then reload the 
sheet, cell pointers are reset for best 
memory economy. 

Initially, label entry appears to be the 
same as many other spreadsheets. You 
can enter a long label, but only those 



characters that fit the column width are 
displayed. If you move the cursor to the 
cell, more of the text is displayed in the 
cell descriptor line (line two) at the top 
of the screen. During label entry, you 
can use the '@' key to backspace over 
the label to make corrections. Once the 
label is entered, there is no way to edit 
it. The same is true for numbers and 
formulas. This is Calc's greatest weak- 
ness, which is partially compensated for 
by the ability to define a text block. 

A text block is new to me. An area 
of the screen is selected (it could be the 
whole screen, but not exceed screen 
boundaries) and defined as a text block 
using a function key. The cursor appears 
in the upper left-hand corner of the 
block. You now have a small text editor 
with which you can enter text in the 
block. Use the arrow keys to move over 
the text to do editing. Word wrap is not 
supported; you must do this manually. 
Exit a text block with the BREAK key. 

Once defined, the text block remains 
available. When you place the cursor 
within the block and press the function 
key, you go back into the text editing 
mode. When not in the editing mode, 
labels, numbers and formulas can be 
put into text block cells in the normal 
manner. Those cells are removed from 
the block and work as normal spread- 



188 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



sheet cells. This breaks the text block 
into pieces above and below, or right 
and left of the normal cells. 

If you set up a text block, write text 
into it and then change the widths of 
columns passing through the block, the 
text display is broken up. Not to worry. 
Simply put the cursor inside the block 
and use the text function key, and the 
text is reformatted. If the size of the 
block is reduced so there is more text 
than space, the text is truncated. 
Further, without word wrap, words are 
broken at the right margin and you have 
to do some editing by hand. But it's 
better than typing it in from the begin- 
ning. Blocks can be defined for other 
purposes, including deleting, copying, 
printing and saving a portion of a 
spreadsheet either as a spreadsheet file 
or ASCII file. 

The block copy function works much 
like copy in Lotus 1-2-3 except you 
select the block first and then press the 
function key to define the block to be 
copied. Move the cursor to the upper 
left-hand cell you want to copy to and 
press the copy function key again. This 
leads us to absolute or relative address- 
ing. Here is a simple example. This 
formula is in screen location Fl: Dl + 
El + #E5. When I copy it to screen 
location F2 it becomes D2 + E2 + #E5. 

Cell references Dl and El are treated 
like they refer to the second cell to the 
left and the first cell to the left, and are 
adjusted to maintain this same relation 
when the formula is copied to F2. E5 is 
preceded by a which tells Calc not to 
adjust this cell reference. It is called an 
absolute address, which always is to 
reference the same cell irrespective of 
where the formula is copied. 

Calc contains a typical selection of 
trigonometric and other functions and 
operands. Like DynaCalc, formulas are 
evaluated from left to right with no 
hierarchy of operands except the por- 
tions in parentheses which are evaluated 
innermost first. As I have cautioned 
before, this can lead to incorrect results 
if you do not assure that a multiplica- 
tion or division is performed before the 
result is added or subtracted. Without 
hierarchy of operators this can happen 
unless you use parentheses to force the 
order of calculation. 

Calc has a very limited number of 
built-in formulas, including AVG (aver- 
age), MAX (maximum value in defined 
range), MIN (minimum value) and 
SUM (summation of all cells in the 
range). For each of these the range can 
be a block of cells. Whenever a spread- 
sheet offers built-in formulas like these, 



we need to know how each formula 
deals with empty cells and cells includ- 
ing text or labels. These functions 
assume that empty and label or text cells 
contain zeros. AVG(AI-AIO) assumes 
that all 10 cells in the range contain 
numbers even if one or more don't. In 
such a case an incorrect average would 
be returned. MIN(AI-AIO) gets con- 
fused in the same way and returns a zero 
if there is an empty or label-containing 
cell. MAX and SUM are not affected 
and always return a correct result. 

Perhaps even more basic is the fact 
that Calc performs a calculation even 
when there are empty or label cells in 
the range. Some spreadsheets return an 
error, forcing the user to put zeros in 
empty cells and get rid of labels within 
the range. This means more work and 
untidy results. 

Those whose first spreadsheet was 
Spectaculator will remember CMT and 
RMT for cumulative sum of a column 
or row. That was all we had four years 
ago, but why include these formulas 
when the more able and understandable 
SUM is included? If you use Calc, forget 
CMT and RMT. 

Finally, a cell can be set up to receive 
a constant at the time of calculation. 
With this, you could set up a form and 
prompt the user to make entries one by 
one, assuring all required numbers are 
entered. You could type in letters or a 
word, but this shows up as a zero. It 
would be nice if words could be entered 
and placed in cells in a prompted mode. 
Then all sorts of forms could be put 
together in a spreadsheet, and be filled 
out following prompts on the entry line. 
Please, Four Star, add this to the Ver- 
sion 3 wish list. 

To set up a cell for prompted entry, 
put the cursor on the cell, press the 
formula function key and then type ? 
and the text to be in the prompt. All 
formulas are entered by positioning the 
cursor and using the formula function 
key to get into formula entry mode. 

I mentioned you can save a portion 
of a spreadsheet to a file. You can also 
merge that save or any spreadsheet into 
another. The merge starts at the current 
cursor location when merge is called 
and proceeds right and down. One 
obvious use is to move data from one 
spreadsheet to another. Another is to 
combine a number of smaller spread- 
sheets into one big one. 

There are a couple of unusual de- 
faults. If you try to print or make an 
ASCII save without previously select- 
ing a range to save or print, the screen 
is selected as the default range. All in all, 



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Quadrature fan Module B 

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✓ Require* RS232 Pak or PBJ 2SP 
Remote Terminal Program 
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✓ No Lost or Garbled Data 

✓ Error Trapping ✓ Software Clock 

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New Terminal Program ygTT^x. 

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MAKE CHECKS PAYABLE T* E.D.t . 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 189 



Metric Industries 



Model 101 Interface $39.95 



The Model 101 is a serial to 
parallel interface intended for use 
with a COCO and any Centronics 
compatible parallel input printer. 
The 101 has 6 switch selectable 
baud rates (300-9600). The 101 
is only 4" x2* x 1 " and comes 



with all cables and connectors for 
your computer and printer. 



The Model 104 Deluxe Interface $51.95 



The Model 104 is a serial to 
parallel interface like the Model 
101 but it has the added feature 
of a serial port (sometimes 
referred to as a modem switch). 
This feature allows the connection 
of a parallel printer and any 
serial device (modem, serial printer 



etc.) to your computer. You may 
then select either output, serial or 
parallel, with the flip of a switch. 
The 104 is only 4.5" x2.5" x 1.25" 
and comes with all cables and 
connectors for your computer. You 
supply the serial cable for your 
modem or other serial device. 




Model 102 Switcher $35.95 



The Model 102 has 3 switch 
positions that allow you to 
switch your computer's serial 
output between 3 different 
devices (modem, printers or 
another computer). The 102 has 
color coded lights that indicate 
the switch position. These 



lights also act as power 
indicators to let you know your 
computer is on. Supplied with 
the 102 are color coded labels 
that can be applied to your 
accessories. The 102 has a heavy 
guage anodized aluminum cabinet 
with non-slip rubber feet. 



Cassette Label Package $15.95 



Organize Your Tapes, Label Your 
Data Tapes, Color Code Your 
Tapes, Label Your Audio Tapes 




Save $8.40 when you purchase the 
Cassette Label program and label 
package. You get the Cassette 
Label program, 100 WHITE labels, 
100 RED labels, 100 BLUE labels, 
100 YELLOW labels, and 100 TAN 
labels. A value worth $24.35, but 



you pay only $15,95. When 
ordering, specify the Cassette Label 
PACKAGE. Order soon, this offer 
expires 9/30/86 



Cassette Label Program $6.95 



New Version 1.2-Tape transfera- 
ble to disk. Now save and 
load Labels from tape or disk. 

This fancy printing utility prints 
5 lines of information on 
pinfeed cassette labels. "Cas- 
sette Label" is menu driven and 
is very easy to use. It uses the 
special features of your 
printer for standard, expanded 
or condensed characters. Each 
line of text is automatically 
centered. Before the label 
Is printed, it fs shown on your 



CRT — enabling you to 
make changes if you like — 
then print 1, 2 or 100 labels. The 
program comes on tape and it 
is supplied with 24 labels to 
get you started. 16K ECB 
required. 

• "* 

MMfc'l ft LAMB- fKIHTlMO UtlLllY 

o mmimi mum cncwn. <wi 

• • • • • * 



Other Quality Items 

High Quality 5 Screw Shell O10 
Cassette Tapes $7.50 per dozen 

Hard Plastic Storage Boxes for 
Cassette Tapes $2.50 per dozen 

Pin Feed Cassette Labels 
White $3.00 per 100 
Colors $3.60 per 100 (Red, Blue, 
Yellow or Tan) 







f ■» 






ti.,,1, m g— ■ 









THE 101, AND 104 
REQUIRE POWER IN ORDER TO 
OPERATE. MOST PRINTERS 
CAN SUPPLY POWER TO YOUR 
INTERFACE. STAR, RADIO 
SHACK, AND OK I DATA ARE JUST 
A FEW THAT DO. EPSON DOES 
NOT. THE INTERFACES CAN 
ALSO BE POWERED BY AN AC 
ADAPTER (RADIO SHACK MODEL 
273-1431 PLUGS INTO ALL 
MODELS). IF YOU REQUIRE A 
POWER SUPPLY, ADD A "P" TO 
THE MODEL NUMBER AND $5.00 
TO THE PRICE. (MODEL 101 P 
$44.95, MODEL 104P $56.95) 



The Model 101, 102 and 104 
will work with any COCO, any 
level basic and any memory size. 
These products are covered by 
a 1 year warranty. 

The Model 101 and 104 work 
with any standard parallel input 
printer including Gemini, Epson, 
Radio Shack, Okidata, C. loth and 
many others, They support 
BASIC print commands, word 
processors and graphic com- 
mands. 

We manufacture these products. 
Dealer inquiries are invited. 



To order call our 24 hour order 
line 513-677-0796 and use 
your VISA MASTERCARD, 
request GO.D.or send check or 
money order to: 

Metric Industries 
P.O. Box 42396 
Cincinnati, OH 45242 

Free shipping on orders over 
$50.00. Ohio residents add 5.5% 
sales tax. 

Orders under $50.00 please add 
$2.50 for shipping. 



Calc is a nice piece of work and adds 
major value to the PenPal package. 

We come now to Graphit that works 
with a Calc file to produce plots of data 
selected from the file. Similar capabil- 
ities are included in the Disk BASIC 
Version of DynaCalc, but not in the OS- 
9 version. Graphit makes line, dot or 
bar graphs in either horizontal or ver- 
tical directions. It also makes pie charts, 
and the segments can be filled with 
textures selected from nearly 100 avail- 
able choices. 

Graphit has powerful graph-labeling 
capabilities, including a selection of 
font sizes ranging from 32 to 64 col- 
umns. You also have control of the 
display style. For example, you might 
want to use light letters over a dark 
texture or surround dark letters with a 
light box over a dark background. 

Graphs may be saved to a / GP file to 
be later loaded back into Graphit, or as 
a binary file that can be loaded into 
some other graphics program, or to a 
BASIC program for display or modifica- 
tion using Basic's graphics commands. 
Finally, you can print graphs either 
single or double size. A number of the 
most popular printer protocols are 
supported. The pie chart prints oval on 
my LP VIII in double size, but is close 
to round in normal size. It also appears 
oval on the screen. 

Graphit works from function-key 
strips displayed only when the CLEAR 
key is pressed. It's easy to do the basics 
and to redraw the graph in different 
ways to choose the one with most clarity 
or impact. Lettering the graph is easy, 
as is choosing and using textures for the 
pie chart. 

Graphit has only an 8,500-byte buffer 
for the spreadsheet file it is to plot. Calc 
can deal with spreadsheets three times 
that size. When working with a larger 
spreadsheet you need to save the parts 
of the sheet with the data to be plotted 
to separate small files. Now we can 
better appreciate Calc's ability to make 
such small files. 

Telecom is a full-featured telecom- 
munication program that uses the RS- 
232 port on the CoCo. For me, this is 
unfortunate since my port is not work- 
ing. It is also confusing, since the printer 
that works off the same plug works fine 
from the CoCo. Who said computers 
were rational? At least my diagnostics 
ROM agrees the port is bad. 

I have the Radio Shack RS-232 
ROM Pak, which both Mikeyterm and 
DeskMate use, so I have all the telecom- 
munications capability I need. Still I 



190 



THE RAINBOW September 1986 



would like to have used Telecom rather 
than just reporting on the documenta- 
tion. 

Things can get foggy in a hurry in 
telecommunications. This is partly due 
to the variety of settings and options 
available. Delphi, CompuServe and 
most microcomputer-based bulletin 
boards are fairly standard and work at 
the default settings supplied with Tele- 
com, DeskMate and other packages. 
Telecom has all the tools needed to deal 
with nonstandard beasts if you need to 
use them. 

You do not need a modem to use 
Telecom. You can connect directly with 
another computer in the same room or 
nearby. You will need a special three- 
wire cable called a null modem. One is 
easily made from components stocked 
by all Radio Shack Stores. You will 
need the right plug to go into the RS- 
232 plug on each computer. The CoCo 
uses an oddball four-pin DIN plug. The 
best way to get one is to buy a CoCo 
printer/ modem cable, 26-3020 for 
$4.95. If connecting two CoCos, swap 
the wires to pins 2 and 4 on one plug. 
Plug the cable into the two machines, 
load the terminal programs and go. 

If you are connecting to a different 
computer, it will most likely need a 
standard, 25-pin RS-232 male plug. I 
would still start with the CoCo cable 
and replace one four-pin DIN with the 
RS-232 plug. Pins 1, 2, 3 and 4 on the 
CoCo plug go to pins 8, 2, 7 and 3 on 
the RS-232. 

If you plan to work over the tele- 
phone, you need a modem and a modem 
cable. The modem cable mentioned 
works only with Radio Shack modems. 
Other modems usually require a male 
RS-232 plug on the cable. You can make 
a cable just like the null modem cable 
above, except the wires to pins 2 and 3 
on the RS-232 plug are swapped. 

Starting at the top we come to Baud 
rate. Some years ago, 300 Baud was 
fairly standard. All communications 
services support this rate. If you are 
connecting directly to another compu- 
ter, you can use the highest rate com- 
monly supported by the two computers. 
Telecom will run at 2400 Baud provided 
the screen display is turned off. Other- 
wise, 600 Baud is recommended to 
avoid losing data. Of course, I want to 
work the bulletin board at 1200 Baud 
and I could not do that very well with 
my screen display off. Maybe Til find a 
way if I get my serial port fixed. 

Telecom defaults to 300 Baud. All the 
other defaults look good except duplex. 
The default is not to echo typed char- 



acters to the screen. Most bulletin 
boards send back each character as they 
receive it and Telecom dutifully displays 
that character so you know what you 
typed. This is called full duplex. If you 
hook up to another computer using a 
package like Telecom, it most likely will 
not echo characters as it receives them. 
This also goes for time-sharing services 
running on IBM mainframes. So now 
you must turn half duplex on in Tele- 
com to see what you are typing. 

Telecom supports a powerful autolog 
file capability. You are able to change 
any communications parameters from 
an autolog file. Say you had been 
having a session on a local bulletin 
board and want to call up your com- 
pany's office mail system running on an 
IBM mainframe. 

First, you empty the buffer and enter 
the IBM autolog file. Execute this file 
by pressing the function key. The first 
thing it might do is change from full to 
half duplex. Next, if you have an auto- 
dial modem, it could send the modem 
instruction to dial including the number 
to dial. Once connection is made, the 
office machine manages the user's logon 
by asking for certain responses. The 
autolog file can contain instructions to 
look for prompts and to send specified 
character strings at each prompt which 
completely automates the logon. This 
can be particularly useful on a bulletin 
board with nested menus. You could be 
automatically logged on and have the 
mail reading started. 

When I upload or download, I nearly 
always use the CPM or Xmodem pro- 
tocol. Those are two names for the same 
thing. Basically, 128-byte buffers and a 
check digit are sent at one time. The 
receiving software recalculates the 
check digit and compares it to the one 
it received. If they check, successful 
transmission is acknowledged and the 
next buffer is sent. A mismatch means 
there was a transmission error and the 
sending computer is caused to resend 
the buffer. Telecom supports the Xmo- 
dem protocol. 

In summary, PenPaVs Calc is a step 
or two below DynaCalc in functions, is 
comparable in memory efficiency and 
has a superior graphing capability in 
Graphit. In some ways, Telecom is a bit 
better than the public domain Mikey- 
term and does everything most other 
terminal packages do. Couple this with 
the competent word processor dis- 
cussed last month and the file module 
yet to be discussed, and at $89.95, you 
have one of the best software values on 
any computer today. ^ 



Educational Programs 



7 Questions 7 ? 

Questions — a powerful, easy to use, 
authoring program! Questions has as 

many uses as its owners have creativity. 
Teachers have used Questions to develop 
pre and post tests, to make copies of the 
same test with questions in a different 
order, and to review and reinforce difficult 
lessons with their students. But Questions 
is not limited to school uses. Enterprising 
people have found other uses for it. Party- 
givers have used it to personalize games 
tor baby and wedding showers, and for 
creatinq their own trivia games. Adminis- 
trators have used it for inservice training. 
Children have written their own riddles 
with it. If you own Questions, you'll find a 
way to use it. You will also be pleased with 
its many fine features: 

* Word processing commands that al- 
low you to make changes as you type 

* Screen commands so you do not have 
to constantly refer to the manual 

* Options to take the quiz on the com- 
puter or to print a hard copy of it 

* Sequential or random presentation of 
questions 

* The ability to print the same test with 
questions in a different order 

* The printing of an answer key 

* The option to use expanded printer 
lettering to create large print tests. 

* The ability to save quizzes to cassette 
or disk 

* A review feature which permits stu- 
dents to study questions that have 
oeen missed 

* A record keeping system 

* Multiple choice, true/false, or fill 
in the blank formats. 

Questions is truly a professional authoring 
program that meets the needs of all of its 
users. 

16K ECB - Cass. $19.95 
32K ECB - Cass. $24.95 
32K Disk - $26.95 

***************************** 

Reading Comprehension Series 

Grades 2 - 4 

B5's Reading Comprehension Series is a 

set of data fifes to be used with the Ques- 
tions program described above. Each file 
contains over 100 questions, organized 
into 6 to 8 sequential lessons. Lessons 
build from simple to complex. This series 
emphasizes the thinking aspect of reading . 
Simple sentence structure allows the stu- 
dent to concentrate on thinking skills. 



Main Idea ★ 
Fact & Opinion ★ 



Sequencing 
Cause & Effect 



Each Title: Cassette - $10.95 
Disk $12.95 
Complete Series of 4 Titles: 
Cass, - $39.95; Disk - $41.95 

Most B5 programs are available 
OT through Radio Shack® Express 
Order. 

A trademark of Tandy Corp; 



B-5 Software Co. 

1024 Bainbridge Place 
Columbus, Ohio 43228 
Phone (614) 276-2752 




September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 91 





f BATTLE HYMN 

THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG 




BATTLE HYMN The Battle of Gettysburg. Command Lee's army of 39 Divisions, 
including Stuart's cavalry brigades, and infantry division under the command of 
such famous names as Johnson, Heth, McLaws, Hood, Early and Pickett. Try to 
do what the real Confederates couldn't: destroy Mead's army at Gettysburg, hew 
movement and turn structure; form lines, rally, limber and unlimber cannon, back- 
step, and do your best to outflank the Union line at Culp's Hill, Devil's Den or Big 
Round top. Historical, with an Ark Royal touch. Available also on the IBM PC (Tandy 
1000). Graphics are hi res; game is machine language throughout. $29.00 



AfrYENTURE l$LAN> 



ADVENTURE ISLAND (32K) Coco, disk only. Your plane has crashed on a deserted 
island and you must use all of your wits to stay alive. Beautiful half-screen picture 
graphics take you through jungle and beach in this fun-filled machine language 
adventure. Comes on two disks. $23 00 



Disk only! SAGA-THE SORCERER'S 
CURSE 32K 100% hi-res, 100% ML 
graphic adventure. Fantastic! — $22 

Disk only! REDSTAR 32K 100% hi-res 
1 00% ML. Futuristic wargame involv- 
ing NATO and the WARSAW 
PACT.— $22 

BARBAROSSA 64K 100% hi-res 
100% ML game of the war in Russia 
1941-1944. "A Blockbuster," says 
Hot Coco's Peter Paplaskas. Reviewed 
Jan. '86 Hot Coco.— $25 (Tandy 1000) 

D-DAY Our second 64K 100% hi-res 
1 00% ML, this one dealing with the Al- 
lies invasion of France in 1944. Mas- 
sive! No review date set yet.— $23 

PHALANX 32K 100% hi-res, 100% 
ML game of Alexander the Great. No 
review date set yet. — $20 



ANZIO 32K Semigraphic wargame. 1 
or 2 players. Simultaneous movement. 
No review date set yet.— $20 

COMPANY COMMANDER 32K ML 
routines. Tactical squad level wargame 
set in WWII. 1 2 scenarios, add-on ex- 
pansion modules. Dec. '85 Rain- 
bow.— $23 disk or tape 

RIVER CROSSING 32K ML routines. 
A Company Commander add-on mod- 
ule, but you no longer need C/C to play 
it.— $23 

CINCPAC BATTLE OF MIDWAY 32K 
100% hi-res 75% ML. The battle that 
turned the tide of war. Aug. '85 
Rainbow.— $20 

ESCAPE FROM DENNA 32K ML rou- 
tines. Semigraphic Dungeon adventure 
game. No review date set yet— $18 



BATTLE OF THE BULGE 32K Semi- 
graphic wargame. 1 or 2 players. Aug. 
'85 Rainbow.— $15 

BATTLE FOR TUNIS 32K Semigraph- 
ic wargame. 1 or 2 players. Sept. '85 
Rainbow.— $ 15 

ACROSS THE RUBICON 32K Semi- 
graphic wargame. Feb. '84 
Rainbow.— $ 1 5 

WATERLOO 32K ML routines. Semi- 
graphic wargame. Mar. '84 
Rainbow.— $ 15 

KAMIKAZE 32K Hi res graphic war- 
game. Apr. '83 Rainbow. — $15 

BOMBER COMMAND 32K disk, 1 6K 
tape. Semigraphic wargame. ML rou- 
tines. Jan. '84 Rainbow.— $10 

GUADALCANAL 32K Semigraphic 
wargame. ML routines. — $10 




Prices on all programs Include shipping to U.S., APO's. Canada. COD'S (USA only) 
add 10%. Florida Residents add 5%. For disk version add $2. All Orders shipped 
within 24 hours. Programs require Color Computer TM (Tandy Corp.) or TDP Sys- 
tem 100 Computer TM (RCA). Many programs soon to be available on MS-DOS 
systems. 



P. O. Box 14806 
Jacksonville, FL 32238 

(904) 786-8603 





16K 
ECB 



BARDEN'S BUFFER 



the 

35 3 



The Adventure of the 
Too Many Printers 



By William Harden, Jn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 




dear fellow," said 
Sherlock Holmes, 
as we sat on either 



side of the fire in his lodgings on Baker 
Street. "I really wish you would con- 
sider buying a Color Computer 2 in 
place of that older model. I know that 
you are exceedingly unhappy with your 
present machine." 

I turned to look in amazement at the 
tall spare figure seated in the armchair 
next to the Tandy 3000. A glimmer of 
of interest was present in his eyes. 

"How could you possibly know that, 
Holmes?" 

"Elementary, my dear Watson. I 
know from observing you at the com- 
puter that you are a two-fingered typist, 
using the index fingers of both hands. 
The tips of those fingers and those 
fingers alone have calluses, which 
you've been peering at intently all 
evening with some dismay, I might add. 
I also observe that you've replenished 
your supply of diskettes with those in 



Bill Barden has written 27 books and 
over 100 magazine articles on various 
computer topics. His 20 years expe- 
rience in the industry covers a wide 
background: programming, systems 
analyzing and managing projects rang- 
ing from mainframes to microcompu- 
ters. 



Radio Shack envelopes, indicating a 
visit to the local Radio Shack Computer 
Center, as our seventeen local stores 
never carry more than three each, or 
three of any product, for that matter. 
The Radio Shack computer catalog is 
also lying open to the page displaying 
Color Computer products. All of these 
minutiae point to the fact that you're 
seriously considering the new model. 
Furthermore, I saw the sales slip." 

I could not help laughing at the ease 
with which he explained his process of 
deduction. "It is, indeed, obvious, 
Holmes." 

"Quiet, Watson," my friend suddenly 
whispered. "Unless I miss my guess that 
will be our friend I observed a moment 
ago coming up the stairs. We are about 
to be visited by a stout fellow approx- 
imately six feet tall, weighing 280 
pounds and wearing a T-shirt upon 
which is emblazoned 'I Love My 
CoCo.'" 

A knock sounded on the door. 

"Come in," Holmes replied. 

The door opened and a stout fellow 
approximately six feet tall and about 
280 pounds entered. He was wearing a 
T-shirt upon which was printed "I Love 
My Tandy 1000." 

"Is this PCM Magazine?" he queried. 

"I'm sorry, you have the wrong 
story," Holmes replied, with some 
brusqueness. 



The caller made a quick egress. 
Another knock sounded at the door. 

Holmes shouted out, "Come in!" The 
door opened and a stout fellow approx- 
imately six feet tall and about 280 
pounds entered. He was wearing a T- 
shirt upon which was emblazoned "I 
Love My Color Computer 2." 

"Close enough," Holmes muttered. 

"Are you Sherlock Holmes, the 
famous detective?" the caller asked 
anxiously, his eyes downcast as if he 
were in deep despair. 

"Yes, Mr. Purcell-Smith," Holmes 
replied. 

"But how did you know my name, 
Mr. Holmes?" 

"I'm afraid, Mr. Purcell-Smith, that 
you've achieved some notoriety since 
your recent marriage to Joan Purcell, 
the chief programmer of Slothware. 
How may I help you?" 

I winced as I heard Holmes use that 
pat phrase gleaned from too many visits 
to his local Radio Shack. 

"Mr. Holmes, you must help me!" 
Purcell-Smith blurted. "One of our 
programmers has been found dead and 
my wife has been arrested by Lestrade 
of the Fort Worth Yard!" 

"Calm down, man!" said Holmes, 
sternly. "Tell us your story from the 
beginning." 

"Well, Mr. Holmes, my wife has been 
working for some time now on a new 



September 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 93 



Byte N Byte N+1 

/ 01 234567 0123456 7 



r 



1 



1 



0 



1 



1 



1 



1 



Row 0 



Row 191 




Two bits=One pixel 
00»Color 1 
01=Co!or2 
lO=Co!or3 
11*Color4 



32 Bytes/Row 

192 x 32 Byte9-6144 Bytes/Screen 



Byte @ 9727 



Figure 1: 128 x 192 Four-color 
Graphics Mode 



project for Slothware. It's a screen 
dump program for the Color Computer. 
Never having written such a program 
before, she ran into several major 
obstacles. 

"First of all, she had to figure out how 
points on the screen were held in mem- 
ory and where that memory was lo- 
cated." 

"That doesn't appear to be a great 
problem," said Holmes. "As I recall, the 
Color Computer holds its graphics 
screens starting at location 1536 dec- 
imal for nondisk systems and starting at 
location 3584 decimal for disk systems. 
Each screen is 6,144 bytes long for 
graphics modes 3 and 4. For graphics 
mode 3, 128 by 192, there are 24,576 
elements of two bits each. For graphics 
mode 4, there are 49,152 elements of 
one bit each." 

As Holmes spoke, he rapidly 
sketched two drawings, one represent- 
ing the 128 by 192 two-color graphics 
mode 3 and the second representing the 
256 by 192 two-color graphics mode 4 
(see figures 1 and 2). 

"I wrote a monograph on the subject 
after my episode involving the Giant 
Computer of Sumatra. But please con- 
tinue, Mr. Purcell-Smith." 

"The next problem my wife ran into 
was computer graphics. It seems that 
most Radio Shack printers use the same 
scheme for graphics, one involving 
seven bits per character position." Our 
visitor paused and shot a baffled glance 
at Holmes. 

"Ah, yes. The singular seven-bit 
problem. An interesting exercise. It 
appears that early in the printer game 
someone at Radio Shack decided to 
design a graphics printer. Most printers 
at the time used a five by seven dot 
matrix for each character. Each ASCII, 
or text, character was converted by the 
printer electronics into a series of five 
vertical columns, each column consist- 
ing of seven possible dots." He sketched 
another rapid illustration on the bottom 
of a Persian slipper (see Figure 3). 

"What could have been more natural 
than implementing graphics in the 
existing printers than to make each one 
of those seven print wires or print 
positions programmable in graphics 
mode. All that was required was a 
command to 'set graphics mode' in the 
printer. After graphics mode was set, 
the printer decoded each character that 
came to it as a coded form of which of 
those seven wires to print. The only 
requirement for each graphics character 
was it could not be in the normal range 
of ASCII characters from zero through 



127. It must be in the range of 128 
through 255." 

"Yes, Mr. Holmes, I understood that 
part of it, but could not see how the 
encoding took place." 

"Imagine that the topmost dot of 
each column was represented by a one, 
the next by a two, the next by a four, 
the next by an eight, the next by a 16, 
the next by a 32, and the last by a 64. 
Once graphics mode is set, you simply 
have to add the dot values for the 
column plus 128 to mark graphics 
mode. Let me illustrate." 

Holmes took out a pistol and aimed 
it at a spot on the wall next to the letters 
"M. T." created by bullet holes. (Victo- 



ria Regina had yielded to Maggie 
Thatcher years ago.) 

"Suppose you wanted to print the 
upper three dots and the bottommost 
dot in a graphics column." He fired the 
gun four times to denote the column. 
"The code for the graphics column 
would be one plus two plus four plus 64 
for the bottommost column plus 128 to 
mark the character as graphics. That 
would be a total of 191." 

"But how would that 191 value be 
sent to the printer, Mr. Holmes? You 
can send text by doing a PRINTtt-2 of 
a string, but how can a nonprintable 
character be sent?" 

"By using the CHR$( ) function, Mr. 



r 



Row 0 



Byte @ 3584 (Disk basic) 



Row 191 



Col. 
0 



ByteN Byte N+1 

0 1 234567012 3 4 5 6 7 



1 



1 



Col 
255 



1 



1 



1 



1 



1 



T 



1 



One bit=One pixel 
0=Color 1 
1 =Color 2 



32 Bytes/Row 

152 x 32 Bytes=6l44 Bytea/Screen 




Byte @ 9727 



Figure 2: 256 x 192 Two-color 
Graphics Mode 



194 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



Purcell-Smith. As a matter of fact, 
many printer codes are sent to the 
printer from BASIC by using the 
CHR$( ) function. To set graphics 
mode, for example, you'd do a PR I NT 8 - 
2,CHR$(27);CHR$(XX). To print the 
graphics column we've been discussing, 
you'd do a PRINTtt-2,CHR$(191) ;. 
Use a semicolon at the end if you don't 
wish to end the line." 

"But," said he, "pray let us continue 
our conversation on the way to the 
location of the demise of that poor 
programmer chap." 




Seven pins between rows 

on print 

head 



Figure 3: Dot Representation 
of Characters and Graphics 



There was a cab passing as the three 
of us came out of the building, and 
Holmes hailed it. "Beckenham, if you 
please." 

Our driver pulled up at a greystone 
that housed a high-tech industry. He 
knocked on the door, and a tall, dour- 
looking man appeared. 

"Ah, Lestrade," Holmes said. I see 
you have apprehended the killer and are 
putting the finishing touches to this 
little mystery." 

"Yes, Mr. Holmes. It was a simple 
crime, really. Ms. Purcell was jealous of 
her chief programmer and afraid that 
even with affirmative action he would 
soon replace her at Slothware. She 
laced his coffee with arsenic as he was 
putting the final frills on a screen dump 
program." 

"In that case, Lestrade, you won't 
mind if we have a look around, will 
you?" 

"Of course not, Mr. Holmes, al- 
though I'm certain you won't be finding 
anything that I haven't seen already." 

Holmes walked over to the program- 
ming area and picked up a listing next 
to a Color Computer. "Hmm. This 
appears to be a listing of the screen 
dump program in question, gentlemen. 
Let me peruse this briefly." 

After intently peering at the docu- 
ment, the detective picked up a second 
listing. He then glanced around the 
room at several printers connected to 



the Color Computer. Taking out a 
pocket measuring tape, he made precise 
measurements of figures produced by 
the several printers. 

"Watson, I think our task here is 
done. Lestrade, I think if you look in 
that programmer's desk drawer you'll 
find a vial of arsenic with his finger- 
prints on it, prompting you, I should 
think, to release Ms. Purcell from your 
custody. Let us be off, gentlemen." 

Later that evening the three of us sat 
in front of a blazing fire in Holmes' 
Baker Street apartment. 

"Mr. Holmes, I cannot thank you 
enough! My wife has been released and 
Lestrade has ruled the death a suicide." 

"My blushes, Mr. Purcell-Smith. It 
was just a trifle." 

"But, how did you know the death 
was a suicide?" 

"I looked in some detail at the listing. 
It appears that the dead programmer 
had been trying for some time to design 
a screen dump program for the Color 
Computer. It was apparent he was 



having problems, however. The revision 
number of the BASIC program was 
number 45, indicating that he had 
attempted 44 times to write a program 
that successfully dumped the screen." 

"But surely he must have known 
about the CHR$ command, memory 
layout of the graphics screen and coding 
of graphics characters?" 

"Yes, he was familiar with those 
functions for the screen dump program. 
However, he encountered a host of 
other obstacles. First, he found a prob- 
lem in translating one pixel on the 
screen into one printable spot. Consider 
one approach he might have used. If he 
made one pixel equal to one printable 
character, then he would have had a 
screen dump of 25.6 inches in width by 
32 inches high for the 256 by 192 mode, 
as the usual number of characters per 
width horizontally is 10 characters per 
inch and the number of vertical lines per 
inch is six. He was forced to use graph- 
ics mode to get a small enough listing. 

"However, he knew he could not 



Test 
Mode 

Method 32 ' 



Graphics 
Mode 
One Pixet= 
One Dot 



3:3" 



Graphics 
Mode 
One Pixel= 
Four Dots 



6.6' 



4 Units 



25.6' 



Too 
Large! 



4.4" 




Two 
Small! 



8.5" 



Just 
Right 



Four Rows by Four Columns 
Is Square on title . 
Screen 



1 Unit 




.4" 



.67* 




Elongated 
Proportions 



.07* 



.07" 




Excellent 
Proportions 



14" 



.138" 




Excellent 
Proportions 



Figure 4: Screen Dump 
Alternatives 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 195 



print one pixel at a time on the printer, 
as seven vertical dots are printed for 
every graphics character. Therefore, he 
had to construct a graphics character 
made up of the seven vertical pixels on 
the screen. Here, 111 show you what I 
mean." 

Holmes grabbed a nearby coal scuttle 
and drew a figure on it with a marking 
pen. 

"He had to repeat that process for the 
entire row of 256 characters. When he 
coded the program, however, he found, 
to his amazement, that the figure pro- 
duced by the screen dump was too 
small. The width was 256/60 inches 
wide, as most Radio Shack printers 
print 60 dots per inch in normal mode. 
The 4.4-inch width however, did not 
match the height. Most Radio Shack 
printers space graphics lines at 0.12 
inches vertically, about eight lines per 
inch. As he had to print 27 3/7 graphics 
lines to produce 192 pixels vertically, he 
found the vertical dimension of the 
screen dump figure was 3.3 inches. A 4.4 
by 3.3 inch figure wasn't to his liking. 

"On his next attempt, he printed two 
graphics characters for every column of 
seven pixels." Holmes continued the 
sketch (see Figure 4). 

"To do that, however, he had to make 
each graphics character represent 3.5 
pixels, drawing two graphics dots for 
each pixel on the screen. That proved 
to be more laborious programming 
because he had to alternate between odd 
and even numbered lines. Each even line 
on the printer represented the next three 
pixels and the top half of the next. Each 
odd line represented the bottom half of 
the last pixel and the next three pixels. 

"He wrote his next revision using 
these criteria. The result produced a 
print image of 8.5 inches by 6.6 inches. 



However, he encountered a strange 
problem. The line printer would not 
print the entire line of graphics charac- 
ters without advancing to the next line. 
After much deliberation, indicated by 
revisions 20 through 23, he found that 
Color Computer basic counted the 
number of characters in each line and 
assumed each character was a text 
character. After 132 characters, in the 
typical case, BASIC would automatically 
send a new line to the printer, assuming 
that no printer would have greater than 
13.2 inches for each line. That would be 
true had the printer been printing text, 
but not 512 graphics characters occupy- 
ing 8.5 inches. 

"In his next revision he cleared the 
BASIC variable that defined the number 
of characters per line to zero, eliminat- 
ing that problem. 

"The unfortunate programmer fi- 
nally had a program that would print a 
256 by 1 92 pixel screen in PMDDE 4. With 
a few more modifications, he created a 
new revision that would also print in 
PMDDE 3, the four-color 128 by 192 
mode. 

"In the process of running the screen 
dump program, however, he timed it. I 
would guess by the nested loops and 
'overhead' of the program it would take 
approximately 52 minutes to print out 
the screen. Our friend knew this would 
be unacceptable as a product. 

"He then set out to convert the BASIC 
program to Color Computer assembly 
language. The poor fellow had a nod- 
ding acquaintance with assembly lan- 
guage, but did not realize what a labor- 
ious task the conversion would be. 

"After hours and many program 
revisions, presumably, he produced this 
listing." Holmes thrust a soiled, tattered 
piece of paper at us. "In fact this pro- 



gram did execute quite rapidly, about 
eight minutes for each screen print. One 
can surmise that he went with good 
spirits to his employer, Ms. Purcell, to 
show her his accomplishment. At this 
point he was many days overdue. Ms. 
Purcell has confirmed that he did, 
indeed, show her the program. When 
they went to try it on her CGP-220 
printer, however, the proportions were 
quite far off — 6.4 inches horizontally 
by 6.6 inches vertically, as a matter of 
fact. Our friend was aghast until he 
found out that the CGP-220 printer 
printed 80 graphics columns per inch. 

According to Ms. PurceJl, he then 
attempted to run the program on the 
DMP-1 10 dot-matrix printer. Again the 
proportions were off — 4.2 inches by 5.5 
inches. To his dismay he found the 
DMP-1 10 used 120 graphics columns 
per inch! At that point, according to 
Ms. Purcell, he returned to his desk, in 
a kind of daze, repeating the words 'too 
many printers, too many printers.' She 
found him an hour later in the rictus of 
death clutching his last listing, which I 
have here." Holmes pulled out the last 
listing and placed it in front of us. 

"The ironic part of this story, gentle- 
men, is that his last listing worked for 
most Radio Shack printers. Such is the 
life of a programmer! Let us hope our 
friend has received his eternal reward 
for his efforts and is employed in a 
heavenly capacity on a system with one, 
and only one printer." 

How to Use the Screen 
Print Programs 

There are three versions of the screen 
print program. Each runs on any Radio 
Shack printer that has "dot graphics" 
capability, including earlier printers 
such as the LPVIII, DMP-100, DMP- 





10090 FOR ZN=0 TO 3 


Listing I: BflSPRINT 


10100 IF (PEEK(ZP+ZC+(INT(ZR)+Z 
N)*32) AND ZZ)>0 THEN ZG(ZN)=1 


10000 'HE-RES SCREEN PRINT 


ELSE ZG(ZN)=0 


1001,0 ZP=3584 'CHANGE TO ZP=153 


10110 NEXT ZN 


6 FOR NON-DISK SYSTEM 


10120 IF ZR=189 THEN ZG(3)=0 


10020 ZM-1 'CHANGE TO ZM=2 FOR 


10130 IF ZR=INT(ZR) THEN ZG$=CH 


128 X 192 RES. 


R$(128+ZG(0) *3+ZG(l) *12+ZG(2) *4 


10030 ZW=0 'CHANGE TO ZW=1 FOR 


8+ZG(3)*64) EISE ZG$=CHR$(128+Z 


DMP-110 


G(0) *1+ZG(1) *6+ZG(2) *24+ZG(3) *9 


10040 ZS=-ZM 


6) 


10050 PRINT #-2,CHR$(18) ; 


10140 PRINT #-2 , STRING? (ZM*2+ZW 


10060 FOR ZR=0 TO 191 STEP 3 . 5 


,ZG$); 


10070 FOR ZC=0 TO 31 


10150 NEXT ZB,ZC I PRINT #-2 I 


10080 FOR ZB-7 TO 0 STEP ZS : Z 


NEXT ZR 


Z=2 A ZB : IF Z»=2 THEN ZZ=ZZ+2 A ( 


10160 PRINT #-2,CHR$(30) ; : RET 


ZB-1) 


URN 



196 



THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



400, DMP-2100, and so forth. The 
screen print programs also run on newer 
Radio Shack printers when the printers 
are set to the Tandy character set. 
Newer printers have a switch selection 
that enables either Tandy or IBM char- 
acters to be used. The reason for this is 
the printers are used in the Tandy 1000, 
1200, 2000 and 3000 — systems which 
are IBM PC compatible. These systems 
not only use a different character set, 
but also use a different escape code 
sequence, one which is Epson printer 
compatible. Unfortunately for the pro- 
grammer in our story, the new printers 
arrived too late. The Epson escape-code 
sequence uses an eight-bit encoding 
which is a great deal easier to work with 
than the seven-bit coding. 

The first program, shown in Listing 
1, is a BASIC program that works for 
either PMODE 4 (256 by 192) or PMODE 

3 (128 by 192). To use the program, key 
it in as a subroutine starting at Line 
10000. Then call it from your BASIC 
program at any time to print out the 
graphics screen. 

Before you do, however, change Line 
10010 to ZP=1536 for a nondisk system 
or to ZP=3584 for a disk system. 
Change Line 10020 to ZM=1 for PMODE 

4 or to ZM=2 for PMODE 3. If you have 
a printer such as the DMP-110 which 
prints at a dense resolution in graphics, 
change Line 10030 to ZW=1; otherwise 
leave ZW=0. The program takes about 50 
minutes to execute. 

The second version of the program is 
an assembly language implementation 
of the same program shown in Listing 
1. In this program we tried to do a 
straight translation between the BASIC 
version and assembly language so that 
you could see the flow in assembly 
language. Change the variables where 
indicated for disk/nondisk, PMODE 3 or 
4, and high-density printing at the 
beginning of the program. Assemble 
and load the program using the Disk 
EDTASM or another assembler. The 
program is designed to execute at loca- 
tion S3E00, so you'll have to do a CLEAR 
100,&H3DFF in your BASIC program 
before loading the program. You can 
then call the machine language code of 
the program by defining the location of 
the program with a DEFU5R0=&H3E04 
and an A=USR0(0) or with a POKE 
126 f XX: POKE 127, XX and an 
R=USR(0) in non-Extended BASIC. This 
assembly language version takes about 
8 minutes to print. 

If you would rather use the program 
as a BASIC version, enter the program 




Figure 5: Sample Printout 
Using Hi-Res Program 



Listing 2: 



3E00 

2Z99 
3E02 
3E03 



n 

99 

3E02 



3E04 B6 
3E07 1*9 

3E08 B7 3746 



3E0B 86 
3EJTD BD 



12 
3F36 



3E10 4F 

3E11 B7 3F45 

3E14 B7 3F48 



3E17 4p 
3EI8 B7 



3E1B 86 
3ELD B7 



3742 



91 

3F43 



99m * 

00110 *HX-RZS SCREEN PRINT 
99129 ORG $3E00 

99U9 *ZF-3584 'CHANGE TO ZP-1536 FOR NON-DISK SYSTEM 
00140 ZF FDB 3584 

99159 +2M-L 'CHANGE TO ZH-2 FOR L28X192 RES 
99169 ZH FCB 1 

99119 *ZV-0 'CHANGE TO ZW-1 FOR DHP-110 
001B0 ZV FCB 9 

00190 > 

99199 *ZS— ZH 

00210 * 

00220 START IDA ZH 

00230 NEGA -ZH 

00240 STA ZS INIT ZS 

00250 * - 

00260 +PRXNT #-2,CHR9(18): 

00270 * — 

00280 LDA #18 SET GRAPHICS 

00290 JSR PRINT 

99299 * - 
003 10 *FOR ZR-0 TO 191 STEP 3.3 

00320 * 

00330 CLRA 9 

00340 STA ZR 

00350 STA ZT 

00360 *~ - 

00370 *F0R ZC-tf TO 31 

00380 * 

00390 HIR060 CLRA 
00400 STA ZC 

00410 * 

00420 *F0R ZB-7 TO 0 STEP ZS 

00430 * 

00440 HUL070 LDA #7 
00450 STA ZB INIT ZB 

00460 * — 

00470 *ZZ-2"ZB : IF ZM-2 THEN ZZ-ZZ+2*(ZB-1) 
00480 * 



INITIALIZE ZR 



INITIALIZE ZC 



3E20 F6 


3F43 


00490 HDL080 


LDB 


ZB 


GET # OF TIKES 


3E23 4F 




W30O 


CLRA 






3E24 17 


91 


99519 


TFR 


D.X 




3E26 CS 


01 


99519 


LDB 


•1 




3E28 8C 


9999 


00530 


CM PI 


»9 




3E2B 27 


19 


00540 HIR086 


BEQ 


RIR087 


GO IF 0 


3E2D 58 




P055P 


LSLB 




SHIFT LEFT 


3E2E 30 


IF 


00560 


LEAX 


-t.x 


DECREMENT 


3E30 26 


F9 


99519 


BNE 


HIR086 


CONTINUE IF NOT DONE 


3E32 B6 


3E02 


00580 


LDA 


ZH 




3E35 81 


02 


W590 


CMPA 


•2 




3E37 26 


04 


00600 


BNE 


HIR0B7 




3E39 -54 




99619 


LSRB 






3E3A FA 


3F47 


99619 


ORB 


ZZ 




3E3D F7 


3F47 


00630 HIR087 


STB 


ZZ 





3E40 108E 0000 



00650 *POR ZN-0 TO 3 

99669 * 

00670 LOT #0 

00680 * " 

00690 *IF (PEEK(Z?+ZC+(INT(ZR)+ZN)*32) AND ZZ)>0 THEN 
00700 *ZG(ZN)-l ELSE ZG(ZN)-0 

00710 *- — - 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 197 



shown in Listing 3. This is the exact 
same version as Listing 2, except the 
machine code has been entered as a 
series of DATA values. These values are 
relocated to the S3E00 area the first time 
the program is called. Thereafter the 
program is executed by executing the 
machine code at the S3E00 area. You 
must first do a CLEAR 100, &H3DFF in 
your BASIC program before executing 
the program so that the S3E00 area is 
protected from BASIC use. Change the 



variables as before for the PMODE, disk/ 
nondisk system and printer type. 

The PMODE 3 version prints nonzero 
colors as foreground (print) and zero 
colors as background (no print). 

A sample printout using the program 
is shown in Figure 5. This figure illus- 
trates the graphics characters available 
in graphics mode by using the Character 
Generator discussed in last month's 
column. 

For more information on Radio 



Shack printers, pick up a copy of my 
Radio Shack book, How to Use Your 
Radio Shack Printer. Although light on 
assembly language topics, it does go 
into detail about various printer modes, 
including graphics figures and forms. 

Next month we'll have more assem- 
bly language topics. In the meantime, 
keep on assemblin'. □ 



3E44 4F 




??72? HIR?9? 


CLRA 






3E43 A7 


A9 3F49 


991*9 


STA 


ZG.T 


ELSE ZG(ZN)-? 


3E49 LP 


19 


991*9 


TFR 


T.D 




3E4B F7 


3*44 


99"9 


STB 


ZH 




3E4E F6 


3F43 


99169 


LDB 


ZR 


ZR 


3E31 FB 


3F44 


99119 


ADD a 


ZN 


ZR+ZN 


3E54 86 


2? 


991*9 


IDA 


•32 




3E56 3D 




99199 


MIL 




(ZR+ZN)*32 


3E37 F3 


*W 


99m 


ADDD 


ZF 


ZP+ZC+(ZR+ZN)*32 


3E5A 34 


96 


99*19 


PSHS 


D 




3E5C 4F 






CLRA 






3E3D F6 


3F42 


99s 39 


LDB 


ZC 




3E6? E3 


El 


99*1*9 


ADDD 


,S++ 




3E62 LF 


?1 


99**9 


TFR 


D,X 




3E64 A6 


84 


99*69 


LDA 


.X 


PEEK(ZF+ZC+<ZR+ZN)*32) 


3E66 B4 


3F47 


99*19 


AND A. 


zz 


AND ZZ 


3E69 27 


96 


99889 


BEQ 


HIR1?? 


IF (PEEK)... AND ZZ)-p 


3E6B 86 




99*99 


LDA 


#1 




3E6D A7 


A9 3F49 


99999 


STA 


ZG.Y 


THEN ZC(ZN)-1 



99919 * 

99929 *NEXT ZN 
99939 * — 



3E71 31 21 


999U9 HIR1?? 


LEAT 


+1,T 


STEP 1 


3E73 IF 29 


999i9 


TFR 


T.D 


GET ZN 


3E75 19*3 999U 


99969 


CHPD 


#4 


-4T 


3E79 26 C9 


99919 


BNE 


HIR?9? 


GO IF NO 


3E7B B6 3F45 


999^9 


LDA 


ZR 




3E7E 81 BD 


99999 


CM? A 


#189 




3E8? 26 9& 


91999 


BNE 


HIR1?5 





3E82 86 99 
3E84 31 3F 
3E86 A 7 A9 3F49 



?1?1? * - 

91929 *IF ZR-189 THEN ZG(3)-? 

?1?3? * 

919U9 LDA #? 

91959 LEAT -1,T 

91969 STA ZG.T 

9W9 * 

919*9 *IF ZR/2-IHTCZR/2) THEN ZC$-CHR$(128+ZC<?)*3+ 
91999 * ZG(1)*12+ZC(2)*48+ZG(3)*64 









?U?? 










3E8A 


B6 


3F4B 


91119 HIR1?3 


LDA 


ZT 


GET ZT 


3E8D 


84 


?1 


91129 




AND A 


#1 


TEST ODD /EVEN 


3E8F 


26 


2B 


91X39 




BNE 


HIR11? 


GO IF ODD 


3E91 


B6 


3F4C 


?114? 




LDA 


ZG+3 




3E94 


C6 


4? 


?U3? 




LDB 


•64 




3E96 


3D 




91I69 




HDL 




ZG(3)+64 


3E97 


34 


9* 


91119 




PSHS 


B 




3E99 


B6 


3F4B 






LDA 


ZG+2 




3E9C 


C6 


39 


91199 




LDB 


#48 




3E9E 


3D 




91299 




HDL 




ZC(2)*48 


3E9F 


EB 


E4 


91219 




ADDB 


,s 


ZG(Z)*4B+ZG(3)*64 


3EA1 


E7 


E4 


91229 




STB 


,s 




3EA3 


B6 


3F4A 


91239 




LDA 


ZG+l 




3EA6 


C6 


90 


?124? 




LDB 


#12 




3EA8 


3D 




91259 




HDL 




ZG(1)*12 


3EA9 


EB 


E4 


912&9 




ADDB 


,s 


ZC(1)*12+ZG(2)*48+ZG(3)*64 


3EAB 


E7 


E4 


91219 




STB 


,s 




3EAD 


B6 


3F49 


912*9 




LDA 


za 




3EB? 


C6 


93 


91299 




LDB 


#3 




3EB2 


3D 




91399 




HUL 




ZG(?)*3 


3EB3 


EB 


19 


?131? 




ADDB 


,s+ 


ZC(?)*3+Z0(1)*12+ZG(2)*48+. , . 


3EB3 


CB 


*9 


91329 




ADDB 


#128 


126+ ... 


3EB7 


F7 


3F49 


91339 




STB 


ZG 




3EBA 29 


29 


9131*9 




BRA 


HTR12? 


























?136? *ELSE ZG3-CHR$(128+ZC(?)*l+ZC<:i)*6+ZG(2)*24+ZG<3)**6 








01170 










3EBC 


B6 


3F4C 


?13B? HTRll? 


LDA 


ZG+3 




3EBF 


C6 


69 


?139? 




LDB 


#96 




3ECL 


3D 




?u?? 




HDL 




ZG(3)*96 


3EC2 


34 


9* 


0141? 




PSHS 


B 




3EC4 


B6 


3F4B 


?L42? 




LDA 


ZG+2 




3EC7 


C6 


18 


?L43? 




LDB 


#24 




3EC9 


3D 




?144? 




HDL 




ZG(2>*24 


3ECA 


EB 


E4 


?145? 




ADDB 


,s 


ZC<2)*24+ZG<3)*96 


3ECC 


E7 


E4 


?146? 




STB 


.s 




3ECE 


B6 


3F4A 


?147? 




LDA 


ZG+1 




3 EDI 


C6 


96 


?148? 




LDB 


•6 




3ED3 


3D 




?149? 




HDL 




ZC<1)*6 


3ED4 


EB 


E4 


?15?? 




ADDB 


,s 


ZG(1)*6+ZG(2)*24+ZG<3)*96 


3ED6 


E7 


E4 


91*19 




STB 


,s 




3ED8 


B6 


3F49 


91529 




LDA 


za 


ZG(?)*1 


3EDB 


C6 


01 


?153? 




LDB 


#1 




3EDD 


3D 




?154? 




HDL 






3EDE 
96 


EB 


Z9 


?155? 




ADDB 


,s+ 


ZC(?)*1+ZG(1)*6+ZG(2)*24+ZG(3)* 


3 EE? 


CB 


*9 


?136? 




ADDB 


#128 




3EE2 


F7 


3F49 


?157? 




STB 


ZC 










?138? 






























JJ159? *PRINT »-2,STRIBG5(ZM*2+Zff,ZG5) 








?!«?? 
























3EE5 


F6 


3E?2 


?161? HIR12? 


LDB 


ZH 




3EE8 


38 




?162? 




LSLB 




ZH*2 


3EE9 


FB 


3E?3 


?U3? 




ADDB 


ZW 




3 EEC 


IF 


91 


?164? 




TFR 


D.X 




3EEE 


B6 


3F49 


?165? HIR123 


LDA 


ZG 





3EF1 BD 
3EF4 3? 

3EF6 26 



3F36 

IF 

F6 



?166? 
?167? 

?168? 
?169? 
?17?? 
?171? 



JSR 
LEAX 

BNE 

*HEXT ZB.ZC 
* 



PRINT 
-1.X 

HIR123 



3EFB B6 


3F46 


91129 HIR13? 


LDA 


ZS 


GET ZS 


3EFB 34 


?2 


?L73? 


PSHS 


A 




3EFD B6 


3F43 


?174? 


LDA 


ZB 




3F?? AB 


E? 


?173? 


ADDA 


,s+ 


STEP ZS 


3F?2 87 


3F43 


?176? 


STA 


ZB 




3F?5 1?2C FT17 


?177? 


LEGE 


HIR?8? 


GO IF ZB>-? 


3F?9 7C 


3F42 


?178? 


INC 


ZC 




3F?C B6 


3F42 


?179? 


LDA 


ZC 




3F?F 81 


29 


?18?? 


CHFA 


#32 


ZC-327 


3F11 1?26 FF?6 


?181? 


LBNE 


HIR?7? 


GO IF NO 



3F15 86 ?D 
3F17 BD 3F36 



?182? 
?183? 
?184? 
?185? 
?186? 
?187? 
?18fl? 



♦PRINT #-2 



LDA 
JSR 



•$D 

PRINT 



CR 



*NEXT ZR 

















3F1A 


66 


3F48 


91999 


LDA 


ZT 


GET ZT 


3F1D 


84 


91 


?191? 


ANDA 


#1 




3F1F 


BB 


3F43 


?192? 


ADDA 


ZR 




3F22 


8B 


93 


?193? 


ADDA 


#3 




3F24 


B7 


3F45 


?194? 


STA 


ZR 




3F27 


7C 


3F48 


?193? 


INC 


ZT 




3F2A 


81 


C? 


?196? 


CHFA 


#192 


AT END? 


3F2C 


1?26 


FEE7 


?197? 


LBNE 


HIR?6? 


GO IF NO 

















3F3? 86 
3F32 BD 



IE 
3F36 



?199? 

?2???' 

?2?1? 

92929 

92939 

919*9 

92959 



*PRINT #-2,CHR$<3?); 
* «._.. 

LDA #3? 
JSR FRINT 

♦RETURN 

* _ _ _ 



RESET GRAPHICS 



3F3S 39 




?2?6? 


RTS 














3F36 C6 


FE 


?2?8? PRINT 


LDB 


#-2 


3F38 D7 


6F 


?2?9? 


STB 


S6F 


3F3A AD 


9F A??2 


92199 


JSR 


[3A??2] 


3F3E 4F 




?211? 


GLRA 




3F3F 97 


9C 


?212? 


STA 


39C 


3F41 39 




?213? 


RTS 














3F42 


99 


?213? ZC 


FCB 


9 


3F43 


99 


?216? ZB 


FCB 


9 


3P44 


99 


?217? ZN 


FCB 


9 


3F43 


99 


?218? ZR 


FCB 


9 


3F46 


99 


?219? ZS 


FCB 


9 


3F47 


99 


?22?9 ZZ 


FCB 


9 


3F48 


99 


9221? ZT 


FCB 


9 


3F49 


99 


?222? ZG 


FCB 


9 




3E?4 


?223? 


END 


START 



99999 TOTAL ERRORS 



See You at 
R Al N BO Wf est-Princeton 
October 17-19 



198 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



1 



250 . 
370 . 
520 . 
660 . 
780 . 
920 . 
END 



145 

.65 
202 
249 
113 
203 
.35 



Listing 3: MLPRINT 

100 'HIGH-RES SCREEN PRINT TEST 

110 CLEAR 10j3,&H3DFF 

120 FOR I=&H3Ej3j3 TO &H3F49 

130 READ A: POKE I,A 

14J3 NEXT I 

150 DERJSR0=&H3E04 

160 SCREEN 1,0 

170 PM5DE 4,1 

180 PdS 

190 FOR 1=1 TO 5 

200 CIRCLE (RND(255) , END (191) ) , 

RND(10j3) 

210 LINE (RND(255) ,RND(191))-(R 
ND(255) ,RND(191) ) ,PSET,B 
22j3 NEXT I 
230 A=USR0(J3) 
24J3 GOTO 240 
250 ' 



260 DATA &HE 
270 DATA &HB6 
280 DATA &HB7 
29j3 DATA &H12 
300 DATA &H4F 
31)3 DATA &HB7 
320 DATA &HB7 
33J3 DATA &H7 
34j3 DATA &HF6 
350 DATA &H1F 
360 DATA &H8C 
37j3 DATA &Hlj3 
380 DATA &H26 
39j3 DATA &H2 
400 DATA &H4 
41j3 DATA &H47 
42J3 DATA &H10 
430 DATA &H4F 
440 DATA &H49 
450 DATA &H3F 
460 DATA &H45 
47J3 DATA &H86 
480 DATA &H3E 
490 DATA &H4F 
500 DATA &HE3 
510 DATA &HA6 
520 DATA &H47 
530 DATA &H1 



&H0 
&H3E 
&H3F 
&HBD 
&HB7 
&H3F 
&H3F 
&HB7 
&H3F 
&H1 
&Hj3 
&H58 
&HF9 
&H81 
&H54 
&HF7 
&H8E 
&HA7 
&H1F 
&H44 
&HFB 
&H2J3 
&K0 
&HF6 
&HE1 
&H84 
&H27 
&HA7 



,&H1 
,&H2 
,&H46 
,&H3F 
,&H3F 
,&H48 
,&H42 
,&H3F 
,&H43 
,&HC6 
,&H0 
,W30 
,&HB6 
,&H2 
, &HFA 
,&H3F 
,&H0 
,&HA9 
,£eH2j3 
,&HF6 
,&H3F 
,&H3D 
,&H34 
,&H3F 
,&H1F 
,&HB4 
,&H6 
,&HA9 



&H0 

&H40 

&H86 

&H36 

&H45 

&H4F 

&H86 

&H43 

&H4F 

&H1 

&H27 

&H1F 

&H3E 

&H26 

&H3F 

&H47 

&H0 

&H3F 

&HF7 

&H3F 

&H44 

&HF3 

&H6 

&H42 

&H1 

&H3F 

&H86 

&H3F 



540 DATA &H49 
550 DATA &H2J3 
560 DATA &H4 
570 DATA &H3F 
580 DATA &H26 
590 DATA &H31 
600 DATA &H3F 
610 DATA &H48 
620 DATA &H2B 
630 DATA &HC6 
640 DATA &H4 
650 DATA &HC6 
660 DATA &HE4 
670 DATA &H3F 
680 DATA &H3D 
690 DATA &HE4 
700 DATA &HC6 
710 DATA &HE0 
720 DATA &H3F 
730 DATA &HB6 
740 DATA &H6J3 
750 DATA &HB6 
760 DATA &H18 
770 DATA &HE7 
780 DATA &H4A 
79J3 DATA &HEB 
800 DATA &HB6 
81J3 DATA &H1 
820 DATA &HCB 
830 DATA &H49 
84j3 DATA &H58 
850 DATA &H1F 
860 DATA &H49 
87j3 DATA &H30 
88J3 DATA &HB6 
890 DATA &H2 
900 DATA &HAB 
910 DATA &H43 
920 DATA &H17 
930 DATA &HB6 
940 DATA &H20 
950 DATA &H6 
960 DATA &H3F 
970 DATA &H48 
980 DATA &H3F 
990 DATA &HB7 



&H31 

&H10 

&H26 

&H45 

&H8 

&H3F 

&H49 

&H84 

&HB6 

&H40 

&HB6 

&H30 

&HE7 

&H4A 

&HEB 

&HB6 

&H3 

&HCB 

&H49 

&H3F 

&H3D 

&H3F 

&H3D 

&HE4 

&HC6 

&HE4 

&H3F 

&H3D 

&H80 

&HF6 

&HFB 

&H1 

&HBD 

&H1F 

&H3F 

&HB6 

&HE0 

&H10 

&H7C 

&H3F 

&H10 

&H86 

&H36 

&H84 

&H45 

&H3F 



&H21 

&H83 

&HC9 

&H81 

&H86 

&HA7 

&HB6 

&H1 

&H3F 

&H3D 

&H3F 

&H3D 

&HE4 

&HC6 

&HE4 

&H3F 

&H3D 

&H80 

&H20 

&H4C 

&H34 

&H4B 

&HEB 

&HB6 

&H6 

&HE7 

&H49 

&HEB 

&HF7 

&H3E 

&H3E 

&HB6 

&H3F 

&H26 

&H46 

&H3F 

&HB7 

&H2C 

&H3F 

&H42 

&H26 

&HD 

&HB6 

&H1 

&H8B 

&H45 



&H1F 

&H0 

&HB6 

&HBD 

&H0 

&HA9 

&H3F 

&H26 

&H4C 

&H34 

&H4B 

&HEB 

&HB6 

&HC 

&HE7 

&H49 

&HEB 

&HF7 

&H29 

&HC6 

&H4 

&HC6 

&HE4 

&H3F 

&H3D 

&HE4 

&HC6 

&HEJ3 

&H3F 

&H2 

&H3 

&H3F 

&H36 

&HF6 

&H34 

&H43 

&H3F 

&HFF 

&H42 

&H81 

&HFF 

&HBD 

&H3F 

&HBB 

&H3 

&H7C 



1000 DATA &H3F,&H48,&H81,&HC0 
1010 DATA &H10,&H26,&HFE,&HE7 
1020 DATA &H86,&H1E,&HBD,&H3F 
1030 DATA &H36,&H39,&HC6,&HFE 
1040 DATA &HD7 , &H6F, &HAD, &H9F 
1050 DATA &HA0,&H2 ,&H4F,&H97 
1060 DATA &H9C,&H39,&H0 ,&H0 
1070 DATA &H0 ,&H0 ,&H0 ,&H0 
1080 DATA &H0 ,&B0 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 199 




KISSable OS-9 



OS-9 



Good Times with OS-9 
on the Hard Disk 



By Dale L. Puckett 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



It's hard to believe it's almost fall — 
especially as I start to write this edition 
of KISSable OS-9 during the last week 
of May. Yet, it's almost harder to believe I 
have 576K of RAM in my Color Computer 
with another 256K waiting to be installed, 
while I sit here playing with the new 15- 
megabyte hard disk from Tandy. This month 
we'll share some ideas about organizing 
massive amounts of data on a hard disk, and 
work through several patches of random- 
ness as we try to answer some of the ques- 
tions you've posed during the past few 
months. 

I try to take my marching orders from you 
— that's why we attempt to answer at least 
a few questions each month. If you have a 
question, please send it to us and we'll share 
it with everyone. And don't forget, if you 
have any good ideas or tips you would like 
to share with fellow OS-9 users send them 
to us here at "KISSable OS-9" and well sure 
try to get them in print. The same goes for 
short procedures and program listings. 
Some of the ideas you have sent in the past 



Dale L. Puckett, who is author of The 
Official BASIC09 Tour Guide and co- 
author, with Peter Dibble, o/The Official 
Rainbow Guide to OS-9, is a free-lance 
writer and programmer. He serves as 
director-at-large of the OS-9 Users Group 
and is a member of the Computer Press 
Association. Dale works as a U.S. Coast 
Guard chief warrant officer and lives in 
Alexandria, Virginia. 



have been clever enough to impress a lot of 
veteran OS-9 programmers. Keep up the 
good work. 

Fate is often unpredictable. Less than a 
week after Fran McGee loaned me one of the 
new Tandy 15-megabyte hard disk drives 
and a new hard disk controller cartridge, my 
old gray CoCo bit the dust. To solve the 
problem we rushed out and bought a CoCo 
2 with a matching white Multi-Pak Interface 
and went to work. 

Installation of the Tandy hard disk drive 
is very easy. To use it, you need a Color 
Computer with 64K of memory, a Multi- 
Pak Interface, at least one floppy disk drive 
and controller, the Color Computer Hard 
Disk Controller, Version 2.00.00 of the OS- 
9 operating system and the hard disk drive 
itself. 

After making sure the Color Computer 
and Multi-Pak Interface are turned off, plug 
the Hard Disk Controller into slot 3 of the 
Multi-Pak Interface. This is the second slot 
from the back. The floppy disk controller 
stays in slot 4. The two controllers must be 
in their assigned slots because the OS-9 
floppy and hard disk drivers have been 
programmed to find them there. If you 
change slots, the drives will not work. 

After you have plugged in the cartridges, 
connect the 50-pin ribbon cable from the 
hard disk controller cartridge to the hard 
disk drive. The ribbon cable must exit 
toward the rear of the Multi-Pak Interface 
— or toward the side of the Hard Disk 
Controller with the label. After the cable is 
installed, turn on the Multi-Pak, the Color 



Computer and the floppy and hard disk 
drives, in that order. 

When turning on the hard disk drive for 
the first time you will not find any informa- 
tion on it. It must be formatted before you 
can use it to store OS-9 programs and data, 
To do this, first load the / hO device descrip- 
tor and the hard disk driver modules. Both 
are stored in the modules directory of the 
boot/config disk supplied with OS-9 Ver- 
sion 2.00.00. The descriptor is stored in a file 
named hO — 15.dd and the driver is stored in 
CCHDisk.dr. After these modules are 
loaded use the standard OS-9 format utility 
command to initialize the hard disk drive. 

Once you have formatted the hard disk, 
you will probably want to use the Confxg 
program to make a new OS-9 boot file that 
contains /hO and CCHDisk. After you do 
this, OS-9 will boot from the floppy contain- 
ing the OS-9 boot file, but it will start up 
with the current execution directory and 
current data directory set to /h0/cmds and 
/hO. It's amazing! 

This drive is almost as fast as a RAM disk. 
After you install a hard disk drive, OS-9 
becomes a whole new ball game. However, 
if you use a number of application programs 
on the Color Computer that need a lot of 
memory, be very careful about the number 
of modules you load into the OS-9 boot file. 
To use the c compiler, for example, you 
must strip OS-9 boot down to the bare 
minimum. You can't remove the floppy disk 
drivers, but you can get rid of the printer 
descriptor, /p, and the related driver, 
Printer, and a few other modules. If you use 



200 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



a RAM disk in addition to the hard disk you 
will really find memory space full — but it's 
worth it. 

Your approach to computing will defi- 
nitely change when you get a hard disk, and 
your enjoyment level will soar. You will 
eventually need to get organized, however. 
If you don't, you'll soon be lost in a sea of 
directories and subdirectories. 

I was asked an unusual question at R AIN- 
BOWfest Chicago. "How should I set up my 
disk directories? Is it best to use a tall skinny 
directory structure or should I spread them 
out in a horizontal fashion?" 

Organizing a disk is a personal matter but 
perhaps we can help with an overview of the 
possibilities available when using OS-9. To 
start, remember it was a tall skinny directory 
structure you were forced into when using 
Disk BASIC, CP/M, Flex or even the first 
several versions of MS-DOS on an IBM PC. 
Now remember the long lists you had to 
search when finding a stray file. It took 
forever, didn't it? Let's move forward and 
show how you can use OS-9's hierarchical 
file system to get organized. 

The most basic element in the OS-9 filing 
system is the individual file. Files most often 
contain data you are interested in — the text 
processing documents holding letters you 
have written or spreadsheets showing a 
profit and loss statement, for example. But, 
OS-9 files can also contain directories to tell 
the system how to find other information, 
or even the programs needed to manipulate 
information. 

To get a handle on the OS-9 filing system, 
think of each mounted disk as a large filing 
cabinet. Inside that filing cabinet, each of the 
directories at the first level can be compared 
to a number of individual drawers. Other 
directories stored in these first level directo- 
ries are called subdirectories. You can liken 
them to file folders. And finally, the individ- 
ual files containing your data can be com- 
pared to the individual pieces of paper 
stored in a file folder. 

The top level of the OS-9 filing system on 
any particular disk is the root directory of 
that disk. The directories stored in the root 
directory usually give a user access to 
application programs and other system data 
he may need. For example, the standard 
system disk with the OS-9 operating system 
from Tandy contains two files and three 
individual directories. The two files, OS-9 
boot and startup, are used to start the 
system. The three directories hold programs 
and other information about the computer. 
The cmds directory contains all of the utility 
command programs to maintain data files. 
The DEFS file contains symbolic definitions 
of all key memory addresses used by the OS- 
9 operating system. And finally, the SYS 
directory contains information OS-9 uses 
occasionally. Included is a message of the 
day which is sent to every new user signing 
on the system and a password file that 
ensures only authorized users have access to 
the system. 

On a multi-user, OS-9 based computer the 



system manager often sets up a directory for 
each user. These user directories are usually 
placed in the root directory of the disk. It 
is then up to the individual user to organize 
the data in his own directory. Since you are 
the user, the system manager's move places 
the ball squarely in your court. Let's look at 
one way to play the game. 

First, we'll assume you don't have a hard 
disk. Set up directories to match the many 
jobs you have to do. For example, if you 
supervise a large staff, do the billing, track 
an inventory and keep an eye on the sales 
team, you will want to set up at least four 
directories in the root directory of your 
personal disk. The first few levels of the 
filing system might look something like this: 




/DO 



BILLING 



JANUARY 



INVENTORY 



PERSONNEL 
t 1 



SALES 



FEBRUARY 



MARCH 



I 




Joe Art Jim 



In the directory named Billing, you could 
create two sub-directories or folders — Sent 
and Received. In Inventory you might want 
to set up folders for Completed Widgets and 
Spare Parts. In the Personnel directory you 
will need at least two folders — one for 
Evaluations and another for Payroll. And 
finally, in the Sales folder you can create 12 
folders or sub-directories, one for each 
month. Each of these folders would hold 
files containing each sales person's report for 
the month plus any charts or graphics 
needed to make a clear report to the boss. 

If you are the only user and set up a filing 
system on your own disk, the structure of the 
disk would be similar to that in the figure 
above. If you are working in an office with 
two other managers and using a hard disk 
for storage, the system manager will most 
likely have created three directories — one 
for each of you in the root directory of the 
hard disk. In that case, simply move your 
top directory level to the hard disk from 
your floppy disk. 

If your name is Fred and one of the three 
user directories set up by the system man- 
ager is named Fred, then the pathlist to your 
Billing folder would become /hO/fred/ 
billing. 

And, the complete pathlist to Jim's sales 
report for January would be: 

/ hO/ fred/ sales/january /jim. 

It is easy to find a particular file after 
setting up a logical filing system similar to 



the one above. For example, if you need to 
check out Joe's last personnel evaulation, 
you need to look in a file with a pathlist like 
this: 

/ dO/ fred / personnel / evaluations / 
february/sam 

It's easy to find a file when it is stored in 
a logical place. Typing a long pathlist like 
this can get old fast, but since you most likely 
work on all of your personnel reports at the 
same time, you can take advantage of one 
of OS-9's handy features and set the current 
data directory to the current month's reports 
with this command line: 

OS9: chd /dO/fred/ personnel/ 
evaluations/ feb 

Then, all you need to type is: 

□59: list Sam 

The first command line above sets the 
current data directory to: 

/ dO/ fred/ personnel/ evaluations / feb. 

All of these directories contain files 
holding data. And since you know your 
business better than anyone else, OS-9 lets 
you organize data directories the way you 
have organized your business. After this, 
you will be able to find files quickly. And, 
once your disk is organized, OS-9's chd 
command makes it easy to change the 
current data directory to any particular set 
of files. 

OS-9 Helps Organize Programs Too 

OS-9 files can also contain programs; its 
designers moved one up on UNIX and 
added a second current directory. This 
second working directory is called the 
current execution directory. It is used to hold 
files containing 6809 object code and inter- 
mediate code from one of the many OS-9 
languages that can be run on your computer. 

When booting OS-9 on the Color Com- 
puter on a floppy disk system, a program 
called sysgo is executed automatically and 
one of the first things it does is set up your 
current directories. After sysgo runs, the 
current execution directory will be /dO/ 
cmds and your current data directory will be 
/dO. 

The "current" directories apply only to the 
disk mounted in the drive /dO when you 
boot the system. If you remove that disk and 
insert another, the system records are no 
longer "current." You must use the OS-9 chd 
(change current data directory) and chx 
(change current execution directory) utility 
commands before trying to do any work 
with the new disk. If you don't do this, the 
system gets lost because it will look for the 
directories on the new disk at the same 
location where it found them on the old disk. 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 201 



When it doesn't find them there and loads 
something inappropriate into memory, 
strange things often happen. 

By the way, if you own a Tandy hard disk 
and have installed its device descriptor, / hO, 
and its device driver, CCHDISK, in your 
OS-9 boot file, the sysgo program in OS-9 
Version 2.00.00 automatically sets the cur- 
rent execution directory to /hO/cmds and 
the current data directory to /hO each time 
you start the system. 

If you decide to run a program, Dir for 
example, OS-9 looks for Dir and then runs 
it. However, before OS-9 looks on the disk 
drives, it checks to see if the program is 
already in memory. To do this it looks for 
the name typed on the command line in its 
module directory. If OS-9 finds Dir in its 
module directory, it links to it and runs it 
immediately. No disk access is needed. 

But what happens if Dir is not in memory? 
OS-9 looks in the current execution direc- 
tory and tries to find a file named Dir. If it 
finds a file with the right name in this 
directory, it assumes it is executable code, 
loads it into memory and runs it. 

And finally, if OS-9 doesn't find Dir, in 
the current execution directory it makes one 
more try — this time in the current data 
directory. But, if OS-9 finds Dir in the 
current data directory it won't treat it like 
a program. It treats it like a data file. More 
specifically, it assumes this data file contains 
a procedure file. 

An OS-9 procedure file is similar to a 
UNIX script file. A procedure file contains 
a list of OS-9 commands which are read into 
the shell. Each time a command line is read, 
it is run just as if you had typed it. The 
process continues until OS-9 receives an end 
of file signal from the procedure file. 

In the case of the intermediate code from 
OS-9 languages, execution of the language's 
run time package is also automatic. Packed 
BAS1C09 programs, for example, are exe- 
cuted by a run time interpreter named Runb. 
When you type the name of a file stored in 
the current execution directory containing 
packed BASIC09 code, OS-9 loads this i-code 
into memory just like it were 6809 object 
code. 

However, before OS-9 runs the code in 
any module it checks the information in the 
module header to find out what type of code 
is in the module. When it finds out you have 
loaded packed BASIC09 i-code, it knows that 
Runb is needed to run the program. So, OS- 
9 automatically loads Runb and executes it 
with the name of the module as a parameter. 
All of this work is transparent and all you 
see on the screen is the output of the BASIC09 
program. 

When you first purchase Tandy's version 
of OS-9 there are enough utility command 
files stored in the directory /d0/cmds on the 
OS-9 system master to fill several screen 
pages when you list the filenames. After you 
have added a few dozen of your own favorite 
application programs and third party utility 
command packages, it becomes almost 
impossible to find a file in a directory listing 



on the screen. The problem is complicated 
by the fact that the Dir utility command in 
the 6809 version of OS-9 does not alphabet- 
ize the directory listing for you. The new 68K 
version of OS-9 lists the contents of the 
directories in alphabetical order. 

So, if you use a hard disk and own 
hundreds of programs, you need to organize 
a set of directories on the hard disk using a 
method similar to the one for organizing 
your data directories. 

For example, to keep current I try to take 
a look at most all OS-9 software. Many of 
the third party utility packages contain 
similar programs and more than one devel- 
oper may use the same name. The standard 
UNIX-like utilities, Is and mv are good 
examples. 

But, there's a hitch. While all of these 
utilities may have the same name, they 
require a different syntax on the command 
line. Also, you can't have more than one 
program stored with the same filename in 
the same directory. 

While I was exercising the Tandy 15 
megabyte hard disk, I decided to organize 
my utility programs. I did this by creating 
subdirectories in the current execution 
directory, /hO/cmds. For typing ease I used 
two or three letter names for the directories 
to store programs and utilities from the 
various third party vendors. Here is a look 
at the program side of my filing system. 

/HO/CMDS 

CW DPJ FHL MW RS SG 

Computerware's utilities are stored in the 
directory, CW; D. P. Johnson's hackers kits 
and utility packages live in DPJ; products 
from Frank Hogg Laboratory are stored in 
FHL; Microware's toolkit is saved in MW; 
Tandy products live in RS and finally Steve 
Goldberg's Utilipak programs are run from 
SG. 

Using the standard OS-9 shell from the 
Tandy release of OS-9, I must type the 
complete pathlist to a utility in one of these 
directories. That's why I used the short 
directory names. For example, if I want to 
run Steve Goldberg's version of Is, I merely 
type: 

□S3: sg/ls 

If I wanted to use Brian Lantz's verison 
of Is from Computerware, I would have 
typed: 

059: cw/ls 

But, by using the new kshell in the Ad- 
vanced Utilities package from Computer- 
ware, I make this operation automatic, 
going as far as to tell OS-9 which vendors 
command I want to have priority. To do this 
I use the new path command built into 
kshell. 

□S9: path=cw:sg:mu:dpj : f hi : rs 

After typing this command line, I receive 
very few "Error #216 Program Not Found" 



errors. The kshell first searches /hO/cmds 
for the filename typed. If it doesn't find it 
there, it looks in the subdirectories, CW, SG, 
MW, DPJ, FHL and RS in that order. It 
runs the first program stored in a file with 
the name I have typed. In other words, if the 
CW subdirectory contains an Is command, 
the Is in the DPJ directory will never be run 
as long as this path definition is active. 
However, I could always select it manually 
and override the default path by typing: 

□S3: dpj/ls 

While getting the hard disk organized you 
will sometimes move a lot of files back and 
forth from one directory to another. The 
DirCopy utility from Computerware's Disk 
Fix and Utilities package is almost indispen- 
sable during this process. Use a command 
like this: 

0S9: dircopy /HO/FIRST J) IREC 
TORY /H0/SECONDJDIRECTORY 

DirCopy can be told to let you confirm 
each copy command. This means you can 
select the files you want to copy from one 
directory to another on the fly. You can also 
tell the program to copy files stored in 
subdirectories while it is copying a directory, 
and this feature is really handy — tell it to 
place the files in the new directory in 
alphabetical order while it is being created. 

You can also tell Dircopy to automatically 
rewrite any file in the destination directory 
with the same name as a file in the source 
directory. However, if you don't feel safe 
with this approach, have Dircopy ask you 
each time it discovers this problem. 

Ask 100 people how they organize their 
hard disk and you'll get 100 different 
answers. But there are some basics you 
should consider. To get in the mood, study 
these approaches from two members of the 
OS-9 SIG. 

1 . /H0/LANGUAGES/BASIC09 

/SOURCE/INVENTORY/PROGRAMS 

2 . /HO /INVENTORY/PROGRAMS 

/SOURCE/BASIC09 

What is more important — the job or the 
program that runs the program that does the 
job? The first example emphasizes the 
computer instead of the job. The latter takes 
the opposite approach. I really can't say it 
any better than Kevin Darling who is one of 
the most active and knowledgeable individ- 
uals on the OS-9 SIG. 

"The fact that a file is 'inventory related' 
is much more important to me than the 
language," he said. In other words, some 
nouns are more important to me than their 
adjectives." 

Darling also posed a very relevant ques- 
tion. "Could someone other than you find 
things quickly when everything is stored 
relative to the language it is written in? 1 
would hate to go looking all over my differ- 
ent language subdirectories, just to find one 
of my inventory programs." 

Other good ideas came from Pete Lyall 



202 THE RAINBOW September 1 986 



and Jonathan Gluts who help SysOp Wayne 
Day manage the SIG. "I think we need to 
standardize and use a number of common 
directories like the UNIX crowd," Lyall 
said. "If we do this, then program authors 
can make certain assumptions about direc- 
tories in this set." 

Lyall's proposed directory set includes 
cmds, defs, etc, help, lib, src, sys, tmp and 
user. We are already familiar with cmds, defs 
and sys; they come predefined with OS-9. 
The purpose of the help directory is obvious, 
as is src. User would be used for all logins 
and would contain subdirectories for indi- 



programmers to take advantage of OS-9's 
anonymous filenames. In other words, 
instead of coding a pathlist named "/dO/ 
spell/ common. dat," I should have made 
that pathlist read, . ./ spell/ common.dat. v 
The first period tells OS-9 to look for the 
file in the current data directory, two periods 
means look at the parent directory of the 
current data directory and three periods 
means look in the parent of the parent of the 
current data directory. Is that the grandpar- 
ent directory? By including five or six of 
these periods, I could have forced OS-9 to 
look clear back in the root directory. Then 



Don't forget the V, it tells the OS-9 verify 
utility command to update the CRC of the 
module in the file you are verifying. After 
you have done this you can load or run the 
new spell file. Even though we used the 
DynaSpell program as an example here, 
keep in mind this same technique can be 
used with any program you need to modify 
for operation with a hard disk. 

If you purchased Computerware's Disk 
Fix and Utilities, you will find it much easier 
to use the Patch utility from that package. 
For example, to make this change you first 
type: 

□S9: patch spel 1 

Then uses Patch's T>' — for display — 
command to find the strings defining the 
bothersome pathlists. 

>D 0000 



**It is also now possible to give the utilities an 
optional command line argument list rather 
than use standard input." 



vidual users. Etc would be a directory where 
you could store OS-9 procedure files. Li- 
brary files obviously would be stored in the 
lib directory. This might also be a good place 
to put dictionaries and other common files. 
And finally, tmp would be used to store 
temporary work files. 

Outs' idea has to do with starting the 
system. "1 run tsmon at startup so 1 always 
log in. By logging in as different users, I can 
restrict myself to certain directories on the 
hard disk. This means I can only acciden- 
tally destroy some of my files. If I stay in the 
root directory I could destroy them all," he 
said. 

On the same evening Cornelius Seon, who 
frequents rainbow's CoCo SIG on Delphi 
added the most relevant comment about his 
new Tandy hard disk. "Several packages 
which were only marginally useful on flop- 
pies are just wonderful now," he said. I 
agree. 

But before closing, he left everyone with 
a problem. "There is a problem with Mother 
Tandy's Godfrey Daniels' helpfulness," he 
said. "I'm finding many programs they 
either wrote or commissioned looking for 
data on floppy drive /dO after IVe already 
transferred everything to /hO using identical 
directory names." 

Maybe we can help here. The problem 
probably isn't Tandy's at all. It relates more 
to the fast pace at which hardware technol- 
ogy is racing past the software. When most 
of the guilty programs were written, hard 
disks didn't even exist. If early software 
designers had made one change, programs 
would have moved right over from /dO to 
/hO automatically. We print that change here 
so anyone developing software now can 
avoid our earlier mistake. 

Most of the programs causing a problem 
contain a pathlist to a device and directory. 
DeskMate is a good example. DynaSpell is 
another. For example, when DynaSpell 
needs the dictionary, it looks for / dO/ spell/ 
dictionary.dat. The future solution is for the 



it wouldn't have mattered whether I had the 
file stored on / dO or /hO, because it would 
be anonymous. I guess we all learn sometime 
— better late than never! 

The fix for programs already written is to 
change the *D' in the offending pathlists to 
an 'H' or to change the "/dO" to ". . ." 
Sounds easy enough, but how do you go 
about it? 

There are several approaches. First, in 
many of the programs the strings defining 
the pathlist are located early in the program 
and you can locate them easily with the OS- 
9 dump utility. For example if you need to 
find these strings in DynaSpell, you would 
type: 

□S9: dump spell 

In the first page of the Hex dump you will 
see the strings and can jot down the number 
of bytes that each T>' is offset from the 
beginning of the module. After you do this, 
load the program: 

□S9: load spell 

Then, call up the OS-9 Debug utility and 
link to spell. 

□59: debug 
db: 1 spell 

Now, move the Debug pointer to the first 
'D' and use the '=' command to change it to 
an 'H'. After you change all the /dOs to 
/hOs and quit Dibug with its Q command, 
you can save the file into a tempory file. 

□S9: save tempspell spell 

You're almost home free now. Rename or 
delete the original spell file and run this 
command. 

□59: verify <tampspBl l>spel 1 u 



Again, jot down the location of the 
offending 'D' and type: 

>M 00XX 

The XX would be replaced by the offset 
that you jotted down above. At this point 
when you see patch display the 'D' (as 44, 
by the way) you can type: 

>'H 
>/ 

Go through this sequence for each of the 
pathlists that contain / dO. Then, type: 

>V 

The V command tells Patch to validate the 
crc of the file you have patched and correct 
it. After you have done this, you can exit 
Patch with its Q command. 

Sometimes the strings containing the 
floppy based pathlists aren't stored in the 
first page. In this case Patch is really a help 
because it gives you a find command. After 
starting Patch you can type: 

>F'D0 

After you press the ENTER key, Patch 
prints a list of every occurrence of that string 
in the program you are adapting to the hard 
disk. After you have the list of addresses, 
you must use the M command again to 
change the *D' to an *H' in each case. One 
note of caution. Take a close look at each 
*d0' you find and make sure that it is, in fact, 
part of an actual pathlist. It could just be a 
natural occurrence in the program's code 
itself. 

Dan Johnson Markets Enhanced Package 

SDisk author Dan Johnson (7655 SW 
Cedarcrest St., Portland, OR 97223, 503- 
244-8152) has upgraded all of his OS-9 filter 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 203 



and hacker's kits and placed them in one 
package called the LI Utility Pak. Don't let 
the name fool you; all but three of the 
programs in this package run on both Level 
I and Level II OS-9 systems. These three deal 
with absolute memory manipulations. 

Johnson hopes to release a supplement 
Level II utility package sometime later. I bet 
he'll have an incentive when Tandy's new 
Color Computer hits the market. He has 
also added several new programs to the 
package including Modbuster, Afmt, Upall, 
Grep and Sectedit. 

Dan has made major improvements to the 
template matching algorithm in his new Is 
command and most of the utilities now 
accept options at the beginning or end of a 
command line. It is also now possible to give 
the utilities an optional command line 
argument list rather than use standard input. 
The MacGen program has been expanded 
and Johnson gives the MacGen source for 
a useful program, Up All. The package sells 
for $49.95 and is shipped on a CoCo format- 
ted OS-9 disk. However, you can buy the 
package in other formats by paying an 
additional $2. Johnson calls it a deal as good 
as Turbo pascal on MS-DOS. 

Two More Goldberg Tips 

Earlier this year, Steve Goldberg discov- 
ered that the modification date was changed 
every time he changed directories while 
using OS-9 Version 2.00.00. To solve the 
problem, he uses the following procedure 
file on the shell module and builds a new 
boot file with the patched shell. 

debug 

1 <5PRCE:BRR> shell 
. <5PRCEBRR> .+269 
=81 

. <SPACEBftR> .+28D 

=E9 

=49 

=67 

q 

cobbler /d0 

Goldberg noted that since he has run this 
procedure his directory changes are faster 



and the drives don't grind while attempting 
to write the date to a write protected disk 
when he changes directories. 

I thought we published the changes to 
CCDisk which let you step your disk drives 
at a faster rate earlier this yean But I couldn't 
find them, and we have been seeing a lot of 
traffic on the Delphi CoCo SIG and getting 
a few requests in the mail, so well give it 
another try. This time, thanks to Steve 
Goldberg's homework, we'll compare them 
to the identical changes you had to make 
with OS-9 Version 1.00 and 1.01. The new 
values change the step rate of your drives to 
six milliseconds. See The Complete Rain- 
bow Guide to OS-9 for the value for other 
step rates. 

CCDISK OFFSETS 



Version 1.0 Version 2.0 New Value 

$1FE $1F9 $10 

$204 $1FF $08 

$205 $200 $8B 

$2DD $2DD $40 

$2E9 $2E8 $00 



Goldberg is brave and pushed the value 
of the word at $1FF down to $0001. 1 don't 
think I would push it that far. He also cut 
the drive startup delay since his drives 
seemed to be fast. To do this he changed the 
$A0 at an offset of $2F9 to $0A. 

BASIC09 Beginners Notes 

Henry J. Proffitt of Haley Station, Ontar- 
io wrote to ask how he could enter a short 
BASIC09 program he had stored in a standard 
OS-9 text file into BASIC09. Proffitt entered 
the program with the Build utility, but you 
could use any OS-9 editor including TSEdit 
or the Desk Mate editor to enter a BASIC09 
program. 

The thing you must remember is that 
BASIC09 expects to see the word "procedure" 
as the first thing in a file it is trying to load. 
Therefore, if you type the line procedure 
myprogram as the first line in your file, 
BASIC09 will be able to load it. Incidentally, 
the 'p' in procedure must be the very first 
character in the file. 



After you have created the text file follow- 
ing the directions above, you can load it 
from the BASIC09 system mode — you'll 
know you are there because BASIC09 prompts 
with "B:". Just type: 

B: load myprogram 

BASIC09 assumes there is a file named 
"myprogram" stored in your current data 
directory and that the file contains a BASIC09 
procedure. If you have not saved your 
program there, use the CHD command from 
within BASIC09 to set the current data direc- 
tory or type a complete pathlist: 

B: load /Dl/flYDI RECTORY/ 
MYPROGRAM 

We received a note from Robert Gault of 
Grosse Pointe Woods, Michigan about a 
solution to another BASIC09 programming 
problem you may have noticed while work- 
ing with BASIC09. How do you send a char- 
acter with the value $FF to the screen or 
printer? This is a problem that must be 
solved if you plan on sending graphics to the 
printer. 

There are two solutions. You can use the 
BASIC09 shell command and use OS-9 to send 
out the character or you can use a PUT 
statement instead of a PRINT statement. 

SHELL "display FF" 
SHELL "display FF >/p" 
PUT ttPRINTER, $FF 

Gault submitted a demonstation proce- 
dure and a rough and ready screen dump 
program to illustrate his techniques. 

Next Month 

Next month we'll dig back in the mailbox 
and see what's been bothering you the most. 
Hopefully, we can come up with a tip or two. 
And, well cross our fingers and hope we get 
to play with a new OS-9 Level II Color 
Computer soon! Til then, keep on hack- 
ing! □ 



OS-9™ SOFTWARE/HARDWARE 



SDISK— Standard disk driver module allows the full use of 35, 40 
or 80 track double sided disk drives with COCO OS-9 plus you 
can read/write/format the OS-9 formats used by other OS-9 
systems. (Note: you can read 35 or 40 track disks on an 80 track 
drive). Now updated for OS-9 ver. 02.00.00 $29.95 

SDISK + BOOTFIX— As above plus boot directly from a double 
sided diskette $35.95 

L1 UTILITY PAK— Contains all programs from Filter Kits Nos. 1 
& 2 plus Hacker's Kit #, plus several additional programs, Over 
35 utilities including "wild card" file cmds, MacGen command 
language, disassembler, disk sectoredit and others. Very useful, 
many of these you will find yourself using every time you run your 
system. These sold separately for over $85. $49.95 

SKIO— Hi res screen driver for 24 x 51 display; does key click, 
boldface, Italics; supports upgraded keyboards and mouse. With 
graphics screen dump and other useful programs. Now UPDATED 
FOR OS-9 Ver 2.0 $29.95 



PC-XFER UTILITIES— Utilities to read/write and format ss MS- 
DOStm diskettes on CoCo under OS-9. $45.00 (requires SDISK) 

CCRD 512K Byte RAM DISK CARTRIDGE— Requires RS Multipak 
interface, two units may be used together for 1MB RAM disk. OS-9 
driver and test software included. $199.00 

All disk prices are for CoCo OS-9 format; for other formats, specify 
and add $2.00 each. Order prepaid or COD, VISA/MC accepted, 
add $1.50 S&H for software, $5.00 for CCRD; actual charges added 
for COD. 



D.P. Johnson, 7655 S.W. Cedarcrest St. 
Portland, OR 97223 (503) 244-8152 

(For best service call between 9-11 AM Pacific Time) 

OS-9 Is a trademark of Microware and Motorola Inc. 
MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc. 



204 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



Listing 1: strings 

PROCEDURE strings 
DIM ss:STRING[256] 
DIM i, memory: INTEGER 

memory : =ADDR ( s s ) 

(* Now fill memory with $FF's *) 
FOR i=memory TO memory+255 
POKE i f 255 
NEXT i 

(* Note that BASIC09 thinks ss is an empty string *) 

PRINT "The length of string ss ="; LEN(ss) 
PRINT "ss =("; ss; ")" 

PRINT "Now we will PUT ss. Note the difference!" 
PUT #l,ss 

(* Use these lines to send ss to a ptinter, then *) 
(* OPEN #pr inter, "/p" *) 

Listing 2: printer 
PROCEDURE printer 

(* This procedure is a rough and ready graphics screen dump *) 
(* It assumes a preceding graphics program has used *) 
(* GFX( "mode", format, color) *) 
(* If your printer uses an eight pin graphics format change *) 
(* the "pin" loop to 0 to 7. *( 

DIM dev : BYTE 

DIM color, x,y, pin, send, location: INTEGER 
DIM code: BYTE 

OPEN #dev,"/p": WRITE 

(* Now set printer to graphics mode *) 
PRINT #dev,CHR$(18) 
locat ion : =ADDR ( code ) 

FOR y=191 TO 7 STEP -7 
FOR x=0 TO 255 

(* tell printer code is graphics *) 

send: =128 

FOR pin=0 TO 6 

(* Test Pixel *) 

RUN gfx("gcolr" ,x,y-pin, color) 

(* Printer used has top pin 2 A 0 bottom pin 2 A 6 *) 
s end : =LOR ( s end , MOD (color , 2 ) *2**pin) 
NEXT pin 

POKE location+x, send 
NEXT x 

PUT #dev,code 

(* Send carriage return *) 

PRINT #dev,CHR$($0D) 

NEXT y /Rv 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 205 



THESE FINE STORES 
CARRY THE RAINBOW 

The retail stores listed below carry the rainbow on a regular basis and may have 
other products of interest to Tandy Color Computer users. We suggest you 
patronize those in your area. 



ALABAMA 

Birmingham 

Brewton 

Florence 

Greenville 

Madison 

Montgomery 

ALASKA 

Fairbanks 

ARIZONA 

Phoenix 
Sierra Vista 
Tempe 

Tucson 

ARKANSAS 

Fayetteville 
Little Rock 

CALIFORNIA 

Chula vista 
Citrus Heights 
Grass Valley 
Half Moon Bay 
Hollywood 

Lompoc 
Los Angeles 

Sacramento 
Santa Rosa 
Sunnyvale 

COLORADO 

Westminster 



DELAWARE 

Middletown 

Mifford 

Wilmington 

FLORIDA 

Boca Raton 

Cocoa 

Davie 

Ft. Lauderdale 
Jacksonville 



Melbourne 

North Miami 

Beach 
Orlando 
Panama City 
Pensacola 
Pinellas Park 
Sarasota 
Sunrise 
Tallahassee 
Tampa 

Titusville 

GEORGIA 

Bremen 

Cummlngs 

Jesup 

Marietta 

Toccoa 

IDAHO 

Moscow 

ILLINOIS 

Aurora 
Belleville 
Champaign 
Chicago 



Jefferson News Co. 
McDowell Electronics 
Anderson News Co. 
M & B Electronics 
Madison Books 
Trade 'N' Books 

Electronic World 

TRI-TEK Computers 
Livingston's Books 
Books Etc, 
Computer Library 
Anderson News Co. 

Vaughn Electronics/Radio Shack 
Anderson News Co. 

R & R Software 
Software Plus 
Advance Radio, Inc. 
Strawflower Electronics 
Levity Distributors 
World Book & News Co, 
L&H Electronics Emporium 
E.D.C. Industries 
Polygon Co, 
Tower Magazine 
Sawyer's News, Inc. 
Computer Literacy 

Software City 



DelmarCo, 

Milford News Stand 

Normar, Inc.— The Smoke Shop 

Software, Software, Inc. 
The Open Door 
Software Plus More 
Electronics Engineers 
Mike's Electronics Distributor 
The Book Nook 
Book Town 
Deano'sTV 
City Newsstand 
The Little Store 

Almar Bookstore 

Book Mania 

Boyd-Ebert Corp. 

Anderson News Co. 

Wolfs Newsstand 

Family Computers 

Sunny*s at Sunset Inc, 

Anderson News Co. 

Fine Print Bookstore 

Sound Trader & Computer Center 

Computrac 

Bremen Electronlcs/Radlo Shack 

Kent Radio Shack 

Radio Shack 

Act One video 

Martin Music Radio Shack 

Johnson News Agency 

Kroch's & Brentano's 
Software or Systems 
Book Market 
B. Dalton Booksellers 

N. Walbash St. 

West Jackson St. 



Chillicothe 

Danville 

Decatur 



East Moline 

Evanston 

Geneseo 

Kewanee 

Lisle 

Newton 

Oak Brook 

Oak Park 

Paris 

Peoria 



Schaumberg 

Skokie 

Springfield 



Sunnyland 



Bob's in Newtown 
Bob's News Emporium 
Bob's Rogers Park 
Book Market 

East Cedar 

North Cicero 

West Dlversey 
E.B. Garcia & Associates 
Kroch's & Brentano's 

South Walbash 

West Jackson 

516 N. Michigan 

835 N. Michigan 
Parkway Drugs 
Parkwest Books 
Sandmeyef s Bookstore 
Univ. of Chicago Bookstore 
Univ, of Illinois Bookstore 
Vldeomat, Inc. 
Book Emporium 
Book Market 
Book Emporium 

K-Mart Plaza 

Northgate Mall 
Book Emporium 
Chicago-Main News 
B & J Supply 
Book Emporium 
Book Nook 
Bill's TV Radio Shack 
Kroch's & Brentano's 
Kroch's & Brentano's 
Book Emporium 
Book Emporium 

Sheridan Village 

Westlake Shopping Center 
Book Market 
Illinois News Service 
Kroch's & Brentano's 
Kroch's & Brentano's 
Book Emporium 

Sangamon Center North 

Town & Country Shopping Ctr. 
Book Emporium 



MAINE 

Brockton 

Caribou 

Waterboro 

MARYLAND 

Silver Spring 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Brockton 

Cambridge 

Fitchburg 

Ipswich 

Littleton 

Lynn 

Quincy 

MICHIGAN 

Allen Park 

Dearborn 

Durand 

Harrison 

Lowell 

Mt. Clemens 

Muskegon 

Owosso 

Perry 

Rosevllle 
Royal Oak 
St. Johns 
Sterling 

Heights 
Wyoming 

MINNESOTA 

Minneapolis 
Willmar 

MISSOURI 

Farmington 
Kirksvllle 
Moberfy 
St. Louis 



West Frankfort 


Paper Place 


University City 


Wheeling 


North Shore Distributors 


INDIANA 




MONTANA 


Berne 


White Cottage Electronics 


Whitefish 


Columbus 


Micro Computer Systems, Inc. 


NEBRASKA 


Garrett 


Finn News Agency, Inc. 


Lincoln 


Greenwood 


The Computer Experience 


Omaha 


Highland 


Computer Health Consultants 


Indianapolis 


Bookland, Inc. 


NEVADA 


Delmar News 


Las Vegas 


Jasper 


Indiana News 


NEW HAMPSHIRE 


Elex Mart 


West Lebanon 


Madison 


Arco Office Supplies 


Martinsville 


Radio Shack 


NEW JERSEY 


Walbash 


Mitting's Electronics 


Cedar Knolls 




Clinton 


IOWA 

Davenport 


Interstate Book Store 


Lawrenceville 
Lin wood 
Marmora 


KANSAS 




Montvale 


Topeka 


Palmer News, Inc. 


Pennsville 


Town Crier of Topeka, Inc, 


River Edge 


Wichita 


Amateur Radio Equipment Co, 


Rockaway 




Lloyd's Radio 


NEW MEXICO 


KENTUCKY 




Alamogordo 


Georgetown 


Goodwin Electronics 


Albuquerque 


Hazard 


Daniel Boone Gulf Mart 




Hopkinsville 


Hobby Shop 


NEW YORK 

Brockpart 
Elmlra Heights 
Fredonia 
Hudson Falls 
Johnson City 


Louisville 


The Computer Store 


Paducah 
Palntsvllle 


Radio Shack 
R-Kat Electronics 


Pikevllle 


G us-Stan Enterprises 


Princeton 


Miller Electronics 


LOUISIANA 




New York 


Crowley 


Acadiana Newsstand 




Monroe 


The Book Rack 





Voyager Bookstore 
Radio Shack 
Radio Shack 

Layhlll Newsstand 

Voyager Bookstore 
Out Of Town News 
Comers Book Shop 
Ipswich News 
Computer Plus 
North Shore News Co. 
Soft Ware House 



Book Nook, inc, 

DSL Computer Products 

Robbins Electronics 

Harrison Radio Shack 

Curt's Sound & Home Arcade Center 

Key Book Shop 

Michigan Radio 

The Eight Bit Corner 

C/C Computer Systems 

Perry Computers 

Perry Oil & Gas 

New Horizons 

Software City 

Clinton Electronics 

Sterling Book Center 
Gerry's Book Co. 

Read-More News 
The Photo Shop 

Ray's TV & Radio Shack 
T&R Electronics 
Audio Hut 
Book Emporium 
Computer Xchange 
Softwalre Centre 
Final Edition 

Consumer Electronics of Whitefish 
Hobby Town 

Computers & Components 

Hurley Electronics 

Verham News Corp. 

Village Computer &. Software 
Micro World II 

Micro Con Software Center 

Software City 

Outpost Radio Shack 

Software City 

Dave's Elect. Radio Shack 

Software City 

Software Station 

New Horizons Computer Systems 
Desert Moon Distributors 
Page One Newsstand 

Lift Bridge Book Shop, Inc. 

Southern Tier News Co., Inc. 

On Line: Computer Access Center 

G A West & Co. 

Unicorn Electronics 

Barnes & Noble— Sales Annex 

Coliseum Books 

Eastern Newsstand 



206 THE RAINBOW September 1986 



N. White Plains 
Rochester 

Woodhaven 



Grand Central Station, Track 37 

200 Park Ave.. (Pan Am #1 ) 

55 Water Street 

World Trade Center #2 
Rrst Stop News 
Idle Hours Bookstore 
International Smoke Shop 
Jonll Smoke 
Penn Book 
Software City 
State News 
Usercom Systems, Inc. 
Walden Books 
World Wide Media Services 
Software City 
Village Green 
World Wide News 
Spectrum Projects 



NORTH CAROLINA 

Aberdeen King Electronfcs 



Cary : 
Charlotte 

Havloctc 

Hickory 

Marion 

NORTH DAKOTA 

Fargo 

OHIO 

Blanchester 

Canton 

Chardon 

Cincinnati 

Columbiana 

Coshocton 

Dayton 

Falrbom 

Girard 

Kent 

Kenton 

Lakewood 

Lima 

Mlamisburg 
Mount Orab 
Rocky River 
Toledo 
Xenia 

OKLAHOMA 

Oklahoma 

City 
Tulsa 

OREGON 

Portland 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Allison Park 

Altoona 

Brookvlile 

Malvern 

Philadelphia 

Phoenixville 
Pittsburgh 
Pleasant Hills 
Temple 
Wind Gap 
York 

RHODE ISLAND 

Warwick 



Radio Shack 
News Center in Cary Village 
Newsstand inf I 
Papers & Paperback 
Computer Plus 
C 2 Books & Comics 
Boomers Rhythm Center 

Computer As^idtes 

JR Computer Control 
Utile Professor Book Center 
Thrasher Radio & TV 
Cinsoft 

Fidelity Sound & Electronics 

Utopia Software 

Huber Heights Book & Card 

Wiike News 

News-Readers 

G/rard Book & News 

The News Shop 

T.W. Hogan & Associates 

Lakewood International News 

Brunner News Agency 

Edu-Caterers 

Wllke News 

Mount Orab Radio Shack 
Programs Unlimited 
Leo's Book & Wine Shop 
fine Print Books 



Merit Micro Software 
Steve's Book Store 

Fifth Ave. News 

Software City 
Newborn Enterprises 
Larry's Stereo Shop 
Personal Software 
City Software Center 
Newsy 

Stevens Radio Shack 
All-Pro Souveniers 
Pitt Computer & Software 
Software Comer 
Micro World 

The Computer Center of York 
Software Connection 



TENNESSEE 

Chattanooga 

Dickson 
Knoxvilfe 

Memphis 

Nashville 
Smyrna 
Union City 

TEXAS 

Elgin 
Ft Worth 
Orange 
San Antonio 

UTAH 

Murray 

VIRGINIA 

Gafton 
Norfolk 
Richmond 

WASHINGTON 

Seattle 
Tacoma 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Huntington 
Logan 
Madison 
Parkersburg 

WISCONSIN 

Appleton 
Cudahy 
Ladysmlth 
Milwaukee 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston Hts. Software Haus, inc. 

Gaffney Book Store 
Palmetto News Ca 
Software City 
Fleming's Electronics 



Gaffney 
Greenville 
Spartanburg 
Union 



WYOMING 

Casper 

ARGENTINA 

Cordoba 

AUSTRALIA: 

Kingsford 

CANADA: 
ALBERTA 

Banff 

Blairmore 

Bonnyville 

Brooks 

Calgary 

Clareshoim 

Drayton Valley 

Edmonton 

Edson 
Fairvlew 
Fox Creek 

Ft. Saskatoon 
Grande 

Cache 
Grande 

Centre 
Hinton 
Innisfail 
Leduc 
Lethbridge 
Lioyd minster 
Okotoks 
Peace River 



Anderson News Co. 
Guild Books & Periodicals 
Highland Electronics 
Anderson News Co. 
First Byte Computer Ca 
Computer Center 
Software, Inc. 
Mosko's Book Store 
Delker Electronics 
Cox Electronics Radio Shack 

The Homing Pigeon 
Software Terminal 
Northway Books & News 
CoCo Nuts 



Deseret Book 

Electronics Marketing 
l-O Computers 
Software City 

Adams News Co.; Inc. 
B & 1 Magazines & Books 
Nybbles 'N Bytes 

Nick's News 

Stan's Electronics & Radio Shack 
Communications, LTD 
Valley News Service 

Badger Periodicals 

Cudahy News & Hobby 

Electronics, Etc. 

Book Tree 

Booked Solid 

Booked Solid II 

Harvey Schwartz Bookshop 

Univ. of Wisconsin Bookshop 

The Computer Store 



Informatlca Y Telecomunlcaclones 



Paris Radio Electronics 



Banff Radio Shack 
L & K Sports & Music 
Paul Tercler 

Double "D" AS C. Radio Shack 
Billy's News 

Radio Shack Associated Stores 
Langard Electronics 
CMD Micro 

Kelly Software Distributors 
Radio Shack 
D.N.R. Furniture & TV 
Fox City Color & Sound 

A.S.C. Radio Shack 
Ft. Mall Radio Shack 

The Stereo Hut 

The Book Nook 
Jim Cooper 
L & S Stereo 

Radio Shack Associated Stores 
Datatron 

Lloyd Radio Shack 
Okotoks Radio Shack 
Radio Shack Associated Stores 
Tavener Software 



St. Paul 


Walter's Electronics 


Sterner 


Stettler Radio Shack 


Strath more 


Wheatland Electronics 


Taber 


Pynewood Sight & Sound 


Westlock 


Westlock Stereo 


Wetaskiwin 


Radio Shack 


BRITISH COLUMBIA 


Bumaby 


Compulit 


Bums Lake 


VT. Video Works 


Campbell 






I ko niuomji ll^o 


>wl Mill WU<w(". 


\_>J lkJl loo rvjlKol 


<wk_KJI 1 of iuy 


l\ll*K o IVIUSIC Ok OltrleU 


UUWdUI 1 V_,lfcJtjK 


Roll Dr-iHir* & TV 
Doll KUUIO (X IV 


V7UlV_K7f 1 


i kjrko nui 1 10 mi i nil in iy a 


LUl lylcy 


Lkji lyitjy KUvJiu onucK 


M \tr\r\ct\\ iuAr 

IN. VUI IL*kJk-lVC7l 


fiiiir-rovAA^ttrf [""iictrihi itnre 

1 Vllk^l UWojI L^lal 1 ILJU IkJio 


Nelson 


Oliver's Books 


Parksville 


Parksville TV 


Penticton 


D.J.'s 




Four Corner Grocery 


Salmon Arm 


Matrix Computing 


Sidnev 

OIn-JI icy 


Sldnou Ffet^tronir**; 

jiui lay liuuieui iik^o 


Smithers 


Wall's Home Furniture 


100 Mile 




House 


Tip Top Radio 8t TV 


MANITOBA 




Alfona 


LA Wlebr Ltd. 


Lundar 


Goranson Elec 


Morden 


Central Sound 


The Pas 


Jodi's Siaht & Sound 


Selkirk 


G L Fnns Flee 


Vlrden 


Arohfir FntAmrfftRs 

rUxjl lyl L-l 1 lui b^/l luwtf 


Winninen 


J & J Electronics Ltd 


NEW BRUNSWICK 




Moncton 


Jeffries Enterprises 


Sussex 


Dewltt Elec. 


NPWFOIIfJni AND 




Botwood 


Seaport Elec. 


Carbonear 


Slade Realties 


NOVA SCOTIA 




Halifax 


Atlantic News 


ONTARIO 




Aurora 


Compu Vision 


Concord 


Ingram Software 


Exceter 


J. Macleane & Sons 


Hamilton 


Data man 


Hanover 


Modern Appliance Centre 


Huntsvlile 


Huntsville Elec. 


Kenora 


Donny "B" 


Kingston 


T.M. Computers 


Listowel 


Modern Appliance Centre 


South River 


Max TV 




Hfinnk TV 

L/vl II ltd 1 V 


QUEBEC 




LaSalle 


Messageries de Presse Benjamin Enr. 


Pont Doi infl 


Boutique Bruno Laroche 


SASKATCHEWAN 




/WON 1 ILjwIkJ 


TAktnr Neu/s 


Estevan 


Kotyk Electronics 


Moose Jaw 


D&S Computer Place 


Nipiwan 


Cornerstone Sound 


Regina 


Regina CoCo Club 


Software Supermarket 


Saskatoon 


Everybody's Software Library 


Shellbrooke 


Gee. Laberge Radio Shack 


Tisdale 


Paul's Service 


Unity 


Grant's House of Sound 


YUKON 




Whltehorse 


H & O Holdings 


JAPAN 


America Ado. Inc. 


Tokyo 


PUERTO RICO 




San Juan 


Software City 



) Also available at all B. Dalton Booksellers, and selected Coles Bookstores, j 

j Waldenbooks, Pickwick Books, Encore Books, Barnes & Noble, Little j 

! Professors, Tower Book & Records, KrocIVs & Brentano's, and Community { 

■ Newscenters. I 



September 1986 THE RAINBOW 207 



ADVERTISER 




We encourage you to patronize our advertisers — all of whom support the 
Tandy Color Computer, We will appreciate your mentioning the rainbow when 
you contact these firms. 














1 27 


Ark Royal Games i > ; . ♦ 


a *• ;»,' .1-92 


Hawkes Research Services 


... * .1 32 


Rainbow Bookshelf . . . . 


. ... a 1 85 


B5 Software. . 


• . » . . . 1 91 


HJL div. of Touchstone 


" . ■ : ■> 


Rainbow G i ft Su bscr ipt i 0 n 


. .... 1 1 3 


Canyon County Devices . 


... . * • .148 


Technology, Inc.. .... . 


♦ 4 ■ r r . 99 


Rainbow On Tape 


.... .147 


Ger-Gom p ♦ r <••«. + + + % . + < * . 


..142, 143 


Howard Medical * . 


. .34, 210 


RAINBOWfest . . ..... 


. . . 65, 66 


Challenger, ............. 


■ « . . . . . 8 j 


J & M Systems .* < < , . , . r . . , 


* .. . a . BC 


Ram . ... . . ... ♦ *».'...,.• ? "4 


: I FC 


^> in soft .*.**»••• « r . . • 


V • * . .. .138 


J & R Electronics 


. , . « , 1 63 


REM Industries. 


• 1 ... 1 35 


CNR Engineering. ... . 


i . • . » * .83 


Johnson, D. P. . . . .... .... . 


*....« 204 


Robotic Microsystems 


..... 1 02 


GoCo Trend ........ . . . . 


mi* » .. ;V 145 


Kelly Softw a re D ist rib utdrs 


. • . a a • 70 


SECA i i t ■ .......... a'. . '» Ifr-'i 


1 ■■ h . « " . 93 


Cog nt tec . . . « . • •>. *»»•».-.« 


.. . .. ..81 


Mark Data Products 


. . « ••' 1 5 7 


Selected Software ........ 


> <• :« • • 1 79 


Colorware ... . . + 


■ 22, 23, 25 


Metric Industries . . . . .-. . . . 


. . ...190 


Software House, The . ... . . 


a . * . a 1 03 


CompuServe . .... , > + < 


1 r * *.«'• .1 1 


MichTron . . , , 


i . . . . 1 58 


Software Support, Inc 


. . , 62, 63 


Computer Center. ,v,„ . 


. « . » . » •; .: 35 


Micro Works, The ......... 


a . . . .170 


Soistmann Enterprises, Inc 


r, « • • . • 96 


Computer Island ...... 


, l . . 86, 87 


Microcom Software . . . . . . 


...16, 17 


Spectrogram 


j*'. »7 • • 37 


Computer Plus * ]t . , , 


0 

ii'.. : » . . . . » W; 


Microtech C onsulta nts I nc. 




Spectrosystems 


. ,. h + + 1 49 


Computerware .... r . ... .. . m 


; ■ 1 • » » . • . 1 w 


MicroWorld , ... ..... .... . 


. . ... . .31 


Spectrum Projects Inc. 




Computize, inc. .... 


v . . . . .'209 


Mix, Tom Software . 


.....177 


.,..105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 111 


Cozy Software . .... 


1 1 ...» i .'...'8^ 


Moreton Bay 


174 


Speech Systems 




Dayton Associates of 






. . . . .176 


. . . ..118, 119 j 


,120; 121 


W. R. Hail, Inc. ...... 


......128 


Other Guys Software, The . 


• a • • 36 


Sugar Software .......... 


, + + , .161 


De 1 p h i . . ..' . .. .... . .. :> .. j.iii 


. .114, 115 


Owl-Ware . . * M r}f . . » , . . 


...72, 73 


Sunrise Software ... . , , 1 


4 . . . . . 97 


Derby City Software * . . . . 


1 +.. . . . 1 36 


P C/ . . . . « . . . . ..... . . >-: : »- r ■ 


. ^ • , . • 1 2 4 


T & D Software . . . . 


"a : : . . . -. . 14 


Derringer Software . . . . 


.... 94 , 95 


Perry Computers ......... 


• a- * ■ a" . 48 


T e p co . * . ................ 


...... 75 


Diecom . - . . . . . . . . 


. . . . • . I BC 


Preble's Programs, Dr. ... , 


57 

. . . . * . w f 


Thinking Software, Inc. . . . 


j j j j • . 40 


DiStO ... ■» : ;. : « L L L 1 


J. :. '4 . . ... . 2 8 


Prickly-Pear Software 


, h . . .164 


Tothian Software Inc. . . 


++++ .184 


Dragon User 


....... 46 


Public Domain , 


... . .. . 90 


True Data Products . ,v. . . 


.150, 151 


Duck Productions , 


...... 1 67 


PXE Computing ... . . . . . . . 


. * ■: . ....... 7 


Wasatch ware . .... ... 


■I j . .14 4 


E.D.C. Industries ... . . . . . 


. . . » . 189 


Radio Shack ........ .42, 43, 50, 51 


Woodstown Electronics . * . 


71 

...... r. 1. 








, ... 130 


York 10 . 


85 




Call: 

Shackleford, Nolan, Davis, Gregg and Associates 

Cindy Shackleford, president 

Shirley Duranseau 

Advertising Representative 

12110 Meridian South, Suite 5 

P.O. Box 73-578 

Puyallup, WA 98373-0578 

(206) 848-7766 




208 



THE RAINBOW September 1986 



Call: 

Kim Vincent 

Advertising Representative 
The Fatsoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

(502) 228-4492 



Call: 

Jack Garland 
Garland Associates, Inc. 
10 industrial Park Road 
Hingham, MA 02043 

(617) 749-5a^ 



( 




npc VHTT T f^CMTlKtr F0R A HIRES graphic 
cIXnC X vU wUAH\I %J screen print dump? 

HARDCOPY - Hardcopy is more than Just a screen print dump, compare these features with any 
other graphic dump program on the market: 

Full GRAPHICOM/GRAPHICOM PART II compatibility! Loads STANDARD 6K Images, 
GRAPHICOM pictures, and COCO MAX pictures too! 

BLACK & WHITE or GREY SCALE printing. In GREY SCALE printing, colors are printed as 
user definable patterns. Supports hi-res in all 4 GRAPHICOM display modes! 
Is, 2x. 3s PRINTOUTS - Three menu options are reserved for the most frequently used prin- 
tout sizes; lx (quarter page), 2x (half page), and 3x (full page). 

GRAPHIC LABELS • The label printing option allows the user to create custom mailing or disk 
labels with professional looking results. 

GREETING CARDS - The greeting card option allows the user to custom design greeting cards 
using both text and graphics. 

GIANT POSTERS - The poster option provides the user with a means of reproducing a hi-res 
graphic to a multi-sheet poster. 

SPECIAL EFFECTS ■ The special effects option allows the user to directly control the printing 
directives; ROTATION. X/Y SIZE, X/Y FLIP, X/Y GRID, X/Y FILL, TAB, WINDOW, POS/NEG 
IMAGE, and more! 

USER CALL • Have an application that HARDCOPY doesn't quite match? HARDCOPY routines 
can be added to EXTENDED BASIC through the USR command! 




I 



THE ULTIMATE PRINTER UTILITY 



HARDCOPY' requires a 64K Color 
Computer or Color Computer II, 
and al least one disk drive. It sup- 
ports I to 4 disk drives, keyboard 
or JoYstick input. Please specify 
printer and cat. number when 
ordering. 



IDS 4ao/560-G . 
Okt S2A (Okigraph) 

Okidata 92 

Epson LX-80 . , 
Epson MX-80 
Epson RX-80 . . 
Epson FX-80 . . 
Riteman PLUS 



Cat. No. 
Cat. No. 
Cat. No. 
Cat. No. 
Cat. No. 
Cat. No. 
Cat. No. 



170WD 
179WD 
171WD 
173WD 
172WD 
173 WD 
173WD 



Mieman tlus .... Cat. No. 177WD Lurw^u .. lbi, no. teiwu 

' Due to hardware differences, some features may function differently on certain printers. 



Gemini 10X , . 
Gemini SO- 10/ 1 S 
DMP-105 
DMPMO . .. 
DMP-120 
DMP-130 . 
DMP-200 
CGP-220 



Cat. No. 174WD 
Cat. No. 17BWD 
Cat. No. 183WD 
Cat. No. 180WD 
Cat. No. 176WD 
Cat. No. I80WD 
Cat. No. 175WD 
Cat. No. 181WD 




©1984 WHITES 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



U:l.O 



HARDCOPY PRINT UTILITY $29.95 



YQJJ COULD SPEND $1000 ° 0R MORE TO UPGRADE 



YOUR GRAPHICS SYSTEM, JUST BUY. 



Eclipse (Zoom) S 19.95/Moreton Bay 

Super Paint (Paint) S 19.95/Michtron 

Shrinx (Reducer) S21.95/Grafx 



Text Master (Hi-Res Text) , . , .S29.95/Data Man 
G.C.U. (Disk Utilities) $19.95 Computize 



DISTRIBUTED BY COMPUTIZE INC 



PA* & 




,;. 

-:• a ■ •:• 

:• ■ •;■ •:• m •: 
:• * •:• •:- •:• ■: 
:■ ■ •:■ •:• •:• 
> ■ •:• -:• ■ •: 
•:• ■ ■ •;• 


* »ji »j» 

■ ■:• ■ ■ 

• ■ •:■ 

• ■ * 

• m •:• •;• 

■ ■ ■:• 


•:< 

■: 

■ ■; 

■ ■: 

■ ■: 

■ ■; 


j, ... ,3, .;, ,;. 

HDpv 



T 

PAINT 




ROTATE 



ENLARGE 





©1984 WHITE 

ALL RIGHTS 



U:l.G 



RESERVED 



GRAPHICOM PART II $24.95 



OR YOU COULD SPEND $24.95 FOR GRAPHICOM PART II AND GET: 

a video processing package that provides many function* that art misting In Graphicom. 
Here are Jntt a few of tht features provided by Graphicom Part II: 

ENLARGE/REDUCE/ROTATE 

Enlarge or reduce any portion of a graphic screen, just like a photographic enlarger! Rotate by any degree or 

fraction of a degree around any point on the screen. 

PAINT 

Paint or "fill-in'* any irregular area on the screen! More than 50 different colored patterns available. Addi- 
tional paint oatterns may be user-defined. 
PAN & ZOOM 

"Zoom in" x2, x4, or x8 on any portion of the screen to do fine pixel work. Allows editing of Graphicom 
character sets with ease! 
TYPESETTER & FONT EDITOR 

Add text in 16 different sizes, also supports user definable foreground & background colors. Design & Edit 
characters for use in the typesetter. 
PIXEL BLASTER 

Allows the user to easily substitute or remove colors. Widen lines, swap BLUE & RED without effecting 
BLACK & WHITE, etc. 

GRAPHICOM PART II DOES NOT REQUIRE GRAPHICOM TO RUN! 

Graphicom Part II requires a 64K extended disk basic system, and supports 1 to 4 disk drives, keyboard or 
joystick (analog or switch type) input. It will load and save both Standard BIN files and Graphicom screens. 
All functions support color or Hi-Res operation, as well as the 4 screen display modes. 



NEW LOW 
GRAPHICOM 
DIGITIZER $159.00 

Input directly into Graphicom for easy 
enhancements, manipulation, stamping, 
and storage. Accepts composite video 
signal in (l.Ov p-p) from video camera, 
VCR, video disc player, another com- 
puter, or other compatible video sources. 
View "off air" or "VCR" digitized video at 
close to real-time. Snapshot" video 
frames to the digitizer's internal memory. 
No slow, data serial manipulation. 
Use with your multi-pak, "Y" box, or a 
"Y" cable ("Y" cable available at S 19.95) 
Video is input via a "BNC" connector. 
External controls for HORIZONTAL POSI- 
TION. VERTICAL POSITION, HORIZON- 
TAL WIDTH, BRIGHTNESS, and CON- 
TRAST (FUZZ) settings. 
Don't be fooled by imitations. ..this is the 
GRAPHICOM VIDEO DIGITIZER ... the 
only digitizer that "DIRECTLY" inputs in- 
to Graphicom 

REQUIRES 64K COCO, 1 DISK DRIVE, 
AND 2 ANALOG JOYSTICKS. FREE 
GRAPHICOM PROGRAM, PICTURE 
DISK, AND GRAPHICOM UTILITY SUP- 
PLIED WITH PURCHASE OF VIDEO 
DIGITIZER (A $50 VALUE). 



"Y" BOX 




$29.95 



GRAPHICOM $24.95 

Catalog No 111GD 

Simply stated - Ont of the finest graphic 
programs written for tht Color Computer! 

FEATURES: 

• S-U-P-E-R U-S-E-R F-R-I-E-N-D-L-Y ! 

• Supports 4 Hi-Res display modes 

• 4 page animation mode 

• Color Palette with over 1 5 color patterns 
for use with Hi-Res artifact 

• Send/Receive pictures over modem 

• Supplied utility allows capturing Hi-Res 
screens from most COCO arcade games 

• Multiple Hi-Res character fonts (user re- 
definable) 

• Supplied utility for transferring 
Graphicom screens to Basic or other 
M/L programs. 

• Supplied utility for loading screens from 
Basic or other sources 

• Built in Hi-Res SCREEN PRINT (compati- 
ble with EPSON, C-ITOH. GEMINI- 10, 
OKI. plus Radio Shack's LP-VII, LP-VIII, 
DMP-100, DMP-200, and GCP-1 15 
printers) from 1 10 to 9600 baud 

• SEND/RECEIVE slow-scan television 

• Many additional features, operating 
hints, hardware mod's and suggestions, 
etc. 

REQUIRES 64K COCO, 1 DISK DRIVE, 
AND 2 ANALOG JOYSTICKS 

NEW MASTER KEY II 

New Improved Version! A hardware product 
that takes control of any program regardless of 
protection. Now use with RS Multi-pak, "Y" 
cable or optional extender cable. Captures 
register contants as they were when Master Key 
II was engaged. Complete disassembler, 
memory save, and much more. Requires some 
familiarity with Assembly Language. 

ROM PAR Cat. No. 160HR $ 99.95 

Cat. No. 161HR With Ext. Cable . . . $109.95 



PICTURE DISK SETS 

Avallablt from COMPUTIZE 

4C - Artifact color palette 
5C - Large character sets (from Derringer Soft- 
ware) 

6C - Same as 5C but set up as stamp set 
Picture Disk Stt 1 $19.95 

7 - Miscellaneous Art Set #1 

8 - Miscellaneous Art Set #2 

9 - Miscellaneous Ads and Examples 
Picture Disk Stt 2 $19.95 

10 - Miscellaneous Fonts 

1 1C- Artifact color palette type fonts 

Plctart Disk Stt 3 $14.95 

12C- Art demo from WHITESMITH 

13C- GRAPHICOM PART II function demo 

Plctart Dkk Stt 4 $14.95 

GC II FONT DISKS 

Each disk contains 10 or mors fonts. (4 ver- 
sions of tach font, ont for tach display mods). 

14C-GCII Fonts Disk #1 
15C-GCII Fonts Disk #2 
16C-GCII Fonts Disk #3 
GRAPHICOM PART U Font Disks . . . $19.95 



TRIPLE TRANSFER 
UTILITY© 

Transfer contents of disk to tape • 
Transfer contents of tape to disk • 
Automatically relocates cassette pro- 
grams that conflict with the disk operat- 
ing system • Displays machine language 
program addresses • Copies ASCII, Basic, 
& Machine Language Programs • All con- 
tained in 1 menu driven program! 
REQUIRES 32K CC EXT. 

Cassette $19.95 . . Cat. No. 105CT 
Disk $24.95 Cat. No. 105CD 



SUPER BACK-UP 
UTILITY© 

, . .WITH S.B.U. FROM COMPUTIZE ^ 
YOU'LL NEVER NEED ANOTHER BACK- 
UP UTILITY FOR YOUR COCO!!! 
SUPER BACK-UP UTILITY WILL PER- 
FORM ALL OF THE FOLLOWING FUNC- 
TIONS: 

1 . TAPE TO TAPE (Regardless of most 
protection schemes!) 

2. TAPE TO DISK (Move Cassette pro- 
grams to Disk!) 

3. AUTO RELOCATE (For those Cassette 
programs that conflict with Disk 
operating systems.) 

4. DISK TO TAPE (Place Disk programs 
onto Cassette) 

5. DISK TO DISK (Our powerful Split-N- 
lmage Program, Copies regardless of 
most protection schemes!) 

• MENU DRIVEN 

• REQUIRES 32K EXTENDED COCO 

• REQUIRES 1 OR 2 DRIVES 

• ALL MACHINE LANGUAGE! 1 1 
COMPARE WITH OTHER INDIVIDUAL 
PROGRAMS COSTING IN EXCESS OF 
$100.00 

DISK $49.95 Cat. No. 107CD 



SPIT-N-IMAGE© 

M/L Disk Back-Up Utility 
There is no need to suffer the heartbreak 
of crashed disks any longer. Spit-N-Image 
will create a mirror image of your 
valuable disk programs which do not res- 
pond to normal back-up functions. Will 
also initialize and back-up in one pass. 
Data processing experts always insist on 
having a back-up — it's good a practice. 

REQUIRES 32K CC 
DISK $34.95 Cat. No. 101CD 



s> 

Check or M.O. 
Add $3.00 
shipping 




INC 



(215) 946-7260 P.O. BOX 207 • LANGHORNE, PA 19047 



PA residents 
add 6% 
sales tax 




Howard Medical Computers 



(800) 443-1444 



ORDERS 



(312) 278-1440 



INQUIRIES AND ORDER STATUS 



PRINTERS 



NEW 

Dual Mode 

EPSON LX-80 



The offer?: draft or near letter quality plus a 1K input buffer for much 
fester Qraphlea printing speed, LX*P package Includes the LX-80, a Botek serial 
to parallel converter, and a Howard Printer Tutorial. 



$2^y ($ 7 shipping) 



Add $29.50 for tractor ET-1 



«9T 



The NX-10 Is the latest generation of printers and offers built-in back tractor 
feed giving forward and backward movement of paper plus exceptional graphics 
printing capabilities, NX-P package includes the NX-10, a Botek serial to parallel 
converter and the Howard Printer Tutorial, §0/^*7 

OUf ($7 shipping) 




MONITORS 



team 

123A 12" 

This 12" green screen high resolution mon- 
itor offers 80 column capability, Zenith quali- 
ty and a 30 day warranty valid at any of 
Zenith's 1200 locations. 

Retail $149 $C750 
Our price W f 



122 A Zenith 12" Amber Screen of- 
fers the same 640 dots x 200 dots 
resolution at 15MHz as the 123A 
and a 90 day warranty valid at our 
1200 locations* SOO 
($7 shipping) O O 

Closeout Specials — only 14 in 
stock, We have a limited number of 
lesser known color monitors that 
haya been discontinued but are 
brand new jn their A f\ 

original boxes, ^ | L| y 

($14 shipping) 

141 Roland 13" Color Monitor with 
speaker, 270 dots x 200 dots 
resolution, 4 MHz C O -4 HP 
bandwidth- *Z I f 

($14 shipping) 



($7 shipping) 



131 Zenith 13" Color Monitor has 
medium resolution with speaker 
and RGB jack. Q H ^ O 
($14 shipping) I DO 

All monitors require an amplifier 
circuit to drive the monitor and are 
mounted Inside the color computer. 
They attach with spring connectors, 
with two wires extending out of the 
computer, one for audio and one for 
video. 

VA-1 for monochrome 
\ mcniiDrs only, fits all 



f 



cotar computers 

(£$ ahpg)^24 45 

VC-4 for monochrome 
or color, fits all color 
computers 

($2 Shpg)$39 45 



ISK CONTROLLER 

□ISTD 
DC-3 

Includes controller and 
DOS ROM Chip. 

$ 98 ($2 shipping) 

ADD-ON BOARDS 




DC-38 includes 80 column capaci- 
ty, parallel printer, real time clock, 
and all software $138 

DC-256 256K RAM Board Includes 
software to access all RAM $-J25 

DC-3P Mini Epson Programmer In- 
cludes all software to * _ _ 
program 2764 or 27128 *0& 




RS-1 Radio Shack's p-i ROM 
based operating system $2Q 

DD-2 Double sided 360K it drive 
with "Vfe heightcase tjoo 
and power supply 5 loo 

CA-1 Cable to connect bnnLraUB? to 
one drive S24^ 



CA-2 Two drive cable s*sn50 
DC512 512K RAM Board $165 " 



■ 



MEMORY 



64-E1 for E Boards with complete 
instructions. Remove old chips and 
replace with preassembled pack- 
age—no soldering 4rt . n , 
or trace cuts. ($2 shpg) *24 BO 
64-F1 for F Boards. No soldering 
needed. Capacitor $2445 
leads must be out ($2 8hlppjng) 



64*2 for COCO 2. Kit tBCHi tt\A one 
solder point, no 

trace cuts. ($2 ahlpjJinijr*:'** 3 
64-22 Two chip gel tor £G«313f*A 
and B, 26-3136A and B. Karen Col- 
or Computers require ~ ti * « 
1 solder point *!!8 4B 

($2 swiping) 



SOFTWARE SPECI 

PAYROL/BAS™ 

Written In nonprotected basic for the eolor computer. This imj Mnniwyi 

of programs will simplify and decrease the time spent doing j^-oh H^ntw 
May 1986 review says, "Elegant and professional." State and fau<?i j tables 
are already included. Send $1 for 11 page reports gujde. STQ95 

VIP LIBRARY 

Softlaw's Integrated package Includes VIP writer terminal, data oaaa call and 
disk zap which can fix a diskette that Is giving I/O errors. $^25 



SAP-II 

Stock analysis program organizes 
your portfolio and gives specific 
sell and stop- & ^ s\ q c 
loss points. v^y»0 



BPA-1 

Chart your blood pressure Wnti daily 
readings taken In the turner! of 
your home. cjrtgg 



$ 19 




GUARANTEE 

Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee is meant to eliminate the MrlC*rlBFjlKy of 
dealing with a company through the malt. Once you receive our i mM\m^ t try 
It out; test it for compatability. If you're not happy with it for any ruaaon, return 
It In 30 days and we'll give you your money back, (less shipping), 



Howard Medical Computers 1690 N. Elston Chicago, IL 6062J 




ORDERS 



(800) 443-1444 



INQUIRIES AND ORDER STATUS 

(312) 278-1440 



Showroom Hours: 
8:00-4:00 MonrFri. 
10:00-3:00 Sat. 



WE ACCEPT: VISA • MASTERCARD • AMERICAN EXPRESS 

C.O.D. OR CHECKS • SCHOOL RO.'S 





AAA 



| if 75 -. *v 



EX MI28R0 
X ELF 




13*90$ If 1 



One, two or even three people can play Gantelet at 
the same time. You and your friends travel through 
the many levels in search of an exit to the next 
level. Avoid the Ghosts and other creatures that 
are out to stop you in your quest. Collect keys to 
open doors, treasures and magic potions to aid 
you in your battle. Watch out for hidden traps as 
you frantically search for the exit to the next level. 



U.S, 
Can. 



mm- ; tint 




S£0ft£ 



As a paper boy, you ride your bike 
along your route delivering papers to 
your customers, Break customers' 
windows or damage their property 
and they wilt cancel their subscrip- 
tions! Earn bonus points by damag- 
ing non-subscribers' property. Avoid 
pedestrians, cars, and maybe even a 
mad dog in your attempt to deliver all 
of your papers! Detailed graphics and 
lots of surprises make this game a 
real challenge for everyone. 

, I ■ U.S. 




ti ll 




Move your marble around 
the mazes in your search for 
the finish line! Avoid marble 
eaters, acid puddles and 
other creatures that inhabit 
the mazes. Eight different 
levels and great graphics 
make this game a must for 
your collection. 

ll<v< jot j i !.! j't N ] 




nets 

SCORE 
5 3 41 



Fly your plane over land and water while avoiding 
enemy missiles, planes and helicopters attacking 
from the top and bottom of the screen. Use your 
radar to track objects as they approach the main 
screen. Bomb oil refineries, airports and destroy 
planes before they can take off from the airports. 
Watch out for missiles fired from hidden missile 
silos on the ground. Dozens of screens of detailed 
terrain plus increasing difficulty make this a great 
game for everyone. 





1 



* 1-i * 



1 *- 



. — 





KHOCK OUT ftHDCOH P«#M#t$ 



Fight against five different 
boxers Tn this great boxing 
game! At first the boxers 
are easy to knock out, but 
beware, it gets harder as 
you move on,. The boxers 
are out to stop you in your 
quest to become champion 
of the world. Outstanding 
graphics make this a must 
for your collection! 




U.S. 



Can. 



Challenge the computer, or 
a friend to a Karate match! 
Use various Karate punches 
and kicks to knock your op- 
ponent down and earn 
points to win the match. 
When challenging the com- 
puter, your opponent's 
Karate skills increase as 
you win matches. This game 
is a challenge for even the 
expert game player. 




COMING SOON: 

Mission: 
RUSH'N ASSAULT 



6715 FIFTH LINE, MILTON, ONT., CANADA L9T 2X8 

We accept: 





cheque or money order 



24 nr. order line: 
(416) 878-8358 
personal service 9-5 



Please add $2 for shipping 
& handling. Ontario 
residents add 7% sales tax. 
C.O.D. Canada only. 
Dealer inquiries invited 
Looking for new software. 




HEAT UP YOUR COCO ! 




HARD DRIVES 



Besides the obvious advantage of increased disk access 
speeds and a vast amount of storage, our COCO hard 
drives boast many innovative features. For instance, 

you may boot OS/9 

directly from 
JDOS - no 
intermediate 
boot floppy is 
required. Our 
software can 
run with virtually 
any Winchester with a 
ST412* type interface. Our drives have capacities of 5, 
10, or 20 MBytes (formatted), and may be either 
partitioned into up to 7 logical units or left as one 
large logical unit. Our COCO hard drive systems are 
complete with case, power supply, cables, OS/9 
drivers, and instructions. Prerequisite: OS/9, JFD-CP 
controller. 

5W 5 MByte full size $495 
5 V4 M 10 MByte Vz size $650 
3Vz" 20 MByte (shown above) $795 

JFD-CP DISK CONTROLLER 

Our new JFD-CP, compatible with both the original 
COCO and the COCO 2, features a parallel port to 

support a 
Centronics 
compatible 
printer or our 
hard drive, 
and an 

external ROM 
switch, which 
allows you to 
select JDOS or 
an optional RS 
DOS-type ROM. It comes in 
a case and includes JDOS 1.2 and manual. JDOS 
implements all RS DOS commands, plus many 
more, including auto line numbering, error 
trapping, baud rate selection, OS/9* boot from 
floppy or hard drive, and Memory Minder**, our 
disk drive analysis^ program (Precision Alignment 
Disk not included). 

JFD-CP Disk Controller with JDOS $139 

COCO-CLASSIC 

Our old JFD-COCO controller remains a strong 
seller. Some people just like old "classics" best! So 
we have brought it back at the lowest price ever! 

JFD-COCO Disk Controller with JDOS $99 




f^eWjERUS 

One-year warranty on parts & labor; 30-day money 
back guarantee (except shipping) if not totally 
satisfied. Items must be returned in like new 
condition. 

Free shipping via UPS in continental United States 
for payment by VISA, MasterCard, or cashiers check. 
COD requires 10% prepayment by bank card plus 
3% shipping. Blue Label and foreign shipping extra. 



DRIVE SYSTEMS 

Upgrade your Color Computer by adding our new 
JFD-CP disk controller, supercharged with JDOS 1.2 

operating 
system, and a 
top quality 
drive with case 
and power 
supply. Comes 
complete with 
cable and JDOS 
manual. 




Drive 0 System with one single side drive 
Drive 0 System with one double side drive 
Drive 0, 1 System with two single side drives 
Drive 0, 1 System with two double side drives 



$279 
$349 
$389 
$489 




MEMORY MINDER** 

Memory Minder 

is a disk drive 
test program now 
included in 
JDOS. Used 
with a 
Precision 
Alignment 
Disk, 
Memory 
Minder allows 
you to check 
your drives for speed, 
alignment, sensitivity, hysteresis, 
and more! You can actually align or adjust the drives 
while viewing the graphics on the screen. No special 
equipment needed! 

PRECISION ALIGNMENT DISKS (From Dysan) 
PAD40X 1 : Tests single side disk drives $26 
PAD-40X2: Tests double /single disk drives $33 

Memory Minder is available on diskette for those 
who don't own a JFD-CP controller with JDOS. 
Includes Precision Alignment disk. 




Memory Minder: single side package 
Memory Minder: single /double side package 



*OS/9 is a registered trademark of Microware, Inc. 

**Memory Minder is a registered trademard of J&M Systems, Ltd» 



i//A 

JAM SYSTEMS, LTD. 

15100-A CENTRAL SE 
ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO 87123 
505/292-4182 



$59 
$75