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iviaruri i^oo 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



'Beezyness* 

Our Business Issue 




44254' 



Bernico, the RA 



'20 'new product review. 



The Best Money Can Buy 
HDS Floppy Drive Controller Board 




Reduce your I/O errors with tha Hard Driva Specialist 
Floppy Drive Controller for the Color Computer. Gold edge 
card connectors, advanced design, and the absence of 
potentiometers make rt the best available: Our newest ver- 
sion controller allows the use of either (two 24 pin ROMS), 
or (om 24 pin and one 28 pin ROM), Using this board 
with tha standard Radio Shack ROM gives yon 100% com- 
patibility with all Radio Shack software. 
Completed and Tested Board 

with Radio Shack ROM $99. 

(Includes Case, and DOS Instructions) 
Completed and Tested Board without ROM . . . $79. 
(Includes Case) 

Bare Board with Instruction manual ........ $30. 

Parts Kit For Bare Board without ROM $30. 

Radio Shack ROM (current version) . $20. 
Radio Shack ROM 1.0 $40. 



$99. 
$79. 



.... 



$30. 
$30. 
$20. 
$40. 



ADOS ROM (24 or 28 pin PROM) $40. 

ADOS fsr a product of Spectra Systems oi Miami Florida 
and is fully supported by the author. The HDS v^rsron of 
ADOS supports 2 drives, 40 track, 6ms trk-to-frk drives 
only, either Single Sided or Double Sided, 
TKBUG Monitor and DOS 1.0 

on PROM (24 or 2S) $40. 

New, unique CoCo software monitor in ROM designed 
for a minimum of key strokes and fully compatible with the 
1.0 version of disk basic. Features 33 single key com- 
mands, allowing the user to quickly display and screen 
edit RAM in aithif hex or ASCII format. Also allows the 
user to dump screen or memory to printer, set break paints, 
alter baud rate, set 64K RAM mode, and more, TKBUG 
by TOMMY KEETON. 



HARD DRIVE SPECIALIST 



Ordering inbm:nin . 

Use our WATS Mrs ro mace ycur o»df flu. Visn F/minrGinJ. w VJ>a Tnaiiifot m 
mail ^our.payrpwTt dlrecllv «i us. Any nopjKCBnjrtlsei luHtfa. ^i- 1 o~ htsd until prapm 
clearance mien? COD -prrinrn &m n.scnptrid will as Ci^naae D'dfrng Inm 
r$avannrTOrit acrerclfrs. Mos\ itema am sl*pptd oil r.l>j shell v?.1h the rixtupilgn □) hard 
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unless otherwise specif dd. .Shipireig ectfu. arc - wallaistd upon rn^yjnsi 



1-713-480-6000 
Order Line 1-800-231-6671 
16208 Hickory Knoll 
Houston, Texas 77059 



■ I * 



tth t 



From Computer Plus to YO 



after 






BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000 1 Drive 128K 710.00 

Tandy 1000 HD 10 Meg. 256K 1539.00 

Tandy 1200 HD 10 Meg. 256K 1599.00 

Model I VD 64K with Deskmate 889.00 

PRINTERS 

Radio Shack DMP-1 05 1 60.00 

Radio Shack DMP-130 269.00 

Radio Shack DMP-430 660.00 

Radio Shack CGP-220 359.00 
RadioShack DWP-220 Daisy Wheel469.00 

Si i ver Reed EXP-550 Daisy Wheel 400.00 

StarSG-10 245.00 

StarSG-15 410.00 

Panasonic P-1 091 259.00 

CITOH Prowrlter 851 0AP + NLQ 345.00 

Toshiba 1340 469.00 

Okldata 192 375.00 

Epson LX-80 245.00 

Epson FX-85 369.00 

MODEMS 

Radio Shack DCM-3 Modem 52.00 

Radio Shack DCM-5 Modem 99.00 

Radio Shack DC Modem 2212 315.00 



COLOR COMPUTER MISC. 

Radio Shack Drive Controller 139.00 
Extended Basic Rom Kit 39.95 
64K Ram Upgrade Kit 39.00 
Radio Shack Deluxe Keyboard Kit 24.95 
HJL Keyboard Upgrade Kit 79.95 
COCO Max Y Cable 27.95 
Botek Serial to Parallel Conv. 69.95 
Radio Shack CCR-81 Recorder 52.00 
Radio Shack Deluxe Joystick 26.95 
Amdek Color 300 Monitor 265.00 
Amdek Video 300 Green Monitor 139.00 
Amdek Video 300 Amber Monitor 149.00 
Taxan Color 220 Monitor 245.00 
Tatung DM-12VLG Green Monitor 139.00 
Tatung DM-12VLA Amber Monitor 149.00 
Radio Shack VM-2 Green Monitor 129.00 
Mark Data Universal Video Driver 29.95 

COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

TAPE DISK 

Approach Control Simul. 29.95 34.95 

Worlds Of Flight 29.95 32.95 

Mustang P-51 Flight Simul. 29.95 34.95 

Spectral Typing Tutor 19.95 22.95 

Dungeon Quest 24.95 27.95 



Major Istar 24.95 
Sam Slueth Private Eye 24.95 
Mark Data Graphic Adven. 24.95 
Graphicom (disk only) 
COCO Max by Colorware 69.95 
Color ComE (rom) 49.95 

AutoTerm by PXE Computing39.95 
Key-264K by Key Color 39.95 
Telewriter 64 49.95 
Deft Pascal Workbench 
Deft Extra 

Pro Color File Enhanced 2.0 
Telegraphies by Derringer 



Elite Calc 
Elite Word 
Elite File (disk only) 
DynaCalc (disk only) 
Word Pack II by PBJ 
VIP Writer (tape & disk) 
VIP Integrated Library (disk) 



69.95 
69.95 



27.95 
27.95 
27.95 
29.95 
69.95 
49.95 
49.95 
44.95 
59.95 
89.95 
39.95 
59.95 
24.95 
69.95 
69.95 
74.50 
99.95 

134.95 
69.95 

149.95 



Order any 2 software pieces listed 
and take 10% off their listed price. 
All Radio Shack software 10% off list. 
Send for complete list. 



CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

• TIMELY DEL/VERY 

• SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 



m 





P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



Under 
The 




18 




122 




FEATURES 



World Trader/Dawd Compton 

GAME A nonviolent adventure of buying and selling 



Receipt File/6/7/ Tottingham 

BUSINESS Print receipts and save to disk for tax purposes 

{=\ Workout/W/7//am 7a/ada 



HOME HELP A 15-minute exercise instruction 

CoCoflow: CoCocad Expansion/ Dennis Page 

PROGRAMMING UTILITY An aid for drawing flow chart diagrams 

Rule of 78s/Clarence Whaley 

FINANCE Determine early pay-off amounts on installment loans 

[jpfl TV Shows/6/7/ Bernico 



ENTERTAINMENT A computer hacker-couch potato peace treaty 
Kung Fu Fighter/Larry Wolcott 



GAME Defend yourself with deadly kicks and punches 
[HI Cash vs. Financing/6/7/ Bernico 



FINANCE The economic advantage 



g=1 Home Budget Analysis/G/en Dufur 



FINANCE Forecasting personal finances 



sl Analyzer/ Martin H. Goodman 



DISK UTILITY Examining disk file structure 



=J Varlist/Hans Schulz 



PROGRAMMING UTILITY An easy way to list program variables 
[HI Marquee/ Chuck Poynter 



PROGRAMMING UTILITY Put your program up in lights 
Saucer/Allen 6. Carlisle 



GAME Avoid those flying saucer people 



HO Expense Tracking and Management/Edd/e Hill. 



BUSINESS Providing budgetary analysis for accounts 
H Mortgage Planner/Edward ft Carson 



FINANCE The joy$ of early amortizaton 



18 



22 



26 



31 



36 



49 



66 



71 



76 



84 



92 



101 



108 



122 



163 



Cover illustration copyright © 1986 
by Fred Crawford 



The small cassette tape 
symbols beside features 
and regular columns indicate that 
the program listings with those 
articles are on this month's rain- 
bow on tape, ready to CLOflD and 
RUN* For full details, check our 
rainbow ON tape ad on Page 230. 



NEXT MONTH: As spring commences, April is the perfect month to plant 
pur new Home Help issue. We'll shower you with programs to accommodate 
the home and its activities. And, if that's not enough to get your feet wet, we'll 
also reveal the two grand-prize winning programs of our Third Annual 
Adventure Contest and announce the names of the remaining winning entries. 

Look to the rainbow to make your "home sweet home" with the best articles, 
programs and product reviews for your Color Computer, 



COLUMNS 



H BASIC Training/Josep/7 Kolar. 



A simple technique for creating animation 

Building March's Rainbow/ Jim Reed 

Managing Editor's comments 

Delphi Bureau/ John ft Curl 

New forum commands 

Earth to Ed/ Ed Ellers 



39 



16 



Beam up those "tech" questions 

Education Notes/Sfeve Blyn 

Building language arts skills 

Education Overview/ Michael Plog, Ph.D. 

Educating with electronic communications and research 

PRINT#-2,/7a/77ara Dunn 



210 



116 



152 



154 



12 



Your Co Co: An investment for easing the high-tech pace 

Turn of the Screw/Tony DiStefano 

An introduction to timing 

@ Wishing Well/Free/ Scerbo 



62 



157 



Creating Hi-Res graphics title screens 

DEPARTMENTS 



Advertiser Index 

Back Issue Information 
CoCo Cat 



CoCo Gallery 
Corrections- 



Letters to Rainbow 
One-Liner Contest 
Information 



256 
207 
240 
114 
191 
_6 



The Pipeline 

Rainbow Info 

Received and Certified 
Scoreboard 



Scoreboard Pointers 
Submitting Material 
to Rainbow 



.238 



Subscription Information 
These Fine Stores 



104 

.120 
180 
.174 
.176 

199 
-65 
254 



RAINBOWTECH 



Accessible Applications/ftcharc/ White. 
Firing up BASIC09 

Barden s Buffer/ William Barden, Jr. 

Listening with assembly language 

Downloads/Dan Downard 



Answers to your technical questions 
The Utility Room/ Brian A. Lantz 



226 



237 



214 



216 



Errors, error messages and error conditions 

"KISSable OS-9" will return next month. 

PRODUCT REVIEWS 



Product Review Contents 



179 




March 1986 



Vol. V No. 8 



Editor and Publisher 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor James E. Reed 
Senior Editor Courtney Noe 
Technical Editor Dan Downard 
Submissions Editor Jutta Kapfhammer 
Copy Editor Tamara Renee Dunn 
Reviews Editor E. Monica Dorth 

Editorial Assistants Wendy Falk, 
Judi Hutchinson, Angela Kapfhammer, 
Shirley Morgan 

Technical Assistants John R. Curl, Ed Ellers 

Contributing Editors William Barden, Jr., 
Steve Blyn, R. Wayne Day, Tony DiStefano, 
Joseph Kolar, Michael Plog, Dale Puckett, 
Fred Scerbo, Richard White 

Consulting Editors Danny Humphress, 
Belinda C. Kirby, T. Kevin Nickols 

Art Director Jerry McKiernan 

Designers Tracey Jones, Heidi Maxedon, 

Kevin Quiggins, Sandra Underwood 
Production Assistant Cindy Jett 

Chief of Typography Debbie Hartley 
Typography Services Jody Doyle, 
Suzanne Benish Kurowsky 



President 



Falsoft, Inc. 

Lawrence C, Falk 



General Manager Patricia H. Hirsch 
Asst. General Mgr. for Finance Donna Shuck 
Admin. Asst. to the Publisher Sue E. Rodgers 
RAINBOWfest Coordinator Judy Brashear 

Editorial Director James E. Reed 

Asst. Editorial Director Jutta Kapfhammer 

Executive Editor Courtney Noe 

Creative Director Jerry McKiernan 

Manager of Public Relations Holly J. Weaver 

Chief Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Advertising Accounts Beverly Taylor 
Dealer Accounts Judy Quashnock 
Accounts Payable/ADP Lisa Ragan 

Director of Fulfillment Services 

Bonnie Frowenfeld 
Asst. Dir. of Fulfillment Services Sandy Apple 
Asst. Customer Service Mgr. Beverly Bearden 
rainbow ON TAPE Production Doug Orr 
Word Processor Manager Patricia Eaton 

Chief of Printing Services Melba Smith 

Pre-press Production John Pike 

Dispatch Janice East burn 

Business Assistants Laurie Falk, Sharon Smith, 
Monica Wheat, Pam Workhoven 

Advertising Coordinator Doris Taylor 
Advertising Representative Kim Vincent 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 

(502) 228-4492 

West Coast Advertising and Marketing Office 
Director Cindy Shackleford 
Advertising Representative 
Shirley Duranseau 

For RAINBOW Advertising 
and Marketing Office Information, 
see Page 256 



the rainbow is published every month of the year by FALSOFT, Inc., The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059, phone (502) 
228-4492. the rainbow, RAINBOWfest and the rainbow and RAINBOWfest logotypes are registered ® trademarks of FALSOFT, I nc. • Second class postage paid Prospect, 
KY and additional offices. USPS N. 705-050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797). POSTMASTER: Send address changes to the rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. Forwarding 
Postage Guaranteed. Authorized as second class postage paid from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. • Entire contents copyright © by 
FALSOFT, \nc, "1986. the rainbow is intended for the private use and pleasure of its subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by any means is prohibited. Use 
of information herein is tor the single end use of purchasers and any other use is expressly prohibited. All programs herein are distributed in an "as is" basis, without 
warranty of any kind whatsoever. • Tandy, Color basic, Extended Color basic and Program Pak are registered ® trademarks of the Tandy Corp. CompuServe is a registered 
® trademark of CompuServe Inc. • Subscriptions to the rainbow are $31 per year in the United States. Canadian rates are U.S. $38. Surface mail to other countries 
is U.S. $68, air mail U.S. $103. All subscriptions begin with next available issue. • Limited back issues are available. Please see notice for issues that are in print and 
their costs. Payment accepted by VISA, MasterCard, American Express, cash, check or money order in U.S. currency only. 



1 




Is CoCo Involved? 



Editor: 

There has been a burning question that I 
have had for quite some time and have never 
seen it asked in the "Letters to Rainbow" 
section. IVe always wanted to know exactly 
how much is the CoCo involved in the 
production, publishing, editing and writing 

of THE RAINBOW? 

Also, I have seen many explanations on 
how to make my CoCo I handle a fast POKE, 
but I have never been able to find it on my 
board (Pm referring to C85). Where is this 
hidden wonder? I own an 'F' board. 

Steve Haughey 
Whitefish Bay, Wl 



Editor's Note: Most of our con- 
tributors use CoCos, not only for 
programming, but the write-ups as 
well. We use the CoCo here to 
print out listings and to load arti- 
cles done on CoCo word proces- 
sors and transfer them to our 
typesetting machines. Plus, many 
"in-house" columns such as 
"Building a Rainbow," "Earth to 
Ed" and "Downloads" are com- 
posed on the CoCo. An average 
issue probably involves more than 
a hundred different Color Compu- 
ters when you consider reviewers 
and even writers to this Letters 
column also use the CoCo. 

While your board may be cap- 
able of using the high speed POKE 
without any modification what- 
soever, depending on the condition 
of your chips, if you need to clip 
capacitors, the ones to clip on the 
'D'and 'E' boards are the C73, C75 
and C85 (the latter is located near 
the internal ROM Pak connector). 

6 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



For the *F' Board (also called the 
TDP, ET and NC) clip one side of 
C36, C37 and C30. You see, they 
renumbered the capacitors on the 
<F' board. 



CoCo-VCR Connection 

Editor: 

I am interested in hooking my CoCo to 
my VCR for titling and animation. Will 
articles of this nature be found in the new 
VCR magazine or would they be shown in 

THE RAINBOW? 

John H. Carstens 
Toms River, NJ 

Editor's Note: Our new VCR mag- 
azine places the emphasis on enter- 
tainment and will have little, if any, 
hardware material. So, keep read- 
ing THE rainbow for this sort of 
thing. 



BACK TALK 

Editor: 

In the July 1985 issue [Page 8], I read the 
letter from Tim Jay of St. Petersburg, 
Florida. He was wondering if a universal 
program for the different types of computers 
existed. 

In the Netherlands, the National Broad- 
casting Station (NOS) broadcasted pro- 
grams for four types of computers a long 
time ago. Then more and more computers 
became popular and they were not able to 
broadcast general interest programs for each 
type. After some thinking, they found a 
solution. They invented a universal language 
that uses commands available for each 



computer — no matter what type basic they 
use. They called it BASICODE. It consists 
of two programs: a basic file to make it 
possible for each computer to use the same 
BASIC statements, and an ML routine to save 
the program in a "universal way" on tape. 

This means it is possible to transfer basic 
programs to another computer by the use of 
the ML routine. If this BASIC program is not 
written in the BASICODE protocol, you 
have to convert the different statements to 
your basic version. 

If you are interested in the BASICODE 
program, please write me at Eikenlaan 1, 
4641 GB Ossendrecht, the Netherlands. The 
program is written for many computers such 
as IBM, Models 1 and 3, Commodore, 
Spectrum, MSX and the CoCo. 

Please continue with your excellent mag- 
azine. It is our only source for information 
on the Color Computer. 

Jorgen te Giffel 
the Netherlands 

We Stand Corrected 

Editor: 

I noticed the letter in the December 1985 
issue [Page 9], by Greg Garnett. You said to 
change 90 and 100 to: 

90 C$=C$+".bas" 
100 RUN C$ 

It should read: 

90 C$=C$+".bas" 
100 RUN ""+C$ 

If you don't include the quotation marks 
BASIC will think it is a line number and print 
a UL error. I hope this is helpful to other 
CoCo fanatics out there. 

Ezra Story 
Woodstock, NY 



Editor: 

I am writing in response to Greg Garnett's 
letter [December 1985, Page 9]. This pro- 
gram will do exactly what he wants to do and 
with fewer lines. I have been using this as a 
hello program now for some time and found 
it to work nicely. I tried the program listed 
with the corrections that you suggested. I 
found that the changes will not work with 
Disk BASIC. 

5 CLS 

10 PRINT"HELLQ" 
40 DIR(0) 

50 PRINT "PLEASE ENTER THE NfiME OF 

PROGRAM TO RUN" 
60 INPUT C$ 
70 C$S=C$+'VBAS" 
B0 LORD C$,R 

Clay Smith 
Williamstown, NJ 

Editor: 

Thanks to Mike Sweet and the rainbow 
for the "Cheap Keyboard," December 1985, 
Page 208 for the Deluxe Keyboard. I got one 
of the last ones in Boston. Instead of bending 
the pins, which can damage the board, I 
bought a 34-pin Header Connector (Radio 
Shack No. 276-1529) for $3.19. Place the 
ribbon connector, backed up by a thin strip 
of plastic, between the two rows of contacts 
at the rear of the plug. Pull a stretched-tight 
rubber band between the cable and the 
plastic strip; as it shrinks in length it expands 
in thickness, pressing the conductors against 
one bank of contacts. Now let's have some 
articles or tips on the Deluxe Keyboard. 
Please keep up the experimental do-it- 
yourself approach. 

Alfred Rubio 
Somerville, MA 

Editor: 

I'd like to respond to a letter I saw in your 
January 1986 issue [Page 8]. Haskell Brodek 
asked about tape to disk transfer programs. 
One word of warning. If you use such a 
program and that program automatically 
transfers the tape program to disk using the 
tape-saved name, you could be in for some 
problems. It doesn't happen very often, but 
when it does, it causes some extra work for 
the user. 

I'm talking about tape-saved programs 
that use an extension as part of the title 
Several good examples are found on the 
January 1986 issue of rainbow on tape. 
These include SCF'EDI, SMF'EDI, SUL'EDI 
and 5MP/EDI. There was also one on the 
December 1983 issue called D/BfiS. 

When automatically transferred from 
tape to disk, the directory ends up looking 
like this: 

SCF/EDI /BPS 0 B 3 
SMF/EDI /BPS 0 B 4 
SUL/EDI /BPS 0 B 4 
SUL/EDI /BPS 0 B 2 

Since disk programs can't have two exten- 
sions, once it's transferred to disk, youll 
never get it back off again. You'll have to do 
a DSKINI 0 and start over. You can't even kill 
one of these programs. Your best bet is to 
use Roger Schrag's "A Tape to Disk 
Transfer Vehicle" [Page 48], a transfer 



program from the January 1984 issue. It 
allows you to give the disk-saved program 
any name you like. I hope this saves some- 
one some undue frustration. 

I'll be attending RAINBOWfest in Chi- 
cago on Sunday, May 25. I hope to meet 
some of my pen pals or anyone else inter- 
ested in "talking shop." See you there. 

Bill Bernico 
Sheboygan, W 



Handbook Requested 

Editor: 

I would like to get the Delphi Handbook 
and command card. The advertisement says 
I can order it while online, but how can I 
order it without knowing the command to 
do it? 

I also await the next Simulations issue. I 
enjoy it when you put the top winners' 
programs in the rainbow. Also, looking at 
the back issue order form, I see you haven't 
had an Adventure issue. And, if you follow 
through with P. Giodano's idea of a "Best 
Of" issue ("Letters to Rainbow", Page 8), I 
think it would be nice to include all pro- 
grams that won first prize in all of your 
contests. 

Brandon Rhodes 
Andover, MA 

Editor's Note: There are two ways 
to order the Delphi Handbook. If 
you haven't already signed up on 
Delphi, when you do so youU be 
asked whether or not you want to 
buy the package. If you've already 
signed up, you can order the Del- 
phi Handbook by sending a mail 
message to SERVICE. Either way, 
the cost will be billed to your 
Delphi account. Any questions 
you might have should be directed 
to Delphi Customer Service; their 
toll-free number is (800) 544-4005. 

Winners of the Third Annual 
Adventure Contest will be an- 
nounced in the April 1986 issue. 
February 1984 was our latest Ad- 
venture issue. 



HINTS AND TIPS 

Editor: 

I found a flaw in the program Christmas 
Songs (December 1985, Page 36). You can 
barely hear the music, even if you have the 
TV volume turned all the way up. The 
following line eliminates this problem and 
the other problem of the screen turning pink 
after you run the program. 

225 POKE65315,230 

Roy Geeo 
Hot Springs, AR 

Editor: 

I recently purchased a used MC-10 and 
was making backup copies of the programs 
I received with it. When it came to backing 
up the machine language tapes, there was no 
CSRVEM command. I discovered that if you 



CLOfiDM an MC-10 machine language tape 
on a CoCo 2 64K, you could PEEK the 
necessary locations to find the start, end and 
exec addresses and CSflVEM to tape. Then 
you have a backup and can run it on the MC- 
10 as you would any other machine language 
tape. 

Kevin Schmidt 
Arkdale, WI 

Automatic Hangup 

Editor: 

For those who use the Radio Shack 
Modem II, I have a command that will hang 
up the modem automatically. This comes in 
handy if you are into running a BBS. This 
command is POKE &HFF20 , 0. If you use this 
with a remote driver you will have to put a 
FOR X=1TO2000:NEXT command right after 
the poke. 

Timothy Dohtorski 
Jersey City, NJ 

Editor: 

Here is another possible solution to the 
cassette motor drive problem. I overcame 
the problem by adding a push-button switch 
to the cassette recorder. This will bypass the 
mike jack that controls the cassette drive 
motor. In order to be able to hear the tape, 
I added a 2200 ohm resistor across the ear 
jack. I can then hear the tape when the 
volumn is up all the way, but it is not loud 
enough to be bothersome. 

To find the points to connect to, use an 
ohmmeter. When an open cable is plugged 
into the cassette jack, the contacts will open 
up. These are where you solder your wires. 

Denis Santerre 
E. Holden, ME 

Editor: 

I recently purchased a Royal Beta 8100 
typewriter with an IF600 adapter box and 
a Color Computer adapter cable. Initially, 
I was unable to get the typewriter to print 
using either PRINTtt-2, " " or through my 
Telewriter-64. After quite a bit of experi- 
mentation with the switch block in the 
adapter box, I was able to get the typewriter 
to print by setting the switches to get the 
following status, obtained by interrogating 
the interface box: 

STATUS 
PROM designation: EFFC 03-01 
Date: 12/10/84 
Interface: V24 (RS 232 C) 
Baud rate: 600 
Data format: 8 bit 
Parity: off 

Protocol: DC1/DC3 
Control line: DTR 
DSR: off 
Auto LF: on 
Auto CR: on 
Select In: off 
Form length: 60 
Character set: US2 

This may be of use to someone else having 
the same problem. 

Jon Buchanan 
Troy, IL 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 7 



Biblical Books 

Editor: 

As a pastor, I use my CoCo quite exten- 
sively for word processing and utilize the 
capabilities of Telewriter-64 to the fullest. I 
have written two books and numerous 
sermons and have found the CoCo more 
than adequate. I would like to let anyone 
who may be interested to know that copies 
of the two books are available on disk. Book 
one is entitled An Introduction to the 
Doctrines of Grace and is on one disk. Book 
two is entitled Portraits of Christ: As 
Painted in John 's Gospel and is on two full 
disks. All disks are in Telewriter binary 
format. Anyone wishing copies should send 
three blank disks and a return mailer with 
postage affixed to 221 Highview Drive, 
63011. 

The material is copyrighted, but those 
who receive the disks may feel free to use it 
as they wish. Donations for the material 
would be appreciated, but I will gladly 
provide copies for anyone who wishes to 
have them. 

Lastly, my thanks to the rainbow staff 
for a great magazine. I would like to suggest 
that an article be written on how people are 
using the CoCo in various ministry activi- 
ties. 

Pastor Mark Camp 
Ballwin, MO 



REQUEST HOTLINE 

Editor: 

I would like to know if anyone has soft- 
ware that emulates a VT-100 Digital Equip- 
ment Corp. CRT. If so, please write to me 
at 2410 Imperial Oaks, 52761. 

Joe Barnard 
Muscatine, IA 

Editor: 

I would like to be in contact with someone 
who has interfaced a Digital LA36 Decwrit- 
er II with a Radio Shack Extended basic 
computer. I have a Decwriter with no 
interfaces. I need the wiring drawings and 
directions. Please contact me at 1 14 Kenneth 
Drive, 15626. 

William A. Walker 
Delmont, PA 



In a Screen Print Pinch 

Editor: 

My teacher and I have been conducting 
a computer course at our school for three 
years. We were doing fine until someone 
took our screen print program last summer. 
Thus, we had to buy another only to dis- 
cover that Radio Shack has discontinued the 
model we previously used. The replacement 
we found is too slow, which increases 
printing time. 

Does anyone know where we can get the 
older model or a faster screen print program 
for the Tandy DMP-130? The older Cat. No. 

8 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



is 26-3021 and the new model's Cat. No. is 
26-3121. Write to us at Connersville Junior 
High School, 1900 Grand Avenue, 47331. 

Mike Cramer and Gary Keegan 

Connersville, IN 

Lie Detector 

Editor: 

I need help. My math teacher challenged 
me to build a CoCo lie detector. I have no 
idea where to start. I would appreciate any 
help. If possible, I would like it to use a 
finger clip. My address is 2833 Jackson Pike, 
45103. 

Chris Schneider 
Batavia, OH 

Jogger's Log 

Editor: 

I am looking for a program that will let 
me combine my hobbies of running and 
computering. I need a way to keep track of 
mileage, etc., in a type of training diary 

I have seen a few programs commercially 
available for some other computers (Apple, 
IBM, etc.), but I haven't found anything for 
the CoCo. Anyone knowing of one can write 
me at 101 Fourth Avenue, 25701. 

Steve Clark 
Huntington, WV 

Editor: 

I would like to have a program to log Ham 
Radio contacts listing calls, names, dates, 
states and countries. If anyone has a pro- 
gram, please contact me, I am a Ham and 
would like to keep all my logging contacts 
on my CoCo. I would also like to see more 
programs for the Ham. Write to me at 6429 
Main Street, 54410. I have 64K ECB and 
cassette. Also, I would like to hear from 
someone who has a code program of some 
kind. 

Kim G. Smrstick 
Arpin, WI 

Editor's Note: See "CoCo's Quick 
Station Log" on Page 44 of the 
November 1985 issue. 



OS-9 Testimonial 

Editor: 

rainbow is the flip side of "whenever 
things cannot possibly get any worse, they 
will." Every time I start thinking you guys 
have peaked out, you pull another handker- 
chief out of your sleeve. Congratulations on 
Brian Lantz's articles. Now we have Dale 
Puckett, who covers the whole OS-9 spec- 
trum, and Mr. Lantz, who concentrates on 
programming. What more could we ask for? 

Well, for one thing, how about BASIC09 
programs along the lines of such classics as 
Roach, Surface, Keybomber and anything 
by Fred Scerbo? Let's shake the notion that 
OS-9 is an inherently serious, business 
applications system. Just what did y'all have 
in mind when you bought those Color 
Computers, anyway? OS-9 has some out- 
standing Hi-Res graphics routines. Let's see 
them put to use. 

Fred Sawtelle 
Huntsville, TX 



INFORMATION PLEASE 

Editor: 

Is there any way to save programs down- 
loaded with the Radio Shack RS-232 Pro- 
gram Pak to disk using the Multi-Pak 
Interface? Any help would be greatly appre- 
ciated. You can write me at 622 Perdido 
Drive, 75043. 

Eric Hedstrom 
Garland, TX 

Editor: 

I am desperately looking for a Fortran 
compiler for CoCo. If you know of one, 
please let me know. I would be appreciative. 
Write me at 2300 Olinville Avenue, 10467. 

Benjamin M. Fine 
Bronx, NY 

Editor: 

At this time, I am considering purchasing 
a Radio Shack Ink- Jet Printer CGP-220 to 
go with my CoCo 2 computer. However, I 
am concerned about being able to use it to 
print out all of the graphics I have accum- 
ulated using the graphics program from the 
article entitled "The Art of Joystick Paint- 
ing," by Brian Preble, on Page 97 of the 
October 1984 issue. I very much like Brian's 
program and would like to be able to use the 
CGP-220 printer in making hard copies of 
all the graphics I have saved on tape. I do 
understand that the printer comes with a 
special screen print utility, but I question 
whether or not this utility works with Brian's 
program. If anybody can help me, I would 
greatly appreciate it. My mailing address is 
P.O. Box 71, 04957. 

Chet Lonnquist 
Norridgewock, ME 

Editor: 

Soon after I bought our Epson RX-80 F/ 
T the LX-80 with near letter-quality printing 
came out. Does anyone know if: a) the 
printer can be modified; b) any software 
exists that would do the job for me? I have 
both Elite Word and VIP Writer. 

Also, does anyone know why some of my 
printer lines are occasionally wavy? Some- 
times the 'a' line will not be quite straight 
with respect to the others. My address is 
2330 Lakeland Avenue, 53704. 

Paul Whiting 
Madison, WI 

Editor: 

I am a proud owner of a 64K ECB CoCo 
with an FD 500 disk drive and a DCM-3 
modem. I have a communication program 
called Autoterm that takes close to five 
minutes to load in on cassette. I want to copy 
this from tape to disk. It would be a lot faster 
and I don't want to buy the same program 
again. This program is machine language 
and self-executing. Would Radio Shack's 
EDTASM+ allow me to do this? How can 
I do this? My address is RR 3 Box 376, 
62966. 

Bryon E. Lawrence 
Murphysboro, IL 

Editor's Note: Read "A Tape To 
Disk Transfer Vehicle" by Roger 
Schrag, January 1984, Page 48. 



Radio Shack's Color Computer 2° 

&«/EON 
OUR BEST! 

64K Memory! Extended BASIC! 
Cut $ 20...new low price $ 199.95 



The Color Computer 2 is an af- 
fordable computer that allows you 
to write programs tailored to your 
personal and household needs. It's 
ideal for small-business and pro- 
fessional uses alike. With the 
built-in Extended BASIC lan- 
guage, you can access 32,000 
characters of memory. To access 
the full 64K memory, simply add a 



disk drive and the optional OS-9 
disk operating system. 

The powerful Color Computer 2 
(26-3127, was 219.95 in Cat. RSC- 
15) creates detailed color graphics 
from simple, one-line commands, 
and is ideal for drawings, designs, 
charts, engineering diagrams and 
even animation! 




Ready-to-run software can help 
you set up personal and house- 
hold budgets, create a household 
inventory, keep track of your in- 
vestments, write letters and re- 
ports and record recipes. 

With a wide range of educa- 
tional software available, your 
children can use the Color Com- 
puter 2 to help strengthen their 
math, spelling and reading skills. 
The family can even play exciting 
computer games. The system 
attaches to any TV and is easily 
expanded. 

Get the Color Computer 2 and 
your family will immediately start 
to enjoy the advantages of home 
computing . . . together! 



Radio /haeH 

The Technology Store 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 





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Send me a new 
1986 computer catalog 

Mail To: Radio Shack, Dept. 86-A-903 
300 One Tandy Center, Fort Worth, Texas 76102 




Name 



Company 
Address _ 
City 



State 



ZIP 



— — 



Telephone 



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TV not included. Price applies at Radio Shack Computer 
Centers and at participating Radio Shack stores and dealers. 



4 



A CoColess CoCo Fan 

Editor: 

Here's one Atari user who also wishes he 
had a CoCo. My respect to rainbow, Radio 
Shack and the users for upholding such an 
excellent computer. 

I am an electronics fanatic and a 6502 
expert in most cases. I would like to trade 
ideas with CoCo users on electronics pro- 
jects, and would like any type of 6809 
assembly listing. I want to convert these for 
the Atari. My address is 2404 Phoenix Hill 
Drive, 40207. 

Jay Yepuri 
Louisville, KY 



Teaming up for Adventure 

Editor; 

Is there anyone out there who has a good 
Adventure idea (scenario), but can't put it 
in a program? 

I have enough knowledge in basic to write 
a program, but lack ideas. Please send a 
detailed explanation of your idea, and 
together well produce a great Adventure. 
My address is 939 S. Harriet, 46151. 

Jim Cockrum 
Martinsville, IN 

KUDOS 

Editor: 

I am writing this letter in the hopes of 
delivering some well-deserved kudos. The 
first I would like to extend to Colorware for 
their CoCo Max program. This has to be, 
without a doubt, the most user-friendly 
program I have acquired to date. As a 
programmer I am intrigued by the concepts 
utilized, and as a user I can finally let my 
creative juices flow. It is well worth the 
money and I highly recommend it to anyone, 
no matter how remote the need. 

The second kudos is to your magazine. 
With all the "computer envy" these days, all 
I have to do is let my friends thumb through 
the pages of your magazine and the discus- 
sion is all but over. Keep up the good work. 

SMI Jay Hebert 
US S Midway CV 41 
Yokosuka, Japan 

Editor: 

I wish to compliment you on the won- 
derful magazine you produce. There are 
many advertisers in the rainbow and it's 
nice to know there are people other than 
Radio Shack who support the TRS-80 
Color Computer. When I purchased the 
October 1985 Graphics issue, I saw the usual 
games, reviews, RAINBOW Scoreboard, etc. 
What surprised me was the extra long 
"CoCo Gallery." It was a wonderful idea. I 
hope it will continue. 

Joseph Pendell 
Riverside, MD 



Newsletters 

Editor: 

I would like to announce the CoCo News- 
letter. The newsletter includes helpful POKEs, 

1 0 THE RAINBOW March 1 986 



tips for solving Adventures, an occasional 
review on a new product and one or two 
programs. The newsletter is available to 
anyone worldwide. For more information 
write to me at Rt. 6, Box 293, 26505, or call 
(304) 594-2791. 

Doug Wilburn 
Morgantown, WV 

Editor: 

The MC'10 Newsletter has grown from 
four pages to 10 pages, and we hope to 
someday produce a small magazine for the 
MC-10 computer. Since $6 a year [for dues] 
is sort of a tight budget to get a magazine 
started, we must raise our dues, which 
include subscription, to $12. Anyone wish- 
ing information on our club, please write to 
me at 4730 Cass Street, 92109. 

Jose J. Bray 
San Diego, CA 

Editor: 

I would like to tell the rainbow readers 
about our newsletter. It is called Alternate 
Views. Although its main theme is science 
fiction, we cover a variety of topics, includ- 
ing computers (the CoCo, of course). For a 
sample issue and subscription information 
send 50 cents to 3735 Stark Street, 43906. 
The editor is John Redpath. 

Dale Roman 
Bellaire, OH 



BOUQUETS 

Editor: 

I would like everyone to know about two 
companies who advertise in the rainbow. 
Never in my life have I been treated with 
such wonderful service and concern. Special 
thanks to Sugar Software and Don Dunlop. 
Also, my compliments to Computer Plus. I 
can't say enough about these people who put 
service and customer satisfaction above 
everything else. 



Thanks for a fine publication. 

Anthony J. Michael 
Bryant, Wl 

Editor: 

I would like to express my thanks to 
Colorware, Inc. When I ordered CoCo Max % 
I received it in less than two days! I live in 
a very remote town and seven-day packages 
are not uncommon. Also, the package was 
tested and sealed, which shows individual 
service. Beware — never hit SHlFT-left arrow 
while a menu is on the screen; doing so will 
wreck your picture. 

Troy Curtiss 
Circle, MT 

Editor: 

I would like everyone to know about two 
companies who advertise in rainbow. 
Never, in all my life, have I been treated with 
such wonderful service and concern. Special 
thanks to Sugar Software and Don Dunlop. 
Also, my compliments to Computer Pius. I 
can't say enough about these people, who 
put service and customer satisfaction above 
everything else. 

Thanks for a fine publication. 

Anthony J. Michael 
Bryant, Wl 



the rainbow welcomes letters to the 
editors. Mail should be addressed to: Letters 
to Rainbow, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. Letters should 
include the writer's full name and address. 
Letters may be edited for purposes of clarity 
or space. 

Letters to the editor may also be sent to 
us through the MAIL section of our new 
Delphi CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> 
prompt, pick MAIL, then type SEND and 
address to: EDITORS. 



ARTS AND LETTERS 




Envelope of the Month 

Tom Perrigo 
Pawhuska, OK 



Next to your computer, 





nothing beats 
a Tandy * printer* 





Tandy printers make fine print quality, 
graphics and high performance affordable* 



Radio /hack 

The Technology Store 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



For your best value and selection in 
top-quality printers, shop your local 
Radio Shack Computer Center. We've 
got what you need, whatever your print- 
ing requirements. 

Versatile Business Printer 

The DMP 430* (26-1277, $899) is a 
132-column dot-matrix printer with an 
18-wire print head that delivers supe- 
rior correspondence characters. Choose 
from micro, italic and double-high fonts, 
as well as bit-image graphics. In the 
draft mode, the DMP 430 delivers a fast 
180 characters per second. 

Low-Cost, Triple-Mode 

Personal Printer 

The DMP 130* (26-1280, $349.95) 
lets you choose from word processing, 



data processing and dot-addressable 
graphics. Prints in four character styles: 
standard or italic cursive in draft or cor- 
respondence modes. 

Budget-Priced High Performer 

The DMP 105 (26-1276, $199.95} is 
ideal for data processing and general- 
purpose use. Features a bit-image 
graphics mode, too. 

High-Resolution Ink-Jet Printer 

The CGP 220 (26-1268, $599) quietly 
prints text and graphics in yellow, vio- 
let, red, green, cyan, magenta and 
black! And because there's no ribbon to 
wear out or become contaminated, the 
print quality remains excellent. 

See the complete selection of printers 
and accessories at Radio Shack today. 



TM 



r 
i 

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Free 1986 computer 
catalog! 
Send me a copy. 

Mail To: Radio Shack 

Depl. 86-A-903A 
300 One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, Texas 76102 



Name 



Company 
Address _ 
City 



State 
ZIP_ 



Phone 



1 
I 

I 

I 

I 
I 
I 
I 




Prices apply at Radio Shack Computer Centers and at participating stores and dealers. DMP 430 requires special order at some locations. *!BM Compatible. 

!BM/Reaistered TM International Business Machines Corp. 




PRINT#-2, 




Your CoCo: 
An Investment 

for Easing 

the High-Tech Pace 



A gentleman wrote in a few months back suggesting we publish a 
photograph of the behind-the-scenes people here at RAINBOW who 
are responsible for its creation each month. 
For our curious readers whoVe aspired to see the folks who make THE 
RAINBOW, you can refer to last month's (February) cover for one of those 
faces. With more modesty than I am able to express, 111 Tess up that that 
surprised face is mine. 

Although I'm only one of the great crew we Ve got here, come deadline 
time we're all running around looking similar to that flabbergasted visage. 
Until we make a "family portrait," you've got some idea of what we look 
like. 

I had advanced notice for the making of that cover, so of course it was 
all planned and purposely captured on film. You can imagine the same 
expression appeared when I was unexpectedly asked to write this column. 
It was deadline week, too. 

But I Ve always welcomed serendipity into my life because it's an excellent 
way to learn; with that point made, on with the show . . . 

Learning is a constant process, an intrinsic part of living that can enrich 
the quality of our day-to-day existence. Every experience, be it good, bad 
or indifferent, can serve as a course in enlightenment. 

This kind of commitment to growth can be good philosophy in a world 
that's moving, changing and rearranging more quickly than the average 
person can keep up with. I believe at the very core of this accelerated pace 
is computer technology, forming today (before we even know it) the basis 
for our lifestyles tomorrow. 

OK, so this isn't a profound revelation, but this was the rational approach 
I tried to implement when, over a year and a half ago, I stepped into the 
CoCo world as a copy editor for THE RAINBOW. Feeling quite inadequate, 
not to mention intimidated, I had to keep reminding myself of the above 
stated logic when surrounded by the wonderful (and occasionally 
frustrating) world of computers. 

But, my "techno-f right" soon dissipated when I found the camaraderie 
that abounded in the CoCo Community, which made my transition into 
the computer world an easier task. 

I'm sure those who have been learning and discovering on their Color 
Computers can share this same sentiment. You obviously foresee these 



12 



THE RAINBOW March 1 986 



Telewriter-64 

the Color Computer Word Processor 



■ 3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 

■ True lower case characters 

■ User-friendly full-screen 
editor 

■ Right justification 

■ Easy hyphenation 

■ Drives any printer 

■ Embedded format and 
control codes 

■ Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 

■ Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

■ No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer, The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 

The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 5 1 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fan. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 




...one of l he best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVI1/VIII, DMP-100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 

Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line hep.ders and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 



or disk. 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 

Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 




...truly a state of the art word processor... 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Street 

Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you 
have questions, or would like to order by 
Visa or Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM-4PM PST). Dealer 
inquiries invited. 

(Add $2 for shipping. Californians add 6% 

state tax.) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, inc. 



"And in your 
possession is the 
perfect tool for 
keeping abreast 
of this ever- 
changing 
phenomenon — 
the CoCo!" 



significant changes and the indica- 
tion that the trend for new technol- 
ogy will continue. What a challenge! 
And in your possession is the perfect 
tool for keeping abreast of this ever- 
changing phenomenon — the 
CoCo! 

Now, though I don't confess any 
inclination toward yuppiedom, I 
even have a CoCo at home. My only 
regret is that it doesn't do dishes. (I 
suppose it's ironic that I have a 
personal computer in my home, but 
nothing so modern as a dish- 
washer!) So, when Lonnie departed 
for vacation and requested that I fill 
in his usual slot on these pages, I 
enjoyed the prestige and pleasure of 
doing it on my CoCo. 

And for the first time since joining 
the staff here at rainbow, I truly 
had the opportunity to combine 
creativity with technology. Though 
in my particular job capacity I spend 
a great deal of time sorting through 



pages of technical jargon for RAIN- 
BOW articles and making them co- 
herent for the self-teaching user, up 
until now I've never been able to 
brandish my "writer's" pen (or, 
more appropriately, word proces- 
sor) for the pages of our magazine. 

This being our Business and Fi- 
nance issue, I think many of you, 
whether you're self-employed or 
working for a company, can relate 
to keeping up with the high-tech 
changes that are needed for main- 
taining and managing a business 
most efficiently. Its success or failure 
can depend on it, and you must use 
all the resources available. 

Your CoCo is an invaluable re- 
source for you, and in using it, 
you've learned how to take the 
necessary steps for acquiring tomor- 
row's knowledge. 

— Tamara Dunn 




Mouse Technological Software 
For The Color Computer! 



Many Companies call their 
Home and Business Software 




ONLY ONE CALLS IT 





Child's may 



TM 



Send for 
FREE Catalog 



TCE BUSINESS DIVISION 
P.O. BOX 2477 

GAITHERSBURG, MD 20879 

1-800-4TC-4TCE 





14 THE RAINBOW March 1986 




YOU COULD FALL IN LOVE WITH 

y AUTOTERM! , 

'IT TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE^ 



WORLD'S 
SMARTEST 

TERMINAL 



GOOD 
LOOKIN' 



AUTOTERM shows true upper/ 
lower case in screen widths of 32, 
40, 42, 51, or 64 characters with 
no split words. The width of 32 
has extra large letters. Scrolling is 
forward, backward, and fast. Block 
graphics pictures are displayed 
automatically and can be scrolled. 

The screen's top line shows 
operating mode, unused memory 
size, memory on/off, and caps- 
lock on/off. It also gives helpful 
prompts. 



SWEET 
TALKIN' 



KEY-BEEP can be on/off. Unac- 
ceptable keystrokes cause a lower 
pitched BOP! This ERROR- 
BEEBOP can be on/off. 

Talks to other computers with 
Full or Half Duplex; Baud Rate of 
110, 150, 300, 600, 1200; Parity as 
even, odd, mark, space, none; 7 
or 8 bit Word; any Stop Bits; all 
128 ASCII characters; true line 
Break; XON/XOFF protocol; and 
optional line-at-a-time transmis- 
sion. Able to send and receive 
text, block graphics, BASIC and 
ML programs. A 64K machine 
holds up to 45,000 characters 
(33,300 in HI-RES). 

DUAL PROCESSING lets you 
review & edit while more data is 
coming in. 

XMODEM for disk file transfer. 



Fully supports D.C. Hayes and 
other intelligent modems. 

Talks to your printer with any 
page size, margins, line spacing, 
split word avoidance. Embed your 
printer's control sequences for 
boldface, underlining, etc. Narrow 
text can be automatically spread 
out. 

You'll also use Autoterm 
for simple word processing 
and record keeping 

You can display directories, 
delete files, transmit directly from 
disk, and work with files larger 
than memory. Easily maintain a 
disk copy of an entire session. 

Compatible with TELEWRITER 
(ASCII) & other word processors. 

SMOOTH 
WALKIN' 

AUTOTERM moves smoothly 
and quickly between word proces- 
sing and intelligent terminal 
action. Create text, correct your 
typing errors; then connect to the 
other computer, upload your text, 
download information, file it. and 
sign-off; then edit the received 
data, print it in an attractive 
format, and/or save it on file. 

Editing is super simple with the 
cursor. Find strings instantly, too! 
Any operating parameter, such as 
screen width, can be altered at 
any time. Uncompleted com- 
mands can be cancelled. 




PUTTY IN 
YOUR HANDS 



The word processor can be 
used to create, print, and/or save 
on file your personal KSMs. They 
let AUTOTERM act like you. For 
example, it can dial through your 
modem, sign-on, interact, perform 
file operations, & sign-off; an 
entire session without your help. 
KSMs can answer the phone, 
prompt the caller, take messages, 
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NO OTHER COMPUTER IN 
THE WORLD CAN MATCH 
YOUR COCO'S AUTOMATIC 
TERMINAL CAPABILITIES!!! 

WHAT THE 
REVIEWERS SAY 

"AUTOTERM is the Best of Class." 
Graham, RAINBOW, 6/83 

"The AUTOTERM buffer system is 
the most sophisticated — and one of 
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Banta, HOT CoCo, 9/84 

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processor. . ." 
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NY RESIDENTS MUST INCLUDE SALES TAX. 



BUILDING MARCH'S RAINBOW 

Please Mother Tandy . . . 

. . . we'd rather do it ourselves! 



Along while ago — it seems like ages — I got my first Color Computer 
"system." I had the fever. And, without even a hint of the long journey 
I was embarking on, less than 14 hours after I got my setup, I was off 
to Radio Shack on the first of countless treks to get something to enhance my 
configuration. Seems the old Vivitar tape recorder I had figured on using just 
wasnt quite right; I needed a computer tape recorder. Oh well, I thought, at 
least now I'll have everything I need. 

Whew, and double whew, was I ever wrong! All too soon, I had to have a 
Line Printer VII. Then the CoCo's own TV, a modem, lowercase board, new 
keyboard, 64K chips instead of "piggybacked" 16Ks, green screen monitor and 
video driver, one, then two disk drives, a new and better printer, bigger TV, 
RS-232 switch box, LEDs for this and that, 80-column board, RS-232 Pak, 
and power strips plugged into other power strips. Every time I pass through 
the electrical department of a hardware store I check the prices on power strips. 
The tangle of cables and cords and Y-everythings under my desk at home is 
mind-boggling — and I'm not even a true hardware hacker. 

I'm not alone! No sir. Wonder how many rolls of wire, spools of solder, red- 
handled pliers and yellow-and-black screwdriver sets Radio Shack has sold to 
CoCo owners? How many wire strippers? Rolls of black electrical tape? How 
many of us are Radio Shack junkies? 

Well, looking back, I realize I've gotten an immense amount of pleasure out 
of adding all the "extras" over the last three years. Got my own customized 
configuration, too. While I have yet to get a Multi-Pak Interface or a 1200 Baud 
modem, and I use OS-9 only when I play Trivia Fever, my CoCo conglomer- 
ation dominates an entire room in my home, has its own separate, but still 
overloaded circuit and, count 'em, two phone lines and three telephones. While 
I'm not even in the same league with the hard-core solder artists, I'm sure there 
couldn't be another computer setup like it anywhere. It's been lovingly 
assembled, like a component hi-fi system. But my case is hardly unique. Your 
own custom installation is likely just as user-modified, eclectic and personalized 
as mine. It's the CoCo way to go. 

Yes, I also use a streamlined, doesn't-need-me-for-anything, state-of-the-art, 
hard-disk MS-DOS machine in my office along with my "work" CoCo, but 
it will never engender that special feeling I have for my CoCo at home. My 
CoCo "grew up" right here, and became part of the family. 

So, listen up, Tandy. Yes, we want memory, speed and software compatibility 
in that new machine you're dragging your heels on. But, just as importantly, 
we want hardware adaptability. Then, we're likely to be forgiving if it doesn't 
have a whatever; we'll just add one ourselves. Give us 512 million K and our 
third-party suppliers will be bank-switching it in a month. Give us a bell; we'll 
make it whistle. 

A lot of us are going to break that warranty seal in a matter of minutes and 
we're going to be looking for something to modify, to upgrade, to amend, to 
redefine, to add on — and we'll most likely get the toggle switches, project 
boards and other nuts and bolts from the neighborhood Radio Shack. So, don't 
get too slick and don't worry so much about the loose ends. The CoCo crowd 
is clamoring for new challenges. Let's see it in the stores this summer! We'll 
smooth out any rough edges; it's a part of the natural evolution of a great 
computer. Enough of this fidgeting in the nest, shove that fledgling on out and 
the CoCo Community will teach it to fly! 



— Jim Reed 



16 



THE RAINBOW March 1 986 



Have you yet subscribed to 

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UTILITY ROUTINES 
for the TANDY 
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18 



THE HAINBOW 




A nonviolent game for children . . 



Set your Sails, 
Keep a Weather Eye out for Storms 
and Beware of the Jolly Roger! 

By David Compton 

everal times I have seen in the pages 
of RAINBOW a plea for nonviolent 

games for children. World Trader 

is written for the young child, perhaps a 
second or third grader. Even younger 
children can use it with parental help. 
World Trader is a text Adventure, but 
the reading is kept to a minimum. It 
essentially seeks to teach children the names 
of some countries and the products for 
which they are best known. The player 
can't "lose" the game; he is just sent back 
to the beginning to start over. At the same 
time, there is an element of nonfatal 
excitement — pirates or storms may strike 




David Compton, chairman of the language depart- 
ment at an eastern prep school, lives in Suffield, 
Connecticut. Much of his programming time is spent 
in developing foreign language programs. 




March 1986 THE RAINBOW 19 



at any moment, costing you money, or 
you may arrive in a country to sell your 
goods, only to find that your customers 
aren't interested! 

All of the instructions are given at the 
beginning of the game, but here's a 
summary: The idea is to earn $25,000 or 
more by buying merchandise in one 
country and selling it at a profit in 
another. Note that you may have only 
one of each item in your hold at any one 



time. Only four commands are needed 
by the player, GO, which presents a list 
of 10 countries you may travel to; BUY, 
which displays what the inhabitants 
have for sale (and reduces your cash on 
hand if you decide to buy); SELL, 
which disposes of your cargo and up- 
dates your cash; and INV, which in- 
forms you what's in your cargo hold. 

The player must also bear in mind 
that each time he uses the command 



GO, his funds are reduced by $100 to 
pay the cost of shipping and salaries for 
the crew. The first few trips should be 
made carefully, or the captain (you) will 
quickly run out of money. 

(Any questions about this program 
may be sent to the author at 252 N. 
Main Street, Suffield, CT 06078, phone 
203-668-5302. Please enclose an SASE 
when writing.) □ 



130 88 

280 11 

460 81 

600 252 

END 230 



The listing: TRADER 1 1 

1/3 'TRADER 

12 1 BY DAVID COMPTON, 252 N. MA 
IN ST. , SUFFIELD, CT 06078 

13 'COPYRIGHT 1985 
20 CLS 

30 AA$="THE GAME OF" : BB$=" WORLD 
TRADER" : PRINT@208- (LEN (AA$) *. 5) , 
AA$:PRINT@272-(LEN(BB$) *.5) ,BB$ 
40 FOR DL= 1T02 000 \ NEXT : CLS 
50 PRINT" IN THIS GAME, YOU STA 
RT WITH A SHIP AND $1000. THE O 
BJECT IS TO TRAVEL AROUND THE WO 
RLD, BUYING AND SELLING, UNT 

IL YOU EITHER RUN OUT OF MONEY 

OR EARN ENOUGH TO RETIRE." 
60 PRINT" EACH VOYAGE WILL COST 

YOU $100. IN ADDITION, YOU' 

LL HAVE TO BE CAREFUL OF PIRATE 
S AND STORMS." 

70 PRINT" YOUR CREW UNDERSTANDS 
THE COM-MANDS ' GO ' , ' BUY ' , ' SEL 
L ' AND ' INV ■ ( INVENTORY ) . " 
80 PRINT@448 , "PRESS ANY KEY TO B 
EGIN" 

90 IFINKEY$=" "THEN90 
10 0 CLS 

110 WE=1000:W$=" $$##,###" 
120 DIMCN$(10,8) 

130 DATA BRAZIL, BRAZILIANS, COFFE 
E , 500 , 0 , RELICS ,2000 ,0 



140 DATA HOLLAND , DUTCH , CHOCOLATE 
, 100 , 0 , DIAMONDS , 10000 , 0 
150 DATA FRANCE , FRENCH , WINE ,1000 
, 0 , CHEESE ,250,0 

160 DATA GERMANY, GERMANS, BEER, 30 

0,0, CLOTHING ,1000,0 

170 DATA NORWAY, NORWEGIANS, FISH, 

200 ,0 , CRYSTAL, 5000 ,0 

180 DATA CHINA, CHINESE, TEA, 100 ,0 

, SPICES ,2000,0 

190 DATA ARGENTINA, ARGENTINES , BE 
EF, 1000 ,0 , HORSES ,3000,0 
200 DATA ITALY, ITALIANS, PASTA, 35 
0,0, STATUES , 6000 ,0 

210 DATA DENMARK, DANES, FURNITURE 
,5000 ,0 , CLOTH, 1000 ,0 
220 DATA INDIA, INDIANS, IVORY, 850 
0,0, FABRICS ,700,0 

2 30 FORX=1TO10 : FORY=lT08 : READCN$ 
(X,Y) :NEXTY,X 

240 PRINT"YOU BEGIN YOUR VOYAGE 
IN LONDON . YOU HAVE " ; : PRINTUS INGW 
$;WE 

250 PRINTSTRING$(32, "$") ; 

260 IFWE>24999THENPRINT"YOU HAVE 

" ; : PRINTUS INGW$ ;WE : PRINT "A SUCCE 

SSFUL VOYAGE 1 YOU RETURN TO ENGL 

AND IN TRIUMPH !": END 

270 PRINT "YOUR ORDERS, SIR?" 

280 INPUTO$ 

290 IFO$="SELL"THENGOTO420 

300 IFO$="BUY"THENGOTO560 

310 IFO$="GO"THENFORX=1TO10 : PRIN 

TX;CN$(X,1) :NEXT:GOTO340 

320 IFO$="INV"THENGOTO720 

330 PRINT" I DON'T UNDERSTAND, CA 

PTAIN":GOTO250 

340 INPUTDE:IFDE<1ORDE>10THEN250 



20 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



350 GOSUB670 

360 CLS : L$=CN$ (DE, 1) : PRINT "YOU A 
RE IN ";CN$(DE,1) 

37) 3 WE=WE-100 

38) 3 PRINT"YOU HAVE" ; : PRINTUSINGW 

$;WE 

39) 3 IFWE<0THENPRINT"WE 1 RE OUT OF 
MONEY , CAPTAIN. WE'LL HAVE T 

0 RETURN TO ENGLAND TO GET A LOA 
N. " : FORX=1TO2000 : NEXT : END 
400 GOTO250 

410 i ********SELL******* 

42) 3 FORD=1TO10 : IFCN$ (D, 5) =" 1" THE 
N450ELSENEXTD 

43) 3 FORD=1TO10: IFCN$ (D, 8) ="1"THE 
N450ELSENEXTD 

44) 3 PRINT "YOU HAVE NOTHING TO SE 
LL.":GOT027)3 

45) 3 IFRND(10)=6THENPRINT"THE ";C 
N$(DE,2) ;" AREN'T": PRINT" INTERES 
TED IN BUYING. 11 : 0$="GO" : GOT03 1)3 

46) 3 PRINT "THE " ;CN$ (DE, 2) 7 " WILL 
\ BUY "; 

47) 3 FORX=1TO10: IFCN$ (X, 5) = "1 "THE 
NPRINTCN$ (X, 3 ) : PRINT"SOLD FOR" ; : 
PRINTUS INGW$ ; VAL ( CN$ ( X , 4 ) ) + ( . 3 *V 
AL(CN$(X, 4) ) ) :WE=WE+VAL(CN$(X,4) 
)+(.3*VAL(CN$(X,4))) 

480 CN$(X,5)="0" 
49)3 NEXTX 

500 FORX=1TO10 : IFCN$ (X, 8) ="1"THE 
NPRINTCN$ (X, 6) : PRINT "SOLD FOR" ; : 
PRINTUSINGW$ ; VAL ( CN$ ( X , 7 ) ) + ( . 3 *V 
AL(CN$(X,7) ) ) :WE=WE+VAL(CN$(X,7) 
)+(.3*VAL(CN$(X,7) ) ) 
510 CN$(X,8)="0" 
520 NEXTX 

530 PRINT"YOU HAVE" ;: PRINTUSINGW 
$;WE 

540 GOTO250 
550 ' *******BUY****** 
560 PRINT "THE " ; CN$ (DE , 2 ) ; " WISH 
TO SELL: " : PRINTCN$ (DE , 3 ) , : PRINT 
USINGW$;VAL(CN$ (DE, 4) ) :PRINTCN$( 
DE , 6 ) , : PRINTUS INGW$ ; VAL ( CN$ ( DE , 7 

)) 

570 PRINT"WHICH WILL YOU BUY?" 
580 INPUTBU$ 

590 IFBU$OCN$(DE / 3)ANDBU$OCN$( 
DE,6)THENPRINT"THEY DON'T HAVE A 
NY FOR SALE" 

600 IFBU$=CN$(DE,3)THENIFWE<VAL( 
CN$ (DE , 4 ) ) THENPRINT " NOT ENOUGH M 
ONEY" : GOTO250 

610 IFBU$=CN$(DE,6)THENIFWE<VAL( 
CN$ (DE, 7) ) THENPRINT "NOT ENOUGH M 
ONEY":GOTO250 

620 IFBU$=CN$(DE,3)THENCN$(DE,5) 



="1":WE=WE-VAL(CN$(DE,4) ) 

630 IFBU$=CN$(DE,6)THENCN$(DE,8) 

=" 1 " : WE=WE-VAL ( CN$ ( DE , 7 ) ) 

640 PRINT"YOU HAVE" ;: PRINTUSINGW 

$;WE 

650 GOTO250 
660 END 

670 CA=RND ( -TIMER) :CA=RND( 10) 
680 IFCA=1THENLO=RND(10) *10:PRIN 
T" YOU' RE ATTACKED BY PIRATES DUR 
- ING THE VOYAGE. THEY STEAL SOM 
E OF YOUR MONEY. " : WE=WE-LO: FORDL 
=1TO4000 : NEXTDL : RETURN 
690 IFCA=2THENLO=RND (10) *10 : PRIN 
T"A BAD STORM! SEA WATER DAMAGES 
YOUR CARGO. YOU'VE LOST $";LO; 
" IN MERCHANDISE . " : WE=WE-LO : FORDL 
=1T04 000 : NEXTDL : RETURN 
700 RETURN 

710 • ***********INV****** 

720 FORD=1TO10:IFCN$ (D,5)="1"THE 

NPRINT CN$(D,3) 

730 NEXTD 

740 FORD=1TO10 : IFCN$ (D , 8 ) ="1"THE 
N PRINTCN$(D,6) 
750 NEXT D 
760 GOTO250 



Co Co - Cooler tS*> 



• Brings operating 
temperature 
to ambient, 
regardless 
of 

accessory 
load 

• Reduces 
tempera- 
ture of 
ENTIRE computer.. . not 
just the SAM chip 

• Easy 1-minute installation 

• $44.95 



Companion Keyboard Cover $9.95 



Send For Free Catalog Of Co Co Software & Computerware 

• For Fastest Service Send Money; Order Or Certified Check 
• Add $2.50 Shipping For Continental U.S. 

• Add $4.00 Shipping For: AK, HI APO's, P. O. Boxes, & Canada 
• Add $15.00 Shipping For Overseas 
• Add $3.00 For 220-250 Volt Model 

• California Residents Add 6 l A% Sales Tax 
• Add $3.00 For C.O.D. 



REM Industries, Inc. 

9420 "B"Lurline Ave., Chatsworth, CA 91311 

(818) 341-3719 



March 1986 



THE RAINBOW 



21 



then be asked the date. Enter it in the 
same format the example; shows, then 
press ENTER. You will then be asked if 
the information given was correct. 
(When entering new data you will 
always be asked if the information 
provided was correct.) 

Next you will be asked for a "Receipt 
number. " You must enter a number. 
This is the number the program uses for 
filing. It also must be a number different 
from one already on file. The best bet 
is to give the receipt a number incre- 
mented by one over the preceding 
receipt. For the first one, enter 001. 

You will now be asked to enter "Re- 
ceived of." Here you may enter the 
name of your customer. 

Next comes the "Dollar amount 
paid." This is exactly what it says. Enter 
this like the example shows. 

Now we come to "Amount of Ac- 
count." This is the total purchase price. 
You can use the balance due from any 
previous payment of the same account. 
This will be printed on the receipt with 
the amount paid and a balance due. If 
the amount of account is the same as the 
amount paid, simply enter the amount 
paid here again if you wish. If not, press 

ENTER. i 

Finally we come to the comment line. 
Enter anything you wish; however, it is 
customary to use this for what was 
purchased, or the nature of the transac- 
tion. If you are the purchaser, you might 
want to enter the name of the other 
party, so if the hard copy is lost you will 
still have the information come tax 

i 

time. There is a 30 character space here. 

You now find yourself back at the 
main menu. If you want to examine the 
information to be printed and/ or saved, 
press '3'. If any of the information is 
wrong, press 'M' to return to the main 
menu and press '2' to re-enter all the 
data. If everything is correct, the receipt 
can be printed or saved to disk. Press 
'M' to get back to the menu. 



figure 



MENU 
DISK 



HEW 



121 
131 

IQ3 



examine 



DATA 



PRINT 
QUIT 



RECEIPT 



'gore 2 



tells the printer to print two receipts. 
Before answering this prompt make 
sure your printer is on and ready to go. 

After printing, you will be returned to 
the main menu. Here you may save the 
data (if not previously saved), enter new 
data or look at and/ or load previous 
accounts. 

Entering Data from Disk 

To load data from disk, first get to the 
disk menu by pressing Ton the main 
menu. The easiest way to load is to press 
T from the disk menu. A list of receipt 
numbers will appear on the screen 
preceded by a number; for example: 1) 
001. To load receipt #001, press T and 
ENTER and the file will load. If you 
already know the receipt number, press 



Figure 3 






6/25/86 


JOHN Q. SMITH 




AMT. OF ACCOUNT 


$302.43 / 


AMT. PAID 


$259.99 / 


BALANCE DUE 


$42.44 


COMMENTS : PART 


# 35771 


PRESS [M] 


FOR MENU 




[2] 
[3] 
[M] 



'2' on the disk menu and enter the 
number at the prompt. 

After loading, you will automatically 
be in the examine mode (Figure 3). 
From there you can print out a receipt, 
load a different receipt or enter new 
data. 

As with all programs, this one can be 
modified to your specific needs. Some 
ideas might be to incorporate a different 
filing system if you are in a higher 
volume business. To enter data faster, 
you could hack off everything after the 
line input statements in lines 240 
through 270 and in Line 280 after the 
BD$=5TR$( BD ) statement. A line could 
also be added in the printer routine that 
would print a line under the receipt for 
written comments. □ 



Saving to Disk 

If you are planning to save this data 
on disk, it can be done now or after 
printing the receipt. 

To save on disk, press '1' for the disk 
menu (Figure 2). Here again there will 
be five choices. Since we are saving 
data, press '3*. You will then be asked 
to press ENTER for save or 'M' f or menu. 
After the save is completed, you will be 
returned to the main menu. 

Printing the Receipt 

To print the receipt, press '4\ You will 
be asked if you want a copy. Pressing 'Y' 



Figure 4 



MO - 001 



Rece i ve-cd o -F" 



C* -fc- 6^25^96 



J OHN Q. SMITH 



AMT. OF ACCOUNT 302.43 
AMT. PRID _259 JL ?S' 
SfllRHCj: Q UE *ZJ>± 



109 

CUTS FRRT #33771 



- — 1 ■ 



— 



March 1 986 THE RAINBOW 23 



170 . 


205 


290 . 


20 


440 . 


. .142 


610 


183 


840 . 


85 


1090 


190 


END 


72 



T 



The listing: RECEIPT 

10 CLEAR 
20 CLEAR5000 
30 VERIFY ON 

40 DIMP$(35 / 2) 
50 CLS : PRINT@46 , "MENU" : PRINT@165 
,"[1] DISK MENU":PRINT@229, " 
[2] ENTER NEW DATA" : PRINT@29 
3, "[3] EXAMINE": PRINT© 3 5 7, "[ 

41 PRINT RECEIPT" :PRINT@421, 
" [Q] QUIT PROGRAM" 

60 AN$=INKEY$:IFAN$=""GOTO60 

70 IFAN$="Q"GOTO130 

80 IFAN$="1"GOTO140 

90 IFAN$="2"GOTO220 

100 IFAN$="3"GOTO520 

110 IFAN$="4"GOTO760 

120 GOTO60 

130 GOSUB570:CLS:END 
140 CLS : PRINT@44 , "DISK MENU":PRI 
NT@165,"[1] DIRECTORY OF FIL 

ES":PRINT@229,"[2] LOAD FROM 

DISK":PRINT@293, " [3] SAVE T 

O DISK":PRINT@357,"[M] MAIN 
MENU" :PRINT@ 421, " [Q] QUIT PR 

OGRAM" 

150 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""GOTO150 



16,0 IFI$= 
170 IFI$= 
180 IFI$= 
190 IFI$= 
200 IFI$= 



"l"GOT011^ 
"2"G0T045J3 
"3"G0T037J3 
"M"GOTO50 
"Q"GOT013j3 
210 GOT015J3 

220 'ENTER DATA ROUTINE 
230 GOSUB570 

240 CLS:PRINT@103, "ENTER RECEIPT 
DATE":PRINT@13 6," (EX. 6/25/85) " 

: LINE INPUT" " ; D$ : GOSUB 

340:PRINT@320," -"D$"-":GOS 

UB320 : IFI$="N"GOTO240 

250 CLS : PRINT @10 3, "ENTER RECEIPT 
#":PRINT@136," (EX. 001) " : LINEIN 

PUT" " ;N$:GOSUB340:PRIN 

T@320," -"N$"-":GOSUB320:IFI 

$="N"GOTO250 

260 CLS :PRINT@103, "ENTER RECEIVE 

D OF" :PRINT@134 , " (EX. JOHN Q. SM 

ITH) " :LINEINPUT" " ;RO$ :GOSUB34 

0:PRINT@320 / " -"RO$"-" : GOSUB 

320:IFI$="N"THEN260 

270 CLS : PRINT § 100, "ENTER DOLLAR 

AMOUNT PAID" : PRINT@134 , " (EX. 259 

.99 OR 499) ":LINEINPUT" 

" ; DO$ : DO=VAL ( DO$ ) : GOSUB3 40 : PRINT 

@322," -"; :PRINTUSING»$$###.##» 

;DO; : PRINT"-" :GOSUB320:IFI$="N"T 

HEN270 



280 CLS:PRINT@99, "ENTER TOTAL AM 
T. OF ACCOUNT" :PRINT@13 5, " (EX. 3 
02.43 OR 500) 11 :LINEINPUT" 

" ; TA$ : TA=VAL ( TA$ ) : BD= ( T A-DO ) 
:BD$=STR$ (BD) :GOSUB340:PRINT@323 

-"; :PRINTUSING"$$####.##»;TA 
?: PRINT"-" : GOSUB320 : IFI$="N"THEN 
280 

290 CLS :PRINT@102, "ENTER COMMENT 
LINE" : PRINT@134 , " (EX. PART #357 
71) " : PRINT@223 , 11 ] " : PRINT@192 , " [ " 
; ! LINEINPUTC$ 
300 IFLEN(C$)>30GOTO360 
310 GOSUB570:GOTO50 
320 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN320 
330 RETURN 

340 PRINT® 2 90, "YOU ENTERED-" : PRI 
NT@354,"IS THAT CORRECT? (Y/N)": 
RETURN 
350 GOTO50 

360 CLS :PRINT@170, "LINE TO LONG" 
:FOR T=1TO500:NEXTT:GOTO290 
370 'DISK ROUTINE 
380 BD$=STR$(BD) 

390 CLS : PRINT© 16 6 , "HIT <ENTER> T 
O SAVE" : PRINT@232 , "OR <M> FOR ME 
NU" 

400 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""GOTO400 
410 IFI$="M"GOTO50 
420 IFI$=CHR$(13)GOTO440 
430 GOTO400 

440 GOSUB570 : CLS : GOSUB580 : GOSUB7 

40 : GOSUB570 : GOTO50 

450 CLS : PRINT@170 , "ENTER FILE #" 

: PRINT@330 , " [M] FOR MENU" 

460 PRINT@242, "] " :PRINT@23 6, " ["; 

: LINEINPUTN$ 

470 Z=LEN(N$) :IFZ>5GOTO450 
480 IFN$="M"GOTO50 

490 CLS :PRINT@168, "LOADING #";N$ 

: PRINT© 1 8 2 , STRING$ ( 10 , 3 2 ) 

500 GOSUB570:GOSUB580:GOSUB750:G 

OSUB670 

510 TA=VAL(TA$) :DO=VAL(DO$) :BD=V 
AL(BD$) 

520 BD= (TA-DO) 

530 CLS:PRINT@1, "#" ;N$:PRINT@20, 
D$ : PRINT© 67 ,RO$ : PRINT@131 , "AMT. 
OF ACCOUNT "; :PRINTUSING"$$###. 
##";TA:PRINT@201,"AMT. PAID ";: 
PRINTUS ING" $$###.##"; DO: PRINT@2 6 
3 , "BALANCE DUE " ; : PRINTUS ING" $$ 
###.##" ;BD: PRINT@323 , "COMMENTS: 

";c$ 

540 PRINT@458 , " [M] FOR MENU" 
550 I$=INKEY$:IFI$="M"GOTO50 
560 GOTO550 
570 CLOSE* 1: RETURN 



24 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



« 



580 OPEN"D», #1,N$,110 
590 FIELD#1, 10 AS XTA$,10 AS XD 
$,10 AS XDO$,10 AS XBD$,30 AS XR 
O$,30 AS XC$,10 AS XDT$ 
600 LSET XTA$=TA$ 
610 LSET XD$=DY$ 
620 LSET XDO$=DO$ 
630 LSET XBD$=BD$ 
640 LSET XRO$=RO$ 
650 LSET XC$=C$ 
660 LSET XDT$=D$ 
670 TA$=XTA$ 
680 D$=XDT$ 
690 DO$=XDO$ 
700 BD$=XBD$ 
710 RO$=XRO$ 
720 C$=XC$: RETURN 
730 RETURN 
740 PUT#1: RETURN 
750 GET # 1 : RETURN 
760 • PRINTER ROUTINE 
770 CLS:PRINT§133 , "DO YOU WANT A 
COPY FOR":PRINT@165,"FOR YOUR R 
ECORDS ALSO? » : PRINT@205 , " ( Y/N) " 
780 PC$=INKEY$:IFPC$=""GOTO780 
790 IF PC$="Y" THEN PC=2 
800 IFPC$="Y"ORPC$="N"GOTO820 
810 GOTO780 

820 CLS:PRINT@236 , "PRINTING" 

830 POKE149,0:POKE150,41: • 1200BA 

UD 

840 FORPP=lTOPC 

850 U$=CHR$ (15) : 'UNDERLINING ON 
860 DU$=CHR$ ( 14 ):' LINING OFF 
870 E$=CHR$(31) : ' DOUBLEWIDTH/ON 
880 DE$=CHR$(30) : 'D.W./OFF 

890 NO$="NO. ":DT$="Date »:RC$="R 
eceived of" : DL$ = " DOLLARS " 
900 AC$="AMT. OF ACCOUNT " 
910 AP$=" AMT. PAID " 

920 BD$=" BALANCE DUE " 
930 LF$=STRING$ ( 2 , 10 ) : S $=CHR$ ( 3 2 

) 

940 PRINT#-2,U$;STRING$(80,32) ;S 
TRING$(2,10) ;DU$ 

9 50 PRINT# -2 , E$ ; NO$ ; DE $ ; U$ ; S $ ; N$ 
; S$ ; DU$ ; STRING$ ( 4 6 , 3 2 ) ; E$ ; DT$ ; DE 
$ ;U$ ; S$ ; D$ ; S$ ; DU$ ; LF$ 

960 LR=LEN(RO$) :LS=(47-LR) 

970 PRINT # - 2 , E $ ; RC$ ; DE $ ; U$ ; S $ ; S $ 
; S$ ; S$ ; S $ ; RO$ ; STRING $ ( LS , 3 2 ) ; DU$ 
;LF$ 

980 PRINT#-2,U$;STRING$(30,32) ;E 
$; :PRINT#-2 f USING"$$###. ##";DO; : 
PRINT#-2 , DE$ ; STRING$ (11,42); DU$ ; 

E$;DL$;DE$ 

990 PRINT#-2,U$;STRING$(25,32) ;D 
U$;STRING$(28,32) ;"100" 



1000 PRINT#-2,AC$; : PRINT #-2 .US IN 

G"####.##";TA 

1010 C=LEN(C$) :CL=(32-C) 

1020 PRINT#-2 f AP$;U$; :PRINT#-2,U 

SING" ####.##"; DO ; : PRINT#-2 , DU$ ; S 

TRING$ (15,32);" CMTS " ; U$ ; C$ ; STR 

ING$(CL,32) ;DU$ 

1030 PRINT#-2,U$;BD$; :PRINT#-2,U 
SING"####.##";BD;;PRINT#-2,CHR$( 
32) 

1040 PRINT#-2,CHR$(10) ;DU$;STRIN 
G$ ( 4 3 , 3 2 ) ; E$ ; " $ " ; DE $ ; U$ ; STRING $ ( 
32,32) 

1050 PRINT#-2,U$;STRING$(80,32) ; 
DU$ 

1060 PRINT#-2,STRING$(10,10) 

1062 IFPC=2GOTO1065 

1063 GOTO 10 70 

1065 IFPP=lTHENPRINT#-2 , STRING$ ( 
38,10) 

1070 NEXTPP 
1080 GOTO50 
1090 CLS : END 

1100 CLS t • DIRECTORY ROUTINE 

1110 CLEAR 

1120 GOSUB570 

1130 FORZ=3T011 

1140 DSKI$0,17,Z,A$,B$ 

1150 X$=A$:GOSUB1190 

1160 X$=B$:GOSUB1190 

1170 NEXTZ 

1180 GOTO1280 

1190 F0RJ=1T0128STEP32 
1200 R=R+1 

1210 P$(R,1)=MID$(X$,J,8) 

1220 IFLEFT$(P$(R,1) ,1)=CHR$(255 

) THENR=R-1 : GOTO 12 80 

1230 IFLEFT$(P$(R,1) ,1)=CHR$(0)T 

HENR=R- 1 : GOTO 12 60 

1240 P$(R,2)=MID$(X$,J+8,3) 

1250 IFP$(R,2)<>"DAT"THENR=R-1 

1260 NEXT J 

1270 RETURN 

1280 FORK=lTOR 

1290 PRINTUSING"##";K; : PRINT"] # 

";p$(k,i), 

1300 IFK=R THENPRINT, 
1310 NEXTK 
1320 LCN=480 

1330 PRINT@LCN, "LOAD WHICH FILE 
(M FOR MENU) " ; : INPUTP1$ 
1340 IFP1$="M"GOTO140 
1350 P=VAL(P1$) 

1360 IFP<10RP>R THENLCN=448:GOTO 
1330 

1370 FILE$=P$(P,1) 
1380 N$=FILE$ 
1390 GOTO490 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 25 





2K 1 


1 


< B [ 




1 


* 




■■ 1 





uter Workout 



By William Talada 



A 




fter many unsuccessful at- 
tempts to be home when an 
exercise program was on tele- 
vision, I finally decided that the 
only way I would exercise was if I had 
a program readily available to show me 
how to do each exercise and keep track 
of the time for me. Hence, Workout was 
developed. 

Workout is designed to give maxi- 
mum conditioning to the heart, lungs 
and muscles in the least amount of time. 
Just CLOflD or LORD and RUN. You will 
see credits and a title page displayed, 
and you are asked to enter your current 
exercise level. If you don't respond 
within five seconds, the program de- 
faults to an intermediate level, which 
can be changed by editing Line 150. 

Next, you will have time to warm up 
and stretch out to five different recom- 
mended exercises. After stretching, lie 
down and take your pulse for 15 sec- 
onds. The given resting pulse rate is for 
a healthy person. It should be your main 
goal to lower your resting heart rate. 

The instructions that follow the name 
of each exercise should be followed even 
if your television partner doesn't. There 
are 10 seconds of pause and 10 seconds 
of exercise repeated three times for each 
of the 15 exercises. Afterwards, there is 



Bill Talada has been programming in 
BASIC, COBOL and RPG II for two years 
now. He is mostly self-taught, program- 
ming only when he can sneak out of bed 
at 5 o'clock in the morning without 
waking his wife, Robyn. 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 27 



I 



time to take an exercise heart rate. If 
you don't reach the minimum rate, your 
workout was of little benefit to you. 
Again, the numbers are for a young, 
healthy person. Allow two beats less for 
every 10 years of age over 30. The 
program ends after a cool-down and 
recovery heart rate. The 15 minute 
workout lasts 23 minutes including 
warm-up and cool-down. 

As with all exercise programs, it is 
recommended that you check with your 
physician before undertaking Workout. 

(Any questions regarding Workout 
can be directed to Mr. Talada at 739 
Sunset Road, Wrightsville, PA 17368. 
Please include an SASE when writ- 
ing.) □ 



I 



n=-. 





244 


700 


. , .224 


179 


760 


, 209 


104 


840 


203 


254 


920 


, 89 


68 


END 


...168 



The listing: WORKOUT 

10 1 DOWN ARROW BYPASSES WARM-UP, 
TO CHANGE RELATIVE EXERCISES OR 
DEFAULT SPEED EDIT LINES 140-150 
20 CLEAR2000 : CLS : PCLS : PCLEAR8 
30 R$="ND4R2E2R4F3D2G3U2H5F2L1D1 
BF3L1BD1NR2G1U1L1NU1L1H1U1L2 " : F$ 
="ND4R2E2R5F3D2G3L2E2U4H2BD2L1BD 
2L1U1BH1G1D2F1BR2R1BD2L3H2L2" 
4)3 PRINT@135, "BILL TALADA" : PRINT 
@168, "PRESENTS" 

50 D$="D20R3E3F3R3U4BE3F2R1E2U6H 

2L1G2D6BG3F4R3E4D4R3U6BE3D1F4U6G 

1L3BG3F6R4U9F9U3F3R3E4D1F3R5E3U1 

4R4D17R3U17R6U3L16D14G2L1H2U14L3 

D4BG3H2L1G2D6F2R1E2U6BE3H4L3G4D1 

0H6E8L4G6U6L3D3H3BD4D3G1L3U5R3F1 

BU4L7D4H4L3G4U4L3D16H3G3U16L3 " 

60 PMODE1 , 1 : PCLS : DRAW"BM30 , 60S 9 " 

+D$: PAINT (32 ,62) ,6,8 

7)3 PMODE1,3:PCLS:DRAW"BM25,70S10 

"+D$: PAINT (27, 72) ,6,8 

80 PM0DE1,5:PCLS:DRAW"BM2)3,7)3S11 

"+D$: PAINT (2 2, 72) ,6,8 

9)3 PMODE1,7:PCLS:DRAW"BM15,70S12 

»+D$:PAINT(17,72) ,6,8 

I) 3)3 FORX=lT07 STEP2 : PMODE1 , X : SCR 
EEN1 , 1 : PLAY " 01V2 5T2 5 5ECECECECECE 
CECEC" :NEXTX: F0RX=1T04 : PLAY"T98D 
FEAGBC" : NEXT : F0RX=1T0999 : NEXT 

II) 3 CLS: PRINT: PRINT "THE EXERCISE 
PROGRAM IS DESIGNEDTO GIVE ALL 

MUSCLES AN INTENSE WORKOUT AS W 



ELL AS IMPROVING THE HEART AN 
D LUNGS." 

12) 3 PRINT: PRINT "YOU MUST EXERCIS 
E AT LEAST FOUR TIMES A WEEK TO 
GAIN THE FULL BENEFIT OF THIS 
PROGRAM . " 

13) 3 PRINT: PRINT "ENTER SPEED 

BEGINNER TO EXP 
ERT 1-5":SP=VAL(INKEY$) 

14) 3 TIMER=0:PE$="111139325111139 
":' RELATIVE SPEEDS FOR EACH EXER 
CISE l=SLOW 9=FAST 

15) 3 SPEED=VAL(INKEY$) :IF TIMER>4 
J3)3 THEN SPEED=4 : ' DEFAULT VALUE 
SET SPEED= TO 1 SLOW 5 FAST 

16) 3 SP=SP*SP 

17) 3 IF SP<1 OR SP>25THEN150 

18) 3 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" STRETCH Y 
OUR MUSCLES WHILE FOLLOWING 

ALONG WITH THESE RECOMMEND 
ED EXERCISES:" 

19) 3 PRINT: PRINT :FORY=lT05:READEX 
$ : PRINT EX$ : PLAY "ABCP4 ABC" : TIMER 
-J3 

2)3)3 PRINT@187+32*Y, 3)3-INT (TIMER/ 
60) :A$=INKEY$:IF A$=CHR$(1)3) THE 
N TIMER=1808 

21)3 IF TIMER>18)39 THEN NEXT Y EL 
SE 200 

220 GOSUB960 

230 PRINT: PRINT" YOU SHOULD HAVE 
COUNTED 15 OR LESS FOR YOUR RE 
STING HEART RATE" 

240 PRINT : PRINT"WE ARE NOW READY 

TO BEGIN." :FORX=lTO 3000: NEXT 
250 CLS : FORX=lT015 : P$=MID$ (PE$ , X 
,1) :PE=VAL(P$) 
260 IF X=ll THEN GOSUB1000 



28 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



270 C=2-RND(2) :F=9-RND(2) 

280 PRINT @ 6 8, "REPETITIONS 1":PR 

INT@164, "EXERCISE "X 

290 READE$:PRINT@260,E$ 

300 READI$ : IF X=12THENI$="ELBOWS 

IN AGAINST SIDES" ELSE IF X=13T 
HENI$=" RIGHT ARM DOWN" ELSE IF 

X=14THENI$="HEEL TO OUTSIDE OF 
HAND" 

310 PRINT@353 , 1$ : PRINT§426 , "REST 
ii 

32) 3 IF C=0 THEN D=6 ELSE D=5 : E=7 
-RND(2) :TIMER=0 

33) 3 F0RZ=1T05STEP2 

34) 3 READD$ : PMODE1 , Z : COLOR 7,D:PC 
LS : DRAWD$ : PAINT (255 ,19 1) ,E,7: REA 
D A, B: PAINT (A, B) , F , 7 : READA , B : PAI 
NT(A,E) ,7, 7: IF X=4 OR X=13THENPA 
INT (145, 55) ,E,7 

350 NEXT Z 

360 FORY=lT03:PMODEl,l:IF TIMER> 
420 AND TIMER<1200 THEN TIMER=42 
0 ELSE TIMER=0 

370 PRINT§80 ,Y:V=INT (TIMER/ 60) :V 
=9-V:PRINT@431,V 

380 IF TIMER>420 THEN SCREEN!, C 
ELSE370 

390 IF TIMER>590 THEN400ELSE390 
400 PLAY"O2L30;F" 

410 FOR Z=1T05 STEP4 : PMODE1 , Z : PL 
AY"C" * SCREENING: FOR S=1TO1400 ST 
EP SPEED+PE : NEXTS : PMODE1 , 3 : SCREE 
Nl,C:FOR S=1TO700 STEP SPEED+PE: 
NEXTS, Z 

420 IF TIMER<1200 THEN400 
430 NEXTY , X 

4 40 FOR X=1TO3000 : NEXT : GOSUB9 60 
450 PRINT: PRINT "YOUR EXERCISE HE 
ART RATE SHOULD BE BETWEEN 32 AN 
D 45 DEPENDING ON YOUR AGE." 
460 PRINT: PRINT "IF YOU COUNTED M 
ORE YOU PROBABLYEXERC I SED TOO HA 
RD FOR YOUR PRESENT HEALTH." 

470 PRINT: PRINT "STRETCH AND WALK 
AROUND FOR A FEW MINUTES. ":TI 
MER=0 

480 PRINT@470,150-INT (TIMER/ 60) : 
A$=INKEY$ : IFA$=CHR$ (10) THEN530 
490 IF TIMERO000THEN480 
500 GOSUB 960 

510 PRINT: PRINT "YOU SHOULD HAVE 
A RECOVERY RATE OF 30 OR LESS." 
520 FORX=1TO4000 : NEXT 
530 PMODE1 , 7 : SCREEN 1 , 0 : F0RX=1T04 
: PLAY " 02 T20V15 FGFGFGFGDABE AFGFGF 
G" :NEXTX: FORX=1TO5000 : NEXT: CLS : P 
RINT@170 , "YOU MADE IT!": PRINT 



540 PRINT6400, " " : END 
550 DATA" SLOW JUMPING JACKS", " 
HURDLERS STRETCH"," TRUNK ROTATI 
ONS"," REACH FOR THE SKY"," LOOS 
EN NECK AND ANKLES" 
560 DATA"NIP-UPS" , "DON • T ALLOW F 
EET TO HIT FLOOR" 

570 DATA"S8BM120, 139U5R16E1R2F1R 
15F2R1U4E2D11L1H2G2L55H1NU4L26U2 
R3H1R11E1R6H1U2NG3R2E1D1R1F2D1R1 
BH1E2R19F1" , 110 , 130 , 62 , 130 
'580 DATA"S8BM120 , 139U6R4E7U1E1R1 
E8R4U4E2D10L1G21L12H12U2NE2L1H17 
E2F1R1D1F7R1F3E2NL4F2NL1R1D1F1D2 
BG1NH4E1R3 F9R4 " ,110 ,130 , 76 ,97 
590 DATA"S8BM12 0 , 139U5E2U18E2R1U 
1H3U3F8G1D24G3L12H3U10E1NR5U26R2 
D3R1D10F1D3ND8F3NL3D2NL1F1L1D1G2 
F2D4F1" , 110 , 130 , 114 , 100 
600 DATA" SQUAT THRUST" , "GO TO FU 
LLY EXTENDED POSITIONS" 
610 DATA"S8BM122, 94R4D35G2F1R3F2 
LI 1U1E2H2U2 6H2U5E2U20E2A3XR$ ;A0F 
2 

,150,120,35 
620 DATA"S 8BM1 20 , 120R3NF3E1U2NR8 



ii 



D 3 R4 F2D4 G4 F2D1F1R3D1L5H9U13 R4D 1 3 
NE2F 4BG2G 1NL4 F 2 L7H3 E3H2L3H3U6E9 " 
,110,150,140,110 
630 DATA"S8BM120, 



L18H2G1D7G1L1U12R3E2R13E10R23 " , 3 
0,150,135,122 

640 DATA" PUSH-UPS" , " ELBOWS PERP 

ENDICULAR TO SIDES" 

650 DATA"S12BM200 , 68U4L4D4L14NU6 

G2L2G2L1G1L3G1L3G1L3G1L3G1L2H2D7 



23F2XR$ ; G2L1D7G1D6R2D1L5U15" , 58 , 
85,230,50 

660 DATA"S12BM150 , 88NR12H1NU5G1L 
4G2L8G1L10H2D6G1L1U10R2E2R6E2R7E 
2R28F2ND4XR$ ; G2L3E1U3H1L2G1D12R5 
U1L2U9 BH2 ND1R1 " ,58,85,230,68 
670 DATA"S12BM152 , 95NR12H1NU5L2 6 
H2D7G1L1U11R2E2R1 8E1R6F1R 19F2XR$ 

;G2L3U2R1E1U2H2L2G1D11R5U1L2U7", 
80,80,235,80 

680 DATA" SIDEWINDER", "LEFT ARM D 

OWN LIFT LEG HIGH" 

690 DATA" S 12BM1 1 1 , 70 D7 L2 G 1 6H2 DIG 

1L2U4R1E1NE15H1D1G1H3E1R1H1E17R1 

3 D3R3U3R10H1NE 2H4G4F 1BL5U1E8 F 10 D 

3XF$ ; D2G2D1NL3D12F1G2H2L1U1R1U15 

L18", 140, 80, 210, 80 

700 DATA"S12BM111, 70D7L2G16H2D1G 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 29 



t 



1 L2 U 4 RLE 16L2 1U 2 G 1 L2 U4 R2 F 1U2R3 2 BR 
5H1E4F4NE2F1L10D3L3U4ESF10D3XF$ ; 

D2G2D1NL3 D12 F1G2H2 L1U1R1U15L1 S " ,. 
140,80,210,80 

710 DATA"S12BM111, 70D7L2G15H2D1G 
1L2U4R1E1 6H 16E1L1H1E 3F1D1E1F15R7 
BR5H1E4F4NE2F1L10D3L3U4EBF10D3XF 
$ f D2G2 D1NL3 Dl 2 F1G2H2L1U1R1U15L18 
" , 140 ,80,2 10 1 B0 

72p DATA 11 TREAD MILL" , "BACK AND F 
QKTH BETWEEN HANDS" 
730 DATA"S12BM100,100D5R10F1R2U4 
R4D9G1D9R3D1L6U16L2 F1D10G2R3 D2 L8 
U2E1H1U6L9H3F2G6 L16H2 D7G1L1U11R2 
E2R11E8ND5E3R23F2XR$;G2L1" , 120, 1 
00 , 1E0 , 93 

740 DATA , 'S12BM100,100D6R13BR4U4L 

4 D20R6 Ul L3U9E 1U5 RIE2U4 XR$ f U4H2 L2 

3G3D5F2L862H1L1D10R1E1U5F2R17E2U 

3H4",120, 100, 180 ,98 

750 DATA"S12BM97, 100D6NR10G10H6 

H2D7GlLlUllR2E2RllEilR23F2XR$;G2 

L1BL4U4R4D10G1DBR3D1L6U16L3F2D8G 

2R3D2L6U2H2U5L7H2 " , 120 , 100 , 180 , 9 

760 DATA ** RUNNING IN PLACE" , "KNEE 

! S WAIST HIGH" 

770 DATA" S 8 BMl 28, 162U5NE2U4NF2U1 
7NL5E1U9 BU6F5I 4U2R1D1E1F2G9H9E 3 F 
2U4H2L4A3XR$f A0L4G2D18H7E7D6G2F2 
D6G2 D5F2D2 6F2 G2 D1R11H2 L3B1E 2 U 6E 9 
U4H9", 120,90, 120,50 
780 DATA'>S8BM121,86RSD35G2F1R3F2 

\ LI 1U1E2H2U2 6H2U5E2U20E2A3XR$ ; A0 F 
2D17F4R1D1F1G2H10U11R4D11F2" , 120 
,110, 120,30 

790 DATA"S8BM125, 15BE8H3ND6H9U5E 
2NRSU2 F2R1E2H1U1L2H4 E7H3 G9F7 BU 4U 
4BUGTJ4E2A3XR$,'A0F2D10F4E9H2L2D2G 
4H5D1SG1D7F9D4G9L1F3D3L1H6F5D1G2 
F1R3F2L11U1R2H2U26" , 120 , 110 , 122 , 
45 

B00 DATA" DOUBLE -UPS" , "FAST CONTI 
NUOUS CYCLE" 

610 DATA ,, S12BM120,120U5R1SE1R2F1 
R16F2R1U4E2D11LLH2G2L55U2A2XR$ ? A 
0E 2R1 3BR3D4G2 L10U4R9 0 3 E 1R1 F 1 D 1R 3 
Fl", 130 ,110 ,30 ,115 
820 DATA" S 12 BM12J3 , 120O6R1U9EZR15 
F2R1U4 E2D11L1H2 G2L9 D10G2L1 BH9U3N 
R2H2E5G3NF1G2H1U4E3R2F3L2D2U2R2D 
2F1L1D1G3E2R3F6BR4G7H6E3F4E4R3D1 

G1R3»,130,110,60,70 

830 DATA"S12BM117 , 90G2U3L4D6F2R1 

E4 F2 D5 US H2 E 2U 1H1L1G1D 3 H2 L 4 A 3XR$ r 
A0U1E2R17F1E1U3E2D11L1H2G2L10F5D 
5G4L8H7UBE2 ■< , 130 , 110 , 100 , 50 
840 DAT A' 'TRIANGLE PUSH-UPS" , "FOR 



EHEAD IN SPACE BETWEEN HANDS" 
850 DATA"S12BM110, 84D5F1R13BR4U2 
14D9F9R5U1L3H1U1H6U7E2U4XR$ ; U4H2 
L2 3 G7 L3G2 L7G4 L2D1 1R1E 1U6R8 E1R7E3 
R3E6",40,120,190,85 
8 60 DATA"S12 BM110 , 102 D5F1R14 BR4U 
3L4D7F5R2F 1R6U1L3 H 1 L2H4U4E 2 U4 XR $ 
f U4H2 L2 8G2 L6G2 L6G3L2D11R1E1U7R1F 
1R12E2R10E2", 40, 120, 190 t 100 
870 DATA"S12BM110, 120D4F2R8BR6E1 
H3G4D1F2R9E1F1R6H1L2H1L2H1L2NL4E 
1U 4 XR$ ? U4H3 LI 8H1L5G1L20G1L2 D11R1 
E1U6F2R25E1" , 40, 120 , 190 , 120 
8B0 DATA " KANGAROO HOPS 1 '," FAST 
AND HIGH" 

8 90 DATA" S 8 BMll 6 , 86R5D3 5G2 F1R3F2 
L11U1E2H2U26H2U5E2U20E2A3XR$;A0F 
2D17F4R1D1F1G2H10U11R4D11F2 ,| ,120 
, 120 , 115, 28 

900 DATA"S8BM119,80L3BL2G2D5F12G 
7 D1G1F6U3H2R1E9U4H9U7E 1U1 8H2L4 A3 
XR$?A0L4G2D3G6D2FSR1E2H1U1L2H4E6 
H3G1BD6D4BD4D2'»,110, 90, 112,22 
910 DATA"S8BM118,75L5NU2D4F4R3E6 
NU3D9G1F7U3H3U2R3U16H3L3G5U12H2L 
4A3XR$ | A0L4G2 D3E2 F3 G6R5E 1D1R1D3 L 
10H2U2E6",120,80, 112, 25 

920 DATA"CURL-UFS", "DON'T SIT-UP 
, , .CURL-UP" 

930 DATA" S 12 BMl 25, 171U5NH1U1R6E9 
RSF12G2F1R5F2 L11U1H9G10L2 8H2 L2G1 
NH5G 1 L4 H3 U2 E 3 ND2R2 ND 1 E 1 D 1R 1F2 D42t 
3U2RLH1U6D5R4U2NR16U5H3L1G3D7 " , 1 
40,160,40,170 

940 DATA"S12BM12 5,171U6NL4RSE9R5 
F12G2 F1R5F2L11U1H9G10 L16H9U2H2L2 
NU7H3U4E 2R3NG2F 1NG1H1 D1F1D3 G3F2E 
1R1U1NE4F3E3NF5E2U4H1L4G4", 140,1 
60,55,120 

950 DATA"S12BM125, 162E4NU3F1E9R5 
F12G2F1R5F2L1 101H8L1G9 L8H5U8E3U3 
H1NE5H1U4E3R2F3NL2D2NL1F1L1D1G2L 
4 D3R2D1E1NR5D4R6E3U1H3L5", 140,16 
0 , 120 , 100 

9 60 PLAY"T20ABCP4 ABC" ; CLS : PRINT : 
PRINT "LAY DOWN AND PLACE YOUR FI 
NGERS ON YOUR NECK. ": PRINT "BEGIN 

COUNTING YOUR HEARTBEATS WHEN 
IfOU HEAR THE SOUND." 
970 FORX=lTO 3350 : NEXT: PLAY"04V2 
5L50ABA" :TIKER-0 

980 IF TIMER >= 9 00 THENPLA Y " B C C " EL 
SE980 

990 RETURN 

1000 RESTORE! FOR N=1T07 : READ E$: 
HEX1W:FOE N=1T03JREAD E$:FOR M=l 
TO4:REA0 A: NEXT K,N 
1010 RETURN A 



30 THE RAINBOW March 1986 





32K 
Disk 




lite 




PROGRAMMING UTILITY 




RAINBOW 
J.- -.\_ 





Inspired by a "schematic scoundrel, " this program is an 
aid for drawing flow chart diagrams 



CoCoflow: 

CoCocad Expanded 



By Dennis Page 



The 4< mini-CAD" (Computer- 
Aided Design) program* called 
CoCocad, written by Peter 
Kerckhoff (THE RAINBOW, October 
1985, Page 130) proved to be very 
interesting. It aids in drawing schemat- 
ics. The program is icon menu-driven 
using a mouse, joystick, X-Pad or touch 
tablet. The keyboard is seldom used. 

I am surrounded by expensive three- 
dimensional color CAD systems at 
work and because of that, was skeptical 
of the Co Cocad utility. However, after 
typing in the program to learn how 
graphics pointing and positioning was 
handled, new uses for CoCocad came to 
mind. How about modifying CoCocad 
to draw flow charts? A typical computer 
buff could use the same system to draw 
schematics for computer circuits and 
draw corresponding software flow 
charts as well. 

To do this, minor modifications to 
CoCocad are needed. The modified 
program is called CoCoflow, and in- 
stead of drawing schematic representa- 
tions of electronic components, it draws 
flow chart symbols. 

On first look, the only difference 



Dennis Page is an electronics engineer, 
consultant and writer based in Los 
Angeles, 



between the two programs is that the 
CoCocad diode icon has been replaced 
by a familiar flow diagram symbol, the 
diamond-shaped decision block. Figure 
1 shows a sample Co Coflow screen. The 
differences become apparent when the 
flow diagram icon is selected. The pull- 
down menu shows the first flow chart 
symbol selection; a terminal symbol 
that begins or ends the flow chart. As 
the mouse button is pressed, more 
symbols show up. 

Figure 1: Sample CoCoflow Screen 





□ 
DP 


a 

in 




% 


m 


Q 


-J 'I'M' 


W-4 




4-W 







HrtHE: FLOW 
FfttfE! Q MEMORY 8 575 

i H ■ i ■ 1 ■ i ■ f ■ t ■ f ■ i ■ f ■ < ■ 1 ■ I ■ ) 



■ . » • . . » - 



•J. ;<h I • * > • I 



/* . * i ?r"r*f | * ' i ... . . 4 - , - . - t > 

* ' ■ ■ * S rS * * '* * 1 11 1 * ^ " * * * 

» « • ■ t V-* i a i ;», ■ i V *'*.'«■■ i v 'V 4 - 

. k • ■ I' i % _* » ''.#..»■*•■-« * ' - 



» » 

V ■ 



'/ INPUT 
7 ' Dftf ft 



1. 



PROCESS 
■ MJft ' 



* «J 4 I 11 1 * * 

•> i ■! i - - - - 



-■•♦'-»• ■ « • I, ;. ^ .■<' > dome7 V *■ - ■ • ♦ ■ 

vl>» V 



DRfiHN M17H 
COGOFLOH 



*■ 4> 9 4. 



\ i [ i { 1 1 1 j 1 1 1 j 1 1 1 1 n n 1 1 n ) 1 1 ) 1 1 j i i ■ t . i i t i j i i - n n i ) i j i t i 

To use a symbol, move the cursor to 
USE in the menu and press the mouse 
button. The pull-down menu disap- 
pears and the selected symbol may be 
moved to the desired location. These 
symbols include right, left, up and down 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 31 



arrows to show flow directions. The 
arrows may be made longer with the line 
function,just as CoCocad does it. 

CoCocad modifications are easily 
accomplished with the following proce- 
dure. Copy CoCocad to create the new 
CoCoflow program by using the com- 
mand: 

COPY "CQCDCRD . BR5" TO "COCOFLOW 
.BflS" 

Then load CoCoflow by using the 
command: 

LORD "COCOFLOW" 

Modify CoCoflow by typing in List- 
ing 1. The line numbers are arranged to 
replace the corresponding CoCocad 
lines, so be sure your copy of CoCocad 
is numbered identically to the listing in 
the CoCocad article. Otherwise, you 
will have to match up the correct lines 
for replacement. Line numbers shown 
alone are line deletions — CoCoflow 



does not need these lines. Be sure to get 
the line numbers correct, otherwise the 
wrong lines may be replaced. If you do 
make a mistake and cannot find the 
error, just reload CoCoflow and start 
over. When finished, save CoCoflow by 
using the command: 

SRVE "COCOFLOW" 

Description of Modifications 

Line 120 changes the dimension of 
variable arrays CM and CO to reflect 
the larger flow chart symbols for GET 
and PUT operations. Line 440 changes 
the name of the component pull-down 
menu to symbols and changes the 
graphics location of the flow chart 
symbol within the pull-down menu. 
Line 460 changes the number of selec- 
table symbols and the location of the 
symbol within the pull-down menu. 
Lines 470 and 870 also reflect the 
changes in the number of symbols. 
Lines 880 through 970 are the DRRW 



strings for the new symbols. Lines 980 
through 1110 are deleted because there 
are fewer symbols. Line 1760 replaces 
the diode symbol in the icon menu to 
the diamond-shaped flow chart symbol. 

Now try it! You'll see that CoCoflow 
operates just like CoCocad, except that 
you can now draw flow charts. 

CoCocad is an excellent example of 
applying pointing devices, pull-down 
menus and icon menus to simplify 
program operation. Reading Peter's 
commented program listing reveals 
much. Rewards await the student who 
uses CoCocad as a learning tool. 

As Peter had also suggested in his 
article, if you use CoCoflow to draw a 
flow chart you hope to have published, 
please put a little note somewhere 
denoting that CoCoflow was used to 
draw the chart. Any questions regard- 
ing these modifications may be directed 
to me at 14108 Doty Avenue #36, Haw- 
thorne, CA 90250. Please include an 
SASE. □ 



.-"5' 
ii kit 



i ^.•:<--J J< . : .-..,'v^. I' ^fe'?;- • •"■ <f. 'uAC-fy. - 



: i. x '.'X'f-: v -'>'.' 



Editor's Note: The following are modifications to the 
CoCocad program that appeared in "CoCocad: The 
Schematic Scoundrel" (THE RAINBOW, October 1985) 
by Peter Kerckhoff. Load CoCocad, type in the 
following lines and save as CoCoflow. CoCoflow 
operates just as CoCocad except flow chart symbols 
appear instead of schematic symbols. For your 
convenience, the above modifications will be incorpo- 
rated into the CoCocad program, and will be included 
on this month's RAINBOW ON TAPE. 



GET ( 56 , 65) -(56+ 
, 65+YW) , CM, G: PUT (5J3, 50) ~ (110 , 1 
,MO,PSET:GOT04Sj3 ELSE DRAW 11 BM 
56 , 65C5" : GOSUB870: DRAW ,! BM56 , 65Cj3 
":IF Y<lj39 THEN 470 ELSE N=N+1:I 
P N<11 THEN GOSUB87j3:GOT045j3 ELS 
E N=l : GOSUB87J3 : GGTO450 



:f 



N=N-1:IF N>j3 THEN GOSUB87£:G 
OT045J3 ELSE N=lj3 : GOSUB870 : GOT045 




W5H -wvIVS 



87j3 ON N GOTO 88J3 , 89j3 , 9pp , 910, 92 
93)3,94^,95^, 96)3,97)3 



• i- i V: 



ict'v'"^''* «J 



i2i 



Th€ COCOFL OW 890 



88p DRAW" BD7 EUEUERERER3 4 FRFRFDFD 
FD2GDGDGLGLGL3 4HLHLHUHUHU" : XW=48 

TERM 



* t 
* 





LUW 89J 

42 D2GD2GD2GD2GD2GDL42":XW=48:YW 
12 j3 DIM C$(3) ,A(8) ,AD(8) ,C1(1) ,C =16: RETURN: 'I/O 



2(1) ,C3(1) ,L1(6) ,L2(6) ,L3(6) , L4 ( 

MO Y 3 S «=5 V Q C5 £ 




DRAW»R48D16L48U16" : XW=48 : YW^ 
: RETURN : 'PROCESS 

<>»i'■ , ■ -j .'.•■•jfii.t *a :. •. V •■■■-yt*. , ... «c"-y.--.-n - 



ii 



6) ,CM(32) ,CO(32) ,MD(255) ,MO(255) 
="V31Llj3j304B" :NF$="NONE" 

" SYMBOLS" :GOSUB85)3:T$="N 

USE" : TX=55 : TY=115 : GOSUB1J3J3 ERERE 

f'PREV" : TX=55 : TY=lj37 : GOSUBlj3p GLGLGLGLGLGLGLGLGLGLGLG HLHLHLHL 

: N=3 : GOSUB5J3 : N=l : DRAW" BM5 6 , 65 »' : G HLHLHLHLHLHLHLH" : XW=4 8 : YW=2 5 : RET 

OSUB87I3 URN : » DECISION 



32 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



920 DRAWR48D16L8GL5GL3GL3GL3GL4 
GL6HL4HL2HUHU16 " : XW=4 8 : YW=22 : RET 
URN: ' DOCUMENT 

930 DRAWBD3EURER2FRDFD2GDLGL2HL 
UHU" : XW=9 : YW=9 : RETURN : • CONN 

94) 3 DRAW"BD8BR4NU7NH3E3":XW=8:YW 
=8 : RETURN : ' D -ARROW 

95) 3 DRAW**BD4BRE3ND7F3 " : XW=9 : YW=8 
: RETURN : ' U-ARROW 

96) 3 DRAW"BD4R7NH3G3" :XW=8:YW=8:R 
ETURN: ' R -ARROW 

97) 3 DRAWBD4BRNR7NE3F3 11 : XW=9 : YW= 
8 : RETURN : • L-ARROW 



98)3 


(delete) 


99)3 


(delete) 


1)3)3)3 


(delete) 


1)31)3 


(delete) 


1)32)3 


(delete) 



1/33)3 


(delete) 


1)34)3 


(delete) 


1)3 5)3 


(delete) 


1)3 6)3 


(delete) 




(delete) 


-i ft e"\ ri 

1)38)3 


(delete) 


1)39)3 


(delete) 


11)3)3 


(delete) 


111)3 


(delete) 



176)3 DRAW"BM4,4R6D12R6 BM24,4R12 
D12L12U12 BM43,1)3E6F6G6H6 BM62,4 
R2 BR3R2 BR 3 R2 D2BD3D2BD3D2 L2 BL3L2B 
L3L2U2BU3U2BU3U2 BM81 , 4R12L6D12 
BM1)32 , 4D4NR6GFNR6GFNR6GFND4R6ND4 
EHEHEHU4L6 BM119 , 8ND4R6U4F6G6U4L 
6" : RETURN 



PAYROL/BAS 



TM 

VERSION 1.4 



'Minimum system requirement are one disk drive, 64K CoCo with disk basic. 



Includes 1986 changes in FICA & Federal Witholding. 

By Bernie Litton 



A dynamic tool for businesses and accountants, PAYROL/BAS™ cuts checks and 
keeps records for companies up to 100 employees. All you need is a computer 
with 64K Extended Basic, one disk drive and a printer, and PAYROL/BAS™ lets 
you: 

• Enter employee data (name, address, SS#, FICA, taxes, deductions, profit 
sharing, insurance). 

• Cut checks. (The program works with both pin-feed and friction-feed printers, 
and we can even supply the checks if you need them.) 

• Automatically calculates and stores seven deductions, including federal, FICA, 
state, three of your choosing (such as city, profit sharing or insurance) and one 
miscellaneous. 

• Will calculate tax and print to screen for approval before printing check. 

• Keep ledgers (including monthly listings of all checks, gross income, FICA, 
taxes, profit sharing, insurance). 

• Error correcting routine lets you change data if you have made a mistake. 

• Handles weekly, bi-weekly, semi-monthly and monthly pay periods. 

Calculates state tax automatically. 
•Each state has custom code included. 
We have New York City witholding. $29.95/extra. 



Only $79.95 ($2 shpg) 



OTHER PROGRAMS FROM HOWARD 

SAP II STOCK ANALYSIS PROGRAM: Stores and tracks your stock portfolio's 

performance. A Howard exclusive. $19.95 ($2 shpg) 
EPSON PRINTER TUTORIAL: Menu driven program that teaches you how to use 

the different commands to unleash the full potential of your Epson printer. $29.95 

($2 shpg) 

BLOOD PRESSURE ANALYSIS: Studies show that daily tracking of 
blood pressure will actually lower it. $24.95 ($2 shpg) 
HOSPITAL GRADE BLOOD PRESSURE KIT: Includes adult cuff, 
aneroid, bladder, tubing and bulb, plus carrying case. 108-M $25 ($2 
shpg) Both for $39.45 ($2 shpg) 

REVERSE VIDEO: Basic listing, lets you include reverse video 
in your program. $14.95 ($2 shpg) 



VIP WRITER: Powerful word processing program has 
all standard word-processing features PLUS 
automatic justification, pagination, centering options, 
as well as Error Detection and Undo Mistake features. 
A "flawless" program, according to Rainbow. $68.88 
(includes VIP Speller) ($2 shpg) 
VIP CALC: Create business spread sheets, get up to 33K of work space in 64K. 

Calculation functions include trigonometry and sorting. $68.88 ($2 shpg) 
VIP DATABASE: Stores data and files of all kinds and allows you to combine VIP 
Writer files as well. Do mailing lists, inventories, menus and recipes, and more! 
$58.88 ($2 shpg) 

VIP LIBRARY: Includes all of the above plus terminal & Disk-ZAP in 
one in terg rated package $125 ($2 pkpg) 



WITH PAYROL/BAS™ YOU'LL ALSO WANT. . . 

* 941 Program: Gives individual summaries and totals of check information to 

prepare 941 and state unemployment forms. $29.95 ($2 shpg) 
* W-2 Program: To cut year-end W-2-s. $29.95 ($2 shpg) 



American Express, MasterCard, VISA accepted. 

SEND TO: Howard Medical Computers 

Box 2, Chicago IL 60690 312/278-1440 

Name 

Address 



City, State, Zip , 

Please send (desc. & qty.— III. res. add 8% sales tax): 




VISA 



include card # 
exp. date 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED RB12 84a 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 33 



New Dual Mode EPSON 



The new Epson LX-80 offers printing flexibility in 
two modes: one mode allows you to print in a quick 
(100 cps) dot-matrix style for programming and 
graphics, and the Near Letter Quality mode (16 
cps) produces precise (240 dots per inch), 
beautiful type for correspondence, reports, and 
similar purposes. The LX-80 offers 160 different 
type-style combinations, including Pica, Elite, 
Enlarged, Emphasized, Condensed, Subscripts 
and Superscripts, and type-styles can be selected 
quickly from the top control panel or from program 
control. Comes standard in friction feed; tractor op- 
tion is also available. 

LX-P package includes an LX-80, a serial Inter- 
face, a Color Cojnputer to Epson cable, and 
Printer Tutorial that teaches you how to pro- 
gram the different type styles ($29.95 value), 

LX-P: LX-80 package $317 ($7 shpg) 
ET-1 tractor option for LX-80. $29.50. 

SF-1 Single-sheet feeder for the LX-80. $145 ($7 

shpg) 




Epson 


RX-80 FT repack 


$207. 


Epson 


LX-80 New 


$249. 


Botek 


Serial to parallel converter 


$68.45 


Howard 


CoCo to Epson cable 


$25. 



MONITORS 



123 Zenith 12" Green Screen, 640 dots x 200 dots 
resolution, 15 MHz band width, $114 ($7 shpg) 



123A Zenith 12" Green Screen Special, $67.50 

($7 shpg) 80 Column non glare 



122 Zenith 12" Amber Screen, 640 dots x 200 dots 
resolution, 15 MHz band width. $117 (7 shpg) 



131 Zenith 13" Color Monitor with speaker, 
composite & RGB jack, 240 dots x 200 dots 
resolution, 2.5 MHz band width. $168 
($14 shpg) *CLOSEOUT40 Column 



141 Roland 13" Color Monitor with speaker, 
270 dots x 200 dots resolution, 4MHz band width 
$247 ($12 shpg) 

AH monitors require video controller. 

Reverse video free with monitor order. 

MEMORY 

64K Upgrades— 1 Year Warranty 

64-E1 for E Boards with complete instructions. Re- 
move old chips and replace with preassembled 
package— no soldering or trace cuts. $28.45 ($2 
shpg) 

64-F1 for F Boards. No soldering needed. Capacitor 

leads must be cut. $24.45 ($2 shpg) 
64-2 for COCO 2. Kit requires one solder point, no 

trace cuts. $24.45 ($2 shpg) 



CONTROLLERS 



New Controller from J&M: Has switch that allows 
either JDOS or RS DOS to be the disk operating 
system; eliminates software compatibility problems, 
while preserving the advantages of J&M's gold con- 
tacts and data separator. Also added to the DC-2 is 
a parallel port, which means a serial interface is no 
longer needed to make a parallel printer (like the 
Epson) work. 

DC-2 Disk Controller with JDOS. $1 28 ($2 shpg) 

RS-1: RS DOS ROM Chip. $20.00 ($2 shpg) 
DC-1 Disk Controller reads and writes to 35 and 40 
track single and double-sided drives for all models 
of the Color Computer w/ JDOS. $128 ($2 shpg) 
VC-1 Video Interface mounts inside Color Computer 
by piggy-backing IC on top of interface— no solder- 
ing, no trace cuts. All models give composite video 
& sound. $24.45 ($2 shpg) 
VC-2 for COCO 2— mono only. $26.45 ($2 shpg) 
VC-3 for COCO 2— both color or monochrome 

$39.45 ($2 shpg) 
VC-4 for new Color Computer (no sockets, chips are 
soldered to mother board)* Attaches with spring- 
loaded clips. Color or mono. $39.45 ($2 shpg) 



Epson Homewriter HM1 has serial pick 
interface and cable included. 100 CPS, 
bidirectional dot matrix impact for regular 
paper and one copy. 

$258 ($7 shipping) 




EPSON AND J&M 

The EJ-P Package 

The Epson LX-80 Printer teamed with our new 
J&M DC-2 Controller gives you top printing 
capabilities plus built-in switch gives JDOS or 
Radio Shack DOS so all software can run on your 
Color Computer. Package includes: Epson LX-80 
Printer with ET-1 tractor; DC-2 controller; 
parallel Color Computers to J&M cable; 
Epson Printer Tutorial ($29.95 value). 

Complete EJ-P package $425.00 ($7 shpg) 



HOWARD QUALITY STANDS 

New TS-1X Mon- 
itor Stand: De- 
signer-beautiful 
stand with clear 
corner posts, 
easy side access 
to ROM port, re- 
set and onfoff 
buttons. $39.50 
($3 shpg) 

TS-1: Standard 13" monitor stand for the original Color 
Computer. Specify black, ivory or clear. 15" x11" x4". 
$29.50 ($3 shpg) 

TS-2: Same as above for the COCO 2. $29.50 ($3 
shpg) 

PS-1X Printer Stand features new noise-suppressing 
foam top and cork base. 15" x11" x2W. $24.95 ($3 
shpg) 



GUARANTEE 



Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee is meant to 
eliminate the uncertainty of dealing with a com- 
pany through the mall. Once you receive our hard- 
ware, try it out; test it for compatability. It you're 
not happy with it for any reason, return it in 30 days 
and we'll give you your money back— no questions 
asked. Hours: 8:00-4:00 Mon.-Fri. 

10:00-3:00 Sat. 




9 




Howard Medical Computers 

1690 Eiston, Chicago 60622 



Cat. No. Quantity Description 




Telephone (312) 278-1440 for questions 
Computer Bulletin Board (312) 278-9513 

Unit cost Cost 



$ 



Bill (circle one) 

My check or 

money order Oc\si C;s'ci # _ 
is enclosed 

Send CO D Expiraiion dale . 



MC 



Name. 



Address 

City, State, Zip; 



Total Cost _ 
Shipping _ 
III. res. add 8% _ 
COD (add 1.90) 
Total order $. 



i 
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The Biggest 



The 




The Indispensable 




The 

THE CaOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

It's called the premier Color Computer magazine for good 
reason. THE RAINBOW is the biggest, best, brightest and most 
comprehensive publication a happy CoCo ever had! Is there any 
wonder we get letters daily praising THE RAINBOW, the 
magazine one reader calls "A Pot Of Gold" for his Color 
Computer. 

THE RAINBOW features more programs, more information 
and more in-depth treatment of the Tandy Color Computer than 
any other source. 

A monthly issue contains up to 300 pages and as many as two 
dozen programs, 15 regular columns and more than 20 product 
reviews. And advertisements: THE RAINBOW is known as the 
medium for advertisers — which means every month it has a 
wealth of information unavailable anywhere else about new 
products! Hundreds of programs are advertised in its pages 
each month. 

But what makes THE RAINBOW is its people. People like Fred 
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Experts like Dick White and Joseph Kolar, two of the most 
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Day, who stay abreast of telecommunications advances. Or t 
Dan Downard, RAINBOW technical editor, who answers our 
readers' toughest questions. Educators like Dr. Michael Plog 
and Steve Biyn, who show how CoCo can be used at home or 
school. Advanced programmers like Dale Puckett, who guide 
you through the sophisticated OS-9 operating system. Electron- 
ics experts like Tony DiStefano, who explain the "insides" of the 
CoCo. These people, and many others, visit you monthly 
through columns available only in THE RAINBOW. 

Every single issue of THE RAINBOW covers the wide 
spectrum of interests in the Tandy Color Computer — from 
beginners' tutorials and arcade games to telecommunications 
and business and finance programs. Helpful utilities and do-it- 
yourself hardware projects make it easy and fun to expand your 
CoCo's capabilities. And, monthly reviews by independent 
reader reviewers take the guesswork out of buying new software 
and hardware products. 

Join the tens of thousands who have found THE RAINBOW 
to be an absolute necessity for their CoCo. With all this going 
for it, is it surprising that more than 90 percent of THE RAINBOW 
subscribers renew their subscriptions? 

We're willing to bet that, a year from now, you'll be doing the 
same. For more information call (502) 228-4492. 



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What goes well with 
the Rainbow? 




Rainbow On Tapel 



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What is it? RAINBOW ON TAPE is a monthly cassette 
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the programs (those over 20 lines long) that fill the pages 
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■*y>i^*M(«iyi»>^^i^ii;ii;>«ii>ii> » ;i 






64K EXT. BASIC 

Color Computer II 

Monitor Interface for above CoCo II 29,95 plus 7.50 installation, (color & green compatible) 



fit? «p*pi 

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Drive 1 Upgrade 99 95 

Add a second Vz height drive to your Radio Shack 
26-3129. Comes with 3 minute installation instruc- 
tions, screwdriver required, 





Drive 1 

SUPER DRIVE SALE 

Special prices on new first quality disk drives. They even have GOLD connectors on the back. . , Some other 
places charge 229>00for dr. 1 and 299.00 for dr. 0, not usl Drive 1 1s for mod I, Second Color Computer drive, or 
external mod III, IV Drive 1 justplugsintotheextraconnectoron your Drive 0 cable, Both drives are compatible 
with any version of the Color Computer and all versions of drives. Drive 0 is your first Color Computer drive and 
comes complete with cable, manual, and R.S, controller. For double-sided, add 45.00 (only for those who have 
DS-DOS, boards and knowledge) Bare full hgt SSDD drive only 79,95. 

THE COMPUTER CENTER 
901-761-4565, 5512 Poplar, Memphis, TN 38119 
Add $4.90 for shipping and handling— Visa, MC & money orders accepted 
Allow an additional 2 weeks for personal checks— Drive faceplates may vary slightly 





Determine the amount of ea 
on installment loans 




i.v-' i i ■. i ,k >( ........ l-^iJ.t* ~:\ inr.-x ';r ; .•■ ■■ \ •:(•.& »" -. ! - • «. • ; , 




1.; ■ . ; V ?^->.* 



\ s::-.-' ••■ • •. - . - ■ . j< 



'■'2' «! ' 




After having read so many good 
articles in RAINBOW, I felt ob- 
liged to make a small contribu- 
tion. I am blind and have been a CoCo 
user for about two years. Among my 
responsibilities as a credit manager of a 
retail music store, I obtain credit reports 
from a mainframe computer, type con- 
tracts, make collections, etc. The CoCo 
is a fantastic aid when combined with 
the Votrax "Type & Talk* 

Clarence Whaley services and runs the 
Credit Department for L.C. Tiller, Inc. 
(Music Company) in Nashville, Tennes- 
see. His Ham call sign is KD4PT. 



The "Rule of 78s" formula is used to 
determine the amount of early pay-off 
on installment loans and eliminates the 
use of charts. The Rule of 78s program 
is written in two forms: a one-line 
version and a multiline version. This 
program is quite simple to use. Type 
CLDflD "RULE 78" and RUN. The pro- 
gram prompts are straightforward and 
should be easily answered by anyone 
not familiar with retail business lan- 
guage. The "Rule of 78s" formula can 
be obtained from: Department of Con- 
sumer Affairs, Federal Reserve Bank of 
Philadelphia, P.O. Box 66, Philadel- 
phia, PA 19105. 



•"i '.: 



With the use of a simple screen dump 
program, I have instant access to ac- 
counts receivable, etc. But this is a slow 
process 



them on more rapid access and business 
uses of the CoCo. Also, the cost of 
Braille printers is quite prohibitive 
($15,000) and out of the question! If 
anyone has come up with an affordable 
Braille printer, 1 would certainly be 
interested. 

(Mr. Whaley may be reached at 123 
8th Avenue North, Nashville, TN 37203, 
business phone 615-254-6533. Please 
enclose an SASE when writing. □ 



The listing: RULEDF7B 



290 . 
END 



• • « • % 



.88 
.13 



T 



lj30 TEXT$="":GOSUB44j3 

110 TEXT$= GOSUB440 

120 TEXT$="THIS PROGRAM FIGURES" 
:G0SUB44J3 

130 TEXT $=" THE EARLY PAY-OFF OF" 
IGOSUB450 

140 TEXT$=" INSTALLMENT LOANS USI 
NG":GOSUB450 

150 TEXT $=" THE RULE OF 78'S":GOS 



36 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1986 



II 



UB450 

16/3 TEXT$="":GOSUB45j3 

170 TEXT$="SOME COMPANIES MAY HA 

VE AN" :GOSUB45j3 

18/Zf TEXT$=" ADDITIONAL CHARGE FOR 

":GOSUB450 
190 TEXT $= " EARLY PAY-OFF WHICH": 
GOSUB450 

200 TEXT$="IS NOT PART OF THIS F 

ORMULA" : GOSUB450 

210 TEXT$="":GOSUB45j3 

220 TEXT $=" PRESS ANY KEY TO BEGI 

N":GOSUB450 

230 A$=INKEY$ 

240 IFA$=""THEN23j3ELSE25j3 

250 CLS: INPUT "TOTAL MONTHS OF CO 

NTRACT" /N 

260 SOUND2j3j3,l 

270 A=(N/2*(N+1) ) 

280 INPUT "HOW MANY MONTHS REMAIN 
";B 

290 SOUND20j3,l 
300 C=(B/2*(B+1) ) 
3 10 D=C/A 

320 INPUT "TOTAL INTEREST CHARGE 

;E 

330 SOUND2j30,l 
340 F=(E*D) 
350 PRINT 

360 INPUT "CURRENT BALANCE DUE 
370 SOUND2j30,l 
380 H=G-F 

390 PRINT "THE REBATE IS":PRINT@1 

81,USING»####.##«;F 

400 SOUND200,1 

410 PRINT "THE PAY-OFF IS": PRINT© 

213 / USING"####.##";H 

420 SOUND2J30,! 

430 END 

440 CLS 

450 M=LEN(TEXT$) 
460 FOR X=l TO M 

470 PRINT@32*L+15-M/2+X,MID$ (TEX 

T$,X,1) 

480 NEXT X 

490 L=L+1 

500 SOUND2j3j3,l 

510 RETURN 

520 'CLARENCE WHALEY 
530 '123 8TH AVENUE NORTH 
540 'NASHVILLE, TN 37203 
550 'PHONE: 615-254-6533 



it • 



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March 1986 THE RAINBOW 37 





SPEED RACE 




The checkered flag drops as your pulse rises in this 
■lively new arcade game. The road twists to the horizon 
on the 3-D panorama that sets the stage for the most 
exciting race the CoCo has ever seen! Vie for time as 
you speed through the curves at incredible speeds. 
Step through the gears to stay ahead of the pack, but 
.step lively since some will stop at nothing to see the end 
of the race, or the end of you! Four challenging raceways, 
complete with obstacles and colorful 3-D scenery, put 
your skills to the test in this Pole Position™ type game. 



32K Color Computer Required. 



$34.95 



by Steven Hirsch 





By Kary McFadden 




You clutch the tank controls, searching for any sign of the 
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enemy tank! Facing it, you race to lock sights and fire before 
he does! 

Enter the ultimate battle-zone in this exciting 3-D tank 
combat game. Strategy, speed, and your tank's cannon are 
your only hope as you wind through a three-dimensional 
course inhabited by impenetrable barriers and enemy tanks. 

Dazzling graphics and lifelike sound take you a step beyond 
the ordinary in this fast, machine-language arcade game. 
Enter the next dimension, ROMMEL's troops are waiting for 
you! 



32K Color Computer Required. 





$29.95 







f the 1 




TAKING BASIC TRAINING 


J ECB 




• MB* 

RAINBOW 





A Simple Technique 
for Creating Animation 



By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Animation gives any CoCo 
graphics program a lot of pizazz 
with the illusion of movement. 
The technique of creating animation 
seems beyond the capability of the 
newcomer to CoColand. It is not the 
formidable project that it appears to be. 

The good news is that the beginner 
need not be overwhelmed by animation 
creation. He can do it with a minimum 
of artistic talent. Today, we are going to 
make like we are Rembrandts, and do 
some simple but satisfying animation. 
Using artistic license, we will create a 
"stick bird." We will take this bird, set 
it in flight and give it a chance to soar 
on our screen. We will create various 
stick shapes to add variety and give the 
appearance of graceful flight. 

Look at Listing 1 and key in lines 10 
and 1000. PCLS3 gives us the back- 
ground blue sky upon which the bird is 
highlighted. Key in lines 20 to 27, the 
eight forms of the bird we will use in our 
effort to animate. They are called by the 
variables assigned them. The reason we 
use various forms of the bird is to create 
the illusion of a change in the bird as 
it wheels, soars or just flaps its wings. 

Florida-based Joseph Kolar is a veter- 
an writer and programmer and special- 
izes in introducing beginners to the 
powers of Co Co. 



If we use just one shape throughout (one 
variable), the bird looks stiff and its 
flight stilted. 

Key in Line 30. All the birds are 
displayed using the DRRW statement. 
The color, horizontal and vertical loca- 
tions are included within quote marks. 
The desired bird shape is selected by 
picking the desired variable and added 
with the good old concatenation 
marker, '+'. Now RUN and you should be 
suitably unimpressed to see what is 
supposed to be a bird. Press break and, 
one at a time, substitute the other 
variables in Line 30 to see the so-called 
birds in our repertoire. After you have 
seen them all, replace the original 
variable, B$. 

Keep in mind that there are many 
ways to develop animation. The follow- 
ing system is somewhat unwieldy, but 
lends itself admirably for the purpose of 
this tutorial. 

Run the program and note that we 
place a bird, in color C2, at both a 
horizontal and vertical location of 10. 
The bird (B$ in this case), has the left 
wing "up" and the right wing in a 
horizontal plane. At this time, also note 
that in lines 40 through 350, the color 
(C2) is redundantly included in every 
DRRW statement. In Listing 1 only the 
first C2 in Line 30 is required to main- 
tain the same color of the bird. CoCo 



knows that C2 is desired in all the 
subsequent DRRW lines. At a later stage 
in our artistic endeavors, it will be 
necessary to insert C2 in all of the DRRW 
lines in this listing. To save a lot of time 
and monotonous editing later on, we 
will put them in as we proceed. 

At this stage, we will place the 
various-shaped birds at locations we 
deem either logical or interesting, one at 
a time, ever increasing the number of 
birds in the flight plan. Press BREAK, 
key in Line 40 and RUN. You will see a 
second bird form on the screen (AS), 
with both wings in the "up" position. We 
moved it over to the right five units, to 
15 on the horizontal, and 10 units down 
on the vertical. We now have two birds 
on the screen. 

For the purpose of this tutorial, we 
will move either zero, five or 10 units 
from a previous location. This creates 
a smooth transition from one location 
to the next. 

Press break, key in Line 50 and run. 
The same 'V 1 bird is flying to the right. 
Comparing lines 40 and 50 in the listing, 
you can verify that we moved the bird 
10 units to the right. Press break, key 
in Line 60 and ryn. You can see the same 
bird heading to the right. 

Don't get excited if the birds overlap 
on the screen. It will all be sorted out 
later. At this stage, we are plotting the 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 39 



flight path and want to see every shape 
and its location as we create it. This way 
you can locate a desired shape at the 
location you feel is right. If you don't 
like the shape or location, it can be 
altered now without disturbing future 
additions to the flight plan. You won't 
have to dissect your program and wear- 
ily rearrange it later. 

We are so creative that we plot our 
animation program directly on the 
screen. However, you may use graph 
paper if you wish to determine the 
shapes and locations of the birds. 

Press BREAK, key in Line 70 and run. 
Here I promptly violated my own rule 
and dropped the bird, B$, 15 units. I had 
a down draft in mind, which I imagined 
might cause the bird to drop more than 
usual and change directions by going 
five units to the right. 

Press BREAK, key in Line 80 and run. 
Here the bird, E$, is wheeling to the 
right and down; press break again. 

If you have difficulty viewing a shape 
that is superimposed over a previous 
shape, temporarily mask the previous 
line with a REM marker. RUN to see if it 
is what you intended, then remove the 
REM marker from the previous line. At 
this point, key in each program line one 
at a time, and check to see what shape 
you added where. 

We have completed our first phase: 
creating, locating and displaying each 
bird. Now that we have created each 
bird in our tableau, we have to make 
them vanish. Beginning with the bird at 
Line 30 through the last one at Line 350, 
we will erase them. LIST 30 and add +5 
to Line 30 to create the "erase" line. 
Thus, all program lines used to erase the 
birds will end in '5'. Key in 35, the line 
number, and copy the data appearing in 
Line 30 that you have on the screen 
changing only the digit (2) in C2 to '3'. 
Now run. C3 is the same color as P5CL3. 
The bird is still, invisible and effectively 
erased. 

If you care to check this out, tempor- 
arily change PCLS3 to PCL52 in Line 10 
and RUN. See? Restore Line 10 to its 
original state. 

Press BREAK and LIST40. Create 
Line 45 and copy the scoop in Line 40, 
making the desired color change. Pro- 
ceed line by line, every once in a while 
pausing to RUN and make sure you have 
erased all the birds. If some residue 
remains on the screen, you made a boo- 
boo in copying! When you check, you 
will be excited to see the vestiges of a 
bird in flight, if ever so fleetingly. 



When you have finished the second 
phase and check out your work, you 
should get a fleeting glimpse of the bird 
in motion and end up with a blank, blue 
display. 

Obviously, we must create pauses 
between the creation and disappearance 
of each bird so ordinary mortals can 
observe the flight. The third phase 
determines the length of time each bird 
is visible. We will use a pause routine to 
accomplish this feat: FOR Z= 1 TO X: 
NEXT, where 'X' is some value between 
75 and 200. We will use increments of 
25, so for 'X' we will use the following 
values: 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 
to keep it simple and under control. 

After you get the idea, you can sub- 
stitute your values for the chosen ones 
in the listing to make it fly the way you 
want it to fly. First, let me give you the 
system we will use in this tutorial. 

Type in LIST 30-40. We list two lines 
to see how far the bird moved. We note 
that the bird moved 10 units down and 
five units to the right. We compare 
either Line 30 or 35 to Line 40. We will 
place the pause line immediately follow- 
ing the creation line (Line 30). Each 
pause line will be numbered by incre- 
menting the creation line by +1 and the 
erase line by +5. We will try 100 as the 
length of the pause. Key in 31 FDR 
Z=1TO100 : NEXT and run. You can't see 
much! Press BREAK, LI5T40-50 and 
let's make this pause line shorter in 
duration by using 75. Key in 41 FDR 
Z=1TD75:NEXT and run, then press 
BREAK and LI5T50-60. We'll use 100. 
Key in 51 FDR Z=1TD100:NEXT. 

Follow the same procedure using 150 
in Line 61, 100 in Line 71 and 75 at both 
lines 81 and 91. RUN and observe the 
movement. Press BREAK and adjust it to 
suit yourself. It is your bird! Make it fly 
as you would imagine it should fly. Vary 
the time lapse, preferably a higher figure 
for a large location displacement and a 
shorter lapse for a small movement, but 
do it from one line to the next in a 
methodical manner, ensuring that all 
previously determined time pause lines 
are satisfactory. You may compare the 
pauses you chose with the ones in 
Listing 2. 

You tnay want the movement to be 
quicker so it looks even more natural. 
If so, lower the value of each pause line 
by 25 or 50 units. For that matter, you 
may prefer to substitute other shapes 
(bird variables). Be my guest! When this 
phase of the program is completed and 
all the pauses are set, you may want to 



change Line 1000 (1000 GOTD10). 

Since many of your pause lines are 
repetitious, this is an ideal occasion to 
use GOSUB. For instance, add 400 FOR 
Z=1TD75: NEXT: RETURN and change 
lines 41, 81, 91, 141, 221, 231, 241, 251, 
261, 281, 291, 301, 311, 321 and 341 to 
GD5UB400. You will have to put in a line, 
360 GDTD10 or 360 GDTD1000, to walk 
around the GD5UB routine. Ideally, the 
GD5UB should be at the end of the 
program, for example, Line 2000. How- 
ever, using 400 instead of 2000 saves 
typing one extra zero and whatever 
error that third zero might generate due 
to typing mistakes. Naturally, you can 
make other GD5UB lines to accommo- 
date frequently-used pause lines. 

OK, what have we wrought? Nothing 
much! Just a bunch of lines flapping 
across the screen. But, you learned a lot 
quite painlessly. Let us recap: 

1) A picture, design or shape must be 
created. It can be elaborate or as mind- 
lessly simple as our bird. After it is 
created and put into a variable form, it 
can be called using DRAW. Alternate 
shapes should be created in anticipation 
of need, but they can be created as 
required and added to the list of shapes. 

2) It must be located at the desired site 
on the screen in a color other than the 
background. 

3) It must remain on the screen for a 
certain length of time. 

4) It must be erased by creating the 
same design and in the exact location 
but using the background color so it 
appears to vanish. 

5) The same picture or a variant, 
again created and called as a variable in 
a DRAW statement, can be placed in a 
newly selected location. Repeat steps 
two through four. Suppose you made a 
pastoral scene in the blank space re- 
served under the bird? Or the outline of 
a few buildings? 

Now that you know how to make a 
bird fly around, you can use the same 
technique to produce your own crea- 
tion. 

As an added attraction, Listing 3 uses 
5DUND as a timer and has a skyline 
thrown in to show how to enhance the 
animation. You can modify your tuto- 
rial program by inserting lines 11-13, 
modify Line 1000 and change all pause 
lines to 5DUND lines. If you don't care 
for my sounds, make up your own. 

Finally, based on this tutorial, a 
mindless graphic is designed wherein 
bats, ad nauseam, put windows in the 
buildings. □ 



40 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



Mind-tingling action! 

THE SECOND RAINBOW BOOK OF 



Twenty-four of the most challenging Adventure games ever 
compiled await you in this latest offering from The Rainbow 
Bookshelf. Journey through time, fight World War ill, win 
the heart of a beautiful and mysterious princess. Experience 
the titillations of the most rugged Adventurer without ever 
leaving your seat. 



Order The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures and among the 24 program 
listings you'll receive are: 




****** 



Yellow Submarine — Meet the Beatles and attempt to 
outlast the Blue Meanies while enjoying some of the 
Fab Four's all-time musical hits. 
Ring Quest — Regain possession of a magical ring and 
save a kindom. 

Time Tripper — Lost in another dimension. 



Chief Inspector — Who killed B.L. Brown? 

Sir Randolf Returns — The sequel to a favorite from our 

first Adventure book. 

Silverton House — Where's the money been stashed? 
Ice Princess — Just one glance at this beauty will steal 
your heart. 



Experience other traditional and contemporary challenges from these winning authors: Mark Fetherston, Jeff Crow, Larry Lansberry, 
J.C. Jackson, Robert W. Mangum II, Robert Poppe, David Taylor, Gregory Clark, Steve Skrzyniarz, David L. Dawson, Curtis Boyle, 
Bruce K. Bell, Pat Pugliano, Pat and John Everest, Mike Fahy, Scott Settembre, Darin Anderson, Robert L. Thomas, Terrance Hale, Paul 
Hensel, Philip Courie, Michael Dennison and Robert Dickau. 

The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures sells for only $13.95! j| 

THREE BONUS PROGRAMS \ 
WHEN YOU BUY THE SECOND RAINBOW ADVENTURES TAPE! 

That's right. You'll receive a total of 27 fantastic Adventures when you get the Second Rainbow 
Adventures tape. The three bonus games are Castle Thuudo, by Carmen D. Michele; Halls of 
Dungeon Death, by Eric and Mark Riel; and Caves of Kalakh, by Jane Fisher — programs with 
listings too lengthy to include in the book. Save yourself hours of typing listings. Load these great 
Adventures into your computer and run them! 

The Second Rainbow Adventures Tape is only $13.95. 

The tape is an adjunct and complement to the book. Even if you buy the Second Rainbow 
Adventures Tape, you'll need the book for the introductory material and loading instructions. 

Keep your Rainbow Bookshelf up-to-date! 
See Page 221 for additional Rainbow Bookshelf offerings. 




□ Please send me 
The Second Rainbow 
Book Of Adventures 
for $13.95* 



□ Please send me 
The Second Rainbow 
Adventures Tape 
for $13.95 




The Rainbow Bookshelf 1 " 



Name — 
Address 
City 



State 



ZIP 



□ My check in the amount of 



is enclosed.* 



Please charge to my: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 



Account Number 
Signature 



Exp. Date 



Mail to: The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures, 
The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059 

To order by phone, call: (502) 228-4492 

*Add $1 .50 shipping and handling per book. Outside the U.S., add $4. Allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. 
Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax for book and tape. In order to hold down costs, we do not bill. 
U.S. currency only, please. 



130 . 
END 



63 
54 



PMODE3 , 1 : PCLS3 : SCREEN1 ,0 



Listing 1: BIRDS 

0 'LISTING1 
10 

20 
21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 



T 



A$= 
B$= 
C$= 
D$= 
E$= 
F$= 
G$= 
H$= 



"F6E6" 
"F6R6" 
"R6E6" 
"E6F6" 
"F12" 
"E12" 
"R12" 
"R6F6 1 ' 
30 DRAW"C2BM10,10"+B$ 
40 DRAW M C2BM15,20 M +A$ 
50 DRAW M C2BM25,20 M +A$ 
60 DRAW"C2BM35,20"+A$ 
70 DRAW"C2BM40,35"+B$ 
80 DRAW"C2BM50,40"+E$ 
90 DRAW"C2BM60,45"+B$ 
1/8/8 DRAW"C2BM70,45 I, +A$ 
11/8 DRAW M C2BM75,55"+A$ 
120 DRAW"C2BM85,60"+A$ 
13/3 DRAW" C2BM9/3, 7/3 "+A$ 
14j3 DRAW M C2BM95,75 I! +C$ 



E.T.T . Electronic Typing Teacher 

by CHERRYSoft 

Learning to type the right way can save you hours of tedious 
work when entering programs into your CoCo, and this is just 
what ETT was designed to do. Devote a little time every day prac- 
ticing with ETT and before you know it you will be typing with con- 
fidence. Entering those programs will no longer be the chore it 
use to be. 

- ETT's video keyboard lets you practice with all the keys labeled, 
all the keys blank or only the "home" keys labeled. The visual 
cues guide you while you learn to type without watching your 
fingers. ETT shows your accuracy, response time, and words per 
minute. You will quickly see that you are improving with practice. 

With the sentences provided by ETT learning to type can be fun. 
Over 1000 variations chosen because they include every letter in 
the alphabet. You can also create your own practice sets. This 
outstanding program was written by a certified teacher and pro- 
fessional programmer and comes with a ten page student 
manual-study guide. Requires 16K Extended Basic. 



FREE 
SHIPPING 



29 



$0/1 95 

Cassette £J\ smikkinu Disk 

ETT is being used in schools throughout the U.S. 
See ETT at your favorite dealer or order direct. 
DEALER INQUIRES INVITED 



95 



m sCoCo 
G Waiehouse 

Where Shopping By Mail is "USER FRIENDLY" 

500A N. DOBSON ■ WESTLAND, Ml 48185 
Phone (313) 722-7957 



150 

16) 3 

17) 3 

18) 3 

19) 3 

200 

21) 3 

22) 3 

23) 3 

24) 3 

25) 3 

26) 3 

27) 3 

28) 3 

29) 3 

310 
320 
330 
340 
350 



DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 
DRAW 



C2BM110 
C2BM120 
C2BM130 
C2BM140 
C2BM150 
C2BM140 
C2BM130 
C2BM120 
C2BM120 
C2BM120 
C2BM125 
C2BM120 
C2BM125 
C2BM130 
C2BM135 
C2BM140 
C2BM145 
C2BM145 
C2BM150 
C2BM160 
C2BM160 



90 
90 
95 
95 
95 
80 
75 
70 
60 
50 
45 
40 
35 
25 

20 
15 

15 

10 
10 
10 



"+D$ 
"+D$ 
"+D$ 
"+C$ 
"+F$ 
"+A$ 
"+A$ 

"+A$ 
"+A$ 
"+A$ 
"+B$ 
"+E$ 
"+E$ 
"+A$ 
M +A$ 
"+A$ 
"+C$ 
"+G$ 
"+H$ 
"+D$ 



5"+D$ 



1000 GOTO1000 



Listing 2: FLIGHT 1 



190 . 
270 . 
END 



120 
247 
.52 
116 



T 



0 '<LISTING2> 

1 ' CREATED BY J. KOLAR, 1985 

10 PMODE3, l:PCLS3:SCREENl f 0 

20 A$="F6E6" 

21 B$="F6R6" 

22 C$="R6E6" 

23 D$="E6F6" 

24 E$="F12 n 

25 F$="E12" 

26 G$="R12" 

27 H$="R6F6" 

30 DRAW"C2BM10,10"+B$ 

31 FOR Z=1TO100:NEXT 
35 DRAW ,I C3BM10,10"+B$ 

40 DRAW II C2BM15,20"+A$ 

41 FOR Z=1T075:NEXT 
45 DRAW"C3BM15,20 M +A$ 

50 DRAW"C2BM25,20"+A$ 

51 FOR Z=l TO 10)3 : NEXT 
55 DRAW"C3BM25,20 I, +A$ 

60 DRAW M C2BM3 5,20"+A$ 

61 FOR Z*l TO 150: NEXT 
65 DRAW"C3BM35,20"+A$ 

70 DRAW"C2BM40,35"+B$ 

71 FOR Z=1TO10)ZJ:NEXT 
75 DRAW"C3BM40, 35"+B$ 

80 DRAW"C2BM50 / 40"+E$ 

81 F0RZ=1T075:NEXT 

85 DRAW"C3BM50,40"+E$ 
90 DRAW"C2BM60,45"+B$ 



42 THE RAINBOW March 1986 




Owls nest 



SOFTWARE 



' WE GIVE A HOOT ' 

NEW! SNAKES ALIVE 

You must maneuver an ever growing snake through an 
ever more difficult maze and eat the fruit that 
appears. As you progress from level to level the 
screen becomes increasingly difficult. The action 
is controlled by the keyboard so joysticks are not 
required. This game is addictive! 
16K EXT Postpaid Disk $20.95 Cassette $17.95 

NEW! CHILDRENS GRAPHIC STORYBOOK SERIES 

These delightful children's storys will amuse, amaze 

and educate your children with words and pictures. 

THE STAR LIGHTER presents an entertaining story and 
illustrates star constellations in graphic displays. 
Requires 64K EXT Tape or 32K EXT Disk. 

THE DRAGON STORY presents a story about a girl and 
a dragon in words and graphic pictures. Requires 64K 
EXT tape or 32K EXT Disk. 

A VISIT TO THE BEACH presents an easy to read story 
about two children and their pets on a visit to the 
beach. Requires 32K EXT Tape or Disk. 

The storybooks are $15.00 Tape or $17.00 Disk. Take 
any two on tape or Disk for $25.00 or all three on 
Tape or Disk for $30.00 

LABEL64 - LABEL 64 is a name and address file/print 
system that takes advantage of your 64K. You can deve- 
lop and maintain a mailing list* Print lists or mail- 
ing labels in your choice of 1, 2, or 3 wide. Sup- 
ports 3 or 4 line addresses with phone optional. You 
can sort by last name, first name, and/or zip code. 
You can work with up to 300 records in memory at a time. 
We include a aecond copy for back up at no additional 
charge. Take advantage of your 64K with LABEL64. 
Cassette - 64K EXT Postpaid $24.95 

FILE64 - FILE64 ia a data management system designed 
to take advantage of a 64K machine. You can create 
and maintain records on anything you choose. Recipes , 
coupons, household records, financial records - you 
name it. You create records containing up to five 
fields you define. You can search, sort, modify, add, 
delete, save on tape, display on the screen and print 
on a printer. The program could cost you much more 
and we include a back up copy at no additional charge. 
Cassette - 64K EXT Postpaid $24.95 

SAVE $$ Take both our LABE;L64 and FILE64 for only 
$40.00 Postpaid. Don*t miss this special offer! 

ALCATRAZ ADVENTURE Our newest and we think most in- 
volved adventure. You have been unjustly imprisioned 
and sentenced to death. You must escape to prove 
your innocence. You will fece many unique problems 
as you work on your goal. If you liked our BASHAN 
adventure you will love ALCATRAZ. Your adventure 
contains a large vocabulary and some unique features. 
This is a tough one recommended for advanced players. 
32K EXT Postpaid Disk $20.95 Caasette $17.95 

CUBE ADVENTURE - Cube ia a non violent adventure for 
a minimum 16K EXT system. You must locate and enter 
the "CUBE" gathering treasures along the way. You 
will encounter aome unique problems as you work on 
your goal. CUBE ia an intermediate to hard adven- 
ture 8uit8ble for everyone* 

16K EXT postpaid Disk $20.95 Cassette $17.95 

Canadian dealers may contact Kelly Software Dist. 
LTD. P.O. Box 11932 Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3L1 



NOW LABEL I II IS AVAILABLE ON DISK! 

LABELIII - (Reviewed in Nov 83 Rainbow) With LABEL III 
you can develop and Maintain a mailing list. Print listi 
or mailing labels in your choice of 1, 2, or 3 wide. 
Supporta 3 or 4 line addresses with phone optional. 
Sort by laat name,, first name or zip code. 
16K EXT Postpaid Disk $21.95 Cassette $19.95 

FILEIII - Data management system. With FILEIII you 
can create and maintain records on anything you choose. 
Recipes, coupons, household records, financial records - 
you name it. You create records containing up to five 
fields that you define. You can search, aort, add, 
delete, modify, display on the screen or aend to a 
printer. The program ia user friendly end user proof. 
Prompting is extensive. A comparable program could 
cost you much more. This one is a baraainl 
16K EXT Poatpaid Disk $21.95 Caeaette $19.95 

PROGRAM FILE - (rev Oct 83 Rainbow) Organize your 
programs. With PROGRAM FILE you create a file of your 
computer programs. You can sesrch, sort, add, modify, 
delete, save to tape and display on the acreen or 
•end to a printer. 

16K EXT Postpaid Disk $16.95 Caasette $14.95 

DATA MANAGEMENT PACKAGE - Save $$ Take the three above 
on diak or tape (apecify) for only $40.00 Postpaid 

ESPIONAGE ISLAND ADVENTURE - (reviewed in June 84 Rain- 
bow) You have been dropped off on an island by submarine. 
You must recover a top secret microfilm and aignal the 
sub to pick you up. Problems abound in this 32K EXT 
adventure • 

32K EXT Poatpaid Diak $20.95 Caasette $17.95 

FOUR MILE ISLAND - You are trapped in a disabled nuclear 
power plant. The reactor is running swsy. You must 
bring the resctor to a cold shutdown and prevent the 
"China Syndrome" , Can you save the plant (and your- 
self)? It 1 8 not eaayj 

16K EXT Postpaid Disk $20.95 Cassette $17.95 

KINGDOM OF BASHAN - Our flagship adventure. Baehan has 
a very large vocabulary and some unique features. You 
muat enter BASHAN (not easy), gather the ten treasures 
of the ancient kingdom (even harder) and return to the 
starting point (harder yet). If you can score the 
maximum 200 points in BASHAN you are an expert! 
32K EXT Postpaid Disk $20.95 Cassette $17.95 

ADVENTURE COMBO Save $$ The three above adventurea on 
three cassettes or one disk (specify) postpaid for only 
$40.00 

ATLANTIS ADVENTURE - This one is not easy - in fsct 
we challenge you to complete it in 30 days. If you do 
ve will send you any adventure we sell - postpaid - st 
absolutely no charge. . You stsrt on a disabled sub 
near the lost city of Atlsntis. You must get the sub 
(and youraelf) 8afely to the surface. Do you think 
Atlantians are friendly? 

Postpaid 32K EXT Disk $24.95 16K EXT Cassette $21.95 

ADVENTURE STARTER - Lesrn to play those adventures the 
psinless way. You start with an easy adventure and 
move to an intermediate. Two complete separate non 
violent adventures plus hints and tips on adventuring 
in general. Finish this and you will be ready for 
ATLANTISi 

16K EXT Postpaid Disk $20.95 Csssette $17.95 

C.O.D. orders please add 1 .50 
No Delay For Personal Checks 
In a Hurry? Call (61 5) 238-9458 

OWLS NEST SOFTWARE 

P. O. BOX 579 

OOLTEWAH. TN 37363 





91 FOR Z=1T0 75: NEXT 
95 DRAW'C3BM60,45"+B$ 

100 DRAW'C2BM70,45"+A$ 

101 FOR Z=1TO150:NEXT 
105 DRAW'C3BM70,45"+A$ 

110 DRAW'C2BM75,55"+A$ 

111 FOR Z=1T0125:NEXT 
115 DRAW'C3BM75,55"+A$ 

120 DRAW'C2BM85,60"+A$ 

121 FOR Z=l TO 12 5: NEXT 
125 DRAW'C3BM85,60"+A$ 

130 DRAW'C2BM90,70"+A$ 

131 FOR Z=1T075:NEXT 
135 DRAW I C3BM90,70"+A$ 

140 DRAW"C2BM95,75 II +C$ 

141 FOR Z=1T0175:NEXT 
145 DRAW'C3BM95,75"+C$ 

150 DRAW'C2BM110,90"+D$ 

151 FOR Z=1TO100:NEXT 
155 DRAW"C3BM110 / 90 II +D$ 

160 DRAW"C2BM120,90"+D$ 

161 FOR Z=1TO100:NEXT 
165 DRAW"C3BM120,90"+D$ 

170 DRAW'C2BM130,95"+D$ 

171 FOR Z=l TO 125: NEXT 
175 DRAW"C3BM130,95"+D$ 

180 DRAW'C2BM140,95"+C$ 

181 F0RZ=1T0125:NEXT 
185 DRAW"C3BM140,95 M +C$ 

190 DRAW'C2BM150,95"+F$ 

191 FOR Z=1T0 17 5: NEXT 
195 DRAW'C3BM150,95"+F$ 

200 DRAW" C2 BM140 , 80"+A$ 

201 FOR Z=1T0125:NEXT 
205 DRAW"C3BM140,80"+A$ 

210 DRAW'C2BM130,75"+A$ 

211 FOR Z=1TO100:NEXT 
215 DRAW»C3BM130,75"+A$ 

220 DRAW'C2BM120,70"+A$ 

221 F0RZ=1T075:NEXT 
225 DRAW"C3BM120,70"+A$ 

230 DRAW"C2BM120,60"+A$ 

231 FOR Z=1T075:NEXT 
235 DRAW"C3BM120 / 60"+A$ 

240 DRAW'C2BM120,50"+A$ 

241 FOR Z=1T075:NEXT 
245 DRAW"C3BM120,50"+A$ 

250 DRAW'C2BM125,45"+B$ 

251 FOR Z=1T075:NEXT 
255 DRAW'C3BM125,45"+B$ 

260 DRAW'C2BM120,40"+E$ 

261 FOR Z=1T075:NEXT 
265 DRAW"C3BM120,40"+E$ 

270 DRAW"C2BM125,35"+E$ 

271 FOR Z=l TO 100: NEXT 
275 DRAW'C3BM125,35"+E$ 

280 DRAW"C2BM130,25"+A$ 

281 FOR Z=1T075:NEXT 



285 DRAW 
290 DRAW 



291 F0RZ=1T075:NEXT 



295 DRAW 
300 DRAW 



301 FOR Z=1T0 75: NEXT 



305 DRAW 
310 DRAW 



311 FOR Z=1T075:NEXT 



315 DRAW 
320 DRAW 



325 DRAW 
330 DRAW 



335 DRAW 
340 DRAW 



345 DRAW 
350 DRAW 



C3BM130,25"+A$ 
C2BM135,20"+A$ 



C3BM135,20"+A$ 
C2BM140,15"+A$ 



C3BM140, 15"+A$ 
C2BM145, 15"+C$ 



C3BM145,15"+C$ 
C2BM145,10"+G$ 



321 FOR Z=1T0 75: NEXT 



C3BM145 / 10"+G$ 
C2BM150,10"+H$ 



331 FOR Z=1T0125:NEXT 



C3BM150, 10"+H$ 
C2BM160 / 10"+D$ 



341 FOR Z=1T0 75:NEXT 



C3BM160,10"+D$ 
C2BM160,5"+D$ 
351 FOR Z=1TO200:NEXT 
355 DRAW I C3BM160,5"+D$ 
1000 GOTO10 



171 . 
260 . 
END 



..97 
.37 
144 
203 



Listing 3: FLIGHT 2 



T 



0 '<LISTING3> 

1 1 CREATED BY J. KOLAR, 1985 

10 PMODE3 , 1 : PCLS3 : SCREEN1 , 0 

11 DRAW'C1BM0,140R40D10R10U90R10 
D30R50D50R40U40R10D40R10U90R40D1 
00R10U10R10D10R10U40R20BD50L255" 

12 PAINT (5, 145) ,2,1 

13 PAINT(5,190) ,1,1 

20 A$="F6E6" 

21 B$="F6R6" k 

22 C$="R6E6" 

23 D$="E6F6" 

24 E$="F12" 

25 F$="E12" 

2 6 G$="R12" 
27 H$="R6F6" 

30 DRAW'C2BM10,10 M +B$ 

31 SOUND125,3 

35 DRAW'C3BM10, 10»+B$ 

40 DRAW I C2BM15,20"+A$ 

41 SOUND 89,2 

45 DRAW I C3BM15,20"+A$ ■ 

50 DRAW'C2BM25,20"+A$ 

51 SOUND125,3 

55 DRAW'C3BM25,20"+A$ 
60 DRAW'C2BM35,20 I, +A$ 



44 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



WELL RESPECTED 

& 

HIGHLY ACCLAIMED 



WORD PROCESSOR 

Elite»Word is highly respected for its powerful 
features AND excellent ease-of-use. Don't compro- 
mise one for the other . . . Elite* Word is ready to do 
your letters and reports. 32K req. 

Elite»Word (Disk) -Radio Shack #90-0184 $69.95 

Elite»Word (Tape) — Radio Shack #90-01 83 $69.95 

Elite«Word / OS-9-Radio Shack #90-01 86 $79.95 

Elite»Word/PBJ' (Disk or Tape) 80 column display $79.95 




Elite«Word is a terrific word processor with an im- 
pressive list of features, yet it's easy to learn and use. 

— Stuart Hawkinson, HOT COCO 



1 like Elite»File ... it s power and speed have to be 
seen to be appreciated. 

-Ed Lowe, RAINBOW 



Bruce Cook's Elite»Calc is, . . . potentially one of the 
great Color Computer programs. ... is the easiest to 
use and most intuitive of the major CoCo speadsheet 
calculators." 

— Scott Norman, HOT COCO 



SPELLING CHECKER 

Elite«Spel checks your text against its powerful 
24,000 word dictionary, and does the job FAST. 
You won't wait long with Elite* Spel reading your 
text. 32K req, 

Elite»Spel (Disk only) -Radio Shack #90-0185. . . . $39.95 
Elite»Spel (When purchased with 

Elite»Word from ELITE) $15.00 

Elite»Spel / PBJ' (Disk only) 80 column display $49.95 



TERMINAL PROGRAM 



Elite«Comm turns your CoCo into a powerful 300 
baud terminal, and it's smooth and easy to use. 

Elite»Comm (Tape or Disk) $39.95 

Elite'Comm / PBJ* (Tape or Disk) 

80 column display $49.95 





Too often, "power" is achieved at the expense of 
simplicity of operation. Elite Software has more than 
met that challenge with their Elite*Word . . . 
-Don Lloyd, ONLINE TODAY- COMPUSERVE 



Not all software "plays" the same . . . 

Our programs have been widely recognized 
for their ease-of-use, powerful features, 
performance speed, and cross-file com- 
patability. 

Elite Software DOES make a difference. 



Hike S&Atusate 



SPREADSHEET 

Elite«Calc/3.0 gives you more features than the 
widely acclaimed Elite«CaIc. You get Window 
Lock, 4 screen displays, expanded worksheet 
storage and more. 32K req. 

Elite»Calc/3.0 (Disk) -Radio Shack #90-0 188 $69.95 

E1ite»Calc/3.0 (Tape) -Radio Shack #90-01 97 ... $69.95 

Elite«Calc (Original ver. 1 .2) Tape or Disk . > . , $39.95 

Elite«Calc/3.0/PBJ* (Disk only) 80 column display $79.95 



DATABASE MANAGER 



Elite»File is the database manager that handles 
more total records, larger records, and manipulates 
data faster. Whether your data is inventory items or 
recipes, Elite*File is the correct choice. 32K req. 

Elite«File (Disk only) — Radio Shack #90-01 89 $74.50 

Elite«File / PBJ* (Disk only) 80 column display .... $79.95 

'Requires PBJ Word Pak hardware 



ft 






Buy direct: Add $3.00 shipping 
PA residents add 6% sales tax 



NOW AT 



£11 It a Software 

Radio /haeK 



STORES 



Available via Expraaa Ortar 

&h«cfc it ■ tr«d n n » « Ttntfy Corporation 



201 Penn Center Blvd., Suite 301, • Pittsburgh, PA 15235 • (412)795-8492 




Elite*Home lets your Color Computer manage some very 
important household items. In creating Elite 9 Home, we se- 
lected the most requested home database applications, 
and custom designed E//7e«Home to handle them. AH of 
these custom applications are completely finished, fully 
detailed and READY TO USE. Just load-in YOUR data. One 
major advantage is that Elite*Home contains a modified 

• COLLECTIONS —Build a complete catalog of all your personal 
collections, like Stamps, Photos, Records, etc. 

• IMPORTANT DATES — Quicklyl What dates are coming up that are 
important to you? See, you need Elite* Home already to remember 
Birthdays, Anniversaries, Quarterly payments, etc. 

• CREDIT CARD INVENTORY —If you lost your wallet/purse 
tomorrow, who would you contact, and with what information? 
Elite^Home would remember. 

• HOME INVENTORY - In case of fire or theft, could you remember all 
details for lost items? Why not let your children catalog your po- 
ssessions on EIUe«Home. You gain protection, they gain computer 
database experience. 

EXCEPTIONAL VALUE 
$59.95 Order Now! 32K, Disk Only 



version of our highly respected Elite*File program. This 
feature insures that you'll get fast and efficient processing 
of your information, without having to learn all the messy 
details about databases. Look at the applications below.. . 
at less than $10 per application area, Elite*Home offers an 
exceptional user value. 



MAILING LABELS —Stop hand addressing the same envelopes when 
paying bills every month. Elite'Home is ready to do your mailing lists 
for Clubs, Church, Leagues, and Bill paying. 

PHONE BOOK —OK, so we all keep a personal phone book . . , 
whether it's in the kitchen drawer or our briefcase. If you used the 
Elite«Home phone book, you could ask for a display of all the card 
club phone numbers, do a search for the "contractor" that did that 
work last year (what was his name anyway?), etc. 

CAR REPAIRS -When was the last time you changed oil in that 
car(s) of yours? When is state inspection due? Let Elite»Home keep 
track of your service records, and inspection dates. 

CHECKS —At tax time, do you go back through your check book and 
total checks for donations? What about the total for medical ex- 
penses? With data from your checks stored on Elite«Home, you can 
quickly select any grouping of checks for a display and total. 

Not available thru Radio Shack. 



Elite^Desk 



Elite*Desk brings a calculator, calendar, note pad, and 
ASCII table to your Color Computer. You can use 
Elite 9 Desk by itself, or have it run co-resident with any pro- 
gram in the Elite Software series. Imagine being able to 
"pull down" a calendar or calculator while typing text on 
Elite*Word, saving notes while using Elite 9 Calc, or "call- 
ing-up" an ASCII table while working on a Basic program. 



We've made Elite*Desk fully re-locatable so you can try it 
with other programs as well. Whether you use Elite*Desk 
by itself, or along-side another program, it's a valuable 
addition to your software library. Remember, if you've ever 
reached for a calculator, calendar, or note pad while using 
your Color Computer . . . then you need Elite^Desk. 



El 



CALCULATOR -Full featured, with all standard functions . . . 
plus 3 memories. Also works in HEX as an added feature for 
programmers. 

CALENDAR —Shows all days in any month. Lets you "scroll" 
through months and years with the arrow keys. 



El 
El 



ASCII TABLE -Full table displays all hex and ASCII values. 
An excellent quick-reference tool. 

NOTE PAD -Write and save a full screen of text for later 
reference. Also includes directory and kill-file capability. 



16K if used alone 

64K with other programs 



Buy direct: Add $3.00 shipping 
PA residents add 6% sales tax 



EXCEPTIONAL VALUE 
$49.95 Order NOW! Disk Only 

Not available thru Radio Shack. 



201 Penn Center Blvd., Suite 301,* Pittsburgh, PA 15235 • (412)795-8492 



Move your Co Co into the "big leagues " with 
£tite Software and PBJ Word Pak II 

FULL 80 COLUMN CAPABILITY 



• No Tools— Everything plugs together 



• No Hardware modifications 



• ELITE SOFTWARE a PBJ U 0 R P * P ft < 

ftt l»i... you can give fOUR Color Corfuter a full SO character &C iwi 
display, AND have powerful software that's easy to use. Elite Software and 
the PBJ Word-Pa*!.... truly a winning cot* 1 nation. 

It's easy... all you need for an 90 coluwi display is Word-P*. [J, a "'f" Cable 
(for disk, users), and a Monitor. Everything plugs together. NO harduare 
Modifications are needed. 

Imagine using the power of a program hi* Elitt«Uord with an 80 solum 
display. Elite*fard/PBJ practically displays your final docuwent. Just lot* 
ft this screen. . . you see Right-Side text justification, Page Nurtwring, 
ftrttot Page Margin, Page Break., Top Margin, and Auto-Ur* Centering. 
EIite^tord/PBJ can display even Morei EUte*Spel/PBJ will find your spelling 



■ at m urn 



l *W LOOK AT f HI 1 

}' »)> FULL M C 0 L U Iff II I I S P L 0 V «.« 

5- ie*j:ssts;;s53s;esssssssKS?ctSBasc5aS5SseK»ssB?ttSM3ssaau?ssawt:Ksss¥Kw»»M 




AT THIS llll 
t. U If II I I S P L 0 V «« 



errors. And >ift look at Elite*Calc/PBJ with an 80 coluwi screen display. 



9 CHK I 

tl lili 

11 m\ 

\i m 

1* 1823 

13' 1824 

U IKS 

i? 1126 

U 112? 

19 1828 

21' 1825 



ttOHTHLV CHECK LISTER 



W1TUH TO 
ELITE. IHC 
tlECTRIC LIGHT CO 
JOHH DOUGH 

1HFE8HBL REVEHUE SERVICE 
RftlKIOH HR6AZME 
ELITE, IRC 
RAIIO SHACK 
ELITE, IHC 



IftflftCE HfWflft!' 11243.5* 



mi 

4/IV84 
4^28/84 
4/25/84 



flHOOHT 
179 95 
1182.58 
158 88 

f 128)0 8§ 
$14.88 
124.95 

J123 95 
$29 95 



KMSIT MLMCE 
fii£3 61 
siMi 11 
$1811 U 
$588 *S $1511.11 
$311 11 
$297 U 



Elite* Word/PBJ* (Disk or Tape) 80 column display 

$79.95 



Elite»Calc/3.0/PBJ* (Disk only) 80 column display 

$79.95 



Elite»Spel/PBJ* (Disk only) 80 column display 
$49.95. Only $20.00 when purchased with 
Elite»Word/PBJ. Elite«File/PBJ* (Disk only) 
80 column display $79.95. Elite»Comm/PBJ* 
(Tape or Disk) 80 column display $49.95. 



Hardware required: 
WORD-PAK II 

Our Price $125.00 
$3.00 Shipping/Handling 

"Y" Cable Connector $25.00 



Disk Manager/PBJ . . . Lets you move files from 
one disk to another. Also, purge files or move them 
to tape. Works with one or more disk drives. List 
$39.95. 

Mot available thru Radio Shack. 



CoCo 




READY NOW! An excellent implementation of the famous 
LISP language, now available for the Color Computer. Now 
you can have the language that has been gaining much 
attention in the field of artificial intelligence and other 
applications. CoCo-LISP supports all the LISP primitives, 
including data structure (LISTs), recursive functions, and 

• Gse functions as data for other functions 

• Permits functions to be called recursively 

• Add your own functions; use as if built-in 

• Write self-modifying programs 

• Over 70 built-in functions 

SUPER VALUE 
$89.95 Order NOW! 



garbage-collection. CoCo-LISP has over 70 built-in func- 
tions, super performance, and a high-res, full-screen 
editor for program development. If you already know the 
LISP language, and have been waiting for a Color Com- 
puter version, CoCo-LISP is for you. 64K, RSDOS required. 

• Supports all LISP primitives 

• High-res screen with true upper/lower case display 

• Full screen editor for program development 

• Full disk access and printer supported 



64K Disk only. 



£/ite Software 



Not available thru Radio Shack. 

201 Penn Center Blvd., Suite 301, • Pittsburgh, PA 15235 • (412)795-8492 



+A$ 
+B$ 

+B$ 
+E$ 

+E$ 
+B$ 



+A$ 
+A$ 

+A$ 
+A$ 

+A$ 
+A$ 

+A$ 
+C$ 



61 SOUND159,2 
65 DRAW"C3BM35,20 

70 DRAW"C2BM40,35 

71 SOUND125,3 
75 DRAW"C3BM40,35 

80 DRAW"C2BM50,40 

81 SOUND89,2 
85 DRAW"C3BM50,40 

90 DRAW"C2BM60,45 

91 SOUND89,3 
95 DRAW"C3BM60,45 M +B$ 

100 DRAW"C2BM70,45"+A$ 

101 S0UND159,2 
105 DRAW"C3BM70,45 

110 DRAW"C2BM75, 55 

111 SOUND133,2 
115 DRAW"C3BM75,55 

120 DRAW"C2BM85,60 

121 SOUND133,2 
125 DRAWC3BM85, 60 

130 DRAW"C2BM90,70 

131 S0UND89,2 
135 DRAW"C3BM90,70 

140 DRAW"C2BM95,75 

141 S0UND89,2 

145 DRAW"C3BM95,75"+C$ 

150 DRAW"C2BM110,90"+D$ 

151 SOUND125,2 
155 DRAW M C3BM110 

160 DRAWC2BM120 

161 S0UND125,2 
165 DRAW"C3BM120 

170 DRAWC2BM130 

171 S0UND125,2 
175 DRAWC3BM130 

180 DRAW"C2BM140 

181 SOUND133,2 
185 DRAWC3BM140 

190 DRAWC2BM150 

191 SOUND170,2 
195 DRAW"C3BM150 

200 DRAW"C2BM140 

201 SOUND133,2 
205 DRAWC3BM140 

210 DRAWC2BM130 

211 SOUND 125,2 
215 DRAW"C3BM130 

220 DRAW M C2BM120 

221 SOUND89,2 
225 DRAW M C3BM120 

230 DRAWC2BM120 

231 SOUND89,2 
235 DRAW"C3BM120 

240 DRAWC2BM120 

241 SOUND89,2 
245 DRAWC3BM120 

250 DRAW"C2BM125 

251 SOUND89,2 

255 DRAW"C3BM12 5,45"+B$ 



90 


"+D$ 


90 


"+D$ 


90 


"+D$ 


95 


"+D$ 


95 


"+D$ 


95 


"+C$ 


95 


"+C$ 


95 


"+F$ 


95 


"+F$ 


80 


"+A$ 


80 


"+A$ 


75 


"+A$ 


75 


"+A$ 


70 


"+A$ 


70 


"+A$ 


60 


"+A$ 


60 


"+A$ 


50 


"+A$ 


50 


"+A$ 


45 


"+B$ 



40 
35 

35 
25 

25 
20 

20 
15 

15 
15 

15 
10 

10 
10 

10 
10 



•+E$ 
'+E$ 

'+E$ 
•+A$ 

•+A$ 
•+A$ 

■+A$ 
'+A$ 

•+A$ 
•+C$ 

'+C$ 
•+G$ 

'+G$ 
•+H$ 

'+H$ 
'+D$ 



10"+D$ 
5"+D$ 



260 DRAW"C2BM120 / 40"+E$ 

261 SOUND89,2 
265 DRAW"C3BM120 

270 DRAW"C2BM12 5 

271 SOUND125,2 
275 DRAWC3BM125 

280 DRAW"C2BM130 

281 SOUND89,2 
285 DRAWC3BM130 

290 DRAW"C2BM135 

291 SOUND89,2 
295 DRAW"C3BM135 

300 DRAW"C2BM140 

301 SOUND89,2 
305 DRAWC3BM140 

310 DRAW"C2BM145 

311 SOUND 89,2 
315 DRAW"C3BM145 

320 DRAW"C2BM145 

321 SOUND89,2 
325 DRAWC3BM145 

330 DRAW"C2BM150 

331 SOUND13 3,2 
335 DRAW"C3BM150 

340 DRAW"C2BM160 

341 SOUND89,2 
345 DRAW"C3BM160 

350 DRAW"C2BM160 

351 SOUND 176,2 

355 DRAW M C3BM160,5"+D$ 

1000 FOR Z=l TO 1000: NEXT :GOTO10 

Listing 4: BATS 

0 '<BATS> 

1 1 (C) 1985, J. KOLAR 

10 PMODE3,l:PCLS 3: SCREEN 1,0 

11 DRAW"C1BM0,135R44D10R6U90R10D 
30R50D50R40U40R10D40R10U90R40D10 
0R10U10R10D10R10U40R20BD54L255" 

12 PAINT(5,145) ,2,1 

13 PAINT(5,190) ,1,1 
20 A$="F6E6 M 

23 D$="E6F6" 

30 DRAW"C2BM=X; ,=Y;"+A$ 

32 GOSUB100 

35 DRAW"C3BM=X; ,=Y;"+A$ 
40 DRAW"C2BM=X ;,=Y ;"+D$ 
42 GOSUB100 

45 DRAW"C3BM=X; ,=Y;"+D$ 
50 DRAW"C2BM=X; ,=Y;"+A$ 
52 GOSUB100 

55 DRAW"C3BM=X; ,=Y;"+A$ 
60 DRAW"C2BM=X; ,=Y; M +D$ 
62 GOSUB100 

65 DRAW"C3BM=X; ,=Y;"+D$ 

70 X=RND(25) *10-10 : Y=RND (15) *10 

71 GOTO30 

100 FOR Z=1TO10: NEXT .'RETURN /R\ 



48 THE RAINBOW March 1986 






16K 
ECB 




, the- * 
RAINBOW 




program for an important announcement 




and Couch Potatoes 






«• " *! 



Bill Bernico 



* * 





®1$ 




hat's the matter? Is your family 
on your case because your com- 
puter's always hooked up to the 
television and they can't watch their 
favorite shows? Now you can "solve" that 
problem with TV Shows (provided they 
haven't already disconnected you from the 
tube). 

Actually "solve" is not quite accurate. 
Though this program doesn't truly solve 
that very real dilemma, it does offer a 
tongue-in-cheek response to it by using the 
CoCo's sound and graphics capabilities. 

Upon running the program you'll see a 
familiar sight — a television set. Along the 
left side of the screen you are presented 
with a list of nine choices. The last seven 
are things to watch on the TV and the first 
two are options that allow you to either 
turn the television on or off. Your choice 

Bill Bernico is a self-taught computerist who enjoys golf, 
music and programming. He is a drummer with a rock band 
and lives in Sheboygan, Wisconsin* 



i4 




It-! I E" CmJ 




is selected by using the up and down 
arrows. When you have chosen your 
option, press ENTER. 

What! You selected a television show 
but nothing happened? Did you re- 
member to turn the set on? Just as in 
real life, you can't watch anything until 
you first turn on the TV. Move the 
arrow to the top and press ENTER. Now 
the set's on and you can go ahead and 
select a program. 

When you're finished watching tele- 
vision, don't forget to turn it off again. 
You can do this by moving the arrow up 
to the second option and pressing 
ENTER, Once the set is turned off, trying 
to select anything else is useless; the set 
has to be on first. 

Any questions about how this pro- 
gram was constructed may be directed 
to me at my address in the listing (lines 
20-40). Please send an SASE for a 
reply. □ 



Sample Printouts 



TU SHQUS 



TURN jOM TU 



NETWORK NEMS 
CAR CARE SHOW 
WESTERN HOUIE 
THE LOUE BOAT 
MUSIC TELEVISION 
COPS AND ROBBERS 
THREE STOOGES 



^^4< 



240 22 680 . 

410 ......117 730 . 

530 ......112 770 . 

640 205 END 



..83 
.163 
..21 
.153 



T 



The listing: TV SHOWS 



10 
20 

30 
40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 



'TELEVISION SHOWS 
'BY BILL BERNICO 
'708 MICHIGAN AVE. 
' SHEBOYGAN , WI 53081 
' (414) 459-7350 



CLEAR 500 
SP$="BR6 
PD$="BR3R 
100 WA$="F2R2E2UDF2R2E2UDF2R2E2U 
DF2R2E2UDF2R2E2UDF2R2E2UDF2R2E2U 
DF2R2E2UDF2R2E2UDF2R2E2UDF2R2E2U 

DF 

110 N1$="BR3NU4 

120 N3$="BR3R3U2NL2U2NL3BD4 

130 A$=" BR3U3 ERFDNL3 D2 

140 B$="BR3U4R2FGNL2FGL2BR3 

150 C$="BR4REGLHU2ERFBD3 

160 D$="BR3U4R2FD2GL2BR3 

170 E$="BR3NR3U2NR2U2R3BD4 

180 F$="BR3U2NR2U2R3BD4 

190 G$=" BR3 BU4 BR3 L2 GD2 FREULBR2 BD 

2 

200 H$="BR3U4D2R3U2D4 

210 I$="BR3R2LU4NLRBD4 

220 J$="BR3BUFREU3LR2BD4 

230 K$=" BR3U2RNF2NE2LU2BR3BD4 

240 L$="BR3NR3U4BR3BD4 

250 M$="BR3U4FRED4 




TU SHOW S 



TURN -ON I TU 



TURN 'OF F TU 



«-» NETWORK NEWS 
CAR CARE SHOW 
WESTERN HOUIE 
THE LOUE BOAT 
MUSIC TELEUISION 
COPS AND ROBBERS 
THREE STOOGES 




260 N$="BR3U4F3DNU4 

270 0$="BR3BUU2ERFD2GLNHBR 

280 P$="BR3U4R2FGL2BR2BD2 

290 Q$="BR3BUU2ERFD2GNUNRLHBR3BD 

300 R$="BR3U4R2FGL2RF2 

310 S $ = " BR3 R2 EHLHER2 BD4 

320 T$="BR3BU4R4L2D4BR 

330 U$="BR3NU4R3NU4 

340 V$="BR3BU4D3FRENU3BD 

350 W$="BR3NU4ERFNU4 

360 X$="BR3UE2UDGHUDF2D 

370 Y$= " BR3 BU4 DFEUDGD2 BR 

380 PMODE4,l:PCLSl:SCREENl,l:COL 

OR0 , 1 : DRAW'S 4 BM130 , 170C0U90R100D 

90L100BE9U72R70D72L70": PAINT (142 

,91) ,0,0: CIRCLE (220, 100) , 7 : FOR X 

=120 TO 150 STEP10:CIRCLE(220,X) 

,4:NEXT:CIRCLE(178,80) ,11,0,1,-5 

,1:DRAW"BM178,70NH30E30BM220, 100 

U7D14": CIRCLE (148, 40) ,2 

390 CIRCLE (208, 40) , 2 : PAINT ( 178 , 7 

7) ,0,0:DRAW"BM10,9S8"+T$+V$+SP$+ 

S$+H$+O$+W$+S$:DRAW"BM10,11R50 

400 DRAWS4" : LINE ( 17 , 3 9 ) - ( 90 , 3 1) 

,PSET,B:PAINT(18,36) ,0,0:DRAW"BM 

16,37Cl"+T$+U$+R$+N$+SP$+0$+N$+S 

P$+T$+V$ : DRAWC0 " : LINE ( 17 , 54 ) - ( 9 

0,46) ,PSET,B:PAINT(18,51) ,0,0:DR 

AWBM16 , 52Cl"+T$+U$+R$+N$+SP$+0$ 

+F$+F$+SP$+T$+V$ 

410 DRAW"S4BM15,68C0"+N$+E$+T$+W 
$+0$+R$+K$+SP$+N$+E$+W$+S$ : DRAW" 
BM15 , 83 "+C$+A$+R$+SP$+C$+A$+R$+E 
$+SP$+S$+H$+0$+W$ : DRAWBM15 , 98"+ 
W$+E$+S$+T$+E$+R$+N$+SP$+M$+0$+V 
$+I$+E$ : DRAW "BM 15 , 113 "+T$+H$+E$+ 
SP$+L$+0$+V$+E$+SP$+B$+0$+A$+T$ 
420 DRAW"BM15,128"+M$+U$+S$+I$+C 
$+SP$+T$+E$+L$+E$+V$+I$+S$+I$+0$ 
+N$ : DRAW "BM 15 , 143 »+C$+0$+P$+S$+S 
P$+A$+N$+D$+SP$+R$+0$+B$+B$+E$+R 



50 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



$+S$ : DRAWBM15 , 158"+T$+H$+R$+E$+ 

E$+SP$+S$+T$+0$+0$+G$+E$+S$ 

430 H=0:V=96:ZZ=0 

440 BB$="R10NH3G3 

45)3 DRAW"C0BM=H; ,=V;"+BB$ 

460 II$=INKEY$ 

470 IF II$=CHR$(94)THEN DRAW'CIB 
M=H ; , =V; "+BB$ : SOUND 2 10 , 1 : v-V-15 
480 IF II$=CHR$(10)THEN DRAW'CIB 
M=H; ,=V;"+BB$: SOUND 210,1:V=V+15 
490 IF II$=CHR$(13)AND V=3 6 AND 
ZZ=0 THEN 820 

500 IF II$=CHR$(13)AND V=51 AND 
ZZ=1 THEN 810 

510 IF II$=CHR$(13)AND V=66 AND 
ZZ=1 THEN 610 

520 IF II$=CHR$(13)AND V=81 AND 
ZZ=1 THEN 660 

530 IF II$=CHR$(13)AND V=9 6 AND 
ZZ=1 THEN 680 
540 IF II$=CHR$(13)AND 

ZZ=1 THEN 700 
550 IF II$=CHR$(13)AND 

ZZ=1 THEN 710 
560 IF II$=CHR$(13)AND 

ZZ=1 THEN 730 
570 IF II$=CHR$(13)AND 

ZZ=1 THEN 750 



V=lll AND 
V=12 6 AND 
V=141 AND 
V=156 AND 



580 IF V>156 THEN V=156 
590 IF V<36 THEN V=3 6 
600 GOTO 450 

610 GOSUB 830 :DRAW"C0": CIRCLE (17 
6,120) / 19:CIRCLE(176 / 124) ,3 
620 CIRCLE (169 ,117) ,4,0, .9:CIRCL 
E (183, 117) ,4,0, .9:DRAW"BM171,126 
R10DL10DR10DL10BM165 , 114R7UL7BR1 
5R7DL7BM170, 129F3R6E3BM17 6 , 102D3 
FDFDRDRDR8F2DFD6FRBM176 , 104DGDGD 
LDLDL8G2DGD6GLBM166, 135GDGDGLGL9 
GLGLGDGDGDGDGDG3BM187, 135FDFDFRF 
R9FRFRFDFDFDFBM165, 135 
630 DRAW"M176,160M189,135D12L5F4 
M176,161LBM164, 137D10R4G4M176 , 16 
0 " : CIRCLE ( 177 , 14 2 ) , 4 : PAINT (177,1 
42 ) ,0 ,0 : DRAW"BM177 , 139DF2DF2DF2B 
M177, 139DG2DG2DG2BM175 , 142D14RU1 
4RD15RU14 " : PAINT ( 177 , 103 ) , 0 , 0 : PA 
INT(175,103) ,0,0:PSET(169,117) :P 
SET(183,117) 

640 DRAW"BM149,9 6"+B$+U$+L$+L$+E 
$+T$+I$+N$:FOR X=l TO 2000 .'NEXT: 
GOSUB830 : DRAWBM142 , 96"+N$+E$+W$ 
+S$+SP$+F$+L$+A$+S$+H$ : DRAW "BM 15 
0 , 124 M +R$+A$+I$+N$+B$+0$+W$ : DRAW 
"BM150,132"+M$+A$+G$+A$+Z$+I$+N$ 
+E$: DRAW" BM141, 140 "+N$+A$+M$+E$+ 



GIVE SPEED AND POWER TO YOUR COCO-2! 



fURBO 



•XT' 



BASIC 



TM 



w 



ith TURBO BASICS you can get for your TRS-80 color 
computer 2 the speed 0/ a compiler plus the flexibility of an 
interpreter, You don't need to call a special program to 
compile your BASIC program. TURBO BASIC m is compatible 
with DISK-BASIC and you can run your already existing pro- 



grams without trouble. Here are some features of TURBO 
BASIC^ 

Look at this benchmark for the "Sieve of Erathosthene" 
program. 





COCO-2 


APPLE II 


IBM 


TIME 

(SEC.) 


TURBO BASIC 


DISK BASIC 


EXPEDITER 
(COMPILER) 


APPLESOFT 


COMPILER 


BASICA 


31.3 


192.9 


34.9 


159.0 


20.1 


146.5 



-8 caracters variables 

-64K RAM access without special command 
-DISK-BASIC commands (ROM 1.0 or 1.1) 
-Integer range form - 65535 to + 65535 
-Automatic repeat key hold 
and more- 
Why use a slow BASIC if you can afford a fast and improved 
BASIC for only 39,95$? Available on diskette or cassette. 



□ Check enclosed □ Visa 

□ Master Card □ American Express 

Account Number 

Signature 



Card Expiration Date. 
Name 



nan bid. 



Address 
City 



State 



Zip 



m 



Sainte-Foy Stanford Toronto 



DIDAKTEK Po. Box. 9755 Sainte-Foy, Quebec 

G1V 4C3 CANADA 

Tel.: 1-800-463-5369 1-418-651-8321 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 51 



More than a book . . . 



A MILESTONE 





From tht pvbtHtmt of 

THE RAINBOW,* Tpw Color Computer MontMy MogaUr* 



Also Available! 



ers use snort modules 
readable code tq build com pfejt programs. The 
OS-9 operating system and the high tev£l 
languages it brings you maks the jbb easy, 

OS-9 has go many thfn§B going for H that you 
neisd s guida a?. cq'fTiprehsr^ive and thorough- 



os! diftftdritfes on CS 
iferetfWto SftstBrti that 



ri3 7"rte Complete RafntiQW Guide fp OS-9 to 
show yoEj.haw to fajfc io 0&-9 and realize the 
potential of this (jyfe^fsl^iefffctent 
Implementation of the r'|/. : 6per&JJf^ 

philosophy/ 

Co-authored by L. F re arid P^tef 
Dibble — two of ihe ' . v" - ithtfritfes on C 
9 — The i rnpleta Rainbow Bujt 
dernystjfk^ the dynamic operating system th£ 
gives the Gofer Coifipu'ter rridfe^owGf anrf 
flexibility than many of the higtvcosi compute 
on the markal . , . and gtvee the afriiHv an 
confidence to reach new procramrrring- heigh! 

With The Complete Ramtmw. Guide To OSS;, 
you will be prepared fn take full advantage of 
the muftitasking system thai ts s&Kfng ne^ / ■ 
standards for Color Computer pmc^rpm^o. 
For onfy S1S.Q,5! 



ano: 



f fte Reinbow Guide To OS-9 D^/c. An adjunct ft 
the book for the tutorials,. an<j the package cri I - 
ItengJhy programs Two^pisk Packaae, Sjai 



l to UT^ book, II want 
5-mstiy hours of typing Fti 



□ Please send me The 
Complete Rainbow Guide To 
OS-9 for $19.95.* 



Name 



□ Please send me The Rainbow 
Guide To OS-9 Disk (a 
package of two disks) for 
$31.* Does not include book. 

Signature 




Address 
City 



State 



ZIP. 



□ My check in the amount of 



is enclosed. 




(Mastoid) 




.Card Expiration Date 



□ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

Account Number 

Mail to: 

The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059 

To order by phone call: (502) 228-4492 

*Add $1.50 per book shipping and handling in U.S. Outside U.S. add $4 per book. Allow 4 weeks for delivery. KY residents add 
5% sales tax. In order to hold down costs, we do not bill. ALL ORDERS IN U.S. FUNDS. 

OS-9 is a trademark of Microware Systems Corporation. 



D$+SP$+N$+0$+PD$+SP$+Nl$ 

650 DRAWBM155, 148"+A$+G$+A$+I$+ 

N$+PD$:FOR X=l TO 3:QZ$="1;2;3 ;4 
; 5 ; 6 ; 7 ; 8 ; 9 ; 10 ; 11 ; 12 ; " : PLAY"T905L 

24V15;":PLAY QZ$ : NEXT: GOTO 450 
660 GOSUB 830:DRAW"BM143,100"+C$ 
+A$+R$+SP$+C$+L$+I$+N$+I$+C$ : DRA 
WBM141, 140R68" : CIRCLE (157 , 135) , 
5 : CIRCLE ( 192 , 13 5 ) , 5 : CIRCLE (157,1 
35) ,1: CIRCLE (192 ,135) ,1:DRAW"BM1 
62,136R25BM147,136NR3U20R30F7R18 
D12L3BM150 , 118ND6R17D6L17R9U6BR1 
1ND6R5F6ND12L11D12 
670 FOR X=l TO 1500 : NEXT : EXEC 43 
345:DRAW"BM184,123E13" : FOR K=20 
TO 45 STEP.2:POKE 140 , RND (40) +K: 
EXEC 43345:NEXT:GOTO 450 
680 GOSUB 830:DRAW"BM141, 120M158 
, 110ND2M164 , 104D6M171 , 116D2M178 , 
132 D2GDGLGLGNH5 LGL2HLHUHUHLHLHL2 
HL2HUHU2HU2BM141 , 146E15" : CIRCLE ( 
167,120) ,2:CIRCLE(175,133) , 2 : DRA 
WBM142 , 120ND10BR3BU2ND10BR3BU2N 
D10BR3 BU2ND10BR3 BU2ND10BR3 BU2 D10 
BM179,134R30BL48L8 

690 DRAW"BM186,134E12G3H3F12BM19 
3 , 13 4UERFDBM18 6 , 134BE9BU4H2U2E4U 
2H4U2E4U2" : FOR X=l TO 2:PLAY"04T 
4L9CP8L12CCP8L12CCP8L12CGP8L12EG 
P8L12EGP8L12E" : NEXT: PLAY"L3C" : GO 
TO 450 

700 GOSUB 830:DRAW"BM147,100"+L$ 
+0$+V$+E$+SP$+B$+0$+A$+T$ : DRAW"B 
M148,128NR48R8E3NR26E6R4G2R22G3N 
D3E3L4E7L5G7L5E7L5G7R19G3D3R12D7 
L44H5BM140, 134 "+WA$: GOTO 450 
710 GOSUB 830:DRAW"BM145, 125C0U3 
0R10F15E15R10D30L12U18G13H13D18L 
12BM187, 116E8G4FRFRFRFRFRFBM198, 
10 7 FRFRFRFU10BM1 4 0 , 1 4 0R6 8 BD3 L6 8 B 
D3R68BD3L68BD3R68 " : CIRCLE ( 150 , 14 
2) ,2:CIRCLE(158,149) ,2:CIRCLE(16 
6,152) ,2:CIRCLE(174,146) , 2 : DRAW" 
BM151, 142U8BM159, 149U8 
720 DRAW"BM167,152U8BM175, 146U8B 
M180 , 140D12 " : CIRCLE ( 18 7 , 150 ) , 2 : C 
IRCLE (195 , 155) , 2 : CIRCLE (203 ,145) 
, 2 : DRAW"BM188 , 150U8BM196 , 155U8BM 
204,155U8":PLAY"V15T8L4O3CEGO4CP 
403G04L3C" : GOTO 450 
730 GOSUB830:DRAW"BM150, 100C0"+D 
$+R$+A$+G$+N$+E$+T$ : DRAWBM172 , 1 
10M176,117M185,117M177,122M180, 1 
29M172, 126M165, 129M168 , 122M161, 1 
17M169 , 117M172 , 110BM149 , 150"+S$+ 
T$+A$+R$+R$+I$+N$+G$ : DRAW"BM145 , 
157"+J$+A$+C$+K$+SP$+W$+E$+B$+B$ 
740 CIRCLE (172, 120) , 13 : SOUND 1,1 



2: SOUND 34, 4: SOUND 44, 2: FOR X=l 
TO 3 40: NEXT: SOUND 1,9: FOR X=l TO 
700: NEXT: SOUND 1,12: SOUND 34,4: 
SOUND 44,2:FOR X=l TO 340:NEXT:S 
OUND 1,9: SOUND 79, 12: GOTO 450 
750 GOSUB 830:DRAW"BM145,100C0"+ 
N3$+SP$+S$+T$+0$+0$+G$+E$+S$ : CIR 
CLE(153,130) , 10 : CIRCLE (175 , 130 ) , 
10 : CIRCLE ( 197 , 130 ) , 10 : DRAWBM145 
, 128R16": PAINT (146, 12 6) ,0,0: CIRC 
LE(167,128) ,2:CIRCLE(168,125) ,2: 
CIRCLE (169, 122) , 2 : CIRCLE (183 , 12 8 
) ,2:CIRCLE(182,125) ,2 
760 CIRCLE(181, 122) , 2 : PSET ( 153 , 1 
33) :PSET(175, 133) : PSET ( 197 , 13 3 ) : 
PSET(149, 129) :PSET(157,129) :PSET 
(171,129) :PSET(179,129) :PSET(193 
,129) : PSET (201, 129) : DRAWBM140 , 1 
42E6BR13F3ND21E3BR16F4ND21E4BR15 
F3BM147 , 155"+M$ : DRAWBM172 , 155"+ 
L$:DRAW"BM195, 155"+C$ 



NETHGRK NEWS 
0 ft P. CflRE S H OH 
MESTERN MOUXE 
THE LOUE BOAT 
MUSIC TELEUJSION 
COPS flHD ROBBERS 
THREE ST 005 E S 



\ / 




770 DRAW"BM150,13 6R6BR16R6BR16R6 
780 SOUND 125, 6: SOUND 133,2:SOUN 
D 146, 12: SOUND 146, 4: SOUND 170,8 
: SOUND 159, 6: SOUND 146, 2: SOUND 1 
46, 4: SOUND 175, 5: FOR X=l TO 350: 
NEXT X: SOUND 159, 6: SOUND 146, 2 :S 
OUND 146, 4: SOUND 170, 5: FOR X=l T 
0 350: NEXT X: SOUND 159, 6: SOUND 1 
46,2:SOUND 146,4 

790 SOUND 175, 5: FOR X=l TO 350 :N 
EXT X:SOUND 125,6:S0UND 133,2:SO 
UND 146, 12: SOUND 14 6, 4: SOUND 170 
,8:S0UND 159, 6: SOUND 146, 2: SOUND 
146, 4: SOUND 175, 5: FOR X=l TO 52 
5: NEXT X : PLAY"03T2V25L8EFAAAAGFD 
": SOUND 89, 3 '.SOUND 109, 3: SOUND 1 
2 5, 3: SOUND 109,3 

800 FOR X=l TO 120: NEXT X: SOUND 
125, 3: SOUND 89,3: FOR X=l TO 200: 
NEXT X: SOUND 175, 2: GOTO 450 
810 GOSUB 830: PAINT (142, 91) ,0,0: 
ZZ=0:GOTO 450 
820 GOSUB 830: GOTO 450 
830 LINE (14)3, 90) -(208,160) ,PRESE 
T,BF:ZZ=1: RETURN 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 53 




EARS 



TM 



Electronic 
Audio 

Recognition 
System 



$99.95 




• SPEECH 
RECOGNITION 

• HANDS OFF 
PROGRAMMING 

•HIGH 
QUALITY 
SPEECH 

REPRODUCTION 
EARS Does It All! 



Two Years In the Making. Speech Systems 
was formed to develop new and innova- 
tive speech products. After 2 years of in- 
tensive Research and Development, we 
have created a trueiy sophisticated 
speech recognition device. Recognition 
rates from 95% to 98% are typical. Until 
now, such a product was outside the 
price range of the personnel computer 
market, and even small businesses. 

EARS is trained by your voice and capable 
of recognizing any word or phrase. 
Training EARS to your particular voice 
print takes seconds. Up to 64 voice prints 
may be loaded into memory. You may 
then save on tape or disk as many as you 
like so that your total vocabulary is virtu- 
ally infinite. 

Speech and Sound Recognition. EARS is re- 
ally a sound recognition system, so it re- 
ally doesn't matter whether you speak in 
English, Spanish, or French. In fact you do 
not have to speak at all, you can train 
EARS to understand sounds such as a 
musical note or a door slamming. 

Hands Off Programming. Imagine writing 
your own BASIC programs without ever 
touching the keyboard. Everything that 



free 

BLANK DISK 
OR TAPE 

WITH EVERY 
ORDER 



you would normally do through a 
keyboard can now be done by just 
speaking. 

Programming EARS Is Easy. LISTEN, 
MATCH and other commands have been 
added to BASIC so that programming 
EARS is a piece of cake! The single BASIC 
line: 10 LISTEN: MATCH will instruct 
EARS to listen to you and return the 
matching phrase. 

It Talks. EARS is also capable of high qual- 
ity speech. We mean REALLY high quality. 
The speech is a fixed vocabulary spoken 
by a professional announcer. Speech 
Systems is currently creating a library of 
thousands of high quality words and 
phrases. For a demonstration call (312) 
879-6844, you won't believe your ears or 
our EARS. 

DISK OWNERS. EARS will work with any 
disk system with either a MULTI-PAK or 
Y-CABLE. Our new Triple Y-CABLE was 
specifically developed for those wishing 
to add SUPER VOICE as a third device. 

You Get Everything You Need. You get ev- 
erything you need including a specially 
designed professional headset style noise 



cancelling microphone. The manual is 
easy to use and understand. Several 
demonstration examples are included so 
you don't have to write your own pro- 
grams unless you want to. EARS will work 
in any 32K or 64K Color Computer. 

SUPER VOICE $20 OFF 

Imagine talking to your computer and it 
talking back to you. When you need an 
unlimited vocabulary, you can't beat 
SUPER VOICE. For a limited time, we will 
give you the SUPER VOICE for $59.95 with 
your EARS purchase. Even if you already 
have another speech unit, here is your 
chance to buy the best and save $20. 

VOICE CONTROL 
Applications for EARS are astounding. 
Here is our first of many listening pro- 
grams to come. VOICE CONTROL is a 
program specifically designed to allow 
you to control any appliance in your 
house with your voice and our HOME 
COMMANDER (sold separately). For 
example, you can control your TV by 
saying "TV ON" or TV OFF". $24.95 




Dealer Inquiries 
Invited 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6'/4% sales tax 



38 W 255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (VOICE) 
1 colorama e (312) 879-6811 (24 HR. BBS) 

CALL ANY DAY TO ORDER. ALSO ORDER BY MAIL OF BBS. 





9 



T.M. 



COCO'S MOST ADVANCED 
SPEECH SYNTHESIZER. 

IT TALKS, SINGS AND 

MORE, 
only . . . $79.95 

WITH EARS OR PIANO 
KEYBOARD PURCHASE 
only . . . $59.95 



SUPER VOICE is no ordinary speech synthesizer. It uses Silicon 
Systems, Inc. SSI-263, the most advanced speech/sound chip 
available. SUPER VOICE is not only capable of highly intelligible 
speech, sound effects, and singing over a 6 octave range, but now 
we have turned SUPER VOICE into a monophonic Super Musio 
Synthesizer with our PIANO KEYBOARD. 

IT TALKS. A free TRANSLATOR text-to-speech program makes 
writing your own talking program as easy as SAYING "HELLO." 

SUPER VOICE works in any 32K or 64K computer. A disk system 
requires a Y-Cable or Multi-Pak. 

Here are the facts; 
the decision is yours. 







SUPER VOICE 


REAL TALKER 


RS SPEECH 
CARTRIDGE 


VOICE-PAK 


Synthesizer Device 


SSI-263 


SC-01 


SP-256 


SC-01 


Speaking Speeds 


16 


1 


1 


1 


Volume Levels 


16 


i 


1 


1 


Articulation Rates 


8 


1 


1 


1 


Vocal Tract 
Filter Settings 


255 


1 


1 I 


1 


Basic unit 
of Speech 


64 phonemes 
4 durations each 


64 phonemes 


64 allophones 
5 pause lengths 


64 phonemes 


Pitch Variations 


4096 (32 absolute levels 
with 6 inflection speeds) 


4 


1 


4 



FOOL'S CROSSING 

The world's first TALKING HI-RES GRAPHICS adventure. Finding 
the hidden treasure is the easy part, getting back home is another 
story. 

32K Disk $24.95 




SUPER TALKING HEADS 

When the SUPER VOICE speaks in a low pitched voice, the man 
speaks, when a high pitched voice is used the woman 
speaks $24.95 




VISA' 




Dealer Inquiries 
Invited 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge $2.00 

Illinois residents add f>V*% sales tax 



Speech Svf^t 



emd 



38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
B ATA VI A, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (VOICE) 
colorama (312) 879-6811 (24 HR. BBS) 

CALL ANY DAY TO ORDER. ALSO ORDER BY MAIL OR BBS. 



'TALKING SOFTWARE 



9 



FOR THE VOICE, SUPER VOICE ™„ RS SPEECH & SOUND PAK 



RADIO SHACK® 
SPEECH & SOUND TRANSLATOR 

We believe that no COCO speech 
synthesizer gives you the power 
and flexibility of the SUPER 
VOICE. Nevertheless, some have 
decided to go with the Radio 
Shack SPEECH & SOUND PAK. 
For those we've decided to open 
our TALKING LIBRARY by offer- 
ing the SPEECH & SOUND 
TRANSLATOR . Just load this pro- 
gram and our entire library is open to you. 

But that's not all, this program adds features. You get increas- 
ed intelligibility, the power of an exception table to specify 
specific pronunciations, $12.81 is spoken in dollars and cents, 
1,234,567 is spoken in millions, thousands, and hundreds, and 
much more. $24.95 




TERMTALK All the features of an intelligent telecom- 
munications program plus what appears on the TV is spoken. 

• Upload and Download programs • Control Xmit Protocols 

• Full or Split Screen • Buffer Editing 

• Normal or Reverse Video • It talks 

Please specify version (VOICE or RS SPEECH & SOUND PAK) 
Tape $39.95 Disk $49.95 

TALKING BINGO BINGO was never like this. The VOICE or 
SUPER VOICE makes all the calls while you sit back and play. 
Comes with 20 playing cards and 200 markers. High Resolu- 
tion graphic screen, 3 timing level, ball count and pause con- 
trol. $24.95 

ESTHER the talking psychoanalyst. An excellent example of 
artificial intelligence. She may not solve all your problems, but 
her insight will amaze you. Just like the original Eliza. $24.95 

SCORE E-Z A yahtzee type game. Up to six can play. $24.95 



ADVENTURES 



CULT OF THE CAVE BEAR You're a stranded time 
traveler 50,000 years in the past. Can you fix your time 
machine while still surviving in this alien environ, and make it 
back? $29.95 

SHIP HUNT Play Battleship with your CoCo. All status 
reports are spoken. Ready battery, aim, fire at will! $24.95 

FINAL COUNTDOWN You must stop the mad general 
from launching a missile at Moscow and causing WW III. Has 
multiple voices for added realism. $24.95 



STAR TALK You're the Star Fleet Captain. Your 
mission...destroy the enemies' Dragon Star Ships. All status 
reports are spoken I $24.95 

FOOL'S CROSSING The world's first TALKING HI-RES 
GRAPHICS adventure. Finding the hidden treasure is the easy part, 
getting back home is another story. $24.95 

ADVENTURE GENERATOR Create talking adventure 
games that are 100% Machine Language. Up to 99 rooms, 255 
objects, 70 command words and 255 conditional flags. 

64K Disk $39.95 



SUPER VOICE SONGBOOKS— — 

These two songbooks were specifically designed for the SUPER VOICE, the only speech synthesizer flexible enough to allow singing. 



VOLUME I (POTPOURRI) A collection of miscellaneous tunes 
for everyone. Songs include: How Much Is That Doggie in the Win- 
dow, Daisy, Aloha Oe, Old McDonald and more. $19.95 



VOLUME 2 (NURSERY RHYMES) Includes. Twinkle 
Twinkle Little Star, Mary Had A Little Lamb, 3 Blind Mice, the Alphabet 
Song and more. May be used with SUPER TALKING HEADS so 
they (Paul & Pauline) sing the songs. $19.95 



EDUCATION 



ANIMATED SENTENCES The child 
builds complete sentences from a graphic 
menu using keyboard or joystick. The action 
is then spoken and acted out graphically. It's 
a great way to learn the parts of speech (i.e. 
verb, subject, noun, etc.). $24.95 

KING AUTHOR'S TALES A creative 
writing tool to allow a child to write compos- 
itions, or short stories. Q & A option is also 
included. $29.95 

COLOR MATH Addition, Subtraction, 
Multiplication, and Division are mastered. 
Student may specify difficulty level. $24.95 

SPELL-A-TRON Student builds a dictio- 
nary of words to be quizzed on. Perfect for 
Spelling B. $24.95 



SPELLING TESTER A graphic spelling 
game. The student is shown objects to be 
spelled. $9.95 

POETRY CREATOR The VOICE 
speech unit is used to speak poetry that is 
created. $9.95 

SHORT STORY MAKER A program 
to create and speak stories created by the 
child. $9.95 




FOREIGN LANGUAGE Learn a 
foreign language. French dictionary is in- 
cluded. $9.95 

PRESIDENTS The student is able to 
master the Presidents of the U.S. $9.95 

STATES A program designed to aid the 
student in learning correct spelling of the 
states. $9.95 

CAPITALS Learning the State's Capitals 
is made more interesting using speech. 

$9.95 

HANGMAN A word guessing game. You 
must guess the word before you hang. $9.95 

MATH DRILL A program to help teach 
arithmetic. $9.95 



AW software, except as noted, shipped on tape but may be moved to disk. 



SYMPHONY 





TM 



A 12 VOICE POLYPHONIC STEREO MUSIC SYNTHESIZER 



$79.95 



$69.95 



WHEN PURCHASED 

WITH 

MUSICA2 



$59.95 



WHEN PURCHASED 
WITH THE 
PIANO KEYBOARD 



12 SIMULTANEOUS 
VOICES 

STEREO & MONO 

4 NOISE 
GENERATORS 

SOUND EFFECTS 

PLAYS AND CREATES 
MUSICA 2 FILES 



(RJ^|Jtul|:|| 






1 J' ! " ' , ' "":*:' ' ! ' , '1 - ! . ' , 'l y i ^ ii '^W" ! ^^ '' .^ ' : !;'! 1 '!'! " ■ ' / 



SUPER POLYPHONIC. Speech Systems is 
proud to bring you SYMPHONY 12, a poly- 
phonic 12 voice hardware stereo music synthe- 
sizer for the Color Computer. SYMPHONY 12 
also gives you 4 noise generators for percus- 
sion synthesis and sound effects. The PIANO 
KEYBOARD and MUSICA 2 (sold separately) 
turns your COCO into a real music machine 
with incredible flexibility. 

STEREO and MONO. By connecting SYM- 
PHONY 12 to your home stereo system, music 
is produced in stereo, 6 voices from each chan- 
nel. However, you don't need to have a stereo 
system, all 12 voices also come out of your TV 
or monitor. 

PICK AN INSTRUMENT. SYMPHONY 12 lets 
you choose from 10 preset instruments to syn- 
thesize chimes, violin, oboe, banjo, 
harpsichord, piano and more. You can even 
change instruments as the music plays. 

SOUND EFFECTS. SYMPHONY 12 is a sophisti- 
cated sound generator. 12 voices and 4 noise 
generators give you incredible sound effect 
capability. We have included gun shot, explo- 
sion, racing car and more. 



WATCH IT PLAY. As SYMPHONY 12 plays, a 
graphics display of a piano keyboard shows 
the notes playing. The display is entertaining 
as well as very educational. 

PLAY MUSICA 2 FILES. Thousands of MUSICA 
2 users will be excited to know SYMPHONY 
12 plays all music developed using MUSICA 2 
like you have never Seen or Heard it. In fact 
we highly recommend the use of MUSICA 2 
as a composition development tool for SYM- 
PHONY^. Use MUSICA2's superior graphics 
input capability and then play it through SYM- 
PHONY 12. You can also take advantage of 
our MUSIC LIBRARY series (sold separately) 
to give you access to over 500 music pieces 
representing 20 hours of music. 

ULTIMATE MUSIC DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM. 

SYMPHONY 12, MUSICA 2, and the PIANO 
KEYBOARD give you incredible flexibility. Im- 
agine sitting down at the PIANO KEYBOARD, 
playing a piece and recording it as you play 
just as you would to a tape recorder. Save your 
masterpiece and then using MUSICA 2 edit it 
if you like and print it. If you have a MIDI 
synthesizer, you can take the music and play 
it using COCO MIDI (sold separately). Try that 
on an IBM, APPLE, or COMMODORE (good 
luck). 



PIANO KEYBOARD. For those wishing to turn 
SYMPHONY 12 into a real polyphonic synthe- 
sizer we offer the extremely powerful and ver- 
satile PIANO KEYBOARD. The PIANO 
KEYBOARD was deisgned to be used in our 
entire music product line. You can use it with 
SYMPHONEY 12, MUSICA 2, SYNTHER 77 
PLUS, and even our advanced speech synthe- 
sizer, SUPER VOICE. 

When using MUSICA 2, you will be using 4 of 
the 12 voices available from SYMPHONY 12. 
To take advantage of the full 12 voice capability 
of SYMPHONY 12 you may use either the 
Color Computer's keyboard or the PIANO 
KEYBOARD. 

Y-CABLE or MULTI-PAK.Tape users using both 
SYMPHONY 12 and the PIANO KEYBOARD 
will require a Y-CABLE. Disk users will require 
the Triple Y-Cable or MULTI-PAK. 

SYMPHONY 12, You get over a dozen music 
and sound effect selections and complete 
documentation. Software is shipped on Tape 
or Disk. 

OPTIONS 

MUSIC LIBRARY (each volume) $29.95 

MUSICA 2 $29.95 

PIANO KEYBOARD 2Vi octave $79.95 

PIANO KEYBOARD 4 octave $119.95 




VISA* 




Dealer Inquiries 
Invited 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6V*% sales tax 



emA 



Speech Susti 

38W 255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (VOICE) 
1 cS7* E (312) 879-6811 (24 HR. BBS) 

CALL ANY DAY TO ORDER. ALSO ORDER BY MAIL OR BBS. 





STEREO 
PAK™ 



$39.95 



Plug this gem into your computer, connect to your home 
stereo system and sit back and enjoy music realism. The 
STEREO PAK is a hardware music synthesizer that plays 
our MUSIC LIBRARY series and MUSICA2 music in stereo. 
Because it was designed specifically with music reproduc- 
tion in mind, the sound is superb. The highs are crisp 
and clear while the bass notes will rattle your walls. Inter- 
nally we use two high performance 8 bit digital to analog 
converters to assure fidelity. 

The STEREO PAK is all hardware. It is intended as an en- 
hancement for MUSICA 2 and our MUSIC LIBRARY series. 
Disk users will require our Y-CABLE or a MULTI-PAK. 




coco 

MIDI™ 



$39.95 

Tape or Disk 



Now your COCO can talk to your MIDI music synthesizer. 
Whether you have a Korg, Roland, Casio, or Yamaha, it 
doesn't matter as long as it's MIDI equipped. 

COCO MIDI takes any MUSICA 2 music file and plays it 
through your music synthesizer. We offer you over 500 
tunes from our MUSIC LIBRARY series (sold separately) 
or create your own music using the best music composi- 
tion program available, MUSICA 2 (sold separately). 

COCO MIDI includes: documentation, plenty of music, 
and the cable to connect between the COCO and your 
synthesizer. 





>*.t ,f ,tJJJ * 111 ts 





'«iMti j it mm'^M ~m 



uiimimm\\M\\i\m% i 




MUSIC 
LIBRARY 



TM 



$29.95 

Tape or Disk 



The MUSIC LIBRARY series consists of 5 volumes: 100, 
200, 300, 400, and 500 each sold separately. Each contains 
over 100 four voice music selections with a playing time 
of over 3 hours each. The disk version is shipped on 5 
full disks. When coupled with the STEREO PAK, the music 
is reproduced with unsurpassed realism. 

A JUKEBOX program is included to allow you to select 
specific songs or automatically play each. These songs are 
ready to go, you don't need MUSICA 2 or a knowledge 
of music. MUSICA 2 users may customize each song. Re- 
quires minimum of 32K. 



MUSIC LIBRARY 100 

Stage, Screen, & TV 
Musicof the 70's 
Musicof the60's 
Musicof the50's 
Old Time Favorites 



Classical 

Christmas (popular) 
Christmas (traditional) 
Patriotic 
Polka Party 



MUSIC LIBRARY 200 (another 100 selections) 
MUSIC LIBRARY 300 (another 100 selections) 
MUSIC LIBRARY 400 (another 100 selections) 
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TURN OF THE SCREW 



The third installment of the "beginner's hardware course 

An Introduction 
to Timing 



By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 

Continuing our journey into the 
CoCo, this month I will look 
into the Heart of this and any 
computer — timing. All the hardware 
of the computer is controlled by timing. 
The most important part of the timing 
is to keep the CPU in step. What is a 
CPU, anyway? Well, the letters CPU 
stand for Central Processing Unit. The 
CPU inside -the CoCo is the MC6809. 
The CPU, in a way, does all the work. 
It can move data from one part of 
memory to another, compare two 
values and act according to the result, 
add and subtract values and so forth. In 
fact, without the CPU, the rest of the 
hardware that makes up a computer 
would be worthless. The CPU is a very 
complex chip. It has data lines, address 
lines, interrupt lines, status lines and 
more. The timing that goes with the 
CPU is also important. OK, let's get 
into it. It is a prerequisite to understand- 
ing how a CPU works. 

Up till now, when I talked about 
zeros and ohes and the change from one 



Tony DiStefano is well-known as an 
early specialist in computer hardware 
projects. He lives in Laval Quest, Que- 
bec. 



to the other, it was considered to be 
instantaneous. There was no mention of 
how long it took to change from one 
state to another. In fact, we are dealing 
with real life, not just theory. Situations 
in theory rarely work in real life the way 



"The first fact of the 
real world is 
propagational delay. 



you want or expect them to. Welcome 
to the real world of delays. Ever caught 
an on-time airline flight? Ha! 

The first fact of the real world is 
propagational delay. Take, for instance, 
a simple inverter. Figure la shows an 
inverter. When there is a T at the input 
there is a 4 0' at the output. A 4 0' input 
will give a 1 1 ' output. But when the input 
changes from one state to another, there 
is a short delay before the output 



changes. This delay is called the prop- 
agational delay, which means the 
amount of time it takes an electrical 
signal to go through a logic element or 
wire. 

Figure lb shows a graph of the input 
and the output of an inverter. The X- 
axis (from left to right) shows the 
passing of time. This can be in seconds, 
hundredths of seconds, thousandths of 
seconds and even millionths of seconds. 
When no time base is given, then time 
factor is not relevant. Typical delay 
times for the TTL family (more on chip 
families in later articles) is from five to 
30 ns (ns == nanoseconds). The Y-axis 
usually shows the binary level of '0' and 
T. When two or more signals are shown 
that are related to each other, they are 
shown on top of each other with the left- 
to-right passing of time common to 
each. 

Getting back to Figure lb, we see the 
passing of time and the relation of the 
input to the output. There is no delay 
shown in this diagram. To show the 
delays of each signal for a given com- 
plex gate would confuse the diagram. 
Instead, an overall delay is given for the 
gate. But, in order to get used to the idea 
of delays, Figure lc shows the time 
delays of a typical inverter. Along with 



62 THE RAINBOW March 1986 




the delay of the signal there is also the 
rise and fall time. The rise time of a 
signal is described as the time it takes 
for a given signal to reach 90 percent of 
maximum voltage from the 10 percent 
voltage level. The fall time of a signal 
is described as the time it takes for a 
given signal to drop to 10 percent 
voltage from the 90 percent voltage 
level. In the case of the CoCo, the 
voltage considered a logical level of T 
(or HI) is five volts. The logical level '0' 
(or LO) is, of course, zero volts. The 
actual working voltages may be slightly 
different. 

Delay, rise and fall times are impor- 
tant mainly to the designer of the 
system. When an engineer designs a 
computer he must know these timings 
and make sure that all operations are 
within the given limits. For example, 
two signals go to one gate, but one goes 
through several gates first. Each time 
the signal travels from one gate to 
another there is more delay. If the signal 
is delayed enough, an improper signal 
output results. 

It sounds like I'm making a big deal 
of delays. While it is important, it is not 
a major concern to computer hackers 
(or should I use the term hobbyist?) and 
even less to end users. More important 
to us is another kind of delay. It is 
known as "access time," which means 
the mean time between the request for 
memory and the actual valid data. 

Let us look at a typical memory chip. 
There are thousands of gates and tran- 
sistors inside this chip. All of these gates 



inside the chip cause a significant delay 
between the time when the address to 
the chip is valid and the time when the 
data output appears on the data bus. 
This is known as access time. When 
talking about memory, an important 
parameter is access time. These access 
times can range from super-fast static 
memory at about 10 ns to very slow 
dynamic memory at 450 ns and slower. 
It is this limitation that controls and 



"More important to us 
is another kind of 
delay. It is known as 
'access time, 9 which 
means the mean time 
between the request for 
memory and the actual 
valid data." 



limits the speed of CPUs. Figure 2a 
shows the read cycle timing diagram of 
a memory chip. Figure 2b shows the 
write cycle for the same chip. What 
follows is a description of what each line 
on the diagram means. 

Address — These are the address lines 
that select what byte is to be accessed. 
It is shown with two lines, one high and 
one low. It is shown this way because 
there are usually several lines and since 
the timing is the same no matter what 



byte you access, it is not relevant which 
address line is high or which line is low. 
The two lines (one on top and one on 
the bottom) represent any given address 
within the chip. Where the lines criss- 
cross means a change of address. That 
is when the CPU is finished with that 
byte and requests another by putting 
another address on the bus. Access 
times are always measured with respect 
to the address change from the CPU. 
Actually, it starts when the address is 
stable, better known as a "valid ad- 
dress." 

Chip Select (CS) — Remember the *CS 
line on memory chips in past articles? 
It is used to select or activate the chip. 
From the diagram of the read cycle, we 
can now see the relation between when 
the address is valid, the *CS line and 
when the data is valid. 

Data out — This, of course, is the data 
that the CPU requested. Notice the data 
valid area. That is the time when the 
data that appears on the bus is the data 
that is held in that memory location. 
Notice the top and bottom dual line 
display. It has the same description as 
address lines, some are ones and some 
are zeros. The line in front of the data 
valid section is halfway between zero 
and one. That means the data lines are 
tri-state and no valid data is input or 
output. The shaded area on both sides 
of the data valid window is the transi- 
tion time between tri-state and data 
valid. In this area, data lines are chang- 
ing to their proper values. A read in this 
area will not yield valid data. 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 63 



Figure 2a 




Read/ Write — The *R/W line is used 
to select a read cycle or a write cycle. 
Straightforward, no problems there. In 
the CoCo this line is logical to read 
and '0' to write. 

The following is a description of all 
the relevant parameters used in Figures 
2a and 2b. 

t(rc) — Read Cycle Time: the time it 
takes for a complete read cycle given in 
ns. 

t(a) — Access Time: the delay between 
a valid address and data valid. 

t(co) — Chip Select to Output Valid: the 
delay between when the *CS is active 
and the data is valid. This is only true 
with a valid and stable address. 

t(cx) — Chip Select to Output Active: 
same as t(co) but not to data valid; to 
when the data lines start changing from 
tri-state to output. Usually of minor 
importance. 

t(otd) — Output Tri-state from Deselec- 
tion: the time that the data stays valid 
after the *CE goes inactive or deselects. 

t(oha) — Output Hold from Address 
Change: the time that the data stays 
valid after an address change is de- 
tected. 

t(wc) — Write Cycle Time: same as the 
t(rc) except for a write cycle. 



t(w) — Write Time: the minimum time 
the write line has to remain low. 

t(wr) — Write Release Time: time 
between the *WE line deselects and a 
change of address. 

t(otw) — Output Tri-state from Write: 
the time it takes the data lines to go to 
tri-state from a write request. 

t(dw) — Data to Write Time Overlap: 
the time data must be stable before the 
*WE line deselescts. 

t(dh) — Data Hold from Write Time: 
the time data must be stable after the 
*WE line deselects. 

Figures 2a and 2b show the read and 
write cycle paramaters for a typical 
memory chip. Though these are not the 
memory chips inside the CoCo, the 
timing and paramaters are quite similar. 

Now with no further delays, it is time 
to look into the CPU . . . well, sort of! 
There is one more thing we must look 
into; it is CPU related, though. We are 
getting closer. It is the master clock, 
which is a master reference wave form 
used to synchronize all of the logic in 
a system. 

The master clock is usually the high- 
est frequency in the computer. All other 
timings are derived (divided) from this 
clock. The CPU clock is the speed or 
frequency at which all instructions and 
data are retrieved and stored to mem- 



ory. Depending on the system design, 
the CPU clock can be equal to the 
master clock, or any division thereof. In 
the case of the CoCo, the master clock 
frequency is 14.31818 MHz (mega-hertz 
or million hertz) and the CPU clock 
frequency is 1/16 that of the master 
clock at 0.8948 MHz. Well, there are 
two clock speeds in the CoCo. Under 
special conditions, the CPU can work 
at 1.8 MHz. 

Now you might say, "Wow, my CoCc 
has a clock rate of only .894 MHz!' 
Compared to that of the 4 MHz of othe: 
computers, that may or may not b< 
slower. You see, it gets more compli 
cated. The CPU clock does not alwayi 
mean the net speed of the computet 
There are some other factors involved 
such as synchronous I/O, as opposed t( 
asynchronous I/O. 

Let's look at synchronous I/O first. 
As the word implies, synchronous I/O 
means that any memory, read or write, 
is synchronized. Synchronized to what? 
The CPU clock, of course. On any given 
clock cycle, the CPU can do one 1/ 0. 
You know exactly when the CPU will 
need the bus. It corresponds to the clock 
cycle. In an asynchronous situation, the 
CPU requires more than one clock cycle 
to do a read or write. Asynchronous 1/ 
O requires either three or four cycles 
depending on what kind of I/O it is 
doing. On this type of CPU, signals are 
required to tell memory or other devices 
that an I/O has started. 

Just about now, a little bit of math 
is required. Given that the clock fre- 



64 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



Figure 3 



READ CYCLE 



SYMBOL 


PARAMETER 


MIN 


MAX 


UNIT 


tpc 


READ CYCLE TIME 


250 




NS 


ta 


ACCESS TIME 


250 


NS 


tco 


CHIP SELECT TO OUTPUT 


85 


NS 


tcx 


CHIP SELECT TO OUTPUT 


10 




NS 


totd. 


OUTPUT TRI-STATE FROM 
DESELECTION 


15 




NS 


toha 


OUTPUT HOLD FROM ADDRESS 
CHANGE 


20 


NS 


WRITE CYCLE 


SYMBOL 


PARAMETER 


MIN 


MAX 


UNIT 


twc 


WRITE CYCLE TIME 


250 




NS 


tw 


WRITE TIME 


135 




NS 


twr 


WRITE RELEASE TIME 


0 




NS 


totw 


OUTPUT 3-STATE FROM WRITE 


60 


NS 


tdw 


DATA TO WRITE TIME OVERLAP 


135 




NS 


tdh 


DATA HOLD FROM WRITE TIME 


0 




NS 



quency of the CoCo is 894886 hertz or 
0.894 MHz, one clock cycle is 1117 
nanoseconds. The way I did this is to 
transfer from frequency to time period. 
The equation used is: 

T= 1/F 

where T' is in seconds and 'F' (fre- 
quency) is in hertz. So the frequency of 
0.894 MHz is a time period of 
.000001117 seconds, or 1117 nanosec- 
onds, or 1.117 microseconds. Now, 
when we talk about speed, we can say 
that the CoCo can do about one I/O per 
microsecond — a much more accurate 
way to measure the effective speed of a 
CPU. 

I hope these articles about the hard- 
ware of the CoCo are informative to 
you. Also, I hope I am not going too 
fast; it is hard for me to judge what 
audience I am writing for. If you have 
some comments to make, a direction to 
take or something you don't under- 
stand, write to me through RAINBOW 
and I'll try to answer the interesting and 
common ones here in this column. Next 
time, we'll look deeper into the heart of 
the CoCo. ^ 



■ •<:■*■ ?t 'Wirt: 



■ •>'} ■■ ■ v. v 






ion 



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March 1986 THE RAINBOW 65 



Block! Kick! Duck! No, it's not a 
game of football, but a rollicking 
session of. . . 





8y iarry Woleof f 




TJ" a all started when I walked into 
I | the local arcade to find the latest 
l^game surrounded by crowds of 
people. As I pushed my way through to 
see what it was, I heard people excitedly 
yelling, "Block! kick!" This got me 
working day and night, trying many 
different approaches to my program, 
Kung Fu Fighter. 

Here's the game setting: You are the 
man on the left of the screen. As soon 
as the game board appears, the oppo- 
nent charges from the right. You must 
defend yourself against the enemy with 
your deadly kicks and punches, while at 
the same time duck and block your 



Larry Wolcott has owned a CoCo for 
about four years. He is a self-taught 
programmer. He attends Daniel Webs- 
ter Junior High School in Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin and enjoys computers and 
electronics. 



opponent's assaults. The controls work 
like this: 



Right arrow 
Left arrow 
Up arrow 
Down arrow 
'Q' key 
'<§>■ key 



kick 
punch 
block 
duck 
move left 
move right 



After striking your opponent 20 
times, he falls and your score, level and 
energy points are displayed; the higher 
the level, the less the time interval 
between your opponent's kicks and 
punches, and he will be able to duck and 
block your assaults more often. When 
your energy points run out, so does your 
life. 

I have used the keyboard PEEKs 
instead of the slow INKEY command to 
speed- the program — this makes auto 
kicking, punching, etc. I have also used 
the POKE 65495,0 to speed the pro- 
gram. If your computer can't handle it, 



just delete it from the program. 

The score is increased by five points 
every time you punch your enemy, and 
10 points every time you kick him. 
Energy points decrease when you are 
struck by your opponent (you start with 
25). 

After loading Kung Fu Fighter, run 
it until it gets to the title screen, then 
press BREAK and run it again. This only 
has to be done once, right after loading 
(because once in a while, the GETs do 
not "get"). The program is compiled in 
this order: 



Lines 

0-70 
230-670 
680-840 
890-990 

1000-1900 

1950-2110 



Function 

Set variables 

DRAW and GET figures 

Draw title screens 

Check keyboard for keys 

pressed 

Kick, punch, duck, walk 
and block subroutines 
End of game titles □ 



66 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



4T. 



The listing: KUNG FU 



)3 HS=75j3 

1) 3 A=j3:Al=j3 

2) 3 

3) 2 

5) 3 

6) 3 U=8 

B=1:B1=1 
i 



270 . 
460 . 
630 . 
780 . 
980 . 
1180 
1380 
1630 
1830 
1990 
END 



..61 
.204 
200 
.152 
..31 
..25 
220 
158 
.24 
223 
228 



POKE 65495, 0 
L=l 

X=2)3:Y=1)37:X1=232 :Y1=1)37 
I=. 1 



7) 3 

8) 3 

9) 3 
ljjyj 

11) 3 

12) 3 

13) 3 
14,0 

15) 3 

16) 3 

17) 3 

18) 3 

19) 3 
2)3)3 

21) 3 

22) 3 

23) 3 DIMM(8,8) :DIMBL(8,8) :DIMBR(8 
,8) 

24) 3 DIML(8,8) :DIMSR(8,8) :DIMSL(8 
,8) 

25) 3 
,8) 

26) 3 
270 



i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
« 
i 
i 



kung-fu 
fighter 

BY: LARRY WOLCOTT 
(C) 1985-VERSION 1.1 



PORK N' BEAN 
SOFT-WARE 



DIMR(8,8) :DIMKR(8,8) :DIMKL(8 



DG=25 

DIMRT(8,8) :DIMLT(8,8) : DIMDR ( 
8,8) :DIMDL(8,8) 

28) 3 CLS 

29) 3 PCLS 

3)3)3 DRAW"BM2)3,4R1D2L2U2R1L1D2R1D 
2G2H2F2E2F2E2G2H2D6G4D2L2R2U2E4F 
4D2R2 " 

31) 3 GET(12, 4) -(28,2)3) ,M 

32) 3 PCLS 

33) 3 DRAW "BM2)3,4R1D2L2U2R1L1D2R1 
D2F2R2L6E2D6G4F2H2E4F4D2R2" 

34) 3 GET(12, 4) -(28,2)3) ,R 

35) 3 PCLS: DRAW "BM2)3, 4R1D2L2U2R1L 
1D2R1D2F2L6R2E2D6G4D2L2R2U2E4F4G 
2" 

360 GET(12, 4) -(28,2)3) ,L 

37) 3 PCLS 

38) 3 DRAW "BM2)3,4R1D2L2U2R1L1D2R1 
D2G2F2H2E2D8D4R2 » 



39)3 GET(12, 4) -(28,2)3) ,RT 
4)3)3 PCLS 

41) 3 DRAW "BM2)3,4R1D2L2U2R1L1D2R1 
D2F2G2E2H2D12L2" 

42) 3 GET (12, 4) -(28,2)3) , LT 

43) 3 PCLS 

44) 3 DRAW "BM2)3,4R1D2L2U2R1L1D2R1 
D2R8L8G3R4L4E3D6F4D2R2L2U2H4G4D2 
R2 " 

45) 3 GET(12, 4) -(28,2)3) ,SR 

46) 3 PCLS 

47) 3 DRAW "BM2)3,4R1D2L2U2R1L1D2R1 




D2L8R8F3L4R4H3D6G4D2L2R2U2E4F4D2 
L2 " 

48) 3 GET(12, 4) -(28,2)3) ,SL 

49) 3 PCLS 

5) 3)3 DRAW "BM2)3,4R1D2L2U2R1L1D2R1 
D2R4L4G4R4L3E3D6R2E2R2E2U2D2G2L2 
G2L2G4D1R2 " 

51) 3 GET (12 f 4) -(28,2)3) ,KR 

52) 3 PCLS 

53) 3 DRAW "BM2)3,4R1D2L2U2R1L1D2R2 
D2L4R4F3L4R4H3D6L2H2L2H2U2D2F2R2 
F2R2F4D1L2 " 

54) 3 GET(12, 4) -(28,2)3) ,KL 

55) 3 PCLS 

56) 3 DRAW "BM2)3,4R1D2L2U2R1L1D2R1 
D2L4D2U2R4F3L6D2U2R6H3D6G4D2L2R2 
U2E4F4D2L2" 

57) 3 GET (12, 4) -(28,2)3) , BL 

58) 3 PCLS 

59) 3 DRAW "BM2)3,4R1D2L2U2R1L1D2R1 
D2R4D2U2L4G3R6D2U2L6E3D6F4D2R2L2 
U2H4G4D2R2" 

6) 3)3 GET(12,4) -(28,2)3) ,BR 

61) 3 PCLS 

62) 3 DRAW "BM2)3,12R4U1R2D2L2U1L2D 
4U4L2D2G4D2R2L2U2E4F4D2R2" 

63) 3 GET (12,4)-(28,2)3) , DR 

64) 3 PCLS 

65) 3 DRAW "BM2)3,12L4U1L2D2R2U1R2D 
4U4R2D2G4D2L2R2U2E4F4D2L2 " 

66) 3 GET (12,4)-(28, 2)3) , DL 

67) 3 PCLS 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 67 



680 PM0DE4,1:PCLS:SCREEN1,1 

690 LINE (4, 4) -(252, 188 ) ,PSET,B 

700 DRAW "BM72,16R8D8R4U4E4R8G4D 

4G4R4D4R4D4R4D8L8U4L4U4L4U4L4D12 

L8U28BR28R8D8F4D12U12E4U8R8D12G4 

D8G4L8H4U8H4U12BR28" 

710 DRAW "R12F8U8R8D28L8U8H12D12 

G4D4L8U8E4U16BR32BR4G4D20F4R16E4 

U12L12D8R4G4L4H4U12E4R8F4R4U4H4L 

16G4" 

720 DRAW "BM100,52R20F4D8L4H4L8D 
8R8D8L12D4L8U12E4U12BR28R8D8F4D1 
2U12E4U8R8D12G4D8G4L8H4U8H4U12 " : 
PAINT(76,20) ,5:PAINT(152,20) ,5:P 
AINT(104,20) ,5:PAINT( 180,20) ,5:P 
AINT(104,56) ,5 

730 PAINT(132,56) ,5:PM0DE 4,1:SC 
REEN1, 1 

74J3 PLAY "V31;01;T5;L5;l;l;l;L2; 
1 ; L5 ; 3 ; P3 ; 3 ; L2 ; 3 ; P4 ; L5 ; 2 ; 2 ; P 3 ; L5 

;i;2" 

750 CLS : PRINT : PRINT "*********** 
********************" 



ii 



760 PRINT: PRINT " 

fighter " 

77)3 PRINT: PRINT " 

WOLCOTT" 
780 PRINT " 



kung-fu 



BY: LARRY 



VERSION 1.1" 



BASIC COMPILER 

WASATCH WARE believes that users of the Color Computer deserve the 
right to use all 64k of RAM that is available in the computer, and have fast 
machine language programs that use the full potential of the 6809 microprocessor. 
That is why the BASIC compiler, called MLB ASK was developed, Here are some 
of the reasons that make this compiler one of the best bargains in this magazine: 

• Programs can use all 64k of RAM for either program storage 
or for large numbers of variables and arrays like A(Z0000) 

• Full Floating Point arithmetic expressions with functions 

- SI BROI TINK and CALL commands allows for structured 
programming and more independent program development 

- Full sequential and direct access disk files allowed 

- BASIC source and M.L. output I/O to disk, tape or memory 

COMMANDS SUPPORTED 

1. I/O -Commands 

CLOSE CLOADM CSAVEM DIR DRIVE DSKIS 

DSKOS FIELD FILES GET INPUT KILL 

LSET OPEN PRINT PUT RSET 

2. Program Control Commands 

CALL END EXEC FOR STEP NEXT 

GOSUB GOTO IF THEN ELSE ERROR 

ON.. GO RETURN STOP SUBROUTINE 



3. Math Functions 

ABS ASC ATN COS 

EXP FIX INSTR INT 

LOC LOF PEEK POINT 

SGN SIN SQR TAN 

4* String Functions 

CHRS INKEYS LEFTS MIDS 
STRS STRINGS 

5. Graphic/Sound Commands 

COLOR CLS CIRCLE DRAW 

PCLEAR PCLS PLAY PMODE 

RESET SCREEN SET SOUND 

6. Other/Special Commands 

DATA DIM LLIST MOTOR 

REM RESTORE RUN TAB 

DST IBSHFT LREG PCOPY 

REAL SREG 5HP VECTD 



CYIN EOF 

LEN LOG 

PPOINT RND 

TIMER VAL 



MKNS 



RIGHTS 



LINE PAINT 
PRESET PSET 



POKE READ 

VER I FY DLD 

PMODD PTV 
VECT1 



RAINBOW 

anTinciTicw 
uu 



Wasatch Ware 



Tape- $69.95 

Disk- $69.95 64KRKQURED 

Both- $74.95 

■ . «. * ,wv n rr , . 7350 Nutree Drive 

Add $4.00 Postage and Handling ^ Jaka clfcy< !Jt;jh 

Send check or Money order. 84121 

No C.O.D.. Utah res. add 5% tax. Call (ROD 943-6263 



II 



(C) 1985" 

PORK N 

SOFTWARE" 
PRESS 



790 PRINT 
800 PRINT: PRINT 
• BEAN " 
810 PRINT " 
820 PRINT: PRINT 
ANY KEY" 

83 0 PRINT: PRINT "*************** 
****************** 

840 I $=INKEY$ : SCREEN0 , 1: IFI$«" "T 
HEN 840 
850 PCLS 

860 LINE(4, 4)-(252, 188) , PSET, B 

870 LINE(4,124)-(252,124) , PSET 

880 DRAW"BM4,84E12R8E4R12F8R8E4R 

4E4R8F16R20E16R8U4R8E4R12F8R16F8 

R20F8R16R4R8F4" 

890 PM0DE4 , 1 : SCREEN1 , 1 

900 I$=INKEY$ 

910 IFPEEK(344)=247THENGOSUB1050 
920 IFPEEK(343)=247THENGOSUB1260 
930 IFPEEK(342)=247THENGOSUB1440 
940 IFPEEK(341)=247THENA=3 
9 50 IFPEEK (339) -2 51THENGOSUB15 60 
960 IFPEEK(338)=254THENGOSUB1500 
970 IFA=4THENPUT(X-8,Y)-(X+8, Y+l 
6),DR ELSE IFA=3THENPUT (X-8 , Y) - ( 
X+8,Y+16),BR ELSEPUT (X-8 , Y) - (X+8 
,Y+16) ,R 

980 IFAl=4THENPUT(Xl-8,Yl)-(Xl+8 

,Y1+16),DL ELSE IFA1=3 THENPUT (X 

1-8,Y1)-(X1+8,Y1+16) ,BL ELSE PUT 

(X1-8,Y1)-(X1+8,Y1+16) ,L 

990 IFX1>X+18THENGOSUB1630 

1000 IFXKX THENGOSUB1 690 

1010 C=C+I:IFC>1THENC=0:GOSUB175 

0 

1020 IF H>20 THEN 1890 
1030 IF DG<0 THEN 2030 
1040 GOTO 900 

1050 IFRND(10)>=U THEN Al=4 
1060 IF XKX+10 THEN 1070 ELSE 1 
150 

1070 A=0:IF A1=4THEN1150 

1080 LINE (X-8, Y)- (X+8, Y+16) , PRES 

ET,BF 

1090 PUT(X-8,Y) -(X+8, Y+16 ) ,KR 

1100 PLAY"T255 ;V31 ; 12 ; 12 ; 12 ; 12 ; 1 

2" 

1110 LINE (X-8, Y)- (X+8, Y+16 ), PRES 
ET,BF 

1120 SC=SC+10:H=H+1 
1130 A=0 
1140 RETURN 

1150 LINE (X-8, Y)- (X+8, Y+16 ), PRES 
ET,BF 

1160 LINE(X1^8,Y1) - (Xl+8 , Yl+16) , 
PRESET, BF 

1170 PUT(Xl-8, Yl)-(Xl+8, Yl+16) ,D 
L 



68 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



118J3 PUT(X-8, Y) - (X+8, Y+16) ,KR 
1190 PUT(X1-8,Y1) -(Xl+8, Yl+16) ,D 
L 

12 0J3 PLAY "T2 5 5 ; V3 1 ; 1 ; 1 ; 1 ; 1 " 
121J3 LINE (X-8,Y) -(X+8, Y+16) , PRES 
ET,BF 

122J3 LINE(X1-8,Y1) - (Xl+8 , Yl+16) , 
PRESET, BF 
123J3 Al=j3 
1240 A=j3 
125j3 RETURN 

1260 IFRND(10)>U THEN13 6J3 
127j3 IF Al=3 OR Al=4THEN13 6j3 
1280 IFXKX+10THEN1290ELSE1360 
1290 LINE (X-8,Y) -(X+8, Y+16) , PRES 
ET, BF 

1300 PUT(X-8,Y) -(X+8, Y+16 ) ,SR 
1310 PLAY"T255;V31;12;12;12 ;12" 
1320 LINE (X-8,Y) -(X+8, Y+16) , PRES 
ET, BF 

1330 SC=SC+5:H=H+1 
1340 A=0 
1350 RETURN 

136)3 LINE(X1-8,Y1) -(Xl+8, Yl+16) , 
PRESET, BF 

1370 LINE (X-8,Y)- (X+8, Y+16 ), PRES 
ET, BF 

1380 PUT (X-8,Y)- (X+8, Y+16 ) , SR 



139)3 PUT(X1-8,Y1 
L 

14) 3)3 PLAY "T255; 

141) 3 LINE(X-8,Y) 
ET, BF 

142) 3 A=)3 

143) 3 RETURN 

144) 3 A=4 

145) 3 PUT(X-8,Y)- 

146) 3 PUT(X-8,Y)- 

147) 3 LINE(X-8,Y) 
ET, BF 

148) 3 A=4 

149) 3 RETURN 

15) 3)3 A=0:LINE(X- 
PRESET, BF 

151)3 X=X+2 
1520 PUT(X-8,Y)- 
153)3 LINE(X-8,Y) 
ET, BF 

1540 X=X+2 

155) 3 RETURN 

156) 3 A=0:LINE(X- 
, PRESET, BF 

157) 3 X=X-2 

158) 3 PUT(X-8,Y)- 

159) 3 LINE(X-8,Y) 
SET, BF 



) -(Xl+8, Yl+16) ,B 

V31;l;l;l;l» 
-(X+8, Y+16) ,PRES 



(X+8, Y+16) ,DR 
(X+8, Y+16) ,DR 
-(X+8, Y+16) ,PRES 



8,Y) -(X+8,Y+16) , 



(X+8, Y+16) ,RT 
-(X+8, Y+16) ,PRES 



8,Y) -(X+1)3,Y+16) 



(X+8, Y+16) , RT 
-(X+1)3,Y+16) ,PRE 



TRS-80 COMPUTER DISCOUNTS 




COLOR COMPUTERS 



26-3134 16k color II 
26-31 27 64k color comp 
26-3131 1st disk drive 



110.00 
165.00 
269.95 



PRINTERS 



26-1276 DMP 105 
26-1277 DMP-430 
26-1278 DWP-220 
26-1280 DMP-130 



160.00 
700.00 
500.00 
275.00 




MODEL 4 and MSDOS COMPUTERS 



25-1000 mod 1000 

25-1004 128K memory board 

25- 1005 2nd drive mod 1000 

26- 3211 Monochrome moniter 
26-1070 mod4D64k2dr. 
26-5103 mod 2000 2dr. 
26-5104 mod 2000 HD 



775.00 
169.95 
160.00 
125.00 
950.00 
1,400.00 
2,200.00 



We Carry the Complete Line of TRS-80 
Computer Products at Discount Prices 

CALL FOR A FREE PRICE LIST 800-257-5556 

IN N.J. CALL 609-769-0551 

WOODSTOWN ELECTRONICS 

Rt. 40 E. WOODSTOWN, N.J. 08098 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 69 



1600 X=X-2 

161/3 PUT (X-8 , Y) - (X+8 , Y+16) ,R 
1620 RETURN 

1630 LINE(X1-8,Y1)-(X1+8,Y1+16) , 
PRESET , BF : Xl=Xl-2 

1640 PUT(X1-8,Y1)-(X1+8,Y1+16) ,L 
T 

1650 LINE(X1-8,Y1) - (Xl+8 , Yl+16) , 

PRESET , BF 

1660 Xl=Xl-2 

1670 IF DG<=0 THEN 2030 

1680 RETURN 

1690 LINE(X1-8,Y1) -(Xl+8, Yl+16) , 
PRESET, BF 
1700 Xl=Xl+2 

1710 PUT(X1-8,Y1) -(Xl+8, Yl+16) ,L 
T 

1720 LINE(X1-8,Y1) -(Xl+8, Yl+16) , 
PRESET, BF 
1730 Xl=Xl+2 
1740 RETURN 

1750 IFX1>X+10THENRETURN 

1760 IFXKX THENRETURN 

1770 IFA=3 OR A=4THEN1840 

1780 LINE(X1-8,Y1) -(Xl+8, Yl+16) , 

PRESET, BF 

1790 IF1=1 THENPUT(X1-8,Y1) -(X1+ 
8, Yl+16), KL ELSE PUT (Xl-8 , Yl) - (X 



1986 

BEST OF THE UPGRADES LIST 

1. Memory 64K DRAMS . . .from . . , $ 19 

256K Kits ■ 98 

2. ROM/BASIC Color Basic 12 19 

Extended Basic 1 . 1 . . 29 

Disk Basic 1.1 29 

ADOS 40 

3. Storage Drive 0 $209 

Drive 1 (external) 135 

Drive 1 (internal) 80 

4. Controllers J&M (you supply DOS) $ 89 

'Super Controller' .... 95 

5. Monitor Driver Original Coco .... $ 24 

Coco II 34 

6. Monitors Hi-Res Green/Amber ... $ 89 

Color with audio 169 

7. Lower Case Kit $ 49 

8. Deluxe Keyboards . . . .from .... $ 59 

Please specify model or cat * of your CoCo when or- 
dering. Brands and prices subject to stock availabil- 
ity. Send for free price list on over 200 Coco items. 



1+8, Yl+16) ,SL 
1800 DG=DG-1 

1810 PLAY "O5;T255;12;ll;10;9;8" 
1820 LINE (Xl-8, Yl) -(Xl+8, Yl+16) , 
PRESET , BF 
1830 RETURN 

1840 LINE (Xl-8 , Yl) - (Xl+8 , Yl+16) , 
PRESET, BF 

1850 IFRND(2)=2THENPUT(Xl-8, Yl) - 
(Xl+8, Yl+16) ,SL ELSEPUT(X1-8,Y1) 
-(Xl+8, Yl+16) , KL 

1860 LINE(X1-8,Y1) -(Xl+8, Yl+16) , 
PRESET, BF 

1870 PLAY "05;T255;1;1;1;1" 
1880 RETURN 

1890 LINE (Xl-8 , Yl) - (Xl+8 , Yl+16 ) , 
PRESET , BF 

1900 PLAY "04;T6;2;3;4;5;6;P3;5; 
6 ; P 3 ; 5 ; 6 ; P 2 ; 4 ; P 3 ; 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; P 3 ; 6 ; 
LI ; 4 «• 

1910 PLAY "T10;P1;O5;T10;12 ;P3;1 

1 ; 11 ; 10 ; 10 ; 9 ; 9 ; L3 ; 8 " 

1920 PUT(X1-8,Y1) -(Xl+8, Yl+16) ,D 

L,OR 

1930 PUT(X-16,Y) -(X,Y+16) ,M 
1940 PLAY "04;T15;1;2;1;2;3;2;3; 
3 ; 4 ; 3 ; 4 ; 4 ; 5 ; 4 ; 5 ; 5 ; 6 ; 5 ; 6 ; 6 ; 7 ; 6 ; 7 ; 
7 ; 8 ; 7 ; 7 ; 8 ; 9 ; 8 ; 8 ; 9 ; 8 ; 9 ; 9 ; 10 ; 11 ; 12 
; 12; 12; 12" 

1950 CLS 

1960 PRINT @0,» YOUR SCORE»";SC: 
L=L+1 

1970 PRINT "YOUR LEVEL NOW»";L: 

PRINT "YOUR ENERGY POINTS»";DG 

1980 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT : PRI 

NT " PRESS ANY KEY 

ii 

1990 I$=INKEY$ 
2000 IF I$=""THEN 1990 
2010 X=50:X1=200:H=0:I=I+.1:GOTO 
850 

2020 GOTO 2020 

2030 PLAY "01 ;T15; 12; 11; 12; 11; 1)3 
; 9 ; 10 ; 9 ; 8 ; 9 ; 7 ; 8 ; 6 ; 7 ; 5 ; 6 ; 4 ; 5 ; 3 ; 4 ; 

2;3;l;2;l;l;l" 

2040 CLS 

2050 PRINT "-=-=-=-=-=high score 

2060 PRINT "»»";HS 

2070 PRINT "YOUR SCORE»»";SC 

2080 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: IF 

SOHS THEN HS=SC: PRINT ********* 

*NEW HIGH SCORE********" 

2090 PRINT: PRINT " PRESS 

ANK KEY " 
2100 I$=INKEY$:IF 1$="" THEN 210 

0 

2110 GOT0 10 





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1 316 WUshlre Blvd.. Suite 206 
Las Angeles, CA 90017 
f213HB3-B3tie 

Ca. Res. 6Vz% tax Shipping: $2 Software 

Visit our Retail Store Charges: $5 Hardware 



70 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



I 



Financing: 

The Economic Advantage 

By Bill Bernico 

_** 



Having been a car salesman for 
six years and a car rental man- 
ager for another four years, I've 
learned a lot about human nature and 
how people spend their money. Folks 
purchasing a new car might think that 
by taking the money out of their savings 
account to pay cash for their purchase 
that they are saving all that interest on 
the' loan. Surprise! They've actually lost 
money doing it that way. This program 
will show in cold, hard figures which is 
the more economical move. It will also 
give skeptics a printout to take home 
and think about if they are not initially 
convinced after running the program. 

When using Cash vs. Financing, 
input the same dollar amounts and the 
same number of months in each case. In 
other words, compare "apples with 
apples." (Or should I say "CoCos with 
CoCos.") If you're considering a 
$10,000 car and you have that amount 
in the bank, use $10,000 in the financing 
section of the program in order to get 
an honest comparison. 



Bill Bernico is a car rental manager at 
a Dodge garage in Sheboygan, Wiscon- 
sin. His dealership-related programs 
were born out of necessity. Bill is 35 and 
a self-taught computerist who also 
enjoys playing golf. 



Naturally, the input for interest will 
vary between savings and financing, but 
use the same number of months in the 
comparison. Let's go through a sample 
session. For savings amount, input 
$10000 (no commas). For savings inter- 
est, let's use 8.75 (no percent sign 
necessary) and for months, input 48. 
Compound periods in this sample will 
be 2. The program will show you that 
by the end of the 48 month period, your 
nest egg will be worth $14085.49 or a 
gain of $4085.49 in interest. 

This will put you into the finance part 
of the program. Your first input will be 
the finance amount. Again, use $10000. 
For finance interest, use 13.5 (even at 
this higher rate, you'll be surprised by 
the outcome). For the number of fi- 
nance months, again use 48 and it will 
show you that your monthly payment 
will be $270.76 or a total of $12996.48 
over 48 months. The interest you will 
have paid in those 48 months is 
$2996.48. 

Comparing this figure with the 
$4085.49 in interest you would have 
earned from the savings account, you 
can see that you've saved $1089.01 by 
financing and leaving your nest egg 
alone. If you can find finance rates 
lower than 13.5, then the savings will be 
that much more. 

At this point in the program, if the 



customer has still not been convinced to 
finance the car, the salesman can select 
from three options. Option 1 is a print- 
out of the comparison. Option 2 is to 
start over with new figures. Option 3 is 
to end the program. 

Option 1, the printout, will ask for the 
customer's name as well as the sales- 
man's name. After the salesman inputs 
his name, the program will send the 
information to the printer. (This print- 
out was tailored for the TP- 10 printer 
which we have in our showroom, but 
will work with other printers as well.) 
The printout will personalize the hard- 
copy that the customer gets. It also has 
the dealership name and address as well 
as the salesman who serviced him. It's 
nice to stay fresh in the customer's 
mind. 

Here is a sample printout from the 
program we just ran. This program need 
not be restricted to automobile pur- 
chases. It can be used on any item you 
like for comparison purposes. 

One last note: I have fictionalized the 
name of the dealership in the printout 
as per my employer's request, and my 
apologies if there is really someone out 
there by the name of "Joe Average." 

(Questions about Cash vs. Financing 
may be directed to Mr. Bernico at 708 
Michigan Avenue, Sheboygan, WI 
5308 1 , phone 414-459-7350.) □ 

March 1986 THE RAINBOW 71 



You see two ads for similar programs 
one's $30, the other $70 

Which program is better for YOUR needs? 





First, is Received & Certified 
(Thank-you Rainbow!) 




Then, there's a Review 
(Rainbow does it again!!) 

Now, how about 



1 





(Ask your software Dealer] 





< coming soon > 



With PREVIEW, you see the ACTUAL screens- 
(click on icons, pull down menus), get ACTUAL printouts. 
SEE the graphics on YOUR screen, (not nifty ad artworks) 



HEAR the music!!! 



AFTER ALL, why pay for something you can't see? 

(ask your Software Dealer) 



Do it all BEFORE you purchase the program! 

(ask your software dealer) 



Sample Printout 

HOMETOWN DODGE 
1234 NORTH 56TH STREET 
SHEBOYGAN, WI 53081 
(414) 555-4861 
ASK FOR BILL BERNICO 



SAVINGS AMOUNT . . . , 
SAVINGS INTEREST . ♦ 
SAVINGS MONTHS .... 
COMPOUND PERIODS . . 
SAVINGS AMOUNT 
AFTER 48 MONTHS . , , 
INTEREST GAINED. . . 



8.75 % 

48 

2 

14085.49 
4085.49 



1 0 000 
1 3 • 5 % 



FINANCE AMOUNT 
FINANCE INT. . . , * . . 
FINANCE MONTHS..,. 

MONTHLY PMT 27j3.76 

TOTAL OF PMTS . . . 12996.48 
TOTAL INTEREST.*.. 2996.48 

JOE AVERAGE CAN SAVE $ 1089 
BY FINANCING THIS VEHICLE 

ASK US FOR ASSISTANCE IN 
ARRANGING A LOAN FOR YOU. 




The li 



Ijd 
2jd 
3jd 
4j3 
5j3 
6j3 
70 
8j3 



isting: CR5H 

i *** 
1 *** 
' *** 
' *** 
' *** 
• *** 
■ *** 



CASH *** 

BY BILL BERNICO *** 

7)38 MICHIGAN AV.*** 

SHEBOYGAN, WI *** 

53j381 *** 

(414) 459-735j3 *** 

*** 

CLS:B$=CHR$(128) 
9j3 PRINT@43 , "advantages" ;B$ ; "of 
Ij3j3 PRINT@107, "financing" ;B$ ; "vs 
110 PRINT@171, "paying" ;B$; "cash 
12)3 PRINT@299, "COURTESY OF" 



COCO SOLVER...THE SECRET WEAPON FOR GOOD GRADES © 

"An advanced programmable calculator CoCo Solver is a unique set 

of programs that might be the most versatile package ever developed 
for the color computer"... .Gary Clemens, Hot CoCo 5/85 
Why solve that Math or Science problem once when you can solve 
it hundreds of times. When you can try every possibility, analyze every 
trend and understand every angle. Get the "edge" on your classmates. 
Get the Secret Weapon. Get CoCo Solver. 

Read the review of CoCo Solver in February's Rainbow, then consider 
the following features of every JTJ package: 

MACHINE LANGUAGE SCREEN EDITOR. Imagine sitting at your 
CoCo, editing any entry on-screen. The first thing you'll notice is our 
cursor flashing above the last response you made for that entry. Press 
ENTER and accept the "default"; or use our control keys to ESCAPE 
or to edit the entry onscreen. Our editor also controls the length of 
the entry onscreen. No more chopped off entries. Press CURSOR 
BREAK once and relax while the cursor runs by itself along the text. 
One keypress stops it Our editor is FUN! 

NEW 

COCO BASE 1...A RELATIONAL DATA BASE MANAGER 

Describe the structure of your database. Add, select, or edit records, 
then take ACTION. Compatible with any database you've set up with 
Basic. Are the others compatible with Basic? This program is great 
for quickly printing your data in tabular or custom formatted form. 
Perform "what its" easily. Forty fields per record. Field length of 1- 
255 characters. Our editor controls the length of the field entry 
onscreen. Index up to 600 records on any character field. Record 
length up to 2000 characters. 

COCO BASE 1 is the only program available which allows you to act 
on the data in your database with all the power of your CoCo. You 
may use all the Basic string and numeric functions or any Basic 
command to act on each record. You can even schedule jobs to be 
run automatically. For the Beginner and for the Expert. 

CoCo Solver and Program Generator.. .tape or disk only $49.95 

COCO BASE 1 disk only $49.95 

32K and Extended Basic required Add $2 for shipping. 

Tennessee residents add sales tax please. 
JTJ ENTERPRISES 
ATTN: D.M. JACKSON P.E. 

P.O. Box 110841 
Nashville, Tennessee 37211 
(615) 331-0364 (AFTER 5:00 AND WEEKENDS) 
No delay on check or money order. Sorry, no credit cards. 




The CoCo 
PROFESSIONAL — " 

TAX 
PREPARER 

FOR THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 



"...it makes income tax calculating a breeze... you owe it to 
yourself to learn how the right way." 

— Boh Brown. Rainbow June Software Review 

Opeciai limited offer. Get the Professional Tax Preparer for only... $99.95 

Included with the program are a complete instruction manual and sample 
forms. A set of 36 overlays is also available for $69.95. Take advantage of our 
special offer and get BOTH the program and overlays for only S 1 49.95. 

The Professional Tdj( Preparer runs on 32K extended Basic, with one or 
two disk drives, and has built-in tax tables and rate schedules. It supports 
Form 1040, Schedules*, B, C, D, E, G, SE, W, and Forms2106, 21 19, 3903. 
4797, Office-at-Home, jnstallment Gain, Credits and Other Taxes. 

Features include reverse-screen scrolling, forward -screen block scroll, and 
full on-line diagnostics to check input. A built-in calculator supports 
arithmetic operations on numeric data. Edit capability allows you to edit any 
line at any time, using change, delete, hack, search, and insert commands. 
Yearly updates for the Program are available. 



Mail to: Micro Data Systems 
6 Edward Drive 
Ashland, MA 01721 



□ Mastercard 

Card# 

Name 

Address 

City, 



□ Visa 



□ CoCo Professional $99.95 

□ Set of 36 overlays $69.95 

□ Get both $149.95 

CI Check or Money Order Enclosed 
Exp. Date 



. State 



Zip 



Signature _____ . 

I need the built-in sales tax table for (state). 

Mass. residents add 5% sa/iv tax. Shipivd /*wf paid. Allow tuv uvvk* for di'lnvry. 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 73 




PROGRAMS • PERIPHERALS* SUPPLIES • SERVICE 



For Coco . . . 

in the Midwest 

Now in our 4th year! 



New Catalog Now Available 

CALL.OR WRITE 





□ = Coco Man 

Trie Complete . 

includes . ■ , 

EJrT Deluxe Joystick 
iV 1 and Y-cable ! ! 

COCOMQH II * 79.95 

mitn Y-cable 99.95 

m it n Joystick 99.95 



% 119.95 



:•:■:■<<«< ::::: 
:'■:'■['■:■><*; ::::: 



LATEST 
VERSION! 

Features. . . 
•14 fonts 
•Shrink, Stretch 
Rotate 
•Multiple drives 
• Pattern Save 

UPGRADES AVAILABLE 

Disk I to II 20.00 
Tape I to Disk II 

25.00 





PRINTER SPECIAL! 



Star SG-10 ^J^V^l— PRINTER 

Metric Industries Model 104 T He* T . INTERFACE 

Handsome brown vinyl -flh^N . DUST COVER 

Spare replacement RIBBON 

Starter pak of PAPER 




319. 



00 

COMPLETE 
SAVE 31.oo 



"Authorized Star Micronics Service Center" 



%w( DELUXE JOYSTICK 



EXCELLENT FOR COLOR COMPUTER 
USE IT FOR GRAPHICS, GAMES. ETC. 

CoCo owners will appreciate this high quality, 
durable joystick. Open gimbal design ... self- 
centering or free-floating operation. Mechanical 
trims on both axes ... eight foot cable ... firing 
button has lifetime 5,000,000 presses. A two- 
button version of the Deluxe Joystick is available 
for the Tandy 1000. DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 




$27.50 each 
$49.95/ pair 



CHOOSE FROM OUR LARGE 
SELECTION OF COCO PRODUCTS 

B5 ... Colorware ... Deft ... Derringer ... Diecom ... 

Dynacaic ... Elite ... HJL ... J & M ... Mark Data ... 
Metric Industries ... Michtron ... Microcom ... Microworks ... 
Tom Mix ... PBJ ... PXE ... Speech Systems ... Sugar ... 
TCE ... VIP ... Zebra ... and more! 

Shipped immediately from stock! 



• Call • 

513-396-SOFT 


• Shop by Modem • 

513-396-SHOP 


• 




\ 
t 




_/ 




1 


• Write • 

2235 Losantiville, Cincinnati, OH 45237 

SHIPPING will be charged al our ACTUAL COST 
Ohio residents add 5 5% Sates Te« COO add 2 00 





13J3 PRINT@3 63,"HOMETOWN DODGE 
14J3 PRINT@484 , " (HIT ANY KEY TO C 
ONTINUE) " ; 
15J3 EXEC 44539 

16 p A=0:I=j3:T=j3:Y=j3:V=j3:L=j3:P=j3: 
X==0 : N=j3 : K=p : 0=J3 : U=j3 : E=j3 
17J3 CLS 

180 INPUT"SAVINGS AMOUNT " ; 

A 

19j3 INPUT "SAVINGS INTEREST "; 

UI=I/1J3J3 

20j3 INPUT "SAVINGS MONTHS 

T:T=T/12 

21j3 INPUT "COMPOUND PERIODS... 
Y 

22j3 V=A*(1+I/Y) A (Y*T) :V=INT(V*lj3 
0+.5)/lj3j3 

23J3 PRINT"AFTER";T*12; "MONTHS. . . 

..$";v 

L=V-A 

PRINT" INTEREST GAINED $ 



ii 



ii 



PRINTSTRING$(32,"-") ; 

INPUT "FINANCE AMOUNT " ; 



ii 



ii 



24JZ5 
25J3 

";L 

26J3 
270 
P 

280 INPUT" FINANCE INTEREST. 
X:X=X/100 

290 INPUT" FINANCE MONTHS... 
N 

300 K=P*(X/12)/(1-(1+(X/12) ) A -N) 
310 K=INT(K*100+.5)/100 

32)3 PRINT "MONTHLY PAYMENT $ 

";K 

330 0=K*N 

340 O=INT(O*100+.5)/100 

350 PRINT "TOTAL OF PAYMENTS ...$ " 

;o 

360 U=INT( (O-P) *100+. 5)/100 

370 PRINT "TOTAL INTEREST $ 

";U 

38J3 E=INT( (L-U) *100+.5)/100 
390 PRINT "AMOUNT SAVED 

400 PRINT "BY FINANCING $ 

";E 
410 
VER 
420 

43J3 
440 
450 
460 
470 

N$ 
480 
490 



PRINT@4 82 , "PRINTOUT START O 
eND" ; 

A$=INKEY$:IF A$=" "THEN 42,0 

IF A$="S"THEN 160 
IF A$="P"THEN 470 
IF A$="E"THEN 10 
GOTO 420 

CLS : INPUT "CUSTOMER 1 S NAME" ; C 

INPUT 11 SALESMAN 1 S NAME" ; SN$ 
CLS : PRINT@2 32 , " PRINTING . 



500 PRINT#-2," 
ODGE 



HOMETOWN D 



74 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1986 



510 PRINT#-2 
H STREET 
52j3 PRINT* -2 

53081 
53J3 PRINT#-2 
-4861 

54J3 PRINT#-2 
55j3 PRINT#-2 
56j3 PRINT#-2 

" ;A 

57j3 1=1*100 
580 PRINT#-2 

590 T=T*12 

600 PRINT#-2 
ii. T 

610 PRINT#-2 
ii . Y 

620 PRINT#-2 
630 PRINT#-2 

. " ; V 

640 PRINT#-2 

";L 

650 PRINT#-2 
660 PRINT#-2 



670 PRINT#-2 

680 PRINT#-2 
ii. p 

690 X=X*100 
700 PRINT#-2 

" ; X ; 



710 PRINT#-2 
";N 

720 PRINT#-2 

11 ;K 

PRINT#-2 



ii 



ii 



ii 



12 34 NORTH 56T 



SHEBOYGAN, WI 
(414) 555 



"ASK FOR ";SN$ 



"SAVINGS AMOUNT 



"SAVINGS INTEREST.. 



"SAVINGS MONTHS 

"COMPOUND PERIODS.. 

"SAVINGS AMOUNT" 
"AFTER" ;T; "MONTHS . . 

"INTEREST GAINED... 



ii 



"FINANCE AMOUNT. 



"FINANCE INT 



"FINANCE MONTHS. 



• • • 



"MONTHLY PMT 



"TOTAL OF PMTS 



"TOTAL INTEREST. 



CN$;" CAN SAVE $";E 
"BY FINANCING THIS 



730 
"70 

740 PRINT#-2 

" ;U 

750 PRINT#-2 
760 PRINT#-2 
770 PRINT#-2 
VEHICLE 
780 PRINT#-2 
790 PRINT#-2 
NCE IN 
800 PRINT#-2 
OR YOU. 

810 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2:P 

RINT#-2 : PRINT#-2 : PRINT#-2 

820 CLS : PRINT§481, "aNOTHER PRINT 

OUT rE START eND" ; 

830 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN830 

840 IF A$="A"THEN 500 

850 IF A$="R"THEN 160 

860 IF A$="E"THEN 10 

870 GOTO 830 /R\ 



"ASK US FOR ASSISTA 



"ARRANGING A LOAN F 





Fighter Pilot 

An original arcade game! Wave after 
wave of attacking aircraft attempt to 
shoot you down os you maneuver your 
fighter Into the wild blue yonder, 
blasting enemy fighters, bombers and 
paratroopers out of the sky. Joystick or 
keyboard operation. "Pause game" 
feature. Disk version saves high scores. 
32K, 100% Machine Language. 

Tape $24.95 
Disk $29.95 

Mission of 
Vengeance 

A fantasy graphics adventure. You are 
Garotte Severinn, master thief, spy, and 
assassin. Your mission is to kill the evil 
wizard Neeman, recover the holy 
scepter of Tash, and escape from 
Neeman's castle. The reward is a 
fortune in gold, but beware... many 
dragons and monsters stand between 
you and the gold! 32K, one disk drive 
required. 

Disk or Amdek $24.95 



Pumpman 



You'll dig this 100% machine language 
arcade game! The Pumpman carries a 
pump that he fires at aliens Pooky and 
Dragon as they change forms and 
chase him around under the ground, 
15 different screens, "pause game" 
feature. As fun and challenging as the 
original arcade version! 32K one 
joystick required. 



Tape $24.95 
Disk $29.95 



Hires + 

High Resolution 
Screen Enhancer 

HIRES + is a programmer's utility that 
adds a number of features to BASIC: A 
high resolution screen with true upper 
and lower case letters and variable 
screen width, scroll protect, key repeat, 
error-trapping, visual Input routine, 
reset protection, true break disable 
and more! 16K tape. 

$19.95 



Menu Maker 

The Ultimate in easy disk access and 
organization! Menu Maker is a 100% 
machine language utility that allows 
you to place attractive, customized 
menus on all of your diskettes and, with 
one one key press, load any program of 
your choice. Menu Maker Is com- 
patible with RS DOS 1 .0 and 1 ,1 (soon 
with others!) and supports multiple- 
drive systems. 32K, one disk drive 
required. 

Disk or Amdek $24.95 



Magazine index 
System 

M.I.S. helps you organize and keep 
track of those Important magazine 
articles. Features include transfer utility 
insuring compatibility with other data- 
base programs, fast search routines, 
and the saving of data in a com- 
pressed format for more records per 
disk. 16K, one disk drive required. 

$14.95 



Software 
CloseoutH 

We're Blowing Out All 
Tom Mix • Mark Data 
Prickly-Pear 
Petrocci • Sugar 

Call Or Write For 
Lowest Prices Anywhere! 
Quantities Limited 

Write For Free Catalog! 

Gift Certificates 
Available 



Eagle $24.95* 

Lunar Lander. 32K, Joysticks Required. 

Marooned! $29.95 

Adventure. 32 K, Disk Only. 

Blackjack Dealer $24.95* 

With Feeler Dealer. 32K. 

Sketchpad $19.95 

Graphics Drawing Program. 32K. Disk Only. 

Alpha -40+ $19.95 

Formats 40+ Tracks, More! 32K, Disk Only. 

Testmaker $29.95 

Creates T/F, M/C Tests. Disk Only. 

Maycod'e $24.95* 

6809 Disassembler.. 32K 

* Add $5.00 For Disk 

We'll Ship Your Order 
For Only $1.00! 

Software Only - Hardware Shipped 
At Cost. 

Outside USA - $2.00 Per Program 



Saauaro < 303 > 728-4937 

O J? f P.O. Box 1 864 

OO f I War & Telluride, CO 81435 

CO. Residents Add 7% Tax • ClO.D. Orders Add $3.00 
Dealer Inquiries Invited! 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 75 



Forecast your budget, so in the future 
you can . . . 

♦ 

Juggle Bills, Juggle Bills, 

Juggle A 11 the Way I 

By Glen Dufur 



This program, Home Budget 
Analysis, is used to assist in 
budgeting and forecasting per- 
sonal finances in order to plan and 
adjust cash flow for three future periods 
(paydays). The program allows you to 
enter and update income and expense 
items for each of the three periods. The 
total of income and expenses is calcu- 
lated and displayed for instant analysis 
of cash flow, as items are added or 
updated. The balance is money that has 
not been committed, or over-com- 
mitted, if a negative balance is calcu- 
lated. 

As a period passes, you may shift all 
amounts so the second period becomes 
current and a new third period is 
opened. This allows you to continue 
budgeting for future periods. Also the 
ability is given to save or load a file of 
personal finance data. 

Create New File/Load Existing File 

You are given two options upon 
running the program. Press 'C to create 
a new file or 'L' to load an existing file. 
• Create New File: You are prompted 
to enter the dates of the three future 
periods to be budgeted. Enter each 

Glen Dufur, a senior programmer ana- 
lyst with Airborne Freight Corpora- 
tion, lives in Jssaquah, Washington. He 
has been designing and programming 
mainframe computer systems for 12 
years. 

76 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



period date in the format "MM/ 
DD." 

• Load Existing File: You are prompt- 
ed to ready the cassette. Press any key 
when ready to load the file. 

Upon completion of entering the 
dates for creation of a new file or 
loading an existing file, the INCOME 
DISPLAY appears. You are now ready 
to begin entry or update of your per- 
sonal finance file. 

Add/Update/Delete Expense 
and Income Items 

Income items are accessed via the 
income display, expense items via the 
expense display. Press 'N* to add a new 
item, or "A-H" to update or delete an 
existing item. Be sure to include all 
known income and expenses that occur 
during each period, for example, gro- 
ceries, car expenses, rent, utilities, 
installment payments, savings, wages 
and other income. 

• Add Item: A prompt is given to enter 
the DESCRIPTION. A description is 
required for each item entered. You 
are then prompted to enter an AUTO 
AMOUNT. This amount is automat- 
ically entered for each period of the 
item being added. Press enter with- 
out an amount if you do not wish an 
auto amount. This function is handy 
when the amount is the same for each 
period. You are now ready to enter 
amounts for the added item (see 
Update). 



• Update Item: When updating an 
item, the display prompts for the 
period to update, T, '2' or 4 3\ Enter 
the proper period and a prompt 
appears to enter the AMOUNT. To 
change the description and /or auto 
amount, press *D\ A prompt appears 
to enter the new description. You are 
then prompted to enter the auto 
amount. 

• Delete Item: After selecting the item 
to be deleted, press '*'. The item is 
deleted and you are automatically 
returned to the income or expense 
display. 

Press 'R' to return to the income or 
expense display. 

Expense and Income Displays 

The income and expense displays list 
the items that represent the total of 
expenses and income. Options are 
available to move between the expense 
and income displays, in addition to 
adding or updating items. Press T while 
in the expense display to call the income 
display. The expense display may be 
recalled by pressing 'X'. 

Scrolling of items is accomplished by 
the up/ down arrows while in either 
display. The last entry on the screen 
appears at the top when scrolled down 
and vice versa when scrolled up. 

The calculated total of expenses and 
income is shown for each period with 
the balance of uncommitted or over- 
committed amounts. 



Open JNew reriod 


15 


blank two lines 


IT „ ■ II. 

Variables 




as a period nas past, you may delete 


20 


top line 


hU3>(LN) 


expense description 


the current period and move all income 


25 


i j . 1 ■ 
bottom line 


T - " A /T\T 1\ 

EA(EN,3) 


expense amount 


and expenses forward and, therefore, 


30 


i j 

screen load expenses 


DE(EN) 


expense default 


open a new period. 


45 


i j • 
screen load income 


LE 


last record expense 


Press '0' while in the expense or 


60 


calculate and print totals 


1D$(IN) 


income description 


income display. The function prompts 






IA(IN,3) 


• 

income amount 


you to enter the date of the new period 






T^V A /T\T\ 

DA(IN) 


income default 


in tne torm mm/jjjj. lne program 




Other Subroutines 


T T 

LI 


last record income 


automatically shins all amounts and 


1 AA 
100 


accept desc/ default 


PD$(3) 


period dates 


drops trie values tor tne current period. 


1 OA 

IzU 


delete expense 


TE(3) 


period total expense 


If you had entered an auto amount for 


130 


delete income 


TI(3) 


period total income 


any income or expense item, this 


1 /IA 

140 


accept amount 


PB(3) 


period balance 


amount is automatically entered into 


1 c r\ 

150 


i • 

basic screen 


EN 


maximum expense records 


the new period for the item. 


I/O 


item screen 




(preset to 25) 






item bottom query 


TXT 

IN 


maximum income records 


Technical Information 


1 HA 

iyo 


tile lull 




(preset to 5) 


A maximum of 25 expense items and 


1 A A 

300 


expense display 


IE$ 


nag E-expense, I-income 


live income items nave been imposed. 


/I A A 

400 


expense item update 


1(8) 


item addressability 


Should your budget require more items, 


f An 

500 


income display 


IX$(8) 


item addressability 


change the value of EN (expense items) 


/CAA 
000 


income item update 


I$(8) 


item addressability 


and IN (income items) in Line 3000. 


700 


shut period 








800 


LDPD and 5RVE 


(Any questions about Home Budget 


Logic Flow 


c\r\r\ 

900 


f i 

new file 


Analysis may be sent to the author at 


rrenueni ouurouunes 




lmudiize ana sidn 


19816 SE 123rd, Issaquah, WA 98027, 


10 INKEY 


1100 


menu 


phone 206-235-3474. Please enclose an 


12 prompt alarm 


2000 


PCLEflR 


SASE when writing.) □ 



The listing: HDMEBDGT 



i 



80 . 
130 
170 
320 
430 



.33 
179 
.99 
...1 
230 
.36 



610 . 
720 . 
835 . 
997 . 
1110 
END 



.78 
.82 
.89 
.15 
140 
183 



T 



1 
7 

8 1 FREQUENT SUBROUTINES 

9 ' 

1)8 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" "THENGOTO10EL 
SEK=VAL(K$) : RETURN 

12 F0RSS=1T02 :S0UND22J3, 1:NEXTSS: 
RETURN 

13 FORSS=lT09:SOUND22j3,l:NEXTSS: 
RETURN 

15 PRINTTAB (1) STRING$ (3j3 , " " ) : PR 
INTTAB ( 1 ) STRING$ ( 3 j3 , " " ) ; : RETURN 
2J3 PRINTTAB ( 1)STRING$( 3^1 f CHR$( 14 

0 ) ) ; : RETURN 

25 PRINTTAB (1) STRING$ (3j3 , CHR$ (13 

1) ) ; : RETURN 

30 IFLE=j3 THENPRINT@163 , " enter" B 

B$ ;" expense "BB$" items" ; :SOUND2j3p 
, 1 : RETURN 

31 PP=64:PX=PP:IX=l:FORX=I(l) TO 
(I ( 1) +6) : PRINT@PP+j3 , STRING $ ( 3 2 , C 
HR$ (143) ) ; 

35 IFX<(EN+1) THENPX=PP:PRINT@PP 
+J3,IX$ (IX) ; :PX=PX+1:PRINT@PX,USI 
NG"% %" ;ED$ (X) ; : PX=PX+7 : FORY= 
1T03:IFEA(X,Y)O^I THENPRINT@PX,U 
SING N2$;EA(X,Y) ; : PX=PX+8 : NEXTY : 
ELSEPX=PX+8 : NEXTY 



4J3 I(IX)=X:IX=IX+1:PP=PP+32:NEXT 
X : SOUND2 J3J3 , 1 : RETURN 
45 IFLI=j3 THENPRINT@163, "enter"B 
B$;"income"BB$" items" ; :SOUND2^lj3, 
1 : RETURN 

4 6 PP=64:PX=PP:IX=l:FORX=I(l) TO 
(I (1) +6) : PRINT @PP+ pf STRING$ ( 3 2 , C 
HR$(143) ) ;J 

5J3 IFX<(IN+1) THENPX=PP:PRINT@PP 

+J3,IX$ (IX) ; :PX=PX+1:PRINT@PX,USI 
NG"% %" ; ID$ (X) ; : PX=PX+7 : FORY= 
1T03:IFIA(X,Y)O^I THENPRINT@PX,U 
SING N2$;IA(X,Y) ; : PX=PX+8 : NEXTY : 

ELSEPX=PX+8 : NEXTY 
55 I(IX)=X:IX=IX+1:PP=PP+32:NEXT 
X : SOUND2J3J3 , 1 : RETURN 
6j3 FORX=lT03:TE(X)=j3:FORY=lTOLE: 
TE (X) =TE (X) +EA (Y , X) : NEXTY , X : FORX 
=1T03:TI (X)=j3:FORY=lTOLI:TI (X)=T 
I (X)+IA(Y,X) : NEXTY, X : F0RX=1T03 :P 
B (X) =TI (X) -TE (X) : NEXTX 
65 PRINT§28 8,CHR$ (14J3) ;:GOSUB2j3: 
PRINT@32j3, "expense" ; : PP=32J3 : FORX 

=1T03 : PP=PP+8 : PRINT@PP ,USINGN2$ ; 
TE(X) ; : NEXTX 

7J3 PRINT@352, "income" ;BB$; :PP=35 

2 : F0RX=1T03 : PP=PP+8 : PRINT@PP,USI 

NGN2$;TI (X) ; : NEXTX 

75 PRINT@384, "balance" ; :PP=384:F 

0RX=1T03 : PP=PP^8 : PRINT@PP, USING 
N2$;PB(X) ; : NEXTX 

8j3 PRINT@416,CHR$(131) ;:GOSUB25: 
RETURN 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 77 



I 

mi 





1 



Toll Free 
Orders Only 
800-245-6228 



Information 
301-521-4886 



5 



If You Pay Taxes 



You Need Coco-Accountant 



"It's the most useful piece of soft- 
ware I own. " 

That's what we hear again and 
again from folks who buy Coco-Ac- 
countant II. This 32/64K single-entry 
accounting system for the home and 
small business is all you need to 
manage your finances and give you 
the information you need at tax time. 

We wrote the original version for 
ourselves two years ago because 
we wanted to know three things: 
Where did the money come from, where did it go, and 
what can we deduct from our taxes? 

As it turned out, we liked it better than anything else 
on the market, so we decided to sell it. And we've been 
improving it ever since. 

People say they like it because it's easy to use. Just 
spend a few minutes each month entering your data: 
checks, cash outlays, credit card expenses or income. 
In any order. CoCo-Accountant takes the whole mess 
and makes sense out of it. Here's what it does: 

♦ Lists and totals entries by month, offsetting in- 
come against expenses. 

♦ Lists and totals entries by account, for a month or 
the whole year. 

♦ Lists and totals entries by payee or income 
source, for a month or the whole year. 



DEDUCTIBLE 



♦ Provides a year-to-date summary 
by account. 

♦ Prints a spreadsheet showing 
activity by account and month for 
the whole year (seeing this one is 
believing). 

♦ Flags deductible expenses. 

♦ Flags expenses subject to 
sales tax and figures out how much 
sales tax you paid! 

♦ Lets you define up to 48 ac- 
counts (in 64K version). 

♦ Takes 900 entries in 64K version, 500 in 32K disk 
and 450 in 32K tape. 

♦ Sorts entries by date. 

♦ Stores your data to tape or disk. 

You can use CoCo Accountant as a simple check- 
book register or make it into a comprehensive home ac- 
counting package. Our customers tell us they use it in 
the home, at school, for their clubs, churches and small 
businesses. In fact, they use it in ways we never 
dreamed of! 

CoCo-Accountant II is so easy to use and flexible 
that you'll be delighted. So stop shoving all those re- 
cords in a shoe box and join the computer age! 

The price of Coco-Accountant II is $34.95. Please be 
sure to tell us your memory requirements and whether 
you want tape or disk. 




Thoroughbred, Harness, Greyhound 




•HORSE RACES- 




■HARNESS RACES- 




DOG RACES' 



Use your Color Computer to improve your performance 
at the track! These 16K programs for Thoroughbred, Har- 
ness and Greyhound racing rank the horses or dogs in 
each race quickly and easily, even if you've never handi- 
capped before. All the information you need is readily avail- 
able from the Racing form, harness or dog track program. 
We even provide diagrams showing you where to find each 
item! 

Thoroughbred factors include speed, distance, past 
performance, weight, class, jockey's record, beaten favor- 
ite and post position. Harness factors include speed, post 
position, driver's record, breaking tendencies, class, park- 



ed-out signs and beaten favorite. Greyhound factors in- 
clude speed, past performance, maneuvering ability, favor- 
ite box, class, kennel record, beaten favorite and breaking 
ability. 

We include complete instruction and a wagering guide 
that tells you which races to bet and which to avoid — one 
of the real secrets of good handicapping. You can buy a 
more expensive handicapper, but we don't think you can 
buy a better one! Thoroughbred, Harness or Greyhound 
Handicapper, $34.95 each on tape or disk. Any two for 
$54.95 or all three for $74.95. 



Federal Hill Software 8134 Scotts Level Rd. Baltimore. Md. 21208 




97 • 

98 * OTHER SUBROUTINES 

99 1 

1J3J3 PRINT@448,""; :GOSUB15 : PRINT@ 
449 , "" ; : GOSUB12 : LINE INPUT " DE S C : 
" ; XX$ : IFXX$=" " THENSOUND1 , 1 : GOTO 
lJ3j3ELSEPRINT@132, "*** "XX$" ***" 

• 

1J32 PRINT@448,"" ; :GOSUB15 : PRINT© 
449 , "AUTO AMOUNT" ; : GOSUB12 : INPUT 
XX 

1J95 IFIE$="E" THENED$(I)=XX$:DE( 
I)=XX:IFEA(I,1)=J3 ANDEA ( 1 , 2 ) =j3 A 
NDEA(I,3)=J3 THENF0RX=1T03:EA(I / X 
) =DE (I) : NEXTX : RETURN : ELSERETURN 
llj3 ID$(I)=XX$:DI(I)=XX:IFIA(I,1 
)=J3 ANDIA ( 1 , 2 ) =J3 ANDIA (1 , 3 ) =J3 TH 
ENF0RX=1T03 : IA ( I , X) =DI (I) : NEXTX : 
RETURN : ELSERETURN 

12J3 IFI=LE THENED$(I)="":DE(I)=J3 
: F0RZ=1T03 : EA ( I , Z ) =fS : NEXTZ : LE=LE 
-1: ELSEFORX=I TOLE-l:IFED$(X+l) 
<>"" THENED$(X)=ED$(X+1) :ED$(X+1 
) = " " : DE (X) =DE (X+l) : DE (X+l) =J3 : FOR 
Z=1T03 : EA (X , Z ) =EA (X+l , Z ) : EA (X+l , 
Z ) =J3 : NEXTZ : NEXTX : LE=LE-1 : ELSENE 
XTX 

125 RETURN 

13J3 IFI=LI THENID$(I)="":DI(I)=,0 
:FORZ=l T03:IA(I,Z)=J3:NEXTZ:LI=L 
1-1: ELSEFORX=I TOLI-l:IFID$(X+l 
) <>" » THENID$ (X) =ID$ (X+l) : ID$ (X+ 
1) =" " : DI (X) =DI (X+l) : DI (X+l) =J3 : FO 
RZ=1T03 : IA (X , Z ) =IA (X+l , Z ) : IA (X+l 
,Z)=j3: NEXTZ: NEXTX: LI=LI-1: ELSEN 
EXTX 

135 RETURN 

14J3 PRINT0448, ""; :GOSUB15 : PRINT@ 
449, "PERIOD"K"AMOUNT" ; :GOSUB12 : I 
NPUTXX : IFIE$="E" THENEA ( I , K) =XX 
ELSEIA(I,K)=XX 
145 RETURN 

15J3 CLS : PRINT" "; :IFIE$="E" THENP 
RINTSTRING$ (32, CHR$ (242)); ELSEP 
RINTSTRING$ ( 32 , CHR$ (162 ) ) ; 
155 PRINT@16 , "display" ; BB$ ; : PRIN 
T§32 , BB$ ; "period>" ; : PRINT@42 ,USI 
NGN3$;PD$(1) ; :PRINT@5j3,USINGN3$; 
PD$ ( 2 ) ; : PRINT @ 58 , US INGN3 $ ; PD$ ( 3 ) 
;:IFIE$="E" THEN16p ELSE165 
16p PRINT@7 , BB$ ; "expense" ; BB$ ; : P 
RINT@449, "a-h nEW EXPENSE iNCO 
ME SAVE " ; : PRINT© 481," < ARROWS > 
OPEN NEW PERIOD"; : RETURN 

165 PRINT@8 , BB$ ; " income" ; BB$ ; : PR 
INT@449,"a-h nEW INCOME ExPENS 
E SAVE " ; : PRINT @ 4 8 1 , " <ARROWS > 
OPEN NEW PERIOD" ;: RETURN 



17J3 CLS:PRINT@193," PERIOD 

AMOUNT " ; : PRINT@227 , STRING 
$(lj3,CHR$(131) ) ; :PRINT@242,STRIN 
G$(8,CHR$(131) ) ; :PRINT@385, "AUTO 

AMOUNT : " ; : PRINT@4 16 , " " ; : GOSUB2 5 
175 PRINT@32, ""; : GOSUB2^l : PRINT: I 
FIE$="E" THENPRINTTAB ( 5 ) "EXPENSE 

ITEM UPDATE " : ELS E PRI NTT AB ( 5 ) " IN 
COME ITEM UPDATE" 
18J3 GOSUB2 5: RETURN 
185 PRINTG449, "" ; : GOSUB15 : PRINT@ 
449," UPDATE PERIOD <1> <2> <3 
> dESC * DELETE nEW ITEM rET 
URN"; : RETURN 

19j3 PRINT@449,""; : GOSUB15 : PRINT§ 

449," file full - press enter";: 
GOSUB1J3 : RETURN 

297 ' 

298 'EXPENSE ITEM UPDATE 

299 • 

3)3/3 IE$="E":I(1)=1 

3J35 PP=32:GOSUB15j3:GOSUB6j3:GOSUB 

3J3 

31j3 I=j3:GOSUBlj3 

315 IFK$=CHR$ (lj3) THENI ( 1) =1 ( 1) + 
6:IFI(1)>LE THENI ( 1 ) =LE : GOSUB3 0 : 
GOT03 1J3 : ELSEGOSUB3 j3 : GOT03 1J3 
32j3 IFK$=" A " THENI (1) =1(1) »6: IF 
I(1)<1THEN I(1)=1:G0SUB3J3:G0T031 
j3 ELSEGOSUB3j3:GOT031j3 
325 IFK$="N" THENGOSUB4j3j3:GOT03j3 
5:ELSEIFK$="I" THEN5j3j3 ELSEIFK$= 
"S" THENIO=2 : GOSUB8j3j3 : GOT03j3j3 EL 
SEIFK$="0" THENGOSUB7j3j3 : GOT03j3j3 
33J3 F0RX=1T08:IFK$=I$(X) THENI =1 
(X) : NEXTX :ELSENEXTX 
335 IFI=J3 THEN34j3 ELSEIFI>ENTRIE 
S THEN 34)3 ELSEIFED$ (I) =" " THEN34 
J3 ELSEGOSUB4j3j3:GOT03j35 
34j3 S0UND1,1:G0T031J3 

397 1 

398 'EXPENSE ITEM UPDATE 

399 ' 

4j3j3 SOUND2j3j3,l 

4j35 IFK$="N" THENLE=LE+l:I=LE:IF 
LE>EN THENLE=EN : GOSUB19 j3 : RETURN 
41j3 GOSUB17j3:PRINT@132, "*** "ED$ 
(I) " ***"; :PP=259:F0RX=1T03:PRIN 
T@PP,X; :PRINT@PP+2,">"; :PRINT@PP 
+4,USINGN3$;PD$(X) ; : PRINT@PP+15, 
USING N2$;EA(I,X) ; : PP=PP+32 : NEXT 
X:PRINT@4^2,USINGN2$;DE(I) ; 
415 IFK$="N" THENGOSUBlj3j3:K$="": 
GOT041j3: ELSEGOSUB18 5 
42^ GOSUBl)3:IFK$="R" THENRETURN 
ELSEIFK$=" * " THENGOSUB12J3 : RETURN 
: ELSEIFK$="D" THENGOSUBlj3j3 : GOT04 
j3^(ELSEIFK$="N" THENGOT04 J3 J3 



/ 

March 1986 THE RAINBOW 79 



425 IF K>J3 AND K<4 THENGOSUB140 : 
GOTO 4 10 

430 S0UND1, 1:GOTO420 

497 ' 

498 ' INCOME DISPLAY 

499 ' 

5J30 IE$="I":I(1)=1 

505 PP=32 :GOSUB150:GOSUB60:GOSUB 

45 

510 1=0 : GOSUB10 

515 IFK$=CHR$(10) THENI (1) =1 (1) + 
6 : IFI ( 1 ) >LI THENI ( 1 ) =LI : GOSUB4 5 : 
GOTO510 : ELSEGOSUB45 : GOTO510 
520 IFK$= IIA " THENI (1)=I (1) -6: IF 
I(1)<1THEN I(l)=l:GOSUB45:GOT051 
0ELSEGOSUB45 : GOTO510 
525 IFK$="N" THENGOSUB600:GOTO50 
0:ELSEIFK$="X" THEN300 ELSEIFK$= 
"S" THENIO=2:GOSUB800:GOTO300 EL 
SEIFK$="0" THENGOSUB700 : GOTO500 
530 F0RX=1T08:IFK$=I$(X) THENI=I 
(X) : NEXTX : ELSENEXTX 
535 IFI=0 THEN540 ELSEIFI>9 THEN 
540 ELSEIFID$ (I) =" " THEN540 ELSE 
GOSUB600 : GOTO 50 5 
540 SOUND1,1:GOTO510 

597 1 

598 'INCOME ITEM UPDATE 



599 1 

600 SOUND200,1 

605 IFK$="N M THENLI=LI+1 : I=LI : IF 
LI>IN THENLI=IN: GOSUB190 : RETURN 
610 GOSUB170: PRINT @132,"*** "ID$ 
(I) 11 ***"; :PP=259:F0RX=1T03:PRIN 

T@PP,X; :PRINT@PP+2, ">" ; :PRINT@PP 

+5,USINGN3$;PD$(X) ; : PRINTQPP+15 , 

USING N2$;IA(I,X) ; : PP=PP+3 2 : NEXT 

X:PRINT@402,USINGN2$;DI(I) ; 

615 IFK$="N" THENGOSUB100:K$="": 

GOTO610: ELSEGOSUB185 

620 GOSUB10:IFK$="R" THENRETURN 

ELSEIFK$=" * " THENGOSUB13 0 : RETURN 

: ELSEIFK$="D" THENGOSUB100 : GOT06 

00ELSEIFK$= ,l N M THENGOTO 600 

625 IF K>0 AND K<4 THENGOSUB140 : 

GOTO 6 10 

630 SOUND1,1:GOTO620 

697 ' 

698 'OPEN NEW PERIOD 

699 ' 

700 CLS:SOUND200, 1 

705 PRINT@129,STRING$ (30,CHR$ (14 
0) ) :PRINTTAB(3) "SHIFT AND OPEN N 
EW PERIOD": PRINT TAB ( 1) STRING$ (3 
0,CHR$(131) ) 

710 GOSUB12 : PRINT@292 , "HIT ANY K 




Makes learning so much FUN . . . 
. . . that kids think it's a game! 

LEVEL 1: Echos each key pressed in solid 
block letters and plays a random 
melody. 

LEVEL 2: The user echos the random 

number or letter. The computer 
responds with a random melody. 

LEVEL 3: The user echos random words 
displayed. The computer echos 
with a random melody. 

$24 16k ECB 

send for more information: disc or tape 

Challenger Software 

42 4th Street 
Pennsburg, PA 18073 
Call (215) 679-8792 (Evenings) 



RAINBOW 



CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Formatter 

the fastest, most complete 
office package yet! 

Totally Menu Driven 
Customize with company information 



Complete " 


on screen*' 


instructions 


FORMS 


STORES 


FIGURES 


letter 


complete forms quantity 


invoice 


item list 


list 


quote 


subquotes 


net 


purchase order 


letters 


discount 


mail order 


footnotes 


subtotals 


confirm order 


customer info tax 


receipt 




freight, etc. 


SEPARATE CONFIGURE 




PROGRAM 




PRINTS 


for company info 


form feed 


printer options 




letterhead 


quote & inv. # 




envelope 


w/auto sequencing 


multiple copy 


auto date 




emphasized 


send for more information: 


$49 32k ECB disc 



Challenger Software 

42 4th Street 
Pennsburg, PA 18073 
Call (215) 679-8792 (Evenings) 



RAINBOW 



CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



80 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



EY TO CONTINUE OR r 

ETURN";:GOSUB10:IF K$="R" THENRE 
TURN 

715 PRINT@288 / "":GOSUB15 / : PRINT® 
289 , "ENTER NEW PERIOD DATE (MM/D 

D) "; :PRINT@335,"" ; : GOSUB12 : LINEI 

NPUT"";XX$:PRINT@288, ""; :GOSUB15 
:PRINT@294,"NEW PERIOD FOR ";XX$ 
; PRINTTAB ( 6 ) " NOW BEING OPENED"; 
720 FORX=lTOLE:EA(X,l)=EA(X,2) :E 
A(X,2)=EA(X,3) :EA(X,3)=DE(X) :NEX 
TX : FORX=lTOLI : I A ( X , 1 ) =IA ( X , 2 ) : I A 
(X,2)=IA(X,3) :IA(X,3)=DI(X) :NEXT 
X:PD$(1)=PD$(2) :PD$(2)=PD$(3) :PD 
$ ( 3 ) =XX$ : RETURN 

797 ' 

798 "I/O ROUTINES 

799 • 

800 CLS:SOUND200,1 

805 IFIO=l THENIO$="LOAD" ELSEIO 
$="SAVE" 

810 PRINT@64, "" ; : GOSUB20 : PRINT© 1 
05,10$;" FILE"; :PRINT§128, ""; :GO 
SUB25 

815 GOSUB13 : PRINT@193 , "POSITION 
TAPE . . . " : PRINT" READY CASSETTE . . 
.":PRINT" PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTI 
NUE" : GOSUB10 : PRINT@19 2 , " " : GOSUB1 
5:GOSUB15:IFIO=2 THEN845 

820 ' * LOAD FILE * 

825 SOUND220,1:PRINT@193," LOADI 
NG BUDGET FILE"; 

830 OPEN"I",#-l, "BUDGET" :SOUND2 2 

835 INPUT#-l,LE,LI:FORX=lTOLE:IN 
PUT#-1,ED$(X) ,DE(X) : F0RY=1T03 : IN 
PUT#-1 , EA (X , Y) : NEXTY , X : FORX=lTOL 
I:INPUT#-1,ID$(X) ,DI(X) :FORY=lTO 
3 : INPUT# - 1 , IA ( X , Y ) : NEXTY , X : FORX= 
1T03: INPUT* -1,PD$(X) :NEXTX 
840 CLOSE#-l: RETURN 
845 SOUND220,1 

850 PRINT@193, " SAVING BUDGET FI 
LE" ; :MOTORON:FORX=1TO600: NEXTX 
855 OPEN "0",#-l, "BUDGET" :SOUND2 
20,1 

860 PRINT#-l,LE / LI:FORX=lTOLE:PR 
INT#-1,ED$(X) ,DE(X) : F0RY=1T03 : PR 
INT # - 1 , EA ( X , Y ) : NEXTY , X : FORX=lTOL 
I:PRINT#-1,ID$ (X) ,DI (X) :FORY=lTO 
3 : PRINT # - 1 , IA ( X , Y ) : NEXTY , X : FORX= 
1T03:PRINT#-1,PD$(X) : NEXTX 
865 CLOSE#-l: RETURN 

897 » 

898 'CREATE NEW FILE 

899 » 

90J3 CLS:S0UND2J3J3,1 

9j35 PRINT@3 3 , " " : GOSUB2 j3 : PRINT : PR 



INTTAB(6) "ENTER PERIOD DATES" : GO 
SUB25 

910 PP=3 60:FORX=1TO3:PRINT§214, " 
" ; : GOSUB15 : PRINT@161, "PERIOD #" ; 
X ; : PRINT@2 2 7 , " " ; : GOSUB12 : LINEINP 
UT" ENTER DATE (MM/DD) : ";PD$(X): 
PRINTQPP, "PERIOD ";X" — > ";:PRIN 
TUSINGN3$ ;PD$ (X) : PP=PP+32 : NEXTX: 
GOTO500 

997 1 

998 'INITIALIZE PROGRAM 

999 ' 

1000 CLEAR500 : SOUND200 ,1 : EN=25 : I 
N=5 : DIMED$ (EN) :DIMEA(EN, 3) : DIMPD 
$(3) :DIMIA(IN,3) :DIMI$(8) :DIMI(8 
) : DIMDE ( EN ) :DIMID$(IN) tDIMDI(IN) 
: DIMIX$ ( 8 ) : DIMTE ( 3 ) : DIMTI ( 3 ) : DIM 
PB(3) 

1005 LE=0:LI=0:FORX=1TO8:READIX$ 

(X) ,I$(X) ,I(X) : NEXTX 

1010 DATA a,A,l,b,B,2,C,C,3 f d,D, 

4, e f E f 5 f f ,F # 6 f g,6 f 7,h f H f 8 

1015 N0$="##» :N2$=»####. ##-" :N1$ 

=•«+####. ##":LD$="% %":N3$="% 

%":BB$=CHR$(128) 

1030 • 

1100 SOUND200,1 

1105 CLS ; PRINT@99 , "home" ; BB$ ; "bu 
dget" ; BB$ ; "analysis" : PRINT: PRINT 

" BY: GLEN DUFUR" : PRINT" C 
OPYRIGHT (C) 1985" 

1110 PRINT: PRINTTAB (4) "10AD EXIS 
TING BUDGET FILE" : PRINT: PRINTTAB 
(4) "CREATE NEW BUDGET FILE":PRIN 
T@424, "SELECT OPTION"; 
1115 IFXX$=CHR$(161) THENXX$=CHR 
$(162) :XY$=CHR$(164) :XZ$=CHR$(16 
6): ELSEXX$=CHR$(161) :XY$=CHR$(1 
68) :XZ$=CHR$ (169) 

1120 PRINT@65,CHR$ (138) ;:PRINTST 
RING$ (22, XX$ ) ; CHR$ (133);: PRINT@ 1 
29,CHR$(138) ;STRING$(22,XY$) ;CHR 
$(133) ; :K$=INKEY$:PRINT@97,CHR$( 
138) ;XZ$; : PRINT© 119, XZ$;CHR$ (13 3 

) 

1125 PRINT@438," ";:IFK$="" THEN 
1115 ELSEIFK$="L" THENIO=l : GOSUB 
800:GOTO500: ELSEIFK$="C" THEN90 

1130 PRINT@438,K$; : SOUND1, 5 : GOTO 
1115 

1200 'CSAVE "BUDGET" ROUTINE 
1205 F0RX=1T02 :MOTORON:FORY=lT06 
0 0 : NEXTY : MOTOROFF : CSAVE " BUDGET " : 
NEXTX : F0RX=1T05 : SOUND200 , 1 : NEXT : 
END 

1999 'PCLEAR ROUTINE 

2000 PCLEAR1: GOTO 1000 ^ 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 81 



OWL-WARE'S TOLL FREE ORDER LINE (800) 245-6228 






TECHNICAL ADVICE 
(215) 682-6855 

All Prices Include 
Case and Power 

Supply 



Other Drive O Systems from $ 1 79. Double Sided 

Double 



drive o $199. $239. 

...Call for SPECIAL PRICES on Drive 0, 1 Combos. 

DRIVE 1 $1 15. $145. 



Sided 

or 
Double 

Sided 

Quad 



NOW AVAILABLE !!! 

SUPER-TROLL 




OWL-WARE'S version of the 
Distro (CRC) Controller by 
Tony DiStefano.This has sockets 
for 4 ROM Chips. ...only $5.00 
additional with a Drive 0 System. 

ADD ON OPTIONS: 

CDOS $6. 
Parallel Printer Port $25. 

Real Time Clock $10. 
80 Column Card $49. 

Just Controller $99. with CDOS 
to $195. with ALL options 



All drives are new, direct drive, 
40 track and 6 ms. We ship 



FULLY TESTED and CERTIFIED 
DRIVES at NO ADDED CHARGE! 

MITSUBISHI & TEAC are known 
as the highest quality made. 

STATE-OF-THE-ART 
TECHNOLOGY 
not Full-height belt-driven 

drives. 

We have RSDOS, JDOS, 
OWL DOS, ADOS available on 
ROM. Call about Double Sided 
or Special Needs. 



Special 
Bundled 
Software 

with 
Disk Drive 
Purchase! 



TOLL FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(800) 245-6228 

Call for 
LATEST 

PRICES!!! 



1 YR. 



WARRANTY 
ON ALL ITEMS!!! 




M.C. & VISA Accepted 

OWL-WARE 

P.O. Box 116-D 
Mertztown, PA. 
19539 

PA Res Include 6%Tax 
PA (215) 682-6855 



OWL TIP: Drive costs have gone up. 

We have kept the listed price constant, 
but may have to raise them soon. 

We still have maintained quality despite 
competition.!!! 

OWL-WARE SOFTWARE 

BUNDLE: DISK TUTORIAL 

2 UTILITIES 
2 GAMES 

DISK TUTOR 

LEARN EVERYTHING ABOUT DISK BASIC 
FROM THIS MACHINE LANGUAGE 
PROGRAM. THE TUTOR TAKES YOU STEP 
BY STEP THROUGH THE LESSONS AND 
CORRECTS YOUR MISTAKES A MULTI- 
LESSON TUTORIAL THAT WILL GIVE YOU 
QUICK, PAINLESS KNOWLEDGE OF DISK 
BASIC (THIS PROFESSIONALLY WRITTEN 
TUTOR IS EASILY WORTH THE BUNDLE'S 
TOTAL PRICE). 

OWL DOS 

AN OPERATING SYSTEM THAT GIVES 
25% FASTER DISK ACCESS AND ALLOWS 
USE OF DOUBLE SIDED DRIVES . 
CORRECTS FLOATING POINT NUMBER 
ERROR. 

COPY-IT 

QUICKLY COPIES SELECTED PROGRAMS 
FROM DISK. USE WILD CARD OPTION 
SEARCH TO SELECT GROUPS OF 
PROGRAMS FOR COPY (NOT FOR PRO- 
TECTED PROGRAMS) 

2 GAMES 

Our own CRYSTAL REVENGE and one other. 
Both have sold for over $17.00 each. 

IF SOLD SEPARATELY OVER 
$125.00 WORTH OF SOFTWARE!!! 

only $24.95!!! 
(or even better) 
$4.95 with 
DISK DRIVE PURCHASE!!! 



OWL-WARE 

WINCHESTER BASIC 



ANNOUNCING... the Development of a Major Breakthrough in 
HARD DRIVE SYSTEMS for the COLOR COMPUTER!!! 

Several months ago OWL-WARE introduced the Finest OS9 Hard Drive System for the Color Computer. 
Now we are about to introduce the only RSDOS Interface System worthy of our computer, OWL-WARE 
Winchester Basic. For the first time you have available a true Winchester System, Although there are 10 
directories made available to BASIC, the only limit to size of any file is the size of your drive. On a 
10 meg drive you could have a 8 meg file on directory 5 and a 1 meg file on directory 8 and small files 
everywhere. You turn the computer on and you can immediately access your drive from BASIC or any language 
using commands you already know. You do not have to know or use OS9 to use OWL-WARE WINCHESTER 
BASIC, but if you do, all files saved from RSDOS are available to OS9. All files generated from OS9 can 
be made available to RSDOS by copying to the WINCHESTER BASIC directories. There are no partitions to 
wall you into only one operating system, but nothing forces you to use an operating system you don't like. 

Call for further details and availability on this breakthrough product!!! 




WITH 
DRIVE 
BELOW 



(NOC Until 

5(>0 O.Feb. 28th WITHOUT 



*ta Until 
ibOU.Feb. 28th 



$50. 



Thereafter 



DRIVE 



$75. 



Thereafter 



OS-9 HARD DRIVE SYSTEMS 

Disk Access is at Least... 8 Times Faster than Floppy Drives. 

Control up to 2 Drives. EACH with Continuous Massive 
Memory!!! Complete OS-9 Hard Drive System Includes... 
Software, Hard Drive, Controller and L.R. Tech Interface. 



INTRODUCTORY PRICE... until Jan. 19th 

$495.5MEG $649.10MEG 

(19,500 + sectors) (39,100 sectors) 

$849.20MEG 

OWL-WARE is pleased to announce 
an exclusive arrangement to Distribute 
the L.R. TECH Hard Drive Interface 
and Software. 




Interface & 
Software Only $99. 

NOTE: Interface is not Intenupt 
Driven Like Our Competition. 

Therefore, the System Clock 
does not Lose Time During 
Hard Drive Access. 

INSTALL IN ANY SLOT OF 
MULTI-PAK OR USE Y CABLE. 



DEALERS INQUIRES INVITED 



CREATE BEAUTIFUL PICTURES UITH 




<4STE 
A 





m Convenient, on-icrttn 
h Accept* input from X-PAD. 

TOUCH-PAST MOUSf or JOYSTICK 
- nagnilicstton Mode 

Drew with custom paintorushes 



Drew with custom patnior 
C*su rrti-nind sKetcntng 
*PeTnt- command 



10 colors at a time 
Pictures are ready for use 
antic prograMi 

ing In any fiie 
Color 



in 



m Lettering n 

n Screen dump to Color ink-Jt t 

or otntr Tandy printers 
■4k mart • . *09 . as 




UUW J-DIHENSIONAL OBJECTS FROM ANY 
ANCLE MI TH 




Convenient, on-screen Menu 
Supports input froM X-PRD, 

TOUCH-PAD, nOUtt or JOYSTICK 
Sutlt-in screen dump to Tandy 

Sr inter s 
lculates dimensions for you 
from Just a rough sketch 
Plots or calculates lines and 
ar c » 

On-screen sketching Mode 



S«R DISK 129. 99 



A Disk Tinkerer's 



Device 



There was an excellent article in 
the December 1985 RAINBOW, 
"Zapping with Confidence," 
Page 118 by Jeffry D wight, that pro- 
vided a well-designed "disk zap" utility. 
Now you can have an easy means to 
examine and modify disks. In this 
article I will try to aid such hardy 
tinkerers by discussing some aspects of 
just what you will see when you look at 
your disks. Some of this material is 
explained in the Radio Shack Disk 
Extended BASIC manual in Chapter 11. 
Some of the material, however, is not 
given there, especially the information 
on specific file structure. 

As a bonus, 111 provide you with a 
utility. Called Analyzer, it automati- 
cally gathers up the widely separated 
information on just where given direc- 
tory files are on your disk and prints it 
out in a neat fashion. Analyzer can be 
used in conjunction with any disk 
editor, such as the one mentioned 
above. 

Note 1: There may be some confusion 



Martin H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a long 
time electronics tinkerer and outspoken 
commentator on CompuServe and 
Delphi (sort of the Howard Cosell of the 
CoCo Community). Among his numer- 
ous hardware and software design, 
production and marketing projects, he 
introduced Graphicom and WEFAX to 
the Co Co world. His non-computer 
passions include running, mountaineer- 
ing and outdoor photography. Marty 
lives in San Pablo, California. 



about what number (zero or one) is the 
first number in a given sequence. The 
first sector on a track is numbered one, 
yet the first track on the disk is num- 
bered zero. The first byte in the direc- 
tory entry is called "byte zero." The First 
granule is called granule number zero. 
These are arbitrary conventions. They 
are not all consistent with each other, 
and are a pain to remember . . . but 
remember them a hacker must! 

Note 2: When referring to the data on 
the disk, I'll denote it in two different 
forms. When I say the first 11 bytes 
contain the filename and extension, I 
mean that the data is there in ASCII 
code. However, when I say the File Type 
flag byte will be 0, 1, 2 or 3, I am 
indicating the Hex value of that byte. 
When I later refer to the value of a byte 
in the Granule Allocation Table, I'll also 
be referring to its Hex value. 

The letter 'A' in ASCII is represented 
as Hex 41. Most disk zappers offer the 
option of displaying a sector in either 
Hex or ASCII. The one published in the 
December rainbow had even more 
options (decimal and binary) for how to 
display the data from the disk. The best 
disk zappers use a technique to display 
at the same time both the ASCII value 
and the Hex value of at least a selected 
byte in the sector, if not some or all of 
the sector. Some disk zappers ( VIPs, for 
example) display "screen code" values 
of the sector. This is vaguely like an 
ASCII display, but the data is repre- 
sented somewhat differently. With such 
zappers, the ASCII/ Hex options need 
to be used. In this article, when I make 



By Martin H. Goodman 

reference to text I'm talking ASCII, but 
when I specify to numeric information 
I am talking Hex. 

Note 3: I will assume we are consid- 
ering only normal Radio Shack/ Micro- 
soft Disk Extended BASIC files here. 
What follows is not relevant, directly to 
OS-9, copy-protected material or to 
noncopy-protected, but also non stand- 
ard format disks, such as some new 
Radio Shack games, the new Infocom 
games and Graphicom or WEFAX 
picture disks. 

Note 4: 1 will assume you are familiar 
with the fundamental divisions of data 
on a disk: the 35 tracks and the 18 256- 
byte sectors that are standard for Radio 
Shack's Disk Operating System. The 
Radio Shack Disk Extended BASIC 
manual is quite clear on this matter, I 
will also assume you understand that a 
"granule" consists of nine sectors on the 
disk, thus is 2*4 K in size and can occupy 
either the first or the last nine sectors 
(numbered 1 through 9 or 10 through 
18) on a given track. Every track except 
Track 17 (the directory track) consists 
of two granules. The directory track is 
excluded from granule notation. There- 
fore, Track 0, Sector 1 is the first sector 
in granule number 0, Track 16, Sector 
18 is the last sector in Granule 33 and 
Track 18, Sector 1 is in Granule 34. 

Note 5: Most of the time I will use 
Hex notation, but sometimes I will use 
decimal. Thus, when I refer to Track 17, 
I am talking decimal. Whenever 1 use 
Hex, I'll specify it by writing the word 
"Hex" or by preceding the number with 
a dollar sign ($). 



84 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



These notes may seem tedious, but 
hopefully they will help the novice get 
past some of the conventions that 
longtime hackers often accept and 
understand without thinking about 
them, yet are sometimes confusing to 
the newcomer. 

Directory Structure 

When you type DIR, you see a listing 
of filenames, extensions and then a 
number, a letter and another number. 
The first number displayed is the File 
Type, the letter is the ASCII flag and the 
last number is the number of granules 
in that file. Everything except for the 
information on how many granules 
there are in the file is directly recorded 
in the directory entry. 

The directory starts on Track 1 7 (Hex 
$11), Sector 3. Each entry is 32 (Hex 
$20) bytes long, of which only the first 
16 (Hex $10) bytes are used. The re- 
maining 16 bytes are "reserved for 
future use" by Microsoft. Therefore, 
one sector can hold up to eight directory 
entries. If the directory has more than 
eight files on it, then more sectors 
(Track 17, sectors 4, 5, 6, etc.) are used. 
Let's look at Track 17, Sector 3. 

Bytes $00 through $0A: Filename 
and Extension 

As can be learned from reading 
Chapter 1 1 of the Radio Shack manual, 
filenames in the directory are placed on 



Track 17, Sector 3 and up. The first 
eight bytes of the entry are the filename, 
the next three are its extension. These 
1 1 bytes normally contain ASCII char- 
acters. Files that were killed will have 
the first byte in their name changed to 
HexO. 

Byte $0B: File Type Flag 

The next one is the File Type flag. 
This byte equals 00 for tokenized BASIC 
programs. It equals Hex 01 for what the 
Radio Shack manual calls "BASIC data 
files," or what you will encounter as 
"ASCII BASIC" files, or as with many 
word processors and editor/ assemblers, 
ASCII text files. It equals Hex 02 for 
machine language programs. The man- 
ual says this byte equals Hex 03 for "text 
editor source files." This File Type is 
rarely encountered, except by users of 
Color Scripsit. To those, I suggest 
buying Telewriter and Telepatch or VIP 
Writer or Elite Word. You'll have a 
much better word processor and won't 
have to worry about text editor source 
files. 

Byte $0C: ASCII Flag 

The ASCII flag follows the File Type 
flag. This single byte is set to zero if the 
file is in binary format, and set to Hex 
FF if the file is in ASCII format. To- 
kenized BASIC is a kind of binary File 
Type; so is a machine language pro- 
gram. Thus, both of those tend to have 



the ASCII flag set to zero. ASCII text 
files (File Type flag = 1) have their 
ASCII flag set to Hex FF. 

Byte SOD: First Granule 

This is the number of the first granule 
used for the file. 

Bytes $0E and $0F: Number of Bytes 
in Last Sector 

Byte $0E is the high order byte, and 
is either zero or one — most of the time 
it is zero. If one, the next byte is zero, 
and 256 bytes in use (a full sector) are 
specified. Byte 15 varies from one 
through FF to signify from one through 
255 bytes used in the last sector of the 
file. Bytes $10 through $1F are "re- 
served" from back in 1981 for "future 
use." They have never been used. 

Note here that while bytes Hex 0D,0E 
and OF provide some information about 
where the file resides on the disk and 
how far it extends, they leave out a lot! 
They give no clue, in and of themselves, 
as to how many granules there are in the 
file or of how many sectors are used in 
the last granule of the file. To find that 
out, you have to move over to Track 17, 
Sector 2, called the Granule Allocation 
Table, or GAT. 

The GAT 

The GAT occupies Track 17, Sector 
2. Actually, only the first 68 bytes of 
Track 17, Sector 2 constitute the GAT. 
The disk manual incorrectly states that 
the remaining bytes in that sector will 
be zero. Anyone who's ever looked at 
a disk with a zapper knows this is not 
true. Indeed,' due to some sloppy code 
in Disk BASIC, copies of pieces of the 
directory itself wind up in the space 
beyond the 68th byte of Track 17, 
Sector 2. This little idiosyncrasy had to 
be corrected by authors of Disk BASIC 
modifications who were implementing 
support for 40- and 80-track drives, but 
that's another story. Suffice it to say 
here that in a normal Disk BASIC disk, 
the first 68 bytes of Track 17, Sector 2 
are the GAT and the remaining bytes 
are "garbage." 

The first byte in the GAT is "byte 
number zero." Each byte in the GAT 
corresponds to the status of a given 
granule on the disk. That status is 
encoded as follows: If the GAT byte is 
equal to $FF, then the corresponding 
granule is avilable for new files. On a 
blank disk this is a blank (ail $FF) 
granule; on an often-used disk, which 
has had files killed and other files 
written to it, that granule might contain 
some data from a previously killed file. 



Sample Run 



* INDICATES A KILLED FILE WHEN IN FRONT OF FILE NAME 

* INDICATES INVALID GAT ENTRY IN GAT LISTING 

KILLED FILES THAT ARE NOT LISTED AS ' SCRUNCHED GAT' HAVE MOST LIKELY 
BEEN WRITTEN OVER BY A NEW FILE AND ARE REALLY LOST I 



DIRECT1 /BAK BASIC data file ASCII 

2 * # OF SECTORS IN LAST GRAN 
2 = # OF; BYTES IN LAST SECTOR 

DIRECT2 /BAK BASIC data file ASCII 

6 = # OF SECTORS IN LAST GRAN 
3B = # OF BYTES IN LAST SECTOR 

DISKANAL/BAK BASIC program BINARY 
0B 

9 * # OF SECTORS IN LAST GRAN 
FF - # OF BYTES IN LAST SECTOR 

DIRECT1 /TXT BASIC data file ASCII 
0C,0D,0E,j3F,lj3, 11,12 

2 f # OF SECTORS IN LAST GRAN 
2 - | OF BYTES IN LAST SECTOR 

DIRECT2 /TXT BASIC data file ASCII 
13,14,15,16 

6 « # OF SECTORS IN LAST GRAN 

3B « # OF BYTES IN LAST SECTOR 

DISKANAL/BAS BASIC program BINARY 
17 

9 « # OF SECTORS IN LAST GRAN 
FF « # OF BYTES IN LAST SECTOR 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 85 




me companies 



will tell you 
their programs 
are integrated. 




software speaks 




r itself. 



Lots of companies claim that their programs are integrated. 
All they mean is that several programs are on the same disk. 
And only a few of them talk to each other. Crude systems that 
lack features can be a real headache. 
■ At Derringer Software, when we say our programs are 
integrated, we mean that our programs talk to each other. 
Our PRO-COLOR-SERIES is completely compatible with 
DYNACALC® and TELEWRITER-64.™ These three programs 
are among the most flexible on the market today. 
B Investigate before you make any investment. Derringer 
Software will prove itself worthy. We produced the first serious 
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Derringer Software, Inc. 

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To place an order by phone, call: (803) 665-5676 

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Canadian Distributor-Kelly Software 
Australian Distributor-Computer Hut Software 



PROCOLORFILE 

© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

ENHANCED 2.0 

60 Data Fields for each record 
1020 spaces available per record if needed 
Maximizes multiple drive operation 

28 equation lines (+-7) 
IF-THEN-ELSE logic test in equations 
Full Screen editing on up to 4 data entry screens 
Key click and auto key repeat 
Stores custom designed report formats 
Obtain totals, averages, or summaries for any field 
Output reports to printer, screen, or disk file 
Send data out to a DYNACALC compatible file 
Separate label generator for up to 10 across labels 
Pre-define up to 16 indexes for searching/reporting file 
Sorts 750 records in under 5 minutes 
User defined selection menus 
Repeated tasks performed with one keystroke 
Comes with 75 pages of documentation in a 3 ring binder 
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Fu I time programmer support 
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• DISK ID NAME • FILENAME/EXT • TYPE OF FILE 

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ALLOCATED AND USED • MACHINE LANGUAGE 
ADDRESSES • 



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GRAPHICS SUPERIOR 



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MASTER DESIGN 

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Generates lettering in hi-res graphics that can be different 
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Take full advantage of all the extended BASIC hi-res graphic 
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The Letterhead Utility allows you to access hi-res graphics 
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Interfaces with dot matrix printers having dot addressable 
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A UTILITY PROGRAM FOR OWNERS OF DYNACALC® 
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A FONT EDITOR FOR COCO MAX 

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C0C0 Max* Is a registered trademark of Colorware. 



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© 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

Adda new "twist" to your printers capabilities! 

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©1985 Derringer Software, Inc. 

If you use your spreadsheet program to keep track of your 
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In either case, the granule is flagged as 
available for new files. 

If a byte in the GAT is equal to a 
number from zero through 67 ($0 
through $43), it means that the granule 
is occupied by a given directory file, that 
this granule is not the last granule in the 
file, and the next granule in the file is 
the granule number corresponding to 
the number in that byte. As a result, if 
the directory entry says the first granule 
in a file is Granule $1E and Byte $1E 
in the GAT reads Hex IF, that means 
granule $1F is the next granule in the 
file, and Byte $1F of the GAT must now 
be looked at to learn more about where 
the file resides. 

If the byte in the GAT reads $C1 
through $C9, it means the correspond- 
ing granule is the last granule in the file, 
and the number of sectors in the granule 
that actually belong to the file is the low 
order Hex digit of the number in the 
GAT byte. That is, if we look at Byte 
$1F from the example of the last para- 
graph and find it contains $C4, it means 
the file in question occupies a total of 
two granules, granules IE and IF, and 
Granule IF actually has only the first 
four of its sectors used for the file (the 
remaining five would be wasted). 

Note that the smallest file in Disk 
BASIC must occupy a whole granule, 
even if it is only one byte long. The rest 
of the granule in question is wasted. 
Note that if a GAT byte is equal to any 
number besides $FF, 00 through $43, or 
$C1 through SC9, it means the GAT 
itself has an error in it! The Disk BASIC 
manual alleges that SCO is a valid code 
for a GAT byte, but I can see no use for 
that value. (If a reader can explain to 
me the significance of a $C0 GAT byte 
value, I'd appreciate it.) For now, I can 
only assume the Disk BASIC manual is 
in error on this matter. 

To fully know exactly where the file 
ends, we now need to hop back to look 
at the directory entry for the number of 
bytes in the last sector of the file that 
are actually used. You now can see that 
the specification of what bytes on the 
disk corrrespond to a given file is 
smeared out between the directory entry 
for that file and the GAT. In the GAT, 
the file size has to be determined by 
tracking down the file from GAT byte 
to GAT byte, until the end of what 
programmers call the "linked list" of 
bytes is reached. And finally, after 
finding the last granule and last sector 
in that granule, one has to go back to 
the directory entry to find where the last 
used byte is in the last sector. 

What a mess! Why did they do it that 



way? Despite the mess, there is some 
method to this madness. Grouping all 
the information concerning which gran- 
ules are used and which are not into one 
single block, they facilitate keeping 
track of available space on the disk and 
make killing of old files easier to do. 
Though there are some ways in which 
the scheme is needlessly complex, it 
actually makes more sense than it seems 
to upon first glance after you start 
considering how disk operating systems 
and file managers have to be written. 

Killed Files 

When you kill a file using Disk BASIC, 
the actual file data is not immediately 
destroyed. What happens is the first 
byte in the name of the file in the 
directory is set to zero, and all bytes in 
the Granule Allocation Table, which 



"The best disk 
zappers use a 
technique to 
display at the 
same time both 
the ASCII value 
and the Hex value 
of at least a 
selected byte in 
the sector." 



correspond to bytes in that file, are set 
to SFF (= available). Thus, if you kill 
a file, all data in the file remains on the 
disk. Only the information in the GAT 
needed to find such data is destroyed by 
the KILL command itself. . 

Of course, if you try to 5RVE any new 
data to a disk after killing a file, you 
may end up writing over granules that 
were previously a part of the killed file, 
or even writing over the old killed 
directory entry as well. At that point, 
the file data in the killed file is com- 
pletely destroyed. But, if you have 
merely killed a file and then want to 
restore it, such restoration is possible, 
though often tedious. 

As you add files to a fresh, formatted 
disk, Disk BASIC is inclined to assign 
granules to each new file in a fashion 
that starts on one side of the dirctory 
and tends to alternate on either side of 



the directory track. Therefore, files 
under Disk BASIC tend to get assigned 
near the middle of the disk and grow 
towards both the center and the outer 
edge. 

However, some disk utilities (such as 
Spectrum Projects' Directory Utiltity) 
assign granules sequentially from Gran- 
ule 0 to Granule 68; disks that have had 
many files written to them, then erased, 
then others written to them, tend to 
have the granules that compose a given 
file scattered all over the disk. This can 
make reconstruction of a big killed file 
on such a disk very difficult. 

File Structure 

Now that you know how to find a 
given file, from its first to last byte on 
the disk, I'll explain what you can 
expect to see in the three most com- 
monly encountered Disk BASIC files. 

ASCII 

ASCII text files ("basic text files") 
are the easiest of all to understand. 
These files have the File Type flag set 
to one and the ASCII flag set to SFF. 
They are almost totally "raw" data — 
just byte after byte of information, 
usually (though not necessarily) ASCII 
text. The only thing special about them 
is the last byte in the file is Hex 1A 
(control Z). This is the flag that marks 
the end of an ASCII text file. Within the 
file the bytes are typically less than a 
Hex value of $80, but are not required 
to be so. Thus, the only special "struc- 
ture" such a file has is that it will not 
have any SlA's in it until the last byte 
of the file. 

Tokenized BASIC 

Tokenized BASIC files are a kind of 
binary file. They have a File Type flag 
of zero and an ASCII flag of zero as 
well. Looking at them in ASCII, you 
will be able to recognize all the text that 
is in the BASIC program, but all BASIC 
key words are encoded ("tokenized") 
into one or two bytes. Line numbers do 
not appear as ASCII, but as two Hex 
bytes. 

For example, the line 257 PRINT 
"ABC" appears in the file as the follow- 
ing sequence of bytes: 00 (a line delime- 
ter), 01 01 (the two-byte Hex value for 
257 decimal) followed by Hex 80 (the 
BASIC token code for PRINT), then Hex 
22 41 42 43 22, the ASCII codes for 
"ABC". Because no BASIC token is set to 
00, and 00 is a nul (not used to encode 
ASCII letters and symbols), you will 
never find inside the tokenized BASIC 
file more than two 00 bytes in a row. 



88 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



However, at the end of the file, you will 
find three 00 bytes. This is Basic's "end 
of file flag." If you are in the process of 
reconstructing a disk after losing the 
GAT on it (an utterly thankless task. . . 
let me tell you!), your reconstruction of 
a given BASIC file is aided by your search 
for the sector with BASIC code and three 
00 bytes. 

Occasionally, you might encounter 
what appears to be a normal BASIC file 
that has two sets of three 00 bytes in it. 
This most likely is an especially pre- 
pared "end packed" BASIC file, made up 
by programmers to stuff machine lan- 
guage code invisibly at the end of a 
BASIC file. Such files are not normal 
BASIC files and have been "foxed with" 
by the programmer. 

Machine Language Files 

These are by far the the most compli- 
cated files of all. This is due to the 
provision Microsoft made for "seg- 
mented" binary files. That is, an ML file 
on a disk (unlike its counterpart on a 
tape) can consist of several segments 
that load in different areas of memory. 
Let's start with the description of a non- 
segmented ML file, then go on from 
there. 



Non-segmented ML Files 

The SAVEM command generates non- 
segmented ML files. Note that the 
SAVEM command cannot generate a 
segmented ML file; those are created 
using various editor/ assemblers or by 
foxing with the file as it resides on the 
disk using a disk zapper. Such non- 
segmented ML files (actually they are 
segmented files that have only one 
segment) begin with a 00 byte. This is 
followed by two bytes that specify 
number of ML data bytes, then by two 
more bytes that specify where the ML 
data is to start loading into memory. 
This five-byte "header" is followed by 
the ML data itself. At the end of the file 
is a five-byte ending sequence, consist- 
ing of an $FF byte, two bytes of 00 each, 
then two bytes that specify the execute 
address of the file. 

For example, if you made a file using 
SAVEM "TEST" &H4321, &H4324, 
&H4322, and if $4321 through $4324 
contain the Hex values Al, B2, C3 and 
D4 at the time you save the file, it 
appears on the disk (in Hex) as follows: 
00 00 04 43 21 (the five-byte header with 
the 00 flag byte, the length of the file as 
$0004 and the start address of $4321), 
followed by Al, B2, C3, D4 (the actual 



data in the file itself), followed by the 
end five bytes of FF, 00, 00, 43 and 22. 

Note carefully that the end address is 
not specifically stored as such on the 
disk in the file header. It must be 
calculated from the start of load address 
and the file length. Also note that you 
must track the file down to its end 
before you can tell what its execute 
address is. 

Segmented ML Files 

Segmented ML files are very similar, 
but after the first segment, instead of 
having an FF 00 00 (execute address) 
five-byte end flag, they have another 
header, specifying more data to be 
loaded elsewhere in memory. There is 
no limit (other than the memory of the 
CoCo and the size of the disk) on how 
many segments such a file can have, so 
it is possible to create an ML file that 
loads single bytes all over the memory 
of the CoCo. In these segmented files 
the end is recognized by the presence of 
the FF end flag followed by the 00 00 
(execute address) five-byte final block. 
Thus, a segmented ML file can have lots 
of start and end addresses, though it can 
only have one execute address. 

This segmented structure can be a bit 



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March 1986 THE RAINBOW 89 



confusing, but it is very convenient for 
assemblers! And, it is helpful when you 
need to make a program that loads stuff 
in differing and widely separated areas 
of memory. Such segmented files are 
easily created with EDTASM and with 
Macro 80C (and probably most other 
editor/ assembler packages) using more 
than one ORG statement in the source 
code. Indeed, some assemblers that 
assemble directly to disk, like Macro 
80 C y create segmented files even when 
assembling source code that is not 
multiple ORGed. In such cases, the end 
address of one segment will be seen to 
be one less than the start address of the 
next. 

References 

Disk BASIC Unravelled, published by 
Spectral Associates, is the bible for ML 
disk hackers. Indeed, I'd go so far as to 
say that if you do any assembly lan- 
guage hacking using Disk basic, you 
need to buy the three-volume BASIC 
Unravelled (cost is about $50). This set 
has fully commented disassemblies of 
all versions of the CoCo ROMs, gobs 
of information about the RAM-base 



page and such, stuff on file formats, 
BASIC routine entry points, and the like. 
It is what Microsoft and Tandy should 
have published the day they released the 
CoCo on the market. Spectral Asso- 
ciates and the unnamed ML hacker(s) 
who compiled this set deserve the 
thanks of all CoCo users. 

The Disk Extended BASIC Manual 
comes with your Radio Shack disk 
Drive 0. This manual can be ordered 
separately, although only the few pages 
in Chapter 1 1 are of relevance to what 
is written here. 

The Disk Analyzer Program 

The following simple BASIC program 
automatically searches out all the infor- 
mation needed to find every byte in a 
given valid file on a Disk BASIC disk. It 
dumps that information to a printer; 
you can also have it go to the screen by 
changing Line 50 from D=-2 to D=0. If 
you do this, you'll want to add some 
kind of pause feature as the data oth- 
erwise scrolls by too quickly to read. 
Just load the program, type RUN, put the 
disk you want to analyze in Drive 0, 
make your printer ready and press any 



key. All text is printed in ASCII char- 
acters and all numeric values are printed 
in Hex. 

Analyzer prints four lines of informa- 
tion about each file on your disk. 

First line: Filename, extension, File 
Type flag byte status, ASCII flag status 
(an asterisk [*] precedes any killed files 
on your disk that this Analyzer will see 
and list). 

Second line: The numbers of all the 
granules that compose the file, from the 
first to the last. If invalid granule 
numbers are detected, the program 
indicates this by a '*' and / or by printing 
in the next line "scrunched GAT!". 

Third line: The number of sectors in 
the last granule. 

Fourth line: The number of bytes in 
the last sector. 

This program gathers together all the 
widely separated data into one table for 
you to refer to when you are wandering 
around your disk using a disk zapper. 
Note that Analyzer does some testing 
for messed up entries, but on a disk with 
blown directory entries it won't be of 
much use. □ 



The listing: ANALYZER 



300 . 
470 . 
920 . 
END 



.95 
.48 
.72 
163 



10 CLEAR 2000 
2)3 DIM G(69) 

25 CLS : PRINT" (C) MARTY GOODMAN 1 
985" : PRINT 

30 PRINT "DIRECTORY ANALYZER" : PRI 
NT: PRINT "PREPARE PRINTER" : PRINT : 
PRINT "HIT ANY KEY TO CONTINUE" 
40 IF INKEY$="" THEN GOTO 40 
50 D=-2 

70 PRINT#D, " * INDICATES A KILLED 
FILE WHEN IN FRONT OF FILE NAME 

ii 

80 PRINT#D, "* INDICATES INVALID 
GAT ENTRY IN GAT LISTING" 
90 PRINT #D," KILLED FILES THAT AR 
E NOT LISTED AS 'SCRUNCHED GAT 1 
HAVE MOST LIKELY" 

92 PRINT #D," BEEN WRITTEN OVER BY 
A NEW FILE AND ARE REALLY LOST! 

•i 

95 PRINT#D, H,I :PRINT#D,"" 
100 REM READ IN GAT 
110 DSKI$ 0,17,2,A$,B$ 
120 FOR N=l TO 68 



130 G(N)=ASC(MID$(A$,N,1) ) 
140 NEXT N 

200 REM ANALYZE DIRECTORY 
210 S=3 

250 DSKI$ 0,17,S,A$,B$ 
300 REM MAIN LOOP 

305 IF LEN(A$)=0 THEN : GOTO 5000 
307 K=0 

310 T=l:GOSUB 2000:IF E$=CHR$(&H 
FF) THEN GOTO 9000 
320 IF ASC(E$)<>0 THEN GOTO 350 
325 K=l 

335 PRINT#D, " * " ; 

350 T=8:GOSUB 1000 : PRINT#D, E$ ; : P 
RINT#D, "/" ; 

360 T=3:GOSUB 1000 : PRINT # D, E$ ; 

370 T=l:GOSUB 1000 

375 E=ASC(E$) 

380 IF E=0 THEN GOTO 410 

385 IF E=l THEN GOTO 420 

390 IF E=2 THEN GOTO 430 

395 IF E=3 THEN GOTO 440 

400 PRINT #D," BAD FLAG BYTE ";: 

GOTO 450 

410 PRINT#D," BASIC program ";: 

GOTO 450 

420 PRINT#D, " BASIC data file";: 
GOTO 450 

430 PRINT #D," Mach Lang progm" ; : 
GOTO 450 



90 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



44j3 PRINT #D, " Txt Ed src f ile" ; 
450 PRINT#D, 11 »; :T=1 : GOSUB 1/8/3 
J3:E=ASC(E$) 

46/3 IF E=/3 THEN GOTO 48/3 

465 IF E=255 THEN GOTO 49/3 

47/3 PRINT#D," *BAD* " :GOTO 5/3/3 

48/3 PRINT#D, " BINARY" : GOTO 5/3/3 

49/3 PRINT#D," ASCII " 

5/3/3 REM ANALYZE GAT ENTRIES 

51/3 T=l: GOSUB 1/3/3/3 :E=ASC(E$) 

515 COMMA=/3 

52/3 REM GAT LOOP 

525 GOSUB 3/3/3/3 

53/3 IF V=j3 THEN PRINT#D, 11 *":GOT 
0 89/3 

54/3 IF V=2 THEN GOTO 8/3/3 
545 IF COMMA=/3 THEN GOTO 55/3 
547 PRINT#D, " , " ; 

55/3 G$="j3j3j3j3 ll :G$=G$+HEX$(E) :G$=R 

IGHT$(G$,2) :PRINT#D,G$; 

56/3 COMMA =1 

57/3 E=G(E+1) : GOTO 52/3 

8/3/3 REM CHECK SECTORS USED IN 

LAST GRAN 

81/3 PRINT#D, : PRINT#D, E AND &H/3 
F ; " = # OF SECTORS IN LAST GRAN 



ii 



82/3 GOTO 9/3/3 

89/3 PRINT #D, "SCRUNCHED GAT!" 

9/3/3 REM CHECK BYTE COUNT IN LAST 

SECTOR AND LOOP 
91/3 GOSUB 1/3/3/3 

915 B=ASC(E$):IF B>1 THEN GOTO 9 
8/3 

92/3 T«l: GOSUB 1/3/3/3 

925 BC=256*B+ASC(E$) :IF BC>256 T 

HEN GOTO 98/3 

93/3 PRINT#D,HEX$(BC) 7" = # OF BY 
TES IN LAST SECTOR" 
94/3 T=16: GOSUB 1/3/3/3 
945 PRINT#D, " " 
95/3 GOTO 3/3/3 

98/3 PRINT #D, "BAD BYTE COUNT ENTR 
Y!":GOTO 94/3 

1/3/3/3 REM TRIM OFF LEFT AND GET 



See You at 
RAINBOWfest-Chicago 

May 23-25 



SUBSTRING 

1J3J35 E$=LEFT$(A$,T) 

Ij81j3 A$=RIGHT$(A$,LEN(A$)-T) :RET 

URN 

2J2fj3j3 REM GET LEFT STRING 

2j31j3 E$=LEFT$(A$ / 1) : RETURN 

3J3J3J3 REM CHECK FOR VALID GAT ENT 

RY 

3j3j35 V=l 

3j31j3 IF E<68 THEN RETURN 
3j32j3 IF E>ScHBF GOTO 3J34J3 
3j33j3 V=J3 : RETURN 
3j34j3 IF E>&HC9 THEN GOTO 3j33j3 
3J35J3 V=2: RETURN 

5j3j3j3 REM CHECK FOR MORE DATA IN 
B$ OR IN NEXT SECTOR 
5J31J3 IF &$<>■*■" THEN A$=B$ : B$= lf 11 : 
GOTO 3J3J3 

5j32j3 S«S+l:GOTO 25j3 

9j3j3j3 REM ALL DONE 

9j31j3 SOUND lj3j3,2j3:CLS:PRINT@27j3, 

"DONE" 

9J32J3 END 

Ij3j3)3j3 REM GAT DISPLAY 
1010 PRINT#D / :PRINT#D, :PRINT#D, 
" GRANULE ALLOCATION TABLE LIS 
TING" 



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March 1986 THE RAINBOW 91 



VARLIST: 

A Quick and Easy Way 
to List Program Variables 



F r arlist, a utility program that 
lists all variables, will lend some 
help with those pesky problem 
programs that you just can't get to work 
properly. 

Let's look at an example. I once had 
a program with a variable called LNC 
(for "Line Count"); it also had another 
variable named LND (for "Line De- 
scription"). The program just didn't 
work as anticipated. Of course, in 
hindsight I realized the error of my 
ways: Only the first two characters are 
significant in a variable name. The 
program treated LNC and LND as the 
same variable! 

Now, if I only had a utility tool that 
could tell me all the lines containing 
LNC and LND. I didn't have such a 
tool, and it took me an agonizingly long 
time to go through every line of the 
program to change one of the variable 
names so it was different from the other. 

I decided then that someday I would 
write such a utility program. Varlist is 
the result, and I would like to share it 
with other CoCo friends. It lists all the 
numbers of the lines in which variables 
appear; in fact, if a variable appears 
twice, it is listed twice. In addition, it 
also highlights all the jump statements, 
i.e., GOTO, GD5UB, THEN and ELSE. 

Do You Like BASIC'S Beauty? 

This program is written entirely in 
BASIC. As you can imagine, it does not 

Hans Schulz works for a major Cana- 
dian bank in West Hill Ontario. He is 
involved in planning the installation 
and upgrading of banking terminals in 
the bank's nationwide branch network. 



By Hans Schulz 

exactly race through the target pro- 
gram, but it lets you know where it is 
at all times. In the interest of preserving 
some processing speed, I have kept the 
REMarks to a bare minimum and have 
eliminated unnecessary spaces wherever 
possible. A program line without spaces 
between basic statements and variable 
names may look strange at first sight, 
but you will get the drift of it. 

Are You in a Hurry? 

POKE 65495,0 will increase your 
processing speed, but if you are really 
impatient, insert lines 50001 and 50601 
into Varlist for additional speed (see 
Listing 2). However, you lose the screen 
display during this speed up. 

Do You have Enough Memory? 

Varlist uses approximately 9,000 
bytes (9K) of RAM. The program 
changes the standard PCLEAR4 when 
you first turn on the CoCo to PCLEAR1, 
which only reserves one page of graph- 
ics memory (1,536 bytes). If you have a 
lengthy target program you may have to 
free up some additional memory to fit 
both Varlist and your program into the 
available RAM space. To get at the 
extra 1,536 bytes, you have to perform 
the equivalent of a PCLEAR0, which, as 
you may know, is not a valid basic 
command. It can be summarized as 
follows: When you first power up your 
CoCo, type POKE &H19,6:NEW and 
press ENTER. In this case, you should 
also remove the PCLERR1 statement 
from Line 50010. 

How do You get the Program to Work? 

First key in Varlist and CSfiVE a copy 



of it, then make sure there are no typing 
errors by testing it with RUN 50000. It 
will list the variables in the test program 
(lines 10 through 90). Correct typing 
errors, if any, and CSflVE a corrected 
copy of Varlist. Now delete lines 10 
through 90. 

Make sure the program for which you 
want to produce the list of variables 
does not have any line numbers greater 
than 49999 and, if necessary, renumber 
it. Merge your program with Varlist. 
Now type RUN 50000 and press ENTER. 
The screen will display the line numbers 
of your program, which Varlist is scru- 
tinizing as it steps through the program 
line by line. 

How does Varlist Work? 

Line 50010 reserves 1,500 bytes of 
memory for string variables and re- 
serves space for 500 variable names and 
500 line numbers; it also releases three 
pages of graphics memory. (When you 
turn on your CoCo it automatically 
PCLEflRs four graphics pages.) Then the 
screen is cleared. 

Line 50030 finds the starting address 
of your BASIC program in memory, 
regardless of whether you have a 16K 
or 32K CoCo. (This may be useful for 
future reference.) 

Line 50040 initializes the variable PO 
(the pointer address of the beginning of 
the next line) and variable LI (the 
current line number being worked on). 
Line 50570, processed in the G05UB 
statement, displays the line number 
being examined on the screen. If the line 
number is greater than 49999 then the 
program has reached Varlist and the 
end of your target program, in which 



92 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



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Disk Operating System (works just like ROM DOS) 
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• 10 header/footers 

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Table 1 




Sum pie Output: 


Variables and Jumps in Varlist 




LA? (SUB) 


5,0010 


LP. (SUB) 






5 $$40 


gosub 50550 




goto 50090 
gosub 50520 




__ _s __ 


c 


50;37;0 


- — 


50070 


N 




gosub 50550 


l~ .Tf .TP *TJ 


gosub 50520 




c 1 




c then 500Bp 1 


5ft090 


N 


bp $9$ 


PO 








i__ ____ 

PO 




FT 


50090 


KT 


50090 


goto 5J3j37^I 




C j 




N | 




then 50,080 


5,011,0 


c 


50110 


N 


50110 


th^n 50080 


5,0120 




5012,0 




50120 


then 50080 


5J3130 




5;0I30 


N 


5013^0 


then 50030 


50140 


c v " 


50140 




50140 


then 500S0 


50150 


c ! 


50150 




5015,0 


C 1 [ 


50150 




50150 


c 


50150 


the ng a sub 50540 


50150 


goto ijS^SjfJ 




C 


501S0 


N - ,1 


50160 




50 I 60 


D$ j 


50160 


gosub 50410 


50160 


goto 50090 


50170 


C 


50170 


N 




D$ 




D$ 


50170 


gosub 50410 


50170 


goto 50J09!0 


50180 


C ' 


50180 




50ia0 


gosub 50410 


50180 


goto 5 ftp 90 


50190 


C 


s#i90 





case all variables have been found and 
the list will be displayed on the screen 
starting at Line 50600. 

As an aid to the general understand- 
ing of Varlist, I let it generate a list of 
the variables used in the Varlist pro- 
gram (see Sample Output, Table 1). I 
have also prepared a shortened list of 
the variables, where each variable ap- 
pears only once, and have sorted the 
variables in alphabetical order (see 
Table 2). 

The GOSUB 50520 in Line 50060 reads 
the next character (in ASCII format) 
from the memory location where your 
program is stored. 

Line 50070 is reused again later, and 
if *C (the character being examined) is 
a zero, it indicates that the last byte of 
the program line has been reached. In 
that case, 'N' (the number of the storage 
location being read) must be decre- 
mented by one to update the address 
pointer (PO) of the next line in the 
GOSUB 50550. 

In Line 50080 the next character is 
read (GOSUB 50520). If the character 
('C') is a space, then the process is 
repeated until a non-blank character is 
found. 

If in Line 50090 the address pointer 
of the next line is identified, then PO is 
updated again. 

Lines 50100 through 50140 identify 
some BASIC statements with two-byte 



Table Z 
Short List of Variables 
in Alphabetical Order 









I 




IS 




IM 




IX 




LA 




IA$(SUB) 


LI 




LL 




LR(SUB) 


MN$ 


MX$ 

"KT 


PL 




PO 




Q 




R 




S 




T 




Z 





tokens and processing continues with 
reading the next character in Line 
50080. Line 50100 identifies a PEEK; 
Line 50110, a USR statement; Line 
50120, an RBS function; Line 50130, an 
ATN function; and Line 50140, an SQR 
function. 

Line 50150 determines when process- 
ing can skip to the next line without 
reading to the end of the current line. 
That can be done when a DATA state- 
ment is encountered (token 134) or a 
REM (token 130), or its equivalent, the 
apostrophe ('), which is tokenized as 
131, and also the LLIST statement 
(token 155) and LIST (token 148). 
GOSUB 50540 accomplishes the skip to 
the next line, after which processing 
continues at 50080 by reading the next 
character. 

Lines 50160 through 50200 are some- 
what self-explanatory: They deal with 
the jump statements (GOTO, GOSUB, 
THEN and ELSE). Only Line 50190 seems 
a little out of place — it identifies the 
two-byte token for RND (255 132). The 
RND token is not of significance to the 
Varlist logic and the program reads the 
next character by branching back to 
50080. Having disposed of the RND (255 
132) token, it can now be deduced in 
Line 50200 that if the current character 
is a token 132, it is part of the two-byte 
token (58 132) representing the state- 
ment ELSE. (Does 58 seem familiar? It 
is the ASCII code for the colon [:], 
which is used by BASIC to separate 
statements on the same line. Quite 
clever, those Microsoft people, using 
the colon as part of the ELSE logic!) 

Now, back to the jump statements. In 
each case a descriptor (D$) is being 
built. This string may contain, for 
example, the word "then" or "else" and 
may conceivably have the word "goto" 
or "gosub" added to it. At this point, a 
subroutine is performed (GOSUB 50410) 
that obtains the line reference number, 
i.e., the line number to which the jump 
statement has been programmed to 
jump. Upon return from the subroutine, 
with the next byte already read, process- 
ing branches back to 50090 to determine 
what to do with this character. 

Line 50210 looks at the letter *M* 
(ASCII code = 77). This is not an 
ordinary 'M' though, such as an 'M' that 
may be part of a variable name. It is the 
*M' in CL0ADM. The token for CLOAD is 
151, and if the byte following it is the 
letter 'M', then GOSUB 50520 reads it 
and, immediately afterwards, branches 
back to 50080 to read the next charac- 
ter. At this point Line 50220 discards 
any further tokenized BASIC statements, 



March 1986 



THE RAINBOW 



95 



i.e., ASCII codes greater than 127, and 
branches back to 50080. 

Line 50230 finds out if the character 
read is alphabetic, i.e., if the ASCII 
code is in the range from 65 to 90, 
representing the capital letters A to Z. 
Finally, the program does some real 
work after all the sifting and discarding 
up to this point: The subroutine at 
50300 assembles the variable name, 
starting with the character ('C') just 
read, then adds to it, one byte at a time, 
until the variable name is completely 
assembled. After return from the sub- 
routine, Varlist branches back again to 
50080 to read the next character. 

Line 50240 tests to see whether the 
character read is a quote ("), which is 
represented by ASCII code 34. Any- 
thing enclosed in quotes is of no interest 
in this program. Therefore, the subrou- 
tine at Line 50270 keeps on reading and 
discarding characters until it finds the 
second of a pair of quotes. The main 
body of this program ends at Line 
50250, where processing loops back to 
read the next character at 50080. 

What do the Subroutines do? 

Varlist contains the following sub- 
routines, which are each described here. 

1) Skip between Quotes — Line 50260 

2) Build the Variable Name — Line 
50300 

3) Build the Line Number Reference — 
Line 50400 

4) Peek at the next ASCII Character — 
Line 50510 

5) Skip to the next Line — Line 50530 

6) Print the List of Variables — Line 
50590 



Skip between Quotes — Line 50260 

As described earlier, this subroutine 
keeps reading and discarding characters 
until it finds the second of a pair of 
quotes (ASCII code 34). The subroutine 
also checks for reasonable length of the 
string between the pair of quotes. I felt 
anything in excess of five lines of 32 
characters (a total of 160 characters) is 
probably in error and designed the 
program to stop in such a case. If this 
does not apply in your program, simply 
change Line 50280 accordingly. 



Build the Variable Name — Line 50300 

When powering up CoCo the sub- 
script (LA) used to identify the labeled 
variable (LA$) has a value of zero. On 
each trip through the subroutine, that 
is, every time a new variable name is 
stored, the subscript is incremented by 
one in Line 50310. In Line 50320 the 
first character of the variable is stored; 
in 50330 the next character is read. 

In Line 50340 the character value of 
zero indicates the end of the current line 
has been reached and it is now time to 
store the current line number (LI) in the 
array LR(LA). This array is used for 
later printing to indicate where each 
variable appears in the target program. 
The program then branches back to the 
beginning of the main routine of the 
program. 

Line 50350 tests to see if the byte 
currently under scrutiny is numeric 
(ASCII codes 48 to 57) or if it is alpha- 
betic (ASCII codes 65 to 90). If it is 
alphanumeric, the byte is appended to 



the array LA$(LA) and processing 
loops back within the subroutine to 
50330 to read the next byte. If the 
character being examined in Line 50360 
is a T sign (ASCII code = 36), it is added 
to the variable name and processing 
resumes at 50330, getting the next byte. 

In Line 50370, if the character is an 
ASCII code 40, i.e., the opening bracket 
\\ then the literal "(SUB)" is appended 
to the variable name to show that the 
variable is subscripted. In other words, 
the variable is an array. 

Line 50380 stores the current line 
number being worked on (and presently 
being held in "LI") in the Line Reference 
array, "LR(LA)." 



Build the Line Number Reference — 
Line 50400 

In Line 50410, which is similar to 
Line 50310, the subscript LA is incre- 
mented by one to store the Line Refer- 
ence on each pass through the subrou- 
tine. 

In Line 50420 the line number LI 
presently being processed is stored in 
the Line Reference array, "LR(LA)." 

Line 50430 obtains the next charac- 
ter, and if it happens to be a blank 
(ASCII = 32), the program immediately 
gets the next byte. 

(Mr. Schulz may be contacted with 
questions about his program at 50 
Morna Avenue, West Hill, Ontario, 
Canada M1E2B1, phone 416-281-1583. 
When writing, please include an 
SASE.) □ 



V/ CfV 



50040 ....151 
50410 ....140 

50380 99 

50620 ....167 
50790 ....166 

51020 15 

END 89 



T 



Listing 1: VARLIST 

10 REM**LINES 10-90 REPRESENT A 

TEST PROGRAM FOR DEMONSTRATION. 

15 FORO=lTOP:IFQ=RT THENGOSUB12 3 

456789ELSE10 

20 S3=T3+U:V(W)=X3 

2 5 NEXT Y: REM Q$ 

30 IFZ=5 THEN10ELSEGOTO13498 

35 A3 (56)=1:B345=2:C4444=3 

40 IF PEEK(DT)=4 THEN POKE ER,1 

45 'Hi 

50 IFF=3THENG=9ELSEGOTO10 

55 IF H=I THENGOSUB10:GOTO 10 'R 



EAD & END 

60 PRINT "A=";J;" A3 = ";K3; fl 
" ; L (M) ; M =ARRAY R" : RETURN 
65 READ N$ : END 
70 DATA A,A3,B 
90 LIST 

50000 ************************* 

* VARLIST * 
*(LIST OF ALL VARIABLES) * 
*FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER * 

* BY HANS SCHULZ (1984) * 
************************* 

50010 CLEAR1500:PCLEAR1:DIM LA$ ( 

500) ,LR(500) :CLS 

50020 ' ***INITIALIZE*** 

50030 N=PEEK(25) *256+PEEK(26) -1 

50040 GOSUB50550:GOTO50090 

50050 ' ***READ THE FILE*** 

50060 GOSUB50520 

50070 IFC=0THENN=N-1:GOSUB50550 



96 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



GOSUB5052j3:IFC=32THEN50j38j3 
5009j3 IFN=PO ANDC=j3THENP0=PEEK(N 
+ 1)+PEEK(N) *256:GOTO5^I70 
5j31j30 IF(C=134ANDPEEK(N-2)=255)T 
HEN5j3j38j3 

5j311j3 IF(C=131ANDPEEK(N-2)=255)T 
HEN5J3J38J3 

50120 IF(C=130ANDPEEK(N-2)=255)T 
HEN5j308j3 

5013J3 IF(C=148ANDPEEK(N-2)=255)T 
HEN5J308J3 

50140 IF(C=155ANDPEEK(N-2)=255)T 
HEN50080 

50150 IFC=134ORC=130ORC=131ORC=1 
5 5 ORC= 148 THENGO SUB 50 5 4 0 : GOTO 500 8 

5)316.0 IF(C=165ANDPEEK(N-2)=129)T 
HEND$=D$+"goto":GOSUB50410:GOTO5 
0090 

50170 IF(C=166ANDPEEK(N-2)=129)T 
HEND$=D$+"gosub" : GOSUB50410 : GOTO 
50090 

50180 IFC=167THEND$="then" :GOSUB 
50410 :GOTO50090 

50190 IF(C=132ANDPEEK(N-2)=255)T 
HEN50080 

50200 IFC=132THEND$="else" : GOSUB 
50410 :GOTO50090 



50210 IF(C=151ANDPEEK(N)=77)THEN 

GOSUB50 520: GOTO50 080 

50220 IFO127THEN50080 

50230 IF(O64ANDC<91)THENGOSUB50 

310:GOTO50080 

5J324J3 IFC=34THENGOSUB50270:Q=0:G 

OTO50080 

50250 GOTO50080 

50260 '***SKIP BETWEEN QUOTES*** 
50270 GOSUB50520:Q=Q+1:IFC<>34TH 
EN50270 

50280 IFQ>160THENPRINT"CKECK FOR 

PAIRED QUOTES" : STOP 
50290 RETURN 

50300 '*** GET VARIABLE NAME *** 

50310 LA=LA+1 

50320 LA$(LA)=CHR$(C) 

50330 GOSUB50520 

50340 IFC=0THENLR(LA)=LI:GOTO500 
70 

50350 IF(C>47ANDC<58)OR(C>64ANDC 
<91) THENLA$ (LA) =LA$ (LA) +CHR$ (C) : 
GOTO50330 

503 60 IFC=36THENLA$ (LA) =LA$ (LA) + 
CHR$(C) :GOTO50330 

50370 IFC=4 0THENLA$ (LA) =LA$ ( LA) + 
"(SUB)" 

50380 LR(LA) =LI 



□□□□□ 
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March 1986 THE RAINBOW 97 



50390 RETURN 

50400 «***GET LINE # REFERENCE** 
50410 LA=LA+1 
50420 LR (LA) =LI 

50430 GOSUB50520:IFC=32THEN50430 
50440 IFD$="then"ANDPEEK(N-l) >12 
9THEND$="" 

50450 IFC>127THENLR(LA)=0:GOTO50 
090 

50460 IF(C<48ORC>57)THENLR(LA)=0 

:D$="":GOSUB50320:GOTO50090 

50470 LL=VAL(CHR$(C) ) 

50480 GOSUB50520:IF(C>47ANDC<58) 

THENLL=LL*10+VAL(CHR$ (C) ) :GOTO50 

480 

50490 LA$ (LA) =D$+STR$ (LL) 
50500 D$="": RETURN 

50510 '***GET ASCII FOR NEXT C** 
* 

50520 C=PEEK(N) :N=N+1: RETURN 
50530 «***SKIP TO NEXT LINE *** 
50540 N=PO-l 

50550 PO=PEEK(N+2)+PEEK(N+l) *256 
50560 LI=PEEK(N+4)+PEEK(N+3) *256 
50570 IFLI>49999THEN50600ELSEN=N 
+5: PRINT"... LINE #";LI 
50580 RETURN 

50590 • ***PRINT THE LIST*** 
50600 PRINT: PRINT" PROCESSING 
COMPLETE . . . " : PRINT 
50610 PL=1 

50620 IFLR ( PL) >0THENPRINTUSING" # 

####"; LR ( PL) ; : PRINT " "; 

50630 IFLA$ (PL) <>" "THENPRINTLA$ ( 
PL) 

50640 PL=PL+1 

50650 IFPL=FIX(PL/12) *12ANDPL<=L 
A THENPRINT§471 , "MORE . . . " : PRINT 
:GOTO50670 

50660 IFPL<=LA THEN50620ELSE5068 

50670 IFINKEY$O""THEN50620ELSE5 
0670 

50680 PRINT"***END OF LIST***":P 
RINT@481, "WHAT WOULD YOU LIKE NO 
W? ..." 

50690 IFINKEY$O""THEN50700ELSE5 
0690 

50700 CLS:PRINTTAB (25) "ENTER" 
50710 PRINTTAB(3) "PRINT ON YOUR 
PRINTER. .P" 

50720 PRINTTAB (3) "DISPLAY THE LI 
ST D" 

50730 PRINTTAB(3) "SHORT LIST ... 
S" 

50740 PRINTTAB (3) "END THE PROGRA 
M E" 

50750 PRINTTAB (22 ) "==> "; 



50760 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN50760 

50770 PRINTI$;" <==" 

50780 IFI$="P"THEN50830 

50790 IFI$="D"THEN50610 

50800 IFI$="E"THENEND 

50810 IFI$="S"THEN50880 

50820 GOTO50700 

50830 PL=1 

50840 IFLR (PL) >0THENPRINT#-2 ,USI 

NG"#####";LR(PL) ; :PRINT#-2," »; 

50850 IFLA$ (PL)<>""THENPRINT#-2, 

LA$(PL) 

50860 PL=PL+1 

50870 IFPL<=LA THEN50840ELSE5068 
P 

50880 '*** SHORT LIST *** 

50890 PRINT "ONE MOMENT- PLEASE .. 

.":PRINT" short list" : FORS=lTO 

LA: FORT=lTOLA 

50900 IFLA$(S)=""THENLA$ (S)=" ": 
GOTO50930 

50910' IFASC(LA$ (S) ) >9 6THENLA$ (S) 
=" ":GOTO50930 

50920 IF LA$(S)=LA$(T)ANDS<>T TH 
ENLA$(S)=" " 
50930 NEXTT:NEXTS 
50940 FORR=lTOLA 

50950 IFLA$(R)<>" "THENPRINTLA$ ( 

R) ;":"; :Z=Z+l:LA$(Z)=LA$(R) 

509 60 NEXTR 

50990 1 ***ALPHASORT THE LIST*** 
51000 N=Z:S=1 
51010 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" 
W SORTING ..." 
51020 MN$=LA$ (S) :IM=S:MX$=MN$:IX 
=S 

51030 FORI=S TO N 

51040 IFLA$(I)>MX$ THENMX$=LA$ (I 
) : IX=I 

51050 IFLA$(I)<MN$ THENMN$=LA$ (I 
) : IM=I 
51060 NEXT 

51070 IFIM=N THENIM=IX 

51080 AA$=LA$ (N) :LA$ (N)=LA$ (IX) : 

LA$ (IX)=AA$:N=N-1 

51090 AA$=LA$(S) :LA$(S)=LA$(IM) : 

LA$(IM)=AA$:S=S+1 

51100 IFN>S THEN51020 

51110 FORI=lTOZ:PRINTLA$ (I) ;»*"; 

: NEXT 

51120 END 

Listing 2: SPEEDUP 

5j3j3jZJl POKE65497 / 0 'HIGH SPEED 
5j26j31 POKE65496,j3:POKE65494,^:SO 
UND128 , 2j3 : SOUND12 8 , 2J3 1 RESETTING 
TO NORMAL SPEED 



NO 



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If you're interested in the highly popular Model 100, the Tandy 200, the brand new portable Tandy 
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So, if you're ready to add portability or step up to MS-DOS, stay with Tandy and THE RAINBOW family 
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J • - • • V 



Put your program up in lights . . . 




By Chuck Poynter 



You just wrote a new computer program that will set the 
world on fire— but something is missing. Do your title 
and menu screens lack pizazz? If that is what you need, 
then Marquee should help. 

Listing 1 pokes a machine code program into memory that 
draws and moves a border around the screen. This is actually 
an illusion. What really happens is the graphics characters are 
changed back and forth, and it appears to be moving. The 150 
in Line 50 is the yellow graphics character you start with. It 
changes to 153 during the program, then changes back to 150. 
To get the following colors, change 150 to one of the following 
numbers: red, 182; buff, 198; cyan, 214; orange, 246; blue, 166; 
and magenta, 230. You can use any character code from zero 
to 252. Try these and see the effects. 

There is a title and menu screen in the program starting at 
Line 170. Start your program here and include exec 32000 when 
you want to call the program. The ENTER, T, '2' and '3' keys 
return to to the BASIC program. If you need mpr<? than three 
items in your menu, just break it into two menu screens. 

Listing 2 is the source code for the machine language program. 
This is included so you can see how the program works. Both 

Chuck Poynter is a retired member of the United States Air Force who 
is presently attending college where he is taking computer programming 
courses. He lives in Hector, Arkansas. 



March 1 986 THE RAINBOW 



101 



programs are well-documented so they don't need 
extensive explanation. 

(You may contact the author of these programs with 
any questions you have at Box 116, Hector, AR 72843, 
phone 501-284-2383. When writing, please include an 
SASE for a reply.) ^-s. □ 




130 . 
END 



117 
201 



Listing 1: MARQUEE 



5 REM* CAN BE PLACED ANY WHERE IN 
RAM CHANGE 32000 TO ANY RAM 
LOCATION ADD 90 TO IT FOR THE 
SECOND NUMBER 

10 FOR 1=32000 TO 32090 

20 READ X 

30 POKE I,X 

40 NEXT I 

45 REM* CHANGE THE 150 IN LINE 50 

TO ANY CHARACTER CODE YOU WANT 
50 DATA 198, 150, 247, 125, 89, 
173, 159, 160 

60 DATA 0, 129, 13, 39, 57, 129, 
49, 39 

70 DATA 53, 129, 50, 39, 49, 129 
, 51, 39 

80 DATA 45, 142, 4, 0, 231, 128, 



TCTTMX AN SOFTT'WA 



- - 32K ECB PROGRAMS - - 

TEACHER PAK PLUS Includes Teacher Pak and CoCo 
Testem described below $47.95 

COCO TESTEM Make multiple choice, matching, 
true/false, completion, and short answer 
tests. Requires printer with underline 
ability. Works with tape or disk $19,95 

COCO-LIFE II The living patterns game $19.95 

- - 1GK ECB PROGRAMS - - 

HOME WARE New! Give your CoCo real power at 
home. Printer preferred. Works with tape 
or disk. Five modules: 

CALENDAR Draw calendars. Various formats. 

SAVINGS/LOANS Powerful calculating tool. 

DIRECTORY Phone numbers, addresses, etc. 

INVENTORY For insurance, hobbies, business. 

HOME-WRITER Finally! Easy word processing. 

Sinale modules. . .$19.95 Whole set... $49. 95 
TEACHER PAK Weighted & regular grading, seating 

charts, alphabetizing, statistical analysis. 

4 programs. Works with tape or disk . t . $34 . 95 

TIME MASTER Rainbow review 12/85 $19.95 

COCO GARDENER Discover computerized garden 

planning. Printer preferred $19.95 

PERPETULIFE Checkers & Life mixed $19.95 

GRAPHIC PHYSICS Rainbow review 9/85 $19.95 

COCO ECHO ML Rainbow review 10/85 $9.95 

All programs sold on tape. Send check or money 
order (no cash - Pa. residents add 67. ) to: 



rainbow 

UK 



Tothian Software 
Box 663 
Rimersburg. Pa. 16248 



RAINBOW 

CtfttiflCAPiON 



All of these programs carry the Rainbow Seal. 



140, 4 

90 DATA 33, 38, 249, 142, 5, 223 
, 231, 128 

100 DATA 140, 6, 0, 38, 249, 142 
, 4, 63 

110 DATA 231, 128, 231, 128, 48, 

136, .30, 140 
120 DATA 5, 223, 38, 244, 241, 1 
25, 89, 39 

130 DATA 8, 241, 125, 90, 39, 11 
, 151, 135 

140 DATA 57, 203, 3, 247, 125, 9 
0, 126, 125 

150 DATA 5, 192, 3, 247, 125, 89 
, 126, 125 

160 DATA 5, 18, 18, 255, 0, 255, 

0, 255 
170 CLS 4 

180 REM* PUT YOUR TITLE PAGE HERE 
190 POKE 359,57:SCREEN0,1 
200 PRINT § 10 6," YOUR TITLE"; 
210 PRINT@168,"BY";CHR$(191) ; "WH 
0";CHR$(191) ; "DONE" ; CHR$ ( 191) ;"I 
T" ; 

220 PRINT© 4 52, "PRESS <ENTER> TO 
CONTINUE" ; 
230 EXEC32000 
240 CLS 5 

250 REM* PUT YOU MENU HERE 

260 PRINT@70,STRING$(19,32) ; 

270 PRINT@70+32, " (1) MENU ITEM O 

NE " ; 

280 PRINT@70+64, " (2) MENU ITEM T 
WO " ; 

290 PRINT@70+96, 11 (3) MENU ITEM T 
HREE"; 

300 PRINT@70+128,STRING$(19,32) ; 
310 EXEC32000 
320 POKE359,126:SCREEN0,1 
330 REM* CHANGE GOTO TO YOUR LINE 
NUMBERS 

340 IF PEEK(135)=49 THEN GOTO 39 
0 

350 IF PEEK (13 5) =50 THEN GOTO 41 

360 IF PEEK(135)=51 THEN GOTO 43 
0 

370 IF PEEK(135)=13 THEN GOTO 31 
0 

380 REM* YOUR PROGRAM STARTS HERE 
390 CLS:PRINT"YOU HAVE SELECTED 
MENU ITEM (1) "; 
400 END 

410 CLS:PRINT"YOU HAVE SELECTED 
MENU ITEM (2) 11 ; 
420 END 

430 CLS:PRINT"YOU HAVE SELECTED 
MENU ITEM ( 3 ) 11 ; 
440 END 



102 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



Listing 2: 














7DjJjJ 






00100 




ORG 


$7D00 


CAN BE ANY WHERE IN RAM 


7D00 

* r r 


C6 


96 


00110 




LDB 


#150 


LOAD BORDER CODE 


7D02 


F7 


7D59 


00120 




STB 


STORE 


STORE BORDER CODE IN RAM 


7D05 


AD 


9F 


00130 


START 


JSR 


[$A000] 


CHECK KEYBOARD 


7D09 


81 


0D 


00140 




CMPA 


#13 


IS ENTER KEY PRESSED 


7D0B 

f A* 9* U 


27 

aw f 


39 


00150 




BEQ 


END 


IF SO RETURN TO BASIC PROGRAM 


7D0D 

# ev^ *^ 


81 


31 


00160 




CMPA 


#49 


IS THE 1 KEY PRESSED 


7D0F 


27 


35 


00170 




BEQ 


END 


IF SO RETURN TO BASIC 


7D11 


81 


32 


00180 




CMPA 


#50 


IS 2 KEY PRESSED 


7D13 


27 


31 


00190 




BEQ 


END 


IF SO RETURN TO BASIC 


7D15 


81 


33 


00200 




CMPA 


#51 


IS 3 KEY PRESSED 


7D17 


27 


2D 


00210 




BEQ 


END 


IF SO RETURN TO BASIC 


7D19 


8E 


0400 


00220 




LDX 


#$400 


LOAD START OF SCREEN 


7D1C 

■ ar «Oa> 


E7 

(MOT • 


80 


00230 


DRAW1 


STB 


,x+ 


STORE CHARACTER ON SCREEN 


7D1E 


8C 


0421 


00240 




CMPX 


#$421 


COMPARE FIRST LINE PLUS 1 


7D21 

w m& e» tmm 


26 


F9 


00250 




BNE 


DRAW1 


IF NOT EQUAL DO MORE 


7D23 


8E 


05DF 


00260 




LDX 


#$5DF 


FIRST CHARACTER BOTTOM LINE 


7D26 


E7 


80 


00270 


DRAW2 


STB 


,x+ 


STORE CHARACTER 


7D28 


8C 


0600 


00280 




CMPX 


#$600 


END OF TEXT SCREEN 


7D2B 


26 


F9 


00290 




BNE 


DRAW2 


IF NOT END CONTINUE 


7D2D 


8E 


043F 


00300 




LDX 


#$43F 


LAST CHARACTER SECOND LINE 


7D30 

f **** 


E7 


80 


00310 


DRAW3 


STB 


,X+ 


STORE CHARACTER 


7D32 


E7 


80 


00320 




STB 


,x+ 


ONE MORE 


7D34 


30 


88 IE 


00330 




LEAX 


30, X 


ADD 30 TO SCREEN POSITION 


7D37 


8C 


05DF 


00340 




CMPX 


#$5DF . 


LAST POSITION LINE 15 


7D3A 


26 


F4 


00350 




BNE 


DRAW3 , 


DO UNTILL EQUAL 


7D3C 


Fl 


7D59 


00360 




CMPB 


STORE 


IS CHARACTER SAME AS ONE IN RAM 


7D3F 


27 


08 


00370 




BEQ 


CHR1 


IF EQUAL GET NEW CHARACTER 


7D41 


Fl 


7D5A 


00380 




CMPB 


STORE+1 


IS CHR SAME AS ONE IN RAM 


7D44 


27 


0B 


00390 




BEQ 


CHR2 


IF EQUAL GET NEW CHR 


7D46 


97 


87 


00400 


END 


STA 


135 


STORE KEY PRESSED IN RAM 


7D48 


39 




00410 




RTS 




RETURN TO BASIC PROGRAM 


7D49 


CB 


03 


00420 


CHR1 


ADDB 


#3 


CHANGE CHR BY +3 


7D4B 


F7 


7D5A 


00430 




STB 


STORE+1 


STORE NEW CHR IN RAM 


7D4E 


7E 


7D05 


00440 




JMP 


START 


START OVER 


7D51 


C0 


03 


00450 


CHR2 


SUBB 


#3 


SUBTRACT 3 FROM CHR 


7D53 


F7 


7D59 


00460 




STB 


STORE 


STORE NEW CHR IN RAM 


7D56 


7E 


7D05 


00470 




JMP 


START 


START OVER 


7D59 


12 




00480 


STORE 


NOP 




CHR STORAGE AREA 1 


7D5A 


12 


0000 


00490 
00500 




NOP 
END 




CHR STORAGE AREA 2 



00000 TOTAL ERRORS <?\ \ 



EXPAND YOUR COCO! 

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See You at 
RAINBOWfest-Chicago 

May 23-25 



s 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 103 




A FIRST FOR TANDY — Tandy 
Corporation reported sales exceeding 
half a billion dollars for the month of 
December. In addition they reported 
the corporation's first billion dollar 
quarter. December's 22 percent sales 
gains were the result of great demand 
for high quality computers and other 
electronics products to put under the 
Christmas tree. In addition to other 
items sold, the Color Computer found 
its way into many homes this Christ- 
mas. 

* * * 

HD BREAKTHROUGH — Tom Ro- 

ginski has announced OWL- WARE'S 
introduction of Winchester BASIC. 
This modification of Disk Extended 
BASIC allows the user to access a hard 
drive of virtually any size immediately 
upon power-up. File size is limited only 
by the size of the drive. Although it adds 
power to OS-9, knowledge of OS-9 is 
not a requirement for operating the 
system. All files written to the hard 
drive are easily accessible from BASIC or 
OS-9. All BASIC and most ML pro- 
grams will run on this drive using 
Winchester BASIC. The modification is 
designed for use with the L.R. Tech 
interface, but OWL- WARE will provide 
customized versions if required. The 
price for Winchester BASIC is $50 with 
the purchase of a drive system. Hard 
drive systems start at $495 for five meg. 
For more information or to order, 
contact OWL- WARE, P.O. Box 116- 
D, Mertztown, PA 19539. 

* * * 

PREPARE FOR THE DERBY — 

Software Exchange has announced its 
new three-program package for all 
horse racing fans. The Enhanced Rac- 
ing Handicapped Program Package 
contains software for thoroughbred, 
harness, and bet return analysis on disk 
or cassette. It is available for the CoCo 
for $49.95. Write to Software Ex- 
change, 2681 Peterboro Rd., P. O. Box 
5382, W. Bloomfield, MI 48033. 

* * * 



PHONE LINE BLUES? — R.K. Burt- 
chaell Co. is now carrying a new pro- 
duct designed to allow private commun- 
ications. The Hy-Tek Exclude-A-Phone 
offers modem isolation. If your compu- 
ter is online and someone picks up an 
extension telephone, their phone will be 
dead. They won't hear anything and 
neither will your computer. Call (800) 
342-5752 or write to R.K. Burtchaell 
Co., 516 S.E. Morrison, Suite 201, 
Portland, OR 97214. 

30C 

MONSTERS? — Monster Cable has 
announced a new line of computer 
cables. The DataSafe™ Series consists 
of 10 quality cables developed to con- 
nect all popular computers to printers 
and modems. Suggested retail prices 
will range from $40 to $60. For cables 
for your Color Computer, write to 
Monster Cable, 101 Townsend St., San 
Francisco, CA 94107. 

* * * 

BUSINESS — Programmed Press an- 
nounced its new 1.3 version of invest- 
ment and statistical software. This is 
available in the form of a 220-page book 
which contains 50 BASIC programs for 
several business applications. The price 
for The Computer-Assisted Investment 
Handbook, is $19.95. Contact Pro- 
grammed Press, 2301 Baylis Ave., El- 
mont, NY 11003, (516) 775-0933. 

* * * 

QUIETER DAISYWHEEL — C. Itoh 
has introduced a new 136-column, 40 
cps daisy wheel printer. The D 10-40 is 
claimed to have an acoustic noise level 
of less than 60dB. It features three 
character pitches, compatibility with all 
Diablo printwheels, 8-bit parallel and 
RS-232C serial interfaces, and an 8K 
data buffer standard. Suggested retail is 
$949 which includes the C. Itoh one- 
year warranty. Options include an auto 
sheet feeder and a tractor feed mecha- 
nism. Contact C Itoh Digital Products, 
Inc., 19750 South Vermont Ave., Suite 
220, Torrance, CA 90502, (800) 423- 
0300. 

* * * 



KODAK DISKS — Eastman Kodak 
Company has a new line of single- and 
double-sided diskettes. The 300- 
oersted, 5-14-inch disks are available in 
double- and quad-density formats for 
most applications. They can be found in 
packs of two, five and 10. 

9fc 3^1 3§C 

NEW CATALOG — The new Radio 
Shack computer catalog is now availa- 
ble in Radio Shack stores. Two new 
Color Computer items in this catalog 
are the DC Modem Program Pak and 
a hard disk interface. The modem runs 
at 300-Baud and is capable of originate 
and answer modes. Retail price for the 
modem is $89.95. The hard disk inter- 
face is designed for use with primary 
drives. It requires 64K, Multi-Pak 
Interface, floppy disk and OS-9 version 
2.0 or later. It is available for $129.95. 
Both the modem and interface can be 

found at Radio Shack stores nation- 
wide. 

STORAGE — The Media Mate 5 XL 
Plus™, a locking disk file capable of 
storing 100 5-V4 inch diskettes was 
recently introduced by Amaray Interna- 
tional Corporation. The unit holds 
disks at a 30-degree angle for easy 
reading and it is stackable. It is available 
through retailers nationwide for $29.95. 
Also available is the MediaPack 4. This 
product includes four color-coded disk 
cases capable of holding 10 disks each. 
The individual units may be locked 
together to form a large diskette library. 
The price for the MediaPack 4 is $16.95. 
For more information contact Mark 
Dill, Amaray International Corpora- 
tion, 14935 N.E. 95th Street, Redmond, 
WA 98052-2508, (206) 881-1000. 

3|C 9|C 

BUFF WHO? — Computer Friends has 
announced the Mac Master universal 
buffer and printer controller. Memory 
options are 64K, 256K and one meg and 
the prices range from $299 to $750. The 
buffer can be used to store any informa- 
tion to be sent to peripherals while the 
controller feature can store up to 99 
strings, which can be recalled from the 
front panel keyboard. Write to Compu- 
ter Friends, 6415 SW Canyon Ct. t 
Portland, OR 97221, or call (800) 547- 
3303. 

* * * 



1 04 THE RAINBOW March 1 986 



A CHIP OFF THE OLD... 

Joystick, Serial or Cassette plug .$4.99 

6821 Standard PIA $9.95 

6822 Industrial Grade PIA ....... .$14.95 

6847 VDG Chip $19.95 

6809E CPU Chip (NEW LOW PRICE) ...$19.95 
Basic ROM 1.2 Chip (30Z FASTER) ..$19.95 
68769 (Fits Disk Basic Skt) Eprom.$19.95 
Disk ROM 1.1 (New DOS Command) ..$29.95 
New SAM Chip w/heatsink (74LS785). $29. 95 
Ext Basic 1.1 ROM - NEW LOW PRICE. $29. 95 
Tandy 1000 128K RAM Upgrade Kit ..$39.95 
Eprom Eraser - 3 min erasure time. $49.95 
Model 100 8K Upgrade - ( SAVE $70). $49.95 
CoCo First Aid Kit - includes 2 PIAs, 
6809E & SAM (Be Prepared!!!) ....$59.95 

64K CoCo II - w7NEW keyboard $149.95 

Eprom Prgmr ( 2ms speed/2K - 16K ).$149.95 

COCO LIBRARY... 

The CoCo Chronicles /1980-1985 $7.95 

CoCo Memory Map ...$14.95 

Basic Programming Tricks Revealed. $14. 95 
The FACTS - Inside "guts" of CoCo. $16. 95 

500 Pokes, Peeks 'N Execs $16.95 

Basic 09 Tour Guide $1 9. 95 

Uti 1 ity Routines - Top Pgm Secrets . $19. 95 
Rainbow Book / Tape of Simulations .$19.95 
Color Basic Unraveled ........ .wi. $19.95 

Extended Basic Unraveled ,$19.95 

Disk Basic (1.0/1.1) Unraveled ...$19.95 
New! CoCo II Service Manual * .....$24.95 
SECOND Book & Tape of Adventures .$29.95 
The Comp 1 ete Rainbow Guide to 0S9.$19.95 
W/Two Disk Package of demo pgms ..$49.95 
C olor / Extended / Di sk Basic Unraveled - 
Complete 3 Book Set - Save $10! ..$49.95 

MORE GOOD STUFF... 

CoCo Light Pen - ;J2+rft5: Save $5!.. $19. 95 

Compu tjze "Y" Box - More positive 

connections than a "Y" Cable .....$29.95 

Colorware Real Talker 1 (CoCo I) .$59.95 

Colorware Real Talker 2 (CoCo II). $64.95 

Super Voice - SC-02 Synthesizer ..$79.95 

PBJ WORD-PAK Hi-Res 80x24 disply $129.95 

* - Specify CoCo II Catalogue Number 

All orders plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) 

COO add $2.00 extra 
NYS Residents add Sales Tali 



COCO CABLES AND... 

Printer / Modem 15' Extender Cable .$14.95 
Tired of unpl ugging devices from your 
RS232 port? Try a RS232 "Y" Cable . $19. 95 
Disk Drive Cable (34pin - 34pin) .$19.95 

Modem Cable * 6ft (DB25-DB25) $19.95 

Null Modem Cable - 4 pin to DB25 .$24.95 
D isk Interface/Rom Pak Extender - Move 
your disks & ROM Paks (3 feet) ..$24.95 
40 Pin Dual "Y" Cab le m Hook up a Disk 
w/Voice, Word Pak, CoCo Max , etc ..$29.95 
Triple RS232 Switcher ** Now select one 
of any three RS232 peripherals ...$39.95 
D ELUXE RS232 Switcher - Dual switcher 
with 3 female DB-25 jacks ....... .$59.95 

_40 Pin Triple 1l Y n ~Cabl_e - Hook up any 3- 
Voice7Word/RS232/Digitizer PAKs ..$39.95 
Finally ! 24" Multi-Pak Extender ..$44.95 

OTHER GOOD STUFF... 

C-1 0 tapes in any quantity .....49 cents 
5 1/4" Diskettes, any quantity .99 cents 

0S-9 Quick Reference Guide .$3.95 

6809E Quick Reference Guide v. $3.95 

32K f 64K or 128K RAM Button ..$4.99 

Blank Amdek 3" Disks ............. $4. 99 

Rompak w/Blank PC Brd-27xx series .$9.95 
CoCo Keybd Adapter - Conver: 26-3016 & 
277-1019 keybds to D/E CoCo's! ..$14.95 
Video Clear - This cable wil l reduce TV 
interference created by CoCo! ....$19.95 

The Magic Box ~ Load Mod I/I II Basic 
program tapes into the CoCo . ... ..$24.95 

DOS Switcher - Select from any two DOSs 
"flHsk 1.0 1.1, JD0S) in J&M ctlr .$24.95 
256K RAM Chips (Set of 8) .......$39.95 

EARS -CoCo's first Voice Recognition unit 
w/95% accuracy & 64 Voice Prints ! $99.95 

Master Key II w/Ext Cable ... $109.95 

Amdek Twin 3" D rvs w/controller .$249.95 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

PO BOX 21272 

93-15 86TH DRIVE 

WOODHAVEIM NY 11421 

COD ORDER HOT LINE 
71 S-441 -2807 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 

COLORFUL COMPUTING 



COMMUNICATION 




COLORCOM/E - A complete smar 
terminal package! Upload, 
Download, Hi-Res (51X24) 
screen, 300/1200 Baud, Offline 
Printing. 32/64K Disk* - $39.95 
* - Now with CoCo Sig & TBBS 
XMODEM support! Download ML! 
COMPUSERVE 5hr Start Kit $39.95 



MODEMS 




MINI-MODEM - Direct connect, 
300 Baud, Orig/Answer- $39.95** 
J -CAT Modem - Lowest priced 
auto/ answer modem - $119.95 
HAYES SM300 - " Pro R rammabl e " 
auto-dial /auto answer-$169. 95** 
Hayes"CL0NE"1200 Baud-$1 99. 95** 
** - Add $12.95 for Modem Cable 




KEYBOARDS 




WORD PROCESSING 




IILEWRITER-64 - Three Hi -Res 
screens, true lowercase char's 
right justify, full screen 
editor. Tape $49.95 Disk $59.95 
TELEPATCH - A TW-64 enhancer ! ! ! 
True bjock move, Qvers tri ke & 
T SPOOL mode, Type Ahead Buffer 
FASTER Disk I/O 64K Disk $19.95 




PRINTERS 



GEMINI SG-K) - 120 cps w/true 
descenders, 2K buffer, tract- 
frict feed, Near Let ;er Quality 
mode, 1 Yr. warranty - $239.95 
BriteFace -The first I NTELLIGENT 
Parallel Ptr Interface for CoCo 
Auto set Baud rates from 600 to 
9600/NO switches to turn $59.95 



ij»nillllllllllHIIIII win 



piiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiyi 



HJL-57 - Save $7.00 !! - $72.95 
HJL NumberJack Keypad - $79.95 
-Specify Model /Revision Board- 
CoCo Keybd Software - Finally! 
An ENHANCED Function Key Pgm! 4 
most wanted features: 9600 Baud 
Poke, Text Screen Dump, Line 
Listing & Cold Start-DSK $14.95 






MONITORS 



aiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiya 



MONOCHROME Monitors - CRISP 
80x24 Hi-Res screens! $99.95 
Univ ersa l Video Driver - Works 
w 7a!1 monitors & CoCos!- $29.95 
Monitor Stand - Sw ivels 360°, 
Tilts Up or Down 12.5°!! $24.95 
TAXAN Tuner-Receive TV c hannel s 
on any composite monitor $99.95 



Monitor Stand $24.95 





SAVE $10 



OFF COLORCOM/E WITH A HAYES MODEM 

OFF TELEWRITER-64 WITH ANY PRINTER, 
KEYBOARD OR MONITOR 



SAVE $10 



COD ORDER HOT LINE - CALL 718-441-2807 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 

COLORFUL COMPUTING 



SPREADSHEET 



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C:;-!i pflt ' i ' • 



[DYNACALC 



Screen 32X16 51X24 

Precision 9 digits 16 digits 
Hi-Res Graphics NO YES 
Visicalc cmd format NO YES 
New low price! 64K Disk $69.95 
Si_de">lj^ -Print DVNACALC files 
up to" Z55 chars-s1de*ays!$24.95 





DISK DRIVES 




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PRO-COLOR FILE 2.0 - 60* Data 
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Sort, Create Files Compatibl e 
w/DYNACALC! - Disk $49.95 
Pro Col or Di_r and PCF Forms - 
Buy r em both" for only $29.95 





DRIVE 0 System* - SS/DD, 6ms, 
40 Tracks, Half Height .$199.95 
DRIVE 0 & 1 System* - $299.95 
Disk Drive 1, 2 or 3 - $119.95 
Power Supply & Case - $59.95 
Bare 1/2 Height Drive - $79.95 
Dbl Sided Drv 0 System* $239.95 
* PLUS: controller-manual-cable 



^miiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiie 





"1 











GAME CONTROLLERS 

^ iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii innnnnniiiiiiii^ 




Wi^co Command Adapte r - Now you 
can hookup 2 Atari type joystks 
to your CoCo for only $19.95! 
Joysti ck7 Mouse 10' Ext Cable - 
Great for CoCoMax users! $19.95 
DELUXE Joystick - 360 Degree 
control with center return or 
analog positioning - $39.95 




DISK SOFTWARE 



** 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 



Color FORTH 

EZ Base (Database) .. 

Graphicom 

Graph i com Part II 
Greeting Cd Designer 
Blackjack Royale .... 
Spect'm Adv Generator 
HARDC0PY(Specify PTR) 



.$24.95 
.$24.95 
.$24.95 
.$24.95 
.$24.95 
.$24.95 
$29.95 
$29.95 





COCO II UPGRADES 




Want to upgrade your new $88 
CoCo II? ( See below ! ! ) 
4464 DRAMs - two chip 64K 
upgrade for 26-3134A and 26- 

3134B CoCo IPs $39.95 

Extended BASIC - 28 pin ROM for 

26-3134 A7BT7 $34.95 

Buy 'em BOTH for only - $69.95 



DISK SOFTWARE * * 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS, Inc. 

PO BOX 21272 
93-15 86th DRIVE 
WOODHAVEN NY 11421 

All orders plus $3.00 S/H (Foreign $5.00) - COD add $2.00 extra - NYS Residents add Sales Tax 



Buy any 2 - Save 10% 
Buy any 3 - Save 15% 
Buy any 4 - Save 20% 



FREE - Send for our 
CoCo catalog flier 11 1 
Dealer inquiries invited I 



GAME 



nvasion of the 



Flying Saucer 
People 



By Allen B. Carlisle 




Kyou like fast action games that 
challenge your reflexes and of- 
fer different skill levels, you 
will like Saucer, The scenario goes 
something like this: You are on a des- 
olate planet, and while safe from attack 
from the dreaded Saucer people from 
within your base camp (lower right- 
hand corner of the graphics screen), you 
must venture out to get the supply 
boxes, which are present at the lower 
left-hand corner of the graphics screen. 
The moment you venture out, or your 
robot ventures out (for those who abhor 
violence), a saucer enters the scene and 
randomly flies around shooting its laser 
beam at you. If you are hit, another 
man, or robot, exits the base and heads 
for the needed supplies. Each player 
gets four men per round. 



Allen Carlisle teaches math at Airline 
High School in Bossier City, Louisiana. 
He has a bachelor 's degree and a mas- 
ter's in math from Texas Tech, He lives 
in Shreveport, Louisiana, 



You are not left without defense, 
however, as you can shoot back by 
skillful use of the right joystick. Of 
course, the firebutton activates your 
laser gun, but aiming it takes a few 
attempts to master. Each time you 
succeed in knocking out a saucer, 100 
points are scored. Aiming your gun 
involves watching a blinking cursor at 
the uppermost horizontal part of the 
screen or the far left vertical position of 
the graphics screen. Your ray fires at 
that cursor position as you press the 
button. Movement to the right of the 
joystick causes the cursor to appear at 
the top, while movement to the left 
moves the cursor to the left vertical part 
of the screen. Up on the joystick causes 
the cursor to move up the screen if it is 
at the left vertical position, and to the 
left if it is at the upper horizontal 
position. Of course, down performs the 
opposite movements. 

When I decided to write Saucer, I 
knew the main mathematical task 
would be to obtain the formula that 
calculates the coordinates of the point 
on a line (laser ray) that is on the 
segment perpendicular to some other 



point off the line (center of the saucer). 
After having looked in all my analytical 
geometry texts, I found nothing that 
would give me what I needed, so I took 
some time to derive the formulae I 
needed. Line 1090 of this program is 
what gives the coordinates of this point 
(LX,LY), where (A,B) and (C,D) are 
two points of the laser beam shot at the 
saucer and (X,Y) is the coordinate of the 
center of the saucer. The actual distance 
is calculated in Line 1100. 

Variable QED is the test variable for 
this distance, which is larger for the 
lower skill level so that at skill level one, 
the beam does not necessarily have to 
touch the saucer in order to score a hit, 
but must be very close. 

I invite inquiries concerning any 
aspect of this game. I have yet to score 
the 1,000 points obtained by success- 
fully returning a supply box to base (but 
I got pretty close once). Write and let 
me know if you do or are able to do this 
at the higher skill levels. My address is 
3533 San Augustine, Shreveport, LA 
71105. I would like to hear from you. 
Good luck knocking those nasty Saucer 
people from the sky! □ 



108 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



\0r 250 32 970 .154 

I 380 182 1110 112 
610 74 END 254 
770 138 

I 

The listing: SAUCER 

lj3 REM SAUCER ***************** 

2J3 REM (C) ALLEN B. CARLISLE 198 
5**** 

30 REM ALL RIGHTS RESERVED****** 
* 

40 ***************************** 
50 i **************************** 

60 REM INITIALIZE GAME 
70 CLS:PCLEAR4:POKE65495 / )3 
8)3 DIMA$(4) :DIMA(4) : INPUT "NUMBER 
OF PLAYERS" ; ZZ 




9)3 FOR PL=1 TO ZZ : CLS : INPUT" ENTE 
R NAMES" ;A$ (PL) : NEXT: CLS: PL=1 
100 INPUT"SKILL LEVEL ( 1-5 ) ";L 

11) 3 IF L<1 OR L>5 THEN 1)3)3 ELSE 
L=ABS (INT (L) ) 

12) 3 IF L=l THEN 13)3 ELSE 14)3 
130 DIS=0:QED=17:GOTO250 

14)3 IF L=2 THEN 15)3 ELSE 16)3 

150 DIS=1:QED=15:GOTO250 

160 IF L=3 THEN 170 ELSE 180 

170 DIS=3:QED=13:GOTO250 

180 IF L=4 THEN 190 ELSE 200 

190 DIS=3:QED=10:GOTO250 

200 DIS=3:QED=8:GOTO250 

210 IF PL>ZZ THEN PL=1 

220 A(PL)=A(PL)+SCR 

230 IF MEN=0 THEN PL=PL+1 

240 IF MEN=0 THEN GOTO1170 ELSE 

RETURN 

250 REM DRAW SAUCER & GET IT 

2 60 PMODE4 , 1 : U=2 14 : SCREEN1 , 1 : PCL 

S0:MEN=8 

270 Hl=20 :H2=44 : Vl=7 : V2=7 : V3=7 : V 

4=7 : FL=-1 : BOX=0 : M=92 

280 FOR 1=1 TO 4: LINE (H1,V3) - (H 

2,V4) ,PSET:LINE(H1,V1)-(H2,V2) ,P 

SET 



290 H1=H1+1:H2=H2-1:V1=V1-1:V2=V 
2-1 : V3=V3+1 : V4=V4+1 : PSET (31,2) : P 
SET(32,2) .-NEXT 

300 DIMS(12,26) :GET(19,1)-(45,13 
) ,S,G: LINE (19,1) -(45, 13) , PRESET, 
BF 

310 REM DRAW &GET ROBOT 

320 DRAW"BM217,180R3D1L3R2D6L1U3 

LI ; B ; U1L2U1 ; B ? D9R1U1 ; B ; R1U2 ; B ; R3 

D1;B;R1;B;D1D1L1" 

330 DIMR(11,8) :GET(214,180) -(222 

,191) ,R,G 

340 REM DRAW BASE 

350 LINE(240, 164)-(255, 191) , PSET 
,BF: LINE (228 ,176) -(244,191) ,PSET 
, BF 

3 60 FOR 1=168 TO 184 STEP 8 : LINE 
(248,1) -(251,1+3) , PRE SET,BF: NEXT 
370 LINE(232,184)-(235,187) ,PRES 
ET,BF: LINE (240, 184) -(243, 187) , PR 
ESET, BF 

380 REM DRAW SUPPLY BOXES 

390 FOR 1=0 TO 88 STEP 8 

400 LINE(I, 180)-(I+3, 191) , PSET, B 

: NEXT: SCREEN 1,1 

410 REM ENTER SAUCER 

420 FOR 1=0 TO 128 STEP 8 

430 W=20 

440 PUT(I,20)-(I+26,32) , S , PSET 
450 LINE(I, 20) -(1+26,32) , PRESET, 
BF 

460 ABR=RND ( 9 ) : IF ABR=2 THEN 480 
ELSENEXT 
470 GOTO 490 
480 GOTO 510 

490 I=128:PUT(I,W)-(I+26,W+12) ,S 
,PSET:GOTO510 
500 REM MOVE SAUCER 
510 Q1=RND(0):IF QK.5 THEN A=-l 
ELSE A=l 

520 Q2=RND(0):IF Q2<.5 THEN B=-l 

ELSE B=1:H=RND(6) :V=RND(6) 
530 H=H*A:V=V*B:L=RND(20) 
540 FOR E=l TO L 
550 IF I>226 THEN 630 
560 IF W>140 THEN 630 
570 IF I<0 THEN 630 
580 IF W<0 THEN 630 
590 PUT(I,W) -(1+26, W+12) ,S, PSET: 
X=I : Y=W 
600 GOSUB 640 

610 LINE ( I, W) -(1+2 6, W+12) , PRESET 
, BF : I=I+H : W=W+V 
620 NEXT:GOTO630 

630 PUT(X,Y)-(X+26,Y+12) ,S,PSET: 
GOSUB780:FOR DLY=1 TO 2:SOUND216 
,l:SOUND226,l:GOSUB 820:NEXT:I=X 
: W=Y : GOSUB8 60 : GOT05 10 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 109 




«><N> COLORFUL UTILITIES 




COCO CHECKER* 



Something possibly wrong : with your CoCo??? CoCo CHECKER" <s the answer! ! Will test your ROMs, 
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MULTI-PAK CRAK 



Save ROMPAKs to your 64K Disk system using the RS Multi-Pak Interface. Eliminate constant 
plugging i n of ROMPAKs now by" keep ing all your PAK software on disk . Includes POKEs for 
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format & backup a disk irk only J_ PASS (up to 23 grans) <& make up to A copies in 2 minutes ! 
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SPIT IM IMAGE 



A super upgrade from Disk Omni Clone! Back everything up! This amazmg program handles "non 
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CDCO SCREEN DUMP 



The best screen dump program for the Panasonic , Epson & Gemini printers ever! Have the option of 
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OISK UTILITY 2.1* 



A m ulti-featured tool for USER FRIENDLY disk handling. Utilize a directory window to selectively 
sort, move, rename and kill file entries. Lightning fast Disk I/O for format, copy and backup. 
Examine contents of files, the Granule Table, plus the size, load addresses and entry points of all 
programs. Single command execution of both Basic and ML programs. 32K/64K DISK $24.95 "Disk 
Utility has proven itself very quickly at my house" - Ed Ellers Oct '84 Rainbow Review pc. 220 



SPECTRUM FONT GENERATOR 



Now you can write files using any CoCo Word Processor (Telewriter-64, VIP Writer, etc.) and convert 
them to special Highly Detailed character sets ! Some of the character sets supported are Italics , 
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modify existing ones! Supports most dot-matrix printers! DISK $29.95 (see Dec f 85 Rainbow Review) 



SPECTRUM DOS 



Add 24 NEW Disk commands with 2 Hi-Res screens! Supports 4(3 track & Double-Sided drives, 6 ms 
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SCHEMATIC CRAFTING PROCESSOR 



Save time and design pro looking diagrams using a 480X540 pixel worksheet w/6 viewing windows. 
Over 30 electronic symbols w/10 definable symbols. (Even Logic gates & Multipin chips!) Print hard 
copy and save to disk. 64K DISK New LOW price!!! $29,95 (see Jan '84 Rainbow Review) 





asic+ provides (23) of the most used BASIC cmds w/one keystroke plus scrolling & editing 
w/single key! Also included is a 32 character typahead BUFFERED keybd w /auto key & repeat plus 
a 32K Print Spooler!! And all that appears on the screen can be echoed to the ptr! 64K DISK $29,95 



COCO CHECKBOOK 



Use your CoCo to keep track of your checking and savings accounts! Printout individual personal 
checks! 32K/64K TAPE $29.95 DISK $39.95 (see April'85 pg. 210 & Oct'85 pg. 197 Rainbow Reviews) 



* NOW AVAILABLE BY E 
YOUR LOCAL RADIO 




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DEMAND TO £ 



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111 



CFC#Q919) 



COLORFUL UTILITIES <$h$x$> 



COCO TEXT UTIL 



Includes utilities that most CoCo word processors (TW-64, VIP Writer, etc.) leave out! Reset margins 
to correct length for uploading , convert all UPPER CAS £ text to mixed up per /lower, display 
BYTE: count, EASY rename & kill functions plus read or print ANY disk file! DISK $19.95 



COCO VIDEO TITLE 



Start your VCR tapes with dazzling title frames followed by professional countdown to black fade- 
outs! Use a title page editor with several sizes of text & background colors! 16K TAPE $19.95 




PENPAL 



It's here! CoCo's answer to 1 - 2 ~ 3 ! PENPAL co mbines Word Processing, Communications, bra 
Data Base & Spread -Sheet into a single integrated software package! 64K DISK INTRO PRICE $69.95 



64K DISK UTILITY PACKAGE 



Take a d vantage of "an - expanded 64 K machine. Make an add itionai 8K of RAM available by relocating 
the Ext Basic ROM from $8000 to $D800. Copy ROMPAKS to disk (even "protected" PAKS) and create 
a 32K SPOOL buffer for printing. DISK $21.95 (see July '83 Rainbow Review) 



TAPE/OISK UTILITY 



A powe r f u I package that transfers tape to disk an d disk to tape automatically. Does c.n automat 
copy of an entire disk of programs to tape. Ideal for Rainbow On Tape to disk. Also copies tape 
tape & prints tape & disk directories. TAPE/DISK $24.95 (see Sept '83 Rainbow Review) 






Save and load cassette files at twice the speed! Now you can run tape and printer I/O operations; 
in the: high speed mode without a locked up system or I/O ERRORS! Works great with the pop^l^j: 
T e I e w r i t er - 64 wo rd proces s or tape by Cognitec. "If you are tired of waiting for those long tapes to 
load, I strongly recommend that you buy this fine utility." TAPE $21.95 July '83 Rainbow 



COCO CALENDAR 



o rganized for '86 TODAY wit h the CoCo Calendar! Designed for recording the entire year's 
occassions and daily appointments so you can plan ahead. You can store HUNDREDS of entries and 
our GRAPHIC Calendar will show the DAYS that have all the MEMOS! 32/64K DISK $24.95 




THE QS-9 SOLUTION 



a program that creates a USER FRIENDLY " environment within OS-9! The OS-9 SOLUTION 
replaces 19 of the old " USER HOSTILE " commands with single keystroke, menu driven commands. No 
more typing in complex long pathnames or remembering complicated syntaxes! Set all XMODE 
parameters at the touch of keys! Requires OS-9 ver.01.0K00 $39.95 (see Sept '85 Rainbow Review) 



COCO-UTIL 



>w you can have the power to easily transfer Radio Shack Color Computer disk files to your 
tvIS -DOS machine - including the Tandy 1000 & IBM PCM! You can also transfer MS-DOS files to your 
CoCo disk, even format CoCo disks! CoCo-Util will save you countless hours of retyping! No need to 
move your computer or printer anymore! Requires 128K MS-DOS computer w/2 disk drives - $29.95 



SOFTWARE BONANZA PACKAGE 



Create an instant library of Spectrum Projects TOP Colorful Utility software. Select any 10 programs 
to customize your own SPECTACULAR SOFTWARE BONANZA! CoCo Checker, Mufti* " 
S c reen Dump, Dl sk Utility 2.1 , Spectrum Font Generator, Tape/Disk Utility, Fast Dupe 
Drafting Processor, OS-9 Solution, 64K Disk Utility or Basic* (a $250 plus value) for 



I, Schematic 
$119.95!! 



640 REM MOVE ROBOT 

650 GOSUB860 

660 IF FL>0 THEN 700 

670 LINE (U , 180 ) - (U+8 , 19 1 ) , PRESET 

,BF:U=U-1:PUT(U,180) -(U+8,191) ,R 

,PSET 

680 IF M=U THEN 690 ELSE RETURN 

690 FL=FL*-l:BOX=BOX+l:IF BOX=l 

THEN 750 ELSE U=U-8 

700 IF U<0 THEN U=0 

710 LINE(U / 180)-(U+13,191) , PRESE 

T,BF:PUT(U,180) -(U+13,191) ,B,PSE 

T:U=U+1 

720 IF U=215 THEN 730 ELSE RETUR 
N 

730 LINE (U, 180) -(U+13,191) , PRESE 
T , BF : FL=FL*-1 : U=2 14 : PUT (U , 180 ) - ( 
U+13,191) ,R,PSET 

740 M=M-8:SCR=1000:GOSUB210:IF M 

<4 THEN 1250 ELSE RETURN 

750 REM GET ROBOT & BOX 

760 DIMB(11,13) :GET(87,180) -(100 

,191) ,B,G:U=87:GOTO 700 

770 REM SHOOT LASER BEAM 

780 XX=X+13:L=U+4:R1=RND(5) :R2=R 

ND(5) :R3=RND(5) :R=R1+R2+R3 

790 IF L-9+R<0 THEN R=9 

800 LINE(XX,Y)-(L-8+R,191) ,PSET: 

FOR DLY=1 TO 40: NEXT 

810 LINE(XX,Y) -(L-8+R,191) , PRESE 

T : RETURN 

820 IF ABS(R-8)<=DIS THEN 830 EL 
SE RETURN 

830 LINE(U, 180) -(U+8, 191) , PRESET 

,BF:MEN=MEN-1 

840 SCR=0 

850 U=214 : FL=-1 : GOSUB210 : RETURN 
860 REM ROBOT SHOOTS ■ 
870 K=PEEK(65280) :IF K=126 OR K= 
254 THEN 1020 

880 J0=JOYSTK(0) : Jl=JOYSTK(l) 



890 


IF 


900 


IF 


UN+5 




910 


IF 


UN+2 




920 


IF 


UN 




930 


IF 


UN- 2 




940 


IF 


N-5 




950 


IF 


N-8 




960 


IF 


970 


IF 


980 


IF 



990 LINE (0, UN) -(4,UN+4) ,PSET,BF 



:LINE(0,UN)-(4,UN+4) , PRESET, BF:R 
ETURN 

1000 IF UN>254 THEN UN=254 
1010 LINE(UN,0)-(UN+4,4) ,PSET,BF 
: LINE (UN , 0 ) - (UN+4 , 4 ) , PRESET , BF : R 
ETURN 

1020 IF J0>32 THEN 1050 . 
1030 A=0:B=UN:C=U:D=180 
1040 LINE (0, UN) -(U, 180) ,PSET:FOR 
DLY=1T02 : SOUND2 16 , 1 : SOUND2 26,1: 
NEXT: GOSUB1070 : LINE (0 ,UN) - (U, 180 
) , PRESET : RETURN 

1050 LINE (UN,0) -(U, 180) ,PSET:A=U 
N:B=0:C=U:D=180 

1060 F0RDLY=1T02 : SOUND 2 16,1: SOUN 
D226, 1: NEXT: GOSUB1070: LINE (UN, 0) 
- (U , 180 ) , PRESET : RETURN 
1070 REM CHECK IF SAUCER HIT 
1080 X=X+13:Y=Y+6 

1090 LX=(X*(C-A) A 2+A*(D-B) A 2+(D- 
B) * (C-A) * (Y-B) )/ ( (D-B) A 2+ (C-A) A 2 
) : LY= (B* (C-A) A 2+Y* (B-D) A 2+ (B-D) * 
(C-A)*(A-X) )/( (D-B) A 2+(C-A) A 2) 
1100 IF SQR ( (LY-Y) A 2+ (LX-X) A 2 ) <= 
QED THEN 1120 

1110 X=X-13:Y=Y-6:F0RDLY=1T0X:AB 

R=RND ( 0 ) : NEXT: RETURN 

1120 REM SAUCER HIT 

1130 LINE(I,W) -(1+26, W+12) , PRESE 

T , BF : FORDLY=1TO20 : SOUND200 , 1 : RH= 

RND(26) :RV=RND(12) : PSET ( I+RH , W+R 

V) : NEXT : X=X-13 : Y=Y-6 

1140 LINE ( I, W) -(1+2 6, W+12) , PRESE 

T, BF 

1150 IF J0>32 THEN LINE (UN ,0 ) - (U 
,180) , PRESETELSELINE (0 ,UN) - (U, 18 
0) , PRESET 

1160 SCR=100:GOSUB210:GOTO410 
1170 CLS:FORK=l TO ZZ : PRINT© ( 64+ 
K*64) ,A$(K) ;" »S SCORE= ";A(K):NE 
XT 

1180 PRINT© 3 8 4, "TO END GAME PRES 
S 'E'": PRINT© 3 5 2, "NEXT ROUND PRE 
SS 'N'" 

1190 B$=INKEY$:IF B$="E"THEN12 60 

ELSE IFB$="N"THEN1220ELSEIFFLAG= 

1THENRETURNELS E 1 1 90 

1200 IF FLAG= 1THENRETURN 

1210 CLS 

1220 IF PL>ZZ THEN PL=1 
1230 PRINT@230,"R E A D Y ";A$(P 
L) ; : FORDLY=lTO 5000: NEXT 
1240 LINE (X,Y)-(X+2 6, Y+12 ), PRESE 
T , BF : SCREEN1 , 1 : MEN=8 : GOT04 10 
1250 CLS:PRINT@103,"G A M E 0 V 
E R !!!!": NEXT : FOR DLY=1 TO 150 
00 : NEXT : FLAG=1 : GOSUB1170 
1260 POKE113,0:EXEC40999 /R\ 



112 THE RAINBOW March 1986 






SPECTRM 
STRIKES 



BACK 





- CoCo Legends Collection - Bob "Whiffle" Rosen 



256K/512K RAM UPGRADES 
FOR COCO II ARE HERE ! 



lint 




2S6K 




STRIKE I - RAM I 



Easy installation, 

software and 
tech information! 

(NOT available for CoCo ll's) 



OS-9 
DRIVER 
$24.95 



The first 256K memory Bd for the CoCo! 
Load four 32K pgms at once, emulate a 
40trk RAMDISK, 60K Print Spooler, FAST 
access, 30+ Hi-Res screens in memory!! 
$99.95 (see Sept '85 Rainbow Review) 

DOUBLE RAM - Upgrades a THUNDER RAM from 256K to 
512K giving TWO independent RAM Disks! $79.95 



COCO MAXE 



STRIKE 3 - A HIT! 

Feature packed hardware & software 
Graphics System! Includes: PulhDown 
Menus, Icon processing, multiple Font 
styles, full graphic editing plus a special 
Input Module for 256x192 joystick input 
64K DISK $79.95 

Requires MulthPak or Y-Cable ($29.95) 
CoCo Max I - II Disk Upgrade - $19.95 
CoCo Max (TAPE) $69.95 Digitizer $149.95 



STRIKE 2 - DOS! 

EPROM Programmer 
^ $59.95 ^ 



Uses 2764 ($6.95) 
or 27128 ($14.95) 

EPROMS ! (Requires Super Controller) 

The most AMAZING CoCo Disk Controller 
ever! Switch up to 4 DOS's (up to 16K) 
via a single software POKE! Choose 
between R/S 1.0/1.1, Spectrum DOS, 
ADOS, JDOS, Stearman DOS - $99.95 
DISPLAY 80 - 80 column display, RTC, 
& Ptr port. (Req. Super Controller) $99.95 

R/S DOS $19.95 and/ or Spectrum DOS $29.95 
(27128 EPROM) with purchase of Super Controller 

SUPER RAM - A 256K/512K memory RAM 
DISK for CoCo ll's ! ! Requires Radio Shack 
Multi-Pak. Write for more information ! 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS, INC. 

PO BOX 21272 
93-15 86TH DRIVE 
WOODHAVENNY 11421 

Shipping $3.00 (Foreign $5,001 
COD $2 extra - NY Res add tax 
COD Order Line 718-441-2807 





\J3" Pi 

»v,«'iv--' J ft 




mmmmfflmMmmmmmmm 



Rick Hebert 
Wizard 

A portrait of a wizard busily 
enchanting garners second prize for 
Rick, who lives in Crowley, Louisiana. 
He used Graphicom I & II to give 
the gallery a glimpse of augury. 



i A 




1st 



p 
I 

z 

E 



Robbie Elam 
Mount Olympus 

The month of Mars (March) 
presents a gallery of mythology and 
magic as it opens with Robbie's 
depiction of the home of the gods in 
ancient Greece. Robbie used a 
"homemade graphics editor" and 
lives Panama City Beach, Florida. 





P 
R 
I 

Z 
E 



Chris $teeves 
Dragon 

A snarling dragon ogles patrons of 
the gallery courtesy of Chris who 
lives in Fredericton, New Brunswick. 
Using Graphicom, Chris created a 
rapacious reptile for our third prize 
winner. 



114 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 




Charlie Fulp 
Minotaur's Kingdom 

Using CoCo Max, Charlie gifts the 
gallery with the sweeping grandeur of 
the Minotaur's Kingdom. Charlie 
lives in South Boston, Virginia. 



H 




Send your entry on either tape or disk 
to: 

CoCo Gallery 
THE ftMNfcOW 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 
Attn: Monica Dorth 



o 



bo 

E 



Andrew Bartels 
Tower 

Andrew submitted this majestic 
tower standing unguarded in 
unknown realms. Andrew lives in 
Sulphur, Oklahoma, and used a 
graphics program he wrote. 





8° 

m 



Sam Gladstone 
Excalibur 

No self-respecting gallery of myths 
could close without a depiction of 
King Arthur's gift from the Lady of the 
Lake. Sam used Extended basic to 
.create this legendary sword. 



SHOWCASE YOUR BEST! 

You are invited to nominate original work for 
inclusion in upcoming showings of "CoCo Gallery." 
Share your creations with the CoCo Community! 

Be sure to send a cover letter with your name, 
address and phone number, detailing how you created 
your picture (what programs you used, etc.) and how 
to display it. Also, please include a few facts about 
yourself. 

Don't send us anything owned by someone else; this 
means no game screens, digitized images from TV 
programs or material that's already been submitted 
elsewhere. 

We will award a first prize of $25, a second prize of 
$15 and a third prize of $10. Honorable mentions will 

also be given. 

Monica Dorth, Curator 

March 1986 THE RAINBOW 115 



64K of Garbage 



By Ed Ellers 
Rainbow Technical Writer 



• I am having trouble upgrading my CoCo 
2 to 64 K. The problem is in getting the 
computer to recognize the additional mem- 
ory. Before making the connection at Wl, 
the computer works fine as a 16K system. 
After making this connection, a line of 
garbage characters is displayed on the 
screen. 

Paul Masline 
Wilton, CT 

There is probably a defect in one or more 
of your new chips that affects some memory 
locations above the 16K boundary. With Wl 
open, your CoCo doesn't try to look for any 
more than 16K. 



Programming in Stages 

• Is it possible to type in part of a program, 
save it on cassette and then finish the job 
later? 

Neil Edge 
Williston, FL 

Sure. There's nothing wrong with this 
procedure. In fact, it's a good idea to stop 
once in a while. 



Ed Ellers, a RAINBOW and PCM staff 
member, is a self-confessed electronics 
fanatic whose other interests include 
science fiction. 



CoCoScope 

• I would like to know how to transform my 
CoCo into a digital oscilloscope. 

A Quebec Reader 

Actually this isn't too far-fetched. Several 
scopes made by Tektronix, Hewlett-Packard 
and others actually digitize the incoming 
signal and display the wave form on the 
CRT as a bit-image graphics display. HP 
also has a system that hooks up to an IBM 
PC to do this, as does at least one other firm. 
To do this on the CoCo, you need an analog- 
to-digital converter circuit to accept the 
signal you want to look at; then it's a matter 
of writing a program to read the A-to-D 
converter output and display it. 



Disk Drive Transplant 

• / currently have two Tandon single-sided 
drives and a power supply that were re- 
moved from an IBM PC. Can these drives 
be used with the Color Computer? If so, 
what disk drive controller is best? 

Leon Donbrowski 
Ripon, Wl 

The drives you mention will work fine 
with the CoCo using any of the standard 
disk controllers on the market. You might 
want to look at the IBM PC Hardware 
Reference Manual to find out how to set up 
the jumpers on these drives. 



Single vs. Double 

• / don't know much about disk drives. I 
would like to know if a double-sided drive 
can be used with both single- and double- 
sided diskettes. 

Bret Boyer 
Marion, NC 



You can use single-sided diskettes in place 
of double-sided ones, but since the "other" 
side of the disks has not been tested it may 
have some flaws. 



Fast64K 

• In the all- RAM mode (64 K), can you still 

use the speed-up POKE (POKE 65495, 0J? 

Also, how do you know whether you have 

the old or new Korean CoCo 2? 

Gregory Hill 
Chicago, IL 



Yes, you can speed up your computer's 
operation in the all-RAM mode — if your 
CoCo can accept the speed-up POKE at all. 

Actually, there are three different versions 
of the CoCo 2 that have been nradein Korea. 
The "old" one had a model number such as 
26-3134 without a letter on the end; this has 
eight RAM chips. The "new" version had the 
letter *A' on the end of the model number; 



116 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1986 



1 



it uses two four-bit RAM chips and you 
would need 64K-by-four RAMs, such as 
4464 or uPD41254, to upgrade it to 64K. 
The current model, the *B' version, is called 
Tandy instead of Radio Shack; this one uses 
two four-bit RAM chips and has a new video 
generator chip that provides both upper- 
and lowercase displays on the text screen. 



CAT Connections 

• / am trying to interface a Novation CA T 
modem to my CoCo. My problem is there 
are too many wires on the modem side. 
Would I also connect Pin 5 (clear to send) 
and Pin 6 (data set ready) to the CoCo's 
carrier detect input, or would I just leave 
these unhooked as unneeded items? 

Richard S. Nordell 
Reeds, MO 

Since the CoCo's Serial I/O jack has only 
three active lines (transmit, receive and 
carrier detect), terminal programs for the 
CoCo are written to use only these three and 
there's no problem with leaving the others 
disconnected. In fact, although it's good 
practice to go ahead and connect the carrier 
detect line (Pin 8 on the modem), many 
terminal programs don't use it either. 



Key Bounce 

• I'm having a problem with the '5' key on 
my CoCo. I have a nice keyboard, but this 
key repeats two or three times when pressed. 
As you can tell, this creates an aggravating 
problem when entering programs. Would 
you please explain the problem? 

Mike Wells 
Chesterton, IN 

IVe noticed some minor "key bounce" 
problems with the newer CoCo keyboards 
myself. Almost all key switches tend to 
bounce a bit, and because of this, a delay is 
used to make sure the extra pulses are 
ignored. Apparently the CoCo's key bounce 
delay, which was set for the original "chiclet" 
keyboard, may be just a bit short for the 
newer keyboards. 



More on Touch-Up Paint 

• Regarding touch-up paint for the oV gray 
CoCo: We don't have a Mercedes dealer 
where I live, but I found a touch-up paint 
that seems to match quite well. It is Dupli- 
Color's DS-GM-224, Silver (for 1975-76 
Chevrolets, etc.). 

Jerold Krempel 
Chenango Bridge, NY 

Thanks for the information, Jerold. 



Delphi Downloading 

• In November of 1985 I signed up with 
Delphi and joined the CoCo SIG. I tried to 
download the machine language files of 
Mikey term 4.0, but I don 't know how to save 
it to disk using the Autoterm program. 

Joseph Zak 
Parma, OH 

The machine language files on Delphi 
should be downloaded using an XMODEM 
terminal program such as Mikeyterm, Color 
Connection III or Colorcom/ E Version 3. In 
the case of Mikeyterm, just skip the first 



With a 300-ohm 
antenna input you're 
most likely picking 
up garbage through 
the short wire from 
the antenna screws 
to the VHF tuner 
inside the set . • . 
your best bet is to 
use a good outdoor 
TV antenna with a 
coaxial cable lead- 
in. 



machine language file and download the 
other files. Run the four basic loader 
programs (MTERM1, MTERM2, 
MTERM3 and MTERM4) in order, and 
you'll be able to save the Mikeyterm pro- 
gram to tape or disk. 



Making Book 

• / would like to know how to get the Delphi 
Handbook and Command Card. The adver- 
tisement says I can order it online, but how 
do I go about it? 

Brandon Rhodes 
Andover, MA 

If you haven't already signed up for 
Delphi, when you do so you'll be asked 
whether you want to buy the Handbook, 
Command Card and three hours of connect 
time atot a special price. If you're already 
using Delphi, just send a mail message to 
SERVICE to order the Handbook and 
Command Card. Either way, the cost ap- 



pears on your Delphi bill. You may also 
phone in an order to Delphi's toll-free line: 
(800) 544-4005. 

Also, youll find a special edition of the 
Delphi Command Card in the February 
1986 rainbow on pages 89 and 90. 



RFI Revisited 

From Delphi Forum 

• I have a problem with RFI from my 
CoCo 2 (not Korean)- fifter running 
coax from the CoCo directly to my TV's 
VHF antenna terminals (replaced box 
uith matcher) and grounding the 
matcher to TV chassis, I have elim- 
inated 50 percent of my interfer- 
ence. However, I still have vertical 
interference lines, distinct and 
about four lines per inch. When using 
the CoCo, the TV in the next room also 
shows this interference pattern. My 
TV is a brand new 13-incher, which has 
only a 300-ohm twin-lead connection. 
Any suggestions? 

Would a monitor eliminate my RFI 
problem (as a last resort)? If so, 
what is the difference between an 
"RGB" and a "composite color" moni- 
tor? I believe a TV is about 320 
lines. If so, does CoCo have the 
ability to use a monitor uith higher 
resolution? Say 500 or 800 lines? 

Dennis Lytle 
(Delphi username: DENNISGEORGEJ 

Saginaw, MI 

Actually, youVe done about all you can 
do with that TV set. On my own TV (a 19- 
inch RCA ColorTrak), which has a 75-ohm 
coaxial antenna input, the path from the 
CoCo to the TV is fully shielded and I get 
a very nice picture. With a 300-ohm antenna 
input you're most likely picking up garbage 
through the short wire from the antenna 
screws to the VHF tuner inside the set. 

To clear up the interference on the other 
set, your best bet is to use a good outdoor 
TV antenna with a coaxial cable lead-in. 

The Federal Communications Commis- 
sion has a pamphlet, called "How to Identify 
and Resolve Radio-TV Interference Prob- 
lems," that might be helpful to you. Write 
to: U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, DC 20402, and ask for Stock 
Number 004-000-00345-4. 



Your technical questions are welcomed. 
Please address them to: Earth to Ed, the 
rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit for 
space and clarity. 

Your technical questions may also be sent 
to us through the MAIL section of our new 
Delphi CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> 
prompt, pick DELPHI MAIL, then type 
SEND and address to: EDELLERS. 



March 1 986 THE RAINBOW 117 



TH€ 

SAILOR 

MAN 

TAPE $29.95 
DISK $34.95 



GAMCS 




Requires 64K Machine Language 

The first screen objective is to catch enough of Elsie's kisses (those Red Heart 
Shaped Things) to fill in the squares on the Sailorman's house. If you can time 
your punch just so, you can send the punching bag over to knock the bucket down 
and, with a little bit of luck, right on Blgfatbadguy's head. This will give you a 
little (but not much) time to catch all those RHSTs. 

You must avoid contact with Bigfatbadguy who is actively pursuing you. You 
must also be careful of Olduglyseawoman who will appear at higher difficulty 

levels to chuck empties at you. Either avoid the fly- 
ing bottles or punch them (with the fire button) to 
keep from being knocked into the water. 

The second screen objective is to collect enough 
notes to play Elsie a little love song. You may jump 
off and onto the other end of Fatguyeatlngnam- 
burger's teetertotter to fly up a deck and even two 
decks if you manage to catch hold of Smartaleck- 
kid'a grab handles. Time it right and away you go. 

The Third screen objective is to collect enough let- 
ters (thrown by Elsie's cries for H-E-L-P) to complete 
a ladder ail the way to the crow's nest where Elsie 
is calling you. Beware of the Crow, however, who 
thinks you are after her eggs! 

On all screens, eating a can of collard greens 
(labeled "S" for Collard and grasped by punching 
the can just right) will give you amazing speed, 
strength and ability and allow you to send Bigfat- 
badguy into the drink with a single punch. 




€DUCATIONfll 

a #1 & ■# FACTPACK is a set of 3 programs designed for home 
pflf PHC K or scno °l use - The programs provide drill and 
■ ■ ^ ■ ■ ■ ■ ^ ■ ■ practice with basic addition, subtraction, multi- 
plication and division facts and are appropriate in grades 1-6. Each program requires a 32K 
Extended BASIC Color Computer. Disk drive and printer are optional. 

Requires 32 K Ext. Basic Tape '24.95 Disk '29.95 

DISK ONLY 



64K Req. 




DRAGON 
SLflVCR 



0 




Save the villagers of Pendor! They 
live in fear of Icarus, the blood 
thirsty dragon. The dragon lives in 
a cave, way up in the mountains. 
The cave is a treasure chest, full 
of gems and cashbags. The trail to 
the cave is as menacing as Icarus 
himself. Outstanding graphics 
throughout. 160 screens of exciting 
action packed arcade excitement. 



T€HCH€R'S DATABASE II 

Teachers' Database (TDB) is a program designed to allow a teacher to keep a computerized 
file of information about his/her students. 

The program requires a 64K Color Computer and at least one disk drive. This completely 
revised program includes all of the capabilities of the original TDB plus many new features. 

• Information on as many as 100 students, or more, may be in the computer at one time. 

• Each student may have as many as 20, or more, individual items of data in his/her record. 

• The program has many easy to follow- menus. 

• Records may be easily changed, deleted, or combined. 

• Information about students may be numerical or text. 

• Records may be quickly alphabetized or reordered based on their contents. 

• Records may be sored by various criteria. 

• A full statistical analysis of scores may be done and sent to the printer. 

• Student test scores may be weighted, averaged, changed to a percentage or changed 
to a letter grade. 

• Individual student progress reports and class gradebook sheets may be printed. 

• Three methods of data entry spped the task of typing in student grades and test results. 

• The program may be easily customized to work with any printer. 

• Student seating charts may be created and printed. 

• Graphs of student test results may be created using the computer's high resolution graphic 
screen. 

• Grade distribution can be displayed numerically or as a histogram. 

64K TDBII $59.95 • 32K TDB Version - DISK $42.95 TAPE $39.95 



32K 



Disk $29.95 vocnBumnv managcmcnt 



THE KING 

Tape $26.95 

SR-71 

Tape 28.95 

DRACONIAN 
Tape S27.95 

MS. MAZE 
Tape $24.95 



32K 

Disk $29.95 
32K 

Disk $31.95 
32K 

Disk $30.95 
32K 

Disk $27.95 



FROG 
Tape $27.95 

FANGMAN 
Tape $24.95 



16K 

Disk $30.95 
16K 

Disk $27.95 



KATER PILLAR II 16K 

Tape $24.95 Disk $27.95 



Requires 16K Ext. Basic or 32K for printer output. 

The Vocabulary Management System (VMS) is a series of programs designed to aid a parent 
or teacher in helping children to learn and practice using vocabulary and spelling words. The 
11 programs that comprise the VMS include a full feature data entry/edit program, three printer 
output programs and 5 vocabulary/spelling game programs. The system's many outstanding 
features include: 

• As many as 300 vocabulary words and definitions may be in the computer's memory at 
one time. 

• Words and definitions may be saved on disk or tape. 

• Remarks and/or comments can be saved with word files. 

• A disk loading menu allows students to load disk files without typing file names. 
Word lists may be quickly alphabetized. 




UTIUTICS 



WAREHOUSE MUTANTS 16K. The three printer segments allow you to create and print individualized tests, puzzles, 
Tape $24.95 $Disk $27.95 word-searches and worksheets. 

• The printer segments allow full use of your printer's special features. 

^ • The 5 game programs are based on sound educational principles and provide practice 

— ~ j n identifying words and matching them with their definitions in a fast-paced set of activities. 

TAPE 339.95 DISK 942.95 



NOW! You can own the tools we've used to create "Donkey King", 
"Sailor Man", and others. 

We are proud to announce our new utilities for the 64K Disk Color 
Computer, featuring 

• Full use of 64K RAM • 100% Machine Language 

• Parameters easily changeable in basic loader • No ROM calls 

• "Cold start" exit to basic • Easy-to-read, informative documentation 

• Keyklik • Selectable drive stepping rate 

• Support 1-4 drives • Easy to use, with menu selected functions 

To make life with your disks easier, may we suggest . . . 
MAS — the finest assembler ever written for the 

Color Computer (includes EDT) $74.95 

Disk 

EDT — effortless full (51x24) screen editing w/2 way cursor. Disk commands 
allow easy save/backup/append. Text files to 48K+. Copy, save, move, delete 

or print blocks. Much more • $39.95 

Disk 

The Deputy Inspector — Alphabetize, re-sort, and backup directory; fast 
3-swap backups, copy files or programs to same or other disks, can auto- 
reallocate granules during backup for faster loading, and more. . .$21.95 

Disk 

The Sector Inspector — Alphabetize, backup, and printout directory; repair 
crashes, LLIST basic programs, name disks, read in and edit 23+ grans, 3-swap 
backups, and more. Has 16-page manual and gran 

table print program . $29.95 

Disk 



FRACTIONS - ft Three Program Package 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 



MIXED & IMPROPER 

Review converting mixed numerals and improper fractions. 
Practice converting mixed numerals to improper fractions. 
Practice converting improper fractions to mixed numerals. 
Practice of both types. (Mixed to improper & improper to mixed) 

5. Review converting mixed numerals to mixed numerals. (Used in regrouping in substraction). 

6. Practice converting mixed numerals to mixed numerals. 

EQUIVALENCE 

1. Definitions of terms and review of finding equivalent fractions. 

2. Practice finding equivalent fractions. 

3. Practice finding sets of equivalent fractions. 

4. Review of dinding if one fraction is equal to, not equal to, less than or greater than another. 

LOWEST TERMS 

1. Review of placing fractions into lowest terms by dinding the greatest comon factor (GCF) 
of the numerator and denominator. 
Practice finding the GCF of pairs of numbers. 

Practice placing fractions into lowest terms by finding the GCF of the numerator and 
denominator. 

32K EXT BASIC TAPE 830.95 DISK 835.95 



2. 
3. 



MATH DU€L 



MATH DUEL is a challenging mathematics game that pits you against the computer in a game 
of wits. You must use all of your knowledge of factors, multiples and prime numbers to develop 
a strategy that allows you tog ather more numbers and thus more points than the computer. 

The game is deceptively simple, you select the size of the playing field that is composed of 
from 8 to 100 numbers. You must then choose numbers that will give you the maximum number 
of points and the computer the least number of points. There are only 6 rules. 

32K EXT. BASIC TAPE'24.95 DISK "29.95 



SIMULATIONS 

P51 
Mustang 

Attack Flight Simulator 

Experience the ultimate video experience. 

fagLjP F° r the f' rst tjme ever » tw0 computers can be 

linked together with action and re-action at 

tf^ at either location, or play alone. The P-51 Mustang 

■o^a/ was the attack workhorse during WWII. To experience 
\kP° the flight of this beautiful plane in actual combat situation 
^ will give many hours of excitement. You can test your skill 
against the computer to defend your position or try your hand 
competing against your opponent at any remote location. 
Two CoCo's can be linked by cable for TRUE two-player adventure. 
With the use of a modem you can test your skill across town or across 
country!! (Each individual needs a copy of the program.) This program is 
another first from Tom Mix Software. Order your excitement today. Direct cable 
available separately for using two computers at the same location. 

32K Machine Language Tape $29.95 Disk $34.95 Cable $10.95 




World's of Flight is the best out- 
the-window simulation available 
for the CoCo". Dr. Scott L. 
Norman, Hot CoCo, Dec. 1984. 




Worlds of Flight (WOF) is a machine language, real-lime flight simulation (of a sophisicated ultra-light aircraft). The program 
is available on DISK but was specifically designed to bring unprecedented detail and power to CASSETTE systems. WOF 
generates panoramic 3-D views of ground features as the pilot flies within one of nine different "worlds Instrument 
flight capability has been provided along with some aerobatic performance. The simulation models over 35 different 
aircraft and flight performance parameters including winds and cloud ceilings. Sound effects have been faithfully 
reproduced to provide an even greater sense of realism. A 25 page light manual explains the instrument panel, the basis 
of flight control, instrumen! navigation and even walks the pilot through a take off / landing sequence about the airport. 
Complete with charts bound in an attractive binder, the entire WOF package challenges you to find a more advanced flight simula- 
tion for any computer. . .You simply can't! If you are a serious simulation buff this one is for you! 



JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 

32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 

TAPE $29.95 
DISK $34.95 




"APPROACH 
CONTROL 
SIMULATION 

From Betasoft Systems 




"Caught in a blinding snowstorm, two jet airliners are on a collision 
course The pilots are completely unaware of the imminent danger. Hun- 
dreds of lives are at stake, A high-speed disaster is inevitable unless 
you act fast. . ." 

This and many other exciting scenarios await you as "Air Traffic Con- 
troller" with the APPROACH CONTROL SIMULATION. The thrills, 
challenges and frustrations you'll experience with this authentic, real- 
time simulation will lead to countless hours of discovery and adventure. 

★ ★ A Complete Simulation Package * * 

• Software on Disk or Tape • Comprehensive Manual 

• Quick Reference Guide • No Joysticks Required 



32K MACHINE LANGUAGE TAPE $29.95 DISK $34.95 




TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

4285 BRADFORD N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 



ADD $3.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING»TOP ROYALTIES PAID* 

•MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX* 

WE HAVE MORE SOFTWARE AVAILABLE THAN LI STED. 

WRITE FOR OUR FREE CATALOGUE. HBH 

VISA' 



TO ORDER CALL 616/957-0444 





How To Read Rainbow 



Please note that all the basic program 
listings in the rainbow are formatted for 
a 32-character screen — so they show 
up just as they do on your CoCo screen. 
One easy way to check on the accuracy 
of your typing is to compare what char- 
acter "goes under" what. If the charac- 
ters match — and your line endings 
come out the same — you have a pretty 
good way of knowing that your typing is 
accurate. 

We also have "key boxes" to show you 
the minimum system a program needs. 
But, do read the text before you start 
typing. 

Finally, the little cassette symbol on 
the table of contents and at the begin- 
ning of articles indicates that the pro- 
gram is available through our rainbow 
on tape service. An order form for this 
service is on the insert card bound in the 
magazine. 



What's A CoCo 



CoCo is an affectionate name that was 
first given to the Tandy Color Computer 
by its many fans, users and owners. 

However, when we use the term 
CoCo, we refer to both the Tandy Color 
Computer and the TDP System-100 
Computer. It is easier than using both of 
the "given" names throughout the rain- 
bow. 

In most cases, when a specific com- 
puter is mentioned, the application is for 
that specific computer. However, since 
the TDP System-100 and Tandy Color 
are, for all purposes, the same computer 
in a different case, these terms are 
almost always interchangeable. 



Thp Rainbow Check Plus 



The small box accompanying a pro- 
gram listing in the rainbow is a "check 
sum" system, which is designed to help 
you type in programs accurately. 

Rainbow Check PLUS counts the 
number and values of characters you 
type in. You can then compare the 
number you get to those printed in the 
rainbow. On longer programs, some 
benchmark lines are given. When you 
reach the end of one of those lines with 
your typing, simply check to see if the 
numbers match. 



To use Rainbow Check PLUS, type in 
the program and CSfiVE it for later use, 
then type in the command run and press 
enter. Once the program has run, type 
new and press enter to remove it from 
the area where the program you're typ- 
ing in will go. 

Now, while keying in a listing from the 
rainbow, whenever you press the down- 
arrow key, your CoCo gives the check 
sum based on the length and content of 
the program in memory. This is to check 
against the numbers printed in the 
rainbow. If your number is different, 
check the listing carefully to be sure you 
typed in the correct basic program code. 
For more details on this helpful utility, 
refer to H. Allen Curtis' article on Page 
21 of the February 1984 rainbow. 

Since Rainbow Check PLUS counts 
spaces and punctuation, be sure to type 
in the listing exactly the way it's given in 
the magazine. 

10 CLS:X=25G*PEEK(35)+17B 

20 CLEAR 25,X-1 

30 X=25G*PEEI< (35)+17B 

40 FDR Z=X TO X+77 

50 READ Y:W=W+Y:PRINT Z,Y;W 

G0 POKE Z,Y:NEXT 

70 IFU=79B5THENB0ELSEPRINT 

"DATA ERR0R":5T0P 
B0 EXEC X:END 

90 DATA 182, 1, 10G, 1G7, 140, G0, 134 
100 DATA 12G, 1B3, 1, 10G, 190, 1, 107 
110 DATA 175, 140, 50, 48, 140, 4, 191 
120 DATA 1, 107, 57, 129, 10, 3B, 3B 
130 DATA 52, 22, 79, 15B, 25, 230, 129 
140 DATA 39, 12, 171, 128, 171, 128 
150 DATA 230, 132, 38, 250, 48, 1, 32 
1G0 DATA 240, 1B3, 2, 222, 48, 140, 14 
170 DATA 159, 1GG, 1GG, 132, 2B, 254 
1B0 DATA 189, 173, 19B, 53, 22, 12G, 0 
190 DATA 0, 135, 255, 134, 40, 55 
200 DATA 51, 52, 41, 0 



Using Machine Language 



Machine language programs are one 
of the features of the rainbow. There are 
a number of ways to "get" these pro- 
grams into memory so you can operate 
them. 

The easiest way is by using an editor/ 
assembler, a program you can purchase 
from a number of sources. 

An editor/assembler allows you to 
enter mnemonics into the CoCo and 
then have the editor/assembler assem- 
ble them into specific instructions that 
are understood by the 6809 chip, which 
controls your computer. 



When using an editor/assembler, all 
you have to do, essentially, is copy the 
relevant instructions from the rainbow's 
listing into CoCo. 

Another method of getting an assem- 
bly language listing into CoCo is called 
"hand assembly." As the name implies, 
you do the assembly by hand. This can 
sometimes cause problems when you 
have to set up an ORIGIN statement or 
an EQUATE. In short, you have to know 
something about assembly to hand- 
assemble some programs. 

Use the following program if you wish 
to hand-assemble machine language 
listings: 

10 CLEAR200,&H3F00:I=&H3FB0 

20 PRINT " ADDRESS: ";HEX$( I); 

30 INPUT "BYTE";B$ 

40 POKE I,VAL("&H"+B$) 

50 I=I+1:G0T0 20 

Thisprogramassumesyouhavea16K 
CoCo. If you have 32K, change the 
&H3F00 in Line 10 to &H7F08 and change 
the value of I to &H7F88. 



The Rainbow Seal 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

The Rainbow Certification Seal is our 
way of helping you, the consumer. The 
purpose of the Seal is to certify to you 
that any product that carries the Seal 
has been physically seen by us, that it 
does, indeed, exist and that we have a 
sample copy here at the rainbow. 

Manufacturers of products — hard- 
ware, software and firmware — are 
encouraged by us to submit their pro- 
ducts to the rainbow for certification. 
We ascertain that their products are, in 
actuality, what they purport to be and, 
upon such determination, award a Seal. 

The Seal, however, is not a "guarantee 
of satisfaction." The certification pro- 
cess is different from the review process. 
You are encouraged to read our reviews 
to determine whether the product is 
right for your needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship 
between advertising in the rainbow and 
the certification process. Certification is 
open and available to any product per- 
taining to CoCo. A Seal will be awarded 
to any commercial product, regardless 
of whether the firm advertises or not. 

We will appreciate knowing of in- 
stances of violation of Seal use. 



120 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



introducing... 




a 



The Intelligent Choice... 



ADMIT ITi Your Lumpnacr aJwoy^, had 0tc power, bur 
nsver the software. NaW-.^FpLir Star So'ftiivare 
present* a peodilfil UEilikt au> uUin . Penpal ! Tlur. U 
41 piicfcHjir mtclJi.ftcnt enoujjn to help yon tcnnh new height* of 
personal productivity, D«lgnsd to be Jsamisd jn less Ikiaij a day, 
t»t enure pftterttrft L gitfQft an4 easy, powerful tut elegant, A 
pleasure ta me? 

i '«22j piil provFtlc^ you will* a p»c}«J4|«thar cortluiuGA Lf±i< fuGjucisi 



:i mic iruziTflflin v 



« TwcJvr function Keys- and a continuo 

Sine mfljee this program easy to u*e. No izumplitfiitfd key corn 
bkpaiion.? or corprpands *o remember 

• On-JJot help ftancli^n 

• CottifflOn iOtinuL'i and LCirximmrd'h iji all five TTJOdyles fll-ILjie 

thift package «a*y ta laarn.cutd- tistir fltffcnriJ 

• Piist iin4 efrecrive 255 fa> 25* jprsaslfh 
flexitiit te*t adlkOi tommies all udmnnnn 
«Jthw* rttia rent 



Pr|i:k 



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fill lira 1 ;, L Alh t ael'.'&riiiipr 



centra itwspu 



Omitr vonriwiojjBl epptttu PENPAL toda y ^f* finally te\h\\ic 
U« hull ^Tpn^tal df ytuji Cojar Cor/ipy^ Available iiir«ni(ly 



t Modules tnierfic «--... 
package Mtilifee ; 

}u>5t aepatds? pn jgranw thai ace ml 
IjImt Brhcni of ret 
* Came? pti an fltlTdstfVc' rJiTidjpr ntf , with reference utiii tuioi 
F)i^iLy=JLr. Require* imd inrniifitim <>t' <me di.ifc drive. 






Four Star Software 



P.O. Box 730 
StreetsvilJe, Ontario 
Canada LS^l 2L2 




Dealer enquiries welcome 
write or call for oar 
free Catalogue. Add 
for shipping and handling 
overseas order Add £5.00 




BUSINESS 



An Annual Expense Tracking 



• v •' j 

i . • * * 



.'31 



'■■*<'«S 



' 1 1 *i 



This system (set of three programs) allows an individ- 
ual, of possibly a small business, to maintain and 
track expenses for one year. A maximum of 135 
transactions per month for up to 100 account codes may 
be tracked by month for an entire year (12 month period). 
Each expense you wish to track must have a numeric code 
in the range of 1 through 100 with a description not 
exceeding 27 characters. The system provides for screen 
display and printing of data and reports and is designed for 
use on a 64K CoCo with one disk drive and a DMP-100 
printer. In addition to maintaining actual transaction data, 
the system provides budgetary analysis for accounts over 
the year. This feature allows for comparative analysis of 
actual versus budget for an account (display and printout). 
It should be noted that budget or transaction summary 
amounts for an account cannot exceed $99,999.99 and a 
detailed transaction entry for an account cannot be greater 
than $9,999.99. ^||p;|gj: 

Before proceeding, a discussion of a few basi^oncepts- 
employed in the design of the system and programs is 
warranted. The programs feature extensive use of arrays 
which facilitate fast display of data and fast data entry and 
maintenance. The disk file access methods are extremely 
simple and straightforward and, for the most part, use array 
concepts. This extensive utilization of arrays in the 
programs yields a system which is both efficient and 
inefficient, but overall it provides an effective and simple- 
to-use-and-understand method for tracking expenses. 

The design of the system requires that an entire diskette 
be dedicated for the recording of budgeted and actual 
expenditures for a year. If you utilize diskette backup for 
your files and system programs, then two diskettes will be 
required for one year of data (assuming you have only one 
backup diskette). Although the system can be used without 
a printer, one is highly recommended to achieve best results. 

As mentioned previously, the system consists of three 
programs. One program (Crexpfle) creates the basic files 
required for system utilization. The system will not run until 
this program has been successfully executed. The second 
program (Exptrakr) allows the entry and maintenance of 
all budget and actual data. It also permits various screen 
displays of the data (both budget and actual). The third 
program (Reptgenr) prints various listings of budget and 
actual data. Execution of this program can be independent 

Eddie Hill is employed as a computer professional. He 
presently serves in a management capacity. His 
hobbies include reading, photography and home 
computing. 




122 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1986 




March 1986 THE RAINBOW 



123 




Battle the 
st of Disk Drives 



New Lower Price 

Un-DISK Drives $4&95? 

$34.95 

You Bet! There are empty spaces in your 32K 
and 64K CoCo. The Preble VDOS Un-DISK 
helps you fill them up with PROGRAMS! 



Un-DISK uses your computer's extra 
memory like a fast disk drive. 

Un-DISK can store BASIC and MACHINE 
LANGUAGE programs. 

Un-DISK is INVISIBLE. Yup! Un-DISK 
does not interfere with normal Color Com- 
puter Operation. 

Un-DISK appears only when you type the 
magic word VDOS. 

Un-DISK comes with comprehensive in- 
structions which you may not need be- 
cause: 

Un-DI-SK is self-prompting and easy to 
use! 

Un-DISK is provided on cassette. 

Un-DISK is faster than a slow clumsy 
DISK DRIVE and best of all . . . 

Un-DISK is CHEAPER than a DISK DRIVE! 

Un-DISK will work even if you already own 
a disk but WHY BUY A DISK AT ALL? 

Un-DISK should be in the library of every 
serious CoCo user even if you own a disk 
says Frank J. Esser, independent reviewer 
for rainbow Magazine! 




OK sure, disk drives ARE NICE. I own one. 
But if your finances are limited, the Un-DISK 
can give you much of the power of the 
mechanical drive. Even if you already own a 
disk the Un-DISK can work like a super fast 
extra disk. 

EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . 
Additional Power For $14.95 

Only with VDUMP for the Un-DISK! 

• VDUMP lets you make a cassette backup 
copy of everything stored in the Un-DISK. 

• VDUMP lets you save 5, 10, 15 or more 
programs on a single cassette tape file. 

• VDUMP lets you switch Un-DISKs. With a 
single ioad operation replace a group of 
financial programs with a set of children's 
programs. (The new VDUMP tape over- 
writes the old.) 

• VDUMP can allow you to save a whole lot 
of rainbow on tape in a SINGLE file. 

• VDUMP is the perfect companion to the 
Preble VDOS Un-DISK. 

Available from Doctor Preble's Programs, 
naturally! Bringing you fine Color Computer 
Products Since 1983! 



The Preble VDOS Un-DISK $34.95 

The Preble VDUMP $14.95 

Shipping & handling 

U.S. and Canada . $1.50 

or $5.00 to other foreign points 

VISA and MasterCard accepted 




Order From: 
Dr. Preble's Programs 

6540 Outer Loop 
Louisville, KY 40228 
(502) 966-8281 

Canadians may order from Kelly Software 



JLrXIllDll 1 




rlCjiNlnljjL IKATy oAL.1 JLUINo 


FOR JANUARY 


lyoo 




REC 


ACT 




TRAN 








NXJM 


vrrnuf 
NUM 


A /TTVTTKTrp PlTT 1 G /"'"D T "OTI TAW 


I.D. 


DA 


• Ala w u jn 1 • • 


rp-D 7A VT C HrCPDT TDT> TOM 

IrCAJNo • JJLoLKlrllUN 


1 


1 


nUUoil NUKlvarAoJli 


100 


31 


O fl( fl( fil 


JrAxJyirjJN 1 


•> 

2 


•> 

2 


JL r* b U KAJN Lt 


50 


31 


T (% (X f% (% 
±PP * pp 


"D "D T? M T T TM 


J 


J 


DiUM A u AKU o 


125 


31 


±.Op • pp 


TD7A. VWrTXTTi 


4 


4 


PT 'prrTl'DTPTrTIV 

£jXj£iC IK JLUX ii 


150 


31 


TOR 01 171 
±Z D m pp 


T5TT T 
DILL 


c 

5 


er 
O 


AU1U JrAxnJiiJN 1 


110 


31 


1 Q 01 01 01 

lO p m pp 


IDA VMT?\Tn^ 4l 
JrAxJ*LiliJNX f IjiJ 


6 


iZ 

O 




90 


15 


X / D • pp 


tvt n 


7 


7 


CLOTHING 


95 


25 


op • /Jyj 


TTivyr i g 
J JLXYL o 


8 


8 


MISCELLANEOUS 


98 


28 


75.00 


SOFTWARE 


9 


6 


GROCERIES 


99 


31 


245.00 


J&D GROCERY 




7 


CLOTHING 


134 


31 


30.00 


SHOES 






TOTAL 




— > $ 


1,360.00 





of Exptrakr or may be selected from the main menu of 
Exptrakr. After execution of Reptgenr you may return to 
Exptrakr by exercising the appropriate selection option 
from the main menu of Reptgenr. You may freely transfer 
between Exptrakr and Reptgenr or run either as a stand- 
alone program. It is important that you name the programs 
"Exptrakr" and "Reptgenr" because these are the names 
used in the call routines for the programs. 

Both Exptrakr and Reptgenr are menu driven programs 
with submenus, instructions and comments as required. 
This approach offers easy access to (and exits from) routines 
within the programs. As with all BASIC programs, if you 
wish to exit a routine before completion, you may hit the 
BREAK key. Use extreme caution when exercising this 
option. An entire file or files can be easily "garbaged." 
Therefore, it is not recommended. You may want to consider 
a BREAK disable routine in the programs. 

Crexpfle 

Crexpfle creates the basic files for the system. It merely 
formats and sizes the following files: 

Budget Summary 
Transaction Summary 
Chart of Accounts 
Detail Transaction Filenames 

It must be executed before attempting to run Exptrakr or 
Reptgenr. 

Exptrakr 

This program is the heart of the system. It allows for entry 
and maintenance of all data utilized by the system. This 



Exhibit 2 




BUDGET FOR JANUARY 1986 




ACT <-"D I SCR I ;i? T ^IS0^> V ' 


* .AMOUNT. . 


1 HOUSE MORTGAGE 


200 . 00 


2 INSURANCE 


50.00 


3 BANK CARDS 


100.00 


4 ELECTRICITY 


150 . 00 


W- AUTO PAYMENT 


180 . 0P 


6 GROCERIES 


400.00 


7 CLOTHING 


100 . 00 


■ MISCELLANEOUS ' 


50.00 


A.'.- ■ ' / -i ►Vol--'' 

iroiAL 


1,230.00 



includes charts of accounts, budget and transaction data. 
Exptrakr opens up with a main menu consisting of 14 
options. The main menu appears as shown below. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



Add/ change/ input budget 
Account YTD summary trans. 
Account actual vs. budget 
Account budget for year 
Chart of accounts maint. 
Display chart of accounts 
Add/ chg/ del/ input trans. 
Display monthly budget 
Display monthly trans. 
Display actual vs. budget 
Report generator 
File deletion 
Backup files 
End session 



A discussion of each option follows. 

1) Add/ Change/ Input Budget 

Allows input and maintenance of budget data for an 
account. You select the month you wish to enter or change 
by entering the appropriate number for the month (1-12). 
If you wish to enter or change data for all months, enter 
"99." You return to the main menu by entering '0'. 

2) Account YTD Summary Transaction 

A display of a specified account showing summary amounts 
by month. Pressing ENTER returns you to the main menu. 

3) Account Actual vs. Budget 

Permits display of summarized actual versus budget 
amounts for a month or year-to-date through a given 
month. 

4) Account Budget For Year 

Displays the yearly budget month by month for an account. 

5) Chart of Accounts Maintenance 

As stated earlier, each expense you wish to track must have 
a numeric code in the range 1 through 100 and a description 
not exceeding 27 characters. The first five positions of the 
description cannot be "XXXXX" since this denotes to the 
system that the account has not been established for use. 
If you inadvertently enter a description with more than 27 
characters or "XXXXX" in the first five positions, the 
system will prompt you to re-enter the description. 
This selection gives you three options as follows: 

Option 1 — Allows for the entry of account descriptions 

March 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 25 



in numeric order. You are first prompted for the 
description of Account 1, then Account 2 and so forth 
until you have entered descriptions for all 100 accounts. 
If you wish to terminate entry of descriptions at any point 
before Account 100, merely type THRTS RLL and press 
enter. The system will automatically return to the main 
menu just as it does when the description for Account 
100 has been entered. 

Option 2 — Allows for the addition or changing of 
account descriptions. The same procedure is used to add 
or change an account description. A prompt appears that 
asks for the account number. After entering a valid 
account number the account number and description will 
be displayed. You will be asked if this is the account you 
wish to add or change. If so, type YES and press ENTER. 
If not, type ND and enter. After entering a changed or 
added account description you will be asked if you wish 
to add or change any more account descriptions. The 
process will repeat as long as you respond "yes." A "no" 
response will return you to the main menu. 

Option 3 — Choosing this option will return you to the 
main menu. 



6) Display Chart of Accounts 

Allows for the display of all account numbers with their 
descriptions (Option 1) or for a single account number with 
its description (Option 2). If an account description is all 
X's, it has not been set up for use by the system. Option 
3 returns you to the main menu. 

7) Add I Chg I Del/ Input Transaction 

Permits the entry and maintenance of detail transactions 
(expenses) for a selected month. 

Option 1 — This allows the entry of detail expenses for 
a selected month. You are asked for the number of the 
month (1-12). The program then checks to see if 
transactions have already been entered for the month 
selected. If so, you cannot re-enter the transactions unless 
you delete the entire month's transaction file (see 
Selection 12, File deletion, for instructions). If transac- 
tions for the month you wish to enter are not on file, the 
program allows you to continue and prompts you 
through entry of your expenses. Please notice the 
program assigns each entry a record number which will 
be used for changing or deleting transactions, if neces- 
sary, in the future. Each addition to a month's transac- 
tion must be assigned a record number. This must be an 



mm'.+m mm mm mm mm mm mum mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm* mm mm mm w. «• «w aa. M *». «•••»*-■•••.■» «• mm mm mm <■»«■. «M mw«^*.a« 

'I ; ■V*^ MAY 


—■—■•««-.<-•«-• — » — — -* ■ -mm 

FEB 
JUN 
OCT 


' "... 

MAR 

JUL 
NOV 

AN V/ V 


APR 
AUG 


HOUSE MORTGAGE 2pp. pp 

200. PP 

'I flfl/VPA r 6 n A Oi (A (A (A OOlOi 0\(A 
X IVIAXj* • 9 ZfHjujO mjop ^PP * Pr 


200.00 


^00 * 00 
200.00 

O 0! 

?;• : X-B-xij : •>» •••• , .• . 


— — — — mm mm mm mmmmmm w ~ «*/;;;'; 

200.00 
200 . 00 

200 00 


■ Insurance 50.00 

sp.pp 

2 TOTAL. . S 600.00 50.00 


50.00 
50.00 


" / ^^sfl&^./K . ^ 

50.00 
50 .00 
50.00 


50 . 00 
50 . 00 
50.00 


BANK CARDS 1pp. pp 

100 • 00 

3 TOTAL. .$ 1,200.00 1pp. PP 

Iv i ! & . }- U , , , ' ■ : * % T J ' : 


100.00 

100.00 

100.00 || 


100 . 00 
100.00 
100 • 0 0 


100.00 
100.00 
100.00 


ELECTRICITY 150.00 

150 .00 

4 TOTAL. .$ 1,800.00 150.00 


150.00 
150.00 
150.00 


150.00 
150.00 
150.00 


150.00 
150.00 
150 . 00 j 


AUTO PAYMENT 180. 00 

180.00 

5 TOTAL . . $ 2, 160 .00 180 . 00 


i ; ;.';-.. i v. ■ '..•■' : f'-': y'5' '.>^ : ft K y': • 

180.00 
180.00 
180.00 

i.l •■•> . ¥•* r '• «.<■■. ' • • 1 •: : <«i*r*. iv*^''"'' 


180.00 
180.00 
180.00 


180.00 
180 . 00 
180.00 


GROCERIES 400.00 

400 <00 

6 TOTAL.. $ 4,800.00 400.00 


400.00 
400.00 
400.00 


400.00 
400.00 
400.00 


400.00 
400.00 
400.00 


CLOTHING 100.00 

1pp. pp 

7 TOTAL. . $ 1,200.00 1pp. pp 


100.00 

100.00 
100.00 


100.00 
100.00 
100.00 


100.00 
100.00 
100 . 00 


gillCELLANEOUS 50 . 00 

e%0i old 

8 TOTAL.. $ 600.00 50.00 


50.00 
50.00 
50.00 


50 .00 
50.00 
50.00 


50.00 

50.00 r ; 

50.00 


BUDGET FOR YEAR 1,230.00 

:.. : k ft^iite|Si$S 1 r 23 0 . 00 
999 -TOTAL. .$ 14,760.00 1,230.00 


1, 230.00 
1,230. 00 
1,230.00 


1,230.00 
1,230.00 
1,230.00 


1,230.00 

1,230.00 r 
1,230.00 



126 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



Exhibit 4 
















JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


— ____ _ _ 

APR 






TUT* \T 

MAY 


JUN 


JUL 


AUG 


ACTUAL FOR 19 8 6 




SEP 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 


HOUSE MORTGAGE 




200.00 


P'PP 


0.00 








P *PP 


(A fA fA 


P . pp 


0.00 


I TOTAL. - 5 


200 r 00 


0.00 


0.00 


0 . 00 




INSURANCE 




100.00 


0.00 


0.00 








P-PP 


fA (A fA 
P.PP 


fA f% fA 
P-PP 


P » 00 


2 TOTAL, , S 


100.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0-00 




BANK CARDS 






P-PP 


P*PP 


P-PP 






fA fA (A 


FA fA (A 




0, pp 


2 TOTAL . . $ 


isp.pp 


P*PP 




P + PP 


0-00 


ELECTRICITY 




125. pp 


0.00 


P>PP 


0*00 






(A fA fA 


(A (A (A 


fll ffi r3l 


0 .00 


4 TOTAL* , $ 


125*00 


0.00 


p. 00 




0.00 


AUTO PAYMENT 




150.00 


0.00 


J3.J3J3 


0 r 00 






p . pp 


fA fA fA 

0.00 




* i )fl0 


5 TOTAL. . $ 




0.00 


0.00 






GROCERIES 




420.00 


0.00 


0 -00 


^*00 . 


6 TOTAL* . $ 




■rt fA fA 
P - pp 


fA fA fA 
0*00 


P * 00 


i3 Jit 

0 , 00 




0,00 


P-PP 


0*00 


0 ■ PP 


CLOTHING 




110.00 


P-PP 


0.00 


0 . 00 


7 TOTAL ■ . $ 




PrPP 


fA f% f% 
0.00 


.3 -J 3 J 3 




lljZNjjp 


0-00 


P'PP 




MISCELLANEOUS 




15. $p 


0,00 




0*00 






fA fA fA 
P -PP 


P'PP 






8 TOTAL* * $ 




p. 00 








TOTAL ACTUAL FOR 


YEAR 




p. 00 


p*M 








0*00 


P*00 


0*00 




999 TOTAL. . $ 1 




0-00 


P*P$ 


P'PP 





unused number in the range 1-100. More on changes, 
deletions and additions later. 

The entry of detail transactions requires a valid 
account number for each transaction. Therefore, you 
must set your chart of accounts file up prior to using this 
option. Other information you must enter is as follows: 

Date — This is the day the transaction occurred. 

Trans. I.D. — A one- to four-digit identifying tag (e.g., 
check number). May be alphabetic or numeric. 

Amount — The amount of the transaction (not to 
exceed $9,999.99) may be debit or credit. 

Description — This is an optional identification, not 
exceeding 14 characters, for the transaction (e.g., 
monthly payment). 

When the entry of the detail transaction is complete, 
press ENTER. This writes the transaction to the file and 
returns to a fresh transaction entry screen for input of 
the next transaction. Upon completing the entry of all 
detail transactions for the month, enter "ZZZ" in the 
account number field and press ENTER. This will 
complete the writing of the transaction file and post 
transaction summary totals for the month. After this is 
complete you are returned to the data entry submenu. 



Option 2 — Allows the entering of new information for 
a transaction which has already been entered. You must 
specify the month and the record number of the transac- 
tion (shown on detail printout of month's transactions) 
you wish to change. A check is made to ensure that you 
have entered a correct record number. If the record 
number is valid, the transaction is displayed. Next, you 
are asked if it is the one you wish to change. If so, all 



Exhibit 5 

TRANSACTION SUMMARY FOR 1986 . . . .K/0 01/31/86 



ACT 


ACCOUNT DESCRIPTION 


. . . AMOUNT • . 


1 


HOUSE MORTGAGE 


200.00 


2 


INSURANCE 


100.00 


3 


BANK CARDS 


150.00 


4 


ELECTRICITY 


125. 0P 


5 


AUTO PAYMENT 


1B0.00 


6 


GROCERIES 


420. $0 


7 


CLOTHING 


110.00 


8 


MISCELLANEOUS 


15.00 




TOTAL 


$ 1,360.00 



March 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 27 



Exhibit 6 



ACTUAL VS. BUDGET FOR JANUARY 1986 



ACT 


. . • D E S C R 1 PT X O N • . • 


• • •ACTUAL* • 


• • • BUDGE I • • 


• • VARIANCE • 


1 


HOUSE MORTGAGE 


O fA (A fA fA 

2)0)0 • )0)0 




0-00 


2 


INSURANCE 


100.00 


50.00 


50 .00- 


3 


BANK CARDS 


150.00 


100 .00 


50.00- 


A 
** 


.Eilj.tijL. 1K1L1 JL x 




1 R01 0101 


dO • )0)0 


5 


AUTO PAYMENT 


180.00 


180.00 


0.00 


6 


GROCERIES 


420.00 


400.00 


20 .00- 


7 


CLOTHING 




100 .00 


10.00- 


8 


MISCELLANEOUS 


75.00 


50 .00 


25.00- 




TOTAL > 


$ 1,360.00 


$ 1,230.00 


$ 130.00- 



Exhibit? 'v^V^V^,^^';-/-" 




■■ ■ ■ - ■ 




f|pP^ A/0 JANUARY 1986 




- : :-. ■■; "•■.re ••• v'm-v-: y;*'" 
.«: • , :>';; ■;*'-.VA.%--^-- y ' ;:5 .J'V..' 




ACT ...DESCRIPT I ON. 


. . . . ACTUAL . . 


. . . BUDGET . . 

,'\ . " V.j, i ? ' /[* ?■* . .).-K> i fv : "< v».v* ■ 'V^-.' .■ ' . "<f '» 


. . VARIANCE, 


f ; ' HOUSE MORTGAGE "ft 


200.00 


200.00 


0.00 


INSURANCE 


100 . 00 


50.00 


50 . 00- 


3 V BANK CARDS 


150.00 


100.00 


50.00- 


:4t ELECTRICITY 


125.00 


150.00 


25.00 


fe' AUTO PAYMENT 


180 .00 


180.00 


0.00 


6' r -GROCERIES 


420.00 


400.00 


20.00- 


7l CLOTHING 


110.00 


100.00 


10.00- 


% MISCELLANEOUS 


75.00 


50.00 


25.00- 


TOTAL 


•> $ 1,360.00 

... 


$ 1,230.00 


$ 130.00- 



of the data must be re-entered for the transaction (just 
as if it were new). Upon completion of entry of the new 
data for the transaction, press ENTER. This records the 
transaction on the file and asks if you wish to change 
more transactions. If you answer 6 Y* then the process 
repeats, else the transaction summary file is updated and 
you are returned to the data entry submenu. 

Option 3 — This option will add new transactions (e.g., 
overlooked, not available at time data for month was 
entered) to a month's file. You must specify the record 
number for the record to be added. This may be derived 
by looking at a detail printout for the month and adding 
one to the record number shown for the last transaction. 
The program will not permit the addition of a transaction 
with an existing record number, as it checks this before 
allowing you to proceed. Once it is determined that you 
are not trying to add a duplicate record, you are 
presented with the data entry screen. The procedure from 
this point is the same as for entering change data in 
Option 2 of this selection. Instead of referring to 
transaction changes, the prompts relate to transaction 
additions. 

Option 4 — Allows you to delete a transaction from a 
month's file (e.g., a transaction was included in the wrong 
month). Again you must work with a record number, 
which may be obtained from the printout of the detail 
transactions for the month. You are asked for the deletion 
record number, then the program checks to see if it is 
valid. If so, it displays the record for a visual verification. 
You are asked if this is the record you wish to delete. A 

1 28 THE RAINBOW March 1 986 



response of 'N' prompts you for another record number 
while a 6 Y' response deletes the record and updates the 
appropriate files. The steps from this point follow the 
same logic as options 2 and 3 in this selection, except 
comments that relate to deletions. 

Option 5 — Returns to the main menu. It should be noted 
that options 1 through 4 for this selection allow for 
submenu return in case you chose an option in error. 

8) Display Monthly Budget 

Displays budgeted account expenditures for a selected 
month. 

9) Display Monthly Transaction 

Displays the summary amount of each account's transac- 
tions for a selected month. 

10) Display Actual vs. Budget 

You have the choice of choosing a specific month or year- 
to-date through a specific month. The submenu will guide 
you. 

11) Report Generator 

This selection allows you to print out reports from the data 
you have entered. This is a separate program {Reptgenr, 
program Listing 3) and is called from this menu choice. You 
are given seven print selections plus a selection to return 
to the main program (Exptrakr) or to terminate the session. 
Details on this selection are covered in the comments on 
program Listing 3. 

12) File Deletion 

This selection allows you to delete either a budget or 
transaction file for a specified month. The appropriate 
transactions summaries are adjusted. After completion of 



this option, data for a given month (budget or transaction) 
may be re-entered. 

13) Backup Files 

The method used is the single disk copy procedure provided 
for but not documented in the Radio Shack manuals. I 
recommend at least a two-generation backup system 
(backup of current files, plus prior generation). 

14) End Session 

Choose this option when you are ready to end the program 
{Exptrakr). Remember to backup your files. 

Reptgenr 

This program provides for various listings of your data. 
A discussion of the selections follows: 

1) List Monthly Transactions 

This selection gives you a listing of all the transactions for 
a specified month. The listing is the only place where this 
detail is given. Record numbers are obtained from this 
listing. See Exhibit 1. 

2) List Monthly Budget 

This option provides a listing of the budget amounts for 
each account with budgeted expenditures in a specified 
month. See Exhibit 2. 

3) List Budget For Year 

Provides a month-by-month listing of each account's 
budgeted amounts for the year. See Exhibit 3. 

4) List Actual For Year 

Provides a month-by-month listing of each account's actual 
amounts for the year. See Exhibit 4. 

5) List Transaction Summary For Year 

Provides a summarized listing of all account amounts 
entered. See Exhibit 5. 

6) List Month Actual vs. Budget 

Provides a summarized listing of account versus budget 
amounts for a chosen month. A difference (variance) 
between actual and budget is shown. Credit (-) amounts in 
the variance column are unfavorable (over budget) while 



Exhibit 8 




ACT 


D ESCRIPTIO N — > 


1 


HOUSE MORTGAGE 


2 


INSURANCE 


3 


BANK CARDS 


4 


ELECTRICITY 


5 


AUTO PAYMENT 


6 


GROCERIES 


7 


CLOTHING 


8 


MISCELLANEOUS 



debit variances are favorable (under budget). See Exhibit 
6. 

7) List YTD Actual vs. Budget 

Provides the same information as Selection 5, except it 
reflects data through a specified month. See Exhibit 7. 

8) List Chart of Accounts 

Allows for a listing of your chart of accounts. This is a handy 
reference listing. See Exhibit 8. 

9) Return to Main Program 

This option returns you to the main program, Exptrakr, to 
continue other activities. 

10) End Session 

Select this option if you wish to terminate the program. 

Although this set of programs offers various options for 
use in budgeting and tracking expenses, enhancements such 
as displaying all account detail expenditures for a year or 
allowing for more transactions in a month can be made. It 
is hoped that the programs are helpful and create an interest 
in expanding their usefulness. May all of your expenditures 
be small. 

(Any questions relating to these programs may be 
directed to Eddie Hill at 124 Sterling Drive, Hueytown, AL 
35023; phone 205-491-1452. Please include an SASE when 
writing.) □ 




Listing 1: CREXPFLE 

0 CLS: PRINT "CREATE FILES FOR EXP 
ENSE TRACKING AND MANAGEM 

ENT" : PRINT : PRINT"AUGUST 1985" : PR 
INT: PRINT STRING$ ( 32 ,"-"); : PRINT 
"EDDIE HILL": PRINT" 12 4 STERLING 
DRIVE" : PRINT "HUEYTOWN , AL 35023" 
: PRINT" (205) 491-1452" 
2 PRINT STRING$ ( 32 , "-" ) :PRINT"RE 
QUIREMENTS : " : PRINT : PRINT" 64K COC 
O DISK BASIC 1.1": PRINT" DISK DRI 
VE" ; : F0RI=1T09999 : NEXTI 
5 CLS : PRINT@128 , "ENTER YEAR - 19 
XX . " 7 : INPUTYEAR 

7 IF YEAR <1986 THEN 5 

8 CLS: PRINT© 12 8, "I AM FORMATTING 
THE BUDGET FILE FOR"; YEAR 



10 OPEN "D", #1, "BUDGET/DAT" ,128 

20 FOR I=1TO100 

25 WRITE # 1 , YEAR 

30 FOR X=1T012 

40 WRITE #1,00000.00 

50 NEXTX 

60 PUT #1,1 

70 NEXTI 

80 CLOSE #1 

85 CLS:PRINT@128,"I AM FORMATTIN 
G THE CHART OF ACCOUNTS FILE 
FOR"; YEAR 

90 OPEN " D " , # 1 , " CHRTACCT/ DAT ",30 
95 FORI=1TO100 

100 WRITE #1, "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

XXXXXXXXX" 

110 PUT #1,1 

120 NEXTI 

130 CLOSE#l 

135 CLS : PRINT@128 , "I AM FORMATTI 
NG THE TRANSACTION FILE FOR" ;YEA 
R 

140 OPEN "D",#1,"TRANSFLE/DAT",1 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 129 



To achieve maximum productivity with 
your Color Computer/you have to make 
it as easy as possible to get information 
into and out of the system. 

This is why we developed the HJL 
family of high-performance 
enhancements for ALL MODELS of the 
Color Computer. 

The Keyboard ■ $79.95 

The overwhelming favorite of serious 
Color Computer users worldwide, the 
HJL-57 keyboard has the smooth, 
consistent feel and reliability you need 
for maximum speed with minimum 
input errors. Includes 4 Function Keys 
and sample function key program. 
Installs in just a few minutes with no 
soldering. 

The Numeric Keypad - $89.95 

The Number Jack is a self-contained, 
cable-connected keypad for heavy-duty 
number-crunchers. Besides the number 
keys, it has ail the cursors, symbols 
and math keys, including autoshifted 
(one-touch) ADD and MULTIPLY. 
Comes complete with 3-foot cable and 
all necessary connectors for quick and 
easy installation without soldering. 



The Monitor Adapter - $25.95 

This universal driver works with ail 
monochrome monitors, and is easily 
installed without clips, jumpers or 
soldering (except in some later CoCo 2s 
with soldered-in video chips). Here's 
crisp, clear, fiicker-free monitor output 
with all the reliability you've come to 
expect from HJL Products. 

The Monitor - $89.95 

The GoldStar high-resolution amber 
monitor brings you the monochrome 
display that's preferred by most 
computer professionals today. Once 
you've used it you'll never connect your 
computer to a TV set again. The 12- 
inch diagonal CRT has an etched non- 
glare faceplate. (Requires adapter sold 
below) 

The BASIC Utility ■ $25.95 

Quick Basic Plus, a high-performance 
programming utility, can be used with 
any color computer that has four func- 
tion keys. 26 pre-defined BASIC 
statements, 10 user-defined macros at 
a time (you can save as many sets of 
macros as you like), automatic line- 
numbering, word wrap, global search, 



and instant screen dump to printer, 
make this software the BASIC pro- 
grammer's dream come true. Comes 
with re-legendable 3-way reference 
chart. Specify disk or cassette. 

The HJL Warranty 

Every HJL product comes with a full, 
one-year warranty and the exclusive 
HJL 15-day unconditional guarantee 
(except software). 

Pick a Pair & Save 15% 

Now, for a limited time, we'll give you 
15% off the price of any two or more 
products shown here. Just mention 
this ad when you order. 

Call Now, Toll Free 

1 -800-828-6968 

In New York 1-800-462-4691 
International calls: 716-235-8356 




Ordering information: Specify model (Original, F-version, or CoCo 2 Model Number). Payment by C.O.D., check, 
MasterCard, or Visa. Credit card customers Include complete card number and expiration date. Add $2.00 for 
shipping, 3.50 to Canada; except monitors (call for shipping charges before ordering monitors). New York state 
residents add 7% sales tax. Dealer Inquiries Invited 



PRODUCTS 

Div. of Touchstone Technology Inc. 

955 Buffalo Road • P.O. Box 24954 
Rochester, New York 14624 



28 

150 FORI=1TO100 

152 WRITE # 1 , YEAR 

155 F0RX=1T012 

160 WRITE #1,00000.00 

17 0 NEXTX 

180 PUT #1,1 

19)3 NEXTI 

200 CLOSE #1 

210 CLS : PRINT© 12 8 , " I AM FORMATTI 

NG THE DETAIL TRANSACTION F 

ILENAME FILE FOR " ; YEAR 

220 OPEN "D", #1, "FILENAME/ DAT" ,2 

1 

230 F0RI=1T012 

24)3 WRITE #1,YEAR,"ZZZZZZZZ/ZZZ" 
250 PUT #1,1 
260 NEXT I 
270 CLOSE #1 

275 CLS: PRINT© 12 8, "I HAVE FINISH 
ED. FORMATTING THE FILES FOR THE 
EXPENSE TRACKING AND MANAGEMEN 
T PROGRAMS. YOU MAYNOW USE THE P 
ROGRAMS . " : PRINT 
28J3 END 




40 146 

208 248 

420 136 

736 196 

940 128 

2440 85 

3020 69 

3230 185 

4022 177 

4540 129 

5002 179 

5025 242 

5057 187 

5145 137 



5320 195 

5526 230 

5580 7 

5760 1 

5950 189 

7036 244 

8990 220 

9031 111 

10002 30 

11800 ....193 
11960 ....172 
11986 ....171 

12015 48 

END 84 



Listing 2: EXPTRAKR 

0 PCLEAR1 

5 CLS0 

6 PRINT" EXPENSE TRACKING & MANA 
GEMENT" 

12 PRINT@64,STRING$(32, "$") ;:PRI 

NT" author 

11 ; : PRINT" EDDIE HIL 

L": PRINT" 124 STERLING DRI 

VE": PRINT" HUEYTOWN, AL 35 

023":PRINT" (205)491-145 
2": PRINT STRING$ (32 ,"$"); : 
15 PRINT" requirements 

";: PRINT" 64K COCO D 
ISK BASIC 1.1": PRINT" 



DISK DRIVE" : PRINT" DMP 10 

0 PRINTER" : PRINTSTRING$ (32,"$") ; 

• 

19 PRINT© 4 81, "PART I ============ 

=AUGUST 1985" ; : 

20 P=64:F0RI=1T012:PRINT@P,"$"; : 
PRINT@P+31, "$" ; :P=P+32 : NEXTI: FOR 
X=1T09999:NEXTX 

21 DATA "JANUARY", "FEBRUARY" , "MA 
RCH" , "APRIL" , "MAY" , "JUNE" , "JULY" 
, "AUGUST" , "SEPTEMBER" , "OCTOBER" , 
"NOVEMBER" , "DECEMBER" 

29 CLEAR3000 

30 FILES 3:DIM BAMT ( 12 ) , TAMT (12 ) 
,VAR(i2) ,MO$ (12) ,FL$ (12) ,TTOT(10 
0) ,DA$(100) ,CTOT(100) ,YTOT(100) 
40 FORI=lT012 :READMO$ (I) : NEXTI :R 
E STORE 

45 CLS:GOT0165 

160 CLS : PRINT@134 , "ONE MOMENT PL 
EASE . " : DLSW=0 : FOR I=1TO100 : DA$ ( I 
) =" " : CTOT (I) =0 : TTOT ( I) =0 : YTOT (I) 
=0 : NEXTI : CLS 

165 PRINT@0 , "********* SELECTION 
S **********" 

ADD/CHANGE/INPUT B 
ACCOUNT YTD SUMMAR 



180 PRINT" 1 
UDGET" 

190 PRINT" 2 
Y TRANS." 

200 PRINT" 3 
BUDGET" 

201 PRINT" 4 
YEAR" 

202 PRINT" 5 
MAINT. " 

203 PRINT" 6 
CCOUNTS " 

204 PRINT" 7 
TRANS . " 

205 PRINT" 8 
DGET" 

206 PRINT" 9 
ANS. " 

207 PRINT" 10 
BUDGET" 

208 PRINT" 11 
2)39 PRINT" 12 
210 PRINT"13 

219 PRINT" 14 

220 PRINT" 



ACCOUNT ACTUAL VS. 
ACCOUNT BUDGET FOR 
CHART OF ACCOUNTS 
DISPLAY CHART OF A 
ADD/ CHG/DEL/ INPUT 
DISPLAY MONTHLY BU 
DISPLAY MONTHLY TR 
DISPLAY ACTUAL VS. 



it 



REPORT GENERATOR" 
FILE DELETION" 
BACKUP FILES" 
END SESSION" 

. :INPUTA 

250 ON A GOSUB 3 60,2210,3000,600 
0 , 4000 , 10000 , 5000 , 7000 , 8000 ,8990 
, 11000 , 12000 , 13000 , 18000 
260 GOTO160 

360 CLS : PRINT© 19 2 , "ENTER BUDGET 
ACCOUNT NUMBER" ; : INPUTACNO : IFACN 
O>100 OR ACNO<l THEN '360 ELSE 1= 
ACNO 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 131 



365 CLS:PRINT@192,"I AM LOADING 
BUDGET ACCOUNT ";ACNO;"." 
370 OPEN "D" , #1, "BUDGET/DAT" , 12 8 
380 OPEN "D",#2,"CHRTACCT/DAT",3 

0 

390 GET #2, 1: INPUT #2 , DESC$ : CLOS 
E #2 

395 IF MID$(DESC$,1,5)="XXXXX"TH 
EN400ELSE410 

400 PRINT: PRINT "THE ABOVE ACCOUN 
T DOES NOT HAVE A DESCRIPTION. I 
F YOU NEED TO USE IT YOU MUST 
ADD IT TO THE CHART OF ACCOUNT 
S. I AM GOING BACK TO THE MAIN 
MENU. ":CLOSE#l: FOR T=l TO 6000: 
NEXT T: GOTO 160 
410 GET #1,1 
415 INPUT # 1 , YEAR 
420 FOR I=1T012 
430 INPUT #1,BAMT(I) 
460 NEXTI 
465 CLOSE #1 
470 CLS 

607 PRINT DESC$ 

610 PRINT YEAR;" BUDGET AMO 

UNT" 

620 SUMBUD=0 

630 FOR 1=1 TO 12 

640 PRINT USING" % %% 
%#####. ##-";MO$ (I) ;SPACE$;BAMT(I 

) 

650 SUMBUD=SUMBUD+BAMT ( I ) 
660 NEXTI 

670 PRINT@80,USING"$#####. ##-";B 
AMT(l) 

675 IF RC=1 THEN 910 
680 PRINT@448,USING"% 

%$#####.##-•';» TOTAL »;SUMB 

UD 

685 IFBSW=1THEN6010 

690 PRINT@480, "l-12=MO : 99=ALL 

: 0=MENU : " ; : INPUTAN 

710 IFAN=0THEN790 

712 IF AN=99 THEN 720 

713 IF AN <1 OR AN >12 THEN 690 
720 CLS 

730 N=AN 

736 PRINT 

745 PRINT 

750 PRINT DESC$ 

755 IF AN=99 THEN 900 

756 PRINT 

760 PRINTUSING "% %$# 

####.##-" ;MO$(N) ;BAMT(N) 

770 PRINT: INPUT" NEW AMOUNT" ;BA 

MT(N) 

780 GOTO470 

790 CLS: PRINT© 12 8, "I AM WRITING 
BUDGET ACCOUNT ";ACNO;"." 



800 OPEN "D", #1, "BUDGET/DAT", 128 

805 WRITE # 1 , YEAR 

810 FOR I=1T012 

820 WRITE #1,BAMT(I) 

830 NEXTI 

840 PUT #l,ACNO 

880 CLOSE #1 

890 RETURN 

900 RC=1:GOTO470 

910 • 

912 PP=80 

915 F0RI=1T012 

917 PRINT@PP,USING"% %" 

;STRING$(10," ") 

920 PRINT@PP,""; :INPUTBAMT(I) 

930 PRINT@PP,USING"$##### . ##-" ;B 

AMT(I) 

940 PP=PP+32 

950 NEXTI :RC=0:GOTO4 70 

2210 CLS : PRINT @ 12 8, "ENTER TRANS. 

ACCOUNT NUMBER" ; : INPUTACNO : IFAC 
NO>100 OR ACN0<1 THEN 2210 ELSE 
I=ACNO 

2220 CLS : PRINT@12 8 , "I AM LOADING 

TRANS . ACCOUNT " ; ACNO ; " . " 
2230 OPEN "D", #1, "TRANSFLE/DAT", 
128 

2240 OPEN "D",#2,"CHRTACCT/DAT", 
30 

2250 GET #2, I: INPUT #2,DESC$:CLO 
SE #2 

2260 GET #1,1 

22 65 N=I 

2270 INPUT # 1 , YEAR 
2280 FOR I=1T012 
2290 INPUT #1,TAMT(I) 
2300 NEXTI 
2310 CLOSE #1 
2320 CLS 

23 60 PRINTDESC$ 

2380 PRINT YEAR;" TRANS. AM 

OUNT" 

2400 TRNBAL=0 
2410 FOR 1=1 TO 12 

2420 PRINT USING"% %% 
%#####.##-" ;MO$ (I) ;SPACE$ ;TAMT ( 

I) 

2430 TRNBAL=TRNBAL+TAMT ( I ) 
2440 NEXTI 

2450 PRINT@80,USING"$#####.##-"; 
TAMT(l) 

2460 IF RC=1 THEN 2710 
2470 PRINT@448,USING"% 

%$#####•##-";" TOTAL " ; TRN 

BAL 

2480 PRINT@480, "<ENTER> FOR MAIN 
MENU. " ; :I$=INKEY$:IFI$<> CHR$(1 
3) THEN 2480 ELSE 160 
2610 CLS : PRINT@410 , "I AM REWRITI 



132 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 





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with the Greatest of Ease 
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Programs From Our Past Business Issues: 



March 1985 — Home Financial Statement, keeps track of 
home finances; Cash Flow Rate of Return, analyzes prospects 
for good investments; Stock Index, gauges stock market 
performance; Convert, figures foreign exchange rates; Pert, 
an aid to project and estimate the efficient use of time: T-bill, 
computes the worth of treasury bills; Landlord's Helper, 
manages rental property; Payroll, a complete small business 
payroll package; and EOQ Calc, helps find the ultimate 
bargain for economic management. Plus, Lurkley Manor, an 
all-graphics Adventure game; Demon's Defiance, a mini 
arcade game; Joystick, a tutorial on incorporating joysticks 
into programs; and eight additional programs. 

March 1984 — Inflation, determines the relationship of past 
to present dollars under permanent inflation; House$, figures 
the total cost impact of home ownership; Financial Analyst, 
analyzes a company's financial strength; Cost Calc, figures 
manfacturing costs; Markup and % Profit, small business aid 
to add a percentage markup to cost; Pare/? Painting, converts 
Micropainter to disk; Playbook, a basketball coach's aid for 
animating plays and drills; Disk Fixer, tests tracks and sectors 
for I/O Errors; and Character Sheet, prints sheets for 
cataloging dungeon characters. Plus, The Little Runner, 
Stunt Pilot; Creating Graphic Adventures; and six additional 
programs. 



NG TRANSACTION ACCOUNT " ;ACNO;". 

262)9 OPEN "D" , #1, " TRANS FLE/ DAT 11 , 
128 

2630 WRITE #1, YEAR 

264 0 FOR I=1T012 

265)3 WRITE #1,TAMT(I) 

2660 NEXTI 

267)3 PUT #l,ACNO 

2680 CLOSE #1 

269)3 RETURN 

3)3)3)3 CLS : PRINT@128 , "ENTER ACCOUN 
T NUMBER" ; : INPUTACNO : IFACN0>1)3)3 
OR ACN0<1 THEN 3)3)3)3 ELSE I=ACNO 
3)31)3 CLS:PRINT@128,"I AM LOADING 
ACCOUNT " ; ACNO ; " . « 
3)315 N=I 

3)32)3 OPEN "D",#l, 11 TRANS FLE/ DAT " , 
128 

3)33)3 OPEN "D", #2, "CHRTACCT/DAT", 
30 

3040 GET #2,I:INPUT #2 / DESC$:CLO 
SE #2 

3)35)3 GET #1,1 

3)36)3 INPUT # 1 , YEAR 

3070 FOR I=1T012 

3080 INPUT #1,TAMT(I) 

3090 NEXTI 

3100 CLOSE #1 

3110 OPEN "D", #3, "BUDGET/DAT", 12 
8 

3112 GET #3 ,N: INPUT #3, YEAR 
3115 FOR I=1T012: INPUT #3, BAMT ( 
I) : NEXTI 

3118 CLOSE #3 

3119 CLS 

3150 PRINTDESC$ 

3170 PRINT YEAR;" ACTUAL BU 
DGET" 

3190 TRNBAL=)3 
3195 SUMBAL=)3:VARTOT=)3 
3200 FOR 1=1 TO 12 
3205 VAR ( I ) =TAMT ( I ) -BAMT ( I ) 
3210 PRINT USING"% %% %####.##-% 
%#####. ##-";MO$ (I) ;SPACE$;TAMT( 
I);" " ; BAMT ( I ) 
3220 TRNBAL=TRNBAL+TAMT ( I ) 
3225 SUMBUD=SUMBUD+BAMT ( I ) 
3227 VARTOT=VARTOT+VAR ( I ) 
3230 NEXTI 

324)3 PRINT@68,USING"$#####.##-%% 

$#####. ##-";TAMT(l) ;"";BAMT(1) 

3250 IF RC=1 THEN 3500 

3260 PRINT@448,USING"% %$#####. 

##-%%$#####. ##-" ; "TOT ";TRNBA 

L;"";SUMBUD 

3270 PRINT© 4 8)3, "<ENTER> FOR MAIN 

MENU . " ; : 
3275 I$=INKEY$:IFI$ <> CHR$(13) 



134 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



THEN 3275 
328)3 GOT016)3 

4)3)3)3 CLS:PRINT"***********SELECT 
IONS****'*******" ! PRINT"1) ENTER 
ACCOUNT DESCRIPTIONS" : PRINT : PRIN 
T"2) ADD/CHG ACCOUNT DESCRIPTION 
": PRINT: PRINT" 3) RETURN TO MAIN 
MENU" : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT" " ; : INPU 
TA: ON A GOSUB 4010 , 4500 , 160 : GOTO 
4000 

4010 CLS: OPEN "D", #1, "CHRTACCT/D 

AT",3)3:PRINT"ACT < — D E S C R I 

P T I 0 N — >": PRINT: FOR X=1TO100 \ 

STEP l)3:PP=64:FORI=X TO X+9:PRI 
NTUS I NG "###"; I : I FRC= 1THEN4 0 50 

4020 PRINTS 4 80, "<THATS ALL> FOR 
MAIN MENU . " ; : PRINT@PP+4 , " " ; : LINE 

INPUT DC$ 

4021 L=LEN(DC$) : IF L>27 OR LEFT$ 
(DC$,5)="XXXXX" THEN 4020 

4022 IF DC$="THATS ALL" THEN 404 
0 

4025 WRITE #1,DC$:PUT #1,1 
4028 PP=PP+32:NEXTI 
4)329 IF RC <> 1 THEN 4030 ELSE P 
RINT@416, "<ENTER> TO CONTINUE OR 

'R' FOR RETURN TO MAIN MENU."; 
:INPUTA$:IFA$=CHR$(13) THEN 4030 

ELSE IF A$="R" THEN 4040 

4030 PP=64:FORN=1TO10:PRINT@PP:P 
P=PP+3 2 : NEXTN : PRINT@ 64 , " " ; : 

4031 NEXTX 

4040 RC=0 : CLOSE #l:GOT016)3 

4050 GET #1,1: INPUT #1,DESC$:PRI 

NT@PP+4, " " ;DESC$:GOTO4028 

4500 CLS: OPEN "D 11 , #1 , "CHRTACCT/D 

AT", 30 

4510 CLS :PRINT@128, "ENTER ACCOUN 
T NUMBER YOU WISH TO ADD OR CH 
ANGE " ; : INPUTAC : IFAC <1 OR AO100 

THEN 4510 
4520 CLS : PRINT@128 , "I AM LOADING 

ACCOUNT " ; AC : GET #1, AC: INPUT #1 
, DESC$ : CLOSE#l : CLS : PRINT@128 , "CU 
RRENT DESCRIPTION ACCOUNT ";AC;: 
PRINT: PRINTDESC$:IFRC=1THEN10530 
4530 PRINT@256, "IF YOU WISH TO R 
ETURN TO MAIN MENU THEN ENTER 
<RET> OTHERWISE ANSWER YES OR NO I 
. IS THIS THE ACCOUNT YOU WISH j 

TO ADD OR CHANGE"; :INPUTA$ 

:IF A$="YES" THEN 4540 ELSE IF A' 
$=»NO" THEN 4500 ELSE IF A$="RET 
" THEN 160 ELSE 4530 
4540 CLS: PRINT® 12 8,""; :PRINT"NEW 

DESCRIPTION ACCOUNT ";AC:PRINT: 
PRINT"" ;: LINE INPUT DC$ 

4549 DSC$=LEFT$ (DC$,5) 

4550 L=LEN(DC$) : IF L>27 OR LEFT$ 



(DC$ / 5)="XXXXX M THEN 4540 

4555 CLS: PRINT© 12 8, "I AM REWRITI 

NG THE CHART OF ACCOUNTS FIL 

E . " ; : 

4560 OPEN "D",#l, "CHRTACCT/DAT" , 
30:WRITE #1,DC$:PUT #l,AC:CLOSE 
#1 

4562 CLS : PRINT@128 , "DO YOU WISH 
TO ADD OR CHANGE MORE ACCOUNT 
S"; :INPUTA$:IFA$ =»YES" THEN 450 
0 ELSE IF A$="NO" THEN 160 ELSE 
4562 , 

4570 GOTO 160 

5000 ISW=0:CSW=0:DSW=0:SW=0:CLS: 
PRINT" **********SELECTIONS****** 
*****••; PRINT: PRINT" 1) ENTER NEW 
TRANSACTIONS": PRINT" 2) CHANGE A 
TRANSACTION": PRINT" 3) ADD A TRAN 
SACTION" : PRINT" 4) DELETE A TRANS 
ACTION" : 

5002 PRINT" 5) RETURN TO MAIN MEN 
U": PRINT: PRINT" " ; :INPUTA:ON A G 
OSUB 5005 ,5500, 5700, 59#0,160:Gi0T 
05000 

5005 CLS : PRINT@128 , "I AM LOADING 
THE NAMES OF EXISTING TRA 

NS ACTION FILES . " ; : OPEN "D" , #1, "F 
I LENAME/ DAT " ,21: F0RI=1T012 : GET # 
1,I:INPUT #1,YEAR / FLE$:FL$(I)=FL 
E$:NEXTI: CLOSE #1 

5009 IFDSW=1THEN5015ELSE5010 

5010 IFISW=1THEN5015ELSEIFCSW=1T 
HEN5015ELSEIFRC=10THEN5015ELSECL 
S : PRINT" ENTER NEW MONTH TRANSACT 
IONS" : PRINT : PRINT"WHICH MONTH 1 S 
DO YOU WISH TO ENTER (1-12 OR 

99 TO RETURN TO THE MAIN MENU) 
" ; : INPUTMO : IF MO=99 THEN 160 ELS 
E IF MO<01 OR MO>12 THEN 5010 
5015 AP$=LEFT$ (MO$ (MO) ,3) :FLE$=" 
DTLTRANS/"+AP$ : IF FL$(MO)=FLE$ T 
HEN 5020 ELSE IF FL$ (MO) ="ZZZZZZ 
ZZ/ZZZ" THEN 5023 

5020 IFDSW=1THEN5920ELSEIFISW=1T 
HEN5720ELSEIFCSW=1THEN5520ELSEPR 
INT:IFRC=10THEN11125ELSEPRINT"TR 
ANS ACT IONS FOR THIS MONTH AL 
READY ENTERED. PLEASE ENTER A DI 
FFERENT MONTH. " ; : FORX=1TO3000 : NE 
XTX:GOTO5010 

5023 IFCSW=1 OR ISW=1THEN5550 
5025 IFRC=10THEN11120ELSE FL$ (MO 
) =FLE$ : CLS : PRINT@128 , "I AM REWRI 
TING NAMES OF TRANSACTIO 
N FILES TO INCLUDE THEMONTH FOR 
WHICH YOU ARE ENTERINGTRANSACTIO 
NS . " ; : OPEN "D" , #1 , "FILENAME/ DAT" 
, 21 :F0RI=1T012: WRITE #1, YEAR,FL$ 
(I):PUT #l,I:NEXTI:CLOSE#l 



5030 OPEN "D" , #1, FLE$ , 51 : OPEN "D 
11 , #2 , "CHRTACCT/DAT" , 30 '.GOSUB5400 

5031 F0RN=1T0135:CLS:PRINT"TRANS 
ACTIONS FOR " ;MO$ (MO) ; " , " ; YEAR: G 
OSUB5200 

5035 PRINT§32,STRING$(32 / CHR$(12 
8)) 

5045 PRINT@64, "TRANSACTION ";:PR 
INT USING "##";N: 

5050 PRINT@128, "ACCOUNT ";: 

LINE INPUT ACNO$:IF ACNO$="ZZZ"T 
HEN 5210 ELSE ACNO=VAL(ACNO$) : IF 
ACNO <1 OR ACNO >100 THEN5050 

5055 IF MID$ (DA$ (ACNO) ,1,5) ="XXX 
XX" THEN 5056 ELSE 5060 

5056 PRINT: PRINT "THE ABOVE ACCOU 
NT IS INVALID. ENTER <99> FOR . 
RETURN TO MAIN MENU, OTHERWISE 1 

HIT <ENTER> TO RE-ENTER CORREC 
T ACCOUNT NUMBER. " : PRINT ; : INPUT 
RT:IFRT=99THEN5058 

5057 PRINT§128,STRING$(255, " "): 
GOTO5050 

5058 CLOSE#l:CLOSE#2 :GOTO5220 
5060 PRINT" ";DA$(ACNO) 

5065 PRINT" IS THIS THE CORRECT A 

CCOUNT"; : 

5066 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN5066 

5067 IFA$="Y"THEN5070ELSEIFA$<>" 
N"THEN5066 

5068 PRINT@128,STRING$(128," "): 
GOTO 50 50 

5070 PRINT@192,STRING$(64," "):P 
RINT@224 , "DATE (DA) ... " ; : LINEIN 
PUTDT$ : DA=VAL ( DT$ ) : IFDA<10RDA>3 1 
THEN5070 

5090 PRINT@256,STRING$ (64, " "):P 
RINT@256 , "TRANS . ID.. ";:LINEIN 
PUTCHK$ : CHK=VAL ( CHK$ ) : IFCHK<10RC 
HK>9999THEN5090 

5110 PRINT@288,STRING$(64," "):P 
RINT§288, "AMOUNT. .. . " ; : LINEIN 
PUTAMT$ : AMT=VAL (AMT$ ) : A=ABS ( AMT) 
:IFA<10000THEN5120ELSE5110 
5120 PRINT§301,USING"##, ### . ##-" 
; AMT 

5125 TTOT (ACNO) =TTOT (ACNO) + AMT 
5130 PRINT@320,STRING$(64, " "):P 
RINT@320 , "DESCRIPTION " ; : LINEIN 
PUTPRP$:L=LEN(PRP$) : IFL>14THEN51 
30 

5140 PST=1: YR$=STR$ (YEAR) : Y$=MID 

$(YR$,4,2) :YR=VAL(Y$) : 

5145 WRITE #1 , ACNO, MO, DA, YR, CHK, 

AMT,PRP$,PST:PUT #1,N 

5147 IFDSW=1THEN5990ELSEIFCSW=2T 

HEN5600ELSEIFSW=2THEN5770 , 

5150 NEXTN: CLOSE #1: CLOSE #2: GOT 

05220 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 135 



227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, New York 10312 



PROGRAM TITLE GRADES MEMORY price PROGRAM TITLE 



GRADES MEMORY PRICE 



r PRESCHOOL 

Preschool i - counting: : PrenK 
Preschool II - adding t Pre-K 
Preschool III - alphabet- ; Pre-K ; i 
Music Marvel-play songs Pre-K, 1 
Arrow Games - 6 games Pre-K, 1 
First Games - 6 games Pre-K v 1i 
Mr. Cocohead-facemaker K-3 
Bentley Bear : f / Pre-f^ 

LANGUAGE ARTS 

Beyond Words 1-3 parts 3-5 
Beyond Words 2-3 parts 6-8 W. 
Beyond Words 3-3 parts 9-12; 
Vocabulary 1-1000 words 3-5:1 
Vocabulary 2-1 000 wdfds 6-8 v 
Vocabulary 3-1000 wordS;'9-12;g : v^ 
Context Clues 4,5,6,or 7 

Cocojot - jotto game 3-up 
Reading Aids - 4 part$ ^2-4 
King Author - writing ^pJ^:^t6^^ 
Goeowheel of Fortune 4-up 
Context Clues , 2-3 

FOREIGN LANGUAGES 

French Baseball-200wds. 4-up 
French Baseba!l-500wds. 4-up 
Spanish Baseball-200wd^ 4-up 
Spanish Baseball-500yi/ds 4-up-,; 
Italian Baseball-200wd$. 4-up : T 
Hebrew Alphabet beginners 

Hebrew Utility drawing utility 

CRITICAL THINKING PROBLEMS 

Memory Castle-Sunburst 4-up 
Factory by Sunburst 4-up 
Pond by Sunbu rst 2-up 
Teasers by Tobbs-Sunb. 4-up f 
Inner City - simulation 7-up 
Find The Math Sequence 4-up 
Stranded-graphic advent. 4-up 

/ TEACHER/STUDENT AIDS J ! 

Qolorgrade - gradebook Adult:;; ; 
iQuizmaker - write quizzes 5-up 

ETT typing tutor (CocoWarehouse? 4-up 

The Puzzler feotoi-connoction) 4-up 



16K Ext. 
16KExt. 
1 6K Ext, 
16K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
1 6K-Ext. 
32K^Disk 



32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
16K-Ext. 
1 6K 

16K-Ext. 
16/32 Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 



16K-Ext, 
32K-Ext- 
16K-Ext 
32K-Ext. 
16K-Ext. 
16K-Ext. 
16K-Ext. 



32K-disk 
32K-disk 
32K-disk 
32K-disk 
32K-disk 
32K-Ext. 
32K-disk 



11.95 
ti.95 
11,95 
11.95 
21.95 
24,95 



19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
17.95 
11.95 
19.95 



19.95 



11.95 
1 9.95 
11.95 
19.95 
11.95 
1 1 .95 
15.95 



44.95 
44.95 
44.95 
44.95 
49.95 
19,95^ 
24.95 



MATH '^M0kW€ ^% 



32K-disk 
32K-Ext. 



32K-disk 



21.95 
29.95 



Openi ng a BanJcAfccbupf 
Dollars & Sense '^';:i.h'2H: 
McCoco's Menu 
Moneypak 2-5 
Graph Tutor 3-7 
Graph-It T-tJj 
Math Invaders ; ; >1;~8: 
Mathquiz - 4 operations 2-5 
Addition & Subtraction 

Skill Tutor Series 
Division Tutor 3-7 
Multiplication Tutor 3-7 
Factors Tutor • ^5-8 

Fractions Tutors p programs) 

addition, subtraction or multiplication 4-8 

Trigonometry 8-1 ( 

Equations Linear 7-9 

Equations Quadratic 8-1 - 

Anth. Diagnostic Disk 3-8 

Fraction Diagnostic Disk 4-9 

Verbal Problems ^rije^>^ 

Distance Problems ^5-8 

Area & Perimeter 5-8 

Pizza Game 3-5 

Sales & Bargains 6-8 

Comparison Shopping ;4?7 

Binary Dice Game 4-up 



SOCIAL STUDIES 

Know Your States 5-up 
History Game 5-up 

States & Capitals ; % 5-up 
Explorers & Settlers ; 4*up 
Famous American Women 6-Up 

Street Map Game }|^|^ 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Name That Song 1 ,2>or 3 2-up 
Music Drill 3^ 3-up 
Science Game S-up 
Computer Literacy ; >§.rup 
5 Educational Programs' 1-2 or 
with Lightpen ;";S : 3-6 
Chemistry Tutor 



7 y0m 32K-di$tfc 
4 1 6K-Ext. 



i 



32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
16K-Ext. 
16K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 



16K-Ext. 
1 6K-Ext 
16K-Ext. 



32K-Ext. 
32K.Ext. 
32K-dis£ 
32K-disk 



32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 



32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 
32K-Ext. 



14.95 
14.95 
19.95 



1 6K-Ext. 19.95ea. 



19.95 
19 95 
49.95 
49.95 



16K-Ext. 
16K-Ext. 
32K-disk 



32K-disk 
32K-disk 



44.95 



/ 




32K EB - disk only/$29.95 VERBAL MATH PROBLEMS 

Over 600 questions in 9 categories. 



OPENINGllBANK ACCOUNT ; 

32K - Disk Only - $24.95 

. . . j^^iil!|rograms designed to in- 

Makes learning science facts fun. PIZZA GAME troduce and provide practice in the 

Game format, 1 or 2 players, teams. 32K EB - tape/$ 19-95 skills of filing out bank applications, 

Grade 8 and up. Learn to locate coordinates on a deposit and withdrawal slips, and 

* " ' "? uftn , fl ^Hi V grid. HI-RES text and graphics. computing bank account balances. 

Loaded with graphic presentations. 
Grades 3-6. 

AREA & PERIMETER 




AREA & PERIMETER 

32K EB - tape/$19.95 



e ■ • ? «r ■ > .."^ ' : ■ >■'' '.■>••■ ',■ ■ ■ & 



IWoodml 

Vnstiiuli 

MP GAIV 



hi *< are covered in this HI-RES te*t ; lil® +m *m f m 

Sfe graphics program. iPft TT *|fl£| 



32K - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
Hi-res. screen and graphics portray SALES & BARGAINS 



SALES & BARGAINS 



DOLLARS & SENSE 

16K-Ext. - $14.95 tape/$19.95 disk 



typical section of a street map. This 32K EB - tape/$19,95 Learn 10 make purchases. Graphic 

le shows people's homes, the Learn to find the discounted price. displays of items kids love. Player 
school, the park, etc. Questions on HI-RES text and beautiful graphics. bu V s 'terns using dollars and coins 



how to get from one place to another} 
are asked and the footsteps are 
shown. 



to practice using money correctly. 
Solutions given. 

II DISTANCE PROBLEMS McCOCO S MENU 

32K EB - tape/$19,95 16K-Ext. - $14.95 tape/$ 19.95 disk 
Moving graphics and text combines America's favorite pastime-going out 
drills on a Hi-RES screen. Rate x Time = to eat. Learn to buy and add up your 
ents Distance in all its forms. B|| purchases from a typical fast food 
Is, Naming Compounds,' restaurant menu. Gain skill in using 

th innc and Raianrinn -Pni money. Different prices each time, 
in Ions, and Balancing Equa- m 



I 



US; CHEMISTRY TUTOR 

32K - disk only - $29.95 



A hi-res. 4 part program that 
Iflgh school students in Elerp||i^ 
Symbo 
Common 

tions. Correct answer given aft£r|p1n 
correct responses. A valuable tool for 
studying chemistry. ;3|§ 

5 LIGHTPEN PROGRAMS 

32 K EB - $44.95 
Five menu driven educational pro- 
grams designed for children in grade 
1 and 2, and special educational 
students. Basic addition, basic 
multiplication, shape series mat- 
ching, number series matching and 
word rhyming are included. All on a 
HI-RES screen, with graphics. User 
need only to use the light pen to 
\Ji operate the programs (LIGHT PEN 
/ INCLUDED) 



Wo! 

If if #ts 



PiS^ ATTENTION ■ m 
TANDY 1000 USERS 

NOW AVAILABLE! EACH $34.95 

4 of our most effective math pro- 
grams have been converted for use 
|n the popular Tandy 1000. 

1 . OPENING A BANK ACCOUNT 

2. COMPARISON SHOPPING 
3 DISTANCE PROBLEMS 

ell SALES AND BARGAINS 



COCO WHEEL OF FORTUNE 

32K - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
Hi-res. graphics and screen in this 
version of the popular TV show. 1-6 
players. Spin the wheel for points 
and guess a letter to solve one of the 
200 puzzles. Have fun while 
lengthening LA skills. 

COLORGRADE 

32K - disk only - $29.95 
An easy to use classroom grading 
program. Keeps grades for up to 6 
classes of up to 40 students per 
class. Many options including 



ft 



■6 - lrf .'\- % - 

* ■;S(5'h:; , 'V<.> 



o class. Many options including 

weighted averages and hard copy to 

: : ; .-.\'^. : :.v pnnteiv/-;: ; . ; ^ v> v ■■ 





RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Computeryrlsland 



VISA 



(718) 948-2748 
Dept. R 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 

Send for catalog with complete descriptions. 



Please add 51.00 per order t. r josiage. N.Y. residents, please add proper tax. FREE set of BINARY DICE, including full directions, with 
of 2 or more items. 



Dealer Inquiries Invited. 



TRS-80 Color Computer 



All Payments in U.S. Funds. 



52j3j3 PRINT@416,STRING$(32,CHR$(1 
28) ) :PRINT@448,"ENTER 'ZZZ' IN A 
CCOUNT TO END TRANSACTION ENTR 

Y . " ; : PRINT @PP , " «• ; : RETURN 
521J3 CLS : PRINT§128 , "I AM COMPLET 
ING THE WRITING OF THE DETAIL T 
RANSACTION FILE FOR I=N TO 13 
5:WRITE #1,999,99,99, 99, J3j3j3j3 , j3j3j3 
pflp . p0 , "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX" , 1 : PU 
T #l,I:NEXTI:CLOSE #1: CLOSE #2 
522j3 CLS : PRINT© 128, "I AM POSTING 

TRANSACTION TOTALS." 
5300 OPEN "D", #1, 11 TRANS FLE/ DAT 11 
,128 

5302 1=0 
5305 1=1+1 

531J3 GET #1,1: INPUT # 1 , YEAR 

5311 FOR N=l TO 12 

5312 INPUT #1, TAMT (N) 

5313 NEXT N 

5315 IFCTOT(I)<>0 OR TTOT(I)O0T 
HENTAMT (MO) =TAMT (MO) -CTOT(I) +TTO 

T(I) 

5320 WRITE #1, YEAR: FOR N=l TO 12 
:WRITE #1, TAMT (N) :NEXTN: PUT #1,1 
5330 IF 1=100 THEN 5340 ELSE 530 
5 

5340 CLOSE #1 

5345 FORI=1TO100:TTOT(I)=0:CTOT( 



I ) =0 : NEXTI : F0RI=1T012 : TAMT ( I ) =0 : 
NEXT I 

5350 GOTO5000 

5400 CLS:IFCSW=2 OR SW=2 THENRET 
URNELSEPRINT@128 , "I AM LOADING A 
CCOUNT DESCRIPTIONS . " 

; :FORI=1TO100:GET #2, I: INPUT #2, 
DA$ (I) : NEXTI : RETURN 
5500 CLS : PRINT@128 , "WHICH MONTH' 
S TRANSACTIONS NEED CHANGING (99 
FOR MAIN MENU) " ; : INPUTA: IFA=99T 
HEN160ELSEIFA<1ORA>12THEN5500ELS 
E5510 

5510 MO=A:CSW=l:GOTO5005 

5520 OPEN "D",#1,FLE$,51 

5522 CLS : PRINT@12 8 , "WHAT IS THE 

RECORD NUMBER OF THETRANSACTION 

YOU WISH TO CHANGE (999 FOR RET 

URN TO MENU) " ; : INPUTRNO : IFRNO=99 

9THEN5560ELSEIFRNO<1ORRNO>135THE 

N5522ELSE5525 

5525 GET #l,RNO: INPUT #l,ACNO,MO 
, DA, YR, CHK , AMT , PRP $ , PST : IFACNO=9 

99THEN5610ELSEIFISW=1THEN5750ELS 
EIFDSW=1THEN5950ELSECLS : PRINT"CH 
ANGES FOR " ; MO$ (MO ) ; " , " ; YEAR : PRI 
NT@32,STRING$(32,CHR$(128) ) 

5526 PRINT@64 , "RECORD NUM. " ;RN 
0 



J & R NOW HAS 51 2K 
EASY SOLDERLESS INSTALLATION 

Includes 35/40 TRACK RS RAM DISK • 0S9 RAM DISK 



(Compatible with RSDOS, JDOS and ADOS) 



THE 51 2K RAM "BANKER" ... See 256K Featured in Sept. '85 Hot Coco! 



PCOPY 134 

BANKRPAG 

35/40TRK 
RAM DISK 

256K/512K 
MEMORY TEST 

PAGE 8X32K 

0S9BTF1X 

40TRK SINGLE 
SWAP 

MULTIPLE COPY DISK BACKUP 
32K TO 192K PRINT SPOOLER 




Wf* 



J&R proudly announces the "BANKER", a 51 2K internal board for 
COCO I or COCO II that can be upgraded to 32K/64K with the addi- 
vv ~ t ' on °* type (8 each) memory chips, socketed SAM and memory 

chips. SAM and memory chips must be socketed for solderless installa- 
tion. Those who have computers with 26-31 XX and later model numbers call or write for 
information. The "BANKER" installs in the SAM (6883/74LS785) socket. The "BANKER" 
works with COLOR BASIC, EXTENDED BASIC, and DISK EX- _ f e£ 
TENDED BASIC (JDOS and ADOS), Cassette or Disk systems. * 

The "BANKER" was designed to be compatible with ALL hard- -a* (R 
ware and absolutely compatible with any 64K software or hard- \H *^ 
ware addressing. 



(256K VERSION SHOWN) 

RAM DISK WITH TELEWRITER-64 
35/40 TRACK 0S9 RAM DISK 



★ ★ ★ ★ ★ INTRODUCTORY SPECIALS ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ 

S 34.95 BARE-BOARD (ETCHED & DRILLED), SOFTWARE and DOCUMENTATION 
J 64.95 BARE-BOARD + PARTS, SOFTWARE and DOCUMENTATION (NO MEMORY CHIPS) 
$ 79.95 ASSEMBLED & TESTED BOARD, SOFTWARE and DOCUMENTATION (NO MEMORY CHIPS) 
$149.95 ASSEMBLED & TESTED BOARD, MEMORY CHIPS, SOFTWARE and DOCUMENTATION 
$ 3.00 LONG PIN SOCKET (for BARE-BOARD) 



J&R ELECTRONICS 



P.O. BOX 2572 • COLUMBIA, MD 21045 

Hours: Sat. Noon-5 pm EST; Weekdays 7 pm-9 pm EST 
Phone (301) 987-9067 or (301) 788-0861 



Add $3.00 Shipping & Handling (FOREIGN ORDERS ADD $7.00) plus COD charge (if any). Maryland 
Residents Add 5% State Tax. CHECKS, MONEY ORDERS OR GOES urfty fJtwsse '(persond/ -tfrwdfcs 
- 2 weeks for clearance). IMMEDIATE DELIVERY. Give COCO Radio Shack model If (i.e. 26-3136), 
Disk or Tape when ordering. QUANTITY DISCOUNT AVAILABLE, write us (include SASE please). 
We value your patronage, most upgrades will be at a nominal fee, customer returns original disk/tape 
and pays shipping and handling. 

For information on shipping or previously placed orders call (301) 78&-0681. 



138 



THE RAINBOW March 1966 



5527 PRINT@128 , "ACCOUNT .... " ; A 
CNO 

5529 PRINT@16j3, "DATE (DA) . . . ";D 
A 

5531 PRINT@192, "TRANS. I.D. ";C 
HK 

5533 PRINT§224, "AMOUNT ";: 

PRINT© 23 7 , USING" ##,### . ##-" ;AMT 

5535 PRINT@256, "DESCRIPTION " ; P 
RP$ 

5536 IFDSW=1THEN5960ELSE5537 

5537 PRINT@384,STRING$(32,CHR$(1 
28) ) : PRINT@416 , "IS THIS THE TRAN 
SACTION YOU WISHTO CHANGE ";: INPU 
TA$:IF A$="Y" THEN 558J3 ELSE IF 
A$="N" THEN 557j3 ELSE 5537 

5550 CLS:PRINT@128, "TRANSACTIONS 

FOR THE MONTH YOU ENTERED ARE 
NOT ON FILE. PLEASE ENTER A DIFF 
ERENT MONTH. ":FORI=lTO 3j3j3j3:NEXT 
I:IFISW=lTHEN57j3j3ELSEG0T055j3j3 
556j3 CLOSE #l:GOTO5)8j80 
5570 CLOSE #l:GOT0552j3 
5580 CTOT(ACNO)=CTOT(ACNO)+AMT:0 
PEN "D", #2, "CHRTACCT/DAT" , 30: GO 
SUB5400 

5590 N=RNO: CSW=2 : CLS : PRINT "CHANG 
ES FOR " ;MO$ (MO) ; " , " ; YEAR: PRINT § 
32,STRING$(32 / CHR$(128) ) :GOTO504 

I 5 



One-Liner Contest Winner , m . 

These two programs convert between EIA resistor 
color codes and resistance values. The first converts 
band colors to the value; the second takes a value and 
gives the three color bands. 
The listings: 

1 PRINT : DIMA ( 12 ) , B ( 3) : A ( 1 ) =2 : A ( 2 
)=3:A(3)=4:A(4)=7:A(5)=9:A(6)=1: 
A ( 8 ) =5 : A ( 10 ) =6 : A ( 12 ) =8 : S $="ROYVW 
BNGNBEGY " : F0RI=1T03 : PRINT "ENTER 
COLOR BAND"; I; : INPUTA$ ; B ( I ) =A ( IN 
STR(S$,A$) ) : NEXT: PRINT "RES I STANC 
E IS" ; INT ( B ( 1 ) *10 A ( B ( 3 ) +1) +B ( 2 ) * 
10 A B ( 3 ) ) ; " OHMS " : RUN 

1 DIMA$(9) :A$(0)="BK":A$(1)="BN" 
: A$ ( 2 ) ="R" : A$ (3) ="0" : A$ (4) ="Y" : A 
$ (5) ="GN" : A$ (6) ="BE" : A$ (7) =" V" : A 
$ ( 8 ) ="GY" : A$ ( 9 ) ="W" : PRINT"RESIST 
ANCE " ; : INPUTD: C=INT (LOG (D) /LOG ( 
10 ) ) : IFC=0THENP=1ELSEP=C : IFO0TH 
ENC=C-1 

2 D=D/10 A P+.01:A=INT(D) :B=(D-A) * 
10 : PRINT " COLOR CODE - «;A$(A);" 

";A$(B) ;" ";A$(C) : PRINT : RUN 

Kurt Stefans 
Roselle, IL 

(For these winning one-liner contest entries, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Second Rainbow Book Of Adventures and its companion The 
Second Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



5600 CLOSE #1: CLOSE #2: CLS: PRINT 
@128,"DO YOU WISH TO MAKE MORE 

CHANGES FOR THIS MONTH"; :I 
NPUTA$ : IFA$="Y"THEN 5520 ELSE IF 
A$="N" THEN 5220 ELSE 5600 
5610 IFISW=1THEN5760ELSEPRINT@32 
0 / l, THE ABOVE RECORD NUMBER IS NO 
T ON FILE. PLEASE ENTER ANOTHER 
NUMBER . 11 ; : F0RI=1T03 000 : NEXTI : 
IFDSW=1THEN5930ELSE5522 
5700 SW=0 : CLS :PRINT@128, "WHICH M 
ONTH'S TRANSACTIONS NEED AN ADDI 
TION (99 FOR MAIN MENU) 11 ; : INPUTM 
O:IFMO=99THEN160ELSEIFMO<1ORMO>1 
2THEN5700ELSE5710 
5710 A=MO:ISW=1:GOTO5005 
5720 A=M0:ISW=1:0PEN "D" , #1, FLE$ 
,51 

5730 CLS:PRINT@128, "WHAT IS THE 
RECORD NUMBER YOU WISH TO ADD 
(999 FOR RETURN TO MENU)";: INPU 
TRNO : I FRNO= 999 THEN5 5 60ELSEI FRNO< 
10R RNO > 135 THEN5 7 3.0ELSE5 7 40 
5740 GOT05525 

5750 PRINT@320, "RECORD NUMBER AL 
READY ON FILE, PLEASE ENTER ANO 
THER NUMBER . " ; : FORI=1TO3000 : NEXT 
I:GOTO5730 

5760 MO=A:N=RNO:OPEN "D" / #2 / "CHR 
TACCT/DAT" , 30 : GOSUB5400 : CLS : PRIN 



One- Liner Contest Winner . . 

The first program lets you type in the price of a car, 
the interest rate and number of payments to get the 
amount of each payment; the second takes the 
payment amount, interest rate and number of pay- 
ments and gives you the pay-off balance. 

The listings: 

I CLS : PRINT© 10 , "CAR PAYMENT" : INP 
UT"BAL" ; A: INPUT "ANNUAL INTEREST 
RATE" ;B: INPUT "NUMBER OF PAYMENTS 
";C:D=A/( (l-( (1+((B/12)/100) )*(- 
C) ) )/( (B/12) /100) ) : PRINT "PAYMENT 
S WILL BE $";:PRINTUSING"#####.# 
#" ;D: IN PUT "ANOTHER (Y/N) " ;A$ : IFL 
EFT$ (A$ , 1) ="Y"THEN1ELSEEND 



2 CLS: INPUT "AMOUNT OF PAYMENT"; A 
: INPUT "ANNUAL INTEREST RATE" ; B: I 
NPUT " NUMBER OF PAYMENTS LEFT" ;C: 
E=A*((1-((1+((B/12)/100) )*(-C))) 
/( (B/12) /100) ) : PRINT "PAYOFF BALA 
NCE $ » ; : PRINTUSING" #####■##.##»■; E 
; INPUT "ANOTHER (Y/N)";A$:IF LEFT 
$ (A$ , 1) = " Y " THEN2 ELSEEND 

Charles Stauber 
Great Lakes, IL 

(For these winning one-liner contest entries, the author has been sent copies j 
of bath The Second Rainbow Book Of Adventures and its companion The 
Second Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 139 



T"ADDITIONS FOR " ;MO$ (MO) ; " , 11 ; YE 
AR:PRINT@32,STRING$(32,CHR$(128) 
) :SW=2 :GOTO5045 

5770 CLOSE #1: CLOSE #2:CLS:PRINT 
@128,"DO YOU WISH TO ADD MORE 

TRANSACTIONS TO THIS MONTH 
" ; : INPUTA$ ; IFA$="Y"THEN5720ELSEI 
FA$="N"THEN52 2j3ELSE577j3 
5900 CLS: PRINT© 12 8, "WHICH MONTH' 
S TRANSACTIONS NEED AN ITEM DELE 
TED (99 FOR RETURN TO MENU)" ; : I 
NPUTA: IFA=99THEN16j3ELSEIFA<j3 OR 
A> 1 2 THEN 5 9 0 0 E LS E 5 9 1 0 
5910 DSW=l:MO=A:GOT05j3j35 
5920 DSW=l:MO=A:OPEN "D",#1 / FLE$ 
,51 

5930 CLS:PRINT@128, "WHAT IS THE 
RECORD NUMBER YOU WISH TO DELE 
TE (999 FOR RETURN TO MENU)";:I 
NPUTRNO : IFRNO=9 9 9THEN5 5 60ELSEIFR 
N0<1 OR RNO135THEN5930ELSE5940 
5940 GOT05525 

5950 CLS: PRINT" DELETIONS FOR ";M 
0$ (MO) ; " , 11 ; YEAR : PRINT@ 3 2 , STRING $ 
(32,CHR$ (12 8) ) :GOT05526 
5960 PRINT@384,STRING$ (32,CHR$ (1 
28) ) :PRINT@416, "IS THIS THE TRAN 
SACTION YOU WISHTO DELETE" ;: INPU 



TA$:IF A$="Y"THEN598J3 ELSE IF A$ 
="N" THEN5930 ELSE5536 
5980 CTOT(ACNO)=CTOT(ACNO)+AMT:N 
=RNO : ACNO= 999: AMT=0 :G0T05145 
5990 CLS : PRINT@128 , "DO YOU WISH 
TO DELETE MORE TRANSACTIONS 
FOR THIS MONTH"; :INPUTA$:IFA$=" 

Y"THEN5930ELSEIFA$="N"THEN5995EL 
SE5990 

5995 CLOSE#1:GOTO5220 

6000 BSW=1:GOTO3 60 

6010 BSW=0:GOTO3270 

7000 DLSW=1 : CLS : PRINT@128 , "WHICH 

MONTH'S BUDGET DO YOU WISHTO DI 

SPLAY" ; : INPUTA: IFA<1ORA>12THEN70 
00 

7010 GOSUB11950:GOSUB11980 
7015 SUMBUD=0:FORI=1TO100 STEP4 
7017 PRINT @ 4 80 , "======SEARCHING 

FOR DATA. ======" 

7020 CLS: IF SW8=1 THEN 7080 ELSE 
PRINT@0, "BUDGET FOR ";MO$(MO);Y 
EAR: PRINT STRING$(32,"-") 
7035 PRSW=0:FOR X=I TO 1+3: IF MI 
D$(DA$(X) ,1,5)="XXXXX" OR CTOT(X 
)=0 THEN 7036 ELSE PRINT DA$(X): 
PRINT USING"% %###%%$###,###.## 

-" ; "ACT " ; X ; " " ; CTOT (X) : PRINT : P 




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140 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



RSW=1 : SUMBUD=SUMBUD+CTOT (X) 
7)336 NEXTX:IF PRSW <> 1 THEN 7j34 
5 ELSE PRINT@48j3, "PRESS <ENTER> 
TO CONTINUE.";: 

7)34)3 IK$=INKEY$:IF IK$ <> CHR$(1 
3) THEN 7)34)3 

7)345 NEXTI:CLS:IF SW8=1 THEN 7)35 
)3 ELSE PRINT 11 BUDGET FOR ";MO$(MO 
) ; YEAR :GOT07)3 6)3 

7j35j3 PRINT "ACTUAL FOR ";MO$(MO) 
;YEAR 

7)36)3 PRINT STRING$ (32 , "-") :SW8=)3 
: PRINT USING "% %$###,### 
. ##-" ; "TOTAL — > " ; SUMBUD : SUMBUD 
-p : PRINT@48)3 , "PRESS <ENTER> TO C 
ONTINUE . " ; : 

7)365 IK$=INKEY$:IF IK$ <> CHR$(1 
3) THEN 7)365 ELSE 16)3 

7) 38J3 PRINT@)3 , "ACTUAL FOR ";MO$(M 
0) ; YEAR: PRINT STRING$ (32 , "-") :G0 
T07)335 

8) 3)3)3 DLSW=1 : SW8=1 : CLS : PRINT@128 , 
"WHICH MONTH'S ACTUAL DATA DO YO 
UWISH TO DISPLAY" ; : INPUTA: IFA<10 
RA>12THEN8)3)3)3 

8)31)3 GOSUB1196)3:GOSUB1195)3:GOSUB 
119 8 5 : F0RI=1T01)3)3 : CTOT ( I ) =TT)3T ( I 
) :NEXTI:GOT07)315 



899)3 CLS: PRINT"********* SELECTI 
ONS *********": PRINT: PRINT" 1) DI 
SPLAY A MONTH": PRINT: PRINT" 2) DI 
SPLAY YEAR-TO-DATE" : PRINT : PRINT" 
3) RETURN TO MAIN MENU" : PRINT : PR 
INT" ";:INPUTA:ON A GOTO 8995,9)3 
)3)3, 16)3, 899)3 

8995 CLS: PRINT© 12 8, "WHICH MONTH 1 
S ACTUAL VS. BUDGET DO YOU WISH 
TO DISPLAY" ; : INPUTA: IFA<)30RA>12T 
HEN8995ELSE9)31)3 

9)3)3)3 YRSW=1:DLSW=1:CLS:PRINT@128 
, "ENTER MONTH FOR WHICH YOU WISH 
TO DISPLAY YEAR TO DATE THROUG 
H " ; : INPUTA: IFA<10RA>12THEN9)3)3)3 
9)31)3 G0SUB1196J3:G0SUB1195)3:G0SUB 
11985 :GOSUB1198)3 
9)32)3 A=)3:B=)3:F0RI=1T01)3)3 STEP 4 
9)323 PRINT@48)3 , "======SEARCHING 

FOR DATA. ======" ; : 

9)324 IF YRSW=1 THEN 9)325 ELSE 9)3 
27 

9)325 IF YRSW <> 1 THEN 9)327 ELSE 
CLS : PRINT@)3 , "ACTUAL VS. BUDGET" 

: PRINT "THRU ";MO$(MO) ; YEAR: PRINT 
STRING$ (31,"-"): GOT09)3 3 )3 

9)327 CLS : PRINT@j3 , "ACTUAL VS. BUD 

GET" : PRINT MO $ (MO) ; YEAR: PRINT ST 




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March 1986 THE RAINBOW 141 



RING$(31, "-") 

9030 PRSW=0:FOR X=I TO 1+3 : IF MI 
D$(DA$(X) / l / 5)= ,, XXXXX ,, OR CTOT(X 
)=)3 AND TTOT(X)=)3 THEN 9033 ELSE 

PRINT DA$(X):PRINT USING"% %### 

,###.##-% %###,###.##-"; "A) "; 

TTOT(X);" B) ";CTOT(X) 

9031 A=A+TTOT(X) :B=B+CTOT(X) :PRS 
W=l : CTR1=CTR1+A: CTR2=CTR2+B 
9033 NEXTX:IF PRSW <> 1 THEN 9)34 
5 ELSE PRINT0480, "PRESS <ENTER> 
TO CONTINUE.";: 

9040 IK$=INKEY$ : IF IK$ <> CHR$(1 
3) THEN 9)34 0 

9)345 NEXTI:IF YRSW <> 1 THEN 9)34 
7 ELSE CLS: PRINT "ACTUAL VS. BUDG 
ET" : PRINT 11 THRU 11 ;MO$ (MO) ; YEAR: PR 
INT STRING$(31,"-") : PRINT : GOT09)3 
50 

9)347 CLS : PRINT "ACTUAL VS. BUDGET 
" : PRINT MO$ (MO) ; YEAR: PRINT STRIN 
G$(31 / "-") : PRINT 

9)35)3 YRSW=)3: PRINT" TO 
TALS": PRINT: PRINT USING" % %###,# 

##.##-% %###,###. ##-";"A) »;A; 

" B) ";B:A=0:B=0:PRINT@48)3,"PRE 
SS <ENTER> TO CONTINUE";: 

9) 355 IK$=INKEY$ : IF IK$ <> CHR$(1 
3) THEN 9)355 ELSE 16)3 

10) 3)30 CLS:PRINT"***********SELEC 
TIONS***********" :PRINT"1) DISPL 
AY ALL ACCOUNT DESCR 
IPTIONS": PRINT: PRINT" 2) DISPLAY 
SINGLE ACCOUNT DESCRIPT 
ION" : 

1)3)3)32 PRINT: PRINT" 3) RETURN TO M 
AIN MENU": PRINT: PRINT" " ; : INPUTA 
:ON A GOSUB 1)3)31)3, 1)35)3)3, 16)3: GOTO 
1)3)3)3)3 

1)3)31)3 RC=l:GOT04)31)3 

1)35)3)3 CLS:OPEN "D" , #1, "CHRTACCT/ 

DAT", 3)3 

1)351)3 CLS: PRINTS 12 8, "ENTER ACCOU 
NT NUMBER YOU WISH TO DISPLAY" 
;:INPUTAC:IF AC<0 OR AO 1)3)3 THEN 

1)351)3 
1)352)3 RC=1:GOTO4520 
1)353)3 RC=)3: CLOSE #1 
10540 PRINT© 4 16, "ENTER <R> TO RE 
TURN TO MAIN MENU . " ; : INPUTA$ 

10550 IF A$="R" GOTO 160 
10560 GOTO 1)354)3 

11000 CLS: PRINT© 12 8, "I AM LOADIN 
G THE PROGRAM FOR THEREPORT GENE 
RATOR. " : RUN"REPTGENR" 
117J30 CLS : PRINT© 96," THE 1ST PRIN 
T LINE SHOULD BE ABOUT 3/4 IN 
CHES FROM THE TOP OF PAPER. PL 
EASE ALIGN. WHEN PAPER IS ALI 



GNED PROPERLY TYPE <YES> IN RES 
PONSE TO QUESTION . " : PRINT : PRINT" 
IS PRINTER READY" ; : INPUTA$ : IFA$= 
ii YES " THENRETURNELS E 1 17 0 0 
11800 1=1 : LC=0 : CLS : PRINT@98 , "PRI 
NTING CHART OF ACCOUNTS .": OPEN " 
D" , #1, "CHRTACCT/ DAT" , 30 

1181) 3 PRINT#-2," ACT < 
— D ESCRIPTIO N — >":PRIN 

T#— 2 : 

1182) 3 GET#1,I:INPUT #1,DESC$:D$= 
MID$ (DESC$, 1, 5) : IFD$="XXXXX"THEN 
11825ELSEPRINT#-2, USING"% 

%###%%% 

% " ; " " ; I ; " " ; DES 

C$ : LC=LC+1 : 1=1+1 : IFLC=50THENGOSU 
B1188)3ELSEIFI=1)31THEN1189)3ELSE11 
820 

11825 1=1+1 :IFI=1)31THEN1189)3ELSE 

1182) 3 

1183) 3 GOT01181)3 

1188) 3 F0RX=1T014 : PRINT#-2 : NEXTX: 
LC=0 : RETURN 

1189) 3 FOR X=LC TO 63 : PRINT#-2 : NE 
XTX: LC=0 : CLOSE* 1 : GOT016)3 

11900 GET #1,1: INPUT #l,ACNO,MO, 
DA, YR, CHK , AMT , PRP$ , PST : RETURN 
1191)3 PRINT#-2 :LC=LC+1:IFLC=59TH 
EN16)3ELSE1191)3 

11950 CLS: PRINT© 9 6, "ONE MOMENT P 
LEASE, I AM LOADING ACCOUNT DESC 
RIPTIONS . " : OPEN "D" , #1 , "CHRTACCT 
/DAT" , 30 : FORI=1TO100 : GET #1 , 1 : IN 
PUT #1,DESC$:DA$ (I)=DESC$:NEXTI: 
CLOSE #1: RETURN 

1196) 3 CLS: PRINT© 12 8, "I AM CHECKI 
NG TO SEE IF THE DATAFOR THE MON 
TH YOU SELECTED IS ONFILE . " : MO=A 
: OPEN "D" , #1, " FI LENAME/ DAT " , 2 1 : F 
0RI=1T012:GET #1,1: INPUT # 1 , YEAR 
, FLE$ : FL$ (I)=FLE$:NEXTI:CLOSE#l 
11965 IF FL$(MO) = "ZZZZZZZZ/ZZZ 
" THEN 1197)3 ELSE RETURN 

1197) 3 PRINT: PRINT "DATA FOR THE M 
ONTH YOU ENTERED IS NOT ON FILE 
. I AM RETURNING TO MENU.": FORT 
=1T03)3)3)3:NEXT T:IF DLSW=1 THEN 1 
2030 ELSE 11000 

11980 MO=A : CLS : PRINT© 9 8 , " I AM LO 
ADING BUDGET DATA.": OPEN "D" ,#1, 
"BUDGET/DAT" , 128 : FORI=1TO100 : GET 

#1,1: INPUT #1,YEAR:F0RX=1T012:I 
NPUT #1,BAMT(X) : NEXTX: IF YRSW=1 
THEN11982ELSECTOT(I)=BAMT(MO) 

11981 NEXTI:CLOSE#l: RETURN 

11982 FOR 11=1 TO MO : CTOT ( I ) =CTO 
T (I ) +BAMT (II) :NEXT II:GOT011981 
11985 CLS: PRINT© 9 6, "I AM LOADING 

ACTUAL DATA . » : OPEN " D" , # 1 , "TRAN 



142 THE RAINBOW March 1986 




PAPER ROUTE 




SCORE 



XI HEME* 
X f ///// 
X 1 /// 



As a paper boy, you ride your bike along your 
route delivering papers to your customers. 
Break customers' windows or damage their 
property and they will cancel their 
subscriptions! Earn bonus points by damaging 
non-subscribers' property. Avoid pedestrians, 
cars, and maybe even a mad dog in your 
attempt to deliver all your papers! Detailed 
graphics and lots of surprises make this game a 
real challenge for everyone. 

64 k and joystick required $28.95 u s 
tape or disk $38.95 ca. 



KA RA TE 



Ml 




Challenge the computer, or a friend to a Karate 
match! In this game, you will use various Karate 
punches and kicks to knock your opponent down 
and earn points to win the match. When challeng- 
ing the computer, your opponent's Karate skills 
increase as you win matches. This game is a 
challenge for even the expert game player. 



64 k and joystick required $28.95 u s 
tape or disk t«A«Hr 

%00.?a Can 



MARBLE MAZE 




Move your marble around the mazes 
in your search for the finish line! 
Avoid the marble eaters, acid puddles 
and other creatures that inhabit the 
mazes. Avoid falling into holes or off 
the edges of the maze. Eight different 
levels and great graphics make this 
game a must for your collection. 
Congratulations to the contest 
winners! 

64 k and joystick required 
tape or disk $28.95 U.S. 

$38.95 Can. 



KNOCK OUT 




mm 



t * * 5BSS 



urns, mmm 
mm mmm 




Fight against five different boxers in this great boxing game! At first the boxers are easy 
to knock out, but beware, it gets harder as you move on. The boxers are out to stop you 
in your quest to become champion of the world. But once you become champion your 
task is not over. You will then have to defend your title against those trying to regain the 
championship from you. Outstanding graphics make this a must for your collection! 

64 k required 

tape or disk $28.95 U.S. $38.95 Car?. 



6715 FIFTH LINE, MILTON, ONT., CANADA L9T 2X8 



We accept: 





24 hr. order line: 
(416) 878-8358 
personal service 9-5 



cheque or money order 



Please add $2 for shipping 
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residents add 7% sales tax. 

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QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO ft TDP-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 




HALL OF THE KING - ^ 

This program combines all the things you look for in a great 
two disk graphics adventure program. The H i-Res graphics 
are superbly done. The text portion of the screen and the 
graphics change quickly as you move through the HALL 
OF THE KING. You can move freely from one portion of 
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In an age long past, a dwarven race lived in their mountain 
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power of the dwarves. 

HALL OF THE KING requires 64K EB and one disk drive. 
This exciting two disk adventure comes packaged in a 
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WARP FACTOR X 

If you have been waiting foragame for yourcolor computer 
that has everything, your wait is over. WARP FACTOR X is 
here. This all graphics simulation game requires strategy, 
fast thinking, an eye for detail, and above all experience in 
knowing the capabilities of your starship and its computer. 
You will begin your adventure into space as a cadet but 
your ultimate goal is to become Captain of the Enterprise. 
To do this you must neutralize the enemy planets and 
eliminate the Klingon starbases along with the Klingons 
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WARP FACTOR X was written by an engineer for the 
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includes versions for 32K, 64K, and COCO 2. It requires 
one disk drive and comes packaged in a vinyl library case. 
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DARKMOOR HOLD 

You and yourcomrades will explore the levelsof Darkmoor 
Hold in an effort to gain great riches and defeat the dark 
wizard. The Wizard will soon realize the threat you pose 
and the many monsters you meet and battle will become 
stronger and more powerful as you move through the 10 
levels of Darkmoor. A keen eye will help you find weapons 
and armor to aid your battle along with treasures for you to 
keep. Your party consists of a Dwarf, an Elf, and you, the 
Human, each with their own special attributes. The 
weapons, armor and treasure are placed randomly in each 
level to provide a new challenge each time you play. You 
may also save the game you are playing since defeating 
the evil Wizard is not an easy task. It has great graphics 
and an impressive text screen to give you more fun than a 
barrel of elves. Requires 64KEB and 1 disk drive. $29.95 

FAMILY-TREE 

FAMILY-TREE is a sophiticated program that can help 
organize your families' history. Whether you are new to 
genealogy or an experienced genealogist you will find 
FAMILY-TREE of great assistance. It is specifically designed 
to organize family relationships and supply information on 
each person. Information can be listed on the screen or 
printer even a pedigree chart listing up to 4 generations. 
Records can be altered or deleted and additions made 
quickly and easily. Each file can contain over 1 60 names 
and, of course, ypu can have files for every branch of the 
family. Smaller files can be combined. There is even a help 
file on the disk version. Requires 64K. TAPE — $24.95; 
DISK - $29.95 

SUPER ASTROLOGY 

Everything our customers have written and asked for in an 
astrology program is here! This all new program by a new 
author gives accuracy to two minutes of arc or better, and 
you can choose from Tropical or Sideral zodiacs, Geo- 
centric or Heliocentric charts, and FIVE different house 
systems — Placidus, Koch, Campanus, Equal, and Regio- 
montanus. You can specify the orb for aspects, find any 
harmonic, and output the complete natal horoscope listing 
to the screen or printer. This program comes with complete 
and easy to follow instructions and a suggested reading 
list to aid in interpretation. The planetary routines and 
values in this program are Copyright by Matrix Software — 
the industry leader in astrological programming — and are 
used by permission. Don't settle for a lesser quality astrol- 
ogy program. Needs 32K Extended. B & ML. Tape — 
$24.95; Disk - $29.95 



POLICY ON PROTECTION - We 
believe our customers are honest 
— all of our software can be 
backed up using standard back- 
up procedures. 



Your personal check is welcome 
— no delay. Include $1.50 ship- 
ping for each order. AZ residents 
add 5% sales tax. Orders shipped 
within two days. 



Dealer and author inquiries are 
always welcome. Canadian deal- 
ers should contact Kelly Software 
Distributors, Ltd., P.O. Box 1 1 932, 
Edmonton, Alberta T5J-3L1 (403) 
421-8003. 



FOR QUESTIONS OR ORDE R STATUS CALL 602-749-2864 
SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG OF 
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Stocked by Quality Dealers, or 

Send Order To PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

2640 N. Conestoga Ave. 
Tucson, Arizona 85749 
(602) 749-2864 




SFLE/DAT" , 128 : FORI=1TO100 : GET#1 , 
I : INPUT# 1 , YEAR : FORX= 1T0 1 2 : INPUT # 
1,TAMT(X) :YTOT(I)=YTOT(I)+TAMT(X 
):NEXTX:IF YRSW=1 THEN11987ELSE 
TTOT ( I ) =TAMT ( MO ) 

11986 NEXTI:CLOSE#l: RETURN 

11987 FOR 11=1 TO MO: TTOT(I)=TT 
OT ( I ) +TAMT (II) : NEXT II:GOT011986 

12000 DLSW=1:CLS: PRINT"********* 
SELECTIONS *********** ; PRINT: PR 

INT"1) DELETE A MONTH'S TRANSACT 
IONS" : PRINT" 2) DELETE A MONTH'S 
BUDGET": PRINT: PRINT" 3) RETURN TO 
MAIN MENU" : PRINT : PRINT" " ; : INPU 
TA : IFA< 10RA> 3 THEN 1 2000 

12001 ON A GOTO 12005,12200,160 

12005 CLS : PRINT©128 , "WHICH MONTH 
'S TRANSACTIONS DO YOU WISH TO 

DELETE " ; : INPUTA: IFA<10RA>12THE 
N12005ELSEGOSUB12007 

12006 GOSUB11960:GOTO12010 

12007 PRINT: PRINT "ARE YOU SURE ( 
ENTER <N> FOR RETURN TO MAIN 

MENU OTHERWISE ENTER <Y> TO D 
ELETE) ?";: 

12008 IK$=INKEY$:IF IK$="N" THEN 
16)3 ELSE IF IK$="Y" THEN RETURN 
ELSE 12008 

12010 DLSW=0 : CLS : PRINT© 12 8 , "I AM 
DELETING DATA IN FILE": PRINT FL 
$(MO) :KILL FL$(MO) : FL$ (MO) ="ZZZZ 
Z Z Z Z/ Z Z Z " : OPEN "D" , #1 , " FI LENAME / 
DAT" , 21: F0RI=1T012 : WRITE #1 , YEAR 
,FL$(I) :PUT#l,I:NEXTI:CLOSE#l 
12012 FLNM$="TRANSFLE/DAT" 
12015 OPEN "D",#l,FLNM$,128:FORI 
=1TO100 : GET#1 , 1 : INPUT #l,YEAR:FO 
R N=l TO 12:INPUT #1 , TAMT (N) :NEX 
TN 

12020 TAMT (MO) =0: WRITE # 1 , YEAR : F 
OR N=l TO 12:WRITE#1,TAMT(N) :NEX 
TN:PUT #l,I:NEXTI:CLOSE #l:GOT01 
60 

12030 DLSW=0: GOTO 160 

12200 CLS : PRINT© 12 8 , "WHICH MONTH 

'S BUDGET DO YOU WISHTO DELETE " 

; : INPUTA: IFA<1ORA>12THEN12200ELS 
EGOSUB12007 

12210 CLS : PRINT@128 , "I AM DELETI 

NG BUDGET DATA. ": FLNM$=" BUDGET/ D 

AT" : MO=A : GOTO120 15 

13000 CLS : PRINT© 12 8 , "ARE YOU REA 

DY TO BACKUP YOUR FILES (Y/N) 

" ; : INPUTA$ : IFA$="N"THEN160ELSEIF 

A$="Y"THEN13005ELSE13000 

13005 CLS: PRINT© 12 8, "REMOVE DISK 

ETTE AND WRITE PROTECT. I 

NSERT WRITE PROTECTEDDISKETTE AN 

D PRESS <R>." 



13006 IK$=INKEY$: IF IK$="R"THEN1 
3010ELSE13006 

13010 CLS: PRINT ©12 8, "BACKING UP 

FILES . " : BACKUP0 : END 

18000 CLS J3: PRINT© 19 2, "SO LONG TI 

LL NEXT TIME. MAY ALL YOUR EXPEN 

SES BE SMALL."; 

18010 END 







11400 


81 


40 


190 


11500 . 


...181 


11115 


....105 


11600 . 


...172 


11145 


52 


11800 . 


...177 


11239 


....102 


11960 . 


...193 


11350 


....207 


END 


...135 



Listing 3: REPTGENR 

0 PC LEAR 1 

5 CLS0 

6 PRINT" EXPENSE TRACKING & MANA 
GEMENT" 

12 PRINT@64,STRING$(32, "$") ; : PRI 

NT" author 

";: PRINT" EDDIE HIL 

L": PRINT" 124 STERLING DRI 

VE": PRINT" HUEYTOWN, AL 35 

023":PRINT" (205)491-145 
2": PRINT STRING$(32,"$") ;: 

15 PRINT" requirements 

";:PRINT" 64K COCO D 

ISK BASIC 1.1": PRINT" 
DISK DRIVE" : PRINT" DMP 10 

0 PRINTER" : PRINT STRING$ (32,"$") 



19 PRINT© 481, "PART 11=========== 

=AUGUST 1985" ; : 

20 P=64:F0RI=1T012:PRINT@P,"$"; : 
PRINT@P+31, "$" ; :P=P+32 :NEXTI:FOR 
X=1T09999:NEXTX 

21 DATA "JANUARY", "FEBRUARY", "MA 
RCH" , "APRIL" , "MAY" , "JUNE" , "JULY" 
, "AUGUST" , "SEPTEMBER" , "OCTOBER" , 
"NOVEMBER" , "DECEMBER" 

29 CLEAR3000 

30 FILES 3-.DIM BAMT ( 12 ) , TAMT ( 12 ) 
,VAR(12) ,MO$(12) ,FL$(12) ,TTOT(10 
0) ,DA$(100) ,CTOT(100) ,YTOT(100) 
40 FORI=lT012:READMO$(I) :NEXTI:R 
ESTORE 

50 GOTO11000 

160 CLS: PRINT© 13 3, "ONE MOMENT PL 
EASE. " :DLSW=0: FOR I=1TO100:DA$ (I 
) =" " : CTOT ( I ) =0 : TTOT ( I ) =0 : YTOT ( I ) 
=0:NEXTI 

11000 TRSW=0 : TT=0 : CLS : PRINT"**** 
*******SELECTIONS**********" : PRI 
NT: PRINT" 1) LIST MONTHLY TRANSAC 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 145 



MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 



MORE GOOD SOFTWARE 

GRAPHICOM 

3 disk package $29.95 

64K EXB disk 
SAM DIAMOND 

graphic adventure .... $29.95 

32K EXB disk 
HOT SLOT 

casino simulation .... $24.95 

32K EXB disk or tape 
ECLIPSE 

excellent pixel editor. . $19.95 

64K EXB disk 




iiUiiiiil rnimwii 
' Mllllinilllij 

[imilHllllll ItllNll 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 1 1 J Ll 1 n I k IM I MINI 1 1 J I h J I n MM II 



iMJIIll 



rniamiiiimiiini 1 Rtiiim inr iirii 

liiilwifcii nii»a;iiri 

iiitih i it mm ii Jiirmm 



Llhlll I I I ■■■■■ I I iBI' 



THE MOTION PICTURE 

A complete animation development system for your CoCo' 
An object oriented graphic screen developer. Using this 
tool you can quickly and simply animate your pictures. 
Take standard graphic screens that you develop and 
incorporate them into MOTION PICTURES. Animate up 
to eight frames, yielding smooth animation. Generate 
screens from objects and build screens from stored objecl 
files. Included are routines to display animation from 
BASIC. We believe you'll like this program, so we make 
this offer: We will send you a demonstration disk for $4.0C 
which you can apply as a credit if you buy the program. 
Requires 64K. Disk, $39.95. 



MORE KEYS 

At last a quality numeric keypad for 
your Color Computer. This 15 key 
numeric pad plugs inside your com- 
puter and gives you the convenience 
of rapid numeric data entry. Dimen- 
sions: length 6V2" (165mm), width 4" 
(101 mm), height 3" (76 mm). Baked 
black enamel finish. Specify computer 
model. MORE KEYS complete with 
cable and connector. 

$69.95 




DOUBLE DRIVER I 

The BEST monitor driver available. 
Color composite, monochrome and 
audio output. For original CoCo D, E 
and F boards. $24.95. 

MONO II 

Mono II for Color Computer 2. An 
excellent monochrome monitor driver 
that has audio output also. Specify 
model needed. 

$24.95. 




RESET-POWER-SWITCHES 

A REAL IMPROVEMENT 

Move the power switch and reset 
switch where they belong. An LED 
power on light too! High quality parts, 
D and E boards totally solderless. The 
F board and some models of the 
CoCo II require soldering. 

Reset 1 Coco 1 $24.95 
Reset 2 CoCo 2 $27.95 



Either kit add $2.00 
shipping and handling. 





Guaranteed Pretested 



64K UPGRADES 

E Board (solderless - 

pictured) $39.95 

F Board $26.95 

CoCo 2 (except 26-3134A&B and 

26-3136A&B) $26.95 

CoCo 2 (models 26-3134A&B and 
26-3136A&B $39.95 

Having trouble with your CoCo? We 
have the chips you need. Call us. 
(805) 962-3127 



PLANETARIUM 




A five program celestial 
package. A star gazer's aid. A 
program to familiarize you 
with the appearance of the 
major constellations. 21 first 
magnitude stars. Moon 
phases. Day or night sky. 
Any latitude. 33 constella- 
tions. Charts planet locations 
from A.D. 0 to the year 
10,000. Requires 16K 
Extended Basic. $19.95 



DOUBLE DRIVER II 

Finally a monitor driver for 
the Color Computer II that 
lets you use a monochrome 
and a color monitor 
simultaneously. We're proud 
of this new driver. The six 
transister circuit provides op- 
timal signal mixing and signal 
gain. Excellent monochrome 
output and better quality 
resolution in the color ouput 




than any driver we have 
seen. Audio output also. Fits 
all models of the Color Com- 
puter II. $29.95. 




THE COCO-SWITCHER 

A QUALITY PIECE OF HARDWARE 

The CoCo Switcher allows you to hook u 
three peripherals to your RS-232 jack. Cor 
nect your modem, printer and any othe 
RS-232 compatible peripheral to the CoC 
Switcher. An LED on the CoCo Switche 
shows if your computer is on or off at a glance 
The LED flickers when transmitting or receh 
ing data. 

$39.95 plus $2.00 shipping and handling 



MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Bay laboratory 
316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

Ordering information 

Send $2.00 shipping and handling per order. We ship 
within 1 working day on receipt of order. Blue Label 
Service available. California residents add 6% sales tax. 




TI0NS":PRINT"2) LIST MONTHLY BUD 
GET":PRINT"3) LIST BUDGET FOR YE 
AR":PRINT"4) LIST ACTUAL FOR YEA 
R": 

11001 PRINT" 5) LIST TRANS. SUM. 
FOR YEAR": PRINT" 6) LIST MO. ACTU 
AL VS. BUDGET": 

11005 PRINT"7) LIST YTD ACTUAL V 
S. BUDGET": PRINT" 8) LIST CHART O 
F ACCOUNTS": PRINT" 9) RETURN TO M 
AIN PROGRAM": PRINT" 10) END SESSI 
ON" : PRINT : PRINT" " ; : INPUTA : ON A 
GOSUB 11110,11200,11300,13000,11 
400,11500,11600,11699, 12000,1800 
0:GOTO11000 

11110 CLS : PRINT@128 , "WHICH MONTH 
DO YOU WISH TO LIST" ; :INPUTMO:I 

F MO <0 OR MO >12 THEN11110 ELSE 
AP$=LEFT$ (MO$ (MO) , 3 ) : A=MO 

11115 GOSUB11960 

11125 GOSUB11950 

11126 GOSUB11700:CLS:PRINT@128, " 
I AM PRINTING THE DETAIL 
TRANSACTIONS FOR " ;MO$ (MO) ; 11 . " ; : 
FLE $ = " DTLTRANS / " + AP$ : OPEN "D" , #1 
,FLE$,51 

11128 PRINT #-2, TAB (19) "MONTHLY 
TRANSACTIONS FOR " ;MO$ (MO) ; YEAR 

;:PRINT#-2: PRINT #-2: PRINT # - 2 , TA 
B(0) "REC ACT";: PRINT #-2, TAB (4 
0) "TRAN": PRINT #-2,TAB(0) "NUM 

NUM ACCOUNT DESCRIPTION. . 

... I.D. DA ..AMOUNT.. TRANS. 

DESCRIPTION" ; : PRINT#-2 : 

11129 LC=0:IFPSWO1THEN11130ELSE 
11150 

11130 FOR 1=1 TO 135:GOSUB11900: 
IFACNO=999THEN11140 

11131 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2, USING" # 

##%%###%%% 

%%%####%%##%%##,###.##-%%% 

% 11 ; I ; SPACE $ ; ACNO ; S 

PACE $ ; DA$ ( ACNO ) ; S PACE $ ; CHK ; " " ; DA 
;"";AMT;"" ;PRP$; : 

11135 TT=TT+AMT:LC=LC+l:IFLC=50T 
HENGOSUB11145 

11140 NEXTI:PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2:PR 

INT#-2,TAB(30) "TOTAL > 

» ; : PRINT#-2 , USING" $###,###.# #- 
n ;TT . . print#-2 : TT=0 : CLOSE #1: CLO 
SE #2:PSW=0:GOTO11910 
11145 PSW=l:FORX=lT012:PRINT#-2: 
NEXTX:GOT011128 

11150 I=I+1:GOSUB11900:IFACNO=99 

9THEN11140ELSE11131 

11200 CLS:PRINT@96, "WHICH MONTH' 

S BUDGET DO YOU WANTTO LIST" ; : IN 

PUTA: IFA<0ORA>12THEN11200ELSE112 

05 



11205 MO=A:GOSUB11950:GOSUB11980 
:GOSUB11700 

11210 I=1:LC=0:CLS:PRINT@96, "I A 
M PRINTING BUDGET DATA FOR " ;M 
0$ (MO) ; YEAR ; " . " 

11215 PRINT#-2," ";"BUD 
GET FOR " ;M0$ (MO) ; YEAR: PRINT #-2 : 
11220 PRINT#-2," ";"ACT 
< — D ESCRIPTIO N — > . 
.AMOUNT. .":PRINT#-2: 
11230 IF DA$(I)=STRING$(27,"X") 
OR CTOT(I)=0 THEN1 12 4 0ELSEBUDSUM 
=BUDSUM+CTOT (I) : PRINT#-2 , USING" % 

%###%%% 

%%%###,###.##-";" 

";I;" ";DA$(I);" ";CTOT(I): 

LC=LC+1: 1=1+1: IFLC=50THENGOSUB11 
880ELSEIFI=101THEN11235ELSE1123 
11235 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2, USING" % 

%% %%%###, ###.##-";SPACE$;"T 

, OTAL" ; » " ; BUDSUM 

11239 GOTO11890 

11240 1=1+1 :IFI=101THEN11235ELSE 
11230 

11300 RN$=" BUDGET" :G0SUB119 50 :F0 
RX=1T012 : TAMT (X) =0 : NEXTX: G0SUB11 
700: OPEN "D" , #1, "BUDGET/ DAT" ,128 

: 1=1 : LC=0 : ACNO=I 

11310 IF TRSW=1 THEN 11311 ELSE 
CLS : PRINT@96 , "I AM PRINTING THE 
BUDGET FOR THEYEAR. " : GOSUB11320 : 
GOT011335 

11311 CLS :PRINT@96, "I AM PRINTIN 
G THE ACTUAL FOR THEYEAR .": GOSUB 
11320:GOTO11335 

11320 GET #1,I:IFDA$(I)=STRING$( 
27 , "X" ) THEN11370ELSEINPUT#1 , YEAR 
: F0RX=1T012 : INPUT#1 , BAMT (X) : NEXT 
X : RETURN 

11335 PRINT#-2,STRING$(80,"-") : 
11340 PRINT#-2,TAB(36) "JAN 

FEB MAR APR" 

:PRINT#-2,TAB(36) "MAY J 
UN JUL AUG" : PRIN 

T#-2,RN$;" FOR ";YEAR;STRING$(19 
, " ") ;"SEP OCT N 

OV DEC":PRINT#-2,STRING$ 
(80,"-") ; :PRINT#-2 
11350 PRINT#-2,USING"% 

%%%##,###.##-%%# 

#,###.##-%%##,###.##-%%##,###•## 
-" ;DA$ (I) ; 11 " ; BAMT ( 1 ) ; " 11 ;BAMT 

(2);" " ; BAMT ( 3 ) ; " " ; BAMT ( 4 ) : 

11353 SUMBUD=0 : F0RX=1T012 : SUMBUD 
=SUMBUD+BAMT (X) : TAMT (X) =TAMT (X) + 
BAMT (X) : NEXTX 
11355 PRINT#-2,USING"% 

%##,###.##-%%# 
#,###.##-%%##,###.##-%%##,###•## 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 147 



; SPACE$ ; BAMT ( 5 ) ; " " ; BAMT ( 6 ) ; " 
11 ; BAMT ( 7 ) ; 11 " ; BAMT ( 8 ) : 
11360 PRINT#-2 / USING"###% 

%$###,###.##-% %##,###.##-%%# 

#,###.##-%%##,###.##-%%##,###.## 

- 11 ; ACNO ; " TOTAL . . . " ; SUMBUD ; S PAC 

E$ ; BAMT (9 ) ; " " ; BAMT ( 10 ) ; " " ; BA 

MT(ll);" ";BAMT(12) 

11365 IFTSW=1THEN11390ELSEPRINT# 

-2 : LC=LC+4 : 1=1+1 : ACNO=I : IFI=10 IT 

HEN11380ELSEIFLC=52THEN11398ELSE 

GOSUB11320:GOTO11350 

11370 1=1+1 :ACNO=I:IFI=101THEN11 

380ELSE11320 

11380 I=l:ACNO=999:DA$ (I)="TOTAL 
"+RN$+" FOR YEAR M :F0RX=1T 
012: BAMT (X)=TAMT(X) : NEXTX : TSW=1 : 
GOTO11350 

1139/3 LC=LC+2:TSW=0:GOTO11890 
11398 LC=0 : F0RX=1T09 : PRINT#-2 : NE 
XTX : G0SUB113 2 0 : G0T0113 3 5 
11400 YRSW=1 : CLS : PRINT@128 , "PLEA 
SE ENTER TODAY'S DATE. (SLA 
SHES MUST BE ENTERED) ": PRINT : PRI 
NT "DATE (MM/DD/YY) ... " ; : INPUTDT 
$ : GOSUB11950 : GOSUB11985 : G0SUB117 
J30 

11405 CLS : PRINT@9 6 , " I AM PRINTIN 



oeou 



THE SOFTWARE HOUSE |j 



SOOPER 
DOOPER 
DISKS 



- M 


• i 

h 


' 7\ 





OUR OWN 
"BRAND" 
LABEL 



PROGRAMMER'S DISKS 

SS/DD 10/$ 9.00 100/S80.00 
DS/DD 10/$ 10.00 100/S90.00 

SENTINEL COLORS Gift Boxed 

13 COLOR DISKS FOR $13.95 

w/Tyvek Sleeves & ..abe/s 

100% Certified - Lifetime Warranty 

COLOR RIBBONS: Red, Green, Blue, Brown 
GEM/OKI 4/$10.00 
EPSON 4/$24.00 
APPLE/NEC 4/$24.00 

Media Mate Disk Bank $12.95 
Head Cleaner Kit $6.95 

Add $2.50 S/H in U.S.A - Canada Add $3.50 
Michigan Residents Add 4% Sales Tax 

Send check or money order payable to: 

THE SOFTWARE HOUSE 

9020 Hemingway, Redford, Ml 48239 
a (31 3) 937-3442 M» 

I VISA I Send Card Number and Exp. Date & R 

I — M Min. Charge Order $20.00 HP K 



AMATEURS: See Us (WD8KJV) at: Y'all 
Miami Hamboree, Feb. 8 & 9 Come 



G A SUMMARY OF THE TRANSACTIONS 

FOR THE YEAR." 
114)38 LC=0 : 1=1 : SUMTOT=0 
1141/3 PRINT#-2, "TRANSACTION SUMM 

ARY FOR"; YEAR;" A/0 ";DT$:PRI 

NT#-2:PRINT#-2,"ACT ACCOUNT 

DESCRIPTION AMOUNT . . . " : 

PRINT* -2: 

11420 IF YTOT(I)=0 THEN 1143/3 EL 
SE PRINT#-2,USING"###%%% 

%%%###,###.##-" 
; I ; " " ; DA$ (I) ; » " ; YTOT (I ) : SUMT 

0T=SUMT0T+YT0T (I) : LC=LC+1 : IFLC=5 

0THEN11440 

1143/3 1=1+1 :IFI=101THEN11450ELSE 
1142/3 

11440 1=1+1: IF 1=1/31 THEN 1145/3 
ELSE FORX=lT012:PRINT#-2: NEXTX: L 
C=0:GOTO11410 

1145/3 YRSW=/3:CLOSE#l:PRINT#-2 : PR 
INT#-2,USING"% 

%% %$###,###. ##-";SPAC 

E $ ; " TOTAL " ; SUMTOT : LC=LC+ 2 : SUMT 
0T=/3 : FORX=LC TO 61 : PRINT #-2 : NEXT 
X:LC=0:GOTO160 

11500 CLS : PRINT@128 , "WHICH MONTH 
DO YOU WISH TO LIST";:INPU 
TA:IFA<1 OR A>12 THEN11500 
11515 GOSUB11960 : GOSUB11950 : GOSU 
B11980 : GOSUB11985 : GOSUB11700 : CLS 
:PRINT@128, "I AM PRINTING ACTUAL 
VS. BUDGET FOR " ;MO$ (MO) ; YEAR 
11520 LC=0:I=1:ACTOT=0:SUMBUD=0 
11525 GOSUB11650:PRINT#-2:PRINT# 
-2," ACT ...DE SCRIPT I 
ON ACTUAL BUDGET 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

With this one-liner, you can enter the amount of 
your paycheck, key in the amounts of your monthly 
bills and see how much is left. 

The listing: 

0 CLS :PRINT@8, "QUICK BUDGET": PRI 
NT: INPUT" AMOUNT OF PAYCHECK 

";A: CLS MNPUT" NUMBER OF B 

ILLS " ; B : CLS : F0RX=1T0B : PRINT : INPU 
T" AMOUNT OF BILL" ; C : BB=A- 

C: PRINT" PAYCHECK LEFT"BB 

: F0RZ=1T03 000 : NEXT : A=BB : NEXTX : CL 
S: PRINT" PAYCHECK LEFT 

David V. Haas 
tin AFB, FL 



'-..J-'.': X- ' , 



(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Second Rainbow Book Of Adventures and its companion The 
Second Rainbow Adventures Tape.)} 



148 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



. . VARIANCE . " : PRINT#-2 
11530 IF MID$(DA$(I) ,1,5)="XXXXX 
" THEN 11550 ELSE PRINT#-2 , USING 
»%%###%%% 

%% %###,###.##-% %###,###.##-% 

%###,###.##-";" " ; I ; ";da$(i 

) ; " » ; TTOT (I) ; " " ; CTOT ( I ) ; " 

" ; CTOT ( I ) -TTOT (I) : ACTOT=ACTOT+ 
TTOT(I) : 

11535 SUMBUD=SUMBUD+CTOT(I) :LC=L 

C+l: 

11550 1=1+1: IFI=101THEN11560ELSE 
IFLC=50THEN11555ELSE11530 
11555 FOR X=LC TO 61:PRINT#-2 :NE 
XTX : LC=0 : GOTO 11525 
11560 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2,USING"% 

%% %% 
%$###,###.##-%%$###,###.##-%%$# 

##/###•##"" ?SPACE$ ; "TOTAL >" 

. m ";ACTOT;" ";SUMBUD;" " ;SUM 
BUD-ACTOT : FOR X=LC TO 59:PRINT#- 
2 : NEXTX : YRSW=0 : GOTO160 
11600 YRSW=1: CLS : PRINT@128 , "ENTE 
R MONTH FOR WHICH YOU WISH TO L 
1ST YEAR TO DATE THROUGH .": PRINT 
:INPUTA:IF A<1 OR A>12 THEN11600 
11610 GOSUB11960:GOSUB11950:GOSU 
B11980 : GOSUB11985 : GOSUB11700 : 
11615 CLS : PRINT© 12 8 , "I AM PRINTI 
NG YEAR TO DATE DATA. 11 :GOTO11520 
1165J3 IF YRSW=1 THEN 11660 ELSE 
PRINT#-2," ACTUAL VS. BUDGET FO 
R "i ;MO$ (MO) ; YEAR: RETURN 
11660 PRINT#-2," YEAR TO DATE A 
/O ";MO$ (MO) ; YEAR: RETURN 

11699 GOSUB11700:GOTO11800 

11700 CLS:PRINT§96 / "THE 1ST PRIN 
T LINE SHOULD BE ABOUT 3/4 IN 
CHES FROM THE TOP OF PAPER. PL 
EASE ALIGN. WHEN PAPER IS ALI 
GNED PROPERLY TYPE <YES> IN RES 
PONSE TO QUESTION. ": PRINT: PRINT" 
IS PRINTER READY"; :INPUTA$:IFA$= 
" YES " THENRETURNE LS E 1 1700 

11800 1=1 : LC=0 : CLS : PRINT@98 , "PRI 
NTING CHART OF ACCOUNTS .": OPEN " 
D" , #1, "CHRTACCT/DAT" , 30 
11810 PRINT#-2," ACT < 

— D ESCRIPTIO N — >":PRIN 
T#— 2 : 

11820 GET#1,I:INPUT #1,DESC$:D$= 
MID$ (DESC$ ,1,5): IFD$="XXXXX"THEN 
11825ELSEPRINT#-2, USING"% 
%###%%% 

% " ; " " ; I ; " " ; DES 

C$ : LC=LC+1 : 1=1+1 : IFLC=50THENGOSU 
B11880ELSEIFI=101THEN11889ELSE11 

82)3 

11825 1=1+1: IFI=101THEN11889ELSE 



11820 

11830 GOT01181j3 

11880 F0RX=1T014 : PRINT #-2 : NEXTX: 
LC=0 : RETURN 

11889 LC=LC-4 

11890 FOR X=LC TO 59 : PRINT#-2 : NE 
XTX : LC=0 : CLOSE # 1 : GOT016J3 

119j3j3 GET#l,I:INPUT#l,ACNO,MO,DA 
, YR, CHK , AMT , PRP$ , PST : RETURN 
1191j3 PRINT#-2:LC=LC+l:IFLC=59TH 
EN16j3ELSE1191j3 

1195j3 CLS : PRINT@96 , "ONE MOMENT P 
LEASE, I AM LOADING ACCOUNT DESC 
RI PTI ONS . " : OPEN "D" , #1, " CHRTACCT 
/DAT" , 3J3 : F0RI=1T01J3^J : GET #1 , 1 : IN 
PUT #1,DESC$:DA$(I)=DESC$:NEXTI: 
CLOSE #1: RETURN 

1196j3 CLS : PRINT§ 12 8 , " I AM CHECKI 
NG TO SEE IF THE DATAFOR THE MON 
TH YOU SELECTED IS ONFILE . " :MO=A 
:OPEN "D",#l, "FILENAME/ DAT", 21 :F 
0RI=1T012:GET #1,1 .'INPUT #1, YEAR 
, FLE$ : FL$ ( I ) =FLE$ : NEXT I : CLOSE# 1 
11965 IF FL$(MO) = "ZZZZZZZZ/ZZZ 
" THEN 119 7 j3 ELSE RETURN 
1197)3 PRINT: PRINT "DATA FOR THE M 
ONTH YOU ENTERED IS NOT ON FILE 
. I AM RETURNING TO MENU.": FORT 
=lT03j3j3)3:NEXT T:IF DLSW=1 THEN 1 
2)33)3 ELSE 11000 

11980 CLS : PRINT@98 , "I AM LOADING 
BUDGET DATA.": OPEN "D",#1,"BUDG 

ET/DAT" , 128 : FORI=1TO100 : GET #1,1 
: INPUT #1, YEAR: F0RX=1T012: INPUT 
#1,BAMT(X) : NEXTX: IF YRSW=1 THEN1 
1982ELSECTOT (I) =BAMT (MO) 

11981 NEXTI: CLOSE #1: RETURN 

11982 FOR 11=1 TO MO : CTOT ( I ) =CTO 
T(I)+BAMT (II) :NEXT II:GOT011981 

11985 CLS : PRINT@9 6 , " I AM LOADING 
ACTUAL DATA . " : OPEN "D" , #1 , "TRAN 

SFLE/DAT" , 128 : FORI=1TO100 :GET#1, 
I : INPUT#1, YEAR: F0RX=1T012 : INPUT# 
1,TAMT(X) :YTOT(I)=YTOT(I)+TAMT(X 
):NEXTX:IF YRSW=1 THEN11987ELSE 
TTOT ( I ) =TAMT (MO ) 

11986 NEXTI :CLOSE#l: RETURN 

11987 FOR 11=1 TO MO: TTOT(I)=TT 
OT ( I ) +TAMT ( II ) : NEXT II:GOT011986 
12000 CLS : PRINT@128 , "I AM LOADIN 
G MAIN PROGRAM. ":RUN"EXPTRAKR" 
13000 TRSW=1 :RN$=" ACTUAL" :GOSUBl 
1950 : FORX=1T012 : TAMT (X) =0 : NEXTX: 
GOSUB 1 1700 : OPEN "D" , #1, " TRANS FLE 
/DAT" , 128 : 1=1 : LC=0 : ACNO=I : GOTOll 
310 

18000 CLS0 : PRINT @ 19 2 , "SO LONG TI 
LL NEXT TIME. MAY ALL YOUR EXPEN 
SES BE SMALL. ": PRINT: END 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 149 



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Speed 6 ms tk to tk and up 
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Building Language 
Arts Skills 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



££^T^ack to basics" skills are the 
m^L trend in many school sys- 
M~M terns throughout the coun- 
try. This renewed emphasis on the 
traditional language arts and math 
skills is probably the most popular way 
computers are currently being used in 
schools. These types of programs are 
commonly referred to as C.A.I. — 
Computer-Assisted Instruction. 

Way before the age of computers 
arrived, there existed many wonderful 
skill series of language arts workbooks. 
One such series is published by Barnell 
Loft, Ltd. These workbooks cover a 
wide range of skills, including following 
directions, using the context, locating 
the answer, getting the facts, getting the 
main idea and drawing conclusions. 
The individual booklets are available 
for the first grade up to high school 
level. 

Almost every school I have visited 
uses some of these skill booklets. I have 
used them in my classroom for several 



Steve Blyn teaches both exceptional 
and gifted children, holds two master's 
degrees and has won awards for the 
design of programs to aid the handi- 
capped. He owns Computer Island and 
lives in Staten Island, New York. 



years. This month's program is an all- 
purpose language arts program. It is 
easily adaptable to any of the ideas 
presented in such skill books. 

By varying the types of questions, this 
program can be geared to any of the 
mentioned skill areas. Similarly, the 
program can be made suitable for 
almost any level by changing the story 
content as well as the questions. 

One might ask, "Why is it necessary 
to replicate on the computer what 
already exists in booklet form?" Tsk! 
Tsk! There are several very good rea- 
sons. 

Computers may be presenting similar 
material, but through a very different 
medium. Children are naturally at- 
tracted to computers and sometimes 
learn better through them than by 
traditional means. Computers have the 
ability to give immediate feedback to 
the student — you know at every step 
of the way whether you are succeeding 
or not. 

Computers are also impersonal. By 
that, I don't mean they don't have any 
personality. Morris, my original CoCo, 
is very dear to me and has practically 
become a family member. (We do cele- 
brate his birthday.) By impersonal, I 
mean they are tireless reformers of 



mistakes. They do not complain to the 
user, nor do they make any judgments 
against the user. It is almost impossible 
for a person to remain impartial to 
successes and failures as computers do. 

The program presents part of the 
"Jack and the Beanstalk" story. This is 
located on lines 90 and 100. Our story 
is merely used as an example. The 
choice of story and the grade level for 
which it is written should be yours. The 
story of Jack was taken from a third- 
grade reader. 

A series of questions about the story 
is placed in the DATA lines 260-390. Our 
questions use a scattered approach: They 
purposely do not cover any one specific 
skill area. They are meant to illustrate 
the variety of questions you may use. 
They even go beyond the Barnell Loft 
areas mentioned earlier. Your questions 
can be as diverse as your imagination or 
just remain with one skill ar.ea. 

Fourteen questions were entered as 
illustrations. We chose the number 14 to 
show you that we are not limited only 
to 10 questions. Often, computer new- 
comers think there is something magical 
about the number 10 or its multiples. 
Not so! A short program such as this 
one can have literally hundreds of 
questions entered. You must, however, 



152 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



tell the computer how many questions 
to read. Our number of questions is 
indicated in the dimension statement on 
Line 30 and also on lines 40 and 50. Be 
sure to include the number of questions 
you use on those lines. 

The program is set to ask 10 of the 
story questions each round. Common 
sense dictates that rounds come in sets 
of 10 questions. Other numbers that 
divide evenly into 100 are also good 
choices. The questions appear one at a 
time and do not repeat in a given round. 

Correct answers receive a happy tune 



and a message that says "correct" on 
Line 210. The incorrect answers, how- 
ever, are really the important ones. 
Each time a question is answered incor- 
rectly, its question and correct answer 
are stored in lines 400-420. This makes 
possible a review of these questions and 
answers. This is similar to a study- 
review sheet. 

The program handles the review on 
lines 430-480. If you have a printer, it 
is a good idea to print out the review for 
the student's future reference. To get a 
printout, change the PRINT statements 



on lines 430, 440 and 460 to PRINTtt- 
2, statements. You may add these to the 
existing lines to get the output on both 
the screen and the printer. 

It is hoped that you use this program 
as a model for incorporating your own 
versions. You may create fun programs 
to reinforce children's favorite stories or 
programs to strictly strengthen specific 
language arts skills. A combination of 
the two might be the best route to go. 
Remember to save each of your versions 
on tape or disk before proceeding to 
your next creation. □ 



160 . 
340 . 
END 



134 
253 
100 



The listing: FINDW0RD 

10 REM"FIND THE WORD" 

20 REM"STEVE BLYN , COMPUTER ISLAN 

D, NY, 1986 

30 DIM A$(14) ,B$(14) ,X$(lp) ,Y$(1 

40 FOR T=l TO 14: READ A$(T),B$(T 

) : NEXT T 

50 R=RND(14) 

60 XY=RND( -TIMER) 

70 CLS 

80 PRINT@32,STRING$(32,207) ; 
90 PRINT" JACK CLIMBED THE BEA 
NSTALK A SECOND TIME. HE WAS AGA 
IN HELPEDBY THE GIANT'S WIFE. TH 
IS TIME HE TOOK THE HEN THAT LA 
ID THE GOLDEN EGGS. HE ESCAPED 

QUICKLY. " ; 
100 PRINT" JACK PICKED UP THE M 
AGIC HARP ON HIS THIRD TRIP. BUT 

THE HARP CALLED OUT AND WOKE TH 
E GIANT. THE GIANT BEGAN TO CHA 
SE JACK." 
110 N=N+1 

120 PRINT@0,"N=";N;" ** JA 

CK ** R=";CR; 

130 IF N>10 THEN GOTO 430 

140 PRINT@352,STRING$ (32, (RND(12 

8)+127) ) ; 

150 PRINT@416,STRING$ (95, " "); 

160 PRINT0384 , "TRY TO FIND THE W 

ORD THAT ..." 

170 IF R>13 THEN R=0 

180 R=R+1 

190 PRINTA$(R) 

200 INPUT C$ 

210 IF C$=B$(R) THEN PLAY"L100CE 
GCEGCC" : PRINT" CORRECT. PRESS ENT 
ER TO GO ON";:CR=CR+l 
220 IF C$OB$(R) THEN PLAY "L4CC 



" : PRINTB$ (R) " IS THE ANSWER. " ; : G 

OSUB 400 

230 EN$=INKEY$ 

240 IF EN$=CHR$(13) THEN 110 
250 GOTO 230 

260 DATA IS A COMPOUND WORD, BEAN 
STALK 

270 DATA IS A COLOR, GOLDEN 

280 DATA HAS AN APOSTROPHE , GIANT 

■S 

290 DATA IS THE OPPOSITE OF HUSB 
AND, WIFE 

300 DATA IS GOOD TO EAT FOR BREA 
KFAST, EGGS 

310 DATA MEANS MORE THAN TWO TIM 
ES, THIRD 

320 DATA MEANS THE OPPOSITE OF S 
MALL, GIANT 

3 30 DATA MEANS THE SAME AS FAST, 
QUICKLY 

340 DATA MEANS THE SAME AS A VOY 
AGE, TRIP 

350 DATA IS THE NAME OF AN ANIMA 
L,HEN 

3 60 DATA IS A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT 
,HARP 

370 DATA IS THE OPPOSITE OF IN,0 
UT 

3 80 DATA THAT -APPEARS MOST OFTEN 

ABOVE , THE 
390 DATA THAT IS USED 4 TIMES, JA 
CK 

400 X$(J)=A$(R) :Y$(J)=B$(R) 
410 J=J+1 
420 RETURN 

430 CLS : PLAY"CDEFG" : PRINT"HERE I 
S YOUR REVIEW" 

440 IF CR=10 THEN PRINT : PRINT "VE 
RY GOOD ... 100%":GOTO 490 
450 FOR K=0 TO J-l 

460 PRINT K+l;". " ;Y$(K) ;" IS THE 

WORD THAT" : PRINTX$ (K) : PRINT 
470 EN$=INKEY$ 

480 IF EN$=CHR$(13) THEN NEXT K 
ELSE 470 

490 END /» 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 153 



EDUCATION OVERVIEW 



Educating with 

Electronic Communications 

and Research 

By Michael Plog, Ph.D. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



In case you have not tried your free 
hour on the Delphi telecommunica- 
tions network, I strongly encourage 
you to take advantage of this offer from 
THE RAINBOW. Like many of you, I have 
been playing around with Delphi for a 
while now, trying to learn the shortest 
way to get from one point to another. 

The folks who created the Delphi 
system must have been poets, because 
the name itself implies majesty, mystery 
and a reference to answers. "Delphi" 
was a special place to the ancient 
Greeks. It was the most important 
Greek temple and home of the oracle of 
Apollo. Also, the Greeks considered 
Delphi to be the center of the world. In 
the temple itself, a stone marked the 
exact spot of the world's center, called 
the "navel." 

The term "oracle" is actually a Latin 
word, not Greek. Traditionally, the 
oracle at Delphi belonged first to 



Michael Plog received his doctorate 
degree from the University of Illinois. 
He has taught social studies in high 
school, worked in a central office of a 
school district and currently is em- 
ployed at the Illinois State Board of 
Education. 



Mother Earth. Apollo either stole the 
oracle or was given it by Mother Earth. 
The medium of the oracle (the person 
actually doing the speaking) was always 
a woman over 50. The procedures to 
obtain an answer from the oracle were 
complex and rigid. A "reading" could 
only be given at certain times of the 
year. A ritual cake was required, along 
with a sacrificial animal conforming to 
rigorous physical standards. 

The oracle and her consultants 
bathed in a special spring, drank from 
a sacred stream, then entered the tem- 
ple. The oracle went to a basement cell 
in the temple, sat on a sacred tripod and 
chewed leaves of the laurel tree (this was 
Apollo's special tree). While sitting and 
chewing on the leaves, the oracle would 
speak. Her words, however, were not 
given directly to the person asking the 
question. They were interpreted and 
written by the priests, often in highly 
ambiguous verse. 

Delphi has been continuously inha- 
bited since the 14th century B.C. The 
height of the oracle's prestige and 
popularity was in the 4th century B.C. 

When you stop and think about it, the 
present electronic Delphi is somewhat 
similar to the ancient oracle. People 
approach with a question or a need for 



information. It is always helpful to have 
a ritual cake (maybe a sandwich, but I 
find it easier to use a cookie). The 
sacrificial animal has been replaced 
with a plastic credit card, but still 
requires rigorous standards. (If you 
don't pay, you don't stay.) Your compu- 
ter does not have to be in a basement, 
but you are figuratively apart from the 
rest of the world. The messages we 
receive from our electronic oracle are 
sometimes ambiguous. 

I have learned a few things while on 
Delphi, other than about the system 
itself. It seems that everyone wants a 
RAINBOWfest held in a city close to 
where they live. Most of the Color 
Computer users responding to a poll 
have one or more disk drives. Of the 29 
respondents to one poll, 75 percent of 
them use more than one disk operating 
system for their Color Computer. I have 
also read some interesting messages 
about modems and operating systems, 
and have obtained some public domain 
software. 

I wonder about educational applica- 
tions of Delphi for schools and stu- 
dents. It seems that two major applica- 
tions can be expected. First is the 
communication potential of Delphi. 
You can send messages to other people 



154 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



(perhaps those having some special 
expertise) and share ideas with others of 
a similar interest. The second benefit for 
education is the research capabilities of 
Delphi. 

The idea of communicating with 
other people with similar interests is 
important for the field of education. 
Several bulletin board services exist for 
special interest groups in education. 
These services connect people with 
similar interests and can serve many 
functions. For example, local school 
districts can send applications for spe- 
cial funding to state agencies or foun- 
dations by electronic means. One spe- 
cial interest group, educators for the 
handicapped, has an electronic com- 
munications service with one of the 
features being updates on proposed 
legislation. Subscribers know what is 
being discussed in Washington and have 
an ideal opportunity to contact their 
representatives and encourage a vote 
one way or the other. 

Electronic research capabilities have 
revolutionized decision making in busi- 
ness and government, but not yet in 



schools. Delphi has a connection with 
a system called DIALOG, a collection 
of over 200 databases. Some of these are 
highly specialized, technical databases, 
such as medical experiments or legal 
search organizations. A person might 
want to know how many microcompu- 
ters were sold to schools last year; 
searching the appropriate database 
provides the answer. 

The problems involved in using elec- 
tronic research are generally cost and 
training. The price for using some of the 
databases can be very high. Some of the 
specialized databases can cost thou- 
sands of dollars per year, plus online 
connection time. Most schools are not 
willing to incur such expenses for stu- 
dent projects. Also, each database 
requires special procedures for search- 
ing. Those procedures can become 
complex for the untrained person. 

I believe these problems will be elim- 
inated in the near future. The proce- 
dures for specialized searching are a 
matter of software. Computer profes- 
sionals are currently working on new 
languages to help the human and ma- 



chine understand each other better. The 
cost factor may be a little more difficult 
to solve. It is expensive to maintain even 
a simple database — a lot of time is 
required (which must be paid for by 
someone). A lot of expensive equipment 
is also necessary to provide a database. 
The more people who use such systems, 
however, the less each will have to pay. 

Will we ever reach a time when elec- 
tronic communications and research 
are common practices for elementary 
and secondary students? Will we have, 
for example, a sixth-grade student in 
Florida writing a report about earth- 
quakes, and including as part of that 
report, an interview with a California 
student who recently experienced an 
earthquake? 

The future is unknown; our current 
Delphi oracles only share present infor- 
mation, not future happenings. How- 
ever, if you or your school is using 
electronic communications or research, 
I would like to know about it. Please 
share your experiences and efforts. My 
Delphi username is MPLOG — why 
not drop me a line? □ 




\ 




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March 1986 THE RAINBOW 155 



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Model 103 Combo 
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With the turn of a knob the model 103 
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IMPORTANT! 

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The Wishing Well 
Title Maker 




By Fred B. Scerbo 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Editor's Note: If you have an idea for 
the " Wishing Well " submit it to Fred 
c/o the rainbow. Remember, keep 
your ideas specific, and don 't forget that 
this is BASIC. All programs resulting 
from your wishes are for your use but 
remain the property of the author. 



Some of you may have noticed that 
during the last 12 months the 
opening credits of most of my 
"Wishing Well" programs have taken on 
a slightly different look. While in the 
past I have used the Hi-Res graphics 
screens to make title cards, I haven't 
taken a liking to using the CHR$ colors 
in the text mode to create introductory 
title screens. Since many of you have 
written and requested a way to create 
text graphics of this style on your own, 
this month's "Wishing Well" will be 
dedicated to fulfilling this task. 

The Motivation 

Over a year ago, the folks at RAINBOW 
asked me to create a new rainbow on 



Fred Scerbo is a special needs instructor 
for the North Adams Public Schools in 
North Adams, Massachusetts. He holds 
a master's in education and has pub- 
lished some of the first software avail- 
able for the Color Computer through 
his software firm, Illustrated Memory 
Banks. 



TAPE title card. I had made the original 
logo back when the tape format first 
came out and we were looking for 
something a little more classy. Since at 
the time I had just completed a "Wish- 
ing Well" series on creating additional 
colors in PMDDE4, 1 decided to use those 
colors for the actual graphics. 

As those of you who have followed 
this column will recall, creating these 
extra colors takes a little time since the 
pixel patterns must be set and placed in 
an array. Usually, I would tie up the text 
screen with CLS0 so the user would not 
see the colors being created . 

When it came time to make the RAIN- 
BOW ON TAPE logo, I felt that the user 
should not have to stare at a black 
screen for what might seem like an 
eternity while the graphics being created 
on the Hi-Res screen was kept hidden 
from view. Therefore, I chose to have 
the text screen display the words "Fal- 
soft Inc. presents" in large block letters 
while this graphics manipulation took 
place out of sight. 

For this, I used a character set that 
I created for my math program, Multi- 
Math Driller. However, when I in- 
cluded the text generator that created 
these large, multicolored block letters, 
the RAINBOW ON TAPE menu program 
was too long. To solve this, I used the 
generator to create my characters and 
then went through the slow process of 
examining the text screen memory 
locations to determine which CHR$ 
codes made up the graphics I had just 



created. The job took a little longer than 
I wanted, but the result was satisfying. 
In fact, it brought to mind one of the 
rules of programming 1 learned years 
ago: the greater the time spent by the 
programmer, the less the time spent by 
the user. (The reverse of this is also 
true.) 

As more programs for "The Well" 
required title cards, I started using this 
technique more often. Each time, how- 
ever, I streamlined the process so it 
would take less time. By the time I got 
to creating Tri- Planetary Hangmen- 
oids, the character set no longer was 
suitable since I needed smaller, more 
compact letters for longer words. 

This led to my writing a short routine 
to allow me to use the arrow keys for 
a simpler drawer-type program on the 
text screen. However, each time I 
created a screen, I had to go about 
analyzing the memory locations one 
line at a time. It worked, but it was slow. 

The Wish 

Meanwhile, many "Wishing Well" 
readers have kept a close watch on my 
title cards and asked over and over, 
"When will you give us a program to 
make title cards like these?" Some 
readers even wanted to use this tech- 
nique for creating a string of titles to use 
for TV displays. 

Since all of my efforts had been 
fractional up to this point, I finally 
decided to put all the pieces together in 



March 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 57 



a usable program that would not only 
create the text* and analyze the screen 
memory locations, but write the final 
BASIC program itself! To make the 
program as flexible as possible, the 
program would have to use both a 
combination of arrow keys and a direct 
input format that would change text to 
large letter characters. The end result of 
these wishes is The Wishing Well Title 
Maker, which you will find listed here. 

The Program 

Because of a few commands used by 
the program, I have written it to work 
with 16K Color Extended BASIC, and 
not just Color BASIC. The program it 
produces will work in Color basic, 
however, since the program consists 
only of DATA statements of the CHR$ 
codes needed to create your screen. 

The way the program works is actu- 
ally quite simple. Let's say you have 
created a screen you wish to use. (Ill 
explain all the steps later.) You have two 
options. You may save the screen's 
memory locations in machine language 
to either disk or tape. This allows you 
to save a screen you have been working 
on and reload it later for other altera- 
tions. 

Your other option, if you are satisfied 
with your results, is to use the "analyze" 
option, which will create the complete 
BASIC program to redraw your screen 
independently of the original program. 
The way the analyze option works is to 
start at the bottom line of the screen 
available and check all its locations to 
see if they are filled with black blocks 
of CHR$ ( 12B ) . If the row is completely 
black, the program keeps moving up a 
row until it finds characters. This pre- 
vents us from having a really long 
program of DATA statements if only a 
few lines are needed. 

Once the bottom row of characters is 
found, the program returns to the top 
row and analyzes each block to deter- 
mine the CHR$ code by peeking at the 
screen location in memory. Whatever 
value is found in that location, the 
number will have 128 subtracted from 
it. Later, when the number is used from 
DATA, 128 is added to it. This saves a 
byte here and there by keeping our DATA 
numbers as low as possible. Also, in 
cases where the CHR$ is 128 (a black 
box), the value will end up as zero for 
our DATA line. 

Rather than eat up memory by hav- 
ing a zero in a DATA line, the program 
will leave nothing between the commas. 



The new program will thus later read a 
zero and add 128 to it, giving us our 
CHR$ ( 12B ) . This also explains why you 
will often see my DATA lines with strings 
of commas. These are zero values and 
I am simply trying to save some space. 
Look at the beginning of this listing and 
you will see what I mean. 

In the analyze mode, the program 
writes a file in ASCII to either disk or 
tape. This ASCII file can later be loaded 
directly into memory as a BASIC pro- 
gram that you can add to later. You may 
even merge this file if you have a disk 
drive using the MERGE command. Oth- 
erwise, create a screen and then add 
onto your program from there. 

Using the Program 

Type in the program exactly as it is 
listed, making sure to leave out no lines 
or commas in the DATA statements. 
When the title screen comes up, you 
may press ENTER to proceed with the 
program. A new screen then comes up 
asking: 

LOAD AN OLD FILE (Y'N) ? 

You may press 'Y 9 if you wish to 
continue working on an old screen. If 
you do, you are asked to enter a file- 
name with: 

ENTER FILENAME: 
which must be less than nine characters 
long. The program next asks: 

FROM (D) ISK DR (T)fiPE ? 

At this point, you should either have 
your disk in the disk drive or your tape 
in the cassette player with Play pushed. 
Failure to do this might cause an I/O 
Error, especially with disk. 

If you have not chosen to load an old 
file, the screen will next say: 

YOU MUST SELECT A FILENAME. 

ENTER NEW FILENAME: 

This filename is used later when you 
wish to save or analyze the screen you 
create. The next question to answer is: 

(B)LANK SCREEN OR (A)UTOPRINT? 

Autoprint allows you to enter up to 
four lines of text at a selected color. The 
internal character set in the program is 
used to create your screen. This method 
is not flawless, however, since your text 
cannot be over eight characters long. If 
the characters include M, N, W or X, 
then you may have to use fewer than 
eight characters. 

You may only choose to enter one or 
two lines of text. When the screen says: 

ENTER TEXT: 
enter the words or spaces you wish to 
use. To center a short word such as 
"hello," you may wish to insert one or 



two spaces before the word. A space 
only takes up half the space of a char- 
acter. You will have to experiment to get 
the effect desired. If you enter no text, 
the program will proceed to create your 
screen. Otherwise, you are asked to 
enter four lines of text. 

Next you need to select the color of 
the characters or text to be printed. You 
must select the color with the numbers 
1 to 8. Use this guide: 

1) Green 

2) Yellow 

3) Blue 

4) Red 

5) Buff 

6) Aqua 

7) Magenta 

8) Orange 

You may not use a zero or a number 
larger than eight. Use the numbers listed 
above to select the way you want your 
text to look. After the text has been 
created, you will be in the screen editor 
mode. 

Using the Screen Editor 

If you select "blank screen" as your 
option, you will be in the screen editor 
mode. In this mode, you may use the 
arrow keys to draw or create your own 
characters. Here is a summary of the 
functions included: 

Arrow keys — one space at a time 
SHlFT-arrow — moves to that corner 
1 to 8 — colors as listed earlier 
9 — return to black cursor 
SHIFT @ — clear the screen 

* — save screen in machine language 

# — analyze and create BASIC file 

When you choose to analyze the 
screen or to save the screen in machine 
language, you are again asked: 

PREPARE (D)ISI< OR (T)APE 

At this point, prepare your disk or 
tape and press either *D' or T\ 

If you have used the autoprint option, 
you will end up in the screen editor 
mode anyway. You may choose to add 
borders or other decorations to enhance 
the screen. Quite often, I will draw thin 
block letters using only the editor since 
most of my titles are over eight charac- 
ters long. In fact, the actual title card for 
this program was created in this fashion 
as was the new text title page for RAIN- 
BOW on TAPE 1986. 

A few hints are needed here. The 
bottom line of the screen is not included 
in your screen design. It contains a 
summary of your colors and commands 



158 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



so you do not have to refer to this 
article. Also, the program is designed to 
use only a black background, CLS0. 
This is due to the way the CHR$ blocks 
are designed with black for the blank 
areas. 

Also, when creating designs, it may 
take a little getting used to switching 
back and forth between a color and '9', 
which is black. With a little practice, 
you will get the hang of it. Remember, 
if you place some colors too close to 
each other, they may overlap. Once 
again, a little practice will help you 
avoid this structural limitation of the 
CoCo screen. 

Other Pointers 

I did try to include the keyboard 
alphanumeric characters in the editor 
mode but found it caused too much 
trouble with overall screen control. 
Therefore, if you must add text to a 
screen, do it using PRINTS after the 



DfiTfi statements in the BASIC program 
this Title Maker creates. 

Also, keep in mind that if you load 
an old screen filename, that filename 
will be used to write the new file to disk 
or tape. This does not cause a problem 
with the ASCII file or machine lan- 
guage file having the same name, but if 
you are altering an existing machine 
language file, the new one you save will 
overwrite the old. You may avoid this 
simply by using different disks for 
loading and saving, or by using RENRME 
independent of the program. 

You can string a group of these title 
cards together using Disk BASIC'S 
MERGE command. You may also do the 
same with tape by renumbering each 
file, resaving it in ASCII and loading it 
into a tape-based word processor. Be 
sure to use FDR/NEXT delays (i.e., FDR 
1=1 to 2000:NEXT) to keep your 
screens from flipping by too quickly. 
You be the judge of how you want these 



to work. Your only limitation is the 
amount of free memory left. 

One last point should be included 
here. If you wish to have the program 
file written so the DATA statements will 
actually be the ASCII values of the 
CHR$ that form the screen images, 
change the value of SW in Line 10 to zero 
(0). SW stands for "short way," which is 
using empty commas to save memory. 

Conclusion 

I hope you find this program useful. 
It did prove to be a bit of a challenge 
putting all these pieces together in a 
user-friendly format. Sure, it could be 
friendlier, but it is still much better than 
working in BASIC fragments or pro- 
gramming from scratch. I do know one 
thing for sure, however! Even I will 
enjoy being able to create titles for 
future "Wishing Well" articles with 
greater ease than I have been used to in 
the recent past. 

See you next month. □ 




50 136 

100 60 

180 45 

285 199 

365 56 



520 12 

635 90 

750 212 

END 234 



The listing: TITLEMKR 

1 REM ************************ 

2 REM * THE WISHING WELL * 

3 REM * TITLE MAKER * 

4 REM * BY FRED B.SCERBO * 

5 REM * 6)3 HARDING AVE. * 

6 REM * NORTH ADAMS, MA 01247 * 

7 REM * COPYRIGHT (C) 1985 * 

8 REM ************************ 

10 CLS0:FORI=1TO384:READA:PRINTC 
HR$(A+128) ;:NEXT:SW=1 
15 DATA14, 14, 10, 13, ,14,4,14,12,1 
£,,20, 26, ,30, 20, 30, 21, 28, 29, 20, 2 
6,21,24,29,24,29,16,30,21,28,29 
20 DATA,10, ,5,3,10, ,11,2,, , ,26,2 
6,26, ,2 6,21,19,19,16,27,23, ,21, , 
21,25,26,21,17,19 

25 DATA, 10, , 5, , 10, , 10 , , 2 , , , 26, 26 
,26,, 26, 17, 16, 21,, 26, 21,, 21,, 21, 
,26,21,16,21 

30 DATA4 , 12 , , 12 , , 12 , 4 , 12 , 12 , 8 , , , 

28,28,24,20,28,20,28,28,20,24,20 

,24,28,24,28,20,28,20,28,28 

35 DATA109, ,101,104,109,108,106, 

109,104,96,109,104,16, , ,12 6,125, 

124,122, 116, 126, , 12 6, 125, 12 4 , 122 



,125,120, ,125,124,125 
40 DATA101,101,101, ,101,99, ,101, 
, ,101, ,96, , , ,117, , , ,122, , ,117, , , 
117, , ,117,115,114 

45 DATA101, 101, 101, ,101, ,98,101, 

96,106,101, ,106, , , ,117, , , ,122, , , 

117, , ,117, ,122,117, ,113 

50 DATA100, 108, 108, ,108,108,104, 

108,108,104,108,108,104, ,112,116 

, 124,124, , 116, 124, 80,116, 124 , 124 

,112,124,124,120,124,124,124 

55 DATA60,60,60,60,60 / 60,85,92,9 

4, 93, 85, 92, 93, ,93,, 86, 88, 84, 94, 9 

2,90,93,92,92,90,60,60,60,60,60, 

60 

60 DATA51,51,51,51,51,51,85,80,9 

0,85,85,83,87, ,85,86,80, , ,91,82, 
,85,83,83,90,51,51,51,51,51,51 
65 DATA48, , , , , ,85, , ,85,85, ,85, ,8 
5,84,82,80, ,90, ,82,85, ,89, ,,,,, , 
48 

70 DATA60,60,60,60,60,60,84,48, , 
84,84, ,84,80,92,80,84,88,84,92,9 
2,88,92,88,80,88,60,60,60,60,60, 
60 

75 PRINT@422," BY FRED B.SCERBO 



ii . 

/ 



80 PRINT@454," COPYRIGHT (C) 198 
5 " • 

85 IFINKEY$OCHR$ (13 ) THEN85 

90 CLS:PRINT§132, "LOAD AN OLD FI 

LE (Y/N) ?" 

95 X$=INKEY$ : IFX$=" Y"THEN100ELSE 
IFX$="N"THEN125ELSE95 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 159 



IjSfd PRINT : PRINTTAB (4 ) ; "ENTER FIL 
E NAME: "; :LINE INPUT G$:IF LEN (G 
$)>8 THEN90 

105 PRINT: PRINTTAB (4) "FROM (D)IS 
K OR (T) APE ?"; 

110 X$=INKEY$ : IFX$="T"THEN115ELS 

EIFX$="D"THEN120ELSE110 

115 CLOADM G$:F$=G$:GOT053j3 

12)3 LOADM G$:F$=G$:GOTO530 

125 CLS:PRINT@130, "YOU MUST SELE 

CT A FILE NAME." 

130 PRINT: PRINT" ENTER NEW FILE 
NAME: ";:LINEINPUT F$:IF LEN (F$ 
)>8 THEN 130 

135 PRINT: PRINT" (B)LANK SCREEN 
OR (A)UTOPRINT?" 

140 X$=INKEY$:IFX$="B"THEN52 5ELS 

EIFX$="A"THEN145ELSE140 

145 CLS:PRINT@231, " PLEASE STAND 

BY "; 

150 DIM A(45,9) ,B(4,12) ,K(8) 

155 F0RI=1T08 : K (I ) =D : D=D+16 : NEXT 

I 

160 F0RI=2T011:F0RY=1T09:READ A$ 

:A(I,Y)=ASC(A$)+63:NEXTY,I 

165 F0RI=19T044:F0RY=1T09 

170 READ A$:IFA$=""THEN A(I,Y)=0 

:GOTO180 



XPNDR2 

for the CoCo 
DISK SYSTEM 




XPNDR2 $39.95 each or 2/$76 
This prototype card features a 40 pin 
connector for projects requiring an on- 
line disk system or ROM paks. The 
CoCo signals are brought out to wire- 
wrap pins. Special gold plated spring 
clips provide reliable and noisefree 
disk operation plus solid support for 
vertical mounting of the controller. The 
entire 4.3><7 inch card is drilled for ICs. 
Assembled, tested and ready to run. 

XPNDR1 $19.95 each or 2/$36 
A rugged 4,3*6.2 inch bare breadboard 
that brings the CoCo signals out to 
labeled pads. Both XPNDR cards are 
double-sided glass/epoxy, have gold 
plated edge connectors, thru-hole 
plating and are designed with heavy 
power and ground buses. They're 
drilled for standard 0.3 and 0.6 inch 
wide dual in-line wirewrap sockets; 
with a 0.1 inch grid on the outboard end 
for connectors. 

SuperGuide $3.95 each 
Here is a unique plastic insert that 
aligns and supports printed circuit 
cards in the CoCo cartridge port. Don't 
forget to ORDER ONE FOR YOUR 
XPNDR CARDS. 



Included with each XPNDR card 
are 8 pages of APPLICATION 
NOTES to help you learn about 
chips and how to connect them to 
your CoCo. 



VISA 



To order or for technical informa- 
tion call: 

(206) 782-6809 

weekdays 8 a.m. to noon 

We pay shipping on prepaid orders. 
For immediate shipment send 
check, money order or the number 
and expiration date of your VISA or 
MASTERCARD to: 



ROBOTIC 




MICROSYSTEMS 



BOX 30807 SEATTLE, WA 98103 



175 A(I,Y)=ASC(A$)+63 
18 0 NEXTY, I 

185 F0RI=1T04:F0RY=1T012:READ A$ 

:B(I,Y)=ASC(A$)+63:NEXTY,I 

190 CLS : PRINT M FIRST TEXT LINE (8 

CHARACTERS ) . 11 
195 FORY=lT04 

200 PRINT 11 ENTER TEXT: ";:LINEINP 
UT W$(Y):IF W$(Y)= IIM THEN215 
205 PRINT 11 ENTER COLOR #: " ; : INPU 
TQ(Y) 

2 1)3 PRINT: NEXTY 
215 K=32:CLS0 

220 FORII=lTO Y-l : L=K: W$=W$ (II) : 
C=K(Q(II) ) :GOSUB2 30:K=K+9 6:NEXTI 
I 

225 GOTO530 

230 P=LEN(W$) :FORZ=lTOP:I=ASC(MI 
D$(W$,Z,l))-46 

235 IFI=31THEN245ELSEIFI=32THEN2 

50ELSEIFI=41THEN255ELSEIFI=42THE 

N260ELSEIFI=-14THEN265 

240 GOSUB275:GOTO270 

245 I=1:GOSUB300:GOTO270 

250 I=2:GOSUB300:GOTO270 

255 I=3:GOSUB300:GOTO270 

260 I=4:GOSUB300:GOTO270 

265 L=L+2 

270 NEXT: RETURN 

275 PRINT@0+L,CHR$(A(I,1)+C)CHR$ 

(A(I,2)+C)CHR$(A(I,3)+C) ; 

280 PRINT@32+L,CHR$(A(I,4)+C)CHR 

$(A(I,5)+C)CHR$(A(I,6)+C) ; 

285 PRINT@64+L,CHR$(A(I,7)+C)CHR 

$ ( A ( I , 8 ) +C ) CHR$ ( A ( I , 9 ) +C) ; 

290 L=L+4: RETURN 

295 GOT0295 

300 PRINT@0+L,CHR$(B(I,1)+C)CHR$ 
(B(I,2)+C)CHR$ (B(I,3)+C)CHR$ (B(I 
/4)+C) ; 

305 PRINT@32+L,CHR$(B(I,5)+C)CHR 
$(B(I,6)+C)CHR$(B(I,7)+C)CHR$ (B( 
I z 8 ) +C ) f 

310 PRINT@64+L,CHR$(B(I,9)+C)CHR 
$(B(I,10)+C)CHR$(B(I,11)+C)CHR$( 
B(I,12)+C) ;: L=L+ 5 : RETURN 
315 PRINT@Q,CHR$ (154) ;:PRINT@Q+3 
0 , CHR$ (145) CHR$ (128) CHR$ (154) CHR 
$(145) ; :PRINT@Q+63,CHR$(153)CHR$ 
(155) CHR$ (152) ; :PRINT@Q+9 6,CHR$( 
152) ; : RETURN 
320 FORI=1TO1500 

325 IFPEEK(339) =254THEN330ELSEIF 
INKEY$=" "THENNEXT 
3 30 RETURN 

335 DATAH,M,L,P,A,P,E,M,I 
340 DATAB, P,A,A,P,A,E,M,I 
345 DATAO,M,L,D,M,B,M,M,M 



160 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



350 DAT AM 
355 DATAP 
360 DATAP 
365 DATAP 
370 DATAO 
375 DATAP 
380 DATAP 
385 DATAH 
390 DATAP 
395 DATAP 
400 DATAP 
405 DATAP 
410 DATAP 
415 DATAP 
420 DATAP 
425 DATAE 
430 DATAM 
435 DATAP 
440 DATAP 
445 DATA, 
450 DATAP 
455 DATAP 
460 DATAP 
465 DATAP 
470 DATAP 
475 DATAM 
480 DATAP 
485 DATAL 
490 DATA, 
495 DATAL 
500 DATAM 
505 DATAP 
510 DATAP 
515 DATAP 

520 DATAN 



M 
F 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
A 
P 
N 
B 
A 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
P 
A 
A 

A 
M 
C 
L 
A 

C 



L 
K 
M 
M 
P 
P 
P 
L 
L 
M 
L 
M 
M 
M 
P 
I 
0 
0 
A 

/ 

P 
P 
P 
P 
M 
M 
P 
H 

H 
P 
B 
A 
A 

B 



M 
M 
M 
P 
A 
P 
M 
P 
P 
P 
P 
P 
P 
P 
P 
A 
A 
P 
P 

/ 

P 
P 
P 
P 
M 
A 
P 
N 

i 

E 
D 
P 
P 
P 

0 



M 
N 
M 
M 
H 
M 
M 
M 
M 
A 
A 
M 
M 
E 
M 
P 
F 
N 
A 

A 
M 
B 
N 
M 
P 
A 
D 

P 

M 
P 
P 
P 

B 



P 
O 
P 
P 
I 
P 
P 
P 
L 
A 
P 
M 
M 
P 
P 
A 
K 
C 
A 

/ 

P 
M 
P 
C 
P 
A 
P 
0 

i 

I 
A 
E 
E 
G 

G 



M 
A 
M 
M 
E 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
E 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
A 
M 
A 

A 
M 
I 
L 
J 

J 



M 
E 
M 
M 
I 
M 
M 
A 
M 
M 
M 
M 
A 
M 
A 
M 
M 
A 
M 

M 
A 
M 
A 
M 
M 
M 
M 

M 
M 
P 
P 
P 

C 



I 
I 
M 
M 
A 
M 
M 
M 
I 
M 
I 
M 
A 
M 
M 
I 
I 
M 
M 

M 
A 
0 
M 
M 
A 
M 
A 

i 

A 
M 

M,A,A,M 
M,A,E,M 
E,I,E,I 

M, A, A,M 



525 CLS0 

530 R$=CHR$(128) :PRINT@481, "" ; :F 
ORI=143T0255STEP16:PRINTCHR$ (I)R 
$ ; : NEXT 

535 Q=48:FORI=1504TO1520STEP2:Q= 
Q+l : POKEI , Q : NEXTI : POKEI , 42 : PRINT 
@497,R$; 

540 PRINT@499, "save"R$R$"analys" 

; :POKE1528,35:POKE1535,5 

545 A$="PAGE" 

550 C=0:H=0:V=0 

555 X$=INKEY$:IFX$=""THEN555 

560 IFX$=CHR$(8)THENH=H-1 

565 IFX$=CHR$(9)THENH=H+1 

570 IFX$=CHR$(10)THENV=V+1 

575 IFX$=CHR$(94)THENV=V-1 

580 IFX$=CHR$(95)THENV=0 

585 IFX$=CHR$(91)THENV=29 

590 IFX$=CHR$(21)THENH=0 

595 IFX$=CHR$(93)THENH=63 

600 IFX$="*"THEN655 

605 IFX$="#"THEN675 

610 IFX$=CHR$(19)THEN525 



615 IFH<0THENH=0 
620 IFV<0THENV=0 
625 IFH>63THENH=63 
630 IFV>29THENV=29 

635 X=VAL(X$) :IFX<1 OR X>9THEN64 
5 

640 C=X 

645 IFC=9 THEN RESET (H,V) : GOT055 
5 

650 SET(H,V,C) :GOT0555 
655 GOSUB680 

660 X$=INKEY$ : IFX$="D"THEN670ELS 

EIFX$="T"THEN665ELSE660 

665 CSAVEM F$ , 1024 , 1503 ,0 :GOT053 

670 SAVEM F$, 1024, 1503 ,0:GOTO530 
675 GOSUB680:GOTO700 
680 PRINT@480,STRING$(31,32) 7 
685 POKE1535,143 

690 PRINT@484 , "PREPARE (D)ISK OR 

(T) APE " 7 
695 RETURN 

700 X$=INKEY$:IFX$="D"THEN 705EL 

SEIFX$="T"THEN710ELSE700 

705 DV*=l:F$=F$+"/BAS":GOT0715 

710 DV=-1 

715 PRINT@480," NOW ANALYSING SC 
REEN LOCATIONS"; 

720 FOR L=1472TO1056STEP-32:ST=0 
725 FORM=L TO L+31 : RS=PEEK (M) : ST 
=ST+RS : NEXTM 

730 IF ST=4096THEN NEXTL 

735 REM OPEN FILE 

740 OPEN"0", #DV,F$ 

745 PRINT#DV, "10 CLS0 : FORI=lTO" ; 

L-1024+32;":READ A:"; 

750 IF SW=1 THEN 760 

755 PRINT #DV, "PRINTCHR$ (A) ; : NEXT 

":GOT0765 

760 PRINT#DV, "PRINTCHR$ (A+128) ; : 
NEXT" 

765 LN=10:FOR N=1024TO L STEP32 
770 LN=LN+10:W$=STR$(LN) :QW=LEN( 
W$) :W$=RIGHT$(W$,QW-1)+" DATA" : P 
RINT#DV,W$; 

775 FOR M=N TO N+31:RS=PEEK(M) 
780 IF SW=0THEN790 
785 RS=RS-128 

790 RS$=STR$ (RS) :QW=LEN(RS$) :RS$ 
=RIGHT$ (RS$,QW-1) : IF RS$="0"THEN 
RS$="» 

795 PRINT#DV,RS$; : IF MON+31 THE 
N PRINT#DV,","; 
800 NEXTM: PRINT # DV, "":NEXTN 
805 PRINT#DV,"1000 GOTO1000" 
810 PRINT§480,STRING$(31,32) ; 
815 CLOSE #DV 

820 GOTO530 /R\ 



March 1966 THE RAINBOW 161 




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A brand new high res graphic 
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Maneuver your sky craft along the 
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RCQUIRCS 32K & JOVSTICK 
TRP€ $19.95 
DISK $22.95 

MONCVOPOLV 

Now! Play this popular board game on 
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land baron with this program. 

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DISK $22.95 



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TH€ MRRTIHN CRVPT 

All new graphic adventure — Man 
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Can you find the hidden Martian Crypt? 
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R€OUIR€S 32K MRCHINC 
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Travel the maze, in your never ending 
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32 more await you! 

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TH€ MISRDV€NTUR€S 
OF €DDI€ 

Another great graphic adventure!! This 
time you are exploring an old mine shaft 
when you stumble upon an old man — 
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time. Visit the apple orchard of Isaac 
Newton, the doomed Titanic — over 140 
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commands! All in hi-res graphics. Only 
for the very adventurous and those who 
"enjoy being frustrated"! 

n€QUIR€S 64K 
TRP€ $18.95 
DISK $21.95 

V€GRS GRM€ PRK 

Have you ever wanted to bring Uas 
Vegas home with you? Now you can! 
Six different games in this package: 
Blackjack, Keno, Poker, plus three other 
slat machine lookatikes. The only thing 
missing 1$ the voice of Wayne Newton) 

RCQUIftCS 16K €XT. BASIC ^ 
TAP€ $24.95 b* 
DISK $27.95 

COLOR CAR 

You asked for it and now here it is! 
Fast-moving Grand Prix style racing, 
With your computer sit at the wheel of 
your racer through the difficult 
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RCQUIRCS 64K & JOVSTICK 
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t 

NO D€flL€ftS Pl€RS€ 



The Joy$ 
of Earlv Amortization 



By Edward R. Carson 



Paying off a mortgage early to get 
a quicker equity buildup is the 
best idea I (a homeowner) have 
heard of in a long time. It used to cost 
a little extra each month to reach this 
goal, but a new kind of mortgage is just 
now taking hold in the United States 
that can make the process almost pain- 
less. Quicker mortgage payoff will save 
you a fortune in interest rates and can 
take years off the repayment schedule. 
It also has two strategic uses. 

A young couple who pays off their 
mortgage early will then have a huge 
amount of equity on tap. This is also a 
method of forced savings; all of these 
gains are tax deferred. A quick payment 
mortgage is also suitable for middle- 
aged home buyers who want to own 
their home free and clear by the time 
they retire. The new way to faster home 
ownership is through a bi-weekly mort- 
gage payment plan. The loan is amor- 
tized as if it were going to last for 30 
years, but instead of paying once a 
month, one half the payment is made 
every two weeks. This method of repay- 
ment leads to the equivalent of 13 
monthly payments rather than the usual 
12. This may not sound like it would 
make a lot of difference, but the amount 
of money and time saved is astounding, 
as you will see when comparing Option 
1 with Option 2. Since this method of 
repayment is not available with all 
lenders, two other options are included 
that can have the same effect and are 
accepted by most lenders. 

Edward R. Carson is a head operator 
at the Timken Company in Columbus, 
Ohio. His interests encompass compu- 
ters and baseball. He is married and has 
three sons. 



There are two parts to the Mortgage 
Planner. The first part is a loan calcu- 
lator. If you are planning a home pur- 
chase, the calculator figures your prin- 
cipal and interest payments. It returns 
the amount financed, amount of pay- 
ment, interest rate and number of 
months required to retire the loan (see 
Figure 1). If you know the amount you 
want to pay per month but don't know 
the amount you can finance to arrive at 
your target payment, the calculator can 
help. When asked the amount to fi- 
nance, just press ENTER; you are then 
asked the amount per month (enter 
what you want to pay per month) and 
the calculator gives the amount to 
finance and arrives at your target pay- 
ment. You can go through as many 



calculations as you wish. The last 
amount calculated is automatically 
forwarded to the Mortgage Planner. It 
is not necessary to go to the calculator. 
If you have an existing mortgage, go 
directly to the Planner. 

The Mortgage Planner has four op- 
tions to choose from. Each is a different 
method of repayment. Three of these 
options can save thousands of dollars 
and many years off the mortgage. The 



Figure 1 






AMOUNT OF THE LOAN 


$ 


36000 .00 


NO. OF MONTHS 




360 


INTEREST RATE 




10 % 


MONTHLY PAYMENTS 


$ 


315.93 



Option t 



YEAR 


INT. PAID 


..4,',. * 


' : ; v:,§M 


3590.17, : . 
7159.30 


. \ 


s 
$ 


10705. 20V'' 
14225.42 


5 


$ 


17717.28 . 


5 


$ 


21177.82 ' 


7 


$ 


24603.75 


s 

Q 


$ 
s 


27991.44 
31336.91 


if 


$ 


34635.72 


11 
12 


$ 
$ 


37882.99 
41073.33 


13 

x4; 


$ 

: $ 


44200.78 
47258.75 


\ 16 


$ 


5023.9. 96\, ; . 


$ 


53136.39 


17 


$ 


55939.15' • 


18^ 


$ 


58.633,45 


i9> 


$ 


61223.45 s " 


20 


$ 


63682. 17 < 


21 


$ 


66001.42 


22 


$ 


68166. 57 


23 
24 
25 


$ 70161. 51 
$ 71968.40 

$ 73567.57.. 


2? 
28 


$ 
S 

$ 


7493.7.27 
76053.47' 
76889.64 
77416. 46v;/r 


29 


§ 





PRINCIPAL PAID 
i 200.94 
422.92 
668 . 13 
939.02 
1238.26 
1568.84 
1934.02 
,43 



$ 
S 
6 

I 

$ 
$ 

$ 



3275.37 
3 819.21 



$ 4419.98 
$ 



$ 

■; $ 
$ 



YEARS' 



TCTftL INTEREST 



5083.64 
5816.78. 
6626.68 
7521.36 
8509.70 
9601.51 
$ 10807.63. 
$ 12140.01 
$ 13611.88 
$ 15237.83 
$ 17034.00 
$ 19018.22 
$ 21210.16 
$ 23631.57 
$ 26306.48 
$ 29261.42 
.$ 32525.71 



$■ 77733.20 



/ 

7 

/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 

/ 



/ 



TOTAL PRINCIPAL 
.00 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 163 



Option 2 



YEAR 


INT. PAID 


PRINCIPAL PAID 




1 


$ 


3564.58 


$ 


542.46 


/ 


2 


$ 


7072.38 


$ 


1141.69 


/ 


3 


$ 


10517.47 


$ 


1803.63 


/ 


4 


$ 


13893.28 


$ 


2534.85 




5 


$ 


17192.57 


$ 


3342 .60 


/ 


6 


$ 


20407.32 


$ 


4234.89 




7 


$ 


23528.68 


$ 


5220.56 


/ 


8 


$ 


26546.89 


$ 


6309 .39 


i 

/ 


9 


$ 


29451.14 


$ 


7512 .17 




10 


$ 


32229.51 


$ 


8840.84 


/ 


11 


$ 


34868.83 


$ 


10308.55 




12 


$ 


37354.54 


$ 


11929.88 


/ 


13 


$ 


39670.57 


$ 


13720.89 




14 


$ 


41799 . 15 


s 


15699 .34 


/ 


15 


$ 


43720.67 


$ 


17884.85 


/ 


16 


$ 


45413.47 


S 


20299.09 


/ 


17 


$ 


46853. 60 


$ 


22966.00 


/ 


18 


$ 


48014.61 


s 


25912.02 


/ 


19 


$ 


48867.30 


$ 


29166.36 


/ 


20 


$ 


49379.40 


$ 


32761.30 


/ 


YEARS 




TOTAL INTEREST 




TOTAL PRINCIPAL 




22.6 




? 49615.88 




$ 36000.00 





111 


218 


1001 


207 


191 .. 


....141 


1061 


5 


301 


,.,..62 


1111 .. 


...120 


391 


7 


1151 


. 105 


496 .. 


....209 


1246 .. 


...206 


556 


, , A , ,1 


1341 


22 


666 , 


. ..139 


1441 , , 


197 


771 


, ..54 


1481 


136 


821 


, 231 


1571 , 


,, 240 


921 


.242 


END ... 


. . . .83 



The listing: MORTGAGE 

I Y=l 
6 CLS 

II X=32 
16 CLS 

21 Z$="SAVE" 
26 PRINT@X,Z$ 
31 X=X+1J3 

36 IFX=382 THEN 41 ELSE 26 
41 FORT=1TO80:NEXTT 
46 Y=Y+1MFY=5THEN51ELSE6 
51 FORT=lT05j3j3:NEXTT 

56 CLS: PRINT© 164, "the mortgage p 
lanner" 

61 PRINT@236,"by" 

66 PRINT@294> "edward r carson" 

71 GOSUB1181 
76 GOTO 1021 
81 CLS 

86 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT "YOU HAVE F 
OUR OPTIONS WITH THIS PORTION OF 

THE PROGRAM. . . " 
91 PRINT :PRINTTAB( 7)" THEY ARE AS 

FOLLOWS . . " 
96 PRINT: PRINT :PRINT"HIT ANY KEY 



choice of on-screen or printer displays 
is given. The printer routine gives a 
year-by-year printout of interest paid, 
principal, paid outstanding balance, 
total payments, and years and months 
required to retire the loan. There is an 
on-screen bar graph of interest paid at 
all options. Any calculated screen can 
also be dumped to the printer by press- 
ing the 'P' key. I found this easier than 
writing down all the information on a 
scratch pad. The amount of money that 
can be saved with just a little extra each 
month literally amazes me, as I am sure 
it will you. 

(Any questions you have about Mort- 
gage Planner may be directed to Mr. 
Carson at 7600 Condit Road, Center- 
burg, OH 43011, phone 614-625-6936. 
Please include an SASE when writ- 
ing.) □ 



TO CONTINUE" 
lj31 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" "THEN 101ELS 
E1J36 

1J36 CLS: PRINT" 1) CONTINUE TO MAK 

E NORMAL MONTHLY PAYMENTS 

ii 

• • •< 

111 PRINT: PRINT" 2) MAKE 1/2 OF N 

ORMAL PAYMENT EVERY 14 DAYS. 

ii 

116 PRINT: PRINT" 3) LUMP SUM (IN 
EXCESS OF NORMAL PAYMENT) ONCE 
EACH YEAR ..." 

121 PRINT: PRINT" 4) INCREASE MONT 

HLY PAYMENT BY (X) AMOUNT. .. (X 

) AMOUNT USED TO REDUCE BALANCE 

ON A MONTHLY BASIS" 

126 PRINT "HIT ANY KEY TO CONTINU 

E" 

131 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" "THEN 131ELS 
E 136 

136 CLS: PRINT© 7 5, "options" 

141 PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 1 j3 ) " 1 2 3 
4" 

146 PRINT : PRINTTAB (1J3) "select on 
e" 

151 PRINTSTRING$ (32 , »*") 

156 PRINT "1= NORMAL PAYMENT" 

161 PRINT: PRINT "2= 1/2 NORMAL PA 

YMENT" 

166 PRINT: PRINT" 3= LUMP SUM" 

171 PRINT: PRINT "4= EXCESS MONTHL 

Y" 

176 INPUT S 

181 ON S GOTO 231,546,821,841 

186 CLS : PRINT @ 19 5, "what is your 
normal . . . . " 
191 PRINT@2 63 , "monthly payment.. 



164 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



196 INPUT NP 

201 CLS: PRINT© 19 3, "what is your 

interest rate . . . . " 

2J36 PRINT@258, "input as per exam 

pie <.J3950 >" 

211 INPUT AI 

216 CLS: PRINT© 19 2, "what is your 
current balance.." 
221 INPUT CB 
226 GOTO 81 

231 CLS:PRINT@26j3, "DO YOU WANT A 

PRINTOUT OF ... " 
236 PRINT§324 , "YEARLY ANALYSIS.. 



ii 



241 PRINT: PRINTTAB( 11) " ( Y/N ) " 
246 K$=INKEY$:IFK$=""THEN246 
251 IFK$="Y"THEN 421ELSEIFK$="N" 
THEN2 5 6 

256 CLS: PRINT© 19 6, "calculating t 
otals. . . " 

261 PRINT§26j3, "please stand by.. 
ii 

• 

266 POKE 65495,0 
271 DP=3j3.41:Z=l 
276 DI=AI/3 65 
281 IN=DI*CB*DP 
286 P=NP-IN 
291 PB=PB+P+EP 



296 CB=CB-P 
301 TP=TP+NP+EP 
306 TI(S)=TI(S)+IN 
311 CB=CB-EP 

316 IF CB<=0THEN326ELSE321 

321 IFZ=M THEN831ELSEZ=Z+l:GOT02 

81 

326 TI(S)=TI(S)-CB:PB=PB+CB 
331 CLS : PRINTTAB ( 12) "OPTION ";S 
336 PRINT: PRINT "INTEREST PAID";: 
PRINTTAB (21);: PRINTUS ING '•$###### 
.##";TI(S) 

341 PRINT "PRINCIPAL PAID";: PRINT 
TAB(21) ;:PRINTUSING"$######.##"; 
PB 

346 PRINTTAB (21) STRING$ ( 10 , " - " ) 
351 PRINT "TOTAL PAID" ;: PRINTTAB ( 
21) ; :PRINTUSING"$######. ##";TP 
356 Z=Z/12 

361 PRINT: PRINT "YEARS TO RETIRE 
LOAN . . " ; : PRINTUS ING" ##.#"; Z 

366 PRINT "NORMAL PAYMENT 

" ; : PRINTUS ING" $####.##"; NP 
371 PRINT" INTEREST RATE 

";AI;"%" 

376 IFS=3GOSUB142 6ELSEIFS=4GOSUB 
1431 

381 POKE 65494,0 



THE ANYONE-CAN-USE 



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LOCATER ® 



A ONCE-IN-A-LIFETIME EVENT! 

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• WORD PROCESSOR - merge database with custom letters, labels, & reports 

• MACRO PROCEDURES - store any report calculations with sorts & selections 

• UTILITIES — generate, merge, summarize, & summarize-post 

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Price Includes shipping in USA 
NC residents add 4.5% sales tax 



WORKBASE DATA SYSTEMS 
P.O. Box 3448 
Durham, NC 27702 
Call Toll Free 1-800-334-0854 ext 887 
(919) 288-3445 NC Residents only 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 165 



1 



386 C$=INKEY$:IFC$= IM, THEN386 
391 IFC$="P"THENGOSUB 1381ELSE 3 

96 

396 IF S=4 THEN GOSUB 1246 '.GOTO 
4/31 

4/31 CB=PB: PB=/3 : Z=/3 : TB=0 : TP=j3 : LS= 
/3:EP=/3 

4/36 PRINT: PRINT "DO YOU WANT THIS 

OPTION AGAIN" 
411 PRINTTAB ( 12 ) " ( Y/N ) " : INPUT 
C$:IFC$="N"THEN 136 ELSE 416 
416 TI(S)=/3:GOTO 136 
421 CLS : PRINT @ 2 6 4, "now printing" 

426 PRINT#-2,TAB(30) "OPTION 11 ;S 
431 IFS=3GOSUB851 
436 IFS=4GOSUB856 

441 PRINT#-2,"YEAR";TAB(6) "INT.P 

AID" ;TAB( 18) "PRINCIPAL PAID" ;TAB 

(35)" TOTAL PAYMENT " ; TAB (51)" OUTS 

TANDING BALANCE" 

446 DP=3/3.41:Z=1:H=12:Y=1 

451 DI=AI/365 

456 IN=DI*CB*DP 

461 P=NP-IN 

466 PB=PB+P+EP 

471 CB=CB-P 

476 TP=TP+NP+EP 

481 TI(S)=TI(S)+IN 

486 CB=CB-EP 

491 IFCB<=0THEN511ELSE496 

496 IFZ=H THEN836ELSEZ=Z+l:GOT04 

56 

501 IFCB</3THENCB=/3 
506 PRINT#-2,Y; : PRINT#-2 , TAB ( 6) ; 
: PRINT#-2 ,USING"$###### . ##" ;TI (S 
) ;:PRINT#-2,TAB(18) ; : PRINT#-2 ,US 
ING" $######.##"; PB; :PRINT#-2, TAB 
(35) ;:PRINT#-2,USING"$######.##" 
;TP; :PRINT#-2,TAB(51) ; :PRINT#-2, 
USING" $######.##"; CB : Y=Y+ 1 : H=H+1 
2:GOT0456 

511 TI(S)=TI(S)-CB:PB=PB+CB 
516 PRINT#-2,"" 

521 PRINT#-2,TAB(5) " YEARS "; TAB ( 1 
2 ) "TOTAL INTEREST" ; TAB (28) "TOTAL 
PRINCIPAL" ; TAB (45)" TOTAL PAYMEN 
TS" 

526 PRINT#-2,"" 
531 Z=Z/12 

536 PRINT#-2,TAB(5) :PRINT#-2,USI 
NG"##.#";Z; :PRINT#-2,TAB(12) ; : PR 
INT#-2,USING"$######.##";TI(S) ;: 
PRINT#-2,TAB(28) ; : PRINT#-2 , USING 
"$######. ##";PB;:PRINT#-2,TAB(45 
) ;:PRINT#-2,USING"$######.##";TP 
541 CB=PB : TP=0 : TI=/3 : PB=/3 : EP=0 : LS 
=J3:G0T0 13 6 

546 CLS : PRINTS 2 6/3 , "DO YOU WANT A 
PRINTOUT OF ... " 



551 PRINT© 3 2 4, "YEARLY ANALYSIS.. 
ii 

556 PRINT: PRINTTAB ( 11 ) » ( Y/N ) " 
561 K$=INKEY$:IF K$=""THEN561 
566 IFK$="Y"THEN716ELSEIFK$="N"T 
HEN5 8 1 
571 ' ' 
576 • 1 

581 CLS:NP=NP/2:DP=14:Z=1:H=26:Y 
=1 

586 POKE65495,/3 

591 PRINT@196, "calculating total 

O . . . 

596 PRINT@26J3, "please stand by.. 
ii 

6/31 DI=AI/3 65 

6/36 IN=DI*CB*DP 

611 P=NP-IN 

616 PB=PB+P 

621 CB=CB-P 

626 TP=TP+NP 

631 TI(S)=TI(S)+IN 

63 6 IFCB<=/3THEN646ELSE641 

641 Z=Z+l:GOT06/36 

646 TI(S)=TI(S)-CB:PB=PB+CB 

651 CLS: PRINTTAB (11) "OPTION ";S 

656 PRINT: PRINT" INTEREST PAID";: 

PRINTTAB (21) ; : PRINTUSING"$###### 

.##";TI(S) 

661 PRINT"PRINCIPAL PAID";: PRINT 
TAB(21) ; :PRINTUSING"$######.##»; 
PB 

666 PRINTTAB (21) STRING$ ( 1/3 , " - " ) 
671 PRINT "TOTAL PAID" ;: PRINTTAB ( 
21) ; : PRINTUSING"$# #####. ##" ;TP 
676 Z=Z/24 

681 PRINT: PRINT "YEARS TO RETIRE 
LOAN . . " ; : PRINTUSING" ##.#"; Z 

686 PRINT" 1/2 NORMAL PAYMENT 

."; : PRINTUSING" $###.## ";NP 

691 PRINT" INTEREST RATE 

";AI;"%" 

696 POKE65494,j3 
7/31 C$=INKEY$:IFC$=""THEN 7/31 
7/36 IFC$="P"THEN GOSUB 13 81 ELSE 
711 

711 NP=NP*2:TP=/3:TI=/3:CB=PB:PB=/3 

:GOTO 13 6 ' : 

716 CLS : PRINT@264 , "NOW PRINTING" 

721 PRINT#-2,TAB(3/3) "OPTION" ;S 

726 PRINT#-2,"YEAR";TAB(6) "INT.P 

AID" ;TAB ( 18 ) "PRINCIPAL PAID" ;TAB 

(35) "TOTAL PAYMENTS" ; TAB (51) "OUT 

STANDING BALANCE" 

731 NP=NP/2:DP=14:Z=1:H=2 6:Y=1 

736 DI=AI/365 

741 IN=DI*CB*DP 

746 P=NP-IN 

751 PB=PB+P 



166 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



756 CB=CB-P 

761 TP=TP+NP 

766 TI(S)=TI(S)+IN 

771 IF CB<=0THEN 786ELSE776 

776 IFZ-H=0THEN781ELSEZ=Z+1:GOTO 

741 

781 PRINT#-2,Y; :PRINT#-2,TAB(6) ; 

:PRINT#-2,USING"$######.##»;TI(S 

) ; :PRINT#-2,TAB(18) ;: PRINT #-2, US 

ING"$######.##";PB;:PRINT#-2,TAB 

(35) ; :PRINT#-2 / USING"$###### . ##" 

;TP; :PRINT#-2 / TAB(51) ; :PRINT#-2, 

USING»$######.##";CB:Y=Y+1:Z=Z+1 

:H=H+26:GOTO 741 

786 TI(S)=TI (S) -CB:PB=PB+CB 

791 PRINT #-2 , "" : PRINT* -2 , "YEARS" 

;TAB(7) "TOTAL INTEREST" ;TAB(23) " 

TOTAL PRINCIPAL" ; TAB ( 40 ) "TOTAL P 

AYMENTS" 

796 Z=Z/24 

80 1 PRINT # - 2 , " " : PRINT # -2 , US ING " # 
# . # " ; Z ; : PRINT#-2 , TAB ( 7 ) ; : PRINT#- 
2 / USING»$######.##";TI(S) ;: PRINT 
#-2,TAB(23) ;:PRINT#-2, USING" $### 
###.##".; PB; :PRINT#-2,TAB(40) ; : PR 
INT#-2 / USING"$######.##";TP 
8)36 NP=NP*2:CB=PB:TP=0:TI=0:PB=0 
811 PRINT"HIT ANY KEY TO CONTINU 
E» 

816 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" "THEN816ELSE 
136 

821 CLS:PRINT@195,"amount of lum 
p sum payment" :M= 12 

826 INPUT LS:GOT0231 

831 TP=TP+LS : CB=CB-LS : PB=PB+LS : Z 

=Z+l:M=M+12:GOT0281 

836 CB=CB-LS : PB=PB+LS : TP=TP+LS : Z 

=Z+l:M=M+12:GOTO 501 

841 CLS: PRINT@192, "amount of ex 
cess payment" : INPUT EP 

846 GOTO 231 

851 PRINT#-2,TAB(25) "LUMP SUM AM 
OUNT "; :PRINT#-2 / USING"$####*##" 
; LS : RETURN 

856 PRINT #-2, TAB (22) "AMOUNT OF E 
XCESS PAYMENT ";: PRINT#-2 , USING" 
$####. ##";EP:RETURN 

861 CLS:PRlNT@164,"how much will 
you finance" : INPUTPV 
866 CLS:PRINT@164, "how many mont 
hs":INPUTM 

871 CLS :PRINT@163, "what is the i 

nterest rate" : INPUTK 

876 IFK<1THEN GOTO 951 

881 K=K/12:K=K/100 

886 C=(l+K) A M:C=C-1 

891 D=(K+1) A M:D=D*K 

896 C=C/D 

901 IFPV=0THENGOTO956 



906 A=PV/C 

911 K=K*12:K=K*100 

916 CLS :PRINT@9 6, "AMOUNT OF THE 

LOAN" : PRINT© 118 , USING" $######.## 

" ; PV 

921 PRINT© 16 2, "NO. OF MONTHS":PR 
INT@183,M 

92 6 PRINT@2 2 6, "INTEREST RATE": PR 
INT@246,K;"%" 

931 PRINT@290, "MONTHLY PAYMENTS" 
:PRINT@3J39, USING" $####.##», -A 
936 S$=INKEY$:IFS$=""THEN936 
941 IF S$="P"THENGOSUB 1381 ELSE 
996 

946 GOTO 996 

951 CLS:PRINT@228, "PLEASE STATE 
INTEREST RATE AS A VALUE GR 

EATER THAN 1" : INPUTK: GOT0881 

956 CLS :PRINT@ 162, "what are the 
monthly payments" : INPUTA 
961 PV=A*C:GOTO 911 
966 GOSUB 1381 
971 PRINT#-2,"" 

976 PRINT #-2, "AMOUNT OF LOAN";:P 
RINT#-2,USING"$######.##";PV 
981 PRINT# -2 , "MONTHS REQUIRED TO 

RETIRE LOAN" ; : PRINT#-2 ,M 
986 PRINT #-2, "INTEREST RATE" ;K; : 
PRINT#-2,"%" 

991 PRINT# -2, "MONTHLY PAYMENTS"; 

:PRINT#-2, USING" $####.##"; A 

996 CLS : PRINT@224 , "DO YOU WANT A 

NOTHER CALCULATION" 

10j31 PRINTTAB(ll) " (Y/N) " 

1006 S$=INKEY$:IFS$=""THEN10j36 

1011 IFS$="Y" THEN 861 ELSE 1016 

1016 CB=PV:K=K/100:AI=K:NP=A:GOT 

0 81 

1021 CLS : PRINT@164 , "DO YOU WANT 

INSTRUCTIONS" :PRINT@205,"( Y/N ) 
ii 

102 6 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" "THEN 102 6 
1031 IF K$="Y"THEN 1441 ELSE 115 
6 

1036 CLS: PRINT" IF YOU ARE PLANNI 
NG A HOME PURCHASE. .THE LOA 

N CALCULATOR CAN DETERMINE YOU 
R MONTHLY PAYMENTS ... IF YOU 

KNOW WHAT YOU CAN AFFORD PER MO 
NTH, BUT DONT KNOW THE AMOUNT Y 
OU CAN FINANCE TO ARRIVE AT THIS 

PAYMENT " 

1041 PRINT "THEN loan calculator 

CAN HELP. . " 

1046 PRINT: PRINT "HIT ANY KEY TO 
CONTINUE" 

1051 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" "THEN1051EL 
SE 1056 

1056 CLS: PRINT "WHEN YOU ARE ASKE 



March 1 986 THE RAINBOW 167 



D HOW MUCH YOU WILL FINANCE. . . JU 
ST HIT <ENTER> YOU WILL THEN BE 
ASKED THE AMOUNT OF MONTHLY 

PAYMENT . ENTER WHAT YOU WANT TO 
PAY PER MONTH. THE PROGRAM WILL 
THEN RETURN THE AMOUNT YOU CAN FI 
NANCE TO GIVE 

1061 PRINT "YOU THE PAYMENTS YOU 
WANT" 

1066 PRINT: PRINT :PRINT"HIT ANY K 
EY TO CONTINUE" 

1071 K$=INKEY$:IFK$=""THEN1071EL 
SE 1076 

1076 CLS: PRINT "AFTER FINDING OUT 

THE AMOUNT YOUCAN FINANCE. RUN 
THE" 

1081 PRINTTAB ( 7 ) "mortgage saving 
s" 

1086 PRINT"PORTION OF THIS PROGR 
AM." 

1091 PRINT"IT WILL SHOW THREE WA 
YS YOU CAN SAVE THOUSANDS OF DOL 
LARS AND MANY YEARS OFF YOUR M 
ORTGAGE . " 

1096 PRINT "YOU CAN HAVE A YEARLY 
PRINTOUT OF ANY OR ALL OPTIONS 

.IT WILL SHOW, BY YEAR, INTEREST 
PAID, TOTAL PAYMENT , CURRENT BALA 

NCE AND YEARS PAID. IT WILL T 

HEN GIVE TOTALS OF ALL ITEMS. 

1101 PRINT: PRINT "HIT ANY KEY TO 

CONTINUE" 

1106 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" "THEN 1106E 
LSE 1111 

1111 CLS: PRINT" IN ORDER TO SEE A 
N ON SCREEN COMPARISON OF INT 
EREST PAID ON ALL OPTIONS, Y 

OU MUST RUN OPTION 4 LAST." 
1116 PRINT: PRINT "WHEN THERE IS N 
O CURSOR ON A CALCULATED SCRE 
EN YOU CAN GET A PRINTOUT BY PRE 
SSING THE LETTER p ANY OTHER KEY 

WILL CONTINUE THE PROGRAM" 
1121 PRINT :PRINT"HIT ANY KEY TO 
CONTINUE" 

112 6 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" "THEN112 6EL 
SE1131 

1131 CLS : PRINT "THE AMOUNTS GIVEN 
IN THIS PROGRAM SHOULD NO 

T BE CONSTRUED TO BE EXACT AMOUN 

TS YOU WILL PAYOR SAVE BUT 

SHOULD BE USED ONLY AS A GUIDE T 
0 REPRESENT YOUR PAYMENTS AND 
SAVINGS" 

1136 PRINT"OPTION 2 OF THIS PROG 
RAM MAY NOT BE ACCEPTABLE TO YOUR 
LENDER PLEASE CHECK WITH THE 
M BEFORE ATTEMPTING THIS METHO 
D. 



1141 PRINT"IF YOU ARE CONSIDERIN 
G A HOME PURCHASE THIS IS AN A 
TTRACTIVE WAY TO SET UP YOUR LO 

AN PAYOFF AS YOU WILL SEE. 

1146 PRINT "HIT ANY KEY TO CONTIN 
UE" 

1151 K$=INKEY$:IFK$=""THEN1151EL 
SE1156 

1156 CLS:PRINT"DO YOU WANT TO GO 

TO THE LOAN CALCULATOR OR TO 
MORTGAGE PLANNER" 
1161 PRINT :PRINT"IF YOU CHOOSE T 
HE CALCULATOR PORTION OF THE 
PROGRAM THE LAST AMOUNTS US 

ED WILL BE AUTO- MAT I C ALLY BE EN 
TERED INTO THE MORTGAGE PLANNE 
R" 

1166 PRINT: PRINT"PRESS <C> FOR C 
ALCULATOR AND <M> FOR MORTGAGE P 
LANNER" 

1171 S$=INKEY$:IFS$=""THEN 1171 

1176 IF S$="C"THEN 861 ELSE 186 

1181 FORL=1024TO1055 

1186 POKEL, 191:NEXTL 

1191 L=1056 

1196 POKEL, 191 

1201 L=L+32 

1206 IFL=1504+32THEN1211ELSE1196 

1211 FORL=1504TO1535 

1216 POKEL, 191: NEXTL 

1221 L=1535 

1226 POKEL, 191 

1231 L=L-32 

1236 IFL=1055 THEN1241ELSE 1226 
1241 FORT=1TO700*2 : NEXTT : RETURN 
1246 CLS: PRINT "DO YOU WANT TO CO 
MPARE INTEREST ON ALL FOUR OPTIO 
NS" 

1251 PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 11) " (Y/N) " 
1256 K$=INKEY$:IFK$=""THEN1256 
1261 IF K$="Y" THEN GOTO1501ELSE 

RETURN 
1266 CLS:S=1 
1271 TI(S)=TI(S) *10000 
1276 PRINT : PRINT" OPTION" ;S; :PRIN 
TUSING»$######.##";TI(S) 
1281 S=S+1 :IF S=5 THEN 1286 ELS 
E 1271 

1286 IFTI(2)<=TI(3)THEN1291ELSE1 
296 

1291 IFTI (2)=0THEN1296 ELSE IFTI 

( 2 ) <=TI ( 4 ) THEN1 301ELSE12 9 6 

1296 IFTI(3)=0THEN 1311 ELSEIFTI 

(3) <=TI(4) THEN 1306 ELSE1311 
1301 TI (6)=TI (1) -TI (2) :GOT01316 
1306 TI(6)=TI(1)-TI(3) :GOT01316 
1311 TI(6)=TI(1)-TI(4) :GOT01316 
1316 PRINT: PRINT "YOU CAN SAVE " ; 
:PRINTUSING"$######.##";TI(6) 



168 THE RAINBOW March 1986 




Take your CoCo to the MAX. 




This is one of those rare 
programs that will captivate 
everyone in your family.... 
No one can see CoCo Max 
and not want to try it! 




We are all witnessing an exciting revolu- 
tion in microcomputers: a radically new 
kind of computer and software that 
opens a whole new world of creative 
power to computer users. 

It was inevitable that this exciting ap- 
proach would be brought to the CoCo. 
With this in mind, Colorware chose to 
go all out and maximize this new con- 
cept for the color computer. That meant 
designing not just software but hardware 
too. It meant thousands of hours of pure 
machine language programming. Rarely 
has this much effort been applied to one 
product for the Color Computer. 





UNMATCHED CAPABILITY... 

Because we took the maximum approach: 
highly optimized machine code combin- 
ed with hardware, CoCo Max truly 
stands above the rest as the ultimate 
creative tool for the Color Computer. It's 
unrivaled performance lets you create 
with more brilliance and more speed 
than any similar system - much more 
than you ever imagined possible. And, 
you can do it in black & white or color. 




All the sophisticated power of the bigger 
systems is there: Icons, Pull-Down Menus, 
full Graphic Editing, Font Styles, and all 
kinds of handy tools and shortcuts. 

Plug your joystick, mouse or touch pad 
into CoCo Max's Hi-Res Input Unit. Then 
use a delightfully simple Point-and-Click 
method to get any of CoCo Max's power- 
ful graphic tools. It has them all: 



You can Brush, Spray or Fill with any Col- 
or, Shading or Pattern. Use Rubber Band 
Lines and Shapes (square, rectangle, cir- 
cle, elipse, etc.) to create perfect illustra- 
tions with speed and ease. There's a Pen- 
cil, an Eraser and even a selection of 
Caligraphy Brushes. And, as you can see, 
CoCo Max can do a lot with text. 
All of the newest special effects are 
there: Trace Edges, Flip, Invert, Brush Mir- 
rors, etc. And all of the very latest super- 
capabilities like: Undo, which 
automatically reverses your mistakes, and 
Fat Bits which zooms you Way in on any 
part of your subject to allow dot-for-dot 
precision. 




THE BIG PICTURE 

The large image box in the middle of the 
CoCo Max screen is actually only a win- 
dow on an even larger image. Use the 
Point-and Click "Hand" to effortlessly 
move your window over any portion of 
the larger image. You have a working 
area of up to 3-V2 times the area of the 
window itself. 

FLEXIBLE PRINTING... 

CoCo Max gives you many ways to print. 
Fill a whole page with your image or 
condense two full CoCo screens to less 
than 1 /4 page for a finely detailed copy. 
"Dump" your CoCo Max screen full size 
or shrink it to 1 /a page size. 



FREEDOM TO CREATE... 

Anyone who wants to create anything at 
all on their CoCo screen or printer will 
certainly be very glad to meet CoCo 
Max. CoCo Max's friendly yet 
sophisticated graphic and text 
capabilities let you almost instantly pro- 
duce illustrations, diagrams, charts, 




graphs, and computer art - for serious 
use or just for creative fun. 





tion by using software schemes such as 
sliding windows. Although clever, these 
schemes yield sluggish and awkward 
results. Only CoCo Max does it the right 
way. The CoCo Max Hi-Res Input Unit 
plugs into your ROM slot and adds an 
entirely new joystick input to your com- 
puter - a precision one with a 49,152 
point resolution to match the CoCo 
screen exactly. 

Plug your same joystick, mouse or touch 



You may then use CoCo Max's graphic 
magic on it. The DS-69 is available as an 
option from Colorware from $149.95 
complete with its own software on disk 
or tape. Using the DS-69 with a disk re- 
quires an RS multi-pak adaptor. 




COCO MAX REQUIREMENTS 

The CoCo Max System includes the Hi- 
Res Input Unit, software on disk or 
cassette (please specify) and user manual. 
It will work on any 64K Extended or non- 







AN ABSOLUTE GUARANTEE 

CoCo Max is a hardware/software system 
that.no software-only system can 
match. Get CoCo Max and see your 
CoCo perform as it never could before. 
If you don't agree that CoCo Max is the 
ultimate creative tool for the Color Com- 
puter, simply return it within 20 days for 
a full, courteous refund from Colorware. 

THE HARDWARE... 

This is the key to CoCo Max's unmatch- 
ed performance. Did you know the nor- 
mal joystick input built into the Color 
Computer only allows access to 4,096 (64 
x 64) points on theCoCo screen? Yet, the 
Color Computer's high resolution screen 




has 49,152 (256 x 192) pixels. This means 
that a joystick, mouse or even a touch 
pad can, at best, only access about one 
tenth of the pixels on the CoCo screen. 

Most graphic programs ignore this hard- 
ware limitation of the Color Computer 
and give you only low-res control. 
Others attempt to overcome the limita- 



pad into this new input and you have a 
whole new kind of control, The dif- 
ference is remarkable. 




A DIGITIZER OPTION... 

We studied all the video digitizers 
available and picked the best of them to 
link with CoCo Max. The DS-69 from 
Micro Works was our choice. This op- 
tional device lets you capture the image 
from any video source (video recorder, 
camera, etc.) on your Color Computer. 



mt 

HE 

an 

so 

mm 
sin 





□ 



phi \\\®m*A 

IHIIIIIMSMS 



extended Color Computer. You'll need a 
Radio Shack or equivalent joystick, 
mouse or touch pad. Disk systems re- 
quire a Multi-Slot Interface or Y- 
Branching Cable. 

THE COMPLETE COCO MAX SYSTEM, 
with software on DISK $69.95 

with software on CASSETTE (Available 
Mar 85) $69.95 

Y-BRANCHING CABLEAi you have a disk 
system but do not have a Multi-Slot In- 
terface, use this economical 40-pin, 1 
male, 2 female cable to connect the 
CoCo Max Hi-Res input unit and your 
disk controller to your CoCo $27.95 

Sorry, COCO MAX is not compatible with JDOS 



COLORWARE 



VISA 




Colorware Inc. 
78-03 F Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(718) 647-2864 



ORDERING INFORMATION 

ADD $3.00 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING. 
CO.D.'S ADD $3.00 EXTRA. 

SHIPPING AND HANDLING FOR CANADA IS $5.00 
WE ACCEPT VISA, MASTER CARD, M.O.'S, CHECKS. 
N.Y. RESIDENTS MUST ADD SALES TAX. 



Why do more CoCo owners 

choose 'REAL TALKER'? 



Sure it's priced right, but there's more... 




Thousands of 'Real Talker' owners know 'Real Talker' beats ALL 
other Coco voice synthesizers in ease of use and flexibility. And, 
NO other Coco talker has a clearer, more intelligible voice. 
That's quite a lot of advantage when you consider Real Talker's 
unbeatable price. Yet Real Talker has some important features 
that you simply will not find in other Coco talkers: 



'SAY' command - You'll have your 
computer talking brilliantly in just 
minutes thanks to this powerful 
new command. Type SAY 
"ANYTHING YOU WANT" and 
your words are instantly spoken. 
It's that simple. Think how easy 
this makes creating speaking Basic 
programs. Adding speech to your 
existing programs is a snap too. 

'CONVERT' • This is a truly power- 
ful command for the basic pro- 
gramer, CONVERT automatically 
transforms a machine language 
dependent speaking program into 
a stand-alone Basic program. In 
other words, you can effortlessly 
write speaking Basic programs thai 
do not require a machine language 
translator in memory. This is a uni- 
que feature of 'Real Talker'. No 
other voice synthesizer gives you 
anything even remotely ap- 
proaching this type of capability - 
even synthesizers costing con- 
siderably more. 





'Real Talker' is compatible with any 16K, 32K, 64K Extended or 
non-extended Color Computer. It works with any cassette or 
disk system and comes complete and ready to talk through your 
T.V. or monitor speaker. Price includes the 'Real Talker' elec- 
tronic voice synthesizer in a ROM pack, software on cassette 
(may be transferred to disk), and user manual. 



NOW INCLUDED WITH 
'REAL TALKER'. 

1. /DR. TALK~Th\s interactive "Eliza" 

3'pe psychoanalyst program will 
iscuss your innermost problems 
at length. 

2. TALKING BATTLESHIP'-Ws you 
vs. the computer in this speaking 
version of tne classic game. 

3. TALKING BLACKJACK'- Play for 
big stakes against a rather talkative 
casino dealer. 



-..V M 

-■<::■ . •ti''-..... 

: V.*. .-.v. ' . fi 



ONLY 



'Real Talker' is a full-featured electronic voice syn- 
thesizer unit buiit into a compact cartridge case. You 
simply plug it into the side of your computer. 



$5995 



Other features include software controlled pitch, unlimited 
vocabulary text-to-speech, and even a program that will recite 
any ASCII file (such as from Teiewriter-64 & other word pro- 
cessors). You also get Colorware's unique full-screen phoneme 
editor program that let's you experiment with and modify speech 
at it's most fundimental level. 



'REAL TALKER-1' (for the original Color Computer).. .. ..$59.95 

'REAL TALKER-2' (for the Color Computer-2).... $64.95 

'Y - BRANCHING CABLE' For disk systems. If you have a disk 
system but do not have a Radio Shack Multi-Slot unit, this 
economical cable will allow to connect and use your 
Real Talker and Disk system together.. 



TALK 




If you have a 'Real Talker', do not deprive yourself 
of this absolutely incredible machine-language 
Talking Head simulation program. While other 
talking head simulations use a minimal cartoon- 
like face, TALKHEAD uses high resolution, full- 
screen, digitized images of an actual person's face 

to create a life-like animated effect. 





COLORWARE INC. 

f*f%i f\DlAfA QtF 78-03F Jamaica Ave. 
VwfcVn VfAtnC Wood haven, NY 11421 

(718) 647-2864 



SOFTWARE FOR THE 'REAL TALKER' 

TALKHEAD can be easily commanded in Basic to 
appear on screen and say anything you want. 
Available on cassette or disk for only $19.95, 
TALKHEAD requires 64K and a Colorware 'Real 
Talker'. 

ONLY$19.95 

ACTUAL UNRBTOUCHED PHOTO 



★ ★ ★ ORDERING INFORMATION * ★ ★ 



ADD $3.00 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING. 
CO.D.'S ADD $3.00 EXTRA. 

SHIPPING AND HANDLING FOR CANADA IS $5.00 
WE ACCEPT VISA, MASTER CARD, M.O.'S, CHECKS. 
N. Y. RESIDENTS MUST ADD SALES TAX. 



1321 
1326 
E 133 
1331 
VIEW 
IN" 
1336 
KEY 
1341 
1346 

1351 
ii 



K$=INKEY$:IFK$=""THEN1321 
IFK$="P"THEN GOSUB 1381 ELS 
1 

PRINT: PRINT" PRESS <R> TO RE 
OPTIONS AND RUN PROGRAM AGA 

PRINT: PRINT "PRESS ANY OTHER 
TO END" 

K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" "THEN1341 
IFK$="R"THEN 1366 ELSE 1351 

CLS : PRINT @ 200 , " happy s av ing 



1356 END 

1361 GOSUB 1181 

1366 S=l 

1371 TI(S)=0:PB=0:Z=0:TB=0:TP=0: 
LS=0 : EP=0 : Y=0 : S=S+1 : C2=0 

1376 IF S=4+l THEN 1156 ELSE 137 
1 

1381 ZZ=0 

1386 FORXX=1024TO1535 

1391 YY=PEEK(XX) :ZZ=ZZ+1 

1396 PP=YY AND 127 

1401 IF PP>95 THENPP=PP-64 

1406 PRINT#-2 / CHR$(PP) ; 

1411 IF ZZ=32 THEN PRINT#-2 : ZZ=0 

1416 NEXT XX 

1421 RETURN 

142$ PRINT "LUMP SUM AMOUNT 

. " ; :PRINTTAB(21) ; : PRINTUSING"$# 
###•##" ;LS:RETURN 

1431 PRINT"EXCESS PAYMENT 

" ; : PRINTTAB (21);: PRINTUS ING" $ # # # 
.##";EP: RETURN 
1436 CLS 

1441 CLS : PRINT"HERE 1 S THE BEST I 
DEA TO COME ALONG IN QUITE A 
WHILE: PAY OFF YOUR MORTGAGE FAS 
TER,IN ORDER TO GET A QUICKER 
EQUTIY BUILDUP IN YOUR HOUSE. 
1446 PRINT" IT USED TO COST A LIT 
TLE MORE EACH MONTH TO REACH 
THIS GOAL. BUT A NEW KIND OF MOR 
TGAGE THAT IS JUST TAKING HOLD I 
N THE U.S. CAN MAKE THE PROCESS 
ALMOST PAINLESS . 

1451 PRINT "FASTER MORTGAGE PAYME 
NTS WILL SAVE YOU A FORTUNE IN 

INTEREST RATES . 
1456 PRINTTAB (10) "HIT ANY KEY" 
1461 K$=INKEY$:IFK$=""THEN1461 E 
LSE 1466 

1466 CLS : PRINT "THE NEW WAY TO FA 
STER HOME OWNERSHIP IS THROUGH A 

BI-WEEKLY PAYMENT PLAN. YOU 

R LOAN IS AMORTIZED AS IF I 

T WERE GOING TO LAST FOR 30 YE 
ARS . BUT . . . INSTEAD OF PAYING 

ONCE A MONTH, YOU MAKE 1/2 OF 



THE MONTHLY" 
1471 PRINT "PAYMENT EVERY TWO WEE 
KS. THIS SCHEDULE LEADS TO THE 
EQUIVALENTOF 13 MONTHLY PAYMENT 
S EVERY YEAR RATHER THAN THE 
USUAL 12." 

1476 PRINT"THIS MAY NOT SOUND LI 
KE MUCH OF A CHANGE. BUT ITS EFF 
ECT IN CUTTING THE TIME AND 

COST OF ANYMORTGAGE IS ASTOUNDIN 
G." 

1481 K$=INKEY$:IFK$=""THEN1481 E 
LSE 1486 

1486 CLS:PRINT"THIS METHOD OF RE 

PAYMENT IS option 2. YOU WILL 

SEE HOW MUCH CAN BE SAVED WITH 
THIS OPTION WHEN YOU COMPARE 

INTEREST PAID ON ALL OPTIONS." 

1491 PRINT: PRINTTAB (10) "HIT ANY 

KEY" 

1496 K$=INKEY$:IF K$=""THEN 1496 

ELSE 1036 
1501 CLS 

1506 FOR L=1024 TO 1055 
1511 POKE L, 175: NEXT L 
1516 L=1056 
1521 S=1:X=0 
1526 X=49 
1531 POKE L,X 
1536 L=L+64 
1541 X=X+1 

1546 IF X=53 THEN 1551 ELSE 1531 
1551 FOR L=1280 TO 1311 
1556 POKE L,175 
1561 NEXT L 

1566 FOR L=1025 TO 1280 STEP 32 
1571 X=175 

1576 POKE L,X:NEXT L 

1581 PRINT@291,"X 1 5 10 15 

20 25 30" 

1586 PRINT@320, "INTEREST = X TIM 

ES $10,000" 

1591 S=1:X=0 

1596 L=1058+X 

1601 TI(S)=TI(S)/10000 

1606 F=FIX(TI (S) ) 

1611 FORL=L TO L+F 

1616 POKEL,191 

1621 NEXTL 

1626 X=X+64 

1631 S=S+1:IF S=4+l THEN 1641 EL 
SE 1596 

1636 POKEL, 191 

1641 PRINT@384, "HIT <C> TO CONTI 
NUE PROGRAM " 

1646 PRINTQ416, "ANY OTHER KEY WI 
LL END PROGRAM" 

1651 K$=INKEY$:IF K$=""THEN1651 
1656 IFK$="C"THEN 1266ELSE 1351 ^ 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 173 



I* 
★ 



* ★★*****★★***★*****★**★*★ ***^ 





I , „^, ,, u; l ;, i... y .i 



Q/va us yoi/r bd^f; Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists in showing the Color Computer world 
your high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in THE RAINBOW'S 
"Scoreboard" column. All entries must be received 60 days prior to publication. Entries should be printed 
— ' legibly — and must include your full name, address, game title, company name and, of course, your high 
score* Each individual is limited to three score entries per month. Send your entries to Scoreboard, c/o the 
IpfNBOW. The "Rainbow Scoreboard" is now a bimonthly feature. 

greater convenience, your high scores may also be sent to us through the MAIL section of our new 
i CoGo $16. From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then type SEND and address to: editors. 



* Current Record Holder 



Shutout 



AN DRONE (Radio Shack) 

54,300 ★Daphnie Phillips, Evansville, Wl 
ASTRO BLAST (Mark Data) 

53,950 ★Bill Fritsch, Whitehall, PA 
ATOM (Radio Shack) 

54 ★Brent Heaton, Anderson, SC 
53 Alan Drazen, Longwood, FL 
BASEBALL (Radio Shack) 

525-50 ★Bob Dewitt, Blue Island, IL 
89-0 »Skipper Taday, East Lyme, CT 
BATS AND BUGS (THE RAINBOW, 7/84) 

24,600 ★Michael Rosenberg, Prestonburg, 
3,050 Jay Lose, Gulfport, MS 
3,000 Michael Scott, Johnstown, NY 
2,500 Steven Bullard, Allen, OK 
BLACKBEARDS ISLAND (NOVASOFT) 

79 ★Jeff Roberg, Winfield, KS 
BLACKJAK (THE RAINBOW, 4/84) 

$10,000 ★Wayne Dewitt, Blue Island, IL 
BLACK SANCTUM (Mark Data) 

106 ★Jeff Hillison, Blacksburg, VA 
109 Gregg Shay, Sunnymead, CA 
109 James Stakelin, Cynthiana, KY 
BREWMASTER (NOVASOFT) 

279,600 ★Alan Drazen, Longwood, FL 
216,350 Jean-Francois Morin, Loretteville, 
Quebec 

166,175 Scott Purrone, Roselle Park, NJ 
98,875 Chris Cope, Central, SC 
78,100 Steve Leonard, Roselle Park, NJ 
21,500 Joel Miller, Neenah, Wl 
BROTAN THE BLUE (THE RAINBOW, 8/85) 
1,384 ★Michael Scott, Johnstown, NY 
822 Brian Voges, Jasper, IN 
BUSTOUT (Radio Shack) 
21,850 



★Charles Egglesfield, Sault Ste Marie, 
Ontario 

Chris Zepka, North Adams, MA 
Wayne Dewitt. Blue Island, IL 
Ken Dewitt, Blue Island, IL 
George Frausto, Blue Island, IL 
BUZZARD BAIT (Tom Mix) 
4,455,150 ★Paul Rumrill, Gales Ferry, CT 

Blossom Mayor, East Greenbush, NY 
Jay Pribble, Davenport, IA 
Paul Bullman, Rocky Mountain 

House, Alberta 
Terry Pribble, Davenport, IA 
CANYON CLIMBER (Radio Shack) 
9,129,100 ★Gary Mohnsen, Tucson, AZ 
Brett Fancher, Hooksett, NH 
Chris Reynolds, Richmond, KY 
Duane Sholter, Nipawin, 

Saskatchewan 
Beverly Herbers, Placentia, CA 
Mark Lemke, Neenah, Wl 
Steve Thomas, Ogdensburg, NY 
Joel Miller, Neenah, Wl 



18,403 
14,500 
13,000 
6,500 



3,091,700 
101,450 
75,700 

55,450 



1,004,000 
362,400 
330,400 

286,800 
62,000 
60,400 
42,800 



CASHMAN (MichTron) 

$31,260 ★Fred Naumann, Hailey, ID 
27,530 Sally Naumann, Hailey, ID 
24,920 Edwin Prather, Oxnard, CA 
17,850 Matt Mendez, Baltimore, MD 
CLOWNS & BALLOONS (Radio Shack) 
352,020 ★Faye Keefer, Augusta, GA 
45,460 Joyce Walcott, Mt. Clemens, Ml 
31,770 Cameron Walcotl, Mt. Clemens, Ml 
30,190 Jason Smith, Ellljay, GA 
30,070 Paul Walcott, Mt. Clemens, Ml 
COLOR BASEBALL (Radio Shack) 

707-0 ★•ChlBlain Chillis, Trols-Rivieres, 
Quebec 



549-0 •Skipper Taday, East Lyme, CT 
243-0 «Steve Mutton, Shrewsbury, MA i 
147-1 Alton Updike, Deltona, FL 
105-0 •Francis Yu, Calgary, Alberta 
COLORPEDE (fntracotor) 
3,107,194 ★John Ray, Goodlettsville, TN 
133,036 Mariano Frausto, Blue Island, IL 
59,529 Kevin Radwan, Blue Island, IL 
37,560 Mark Motel, Blue Island, IL 
15,056 Hiram Esparza, Blue Island, IL 
COLOR POKER (THE RAINBOW, 4/83) 

1 ,168,900 *Earl La Jesse Foster, Lynchburg, VA 
CRASH (Tom Mix) 

25,100 ★Jean-Francois Morin, Loretteville, 
Quebec 

CRYSTLE CASTLES (ThunderVision) 

850,156 ★Michael Brennan, Calgary, Alberta 
800,060 Dan Mitenko, Calgary, Alberta 
689,751 Edwin Prather, Oxnard, CA 
559,380 Jeff Dinger, Edgewood, MD 
545,000 Jay Roberg, Winfield, KS 
98,125 George Frausto, Blue Island, IL 

DALLAS QUEST (Radio Shack) 

90 *Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 

91 John Semonin, Akron, OH 
93 Tommy McClure, Doyline, LA 

93 Robert Sunderland, Sacramento, CA 
DEFENSE (Spectral Associates) 

77,345 ★Mario Brule, Pointe Aux Trembles, 
Quebec 

56,720 Brett DuPont, Oregon, OH 

DEMOLITION DERBY (Radio Shack) 
97,600 ★Htllel Morris, Chicago, IL 
88,800 Skipper Taday, East Lyme, CT 
54,700 Scott Balthazor, Neenah, Wl 
43,100 Chris Fox, Midlothian, VA 
37,000 Alexander Taday, East Lyme, CT 

DEMON ATTACK ((magic) 

57,655 *Tracy Salzman, LaSafle, CO 
29,750 Mike McGeoch, Havertown, PA 
19,445 Erik Huffman, Rochester Hills, Ml 
10,830 Rupert Young, Sheffield, MA 

DEMON II (THE RAINBOW, 3/85) 

21,925 ★Keith Schuler, Merritt Island, FL 

DESERT RIDER (Radio Shack) 

32,488 ★Erik Huffman, Rochester Hills, Ml 

DOODLEBUG (Computerwara) 
1 ,685,350 ★Caroline Cyr, Ottawa, Ontario 
1,457,290 Thomas Haythornthwaite, Ottawa, 
Ontario 

825,370 Susan Ballinger, Uxbridge, Ontario 
805,010 Bill Fritsch, Whitehall, PA 
585,070 Johnny Fritsch, Whitehall, PA 
DOUBLE BACK (Radio Shack) 
1,618,400 ★Diane Guernon, Montreal, Quebec 
614,450 Eugene Roosa, Stone Ridge, NY 
450,600 Michael Brennan, Calgary, Alberta 
8,970 Curtis Taylor, Scarborough, Ontario 
DRACONIAN (Tom Mix) 

628,470 ★Jeff Coladonato, Roslyn, PA 
DRAQON FIRE (Radio Shack) 

5,827 ★Susan Coker, Austell, GA 
2,885 Stevie Hice, Newton, NC 
1,520 Bette Hatcher, Norwalk, CA 
DRAGON SLAYER (Tom Mix) 

44,800 ★William Futer, Bridgeton, NJ 
DUNKEY-MUNKEY (Intellectronics) 

66,900 ★Michael Drouin, Reeds Spring. MO 
16,500 Baiju Shah, Deep River, Ontario 
1 1,000 Mariano Frausto, Blue Island, IL 
ELECTRON (Tom Mix) 

40,650 ★Brad Gaucher, Hinton, Alberta 



14,627 
12,497 
8,430 
7,792 



FALCON'S LAIR (THE RAINBOW, 8/85) 

17,463 *Michael Scott, Johnstown, NY 

Alexander Taday, East Lyme, CT 
Dick Teeter, Hawley, PA 
Brian Voges, Jasper, IN 
Steve Artmeier, Jasper, IN 
FANG MAN (Tom Mix) 

155,225 ★Daniel Thompson, St. Louis, MO 

FOODWAR (Arcade Animation) 

270,360 ★Edwin Prather, Oxnard, CA 
165,960 Chris Cope, Central, SC 
FOOTBALL (Radio Shack) 

266-0 ★•Tim Hart, Salt Lake City, UT 
THE FROG (Tom Mix) 

11,080 *Mark Ferris, Deep River, Ontario 
GALACTIC ATTACK (Radio Shack) 

33,930 ★Allison larosis, Owego, NY 
30,870 Oren Bergman, Herzlta, Israel 
1 9,410 Ron Volans, Ogdensburg, NY 
GALAGON (Spectral Associates) 

1,306,640 ★Jackie Maddox, Iron Station, NC 
GHANA BWANA ( Radio Shack) 

218,420 *Rupert Young, Sheffield, MA 

Brian McGregor, Oshawa, Ontario 
Karen Goddard, Oshawa, Ontario 
Tom Gaynor, New Milford, CT 
Price Wood Jr,, Florence, SC 
GHOST GOBBLER (Spectral Associates) 
84,410 *Greg Erickson, Lowell, MA 

Ghislain Chillis, Trois-Rivieres, 
Quebec 

Sylvain Castonguay, Chicoutlml, 
Quebec 

Jeff Weeks, Wetaskawin, Alberta 
Alan Drazen, Longwood, FL 
GOLD RUNNER (NOVASOFT) 

373,850 ★Carmen Izzi Jr., Waterbury, CT 
Andrew Reeves, Woodinvifle, WA 
Eric Crichlow, Las Vegas, NV 
Chris Cope, Central, SC 
James Bower, Tuckerton, NJ 
ICEMASTER (Arcade Animation) 

85,225 ★Pierre-Antoine Levesque, Sainte-Foy, 
Quebec 



146,930 
132,970 
128,430 
115,840 



76,900 

72,960 

55,120 
47,630 



274,300 
265,600 
243,500 
222,450 



THE INTERPLANETARY FRUIT FLY (THE RAINBOW, 1/85) 
37,000 *Scott Perkins, Port Orange, FL 
22,000 Steven Bullard, Allen, OK 
16,500 Michael Scott, Johnstown, NY 
JUNIOR'S REVENGE (Computerwara) 

1,072,600 ★Matthew Ramsay, Detroit, Ml 
JUNKFOOD (THE RAINBOW, 11/84) 

1,187,520 *Larry Thomson, Menominee, Ml 
KAMAKAZIE KAR (THE RAINBOW, 8/85) 

59.95 ★Matthew Schwenk, Catasauqua, PA 
KEY BOMBER (THE RAINBOW, 8/84) 

29,052 *Tony Boring, Armagh, PA 
THE KING (Tom Mix) 
1,670,900 ★Yolanda Farr, Sayre, PA 
29,450 Mark Motel, Blue Island, IL 
14,500 Ken Dewitt, Blue Island, IL 
KING TUT ( Tom Mix) 

138,500 ★Martin Culver, San Francisco, CA 
KLENDATHU (Radio Shack) 
1 , 1 77,550 ★ Dan Franzen , Westla ke, O H 
41 2,809 Jay Pribble, Davenport, IA 
266,362 Brian Ennis, Wilmington, NC 
KNOCK OUT (Diecom Products) 

1 31 ,21 0 ★ Eric Crichlow, Las Vegas, NV 
107,895 Bret Dennis, Delaware, OH 
LASERWORM & FIREFLY (THE RAINBOW, 11/83) 
38,3B0 ★Brian Voges, Jasper, IN 



★★*****★*★ ****★★*★★★★*★*★★*** 



174 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



I 



********* 

A 




220/112 



220/112 
220/112 
220/112 



139,210 
129,950 
128,590 
126,750 
91,670 
88,900 
83,230 



747,460 
359,980 
215,810 
106,390 



* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

if 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 

* 

* 

* ********************* **^*jt** - * 

March 1986 THE RAINBOW 175 



LEMANS f Sp&cttel Associates) 

0:70 '★Jeff Dinger, Edgewood, MD 
LUNAR-ROVER ^ATROL (Spectral Associates) 
249,51 0 j ★Ken Pledge, 1 00 Mile House, 

! British Columbia 
1 36.700 Lori Day, Arlington, TX 
MADNESS & THE MINOTAUR (Radio Shack) 

240 t ★Chris Mitchell, Byron, GA 
MARATHON (THE RAINBOW, 10/83) 

307,790 *,James Sheedy III, Tonawanda, NY 
MAROONED! (Saguarp) 

.58 ★Mikel Rice, Panama City, FL 
THE MARTIAN CRYPT (NOVASOFT) 

31 | ★John Alfocca, Yonkers, NY 
MEGA-BUG (Radio Shack) 

14,785 ★Blain Jamieson, Kingston, Ontario 
10,223 ; James Mancari, Ravenswood, WV 
fj.054 Jeremy Johnson, Nokomis, FL 
7,930 Ron Haines, Nepean, Ontario 
7,801 Jen Teeter, Hawley, PA 
7,542 Dick Volans, Ogdensburg, NY 
MISSILE BARRAGE (THE RAINBOW, 8/83) 

2-1 ★Joe Calcaterra, Ridge wood, NY 
MONKEY KONG (Med Systems) 
; 365 *Mark Ferris, Deep River, Ontario 
MONSTER MAZE (Radio Shack) 

206,780 ★Wanda Jones, Brentford, Ontario 
93,890 ' Rupert Young, Sheffield, MA 
60,120 Steve Thomas, Ogdensburg, NY 
43,610 Tim Cragg, Kahoka, MO 
10,740 Scott Swedis, Spencer, MA 
7,300 Scott Baithazor, Neenah, Wl 
MOON HOPPER (Computerware) 

79,830 ★Daniel D'Amour, Pincourt, Quebec 
MR. DIG (Computerware) 
6,787,000 *Jeff Roberg, Winfield, KS 
3,533,650 Paula James, Lumberton, TX 
NINJA WARRIOR (Programmer's Guild) 
108,000 ★Eric Gladstone, Ocala, FL 
106,300 Spencer Reeves, Baton Rouge, LA 
42,800 Steven Warmath, Memphis, TN 
28,800 Dave Iverson, Oakville, Ontario 
NUMBER BUMPER (THE RAINBOW, 10/85) 

416 ★Nedra Bishop, Jacksonville, FL 
ONE-ON-ONE (Radio Shack) 

424-10 ★Brian Biggs, Galloway, OH 
OPERATION FREEDOM (THE RAINBOW, 8/85) 
73,529 ★Kirby Smith, York, PA 
12,673 Alexander Taday, East Lyme, CT 
12,275 Brian Hanna, London, KY 
10,926 David Brave, Bloomfield, CTf 
PAC-TAC (Computerware) 

120,050 ★Matt Johnson, Eagle, PA 
PENGUIN (THE RAINBOW, 2/85) 

48,250 ★Paul Wagorn, Carp, Ontario 
44,550 Kevin Gallagher, Santa Monica, CA 
20,780 George Bodiroga, Eureka, CA 
1,660 Robert Nicosia, Gloversviile, NY 
PLANET INVASION (Spectral Associates) 
155,000 ★Jimmy Doyle, Barrackville, WV 
Alan Drazen, Longwood, FL 
Ghislain Chillis, Trois-Rivieres, 

Quebec 
Paul Hotz, Herzlia, Israel 
Laura Hotz, Herzlia, Israel 
POLARIS (Radio Shack) 

189,867 ★Andre Savoie, Marieville, Quebec 
29,472 Ron Volans, Ogdensburg, NY 
POLTERGEIST (Radio Shack) 

7,430 *Myriam Ferland, Trois-Rivieres, 

. Quebec 
6,000 ; Billy Fairfull, Charleston, SC 
4,840 ! Steve Thomas, Ogdensburg, NY 
POOYAN (Datasoft) 
3,785,000 ★Ben Collins, Clemson, SC 

61 ,930 I Erik Huffman, Rochester Hills, Ml 
1 1 ,450 1 Helen Dewitt, Blue Island, IL 
8,500 Hiram Esparza, Blue Island, IL 
POPCORN (Radio Shack) 

50,110 ★Nancy Ewart, Toms River, NJ 
45,210 Mike Norrls, Columbia, SC : : 
30,570 Becky Volans, Ogdensburg, NY 
20,730 Myriam Ferland, Trois-Rivieres, 
Quebec 
PYRAMID (Radio Shack) 

220/1 12 ★Byll Adams, Pasadena, TJ( 



67,700 
58,650 

39,350 
17,800 



★George Fairfield, Victoria, 

British Columbia 
★David Oelhaupi, Calgary, Alberta 
★Robbie Sablotny, Mt, Zlon, IL 
★Gregg Shay, Sunnymead, CA 
Q-NERD (THE RAINBOW, 5/84) 

1,958,950 ★Bruce Baltzer, Hanover, Ontario 
QU IX (Tom Mix) 

907,320 ★ Andrew Norrie, Misslssauga, Ontario 
RACER (THE RAINBOW, 3/85) 

301.9 ★Kirby Smith, York, PA 
283.4 Jennifer Woland, Silverdale, PA 
12.9 Robert Nicosia, Gloversviile, NY 
12.4 Michael Scott, Johnstown, NY 
RADIO BALL (Radio Shack) 
4,510,740 *Les Dorn, Eau Claire, Wl 
1 ,301 ,350 Brian Matherne, Gretna, LA 
RETURN OF THE JET-I (ThunderVislon) 

538,432 *Matt Griffiths, Stilwell, KS 
REVERSE (THE RAINBOW, 7/84) 

7 *Jon Hobson, Plainfield, Wl 
ROAD RACE (THE RAINBOW, 11/84) 

91.7 ★Bill Martin, Myrtle Beach, SC 
ROBOTRON (intracolor) 

467,000 *Todd Hooge & Ian Dawson, Comox, 

British Columbia 
335,400 Baiju Shah & Mark Ferris, Deep River, 
Ontario 

ROBOTTACK (intracolor) 

463,650 *Jay Pribble, Davenport, IA 
299,350 Chris Zepka, North Adams, MA 
36,090 Hiram Esparza, Blue Island, IL 
RUN FOR YOUR LIFE (THE RAINBOW, 4/85) 

80,000 ★Brian Jensen, Drayton Valley, Alberta 
50,000 Karen Goddard, Oshawa, Ontario 
20,000 Ryan Devlin, Louisville, KY 
20,000 Brian Voges, Jasper, IN 
SAILOR MAN ( Tom Mix) 

879,100 ★Alan Drazen, Longwood, FL 
351,700 Bob Dewitt, Blue island, IL 
131 ,600 Ron Volans, Ogdensburg, NY 
87,500 Kevin Radwan, Blue Island, IL 
SANDS OF EGYPT (Radio Shack) 

77 *Jeff Hillison, Blacksburg, VA 
John Allocca, Yonkers, NY 
Bob Dewitt, Blue Island, IL 
Jeff McKay, Travis AFB, CA 
Greg Ross, Martinsville, NJ 
Phil! Zarfos, Dallastown, PA 
SEA5TALKER (infocom) 

1 00/223 ★Erik Huffman, Rochester Hills, Ml 
90/21 2 Jeff Hillison, Blacksburg, VA 
SHAMUS (Radio Shack) 

62,940 *Jon Blow, San Diego, CA 
SHENANIGANS (Mark Data) 

90 ★Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 
95 Jeff Hillison, Blacksburg, VA 
95 David Kay, Winnipeg, Manitoba 
SHOOTING GALLERY (Radio Shack) 

227,840 ★Cliff Farmer, McGregor, TX 
18,500 Ken Dewitt, Blue Island, IL 
SHUTTER BUG (THE RAINBOW, 10/83) 

3,861 ★Darren Griffin, Gloucester, Ontario 
SIR EGGBERT JUMPER (THE RAINBOW, 8/85) 
960 ★Jorge Polo, Muscle Shoals, AL 
SKIING (Radio Shack) 

1:00 ★Scott Clevenger, Fairmount, IN 
1 ;00 ★Billy Falrfuli. Charleston, SC 
1 :10 Kevin Gallagher, Santa Monica, CA 
1:17 Michael Drouin, Reeds Spring, MO 
SLAY THE NERIUS ( Rad/o Shack) 

472,667 ★Jim Herbers, Placentia, CA 



80 
80 
82 
84 
86 



SPACE AMBUSH (Computerware) 

29,480 ★Frank Canepa III, Santurce, 
Puerto Rico 
SPACE ASSAULT (Radio Shack) 

232,120 ★Jim Tucker, Commerce, TX 
24,430 Michael Drouin, Reeds Spring, MO 
19,065 Steven Allen, Sharpsburg, MD 
18,310 Robin Volans, Ogdensburg, NY 
SPACE RACE (Spectral Associates) 

83,422 *Mark Donahue, Alexandria, VA 
SPACE WREK (Spectral Associates) 

58,300 ★Brad Gaucher, Hinton, Alberta 
SPEED RACER (MichTron) 

142,100 ★Chris Harrison, Brooks, KY 
Alan Drazen, Longwood, FL 
Jeff Dinger, Edgewood, MD 
Paul Hotz, Herzlia, Israel 
Jack Manzuilo, Saginaw, Ml 
Bob Dewitt, Blue Island, IL 
Kevin Radwan, Blue Island, IL 
Mariano Frausto, Blue Island, IL 
STAR BLAZE (Radio Shack) 

8,400 ★John Guptill, Columbia, MO 
7,050 Andreas Thaler, Coaticook, Quebec 
6,950 Scott lachetta, Rochester, NY 
STARSHIP CHAMELEON (Computerware) 

68,800 ★Brian Voges, Jasper, IN 
STORM ARROWS (Spectral Associates) 

285,850 ★Arnold Snitser, Los Angeles, CA 
STRANDED (Computer Island) 

70 ★Mike! Rice, Panama City, FL 
TEMPLE OF ROM (Radio Shack) 

959,400 ★Sonya Hurst, Richmond, CA 
101,100 Mark Lemke, Neenah, Wl 
75,000 Joel Miller, Neenah, Wl 
TIME BANDIT (MichTron) 
1,025,210 *Terry Moore, St. Catherines, Ontario 
Steven Coladonato, Roslyn, PA 
KristopherStaller, Ft. Wayne, IN 
Mark Olson, Whitecourt, Alberta 
Sylvain Castonguay, Chicoutimi, 
Quebec 

THE TOUCHSTONE (Tom Mix) 

226,640 *Kristopher Staller, Ft. Wayne, IN 
TUTANKAM (Aardvark) 

321,660 ★Pierre-Antoine Levesque, Salnte-Foy, 
Quebec 

TUT'S TOMB (Mark Data) 

225,160 ★Robert Wright North Queensland, 
Australia 
Nicole Pouiiot Coors, Mobile, AL 
Bernie Moberly, Portage La Prairie, 
Manitoba 
WARP FACTOR X (Prickly-Pear) 

2,301 ,823 *Yakini Banks, Saint Albans, NY 
WHIRLEYBIRD RUN (Spectral Associatas) 
1 1 7,000 ★Jeff Ray, N. Charleston, SC 

Sylvain Castonguay, Chicoutimi, 

Quebec 
Jay Aust, Marlborough, CT 
Glen Bilodeau, Otterburn Park, 

Ontario 
PJ Jayakody, Shelbyville, TN 
WILLY'S WAREHOUSE (Intracolor) 

296,700 ★Chris Reynolds, Richmond, KY 
163,500 Alan Morris, Chicopee, MA 
ZAXXON (Datasoft) 

253,400 ★Bob Dewitt, Blue Island, IL 

Brian McKendrick, Ogdensburg, NY 
Jason Comin, Pine Point, 

Northwest Territories 
George Frausto, Blue Island, IL 



189,960 
92.500 



105,400 

54,500 
43,850 

43,350 



59,700 
52,100 



35,000 



|tt Debbie Hartley 





***************************** 




0 




."If f ." 



I n conjunct ion with the rainbow's Scoreboard, we offer th is column of 
pointers for our game-playing readers' benefit. If you have some interest- 
ing hints and tips, we encourage you to share them by sending them toi 
V^he Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. 



Scoreboard: 

First to Tommy McClure [December 
1985, concerning To Preserve Quandic]: 
You don't use the car at all, except to get the 
cat. To use the helicopter, you type RIDE 
HELICOPTER. 

Now to Ric Miller [December 1985, 
concerning To Preserve Quandic]: I don't 
like to use "attack guard," because some- 
times you lose. The best thing to do is get 
the cat, and the guard will leave because he 
is allergic to cats. 

Now, to Jon Olson [December 1985]: To 
get the flashlight in Dallas Quest, you type 
PULL CURTAIN. 

Also, I have a few hints for Calixto Island. 
After you make both trades with Trader 
Jack, the teleporter will disappear. So, be 
sure to get everything over to the marshy 
field before doing the trades. 

I hope all of this information has been 
helpful 

Kevin Holder bach 
Mesa, AZ 



to get objects and place them in specific 
areas, which is necessarv to solve the Adven- 
ture. 

Two actions that are unnecessary to 
complete the Adventure are important to the 
overall campaign of the Hall of the King 
trilogy. First, you must get the huge glass 
pane and place it upon the center square 
after GOing onto the catwalk. Then READ the 
glass pane or center square. This will give 
you information about the entire quest. 

Second, you must find the parchment 
whose meaning will be divined later in the 
quest. This can be done by examining the 
desk in the study. 

This is all the help lean fairly give. Good 
luck with solving the rest of the Adventure. 

Glen Dahlgren 
Author o/Hall of the King 
Pittsburgh, PA 



AUTHORS' NOTES 

Scoreboard: 

To make Brotan the Blue a bit easier to 
play, change the following in the program: 

Eliminate PUT(CD,Y)~(CD+8,Y+11) ,SP: 
in Line 34 and change Line 40 to read: 
40 RR-RND (100) : IF RR>50 and RR<53 
THEN GOTO 50 ELSE GOTO 18 

The red gremlins will appear less often 
and attaining freedom will be easier for you. 
Enjoy the game! 

Alan A. Sapor ta 
Author of Brotan the Blue 
Woodside, NY 

Scoreboard: 

In Prickly-Pear's new Adventure, Hall of 
the King, there is a vital command omitted 
in the documentation: PUT. This allows you 



RINGS ARE GOOD FOR THE IMAGE 

Scoreboard: 

I would like to share a few tips for Dun- 
geons of Daggorath. I have killed all of the 
creatures except the Evil Wizard. 

First, save to tape after you kill a creature 
and get an object. 

After you have several duplicate objects, 
drop them in the same room you are in. 
When a creature enters the room, you can 
attack many times while he is occupied 
picking up the objects. The more objects you 
drop, the more attacks you can make. 

When you kill the Image of the Evil 
Wizard you must have a new torch in use 
and your best sword in one hand. The 
contents of your backpack are lost when you 
kill this creature. 

Save your incanted rings for use against 
the Image of the Evil Wizard. All other 
creatures you meet first can eventually be 
killed without using the rings. 

Do not go up a ladder to escape a creature. 
This will be quite hazardous to your health. 

The Hale Flask slows your heart rate and 
allows you to attack, or get away from, a 
creature. 



The Vision Scroll allows you to see a map 
of the level of the dungeon you are in, 

The Seer Scroll shows the position of the 
creatures on the dungeon map. 
I hope you find these tips useful. 

Daniel L Quigg 
Richmond, KY 



THE VORTEX FACTOR 

Scoreboard: 

I recently purchased The Vortex Factor 
from Mark Data Products. It is a challeng- 
ing and exciting Adventure with excellent 
graphics. Some tips are: When you get the 
key to the south door, type OPEN DOOR then 
GO DOOR to enter. When you get to the room 
with the cylinder, type GO CYLINDER. Type 
GET CALENDAR when you go to the main 
office and see what you find! 

One final tip: The only way you can find 
objects and treasures is if you EXAMINE 
things closely. 

I also have some questions. How do you 
open the bank? How can you make the time 
machine work? Is there a secret passage 
behind the bookcase? If anyone can answer 
my questions, please write to the "Score- 
board/' 

Tommy Grouser 
Dunbar, WV 



To respond to other readers' inquiries and 
requests for assistance, reply to "Scoreboard 
Pointers," c/o THE RAINBOW, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. We will imme- 
diately forward your letter to the original 
respondent and, just as importantly, well 
share your reply with all "Scoreboard" 
readers in an upcoming issue. 

For greater convenience, "Scoreboard 
Pointers* 9 and requests for assistance may 
also be sent to us through the MAIL section 
of our new Delphi CoCo SIG. From the 
CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then type 
SEND and address to: EDITORS. 

* 

— Debbie Hartley 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★ ★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 



1 76 THE RAINBOW March 1 986 



The publishers of the Rainbow 
are taking an interest 
in a different type of programming 




HOME VIDE 



previews of mm Tftan 70 Hm Tapes 
. j Taper* Guide to Network and Ctftfe 



...*vllgtt.||| jil'ili.illlHl^ 



Ml IIIHI. 





v 




'Sp" ,,; i;ri ' 

i ' 11 

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1 Hi' 1 1*. 1* 




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' i *s 




Yes, I'm ready for some real entertainment! Send 
the next 12 issues of VCR to my door. 

Subscribe now for only $15 and save 36% off the regular newsstand price. 



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That's right. We've decided 
that programs Kke Shenani- 
gans and Symphony 12 aren't 
the only great ones around. There 
are also Silver Streak and Star Trek 
and Some Like It Hot — software 
of a different sort. 

That's why we are introducing 
VCR, The Home Video Monthly, 
the magazine for the new gener- 
ation of home viewer. 

Home video has evolved 
beyond the "hacker" era, when 
you needed a degree in electron- 
ics just for a little entertainment. 
Most people don't care about how 
the signal-to-noise ratio and wow- 
and-flutter specs of their equip- 
ment compare to the latest mod- 
els. They simply want to know how 
best to use and enjoy the equip- 
ment that they have. 

And that is what VCR will offer 
— how to get the very best in 
home entertainment from your 
equipment. 

Each month, VCR will bring you 
previews and ratings of every new 
offering on tape and disc: music 
videos, children's shows, how-to 
guides, and movies, movies, mo- 
vies. 

We will tell you which shows the 
critics themselves will be taping on 
the networks and cable, along with 
tips from the experts on how to get 
the best possible reproductions. 
And you can turn to us for the 
answers to your questions, ranging 
from the trivial to the technical. 

Even more, each month we will 
feature exclusive interviews with 
the stars and the star-makers, 
along with articles designed to 
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Yes, programming is more than 
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we know you'll want to be a char- 
ter subscriber to the guide to the 
very best in entertainment soft- 
ware. 

VCR, The Home Video Monthly, 

debuted in January. 



Mail to: VCR, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059 



COMPLETE SG-10 

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• TYPE SELECTION/TUTORIAL 

• WORD PROCESSOR 2.2 



WORD PROCESSOR 2.2 

TAPE OR DISK VERSION 
A feature packed program that turns your CoCo into an of- 
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• AC POWER OPTIONAL-NOT NEEDED WITH SG-10 PRINTER 

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•180 DAY WARRANTY 



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CUSTOM SOFTWARE 



"Overall, Super Gemprint is very well-written and documented.*' 

—Rainbow December 84 review . 

BONUS! TYPE SELECTION/TUTORIAL PROGRAM 

FREE WITH SUPER GEMPRINT 

Menu driven program for the CoCo. Teaches and shows the new 
user the numerous features of the SG-10. 



SUPER GEMPRINT AND $ 
TYPE SELECTION/TUTORIAL PROGRAM 



17 



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OHIO RESIDENTS ADD 6Vi% SALES TAX 
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BMC Monitor Stand 

Makes CoCoing Comfortable/Specfru/r? Projects, Inc. . ... , ,207 , 

Buzzworm 

Watch out for the Deadly Bi te/Novasoft . . ... .188 

Calculating Parts Per Million 

Does the Figuring for You/Green Horizons , 195 

CCZAP 

Helps Find Hidden Control Codes/Mafr/x Computing . ♦ 185 

CoCo Calendar 

Can Help You Get Organ \zed/ Spectrum Projects, Inc. ...... , , , * w . . . . , 209 

CoCo Cooler Too 

Play It Cool/ REM Industries, Inc. . . . . . . , , .. . + . , > . ,-. P . . + . . 1 88 

CoCo Incognito 

Packed with Useful Information/flC Creations * . : ...,208 

CoCo Keyboard Cover 

A Real Undercover Operation/flE/W Industries, Inc 191 

Don Pan 

Good for Arcade Beginners/ Tandy Corp . .199 

Geography USA 

An Excellent Learning TooUViking, Inc. . > . * . , . ...... .206 

Gold Runner 

Fast and Furious/ A/ovasoft ........ ... — 1 96 

House Doc 

An Electronic Doctor on Call/For Your Health Software . . . . ..... .... . . .202 

Marble Maze 

Presents a Challenge for All Ages/ Diecom Products s ^ .197 

Micro Illustrator 

Creates Dazzling Graphics/ Tandy Corp 203 

Omni verse 

Venture to New Universes/Compufenvare .184 

Orchestra-90/CC 

Impressive Music Production/Software Affair , . . ♦ >.. ...... . . ... .189 

Puzzler 

Educational Fun for Adults and Children/Co/or Connection Software , . . 1 90 
SDOS 

Powerful Package Perfect for Hackers/Software Qyn amies — ... .200 

Stylo-Pak 

A New Standard for Word Process! ng/Stylo Software + , .192 

Super Directory Catalog 

Keeps Track of Disk Files/Mefa/soft , , 1 98 

TX 

Word Processor Written in basic/ Kolesar B/S ... . .209 




RECEIVED & CERTIFIED 



The following products recently have been 
received by the rainbow, examined by our magazine 
staff and approved for the Rainbow Seal of 
Certification, your assurance that we have seen the 
product and have ascertained that it is what it 
purports to be. 

This month the Seal of Certification has been 
issued to: 



am ms mm 




Hall of the King, a 64K graphics Adven- 
ture requiring a disk drive. The scenario 
places you as a seasoned Adventurer on 
a quest for the legendary Earthstone, a 
powerful cornerstone of a dwarven 
race's magical prowess. This two-disk 
Adventure allows players to save or 
load a game at any stage of the Adven- 
ture. Prickly-Pear Software, 2640 N. 
Conestoga Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85749, 
disks $39.95 plus $1.50 S/H 

Semigraphics 4 Editor, a 32K ECB 

graphics utility featuring these capabil- 
ities: Built-in character set with four 
sizes, use of all eight colors on same 
screen, saving screens at DRTR state- 
ments for inclusion in BASIC programs 
and complete cassette and disk I/O. 
CMD Micro Computer Services Ltd., 
10447 124 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, 
T5N 1R7, distributed in the U.S. by 
Saguaro Software, P.O. Box 1864, 
Telluride, CO 81435, cassette $14.95 
plus $2 S/H 

Disk Management System Version 2, a 

16K disk program filing system requir- 
ing a disk drive that allows users to keep 
copies of disk directories and file allo- 
cation tables, restore directories, high 
speed search for programs, machine 
language sort and print (32K only) and 
user adjustable defaults. CMD Micro 



Computer Services Ltd., 10447 124 
Street, Edmonton, Alberta, T5N 1R7, 
distributed in the U.S. by Saguaro 
Software, P.O. Box 1864, Telluride, CO 
81435, disk $19.95 plus $2 S/H 



Line Editor, a 16K programming utility 
for assembly and PASCAL source code 
that uses Hi-Res 5 1 by 24 column screen 
with true upper- and lowercase charac- 
ters. Features include auto-repeating 
keys, BASIC loader to permit user mod- 
ifications and built-in help screens. 
CMD Micro Computer Services Ltd., 
10447 124 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, 
T5N 1R7, distributed in the U.S. by 
Saguaro Software, P.O. Box 1864, 
Telluride, CO 81435, cassette $17.95 
plus $2 S/H 

CGP-220 Ink Jet Printer Graphic 
Screen Dump Package, a 16K graphics 
utility to print out graphics on a CGP- 
220 Ink Jet Printer and featuring these 
capabilities, four color and one color 
version, special Co Co Max version, use 
on cassette or disk systems and user 
selectable colors. CMD Micro Compu- 
ter Services Ltd., 10447 124 Street, 
Edmonton, Alberta, T5N 1R7, distrib- 
uted in the U.S. by Saguaro Software, 
P. O. Box 1864, Telluride, CO 81435, 
cassette $14.95 plus $2 S/H 



NumberJack, a numeric keypad hard- 
ware accessory to facilitate number- 
intensive applications. Measuring 5 X A 
by 1 X A by 2 X A inches, the keypad can be 
installed without soldering or drilling. 
Comes with complete instructions and 
3-foot plug-in cable with all necessary 
connectors. Included on the keypad are 
four cursor keys, CLEAR, @, decimal 
point, comma, ENTER and the standard 
four math keys. HJL Products, Div. of 
Touchstone Technology Inc., 955 Buf- 
falo Road, P.O. Box 24954, Rochester, 
NY 14624, $89.95 

D.L, LOGO, a 64K programming and 
educational utility requiring a disk drive 
that will run on OS-9 and designed to 
utilize one or two joysticks, the Multi- 
Pak Interface, an X-Pad and the 
Speech/ Sound cartridge to allow users 
to weave shapes, colors, speech, music 
and sound into infinite patterns. Also 
available are mathematical, trigono- 
metric and Boolean functions to allow 
exploration as users create graphics, 
learn arithmetic and spelling, play 
games and strengthen programming 
skills. Tandy Corp., available in Radio 
Shack stores nationwide, manual and 
disk $99.95 

TXD, a 64K disk editing utility requir- 
ing a disk drive. Capabilities include 
allowing the user to trace a file, map it 
out sector by sector, alphabetically sort 
directory filenames, simultaneously 
make a hard copy, edit any sector, 
rewrite and/ or copy to another sector 
and still return to current sector posi- 
tion in the tracing operation. Kolesar 
B/S, 7 Ladd Road, Westfield, PA 
16950, disk $14.95 plus $2 S/H 

Math Mission, a 32K educational game 
requiring a joystick designed to rein- 
force early math skills in the four 
mathematic operations: addition, sub- 
traction, multiplication and division. 
Joystick orientation is designed to 
develop eye-hand coordination, and 
there is a shot timer to simulate a 
classroom time test as well as four 
optional levels of difficulty. There are 
graphics, sound and written rewards for 



180 



THE RAINBOW March 1 986 



the players. Sugar Software, 1710 
North 50th Avenue, Hollywood, FL 
33021, cassette or disk $24.95 plus $1.50 
S/H 

Advanced Utilities, a 64K OS-9 pack- 
age to provide OS-9 users these tools: 
KSHELL, that allows wild cards with 
any utility, standard output and error 
paths can be overwritten or appended 
to from the command line, selectable 
prompt of the user's choice; PATH 
comand allows the setup of multiple 
path directories to be searched when a 
command is given; UNLOAD, a repet- 
itive unlink utility to remove modules; 
FLINK, allowing users to have many 
different boot files on a given disk and 
set which one to boot with next time; 
ARCHIVE, backs up large disk media 
onto small disk media by filling one disk 
prompting for a new disk and contin- 
uing until all files are offloaded; CPY, 
performs like the standard COPY plus 
copies multiple files to a given directory. 
Computerware, Box 668, Encinitas, CA 
92024, disk $29.95 plus $2 S/H 

CoCo Keyboard Software, a 16/32/ 
64K ECB utility requiring a disk drive 
that allows users of the HJL-57, Mi- 
cronix or Deluxe CoCo keyboards easy 
access to four of the most used func- 
tions. The function keys on the HJL-57 
and Micronix keyboards or the two 
function keys and the ALT and CTRL 
keys of the Deluxe CoCo keyboards can 
be programmed to perform the follow- 
ing: Text Screen Dump, 9600 Baud 
printer rate, BASIC LIST or cold start of 
the computer. Spectrum Projects, Inc., 
P.O. Box 21272, 93-15 86th Drive, 
Woodhaven, NY 11421, disk $14.95 
plus $3 S/H 

CoCo Calendar, a 32K disk program 
that aids users in keeping track of daily 
schedules, appointments, birthdays, 
etc. Capable of handling any date from 
the present to December 3 1 , 2000, this 



program includes a Hi-Res calendar 
display with the dates containing 
memos marked. Features include entry, 
deletion, retrieval by date and dumping 
to a printer (with user-provided screen 
dump program) the calendar display. 
Spectrum Projects, Inc., P.O. Box 
21272, 93-15 86th Drive, Woodhaven, 
NY 11421, $24.95 plus $3 S/H 

BMC Pan-tilt Monitor Stand, a compu- 
ter accessory that adjusts a 12-inch 
monitor for glare-free viewing and 
capable of revolving 360 degrees and 
tilting 12.5 degrees. No assembly is 
necessary. Spectrum Projects, Inc., P.O. 
Box 21272, 93-15 86th Drive, Wood- 
haven, NY 11421, $24.95 plus $3 S/H 

LISTAID, a 4K machine language 
program designed to format BASIC 
listing to the text screen or printer. 
Neat-0 Software, Rt. #3 Box 205, 
Kingsport, TN 37664, cassette $10 plus 
$2 S/H 

SCRDMP10, a 16K ECB screen dump 
program requiring a dot-matrix impact 
printer and designed to reproduce 
sideways a PM0DE 3 or PM0DE 4 screen 
dumped to a printer to give a picture 
that is 6 l A by 7 inches. Neat- O Software, 
Rt. #J Box 205, Kingsport, TN 37664, 
cassette $10 plus $2 S/H 

OS-9 Enhancements, an addendum 
introducing the changes and new fea- 
tures of OS-9, Version 02.00.00. In- 
cluded in the list of new commands and 
utilities are: CONFIG, to provide a 
menu of all I/O options and allow 
selection of any legal combination of 
device drivers; HELP, to display the 
syntax and usage of standard OS-9 
system commands; INIZ, to force the 
allocation of device buffers and when 
used at startup, to keep buffers from 
fragmenting memory; other system 
changes to provide capabilities such as 
networking, 32 and 80 column screen 



display and access to a Speech/ Sound 
cartridge. Also, updated GETSTAT, 
SETSTAT and VIRQ system calls. 
Tandy Corp., available in Radio Shack 
stores nationwide, manual and disk 
$69.95 

Biosphere, a 64K Simulation requiring 
a disk drive. The scenario places you in 
the role of master ecologist and captain 
of the fabulous starship, Arkworld. 
Arkworld contains within its cargo hold 
over 200 varieties and species of plants 
and animals. When you rescue a dying 
world's colony of native animals it is 
your goal to use Arkworld 's resources 
to create a new environment in which 
the colony can survive and flourish. 
Tandy Corp., available in Radio Shack 
stores nationwide, disk $29.95 

CoCo EPROM Programmer, an 

EPROM programmer with these capa- 
bilities: will program EPROMS from 
2716 to 27128 and 27512; will program 
the 24-pin 68764 and 68766 EPROMS 
that fit in the CoCo ROM sockets, 
features EPROM Erase?, Verify 
EPROM, Move EPROM to memory, 
Examine/ Change memory and Change 
buffer address. Spectrum Projects, Inc., 
P.O. Box 21271, 93-15 86th Drive, 
Woodhaven, NY 11421, $149.95 plus $3 
S/H 

Health Programs, a 32K home utility 
that contains these nutritional instruc- 
tion features: a list of over 180 foods and 
analyses to display how much protein, 
calories, which of 1 1 vitamins and nine 
minerals are contained in the food 
selected, 14 RDA and MDA categories 
and adjustments for the needs of preg- 
nant and lactating women; deficiency 
symptoms and food sources for 21 
nutrients, recommendations for nutri- 
tional therapy for common ailments 
and a PM0DE 4 graph for biorythms. 
Health Software, 1521 Lancelot, Borger 
TX 79007, cassette or disk $15 



The Seal of Certification program is open to all 
manufacturers of products for the Tandy Color 
Computer, regardless of whether they advertise in 

THE RAINBOW. 

By awarding a Seal, the magazine certifies the 
product does exist — that we have examined it and 
have a sample copy — but this does not constitute 
any guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, 
these hardware or software items will be forwarded 
to the rainbow's reviewers for evaluation. 

— Monica Oorth 



March 1 986 THE RAINBOW 181 



GREAT COCO PRODUCTS 



UNIVERSAL VIDEO DRIVER 



WHY DOES THE MARK DATA 
UNIVERSAL VIDEO DRIVER 
OUTSELL ALL OTHERS 
COMBINED??? 
BECAUSE IT'SWtiE BESTM 



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engmee 



Computer models!; 
including the newest; 
COCO II. Enables your 
COCO to operate with a 
video monitor instead of a 
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• Works with monochrome 
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• Audio Conn ection 
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• Easy installation- 
no soldering! 



SPECIAL— Order one of our quality video monitors and 
get the Mark Data Universal Video Driver for just $24.95. 

SAVE $5.00 



QUALITY VIDEO MONITORS 





SAKATA COLOR SC-100 $239.95 

The SC-100 is a streamlined 13" composite 
monitor which produces sharp, brilliant 
colors. The cabinet is made of durable sty- 
rene and is available in an attractive off-white 
color. Includes audio with speaker and ear- 
phone jack. We highly recommend this color 
monitor because of its excellent performance 
and beautiful styling. 



CAMBRIDGE GRAPHICS AMBER 
SCREEN MONITOR $119.95 

A 12" amber screen composite monitor of the 
highest quality with exceptional reliability 
and performance. 18 MHZ bandwidth. At- 
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We carry other brands also. 
Call for additional information. 



Order a quality monitor from us and get a 
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Save $5.00 



SERIAL TO PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE 

to 9600 baud. Complete with ail 
cables and connectors. 
Only $49.95 



NEED MORE MEMORY? 64K Memory Expansion Kit 

Jfgirte^^ instructions (for 'E' and *F 

^ boards and CoCo II). 
E NOW ONLY $14.95 



PRINTERS 



NEW StarGemini 
SG-10 model printer 

Only $249.95 

120 cps w/true 
descenders, 
2K buffer; 
proportional 

spacing. New model for 1985. 




"The Connecting Link" 




ONLY $29.95 



COCO-UTIL 

CoCo-Util is a valuable utility 
program that allows you to transfer 
Tandy Color Computer disc files 
to your MS-DOS machine. You 
may also transfer MS-DOS files to 
a Color Computer disc. CoCo-Util 
will save you countless hours of 
retyping... a great new utility. 



GREAT BARGAINS ON 
COCO DISC DRIVES! 

COMPLETE SYSTEMS INCLUDE; 

> Hi-Quality Teac Thin Line Drives 

• Attractive, Beige Dual Drive Cabinet/Power Supply 

• Fill Panel for Single Drive Disc Systems 

• Radio Shack or NEW TYPE j & M Disc Controller 
Offering Switch Selectable Roms and Parallel Printer Port 

• Cable and Operating Manual 

• Full 90 Day Warranty 



Single Drive (SSDD) in Dual Cabinet w/Controller . . 
Additional Drive .". ... . . ... ... . . . . ; . 

Two -Drives (SSDD) in Dual Cabinet w/Controller . . 

Single Drive (DSDD) in Dual Cabinet w/Controller . . . 
Additional Drive . , .'. ./.' . .... . . . . , . . 

Two Drives (DSDD) in Dual Cabinet w/Controller . 

Dual Cabinet/Power Supply ... , .... ... . ... . . 

Disc Controller (Radio Shack or j & M) . ..... ..... 

Connecting Cable . . . j-. » 

Radio Shack DOS ROM 1.1 or J/DOS w/Manual . . . 




$299.95 
. 89.95 
.384.95 

359.95 
129.95 
, 484.95 

,79.95 
. .139.95 
24 95 
.39.95 



SUPER PRO KEYBOARD 




WHY 

PAY 

MORE? 
The best is 
only $59.95 



FOR D, E AND F BOARD MODELS 

• Original Key layout 

• Fast, easy installation— 
no soldering 

• Individually boxed with 
full instructions 
• Smooth 'Touch Typist" feel— 
no sagging 

U.S. made— high quality, quad gold contacts 
Professional, low profile, finished appearance 

•Computers produced after approximately Oct. 1982 require 
an additional keyboard plug adapter. Please add $3.95. 



$ Save Money on Your Cassette & 
Disc Supplies $ 

We buy cassettes and discs in large quantities for our own use and can pass the 
savings on to you, 



C-10 Cassettes w/labels 
Cassette storage box 

Basic 1.2 ROM 

Extended 1.1 ROM w/Manual 

Disc 1.1 ROM or l/DOS ROM w/Manual 



.59 ea 
.25 ea 



10 for $5.50 
10 for 2.00 

$39.95 

49,95 

39.95 



5Va Discs 

High quality, nationally advertised brand. Guaranteed Performance. We will 
replace any disc that fails during normal use. Discs are double density, reinforced 
hub with sleeve. $12.95 for 10 discs in an attractive storage box. • Great Price! 

fjfcW 1 DISC STORAGE 

Attractive, heavy duty acrylic case with 
lock. Holds and protects 50 5 W discs with 
five moveable indexed dividers. 

SUPER BARGAIN ONLY $9.95 

SPECIAL - Purchase this attractive storage case 
including 10 discs for only $21.95. 




SERIOUS STUFF 



ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 

The Mark Data Products AccduntingSystem is ideal for the small businessman needing a 
fast, efficient means to process; income and expenses, prepare detailed reports and 
maintain most of the information 4 required at tax time. The system is a family of programs 
which operate by means of a "menu" selection scheme. When the operator selects a task 
•Id perform, the computer loads a program designed to handle that task from the system 
.disc/ fhe system disc contains all of the programs required to create, update and maintain 
data files and preparethe necessary accounting reports including a transaction journal, a P 
& L 6r : income report, an interim or trial balance and a balance sheet. 

This accounting software equals or exceeds higher priced packages for other computers 
and includes a detailed operating manual. ONLY $99.95 



ORDER ENTRY SYSTEM 

The Mark Data Product sales order processing system provides a fasti efficient means to 
enter outers, print shipping papers and invoices, prepare sales reports, and monitor 
receivable-* The system automatically enhances the monitor screen to a 51 character by 24 
line display. 32K of memory is required along with an 80-column printer and oneor more 
disc drives. 

This order entry software equals or exceeds higher priced packages for other computers 
and includes a detailed operating manual. ONLY $99.95 



EASY EDIT 



Easy-Edit is a versatile, easy to use text editor which is particularly convenient for assembly 
language and BASIC programming. This editor offers powerful text handling capabilities 
along with many special features including a built-in disc operating system, 32/64K memory 
sense, a 51 character by 24 line screen, auto key repeat, extensive error reporting, and 
complete compatibility with popular assemblers. Requires 32K and at least one disc drive. 
Master disc and instructions are packaged in an attractive 3-ring binder, $34.95 



EASY-FILE 



Data Management 
System 



Rainbow, Nov. '84 "Easy File is one program that lives up to its name . , . Easy File is so easy it speaks 
for itself." 

Hot CoCo, Feb. '85 Tve examined four database programs for the CoCo in the last few months. 
Easy File is the easiest to master and the one that best addresses my needs. If you need to organize 
the information in your life, Easy File might just be the best method." 

Need a good mailing list or customer list program? How about a program to keep track of your in- 
vestments, your computer magazines, or record collection? Do you have an inventory of all house- 
hold items for insurance purposes? EASY-FILE will do all of these things and many more. The 
EASY-FILE master disc and instructions are packaged in an attractive 3-ring binder. Requires 32K 
and at least one disc drive. 

Order Yours Now! Get Organized for Only $59.95! 



SUPER SCREEN 

The Color Computer Supercharger 

• A big 52 character by 24 line screen 

• 'PRINT @' is fully implemented on the big screen! 

• Easily combine text with hl-res graphics 

• Auto-key repeat for greater keyboard convenience ( <- 

• The 'ON ERROR GOTO' statement is fully implemented ft — 

• Control codes for additional function 

Guaranteed to be the most frequently used program in your software library. . .once you use it you 
won't be without it! Cassette $29.95 Disc $32.95 





JUST FOR FUN 



The Greatest Hi-Res Graphic Arcade 
Game Ever Written for Your CoCo! 



SUPER ACTION 



Welcome Shock Trooper Squad Commander 

telligence has intercepted a coded message revealing a plan to 
conquer Earth. Four of your Shocktroopers must infiltrate the heavily 
defended underground enemy base and steal all of their secret TRG-5 
attack saucer sub-assemblies. Return them to our scientists for analysis. 
This secret information is crucial to our defense. 32K Required. 



► . • > < I ■ i > 1 1 h ■ ii ■ . 

ttMamiiaiai 




i lie mii.h ,t f , 

HJiiiVfi htillfilJfi n ' 




ft 



4a 

>ji»M*i.-iw.^a*'' -, "'tiK 

Ufa 



ITS' 




By Rob Shaw, author of 

Tilt's Tomb 

Another of our outstanding 
arcade games. 
Don't miss it! 



Also: Presenting the Sixth and Most Challenging of Our Adventures 



By 



Bob Withers 
SteVe O'Dea 




VOflTEX 




In in * twitly p *ts *&ew *y , 

frt'i* I Cti< -iirf-c tioi.s Mpr tti> 
t-felilh, E#«t, He* I. 

1 ? Cf* (or c ht« , 
l'l , ■ 



What is it? What secrets does it hold? The seeker of 
treasures through time and space must find out! From 
the coliseum of ancient Rome to the futuristic world 
of tomorrow. 
FACTOR Join us in this new and 
unforgettable odyssey. 

also available 
for IBM & Tandy 
1000/1200 



Other Exciting Adventures 

Calixto Island • Shenanigans 
Sea Search • Trekboer 
Black Sanctum 



All Games - Cassettes $24.95 Discs $27.95 32K Required 



SHIPPING: All orders under $100 please add S2 regular, $5 air. All orders over $100 please add 3% regular, 8% air. California residents ple t w add 6% sates tax. Orders outside 
the continental U.S., check witKds for shipping amount: please remit U.S. funds. Software authors— contact us tor exciting program marketing details. We accept MasterCard 
and VISA. Distributed in, Canada Iby Kelly Software. 

\jf=^ I FREE— Send for our free catalog flier. 

f 






Mark Data Products 



Department C 

— w 



24001 ALICIA PKWY., NO. 207 • MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 



Software Review ^SS^SSSSSSSSSSSSf7s\ 

Venture to New Universes 
and Save Earth in Omniverse 

In this new 64K graphics Adventure by Scott Cabit for 
Computerware, you, mild-mannered theoretical physicist, 
have discovered gateways into new dimensions and 
universes. Unfortunately, you've also learned of an alien 
plot to set up networks of these gateways and, through 
them, conquer Earth. You can save Earth by leaving your 
equations, computer and synchrotrons behind and sallying 
forth on an adventure to discover these gateways. 

While the program loads into the computer, gather up 
paper and pencil, for you are about to exchange your life 
as physicist for that of Adventurer/ cartographer. In 
addition, youll want a labeled, formatted disk (or a blank 
tape if you have the tape version) on hand for the saves you'll 
want to make at strategic intervals. 

The Adventure begins on a snowy plain. You first stand 
watching the snow fall before journeying onward. In this 
Adventure you can use a joystick or the arrow keys for the 
compass directions (shifted up- and down-arrow keys for 
moving up and down). When you wish to examine some- 
thing, use the standard two-word, verb-noun command 
sentence. Some Adventurers like to know which words are 
known to the program, others think part of the fun is 
discovering which words have meaning. In Omniverse, folks 
of the former persuasion need only type VOCPB to see most 
of the known words, while others can avoid this. Typing 
HELP sometimes gives further assistance. 

When you come to the area of a gateway and approach 
from the proper direction, you suddenly hear music; the sky 



Two-Liner Contest Winner . , . 

Guitar Capo asks you for a capo number and 
responds with all the chord and note changes. 

The listing: 

lj3 DIMN$(12) ,N1$ (12) ,N2$(12) :FOR 
T=j3T011 ; READN$ (T) : Nl$ (T) =LEFT$ (N 
$(T),2) :N2$(T)=RIGHT$(N$(T) ,2) :N 
EXT : DATA C B#,C#D-,D ,D#E-,E F- 
,F E#,F#G-,G ,G#A-,A ,A#B-,B 
C- 

15 INPUTA: CLS : PRINT @J3 , ; : INPUT" 
CHORDS/NOTES ON CAPO NO. ,f ;C:PRIN 
T" FRETTED" , "SOUNDED" :TF Oil THE 
N 15: ELSE FOR T=J3 TO 11:PRINTN1$ 
(T)";"N2$(T) , :IF C+T>11 THEN C=C 
-11:D=T+C:PRINTN1$(D) ":"N2$(D) :N 
EXTT:GOT015 ELSE PRINT N1$(T+C)+ 
W|"+N2$ (T+C) INEXT T:GOT015 

Donny Schiavone 
Tulsa, OK 

(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Second Rainbow Book Of Adventures and its companion The 
Second Rainbow Adventures Tape) 



turns red and the words "You feel very strange" signal that 
you are being transported to another universe, first from 
the ice to a desert. There is no turning back! When you 
happen upon Sam's Saloon, you will want to pause long 
enough to watch as Sam wipes the bar — one of the cutest 
graphics in Adventuredom! 

Once you find the gateway out of the desert, you are 
transported to a jungle, from there to a desert island and, 
after a few surprises, find yourself on a barren, rocky 
volcanic island, and hopefully will be able to solve the 
Adventure and thus save Earth. When you do, you are 
treated to a scrolling Mercator projection of Earth and the 
song "Happy Trails." 

The game is loaded by typing LORDM "OMNI"; the disk 
starts whirring and OK appears on the screen — then panic 
sets in — the disk keeps whirring madly and there is no 
cursor after the OK prompt. At this point the temptation 
is great to push the Reset button, thinking the program has 
fouled up. Resist that impulse! The program itself is loading 
— and it takes over one minute. Eventually, the drive stops 
spinning and the usual color check appears on the screen. 
Since the loading of Omniverse is different from usual, I 
think Computerware should mention it in the loading 
directions. 

The save game feature used is also new to me, and a few 
words of caution are in order here. I mentioned that your 
progress can be saved before each peril, real or imagined; 
you number each one from zero to nine, but individual saves 
do not show up in the directory when the DIR command 
is used, and FREE returns 68, even if there are 10 saves on 
the disk. Disk inspection reveals that Omniverse writes 
directly to Track 0. If, in haste, you grab the first formatted, 
blank disk in your disk box and forget to label it, you could 
mistake this for another blank disk at some future date. If 
you do not record on your map the number of the individual 
save, as well as where it occurs, a save you wish to keep 
can easily be overwritten. 

There are a number of features included in Omniverse 
that are not found in the average Adventure. In addition 
to being able to use the joystick or arrow keys for 
movement, those with the Radio Shack speech module can 
elect to have all writing, which appears on the screen, 
spoken through their speech cartridge. If you tire of this 
feature, it can be toggled off. Scott Cabit also includes 
multipart music in the program, and thoughtfully allowed 
for those of us in a hurry to get on with the action to 
abbreviate it by depressing the space bar. However, the 
music is so well-done that you will want to take the time 
to listen to it at least once. 

Omniverse has over 200 locations in several separate 
"worlds" to inspect, so, of course, many use the same 
pictures. Some of these are outstanding and, overall, the 
pictures are clear and colorful. There are fewer objects to 
inspect than in many Adventures and few real puzzles. 
Everyone will have a lot of fun wandering about and 
enjoying its special features, but it is not too difficult for 
the average Adventurer. Careful map-making is the key to 
success with this one. 

(Computerware, P.O. Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024, 
requires 64K, tape $24.95, disk $27.95 plus $2 S/H) 

— Carol Kueppers 



1 84 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



Software ReviewSSSSSZ Z^SSSSSSSSSS?/^\ 



CCZAP Helps Find 
Hidden Control Codes 



About two days after I got my disk drive, I discovered 
what a disk zap program is for. I'm sure no one else has 
ever accidentally gotten a write-protect tab stuck in his disk 
drive, but believe it or not, I did. You would be amazed how 
poorly a disk drive writes with a protect tab floating around 
in it! I found out the hard way. Luckily, I had a friend with 
a zap program. He helped me out of my problem. 

CCZAP is a disk zap utility program. A disk zap is a 
program that reads the contents of a disk directly and 
without regard to the nature of the data. Generally the user 
is given a choice of format for the presentation of the data, 
i.e., ASCII, hexadecimal or some combination of the two. 

I received CCZAP on a disk along with four pages of 
documentation that covered the bare bones operation of the 
program. One of the surprising things in the documentation 
is all the possible drive variations for which the authors have 
allowed. The program allows you to have up to four drives, 
up to 80 tracks per drive and up to 36 sectors per track. 
This nice feature allows those with JDOS and double-sided 
drives to use CCZAP. 

To make the program start, the user inserts the disk with 
CCZAP in Drive 0 and types RUN "RUNCCZGP". This is not 
a misprint; the program name is RUNCCZAP. The 
program loads a binary file that is patched with the answers 
the user supplies about track numbers, sector counts, etc. 
The program then allows you to save this setup for future 
use. From this point on, the program is completely menu 
driven. 

The main menu gives several options: 

R — read a user specified track and sector 

M — modify the selected track and sector 

W — write the modified selection 

SHFT CLR — print the selection 

B — exit to BASIC 

; — advance to the next sector 

back up to the previous sector 

The first action the user must take in using the zap program 
is to read the desired track and sector. Both the track and 
sector must be entered in hexadecimal. 

Entering 'M' at the main menu allows you to modify or 
examine the contents of your selected track and sector. This 
display is in ASCII format with all nonprintable characters 
as periods. When examining sector contents, it is sometimes 
useful to see all the contents including the otherwise hidden 
control codes. This is accomplished by pressing the CLEAR 
key. Pressing the BREAK key takes you back to the main 
menu. Changing the contents of the sector is done by using 
the arrow keys to position the cursor over the desired 
character and simply typing over it. If the display is in 
ASCII you must use ASCII, if not, you must use hexadec- 
imal notation. After changing the sector, you must use the 
4 W selection to write the desired changes to disk. 

At the main menu the user may advance one sector at 
a time by pressing the V key or back up one sector by 



pressing the key. This action must be followed by the 'R' 
selection to read the new sector. 

All of the program selections ran well and I was not able 
to break out of the program, nor was I able to make the 
program crash. 

While I cannot honestly fault the CCZAP in any 
particular section, I did not feel comfortable using it. This 
is the first program I have used in which I felt trapped by 
the menu-driven structure. For example, if you are looking 
for a particular piece of data in a file and incorrectly guess 
its location, you must go back to the menu, make another 
guess, read the data and examine the data. This is not 
particularly user friendly. Forcing the user to enter track and 
sector in hexadecimal and allowing the user to view the 
contents either in Hex or ASCII, but not both at the same 
time, is also not very user friendly. 

I would like to suggest to the authors that rather than 
a menu screen, the display could be the sector itself. The 
menu could be above and below in a scroll-protected area. 
This would allow the user to see the contents and not have 
to return to the menu to select another sector. If the authors 
divided the screen into two halves, left and right, the Hex 
notation and the ASCII could be viewed at the same time; 
it would make the user's job much simpler. As a user, I 
would gladly exchange the ability to see an entire sector for 
the simplicity gained. 

CCZAP is basically a good program that could be made 
a lot better by making it easier to use. The price seems to 
be a little high in light of the current trend to keep software 
prices low and sell more copies, however, I do not hesitate 
to recommend this program. 

(Matrix Computing, P.O. Box 2011, 380 5th Avenue, SE, 
Salmon Arm, British Columbia, Canada VOE 2T0, printer 
optional, disk $49.95 U.S. funds) 

— Larry Goldwasser 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

This one-liner draws snowflakes at random posi- 
tions on the screen 

The listing: 

0 PMODE4 : SCREEN1 , X : PCLS : FORD^ITO 
20 : A=RND(20 ) rB-RND (20 ) : C=RND ( 20 ) 
: A$- M BM fl +STR$ (RND (216) +20) +" , ,f +S 
TR$ (RND (151) +20) +" ;A"+STR$ (RND (4 
) - 1 ) + 1 1 ; ND=A ; NU=A ; NL=B ; NR=B ; NE=C ; 
NG==C;NH«C;NF=C : DRAMA $ : NEXT : FOR 
Z=1T02 300 :NEXT : GOTO 

Garry Sittler 
Jacksonville, IL 

(For this winning one-liner contest entries, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Second Rainbow Book Of Adventures and its companion The 
Second Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 185 



— ■ _- - r" 



BOO o 



Files! Uiew 



Data Director y — 

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Filet 3 Datafile Budget 
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AprilSS Friends Bull etin 

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Kidstuff Resumes Yearl985 

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Recipes Entrpriz 



DeskMate 7*in4 software 
makes your Color Computer 

better than even 



Now our popular Deskmate® soft- 
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Color Computers! DeskMate 
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A general-purpose TEXT entry 
and editing program performs 
search and replace, file merge and 
block select, copy and delete. It's 
ideal for writing correction-free 
letters, memos and short reports. 

A simple spreadsheet program in- 
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tomatic column formatting. You can 
jse LEDGER to do budgeting, 
sales forecasting, profit-and-loss 
projections and other "What 
f . . .?'* calculations. 

A four-color picture editor lets 



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Software Review SSSSSSSSSSSESS?17?\ Hardware ReviewSSSESSESSSE^SSTjT: 



Watch out for the Deadly 
Bite in Buzzworm 

You are "Buzzworm," a very hungry snake. Your job (like 
it or not) is to run around a maze full of snake bait. When 
you run over each piece of bait, your tail instantly increases 
in length about one-half inch (talk about eating your 
vegetables). The purpose of the game is not to bite yourself 
while going around the maze. 

Buzzworm is one of the earliest releases from Novasoft. 
It requires 32K of RAM and can be played either on the 
keyboard or with a joystick. 

The game itself is very simple, but with all of the bells 
and whistles it has, you may want to take a closer look. 
Some of the features are as follows: Every fifth screen is 
a surprise bonus round, where bait is worth 100 points, and 
you may not die. Another feature is that when a 10,000 point 
plateau is reached, an egg is dropped on the screen. You 
must try not to eat the egg, even though it is worth 1,000 
points, because inside the egg is an extra buzzworm. 

At the conclusion of a game you may choose to play again 
or to end the game. There is no pause in Buzzworm because 
of the speed. This is one feature I think should be added. 

I did not think Buzzworm measured up to many of the 
other Novasoft games. It does not have the exciting pizazz 
like all of the other games from Novasoft that I have seen 
lately. I give Buzzworm a two-star rating, which is slightly 
below average. I recommend that you look at it before 
buying it. 

(Novasoft, 4285 Bradford N.E., Grand Rapids, MI 49506, 
tape $15.95, disk $18.95) 

— Patrick Downard 



Play it Cool 
with CoCo Cooler Too 

Heat! It is a problem known to many CoCo owners. 
Excessive heat can make a CoCo suddenly lock up or go 
off to never-never land, taking your data and several hours 
of work with it. CoCo I owners who have had heat problems 
have been using a product called the CoCo Cooler, a fan 
that draws air through the computer to reduce or eliminate 
heat buildup. Up until now, CoCo 2 owners have been out 
of luck. But wait! Just when you thought all was lost, REM 
Industries has come out with the "Son of CoCo Cooler": 
CoCo Cooler Too. 

The CoCo Cooler Too is a fan designed to attach (with 
adhesive foam) to the left rear of your CoCo 2. To install 
it, all you do is peel the protective strip off the foam and 
position the fan properly over the vent holes on the top rear 
left corner of the case. Once installed, it should never come 
off as the adhesive bonds it securely. After installation, just 
plug the fan into the wall and turn the power on; the CoCo 
Cooler Too starts working. 

CoCo Cooler Too draws air through the inside of your 
CoCo and sends it out into the room, taking the heat inside 
the CoCo with it. I found the CoCo Cooler Too reduced 
the inside temperature of my CoCo by about five degrees, 
but it must be added that my computer runs at only about 
five degrees hotter than air temperature. REM Industries 
claims the Cooler will bring the inside temperature of your 
CoCo to "within 15 degrees of ambient in worst case 
situations." 

I found that using the Cooler caused no inconvenience 
with using my CoCo. The fan makes very little noise — 
certainly no more than the built-in fans on the PC-type 
computers. The fan points down toward the table, so there 
is very little air current to blow things around on your desk. 

If you have a need to reduce heat buildup in your CoCo 
2, the CoCo Cooler Too is a good solution, although the 
price makes this an "as needed" item. Dr. Megabyte says 
if you are not having an excessive heat problem, then you 
most likely don't need this product. It is, however, cheap 
when compared to the cost of down time and repair bills 
caused by overheating your CoCo. 

(REM Industries, Inc., 9420-B Lurline Ave., Chatsworth, 
CA 91311, $44.95) 



■ r''. .' . : '/.v.'..- ;V".. ■' :',.< ■ ,.>^a"-.H "■ *'$'-\V-> ■'■ ■ } <;T • *!'/. V s •' . -$X<1^ : * 

Disk Directory Printout 

If you have a long disk directory and want to see 
all of it, or if you simply wish to have a hard copy 
printout of your directory, one simple command 
allows you to do this easily. 

; Ju$t POKE 111,254 :DIR and the entire disk 
directory will appear on your printer, even if it is too 




188 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



Mark £. Sunderlin 



ENHANCE YOUR COCO! 

The Enhancer gives you mixed text and graphics, 
user-defined keys, PROCEDURES, keyboard AUTO- 
REPEAT, scroll protect. It gives you true lower-case 
letters, 224 characters, user-definable characters, 
reverse/bold/underlined characters. The Enhancer 
adds 15 commands and 3 functions to your CoCo's 
vocabulary. It requires 64K, Extended BASIC. To 
order, please specify tape or disk and send $18.00 U.S. 
to: 

H.D.R. Software 
27 Doyle Street 
St. John's, Nfld. 

Canada A1E 2N9 Tel. (709) 364-3125 



Hardware Review 1 



Orchestra-90/ CC Impresses 
with its Music Production 

At the tender age of 5, Beethoven was composing. At 16, 
Mozart was a recognized master. If you've ever felt the urge 
to create your own beautiful music, or even to borrow 
someone else's for your own ends, then you should look into 
the comprehensive stereo music synthesizer, Orchestra-90/ 
CC, from Tandy. Included in the package is a ROM pack 
with stereo outlets and a 100-page manual to get you started. 
The minimum system required is a 16K CoCo and either 
a stereo (for stereo sound) or television (for monaural 
sound). The system can be used with tape or disk (though 
a Multi-Pak is necessary for disk) to save and load 
compositions, a printer to print your music files, or a 
modem to transfer and receive files. 

Right away you will be impressed with the documenta- 
tion. I am an amateur musician (guitar and trombone), but 
no great musical knowledge is necessary to begin program- 
ming music right away. The music language used in 
Orchestra-90/ CC makes it possible to transcribe or 
compose music line by line in any time or key signature 
using whole to 64th notes. You can use six octave ranges 
and up to five simultaneous voices using two stereo 
channels. Each of the voices may be assigned any of five 
instrumental choices (tone colors to sound like a trumpet, 
an oboe, a clarinet, an organ or a violin). You can single, 
double or triple-dot the notes, and three articulations are 
possible. You can even modulate (change to a different key) 
within the song. 

A new feature I discovered while doing this review is the 
ability to now use the speed-up poke with Orchestra-90/ CC. 
This allows the processor within the hardware to make a 
more accurate sampling, which allows for higher and 
cleaner notes and better sound quality overall. 

When first hooking up your system, a demonstration 
music file of Rossini's "William Tell Overture "shows off just 
what Orchestra-90/ CC can do. Heard over the television, 
this composition is quite impressive, but played over the 



Hint . - ,= 

What's Your ROM Version? 

With all the talk about new ROMs, you may be 
wondering exactly which ROM you have. If you have 
ari older CoCo with Extended BASIC, just read the 
version number of your Extended BASIC at the top of 
the screen on power up. Then, to see which Color 
BASIC ROM you have, type EXEC 41175 and press 

ENTER 

If you have the new ROMs, Extended BASIC will 
be Version 1.1 and Color BASIC will be Version 1.2. 

On the CoCo 2, Color BASIC will always be Version 
1.2 or 1 .3 (which are functionally identical). 



stereo the quality is terrific. With that as cajoling, you are 
ready to begin programming on your own. 

The manual takes you through some samples, beginning 
with simple tunes, then walks you through transcribing a 
piece of music from the score. And speaking of score, the 
system requires a one-letter command to score the music 
you've programmed in before playing the piece. This 
processes your program, but more importantly, it checks 
for any mistakes and highlights them so you can go back 
and easily make corrections before the performance. 

I asked my wife, who teaches junior high music at a public 
school, to look over Orchestra-90/ CC. She was impressed 
with the logic of the music language. She felt it could go 
a long way toward teaching music theory, but on an 
individual basis rather than in a classroom situation. 

Make no mistake about it, this is a powerful music 
synthesizer. It has the capability of producing beautiful 
music, but only as you master the music language. There 
are no frills with this package — no graphics, no flashing 
colors, no actual music printouts — which may be where 
Orchestra-90/ CC is lacking the most. You need to take this 
system seriously for it to be any fun at all. Music can express 
the depths of our souls, and it may take a while to grasp 
the music language, but once you do, youH be able to 
produce intricate and beautiful music. 

(Software Affair, distributed by Tandy Corp., available at 
Radio Shack stores nationwide, $79.95) 

— Jefferson L. Hatch 



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March 1986 THE RAINBOW 189 



Software Reviewt 



Fun Puzzler is Educational 
for Adults and Children Alike 

By Carol Kueppers 

Puzzler is a machine language program that generates 
three popular paper-and-pencil puzzles — word search, 
crossword and scrambled word, from lists of words and 
their definitions which you create using the mini-editor 
provided in the program. It comes as a complete package 
and includes a nine-page instruction booklet that is a 
pleasure to use because it details clearly, with a touch of 
humor, how to use the program. The disk (or tape) also 
includes three sample lists so you can go through the 
procedures effortlessly, familiarizing yourself with the 
program functions before moving on to your own puzzle- 
making activities. 

Many of you may already have a puzzle generator in 
BASIC from rainbow's December 1982 issue. In the past 
three years I have prepared puzzles for everything from 
personalized birthday cards to vocabulary hand-outs for the 
classes I visit with an "Art Goes to School" presentation. 
These puzzles have been enormously successful, and, in the 
case of the school classes, provide reinforcement of the 
subject matter, but they are somewhat limited. 

Puzzler's word search puzzle generator creates a puzzle 
in seconds, in the dimensions you choose. In addition, it 
allows new choices for the finished product. Young children 
have trouble finding words on the diagonal, so with Puzzler 
they can be eliminated; you can make puzzles for young 
readers using their vocabulary — and they can make puzzles 
for you from the same word list, but including the diagonals. 
You can race to the finish! 



Two-Liner Contest Winner . 

This two-line program sorts the filenames on a disk 
into alphabetical order. Back up the diskette first, then 
insert it into Drive 0 and RUN. 

The listing: 

p CLEAR400J2f:DIMF$(72) :H=^:FORS=3 
T011 : DSKI$j3 , 17 , S , A$ , B$ : C$=A$+LEF 
T$ (B$ , 127 ) : K=l : L=H+1 : H=H+8 : FORN= 
L TOH: IFMID$ (C$, K, 1) <>CHR$ (255) T 
HE NF $ ( N ) =MI D$(C$,K,31): K=K+ 3 2 : NE 
XTN : NEXTS : ELSEFORI=lT0N-2 : FORJ=I 
TON-1: IFF$ (J) <F$ (I) THENT$= s F$ (J) 
:F$(J)=F$(I) :F$(I)=T$ 
1 NEXTJ:NEXTI:FORI=N T072:F$(I)= 
STRING $ (31,255): NEXTI : T$=CHR$ (0 ) 
: 1=1 : FORS=3T01 1 : A$=F$ ( I ) +T$+F$ ( I 
+1) +T$+F$ (1+2 ) +T$+F$ (1+3 ) +T$ : B$= 
F$ (1+4) +T$+F$ (1+5) +T$+F$ (1+6) +T$ 
+F$ ( 1+7 ) +T$ : DSKO$0 ,17,3 , A$ , B$ : 1= 
1+8 : NEXTS : CLEAR2 J3 J3 : END 

Stephen Hunter 

iSX^l^...,. Athens, GA 

(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Second Rainbow Book Of Adventures and its companion The 
Second Rainbow Adventures Tape,) 



Despite their popularity, thepe standard word search 
puzzles are a bit primitive, presenting only a matrix of letters 
with a neat list of the requested ; words beneath. However, 
Puzzler gives you the ability to print definitions instead of 
words. Since you compose the definitions, they can be as 
easy or as difficult as you dare! Now the solver has to think 
up the possible correct word and search for that. Obviously, 
this makes a better hand-out for classrooms since the 
definitions are a summary of the material, but any puzzle 
lover will appreciate the variety. \ 

When making crossword puzzles* you'll find the puzzles 
resemble a completed "Scrabble" game, or those found in 
word game books for children. The puzzles interlock at few 
points, so there are few common letters to act as clues in 
the solution. They look easier than they actually are, which 
is something to remember when writing the definitions. The 
puzzle generator, nonetheless, creates puzzles that are a 
great deal of fun to solve. 

You may create lists of words and definitions at any time, 
then save them and use them for the puzzles. When you 
select "compile crossword" from the menu of choices, the 
screen shows which try the program is working on and 
flashes some symbols across the screen as it works. I liked 
this feature a lot, since all too often programs present only 
a blank screen while computations occur and I'm never sure 
if the program is working, or (perish the thought!), has 
vanished into never-never land. 

The generator may not succeed in placing all of the words 
in the puzzle in its first five tries. You then have the option 
of viewing the puzzle, asking it to meet or beat its best 
attempt, accepting the placement as is or entering the 
"endless retry" mode. In endless retry, a list of 30 words is 
placed in only a couple of minutes. For the purposes of this 
review I filled the program's buffer with a list of 50 words 
and their definitions, selected endless retry and left for the 
evening. After four hours it had not succeeded, but showed 



Two-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Rock- Scissors- Paper is a two-line CoCo version of 
the old favorite. 

The listing: 

10 EXEC44539 : CLS3 : C$ ( 2 ) ="ROCK" : C 
$ (3 ) =" SCISSORS" : C$ (1) ~" PAPER" : A$ 
= »I WIN-":B$="YOU WIN-":D$="SCIS 
SORS CUT PAPER" :E$="ROCK BREAKS 
SCISSORS" :F$="PAPER COVERS ROCK" 
:G$="TIE":PRINT"CHOOSE rOCK-sCIS 
SORS-pAPER "; :EXEC44539:X$=INKEY 
$:C=RND(3) : IFX$=="P"THENX$="Q 



RUNELSEIFH$ ; _ _ 

RUNELSEIFH$="Q 2"THENP 
RUNELSEIFH$="R 1"THENP 
RUNELSEIFH$="S 2"THENP 
RUNELSEIFH$="Q 3 "THENP 
RUNELSEPRINTG$ : RUN 

Meg and Paul Clough 
Houston, TX 

(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Second Rainbow Book Of Adventures and its companion The 
Second Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



RINTB$;E$ 
RINTB$ ; D$ 
RINTB$;F$ 
RINTA$;F$ 
RINTA$;E$ 
RINTA$ ; D$ 



190 



THE RAINBOW March 1966 



that its best placement was 36 words. I then selected the 
menu option "meet or beat best" attempt. After 10 minutes 
it had achieved that goal. The instructions do not state the 
present limit on the program, but it appears to be between 
30 and 40 words. It is probably easier, and faster, to edit 
long lists down to a 30-word total to be sure the finished 
puzzle includes all the words you consider essential before 
compiling a puzzle. Real fans can use Puzzler to create a 
framework and add to it manually. 

To print out the graphics of the crosswords, the program 
includes screen dumps for the most popular dot-matrix 
printers. If your printer is not on the list, you can first try 
those listed to see if one works. If none do and you have 
a screen dump program for your printer, you can first print 
out the definitions, save the graphics screen, exit Puzzler, 
load in the graphics screen and the screen dump program, 
and proceed. Although the program worked fine with my 
Radio Shack Line Printer VIII, I tested this option and can 
report that it does work. 

However, you might want to take advantage of Color 
Connection's third option, which is to contact them for 
technical advice and customize Puzzler's screen dump 
program for your printer, or send a photocopy of your 
printer manual's bit-image graphics pages and they will 
customize the program for you. I spoke with Color 
Connection and found them friendly, helpful and anxious 
to have their customers enjoy their creations. 

The third puzzle type, scrambled words, simply takes 
your word list and scrambles the letters. All three types 
allow you to print an answer key. 

I created a few puzzles for a group of kids one rainy 
Saturday. They, in turn, thought up puzzles for me — it took 
them a while since they were trying for the obscure, and they 
looked through encyclopedia volumes, history books and 
even Bartlett's for a couple of quotes. Their completed 
masterpiece was absolutely impossible. To their vast 
amusement, I kept begging for hints and ended up with only 
four correct answers! All of them, meanwhile, had inadvert- 
ently learned quite a bit. I suggest that other families do 
this the same way; your kids will probably also enjoy 
stumping the adults. 

As good as Puzzler is at present, the author, Darren 
Croft, is working on some improvements that will probably 
be finished by the time this review appears. The upgrade 
will permit several previously created lists to be loaded in 
at once, so words and definitions can be selected from them, 
rather than requiring each new list to "start from scratch." 
This effect can be achieved at present by loading the various 
lists into any word processing program that accepts ASCII 
files. You then edit carefully, retain the Puzzler format, save 
your new list and use it for puzzle making. The new version 
will make crosswords that accept more words arid will 
include screen dumps for more printers. 

Puzzler is terrific. Adults who love puzzles will have lots 
of fun with your creations — include a couple personalized 
ones with your next get-well card. Families, teachers and 
scout leaders can quickly make up an assortment of puzzles 
to have on hand for a rainy day or that "endless" car or 
plane trip, as well as using these as an educational tool. 

(Color Connection Software, 1080 Buddlea Drive, Sandy, 
UT 84070, 32K disk or tape $29.95) 



Accessory ReviewJSSSSES5SSSSSEE^/7Z\ 

Stay Undercover with the 
CoCo Keyboard Cover 

This will be a short review — just how much can you say 
about a keyboard cover? The CoCo Keyboard Cover is 
made of hard, opaque black plastic with a smooth, shiny 
finish. It fits the Color Computer keyboard even if you have 
installed one of several after-market keyboards available for 
the CoCo. (I have installed a keyboard with keys that stick 
up a bit higher than other keyboards I've seen, and the cover 
fits fine.) There is a decal on the inside of the cover that 
lists some of the most commonly used PEEKs and POKEs, 
i.e., printer Baud rate, high-speed, hard copy of directory, 
start, end, and execute addresses of machine language 
programs, as well as a chart showing the memory locations 
of the keys. 

This accessory does not take up another outlet on your 
power strip, and it keeps dust off of the keyboard. The decal 
is a nice touch, but to read it, you have to remove the cover 
and find some place to prop it up so you can see it. For 
something so simple, the price does seem to be a bit much. 

(REM Industries, Inc., 9420-B Lurline Ave., Chatsworth, 
CA 91311, $9.95 plus $2.50 S/H) 

— Mark Williams 



CORRECTIONS 



"Trivia Tic-Tac-Toe" (December 1985, Page 69): 

Richard Pitel tells us that some readers with cassette 
systems have reported a problem with the Tic-Tac-toe 
program. 

Line 220 reads CLOSE i. This statement closes the 
disk file, and on a cassette system you may get a DN 
Error message. Simply delete Line 220 to take care of 
this problem. If you add a disk drive to your system, 
put Line 220 back in. 



"Letters to Rainbow" (February 1986, Page 7): The 

"Editor's Note" in response to a letter from Brian 
Collins of Waldorf, Maryland ("Computer Animation 
on a VCR") had the commands at the end of the 
instructions transposed. It should read: "When you 
want to record do: a MOTOR off. Do a MOTOR ON when 
you want to stop." We apologize for being so back- 
ward! 

In our effort to advise you quickly of any revisions, omissions, 
corrections or enhancements to our program listings, these will 
be posted on our new Delphi CoCo SIG as soon as they are 
reported, and will then be printed in the earliest possible issue 
of THE RAINBOW, From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick 
TOPICS, then INFO ON RAINBOW. 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 191 



Software ReviewJSSSEESSSSESSEE5*/^\ 

Stylo-Pak Sets a New Standard 
for Word Processing 

By Dale £. Shell 

As a reviewer, I have been lucky enough to have had very 
few bad products to review. It is usually easy to write a 
negative review, but when a really outstanding product 
comes along, it's sometimes difficult to convey how good 
a product is. I have found one of these products. 

Of all the word processors for the Color Computer, I had 
progressed through five of them before I received Stylo- 
graph. I was happy with each one before I went to the next 
one in line, which I thought better fit my needs. I can still 
see the advantages each one had over the others, but I can 
now say, without hesitation, that Stylograph, when teamed 
up with PBJ's Word-Pak, is by far the best word processor 
for the Color Computer. I feel qualified to say this since I 
have actively used five different processors before this one. 
Stylograph is one part of Stylo-Pak, from Stylo Software. 

You do not have to have an 80-column card to use 
Stylograph; all you need is OS-9. Stylograph comes with 
its own 51-column driver; it also has a driver to support O- 
Pak. I believe the Word-Pak best enhances all of its features. 
It is really nice to see all 80 columns at the same time. This 
is not like the 85 columns some processors say they have 
available. Their 85 columns are used in their "window" 
mode so you can see how things are going to look when 
printed. You can easily read these 80 columns, and it really 
looks professional. It helps bring the CoCo up out of the 
game computer category and into the serious computer 
systems. 

Stylograph has so many features that you will wonder 
how you ever got along without them on your "old" word 
processor. Like many other processors, Stylograph has a 
cursor-based editing system that allows you to work on any 
portion of the text by just moving the cursor to that point. 
It uses many single keystroke commands, which are 
symmetrically arranged on the keyboard to quickly move 
the cursor around the text. The selection of these keys is 
different from the other processors I have used, so yes, there 
is some learning required, but it is well worth it. 

Cursor control includes up, down, left, right, tabs, margin 
positions and any page or specified series of letters or words. 
The display can be scrolled up, down, left or right. This 
feature is not always used with Word-Pak since you can see 
80 columns at a time. Any block of text can be moved, 
copied, duplicated or deleted. Stylograph also has a global 
replace so that some or all occurrences of a given word or 
string of words can be replaced. It includes a "Keyboard 
Function" card in the manual. This card can be placed in 
a convenient location for quick reference until you get used 
to all the functions available. 

Dynamic screen formatting is a strong feature of 
Stylograph. Dynamic screen formatting means the text is 
immediately formatted on the screen in the same way as it 
appears on the printed copy. The text display is continu- 
ously updated to reflect any changes. This is one of the 
impressive features that usually only appears on very 
expensive systems. This is much better than the way some 
processors use a "window" so you can see how the printed 
page will look. Some do not even have the window. With 
Stylograph, if you center a section of text, it is immediately 
centered on the screen; if you right-hand justify, that is 

192 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



reflected on your screen. Any of the text or individual lines 
may be centered, left justified and/ or right justified. You 
truly have "what you see is what you get." Even margins 
can be set and changed at any place in the text with simple 
commands that control the line length, left margin, headers 
and footers. Of course, wrap-around is used, and the 
headers and footers are also inserted, so the operator always 
knows what portion of the page is being worked on. 

Stylograph allows modification of characters or words in 
a variety of ways. It uses reverse video such that each time 
you "boldface" a word, the screen displays the word in 
reverse video. This enables identification of any character 
modifications easily and quickly when scrolling through 
text. 

Another feature I really like is the "page break." When 
you get to the end of a page while entering text, a dotted 
line goes across the screen to let you know where each line 
is relative to the new page. A manual page break is available 
so you can eliminate orphans and widows. These are single 
lines of a paragraph that print on a different page than the 
rest of the paragraph. 

Along with boldface, Stylograph lets you take advantage 
of all the features your printer is capable of doing. Some 
of these include: expanded print, condensed print, 1.5 line 
spacing, superscript, subscript, underline, overline or any 
combination. Also, true proportional spacing is supported 
on the specialty printers. Your printer may not be able to 
use all the options available, but all your printer's options 
are probably supported by Stylograph. A configuration 
program is included that allows you to customize Stylo- 
graph for your printer. Stylograph comes configured for the 
most popular printers, and you can have it default to your 
printer. If you do not see your printer in its table, it is very 
easy to add your printer to its list. (I had to do this with 
my Riteman Plus.) As said before, you can have Stylograph 
default to your printer, but you also have the option when 
you call up Stylograph, to call up any of the 12 possible 
printer drivers. 

I am always concerned with the lack of good documen- 
tation that comes with a program. This manual consists of 
well over 200 pages. While the number of pages is not an 
indication of how well the program is documented, the 
pages of this manual are organized and include a lot of 
information. Most parts of the manual are designed so very 
little knowledge of computer systems is needed to use it 
effectively. Some knowledge of the OS-9 operating system 




Slow Scrolling 
through Orange 

Here's a powerful little POKE that slows your 
scrolling by creating a horizontal LIST. Type POKE 
359,60 and you'll see what we mean. Add a colon (;) 
and 5CREEN0 , 1 and you'll be slow-scrolling across an 
orange screen. To return to the green screen at full tilt, 
just type POKE 359,126. 



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is helpful to copy the files needed to set up Stylograph, but 
normally it takes a person with reasonable typing skills only 
a short time to start using the program competently. Once 
Stylograph is installed on a system disk, almost anyone can 
be using it in no time. 

The manual has a three-lesson tutorial, which is broken 
into four parts; the best way to learn to use Stylograph is 
to sit down with your CoCo and practice all the commands 
as they are explained in the tutorial. The exercises are 
designed for the person who is inexperienced with compu- 
ters and who will be using the word processing program for 
the first time. A person with even a little OS-9 experience 
can go through the tutorial in just a few hours, but take 
your time and review the functions after using them. 

The minimum hardware requirements include a 64K 
CoCo, one disk drive, a TV screen and a printer. While this 
allows you to run Stylograph, you have to do a lot of disk 
swapping and you are limited to a 51 by 24 screen. The ideal 
configuration adds another disk drive, a standard screen 
monitor and an 80-column card — this is what I used. This 
configuration turns the Color Computer into a viable desk- 
top computer. I am constantly amazed at the CoCo's ability 
to grow and expand. Just look at the computer systems that 
came along at the same time the CoCo first appeared — 
they are not around anymore and the CoCo continues to 
get better. 

Stylo-Pak includes Stylograph, Mail Merge and the 
Spelling Checker. Mail Merge lets you conveniently merge 
variables such as names, addresses and dates at printout 
time for form letters. It also allows for breaking large files 
into smaller, more manageable blocks so they can be 
appended together at printout. Page numbers remain 
consecutive and headers and footers are automatically 
retained. The Spelling Checker offers a dictionary of up to 
42,000 words. Words not found in the main dictionary or 
the supplementary dictionary may be marked for later 
editing, skipped, added to the supplementary dictionary or 
corrected on the spot. This is where my only complaint of 
Stylo-Pak comes in. After a suspected word is found, if you 
want to correct it, you have to enter the word and make 
sure it is spelled correctly. Why do you have to get another 
dictionary to look up a word when you already have one 
in your computer? I would like to see a "look-up" option 
that can be accessed at the time the text is being reviewed. 

Even with the minor discrepancy, Stylo-Pak is a very wise 
investment. When teamed up with PBJ's Word-Pak or 
Word-Pak II, Stylo-Pak is, without a doubt, the best word 
processing system for the Color Computer and raises it to 
new heights in the serious world of computing and word 
processing. It sets a new standard that other word proces- 
sors will be measured against, and at this point, there are 
none that can compare. As you probably guessed, I give it 
my highest rating, and I had to create a new level to do that. 

Stylo-Pak is available for OS-9 and is also available for 
FLEX. Stylograph is available alone for $99.95, Mail Merge 
and Spelling Checker for $59.95 and $69.95, respectively, 
or you can get all three in Stylo-Pak. When you first see 
Stylograph, be ready to dump the word processor you are 
now using. 

(Stylo Software, Inc., P.O. Box 916, Idaho Falls, ID 83402, 
OS-9 or FLEX, disks $199.95) 



Software Review< 



Calculating Parts Per Million 
Does the Figuring for You 

Applications are a lot less fun than utilities or even games, 
but their availability may mean a given computer system 
is going to stay around awhile. If so, CoCo is blessed. 

Calculating Parts Per Million is a program that deter- 
mines how much fertilizer to add to a given volume of water 
to achieve a specified ratio of parts per million. Its 
applicability covers the entire agricultural range, from the 
large farming business to the home gardener wondering how 
many tablespoons of fertilizer to put in a bucket of water. 
The arithmetic is simple enough, but tiresome to figure by 
hand, and such a program as this may be exactly what will 
simplify your day. 

The program occupies 273 lines of BASIC and a small data 
file. In use, it is very simple. You are prompted at every stage 
and the documentation walks you through the whole 
program, step by step: whether you are using a tank or 
injector system, how much water is being used (less than 
10 gallons affords you the option of seeing the amount of 
fertilizer to add expressed in tablespoons rather than 
pounds), how much nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium 
(in percentages, such as 20-10-20) for a number of fertilizers 
(as many as will be used in the mix) and desired parts per 
million of water. The program then does the necessary 
calculations and tells how much fertilizer to add. 

Shortcomings? There is not room for many, really. It is 
irritating to have the program take you back to its sign-on 
message with any incorrect entry, wiping out everything that 
has already been entered. A space added before the word 
"tablespoons" in Line 1120 would make the screen 
presentation a bit more readable. However, this is an early 
version of the program, and these are precisely the kinds 
of annoyances that tend to disappear in the release versions. 

The manual is one page of dot-matrix printout containing 
almost all you need to know. An exception appears under 
the heading "PPM 1 ' (Parts Per Million), where anyone 
unfamiliar with this concept is advised to "call their county 
agricultural agent for information concerning this." I 
suppose it would be fair to assume anyone looking for such 
a program as this would know what PPM stands for. 

(Green Horizons, P.O. Box 768, Mooresville, NC 28115, 
disk $17.95) 

- R.W. Odlin 



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March 1986 THE RAINBOW 1 95 



Software Review^ 



Go for the Gold in Fast 
and Furious Gold Runner 

I'm sure you have heard of the "computer slump" and 
may have become concerned, as I have, at the situation. 
What does this mean to Color Computer owners? How will 
it affect our purchasing power and ability to buy good 
software? After some careful consideration, I came to the 
conclusion that although the computer market is very 
complex, one of thfc major drivers of this slump is the 
maturation of the consumer. He has become a much more 
wary purchaser of both hardware and software. One thing 
the slump creates is a "buyers' market," which should result 
in better quality products for lower prices. With this preface, 
IH describe my impression of a new CoCo graphics/ arcade 
game called Gold Runner. Remember that under the current 
conditions, only a very good product is likely to succeed. 

Gold Runner was produced by Tom Mix Software, which 
has developed some of the more popular entertainment 
programs for the Color Computer. These include The King 
and Trapfall 9 among others. Well, Gold Runner lives up to 
this reputation for quality software. 

Action in Gold Runner is fast and furious, but the game 
is simple. You operate a stickman around a vertical playing 
board of ladders, ropes and brick walkways, picking up 
blocks of gold. There are a few slight complications. Several 
guards chase you and, if caught, you lose a man. Also, there 
is an occasional invisible trapdoor that causes you to fall 



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through the brick walkway. This may confuse the stickman, 
causing him to get caught. Fortunately, there is a tool to 
battle the guards. You can blast holes into the walkway, 
which traps the pursuing guards, or this can be used to drop 
the stickman to a lower level, eluding capture. Sometimes 
a gold brick is buried in a walkway and the only way to 
get to it is to blast a hole, then jump in. There is some risk 
that the hole will close and crush the stickman if you are 
not fast enough. Another complication arises from the need 
to steal gold blocks away from the guards, who sometimes 
carry them. Your stickman cannot touch a guard, so the 
strategy in this situation is to trap the guard in a hole that 
you blast and take the gold away. 

Gold Runner is a multilevel game. Once all the gold 
blocks have been collected, including those in possession of 
the guards, your stickman can climb up the tallest ladder 
to the next screen. All together there are over 25 screens, 
with increasing levels of difficulty. If you should complete 
all the screens, you win the honor of starting over, this time 
with the challenge of two more guards in hot pursuit. 

Gold Runner is a complete arcade game, with high score 
saved to disk, keyboard or joystick entry, and pause and 
restart as well as built-in voice sound. Unfortunately, I 
cannot comment on the sound feature because it requires 
the Radio Shack sound module and I don't have it. The 
game is great without it, so it must be even better with the 
sound module. The program is written in assembly language 
and requires 64K of internal memory. 

My only minor complaint about the game is the slow 
drawing and erasing of new screens. The screen is drawn 
in a circular fashion, like looking through an ever increasing 
iris diaphram. This technique gives a nice effect, but it is 
easy to tire of after a short time. 

In summary, Gold Runner is a well-developed arcade 
game that is fun to play. It's at the quality level and price 
I believe is needed to survive the computer slump. I 
recommend this product to the arcade game enthusiast or 
anyone looking for a fast-action, well-written game for the 
Color Computer. 

(NovaSoft, 4285 Bradford N.E., Grand Rapids, MI 49506, 
requires 64K, tape $14.95, disk $17.95) 

— Tom Szlucha 



ADU S3, » ShEPPiiv& Cm ALL QRDCRE. 



LA. UEElDENTb ADU I ft* 



Hint , . . 





g 



Some CoCo users have reported problems with 
formatting more than one disk in successioiiy The 
CoCo uses a technique called "write precompensa- 
tion" on the more critical inner tracks of a disk; for 
some reason, Disk basic doesn't turn off the feature 
after a DSKINI is completed. If you need to format 
more than one disk at a time, enter POKE 113,® and 
press the Reset button after each disk 



. • > lot! --P- •' "* 1 § \ .• 



196 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



Software Review SSSSSS^^^^^E^S^SfTZs 

Marble Maze Presents a 
Challenge for All Ages 

I'm afraid this is going to reveal my age, but my first 
exposure to the subject of this review, Marble Maze, was 
not the electronic arcade version of the game, but its 
mechanical precursor, called "The Amazing Labyrinth 
Game," The "Labyrinth" game was made of wood and had 
a steel marble that was rolled around a maze using two 
knobs to tilt the playing surface. If you weren't careful, the 
marble would drop into one of the holes drilled in the board 
and you had to start over again. 

This classic game has been converted into an arcade game 
for the Color Computer by Diecom Products. The basic 
elements of the original mechanical game have been 
retained, in that there is a marble and a maze, but the 
capabilities of the CoCo have allowed the programmer to 
add some interesting variations. Instead of gravity, the 
marble is controlled by the left joystick. The maze has been 
enhanced to be a multilevel game, where the goal is to "roll" 
your marble to the finish line in the shortest time possible. 

As each level is completed, you are transported to a more 
advanced level, with each maze becoming more difficult. 
Dave Dies, the programmer, has added a few challenges to 
make the game more interesting. 

First, if you aren't careful, your marble can fall off the 
edge of one of the mazes. Depending on the height of the 
drop, the marble will either be stunned or cracked. Then 
there are the "monsters of the mazes." The Marble-eaters 
are creatures that look like little Slinkies. They move end 
over end, wandering around the board waiting for a chance 
to eat a marble. Actually, they seem to be docile creatures 
until a marble bumps into them, then they jump into the 
air, land on your marble and eat it. 

There are also the mysterious Acid Puddles that move 
around the board, shrinking and expanding as they go. If 
you roll your marble into one of these, it dissolves. Electric 
Snakes will also keep you on your toes as they slither around 
the maze. Unlike the Marble-eaters, these move quite 
quickly, but being touched by one also causes your marble 
to dissolve. 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

This one-liner is ^ example of a budgeting pro- 
gram, #f 

The listing: 

17 J3 DIME (12) :F0RX==1T012: PRINT "EA 
RNINGS FOR MONTH "X; : INPUT E (X) :N 
EXT : PMODE4 : SCREEN1 , J3 : PCLS : FORX=l 
T012:FORY=j3TO E(X)/1J3 :LINE (Y, (X- 
a) *16+4)-(Y, (X-l) *16+12) ,PSET:NE 
XT Y, X : EXEC 4:4-5 3 9 : CLEAR : GOTO 170 

Richard A. Sherman 
Deposit, N Y 

(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both We Second Rainbow Book Of Adventures and its companion The 
Second Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



At higher levels, you are greeted by moving walls and 
transporter squares that move your marble elsewhere on the 
board (not necessarily where you want to go, just else- 
where). 

One particular feature I like is that even if you get a little 
sloppy and your marble suffers as a result, the game is not 
over. Your marble is reincarnated at its last safe spot and 
the game continues. Each player is given a period of time 
to complete each maze. As a maze is completed, bonus 
seconds are given, which are used on the next level. The 
game is over when your time is up. The more skilled player 
will complete each level more rapidly, as it also takes time 
to get eaten and reappear on the board. 

Marble Maze is a well-programmed game. The three- 
dimensional boards are well drawn. The control of the ball 
is very realistic, with the ball having a proportionate amount 
of inertia depending on the speed of the marble. The lower 
levels of the maze are easy enough for anyone, with 
adequate challenges for more advanced players at higher 
levels. 

If you are good enough and have the disk version, you 
can enter your name, or appropriate alias, on the score- 
board section, which keeps track of the top six players. 

If you are searching for a challenging CoCo game for all 
ages and skill levels, Marble Maze could be a ball. 

(Diecom Products, 6715 Fifth Line, Milton, Ontario, 
Canada L9T 2X8, requires 64K ECB, tape or disk $29.95) 

— Bruce Rothermel 



Canadians 



Send for your FREE copy 
of our 1986 Catalog 







KeHynevus 






VOL 3 






1986 


KELLY SOFTWARE 


SOFTWARE 




DISTRIBUTORS 


f OR THE COLOR 




LIMITED 


COMPUTER 





Kellynews Vol-3 is now available and 
contains news, hints, programs and articles 
from the crew at Kelly Software. We are 
Canada's largest national distributor of 
Color Computer products and we stock all 
the latest games, utilities, simulations and 
business programs. We encourage all 
Canadian Color Computer owners and 
Dealers to send for our FREE catalog, 



Kelly Software Distributors Ltd. 

P.O. Box 11932 
Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3L1 
Tele (403) 421-8003 



March 1 986 THE RAINBOW 1 97 



Software Review t 



S uper Directory Catalog 
Keeps Track of Disk Files 



Super Directory Catalog is one of the latest software 
entries designed to help you keep track of all those disk files. 
To use this program you need at least 32K and either Disk 
BASIC 1.0 or J. 1. Super Directory Catalog is a very easy 
program to use. It is written in machine language and is 
menu driven. 

The program has several menu options. "Read directory" 
reads the directories of each of your disks. Before each 
directory is read, you are asked for a directory name. This 
can be up to four characters long and is not written to the 
disk. A 32K machine will handle up to 1 ,700 filenames and 
a 64K machine can handle a whopping 3,800 filenames. 
"Save catalog" saves a master directory of the filenames, 
which can then be loaded with "Load catalog." "Print 
catalog" prints a catalog of your disk files, with up to 208 
filenames printed four across on a page. A neat feature I 
haven't seen on other programs of this type is that at the 
bottom of each printed page, two filenames are printed in 
brackets. They indicate the first and last filenames on that 
page. The program can be ended by selecting "end." 

Selecting "maintenance" takes you to a second level menu 



of the next six functions. "Sort" will sort the filenames in 
alphabetical order. The sort is quite' fast — it sorted over 
800 filenames for me in less than three minutes. The sort 
time increases exponentially, as the number of entries 
increases. It takes about 60 minutes to sort 3,850 filenames 
according to the documentation. The sort function is 
somewhat disappointing, though. Since it only does an 
alphabetical sort, you can't, for instance, get a printout of 
all your BASlOonly programs. This ability would have been 
a nice addition. "List filenames" displays all the filenames 
in the buffer to the screen. Twenty filenames at a time are 
displayed two across on the screen. "Delete filenames" 
allows you to update your catalog by simply deleting all the 
filenames on a particular disk and rereading the directory 
of that disk. This function deletes all filenames assigned to 
a disk, not individual filenames. "Selective search" helps 
you quickly locate a particular filename or all the files on 
a certain disk. All you have to do is type in all or part of 
the filename or the entire directory name. "Set default drive" 
allows you to select any drive from 0-3 as the default. "Clear 
buffer" clears all the data in the buffer. 

Super Directory Catalog is a good piece of software that 
does exactly what it says it will do. I do feel the price is 
a little high, though, for what the program does. I 
recommend it, but for the price I think we deserve a little 
more. 

(Metalsoft, P.O. Box 7796, Independence, MO 64054, 
$24.95 plus $2 S/H) 

— Michael Hunt 



★ ****★ SELECTED SOFTWARE ****** 



SOLDERLESS UPGRADE KITS 



With easy-to-follow instructions 

64K FOR E BOARD 
64K FOR F BOARD 
64K FOR COC02* 

'All Korean models require one solder joint. 



$39.95 
$29.95 
$29.95 



NOTE: Alt fCs used in our kits are first quality 1 50 NS 
prime chips and carry one full year warranty 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 



COLOR BASIC UNRAVELLED 
EXTENOED BASIC UNRAVELLED 
DISK BASIC UNRAVELLED 
ALL 3 BOOKS 
THE FACTS (BOOK) 

ULTRA 80C DISK EDITOR • ASSEMBLER 
BUG OUT & THE ORACLE 
ALL 6 ITEMS 



$17.95 
$17.96 
$17.95 

ONLY $39.95 
$14.95 
$2435 
$1435 

ONLY $59.95 



MURA MINI MODEM* 
& AUTOTERM** 

$54.95 (disk add $5.00) or $29.95 each 
CoCo Cable $9.95 
"Direct connect 300 Baud manual answer/ 
originate with power supply & phone cable. 
"Newest version 



COCO MAX I tape only $64.95 

COCO MAX II disk only $74.95 

BRANCHING CABLE $27.95 

DS-69 DIGISECTOH with tape or dltk . $139.95 

HJL-57 KEYBOARD $69.95 

PBJWOHKPAKII $125.00 

THE INTRONICS EPROM Programmer 

Program Up to 64K Eprom $139.95 

DATARASE (Eprom Eraser) $39.95 

2764 HIGH SPEED COMPATIBLE . .$5.95 

27126 HIGH SPEED COMPATIBLE $7.95 

ROM PACK P.C. BOARD 

with case for 27xx .......... ••• $9.95 

TEAC 558 DS/DD Hall Height Driv . . . $109.95 



CASE AND POWER SUPPLY $49.00 

NEW J & M DISK CONTROLLER 

with J Dos 1.2 $129.00 

DISKETTE CAROUSEL $24.95 

ZENITH ZVM-123 GREEN $99.00 

ZENITH ZVM-122 AMBER $109.00 

VIDEO PLUS $24.95 

VIDEO PLUS IIC . $34.95 

VIDEO PLUS IIU $34.95 

REAL TALKER I 

With 3 talking games $49.95 

REAL TALKER II 

With 3 talking games $54.95 

CRAFT JOYSTICK $24.95 



Pen Pal 

The New 64K disk 
integrated software package 
$59.95 



Take a closer look. . 



ntroductory Offers 



Number Jack 

The HJL 
Numeric Key Pad 
$79.95 





TAPE 


DISK 








DYNACALC 




$74.95 


SAILOR MAN (84K) 


$23.95 


$27.95 


PROCOLOR FILE 20 




$49.95 


WORLDS OF FLIGHT 


$23.95 


$26.35 


MASTER DESIGN 




$29.95 


DRAGON SLAYER 




$23.95 


TELEWRITER 64 


$39.95 


$47.95 


DRACONIAN 


$22.95 


$24.95 


SUPER SCREEN MACHINE 


$35.95 


$38.95 


SR-71 


$23.15 


$24.75 


RAINBOW SCREEN MACHINE 


$23.95 


$26.95 


BUZZARD BAIT 


$22.35 


$18.95 


PEN PAL 




$64.95 


GALAGON 


$16.95 


$18.95 


AUTOTERM 


$31.95 


$39.95 


LUNAR ROVER PATROL 


$16.95 


$18.95 


ADOS 




$27.95 


MS GOBBLER 


$16.95 


$18.95 


SUPER BACKUP UTILITY 




$44.95 


LANCER 


$16.95 


$18.95 


THE PEEPER WITH SOURCE 


$24.95 


$26.95 


CUBIX 


$16.95 


$18.95 


GRAPHICOM 




$17.95 


FROGGIE 


$16.95 


$18.95 


32K GAMES 




SPACE PAC 


$21.95 


$21.95 








EDUCATIONAL PAC 


$19.95 


$19.95 


PS1 MUSTANG 


$23.95 


$27.95 


GHOST GOBBLER ROM PACK <16K) 


$19.95 




Optional Cable 


$9.95 




TREASURY PAC 


$29.95 


$29.95 



WE PAY SHIPPING in the United States, Canada & Mexico. 
Overseas please add 10%. (MN Residents add 6% sales tax.) 
We accept Visa, Mastercard, check or money order. U.S. 
funds only for foreign orders. C.O.D. please add $2.00. 
(USA only). 



send to: SELECTED SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 32228, Fridley, MN 55432 
24 HOUR ORDER LINE 612-757-2439 
INFORMATION 612-757-1026 (11 A.M. -2 P.M. C.S.T.) 
SAME DAY SHIPPING BEFORE 1 P.M. C.S.T. 



198 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



Software ReviewlSS^^^^SSSSZS^I^fZs 

Good for Beginners, Don Pan 
is a Moderately Paced Game 

Don Pan is the latest addition to the list of ROM Pak 
games for the Color Computer from Tandy. It's a gentle, 
moderately paced joystick game, just right for small 
children. 

The game opens showing a girl holding a balloon. 
Magically, the balloon turns into a puffer fish and you play 
with the puffer fish for the rest of the game. I'm no expert 
in marine biology, but it seems these puffer fish need to 
replenish their supply of air regularly, or else they die. Your 
job is to capture enough balloons to keep your fish supplied 
with air, all the while avoiding the dangers that can puncture 
the fish. 

The fish bounces up and down through the air, under 
control of your joystick. Balloons and birds float by: The 
balloons give you air and the birds puncture you. You can 
escape the birds by maneuvering around them or by blowing 
a puff of air, which makes them disappear. Points are scored 
by capturing the balloons and by blowing away the birds. 

There are three screens. On the first screen, you're floating 
over an attractively drawn city scene. After scoring around 
2,500 points, you go to a second screen where you fly above 
an ocean. Sharks occasionally jump out of the water and 
try to puncture you. On the third screen, where you go when 
you've scored about 7,000 points, you're over a seashore 
where you must avoid the crabs. 



All through the game, you have to keep track of your air 
supply with the help of a gauge at the bottom of the screen. 
The air supply goes down as you fly around and whenever 
you "puff" at a bird. If the air supply gets too low, you can't 
puff at the birds until you've captured a few balloons to 
build up the air supply again. If you run out of air 
completely, you lose one of your three lives. You also lose 
a life if you're punctured. 

Overall, the game is carefully programmed with attention 
to detail. Color and sound are used well throughout. One 
touch I like: When you're puffing at a bird, you don't have 
to be exactly lined up with the target — a near miss will 
do. This feature makes the game more attractive to younger 
players. 

The game requires 16K and a joystick, and the instruction 
manual recommends a color TV — it really isn't enjoyable 
with a black-and-white set. For example, it's very difficult 
to see the sharks on Screen 2 on a black-and-white TV. 

My children, ages 6 and 9, find many arcade games just 
too hard for them, requiring more speed and coordination 
than they can manage, but they found Don Pan a lot of 
fun and a challange they could meet. If you're looking for 
a beginning level joystick game, one that even young 
children can enjoy, try out Don Pan at your local Radio 
Shack store. 

(Tandy Corp., available in Radio Shack stores nationwide, 
$19.95) 

— David Finkel 



Two-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

This two-liner is a simple subtraction flashcard 
program. 

The listing: 

100 R—0 : CLS : PRINT@234 , "SUBTRACT" 
:PRINT@297 / "FLASH CARDS" :EXEC4 45 
39 : FORQ=1TO10 : CLS : A=RND (20 ) : B=RN 
D(20) :IF A>B THENPRINT@24j3 , USING 
" # # " ; A : PRINT@2 7 1 , " -" ; : PRINTUSING 
■" # # " ; B : C=A-B: ELSEPRINT@2 40 , USING 
" # # " ; B : PRINT §271,"-";: PRINTUS ING 
"##";A:C=B-A 

101 PRINT@303, "====" :PRINT@3 34, "" 
;: INPUT D:IFD=C THENPRINT@448, "c 
orrect" : SOUND2^ , 1 : R=R+1 : EXEC445 
39:NEXT:PRINT@456,R:EXEC44539:GO 
TO100: ELSEPRINT@4 48 , "wrong" : SOUN 
D10 , 4 : EXEC4 4539: NEXT : PRINT@ 4 4 8 , " 
correct " ;R: EXEC44539 : GOTO100 

Richard A- Sherman 
Deposit, NY 

(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Rainbow Book Of Simulations and its companion The Rainbow 
Simulations Tape.) 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 199 



Submitting Material 
To Rainbow 

Contributions to THE RAINBOW are welcome from every- 
one. We like to run a variety of programs which will be 
useful/ helpful/fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and it is 
best to make several saves, at least one of them in ASCII 
format. We're sorry, but we do not have time to key in 
programs. All programs should be supported by some edi- 
torial commentary explaining how the program works. 
Generally, we're much more interested in how your sub- 
mission works and runs than how you developed it. Pro- 
grams should be learning experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of criteria. 
Those wishing remuneration should so state when making 
submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed infor- 
mation on making submissions, please send an SASE to: 
Submissions Editor, THE RAINBOW, The Falsoft Building, 
Prospect, KY 40059. We will send you some more compre- 
hensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently sub- 
mitted to another publication. 




/ 



/ 



6 
8 
0 
0 
0 




TO 



UNI 



6 
8 
0 
9 



UAD 



Software Review, 



IF YOU HAVE ... 

• a terminal (or terminal program) 

• one or more disk drives (40 track or larger) 

IF YOU CAN ... 

• make or acquire cables 

• make or acquire a power supply 

• connect cables for terminal, drives, and 
power supply 

THEN YOU CAN ... 

• Step up to a 68000 UniQuad System 

for only $995 

UniQuad 1 $995 

68008 processor running at 8 Mhz 

4 serial ports 

2 parallel ports 

supports 2 floppy disk drives 

SASI bus for connection to hard disk drives 

128K bytes of RAM (expandable to 51 2K bytes) 

up to 32K bytes of ROM 

UniQuad 2 $1495 

68000 processor running at 10 Mhz 

4 serial ports 

2 parallel ports 

supports 4 floppy disk drives 

SASI bus for connection to hard disk drives 

I/O expansion bus 

51 2K bytes of RAM (expandable to 1 Megabyte) 
up to 128K bytes of ROM 

Both UniQuads come complete with: 

OS-9/68000, BASIC09, STYLOGRAPH, and DYNACALC 

HAZELWOOD COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

907 E. Terra, O'Fallon, MO 63366 314-281-1055 
MasterCard and VISA accepted 



SDOS: a Powerful, Low-Priced 
Package Perfect for the Hacker 

By Tom Carl 

I had looked forward to an evening of computer hacking 
with SDOS, a new software package from Software 
Dynamics, distributed by Computer Systems Distributors. 
Reading the manual makes it clear that SDOS, at least in 
concept and original form, was born on minicomputers 
and/ or mainframes. Thus SDOS brings some very sophis- 
ticated techniques to the CoCo. It is definitely not for the 
beginner. 

When I opened my reviewer's package from RAINBOW, 
out tumbled four diskettes, several pages of product 
promotion and seven manuals. It looked like I would have 
a hard time complaining about lack of documentation. I 
highly recommend that you start by reading the small 
manual, labeled "CoCo SDOS," cover to cover. It has a 
complete description of the keyboard modifications, which 
are actually very simple. The 4 @' key is used for erase (or 
rub out character), so the arrow keys can be reserved for 
full screen editing. The BREAK key is "escape" and the 
CLEAR key is "control." You also get auto-repeat on all keys 
and type-ahead (buffered input), with SHIFT/ CLEAR being 
the upper-/ lowercase toggle and SHIFT/ @ being the '@' key. 
Therefore, you can get the full 96 ASCII codes and some 
other powerful keyboard features lacking in Disk BASIC. 
This little manual also tells you to start with RUN "SDOS" 
and warns of a 30-minute delay if you don't have your 
required registration number, which can be obtained by 
phone or mail from Computer Systems Distributors. 

The SDOS formatter is run from a Command File. There 
is a command line interpreter (CLI) that has a vocabulary 
of some 35 words (such as files, list, time, do, dismount, 
etc.), and any word not in its vocabulary is assumed to be 
the name of a program you want the system to load from 
the disk and run. For example, if you type in FRED, the 
system will find a program called FRED and run it, or 
announce "no such program." As an alternative to typing 
in commands to the CLI, you can set up a Command File 
and put that Command File in charge of the computer by 
typing DO XXXX.DO, where XXXX is a filename. For those 
familiar with Data General Mini or IBM microcomputers, 
even the nomenclature of this feature will ring bells. SDOS 
also has a related feature similar to IBM's AUTOEXEC- 
.BAT, which uses INITIALIZE.DO as a Command File 
that the Boot program automatically puts in charge of the 
computer at start-up time. The SDOS command to create 
a Command File is LIST CONSOLE: TO INITIA- 
LIZE. DO. You may also note that naming, initiating and 
releasing devices, such as LPT: DO: CONSOLE: Dl:, are 
similar to larger computer systems. 

I took the Utility disk and typed in DISMOUNT D0: so I 
could remove the System disk. The screen reported the 
number of 1/ O uses, and I was shocked to see that over 10 
percent of all the reads had produced read errors, but, I had 
seen no apparent operational problems. I typed FILES Dl: 
to look at the disk I had created, and it appeared to be OK, 
so I proceeded with the formatter Command File. It did its 
job just fine to the point of asking me, "Format another 
disk? Y/N." When I answered 4 N\ I got an Error 1045 (disk 



200 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1986 



read error), then a steady stream of Error 1018s (system 
ncompatible), and neither control/ C nor escape could 
recover the system. I was ready to cry, for this meant waiting 
mother 30 minutes for SDOS to come up again. 

At least I had time for a cup of tea and some research 
nto my disk read errors. I was using a 64K CoCo (required), 
i Radio Shack controller and two TEAC drives (a single 
irive will work but is strongly not recommended). The read 
errors and the slowness of the system suggested some type 
;>f disk speed problem, and my review showed that both 
SDOSDISKINIT and SDOSDISKBACKUP had the 
ability to manipulate MAPALGORITHM, which deter- 
mines how files are laid out on the disk efficiently to account 
for rotational speed, seek time and transfer rates. When the 
jystem was ready to use again, I ran SDOSDISKINIT and 
found the best MAP parameter (the program can be told 
:o try all 30 possibilities and let you know the best one). 
[ was then able to build a system disk that ran without read 
errors, and the system was noticeably faster. The drive 
motors still are a lot slower turning off after use than with 
Disk BASIC. 

If all of this sounds pretty technical, remember that this 
system is not for beginners. The manuals are well-written 
and you can learn from them, but they are not tutorials. 
'SDOS for the 6800/6809" is designed for use on several 
iifferent computers, so the main manuals are written in 
generalized form. The CoCo SDOS manual was issued in 
1984 and contains just those elements of SDOS unique to 
:he CoCo; it refers you to other manuals for all other 
.nformation. 

This type of organization has its pros and cons. The 
system developer can afford to invest more time and money 
in a system with broader use, which means more quality and 
breadth of features. On the other hand, more compromises 
may be necessary to fit an operating system to several 
computers, plus the user is forced to juggle manual 
information that isn't always in ideal order for his computer 
and is also more likely to contain conflicting information. 
[ ran into some conflicts of this type with SDOS, but the 
power of the system greatly outweighed these minor 
problems. 

The DISMOUNT command, which is required before 
removing a diskette, is somewhat of a nuisance, but it buys 
yon some very nice features. First of all, you get 1/ O Error 
reports that indicate, before your disk drive and diskettes 
are in big trouble, that problems are building. Even Disk 
BASIC probably tries to reread a record up to 10 times before 
reporting an error (this is standard on bigger computers), 
but you never know how desperately your computer is 
struggling to get a record written or read. The SDOS record 
keeping of these so-called "soft read" errors leaves no doubt 
in your mind about the status of your drives and diskettes. 

SDOS keeps in memory the last "files" data so it can 
update directory and disk maps without disk accesses. For 
application programs, it dynamically buffers good size 
chunks of files, so disk accesses are cut down. This is all 
very important to the speed of system operation. There is 
also a "Keyed File Package" for those wishing to do data 
management, and the system keeps track of all file space 
so records can overlap sector boundaries. This record 
management is completely transparent to the user at both 
design and operation time. 

There is a LOG feature that permits automatic capture 
of the keyboard dialog, which is beautiful for debugging and 
transaction recording. There is a built-in debugger that is 
activated at any time with control/ D. The SDOS system 



comes with an assembler, text editor and debugger, all at 
one low price. SDOS does not read Disk BASIC disks 
directly, but there is a utility program that can bring data 
from Disk BASIC disks to SDOS disks. SDOS can handle 
up to 128K, and Computer System Distributors promises 
a version able to handle hard disks soon. 

SEDIT and TYPE together make up the SDOS word 
processing package. They are issued as two programs 
because each can stand alone, the TYPE being able to 
message and print data from many sources other than 
SEDIT, and SEDIT being able to do more than just word 
processing. They also require the SDOS operating system. 
I have used three major word processing systems written 
for the CoCo and the SDOS very much resembles one of 
these systems. I disagree with CSD that SEDIT is easier to 
use than most word processors: Margin handling is 
confusing. A short tutorial covering the most common tasks 
would greatly improve the documentation. The fact that 
you must use reverse video for lowercase letters and having 
only a 32-character screen mode are major drawbacks in 
my estimation.. Of course, you do get increased speed in 
many of the more complex operations this way. SDOS can 
handle modem cards and an external CRT, so you can get 
80-column operation this way. 

TYPE can print data in variable widths and do so with 
automatic justification. It uses embedded commands of a 
wide variety. I found these functions work well and, for the 
most part, are easy to invoke. TYPE also has merge 
capability. The TYPE manual has over 50 pages, including 
the addendum, and there's no way can I do justice to this 
program with the little use I was able to give it. Suffice to 
say, TYPE is a very thorough piece of software. You can 
learn the basic steps quite quickly and easily, and when you 
need to do something sophisticated, chances are good that 
TYPE can do the job. 

To sum up, I think the SDOS system and its family of 
programs are generally well-documented, well worth the 
money, well-designed and as stable a group of programs as 
you are likely to find. In spite of this, I think there are many 
people who will not find SDOS their cup of tea, but for 
the CoCo computer hacker, SDOS is a powerful and cheap 
paradise. 

(Software Dynamics, distributed by Computer Systems 
Distributors, P.O. Box 9769, Anaheim, CA 92802, SDOS, 
editor, debugger and assembler $49.95, SEDIT and TYPE 
$49.95) 



See You at 
RAIN BO Wfest-Chicago 

May 23-25 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 201 



Software Reviewi 



House Doc — an Electronic 
Doctor Who's Always on Call 

"Take two aspirin and call me in the morning" is the 
typical response when asking an off-duty physician about 
a medically related problem. To alleviate this dilemma, we 
now have House Doc, an electronic doctor who is always 
on call. 

House Doc owes its creation to Darrell Wells, M.D., 
Ph.D. Hardware requirements are a CoCo 2 with Extended 
BASIC and a disk drive. The copy-protected program is very 
easy to understand and operates extremely well. The 
attractive 16-page manual contains a medical glossary, 
descriptions of tests and procedures, and prescription 
information. The manual also states a precaution that 
"House Doc is designed to help you with your medical 
conditions" and is not meant to replace your family 
physician. 

Upon executing House Doc, several introductory screens 
are displayed. Two of them ask the patient's name and sex. 
The former aids the doctor's bedside manner whereas the 
latter assists in narrowing the symptoms/ diseases applica- 
ble to that gender. From here the patient chooses from a 
list of 18 symptoms for further analysis, or to a specific 
disease, of which 35 are listed. 

If the symptom option is chosen, the doctor queries the 
patient on various aspects of the problem. After the 
questioning is completed, Dr. CoCo consults his "in-house 



% CoCo GARDNER 

Order soon for your spring garden! Superlative garden planning aid. A 
wealth of background information (which is provided) is used to decide 
what will fit into your garden and how much to plant in each row. A chart 
is developed to show a reasonable sequence in which to plant your 
garden. Print out vegetable data sheets and shopping list to supply your 
garden with necessary plants and seeds. 

$19.95 




JNJJT^GUIDE 



Analyze your eating habits in terms of thirteen nutrients. Keep regular 
weight charts. Recommends calorie intake, compares eating style with 
recommended calorie, protein, fat and carbohydrate intake. Over 650 
foods on file. Make your recipes from combinations of foods on filel 64K 
DISK REQUIRED. 

$25.00 




Medical advisor offering suggestion for medical problem areas. Select 
the area to study, then look at details for that area. You are asked 
questions about possible medical symptoms. Using this information 
MEDIC provides guidance for home treatment products to use, 
background information or varying levels of urgency to see a doctor. 
Other programs cost 3 TIMES as much, but do not do three times as much. 

$20.00 




mECHflFlkC 



Be sure you are not caught with a flat spare tire or a dry battery againl Use 
this program once a month. Input date and odometer reading, get a 
maintenance due list based on time since last maintenance and miles 
driven. These records will help your car maintain its valuel 

$15.00 



3 DISKS 97<P 



SS/DD for your CoCo. Fully warranted. Minimum order 10. While supply 
lastsl < ea.970 



VISA 
MASTERCARD 



Homesoft Company 

P.O. Box 8 
Supply, NC 28462 



(919) 842-4436 (7 days, 24 



lours) 



Add $2.00 ship- 
ping and handling 
NC residents add 
4% sales tax. 



library" (66 granules are used on the disk) and relies on hi! 
extensive experience to list, in order of probability, ttu 
diseases that may be causing the symptoms. Once th< 
patient agrees to one of the diagnoses, the doctor gives hi* 
prescription for healing. These range from taking vitamin! 
to changing eating habits, among others. If the medica 
problem appears to be serious, House Doc issues a louc 
warning notifying the patient to consult a physiciar. 
immediately. If the disease option is chosen, the patient car 
learn about the disease, its causes, consequences and cure. 

In testing the diagnosis function, my wife and I entered 
the symptoms from medical problems we had experienced 
in prior years. House Doc accurately diagnosed each 
ailment we had experienced! We both found House Doc 
interesting, informative and fun to use. With the high cost 
of medical care, the program can save trips to the local 
doctor by successfully diagnosing medical problems that 
can be remedied at home. Furthermore, when a medical visit 
is required, one can talk more intelligently about the 
problem to the doctor by first consulting House Doc. 

My only reservation with the program is the disk 
protection routine. The manual states that if a disk crashes, 
the user must resort to a disk repair utility. I would prefer 
a protection method similar to the one used by DynaCalc, 
where the master disk makes runnable programs that 
cannot be copied. At the very least, the author could have 
provided two disks. 

Regardless of this, House Doc is an excellent program 
and would be welcomed in any household; just think, when 
someone asks if there is a doctor in the house, you can pull 
out your floppy disk and say, "Yes!" 

(For Your Health Software, 58-A Star Rt., Coalmont, TN 
37313, disk $59.95) 

— Dan Smith 



Hint . . . 



Get the Sound Out 



You can send sound from your 80G to any amplifier 
simply by soldering a couple of connections from the 
RF modulator. 

Pin 3 from the RF modulator and any PC Board 
ground will give you audio output that you can send 
to any outside amplifier. 

Incidentally, Pin 3 is the third pin back from the 
rear of the 80C on the RF modulator. 

You should remember that opening the computer 
case will void yoittvjvarranty. 



i'Vt-.jHY'i*;".*'- 1 ■Vs* 



202 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



* 



Software Review ^SSS^^^^^SS^SST/7?\ 

Create Dazzling Graphics 
with Micro Illustrator 

Micro Illustrator is a graphics creation program that is 
an adaptation of the MS-DOS program by the same name. 
It requires a 64K CoCo with a disk drive. The program also 
runs under OS-9, however, OS-9 is not needed to run Micro 
Illustrator, If you have a CoCo with BASIC Version 1.1 or 
later, all you need do is enter the DOS command to boot 
the program. If not, there is a BASIC routine provided in 
the manual that boots OS-9 from the Micro Illustrator disk. 

Micro Illustrator uses both the keyboard and a joystick 
(or mouse) for command and control of operations. While 
most commands are presented on the screen in the form of 
icons, they can also be executed from the keyboard by single 
keystrokes. This can be very useful since the icons are 
displayed on a separate screen. In fact, there are two screens 
of icons. The first screen lets you select drawing mode, brush 
shape and color. The second screen contains a selection of 
patterns and colors. 

Let's take a look at the drawing functions of Micro 
Illustrator. The first function you see on the menu is DRAW. 
DRAW provides the capability to do freehand drawings. 
While holding down the joystick button, the cursor 
produces a trail in the selected color. You are given two line 
functions for drawing straight lines, LINES and LINE. 
Both functions operate in similar fashion. The difference is 
that LINES produces a series of connected lines, while 
LINE is used to produce unconnected lines. These functions 
use the rubber band method of drawing. The start of the 
line is fixed when you press the joystick button the first time. 
You are then free to move the end point of the line to the 
desired position. The second press of the joystick button 
actually draws the line. 

Micro Illustrator provides a FRAME function that can 
be used to draw a rectangular outline. One press of the 
joystick button defines one corner of the frame. By moving 
the cursor, you define the size and proportions of the frame. 
The second press of the button makes the frame permanent. 
The CIRCLE function operates similar to FRAME. Two 
other functions similar to FRAME and CIRCLE are BOX 
and DISK. BOX is used to draw a solid rectangle with the 
selected color or pattern. DISK produces a solid circle. 
There is also a FILL function, which allows you to fill in 
any enclosed area with a selected color or pattern. Another 
"painting" type function is SPRAY. This produces a spray 
paint effect. 

If you need to reproduce objects or areas of the screen, 



OS-9 BULLETIN BOARD 

PBBS 4.0 Features: 300/1200 Baud - A levels 
Definable drive names - Multiple sub-boards - Chat 
Operation visible on screen - EXPANDABLE!!! 

Requires: OS-9 - 6asic09 - TRS-80 RS-232 pale 
Multipak. or Y-cable - 3 floppy drives or Hard drive 

Hayes-compatible modem. 

Send check or MO S. D. Roberson 
for $50,00 to: 1702 W. Mt. Veiw 

(AZ res. add 6.5X) Mesa, AZ 85201 
See PBBS in operation 2A hours a day: 602-899-1350 



Micro Illustrator makes it easy. It gives you a COPY 
function. Just outline the object, press the joystick button 
and you can move the object anywhere on the screen and 
make replicas of it. There is also a ZOOM function that 
magnifies any portion of the screen and lets you use any 
of the drawing functions to produce better details. 

Micro Illustrator has two more functions that really make 
it fun to use, MIRROR and RAYS. The mirror function 
is the most complete of its kind. You not only get horizontal 
and vertical mirrors, diagonal and radial mirrors can also 
be selected; you can even select any combination or all 
mirrors! Some very exotic designs can be produced with the 
different combinations of mirrors. 

The most unusual function is RAYS. You move the cursor 
to a starting point on the screen and press the joystick 
button to fix the center point. Next, move the cursor to 
define the length and start of the rays. The final step is to 
move the cursor while holding down the joystick button. 
This produces a series of lines radiating from the center 
point. The spacing of the lines depends on the speed at which 
you move the joystick. Some extraordinary effects can be 
produced with RAYS. Combining RAYS with MIRROR 
creates dazzling artistic effects. 

Micro Illustrator is not only easy to use, it is fun to use. 
In fact, I should warn you that when you are using it, you 
may forget about time and all the other things that need 
to be done around the house! 

(Tandy Corp., available in Radio Shack stores nationwide, 
requires 64K, disk $29.95) 

— Mike Piotrowski 



COLOR BANKBOOK $19.95 

BUSINESS BANKBOOK 

SYSTEM ONE 

FOR ONE DISK DRIUE 

$49.95 

SYSTEM TWO 

FOR TWO DISK DRIUES 

$49.95 
SUPER DISK UTILITY 

* 9.95 



$ 9.95 



WRITE FOR MORE 
INFORMATION. 

ALL PROGRAMS INCLUDE MANUALS , 
REQUIRE 3£K AND 1 DISK DRIVE. 
ADD S2.00 SHIPPING £ HANDLING 
FLORIDA RES. ADD 5X SALES TAX 



SUNR'ISE 



SOFjTilimRiE 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



8901 NUP 26 ST DEPT R 
SUNRISE, FL 33322 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 203 



■ 



an 



ftware 



PreReader 

32K ECB; 

Joystick 
Required 

Tape - $19.95 
Disk • $24.95 




;ORREXT 



*J 



Level I - your child will work with col- • 
ors, shapes, numbers, capital letters ,< / 
and small letters J 

Level II - your child will learn to asso- i, % ,r 
date individual letters and consonant ..!^!.,..V 
blends with the sounds they make 

Songs and happy faces for each correct answer! 




Helps design or evaluate: 

• Land mobile radio systems 

• Satellite TV 

• Satellite data acquisition systems 

• Aircraft radio systems 

• Microwave systems 

• Microvolt/DBM conversions 

• Frequency/Wave length conversions ^oix C£Q 

• System received signal levels e oc t 

• Gain of parabolic antenna $29.95 - Tap© 

• Propogation Calculations $32.95 - Disk 



rental Property 

Income and Expense 

Management 
J^T* \tl - I^ackaee 




Disk - $34.95 
32K Required 

• Keeps track of all your rental properties 

• Provides instant screen or printer summary of all 
your properties 

• Maintains and prints a detailed, itemized listing of 
each of 28 expense categories 

• Gives you a schedule of the Accelerated Cost 
Recovery System depreciation allowed for each tax 
year for 3, 5, 10 and 15 year property 



m:a\u;imi 

Graphics Editor 

Graphics editor to create and modify your 
own pictures 

Pictures can be usd as a title screen for 
a program 

Create a series of pictures to make a 
slide show 

Both Extended and non-Extended Basic 
versions on the same tape 
High Resolution 



Semigraphic modes 
8, 1 2, and 24 
(64 x 64, 64 x 96 
and 64 x 128) 
8 colors 
Combine text 
with graphics 
Auto-repeat and 
"magic" delete 
Requires 16K 



m 




for the Programmer in the Family 



Tape - $19.95 
Disk - $24.95 



/en q 

AUTO DUN 



AUTO RUN 64 - $24.95 
AUTO RUN - $19.95 

°<? O O Ta P e 



Creates a ML loader which automatically starts up 

your Basic or ML program 

Title screen utility 

Provide an audio introduction 

Locates your program at the desired address 




32K Disk 
$99.95 



PIRATECTOR ! ® 

You write the Basic or ML program. 
Piratector®: 

• Supplies protection scheme 

• Includes Semigraf graphics 
editor 

• Incrementing serial numbers 

• Many user subroutines included 

• Effective against popular piracy/ 
protection cracking programs 



Dealer and author inquiries are al- 
ways welcome. Canadian dealers 
should contact Kelly Software Dis- 
tributors, Ltd., P.O. Box 11932, 
Edmonton, Alberta T5J-3L1, (403) 
421-8003. 

Disk software compatible with Radio 
Shack DOS only. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 

1710 N. 50th Ave. 
Hollywood, Florida 33021 
(305) 981-1241 

A complete catalog of other sweet 
Sugar Software products Is available. 



Add $1.50 per program for postage and 
handling. Florida residents add 5% sales tax. 
COD orders are welcome. CIS orders EMAIL 
to 70405, 1374. No refunds or exchanges. 



f s 






■ 







tware 



Wc\t C0CO (Ealltgraplpr 



See You at 
Chicago RAINBOWfest 



Use your CoCo, your 8-bit dot addressable graphics 
printer and the CoCo Calligrapher to create beautiful 
signs, invitations, flyers, greeting cards, diplomas, cer- 
tificates, awards and love letters. 

The original Calligrapher letters are 36 points (1/2 inch) 
high and variably spaced. It includes an easy-to-use , 
menu-oriented program and these three typestyles: 



Old English Cartoon 

Gay Nineties 

Gey Nineties 

The CoCo Calligrapher requires 32K ECB. 
Tape $24.95/Disk $29.95 



ADDITIONAL TYPESTYLES 

These tapes of additional typestyles are available for 
$19.95 each. They can be easily moved to disk. The 
original Calligrapher program is required. 

Tape 1 - Reduced, Reversed, and Reduced-Reversed 
versions 



Old English 



Gay Nineties 



Cartoon 



All typestyles on Tapes 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 include Stan- 
dard (1/2 inch), Reversed, Reduced, and Reduced- 
Reversed unless otherwise noted. 



Tape 2: Broadway/Old Style 
IBroaduay D(r|$fy| 



t 



Tape 3: Business/Antique 



Business ^fivfitiquc 



These disks of additional typestyles are 
available for $49.95 each. 

Disk 1 - all type styles on Tapes 1 , 2 and 3. 
Disk 2 - all type styles on Tapes 4, 5 and 6. 

Tape 4: Wild West/Checkers 

Wild West Checker 



Tape 5: Star 



Hebrew 



titers □1 s ?^ 

Victorian (Standard and Reverse only) 

HfcTcrf a in 

Tape 6: Block/Computer 

Block 

CompuTEPi 



®he 0^-9 fflailtgraplfer, 



$39.95 

Requires OS-9 Version 01.01.00 and a dot matrix print- 
er. The OS-9 Calligrapher reads a standard input text 
file which contains text and formatting directives to pro- 
duce standard utput for printer or disk. You can specify 
which font to use; centering; left, right or full justification; 
line fill; narrow mode; margin; line width; page size; 
page break and indentation. 



These disks of additional typestyles are available for 
$49.95 each. They are not compatible with the CoCo 
Calligrapher typestyles or program. OS-9 typestyle 
disk must be used with the OS-9 Calligrapher. 

Disk 1 - OS-9 version of all type styles on Tapes 1 , 2 and 
3. 

Disk 2 - OS-9 version of all type styles on Tapes 4, 5 and 
6. 



Dealer and author inquiries are al- 
ways welcome. Canadian dealers 
should contact Kelly Software Dis- 
tributors, Ltd., P.O. Box 11932, 
Edmonton, Alberta T5J-3L1, (403) 
421-8003. 

Disk software compatible with Radio 
Shack DOS only. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 

1710 N. 50th Ave. 
Hollywood, Florida 33021 
(305) 981-1241 

A complete catalog of other sweet 
Sugar Software products is available. 



Add $1.50 per program for postage and 
handling. Florida residents add 5% sales tax. 
COD orders are welcome. CIS orders EMAIL 
to 70405, 1374. No refunds or exchanges. 













VISA 


^ ' 







Software Review* 



Geography USA is an 
Excellent Learning Tool 

Did you know that Concord is the capital of New 
Hampshire or that Pierre is the capital of South Dakota? 
How about this: Did you know the capital of New York is 
not New York City but Albany? I'm sure you know the 
answers to these pieces of trivia if you live in those states, 
but in Utah, where I live, if it is east of the Rocky Mountains 
I could not be sure if it is in the United States. If you want 
to learn the states and capitals but are a little afraid because 
your spelling is the pits or you can never remember what 
state is next to what, this could be the program for you. 

Geography USA is written for the 16K standard CoCo. 
The program is in five short segments so each part can fit 
into the memory of a 16K machine. You can also get the 
program on disk and use it on an Extended 16K, 32K or 
64K machine. The program is started by loading and 
running "U5R". You have a choice of nine sections of the 
United States with which you would like to work. If you 
have a disk drive they may be done in any order, but with 
cassette, you must do them in order or wait for the recorder 
to find the next section, which can take a minute or two. 

When you get to the chosen section of the country, you 
can then choose if you would like to answer just the state 
names, the capitals, or both, the major cities or the major 
products. No matter what is chosen, you first see the states 
and then the answers. When you have studied enough, press 



The Coco Greeting Card Designer 

The Coco Greeting Card Designer is the perfect program 
for the Holiday Season! You can Create and Print custom 
Greeting Cards to send to Friends and Relatives. 
The Coco Greeting Card Designer can be used to design 
and print custom Greeting Cards for all occasions 
including: Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Years, Birth- 
days, Valentine's Day, Mother's Day and others. It can 
also be used to make custom Invitations, Thank-You 
Cards, Get-Well Cards and Announcements. 
The Coco Greeting Card Designer is easy to use and 
includes a library of predrawn Hi-Res Graphic Pictures! 
You can write custom messages on the cover and inside 
your cards in a selection of character fonts and sizes. An 
easy to use screen editor allows you to pick your type 
style, font size and more. Two fonts are included, and the 
easy to use editors allow you to create many more! Also 
included is a selection of border patterns. 
The Coco Greeting Card Designer requires & Coco or 
Coco II with a minimum of 32K, One Disk Drive (Com- 
patible with: Disk BASIC 1.0 & 1.1 and JDOS.), and one 
of the following printers: EPSON RX/FX, GEMINI 10X or 
SG-10, C-ITOH 8510, RS DMP Series, GP-250 and 
GORILLA BANANA. 

Only: $24.95 




plus $3.00 Shipping & Handling 
NY Residents add sales tax 
UPS. COD ADD $3.00 
VISA/MC Accepted 

ZEBRA SYSTEMS, 
INC. 

78-06 Jamaica Avenue 
Woodhaven, New York 11421 
(718) 296-2385 
Dealer Inquiries Invited 



•lit* 



any key and the computer tests your memory. If something 
is spelled wrong you still get credit for it, but it is noted 
that it was spelled wrong. 

Considering the limitations of a standard BASIC computer 
versus the Extended BASIC computer, the program is pretty 
good. The scope and sequence of the material covered is 
done in small enough steps that concepts can be easily 
learned. It is also forgiving to the person who can remember 
the states but doesn't know how to spell them. It gives credit 
for knowing a state, but gives more credit if you spell it 
correctly. I think that is a strong point for this program. 
You can learn the states without being frustrated because 
of spelling. 

I think this program would be better if there were a 
version made for the 32K or 64K machine and put on disk 
or tape as one progam, not five. Having the program written 
in standard BASIC is not a major detraction from its 
appearance or usefulness; as a matter of fact, having eight 
colors to work with is nice when working with maps, but 
it is somewhat of an inconvenience to own a disk drive and 
64K machine and have a program that does not utilize all 
of the machine or is always going to the disk and repeating 
some of the steps in each section of the program. 

Now, would I buy the program myself? If all I had was 
a 16K standard BASIC CoCo, I think it is a good program 
to have. It is written in a professional manner and has a 
sound sequence in its curriculum for teaching and testing 
the states. I don't think that using just standard BASIC is 
a major hinderance, but it would be nice if there was a 
version for owners of larger CoCos. 

(Viking Inc., 910 Soo Blvd., Rice Lake, WI 54868, cassette 
or disk $19.95) 

— Thomas E. Nedreberg 




When you save programs, CoCo can perform this 
function in two ways: by using binary codes or actual 
letters and numbers (called ASCII and pronounced 
"as-key"). 

Although it takes longer, ASCII is sometimes a 
more accurate way to save a program, especially when 
you may be transferring programs between systems — 
say from a disk-based to a cassette-based system. 

To save in ASCII, simply add a comma and an l A' 
to the end of your 5RVE instruction, like this; 
C5RVE "PROGRRfl" , R and the ASCII save is done by 




206 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



Accessory Review, 



The BMC Monitor Stand Makes 
CoCoing More Comfortable 

Are you leaning left and right in your chair to see what 
your monitor is saying? Have you tried your hand at 
inventing devices to block the glare that plagues every 
computer user? 

If you answered yes to either of these questions, the BMC 
Pan-tilt Model PA-900 monitor stand from Spectrum 
Projects can help you make your time at the computer more 
comfortable. 

This stand, designed for 12-inch monitors, not only 
revolves a full 360 degrees, it also Jilts up or down 12.5 
degrees, To give you some idea of what a 12.5 degree tilt 
means, let it suffice to say it can accommodate anyone from 
a 3 foot tall child to a 7 foot tall giant. 

Viewing is easier and computing more comfortable with 
an accessory such as this. Glare is no longer a problem 
because the monitor stand lets you rotate your monitor to 
avoid eye-level light sources, as well as tilt it to avoid the 
glare of ceiling lights. At the center of the stand platform 
is a butterfly nut which can be tightened to avoid accidental 
tilting. It is necessary, however, to remove your TV or 
monitor from the stand to adjust the nut. 

Surely, youVe experienced the need for more than one 
person to see the monitor at the same time. I've welcomed 
friends to my home to play with my computer and have 
noticed that they end up with either a crick in their neck 
or sore feet from standing behind me. With the BMC 
monitor stand all I did was push in the right direction and 
the monitor was swiveled to a position which was comfor- 
table for my friends, and they left me and my CoCo in the 
same state of health they were in when they came over. 

The BMC Pan-tilt instructions come on a single sheet 
which describes the angles of revolution and tilt, as well as 
how to adjust the stand and how to place the monitor for 
best results. The instructions are written in both Japanese 
and an amusingly stilted English. Example: "When putting 
CRT monitor on pan-tilt, put CRT monitor so as not to 
give shock to pan-tilt." In other words, don't set your 
monitor down so hard you break the plastic stand. Actually, 
the stand appears quite sturdy and well-made. The last of 
the five easy instructions, each illustrated, tells you not to 
place the monitor so far forward on the stand that it tips 
over into the floor; that's good advice, too. 

The stand comes assembled and ready to go right out of 

the box, complete with non-skid padding to keep your 

monitor safe. It is cream colored, which blends well with 

most any equipment or furniture you may have. 
I think the BMC monitor stand is a good addition to 

anyone's computer equipment collection. The easy adjust- 
ment, safe placement of your monitor and comfort afforded 
are worth the cost of the stand. 

(Spectrum Projects, Inc., P.O. Box 21272, 93-15 86th Drive, 
Woodhaven, NY 11421, $24.95 plus $3 S/H) 

— Jim Sewell 




Back copies of many issues of the 
rainbow are still available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue 
cover price. In addition, there is a $3.50 
charge for the first issue, plus 50 cents 
for each additional issue for postage and 
handling if sent by United Parcel Service. 
There is a $5 charge for the first issue, 
plus a $1 charge for each additional issue 
on orders sent by U.S. Mail. UPS will not 
deliver to a post office box or to another 
country. 

Issues July 1981 through June 1982 
are available on white paper in a reprint 
form. All others are in regular magazine 
form. VISA, MasterCard and American 
Express accepted. Kentucky residents 
please add 5 percent state sales tax. In 
order to hold down costs, we do not bill 
and no C.O.D. orders are accepted. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you 
order the back issues you want now while 
supplies last. 

To order, just fill out the form on the 
next page and mail it with your payment 

to: ^MMI^^ 

THE RAINBOW «RSM 

The Falsoft Buildingl^^^m 
P.O. Box 385 ^HP 
Prospect, KY 40059 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 207 



BACK ISSUE ORDER FORM 

(See overleaf for instructions.) 

(Payment must accompany back issue orders. We do not 
bill.) 

□ Please send me the following back issues: 



VOLUME 1 





MONTH 








NO. 


YEAR 




PRICE 


1 


JULY '81 


PREMIER ISSUE 


$2.00 


□ 


2 


AUG. '81 




$2.00 


□ 


3 


SEPT. '81 


EDUCATION 


$2,00 


□ 


4 


OCT. '81 


PRINTER 


$2.00 


□ 


5 


NOV! '81 




$2.00 


□ 


6 


DEC. '81 


HOLIDAY 


$2.00 


□ 


7 


JAN. '82 




$2.00 


□ 


8 


FEB. *82 




$2.00 


□ 


9 


MAR. '82 




$2.50 


□ 


10 


APR. '82 


• 


$2.50 


□ 


12 


JUNE '82 


VOLUME 2 


$2.50 


□ 


10 


APR. '83 


SIMULATIONS 


$2.95 


□ 


11 


JUNE '83 


PRINTERS 


$2.95 


□ 


12 


JULY '83 


ANNIVERSARY 
VOLUME 3 


$2.95 


□ 


1 


AUG. '83 


GAMES 


$2.95 


□ 


2 


SEPT. '83 


EDUCATION 


$2.95 


□ 


3 


OCT. '83 


GRAPHICS 


$3.95 


□ 


4 


NOV. '83 


DATA COMM. 


$3.95 


□ 


5 


DEC. '83 


HOLIDAY 


$3.95 


□ 


8 


MAR. '84 


BUSINESS 


$3.95 


□ 


9 


APR. '84 


GAMING 


$3.95 


□ 


10 


MAY. '84 


PRINTER 


$3.95 


□ 


11 


JUNE '84 


MUSIC 


$3.95 


□ 


12 


JULY '84 


ANNIVERSARY 
VOLUME 4 


$3.95 


□ 


1 


AUG. '84 


GAMES 


$3.95 


□ 


2 


SEPT. '84 


EDUCATION 


$3.95 


□ 


3 


OCT. '84 


GRAPHICS 


$3.95 


□ 


4 


NOV. '84 


DATA COMM. 


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DEC. '84 


HOLIDAY 


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JAN. '85 


BEGINNERS 


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7 


FEB. '85 


UTILITIES 


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8 


MAR. '85 


BUSINESS 


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9 


APR. '85 


SIMULATIONS 


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10 


MAY '85 


PRINTER 


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11 


JUNE '85 


MUSIC 


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12 


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ANNIVERSARY 
VOLUME 5 


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SEPT. '85 


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DEC. '85 


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JAN. '86 


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$3.95 


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FEB. '86 


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$3.95 


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8 


MAR. '86 


BUSINESS 


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RAINBOW INDEX A complete index to our first three years, July 1981 
through June 1984, is printed in its entirety in our July 1984 issue. 
Separately bound copies are also available. $2.50 □ 



Note: Our Fourth Year Index, including an index to all editions of 
RAINBOW ON TAPE, is included in the July 1985 issue. 

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Book R e vie iv^ZZZ^_^^» ^ 

CoCo Incognito is Packed 
with Useful Information 



If you are a loyal subscriber to RAINBOW, you have 
probably seen many PDKEs and PEEKs that allow you and 
your CoCo to do some amazing things. However, how many 
times have you wanted a particular PEEK or POKE, but could 
not remember where you had seen it? Unless you keep a 
very good record of all those hints that RAINBOW and its 
subscribers have given throughout the years, you will not 
know where to look for all these little goodies. Besides the 
hints, there are other schemes that allow the CoCo to do 
all kinds of things. 

You are probably saying at this point, "Where can I get 
all this wonderful information?" Enter RC Creations. RC 
Creations has released CoCo Incognito, This booklet 
contains 25 pages of information with approximately 10 
PEEKs, 60 POKEs, 20 EXECs, 25 BASIC subroutines, 10 
machine language subroutines and 45 game hints and tips. 
This is RC Creations' second booklet of hints and tips; their 
first was System Secrets, reviewed in the September 1984 

RAINBOW. 

As with their previous booklet, the information contained 
in CoCo Incognito has probably been listed somewhere 
before. While I had seen some of the information before, 
many items were new to me, and even the items I had seen 
before, I would not have known where to look for them 
when I needed them. It is really nice to have all this 
information at your fingertips, all in one place. 

CoCo Incognito could possibly have come up with a 
product that has something for everyone. If you play games, 
you will be interested in the schemes to increase the number 
of tokens or the speed of certain games. Other game options 
are also included. On a more serious note, there are 
modifications to BASIC and Extended BASIC commands and 
key words. Also included are tips to work with text and 
graphics for the text screen and for using Hi-Res graphics. 
You must realize that some of this information is for 
advanced programmers, i.e., you have to know how to use 
the information. However, you do not have to be an expert 
to find this booklet useful. Novice programmers will find 
much of it helpful, and as the information is used, it should 
even improve their knowledge of the CoCo. 

If you are either a serious programmer or someone who 
just likes to play with the CoCo, there is plenty of 
information packed in these 25 pages. At $7.95, it makes 
an excellent reference source for your CoCo bookshelf. 

(RC Creations, 17251 Palatine N., Seattle, WA 98133, $7.95 
plus $1.50 S/H) 

— Dale Shell 



208 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



Software Review* 



/^n\ Software Review* 



CoCo Calendar Can Help You 

Get Organized 

The CoCo Calendar from Spectrum Projects is what 
those who want daily reminders need. The CoCo Calendar 
can't make dates for you, but it certainly will help you keep 
them. When the program is run, the user is asked for the 
current date. After that, any memos for that day are 
displayed. After reading the memos the user hits the space 
bar and a Hi-Res calendar is displayed. 

The calendar is well designed and attractively displayed. 
If there is a memo for a particular day in the month 
displayed, the user sees a small black box underneath that 
day. At the bottom of the calendar is a help section which 
reminds the user of the available options. These options 
consist of changing the target date, entering the memos 
necessary to keep track of appointments, schedules, 
birthdays, etc., deleting a memo, reading a memo, returning 
to BASIC, or using a screen dump the user provides to dump 
the Hi-Res calendar. 

The change target date is provided to allow access to 
information at a date different than that entered at the 
beginning of the program. The enter, delete, read and return 
to BASIC are all self-explanatory and need no further 
elaboration. 

The print option is provided so one can use any of many 
screen dump programs to print the Hi- Res calendar. Notice, 
the CoCo Calendar has no dump program incorporated 
into itself. 

There is another print feature available while reading a 
memo. After the memo for the chosen day is read, the 
program asks if it is to be printed. Answering yes will give 
a text printout of the memo date, followed by the memo 
itself. 

The instructions that come with the CoCo Calendar are 
sufficient and inlcude explanations of each feature, as well 
as ways to save the Hi-Res screen to disk and to keep more 
than one memo per day. This documentation is thorough, 
but concise, which is welcome in any utility 

Memos entered are stored into a data file on the working 
disk and are separated by year. That is to say, all memos 
for 1985 will be stored into a file called "1985 /DAT." This 
allows hundreds of memos to be entered for each year and 
easy manipulation of entire years. By this means one can 
store each year in an archive or delete it entirely when 
finished with it. 

Overall, I think the CoCo Calendar is a useful program 
for those of us who either need daily reminders or wish to 
be more organized without spending countless hours getting 
that way. 



(Spectrum Projects, Inc., P.O. Box 21272, 93-15 86th Drive, 
Woodhaven, NY 11421, 32K/64K disk $24.95 plus $3 S/H) 

— Jim Sewell 



TX is a Modest Word Processor 
Written in BASIC 

TX is a modest word processing program written in 
BASIC. It supports a maximum buffer capacity of one page: 
66 lines of 80 characters. The default is all uppercase. It is 
possible to get upper- and lowercase by SHIFT locking, 
SHIFT 0. The default then becomes lowercase, with, the 
characters appearing on the screen in reverse color. 
Uppercase may be had by the use of the SHIFT key, as usual. 

The screen display is Lo-Res CoCo standard, 32 by 15. 
retreats this as a window over the page/buffer, so as one 
begins text entry the cursor moves in the normal manner, 
left to right. Once the point is reached where the windowed 
area corresponds to the right segment of the page, the cursor 
appears to stand still and the text moves leftward as entered 
— in other words, the "page" moves under the "window." 

TX loads (and by the way, because there is a PCLERR 1, 
you may have to enter RUN twice) to a main menu, offering 
disk I/O, print (buffer or marked block therefrom), buffer 
clear ("cancel"), disk directory and text entry (a screen 
editor with word wrap) as options. CLEAR acts as a "control" 
key, bringing up the main menu; or with shift, a means 
of moving to the alternate mode from which insertions may 
be made; a block, line or column of characters may be 
marked off and manipulated (including calculation of such 
numerical values as are in the marked-off block); and single 
characters may be repeated: across a line, down a column 
or (for whatever reason one might want to do so) along a 
diagonal. The documentation, while by no means elegant 
or ample, is sufficient to get TX up and running. 

As mentioned, TX is written in BASIC. Therefore, even 
with the high-speed poke its function is very slow, even at 
a hunt-and-peck typing rate. Anything over about two 
characters a second results in lags and letters being left out; 
you are slowed up further by having to constantly backtrack 
and make corrections. The limitation in buffer capacity and 
print format need no further comment. 

Comparisons are awkward and inappropriate in a review. 
Nevertheless, it is only fair to ask the question: Is TX, for 
all its limitations, a good buy at its modest price, which is 
25 percent or less than that of the "heavies" among CoCo 
word processors? Candidly, I think not. There is at least one 
word processor in the approximate price range of TX 
offering the speed and accuracy of machine code, a buffer 
of disk size or, in the case of tape, over 50K, and a variety 
of print format options. Although I have have not had 
occasion to use that particular program in my own writing 
for some time now, I fired it up to draft this review, as a 
sort of "control" alongside TX. My advice? Even at its price, 
even for short items and even (or maybe especially) for a 
youngster or adult taking his or her first steps in using a 
word processor, TX is simply too limited and slow to be 
considered a serious option. 

(Kolesar B/S, 7 Ladd Rd., Westfield, PA 16950, disk $12.95 
plus $2 S/H) 

— John Ogasapian 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 209 



DELPHI BUREAU 



Here by Popular Demand: 
New Delphi Enhancements 



Happy Ides of March! I hope the 
command card printed in last 
month's issue has given you a 
better understanding of Delphi. We here 
at THE RAINBOW will continue to bring 
you the best information we can. I have 
several important items to pass along in 
this month's "Delphi Bureau." 

The substantial increase in DA- 
TAPAC rates have the most import, 
especially to our Canadian friends. 
Following is the official explanation 
given to THE RAINBOW of the reasons 
for the increase in rates. 

"DATAPAC is a packet-switched 
network, which has had somewhat of 
a monopoly in Canada for some 
time. Its rate schedule is complex in 
that it charges by kilocharacters of 
data transferred. There is apparently 
some sort of arrangement with 



RAINBOW technical assistant and CoCo 
SIGop John Curl is also a military 
policeman in the Army National Guard. 
He has had his Color Computer since 
1982. He and his wife, Becky, live in 
Louisville, Kentucky. 



Tymnet and Uninet, whereby the two 
U.S. carriers bill Delphi for the 
DATAPAC usage connected through 
their respective network. 

"Delphi's analysis of the situation 
in November revealed that when they 
computed the kilocharacter charges 
billed to them for access from Can- 
ada, the charges averaged around 
$12/hr. just for the Canadian por- 
tion. Delphi decided then to raise the 
surcharge (which is currently $3/ nr.) 
to $12/ hr. in order to more accu- 
rately reflect their cost of allowing 
access from DATAPAC through 
Tymnet and Uninet. The price list 
was updated in the "Using Delphi" 
section (available from the MAIN> 
menu prompt) at that time. Delphi 
apologizes for not posting a general 
announcement at the same time. 

"There are now, and will in the 
future, be other alternatives for 
accessing Delphi from Canada: 

"1) Tymnet has a node in Toronto 
and will be adding the other major 
cities early in the year. Uninet also 
plans to add Canadian nodes to its 
network. The rates will only be 
slightly higher than U.S. rates. 

"2) There is some sort of promo- 



By John R. Curl 
Rainbow's CoCo SIGop 



tion going on by Bell Canada, called 
INET2000, whereby subscribers to 
INET can "gateway" into Delphi (via 
DATAPAC) for a flat rate — around 
the clock — of $16/hr. 

"3) Access through DATAPAC 
directly to Delphi will be $18/hr. in 
the evenings and weekends, and $28/ 
hr. during the business day. Delphi 
says these rates are lower than Com- 
puServe's 1200 Baud rates for DA- 
TAPAC users as far as Delphi can 
determine from CompuServe's price 
sheet. 

"All of these rates are quoted in 
U.S. monetary funds." 

As you can imagine, this is also 
distressing news to us at RAINBOW. I'm 
afraid we will have to live with this 
arrangement for the time being. I will 
keep you posted as things develop. 

Now for some encouraging informa- 
tion. Here, by popular demand, are 
some recent Delphi enhancements. All 
of the following list applies to the 
"CoCo SIG Forum" section. 

1) The READ command now accepts 
all of the same arguments as the DI- 
RECTORY command, including 
ranges, FROM x TO y, SUBJECT and 



210 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



THREAD, and has been made gener- 
ally more consistent with the DIREC- 
TORY command. 

2) The READ and DIRECTORY 
commands now accept the argument 
NONSTOP (or NS) on any valid com- 
mand, e.g., READ NEW NONSTOP, 
READ FROM RAINBOWMAG NS, 
READ WAITING NS, READ 
THREAD 122 NONSTOP, etc. This 
feature allows messages to continuously 
scroll by without having to repeatedly 
press ENTER. 

3) At the end of a thread read by using 
the FOLLOW command and subse- 
quent carriage returns, pressing enter 
("READ NEW") takes you to the next 
message you would have read had you 
not typed FOLLOW This means you 
may never have to see message number 
12 again. This should fill Marty Good- 
man with elation. 

4) The DELETE command now in- 
cludes the message number in the con- 
firmation. 

5) The (Forum contains messages x 
through y) message is now kept more 
accurate. 

6) A partial range entered (such as 
27:), e.g., DIR 27:, is now acceptable. 

7) The DIR command displays out- 
put more closely matching the current 
line length (/LENGTH command). 

8) ENTER pressed by itself generally 
means "NEXT" after an initial READ 
or DIRECTORY command until it can 
deliver no more matching messages. In 
this case, it is interpreted as READ 
NEW. Pressing ENTER also means 
READ NEW after an ADD command 
or after a DELETE, REPLY or EDIT 
command with a number as an argu- 
ment, since these commands implicitly 
destroy the context of what you were 
doing by going directly to a message. 

9) REPLY now takes an optional 
message number as an argument, so it 
is no longer necessary to re-read a 
message in order to post a reply. The 
message number must be the first argu- 
ment, if used, along with the MAIL 
option, e.g., REPLY 27 MAIL. 

10) READ <number> takes you to 
the next available message if the 
number selected has been deleted or is 
inaccessible. 

1 1) QUIT takes you out of the Forum 
section without updating your high 
message pointer. This is useful when 
you have followed a thread (thus updat- 
ing your temporary high message poin- 
ter), have not gone back to read the 



intervening message (or messages in 
other topics) and you want to come 
back to them at another time. 

12) You can now cancel (Control-C) 
a REPLY without damaging the con- 
text. A subsequent REPLY then works 
correctly. This eliminates empty mes- 
sages in the Forum section. 

13) ALL is a valid option on the 
READ NEW and DIR NEW com- 
mands, causing the Forum to ignore the 
"temporary map" of messages you have 
read during the current Forum session. 
DIR NEW ALL prints an asterisk 
beside any "unread" messages on the 
current listing. This listing is useful if 
you have been following threads around 
and want to find a particular message. 

14) The NEW option on the READ 
and DIRECTORY commands causes 
the Forum to select messages higher 
than your high message pointer that you 
have not read during the current Forum 
session (which meet your other options 
and topic criteria). The NEXT com- 
mand in any READ context also causes 
the Forum to skip any messages already 
read during the current session unless 
the ALL is specified as an option on the 
READ command. 

15) The HIGH command clears the 
"temporary map" of read/ unread mes- 
sages. This sets your permanent highest 
message read. 

The foregoing represents Delphi's 
response to a number of suggestions 
and complaints voiced here and in other 
SIGs. The features just mentioned have 
been heavily tested, but if any unusual 
responses occur when you use them, 
THE rainbow would appreciate a mes- 
sage from you, which we will forward 
to the good folks who made these 
needed changes for us. 

Sound Off! 

The CoCo SIG can only be made 
better if we know what you expect. As 
you can see, your hints and suggestions 
have not been made in vain. We encour- 
age you to continue to tell us of en- 
hancements and additions you would 
like to see made to Delphi. We have 
been assured that every serious sugges- 
tion will be considered. 

Public Domain Programs 

Now on to what has become a regular 
"Delphi Bureau" feature and a personal 
favorite of mine, the list of CoCo SIG 
members who have uploaded public 
domain programs into our databases. 



Devin Cook (ELECTROMAGIC) Fife- 

diss: In the Assembly Language topic, 
this is a file disassembler for Radio 
Shack DOS. It allows you to build a file 
of table definitions and equates. Also 
included are Ident/bas, which identifies 
the start, end and exec addresses of a 
binary file, and Compare/ bas, which is 
a byte-by-byte comparison of binary 
files. 

William Borie (DISKBANK) COLO- 

RAMA/PIX: In the Graphics topic, 
this is a picture of the Colorama of 
Louisville BBS created by Tom Carmin 
using CoCo Max. This is an ASCII 
BASIC program. 

Bob Patten (N4BP) Musica File 

Squeeze: This is a collection of pro- 
grams that convert Musica 2 files from 
binary to ASCII format and back. Also 
included is Bob's arrangement of Chop- 
in's "Minute Waltz" in ASCII format. 
This group can be found in the Music 
topic. 

William Borie (DISKBANK) RE- 
DIAL /BAS: This ASCII BASIC pro- 
gram found in the Data Communica- 
tions topic continuously dials a BBS 
number until it detects a carrier. It will 
then LOADM and EXEC Mikeyterm. You 
can edit it and make it load your favor- 
ite terminal program. This program 
only supports the "bit-banger" serial 
port on the back of the Color Compu- 
ter. • 

Stephen Macri (DRACMAN) KEL- 
LYII/BAS: Found in the Games topic, 
Kelly Checkers II is a checkers game 
with two players playing against each 
other or one player playing against the 
computer. This program uses a high 
resolution text and graphics screen. 

We invite you to upload any public 
domain programs that you feel the rest 
of our members would like. We want to 
see more member participation in the 
Database section so the SIG will have 
a better collection of programs to offer. 

Once again, I invite you to join us on 
Delphi's CoCo SIG. We like to hear 
first-hand from our readers (it gives us 
a feeling of accomplishment). We're 
always here ready to answer questions 
or help with a problem, so join us and 
become an active member in the realm 
of CoCo communications! 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 21 1 



"The CBASIC Compiler" 

Now anyone can create fast efficient Machine Language Programs 
Easily and Quickly without having to use an Editor/ Assembler 



CBASIC is a fully integrated, easy to use Basic program Editor and Compiler package. CBASIC is 99% syntax compatible 
with Disk Extended Color Basic programs, so most Basic programs can be loaded and compiled by CBASIC with little 
or no changes required. The compiler is an optimizing two-pass integer Basic compiler that can convert programs written 
in Disk Extended Color Basic into 100% pure 6809 Machine Language programs which are written directly to disk in a 
LOADM compatible format. 

The programs generated by the compiler can be run as complete stand alone programs. A built-in linker/editor will 
auiomaticaHy select one and only one copy of each subroutine that is required from the internal run-time library and Insert 
them directly in the program. This eliminates the need for cumbersome, often wasteful separate "run-time" packages. 

CBASIC WAS DESIGNED FOR BOTH 
BEGINNING & ADVANCED USERS 

CBASIC is a Powerful tool for the Beginner or Novice programmer as well as the Advanced Basic or Machine Language 
programmer. The Beginner or Novice programmer can write and compile programs without having to worry about Stack 
Pointers, DP registers, memory allocation, and so on, because CBASIC will handle it for you automatically. All they have 
to do is write their programs using the standard Basic statements and syntax. For the advanced Basic and Machine 
Language programmers, CBASIC will let you take command and control every aspect of your program, even generating 
machine code directly in a program for specialized routines or functions. 

CBASIC adds many features not found in Color Basic, like Interrupt, Reset, and On Error handling. It also has advanced 
programming features that allow machine level control of the Stack and Direct Page registers, variable allocation, automatic 
64K RAM control, program origin and even multiple origins. It can even have machine language code generated within 
a program that executes just like any other Basic program line. 

FULL COMMAND SUPPORT & SPEED 

CBASIC features well over 100 Basic Commands and Functions that fully support Disk, Tape, Printer and Screen 1/ 
O. It also supports ALL the High and Low Resolution Graphics, Sound, Play and String Operations available in Extended 
Color Basic, and all with 99.9% syntax compatibility. 

CBASIC is FAST. Not only will CBASIC compiled programs execute 10 to 1000 times faster than Basic, but the time 
it takes to develop a CBASIC program versus writing a machine language program is much, much shorter. A machine 
language program that might take several months to write and debug could be created using CBASIC in a matter of days 
or hours, even for a well experienced machine language programmer. We had a report from a CBASIC user (hat claimed 
"a Basic program that used to take 3 hours to run, now runs in 7 to 8 minutes". Another user reported a program that 
took 1 to l 1 ^ hours to run in Basic, now runs in 5 to 6 minutes!!! 

MORE THAN JUST A COMPILER 

CBASIC has its own completely integrated Basic Program Editor. The Editor contained in CBASIC is used to Create 
and/or Edit programs for the compiler. It is a full featured editor with functions designed specifically for writing and editing 
Basic programs. It has built-in block Move and Copy functions with automatic program renumbering. Complete, easy to 
use inserting, deleting, extending and overtyping of existing program lines. It is also used for Loading, Saving, Appending 
(merging). Killing disk files and displaying a Disk Directory. It also has automatic line number generation for use when 
creating programs or inserting sequencia! lines between existing lines. You can set the printer baud rate and direct normal 
or compiled listings to the printer for hard copy. The built-in editor makes program corrections and changes as easy as 
"falling off a log". If CBASIC finds an error when compiling, it points to the place in the program line where the error 
occurred. All you have to do is tell the editor what line you want to start editing and when it is displayed, move the 
cursor with the arrow keys to the place where the error is and correct it. Just like that, it's simple, 

HI-RES & 80 COLUMN DISPLAYS 

CBASIC is the only Cobr Basic Compiler that includes its own Hi-Resolution 51, 64 or 85 by 24 line display. It is also 
the only compiler that supports both the PBJ "Word-Pak" and the Double Density 80 column cards. All of these display 
formats are part of the standard CBASIC compiler package. Not only can these display formats be used .for normal 
program editing and compiling, but CBASIC will also include them in your compiled programs! If you want CBASIC to 
include the display driver in your program, all you have to do is use a single CBASIC command "HIRES", The run-time 
display driver that CBASIC includes in your program is not just a simple display, but a full-featured display package. With 
the Hi-Resolution display package you can mix text & graphics, change characters per line, underline, character highlight, 
erase to end of line or screen, home cursor, home & clear screen, protect screen lines, and much more. All commands 
are compatible with our HI-RES II Screen Commander so you can easily develop screen layouts using HI-RES and Color 
Basic before you compile your program. The same applies to using the 80 column card drivers. What other Basic compiler 
offers you this kind of flexibility? 

64K RAM SUPPORT 

CBASIC makes full use of the power and flexibility of the 6883 SAM (Synchronous Address Multiplexer) In the Color 
Computer. It will fully utilize the 96K of address space available in the Color Computer (64K installed) during program 
Creation, Editing and Compilation. CBASIC has a special command for automatic 64K RAM control. When used in a 
program, it allows the user to use the upper 32K of RAM space automatically for variables or even program storage at 
run-time. It will automatically switch the ROMs in and out when needed. There are also two other commands that allow 
you to control the upper 32K of RAM manually, under program control. No other Color Basic compiler directly supports 
the use of 64K RAM like CBASIC. 

ALL MACHINE LANGUAGE 

CBASIC is completely written in fast efficient Machine Language, not Basic, tike some other Color Basic compilers. 
Because of this. CBASIC can edit and compile very large programs. Even using the Hi-Resolution 51 by 24 line display, 
it can work with about a 34K program, and the 80 column card versions can handle almost 40K of program. Some of 
the other Basic compilers can only work with 16K or about 200 lines. Even working with large programs, CBASIC 
compiles programs with lightning fast speed. It will compile a 24K program to disk in less than 2 minutes! That's without 
a listing being generated, We've heard stories about some other compilers that take almost 10 minutes to compile a simple 
2-3K program. You might inquire about this when you look at some of the other compilers available. 



THE FINISHED PRODUCT 

Since CBASIC contains statements to support ALL of the I/O devices (Disk. Tape, Screen & Printer), Hi-Res Graphics, 
Sound, and Enhanced Screen displays, it is well suited for a wide range of programming applications. It generates a 
complete, Ready to Run machine language program. The finished product or program does not have to be interfaced to 
a Basic program to perform some of its functions or commands. This may seem obvious to, you, but some of the other 
Color Basic compilers don't necessarily work this way. Some of their compiler commands need a separate Basic program 
in order for them to work. In some cases, require that a separate Basic program be interfaced to the compiled program 
to perform I/O functions, like INPUT. PRINT and so on. CBASIC doesn't do this. ALL of its commands are compiled 
into a single machine language program that does not require any kind of Basic program to make it work. 

COMPATIBILITY 

You may be wondering about those statements we made earlier concerning 99% or 99,9% syntax compatibility. What 
does that other 1 % consist of? The biggest part of that 1 % has to do with string arrays and variables. CBASIC does not 
use a "String Pool" like Color Basic. It uses absolute memory addresses to locate string variables and arrays. This is why 
CBASIC's string processing is so fast, it also eliminates the time consuming "Garbage Collection" problem. When CBASIC 
allocates space for strings, it must know how much space to use for each string. When you Dimension a string variable 
in CBASIC, you must tell it how much space you want to save for each element. To Dimension an array of 40 strings, 
64 characters each, you would DIM DA $(40, 64). If a string is not dimensioned, CBASIC will automatically allocate 32 
bytes for it. If you want a single string to hove enough room for 200 characters you would DIM AX$(200). For string 
arrays, you would still access the element you want, the same as Color Basic, to get string #30 from the array DAS, you 
would still use DA$(30), the only real change is in the DIM statement. For undeclared string arrays of 10 elements or 
less, CBASIC will automatically reserve space for 10 (0-9) strings of 32 characters. In some other Color Basic compilers, 
you have to declare EVERY string variable used in the progm in a DIM statement, And, to create an array of 40 strings 
with 64 characters each, you would have to DIM AD$(2560), and then to access string #30, you would have to multiply 
30 x 64 and use a special variable name format or access it one character at a time. Not very compatible or convenient 
to use, and difficult at best. 

CBASIC REQUIREMENTS 

CBASIC requires a minimum of 32K RAM and at least one Disk drive. We strongly recommend that you have 64K. 
CBASIC is compatible with all versions of Color & Extended Basic and both Disk Basic VI, 0 and VI. 1. Programs 
compiled on either system will run on systems with different ROMs. CBASIC is NOT compatible with JDOS. 

DOCUMENTATION 

The Documentation provided with any program is very important to the uset. This is especially true when you talk 
about a program as complete and complex as CBASIC. Even though CBASIC was designed to be the most User Friendly 
compiler on the market, we went to great lengths to provide a manual that is not only easy to use and understand, but 
comprehensive and complete enough for even the most sophisticated user. The manual included with CBASIC consists 
of approximately 120 pages of real information, not like some manuals that put just one or two short paragraphs on a 
page, if we did it that way, we could have easily created a three or four hundred page manual. The manual index breaks 
down each section of the manual and gives a 3 or 4 word description of each section and its items along with page 
numbers. The manual has three sections, the Editor, Compiler and Appendix. Each of these is divided into subsections, 
with Section and Subsection titles printed at the top of each page. If you want to, you could find the information you are 
looking for by simply flipping through the pages and scanning the Section titles on the top of the pages. The Manual itself 
is an 8!$ by 1 1 Spiral Bound book with durable leather textured covers. Some of the reports we have had from CBASIC 
users describe the manual as being the Best program manual they have ever used. 

COMPARE THE DIFFERENCE 

CBASIC is not just another Color Basic Compiler. It is the only complete Basic Compiler System for the Cobr Computer. 
Compare CBASIC's features to what other compilers offer and you'll see the difference. When comparing CBASIC to 
other compilers, you might want to keep some of these questions in mind. Does it support I/O functions? You can't write 
much of a program without PRINT, INPUT and so on. What about complex string statements, or string statements at all? 
How large of a program can you write? Can you compile a complex string like: MID$(WGOT$(DA$(VAL(DN$),LEN(LE$)},3,3)? 
Can you use two character variable names for string & numeric variables, like Basic. Does it support all the Hi-Res graphics 
statements including PLAY. DRAW. GET and PUT, using the same syntax as Basic? Do you ever have to use a separate 
Basic program? Can you take complete Basic programs and compile them without extensive changes? Will they work? 
How do you edit a program when it has errors compiling? 

PRICE VERSUS PERFORMANCE 

The price of CBASIC Is $149.00, It is the most expensive Color Basic Compiler on the market, and well worth the 
investment. We spent over 2 years writing and refining CBASIC, to make it the Best, most Compatible Cobr Basic 
compiler available. Most of our CBASIC users already bought one or more of the other compilers on the market and 
have since discarded them. We even traded in a few of them. If you want a cheap compiler, we'll sell you one of those 
traded in, at a good price. Before you buy a compiler, compare the performance of CBASIC against any Cobr Basic 
compiler, Dollar for Dollar, CBASIC gives you more than any other Color Basic compiler available. 

ORDERING INFORMATION 

To order CBASIC by mail, send check or money order in the amount of $149.00 plus $3.00 
for shipping and handling to the address listed below. 

To order by VISA, MASTERCARD or COD, call us at: (702) 452-0632 (Monday thru Saturday, 8am to 5pm PST). 

CER-COMP 
5566 Ricochet Ave. 
Las Vegas, NV 89110 
(702) 452-0632 



DISK 

s 44.95 



Introducing The "Super Smart" 

DATA PACK II 

TERMINAL COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 

Also Supports The PBJ 80 Column "Word Pak", Deluxe RS-232 Pak, 

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"FEATURES" 



No Lost Information When Using Hi-Resolution Display On Line 

ASCII Compatible File Format 

Full Text Buffering 

Terminal Baud Rates 300 to 9600 

Automatic Word Wrap Eliminates Split Words 

Full/Half Duplex 

Automatic File Capture 

Programmable Word Length, Parity and Stop Bits 

Save and Load Text Buffer and Program Key Buffers to Tape 

or Disk 

9 Hi-Resolution Display Formats, 28 to Z55 x 24 
True Upper/ lower Case Display 
Kill Graphics Option for an Extra 6K 
Supports Line Break 



Freeze Display and Review Information On Line 

Send Files Directly from Buffer or Disk 

Full Disk Support for Disk Version 

Send Control Codes from Keyboard 

Separate Printer Baud Rates 110-9600 

Display on Screen or Output Contents of Buffer to Printer 

Automatic Memory Sense 16-64K 

9 Programmable Function Key Variable Length Macro Buffer 
Programmable Prompt Character or Delay to Send Next Line 
Programmable Control Character Trapping 
Programmable Open /Close Buffer Characters 
Automatic Key Repeat For Editing 
Program and Memory Status Displays 



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Starship Falcon 

Graphics Adventure Game 



The Source brings the cost of Disassembler and Assembler Source code 

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Now you can Disassemble Color Computer machine language programs and generate 
beautiful, Assembler Source Code for a fraction of the cost of other Disassembler/Source 

Generator programs. 

The Source has all the features and functions you are looking for in a Disassembler. 

Automatic label generation. 
Allows specifying FCB. FCC and FDB areas. 
Disassembles programs directly from Disk. 
Supports multiple origin disk files. 

Output complete Disassembled listing with labels to the Printer, Screen or both. 
Generates Assembler compatible source files directly to disk . 

Generated source files are In standard ASCII format that can be edited by most word processors. 
Built In Hex/Ascii dump/display to help locate FCB. FCC and FDB areas in a program. 
Fast Disassembly mode for testing & checking FCB. FCC and FDB mapped areas. 
Built in Disk Directory and Kill file commands. 

Menu display with single key commands for smooth, Easy, almost foolproof operation. 



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Federation denied their demands, so they released a biological weapon which 
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axy. To date no plant life has been able to survive on Earth. Recently, Federation 
undercover agents have reported a story told by a roving space trader, of a 
planet with abundant edible plant life. These plants have a reputation of being 
able to survive in all climates and in fact, are supposed to grow at an incredible 
rate. The Federation is desperate! If Earth's food source is not replaced soon, 
the Federation will have to evacuate all animal and Human life. Your mission 
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has returned! Can you get the seed and survive??? GOOD LUCK! 



32K Disk $21.95 



Screen Enhancement Program Comparison Chart 

PROGRAM FEATURES HI-RES II HI-RES I BRAND X 

NEW OLD 



NEW IMPROVED VERSION 

- UP TO 85 CHARACTERS PER LINE 
READABILITY 

- ADJUSTABLE AUTOMATIC KEY REPEAT 

- PROPTECT 1-23 SCREEN LINES 

- CONTROL CODE KEYBOARD 

FULLY BASIC COMPATIBLE 

DISPLAY FORMATS OF 28 to 255 CHARACTERS PER LINE 
FULL % UPPER/LOWER CASE CHARACTERS 
MIXED GRAPHICS & TEXT OR SEPARATE 
GRAPHIC & TEXT SCREENS 
INDIVIDUAL CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING 
REVERSE CHARACTER HIGHLIGHT MODE 
WRITTEN IN FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE 
AUTOMATIC RELOCATES TO TOP OF 16/32K 
AUTOMATICALLY SUPPORTS 64 K of RAM WITH RESET CONTROL 
REVERSE SCREEN 
ON SCREEN UNDERLINE 
DOUBLE SIZE CHARACTERS 
ERASE TO END OF LINE 
ERASE TO END OF SCREEN 
HOME CURSOR 
BELL TONE CHARACTER 
HOME CURSOR & CLEAR SCREEN 
REQUIRES ONLY 2K OF RAM 
COMPATIBLE WITH ALL TAPE & DISK SYSTEMS 



Character: 



Hl-RES II SCREEN 1 

_E*a.hiILLriiL_ J| rj || I | p P j '? h t 

On Scrfen UhJERL IN 1NG 
Protect f r ■:• m 1 to 23 scree n I i ne; 
F u | I set of Cursor Control F unc t i or<s 
True Upper Lower case character *et 

IlllJIiWIf FHiltllillflLltlini 

fld.tustaM e line lengths fron 28 to 255 character? 
2 8 Characters per line 
12 Characters per line 
3 <> Characters per line 
12 Characters per line 
51 Characters per line 
*1 f,h*r tcter j r»r I in* 
flf fhr*i»T^ w lirr 

full Controf Code Keyboard 4 Hutonatic Ke^ Repeat 
Mined l^Ht and Graphics in PflDIiE 1 jnd Much flcre. 

Rl I functions are easi I prosraHmble thru Bflsli 



Fully QflypJlHEailMl incf Odin's ~CLS I'.PPIRtJ 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Buff/BicKk 

Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 



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ccmp 

5566 Ricochet Avenue Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 

(702) 452-0632 



Upper/Lower case characters Yes 
Mixed Text and Graphics 
Separate Text & ( iraphics 
Print @ fully implemented 
Print @ on all line lengths 
Different line lengths 
Automatic Key Repeat 
Adjustable Kev Repeals 
Auto Repeat Disable 
Erase to end ol line/screen 
Home Cursor 
Solid or Blinking Cursor 
CLS command supported 
X.Y Coordinate Cursor 

Positioning 
Double Size Characters 
Individual/Continuous 

Highlighting 
On Screen Underlining 
Clear Key functional 
lb 32 & 64 K Supported 
Green or Black Background 

Color 

Dual Character sets for 

Enhanced 64 and K5 

Characters per line display Yes 
Protected Screen Lines 

(programmable) 1 to 23 

Full Control Code Keyboard 

for Screen control directly 

from the keyboard Yes 
Programmable Tab Character 

Spacing Yes 
Full Screen Reverse Function Yes 
Switch to & from the Standard 

1 £> by 32 Screen for full 

compatability Yes 
On Error Golo Function No 
Extended Basic Required No 
All Machine Language ProgramYes 
RAM Required in addition to 

Screen RAM 2K 
Program Price (Tape) $24 95 



Yes 

Yes Yes . 

Yes Yes 
Yes Ye* 
Yes Yes 
28 to 255 (9)28 to 255 (9) 



Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
No 

Buff/Black 

Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 



Clear/LkeysClear key 



Yes 
Yes 



Yes 
No 



No 
No 



No 

No 

Yes 



No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 

2K 

$19 95 



Yes 
Yes • 
No 
Yes 

51 only 

51 only (1) 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Buff/Black 

No 

No 

No 
No 
No 
Yes 

No 



No 
No 

No 

No 
No 



No 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

2K 

$29.95 













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I 







VISA. MASTERCARD AND COD. ACCEPTED 



DOWNLOADS 

Communication 
Breakdown 

By Dan Downard 
Rainbow Technical Editor 



• The columns by both Lawrence Falk and 
James Reed, together with the two-page ad 
(pages 26 and 27) in the November 1985 
issue of RAINBOW did it to me . . . I rushed 
out and bought the R/S DCM-3 Modem, 
a four-pin connection cable, a phone line 
adaptor, and proceeded to hook everything 
up, as per instructions. 

I plugged the DCM-3 into the serial 1/ O 
port on my Color Computer, made sure 
every other connection was correct, and then 
(following instructions in both the DCM-3 
manual and the directions on Page 27 of the 
ad) I breathlessly dialed the local Tymnet 
number, got the carrier, tapped the connect 
bar and hung up. The Carrier Detect Indi- 
cator lit up to indicate that I indeed had the 
signal and I waited for u the message. "Now, 
I know you're not going to believe this, but 
nothing happened! 

What gives? Where have I gone wrong? 
The ad more or less assumes that I am fully 
knowledgeable about modems, and further, 
that I have the capability of changing such 
variables as the Baud rate, the word length, 
parity (whatever that means) and the 
number of stop bits. Who does, and how? 

J.C Woodson 
Burlingame, CA 

Boy, James, it sounds like you have 
trouble. Since I usually use Uninet, I tried 
using Tymnet just to see if it worked. It 
worked just like the instructions in the 
November rainbow. 

Just for your information, I was using 300 
Baud, seven bits and no parity. According 
to the Delphi manual, your terminal should 
be set for eight-bit ASCII and one stop bit. 
The manual also states that you may have 
to experiment. I haven't figured that state- 
ment out yet. 



Dan Downard is an electrical engineer 
and has been involved in electronics for 
25 years through ham radio (K4KWT). 
His interest in computers began about 
six years ago and he has built several 
68XX systems. 



214 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



The reason the instructions mentioned 
that you may receive a garbled message 
prompt is because the Tymnet introduction 
is sent at 300 Baud. Tymnet will not sense 
that you are sending at 1 200 Baud until you 
do something. You did not mention the use 
of an RS-232 pack, so I assume you are using 
300 Baud, also. 

I have two suggestions: Try contacting 
Tymnet to see if there's some kind of prob- 
lem in your area, or try using Uninet. 



Error Trapping 

• / have a Co Co 2 and generally run on 
Color Disk basic, although I also have OS- 
9 and BASIC09. 

I have some programs I am trying to 
develop and desperately need an error trap 
of some sort. "On error" doesn't exist for 
these systems, and I am wondering if there 
is some way a routine could be written to 
recognize any of the error messages that 
come up, specifically the one that comes up 
when the cursor hits the edge of the screen. 

Other Tandy basics have an "on error" 
trap. Do you know why it was left out of 
Color basic? 

Henry V. Leih 
Black Canyon City, AZ 

Henry, I really don't have the slightest 
idea why error trapping was left out of Color 
basic. I would guess there just wasn't 
enough ROM memory left to include it. 

[ know of several different commercial 
programs that offer the addition of error 
trapping, such as J DOS, Super Screen by 
Mark Data Products and 64 K Screen Ex- 
pander by Computerware. You mention that 
you have BASIC09. It also has error trapping. 

I don't think an error will be generated in 
Color basic when the cursor hits the edge 
of the screen. The only suggestion is to 
PEEK ( &HBB ) . This will give you the current 
address of the cursor. From there, you are 
on your own. 

Another suggestion is to experiment with 



RAM hooks at S018E and $0191. These 
vectors were reserved for error trapping by 
Microsoft. 



Getting BASIC09 Loaded 

• / have purchased a great amount of 
hardware and software after reading articles 
and advertisements in your magazine, espe- 
cially "K1S Sable OS-9" and ads for Color 
Computer products. I bought a 64K Color 
Computer, one disk drive, OS-9, BASIC09 
and The Complete Rainbow Guide to 
OS-9. 

The problem is that I can 't seem to find 
the proper instruction for loading BASIC09. 
Page 2-2 of the BASIC09 Reference Manual 
says after the OS9: prompt enter BASIC09 
and you get the prompt ( B\ All I get when 
I do this is Error #215. 

I took the BASIC09 back to Radio Shack 
and they replaced it as defective, but the new 
one does the same thing. After staying up all 
night for three nights studying The Rainbow 
Guide (which doesn't show how to load 
BASIC09) and the OS-9 manuals, I am still 
lost. 

Could you please give these instructions 
or explain the cause of the problem I'm 
having? I have been programming for about 
four years in BASIC and assembly language 
and use five computers, including an IBM 
370. 

Ray Pitts 
Experiment, GA 

Ray, according to my OS-9 documenta- 
tion, Error #215 is "bad pathname." Most 
of the time I think you will get Error #216, 
or "pathname not found." The problem you 
are having is due to the fact that you must 
have BASIC09 in your current execution 
directory. There are two ways to accomplish 
this. 

The first is to copy BASIC09 from your 
BASIC09 master disk to your OS-9 system 
disk. Assuming you have two drives, the 
procedure would be as follows: 

1) Boot OS-9. Leave the system disk 
(preferably a backup) in Drive 0. 

2) Insert your BASIC09 disk in Drive 1. 



■ 



3) Type: CDPV /D1/BP5IC09/D0/CMD5/ 
BFISIC09 

4) Remove the BASIC09 disk from Drive 1 . 

5) Type: BASIC09 

The easier way to accomplish the same 
result is to change your execution directory 
to Drive 1, where the BASIC09 program 
resides. You do this by typing CHX /Dl. 

If you have only one drive, you can only 
use the first method. After COPY in the 
command line, insert a "-S" to make it a 
single-drive copy. 

1 suggest reading your OS-9 manuals to 
become familiar with the two different 
directories (data/ working and execution) 
used by OS-9 to further clarify this problem. 



Fickle Files 

• I have a 64 K CoCo revised 'D' board, one 
disk, standard basic 1.1, Extended basic 
1.0 and Disk basic LO. 

My question concerns the FILES com- 
mand. The manual states that you can 
increase the disk buffer size with a command 
such as FILES 1 , 1000. However, even after 
issuing this command, data is still written to 
the disk as soon as 256 bytes accumulate in 
the buffer. Can you explain how to increase 
the size of the disk buffer so data is written 
to the disk less often? 

Tom Veik 
Columbus, NE 

Tom, the disk structures of Disk basic 
and OS-9 call for disks to be formatted with 
a sector length of 256 bytes. Data will always 
be written in groups of 256 bytes, whether 
you are writing one or 1,000 bytes. 

Why use the FILES command? When 
dealing with random files, if a record is 
longer than 256 bytes, you have to reserve 
buffer space for the number of bytes in the 
record. Otherwise, the default value of 256 
is used. 



Jimmying the Joystick Plots 

• Is there any way to get better plots on my 
joystick than 0-60 horizontally and 0-60 
vertically? Perhaps 0-255 horizontally and 
vertically? 

Brandon Rhodes 
Andover, MA 

The limiting factor for joystick resolution 
is the analog-to-digital converter inside your 
CoCo, Brandon. Only a six-bit A-to-D 
converter is used. 

If you wish to experiment with 256 by 256 
joystick resolution, try CoCo Max by 
Colorware. An eight-bit A-to-D converter is 
in the "black box" that comes with the 
software: Adequate instructions are given in 
the manual for using it for custom applica- 
tions. 



Keyboard Replacement 

• / recently purchased a replacement key- 
board for my CoCo. It's available at many 
Radio Shack stores for $4.95 under part 
number 277-1019. While the keyboard is not 
described as a CoCo part, it fits perfectly on 
my CoCo 2 and all the standard keys work 
as before. However, the keyboard routines 
in the ROM do not correctly produce the 
codes for Control and Alt, the two function 
keys. This problem is a software problem 
and does not particularly concern me. What 
I would like to do is use this keyboard on 
an older CoCo that has a different ribbon 
connector. Where may I obtain an adapter 
that allows this keyboard to be used with 
older Co Cos? 

Tim Keith 
Seguin, TX 

An adapter is available for connecting the 
ribbon cable to the older type of pin connec- 
tors. I bought mine from Spectrum Projects. 
Unfortunately, I don't know the part 
number, but maybe some of our readers will 
help. 



Looking for a Driver Program 
for TTY Terminals 

• I have noticed from several articles in your 
" Downloads" section that you seem to have 
some experience with interfacing CoCo and 
TTY. We are starting a club project to set 
up a BBS for people in our area using TTY 
(teletypewriter) terminals for the deaf Some 
are ASCII compatible, but most are not. We 
currently run a modified Rainboard using a 
version of your remote terminal driver 
program from the November 1983 RAIN- 
BOW. We are looking for a similar program 
that would be compatible with the five-bit 
Baudot protocol used by telecommunica- 
tions devices for the deaf. We have the TDD- 
43 program from CompuServe, but it will 
not work for our purposes as it uses the 
cassette port instead of the serial port for 1/ 
O. Do you know of any driver program we 
can use, or have suggestions for modifying 
your driver program? 

Mac Knight 
Yakima, WA 

One of the first articles I did for THE 
rainbow was using nonstandard software 
and hardware with the CoCo. If you can find 
a copy, look for February 1983. In this 
article is a machine language driver for using 
a Baudot printer with your CoCo. It is not 
exactly what you are looking for, but it will 
head you in the right direction as far as 
writing a program using "look-up tables." 

If enough people write, we'll rewrite 
Remote for Baudot use. With the number of 
Model 28 and 32 ASCII machines available, 
I didn't think anyone was using Baudot 
anymore. 



More on OS-9 Uploading from the Ml 00 

• / am writing in response to a letter in the 
January 1986 "Downloads" from Allan 
Wysocki. He, like myself, has found he can 
download files from his CoCo running OS- 
9 to his Model 100, but has trouble upload- 
ing from the Model 100 to the CoCo. The 
problem is the 100 sends the file until it 
receives an XOFF, so what is needed is a 
device driver that supports XON/XOFF. Tl 
does not, as far as I know. Several of the T2 
drivers, including the Tandy T2, do support 
XON/XOFF. I have found that using any 
of these I can download at any Baud rate, 
including 19200, however, the besul have 
been able to do on an upload is 300 Baud. 
This is the setup I have found to work best. 
First, I use the Tandy T2 set at 300 Baud, 
the 100 hooked to T2 with an RS-232 cable 
and null modem. I use TSMON and logon 
to the CoCo with the 100's Telcom set to 
38N1E. 

I'm ready to upload, but here we run into 
another problem. "Build" does not seem to 
work with this setup. What I use is a pro- 
gram written by Bill Brady called XUPL 
that can be found on CompuServes OS-9 
SIG. I type XUPL FILENAME on the 100. 
XUPL opens a file and responds by telling 
you that it is ready and to press esc when 
done. Now you can upload most files by 
hit ting function key '3' on the 100. If you get 
errors, such as #244 or #216, then use 
XMODE I T2 -ECHO and set the 100 to half 
duplex and try your upload again. 

The reason for this problem appears to be 
that after the CoCo sends an XOFF, the 100 
may still send some characters before it can 
react to the XOFF. These characters cause 
an Error #244 (keyboard buffer overflow) 
and then maybe some #2 16s (pathname not 
found). If you are using one of the other T2 
drivers that support XON, these extra 
characters are lost but the upload will not 
abort on errors. What we really need is for 
someone to write a new driver that continues 
to accept the incoming characters until the 
100 stops sending. The Tandy T2 seems to 
do this, but must not have a big enough 
buffer. 

Wayne Miller 
Westminster, CA 

Where there's a will, there's a way, Wayne. 
Thanks for your help. 



Your technical questions are welcomed. 
Please address them to: Downloads, the 
rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit for 
space and clarity. Due to the large volume 
of mail we receive, we are unable to answer 
letters individually. 

Your technical questions may also be sent 
to us through the MAIL section of our new 
Delphi CoCo SIG. From the CoCo SIG> 
prompt, pick DELPHI MAIL, then type 
SEND and address TO: DANDOWNARD. 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 215 





LEARNING OS-9 

How to deal with errors, their message 
types and the conditions under which 
they occur 

The Utility Room 



By Brian A. Lantz 



Welcome back to "The Utility Room." In your 
home, a utility room is usually used to store and 
keep a variety of things. It is the place where just 
about anything at all can be found! That is what makes this 
article different. Along with learning additional program- 
ming skills, I hope you find a different, creative point of 
view. As a programmer, your most valuable resource tool 
is your imagination. Coding a program is not difficult, but 
creating the idea that later becomes the program is the most 
difficult phase of programming. Therefore, some of the 
content of these articles leans to the abstract. I hope these 
thoughts and ideas will develop into different and exciting 
ideas for OS-9. 

This month, we'll deal mainly with errors, error messages 
and error conditions. We will first classify these, then look 
at the differences between types of errors and their 
messages. 

Your Enemy: The Error 

Here is a proverb for all of you philosophers — "An 
enemy is usually someone that you don't know well enough 
to consider a friend." This is the type of enemy the standard 
error is. All you need to do to make it your friend is get 
to know it. Anticipate its every move. Take advantage of 
its weaknesses and be cautious of its strengths. When you 
start doing this, you will be in control of the error. 

Types of Error Messages 

There are five basic types of error messages. I will refer 
to these as the "five S's": silent errors, slovenly errors, sober 
errors, smart errors and social errors. Let's look at each of 
these types of error messages. 



Brian Lantz lives in Tampa, Florida, and is president 
of the national OS-9 Users Group. He is a free-lance 
programmer, with programs carried by Tandy, 
Computerware and Frank Hogg Laboratories. He has 
developed much of the commercial OS-9 software 
released in the last year. 



1) Silent — This is the "no message" error message. For 
example, you've spent the last six hours working on a 
program. You do not have a backup copy of your work. 
You go to exit your text editor and suddenly the system 
crashes for no apparent reason. Whether you know it or 
not, you just received an error message. 

2) Slovenly — This is a vague and non-specific error 
message. Receiving this kind of message is better than 
getting a "no message" message, but it doesn't tell you a 
whole lot. A typical example of this is an 1/ O Error message. 
This could be one of several dozen actual error conditions. 

3) Sober — This is a message that is specific, but does 
not give you much information by itself. The OS-9 FSPERR 
(PRINT ERROR) routine is like this. It tells you exactly 
which error occurred, but most of us need to pick up our 
manuals to find out what this really means. This kind of 
error message is usually the most specific and the least 
friendly. 

4) Smart — This is a message that is specific, but still 
a little vague. An example of this is a "can't open input file" 
message. This is specific as it relates to the problem, but 
it is vague in its explanation of the cause. 

5) Social — This is the user-friendly type of error 
message. It is both specific and informational. It tells what 
kind of error occurred and gives you enough information 
to figure out the solution. It may or may not give as specific 
an explanation of the cause as the sober message does. The 
key feature of this message is that you are given the full 
"picture" at the time pf the error. To convert the smart 
example to a social one, you would receive either "input file 
doesn't exist" or "you have no permission to use input file." 

Which one is the best of the five S's and which one should 
be used in your programs? Well, the answer is all of them! 
You will probably use each one at one time or another. As 
a general rule, though, we will try to use the smart and social 
messages whenever possible. That doesn't mean exclusively, 
just preferably. 

Types of Errors 

There are really only two types of errors, fatal and 



216 THE RAINBOW March 1986 




WAR GAMES 





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BARBAROSSA 64K 100% hi-res 
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nonfatal. A fatal error is any condition that prevents the 
program from continuing in its normal operation. These can 
range from errors that cause a system "crash' 1 to ones that 
occur because other programs, or files, that are needed 
cannot be found or loaded. A nonfatal error is one that can 
be "worked around," that is, an error with which you can 
simply print out a message and resume operation. 

There are some occasions where, due to the way a 
program is written, an error is treated as a fatal one when 
it could have just as easily been regarded as nonfatal. A 
familiar example is if you give the LIST command (or our 
CAT command) three files to print and the second one does 
not exist, then a fatal error occurs and the third file does 
not get printed. This could have been programmed to print 
out an error message and continue on to the next file, but 
the original programmer made this a fatal error instead of 
a nonfatal one. 

Types of Error Conditions 

Here's where OS-9 becomes your ally in the fight against 
the dreaded error. OS-9 system calls usually do all the work 
of determining an error. With most of the system calls, the 
carry bit of the Condition Code register tells you if an error 
occurred. If the carry is set, then an error occurred and the 
error number is usually contained in Register B. If the carry 
is clear, then OS-9 did not detect an error. 

True, most I/O errors and fatal system errors are easily 
detected by the system calls without a lot of additional 
programming on your part, but that doesn't mean you can 
relax in your dealings with errors. It simply reduces the 
number of errors to which you need to give your attention. 
If you wish to be a good programmer, you must think 
through every possible error that can happen, whether it can 
occur because of improper operator input or hardware 
limitations. 

Error or Bug? 

Let's clarify one other thing before we start our coding, 
A bug is not an error and an error is not a bug. An error 
is a condition that can occur outside of the program's 
control. A bug is an oversight on the part of the pro- 
grammer. 

Though bugs and errors are separate, they do sometimes 
relate closely. Some errors can lead to the discovery of 
otherwise hidden bugs. As an example, I know of a word 
processor for the CoCo that is flawless in every way, except 
for' one. If, in the course of use, the word processor fills a 
disk in the midst of saving text, the program goes totally 
nuts. This error (disk full) was not handled properly by the 
programmer, thus, a bug is born. However, this bug will 
never occur unless it is assisted by an unbridled error. 

End of the Cat Nap 

Now for some serious coding. If you examine Listing 1, 
you will see that it is essentially the same listing as in 
December's issue, with several additions. One change is that 
the line numbers (which are only for reference) are now 
enclosed in parentheses. Remember, if you are entering this 
program (CAT), do not put in these line numbers. 

The first addition in this month's listing is at lines 236 
and 237. This is a new error message. Its use will be 
explained in a moment. A minor change has been made on 
Line 450. A label (CAT42) has been added. There are two 



218 



THE RAINBOW March 1 986 



additional lines at 451 and 452. I had left in a deliberate 
bug, and no one caught it! These lines correct this bug. Let's 
see if you can figure out what that bug was. 

Separate the Files 

A "clean-up" has been added in lines 480-487. Line 480 
has been changed to branch if all is done to label OUT. Lines 
481-487 are listed here: 



PSHS X save parameter pointer 

LEAX ERROR, PCR point to a line feed character 

IDA #STDOUT this is going to standard output path 

LDY #1 only one character to output 

OS9 I$tfRITLN print it! (separates files) 

PULS X restore parameter pointer 

BRA BEGIN go back & LIST another file 



First, the parameter pointer in Register X is saved, then 
'X' is pointed to a line feed character, like the first character 
of the error message. This character is output. A line feed 
was chosen instead of a carriage return to make this work 
easier with other utility programs, such as a word count 
utility that counts all carriage returns as separate lines. 

And on the Subject of Errors 

The biggest section of code added was to change an error 
condition from fatal to nonfatal. This change was made to 
the "open file" routine. Now if a file cannot be opened, the 
error message "cat: can't open filename" is displayed and 
the next file is processed. Previously, this error would return 
to OS-9 with the error number and the additional files 
would not be viewed. Lines 280 and 290 were changed and 
22 lines were added between them. 

The first section (shown here): 



CMPB 
LBNE 



#216 
EXIT 



"FILE NOT FOUND" error 7? 
no, exit program (troubles)! 



checks to see if it was a "file not found" error. If it wasn't, 
then it is treated as a fatal error since something must be 
wrong with the disk itself. 
The second section of this additional code: 



LDX 
LEAY 
CAT 3 LDA 



PRMPTR else, point to the filename 

BUFFER, U and the buffer 

,X+ get a character from the name 



STA 


Y+ 


p T-i rl TilflCA it in the Twf "fPT" 

□ 11U M ± Q w W Xll bllC w i— L J_.I_1_.J_ 


CMPA 


#S0D 


Anrl of t*hp romrn And. 1 ".tia?? 


BEO 


CAT 4 


veq all drttiA w/the nAmp 


CMPA 




else, end of the filename?? 


BNE 


CAT 3 


no, loop back till name donel 


LDA 


#$J?D 


else, get a <CR> 


STA 




and place it at the end of the name 



copies the filename that couldn't be found into the buffer 
and makes sure it is terminated with a carriage return. 
Next, the parameter pointer is adjusted and saved: 



CAT. 



LEAX 
STX 



-1,X back up the parameter pointer 

PRMPTR and store the new value 



Lastly, the "cat: can't open" portion of the message is 
printed, followed by the printing of the filename that was 
copied into the buffer: 

LEAX ACCESS , PCR point to the access error msg 

LDY #17 it is 17 characters long 

LDA #2 output to standard error path 

OS9 I$WRITLN and write the 1st part of msg 

LEAX BUFFER, U now point to the copied name 

' LDY #BUFSIZ set length to maximum 

OS9 I$WRITLN and write out the filename, also 

BRA CAT 4 2 go back for another file 

And Now, a Gold Star for the Class! 

As an added bonus, I present Listing 2. This is the error 
utility command from the Unicharger utility package, 
distributed by Frank Hogg Labs, which is appropriate since 
we have been talking about errors. This is a very simple 
program that takes a decimal error number and prints the 
description from the ERRMSG file. It assumes this file is 
located in the /DO/ SYS directory. If you have this in 
another directory, simply change the string at the label 
ERFILE to reflect the position of the ERRMSG file in your 
system. 

This listing is supplied for personal use only. I hope you 
can get use out of it. 

A Look at the Mail Bag 

Several good ideas have come in the mail recently. If you 
have an idea for a good utility command that we can tackle, 
drop me a line. Also, if you have problems understanding 
certain items within the OS-9 environment, let me know; 
Til try to explain them further. □ 



Editor's Note: Although OS-9 programs are not included on RAINBOW ON TAPE, the following program listings are now available for downloading from 
our new Delphi CoCo SIG (there is a $3.50 per program surcharge). From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick DATABASE and then, RAINBOW ON TAPE 
to access these programs. 

Listing 1: 

* CAT Utility Command version 2 

* syntax: cat [+numl] [-] [num2] [filename] {.... } 
* 

* Copyright 1985 Brian A. Lantz 

* All rights reserved 



(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 
(6) 
(7) 
(8) 
(9) 
(10) 
(ID 
(20) 
(30) 
(40) 

(50) 



* Copies input from specified file(s) (or standard 

* input) to standard output. 



NAM CAT 
IFP1 

USE /D0/DEFS/OS9DEFS 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 219 



Educational Programs 



^ Questions ? ? 
• • • 

Questions — a powerful, easy to use, 
authoring program! Questions has as 

many uses as its owners have creativity. 
Teachers have used Questions to develop 
pre and post tests, to make copies of the 
same test with questions in a different 
order, and to review and reinforce difficult 
lessons with their students. But Questions 
is not limited to school uses. Enterprising 
people have found other uses for it. Party- 
givers have used it to personalize games 
for baby and wedding showers, and for 
creating their own trivia games. Adminis- 
trators have used it for inservice training. 
Children have written their own riddles 
with it. if you own Questions, you'll find a 
way to use it. You will also be pleased with 
its many fine features: 

* Word processing commands that al- 
low you to make changes as you type 

* Screen commands so you do not have 
to constantly refer to the manual 

* Options to take the quiz on the com- 
puter or to print a hard copy of it 

* Sequential or random presentation of 
questions 

* The ability to print the same test with 
questions in a different order 

* The printing of an answer key 

* The option to use expanded printer 
lettering to create large print tests. 

* The ability to save quizzes to cassette 
or disk 

* A review feature which permits stu- 
dents to study questions that have 
Deen missed 

* A record keeping system 

* Multiple choice, true/false, or fill 
in the blank formats. 

Questions is truly a professional authoring 
program that meets the needs of all of its 
users. 

16K ECB • Cass. $19.95 
32K ECB - Cass. $24.95 
32K Disk - $26.95 

Reading Comprehension Series 

Grades 2 - 4 

B5's Reading Comprehension Series is a 

set of data files to be used with the Ques- 
tions program described above. Each file 
contains over 100 questions, organized 
into 6 to 8 sequential lessons. Lessons 
build from simple to complex. This series 
emphasizes the thinking aspect of reading. 
Simple sentence structure allows the stu- 
dent to concentrate on thinking skills. 



Main Idea * 
Fact & Opinion ★ 



Sequencing 
Cause & Effect 



Each Title: Cassette - $10.95 

Disk $12.95 
Complete Series of 4 Titles: 
Cass. - $39.95; Disk - $41.95 

Most B5 programs are available 
Z3* through Radio Shack® Express 
Order. 

A trademark of Tandy Corp. 



B-5 Software Co. 

1024 Bainbridge Place 
Columbus, Ohio 43228 
Phone (614) 276-2752 




(60) 


ENDC 








(70) TYPE 


ai rtm 

SET 




PRGRM+OBJCT 


/ O ft \ 

(8)3) REVS 


SET 




REENT+1 




(90) 


Vf f\T\ 

MOD 




THEEND , CATNAM , TYPE , REVS , BEGIN , CATMEM 


✓ 1 ft ft \ /~i a rri \rt a 1 J" 

(100) CATNAM 


FCS 




"Cat" 




(110) 


Tf 








/ 1 A ft V nil ^1 T r? 

(120) BUFSIZ 


EQU 




200 




(125) MULT 


E(jU 




10 




(130) 


ORG 




0 




S 1 / ft V 

(140) 


* this 


Is 


the beginning of the data area. 


(150) IPATH 


RMB 




1 


this is the input path # 


(155) COUNT- 


DUD 

RMB 




2 


line counter 


/ i c f \ T"» n f\\j 

(156) FROM 


RMB 




2 


to store "linel" 


( JL!> 1 ) 1U 


nuD 

KMd 




2 


to store "line 2" 








2 


this is the parameter pointer 




PVR 




BUFSIZ 


this is the input buffer 


V, -L o y ) 


P.MR 




200 


this is the stack's memory 


( 17 Jp ) 


pun 




200 


the parameter area is here 


/ O ft ft \ yi * rn \i T7 , \f 

(200) CATMEM 


EQU 






this ends the data area 


(210) 


JL, 










" ine 


following line sets the EDITION number to 2 


(2JJ0) VRSION 


FCB 




2 




(231) ERROR 


FCB 




$0A 




/ o i o \ 

(232) 


FCC 




/cat: parameter error/ 


(234) 


t-« /i r» 

FCB 








(235) 


■b 

Tf 








(Zlb) AOOESS 


rub 








(2 J / ) 


T-< /I /I 




/ i^a. L. . wall 




/ O /. flf \ 

( 2M)J) 


Tf 








(250) BEGIN 


STX 




PRMPTR 


cava vrtllT* nflfflmofar T\r\ e A f~ ■{ r»T4 
o ti v c y vul tinio uci. puo luiuu 


(251) 


CLRA 






oaf t* a tv A o+-fl*» A Anna 1 4- r\ ft 
Set LCglSUcL tx CUUai to v 


(252) 


CLRB 






set register B equal to 0 


(2j 3) 


STD 




COUNT 


store 0 at COUNT 


(25 J . 1) 


ri rn t> 

SID 




FROM 


clear FROM pointer 


(253 . 2) 


SUBD 




#1 


make D equal 65535 


(253 . 3) 


o m t\ 

STD 




TO 


set TO pointer 


(253 .4) 


BSR 




OPTCHK 


process options 


(254) 


f* m \f 

STX 




PRMPTR 


store X at PRMPTR 


(250 ) 


OLR 




IPATH 


default input from stdin 


/ O c c \ 
(23D J 






0,X 


place character at X in A 


v 2 3 ' J 


PUT] A 

OMrA 




#$0D 


is the character a <CR> ?? 


(ZDB } 






MAIN 


if so, skip to MAIN 


(260) 


LDA 




#READ . 


set access mode for reading 


(27JJ) 


uby 




I$OFEN 


attempt to open file 


/ no n\ 
(280) 


BOO 




CATS 


file opened okayl 


(280 . 1) 


CMPB 




#216 


"FILE NOT FOUND" error ?? 


/ n o ft f\\ 

(280 . 2) 


LBNE 




EXIT 


no, exit program (troubles)! 


/ n ft ft n \ 

(280. 3) 


LDX 




PRMPTR 


else, point to the filename 


(280 . 4) 


LEAY 




BUFFER, U 


and the buffer 


s ry n ft c \ o a m Oj 

(280 . 5)CAT3 


LDA 




,X+ 


get a character from the name 


(280 . 6) 


STA 




,Y+ 


and place it in the buffer 


/nan "7 \ 

(280 . 7) 


A|iT1 i 

CMFA 




#$0D 


end of the command line?? 


/ 0 0 ft 0 \ 

(28 J0 . 8} 


BEQ 




CAT 4 


yes, all done w/the name 


zoom n \ 
(28JJ . 9) 


CMPA 




#$20 


else, end of the filename?? 


(2ol J 


BNL 




CAT 3 


no, loop back till name done I 


/ n o i i \ 

(281 , 1) 


LDA 




#$0D 


else, get a <CR> 


(281.2) 


STA 




0,Y 


and place it at the end of the name 


(281 . 3)CAT4 


LEAX 




-i,x 


back up the parameter pointer 


(281.4) 


o m v 

STX 




PRMPTR 


and store the new value 


/ 0 O 1 r \ 

(281 . 5) 


T 17 A V 

LEAX 




ACCESS, PCR point to the access error msg 


(281 . 6) 


LDY 




#17 


it is 17 characters long 


/ A ft 1 "IS 

(281 . 7) 


LDA 




#2 


output to standard error path 


/ A A ^ A \ 

(281 .8) 


OS9 




I$tfRITLN 


and write the 1st part of msg 


(281. 9) 


LEAX 




BUFFER ,U 


now point to the copied name 


^ A A A V 

(282) 


LDY 




#BUFSI2 


set length to maximum 


/ a ft n 1 \ 

(282 . 1) 


Ann 

OS9 




I$WRITLN 


and write out the filename, also 


/nnn n \ 

(282.2) 


BRA 




CAT 4 2 


go back for another file 


(282 .3) 










s ft ft ft \ f\ k m c 

(290) CAT5 


STA 




IPATH 


store input path # 


(300) 


o m v 

STX 




PRMPTR 


store parameter position 


/ AMP \ 

(305) 


bin * * - J ^ 

* this 


is 


the main 


loop 


(310) MAIN 


t r\ a 
LDA 




IPATH 


get input path # 


S ft ft ft \ 

(320) 


LEAX 




BUFFER ,U 


set 'X f point to the buffer 


✓ ft ft ft V 

(330) 


LDY 




#BUFSIZ 


set f Y* to maximum # of bytes 


(340) 


A A A 

OS9 




I$READLN 


attempt to read a line 


(350) 


n f> f* 

BCS 




EOFCHK 


branch out if error or EOF 


(351) 


LDD 




COUNT 


get the current line count 


(352) 


ADDD 




#1 


add 1 to the line count 


(353) 


STD 




COUNT 


store the new line count 


(354) 


CMPD 




FROM 


compare COUNT to FROM 



220 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



a, i ■■■:'>' "'".r.x.-* *>-;■• . * ' * 




or 




Si? 



mm 

:>zm<S v: J v^J A##pl. ^^i^Mm-C 

■-. • . ■? ... . v.-., • 





>.;-.v>7::. ..>. 




"9 



for the Tandy Color Computer. Authors Dale L Puckettand Peter 



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355 
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380 
390 
395 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
451 
452 
460 
470 
480 
481 
482 
483 
484 
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490 
500 
505 
510 
515 
520 
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550 
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555 
560 
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620 
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635 
640 
645 
650 
655 
660 
665 
670 
675 
680 
685 
690 
695 
700 
705 
710 
715 
720 
725 
726 
730 
735 
740 
745 



EOFCHK 
EOF 

CAT42 



OUT 
EXIT 

OPTCHK 



MINUS 



PLUS 



OPTOUT 



PARERR 



GETNUM 



BLO 

CMPD 

BHI 

LDA 

OS 9 

BCC 

BRA 

* check 

CMPB 

BNE 

LDA 

OS 9 

BCS 

LDX 

CLR 

CLR 

LDA 

CMPA 

BEQ 

PSHS 

LEAX 

LDA 

LDY 

OS 9 

PULS 

BRA 

CLRB 

OS9 
* 

LDA 

CMPA 

BEQ 

CMPA 

BEQ 

CMPA 

BEQ 

CMPA 

BNE 
* 

LDA 

CMPA 

BLO 

CMPA 

BHI 

BSR 

STD 

LDA 

CMPA 

BEQ 

CMPA 

BEQ 

CMPA 

BEQ 

BRA 

* 

BSR 
STD 

LDA 

CMPA 

BEQ 

CMPA 

BHI 

LDD 

STD 

BRA 

* 

LEAX 

RTS 

* 

LEAX 

LDY 

LDA 

OS9 

BRA 

CLRA 
CLRB 
BSR 
BSR 



MAIN 
TO 
EOF 
#1 

I$WRITLN 

MAIN 

EXIT 



if less than, loop 

compare COUNT to TO 

if high, end file 

load 'A' with standard output 

write to standard output 

if no error, loop back 

otherwise, end program 



for End Of File 

#E$EOF is it the EOF ?? 

EXIT if not, error has occurred 

I PATH get input path # 

I$CLOSE and close the path 

EXIT if an error, branch 

PRMPTR get position in parameters 

COUNT make line counter. , ♦ 

COUNT+1 equal to zero, again. 

0,X check next character 

#$0D is it a <CR> ?? 

OUT yes, all done listing! 

X save parameter pointer 

ERROR, PCR point to a line feed character 



#STDOUT 
#1 

I$WRITLN 
X 

BEGIN 



F$EXIT 

OPTCHK 
#$20 
OPTCHK 
# f + 
PLUS 

OPTOUT 

P»X 
#»0 

OPTCHK 
#'9 

PARERR 
GETNUM 
TO 

P.* 
#$20 

OPTCHK 
# f , 

OPTCHK 
#$0D 
OPTCHK 
PARERR 

GETNUM 
FROM 

9>* 
#'- 

OPTCHK 
#\ 

PARERR 

FROM 

TO 

OPTCHK 



-1,X 



this is going to standard output path 
only one character to output 
print it! (separates files) 
restore parameter pointer 
go back & LIST another file 

clear , B I and 'CC 
exit the command 

get next character 
check for a comma 
if it is, skip it 
check for a space 
if it is, skip it 
check for a H + rt 
if it is, branch 
check for a " -" 
if not, end OPTCHK 

get next character 

test low number range 

if less, branch 

test high number range 

if too high, error 

convert the number 

store "line2" at TO 

get next character 

is it a space? 

if so, branch back 

is it a comma ?? 

if so, branch back 

is it the end of line? 

if so, branch back 

else, a parameter error 

convert the number 

store "linel" at FROM 

get next character 

is it a "-"? 

if so, branch back 

is it a delimiter? 

if not, parameter error 

get "linel"* s value 

store as "line2" 

branch back 

set X back one char, 
return from routine 



ERROR, PCR get the error message 
#BUFSIZ set up a big enough buffer 
#2 standard error path 

I$WRITLN write error message 
OUT end LIST command 



ONCE 
TWICE 



set A equal to 0 
set B equal to 0 
check for 1 digit 
check for 2 digits 



222 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



(750) 


TWICE 


BSR 


ONCE 


check for 1 digit 


(755) 


ONCE 


BRA 


DIGIT 


check for 1 digit 


(760) 




* 






(765) 


DIGIT 


PSHS 


D 


save D on the stack 


(770) 




LDB 




get next character 


(775) 




SUBB 


#*0 


subtract value of "0" 


(780) 




BCS 


DIGOUT 


if less than "0" branch 


(785) 




CMPB 


#MULT-1 


is it a digit ?? 


(790) 




BHI 


DIGOUT 


if not, branch 


(795) 




PSHS 


B 


save number 






LDB 


#10 


ready to multiply by 10 


(805) 




MUL 




multiply previous MSB 


(81J2) 




STB 


l.S 


save result 


(815) 




LDA 


2,S 


get previous LSB 


(820) 




LDB 


#10 


get ready to multiply 


(825) 




MUL 




multiply by 10 


(830) 




ADDB 


,S+ 


add current digit 


(835) 




ADC A 


0,S 


add result of 1st mult. 


(840) 




LEAX 


1,X 


increase X 


(845) 




STD 


0,S 


store new number 


(850) 


DIGOUT 


PULS 


D,PC 


return 


(855) 










(860) 




EMOD 




set module's CRC 


(870) 


THEEND 


EQU 


* 


end of program 


(880) 




END 




tell ASM that you're through! 



Listing 2: 



* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 

* 



* 
* 
* 

* 

* 

* 

Lists the corresponding error message from the error file * 
(/d0/sys/errmsg) for the specified error number (ermum) . * 
All leading zeros of errnum are ignored. * 



ERROR UTILITY COMMAND - OS -9 

Copyright 1984 Brian A. Lantz 
All rights reserved 
from the UN I CHARGER utility package 
distributed by Frank Hogg Labs 



syntax: error <ermum> 





NAM 


ERROR 




TTL 


OS -9 Utility Command (c)1984 Brian A. Lantz 




IFP1 






USE 


/D1/DEFS/0S9DEFS 




ENDC 






TTL 


OS -9 Utility Command (c)1984 Brian A. Lantz 


STDOUT 


EQU 


1 STANDARD OUTPUT PATH NUMBER 


STDERR 


EQU 


2 STANDARD ERROR PATH NUMBER 


TYPE 


SET 


PRGRM+OBJCT 


REVS 


SET 


REENT+1 




MOD 


ERREND , ERRNAM , TYPE , REVS , ERRENT , ERRMEM 


ERRNAM 


FCS 


"Error" 



* DATA AREA DEFINITIONS * 

* * 



SIZE OF INPUT BUFFER 



BUFSIZ 


EQU 


200 




ORG 


0 


IPATH 


RMB 


1 


PRMPTR 


RMB 


2 


BUFFER 


RMB 


BUFSIZ 




RMB 


40JJ 


ERRMEM 


EQU 





INPUT PATH NUMBER 
POINTER TO PARAMETER LINE 
ALLOCATE AN INPUT BUFFER 
LEAVE PLENTY OF STACK SPACE 

THIS MARKS THE END OF THE DATA AREA 



* SOFTWARE VERSION NUMBER * 



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March 1986 THE RAINBOW 223 



TIME BANDIT 

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i 

l 

J 



* This is not necessary, but is needed if you wish to keep * 

* track of your version number using the EDITION number of the * 

* IDENT utility. The EDITION number is the first byte after the * 

* module name in the program section of code. * 



VRSION 



FCB 1 



VERSION NUMBER 1 



* The following are the two error messages that can be reported * 

* by ERROR. The label "ERFILE" is also used as the filename for * 

* the error file. If you are using a device other than "/D0" , * 

* this line should be changed. For example, "/H0/SYS/ERRMSG" for* 

* a hard disk. * 



ERROR FCB $JJA 

FCC /error: cannot open / 

ERFILE FCC "/D0/SYS/ERRMSG" 

FCB $0D 

NONUM FCB $0A 

FCC /error : no error number given/ 

FCB $0D 



* ENTRY POSITION OF THE "ERROR" UTILITY COMMAND * 

* Entry registers used: * 

* X -> parameters from command line * 



ERRENT 



STX PRMPTR 
IDA 0,X 
CMPA #$0D 
BNE YESNUM 



Store the pointer to the command line 

Get the first character 

Is it a blank command line?? 

No, there was a number given! 



* This routine handles the situation of no error number given * 



ERRNM 
ERR 



LEAX <NONUM,PCR 
LDY #80 
IDA #STDERR 
OS9 I$WRITLN 
LBRA OUT 



Point to "no error number given" msg 
Maximum of 8jJ characters to be printed 
Output to the error path 
Print the message 
And leave ! 



frfr-A^^SrA^Tfr^rA^A'A'^ 

* Skip leading zeros * 



YESNUM 



NOZERO 



CMPA #'0 
BNE NOZERO 
LEAX 1,X 
IDA 0,X 
BRA YESNUM 



STX PRMPTR 
CMPA #$0D 
BEQ ERR35 



Is the next character a zero ?? 
No, continue with the number! 
Else, move past the zero... 
Get the next character.... 
And loop back 



Save current place in parameter line 
End of command line ?? 
Yes , "Unknown error" ! ! 



* Open up the error file * 

^HHrATfoV^ W rfr^fr* ^ A * A A A A A & A AA- A ' A - A-k"k"A- A -A"A ,, k' k^c k' k ^cfrf rf cfcic 



ERR20 



LEAX <ERFILE, PCR 
LDA #READ. 
OS9 I$OPEN 
BCS ERR40 
STA I PATH 

IDA I PATH 
LEAX BUFFER, U 



Point to the filename 
Open it for read access 
Do it! 

If error, can't open file! 
Else, store path number 

Get path number 

Point to the buffer area 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



LDY #BUFSI2 
0S9 ISREADLN 
BCS ERR30 
PSHS X,Y 
LDY PRMPTR 



Read in a maximum of "BUFSIZ" bytes 

From the file 

If error, branch! 

Else, save these registers 

Point 'Y* at the parameter 



* Compare the ASCII Decimal parameter to this error number * 



LP1 



LP 2 



MSG 



LDA 




Get this byte from parameter 






£>ame as rrom me f i 


BNE 


LP2 


No, try again! 


LDA 


9>* 


Get next byte from parameter 


CMPA 




All done with parameter number?? 


BNE 


LP1 


No, continue to loop! 


LDA 


9,x 


Else, check next file line byte 


CMPA 


#$20 


Is this number done?? 


BEQ 


GOTIT 


Yes, we found it! ! 


BRA 


LP1 


Else, loop back (to fail) 


PULS 


X,Y 


Restore these registers 


BRA 


ERR20 


And try again, with the next line! 

* 


FCB 


$0A 





FCC /ERROR #/ 



k^rk^rkHckricirk 1cA~h"fc*-k'jc/rk1rk* *k •A-krArk-Ark A-k'A k~k k -kirk k k k-Ark-tirk-k "A-A~A-Ark k irk'krk^rA'frk kr ?Wc k 

* SUCCESS!! We found it! * 

**Vn<r/rtr*r*nfr fr *^^ A-A~A"fr ^^kiv k-k1ck-k-irA-kick~A-k-A~k-A A A A A- A- 



GOTIT 



WHAT 



LEAX 


<MSG,PCR 


Point to "Error #" msg 


LDA 


#STDOUT 


Output to standard output path 


LDY 


#8 


8 characters 


0S9 


I$WRITLN 


(Write »emt) 


BCS 


ERR50 


If error, leave (got real troubles)! 


PULS 


X,Y 


Restore these registers 


0S9 


I$WRITLN 


And write the line from the file 


BCS 


ERR50 


If error, leave! 


BRA 


OUT 


Else, exit without error 


FCB 






FCC 


/error: unknown error??/ 


FCB 


$0D 





* File input has returned an error! End of file ?? * 

it- W 'kWt&'k' kWc k^k^ic t rie i^ ^ A-k k~kkrk k irk ^k^^k^cirk^rA-Ark ■k"Ark~ki<rk -A - k ■k-frk'tcJrArk 



ERR30 



CMPB #E$EOF 
BNE ERR50 



End of file?? 

No, troubles! (else, "unknown error") 



irkirk'kifk frA^^fr frfr iWHr ^ 

* "I don't think that I quite understand you!!" * 



ERR35 



LEAX <WHAT,PCR 
LBRA ERR 



Point to the "unknown error" msg 
And print it! 



* "I can't seem to find that file. Is this the correct disk??" * 

tef r A m k ' A M k m ick " A -A m k k k kkkA A- k - A A - k rk k ' k A A "A * A - * " A 'j Wi A " A Tfr^ 



ERR40 LEAX ERROR, PCR 

LBRA ERR 

OUT CLRB 

ERR50 0S9 F$EXIT 

SHOD 

ERREND EQU * 
END 



Point to the "can't find error file" msg 
And print itt 

Return with no error 

End this process; return to parent process! 



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March 1986 THE RAINBOW 225 




ACCESSIBLE APPLICATIONS 



Firing Up 

BASIC09 



By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Last month we prepared a disk 
with selected portions of OS-9, 
BAS1C09 and RUNB. The intent 
was to be able to back up this disk to 
provide working disks for each major 
programming effort, and one or two 
disks that can be a collection of small 
projects. Now I will assume you have 
done this and, disk in hand, are ready 
to get on with it. And cheers to you who 
got on with it on your own. Put the disk 
in Drive 0 and boot up. 

For reasons that will be apparant 
later, I suggest you enter both the date 
and the time at the prompts — did you 
put SETIME in your start-up file? Next 
you will see the BASIC09 copyright 
notice, BASIC09 on the left margin and 
READY below it. You are in BASlC09's 
System Mode. There are three modes, 
System, Edit and Debug. Commands 
available from System let you attend to 
housekeeping chores like loading, sav- 



Richard White lives in Fairfield, Ohio, 
and has a long background with micro- 
computers and specializes in BASIC 
programming. With Don Dollberg, he 
is the co-author of the TIMS database 
management program. 



ing and other file handling activities as 
well as issue commands to OS-9. 

Commands can be sent to OS-9 by 
typing the dollar sign ($) and following 
it with your Shell command. For exam- 
ple, $MFREE will report the amount of 
free memory. By prefacing your Shell 
commands with the dollar sign you can 
do anything you might normally do 
from OS-9 provided there is enough 
memory available. The rub is that there 
isn't much free memory when BAS1C09 

is resident. 

You have some control of memory 
usage from the System Mode. Enter 
MEM at the prompt and BASIC09 re- 
ports the amount of memory available 
in its buffer. This is the original buffer 
size you requested, less the amount 
taken by any resident procedures. Now, 
say you want to list a file but there is 
not enough free memory to load and 
execute LIST. You typed $LIST MY- 
F I LE, the disk drive ran, the Error #207 
message appeared, and the BAS1C09 and 
READY prompts reappeared. If you set 
your BASIC09 buffer size at 14K in your 
start-up file, you can now reduce the 
buffer from BASlC09's System Mode by 
typing MEM 12000. This reduces your 
buffer size approximately 2,000 bytes, 
which should give LIST some elbow 



room. MEM 14000 will return those 2K 
bytes if you need them later. 

Limited memory forces us to keep 
our program procedure modules small. 
This is good since it forces the creation 
of more maintainable programs. Only a 
piece of a program is active at any one 
time. BASIC09 lets us develop these 
pieces separately and keep them on the 
disk separately. They are loaded as 
needed and can be removed from mem- 
ory when not needed to make room for 
others. This is even better than PASCAL 
where all procedures generally are kept 
in the program before the code that calls 
them. This also makes it easier to load 
and edit some module from another 
program that does nearly what we want 
rather than starting from scratch. 

To reinforce the memory lesson, ii 
you don't specify buffer memory when 
calling BASIC09, only a 4K buffer is 
allocated. Both your program and its 
data must fit into the buffer. But, you 
can request added memory when you 
first call BAS1C09, or you can use MEM 
to enlarge the buffer from System Mode 

of BASIC09. 

4 

From System Mode, the DIR com- 
mand displays the name, size and var- 
iable storage requirements of each 
procedure in the buffer or work space 



226 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



■ 



More Incredible! 



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QT20 68020 
QTPius 68000 
QT 68008 



TERMINAL NOT INCLUDED 




The QT 



The QT family of multi-user, multi-tasking 
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Currently 9 models are available, ranging in price 
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The QT 20 series: 



This QT has 2048K RAM, 68020 CPU, 12.5 
Mhz and supports 4 users and 1 printer port. 
This system can be expanded to 20 users with 
16.67 Mhz. The QT 20 with a 20 Meg hard 
drive sells for $ 7,495 (Retail $ 8,795). 

QT Price List 1986 



CONFIG. 

QT 1 Drive 
QT 2 Drives 
QT 20 Meg HD 

QT+ 1 Drive 
QT+ 2 Drives 
QT+ 20 Meg HD 



QT20 20 Meg HD $7,495 

OS9/68000 SOFTWARE 
Available Now 

S culptor $995 ($695 for QT owners) 

Microware C $400 

Microware Pascal $400 Add 3.50 shipping 



DIRECT 


RETAIL 


$1,595 


$2,095 


$1,750 


$2,295 


$2,995 


$3,595 


$2,095 


$2,695 


$2,250 


$2,895 


$3,495 


$3,995 


$7,495 


$8,795 



1976 




FRANK HOGG 
LABORATORY 1986 



770 James St., Syracuse, NY 13203 Telex 646740 



OS9 is a trademark of Microware Inc. 



315/474-7856 



What the manual does not say is that 
pressing the ENTER key alone does the 
same thing. Since we have not yet 
started writing a procedure, the work 
space should be empty and DIR or 
ENTER should return the following on 
the screen. 

BasicjJ9 

Ready 

B: 

Name Proc-Size Data-Size 
13055 free 

Ready 

Bs 



I had asked for 14K of buffer so you 
can see that BASIC09 grabs nearly IK for 
its own operations. I have been working 
on a notepad program. The main mod- 
ule is called "notes." This module and 
others in the program run two utility 
modules called "printat" and "isupper," 
which are loaded with "notes." Now 
when I press ENTER, I get this display. 

Ready 
B: 

Name Proc-Size Data -Size 
notes 1134 5038 
printat 82 22 
*isupper 317 54 

11537 free 

Ready 
B: 



The free memory has been reduced by 
the amount of memory used for the 
procedures. The data sizes are reported, 
but data space has not been allocated at 
this point. However, there is obviously 
plenty of space left for the data. The 
asterisk points to the last active proce- 
dure. In this case, "isupper" was the last 
procedure loaded, so it was active last. 
If I request only a 4K byte buffer, there 
will be space for the procedures, but not 
for the data and BASIC09 will display the 
following. 

MEM 4000 

Ready 
B: 

Name Proc-Size Data -Size 
notes 1134 5038? 
printat 82 22 
*isupper 317 54 

1297 free 

Ready 
B; 

BASIC09 knows that there is not 
enough memory to run "notes" and 
flags the fact with a question mark 
following the data size. 

With BASIC09, you will get to know 
and love the friendly asterisk. Think of 
it as meaning all or all the way, depend- 
ing on the context in which it is used. 
It is particularly useful when saving, 
killing and packing programs with a 
number of modules in the work space. 
If I type SAVE NOTES the procedure 
"notes" will be saved to a file on disk 



named "notes." If I type SAVE* NOTES, 
the procedures "notes," "printat" and 
"isupper" will all be saved to one file on 
disk named "notes." The next time I 
load notes, all three procedures will be 
loaded. 

Procedures are written and edited in 
the Edit Mode. Type EDIT, or E, and the 



"To reinforce the 
memory lesson, if you 
don't specify buffer 
memory when calling 
BASIC09, only a 4K 
buffer is allocated." 



procedure name and you will be in Edit. 
Lowercase works as well, and I usually 
stay in lowercase. 

Color BASIC gives you the capability 
to start printing anywhere on the screen 
with PRINTS. BASIC09 lacks PRINTS, but 
has a way to position the cursor at a 
particular column and row. It's a tad 
awkward, so I put the code to do this 
in a short utility named "printat." For 
tutorial purposes it is an excellent first 
program, for it is both simple and will 
be continually usable as you program in 



SERIAL TO PARALLEL 
PRINTER INTERFACE 



SP-2 INTERFACE for EPSON PRINTERS: 

■ 300-19,200 BAUD rates 

■ Fits inside printer — No AC Plugs 

■ Optional external switch ( $ 5°° extra) frees 
parallel port for use with other computers 

■ $ 49 95 (plus *3°° shipping) 

SP-3 INTERFACE for MOST OTHER PRINTERS: 

■ 300-19,200 BAUD rates 

■ External to printer — No AC Plugs 

■ Built in modem /printer switch — no need for 
Y-cables or plugging/unplugging cables 

■ $ 64 95 (plus *3°° shipping) 

Both also available for IBM, RS-232 and Apple IIC computers. 



DISK DRIVE SYSTEMS 

ALL Vi HEIGHT DOUBLE SIDED 

Drive 0 (addressed as 2 drives!) $ 235 

Drive 0,1 (addressed as 4 drives!) *350 

All above complete with HDS controller, cable, & drive 
in case with power supply 

Bare Double Sided Drives * 1 09 

Dual Vi Height Case w/Power Supply , *49 

Double Sided Adapter *25 

HDS Controller, RS ROM & Instructions , *l 19 

25 CDC DS/DD Diskettes *32 & $ 3 s/h 

We use the HDS controller exclusively. Can use 2 different DOS ROM's. 
Shipping Costs: *5/drive or power supply, *I0 max. 

Co Co Serial Cables 15 ft — *I0. Co Co/RS-232 Cables i5 ft.— $20. 
Other cables on request. (Add $ 3 00 shipping) 

P.O. Box 293 

Raritan, NJ 08869 

(201) 722-1055 

1% ENGINEERING DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED! 




228 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



THE SCULPTOR SYSTEM 

Sculptor combines a powerful fourth generation 
langauge with an efficient database management 
system. Programmers currently using traditional 
languages such as Basic and Cobol will be amazed at 
what Sculptor does to their productivity. With 
Sculptor you'll find that what used to take a week can 
be achieved in just a few hours. 

SCULPTOR INDEPENDENCE 

Sculptor is available on many different machines and 
for most operating systems, including OS9 6809 Level 
II and OS9/68000, MS DOS, Unix/Xenix and VMS. 
The extensive list of supported hardware ranges from 
small personal computers, through multi-user micros 
like the QT, up to large minis and mainframes. 
Sculptor is constantly being ported to new systems. 

APPLICATION PORTABILITY 

Mobility of software between different environments 
is one of Sculptor's major advantages. You can 
develop applications on a stand-alone PC or the new 
Level II CoCo and - without any alterations to the 
programs - run them on a large multi-user system like 
the QT. For software writers this means that their 
products can reach a wider marketplace than ever 
before. 

FHL CHOOSES SCULPTOR 

We choose Sculptor for the development of 'Mint', 
our Dental Office Management system because we did 
not want to restrict our market for it and because 
Sculptor is fast and easy to use. We started 
development in 1983 and since then Sculptor has gone 



thru constant improvement and is now running on a 
very wide array of computers. We are very pleased 
with Sculptor and intend to stay with it from now on. 

I LIKED IT SO MUCH I BOUGHT 
THE COMPANY! 

That f s what the ad says for the popular razor. I did 
like it that much but they wouldn't sell, so we did the 
next best thing. We became the distributor for Sculptor 
in the US. Because we use it each and every day we 
were the natural choice. Everyone who has bought 
Sculptor from us likes it, and even more important 
they all use it. How many languages do you have on 
the shelf that you no longer use? Sculptor is the ONLY 
language I use for applications, make it yours today. 

THE BOTTOM LINE 

OS9 Level II 6809 and OS9/68000 $995.00 * 
MS-DOS (PC-DOS and compatibles) $595.00 

Call for prices on larger minis and mainframes. 
* QT versions of Sculptor are only $695.00 

NOTE: New Level II CoCo Owners: At this writing 
the new CoCo does not exist, however we are of the 
opinion that Sculptor will run on this new machine. 
Call us after it does exist for confirmation of Sculptor 
operation. 

ni| mm frank hogg 

1976 |hU| LABORATORY 1986 



770 James St., Syracuse, New York 13203 Telex 646740 

315/474-7856 



BASIC09. It is called with this line in a 
BASIC09 procedure. 

RUN printat (col , row) 

To write "printat," we enter the Edit 
Mode and proceed to type it in. Here 
is what your screen will show. The E: is 
the Edit Mode prompt. * 



Ready 

B:e printat 
PROCEDURE printat 

E: 

Edit Mode is a line-oriented text 
editor. Compared to a screen-oriented 
editor like TSEDIT, Telewriter or 
DynaStar, line editors leave much to be 
desired. Still, BASlC09's editor has cer- 
tain advantages that make it the pref- 
erable editor for entering BASIC09 pro- 
grams. First, it checks the syntax of 
each line as it's entered. Next, when you 
leave the Edit Mode, a check is made 
for other types of programming errors, 
for example, incomplete control struc- 
tures such as FOR without a NEXT. 
Finally, it is able to deal with line 
numbers or do without them. There are 
19 editor commands. I will discuss only 
a few. 

A line of text is preceded by a space. 
This is perhaps the hardest thing to 
remember since it is different from most 
other word processors you may be more 
familiar with. The editor tries to inter- 
pret a non-space character immediately 
after the E: prompt as a command 
character. An asterisk immediately 
following a command character means 
all or go all the way. If the plus sign (+) 



means move forward one line, +10 
means move forward 10 lines and +* 
means go to the end of the program. An 
ENTER alone moves you forward one 
line. The minus sign (-) moves you 
backward in the program, -10 means go 
back 10 lines and -* means go back to 
the beginning. 

There are commands: to change, c; 
delete, d; list, 1; renumber, r; and s 
(search for a string). These apply to the 
current line or the next occurrence of a 
string in a change or search command, 
except when followed by the asterisk 



mearing all. Of these commands, only 
LIST can be followed by a number 
meaning the number of lines forward to 
be listed. 

The change command is a single-line, 
text substitution editor. You follow the 
'c' with a delimiter character such as a 
slash, comma or period. You choose the 
delimiter so it is different from any 
character in the original text string or 
the substituting text string. Next comes 
the original text string, another delim- 
iter character (it must be the same 
character as the first delimiter) and the 
text string to be substituted. A final 
delimiter is optional. You cannot 
change a line number with the 'c' com- 
mand. That is what V is for. 

The most important command is 'q\ 
which allows you to quit editing and 
return to System Mode. But be warned: 



quiting is not always graceful. Here is 
where errors that are non-syntax in 
origin are reported, sometimes at great 
length. Don't worry if some get lost off 
the screen. From System Mode you can 
list your procedure to the printer and all 
the errors are printed at the end of the 
listing. Just another service from 
friendly BASIC09. 

The operation of all these commands 
is well-covered in the BAS1C09 manual. 
Read it and practice. 

Following is the entire "printat" 
procedure. 



The numbers in the left column are 
the number of bytes from the start of the 
procedure file to the start of each line 
in Hex. If you enter your program in 
lowercase, BASIC09 will change all 
BAS1C09 keywords to capitals and leave 
variables and procedure names in low- 
ercase. BAS1C09 does some other text 
formatting to improve readability, 
including automatic indenting and 
removal of unnecessary spaces and 
parentheses. 

A PAR AM statement is a special type 
of dimension statement that defines 
variables to which values will be passed 
by the calling procedure. In this case, 
integers for the column and row posi- 
tion of the cursor will be sent. The 
ability to pass various types of data to 
and from a procedure makes modular 
programming possible. 



PROCEDURE printat 
0000 PARAM col, row: INTEGER 

000B PRINT CHR$(2); CHR$ (col+32) ; CHR$(row+32) ; 

0021 END 



230 



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J 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1986 



f 



DynaStar 



DynaStar is our most popular word processor for OS9. 
DynaStar works with O-Pak and WordPak I and II. DynaStar 
will also work with Level II OS9, which means that an 
upgrade will be available for the new CoCo that runs Level 
II OS9. DynaForm, the text formatting part of DynaStar 
has Mail-Merge, an extra cost option on other word 
processors. 

A terrific buy at ONLY $49.95 each. 

Add $3.50 shipping 



r 



O-Pak 



The first OS9 product and still our most popular! 

NEW!!! COMPLETE SOURCE for O-Pak now 
available!!! (In C and assembler) 

For those of you who always wanted to know how we did it, 
here is your chance. The complete source for O-Pak is now 
available for only $70.00. Of course, you have to show 
that you own a copy of O-Pak to get it, or buy both O-Tak 
and Source for ONLY $100.00. 
As always O-Pak is ONLY $34.95. 

Add $3.50 shipping 



Word-Pak II and UVD 

If you are not using a Word-Pak II, you must be going 
blind by now. Word-Pak II gives you a true 80 column 
display like the 'big boys' have. The price includes the 
Basic software but the OS9 software is 17.95 extra. Get 
your Word-Pak II today ONLY $134.95. 
To use the full potential of the Word-Pak II you will need a 
video driver. UVD is the best we have seen because it 
works with all versions of the CoCo and requires NO 
soldering! ONLY $29.95 

Add $3.50 shipping 



Disk Drives for your CoCo 



You can buy cheaper drives for your CoCo but you can't buy 
better! Even Tandy sells cheaper drives than we do. We 
don't want to lower our standards so we still sell the best 
drive for your money. We only sell double sided drives in 
the best case we could find with a power supply that won't 
quit. We use the best controller on the market (The new 
J&M) the best drives (Teac) and our case. 

All drives are 1/2 height, double sided and our cases will 
hold two drives. 

Drive 0 DS 40 $339.00 add $120 for drive 1. 
Drive 0 DS 80 $349.00 add $130 for drive 1. 

SPECIAL Now our drive 0 systems include BOTH RS DOS 
AND JDOS!!! 

RS Disk Basic ROM Id $20.00 Call for bare drive and 
custom cable prices. 

Add $5.00 shipping 



Cross Assemblers 



Create 68000 code on your CoCo!! 
At these prices it would be worth it just for the 68000 
alone, but we also give you the ability to work with the 
1802/5, 6800/01/11/03, 6804, 6805, 6809, 6502/3, 
8080/5 8048, 8051, Z80, and the 68000!!! Not only that, 
we give you the COMPLETE SOURCE too! (In C) 
All this for ONLY $200.00! Whew! 

Add $3.50 shipping 



r 



Brian Lantz's UniCharger 

With UniCharger on you system you will think that you're 
running Unix. UniCharger adds 29 commands to your basic 
system that really makes it shine. This is Brian Lantz's 
first major project for OS9 and it showed the rest of us what 
he can do. Turn your computer into a real powerhouse with 
UniCharger. ONLY $150.00 and worth it! 
Add $3.50 shipping^ 

Utilix by Harry Fair 

Harry was deeply involved in the development of ABasic 
and has done considerable work behind the scenes for OS9. 
Now we have Utilix, 15 utilities that work like their Unix 
counterparts, cat, code, crypt, diff, display, grep, lower, 
upper, pack, unpack, pr, sort, tail, time, and wc. All these 
for ONLY $49.95! 'diff alone is worth the price! 
V. Add $3.50 shipping M 



r 



SDisk & Bootfix 



Replace your Tandy disk driver module with one that works 
with all drives. You can change individual step rates to 6ms 
and even use standard OS 9 format. A must for double sided 
drive users. Includes its own format command. ONLY 
$29.95, $35.95 with Bootfix. (for booting from double 



sided drives) 



Add $3.50 shipping 



r 



OS9 BOOKS 

OS9 is a trademark of Microwari Sue. 

Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 $18.95 
Basic09 Tour Guide $18.95 
Official OS9 Manual Set $40.00 

Find out what Tandy left out. 
RMA Manual $25.00 

Use the relocating assembler that you get with Tandy's £ 

. , Add $3.50 shipping 



1976 




FRANK HOGG 
LABORATORY 



1986 



770 James St., Syracuse, NY 13203 Telex 646740 

315/474-7856 




) 



The DS-69A is the best video digitizer available for your COCO at any price. This new, turbocharged version of our 
original DS-69 Digisector allows your 64K COCO to see clearly into the world of any television picture. 

SPEED! The fastest — 8 images per second! 

PRECISION! The highest — 64 levels of true grey scale! 

RESOLUTION! The finest — 256 x 256 picture elements! 

Compabitibility Use with a black and white or color camera, a VCR or tuner. 

Compactness Self contained in a plug in Rompack. 

Convenience Use with a Y-cable, Multi-Pak, PBJ Bus or plug directly into the cartridge slot. 

Ease of Use Software on disk will get you up and running fast! 

POWERFUL C-SEE™ SOFTWARE 

C-SEE is the menu driven software package included with your DS-69A. Available on disk or cassette, it provides 
lightning fast 5 level digitizing to the screen, high precision 16 level digitizing for superb hard copy printout and 
simple keyboard or joystick control of brightness and contrast. Or call our driver routines from your own Basic 
program for easy 64 level random access digitizing. Pictures taken by the DS— 69A may be saved on disk or 
cassette by C-SEE and then edited with COCO MAX, MAGIGRAPH or GRAPHICOM for special effects. Any of the 
popular printers may be used to obtain printouts of images digitized by the DS-69A. 

ONE YEAR WARRANTY 

DS-69A Digisector & C-SEE III Software $149.95 

ORyourDS-69& $ 59.95 

MAGIGRAPH Graphics Editor on disk $ 39.95 



TM 



DS-69 DIGISECTOR 
THERE'S ONLY ONE BETTER VIDEO DIGITIZER . . . 

And that's the DS-69A. The DS-69 is The Micro Works' original video digitizer, tried and true since 1984. It provides 
almost all the features of the DS-69A and is now available at a new low price. The DS69 features; 

SLUGGISHNESS 2 images per second. Quick enough to freeze all but the fastest moving pictures. 
IMCOMPATIBILITY Brightly colored scenes may be striped when using a color camera. 
INCONVENIENCE Will not work with a Y cable. 

Otherwise, it's a DS-69A. Precision, resolution, compactness, ease of use, software and warranty. 
Except one last thing. 

DS-69 Digisector & C-SEE III Software $ 99.95 

Superb image quality produced by both Digisectors. 





Screen 




Screen 



Printout 



NO RISK GUARANTEE 

If you are not completely satisfied with the performance of. your new DS-69A or DS-6 
you may return it, undamaged, within ten days for a full refund of the purchase price 
We'll even pay the return shipping. If you can get any of our competitors to give you 
the same guarantee, buy both and return the one you don't like. We know which on€ 
you'll keep. 



Terms: Visa, Mastercard, Check or C.O.D. 



P.O. Box 1110 Del Mar, CA 92014 (619) 942-240 



Purveyors of Fine Video Digitizers Since 1977. 




dird Triad 
STOPS 
competition! 



X 



In BASIC09, if a simple string or 
numeric variable is used without being 
declared in some way, the variable will 
be automatically dimensioned with a 
default size. A string will be set to 32 
characters, while a number will be real 
(floating point decimal). These defaults 
will seldom be the ideal. Integer and 
byte variables take less memory, run 
faster and can be used in most cases. A 
string may be as short as one character 
to get a *y' or 4 n' response, or can be 
thousands of bytes long to form a buffer 
into which characters are poked. Al- 
ways declare your variables with DIM 
or PARAM. 

OS-9 makes available a number of 
control codes to manage the alpha and 
graphics screens. These codes are sum- 
marized on Page 131 of your red OS- 
9 commands manual. BASIC09 uses them 
by printing them to the standard out- 
put. OS-9 intercepts them and routes 
them for action. The code "02" initiates 
the position alpha cursor operation, 
which is followed by two values, one for 
the column across the screen plus 32 and 
the other for the row down plus 32. The 
screen starts at Column 0, Row 0. An 
ending semicolon (;) holds the cursor at 
the selected location and END sends 
control back to the calling procedure. 

The procedure "isupper" is designed 
to convert lowercase letters in a string 
to uppercase. One use is to convert 
menu and prompt response characters 
so you need only test for uppercase 
characters. 



PROCEDURE 

9999 
999* 
99n 

JJ01E 

99^ 
99*6 

mi 

99*z 
99W 
W« 

995? 
W7k 

999*. 

PJJ9E 
(JJJAA 
??B6 

99CI 
99C* 
9907 

JJJ7C8 

99W 



isupper 

DIM count , line_length : INTEGER 

PARAM answer: STRING [25] 

DIM ascii : INTEGER 

DIM char: STRING [1] 

DIM work_string: STRING [25] 

count : -1 

Iine_length : -LEN(answer ) 
work_string : " 

WHILE count<line_length+l DO 

ascli : -ASC (MID5 (ansver , count , 1) ) 
IF ascii<96 THEN 

char :-CHRS (ascii) 

vork_string:-vork_string+char 

count : »count+l 
ELSE 

char : -CHR5 (ascii- 32) 
work_s cr ing : -work_s tr ing+char 
count : -count+1 
ENDIF 
ENDWHILE 

answer : -wor k_s tr ing 
END 



All "isupper" variables are DIMen- 
sioned at the start of the procedure. The 
contents of the string variable "answer" 
will be supplied by the calling procedure 



so it is dimensioned using the keyword 
PARAM. All other variables are local 
to "isupper" and are dimensioned using 
the keyword DIM. A number of vari- 
ables of the same type may be included 
in a single DIM statement as long as 
they are separated by commas. Varia- 
bles "count" and "line_length" are in 
the same statement and "ascii" could 
have been added as well. String varia- 
bles "char" and "work_string" require 
different dimensioning statements since 
their lengths are different. 

Variables declared with DIM are 
local to the procedure where they are 
declared. This means you can use the 
same variable name in another proce- 
dure to mean something entirely differ- 
ent. Compare this to Color BASIC where 
variables are global and have a single 
meaning anywhere in the program. 

You can write an assignment state- 
ment four ways. The forms "LET 
count=l", "LET count:=l", "count=l" 
and "count:=l" will all work. The last, 
"count:=l," models PASCAL syntax and 
is preferred. 

After the variables are declared they 
must be initialized. Variable declaration 
sets aside memory space for the varia- 
ble, but does not change what is in that 
memory space, which could be any- 
thing. This also is different from Color 
BASIC where all numeric variables are 
initialized to zero and all strings are set 
to null when a program is first run. So, 
the statement "work_string:=""" is vital 
if "isupper" is to function. 

FOR TO. . . NEXT is the only loop 

control statement in Color BASIC. 
BASIC09 provides four plus a special 
form of IF/THEN (EXITIF...THE 
N...ELSE...ENDEXIT) to escape from 
a loop. I choose to use the WHILE 
...DO.. .ENDWHILE in "isupper" 
though I could have used any of 
the looping control structures. 
WHILE. ..DO makes a test at the very 
beginning and does the code in the loop 
only if the test proves "true." If 
"isupper" is sent a null string, and 
line_length=0, the program jumps over 
the WHILE.. .DO and returns "answer" 
unchanged to the calling procedure. 
This avoids an error in the statement 
ascii:=ASC(MID$(answer ,count,l)). 

The contents of "ascii" will be the 
ASCII value of a character from the 
"answer" string. If this value is less than 
96, the character must be a non- 
lowercase character and can be added 
directly to "work_string." If the charac- 
ter is lowercase, 32 is subtracted from 
its ASCII value yielding the ASCII 



STOP & COMPARE! 



WORD TRIAD 3 IN 1 

1). POWERFUL WORD PROCESSOR 



Four (4) Screens: 32x16, 51x24, 64x24, 85x24 
Written in High Performance, Powerful 

Machine code 
Available in I6K, 32K, 64 Versions 
Extended BASIC is NOT Required! 
"RAM DISC" extra text storage 
Loads in single load, does not occupy disk 
Menu-driven disk & cassette I/O 
Over 100 Support Function Keys 
Full Screen cursor control with auto 

repeat keys 
Compatible with ANY Printer 
Able to insert Control Codes 
5 separate printing modes 
Auto Double column printing 
Baud rate up to 9,600 baud 
Each key depression produces a sound, 

so you just type 
"Typewriter mode" saves paper 
"Programmable word/phrase" saves time 
Displays underlined words on Screen 
True lower & upper case characters — 

true descenders 
Perfect margin justification 
Auto centering — page numbering 
NO hardware modifications needed 
Select lines per page — force new page 
Three (3) Search modes 
Recall accidental deletions 
Block copy & Block move 
Page forward & Backward in memory 
"Margin Offset" allows any number of 

letters pecified — artwork/text combined 

together. 

Complete 66 page manual included 



: 21. CONVENIENT TERMINAL PROGRAM 



Select Host or terminal mode 
Upload or Download Programs 
Talk mode, open/close buffer, auto 

open/auto close buffer 
Send control letters, block control codes 
Use buffer for complete editing 
Send contents of buffer to printer 



3). HELPFUL UTILITIES PROGRAM 



Load any program into buffer for 

examination or changes 
Edit or examine ANY high level language, 

such as BASIC 
Allowed to view ALL the Computer's 

memory 

Language function key to help make writing 

high level language easier 
"RAM TEST," a complete memory 

diagnostic program 



WORD 
TR1AO 
(TMI 



Yes 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 



Yes 
Yes 



Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
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WORD TRIAD 



TM RAINBOW 

1) , Disk version has ALL Options 

Suggested Retail Price (S.R.P.) $59.95 

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all options except disk (S.R.P.) $49.95 

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Special INTROductory price — NOW ONLY $24.95 
Extra Special Bonus offer: We pay ALL postage, 
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(512) 881-9540 
For Visa and MasterCard orders only please call 
Nationwide Toll Free 1-800-821-0728 

or in TEXAS 1-800-292-5619 
Write for free brochure — dealer and distributor 
inquiries welcome 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 233 






m n 



fi 





RAINBOWfest is the 
only computer show 
exclusively dedi- 
cated to your Tandy Color 
Computer. Nowhere else 
will you see as many pro- 
ducts, have access to the 
top experts, or be able to 
attend free seminars. It's the 
next best thing to receiving 
the latest issue of the rain- 
bow in your mailbox! 
Every RAINBOWfest fea- 



tures many delightful sur- 
prises. It's a great opportu- 
nity for commercial pro- 
grammers to show off new 
and innovative products for 
the first time. You get the 
jump on new capabilities for 
your CoCo. In exhibit after 
exhibit, there are demon- 
strations, opportunities to 
experiment with software 
and hardware, and special 
RAINBOWfest prices. 





(Si ■ 




Show Schedule: 

Friday evening 

— Exhibits open from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. 
Saturday 

— CoCo Community Breakfast at 8 a.m. 

— Exhibits open at 10 a.m. and close at 6 p. 

Sunday 

— Exhibits open from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. 




/ 



You can set your own 
pace between visiting ex- 
hibits and attending the val- 
uable, free seminars on all 
aspects of your CoCo — 
from improving basic skills 
to working with the sophis- 
ticated OS-9 operating sys- 
tem. 

Many of the people who 
write for the rainbow — as 
well as those who are writ- 
ten about — are there to 



s 
\ 



X XXXAXAA 



meet you and answer your 
questions. You'll also meet 
lots of other people, just like 
you, who share your inter- 
est in the Color Computer. 
It's a person-to-person 
event, as well as a tremen- 
dous learning experience, 
in a fun and relaxed atmos- 
phere. 

To make it easier for you 
to participate, we schedule 
RAINBOWfests in three 
parts of the country. If you 
missed the fun in Palo Alto, 
California, why don't you 
make plans nowto join us in 
Chicago? For members of 
the family who don't share 
your affinity for CoCo, 
you'll be comfortable know- 
ing that RAINBOWfest is 
located in an area with 
many other attractions. 



vvvv 




The Hyatt Regency- 
Woodfield offers special 
rates ($60, single or double 
room) for RAINBOWfest. 
The show opens Friday eve- 
ning with a session from 7 
p.m. to 10 p.m. It's a 
daytime-only show Satur- 
day — the CoCo Commu- 
nity Breakfast (separate 
tickets required) is at 8 a.m., 
then the exhibit hall opens 
promptly at 10a.m. and runs 
until 6 p.m. There will be no 
exhibition hours or semi- 
nars Saturday evening. On 
Sunday the exhibit hall 
opens at 11 a.m. and closes 
at 4 p.m. 

Tickets for RAINBOWfest 
may be obtained directly 
from THE rainbow. We'll 
also send you a special 
reservation form so you can 



get your special room rate. 
Come to RAINBOWfest! 



, . , V \ ttIW Your admis- 
l^SM^ST sion to RAIN- 
BOWfest also entitles you to 
visit -PCMfest! It's a show 
focusing on Tandy's new 
generation of computers — 
the Tandy 1000, 1200, 2000 
and 3000 MS-DOS compu- 
ters, and the Tandy 1 00, 200 
and 600 portables. 

PCMfest is sponsored by 
our sister publication, PCM, 
The Personal Computer 
Magazine for Tandy Com- 
puter Users. The show will 
be in the same location as 
RAINBOWfest and the ex- 
hibit hours will be exactly 
the same. If you use one of 
the newer Tandy compu- 
ters, don't miss it. 



Join us at a tuture RAINBOWfest! 

RAINBOWfest - Princeton, N.J. Rooms: $79 per night, single or double 
Dates: Oct. 17-19, 1986 Advance Ticket Deadline: Oct. 10, 1986 

Hotel: Hyatt Regency-Princeton 

FREE T-Shiri to first five ticket orders received from each state. 
FREE RAINBOW posterior first 500 ticket orders received. 



YES, I'm coming to Chicago! I want to save by buying tickets now at the special advance sale price. 
Breakfast tickets require advance reservations. 



Please send me: 

Three-day tickets at $9 each total 

One-day tickets at $7 each total 

Circle one: Friday Saturday Sunday 
Saturday CoCo Breakfast at $12 each total 

Handling Charge $1 

TOTAL ENCLOSED 

(U.S. Currency Only, Please) 

□ Also send me a hotel reservation card for the Hyatt 
Regency-Woodfield ($60, single or double room). 



$1.00 



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City 



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Company , 



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Account Number 

Exp. Date 

Signature 



Make checks payable to: The RAINBOW. Mail to: RAINBOWfest, The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, 
KY 40059. To make reservations by phone, call: (502) 228-4492. 

Advance ticket deadline: May 16, 1986. Orders received less than two weeks prior to show opening will be held for you at the door. Tickets will 
also be available at the door at a slightly higher price. Tickets will be mailed six weeks prior to show. Children 4 and under, free; over 4, full 
price. 










value of its uppercase equivalent. The 
character having this value is found and 
added to "work_string." 

Each control structure has a unique 
END word. This is because these struc- 
tures may span many lines of code and 
BASIC09 has no other way of knowing 
what belongs with the control structure 
and what does not. Color basic is no 
different. Each FOR must have a NEXT, 
which may be many lines down. IF 
. . .THEN. . .ELSE must be on a single 



"OS -9 makes available 
a number of control 
codes to manage the 
alpha and graphics 
screens* These codes 
are summarized on 
Page 131 of your red 
OS -9 commands man- 
ual. 99 



line so the next line number gives Color 
BASIC the structure termination infor- 
mation it needs. In "isupper" ENDIF 
terminates the IF ... THEN ... ELSE 
structure. The following ENDWHILE 
does the same for WHILE. ..DO, send- 
ing the program to the test in the 
WHILE.. .DO. If the test is false, control 
goes to the line following ENDWHILE. 

This line, answer:=work_string, as- 
signs an all uppercase string to 



"answer," which returns it to the calling 
procedure. The END is optional, but is 
good programming practice making the 
procedure more readable. 

You.can run "printat" and "isupper" 
from basiC09's System Mode, but you 
will not fully see what they do. A better 
way is to write a short procedure that 
uses each and demonstrates what they 
do, as the following "demo" procedure 
does. 



PROCEDURE 


demo 




DIM temp$: STRING [1] 




DIM answer: STRING [25] 


Wis 


REPEAT 






?01B 


PRINT CHR$(12) 


vm 


PRINT 


PP22 


PRINT "Enter string." 


0033 


PRINT 


0035 


GET #0, answer 


003E 


RUN isupper(answer) 


0048 


RUN printat(2,10) 


0053 


PRINT answer 


0058 


RUN printat(2,12) 


0063 


PRINT "Enter another? y/n 


0079 


RUN printat (2,14) 


0084 


GET #0,temp$ 


008 D 




008 E 


RUN isupper(temp$) 


0098 


UNTIL temp$-"N" 


00A4 


END 



The procedure "demo" uses only two 
variables that are both dimensioned 
with DIM statements. The variable 
"temp" is one character long and is used 
to get single key responses from the 
keyboard. String variable "answer" can 
take up to 25 characters from the key- 
board. 

A REPEAT. .UNTIL loop makes its 
test at the end of the loop, so its code 
will always be executed at least once. It 
is an excellent control structure where 
you want to repeat until the user indi- 
cates "quit" with a particular keystroke. 



Printing CHR$ ( 12 ) clears the screen. 
This is the same as CLS in Color BASIC. 

"GET #0, answer" gets characters 
from the keyboard, path #0, and puts 
them into the variable "answer" until its 
25-character limit is reached or until it 
sees a carriage return (ENTER). 

The procedure "isupper" is run with 
the string "answer" supplied as a pa- 
rameter. It converts the string to all 
uppercase and returns the string in the 
variable "answer," which is printed to 
prove the fact to you. Notice the use of 
"printat" to position the cursor on the 
screen. Actual numbers are used as 
parameters, but these could have been 
integer-type variables. 

Finally, the user is asked if he wishes 
to enter another string. Since a single 
character response is needed, the one 
character string variable "temp$" is 
used in the GET statement, eliminating 
the need for the user to type both the 
character and an enter. The statement 
"RUN isupper(temp$)" does any 
needed case conversion. If temp$="N", 
the test after UNTIL is true and the 
procedure ends. Note that when testing 
for equality, temp$="N", only the equal 
sign is used, the colon-equal symbol (:=) 
is reserved for assignment statements 
only. 

We have covered a little about a lot 
of things in this article. We have seen 
part of the operation of the System and 
Edit modes. I have also given you two 
useful procedures and a program to 
demonstrate them to get you some 
hands-on programming. I have passed 
right by some things I don't use as 
much, if at all. We will pick some of 
these up in later columns. 

Our last bit of business is how to 
depart BAS1C09 from the System Mode. 
Type bye and press the enter key ^ 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING for the TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 




At last • The book exclusively for you and your CoCo !! 
YouWe learned BASIC and are now ready to learn assembly 
language programming. This hands-on guide begins with the 
basics and progresses to the expert level; revealing 
programming conventions and techniques and all the 
internal capabilities of the TDP-100, CoCo 1 and 2. At 
every step of the way are illustrations, sample programs, 
and plain English explanations. All sample programs are 
shown as assembled with Radio Shack's EDTASM+ cartridge. 
Plus, a complete chapter explains how to use all EDTASM+ 
capabilities. This book describes how to write 
subroutines, interrupt handlers, programs that control 
the graphics display modes, cassette, disk, keyboard, 
sound, joysticks, serial I/O, interrupts, and use of ROM 
resident subroutines. Not only is the MC6809E 
microprocessor described, but also the video display 

generator peripheral interface adapters (PIA), and 



how they all work together. This book is suitable as a 
high school or college textbook. 

CHAPTERS : The Binary Number System Memory and Data 
Representation - Introduction to MC6809E Microprocessor - 
Addressing Modes of the MC6809E - MC6809E Instruction 
Set - Assembly Language Programming with EDTASM+ - 
Assembly Language Programming - Assembly Language and 
Extended Color BASIC - Internal Control and Graphics - 
Technical Detai Is. 

289 pages TRS-80 & EDTASM+ are 

soft cover trademarks of Tandy Corp 

$16.00 U.S. plus $1.50 shipping. Check or money order - 
RI residents please add 6% sales tax. Volume discounts 
are avai lable. 

Published and TEPC0 
sold by 30 Water Street 

Portsmouth s RI 02871 



236 THE RAINBOW March 1986 





BARDEN'S BUFFER 



Listening to 
Your CoCo with 
Assembly Language 



By William Barden, Jr. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 




ne of the nice things about as- 
sembly language is that it gives 
you access to parts of the com- 
puter that just can't be handled through 
BASIC. Take sound effects and music, 
for example. Sure, you can use SOUND 
in Extended BASIC to sound a tone for 
a certain length of time. You can also 
use the PLRY command in Extended 
BASIC to play musical notes. However, 
with BASIC you are limited to these 
short, simple tones. Assembly language, 
on the other hand, allows you to create 
a variety of complex sounds. Want a car 
crash, a phaser blast, or the sound of an 
Apple He being dropped from the top 
floor of One Tandy Center? Assembly 
language is the only way to go. Would 

Bill Barden has written 27 books and 
over 100 magazine articles on various 
computer topics. His 20 years expe- 
rience in the industry covers a wide 
background: programming, systems 
analyzing and managing projects rang- 
ing from mainframes to microcompu- 
ters. 



you believe that these sounds are al- 
ready programmed into your CoCo? I'll 
show you how to unleash the CoCo's 
sounds in this column. Actually, there'll 
be two major themes this month. First, 
we discuss assembly language sounds. 
Secondly, I'll show you how to plan and 
use a Sound program, for those of you 
who are still a little shaky about using 
EDTASM+ or Disk EDTASM. As I 
mentioned last month, you OS-9 users 
can still benefit from the column, but 
the examples will be in EDTASM 
format. 

Color Computer Sounds 

Sounds on the Color Computer are 
generated quite differently from sounds 
on the Tandy 1000 or other systems. 
Many other systems contain a sound 
synthesizer chip. This is an integrated 
circuit similar in appearance to many of 
the chips you'll see inside the CoCo. 
Internally, though, a sound synthesizer 
chip contains logic to generate square 
waves or sine waves and to create 
different envelopes that determine the 
wave shape. 



The Color Computer does not use a 
sound synthesizer chip. Instead, it 
creates sounds by electronic logic that 
makes up a digital-to-analog converter. 
I'll call this logic a DAC for short. The 
CoCo DAC is a "six-bit" DAC, meaning 
that it will convert a digital value of zero 
through 63 into 64 different voltage 
levels. The CoCo DAC uses the upper 
six bits of a byte in the conversion. Here 
are the results we'll get with a range of 
values: 



Digital Value Voltage Output 



00000000 
00000100 
00001000 
00001100 
00010000 
00010100 
00011000 



.23 volts 

.30 

.37 

.44 

.52 

.59 

.66 



11111000 
11111100 



4.69 
4.76 



March 1986 THE RAINBOW 237 



r 



As Produced by 
Electronic Devices 




As Produced by 
Color Computer 



64 
56 
48 
40 
32 
24 
16 
8 
0 



Figure 1: Sine Waves 



ADOS 



ENHANCED, EPROM-ABLE 
DISK BASIC 



Now, you can supercharge Basic with an impressive array of extra features 
WITHOUT sacrificing compatibility! ADOS is compatible with virtually 100% of 
commercial software. Customizing utilities are provided to allow user-defined 
command abbreviations, baud rate, step rate, tracks per disk (35 or 40), support of 
double-sided drives, and more. After customizing AOOS, you can have It burned into 
an EPROM that plugs into the Oisk Basic ROM socket, or just use it in RAM as a 64K 
disk utility. (EPROM + burning will cost about $20-we provide information 
concerning how you can have this done.) Features include: • repeat and edit of the 
last direct-mode command • 26 definable control-key abbreviations • automatic line- 
number prompts • DOS command * lowercase command entry (a fine complement to 
a Lowerkit or PBJ WordPak) • COPY (filename) to (drive number) • AE error override 
option • RAM command (64K) • RUNM command • text acholng to printer • ML 
monitor • text file scan • enhanced directory • error trapping • hl-res text utility 
included (42, 51, or 64 characters per line) 

"I COULD NOT FIND ANY SOFTWARE THAT WOULD NOT RUN UNDER ADOS." 

THE RAINBOW, December 1984 
'7 LOVEADOSI ...A GENUINELY FIRST RATE PRODUCT" 

Color Micro Journal, February 1985 
"I WON'T PART WITH MY ADOS EPROM FOR ANYTHING ...NO COMPATIBILITY 
PROBLEMS." 

Hot CoCo,May 1965 

Disk . $27.95 



THE PEEPER 



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Monitor machine-language programs AS THEY ARE RUNNING! Peeper actually 
timeshares with the target program, giving FULL CONTROL as ML programs run. 
Switch instantly between watching regular program output and Peeper's trace of 
registers and stack on screen or printer. Inspect memory In any of 26 display modes. 
Execution speed can be varied from fuit speed to the barest crawl, or halted entirely, 
as programs run. Single-stepping, breakpoints, memory or register examine/change. 
Relocatable, supports 64K use. (16K required) See February '85 review. 
Disk . . . $23.95 Tape . . . $21.95 Assembler source listing . , . Add 3.00 



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Fastape allows cassette I/O at 3000 baud-TWICE NORMAL SPEED. It uses the high- 
speed (POKE 65495,0) mode, and makes it convenient to stay In this mode 
throughout. Features automatic adjustment of cassette and printer parameters when 
speed mode is changed. Control-key functions for many Basic commands and for 
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Telewriter 64 and many other tape utilities. (16K required) See July '83 review. 
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THE RAINBOW'S 

One-Liner Contest 
as now been expanded 
to include programs of 
either one or two lines. This 
means a new dimension and new 
opportunity for those who have "really 
neat" programs that simply just won't fit in 
one line. 

Here are the guidelines: The program must 
work in Extended basic, have only one or two 
line numbers and be entirely self-contained — 
no loading other programs, no calling ROM 
routines, no poked-in machine language code. 
The program has to run when typed in directly 
(since that's how our readers will use it). Make 
sure your line, or lines, aren't packed so tightly 
that the program won't list completely. Finally, 
any instructions needed should 
be very short. 



Send your entry 
(preferably on cassette) to: 



CP 






238 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1986 



(9 Intervals) 



1 



(18 Intervals) 



64 

56 

48 

40 

32 

24 

16 

8 

0 



64 
56 
48 
40 
32 
24 
16 
8 
0 



Figure 2: Staircase Steps in Wave Forms 



Note that the the lower two bits of the 
digital value are always zero — only the 
upper six bits change. You can also see 
that the step size of the voltage output 
is constant. There is always about 0.07 
volts between one digital value and the 
next. 

All well and good, but how does the 
DAC create sounds? Let's take an 
example. The purest sound is a sine 
wave, shown in Figure 1. The second 
part of the figure shows a comparable 
sine wave generated by the DAC. When 
fed into an audio amplifier, the result 
will be a relatively pure musical tone, 
similar to that produced by an elec- 
tronic doorbell, or a Dolby test tone. 

If you look closely at the DAC sine 
wave, you can see that it's made up of 
a series of discrete voltage levels, giving 
it a "staircase step" appearance. The 
closer the interval is between steps, the 
smoother the sine wave becomes, as 
shown in Figure 2. 

This sine wave was generated by the 
CoCo DAC from a table in ROM. 
Believe it or not, this is the way the 
CoCo generates the 1200 and 2400 hertz 
(cycles per second) tones used for 
cassette tape output! (I'll tell you where 
to find the table later.) 

The distance from crest to crest, or 
from trough to trough of the sine wave 
is called the period of the sound. The 
reciprocal of the period is the frequency 
of the sound. A 600 hertz tone, then, has 
a period of 1 / 600 seconds or about 1.66 
milliseconds (1.66 thousandths of a 
second). 




More Complex Sounds 

Imagine tuning in MTV and listening 
to a new heavy metal band playing sine 
wave synthesizers. It would drive the 
viewers to Mozart! Most natural and 
instrumentation sounds are made up of 
a combination of frequencies, as shown 
in Figure 3. Random sounds, such as 
surf or crowd noise, are made up of an 
even combination of all frequencies, 
giving a hissing effect. These are the 
sounds that BASIC cannot create on the 
CoCo with simply the SOUND and PLRY 
commands. 

A music synthesizer not only pro- 
vides the capability to generate the 
complex sound of strings or a flute, but 
it also allows the user to define an 
envelope for the sound. The envelope 
describes how the sound varies in loud- 
ness and is sometimes called an ADSR, 
for attack, decay, sustain, release, as 

March 1986 THE RAINBOW 239 



shown in Figure 4. A musical instru- 
ment such as a piano has a sustained 
sound, while an instrument such as a 
snare drum has a much shorter duration 
sound. Both envelopes are different, as 
shown in the figure. Synthesizers also 
provide the capability to create enve- 
lopes not produced by musical instru- 
ments, such as a sound that starts off at 
the minumum loudness and builds to a 
maximum, producing a sound like a 
musical tone played backwards on a 
tape recorder. 

Many complex sounds can be gener- 
ated by the CoCo, at the expense of 
building a table of values that define the 
wave shape of the sound. Another 
alternative is to use the patterns found 
in the CoCo's ROM, selecting those 
that produce the sounds you're looking 
for. A short section of BASIC ROM code 
from SA9EB through $A9FF on my 
systems, for example, produces the 
wave shape shown in Figure 5 when the 
upper six bits are considered. 

Any small section of code can be 
repeated over and over, and the interval 
between outputs to the DAC can be 
varied by timing loops within the assem- 
bly language program to produce differ- 
ent frequencies. As the shortest timing 
loop can produce periods that are about 
10 microseconds wide, the highest 
frequencies that can be produced in 
assembly language are 100,000 hertz 
radio waves (!), far above the 6,000 
hertz sound waves that can be passed 
through the CoCo electronics. That's 
the beauty of assembly language here — 
there's plenty of time left over. 



Talking to the PIA of the CoCo 

The output of the DAC goes both to 
the cassette output and to a device that 






ADSR for 
snare drum 



Figure 4: Sound Envelopes 



CoCo Cat 




240 THE RAINBOW March 1986 



Protect Your Valuable 




azine Collection With • . . 




DISTINCTIVE, 
DURABLE 
RAINBOW BINDERS 



Each issue of THE RAINBOW is a vital resource that you 
will refer to again and again, to gain insights, to explore 
new areas of interest or simply to refresh your memory. So, 
you need to keep your copies of THE RAINBOW safe — in 




high-quality, vinyl binders that provide complete protec- 



I 



These distinctive red binders not only ensure that your 
RAlNBOWs stay in mint condition, but they showcase your 
collection as well. Each binder is clearly embossed with the 



magazine's name in gold lettering on both the front and the 
spine. They're a handsome addition to any room. 

They also make it possible for you to organize your work 
space and eliminate the clutter on a permanent basis. Youll 
spend more time on your CoCo and eliminate those 
frustrating searches for misplaced magazines. 

A set of two handsome binders, which hold a full 12 issues 
of THE rainbow, is only $13.50 (please add $2.50 for 
shipping and handling). 



Special Discounts On Past Issues With This Offer 



To help you complete your collection of THE RAINBOW, 
we're offering a special discount on past issues with the 
purchase of one or more sets of binders. 

When you place an order for six or more back issues of 
THE RAINBOW at the same time you order your binders, you 
are entitled to $1 off each magazine, which normally sells 
for the single issue cover price. For an order form, please 
refer to our "Back Issue Information" page (check Table of 



Contents under departmental listings). Also with this offer, 
copies of the "Official And Compleat Index To THE 
RAINBOW" (a comprehensive index of RAINBOW'S first three 
years, July 1981 through June 1984), usually priced at $2.50, 
may be purchased for only $1 with a set of binders, 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you order back issues 
now while supplies last. 



YES. Please send me 



Set(s) Of RAINBOW binders at $13.50 per two- 



binder set (plus $2.50 per set for shipping and handling). If your order is to be sent via U.S. Mail 
to a post office box or to another country, please add $2. Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax. 
U.S. currency only, please. 

Order one or more sets of binders and take advantage of these exciting offers: 

I also want to take advantage of a special savings of $1 off the single issue cover price for back 
issues with the purchase of a set of binders. (Minimum order of 6 magazines. An order form from 
a recent issue indicating the back issues you wish to receive should accompany this order.) 

I want to purchase the first three-year index to the rainbow (July 1981 through June 1984) at 
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To order by phone, call: (502) 228-4492 



WE'RE BRINGING THE COCO 



RAINBOW'S 
BROADENING ITS 
SPECTRUM 

the rainbow and the Delphi Informa- 
tion Utility have joined together to 
allow CoCo owners all over the 
world to connect with one another! 

Delphi is a full-service information 
utility. It offers everything from up- 
to-the-minute news stories from The 
Associated Press to electronic mail 
services. But, best of all, it now has 
a special forum for Color Computer 
owners, and it's operated by the peo- 
ple who bring you the rainbow each 
month. 

The CoCo Special Interest Group 
(SIG) features a variety of services, 
including an open forum where you 
can send and receive messages 
from Color Computer owners all 
over the world. It also has several 
databases to which you can upload 
your favorite programs and from 
which you can download programs 
written by other CoCo enthusiasts. 
Some of these databases are basic 
programming, OS-9 and home appli- 
cations. 

When setting up your account 
with Delphi, if you do not have a 
credit card or prefer not to use it, 
Delphi requires that you send $20 to 
give your account a positive bal- 
ance. This will be refunded after 
your first free hour if you choose to 
no longer use the system or it will 
be applied to future connect 
charges. 



PEEK INTO THE 
RAINBOW 

The CoCo SIG's conference feature 
allows you to meet electronically 
with other members of the CoCo 
Community. You can join conferen- 
ces with notables such as Fred 
Scerbo, Dan Downard, Ed Ellers, 
Lonnie Falk, Dick White, Tony 
DiStefano and others — on a regular 
basis. Conference schedules will ap- 
pear in the rainbow each month. Be 
sure to check online announce- 
ments for changes and additions. 



THE OTHER SIDE 
OF THE RAINBOW 

On Delphi, you also are able to buy 
rainbow on tape — order a whole 
set, or download an individual pro- 
gram immediately. You can also 
renew your rainbow subscription, 
make a fast and easy order for soft- 
ware or hardware from a multitude 
of vendors, or inquire about prod- 
ucts on the CoCo SIG. 

We also have a number of programs 
that you can download and use, just 
for the cost of the time you spend 
transferring them. There'll also be 
corrections for rainbow articles, 
helpful hints and many other useful 
features. 



free lifetime I 

MEMBERSHIP 

the rainbow is offering subscribers 
a free lifetime subscription to Delphi 

— a $29.95 value -=r and a free hour 
of connect time — a $6 value at 
either 300 or 1200 Baud during even- 
ing, holiday and weekend hours — 
so you can sample Delphi and the 
brand new rainbow CoCo SIG. 
That's right. Your subscription to 
the rainbow entitles you to this 
$35.95 value as a free bonus! 

If you're not a rainbow subscriber, 

just enter your order when you sign 
on with Delphi and you'll get the 
same great deal! For our $31 sub- 
scription fee, you'll get the finest 
Color Computer magazine ever, a 
free lifetime subscription to Delphi 
and a free hour of connect time. 



SAVE EVEN MORE 

Want to save an extra $15? While 
you're online, you can order the Del- 
phi Handbook and Command Card 
($21 .95) and three hours of connect 
time ($18) for only $24.95. 

Delphi provides us all with Imme- 
diate CoCo Community. Check it 
out today. After all, you can sample 
it for free! 



Problems? Call Delphi: 

1-800-544-4005 



DELPH I 



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PDni id rnrn 

uKUUr LULU 




How to reach RAINBOW'S Color Computer SIG . . . 



There are several ways to connect to Delphi and THE 
rainbow's CoCo SIG. In most cities you will not even have 
to pay long distance charges; you can use special data 
communications networks, like Uninet, Tymnet and the 
Canadian Datapac network. 

First, set your terminal program to operate at either 300 
or 1200 Baud (depending on the modem you have), and 
also select either 7 bits with even parity or 8 bits with no 
parity, and one stop bit. (If one combination doesn't work, 
try another.) 

Decide which network you should use. There is no 
surcharge for Uninet or Tymnet. Canadian residents using 
Datapac will be charged an additional $ 12 (U.S.) per hour. 

On Uninet: Call (800) 821-5340 to get the Uninet number 
for your area. After you call the appropriate number for 
your own area and make connection, you'll see a prompt 
of "L?" Press ENTER, the period key (.) and enter again. 
At the "service:" prompt, type GVC (for General Videotex 
Corporation) and ENTER. 

On Tymnet: Call (800) 336-0149 to get the Tymnet 
number for your area. After you dial your designated 
number and connect, you will see either "garbage" or a 
message saying "please type your terminal identifier." At 
this point, even if the screen is garbled, simply press *A\ 
When "please log in:" appears, type DELPHI and press 
ENTER. 

From Canada (on Datapac): Call Delphi Customer 
Service at (617) 491-3393 to get the Datapac number for 
your area. After you connect, press the period key (♦) and 
ENTER (use two periods if you're using 1200 Baud). Type 
SET 2:1, 3:126 and press ENTER. Now type p 1 3106, 
DELPHI ; and press ENTER. Delphi's new rates indicate an 
additional $12 hourly surcharge for evening use of 
Datapac, which means a total of $18 (U.S.) for connect 
time. 

From other countries: Many countries have their own 
data networks that can connect to either Uninet or Tymnet. 
Check with the telephone authorities in your country for 
details on how to sign up for this service. When you have 
an account set up, you can reach Delphi with a "host code" 
of 312561703088 through Uninet, or 310600601500 
through Tymnet. (Youll have to pay the toll charges for 
this connection.) 

Type in Your Username 

If you're already a subscriber to THE rainbow, at the 
"USERNAME:" prompt, type RfllNBOWSUB and press 



ENTER. At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type your individ- 
ual subscription number from the mailing label of your 
latest issue of the rainbow. (If there are one or more zeros 
at the beginning of this number, include them.) 

If you dont already have a subscription, at the "USER- 
NAME:" prompt, type RAINBOWORDER and press ENTER. 
At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type SENDSUB and press 
ENTER. Have your MasterCard, VISA or American 
Express card ready, because youll be led through a series 
of questions that will enable us to put your rainbow and 
Delphi subscriptions into effect. In an effort to hold down 
non-editorial costs, we do not bill for subscriptions. 

If you make a typing error, just press ENTER and start 
over. Remember that at any point, when you're on Delphi, 
you can type HELP to get help on how to use the system. 
To get off the system just type BYE. 

If you find that you're unable to log on to Delphi and 
enter the CoCo SIG after following these instructions, call 
us during afternoon business hours at (502) 228-4492. Well 
be glad to offer assistance. 

Come Visit Us! Type: GROUP COCO 

After you sign in, you'll be prompted to set up your own, 
personal "user name" — Delphi is a friendly service, no 
numbers to remember — and youll be asked a number 
of questions so Delphi can set up your account. You'll also 
be assigned a temporary password. No time is assessed 
against your free hour of service while you answer these 
questions. 

Delphi will tell you that your account will be ready after 
6 p.m. the same day if you sign up before noon (Eastern 
time zone.) If not, your account will be ready at 6 p.m. 
the next day. Once an account is opened, each RAINBOW 
subscriber will be credited with an hour of free time! 

When you log back in, use your chosen user name and 
your temporary password to access the system. At that 
point, you will meet Max, who will help you configure 
things and will change your temporary password into your 
own personal password. This is the password you will use 
for subsequent sessions — or until you change it. 



After Max bids you goodbye you'll wind up at the 
Delphi Main Menu; type in GROUP COCO and join us on 
the CoCo SIG! 



Figure 5: Table Driven Sounds 



64 

56 

48 

40 

32 

24 

16 

8 

0 



routes the DAC output to the television 
sound channel, as shown in Figure 6. 
The MC14529 routes the DAC output 
to the TV sound channel by two "select" 
bits set by the following basic com- 
mands: 



180 POKE &HFF01 f PEEK ( &HFF01 ) 
FIND &HF7 'select bit 0 

190 POKE &HFF03,PEEK(&HFF03) 
RND &HF7 'select bit 1 

200 POKE &HFF23,PEEK(&HFF23) 
OR 8 'set G-bit sound 

The third PDKE here sets six-bit sound 
as opposed to a single-bit "on/ off" 
sound that can also be used. 

Once these commands are given, they 
need not be output again — the DAC 
is routed to the TV sound channel for 
the duration of the program. 

The six inputs to the DAC are con- 
trolled by six signals from another 



source, as shown in the figure. The 
source here, as in the case of the two 
select signals, is a PIA, or peripheral 
interface adapter. The CoCo uses a 
number of PIAs to provide program- 
mable signals to control color graphics, 
sound, cassette operations, and RS- 
232-C operations, to name a few. In this 
case, the PIA acts as a simple memory 
device, holding whatever six bits have 
been sent to it until another six bits are 
sent. In BASIC the six PIA to DAC 
outputs are set by 

1000 POKE &HFF20, VRLUE*4 
' VfiLUE is 0 - G3 

In assembly language, the instruc- 
tions are very similar: 

LDA #VALUE value is VVVVVV00 
STA SFF20 outputs value to DAC 



And that's about all there is to pro- 
ducing sounds on the Color Computer 
— route the DAC output to the televi- 
sion channel and then send out the 
proper patterns to the PIA/DAC, 
spaced at even intervals, repeating the 
patterns if necessary. 

Putting Together a Sound 
Assembly Language Program 

Now that we know enough about the 
sound capabilities of the Color Compu- 
ter, we can put together a short program 
to play a variety of sounds, natural and 
unnatural. What we're looking for is a 
program that will route the DAC output 
to the television sound channel and then 
output a series of digital values to the 
DAC, spaced at regular intervals. We 
also need the capability of repeating a 
series of values for a certain number of 
times. 

The data that creates the sounds will 
be held in a table in memory, either a 
table of values that already exist, such 
as ROM values, or a table that we will 
create. Since we want to make the 
program handle a table of varying 
length, we'll need to specify a table 
length. An alternative to this is to use 
a "terminating value" at the end of the 
table to mark the end. However, we'd 
like to use ROM data for some of the 
sounds, and it's awfully difficult to write 
data to ROM (although one of my 
CoCos tries this on occasion). 

To make the table values easier to 
generate, we'll also let the program shift 
the data so that it's aligned in the upper 
six bits. That way we can put values of 
zero through 63 in memory bytes with- 
out having to worry about what the 
values would be in their shifted form. Of 
course another approach is to "pack" 
the data into consecutive six bits, but 
this would present a real chore in 
creating and maintaining the table of 
data values. 

What we have so far, then, is a pro- 
gram that will read a table of values 
starting from some given memory loca- 
tion and ending at another memory 
location, with each byte in the table 
representing an output value of zero 
through 63. Such a table is shown in 
Figure 7 — it's the encoded form of a 
simple bell sound using a square wave 
frequency. 

Another thing that we need to specify 
to the program is the interval between 
DAC outputs. Remember, the smaller 
the increment, the less rough the final 
wave shape will be. What is a reasonable 
increment to implement? We know that 



PIA 
Address 
$FF20 



2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



U 

6 

Input 
Lines 



DAC 



DAC 
Output 



Other 
Inputs 



MC14529 



Select 
Inputs 
(From $FF01, 
$FF03) 



Figure 6: DAC Routing 



To TV 
Channel 
Modulator 



244 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



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well have to have a timing loop in the 
program to count off the time between 
DAC outputs. (Another alternative, 
however, would be reading in a PIA bit 
that shows the sync clock for video, 
appearing every 63.5 microseconds.) 
Even with assembly language, instruc- 
tions take a finite time and we can't 
define a small enough interval by the 
time the program is coded. We'll let the 
interval be specified by a count parame- 
ter to the assembly language program 
and see what the minimum interval 
turns out to be in the final result. 

A final parameter that must be spec- 
ified to the program is the number of 
times the table must be repeated. A 
repeat capability is handy to have to 
generate wave forms that are periodic, 
such as the sine waves and square waves 
mentioned above. We may want to 
repeat thousands of times with short 
tables of values to get a sound that is 
seconds long. 



At this point we have these parame- 
ters that must be passed to the assembly 
language program: 

• A 16-bit address that specifies the 
start of the table. 

• A 1 6-bit address that specifies the 
end of the table. 

• A 16-bit delay count that deter- 
mines the time delay between out- 
puts to the DAC. 

• A 16-bit repeat count that deter- 
mines the number of times that the 
table data is to be repeated. 

Program Design Considerations 

Before we start coding the program 
we need to make several more decisions 
about the basic design: 

• Is this to be a program or a subrou- 
tine? 

• Where in memory will the program 
be? 

• Where in memory will the table be? 



Programs Versus Subroutines 

We could make the Sound program 
a full fledged program that could be 
loaded by LDRDM and executed by EXEC 
(or from cassette by CLDflDM and EXEC). 
However, this doesn't make too much 
sense, as the program isn't really a full- 
blown program, but simply a short 
piece of code that can be used to (pre- 
sumably) generate short snatches of 
sounds. For that reason, it makes better 
sense to design it as an assembly lan- 
guage subroutine that can be called by 
BASIC (or other languages). That way 
we can use the convenience of basic to 
do all of the housekeeping and just call 
the assembly language subroutine when 
a sound is required. 

The commands that Extended BASIC 
uses to interface to assembly language 
are DEFUSR and U5R. DEFU5R tells BASIC 
where the assembly language code is 
located, while U5R actually transfers 
control to the assembly language sub- 
routine. The assembly language subrou- 
tine must always end with an RTS 
instruction, a ReTurn from Subroutine. 
The RTS acts just as a BASIC statement 
does, returning control back to the 
BASIC statement after the USR. The 
typical call to our yet-uncoded sound 
subroutine would look like this: 

110 DEFU5R0 = &H3E08 done only 
once in BASIC 



330 A = USR0(0) 'call assembly 

language sub 
340 . . . 'return here 

The dots between statements 1 10 and 
2100 represent other BASIC statements 
that are executed. One thing that must 
be done before the subroutine is exe- 
cuted, of course, is to set up a table of 
data in memory that the subroutine will 
use to generate sounds, or to point to 
the table if it already exists (such as the 
ROM sine wave table). 

Where in Memory Will the 
Subroutine Be? 

The DEFUSR statement defines where 
the assembly language subroutine is in 
memory. But just where should it be? 
There are many places it could be, but 
the overriding rule is to put it out of the 
way of BASIC. BASIC is constantly 
changing memory by adding variables, 
manipulating strings, and using a stack 
area, and any assembly language code 
must be put into an area that BASIC 
cannot touch. 



* 2 s a 



o co <D *r 

* «f Ifl (O 



Start Table 



End of Table 



o 

63 
0 

56 
0 

50 
0 

46 

0 

40 

0 

36 
0 

32 
0 
27 
0 
24 
0 
20 
0 

16 
0 

14 
0 
11 
0 
8 
0 

6 




Figure 7: Table for Bell Sound 



246 



THE RAINBOW March 1986 



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