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Full text of "The Rainbow Vol. 01 No 1 - Vol 8 No 11"

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January 1985 




1 

TheU 

THE COLOR COMPUTER MONW 

A Timesharing Crisis: 

Beginners Issue 

Elementary Graphics 
A Simple Text Processor 
The Interplanetary Fruit Fly 
And BASIC Tutorials 



Canada U 35 U K 13 33 



S3. 95 




'AGAZtNE 




Rainbow 
Checkbook 

Graphics 
Quickies 

Disk Test 
And, 
More Than 
Two Dozen Product 
Reviews 




& The First 

64K RrcacJe Game 
For the Color Computer 

The first screen objective is to catch enough of Eteiefc kisses 
(thow Rted Heart Shaped Things) to TIN in the squares on 
the Soilorman's hous& If you car> Hi me your punch just so 
vou can send the punching Dag over to knock the bucket 
down and, wilha Hltle bit of luck, right onto Blgfrjtbadguvs 
head This will give you □ fitfie [bul not much J Time to catch 
all those RHSTs. 

Vou musl avoio contact with BifllOlbodguy who Is acllvety 
pursuing you. Vou must also be careful of Olduglysea* 
woman who will appear at higher ditf Icufty Kegels to chuck 
empties at you. Either avoid the flying bottles or punch 
Iheon (with the fire burton) to keep from being knocked Inlo 
the water 

The second screen objective is fo colled enough notes to 
play Elsie a little love song You may jump off and onto the 
other end of FafguyeaNngahamburgers teeiertotef to f ly 
up a deck and even two decks if you manage to catch 
hold of Smariaieckkld's grab handles Time it right and 
away you go 

The Third screen objective is to cotieci enough letters 
(thrown by Elsie's cries for H E L P) to complele a ladder all 
the way <0 the crow's nest where Elsie is calling you, Beware 
of the Crow, however, who thinks you are after her eggs' 

On all screens, eating a can ot col lord greens (labeled 
"3" for Coward and grasped by punching Ihe can Just right) 
will give you amazing speed, strengih and agility and 
allow you to send Blgfatbadguy Into Ihe drink with a single 
punch 

PUIS... 

1 All Machine Code 
2> Save Scores Feature 

3. Start on any screen 

4. Set your own difficulty level 

5. Choose the number of men desired 



The 
SRILOR 
MAN 

l Screens-Plus-'INVISO SCRE6N" 




fl€QUIR€S 64K 
DISK $34.95 TflP6 $29.95 



TOM MIX SOfTWJ 

Jmn RHADTOFONE 
MWm l*lwn raPIOS, MMQ5C 

(616)957 0444 



•ADO $250 POSTAGE & HANDUNG'IOP ROYALTIES PAID* 
•MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD *% SALES TAX* 
LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 

— ARCADE ACTION GAMES 2£ 




BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



COMPUTERS 

Model 4 Portable 

64 k w<2 Drives 
Model 2000 2Dr 
Model 12 1 DfJve 
MOdOl 16B IDr 256K 



Moves Smartmodem I' 
AC-3 

DC Modwm l 
DC Modem U 
DC Modem 2212 



S iver Peed EXP500 D¥V Par 

S^er Peed SJXPS50 D W Ser 

CGPH5 

CGP220 i/ik jet 

PMH10 

©emmi 10X 

Gemini Pottertype 

POnqio^c P1091 

Smllh Corona Fas rant 

Prownter 8510 

Ok i data and Epson 



iDTO 
22W 
2360 

215 
125 
99 
160 
315 

366 
430 
159 
545 
299 
265 
345 
315 
190 
345 
CALL 



ETC. 




Juniors Revenge 


25 95 


Disk Drive Controller 


139 


Poc Aitaefc 


24.95 


Emended Oostt Kit 


39 95 


Block Head 


26.95 


PBB SorJPor Conv 


69 


Lunap Pover ParfOJ 


24,95 


64K Porn Chios 


62 95 


Lancer 


24 95 


Deluxe Keyboard 


3595 


Typing Tutor 


23.95 


mjl Keyboard 


79 95 


Galagan 


24-96 


CCP-S1 Recorder 


S2 


Scon Adomi Advenluret 


1995 


Deluxe joysucn feochl 


35 95 


See Dragon 


34 95 


Joysticks [pair] 


22 


Colofcome 


49,95 


Vrdeo Plut jmonrtar adapter! 


24 95 


telewriter 64 


49.95 


Video Pius hC 


W?b 


O-Pok (dltk) 


34.95 


Amdok Color 1 +■ Monitor 


299 


KSV-264K 


39.95 


Amdek Video 300 Green 


145 


Den Patcai 


79 95 


Amdek Video 300 Amber 


i59 


Elite CqU: 


5995 


Texan Color 210 Moniior 


245 


VIP Writer 


69.95 


la son Green 


425 


VIP Coic 


69 95 


To*an Amber 


429 


VIP Terminal 


49.95 


SOFTWARE (Tooe Version 


viP Database {dM) 


59.95 


The King 


2695 


Graphlcorn 


29 95 


Screen Print {spocHy confer) 


1995 


Order any 2 software plea 




Buuoid Boil 


27 95 


!i nslerj 


World oi Flight 


2995 


and take 4Q% off men listed otjce. 


Color pede 


29.95 


Atr Podlo Shack software 40% ott usi 




Send far complete ttel 





CALL TOLL FREE 



* LOWEST POSStSLE PRICES 

* BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

* KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

* TIMELY DELIVERY 
SHQPPtm COHVEHtENCE 



com 




P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01 460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CAU 161 7 1 086-S133 



TftS-ftO ii a ragwartd trademark of Tandy Carp 



Under 
The 




IS 



32 



42 



Km. 



FEATURES 





COVER arts by Fred Crawford 



P»n Th# tmali castistle tape *y m- 
* — bolt beside features, and 
regular columni indicate that Ifie 
program Hating* wrlh rhose article* 
ar« on this month's >uiwawoN TAPf. , 
ready to CLOAD find RUN. For lull 
details, cnec* our raiwow on "*pe 
ad on Pbqo 220 



RAINBOWS Report 18 

PICTORIAL Spotligh t ing the Princet on sho w 

[=] Baiter To PUT Than To GET/ Alexander B. Trevor 23 

GRAPHICS TUTORIAL Using complementary commands to 
create graphics 

— Home Sweet Home/ Mtirh m< tearing 28 

GRAPHICS Home is where the CoCo is 

- Keyboard Cassette Editing System/ Gary L Behr. 42 

TAPE UTILITY Sonpiifymg your tape commands 

lE\L\nk/H Alien Curtis^. . 50 

TAPE UTILITY A program that concatenates RA M records and 
writes them on tape 

Getting The Most From Your Recorder/ & or man Lamer 76 

PER I P HER A L3 Upgrade your cassette recorder with some goad 
techniques and materials 

H Block Out Troublesome Granu las/ C/wrte C Zimmer 89 

DISK UTILITY A thorough test program for checking your disks 
for errors 



I— J A Simple Teat Processor//* shok Basargekar 103 

ML UTILITY An easy, efficient text handier 

L— . The Diskette Directories Handler Sy stem/ A/an w E, Swan 120 

DISK UTILITY Pari HI the final in a series on diskette fde 
organization 

[.—.J The Interplanetary Fruit ?\yt\1amn Kaste 140 

GAME fhftii J i r rj i r u 'If a^u tu 1 t t ht - \ p at * > agi > frit if f h 

Graphic Quickies/ G;G' Enthusiasts I4fi 

GRAPHICS Seven short programs to delight and amuse you 

i-; Scroll Control And LLfsl Maaterr/tt. Alien Curtis 150 

UTI LIT Y Modifying a 8 A SIC command 

HLIke Sands Through The Hourglass Alton- Crooks-. 156 

PROGRAMMING UTILITY A short graphics routine for vtsuat 
entertainment 

L—J Cooking with Co Co/ Colin J. Stearman. 164 

EXPANDING BASIC Part Vff t teaching CoCo to clean up after 
its errors 



NEXT MONTH; In direct response to our RA I NBO Wf esVPrlnceton survey. 
February will be our Utilities Issue ' because ol the high interest in, and 
demand for, these programming helpers 

Well also kick off rainbow's third annual Adventure contest in addition lo 
our usual wide spectrum ol articles and programs Loo* for fur bain&ow tor 
more on the Color Computer than is available from any other source' 



COLUMNS 

(eO BASIC Trz\ningJ Joseph Kolar 

L-J Bits And Bytes 01 BASIC/ Rkhard While 

Finalizing the Rainbow checkbook 

Building January's Ralnbow/iVm Reed 

Highlights from the RAlNBOtVfesr survey 

- Byte Master, Bartly Beits 



.85 



.233 



16 



The instruction set — zeroing in on "the real thing" 
Earth To Ed/ Ed Elters, 



-242 



Beam up those "tech *' questions 
S Education Uale*fSum> Blvn 



_174 



Helping youngster* form categories 
Education Overview/ Michael Plog. Ph.D. 



55 



159 



A practical alternative for creating a pupil database 

jF Game Mailer's Apprentice/ George Firedrake and Art Canfif 128 

Designing your own Adventure 

12 



Prln l#-2,/ Lawrence C folk 

Editor's notes 

School Is tn The Heart Of A Child/ Bt *h Albrecht and Raman 

Zamora 

Binary birthday cakes, let ten and more Wurdsworih 

Turn 01 The Screw/ Tony DiSiefana . 



An introduction to the inside of the CoCo 2 

L-J Wishing WW Fred Scerbo 

EZ-grophws — 3S5 styte 

RA1NB0WTECH 



-4fl 



.60 



32 



Downloads/ Dan Downard 

Answers to your technical questions 

j^j Personable Pascal/ Daniel A- Eaxthant . 

Block structure and recursion 

hogg_wesh/ Frank Hogg - 

More I28K 

OS- 9 Utility/ Middaugh 

Random numbers for the OS-9 C compiler 

Random Basics/ Paul Searby 



.258 



261 



-269 



272 



280 



Design and development of application software, part V 
DEPARTMENTS 



Advertiser Index 

Back Issue Information , 

CoCo Clubs 

Corrections 



Letters To Rainbow . 
The Pipeline 



Received And Certified . 



2as 

_ 93 
2SE 

232 
_ & 
136 
139 



Reviewing Reviews 
Scoreboard 



Scoreboard Pol men _ 
Submitting Material 

To Rainbow 

These Fine Stores 



. tat 
178 
160 

m 

1M 



PRODUCT REVIEWS 

Product Review Contents _ 



195 



January 1965 



Vol. IV No. 6 



UwnBfK* C Fine 
Managing Cane* James & Fttwt 

Technical Eddo* Dan Downnro 
SubiHltflVli CdllOf Julia Kflplnlrnniar 
COpyEaftoT Tamura 5oll*y 
MdrUc* Dortti 

VmiBt't ka*ru>i«, 
Wandy Nit Dob&ie HiMJcy 
Suiinn Be<i<«rv lynM Millar. 

ShkMoy Morgan Kmin N'CHOIb 

Ed e\\tn 

R Partly Bella. FtlemBifr, 

R Wiyrm Day. Tony DlSmi*hu t 

Dun Caalham. Flank Hc»p0. Don mm on 

skwapn Kol*r, M icn*«< Prog. Data Pucfcofl. 

P r*n Sails. Psi; i SMtby. Prod Scerbo 

H i r ftal d MV h ,1 1* 

Jin rjljfttiGf 5*jty G#nnau* 

Art CHr*clor j«iry McXMHMAn 
1 Ntttr C La U rem, Kwvw On h0-flimi 
AdvartlUng ta-ardrnalar Lkirta T jyiui 
AgrvTllilfifl Hop* « i b nr*l I** K|1« T i n.;c 
AdVartbJng Auhilanl De&om fiaxlm 

!MBl 229 -"92 
Qtmril UanbQM PjIucu rt Hutch 

lAarviqw lor F Inane* Danm £ 

AdTa-rlftl ng Account* Ho-»<>rty Inylof 
Judy OuMhnoot 



Mananrw Booth 
fUlft&GWtWff Sili M«aa«fMtiT Wiilo Fan 
DlrmrrDr Ert FumOmunt banket* Bonn in Eir:»(\atr| 
AJ*L Cutlwn** SonfH HUfioflar LMudrn tfanfy 
Cuitomaf AanK* RapnM*ntaEli*a Sandy Applt 
Word ProcwftvOf Managat Lynda Wtloon 
AMHBC « ON TAW SubacrtpA^nt Munlce Wtt**l 
Riiai trh Ami4ttant» Uwrk f am. Judi HuJc^rtHrL 

Ovt>pla teane. Lo^erta Vflfda 



Par RAINS DW A^rMmng 

and Ktrtajtfeq OfK« 
in'anniii^n. i«v Pag* £14 



r.y TAiJiOFT. int Ci?9 i J 5 Hmr^Jiy «. P» O flo- 
3*5. PnM&PCt «Y. *3CKS PfmHb iM?) fH* 
WAeilOW arul THE HAlHtOW lDQDt>p>l Bn» • 1 1 *tUv?n+rh o 

£i?c£ind class poilngti paid Praapa^l HY arnj 
odddranai rj1l4c« USPS N Tffls gw |(SSM No, 0746- 
VJ*?| POSTMASTEfl Sand addr&cs cnarvaat ft- tue 
"AiiaOiy. PC. 6iJi iR5, PrMtHKl, H> Fan 
p «lPO* Guaraniacta AamrnrLzad 



Enllra ^lanti » &y FAL&3FT. u*c. 1M4 THS 
mmmmow b KdhinotKl Flk (r«^ rKkal« um and ptniMr* 
■a* Mi *ublcrib«ri wni DURHAM i and riqroduc Iknn by 
Mif nmni la proti»b«Ud U»* 0< ifilonrwliun H*nttn 4» 
m ih* ongU and um fl* puinawni and any otrw u*» 
i* *»pmiJy prohJophia A|| piogfami hn^.n «•» 
' baus-. wilriOirt wainifity n* any 

EKtandad Cow oa-m Stlilpait 

I Prdftrijri Pt* ara * TrodinwrKa or lha Tartd^ Coip 
CompuServB ft a • 'f«lwnart oJ CofnrnJSefva Iik 

!kib»criplu-,ni lc TMl MuteldW m 181 pW Wtf (S31 
iiftof Jan 1, in >ho Unrt«d fimtod, ranadli>n iald 
aftUS J^J5 {.S3a dtlar Jan i. WB5\ SurtacF ^ii m 
OTrt»r counlrnj* kfl IJ.S H» an«f j«fi T. ia») 
mHl US *V30<fiaJalrnfJ*n 1. ] IMSj . All puhar. n[;tk-i n» 
Mom *ifh nan rtvanahln na»ai 

fof laauai wtilctt ant m prtni and Loan Payffwct 



LETTERS TO THE U/kW. 




ARTS AND 111! VMS 




i JUrlopc Of t hf Moftffl 



y^Ait an J \ttftittjt 
Walkertttn, Qiuwh* 



PRH>E \>'D PREJUDICE 



Whether you ever publish tins in your 
magazine or not, I've held the pricier I feel 
in your publication buck Tar too long! 

Unfonurtartly. I'm an old lady and cannot 
read the computer language utul I deeply 
regret that However. I rent) all the English 
pans I pomifclv can and love every minute 
of it . 

I'm sure the stuff is excellent and your 
Editor is very fortunate to have you. I 
couldn't be mare prejudiced than [ am lo 
your Editor because t am Lonoic\ Mum. 

mdmi C Faik 
Birmingham, A L 



WHAT'S A MOTHER Itl DOT 

Editor: 

Regarding your article in (he October Tt4 
tssuc of R.AIKbOW< "Everyone Want* More 

$ THE RAINBOW Jnr,u*r, 1M5 



MAKING A COMPROMISE 

fiffiffir 

I tUrnl THF raimmjw Lv an excellent 
magatme and il wcJI laid out Keep up the 
good wo rk. 



In your article ("Building October 1 * 
Rainbow," Page 16] on what to put in the 
KAl^BOW tnr long 64K programs vs shori 
programs and more dialogue}. I have this 
suggestion. Ye*. *c would Like to see good, 
long version programs, hut how about a 
compromise? Split the long programs over 
a couple of monthly editions, f don't think 
wc Will mind much and it give* a rest lit 
between listings on the key-in. It would be 
to your advantage, loo - it gives you more 
pages for articles and maybe increased 
circulation. Those who buy off-lhe-ihclf 
magazines will have to buy ncxi months 
or make requests far last month's LI they 

dnlj fmVe l he htmJ kbit 

John felktr 
St. Catherine?, iMitirto 



RAM ... n™ f am u new CoCo owner and 
a mother nf four kids. If 1 want "my turn" 
it hoi to be when the kids aie in school 
or in bed so I relate to your problem in 
terms of my own dilemma; nm enough 
RAM in my days and not enough K s in my 
CoCo. the K problem I urn going to deui 
with by having a 64 K package and a douhlc- 
disk drive added t« my unit. At for getting 
my share of time with the unit, well, the 
kids will eventually leave home and 111 get 
more time on the CoCo then. 

I am enjoying my computer, but tor my 
money k a en bow has really added something 
special to our f ami Ly 's compu tc r ex per icnces. 
Keep THE RAINBOW bright I 

Katky tjvldsitd 
twain;. Nunitukti 



BLUEPRINTS FOR THE Bl'lLDER 

Editor, 

I he computer dok plan* that Lloyd Wing 
(October IW4, Page 7t and other computer 
buffs may be interested in are in Mttlwmx 
lttti.i.u*imt, I cbi uui WSA 

The plans offer a flexible arrangement 
with locked compartment and a slide- uut 
tray holding the computet keyboard. 

Although the desk b made out of red oak 
plywood in the article and is estimated Uj 
com % |Ku„ a less expensive grade of material 
could be used with excellent results. 

Thuww Remukei 

Edintr: 

1 have been buy tng m*ga/ie»es for 29 years 
for the purpose of learning und improving 
my abilities, the ttAisw>w b, by far the best 
I have read- Enough, too much flattery 
might cause you to byte your bits. 

in the October «sue was a request 
for the iucaliun of tome home built 



computer tabl<- pkmv I recommend the 
August 1964 Popular .Science. There are 
several excellent computer tabic project* — 
winner* of the annual plywaud panel 
co nstruct ton contest — well worth In Liking 
at and not espemive to build. 

Ax Jiif the already built , every body with 
furniture is featuring *ame kind of computer 
furniture - at alt kinds of prices. 

Keep up i Fit outstanding work ami an 
10 I he next RAINBOWfcslT 

ON f HE HI'MOROJIS SIDE < , 

Editor 

It appwirv thai m ihc October issue, 
"Information Pka<sc H vection of lrw~ljcttcr* 
To rMi kAiN'BoW you must have left nut 
much of Llayd E. Wing's request, i.e., "I 
would like un example of both a pure foiled 
and hiinirmade product allowing for * 
monitor, desk drive jiu| printer,* 

* . an tuber primer (for color), Y cable, 
ROM pack, another disk drive, cassette 
recorder, diskette fdebox.. another diskette 
filehox. chart und paper storage, six or mure 
deal drawers, cassette file box, another 
cassette fllebox. notepad, pencil holder 

trash b,iji k el . g^l |im 't,i ^li n Tub bcr . 

it hum less when you kick >■ (Note- a 960(1 
Baud printer reunite* 33 gallon* or better), 
desk (amp. aspirin holder. at least a 200 ■ 
socket %p(kc ptotected extension cord {a 
dedicated utility company may be subs to 
lutedh modem, RS-2.32 switcher, printer 
interface, telephone, holder for mi: kajmwiw 
magazines, bookcase , coffeepot with cup (an 
A A. meeting list may he substituted], < , 
programming will require a change uf suck* 
and underwear (for all night sessions), 
calendar, radio, intercom (to let the family 
know of success the »ound of foot fink iny 
rubber trash can will suffice for failure i. in- 
baskei - nothing ever leaves, clock, 
checkbook (filled and solvent) a jillion 
stamps, envelopes, helpfully a Bible, picture 
of Loved ones (for later companions! . 
portable potty (not required If touch typim], 
dictionary for Advent um ami a plui.c 60 
Store joysticks . . - w 

TMF ft A IN SOW is doing Mi Wing -l grc:o 
di-MT^fr h\ |';tilmg lo ,-,.rnvr Km Idler lo 
a more rcaliilic request. 

DaDa and Co Co Nation 
Curkeysviik, W7J 



HINTS AND TIPS 

Editor: 

I own a CoCo 2 which I recently upgraded 
to «K. 1 found out thai the IBM PC uses 
the same 4164 RAM chips. 1 was able to 
bm nine 150ns chips for S3° plus tan aL 
an Austin PC store. So, when thinking of 
upgrading, check to ace if there are any 
bargains at your local PC store before you 
settle for 200n« chips 

ISe received a tremendous anumrU ol 
enjoyment in the three months that JVe 
owned my L'oCo. The ver>' first pmgrum 
I typed in was a "Sample Program S5**ftom 
the Extended BASK Manual. If you like 
graphics, but doti'i enjoy typing Lmji 



listings, youH line Oil* ipiic h m slu-rl .itul 
sweet. Be sure to make the following changes 
for different etfccis: 

1,^ POKE 65495.0 
5 FMODF 4,1 
Itl PCLS 
15 SCREEN I.I 
Ml GOTO 30 

2) delete lines 30,35.65,70 
replace Line 40 with; 
40 CO I OR RNWH.RNDM1 I 

First do the changes in part I and fWW 
iben do Hie changes in pari 2 and fVf.'.V 

Daniei Ortiz 
Awtin. TX 

BACK TALK 

Editor i 

I hnve been copying listings from the 
rainbow into my Color Computer, hut 
hiund jt quite tedious to keep glancing from 
i he magn/tne to the keybourd to the CRT 
screen. The other night I was w tubing I could 
persuade my wife to read the listings to me, 
when it suddenly occurred to tne I could 
dictate the listings to a cassette tape, then 
play that back while typing in the program. 
With a little experimentation in speed, 
groupings of character*, etc.. I found this 
a big improvement, t used a foot switch, 
which is available ui Radio Shack, to control 
the recorder while typing the lutings 

\ Imps this hdpi itlher* iis mueh js n 
hit, helped me. 

Ru\%etl R. Yost 
PhtttniX: AZ 

ED (TIN*. LttftORS 

Editor: 

1 have discovered that it is easier to correct 
errors if you type EO/Tand the line number 
{c,g,> EDH fOOiXhcn pros^X'and backspace 
to lhe error. H you run out oi pwpei white 
pri ali ng something, you ca n p ress i h e s H | F ' 1 
@> key which will pause it. change paper 
and then press ony key to *ton printing, 

Robrrf Ikwlby 
A/Jmrer, WV 

Editor 

To all you people who wound up with 
an Epson MX-HO printer and Radio Shack's 
Disk Color Scriptit, and found out all you 
could print was garbage: if you use the print 
spool feature of Swput. not only will the 
printer work, hut you 11 be able to work on 
iiimclhinc else aIhic ii'f ntmltn|| [he Epool 

nte, 

Thanas fot one letrtfit; mago/ine- you 
make the CoCo worthwhile 

Andri"* R. liowit 
Hath wood. FL 

wh h \ f i ip iti- mi: SUIT* M 

Edittirr 

1 have recently purchased lhe 64K Disk 
^ e i 1 1 on of C*H~ a-Acc ouniant it from Federal 
Hill Software and the RGS Micro Dual 
DOS Card from Software Support. 

Caco-Acrountttm 1/ u» a very good 
program; in fact, 1 am osing it to do the 



P.'f.A. records. It due*- everything Federal 
Hill Software slates, and Li menu -dm en 

The only problem is thai the MK Disk 
versitrn is not womputibb: with J DOS. It 
must he used with Disk BAStc. This 
presented a problem in lhe beginning, us 
I did not know why the program did not 
function properly; however, with Federal 
Hi IPs help and assistance, we found that it 
was due to mv use of J DOS. This is why 
I purchased the Dual DOS Card and Switch, 

The directions that came with the Dual 
DOS Card were easy to follow and the 
■mutilation was quickly performed, The 
hardest part whv to drive & hole fw the 
switch. 

With this Card t can change from J DOS 
to Disk BASIC just by the flip of ihe switch 
and I don i have to worry about lulure 
incompatibility with J DOS. 

fftirotd V/. Bioom 
princt-stm. ,VJ 

♦CASTING" UNES 

Editor- 

If you would like to play Gone l ifting 
(THE n AIM WW, Jan, 1984, Page I5W> and 
not have your line disappear, make the 
following changes in your program: 

220 GET (125,1 2KH 1 35 J 3o>,M t G 
600 LINE ( 1 4*>,40H 1 49, K ).PS ET 
6(0 PUT (1 40K+OH 1 50 ,K +6), M , PS FT 

J'ril tfpv*>r 

fojrr GrttnhuM/f. H Y 
POSITIVF OR NEGATIVE 

Editor; 

In the September I9H4 issue (Pa^r U\, 
Bur me Whiddon from Orlando gave a 
method of finding the exclusive OR of two 
integer His method works for imegers 
I n.n i I to 32767, hut there is a simpler 
method to do the same thing and it works 
from -32767 to +32767. OI court* , you have 
to know how the negative numbers are 
stored Try the following lines: 

10 IN PUT"N UMBERS TO 

XOR n ,A,B 
20 PRINT (A Oft ft) ( A AND Hi 

These will produce the desired XOR, 

Mike Moorv 
Nrpcan. Ontario 



ALL fN THE FAMILY 

^tlfrcM? 

At the publisher and exclusive marketing 
agent for the genealogical database Family, 
1 would Like to thank Mr. Howard l.ee Ball 
i -ii r Km praise or the program Famdy in a 
review of aoother genealogy program 
[Ancestors 2.0 November NK4. Page 2IMJ 
The review stales that Mr Knight cooperated 
with the writer of Ancestor* which is a disk* 
based system, Famdv was originally a tape- 
based system only. 

We would like to inform the readers that 
Petrocci Freelance Associates hra converted 

January 1BS5 THE RAtN&OW 7 



Mr km phi N Family t& disk *o ti is now 
available on both lope And diik. The new 
du* version t» Si 9.95. We Iccl it '§ only 
fair to Mr. Knight to make sure thai render* 
know thai hit own program. Family is 
available In other formal. 

Susan Pftfori-f 
Pfttom Frertatirf Associate* 
Tunon. AZ 



Editor: 

I am writing m it spuria ia the request 
or Mr Dieter Kiosc in the November 19*4 
"letier* To thk tAWiOW* 1 column. Mr. 
rvloie inquired about Lompu(cr> and 
graph ics printers lor use in the production 
or hi* large-*cale animated cartoon. Vour 
Fdttor\ Note suggested our program, liar 
Antmaior, might help. While we ihunk you 
inr the nieoiion, I believe Mr, KIoic had 
something else in numl- To set the record 
ttraighl. 77ir Animator doe* not support 
output to a graphic primer A n pedal 
"commercial veftion" of tlnr Anttuantr El 
being med by several graphic* and adver- 
tising companies (mnking i rami en directly 
m videotape). For Mr. (Clone* purpmev we 
would recommend either u full-scale m&n- 
Irame system or traditional film animation 
■Stan Oxterhmitr, President 
Irani ft /Kfc.f torp. 



i\j-ohmmionpi,i:asi! 

Cu7ri>r- 

(. mn smnfone vetul me a aipy d| ilte fiW 
Ttf/Arr ^EnghiTi \\r Fhenorne Dictionary?" 
They ure no longer available from CoJor- 
ware I would be happy 1 o pay for the copies. 
Thanks. Wrilc to me at Ri.l, Box I0J. 

Gury HtMum 

Editor. 

Congratulations on a fine mapa/.ine. Each 
month, with about five magazine* af ifilcrot 
in Ihe electronic! Held coming to me, your* 
rates tops 

I am interested m.i ptojUani u> help UkMh 
the sellings Tor a TVRO (television receive 
only) amenrva 

It would allow mc lo enter my kuiiudc 
aud longitude, degrees, minutes and seconds 
Then ihe location of the d cured iaiellile in 
the Smith Belt and tell me lac elevation and 
degree*, from irue norm em sei \iw wile mil 

With ail the iniereM in rarth Catkins, 
privately owned, if the program is not 
available maybe someone would he inter- 
ested in writing one. A program writer \ 
am no) . Write me at Box 471 . 44815. 

Cart E. Nav 
Btttsviitr, Oft 

Editor- 

I I has been suggested to mc that your 
maga/me mjgfil be ublt lo hisM me in 
finding out ill here is a magazine subscript ii>n 



which mighi pertain to the MfMO Color 
Computer put out by Radio Shack. 

I am particularly interested in ruulniu un 
wliai iffaartlcf, if any , arc available Tor ihia 
computer ami where u person might obtain 
ihe same. 

Ann l ohk 

Win Riwr. Nitrtfthn-si IWrttonti 

Editor's Note: l'lei« refer lo Radio 
S h.cfc \ m* < slalom Pa Re 1*7. 



GOTO Itf ENGLAND 

Editor: 

As a refugee tallowing the demise of 
ChromHutftf, I can see I have been mining 
a great deal in not subscribing to ml 
a^iNtuiw before now! 

Da you have many readers in England? 
Ma> he we can gel some together to try and 
gei rcumnnahfy priced software .uei here 
importing software I rum the United Stales 
result* in havmg to pas six percent of value 
in ctettorais uharges and then VAT I tax al 
IS percent on top of ihe convened dollar 
rale and ihe customs charge). The cJwiiM 
of n gn-Radio Shack software over here u 
severely limited. 

Eancy Tending the 'poi of gold'ai the end 
of a mi n how over 4000 mlb* a hay Uti\ 
science wonderful! 

L'untaci me al J A Upcrofi Ave.. Edgware, 
Middle*** HA&9R& England. 

Norman Allen 
MhUlrstx. England 



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PIRATE PENDENCY 

Editor 

Please accept my compliment un ihc 

Computer The high point of my month ti 
always (be Arrival of THf JUI^BOW. ! would 
a I id like to cast my vole m l«vur uf un article 
rr series on FORTH 

I wuuM like tn commend ihrsc supplier* 
Pru-kls-Pear Sof I ware. Spectral Associates, 
Spectrum Projects. Tom Mi\ Software and 
Double Density Software 

Lastly. 1 would Like to u>v nut a few 
com menu about i oh wore piracy My 
qucMiof! btO the software vend on who deal 
exclusively, or almoin *o, in imitations uf 
arcade games Wha! legal right do these 
companies have to copy arcade games 
without licensing them from the original 
manufacturers? 1 hear a fat of whining unit 
screaming !fom the^e manufacturer* dhoti I 
people fteahng their software, but it teem* 
lo me I cue of ihc pnt calling the Vet lie 
black, f invite rebuttal from the 
manufacturer*.. 

Rtthmt P, Adams 
MnquiHr. TX 



KUDOS 

This maga/mc delimtclv u she best CoCo 
maga/inc around! The programs ore always 
lie*, creative and an citing- I) makes me feel 
good when t read *hnut new hard waft or 
software because I know you really know 
what you're talking ahour 

Keep up the gpml work on your giem 
magajinel 

Tt*dd A rrWeo 
U'inttirvp. MA 

Editor. 

Congratulations on ihc suecesi of your 
magazine. I'm a subscriber uf your to tori id 



maga/me. f live m Canada and IVe been 
wondering why nobody ihoughi of doing 
a RAlNROWfev here in Canada. Everybody 
is *CoCo" about THE RAistiriw muga/mc 
here. 

hfantrtaL Qutbet 



4PFI AlJSfc, APPLACSE! 



Edunr; 

As the New ttninswtck RAlNBGWfesT 
was excel lcm> the Princeton RAINBOWfcst 
exceeded i| by far. I mutt say thai both 
shows, were worthwhile. 

I have manj, many companies to thank. 
To start off\ for the New Brunswick show, 
I must i hank Mark Data Products for their 
excellent Super- Pro keyboard and Tom Mix 
tofrware lor their quick delivery of SR-7L 

For Ihe Princeton show there an? many 
more mm panics to thank. Finn un the Iki 
» Computer Plus for iheir service and the 
great price on rhr Okidata Micro! me 92 
primer. (Not lo mention the Okidaia 
company for ihe quality of the printer.) 
Nam, 1 should mention Micro World H\ 
frtcndhnesi and good price on Sam Sftt/ik 
by Computerware. (Anybody know where 
some more evidence is on level 2? Got ihem 
<o i lie lot' hut armiing them docsol word!) 

How about Mich I ron for their M*ch If 
joystick*, for giving us a free Mudpin game, 
and for a good price on Gmphicom, Yes, 
ihey do discount al R AINBOWir>rti' 
Thanks to Moreton Bay Labored ory for 
their Mfarit Blinks fGrapkuam and Bftrl 
Works arc perfect together S. 

I'd also like 10 commend Compukn 
Corporation Their 64K upgrade fat 138 T 
including installs* on, was a bargain 
Although wt had inmc trouble wnh n, 
bringing the computer hack the next day 
remedied the problem. 



Finally, and most importantly, I'd like to 
thank Tftt Rainbow for supporting the 

shows and especially the CoCo. You guys 
have done a great job and we wouldn't be 

here without you. 
Thanks to all, 

£>ic W Lund 
Mitlmgton. tt/ 



Editor: 

Just a line to let you know how much 
m> buddies and I like your magazine, The 
RAtJJBOW. You seam to have an endkss 
supply of goodies. I always try lo point a 
new CoCo owner in the right direction 
righi to rainbow, that is. 

■•Cooking With CoCo'* by Colin ). 
Stearmnn is a good example. J have enjoyed 
every segment so far He is a fantastic writer 
in ray opinion, 

Vou have loo many greai a ruck* (or 
anyone to mention them «U. As for my 
CoCo gelling lonesome, not as. long as ] 
can get a rainhow! Hut my finger* an 
gelling a I title stiff, so I also gel rainbow 
•>-, I hpi 

Keep all those great article^ and grtai 
people workinjf for us. 

Horoid Lamt 
Gttllmm, TX 

On Sunday, September MO, Hg4, the 
drawing for the soft sculpture doll was held 
at RAlNBOWfest in Princeton. K.J. Draw* 
rng the tickers for the PJCCC was Willo 
Falk of THE Aainbow magazine. Standing 
by as verifying official was Dim Down and 
of TPfl rainbow The winner of the doll 
wit Paul He V hard, KK I. Box l?2 h Pal- 
uv: if m]i. PA. 

Ptnn-Jency CoiCf Computer Ciuh 
lauon. PA 



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WORLDS OF FLIGHT (WOF> (5 8 "view 1 
oriented flight simulation for (tio TRS-BO 
Color Computer, written entirely In 
Machine Language, 4< View" oriented 
means that the pilot may deter mine his or 
her position by actually viewing ihe aur- 
rounding landmarks as opposed 10 using 
instruments which sense navigational 
references. This is a major departure from 
■'Instrument only' simulations whicti can 
tie achieved through BASIC programs. 
Most instrument maneuvers and pro- 
cedures may he practiced. The crah Is a 
light-wfright. single-engine airplane whh 
low wings A nose wheel which fs both 
steerahle and retractable is also modeled 
Some aerotmiins are possible Including 
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C.L — "As a pilot / fount i fUffhl ft* 
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M H - No one na* <- rfiafufj ,s rnufv 
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D HOOPFR,pttnl fnr mctjvt ttirftrw - 
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really cant think of a nicer lime of ihc year — and the only thing ■ dim 
makes this time uf the year had is that U isn> really that lime yet, 



1 guess E should explain- This is the January issue of THE RAfNfcOw. but it 
comes out in mid -December. However, in order for me 1u meet the deadlines 
that hnve been imposed, 1 have 10 write it in early to mid-November. So T while 
I am trying to project myself a month ahead — it is a little hard to do. Ill 
iry. 

Because this is the January issue, I think it is important to look at the year 
which has just ended for is about to end) and the one that is coming up. First, 
a few observations about 1984: 

George Orwell's society did not take us over during l%4, as neither I nor 
you really thought that it would, At the same lime, we did see computer* and 
machines doing more and more things For people than ever before. 

The computer business, in particular, was a good and a bad one. It was good 
for those of us interested in the CoCo because tens of thousands of users were 
added to the ranks. At the same time, more and more people looked m the 
Color Computer for the first lime and this has made it what may very well 
be the most popular low-cost computer going. 

For some other people the computer business has not been particularly good. 
We keep hearing about "the shakeout" — and a lot of people ^got shook out." 
Com pater companies Software houses Magazines. iVc written about all i n is 
before, so there is nothing new here. Just an end-of-year observation that Tandy 
Corporation/ Radio Shack seems to be as strong or stronger than ever, while 
some other people seem to be weaker or non-existent. 

Looking ahead, 1 see the trend continuing, The fact of the matter is that 
many of the companies which show "new computers™ at big shows like rOMhE \ 
one year, are nowhere to be seen the next year, One case in point is close to 
home: Tano Corporation — which had a big display for its U.S. Dragon computer 
last year. This lime around they arc not even in the market. 

Why dont a lot of these people succeed? That is one of the concerns I think 
needs to be answered in l Q «5. And, frankly, I think the answer is that they 
do not succeed because they don't have anything new thai will really grab the 
market. 

The same goes in software. And magazines. No one is going to make inroads 
into an established market unless they can build a bett£f mousetrap. Someone 
once wrote a book entitled To Catch A \fuu.\t. Make A Noise Ukr A Cheest. 
It was a good book and tt makes a lot of sense. Hut. you have to have a better 
cheese than the guy who has been selling you a perfectly good wheel of cheddar 
for a couple of years, or why would anyone switch? Too many people in the 
computer market are expecting people to switch simply because they have arrived 
on the scene. 

What we need in J 985 are new things. New computers. New software. And 
not just new software, but new concepts. New ideas 1 remember when t^wiCfl/c 
first came out — it was the first program thai gave the husincssperson something 
he could really use, Apple Computer t o sold a lot .>! computers i hanks to 
ads which showed t'isiCalt running. 

1 hear thai several people are working on new endeavors in a lot of areas. 
I hope the trend continues and makes it to the marketplace. New programs 
will make your CoCo an even better investment - you'll be able to do more, 
And, of even more significance, you 11 be able to do thing* you did not consider 
it possible to do. That's truly significant. 

I see something new coming from a hardware standpoint, too. Whatever comes 
from Radio Shack will, undoubtedly be upwardly compatible. That is something 
1 have writ ten about before, and it is a major strong point for the Radio Shack 
and Tandy line of computers. 

In short. I sec 1°S5 as an exciting year! I think it is u year rn which the 
CoCo c o mm u n ity wi 1 1 co ntt n uc to gt o w a nd the s upp on f o r ou r f a vo r i t c com p u te r 



Telewriter-64 

the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 
True Lower ease characli'rs 
User-friendlj full -screen 
editor 

Rfghl Juslifkalion 
Easy hyphcnalion 
Drives any printer 
Embedded format and 
control codes 
Runs in 16K. 32K. or 6411 
Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



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Simply siuied, Trk**rnci ^ ihr m-iM jvwrrJul 
word processor you tan buy for the THS-RO 
Color Compuirr The original lelcw Titer has 
received irrtew* In every major Color 
Computet and THS AO magazine, u weU u 
cnihuiiJMiL praise Iri-'in ihousanJ* til sj'iified 
owned . Ami rightly to, 
the uandard Color C/emtputcr d»pl*y of .*J 
cbaracter* by lb lines withoul lower cb« l> 
simply inadequate for icrrous ward procrVstng 
The checkerboard letters and tiny line* tiv? you 
no fed fuT ho* your writing loot* or read* 
j jMWrt itff Bi*es the Color Computer * 51 
column b* 2a line mem display with fntt 
tawtf nuc chcfvucn So a 'felewnler screw 
look i like a printed page, with * good chunk 
tew on *iteen «r one lime In fact,, nww on 
ifieen itst Than you'd je1 with Apple II. Atari. 
Tl, Vkco* TftS^OModd III 
Hp i,jp n» Hia-. ihc wphv^kaS^J 1d?*ni(-r 
rufltcrcett editor ib u,i simple to u»e, it main 
«nii[>K lun. Wilh single-letter miwmonu 
commands, and incnu-Ji n cn ' f J ami 
forrtiiltctrt. Telewriter surpasses all oilier*, for 
user frietwllinni and pure power 
TeJcwiiler'* chain priminj learnre meant that 
ihc il/r ol your lent K rve*et htniied by Uie 
amount of memory you bay*, and Tde^riier' ■ 
advanced caudle handlei tin»« you a powerful 
«ri>rd protervor aiihour Ihc major additional 
ant or a diik. 




Thill R1TKR-64 



Bui now we'** added more power to 
Telewriter Not * « i ■- : bell* and whittle*, but 
nutror features thai gi*e >uu toljl control ovet 
your truing. We call this ne» uiperthargwl 
vtf*km tCkwrUer-fea | ; "r two reawirti 



64 K *VOMP\tHiil 



Telewriter M run 4 , rulh in ans Colur t nnipu-ler 
— |6K. iZK, ur with or without Euended 
Basic, with dak ur cauettc or both, 1l 
automatically configure* itwtf icj take optimum 
advantage of all available memory That mean* 
thai when you upgrade your memory, the 
telewriter -6* ten buffet grow* aatirrfinglv In 
a MK cassette bated system, for cjinmpk, you 
get aboui 4QK of mcmor* ; " 1Cit - 
don't need ink at FLEX IO put «U yoiu MK 
to work immedialdy 



rsc id* iric L^r i pLii-i I 51 LoEumn vtT«n. 
Telewnler-M ni** ft\<<o *ou - uJdilional hmti 
dcniltv diiptayv: 64 * 24 and 85 * 24tr Doth 
high density tnodo provide all ilie ^landjird 
Tetewriter editing capabtHtici, and >nu can 
witch iruliLally to an> at the 3 formats wuh * 
irnglc contrnl key command 
the ) I k 24 dHnlay » dear and crisp on the 
tcreen. The I wo high dcmii*. modes are more 
Lruwdti,! and lei* ca*iU icadahle, hul ihe> are 
per Tea fuT thowrny you the exact layout of 
youe printed page. uW ofr r'tr H*fW ur itnf 
tttttf I'nmpare thi* with cumoeriome 
*'wlndow4" that ihow you ooJy (ragmen u at a 
lime and don't even allow editing. 



KU,HI Jl SJ tnCATlON & 



One oulHandutgi advmtagc of the f tuj-* idih 
vcreen tlbplay u that you can now *et ibe 
urerm wtdih to match the wtdih ol your 
printed oagr. so thai "what yon «« ii whoi 
vou get "' Thi* mukei nact alignnrem at 
column.' possible and it irtukw hyphermljon 
simple. 

Since ihorr lines ire the reason for ihc large 
.p.icrs often found in slandaid rigbt juuifled 
leu. and since hyphenation, n the eaoat 
<f fpelive way to elimtnaie mon linei, 
Ielewnter->iJ .^n now promise vou some al ihc 
beat looktog righi |uslifkaiioa you can act on 
the Color Computet 



FF.ATURilS & SPECIFlCAnONS: 



Printing and rnrmitllng: l)nm «n>- prinie r 
iLPVU.'Vm, DMP-IHf JOO. Epum. Osidau 
L'cnooalc*. NEC. C. Ilnh. SnMhCcrtOAa. 

titihcU JeJ cxMUrol code* c*t rull dymmk »sw» n 
inCfJIajenl prinrr 1 IrAJurrs hit uHdefllliillt, 
Ultnoiot! HpCTKTipt, vwiAtac funi *rtt upe mr, i 



etc 



tSyrum 



I -iinlroJi l<ir inf. 



batltKT). and kft manmx Une km«rh. Inn prr p«»». 



MpftM drtvm cUfiiiol at tUnr jMF«n*t*n, 41 «i H] 
;•*•••»• naff rwtinm. paic witihmn^ h«utt |u» 
yiw can ran vour primer at rap *nmJ^ and Epmm 
lom " , Typrw[l^cr ,, kwujc rvf*d laio dirmtv 
to j^nir iwnlcr, ind Ilirert nwdr »ewl* ^Lmtrnl *.*le> 
rlgan frenr lb* VryboanJ 5e«cikl tpum dJi>tr 
wnpCiltfi uv will- si van 

^entertm Pmdi Sf uvc all or uty uxtioa of tfcf WD 
buffer. Cham ptmi m* nntritKT n» 1iln in im Laswrte 



File and I Q Ftatmt: ASClt farawl thai - 
(Trait and edit BASIC AMcnnly, l'«Kaf 4 and C 
Drograutt, teart T«mU«t fiki ffw uploading m 
itfti>nlcudto|>, ncn mi lilo tmm WtKt *ur4 
ptneemus CumpautiJc +ith *pcfllng uhecans Hike 
ibeli a Ftal. 

Cavcbe verify crpmnand tor hhx urn Ctwm fail 
ratry bom you itrpr a In*! LorwtianU only nnt* no 
TOlU1*r Khfff yntj »rt ir rN: ttpc 

gmd m . pmtal w*r 4 and append h>t ^nft dW 

inJ iv; jiirtlr Hn J.H |SIJiJ ittrra-f* ■* ■ I Is '!n 
■pane lg -. rrcn rtr pnntci. kihl and rciiamr rati, sd 
dtrawlt drtVe. E*rf* fttHLiniwfd k: I Kr ngiubri Lit 
drlsea In ihe lyiltm 

Edlllng rfttlam: Ful. luil sdrtta editor nttk 
•■>nb»rap r htoci rnpy. Modi more, tri«» dCDr. Mbi 
detew, gJUOat acaitn and itptai.' tot isebncr. *M kin' 
Karch. tan luto-teprat cursor, Ian tCt^UAg. cur>or 
up. itown, ilgrii. letl, brgrf lt<*. em) Lhk, |np tU teti 
foltjun pr ism; PM* 'Diwaril, tim* »»i;k*iud, align 
rest, tab*, dxtkc nT bulf or firm i-acigjottnd. 
^mptdc ifnj| p»crtet;njii r Une Lsimiier, *oid n.-mHrr 
tpace Id I. current iilf nam*, detaoii d»»» w effect. 
«et line knftlt <A kw 

Iniert or de*rt* KM •aywtiire on the vsmn wHhuul 
rluuifuig "nodes '* Thh fait "Irr* fan*" rdrtnr 
prA*iJe% nuumiim rxir nJ aw fiiatytliltlg rOU db 
appaan OTmeduirU "r rhr *.tm=! m 'ratu nr n». 
Cottnmandi tmuir e only a >iaajk 4t> or a sJa#k ktv 
plui CLEAR. 



1 1 


,-tnift m Utft nt it* mn atW p 








— Th* gAlNbftw U 


p ItK 











Vou can no longet afford to he without the 
power and efficiency word pnvevoni brings to 
everylhing you wnie Ihc fJtS-Ufl Color 
Computer is the mweai priced mlao wilh the 
capability for serin ui word processini And 
only Telewriter -** fuUy unleash** thai 

iTJiiJlt'tlU\ 

Telewnler^a .totIi 541^? ^n ctii»cTte . t« *)* 
on coal* and cornet complete with over 70 
pagci of wdlwruten documentation. I The »tcp 
tflr «Hp tutnnal will ! js L - your wruMna with 
T(lc*riier-6-i in a mailer of minutes,! 
To order, send chock ot mooey order to. 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Street 

Dc] Mm, CA 92014 
Or check your local wiflwafc narc- II you havt 
question*, or would like lo order by Visa or 
Maitcrvard, call uv at (M9| 7S5T25* 
i*tekda.«, HA^aPM PST> Qealer incruirio 
tn*ltet}. 

tAdd fj l>u >nwr>XH CJfcliitruMn a*d *W Mat* lai \Sm I 
•t*> r tn 4oU «»l utJirud rfaa^eJ 

ranka* f* Ttk*TUP T»Sf»> Ins s,t>i . k MM* IM , 

arsMxrt), «r>u s tiw-rH« ttm ww« swt * m ■» 
■ifatmauai d« u|*ttrada*t td 1«tea>*da-M Immhp 
i naajM ta frar apalwt .adn iM^li tlnlat Wtn 
V»kaaraai il.nlunsT«i-'Lf *M tHitaan I all *• »n< f|w aaar 

OppU- 1| in a ItadeJaw I nl *rw4r C.-#1h#fr, ta* , *J*t a a 
*<a4oMia erf iSUM iwi IRh.a(l „ . iradaaMfk I two 
I Bf [a. SIX ai a a Uadd i 1 1 <i< I fw Vm» i*w 



IVVLS NEST 

SOFTWARE 



L4BLL Ml - Nam* and tOilrni h\* v .trH i,ih;-' 
W>1h LABEL 111 yuti Lin develop and maintain 
j myilinq li',t Prml lists or mailing 'atwls <n you 
choice of 1. 3, or J wide. Support* 3 or 4 lirw 
•diJrrvi rtirh phono oplional. F AST machine 
j*g* sort by n»me. '<m <i«i«r. " r J"i> 



•jn.>.'.n 

C»«tre tflK EXT Posipeid 



$'lt£lll 0*1* Man*afli"irH Syswcn 
With r I L £.111 you c*n create and maintain records on any 
thing vou chocta Racipet, coupons, household rvcrods 
financial recordl vou name i( Vou cuw records nnn 
taifimg up lo five lields vou define. Yqu can search. io»t. 

rIKVi.fv ■ ■'■liTt- 4.IVT :n fiit||l.i v .^.rt Ihf WfMfl fir 

send to a pnnler. The piDflnim is utn 'nBodlv and ufei 
tuoo! Prompting n cxTcn^ivf A comparable firosriirn 
ttMjid eotl muLfi more This o<>* n a banji-nl 
bestur 1 fiK EXT Pimi paid i I *> ,9i 

PROGRAM FILE {Reviewed .n Oct r# Rj^bowi 
Qrganui* your (MuiK preqramt Wild PROGRAM FI LE 
you create a Pile of your computer program* Vdo can 
l*trcl\ JCr'L modify. *dd. delete, w< on lap*, and display 



Ct**lr EXT fuMpaid 



INTRODUCING! ■ CO [JL tONVLRHH Security Sy%l-n> 
CODE CONVERTER wUi protect your b»ic and ML prp 
qrjmi from unauthor ued use- A simple code at your 
choke encodes your pr oflrerni Banc program ifitinfji will 
be acrambhrd and Inoperative Machln«Lao»iice will not 
operate Coded programs enn he copied bui arp useless un 
till proper ly decoded. 

duett* 4 £ K EXT * Pttstpiid s 1 4.95 

ADVENTURE STARTER [Revttwed in Feb .*W Rl'ilbowl 
Learri to play ti™ adventures the pa<nieu way You 
' vUr' with a umple adventure and m»i into an mlarma 
diate Two comptatir teperate •jJwantpfeji plus Npi and 
tips on aoVwitunrnj. FlnLth this and you are ready 
ATLANTIS! 

Cawtfe 1 6K E*i - Poh paid J 1 7.93 

A 1 LAN T IS ADVENT HUE IfWewed in May S4 Rainbow! 
, T*in oneo tough I Wp chaiien^ you roccmpleic hum 30 
dayii l F you ran we will Mf>rJ you any program we kii 
Pottnaid at Absolutely no charo*. Vou start on a disabled sub 
r>#*r the knt oiy of Atlantis. Vou muit get (he tub (*Jid your 
self I ufely to tbeiurfice. 

Cusele 1 6KEXT Prnl p j id %2\ ,55 

ESPIONAGE ISt, AN f» ADVENTURE r Revrewett Jurw ft4 1 
You have been dropped off on o descried ntantf by ujbitiarinw 
Vou muit recover totTMr top secret mlcfiifilm and trgnal the 
■jjb to pn-k you up. Problerm abound in rh rt 17K 
adVtnture 

"KEXt PoAtpjiJ Drik (^tir m>JS 

KINGDOM OF BA5HAN 
, Our moil mvolwed advent ute to dalv, 8iihnr> has a larot 
MOC4buLaf y ^nd some unique problems to tolv« Vou molt 
enter BASttAN font rajyi. .jaUwr ih< ten treasure: flf th e 
ii<nodom while tiaying nJhrt (fven harderj. aid nrlum to ihe 
fUrung [Kwm | harder yM). H you can tjet The mvrimum 200 
pointi .n this you are an experif 

12K EXT * Postpaid Disk J2D.9S C^ttc 11 ? 95 

FOUR MILE ISLAND I Rrnmrwed M« v 841 

Vou are trapped mside a drsabted nuclear power pia/rt- The 

reactor it running jway' Vuy mutt tmng tn« r«ee[or to a cold 

snutrjawn «nd prevent the "Chins Syndrome' Can you we 

Ihpplnnt l*rxt yuurterO* 11 1 r»oi irasyl 

Cassette >6K F. XT - Poupaid H70S 

'COO ordm Hd CI SO 



* A HtjUUV CALL QUH HOOT | rtwF l4lf»i 

VISA* UVWS Nt^l SDH WARL 

# P O iOX S7B h OOL TtWAM. TUf 173*3 D 



will coolinue lo expand I believe newer and belter things 
arc on the hnri/un. And, with the Color Compukr on 
sak now. almost everyone has a ehancc lo buy Lh,c best 
single mathjnc available. dallat-foT-doilar. on the markei 
Ltnljy 1 hope you will do your friends and ueifihhors a 
favor anij expose them 10 your C0C0 in the days before 
and thoate ft>l lowing ikt holiday reason. 

I should also mention I hat R A IK BOW f est tn Jrviitc T 
Calif, will be in February These shows arc always a great 
deal of fun. as well as an opport unity lo sec the CoCo 
Community at iis hesi \Ve have special rates at the Irvine 
Marriott for the show and hope that thousands of you 
will join us in sunny. Southern California for the midwinter 
meeting. 

There arc a husl of seminars and lots of exhibitors 
planning lo altend. So T cheek out the registration form 
in this month s issue and let us know thai you will be 
wilh itv 

Last but certainly not the least, this is the mow 
appropriate time of the year 10 say "thank you 1 * to I he 
lens of thousands of you who are members of the CuCo 
C (immunity, who support THE JtAlNHQW. and who use and 
love your Color Computer We started this magazine three 
and a half years ago with Hit: idcj oi seivitig people who 
owned a CoCo t even though it didnl yel have that 
nickname. 

We have been obit, 1 to m-nt you. I feci. Largely ihrnuijh 
your support oftif - v. riling or catling us with suggestions; 
idling ( iuVMim:7?, th:ii you ;ia^ ihcjt ada .11 ihi- m^wnw. 
submitting programs tor publication; participating in our 
contests; and a whole host of other things. We truly could 
nol have THE RAlNUow without each of you. 

I hope this season of the year is a hanpy, healthy and 
prosperous one for you and yours. Nook forward to being 
"ith you for an even better year ahead. 

Happy Holidays and happy 1*85, 

- Lonnir talk 



Qne-Uner Contest Winner . 



This shows how the notorious "P MODE 4 color artifact*" 
ereaic d color piciutc on your set fr om what is really a black 
and white video iignal. It's also very nice 10 look at, 

Mike b'opofiiau 

The lislin£: 

1 DirtAtll) ;W-20:FOftC-4TO5:PMODE4 
p i : PCLS i SCREEN 1 a 1; BET t4 ( 4}-<24|2 
4> , A t ©: FORX-C T022B9TEP2: Y-X#.7S 
: Z«174*Y:PUT (X.Y>-( K+W, Y+W) p A, NO 
TSPUKXtZ^-OC+W^Z+W) , A^IMOTlPUTiX 
f S6*-(K+W* 106> f A t N0T:NEXT:FORT-i 
T mmi NEXTT f C : FORB- 1T09?99: NEXT 



i Far IH4, ^.nn.njl..rii:-Hrli:i n.-i3r,J rinrs Mil ^sllhirt 1.4* Iwi v<p>r> <»f h4«ih tht 
RalrifViN #mU rV 4tl\ttU^t tutl M> vnmnnninn ll'iUrlVn^ Arhivtwr Jv/n | 



14 THE RAINBOW Jan u «;y 1U6 




YOU 

COULD FALL !N LOVE WITH 

AUTOTERM! 

IT TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO T 

WORLD'S 
SMARTEST 
TERMINAL 



AND 
MOST 



GOOD 
LOOKIN 1 



ALTl'OTERM show* true upper, 
tower caac m ween width* of 12, 
40, 42 T or 64 character* *uh no 
split words. The width of 32 Kav 
e*tra lur^c letters. Scrolling i> t\jf- 
ward, backward, and fa*t. Block 
IfrapltK* picxute* are displayed auto- 
matically and can beacrnlled 

The screen's nip line show* operat- 
ing mode, umi>ed memory *t:c, 

memory on off. ; m * I on' 

off Ir also Rives hrlpful prompts 



SWEET 
TALKIN* 



Fully support* D.C Haye> and 
other intelligent modems. 

Talk* to your printer with 
any pave 'H-v, miinjin.-, hrtv sparing, 
split word avoidance. Embed your 
printers control sequence* for bold- 
face, underlining, etc- Narrow text 
can he Automatically spread out. 

You' LI Li I mi use Auloicrm 
Tor simple word processing 
and record keeping 

You can display Ji rectories » delete 
file*, transmit directly from disk* 
jiul wnrk villi liles Ufttct [hail 
memory Easily maintain a disk Copy 
of an enure session. 

Compatible with TELEWRITER 

<ASl. II • i.rllirf 'Am J i'rivt--v:n'. 



PUTTY IN 
YOUR HANDS 



Thf word processes can he used 
to create, print, and 'ot wvc on file 
your personal KSMs They let 
AUTOTERM act like V on Flit 
example, it can dial through your 
modem, sign-un, interact, perform 
file operation*. 6t, sign -oft"; an en tire 
a^a tHW without your help. KSMs 
can answer the phone, prompt the 
caller, take messages, save them, 
hangup, and watt for the next call. 
The KSM potential is unbelievable) 
NO OTHER COMPUTER IN THE 
WORLD can MATCH vol H 
COCO'S AUTOMATIC TERM! 
IMAL CAPABILITIES'!!: 1 ! 



KEY-SEE P can he on oft' Unit 
ccptabJc keystrokes cause a tower 
rirdu-J BOP 1 Thi> ERROR BEEBOF 
can be on/off. 

Talk* to other compilers with 
Full or Hull l>uple*; Baud Rate of 
1IL\ ISO. KX\ 600, 1 20b Parity a* 
even, odd, mark, space, none, 7 of ^ 
bit Word; any Stop 8tt* all 128 
ASC-H characters, true line Break; 
XOM/XOFF protocol; and optional 
llne-at-a-time tratumistiuiL. Able to 
iend anil receive text, Mock graphics, 
BASIC and ML pToKnim*. A u4K 
machinr hold*, up !.■ 4b r tit , i n tharac- 
tcrMJ4.W01nHlRESJ, 

DUAL PROCESSING lets you 
review & edit while mote data b 
comma in. 



SMOOTH 
WALK IN' 



AUTOTERM move* smoothly 
and quickly between word procet- 
-inv: -md intelligent terminal action- 
Create toff, correct your typing 
ern.»r>; tfu-;i Linii'al tu the , idiot 
computer, upload your icxi, Jown- 
loud infiirTn.irinn, lile it, and sign-off: 
then edit the received data, print it 
in an attractive format, and or save 
ir ,ici nlr 

Editing is supep simple with the 
cursor. Find srrin^s instantly, too! 
Any operating parameter, such j:- 
screen width, can be altered at any 
time. Uncompleted comma rid* can 
be cancel led 



WHAT THE 
REVIEWERS SAY 



,1 AUTOTERM is the Best of 
das* . M 

Rjndiitl W. UtaHwm 

thr RAfSlKJV?. June. J^Si 

"The Autoterm buffer *v»Lem is 
the most sophisticated — and i»nv ,-.t 

llif L-.i'.ir'.'i [,. tj %c . 

HOT C,i > September, 1484 

"Almtnt a full featured *ord 

procesaor.. ^ 
Ed Rlen 

Che RAtS/rK)tt-, N'ovember, J9*M 



RECOMMEND 32 K to 64K 
Tape -lo- Disk Upgrade $23 
You Keep the Cassette 



CASSETTE $39.95 
DISKETTE $49.35 

Add $3 shipping and handling 

MC VISA COD 



PXE Computing 
11 Vickaburg Lane 
RicMardsqn. T«s*a 'MflD 

214/699-7273 



Pfease hire ifte menTaKy rotai'ded They are ajneare hard working and 

appreclaliwe _. , , ' 

Th&nHs! PhytUs. 



5f MATHEMATICS ^ 



PROFESSIONAL, 
EDUCATIONAL, 
& BUSINESS 

APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE 
tor th* COLOR COMPUTER 




PROFESSIONAL 
3-0 PLOTTER 

Plots any Tuftcitan 
or a ant* s«( 
S2K $24.9$ 



C£T SPECTRUM ANALYZER 

Miqn, Lanauopt FAST Fwfi*! Transform 
33* $24.9* 



PROPRIETOR'S ACCOUNTANT 



ScrnMin of water CXUduI 



Doubto-aniry Gana.ai Lwd^w a/id Journal 
Itul Balance. Promos*, Batarca Srwtl 
Kmc YOUR flpij^snsBa DOWN! 

a?R disk ohlv 



MATRIX MATH 
I Inntrti, Otrartninant > 



EOUAT fON EV ALU AT Oil . t S B fl 
* FUNCTION FrNDEft Jl)(lt 
CALCULUS .„„ 

( Dlf tip*. InlflOfflliim ) * 

(44.00 



Ail 4 MATH Prarjramii 



■fa EDUCATIONAL SIMULATIONS ^ 

STRATEGY POLITICS S 16,95 

$TR AT EQ V IN V E5 IM f, 19.06 

IMAGE PROCESSING It&.BH 

STRATEGY FOOTBALL 1 14.05 

STRATEGY BOXING 1)12,85 

Al 5 SIMULATIONS Sfj&.<l5 



5*flc? CHECK or MONEY ORDER 
Spicily DISK or TAPE Ext. BASIC fiflfl. 

Arid 12,00 Shipping / Handling 
Florida RflMflflnlj fl <itf 5'fc Sales Tax 



Write for FREE CATALOG 



ANKIA 

RESEARCH 

901-19 INDIANTOWN RD. 
SUITE n 
JUPITER, PL 334S0 



BUILDING JANUARY'S RAINBOW 

Rainbow Excellent 1 Or 'Goocf Say 98.8 Percent « > . 
Some 94 Percent Have 32K, Most 64K « . , 

Two~Third» Frown On Three Column Listings , , , 

When we decided to conduct a poll of those attending the Princeton 
RAIN BO Wtest , we knew iruit in order to get u scf ul in format inn from 
a survey you have to ask the right question — and thai asking the right 
quest ton i* tricky business. Nonetheless, knowing full well wc should consult an 
expert, such as the University of Cinrinnat i s Dr Sam She mil. whose advice has 
appeared in rainbow, we instead gathered an ad hoc commit ice oi those not 
busy on something cist and developed questions based on a popular, if not 
prok-Ksional, technique: "Hey, I know, let's ask how . . " 

Well, the result* of the Princeton poll are in. and I believe we learned several 
things of value in addition to a great den I about taking future polls. In evaluating 
the results, we have kepi in mind thai (hose attending RAJMJOWfcsi cannot be 
presumed to represent the entire kAi*fimv readership. I hat is, as a group, those 
who came to the show were probably among the more dedicated users - likely 
more sophisticated in terms of hard wart and software than readers who did not 
attend. Afler all, those attending traveled, on the average, some IM miles to 
attend the Princeton show. 

So. further ca veal* aside find with apologies to Sam, here ( reported in percen- 
tages of those responding) are the highlights of what we found: 



Present System: 

Sifc. 4K 0.1 

tfrK ... 5 9 

32K 12.6 

64K , SI.2 

*as*c: Color , . . . 4 J 

Extended , , . . , , 54.9 

Disl. 40.4 

Printer 

Make. Radio Shack .. 542 

Other 45,3 

Type; Dm Minis S6.6 

Letter Qua lity. - 8.1 

Color 2,& 

Other 2.5 

Display: 

Kind: B&W TV . .. 16 0 

Color TV t52 

TV j Video Monitor * 8.8 

Computer Monitor. Hi I 

DOS Used 

Disk basic H4.D 

os-y , 12 0 

FLEX 2 5 

Star-DOS . , 1,5 

Software Most Likely To Buy 

tJiilitics T 23.0 

Gome* ... 19.3 

Word f'roeeviinft. . , . 17 5 

Home Use* . . 14.1 

Education ... T , , . ... 13.0 

Art/Graphics 110 

Bu>mcss . . . . ............... . 1 .5 

Music ...... . 0.6 

Hems Most Interested In Buying: 
DiskDmc* 1 7,8 



More Memory 134 

Primer 12, J 

Modem** 10.2 

Speech.. Sound Synthesi/cr 10 0 

Monitor 7 j 

Graphics Tablcl 6,2 

Nc^ Operating System 5.6 

Lxpansmn Unit,... , 5.1 

CP M Adapter 4.1 

Joysticks . . . , , , . . T 3,4 

Remote Device Control , 2,8 

Videodisc Player , , 1,9 

I Haie the rainbow: 
Excellent 30.8 

Good rs.o 

Fair U 

Poor 01 

Average Number of Recen| 
Purchases Through rainbow Ads 

Total 68 

l would like to see the rainbow offer 
more. 

Utilities, ,. 18.6 

Machine Language Info ....... 15 7 

Hardware Projects „. 12,6 

Educaiional Programs 1 10 

Bu*ifltt> Program* . . i 10,5 

Review 10.2 

Tutorial* 10. 1 

Games 8,6 

Olher 2.9 

I think your Product Reviews ate: 

im W , 72,5 

I cm >hort 4.9 

IC'oMinurd on Page 176) 



16 the RAINBOW January 1065 



Graduate With DEFT Pascal 




DEFT 
Pascal 

ten 


1 J 

A 


SSI 










As a result of the programming language requirement of the Advanced Placement < AP) Tests, 
Pascal lias become I he standard language used in High Schools and Colleges today. On the 
Color Computer, DEFT Pascal is the standard. 



DEFT Bench $49,95 
DEFT Edit DEFT Debugger 



Bill! 

DEFT Linker 
(sat DEFT Paacitll 

DEFT Lib 

create and mamiam 
program ofcjecl iformios 



debug Pascal machfno 
progfim^ symbolically 
DEFT M»m>/daO0 
lkippoitA nrtlUro 6809 
insJmcNon «it t 
lets you define your awn 
insbudjum 
RS«f 90-5001 

Alt DEFT software and programs developed with DEFT software are BASIC 
ROM independent and un ell of the memory in your Color Computer 
without OS-9. An you need » DEFT software and a TRS-flO Cotor Computer 
wilh ealendod D*k BASIC, ai least 32K or RAM and On? Disk Dnve. With 
DEFT Puscul (579.95) you wiH also need a text editor lo wnte your pro- 
grams. Software licensing arrangements are available for schools. Deafer 
mqum<?5 welcome 

D±**rtv erf Ejtfv 



DEFT Pascal $79.95 

DEFT Pascal Compiler DEFT Linker 
complete Pascal language, comtHnea multiple program 
generates machine objects into one binary 

language object program 
RS« 90-5G0O 

DEFT Pascal Workbench $119*95 
iDEFT Pascal And DEFT Bench Together) 

RS# 90-5002 




9CFTPimc(I - I3ETTB 



□cm nonn 
nn/m 



DEFT System*, Inc. 
Suite 4 4 Damascus Centre 

Damascus,, MD 20672 

nmn men 



■u?<i< r ^w(M»i*' *** f » tat COO 




RAINBOWfest 
REPORT 



Bright tights and e crush of people 
crowded the Computize booth throughout 
the run of R A JNBQWftst- Princeton, Serrt 
-S -10. :w Ken Klosinsfci and his crew made 
"video snapshots" of &hou**goers using the 
Graphkom Video DigUc^er. Meanwhile. 
Frank Hogg and hi* helpers were showing 
off "Nomad/' a little personal robot that 
rode around under CoCo control. Bob 
R«en< of Spectrum Projects, seemed to 
have more show special signs than anyone 
could be expected to read. Rur. tt was our 
r AiHSQVk readen who really took the cake 
— birthday cake. 

We've been sworn not to repeat Lonnic 
Falk's age. so. well only stale U one time that 
he'd just turned 42. He wanted to celebrate 
the occasion with those attending RAIN- 
BOW Test ~ ihu*. cake for all. 






We have no statistic* on ho a many do/en 
eggs + pound i of sugar or cupt of flour went 
tmn the cake (hat served thousands, hut st 
it's number? you v* »nt T ha v c compiled the 
results from the survey we made of those 
attending "CoCo's very own show " For the 
highlights see Jim Recd\ column on Page 
16 of this t*iuc. A name u&s draun tram 
those rcspon ding to the survey and Michael 
j. Clancy, a ml estate coniollant from Jet- 
iu [», Mi. won hi mself a color g m ph ic * p r i n 
ler,ju*( fot tilling oui the luivcy farm. 

Was eh is a show for computer die-hards'? 
Well, while Jul ie A. McGcc, director of 
software development for Tandy Home Ed- 
ucation Systems, dtcw a full house as keyno- 
ter At the CoCo Community Break fasi , Sat- 
urday morning, one of the mo si celebrated 
students from nearby Princeton Lmvcrvn>. 
Hii.n.ii,L- Shields, wcin djmtjsl uniuniced bj 
the CoCo crowd as she broached Sunday 
irmrmnii, in '.he hold coffee ^rtup 

As with all our RAIN BOW fesls. the 
Princeton a how ran at on accelerated pace in 
order for everyone to meet as many people, 
excha ngeasm uch i n formal ion , a nd i ntcract 
oi much as. possible in our brief time to- 
gether. And, nobody worked harder than 
Jerry Behler and the members of the Pcnn- 
Jersey Color Computer Club* « ho helped Us 
publicise and run the show* Our I hanks. 
Pen n -Jersey, for helping, and our ihnr,k \ m 
all (he many CoCo dubs and individuals 
whose a I tendance makes these shows possi* 
b!c. 

Next stop Jrs tne T Calif. We do hopcyoull 
join us. 





The Pictures: (1) Al Alberta draws a crowd 
at th* PBJ, Inc. booth, {2) Jack Torres of 
Computer Plua shows a new printer to Hot 
CoCo publisher Jeff D stray {blue shirt). 
(3) A computing family takes note of a 
bargain al one ol the many vendor dliplay 
booths. {4 J Claire Manlredonia apparency 
caught her fingers in a joyport during a 
voltage »u rge . fS ) Program m cr &< 1 1 Dunlevy 
(G»*hmmn, Time Bpndit) worked with the 
Miehiron crew. (6) One of Bill's program i 
gets a workout Irom a young challenger, 
one ol S.SOO alicnding th* Prince! on ihow 



(7) Tandy * Julie McGea with Rainbow's 
Lsnnla Falh at the CoCo Community 
Breakfast. {I) AJto at the ha ad table, 
Chary! Blyn, of Compuler Island, ((aft) 
with Sugar Software's Susan Davis. (9) 
Hearty 5&0 attended the braaklasi, Satur- 
day morning. (10) While the CoCo crowd 
was upataira In the as hlbit halt. Brooke 
Shield! and her mother went a/mot f 
unnoticed al brvmchtlme Sunday in the 
h villi coffeeahoov (11 fc Aril si Paul Hoffman 
helps oui at Owl- War* (12) Evan I be 
merchandise was Irlendly at the Penn- 
Jersey display. (11} Al Tlmme ol Hard 
Drive SpcciallHtB (formerly CompukU 
Corp,), 



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T KB P *~* M 



It Is Better To PUT 
Than To GET 



By Alexander B. Trevor 



A link experience with Extended Color BASK 
graphics will make it obvious thai by far the fastest 
way to place graphics elements on the screen if with 
the PUT statement. In laci, ii is almost the only way to 
implement any kind of animation on the Color Computer 
in basic. Most descriptions of PUT its its use to the GET 
statement, although this does not have to be the case, as 
we shall see. (Radio Shack's (siring Ahead With Extended 
Cofar HASH pages 67-7 1, an d ( **Iot Computer Cmiphn v " 
by William Harden. Jr., pages I4.VI54 air two examples), 
This is not too surprising, since the two statements arc 
intended En be complements > I he idea is tin- d^T \\'\\\ 
copy graphics data out of u specified rectangular area on 
the graphics screen, and save it in an array. The PUT 
statement allows you to place the data back on the screen 
at the same or another location. 

In a Typical game application, a number nl "\pnleV*{sitch 
as rockets, robots, lunar landers, etc, J wilt be defined 41 
the beginning of the program and then used with PUT 
statements throughout I he game. The usual method of 
defining ihc sprites Ls to use the OR A W command to 
(slowly) draw each sprite on the graphics screen: then, each 
sprite is stored in a separate array with the (JET command. 
There are several problems with this method, though 
none of them may he serious in many applications: first, 
the DRA W command must be done on a separate graphics 
page, or it wili deface anything that is already on the page. 
This is an important consideration for graphics editors, 
which may allow you to work on an image already in 
graphics memory, but not important in any program thai 
clears the graphics page upon start up. Second, if there 
are many items to he drawn, the setup process can cause 
a noticeably tong delay. Third, after GETtinn graphics mm 
an array the contents of the array bee 0 me ^invisible," and 



{Alexander Trevor, who holds a master \ degree Iff 
electrical engineering is t-xeeus/w sire president uf 
Computer Re.\nune\ at CompuServe* and is a 
member of the IEEE and the ACM. in his "spare 
iimt" he Writes software fur CompuServe's OEC-tti 
mainframes and for a variei) of microcomputers.) 



carrnoi be printed en the sertcfl I8pc 01 Oisk Hie GET 
command purposely t rushes part of the array header to 
cause this undesirable side effect. 

The method described here avoids these problems 
through an alternate way to load arrays with graphics data 
that can be used in a P£T state men I. To use this technique, 
it is necessary to understand the format lhat data is stored 
on the screen, and also the nature 0) arrays. Rather than 
attempt to describe all the possibilities. I will limit this 
discussion to PMODE 4, the high resolution mode 
consist i ng o I 2 5 6 h o r 1 1 0 ni a I c I c m ct 1 1 s \ p \ % e I s \ a nd 1 92 pixels 
vertically. The technique is easily extended In nlhi?a graphics 
modes. 

In PMODE 4. each byte in I he graphics page contains 
eight pixels along the horizontal. Since there are 256 pixels 
on each line, it takes 32 byies to hold the first line. There 
are 192 lines in the entire picture, or 6J44 bytes Dala 
for GET and PUT is stored in a similar scheme. If you 
GET a 5 x 4 area into an array, you are storing 5x4. 
nr -M pixels In this case one pixel requires one hit ol 
storage The pixels are stored tightly packed in the array, 
with the upper left hand pixel stored as ihc most significant 
bit of the zero byte of the array. Since each byte can contain 
eight bits, this graphic will require only three bytes. For 
example n lowercase V mighi appear on the screen like 
this: 

Graphics Screen Area f5 honz x 4 vert) 
Column 

1 2 3 4 5 



Row1: 1 
Row 2 1 
Row 3: 
Row 4: 



1 » 1 
1 



As stored in the array; 

Byte 1 ; 1 0 0 0 1 10 0 

(row 1] (row 2, 1-3) 



Jinuiry 1085 THEAAtHgOW 23 



Byte 2 0 1 0 1010 0 
frow 2 t 4-5} (row 3) (row ^. 1> 

Byte 3 0 1 00 0 0 00 

(row 4, 2-5) (fill) 

Arrays in Fx tended Color BASIC consist of elements thai 
are five bytes each. Five bytes are necessary la hold a 
flouting point number with Lhe precision used in HC'B, but 
the five hytes have no bearing on the graphics use (it Ltrrays 
except to roakc ditttensioninj!, and Loading more confusing. 
In the above example, the three bytes will fit easily into 
the five bytes that will heal Located tu a single array element 

How du we £cl three bytes ol data into ihe first three 
byte* uf a live byte integer array element? First, we must 
find out the address ot the array dement with the VA RPTR 
statement — one of the less frequently used BASIC 
commands. Then, we POKE the data into the memory 
locations reserved for the array. That's all there is to ill 
T he array eau now be used in a PUT. 

To see how this works in practice, let's follow through 
the example of a lunar lander sprite as shown below. The 
sprite is drawn in a reel angular area on the graphics screen 
eight columns wide and seven rows high: 





Column 












Hex 




0 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 Value 


Row 
















1 




1 


l 


1 


1 




2C 


Sow 
















2: 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


7E 


Row 
















3; 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


7E 


Row 
















4: 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


7E 


Row 

5: 




1 






1 




24 


Row 

6: 




1 






i 




24 


Row 
















7: 


1 


t 






1 


1 


66 



In this example, it is particularly easy to determine the 
value In be jinked into the array because the graphics area 
is exactly eight pixels wide, Thus, an entire row of pixels 
fits exactly into one byte of the array In cases where the 
rectangle width is no) a mulliplir uf eight (such 4 is the 
example of the Lowercased V 1 above}, you may wish to 
draw the graphic on the screen using any method (DP A W 
command, or graphics editor), then use the program given 
in Luting I to prim mil the appropriate values. 

Listing 2 is a complete example for the "PUT without 
tiHT" technique In Line 20* four graphics pages are 
reserved. Line .10 sets the horizontal and vertical sine of 
the array. These values <H SI 2 £ and VStZE) are then used 
to /3/Mension the array LL HSl/F'VSJZE U the number 
m Mm i> dmik-d by eight bits per hyte and five 

bytes per array element (i.e. 40), and rounded to the nest 
integral byte. A subroutine 10 load the graphics array LL 
is called from Line fit), while lines 60^90 simply PVT the 
element on ihe graphics screen. T he symhol setup routine 
(Lmes JQtMTO) h the key to the technique. In Line (10, 
all variables to be used within Ihe subroutine are referenced, 
fnrs h ab.iotuirfy rwessary in order lo prevent the location 



of the array from changing after the I A HP PR statement. 
If an undefined variable is encountered by 8 AS It", all 
variables are relocated in memory, invalidating Ihe address 
returned by the VARPTR statement in Line 120 With 
an accurate address for the /cm element of LL in variable 
P. the data is POKfut into each byte of the array in Line 
I 51). In a variation of this method r the graphics data can 
he read in from disk or tape rat her than from the D4 TA 
statements. 

1 have found this technique particularly usclul for 
programs thai use a number of sprites, and in which it 
wa$ desirable to reduce the setup time to a minimum. Next 
lime you want to speed up a graphics program, PI' J 
something you didn't GET Ynull be rewarded with n faster 
program. 

lining I; 

lO p PRINT DATA FOR A "PUT 1 * 
20 ' USE AFTER DRAWING GRAPHIC 
30 X-iCO: Y-lOO * UPPER L CORNER 
40 H3IZE-B ' SET HDRJ ZDNTAL SIZE 
43 V3I2E-7 "SET VERTICAL SIZE 
SO DIM LL(H9IZE*VSI2E/40+l> 
35 'VARIABLES MUST BE REFERENCED 
56 'BEFORE CALL I NO VARPTR 
60 I-O; P*0: J-0 

70 GETCX, Y)-CX-1+H9IZE,Y-1+VSIZE 
>,LL,G 

SO P«VARPTR<LL)+12 

90 FOR 1-0 TO H8IZE*VSI2E/8-l 

10O IF J»0 THEN PR I NT SPRINT "DATA 

110 PRINT HEX* (PEEK (P+I) > I 

120 IF J>6 THEN J-0 ELSE J-J+1;P 

RINT" , w I 

130 NEXT 

140 PRINT "O" 

listing It 

lO ' GRAPHICS PUT WITHOUT GET 

20 PCLEAR 4: PMODE 4 

30 HSIZE*8: VSIZE-7 

40 DIH LL(HSIZE»VSIZE/40+l> 

50 GOSUB 1O0 

60 PCLS: SCREEN 1,1 

70 x-ioo: y=ioo 

80 PUT(K, Y)-<X-1+HSIZE,Y-1+VSI2E 
) » LL fl PSET 
70 B0TD90 

lOO * SYMBOL SETUP SUBROUTINE 
110 1*0! T*=" P-0 ' MUST 

USE VARIABLES BEFORE VARPTR * 
120 P= VARPTR ( LL (03) 
130 FDR 1=0 TO HSIZE*VBIZE/S-1 
140 READ T* 

150 POKE P+I r VAL < "SeH^+T*) 
160 NEXT 
170 RETURN 

180 'LUNAR LANDER SYMBOL 

190 DATA 3C, 7£ f 7E, 7E» 24, 24, 66 

_ ^ 



24 THE RJMKBOW January 



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GRAPHICS 



! k k b M — " 



Home Sweet Home 



By Marlene Fearing 



This program draws a house, a sun 
and | garage. It opens and closes 
the garage door, the from door 
opens and a figure appears, and wave*. 
Afterward, the door closes, the grass 
grow \ t and smoke comes from the chim- 
ney* 

This is the first computer program J 
wrote after getting my computer. I hope 
it wilt encourage others to experiment 
with graphic* and animation; it was a 
1 01 of fun to create. This program will 
work with 1 6 It Extended basic with 
tape, or with a disk drive system. Just 
type it in and watch it draw, 

( Markne Fearing is a student at Pima 
Community College in Tucson, Ariz., 
where she is studying/or her A.AS.ttso 
small business computer specialisi.) 




The listing: 




1 
2 
3 
4 
3 
6 
7 

a 

9 



* * 

'* EXECUTIVE HOUSE * 

* MARLENE FEARING * 

* 812 5. PLUME R * 
TUCSON, ARIZ, 85719 » 

>♦ # 



10 PMODE 3, 1 

11 PCLS <3> 

12 SCREEN 1,1 

13 ' DRAW MAIN HOUSE 

14 LINE (32, 180)-U52,8Q> ,PSET,B 

15 LINE ( 28 » AS ) — < 1 36 , BS) , PSET , BF 

16 PAINT (32,72) ,2,4 

17 LINE ( 132,91 >-(240, 180) , PSET f 
B 

IB LINE < 170, 108) -(226, 180> , PSET 
.& 

19 ' DRAW THE SUN 

20 CIRCLE (204,22) , 10,2 

21 LINE (44, l04)-(e»S, 140) ,PSET,B 

22 LINE (124, 104 > - (148, 140) , PSET 



23 THE flAINBOW Ji flurry 



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PANIC 

Onto »• toddWi and HgW 
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IVIONCVOPOLV 

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Heatmwi at n» of HJina" Buy, W Of •** 
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TIM Pt,M 

DIM SU.H 




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23 


LINE (82, 104) -(112, 100) , PSET, 


75 


LINE (96, 164 ) — ( 102, 179) ,PRESE 


B 

24 


LINE (76,52) - (100, 68) , PSET*BF 


T 

76 


LINE (to, 140) — ( 102, 140) , PRESE 


25 


CIRCLE (84, 140), 2, 2 


T 




26 


PAINT (44, 160), 1,4 


77 


L I NE ( 86 , 1 40 1 *- ( 86 , 1 30 ) , PRESET 


27 


PAINT (169, 176) * 1, 4 


78 


LINE t 102, 112)-(112, 104) , PRE 9 


28 


CIRCLE (200, 176> r 3*2 


ET 




29 


PAINT (204,22), 1,2 


79 


LINE (1 02 , 1 1 2 ) - ( 1 02 , 1 90 ) , PRES 


30 


PAINT (56, 120) ,2, 4: PAINT (133, 


ET 




120) ,2,4 


60 


LINE ( 1 02 , 1 90) -(112, 1 80 ) , PRES 


31 


LINE (56, 104) -(56, 140> ,PSET 


ET 




32 


LINE (136, 104) -< 136, 140) ,PSET 


81 


LINE (0 f 1 B0) -( 255, 191 ), PSET, B 


33 


TO OPEN AND CLOSE GAR 


82 


CIRCLE (Bo, 140) , 3, 3 


ABE DDQR 


83 


COLOR 2, 1 


34 


FDR X~l TO 500: NEXT X 


84 


FAINT (30, 188) ,2,4 


35 


PAINT (190, 179) ,2,4 


85 


PAINT (232, 1 88) , 2, 4 


36 


FDR X=t TO 1300: NEXT X 


86 




37 


PAINT (176, U0) P 4 P 4 


87 


* TO DRAW BRASS 


38 


CIRCLE (200, 176) ,3,2 


08 




39 


LINE (0, 190) -(255, 191) ,PSET,B 


89 


POKE 65495,0 


4C* 


TO OPEN AND CLOSE FRONT 


90 


DRAW "Bn0, 180?R1 ; U8; R2f DBJ R2; 


DOOR AND FIGURE TO WAVE AND GO 


U 1 0 ? R2 f D 1 0 ; R3 f U 1 2 1 R2 1 D 1 2t R3t LJ5f R 


BACK INSIDE 


2;D5iR3|U5lR2?D55R2f U3IR2S D2f R2J 


41 


LINE (92, U2)-(92, 190) ,PSET 


U45R2;D4|R25U35R2;D3" 


42 


LINE (92, 190)-(112, IB0),PSET 


91 


DRAW "BM23S, l80;U10;R2fDl0|R3 


43 


PAINT (185, 190), 1,4 


f UB3R2SD8SR4I U6f R2| D6|R2f U8|R2|D 


44 


PAINT (10, 185) ,2,4 


B;Ri" 


45 


LINE (92, 1 12) -<1 12, 104) ,PRESE 


92 




T 




93 


* SMOKE STARTS HERE 


46 


PAINT (185, 190), 2, 4 


94 




47 


LINE (92, 1 1 2 ) — < 92 ,190), PRESET 


95 


X«82:Y-52: "CIRCLE CENTERPO IN 


40 


LINE (92, 190) -(1 12, 180) ,PRESE 


T 




T 




96 


SP-0:EP»0 ' CIRCLE RADIUS 


49 


1 T MET t tX t Mbe 1 n A X DCCT fa 

LI HE \ 0, ZjjJ — \ ZDD f ISffJ , FSET , b 


97 


FOR R^l TO 35 STEP .05 'CIRC 


50 


FOR X = l TO 120: NEXT X 


LE 


RADIOS 


51 


LINE (102, 112>-(1 12, 104) ,PSET 


98 


EP-EP+.02I IF EP>1 THEN EP-0 


52 


LINE (102, 112)-(102, 190) ,PSET 


99 


CIRCLE !X^R,Y-R> , R, I , 1 , SP, EP 


53 


LINE ( 102, 190>-( 1 12, 180) ,PSET 


100 NEXT R 


54 


PAINT (96, 124), 1,4 


101 ' 


55 


CIRCLE (96, 124), 7,0 


102 * TO TURN BACKBROUND TO 


56 


LINE (96, 130) -(96, 164) , PSET 


NIGHT 


57 


LINE (96, 164) -(84, 179) , PSET 


103 * 


58 


LINE (96, 140) -(84, 140) , PSET 


104 PMODE 4,1 


59 


LINE (96, 164) -(102, 179) f PSET 


105 SCREEN 1,0 


60 


LINE (96, 140) -(102, 140) , PSET 


106 CIRCLE (204,22) , 10,5 


61 


LINE (86, 140) -(86, 130) , PSET 


107 PAINT (20S,22),5-5 


62 


FOR X-l TO 300: NEXT X 


108 ■ REDRAWN SMOKE STARTS 


63 


LINE (86, 140) -(86, 120) , PRESET 


HERE 


64 


FOR X«l TO 5001 NEXT X 


109 X~B2:Y«52: * CIRCLE CENTERPO 


65 


LINE (86, 140)-(B6, 130) , PSET 


INT 


66 


FOR X-l TO 150: NEXT X 


110 SP«0:EP*0: 'CIRCLE RADUIS 


67 


LINE (86, 140)- (86, 130) , PRESET 


111 FDR R^l TO 35 STEP. 05 'ClRCL 


68 


FOR X*l TO 150: NEXT X 


E 1 


RADUIS 


69 


L INE < B6 , 1 40 > — ( 86 , 130 ) , PSET 


112 EPȣP+.02:IF EP>1 THEN EP^0 


70 


CIRCLE (96, 124), 7,1 


113 CIRCLE ( X+R, Y-R) , R, 1 , 1 , SP, EP 


71 


LINE (96, 130) -(96, 164) , PRESET 


114 NEXT R 


72 


LINE (96, 164) -(84, 179) , PRESET 


115 POKE 65494,0 


73 


LINE(96, 140) -(94, 140) , PRESET 


116 GOTO 10 


74 


LINE (0, 180) - (255, 180) , PSET 


117 END ^ 



30 THE RAINBOW January -90S 



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RAINBOW WISHING WELL 



EZ-Graphics — 
'85 Style 



By Fred B. Scerbo 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Editor '.i Not*; If van have an idea for 
the Wishing Well, submit it to Fred c/o 
THE HMHftOW. Remember, keep vour 
ideas specific, but don't forget thai this 
is BAStt , All programs resulting fr,nn 
your wishes are for your use hut remain 
the property of the author. 

Each of ni often spends a gnat 
dot I of time making New Year'* 
resolutions which arc quite often 
forgotten within several days of the 
pledge- Although 1 have some resolu- 
tion* which I will try to work into my 
daily rati tine, one resolution which 1 
really wanted to make was a pledge to 
those of you who still have only J6K 
Extended Color BASIC and have been 
left along the roadside during our last 
few "Wishing Well" articles (The last 
three have ail been for 32K.) While (his 
does not mean that you won't be seeing 
the most requested sequels, such as 
"Roe kf est U"and "Baseball Fever M " I 
figured that this would be a good I i me to 
offer all of you some shorter listings that 
wiU equally satisfy everyone from I6K 
to 64 K. This will be a great relief to all of 
you who will want to key these listings 

(Feed Scerbo is a uprcial needs instruc- 
tor for the North Adams Public 
Schools, He holds a master *i in educa- 
tion and published some of the first 
software available for the Color Com- 
puter through hit software firm* illus- 
trated Memory Banks.) 



in hut may be too pressed to hammer in 
the really long ones during the hectic 
rush of the holiday season. Also, some 
of you may have just gotten a CoCo for 
iht- j i e~!s I time during the holiday season 
and odds are thai more of you gm IfiK 
than 64K 

So, as a little New Year's gift for all of 
you CoCo enthusiasts, here are two 
short listings which J dare any friends 
you may have to equal in as few lines on 
an Apple II or Commodore 64. These 
art strict k loi the luii ui ctcsiiiij; \|i;arf> 
graphics Next month we -a ill girl b.i.'r. 
to some more serious wishes. 

Who You Gonna Call? 

Pmbabh onu of the nw« successful 
motion pictures of the past summer 
movie reason was the comedy, Ghost- 
butters. Besides being a funny movie, 
this cinematic effort has as one of its 
offspring* a symbol which is quickly 
becoming as common as "Rubifc's 
Cube," Michael Jackson and "Cabbage 
Patch" dolls. Recently, I have seen this 
particularly catchy no-ghosts logo 
showing up on everything from T-shirts 
to bumper stickers Well, hcrc\ one 
more place yon can look to set this 
omnipresent poltergeist: on the screen 
of your CoCo. 

Why even do this? Well, as 1 have said 
before, young CoCo programmers 
often take great pride in being able, with 
just a few program lines, to create 
graphics which are easily recogni/ed. 
This eventually will serve to stimulate 



even the most inexperienced pro- 
grammer to learn more, and eventually 
create a program which others can 
benefit from as well. 

Therefore. Listing 1 is an extremely 
short program which will recreate the 
Ghosthusters logo in rather dramatic 
detail before your eye*. The actual body 
of the listing which draws the ghost and 
the slashed circle is only about M lines 
long. As I just mentioned. J doubt any 
Apple or Commodore programmers 
will be able to match this graphic on 
I heir machine in as few lines. This just 
gives you one more weapon to use in 
convincing others that you made the 
best choice when you chose a Color 
Computer. 

The actual graphic uses PMOOE 4 
with an overlay of P MODE 3 (without 
using the SCREEN command^. The 
ghost and slash are formed by a combi- 
nation of semi-circle and DRA W com- 
mands, accounting lor how efficiently 
I his Mash code can be written. You 
would need j little Trigonometry to get 
similar results on the other compulers. 

One difference you will notice this 
time around is that I have used the Reset 
button to control the occurrence of red. 
When you RUN the program, if the 
screen is not red. press Reset and 
re RUN the program Until it is red. Once 
it is red 1 press the ENTER key to draw 
the graphics. Most of my other programs 
usually offset a pixel to control the 
colors without using Kcset, but since 
this was such a short listing. 1 figured 



THE HAIHUDW January lWttH 




that the Reset was the quickest route u> 
Follow. 

A Tin a I word should be mentioned 
hen; be Tore wc move on to our second 
listing. The actual (ihvstbufferx symbol 
is the property of Paramount Picture* 
which Ho Ids all rights for it* commercial 
use. Therefore, this listing is lor your 
own persona I h omc U scfor the fun of i I. 
and may not be used for any promo- 
tional purposes. (For example, if tiny of 
you were thinking of writing your own 
Ghotibifairn game, you could not use 
this graphics or the logo as part nf your 
effort .) However, no harm should come 
from using this listing for the fun of 
learning more about how your CotTo s 
graphics command* work. Consider it 
an educational experience. 

Therefore, enjoy this little graphics 
gem. and let me know if you have any 
ideas for other si milar efforts 1 might be 
able to share in the H WelL H 

Smiting The Wealth (Of Graphics 
Skills* 

In the last iim> installment ol "I he 
Wishing Well," I shared wiih you a 
tcchnnjuc ol using checkerboard pixel 
pattern^ 10 create extra colon in 
PMOPEltvad JM/00£Jaswell}. We 
saved these patterns in GET- PUT 
arrays, and painted them on the screen 
using the OR command found with 
f*t T_ Using this technique, any area 
which has previously been painted 
triad Wfll be tilled in with the color 
found in our array. For a more detailed 
explanation of how these colors are 
gene m led, refer to last month's article. 

There was one small drawback with 
I he method used in last month's issue. 
While the technique was completely 
effective for what we wanted to accom- 
plish with those football helmet graph- 
ics. I he routines were not designed for 
you tvejMk use il you wanted to use the 
extra colors in your own drawings A* 1 
promised. J have come up with u way 
I hiit you could use ihem easily, without 



having to do a greai deal of graphics 
gNinnu-wULs In--' uu-ihod J hau' .o.kJ 
here will be a piece of cake to anyone 
who knows how to use the £7 AT com- 
mand found in your Color Extended 
language. 

Another limitation found in la si 
month's version was the fact that the 
array covered nearly the lull width of 
the screen. This would mean that your 
graphics would have lo be drawn and 
colored in a fashion thai would nut 
allow you to have a yellow object next 
to a purple object, since the arrays 
would overlap each other on the »amc 
levcL Therefore* these new routines 
have set up arrays which are only 16 
pixels wide and two pixels deep This 
allows greater flexibility in this type of 
painting when more than one color is 
desired on the same left lo right level li 
also lakes op less than 10 percenl of the 
memory required to do it the original 
way, The routines used for "Football I 
and 2" are much lasler than this tech- 
nique. Since speed was more important 
than flexibility, those were written with 
speed in mind. As always, you have the 
classic trade-off Speed and flexibility 
are inversely proportional. 1 his month 
we will emphasize flexibility instead, 
while sacrificing speed. 

Therefore, the basic code required to 
efficiently und easily use these colors 
has been written lo be pari of the first 25 
lines ot your program. If you wish w 
draw graphics using them, you would 
simply stun your own program lines at 
Line 100. there is a special syntax 
which 1 have developed to handle the 
colors which I w ill explain in just a few 
lines. Simply put, it is a new way of 
coloring, but ai the same time will be 
very familiar to you. 

Actually, the most difficult part of 
writing this piogiam was thinking of 
what lo draw as a graphics to demon- 
strate ihc routines. 1 didn't want lo do a 
rock logo because those w ill be showing 
up in a couple ol months, and I here was 



no reason to lei the w ind out of my sails 
for l hat one yei. Secondly, the colors 
would be of no use for the Ghoitbusten 
graphics listed here. Besides, that would 
make il longer, defeating the whole 
purpose of doing I he logo in the first 
place. 

When the idea for what to draw 
finally came to me, J warned to kick 
myself fornoi having thought of it in the 
first place. What is one of the first paint- 
ings or drawings thai an aspiring young 
artist siaris w ilh? Why, of course, the 
answer was a how I of fruit! Sure, it may 
fun be Kg dramatic: as the car from the 
ZZ Top logo of a few- months ago, but li 
would give me the possibility of drawing 
and using more than one of these colors 
side by Sprite 

Wiih thiiti in mind. I developed a set of 
seven additional color patterns to be 
Included in the arrays. These patterns 
are set in lines I J -14 and put into the 
arrays in tine 15. 1 he colors and their 
corresponding Syntax Iciccrs are listed 
below Remember, (he actual color may 
depend on how accurately your TV set 
tint is adjusted to red and blue 

Y - Yellow 

B = Light blue 
G - Gold or orange 
S — Silver or gray 
P - Purple (dark) 
L = Umc or dark blue 

V = Violet 

The lime color is not really so much of 
a green, but depending on your tint, u is 
about as close as we can get You will 
notice that I mentioned that the letters 
are part of the syntax. You will actually 
use these kctt6r« to call the colors as you 
need them. 

Remember how I mentioned that the 
syntax would be I am ilia r to anyone who 
knew how to use the USE command 7 
As you may recall, the syntax for UNB 



MM is fell u2.y2hPSF.T 

The variables xl,*2,yl and y2 are 
used lo define the starting and end 
pomtv nl a line for box} using x and y 
coordinates on a field of2S6xi92 pixels 
Therefore, if you wanted to draw a box 
with opposite coordinates of fOJO by 
20,20 you would write; 

LINEf l0,IOM20,2Ol.PRESET,BF 

which would give you a box 10 pixels 
square painted in black (because of BF 
which means box filled). To paint this 
bus with our new colors, you would use 
the same coordinates. These coordt- 
tidies are placed in a STRING I call 
PAINT STRING which is identified us 
PTS in these routines. The syntax for 



_■ i*u THE RAINBOW 33 



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Here "a your cnanco Lo nnvu a Put O Gold Pull of programs. flritde§ and information aDaul CdCo 
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these coordinates would ihus be: 

f»TS=*YOIO.OlO-O2O.O20* 

The ¥ stands lor ihc color yellow. 
The next three digirs ore t he coord male 
for our xL coordinate followed by a 
com mil, with i he next ihree digit* being 
the yl coordinate. We then use a dash 
and use three digits for x2> a comma, 
and three digits for y2 The coordinate* 
for i bo* such as: 

UNE(IU.20)-(m4OJ,T>SET,BF 

would be: 

PT5= H Y0 10,020—030,040'" 

In each case, we use this PAINT 
STR[\G by (nllnwkng it with the hd- 
lowuig Lommaud: 

GOSUB n 

whiLh takes tare id (he pa i tiling, Vou 
will notice that even though (he 
numbers wenre using are only two digit 
no m ben. we musi use tliree digit* such 
as 010 Tor 10, or 006 Tor the number ft. 
This is necessary because the TAINT 
STRING is analyzed in lines 17 and 
IS to determine the coordinates and 



colors. This was much easier than to 
have you type in the values for five 
separate variables. II you a lci den hilly 
use two digits rather than three, Ihc 
painting will nut take place, [ here wdl 
not be an error message There will just 
bt- no painting. limit, nut syntax lor 
PAINT S rRiNG is 

PTS="Color*Lefl Corner, Top 
Corner Right Corner, Ron om 
Corner" 

followed by GOSbB t?. All corner 
eon rdinai its most fee three digits. As you 
can see, if you know how- to use LINE, 
you will have no trouble using PAINT 
STRING. 

If you RUN thr second listing called! 
Seven More PMODE4 Co f or s. you will 
have a very nice, framed pointing of a 
bowl o! fruit with drapes in the buck- 
ground. You w ill be pleased to sec thai 
tins does mjiku w vetv nice graphic*, lo 
use for showing (he colora available on 
your CoCo 

t did not use all seven colors here, 
Rather. I used just a few so you would 
gel the idea To get a nice curtain or 
draped effect, 1 used POKE I7#,x to 
give a little added realism Remember, 
ihc technique used for this is io use a 
value between /em and 255 with the 



POKE and the PAINT u*i ng: 

PAlNT(x,y)J 

to get your striped colors. This was de- 
scribed many months ago in the 
RAINBOW* 

Lines 310 to 380 are designed la lei 
you change PMQDEi and SCREEN* 
to see how these patrcrns look under 
different combinations. Hnting the 
enter key will flip through the various 
combinations. I have also used Reset lo 
control red in ibis program. If the screen 
is not red when you R UN it. press Reset 
until it is and then hit inter to con- 
tinue, Again, 1 felt that this would be 
preferable to my other method since the 
Reset mute is very popular, and you 
might find it easier since you may want 
to use these rootines yourself. 

Lcis say you have R UN this program 
und now warn to u>e these colors for 
your own graphics, Load in the pro- 
gram and type: 

DEL 1 10— 

and hit enter. This will delete all fol- 
lowing tines keeping the routines intact. 
It will also set your screen for PMODE 
4 with P MODE 3 colors. You may wish 
to alter Line 1 00 1 o suit you Reed s . Si nee 

1 have already used a number of varia- 
bles in the routines, you will want to 
lake care not to use these same varia- 
bles! Here is a list of the variables which 
you should avoid: 

R k B,X.Y.G t S t P.L.V T LC;RCTC, 
BC/VY.ZZ 

and i he string variables: 
XXS and PTS 

The variables R and B stand Tor red 
and blue, and you may substitute them 
in the program to suit your needs. I have 
chosen insicad to use the value* of 3 and 

2 in the program sobs to not bury you in 
variables. 

If you wish to use these routines* you 
may renumber them, hut you musi leave 
the R£\f statements intact since ibis 
program is under copyright. Feel free to 
create using these techniques, bul 
r erne in ber tu credit where credit is 
due! That's what makes it possible to 
share these techniques with you* 

Le l*s try a li it le ex pe ri men ting so you 
can sec how this really w orks. Delete the 
first lines as I mentioned and type in the 
following new lines: 

IIQC1RCLtil2S.9b) r MU.,9 

120 PAIM<I?X.4(S>.I.I 

130 PTS-'Y0G»,C42-l fl 0.IS0 M : 

gosl:bi7 

140 LINE(68.42)-H*LI5G| 
PRESET B 



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[DUO GOTO 1 000 

Tim will driivr a aide, pjnic ii black, 
PAINT STRING il yellow, and sur- 
round ii with a box that shows the area 
actually covered by the array. Tfrfcti* if 
you have an irregular shaped object and 
paint ii black, you can nil it in wild these 
colors jusl a* you would wish FAIN I 
because we arc using OH which checks 
to see if u pixel is set, and. if it is not, it 
sets it to the pattern. You may also need 
to rcdrow around the object ninee ihc 
color will (ill in an> WW it uvcrhipv 
which is black. 

Although iheMi new smaller arrays do 
mean you can have adjacent colon, be 
careful not to make the items too close 



together, us 1 !/icd 10 hi- stireol with the 
1 1 u i l Wjth a litile experimentation, you 
will be painting with ease in no lime at 
all. (In fact, you will most likely be scc- 
lejj the routines and va rial ton* on them 
m ufKiumti^ graphic-* w^hev 1 mean, 
why shouldn't 1 take advantage of this 
easier mclluKi as well?) 

I rs pl.ty me -a nil the Mini pie I h.i\e_n^! 
given you. change the letter for the color 
it) Line 130. This will give you a better 
idea ot how to control the colors Prob- 
iihK the hardest thing to color this way 
would be concentric circles. If you can 
handle that one, you c\in handle most 
hov graphics. Yev it can be done, but I 
won't show you how now. Let s see you 
try it yourself. 



h 

END ... 118 

U*tmg 1; 

1 ' »«»«»#*»*#+##*#«****•***••** 

2 '« GHOST BUSTERS LOGO # 

3 "# BY FRED B. SCERBfJ # 

4 ** 149 BARBOUR ST. N- ADAMS. MA* 
3 "* COPYRIGHT <C) 19B4 * 

6 LOGO IS THE PROPERTY OF * 

7 r * OF PARAMOUNT PICTURES & * 
6 ** IS FOR YOUR HOME USE ONLY* 

9 * **»*»•*«*#»»«««»««»»»#»**»»» 

1 0 PMODE4, 1 : PCLS 1 : SCREEN 1*1; PMOD 
E3:R-3iPCLS3 

20 IFINKFY*OCHR*(13>THEN20 
30 PCLS4 

40 CIRCLE ( 100, 40 > , 20, 1 , ,9 T - 46, -0 
5: DRAW " C4BM1 00, 24NU2R6DR2C 1 R4ER2 
M+6, - 1 R2L 3H6L6G2L282LG2DR3" 
30 CIRCLE (100,62), 30,1, .66.. 41,, 
63: CIRCLE (100, 62) , 30, 1 , .66, ,9,-1 
:DRAW M BM-22, +24M+2, -4BR36M+2, +4F 
2BM- 16* -20F4M-6, -3R2BL1 2BUQ4BD4B 
RD4F 2U8F 2D5BR9BUN U 4F 2USF 2D5BDBBL 
4G2L4H28D1 2BL2D6F2U i 0R2D 1 0R2U 1 0F 
2D6BD6BR2G2L8H2BL 1 6BU2F4H2L6*' 
60 DRAW"M-12, +10M-16*+10t1-24, -6L 
4G2D2R4M+ 10, +6NF2H2L6G2L2G4D2R4E 
2R4F2R4F2H2L4G2L404R4ER4M+ 1 0 , +2R 
4NH4M+6, +0R4E2U2M-6, -8O2R4M+20, - 
10F2R4F2D" 

70 CIRCLE 138,80) ,30, 1, -6, -69, .9 
:CIRCL|: (136, 112) ,42, 1, .3, -25 p -4 
B0 DRAWBM114, 1 30M-1B, +10" 
90 DRAW " BM 1 66 , 1 00F 4 R2F 2NE 4 G4 D2F 2 
R4M+9, - 3F 2R9E 2M+24 , + 1 0ft 2U4M- 1 2 , - 
8M+3. +2R4NDR2NDRBE2U2H2H-14, -2ND 
U4M+H, -4ND8H+B, -4U4H2L4G4L2NU4L4 



Conclusion 

When I think of the type* of graphics 
people originally eot excited about 
when Co lot Extended cumc to the 
CoCo. and I see how far we have come 
with the very same machine, I can only 
imaginc (hut things will cuntinuc to get 
more exciting. I started with Color 
BASIC with a (6K machine and 
thought that block graphics were great 
hack in 198 L Who would ever think we 
would be milking such detail oui of ihi* 
machine without tea Its, changing ihe 
original language' I'll keep searching 
for ways to make these things better. 
Yoa jusl keep feeding me idea*. 

Happy New Year and Happy 
Programming! 



G2L4G2L12H2L2H2" 

100 CIRCLE (128,98) ,92, 1, .85, ,§2, 
.675;CIRCLE(12S,9B) ,92, 1, .85, -74 
, .98: CIRCLE (128,98) ,92, 1,-83,-05 
,-48 

110 CIRCLE U2B, 9B) ,62, 1, ,95, .74, 
-9! C IRCLE (128, 98) ,62, 1, -B5 f -05, - 

39 

1 20 DRAW " BM6B, 1 1 0NU8M* 1 04 , -46BF2 

0BD4BL4M- 1 04 , +46R2 " 

130 PAINT (7B , 36) ,R, I : PA I NT ( 1 34. 2 

4) ,R, i: PAINT (218, 100) , R, 1 

140 PA I NT (2,2) , 1, i: PAINT (134, 30) 

, I, 1 : PAINT (72* 106) , 1, l: PAINT (92, 

136) ,1,1 



150 SDTD150 




tt. .221 

25 18 

210 157 

END ...... B& 

Listing h . 

1 '#1»##*»***#**#JMI#*»«»#tt#lHt#1t* 

2 f * SEVEN MORE P MODE 4 COLORS * 

3 "# BY FRED B- SCERBO # 

4 149 BARBOUR ST- N- ADAMS, MA* 

5 COPYRIGHT (C> 19B4 # 

6 " ####*#**#***«****•******#*## 

7 CLEAR I 000: R-3: B-2 

B PMODE 4 , I : PCLS 1 : SCREEN 1,1: PMODE 
3:PCLS3 

9 I F I NKE Y*=CHR* (13) THEN L 1 ELSE 9 

10 * START COLOR SET 

11 CLS0: PMQDE4 , 1 ; PCLS0 : SCREENS , 0 
:DIM V(3) f B(3) ,G(3> ,S<3) ,P(3) ,L( 
3) , V (3) J LINE (32,0) -< 48, 5) ,PSET,B 
F 

1 2 FORX-3 1 T047STEP4 : PSET (X,0,0) : 
PSET (X+2, 1,0): PSET ( X + 1 , 4 , 0 > : PSET 
(X+3,5,0) :NEXT 

1 3 F OR X- 3 2 TQ4 7STE PB : PSET ( X , 8 J : PS 



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ET tX+4,9) :LINE(X, 12>-(X + 1, 12) ,PS 
ET:LINE(X+4, 12>-(X+5, 12) , PSET: LI 
NE(X+2, 13>-(X+3, 13) ,PSET:L1NE (X+ 
6, 13)-fX+7, 13) ,PSET 

14 PSEKX, 16) :PSET(X+1, 17) :PSET( 
X+4, 16) :PEET (X+5, 17UPSET (X+1.20 
) : PSET (X+5, 21): NEXTX : PMODE3: COLO 
R2, 3; LINE (32, 24)- (48,24) T PSET:LI 
NE ( 32, 25 ) - ( 48, 25 > , PRESET 

15 PMODE4:GET(32,0)-(47, IS P Y,S;B 
ET (32, 4) -(47,3) , B, Q: GET < 32,8; -(4 
7,9) ,e,G:G£T(32, 12* -(47, 13) t S r S: 
GET(32, 16>-(47, 1 7) , P, G: GET <32, 20 
) - <47, 21 > , L, B: GET (32, 24* - (47, 23) 
,V,G 

16 GO TO 1 00 : " PPi I NT I NG ROUTINES 

17 LC-VAL(MID»(PT*,2,3) > : TC=VAL < 
MlD*(PT»,6,3> ) :RC«VAL(MID*<PT*, 1 
0,3) ) :BC«VAL(rUD»<PT», 14,3) * 

IB XX*=LEFT*(PT» t 1) S IFXX*«"Y"THE 
H 1 9ELSE IFX X*= ■* B * THEN20ELSE IFXX** 
H 0*' T KEN2 1 ELSE IFXX*^"S M THEN22ELSE 
1 F X X * - ' h P " T HEN23EL5E I F X X *- « L ,r THEN 
24ELSEIFXX»»"VT HEN25ELSERE TURN 

19 FORYY**TC TO BC S TEP2 : F OR Z Z -LC 
TO RC STEPI6:PUT(ZZ,YY)-IZZ+15, 

YY+ 1 ) , Y , OR : NEXTZZ , YY : RETURN 

20 FORYY-TC TO BC STEP2: FORZZ=LC 
TO RC STEPi6:PUT(Z2 s YY)'(ZZ+l5, 

YY+1 > , B,OR:NEXTZZ, YYl RETURN 

21 FORYY=TC TO BC STEP2: FORZ Z=LC 
TO RC STEPl6:PUT<ZZ t YY)~<ZZ+13 t 

YY+1) ,G, OR: NEXTZZ,YY: RETURN 

22 FQRYY-TC TO BC STEP2: FORZZ=LC 
TO RC STEP16:PUT t ZZ , YY) - I ZZ+ 15, 

YY+ 1 > , S, OR: NEXTZZ p YY: RETURN 

23 FORYY=TC TD BC STEP2: FORZ Z=LC 
TO RC STEP16;FUT(ZZ,YY>- (27+15, 

YY+1) ,P, OR: NEXTZZ, YY: RETURN 

24 FORYY-TC TO BC STEP2: FORZZ-LC 
TO RC STEP16:PUT(ZZ,YY)-(ZZ+15, 

YY+1) , L, OR: NEXT ZZ.YYI RETURN 
23 FQRYY*TC TO BC STEP2: FORZZ-LC 
TO RC STEP16:PUT<ZZ,YY>-<ZZ+15, 
YY+1) , V , OR : NEXTZZ , YY : RETURN 
90 * START YOUR PROGRAM HERE 
1 00 PM0DE4 : PCLS 1 : SCREEN 1,1; PMODE 
3 

1 10 PMODE 4 : COL OR0 ,0:LINE(0.0>-(2 
54, 192) , PSET. B: L I NEU2, B)~(243, i 
83) ,PSET,B:PAINT<2,2) ,0,0:PMODE3 
120 P T * = M P000 , 000- 255 , 008 ■ : GOSUB 
17:PT*-"P000, 182-253, 192":G09UB1 
7 : PT*= " P000 , 000-008 ( 1 92 " : GOSUB 1 7 
:PT*«"P240, 000-252 , 1 92" : GOSUB1 7 
130 GOSUB I 40: GOTO 150 
1 40 DRAW " BM40 , I 20G 1 ND4R 1 7 0D4 L 4 G4 
D2G 2 D2G4L 2G 4L 2G4L2G4D6F2R2F 204 L 1 
16U4E2R2E2U6H4L2mL2H4L2H2L2H2U2 



H2U2H4L4U4" : RETURN 
150 PAINT (50, 122) , 1 , 1 : PT»-°S036. 
120-210, 1 46 ° : GOSUB 1 7: PT«- "G062, 1 
48-214, 156": GOSUB17:PT»= 1> S0^B, 15 
0-210, 170": GOSUB 1 7 : GOSUB 1 40 
160 GQ3UB 170: GOTO 180 
170 CIRCLE (60, 100) ,30, 1 , 1. 1, .4, . 
7: CIRCLE* 130, 72) ,G0, l t -5, .2, .5:D 
RAW "BM160, 10SC1 D4G2DZC4 " : RETURN 
180 PAINT (138, 112) , 1 , 1 1PT*-" Y030 
,076-160, 1 18":GOSUB17:GOSUB170 
190 CIRCLE (120, 80) ,70, 1, .5, ,2, ,S 
: CIRCLE CI 14,72) ,80, 1,-6, .3* -4: CI 
RCLE(66, 100) ,26, 1, 1.1, .4, .6 
200 CIRCLE (100, 76) , 30, 1 , . 9: PAINT 
( 100,58) , 1 , 1 ;PT*e "6069*048-120, 0 
98": GOSUB 17: CIRCLE ( 100,76) ,30, 1, 
.9, *6, .2 

210 CIRCLE (82, 94) ,30,3, .9, .38, - 1 
:CIRCLE(130, 72) ,80,3,.5, *3, .47:P 
AINT (82,96) , 3, 3: CIRCLE (82, 94) ,30 
,1, -9,.SS, . l: CIRCLE (130, 72) ,80, 1 
,.5, .3,. 47 

220 CIRCLE (194, 104 > , 22, 1 , . 9, . 33. 
. 18:PAINT ( 194, 98) , I , 1 : PT*« H V16B, 
084-210, 1 18": GOSUB 1 7 : C I RCL E ( 194, 
104) ,22, l p .9, .33, , IB: CIRCLE (160, 
120) ,48, 1, 1, .6, .SB: PAINT U60, 100 
>,2,1 

230 CIRCLE* 160, 120) , 10, 1 , 1 p . 75, 1 
;CIRCLE(160, 100) , 10, 1, .9:CIRCLE( 
150,90) , 10, I, .9: CIRCLE (170, 86) ( 1 
0, l t . 9: CIRCLE (140, 1 10) , 10, 1 , 1 , - 5 
, I : CIRCLE ( 120, 1 10) , 10, 1 , .9, .S, l: 
CIRCLE (130, 102) , 10, 1, .9, .5, 1:CIR 
CLE (140,86) , 10, 1, .9, .28, .92 
240 CIRCLE ( 154,82) , 10, 1 , >9 f * 33, - 
96: CIRCLE (172, 110) ,8, 1, l t . 15, .75 
: DRAW " BM 1 26, 90C 1 R6F4D2BFBBR4R4BE 
20BR6E 4BL12BU2U2" 

250 CGL0R1, i:LINE(16, l2)-(239, 17 

9) , PSET, B:LINEU6, l46)-(66, 146) , 

I 'SE T : L i NE '. 239 .146) ( 1 B4, 146) , F'SE 

TSPAINT(20, 148) ,3,1 

260 CIRCLE(36,10),80, 1,.6,.02,.2 

5: DRAW 1 BM36. 56C I D10F6" 

270 CIRCLE (222, 10) ,80, 1, .6, -25, * 

49 : DRAW " BM22 2, 56C1R6DI 0G6 D7 4 " 

280 POKE 178, 14: PA INT (18,20) , , 1 

290 POKE178,26:PAINT (200,20) ,, 1 

300 PQKE178,34:PAINTU30,20> 1 

310 IF I NKEY*< >CHR» (13) THEN3 1 0 

320 PMODE 3: SCREEN 1, 1 

330 1 F I NKE Y*< >CHR» (13) THEN330 

340 PWODE3:SCREEN1,0 

350 !FlNKEY«>CHR*t 13)THEN350 

360 PM0DE4: SCREEN 1,0 

370 IF INKEY»OCHR» ( 13) THEN370 

380 PM00E4 : SCREEN!, i : ©OT03 10 



40 THEHAINBOW Jnh.iafv 'SflS 




BASIC NECESSITIES'? 



Software and Hardware Products 
for BASIC Programmers 



EDITTRON s 8°° M/L UTILITIES 

Full-Screen Text Editor For BASIC Programs 




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TAPE UTILITY 



The Keyboard 
Cassette Editing 
System 




42 THE RAINBOW January 1985 



4K 



f f you\c discovered AUDWON: 
I MO TO RON I AUDlOOFF: 
JLmoTOROFF to audibly search 
through your cassette tape for a pro- 
gram, you\e probably discovered it can 
be an absolute pain retyping the fame 
commands over and over again. This 
simple program gives you one keystroke 
control for ON f OFF tape command*, 
and lets you completely exit the pro- 
gram in a two stroke sequence to begin a 
new program It also sounds an audible 
confirmation Tor each keystroke Writ- 
ten with two versions, it function* on 
either basic or Extended basic 

The Keyboard Cassette Editor pro- 
gram (KCEj, used in conjunction with 
the suggested editing method will allow 
you to easily update or locate any pro- 
gram on any tape in a matter of seconds 
This program is also quite useful for 
editing out unwanted programs from 
the middle of tapes and reducing search 
tune to a minimum. 

The advantage of listening to a re- 
corded program is i; allows a person lo 
identify exactly where and bow much 
space a particular program occupies on 
the tape Once this is determined, us 
position can be noted in an index log 
using the tape counter for quick retriev- 
al or editing rather than going through 
the entire tape in the "play-search" 
mode. 

Saving programs from computer lo 
tape isn^l hard, neither i* loading them 
back into the computer. What the in- 
struction book doesn't tell you is how to 
manage and edit your tape once you Ve 
begun CSA VEing all your programs! 

Before discovering A UDIOQS: 
MOTORON I A VDiOOFF: MOTOR 
OFF, 1 was unplugging the cassette 
recorder jacks every lime I wanted to 
listen to where a particular program 
started and finished. When 1 read the 
same result* could be accomplished 
using computer keyboard commands 



{Gary ami his wife Undo own fjpw- 
sive image Photography Studio in 
Medium, IVis A tthough Gary has no 
prior computet background: huxmess 
needs necessitated the purchase this 
year of a computer system. The simple 
programs Gar y has w ritten are directed 
toward efficient computer unage ami 
applications for his business,} 



and listening to the tape through the 
television, life with a computer became 
a little easier. This also minimized the 
need to readjust the recorder volume 
control every time I listened arid pre- 
cluded the possibility of damaging one 
of the jacks. 

Regrettably* not being a speed-typist, 
constantly re-entering A VOIOON: 
MOTORON 1 A U DJOO F F;M OTOR 
OFF became practically as challenging 
as plugging and unplugging the jacks. 
There had to be a better way. 

"Soring program* front 
vomputrr in tape i*n*l 
'fMf/. nvtthvr rr loading 
thfttt hark iht* com- 

puter* What thi* innlrur- 
titfti htnd< tttM'un'i tvtt v**» 
m htnr ia manage and rdii 

your t*ljn onrt yf'Yf 

hrerun (ISAVftinpi alt ynur 
prttjfram*!*' 



1 should first explain how I've set up 
my tape Tile. Each primary category of 
mjcn:5ii T such as: business, inventory, 
data, special programs, home, hobbies, 
games, etc., ha it a separate cassette 
representing "final" CSA VEs of each 
program 1 also have a "pending" tape 
which represents the various programs 
I 'm currently working on but do not yet 
have in final form, 

With ol Iter CSA VE systems you have 
a choice of either adding nn alter the 
older version of i he same program.' data 
or recording over the older version If 
you add the "updated** version after the 
previous version it won't he long be lore 
an entire tape has the same program in 
various stages of updates If you at- 
tempt to record over the older existing 
version, sever a I problems can ar ise V ou 
can lose everything with un ItO trror 
hy having a segment nt the old u r^hm 
attempt TO load with the new version 
(often caused by less than total erasure 
of the previous program). Another 
problem is since the updated version h;i> 
more information in it. ii's also longer 
and hence uses mure tape length when 
CSA VEd. which could record over the 
beginning of the next CSA IE m the 
tape sequence 



My solution to these potential prob- 
lems has been very effective for 
hundreds of error-free CSA VEs. First, 
make sure your recorder is set up prop- 
erly, including periodically cleaned 
heads. Second, lake full advantage of 
t he record er's digital counter by zeroing 
it to the beginning of each tape and 
setting up a simple log sheet indexing 
each program to a specific counter 
value, When you CSA VE a program, 
anticipate the maximum length after all 
the updates arc completed. An effective 
way to estimate is first to note the length 
of the original CSA VE on the counter. 
If you think you may end up with twice 
as much program, data before youVe 
finished, then double the counter length 
value, After you've determined the max- 
imum length of your program,' data 
then add another five counter units as a 
buffer bclween CSA VEs 

If I CSA VEdu current inventors Ijgfr 
ing of merchandise and the CSA VE 
began ai counter numberfCN) 17 and 
ended at CN 27, I used 10 counter units 
for the CSA VE. Realizing I'm only hall 
done with the current listing Td have to 
add another 10 counter units. I may also 
want to consider if the current inventory 
will ever be expanded, so to be safe I'd 
add a 2ft percent expansion factor Or 
anniher four counter units. Now that I 
have determined the total space needed 
for a complete inventory, including an 
expansion factor, my total counter units 
are 24 Now add five counter units as a 
buffer between I he next CSA VE for a 
grand total of 29. Since my program 
began on CN 17,1 add 29 and when a 
new {different) program, data is saved 
on the same tape it will begin ai CN 46 
At first this may seem like a lot of 
blank tape between programs, but com- 
pared to sequentially saving updates. 
h\ much more condensed. With an 
accurate index Ing you'll be able to fast 
forward or rewind to I he beginning of 
any program; da la in a matter of sec- 
onds. And since the program, data il- 
ways begins at the same place there is no 
need to revise the index log entries each 
time a change is made 

Once you have the KCE running, 
vour screen display will give you 
ihree options EDIT. STOP or QUlT- 
PrCMinglhe'E'. 'S'or *Q' computer key 



jnwr 1965 rvtaJUHaow 43 



will iniiiatc each respective J unci urn 1 k\ 
not nccessiry to use the uppercase 
SHIFT key). The "EVJit key serves the 
same basic function as A VDiOON; 
MOTOHOS, i he "S'lop serves as the 
A UD tOOFF. MOTOHOfF and the 
Q uit allows you to entirely exit the 
KCE program. 

It is important to understand the 
'Q'uil also erases the KCE program, 
allowing immediate entry of new pro- 
gram information. (This should also be 
taken imo account when initially writ- 
ing the KCE program ,\ Because of the 
tola! exit from ihe program, when the 
*Q*uit key is pressed vou are then 
prompted with "DO YOU REALLY 
WANT TO QUIT? - YES, NO. 
BREAK*** tf you do want to quit just 
press 'Y'.i/noi, pressing "IV mil re-enter 
you into the KCE program. If you wish 
to make a temporary "break" from 
fCCf without erasing the program itself, 
just press the keyboard BREAK key and 
you can rrview your CSA VEs "names by 
using thy basic SKfPF command 
When you Ye ready to return to the KCE 
editor just enter RUN, 

You may have noticed the 'F and *S' 
keys arc directly adjacent to each other 



and the "Q* key is also nearby, which i& 
not sheer coincidence. This position 
allows easy use for left hand access 
while the right hand remains free for 
cassette manipulation* wrrting notes or 
whatever There isn't any need to watch 
which keys your depressing, an each 
function key has a beep response with a 
different lone to audibly confirm every 
input. 

Well use our previous inventory ex- 
ample to demonstrate the KCE pro- 
gram. Let s assume weSe already loaded 
the inventor* into the compute! Eton) 
the "final" cassette and updated the file 

CSAVEtoTEND"; 

CSA K £ the updated version on a dif- 
ferent. "Pend" cassette which s\dl keep 
)usl for "pending" actions. He sure to 
include at least one backup CSA VEifor 
convenience the CSA VE% can be don£ 
sequentially) 

CLOAD "KCE" 

OOCC satisfied the updated Version H 
srfelj CSAVEd* CLOAD the KCE 
program and RUN it. 



Ready the "FrnaT*! 

Rewind the 'Tina I"* cassette to ihe 
beginning and M zcro N the tape counter. 
Now fast forward until you're posi- 
tioned just before the '"inventory " pro- 
gram, C\ 12-15. Press Play on the 
cnsscite recorder and then press 'fi d it 
on the keyboard The tape will begin to 
run and you should hear a fninl hum 
irom the blank "buffer** of the- previous 
program a* ibr tape advances. When 
the tape comes toCN In press "S top on 
the keyboard. 

"CLEANING" ihe tape: 

Place the recorder in the Record 
mode and press 'E'dit again. You are 
now replacing ihc old inventory pro- 
gram with a clean, blank tape space. Let 
ihe recorder '"dean** the tape to tht end 
ol ihr full length of the anticipated pro- 
gram (which in this case w^s CN 46J + 
When v oti "S'lop. you will not only stop 
the tape but aho place a short audible 
"beep** on ihc tape for future editing 
orientation. (If yon "Q'uil the program 
while til she 'E*dh mode, the program 
witl automatically turn off the audio 
and recorder wirhowi an orientation 



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44 THE HMKBOW January IW& 



beep recorded an the tape.) Once you\c 
established the wpc parameters, subse- 
quent updates u ill only require cleaning 
the tape a digit past the end of the pre* 
vious vcrsipn. 

Position "FINAL" for C5AVH: 

Rewind the cassette recorder back to 
a boo i CN 15* and place the recorder in 
the Play mode Press the "E'dii once 
more until you arc exactly m CN 1 7 arid 
'S*top the tape edit. 

Reload your program; 

Press "Q'uit and answer the prompt 
with a *V* to totally exit the KCE pro- 
gram. Remove the "Tina r cassette frorr 
thc recorder and reload your updatLtJ 
inventory into the computer from the 
"*pcnd" caisettc. 

Naming yom program: 

Since you're permitted up to eight 
characters in your CSA VE "name", a 
thoughtful suggestion would be to re- 
serve the last three characters for a two- 
character revision index and separate it 
with a period or slash such as 
"\'ASfE{03". This not only allows easy 



review, especially during a tape search, 
hut also offers a simple transition to 
luture disk SA V£t. 

CSAVE to "FINAL"; 

Once loaded, return to the Tinal" 
Lasseiic and CSA VE in the normal 
manner. 

Rewind the "Tmu.1*" cassette tn the 
beginning. *Vero" the counter, advance 
to about CN 16 and CLOA I) the same 
program you jusi CSA VEd. This reload' 
ing will confirm an effective CSA VE, (If 
the "final" CSA VE would have fn i led T 
you still have several CSA VE* on the 
"pend "easst-uc Ut try again.) By zeroing 
Ihe counter before CEO A &irtg the 
prevent program, you can determine 
how much additional (ape the updaic 
consumed (if the tape now stopped at 
CN }2 t I be update portion consumed 
five additional counter units). 

1 realize ibis may sound a bit com- 
plex, but most of it is just a logical 
setjuenceand won't require much mem- 
ory. The most obvious advantages are 
the exceptionally precise control a per- 
son has in advancing the tape, either in 
the Play or Record mode, the audible 
■h,;,jp" to iii'iLrmmt the program data 
save boundaries and l he ability to main- 



tain concise, accurate and consistent 
records of program data CSA VEs. In 
the long run it can be a very simple 
solution to what otherwise mighl he- 
come a complex ma/c of confusion. 

Here's The KCE program, lt\ listed 
the Extended HAStc version, however 
by replacing the program subroutine 
with the alternate subroutine, the pn>- 
jirsirn vull ellecliveK run mi f 'ulor W-\s\i 

hot an effective screen displaN . please 
adhere to all spacing. 

l ine 170 lists NEW; however while 
you are initially writing the program 
replace SEW with END, This allows 
you to i est R UN t he progra m, inclu d i ng 
'Quit without erasing the entire pro- 
gram. Once you have satisfactorily 
completed the program. CSA VE it for 
your backup file with the END com- 
mand on Line 170. Then change Line 
170 to NEW and CSA VEil a lew limes 
lor normal editing use. 

You may wish to begin your "pend" 
cassette with several KCE program 
CSA VES for fast access when editing. If 
you'd tike a pre-CSA VEd KCE pro- 
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SCHOOL IS IN THE HEART OF A CHILD 



Spread your wings, child, and fly. Glide 
over the Plains of Content. Use your eagle 
eyes to find the Mountains of intuition. 
Soar on their uplifting currents. Trust your 
psychic tailwind. 

— Laran Stardrake 



Binary Birthday Cakes, 

Letters And 

More Wordsw orths 



By Boh Alhrecht and Ktmion Zamora 
Kaitibow Cuiilriljuting Editors 



Basic Skill* 

"W^aut- Sit Ms is a. book by Herbert 
Kohl. \i is a wonderful and 
JU thoughtful book - a hook by a 
philosopher and doer u ho tin*, npcni h;s 
life learning from children about child- 
ren. Wr wish that every person con- 
cerned about ihi liniuth and wcll-hcing! 
nl children would read this book. 



From thi- introduction' 

I believe in public education hut 
do not believe that the public 
schools arc providingan adequate 
banc education, for our children- 
It is imponant to emphasize this 
distinction between public educa- 
tion and the current state of the 
public schools, between what 



"School \h in the Heart of a Child** is for 
parent* of ouitc young children We want Id 
help >oti work and play u ith your three* to 
ctghi*yttir-old child and learn to use eompu- 
ten a» a joyful family experience V. c want 
in mgftcM ways lu incorporate the home 
computer as jnoshci mt\in> to ^-iilhutliuc 
yourchdd's mde pcndincc, growib. and con- 
trol over his own lite Sec the pride on her 
face a* she directs the cnmputei to do uhai 
she vvilh deliberation ^elects Sec her head 
jprur* *wneh to "an"* a* she progresses *tcp- 
by-stcp w»<h yum presence and cannc d$ 
reel hi n. 

'c will explore | we hope, with vow help i 
the following: 

• Specific "leaching technique* w» that 
the discovery can be the child'* awn. 

• L r it ica I evaluation of software based on 
extensive phty testing in family and re- 
lated enviromciiis. 



■ Additional tesuurccsio consult: bonks, 
mnjjnj-incs. snstuare publishers, net- 
work*, etc. 

* Suggestion* for interludes and fun times 
away Irnm the computer u must}: call 
the librarian fur specific information; 
watch a TV program together and dis- 
cum it; work together m volunteers in a 
community project: take a ipnng {or 
fall or winter or summer!* awnrcnf** 
walk . 

• Whatever wc learn from families *c 
work with in Mcnla Park or bum you. 
our readers. Let's pool our knowledge, 
lets share nuf e*pcriencei a* wc all 
learn from our chtldtni. 

Wt ifcfC provide >mall programs >ou can 
iype in oud use right now, 

Copvrifcht* IW4 bv DtagonQucM. P O 
Box ?Kt. Menlo i>i*rk. C\<t4i)7*> 



could be and what is. We can 
make a decern s>stcm of public 
education and help our children 
learn to take control of (heir lives 
rather than hr managed, con- 
trolled, bossed. Ind bewildered. 
This book presents a concrete 
program for the revnuli/aTion of 
public education It is based on 
Ihc idea that the fundamental goals 
of public education should be lo 
d c. vein p i n I or rued, t ho u ght f u L a nd 
sensitive citt/ens who are able to 
fulfill their personal needs at the 
same lime that the) contribute to 
making the whole socieij, harmon- 
ious and companionate We need 
this wholeness now more than at 
any time I can remember. It is 

(ii rtt-Krioti n author Huh Athnvhi atsu 
writes ttir " Game Master \ A pprcmice " 
h'uturv iff Hit- tuunhpw each mimih- 
tistrivri lamvrs i\ author and < p- 
Quthvt uf nvxt'rai hooks, to-faurtdtr of 
Computer Town USAK and currently 
ttaigtiittg. attttputtff game* for kitis at 
Cttitd Hurt- CtTft. in Mm fa Park, 
Catif.) 



48 THE RA1HEOW inouJiry H}A5 



common to hear people talking 
about (he United States suffering 
from "too much democracy," "an 
excess of freedom" and "un- 
bridled liberty." [lis time to lake a 
serious look at ourselves and sec 
how much democracy we really 
have and how far *c have to go to 
achieve the dreams expressed by 
the Declaration of Independence, 
which dared to call life, liberty* 
and the pursuit of happiness rights 
and not privileges. 

The focus of this book is on public 
education and the struggle to 
create decent schools for all of our 
children, 1 hope it will move peo- 
ple to stay engaged in that effort 
and to develop concrete programs 
for action in their own communities. 
We suggest you gel this book 1 1 > our 
local hook-;! ore doesn't h«i\i- it, enrckr i! 
directly from I he publisher; Basic Skifh 
by Herbert kohl, from Bantam Books, 
Inc., 414 East Golf Road, Des Plumes, 
1 L 600 1 6, S3.95 plus S I 25 postage and 
handling. 

Binary Blrthda) Cake 

Re member your first birthday'' 
Maybe the cake looked like this: 




Well, on your second hithduy there 
were two candles, on your third birth- 
day three randies, and so on. As «c 
gnm older (lie number of candles gets 
embarrassingly lurgeaitd harder to blow 
out. 

Soon , , . why not try a binary birth- 
day cake"? 





TWO YEARS OLD 



W it h f ou r can dies, we tii n gn u p I n 1 5 
years old. with five candles, up to 31 
years old and with six candles, up to 63. 

Bui if you are 57. get people to look at 
the cuke from the back instead of Ike 
front ... in fact, if you don't put some- 
thing on the cake to indicate the front, 
your age will be ambiguous (unless, of 
course, i t is a bina ry palindrome % And, 
for all you computer people out there — 



THREE YEARS OLD 



Hit k \ I \RMH M 



FJVF 



SIX 







ONE YEAR OLD 



SEVEN 



Ikie is a cake *ith an extra BYTE 



Jitiuirv IMS THE ftMNiOW 49 





Dining m the lun and excitement ol 
BAINS O Writ rs a Brest way to get to 
Know the CoCo Community Many of 



these wtio wnte lor Mf.M*iNttow -and those 
who Are written about — attend CoCo's very 
own show n * n puopiiwo-peopro oveni a* 
wett ft* a v4iusbtu learning wMpcrxmcft 



For the season, we've scheduled 

three AAlNBOWfeits in three parr? or the 
country. *t you missed the RAlNBOWfeat m 
Princeton. N J why don't you make ptsn* 
now to tvo with us in Irvine. Cam , or Chi- 
cago. ♦H.? Each show wtli otter tun ercctl*- 
mem, new products, seminars and jnfrjrma- 
uon for your CoCo? And for those who 
(perish the thought ) don t like Co Co as 



aAiNflOWJestJrwne. Cislilomia (L A are*) 

Data: February 15-17. 1985 

Mo let. Irvine Marnotl Hoiel 

Rooms: \(& per night, single or double 

Advance Ticket Deidllnar February ft 1985 



mochas you, wave scheduled each RAIN- 
BOWfesI tn an area thai will provide tun and 
enjoyment tor the *nolft tamtly 

Out iryme, California, show is bemg hold 
at the Irvine Marriott Motet, which otters 
special rale* fOf RAINBOW last The show 
opens Friday evening with a 7 p.m to 10 
p.m. Mission, ll'i a daytime-only a how Sat- 
urday - the CoCo Community BroakfasT <s 
at 8 a.m.. then the enhibii halt opcrtiA 
promptly ai 10 a m and runs continuously 
uniil6prn Tfcoro will bona enhitaihor, 
hours or seminars Saturday evening. On 
Sunday, the exhibit hat' opens al 11 a.m. 
and ciofc?s at J p m 

Our highly popular C0C0 Community 
Broeklasi will again feature a welJ-knuwn 
tiguro trom the Color Computer Comr -un- 
ity. And the exhibition wilt be miortpaced 



RAJ NBOWteal- Chicago. Illinois 
□ate: May 17-19, 
Hotel: Hyatt Regency Woodfield 
Rooms: S49 per mghi. single or double 
Advance Ticket Deadline: May 10, 1985 



wilh a number o! seminar sessions on all 
aspects of C0C0 — from writing in machine 
language 10 making your basic work bet tot 

Bui mant nf nil, there will be exhibitor*. 
Lots ol thorn An reedy to dsmonstreUj pio- 
ducts ol every kind Some with special pto- 
Qriimfl nno hardware Kems to introduce. 
Others wtth show specials. 

Tickets can be secured directly Uom rMI 
haimoow Wa lt also seno you a specaf 
reservation form 30 you can get you* spe- 
cial room rate 

Come to RAINBOW lest Msipusaii 
celebrate CoCo Community ai Its finest, 



United Airlines and the ruihuow have 
r omed together 10 olfer a special discount ed 
tare 10 Ihoso alien ding RAINBOWIesl- 
hvine S.nrply by calling United m the roll 
'roe number loind noiow nnd idantiiying our 
meeting, with account number $22-1 yog 
will be eligible tor e 20 percent discount on 
the Easy Saver fare Tna only requirement 
is n Saturday night stay 

(SCOt 521-4041 
Account Number 522-1 



RAIN BO Wf est Irvine 

Seminar Program And Speakers 



• LJltd* Nleleen 



Ttw CoCo Artlet 

High ftea Graphics 



Linda, dI Mo retort Say Laboratory, and several 
Others active in The CcCo area, will demonstrate 
same graphics and help you to learn about some 
techniques you can us a. 



• Dal* Pucherl 



Beginner a Tour Of O&-0 
Beg Inner a Tour Of BABIC09 



A free-lance writer and programmer, Dale has 
worked with microprocessors since 1976, and is 
the author or The Official sasicqb Tour Guide. 
Dale win be avail able to sign copies of his new 
booh, The Comptete qainbow Guide to QS+9. 



• Bob Albrechl 



School it in Th# Heart Ol The Child 



Bob Albrecht. rainbow colummst who writes 
' School Is In The Heart Of The Child,'' is one of 
the most prolific authors In the microcomputer 
world today. A specialist in writing lor beginners, 
he is Ihe author or numerous books, including 
TRS-BO Color QASIC. 



• Jim RMd 



Writing For rainbow 



Jim, managing editor of the rainbow, will talk 
about how you can submit programs and articles 
to magazines for fun and profit. He is also senior 
edlior o) pcm — and editorial director ol soft 
sector (for the Sanyo). 



* Dan OownArd 



lrt*IH« Your Color Computer 

Software And Hardwerm Interfacing 



Dan Downard is the technical editor for the rain- 
bo vv and an electrical engineer, He has been 
involved in electronics lor 2* years through ham 
radio (K4KWT) His interest In computers began 
about live years ago and he has built several 
6SXX systems 



■ Don Inmen 

■ Tim Hrsqer 
• Bob AlbrecM 

Atone with aevereJ other peneiiiii 



A Realizable fenleay; 
The Horn* Drdm Machine 



Don In man Is a co-author of a series of booklets 
for Radio Shack Ml led Color logo Guide for 
Teachers He is a tormer teacher end is presently 
a full-time author with ine DYMAX group, 

Tim Finger is a member of the DYMAX group, 
along with Don and Sob 



w«yn« Day 

and the Color SIG 
The CoCo Umt end foe 
Cecal Bulletin Board 

Wayne Day. a traffic engineering signal techni- 
cian, la the SYSOP of The Color SIG of 
CompuServe, the world's largest consumer 
information service. He is also a certified 
paramedic and works part-time tor an Emergency 
Medical Service provider. His amateur radio 
operator call sign la WA5WQB- 



• Rill Nolan QimeMftttcr 1 * Apprentice And 

• Bob A lb rech I 0 regon'a Byte 

Bill Nolan, who teaches "Programming In basic" 
at the college level, owns Prickly-Pear Software 
Co. and has writlen several commercially suc- 
cessful software packages 



•Ken Kdpldn, president ol Mlcroware Systems Corp., will be our keynote speaker at the CoCo 
Community Break last. Saturday morning at 6 a.m. 





VI*. I'm coming \o AAWfiOWfeaM 1 wen! to sav* by buying) ticket! now it the special 


FREE T-Shlrt loflrtl five people 


advance sale price Send rne iickoia tar (check one) 


from each slate who buy tickets. 


O Irvine, Can lor mi Q Chicago. Illlnoi* 
pimm tend me. 

lh, w, Kay !w-k«t> 5.0 Mrn IflUl 


FREE Rainbow poster 

tor first 500 ticket* ordered. 


am Amy lli*h*(**l 47 Mrn Idlal 

Circle one f ■■;,!. ' Saturday J Sunday 

fi»>4irrla.y hmAklnit ► ,rk*i1* n! tl7«Kh tnt»< 






TOT 1*1 EN COS EG |U 5 FUHDSONlV PLEAStJ 1 




O M» Mnd m« e ftOter rwar^tion tan) to* t I trwirui, or | } Chicago 


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THE HAtMiOW 


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CITY & STATE . 


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COMPANY . 


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' Signal ufa _ . . _ju . ■ 



Adventure Gaines For TUf Rest Of Us 

We are looking, mostly in vain, far 
t\7 i jo-ptay Adventure games rated G. 
Wc are lircd s>t gom^ thai depend on 
killing as the way to success. Last time 
nee recommended ,4 demure Starter 
from Owls iScsi Soil ware. P.O. Has 
579 ( Qnltcwah, TN 3736.V Foi l&K 
Extended Color n v>\t On cassette Eur 
SI 7.95 postpaid. 

We encourage all ol you who want to 
try an easy Adveniure game with your 
kids to get this Adventure and do It. 
Please share your experiences with us. 
We will continue playing MY HOUSE 
with kids and share out experiences 
with you. Why do we choose AO'* 
HOUSE? Because it is the only non- 
violent. casy~to*play Adventure game 
we know of for a IfcK. CoCo with 
Extended Color basic. As you play 
M V MOUSE, encourage your kids 10 
make ii map. Please send us maps of 
MYMOUSE ur\d tell u-i about the pro- 
cess of learning how to make the map. 
Next time, wc will share with you some 
of our map making methods. 

WA NTED. Scn-v iok nt , easy -tu~p la y 
Adventure games, Wc especially want 
games \u it able for parent and young 



child to play together. Why do all you 
Adventure game designers spend your 
time making increasingly more difficult 
games for ihc^rMuTand "sophisticated" 
player? The world is full of beginners. 
Why not make beautiful games for 
them ' Instead of filing 1 .000 incredibly 
complex games to the Adventure game 
cult, why not sell 100,000 beautiful, 
non-violent games ia beginners, games 
tor "the rest of Us." 

We are also looking for non-violent 
Adventure games with several levels of 
play A beginner starts with an easy 
game and is guaranteed moderate suc- 
cess, then moves up to a more difficult 
level, and so on. Focus on exploration 
and problem-solving instead of "kill 
monster, gel treasure," Make your 
gumcv realisable realistic fantasies. As 
La ran Star drake once said, "Reality 
expands to fill the available fantasies." 
Wc Love The Lett en! 

Our greatest pleasure in writing this 
column is hearing from you. our es- 
teemed R AINBOW readers. Your lei tiers 
guide us ji> wc evolve "School is in the 
Heart of a Child." 

Thanks. Cart H. Bloss. for iwo let- 
ters. We have combined I hem a* follows: 



As a new subscriber and avid 
reader of THf rainbow J fee I you 
should also readdress your col- 
umn "School is in the Heart ol a 
Child" to teachers. Librarians and 
computer aides in the school. Lit- 
tle is done to help these people at 
the early critical years of children 
with computers. I know, I am a 
teacher, librarian and erstwhile 
programmer at a 5K level. 

As an educator. J am fully aware 
thai written curricu turns often do 
not allow enough freedom for 
both the teacher and the student 
to explore — to work and play 
while learning. Schools approach 
1 cu rning fro msucha" stuffy " p os i- 
t ion that everything must bejuslifi- 
able. accountable through 
criterion-referenced testing, or 
everything must have a planned 
outcome, 

There arc two schools of thought 
with loco, one following an ex- 
perimentiai approach, the other 
using a planned teaching course of 
study- Most schools seem to be 
using the more restrictive planned 
teaching approach, even at the 



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IN OKLAHOMA CAiL {*»\ J»a 7MI 



DORSETT 

Educational Systems, Inc. 

Hon 1226, Norman. OK /3C70 



52 THEfliiNBO* j73^ -93? 



earliest level*. This is contrary Co 
all of Papen s concepts as well us 
mo si learning theories. 

Oui school will have a tab o{ 
Color Computers, but not locked 
in the library media center where I 
work. Since librarian* work close- 
l> with the teaching staff, we are 
often asked for sources with ideas 
and materials on a variety of com- 
puter subjects. Your column, rc- 
addrcsscd to ericumpassihc teach- 
er and librarian, i* a tremendous 
source of idea*. 

Thank you very much, Carl. If 1 ran 
your school, 1 would give you a hunch 
of CoCos that kids could check out and 
take home overnight. People like you 
can blend thi? worlds of learning — in 
school and 6Hl oj school so children 
can hn\c the best of both worlds. Well 
send you a Mulled dragon Put him or 
her in your library media center in 
remind you to keep plugging away and 
wrile u> us now and then. 

We arc getting lots of letters! Thanks, 
Our nesl Ictlei fa from June Lemons. 

1 a pp In ad \ mil column and your 
concept about ihe education of 



children- 11 strongly .suspect many 
parents are also losing their hesi- 
tancy to try using their computer* 
by trying your programs. ) 

My husband and I entered ilic 
Interna ling, educational fun woTld 
nl mmpimnu .i vliori ynai ago 
I he rhull nl Iciming all iht WW 
velous things our CoCo COH do 
continues on, I contrive to spend 
a* much time a* possible reading 
— and keying in article* and 
program* from ] lie Rainbow. 
cheerfully rising early and renting 
lute in my pursuit oi knowledge, 
participating I j a oi hers* crea I iv ky. 

About three months after get- 
ting our CoCo, 1 wrote an ex- 
iremcl) sample program I or my 
two-year-old grandson, a program 
he can use to learn; I J letter keys: 
2 1 how io spelt Ins name (of course* 
the p rug tarn is easds adaptable 
for any child), reward mg lion wilh 
his {then l favorite music, "Happ> 
Birthday/"' 

I have two regrets: getting 
acquainted with computers so laic 
in life, and that my grandson's 



parents dont share my enthusi- 
asm. But when Dettnic visits, he 
asks to go into what he calls my 
computing room u here he displays 
a marvelous grasp ol letters, 
colors shapes — after all, he 
know 4 ! whal unicorns and pedom- 
eters are! 

My husband has had one disap- 
pointment — I haven't been able 
to "draw*' a cake with icing and a 
Dickering candle to complete "Ben- 
nies program** 

Thanks, June Wc ihink you might 
like " Binary Birthday Cake" in this epi- 
sode of "School is iii the Heart off a 
Child" Well ask Don I run an how io 
draw the cake wiih flickering candles. 
OI course, we will send yno a slufled 
dragon lo plat wiih Hen me. you and the 
CoCo. 

I etlers are close to the hear I ol this 
series Wc arc getting lots of letters, 
thank ytiiK and wan I motel Our next 
letter is from John A, McOoldrick- 
Jtihn has a larger sample we than most 
of us - he has live children, ranging in 
ages from ihrcc to nine. 

! have just finished reading your 




J4<lvwy "jfit THE amnpow 53 







500 


REH#«COMPUTE Wl b W2 






310 


FO« L-l TO ML 


100 


REM** WORDS WORTH 1*2 SCH 10-1 


520 


! Lt ■ MID* < WRDt >L t |1 


lit" 


CLS 


530 


: IF L*<"A" THEN 380 




* 


540 


S IF L*> l *Z* THEN 380 


200 


REM** ASK FOR ft WORD 


330 


: LS - A©C(Lt> - 64 


210 


PRINT 


560 


: wj = Wl + LS 


220 


INPUT "YOUR WOmri WRDt 


370 


: W2 - W2*LS 






380 


NEXT L 


300 


RF£N**WL IS LENGTH OF WORD 


3*9 


* 


310 


WL - LEN < WRD * > 


600 


ftEH#*PRlNT BOTH WORDS WORTHS 


39? 




610 


PRINT "WORDSWORTH #1 IS" Wl 


400 


REH**tNlTI ALI ZE Nl St W2 


620 


PRINT "WORDSWORTH #2 IS" W2 


410 


Hi - 0 


699 


p 


420 


W2 - 1 


700 


REN*#BQ FOR ANOTHER WORD 


499 


p 


710 


GOTO 210 



article in the r*imm*w and was 
quite impressed with it. Fduca- 
lional software was the over- 
whelming reason far I he purtrhii.se 
of my Radio Shack MK ECH this 
past January . I think your depart- 
ment "School is in the Heart of a 
Child" will help to Till the void that 
now exists, 

I am the father of five children, 
ages nine, eight, six, five, and 
three. I cannot afford to buy *o!V 
wart en he j ha sod on mhvrt la- 
ments ur solely on the manufac- 
turer's name I have been burned 
both ways . , . 

I'aiuin-, want good educational 
software. They want software that 
will help their children become 
computer literate, hut will not 
cause parent* to become financial 
paupers in this, quest. 

Special t hunks. John. 1 hope the 
CoCo "'collage industry" hears you. 
We. too, are tired of software that 
simply exploits the desire of parents to 
use the CoCo to help kids learn. 

Yes. software t* tvo expensive. You 
people out there who have kids, what do 
you want? What will you pav SV.95 for"? 
114.95? 19,957 and so on. What do you 
want? 

If you have young children, compare 
the "holding power" of software with 
Sesame Street. Mando (age six I. Boh, 
and Ramon will gladly watch Sesame 
Street repeats, several time* - and 
(hat's free! Software should also have 
"holding power" and grow wiih the 
child. Home software should have ver- 
tical growth; school soft ware indifferent 
— it i s dcsi gncd to be hot w o nla I more 
about this ncM time. 



Wordsworth 

Hooray! Several of you seal answers 
to our Wordsworth challenge in the 
August issue. Here again are the 
questions you answered. 

II What magic word ha* a Words- 
worth n I equal to t he number of week* 
in n year? 

2 ) What ft ve-leite r word has the *ma 1 1- 
esi Wordsworth #2? 

~S) What five-letter word has the larg- 
est Wordsworth 02? 

4f What is the longest word I most 
let let* I that has a Wordsworth »2 k&A 
than 20.1*00'' 

We have received answer* from Amos 
and Josh Goldie. Lara Hansen, the 
Jones children. Stephen Lalhom, Eric 
I outer bach, and Andrea and Jenny 
McConnucss, Next time well share their 
answers with you. In the meantime, 
send in your answers. Here is a Words- 
won h program to compote both Wqfiff- 
worth ffl and Wordsworth #2* 

To answer a Wordsworth quest inn. 
browse a dictionary for words to try 
with i he above Wordsworth program. 
Let's all use The American Heritage 
Dictionary of the English Language, 
paperback edition* published by Dell 
Publishing Company, 1 Dag Hatn- 
marskjnld Pin 7a, New York, NY 100 1? 
You can buy it for $,V95 at almost any 
bookstore or order it from the publisher 

Here are more questions for you 
Wordsworth fans*. Remember, all these 
questions refer to the American Herit- 
age Dictionary mcmioncd a tune 

5) In the enl ire dictionary, what word 
has the largest Wordsworth I? 

ft] la the entire dictionary , what word 
Iras the largest Wordsworth #2? 

7) What is the first word (alphabeti- 



cally) lo have a Wordsworth ff\ of 
exactly 100? 

H) t n trie entire diet io na ry, what w or d 
has a Wordsworth #2 closest to 
LQ0O,6W 

Send us your answers We will put all 
answers received by December .11. 1984 
in a bo*, shake "cm up, and draw a 
winner The winner will receive, oi 
course, a stuffed dragon. 




DragonSttiuke 

KojI'j P.i J i- alwc .liu] well <il K:niui 
Shack! Look for it on Page IW o| the 
J 98 5 Radio Shack Catalog No. 380 or 
Page 52 of the 1*385 TRS-flO Catalog 
No. RSC-12. They call it the TRS-K0 
Touch Pad. Catalog No. 2(vl IK5. piir% 
$59.95. OK* collage industry - lei's get 
busy and write software for ihis marvel- 
ous addition to the CoCo family. 

We have decided io publish u little 
newsletter called DrogonSmoke about 
Tour limci a year. If you want a free 
*.-op\ t send a self-addressed, uumped 
envelope to Dragon Smt*ke, P.O. Hos 
VI0, Mcnlo Purk. CA *S02ft 



54 the rainbow jin^ry i«£ 



Helping Youngsters 
Form Categories 



By Sieve Blvn 
Rain hem Cot! Irihu ling Editor 



The young child deals with new 
items and experiences us unique 
events. He has a small fund of 
knowledge 1o draw from. He hus yel 
10 learn to classify i hings into groups 
o| similar things. Children often «ecm 
fascinated hy what appears to us to be 
something quite commonplace: Ihej 
cannot place the item into a fa miliar 
iraTcgorj 

As we grow in experience, we begin 
to define items into narrower categories. 
The Color Computer can be an example 
a beginner might at first think uf 
the CoCo as merely a Type of computer. 
The more experienced user knows it is 
in the 6800 family of computers miner 
than the 6500 or £S0 families I hoc 
distinctions become more important fca 
your knowledge and needs increase. 

Software is another example. Upon 
purchasing a computer, most people 
usually want to accumulate almost any 
kind of software. There is a need to 
see what the new machine con actually 
do. After a while* we break the software 
down into categories or specific areas 
such as business, education, leisure, etc 



fStw Hfrn HMrhn fntfh except tonal 
itntt ftifwti ihUlnn. holtf* two tmisu-r\ 
ih'grt'v.s tititf hds won uiitirih tor thv 
itrxtfin uf program* to attt the hunith 
atpfn'i/. Ha tithi hii iNjfc C/ti'ryt. ow/i 
Computer L\htuL) 



Wr heeoi lu specialize Man) oi us then 
further specialize within an area to 
several favorite spec i lie companies 
Some of us even go further into specific 
requirement wilhin the programs of 
specific companies sucn as pro- 
gram* only or net workable programs 
only. 

litis type ol refinement of categories 
is part of the human experience. We 
constantly redefine as our knowledge 

"Ton often*, whiwt cur- 
ricula retfuirc name of the 
children to deal u ith ab* 
xfrurt eaacepfm hefure they 
hart secured sufficient 
exfwrience tm earlier lee- 
ch of experience* in that 
stthjcri. Thin van lead to 
inariffftifite oad inxecarc 
learning,'"' 

grows in any field. This helps us I o deal 
with our world. There arc too many 
items and events to deal with individ- 
ually. As we grow, we learn lo place 
them in various categories to help us 
effectively deal with the world around 
us. 

Learning proceeds from concrete to 
abstract concepts. I"' 1 "* 1 *Mt fan deal 
only with single obiects and later with 



categories. This process proceeds 
according in age and experiences at 
individual levels. Too often, school 
curricula require some of the children 
in deal with abstract concepts before 
they have secured sufficient experience 
on earlier levels of experiences in that 
subject. This can Lead to inadequate and 
insecure reaming 

The famous child psychologist Jean 
Piagct, once pet formed an experiment 
tu help study the Levels of categ uri/a linn 
in children. Three girls, aged seven, nine 
and II were asked to pack clothing in 
two suitcases. The way they would 
decide to arrange their clothing into the 
suitcases cm kt reveal much about their 

The seven-year-old first filled one 
soil case randomly with clothes until ii 
was lull and then packed the other with 
the remaining clothing. No real thought 
was given to any categories of clothing. 

The nine-year-old Ihooght far a 
while, and llirn packed nil clothing 
worn above The Vt.nM in unc suitcase 
and clothing worn below the waist in 
the other The top part of her pajamas 
and a 1 wo -piece bathing suit were 
placed in one suitcase and the bottom* 
in the other. 

I ml- 1 1 -year-old wa* more ado It -like 
in her think ing and packed clothes worn 
during 1 he day in one suitcase and nijjfhl 
clothes in the other. It can easily be 



JfcMlHfr UK THE RAINBOW 55 



*ccn from ihii experiment different 
level* of orgiini/aiion of the same ilcrn*. 

Tim mornh'* program naturally deals 
with grouping and calcjjori/.alion. The 
key clement in ihii program is the 
DATA, We had lo select one area and 
those sport* terminology. This was 
purely subjective on our port, one 
subject had to be chosen. Plca.vc do not 
restrict your program to our chosen 
topic. 

The DA J A that you choose in enter 
should he aye appropriate !m your 
child. Younger children mis tit, for 
example, group food items by fruii, 
vegetable or dairy . Older students might 
yrotip chemical compounds by acid* 
base or salt. The DA TA that you enter 
could also be the child's choice. This 
would furthcT involve the student in the 
computer. 

The goal for the user of this program 



is to arrange the 12 words properly 
underneath ihe throe category words. 
The words are moved one at a time by 
the arrow keys After the twelfth word 
\s moved, a list of the 12 words in their 
correct categories appears. The child 
can cn rat pore this li*i to the one thai 
he has jus t LiimpletcdL 

Lines 40-50 set the dimensions and 
read the DA TA Line 70 prints the data 
words These arc the AS words: The 
HS Jeiicrs will never be printed on the 
screen l ine 80 prints the category 
headings, f Your headings may vary 
from ours). Line 140 prints one of the 
words and lines 120-130 set the limits 
of the word so that it does not mess 
up ihe screen.. 

Lines 180-250 let you move the word 
around the screen. The arrow keys are 
represented by the character string 
fCHRij number* 8, 9 T 10 and W When 



Sue of the arrows is pressed, the key 
word to be classified is moved. 
CHRtflS) represents the FN 1 key. 
When it tti pressed, the next word 
appears. Lines 300-360 read and print 
out the correct hat for comparison 
purposes. 

The DATA on Tine 410 consists or 
12 pairs of in for minion A word to be 
classified and an abbreviation for the 
classilkiUiuri ur.ikc up hik- pair I hf\ 
arc the AS and &S portions. The abbre- 
viations do nut get used until needed 
on lines 320-340. Here, the computer 
interprets the BS part and places the 
word in the correct category 

The DATA supplied is merely one 
of literally thousands of possible 
ohoibfis. Use your imagination to help 
your children better classify things or 
L-veuK in their school work and dally 
Lives. 




The listing; 

10 REM "CATEGORIES 
20 REM "STEVE BLYN, COMPUTER ISLAN 
D ( 19Q4 
30 CLS0 

40 DIMA*<12> ,B*<12> 

50 FORT-1 TO 1 2 : READ A* ( T ) t B« < T ) I ! N 

EXT 

&0 PRINT" here is the word 1 

1st " 

70 F0RT~1TQ12:PRINTA*<T> g :NEXTT 
80 PRINT" baseball tennis h 

dc key" 

9^ B*=StRINB* (8, 128) 
100 N=45i:Y=t 

110 REM "SET LIMITS OF WORD PLACE 
MENT " 

120 IF NX259 THEN N=239 

130 IF N>476 THEN N=476 

140 PRINTSN, A*(Y) t 

150 J =258: FORT- 1TD4 SPRINTS J, CHR* 

(249 > { : J=J +32: NEXTT 

I 60 K-26B: FDRT- 1 T04 : PRINTS , CHR* 

(249) | : K-K+32: NEXT T 

170 L-277SFORT=l TO 4:PRINTeL t CH 

R* (249) i :L»L+32:NEXT T 

180 REM "USE THE ARROW KEYS TO MO 

VE THE WORDS'* 

190 A*= INKEY* 

200 IF A*~CHR*<8> THEN PRINTG*N,B 

♦i ;n«n-i: goto 120 

210 IF A**CHR»(9> THEN PR I NT ©N, B 



*; ;N=N+i: GOTO 120 

220 IF A»-CHR#(94)THEN PRINT«N,B 

*; :n-n-32: GOTO 120 

230 IF A*»CHR*U0> THEN PRJNTSN, 

B* | : N=N+32 1 GOTO i 20 

240 IF AS=CHR*(13> THEN Y*«Y+l:N« 

431: SOUND I 50, 2: IF Y>12 THEN 270 

ELSE 120 

250 GOTO 190 

260 REM "BET *t PRINT THE CORRECT 
LISTS" 

270 PRINT«384 f STR 1 NG* < 32 , 239 M : F 
QRT= 1 T09 : PR 1 NT5TR I NG* ( 32, 128) I < H 
EXTT 

2B0 PRINTG194, "here are the corr 

t?ct answers"! 

290 D-227 : £-237 : F~246 

300 RESTORE: FDR G=l TO 12: RE ADA* (Q 

) f BKB) 

310 F0RG-1T012 
320 IF B*CB>-"B" 
(G ) ; : D^D+64 
330 IF B*(B> = *'T" 
(8)1 :E«E+64 
340 IF B*iGi="H" THEN PRINTGF,A* 
(Q> ! :F=F+64 
350 SOUN0230,1 
360 NEXT 6 

370 PRlNT«486 r "PRESS ENTER TO 00 

ON* 1 ; 
380 EN*«1NKEY« 

390 IF EN«^CHR<(13) THEN RUN 
400 GOTO 360 

410 DATA LOVE, T, ICING, H,FACE0FF, 
H, TRIPLE, B, DUECE , T , GOAL IF, H, HOUN 
D,B, RACKET , T , PUCK , N, PLATE t B , BALK 
f By FAULT, T 



THEN PR1NTSD, A* 
THEN PRINT(5E,A» 



56 THE RAINBOW Jan-uaFT 



Federal Hill Software 

FINE PRODUCTS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER DRAGUN AND MC ID 



If You Pay Taxes 



You Need Coco-Accountant II 



Were your taxes a mess last yea.'? Do you look 
At your tjank balance and wander where ill tha 
money went? Then you read Coco- Accountant ll 
This 32/64K home and small business accounting 
program is an you need to answer she Three Big 
Questions about your money; Where did ft come 
from? Where dtp it go? And what can I deduct from 
my taxes'* 

Spend a few minutes with your canceled checks, 
credit card receipts and payroll slubs. Here's what 
Coco-Accountant N wni do 

£ List and total expanses or income by ac- 
count.^ bat and total expenses and income by 
month, with net cash flow report. * LfsI and total 
expenses or income by payee/income source. & 
Year-to-date summary by account # List and tola! 
tax deductible expanses. * List and total expenses 
subject to sates tax-even compute ihe sales tax 
you paid) ft Print a spreadsheet showing activity by 
account and month for a whole year {Seeing is 



The Handicapper 



IT you nke racing, you'll love The Handicapped 
These 16K programs for Thoroughbred and Harness 
Horses combine the power ol yquf computer with tha 
savvy or a veteran horsepiayer Spend a lew easy 
minutes entering data and gel rankings lor the horses 
<n each race! 

All m formal ion 15 readily available from the thor^ 
ogghbred Racing Form or Harness trscft program We 
even provide a diagram shoving you where Ec g»i the 
data you need" Factors include speed, past perior- 
al an ce. post posrtion. class, weight (for thorough- 
bredSf. jockey Or driver's record, beaten favorite, 
Blretch gain, breaking tendencies and parked out signs 
(for trotters). 

The Handicapper programs come with complete 
instructions and betting g-jirJe We left you which races 
la bet and wnich lo avoid -one of the secrets of good 
handicapping For all Color Computers and Model 
TOG s Thoroughbred or Harness, $34.95 each on ispe 
or CoCo disk. Both programs only $49.95 



^ TAX ^ 
H DEDUCTIBLE 

believing!) * Balance your checkbook * An re- 
ports (except spreadsheet) to screen or printer, 
it Store data on tape or disk 

The 32 K tape version stores 450 entries in § 
single (He; 32K disk stores 500. The 64K versions 
store 900 entries on tape or disk. Our happy cus- 
tomers say this is tha most useful program they 
own, and you'll agree! Only S34.95, tape or diak. 
P lease stale memory requirements. 



Greyhound Handicapper 



— NEW GREYHOUND HANDICAPPER 1 Now 
use your Color Computer tor greyhounds, 
|NH loo This fin* program, written by a veteran 
\\ Ll * ralner ' uses speed, breaking tendencies. 
I »- favorite box. kennel performance, maneu- 
vering ability and other factors to rank the dogs in 
each race. Recommends quinneiia, tn Facta and exac- 
ts bels h too. For CoCo only, $2? 95 tape or disk, 
SPEClAL-AII three Handicaocers oniv S&4.9S' 




Play Blackjaq! 



Tnrs Kgntnmg -last, fun casino Blackjack 
simulation will boggle your mind! Up to 
5 players and 9 decks, The computer deals and plays 
vacant hands— by card -counting rules! Biack|aq 
keeps track of winnings and losings, displays two 
carrj-counting algorithms and card distribution It can 
even print out the results ol every hand! Great lor 
begin ners or advanced players. Requires T6K Ext 
Bas Only $27.95, tape or disk 



Federal Hill Software 



825 William St. Baltimore, Md 21230 301-685-6254 



Wm Mocmpt chactu. monty o*d«tl. Vila 
ind Maila C»nf Add Si SO tor th-ppkTg 
Mak* tora+fln ordan pav*M* ki U.S. 



CCfd rmtnbm. pip. data and if prat lira 



Here's a program that concatenates RA M 
records and writes them on tape* Its vour miss* 

By H. Allen Curtis 



Can you do i he following with a 
single cas.scitc loud aimmand? 

J > Load the text screen to display an 
tnttoductury message or low resolution 
picture: 

2) Load a Basic program; 

3) Load I he graphics screen wuh a 
high resolution picture for subsequent 
display. 

4) Load automatically memory pre- 
lected high RAM with assembly lan- 
guage routines lo he called by USR 
function*; 

5} Automatically Mart the haMC pro- 
gram, and 

6} Provide some piracy protection 
tor your program. 

If you cannot, then you are missing 
Link. No, I did not mean thai you arc 
the missing link, bui that >ou are miss- 
ing DM by not using the t ink program 
to be presented in ibi* ariictc 



(H. Alien Cur tit resides in Williamsburg. 
Vo. He is interested in 17th and (Sth 
ternary his wry and enjoys hiking 
through the colonial nuptial. He balances 
pan ami present with his computer 

wnrk ) 

SB the Rain a aw Jmwr* 



Link is not a pre- loader. That is. Link 
does not have lo he loaded into RAM 
before you issue the command to load 
your program, screens and subroutines 
l ink concatenate* ( links) as many as JO 
non-comiguous RAM records and 
writes them on tape. A record is defined 
here as any program fBASK or assembly 
language), any contiguous assembly 
language routines, or any set of stored 
data. The linked records wrilieti on tape 
arc simply loaded by means u| h ash 's 
CLOA DM command. 

H you want to employ Link to record 
tind auto-start an assembly language 
program instead of a BASh program, 
you can readily do so, 1 a fact. Link is an 
assembly language pragma which will 
be used to record itself, 

Unk has the ability to write a record 
Irom one RAM location and load it into 
another speeihcd RAM location with- 
out recourse to the offset feature of the 
CLOA DM command. Thus, for in- 
stance, you may design several text 
screens, transfer I hem lo new locations 
in RAM and then use Link to write 
them on tape for future sequential load- 
ing and display on the text screen The 
fact that you relocate one or more 
records such as screens docs not require 
you tu relocate the other records to be 
linked iind wnilcn. 



The order in which records are con- 
catenated is left lo your discretion. If 
you. for example, have more than one 
text screen to be loaded and displayed, 
you would probably load one or iwo 
records between screen records to allow 
the screen to be displayed for a suffi- 
cicntli long time, 

Uttft can be employed as part of a 
protection process for your programs. 
Wow Link can be used in I his way will be 
discussed in detail at the close of the 
article. 

The program of Listing I generates 
Link and stores it in RAM, The strings 
in lines 20 through } 20 of Listing I are 
messages used by Link to prompi you in 
the process of concatenating records 
and writing them on tape. The values in 
the PA TA statements of lines 210 
through 520 comprise Link routines 
i hat actually do (he finking mid writing 
of I he records on tape. I he values in the 
remaining OA 7 A statements form ihe 
major portion of the first record lo be 
written on every Link produced tape. 
You do not specify this record. The 
record is Link's means of altering Ihe 
usual CLOA DM sequence of irr*tn*c* 
tions lo permit the proper loading of 
concatenated records. 

Incorporated into Listing I is a check 
on the accuracy of your typing ot the 



DATA statements Thus, with ihc use occurrence ul any error messages, save fMtR, This action wilt produce the first 

• •I K a i n bow Check Plus >ou are doubl> n on tape: Type'rW t'e'GEMfS'K "' prompt of £.mA. 1mA requires you to 

aided qi the cc rrcct ty ping of L isl ing I and press EN r er , p rov idc a fi Sena me for I he l onca te nat ed 

When you have c orr ect J y t> prd I isi i ng A f'ttr \n\ingihep mgra m of L ist ingl, record s to be pui on tape. Us ud 1 y the 

I and run the program without the run it again, Then type EXEC and press filename will be that of the main pro- 



^ — 

200 23a 

aro 72 

END .... 10S 

Lilting 1 1 



10 1 ENTRY ADDRESS IS IH1100I FIR 

ST ADDRESS IS 10301 LAST ADDRE 

SS IS &H132B 

20 A*- "TYPE St ENTER 

30 Bf- "FILENAME: 

40 Cl^-TYPE (IN HEK) 

30 D»» "ENTRY ADDRESS' 

60 E»-" POSITION TAPE 

70 F«»" FIRST SOURCE 

80 B»-'*LA3T 

90 H*-" FIRST DESTINATION 

1M I*- "ALL RECORDS SPECIFIED? 

(Y/N> 

1 10 J»-"READY CASSETTE TO RECORD 

120 K*" "THEN PRESS ENTER 

i 30 X»256*FEEK ( VARPTR (A*>+2> +PEE 

K(VARPTR(A*5+3) 

140 FQRI-0TO 174 

150 POKE I+*<H1 000 , PEEK ( H-X > 

160 IFPEEKU+X>-0 THENX-X+B 

1 70 NEXT: IFPEEK ( 39S> -57THENP0KE3 

99, 174:PDKE400,64;FOKE39S, 126 

1 80 FOR I -0TO596 : READL* : L- VAL < " fcH 

* > : E=E+L : POKE I +&H 1 0AF, L: NEXT 

190 FOR I *0TD76: READL» : L-VAL { " SrH " 

+L* ) : E«EH_ : POKE I+4H1E2, L E NEXT 

200 IFEO780B2 THENGLS ; PR I NT " DAT 

A ERROR "ELSEPOKE&H9D, 17:P0KESrH9E 

210 DATA 5F, 30, 1,AA, 84,26, FA, BD, 
1F,84,F,97, 7D,8D, 12, 9A, 7D, 97, 7D 
220 DATA BD, 13, 84, F, 97, 7C, 9D, 6, 9 
A,7C,97, 7C, 3D, 39,80,5,48,48, 4B 
230 DATA 48,39,80,2,00,27,13^6. 
82,81,30,25, 11, 81, 3A, 25, C, Si ,46 
240 DATA 22,9,81,41,25,5, SB, 9 4 B1 
( 4F , 39, C6, 8, D7,8C,7E, A9, 5 1 , 7E , A9 
250 DATA 28,7E,B9,9C,QD,FB t BD,26 
,31, 8D , FF , 2 1 , 30 , A8 , D6 * BD, F0, 8D 
260 DATA 1E,8D, 12, C6, 8,30, 1,CE, 1 
, DA, A&, 80, 27, 36, A7, C0, 5A, 26, F7 
270 DATA 20,36, BD,DS,C,B9, 7E, A3, 
90,86,A3,eC,B6,C3,97,B9, 39, BD,C6 
280 DATA 30, AB, ED, BD, F 1 , BD, C2, 30 
,8e > DF,8D 1 6D,20,EB,eD t B9, IF, 21 
290 DATA 20,DB,8D,EB,96,44,BB,A2 
, 83 , C , S9 , 39 , 86 , 20 , A7, C0 t SA , 26 , FB 



300 DATA BD , 07, 30, SB, IB, BD, C3, A6 
,1,01, 59, 26, 5, BE, 2, 20, 20, 7, 17, FF 
310 DATA 4l,26,E9,9E,7C,BF l 1,E3, 
BF,2, lE,CE,2,2F,DF,43,C6,3i,D7 
320 DATA 44,33, 80, l,7F,DF f 42, 80, 
BF , 30, AS, 18,BD,B4,A6, 1 ,81,38,26 
330 DATA 39, DE, 42,CC,0, 19,ED 9 C4, 
9E , 43, ED , 84 , C6 , 20, ED, 42, DC, 19, ED 
340 DATA 44, ED, 2, DC, IB, ED, 46, BD, 
A, 8D, 8, C, 44, 8D, 11,25,72,20, 3E,D€ 
350 DATA 42, 33, 44, DF, 42, DE, 45, 33 
, 42, DF, 45, 39, C, 44, 86, 39, 91, 44, 39 
360 DATA 17 t FE,DF,26,B5,DE,42,DC 
,7C,E0,C4, 17,FF,6D,30,A8 P 25,8D 
370 DATA 79,30, 13, 17, FF, 3D, 17, FE 
, C? , 26 , EE , DE , 42 , DC , 7C,ED,42, 17 
380 DATA FF, 55, 30, A8, 2A, SD, £1 , IF 
,21 t 8D t 5D» 66, £3,97,89, BD, A3, 90 
390 DATA 17 P F£,A9,26,EB,DE,45,DC 
,7C,ED,C4,8D,86,25, 13,6D, A3, BD 
400 DATA A9,2S,30,A8,3C,8D,3D,BD 
,A1,B1,S2 ,39, 10 P 26,FF,62,9E,45 
410 DATA 6F,S4,6F, 1,FE, 1,8F,FF, 1 
,FF,CE, 1,E9,FF, t , BF, DC, 74, 7F, 2 
420 DATA 45, DE, 42, 93, 0, E8, DD, 7C, 
30, IE, BC, 2, 2D, 27, 2E, 33, 5C, EC, 42 
430 DATA A3,C4,E3,64, 10, 93, 7C, 22 
, 17,20,EA,7E,B9,9C,BD,FB, 17, FE 
440 DATA CC, 30, AS, 74, BD, F3,BD,A1 
, 81,81 , D, 26, F9, 39, AE, B4, 30, IF, BF 
450 DATA 2,46,7A,2, 45, A, 44, BO, A9 
,28, 17,FE,AA,BD,A7,CA,30,2A,8D 
460 DATA D5, BD,A7,E9,BD,A9,28, 17 
,FE,9A,30,AS,5B,8D,C7,30,aC,6C 
470 DATA 9F,42,BE,0,F,9F,7C,BE, 1 
, DA , 9F , 7E t BD, A7 p E5 , BD, A7 , D9 , SE , 1 
480 DATA BE 1 9F, 7E , 8E , I • BA, 9F , 7C „ 
8D,2F,D6,44 T C0,30,D7 P 44,BE,0, 1 
490 DATA 9F,7C, BD I 22 I 9E,42.AE,84 
, 9F, 7E, CE, 1 , FF, DF, 7C, DE, 42, EC, 42 
300 DATA C3,0, 1,93, 7E, 27, F # 10,83 
, 0, FF, 24, 2, D7, 7D, BD, 2, 20, E2, 7E 
510 DATA A7,F4,0, 7C,F,7D, 8D,F7,9 
E,42, 30, 4, 9F, 42, A, 44, 26, CD, BD, A7 
520 DATA E9 , BE , 1 , FF , BF , 1 , SF , 1 6 , F 
D,FC 

530 DATA 2,0,0,0,0, 1,8E, 35, 10, 86 
, 2,45, 27,E,FC, 2. 4<b, DD, 27, DD, 23 
540 DATA S3,0,CB, DD,21, IF, 4, BE, 0 
, 0 , BF , 1,BF,CE,2,2F P AE,C4,9F,7E 
550 DATA 8D,A7,F,26, 1C,D,7C,2A,F 
5,33,42, AE,C4, 26, EF,BD,A7,E9,7E 
560 DATA 0,0, BD, AD, 21 , 9E, Aft , 30, 4 
,9F, A6, 7E,AD,C0,7E,A6, 19 



J»nu«ry TH6 RAINBOW 59 



gram whether m BASIC or assembly lan- 
guage. Rather than having ii basic pro- 
gram thai generate* Link , w ib mure 
convenient tr> have Link recntded OA 
upc Uirecil> ai an assrmhH language 
program. Therefore, type the filename 
Unk and fmrr n. T his will initiate t nc 
process of using Link tu lecord ii^ell >»n 
tape. 

The second pro cup I request the entry 
addre>% of the mam program, which in 
this ease is All the required LfnA 
,id dresses have been provided in the 
REM statement of Litis: 1U of Listing I , 
tn accordance with that Rr-M. type 
1 100 and press i n r FJt. You do not need 
tu type ScH in answering the prompt. 
The hexadecimal address 1 1 IX) as the 
address at which Link slarh trscctUmg 
If any oi the characters of the ENTER ed 
address arc not a valid hexadecimal 
digit, a beep alarm will be sounded and 
the prompt will be repealed. 

The next prompt ask? for the first 
source address of I he first record that 
you want on tape. Associated wnh each 
record arc two sets of addresses - 
source addresses and destination nd« 
dresses. The source addresses arc the 
lowest (first) address and the highest 
(last) address ol the record as it is prcfi- 
enily located tn RAM. The desuruinm 
addresses are the corresponding RAM 
address into which you want ihtr 
record (0 be loaded. 

I n t he ca sc of Link , o n l> one reco rd is 
involved: hence, you should type the 
first source address of Link. That is, 
type 1000 and press ENTER, 

The third prompt is similarly an- 
swered by typing and entering the last 
source address 132 B of Unk, 

You will probably waoi at least two 
versions of Unk, one to be loaded m its 
present RAM location and one destined 
for high RAM. Therefore, foi the lor- 
mcr version answer the fourth prompt 
by typing 1 000 and pressing enter. 

Since you only need to specify one 
record for Link, answer the next prompt 
by pressing ihe *Y l key to indicate yes,. 

Instead of recording Unk immedi- 



ately following GEN UNK on your cas- 
sette tape, it would be more convenient 
to record Link at the beginning of the 
reverse side of the tape Therefore, flip 
the cassette over, rewind the tape and 
position it, Then answer the positioning 
prompt by pressing ENTER. 

In accordance with the nest prompt, 
depress the Play and Record buttons of 
your recorder and then press ENTER. 
When ihe recording is finished, the 
recorder will stop and the initial prompt 
of Lmk will return. 

Now, you can repeat the process to 
produce a high RAM version of Link. 
Therefore, type the filename Hi LINK 
and press ENTER. The requested entry 
address of Hi LINK is the destination 
entry address which is IDEM or 7DD4 
depending on whether you have a I6K 
or RAM. respectively. The first 
And last source addresses that you must 
r. pe urc the same as prev iously, 1000 
and I The first destination address 
(t 3CD4 or 7CD4 for a I6K or UK 
system, respectively. When you later 
load Ht LINK, you will not have to use 
the CLEAR command to memory pro- 
tect it. HtLINK will be automatically 
memory protected 

A detailed example will he presented 
la illustrate how to use Link. However, 
before thai prcsenintion, ii would be 
well to determine whether or not you 
have good recordings of Unk and MIL 
f .\'K Do not use SKIFF to make that 
determination. Use of SKIFF on any 
Link produced recording will always 
yield an J O Error message. Link pur- 
posely forces an J ,■' O Error to occur as a 
means of altering the CLOADM com- 
man tJ routine / ink eh tinge* the "hook" 
that links the ROM and RAM when 
errors occur The new hook causes entry 
to be made to the first loaded record 
which controls the loading of all sue- 
ceeding records The original hook is 
restored before loading the subsequent 
records Hence, those records are check- 
cd for I/O Errors as the* arc loaded. 

To test the recordings of Lmk and 
HltJNK do the following: turn off your 



computer and then turn it on again. 
Type CLOADM and press enter. 
Rewind the tape and position ii , Finally, 
depress the Play button While Link is 
loading, note that the letter F'ai the top 
leftmost position of (he screen scops 
blinking. The blinking of 'Ron all Link 
produced recordings will be suspended. 
The purpose ol suspending ihe blink 
of*F is to guarantee the un marred load- 
ing of the text screen when you desire to 
precede the running of the main pro- 
gram WHh Line i>r more screen messages 
or pictures, If ihe recording is good, no 
I/O Error message will occur. Further- 
more, upon the completion of loading. 
Link or HI LINK will automatically 
start and the initial prompt will appear 
on ihe screen. To cxii Irom Link for the 
CLOADMing of HILINK press the 
Resel button Before you load HI 
LtNK* note the recorder counter setting 
for later reference. 

If you should happen to Have a had 
recording ot cither Unk 01 Hit INK* 
CLOAD the program GENLfSk and 
run it Then l>pe LXEC pre>s KNfKft 
and repeat the process of recording 
I tnk and //// / \ K uri .i nrw tape 

The programs of listings 2 and J are 
integral parts of the example tu illus- 
trate how to use Lmk Ljiics 10 through 
70 of Listing 2 coiutltucl a text screen 
and transfer its contents in a not he ■ Ittl 
or RAM LtnevHuthruogh 100 produce 
a simple, high resolution graphics dis* 
play The remaining lines of Lisiing 2 
generate a machine language routine 
and store il in RAM Lmk will he 
employed in concatenating- and record- 
ing Ihe lexl screen, graphics screen, 
machine language ruutine rand ihe livvsu 
program of Listing 3. 

\\ hen > ou c t> pul t he program ol 
Lifting 2 correctly, tuntt You may wish 
to save it as a precautionary measure. 
A Her running the program Of LiMing 2. 
erase it via llie /V/fff command I hen 
tvpc I [ftfifg 3 

Line III n| toting 3 turns on I lie pre- 
vuiusK loaded graphics display Ihe 
remaining lines "paint" the display in a 



I isriiiE 2 

10 CL9SK-255 

20 FOR I-SJT03 1 : POKE I +J+&B400, K Z HE 

XT 

30 K-K-I*>:J-J+32; IFKM42THEN20 
40 PRINTfl23e p "LINK"! :FftlNT#2±B f « 
EXAMPLE"! I K^K +32 

30 FORI^TG3i:raKEl+J+|cH420 fl K:re 
XT 

60 K-K+16: J-a+32: IFK<236THEN30 
70 FORl«0TO5it;FWEI+*rH2A00,PEEK 



(1+&H400> :NEXT 

B0 PM0DE4 : PCLS: SCREEN 1 t i 

90 CIRCLE M20, 96) ,65 

100 FAINT U 28, 96) f i 

1 10 FORI-0TO23:READA*: A»VAL l m Mi" 

+A* } ; POKE! +&H2D00 , A : B»B+A; HEX T 

1 20 I FB< >3l i 6THENCLS: PR I NT*2e>7 1 ■ 

DATA ERROR'* : STOP 

130 DATA BD . 03, ED* DD, 44 r 9E , BA , 33 
,Q9, IB, 0, DP ,42, A6, 84 , 98, 45, A7, B0 
1 9C*42,2&,F6 > 39 



GO THE RAIttBOW January 1BS£ 



Listing 3: 

1 0 PM0DE4 : SCREEN 1 f % 

20 A«256*PEEK < 1 1 6 ) : DEFUSR-A 

30 FORJ-0TD1 

40 A=U3R < 85 > : GOSUS80 



50 A-USR ( 1 70 > : QO9UB80 ; NEXT 

60 PM0DE3: SCREENS t L: ]Fl=0TH£NL=1 

70 GOTO30 

80 FORI *0 TO 3€J0: NEXT: RETURN 



vai ids ,i| colors. I Ik 1 toloi l.i iii.^' .ii i.' 
achieved piinuriK thniugii the machine 
language routine culled hj the f A' ft 
function* of lines 40 and 50. 1 his rou- 
tine is assumed b> the program to have 
been loaded into the high RAM and 
automatically memory pr nice ted there 
1 he example would be more realistic il 
the graphics icrcen had contained an 
intricate drawing requiring considera- 
ble piogtum memory to produce it. In 
such a ease the loading ol the complied 
drawing would result lyi 21 significant 
savings in program memory. Firuuc in- 
ly, the saved memory could be put lo 
profitable use in program espaiiMon 
and improvement 

Do not run the program of Listing 3 
when you have finished typing it cor- 
rect l\. Instead refer to the previously 
noted records! counter setting in posi- 
tioning the tape tor CLOA UMing HI 
USK, MUSK ralhet than Link is 
used here because Link loads in 10 the 
graphics screen memory area and would 
therefore ruin the display genera leu by 
the program of listing 2. 

The completion of the loading ut 
WILIS k is signalled by the appearance 
on the screen of the first prompt. An- 
swer it by typing and entering the file- 
name /.A.I 1//7 ./.. I Mialli I he ncxl 
prompt requires the typing o| a hexadec- 
imal address- There is one exception. 
I hat occurs when the main program is 
in BASK , which is ihc present situation. 
In such a cusc.jusl press the 'X' Key and 
then 

The text screen was stored by I he 
piogr.un lpI [.i>Lmg : m K Wi 
from 2 AGO through 2BIT Hence, 
,oi>\vl'i Ihc nexi prompt h> typing and 
entering MUG. Similarly, type and 
I N J 1 R 2BFF in response to the last 
source address prompt. Because you 
will want the text screen to reside in the 
usual location, answer the destination 
add 1 tvi prompt by typing 400 and press- 
ing EN I Eft, 

I n order to specify the second record, 
press the'N'kcy in response tn the next 
prompt. The second record is the gra- 
phics screen. If you have a cassette- 
bused system, the screen resides ai ad- 
dresses 600 through I Dt P, However, if 
you have the Disk Bask ROM eon- 
nee Kd. the graphics screen is located at 
addresses EO0 through 251 h Thus, 
your response to the lirst source address 



prompt should be the typing and enter- 
ing of 600 or EW) depending on \our 
system I ikcwise. lor the last sOUrCC 
address prompL type either IDFF or 
25FF and ENTER. In response to the 
d est in Lit] on address prompt lype and 
I Mi H 600 or F00 for casket 1 0 or disk- 
based systems, respectively 



"\ , > Link ran he usetl tin 
part of 11 scheme lo protect 
rotir program* ngaiti.it piracy. 
There u a ximple* yet f flirty 
effective scheme for piracy 
protecting ttnxemblx or ma* 
chine language program* " 



Press "N" to permit the specification 
of the third record. This record is the 
basic program of Listing 3. Typing and 
entering X will automatically take Care 
of all address speci Heat ion for you. 
Actually, an additional record will also 
be automatically specified. The addi- 
tional lecord is only eight bytes long 
and consists ol the vilalHASlc program 
pointers at hexadecimal addresses I •J 
through 20 leoi icspoudiiig m i!ceimal 
addresses 25 Ihrough 52), 

f hue is one 11101 e recotd lo >pecily. 
so once ayai n press "N " in response to the 
record's specified prompt Even though 
the previous record was numbered three, 
the present record has been given the 
number live. Ihc n amber lour record 
si as the eight-byte iceord automatically 
specified along with ihc Mask program 
Record five is the machine language 
routine generated hv ihe program of 
Listing 2. Jt was stored at RAM ad- 
dresses 2D00 through 2017 However, 
il is lo be loaded into high RAM at 
addresses 3ILK through 31 I I or at 
7||'K ihnuigh 71- 1- > depending on 
whether you have a I6R or 32K RAM. 
res pect ivcly, Therclote. each of the ncxl 
three prompts should be answered h> 



1 1 pmg and cnlci ing. in order, one a\ 1 U-j 
addresses: 2D00. 2D17 and .IF LH or 
71 E*. 

Complete the process b> pressing 
and appropriately carrying out the in- 
structions ol the final I wo prompts. In 
positioning the tape make a note of (he 
counter selling ol the recorder lor later 
loading ol L.XA StPf I. 'the signal lhat 
recording is finished is ihc return of ihc 
initial prompt to the screen. You wilt 
have a rather long wait fot ihc prompt 
because ol the OK length 01 the gtaphics 
screen record. 

In general. >ou may speed) a maxi- 
mum offline records 1 1 one ot the speci- 
fied records is a HASH program, Ihe 
mosi that j,ou mav specif \ is eight 
records unless ihe HASH record is the 
ninth one speci tied. 

Back lo Ihe example, load EXAM 
ft J. by means of ihe CLOA i>\t com- 
mand. You should he quickly greeted 
with ihe text screen generaied b\ the 
program of Listing 2, Thts screen will 
remain on display lor the time needed to 
load the other records including the 
raihei lengthy graphics screen. When 
loading is com p tele, the H\sn program 
■a II .kill mia heal 1} start and the graphics 
screen will replace the text screen. The 
LStt called machine language rouKne 
will keep changing Ihe colors in ihe dis- 
play, To end the program press ihe 
HKl.AK kev. 

For those wiib disk systems ii is 
worthwhile interjecting a short note of 
caution. If you record a tape using Lwk 
with ihe disk RUM connected, always 
load the tape with a connected disk 
ROM. Likewise, it the tape is recorded 
uiih the disk ROM disconnected, 
always load il wilh the disk ROM dis- 
connected; otherwise, problems would 
be likely lo occur in the execution of the 
associated programs. 

As Was previously mentioned. Link 
can be used as pari ol a scheme to pro- 
tect you I programs against piracy. 
There is a simple, ycl fairly effective 
scheme for piracy protecting assembly 
or machine language programs. 1 he 
scheme will be dlusiraied bv adding 
protection to Link itsell. 

Wilh the present unprotected version 
ol Link, the Resel button can be pressed 
tu return to the CoC'o s command mode 
in which an EXEC command can be 
employed lo gain entry lo a pic loaded 

Junmi'T -345 THE KAIKBOW St 



r. 



Lware 



The 
Presidents 
of the 
United 
States 




vvyk3 was ihc pub scoui 

to hrcomc Presidem* Whii h 

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program lo analyze link In the pro- 
posed protected version of Link every 
HASh command will he disabled and 
will result in an immediate error mes- 
sage when issued. 

To add lhis protection to Link, turn 
your computer oil and on u^iim ,jrnj 
joad tmi. Then give ihis version of 
ijffJt ihc filename PRO LINK, As you 
did previously, type and EN 1L R MOO for 
the Link entry address However, before 
specifying the Unk program record, 
you must specify the protection record 
It consists of six consecutive ?ero bytes, 
Locations 250 through 255 com am such 
hyles. Therefore, the first and lust source 
addresses are 250 and 255, respectively, 
in the first record specification. For the 
first destination address, type 120 and 
f vn Ft it. Addresses 120 and J 25 arc 
usually stored lhe number o( statements 
and I u net cons, respectively, in the Color 
BASK repertoire of commands. Milking 
those quantities zero tricks the Basic 
interpreter into "thinking^that it has an 
cmpU voenhuhn v 

Type 'X' to allow the sf cctfication of 
the Link program record, Carry out the 
remainder of lhe procedure exactly as 
you did in the production ot the unpro- 
tected I ink 

Some of you who are well vened in 
assembly language programming and 
jfc l imiluir with the CntVs memory 
map may already sec a way around this 
protection *iL-hcnie. Ont.* of the hooks 
liuii link the ROM and RAM could be 



when you are further protecting a pro- 
gram, I5f-. JSP and f5l" should be the 
first source, lost source and destination 
add roses of t he second sped I led reco rd . 

BASK programs cannot be protected 
m the same manner as iissemhK ot 
machine language progiums \ uvsti 
pjograiii clearl> could not iun <l »ts 
commands were disabled, t he scheme 

bask programs cannot be protected 
in the same manner as a*scmbt> or 
machine language programs A BASIC 
program clearly could not run if its 
commands were disabled The scheme 
for protecting any BASIL program does 
not disable the BASK commands during 
program execution but doc* to when 
the program has been stopped by any 
menns, 

As in the more effective scheme lor 
piracy protecting assembly language 
programs* the hooks at addresses I5F 
through I &D must comprise one nrolec- 
lion record- However, one hook add rev 
in the record must be changed to point 
ton short machine language subroutine 
which form* a second protection record. 
The subroutine is ft- hat controls whether 
Of not basic commands arc disabled. 

I he objective of the program of List- 
ing 4 is to generate the two protection 
records and store them in a convenient 
place in RAM, For purposes of illus- 
trating the scheme, the area chosen to 
store the two records ws located al 
addresses 3000 thro ugh 303C. The firvi 
address 3000 was assigned in Line It), 



appropriately alters the huok record to 
proiidL' enir> t*i the short ■.uhrnutinc 

When you have correctly typed the 
program of Listing 4. save it for future 
use in protecting BASK prugmms. 

The protection scheme will he illus- 
trated by applying u to the short exam- 
pic program of Listing 5, Therefore 
alter running the program of I istmg 4, 
erase it b\ means of the .V/fH" com- 
mand Then lypc Listing 5. 

After typing the laiici program. 
C LOAD At Link I he responses (o the 
Link prompts should be corisL'cunvcly 
a> lollouv 

PROBASIC 
X 

} 

i5r 

N 

3030 

N 
X 
Y 

Then Appropriate!} follow the tape 
positioning and recording prompts In 
the positioning process note the re- 
corder counter setting lor PROBASIC. 

To test the protection scheme turn 
your computet off and ihcn on again- 
Then load PROBASIC using 
CLOADht When PRQBA$ICi&lo*4- 
cd t it should request the typing of your 



Listing 4: 

20 FORI*0TO47; PDKEI*Ai PEEK f I +tiWi 
3€):NEXT 

30 FOR I -&TO 10: RE ADD*: D-VAL i "*H M + 

D»KB*D+D:P0KEI+A+48,0:NEXT 

40 I FB< >977THENPfU NT m DATA ERROR" 

:stop 

50 FORI^TOnPOKEI+A+WiPEEKU+lt 

MIMl :nekt 

60 C- 1 NT < A/234 ) : POKEA+ 10 , C ! POKEA 



100 DATA 34 9 2 i <?6,A6,8t t &,25 t FE,3 
3.2.7E 

Listing St 

10 CLS:PRINT022&, "TYPE YOUR NAME 
tt PRESS ENTER t PR I NT(J2A0 ( M 14 i 
20 LI ME INPUT At 

30 PRlNTiSBSp "PRESS ENTER TO STO 
P" 

40 K*" INKEYt : 1FK»< >CHR* U 3> TNEN4 
0ELSESTOP 



lhe means of gaining entry to a pre- 
loaded program for analyzing Unk 
The occurrence of on error couM bf 
made to cause such an entry. Therefore, 
io make protection more effective you 
should specify a second protect ion 
record before Ihc Unk progru.ni record. 
I ins second teconl consul oi ihehooks 
located at RAM addresses I5F. through 
ISO. There arc other hooks but thes 
h*\ l already been accounted lor in [hi> 
loader record which is always written on 
tape wiihoui your spctih ing it Hence, 

64 THE RAINBOW lawty 1965 



When yoa protect your own Basil pro- 
grams, you should <b> appropriately 
editing Line I Of make the assigning m 
consistent wit h t hi.- memory a\ aila hk to 
accommodate M consecutive ft AM lo- 
cations. Line 20 stores at addresses 3000 
through 302 T an image ot the hooks at 
I5E through IttD. Lines 30 throueh If) 
along with Line 100 ure concerned with 
generating and storing the short sub- 
routine. The subroutine is stored at 
addresses 3030 through 303C immedi- 
ately following the hook record. Litlfi 60 



name. The program will then go into a 
loop. You can stop it by pressing ENTER. 
BKt AK or React. Regardless of how you 
stop PROBASIC, typing and entering 
any BASIC command of your choice will 
cause the Computer lo hung up. 

Unk and the protection schemes were 
developed tor vow persona! use, ff you 
should wt*h to employ ihcm commer- 
cially, please gel m much with mc Ma 
T HF RAINBOW to discuss mutually agree- 
able royalty terms. 




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DRACONIAN 

Yoy Cnkco yourself u your stup malerlattzes tin in* enamy 
seclor tour engine roars to lite, and you consult 1*e long- 
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you head lor the bass, bleating asteroids end space-mine* In 
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firp-oreain and oTeil rtim out of existence, 

FmaHy, me enemy d*sp comes info vMw. AvoWng tna 
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This )» tl — ■ lbs single most Impressive, a*e-inspir'n$ arced* 
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CRASH 



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WAREHOUSE 
MUTANTS 

Journey through Th» wiMouh " 
infl our (tie MuleniB iwno are cvi lo 
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DISK 327.95 



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This one is altar a popular ar 
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program* and 5 vccabuiary'sperjirtg game programs The system's many otrtaiaridlng features include' 



As many ax 300 vocabulary word* and 

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— Word i §nd deflnllton* may d* suwd 

Oft did* or rape. 
— flnrrmrKs arxJi'or comment* can tw saved 

«Hh word fHes. 



—A dkik loading menu aBovrs student* io 

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—Word ii«b may be qurakiy afphabfttixad. 
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TEAC 



ATABA3E 



MATH DUEL 



"E>CHER"i database i» a propram designed id tHow « teacner to 
aeeo * comflu<*Mj«d ui» o« mtdrmAiton anoui m*rh*r aiudnnta There 
in many feature* lhai make Una program parl«cuJer> *rirec1tt*L 

• mFormattooon *a many u top aludenta (or more) may b* In the com 
Dydr at on* Mm*. 

• tich etudent may hav* aa many u 30 lor more) mplvtduBt Heme OP 
cj*u In h<*m*r raconl 

• Trt« progra/n w m rurT (nxfi caasatlo or diak 

■ C mm 11 a ltd di*k tHna ara compF*i*Fy compatible 

• Tha program it menu d*in*n 

► Racoid* may t» aaaily c"»np*d r deleted, combined v added. 

• tnFermjikjfl about iiudam* may 0* numerical or tixi 
« Record* may be qu<c*ly nlpnibenied 

■ Recotda may be sorted oy various criteria. 

• Record* may b* rwwri rraniteai based an t**t icons* or oitw 
del*. 

• Data displayed during * tort may be printed on * prima* Q' aaved on 
di*k or caaMtia at a new file. 

• A lui' •t*tr*lic*J *n*ryai* ot data may be done and tent la the pr inter. 

• Student leal aeons* may be weighted 

riEGURFS ]2« Gel a* SIC 
TAPE m»S OUMt WM 



MATH OUEL « d 



tn«Ji«n<»ng 
>« q< wita V- 



an oT h 



p»tl you agaKveLfri* 



d prima rtumOera to oaraiop a rtralacy trial aUciwa you 10 g 
mo^a numr>»r6 at-C :Huik mot» 001*1* tnm than Puj Cortiouto^ 

Tn* gflmo la decep1«veit/ aimpla Voti aal«ct me sue Ottfl* ptaying <>9kl 
titer *4 compoaed pi hom a In tOO rvumb*<a Vw mu*l man cnoq«w ntjmoerv 
mat wtif jiva ^Ou m# majonivtm number CP point* and Hi* compuiiiF ir.a laaal 
numtw of poinU TlKi* ar* onty a AiM*. 

t Any numbvr Uiei you cnoa* muti n*«« i i-w»t on* tecttr art or* ma 
playing lick] 

Z Vou mew* pffirtt* *ciuai m ma raoa waiu* of vr* numbv met you chow 
H, TMcompvwrrttefveepotTOeou^M 
Factor* oi Ih* number m#l you dto** 

4 AH ol m« n^bera mat ewardad bo you cm 10 ma computar en 
ran^ovad <»nm iha liald 

5 Tna gwtia cunti-hjai unt,' thave ara no numoari #iin IkIc«\ wnt*1*t0 

6 A| m* and m« cornoiAar rotaiyya po<nt* *QU*3 to the ¥*Ju* at aVM ol ma 
remwnlno riumbert 

aatcxT basic MKHtM DtsKSzaes 



ESTIMATE 

ESTIMATE a a o*ogmm de.*JQn*d to Ofp «naaien 
to pruut* mJi T,«iiofl m* ifewets tu aotfiiwr. *uo- 
(ractan. nwl'o J <otion end diviaon pnjeerit* on rf» 
Go-or Ccmp^jtai. if naa many Pealutes ffttf make 
'i* ui* ft*T cu'.vty attractive 
a Up 10 i iturjrnil* may um tna prugram n\ ma 
Mfna tl-Tia. 

* Trwv-d a, iraaf mcci.liaWo. axai *v»H 

■ Tt» acceplabla parcenr anw -nay t» 
chanQtd aa a Hudevit* ivn impr^va* 

a A brner meesoree me number e* aaconcu 
irtcd K> anawai *ach prpotarti and Iha total 
iifTi* ua+c a «e f *« fli prqO>«Tn« 

* IF i O'Oblerr. nu been anenMrrrd ^MurBcny 
the ilyjam u toip me owcent ll'rijr and 

* Ft a protxem ia ant lyeretl *nopToaity a secono 
tJiTia.tria*uaani»io*ct^tJMi*ria^i»ef and 
tfia rano« OF MCflptntAe runawpra is Aepieyed 

■ A rppon rt grvvn alin* and Of a«cri aM oF 
orob'am* mpr "tcivcea trva number of 
problema dona, me number ol ambaima 
ansMflreti co*p*cOy v me Find iiy arte the 
avarapa patceM i*t* 

■ Tna I BREAK) key F«a» bvan dtiabwd *c irad 
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TAPES1S9S DtSKfWJE 



PRE-ALGEQRA I INTEGERS 

INTEGERS & a s*Mfej ot lour program* pea^pwi 
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tuatreClton. mulUpjicallon^ PlViaion and the 
c omp a nepo of i«t*o*rt. A Ha* many l^atun-a mai 
make a very vaajasto tool iw dttroductng end/or 
maintaining *k*fl» 
• UptO«atudentamayu9B dte program *i tha 
•erne Km*. 

a The** ai* 3. uav ntodlFlabi*. mm ta»a«> 
i 5iu£».ni5 vd^eniwooppoflu^iea to anther 



PRE ALCEBRA II 

Th» aecooa PRE ALQEBRA PACK I 

of two pnso/ama EQUATION SOLVER AND 
EOUAflON DUEL trial vr. dM*gn*a \a g^a 
fUrdantt pmctica 'n uaing end torytng oemitkMn 
It naa mafo leal^M mat make a w> v^aOla lory 
Fot irru-oducmg anevor maintaining aajiika 
• in ootn propsm* ituowts may chooe* In* 
/Bnge ot rumaiutJ vatija* rhaJ vr>J 0* n^^thw 
in me equation* u mat m«i o<flxaiiry nay 
di4ioe ** m*" *tJH Jrweeee*. 
■ In EQUATION SOLVED tFta compact 



• A deteiPOd >»COn OF atuaem oettomianca, 
including number-Correct on (i< m try. number 



e. nroaenied bj the enc ot a wn*i o* pYobaifne: 
- Trie prconwie #i« run on a teKTRS-flO Color 

Computer M«m or witttooi d*a> drtve 
Four olaandt probtem tornite ere piaavmeo The 

1^ praae«ito PT0b1em» in m1» IbiiTlaA- -IS * -i 
- V Tho aecond program pre«*nbt a pmcaom *wtn 
ma^mgiiurn*ratainateiiQmiat: -? -7 • t& The 
m>rd ptonram preeent* a problem w*n a ml**ing 
atgn: a - 76 * is, To* last program ■*«* ma 
klWm*\ ro rjatormwe lh* ra><H|lcneht) < • . ■* or *> I 
ber«e«n t»o ataiamama 3-9 -4 -t 
j/k £->t BASK 
TAPE I2S.fi DISK IM 95 



m* number* mH 4 u**d w |h* aquaUon and 
me aneynv ana cFiananoaa irw siMMnt || 
ceil* FiiaVhar own equa^on thai uaaa Pi* 
•erne number* and raauita in m* tame 



* In EQUATION DUEL TOe «tud*m aiW m* 
computer raca to aae who win be Paj Vaj 
to ceiiB an uquatron Pom iha aame i«t or 
random numbera 

• Both pogrtm* p/«* onbUM rapoH» at pi* 
itjOom'e and ma taampuiar * pwrnarmanc* n 
creallno end aotwmj *dL»i*oo* irMudlng ijna 
uaed, store and p*A*m*0* oarrect 

SlK EXT. BASIC 

tape saess oisictiyea 



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U RN OF THE SC REW 



An Introduction 
To The Inside 
Of The CoCo 2 



Edttort tiottx A rormlloe lo tb* 


in[ imtruttioni an it the 


lifir Mating, for lul man Eh ^ column *in 




taut. 





K;iinl>o\v Contributing Lclitor 





My. doesn't time go fasl? I can't 
believe l\c been writing far 
RAINBOW for two years now. 
January being THE RAIN How's Be- 
ginners issue, J decided to introduce the 
novice lo the inside world of the Color 
Computer, The latest Co Co 2 is the 
newts! Color Computer to be introduced 
by Tandy, It is different inside from the 
old Co Co 2. You can tell the difference 
by the shield covering the power 
transformer. Though ii junction* the 
sump, the i nudes of this CoCo arc very 
different {again!). More on that later. 

Before we get on our way H let me 
mention that I just came back from my 
second RAJNBOWfcsl. I must say that 
these shows arc great I found t h t- 
Rainbow staff to be very friendly and 
helpful It is amazing to see that much 
enthusiasm generated about the Color 
Computer Chances are III see some of 
you at the next RAlNBOWfest, too, 
in California, Stop in and say hello. 
Look for me at the R.G,S. Micro booth. 



(Tuny thSiefario t> writ ktnn\n as an 
iw/r jpeektHsi in CH/itr Cotnptfftr 
hardware prvfei ti. He is one of ttw 
Uiknvwiedgeti experts un the "insidvs" 
ttf Cfft a \ 



Now„ lei Is look inlo i his little lhing T 
but remember, opening your computer 
might void your warranty, Radio Shack 
only warranties the computer for three 
months, so after that you are on your 
own, anyway. First of all T nexer open 
the computer with the power on. Now 
that that'* said, lei us continue. 

To open your CoCo, use the following 



procedure. Place the computer upside 
down on a towd for other soft surface) 
on a clean work table. Remove the lour 
screws (one in each corneri with a 
medium-sized Phillip* screwdriver. 
There \s one more screw to remove; it 
\> behind the I it lie sticker lhal says 
"Opening case will void warranty. See 
owner's manual for warranty informa- 



nt! THE RAINBOW JdnuirY 1S85 



HARD DISK far trie CO co 

— COMPLETE SYSTEM iUST PLUG IN 

HARD OtSK - OPERATING SYSTEM features 

• FULLY INTEGRATED INTO COLOR DISK BASIC 

• TAPE TO HARD DISK 

• DISK TO HARD DISK 

. HARD DISK TO TAPE 1 

• HARD DISK TO 0(5K 1 ■ I 

• DUPLICATE 

• COLD START !■ 

• M-8UN l / 
♦ALL EXTENDED DISK BASiC COMMANDS^^*'^ 


128 K - RAM CARD 

INCREASE YOUR 64 K Co-Co Of? Co-Co II TO 128 K RAM 
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BANKS CAN BE MAPPED IN THE UPPER HALF OR 
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Q A MUST FOR 05-9 USERS. 

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Figure 1 



JUST ENOUGH 



t ion . " You must formal; I his sen! lo 
remove the lasl screw. I hilt is how 
Radio Shock can tell if you have opened 
a. Jusi push (he screwdriver through 
the center of the slicker; it will give way 
i ki a hole. Some of the CoCo Is may 
have ;i sixth screw on ihe other hide 
Remove the last screw. Turn the- 



mill i 



IC * 


Same 


rificrtpiioFi 


1 


SC77527 


SAL T Po*cr nippl* 






and RS-232 CHIT* 


2 




PI A Ptrnphcnil 






(QterfKC Adapter 


y 


SO ? 526 


IMC Pigiial lo 






analog ctwertcr 


4 


NE555D 


Tinier fur coJnr 






burn in 


S 


74L5J73 


Octal D-Typc 






FUp Hon 


fc 


74LS244 


OcUl Huflfa 






Priwr 


7 


MOTH!? 


ILA Industrial 






interface jri'pler 


| 


Ml friUJp 


VDG Video D«|rt*y 






Ucn«r*iai 


9 




CPU Cettnl 






F'rocminf) C hi L 


10 


74L50J 


rju»(l Innpul Not 






Gate 


II 


74LSIJS 


5 to ft Decoder 






Chip 


12 




ROM BASIC i.2 


11 


MM3J64A 


ROM f \ BASIC 71 


1+4) 


1040517 


16* DRAM 






Dynamic 






Random At«** 






Memory 


22 




SAM Syochronoui 












Muit<pfc«f 



Qnolitr fWn|mi.n EUdJo Stack f 



I l-EO 27W>6* OT 

276-073 

I RESISTOR ffc ubffl* 27t*)2J 



computer hack right side up, and gather 
up the screws that drop out, (Jrab the 
top cover of the computer and puli it 
off. Wow! Look at till ihose things. The 
components marked with the letter *U' 
(or *1C in the ease of the newest CoCo) 
arc known a* fCs f Integrated Circuits). 
Table I labels all the ICs used in the 
computer and gives a short description 
of each. 

Some of the components ihat make 
up the CuCu are very sensitive to sialic 
electricity. You must be careful not to 
zap (remanent damage caused by 
static discharge) a chip by touching; the 
piri-S with your lingers. II you musl 
much a chip, always touch a ground 
point with your fingers first. This will 
discharge any static your body might 
be carrying lo ground. A good ground 
point to touch is the RF adapter. That 
is the big metal can sitting to the kit, 
where y nil plug in the TV wire. Another 
point is one of the melal clips ihui hold 
the bottom shield to the main PCB 
(Printed Circuit Hoard]. You will find 
these clips alt around the edge of the 
PCB. 

Now thai we have seen the inside* 
ol the CoCo and are a hit more fa mil a r 
wiih us parts, let's do something to it. 
Ahoui the simplest ihmg we can do is 
add a pilot light, ll is not hard, and 
if you lake it one step at a Lime, anyone 
will be able to do it. and the good thing 
aboui it is that it costs less than SI. 
By the way, this pilot light will work 
on any version, not jusi the CoCo 2. 
Before you plunge into this though, if 
yon do not have any soldering expe- 



rience, practice on something else first. 
To do this, you will need a soldering 
iron. A low power, medium or fine tip 
soldering iron will do. The solder to 
use must be a rosin core and not loo 
thick Radio Shack sells both at a 
reasonable price. If you have never 
handled a soldering iron before, get 
Radio Shack** protn-hoard and practice 
on it fust. 

Here are the siep-by-sicp instructions 
on how lo solder: 

I > Make sure that your soldering tip 
is clean and hoi. A wcl sponge 
is great to clean the lip. 
2) Secure I he component to the PCB, 
J) Heal the component and the PCB 

with the iron. 
41 Touch the end of the solder lo the 
component My personal habit is 
to position the solder so that it 
will loueh the iron, component 
arid F'CN at the same lurir. 
5) When en uugh solder flo ws< remove 

(he solder, 
ft) Remove the iron from the joint 
71 Wait until u cools before moving 

the component or the PCB 
To make a good joint takes practice. 
To pot the rtghl amount of solder also 
takes practice. Too much or too little 
could result in a bad connection. 
Examine Figure I, and notice the 
difference between too lit lie and loo 
much solder. Some limes a bad connec- 
tion can be turned into a good con- 
nection just by healing up ihe joim 
again. After it cools, the joint should 
be shiny and smooth. Practice several 
limes until you get the hang of it. There 



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Itatw Lg«l.r r UUTOt T UQ*S 0 ill 9* 



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COO, O.Si- □, 

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A' -vfVf 






^ OPTION 


4 


























YGS 







TO the naiNROw mmto) ihhe. 



16 K DOS CARD 

□ PLUGS INTO YOUR J-M DISK CONTROLLER AND 
ALLOWS VOU TO MAP ON AN EXTRA 8 X E-PROM 
ABOVE DOS. 

I USE YOUR OWN 24 WN. 8 K 005 AND ONE 27&d 
E-PROM OR TWO 2764 E-PROMS. 

□ GREAT FOR UTILITIES OR A MACHINE LANGUAGE 
MONITOR. 

QN CCARO DECODING, ONLY ONE WIRE to 
SOLDER. COMPLETE WITH INSTRUCTIONS. 




$19.95 



RGS DUAL DOS CARD 



WITH SWfTCH SELECTOR 



DESIGNED TO ACCOMODATE TWO DIFFERENT DOS 
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PIN TO PIN COMPATIBLE WITH RS-DOS AND J -DOS CM I PS. 



! THE SWITCH ALLOWS YOU TO HARD SELECT ANY 
ONE OF THE TWO DOS SYSTEMS OF YOUR CHOICE. 



IN CENTER POSmON. THE SWITCH DISCONNECTS 
FROM THE DOS AND BRINGS YOU BACK TO BASIC 



DESIGNED FOR ONE 24 PIN ROM AND A 28 FIN 
E-PROM OR TWO 28 PIN E-PROM CONFIGURATION. 



EASILY MODIFIED BY CUTTING TWO TRACES ON 
THE EAOt OF THE BOARD 



$19.95 

iBoara with switch oniyi 




VIDEO PAL 



AUDI0<VtDEO INTERFACE 
MON OCHFLO M E COM POSIT E OUTPUT 
EASY TO INSTALL, FITS UNDER YOUR KEYBOARD 
NO SOLDERING' 
□ BUILT-IN SPEAKER 

DOES NOT DISABLE YOUR REGULAR T V OUTPUT 
FULLY TESTED AND ASSEM BLED 
COMPLETE WITH INSTRUCTIONS. 

ALSO AVAILABLE FOR COLOR MONITORS 




PROJECT BOARD 

A MUST FOR EXPERJMENTS 

0 UNLIMITED CHIP POSITIONS 

P GOLD PLATED EDGE-CARD CONNECTOR 

FITS INTO ANY RS DISK PACK 

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EASY TO WIRE WRAP 

GREAT TO BUILD YOUR TURN OF THE SCREW 
PROJECTS. 



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L 



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Jr 



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TEL: 302473-3386 
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TEL ..-(SMI 297-1563 
ORDER LINE ONLY * * # 
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HOURS: MONDAY SATURDAY 10:00 AM 6 00 PM 



is one more thing lo remember: after 
all the soldering is done T clean the PCB 
with Radio Shack ro*it? cleaner- 
remover. 

Now (hat you feci more at case with 
soldering il is lime to put your newly 
acquired talent to work, Yes, the piloi 
light. There arc onh Jour p;irt* So lhii 
project The LED, a |K iK>HM)01 ohm 
'.^ wan resistor, and two short lengths 
of colored wire (preferably red and 
black). That is it. Examine the schematic 
in Figure 2, This k a diagram on how 
the components connect together and 
to the computer. The first thing to do 
it mount the LED. You must decide 
where to put it. Alter that, you must 
check that when mounted, it docs not 
interfere with the normal operation of 
the computer, i.e.. short out or lean on 
other component* and does not prevent 
the cover from fitting properly. 

Mount the LED by drilling a 1 - -inch 
hole where the LED is to be mounted- 
Cut both sides of the resistor leads to 
about Vi inch. Solder one side of the 
resistor lo the long end of the LED. 
Solder one end of ihe red wire to the 
other end of the resistor Solder one 
end of t he bl tick wi re to the other ( short ) 



end of ihe LED. Twisl the two wire* 
iniK'trun litihih urn' oil (htm .(Km: IS 
inches long. This should be long enough 
to have the cover out of your way if 
ever you want lo open ihe computer 
again. 



Figure 2 

0v, 



RED 

WIRE 



BLACK 

WIRE 



" GROUND lP»n n 33j 



Now, solder the other end of the red 
wire to inside of pin 9 of the edge 
connector. That is the five volts side. 
How do you get to pin 9? Simple, just 
?itart counting Irom the end closest to 
the hack of the computer. All the lop 
pins are odd numbered, so count t t 3, 
5, 7, V. Make sure ihat you don't short 
out two pins with ihe solder Finally, 
colder the black wire lo pin 3X count 
thai one the ^anie way Pin U k the 
ground return pin. 

Place the cover on top of the computer 
(without the screws for now} and turn 
the computer on. The LED should turn 
on. If not, chances are that you got the 
wires to the LED reversed. In that case. 
un-dML-r the resistor and Ihe black wire 
lo the LED and resolder them the other 
way Otherwise, you should not have 
any problems, Tuck the wire in the 
cover and place the cover back on. 
Make sure that the wire does not slick 
oui unci that ihe keyboard is silting on 
the pep properly. Turn the computer 
over and replace the screws. There you 
arc, your lim modification lo your 
computer. Xnw doesn't ihai make your 
day? 




Mouse Technological Software 
For The Color Computer! 



Many Companies call their 
Home and Business Software 
User Friendly . . . 



ONLY ONE CALLS IT 





CWs may 




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TCE BUSINESS DIVISION 
P.O. BOX 2477 

GAITHERSBUnG.MD 20676 

1 (3011963-3848 



NOW AT: 



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Elite-Spel 



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Available Via Express Order 

What to look for when buying application software . . . 

EASE OF USE— Ai Elite Software we know you want programs that are easy to use You 
want software that has a simple command structure with commands I hat a/6 easy to re- 
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gram thai does only one job)? Remember, when you buy one program from our system you 
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same Elite Software OOfSmaka a d<Herence 

All of our Software Features: 

* Superior Ease of Use 

* Cross-file CompatabilitY * Nationwide User-group Support 

* Printer CompatflbiiitY * Handsome Vinyl Binder 

* Comprehensive Manual * Revision Upgrade Program 



Elite Sofa**** & y 

_ :nx _ Now Available For: WORD-PAK 

B^n^^H SAME POWERFUL FEATURES * BQ COLUMN DISPLAY 

^■■■■■■■■^H Specify Diik or Tape $79. 95 t Sriippmg/Randhng. 

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> win ^ 

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1 



* color computer word processor * 



Ilite-Word 

Alio Available On OS - * 



THE SECOND GENERATION WORD PROCESSOR IS HERE! 
BUTE* WORD s a high performance, ail machine language* 
Full Screen Editor which otters in eese-ot-use that is simply 
incredible* BUTE* WORD has many powerful features not 
found in of her word processor a tor the Color Computer. 
ELITE 'WORD else otters a printed output flexibility that can 
handle your sophisticated home and business explications. 
LOOK at thoue features: 

Very ess y to use * Top icrnn line reserved tor HELP dta> 
play/Command prompt! * Excellent tor BOTH program 
editing and word procesatng * TWO text an try modes, 
In tart or Exchange ■ Auto Key-Rep oat » Smooth display 
Scroll for eaaler proof reading * True Upper /Lower cess 
display with lower cat a descenders • Hl-Rai text "View" 
mode displays text extctly at It will be printed; Including 
taxi Juattfl cation, Auto Line Centering, dynamic Margin 
chengee. Top and Bottom Margins, Page Numbering, and 
Page Breaks * Include feature (dltk only) permits In* 
eluding several file names within one output document; 
total document will have sequential page numbering It 
desired * Faat Disk I/O; no loading of overlay files to 
■low down operation • Variable Text (Mall Merge) 
capability tor Form Letter generation Included FREE! 

32 K Extended Basic Required 1of ROM routine cans * variable TAB 
slops • User definable Headers and Foolers * Smooth cursor move- 
ma til over tepl; in my direction (Including vertical* * Page Forward 
or Backward through test • Jump to beginning or end at leal * Aulo- 
malic text centering • Automatic lent word- wrap if desired * True 
Block text Move Delete, or Copy * Delete entire screen line * Back, 
apace and Delete Character • Delete character above cursor * Rod 
ei string ot characters * Global Replace c ha racier siring • Two Hi- 
Res. screen displays 22 « 1 9 tor text entry/editing, M n tg tor for- 
matted l«j*t viewing • Continuous Memory display • Over ?2K Ilia 
sue in 64K machines * Easy generation of ASCII tiles ■ Save 'Load 
text hies (m ASCII \t desired] • Program remembers Last File Name 
loadec or sawed, itna" *in write lo it by default if desired • All I/O 
error s trapped and recoverable * Disk commands for Change Drive. 
Directory and Free Space • Pr.nt Formal 1 ostites allow user to 
specify tell Margin, Lmo Length, Lme Spacing, Top and Bolton 
Margin, Duplicate Copies, RigM-S-de teal Justifies! ion, Paga Pause, 
Page Numbering., and more • Dynam.ca.Hy change any print Formal 
lea Lures within tent ■ imbed Hex codes and printer Fonl changes 
within text 

AddHicnai GS-9 version leatures 

Edit tWO NlftS SinnJlapr-nunly * Sflve or Print Only n ooM'On tne tent 

buffer ■ Ecm files larger than memory I uses disk as butler I * Block 
Copy from one file to another * Execute any OS-9 command horn 
Ed.tor 

If VOIt UHJttt powerful feature* AND a program that * 

EASY TO USE. Zlhv Word Im for you ♦ 

THl 8CST tOR OULf 
Erne -Word TAPE RJ^uO-Orftt Scedly Tap* s 69 95 

EM. Word DISK RS#9001W :.. ; ', f 

Ehl« Word/OS-9 R5r#90-0ta6 OS-9 Cm * 73.95 

OS-ftlRSDnh Si '5 94 



* COLOR COMPUTE CICTIONARV * 

Elite Spel M 

EHte*Spei is sn excellent spelling checker tor your Color 
Computer, and Us VERY FAST that's the key. Why wail 
whlla a spelling checker does Us job? Stile* Spel identifies 
all potentially misspelled words with a single pass through 
tis perfectly adequate 24,000 word dictionary. Elite* Spot 
lets you Add or Delete Dictionary words EASH Y Eilte*Spei 
is tulty compatible with Elite* Word and will work with ASCII 
Hies from other programs. 

MAJOR features Include: 

Easy to use. menu commands * Can learn 4,000 of your 
own worda * List suspect words on screen or printer • 
Alphabetical Hating of all words used with number of 
occurrences * Learn entire files of words * Can alto 
"edit spelling In context" If desired • Works In single or 
multiple drive systems * 32K Disk required, 

Rftdk?£hp^*Ctl*lDD#90-Q!S5 

Speed ie the kty. A^UobU P „ QQf% QC 

W*rr» purirb***ft with ELITE* WORD . . . QHLYSiS M 



* COLOR COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS * 



■ 



Elite • Coram 



Eiite*Gomm turns your Color Computet into a powerful 300 
Baud terminal Wiih Elite* Gomm you can access large 
main- frame computers, local computer bulletin boards , and 
national computer database services Elite* Comm is fully 
compatible with Elite* Word and wilt work with ASCII tiles 
from other programs, it you wanl a terminal communica- 
tions package thai i$ smooth and easy to use, Elllo*Comm 
is for you. 

CHECK these program features ' 

Fully Interrupt driven; you can talk to the host while it's 
talking to you and NOT drop a character • True Upper/ 
Lower case screen dlapley * Selectable text Word <- Wrap 
• Review buffered text at ANY TIME • Selectable 
Smooth-Scroll In Review mode • Screen page Forward 
or Backward through buffered text * Save/Load buffer 
riles ■ Transmit II tee lo host computer * Print buffered 
text or saved II lea • 32K Required. 



Elite 'Comm im SMOOTH 
operation that's 

EASY TO VSEf 



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95 




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"Fffie" Word is a terrfftc word processor with an Jmores^'rv Ht 
or 'natorax, yef r( s easy lo learn and irse^ 

Stuart NawJtfniort, HOT COCO 
"I was mwe f n»n aa/fa 'red with Eat** Word , After thg review. 
i would net hesitate to compare tt mth the two best sawny 
worO processors And my comparison places it at the lop ot 
ihit list " 

-A audtiy nogan. hainbow 




COLOR COMPUTES WORKSHEET * 



THIS iS IT! BUTE* Ft LE is the DataBase Manager that Color 
Computer users Have been waiting lor. ELITE*FSLE is for 
everyone who needs 10 store end retrieve information. 
ELlTE^flLE i$ a (unmatured relational Dale Base Manager 
with etl the editing and report formatting features thet are 
typically found on much larger computer systems. COM* 
PARE the others for record structure flexibility, total record 
capacity, information processing ability, speed of program 
response, printed output flexibility, end you'll agree thet 
ELITE* Ft LE may very weli be the most po werful / useful pro* 
gram ever written for ihe Color Computet. 

No other File Manager give* you Iheae feature*: 
All machine language for apeed ■ Flexible, uaer defined, 
data record structures * Up lo 255 character a par record 
Held - Up to 2 55 field* per record * Up lo £000 cbarac- 
lara par record • Up to 4000 record* per file * Up to 1ft 
fliea can be open at the tame lima for Information pro* 
ceeeing ■ Edit, Scan, Sort, Select Record information; all 
done FAST • Output report* to Screen* Printer, or ASCII 
□ i ah file ■ Place output data by Field Name, with Cut torn 
Text anywhere on the printed page * Perform math oper- 
all one (+ t - t /) between Field content* * Produce tabu- 
lated report* from multiple record content* • Generate 
column totali acrom record Hefd content** 

Compatible with Blle*Calc and E Hie* Ward Hies * User friendly 
combination of Menu driven input, and single key commends, * Sup- 
ooria up lo 4 drive* • Minimum 32K RAM, Disk required • Nested 
tub- held definitions • Up lo 8 fields in Primary Key • Copy record 
tferJmlion iron iiia lo We • View/Prmi record definition ■ In pel /Ado 
records with easy lo use Held name lormat dsalay » Edit records 
with full screen "type over editor • Copy re cords lo repent identical 
data * toed Ente*Caic work eh eels into random access dale Hies ■ 
Bean mode for quick data retrieval • Locate any record by field con- 
tenia * Soiocl specific groups of records by held content with full 
logic combination capabilities ■ Sort records in ascend ng or des- 
cending order by any field, or group of Held a * Calculate values from 
comomauons of He'd contents • Output any subset of liettfs In any 
order ror pr-nled reports • User a stable punt Formats. Page Tifke. 
Top and Bottom Margin Line Spacing. Page Length, Page Pause. 
Form Feeds and more * Output formal also supports TAB VTAB, CR r 
PAGE. 10*1. HEX ormrer con I rois. end more ■ Jem up to lour sub- hies 
to extend darn record Tor pf inl Tig * Produce detailed fepollllve re- 
porta, lor output on preprinted forms, using cutout formate written on 
Elite* Word • Verlsbte T«k1 Insert tea lure Of Elite* Were is fully sop 
ported * Be hie old record date mio NEW record structures ■ Data. 
Field Definitions. Indices ill stored on a single hi a • Memory resi- 
dent, no program overlay* from d sk * Single program pa dorms all 
features • List disk Directories end "KIM" files without leaving the 
O'ogram. • Dale 'ne* also access-bis irom- BASfC c-rogta^s. 

Radio Shack * catalog & 90-01 39 



Hite-Calc 



EUTE*CAlC was the first Color Computer spreadsheet pro- 
gram offering "major league ' features Ail the magazine ra> 
v -ewers loved ttl Today r when you consider program per- 
formance speed, ease of use, price, end total features 
EUTE*CALCts stitt your best choice, 

MAJOR feet urea Include! 

Very EASY lo use * FAST Sorting * Printed Output* 
Screen Re- write, and Calculation* all done FAST • Full 
cell-edit capability • Powerful celt -format op done • 
Individual cell formulae * FREE sample worksheet* • 
CALC-LIST availability. 

Single character commands * Help display* ■ 255 maximum rows * 
2S5 maximum columns • Available memory always maple yea * 
Rapid Entry modes tor teil and oats • Selectable, automatic, cursor 
movement • Insert. Delete. Move entire rows or columns * Hep 'ic ale 
one ceil to I in a row or column with sefectaoie formula adjustment • I 
All machine language 'or speed * Extended BA$iC required 1o< ROM 
routine call* * Automatic memory size detection lor 16K 33K. or 
B4K * >Z0K bytes storage available m 32K systems * Main opera- 
tor*: -< a, A t, U • Relation operators - >. - -;-.>-,<>• 
Logic Operations AND, OR NOT ■ Conditional Formula IF. THEN, 
ELSE • Trig Functions SIN. COS, TAN. ATM ■ loo Functions LOG. 
EXP. SQR • Miac Functions- INT. FX, ABS SON, RNQ * Range Func- 
tions. SUM. AVERAGE. COUNT, WIN MAX LOOKUP ♦ DaHnable . 
donate nt table * Uaer deHnabie primer set-up commands • 
individual column wEdtn settings • Adjustable row ha.ghr io insert 
blank lines without wasting memory * Hide columns or rows * Alter- 
nate pnnl font selectable on e cell by cell basis • Display /Prut I Pa- 
rnate set by cell, row. or column • Oon&r format, comma grouping, 
prettx or postfix aign ■ Scientific notation, fixed potnl and i merger , 
iprfnats ■ Le't end Right con contents i us location • Full page lor- 
mailing * All 'annals stored wiin worksheet on dish (tapet * Save/ 
Load Disk (tapct tiles in com peel memory lorm • Scan dfatfe di- 
rectories • Output ASCH tile for word utoccssor input capability * 
Memory resident code no repealed disk calls 

CALC-LIST H a separate, machine language, utilily that works 
independumiy pi Ei te*Cflic it can read either tape or disk -warn 
sheel iiios. and will give you additional In Fop ma Hon that was pre- 
viously hidden wrihin your worksheet v\nih CAlC-l'ST. you can 
list on Ihe screen tor print J Ihe actual contents ol your worksheet 
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PERIPHERALS 



Getting The Most 
From Your 
| Cassette 
Recorder 

I By Norman Latner 




C,„ a cassette recorder is t all too olten, a hasty 
.ti !l-i thuughi [olldwmg Uiv e*citmg jrnJ (.ariHulh 
t luiu Lttn nut purchase of the Color Computer. How- 
ever, after encountering endless I/O triors and spending 
what seems like ages searching for program!* located some- 
where on your tape, you 11 know you should have though* 
about it more. 

t-oriunaicly, the situation is not hopeless, t ou can make 
reliable, consistently high quality recordings by improving 
your present tape recorder and u*mg good recording tech- 
niques and mate nab. And, if you're in ihe market for a new 
a nd bet tcr ca ssct it record er, I 'll d iscu &s h o w you can choose 
the most suitable unit. 

Cassette recording with lite Color Computer has a ten 
going for it. At 1 500 Baud, it's five times faster than many of 
its competitors, allowing it to record an 8k program in lew; 
than 45 second*- It's reliable and inexpensive. A brand name 
60-mintiic tape can be bought for about a doJkn in I urge 
metropolitan areas. It can it ore an amazing 675K. bytes, or 
about 4 Yi limes more than a 55 Radio Shack disk. And 
while the cassette recorder can t immediately access a pro- 
gram located anywhere on the tape, or read as fast as the 
disk unit does, you Will be able lo locate programs fairty 
quick ly using cue' review, speaker mule override and remote 
override features, which HI discus later. As we further 



( ftonn i Miner, an eiectrirai engineer works in a 
government laboratory, fie ts invoked tn research ami 
development of nuclear instruments, and is a frequent 
contrihuityr m seieniifte fuurnatij 



compare cassette to disk, we find that disks arc far more 
prone to catastrophic failures. Don't ever turn I he power 
switch Off on a disk drive w ith a disk in place. Don't operate 
a drive in the presence of a strong RF held or any place 
where sparks from equipment turn-on might be close 
enough lo disturb the unit. These disks may never again 
divulge their information to you, Disk drives can suddenly 
chnngc from reading (playback) lo writing (record) with no 
intervention on your pan. The cassette unit, on the other 
hand, won't record unless you simultaneously press the Play 
and Record keys. And finally, a cassctlc recorder costs many 
limes less than a disk system. 



The Ideal 

Cassette Recorder 



If you could get the ideal cassette recorder fm use with the 
Color Computer, it wouild have the following features: 
ein review keys, a remote override switch, a speaker mule 
override switch, a record monitor switch and a tape counter. 

The value of the tape counter is fairly obvious. You can 
tabulate your programs bs larn: counter number and access 
them more quietly and accurately, By setting the counter to 
zero prior to a loading or saving operation, you can get back 
to the start of the program very easily if need be. 

A record monitor switch, a feature available on a number 
of tape recorders, a J lows you to listen in while ■ he recording 
i* being made Hearing ihe process can alert you to such 



76 



THE RAINBOW 



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problems as recording with the computer in the high speed 
mode, fthe "start tones** will sound much higher pitched 
than usual) or trying lo record after erroneously typing 
CLOAD\ihcTc won't be any sound), h's reassuring bearing 
the two characteristic start tones followed by the crisp, 
static- like sound of the program code, 

A speaker rank' override, which loo Id do \ on a great deal 
of goad, i^just another wa\ oi raying the ea^ctie recorder's 
speaker isahle in operate r%cn ihciugh The plug m the ear- 
phone jack has turned it off. (Thai plug, of course, normally 
goes to thecomputerand allows loading. ) The ability to hear 
(be tapes loading is one of the most important aids available 
to you. Li allows you to identify problem tapes by their 
muffled, mushy or wavering bound qualify U alerts you lo 
programs accidentally recorded in the high speed mode. It 
jets you easily find the gap between programs Ry locating 
and starting at thrs gap, you eliminate all those I/O Errors 
which occur when you attempt to load in the middle of a 
record. In add it ion . when used with ibe cue. 1 review feature 
mentioned below you can even hear the program* in fast 
forward or reverie, Tftii allows you to move quickly Through 
the tape while keeping count of the programs you've passed 
t h ra ugh You can. fur exam p Ic , I oca le a program fi ve ahea d 
of your tape's current posh i on by counting the noisy, fol- 
lowed by quiet, sequences. While it's theoretically possible 
lo use A VDIOQN to hear the cassette output through the 
TV speaker, there arc some practical problems, First, an I 'O 
Error resell this command, thus requiring constant re-entry. 
Second, the computer can't be doing any thing else at the 
time — you can T t set up to read another program while the 
first is mill running However, the speaker mute override is 
completely independent of the computer, The only reasona- 



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bly priced recorder with this feature ho i.ar r> Kadui Shack s 
new CCR-H2. If you're electrically knowledgeable, or can 
get help from a friend *ho is, it s easy to add 1 his feature to 
your present recorder. It fake* une resistor added to your 
recorder or if you'd rather, you can build a separate bo* 
which gives you this feature plus a remote override switch. 
Derails to follow. 

A remote override switch will save you untold wear on 
your connecting cable, remote plug and jack as well asy mir 
patience, lite remote jack, which permit* the cassette unit in 
be turned on and off by the computer, also prevents you 
from operating the cassette recorder manually. By tempor- 
arily defeating this lockout, you regain manual control and 
can locate the tape anywhere you wish using Fast Forward* 
Reverse or Play. 1\e installed a switch lo do this in my 
recorder or you can build it into the box mentioned above. 

The final feature that you ought to have is cue review. 
Cue, i review keys, which are available on a number of 
cassette recorders, ordinarily operate like the standard fast 



"Foil can make reUabfa* consist- 
ently high quality recordings by 
improving your present tape 
recorder and using good recording 
techniques and materia is . \ 
Cassette recording with the Color 
Computer has a lot going for it" 



forward ' rewind. However, unlike these keys, cue review 
also operates wtjen the Play button \* depressed, allowing 
you to hear the tape while fast forwarding or rewinding. This 
makes it possible to listen while I he tape moves quickly, and 
then slop in the gap between programs, thus eliminating the 
bulk of I, O Errors. 

And while we're talking about features of the ideal 
cassette recorder, we might add such niceliesa.su VI 1 meter, 
or at the least* an LED, tu indicate recording level This 
helps you to arrive at the proper volume setting with u 
minimum pi effort, A useful, hut tun essential lejium- is .j 
Hnear slide volume control rather than the conventional 
rotary type The setting of the linear com rol is obvious at a 
glance. End ol tape-auto shut olf is desirable, and by now. 
not too haul [hi ^et Itimcwi. be uareiul when using this, 
since the feature doesn't normally work in fast forward or 
rewind, 



What You Can Buy , ■ . Or, 

The Realities Of The Marketplace 



Vow i hat ue've miked about the ideal lape recorder, let** 
txa mi ne w h a I \ citminc re i a Ik ji ui i In h \t- The h u*tc nrq n » r - 



78 



THE RAINBOW January 1PB£ 



mcfli* for a CoCo compatible record ct arc remote and ear- 
phone jacks, au* or line or mi c jack and mwoIi operation. 
(A recorder that lake* lour cells is a six-volt type,) These 
features arc available and you should have little trouble 
finding a unit which also ha.v a tape counter unci a recording 
indicator Cue review keys arc available un the somewhat 
higher priced macliinev some of which a l*o offer linear slide 
puis. The next siep up offers units which u>u.i llv include an 
AM / FM radio (which you don't need), along with moniior 
and A IX sw ile hes { which >• du do need! h might take o little 
looking, but you can find the close to ideal recorder in 
ICvenl name brands, at larger stores. 

Radio Shack had not madean> great effort to tailor their 
recorders, both the CCR-BI and the now discontinued 
CTR-fKK to i he need* of ihe computer user, For the most 
part, they resembled standard audio cassette units. A few of 
the features we'd like ate there white others, which could 
have bceo easily implemented, are missing, Bolb recorders 
allow remote override during fast forward and rewind, but 
not during play, and both have a recording LfcD and a 
counter. The CCR-fil has the cue review feature missing m 
Ihe earlier mode]- The newest addition to Radio Shack's 
cassette recorder tine, the CCR-R2. has this as well as remote 
override and monitor switches. Although the Radio Shack 
recorder represents one of ihe easiest choices, you can do 
much better if you're willing to spend the nine and effort . 
Aim for the unit which offers as many of ihe desirable 
features as possible and fits Within your budget. As a final 
note, avoid like the plague, a cassette recorder which has 
>mgte button recording rather than ihe standard type which 
must have both Hoy and Record keys depressed together 
lt'% all too easy lo slip up and destroy your favorite 
programs. 



Improve Your 
Present Recorder 



For those of you who want lo improve your present 
recorder, the speaker mine and remote override functions 
can he jiddcfJ. and I'll describe how you can dn it While it's 
possible; to add a recording monitor sw itch 10 mnvl record- 
ers, it's a lot more complicated and generally requites a 
schema lie diagram, which put* it beyond the scope of ibis 
uriick- 



There are iwo approaches to implementing the speaker 
mute and remote overrides, depending on youi am bitten 
and technical skill In cither case, you have lo be able in 
solder, drill holes and otherwise work at a simple project 
level. If thai"* beyond you, or you can ^t get a technically 
inclined friend to help, then just skip to the nexi section. 

The easier construction method consists of building a 
separate box which houses a small loud speaker, a switch, a 
resistor, two j,acks and two plug* on short cables. A wiring 
diagram and suggested parts list are shown in Figure I. 
There's nothing critical here, including parti layout The 
switch can be any momentary type or, even better, a toggle 
switch with a center off, one side on, and the other side 
momentary This arrangement frees you from keeping ihe 
switch held down during such chores as rewinding a tape If 
you use this type of switch, conncci the two outside lugs 
together and use this as one lead, with the center lug as ihe 
other. Another option you could consider is installing a Foot 
operated switch, such as Radio Shack #44-6)0, at the end of 
a six Tool cable This frees your hands entirely 

The particular value of the resistor <47- 1 20 ohms) can be 
chi^cnio^uca -ound le-telihat suits you It yours is a quiet 
en. irunment, you may want to use a value e\ en higher than 
3 2D ohms. To get the greatest flcxibiliiy. you could install a 
500 ohm potentiometer in series with a 47 ohm resistor, 
allowing you to vary the volume as the need arises. While 
you can raise the resistance without problems, don't lower it 
much below 47 ohms* since this will decrease the signal 
available to the computer. Resistor tolerance, indicated by a 
gold or silver band, is unimportant in ink application — use 
whatever you can gel. 

An important point to note is thai you cant mount both 
jacks on a metal surface. The bushing of each jack is tied to 
one of ils contact, and this would short one jack loihe other 



PARTS LIST 



PRO 1 1 CI CAST 



2" SPEAKER 

I/H'MIN PHONE PLUG 

5,32" St'BMIN PHONE PLUG 

1,8" MIN PHONE: JACK 

3/32* SU BMIN PHONE JACK 

RESISTOR 



WIRE 



RADIO SHACK 
«2?0-221 or 
222 or 233 
RS 411-245 
RS 274-2X* 
RS 274-290 
RS 274-251 
RS 274.292 
14 or I I WAT! 
^ 10 12(1 OHM 
<SEI TEXT) 




Jnmmiv 1365 THE RAINBOW 79 




suilC 111 l> 



in- ®- 



si m t 



— a definite no-no. Pay particular attention Lo the connec- 
tion* on the jack Although there arc generally three solder 
tugs, you only use wo — the "sleeve"* and *lip" lugs. The 
u slecve" is i hi? one that's electrically connected m the mount- 
nig hushing, and l he "tip" con t Act can be identified by 
inspection The third contact, not used here, allow* for 
switching. Sec Figure 2. 

A very convenient solution for building; this box \s to use 
jo old h.iiiMSiur radio Almo%t everyone ha* an old, non- 
functioning radio lti his basement or the top of the tinsel. 
Remove ihc innards, leaving the loudspeaker and the ear- 
phone jaek T which mighl he either a miniature or sub- 
mi mature type. Insnill a second jack , of the other type, in a 
hole you either drill or meli into the case. Make two holes Tor 
t he ca bl cs an d a not her l or l he s wile h. Solcc r a 1 1 1 he eon nec- 
[ tons as per Kigure I . Vour original computer cable, except 
for the microphone (or aux or line) input which stays puu 
nou plugs into the box you've mude. The cables and plug* 
from the box. in turn, go to trie tape recorder, and youVe 
finished You imw ran hear the tape as ii loads into the 
computer and move or play the tape without pulling out the 
remote plug 

If you have the skill, a neater and more compact way of 
adding these features is to modify the recorder itself. First, 
carefully take the back cover oil the record et and put the 
screws in a small container. (Etc sure to get the ones thai arc 
invariably hidden m the battery com part men I ) At this 
point* the earphone and remote jacks should be visible. 
Sometimes they are on a subassembly, which might require 
loosening a few none nia* Nou c\,imtrte liu- tMiph^n L - 
jack and I oca let he 'Tip* and Switched "contact Sec Figure 
2. Solder the resistor to these points without removing any 
of the leads already attached II the jacks are attached to the 
printed circuit board, trace the leads and solder the resistor 
to the appropriate pads on the board. Now locale the lip 
and sleeve contacts on the subminiature* remote jack. In 
this ca^. you conned two leads rather than the rtStBIOr. 
These leads go to the switch, which wiU be installed some- 
where on the case, or you can uie the fool switch men I toned 
earlier, instead. Almost an\ kind ol small switch can he u>ed 
and you can locate it anywhere you can find the room in 
youi tape recorder. Around the battery compartment is 
usually a good spot, since battery operation with the com- 
puter is unnecessary and undesirable. Drill the mounting 
hole, install the switch, solder the leads and reassemble the 
case. Now you're all set lo hear your programs playing 
through the recorder \ -speaker and to override the compu- 
ter"* control by uneraimg your switch 

SO THE flA'NBOW Jwiuirr IMS 



Making The Best 
Possible Recordings 



To make a good tape recording, you need a good tape. 
Not only does the magnetic tape have to be uniform and of 
good quality, but just as important is the tape transport 
mechanism within the cassette. Poor comer guide rollers or 
none at all, ineffective anti-friction sheets, non-rigid cases, 
and poorly made center hubs that do not turn freely can 
cause tape jams, uneven spooling and tape binding. Mag- 
netic tape problems usually result from non-uniform oxide 
coating and can cause dropouts and \ jryine, volume. All of 
this translates into 1 0 Errors and headaches. Fortunately, 
these problem* enn hen voided by buying name brand audio 
tapes or shorter computer tapes available from reputable 
dealers. The 60-minutc audio tape is relatively inexpensive 
nnd a good si?o to use. The 90-mfnulc tape can also be used, 
but avoid the 120-minutc or longer sues* since these tapes 
ure thinner and more susceptible to at retching and breaking. 

The cassette tape you end up with should have a case 
which doesn't deflect wilh moderate finger pressure: the 
window urea near its hubs should be of rigid clear plastic, 
not thin film; the hubs should move freely when turned with 
it pe ii Hi he case is r ran spa rent, you should ^c. corner guide 
rollers, preferably sei on metal pi as. The pressure pad, 
which holds i he I ape against the head, should be made of felt 
rather than sponge rubber which deteriorates w ith age. And 
finally, the case should be held together with screws rather 
than gloe to facilitate repairs if needed. 

If you're reusing a tape, it's best to bulk erase it belorc 
recording. Bulk erasing reduces the noise level belou the 
recorders own erase head level, ll that's not possible, at leasl 
erase it as a separate step prior to use. Put it into your 
recorder or tape deck, lower the volume to minimum, ihc 
ALC to *0!f* if possible, and set the unit to 'Record .' This 
method assures a clean tape. 

Don 1 "! neglect periodic maintenance of your caisctie 
recorder. Clean the record and erase heads, as well as the 
pinch roller and capstan, using readily available head 
cleaner fluid and swabs. Solvent grade alcohol* which con- 
tains little or no Water, can also be used, but avoid runtime 
alcohol which is JO percent water If you can see an\ oxide 
deposils on your tape heads, yotu unit is overdue for a 
cleaning. 



Demagnetizing the tunc head is ,<lso ,1 ^mkJ iJlm ami h 
recommended after every 10 10 15 hour & of machine use. A 
magnetic bias on the head will cause an increase in noise 
level and a U>v> ol Inch liequeney icvpiuiM- which ear cause 
I, O Errors. Relatively incx pensive dernagnut/cr* are avail- 
able, including a very easy to use umi bmh into a cassette 
ca>c. You simply insert il ftl you would any cassette, and 
ihcn <cl the recorder on play for a few .seconds 

Automatic level control «ALC) is a mixed blotting. It 
relieves you ol the burden of setting the recording volume, 
but it has some disadvantages. It lakes about one-hall 
second to operate, causing a sudden change in the volume ol 
the starting tones a I the beginning of each record. In addi- 
tion, the setting u choose* may not be the optimum one. ITs 
a compromise, hut one that you can live with. However, if 
it's possible to switch the ALC off. do so for the best 
recordings. 

At thin poinl. if your recorder doesn't have ALC youH 
need to determine the optimum volume control setting for 
recording. In general, the best results can be obtained by 
setting the level to record ,i» ke.li s!> rvi^iblc with only 
occasional excursions into the overload region This can be 
fiecn Of) the VU meter or recording LED if you have one. 
Without any indicator you'll have to use a trial and error 
method Stan hy setting the volume control loan arbitrary 
point, say ihree-quurkT-* ot the way up, and CSAt'E a 
program Next, remove the cassette and play the program 
back on a stereo tape deck (yours or a friend's)- Watch the 
VU meters, or better yet, the dual series of LCDs, standard 
on newer decks. See if the recorded level is generally high, 
just below or occasionally going into the overload (red 
LED's) region. If so, you've been recording at the right levcl T 



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otherwise, make correct ion* and repeat the procedure until 
it's right. It doesn't lake long, Once you've got the correct 
selling, mark the position with a dab of nail polish or paint, 
and always record at this setting. 

While you're at it. you can also check your tape tracking 
The cassette recorder used with your computer is mono- 
phonic and lays down a wide (rack which spans both the left 
and right channel tracks recorded by a stereo tape deck. 
Thus, when yon play a mono phonic tape on a stereo deck, 
i he left and right VU or LED indicators should show an 
equal response if all is well. [Editor's Note: Many mono 
recorders normally record their single track off-center com- 
pared lo the usual stereo track positions, so there can be as 
much as i <JB of difference between the left and right chan- 
nels when playing the tape on p stereo machine. In a few 
cases, you may be able to adjust head height to cure this 
problem, though it shouldn't have any ill effect when using 
the recorder with a computer ) If one side is noticeably 
different from the other, you have a problem, The cause 
could simply be due lo oxide deposits on the recording head 
and easily cured by cleaning, or it could be due to misalign- 
ment of the recording head. This latter problem is «iomc- 
limes spoiled when a friend tries to read one of your tapes. 
Your tape, though il works well for you, gives him 10 
Errors, and when heard on a good audio syxtem has a 
mushy* wavering quality. Vou won't notice it because the 
error is present in both your recording and playback and 
ihi\ \ icthK lo cancel out However, this makes it difficult to 
share programs with friends, tl you're technically inclined, 
you can readjust the alignment, otherwise gel help (and skip 
the next paragraph) 

The cassette head assembly generally has an azimuth 



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adjusting screw ai one end. while the uihcr end acts prima- 
rily as a pivot. The screw is uiuallv accessible from ihe 
qui side of ihc case, m.> y >u don't Ilhc to di'iruruk lJic nnii 
There 1* an access hole located between the opera ting keys 
and 1 he cassette *pacc, am he left side of I he head mecha- 
nism tl is often covered by a plastic plog or label of Mime 
sort The adjust men t is made with the cassette unit playing a 
I ape ot known good quality r such a*, a selection recorded ■ r, 
a gnnd tape deck known 10 he in alignment Using a small 
Phillips screwdriver inserted through the access hole, adjust 
to get the cleanest. Eeast distorted f ound, When you chink 
youVc got it, make a recording and rccheck it on the stereo 
tape deck for final vcrifkauon. 

Some cassette recorders have lone control. If youri has 
one t set it to the highest (brightest) position w hen used with 
the computer 

Although your own preferences should guide you. 1 find it 
best to leave a tape gap of four to five seconds between 
piograms Won Lhiv length gap* you can usually rerccord a 
program in the vame location after correcting the inevitable 
bugs. I E the blank region is too short, ii makes it difficult to 
locale the gup when searching through the tape On the 
other hand, too long a gap makes it hard to tell w hether ii + s 
really a gap or the end of the recorded area on your tape. 
This can lead to recording over, and thus destroying, one or 
more of your programs To further safeguard your val ua hit 
programs, always punch out and remove t he cms urcpreven* 
turn Lug on 1 he lop left edfje of the cassette after you've 
finished recording a side, You can always rerccord, if neces- 
sary, bv putting tape over (he opening. 

I hough not as miica! ^ [lit- iL-furdmg level, the playback 
volume feetfSD| can also be optimised for more reliable load- 



ing. Generally, there is a range over which you can get sal- 
isfaclory results Below this range, programs won't read in. 
while above, the computer will trip on noise and you muy 
even hear sound breaking through the TV without A Ut>fOO\' 
To define the range and then locale the besl operating point, 
start at a tow volume setting and try to read in a program. If 
I his is too low. the steady S" at the top of the screen won't 
change. Raise the volume until you see the blinking 'P when 
loading This point, which you should lempnrarily mark 
with a spot of tape, is the minimum playback level, Now 
keep raising the \oltini L - until tin- L-nnipiuei respond * <n 
noise, cither in the gap between programs or una blank tape, 
At this level, the screen shows a reversed "S * Temporarily 
mark this maximum position, While the best place to oper- 
ate within the range is the centtr T it's very convenient to use 
the recording setting if it's not too far off Just leave the 
control at that point foi both recording and playback. If 
you're not thai lucky, paint another mark for the playback 
point and readjust between playback and recording whvn 
necessary. 

Finally, a few hint* on handling and storing tape are m 
order Always avoid: touching the tape With your fingers, 
since doing so might cause dropouts which can gene rale 1 ; D 
Errors. When not in u*c T keep the cassette in us plastic etisr 
la proieci it from Just and damage. Avoid prolonged expo- 
sure to temperatures above I It) degrees J- ah rim he it, direct 
>unlighl. high humidity and strong magnetic fields. Don't 
store them near heating appliances, TV sets or similar 
equipment. 

Armed, as 1 hope you now are, go forth into the world of 
perfect recording 



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84 THE RAlWBO* n»S 



TAKING BASK TRAINING 



An Open-Ended 
Exploration 



By Joseph Kolur 
Rainbow (^Hitributing Editor 



The mure you leuru, the mure yon 
realize how liule you know. Thai 
is true as fai as the CoCo is 
concerned, and that is why every session 
at the keyboard is tin adventure in 
learning. 

i~he new CoCo owner bought his 
versatile machine for its graphics 
cnpahilihcs. among other things. We 
will explore the POKE and PF.Ek 
BASIC Statements us i hey apply to ihc 
text screen page, 

I cani he sure what well do. but lire 
up CoCo and let us proceed line by Line 
and investigate whatever comes to 
mind. It is a good, open-end way to 
learn and si ill have fun 

The text screen is what you see when 
yuu turn on the CoCo. It is your 
working area, PRIN location* 0 to 
51) cover all 512 locutions on ihc lest 
screen. Key in: 

IMS 

10 PR I NT fo> 10, CHRS[12K> 
100 GOTO IEKJ 



{Joseph Kolar is a free-tome writer and 
pntxrammet dedicated to prmeh tizmy: 
fur computers m general, and the C o<\> 
spettjuuily,) 



Line 10 tells CoCo to print at the 
eleventh apace of ihc lop row, a black 
itpiurt; Un> I- dm- in \ \w \ r-: uppei 
left-hand location being designated as 
0. To verify that this is so, add and 
RUN 

II FRIM &lO.-I^SftTHQO^ 

Donl forget to add the %c mien Ion. 
Now. delete the se mien ion and see what 
happens To help yourself learn, say To 
yourself, "Having deleted or omitted 
the semicolon, the black block, 
CHRU128L vanished When the semi- 
colon was restored, the black box was 
visible, So. whui have I discovered?" 

Insert an apostrophe or REM marker 
in front of 'P' in Line 1 1 and insert Line 
% copying the in I or ran lion in Line 1 1 
ending with a semicolon. RUN and 
observe. Press HRFaK, then delete the 
semicolon in Line 9 and Ri ; \' 

littt-AK places ihc apostrophe O 
marker in front of *P* in Line 9. Delete 
the apostrophe in Line 1 1 and reeheck 
both with and without the apostrophe 

Vou should have noticed that when 
Line 9 precede* Line 10, ii is noi 
oecess;ir\ hi add ihc smniLolon How- 
ever, if vim pi need the irilormution in 
Line 0 following Line HI. it ls a dilfereni 



moryf It is left to you to mull it over 
in your mind and figure out why this 
is so. There is no better way for a 
beginner to learn something than to 
work it out for himself. 

When you are finished, yon may 
DEL9. or if you prefer, keep it as a 
REM line in your program, ft is 
harmless 

Please nole ihat using PRINT® 
allows you to print a string of characters, 
such as 'RAINBOW' when enclosed in 
quote marks and separated from ihe 
location value by a comma. You can 
print the ASCII character codes using 
CNRSfx), The characters from 128 
through 255 will create block graphic*. 

If you are unfamiliar with these 
graphics blocks, key in the following 
routine; 

5 GOTO 2(10 



This Line gels us around our routine, 
which we will refer to later. 

200 FOR XM2ST0 255 
210 PR! NTl»24(r. CHRSfX) 
2211 H Jk 2 - 1 TO 200: NEXT 
250 NEXT X 
Hja m tin 299 



^tniMry iBfe THE RAINBOW R& 



Each CHRS character from 128 
through 255 will he printed, in rotalion, 
in the middle of the displny screen, Add; 

21 f PRINTS 270.X 

This will give I he numerical value of 
each shape displayed, ti will akn help 
you visualise each ifoupe winch will be 
directly above ihe second digit. 

[fyuu want to see the other charades, 
change Line 200: 

200 FOR X03 to 127 

CHR102) is a blank space, creating 
a space just as the space bar does. The 
low number* are control codes and do 
not generate a visible display 

To keep this routine for later refer- 
ence, put an apostrophe marker in Line 
5. You will hold the routine harmless, 
but available. 

Get in the habit of using the REM 
marker to hide or uncover program 
lines and routines. You will gel lots of 
mileage out of this handy tool when 
you are experimenting or creating your 
own original work. 

This PRINT® Test Screen can be 
accessed using POA'Zj, The memory 
location* of the Text graphic* page 
begin at 1024. This memory location 
ii equivalent to PRJNTGa* 0. The 
memory locations continue just as the 
PRiNTQh location and ends as memory 
location 1535. which is in the lower 
right-hand comer. It can ahci be culled 
with PRfNT@> SN. 

Note that PRINTX?" Sll-V and mem- 
ory location 1SJ5-IQ24 both equal 5 I J. 
Allow ] for (he location you arc 
subtracting and you get 5 1 2. the total 
number of all possible locations 

Each one of these text screen locations 
may he acceded by means oi f'Oh I \ .y . 
where V is a specific locution from 1024 
to 1535 and V is a value from 0 to 
255. 

So, what is POKE anyway? It is a 
st ale men l that allows CoCo to place 
into a designated location whatever text 
screen character you desire. It has other 
uses not within the scope of this article. 
Press BREAK and add: 

20 POKE UK*. 255 RUN. 

This placed an orange block directly 
underneath the PRINTS to. black 
block 

PEEK allows you to look ai a 
specified memory locution to sec what 
information, if any, resides there. 



Press Eiki AK. PRINT PEEK{l29h 
and i vrfcg. This memory local ion is 
checked on I/O Error message when 
CI. OA Ping a program from cassette. 
A zero means that memory is no good 
and if a one is returned, it signifies that 
(he I ape is no good. Try this-: 

PRINT PEEK( 1066} ENTEU. 

The value nl % is returned. This % 
represeni . h artfi ' (cmpt} I I U>: reason 
for this is that we are not in the 
program, having broken out and 
location 1066 reverts to its original 
Male, 'blank' 

The observant newcomer will notice 
i ha I CHRSm) is a reversed Verify 
this by unmasking Line 5. | Remove the 
apostrophe.) Musk Line 200 with 1 
1 hen add: 

201 FOR X =96 TO % RUN. 

Thin is a lazy person's way to 
xubfitftUle a single value in a FOR TO 
statement If you used 201 X=96 you 
would still gel the correct answer, but 
you'd also get an NF Error in 250 If 
[hfs was an integral pari of a real 
program, it would bomb out unless Line 
m wasdeleied. 

This *one value' hint is valuable when 
you may be expen men ling with different 
valuer QK! Prens &REAJC, maj»k lines 
5 atid 201 and uitmo.iV Line 200. 

A disturbing I ad remains. CHRS(Q6) 
L snd the °6 that was revealed by 
PEE king al memory local ion 1066 are 
different. There arc some differences 
between the ASCII characters using 
CHRS and i he characters that CoCo 
recognises from 0 to 255 

To compart i he POKFJ characters 
v,ilh the i t/Ri diaraLiets. Lthanjie Line 
200 and add J inc 21 1: 

200 FOR X=0 TO 127 
III POKEI2M.X RUN 

I etV make it neater. Press an [ an and 
change lines 2U) and 21 1 : 

210 PRINT@2KCHRS<X> 

211 PRINT@238,X 

f he yraprucs blocks from I2R in 255 
arc the same. If you want to chock rhis 
o at change Line 200 to include whatever 
values you cafe to compare* 

Remember, the character displayed 
at the left, if any, is the ASCII code, 
and the character on ihe righi is what 
< oCn will read for the same value when 



it is I'OkErf into a memory location. 

Vou are urged to make a reference 
tublc of the two sets of characters, side 
by side, insofar as they differ. 

Now press IJREAX* and mask Line 5 
ae.ain. 

To demonstrate that one set can be 
substituted over the other. Line 23 will 
POKE ail orange box over ihe black 
box at PRINTS 10 and Line 24 will 
superimpose a black box over the 
POKEd orange box. using PRINTS. 
Add and RUN. 

23 POKE 1034, 255 
24PRlNT<a42,CHRJ(!28> 

PQKEirtfi graphics characters is one 
quick way lu cover large areas. Press 
BREAK arid add: 

o GOTO 300 

300 FOR L- 1024 TO 1055 
310 POKE 1,255 
120 NEXT I 
500 GOTO 500 

This creates an orange line that 
covers all the text screen locations on 
the top row. Add; 

m FOR M-32 to 63 
340PRINTM, CHRSf 175) 
350 NEXT M 

Using blue. CHRSU7J). we can use 
PRINTS all locations In the second 
row to fill them in. RVN BREAK and 
to make a lell border add: 

3ofl FOR L=1024 to 1504 STEP 32 
m POKEL.255 
580 NI X I I 

Since we want only one vert icy] 
column, in Line 350, we start at 1024 
and skip II columns to put a dab of 
Color in each 32nd, or left-hand, row. 
Purists will uok- I hat we should begin 
with local ion 105 b, hul it is easier to 
go over the corner block in the (op row. 

Using PRINT®, we will create an 
a rang t border on the right-hand side. 
Press hrf Ak and add: 

585 FOR TO 31 STEP-32 

m PRtNT@M , CHRH255K 
395 NEXT M 

We went from bottom to lop lor ;i 
change of pact Note I Nat we were 
unable tu UfC FOR eic. because 

fWlmg m this corner box would cause 
i hp screen in scroll up one row. Omit 



86 THE RAINBOW January i«8» 



the semicolon at the end erf Line 390 
and winch a disaster area. We could 
fill that corner location safely with a 
POKE to avoid that pesky scroll, Wc 
do so when wc create the bottom 
border. Press BREAK, add and RUN: 

400 FOR L=I505 TO J 535 
4I0POKEL. 255 
420 NEXT L 

We can PEEK(x) a value while wc 
arc in the program. Wc will ask CoCo 
to cheek if memory location 1503 is 
orange, (215); PRINT® 237, 
'"ORANGE" and go ahead and create 
the bounm border. If 150^ is not 
li range, forget afrutil the hoi Lorn border 
and skip to ihe end of the program. 
Press BR F Alt, add and RUN: 

m IF KKF Kfl 5031=255 TH FN 
PRINraVORANCiK"; EI.SF 500, 

To verify that llus wurks, suhsriiuu- 
255 in Line 399 with another value and 
try it. As an alternate, pick an arbitrary 
POKE localmn, from 1024 to 1535 lo 
sec if it is orange. 

You can POKE characters, other 
Hi. in Uk- jiraphics ^jIucs but, except lor 
an asterisk or plus sign, which create 



ncal borders or accents, it is silly tn 
create a border of reversed (p. I Ifting 
I will ^tiuw an temple ol POKEing 
alphabetic characters. 

At this time your mind is racing 
ahead wiih projects io try out. Before 
you do, put in the three missing blue 
sides of the inner border.. 

And, let's have some fun? Create a 
half-screen full of reversed (S>. Adjust 
[he PQKErf locations so the display is 
centered horizontally on the screen with 
a green hand on the lop and bottom. 
Open a partial row in the middle of 
the screen, leaving one blank space at 
each end and POKE your first name 
inio the cleared space Create a pause 
bo your name may be read and then 
blank out ihe name sloe with some 
graphics block 

Doing ilm exercise wit I five von ideas 
to cilher modify and improve whai yau 
have created, or go off into a frenzy 
of creativity in onoiher direction. 

Listing I is an example of using ail 
POKE* to create a demonstration 
program which is somewhat similar to 
the exercise above. 

tltic advantage of using the graphics 
characters. 128-255. is that you get to 



use all the colors available on your 
nalcite. You need not be an artist to 
have fun creating whatever your mind's 
eye conceive*. You may wind up with 
some p ret ly impressive concoct inns. 

Some notes on Listing I Line 140 
puis the top tow uf graphics characters 
on the screen ihe hard way — one W 
a time with an appropriate pause. 
Compare Line 140 with lines 180-210. 
which create ihe hoitom segment. 

There is no RETURN after Line 3 10, 
a GOSUB routine. This was a booboo. 
Sinec a s-imilnr rnutinc follows, this 
effectively makes the pause 230 instead 
of 200. Can you see why^ No harm was 
done and I failed to notice it. 

Line IdO has no GOSUB pause 
between the I wo POKEs because they 
go onto the display as one unit- Line 
230. the left border has a small pause 
between unils so it hlends nicely wilh 
lines 250-2811 r which override the text. 
Line 100 does not have the 'short* pause. 
It seemed lo look better to have Of come 
on a> ,i single unit The k lon^' pause 
is used only before and after HELLO! 

Read the lisiing and figure out what 
each program line does. Except for the 
two pause routines at the end, it is a 



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615-459-2636 (TENNESSEE) 
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Wrile for our FREE Newsletter! 



JtnuAiv THE R4IMHOW S7 



line*/ program and each routine foliuws Note Listing 2 should not he keyed TURN was added lo Line 310 and in 

cxacth as it appears on the screen. in. Just compare if with Lulling I. h Line 10. 20 was changed to 10 due tu 

HonefuHy, you wiN have wine ]dca* is ihv saint as I rsiin^ l except 11 i* d del ion oi Line Jfl from Listing I imti 

to modify, expand or enhance this tightened up using multiple program subsequent UL Error message. Which 

I "sling, so what are you waiting for? Nnrs. Two trhnnges, the missing RE listing would you rather key in? 



J Mimj I: 

0 *<LlSTIN6i> 
10 CLS 

20 ORND<253> 

30 IF C<144 THEN 20 

40 GOSUB310 

50 POKE 1260,96 

60 POKE 1261,?2:GOSUB320 

70 POKE l262 t 69;GOSUB320 

B0 POKE 1263*76:BO5UB320 

90 POKE 1264, 76:eO3UB320 

100 POKE 1265,79 

110 POKE 1266, 97 

120 POKE 1267, 96 

130 BOSUB310 

1 4 0 POKE 1 226 , C : BDSUB320 ; POKE 1 227 
( C: GOSUB3 20: POKE 1228, C: GQSUB320; 
POKE 1 227 , C : GOSUB320: POKE 1230, C : B 
OSUB320 : POKE 1 23 1 * C: GOSUB320 : POKE 
1 232, C: GOSUB320: POKE 1233, C; BOSUB 



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Wd»» «*MMt bant «nf AP« flAgm jo^ack Opw»Vy *«h 

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320 ! POKE 1234, C: GOSUB320 : POKE I 235 
, C : BQBUB320 : POKE 1 236 , C : BOSUB320 : 
P0KE1237»C 
t50 GOSUB320 

160 POKE 1 268. C: POKE 1269, C 
170 BO5US320 

180 FOR X»1301 TO 1290 STEP-1 
190 POKEXjC 
200 GOS1JB320 
210 NEXT I 
220 GOSUB320 

230 POKE 1 258 , C : GOSUB320: POKE 1 25 
* f C 

240 <3QSUr3320 

250 FOR X«1260 TO 1267 

260 POKEX.C 

270 QOSUB320 

260 NEXT* 

290 QOSUB320 

300 GOTO 10 

310 FOR Z=l TO 200: NEXT 
320 FOR Z=1T0 30: NEXT 
330 RETURN 
Listing 2: 

0 ' <LISTIN02> 

10 CLS : C«RND < 255 ) : 1 FC< 1 44 THEN 1 
0:GOSUB310 

50 POKE 1 260 , 96 : POKE 1 26 1 , 7 2 : GOSU 
B320 : POKE 1 262 , 69: GDSU&320 : POKE 1 2 
63,76: GOSUB320 ; POKE 1264, 76: GOSUB 
320 ; POKE 1 265, 79: POKE 1 266 , 97 : POKE 
1267,96: GOSUB310 

1 40 POKE 1226, C: GO SUB 3 20 : POKE 1 227 
, C : OO9U0320: POKE 1 228 , C : GOSUB320: 
POKE 1 229 , C : GOBUB320: POKE 1 230 , C : G 
OSUB320: POKE 1231 , C : GOSUB320 l POKE 
1 232, C ; GOSUB320: POKE 1 233 , C : GOSUB 
320: POKE 1 234 , C:GOSUB320: POKE i 235 
, C: GOSUB3 20 : POKE 1 236 > C : GOSUB320 : 
POK E 1 23 7 , C : & D SU B3 20 
160 POKE 1268, C: POKE 1269,0: GOSU 
B320 

1B0 FOR K=130i TO 1290 STEP-1 : PO 
KEX , C : GOSUB320 : NEXT : GOSUB320 
230 POKE 1 25B , C : GOSUB320: POKE 1 25 
9, C: GOSUB 320 

250 FOR X=1260 TO 1 267: POKEX , C: G 
OSUB3 20 ; NE X T ; GOSO8320 : GOTO 1 0 
310 FOR Z=i TO 200: NEXT: RETURN 
320 FDR Z=lTO 30: NEXT: RETURN 



88 f HE RAINBOW J anbury l^flv 



DISK UTILITY 



Block Out Those 
Troublesome Granules 
With DISKTEST.UTL 

By Oniric* (1, /inim< r 



Did you ever pay the price df a 
good game program to buy a 
box of diskettes and carefully 
ration them out, only to find si* months 
later one has a bad spot on il? You 
know if you lake it back after six 



(Chuck ZimmeF fa employed bv Hvney- 
*ett ttiformmitm Systrmx, Itic in 
Bitter iva. Far the pttxr /5 vearx 

he w orked in enttineerinft, pro* tsre- 
tmw ittut {ittwntffz <>t ait t ypes of disk 
swragc products.) 



months you arc going to get some raised 
eyebrows for claiming it had a bad spot 
on it when U was new. Or do you hive 
some thai have been used a lot on 
certain Hies to the point of producing 
errors, but the rest of the disk is 
p radically new? You don't want to 
throw it away, but there's not a positive 
way to be sure you can avoid those bad 
spots, 

DISKTEST.UTL can help you over* 
come these problems and feel better 
about those good disks you have. The 



iMiMJIilNI L!!\L-'- Vi -'J I JkU .1 r hoi(v.|.llh 

test by writing and reading all track* 
with a variety uf data patterns to check 
for errors, The test is contrived to 
produce the worst -case si mat ions for 
data patterns and head posihoning 
sequences to that it is not only a lest 
of the diskette media, but is also a good 
test of the positioning accuracy of the 
drive. 

If bad granules are found, the 
[ungram writes n WW cm the disk called 
-DEFLOGJMwr imtt i* the diskette 




Jinuify 1965 THE RAINBOW 69 



n umber) and all of the granule* that 
contained an error ore aligned to this 
file. This way i hey cannot be assigned 
10 any of vour files and (here fore, arc 
out of your way. 

If you havcf a primer you are also 
given a one-line report of the test 
results. Your printout sheet can he 
reinserted in your printer so you can 
maintain .1 continuous diary of the lest 
history of your disk library. This can 
help you in the future if ii is necessary 
to reinitialize a disk. If you do not have 
a printer, you are given the chance to 
write down the list of bad granules for 
future use. 

Some Noies Of Caulinn 

M I he program does a complete 
overwrite of the disk, including ihe 
directory track, so he sure you no longer 



need or have otherwise backed up aU 
the files 011 the disk. 

2) If you elect to use disks with errors 
Hagged-out" (meaning bad spots have 
been "marked " and made unavailable J. 
please remember that the Radio Shack 
Disk Operating System command 
BA CKUPw'iW be aborted if a read error 
is encountered. Hits means you will 
need to back up individual files by 
loading them into the computer and 
saving them to another disk. You 
cannot count on being able to back up 
the entire disk at once with the BA CK 
VP command. <Scc "Compatibility 
Note" for a way to overcome this 
limitation.) 

Ho* You Use Disketle* 

Each individual needs to make his 



Figure 1-a 



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90 



own decision about using drsks with 
errors; this can be influenced by your 
overall procedure* for handling Hies. In 
my case, I have a printer which produces 
the ultimate backup, but I aku use 
cassettes for important Hies and do 
double program saves on my disks, plus 
periodical t ran ster ring oi files to other 
disks, 

t use flagged disks for program 
development where there is a lot of 
traffic, which tends to wear out the 
remaining good places When a program 
tf finished and put in service, it is 
transferred to a good working disk for 
regular use, If you have other utilities 
1 [k'L-uvcmtg (torn dL*k cra.shcv iliis 
can make you even more comfortable 
about using flagged disks. 

The balance of this article is written 
assuming you plan to save and use 
flagged disks so all of the procedures 
are discussed. Jf you choose to discard 
disks with errors, ihe program is 
somewhat simpler to run and you will 
be notified of ah you need to know. 

How The Program Run» 

The program is self-prompting, and 
as it runs a series of messages will 
appear on Vine 15, with prompts on 
Line 16 for the required responses. 
These appear whenever the program 
stops to Accept am input from you. 

<\n operating flow chart is shown in 
figures I -a and l b, On the left are the 
messages and prompts which appear 
during the program. The information 
on the righi side of the figures provides 
more explanation, and shows the 
program flow from slop to stop. The 
hi I lo legend beside the screen informa- 
tion tells which audio signal is given 
a 1 the various stops, A high signal is 
to notify you that 11 normal stop has 
been reached. The low signal indicates 
an error condition. The program 
contains checks on inputs, so oui-nf- 
range inputs will not interrupt the 
program at critical places. Please note 
the disks mu<a have been previously 
initialized with a DSKI Nfca mmand , 

The program begins by asking you 
to adjust ihe volume on the TV. Then 
you arc asked to cnicr the drive number 
lor I tie test, urul [iwlwl hi i ween :i short 
and a full test. If you warn a printout 
of the results, you are nest given the 
chance to input the day's date (six digit 
string). Printout or none, you then 
reach the main starting and stopping 
point called the DISK CHANOfc point 
in Figure I -a. Here, you insert the disk 
to be tested and when the test is 
completed, you will relurn to this point. 
You may then remove the disk and 



THERAIN8QW JAnillty iBflfi 



inwrrt ihe next lor another lest ( repeating 
ihe test sequence) or quit, in which case 
ihe program ends in an orderly manner. 
When you continue from this point, the 
program makes a stop for you to enter 
number pi ihe iIisUkc ntp u> W\ 

After this, the program cheefcs to see 
if files exist on the disk and also if there 
is a defect log file from a previous test. 
You are to Id or these findings at a slop 
called the FILE CHECK POINT. If 
you hud previously tested the disk and 
it had defective granules, ihe program 
recovers this information by reading the 
old log and saving the numbers of the 
bad granules previously found. During 
the lesl sequence, the program will not 
take the time to rctcst the old bod 
granule;! because we want to be con- 
servative and not think something thai 
was once bad has become good again, 

Perhaps the most important feature 
■M ihe KM f CHFCK POINT a when 
the program stops. Trie upper half of 
the screen is showing you the first sector 
of the directory en tries (Sector 3 on 
track 17)! and you will sec your 
filenames to help you recognize that you 
have loaded a disk contain ing files; they 
will be complete)} i.*eiwntu f u il \<>u 
proceed with the test. M you made a 
in is lake, this is the lime to abort the 
test ft he prompt tells you bow) 

Jf everything is OK you press *C" lo 
continue. I h ive used V 1 where possible 
as the go-ahead response, f 'his makes 
il easier to work your way through ihe 
prompts. 

You then come to the HIRST DE- 
FECT ENTRY POINT shown at the 
top of Figure l-b. Here you aie shown 
a defective granule mop- Vou can 
manually enter defective granule 
numbers that you want to avoid and 
they will be incorporated in the defect 
log. Time will not be spent testing them. 
You will en let the granules from an old 
printout or manual log if the disk has 
been so totally crashed thai tbe old log 
can't be read, or if you have used a. 
bulk eraser on the disk. Upon continuing 
from this point ihe actual testing finally 
begins. 

During the lest sequence the upper 
half on the screen is ihe actual disk I 
O buffer, so you set the graphics 
representation of ihe patterns being 
written to and read from the disk. The 
lower half of the screen contains & table 
giving Ihe progress of the test, and the 
area of the disk being tcslcd at the 
moment. 

You should know two things about 
the test cycle. BrsL the program uses 
ihe Radio Shack VSKCOK ROM 
routine to actually perform the tesL 



This is a powerful routine which not 
only performs seeks and reads or writes, 
but also performs retries in the event 
of an error. Many times you can tell 
when a read error occurs because the 
drive "recalibrates" (positions lo track 
ti and then bock to the commanded 
track) tour times in an attempt to 
perform the operation successfully. Jf 
after four attempts it is unsuccessful, 
an error code is created indicating the 
granule is bad. "Transient" errors, 
where the operation is successfully 
performed within the tour tries, are not 
counted as "hard errors" and therefore 
are not logged . 

If you notice the granule number 
during transient errors, you may wish 
lo manually flag this granule bad at a 
later point in the program. 

The second thin e Lihoui the test cyule.'v 
is that watching the screen and Listening 
to the rhythmic operation of the drive 
can be hypnotic, so if you tall asleep 



p lease donl send me a bill for losi 
computer time. 

The testing takes from lour to 10 
minutes, depending upon an option 
discussed later. 

After the test is finished, you come 
to (he FINAL DEFECT ENTRY pout* 
and arc shown ihe defective granule 
map again (new bad granules are in 
reverse video). You may then manually 
flag additional granules as bod. This is 
another important step in the program 
for the following reason; if there is a 
bad spot on the surface of the disk , how 
do you know how big it is and how 
do you know that it lies only in the 
eenicr of ihe track where the error 
occurred? The answer is you don't know 
how big it is, nor do you know thai 
the edge of it doesn't extend a lilt tc over 
onto a neighboring track. The adjoining 
truck works at this time, but may cause 
an error lalec, 

To handle this little trauma and get 



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4l>#rTEJ* WECT5 



FIRST DEFECT Sffltt PQ1HT M-t-H*t*M-'.-f-t- • 
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. H en ED BREW -J-HH -l-l ->-!-/ 



I Wf> TDCONTPtf 



CWWT TESTED CUTE 1 

wi TaGjiT mut 1 1« 



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1-1 on HiH input -J-i-i-l-l-t-3-l-l-l** 

(-M-t- i- i- (- f-<-i- 1* I- t-t*t- l-t'l* f 
v .. 

> TF5T 5FJIENILE 

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I TEST CP, = - f J.MBL BtFiCI 1 1ST 

I «rY) TO «St*T PR BUtT 



l caitcTt rtlff - Printout Xfvrt Mir- Srp*f<t 



f FtJ. J # 



Jtnuflfy 1W$ THE ftAINflO* &t 



Mime sleep at night. I arbitrarily decide 
ihc i wo granules physically adjacent to 
the one having the error are also bad, 
and I manually flag them as such at 
this paint, The granules you will Hag 
arc numerically tu o granules above and 
below the bad one so that, for example* 
if granule 50 it bad you will enter 
J4HKRTI RN and J52RER RN when in the 
ENTRY LOOP of figure l~b li you 
are not having, a printout, this is the 
lime lo manually write down the 
defective granule numbers in a media 



log of «ome son. 

Upon continuing from the final 
defect entry point, you will see the file 
allocation table being created (il' there 
arc had granules). You will then see a 
directory entry created for the DE- 
FLOGJWT file: it will be "killed*" (first 
character set to zero) il there are no 
bad granule*. There will be a pause and 
pi in tout (if this is elected }. and Lhc 
program retu rns lo t he D1S K CHANGE 
POINT from where you end or begin 
another test. 



Inhiallraliun Notes 

Page 5B of the Radio Shack disk 
manual describes bytes 0-55 of the 
sector as "sys icm co a irols M in forrnu non. 
Technically, ibis is a "header" dcld 
which is whiten only when the disk i\ 
initialized, and it identifies the upcoming 
sector number to the controller The 
controller always reads ibis header 
before reading or updating the data 
field, In running DtSK JEST, L<TL you 
may detect errors not caused by dcfccis 
in the media* bul because a system glitch 



Hgure 2 

DEFECT LOB HHNTOUT SUMDUTiNEB (OKI WTO Bfi Codes? 

Hrm £E3 PRINT sobrciut i -*e re&ins hith a printing driver 



Bet computer baud to 24BO baud or for these rat mi 33« £W tfiflfl 
Set USB of baud rate in computer i c-QKE H9, > T ^ 

Set L5B Of baud rate rn computer fPOKE 150, J 202 180 a? 

I POKE 15S,8B for 80 col -only 
t Delete for 60 col -only 



POKE 149, tj 
POKE 150, 16: 

POKE 155, 96 1 Sets line width - S6 in CoCo 

PRINTt-2, CHW(2fl>; Set* printer for IS cpi 

OtR* (27 > (CHRf 14*> i Code to set draft print mg mode 



(Delete for single Hod* pr inters 



line 230 



— PRINT I DEfrT : F I C F- T : G>J ■ □ R*fl T '. CN 



PHINT#-2,US1N8'* *df« * 

' 



* *(RIOWTatU« l JJ 1 Dl | T* 1 D*Sf 
I" — Print space for legibility 
- -Print date (4 digits! 

-Print apace for legibility 
—Print So or Lg for test type 
-—-Print d followed by drive N 
Print diskette nuwb*r 



If 80 CCl-Only there wil 

Itj 



. . net be enough rooto on the 
; tems. Substitute PRfNTf-2,USIfe3 # * * * * 



line for ail of 
iflteHTS(LN« f Jt,!)! it 



Return from PRINT ID subroutine 



line 233 



FOR XHI TO &7 : 



— PRINT LOG SUBROUTINE - BEGINS BY 

PRINT IISiH ft CHRHflCTER INDICATING THE CONDI TJCIN.QF THb GRANULE 

Clear gran counter to lero 

5tart of loop to scan granule array 



If G(I>-IHBS THEN PRINTt-2 f 
ELSE IF Git)-IH99 THEN PRINTt-2, CHS (34 I i 
ELSE IF G(X>»*HE9 THEN PRIN7#-2, 
ELSE PRINTf-etUSlNfi't'i^ 

line -- — 



(-} for a Granule found tad in a previous test 
i "J for grans you declare bad in m this, test 
t* ) wher» an error occurred In this test 
(least sag. digit of gram a) for good granules 

PRINT MOST SISNlFICaNT DlGjT Qr SflPMjLE __l After each 10 granules 

Notei If 8a col-only there is not enough- room on the line for these extra 
tens digits. Delete til PHlNTs-2 «t*t event* this Line. 

X2«X2*1 [ IF 12* LO THEN X2=0: Increment gran counter. If 16 dor* reset the counter and 
print a superscripted, bold, double width "Tens" digit. 



PSjNTO— 2 

□Hfff (CHR*(741i 
tCHR«<3J>i 

DHR*<S7> :CHR* (041| 
PRINTt-2, USING'*';*/ JO; 
f s R !<&Tt - P 

CHRS(27J iCHR*<73)j 

CHftt(28> ; 

CHRS(27J :CHRS(75J ; : 
■OCT ELSE MET 



Set superscript printing 
Set double width print nod* 
Set emphasized FnoldP print 

Print the 'Term* digit for the nent ten granule numbers 

Start of control codes to restore normal printing 

Stop emphea i 1 ec$ pr i nt i ng 

Set 12 cpi pr;nting again 

Stop superscript p*-inc ind 

So to next granule in FOR loop 



line 245 :PHPL£T£ PHI^flNG DF DEFECT LOG 

PRINTe-B, "i RETURN 



Since all p**int eonuflands used 1 1 1 fcr no carriage return 4 
line feed you provide a CR/LF here, then end subroutine 

Sanpl* of log printout with 12 cpi matriK pr inter t 

l«ldOLg eJUt^ 0l£24S£?aSifcie:i-S6W&BtE3'*-3, J •"Z^H £3436789^01 2345*7 89^3 1 £ ^ 3fe 7fi^«I S3* 567 
Sample of log printout with li cpi 80 col-only printeri 

101 831124 81 23456 7B9i 1 2 3-56 73Sw 1 ^3"5, 7 M 30 i 2345* 7898 1 £34567890 1234567898 1234367 



#2 THE PWJNBOW Jtnuirr 



— Or ye*, operator error — causes 
header dic^ t«i he garbled I written 

over!. If yuu su&pcct ihi* may have 
happened, yog can re in i liable the disk 
{DS KIM) to rewrite these areas anew 
This is one ease where you may find 
thai disks once bad do become good 
again, Bulk erasing before DSKI/Vfwill 
really give a clean start. 

CnwipalibiMty Nole 

DISK TEST VTL is compatible with 
the Dhk Backup Utility by Roger 
Schragin the December 1983 rainbow. 
in thai his program will back up disks 
which have been tested with DISKTEST 
tJTL The good sectors in the granules 
(lagged by DISKTEST, UTl wilt be 
copied to the backup disk, and the 
sectors having errors will be bypassed 
by the backup program. After running 
the backup, you may want to KtLL the 
DEFLOCtffrtf file which was transferred 
to the backup disk and is irrclcvcm on 
the backup copy. As mentioned in the 
"Backup Utility" article, you can nut 
back up to a flawed disk, so you should 
utsc only disk* Found error- free b + v 
DISK TEST. UTL 

Program Preparation And Options 

There are a few things to go over 
before you begin typing En the program 
(Listing IK Some of the points are 
technical, relating to your system 
configuration, and some are "cosmetic** 
options allowing you to adapt the 
program to your preferences. 
First Lhe tuned canal subjects: 

Memory Requirements 

If you have a 32 K machine the 
complete program will fit easily, includ- 
ing comments so you can go on to the 
next point. If you have a lf>K machine 
all of the functional program will fit, 
hai it will be necessary to delete some 
non-essemial information. You should 
delete all lines beginning with ' starting 
at line 30, delete all but the program 
name in Line 10. and delete the PHftfT 
statement in Lmc &(\ There is a riot her 
opiicn for IbK users to gain additional 
memory, and that is tu insert a PC LEAR 
t statement ai the end of Line 15. This 
wiU free up an additional 460$ bytes 
(three graphics pages), which is more 
than adequate for the complete program, 
including comments, 

A PCLEA R t can make it necessary 
to cycle the power switch off and on 
in older machines in order to regain all 
lour graphic* pages for running your 
nexi program. Do not clear all graphic* 
pages because special machuic language 
rtui lines are stored in graphics Page I 



Swrm* Wtth No Printer 

it you wuh. you can niter all of the 
code, including the printer sections, in 
an l ici pat i on of the future addition of 
a printer. You can avoid unnecessary 
menu steps dealing with the non- 
existent printer by changing the end of 
Line 315 from , T , , GOSUB265:GO 
SUtV0Q:GOTO3S0 to the following; , 
. t . GOSUB265:P*0:GOTOi5G. Tech- 
nics My. all that is necessary is to delete 
the GQSUB200 since all It ASIC variables 
are initialized to zero at RUN, but this 
jusi seems a little more positive to me. 
If you do not wish in hot ha unb the 
printer code a; at!, it may be omitted 
as follows:: 

Om.i linns 195-205 

Omit lines 220-245 

Oinil the GOSUB 200 in Line 315 

Omit lhe IFP=|. , ,EL5E code in 

m 

Omit Line 620 

Adapting To Your Primer 

The program as listed contains 
printer driver codes and control se- 
onenv^ required by my printer, an 
Okidata Microti nc 92, and uses 1 2 cpi 
(9n column] printing To assist you in 
adapting to other primers. Figure 2 
gives a statement -by-statement descrip- 
tion of the defect log printout subrou- 
lirif f hii explains wh.u each %tcp doe> 
so ynu con follow the same logical 
sequence using control codes for your 
primer, and come up with the same 
results Special instructions are included 
to cover primers lhal are 8fJ-column 
only. A sample of the output is shown 
at lhe bottom of the figure. 

f re oi in g Your Own Report 

If you want to have an output that 
is less cryptic than my one-liner, you 
can write your own report subroutine 
tit rep luce lines 225-245 Subroutine 215 
i\ called at the end of the program in 
Line 620 and works with the following 
variables, 

ARRAY lit 69) in which the first ft« 
L:ii-!iieriis O f-."" contain one ol four ■•■ alaes 
representing the condition of the 
granules uf ihe disk: Hex FF(OK). Hex 
89 I bud from a previous msi). Hex 99 
{ tested OK but declared bad by you in 
this lest), sad He* F9 (had due to ;in 
error delected during this test). 

DN variable containing diskette 
number 

DS string variable containing the 
[JjjCl: 

HI contains the device number for 
[be test. 

1$ contain* the lest typc. M Sh"or "Lg M 
tor shnri or tnng lesl 




It I ■ 

Back copies of many 
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All back issues sel I for the 
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Charge for the first issue, 
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Issues July 1981 through 
June 1982 are available on 
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Ti JUNI M PRINTERS i? 9fi H 
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VOLUME J 

1 AUG S3 GAMES J,' !ft 

? St: PI ftl EDUCATION J? 95 D 

3 OCT 13 GRAPHICS 13 M □ 
* NOV B3 OATACOMM (1H □ 
5 DEC S3 HOllOAY 1396 □ 
ft JAN ft* B IE OWNERS (305 □ 
T FEB B* ADVENTURE 1396 □ 
ft MAR &* BUSINESS tXW □ 

4 APR M GAMING 1 3 OS □ 
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n JUNE 'ft* MUSIC Vr*j 

12 JULY ** ANNFVEflSAHV £1 05 in 



l AUG ft* GAMES J3 9f. P 

I sept 14 eoucat«)N fa as □ 

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Ltngih And Comprehensiveness 

The 0*4 7V4 statements in lines 460 
and 465 control the dntn patterns and 
the -.ULiucriLV in which the trucks ore 
tested, A longer its I gives mure con- 
fide nee in the result* than a short el-m, 
and the program provides you the 
option of makmg achoicc between lime 
and comprc hensivencss. Line 460 does 
a rotating, worst -case pattern lest 
(about six minutes), and Line 465 does 
a IM tot (ahoul four minutes), tuber 
alone is a complete test and both 
together are quite comprehensive. 
There is more information on these tests 
in the technical details section iur those 
so inclined, 11 you think 10 minutes pet 
diskette is a good investment* then both 
460 and 46S should be used. 

Drive Number 

This provides for entering the number 
of the drive to be used far the test. If 
you have a single-drive system and wish 
to avoid this unnecessary menu step, 
you can delete the (JO&UB 255 in Line 
315. You can also delete lines 250 and 
255 entirely, but this is not necessary. 

Now a couple of fun options: 
Background Color 

The screens arc formatted with 
information fields blocked out in green 
according to the way CoCo prints to 
the screen, You can change the sur- 
rounding background to any of the 
eight-plus black colors by substituting 
your color code in the Line 20 statement 
BO 3. For 1 black background color, 
we need to Tool Co Co and use a value 
for BC - F/ 16. Color code 3 fbiucl i* 
Mi tin: program because it produces a 
nice grayscale contrast on a black and 
while TV. Happy viewing. 

Audible Signals 

Two strings are played at appropriate 
times. US for error conditions and AS 
Tor attention points (usually stops}. 
These reside in Line 285 and sound like 
crickets. If you would prefer something 
different, please feel free to wax musical 
and redefine these strings to suit your 
tosies. Just keep in mind th at we 're close 
to the memory limit in I6K, and also 
thai a long string may make it necessary 
to adjust the amount of siring space 
CLEAFrd in 15 

Debug Aids 

Here are some suggestions io help 
you debug the program. 

Sent eh Disks 

The first and most Important thing 
to remember is thai after you have typed 



the program, save it to disk and then 
take the disk out and insert a scratch 
disk lo use for debug. l>o not make 
your test runs with the disk containing 
the program i" the drive because the 
execution of the program overwrites the 
disk! Another reason to use a scratch 
disk for debug is that the program 
contains machine language routines 
which are poked into memory. Errors 
in the ML code, or errors in the poking 
code, can cause CoCo to crash. The 
voice of experience speaks. 

Shortened Test 

The second lip is to shorten the test 
cycle so you can get all of the menu 
and program control code working 
without long waits for the test process. 
Listing I contains a "commented" Line 
475 which does a short read of tracks 
0-3, This is only for use during debug, 
but will not hurl anything it executed 
during actual running of the program, 
Line 490 causes the program to skip 
over the lest codes contained in Line 
460. so for debug, Line 490 can be 
changed to make it skip even more 
codes. For a short debug run remove 
the m Line 475, change the TO70 in 
Line 490 to JOiJO. and use the short 
tesi option. This should reduce the 'test 
cycle 1 * to less than 10 seconds. When 
finished debugging,, don 'I forget to re- 
comment Line 475 (insert * before 
DATA) t and change the Line 490 TO 
value back lo 70. 

forced Conditions 

There are a number of branches in 
the program that may never be used 
unless you encounter the right condi- 
tions. Many of these deal with error 
processing. You can force these branches 
by temporarily editing the program to 
insert the right conditions al the branch 
points, You should observe the rule to 
do only one at a time and be sure to 
delete the temporary code before going 
on lo the next branch. Here are ihc 
places to modify: 
Insert 

EO*1 1 idler GGSL'BSS in Line 
lit-. 1 1 JfiS 
EC= I , idler OOS U H35 io Line 
Insert 390 
EC- 1; after 

EC--1FSR2<X3>: in Line 
I r»f f i < i* 

E<>2; aher 

I C I 

fmen 535 

EC=f a J*er Nr XTX4: ,n Line 

Insert »0 

6C*l: after IS EXTX4: int..* 

Iri'.LTi Mtf 
Xl^tM alter 

G(X11=&HH* «s L«* 
430 



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Technical In formal ion 

I he infnrm.il ion ihat follow* i> 
provided for persons wanting 10 know 
more about the program and the testing 
of magnetic recording media, This 
information need not be read Ui enter 
nnd use the program, 

Recording Code* 

When the drive records data on the 
dusk, what ii does is magnetize ihe iron 
oxide material moving under the head 
in a direction along the track. As the 
stream of bits is fed lo ihe drive, the 
direction of the magnetization is 
^ witched hack and forth along the track 
according to an encoding algorithm. 
The effect is equivalent to producing 
a YLiKs oT ^inall magnets laid end 
to end along the track, cue pt (hey wary 
in length and each successive one is 
turned around ltd opposite magnctic 
polarity) with respect to its neighbors 

Later on. when reading the track, 
these small magnets are moved undci 
the head and each lime the j unci ion 
between two adjoining magnet!) passes 
ondcr the head the magnetic flu.\ 
through the head reverses, eau.sing a 
small voltage to be induced in the head. 
This signal is amplified and processed 
to become the data scat back lo the 
computer, Whal is important v, the li me 
sequence of these "flux reversals," 
because this is what deter mines if they 
arc translated into ones or zeros. 

The point of this discussion is il we 
wont to test the media, what we want 
tn do is find data patterns that let us 



put Hun reversals at all of the places 
they can be, and then read the disk to 
set it they are properly recorded. Some 
pal terns of flu* reversals are harder to 
recover than others, so our lest can 
include data that will produce these 
worn -case patterns as well. 

The main reason some patterns arc 
hard to recover is because if the magnets 
are not all the same length, the short 
ones, being crowded and under more 
pressure, tend to get longer making 
their long neighbors shorter and shifting 
the point at which the flu* reversal 
oLLurv fhis produces what is called 
"peak shift* in the read signal which 
causes timing and data errors. 

The standard data pattern used to 
create a worst-ease peak shift is a 
repetitive Hex DBh. Since ifni is a 12- 
hit value it is sent to the drive in a 3- 
bylc sequence. Dfl nD Bfr„ etc Figure 
5 shows five data patterns used in this 
ink the first of which is the DB6 
pattern. For each pattern there is a line 
os jsivMsks le present in a uhefu the flux 
reversals would occur along the truck 
when the pattern fs recorded. The 
symbols V and "V show the direction 
of peak shift due to the magnetic 
crowding described above 

If you look over the set of pattern*, 
you will see places where flux reversals 
can occur thai DBh docs not test. It 
is for this reason that multiple patterns 
arc used. Patterns 6DB and B6D 
together wiih l> HA produce what is 
known us a rotating worst -case pattern 
test, Vp herein all data I bits are subjected 
lo peak shift in boih directions. 



la contrast, the Radio Shack disk 
initialization routine writes a repetitive 
FF pattern which tests all data I bit 
positions in one pass, bul does not 
introduce peak shift. For a one-pass lest 
this is a good choice, bul more passes 
provide better comprehensiveness. 

The 00 pattern also has uniform 
spacing (no peak shift), bul you will 
notice that il is not in phase with the 
locations produced by an FF pattern. 
The 00 pattern essentially tests another 
whole set of flux reversal locations. 

By using all five patterns, DISKTEST 
VTL provides a quite comprehensive 
lest of the media. 



Other Cause uT (■ rrurs 

Data error problems can result imm 
things other than imperfect media* here 
arc a few other causes The first is 
"adjacent track interfere nee," meaning 
i hat the head is picking up some signal 
from the next track which is hinder 
its altempt to read the track it a i>n 
This can be caused by wear, friction 
Or looseness in the head positioning 
mechanism which prevents the head 
from stopping exactly in the center of 
the track. 

An inadequate overwrite capability 
can also be a problem When data i* 
written, the head actually records the 
new data onto the track by forceably 
remagneti/ing the oxide surface If ihe 
wrile current is not correct, the bead 
may not be strong enough to completely 
remagncii?c the track, meaning Mut 
remnants of the old data could be 



Figure J 



TEST PflTTERM COD IMG AND RECORDING 



Patten* IJ n i repetitive He- DB6 sent to dl*l< as a r-tpeMiftg 3 byte sequence = OB &D Bfc etc. 

»att#'-r, - * SOB M * * " i &D K Dfi etc. 

&»tt«r« £ " - ■■ • - - " H " ' = Bt DP 60 etc. 

t»«tterr» s - » jm^ ■» * ■ « « = act 00 etc. 

Pattern S * " * " FF * 9 * * « - " " " - FF PF FF etc. 





OBfe 


TO DISH 
Sequence 

Ft»Jt»-fiBV 


1 
t 


D 

1 

• t 


0 


I 

i * 


i 

■> 


1 

0 \ 
t» 


( 

1 1 
•} 


4 


6 

1 1 
C* •) 


9 


l 

<* 


1 

m 


D 


1 
<• 


*tc. 

1 

»> 


\%\ 


6DP &»Tf» 
Data Bit 
Reco^dae 


TO 015* 

Secuence 

Flu*-Rev 


0 


B 

1 


I 
» • 


0 


>• 


D 

i e 
*) 


1 

] 1 
(M 


L 

•> 


B 

« i 


1 

•) 


0 


i 


t 

• > 


9 


i 

t* 


t£l 


Ben datp 
D*t* Bit 


TC 015* 

Sequence 

Flu(f-W-v 


I 
-t 


g 

I 


1 

t* 


1 


0 


6 

i i 


- } 
0 


1 

>* 


D 

L 0 


1 

t* 


i i 
*) 


0 


& 

I 

(• 


I 

*> 


etc* 
» 




00 D&TP 
Uat< B$& 
Recorded 


TO DISH 
Sequence 


Q 




0 


9 


e 


id * 


0 


9 


i 

* e 


I 


1 


0 


0 

0 


0 


etc. 

iS 


<B) 


FF DPT« 
&at* Bit 
Recorded 


TO DISH 
Sequence 


1 


F 

J 


1 


i 




F 

1 1 


1 

X 4 


I 


1 I 


l 


| 

I 


X 


F 

1 


L 


etc. 

1 



The pattern nwiMr (■) »* the argujnefnt se»>t tc ttip 'Pagefill" 1 ML routine. 
• indicates flu-f reve^iat tj.Mr-ta *»nert? Cirectior* of magf.e'.i ;at lor. chances* 



interfering with Ihe new data when you 
lr> to read it. 

Believe it or not r you could have 
media which is "urn hot" [or sour drive. 
Your drive may be able 10 write these 
diskettes but not fully overwrite them. 

The purpose of I hi* discussion is to 
show that to test the media (and drive), 
you need to give it a sequence or writes, 
reads and seeks that will attempt to 
induce errors from the causes mentioned 
above; your actual operating modes will 
respect no orderly sequence of reads 
and writes. 

Test Sequence* 

Figure 4 shows the sequence of writes 
and reads used in D/SKTESZ U shows 
rhat each write is done in two passes, 
first by wrhing even tracks (or odd) 
while stepping in one direction and then 
by writing the odd (or even) tracks while 
stepping in the opposite direction. This 
is dour io induce problems that would 
result from positioning error*. Not only 
that, hut the pattern being written on 



alternate tracks is different to induce 
problems from adjacent track 
interference. 

Reads are atso done in two passes 
f o I lo wi ng t he odd , even scenario .except 
we always approach a track when 
reading from the opposite direction that 
we approached it when it whs written. 
If this isnt fiendish enough, the rotating 
worst-case pa I tern test overwrites each 
track three limes, each time with & 
different pattern and with the head 
app touching the track from the opposite 
direction than on the prior write. 

If your drive and diskette media 
passes this teal (and i hank fully most 
do), then you have a high confidence 
that both arc OK. If you run into 
problems which are widespread {occur- 
ring jL many places ots [ he disk}, [hirn 
it is more than likely that something 
is wrong with your drive or you have 
the wrong type of media lor your drive. 
Media errors are random and generally 
not widespread* 

Needless to say, the sources for errors 



mentioned above arc beyond the abiUiy 
of most of us to fix, so a visit lo your 
local repair center is called for if you 
cannot isolate the problem to the media. 

Programming Techniques 

Three machine language subroutines 
are used in the program lo perform 
function!! which were significant bottle- 
necks when implemented En BASIC. 
They arc embedded in the BASIC 
program (lines 290, 295 and 3<X» in Hcs 
program strings { PS J. These contain the 
literal object code the assembler 
produced. 

The string is defined and then a start 
address (XI) is sent to a subroutine 
(1901 which pokes the string into 
memory The same string name is 
reused on subsequent loads because i his 
is done only once, and there is no reason 
to have a lot of string space tied up 
forever with these routines At the end 
of the loads the program string is 
shortened by defining it to be of no 
length P*T Please check and recheck 
the entry of these strings. 

The first routine (Line 290) is loo 
short to Hsl, ii is simply JSR [SC00O] 
(Call DSKCQN). followed by RT5 
The second, PagefVI is described in 
Listing 2 and is in program Line 295. 
It put* the write patterns in the disk 
I/O buffer. The third is Granwsi 
(Listing 3], which does an opera lion on 
till nine sectors of a granule and is in 
Line 300. These subroutines bring the 
run time down from over SO minutes 
io a more reasonable level. 
Editor » Note; At the fast minute, we 
disc overed that the Pagefill and Grunt est 
source tode listings were inadvertently 
left out. They wilt appear in next 
month's ftAWBOW. They do not affect 
running the main program. 

If you decide lo study the program 
flow, here are a few tips. The array 
G(69) that stores the granule quality 
indicators does not always correlate 
with addressable logical granule-, f- 
docs at the beginning, hut before the 
lest sequence the array is opened up 
in the middle to provide space fur two 
pseuso-granules thai the directory irack 
occupies. At this point the array is 
considered lo represent physical gran- 
ules. Later, I he array is closed up again 
(eliminating the directory granules), so 
the first fig clcmcn is again correlate with 
the logical granule* of the disk. 

OfSKTEST.trrL is offered for ihe 
personal use of readers of rainbow 
Magazine. I hope ihe program is useful 
and enhances your enjoyment of your 
CoCo system. 



m V m 4 READ. WflTE * POSITIONING SEQUENCES 

PATTERN A SEEK DIRECTION 
CVCLE» OPERATION EV£N TRACKS ODD TRACKS 

INTERLEAVES ROTATING WORST -CASE PATTERN TEST 

1 (•) WRITE DS6 IN 

WRITE 6DB OUT 

fleatj trac;* 0 oril yj tc- set up for r*m*t 
READ IN 
READ OUT 



£ f*) WRITE BSD IN 

WRITE BOB OUT 

READ IN 
READ OUT 



3 WRITE B&D IN 

WRITE DBS OUT 

Read track 8 only; to Mt up for next 
READ IN 
READ OUT 

INTERLEAVED TEST 

4 (U WRITE FF IN 

WRITE m OUT 

Read track ® only; to set up for newt 
READ IN 
READ OUT 

5 <£?) WRITE FF IN 

WRITE 00 OUT 
READ IN 
READ OUT 

C (31 WRITE Directory track only, FF 
la housekeeping cleanup pass) 

Patter DBC, £DB, 8£D, FF i 90 are described 
in Figure 2. 

(#3 are cycle numbers shown in trie short test, 

steps <*> are not done in the short test. 



98 THE 




The tilling; 



10 'DISKTEST.UTL 1. t (C) 1983 BV 
CHARLES C. ZIMWER 101 AUSTIN RD 

SUDBURY, J1A 01776 
15 CLEAR90 
20 BC«3:CLSBC 
25 GOSUB 180: GOTO 280 

30 ' i /a sub — 1 * 

35 PQKEPP,D1 :F5KEPP+l f Dl:FOKEPP+ 
2, T 1 : POKEPP+-3* S 1 : PDKEPP+4 f 4 : POKE 
PP+S r 0: X»USR0C0> :EC=PEEKIPP+6KR 
ETURN 

+0 "gran to disp sub — 

45 tFX>33THENG*X+2ELSEG-X 

30 IFG<X)*S<HFF TH£NM*«" " ELSEM4 

=RIBHT«<STR«<X> f 2) 

53 PL -69+32* INT < <G-24#INT <G/24> > 
/2>+10*INT(G/24) + (S-2#lNTlG/2> ># 

3 

60 IFG<XX>8rHE9 THENPRINTfcPL.USl 
NG " 5 M* 5 : RE T URNE L SE F DR X 2"0TO 1 : 
POKE &H0400+PL + X2 , ASC (MID* (H* ( X2+ 
1, i) ) :NEXTX2: RETURN 

65 p inkey sub — - — 

70 K»=JNfcEY«: IFK*-" "THEN70ELSERE 
TURN 

75 'pause sub * — 

80 PRINTei 1 ,M1»; :GOSUB70:GOSUB17 
0: RETURN 

85 1 defect list form sub 



90 CL38C:PRINT33, "MAP OF DEFECT I 
VE GRANULES: " 1 : X3^0: FORX 1 =34T054 
STEP 10: PRINT&X I , "TK/GR: BR" i : FORX 
2= 1 TO 1 2 - PR I NT@X 1 +32*X 2, USING 11 WW " 
; X3; : PRINT"/ : "j : X3-X3+1 :N£XT 
X2 f Xl:PR!NTl*43B,STRiNG*(8,F*> ; :P 
RINT«239 t " *DIR) " | : RETURN 

93 'list defects sub 

100 GOSUB90;FaRX=0TO67: 1 F{3 { X ) 
B9 0RG<X)=.VH99 ORG ( X > =*I*HE9 THENG 
0SUB45; NEXT: RE T URNEL SE ME X T : RE TUft 
N 

105 'declare defects sub — — ~ 

110 PRINT(*I3, h3S! " DEFECT ENTRY P 
OINT " S I PRINT® II, "<C: ONTINU 

E <E>NTER DEFECTS **| :PLAYA» 
115 GOSUB70: E FK*~ " C " THENRE TURNEL 
BEI FK*= "E "T HENGOSUB 1 70 : GOTO 1 20EL 
S£PLAYE*:GOTD113 

120 PR I NT« 1 3, STR 1 NG* < 30 > 32 > i :PRI 
NTdl 1, "<l**>rNSERT <Dfl > DELETE <C> 
DNT IN" i :PLAYA»: PR I NTH 13* ** I \ INPU 
f* 1 "I I»: PRINTfcl 3+30, F«; : L*=LEFT* 
(11,1): IFL««"C"THEN1 10ELSEIFL«« " 
D H, ORL*= " I ° THEN 1 25ELSEG0SUB 1 55 : GO 
TO 120 

125 X1=LEN< I*> -I :FORX2=lTOX l: IFM 
ID»U«, X2+1, l)<* t 0 H ORMID*iI*,X2+i 
, U >"9"THENX2-X 1 : G0SUB155: NEXT: G 
OTD1 20ELSENEXT : I=VAL (RIGHT* ( I*, X 
l)>: IFK0ORI >6 7THENGOSUBlS5tGOTO 
120 

130 IFG(I>-SiHB9 QRG<I1=&HE9 THEN 
PRINTS] 5, "CANNOT OVERRIDE TESTED 
RESULTS"? : PR INTfcll, Ml*; :PLAYE*E 
LSE140 

135 GOSUB70: GOTO 120 

140 IFLS-M'^THENGU >«M499 ELSEG < 

I >~&HFF 

143 X-I:GOSUB45:GDTO120 

150 'invalid resp sub— 

155 PRINTS 1 3, "INVALID ENTRY 




IUTIL 

Appends * Jndaa&B * Cophijs * Verifies 

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"i :PRiNT(tii,ri]*i :pla 

YE* 

160 GOSUB70 : RETURN 

163 'm*Q cl«ar mub 

170 PR1NT»I3, C*|F*|F« J C*1 : RETURN 

175 'logo sub — 

180 PR I NTS t 34 f '*» DISK T E 9 
T # M f ;PRINT«224, "COPYRIGHT CO 1 
¥83 BY C C IIMHER"! :RETURN 

IBS *ml load sub — 

1 90 FORX-0TOLEN (P*)/2-i: POKE X 1 +X 
, VAL<"fcH l, +MID»(P* p 1+2*JC P 2J > : NEXT 
X: RETURN 

195 'print question sub 

200 PRINTS! 1 P "<P>F0R PRINTOUT < 
OTHER >CONT IN" I : PLAY A* 
205 BOSUB70: I FKSO " P "THENP^0 : RET 
URNELSEP- 1 : PR I NTQ 1 1 , "ENTER DATE 
<YYHMDD> " | :PRINT£I3,S 

TRlNGi ( 30 , 32 Hi PR I NTI 13, : PLAY 

A* : I NPUT D* : PR I NT® 1 3+30 ( F* 5 : RETUR 
N 

210 'diskstt© # sub 

215 PRINTeM 1 f "ENTER DISKETTE NUM 
BER <###> 11 i :PRINTai3, STRING* < 
30,32) ? ;PRINTftI3 ( " " I J PLAY AS: INPU 
TDN: LN*-LEFT* ( LN* , B> +R 1 SHT* ( " 000 
"+RIBHT*(STR*(DNi , LEN (STR* <DN) >- 



SUM LINE 

DISK 
DRIVES 



DIRECT DRIVE. ! | HT 40 track, 5mt tL DSOD 

DRIVE 0. SINGLE DOUBLE SIDED DRIVE SYSTEM 5399 

DRIVE 0 K 1 DUAL DOUBLE StDED DRIVE SYSTEM . SS19 

Above oncm for Panasonic or Sanyo Call lor brand avaiiaDHIy 
tt you na«> a preference 

MPI FULL HEIGHT. 40 track. 5 ma 11. DSDD. 

DRIVE 0. SINGLE DOUBLE SIDED DRIVE SYSTEM $299 

DRIVE & 4 i DUAL DOUBLE SIDED DRIVE SYSTEM . S469 

An dfiww include case *rvo power supply. JAM controller- alt 
catxefi and r>*h BASIC Manual AH connocuons are 90k) pipiad 
Dua< flnv*s com* d3&emb!ed Hi dual case win tiuat supply an« 
rear gott piaied date ctmrwcior 



JAM conlroUvr wilh J DOS and manual 
JAM conlfollef mm RSDQ5 sgb|*cl la i 
JfiM controller without DOS ROM Chip 
JOOS ROM Wklh manual 



LIBRARY CASE 
DISK BANK 



S1Z9 
S129 

$ 30 

. *19. 
S 13. 



All ir#m| hart a 90 '3*i (W OBI 
cy b> ui knciy*? d con^Wc fwtxluct rtB^t^irw c* 
He-m *»%«*d AdO S3 OA' lor SAM AjW 

tt /-i h>' COD F.jt *fa,|*rC«d qi Viij (rtflft ad<3 
T . uH icfa 1 >rciLi<hno irioOH^g *ncmna 



a s*» t 



Ki»omo iN^bSOJ 
ftt jM-4^ossq 
S- iOt>m 



1) f 3> : GOSUB 170: RETURN 

220 'print id sub — 

223 POKE149,0:PQKE150, 1B:P0KE15S 
, 96: PRINTs-2, CHR* (28) | CHR* (27> 5C 
HR*<48? I 

230 PRINTt-ZpUSlNO-X Xd#XX X 

X ■ I RIGHT* <LN* # 3) < Dl , T*, Q*; ; RETU 

RN 

234 'print log sub 

235 X2«0:FORX«0TO67: IFG<X)««cHB9 
THENPR INT#-2, "-" { ELBE I FB ( X > «*H99 

THENPR I NT#-2 f CHR* C 34 ) I ELBE I FG ( X 
) -*HE9 THENPR I NT#-2 f " , " | ELSEPR I N 
T#-2,USING ,, #"|X2| 

240 X2-X2+1: IFX2-10THENX2-0:PRIN 
T#-2 , CHR 1 1 27 J I CHR* (74)1 CHR* 1 28 ) I 
CHR* < 3 1 > 3 CHR* (27) t *' T " I : PR INT#-2 , 
USING"# M FX/t0i: PRI NTS-2, CHR* (27 ) 
! M I M |CHR*<28> I CHR* <27) J CHR* (75) I 
: NEXTELSENEXT 
24S PRINT#-2, " ": RETURN 

250 *driv» # *ub- 

253 PRlNTdllp "ENTER DRIVE NUMBER 
(0-3) " i : PRINTS I 3, STRING* ( 

30.32) I :PRINT&I3, : PLAYA* : 1 NPLJ 
TD 1 : GOSUB 170: RETURN 

260 "test typ» sub ■— 

265 PRINT&I k f "<S>HDRT TEST <OTH 

ER >FULL TEST "J : PLAYA* 

270 GQSUB70: IFK*=*'S" THENT*- "3h ^ : 

RETURNELSET*= "Lg" S RETURN 

275 'initialization 

2B0 1 1-481: 13-449: FC«127+1£»BC: B 
*»CHR* < 1 28 ) : C*»STR I MB* ( 30 , FC > : F* 
*CHR*<FC) : PP-256*PEEK ( &HC006) +PE 
EK ( «tHC007 J ; D I MB ( 69 > : DEFUSR0-&H0E 
00 : DEFUSR 1 ~&H0E0A: DEFliSR2««(H0ES6 
: B-&H0400 

2S5 LN*» "DEFLOO *' : A** " V3 i ; Q5 ; L3 
5? T50J EP3EP3E " : E*= " V3 1 ; D3 ; L35 ; T5 
0SEP3EP3E- 

290 P*= ,, AD9FC00439" : Xi=&H0E00: 00 
SUB 190 

295 P*« " 347FBDB3ED338D002D33CB10 
AEQD00236F8D002 1 1 F3 1 A6BD00 1 B8 1 55 
270EEC8 1 EDA 1 A684 A7 A06CBD000B20E8 
A68 4A7A4337 F 3904 00 00DB6 D B 6 D B6D00 
0000FFFFFF " : X 1 =*&H0E0A : GOSUB 1 90 
300 P* m * 3 4 3F BDB 3E DBEC006 A702B609 
3D4C5CE703 1F02AD9FC004E606271 0EA 
02C 1 1 1 2605CC0002200ECC000 1 20091 F 
200 1 0926DCCC0000BDB4F4353F39 u % X 1 
^fcHGEai; GOSUB 1 90: P*«" " 
305 M1*-"<ANY> TO CONTINUE 

t, :M2*- 1> <ANY> TO RESTART □ 

R QUIT 

310 PRINTfcIi r Ml*| 

315 PR I NT* I 3, "PLEASE TURN UP VOL 



100 THC FUMHBOW J,-,.,<iiv lM9 



UME ON TV " | ;FORX=1TO150:NEXT: 
PLA YE * ; K*- 1 NKEY*: I FK*-*' "THEN320E 
L5CG0SUB 1 70 : GOSUB 255 : G0SUB263 : BO 
SUB200: GOT 0350 

320 PR1NTG13, "please*"? B*; "turn 0 ! 
B* I "up M ! B* I " vol ume " t B* i ' on " i B* ; " 
tv"iB*j B*;b*; :Forx=itoi50:next:p 

LAYA*:G0T0315 

325 * d i r error abort point..... 
330 PRINTHI3, "DIR. TRACK ERRQR-C 
AN " T C01MTIN. ■*? : IFP= 1 THEN6DSUB225 
:PRINT#~2, "DIR. TRACK ERROR-C ANN 
OT CONTINUE-OISK NOT USABLE OR U 
NFQRMAT TED" r PLA Y€ *EL5EPLAYE* 

335 'restart point , 

340 PR I N Tfi I 1 , K2* C : GOSUB70 : CLSBC 
345 'start point*..*.*.**,*..*. 
350 GOSUB 1 B0 : PR I NTS 1 1 , " < C >ONMENC 
E TEST <Q>U1T ";:PRINT@13 
« " INSERT OR CHANGE DISKETTES 

■ ; : play a* 

555 GOSUB70: IFK*='C-THENGOSU&1TO 
: GOSUB2 J 5 : 60T0365EL8E IFK»= +I G*' THE 

NGO5U8l70:PRINTei3-33. : ENDELS 

6PLAYE»:QOT0355 

360 'file chec k,..,. P 

365 GOSUB 1 70 : PR I NT ©357 r " OPERAT I O 

n: file check : T i*i7:si=2:oi=2 



IG0SU&35: IFEC< >0THEN330EL5E370 
37)3 X 1 - 1 : FORX2*0TO67 :0<X2> -PEEK < 
&+X2) : IFG<X2)<:S<HFF THENX1*0 
375 NEXT; 1 FX 1 *= t THENPR J NT© 1 3 1 "NO 
FILES ,I |:SOTO3?0 
SB0 PRJNT&I3, "files present "§ 

3B5 'directory check 

390 T 1=1 7: SI =3: 01=2: G0SUB35: IFEC 
< >0THEN330 

395 ' log check 

400 LF=i:FOftX2»0TO7: IFASC(MID*(L 
N* , X 2+ 1 , 1 ) >< >PEEK ( B+ X2 > THENLF*0 
405 NEXTX2: I FLF—i THENPR t NT@ I 3+ 1 5 
, " LOO PRESEN T "(EL SEPR I NT8 I 3+ 
15* "NO DEFECT LOG 

410 PR1NTSII, '*<C>ONTINUE < OTHER 
> ABORT TEST :PLAYA» 
415 GOSUB 70: IFK*='C 1 ' THENGOSUB170 
: GO T 04 25EL SECLS BC- GOT 0350 

420 'log array prep # » 

425 1FLF-0THEN435ELSEX 1 =P£EK {B+l 
3) 

430 X2«BiXl> :GtXl >=&HB9: IFX2>=*H 
C0 AND X2<-fcHC9 THEN435ELSE IFX2< 
-67 THENX i =X2: GOTO430ELSEPA I NTS 1 3 
, "ERROR IN LOG - WILL TEST ALL 

" i ; PL A ye*: lf«0:gosub80 

435 FORX2=0TO67: IFLF*»0THENX 1 «&HF 



noon 



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F: Q€rrO440£L3E IFG ( X2) -&HB9 THEN XI 
-&HB9: BOTO440ELSEX 1 a S<HFF 
440 G<X2>=Xl:NEXT 

445 * first declare point. 

450 QOSUB 1 00 : M3«= " f i r s t ":GOSUBl 
10 

455 * test sequence* 

460 DATA0,34,2,0,3,33, 1,-2, 1,3,0 

,0,1,0,0, 1*33,2,1,2,34,0,-2,0,2, 

1,33,2,2,3,34,0,-2,1,3,0,34,2,1, 

2,33, 1,-2,2, 2,0, 34,2,2,3,33, 1,-2 

,0,3,^^, t, 0,0, 1,33, 2, 0,2, 34,0,- 

2 t 2,2 

465 DAT A0 t 34, 2,8,3,33, 1,-2,5,3,0 

,0,1,0,0,1,33,2,5,2,34,0,-2,8,2, 

1,33,2,8,3,34,0,-2,5,3,0,34,2,5, 

2,33, 1,-2,8,2 

470 DATA17, 17, 1,8.3 

475 *DATA0,3, 1,0,2 

4B0 DATA99,0,0,0 l 0 

485 CLSec: X 1 = . 75 : RESTORE: FORX-67 

T034STEP- 1 i B < X +2 J =13 < X > : NEXT ; DE»0 

:Bt34> =*HFF:B<35)=ScHFF 

490 I FT**= " Sh *' THENFQRX- 1 TO70 : READ 

OP: ME XT X 

495 READ TI ,TE, ST, PA, OP: IFDE-ITH 
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500 □1=0P:X1-X1+.25:PRINT*295, " 
CYCLE; "S :PRIMT«327, " 

TRACK : " I : PRINT<t359 , ,+ 

granule: " I : PRI NT«39l , rt 

OPEHAT I ON; " | : PRI NT«423 , ST 

RlNG«(ie,32>; 
505 POKEPP,OI 

510 FORT1-TI TO TE STEP 9T I PRINT 
@307,USINQ'-«« "j INT (XI) ; ;PR1NTS33 
9, US I NG 11 ## " I T 1 f : I F DP"2THENPR 1 NTS 
403, "*READ " J ELSEPRINT@403, ■ WRITE 
"I 

515 FORX2»0TOl:PG-2*Tl+X2 

520 B1«2*T1+X2; 1FT1 >17THENG1-G1- 

2 

525 JFT1=17TH€NPRINT«371, M DIR"iE 

LSEPRINTa370,USING ,> #*# "1811 

530 IFB(PG)**HB9 ORB < PG > -*H99 OR 

G<PGi=*HE9 THEN545 

535 PR1NTS423,3TRING»<16,32H ! X3 

»256*T 1 + X2 : EC-USR2 i X3 > : I FEC=0THE 

N545ELSEIFE02THENX2»l:TI«TE: DE- 

1 ; 8OTO540EL9EPRINT«423, « BAD 

GRANULE "i:PLAYE* 

540 Q<PQ)-8cHE9 

545 NEXTX2: NEXTTl ; 80T0495 

550 'final declare point.. 

555 GDSUB 100 :H3»* "final +, :B0SUB1 
10:fXSBC 

560 format allow table 

565 I F DE- 1 THEN330ELSE X - USR 1 (8) :X 
3»0: X2-0; Xl-0 

570 FORLG-0TO67! IFGiLG) -*H99 ORB 
<LB)^*(HB9 ORG(LG>»StHE9 THEN575EL 
SE585 

575 IFX3O0THEN POKEB+X1 P L0 ELSE 

X2-LG 

580 Xl«LG:X3«X3+i 

585 NEXTLG: IFX3°0THEN590£L9ePOKE 
B+Xl,$cHC9 

590 Tl-17: 81-2: 01-3: GOSUB35: FORX 
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102 TH* flAINBOW JwnMTf 1H» 



ML TUTORIAL 



A Simple 
Text Processor 



By Ash ok Basargekar 



One of my favorite hobbies is to 
improve the Color Computer 
software written by others in my 
favorite kainhow magazine, give it a 
personal loueh and enjoy the results. J 
remember Mr. Lewnndowski"s series of 
articles un the simple texl handling pro- 
gram I used to read l he a nicies, enhance 
them 10 my satisfaction and wait for his 
next installment. After waiting for sev- 
eral month* for him to giver me some 
hints on the EDIT feature of his text 
handling program. J decided to Lake on 
this task myself. 

Before going into the ED/7Tcature, [ 
would like to present a complete face lift 
that I have given CO Lhe other subrou- 
tine* of the text bandlcr 
The first six lines of rny assembly Lin- 



fAshok Basargekar, a civil engineer in 
California, has developed an interest in 
computer science as a hobby. He ha* 
developed some programs in civil engi- 
neering subjects on CPf M. He received 
his Bachelor's degree in civil engineer- 
ing from Baroda University in India and 
further courses m ctvii engineer in $ titui 
computer languages at California Slate 
University in Long Beach,, Calif. Poly* 
technic University* Pomona and Santa 
Ana College in Santa Ana, Calif) 



guage source code define the ROM rou- 
tines I will be using. The next 14 lines 
ate (he direct page addressee that I will 
be using to store my constant* and vari- 
ables. 1 may use a portion of the direct 

"'The Compose mode 
allow* you to root pone a 
new texK or to append a 
typed or loaded text from 
a tape or dink* W ord* iviti 
not wrap around to the 
nex t tin e while typing, hn t 
they wilt be property 
moved to the next line at 
the time of printing on o 
pajyer." 

page: that's what the Geitmg Started 
with Color basic manual says! The 
START of my program uses I he auto 
key repeat feature, published by Roger 
Schrag in his article on "Super Paielunl 
fTJTASM" At START I I release the 
alpha lock so I start my text pftxestoj 
with lowercase letters. In Wl PL\ I clear 
all the text buffer and Lhen branch to 
KIN I lur my new menu. 1 beg your par- 
don. Mr. Lcwandowski* 1 have used my 
name instead of yours, in the MESI. 
Instead of using LINPUI routine lor 



t ex i handling, 1 have made it character- 
oriented m CONT for continue I 
thought that the original PAPER rou- 
tine v\as ^ery pr imUi\c. \n I changed u 
to give me the Lop of the form, left rntir- 
jjjo. Nnu width and line spaeing selec- 
tions, first I take 1 lis: characters up <l» 
Lhe line width and go back to the nearest 
place where 1 can break a word before 
going to the next line. 1 he CLOAtX 
CSA I A, LOAD and SAVE routines 
arc the gifts ol Roger Schrag Irom his 
disk and (ape I O routines Before I go 
LU the LIN PI 1 1 I mi hie name, I lock the 
alpha lock, fm that the hlename is 
alwa> s in eapital knur*. 1 In* I X 1 I nw\ ■ 
tine also does (he same thing. Finally 1 
conic lo my EDIT routine for some 
comments. 

Here I have used Lhe same memory 
locations thai t used lo store Lhe con- 
st ants of PAPER routine in the direct 
page. SC'l. is used to stuic the text 
buffer address that will equate to the lop 
left corner of the video screen. MAR- 
GIN stores the text buffer address that 
equates, to the bottom right corner of 
the video scree n> These addresses arc 
revised as soon as the V register (cursor 
pointer] goes beyond S40d-$5Ff" range. 
Before bringing the next portion of the 
text for editing, all lhe previous buffer 
area is revised to match the screen 
103 



buffer. The COPY routine bring* a copy 
of a portion of texl in video wrrcen for 
editing and the REVISE routine n ntls 
the edited texl from screen io the lext 
buffer The N XT PC it and PRVPflF 
routines change t he SCLand MARGIN 
addresses of next page or previous page 
depending upon the cursor movement. 
The DEI t-'f F routine mnv^all the text 
one to Lh« left when the CI FAR fcc) is 
pressed the INSERT routine move* a I) 
I hi! Lex I uric 'r- i lie is t^i I i,, i mil kin i' 
room f'if fi chuuicler in the middle 

J have used Spccirut A>socntte</ 
ULTRA 8&C lor editing and assembling 
this program. Of course-* you may use 
any other assembler you wish. Since I 
have installed the Lower- Kit, by Green 
Mountain Micro, in my CoCo, the 
entire text is very beautiful on I he screen- 

The entire machine language code 
resides from SEW) through $IM>4 and 
for a 32 & computer, you will have 
plenty of text buffer area I mm SI6P5 
through 57FKF. The program is com- 
pletely position independent except the 
addrc^v table lor the menu subroutines. 
The control keys and procedure in using 
my Text Processor are as follows; 

InjtiaJiution 

LOA D Sr TEX T PRO"* nd i. \ / f 
will -ACtey* Lhh pro gum Vou will eel u 
complete menu of selection as follows: 
I) COMPOSE 

The Compose mode allows you In 
com pirn- ii new (eM. m la append a 
typed or loaded text Irorn a tape or disk. 
Words will not wrap around to the next 
line while typing, but they will be prop- 
erly moved to the next line at the tunc or 
printing on a paper. Any immediate 
mistakes can be corrected by moung 
the cursor backward, with the left arrow 
key. Once you exit this Composing 
mode, and return back for continuing 
l he text, you will not be able to correct 
the previously typed lest WJlh the Icti 
arrow key. You will need to go io the 
Edit mode for this purpose. White com- 
posing the text, do nol press I he ENTE R 
key unless you want to go to the next 
line for a new paragraph. Pressing ESTER 
wiU provide a hard carnage ret urn w hen 
printing the text on a printer. I o exit the 
Composi ng mode . sim p ly hit the BREAK 
key. You will return back to the mum 
menu of selections. 
1) EDIT 

The text in ihe Edit mode appears 
slightly different from thai io the Com- 
posing mode. You will see a red block at 
ihe places you have pressed the FM Ftt 
k ey» for provid ing a hard ea rn a ge rei urn 
lor a new paragraph Ihe up. down. 

104 THE RAINBOW J«ni*py 1565 



right and left arrow keys win move the 
cursor anywhere in the text, while in ihe 
Fdii mode. Fhe n FAR key will delete 
One character at a time. The shift 
CLE A Ft keys will allow you to invert any 
tent in ihe middle. The flashing cursor 
w ill disappear when you are in the Insert 
mode You will return back in the EdU 
mode In preying ihe If HI \K U'j Ynu 
wlII exit ihe Edu mode by pressing the 
HRF ak key again. The text can also be 
appended a I the end while you are io the 
Insert mode. To revise the test in ihe 
Edit mode, simply wri*e new text over 
the cxisiing Ecxi 



*\ . .Simply enter the 
rfwirrd printing xperift* 
ration* for total line 
xcidth* left margin a tut 
lint- sparing. Your text 
will he printed on the 
paper tirrording to your 
xprci ft ration*,** 



3) C LOAD 

This select i on ^ill allow you to loud a 
text from u cassette lape The lest aw 
be loaded at the end of any typed or 
ot her-l onded lex l . a 1 1 mi 1 1 1 y i * u 1 1 » ttic r ge 
two or more texts, 
4} LlLOAtl 

This selection will allow you to load 
any lent from a disk Ynu w dl he asked 
to enter a filename. The filename must 
be the entire name including I he exten- 
sion. If the filename is nol lound, or il 
the Tile is on a bad disk, you will receive 
an error message n amber. II so, simply 
press any key to go bad to the main 
menu. Refer to fable I tor the type of 
error. 
5) PRINT 

The underlining codes arc presently 
Net lor the Brother Cnrrec ironic 50 
typewriter The Baud rate is set at 1200. 
Simply enter the desired printing speci- 
fica Lions for total line width, left margin 
and line spacing. Your texl will he 
printed on the paper according to your 
specifications The paper will advance 
to the new page niter printing 60 lines. 
Therefore, adjust ihe paper sot hat three 
blank lines are leli nt the top. Ttai$ Will 
provide three blank lines al the bottom 
To change the printer Baud raie and 
printable lines per page or to change ihe 
underlining codes, ynu will need the fol- 
lowing corrections to the software before 
executing the program. 



POKE &H F74 + m*b ; POKE &HF75, 

Isb of Baud rate constants. 
PHKF &H100D, n where n = prm- 

table lines per page. 
POK F & H 10 1 6 T m where m = blank 

lines a I top and bottom of page. 
POK E &! I 102C 27 . POKE & H HO 1 , 

45 for start of underlining codes 

for Brother, 
POKE&M 1037,27: POKE&HIOJC, 

82 for end of underlining codes 

lor Brother. 
POKE&m0X: T 32;POKE&m03L 

15 for start of underlining codes 

of LP VI It 
POKE AH 1037, 14 : POKE &H J 03C 

32 for end of underlining codes 

of LP VMI 

6JCSAVE 

This routine will allow you lo save the 
texl on a cassette tape. 
7> DSAVE 

This subroutine will allow you to save 
the tcxi on a disk You will be asked for a 
filename. It musi be up to eight charac- 
ter* in length with an extenttun up (n 
three character} [fan extension is not 
specified, none will be assumed. There- 
fore, give a Ttlenamc like' TEXT! DAT 

or tEXT.'TXT,m. 

The codes for the error messages 
while reading or writing vext from or to 
the disk are as follows; 



TABLE I 

CODE TYPE OF LKKOK 

19 File already open 

30 Bad device or drive number 

21 1, 0 enor 

22 FtVf error 

23 File not open 

24 Input pa si end oi line 
27 File nol Jourtd 

29 Disk full 

30 Out of buffer space 

31 Disk write protected 

32 Bad filename 

33 Bad file structure 
37 Verification error 

*T EXIT 

This will exit lo bask'. You will lose 
all the text with this sclcciion There- 
fore, make sure that the texl is saved on 
I he tape or disk prior to selecting EXIT 

Happy texl processing? If you hove 
any questions or suggestions regarding 
my text processor please drop a line 
wiih a 5ASE to Ashok Basargekar, 
1423 Nor ih Cleveland Street, Orange, 
CA *26G7.<7I4> 639-3996. 



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An award vVinnmg political simula- 
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SPELLING neath the mrsspofling The studenl 

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Kldftuff 

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Treoture Hunt 

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The Civil War 

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1T2 THE RAINBOW Janu«ry iflftf 




After two years on the market, we've orchestrated our software to 
perform for you in ways other programs can't even play second 
fiddle to. 

The all new Pro-Color-Series offers total integration between 
its advanced database functions, word processing, spread sheet, 
graphics and communications. 




PRO-COLOR-FILE will listen to your spread program and create 

.data files that can be reported and sorted even further. 
PRO-COLOR-FORMS will tahe data from PRO-COLOR- 
^^tf FILE and merge it with a letter for bulk mailings. It will 
V | even merge hl-res graphics from MASTER DESIGN for 
\ placement within a letter or form. It will send reports 
i to a printer, screen or an ASCII text file that can then 
£ be transmitted by your communications program or 
m. read by your word processor; 



Pro-Color -Series 

1984 by Darringer Software. Inc. 

Now there s a series of programs that otters migration between the live major uses ol a computer 
Database. Word Processing. Spread Sheet, Communications and Graphics! 



PR0*COLGR RLE *Enhanc§d* 2,0 S59.95 

An a" tw* mrfisi] d ffiQ-COLTJit-FlLE *m (nee agj'n lurve Jts mjjk u 
M maji (fatafe fiatjbaa« >r» its pnei wrig* tec ih* Cdor Compufe* 

»«o air* f**«t * tow flvff *f cows • muf wuifl omvf swwwr 

• -«ttJ» RECORD MMCrFV * 4 LTSffl OfF/Wfl JHrVt fftTH^ 
SCfflfm - 2t UAT» EOOATtOkS ' FrWWfS JA 

FW4 ■ FllE-WOE RELAiCLUA TtQS • S OSE* DEflHIO ffWF 
F&RAM rs • 6 i/Sffl OFF\kFD LABEL FfWAM r$ ■ rOMl J"rft£fS 4W 

wwwrj • Sl/wjuafmf f.'ftos ■ sew wrowrs re «."* T f/f, 

SCREEN OR TEXT fill ■ FAST UL SOR T RECORDS \HilSS THAtt 
5 Umt/ ftSt ■ CQEAfl UP W ffi >HDt*iS FfiUT SMIf*£I (W ftFAQfi^W 
flfODflffS * *U W JCfr flfflfJtr * KfYSOAPO CL\CK ■ STORES FOR 
If ATS FOR REPEATED USE * CUSTOM StUOWi VtKVS « 
PASSWORD PHOTZam » CREATES fU$ CDUPtrmF WTH 
DYHACAIC* * 

6v*\At v* HW-CGUW-fiLIS a&niiy hi wrtfl r*po-i* tt i r*r \«t. im 
yOu cm uM VQUr Uwrie ronrngmcilicm prBQrvn 10 lrjrwut 
rvporli » artwr «m>pp|erl V riad t^m <n v».m yov 1 ravurnt word pro- 
us$D' rat crurmg cuiiennind ftpwii Voj can itu eonwn ASCii p He» 
if on your liYflirfe sprurj ihwl program »no data ipses lius cm t» jc 
WS5«3 to 1 tarlNc rppiiiiiiij dufl FflD-C DIOR- Fill ft Hu iup- 

J»rt«3 b) l"* ^JTO-CQ LOR -F I L E *u'iiyl(l IJier* EUPuD wM» Qulfltr^ 
n ««nlrlV r i Jr.n ire res' o* ttva *<H*0 iM flbccvt? lor yflursail «njj 



PRO-COLOR-DIR 



MASTER DESIGN 



$29,95 



tini *tip(iict profit Mn «npT? f 0 you <Hm imi »>»• r«t pv^x Mtttno 
it will geni'm ittiwuig m hn« grjpirin tMi am » (HflVtm tai« 
iMtiKiy, ww. Mriv<vd, drap mjflBw«t r rant sharionad 01 Udi it «ni 
|lS9 iU*rtJCi nflti irs«j Tain rrffl? . fil w&ffJ proaw *TJf pflflNnfl N-ftS 
cispuys iMH ythjr i«rrer<r 

Ai I griphc 1 edtlor. it Uh« luM «h'mt4q« ut JH 'Pw urencM BASIC M 
res gntnc cvwunds OuH bom. t-ny« urm. capy ii^pujrs md 
iftHln GET inrj Put <tJldi»s Swra xSMd cemruMii <ncindt m-irw 

rphpc^ nr. lhl*tt Sip' jyi Back * jrd S W ilPlldt r»»f| SquHr. OitpliT] 

tfijit a« {urnerm tar iiuting « duieonafl ith*s tar crttfrvf 
□KKgrmnls 

Spcoji tejri 'Ap» cfutod Mtr- in* Littir Hurj utility u<ow you 10 jccu; 
lii-ffc yJpliiCS Ftvti TtitwrilV-bM tout 5wn BASIC pJaflrami c PI5- 
CDIOH^FDHM. 



maitgh oeneti loitk 



rlttt \\t flwfi Kntn dump rayNne imtr 
h mrro pn-ifs rrm hire coi irjdriujpi* 



S21.95 



J|«fd to wgairl;* your di%ktitteS » y&u *tiflrt ucP progrvn 4y? 
pnO'COLOi^OiH mi"! mad yfiL-t direttai*!, md :<«aii j nufitr dm rtit 
ffujl can be 1CQI1£K D T Pfll^COLDfl-FlU tar IWting jnd reporting 
HCDfOl wrj tH HOred tvi on( diskrtta with Mirfuabli inBornvllon 
<Pout HCh prDq/arr 

» U5*r rn MJVf ■ filenauE/ext * m f m - iwr£ c/^rfa ■ 

CM Tt LfFtU F£0 • *HtU8ER Of GRAHS Ml lOCAJFD* tttiVBER OF $FC- 
TORS AiiOCfl rfj) Aftfl - aVatCJVJftC HWWCf j*WWfS5fS • 

A dnk«ttn (MMctary cm Pa rt-nr^nr « tat dm lid wMn aw «risnit 
Octeted an5 ne* OWt ipp(fl<1ed UtamiClcilly VOb cm oWjin Purr} 
rjopm pTtftfl intarimtion anc cr«*i« ijpeti or itN fiigqmm tv placing 
!ha J ifcrttt ills"' 



PRO-COLOR FORMS 2.0 



$29.95 



rUS-COLM-FORlli will atteii qala mn you truia «rtm HtQ COLQH- 
FtLE wS merge lien *ilh a >*!1er or p r j;e lPan an Dr|-prmJed Perms 
y;fti u HjlewnH Any rKfeg M 4morn^licit rrom fOjf d4U rilt cm t* 
placed mywhtr* jfia i efhESlfru Jt iTHHy limes in 1He reHir v Qft Vm twm 

vpu an n4e ih# Dmit in m, ten wntw tar cwimg in* tatm or u« your 
tjvarlle wafd EwGteisQir 

• TXSi&f LfP TO 6 FQRUA TS AT ONE TIU( * USER OfFJiWD PACf StfF. 

• SrjPPOflJS S*¥CJ« WWTfrt Cr?*ffltV CfJOfS ^ flrffHF jtrSWM- 
rrM ■ N55MCWI> PflCTi^OV • UFRGF.S WIW GfUPtilCS FROV 
MASTEii OESiGH ■ 

h! you idt our giapruci pregram MMTEK DEUBM. yft. can nwgt 
graptyci iHln yftuf Ifjrmi let idOM tnrunf vntJUl Hjvt yfltir gcaphK 
icrcr nmo pufl:sfl aJ ttte ik of ucn i«tttr dp mcorporata dBigr;i tui 
graptis or any KisMr PV&tG wttpin Etw hnrm, itseir 



Buy any 3 and deduct 10% — Buy alt 4 and deduct 15% 



Shipping: include S3 00 for UPS shipping. 56 DO postal. SI 2 00 overseas 
Srjnrj ordofs to: Durrmqcr Software. Inc. f rj Box 5300, Florence SC 2S5U2 -2300 
VlSA/MaslorCard customers Mff: (803] 565-51576 10:00 am to 5:00 pn> EOT 



jTT Tiheb 



DY NAG A IX 



THE BEST SfflfAO SH|ET PROGRAM ON THE MAHKET" m K jknclud» DYNAQRAPH 

$89.95 IF PURCHASED WITH ANY OF THE ABOVE PftOGftAMS- 



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For COCO, . t in the Midwest 

PROGRAMS * PERIPHERALS * SUPPLIES * SERVICE 

Since T982 Now in our 3rd year 



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TM[ RA'ND O W 



Introducing NllBASE: 
the uncomplicated data base 



It lets you throw away all the books! 



NuBASE is a data base mu natter so \ei-sahlc thai 
yon can use it to do what you wan! with your 
data, Its not cnmpliciiled or merbcuring. in tact, 
it's so easy to use that you II he up and 
running in minutes. 



Simple user-sped lied masks insure daia 
accuracy. Daia integrity is assured through 
I he use of highly crash-resistant software. 
See what i tm*rr Juing through the 
interactive generation of files, screens 
and reports. 



NuBASK is as affordable as it is 
complete t here's noihing else to buy, ■ . 
SI 51 J brings you the comprehensive package 
including a reaoVio-use mailing list 
application to get your NoBASI" 
working for you on day one 



The computing power of NuBASE 
is limited only by the capacity 
of jour hardware. 




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For new products news A announcements? 



Currenth- avoiftthte far OS -9 Lcvei it 
For more information or to place ui order, contact 

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US nrdrrs. jKfrl t5Qd pftjtijt* pnd hindlln^. 



* CW it t :f maVfH i '•(if mil li of MbtMiir Owp 



"The Best Typing 
Teacher For The 
Color Computer" 





HH 










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K£ *cfrt*t> 1 CUT. PH91 I 1 








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Ont-Uncr Context Winner . . . 

Did you ever hear the old quesLbn about whether si penny 
doubled each day for a momh is more I Kan a million dollars? 
This program gives you Ltie true scoop on your printer. 



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iFOTitiiiwnii 




E.T.T. 

Electronic 
Typing 
Teacher 

by 

CHERRY Soft 



Learning to type in* riQM wey c»n save you noun of 
Tediout work when entering program* into your CoCo, ant} 
mis is ILJS1 wfi*i Ett was oeeigneo to do Devote a imia- iim& 
•vnry day practicing with ETT ana before you know It you will 
Co typing with conNPonc*. Entering mose program! will no 
ion get bt tn« cnor* n ua«d to be. 

ETT* vtdflo Keyboard <eti you practice wktn apt the Key* 
labeled, all Ibe Key* blariK or onty the "nome" 1 key* labeled. 
Th* visual cue* guide you while you itarn to type wllhout 
watchlog your Nngari. ETT mow* your accuracy, weapon *e 
Tims, and words par mlnuta-. You win quicKiy a«* trial you are 
improving wnh practice. 

With the leniences provided by ETT learning to type can 
be lun- Over 1000 vatiationa chosen because ihey include 
every letter in trie aipnabal. You can aiao create your own 
practice aela. Tnii oulalarrdlno program was written by a cer- 
tified leacher and professional programmer and comae wlfh 
a Ian page student manual-study guide. Requires 18K En^ 
tended Baalc 



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ETT i* now balng tised by schools and 
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> E-T.T. at your favorite dealer or order direct. 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



SOFTWARE AUTHORS: . .Let us market your program. 



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SOC N. DOB SON - WESRANO. Ml 48185 
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January i*a* Trtc nAiHHOW 119 



DISK UTILITY 



This is the final part in a Stries on diskette file organization 



The Diskette 
Directories 
Handler System 



By Marvin E. Swan 



The complete "Disk* ttc f>« recto- 
ries Handler'" system is being 
presented in three parts. You 
must RUS program M ft t K-Uw H I V 
ningtnis month's program 

You out refer toRMXHow two nvmthv 
ago for Pari I and a lull overview oi all 
seven comprehensive reports generated 



by the limutkr system and an explain- 
non of program DtRI You can refer to 
lasi months RAINBOW for an ex plan a- 
lion of program DIR2, To refresh your 
memory, here is the cross reference of 
till progru riband report sand their RVS 
sequence: 



Program 


Optionui 






Name 


Report 


Report Title 


Sequenced By; 


1HRU 


no 


Don ME MAI IOX 




DIRT 


ye* 


■-I J \1K \ [4*AL> 1'MK 


your own diskette filing 


HJHI 


yef 


tf2 DISKETTE NAMES 


diskette name 


DIRI 


yes 


ffl DISKETTE t'SAGF 


number of bytes used 


DIRI 


y» 


44 DISK JACKFI LABMS 


your own diskette filing 


l>J»2 


yes 


flS DISK 1 ABELS (guml 


your own diskette filing 


1 HR ■ 


na 


flft CONSOLIDATION 


prog >i/e diskette name 


DIRJ 


fki 


fl? SUMMARY (smisj 



Consolidated Directories, Report 16 

This mutilh. report ff6 h gene rat cd 
by pmgrEim fifftt. The purpose of 
report fr6 is to show all programs and 
data files cataloged la your PC system, 
seuuL-raced hy name, extension, format, 
type, granule size, byte si/c and diskette 
name. You cliii look up a pjirticuki r 
program / data filename a ad see where it 
km Jl'h ;md how many multiple versions 
you may have saved to more than out 
diskette An asterisk appears under the 
"FLAG" column when you have differ- 
ent byte-sized BASK, or machine lan- 
guage programs of the same name, 
allowing you to determine the? cor reel 
Kcrswn 'i RVN or EXECL'TE 1 his 
report is the nucleus of the if mutter sys- 
tem, which you will reference more 
oh en l hnn others. You can cross refer- 
ence iill programs da I a files in > our PC 
system giving you the ability to purge 
a tid ma nagc yo ur en lire d isJtc tie li bra ry. 



1ZD THE RAINBOW JanuiifY t»'. 



^EJLl PRETTY PRINTER 

WORKED FL AWLESSLV-UOES ITS WORK 
EFF ICIENTL Y- Ttif BBtNBOlIi Jff/V 84 
US 13 9S(T)- 17,95(0) COM 15 95(TM9 95(0) 



iaCOSl0Sl MUSIC EDITOR 

PRINT PL RY BY NUMBER MUSIC FOR C OB 
G ORGRNS-ALSG AURJLABLE FOR MCIO, 

US 13 .95(7)- 17 95(D) CON 15 95(T)- 1 9 95(D) 



P U. F. F 



INTO 



TURN RNY BSC 1 1 WORD PROCESSOR 
R SUPER PRINTER FORMATTER, 
US 13 9S(T)-1 7.95(0) CON 1 5 95<T)- 1 9 95<D) 



OAT A KAIL 
DRTAMAIL IS FAST - FLEKIBLE 

Wt BBtHBOli? Jttl V 83 

US^ 6,95(T>20 95(D) CON 1 9.9S(T)-23.95<0) 



HOME INVENTORY 
SMRLL DATABASE TO FILE, STORE & SORT 
LISTS OF HOUSEHOLD ITEMS, 

US 13 95(T)- 17.95(0) CDH 1 5 95(T)- 1 9 95(0) 



IN ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 



R BOOK TO TEACH ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE, 
INCLUDES SOURCE CODE OF RLL EHAMPIES 

US 25 95(T)-29 95(0) CON 29 95<T)-33 95(D) 



COCOCOPY 

BACKUP YOUR BASIC OR M/L PROGRAMS. 
CORRECT TAPES WITH I/O ERRORS. 

US13.95(T) CON tS9S(T) 



oTrTcaos 



mmm 



SCREEN* 

MULTIPLE FUNCTION UTILITY SCREEN 
OUMP. KEY REPEAT, AUTO LINE NUM. ETC. 

OS 16 9S<T)-20 95(0) CON I 9 95{T)-23 95(D) 



FIRST SAMPLER- 6 PROGRAMS 



FUN TO PLAV AND EDUCATIONAL RS WELL 
OUTSTRND I NG- Wf BBMBQUi Of ¥ 83 
US 13 95(T)-17 95(0) CON 15 95(T)-1 9 95(0) 



CONVERT 

SHOWS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN UARIDUS 
SYSTEMS OF MEASURE ME NT- EDUCATIONAL 

US 13 95(IM7 95(D) CON 15 95(T)- 19.95(D) 



SUPER EDIT 



I GIUE IT FULL MARKS - 

THf BfffNBGH* JM V 84 

OS 16 9S(T)~20 95(D) CON 19 9S(T)-?3 95(D) 



CLUB CONTROL 



AMORTISE 

PRINT YOUR OWN AMORTISATION CHARTS 
SELL TO LAWYERS, REAL ESTATE AGENTS. 

US 13 95(T>- 17.95(0) CON 1 5 95(T)- • 9 95(0) 



SMALL DATABASE TO TRACK COMPUTER 
CLUB LIBRARY ACTIVITIES. 

US 16 95(T)-20 95(D) COW 19 95(T)-23 95(0) 



mmm 



] MINER 
HI-RES ALL M/L GAME OF STRATEGY FOR 
THE YOUNGER CROWD - ENTERTAINING. 

US 13 95(1)- 17 95(D) CON 15 95(T)-I9 95(0) 



NEWERROR 

CREATED AND PACKAGED WITH CARE - I 
WAS IMPRESSED - BfifNBBttt ffPff/l '84 
05 t6 9S(T)-20 95(0) CON 1 9 95(T>23 95(D) 



t&dpli^r PAYCHECK 
FINANCIAL DflTRRRU Kf I PS lliHLK OF 
YOUA INCOME AND DEDUCTIONS. 

US 20 95(D) CON 73 95(0) 



EXECCART 
EHTAEMELY ERSY TO USE - WORKED 
FLAWLESSLY T0t B0/A/B0B' MB¥ 84 
US 16 95(T)-20 95(0) CDNI9 95(T)-23 95(D) 



ADVENTURE IN BIPLAND 
R GREAT ONE - YOU'LL AC DELIGHTED WITH 

th I s PROGRAM- Bar coca SfPT. 84 

US 13 95(T) CON 15 95(T) 16* MC1Q OKLY 



THE SPOOL ER 



RAM DOS 



SPOOLS PRINTER OUTPUT FOR ANY COCO, 
EHTENOEO BASIC NOT REQUIRED. 

OS 13.95(T ) 17 95(D) CDN 15 95(T)-19 95(D) 



USE UPPER MEMORY LIKE fi SUPER FAST 
DISK DRIUE. WORKS WITH 16, 52 OR 64K 

US 25 9S<T)-29.95(0) CON 29.95(0-33 95(0) 



BONES 1 6K 



AN ORIGINAL DICE GAME FOR THE WHOLE 
FAMILY SIMPLE VET RODICTIUE. 

US 13 95(TM7 95(D) CDH 15 95(1 )- 1 9 95(0) 




Diik* Directory Summin, Keport HI 

This report is generated by program 
DtRL The purpose ul report nl \s id 
thow statistical and percentage to m Is of 
nil your diskettes, granules, by its, pro- 
grams and data files in your swem Tile 
following statistic* and percentage will 
prim". 

* Total diskette* 

* Bytes; granules used, not used, final 
total 

IN Qic xhat percentage between 
granule* and bytes do not match 
because granules arc in incre- 
ment* of 2,304 bytes each and 
bytes arc absolute.) 

* Total hasjc. assembly and machine 
language programs 

* Total data flics 

* Total multiple program versions 
with different byte nise 

* Total diskettes wHb disk read errors 
encountered 

* Total reports sou requested from 
Handier sjslem 

The purpose of DfRS is to print ihe 
Consolidated Directories report tfft and 
i he statistical Disks Dim tor \ Summary 
report 37. Dffij ts automatical!; Rl .V 
by program MR J if you previously 
selected optional report U5. uthci v. iSC h 
is automatically RUN by program D/J?/. 
The entire catalog file is sorted in RAM 



lor the consolidation report. The sort b 
unique became n passes ilic catalog file 
six limev allowing for faster sorting on 
smaller amounts of data giving the 
advantage of being able to sort up to 
2JGG records from disk. I strong!) urge 
you to replace ihe basic bubble &orl 
u si h a machine language sort. f pur- 
chased one advertised through rais* 
fn jv* that literally sorts in seconds. When 
DtR2 is complete, be sure to back up 
the catalog file to an ajchival diskette 
The following bask line numbers con- 
t ain H p so n b rand prin ler c od es t hat you 
may change to satisfy your printer brand 
requirement* and a high spec*! poke for 
the bubble sort: 0490. 074(1 and 0820. 

Program DtftO 

The purpose of DIR0 is to give you a 
quick blurb on how programs DIRL 
DIR2 and DIRS integrate. It gives you a 
record layout of the catalog file, basic 
line numbers within all programs for 
high speed poke* and Epson print codes 
and a host of other useful information. 
You do not have to RUN this program 
to process the Nendfcr system, DiRtt 
simply prints a quick and dirty explana- 
tion of the Handler system when you 
cani find your RAINBOW for reference. 



Handler system. My friends and I hove 
been using it successfully for about IS 
months. I am pun Wig together a sub- 
system to the Handler system which 
allows you to add and delete directory 
information to the catalog i Nl- without 
having to reprocess all your diskettes 
again when yon want to tegenerate Lhu 
seven reports, I am Imping RAtNUtivi 
will share it with you tn the near future 

3-D Filing Cabinet W it h 'Windows' 

if you have not been keying in in 
four programs, yuu mas CLOADM 
ihem o f f t he R a i n flow- on r a pe or mail 
a forma I ted diskette wuh 5ft lit Marv's 
Computer Room. 17325 40th Avenue 
South. Seattle, WA and I will 

mail i hem to you. In addition lo the 
"complete" Handler system, I will in- 
clude a program thai displays up to 15 
gra ph tc PM OD £ 4 wi nd o ws T s h o w in g a 
filing cabinet with drawers that open 
and shut, and printer pa per imagc^uth 
text coming out of (he drawers and 
hanging in front of the cabinet. The 
Diskette Directories Handier system 
can be R UN from one of l he I our draw- 
ers. The other three drawers will stir- 
prise you. Window sure commonly used 
on the more expensive business micros 



The Final Saga 

I sincerely hope you enjoy using the s* 



Listing 1 




' PRO GRAM 3 OF 3 

'COPYRIGHT 1904 BY MARV SWAN 



10 
20 
30 
40 1 

50 CLS: PRINT 

£0 V£RtFVON:BOTQ930 

70 CLEAR 19500 

80 DO*- "disk a di r&ctory" :L-6&: T* 
-"FILE - 

90 FT*C0) ="Proqram Basi c'*Z FT* 1 I > 
-"Data File*: FT* (2 > ="Progr am rt* c 
b L rt : FT* 43) ""Program Assy L":DIM 
D*(450> :G»<1)«"* * TO *B> " :G*<2> 
* W *C" TO 'E' "lGHZ} = n¥ F w TO •L*" 
:8*<4>* W 'M* TO 'Q* ";Q*<3)- ,, 'R* T 

0 'S* M ;G*<6W'T* TO '2' H :Q=1 

1 00 SDSU B690 ; SOUND 1 0 , 3 : PR I NT " ma I: 



e surt THAT THE DISK WORK FIL 
£ CREATED BY PR08RAH DIR1 IS 
IN DRIVE 0":PRINT«24, "type FILE 
NAME OF 1-8 CHARACTERSW ITHOUT E 

XTENSION-JPRINT" . " 

110 PRINTG288, INFUTDI* 

120 IFLEN(r>I*Ki OR LENIDI*>>8 B 

OTO100 

130 I*=INSTR<DI* i "/*) 1 1FIO0 GOTO 
100 

140 I»INSTR<DI*i H ,"):iFIO0 GOTO 
100 

150 F0RX=3T0il 

160 OSKl*0 f I7 f X f A»>B*:F=INSTR(B* 

,OIt>: IFF>0THENFT-FT+t 

170 F-INSTR(A* P DI*J MFF>0THENFT- 

FT+1 

180 NEXT 

1 90 I FF T=0THENSOUND1 0, 3 : BOSUB690 
^KINTa^e^'MD!*!*" NOT FOUND 
ON D ISKETTE" : PR I NT "press ENTER T 
O retype FILE NAME " : GOSUB700 : QOT 
O100 ELSEPI*=DI *+" - DIR" 
200 OPEN" I % # I > D I * * INPUTS, DA* 
210 GOSUBA80: PRINT M reading inpu 
t directory file PRINT© 129, T* 



122 TN£ &AINBOW JinwjTy 1»9S 



"NAME: :PRINT©l40 f OI*t 
220 PR I NTG 161, TS " DATE : " i: PRINT"* 1 
72,DA<1 ; PRINT&193, TVPAS5: : I*- 
9TR»<8>: I«=-RIBHTsns, t> :PRINT©20 
4, I*' 1 DF 6"! :PfUNT9225 t M REC ft IN 
; " I : PR 1NTS236 , "0 " i :PR I NTS257, " DA 
TA IN: "1 :PRINT«26S, "NONE" 3 : PR I NT 
«289 fl "SEARCHING: " ; : PRINTG300, "PR 
EFIX *'Qt<e)i 

230 PRlNT®352 t " records selected 
for sort '* I : PRINT9365, " REC # OU 
T: "1 :PRlNm396, H 0"J :PRINTe4l7, "D 
ATA OUT: "( :PRlNTe428, "NONE"! 
240 P-P+l 

25d I NPUT« 1 , R« : TT-TT+ 1 : 1 »=STRS < T 
T-l> :I»«RIGHT*(1*,LENUS>-1> sPfil 
NT3236, I»S*t 

260 IFR*=" T0TALS" THENSOUND 10, 3: D 
»(P)-R*:S*-STR»(TT-1):S»- H OF "+ 
RIGHTS <SS t LEN (S*> — 1 > t IFP< >1QOT04 
30EL5E720 

270 PR I NT® 268 , LEFTS (Rt, B) * "MID* 
<R*,9,3> I 

280 A*-LEFT*<R* > i) 

290 IFB«1ANDA*< "C ,, QQTD410 

300 IFQ-1QOTO230 

310 I FG-2ANDA* > " B " ANDAS< " F " GOT04 
10 

320 IFG=2GOTO250 

330 IFB=3ANDA*> ,, E"ANDAS< "M' ©OT04 
10 

340 IFG*=3GQTD250 

350 I F 8 - 4 AN DA* > * L H AND A* < M R " GO TG4 
10 

360 IFG-4GOTD250 

370 I FG-5ANDAS > *» Q" ANDAS< M T " GOT04 
10 

380 IFG=5BOTO250 

390 IFAS>"S M GOTO410 

400 GOT 0250 

410 DS tP)^LEFT«(Rt f 4l> 

420 I***STR* IP> : IS-RIBHTSU*,LEN i 

ISJ -1 I 1 PR! NT<1396 * I *5 iPRINT«428,L 

EFTS<RS,8) " M MlD*<R» # 9 fl 3) J :GOT02 

40 

430 SOUND 10,3: OOSUBS20 : GOSUB680 : 
IS-STRS(B) : PRINT" PRINTING REPGR 
T #6, PASG "RIGHTS ( I», t " 
440 IFG-i THEN PT^INT { < TT/57 ) + , 9 
99999999) 3 PK=^0 
450 JK=0 

460 IFL>608OSUB6S0 ELSEGOTO530 
470 PK»PK+ 1 : IFPK< 1 0THENTB-46EL3E 

T8=45 

480 IFPT>9THENTB»T8-I 

490 PRINT#-2,TAB<3)DA**TAB(I6)CH 



RESET-POWER SWITCHES 

A REAL IMPROVEMENT 

Move the power switch and reset switch whore ihey 
belong An LED power on light loo! High tjuauty parts 
D, E boards and CoCo 2 tofaUy sowed ess hit F board 
requires soldering. 

Reset l CoCo I $24 95 
Reset 2 CoCo 2 S27 95 

Either kit add S2 00 shipping and handling 



• 1 



SAM DIAMOND, P,L 

The hrsl ol our new Sam Diamond graphic adventu^ 
More than 30 detailed high resolution graphic scenes 
A Killer is loose in ihe city Can you bring him lo justice 
before he gels you? Excellent graphics and a tough 
mystery to solve. 

32K EXB DrSK Only $29 9$ 
plus £2 00 shipping and handling 




THE COCO-SWITCHER 

A QUALITY PIECE OF HARDWARE 

The CoCo Switcher allows you lo hook up three 
peripherals to your RS* 232 jack Connect your modem, 
printer and any other RS-232 compare peripheral to 
the CoCo Swilcher An LEO on the CoCo Switcher shows 
If your computer is on or off at a glance. Trie LED linkers 
when transmitting or receiving data 

Dimensions: 2'V (64 mm> « A ' (102 mm) i 5 7/8 050 mmi 
S39 9S plus S2.0Q shipping and hanrihnn 




MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

-.A Division of Mareton Bay laboratory _ 



316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
{B05J 962-3 1 27 




Ukn.nwy I HAS THl FUUhlBOW 193 



R* U4) i "can vol i dated directories 
"tCHR* (20HTAB(TB> "page" I PK I " of " 

IPT 

500 PRINT#-2;PRINT*-2,TAB(5> "nam 
e ext format t ypt" : TAB (40) 

* grans bytes diskette name";T 
AB (75) "flag w 

510 PRINT«-2,TAB<5) "«« === 

»« ». »« » | TAB ( 40 > " 
»-« m«o«™*««« t TAB (75) "« 

520 L-L+4 

530 Jfc>JR>l:R**D*<JK> 
540 IFtfID* CR*. 12, i ) = " + " THENPR INT 
#-2 f TAB(5> +-M- Fatal D 

i sk Read Error 00 0 "|H 

ID* <R*, 22, 20) :GOTO610 
550 IF MID*(R*, 12, 1)«"B" THEN FR 
MT*«"Bmary" ELSE FRMT*- K, Asci i " 
560 TYPE-VAL(MID*(R*, 13, 1)3 
570 BYTE9«VAL(MID*(R*, 16,6) > 
580 IF MR*=*LEFT*<R*, 13) AND HBYT 
E*< >M I D* < R* t 16,6) THEN ERR*-"*": 
ERR-ERR+ 1 : BO T 0600 ELSE ERR*""*' 
590 Hft*"LEFT* (R* t tZi I HBYTE***HID* 

(R* t 16,6* 

600 PRlNT#-2, TAB (5) LEFT* <R* ,8) 1 T 
AB( 14) MI0*(R* f 9, 3> I TAB < 19) FRMT* | 
TAB(27>FT*(TYPE> ;TAB(43>MID*<R*, 
14, 2>i :PRINT#-2,TAB<46) ; :PRINT#- 
2, US ING , *ft« " i bytes; : PRINT*-2 
,TAB(55)RIBHT*(R* f 20 H : IF ERR*=" 
" THEN PR [NT#-2 ELSE PRINT#-2, TA 
B (78) ERR* 
610 L-L+l 

620 IFJK*»P—1 GOT 0720 
630 IFO60BQTO460 
640 GOTO530 
650 IFL^66GDTO670 

660 PRINT*-2:L«L+I: IFLO66GQT066 
0 

670 L=*0: RETURN 
680 SOUND 10 ,3 

690 CLS2:PRINT®1 . "PRINT CONSOLID 
ATED D I REC TOR 1 ES " f : PfU NT«4 1 , « PRO 
GRAM 3 OF 3" I : PR I NTS96 , " " J I RETUR 
N 

700 I*-INKEYt: IFi*«""GOTQ700ELSE 
RETURN 

710 FORS* 1 TO500 : NEXTS : RETURN 
720 IFGO6TH£NCLOSE#l:G*-G+l:P-0; 

rT»0:eoTO200 

730 GOSUB690; PRINT" PRINTING REP 
ORT #7..." 

740 GOSUB650 : PR I NT#-2 , DA* I TAB < 1 5 
) | CNR* (14) I "diskm directory summ 
ary"tCHR*<20> f TAB* 47) "page 1 of 

1" 

750 INPUT#1,T*,T 



760 IFT *^ " 1 " THENPR 1 NTW-2: 0OTO750 
770 IFT**'<END"THENCLOSE#l: PRINTS 
416, ""I SEND 

790 TFR I GHT * ( T* t 7 > » " f i agged " T HEN 
T -ERR 

790 J-40H~£N<T*) : PRINT#-2, TAB (9) 
! PR I NT4t-2 f UB 1 NG " « , #«# ■, #«# ,t#nT 
5 : PRINT#-2 f STRING*! J f ") ; : PRINT 
»-2 f T* 

800 IF (RIGHT* ( T*, 7) =" flagged" AND 
ERR >0) THENI-(ERR/TT)*100: I-I+.25 
: I=INT(I) ;PRINT#-2 t TAB(9J : PRINTS 
-2, USING 11 ft ,«**, ###,###" i li : PRINT 
*-2, * percentage ver 
si on 5 flagged" 
810 BOTO750 

B20 P0KE65495 P 0 * note 
S 30 GOSUB690 

840 FQRX" 1 TOP- 1 1 PI = INT ( (X/P>«100 
> ;PRINTe96, PI i "X SORTED" 
830 FQRY«X TOP-l! IFD»(YXD*(X)TH 
ENS1*~D*(X) :D*(X)«D*<Y) :D*(Y)-S1 

* 

B60 nexty:next x 

B70 PRlNTt96 # " 100 X SORTED" 
880 PR I NTS 160. P-l "RECORDS SORTED 

890 1FP-1 >50THENPRINT6224, " WHEW 

900 FORX-ITO800:NEXT 
910 POKE65494.0 
920 RETURN 

930 PHODE0:PCLEARl:eOT£l70 



10 T.DIR03 
20 * 



f 290 


41 


see 


134 


760 




END 


255 



30 



40 



50 
60 
70 



' DOCUMENTATION FOR PROGRAMS 

DIR1, DIR2 AND D1R3 
* RUN THIS PROGRAM AND A HARD 

COPY WILL PRINT EXPLAINING 

THE 3 PROGRAMS 



80 VERIFYON:CLEAR500 
90 DATA" 0 o c u m 



e n t a t i o 



100 DATA" " 

110 DATA" f o r" 

120 DATA" " 

130 DATA "Diskette Directories Ha 
ndler" 

140 DAT A" Programs DIRl, DIR2 and 



124 THCMINOOW jtaimi) 1*103 



From the programmer that brought ZAXXON 
to the Color Computer," 
Moreton Bay Software proudly presents 
BJORK BLOCKS. 




An incredible graphic utility! Now ybu can destgn grapics jus! like the masters. You can even animate! User friend- 
ly Precision drawing. Precision Color selection. Fully menu driven Only one joystick needed for menu selection 
and graphic creation Compressed data storage or load and save 6K binary files Almosi impossible to crash 
Create your own graphic adventure screens Limitless applications in communication, education and program 
development Read the October review by Rainbow's Technical Editor. 



Pictures created 
with Bjork Blocks 




Requires 32K Extended Basic 
(64K tor animation) 

534,95 Tape or Disk 
SPECIAL: Bjork Blocks and Oraphlcom $55.00 



DOUBLE DRIVER 

The BEST monitor driver 
available Color composite, 
monochrome and audio 
output For original CoCo 
D, E and F boards. $24 95 

Mono II for Color Computer 
2. An excellent mono- 
chrome monitor driver that 

has audio output also 524.95 Specify model needed. 

64K UPGRADES 




Pretested, 
Guaranteed. 



lasiantly access 64 K via 
M't totally solderless kit lo 
upgrade E Beards. Kit in 
etudes eight 4164 prime 
chips and chips U29 and 
U11 already soldered E 
Board Kit $69 95 
Color Computer 2 kit re- 
quires soldering 564 95 



MINI MOUTH 



Add sound to your mule 
monitor. Hear the bells and 
whistles of your software 
again No batteries 
Solderless installation For 
CoCo I D, E and F boards 
and CoCo 2 £24.95 



/ 




■ Ordering informal ion ^— * 

AiJtf $2 00 slutp.nn rind rwindUng p^r ortior yv<? ship yumm Z4 uaun 
on feceip* of ardor Bin? I rilMl Smvmn av sit owe Colitorme tes<teml* 
add 6^1 snios itu 



GRAPHICOM 

Buy Graph rcom Irom us and get one of our unique picture 
disks (reel Gel our improved picture disk one also 
Graphicom is an excellent graphic uMity. See the Rainbow 
review Requires 64 K EXB Disk Drive and Joy Sucks 
THREE Disks and the manual lor only £29 95 

100^o New Graphicom Picture Disks $15.95 

jHBODEFOHi 

Caligraphy Stamp Set Disk J KLrNG PQ R 

STUVHXY2 



i mm 



Adventure Disk I On door 
scenes and objects) 



Adventure Disk II 
(outdoor scenes) 



MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Say Laboratory 

316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA. 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
[80 5 J 962-3127 



MORE BUSINESS -Ver 3.12 The preferred business 
package Completely interactive General Ledger 
Accounts Receivable Accounts Payable. Customer 
Statements. Mailing Label?. Pro lit/ Loss Balance Sheet 
Statements Our most powerful business package Buy 
the best' 

32K Disk R/S DOS S99 95 



'Zaxxon Reg TM Sega Corp 

* Color Computer Reg TM Tandy Corp. 



D1R3 W 

130 DATA"Copyright 1984 by Marv 
Swan' 1 

1&0 DATA" " 
170 DATA" ■ 

180 DflTfl n The Diskette Dl rector! » 
5 Hand 1 mr system consists of 3 p 
rogrinti" 

190 DATA" that generate all your 
diskette directories information 

onto" 

700 DATA* 1 7 comprehensive reports 

210 DATA" * 
220 DATA" " 

230 DATA"Minimum computer system 

requi reeents; " 
240 DATA" # 32K OF RAM" 
230 DATA" ♦ EXTENDED DISK BASIC 
260 DATA" ♦ 1 DISK DRIVE" 
270 DATA"* * i TAPE DRIVE" 
280 DATA" # 1 PRINTER" 
290 DATA" " 

300 DATA "Pr oar am DIR1 explanstio 



310 DATA" 
I RECTORIES 
320 DATA" 



» READ ALL DISKETTE D 
IN YOUR SYSTEM" 

AND EXTRACT INFORMA 



TION ABOUT ALL YOUR PROGRAMS It F 

ILES" 

330 DATA™ * GENERATE TAPE WORK 
FILE OF DIRECTORIES CONTAINED ON 

ALL DISKETTES" 
340 DATA" * PRINT (OPTIONAL* *E 
X TRACT & LOAD DIRECTORIES' REPQR 
T #1" 

350 DATA" # STORE DISKETTE NAME 
S & U9AQE IN TABLE" 
360 DATA" # SORT DISKETTE NAMES 
TABLE" 

370 DATA" * PRINT (OPTIONAL) *D 
ISKETTE NAMES p REPORT #2" 
380 DATA" * SORT DISKETTE USAGE 
TABLE" 

390 DATA" * PRINT (OPTIONAL) *D 

ISKETTE USAGE' REPORT #3" 

400 DATA" * TRANSFER TAPE WORK 

FILE TO DISK WORK FILE ON DRIVE 

0" 

410 DATA" * READ DISK WORK FILE 
AND PRINT (OPTIONAL) DISKETTE J 
ACKET- 

420 DATA 4 ' LABEL* DIRECTORY RE 
PORT #4" 

430 DATA" # THIS PROGRAM PASSES 
THE DISK WORK FILE ON DRIVE 0 T 




Mouse Technological Software 
For The Color Computer! 



Many Companies caff their 
Home and Business Software 
User Friendly . . . 



ONLY ONE CALLS IT 




Child's may 




Send for 
FREE Catalog 



TCE BUSINESS DIVISION 
P,0,BO*24?7 
GAITHEflSBUBG .MO 20373 

1 tiOU 963-3848 



126 THc RAINBOW Jfl.fuarY 



O PROG DIR2 AND ✓OR DIR3" 

440 DATA" * THIS PROGRAM LINKS 

AMD CALLS LK> PROGRAM DIR2 OR D1R 

3 ON DRIVE 0 n 

450 OAT A'* * 

460 UATA "Program DIR2 e»:planatio 
n: " 

470 DATA" # THIS PROGRAM IS RUN 

AFTER PROGRAM DIRl" 
4B9 DATA" # READ DISK WORK FILE 

GENERATED BY PROGRAM DIRl FROM 
DRIVE 0" 

490 DATA" # PRINT "DISKETTE GUM 

LABELS' REPORT #5" 
500 DATA" * THIS PROGRAM LINKS 
AND CALLS UP PROGRAM DIR3 ON DRI 

510 DATA" " 

520 DATA "Program DIR3 vxplanat io 

OS" 

530 DATA" * THIS PROGRAM IS RUN 

AFTER DIRl OR DIR2" 
540 DATA*' * READ DISK WORK FILE 

GENERATED BY PROGRAM DIRl " 
550 DATA" * SORT DISK WORK FILE 
, IN RAM, TO PROGRAMS tt FILES SE 
GUENCE " 

560 DATA" # PRINT 1 CONS OL I DATED 

DIRECTORIES' REPORT #6" 
570 DATA"* * PRINT 'DISKS DIRECT 
□RY SUMMARY > REPORT H7" 
590 DATA" H 

590 DATA" record layout of tape w 
ork -file & disk work file: 1 ' 
600 DATA" * RECORD SIZE = 42 BY 
TES* 1 

610 DATA' 1 # 01-00 - 0S BYTE - N 
AME OF PROGRAM OR DATA FILE" 
620 DATA' 1 * 09-11 - 03 BYTE - E 
XTEN5I0N 1 ' 

630 DATA" ♦ 12-12 - 01 BYTE = F 
ILE FORMAT CODE " 

640 DATA" * 

A - ASCII" 
650 DATA" * 

B - BINARY" 
660 DATA" * 13-13 * 01 BYTE * F 
ILE TYPE CODE ■ 

670 DATA" * 

0 « BASIC PROGRAM" 

6S0 DATA" * 

1 « DATA FILE" 

690 DATA" » 

2 * MACHINE LAN0UA0E PROGRAM" 
700 DATA" * 

3 ' ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM" 
710 DATA" * 14-15 - 02 BYTE - N 
UMBER OF GRANULES" 

720 DATA" # 16-21 • 06 BYTE - N 



UMBER OF BYTES" 

730 DATA" * 22-41 - 20 BYTE - N 
AME OF DISKETTE" 

740 DATA" # 42-42 * 01 BYTE * S 
FECIAL CODE USED BY PROGRAM DIRl 

750 DATA" ft 
*% r IDENTIFIES EVERY OTHER DISK 
ETTE DURING DIRl AND DIR2" 
760 DATA 1 * " 

770 DATA"Prlnter brands: * 
780 DATA" * ALL PROGRAMS PRINT 
ON ANY PRINTER, HOWEVER, REPORT" 
790 DATA" TITLES ARE DESIGNED 

& CODED TO PRINT ENLARGED LETTE 
RS USING" 

800 DATA** EPSON CODES. TO MO 
DIFY FOR OTHER PRINTERS, LOOK AT 
LINES: " 

810 DATA" * DIRl: 0820 0630 

26S0 3790" 
920 DATA" * DIR2: 0510 0960 

1020 1030 1040 1330" 
830 DATA" * DIR3; 0490 0740 

840 DATA" " 

O50 DATA"High speed poke:*' 
860 DATA*' * THE FOLLOWING PRDGR 
AMS USE THE HIGH SPEED POKE FOR" 
G70 DATA" FAST SORTING- TO T 
AKE OUT THE POKE, LOOK AT LINES: 

880 DATA" * DIRl: 0820" 

890 DATA "END" 

900 VERIFYON:CLS2:PRINT«l f " DISK 
ETTE DIRECTORIES HANDLER "isPRIN 
T940," DOCUMENTATION " ( 
910 PRINT8129, " r*ady THE PRINTE 
ft " I £ PR I NTd 1 93 , " pr»»» ENTER WHE 
N READY " I 

920 K-INKEY*: IFI*»" "GOTO920 

930 PR1NT92B9," PRINTING, 

* » '* I 

940 PRINT&384, 

950 RE ADA*; IFA*< > " END " THENPR I N T # 
-2,A*:GOTO950 

960 END m 



CO CO -ADS 

A MONTHLY CLASSIFIED NEWSPAPER 

FOR THE COCO OHER - SELL YQlfi USED ITEMS, 
CIRCLLATIM OF DUER 15,000 - mfl SURE TO 
SELL. SUBSCRIPTION IS OftLY $5,00 A TEAR 
CLASSIFIED AOS ARE ONLY .25 PER WJRD. DISPLAY 
AOS AVAILABLE. PLEASE HAVE CHECKS PAYABLE TO 
P D SOFTWARE PO BO* 1312* HOUSTON TX 77219 



January 1BBS TMEfUiNAdW 127 



GAMEM ASTER'S APPRENTICE 



Designing Your Own 
Adventure 



By George Firetlrake and Art Canfil 
Rainbow Contributing Editors 



If you have never played a role playing game and w^nl (u 
begin playing, try a p lay-by *maiL (PBMJ game Flying 
Buffalo Inc created the play- by-mail mdusliy Anyone 
can learn to play these games. No previous gaming cxntr- 
rience is required. 

Begin by getting the rules for the game you play from 
Flying Buffalo Inc., Dcpt, CMA, P.O. Box 1467, Scons* 
dale, AZ B52S2-J467. Below are names of PBM garner and 
I he prices for the rules. 



- STAR WEB 


S2.00 


» HEROIC FANTASY 


1 00 


- BATTLE PLAN 


0.50 


- NUCLEAR DESTRUCTION 


0.25 


- GALACTIC CONFLICT 


1,00 


-STAR LORD 


1.00 


BOARD OF DIRECTORS 


fl.25 


- FEUDAL LORDS 


too 


Lait time we suggested yap sign 


up for HEROIC 



FANTASY and make a move every two weeks or once 
a month. First get the rules, then design a party of 
Adventurers and scad them in as described in the rules, 
of co ui sc. 

Your characters can be human or otherwise. Each 
character is u fighter or magic-user, but not both. The 
strength (STR) of a character is used Co attack other 
characters tjr murisicrs, lo defend oneself and cuhcri. cdst 



(George Firedrake, a,k.iL Bob Athrecht. is one of the 
most prolific authors m the microcomputer world 
today, A specialist in writing for beginners, he is 
author of numerous hooks including TRS-&0 Color 
BASJC. Art Canfii enjoys designing games- and writ- 
ing- He is co-author o/Taipan: A Game In Context. ) 



tmigie spells, iind nunirrmis uhcr things. The constitution 
(CON) of a character determines the amount of damage 
a character can withstand and continue living. Each 
character iypc has a price (COST). Here arc all possible 
character types. 



f OlJf 


KINDRED 


CLASS 


STR 


CON 


COST 


F 


Fairy 


FTghier 


1 




1 


I 


Fairy 


Magk-user 


1 




2 


C 


Gremlin 


Fighter 


3 


A 


3 


L 


Leprechaun 


M agio user 


3 


4 


4 


H 


Hobbit 


Fighter 


5 


IS 


5 


H 


Habbit 


Magk-user 




IS 


7 


K 


Goblin 


Fighter 


7 


20 


6 


P 


Human 


Fighter 


15 


JO 




P 


Human 


Magic-user 


10 


.10 


1 1 


E 


Elf 




25 


25 


IS 


E 


til 


Magic-user 


20 


25 


|| 


D 


flu ;irl 


Fighter 


30 


40 


23 


D 


Dwarf 


Magic-user 


30 


40 


3 b 


O 


Ogre 


Fighter 


35 


40 


29 


O 


Ogre 


Magic-user 


35 


JD 


4b 


T 


rroll 


Fighter 


50 


50 


5- 


\ 


Giant 


Fighter 


Ml 


bO 


72 



For any character, you may choose the name and whether 
the character is male or female. 

You assemble a party of Adventurers by "buying" up to 1 5 
characters You have 100 points to spend in acquiring 
char jitters. 



You have 100 points to spend, 



12B 



Let s iry ii. For our first group, how about u big guy and 
14 uny helpers? Our group consisis of a giam and 14 fairy 
mngiouscr*. 

QTV KINDRED CLASS STB CON POINTS 

I Giant Fighter hO f»0 72 

14 I-uiry MajiHMhv,! 14 J 4 2* 

TOTALS 74 74 100 

Or. instead of 14 fairies, lei's try seven Icpredtauns, 



QTV KINDRED CLASS STR CON 

I Giam Ftghlcr ftO 6(1 

7 Leprechaun Magic-user 21 28 

TOTALS KJ 



POINTS 

72 
28 

too 



The second bunch if higher in hoih STR and CON than 
l he fir si group, 

VWn.n [ ; i(uJi?. k - .i\ sci iu r c h in remm the rmj! ti- Un^ 
druin T his group included bobbin, humans, elves, and 
dwjirvc;. (plus GoLlum, of course) I efs put together our 
own Fellowship of the Rmy 



QTV 


KINDRED CLASS STR 


CON 


POINTS 


2 


Hobbtt 


Fighter 10 


30 


10 


2 


Hob hi i 


Magic-user K 


30 


14 


1 


Human 


Fighlet IS 


30 


9 


I 


Human 


Magic-user 10 


IQ 


I 1 


1 


Dwnri 


Fighlct 30 


40 


23 


1 


Elf 


Fighter 25 


25 


(S 


1 


Elf 


Magic-user 20 


25 


IH 






1 1 K 


21ft 


100 



Thi* Adventuring pany has much mure iota! CON and 
S t R ihun either previous group. Of course, we rwHj doiu 
know wlut is important unlit wc send one ot our group 1 , mm 
l he labyrinth nnd find out what happen*, 

YOUR TURN. Design yotJi own bunch nf Adteniurers 
Kc mem her, you have 100 point* to spend and you can!>clcct. 
at the most P 1 5 Advent urerik Choose a name for each char- 
acter iind decide who is male and who as temaLc. 

CoCo Can Help Design A Group 

The ratios of STR to COST and CON to COST might he 
useful indexes to help design a group of Ad venturers. Here 
arc some exam plus 

FaiTy fiahler 5TK. POINTS-! CON POJ ti TS= I 

Fairy mnjjic user. SIR POINTS-. 5 CON, POl NTS- 1 
Gnblin tighter; SI R POINTS-! 17 CON POINTS™ J.«7 

Goblins arc durable, compared to their eosu while fairies 
are fragile, relative In their cost. You can buy n lot of CON 
for your money by -Mocking up on goblins! 

We have in mind several program* to help design Adven- 
turing I earns and play HEROIC FANTASY First, we need 
u database of information aboul character types Here it is: 

32000 REM**HERDIC FANTASY 0HA 21 
32002 REM**CH ARAC TER TYPES 
32004 REM**CODE* , K I N» , CLASS* , STR 



p CON,PTS 








DATA 


F, 


FAIRY, F, i f i T l 


32^20 


UH 1 r-t 


f, 


FAIRY, M, 1,1,2 




DATA 


B , 


BREMLINpF,3,4,3 


32040 


DATA 




LEPRECHAUN, M, 3,4, 4 


32050 


DATA 


H, 


HOBBIT, F,5, 15,5 


32060 


DATA 


H, 


HOBBI T p M, 4 » I5p7 


32070 


DATA 


K, 


□OBL I N f F , 7 , 20 , 6 


32000 


DATA 


P, 


HUMAN, F, 13,30,9 


32090 


DATA 


P f 


HUMAN, M, 10, 30i 1 1 


32100 


DATA 


E f 


ELF, F, 25, 25, 15 


321 10 


DATA 




ELF, M, 20, 25, IS 


32 1 20 


DATA 




DWARF, F, 30, 40, 23 


321 30 


DATA 


D, 


DWARF , M, 30, 40, 36 


32140 


DATA 


0, 


OGRE, F, 35, 40,29 


32150 


DATA 


0, 


OBRE,M f 33,40, 4A 


32160 


DATA 


T i 


*r&i~ii J p Wis* m ■ 

TRQLL , F , 50 , 50, 57 


32170 


DATA 


X, 


GIANT, F, 60,60,72 


321B0 


DATA 


ti 


ENDFILE, Z f 0,0,0 



I hi?i is a sm.ill il:ita iile o mounts til LS rvcortK Each 
record contains information about one character type. For 
instance: 



32010 DATA/. FAIRY. K, I 
Cb6 



i i >v r, rniRi . r, i, . 

/ t \ ^ 

DDE KINDRED CL, ASS S 



STB CON POINTS 



Line 32004 tcl!i you. ihc namcjtol the variable* thm we will 
use to store informal ion Trout a PA TA stnimeni 

32004 REM**CGDES + KINS, CLASSSJiTRjrON. PTS 
32060 DATA H. HOHBl I . M. 4^5.1 

The last record, called ENDFtLE, with CODES = "Z", 
noi a character type. It is the End -ol- File ttO¥) record 

32180 DATA Z.ENDHl.E, Z h 0, (1.0 
s ¥ f 



<Vu matt want J* iti the file. l 



Wc have written i*o programs that use ihe itata iVIt o| 
HEROIC FA NTASY character lypev. 

The SCAN CHA HA If EH IYFHS program begins Hi 
Line 1000 It kuyou&can thceuliie Htc. Forunit.lype Rf \ 
or RUN I tm, h begins like this. 



F F AIRY Fill 
TO DO AGAIN, PRESS SPACE BAR 



SPACE BAR e» tn 
ravin* color. 



Pre** (he tpacc bar and you get ihc next record. 

F FAIRY Fill 
F FAIRY Mill 
G DO AtiAIN. PRESS SPACE BAR 



JinuA^y "«H5 THE AAiHBOW I J9 



Keep prc»*mg Ihe space bar until you sec 1 5 records Lin the 
screen. Pros I he spate bai again lo gel ihe fnth record I he 
lop record is "pushed off the lop of ihe acreciT and 
disappear*. 

Keep preying Ihe space bar until E-NDHLE appt-arvm 
t in. 1 tumoral o! the screen, Pfe» the -.paLL- bin a^itn .jruj 
CoCo *tarls over with the Urn rccurd 

The COMPUTE COST R A T/OS program begins u< Line 
200ft T\ pe fit \ 2QfJQ to run this program. First you we: 



CODES SIR CON 
I CLASS* I / 

ill// 

F F I i I 



PTS COURTS 
STR PT5. 



F I 1 I I J" 
TO DO AGAIN. PRESS SPACE BAR 



reverse color 

This program works tne same way a* ihe SCA \' CHAR- 
ACTER TYPES program. Each lime you prew the ipacc 
bar, you see nnothcr line of information near the bottom 
of the screen. U you see ENDFILE and press the space 
bar, Ihe CoCo statu over at the top uf ihe data file 

Here are Nun programs and the subroutines ihey use. 



The listing: 



10000 
END 



195 



1 



i REM*»HERQIC FANTASY QUA 21-1 
1000 REM**SCAN CHARACTER TYPES 
1010 CLS 

1020 RESTORE * START AT TOP 

1030 BO SUB 11010 'READ RECORD 
1040 009 UB 12010 'SHOW RECORD 
1090 0OSU8 10010 'TELL HOW AGAIN 

1099 * 

1100 REM#*3TART OVER IF ENDFILE 
1110 IF KIN*- "ENDFILE" THEN 1020 

ELSE 1030 



1 l*?9 ■ 

2000 REh##CDMPUTE COST RATIOS 
2010 CLS 

2020 RESTORE * START AT FOP 

2030 609UB 11010 * READ RECORD 
2040 BOS US 13010 * COST RATIOS 
2050 BOSUB 14010 * SHOW RATIOS 
2060 BOSUB 10010 * TELL HOW AGAIN 
209? * 

2100 REM##START OVER IF ENDFILE 
2110 IF K I N*= u ENDFILE" THEN 2020 

ELSE 2030 
2179 ' 

10000 REM>*DO ABA IN SUBROUTINE 

10010 PRINT »4S0 f "TO DO AGAIN, 

PRESS space bar "i 

10020 IF !NKEY* fc " '* THEN 10020 

ELSE RETURN 

10099 * 

11000 REM»«READ RECORD SUBR. 

11010 READ CODE*, KINS, CLASS*, STR 

» CON, PTS 

1 1020 RETURN 

11099 ■ 

12000 REH**SHOW RECORD SUBR, 
12010 PRINT 94B0, CODE* TAB<2> 
KIN* TAB (16) CLASS* TAB < 19) STR 
TAB { 23 J CON TAB<27> PTS 
12020 RETURN 
1^099 ' 

13000 REH**C03T RATIOS SUBR, 

13010 IF KIN*- "ENDFILE" THEN 

SC=0; CC-0: RETURN 

13020 SC - STR /PTS 

13030 SC = INT ( 100*SC«-.5> /100 

13040 CC - CON/PTS 

13050 CC - INT ( i00*CC-«-.5) /100 

13060 RETURN 

13099 * 



1$ a 



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Mrtti Civ NchUnfl ygur *ny 10 fractu. 
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VISA and Mssic'Caxd occcpied 




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Dr. Preble s Prngramt 

6541} Outer Loop 
LeufcsrfUe, ky 40228 
(502) 96fi.82o 1 
Canfidinns ma r oroer irorr Kelly Sohwate 



14000 REM>*5HOW COST RATIOS SUBR 
14010 PRINT 0430, CODE* TAB 1 2 J 
CLASS* TAB < 5) STR T Afcj < 9 > CON 
TAB (13) PTS TAB < 17) SC TAB<24>CC 
14020 RETURN 
1409 1 ? * 

Of course, remember io add I he data filt (lines 32000 
through 321801 tu the programs 

- To run SCA rV C£M RACTER TYPES f type J?i/JV or 
flLW /O00 and press fcS 1 1 R. 

- To run COMPUTE COST R A 7705, type RUN200& 
and press enter. 

These are "bare bones" programs. Try your hand at 
Improving ihem. Also think about other programs to help 



you design an Adventuring team and guide them as they 
explore the labyrinth. 



Who U A Character? 

A character is any imaginary person or other creature 
created according tu the rules of a game system. The charac- 
ters in HEROIC FANTASY quite simple. The charac- 
ter in /)ungt'ons & firagom or RunfQut'st are much more 
detailed .tud Loriip.i-\. < haryuier* in Athr>uurcr\ Hand- 
book are simplified versions of characters found in the very 
elegant RuneQuesi system. 

We need a way of recording a character's characteristics, 
abilities, knowledge, possessions* and anything else we want 
to remember Below is a blank character record. You may 
copy it for your own use. 



Character Name . 
Background 



. Age. 



_ Race _ 



STR 

CON 

SIZ 

INT 

POW 

DEX 

CHA 



HIT PTS. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 

il 12 13 14 15 16 17 IS 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 



Idea 

Luck 

Dodge 

Persuade 



Armour _ 



POW PTS. 



01 23456789 10 



SKILLS 

CLIMB 
FIRST AID 
HIDE 
JUMP 
LISTEN 

MOVE QUIETLY 
SPOT HIDDEN 
SWIM 
THROW 



11 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 



WEAPONS DAMAGE ATTACK PARRY BRK PTS. 



SPELL 



SPELL 



% 



EQUIPMENT MONEY 



Januirf 1W5 THE RAINBOW 133 



Last lime wc showed yoti the character record for Aloys- 
ious Anonymous a very average character. Now men 
Rokana 



'J 11 14 4ft 1 



1 J * f « j • ©13 

||) ii ni: » ll b h a 



has u 35 percent chance oi vuccessfulfy casting a H E A L I NG 
spell and a 25 percent chance with PROTECTION or 
LIGHT. 

Next time we will lake A I sinus, Rokana s and perhaps 
some other character* to a county fair where they can have a 
wonderful time exercising Their skills. In ihc meantime W* 
suggest you do some homework. Dig out The following iMtk 
issuer oE THfi (t ai\K£ jw and read "Game Master's Apprentice. 

August 19»3 - pages 74-78 
October mi - pages 170-174 
November \%1 pages J 40, 1 44. 146. 34K 

Do any of you want us to run a small play -by-matt game".' 
In lhi>igame r you would ran one character like Aloysious or 
Knkana Vou take your character to a county fair. Today 
I hey arc called "Renaissance Fairer" but m the world of 
A toy si nut ami Koka.ua ificy were contemporary fair*. 

No previous experience is needed to play our play -by -mai I 
game Y our only costs will be a copy o\ Atlvvmurrr \ Hatut* 
bonk and some self-addressed, stamped envelopes. If you 
wu.ru Hi play, send a vt-lf-addressed. stamped cm elope 
DragonFun, PO. Box 310. Menlo Park, CA 94026. 



Rofcana is a beginning magic-user. She has learned three 
magic speils called HEALING, PROTECTION, and 
LIGHT However, she has not yet mastered these spells. She 



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134 



THE RAlhSOW Jarxunry IS66 



FEELING 
HELPLESS? 

YOU NEED TO 
LEARN A 
LESSON ! 






MICRO LANGUAGE LAB: 
LEARNING THE 6809 

reeding ar I he mercy of a program 
I mcr wmewhere"' Mystified by a 
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iplua f 5 50 shipping and handling) 

Stjt sure? Writr ur tall far a Table nf 
Content* and sample pages — and vour 
i II Teach Tun 
A teMJf 
button! 



ALSO AVAILABLE FROM GREEN MOUNTAIN MICRO 



(AM tj. 5fi ibtftptrif; awl bimlhng lo \»ttr 
<jniert 

LowerkJt III 

* Foil time upper and lowercase installs 
In 15 minute* 

■ Normal and reverse video standard 

• Fully compatible with ail Alpha and 
Graph ir modes 

S79-95 assembled and tested 
149 95 complete kit of parts 
fmptirtont* Sjmify (friar Computer or 
Oihr Computer H 

TV HufT 11, clear image for video 
monitors, 119 95 (specify CoCo or CoCo2) 



CoCoPvrt parallel interface I now in 
dudes plastic case), 95 / U \ 9$ Hi 

ColorPaek R0M/lAlf N& S2 l l.9S 
i specify configuration) / S19.95 kit cast 
13 (Hi extra 

ft -ik memory upgrade kit wiih full in 

5Uintlons, W9 *tf i with memory test on 
tape, 5 54,95 

Color Quaver Software Music Syn- 
thcMjer on tape I requires 32MK), 

Color Burner ETOM Programmer 
C'lo -'J CA.-fc-MHA-li-s i-.s-i.-h .,,„ a i"|i 
software, J69 9S I S% $$ kit 




User Group. Educational. Club and 
thaler UisiMLHH- .in jviNahlc 

TKS-Mn 4hU fl01M)> ,rr trjilenurk* <<t liuM O 

pemat fin h i iwJmui of TSC bt OS-* I* 
i ir.idrnLjjk til Wn hiwirc CoqKimtotl 

Green Mountain Micro 

Bathory Road, Box R 
Roxburv, Vermont 05669 
802 4854112 

Huurv ^iam >pm EST. Monday Friday 
CUC/VLSA/MASTERi^Hli 



j 11 n £jd=s 



SOME INTERESTING THINGS, ate 

being done in advanced information 
storage technology in Japan by Nippon 
Columbia parent of Denon America, 
Inc. Nippon Columbia, credited with 
developing d i jj 3 1 ll I audio recording in 
1972. hits applied the technology of the 
Compact Disc to a very hi^h capacity 
read-only memory storage system for 
personal computers, Dubbed the CD- 
ROM, the new disc has the same 
compact dimensions (4>,i inches) and 
uses the same type of laser pickup 
"player" mechanism as the audio 
L orn pact Disc 

The primary ad vantage of the CD- 
ROM is ils 5 50- megabyte storage 
capacity on one bide — the equivalent 
memory potential of 500 to L000 
conventional 5 '/4-inch floppy disks. 
Additionally^ the optical CD-ROM and 
ils drive mechanism is free from 
magnetic mishaps and head/drive 
problems that plague the more conven- 
tional magnetic media and it has a built- 
in error detection and correction 
system 

For more information about the CD- 
ROM system, contact Robert Hciblim, 
Denon America, Inc. 11 Law Drive. 
Fairfield, NJ 07006; (201) 575-7810. 



I'Hfc PRINTED WORD. Several re- 
cently released books are now available 
that Color Computer user* might find 
interesting. First in the Lineup arc 77?*' 
Computer Blue Book and the Orion 
Buyer's Guide U* Computer^ published 
by Orion Research, 1 3 ] 5 Main Avenue, 



Suite 230 T Dura ago. CO &H0I Both 
bonks arc industry reference guides for 
both I he buyer and seller in the 
marketplace and are available for 
£49.50 apiece. 

Next we come to Digital Deli, 
authored by "the Lunch Group and 
Guests" and edited by Steve ITU tea. 
Rilled as ~lhc computer hook with the 
human touch," this book combines 
contributions from 140 authors and 
artists into a 400-page potpourri of 
cc mp liter lore and culture and techno- 
logical trivia. Digital Deii is available 
for $12 95 from Workman, I West 39 
Street, New York, NY 10018. 

If you're interested in success norics. 
there is The Computer Entrepreneurs, 
.1 lnoh .ii She htti^-sc RMfcAl in ihe 
computer industry and how they made 
it to the top. Wriuen by Robert 
Levering, Michael KatJ and Milton 
Moskowilz, The Computer Entrepre- 
neurs is an intimate portrait of ihesc 
nfw enliurnl heroes )l is currently 
available for S 19.95 from NAL Books, 
1633 Broadway, New York, NY 10019, 

Finally, we come to a two-volume 
reference scl entitled Abbreviations: 
The Comprehensive Dictionary of 
Abbreviations and letter Symbols for 
the Computer Era { i I pro bah ly I oo k 1 wo 
volumes just to gel the name across the 
cover). The title pretty well says it all 
excepl that the volumes are arranged 
separately; one contains words In 
abbreviations and the other contains 
abbreviations to words. Abbreviations 
Wiis ami piled hy C I 'dwiiriJ Wall and 
i L ' k-i:rTt'nits available lot S^v through 



Pierian Press, P.O. Bo* I SOB, Ann 
Arbor, MM Hi 06. 

* * • 

BACK ON THE LINE. Glancing at a 
couple of the information networks this 
month, CompuServe Incorporated has 
Linn on need lhal I hey hnvc cnlcrLrd into 
a joint agreement with Video Financial 
Services of Dallas, Texas, to expand 
their home and small business market 
for video banking by persona] computer. 
Under the agreemcnl T all CompuServe 
subscribers will be able to conduct 
transactions electronically with any 
bank in the country linked through 
Video Financial's computer gateway 
facilities. CompuServe will be the first 
nationwide computer network to offer 
ibis service, winch is expected to he 
jctivc on the sysicm hy March of 1985. 
For more information, contact Carl 
Byoir Sl Associates, Inc., 401 North 
Michigan Avenue* Chicago, IL 6061 1; 
(312] 527-5100. 

The Business Computer Network has 
recently announced that tbev have 
added K night -Riddcr's VU'TEXT to 
iheir system. This means that their 
subscribers can now get the full le&r 
of the Washington Post, the Philadel- 
phia Enquirer and the Miami Herald. 
with plans to have ihe Boston Globe 
online by the end of the year and the 
Chicago Tribune, Detroit Free Press 
and the Associated Press's Datastream 
soon after that. For more information, 
contact Business Computer Network, 
Inc , 1000 College Viow Drive. Riverton, 
WY H250L or call Fred Rackmil at 
Howard J. Rubcnstcin Associates. 
(212) 489-6W. 




136 THE. MJUhHUW hn ,nr T "Hi!:- 




Spectrum Adventure 
Generator 





Trie Spectrum Adventure Generator 
(SAG) allows you to create silent and 
talking adventure yarnefi thai are 
lOO'o machine language and ver* fast 
in execution. Up to 99 rooms, 255 
objects, 70 commanrt woron and 255. 
conditional trails can tie used. Get a 
head start in rW*l month's Rainbow 
Adventurei Contest NOW< 
QISK S3Sr,!J5 

Not m * Talking version requ»res 
Spectrum Proiocts 1 Voice Pak. a Disk 
"V" Cable or Muhtpak ana 



Quotes Iron* Jorge Mir (#1 CcCo Adventure 
Expert) from Oec*84 Rainbow Review - 

"Overall, I trunk this is o great System tor those 
<ntoresled in writing adventures, l| sure eliminates a 
lot o* ttnie involved m developing thum and allows 
the nan -programmer to devutop some very interesting 
Adventures since no programming knowledge is 
required. Try SAG, you'lt like It?" 



THE RAINBOW BOOKSHELF 

The Complete Rainbow Guide To OS-9 ^ 

by +1 CoCo OS-9 Expert - Dale Puckett 0 \S 

Order NOW, as we expect huge bnckordere to possibly develop !if 

The Rainbow Book of Simulations 

Be an air traffic controller, Presidential candidate... 20 Super Simulations 
Book $9.95 Tape $9.95 

Please NOTE - Book & Tape are sold separately* There is NO documentation with Tape. 
ALL ORDERS PLUS S3. DO S H - NY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 



WEST DIVISION EAST DIVISION 

po box sees pd box 21272 

SAN JOSE, CA 95157-0866 WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 
□PDEP HOT LIMES - Sl 71B-441-2BQ7 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 
COLORFUL COMPUTING 



SPREADSHEET 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiM 



Scri«jn 32X16 51 K24 

PfflClsUki 9 digits 16 digits 
Hi-Res r.raphics NO US 
Visicalc cmd 1'untut NO TL5 
DYWCflLC now runs on CoCo DOS? 
N»v jnu prlc4?r BAK Bisk $79.95 
(see Sept T B4 Rainbow Rwviuw) 



DISK DRIVES 



Ufl 3 W. n Sysfcmn* - SxnqLd 5idod, 
*i0 Irks, Double Oonsi Ly 1299,95 
□l*h Drive 5 , ? or 3 - SI 63,96 
Single Clriwe PS A Case - 159. £b 
Bare DisH Drive - $129.95 
Disfc Crmtrol lor i*/n Hon 199,35 
Controller w/1.1 HOfl - $1.13,95 
• PLUS: con t r a U er -manual - cajjl e 



UTILITIES [DISK] 

minimnninnnniuamiuuiiiiinnmnn 

1. CoCo CalliyraphKr ..,$29.95 

2* FHL D-PMt ...$34.95 

J, 8jork Blocks $3* .95 

U. fluslca Z 139.95 

5. Super 5c teen rtachlne.$49,95 

6. FULL Basic Canpllar? ,169,95 

7. oETf Pascal 179,95 

9, flic:rr;Wr»rk<5 AACHD -90C , 199 . 95 

nnmnmn 




SAVE S5Q 1 





DATA BASE MANAGER 



PW -COLOR flU "tnhwwHf - 60 
Lint** I ielifs, 3 Report Fomuls, 
1020 bytes/record. Softs J 
Fields, 4 Screen Formats* 
Duplicate Record^ and I ieltfb* 
li 1 ooa 1 Search - Disk $79.95 

(SOU June f B6 *t,nnJinw ftevieui) 



GAME CONTROLLERS 

IQUlfllQiniDIMDIIIlDIi 

kraphiijtgi Joystick - Has 2 Ftro 
buttons ( f ggjWpen J , smooth and 
easy joystick control - 124.95 
ftach II Joystick - 360 Degree 
control ulth canter return or 
analog positioning, "A rirst- 
cLosn perforeer... best feel of 
any Cot a Joystick..." - 139,35 



NEW PRODUCTS 




POKE 5 , PEEKS and ,..$7.95 

bOO POKES 4 PEEKS *1S.96 

LToCo 4QPln Project Board, $19,95 
ECHIWI IbX «yP8H Int ..,$4?9.9S 

128 K CORNER 
64K to 126K Upgrade - Specify 
D, E, f or CoCo ftodel [I, $99, 95 
' Match fpr izat CoCo proorana ! * 



IIIII1IIII1IHU11P 



WEST 



SPECTRUM 
PO BOX 9866 
SAN JOSE, CA 95157-0866 



PROJECTS CJIOT 

po box 21272 End I 

WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 



ALL ORDERS PLUS Sa.QG SHIPPING - NY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 
COLORFUL COMPUTING 



COMMUNICATION 



LULUflmiyi - A complete smar 
terminal panknqt?! Upload, 
Uojinlujd. Hi -Res (S1XZ6) 
ucrtttn, 300/ 1200 Baud, QTfUne 
Printing and much more, Mgmpak 
or Dish - $49.35 
(see Feb '84 Rainbow Rtruinw 




WORD PROCESSING 

aninniiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniffiTiMniniiTiini^ 

*»■ ^^^^^ 3 

;tLLUHIIttt-6ft ~ fop CoCu Word 
Prnr.fiR-,nr for 2 years! Three 
Mi-Res scream, true lt**ert*se 
characters, r ight ju&ti f ic«- 
tiuft, full screen editor. 
Tape $49,95 Otsfe $59.95 
( cee June 'B3 Raintjow ffwvltjv) 

Hiinnnni 



MODEMS 



THIHI -HOPE W - 300 Baud, 
□ r 1 g lute /Answer , Full Duple*, 
Direct Ccrmeet - $79.95 
J -CAT fludeift - Lowest priced 
autoTarcswcr modem - $123.95 
HAYES Auto Dial/Answer 12.19.95 
flHCHfjfj - Ja3/12CD Baud $299.95 



IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIK 



KEYBOARDS 






PRINTERS 



HOI: 

GEWINI 10X * 120 cos, 9*9 
tractor/f rlcllon Feed 1293 
ZLfolHl DaS^yL^eel ~ Ltr oual 
IB cps. bi-dir, M!j* - tJ-'.g 
(Parallel interfaces required: 
PflH Parallel Interface 
SAG IT ordered mJl th _ 
print ers t - $49.95 



MONITORS 



ttUMUCHRUHC Monitors - BDk24 
scfcenj plus 111 -Res w/AUDIO! 
Green - £99.35 Artier - $119.95 
BMC Color FWHtor - $263.95 
tflDEH PLUS - Video Interface 
for about monitors - $2^.95 
CoCo II (itooochrffw) ~ $29.95 
CoCo II (Color) Version - 539.95 



SAVE S10 



OFF COLORCOM/E WITH ANY MODEM 
OFF TELEWRITER-64 WITH ANY PRINTER, 
KEYBOARD OR MONITOR 



SAVE $10 



ORDER PHONE LINES : 713-441-2807 & 4Q&-243~4S6B 



GAME 



^ Hi-Res 

lowercase 
punctuation 

UTEWLfllETflW 




I'm su re ma n of you am bilious 
amateur prugra rumens arc familiRr 
with the profound message of K ISS, 
"Keep h Simpk, Stupid!" Yet wmc 
people never seem to team and continue 
slaving over thousand-Line programs 
for months, only to watch them die 
slowly before ihcir eyes on the screen, 
wondering where they went wrong. To 
me, the beauty of programming is that 
the moil successful programs arc 
usually the shnriesi. supported by a 
good idea* written in a few ho urn lime 
and gradual I v perfected over a period 
of week* 

This is true in the case of The 
interplanetary Fruit Fly. It's Short, 
simple and demonstrates a nifty fittfc 
technique for displaying pseud o high- 
resolulion graphics on the (est screen: 
lowercase punctuation.** 

You're probably asking, "A which?!" 



(Martin Kasle is an American high 
school student living in Brazil He 
develops programs for focal home 
computer owners on his Color 
Computer.) 

140 TH£ RAFNBOW JMntiVr 18K 



Let me explain. "Lowercase punctua- 
tion w is what I calf all the periods, 
commas, question marks, brackets, etc, 
which your trusty old CqCo uses, with 
a special twist. Using POKE*, we can 
display these punctuation marks and 
other characters the same way the 
computer displays lowercase letters: the 
white symbol on a click rectangular 
background, With these characters, 
using a little ingenuity, we can create 
just about any figure we please. 

These symbols cant be PR/S Ted. 
but, as 1 said before, the POKEs come 
to our rescue. I know some of you 
beginning programmers may shy away 
a little from POKEs. But don't worry, 
these POKEs are all addressed to the 
video RAM part of the computer, and 
can't interfere with its nurmal function- 
ing, so bear with me. 

The POKE addresses we are going 
to use range from 1024 to 1515. one 
location for every one of the 512 
characters on the test screen. Except 
for the symbols we're interested in, mail 
of the 256 characters available with 
POKE can be PRfNTed* some only 
with the use of CURS codes. To «ve 



lime, J have compiled a convenient list 
of the symbols we want and the value 
nl each 



0 - li 


3d =4 


51 "3 






52 '4 


!M 




53*5 


2* - • 


4J O 


54*6 




42- • 


55 = 7 


50-t 




56-1 


31 - - 


44*, 


57 =9 


12 ■ blKb naying 


k 15 - 


58 = : 


33 - 1 


46-. 


59 = 


34 = " 


47 ■= j 


M*< 


35'* 


4* = 0 


61 " 


3ft = 5 


49 t | 


62 -> 


37-% 


5I> = 2 


ft* = » 



Now, let's get to the point. Type in 
the program listing,, but be careful f 
There is one of those useful but 
occasionally dastardly speed up POKEs 
in Line 5. Before you run ihe program, 
Rave it on tape, IT you want to run il 
before that, delete Line 5 and add it 
again when you're ready to save- 
After the opening title, m green stripe 
appears all he top of the otherwise black 
screen displaying Ihe current score, high 
score Mild numhrr nf shots remaining. 



Special price good with purchase of any Talking Software below! 
Offer expires Feb 15, 1985. All PAKs work w/$29.95 Disk *Y* cable! 




Talking CoCo BINGO - Same as the popular yame of BINGO but this one talks! 
Contains 20 Bingo player cards, 200 markers with complete documentation. 
Additional features: Color Graphics! 3 ttmmg levels, ball count and pause control 
piub Disk compatible, 32K EXT $24.95 

Talking Final Countdown You must stop the matt general from launching a missle 
at the Russians and causmg WW III < Has multiple voices for added realism, 
32K EXT $24.95 

Educational Software - Computer lsiand*S educational oragrams turn your CoCo 
into a true teaching machine, Reinforce basic lessions witn the aid or voice. 
Three/pak special includes Math Drill, Spelling Tester and Foreign Lanquaaes. 
HiK EXT $24.95 

Talking Adventure Generator - Create Uikmy .id venture yames thai n ■ 
Machine Language and very fast in execution. Up to 99 rooms, 255 objects, 70 
command words and 255 conditional flags. Get a heart scan m trie Rainbow 
Adventure contest NOW' 64K Disk $39.95 {see Dec'34 Rainbow Review) 

Term Talk - A speaking smart terminal program tor your CoCo. U contains all the 
features of an intelligent communications package, plus it talks! {Stiades of War 
Games) 16K EXT Tape $39.95 Dish $49.95 (see Mar'84 Rainbow Review) 



Alt orders plus $3,00 S/H - NY Residents add sales tax 
SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

WEST DIVISION : EAST DIVISION ; 

PO BOX 9SS6 PO BOX 21272 

SAN JOSE, CA 95157-0866 WOODHAVEM, NY 1 1421 

ORDER HOT LINES : 408-243-4558 & 718-441-2807 



COLORFUL UTILITIES 



3»r»e;Mfig possibly wron^ wlT" *cmr Coto^"'" O5C0 P-iECKER rrw A.itt>vcrf t Will test your HQa.**, 
*VW^e, Oish Drivr* * ComruHor, Fnnt«tr, KayboanJ. C^&3^1.te, ajy>h-fcfi. Souml, PW*, VQG, inT-irrwi 
CIOf> Soood, and iFM-|r«» IGK fAP£/DlSK $19:95 



Bkivc ROMPAK* tn ymir MK Oiak r t y stem u^Tig tne «S Mult'-Pah Intertill Elitnbi 
pjufljjlflfl *» Of t^0*APAHiv ito* t>v keop*flfl a-l your PAK ao/twin? on tli«k, Ifteludfefl 
"PROBLEM" FWMPAK*. L«SK $24.95 



1 to rornit.iM 
PQfcEl lor 



^JtJ'v banal** vtu'tmm* *tlo auto lundeis, i»d baaoefs, no EOF PT*rkisfV5, unm&ool S»J« plOpkl nm! 
•r«ii'« l Htw 11 Ik- 'jfT,v in gar your topi iOHwaflfl GOUtJCltof protect eg «. fujuiritt urssJP* I A.i>fc $24*95 



BtiLfe gv^ryt huts tip 
*r*y <k yet tflat 
3?K DISK $29,95 



Trna amaz»>g proar=a,m i>4JH3l<*4 u ndft ttamirifd" Ui&'Ks- Willi *V«t bavfth'l Tntimt 

can*! hanlj^e. raon't «nef bo fraught witnout a bat * up. sgapn' Lowest pr»ce too! 



Ths Dest 9ere*n cfump program' fot tins Epson A G*imru pruttr** evor* Hove the. a^cm of STwiirifvJ 
in ftrttfw Ujwgw «' regular nr rtouote jiretf picture, 3am* taof A trwl 'or tifftprrtffom mid 

tijdfk OPol-h «*wsrs. tGK TAPE.' DISK $tfj;»5 



A nriuM i-tontiKt-a 
«Of I, move, tenau 

tjrogrnms. Sjbfll<? 



MZSSmM£MEME£SM 



A Icat de^gucr fdstpr to generate graorucs moan nattering *ttH mult r{tl« toot >Jiie.s* L&AturDftt 
tltnuawtnij anrt ibfcKne*«s, plu* spec 1 -&i pattern* rcr creative oackpr minds. Come* wnn a Fct»ien 
brim rouiirxr dtntl Letter H«ad Ottllty tn&t tor<erfao*n *<th Tele-*r*t.er-ti4 and aASjC . DISK V 
<i*ee Ally 'S* Romtoo* ftoviewJ 



Convert rtASJC ragms <nt£) mi»cri*rt(* larujuAgn, PfoUucff lutet ana com line t <:ort» tnan BAf.lC, 

lrate<?<r com pilot w/t6<*,-04W veirstonti ifiCflldOMii TAPt 



^avt? Ornc» tftd iJasifjn pro luaKm^ dJa^rvnn ps(n t i u 4B0X&4U p\x*l wmKsneot vte^Mi^ wlodq* 1 ,*. 
$49*9b («ee jar. '84 rta«nijow fteviovwl 



.A *irjt-crasft Buitelin Soafd p ( 'icxngc«« (rapeckaMy ijaarep towards CoQa u«ws„, itas ofdurlny 
auction io< rnoue ^t>o wnn: to ruft 3 mail-ordef tHttme*s„. si/opcirl^ Cofcir Grapr>n;&„. on<» niero pt^ce 
of work. 6Art DISK $9&95 July ^4 Rainbow 



Ufo your Cql^tj iu keop Uack oi your 
ct«t;k*i 32K/64K TAPE 



SPECTRUM DISTRIBUTORS 



CANADA 



BOO-36VS155 



MID-WEST 



312-73G-44Q5 



COLORFUL UTILITIES 



wmmmmsm 



Th© f=i$te&t Dj ftk colter everl W>H fcnnai 4»nj bre«jn, a ttis^tsttf in onl» one p^SS uud can make up 
la 4 Pian copies it OiKru ri *? ' f -j"j>wy Tt v must utility for every tJisi* owner. CM 5* $19-95 

l**e ^''J> *ti4 Rainbow <*e*new) 



Start your vV^ topel witn oazflirtfl tittc frames ToHa*pd hy prates signal POytttdown to tjfdOi I 

but*] itfK r^Pfi $19.90 



Aniijjt aft your SasjCv'WL_ inaQiMftb #ltti im pressive title screens using a "Mature 0* t<**t And 
ftra^WiL a < I&K TAPE $19*95 

■II 



Tap., j..! v.in v cm expanded 64< machine* WoX* a« addit n"ir»aJ flK, or HAM avattaule. Cop* 
c4.Hrit}gea to di$*i antf create d 32K, SPOOL hu^er for printing. Dl5« $21-95 {ser; July '83 ftauHKf* 
Review) 



A power tut package ittel trarislers taps to disk and aiiih to tape uutoniattcully* Lwi <an automatic 
iruiiy ul -i" Sflllrjo (ftffe progfdmi to taut* Ideal For Ra>nrjo* On Tap.e to cliRh. TAPC'DISK $24-96 
(sea Seal 'fid Rainbovt Review] 



Save and load casspttr nlos «t twice the Spwd 1 No* you ran Up_e jnd primer I'Q opefalions 
in | he hltfl aL'witi mode without a locked up ays tern or I/O EfltWOftS' *if you are tired of wniting lor 
tnoae long tapes *o load* 1 strongly reoorrurwftd triul ycu imy Ihll hot* utility." TAPE $21*95 July *K3 
Rainbow 



■EIS0lillI£l21 



Tra- u'litnatv Cuvo grapmca development tool with sophisticated editing oruvie* dnhMtkm, 
HrteooCimuntcatloriB Bnd punter support. Hi -Res graphics for only $24*95* vWSpectrum'i V-erjQ foot 
Switch $3435. DISK <te© April '64 Rainbow Review) 



A truly user tngndly data base program at an atforoAMe price. Maintain inventories* hobby 
collections, rMipeft, grueling card list* and much, much maret Hi-Res screen, up to Suu r appro* w<tri 
U? tie Ms, 'ecord nr fffiltj searcft* and a rvtahino LaflefS option* 32* DISK $24*95 |in Ju)y Rainbow 

R^vTew) 



A M.*^es graphics ca&mo blackiacK srmutat4on and card count mfl tyjdr- ^uily realistic plrly inriudeG: 
douDlt down, sf»lit%, surrumJer, tnsuranra Uots, 1-8 decks, fiurot cards, shuftfe frefluency amJ flweJ 
"Trus f i me prograrn is a must for the CoCo 8iftCK[acn player." (Aug *63 Ramoov> Review) 32K 
TAP£.'Di5K $24*95 



SHIPPING - NY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 



WEST DIVISION 

po box sees 

SAN JOSE, CA 9B157-086G 
4DB-243^SSS 



EAST DIVISION 
PD BOX S 1S72 
WQODHAVEN i NY 

710-441-2807 



1 1421 



DEALERS CLUB INQUIRIES INVITED 
SOFTWARE SUBMISSIONS WELCOMED 



respectively The game starts imme- 
diately, bul cm be stopped using the 
pause feature on the CoCd. 

The Intcrpfdtieidry Fruit Fly has 
Already started to make irritating 
kamikaze dives, at yon, and all you have 
to defend yourself with are fifty shms 
of space age fruit fly repellent! You are 
com rolling j cannon loaded with the 
Muff ai ike bottom of the screen, which 
you move with the left and right arrow 
keys. With the help of two PEEKs, your 
cannon has continuous smooth move- 
mem, meaning that it keeps traveling 
until you release the key. The fire 
ballon, which is the up-arrow key. also 
has this feature. 

The action in the game is net difficult 
to explain. The movements of the 
cannon and the projectiles it fires are 
simple: POKE (he figure into ihe new 
location, cover up its trail with black 
POKE 52s The cannon ttavcli at. 



intervals oi two spaces at a lime. I he 
projectile lips upward on a FOR/ 
/V£ATloop jumping 32 spaces at a time 
for vertical movement. The Fly is a little 
more complicated, but not much. It flies 
down much the same wny the projectile 
goes up, only the 32 spaces added each 
time are varied by a SfNlX) function, 
(Line 17). The result is a fly that weaves 
around and appears to dodge shots. As 
you probably guessed the flapping of 
its wings is an illusion caused simply 
by switching the parentheses back and 
forth, open and closed, in each step. 

I he player is awarded 500 points 
when he or she "wings'" the Fly, 1,000 
when the player manages to kill ft, 
blasting the center of its body with the 
deadly repellent, and a new one takes 
its place almost instantly. The game 
ends if and when the Fly touches your 
cannon or when you run out of ihols. 
whichever comes; first I suggest you 



rauon your snots, becaase they go 
quickly, so try to shoot only when the 
Fly is in range. Another tip: try noi 
to lei yourself be fenced inlo the 
corners: they're perfect for the Ry to 
nail you. 

One last note for those of you with 
Extended Color basic You may want 
to liven up the game obithy substituting 
the SOUND commands with fatter, 
more exotic Pt^i Ys< 1 use PLA Y'T 
4505 DQ4 EOS A t A A DA " t n 

Line 10, PLAY' TWO" in Line I9 T 
PLA r'TSOjVlA DDEPDffAACA M in 
Line 24 1 and PLA Y"T2<0:0t A 
AfHDQSCCCCC' iti Line 23. You can 
think up something much better* I'm 
sure. Also, feel free to change any 
characters that I used in the game The 
program layout is simple enough to 
allow you Lo make all kinds of 
modifications. 

Enjoy and happy spritfingf 



17 2*3 



Tht listing 

B * •♦•THE***** IMTE RPL ANET AR Y * * * 
* »»»#»»FRUIT****FLY*»***#**»* 

* BY»»*t1ART I N*OLAF*KASTE******* 
* ##*##**###MAY* 1 9B4***#*#**#** 

* »*#*»###»########***#******#* 
POKE&5495,0 

eV Ct-90 

7 F0RA*1186T0I2i3 

6 FOROC TO C+5: POKE A, RND * 2e>) : NE 
XTC 

9 pRiNTaiia^rtiDtr-tfitf^+cHRtdZB) 

+ J i nt mrp 1 anet ar y " +CHR* C 1 28 ) +*' f r u 
it , *+CHR#(t28>+ , *flY", l,A-118e») I :8 

oundc, i :nexta 

10 PRINT* 189, " y " I : FORA- 1 T04 : SOUN 
D50 P 1 : BOUND 75 • 3 : SOUND1 30 , 3 : SOUND 
2*1: SOUNDS, 1:PRINT8200, "by^+CHR* 
(1283 + H m*rtin i, +CHR* i 12B> ♦"kaste" 
i : POKE 1 480, 40 : POKE1 481,3: POKE 148 
2 f 41 : POKE 148 3, 32: PRINT&462, "omar 
t*of fc 11 } : NEXT 

11 FORN*105ATO1535;POKEN,32:NEXT 
N 

12 PR1NT*0, M 11 

13 PRINTHl 4 "0000" ; : PRINT622, "SHO 
TS: "1 :PRINT*29, "50 "I : IFHS=0TH£N1 
4ELSEPR I NTS 1 2 1 HSt 

14 9H-505 XY»40:YX=4i 

15 A=1516 



lb Z-1056+RNDC32) : IFSH-<0THEN24 

17 POKE Z , 32 : POKEZ * 1 , 32 : POKE 2 +2 , 3 
2; I FZ > 1 503 THEN 1 6ELSEZ*Z+SI N (H) *ft 
NO (3) ; Z«Z+32:H~M+1:PQKEZ*XY:P0KE 
2+1 , 43! POKEZ+2, YX ; COXY: XY-YX:YX 

18 1 FZ < A+3ANDZ >A~2THEN24 

19 IFFEEK(34i>-247THENFQRC^A-3lT 
O1056STEP-32: PQKEC, 42S POKEC+32, 3 
2: NEXTC: POKEC+32, 32: 5H-SH-1 :PR1N 
T828,9Hl ; IFPEEKfZ+l)-32THENS-S+l 
000 : BOSU B28 : PR I NT* 1 p S ( : POKEZ, 32: 
POKE Z + 1,32: POKEZ +2 , 32 : GOTO 1 6; ELS 
EIFPEEK (Z > -32CRPEEK < Z+2) -32THEN5 
DUN D50 , 1 : S^S+500 SPRINTftl, Si 

20 1F9H-0THEN24 

21 IF PEEK < 343) «247TKENB— 2: I FA" 
1504THENB-0 

22 IF PEEK (344 > =247THENB=2: IFA-1 
532THENB-0 

23 POKE A , 32! POKEA+ 1,32: PQKEA+2* 3 
2: A=A+B; B"0 : POKE A f 47 ; POKE A+l t 42: 
POKE A +2 , 28 : GOTO 17 

24 5OUNDi>2:S0UND13 r i: 30UND1 ,3: S 
0UND2, 4 1 SOUND! f 2: FORA- 1 TO300: NEX 
T 

25 PRINT633, H1 TO PLAY AGAIN, PRES 
S THE A KEY "I :A»*INKEY*t IFA*<>"A 
"THEN 25 

26 IF HS<=S THEN HS=S 

27 S-0:OOTO11 

28 POKE Z * 62 * POKEZ +2 , 60: POKE 1 -3 1 , 
22 : POKE 2 -»-33 , 1 ; 9OUND50, 1 : SOUND 1 S0 
,2:S0LiND123 # 1 : SOOND140, 3: POKEZ, 3 
2S POKEZ + 1 , 32: POKEZ + 2 , 32: POKEZ -31 
* 32: P0KE2+33, 32: RETURN 



144 THEBAJNBG* .dm^ry 19ftS 



A CHIP OFF THE OLD 



bS2) Standard PJA $5.95 

Industrial Gride PJA $14.95 

MCI 372 CoCo Video Driver Chip $14.95 

6847 Video Display Generator Chip, S1 7.95 
6S76-1 (Fh.s Oisk Basic Skt) Eprom. $24.95 

27126 l&k. DOS Eprom $£4.95 

6B83' SAM Chip w/heai sir,k S?9, 95 

t)809L CP J Chip $29.95 

Basic RQW V.2 Chip (301 FASTER) ..$39.95 
D^k ROM !,] (New DOS Command) ..$33.95 
M B&sic U HflM - NEW LOW PRICE 



CoCo F i rsL A i d Kit - includes 2 P]As t 
6809E & 6683 (Be Prepared 1 ! ' } ,,,,$fc9.95 
Lower Kit 1 1 1 from Green Mountain Micro 
dv E Ki tsz . Specify CoCo 1/lt . .,S?9,95 
Intromcs Eproro Programmer * ♦ ♦ , . .$1 39. 95 

COCO LIBRARY... 

CoCo I Technical Manual .,,,».». ,..$7.95 
Hie W o r_ Id Connection - AIT about 
fiul'etTn Boards, Modems & Sysops ,.$9.95 

CoCo Memory Map $12,00 

ftasic Programming Tracks Sevea led. $1 4. 95 
The TACTS - Inside 'guts" of CoCo.$14.95 

jasio 59 "Toor fi^ide $18.95 

Disk Basic (1*0/1.1) Unraveled ...$19.95 

Color Basic 1.2 Unraveled $15.95 

New 1 CoCo U Service Manual ,.....$19.95 

MORE GOOD STUFF... 

CoCo light Pen with 6 programs ...$24.95 
TolTDoTTjrd - Plugs into JSM controller 
and al lows you to map an extra 9K Eprom 
above DOS. Great far- utilities. ..$24.95 
CoCo Vol t.e Chip - Voir** SC01A ..,$34.95 
PBH P ara 1 1 e 1 Interface - Beats Botek! 
300-9600 baud w/ptr -modem switch . $6^.95 
Tne Spectrum Switcher - Have your Disk & 
Cartridge tool Dual Slot System ,.$69.95 
PSJ HQRQ-PAK - Give your CoCo a Hi -Res 

80^24 tnso video display $139.95 

CoCo U> Meg Hard O^sk System ..,$1495.00 

ALL OFtOERS PLUS *3.Q0 S/M 
NV RESIDENTS ADD 3AJLES TAX 



COCO CABLES AND... 

f our Pin Ma 1 e to /our Pin Female 
Extension - 15 feet. Move your printer qV 

modem to another location $14,95 

Tired of plugging and unplugging devices 
from the RS23H port 7 Make your life 
easier. Try our RS232 "V M cable ,.$19.95 
Joystick / Touch Pad 1JT E xtender - For 
more convenience & flexibility ...$19.95 
Di s^ Inter face /Rom Pak Extender - Howe 
your disks and ROM Paks where you wart 
them. Gold connecLors,* (3 feet) .$29.95 
Triple R5232 Swi tcher - Now select one 
of any three R5£32 peripherals ...$29.95 
4 0 Pm Dual "Y" Cable - Hoo* up a Disk 
w/Voice or word Pak, X-Pad. etc ..$29.95 
* NOT for use with Multipak 

OTHER GOOD STUFF... 

C-10 tapes in any quantity .,,,,49 cents 
5 1/4 Diskettes in any quantity ..,$1.99 
Joystick, Cassette or Serial plug .$3.99 

32k, 64K or 128* RAM Button $4.99 

G£RI NTTO* /OKTEETA Ribbon $4,99 

Amdei 3" diskettes in any quant i ty. $5. 99 

Epson MX/ftX 80 Cartridge $6,99 

Rompak w/Blank PC fird ?7xx series .$9.95 

RS Oisk Controller Case , S9,95 

The Disk Doubler - Doubles ide your 5 1/4 
BTskettes for 160K more storage ..$14.95 
Video Clear - Cleanup TVI for good 1 $19.95 
The Magic Box - load Mod I/I 1 1 Basic 
program tapes into the CoCo ,.,...$24.95 
0OS Switcher - Select any DOS (Disk 1.0 
1.1, JDQS) inside J4V controller .$24.95 
CoCo Cooler- State 0,E or CoCo N. $49.95 
Stergo Hardware Music S writhes uer w/3 
hours of (100) four voice songs' ,$79,95 

SPICTRUM PROJECTS 

EAST DIVISION ; 

PO BOX 212 72 
WOODHAVEM, HV UA2X 

WEST DIVISION 

PO BOX 9666 

SAN JOS€. CA ftftiS7H>S6« 



7 1B-441-2BQ7 408-243-4398 





The Line Box 

R> Kevin Obcrberter 
10 PM0DE3, 1 : PCLSl : SCREEN 1 , 1 
20 CIRCLE<128,95),85,4:CIRCLe<12 
8, 95> ,60, 4: PAINT (128, 30), 4, 4 
30 LINE( 165,50)-<70, 115),PSET!LI 
NE< i85,70>-<85, i 37) # PSET; PAINT < 1 
00,95) ,4,4 

40 CIRCLE (129,95), 36. 2,1,. 26,* 35 
: DRAW "BM1 .1 b , 1 29C2M-2, *8W- 1 0 , +7BM 

30 CIRCLE < 53, 82) , 32, 2, 1 , - I , .24:0 
RAW"BM5l , 1 1 1F4B2H4L7F2L7G4H2E6L7 
G2W2E4R2BL2rf~4,-lH2L2UlE2W«-10 f +3 
M+20»+lBL2K+M,~25M+6 p -BH+2,-2M+ 
4,-2" 

60* CIRCLE (88, 57 > f ! 8, 2, 1 , . 3, . 7: CI 
RCLE( 108,34), 18,2,1,. 85, .2:CIRCL 
E < J 02, 30) , 20, 2,1,. 5, .8: DRAW" BM82 
.40E2U7" : CIRCLE t 102, 30) ,20,2, 1 , . 
87, . I 

70 CIRCLE < 113,25), 20,2,1,. 65, .85 
: DRAW " 8M1 1 8 , 1 2E7R4D6M-B, *B" : C 1 PC 
LE<i40,8B),3B,2,l,.7, . 83: LINE t 15 
9,54)* (86, 105) , PSET: PAINT (90,80) 
f 1,2:PAJNT<90,60> ,1,2 
B# DRAW "BM173, 81E7F 2M+22 , -8R2D2K 
- 10 , *4©3BE2M+6, - 1 H+6 , + 1 F2D 1L9G2M 
+10,*4G2h-l0, -4L9G5L2H2U3L4H2 ** ; P 
A1NT < JSC), 78> ,1,2 

90 CIRCLE (94, 29), 2,2, 2: CIRCLE (10 
3,2?) , 2,2, 2: DRAW " BM96 , 56F2E 2U2H2 
(5^D2 " : PA I NT (98,55) ,2,2: DRAW" BM96 
, 66F2£3&U24B3H2BU22BL2S4BRi8BLIlH 
3"* 

100 GOHJ 100 



Nova 

R> Mlchtrl Rosenberg 
ind 

V. i hin Wonn 

10 * • »»# N D V A 

20 ' BY MICHAEL ROSENBERG 

30 * AND 

4* * TQBIN WONN 

50 1 MAY 10, 1984 

60 PC4.EAR8 

70 PHODE 4,1: PCLS: SCREEN 1 , 1 

80 FORJ-0TG255STEP2 

90 LtNE<J t 191>-C12S,96) # PSET;NEX 

T 

100 FORJ-0TO253STEP2 

110 LINE*J,0) - U28 f 96) ,PSET:NEXT 

120 FORJ=0TOl9iBTEP2 

130 LHMEU28 t 96)-C255, J) ,PSET:NE 

XT 

140 FORJ-0TO191STEP2 

150 L!N£U28 t 96)-<0 t J) ,PSET;NEXT 

J 60 PM0BE4,5:PCl SlSCREENi, 1 

170 FORJ»0TO2S5STEP4 

lfH0 L I NE < J, 191 J - < 1 28, 96 > , PSET : NE 

XI 

190 FUKJ=0ltl255STEP4 

200 LINE<J,0> -(128,96) ,PSET:NEXT 

2J0 FORJ-0TD191STEP4 

220 LINE (12B.96>-<235, J>,PSET:NE 

XT 

230 FORJ-0TD1V1STEP4 

24(? L I NL < 1 28 f 96 > - < 0, J ) , PSET : NE X T 

2?>0 FuRX = H03SrEP4 

260 PMt)D£3i X: SCREEN i , t : FORY*l TOl 

on: NEXT v, X 

270 GOTO250 



No Ghosts 

By Ballads Fori man 

1 POKE65495.0 

2 PMQDE 1,1 

3 PCLS3 

4 SCREEN 1 , 0 : P0KE653 1 4 , 246 

5 FORX-3T07 

6 FQRV=2T06 

7 FOR2-0TOS 

8 COLQRZ 

9 A*0:8-2S5:C-0:D-191 

10 HNE(A,C)-(B f D) ,P9ET, B 

11 a*a+y:b-B-y: C=c+x :D=D-X 

1 2 IFA< 255ANDC< 1 9 1 THEN 1 0 

13 NEXTZ 

1 4 NEXTY.X 

15 RUM 

An Optica) Illusion 

By Bryin Kerr 

1 ' AN OPTICAL ILLUSION 

2 ' BRYAN KERR 

3 * 1195 BRIARWOOD DR 

4 ' JACKSON, MS 39211 

5 * 8/17/83 

10 PMQDE3. 1 : PCLS: SCREEN! „ 0 

20 At* ' C4D30M-30, - 1 3U30NM * 30 . ♦ 1 3 

K+30, -15M+30, +!^D30M-30 

30 DRAW"53XA*5&h~B0 t -40XA*tBM+B0 
t 40XA*i en+80, +40XA»; BD80XA*? BM- 
B0, *40XAi; BM-80, -40XA** " 
40 B««"ClBt1-30, *15C1NU8D2NM*B, +4 



U2BM+30, -15": C»="ClBM+30,+l5NU8D 

2WM-8, +4U2BM-30, - 1 5" : D*«="Cl BU29N 

tl-8, *4NtU8,+4BD2? M 

50 E*« M C 4 BM-30 , - 1 5M-40 , - 200 1 0M+4 

0, +20U10M+10, -3M-40, -20H-10, +5rt* 

40,+20BM+30,+15" 

40 F*- " C4BD3 1 D40NM-8 , -4h+8, -4U40 
BW~8, *-4Brt-6, -4ND40BH+8, +461131** 
70 G*="C4BDlM+30, - J 5M+-40, -20NM-8 
. - 4 D 1 0H-40 , *20U 1 ail- 1 0 , -5NM «-4 0 , - 2 
0M+10, ♦ 5T1-30, + I5*' 

80 DRA*I»BH128, 96C4XA*; BU2XB*; XC* 
?XD*;BD80XD*;BM~80,-40XC*5 XD*iGU 
80XC*? BM+80, -40XB*; XC*BW+80 p +40X 
B* ; BD80BM+80, +40XD*t X84 J XE * ; BU00 
XB<|BD60BM-B0, +40X8* t XE*5 BM-80, - 
40X&* 5 8U80XF*| XG4* BM+80, -40XF*| B 
W+80, +40XE*« XF*Bf1-80, *40XE*$ XF4J 
Bn~80» >40XG*1 XE*f XF*| 
ffH FOR C*2T03: FORT- 1T015: READ X. V 
:PAINT<X,Y) , C^tNEXTT.C 
100 FOR T*lT07:READX,Y:PAINT<X, Y 
) , 4, 4; ne x r t 

110 DATA 128,94, I30 f 153, 128, 30, t 
60, 74, 188,60,68, 60, 96, 74,96, 49, 1 
58, 49,68, 120, 188, 120, 1 16, 100, 140 
I 100, 105, 140, 152, 140 
120 DATA 135,95,130, 160, 130,37,1 
90, 75. 190, 135, 70, 135,70, 75, 1 30, 6 
5, I S0. I 35. 1 18. 105,93,36, 165,80, 1 
58, 145, 190,95,70,9s 
150 DrtTA 101.65,151,65,158,95,98 
,95, J03, 125, 158, 125, 128,0 

140 can roi40 

The Hole 

By Greet* A, Ford 

1 * CIRCLE2 

2 ' GREGG FORD 

3 '95 ELDRED BEDFORD, OHIO 44146 
10 RHODE 4, 13PCL9: SCREEN l.itFQR 

X-10 TO 170 STEP 2 
20 CIRCLE < 128,96) , X, 7 
30 NEXT 

40 CLB: FOR X-10 TO 170 STEP 5 
90 CIRCLE (128,96) , X, 7 
60 NEXT 

70 FOR X-10 TO 170 STEP 10 
80 CIRCLE < 128,96) , X, 2 
90 NEXT 

100 FOR X*0 TO 170 STEP 4 
110 CIRCLE (128, 96 > , X, 3 
120 NEXT 

130 FOR X«0 TO 170 STEP 19 
140 CIRCLE t 128,96) ,X,0 
150 NEXT 



160 FOR X=I0 TO 170 STEP 9 
170 CIRCLE < 128,96) ,X, 4 
180 NEXT 

190 FOR X=10 TO 170 STEP 3 
200 CIRCLE* 128, 96), X, 3 
210 NEXT 

220 FOR X-10 TO 170 STEP 1 
230 CIRCLE* 128.96) , X, 6 
24# NEXT 

250 FOR X-10 TO 170 STEP 2 
260 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,X, 7, 2 
270 NEXT 

280 FOR X»10 TO 170 STEP 3 
290 CIRCLEU28,96>,X,8 t 2 
300 NEXT 

310 FOR X«0 TO 170 STEP 5 
320 CIRCLE (128, 96), X,0, 2 
330 NEXT 

340 FOR X» 10 TO 170 STEP 7 
350 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,X.i,2 
360 NEXT 

370 FOR X-0 TO 170 STEP 1 
380 CIRCLE < 128,96) ,X,6 

390 NEXT X 

420 CLSt PRINT8232, "THAT 1 9 ALL FO 

LKS ' * 

430 8010 430 

The Impossible Cube 

By Stephen Lai 

5 ' IMPOSSIBLE CUBE 

1 0 PM0DE4 , 1 1 PCLS ; SCREEN I , 0 

20 DRAW"544BM34, 3NFR12NM-1 ,2F5NM 

-2, lDl2NH2L12N£H5NU12l)RNfH-2, 1ER3 

D2L2F2NU6M+ 1 , 2ENRBU3NR3U2NR3U3NR 

3HNELH3ND7M-1 ,-2tt+3, 1 NF3R7F4 D9UH 

3U4NR3U2NR2U2HLD3NL3D5FNRSF3** 

30 FQRF=» 1T08;READA,B: PAINT <A , B) : 

NEXT: DAT A0,0, 100,30,60,70, 140, 90 

, 190,90,170,50, 140, 160,76, 140 

40 GOT 040 

Pascal's Triangle 

B) Sfrphtn LiJ 

5 1 PASCAL" S TRIANGLE 
10 Dim P<256) 

20 PtfODE 4, l: PCLS: SCREEN 1,1 

ii? P(1ZB)*1 

40 FOR S*l TO 127 

50 FOR F~12B-S 7 0 128+S STEP 2 

60 P«F)^P<F-I ) +P(F+l)-SGN<p<F-l) 

♦ P<F + 1 I > #2 

70 PSET (F,S,P<F>*S) 
Q0 NLXI F.S 
90 liOTO 90 



An Detail Beftow 



BUY, SWAP AND SELL 

MOM 5 CLASSIFIED BULLETIN BOARD OF COMPUTER ITEMS 
IS VQUR OPPORTUNITY TO U5T FOR SALE OR SWAP 
ITEMS THAT YOU NO LONGER NEED ftiSO its THE PER 
f ECT PLACE TO SHOP FOR BARGAINS OFFERED BY OTHER 
M€ MBERS QT MOWS FAMK I 



NEW PRODUCTS 

MOM CAN SAVE YOU MONE^ON NEW HARDWARE. SO* ~W ARE- 
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MORE MAffV OF THf SAME HEMS ADVERTISED Hf Rt IN 
RAINBOW MAGAZINE 



DISCOUNTS 

SAVE 5* TO ft* ON ALL NEW ITEMS YDU BUY THROUGH 
MOM BEFORE YOU SUV CHECH WITH MOM FOP LOWEST 
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FREE WITH MEMBERSHIP YOUR PERSONAL COPY OF 
WAYS TO EARfc EXTRA MONEVWrtH VOURHOME COMPUTER 
JOIN rODAV *,no ¥QLI CAN START EARNIN0 EXTRA MOH£r 
uSrNO MOM S GUIDE 




MOM PROMISES 

PERSON A LtfEP SERVICE TO MOM YOUR MQT JUST AN 
OTHFHNAMi rOURPAP^OI HER FAMILY SHI SW4T1P 
ESI EO <N *0U AND HOW VOU USE YOUR COMPUTER. WRITE 
TO HER ABOUT PROGRAMMING EQUIPMENT SOFTWARE 
PROGRAMMING AND VOUROWN IDEAS HAVE COMPUTER 
PROBLEMS ■ WRiTE MOM ■ SHE CARES H 




Software Programmers 

Mom can help you Markel YOUR programs 




Others have benefited - why not You J 



BECOME A MEMBER OF MOM'S FAMILY 



VSS; I warn lo becomes member of MOM'S COMPUTER CLUB FAMILY and enclose my personal check lor 
$14.95 (or which Mom will rush my MEMBERSHIP CARD and my CERTIFICATE along with complete details 
and benefits of membership. Also included will be my FREE <S$ue of "1 8 WAYS TO EARN EXTRA MONEY a 
WITH YOUR HOME COMPUTER " I understand mat my membership win be entered promptly and tnal ibere Z 3E 
will pe no oeJay due to payment with personal check, or money Order 1 jj> 



Name . Dale 



API* | 6 U 



CiLy'Sfate/Zip 



"5 IE 



- s i i 

2 si 



Phonei } My computer ts a_ f S 



UTILITY 



4K 



Ever become exasperated with 
the acrobatics required by the 
shift @ method of stopping a 
fast-scrolling LIST? Or hav? 
you sometimes wanted to 
format the margins and line 
length of your LLISTINGS? 
Now you can easily accomplish 
either of these things by 
employing one of the useful 
processes described here. 





ftj H. Altm Curlh 



This Article concerns two programs 
which produce new varieties of 
CoCo\ L/yrund LUST com* 
mand* ! he prupriims apph regardless 
of the si« ol RAM nr the type of fl asm: 
m your CoCo, 

Have you ever become exasperated 
trying lo use skiff @ to stop the listing 
process at an appropriate place? The 
program ol Listing 1 was written to 
avert such exasperation. This program 
offers you the option of two different 
varieties of LIST commands Hence- 
forth, the program uf Listing I wit) be 
referred to as Liner. 

Under the first option. Uster will 
produce a slow LIST command. Wiih 
that LIST command, ihc scrolling of 
the BASIC lines will lake place slowly. 
The slowed scrolling gives you the needed 
SHIFT (gJ control in the strategic stop- 
ping of the listing process. This LIST 
variety can operate ac any one of five 
different speed*. Vou may choose the 
speed \ou Imd to be most convenient. 

The second Li ST variety operates a J 
the normal speed, hut without scrolling. 

(H A tfen Curtis resides in Williams* 
hur& I a He is interested in 1 1th and 
IHt/t < fflitirv history and enjoys biking 
through the colonial capital He baton* 
past and present With hi* computer 
work.) 



With this variety, when the screen is 
filled to a point where scrolling would 
ordinarily occur, lis ling is automatically 
stopped. Vou then must press ENTER for 
the screen lo clear and the listing lo 
resume at the top of the screen. Rather 
than flopping the lining process wiih 
shift (i\yoii musi press tMEttio start 
it 



u . . . you may modify 
LIST and LLIST to meet 
your particular needs. 
Disassemblies of the 
machine language 
subroutines associated 
with Lister and LLister 
should prove helpful in 
making modifications," 



The key to producing the two LIST 
varieties is the employment of the "hook"* 
at RAM addresses 422 through 424. 
This hook connects the ROM routine 
for the LIST command wiih RAM. 
This hook is not used by Color BASIC, 
Extended Color BASIC or Disk basic . 
Therefore, it is available to use in the 



alteration and improvement of the LIST 
command. 

In the slow LIST variety, the hook is 
made to connect the ROM's /.WT rou- 
tine with a machine language subrou- 
tine residing at the 61 highest RAM 
locations of your CoCo. In the no-scro 1 1 
variety of LIST, the hook connects the 
LIST routine and a 4 3- byte machine 
language sohrouiinc stored in high 
RAM. 

The values in the DA TA statements 
of line* JKOand 190 ol / iiter are the 16 
by ics comprising the subroutine asso- 
ciated with iheilow LIST. Likewise, the 
values of the remaining DA TA state- 
ments, lines 200 through 26(1. arc the 
bytes that comprise the subroutine as- 
sociated wiih the no-scroll LIST com- 
mand. 

Lines 1 0 through 40 are cm ployed to 
More ihc subroutine of stow LIST in 
high RAM a* well as selling the appro- 
priate hook address, Lines 90 through 
1 10 along with L ine 130 serve a similar 
purpose for the no^scroll LIST Line 

1 mpleies the connection between 
the ROM's £./STand the selected var- 
iety, Line 120 cheeks the accuracy ol 
your typing of the DA TA statements. 

L&eepi for Line 5 t the other lines of 
Lister arc concerned with prompts to 
aid you in taking your LIST varietv 
options* The REM of Line 5 informs 



ISO TH£ RAINBOW January 



V/ 

120 


122 


END 


wt 



5 REM TD RE TURK* TO NORMAL LIST 

POKE 4 22, 57 
10 X*256«P£EKU16>+240:CL£AR100, 

20 X-256*PE£K (116) +240 

30 FORI-0TG1 5 : READA S PQKEX + 1 , A : NE 

XT 

40 P0KE423, PEEK U 16> : POKE 424, 240 
50 CL9: PR I NTS 134. "CHOOSE LIST VA 
RIETY"; PRINT* 166, "BY PRESSING I 
0*4 2 

6$ PRINT: PRINT" K SLOW": PRINT; 

PRINT" 2. NO SCROLL 

70 K«-INKEY«:ON VALCKO GOTOI40, 

90 

B® GOTO70 

90 X«256*PEEK <11&)+213; CLEAR 100, 
X-l 

100 X=256#PEEK U 16> +213:FDRI=0TD 

1 5 : RE AD A; B=8+A: NE X T 

1 1 0 FOR I -0TO42: READ A: Er-B+A: POKEX 



+1, A: NEXT 

120 iFB<>6944THENCL9;PRINT"DATA 
ERROR*' : STOP 

1 Z0 P0KE424 ,213: P0KE422 , I 26 : END 
140 CLS: PR1NTQ1 64, "FOR A FASTER 
SLOW LIST": PRINT" PRESS A NUH 
BEft KEY FROM" : PRINT " 1 TH 

ROUGH 4. * ; PRINT " OTHERWISE, P 

RES 5 ENTER- 

150 K«»INKEYf :K=VAL(K*> : IFK<S AN 
D K>0 THEN 1 60ELSE I FK*=CHR* { 1 3 J TH 
EN170ELSE150 

160 K=*256 / 2^K ; POKE256 *PEEK (116) + 

249, INT IK+.5) 

170 POKE 422, 126S END 

180 DATA 52, 16, 134,254, 145, t ll»3 

9 P 6 

190 DATA 142,0,0, 1S9, 167,21 
144 

200 DATA 220,136,159,66*227,132 
210 DATA 147,66,16,131,3,224,44 
220 DATA 1,57,162,2,220, 129, 155 
230 DATA 39,248,129,182,39,244 
240 DATA 52,16,189,163,144,199 
250 DATA 169,40,48,95,189,185 
260 DATA 156, 12, 137,33, 144 



you hem in rciuro to the normal LfST 
from cither variety of UST. 

The subroutines ol both fJSTvwit- 
lies will occupy the same RAM area us 
R AINBOW Check Plu*. Therefore, if you 
make use it! RAINBOW Check Plus as an 
did m the correct typing of Lister, do noi 
run Lister uouJ ic has been completely 
and accurately typed 

Alter correctly typing Liswr. ssive ii 
oil lane or disk, then RUN\K You will 
quickly receive the first prompt. Truest 



Lister iniiiully, press ihc ' I ' key to select 
the slow LAST variety Doing this im- 
mediately produces another prompt. 
The slow UST will operate at one of 
five speeds, Pressing km tR will make it 
operate at its slowest speed. Pressing I. 
2, 3 or 4 wilL respectively, make it oper- 
ate at two. four, eight or 16 times the 
speed of the slowest LIST. 

Press p mi r to get the s-Iowest UST 
Then lypc Li ST, press HstER, and lest 
the use of SJUKI @ to «iop the listing 



process. Run Lister four more time*. 
Each time select the slow LAST variety 
but at a different spi-ed. Determine what 
speed is most convenient for you by 
LlSTing Listtrand stopping it by means 
of SHIFT r£>. 

In another run of t-uttr. select the 
no-scroll LfST variety, then 7.757 the 
program. Nole that the lifting slopped 
after completing only mask Uig |j 
Listing Line 10 would have caused 
scrolling, so the proect* was stopped. 



Listing 2: 

10 GLS;X-236*FEEK<116)«*194;CLEAR 
100, X 

20 X«256#PEEK < 1 1 6 >♦ 1 95 

30 FORZ-X TOX+60 

40 RE AD A: B-B+A: POKE! , A: NEXT 

30 IFB< >3998THENPR I NT u DATA ERROR 

" $ BTOF 

60 PRXNT«23t, M "1 : INPUT "MARGIN" I 

H 

70 POKEX+60 r M 

80 INPUT" LINE LENGTH" |L 

90 L*L+M:PDKEX+43,L 

100 IFPEEK<3276S><>69THENPQKEX+1 



1,37 

110 IFPEEK(lB4>«e>THENP0KEX + l2, 13 
0: POKEX +13, 115ELSEP0KEX + 12, 203: P 
OKEX+13,74 

120 POK£360,P€EKU16>:POKE361, 19 
5 

130 DATA 32, 1 24 9 246,2, 220, 193 
140 DATA 135,39, 3,33, 124,37,0,0 
130 DATA 48,140,42,129,13,39,34 
16* DATA 230, 132, 38, 16, 230, 1,32 
170 DATA 6,231, 132, 134,32, IB? 
180 DATA 162, 133,90,38, 248,53,6 
190 DATA 92, 193, 80,39,4,231, 132 
200 DATA 32,213,189,162,133,134 
210 DATA 13,111,132,32,206,0,0 



ganweny iflfl& fnfc **inbO*I 151 



Prosing ENTtR per mils the nearly full 
screen display of lines 10 through HO By 
pressing enter again, you will be shown 
lines 90 through 140, Two mote similar 
presses of ENTER will complete the pro- 
gram listing. As yon have wen. the no- 
scroll LIS? IcU yuu ejumtne hash Jsnts 
m your own pace, 

Selling M trims With l.Lbter 

Would you like to start a notebook of 
program listings? Or, would you tike to 
have ihe ability to select die left margin 
size and the number of characters per 
Jine of any hard copy listing' If so, the 
program of Listing 2 should be of inter- 
est to you. The product of this program, 
called LLtste r, is a new variety of LUST 
command that allows you tu fur mat 
your hard copy listings insofar us lefl 
and right margins are concerned. 

Another hook, at addresses 359 
through 561, U the key to the devetop- 
mcnl of a tievs variety of LUST com- 
mand .The DA TA statements dines Hi) 
through 210) of LLiifer comprise a 61- 
byie machine language subroutine that 
will be eonnixied via the hook to the 
ROM's L/l/5 /command routine. Lines 
10 through 40 of L Lister are concerned 
%jih storing the aforementioned sub- 
routine at the highest 61 RAM loca- 
tions. Line 50 provides a check on the 
accuracy of your DA TA values typing. 

Both Extended Color basic and Disk 
rMSirmaketiseoffhchookatadd roses 
359-36 1 r but Color Bask doe* noL 
L Lister sets a book address entry to the 
61 -byte machine language subroutine. 
For systems with Extended Color basic 
or Disk BASIC, LUsteraho sets the sub- 
routine exii address, which is the replaced 
hook address entry to the appropriate 
basic ROM. Line* 100 in rough 1 20 are 
used to set up the hook address and the 
exit address, if needed. 

The remaining lines of i Lister pro- 
vide prompts to enable you to specify 
the desired left margin s\/c and the 
number of characters per line. 

A high RAM conflict exists between 
/.£.rjf/erand rainbow Check Plus. When 
using the latter, do not run M ister until 
it has beeri typed correctly. If you are 
using a new LIST, type and fnteh 
POKE* 12, $7 to disable It before run- 
ning LUsier 

When you have ti rushed the required 
typing, save LLister tin cape or disk. 
Turn your, computet off and turn on 
your printer and CoCn in the recom- 
mended sequence. LOAD L Lister and 

A MARtilVi prompt wilKnun appear 



ADDRESS 


HEl CODE 


mnuc 




CDMEMT 


3fF# 


34 If 


F5HS 


i 


tSm 1 


3FF2 


El* FF 


LDA 


tF£ 




3FF4 


91 6F 


zm 


oF 


1 is LUST currant 










ewwuir 


3FFA 




w 


3FFI 


{ J+ IB* qq to exit 




9E 19 H 


m 


tm* 


ii is dilav coirttint 










(POKED froa BASIC 










far ipeetfi 1 thru *> 


zm 


» A? 13 


m 




IM|? 


:ffe 


55 9f 




Ft, I 


t Restore 1 and tut 






Table 1 






A DURESS 


mei cm 




OPERAND 


CflflltflfT 


3F55 






Bfl 


ID it cunor petition 


3FD7 


9F 42 


HI 




iSiu lint aadrpis 










pointer 


3FS9 


£3 B* 


AOBD 




fArid fltrt pointff 


zm 


93 42 


3US& 


M 


ID ii cunor poll tin 










if current lint Mra 










litW 


3F0D 


11 B3 IS U 


tm 


m 


INould curwr at on 










brut si acrtofl lintt 


JFE1 


2CI1 




3FE4 


tl# 10, rjr inch 


3FI3 


39 


RTS 






JFH 


Bs 12 DC 


LDA 


«[■: 


■h ii eurrnt! cemnd 












3FE? 


61 91 


cm 


196 


111 CQiijniJ LUST? 




27 FB 


GEO 


3FE3 


lit u, go to till 


WEI 


11 So 


tm 


m 


] Li rDwn« EDIT? 


3FED 


27 H 


m 


JFE3 


[If lo, qo to tiit 


3FEF 


3* If 


fSHS 


i 


iStvt t 


3FF1 


8D ra n 


m 


mi 


iMait for fHTER to bt 










armed 


3FFI 


m ft? 2b 


m 


A92* 


fCJ wr scrun 


JFF7 


31 3F 


LEAJ 


4j* 


fl point i to ASCII 










rtprtitntittw of 










cor rant lint nuibtr 


3FF9 


SD 89 9[ 


m 


B!9C 


1 Print lint nuibtr 


3FFET 


K 89 


INC 


H 


iBuap cunor position j 


3FFE 


33 H 


RlLS 




iRtttort 1 jnd til E 






TiW*3 





152 TM6 NAlNliaW Junuuy 1985 



on (he screen. The prompt requires you 
to type ihe margin size. A frequently 
used margin size is JO characters long, 
Thus, type 10 and press enter. 

The next prompt asfcs you lo specify 
the line length. Koran BO-column prin- 
ter* 60 characters per line will yield left 
and right margins of 1 0 characters each. 
Therefore, type 60 and press £nter. 

Test the nc* LLISt command by 
using it to LLfST LLiiter. RUN LUster 
several times and try LLISTtng with dif- 
ferenl margin and line length rejections 
If the selected margin si?e and line 
length total more than 80 characters* 
LLister will reduce the line length to SO 
minus the margin s\ue. 

LUster as presented does not have 
any effect on the PRINTU-2 command, 
but it can easily be made to do so. I f you 
would like to employ LLister to select 
and use margins and line lengths on 
other matter as well as BASIC programs, 
make the following changes in LUster: 
in Line 1 30 replace value;, 246. 1 iind 220 
with 214, 111 and 18, In Line 140 
replace the value 155 with 254, Finally* 
in Line 50 replace the checksum 5998 
with 5972, 

A? Lister and L Later v*erc wriiien. 
the new varieties of LIST and LLIST 
cannot concurrently be a pan of Basic's 
vocabulary. The new LIST and LLIST 
commands can be made to belong to 
Basic's repertoire by making the follow- 
ing changes in Lister, in lines 10, 20 and 
40 replace the number 240 with 179. 
Similarly, in lines 90. 100 and 130 
replace 2 J 3 with 152. Then save the 
changed Lister on (ape or disk. 

When addingboth the new LAST and 
Li/Sr commands to B AS ICY vocabu- 
lary, you must LOAD and RUN LLis- 
ter before doing the same with the 
changed Lister. 

Some of you may be interested in 
further modifying LAST and LLlSTto 
meet your own particular needs. Disas- 
semblies of ihc machine language sub- 
routines associated with Luster and LUn- 
tr should prove helpful to you in making 
such modifications. Disassemblies of 
the slow LIST, no-scroll LIST arid 
LUST subroutines are presented in 
Tabic* 1. 2 and 3. 

In the tables all numbers and ad- 
dresses have been expressed in hexade- 
cimal, so there is no need to use the 
symbol's* to indicate that a given number 
or address is in hexadecimal. The table 
addresses correspond to those used wtth 
a CoCo having a 16K byte RAM. For a 
32 K. RAM mentally add 4000 hexade- 
cimal to each of those addresses, 



ADDRESS 


ucv rnriP 

nH LVWe 


NN£NljUjf 

riricnun I k 




LtfPWtflT 


JFC3 


31 7C 




h*yb rit 




3FE3 


H 12 DC 


LDB 


12 OC 


r» • r; r t\mm »ni1 ' nV jis 
Ii II IBHinQ lU(E"i 


JFCfJ 


ri 

LJ TD 


tnro 




♦ T» 1 1 PI tCT 4bLbh4 

tt* JC lliaf toiin/ 


JFCA 


27 13 


BED 


T F p | 


tlf u>f branch 


JFCC 


55 7C 


PUIS 


tllVl HP 
IP] yr 


mtrS^Orf r ry 1 ILffFI 


3FGE 


~l i? ie 


j hp 




fCwtl ■■■> Iju Dflk'Cr 

lCTtl SIT QV KURtS 


3FD1 


31 K 2H 


LEAI 


2fk t K 


ll A Jit* tn riir^ani' 












3FD4 


91 ID 


CHPA 




tie rkir 

< is cnir it . ?' 










cirrHijt fftarft^ 


3FD6 


21 22 


0E4 




1 1# in hr^nrh 
HT SO, Qrillffl 


3FM 


U 84 


LDI 


I 












chirsetf count 


3F&A 


ft II 


m 


3FEC 


• Br aiivn it not lliri 










c nti 1 l nc 


3FDC 


Eo 11 


1 hB 
LUD 


\ i 

M 


lB ll it/gift itit 


3FG€ 


» j ti 




t a 


»Stvi larqift ii zt ml 










currtnt chtncttr 


3FEI 


E? B* 


STB 




(Bit chifictfT count 










to ur^io lilt 


3FEI 


96 2f 


i &a 




in it so^ce 


SFE4 


BD. A3 63 


JSfl 




i Licit print spitt 


J£D 


3fl 


dees 




tHivt ill ur^i'i 










ityitti tften print US' 1 


3FE6 




6NE 


JF£2 


t H riot f 1 Dop 


3FEA 


35 H 


PUIS 


a h 


h^fitflr* iirai'" flit 






















3FEC 




[ICS 






3FED 


CI 51 


CNF6 


151 












111 ; ,/Frnr 1 E mm 










bten printcil? 


IFEF 


V 14 


m 


JFF3 


Ill id, brinth 


3FF1 


17 84 


SI 8 


fl 


(Stvf currint 










th*ri:i«r count 


3Ffl 


21 07 


ERA 


3FCC 


iPrfpirt to oxlt 


5FFJF 


3D til t 5 


m 


A2fi5 


(Lint phAt fkntl 










chificttr of It n« 


im 


84 ID 


LDfl 


MO 


it cirrligi r«tura 


im 


Ur si 


Ctft 


4 


I Zero ch<ractir count 


JFFC 


2# CE 


mi 


3FCC 


iPrtpirt to mt 


3FFE 


M 






iCurrtnt chir«tK 










count 


IFFF 


Ii 






lAargin lilt 



T*ble I 



irw, Teas the rathbow 1S3 



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PROGRAMMING UTILITY 



Like Sands 

Through 

The 

Hourglass . . . 




By Mary Crooks 



y Wburglassna shon graphic* rou- 
Jr-w tine for visual entertainment, h 
M. M. fttlsaiimcdcLAynrij&UBlgapin 
the an -screen proceedings. You can use 
it as a subroutine in programs you 
ltlliIl tins i rk--;d such i imt- 1'ilSci h uiu 
add i mo the "20 Odd-Ball Screen Rou- 

(Mary Crunks, a housewife und Mother 
of two. has been programming far about 
a year. She is currently helping to organ- 
ize and run the computer center at her 
son's elementary school. She hold* a 
degree in art and enjoys alt things 
creative) 



lines" h> G rcgoQ ( Liri. m uu k-uv 
BOW, Jan, 1 984, then you will have quite 
□ collection from which to choose. 

A Color Computer 16K Extended 
basic is required. Type RUN and the 
program writes, the words "Please Wail" 
on the screen, then draws an hourglass. 
The sa rid in the hourglass fall* for an 
interval of time that you can change to 
fit your needs,. Lines 10*20 reserve 
memory for variables and determine the 
graphics mode. Lines JO- 1 JO draw the 
cursive letters and assign them a varia- 
ble name. The actual drawing of the 
words happens in Line 1 20 using DRA it" 



and concatenation tad ding together) of 
the variables. 1 he rest o| the program 
constructs and colors the huurgtassand 
creates the falling sand particles. The 
lime delay is for ten seconds. You can 
change the timing interval m Line 230 
h 1 , iiiLrL^Mngo] (Il-itlmv !ii! (hi SO in ihr 
FOR NEXT loop, 

If you use Hourglass as □ subroutine, 
include (LEA R hi the start of your 
main program and delete it from the 
subroutine. Call the subroutine with a 
G0SU8 from the place in your pro- 
gram thai ii is needed, then change Line 
260 to read RETURN. 



Tbr listing: 140 

10 CLEAR 350 150 

20 RHODE 4 , 1 : PCLS: SCREEN 1,0 1 60 

ofct Ap* * 1 ' EU 2 UN HN U E R 2 F DG L 2HBD3BR4 M 170 

40 BL*=" BRRE2U3HOD4FR" 180 

5fl BE*- M RE2HGF2R" 190 

60 BA*- M RU2ERFDNF6LHBDBR4" 200 

70 BS*= " REU2F 2GNHR2 ,J 210 

30 AW*= " BU5FD3FENU4FEU3EBD5" 220 

90 bl*= "REU2&UNEBD3DRBR- 230 

100 BT %—*' RE U3NL 2NR 2NU B D 3F R " T 

110 5S*="frR5" * SPACE 240 

120 DRAW H SSBM20, 20"+AP**BL*+BE*+ 75, 

B At + BS* + BE* + SS* * A +B A * +B I » +B T * + 250 

SS* 75 t 

130 CIRCLE (126, 60 J ,30, , ,25 260 



C IRCLE (126, 152) ,30, , - 25 
LINE (96,60> - { 156, 152 i , PSET 
LINE 1 156, 60> -(96, 152) , PSET 
LINE ( 1 16, 90>-U36,90> , PSET 
PAINT (118,91 ) , 1, 1 
PA I NT ( 1 26, 1S2> , l p 1 
FOR Q«lTO 3 
FOR T~l TO 40 
P=*124+RND(4> :Q»110+RND(26) 
PSET <P, Q, L ) : FOR L»lTO 30:NEX 

NEXT T: CIRCLE < 126, 152> , 15, , . 
.50, l: PAINT (126, 143) ,1,1 

NEXT CIRCLE* 126, 152) , 19, , . 
, 50, l: PAINT I 126, 140) ,1,1 

F OR X <= 1 TO2000: NEXT #* 



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l User definable 224 character set featuring lower case 
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EDUCATION OVERVIEW 



A Practical Alternative 

For Creating 

A Pupil Database 



By Michael Plop Pli.D, 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Recertify* I had it chance in talk 
with some school people a brut 
using a pupil database. These 
peri pic were directors of a program 
ope ruling in schools, and needed to 
supply ini or million n> lunding agencies 
(Male education agent its. Federal grant 
agencies, or even foundations and 
industries), The funding agencies request 
information about each student being 
served with the money provided. Thus, 
t he pu pil d atab use is a set of i nfo rm at ion 
wherein each student represents one 
record. Spec! He data elements may 
include such things as birth date, grade 
level. sex. score* on tests, dale of 
entering the program, length of service 
by program personnel, and soon. 

A pupil database is ideally suited for 
a microcomputer. There is the need ic 
store information, have access to that 
information lor updating, and prepare 
a report to be delivered to the funding 
agency. In this article, we will consider 



(Mtfhaei f/o.if revived his Ph. D. degree 
from the University of Illinois. He has 
taught rotial StudteA itt high srhaaL 
norktd in a renirai office of a school 
district and currently is employed at ihv 
Illinois 5 tote Board of Munition.) 



some of the features of a pupil database, 
and some of the uses. 

With many commercial databases on 
the market, there is no need for local 
programmers to try to write their own 
database. Local efforts will probably 
not be as flexible as commercial 
programs, and will have to go through 
a long period of debugging- The time 
required to prepare a complete database 
program is probably not worth the 
amount of money required to buy one 
qJ several excellent products. 1 hove no 
idea how many database packages are 
available for the Color Computer, but 
I have seen some in operation. With 
the power available for the low price, 
it is silly for local people to try to write 
their own. Thus, it is suggested that 
school personnel! buy a commercial 
product; one that fits their needs and 
is easily understood 

When designing the database, and 
determining what information to store, 
include more than the minimum re- 
quired by the funding agency. Consider 
what will be needed for Local school use. 
in addition to what the otttskfc agency 
will need- Such things MS parents" 
names, address, telephone number 
grades in classes, etc., are of local 
concern, but generally not of concern 



to funding agencies. Design the database 
carefully Remember, it will be impos- 
sible to get anything out of the pupil 
database that has not been put in. 

Getting information out of a database 
may prove more complex, than most 
people think. To get local reports from 
a database, the commercial reporting 
formats may work Tine However, the 
report to the funding agency may be 
a different matter, and after all, what 
is the sense of storing information on 
a microcomputer if you cannot have the 
machine prepare the reports for yon? 

Most funding agencies now use 
Computer printer paper for student 
reports. After alt. they have to enter 
the information they receive f typically 
on j mainframe}, and simply use what 
is convenient. The trouble is that mast 
of these forms will not he appropriate 
for commercial database report formats. 
Such things as the name of the school 
district may have to be printed on each 
page. Line spacing may prove Id be a 
difficulty Summary calculations may 
be required Judging from ihe student 
reports I have icen, commercial database 
report formats are inadequate for the 
job 

The best solution to having the 
microcomputer print the necessary 



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reports is lo write a program Id take 
ihe data from storage, format it in the 
required manner, and print it directly 
lo l tie lorms provided by the luuding 
agency. M the records arc stored in 
■\SCS1 lurin.it a MVSll program will 
tOSyt this problem easily. 

but there u, the rub. Moil program 
directors would find that bard lo do. 
Few would have the time necessary lo 
write such a program in basic. Even 
if program directors had the time, few 
have the background in programming. 
Generally, their training ha* nut included 
a study of computer languages. Natu- 
rally, there will noi he a major incli- 
nation to learn BASIC just Tor this 
purpose. 

Hiring professional pr pgr a aimers as 
expensive. And while I have nothing 
against people selling their programming 
skills I J have done so myself)* it must 
be recogni/cd that many schools simply 
cannot afford the luxury of contracting 
with a programmer for what may well 
be a small program affecting only a few 
students. What is needed is inexpensive 

U U seems an entirely work- 
able idea to have students put 
classroom experiences to use 
on a real life problem." 

programmers. (1 refuse to say cheap 
programmer,, because that implies Lou 
quality J 

There is a solution which makes this 
difficulty minor. Why not use students 
in school taking computer classes? The 
majority of schools in the country arc 
leaching classes in BASIC , Students in 
these courses arc learning a ureal deal 
about programming, and even writing 
programs that get published in maga- 
zines such as r he rainbow. The 
instructors of these courses arc right in 
the buildings with the projects needing 
assistance from microcomputers. And 
of course, the price is right. 

It seems an entirely workable idea to 
approach ihe instructor of a computer 
course with itic idea of having the 
students out (heir classroom experiences 
to use on a real life problem. This would 
not only help the local district (gcuing 
reports in on lime}, but would give the 
students a chance to show their crea- 
tivity, and progress beyond the typical 
exercises and activities of the classroom. 
The task would provide an excellent 
opportunity for the more advanced 
students in the computer course* but 



would also be appropriate as n project 
for the entire class. 

1 realise [hat most render* ol liu^ 
article are not going to he program 
directors in need of microcomputer 
assistance. A more likely audience will 
he instructors ol the computel classes 
Well, go ahead lake the initiative 
1! you think, your class, eoutd accomplish 
this type of activity, seek out 1 hose 
directors and coordinators of programs 
that might benefit from such a program. 
f'he> will not be hard to find. Such lolks 
are involved in things like special 
education, bilingual, chapter I. voca- 
tional programs, or in Federal programs 
funded directly to schools. Sometimes, 
foundations and large industrial firms 
will fund special programs in schnob;, 

The point of I hi* suggestion is to 
advance and expand the use of micro- 
computers in schools. This is perhaps 
a non-liadiliLirnd u-<e ol [he rmcrocLim- 

putcr, and certainly a non- traditional 
use of microcomputer courses. But the 
cooperation that res u I is cannot be 
anything but helpful [u students, 
teachers, program directors, and the 
school system itself. 

Another ihought about the database 
concepi needs to be mem ioned. The 
initial data loud can be a problem , much 
more so than simply updating informa- 
tion already stored, Mosi school 
systems do not have enough secretarial 
help to keep up with ihe daily tasks 
that have to be done, much less take 
the lime to toad a host ol student 
information into a microcompuicr. 
What is needed is an inexpensive source 
of typing labor. Since we are using 
inexpensive programmers, why not 
continue the same idea here. Approach 
the typing teacher. I would imagine 
most teachers would appreciate the 
opportunity to have their students gain 
experience with a different keyboard, 
learn something about data entry, and 
gel some practice on nn activity that 
has immediate value. 

So, it should he possible to use the 
microcomputer to further ihe cause of 
cooperation in schools, provide services 
that would not be available otherwise, 
and broaden ihe potential uses of mod- 
ern technology in education. Not a bad 
deal. If anyone is currently engaged in 
such an activity, please let me know. 
If anyone starts something like this, I 
would appreciate knowing about it. My 
address is 829 Evergreen, Chatham, I L 
62629. Until IMX1 month, take care and 
keep learning. a 



16G thc rainbow Ja^ry iaas 



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gift for this Christmas. 



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'; THE RAINBOW 

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Part VII 



B> Colin J. Stearman 



T Pitching CoCo hiur ttt 
clean up afivr it a vrror* 
ami nu n up tn tttiMakrs 



fCottn J, Stearman is an electronic* 
engineer educated in the U*IL He has 
worked withati kinds of computers and 
hm been a CnCo enthmimtfor a#er two 
wan ! 



Probably the most frustrating 
(imitation of the Microsoft BASIC 
in CuC o is iis lack of ability to 
trap errors, fcven the beat written 
programs generate errors and when 
they do, it's infuriating to. have CoO» 
tell you bow you messed up and then 
tell you with a condescending smirk thai 
its OK! It isn't OK. so we must do 
something about it. 

Error Trapping 

Moit flavors of BASfC haw a state- 
ment aim i J« r m ON ERROR GOTO 
nnn which tells the interpreter that if 
an error occurs jump 10 line *nnn T and 
continue running. Then ut line 'nnn 4 wc 
can write some lines which handle the 
error and continue the running of the 
program. 

Because ON fa already a BASIC 
keyword L decided to simplify the 
syntax. So here is a description of the 
error trapping command and some 
associated variables. 



ERRORS 

The syntax for the error directing line 
is ERRORS GOTO nnn. where nnn* 
is an existing line number or zero. When 
such a line is encountered in your 
program it simply tells the interpreter 
lhat. should an error occur, go to line 
'nnn*. This command will stay in effect 
until another such line is encountered 
say ing go to a different line on an error 
Except if "nnn* is a iero, error trapping 
is canceled and errors cause BASIC to 
stop the program ami report just as 
before (or nearly as before, as you will 
see). 

Ir hue *nnn" doe* not exist, then a 
'No iuch line number' error will occur 
if the statement is entered in the direct 
mode. However, if it is in a program, 
it will create an error itself, but the error 
will have nowhere to go, and the 
program will lock up. Pressing Reset 
is the only option JefL 

Because the hoc number follows a 
normal GOTO statement, the RENVM 



104 



command will handle il correctly 

When any error occurs all FOR 
NEXT to ops and subroutine return 
addresses are canceled, allowing the 
error handling routine u\ jump to 
anywhere in the program without a 
problem. 

ECODE 

This numeric variable returns the 
current error code number. If no error 
hits vet been encountered, it will have 
the value -1. so if a NO SUCH FILE 
error was the most recent error, then 
doing a PRINT ECODE would print 
26, the code number for that error, 
ECODE may be used just as any other 
numeric variable, but it may not be 
assigned u value by nutting it on the 
left of unequal sign, 

EL1NE 

This is also a numeric variable and 
all comments about ECODE apply 
equally to it. This returns the BASIC line 
n amber on which the most recent error 
occurred. If no error has yet occurred 
this variable will have the value of - I 



EN AM El 

This is a string variable which 
contains the name of the cnosl recent 
error. If no errors have yet occurred. 
EN AMES is a zero length string. All 
normal string manipulation functions 
may use it, but it loo must not appear 
on ihc left of an equal sign 

The error code numbers returned by 
ECODE and the associated error 
strings are; 



ECODE 


fcfVAMES 


0 


NEXT without FOR 


1 


Syntax 


2 


Return without GOSUfl 


3 


Out of Data 


4 


Function Call 


5 


Overflow 




Out ul Memory 


7 


No such line # 


1 


Subscript 


9 


Redbnensioned Array 


10 


Divide by 0 


II 


Illegal Direct Command 


12 


Type Mutual ch 


13 


Out al String Space 


14 


String too June 


15 


Mt:ri^ r- .ii o.rnpkv 


|| 


Cain Continue 


17 


Tile Data 


1! 


Already Open 


19 


Device Number 


X) 


Read . Write 


21 


File Mode 


22 


File Nat Open 


U 


Rcftd pojt find at rile 




2* 


Direct Command in File 


25 


Undefined Function 


2A 


No »uch File 


27 


Recti rd u 


2% 


Dure Full 


2* 


Out of Buffer Space 


K) 


Write l»rolefl 


VI 


File Name 




Directory 




File Exist* 


M 


Field Overflow 




Set to \ on- Fielded Siring 




Verily 


37 


Access pasi find of File 



If no error trapping it set, BASIC will 
return these fully spelled oui error 
messages followed fey the word ERR- 
OR, instead of the cryptic question 
mai k and twci Icticf c(M\c 

Due to memory space lim nations, 
EN AMES and fully spelled out error 
messages are not included in the patch 
to DECBU. 

SWAP 

The final basic command to be 
added is SWA P. This has no connection 
with error trapping but is useful to have 
ar ou nd . The sy n tax i s; S WA P var I , var* 



"When any error occurs aft 
FOR . . , NEXT hops andsub- 
routine return addresses are 
canceled, allowing the error 
handling routine to jump to 
anywhere in the program 
without a problem . . , ff no 
error trapping is set, BASfC 
wilt return these fully spelled 
oat error messages folio wed by 
the word ERROR, instead of 
the cryptic question mark and 
two letter code, 1 ' 



where 'var I "and *var2'are like variables. 
This means that SWAP AJ.BS wiU 
cause the string associated with AS to 
be assigned to BI and vice versa. 
Similarly, SWAP DL,WF will cause the 
value assigned to DL to be assigned 16 
WP and that or WP to be assumed to 
DL. If the two variables are not of the 
same type, ( string or numeric) then a 
'Type Mismaich* will occur 

1 tic SWAP command saves (he need 
for an intermediate holding variable 
when exchanging variable values and 
>s considerably luster than tins approach 

The ohvtousi apfifcauun is in bubtfe 



sorts* where clement must be swapped. 

A F inal I Jnurkh 

If you Look at Listing I around the 
label RESET you will notice some 
additional start-up codes. This executes 
when CoCo does a cold start. The first 
thing this code does is restore all the 
drives lo track 0. This eliminates that 
annoying search up and down the disk 
during the first disk access. The slight 
increase in Mart-up lime is worth the 
subsequent savings in access time tad 
reduction in wear and lear on the drive 
itself, noi to mention your nerves! 

This code restores all possible drives 
to track 0. If you do not have four drives 
you can improve The start -up time a 
little by only restoring the drives you 
do have. This is done by changing the 
T in the line immediately after the line 
defining R ESET (which reads *LDB S3 
NUMBER OF DRIVES*) \ 0 one less 
than the number of drives you do have. 

Adding This Month's Code 

Just as in previous months, pull the 
assembly tile built up so far into your 
editor, then remove the commenting 
asterisks from the stan of line with 
[REF tt] of 2, 9-1, 9-3 and 9-3. Com- 
pletely delete reference line* IS. 19, 25* 
26 and 27, Also delete all lines at the 
end starting with ZZLAST BQU *-l 

Now type in the new code found m 
Luting I and reassemble the result, A& 
this month's ndditionii the last rename 
the composite assembly language source 
as DISK PTC It, A $S{ and the biliary 
file as DISK PTC tt. MS Test the 
binary patch file just as you have for 
the past few months. 

Wrapping tl l'p Next Month 

The next issue of thf rainbow will 
see the Last iuslaJJincril ol itm triers. 
In li wc will tic Up a few loose ends; 
put the entire revised version of Disk 
BASIC in an EPROM and mount it m 
the disk controller, and make some 
suggestions for commands you could) 
add yourself. I hope you'll plan on 
joining me then. 

If you would like the entire DOS- 
PA TCH prof ram source, along with 
binary files with and without the 
parallel port driver lor DECS 10 and 
DECS LK jusl send me a disk (no 
cassettes please) along with Sd and a 
•tumped, Jd dressed mailer 1 udl 
Load the disk and return it to you 
promptly. 

Address this request or any questions 
ioi Colk S ten r man, 143 Ash Street, 

J nr., my IMS THEflJMH&OW 165 



The listing: 



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166 THE RAINBOW j*r>ufirv T0$5 



'HOME COMMANDER' $4995 




11 



CONTROL YOUR WORLD 
Give yourteH piece of mind while on vacation bv pro- 
gramming 1 he HOME COMMANDER to control lamp*, 

radiov IV* .i Ki'w.rr Or rlijsko lifo f^v ' '"i v< lUrstfH 
turning on the coffee pel before you wake up. You can 
do this and mote with the HOME COMMANDER. 

The HOME COMMANDER u*ei your home 1 * exiting 
electrical wirm^ to control virtually anything. Appliance* 
are controlled via small control modules (sold separately!. 
The LAMP DIMMER MODULE allow* you tu turn d Ump B 
on ur oh and Lontrul 1 b brightness (evds. Tin* APPLIANCE 
MODULE is used lo control appliances up to 4U« watt* 
such as a TV, radio, sttfreo system, tan or motor, 

ON WiOAV 7;42 r°W r OrTSUrVOAV 7:26 AM 
Included FREE is a program re allow you to control up {o 2 5b devices and specify The lime And date they a 
to be activated. Thai's riant the software has its own built In accurate clock, 
LAM P DIM Mf R MOO U LI ft fr.9 5 UN 1 ■". N I E M 0 D ULE $ 1 6,95 



new: PRECISION TIME MODULE 




Now your computer will always know the 
correct lime and date. This am j^liny jut-i 1 s i-c 1 1 ■ 
time module t* calibrated to the National 
Bureau of Standards IWWV) atomic clock 
and you should never Have to change iL 
U&e the PRECISION TIME MODULE to add 
the lime element to your game. Or use on 
your BBS so I hat the time will alway* be 
perfectly accurate 

BAlTiRY BACKUP 

Even when your computer 'n off, the clock 
keeps correct time by operating using the 
interna' battery backup system. 




MONTHS, LEAP YEARS A OST 

Th* FREC ISO N TIME MODULE automai Lilly 
adjust! for the different number ol days in 
each month as wv\\ a leap yean, And believe 
it or not.,, it adjust* (or OST so you don't have to 
remember iMfs SPRING fGRWARO or FALL 
FORWARD 



LOWEST 
* PRICE S 
'. \ ANYWHLKt 



Y-CABLE $28.95 

Why pay Si 00 to £200 Tor a mulU-pafc. With 
the Y CABLE, you can connect your disk 
system lo your computer along with either 
our STEREO PAK music synlhesifer. our 
VOICE, SUPER VOICE speech synthesizers 
or our PRECISION TIME MODULE. AH con- 
nectors gold plated. 



I 



^ ATTENTION EXPERIMENTERS! ~ S2,l " > 

Interested in buildmR yom own project* Disks (any quanTity) &1.49 

Our overawed board give* plenty ol room TapeOKK C-20 , 10.69 

lor construction while the sturdy aluminum Hard Tape So* 50.29 

case with black satin Liniih assures proluc- ,- fl4r , ,. 12,95 

lian jind j pTolfiiirniiil flppf^r.inrr SSI 263 74LMJB 10 79 

,■ Bo,ird on: V $T9.95 SS 7407 i0 7< * 

Ptuiotype Eutkutin** oniv Si 9.9.1 tC socket* 14, lb, 22 pin .. . . SO. 19 

Buy both 1rt ( $29,95 It socket, 24. 28, 40 |D,J9 




r«(t 
•lav* tm< 

cxrui 



ft 



Dealor Inquiries 
Invited 



W* *tce*rt CASH, CHECK COO r VtSA *ntl MASTER CARD wden- 

ihippins ar>ct rijnchln| USarrd Canada . . .. . , . M.OO 

Shlpprntf «ncJ handling uulttdt \hv US jr»d C .huiiJ.i 1 1.00 

COD charge (2 00 

il bV»N ■►.lU'* 



36W 255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (VOICE) 
(312) 879-6811 (24 HR< BBS) 

CALL ANV OA1, flnjUlWIt TO QftOCR, *J-SO YJfcDf ft fit WML tfH Sfti. 



art 



MUSICA2 



$29.95 



• High resclulion graphic 
display, tooks just like 
sheet music 

* Loudness of each voice 
may be individually 
spec Hied 



Offer ends 
Jan. 15 

Jape or Disk 

• When in stereo mode, music is played 
I h rough our STEREO PAK [purchased 
separately). 




• Memory available 
constantly displayed 



11 



• Voice waveshapes may he 
HKChanged between 
voices at any point 

• Tempo may be specified 
and may even be altered 
as the music plays, 

• Flats and sharps sup- 
ported, 



* Si ii ions of 
binalicns. 





Repeat bars allow repeating of music 
withoui re- inserting music a second or 
third lime 



> Voice timbre i waveshape) 
may be altered by 
specifying harmonic 
content just like stops on 
an organ. 

> During editing, voice 
being Inserted Is 
displayed. 

I Each measure is 
numbered for easy 
reading of music. 

» Measure bars aid in 
reading end developing 
music. 

> Each voice may be 
visually high hg hied lor 
easy i den ti Heal ion. 



'tomtit 2 is CREAT7" 

Snellen Wilson 
U s the best taut parr hirmorxy 
composer on the market tod the 
mint used pto%rAm in may fife* ' 
R.C Wright* 

Or" att the nitwit proyhirru and 
t ve had them all (here it no 
comparison m (lexibttily, wmpfrc- 
Hy of operation and m ihc warm 
vibrant tone\ lhar U produces t 
went out and speni t?(iO OO on 
stereo equipment fust to J rould 
mo/f ihurou^hiy enjoy \tusita 2 
dnd the Siervo PaJj r 

HuwjtU itftm 
TCI Industrie) 



Output your music to any doi matrl* 
primer (Gumim luX. £p*on R,S, pr inters. 
Okidata. etcj 




THERE'S MORE 

• A Voices produced simultaneously 

• Input notes from key boa rd or j oyslick 

• Play musk from your own BASIC 
program 

• Block copy music for easy music 
development 

• 100% machine language soil is light- 
ning fast 

• Vibrato effect easily produced 

• With STEREO PAK, voices may be 
switched between let! and ri^ht 
speakers as music, plays 

• MUSICA 2 is 100% software, no 
need for hardware unless you want 
music produced m STEREO. In that 
case, the STEREO PAK may be pur- 
chased separately, it sa must for the 
aud iophile! 

• Durations include: whole, half, quar- 
ter, eighth, sixteenth, thirty second, 
sixty- fourth, and triplet. 

• JO page manual describes ad, 

1 THOUGHT ONLY AN APPLE SOUNDED THAT GOOD' 

TtniH what I wj* told arier i %Ave a seminar And demonstration of MUSICA 2 and ihe STEREO 
PAK ,n ihc* ThiniRo *ambowte*L I smfEed and thanked the young man for the "supposed"' 
ci/npllmeru hut upon re 'lectio^ 1 became *ngeicd oy the apparent belief that the CoCd is 
interior mi |hft rtrtjdrd. Nothing couTd be further horn the ffUtfi. 

To help fight this faJie belief, we've decided tn lower the price of MUSICA J to help spread the 
■a nrci 

We will ako keep the STEREO PAK price at S 39.9S and give you a complete refund II vou we 
not 100*. KJlMird with the StERCO TAfL 




STEREO PAK 



Plug this gem into your computer, conned to your home 
stereo system and sit back and enjoy music realism. The 
STEREO PAK is a hardware music synthesizer that plays our 
MUSIC LIBRARY and MUSICA 2 music In stereo, because it 
was designed specifically with music reproduction! in mind, 
the sound is superb- The highs are crisp and clear while the 
bass notes will rattle your walls. 

The STEREO PAK is all hardware. It is intended as an 
enhancement for MUSfCA 2 and our MUSIC LI BRARY* Disk 
owners may use the STEREO PAK with the JtS, Mutti-FMk or 
our Y-CABLE (S2aj5) 



1 39 95 % 




^ MUSIC LIBRARY™ — 

Vou get over 100 four voice songs with a combined 
playing time of 3 hours, Thai's right, 3 hours of music, You 
won't hf live your CoCo could snund so good. To fit over 
TOO song* required both sides of $020 tapes and the disk 
version uses 5 full disk* d hat's a half box of disks] 1 . 

A JUKE BOX selection program- i* included to allow you to 
select specific songs or automatically play each. These 
songs are ready to go, you don't need MUSICA 2 or a 
knowledge of music 

These songs were developed using the best music program 
available for the CoCo; MUSICA z, The tunes may be used 
as source flies for MUSICA 2 and changed by the user. 
When coupled with the STEREO PAK the songs are 
reproduced In stereo with unsurpassed realism. 



MUSIC LIBRARY TOO categories: 

Stage, Screen, and TV Classical 
Music of the 70's 
Music of the frO's 
Music of the 50 s 
Old Time Favorites 



3 VOLUMES 

\^ P 

Christmas (popular) 
Christmas (traditional) 
Patriotic 



Polka Party 

MUSIC tfftRAKV 200 

Our second volume of 100 tunes, JVj hours oT music, 
MUSIC LIBRARY 100 

Our third volume ur 100 tunes. 1 more hours pf music 



MUSIC LIBRARY (Each Volume) . 
(Specify 100 200, or 300) 



(J2K Tape) 
U2K Disk) 



S3 4.95 



Two programs are provided 
tree with each DATA PEN, 
SKETCH is a superb high reso- 
lution color drawing program 
allowing precise drawing and 
freehand sketching, painting 
and much more. SHAPE 
CREATE is a high resolution 
library shape drawing program. 
You can even save your work 
to tape or disk for later display 
or editing. 

The software is shipped on 
tape and may easily be moved 
to disk. Included is complete 
documentation to allow you 
to in legrate the DATA PfN into 
your own BASIC program, 



SPEECH SYSTEMS 
DATA PEN 



only . . . $29.95 




EASY TO 
USE! 



The DATA PEN is a light pen, 
hut unlike other iightpens.it is 
far more sophisticated. 

• Insensitive to ambient light 

• K es ponds to d I ffe r ent color* 

* Program- m y?> bit Li D 

lamp readout 

* Switch for program control 

WE STAND BEHIND 
OUR PRODUCTS 

Like all our other products, if it 
is not the best, we won't sell iL 
II you're nol 100% satisfied, 
merely return the DATA PEN 
for a complete refund. 









Dealer Inquiries 1 



t 



terns 



W( it«pt CASK CHECK. COD. VISA ami MAJftR CAKOofdtiv 
Shipping iftti Pijndltr>3 US jn-c) Canada ... 

Shipping and handling Qui vide ihe US and Canada 

COD CrMrft* 

Dinoti rtitd'flti *M tak-i Fai 



.... Si OO 
%} 00 



38W 255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312, 879-6380 (VOICE) 
(31 2) 679-6811 (24 HR. BBS) 

call Any o<sv, *'<\iiMt to ottocrt al>o QRiitn nv mail on oos 



'TALKING SOFTWARE* 

FOR THE VOICE, SUPER VOICE *, RS SPEECH & SOUND PAK 



RADIO SMACK* 
SPEECH * SOUND TRANSLATOR 



jit* 1 <_ tv _„« 




gram and our entire Horary 



We believe that no COCO speech 
synihesizer gives you ihe power 
■net flexibility of the SUPER 
VOICE. MpvpriheleRS. some have 
decided lo go with ihe Radio 
Shack SPEECH & SOUND PAK 
For those we've decked to open 
Our TALKING LIBPiAHY by offer 
wg Ihe SPEECH 1 SOUND 
TRANSLATOR . J mat load this pro- 
is open to you. 



Bui that's not all. this program adds leaiures You get increas- 
ed intelligibility, the power of en exception table to speciry 
specific pronunciations, $12.81 *e spoken In dollar* and cants. 
1,23*,567 Is spoken in millions, thousands, and hundreds, and 
much more. 524.95 



TERMTALK AM lbs features of an intelligent leiecom 

rnunicalions program plus what appears on Ihe TV is spoken. 

a Upload ana Download programs • Control XmH Protocol* 

• Full or Spin" Screen a Buffer Editing 

■ Normal or Reverse Video a It talks 

Please specify version | VOICE Or RS SPEECH 4 SOUND PAK) 

Tape 133.95 Disk S*9.95 

TALKING BINGO BINGO was never like I his. The VOICE or 
SUPER VOICE makes all ihe cells while you sn back and play 
Comes with 20 playing cards and 200 markers. High Resolu 
tion graphic screen. 3 tinung level, ball couni and pause con- 
trols $24,95 

ESTHER tne Ta^ina psychoanalyst. An exctjlleni example ol 
artificial intelligence She may not soivfj all yoik oroo'oms, but 
her Insight win amaze you. Just like I He original Eliita, $24 ,95 

SCORE E-2 A vahtzeelvpegame Up to tfr can play $24.95 



CULT OF THE CAVE BEAR You're a stranded i-ma 
traveler 50,000 years in the past. Can you fix your If ma 
machine while tUN surviving in this alien environ, and make it 
back? $29.95 
SHIP HUNT Play Battleship with your CoCo All status 
reports ere spoken. Ready battery, ami. fire al will 1 $24,95 

FINAL COUNTDOWN You must slop the mad general 
from launching a missile at Moscow and causing WW III. Has 
muit I pie voices to r added realism. $24 .95 



ADVENTURES^ 



STAR TALK You're the Star Fleol Capiain, Vouf 
mission... destroy the enemies' Dragon Star Snips AH slatus 
'Sports are spoken 1 524.95 



ADVENTURE GENERATOR Create talking advenfuie 
fiames lhat are 100% Machine Language. Up lo 99 rooms, 255 
objects, 70 command words and 255 conditional flags 

64K Disk $39,95 



EDUCATION^ 




ANIMATED SENTENCES The child builds complete sentences from 
a graphic menu using keyboard ar |nystick The aclion ls then spoken and 
acted out graphically it's a great way to learn the parts ot speech He, verb, 
subject, noun, el CO $24.95 



PRESCHOOL 

TALKING COUNT TO ONE HUNDRED 
A program designed lo teach Ihe child 
counting lo 100 by 1. 2 t 5 and it) tor 
wards and backwards S 29.95 

TALKING ALPHABET A program 
designed lo help the pre-schooler 
ma8ier the alphabet 129.95 
TALKING NUMBERS A COLORS A 
must program lor (tie very young. High 
Resciulion grfiphles to insure atten- 
tion and con cent rat ion. 129.95 
TALKING NUMBER SKfLLS The child 
becomes familiar with the shape and 
meaning of. numbers. $29.95 
TALKING CLOCK In ihcse days of the 
digital ctock. children miss an Impor 
iani education This program aids Ihe 
siudenl In mastering ihe traditional 
analog dock High Resolution 
graphics $29.95 

Aii software, 



GRADES 2- G 




TALKING SUBTRACTION A program 
specifically designed to help the stu- 
ff em learn subtraction. $29,95 
KtNG AUTHOR S TALES A CWalrve 
writing tool lo allow a child to wrtto 
compositions, or short stories. O fc A 
option is also included. £29.95 
COLOR MATH Addition Subtraction. 
Multiplication, and Division aro 
mastered Student may specify Oil- 
Mcully level S24.9S 
SPELL A TRON Student builds a dic- 
tionary ol words to bo quizzed on. 
Par fee I for Spelling B 52* 95 

SPELLING TESTER A graphic spelling 
game The studenl is shown objects to 
be spelled 59.95 

POETRY CREATOR The VOICE 
speech unit is used to speak poetry 
thai la created S9 9& 

e<cepr as nofetf, shipped on rape bur may 6e 



SHORT STORV MAKER A program to 
create and speah stones created by 
the child S9.9S 
FOREIGN LANGUAGE Lea m a foreign 
language. French dictionary Is includ- 
ed $5: ,&5 
PRESIDENTS The siudenl is able to 
master tne Presidenis of ihe US. I9.S5 
STATES A program designed to aid 
the student m learning correct spelling 
or the stales $9.95 
CAPITALS Learning tne Slalos 
Capitals Is made more interesting us- 
ing speech. 19.95 
HANGMAN A word guessing game 
You musl guess the word before yog 
hang. $9.95 
MATH BRILL A program lo help tearh 
arithmetic S9.95 

movec to tffs*. 



'SUPER VOICE'. 




in tGT9. VOTRAX brought us the SCOt chip which made Inex- 
pensive speech synthesis possible Speech Sysiema was pro- 
ud la onrg the COCO community Ihft tirsl speech synthesizer 
using this miracle device. 

No* Silicon Systems Inc. brings us the SSI 2&3 {sometim&s 
called the SC-02}. Once again Speech Systems is happy to be 
the torsi to brine you this breakthrough in speech synthesis. 
The SSI 263 is the mast advanced speech cn(p available. Read 
"Build a Third Generation Phono lit Space h Synthesizer" In the 
July M Issue or BYTE magazine: fer del a I is ol this amazing 
chip 



YOU DECIDE 





tun* ¥ "Tt uuia « 


1MMC- t 


iMUG £ 


— 

irUFBri lit- rjhki 


Ulltl 


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SUPER VOICE SONGBOOK VOL 1 

SUPER VOICE sings many ot your favorite songs. Stan your 
si nglng library today > ONLY 



COCO'S MOST ADVANCED 
SPEECH SYNTHESIZER. 

NOW IT TALKS, 
SINGS AND MORE. 
only . . . $79.95 



The SUPER VOICE gives you COCO's most mfelHgidle speech 
m addition,, the free TRANSLATOR taxt-to-speech program 
allows you to easily write your own BASIC programs. Highest 
quality speech may be achieved by j 
specifying inflection. Intonation, ar- *\*VaAa/1 
tlculahon, and filtration. But that's ^ > \ 
not ail, the SUPER VOICE can actual- 
ly sing over a 6 octave range And 
while the SUPER VOICE was intend- 
ad for speech synthesis, me tact that 
you can speclly complex speech 
parameters means you can even 
create sound- effects, 



SUPER TALKING HEADS 




Two h«iads are better Wan one. 

- * When the SUPER VOICE speaks in a 

*.',*vo^* <: low pitched voice, the men speaks, 
when a high pitched voice Is used ihe 
woman speaks $£4.95 
i see special olteO 



fiadlo Snacit* SPEECH a SOUND PAK version 







VtSA* 


Dealer Inquiries 
Invited 



VV>«M»pl CASH, CHICR COD. VISA jn<J * t AH i J 

<ih>[tp<n£ Jnfl hirtrtUhR LJ* itil t jrwh . .. H.00 
Sh>ppinft j nit handling Mtlid* thp (J5 *nrf Cnudj $ \ 00 

COO < tut** .- I* (Ml 

IhrvH* rM«1*nN arid h%\ lahfl I a» 



38 W 255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
<312) 879-6880 (VOICE) 
(312) 879-6811 (24 HR. BBS) 

(Alt A*JV UAV, ANVllMf IO OBUId AlSti UKtrr* SV MAtL UK US', 



SUPER BACK UP UTrUTT 

^WTTH SBU fROM COMPUtliE TQLTLL N£~ «B NEED 
ANOTHER BACK- UP UTILITY FOR TOUR COCO" 
SUPER BACK UP UTILITY WILL PERFORM ALL 
OF THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS 
1 . TAPE TO TA.Pt i«*pai*di«» at orsteet 

2 TAPE TO DISH iMo»t CJ**a*frp pwoQ'nm* tu n+ia" 

3 AUTO RELOCATE tFer imm) Calioie ofoo^t!* i*Vftn>H" » 

With DH.k flCKPPt#hng itiltmi I 
-* OtSH TO TAPE iPhlpj Dh> pt-aojflttii onio CmeHm 
S DISK TO DISK. iOuif po**rfut < h Jmigt Ftagrtm. 

■fl*i|JPV£l<**i erf O'ultclion Khimifi 

* MINU DRrVENt 

* REQUIRES 32ft EXTENDED COCO 

* REQUIRES 1 OP 2 DRIVES ^o* D»kFur.eripr,,i 

* ALL MACHINE LANGUAGE?!' 

] COMPARE WITH OTHER INDIVIDUAL PROGRAMS 1 

J COSTING IH EXCESS OF t tDO. ODOR MOPEIIt j 

* * *6nVy~$49,95!* * i~ ' 

[SUPPLIED ON OISK> 



X> T.T.U. - TRIPLE TRANSFER UTILITY (C) 

»v«> d<»r*ii> *ac*« iroujQf cib?*" • Cepti ASO bit tu^^ Mi 
(»«« i **r prflsti-r 1 

REQUIRES a?K CC EXT. 



Cassette $1 9 95 Disk $24 .95 



UlUfTEl rci 

PROFESSIONAL BARTENDERS CU'D-E 
*Werij D^ttf "Owr UJO Laimfls 1 * Euv to Md your tlfattfl 
■ PrinnoTxS i r«j* * tar di ten eaiv defence' 4 Access <Mikby name 
or bquor conient 1 ' Uiiliits combines 'Fast Access Record tariwr 
|*ny /ecorfl in |usi two rtjrtsl 



64K -\T 



FA* Pwntl ,* bo dwr wapt** U,sic. E niHiDI D fiA&X fl™r*Ci. UN 
PiW WE* 

REQUIRED **K COCO TAPE $11,99 



TAPE-DIR 




* l-JW (Mf tn* nr ff- you. r4l 1> iracraW 

S ** fvoisi Hoe i 'U (rtri !^ <iv 

ft£QUrHE& tUt EXTENDED COCO, CASSETTE PLATER 
(PRINTfcH OPTIONAL] 



CASSETTE $1 1 ,99 



SPIT N IMAGE (C) 

u l Qa*. «te* Lta uirfffp 



****** 



RAINBOW 



OS-9 . . . . 

"CONVERT" ****** 



£* uC - f» poo ndv - 0»l «k 
REQUIRES 32 K CC AND 1 OR MORE DRIVES 
DISKETTE $34.95 



feat -IWUC-HrfUT 

B#*.5to QV^ tLT# nPffrf COLD MUADsmHUnK) h *{. ItkI jI pu in? an 
HUM, irtflt* COCO OH 

HEOUIHES WK COCO A NO 2 OWVES 

VUPPlI ED OH H BK ON L V $ 4 9 . 9 5 



^MASTER 

"""""W © 1984 



-■■p >ii I Ml 1 I 'lira* lif I lb- 1 >■ 



ONLY 



PASTA PE 

ftf tttij Ont Thng Tr A (M Dn*t 



la h C » 5» ,w 



■*f UtTII *L« •it 4|a«fl|MtJ Ju*l +*r t*H piBllt, Jail «« » h*j yr.z M 

<i. fliTT* ,* i mlai-ij,. cr,, nnH» >hl <il J^nLfi i*H ,i>rp 

i*ar t*C« * IN it * It filf 4* Mpfpinf a 1»P<r*' Hair ^#>< urf 

ifaj i«m x«|, r *af F'tfrui, pFddtlUl tf "It, if t»lf D* T*| <fi 

MrivJitt giiiiil*l|tf Il^tn f D r *p ijt «-|v.|kl«i 

l*Ut|f:«*At« imp, It mi IICII C*|t aiasf t <ra« ■*» |«i;«tiafl Iff (n B 

ilpp ii*a-. «1| if nOl t*ilw atif'f liir jr ftil 

*t*-f*i ifljH hi| ^fU EHrtttll lux liH «*i F«t tillfF HJIi'l u|r «■ 4llf l)IE*t> 
»jmtEP# ifirjlit*, <*i.i *Jiti* I If .1 ir>U4ll*l- 

v«»j"fki1>tMl, Itfi I* l*fi<<. *i~i*l a*'U ilj *l tfCs^ U« 



UJt h*n Cff m 4Md •« tHM»4t K mv<j (Hit a? n« 

-| »tFefiahr ™imm mnia th It Hf+* utility Umlnhri^. r-'H3 
"A Irajfll 1rji IhOM a»Hh«a-t dl«h Aaajlani" Hn>e Coco, 1 O'Sl 



Hi Oil r RES iflK COCO 



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THE PEEPER 



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High Fidelity 
Hardware Hacking 

By Et\ EBers 
Rainbow Ted u lira I Writer 



ht'Lr>ii|L ipoi -welded in the closed position 
from excessive current and the resulting 
sparks - Early models of the CoCo (C b D 
and K boards) had a ml her s mall relay, 
newer machine* had a he iter one thai 
clicks rather loudly. I'd have 10 say your 
recorder probably contributed to the 
pmhlem. Radio Shack recorders are 
wired mj thai the remote jock switches 
tvnly the motor; most other make* 
{including GE, as far as I know) twitch 
aM power within the recorder, which 
means that the relay has to carry more 
current than Radio Shack allowed for 
when l hey picked that relay Tor the CoCo. 
To make absolutely sure thai the CoCo 
is at fault before trying a repair, unplug 
the remote plug; from the recorder and 
connect an ohmmeter across the plug 
contact*. The remote circuit should read 
"open" unless you have the computer in 
3 cassette lyO function (or vou have 

■elected AVDto ox* 



Moving The Multi-Pnk 

■ / received a Mutti-Pak Interface for 
my CoCo as a Christmas gift h seems 
to work properiv when hooked direcliv 
to the expansion part on my computer. 
The problem, however, it that my com- 
puter desk is similar to a typing desk and 



• Is there any way (Q get parallel data 
in and out of a CoCo? t would like to 
more data using art eight- track tape 
recorder at a higher speed than m\ fiftffr 
track serial data ret order. M ould I need 
more than eifshr tracks* 

h it possihh- to change the Baud rate 
of data to and (mm the cassette recorder 
like you can to the printer? I use a Pioneer 
reei-to-reel tone deck, which Fm rare ran 
handle a fuMt t Baud rate. 

David DeGumez 
Denver, CO 

The idea of using an tight-track 
recorder \o store data has been tried 
before, hut not in the way you describe. 
1 1 ml*, hke houVe i p i It to J BBflttl 
recording eight track* simultaneously: 
that is not what the conventional eight- 
track tape decks tin, and would ret) tare 
a special recording head. As for faster 
Cassette I <X you might try this if your 
computer will accept the speed-up poke; 

POKE 65491 .0:CR A V H"f ilenamc" 



tkd klien, a KMMKift and I'lM Mitt/ 
mcmher, is a selhctititcsscd electronics 
tanatU who** other interims include 
sctence fiction*} 



This should CSA VE a program at 3000 
Baud instead of 1500, though 1 make nn 
promises, The reason that I have the two 
POKPs in a single command line is that 
POKEing f,5497 disrupts a number of 
normal CoCo fund ions (including video); 
this method does the PQKiL saves the 
file and then puis the machine back at 
normal speed. The lame procedure (with 
CI.OAD in Ihc middle) would be used 
lo load such a file, Vou shouldn't need 
to move up lo a different recorder to do 
this 



Froun Contacts 

• / have a (iencrai Electric cassette 
recorder for my CoCo, and ait of a sudden 
the recorder wont stop when it's done 
hading or recording a program, A friend 
Mid that my computer t* not turning the 
recorder off and it is stuck in the "on " 
paii km. Is there an\> way to fix this 
without opening uj> the computer? 

D, Afdsam 
Newark, D£ 



I don't see how. The problem j* 
probably in the relay inside the CoCo that 
control** the cassette motor, it may have 



.WHigry 1398 r>rt ftAjtaaow ITS 



__ 

there trn> roam for both the computer 
and the interface. 

Ta tttfvf the problem i constructed an 
true tf uu tuNt- uHtui .ffl inches king f 
brought alt 40 tin** ttnd the t wa grounding 
tab tine* nut oj the nnnputcr to the Mtdti- 
Pak. hut it doesn r work. The wmng is 
known to be torra t, bemwe the cable 
Hriftt fine for the rfi.vA controller and 
various CQTfridgH f tried a shorter (12- 
mch) cable with the same results. I then 
tried to nhittd and ground the whole cable 
with aluminum fad, and thts helped, but 
the cable stitf fcfttfl 't reliable Would you 
have any knowledge of a solution to this 
problem? 

John J. Gallagher 
Williamson, \T 

Hie Muhi Pak Interface doesn't seem 
lo be able lo work with calender cables, 
because uf ihc many signal* that no back 
Mid (*>nh bvciuccn lUe CoCb and the 
Multi-Pa* unii- You might try using a 
commercially available shielded or twisted- 
pair cable (available from industrial 
electronics dint ribu lor* 1, bui Tm hesitant 
to tell you to spend the money because 
it may well do no food whai soever . 



PriMer Echo No Go 

• / read mth mueh anticipation the 
hardware article dealing with connecting 
the 4-pin DiS plugs of the primer and 
modem together, to that every thing 
appearing on the screen would he primed, 
f did the whole project, and then dtscoV' 
ered that the Radii/ Shack DMP-tOO 
printer docsn V have a 3*'H) Baud setting, 
is there any way to change the Baud rate 
i<.>> i uti; tot the OMP-itm to .100 cither hv 
software or fn a hardware project? 

Cratg f.uecke 
Brink it jvy. MP 

The DMP-tQO-'s two Baua rates arc 
fixed in (he ROM inside the printer, and 
t hanging to 300 would be rather iti If Leu It 
You could n*c one of the several stria I- 
tu-parultcl interfaces on the market |o 
pick up 300 Baud data and feed it into 
(he DMMfXI's parallel port, Note that 
this mil only work if the system on the 
other end is operating at K bits with no 
parity; if 7 bits with even or odd parity 
is used there will most likely be garbage 
on the printer, beca use. t he character* with 
the pari i y bit added will correspond tfl 
special characters instead of teg alar 
alphanumeric*. 



31 or 64 - Whats The Difference? 

• f have a 32K CoCo, { hear wi much 
about having 64 K, but I wonder what the 
difference is between my computer and 
the 64 K model 

A ho. f have a short program that 
moves BAStC into RA M. Docs that make 
my computer 64 K* 

Michael Rosenberg 
Prestonsburg. KY 

If your 0A5lC-ln-RAM program works- 
then that means, the machine in question 
is actually 64K Radio Shack made a large 
number of machines between late 1982 
and the middle of that actually bed 
64K of RAM; they only advertised them 
as 32 K because none of I he 3 oft ware they 
sold (umil OS-° became available] could 
make use of the all-RAM 64K mode. 
Some other machine* were sold with 64K 
RAM chips installed , bal were only wired 
for J2K. because Tandy saw no need to 
provide 64 K capability at the time 



Ed EMerswJII try to answer any questions 
yon mat have iboui the C'uCo and It* sppll- 
tuiuns. Spnd \nuF qtic*0om To "ha nth Tu 
Ed/'THt kaIhbov, , P.O. Box JH, Proipect, 
KY 40059, 



I iCanii 
Tool 



tinned from Page 16/ 



Too Ion* , r . , <t , * t 2,6 

Too many r , I B 

Taofcw ■ 7,2 

Too generous ...*.,» 10 7 

Too trllical r . ♦ , . . 0.3 

Do our reviewers mm: 

Well qualified , 37.0 

trustified T 60*0 

UoJer qualified.... 3.0 

Do you wait lo hub h iiainuow 
tovibw bafor* buying a product? 

rWwmy» , , , . 24 J 

Usually 51 .« 

Someiimev 22,3 

Never * • » • 1.6 

Am you fiesiraru to buy from a new 

ftdv*niMr? 

Yes 57,4 

No . . . . T 42.7 

Are you more inclined to buy after 



seeing a product advertised? 

Once iZtt 

Two or three timet 6J,0 

Six tunes , 13.4 

Mare than sit lima 9.0 

Oo you like the discount coupon 

MM? 

Yes B5.7 

No 14,1 

Do you like our issue themes? 

Yei ; m 

No * . . , 6.8 

Oo you use n4»NBOw Chock? 

Frequently IS 4 

Seldom , 1S2 

Never t , t . 46.4 

Would three-column listings of 

Sasig pragtam* f+n smeller typei be 

useful 

Yes ti vr 363 

No , ( 63.7 

Do you get hajnbow on tape? 
Yes 35 3 



We hud some other question* dealing strictly with iht 
show itself and a few question* were so ambiguous that tht 
response was statistically meaningless. For instance, there 
was hardly any numerical spreud lo the "rate our dcpati- 
mcn i s " and 41 rate otirt hcme> " responses ; this is proba b l\ due 
to the poor wording of the questions, hut could possibly be 
been use the respondent* had a wide disparity of opinions, 
each wiih their own favorites. In general, t bough h the resutti 
s uggeil thai our column> on hAsir ic tt en to the ed i lor and 
technical Q&A eohimn-, are most highly rated, ft a IN 
Scoreboard L ind us accumpa living Scoreboard l*uinfef^ 

176 fHEHWhlflOw MiiiMry T9Ha 



No 64.7 

Ago: 

18 or Under I7J 

19-25 h.ft 

2c-3S 22 1 

36-45 2*0 

46^5 20 2 

Over65 |,7 

Occupai^n: 
Engineer' Technical . . . ♦ T r . » , . , 27,6 

Professional 19 A 

Business person 

Student t * |1.3 

Educator 75 

Skilled Trade . , , 5,0 

Retired . ». . , , , . . 3,0 

Housenofa Incomo. 

Under S 10.000...... 92 

$IO.iKKU$20,f(00 |0T 

521,000-530.000 21 I 

fBI.OOO-iSO.OOO 38.2 

531 .000-575 ,000 15,2 
OverS75,00(J 6 2 



were at the bottom. In regard to themes, apparently the most 
popular are graphics, hardware and data communications, 
white the lowest ratings went 10 our holiday (b«b t humbug, 
yoursclfl, muitcand Simulations. With more ipecilk ques- 
tions, we should be able 10 temrn more when we poll those 
who a it end the Irvine, Calif., RAENBOWfcst. Then, maybe 
we'll be ready ir> poll iheemirc readership. Jn the meantime, 
a reminder that subscription rates are being slightly increased 
and that you cati save money by subscribing, or extending 
your subvcTiption, before the first ot Hie year 

— Jim Reed 




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SCOREBOARD POINTERS 

In conjunction with the rainbow s Scoreboard, we offer this column of 
pointers for our game-playing readers' benefit If you have some interest- 
ing hints and lips, we encourage you lo share them by sending ihem to 
the Scoreboard, c/a the rainbow 



PROGRAM EXCHANGE 

Scoreboard: 

Anybody looking for another inwnc 
C0C0 user to tiidc program* with? I urtHdd 
<pprcc4mtc it vcr> much. Il would mak* my 
gloomy day! 

Turf J Kfwpp 
Prairie du Chimt, Wl 



DRAIN PROBLEMS? 

Stnri'hoard: 

This 11 ihc boi niiigauinc Ihtti has ever 
heen put aul on the CoCo 11 iidwa nil ihc 
htiJi of information from ,1 vanclv of source % 



and compile? a mio one. Keep up the good 
Wori, 

I have ncvrral Ad venture games and the 
one 1 hat gives r:u- the moil problem ii Sandi 
of Efjrpi < would appreciate it greatly d 
anyone eon help Pitt J"vc found the pool, 
gotten in it, cant gel oui, and I tnow 1 
have to drain n wmehow. IVe also found 
die bdfct paint tree t'lease acad the itilufitm 
if po^ible. My oddre» is 51-2 Maine Si., 

JtffMtkav 
Travis A. F.8.< CA 



THE 120 POINT QUESTION 

SMthaard: 

In the )iumc Pvtamtd whai hupperis jii 
22fl poinis? PIcojc vrvte to Jet me know. 
My uddfcs* is 501 Buckley Highway, GfflU. 

Chrix CamfUr 
Union, CT 



IV UMBO 



ScorfbtmrtL 

Helpf I om having tfOtlbk with Calixw 
island Whai do vo U do after you j^o down 
The trap door'* 1 cati'i gel my flashlight on. 
Also, in Black Sanctum, [ hove found the 
hctu-h house, hut I cant do anything wiih 
il. Mjr son and I will be waiting for your 



JBPiJUPy tflSS THE RAINBOW 179 



replica ■vo wc can «l going Write me as 
1446 Marline Ave, 92021. 

/ir S'ewman 
Et Cafon. CA 



MISSION IMPOSSIBLE? 

Scoreboard: 

As il is neither practical nor possible Tor 
y<mr editor* to verify the legitimacy <\t your 
readers' wwr mb missions, you cannot be 
cnnciml for puhlivhing ibe m verbatim, on 
ihc assumption that they arc pen unit No 
doubt* the possibility of deceit exists in any 
honor system 

Mdsi (if not all) arcade-type garnet Allow 
for phenomenally high scores. In contrast, 
logical I Adventure! game* generally do not. 
Advcniurr gu rno usually have a fixed, 
maximum number of point-scoring objects, 
and require « tertam minimum number of 
moves to rcalirc 3 particular score. Moreov- 
er* whereas someone who has achieved an 
unprecedented high score in a "shool-env 
up" game probably cannot duplicate that 
score on demand (perhaps never again], one 
who has reached an optimal solution in a 
determinate game should be able to repro- 
duce thai score consistently With iht 
exneptioti of a trivial quasi -rondo m elc inent , 
1 he Adventure came Pyramid is j determi- 
nate game golnriont arc replica Me 

t do not believe that it is possible to score 
220 point* in Pyramid in less than HO 
. The proof relic* upon details of the 
n's (sloppy, bul copyrighted) source 
code And data, and so will not be given here, 
bul il it believed to be accurate and 

complete 

George ft. FatrFictd 
I inoria. Hnttsh t oiumbta 



BKST SETS FOR BEDLAM 

Scoreboard 

For those oJ you having trouble wub 
Bedlam, pay attention! Get ihc red key in 
the Dtineniary, hul fuse go u» the M 1 ei - 
teuancc room and get the hook. Go bock 
10 the Dispensary and lype GET RED KEY 
WITH HOOK. If the man with the hypo 
get* >uu just type PLUGH . Go right outside 
the shock room and type OFT GREEN 
%m Wt\ H HOOK Now that you have 
everything you need, llnd Napoleon Go to 
every room and type OPEN DOOR Pretty 
soon you will find a secret door. You will 
not be able to open it, 10 ask Napoleon 
to open it and you're home free. 1 forgot 
to mention ibat in order to get Napoleon 
to follow you, type ASK NAPOLfcON TO 
FOLLOW. 

In Baaka- Tu r search each room hv tvping 
SEARCEI ROOM, You should find a ccm 
in a crack. Thafj 111 points nghl there Aho, 
you should never pull the lever, ilhi gti n 



In fhittjtftMs af' Dagjtutattt, I think I have 
the hst of nngs: 



KAMI 
Vulcan 



INC ANT TO 



r 1 n* 

Ice 



John kuiJ 
Oarkxhtim, NJ 



CHOCK FIMXO 4 HINTS 

Scoreboard- 

Here are some tips on Black Satin urn. 
Calixto Island, Seaqu?H r and Ths Ovom 
of \ferro 

To get past Hie 11a lives on Aferro, tvpe 
LIGHT MATCH. Then type GIVE 
MATCHES. This will get you pasi them, 
To get past the poisoned arrow* you must 
have the water. (You gel this hy pushing 
the now on the fountain.) Type DRINK 
WATER. HI give one more hint; you had 
hciiex have your hacksaw before going in 
any fun her? 

In E*l lIk rjrcU).cr li.mh 011 Sanctum 

just give him the jug of wine 

On Calixto. always jscl the boots. To get 
• he paddles you must have the mice. To get 
them vou need the I rap. Then go 10 (he 
pyramid and DROP MICE when you get 
to the snake. Always remember to have the 
buckcl with >ou when you cross the river! 

On Sraqucst. to get into the beach house 
you must break ihc window. (The beach 
house is behind the la Us. Just type GO 
FALLS and you will be in 1 he cavern. When 
you enter the cavern you will trip over 
something. That is the shovel. Type GET 
SHOVE L.I To open the clam you must have 
the shovel. To get 10 the clam you must 
buv ihe air tanks with the credit card. Then 
type FILL TANKS, Now you can go into 
the water. 

ir anybody has found a way to open the 
trapdoor in the beach tiou» or Inti im.iul 
a way to buy the tpeargun on Sea<fuc.it. then 
write to me at 390 St Charfcs Ave.. 32953. 

Kcuh Sehuta 

Mcrritt Istttrtd. Ft 



rutss vhi \u 



Scoreboard; 

I would like to pass along to the readers 
a little hint 10 use while playing The Frog 
from Tom Mix. I found out that on my 
C0C0 2 (MK ECU) the frog would only 
go once in any direction Meaning thai in 
order to no across the street you had to 
first press the up-arrow once, then go left 
or right before you could go ahead once 
more, I found thai by holding down the 
space bar vou could travel in any direction 
more than once So by doing ihiv you can 



travel across the street or logs more than 
once jusi hy pressing rhr up-arrow. If 
anyone know* of a software fix for this I 
am vuic Hie readers that htive this program 
would like it. 

Jofm D. Cleveland 
Lunenburjr, Afoiu Scotia 



St'tirehtHird; 

The game Arex has 12 different levels. 
Alter 32 ii starts repeating itself from Level 
12 At LrveJ 60 you do not start out wiih 
any Mars, but I bey do come into play, A I 
I cvel 25o the game starts over with Level 
1 and out alar, and then increases the <uars 
with the pom 1 value. The score only goes 
to 700,000 and I went through that 42 limes. 

This game also throws distractions in. 
When you got to the higher level* it will 
go slow and then all of a sudden it will ipced 
up again At limb during the game it Hikes 
ill! umi MiL-n awy> and you have to «.i;in 
over, but by then each square is worth to 
much that io a couple of moves you have 
one hack. 

The only help I can give %n playing the 
game is lo play aggressively Go right after 
the stars. When you have 12 at a time you 
can usually get about 10 before they get you, 
if you go after them. 

Barbara Blumettberg 
St. Fram u. Wi 



Scoreboard: 

Enough is enough! t need help with Sand* 
of i-'jfi/.'i. A recent pointer in the Scoreboard 
hinted that you need to place Ihe scepter 
on the sarcophagus to get into Ihc treasure 
room, 

1 know this is a dumb question, but how 
do you place ihc scepter on the sarcophagus? 
I can't even drop the dam thingt! 

Send any help to P, O, Boa 1 15, 
Thank you 

Craig Luecke 
Brittkfo*\ AtO 



Scoreboard: 

\ have solved the following Adventure 
games. Pungettru of Daggvrath. Pvrumt.i. 
Arconiax Assignment. Bedlam. Caitxto 
Wand, Karrak. Ctawn uf Merro, and 77rc 
Trip. If you need help with one or these 
Adventure games fiend a SASE and I will 
rcplv 

H anvope ha* solved Pyramid 80. I need 
help. 

Chuck Payaicr 

Heztar* Aft 



ISO THE RAPNBGW January v*-, 



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COCO DISC DRIVES 

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INFORMATIVE 600KS 

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Dor i>l Ihr bttl rn*<*Wr Ultfuf- tiili 4»*(*W*— «Bqut««l rrinrtxr mitnuk. lHi» 
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QUALITY VIDEO MONITORS 




S Ah ATA COLCHt SC-tOH»l,»5 



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I*\AV *MIIR *CKJiN.t1« 95 

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VIP SOFTWARE 



SUPER. NEW GAMES! 

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TIME FICMTfR 

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Inl *rr»d# 4<lMm— 4hui<j^» mA Inuc* frju' well 

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Mark Data Products 



THE BLUE STREAK ^ 

Striiil U» Piii-flUel Interface 

SLEEK— I "\J"*4"Uptkp©4l AC Supply plup mf<> 
«tte AC not retired Wilh ntmr ptinten 

FAST— 300 id WUO Baud - 30 * lulcr ihon 1 he Stan 
tfcrt %«> IfcwJ twfcrfacc 

VlHHNc— liuri; tcuidy wuli jacked rafrle, drain 
ivhrl-. ,im.l h» J . i hf%1 uuaJHv I'omptniLUt* 

* Compklc wjIHi At J. tablet ami cdtinccttir* 

• IN) I D») Warranty 



GEMINI 10X 

COMPLETE SYSTEM 




SUPER GEM PRINT 

\ lull S\ll Strt-cn Hump Program 

* {'ki JdiiLihlc Lulijr <thadcnf 

■ l^mti all $ pntovks 

■ M.nhiin 1 lan^iage pj-ilum <ih1r|> r ink'nf ciidc 

• lr.ill-.fi'JTa^li: In duk 



cmmJWE - nothing Atom: m buy - tufumtz 

■ GEMINI ll> X PRINTER • SUPEft GEMPWNT m 

» BLUE STREAK INTERFACE • DELUXE MANUAL J 

BLUE STREAK ALONE - 54*™™. 



Gemini 10X 



PRINT .SPEKD— I2u cp* Btdnvrtiuful b«k. 
Seeking 

PR] NT Sttl^tO, II. 17.5.6. »,Sepi 
NUMBER OF COUJMNS-K). %, 136. 
(40, 4& r (A m tXwhk W&lJ 
CHARACTER MATRIX-V t 'J Studud. 
witb True DrcvncJm » IH * 9 EmpttdMiaj * 
It a 18 Double Sit Ike ■ 6 \ h BitnL 
Grephn t • U) jt 71 Ln% RcmTuiimhh Uu Imi 
i#c Graphics • 130 % 144 FJ1 toofctffea Un 
Jm^gc Graphic* * 24iU 144 UtLni Hi R$*oJu 
linn. R\t tnwgc Graphs 
CHARACTER SETS-% SiiMlard ASCII 
Ournclcr* » % Ital j. •* • W Spcd*1 Cha r aden 

* M black Graphic Character* ■ 96 
ttownlnwufejc Cluraclcr* • Super and Sub 
5i.7Tpt 

LINE SPACING — 1'iujtt.trriii.iiWt hy n/|44" 
PATER HANDLING— Ttail paper ■ Cul Shed 




COMPLETE 
DATA 

COMMUNICATIONS 
PACKAGE 




5£ 



VOLKSMODEM™ YjS^^*"""^ 

Cunncvii Onrttly lu v«rj|l plume jaik 

■ TtlepbuOe jack wilh vixrc r Ai4* tikjlch ■ 30U Baud < bits per secimd) 

■ th^inab^anM^r rrwdte ammmiicilly wlccwil + ftinef> puwefed 
Lj>w drain fnt Ump fde foment* iitciuikdl * Lifetime Warrant!) 

• JiilIuJc all *:«J)tc* fur COCO 



AUTT1TEKM IV b> PXE Compirting 

"Fk-ui t»l i UnT - KamJoll Graham Huinfa* 

HijiJil-,! RaJing* hy Kit CoC« 

"A Cm AhlJ^e ,, - Wayfic t>*y fiflm Cfimpurcr 



CaMn 



\t^LKSMOI)EV1 
ALIOTFRM 



THE SOURCE 3 iiiiiK ■ 1 Mi* i n le: 
Mjs Nrt Be Aviilihle 

DAYTON ASSOCIATES, INC. 

Wl .KSMflDKM i ft W M THVRIZJil) DEALER * D^V A ilfl^ DSTftEET UmD 

Aim)T£RM 7201 CLAIRCREST BLDG. C * DAVTON. OHIO 45434 

n ' M (513)236-1454 

Q j 95 OHIO RESIDENTS AUP V% SAUijS TAX 




The Animator 

Turns CoCo Into An Animation Studio/ Triad Pictures Corp. . , . , T 204 

Calorie Counter — Weight Analyzer 

Just What The Doctor Ordered/Draco Software , ♦ .,.,,..„„„.. 220 

Co Co Checker 

Beat In Its Class/Spectrum Projects, inc. . . . ♦ # T T T , . 194 

Color Power II 

Hun CP/M/ Color Power Unlimited, tnc , , . , 209 

Counting Things 

Learning to Count/ Thompson House + + 215 

Drive 0 Package 

Disk System Offers More Storage/Howard Medical Computers 219 

High Resolution Piclure Puzzle 

Unscramble Those Bones/DSL Computer Products * . . 196 

Jungle Queen 

Seeks A Safari Hero/ZOSO Software , 226 

Kev-WJz 

Easy. Fast, Useful Database Manager , Interactive Micro Systems 218 

Key Tronic Keyboard 

Among The Best/ Spectrum Projects* tnc , . . , 227 

Lotto 

Play The Lottery /RAM Publications t 202 

Option 1 

Is Number One//GS Software , T9B 

Pak-Panlc 

The Old Game Wilh A New Twisv Tom Mix Software , 216 

Play With Language 

Js Exhilarating, Entertaining And Education a VRadio Shack 223 

RAMDOS 

A Good Disk-type Tape Program/Daremar? International. 212 

Sonographics Support (SGS) 

Combines Text And Graphics/Micro Computer Systems , , , 228 

Space Frame 

CoCo Can Engineer/ Kage Engineering r . t * „ . , 208 

Speed Racer 

Offers Good Challenge For The Racing Enthusiast/MtefTTron 231 

Star Trap 

Promotes Cooperation Among CWIdren/Ratffo Shack 214 

Super Diak Utility 

A Collection Of Useful Tools/Pefrocci Frotitance Assoc , 213 
Talking Adventure Starter 

A Vocal E*i>efience For Advenlurers/Ow/s West Software 221 

Test Manager 

A Useful Addition To Your School Home Library too Custom Software t . 217 

ffc-Tac Math 

Improves Arilhmehc Skills/ Wish Software r JJJ 

Trekboer 

Explore The Universe And Rescue The EarWMark Data Products. * ..^M. . 230 
Where's It JM 

O f gan ne Your Disk Libra ry/Jarb Software , f M 4 , 4 206 




Jprufry 1985 THE RAINBOW 185 




ULTRA TERM + Plus + 



Thi aroflrarn il 1rn iwHwnii in CoCo £*wnunitari(t^l i Ul'ro Ttrm + n u»d wilh d 
plug-in SO roWtt! &qnrd Supports mifrt* Doubl* BO Phn. Cater Powir II or Word 



Km vi juif soma of rn« features Utira Trm * 10 offer, 



HARDWARE 



DOBBIf SWITCH- IwO liOt show you o^.ctf pan nbm\«q u*d. 1 or J H<gh %Q|jry 

parts *rirS a griai looking lot* plfrtnl 579.95 

D0UHE CAIU - Hpflfc a MODEM art a PRINTER up 01 it* son* tirr* with ftili 

V-CQflflKtV . SU.9S 

CXf-ailE- long prifltH ir MODEM cobtinMHO ..IM.95 
T-CAIJlE - Vow CQn CWTWt TWO rfflYiCH Of Ihf MM lSfM rd f»uf MM porf {60 CO*- 

imi card and disk Dreral ..... 129 95 

OOUtU DRIVER - |UI * «1» dnw Dwiiafcle for your CoCo. Modt by qur frnndi at 
Mof*i mi Boy Software Sptcrfy CoCa or CaCo ll 524.95 
MINI MOUTH Mir* on ■ lounfl from your inula manilar. Plug* righl to. nortning to 

SOtqV ...... 174.95 

CHOI KHI LI II - Itfl (slug m CP' M t*H d fttU allow f-nu fa im < r«rW5ndt oF CP' M 
programs 5379,00 
MtHI MODEM - 300 B AtfO. OripMsf I r Aasw Full Dupiei , tMr«T Cawiatr 579 95 
(Sort 51 Q QQ *n*n you buy flflfl ol our ttnninal programs and a mod*m|i 
OBIS - DISKS - DIMS - DINS - Mil* 

iov* an fatank 5 V dik»lr*t But >n bulk and wnl Mo starts. (IQ mimnsmn w 
•ochordV) . ._ JH.Otr 



DOUBLE CABLE 




Hgrf, Ml Duplf* w Ed* 

Odd. fon. Murk, Spot* or He P<*rty 

7 or B Bit worrit 

1 h 2 Stop fiiTS 

All Cop* W iwmM 

Smtrol Pfifrtar Format! 

Trapping at Incemnq characters 

UUD Rattii 

I1Q-4&0O ictfTvnvnicottl 
oOO-9oOD Iprmrar! 
ktii fanaaTi 

SO i 74 upptrv Iqwwc Kt 

Send all 1 3fi dwocters from kivtaord 

M#rffc tent or programs 
49K ro 53* memory 
rWlllfpjpWlfaw 
Display Bytes Uwd R«ma«rt9 

Editor— Wkwo forward and rw¥*ft* thru Butter. Imtrf. lypi over, dilate liftes 
thorocteri or words. Blodk deb re 

10 Macro ko*s 

Automgiic Coplurg d? ineamirig filn 
X on 1 K off oapabrlrfM 
Ufld True Una SrwA 

T>Dnsnni. R«*i^e BASIC Programs. Fiiai, or Machine Cod*. No n**d ia rrojnloi* 

BASIC program, fo ASCII Fwnwf 
Sava.rLodd Macros or rVarostm to Diik 
Uh 1 10 4 DHi Drfrti IwrSAVE lOAD r [HP & Gronuh thiployl 
Prim whiki rKwiirtufl iirTormoliati* 
laif To W MENU dhv*n formal 
rflmpf*h»mE¥t uian «nqniu£il 

Warlrt on AM Rndio Shock Cofcx Compv+in, and All Rodlo Shach Disk s. T Jlimi. 

'S doy monti bock fluorontto |f|0 p 510, DC rwock^'uu charos.) 
Only 35,00 oath lw all funra vpgrodti whan you return your warranty card. 

PllfJ, Ultm T*rm* !S9,9S{Dhk] 

t-Cokla S29 95 

Ooublt 80 PKd S99.95 

Cwtipt,:<.PwkoM Jl 89 95 + SAW 

*R*qu>ai PC Pok from PrjJ, Inc, 



DOUBLE 80 PLUS 



l Hi I mo ( Ul l M\ nl ipri 

av\u is siftiTtn urn cocci oh ihu bu; no pi.es 

AtUliSTARM- VIDF.O Ol'TPUT 
CCilJl Pt ATKD l nti* i <i\\rxTOB 

lml^E K> AVA1I 1 K>H BASU . 0<9 nnU H KTS 

DISPLAY ALL ASCII CHARACTERS 

ALTERNATE CHARACTER SETS AVAILABLE 

METAL CASE I Jiot irirap plait i-l i 

ULTRA TLKM+ 4vadibk For C,\i> boaid 

IU{ RI D HV A «W F>A1 PARTS AMI LABOR WARRANTS 

DOURLE BO PLUS (ttO column board) . . $99.95 

Y-CABLE ,. 29S3 

BASIC 11RJVER , )2.95 

OS? DRIVER n,9S 

H F"\ FJH|\ KH rovaiiahileioDtvF . . .13 ?t5 

ULTRA TKtlM • lOj.dk cijiJv i . Ss.Vi 



COLOR TERM + Plus + 



Prime/ - W30 td swo 

1 TO lo 1*300 



Hall 1 of Full Duplez 
Odd. Even or Ho Pority 
7 of I Bit MonJ* 
ArVwA lawerccie H needed 
WOfd Wmp— mj \p\ii words 
P.ev*rw fjt Normal V 4Vu 
F>f,nT#r — Ignore..' Add ImS F*edi 
fHerWtOr: 
Hum. Oftaie. Typi 0¥ir 
Block Dibit. Btarjr jrntrt 

m il 1 1 1 1 Wtodti 

Saofl Promt up to * inn 
Three Buffet Trwtunit Model 
Send Camrd Chrronrn 

ttMmit 
JJiipteif Directory. N* Span 

rfflr- 

xrall Through Received DalO 
K rini a Page or Pnitt A 14 



MU IL£ ir^OUJI He mm waiting for your lii ring* Thh n tHE ipwhng jwqrcniSl 

37r6«IUm S21.BS 

DOM MQVf . AW rev E'tMld** BASIC VO ROM ^ high* m iwnwy. Get It 

ngnforrnr profiwml 64K w). . H2.95 
COCO! Dfll MVII . . 0gn'T |»i th* duk ereihtr get yool Arttiiw* thni irnpOrtfcnt 

d>&k io»o« 32 faJK r*q. S1? 9$ 

AUTOLOAD II . . . WiH land rrwfir prpocru frj duk ovtom<jTi«lry and H» »>Wrt* thai 

croih your dhtk J I?. 95 

CJUJCDC MATH . .Aid 'on ond murhpiiealbr dn!l fSSufe* grime | Fw agei fa ic 10 
lbKwl . 115.«5 

DOUBLE MA I Lit A powerful, «t¥ to UM moiling Nit program. Prinf ou1 

name* - i.' |< 521 .95 

C0AO* tkHErlTTKM . . . Chorr your hmire or pan on or pirtw. Popular 

program Per 2 yri. l*Kwl, S14 9S 

MODEM CHESS ...Yog ond 0 friend too play chtis attr lh* phor»l All main are 
lupporttdMMvi. S19.95 

U MDEHC MH1HO . .Hsw io yev mm? The OWfOion of H«Jl 1 gale 7* find th* CaUnrv 
Apple. 32* (dak) .. ... It* Vi 

CDiqR Itf COMMAND ...A powerlul prjprofflffltr'l Old fpt a Una! price, AulO line 

number, Mocm tUyi. Copy Umi. ck\ mm , Atfrj rent pew to yoo' Gftguto 
UmMmwrarriin MR machine. rfrKrtq, SI a 9S 




CBNr Version 5.0 Now Available 
Same Features As 



ULTRA TERM -PLUS ' 



DOUBLE DOS II 



Double DOS II - Haw git IS, 40,^ 10 urtMV (dbufci* or single »<Jod> driv*. j>l er> 
one ivttern, oil ot lh« 50*n* hm» All rtaufcr dt»k (omwmdt or* luppaftod mth 
Utigbl* 005 M and ore Ta<a1ly tnjrt*par»nr to yoyf BASIC pfwjrcrmii ¥00 con pel 
up to IS! evAi on u drtlt initio on 80 I'-xM drivf, Thej* are it* aboed 



BAUD \-t . nrmnae IFw BAUD >nit. 
T1ACI 3 S, 04.40, S3 . , thonpft nwl* of trai« 
DOUtLI rnoble ihe rJwible iklcd up(.i>n 
FDIBJ . print your dUdO'Y fo prinltr, 
DUMP ONiTOfF . lend proflrtmi wjlhout a terminal prog rum 
BATE 6 r 19 . . . cJwnge Ihe hewt tEpppfng rale, 
VIDEO OH r OFF . rtvm virJoo wtlhout D hortiWt mod. 
fOTOU 1 -2S S , , , change your icrec n tcroil^ speed 
COMMANO . , .will lid oil mm <omm«3v 

DUPE C. 1 ,1 will allow t«f>y & boeii^ ffofti one vide of a A'tv* tr) a.-othi< 1 
DATE you ron cntM month day and yrar oi 0-1 eu'ensirjn to if Our pogTOiTH 
Hrherv Ihey are dnplnywd eKiris-ig 0 OW command 

Wf f P Mlll Ihaf Iml ptoram- will work inrnrj the obwre [ommonrh, wlhcll rypoi 

of 3S. 40 or BO trock arlvot 

FUCI: J?!.« [OIW 0Wf> A4B rec^d 



(D@ybll© Dttn/lltiij| SolFitwoiri 

620 Kings Row • Denton, Texas 76201 • 817-566-2004 



*:>.<«' »!i II 1 ^MiH mut hni"(Untft"i all .inl.M ■ 



VtSA 



RECEIVED & CERTIFIED 



The following products recently have been received 
by the rainbow, examined by our magazine stalT and 
approved tor the Rainbow Seat of Certification, your 
assurance that we have seen the product and have 
ascertained ihal «1 is wha! it purposts to be 
Th^ month the Seal of Certification has been 
issued to: 



PC Index if all organizational tool c< in- 
sisting of a jacket of4fl card* printed on 
both sides to Hi on the protective enve- 
lope of your 5 W diskettes a I (owing you 
to *ec ill j glance the information a par- 
ticular disk contains. ABACUS Com- 
puter Services A Education Group. P.O. 
Box Pleasant Hill, CA 94523. 

S195 

Air Traffic Control Simulator, u j2K 

simulation designed to provide an order- 
a .J ^alc flow of aircraft from I heir 
origins m their destinations following 
an t-swhljshcd ict of rules and proce- 
dures, Vou. as the controller, are given 
this set of rules as well as a choice of 
three levels of difficulty to develop 
techniques of skill, judgment and exper- 
ience equal to performing ihr ifjfl||jnfd 
task. Bclasoft Systems. P.O. Box 1 174, 
SmuhTown, NY 1 1787, cassette $34.95 . 
disk $37.95 

The Designer, a 32k ECB Hi- Res pro- 
gf ll m targeted f o rbuddi ng yo ung lush ion 
designers. Possible are the creation, sav- 
ing and d is play of more than 1 .000 style 
combinations in hundreds of color and 
fabric options. Cognitive Development 
Co.. Suite Ml A r 12345 Lake City Way. 
NE, Seattle. WA 98125, disk S 2-4. 95 

Dtet-Ade, a 32K program for hcaktv 
consctous CoCo owners. A caloric 
counter is put at yam fingertips, a calo- 
rie quoter tells you what to eat to attain 
your desired weight and a calorie minder 
nudges you to exercise to exceed your 
daily calorie limit, Color Connection 
Software. 1060 Buddlca Dr.. Sandy. LIT 
84070. cassette or disk S 1% plus %1$< H 

MAZLRLNNt R, a I6K ECB game 
rcquinnga joystick. Asa member ol c he 
Maze Runner Corps, your mission is to 
Tight off the forces of Ytirrod. the Pre- 
tender, from invading the Centrist Con- 
federation and overtaking the Crrand 
Dias from His Wisdom Arad Ennaed. 
You must destroy Ytirrod s fortresses 
by navigating remote controlled attack 



power sled*. Color Connection Soft- 
ware. 1060 Sudd lea Dr.. Sandy. Ul 
84070. cassette or disk 514 95, plus S2 
S H 

MeUbut, a J2K invitation to ft dan.te 
matabre as you trick the menacing, 
mimicking Mctabots into waltzing into 
fatal fences and lethal acid pots. Color 
Connection So It ware. 1060 Buddlun Dr 
Sandy. UT 84070, cassette or disk S fg.95. 
plusS2S/H 

CDSORT and KEY-EXTR, two .12 K 
utilities requiringal least one disk drive. 
C DS O RT allows the sorting of records 
of up to 25b bytes by more t han one key 
field. KEY-EXTRA is designed lo allow 
the extraction of key fields from data- 
bases and has the ability to include only 
specified keys in the ex traction by uku m 
ol If) possible AM J ujmpa I isons ispcui- 
t'ied by the usei. Cnmpuu/c- Inc . P.O 
Box 207. Langborne. PA 19047. rftsk 

CON VERS IONS, a 16K ECB disk or 
cassette utility that makes short work oE 
converting any unit of measurement lo 
U.S.. Imperial, or Metric. Choices in* 
elude lengths, aieas. volumes, liquids, 
w eights arid lernperuturev Co/s Soil- 
wart, 25142-53 Ave.. Alder grove, Brit- 
ish Columbia, Canada VOX I AO. cas- 
setteSl 2 U S.. SI 5 C AN . disk 5 1 4 U,5., 
SI7 CAN,. plu$S2S/H 

Disk Sort and Order, .■ 32 K or greater 
utility requiring at least one disk drive. 
i mpiuihlc with JJtsk BSSif oi JDOS, 
this program will sort director ics alpha - 
hci tea lly removing all "kil led" fileriiiines, 
change a Disk basic format ol 35 tracks 
to J DOS " 40 tracks, restructure I he 
entire diskette su that all granules for 
each file are sequenced saving wear and 
tear on the mechanical parts of your 
driseisi Derby City Software, 3141 
Do rect? Way, Louisville, KY 40220, 
disk SI 1,95 

SIDE WISE, a 32-64K program requir- 



ing disk drive Thai will react any ASCII 
text file from disk and prini it oui side- 
ways down the page. Useful for ohlain- 
itig printouts of spreadsheets lli.il are 
too wide for l he prin te r t o hand le. Fu I ly 
menu-driven. StDE WISE has selec- 
tions of printer capabilities for Radio 
Shack, Epson, C-Jtob, Ok i data and 
Gemini printers Derringer Software, 
Inc, P.O. Box 5300, Florence, SC 
29502. diskS 19 95 

Word Processor, a l&K ECB utility thai 
includes case-of-use commands such as; 
l D* — displays whole tilcfe xceptundcr- 
lines) io screen as it will sent to printer; 
f Z" disp lay oi me mory left and chn nge 
ol Baud raic.'H' — help key displays list 
of commands. Drayon Software. P,0„ 
Box 251b. Ronton, W A 9805ft. cassette 
55 

ME-I28-M, an upgrade kit to expand 
your 64K CoCo lo I2SK pvfrj] n p 
second bank which will run the same 
programs as the lirsi hank Complete 
insiruciiom included Dynamic Elcc- 
ironies, Inc. P.O. Box 8%. Hartscllc. 
At. 35640, SI69 

Mult I pro gram Manager, a TG-32K util- 
ity which when used with Dynamic's 
96 KX allows the loading of five pro- 
pyl ms Ht once as j block Dynamic 1 lee 
ironies, Inc, P.O. Box HW. Hartselle. 
M ISMlt. u.i>scit€ SJ4.95 

Musx, disks one through live, a 32IL 
monthly disk that plays eight to 10 cur- 
rent hits in foui simultaneous voices 
with related graphics tiRAf-V. P.O. 
Box 254, West Mifflin. PA 15122-0254. 
each disk SI 3.95 phis 52 S ' H 

Speed H»cer,a 32K racing game requir- 
ing a joystick. The object is to pass the 
required number of cars for each tap. 
This number is indicated by an arrow- 
head under I he J+ cars passed" marker 
You must overtake these cars to pro- 
gress io the next lap. Complete all five 
Japs 1 10 miles) and you've won the race 
M ic h I ron, 576 S . Telegraph Rd .. Pon- 
tiac, ME 4*053. disk 334.95 cassette 
S34.95 

Bakersfifltl fCENO f o32K ECB game of 
chance adapted from the game l.ntio. 
The player chooses an initial bankroll 
and one io 1 S numbers to wager on. The 
payoff on winners increases us more 



t$S THtnAfflSOW Ja^ifv IMS 



number* tire played and hii. lis possible 
lo win 1.000,000 "dallarV* uiiEt daring 
and prowess. 5EIBYTE Software, P.O. 
Box 6464. Bakcrsficld. CA 9Hfi6 

Chipiwiy. a I6K ML game requiring 
one joystick that pits your skill wiih a 
paddJe and ball against a wall of mulli- 
bued chips Lach color chip gives a tiif- 
ferctii (501 ni value when hit, Op lion* 
include FLIP, which Hips the wall over 
thus displaying high point chips; COL- 
LAPSE, which cause* any chips above 
[he chip that (he ball hits to collapse 
down a notch and a game sa\c routiner. 
Sigma Software. 14024 152nd Avenue, 
S.E.. Rcnion, W A 48056^7313, casselte 
55.95 

LINER, a I6K ECB game that casts you 
in the role of small game hunter Your 
quarry: the tiny Eeblc walker* of Oktrv 
who i ry and turn your system of loco- 
motion against you. Michael S taller* 2 
Audubon Place. Rolia. MO 65401. cus- 
seneS7 95pEusSI.50SH 



SRASIC. 4 3 2*64 K precompiler that 
adds commands and constructs to the 
CoCo. Among commands/ constructs 
included arc: LQOPfUNTlLlh 
IFt TNES f ELSE! EN DIE. Continue. 
Quit and 64 K version allows source and 
object code in memory at once (save and 
retrieve wiih one keystroke). Tandar 
Soft wore, 1 2 Amman Drive. Agincourt, 
Ontario. Canada M IT 2P6 specify disk 
or eassclte SI9°5 U S . SM.95 Canada, 
S3 S-H US,, SI SiH Ontario and 
Montreal 



MLB ASIC a 64 K enhanced BASIC 
compiler designed to allow greater 
compatibility with earning Interpreter 
BASIC programs. A full compiler thai 
features all of the com mauds available 
with Standard. Exit; ruled and Disk 
hark MLB A SIC offers additional 
commands to make it possible to 
interface programs with assembly 
language and write structured programs. 
WASATCH WARE* 7350 Nutrcc Dr., 
Salt Lake City, UT R4I2I cassette 
v?. Llr,l yi9 v«. disk S69 m 5 both 
S74.95.S4SH 



The Sea/ of Certification program is open to 
all manufacturers of products for theTRS-80 
Color Computer, the TOP- 100* or the Dragon -32, 
regardless oi whether they advertise In the rainbow. 

By awarding a Seat, the magazine carti lies the 
program tfoes oxist, but this does not constitute any 
guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these 
hardware or software items will be lorwarded lo 
the rainbows reviewers tor evaluation. 

— Monica Doclli 



Canadians 

Can you imagine it? 
It s free 




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Receive our free 
Catalog/Newsletter 

Ta recrnc oar trrt »ri%/ffwi'fnw 
p.e*fc Mil H HM tei'KUVTfij rflflortn*rrt>n 



Type al ComftuM* 

□ CaCc 

□ CoCc-2 

□ 8*** 

O t»i»od*a *Ua< 
Q MlflWV 18K 
O Memory 22% 



O J 



□ Hnrtir «nd F»mr , 



□ Educition 

□ Comrouflicalii*' 1 " 

□ J 

□ i 
Q Ham Drt*< 

□ 1?8* 

3 Modal 111 /IV 



Kelrv Software Distributors Ltd. 

f.Q Bo. If 

6(J r*Otl©«i. ABBTJ 

TSJ-JU 

T*Nphortp 4403* 421 8003 



J*nuwfv tflU THiRAlHBO* 189 



WHAT COULD BE BETTER THAN 128K COCO... 
... 128K PROGRAMMING CONTEST 

THREE GRAND PRIZES: 1. MULTI PAK INTERFACE 
2. TP-10 THERMAL PRINTER 3, MO 10 COMPUTER 

RULES; 

io e*Mflr tt»% conteat your program mutt run and/ar u»a<nin>mung!90K RAM memory. A paien loan p f«mij popular program, 1q 
allow 11 to ui( T2BK wiUalao be acceptable Ad omriae mual rntiude complete unci unoeriiandabJemetrucliorte. Machine Language 
program* mutt trtclude documented lOktrcecoda Programs using FLE>llm| orOS-fHIm) must irveiude boot mitruction* All quaking 
program* become the property of DSL Computer Products, Inc. 
NO LOSERS: 

Each awaking programmer *|0 r«:el*e a mu Mil unction w nch. aa will as a chance for or* fl( Our grime prjie* There 4 a Umlt fo one 
watch par programmer 

DEADLINE: 

AH entries mual b. received no later ingn February 2fl r 1GSS Pnje-5 *m be awaroed no later men March 30, 1 985 



128K 

THE EASY WAY 

SOLDERLESS MOD FOR 
ALL 64K COCOS- 

ONLY $99.00 

INCLUDES ADDITIONAL 64K Of RAM 

i »*u l- HERE & NOW tor the Color Computer. After two veers 
2S!Sa«SS2£ DSL Colter Product. proud to 
ennouuee 128K THE EASY WAV . , 

bi n k» 10 r you< program s. • rc n >™g u» <*. fhll | r rjrooramik And WpiTWlM. Uimgi nim o * ' 

nan -.j iu Limosndeea *i i*l r«H3: n mg ji n r^a' ' aaia. pruyia ta ^ The upgran* hl1 c c ' mai 

StS. d.rrerervl 32K programs ,n mew ^ d RAM .ntaii-l.^' ■» **'^ r| e -i-"^- „Ram0*eth* 

included iHiin *"l IPOW *mH, 1s* H ™' rl ^* 




LOGIC BOARD WITHOUT 
64 K RAM ONLY $34.95 



1 



DSL COMPUTER PRODUCTS INC. 

Q 313-582-3930 

P.O. BOX 1176 DEARBORN, MI 48121 



Mkble.a Resident* Add 4% *«(ee Te* r. Ord-if 



'teeee lndu<i, 12.00 far ». ft H. 



IN CANADA OBOE R FROM 
R * R COMPUTER PRODUCTS 
PO BOX STATION A 
WINDSOR. ONT NBA6K7 



it 




SUPER DISK ITIIATY 

Editor: 

In regard lo the rcsicw ol Super Otxk 
Vtitin I am reluming a lew facts (hut 1 feel 
need lo be staled or clarify m ihe review 

It appears thai the review is Single billed 
lo^ardii the cataloging (unction anil is nul 
proportionally written with the function* 
sup parted by Super Disk CM/iv* and certain 
functions were not reviewed on their ability 
to do the task advertised or slated in the 
maniMl 

Thr reviewer state* that there i* not a 
search or find function in the catalog When 
i he program was originally written it Mil the 
author * choice not to include this function 
since a pnnl lunctmn is provided to prim the 
catalog in a nut, readable format However, 
it should be stated lhat an Updated version it 
being created which include* a search Tunc- 
lion and the following functions; Delete 
information in catalog. Add information to 

CJUhiJ! I Ml' Lid - J L-i l VsirilC tMtjlMi; tJIl 

be sorted and printed m three different way* 
was neglected in the review of the catalog 
function. 

I he Piskzttp [unction of the program 
does not review in functions instead it 
merely lists them and includes a commen- 
tary on the display options (which I (eel 
could have included a printout of the dis- 
played disk sector and a command summary 
al the modification mode included on pages 
six and seven at the Super Dtsk Utititv man- 
ual) An important leaturc o| the Ditkzap is 
the allocation table check and rcpau. II a 
disk develops a file structure error or an end 
ol file error this function can be used to \\\ i\ 
and stave some of the files on the dihk. An 
c sample of (citing this feature would he to 
back Up a disk and modify track 17. sector 2 
and change some of the first A3 byte*, 
(change a CO-C9 to anything other than 
CO-O), Whether the £>IR command in 
b s m< u i H li ml an e r ror or not . t he id local ion 
table check will. U*e tins lunction and follow 



in it ructions on Page 8 of the manual 

If should also be noted thai the sect or skip 
laclot is not a Icaiure of just no n- Radio 
Shack drives hut is. in lact. a software con- 
trollable factor 

It should a ho be clarified that the Dirt zap 
40 Wdl work on standard Had to Shack disk 
drives, hut it will not access above M tracks, 
und moil ilirai mr,s lo the program sri allow cd 
by the user for this purpose. The save direc- 
tor} feature is an important one to people 
who value their software explanation The 
Radiu Shack DOS system is vet up so that 
l he drive head U on ttack Pmosml the time 
— reading and writing is done here every 
lime a f ile is loaded ot ssn-cd and lajLuits iti 
Ihe drive can and do occur; therefore I 
created the save directory funciinn lo pro- 
tect the disk from Bask because a vsic docs 
not access track I }f> and 37. 

I a Is o fee 1 1 ha 1 1 he sect ion o 1 1 he rev lew o n 
purge file*, copy flics, date files und direc- 
tory sort could have gone more in depth on 
these functions. The reviewer neglected to 
mention ihe Super Directory function which 
use* the date function M get its dates and 
also computes the atari, end and executing 
address of machine language program*. Each 
file is printed lo the screen or to the screen 
and printer in a neat, easy lo read formal 

Brfati WMMttmif 
Prfrotci Freelance Auvcfatej 



Editor: 

In response to Mr Woodruffs comment* 
on Super ptsk VtWtw I offer the following 
thoughts 

Mr Woodruffs feelings about the "bal- 
ance" ol the review may well be just a differ- 
i-no" Hi opinion between ihe supplier and 
consumer (albeit surrogate I . I freely admit 
that I did not spend much time discussing 
some nft he "'hell* and whistles" m the offer- 
ing. Some ol the items do tinny*, thai aic 



already burlt into the C olor C omputer while 
some others a re l he *ame as programs which 
have appeared in iHfc rainbow 

I am pleased to see that Mr. Woodruff is 
planning .i revision u> include a H *curch' 
function. This will add greatly to the uliltty 
value of the program, 

Lastly. I agree with Mr. Wood ruff thai the 
"sector skip factor" is controllable on Radio 
Shack equipment hoi I Icli thai ihh wnuld 
be of more intemt to non-Radio Shack 
drive users since they might make more use 
ol thr luru'tinn 

fhtbt n E Fi>lU\ 
\jnr\cautr, PA 



MORSE CODE 
TEACH* R AND Tl TiJR 

Editor; 

As both a reviewer for 1 Hf. haj\hi>w 
magazine and a CuCo soft ware author, I 
couldn't help hut notice Cynwyn'* rebuttal 
letter (Reviewing Reviews Sept. "Ml ctm- 
ccrtimg the review of some horn radio soft- 
ware lhar was reviewed by someone who 
docsn'i know much about the subject. 

I have always been happy with the pro- 
grams you send me to review because they 
fall inlo my lines of interest and experience, 
It shows great care on your pari in most 
case* to line up programs with the reviewer 

I don! likeineritici/cthe work of another 
reviewer but in this case I will. At the time 
that C'ynwyn's Alor.se Code Teacher and 
Tutor was reviewed {June "84. Page 290) j 
wijMn Ihe need lor j program juil likcth.it 
I he rev tew did not give me any id Ihe impor- 
tant details needed to make a wise purchase 
so t didn't order it. Just iccently I saw the 
program dcnii.m*tiutcd und it was ujaite 
good, much better than ibe review 

For a small company like Cytiwyn this 
icvicw may have coi^t them that shut in ihe 
January 1084 THE RAihRflW 1<tt 



jirm needed lo succeed, even if in a small 
way. in the CoCo wl tware world. 

Herein the Bajc Area, CaCo M^cn mil a lot 
nf%Tock in i hi RAiNhu* reviews, and thai* 

one of I he ream nt I try to du thorough 

review. 

J. Mkhacl Nowirki 
San Jose, CA 



STYLO III FOR OS-9 

In reading Dale L. Puckctt's review, "Stylo 
III For OS- 4 * - What You See UWhulYoti 
Get," Oct K4, Page 192, I was ama/ed to 
read * it show* ihem exactly what thev 
nre going, to *ee on the printed page orv ihc 
screen while they ate typing it Stylo is the 
only word processor that brings this feature 
lo the Color Computer. Others feature screen 
editing, but they do the final te*i processing 
while they print," 

ThU ij a gross inaccuracy. Trl*wriiet*64 
doe* just (his — better known as dynamic 
Formatting. 

A. David Mutr 
British Columbia 



PICTURE PlttZLE 

Editor 

There seem to be >omc misconception* 
concerning the program Pkture Puzzle. First 



ol all. now here tn the documentation dies it 
M.uv thin iht u>crcun create his own pictures, 
using i hit program To create picture*, we 
highly recommend a picture-designing pro- 
gram su<h a* Graphkom. I believe rhe 
option the reviewer is referring to lv the 
"Add Option, "This will only allow adding a 
binary piciurc file into the picture directory. 

Nexu he refers to the poor quality ol 
speech We feet it is the finest speech availa- 
ble uitng single bit sound without anv hard' 
ware. Poor quality could be the result of a 
now hpcHker system. 

We did try tu return the reviewer's call on 
(wo occasions. I am sorry, bui this mailer 
did slip our mind. We make a conscientious 
ct'lurt lo rel urn ever) phone call and provide 
a^tstanee when needed. 

If you have any further question*, please 
do not hcsiiatc to contact uV 

Dennis 5 Uwaruiwski 
BSL Owiputtr froihicts 

Editor. 

I *pcc wath PSLA jemuiX shai dieu unc- 
umcmaiicn does noi mention how to create 
a new public, however, let me explain why I 
found fauli with this part of the program. 
The menu specifics, si choree number one, 
~Add Sew Boards "When this is chosen the 
screen >hows. "Reading Uam From Disk** 
and lists the three programs thai come with 
Picture Purztr \ ^ucsuon is then asked. 
"How many new ones'.' 1 * You are required to 
type a number and the program then asks for 
the "filename" Thui, Ihc menu option, plus 



these npeeific question* certainty implies 
that a picture can be added to the program 
hy the user. In addition, the documental ion 
stated thai, in ddding u picture, you should 
not use the same design in two fequortt afihe 
pu//lc. I hc dot urn dilution not only does 
not stale that ii b necessary lo boy an addi- 
tional graphics designing program in order 
to add u picture; it does not explain how to 
add a picture even if you do have one. 

While DSL ma> fed thai the "talking"' of 
Picture Putzte r± best without uung hard- 
ware, my opinion h that the result is of lou 
quality voice reproduction. As I said in m> 
review, 11 u a good attempt but far trorn 
perfect, Plcnwrcnlirethai I feel ihc program 
itself isquitc L-moyiibk'Hiul whilrirw i ilkir.^ 
docs not add lu it, it does not detract cither. 

I sm glad DSL tried lo return my call. Asa 
mai I o rder customer w ho paid for a program 
and then made a long distance call to clarify 
the documentation, 1 strongly object to not 
gelling a reply when I am told I will be 
gelling one. Pcrbap* DSL, and oihcr com- 
panies, could request a customer's telephone 
number and address If ihe company were 
unsuccessful in returning a telephone call 
ihey could send a form po*t curd stating* 
"Sorry! Wc tried to contact you bui could 
not. Please either write us with your ques- 
tions or call again " 

Michael /", Qaroizo 
Mnrrh\ilb. PA 



Year-End Sale % 

Basic Technology Offers the Most 
Features and Best Quality. 

MAY PRICE on Parallel Primer Jnlerfate? Hired 
cnnneaion to your parallel primer full handshaking, lor 
maximum data transfer Centronics compaiible 
to nnector an si cable l ncludctl ~ 

S7ft#5 $64,95 

NEW PRICE tin R*al Time Clutk Calendar! roll feaiurc 
clock calendar with built in rechardeabk* batters' an J 
charger tftqnjf$p 12 volts in computer or cxpanslonl 
Day, date 12 24 Hour UCU binary automatic leap year 
Lin J day huh I *aviiiy?> mm- jihI more The Lksi m ,i new 
low price 

±W**OCT $94.95 

StW PRICE f>n Versatile Interface Port! TwuM-bit pons 
wUh tour com ml lino — i total of 20 I O lines for 
tontrollwti a robot, rvadtnu ittstr wmen r> con i rub oi 
oil kinds 

ifiiww $59.95 

The Companion — A five isloi mulnpack with pactum 
kndicator Ityhis and ON OFF lamp told start reset. sIols 
software or pushbutton selectable, built-in n vnli supply 
and puld connectors . M 

***Hjti $179.95 



PARALLEL PORTS R£AL TIME CLOCKS EXPANSION 




The BT 1000 Expansion Inierfuce I nil is Q live stoi 
expansion Tor dedicated sys rents Pluu in a disk drive and 
10 peripheral* Bujli-in + - 1 1 vols and Ti \-olt supplies, 
dolt! tonnectoTA lighted ON ni l' switch, sockets for 8K 
nfJUM-EPKQM. $199.95 
Wuh KK Installed KAM ***tr*ro $224-95 

A machine lantjuage driver for Color flastc ts Included 
wlih each peripheral leJtcepi UT It'^n u«i driver* with 
source and lii&iallalioti iti.*tructton.K ary availahU- ,o 
■^l * (ii i i/ach i"'»r prtMllel liiitl in'rial jiitri> mu\ ilfvlcs 



^3510 0gpt Q p Q. Bo>i5i 1 Ortonvtlle.MMa^ ORDER l!VOW 



Technology 



{3131 627-6146 



VW SH *tDppin|» And tunrtunu ' Mwtuiwi n.>i4f^ni-i a 

fl- M*?* UlX 



102 THE B AlWHOW January l$W 



The HJL-57 Keyboard 





ompare it with the rest. 
Then, buy the best. 



It youvc been thinking about 
spending good money on a row 
keyboard far your Color Computer, 
why not get b good keyboard fa* 
your money? 

Designed from scratch, the 
HJL-57 Professional Keyboard 
ia built to unlock AL.L thft 
potential performance ol your 
Color Computer. Now, you can 
do real word processing end salt 
throuQMenQthy Hating!!, with 
maximum speed; minimum erf or a. 

a t 179 .95. the HJL-57 Is reason- 
ably priced, but you can find 
other Co Co keyboards lor a raw 
dollars lets. So, before you buy, 
we suggest that you compare. 

Compare Design. 

The erQo nomtcafiy-super lor 
HJL-57 has sculptured, low 
profile keycaps; and the three* 
color layout is Id optical to 
the original CoCo keyboard, 

Compo re C onetructlon . 

The HJL-57 has a rig Id lead 
aluminum baseplate tor solid, 
no-flex mounting, Switch oontaota 
are rated for 100 million cyclsa 
minimum, and covered by a spill 
prod membrane 



Compare Performances 

Offering more than full-travel, 
bounce -proof keyawltchae, the 
HJL-57 hasRFl/EMI shielding that 
sljmfns tec Irritating noise on 
displays, end four user definable 
function keys (one lalchableL 
Bpaclally-poaitlonad to avoid 
Inadvertent actuation. 



Free Function Key Program 
Your HJL-57 kit Includes usage 
Instructions and decimal codes 
produced by the function Keys, 
plus a free sample program 
that defines ihe function 
keys as follows: H - Screen 
dump to primer F2 - Repeat 
key (latching). F3 ^ Lower case 
upper case flip {If you have 
lower case capabll nyj. Fa - 
Control key; subtracts 64 from 
the ASCn vsiue of any key 
pressed, Runs on disc or tape, 
e* tended or standard Basic. 



Com pare Installation, 

Carefully engineered tor easy 
Installation, Ihe HJL-57 require* 
no soldering, drilling or gluing. 
Simply plug <l In and drop It 
right on the original CoCo 
mounting poets. Kit includes a 



now bezel for a totally finished 
conversion. 

Compare Warrant I aa. 

The hjl-57 la built so well. It 
carries a full, one year warranty 
And, it la sold with an exclusive 
15-day money back guarantee 

Compare Value. 

You know mat a bargain ia a 
bargain only so long as ft laata 
It you shop carefully, we think 
you wilt agree.. The HJL-57 Is 
the last keyboard your CoCo will 
svftrnoed And that's real value, 

Order Today 

Only 579.95, the HJL-57 It 

available tor Immediate shipment 
f or eh her tno c rtg in at Color 
Computer (sold prior to October 
1962) or the F« vara Ion and T DP 100 
(Introduced In October 1382), 
and the new 64K CoCo. fvow also 
svailabie for CoCo 2, 

Call Toll Free 

1-800-828-69: 



OraiJir^a I 






ifsawM 








Software Review! 



CoCo Checker 
Best In Its Class 

I first go L involved with computers through my interest in 
electronics, and 1 got started in thai by fusing TV sets. One of 
the beginners' books t read pointed oui that the TV 5 ci 
would almost tell you what ihtr problem was. if only you 
knew how to interpret the picture you saw, Computers are 
like that in some respects; as an example, if you find thai you 
aren't getting any signal on your cassettes when you save a 
program* you can figure that the single- bit found Circuitry 
isn't puiiing out us it should be. A computer, being the 
versatile device that it is, can even help track down its own 
trouble*, assuming enough of the machine is still working. 

Radio Shack has been selling its Diagnostics cartridge 
ever since the Co Co came out in 1980(11* still available by 
special order) , but it has notnc limitation* and tests only the 
computer itself . Spectrum Prctjee^' C0O1 ( In'rkfr not onl> 
gives the CoCo a workout, bin exercises the disk controller, 
disk drives, printer and Multi-Puk Interface, if you have 
them, 

CoCo Checker comes un either cassette or diskette'. I 
tested the di.sk version. Can side ring the nature nf the pro* 
gram. 4 RDM pack might he more likely to be usable in 
some cases, but would be more expensive (and would make 
it harder to test the disk system) Rob Rosen at Spectrum 
suggested that If you have a disk system, you could cony the 
frog ram from disk to cassette when you get it. so you aren't 



Vour 64k CoCo has up to 88k of memory 
You have 64k oi RAM And 24k of ROM ' 
Use all of this from BASIC vith 
this machine language program 



PHANTO 




EMORY 



TRtlLIUMi SYSTEMS 

th this you can:- 

- Use >2k more data storage 

- Chain from program to program 

- Cse 16 bit Integers 

- [lynamically red intension arrays. 

Also included, using the PHANTOM T are 

PLTT1L - A disk utility program 

P-INVENT - A RAM based inventory 
program using 64k of RAM* 

Tape or Disk < Kli.UUM SYS1EMS 

versions f»7Kinj{Si Hum 

l.S.biy.^ea t a\ ADA I !H IH4 

P&H inc 



dependent on loading it by one means atone Later on. 

As one might expect, CoCo Checker has lest routines for 
the cassette port, joystick pom, keyboard, serial I/O pon T 
RAM. ROMs, sound circuitry and video generator; all of 
these art quite complete. The only RS-232 testing is par! of 
the printer test, so you need a printer to check your 
machine's serial I O circuits. (Radio Shack's cartridge uses 
a specially wired shorting plug, which they don't supply, to 
feed the CoCo^ data output back into the two input fin$xj 

This test also gives a more complete teat of the printer 
than the "self-test" mode it probably has, since it checks the 
entire signal path- The ROM checksum test is set up for all 
the ROMs Radio Shack has released far. The keyboard 
test even checks the function keys found on the KJ I . . Key 
Tronic and Macrotron keyboards. There is even a test for 
timing accuracy, comparing the horizontal and vertical 
blanking interrupts to the master clock. 

The unique features of CoCo Checker are the disk con- 
troller, disk drive and Multi-Pa k tcstv The controller test 
runs the controller 1C through vanou* step* and checks the 
interrupt line The drive lest checks drive speed and then 
writes a test pattern to the diskette in the designated drive 
and checks for errors. (This of course means a had disk can 
cause a good drive to appear bad.) The Mulu-Pak Interface 
test routine gives the unit's PAL ( programmable array logic) 
chip a workout and aUo checks the select switch circuit 

I f you do any repair wo rk on CoCos mall, this p rogra m lb 
an absolute must Evert an ordinary user can benefit from 
C0CO Checker* as it tclis you whether or not the system is 
working properly and even what to tell the repair technician 
when it isnV Now if only there was u video cassette that 
could do ihis sort of thing on TV sets! 

(Spectrum Project*. I nc., But 21173* Wood harm. NY 
IHlLur Box 9M6 T San low, C\ %\W plus 

SJS/H] 

— Rav Edwards. 



Submitting Material 
To The Rainbow 

Contributions lo THE RMSbOW are welcome from CftEf* 
one, We [Ike lo run » variety of program* which 11 iN be 
useful/ helpful/ fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and ft 
is bent to make several saves, at least one of them In ASCII 
format. Were sorry, nut we do not lure time to key in 
programs. All programs should be supported b? some 
editorial commentary. explaining how the program works. 
WtVe mttth more interested in how your submission works 
and runs than how you developed it. Programs itiuuld 
be learning experiences. 

We do pat for submission*, based on a number of crileria. 
Thuvc wishing remuneration should .10 sfatr when making 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed infor- 
mation on making submissions, please send a SASE to: 
Submission* Editor, the kajn»<?w, p,0> Boi IV, 
Prospect, KY 4U059. We will send |OU some more 

tomprehenive guiddi 

P lease do not submit pfogiamt or articles cttrrentlv 
submitted to another publication. 



194 THE flAJNBQW J*nu*fy 1995 




PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO ft TDP-100 

PROGRAMS RfQUIRI ifrK EXT^HDCO UtIC FOB TAPf , AND 13H DISK UNLI EE OTH f RWItt H OTi D 



TO P RISER VI QUANDIC — 

It has been a long time since we were really 
excited about an adventure game. Adventure 
In Wonderland was and is the best text ad- 
venture ever written for the Color Computer. We 
said so. and reviewers agreed 1 
We are now proud to offer TO PRESERVE 
QUANDIC We belreve that this is the best 
GRAPHICS adventure ever written for the 
Color Computer, 

TO PRESERVE QUANDIC is simply in a class 
by itself. Although 11 works just fine on a one 
drive system, the game COMPLETELY FILLS 
two disks. Over 300 K of programming. It is lour 
times as big as any adventure you have seen 
on the Color Computer. 
Quite simply, TO PRESERVE QUANDIC sets 
a new standard tor adventure games on the 
Color Computer. 

The screen layout is unique. There is a window 
at the bottom tor text messages, your inventory 
is displayed at all times, there is a running real 
time clock on the screen, and there is a picture 
of your current location so detailed that there 
are pictures on the wall, and even flowers on a 
table. The whole game Is done in full color 
highest- resolution graphics, There are no bet- 
ter graphics available, period. 
The game itsell is a work ol art in every way. 
The puzzles are fun and challenging, you can 
use complete sentences, abbreviations, short 
phrases, and there are several milestones on 
the way to success. 01 course you can save the 
game in progress, 

TO PRESERVE QUANDIC, you must find and 
return the missing piece of the time machine, 
and the clock is running ... If you think you are 
ready for the best graphics adventure ever 
written for the Color Computer, don't miss TO 
PRESERVE QUANDIC, Packaged on two disks 
In a quality vinyl library case. Requires 32K and 
1 disk drive. If you don't have a disk drive, it will 
be worth buying one just for this game, $39*95 



SUPER ASTROLOGY - 

This program calculates natal horoscopes to 
an accuracy ol 1 minute ot arc. It calculates all 
planet positions, moon, nodes, midheaven, as- 
cendent, house cusps in five different house 
systems, all aspects, and even harmonics. It 
does tropical of sideral charts using the geo- 
centric or heliocentric coordinate system. The 
five house systems available are Regiomon- 
tanus. Equal, Koch, Campanus, and Placid us. 
The orb for aspects can be specif ied within the 
range oM to 9 degrees, and even the minor 
aspects are computed. Output can be to the 
screen or printer. The program does hours of 
calculations in mrnutes, is in use by many 
professional astrologers, and all you have to 
know to use it is the date, time, and place of 
birth. Sure, there are other Astrology pro- 
grams, but why settle tor second beat? Tape - 
£24.95; Disk^ $29.95 



UZPAC - 

If you have a need to do statistical anay i sis. this 
is the program you have been waiting for. The 
only statistics package that comes close needs 
$3000 worth of computer to run. costs Si 995 
for the software, and LIZPAC is better! LIZPAC 
rs850K of programming, filling 7 disks (with an 
eighth disk containing sample data Hies and 
graphs}, and comes with a manual that is 
nearly ZOO 8Y* by 11 long in a quality binder. It 
will do anything you need to do in statistics, 
including graphic displays. In its manual, the 
list of features and Included procedures is five 
pages long. Please call or write tor specific 
information. The package is friendly to use, and 
no specialized computer knowledge ^needed 
32KdiSk. St 95 00 



1-800-223 5369 EXTENSION 256 

Send for our free Catalog of 50 Great Programs Tor vour CoCo 



POUCV ON PROTECTION 

Wv UtH it?vu Qot Cii&tcmura am noni}!i» - <M> ol m>* 
bo»T**f e o» bat*n*ct uu U6«mi » landed OncHup 
procedure* 



Dwalitr and nulhof inuu" t?i an? iiwaya *^coitif, 
Canadian tfeaiifT* should canlntl Sod war, 

[tarribulo^ Ltd PO Bo« 1 rjj; tcunnnfon Al 
tutfla T5J-3U r403i 421 BLXJ3 



Tour Personal check <s welcome ■ no delay include- 
Si SO shipping for each program ordered (Shipping free 
on 350 QO or larger orders} AZ residents add 7<*> sale* 
lea. Orders shipped within two days 



Stocked bv Que iky Dealer*, or 

Secuj Order To PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

2640 t*. Conestoga Ave jgHM 
Tocson. Arizona 85749 
|602> 749-2604 



■ 



Software Review^ 



Unscramble Those Boxes 
With High Resolution 
Picture Puzzle 

Remember Those little puzzles with eight sliding numbers 
and one blank 1 .' Thc> were numbered one to eight and ahci 
you messed up the order you had to slide each number 
around until you could get it numerically correct. The 3 X 3 
box was not loo difficult to solve. So how would you like 48 
boxes to unscramble, not onl> with numbers but with two 
different types pf pictures'' 

Picture Puzzle is perlcct ior those of you who like to 
unscramble ptizzleswithout having the extreme ot a RubikV 
£ une In ieIlI turn (he Jisk version ' la Iks " I Il-l-I r Ii,le r h. 
"t»1kmg" w similar to listening to a person using a poor 
quality loud speaker system. Ji is a good attempt at produc- 
ing software speech bui is far Irorn peri eel 

1 he puzzles a re very well done. In addition to the numeri- 
cal pu/zle (one to 4K). there are iwn picture puzzles. These 
are the "hat shape" (this design is tea lured in DSL'sadver- 
liscrnenth and an optical illusion design triangle Alter the 
disk version savs, "CAN YOU SOLVE PORK KA>> I author) 
PUZZLE? PLEASE CHOOSE ONE OK T H V BOARDS 
ERGM MEM." the menu appears and you can choose 
which puz/le to unscramble. I he program shows you the 
com pie led farm oi the puz/le and then clears the screen and 



PARENTS! 

GET A KID 

HOOKED 

ON COMPUTERS 



SimrJ tot our jmquf LOGO STARTER program Use .t wilh 
ictl JJ? 2^Z?22°r PUt ° f ar>d Color L0G0 tn>m ^ ad id Shack 

"teachers agree: LOGO ts trie bast *ay id introduce ebajjren 
id compute Now witti LOGO STAflftR you won t have to 
2HJL22F* °' ■n«'"Clion mmnuaJ Just toad th# LOGO 
STARTER lap*? 

Yen* r cmtd wi 1 1 jr d* it i ng uaai qos r jgh t if o m Ih e stan You 
won i waul £» your time on a lot ol tedious typmg And your c m|d 
will r» on the way to computer literacy. S "t3 05 




SPEED READING 

; Busy Memmvw Students? incryase 
! your reading speed dramatic* My 

Best available spttttd reading program 
tot the CoCo. Reach rig material appears 
! pn ihe TV screen at tha speed you seieei, iraming you to read 
lasief rou can even change the speed while reading 

Complete with e different text selections Pius a dnlt to 
improve visual span and percept ton j-| -j 




WILD PARTY 

; A nnugnty. se*y com outer game lor 2 to 6 co uple* RAi N BO ft 
"Would definiiDly liven up most parties." (Oct 63) $07 AIT 
Wrrte at we'tt send you a copy the iev*ew at I » "3 



* — =^^^^^^= = ^^^^=^^^^^^^^^=^^^^^^^ 

* All prngrtmi on cawetla tape lor lftK Color Computer. E*t'd 
+ BASIC not required. Prices include postage (PA t tild. add 6M 

* Send check to Dept. ft, P,o. Box zir>, Jankiniown, p* 19c*s. 

: b tSk b software 



mixes up the puzzle by *e rambling the 4N squares- You lhen 
have live minnics to unscramble I hi' puzzle by mmirij: L{W 
squares. Each square is moved into the one blank space by 
u-ang ihe lour arrow keys. By man [pub imp the blank space 
you can reassemble the puzzle. The author realized thai it 
would be necessary to view the completed puzzle Irom lime 

10 time, sn ihere is a help key t 'H'. that pauses the tinn-i ftotj 
allows you lo see the completed puzzle When you are out ol 
lime, the dislt turns on and announces, "TOO BAD. 
YOU'VE RUN OUT OE TIM T J 1ST A MOM EM I I I 
ME SEE IF YOUR SCORE IS IN THE TOP TEVIIwuir 
score is n high score the program will ask your name and 
save your score on the disk. You can continue with a nut her 
pn//k' or re petit what you have ]tisi done II you solve the 
pii/zk ih. viaiemem. "rOMiRA TtJl A f lONSI YOU 
H \\ S SI i. ( 1 SSI I I I V COMPI I II D I H IS R(Jl Ml." 
appears and the computer then allocs you lo phty again. But 
each nmc you snKe the puzzle ihe computer scrambles ihe 
puzzle more ihan ii did previously. This is truly a never- 
ending game. 

I here is a bonus section on the disk that states that you 
can create your own puzzle pictures. I he Instructions say 
not to have two areas ot the puzzle exactly the same or the 
puz/le will look solved bui may have ihe two blocks 
swapped. 1 his will cause the eompuier lo lock up 

I his is the section I had problems with. 1 he direct ions arc 

1 1 mi led and dn not explain how to make up or design a 
puzzle lor ihe program, On the menu selection ol "add new 
boards." the only thing that happen!) is thai the program 
unlesa new Idle to the disk. This new r title will appear on the 
memi hut inert: is no was tu develop a new design In order 
lo solve this problem I telephoned DSL Computet Pro- 
ducts. Then office was closed on the day I called ( Monday! 
bui a lapi' iccording said lhal il I left a message lliey would 
get back to me. I explained the problem and left my phone 
number. They did not return the call. 1 do nut appicciatc 
geliing a lupe rccimhiig lelluic uie an o||n.e is cIom'iI lOjlI 1 
tlespise beutg ti>ld to lea^c *i message il no relurn tall is 
planned I should mention lhal I waited eight days I Or a 
response. Many Computer user* rely upon mailorder com- 
panics and those companies should he able to work with and 
help purchasers of their programs. 

Should you purchase Hiyh Hesoiutitm Picture PuzziS* 
Welh do noi buy it lor the ""talking/' and do not buy it Tor 
designing your own puz/les. but buy il because the author. 
Joe Porkku. has done ait excellent job ol giving yuu new 
puzzles to solve and hours uf fun. 

|[>SL Cumuuler Prudutl* 1m,. M>. Bos 1 1 7a. Dearborn, 
Ml 481 2 L \lk Ext. HXSK . lepc di«i 512.951 

— Michael K. tiarozzo 



For aN your COCO Software 
write or call- 
Th* USER-FRIENDLY Company 



DATAFACT SOFTWARE LTD 
PO Box 5356 Stn. B Victoria. B.C. V8R 6S4 
Order Line (604)595-2312 



106 THE, RAFNBOMT .-mj,!,. i*6t 





CiHG PAC — Battle of Midway 32K 

Ark Hoyal'i masterpiece game oF na«al strategy of perhaps the mast im- 
pcnant ban la in the history of tbe United Stele* Navy K| Res graphics 
75% machine language allows player |i> control Aft many 4 1 separata 
units an ins screen at one Time Command Tuk Force* 16 * IT a* they 
play cat and mouse with itw Japanese imat Maneuver the Hornet. 
Yorklown and Enterprise rnlo the teal portion Sal courses and launch 
search and attack airmail than hope lor tne txnt. Find the enemy lieet. 
men pick the largem Akagt L Soryg. tvega Vamato and others In mis 
historically accurate flame Relive history, Admirat. and 'i won't be any 
Th*5 time around. Anchors Awelgh, 

Game iaw AeoLurec disk wsn>r» to aw at* an atsk Cental ft <2r 95 



COM PAH V COMMANDER 32 K 

tiame moJuie 1 - HOu*i Id House- Aik Royal's squid twel WWII 
infantry combii game. 

They said Jt ccuidn't be done — a SQUAD LEVEL wargame on a com 
pgter — but wove dona Ji The Line of Sigm prooiam ra licked — and I he 
machine language routines really speed things up. 
Game Module «t comes wnh House to House rrap and 10 «. scenarios 
invoivng Infancy combat in Aachen, Caen, Arnrwm, Stalingrad and 
other famous WWM city battlegrounds Combat units Irvdude »iU» 
squads mortar teams, machine gun crews, engineers, ana mat* 
(depending on the scenario choseni, leaders, vehicles arc other 
weaponry of WWII. Unique design allows incorporation or Mure 
tMpanstott modules. 
Choose campaign p| a y and pul yourseit cn the baltloheld. Corporal 
Smitn or Jones, collect pn^nia toward promotion Order up smoke Ircm 
me mortar squad- HE for those dug In unJta Ta*e fne objective end you 
might mefce Major someday JuSt don't stop on a land mine 

Come* nun House ro nout>& yam* map, more Then W scenenoa, on ? caa»rres or*h on t ov**, £29 95. <Duii inc/uded > 



OTHER ARK ROYAL GAMES... 

Some at reduced prices' 




BATTLE OF THE BULGE 



BATTLE OF THE BULGE MK 

Ark ftoyai's i or 2 player game by me authc a< Bati e Far Turns, Bulge mcrsarec 
opora Man Yraehl A m Rham, Hi! ler' a last deaperi la gamble o> WWI I. in none of our 
games m Ihe fog ol war so apparent man m BULGE fov know the Germans haw 
attacked m the Ardennes* but riitie else What re ihelr strong! fV Their apjeenve'' 
Who do you send to repair the huge g*c <n in* American Unas'' What bridges do 
you bJow? Can you protect the fuel depots? Where are all I hove Tigers coming 
from? Whan mm the weal he' dear? 

Historically accurate, and a real chahenrje whether H 0* *gamar the computer or 
a triend jjun don't numlliate him luo daJI».> A game you're been womng lor 
Cessefre J?S 95 



Across rhe Rubicon i2h 

tFeb'&fr* $24 95 

Across the Rubicon lfeK 

iDe-CMl* 

Mission: Empire 32K 

(Oct 8SJ- 522 » 

MUslcm Empire 1flX* 517 9& 
Galactic Talpin J2K 

(May ... 417 95 

Starbluer X2K 

wur tiT-as 



Winrioo SK 

(Mar Mi" 
Guadalcanal 52K 
en nip For Turn i 



tDiBk only! . 

Kamikan 

lApr '83)* A t . , 
i IRK 



VJi 'ft 

it Q 95 
t!4H 



(Jan 'S4J- 



1»R 



Denotes Bain haw rev.ew 

month 



ARK ROYAL GAMES 

P,0 Bdx V4806 
JacK&onville, FL 32236 
904-786-8603 




Brtn >«m'J»h* eai vs | 



eiv^t w *J» uwue* t^itpine ■ 
•Tii'afaWi^ i«*i Kim en AUptacm.fi* i . 

■I <*icnn W« Ebiy yiWfMiq ro U % *fi.< C*iwM CiIWp WW , OtaNK "V 

Cn,.... wrrilM COO * *tr«p'»<3 All Pn*jf*»+ (M^li» Cwto Ct^ul*«tU iT^-^ 



Software Re vfe w^^^^^^^^^s^ 

Option 1 Is Number One 

Aretou 1 1 red nl tli^ui^ through thnt old small appliance 
box trying tin find a canceled check . only to find ii m ihe very 
bottom'.' Or Reveling un entire wall of filing cabinets just la 
store all those checks? St you are like me, you always seem to 
lose the chucks I fiat you mieht need later Maybe you have 
one of those little critter* that eat some of your canceled 
check »U can never figure out how these Utile critters seem to 
know which one lo eat). 

We finally have a Cash Disbursement Program that wilt 
stack up againM I he big hoys called Option I by VCS 
Software. 

After loading Option f you are greeted With the maple 
tea/ from our beautiful sister country > Canada, then vou 
are prompted to enter your own unique password (if the 
wrong password is entered you will he presented with an 
ilk-yal LLsagc message and forced to $hul down oil equipment 
in order to regain control of your system |. 

Nexl wid be the main menu coitsiattng ol: 

\) Issue Check* 

2) Record deposits 

3) Transfer tape file 10 disk 

-I } Sort View by payee or account number 

5) View records h\ check 

6) Obtain balance each pay 

7) Change records 



Alter your selection has been made, each routine will be 
loadtd into the sysiem individually When issuing checks or 
recording deposits a check will appear on the screen and 
prompt (he user to input all of ihe correct data. The printed 
checks feature deluded stub priming, account number, ref- 
erence number, dollar amount, check number, discounts, 
payee, address, city, slate, ZIP code and memo 

Option ! is designed to print on formatted checks availa- 
ble through New hnghind Business Systems, however if you 
have your own pre -printed checks you may have to alter the 
printer driver to accommodate your own needs, Whichever 
the case, Option I prints crisp, clean check sat the touch of a 
button . 

The program checks every keystroke making sure the 
LorreLi d.iUi is keyed in the prop it pluce, r^ulim^ in ihc 
process being somewhat slow, but on the other bund it could 
be a limesaver by keeping the usei from keying in an entire 
i' heck all oter upain. Atk-r practice ihe process could 
become considerably taster. 

Option / is machine language and consists ol a primer 
driver for the Hps on MX-KQ printer or eompalible If you do 
not have a compatible printer you can write your own 
printer routine, or you can send your primer's manual to 
YGS and they will write a routine for your printer at an 
hourly rate. Also if you ever want your password changed 
you can send the original program to VCiS and they will 
change your password for 15 peicctil ol the correni retail 
price of the entire package. 

The disk can be hacked up but is noi executable; first you 
must back up the disk wiih normal backup procedures and 
place your new copy someplace out of the way. If your 
original disk ever becomes inoperable you can copy the 
backup back onto the original disk hi the original disk is 
damaged the backup procedure will no 3 work) 

A Tew suggestions thai I feel shn aid he in business soft- 
ware are; 

Two disks should he included in the entire package, elimi- 
nating down time as a result or sending ihe original disk m 
tor a password Change 

Option / is written for a one-drive sysiem. An option 
should be included using a two-drive system. o!iniin:ni ng the 
oeed to switch between the mum disk a nd a data disk . (There 
is a lot of disk switching involved.) 

II the user forgets to take out the main disk and place the 
data disk in the drive and tries to save any data unio ihe disk 
without removing any write protect device, ihe system wilt 
crash, resulting in a loss of data that was juit input Irom E he 
keyboard. The system must be reset and reloaded in order lo 
regain control, There needs to he an error trapping routine 
in this section to eliminate the would-be loss of what could 
be valuable information. 

Upon receiving my cupy at Option L I was blessed with a 
bad disk copy, After fighting wiih the disk trying togei n io 
load, I made a phone call to YtiN Soli ware. Assuring mi. 
that i hey knew what the problem was and h had been 
corrected, they sent me a new copy promptly. My experience 
wiih YGS was both courteous and a pleasure a* they 
handled my problem tactfully and swilily. So throw away 
that old small appliance box and devote all that wasted wall 
space to your CoCoand, above all, run that little critter that 
eats all those important checks oul of business | did. 

(YGS Software. P.O. Box 208. Brechin, Ontariu, < 'anada 
LOK I SB. S» t„S,. £69,45 Canada) 

— Bob Brown 



*** NEW *** 



Formatter 2.0 

the fastest, most complete 
office package yet I 

Totally Menu Driven 
Customize with company information & printer 
Complete on screen'' Instructions 



forms 

lerrrr 

invoice 
quote 

putdi^ie order 
mail order 
confirm order 

SEPARATE CONFIGURE 



STORES 

complete forms 
nemirit 
subquotcs 
lerterv 
footnote* 
njsmmrr info 



for company into 
printer optrnro 
quote &mv # 
w. ,iut o sequencing 
autntfatr 



FIGURES 

quantity 



ffeigrrt-tiL 

PRINTS 

(of m tfvti 
lettrrnead 

rnvrlr.pr 
mulupie copy 
emphasized 



Challenger Software 

1703 1 3 1 it Ave H 
Cfejrwxter, FL 33520 
of Call [SU] 577 3-793 



|4Q ^Kdrsc 

send far more mfarniffton 
ana catalog of ot/vr 
finr stiftw.?n? 



t9& THt HAIM90.W joi-.,jUj- r 



807 Minutemen Causeway Cocoa Beach, Florida 32931 

I.OUOJ / OJ I UUJ 4S twt*flan S.K indfl JQ P.M. £*U«fiHlm 



GET ORGANIZED IN 196 S 

DATE-Q-BASE CALENDAR nufg TOW 
in chafue of your sctiotiyia! 
■ Graphically dlapleys *ny monthly 

caloriiiar betw m n T ? 00 and 2099. 

you flu I in up 10 twelve 2 B character 

memos per day. calendar ahowa 

wn#ra i".d mumos ar«> rait up o* 

day shows details 



Use lor appointment* or ■ lag of put activity. 

■ Searcn capability allows you to Nat or pr i m til memoi berwaen 
two spec il led dales or onry ones meeting kay-word criteria 

■ Date computation ahowi elapsed time between two dates in 
dayt r weeks, months and years 

■ Require 32K in &ASIC 

TAP! DATE- OS AEG CALCMrjAR ■ »1 CW96 (ma* OOQ memoi/ 

tape his 

PI SK DATE-O- BASE CALENDAR- >18,U5 «er4000 mamas/ 
l 300 memns/maninj 



DISK DOUBLE ENTRY 

ff you ne*e spenr hour* trying to bara/ice roar Debits una Cretfra 
DISH DOUBLE ENTRY is for you' 

■ Designed for smell business, duP and personal use. 

■ Erf) ur transactions in a lipumai typo lopnai. Program win mmma Ifl 
current accnuni bDJancjaH, produce Trial Balance. income. *ntt 
Balance Sfieel reporta and complete Account Ledgers 

■ win handle up to 300 accounts including report headings and 
loftta 

■ Up to 1 400 average transactions on a diskette. 

■ Summary reports ana four ievals ol subtotals ava laule. 

■ Reo,u i re a. 22 K and an underaia n di n g of blander d double entry 

^rcounrmg concept* 
M4.K in SASJC with Machine Language subroutines 

********** 

STATEMENT WRITER 

for :»e wiw fend ntQwrts) iu< > Doubiv Entry 

■ Produc es. staiemenl* su it able' to r billing rr om your Receivable a 
Accounts 

■ Pro^dea barfing labels to use * n h you r statements and account 
summaries. 

■ Designed &nd documented to allow you to change icmara I a 
accommodate your own apacial needs. 

ffrfefrj 

* * ******** 

That's INTEREST- trig 

Lai your compgfo^ do soma PEAL cojtiou faton/ 

■ Helps you solve problems dealing with lime, money, and 
INTEREST! 

■ AMORTIZATION TABLES sny w»y YOU wan! therruwen tela 
you change any terms mid- schedule* 

■ Calculates. Present Value, Future Value Capital Recovery for 
any combination ol payments you specify. 

■ R«t e 01 fie Tum CO mo nitric n praOTEa how Hard your money will 
be working lor you 1 

■ Computes Bond yield i-.current and Id redemption. 

■ Alt anew ft* available on screen or printer. 
■St.tt in BASIC 



For VISA and Matter Card orders: 
include typo, account number, expirai to n 
date. ttuntiu r e and phone fiumpe* 
Sorry' no CODa 



GRAPHIC SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM 

Works in all PMQDES and fara yttv thttt screen image anywrrereon 
fne pnnttKt pap* 

■ Relocatable code lets, you use all of your 16K ar 32 K machine 

■ AveilaPie m Color Baa« T O and t 1/1 2 Use EKEC «i 175 to 
tee which you have and SPECIFY WITH ORDER 

■ SPECIFY PRINTER TVPE.m Machine Language 
A?, OA - TRS-SCk* LP-VII/VJIIA DM P 1 00/300/40 0/d 30 

SIM Epson GRAFTRAX', fJEC* PC 8023 A-C, IDS 140/44S. 
Paper TVpaf* 460/S6Q. Micro Prism* 480, Priam* 60/132 (wilh dot 
plotlmgl. THS-B0* DMP-120, DMP-1 10»TDP-1, PRO WRITER 1 Cep- 
tropica 73 9. Mlcrolln a* 82 A/83 A iw ii h Oklgraph 1 ) / 84/92/93. Star 
Micrgnics, Inc. GEMINI 1 0/ »0.u' 1 6 and GorlHa Banana 
(Trademarks ol Tandy Corp, Epson America, inc, C-lloh, NEC 
America, OkkialA Corp, Integral Data Syslemis Inc I 



ALPHA DRAW 

WVprJcj gr»*r njllf GRAPHIC SCREEN PRfNT PROGRAM' 

■ Sub ro u tine deatgned to let you add any keyboard cnar act er 
your grephk: dlaplays, 

■ Yuu del me XandY coot dinai es end a amno variable of one of 
more characters ALPHA DRAW does the ra*l* 

■ BONUS -Includes instruction* 104- a true ima-numbered merge 
□I tape tllna 

*a,flft in BASIC 

#********* 



m 

43 
+69 
102 

1 +4 +6= 1 I 



HELP YOUR 

CHILDREN 

HELP 

THEMSELVES 



MATH TUTOR 

ft £i Prootii**i4 in 1 .ranges l r orn sjmpln. adcht«on through long 
division wit n 4 levels of diMlculty. 

■ FtauuJrpa Regrouping to beahown ^provides for trial auol lenis in 
tong division 

■ Shows how lo correct errors., atep by step approach alreissae 
aocuracy 

sta.ftB in basic 

********** 
SPELLING TEACHER 

■ Teaches ltudenl s I heir awn word lisl£ 1a pe or diBk filea notd up 
to 200 waroa each. 

■ Sutlable for any level hum Kindergarten to co^ege 

■ Misftpe^ted wards ere rettuQN to iconic rce carrecl ape I ling. 

■ Words presented m 4 Lively rrirmaerj - hiudy, scrambled word 
game. Trial loaf, final teal 

f 1 2M m BASIC 



At_L PROGRAMS require E:iten<teo Cokrt Baikr 
and are delivered on cassetle All except Tape 
Dtia-0-Bese Calender, are DISK System 
Hlbht. 



US- end CANADA add $1 GO per ordat lor 
ohkoping. Dverseaa&2 t>0 per order All pncee 
■n u.S ootlars Fiondt residents add f.v sales 
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RAINBOW 

WTeiCATiQI* 



ALL LISTED 
PROGRAMS 



Software Review! 



Tic-TacMath 
Improves Arithmetic Skills 



Tit-Tat Math is a tic-iae-toe game m Hi- Res graphic* 
combined with exercise* in solving math problem* taddi- 
lion. subtraction, or multiplication, no division) at a level of 
difficulty chosen by the student at the sun of each game 

fu lac Math is easy in CLOA D and it US'. AH other 
instructions and an explanation ol ihe game can be dh- 
pl;i>L'J while using i be program After the title page you arc 
offered a choice of three types ol problems- addition, sub- 
traction and multiplication. You must then select the level of 
difficulty feasy. medium or hard). The level of difficulty in 
Tit-Tii! Math i- tun increasingly, more d i rlH.it! l problems 
such a* two- or three-digit numbers, but rather a decreasing 
amount of time available to answer the problems! Easy gives 
you three seconds. Medium — two seconds. Hard — one 
second All of these limes can be changed by passing 
through i he instruction screen, which comes up next after 
selection ol difficulty 11 you chnmc not to see ihe instruc- 
tion screen you go directly to I he game board screen, ami the 
timer remains at one. two or three seconds 

The instruction screen gives you bncf instructions, an 
explanation of the game and the opportunity to either 
increase or decrease the response lime allowed for each 
problem. The documentation ( one typewritten sheet) gives a 
conflicting explanation ol this response, but the program's 



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screen was correct. Pressing the 'I! 'speeds up the response 
time f gives you less time to unsu crl and pressing + D" slows 
down the lime {gives you more time). For each lime thc'lT 
or "D" is pushed, the time is decreased or increased by a 
factor ol 1 ,5, e.g.. the Easy level originally gives you three 
seconds. Pushing 'D" once gives you 3 x 1.5 or 4.5 seconds. 
Pushing "D again will result in 4 5 x 1.5 or 6.75 seconds. 
Pushing ENTER on the instruction set ten sends you to the 
game hoard screen. 

The gamcboard is drawn and divided into numbered 
squares (one through nine). You ate prompted to choose a 
number and are in full control of which squares are to be 
played. You do not have to play a square just to block Ihe 
computer. Immediately after choosing a number, a problem 
appears on the screen to the nyht ol the gamcboard and the 
timer begin*. I t't he problem is answered correctly and within 
the lime limit, ihe student wins the square with an *X'. Each 
correctly answered problem gets one of three responses 
placed on the screen: "CORRECT/* "GREAT /'or " t l£R- 
R I F K / If the time runs out or the answer is incorrect, inert 
the computer wins the square with an "O t and "INCOR- 
RECT" appears on the scrccn. 

If neither you nor the computer wins the game by the time 
all [he square* are played, the board is rebuilt and play 
begins again using the options selected for the prcnous 
game, ff you are successful and complete a lic-tac-toe, you 
are rewarded with ascending notes and "YOU WON'* is 
placed on the screen below the board. If you lose, "COM- 
PUTER WON" appears and descending note* arc heard. 
You then go back to ihe selection of the type of problem and 
start the cycle over again. If you do not pass through the 
instruction screen, the timer is set according to the difficulty 
selection and docs not keep the setting of the pre vious game. 
This bothered my kids somewhat at first, 

A couple of thing* bothered me about Tiv-Tac M*j;ii. 
First and foremost is the level of difficulty. The differences 
between difficulty levels using a time factor are somewhat 
insignificant as the student can pick the Hard level and 
transform it into a Super Fasy level through the instruction 
screen, as my son, age seven, usually did. The unmodified 
Hard level if very discouraging even for an adult math major 
with touch typing. Mentally one know* the answer the 
instant the problem is placed on ihe screen. However, find- 
ing and pressing the right keys in less than one second is very 
difficult. 

f much prefer the option of working with more difficult 
numbers. This was also expressed b\ my old cm daughter 
(age 10). The actual range of numbers used are one-digit 
numbers from two to nine. There arc no ones or zeros. The 
student is given no second chance at a wrong answer and 
more importantly, I feel, there is no correct answer shown if 
your answer is wrong. 

Nevertheless, my son stilt enjoy* and talks about Tic- Tac 
Math even alio -.eseral days of nlayutc. Th ■ Tui Math can 
provide the stow learner in math with ample time to solve 
problems and he reworded woh ihe accnmpti^hmeut of gel - 
ting lic-Uic-loc. And il can provide cotnpdltivS excitement 
to those early grade school students who arc more masterful 
of mathematics. If your children arc in the early deve lop- 
men I stage of math, 77c- Tar Math can provide a good 
foundation tor basic math while they enjoy playing a game 
of I it -tat -roe 

(WHh Software* P.O. Box Jutinvton, HI 02911. UK 
Eta, I up? $24.95) 

— Kenneth D. Peters 



200 THE RAINBOW 















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_ LEW1STON, N.Y. 14092 



420 FERGUSON AVE. N. 
HAMILTON ,ONT.,L8L 4Y9 



Software Review! 



Play The Lattery 
With Lotto 



With taxpayers across the country jerking their collect e 
knee in the mere mention of ram rig ta.vcs, some of our stale 
government* have initiated lotteries thai give everyone an 
equakhamv.il becoming a millionaire and at the same time 
lotteries bring in some much needed revenue to the *tate 
coffers. 

Like mo>! other gambler*, loikrv players have (heir uvvn 
techniques of selecting [he winning numbers to write on 
their ticket. Some use special da H boards patent number 
on manhole covers or intricate formulas like multiplying 
their birth date by their social security number and then 
dividing that figure by ihc tola I albatross population of 
Tasmania. 1 1 s no wonder that in this high-tech world sonic- 
one would write a program lo bniidlc the number selection 
process for you. 

This program, called Lvtro. requires I6K cuwitc and 
written in basic. All you do to get started is to i'LOAD 
Lotto and Rl'S. Hie instructions scroll across the screen al 
a very sloi* rate and it takes about two minutes for The m so 
complete. No hard copy documentation is included, i«i toi 
that matter, is needed. 

Lotto is written using, the state lottery rules as found: in 
Maryland, hut instruct ions are given tor making liie MOipk 



chanucs in match the ruk> in any state tottery, t nlortu- 
mitely the line numbers referenced for change are not accu- 
rate or complete and some knowledge of BASIC by the user 
will be required to spot the error and make the 1 ig,ht changes, 
A spelling error was noticed on one of the screen prompts 
hut that can be casilv fixed as well. 

What docs this program do? Ic picks out 40 01 more 
different random numbers and displays I bent on the screen 
for you It uses 0A5IC** RL>\ : command to get the no m hers 
but as many of you know, there is a bug in the RUN 
command thai can be somewhat cured by including a pro- 
gram line thai includes the stale mem -V* R S Of- It M BH). 
I his In is not included ifl the program so the random 
number* generated arc not quite as random as they could be. 

During the number selection process the text screen is 
flashing a di liferent eoJor for each number generated and 
1 hen all 40 numbers are displayed in no particular format or 
grouping. 

Even if there were no bugs or errors in the program, the 
low purchase price does nol justify plunking iluun nn\ 
amount of cash for such a simple program that even a novice 
programmer could hack out in about jive minutes. 



( H \ M E'uhlka lions. I QKM Poplar Trtr lM*e, Annapolis. 
Mil 21481. t«peS5.»5l 



— J. MiehiHl Nowkki 




P O. B01 3448 Durham, N C 2 7702*|9t 9)286-3445 



202 T hi: RAINBOW January ♦485 



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Software Review » 



The A nimator Turns CoCo 
Into An Animation Studio 



A lot of attention has been lucused lately on computer* 
generaku ,mKti;min< used in popular movies like Sujr Wars. 
commercial* und even demons ration films like Panmonl* 
Plane (where ihe company's VO TV system is shown off 
by a pa fur airplane flying around u home). Neja to [his 
sort of thing (which even local TV simians pre using for 
news and went her coverage these daysl what you typically 
sec on your home computer looks rtiiher tame Triad 
PieLmes IJtf >intmnn>t cmi pi^- mhi rt lasle oE computer- 
generated animation on the CoCo, and teaches you about 
the way «ludios like Warner and Disney do animated 
cartoons. 

The p nigrum H section* arc arranged (and named) tike 
the departments of a film studio. The "background studio" 
is where you draw the background?* for the scenes. The 
"eel animation studio" lei* you draw the various objects 
(as il on the cellophane sheets used for film animation), 
and the "camera department" combines backgrounds and 
eels to create 1 he finished picture, The "-sound effects studio" 
tel* you add sound 10 the picture, unci the "M-rccning room" 
itt where you watch the finished f rescniation Pinal ly, the 



-Jab" makes copses of the film or of the background and 

eels. 

The background section is more or less a normal Hi- 
Res teres r drawing program r working only in PhfODE 
}. You can move and draw in all directions using the arrow 
key*, change colors and paint enclosed areas. The pel 
animation section is similar* only here you arc drawing 
as many as 32 small object! (or variation* on an object) 
instead of a whole scene. The eel primer function lets you 
""take a picture"* of a particular eel and "print" it In one 
or more eel locations, so you can repeat all but a small 
part of an object. 

In the camera depart me itt you combine the background 
and the objects on the eels to form frames In each frame 
you can place one or more of the eels, over ihc background 
in desired positions (or have a frame won no object*), then 
shoot a frame and go on to the nest. When you have 
shot all the frames in your sequence, you cut the end of 
the film and return to the main menu. There is also what 
the author calls a "ruioscope:" it s similar in function to 
the 8mm home movie editors that used to be common 
(or more like a good industrial video recorder), in that 
il lets you look at the film step-by-siep or at normal speed 
in either direction. You can even put the "film'' back in 
the "camera** at any desired frame {sounds more and more 
like video, doesn't it?) to shoot over from a desired point. 
You can shoot up lu G25 frames, 

The sound effects section has 12 commonly used sounds 
in its library. To use a vuiiud effect you ± imply use the 
"roiascope" viewer to locate the point at which you want 
it to come up, then select the desired effect and press T 
for insert. Finally, the screening room ^projects** the entire 




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204 the rainbow January tflei 



cartoon with sound and does it over and over without 
stopping until you press *D" to go bock to the main menu. 
The tab 5 iives or Loads a hack ground, a set of eels, both 
of them or an en l ire prcscn lation (consist mg of bac kgro u nd . 
eels and instruction codes to re-create the finished product). 

AU the basic functions art explained in the first half 
of the manual; the second half is a lb- page animation 
textbook written by the program's author, Pwaync 
Osterbaucr, In it he talk* about advanced animation 
techniques in great detail; he speak* mostly in "film" term* 
(I get the feeling that he's either a very avid cartoon buff 
or has been; is in the business hitmelf| T hut fully explains 
how they fit on the C'oCo using his program. Several 
lU-iih -mnI i :iui -nn tttt provided thai go vulh the hunk 

The one thing that, more than anything else, causes the 
obvious difference between The Animator and real 
animation is not the relatively low resolution I it doesn't 
seem so bail), but the low frame rale, roughly seven or 
eight frames per second. Mm ion seems much jerk lit than 
evett the tow-budget Hanna-Barbcra cartoons, which were 
shut at only 12 frames per second. The frame rate is 
understand able, given the juggling act intuited in moving 
cets (the program has to redraw the eels over the 
background for each frame and add sound, all in real 
time). 

The Animator"* graphics can, of course, be recorded in 
one of several ways, If you have a video recorder, just 
feed the C oCo's RF output into the VCR's VHF antenna 
inpuu set the recorder tuner to the right channel and away 
you go r Unfortunately, it's very difficult to stop the I ape 
at exactly the nght point for the end of a scene and restart 
fur the beginning of the next scene I if that's your intention) 



on home-type recorders. Vou could also use an "XL li'pc'* 
Super H camera on a tripod to shoot from the TV set 
(older movie cameras don't work well in this application}: 
editing is: more precise here, and if c he camera has a single* 
frame option you can place one frame of animation on 
eaeh frame of film* bringing the frame rate up to IB, 

The Animator certainly is a one-of-a-kind package: I've 
ue '. e r seen something like this on any other home computer. 
This seems like a very good buy for the CoCo, 

(Triad Pictures Corp., &r»x IJW. Hcquim* WA 
emhSf tic 5.1 S I 

— Ed VXLews 

One* Liner Contest Winner ♦ . p 

For those of you who like nice, neai printouts of disk 
directories, this will do the job nicely. Simply put your 
printer online, insert (he desired disk m driteO, l-MFR Us 
name and the program does the rest 

/ W th lfrkh 

. Port Rirhev. FL 

The tiMing; 

1 0 PR I NT #-2 : I NPUT°DI SK NAME " 5 X* : 

PftlNT#-;\X*:PRINT#-2, " 

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: BOTD10 



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fbUnttn* 0.i(>k Of .<rfif Wlwr*ftiJ ifi tnmptitum Nwn&n-f .Mcminn- fmpf.i 




Telephone 31 #944 2444 
Computet Bulletin Board 

jtay278-95n 



THE RAINBOW 



205 



Software R e vie w^S^^^S^^^^^^ST^N 



Organize Your Disk Library 
Wilh WTwre^-lt 

By A, Ikiddv llc^an 

Have you ever asked yourself. B Nuw where i* thai pro- 
gram that lets mc copy file* from une disL in another with- 
oti i d ti i ng a 1 1 1 Ha l ty p i iig r Qr Htinu- sittii lar q uc st ion t harha 5 
to do with a lapse ol memory concerning the local ion of a 
program on a disk? Everyunc who ha* a di^k collection of 
more than a few disks will as, k such a question sooner or 
Inter. White's- h is a utility thai allows you to answer such 
questions It is a straight forward program that doe« u liar ii 
is advertised to do. 

Where !i-/f is s imply B disk index dntabase management 
milily program Jt aJJo^s you lo create a database consisting 
of the directories of as many of your disks as you degfra 
(however, no more than 912 program names can be used to 
build each index) You me (hen able tn manipulate the data 
io suit your needs. HTrereWi is supplied on disk and ii 
compatible with the J2K Extended Basil Color Computet 
and requires at least one disk drive. The main program \s 
written in basic while the sort routine is provided as a 
separate machine language program on the disk. 

Upon running 14 'mve Wf r you are presented with a well 
designed menu screen thai displays (he nine options availa- 



ble to you I'm going to list ihtsc options as they would be 
used rathel than in lhe order presented m the menu (soft- 
ware developers would do well to present menus in this 
manner su thai they are more useful): 

1) ADD NEW DISK - Thib is the option thai allow * ym, 
io input the directories from your disks. The procedure is 
very simple You are asked for a disk identifier (mil more 
than five characters long) and then are directed lo place the 
disk in the proper drive (the documentation lejkyou how to 
modify the program for two-drive operation), The directory 
is then read tn very fast and you are asked for another disk 
identifier so thai yog can quickly add as many disk directo- 
ries as you desire I used 13 full disks containing MO pro- 
grams to u»t Where 's-ft and was able to build the database 
in less thun seven minutes. The program actually store** the 
program name, the extension and the disk identifier for each 
program on the disk being added to your index, 

2) SORT — allows you to sort the eontenis of your 
database in alphabetical order without regard to upper- or 
lowercase. The sort is fast since it is done in machine lan- 
guage. My 340 program index took less Mum a minute. An 
audible tone lets you know when the son is complete A nice 
feature would be the option to also sort by disk id c mi Ilex 

I In 1 * way you w-ould be able lo see at a glance all of the files 
on a particular disk. You would obviously nave to he able id 
store lhe identifier sort as a separate lile 

3) LIST INDEX - prims the index file io ihe screen 10 
programs at a lime IWVK advances the screen displa> to 
the next ten programs. An up-arrow relurns you to the 
menu 

4) PRIST INDEX — prims your index file on an K0- 
enlumn printer in three columns with a maximum of 162 
program names on each page (54 in each of the three 
columns) This is where the 972 record limit comes from t six 
pages of 162 each*. The printout dearh Lhe nw impres- 
sive feature of this program. The print routine was written 
lor an Epson F\-80and provides a title for each page of lhe 
printout thai displays DISK DIRECTORY INDEX at the 
top in expanded prim. The next line, still in expanded print, 
is HI.EXAME: XXXXXX NX- PAGE X where the X's arc 
substituted with ihe proper filename and page number The 
printout continues with three columns, each headed with 
Fl LENA Mf EXT DISK These headings are in the normal 
Epson prim font and are underlined. The print routine then 
prints mo rhc filename, extension and disk identifier for 
easih program i hat is contained in your indev After 60 lines, 
it skips to the top of the nest page, places the printout tiile 
lines and column headers at the top and continues the 
printout, 

5ISEARCH — lets you find either a program by name or 
a pLutietil.ir disk h*. s lie idcntirici thai vou have assigoed lo 
it. 

ft) DELETE; UPDATE DISK - you may delete lhe 
director) ola disk from your index or arid the directory of a 
disk that you have updated since it was first entered into 
your index by selecting either PELETEor UPDATE You 
are then prnmplcd for the disk idcuiilici n| ihe proper disk 

7) SAVE FILE — your tndejt file is saved io disk wiihihis 
option. If you started the current session by loading an i rides 
or have laved the current index once before during the 
cur rent session, you may save the index hy ^impU f \ t f King 
up-arrow after selecting this opium from the menu 

8) LOAD FILE — is used to load a previously saved index 
Irom disk- 



Talk is 

your Color Computer can talk for only 

m 



SPEAK UPP- is a machlr>e language, 
voice synthesizer program for the 
TRS-SO color Computer* It Is 100% 
software— nothing else to buy- Best of 
all, you can make BASIC programs talk i 

•16K, 32K. 64K all on one cassette 
■Text-to-speech makes it easy to use 
-speak UPl will say anything 
'Revlewecf m April 'S3 Issue of Rainbow 
•Reviewed In Oct. S3 Color computer 
•COO, visa, MC, checks— no delay 

ORDER NOW 800-354-0854 -890 




P O. Box 331fl 
Chapel Hill NC 27615 

THE RAINBOW January 1f*3 



9| M A K t. N I" W Fill c inj-ci am d aia hi memory and 
allows you to viari building a new index. Since this is a 
destructive feature, the program prompts you to be sure that 
you warn to use this option. 

A i the bottom of the menu ilisplay is the filename of the 
index lb at was loaded. I fie number of programs eon mined in 
the index and the number of programs liiai can he added to 

it. 

1 he program prompts you for input by flashing the cursor 
at the proper location. Input is taken immediate!) without 
the need to hit emfr except lor a filename or identifier. 
Error handling is excellent. If you have a problem while 
UMiig the pritguii 1 1 j - 1 i me h tiHFAk and then GOTO ft Hi 
to get back to tbe main menu. You aie not allowed to select 
options that require an index to be in memory if you don't 
have one there and you ate not allowed to SORT or 
SEARCH if you only have one record in memory. 

The documentation consists of fivcS 1 / x 1 1 -inch shceis of 
yellow paper printed in I tie normal fashion and folded in the 
middle. The document a I ion is adequate but could be 
improved- It leave* one iSLmdenngjtiM how you are to begin 
to use the program. If you follow the sequence of the options 
as presented, you begin with MAKE NEW FILE (which 
talks about craving the contents of memory — before you 
have entered anything into memory* then goto LO.A £H you 
have nothing to luad yet I and SA l'£(suvc wruil°) before you 
get io ADD NEW DISK (which is where you begin). 

The most glaring omission from the documentation es in 
the part that describes the PRINT INDEX option. You are 
told that the print routine was written for un Epson FX-KO 



and you arc told that you might need to change some of the 
print variables (these are identified along with tbe hue 
number where they need to be changed I. However, when 
you get to the section on the Baud rate, you are informed 
that the Baud rate for the FX-80 is 9600 and thai. "You may 
have to delete this line or replace it with some other value " 
End of instructions. It would not have been that difficult for 
the distributor to have informed purchasers of the program 
of the values needed to he used in Line K(>] for the various 
Baud rates that different printers require. My Epson MX -80 
worked just fine after Line Ml was deleted. Running it with 
I ine KOI produced ^arhaye on she pririlci since the Baud 
rate was much faster than my MX -AO's 600 rate. Perhaps this 
observation come* under the heading of nitpicking since the 
owners of printers thai r un at other than the standard CoCo 
600 should already be aware of the value that I hey need to 
poke into memory location ISO to produce the required 
Baud rale. 

Where's- li ls lk worthwhile program that pc riorum ;i s 
advertised and would be a welcome addition io rhc collec- 
tion of t oL o disk users who have accumulated enough 
programs on disk that they have to ask themselves that 
troubling question from time to time. "Where** it?**. 



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Software A^v/ewSSI^SSS^ 

CoCo Can Engineer 
With Space F rarne 

Hetawic 1 used uverlay* years ago lo "shoehorn" a major 
rniary-winged aeroelasiic analysis into an curly mainframe, 
1 know \bK is big enough for serious work! Because I haic 
edited report* jnr publication, I kmw ft word processor is 
not a giorilitrd tried tic typewruer A spreadsheet \s as far 
ahead of a hand calculator its the calculator is ahead of a 
slide 1 12k 

But when the disparaging question is posed, "Can you 
really do anything professional on that little muchinc?". 
a negative answer can result from a Limitation in the 
soft wure market I do not expect lo find a supersonic wind 
Tunnel calibration program in IhU magazine, and if 1 want 
another acrcxrlastic program [Color Compute! cdinpuiihlc), 
J had better write it myself. In short, pro(essvonal t 
specialized software is in short supply and the Color 
Computer user should be glad of any high quality additions 
lo this market. 

That is why Kagc Engineering's release of a finite element 
structural analysis program is good news. Structural analy- 
sis means "is a structure strong enough?" Can your roof 
withstand a snow load, or is the TV an lean a mast adequate? 



Finite element means lo do the analysis by visualising 
("modeling**! the structure as if it were composed or a large 
number of little springs, usually metallic. The method is 
in common use in the aerospace industry, and was used 
On NASA's space shuttle, 

Ol course, when MmphlLcd toa home LompuUT. a ouuihur 
of subtleties arc sacrificed Spate Frame does aot include 
buckling or torsion effects, works entirely below ihe plastic 
deformation rat^c. ;md defaults to steel untcsv tcW rjtber- 
wise. fThat would he minor lor most user*, but for us 
aluminum addicts u means overriding a defauJt on eitehand 
every element input.) 

As far as 1 know, this program has no competition ,,,'iih 
Space from* or hand drudgery lor many engineers in pri- 
vate pnntiLv 

k 1Jh Li I ngmeirrtng claims n will run even uti If.k M ■■ 
CoCo is a 64 K machine I have used it not only lor the test 
cases supplied, hut even to analyze a fairly complex sphere I 
designed. The program can use the high speed puke, hut I 
have only tried that on one simple model — il worked Tine 
Withoul the high speed poke, a 24~clcmcm, |£>-ntitte modeF 
tool* about 13 minutes to run. t would consider thai mm* 
quite acceptable. 

The pfi gnim does retain three dimensions, which means 
it can do real world problems as well as teach engineering. 
The documentation is relatively complete, and the two 
examples will refresh the memories of engineers who are 
ru-.t\ ..il i ins d wripline 1 ent-ournvred two pti'Miim* miMiif! 
the program. On my most complex model, the tiotk i 
mat ion table which printed nutai the end was not con?, is tern 
with the clement deflections printed just above. That may 
indicate a bag. or may he a problem in my model of the 
structure, it is hard lo tell 

My other problem u as on 1 O. Space Frame provides \ he 
capability ol saving one * input to cassette at two distinct 
points in the analyst*. The first worked as advertised. I res er 
was able lo recover data saved at the second point. 1 do nol 
consider thai prnhlem verious because mosl users could 
discipline themselves to use the first option. Conversion to 
disk appears simple I know how ro. but not having disk f 
did not boiher. The pmgumdrovca Radio Shack DM P-im 
properly with no problems 

Spare Frame is supplied w nh a ui ilii y lit enable M K lislt s 
to get 8 K extra by disabling Extended bask. The utility 
worked" properly, and would seem a good idea for most users 
because it is very difficult to tell in advance how much 
storage a complex model will require, For most users, the 
program will be adequate, but I would not suggest trying to 
model the (Eiffel Tower on a CoCo? 

So long as I have access to more elegant and larger ver- 
sions free through my employer, I would personnllv have 
In tic incentive in hn\ this program, i lam licensed for private 
consulting practice, but am not dtungunv I However, uere I 
doing consulEina or even teaching at the university level 
- I know of no other program available in this (ield and I 
found Space Frame did its |ob properly with no major 
criticisms, I look ior*urd eagerlj to more speciah/cd engi- 
neering suit ware from a firm that clearly put together a good 
product. 

iKagr K(i K mrfrhi|, P.O. R<»\ .lata. I aktwuuil. C A 90711. 



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R ENGINEERING 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED! 



— II. Larry FJman 



2 Ofl the rainbow jonuiry ims 



Software ° A " fA *" ^ 

Run CP/M 
With Color Power II 

By Peler \, Hi ark 

Originally v. riucn in I 973 fur [ he fcE)N(), L P M is undoubt- 
edly the grand -daddy of microcomputer operating systems. 
There isn't a 6809 version of CP, 1 M. but it ibi Still possible to 
run it on the Color Compuier with theaddilion of the Color 
/'.iiky // module which, through a combination ol hard- 
wart and software* puts a Z-80 microprocessor an iht» Color 
Compuier bus 

CP'M has one feature which distinguishes tt Irom the 
others — ttHremendous popularity. This popularity has ted 
to the availability of thousands of programs While some nl 
these may not run on the Color Power //. there i* si it I a huge 
base of available CP.' M programs, both large and small. 



The CP/M Disk Operarlnf System 

CPU comes with a copy of CP M version 2-2 The CPU 
disk is supplied in a dual formal — track one and part of 
track 1 7 are m Radio Shack format* while the rest of the disk 
has CP, M files* To start CP M. you mast type LOA D\f 
"CP2 "and then £VV£C- This loads a hoot program, switches 
to 64 K mode, and then loads and starts CP. M illQl 

Once CP. M is started, operation will be very familiar to 
anyone who has used another DOS on the CoCo CP , M has 
a number of built-in functions such as D) R (to display a disk 
directory), ERA (to erase a file). R EN (rename a file ), TYPE 
(display the contents of an ASCII filch SAVE (to save 
memory contents to the disk), or USER ( which allows a son 
of segmented directory structure). These can be run by just 
typing their names followed by any arguments thai they 
need, 

te dn\ oilier command causes CP, M to look cm the 
disk for u command file by the same name If found, that Ok 
ts executed- CPU comes with the following CP' M com- 
mand hies on the disk: 



The Hardware 

Cohit Po wvr fl\\M refer to it as CPU from now on} is a 
metal bos. about the size of Radio Shack's computer 
cassette recorder, which plugs into the expansion port on the 
right side of a 64 K Colot Computer, The disk controller, in 
turn, plugs into the right side of CPU. 

CPU itself contains more than two dozen integrated cir- 
cuits. To avoid loading down the CoCo power supply. CPU 
has its own supply in the form of an e*lcrnaJ power trans- 
former that plugs into a wall nutlet and connects to a jack on 
the back pj the L Pit 

Inside CPU is a 2-80 CPU , a 6S43 video controller. 2 K of 
\ i dco RAM memory, an LPROM eha rat t c r ge ne ra t or, a nd 
an assortment of unmarked TTL ICs. The entire assembly is 
very professionally constructed, with go Id -plated con nee- 
[wis .jiiij u mi, nl Mippnn Un ihf entire a^eruhk 

Since the CPU provides a display of 24 lines b\ ~M\ c h jj h so 
tcrs wide, in both upper- and lou crease, a good video moni- 
tor is needed. CPU does nut provide an RF output like the 
CoCo's; a composite video output jack must he connected to 
the vide ii input of the monitor 



PIP is a 'Peripheral Interchange Program/ J t is used 
primarily for copying one or more files from one disk 
to another, although it can also tra nsfer files or data to 
and from disks, keyboard, display or primer. PIP 
cannot he used to copy files on a single drive. 

STAT can be used to display the status ol disks ot 
files. For example, since DIR does nol icll the si/cofa 
file or how much space remains on a disk. STAT can 
he used to provide this information. 

SU BM1 1 and XSL'B allow you to set up often-used 
combinations ol commands as disk lilcs and then call 
them with a single line command. 

ED is the standard CP M text editor. It is a line 
editor rather than a screen editor: this means that you 
do not see an entire screen full of test at one time, bul 
only see the line you are current ly typing on or perhaps 
the few tines directly above it, and you cannot use the 
cursor keys to move back and forth through your text 

ASM ts the standard CP/M 8080 assembler, It uses 
BOKO mnemonics rather than those of the Z-80 which is 
used in the CPU 




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LOAD is used along with ASM to eonvcu ihe oul- 
pyx of the assembler talon (arm which can be lauded 
and executed. 

DTJ MP is a program for printing nut the contend ol 
a disk file in hexadecimal. The assembly language code 
Tor l his tile is also supplied, both for experimenting 
with ihe assembler, anil also to show how over pro- 
grams may be written to access CP'M. 

DDT is the 'Dynamic Debugging Tool," a debug- 
ging monitor program, U allow* ynu to list or modify 
memory and start or trace programs, 

CPU Implementation of CP/M 

The CPif implementation of CP, M commas ol two parts 
— the adaptation of CP/M itself and a collection of com- 
mand program* for use with it. .This review describes ver- 
sion 1.5 of CP/'s CP/M softwares 

Adapting CP/M to a new computer involves writing 
some code known a* BIOS — the Basic Input Output Sys- 
tem which i s ihe link between TP M and ihe Iwduarc of 
the computer. In CP// this code links the core of CP M to 
the I' at' a keyboard. display, printer port and disk interlace. 

C/V/lctsthc keyboard generate t he lull ^character print- 
able ASCII character set. plu* control codes such a*. 
Conlrol-C (used to res I an CP. M) and ESC fused in many 
commercial programs). Many of I bene can be generated by 
single key closures, white some codes require that you press 
two keys m i he same lime 

As mentioned earlier, £77/ includes a high resolution^ s. 
80 display interface Since this display is handled b> hard- 



ware rather than suit ware, it can provide excellent display 
quality if used with a good monitor The video interface 
program which drive* l hut hardware has been programmed 
to emulate the popular 1 SI ADM-3h terminal, to that pro- 
grams written fur the APM-3a will drive t he CPU screen in 
(he same way. This is especially important for those pro- 
grams which move the cursor around the screen. The only 
disadvantage in this case is that \ ideo display is much slower 
than we are accustomed t« with regular CoCo basic. 

CP ft uses the .standard CoCo printer port in the back of 
the computer. It allows operation at rale* from 300 to 4800 
Baud, with either seven or eight bits per character, and with 
eilher on* or two slap bits. It also allows selection ol 
wheiliei lint ka> will he led ihrnugh or not, .ind how the 
printer handshaking will he done This covers a wide variety 
of printer configurations, both Radio Shack's and others'. 

The disk interface portion of the BIOS b quite interesting 
in itself. According to the folks at Color Power Unlimited* 
they found that ihe Z.-KO. even running at 4 MHz T was not 
fast enough to handle the disk interface at double-density 
speeds* so they decided lo let ihe 6809 in the CoCo handle 
that part of the job. The result, ihey say, is a complex blend 
of Z-S0 and 680° programming and hardware for which they 
have applied for a patent 

CPU uses the same basit disk format as CoCo disks — .15 
tracks ol eighteen 25b~oyte sectors each. This it* quite differ- 
ent from CP ' Ms 128-byic sector* and so they pack two of 
CP M s sectors imu one CoCo sector The result is a tolal of 
I46K of storage on one disk, lit is possible to use up to 40 
tracks, bul 80-lrnck or double-sided operation is no I possi- 
ble,) A by -product of this disk formal is thai CoCo Disk 




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hash's regular 8 A CKVPcsn be used lo copy CPU disks, 
and DSKfM h used to format them. 

In the area of di*k-residcm commands (CP. M ealls them 
transient commands), CPU comes with four of its on r 
command programs: 

RESET quits CP M and return* to Radio Shack 
Disk BASIC. 

SYSG EN is used lo generate a CP M system disk 
for the CPU system. SVSGEN cannot, however, 
iniiiali/ca fresh disk, rather, H only modifies a stand- 
ard CoCo disk for use with CP; M. Hence, to set up a 
new disk you must re i urn to Disk basic (with 
RESET), use DSKtNf to initialize the disk, and then 
ret u rn lo CP t M and use S YSG E\top repa re it for use 
with CP M. 

CONFIG is used to change some of the CP M 
parameters to fit the individual hardware used with the 
Co Co. It determines printer port parameters such a* 
Baud rale 1 300 to 4tfuG Baud), number of dais bus and 
stop bits, type of handshaking, and whether line feed 
character* arc allowed or kept from the printer, CON- 
FIG is also used for redirecting output from the printer 
to the screen or vice vcrsn, and for setting disk drive 
parameters such as number of tracks (35, J6 or 40) and 
drive step rale (six I h rough HO milliseconds). Although 
CONFIG allows use of up lo 4(1 tracks on a disk, the 
need to use BASICS £)5A7,%7 command to format disks 
usually means that only 35 tracks can be used. 

CONVERT in the largest and most ambitious CPU 
command. It permits CPU to read IS other popular 
CP; M disk for ma is .including those written on Access, 
Cromcmco, DEC. Eagle, Holmes. Kaypro 2, l.NW, 
Lobo. Morrow. NEC, Osborne, TRS-80 Models III 
and 4, Xerox, and Zenith computer*. Not alt formats 
can be read since CPU cannot read single-density 
disks. 8-inch disks, hard-sector dinks I such as North 
Star CPy M disks) or Apple If CP M disk*: neverthe- 
less, i he CONVERT program does allow access lo a 
large variety ol suit ware from other machines, Note, 
however, lhal this is strictly a one-way mreei CON- 
VERT does not allow you to write disks which other 
machines can rend. In addition, CON VERT dues not 
let you read or write your regular CoCo Disk BASIC 
disks so there is no way to transfer data tiles, text files 
or BASIC programs to or from regular Disk bask 

V o r i h c use r wh o warn* sjime I h i L a I mo- L cl li s^ if 4 % P M 
programs. Color Power sells copies of WnrdSittr. Spe/lSwr, 
Startndtx and hfoffMttw. Even when included with the 
CPU M\&p\xi. ihe » l 1.1 . l 3 priLC k otten less I Han ihe price of the 
individual programs on the open market. Due lo a lack of 
doeooieotafioo. I was not able In test ihtst. hut they do all 
>eem to work A Ls o uv uilah ie is a com muoicalio n s progra m 
called l itr&Tt'rm+ 

Oocum eolation 

CPU com ch with n n^-pa^c manual which CO very the basic 
aspects ofthc CPU system and how to use il, This is a for cry 
from the I wo I hick manuals which came with my copy ol 
CP M 68 K {which runs on a M<HH>) The CPU manual 
leaves a tot of unanswered question*, and does not cover 
>omc programs (such as the h.D editor, ASM assembler or 
n I > I debugger), at all It suggests thai (he user pui cruise one 
of the many CP M manual*, and gives a suggesled bibli- 
ography. 



User Comments 

On the whole, the Color Power U system is a very *olid 
piece ol prufesstoouk tqujnoieiil. Aiide Irum the lack oE 
adequate documentation (which should probably improve 
with time), there is little one can seriously fault it with. Most 
problems noted were small ones. t>ric;ilK [he kind thai 
show up in any new product. 

For example. CPU allows a I airly good implementation 
of H 'unJSior and SpeftStur, Bui a small problem occasion- 
ally causes this combination to scroll an extra line, so that 
when SpellSrar comes hack to rewrite the screen il writes 
one line lower than il should, thereby causing some confu- 
sion. Also noted was I he fad that the lift FA K key, which 
usually can break any program, does not work within 
WordStar, 

The lack of a BASIC interpreter is also a small problem, 
especially since CP-M cannot read or write CoCo diskv 
( Since every other DOS for I he CoCo has such I tie convert 
utilities, 1 am sure it's only a oiattei of note until diet arc 
available for (?|/CP, M as well ) As a lest ol the CON- 
VERT program, I got a public domain CP / M disk prepared 
lot the Kaypro 2 computer. Though I was able lo convert 
and read all ol it. it was a challenge lo figure out a way of 
using the BASIC programs on iL (I eventually transferred 
them lo another computer via the serial printer port.) 

(Color Power Unlimited. Inc. P.O. Bo* 6fl6 T New Provi- 
dence. NJ tm?4, With WordStar utd MuMfrrge, 
j SpetKtar ind Stor/ndex 179; t ttraTrrm * * $55.} 



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Software ffeWewCS^SS^^SET^ 

RAMDOS Is A Goad 
Disk-Type Tape Program 

RAMDOS is □ lapehased utility program designed lo 
use pan of available memory as a storage area to stack 
several programs while the rexi of memory is aciivc. The 
machine language routine allows for the user to depart- 
mentalize the memory by use or a Cl.EA R statement and 
an OFFSET In protect a portion uf RAM, The program 
provides foi a Uisk-lvpe operating system to facilitate the 
movement of programs Emm or to storage or active RAM. 
The intent in to be as close lo using this storage RAM 
as a virluid disk. The method used by the program author 
is that the user moves into the program routine by entering 
an EXEC and (hen selecting the li p prop ri ale command 
for execution and then leaving the routine to return to 
the active RAM area again 

The dtsJt'Hkc operating system of the program include* 
command* to save a program from active RAM to sun rage 
RAM, list all the program in storage- rename a program; 
kill a program; clear all programs from storage; a "help 1 
menu which list l he commands; a 'Q* command which 
returns the user to BASIC; and a 'resiore' command which 
transport* a progtum Imiti storage to active RAM. All 
uf these commands acted on the programs without trouble 



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and faster than the blinking ol the cursor! 

The number of BAKtc programs that might he stored 
de pl- utls un the length uf the individual programs (and 
the amount of space reserved for storage!. In a typical 
configuration of several short programs, each may be 
loaded sequential^ m ihe storage RAM. The user then 
has the option of coiling up any of the stored programs 
lo the active RAM. In the transfer from storage to active 
HAM, the active RAM ss wiped cienn, thus this system 
was never intended in pats data between programs, or act 
as command stream system, or provide for Jinking or 
chaining n| program* 

As noted earlier, the system works best with a group 
of short basil programs, Machine language programs may 
he used in this system, but such machine language program* 
must be assigned specific locations through I he use nf 
"offsets" at loading time so as not to overwrite the hint 
program. The routine has trouble handling very long BASK' 
programs because of the memory limitations imposed by 
dividing the RAM into an active and storage segment, lite 
division of RAM space is accomplished by use uf i LEA R 
statement and loading RAMDOS with an OFFSET. The 
selection of a coupled set of CLEAR and OFFSET Stalc- 
menis which provides tor allocation of the RAM is the 
problem. If the user selects a combination that allocate* 
most of RAM to slorage, then the user might encounter 
the OM Error when trying to CLOAD a long program 
Likewise, allocating too little RAM to siorage will result 
in an OM Error if this large program does not have enough 
room io he stored. 

The program, once loaded, functions smoothly and is 
fast lhc selection of the proper sequence lm loading with 
( I EAR and OFFSET* is the hardest part ol the whole 
operation. The manual offers an example in which the user 
is instructed lo CLOADM RAMDOS with an OFFSET 
l hen enter CLEARJOQ with a number one less than the 
OFFSET. With that example the user is left to his own 
experiment a i ion One other instruction is offered in which 
the manual indicates that if the user has Extended BASK , 
then a PC LEAR i is necessary before loading the program 
t Interestingly, one of the long programs used lor ihc tesi 
required a PC LEAR 4 and after fallowing the manual's 
suggestions, I he program when returocd to active RAM 
would not wort, J 

\ he rn.inu.il > major shortfall it not being more itiforma 
live on the loading patterns to be tried lor different needs 
or RAM sine. The manuals title page notes the program 
will run on 16* 32 or 64K computers. While true, it should 
he noted That it is compatible with only the lower 32 K 
of the MK equipped computers. The manual suggests that 
some hank switching programs might work wuh RA MDOS 
if the jump table is maintained- No tcM of a bank-switching 
routine was attempted, 

RAMDOS might be of rnlcreM to non-disk users who 
might want to use part of ihe HAM as a "virtual disk" 
storage area. Within (he limitation ol the si/e ol ihc 
individual programs and designated RAM, ihc progrum 
mighi fit! the need of a disk -like addition, 

t Hit* man international* 420 rergutun Ave, North* I Until* 
ton* Ontario* (anuria I M. 4Y<J. »M«rt« I ,S„ plu* 3 

pcrcenr S/Ii, S2J0 minimum) 

- Hubert I ofles 



21 Z THE BAtNOOW Jim.aiv INS 



Software ^ 

Super Disk Utility — 
A Collection Of Useful Tools 

"Where is the beef, da I?" If ymi had ustd I he Catalog 
option of Super Disk Uiititw all that would be necessary 
would be f0 look down the printed list to learn where the 
"btcl.diiT" program uav located. 

<. a ta!o£in£all Of ibe files on ail your disk isoncnf the nine 
operation* grouped on the Super Disk Utility program sold 
b> Pctrocci I reel a nee Associates on an unprotected disk. 
The other npcrdlions supported are Di\kzap, Dan- ihsk 
Mex, Pttrge Files; Copy by Fibs; Directory Sort; Super 
Directory* Disk zap 40; iind Tratk Formatter. 

Thc program author has arranged access to seven opt tons 
through a main menu system. When a selection is eiitcied il 
is loaded from the disk and automatically runs. The options 
have submenus to olfcr further functions. The other two 
programs on I he d is k I Track F ar mutter a nd Dh k zap 4f)) j re 
p tout arm (hat are loaded independent!} 

ai needed 

From the main menu 1 he user can select thedrivc number 
(0 to %\ for default drive. This option is very useful for the 
two drive U»cr since il allows the program to move through 
the options without several disk swift* 1 be single drive user 
is given prompts i$ to when to switch disks (system disk pi 
data disk I and switching disks is ncccssa ry each time a major 
nption is selected. 

Operating the Catalog option is simple for cither single 
drive or two drives. The program prompts the user to enter a 
name lor the disk which u,il| haw its directory read into 
memory. The disk is read and the next name is entered for 
the next disk, etc. When thcuserha> runout oldiskslo read 
(or reaches the program's limit ot BOO files) the hard part of 
the job is done. The sorting of all the disk directories into 
order hv either "lile namc."**disk nnRlc^orby "extensions" 
is fast. The sorted file is automatically saved (with the pro- 
gram assigning the extension for each ot the three types of 
sorts). For this review a total ol 30 disks were read into the 
mining 1 hot di>ks produced TMj lilcs which Wvtt m tried in 
less than one second. I he -ion routine is so last that I had lo 
run the test tw ice to he sure the tort actually took place. The 
only way to use the totalis of all this fast action is to have the 
listing ol Ihe sorlcd tiles printed out Again, the selection of 
either "file nume."" , di*k name," or "extension" is ncees>ar\ 
for the printout of the records by that option .Once I catalog 
has been constructed, the program allows for modification 
by either deleting files or adding lo the L * inventory." 

Dfokzop. the oilier >v major 4 * program m I he parkage has its 
own submenu, the options provide for allocation table 
Check." "\enf> disk seelors/'^display t ile sectors." "display 
disk sectors. ""move "or "copy disk sectors. ""covert granule 
fl" into l rack and sector or "zero disk vectors. "During any of 
the display options, ihe program provides lor modification 
of any location shown on scicen by moving the cursor to ihe 
spot and typing o\er Ihe desired notation Once changes arc 
made to *uii I he o*er, hitltng FN n Ft will sa s e I hat change to 
the disk. This section of the program works well and a 
change can be entered faster than some other "/ap" pro- 
grams. 



The Trmk Formatter program ts able to reformat any 
selected tracks i up to -40 tracks) on a disk with problems or it 
can format an entire disk. By usiog this, program a not yet 
formatted disk can be given the same status as a disk gn en 
the DSKISf pass: bul the program then will go back and 
verify all the tracks, and in a fraction ot the time required to 
use the DSKINt function alnoc. Another feature of thin 
program that may be of more interest lo users of non-Radio 
Shack drives is that the Sector Skip Factor" is controllable, 

fhskzap 40. according lo the program author, allows 
accedes lo 40 1 racks for those users not using Radio Shack 
equipment. This program was not tested since the system 
used for this review was ttandard Radio Shack equipment 
(which only ha* 37 trucks! I he program also allows for a 
shifting ol a copy ol a disk's directory to tract 3 7 as a "cash 
protection" option Naturally, ihe directory restoration 
option is also included 

The U-Jiage ni,nuuU co-.cr 1 - ihe program* and indicates 
those areas where problems might occur. It is clear and easy 
la folio* Page 14. however, is printed in such u small print 
thai it is almost unreadable: but il appears that page is the 
"End User Agreement.** 

I he Super Disk Utility is a collection of some interesting 
and useful tools and some functions thai may not be of 
interest to some users. The ability io purge files, copy or date 
■ disk tile, as well as ihe Directory Son option which will 
read the direeiory. sort in alphabetical order or group by 
extensions and rewrite to disk, all I mm whhin the program, 
are there if you want them. 

However. Ihe Catalog option has a fast sort function; hot 
there is no search or Had fund ion included Thus, ihe speed 
of the sorting is outweighed by forcing the user to go to (he 
slowest operation ofthc system - Ihe printer - lo make use 
of the information. There are other Catalog programs on the 
market which include a search function and sell for a frac- 
tion oi the cost of this program. 

This set of disk programs may appeal to some users as it is 
oiler lM 

(Pctrocci Frecl*nc« Associates, 651 N. Houston Rotd. 
Tucson. AT *574f. disk S29.<>5| 

— Robert Folles 



One- Litter Contest Winner , , , 

Guaranteed to drive you up the wall after a minute or io. 
this program draws a circk that gets larger and smaller ov c r 

and over! 

Michael RotfttbtrK 
Prvstonbura. k f 

The listing; 

0 PCLEAR^:FORX-lTOB;PHOD€(»,X:PCL 
S: CIRCLE (126,96) f HEKT; FQftX- 

1 TO*? 1 ? 1 ? 1 ??*? : FfJf?Y- 1 TO©: SOUNDY*2«, I ; 
PMODEGp V : SCREENi , i i NEXTY; FORV-BT 
niSTEP-i : 5OUNDY*20, 1 : v : SC 
REEW1 1 1 : NEX TV , X 

i f tit tkft *«nniDf uup-linrt rwrtrtt two I he author to* 6t*n *cm top*** «*t noth TV 
«jjnA,.w tiv-l Of 4Jn,„u« a dlI i t* » Limpi r.i l*o R*#r<A.». W.THruir ft** l 



Software Review! 



Stnr Trap Game Promotes 
Cooperation Among Children 



Star Trap is * new and different game for one or two 
players aged seven or older It is produced for Radio Shack 
by Ihc Children's Computer Workshop — an activity Of the 
Childrens 'I dc vision Workshop (the producers of Sesatnc 
Strati, the FMnrw Company, and S-2-hContaa). Supplied 
on cassette, this pmc requires E Mended basic, and 
joysticks. 

Bern re describing the game, I'd like to tell you how it 
differs from most games First. this game teaches coopera- 
tion, rather eh an competition, when played by two children. 
The two players work together to accomplish the garnet 
objective to trap the computer-controlled slur. 

A second difference is the cassette formal. Side one con- 
tains the "standard" game, ready to be loaded and played. 
Side tun cont[iin\ l modified version which allows the play- 
ers) to ^custumi/e" the game via an easy-to- understand 
menu. Selections include the game (maze) size, background 
Color, player mid star speeds, active gates (explained beh'w l 
and several miscellaneous opiums; the nominee oi XV(u*«d 
to trap the star J, whether Mockers arc desired, ihc number of 
players, and the presence or absence of the maze walls. 

The object of the game is to trap a. single star — to block 
us movement ruber with X's I placed at the player s position 



D*T*'f*MtLE 



ftKi iM«a H> » »i-*r.i. *l L a. -#>-•'. r_-*v mrm 

Alt c.8**iit*T <j.mt i r k ran*. ^K>rmJ i#i-t*f.t 

Mow *¥\W" It* trfiti'* ritni*. ««< £■« nut ifCrwr- 
nr uttvrr Bf«t» Q<Mr.O (nn* a- ■tali*" w»* 1 1 vi»J 
f»Tvn"f» in p»ci-*ini «** *nmrw lAf l*'t J» 

tv *lw Eur Ubad for **Curtlv» hfmiM^ 
P CWwtffl ■ » mrnti mm 

TP,* t|T tiiiludP* * *Mlt« MUtlllM »**f3E 

Cl*r»A C3»Hi«ll» ! .,* T f? + + IT!" to- 

ir>»t*l lit JOft •H(*rlMl C-IJI»^(M: T t R* • J . **t 

do tl. r>» 'or initafc 1*t |£h 



T «£ tW|T* i"HlLi »irClu*>.lw t> 



rMhh FLti Jin c<9hiTHiM,i_CHu 

TEAC * 8HU6AWT OAlVfiU 



rtANH DA 1 A 

ion «l * 

t-UHjHtHWHl 



when the joystick button u pressed) or by cornering it 
♦ipjiti^ a wall or between two players The score deprrtds on 
the tunc reu/jirtfdiii) trap the siaj andtlii; numbei nl JCVused 
t he shorter the lime and the fewer the X's used, the higher 
the score. There are six gates which a!lec< the players and 
star differently when passed through. 

! J The X gate replenishes a plover's limited supply of XV 

2) 7 he speed gate increases the speed of the ob|cet passing 
through it — whether u player or the star. 

3) The slaw gate deer cases the speed of the object passing 
through it, 

4) The jump gate causes the object entering it to exit at a 
different location. 

5) The invisible gate rundefs ihc ^lai invisible lor j short 
time after it passes through. 

fjfTHe magic gate allows lEiestarto pass through walls for 
a short lime. 

When playing 1 he customized version (on side two of the 
cassette I. each of the gates can be included or excluded via 
the menu. 

To further complicate play, blockers appear periodically 
at random locations for a brief period to block hot h star and 
player movement. (T hese blockers also can be included,' ex- 
cluded via the menu when playing the customized version ) 

A detailed instruction book includes step -by-step proce- 
dures to assemble the necessary hardware, to load the pro- 
gram from cassette, and to play the game (using either ihc 
standard or customized versions). Possible difficulties and 
typical solutions arc included throughout the book. All 
game symbols are explained and player strategies are out- 
lined. The final pages suggesi several related games lhai 
doo'l require a computer. 

As you have probably inferred, I'm impressed with Star 
Trap its unuiU.il loiistai. ;Jn hjlsjht.ii m: nature, jnd iis 
complete instructions. It encourages children to modify ihe 
game, possibly piuuing an early interest in programming- 
Radio Shack has a winner in this game 

(Undid Shack siures n»ti<m*»ide, on cassette for S19.95J 

— Jerry Oefdetn 



QtW Liner Contest Winner, i . 

This is a very '■graphic" demon si ration of how things 
drawn in one P M ODE look when switched to another 

Bill r'tfttntme 
Fan Worth TX 

The Ustlng: 



0 PttODe RND (S) -1 , 1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 : X-R 
KD i 1 26) : Y=fr?ND<8) : HW^-RND ( 185) /99: 
CIRCLE U 2*V, 96) s X , Y, HW: PRINT (123, 
96) , Y, Y:GOTO 0 



^ N ,ih,,., tH 4Jv,<t\W, ^ I'll it- mrppan.iin /f*inJ--..». (....vni,.-, J,,;., i 



214 THE RAINBOW Jinnnry IMS 



Software Review ^^^^^^^—^^^a^^tts 

Learning To Count 
With Counting' Things 

Two programs helping children learn Its count and recog- 
nize numerals arc presented on ihe lape, Counting Things. 
Instructions and guidelines for the pa rem nr teacher are 
included as a separate, introductory program, which ud*ise> 
ihe adult to- explain the program* first, demonstrate their 
operaiiqn. and pose questions which can he answered by 
living the programs. 

The first program. Counting TJungs, asks how far the 
child wishes to count and then goe* to a Hi- Res screen 
showing ihrce vertical lines labeled 100. 10 ami J and. tn the 
lower hall , ttfo is spelled out and a & is shown on the screen. 
Under this, the computer asks. M Whut is the next numbeY'" 
When the numeral one is pressed, the bottom portion o| the 
screen shows the number one and spells out one, and. in the 
upper pouioo a plus appears and one smaJI horizontal line is 
drawn on Ihe vertical line in ihe units column. The program 
continues in this manner, adding lines to the omts place, 
until the number 1 0 is reached, when a small line is plated w 
the lens column and the lines removed Irorn ihe units 



column. This visualization of Ihr number line, the place 
holding property of zero, and demonstration of haw ihe 
number system works in mowng from the unit* to tens to 
hundred! places is valuable, particularly if an adult has 
posed one of ihe suggested question* *o that the child's 
attention is drawn lo ihi* leaiure ol ihe program. 

The second program is simdar, although this lime the 
child Firvi enters how many numbers he feuow$ ;ind [he 
computer then places numbers of pluses <>n ihe scuta and 
draws corresponding numbers of small line* on the v^rncm 
lines, requiring the child to enter the numeral which the 
pluses represent. Both programs respond only to the correct 
number. 

Thompson House wisely points nut that these programs 
gft not intended for repealed use to gain mastery, but rather 
lo reinforce learning at various stages. At first the child 
learns to press the next number in the sequence, and 
becomes familiar with the written word for each number, 
then he counts objects and gams an understanding of the 
number line and perhaps some better understanding of the 
base !<i number sVMcm 



|Thomp*iMi lloiw, P.O. Ban 58. Kmmlwjpv British toU 
urn bin VIC 5KX I6K KB itpe IN. 95} 

— C irol Kueppcr* 



Setting The Standards 





COLORPCDC ' 



• * ■ VaU »ii <^r JdlKl **£ 1*V Ut-ii » ■ I h J try |M 



«m HMjrt Fm IK CiCp aw Tp* lop 



HQELTfTrlCrl 



fi* hk u*- iso •« prfio* 



AT YOUR DEALERS MOW 

tfiw WHCQUM MS* MAiHflOmn M»», n»»» 
■ fth Add 1 V l*« Uk** 1 * ^ <V rul Jk 

1>* tHtllttV 



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intracolor 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



QUALITY PROGRAMS SOLICITED 



Tut q*rhBCW 



AFTER 
CHRISTMAS SALES 

SALE PfttCBS GLWD UNTIL JANUARY ', 



Software Review! 



Pak-Panic — The Old Game 
With A New Twist 

With rent (pedes, monsters, invisible maze* and gliosis 
that tan no lhr*nie,li wul|s f Pak Panic I mm Turn Mis 
Software is unique compared to all of the compethjori. 
Pak- Panic is a 32 K 100 percent machine Language, atcade- 
style game thai uses, the lel( joystick and firehutlon 

I In- wcriaria U a- fd)jowN Y<m ;«t' Pakitnin V*mr job 
is to go around the screen eating dots, power pilK and 
bonus prices wink avoiding minister* 

A power pill is one of the larger dots on Ihe screen, 
Seven are on levels one through four. Six are on levels 
live through nine. When U power pill is eaten . Pakman 
has ihe power to eat all ol the monsters he pleases. 
Whenever Pa k man eats a monster, his ghost appears at 
the top of the screen. When seven ghost* have appeared 
at the lop of the screen one of two things will happen. 
Fit her one of the ghosts will come out and float around 
the screen leven through the walls) homing for Pak man, 
or the seven ghosts will link together to form a centipede 
thai will do the same thing. Even with power pills, Pakman 
cannot overpower ghosts or centipedes. 

Hun us prices appear in the middle ol ihe screen about 
twice a hoard. When bonus prizes are eaten they are stored 
in u box helow the screen, When 14 pn?es have hecn eaten 
ynu gel a bonus of 14,000 point*. This can only happen 
twice. 

Four more trick* the programmer threw in to make the 
program better arc invisible maze* every four rounds the 
ability to store power mils, a selection of difficulty at the 
beginning of the game, and a high scores board. 

You can store power pills by eating a pill while a previous 
p. 1 1 is .c, eflvcl. Stored power pill - am h used b> pushing 
your button while no power pill ii in e El cel. A maximum 
of six power puis can be stored ul any lime 

I liked Pak- Panic and I think many other people will 
like il. 

(Tom Mis Sftftwir*. 4M$ Bradford NK, Grind ftijikk. 
M l 495M, tape S14.«. t*Uk K7.«) 

— Vmt Downard 



\uct t'f CHjcfm *rTM MO CM 
v covin with ua«*«v 



SOF TMART 



- RaHiiQh, NC 2 7G04 



)I-ff Cj flMA TTON 



FREELANCERS 

inf KATES KJR tin a V.tJHk 

Vrtd tor \vut WKJtt.N'S pjrkajir 



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LlrLUnfis 

Hffl|t4U hill tru ■MHh-lli **.k i kMIIV SQ&ISM 



iHtftAINBOW Jrti.i ,n v '-365 



Software —^^^—^ ^ 

Test Manager — A Useful 
Addition To Your 
School /Home Library 

Test Manager is a prupram thai allows you in create 
[lies of multiple-choice uursiions, I hen select ipGCfffc 
questions la he printed on a test.. An answer key is also 
printed with each lesl you prepare. Test Manager requires 
a 32K disk system with a printer. The program will work 
with nne-Jisk drive with a minimum of luss. but a two- 
disk system will make Life easier if your files contain more 
than 75 qites lions, Question files can contain a maximum 
of 150 questions. 

This program works exactly its described in the 
documentation. 1 he documental km consols of six pages 
ml inlonnutiuo. dearly worded and neatly printed The 
program worked without flaws for two weeks of rather 
intensive use. 1 made up a variety of tests, using all the 
options on the menu. One of the especially nice features 
of a program sit this type i-i ihat u allows; (he teacher to 
create one set of question* {say 75 J and [hen create five 
or six different versions of the test, each with its own key. 
This, of course, cuts way down on the chances for cheating, 
as well as allowing for individual differences in students 
or classes. 

You begin by setting up your file of quesiions. Each 
question can be up iu 245 characters long (I found this 
to he more than adequate.) A bracket is used on-screen 
lo mark the end ol the space allowed for a question, a 
very handy feature. If you do exceed the limit, the program 
tells you so, erases your question, and invites you to try 
again, Previously entered questions are not Inst. Aficr each 
question is entered, you enter the answers, correct answer 
first (the answers will be presented in true random order 
when each test is printed). 

You can create true -false tests by just entering two 
answers and entering a blank for answers three and four. 
Answers can be up lo 180 characters long. This allows 
tor compile thoughts to be used rather than just one- 
or two-word answers, You may go back and add. delete 
or change questions later if you wish The only restriction 
to this is thai yoo cannot delete a question from a file 
con laming more than 75 questions no less yoo are using 
a ks i disk system Roth single and two-disk systems will 
Imld a nut* imam of 150 questions in a file. You may also 
merge two different files together to make a new file, 

Nexi. you select the questions you wish lo use on a test. 
These can he from more than ooe rile. The process of 
selection creates a new file nl your selected questions, so 
you need lo be t are to I not iu iry putting this new file 
on a nearly full disk another place where two-disk 
systems make lite easier! Y^u then prim mo ihc test Y<m 
are asked for a name for the lest, the form code (so you 
can match the correct key lo the lesl). and the name of 
the file that will he used in printing, The program will 
also prim i space for the student's name and class. You 
have the option ol printing the question n nn- onln uni 
selected them, or having the computer print them in random 



order. The answers are always printed in random order, 
even though you entered the correct answer First. The page 
break will always he he i ween questions. 

Ttie printed copy of the lest is neatly arranged., ready 
for photocopying. Or t since nearly all primers using 
friction-feed can print directly on a ditto master il ihe ribbon 
is removed before printing begins, you will have a letter- 
perfect test and no purple ink on yout lingers! 4, See Valerie 
R heads article on Page 140 of the September issue of THF 
ft<vlN «GW for a full discussion of ihis.J You have the opium 
of single sheet printing* useful with the dittos) or continuous 
priming. 

The only faull I found with Test Manager is ihni it isnl 
very economical with paper. Hven wuh <me line l|u est ions 
and one word answers, the most questions you can gel 
on the first page is seven (eight oo subsequent pages ) For 
long tests, you will have a number ol pages to ditto or 
photocopy. If your printer supports a condensed -print 
mode, this may help. You could also ditto pages hack io 
back, and some photocopy machines have this feature as 
well 

Overall. Test Manager is a well -developed program that 
does just what it claims to do, 1 1 would be a useful addition 
to your personal or school's software library 



(BO Custom Software, 571U Bumkr Uor. SykaiUa. nil 
U560. disk S2».«> 

— Mark Williams 




THE SPANISH ARMADA 

in the summer of 1586 King Ptllltjj of Spam's 
"EntBrpnz* ol England" sailed up the English 
Chan net while Europe watched m apprehensive 
silence The SPANISH ARMADA recreates the 
prooiems faced by the English Commanaers as 
i hey struggled to defeat the Armada Only this 
time it s up to you! Using weapons of the day 
car you defeat the Armada? Cope with fickle 
winds? A relentless current? Difficulty of supply? 
II won t oe easy, but it's fun to try 

The game requires at least a 32K com outer 
and is compatible with either cassette or asc 
systems Both versions are shipped on rape 

THE SPANISH ARMADA $24, 9S 

Send cnetfc or money order lo Picosott Games. 
P,0, Box 35, Eighty Four. PA 15330; |412| 267- 
372T Games are shipped postage pant PA resi- 
dents add Tax No delays for personal checks 



Software Review! 



Key-Wiz — Easy, Fasl, 
Useful Database Manager 

AVi 1 - Wiz tor OS is a >implc. useful ulihiy, especially 
fur thou: who don't huvc the money for a $200 database 
surra.ir'j p.iLkLiytf. I his pn^r.ini "is a multikey search 
utility designed to quicklv search .a file ot indje* cards .mil 
luid nil entries which match ,i profit* 0<j fceyWWnN 11 
'•logical operators ^tich as AND. OR. and NQT to provide 
a very selective search mlena." I nis simply means it will 
find "entries" in a simple text Hie fay searching for "phrases** 
or words you specify. An cnlry i* nothing more than nine 
lo f>0 lines of text 80 characters or less- Each entry is 
separated hy a, blank line ami nothing more, so any 0S- 
9 uiiliiy that can create such a Hie. such as a word processor, 
can create your database 

Supplied with Ki Y-tVi- is a sample database containing 
two lines per cmry. The first Line contains n book tille 
and author, ihc second line contains a publisher'* name 
When invoked, Act- Wi2 will present ynu with a menu nf 
options You can specify input and output files when you 
execute Key- Wiz or you can select Ihe T and '0* menu 
options to specif y those files after executing Kry-Wiz These 



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FOR THE 32K THRJLLSfzEKER 





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1995 




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LOTS OF PLAY FOR 16K 






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FROG TREK 


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16 95 



Interested applicants sand chftck or mfo lo: 

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CHICAGO, IL 60634 

Credil card orders call: 800 621 0105 
(In Illinois call: 312-545^92861 
NO SHIPPING CHARGES'! 1 



assignments cata be changed at any lime while in ihc uiilhy. 
Your uutpul file is, hy default, your screen and can he 
changed to a disk fik. or perhaps to your printer. You 
can also select options to limit ihc search lo any number 
oJ (fries f or example, if you know ihc wordis) you are 
searching lor are contained only in the first lour lines, 
and each entry is 15 lines, you can tell Key- Wii to search 
eWf/j the first four lines of each entry, thereby speeding 
up the search consider ahly. And A> r- Wiz is quile last, 
considering the work it miiM do. You can also limit Ihc 
number of lines output bir uneli m.uch, ltu-rcbs surnKitiuig 
your output to show only the data you wish lo sec. You 
may also tell A'rv- H'iz lo display the output continuously 
or to pause after each entry displayed, waiting for you 
to press the t.NTER key Tor the next entry Key- H i" also 
comes with Snrt-U'tz, a quick sort utility designed to sort 
the entries nn any line you choose This is desirable for 
sorted output, and the standard OS-9 sort utility, if used, 
wmi Id sort the blank lines to ihc beginning of ihc file. 
Thts would destroy the entry markers in your file Hue blank 
linr*r, hence Sort- El t ■ 

I found one annoyance and one bug in this otherwise 
excellent utility. The annoyance is chat there is a useless 
"Kelp 11 option, which docs nothing more than redisplay 
rhv menu. Simph pressing KMIR does thai already, li 
may make the program too large, but it would have been 
nice to have a brief "help" for each menu choice. The huji 
I found occur* like this: tVe opened my input file and 
entered my search criteria. Entries which match arc being 
displayed just fine. After seeing about 10 entries. 1 don't 
Wish to see the remaining possible hundreds of matches. 
How do 1 stop the search? If I use break,, t interrupt 
the program completely and am dropped back lo DS-9. 
My CHD and CHX directories revert lo boot up delimit! 
If J use clear breaK t the display continues, and when 
done. I hec the menu cimslanth being itrdi\pl:iyci1 .nnl .i 
docsnY slop! The only Ihing I can do here tl press HRFAK. 
and completely terminate the program! There ill definitely 
a bug. There is an *E*Jtit command in the menu which 
works perfectly, and even closes the files, but that is for 
"normal* completion. 

Overall, for the price it is an exec lien l little database 
utility, again, for those who do not need or cannol afford 
the more expensive, though more powerful, database 
management software, 

Uiilmclive Micro N> sterna P.O. Bin 2JIHJ7. ( oliirnhuv 
Om.1221. disk S24.W> 

— Wiluam Van Nesl 




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Howard Medical Disk System 
Offers More Storage 

Many Co Co user* arc no doubt aware thai .several of 
the mart popular personal computers (such as the IBM 
PC and PCjr, and Radio Shuck's Model 1000, (200 HD 
and 2000) use double-sided disk drives to cram twice its 
much data on each diskette by using the "other" side of 
the divk. All diskette* that I know ot have a mugnctic 
codling on both sides tun tike recording tape, which is a I most 
alv*ays single*siflct0. but mi- railed "Nmijli'-Mjed" dUks are 
only guaranteed to work on one side. In practice, singk- 
sided blank diskettes generally work fine with double-sided 
drives. Howard Medical's Drive 0 Package lets you get 
up io on u single diskette on the CoCn. «nd is also 

able to handle standard CoCo disks. 

The Drive & Package consists nf 3 PD-2 double-sided 
disk drive (with case and power supply) and a J& M System* 
disk controller. A speeiid cable is also included The liisk 
drive is a 'I It AC hall^hcight unit, the name emu used in 
the Sanyo MBC-550-2' 555-2. Its ease is sturdy, though 
plain t and the power supply is well able to drive it. 

Thc J DOS operating system supplied with the controller 



is the key to using douhte-sided drives on the system ft 
is capable of using cither 35 or 40 tracks and either one 
or both sides. The J&M controller i* ulso configured for 
double-sided drives. All you have to do is torrnat your 
disks on both nides in the J&M formal, like this: 



DSKINI0. 2.40 



Disks formatted in ibis way will have ?WK ol swjilc 
available. JDOS automatically adjust?, i^r Umsiai of 
whatever disk you use. including standard Radm Shark 
disks. 

One problem with using J DOS is that a few progruin% 
{such its Tt lvivnu r-6-t i arc very dependent on Radio Shack 
Desk basic features and wont run with the e nl ire ly different 
M>t>H ROM If you have a Radio Shack disk controller, 
you can use it with the new drive with no problem (but 
only on Radio Shack-format disks). If you have 64 K, 
another way would be to use the SYS SAVE and SYSTEM 
programs in Part I of "Cooking With CoCo" I August I9S4, 
Page JS) to save Radio Shack Disk HASJr on a special 
disk and use it in place of J DOS if needed 

If you think that 360 K per disk will help you use the 
CoCo more effectively, I he hnve 0 /Via tftfr is a good buy 

(Howard Medical C omputers. Bos I, < hic*«o. tt. 60f>9u. 
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- Ray Kd wards 



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Software Revfew^^^^^^^SSSS^^/T^ 

Calorie Counter — 
Weight Analyzer 
Is Just What 
The Doctor Ordered 

Draco Software'* Calorie Counter — Weight Analyzer 
program u jiul what I tic due lor urdcrcd. This tape-based 
program offers a well -founded choice tif over 40(1 food 
Hems Id u.se in daily menu planning, with guidelines given 
on how beat to plan youi did program. 

A ieven-piigt euidc and instruct ion bouWci outlines the 
bftttas iu allow i he user to lay out a regular. weJ I -ha lanced 
diel for children, teens, adult mates, adult females and 
laclatimi I c mates. All thai is nmsmg i\ a. guide lor pregnant 
females, and perhaps it is inte tided thai, in such 
direct medical superv ision of diet is called for. 

Orlcc the program is CLOADt'd. itUNmng should get 
you going, fi have an older CoCo with the PC LEAR 
pmbtem. and so had to type RUN iwice.) A brief qui/ 
allows the computer to determine your tor reel weight, and 
displays il on the screen. You should make note of this, 
as you will need it later when compiling your daily food 
selection. Something that might be done in a future edition 
id the program is to check if a machine is 64 K and if 
so, POKE the maintenance caloric level into high RAM 
Then when the next vcelion is Loaded, it eon Id theck and 



PEEK the information into the program, to be displayed 
for reference. A minor point is that age is not considered 
in determining the calorie level needed to maintain Wdy 
weight White the difference may not be great, a 20-year- 
old of a given si/e and weight will burn more calories than 
an equivalent 50-year old, 

A very few items needed farther clarification of serving 
si/e (chef salad T raw carrot ) but in almost all other case* 
the serving is given in standard cup or ounce increments. 

The ability in store a daily menu an lane for future 
us? allnws the user in build a "file" of menus which, with 
a little planning, would allow a dieter lo plan a varied 
sn en! I plan a id cul down on those moments of indecision 
which might otherwise lead to the kind or snack tag that 
can lay the rest of a day's good intentions to waste 

A nice option, should you succumb to temptation, or 
if ynu have a food not on the listing provided by Catorfc 
Countfr. is one which allows you to enter an extra calorie 
amount. This allows you to account for (my favorite) ice 
tea with extra sugar, or other personal foible*. 

A printer option gives the user a hard copy lo keep 
by your rerrigeraUsi or to take to the store. This can help 
reduce nibbling, as well as cut down on impulse buying. 

Both Tun and (sometimes) depressing lo use, Draco's 
Calorie Counter should prove a good buy for any dieter. 

(Draco Software, 22 d.vscll Street, Portland, ME 
(Ml 02, S 29.95) 

— Nevm J* Teraplin 



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Think of il! Not 10 or a dozen — but between 20 and 30 — programs every monlh from 
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Sottwars Review a 



Talking Adventure Starter 
— A Vocal Experience 
For Adventurers 



fU Keruielh D. Peter* 

Welcome to Adventuring with Voice res notices! Talking 
Advrttturr Starter Pm kagt* by Qwlfc Nest Software consists 
of I wo Adventures. M YHOUSEanA PJRA TES, and aiwo- 
pager document a lion deigned to help teach Adventuring 
to the beginning Adventurer while providing the unique 
cxpt-ricncc nl uhmI iespi.»[ise.s ihruugrumt Mil' Ailwrnur^ 
As an added attraction* these Adventures are relatively 
simple , nonviolent, and fun; suitable lor very young 
children of reading age. 

Owls Nesi has two versions of Ibv Adventure Stttrtrr 
Patkw. The standard version was reviewed in the 
February 1*4 fcAltfBQW and has only a ttxi response The 
Talking Advent un Starter fa meant to be used with 
GbJtorWBi-L-V Heat talker v,,K L ' |Tiik inlrddik'niL von to 
Adventures with the added realism of voice responses. 

The reviewer of the standard Adventure Starter 
mentioned having to remove the disk cn at roller and enter 
PCt.EAFt 0. If thai was a problem then, apparently hoth 
conditions have been improved, f found both Adventure* 
in the talking starter package loaded with a simple 
CLOA DM operating under Pt*L BASH'. I he actual 
Adventures arc written in BASK", but use CLQADM to 
bad and auto execute and also lo provide an initial screen 
to read while the Adventure loads. 

I was disappointed by the lack of an introductory voice 
when the Adventures fust begin, In MYHQlfSJL you are 
given an Adventure welcome (in text form), with the object 
of the Advent ore being to find the hidden golden coin 
and return to the front porch. (Fir si you must find a way 
to enter the house.] I anxiously waited for a voice to come 
forth and welcome me while I uraa try ma; to decide what 
to do, None came. "Where's the voice? I thought this was 
a talking Adventure. 1 My initial disappoint men) passed 
a< I progressed through the Adventure. With intr facing 
interest and enthusiasm I discovered that the voice pale 
was used primarily for responses to the Adventurer^ 
commands: East. West, North, South, Help. Get Paper, 
etc. Actually, my kid* and I found that the voice mixed 
to u& quite often as we explored the house using one- or 
i wo- Word commands, such as "Open Door" and "Read 
Paper". Moving through the house bv entering compass 
directions (N^E.W) and Up and Down sometimes 
provoked a vocal response. Sometimes the Adventure voice 
provided us with a humorous response to our commands 
and movements. Sometime it gave as some useful clues. 
Overall, use of the voice pafc gave us a remarkable 
experience not lo he soon forgotten. 

One thing about the Adventure that bothered me was 
the slow character print on the text *cicen if Y HOUSE 
has a poke in it that reduces the character printing rate 
across ihc screen, I found it annoying to have to wait so 
long to see what the response and changes were on the 
updated screen. However. I am not a beginner in 
Adventures and after thinking about it, 1 rctili/.ed that 



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feature could be a. big plus in helping draw tbc altcnlinn 

vf beginners h> hcnte.ii ujKfalcs antf the fat't ihul vhungtai 
may have taken ptocc as a rtssuk of something they |usi 
did, hut may not be obvious unless they Actively look and 
review their surroundings. In PIRA T£S> the poke has been 
modified so the screen is updated much faster (Being 
written in BASIC, boih Adventures can be altered to delcie 
the poke if desired. I 

Lack of n vocal welcome and the slow screen unoaic 
ji re minor I 1 h ink the Talk trig A thru fur* Starter Package 
di>cs a super job of developing an inieresi in Adventure 
(yimc playing and in providing the beginning Advent urer 
With rnimy del nil cd hints, clues, and ideas about playing 
Adventure gomes. I watched my two older children, ages 
H-u-15 ;i!iU IU play M YKOi -SF wuh the same engrossing 
and cndltrN* enthusiasm as they play the arcade quality 
games on the CoCo, 

In addition to the excellent documentation containing 
all the helpful hints and ideas, both Adventures use the 
HI I P command. HELP is used extensively in the firisl 
Adventure, M Y HOUSE Typing HELP invokes a vocal 
response ranging trimi t'lsing you moral support to 
suggesting new ideas to uy or things to look for, to telling 
you iimply ihu[ nothing will help you here. Af Y HOUSE 
is relatively simple, meaning there ore few rooms, 
movements, and obstacles to overcome and contains no 
death traps. Additionally. M Y HOUSE is vimilar to your 
house and mine — a setting we all have some familiarity 
with, In the eyes of a child or beginning Adventurer no 
Adventure may seem simple at first I found MY HOUSE 
quite enjoyable and it introduces the basics ol Adventuring 
very nicely. 



f'tRA TES is also relatively simple when compared to 
other complex Adventures that lake days and weeks U* 
complete. There are relatively few moves (moms/ scenes) 
in Pi RATES and they are easily mapped out Hut 
Pi RATES is much more involved and complex than 
MY HOUSE and contains several death traps. Your gqpj 
in PIRATES is to recover the pirate's treasure PIRA TES 
introduces a greater depth and exposure to the subtle ideas, 
increased number and variety of verbs, the importance ul 

doing the l iglU tiling U fJhC right - and ihc persistence 

needed at times to obi am a desired result and finish an 
Ad ve mure. 

Both Adventures have a eanic ^ave feature. I used the 
up lion in both Adventures to make sure it worked; however, 
some Adventurers may find they do not need it, 1 limshed 

VM HOI Si Adventure within .m horn M\ duidrtt & 

finished it within a half-do/m sittings (one-half hour to 
one hour per silting), PIRATES took considerably longer 
but is possible to complete in one evening unless you really 
get ituek. 

1 thoroughly enjoyed both Adventurer I keep read my 
or hearing about many people who get discouraged and 
frustrated by Adventures and give up or lose interest. I 
believe both programs and the accompanying documentation 
provide enough help and foster sufficient interest to ward 
off such feelings. At the very least. Talking Adventure 
Starter would probably give ihe unsure beginning 
Ad venture player a mier feeling for what Adventuring is 
about and an opportunity to enjoy and learn more about 
Adventuring. 

If you've been contemplating Adventures or if you've 
tried Adventures and have become frustrated with them* 
I would recommend giving Talk tug Adventure Starter a 
chance. I also would highly recommend the Adventure 
Starter m an ideal nonviolent Adventure for young 
children, age six and up f reading age), The children luve 
it and you might even consider a joint parent-child 
partnership in solving the Adventures, Even if you are 
beyond the beginner's level, I think you It find these two 
Adventures enjoyable. Both are possible to finish in an 
evening and both will give you a unique vocal experience. 
By the way, if you don't have Colorwarc's Real Talker, 
the standard text Adventure Starter is also available. 

{Owls Hm fiimwmrt, P.O. Bui 579, Oo4le*iJi t TN 17J*3, 
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Software Review! 



Play With Language 
Is Exhilarating, Entertaining 
And Educational 

By \1( churl K. tarozzu 

It is hard to believe how far computers haw developed 
in the world of education. After all, it's no l f/ttf/ long ago 
I jit tended school. Actually, of course, education is an 
ongoing experience, and we all are continually Ic timing 
how much wc do not know, Bui J certainly do out rum cm her 
school being as much fun without computer programs tike 
CCWs Ftay With Ltrnguafre. 

Child ren*s Computer Workshop, in cw you do nut 
know, is part of Children's Tele vision Workshop, the gr oup 
who produced Sesame Street and developed Sesame Place, 
the educational amusement park in Pennsylvania* As a 
matlcr of fact, the computer programs that CTW developed 
were originated at Sesame Pliioe, Living about 10 minuter 
from Sesame Place, t can verify the statement in the 
introduction or the booklet that says. "Fifty -seven computer 
games are available . , my children and I have played 
most of them, 

I think the three programs included in Play With 
I<im?uirgt\ developed from the low-resolution, fairly simple 
grimes at the Park, are amazing. The ,15 people listed under 
the titles of CCWs prim development team and soliwurc 
development team deserve the credit for a job well done 
.mil r \vv\ ihni n was honorable ol £ C\S to List ihcil nspeg 

Ptay With Lanxvage is designed for elementary school 
uw. This is not to say a family would not profit from 
the learning experiences; however, the formal of the 
instruction hook lei is definitely classroom oriented. I"hr 
io formal ion begins by telling you thai the program includes 
three language-arts learning modules. Each learning 
module contains the diskette* 10 reproducible worksheets, 
five activity cards, one game board and one poster 
describing how to play the activity, An extensive teaching 
guide struct ■ ami ancillary m.itcK.ik u. pruvidt loi 
indiYLduali/utiuri ol instruction, child computer teacher 
interaction and an educational philosophy which encourages 
.it'] Lie piiriieipajfan in reading and writing."" And this was 
in the first paragraph. Does this scare youV Would Cookie 
Monster refuse a chocolate chip cookie? The general 
information section begins with the word M Relax, w TTie 
booklet is designed for the beginning computer user us 
well as the more experienced, The instructions are precise 
(and .so easy lo follow thai Oscar the Grouch could noi 
gel mad). And in case you just unpacked your Color 
Computer for (he first time, "Setting Up Your System"* 
describes everything you need to know right down to which 
wire to plug into what connection. 

The three, separate programs with the Ptay With 
language *c rics arc' Picture Piatt Ri >tl-A - Wor\i, and my. 
personal favorite, Saxasattrus. According lo the instruct ion 
booklet all programs have the same affective and cognitive 
goals. 

The af fective goals arc: 

A) Students talk and exchange ideas with their peers 
and teacher as they interact with the computer. 



B) Students are involved m self-directed learning as 
they explore environments and think about intormatnin 
in new and different ways, 

C) Students have fun and enjoy their experiences with 
the computer, as they play the activity 

The cognitive goals are: 

A) Students practice sight words and beginning 
vocabulary as they exchange words and (heir picture 
referents 

It) Students practice making words in rhyme patterns 
and complete sentences in clever ways. 

C'l Students practice several reading comprehension 
skills and create stones. 

In addition, each program has an individualizing menu 
lor the teacher called "Learning Manager": a ""Teaching 
Extensions^ section in the booklet for additional classroom 
activities; □ stand-alone "Gameboard*" to use in the 
classroom wiih a group: and a " Dictionary" ihul lists 
words in the program. 

Picture Place! has JV.l word -pictures and sol background 
scenes. Mach lime I he game is played, "... the computer 
randomly selects 24 words from a pool of 40 words 
associated with the chosen background scene.** The student 
picks 8 word from a list of four words shown, hits the 
em FR key. and asing the joystick, moves the word-picture 
onto the scene. When the student feels that the proper 
location has been reached, the f.ktek key is hit again and 
the word-picture is placed upun thai ±poi The bntlmn 
of the screen has a list of four words, the word "more** 
and the word "end *" The joystick glides a rectangle across 



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the screen for place mem of ihe words on the scene or 
encircles individual words an Ike list lo be chosen. When 
you encircle "more" you get the next list of words, if you 
encircle "end" you slop the program, ll should he noted 
thai the description L am giving you does nut give justice 
to the excellent high-resolution stage scenes or to the superb 
machine language music used in the program Pit fur? Place* 
i* designed so the toucher can develop special skills with 
short vowels, long vowel*, blends, the silent V rule und 
syllables. A* with aJJ the programs, the teachers, can create 
their own lessons by choosing certain picture word* nod 
saving them to a disk. (Jf course. I he teacher can Nave 
each student's creation on a separate disk. As helorc, ihe 
instruction booklet is very precise in explaining each nnd 
every step. The "Teaching Extensions" section includes 10 
activities thai correlate with the program, Jn addition, there 
are five activity cards for the students, bach activity card 
is a 5* x 7" hard T glossy card that is designed to withstand 
classroom use. The "Gameboard" is a Monopoly^iylc 
gome that is printed on glossy paper, ll would probably 
be worthwhile to glue it down to a piece of cardboard 
for permanent use. Complete induction* art included in 
(he booklet. The 10 reproducible handouts include a 
cartoon (for coloring], questions and an activity 

Roll- A- Ward is a fascinating way to have students match 
beginning and ending sound*. The more complex version 
has the students using blends. A sentence fj shown with 
blank spaces. By using the rig hi and left arrows, pictures 
are moved across the top of the screen. When the student 
reaches a picture that matches the sentence, he uses the 
up and down arrows to roll (he letters in the rcciangh:- 



m 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

Announces The Appointment Of 
DERBY CITY SOFTWARE 
As Spectrum a new 

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cgp-1 is pminen plotter utilities 

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&mt <L*I W snOttl Assure t> t*M 7000 1 U 

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Upon matching the letters to the proper picture the studeni 
hits the ENTER key. If correct, the picture cither rides, flies 
l.h float.-* to i lie turret;! position un the sentence. If incorrect, 
he has to continue. It is as much fun rolling the letters 
and pictures ai ii is getting the right answer. As before, 
the program has a learning manager so the leuehcr can 
create other versions of the program Student sentence * 
can be saved l o disk if desired. 

There are also 10 "Teaching Extensions " five active 
cards, and a gamebuard The Rolt-A-Worti dictionary is 
divided into word groups .such as: "UCi"; "bug. jug, rug* 
mug. plug" 1 . 

I have never met such a lovable creature as Hagaxuurw 
(or my s ah tile. "Heigh- Ho Pin-Osaui"!* In case you have 
never heard of a tiagaynuru.s. a shun story describes that 
100,000.000 years ago, when the ice age came, all the 
dinosaurs died off. except that one dinosaur egg (put in 
a blue paper hag by its patents) was, saved! I am not one 
who ruins the great story by giving away the ending u 
yon will just have to read the rest yourself. [ will tell fan 
that &Qxtisvuruf travels around the world (in fantastic high 
resolution pictures) from Easter bland lo Egypt iind along 
the way lie has to bag las in Bagtuaurw:) words and images 
by correctly answering questions. The student uses the 
joystick to move and the enter key to colled the words 
El incorrect, ;Ik Ha^iiaunis stomp* hi* (I n>e the word 
"his" carefully as it may be '"her" and I do not want a 
dinosaur to get mad at me) feet and shake?, its head no. 
If correct he she nods yes and lakes the word or image. 
Sound effects arc great ! Each footstep, closer or further 
away, can be distinguished. Each nud, positive or negative, 
is different. Each screen provided a little different type 
of sound. "Heigh- Ho Din-t>saurr There are 13 different 
scenes, 1 00 questions, 70 images, and JIK) words. After 
correctly choosing a word or image to a question 
( Bagawurus does not move on until you answer eorrectly) 
all chosen words arc filled into one of different stories 
<ji poems. Throughout the story arc underlined words and 
by hitting the ENTER key the student changes the story 
word with the word they chose with Bagasaurus, 
Vocabulary skills are developed with synonyms, antonyms, 
and multiple word meanings. Reading coin pre hemum skills 
include classification, following directions and sequencing. 
Of course, there are 10 "Teaching Extensions/' five activity 
cards, a "Bagasauru* Game board" und ■ dictionary High- 
resolution graphics abound. 

Something 1 did not mention about all these games; they 
arc alt n on- resident, the disk must be connected all the 
lime and the effect is excellent. All high-resolution pictures 
flow from one into the othei. Ihe urate blends with the 
scene. Everything works perfectly, 

With all I have written I bet you're wondering if I tried 
it out on some children. Of course, I lei my children work 
with it. And yes, I sal back and observed their motivation 
and educational achievement and jet, if does what it says' 
My children, Jennifer, David and Michael loved ill They 
cooperated together in developing the programs, they 
learned the blends in Rott-A-lYurd ihcy made si sums with 
Pit tun' Plait K and they had Bagaxaurus travel around the 
world to collect words and most important or all . . they 
let me play with them, 



{Radio Stuck Si cues nation wffe Cat, No. 2**2S3a\ SWJ 



tMC RAINBOW 



THE COLORSOFT™ BUSINESS SYSTEM 



INTEGRATED BUSINESS SOFTWARE DESIGNED FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 
WRITTEN FOR USE BY THE NON-ACCOUNTING ORIENTED BUSINESSMAN 
CONCISE USERS MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS TUTORIAL 
PROFESSIONALLY WRITTEN AND FULLY TESTED 
HIGHLY USER FRIENDLY AND MENU DRIVEN 
AFTER THE SALE SUPPORT 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING (Version 2.0) Th „ „.,M>.»d 

accounting package it deilgnod for ihe no n- accounting oriented businessman. It also contains the Nextbi lily tor 
th# accounting orttntfrd vt»r to set up a double entry journal whh an almost unlJmMud chart of account*. This 
package includes Sale* Entry, transaction driven Account* Receivable and Accounts Payable. Journal Eniry. 
Payroll Disburse msnt, and Record Maintenance programs- Screen and hardcopy system output* Include 
Balance Sheet, Income Slstement. Customer and Vendor Status Reports, Accounts Receivable and Payable 
Aging Reports, Chech R agistor* Sales Reports. Account Slat us Lists, and a Journal Posting List. The number of 
account! is limited onh/ by the number of disk drives. , ......... . . . , , 569,95 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE (Version 2.0) This package is designed lo meel 
the requirements of most smali Dullness users. The system includes detailed audi I trails and history reports lor 
each customer, prepares Invoices and monthly statements, mailing fa belt, aging lists, and an alphebehzed 
customer Jl sting. The user can dehne net terms tor commercial accounts or finance charges lor revolving 
accounts. This package funclloni as a standalone A'R system of integrate! with Ihe Small Business Accounting 
package to build a complete accounting/receivables system. , . , . t , S59.95 

PAYROLL ( V e r S I O Tl £ . 0 ) T h J s in teg ra la hi e pa c kag e i s desi gned tor m si n lain ing pat son net a nd 

payroll data tor up to 200 hourly and salaried employees with 8 deductions each- This system circulates payroll 
and lax amount*, prints checks and maintains yea Mo-dale totals These amounts can be automatically trans- 
ferred to the SB A package for Unsocial reporting, lie ompul es each pay period's totaisfor iiraighitim*. overtime* 
and tonus pay and determines Eases to be withheld. Additional outputs include mailing list. Haling of employees, 
yea Mo- date lederal and/or state lai listing, and a Ustmg ot current misc. deductions. This syilem ib soiled lor use 
In ait stales except Oklahoma and Delaware. , + $69.95 



All programs require a minimum of 32K and 1 disk drive but wilt lake advantage of 64K and 
multiple drives. Each package features a hi res 51 x 24 black on green screen. 16K versions 
available without hhres screen. Specify 16K or 32K versions when ordering. Fulure inte- 
grated packages will Include: Inventory Control, Sales Analysis, Accounts Payable. 



INCLUDE $5.00 Shipping/Handling Per Order 



Write for Free Catalog 



BRANTEX, INC. 

COLOR SOFTWARE SERVICES 01 V 

BUSINESS SOFT WAKE GROUP 
P.O. BOX 1708 

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Software p — ^ ^ ^ 

Jungle Queen 
Seeks A Safari Hero 

II real men don't eu l quiche. UVs ju*t as unfortunate thui 
real cannibals do eat people and right now u group of 
them i* adding f few vegetables, sume garlic, and n link 1 
Aeccnl to ei tiewpot uf waier rapidly heating up over a 
vrellslokcd lire. In the pot of water is our Jungle Queen, 
and il she is not resettled wim she will become a lusty 
dinner for the hungry canmhiik. 

But wart? In the distance u hunter on % ill an hoars the 
Queen's ciio lor help. The area of jungle he is in is nearly 
unp.i-i.ihk mi In- k-jps Uu si vine and swings from tree 
lu tree. Tar/an -style Suddenly The trees end and oar hero 
cncouriici* an pjJigJUOr-ifffeJOed river He mu»t swim across 
I he iiver, avoiding and killing the alligator!* m he swims 
He most also avcrid large cluvicp, oi huhMes whu'h c;in 
entrap bun and limit his maneuverability, malting aim more 
susceptible lo the hungry galorv 

Omc .hu'^ i lu inn 'un hfr*i is gelling vrr* i-ln^ 1 io 
iKe cannibal village. Some of the cannibals have discovered 
his presence and are rolling rocks and boulders ai him 
as he attempts to climb the hill where they are emitting 
the Queen, After ducking and jumping the rolling and 
bouncing juclts. our intrepid rescuer arrives at the scene 
oi' the cookout where, in two mighty leap*, he jumps over 
the heads of the cannibal cooks and rescues his he loved 



Queen fetap and cheer loudly^. 

Jimglt Queen, by Dave Shipfca of ZOSO Software, is 
a good rendering of the arcade game Jungle Hunt, ft has 
four screens; the ti winging vines, the river crossing, the 
rolling stones and boulders, and the rescue of the <Jjuccn 
in the cannibals 4 cook put. in higher levels, the sv. inging 
vines have monkeys on them trying to knock the hero off 
the vines, While the graphics do not Kt a new standard 
lor excellence a* did games like Za.xwn and Pyramid 
Adventure* they are good. My staff of assistant reviewers 
f three reengaged son* and their friends! rated this it a good 
game and fun to play, 

When I lirst received this game for review, t found that 
the tape did not stop running when the game was loaded. 
I also found an oversight in the documentation it did 
not specify how to move the man through the screens, 
whether to use the joystick or the keyboard. J wrote to 
Dave Shipka about the problems, and in a few days a 
now tape and revised documentation arrived in the mail 
with both problems corrected. It looks like the buyer can 
ex peel good, prompt support in case of any problem. 

The program is extremely long - it requires fall J2K. 
so if you have a disk drive, by aj( means order the disk 
version. 

<£OSO Son Hire. huUt Sfcywmt Orite. tiiluinbus, OH 
43&$i tape S2*.*5, disk U*i plus S2 S/H) 

— James C. Kri? 



DYNAGRAPH 

CinrfTtflll* l«S»tT Hmttmtt* MNN In 



A ullUty program lor owstn of DYWACALC 1 

DYNAGJtAPH will (matct w*ph>i: hta Irrnn DYNACALC la 
mtxkrd QriphKr M«i lor tutihar n nhanc .nq una >Ab*lui_f by 
qnp*nc *dilit»; projrflirw *uch «• MASTER D£S1<3N. 

PVKACALC now Hi <)Tftph\c WjipMyi tn m w*r ihm u ntn *c 
wwMbk trr She DJMWd UjADM ramjMnd. t'VNAtSFrAPH *|JI 
conv*rt lb*** iu ntMtlui <~«n bp LOADM*4 ttj nnir qraphm 
«k!iIicmj praqf«m iueh. «* MASTEfi D£5(GN DYNAGRAPH urilJ 
tlwOHYtflatfandwdfei rmbfUy mto Lb* formal «>*t >i md 
id far PYNACALC DYNAGRAPH Ota rv3xr * graph i*fo«lb 

4hrl fi..irifisr.',*l !y m ihdl MuttkpJ* Jllfjafl <?J»n br oamfeirWHi if.ln 



C'YNACMPH 11 1 liS 
MAST Eft t»9S 
OTVAORAPH ♦ M^iTE* L>EStGN H*» 

•■'if, 1 ALC IM* •J»M*G*ftPHlkCLUtm- • 
AtX J Pmqw* 111! ft 

IncJudi. 3 £j0 h» UFS Shipping - S 00 U.S. W»U - 9 '.<i Ait Mull 

S*rtd otdurt t& D*mim#r 3altw«rr, Joe., P. O. Bon 53Q0 
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Vua.'SUuw C*Kl f*5 5*7fr lD-ib nm S ai pro EIH 

DYMACAJ-C u « f««qittar»j if-JdBwidrk ot 

MASTER <C> iH4 tiy Dwr.r^ Solrwnt*. tr-r 



Turn Of The Ser^w Correct ion 

In Tocty DuS)eUm>\ cotumn in the DclotiIxi flAlHBO*. 
the last ttntcner on Pnjjr ZK u nt«tncti It >huulit read-* "Hc\i. 
like & link pieet ol wuc ind jus>pu I'm 20 iu pim 2. 5, it, 4, 
il, IJ, t6 d afid 14 - one a£ « liaor.^Oar thanks to Rotirky Mattcn, 
ui Mkjp, Mo., tor cjuchinf trai, 

AUduiofually. itvc basic tUiinf Tony mentiunx ms «n cMmpfc 
piof^Tun wu irmdLtfuemK ktffl Pin. The taUowjng mutilM will tun 
Itrur MjtrtU if) a cJloir Kqueacc i>«c the mji ami down aftlWI in 
t net case and decrrjuc the »pcod at e he (hake; 

1 60 POK£tcHFF40 4 1 1 OOSUB t POKE* 
HFF40 P 2:0OSUB 296 : f'OKEti^FF40, 4:0 
□SUB 250:POKEI<MFF40 J e:6OQUB 250: 
BOT0 160 

250 A*«INKEY*:IF PEEK < 341 > -247 T 
HEN X-X+tELSElF PEEK < 542 ) -247 TH 
EH X«ABS(X-t> 

2el0 FOR I«0 TO X : NEXT I: RETURN 



The tine bcJnw will turn (uur light i un ind of I funkJnmlv, Change 
( l«l to f235J Tor an «i(ht-li|hi tysteiu, 

380 POKEIrHFF40 f RNO(16» : SOUND R 
NDU00)+100,RN1H3> : GOTO 3S0 



22© tvi£ JwiN9ow jtmMifr 



Hardware Review* 



7/Z\ 



Key Tronic Keyboard 
Among The Best 

Even though Radio Shack has introduced a "real" 
keyboard on the CoCos made over the past few months, 
there &till seems lobe quite a bit of action on the rep face merit 
keyboard front. For one thing, there arc still hundreds 
o\ ihousands of older models in use. and ihcy wont go 
away very quickly. 

Key Tronic KB-500 is a fairly recent entry into the 
field. It has iomc good features, but also some drawbacks 
compared with some other keyboards. Like most of the 
other replacement keyboards, this one is made by one of 
the major kcyswirch manufacturers; Key Tronic makes 
keyboards for many of the [HM-compatihli- computers arid 
a number of other sy 5 terns as well, and they arc probably 
best known for the replacement keyboards they sell for 
the IBM PC and PCjr systems. 

The Key Tronic keyboard installs easily; it's not as easy 
to do us the Macroirou or Radio Shack units, since you 
have to cut off the center post, but like them land unlike 
the HJL-57 and Mark Data Super Pro) it drops right onto 
the existing mounting posts just like the old keyboard did. 
The KD-500 comes with the "F board adapter" to plug 
into newer CoCos T keyboard sockets, and it works on all 
models including the CoCo 2. The instructions are 
reasonably clear and should cause no problem. 

The KB-5W is quite similar to many of the "IBM clone" 
keyboards in that its keys arc the same size and shape 
as the PC s keys and feet much the same, but without the 
characteristic "Sclcctric click" of the IBM PC keyboard. 
The layout is identical to that of the normal CoCo keyboard 
except that one function key has been added, in contrast 
to the four you gel on an HJL or Macrotrou unit. This 
key acts as PFI if you are using software designed for 
L-nher of (host- tu^boatd?,. 



One interesting aspect of the Key Tronic keyboard's 
design is that it seems to be geared toward the person 
who mostly uses programs in BASIC The specialized shifted- 
fcey functions (caps lock, pause, delete line and brackets) 
are now marked on the keys themselves (Radio Shack 
has been using sHii r-0 as the caps lock key on the Model 
1 and lit as well as the CoCo for the past five years, but 
none of the machines has the key marked to indicate it ) 
Also, the KK b ak and t leak keys — the two that will wipe 
out the program line you were typing — have heavier 
springs under ihcm to keep them from be mi; preyed 
accidentally. White this is great for rasic. application 
programs will often use those keys for special purposes 
{Telewriter uses BHF.AK to delete characters and CLEAR 
for special editing functions), so you may have minor 
problems. It might be a good idea if Key Tronic would 
put two extra normal springs in the package so those who 
want to can restore either or hoth of those keys to norma] 
and even protect other keys, if desired. 

Ihc only actual minus points I found (aside from the 
dutl color scheme of gray alphanumeric keys and dark gray 
control keys) were the way the kcytops stuck up from the 
surface, leaving a gap of about V^*incn*and that Key Tronic 
copied the rather silly IBM practice of putting a small key- 
top in a large space with a 'skirt" covering up the gaps {on 
the K fcV5t>0 the ENTER key is the only one so treated). I d just 
.>> N"on 3i H ;vc .i kc\ thai takes up the lull space. 

The Key Tronic KB- 500 is a decent replacement for the 
CoCo 'a original keyboard, even if yoo have the new Radio 
Shack keyboard in your machine already. As IVe laid 
before, since the computer keyboard ;s such a personal 
thing, you might want to look at as many of the various 
replacement* as yntt can before making your choice. 



tSpj-firnm Project* Inc.. Bos 21272, Wuadbiftn, NY 
11421. or But 9X4M>. Sin Jw, CA «1 SIMS pju» 

S3 S/HJ 



- Ed Ukrs 



UNITED STATU OF AMERICA 




MOT E - 0»Bl*n: Oema <Mk jv*HabN - 
wmJ reQv«sl on compAnif Itfltirfiaad. 

"Pi^Ci Snack* BbViflh Sound Pan 



Geography- U.S.A. 

Far the 32K Color Computer 



Look at the features; 

• Spwcn output * 
'pfi 

wniQft wiln yotir aoi main* 

pnnln 

• CamprcHmrwive rjuu SMliOiU Wnlo+C* 
map ikUfl 

• Scomkoc-i^nfl at correct and <nco^ect 
ng sponges. 



« Big 5 DIM PicKiq* vHEh DocimunjiHon 

« Co mpro hon s i »fl son wore St*ppQET 
^ogistvred owntrral 

* FuHy Fiaio l*al«J in publie i=hool 

• ONlv U* ^ oius j ) <K3 <ihkp P i.i 8 and 



' WHIM ft*tl*ir-» Qimi* It* 

I -O I! .- >.." 



Software Review! 



Semigraphics Support 
Combines Text And Graphics 

IK T. Cri) 

One drawback to ihc Color Computer is the difficulty ol 
co mhi ning text and graphics. One way around tnii dilfkultv 
is Semigraphics Support (SGS) by Micro Computer Sys- 
tems Thii mac turn- language programming uhlilv mushes 
with Extended Color hask to provide medium resolution 
graphic in nine color* plus black, 

The remit? You have I? new command* and lour neu 
functions You have ey-y access to single-bit and six-hit 
sound generation. You can use five new, full-color graphic* 
modes, with Extended BASK" commands to draw circles, 
squares, and lines, fill tbrm in, move (hem around, create 
animation, and label graphics with text 

There are a lot of good things on this disk (or tape). There 
arc demonstration programs for 16K and 32K These are 
interesting enough that I watched them through u couple of 
times before I even tackled the main program. The demos 
give you a good idea of w hat the program can do. 

The * new" semigraphics modciart already in your CoCo, 
and arc diseased i n Section IV »\ Ovtttni; S tut mi U'tth 
Color BASIC They provide resolutions from 32 x I6(S<j4 
hi alphanumeric internal, which CoCo normally uses to put 



letters onscreen) loMx 192 (SG24J In order lo acccs* these 
modes, it is. usually necessary lo do a lot of PEEKingnnd 
POKEing around. Fortunately for me, SGS does not 
require an understanding of the hardware and its quirk*. 

The graphics commands are sensible, easy to remember* 
and similar in syntax to those ol Extended HASK \ All are 
distinguished by a preceding \S. T h or example, &P IX U.x.y.cy 
sets a pixel located at |x,yl to color (c). The function A = 
SPI XT( x.y) is a pixel test: it returns the value ireio lo eight) 
uf the color of pixel fx.y). So much ol this is familiar 
that— after you have spent a few hours puzzling it out — it is 
easy to use. There is SClRCt- fur wnks and ellipses, t here 
is St IN for lines and boxes (solid, dotted, and dashed I and 
Tor solid boxes- There is SFILL to paint, and SHIFT for 
easy simple animation. You can SKOPY one graphics page 
to another, or SMOVE graphics around the pnge 

The sound routines are juM as handy. STONEAlf.c) gives 
you control over the single-bit sound routine. You can set 
the frequency delay (0 anti the envelope delay <eK STONEB 
I f.e.v) gets you into the six-bit sound, where you can control 
the volume (v) as well. These two tones aren't as easy as 
PI-AY but arc fun to play with. 

Jn luce the author of the documentation seems deter- 
mined to force you to play around us order to learn how to 
use the system- Vm not raying that the documentation is 
inadequate. The manual was nicely done and spiral hound 
{It did what spiral bindings always do: it uncurled and 
dumped pages all over the floor. If looseleal hinders are too 
expensive to include in the package, just punch holes in the 
pages and 111 buy my own binder thank you.} 

No, the information is there, but the entire manual 
seems a bit backward The lull description of how to load 




Picture of Tina Turner - Taken from MTV 
VIDX - VIDEO DIGITIZER 

Vide connects beiwarm ih* vrrJ*o sourca am} (no port 0* 

me color eampuurf No nooti for Y*cabt#s Mul tracks! When 
VI OX tsoonnaclod to your computer, you tan dipilire any source rjl 
vMao »uch *» o»t air TV. vJdoo tape recorder, or Nve TV camera 
simply by inning tne proper commar-a Uam m* keyboard. The 
BoMwaro uEctt wim vi OX is supplied on a nonprotected RSiormat 
ttoik The &oltw«ro tuu the fallowing function: 

SINGLE OH MULT'PLE EXPOSURE 
ABOflT of RESUME SCAN 
FRAME PlCTUflE 
LOGICAL ftlMD SCREEN 2 A \ 
REAOfWRiTE GflAPHICOM 01 SK 
READ/WfttTE PS-DOS OlSH 
READ/WRPTE TO CASSETTE 
VI OX- > -IM.95D IG ITI2 E R & SOFTWARt 

V10X 2 * 124 95 digitizer a SOFTWARE 

#ltn l*opori RS-232 iwitctver. alFowH You T0 4*iich between VlDjt 
and 1vrtu ulbvt device* such aa prints A modem 

KU3 WOO POSTAGE 



SHRINX by John Yurek 

Allows you lo shrink or enlarge 
your gra p+i its picl u res 

• 1 to 4 drives 

• Enlarge or Shrirkttjuad trams] 

• variable Shfinkfj-ioo^) 

• Oet or translor to GC dleh 

• Read/Write SJnary Pis tile 

• Directory of any drive 

• User friendly menu 

Regular $29.95 
Special $24.95 

plus $2 00 pod a 

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a SHRINX $24.95 

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plus $2.00 postage 



KGNTHLl BRA PX ICS DISK 

Look no further tot the finest 
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COCO- Insert GRAFX into your 
drive end view fine works of ari 
virJIri MUSX Each month you 
receive a mixture ol humorous. 
seasonal 1 and technical designs. 
One year subscription 161 8 a 
frtree month Trial or.iy $30. DQ 
rWeTI credit your *3fJ M 
to a full year s subscription) 
Sam pre Dfafr 1 1 3.15 



mx 

The new sound in music for your 

coco 

M USX Disks 1.2,3, 4, 5, 6 
Each $13 95 

2 lor S2S.0O 

3 lor $30 00 plus $2 00 

4 for $35.00 postage 

5 for S40 0Q 

6 for £45.00 



HAM SOFTWARE by John VyreJc 
used worldwide by Hams 

CW - Turns your COCO into a CW 
keyboard and receive term- 
inal. COCO version has a 
real time primer. 
$44 .9 5f tape) t*m tz 

I^V - Turns your COCO Into a 5 
levet Baudot Code, Tele- 
rype machine, 

S49 95(tape) tfm U ekh4*4* 



To Piace Vour Order Send 
Check or Money Order To: 



GRAF? 

RO, BOX 254 
West Mifflin. Pa 15122 
voice (41 2)466-6674 <fl-9 PMt 
24 Hour BBS COCONET 
(4121744-2335 

3M - I ?OD Baud Woflom Oflii"* 
FREE DIGITIZED PICTURES 1 



228 rHERAi^ao* Jari«a,rv 



the ihiruj into- various CoCos is found at the buck. At the 
from is an incomprehensible command summary As I 
worked through the commands, 1 kepi running into other 
commands and terms that had not been previoufify covered. 
1 his made the concepts j little hard to pick up. By I he lime I 
had worked through the manual, ibe com ma nd summary 
wasn't quite so incomprehensible, hut it should n'l he one of 
the firsu thing* a user trips over. It w»_s this aspect of the 
manual thai made I he program a bit hard to get involved 
with 

A nice feature of I he manual is that there arc dozen* of 
sample programs showing you how to use the various com- 
ma nds and feature o\ (he program. Fa tin those impress l- 
demonstration programs are listed! Not only do these help 
you learn the system, they are a treasure trove nf informa- 
tion i hat is missing from the main sections uf the text. You 
pass over these sample programs at your peril. 

For example, you can sa\e sour h-:iu graphics page* to 
mscue or disk as ML programs Htii is an important 
feature of the ay stem thai really should be given u main 
section in Ihe manual. lnsiead T u ^nenk-, min u sample 
program somewhere toward the hack few pages. 

One of the main selling I eat ares of the system is iheahiliu 
to easily combine test wit h eolni hi I med mm -resolution gra- 
phics. It delivers, loo, in three styles of text (orange green, 
and inverse. the sainea.s I t K> I he graphics mode for which 
this is available is uf about the same quality n* set reset 
graphics, but is far easier to use. This important feature is 
not even mentioned in the manual. It is hidden in one of Ihe 
sample programs, waiting lot you tu discover tt- The actual 
method oMocating letters on the screen, while not difficult, 
is far from clear in the sample progr^m. 
*************#****#****#**# * * i. * * 

J EXCITINGI AMAZING I HUMOROUS* I 



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It will take you n bit of experimenting to son everything 
out This is all well and good, if you have the time. I'm s>ure it 
wasn't the authors intention u> pby guessing games vviih the 
user, but that's the way it comes out, 

In addition to the major omissions of saving graphics and 
enni pining text with graphics, there were some minor miss- 
rng pieces. I'd have appreciated having a lets iahle^ thjBI 
weren't in the text: 

I > summary of the commands and their syntax (the com- 
mands are summarized, but the syntax is buried in indi- 
vidual sections of tcxt)< 

7 1 table of the maximum x and y values in each ttrnde; 

3 1 color code wuulu be handy (it s the same us Color BASIC 
— I -green. 2=ycllov*. clc hut 1 haven't memorized 
them); 

4 J since some commands are not available in some modes, a 
chart of this would be useful. 

So there it is, a venographies support system that extends 
your Extended HASJC. Should you buy it'. 1 Well it is easy to 
use once you get ihe hang of it. It docs increase your capabil- 
ities when programming in Rivsit. If you incorporate it into 
a program for sate, there is no License fee. It works with 1 6k, 
32 K, cassette, and disk, [i come- with a pile ol sjmple 
programs to help you get to Lnow it better It encourages, or 
insists on. exploration and experimentation 



(Micro Computer System*. J 444 Sunset Drtvt, Kricndv 
K acid. TX 7754*. lb 31K Et fi. tmtWt $19.95, tftt $M,W) 



******* 



* * * * [CCN] 

Now is your opportunity to join a 
nationwide 24 nr. BBS. Designed espe- 
cially for the CoCo. CCN provides you 
with more service than most BBS Sys- 
tems. You will be able to send and receive 
mail, get technical information, download 
free software, read announcements, give 
u s you r comments, li st you r own software 
and hardware for sale, buy from our 
business advertisers and much more, 
CCN is not like some systems that charge 
you by the hour. We have a small annual 
fee. You'll be able to use the system as 
long and as often as you like. We hope 
that you will. To become a CCN member 
send $25.00 to: 

Color Computer Network 
P.O. Box 573 
Franklin, KY 42134 



.l.»rv..-,r p ■ i - tHt HAINHOW 229 



Software Review J 



Explore The Universe 
And Rescue The Earth 
In Trekboer 

There's a deadly virus threatening the future of 
humankind in Trekboer — a new graphic* Adventure by 
Mark Data Products — and your mission is to search i ta- 
unt verse lor a cure. 

You are aboard the spaceship Trekboer as the Adventure 
begins, with u variety of buttons in push, dtiOH to o|ttn. 
rooms to search, objects to collect, a tracking screen tu 
watch and a robot that you will need to help you. 

As in other Marie Data graphics Adventures, such us 
Catixto hland. Sea Search and Shertdnixtim* the visual 
effects in Trekbuer are top-notch and of such quality that 
you will find yourself (again) in front uf the computer during 
the early morning hours. 

You have four planets to explore in your journey, each 
with ii> o*n unique murdrum' m .md the inherens darieeis 
you've come to expect fmm Adventure gunies He 
forewarned that you should be braced I or voitil* \h in: king 
discoveries because the virus has been claiming many Lives- 

You will need to watch your diet. ton. until you discover 
how the disease is being transmitted. You will probably 
get thirsty along the way, but it's a good idea to have 
any liquids tested before indulging yourself, 

If you find yourself in danger of being wiped out, or 
if o"s j us i time to call it an evening, a SAVF feature allows 
you to retain the game ut any point for later resumption. 



THE SOFTWARE HOUSE 



DATA GRADE TAPE 

(with labels) 

C-»**»'Dqr 3S'S!5 95 

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There's also a HELP feature, which I found to be of 
questionable value because it usually repeats advice given 
earlier. Directional etimmanck .m simplified hy allowing 
you to enter the 11 nil letter or the direction in which you 
want tu proceed, 

Mark Data has graciously provided maps and telecom- 
munications aids, but fir it yon will have to find them and, 
secondly, figure how they ean bent nerve you. There is, 
uf course, sumc gue^work involved, a loi of Inlse Mart*., 
iind logical steps eh a I musl be taken before you can ulilizc 
ihcm 

Vou must be diligent in your search because there's, no 
turning back to I he home base unless you're willing tu 
sacrifice your pride and, 1 or the eame. Alter all, the entire 
universe $j counting upon you? 

One of my Rrsl reactions was to the name nl the 
Adventure game. Why in the world would the United Stales 
want to name a ^pocesbip I rekboei'' After thinking nhout 
it for a while, it occurs to one I hat tne name could be 
a clue to the solution of the Adventure Kvcn then, youVe 
got a way to go be I ore reaching a satisfactory conclusion. 

Like most Mark Data products 1 have experienced, 
Tntkbuer demonstrates the lull potential of the Color 
< ompuici I lu- game is l- bull enjiifig the options an tnanj . 
the plot is sophisitcated. the graphics exceptional and the 
appeal is universal. If you're into Adventures, especially 
of the graphics variety, Trekboer is fnr you, 

(Mark Dili Products, 240(1] AJIcta Fftrkwiy, No. 2*7, 
%Ti«idn Vlrjg, C\ <>2*9I, tip* 124.95. diaJc $27,95 J 

— Chirk* Springer 



UPGRADE NOW! 

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program (RQM or Dfck) S 1 1 5 

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with Video Plus driver [easy *o install) 
(Swivel base for monitor add $22] $1 89 

PLUS s Full Travel Keyboards from S 64.95 
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SOFTWARE. BOOKS-\/Ve Carry over 200 titles trom 
many frne companies Give us a try) 



CT[ POLYGON COMPUTERS 

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230 TmF RALNtmitf .Mr llMr 



Software f?e^dw^SS^^SST/A\ 

Speed Racer 
Offers Corn! Challenge 
For The Racing Enthusiast 

Jusi whcti ytiu thought the Color Computer find reached 
ii» lull graphics potential, along, tomes 3 program like 
Mich' I run's Sfwd Rn,rr iliai nuiLes yon uonder jusl rum 
much more we can extract Irani this incrcthhlc machine. 

As you climb into I tie drivers seal, you (ire greeted by 
an opening screen ihut include* u (Vfu it net monitor fwjth 
motion picture-type credits) on n red and bltick checkerboard 
field. You know- ihen und there you are in for something 
tpccial. 

You have a choice of four racecourses, ranging From 
the predictable rectangular *hape to an S-shapcd iraek. 
and others with a never -ending variety of hairpin turns 
and templing Mraightavwiys. 

You're off with a wave of a checkered flag! Just push 
your gearshift < right joystick* forward und you're nip idly 
pushing 200 miles per hour in the age-old quest for glory. 
Your speed i* indicated in a nicely composed speedometer 
at the lower left of the screen. The object of Sp+ed Rater 
is to pais the required number of cars lor each lap. which 
h indicated by an arrow under a 'Cars Passed* marker 
at the lower right, You must reach this goal to progress 
10 the next lap. Otherwise, the game is over. Complete 
all five laps < IU miles) and you win the race. 

The real hazards of racing, of course, ate itic other car* 
in the race. You must manage to pass them without colliding 
or losing control, or you will he the latest fatality Collisions 
are dramatically represented on the screen by a cloud of 
smoke and flying tires. 

The competition is jcpresemed in true arcade fashion 
that rivals one of those packaged in n sit-down booth a I 
the local video gathering place. It is the game that many 

One- Liner Contest Winner ■ , - 

I his one-liner is best described as "Old Glory the euty 
way." h*s a surprisingly good (lor one line) reproduction of 
the Stars and Stripes* 

Ronald W. Wilson 
Franklin, OH 

The listing: 



1 PJIfJDEI :PCLS: SCREEN!,^ DRAir'8r40 
,0R2SSD 4 ?9L255U99BRS0D5i5L5«eL>4^BR 
50R205D 1 0L203D 1 1 1 GR2 

5 5 D 1 1 0R255D i 0L 255D 1 0R255 " : 
F0RK-7T042STEP1 1 : FORY-9T0449TEPI 
2! CIRCLE <X ( Y> p 4,4:NE3fTY;ME)(TX:PA 
INT C3 P 3> ,3,4:F0RA»?T0e93TEP2»:PA 
INT (52, A > , 4,4;NEXTA±G0TOl 



i 1 or l M» * m««ng ^rw-StiKi torMrn ttii/ ». i he a nit*" h.*». h*m km capita irf NkIs Ihe 
fatten &f*r\ Of 4itl*ntl*t *Mt 1H (tffapimwn iMfrMflWr* Jtspr < 



CoCo lovers have envied for many months, secretly hoping 
that it would become available to us. 

The action in Spri'd Rarer is uoi quite turinu. js 
the one in the arcade — you won 1 ! be running through 
any billhoad^ lor example but the le\el of chnlltTige 
would rate an eight on a scale of one to 10. "( here are 
road signs, however, which warn you of impending curves 
ahead. IT you hug the curve for loo Joug T you'll probably 
blow a tin;. That's the cue for the pit crew to show its 
speed in replacing them, an interesting spectacle. 

There are separate high-score capabilities for each track 
tor up to 10 games. The track is selected by moving the 
joystick from left to riyht. 

The scenery in Speed Racer is as distracting as ii is 
beautiful, ranging From big city skylines and mountain 
range* to ocean scenes, complete with sailboats One of 
my favorites is the one thai includes a giant suspension 
bridge Some people I know play the game as much for 
the scenery as for ihe thrills of racing. 

The graphics in (his e,iiine Lire j.n good as l\e seen on 
any computer, without question. Let's hope this is one of 
many more to come from MichTron This effort is 
indicative, I hope, of an even stronger Rmphanl on quality 
in what could be a whole new era of arcade garner lor 
the Color Computer. 

I Mich Iron, 57* S. I rlegrajih Hun!, Pwuitr, Ml. 4S053, 
CJttKtte 5M.95, disk 534.95} 

— Charles Springer 



THE SOFT SHOP 

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Prcwnttf Printer (651 OA) w/mtertac* 



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VISA and MASTERCAflO ACCEPTED. 

THE SOFT SHOP 

P.O Adn 876 MdUimn. S C 2966? 
10 am |B03) 297 106? Bpm 



January 1*95 TUB RAINBOW 231 



CORRECTIONS 

"The ABC Cam*** (September 1984. Page t57); Jamc* 
F. Taylor advises 11$ lhai this program will noi run as 
is in l(-.K. He suggests dclchng ihe following remark lints: 

MO. 145-185, 215-.1U5, 4 i M 15. 4ft 1464, 481-483. 5b J -565. 
$91-596. 681-685, 841-845,91 1-915, 1001-1009 



DLORS 



"The Tfip" iAueusi 1984. Pag* 90); Jacques Buuruems 
tells us that a reader questioned hLs use of a in mils sign 
in place of an equal sign in the statement IF HSD (2)- 
I THEN in Line 222, He assures us that Ihii unusual 
syntax doe* work properly in this instance. 



"Prelty As A Picture* (Ma* 1984. Huge 137): Tom 
S/lucha stales (hat there are a number of problems with 
Ihe program, and sends alone, a corrected listing of the 
first 47 line* of the program, Here il is; 

0 CLEAR 500:AR-0:GCITO220: 'DUMPFl 

X 9/1B/84 

10 AR-l:CX-0:FI«INTlFX/S+.3) :FGR 
X=0 TD255 STEPPX;P=S*-X:F*0:B«-0: 
FDRY-191TD0STEP-1 

20 IFPP0INT<X,Y>-CL THEN 40 ELSE 
80 

30 GOTO S0 

40 IF F>0 THEN 60 

50 IF B>0 THEN GOSUB 160 

60 F«F+9:Q0T0 100 

70 IF B> 0 THEN 90 

80 IF F>0 THEN GOSUB 170 

90 B*B+S 

100 NEXT Y 

110 IF B>0 THEN GOSUB 160 
120 IF F> 0 THEN GOSUB 170 
L30 PR I NT #-2 t "H" BD " f "P 
140 NEX IX 
150 GOTO 180 

160 PRINT#-2, 4, R J, +STR* tB> + " , "+STR 
♦<CX) :B«0: RETURN 

170 PRINTH-2, +STRS C F ) + " » ■ +STR 
*<CX> :F-0: RETURN 

180 CLS: INPUT "ANOTHER COLOR Y/N" 
; R%: IF R*="Y" THEN AR» 1 : GOT 0290 
190 PRINT#~2, "I10,~100":PRINT#-2 f 
"A" 

200 POKE 150,B7;POKE65494>0 
210 CLS : PRINT "F INI 9HED" : END 
220 CLS:PRINT"C8P-il5 SCREEN DUM 
P": PRINT: INPUT" DRAW TEST PATTERN 
Y/N^lRt 

230 IF R*- ,l Y M THEN QOSUB 470 
240 PS*PEEK(8dHB6> 
250 PUDDE PS 

260 CLS: INPUT "PLOTTING SCALE IX 
OR 2X n iS:IF S< 1 OR S>2 THEN 260 
270 S-INT(S) 

280 IF PS- 3 THEN PX=2 ELSE PX=1 
290 CLS 

300 IF PS=3 THEN PRINT " PMODE 3 C 



0 B BLACK 
1*=BREEN 

2- YELLOW 

3- BLUE 
4 "RED 



3»BUFF 

6-CYAN 

7~WA0ENTA 

B-ORANGE" 
310 IF PS=4 THEN PR INT "PMODE 4 C 
Of-ORS 0-BLACK 

5-BUFF 1-QREEN' 1 
320 PR I NT : PR I NT " BE SURE YOU INPU 
T COLOR WHICH IS COMPATIBLE WITH 

SCREEN MODE" 41 
330 PRINT: INPUT-COLOR TO SENSE " I 
CL:IF CL<0 OR CL>B THEN 330 
340 CLS: PRtNT"0 ta BLACK 
1-BLUE 2«6REEN 
3-RED" 

350 PRINT: INPUT "DRAW WITH WHICH 
COLOR PEN"! CP: IF CP<0 OR CP>3 TH 
EN 350 

360 IF AR»1 THEN PRINT#-2 f "H":GO 
TO430 

370 BD-t480-l92*S>/2:CX^0 

380 POKE 65495,1 

390 POKE 150, 180 

400 PRINT*H2,CHR*aB? 

410 PRINT#-2, "M0, -300*3" 

420 PRINT#-2, "I" 

430 PRINT* -2, "C"CP 

440 FRINT#-2, "M"BD% *STR»tCX) 

450 SCREEN 1,0: PMODE PS, 1 

460 GOTO 10 

This should be typed in after deleting every thing before 
Line 4 'H. 



"Cooking With CoCo" 4 November P*£e I46 r : 

Colin St carman passes along a note from a reader who 
says that Radio Shack's disk versions of ED TA SM> Scnpttt 
and Spectaculaior <aU of which use the Color TRSDOS 
operating system I use bytes Hand 18 of iKe directory entry, 
which conflicts with the Hie creation date area used by 
his program Dales are not put into the Hie when incse 
programs create files and they should pose no real problem. 
Co tin also cautions that files created by these programs 
should not be rednted with the iiasIl program on Page 
148, This problem may also occur with future Radio Shack 
programs that use Color TRSDOS (which is supplied on 
each program disk in each package}, 

"Adding Auto Answer To Modem V* ( November I9IUL 
Paxe 19): Tony Sharp advise* us that ihcrc may be a 
problem with installing his modification in the newer 
Modem IB. due to some changes in the circuit board. One 
difference that has been noted is that the voltage regulator 
is now called VRI instead of LI L 



332 



*CC-Tilk*( November 19S4 + Page SO): There wii* an error 
in production that misplaced part of two lines. Here they are 
in the correct form: 

140 CLS:PRINTTAB<B> " BUFFER CONTE 

NTS " : PR I NTT AB i 6 1 " spaceMORE/wn t mr 

EXIT M :PRINT 

170 BB-TB:8E»«(H7f:FF» buffer star 
t and end addresses 



TME BHIWBOW J»r»u*ry 



BITS AND BYTES OF BASIC 



Finalizing 
The Rainbow 
Checkbook 

By Richard White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



This is the " Beginners Issue** where 
we welcome nil of you (hilt have 
recently become proud owners ni 
a CoCti and have joined the kAlNbtiw 
family of readers. Wc will mark the 
i>ei;isnn; wish p| ;i p d cb fll Ottj -'ir 
ttambtrnr Checkhuak, Version IM is 
complete, and I he Idling follows ihis 
column. 

Over the past few months. I have been 
writing about the program as it deve- 
loped Bui h program logic and syntax 
have been discussed in their natural 
setting, u working program. One 
consequence has been the need to revise 
the code previously discussed and 
explain the reasons for the changes. 
Changes come about for two reasons 
Hrst, I m a better idea As the f tu.- 
grammer works with a program, in- 
adequacies become evident and revisions 
to fix these are ins talk d- Second arc 
the pure bugs. 

Even with extensive testing, obscure 
hup continue to be found in most 
programs. That\ why 1 say Version f.O 



( Rk httrd White has a long background 
■i ifh ffj tcrt >t 'i > fttputt r.i ami v v. itthzi > m 
BASIC programming. With Don t>oti* 
berg, ite is i he autfuir of 'lite T\\i$data 
base management program,} 



U the first to be published and not the 
first one written. It is reasonably clean 
and should do must of the job thai needs 
to be done It is hardly a final version 
if such a version exists. Since a program 
continues to evolve with time, it should 
he organized to facilitate change, To 
me, thai means defining specific pro- 
gram functions and assigning blocks of 
hnc numbers to these functions. I made 
a lahle of these functions at the start 
and have stayed with it thro ugh out. 



"Version f.O... its hardly a 
final wrxir/n . , . Since a pro- 
gram continue* to evolve 
with time* it tthmtld be organ- 
ized to ftic Hit ate change " 



LINES 


FUNCTION 


1-9 


Most Frequently used 




subroutines 




Other subrou lines 


hhj m 


Enter items 




Edit records and update 




balances 




Strip cleared items to make 




updated current file 




Print report 




Tape and disk I/O 


201x1-2099 


Initialisation 



2LOt) 2iy^ Make new file 

1 0000 Save program routine 
10100 PCLF.AR I routine 

Version /.(J contains all the fit nc turns 
shown in the tabic in the line number 
blocks shown. Note that the most 
frequently used lines go to the beginning 
of the program and the least used lines 
to the end. Each time there is a GOS I H 
itr t t t>l<>. HA^H vtjrts at the beginning 
of the program lo search for the 
required line. It makes no sense fcf it 
to h^e to continually search aver lines 
that are used only once during the 
normal operation of the program. So. 
all initial Nation goes to the end rather 
than the beginning of the program 
where you will sec u many times. On 
the other hand. frequently called 
subroutines should he at the beginning 
where BASIC can quickly find them. 
And. the smaller the line number, the 
fewer bytes it takes to store the 
subroutine call. In any case. 1 like small 
line numbers. They are easier in 
remember. I also see no need to keep 
increments of 10 between line numbers 
m you can see from the listing. 

Another word of advice to the 
beginner. If you organize your program 
from the beginning, you will not need 
to renumber it. RENUM will destroy 
all the structure you carefully developed 



THE RAINBOW 233 



COMPUTER 




MATH 



THE A0K1 SERIIS 
«T ITWI * ' • 

MLiJmttlU 1UK1 

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THE QUIZ MAKER b v Ditrtf «»k T 
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ARITHMETIC Til ICR DlAGOSTlt 
FBA&TirgHS TUTOR DIAGNOSTIC 

WOn nl MM MATH TljTOB SERIES 
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(73^948-2748 »| 
Depl . 227 Hampton Green, Stater* Island, N Y. 1 03 1 2 
Send Tor catalog with compute d#icnpiioni. 
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and make trouble-shooting much more 
difficult. There 11 a place for RENUM 
- it jjt useful to make a user version 
of a program* numbered al increments 
of unc. This both shortens the program 
and speeds it a lad. But, keep your 
structured source version for editing 
and upgrading. Re numbering the listing 
to increments of one saves 84 bytes in 
spite or I he fact that 1 h ad already 
reduced memory usage by putting the 
subroutines al the beginning, 

A good program today should be as 
self-documenting as possible. Still, 
sumt words Of wisdom art generally 
needed to gel the user off on the right 
foot. Perhaps i he-* best place to start Is 
to explain why the program was written 
an the first place, You see, there was 
this pile of bank statements on my desk 

about six months* wort h. Reconciling 
the cheek hook to ihe bank statements 
is a pain and the program 1 wrote way 
back when did not do that I looked 
at the old program, but it was written 
before I discovered structuring a BASK 
program. Starting from scratch looked 
easier. The real celebration came 
yesterday when I worked down through 
the (now nine months') pile, finding less 
than SI 00 worth of mistakes. hsarclicf 
to know thai there will be no OM foul 
of money) messages from the bank. 

The easiest way for you to get up 
and running with Rain fro* Chttkhoaii 
is lo huyaJan. J 9X5 r AtNUOW ON TAPE, 
As published, the program runs in a 
IbK tape-based Extended bASJt" ma- 
chine. Those with disk drives should 
have machines or he willing to 

cut some of the code out. For example, 
you might niake (wo versions, one 
without l he pnmer block starting at 600 
and one without ihe editor and New- 
month routine* starting at 200 and 400. 
This way you can enter and edit data 
with one version, save the file, and load 
the ol her version to print the file. 

If you have been typing the program 
in with me over the lasi few months, 
check your code against ihe listing. 
There have been a number of changes, 
both added feature and debugs. 

When you to ad and run the program, 
you arc shown ihe first menu that offers 
10 AD FILE or nFW HI IF options 
Choose new file by keying* N\ You arc 
now prompted for account informal ion 
including naruc T bank, account number 
and date. You are then asked for your 
last bank statement balance. This is 
what the bank thinks your balance if 
and not what is shown in your check- 
hook Since there Lire always some 



23Q THE RAlKftOW J,inunry 196S 



outstanding items in your checkbook 
ihat the bank dors noi know about, the 
bank's balance must be different from 
any shown in your checkbook. Now you 
enter all ihe outstanding item* in your 
cheek hook, Your options arc shown in 
Ihe lines al the bottom of the entry 
screen You can licroll back and forth 
through your Tile using the tip and down 
arrows un<] edit entries. However, you 
cannot add items or make changes from 
the review mode 



"A correction entry uttaws 
you In adjmt your balance 
without changing the tabu- 
lated bank balance, ft*! u 
way to fudge roar but a ace 
to match what the hank says 
J-©*! hare*" 



When all items are entered, exit by 
keying \S* to get lo I/O routines. Here 
you can save to tape, disk or printer. 
Jf you do prim your Hie, yoa will be 
returned to the normal input screen 
where you can key "S* again to save your 
file to tape or disk, I use the name 
CURKHNT and let a ask append the 
default disk extension DAT, The next 
time you enter the program choose *L* 
to |L>ad your file. 

Ihe in pui screen is marly the same 
as New file except a Ct.L'AR function 
has been added When you get a bunk 
statement, first make sure that all items 
in your checkbook arc in your current 
file. Next, go through your checkbook, 
check of I all items that have cleared (he 
bank and correct any entry errors. Sou 
load your current file and step bock 
i h rough ii using the up-arrow key. 
Compare each entry in the file with ihji 
in your checkbook. Jf an item has been 
v I eared, key X" and the calculated bank 
balance will be adjusted , then the status 
letter will change from *O t to l C\ If you 
dear an item by mistake, key 'C again 
to toggle hack to *Q* status. If you find 
mistakes in the file, key *JT to gel to 
edit mode to make the correction. 

Warning? Never edil a cleared item. 
The program doe** not adjusl the bank 
balance for changes made in the edit 
mode If you need lo edit a cleared hem, 
first toggle it back to *0\ edit it and 
then lofgle the status back to 'Cfrom 
input. 



In edit mode you can change the 
check number, key *V then the new 
number, change an entry to adjustment 
or deposit, key *A" or 'D\ or change 
an adjustment to a correction. For a 
correction key 'C\ Correction does not 
show on the command line since it was 
a very late Head yesterday I addition. 
A correction entry allows you to adjusl 
your balance without changing the 
calculated bank balance. It's a way lo 
fudge your balance to match what the 
bank says you have. Note ihat you 
cannot enter a correction directly from 
ihe input mode. Rather, enter an 
adjust meal and cdil the entry to the 
correction type. 

Whco you enter a cheek, enter it as 
a positive number and the program 
automatically deducts ihe amount from 
your check hook balance. A deposit is 
automatically added to the balumv An 
adjustment may be cither positive or 
negative. An i merest credit should be 
entered as a positive number since it 
increases your balance. Service charges 
should be entered as negative numbers. 

In input mode, you can duplicate the 
previous entry, like the dale, simply by 
hitting ENTEn for lhai field. The same 
happens in edit, so you only key in 
cm hey for fields you need lo change 
When you leave edit, you are relumed 
to input, but al the end of the tile 
Already I see a number of change* for 
Version 2, 0, 

When you have corrected your file 
and cleared all item* that have cleared 
the bank for ihe month, your bank 
balance from the program should 
match thai shown on the statement 
When ii doesn't (lo err is hnman. it's 
not the computer's fault), look for 
error* both in your current file in the 
program and for errors in your check- 
book. A printout is very handy here. 
Key V to get to the Save Menu, then 
T" for the Primer. C hange the Baud 
rate, if necessary, by hitting en jlk and 
i hen keying in the rale you wanl Ncxl. 
use the down-arrow in move the cursor 
next to PRIM and press i-vrtK. The 
program will prim the account infor- 
mation, ailou you in update ihe dale 
if necessary and then list the current 
file. When all is right, print a copy of 
the current file lo store with the checks 
and bank stale me m for the month, 

finally, yoa wdl want louse the Ncw- 
monlli routine lo strip nil cleared items 
out of the current file to a tape or disk 
archive file, fhin routine saves a file of 
cleared items that vou might title 
MNflS or JANttf CLR for disk. 1 1 also 



DISK 
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COMMUNICATIONS 



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/ / "FEATURES" 



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TAPE 
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**** 



Th(» Wail Finally Ow*" 

ANNOUNCING 

The CBASIC COMPILER 

/nr run- i rear* /<i«r tffldmt MnrMnr Lan<|iJaq<* PlrDffSITf* 



CBASK h * M^rhlHP I Myjtimcjf mirror I1j*h- OrnpJ.rt (tint mn rnnvnT <"o*n4- Ba*lf |trngfim«hnl»f«1tnMaThirv tiiiiflLLngf [nTMjtatTti CRASTt ttitam nt+r 
1 00 tblf *r CommorxH *nd| fu«CtKm» ttipl (ulhr vjppnrt fNifc, T*p*. Scrr*** and Print*. VO- Hllr Low R«4]Iu(4d n Gni ptakri., Suimd. PUy »hd StrBjfj Op*t*Hiiri» )U*1 Ukar 
Cnfnr B»fchc CBASIC *t*HJ iiw ludrt d [xrw* r/uJ lull PralUrtd R«k prw^f fl FH Elfiii* udflg m 5 1 ,lM ,« 8S I*.- S* Hnr iliipW lhr I ft-Ht viluMnfl li^ly fin h* 4UtPfIMlt 
v*»llv included in yunr rnJnpH*d ptugfrim for fflhjlhctd dliplfly CMpjrflilltV and fllkrw mi avid felt And graphic dtfpUvk. 



(.-jfiliin Command* 



S«M CiiflWiaH: 
Fun rthani 



C1W1 1 1 '. 'H'Hf 'I'' rjw** i.| i iin,fJ-A|M 
■cis. penrv phgi.e preset p*art. rtrr. 

RESET. WUEEN SET W1IMT FpCHNT 
PLAY SOtlTaD 

chhs. Ltrn. him. hnhits. itii ihvrH lsit. 

US FT TUMI. sjtKt VfWMCLt. INKEV* MK-y* 
MKkPOti TIMER. FtNtJ. A5C tAKytAI.JOWH, 
PEEK. PORE. UK HIE EW FRET- CVH. ERA. 
VAHFIH. SWAJ 1 

open. Close input. u*ejsplt. niiNTumjti . 

PRINT ■ GET H -T. KILL MIAIrVH PTI I J) r>.\i A 
REJttl KES1QRE 



Pi(hfrini Conn-rib 



KiUI IHtS SIN .ad Utah 



(iiHMi: Mic r k i"ii«i irii-im 11 mis 
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UNt EiJtT. Atf O EDIT, COPY HWf- RtMtM 
»FR Ainu L.INL'* PHIMI-H i 0l:tETE 
si Wi H liU'l T I HAl [J HAM PHIN1I N 
UlAsIt 1AJTIJSO. !»k»', SIZE. UlAU HVtL 
APPIfNO KNL OIH «™l my, I, mairh mor 
MK tarMMeMWM 



Introduclary Price $119-00 

ResuUfly Si 49,00 



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ALL ORWtKS SHIPPED FRO* ^T* n h 
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MA^tFRCABn AND t'DIt AC'CI'.PIFD 



s&vcs I he full current filer with the 
extension BAK if you are on diak. If 
you loaded the file (torn tape. New- 
month saves to (ape. The same applies 
with disk. Finally. New- mo nth strips all 
cleared items from your current file and 
returns you to input. At this point you 



should save this new current file. 

Newcomers in should 
know thai this month's "Bits and Bytes 
of basic** is different from normal la 
thai I did not discus* any BASK' code 
Ncxi month we will resume our line by 
line discussion of the program, f will 



take up the printer code first and show 
some do's nod donV. tn making BASIC 
print a formatted, multi-page report. In 
ihc meantime, do some testing of 
Rainbow Cfecktook, Suggestions for 
improvement* to go into Version 2.0 
may be sent tome care of tut k aim how. 



92 



K 131 640 100 

» 134 aao.. ? 

*2W 1W 2110 f , 79 

232 23t END 4$ 

410 206 



The listing: 

0 GOTO10100 

1 PR I NTCHR* ( 1 9 1 > r : I*«INKEY»: IFI* 

THE NF OR X : NEXT : PR IN TCHR * < 
3) ?: GOTO 1ELSEPRI NTCHR* <SJ ; : RETUR 
N 

2 P=IN5TRlFl , A* (V) , "**•> : RETURN 



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4 PRINT: PRINT "current date: 
* 

5 LINEINPUTI*- IFI*< >" "THENDAf = 
: RE TURNELSE RE TURN 

1 0 LC*=CC* ; LDt^CDi; LA=*CA : LB=CB : L 

s*~cs*:ln*-cn» 

11 PR 1 NTfc96 , US I NGS4* 5 LC*f : PRINT " 
"LDf : PR I NT»108 , US 1 NGS9* ; LA: PR I 

NTBll9,USING5S*fLBl : PRINTSTR I NG* 
<63,32M :PfcINT@l2B,USIN.GSN*f LS»; 
: PRINTLN* : RETURN 

12 F 1 » i : V»CR- 1 : 0DBUB2 ! L C »«M I D* ( A 
»<V> ,F1,F-F1 ) :Fl-F+i:G0SUB2:LD*= 
MID* lA*<Vi , Fl, F-Fl ) :t5*-f1ID*(A*< 

+ > :LN*«rtID*<A*<V> , F*-3 P LEN 
<A*<V) ) -F+3) :t_ft»A(V,0> :LB-A<V, 1) 
; RETURN 

14 CC*=LC* : CD*«LD* : CA-LA : CB-LB : C 
S*-LS» : CNft^LN* : IFF1 =2 THENRET URN 

15 PR I NT8PS , US I NGS4* ; CC»; : PRINT*' 
"CD*: PR I NT9PS+ 12,US1 N0SS* ; CA: P 

R 1 NT6PS+23 » US I NGS5* I CBf : PRINTSTR 
I NG* ( A3 , 32 > ; : PR I NTf*PS+32 , US INGSN 
* ; CS* ; ; PR 1 NTCN* : RETURN 

16 Fl=l; V=CR! B0SUB2: CC*-M 1 D* ( A 4 < 
V> ,Fl f F-Fl > : F 1 -F + 1 : QOSU B2 : CD*=M I 
D*(A*CV) T Fi f F-FlJ :CS*=rlID*(A*<V> 
,F+1, 1> :CN*=*MID* (A* (V> , F+-3, LEN (A 
♦ CVJ >-F+3) :CA^AiV ( 0) :CB=A<V, i> :R 
ETURN 

1 7 I FCR > 1 THENCR-CR ^ 1 : GOSUB 1 4 : BOS 
UB12:G0SUBH : RETURNELSERETURN 

18 IFCR^LR-l THENCR-CR+1 : GOSUB10: 
G05UBle>; GOSUB15: RETURNELSEGOSUB1 
0 ; PR I NT9224 , 5 fR I HB% ( 95 , 32 > : FG=0: 
I FCR< LR THEIMCR^=CR+ 1 : RETURNELSERE 
TURN 

22 IF I *^CHR* M3> THENCC^ CC+ J : CCf- 
STR*(CC>: CC*«Rl6HT*tCC* f LEN(C 
C*> -1» ;PRINT@224 S USINBS4*;CC*:RE 
TURN 

24 IFV( >0THENPR I NTUS 1 NG" #" ; VI HL 
1 NE I NPUT I * : CC*-STR* (Vll+I«: CC*«R 
IGHT*<CC»,LEN(CC») -1 ) ;CC-VALtCC* 
) I RETURN 

2e> CC%- U OEP " : PR I NT®224 , CC* ? : RETU 
RM 

2B CC*='*ADJ ":PRINTH224,CC*S :RETU 
RN 

29 CC*="CORR w : PRINT%224.CC*? : RET 
URN 



238 TH€ H41NBO* jwiuiry 1W& 



30 PRINT«229, HM * :LINEINPUTI*: IFI 
*<> M " THENCD*=I* 

31 PR I NTS229 , USING "X 7," (CD* 

32 PRINTfc236, ■ M ; : 1FFG< > 1 THENL 1NE 
I NFUT I * : 1 ~VAL <1*J : IF I< >»THENCft= 1 

£LS£ELSECA^fi» 
$4 PR INTS236, USINGSS* I CA? : RETURN 

36 I F VflL ( CC* ) -fif THENCB-CB+CA ELSE 
CB^B-CA 

37 PRINTS247, USINQ3S*; CB? 1 PHI NTH 
5INGSN*|CS*J :LINEINPUTI*: 1FI*<V 
" THE WCN*= 1 »EL3ECN*^ " '* 

38 AKCR) «LX*+ " t"+CD»t"* ■« +LEF T* i 
CS** 1 >+"»"+CN»:A(CR f 0) =CA; A (CR, I 
)-CB: RETURN 

49 CR-CR+1 :LR=CR: GOSUB 10: PR I NTS 2 
24, STR J MG* (95, 32 ) : FG=0: RETURN 

50 PR I NTfca , RC* , M I TEM DATE A 
MOU N 1 BALANCE " : RETURN 

52 PRINT8332, "'LAST BANK BALANCE 
" E ; PR 1 NTUSt NSSS* 5 BB : RETURN 
54 PR1NTS3B4, "< ENTER > -NEXT CHEC 
K # '* , " 1 ST DIBIT STARTS NEW # SER 
IE6": RETURN 

56 PRINT@446. "d EPOS IT ADJUSTMENT 
vO I D CLEARED eDIT sAVE I DAD nEW 
MONTH " CHRf < 94 3 " 'S"U RET URN 

39 PRINTe448, "*dEPOStT ADJUSTMENT 
vO I D " , Hh eD I T aAVE '* CHR* < 94 > " ' S" i : 

RETURN 

6 0 GDS UB221GDSUB30: GOSUB 36 : GOSUB 
40: RETURN 

62 G0SUB26 : GO5UB30 : SOSUB36 : QOSUB 
40: RETURN 

64 GOSUB 28 : GOSUB 30: GOSUB 3 6 : QDSUB 
40: RETURN 

66 I t^CHRt < i 3 > : G0SUB22 ; FS= 1 ; BQSU 
B30: GDSUB36: FG=0: GOSUB40: RETURN 

68 PR IN ra320 p "REVIEW ENTRIES 

" ; ; P0«335 : FG*» i : GOSUB i 7 ; RETU 

PN 

100 CL S : PS- 224 i GOSUB50 : G0SUB52 : Q 



0SUB54 ; G0SUB56 : PR I NT91 28 1 STR I NG* 
32) : CR-LR : QOSUB i 2 : GOSUB 1 1: F 
i 5-2: GOSUB 1 4 1 F i *0 : CC^VAL < CC» > 
110 PR I NT (3320, "ENTER OUTSTANDING 

ITEMS W J IPO* 224 

% 20 PR INTSPO p**|5 GOSUB1 1 V I-VAL < I 
#) ; I FFG-0AND (VI >0OR I «=CHR* < 1 3 H 
G0SUB6tf : GOTO 1 20 

1 30 J -INSTR CI." DAVCESLN" +CHR* 1 94 

J +CHR* C 1 0 ) , I • > : I FFG-0THENONJ GOS 

UB62p 64, 66, 160,200,900,950, 400, 6 

8,18ELSE0NJ GOSUB2160, 2160, 2160, 

1 60, 200, 900, 950, 400p 17, 18 

140 IF0>4 ANDhJ<9THEN100 

150 IFCR-LR THEN110ELSE120 

160 I F C S*» " 0 " THENCS*- " C " : GOSUB 1 5 

: G0SUB38 ; I PLEFT* < CC* , 4 > <> "CORR " T 

HEN I FVAL < CC* > =0THENBB-BB+CA ELSE 

BB=BB-CA ELSEELSE170 

165 PRINT«371, M **t :PRINTU8IN038*I 

BB; : PR I NTG343 , " " i : RETURN 

1 7 0 CS* - ** 0 " : GOSUB 1 5 : G0SUB38 2 I FLE 

FT* < CCt , 4 ) <> " CORR" THEN I FVAL < CC* > 

»0TMENBB»BB-CA ELSEBB=BBi-CA 

I 75 PR I NT937 1 , " " I : PR I NTUS I NGS B# I 

&B? :PRINTQ343, " 14 f % RETURN 

200 CLS: GOSUB30 : PR I NT»72 , "UNCDI T 

ED ENTRY " : PR I NT#20 1 , ED I TED ENTR 

Y":PRINTa321 , *'TYPE FIELD ENTRY C 

ORRECT ION*' , *' <«ntsr> FOR NEXT FI 

ELD" : IFFG- 1THENTF-1 1 F0»0 

210 I»- I NKEY t : PS=96 I GOSUB I 6 : GOSU 

BIS: PR I NTH224 , STR I NG* i 95 , 32 > | :PR 

INT84 16, "nEW #, dEP, «DJ, —DELE 

TE, +^ADDUP/DOWN ARROWS, rETURN 

" ; : ps^224: ct»-cc»: ta=ca 

215 t30SUB 1 : I F I t-CHR« ( 13) THENPRI N 
IS224,CC*. : GOTO240ELSEJ » I NSTR ( 1 p 
u NDA-+R" + CHR* < 94 > +CHR* 1 1 0 > , IIKQ 
N J GOSUB220 , 26 , 28 , 225 , 230 , 2 1 7 , 23 
5,237 

216 IFFG- 1 THENFG-0 : GOT02 1 0ELSE IF 
!*<- > " R "THfrN: GO TO240ELSEFH = Tf 



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239 



217 RETURN 

220 PRINT0224 , » " I : GOSUB 1 : V I -VAL C 
It) : IF 1 *« "A" TH£NQ0SUB28ELSE I F I «= 
"C "THENGQSUB29ELSE0OSUB22 

221 RETURN 

225 FORX-CR TDLR-2: A* ( X ) -A* < X + 1 > 
:A<X,0>-A<X«*1 P 0> : IFVALtCC*) >#THE 
NA(X t I)-A<X+1 P 1> +CA:CB-CB+CA ELS 
E A i X , 1) -A < X * 1 , 1 ) -ca: cb-cb-ca 
227 NEXT : PRI NT096 , STR I NO* < 95 > 32 > 

; : cc*= " " : cd*« f " : : ca=» : cs*= " : cn* 
H f I TEH DELETED** : Gft-CR- 1 1 LR-LR-i : 
FG~l: RETURN 

230 CC*-" M !CD*«" ":C8*-" H :CA-0 
;TA«0:CN*="MAKE NEW ENTRY u : FG^ 1 ! 
FORX-LR T0CR+1STEP-1;A*<X>-A*U- 
i) ;a<x,0)-a<x-i,0>;a<x, u«A<x-l p 
i i : NEXT:CB-A (X-t t i>: LR-LR+ 1 : G03U 
B3B 

232 PS-96: GOSUB16: GOSUB 13: PRINT© 
416, "new *, dEP, *DJ, —DELETE 11 : 
PR I NTSTR I NQ* (28, 32) 5 : PS-224: GOSU 
B1:FB-0:J-INSTRU, "NDA~% I*> :ONJ 

a OS UP 2 20 , 26,20, 225 

234 IFJ>0THEN240EL9E232 

235 FB-1: IFCRMTHENCR-CR-U0O3UB 
16: PS-96: GOSUB I 5: PS-224: RETURNEL 
BERETURN 

237 FG-1: IFCR<LR-ITHENCR=CR+i:GO 
SUB 1 6 : PS*96 : QOSUB 15: PS-224 : RETUR 
NEL SERE TURN 

240 PR I NT 84 It, STR I NG* < 45 , 32 > : 303 
UB30: IF VAL (CT*) -0THENIFVAL <CC*> - 
0THEN T A-C A- T A : B0TQ24 2EL SE TA<= -T A— 
CA:OOT0242 

241 IFVAL<CC*>«0TH£NTA-TA+CA ELS 
ETA-TA-CA 

242 PRINT^TA^TA^'CA^'CAI :F0RX-1T0 
20002 NEXT; roRX-CR TOLR-1 ; A < X * 1 J 
-A( X, 1 >+TA:NEXT:CB-A<CR, 1) :PRINT 
8247 , US I NGS9* | CB J : L 1 NE I NPUT If; IF 
I*<>" "THENCS*-!* 

244 PRINT&236, USINGSN*SCS9* :LINE 

I NPUT I* : 1FI *<> " " THENCN*- I * 

246 PR I NT©259 t CN*: B0SUB38: G0T021 

0 

400 CLS;PRINT*8 fl RC*, " STRIP Si 
SAVE CLEARED I TENS" , , , „ f TAB CB) "t 
APE% , » , TAB<8) "dlSK" , p :GOSUBi: IF 
I*-"D " THEND- 1 ELSE I F I *- w T " THEND— 
1ELSE400 

410 PRINT; PRI NT: I F D -= —IT HENPR I NT " 
TAPE FILE'ELSEPRINT" DISK FIL 

E" 

415 PRINT: PR I NT "FILENAME" S ; IFD=1 
THENPRINT" AND EXTENSION" 
420 LINEINPUTCF*:GDSUB4:CT=0;FOR 
CR- 1 TOLR- 1 : 0OSUB1 6 , I PCS*- ■ C ■ THEN 
CT-CT^l : NEX TELSENEX T 



425 QPEN^O" , D, CF* : PRINTED , CT+1 ; P 
R I NT#D , BB: PR I N f * D . CB : PR I NT#D ? AN* 
: PRINTED, BA* : PR INT#D t ACt : PRINTED 
, DA* ; FQRCR- 1 TOLR- 1 

430 □OSUB16:IFCS*-"C H THENPRlNT#D 

, A*<CR) J PRINT#D t A (CR, 0) SPRINTtD, 

A <CR, 1 ) : NEX TELSENEX T 

435 CLOSE : CT-0: OPEN "O" , D, NM* + " /B 

AK M : FRINT#D, LRI PRINTED, BB; PRINT* 

D, CB: PR I NT#D , AN* ! PR I NT#D, BA* : PRI 

NT#D , AC*: PR I NT#D f DA* : FORX-1 TOLR- 

1 ; PRINT#D, A* ( X ) ; PR INTdDp A ( X p 0) I P 

RINT#D f A ( X, J ) : NEXT: CLOSE 

440 CLOSE : CT-0! FORCR- I TOLR- i : BOS 

UB 1 6 : IPCS*- * 0 " THENCT=CT> 1 :A*(CT> 

-A* (CR> : A<CT p 0>«A(CR l 0) :A(CT P 1>* 

ft (CR P 1 ) : NEXTELSENEXT 

445 FORX-CT+1 TOLR- 1 : A* ( X ) - 11 : NEX 

T : LR-CT+1 : CR*CT : RETURN 

600 ' TARGET LINE 

605 BP-PEEK 1 1 50 > : BU- 1 NSTR ( 1 , ** 1 6» 
1 B*#4 1 ##*#*#87****#****#***« 1 B0 " 
, R I GHT* ( STR* < BP ) , LEN ( STR * (BP) >-l 
I > ; BU«9600/BU 

605 P0KE65494 , 0: BP-PEEK < 150) I BU- 
I NSTR ( 1 , ■ 1 6* 1 8**41 #*#***B 7 #*•♦#-* 
180 11 P RI QHT* ( STR* ( BP> f LEN 
(STR* (BP) > -1 > J :BU-9600/BU 
^10 CLS:PRINT«137 f "PRINT ROUTINE 
9% f , " CURRENT BAUD RATE * M BU 
»TAB(6> "RESET BAUD RATE", t , " 
PRINT* 1 , p , , " RETURN" ;CT-1 
615 CT*«RIGHT*(STR*<CT) , 1>:LP=IN 
STR ( 1 , w 1 2 3",CT*) ;LP-LP*3 

2+2:PRINT«LP f ">"i ;OOSUB1 : PRINT9L 
P, h "t:iFI*-CHR*(10)ANDCT<3THENC 
T-CTT+I : BOT06 15ELSE IF 1 *-CHR* < 94 ) 
ANDCT > 1 THENCT— CT-1 : G0T06 15ELSEIF 
I*OCHR*(13) THEN615ELSE0NCT BDTO 
620,630, 100 

620 PRINT* 1 " ! ; I NPUT "ENTER NEW BA 
UD RATE " ; BU* : BU*— LEFT* < BU* F 1 > ;BL 
51 1 NSTR ( 1 f 11 36 1 249 '* BU* 3 : f FBL=0THE 
NPR I NT "baud rate error *' ; SOUND 1 00 
P 50;GOTO605 

625 BUU)-1B0:BU<2)-S?;BU(3)-41: 
BU(4)«18:BU(5)-6:BU(6>=i:BU-BU<B 
L) : POKE 150, BU: fiOTO605 
630 CLS:PRINT896, " SET PRINTER AN 
D PAPER AND PRESS any key»":GOSU 
Bl :FORX=LT03;PRINT#-2, n "!NEXT:P 
R I NT#- 2 1 TAB CS) *' AC COUNT NAME : 
AN*: PRI NT#-2, TAB <fi) -BANK NAME: 

M BA* : PRINT* -2 f J AS < 8 > " ACCOUNT 

NUMBER; " AC* 
640 GOSUB4 : PRINTH-2, TAB (B) "DATE 

PRINTED; *'DA*:PRlNT#-2 t " ":P 
HINT#-2,TAB(S) "CALCULATED BALANC 
E AT BANK —"BB; PRINT*— 2, " ":PEIN 



240 rue «jLfNBow i.v,^ y . i«ts 



T#-2 , TAB 1 8 ) " CHECK* DATE AMOU 
NT BALANCE STATUS NOTE" ; PRINT 

t-g** " :PG*i3 

650 F DRCR= 1 TOLR - 1 : GOSUB 16: PRI NT* 
-2, TAB<9> ,Jlt i :PRInT#-2,U5InO ,1 X X 
" ;CC*5 :PRlNT#-2 5 USING'* X X n lC 
D** : PR I NT#-2 * TAB C 22 PmitfTtt-2 
, US I NGSS* ! CAi : PR I NT*-2, TAB (32) " '* 
I : PR 1 NT* -2 , US I NGSS* j CB J :PRINT#-2 
i "CS*" "CN* 

655 PG=PG+ 1 : I FPG >6 1 THENFORX= 1 TO? 
;pRtNT#~2, M NEXT: PRINT#-2 T TAB ( 
BP' CHECK* DATE AMOUNT BALANCE 

STATUS NOTE ll :PRINT*-2, " ":PG=5 
660 NEXT:FORX-PB T067: PRINT#-2 f pi 

: NEKT : RETURN 
900 CLS;PRINT@8,RC* t " SAVE 
OR PRINT DATA" , M n TAB <B> *'t APE" * 
t , , TAB (8) , *dISK" , , , 9 TAB<8> "pRINTE 
R " : GOSUB 1 : I F I *= ,H D " THEND" i ELSE I F I 
»** T " T HEND--1 ELSE IF J *~ "P"* THEN 600 
ELSE 900 
90S GOSUB 4 

9 1 0 G0SUB9S5: OPEN" D",0, MM* ; PRI NT 
*D,LR:PRI NT#D, BB ; PR 1 NT*D f CB: PR I N 
T *D , AN* ! PR 1 NT*D p BA* : PR I NT*D p AC* : 
PR INT#D, DA* : FORX* 1 TOLR- 1 ; PR I NT*D 
, A*(X) :PRINT*D,A<X,0> :PRINT*D,A< 
X* U :NEXT: CLOSE : RETURN 
950 CL9:PRINT9G f RC* 9 TAB C 1 1 > "LOAD 
DATA 1 " * , f , p TAB (8 > "t APE" , , f ,TAB<8 
) '*d I SK " : GOSUB 1 : I F I *« *' D " THEND= 1 EL 
SE I F I *- M T " THEND- - 1 ELSE950 
960 G0SUB985 : OPEN M I % D , NH* : INPUT 
*0,LR,BB,CB:LINEINPUT*D, AN>:L JNE 
I NPUT*D, B A* : LINE I NPUT#D, AC* ; LINE 
I NPUT#D , DA* : GOSUB970 I FORX= 1 TOLR- 
1 : INPUT#D, A* ( X > : I NPUT#D, A i X , 0 > : I 
NPUT*D, A < X p 1 ) : NEXT : CLOSE 
962 CR=L: GOSUB 16: IFVAL <CC*>=0THE 
NA ( 0 , 1 > =A < J p 1 1 —A < 1 , 0 > EL9EA ( 0 , li- 
ft* 1, n+A(l t 0) 

965 PRINTJPRINT^PRESS ANY KEY TO 
CONTINUE " : GO SUB 1 : RETURN 

9?0 cls:prin r@9e, "filename- "nm* 

: PR I NT: PR I NT*' ACCOUNT INFORMATI 
UN" : PRINT : PRINT "NAME: t|s AN*; PR INT 
"BANK : M BA* : PRINT " ACCT *: "AC*:P 
R1NT"F 1LE UPDATED: "DA*: RETURN 
9B5 PRINT: IF D-- I THENPRINT M TAPE F 
\ L E tp ELSEPR I N T '* D I SK F I LE 41 
9V0 PR INT : PR I NT H F 1 LENAME ** I I 1FD=J 
I HENPR I N T Hh AND EXTENSION: " . NM*E 
LSEPRINT": +, NM* 

995 LINE I NPUT I*: IFI*< > * "THtENNPl*- 
I*:RET URNEL3ERE TURN 
I-£i00 CLEAR3500 t D 1 MA* <1 00 J , A < 1 00 , 
1 ) 

2030 RC*^' RAINBOW CHECK BOOK " : SS* 



-"#*,*#*_**■ :sN*="y- 7. h, :cr-i :lr-i 
; 54* x " ; CS*= " D " ; A* < 0 > - " * * 
•FIRST ENTRY BELOW" 
2100 CLS: PRINTS, "rainbow checkb 
□oN version 1 • 0 " # PR 1 NT® 4 / 9 '* BY * h : P 

r i ntb73 i "ri chard wh i te " : pr inttas 
(7> "copyright <c> 1984 " : print: pr 
int:printtab<b) "ioad file": print 

:PRINTTAB(@J "nEW FILE" 

2 1 1 0 GOSUB 1 ; I F I *— " L "GOSUB950: SOT 

0 1 00ELSE IF 1 *<> "N " THEN21 10 

2JI5 CLS: PRINTS96. " enter accoun 

t name" : L INE INPUTAN*: PRINT: PRINT 

- enter bank name " : L I WE I NPUT B A* t 

PRINT : PRINT " enter account #":LI 

NE INPUT AC* 

2120 CLS : GOSUB50 : PR I NT : PR INT: PR I 
NT "ENTER LAST BANK STATEMENT 

BALANCE " i ; L I HE I NPUT I * : BE- V A 
Hit) :PRINTei2B, STRING* (64 ( 32HP 
PINTS 128, "note: REPORTED CHECKB 
OOK BALANCE WILL NOT MATCH 

YOUR BALANCE UNTIL OUTSTAND 

I NG ' 

2125 PR I NT " CHECKS, CHARGES f DEPO 
SITS AND CREDITS AT STATEMENT 
II ME ARE ENTERED, :BOBUEil:CB 
■BB : 00SUB52: B0SUB54 : GO SUB 5 6 : PR I N 
T&i 28, STRING* < 192,32* 
2130 PRINT (§320, "ENTER OUTSTAND! N 
G ITEMS ": : po^224:ps-pd 

2 1 40 PR I NTGPO , " " J : GOSUB 1 : VI - VAL C 
]*> : I FFG-0AND < V I >0OR I *=CHR* * 1 3 ) 
> GOSUB60 : GOTO 21 40 

2150 J^INSTRU, " DAVES" +CHR* (94 > + 

CHR* ( 10) , I * > : I FFG-0THENDN J GOSUB 

6V , 64 , hh * 200 , 900 p 6G t 1 SELSEONJ GO 

SUB2160 P 21A0, 2160, 200, 900, 17, 18 

2155 IFJ«5 THENGOTO100 

2157 I FCR-LR THEN2 1 50ELSE2 1 40 

2160 RETURN 

\mm S AVE " RNB WC K BK 

1010W PCLEARJ : GOTO2000 

20000 FORK -0TO64 : PR 1 NTSX , CHR* ( 32 

+ K } : PR I NT® X+96 p CHR* < PEEK ( 1 024+ X 1 

);:NE*r A 



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JiiiiLir.iv 1fifi& THE flAINBOW 241 



UK 

ECB 



The 6809 Instruction Set 
— Zeroing In On 
f The Real Thing' 

By R. Kartly Belts 
Rainbow ( lou Iri holing Editor 
Wilh Programs By (liris Bone 



1am sure you are finger-weary if you 
typed in all of last month's iisiiag 
by hand. You ij-.-i-i a I real and 
I hope we will have one for you this 
month. 

t think we are id must through the 
painful pari and about ready u* have 
fun, Them a still ji lot of work lo be 
done, but the work is aim swecicr when 
something worthwhile is being accomp- 
lished. With ilit mlonnaiion yui now 
have learned about registers, we tan 
begin on the real thing, the 6K09 
instruction set. 

You have already been using several 
of the instructions recognized by yruit 
assembler. This ma nth you will begin 
takings cinder look al lb esc insiruci ions, 
what Uiey do and how lo use them. 

A great start toward understanding 
your assembler* instructions is knowing 
how to interpret ihe instruction set 
reference in your assembler manual and 
the references m other 6Ktl9 assembly 
language programming books The 



( {forth Beta is a former rrpvrter. mug- 
azmr edttur umi Man- owner fron al- 
moin f-'ott Worth* Texas. Hehasownea 
and operated a Color Computer fur 
over three years and U pre sen fly Ufkhtg 
an cfcctronuw and computer course fr.i 
correspondence, Chris Brine is a college 
computer scieme major ami has been 
programming for more than three years. 
He averages between six and nine hours 
a day vn the CoCoJ 



EDTASM+ manual seems like a good 
place to hegin I have ihe one ihat came 
with my cartridge pack. Radio Shuck 
Cat. No. 2602 50, The instruction set 
references start on Page > u . Page 37 
Inns a tied ion on definition of terms and 
Page 38 explains the abbreviation*. u%ed 
in the sci, tt will be helpful to refer lo 
3 best pages when you run up against 
definition problems. You are probably 
most familiar with the LD (load] 
instruction (pages 44 and 45 in my 
manual |. Regardless, nf what assembler 
you use, the reference should look 
something like the following; 

LD 

Load Register from Memory 

Source Forms; LDA P; I DB P 
Operation: R<— M 
Condition Codes. 
H -Noi affected 
N -Set if the loaded data is 

negative: cleared otherwise 
Z -Set if the loaded data is «ero; 

cleared otherwise 
V- Always cleared 
C -Not affected 
I Jescripiion: I oads the contents of 
memory location M into the designated 
reciter. 

Addressing Modes; lm mediate: Fk- 
i ended hi red : Indexed 

If you lake a close look at this 
instruction, it will provide a basis from 
which to understand Ihe reM of the 
instruction set, 



First, notice that ihe reference I typed 
Ln is one of two for the LD instruction, 
This one is labeled as "H-BIT,'* This 
instruct ion is only H-bit because it only 
uses register* A rind EL both S-bit 
registers You will recall from your 
study of binary numbers that the 
maximum value an fl-bit number can 
contain is 255. IT you want lo handle 
numbers luraer than 255. you will ha\c 
lo use ihe J 6-bit form of the LD 
iiastruciinn Actually, the only difief- 
ence between ihe two fortn> .-I i J;.c in.ul 
instruction is that the H-hit instruction 
uses registers A and B white the IrV 
bit form uses registers X, V, S and U. 

The information about what registers 
are used tn what way is found in Ihe 
line - Source Forms." The italic T in 
the line represents a memory location. 

Midi ;iv 

LDA 32 

where A is Ihe register lo be loaded fetid 
V i* mfmon local inn X2 

The line beginning with "Ope rat iota " 
lells you Ihat a register after ihe LD 
ope nil ion |R1, has been loaded with 
a value from memory (Ml. The arrow 
m i be line indicates ihe direction ul the 
data How 

The lines following "Condition 
Codes:" indicate the effect thai the 
opera l ton has on the five condition code 
Hags. A i this point you need not worry 
nhoiii I hem. their function will become 
clear in later columns 



242 THtfEAINpOW Jinuo^ IMS 




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The Description/" line restates the 
function of the operation. In this case 
it tells you i hat a register (either A or 
B) is loaded with the content*, o! a 
memory location {indicated hy Pi. 

I he I:im line " Vdressine, Modes " 
deserve a large portion ol ihi-i month \ 
column. Keeping the addressing mode* 
straight li not d it Ik 11 It once you have 
had u chance to investigate how they 
work, so lei's investigate the possible 
modes. 

Immediate Addressing 

Id immediate address in g, the data for 
on instruction is the actual valuer of the 
instruction*!, operand, An example is; 

LDA W2 

The a symbol tell* the assembler thai 
the value of 32 decimal is to he loaded 
into register A A hexadecimal value 
could pe indicated by, 

LDA WS2I) 

The S symbol tclb the assembler l hat 
l lie value to be loaded is hexadecimal 
As before, the ft symbol causes a load 
of the actual value o J Hen 20 or decimal 

E Men ded A ddre*sing 

It is just as easy to load the contents 
of a memory location into a register 
as it i» to load an established value. 
Extended addressing can be used to 
cause the value of a memory location 
to he transferred to a register That is 
done by leaving all the $ symbol from 
the instroction, such as: 

LDB .12 

In this case, register H is loaded with 
ihe value thai is contained in memory 
location .12. Again, you can follow the 



ianK procedure Ioj Her 

LDB $20 

II you glance through some ol the other 
LiistHKtions in your assemble! manual 
you will see that a great many in sit rue- 
[sons can operate in both the im mediate 
and extended addressing modes. 

Indexed Addressing 

Registers X and V are known as index 
registers, as noted last month. Although 
they are not used exclusively for 
indexed addressing, \\ is their main 
fun el ion As lb-hit registers, they can 
manipulate values up to SFFFF or 
6553 6« which includes all of your 
computer's memory. In indexed ad- 
dccssiiiH. you load registers X or Y with 
values that serve as pointers to a 
memory locat ion For example: 

00100 START i.rjX tfttOO -Limd X widi a 
memory value 

mi jn LDA «» 'Load Hex 2n 

unit* A 

00120 St\ \ 'Store the Mine 

of A Into the 
memory loca^ 
lion r*nn1nl to 
by rcRirtcr X 

In this example, register X is used 
a* a [lointer to memory location S5(MJ. 
You ose a comma before the X in show 
that it is being used as an index |o point 
to a location in memory. The power 
of indexed addressing lies in the case 
with which the "pointer** in the X and 
Y registers can be adjusted, for example: 

00 100 START l.l>X BiSOO Toad X ml h A 
nvm.ir\ uihir 

aono in\ #s3o "tout a with 

He* 20 



on i» i .nit «bi *J .ja«i a wtta 

Htxll 

001,10 STA X* 'Slfirr A in me- 

mory l. t .m.r 
MW 

00140 STB ,X *Slftre Bin me- 

mory location 
*SO| 

A plus symbol alter the register X 
indicates that it is lo be incremented 
after A is loaded into the memory 
address to whkH it is pointing. Thus 
the STB (store B) command stores the 
conients or register B into the next 
memory location* 500+1. An operation 
such as this could be put into a loop 
and any number of values could be 
loaded into sequential memory 
locations, 

if you have not yet done so. it might 
be belter to look at the ST instruction 
in your assembler manual. You will 
notice that its purpose is to transfer the 
value in a register to a memory location, 
as we have indicated above. The ST 
instruction can be ciihcr an H- or \k- 
hit operation and it can operate in 
extended, direct or indexed addressing. 

Inhirtut \ddrcssuiE 

With this addressing mode we will 
take a break from mental activity, it 
is the easiest of all addressing modes 
lit understand because it does not 
require anything more than knowing 
what the instructions are and when to 
use n Inherent addressing is exactly 
what its name implies, it provides all 
of its own information* nothing more 
needs lo be added For example: 

RTS 

is an instruction that causes program 
Lionrol lo be remrned to the parent 
routine I mm a suhnn-.tinv No address 
or values are needed nor, indeed, can 



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rv i ru hided The return uddress for the 
instruction a automatically pulled from 
l he S or hardware slack. There are a 
number of instruction* thm use inherent 
addressing. You might wish to glance 
through the instruction references and 
pick otii some of the others, like CXR 
and SW1. 

Direct Page Addressing 

Direct page or direct addressing 
involves using the contents of the direct 
page register a% the most ^ignificanl byte 
of an address. In effect, your assembler 
docs this anyway, hut, on start up. the 
direct page register contains 0 and ihu.s 
has no effect on other add resides. Once 
you put a value into the DP register, 
however, it is used as an offset for all 
8-bit addressing. 

In order to load the DP register, you 
must use the TF ft I transfer) instruction, 
it cannot be loaded directly. For 
example: 

LDI1 flSW •Load the B register with 
the value of 544 

TFR B,DP * Transfer the contents of 
B(44HoDr 



Will load a value of 44 into the direct 
page register. Now, if you issue an 
instruction: 

the assembler will use the value of 344 
as the most significant byte of the 
address whose contents were loaded 
into B, The effective address will be 
S4420. Asal read ymenti oned . H- bi is can 
only hold a maximum value of 255. 
Thus a direct page address can be any 
of 256 bytes (0 through 255 \, beginning 
at the direct page ic^t.-r address 

Now> after saving all that, t will tell 
you that we probably won't be doing 
anything with direct page addressing in 
the near future, so if it seems confusing. 
don\ worry. You could live quite a 
happy life without ever using this type 
of addressing. 



Mow ror The Good Stuff 

That's all I here is to the various types 
nf addressing. U ilh thai undei yom twit 
it is time lo quit the chatter for this 
column and gel on with the real thing 



Lutiny I at i Mr end <it tli* ivilurnn wjis 
written h> Chris lo make use nf some 
of the informal ion we have passed on 
this month, try and figure nut what 
it does he to re reading the comments. 
If you can guess what is going on. you 
have been making great progress. Even 
if you only recognize some of what thr 
program is for. you should be pleased 
wish yourself. Take the time to study 
the program thoroughly, it isn't too 
long, hut it contains several good 
ru ratines that will be, 

If all is not clear after studying the 
program, perhaps the follow ng will 
help: the crux of (he program is that 
a green snake is created on a black 
screen with a green border You can 
control the snake with a joystick 
plugged into the righl joystick port. If 
the snake hits the screen border it is 
stopped and must change directions lo 
continue. Chris has put lots of comments 
into the program to help you follow 
it through. Again Jook it over carefully. 
Try and pick out routines you can load 
and assemble and try out on your own 
to see how they work and lo sec if you 
can change them lo do something a Utile 



TCE News Release 



Mi >XDA Y OCTOBER L IM4 



GA I TIIEliSBl 71 r; . AM BY I A XD 



In 1985 TCE Will Introduce 
CHILD'S PLAY 

Mouse Tcvhtitffagictil Soft wart' Far The Cnfnr Computer! 



Tetl Malaska, President 
& Co- founder nf TCE 
Programs Inc., annum need 
today a new division for 
the development nf busi- 
ness software. 

Tin* new dr vision will 
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machine language business 



programs, under I be name 
Chiid's Plait beginning in 
the lirsi half of 1985, The 
Child's Play series will use 
rti ouse l e c h n n I o (j y and 
wtial Mr Malaskii termed 
T loud ng O verfays ' \ to 
eon fro I the operations 
within I he program, 



When asked why the 
name Child's Plmj was 
selected for a btiMot*ss 
scries, Mr. Malaskii rt 1 
sponded: "Flimtinu Over - 
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Phut , compared to other 
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246 THE RAINBOW Jwimry i9flS 



different; it is the way you will learn 
ihe quickest. 
The Test 

Now Fur the hard purl- To set- lL ytiu 
me really getting the hang nf assembly 
language code, see if you can create a 
seconil snake Hi slither around Willi E hi u 
first one. controlled with the leJt 
joystick. Use Chris" code lo guide you 
in ytiur efforts. Chris and I would he 
pleased to see the refill of yuur efforts. 

The Second InsUllmenl 

Jf that isn't emio^h to keep you 
occupied during the next month* here 
is the second part of the 5 1 -column texi 
generator. This month we are including 
the portion of the code thai will 
translate keystroke* into machine 
Iflngu^e liCTicraivtl characters. Yon *i!L 
he jhle In Use the new teM screen ,i1k i 
I-, pint! Lin J Lind »isKctTihhn£ (tie I olio wing 
Msuree COdt, Hefnre typing in I Im 
month's code, however, you will need 
to load last months listing and renumber 
it according to Chris 4 instructions given 
with l he listing. You will also need to 
type in and Kl'N the accompanying 
BASIC driver. The steps you should 



follow arc; 

1) Type in this month's source code. 

2) When finished* append IlisI month'* 
source code to the new code. 

3} Delete the ORG line I nun the 

heginnmc o! last month's code. 
A) Renumber the combined codes. 

Check your assembler manual for 

how to do this, 
5) Save the combined source codes., 
h) Assemble the combined codes. 
7} If there are any mistakes, correct 

them and assemble the code again. 
8> Save the resulting machine language 

code. 

9) Type in and save the BASIC listing 
(tilting M 

10) When you arc sure there arc no 
mistakes in cither the machine 
language code or the BASIC Listing* 
load the machine language listing 
into memory. Then load the basic. 
listing into memory* 

1 1) Rim the BASIC listing You should 
be presented with a new. 5 1 -column 
screen and the prompt, "Type what 
you want;" 

12) Hegin typing, as fast as you Like. 



I3t Enjoy the new screen. Li will soon 
be yours to use any time you tike. 
It will also soon ha\c several other 
programming features. 

Voir may find il useful to compare 
this month's source code with last 
Tmmth'* BASIC listing As the two serve 
the same purpose, torn paring them will 
help you understand what the source 
code listing is accomplishing and how 
it does the job. 

The characters you see on yuur screen 
arc now the text 10 be used in the 
finished prugi am J rid will he 5 1 columns 
across the screen. Still to be insulted 
are the hooks it* disable l he usual text 
mode and put you entirely into the new 
mode. As wclU some of the other 
programming features that will accom- 
pism Use new screen mode arc not yet 
included. 

listing 2 Is the source code for the 
new portion of the 5 i -column screen 
program- listing 3 is the BASK" driver 
you will need to use the new 51- 
character screen. Next month we will 
do away with all HASH help and you 
will be in full 51 columns. 



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