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THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

CoCoEd = - 



6ur Education Issue 

From Elementary Learning Games 
Tp RainbowTech 








c * ■ 




CD 






O 


> ^1 o 






i3 a* 










I ^ 






E *-* 


£5 O £ 






Of l© 




omework Helpers 

achers' Aids 

ath Programs, 
eoGraRfjSfcs, Quizzes, 
Word Scrambler 
d Other BASIC 
struction 



GAMES, GRAPHIC^ UTILITIES, COMMENTARY, 
ADVANCED LANGUAGE TUTORIALS, AND DOZENS OF 

fflmwmm m® software reviews 



WORLDS OF FLIGHT {WOF) is a "WfW 1 
oriented flight simulation for the TRS-80 
Color Computer, written entirety in 
Machine Language. Ll Vfew' J oriented, 
means rhat the pilol may determine his or 
her position by actually viewing .the sur- 
rounding landmarks as opposed to using 
instruments which sense navigational 
references. This rs a major departure from 
"Instrument only" simulations which can 
be achieved trough BASIC programs. 
Most instrument mane u vers and pro- 
cedures may be practiced. The craft is a 
Nghl-weignt, single-engine airplane with 
iaw wings. A nose wheel which is both 
stesrabtfr and retractable ia akso modeled. 
Som£> a^rpbatics are possible including 
sustained inverted fligm : aileron rolls, 
spins and stalls. 

JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 

32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPPS29.95 0ISKS32.95 



The Experts Say: 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

4285 BRADFORD N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 



C.L — "As a pilot / found "Flight" to 
be an outstanding simulation. 

M.H. — 'Wo one has created a more 
realistic flight simulator for the Color 
Computer. " 

D. HOOPER, pilot for major airline 
"An outstanding flying experience. 
Very realistic." 



•ADD $1.50 POSTAGE & HANDLING«TOP ROYALTIES PAID* 
•MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX* 

LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE r— - 

3 ARCADE ACTION GAMES 111 

TO ORDER CALL 616/957-0444 




From Computer Plus to YOU . . . 
PLUS after PLUS after PLUS 




Model 100 8K $495 
Model 100 24K $625 




Color Computer II 
W/64K Ext. Basic $205 



Model 4 16K $679 
Model 4 64K 
2 Disk & RS232 $1020 




DMP120 $385 
DMP200 $520 




Color Computer Disk Drive 
Drive 0 $289 Drive 1 $220 




BIG 5AVING5 ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

COMPUTERS 

Model 4 Portable 

64K w/2 Drives 1020 

Model 2000 2Dr 2299 

Model 12 1 Drive 2360 

Model 16B 1Dr 256K 3965 

MODEMS 

Hayes Smartmodem II 215 

AC-3 125 

DC Modem I 89 

DC Modem II 160 

PRINTERS 

Silver Reed EXP400 D.W. Par. 309 

Silver Reed EXP550 D.W. 3er. 430 

CGP115 159 

CGP220 Ink Jet 545 

DMP110 305 

Toshiba 1340 (24 wire head) 779 

Gemini 10X 289 

Gemini Powertype 345 

Panasonic P1091 315 

Smith Corona Fastext 190 

Prowriter 8510 345 

Okidata and Epson CALL 

CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 

• SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 



ETC. 




Juniors Revenge 


28.95 


Disk Drive Controller 


139 


Pac Attack 


24.95 


Extended Basic Kit 


39.95 


Block Head 


26.95 


PBH Ser/Par Conv. 


69 


Lunar Rover Patrol 


24.95 


64K Ram Chips 


62,95 


Lancer 


24.95 


Deluxe Keyboard 


35.95 


Typing Tutor 


23.95 


HJL Keyboard 


79.95 


Galagon 


24.95 


CCR-81 Recorder 


52 


Scott Adams Adventures 


19.95 


Deluxe Joystick (each) 


35.95 


Sea Dragon 


34.95 


Joysticks (pair) 


22 


i Colorcome 


49.95 


Video Plus (monitor adapter) 24.95 


Telewriter 64 


49.95 


Video Plus IIC 


39.95 


O-Pak (disk) 


34.95 


Amdek Color 1 + Monitor 


299 


Key-264K 


39.95 


Amdek Video 300 Green 


145 


Deft Pascal 


79.95 


Amdek Video 300 Amber 


159 


Elite-Calc 


59.95 


Taxan Color 210 Monitor 


265 


VIP Writer 


69.95 


Taxan Green 


130 


VIP Calc 


69.95 


Taxan Amber 


139 


VIP Terminal 


49.95 






VIP Database (disk) 


59.95 


SOFTWARE (Tape Version) 


Graphicom 


29.95 


The King 


26.95 






Screen Print (specify printer) 19.95 


Order any 2 software pieces listed 


Buzzard Bait 


27.95 


and take 10% off their listed price. 


World of Flight 


29.95 


All Radio Shack software 10% off list. 


Colorpede 


29.95 


Send for complete list. 





com 



r w i 

Mattof Covcl 

L 1 J 




P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 



18 




Under 
The 




FEATURES 



RAINBOWfest Report///™ Reed 

PICTORIAL A look at the Chicago show 

The Old Fashioned Clock/ 'Joseph S. Paravati _ 
EDUCATION A timely lesson 

Everything To Know About CoCol Andy Kluck 
TUTORIAL A series on helpful techniques 

Lil' Ole Interest Monitor/ Francis S. Kalinowski _ 
Ft NAN CE^_Watching-your goldpile-spatkle . 

Multiple Choice Test Generator/ Gary Kinney . 
EDUCATION Let CoCo make your multiple choic 



18 



25 



36 



51 



.57 



tests 



.74 



90 



Cooking With CoCol Colin J. Stearman 
EXPANDING BASIC Part III a recipe for patch addresses 

It's A Mystery/ Anthony Hallen 

GAME Guess various countries in the world 

Developing A Database Manager/ifr// Nolan 111 

DISK TUTORIAL PartllU on creating a disk mailing list program 



Word Scrambler For Spelling UstslJohn F. Wilfore. 
EDUCATION Practicing to spell correctly 

Teachers Need Spirit Masters/ Valerie Rhead 

TEACHER'S HELPER Creating stencils for the class 

IH1 The Mad Adder/ Larry K. Gage 

EDUCATION A logical math exercise 

Taylor ! 



.131 



.140 



.147 



NEXT MONTH: October, the time Mother 
Nature Outfits herself in bright, gypsy colors: 
what better time for our annual CoCo graphics 
iBsue. We'll show you how to become a video 
artist, covering everything from 'low down gra- 
phics" to animation. And, as election time 
nears, we'll have a fun quiz on Presidents. We'll 
also Introduce A new column on data communi- 
cations along with our usual varied mix of pro- 
grams, tutorials, games, utilities and reviews. 

Look for THE RAINBOW in October for more 
on the Color Computer than is available from 
any other source. 



S The ABC Game/James F. 

EDUCATION A learning tool for your preschooler 

Irsl The CoCo School MarmlJudy M. Dacus, David M. Dacus. 
EDUCATION Part /, Spelling is 'E Z' 

^ [=] GeoGraphics/Jasfp/z S. Paravati 

GAME A colorful states and capitals quiz 



RAINBOWTECH. 



.156 



.161 



f^l The small cassette tape symbols beside 
features and regular columns indicate 
that the program listings with those articles are 
on this month's RAINBOW ON TAPE, ready to 
CLOAD and RUN. For full details, check our 
RAINBOW ON TAPE ad on Page 226. 



.177 



Downloads/ Dan Downard 

Answers to your technical questions 

KISSable OS-9/ Dale L. Puckett 



.244 



.246 



Tidbits from Chicago, plus a duet in "C 
[s] Personable Pascal/ Daniel A. Eastham _ 



,265 



The many ways pascal lets you represent information 
Random Basics/ Paul Searby 



-258 



COVER art ® by Fred Crawford 



Design and development of application software, Part IV 

Frank Hogg's "/jogg-wash" will return next month. 



COLUMNS. 



BASIC Training/ Joseph Kolar 

Practicing LINE and DRAW — without drudgery 

Bits And Bytes Of BASIC/ Richard White 

A checkbook balancer 

Building September's Rainbow//z>H Reed 

Announcing the "One-Liner" contest 

Hl) Byte Master/i?. Bartly Belts 



.109 



.126 



16 



.121 



Sinking your teeth into some assembly language meat 
CoCo Graphics/ Don Inman 



.100 



Build a honeycomb from basic 
Earth To Ed/ Ed Ellers 



.236 



Beam up those "tech" questions 

5G Education Notes/Steve Blyn 

Create a calendar 

Education Overview//)/*. Michael Plog 

Opposing views on computers in education 

GameMaster's Apprentice/ George Firedrake and Art Canfil. 
Role playing games 

PRINT #-2,/ Lawrence C. Falk 

Editor's notes 

School Is In The Heart Of A Child/ Bob Albrechi, 

Ramon Zamora 



96 



.119 



.20 



12 



44 



Play together, learn together 

Turn Of The Screw/ Tony DiStefano 
The HALT pin and its functions 



H Wishing WeWIFred Scerbo. 
The multi math driller 



.174 



.225 



DEPARTMENTS. 

Advertiser Index 



Back Issue Information. 

CoCo Clubs 

Corrections 



Letters To Rainbow. 
The Pipeline. 



Received And Certified. 



273 
247 
238 
234 
_ 6 
136 
188 



Reviewing Reviews 
Scoreboard 



Scoreboard Pointers . 
Submitting Material 
To Rainbow 



Subscription Information 
These Fine Stores 



191 
170 
172 

209 
_ 24 
270 



PRODUCT REVIEWS 

Product Review Contents 




187 



September 1984 Vol. IV No. 2 



Editor and Publisher 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor James E, Reed 
Senior Editor Courtney Noe 
Technical Editor Dan Downard 
Copy Editor Susan Remini 
Submissions Editor Jutta Kapfhammer 
Editorial Assistants Monica Dorth, 

Valarie Edwards, Wendy Falk, 

Suzanne Kurowsky, Lynn Miller, 

Shirley Morgan, Noreen Morrison, 

Kevin Nickols, Tamara Soltey 
Technical Assistant Ed Ellers 
Contributing Editors Bob Albrecht, Steve Blyn, 

Tony DiStefano, Dan Eastham, Frank Hogg, 

Don Inman, Joseph Kolar, Dale Peterson, 

Michael Plog, Dale Puckett, Paul Searby, 

Fred ScerbO, Richard White 
Art Director Sally Nichols 
Assistant Art Director Jerry McKiernan 
Designers Peggy Henry, Neal C. Lauron, 

Kevin Quiggins 
Advertising Manager Charlotte Ford 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 

(502) 228-4492 
General Manager Patricia H. Hirsch 
Asst. General Manager for Finance Donna Shuck 
Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Advertising Accounts Doris Taylor 
Dealer Accounts Judy Quashnock 
Administrative Assistant to the Publisher 

Marianne Booth 
RAINBOWfest Site Management Willo Falk 
Director of Fulfillment Services Bonnie Shepard 
Asst. Customer Service Manager Deidra Henry 
Customer Service Representative Sandy Apple 
Word Processor Manager Lynda Wilson 
RAINBOW ON tape Subscriptions Monica Wheat 
Research Assistants Laurie Falk, 

Wanda Perry, Loretta Varda, Kara Voit 
Dispatch Mark Herndon 
Production Assistant Melba Smith 



Advertising and Marketing Office for the Western states and 
provinces: Cindy Shackleford, director, 12110 Meridian South, 
Suite 8, P.O. Box 73-578, Puyallup, WA 98373-0578. Phone: (206) 
848-7766- Territories included: AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, ID, MT, NV, 
NM, OR, UT, WA, WY, Canadian Provinces of Alberta, British 
Columbia, Saskatchewan. 

THE RAINBOW is represented in the Eastern United States by 
Garland Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 314, S.H.S., Duxbury, MA 
02331 , (617) 934-6464 or 934-6546. Advertisers east of the Missis- 
sippi may contact them for further information, Territories 
included: AL, CT, DE, DC, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, ME, MD, MA, Ml, MS, 
NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, Rl, SC.TN, VA, VT, WV, W I, Canadian Prov- 
inces of Ontario, Quebec. 

L> 

the rainbow is published every month of the year by 
FALSOFT, Inc., 9529 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, 
Prospect, KY, 40059. Phone (502) 228-4492. THE RAIN- 
BOW and the rainbow logotypes are ® trademarks of 
FALSOFT, Inc. 

Second class postage paid Prospect, KY and addi- 
tional offices. USPS N. 705-050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797). 
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to THERAlNBOW, 
P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. Forwarding Postage 
Guaranteed. Authorized as second class postage paid 
from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontar- 
io, Canada. 

Entire contents © by FALSOFT, Inc., 1984. THE RAIN- 
BOW is intended for the private use and pleasure of its 
subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by any 
meansis prohibited. Use of information herein is for the 
single end use of purchasers and any other use is 
expressly prohibited. All programs herein are distrib- 
uted in an "as is" basis, without warranty of any kind 
whatsoever. 

TRS-80, Color basic, Extended Color BASIC, Scripsit 
and Program Pak are ® trademarks of the Tandy Corp. 
CompuServe is a ® trademark of CompuServe Inc. 

Subscriptions to THE RAINBOW are $28 per year in the 
United States. Canadian and Mexican rates are U.S. $35. 
Surface mail to other countries is U.S. $65, air mail U.S. 
$100. Ail subscriptions begin with next available issue. 

Limited back issues are available. Please see notice 
for issues which are in print and costs. Payment 
accepted by VISA, MasterCard, American Express, 
Cash, Check or Money Order in U.S. currency only. 



LETTERS TO THE 





ARTS AND LETTERS 




Envelope Of The Month 



Andy Green 
Whitehall, PA 



HINTS & TIPS 

Editor: 

Recently, while working on a basic 
coding program, I needed an exclusive OR 
function, which CoCo doesn't have in its 
vocabulary. 

With a little diligence and help from a 
friend I came up with the following: 

10 INPUT "Numbers to be XOR'd";A,B 
20 OA AND (32767-B) OR B AND 

(32767-A) 
30PRINTC 

If the user inputs three for A and six for B, 
the lines will put five in C. 

Example: A = 00 11 3 
B = 01 10 6 
XOR = 0101 5 

The routine seems to work for all positive 
numbers up to 32767. 

I'm sure some reader out there must be in 
dire need of this exclusive (pardon the pun) 
function. 
Keep up the good work. 

Burnie L. Whiddon 
Orlando, FL 

Editor: 

I think it should be reiterated that the 
CoCo is in fact capable of (C)LOADMing 
with a negative offset. This was first printed 
on page 172 of the rainbow, April 1983. 
Since then, at least one program has ap- 



peared that does the offsetting by another, 
more complicated method. The "negative 
offset" is not really a negative number. It is 
the negative offset plus 65536, or NEW. 
A DDR- OLD. A DDR+65536. The CoCo 
thinks that 65536=0, so adding zero to the 
offset doesn't change it, but it does fool 
basic into thinking that the offset is positive. 
A 16-bit word containing 65535 is stored as 
1 6 ones. Like an odometer set at 99999.9, an 
increment by one will throw it back to zero, 
so 65535+1=0. 
Therefore, 65536=0, and 65537=1, etc. 

Lucas Ford 
Philadelphia, PA 

SWEET SMELLING HINT 

Editor: 

Here is a little tip that may help people 
playing The Arconiax Assignment (July 
1984). If you ever save a game, then load 
your old position, you may find something 
like "Scratch Box #4" when you take inven- 
tory. If this occurs, simply DROP that 
object and then reTAKE it. It will then 
appear as it correctly should when you take 
inventory. 

If anyone has comments about the game, 
t hey may call me at the New West BBS (5 1 6) 
673-9452. Leave all questions/comments on 
the "CoCo Goldmine" addressed to: Eric 
Tilenius. If you leave your address, I will 
reply by mail so you won't have to make two 
long distance calls. 

Eric W. Tilenius 
Huntington, NY 



Editor: 

1 would like to pass along some informa- 
tion for those readers who, like myself, have 
a Radio Shack DMP 120 printer and have 
been trying to use it with the Radio Shack 
Graphics Pak or with disk graphics software. 

Radio Shack has released a set of screen 
print utilities (Cat. No. 26-3121), which are 
designed to work with their color printers 
and the DMP 120. 

As you will recall, RAM space is reserved 
starting at location &H600 for graphics 
pages. The Graphics Pak and disk graphics 
routines place the completed graphs there 
for storage and for printing to the screen and 
to a printer. Clearing the routines from 
memory does not disturb any information 
placed in the graphics page area until a new 
program is located there or space is reserved 
for another graphics page; so that it is possi- 
ble to generate a graph, load another pro- 
gram above the reserved graphics area and 
enter the reserved graphics page area for the 
information to be printed. 

To print a graph generated by the disk 
graphics routine, draw the graph and display 
it on the screen, return to the menu, and exit 
to basic. Then load the screen print utility, 
B WD UMP, execute it arid print your graph. 

An interesting project for someone out 
there would be to replace the print subrou- 
tine in the disk graphics program with the 
screen print utility to provide a one-step 
process for using the DMP 120. 

William T Longe 
Pittsburgh, PA 

A FAST POKE 

Editor: 

The following short program should indi- 
cate to your readers whether or not their 
machine will take the "fast poke," POKE 
65495,0. Simply type it in and RUN it. 

0CLS0 

1 PRINT "YOUR MACHINE WONT 
TAKE THE FASTPOKE." 

2 PRINT@4I6, "PRESS RESET TO 
RESUME OPERATION"; 

3 POKE 65495,0 

4 SOUND I, 1 
5PR1NT@13, "WILL"; 
6PRINT@416 

Please note that there is a space after 
"WILL" on Line 5. For further tips on the 
CoCo, call or write me; maybe 1 can help 
you. My address is: P.O. Box 385, 29556, 
Phone (803) 354-7073. 

Joey Staton 
Kingstree, SC 



6 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



BASIC09 

Editor: 

I have a couple of hints about using 
BASIC09 that may be of help to some readers. 

1) If you're using BAS1C09 with FHL O- 
Pak, you can get more memory by loading 
BASIC09 before you install the Hi-Res Screen. 
You can then type BASIC09 #10K without 
getting a memory f\i\\ error. 

2) By including the following short pro- 
gram in your workspace, you'll never have to 
spend time figuring out screen positions 
again. Instead, just include the line RUN 
cursor (horizontal, vertical), where horizon- 
tal and vertical are the desired screen posi- 
tions. 

Procedure cursor 

PARAM horizontal,vertical:INTEGER 

horizontal:=hbrizqntal+$20 

verticaI:=vertical+$20 

PRINT CHR$($02)+CHR$ (horizontal) 

+CHR$(vertical); 
END 

Now, can someone dut there help me? 1 
have the H JL keyboard and can't seem to get 
the function keys to work in a BAS1C09 pro- 
gram (or in OS-9 in general, for that matter). 
Does anyone know the reason? Write to me 
at 1 15 Columbia Turnpike, 07932. 

John Ruzicka 
Florham Park, NJ 



INFORMATION PLEASE 

Editor: 

I have a technical question concerning 
power supplies. As you no doubt know the 
UK domestic power supply is 240v,50Hz. 
Can 1 run my equipment in UK using a 
simple transformer like the one which Radio 
Shack sells, or will 1 need to transform the 
frequency to 60Hz as well? My equipment 
consists of an E board ( CoCo, which I have 
upgraded to 64K, twin Tandon disk drives, a 
Gemini 1 OX printer, an Amdek Color 1 Plus 
monitor and a Radio Shack tape recorder. 1 
am told that the voltage is reduced to 12v 
DC in the C0C0, but 1 am not sure whether 
there are any chips which are frequency 
dependent even after conversion to I2v. As 
for the rest of my equipment, does any of it 
run on 12v DC and, if not, is any of it fre- 
quency dependent? 

T.A. Pearson 
Omaha, NE 

Editor: 

Help! 1 just bought a CGP-115 printer 
with my TRS-80 64K Extended, and 1 can- 
not figure out how to print graphics! The 
manuals do not make this clear to me, and I 
cannot understand the store's explanation. 
E5o 1 need some other software? If anyone 
could help me, I would be eternally grateful ! 
Also, could anyone out there explain the 
DOS function? 1 just can't work it out. My 
address is: 7306 N.E. 140th Place, 9801 1. 

Jean Breen 
Bothell, WA 



HELPING THE HANDICAPPED 

Editor: 

I have a problem that I hope that either 
you, or your readers pan solve. 

1 know a handicapped person who is con- 
fined to a wheelchair and has limited speech. 

1 would like to hook a MC-10 to a speech 
chip and a speaker to his wheelchair battery. 
I would also like to get a PROM made with 
the program 1 will write with basic words 
and phrases that he wili need to communi- 
cate with others. Also, 1 would adapt the 
MC-10 to 12-volt power supply so that it 
would be portable. 

1 chose the MC-10 because of the size and 
cost. I think this adaption could connect 
through the memory expansion slot. 

If any of your readers, authors; or adver- 
tisers have any ideas, hints, or other tidbits 
of information, please let me know. My 
address is Box 428, 28906. Thank you for 
your help! 

David Melees 
Murphy, NC 

Editor: 

Would you know of anybody who pro- 
duces a video monitor interface which is 
external to the case of the TRS-80 Color 
Computer? It seems that everyone is offering 
items for inside the case, but 1 don't care to 
go inside of my machine. My address is 217 
Cramer Hall, UMC, 65201. 

Robert Levitt 
Columbia, MO 

MORE RAM 

Editor: 

The TRS-80 Color Computer has to be 
the best buy on the market today. Aside 
from the hardware advantages which we all 
know so well, this device has generated more 
popular consumer support than any com- 
puter since the Apple II. The number and 
quality of after-market vendors is just incred- 
ible, and the software available is beyond 
comparison. 

How many "toy" computers can boast 
four major DOS (Disk basic, Flex, OS-9, 
and CP/M), and every computer language 
you could want? There are gadgets to add 
almost any capability you need, and great 
magazines like rainbow to help with any 
problem you may have. But our beloved 
C0C0 is sorely lacking in one respect that I 
think really needs to be addressed. In a 
word; MEMORY! 

Some will think that 64K of RAM is 
enough, and 1 know programmers that do 
wonders with it. But the latest generation of 
computers can access almost unlimited 
memory. These are the machines that are 
attracting the software vendors. Massive 
second generation spreadsheets, what-you- 
see-is-what-you-get word processors, com- 
plex Adventure games, and other advanced 
programming is being developed for these 
megabyte computers. The C0C0 will be left 
in the dust! 

At this time, 1 would like to challenge all 
of you who are interested in the future of our 
computer. Let's develop a system to allow 
the C0C0 to access more than 64K RAM ! If 



the vendors see that this computer can han- 
dle the advanced software being developed 
for other machines, the market and capabili- 
ties of the Color Computer will continue to 
grow! 

Stephen Roberson 
Chandler, AZ 



A PERSONAL LOSS 

Editor: 

It is with a sense of profound loss that I 
report the death on June 8, 1984 of Greg 
Wilson, the publisher of the Australian edi- 
tion of THE RAINBOW. 

Greg had a most distinguished career, 
being at first an accountant, then an educa- 
tional administrator. He retired about five 
years ago at an early age due to continuing 
heart problems. After a year of moping 
around the house, during which he built his 
own computer,his ceaseless energy could no 
longer be confined. 

Several of his letters lauding the Tandy 
Colour Computer were published in the 
local computer press, and it wasn't long 
before he had evolved the embryo of what 
has become a most organized and well- 
constructed network of support groups for 
the Tandy Colour Computer. 

Greg understood and cared for people. He 
absolutely hated to see them being ripped off 
and he wasn't the least afraid to yell long and 
loud at Tandy, or anyone else who he 
thought was doing things against the inter- 
ests of computer users. 

He was very proud — not of his own 
achievements, which had been many, but of 
the people who developed their talents 
through, and sometimes because of, the 
magazines and publications with which he 
was associated. His particular 'baby' was a 
magazine called *MiCo' which was aimed at 
users of the MC-10 computer. His greatest 
thrill, during his last days, Was to receive 
material for publication in that magazine. 

It appears that Greg disturbed someone 
robbing his flat and suffered a heart attack 
soon after. He will be greatly missed. He was 
loved and respected by all who knew him. 
Somehow^ when I read his old magazines or 
run one of the programs he supplied, some- 
how, he doesn't seem quite that far away. 

I'm sure all your readers will join with me 
in extending to Helga, his wife, and to all 
those in Greg's family our deepest sympathy. 

Graham Morphett, 
Editor 

Australian rainbow 

We at the rainbow also wish to extend out 
sympathies to Greg's family, and to express 
to all our appreciation for the work he did so 
well for the magazine and for our Australian 
readers. 

— The Editors 



KUDOS 

Editor: 

I am writing this letter to you because I 
want to praise this great source of infor- 
mation. 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 7 



This is where 1 really started with the 
CoCo and I think many others have, too! 
Congratulations on your work! 

Tom Mills 
Chicago, IL 

ROY'S SCHOOLMATE 

Editor: 

As you know, the rainbow is the best 
CoCo magazine available today. 1 look for- 
ward to my new issue every month which I 
read over several times. I was reading my 
new issue when I came across a name, Roy 
G. Biv. I was fortunate enough to meet Roy 
last year in my chemistry class. Roy is a nice 
guy once you get to know him, and 1 hope 
that Roy will do a feature article in one of 
your upcoming issues. 

Paul Osburn 
Stockton, CA 

Editor: 

The best CoCo magazine just got super, 
fantastic, complete and (even more) won- 
derful! 

Thank you for the addition of pascal. 

Robert Dooman 
Glenview, IL 



BOUQUETS & BRICKBATS 

Editor: 

1 would like to commend two of your 
advertisers for excellent service. I recently 
purchased the Flip-it disk doubler from 



Reitz Computer Center. Unfortunately, this 
method would not work with my system. 

When 1 ordered 20 diskettes from Soft- 
ware Support, three turned out to be hard- 
sectored instead of soft*. 

Both companies processed the original 
orders very quickly. What amazed me was 
how quickly and fairly both companies 
handled the problems. 1 would highly 
recommend both companies for any future 
purchases. 

' Arthur L. Lewis 
V St. Louis, MO 

Editor: 

I would like to commend one of your 
advertisers, Double Density Software, for 
their excellent service and top quality 
products. 

Like many other novices in the field of 
data communications, 1 relied on the reviews 
and ads in the rainbow to guide my search 
for a terminal communications program. 
My search ended with my first call to Double 
Density's Larry Perry. 

Thanks to his technical advice and sup- 
port, both before and after my purchase 
(and to the smooth operation and profes- 
sional features of Double Density's Color 
Term +Plus+ Program), IVe been able to: 
access IBM mainframes, information utili- 
ties, electronic mail systems, and bulletin 
boards, all without a single hitch. A friend of 
mine, who owns an Apple, has yet to find a 
terminal software supplier who can offer 
anywhere near the same level of support, 
even for packages costing several times as 
much. 



I heartily recommend this fine company 
to all RAINBOW readers. 

Richard Woytowich 
St a ten Island, NY 

Editor: 

1 purchased software from one of your 
advertisers in your February Issue. Arizona 
Software of Mesa, Ariz, advertised Elites- 
File software at a price of $50.95 plus ship- 
ping on Page 49. The ad also claimed the 
prices were "good through Feb. 15, 1984." 
My order was placed on Feb. 13. Upon 
receipt of the software, purchased against a 
Visa card, the charges were $64.95. The same 
offer was again made in the March issue with 
identical prices guaranteed until March 15. 

I have attempted to correspond without 
response from the Arizona Discount Soft- 
ware Company, and at last resort, reporting 
the situation to you. 

I have the highest respect for your publi- 
cation. I purchase a great deal of material 
through ads in your magazine and have 
never had a similar problem. 

David G. Kaiser 
Virginia Beach, VA 

Editor: 

I have been involved with the Color Com- 
puter since its infancy. Over the years I have 
seen the base of software grow from nothing 
to its present excellent level of diversity and 
quality, the rainbow, I feel, has played an 
instrumental role in this growth and should 
be thanked by all CoCo users. 




The Best Selling Program for Young Children 
Mow Available for: TR5-80 Color Computer- 
16K disk or cassette and TR5-80 Models 
-32K disk or 16K cassette 



Mine fun educational games for children ages Z x k to 6 



counterpoint software, in 

4005 West Sixty-Fifth Street 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55435 



Please rush me Early Games for Young Children 



J Circle one: 
Model I bisk 
Model III Disk 



\ 



Color Computer Disk Model \\\\\ Cassette 
Color Computer Cassette 



Phone Orders: 800-328-1223 
Minnesota: 612-926-7888 

Educators Endorse: "Early Games can help children 
learn new concepts, information and skills, and 
also introduces them to thejoys and benefits of 
home computers/' 

Peter Clark, Faculty 
Institute of Child Development 
University of Minnesota 

ho adult supervision required, The Picture Menu 
gives children control. They cam 



Name 



Address 



\ 
\ 



City 



State 



Zip 



Q My check for $29.95 is enclosed (Minnesota residents add 6% sales tax). 
EH Charge to VISA D Charge to Mastercard 



\ 
\ 



Acct. Mo. 



Expiration Date 



Match numbers 
Count Colorful 
Blocks 

■ Add 5tacks of 
Blocks 

• Subtract Stacks 
of Blocks 
Draw and 
5ave 
Colorful 
Pictures 



■ Match Letters 

■ Learn the Alphabet 

• Spell their names 

• Compare Shapes 



i 




THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Color Power II 

Expands Your CoCo to CP/M 2.2 



I I t COLOR POWER 0 FEATURES I t t 



34 INCLUBES tm 2.2 WHICH ALLOWS VOU TO RUN THOUSANDS OF CP/H PROGRAMS 
W 

K GENERATES HIGH SUALITr 39 COLUMN BY 24 LINE DISPLAY AS IN THIS REAL PHOTO 

37 WITH UPPER and [oyer case characters an uour composite y tdeo loniton 

38 INSTRUCTIONS INCLUDED ON USING MOTOROLA f«45 DIRECTLY FROM YOUR iqCo 

18 INCLUBES SEPARATE POWER SUPPLY i HELPS KEEP YOUR CoCo COOL) 
tl 

12 INCLUBES POWERFUL FOUR MHz Z-38A MICROPROCESSOR 
n 



COOL) 

AGE CAPACITY j 
ONS NEEDED I 



14 SUPPORTS DOUBLE-DENSITY DISK FORMATS FOR MAXIMUM STORAGE CAPACITY 
1 5 

16 ABSOLUTELY NO S4K CoCo OR CoCo II HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS NEEDED 

18 OPTIONAL Ultra Ten + bu Double Bensitu Softyare: ALLOWS 

19 YOUR CoCo TO OPERATE AS AN 38 COLUMN BY h LINE COMMUNICATIONS TERMINAL 
28 

21 POPULAR CP/M SOFTWARE AVAILABLE 
22 

?S?!SH8i l i l 1 11111 22£22222223333333333444444444455555555556C6666666677777^22 
12345678981234567898123456789812345678981234567898123456789812345678981234567891 



Plug Color Power II into the expansion port of your 64K 
CoCo or CoCo 2, plug your disk controller into Color Power 
II, and insert our disk into your drive. You are now ready to 
run thousands of CP/M programs such as WordStar^ , 
MailMerge® , SpellStar^ , and Starlndex™ and to run Ultra 
Term + to create an 80 column by 24 line terminal. 

Your CoCo is now a CP/M compatible computer that 
includes CP/M 2.2 and generates an 80 column by 24 line 
display on your 80 column monitor with upper and lower 
case characters. 



P 

Introductory Prices: 

Color Power II (includes CP/M 2.2) $329.00 

Add Ultra Term + $ 55.00 

Color Power II plus WordStar® & MailMerge® $498.00 
Add SpellStar® and Starlndex™ for only $ 79.00 

Call or send check, money order, Visa or MasterCard 
number with expiration date to the address below. 
N.J. residents add 6% sales tax. 



^py) Color Power Unlimited, Inc. 

1260 Springfield Ave., P.O. Box 606-F, New Providence, N.J. 07974 (201) 665-9646 



Color Power Is a trademark of Color Power Unlimited, Inc. 
CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc., WordStar, MailMerge, SpellStar, and Starlndex are trademarks of MicroPro International Corp. 



1 think we have entered a new generation 
of CoCo software. Cognitec's Telewriter-64 
is an example of the excellent applications 
software available. And the latest games 
from Tom Mix, such as Ms. Maze, are 
finally bringing arcade action to the CoCo 
and demonstrate the machines graphics and 
sound capabilities to their maximum. 

1 think these and other rainbow advertis- 
ers deserve a pat on the back for contribut- 
ing to the success of our favorite computer. 

Brett Johnson 
Columbus, OH 



NEUTRAL WATERS 

Editor: 

1 would like to comment on Mr. Nickols 1 
article, Adventure Contest Update on Page 
189 of the July 1984 rainbow. 

Unlike what Mr. Nickols says, the shores 
of Finland are definitely not Soviet pa- 
trolled, nor is the rest of Finland. It would be 
nice if Mr. Nickols did not make comments 
about things of which he obviously is mis- 
informed. 

Timo Talasmaa 
Helsinki, Finland 

Editor's Note: We certainly apologize 
for upsetting any national sensibili- 
ties. The term was used loosely and 



descriptively — no political meaning 
was intended. 



BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS 

Editor. 

We are pleased to announce our BBS, 
Colorama of North West Jersey is now 
online. 

We will be up seven days a week, 24 hours 
a day. We are running a Colorama BBS 
system which features a news section, an 
upload and large download section. A want- 
ad section, a shop at home service, E-Mail 
and much, much more. Our mailing address 
is: Colorama, 252 RT 46, P.O. Box 337, 
07880. 

Robert Johnson, Sysop 
Vienna, NJ 

Editor: 

We would like to announce the Dakota 
Database. The Color-80, number 29 BBS is 
available 24 hours a day at (701) 281-0233. 

We have programs for the CoCo and 
Model 100 for download, and the board is 
open to all computer users. There is also an 
electronic mail section, a mini database, and 
electronic shopping. 

John Steiner 
Riverside, ND 



Editor: 

We have the first OS-9 Bulletin Board 
System in the Greenville area. The phone 
number is (803) 288-0613. The hours of 
operation are 10 p.m. -7 a.m. Mon.-Sun. The 
BBS name is DLOAD OS-9. 

We have upload /download, E-Mail, mer- 
chandise, and we support the OS-9 User's 
Group. Both Radio Shack basic and BASIC09 
programs for download are available. It's 
sponsored by the Soft Shop, P.O. Box 878, 
Mauldin, S.C. 29662. 

We are trying to organize a Color Com- 
puter Club for Wednesday nights for the 
Mauldin area. Interested people should leave 
a message on the BBS or call the "Shop." 

Brian Tate, Sysop 
Greenville, SC 

Editor: 

1 would like to extend my sincere thanks 
to all the rainbow staff. I've been a sub- 
scriber since May 1982, and, let me tell you, 
we've come a long way together. Keep up the 
outstanding good work! 

I'm writing to let you and your many sub- 
scribers know of another CoCo BBS. It is 
Colorama of Port Jefferson Station. The 
hours of operation are 6 p.m.-6 a.m., seven 
days a week, and the number is (516) 
331-3718. 

I can't wait to see what the years ahead 
will bring from your fine publication! 

John Adkins, Sysop 
Port Jefferson Station, NY 



TRS-80 COMPUTER DISCOUNTS 




COLOR COMPUTERS 




26-3026 16k color II 
26-3027 16k ext color II 
26-31 27 64k color comp 
26-3029 1st disk drive 
26-3023 2nd disk drive 



PRINTERS 



26-1271 DMP-110 
26-1254 DMP-200 
26-1255 DMP-120 
26-1257 DWP-210 



MODEL 4 and 100's 



26-1067 mod 4 16k 
26-1068 mod 4 64k 1 dr. 
26-1069 mod 4 64k 2dr. 
26-1080 mod 4 p 
26-3801 mod 100 8k 
26-3802 mod 100 24k 



139.95 
165.00 
210.00 
299.95 
229.95 



299.95 
510.00 
395.00 
620.00 



699.95 
1000.00 
1289.95 
1239.95 
525.00 
659.95 



We Carry the Complete Line of TRS-80 
Computer Products at Discount Prices 

CALL FOR A FREE PRICE LIST 800-257-5556 
IN N.J. CALL 609-769-0551 

WOODSTOWN ELECTRONICS 

Rt. 40 E. WOODSTOWN, N.J. 08098 



10 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Don't Take Chances! 

Instead use the revised 

DATABASE/MAILER 64, 

& 

LETTER WRITER 64 

REVISION C 

for FAST, EASY single page letters 
or 1000's of form letters & labels 
with our new 

30 DAYMONEY-RACK. 
GUARANTEE!* ^ 



Poor 
Manual 


No 
Support 


Hard 1 f | 

z ill 





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SOFTWARE COMPANY 



□ 




RAINBOW 



ACCOUNTS • INSURANCE • PROPOSALS • BULK MAIL • DENTAL RECALL • CHRISTMAS LISTS • CHURCHES • CLUBS • REALTORS • SALES 



• Active menus guide you to valid operations. 

• Won't "hang up" your system. 

• 32K system allow 68 to 440 records per file. 

• 64K system allows 91 to 610 records per file. 

• Up to 10 fields, 270 characters/record. 

• All user definable with default values - easy. 

• Sort any Held alpha/numeric, full or partial. 

• Adjusts for empty address lines - no gaps. 

• Create new files from all or part of old file. 

• Auto select "special" records for saving to new file. 

• Change lengths, add or delete fields of existing files. 

• Auto copy identical data to ail records in file. 

• Combine unfilled files to create new file from old. 

• Full memory sense adjusts to your system. 



• Up to 9 line labels with up to 500 copies each. 

• Master two column printout with field names. 

• Master printout includes date, paging & filename. 

• Selective printing by any field or field range. 

• Accepts alpha or numeric zip codes up to 10 digits. 

• Partial or whole item search by any chosen field. 

• Single screen 10 record display by any field. 

• Single key entry for hard copy of screen data. 

• Disk to tape data file transfer. 

• Tape to disk data file transfer. 

• Archive files to tape for security, 

• 1 key VERIFY ON/OFF for secure copying. 

• Interim save allows multiple file copies. 

• User friendly error checking. 



• Fast single page letter writing with wordwrap. 

• Embedded commands center, tab and line skip. 

• Full screen edit allows delete, insert & change. 

• Headings are tabbed, spaced automatically. 

• No "Database Adventure" - over 50 page manual. 

• Manual includes program operation flowcharts. 

• Not needed, but included is user modification section. 

• Access up to 4 drives in disk version. 

• Prints sorted disk directory to printer. 

• Directory printout fits on disk jacket. 

• Copy files/programs between disks. 

• 2 key kill of old files/programs on disk. 

• Complete file maintenance made easy. 

• Fully menu driven for fast, easy response. 



DARE TO COMPARE: ^GUARANTEE ^FEATURES S^RICE 
The most complete package available 

for Only...$99. 95 plus shipping & handling. 

Tired of waiting? we ship 1st Class Mail within 48 hours. 



When ordering please provide: 
NAME 
ADDRESS 
CITY/STATE 
ZIP CODE 
PHONE 
TAPE or DISK 
CREDIT CARD NO. 
EXP. DATE 

Master Card holders — 
include interbank no. 



MmtwCanll 



Call our 24 hour orderline 

619-695-1385 



or 61 9-566-601 3, 9 — 5 p.m. PST weekdays 
or send check or money order to: 

EUS ENGINEERING 

9528 Suite 35, Miramar Road 
San Diego, CA 921 26 

"Sewing the Defense and Space Industry since 1979" 



Please include the following: 
$3 postage and handling 
U.S. funds only 
CA residents add 6% tax 
COD orders add $4 
Amdek disk add $4 

Dealer inquiries invited 
Personal checks - OK 
we won't make you wait. 

•from date of invoice excluding 
non-refundable postage/handling/ 
COD charges. 



PRINT #-2, 




Was RAINBOWfest-Chicago a success? It certainly was! For the first time, 
it seemed we had enough space — yet we had more exhibitors than ever 
before, almost 60 of them. As for attendance, there were a little over 
10,500 there — a really big, fun and exciting show. 

In fact, the Chicago show had a few more in attendance than did New Brunswick 
— so it is up to you Easterners now to better the Midwest attendance record. You 
can do it in Princeton, N.J., Sept. 28 through 30 at the Hyatt-Regency Hotel. 

R AINBOWfests seem to be getting bigger and better all the time. So, plan to join 
us this second "season." Details and an order form for tickets are inside this month's 
issue. 

Welcome to our Education Issue! As readers from a year ago may remember, last 
year's education issue was one of the most exciting that we have ever had — and, it 
also contained news of the CoCo 2. 1 thought Fred Crawford did a wonderful job of 
combining education and the Color Computer 2 (and 64K CoCo) news with his 
September 1983 cover — of a "blackboard breakthrough." 

This September, we have no news comparable to last year's CoCo 2 announce- 
ment, but we do have something new. In telling you about it, I would like to set the 
stage just a bit. 

Those of you who follow the words in this space from time to time may be aware 
that I hold the notion of Reader Service in something less than high regard. The 
reason is a simple one — I do not see reader service as reader service, but as a service 
to an advertiser and, additionally, as a selling tool for those who hawk advertising 
space. At the same time, I do not think that Reader Service is of much benefit to the 
advertiser, either. 

In short, as I have said before, Reader Service is really "Magazine Service." It 
helps the magazine by making the reader think he or she is getting something extra 
and it also helps the magazine sell advertising space. 

In truth, it does not help the reader. For one thing, the reader's expectation is that 
he or she will get a lot of additional information simply by circling a number on a 
card or calling a toll-free telephone answering service. Usually, the reader won't get 
too much additional information — sometimes less information than is in an 
advertisement — and he or she will have to wait a couple of months for what does 
finally arrive. 

I remember the first time I filled out a Reader Service card. It was from Byte and 
it took about six weeks to get the first response. I'd almost forgotten what I asked 
about when the responses started to arrive. And some of them never came (more on 
this later). 

From the advertiser's point of view, it usually takes a long time to get Reader 
Service responses from a company and, often, the reader asks for so many different 
things that the firm wonders whether the reader is really interested or just wants to 
get some mail. In the trade, these folks are called "lonely hearts" — all they want is a 
full mailbox. 

And, for that reason, some companies do not respond to Reader Service at all. 
The reason is that it costs money to mail a response — and the response rate to 
mailings from Reader Service is astonishingly low. 

Those are the reasons that we have never been fond of Reader Service. But, I will 
admit that, properly handled, Reader Service can be a service to the reader. We've 
come up with a plan which we intend to implement in the next month or so. 

We intend to begin inserting a Reader Service form in THE rainbow. But this 
one will be a little different. First of all, it won't be a postage-paid card, but a form 
on a regular page. Second, we will ask that you send $1 with the form. The reason 
for this is not to make some money for us, but to determine that the respondent is 
really interested in hearing about products. Third, we will limit the number of 
inquiries per form to 1 5. This means that we will return any forms which have more 
than 15 responses (we'll send back the $1, too). 

On the other side of thelcoin, we have found a firm which will handle these 
requests for us on a weekly b^sis — which means the advertiser will get the labels in 
quick order. And, we mW^equire anyone participating in our Reader Service 
program to promise to respond to all queries they receive on a timely basis. 

The way I look at this, we'ite "charging" the reader $ 1 .20 ($ 1 for the service and 20 
cents for the stamp) to get information on as many as 1 5 products. While that isn't a 
lot of money, it is something other than just filling out a card and dropping it in the ' 



12 THE RAINBOW September 1984 




3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 
True lower case characters 
User-friendly full-screen 
editor 

Right justification 
Easy hyphenation 
Drives any printer 
Embedded format and 
control codes 
Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 
Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy fqr the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 
The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 
Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
( 'windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that ' 'what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/VIII, DMP- 100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 
Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. •'Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering, Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 
Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and /or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 



...truly a state of the art word processor... 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



RAINBOW 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 
704 Nob Street 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM -4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add $2 for shipping. Californium add 6% state tax. Allow 2 
weeks for personal checks. Send self-addressed stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from CCN, RAINBOW, 
80-Micro, 80-U.S. Telewriter owners: send SASE or call for 
information on upgrading to Telewriter-64. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell 'n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Colorcom/E) also available. Call or write for more 
information.) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



MASTER DESIGN 

fCJ 1984 By Derringer Software, Inc. 



DOES MORE THAN JUST DRAW PICTURES 
IT'S A TEXT DESIGNER 

Master Design has the ability to generate lettering in the graphics mode from 
sizes 2 to 32 and in a wide range of styles. Size 2 offers a 42 x 22 line format 
while size 32 creates letters that take up over half the screen. Lettering can be 
skinny, bold, textured, tall, drop shadow, raised shadow and in different 
thickness. There's nine different settings for thickness and nine different set- 
tings for creating open lettering. 

ITS A GRAPHICS EDITOR 

Take full advantage of hi res commands including GET. PUT. CIRCLE. PCOPV. 
PMODE. LINE. BOX. BOX FILL. PAINT and other special features available only 
with Master Design. Master Design utilizes a "two cursor" concept to allow 
quick formatting of boxes, lines and special patterns such as dot patterns for 
shading and diagonal, vertical or horizontal lines for creative backgrounds, you 
can create designs and use the TEXT designer to label areas or place titles, you 
can also create mirror images of the display. 

COMES WITH A SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE 

Master Design comes with a 7 bit and 8 bit version of a hi-res screen print 
routine so no matter what your printer is. we have it covered. Works in any 
pmode and can print normal or reversed images. 

DISK and CASSETTE I/O 

Save and load your creations to and from disk or cassette, you can even load 
hUres displays created by other programs to make changes. 

INTERFACES WITH TELEWRITER-64 

Wouldn't it be nice if you could design your own letter head in hi-res graphics 
and then print it out while using Telewriter -64? Master Design offers just that 
capability! The Letter Head Utility will let you convert any hi-res display so that 
it can be accessed while using Teiewriter-64! The BASIC program modules are 
provided with step by step instructions. These BASIC modules can also be used 
in your own BASIC programs for printing displays without having to use the 
graphic pages, you can have upto 88 pages of graphics linked together for 
printing! 



ABC 

if TiiillLJ'llll 



THIS IS A 
SMALL EXAMPLE 
OF WHAT YOU 
GET FOR JUST: 




DERRINGER fer 



SOFTWARE 
INC 




a|rtl*t 




Send Check or Money Order to: 
Derringer Software. Inc.. 

P. 0. Box 5300 Q .y 
Florence. S. C. 29502-2300 see us at II PRINCETON 

Uisa/MC customers can call: T803J 665-5676 - 9:00 - 5:00 edt 

Requires 32K with at least one disk drive 
(Include S2.Q0 for shipping and handling) 

Telewriter-64 fCJ 1983 by Cognitec 



mail box. For that, we are going to do our best to ensure that 
you get good information on a timely basis. 

If you are ready to qrder a product, I hope that you will 
forego Reader Service in favor qf the telephone or mailing 
an order direct to a company. If, on the other hand, you 
want general information on several products, Reader Ser^ 
vice may be a good way for you to go. 

We hope that tl)e plan will work fairly for all concerned. J 
think it has a good chance and that we can provide a Reader 
Service program that is a real service to readers. 

Based on what 1 hear at RAINBOWfests and through the 
mail, many of you have followed our little enterprise here 
from the beginning -r- or something close to it. For those 
who have come along somewhere along the line, you may be 
interested to know that THE RAINBOW started in part of a 
spare bedroom in my house, moved into the kitchen and 
dining room as well, progressed into the basement (which 
was remodeled as an office); went "movin' on put" to 1200 
square feet in a local shopping center and then took on 
additional space in the shopping center so that it now totals 
4800 square feet and completely surrounds the Prospect 
Post Office. 

In fact, one of the biggest problems associated with the 
rainbows growth has been acquiring enough space in 
which to work. When we moved into our second location, 
we thought it would surely be big enough for several years. 
Wrong again, Lonnie! 

Within the next four to six weeks, we will break ground 
for an edifice to be known as the "Falsoft Building." We 
expect to have some 15,000 square feet available when we 
move in sometime near the first of 1985. We're really proud 
of the Falsoft Building and, because of that, will probably 
bore you with pictures and drawings as it moves along. And, 
as "dedication day" gets closer, we'll let you know about it: 
We'd be delighted to show the place off as soon as it is 
finished. 

Another thing we are up to is a new magazine, called SOFT 
SECTOR for the Sanyo MBC-550 series computers, it made 
its debut last month and, already, seems to be going very 
well. If you have a friend with a Sanyo, we'd appreciate your 
pointing him or her in our direction. 

I suppose it js only appropriate that we announce here 
that we will soon be adding two more books to the list of 
those we publish. One is the Rainbow Book of Simulations, 
which will contain a host of Simulation-type programs — 
the winners of our Simulation contest. It will also be availa- 
ble on tape for those who wish to avoid typing the programs 
in by hand. 

Our third book will be The OS-9 Tour Guide by contri- 
buting editor Dale Puckett and Peter Dibble. Dale, as you 
know, has already written a book on BAS1C09 and this new 
offering will tackle OS-9 itself. We intend The OS-9 Tour 
Guide to be a tutorial-style book that will teach OS-9 in 
much the same way that Getting Started With Color BASIC 
teaches BASIC for the CoCo. 

Both books should be available before Christmas. 



Lonnie Falk 



14 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



SUPER PRO KEYBOARD" 





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No special software required. 
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U.S. made— highest quality, go 
Smooth, responsive 'Touch Typist" feel. 
Fits all 'D', 'E\ and 'F board models. 

^Computers produced after approximately October 1982 require 
an additional plug adapter. Please add $4.95. 



More Super Pro keyboards have been sold than any other 
brand for good reason. . .It is the best looking, best feeling 
keyboard available anywhere! The best buy foryour money. 
Read what the reviewers have said: 

Color Computer News, June 'S3 

Mark Data Products is well known to us "longtimers". . . 
Every bit as finished as if Tandy had done it. ..The 
Mark Data Super-Pro is your best buy. . The one that 
is in my CoCo to stay. . . 

Color Computer Magazine, June '83 

The installation procedure is well detailed and quite 
simple. . .Has a professional feel, reacts well to the touch. . . 
has held up to some purposeful pounding... 

Hot CoCo, August '83 

Like putting leather upholstery in your Volkswagen, . Very 
impressed with the appearance and performance. . .Could 
easily pass as original equipment. . .Installation is very 
simple. . . 

Rainbow, April '83 

A fine piece of hardware from Mark Data Products. . .It is 
super and it is professional too... If you are searching 
for a replacement keyboard, it is an excellent buy... 



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NY RESIDENTS MUST INCLUDE SALES TAX. 



BUILDING SEPTEMBER'S RAINBOW 



Let's Have A Contest . . . 
Beginning Right Now . . . 
And, The First Winner is . . . 



Tim Skene of Montreal, Quebec, wrote us a long while back suggesting we 
hold what he dubbed "The First Great Rainbow One-Liner Contest. " We 
liked the idea from the start and we've been meaning to launch it with 
fireworks and fanfare, but it keeps getting shoved onto the back burner. So, skip 
the hoopla; let's go ahead and do it! 

The idea is that some of the most elegant BASIC code is contained in short 
routines. So, let's see what we can create in the way of a self-contained program 
with just one line number. After all, aren't the greatest inventions often decep- 
tively simple in design — a pair of scissors, for instance, and other inventions 
from automotive camshafts to the famed Spectrum Remote Reset. Some great 
stuff should be possible in one line of BASIC. Musical routines would seem to be a 
natural. 

Tim says we need rules. Personally, 1 think the world has too many rules 
already, and I certainly don't want to deprive the CoCo Community of the 
world's greatest routine simply because of some obscure rule. So, instead of hard 
and fast rules, let's establish some recommended guidelines — and, at the same 
time, recommend to the judges that entrants who ignore too many of the 
guidelines must not wish to win. 

So, guidelines. The program must work in Extended BASIC and have only one 
line number and be entirely self-contained: no loading other programs, no 
calling ROM routines, no ML POKEs. Please don't try to "sneak in" any 
machine language: It must work as if typed in and run from a cold start. Also, 
while you will need to remove unneeded spaces, do not pack lines so much that 
we cannot LIST or LLIST the entire line. Let's keep documentation to the 
famous 25 words or less — preferably none. A short title for the program might 
hint at what it is to do, but it should be, for the most part, self-explanatory. 

Magazine people have too many deadlines already. Let's not have one. This 
may become a "standing contest." Format? Well, if you're serious about win- 
ning, 1 suggest the program be on cassette. A printout isn't needed, but wouldn't 
hurt either. Any explanation and title should be included in a very legible cover 
letter. 

Prizes. Maybe an advertiser or two will read this and offer to donate some 
prizes. Otherwise, we'll come up with something you'll like. How many winners? 
Well, as I see it, we'll pick winners as they come in — and if your entry is judged a 
winner, we'll give you a prize and publish your program in the magazine. By the 
way, we will consider your act of entering the contest as consent to publish your 
immortal routine. 

That's enough "official stuff." No, let's add that employees and associates of 
THE rainbow can enter, too. We won't even make this offer void in Nebraska. 
The more winners, the merrier. So, off we go . . . and, . . . announcing the first 
winner! It's Tim Skene, of Montreal, Quebec, whose program, Spirales, appears 
on Page 269 of this issue. Congratulations, Tim! Yours is the best (and only) 
entry we've received so far. 

Speaking of contests, our Adventure judges are pressing onward — but there 
are so many entries. We know you're anxious to hear the results. We'll announce 
the winners as soon as we can - — possibly in our October issue, but we likely will 
have to wait until November. By the way, our first Rainbow Book of Simula- 
tions is shaping up nicely and will be published in the early fall. 

In keeping with the One-Liner concept, I'll close with my usual one: If you 
aren't already subscribing, just drop us a line, or call, and we'll deliver THE 
RAINBOW every month; that's our line. 

— Jim Reed 



16 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



RAINBOW 

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Starts Today 



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RAINBOWfest Report 



The weather was great and the 
crowd the biggest yet as our sec- 
ond "season" of RAINBOWfests 
began the same as last year's — with a 
weekend at the Hyatt Regency Wood- 
field (Chicago). 

It was a time to meet other CoCo 
enthusiasts and to see the latest in 
hardware and software. Questions, ques- 
tions, questions. And, lots of answers, 
too. Writers, programmers, hardware 
hackers and RAINBOW readers gathered 
for a "CoCo Field Day" of scheduled 
seminars, impromptu hallway confabs 
and one-on-one dialogue. 

CoCo celebrities were out in force. 
Avid RAINBOW readers should recog- 
nize among those attending, this baker's 
dozen: Jorge Mir, Tony DiStefano, 
Frank Hogg, Dan Downard, Dale Puck- 
ett, Dick White, Michael Plog, Bob 
Rosen, John Fraysse, Tom Mix, Dennis 
Kitsz, Marty Goodman and PaulSearby. 

Same place, new time next year! 
Mark your calendar for May 17-19, 
1 985. In the meantime, there's our Prince- 
ton, N.J., RAINBOWfest, Sept. 28-30, 
1984, and Irvine, Calif., (L.A. area), 
Feb. 15-17, 1985. Do join us. You'll 
find, just as we have, that it's a delight to 
match voices and faces with familiar 
names at RAINBOWfest. 

— Jim Reed 




Specfaf show «5 

^atthesirui 8 brou 9 h * out b*rna, . 



">B these 




^a^^,- 9 column***' P" e „„ th e 




The Rainbow* 




Airline pilot and CoCo author Dave 
Hooper and his daughter, Sharon, 
share a giggle while ^Inbowgarnes 
consultant Patrick Downard looks on. 






Hy tutorial- 




exhibit 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 19 



GAMEMASTER'S APPRENTICE 



Role Playing Games 

Are Not Computer Games 



Role playing games are not computer games. A role 
playing game is an interaction between players, who 
operate characters, and a game master, who runs the 
world in which the adventures occur. Most of the play is 
verbal exchange. The players tell the game master what their 
characters want or intend to do. The game master then tells 
them if they can or may do it or, if not, why not and what 
might happen instead. Much time is spent consulting rule 
books. A game player may come equipped with a suitcase 
full of books to be consulted regularly during game play. 

The game master creates the game world and stocks it 
with challenges, puzzles, traps, hazards, adversaries, and 
surprises. She or he runs the game world fairly and with 
imagination, making it interesting, challenging, and fun for 
the players. The game master has, and frequently consults, 
many rule books. 

The players play their characters as the characters are. 
That's the idea: role playing. Get into the role. Play the 
character as if the character has a life of her, his, or its own. 
If your character is a barbarian warrior of average intelli- 
gence, act like a barbarian warrior of average intelligence. If 
your character is a rogue, play the part. If your character is a 
hobbit, be a hobbit. You might even be a wizard, an elf, a 
dwarf — play the role! 

At its best, a role playing game is interactive storytelling in 
which everyone contributes to the telling, or improvisa- 



(George Firedrake, a.k.a. Bob Albrecht, is one of the 
most prolific authors in the microcomputer world 
today. A specialist in writing for beginners, he is 
author of numerous books including TRS-80 Color 
BASIC. Art Canfil enjoys designing games and writ- 
ing. He is co-author o/Taipan: A Game In Context.^ 



By George Firedrake and Art Canfil 



tional theater, spontaneously created by the interplay of 
game master and game players. Players and game master 
control and play characters within the rules of the game 
system. 




Most rule systems use dice to determine the outcome of 
events. A character has many skills. For each skill, a charac- 
ter has a success percentage that determines the probability 
of success or failure under normal conditions. The game 
master may increase or decrease this probability if condi- 
tions are unusual. 

Dice might be used to find out whether something hap- 
pened or didn't happen. Did a character successfully open a 
door, or find a hidden object, or hear a monster sneaking up 
behind her or him? Roll dice to find out. 



20 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Dice are used to determine success or failure in using 
weapons. If a weapon attack is successful, dice are used to 
determine how much damage is inflicted. If a character can 
use magic, dice are used to determine whether a spell is cast 
successfully and what its effects are. In playing a game, you 
will spend much time rolling dice and interpreting the results 
of a roll. 




The Game World 

Role playing games are usually played by people sitting 
around a large table. To help players visualize the game 
world, the game master may use a game board. A game 
board might be simply a large sheet of paper on which the 
game master reveals portions of the game world as the 
characters, run by the players, make their successful explo- 
rations. As the game progresses, more and more of the game 
master's world becomes visible on the game board. 

And what might that be? 

A dungeon — a network or labyrinth of rooms, or 
caves, or whatever fiendish structure the game master 
contrives. Jinter at your own risk — you might find 
monsters tq flee or overcome, treasures to acquire (if 
you can defeat the monsters), problems to solve (solve 
problem, get treasure), or cleverly contrived traps to 
ensnare the unwary. 

A map of a wilderness area in which an outdoor adven- 
ture occurs. Of course, many areas are marked as 
"unknown," "perilous," "No one has ever returned 
from here," or "Beware! Dragons be here." 

A map of a village, town, or city. An adventure might 
begin in such a place or occur there. Adventurers need 
provisions, equipment, weapons, knowledge, training, 
and other things that can be obtained in the places 
where people cluster. 

The floor plan of an inn or tavern, showing all things 
visible to a character who enters such a place. Where 
would your character like to sit in the tavern (perhaps 
away from those trolls over there)? Would your char- 
acter like to stay at the inn tonight? If so, he or she can 
go upstairs — the game master draws (or shows a 
previously drawn) floor plan of the second story, 
except for that mysterious room in the northeast 
corner. 




The game master knows everything about the game 
world. Your character can learn about the game world only 
by exploring, asking questions, taking risks, guessing cor- 
rectly. 

As you walk into the game room, you see several people 
sitting around a large table. They are obviously having a 
good time. Curious, you approach. On the table you see a 
map. You look more closely. Yes, there on the map are 
several tiny figures. Each figure represents a character run 
by one of the players. Other figures represent NPCs, non- 
player characters, controlled by the game master. 

It seems that a fight (called a melee) is in progress. The 
adventurers, figures controlled by the players, have been 
attacked by a bunch of nasties (NPCs) controlled by the 
game master. The battle rages as you watch. Players reach 
out and move their figures, roll dice, yell instructions, mut- 
ter to themselves. The game master, likewise, manipulates 
the NPCs. Who will win? Stay, watch, and find out. 

The game board is usually populated by lead, plastic, or 
paper figures that represent the characters controlled by the 
players and the game master. Hundreds of figures are possi- 
ble: humans, hobbits, elves, dwarfs, ores, trolls, intelligent 
ducks, dragons (or course!), and dozens of other mundane 
or fantastic creatures. 

Players move figures on the game board as a chess player 
moves chess pieces on the chess board. Your character's 
position on the game board shows her or his relationship to 
other characters and what might be possible or impossible in 
the next few seconds of game time. 

Game time is the time experienced by your character in 
the game world. How long (in game time) will it take for 
your character to reach the end of the hallway, about 30 feet 
away? How will other characters move while this is happen- 
ing? Can your character fire an arrow at that nasty down the 
hall, or is the line of fire blocked by fellow adventurers? 

A fantasy role playing game might last a few hours or a 
few years. Players might meet once to play one game of three 
or four hours duration. Players might meet once a week for 
years. Each week, play continues from where it left off the 
previous week. 

Most players have several characters to play in games, just 
as an actor might play several roles on stage or screen, or an 
operatic performer might sing different roles at different 
times. 

However, there is one essential difference. In fantasy role 
playing, each character has his, her, or its own life which 
changes according to what happens to the character during a 
game. Characters become older during game play. A charac- 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 21 



ter can even die during a game, sometimes a sad experience 
for the real life person who is playing that character. Charac- 
ters change during game play. So, for each character, a 
character sheet is maintained and updated after each game. 
As a character learns and grows, so does the character's 
record. Aha! An obvious application for our friendly CoCo. 

Computer-Based Adventure Games 

Fantasy role playing games have a great influence on 
computer games, but computers have had little impact on 
fantasy role playing games. There are two kinds of computer 
Adventure games: one deterministic, the other probabilistic. 

A deterministic Adventure game is the same each time 
you play it. Each game is a complex logical puzzle for the 
player to solve. If you succeed in decoding a game, you move 
on to another game, perhaps more difficult. A game may 
take a few hours to solve, or much longer. 

A probabilistic game is probably different each time you 
play. Events are determined partially by choices made by the 
player and partially by random choices made by the compu- 
ter. Outcomes are determined partially by the player's skill 
and partially by luck. You create a character who explores a 
dungeon or other computer-contrived universe. You make 
decisions for your character who enjoys, or suffers, the 
consequences of your decisions. Play and see what happens. 
Play again. Your character, or another character of your 
design, will probably experience a different sequence of 
events, even if you make the same decisions as before. 

We have received several adventures from Owls Nest and 
Prickly-Pear. We'll playtest them and tell you about them. 




HARDWARE 
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We invite you to play along, especially if you haven't played 
before! 

GameM aster's Apprentice — The Books 

Computer Adventure games are perhaps the most sophis- 
ticated of computer games. However, they fall far short of 
the richness and complexity of a role playing game con- 
ducted by a human GameMaster. It is puzzling that software 
designers and publishers have not developed software for 
home computers to assist'role playing game players in man- 
aging fantasy worlds. Ten to 15 million people (our esti- 
mate) play role playing games. The number of players is 
increasing rapidly. This may be a software market as large as 
the market for computer Adventure games. 

GameMaster's Apprentice software might include: 

— GameMaster's Dice. Role playing games use sev- 
eral types of dice: four-sided, six-sided, eight-sided, 
10-sided, 12-sided and 20-sided. A rich world of 
probability, important to kids. 

— Simple worksheet programs to help optimize the 
design of characters or other artifacts used in role 
playing games. For example, starship design in the 
science fiction game Traveler. 

— Storing, retrieving, and managing information 
otherwise found in rulebooks, scenario packs, and 
other literature of role playing games. For exam- 
ple: Character records, prices and specifications of 
weapons, wages and prices in the city of Myboro in 
Wundervale, descriptions of magic spells, hard to 
remember rules and anything else that must be 
looked up during game play. 

— Programs to generate pronounceable random names 
for characters, according to a user selected con- 
sonant vowel structure. 

— Programs to automate time-consuming game mech- 
anics. For example, a conflict between two char- 
acters or a melee involving several characters. 

— Names, addresses, and phone numbers of players, 
game masters, game publishers, game and hobby 
Stores, and so on. 

Fantasy game worlds can include everything known 
about real life, plus anything a player or game master can 
imagine. 

We are writing books and software, first for the CoCo, 
then for other computers. Our progress will be chronicled on 
these pages. Although written for children, these books will 
not be too difficult for adults. 

Taipan: A Game In Context 

If you have read Tai-pan by James Clavell, or Dynasty by 
Robert S. Elegant, you know something about the exotic 
"China Trade" of the 19th century. 

European and American military power had opened trade 
doors to China and Japan. Immense fortunes could be made 
by daring, adventurous men without ethical principles to 
hinder them. The China Traders were such men. They called 
themselves tai-pan. 

Tai is Chinese for great or big or even supreme. Pan 
means leader or boss. Thus, a tai-pan is a big boss or great 
leader or perhaps supreme leader. Even today, the term is 
used for the heads of trading firms from Hong Kong to 
Singapore (read Clavell's Noble House, the sequel to 
Tai-pan). 



22 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



In the China Trade, the greater the risks, the greater the 
profits. The risks were more awesome than mere financial 
gain or loss — there was always a strong possibility of 
sudden unnatural death. 

The China Trader had to contend with pirates, the triads 
(Chinese secret societies), and the vagaries of Mother 
Nature. But they dared to do so, and great fortunes were 
made and lost. 

This is the context in which we will build a computer 
game. Np Simulation game can take everything in a setting 
or environment into account. Think of the problems in 
creating a game in the China Trade context: the attitudes, 
behavior, economic and political power of thousands of 
people, the distribution of wharf rats throughout Asia, tides, 
weather conditions, what's happening elsewhere in the 
world, and so on. 

Obviously, we can't put every factor into a single Simula- 
tion game. Instead, we design a game that, when you play it, 
it feels as though these factors are part of your experience. In 
a well-done game, you will get caught up in the mystique. 
You will find yourself playing the role. 



"Motivating the player is the key 
to any good game. You don't have 
to possess a degree in psychology 
to know some of the things which 
motivate people." 



How? First, we can include a number of common events, 
such as bad weather, problems with, pests, and pirate 
attacks, as fairly regular situations. Second, we can create a 
number of rare events, such as random robberies, confisca- 
tion of cargo by port authorities, dramatic rises or falls in 
prices of goods, etc., as representative of the vast number of 
things which could actually happen in the "real world." 

Using the builMn "random number generator" of your 
CoCo, we can make some events happen quite regularly, 
while some other situations may not occur more than once 
in a blue moon, if at all, during any particular game. And we 
can set the probability of any event anywhere within a broad 
spectrum of likelihood. 

We also need tp make the context of the game interac- 
tively "realistic." In other words, the player should have a 
feeling that the "world" of the game reacts like the real world 
does. For, example, the real world constantly seems to pres- 
ent "trade-offs" — situations where we have choices between 
two or more alternatives, each of which has advantages and 
disadvantages. * 

If you are on foot and need to cross a road against heavy 
traffic, you might havp two choices: One choice might be to 
jaywalk across the road. The other option might be to go 



down two blocks to a pedestrian overpass and cross there. 
With the first choice, you might cross the road much more 
quickly, thus saving some of your precious time — but you 
risk not only getting a citation from a police officer, but 
getting killed as well. With the second choice, you cross the 
road legally and safely — but use up more time. 

Now, add another factor: urgency. Suppose you have just 
been bitten by a poisonous snake, and the nearest hospital 
was across the road. Would you jaywalk or take the over- 
pass? Or what if you had all the time in the world that day. 
Which route then? 

In a Contextual Computer Game, we can vary this factor 
pf urgency. We can also vary the danger of the traffic, the 
pedestrian's ability to dodge cars, and even the safety of the 
overpass! Trade-offs — they're vital factors in Contextual 
Computer Games, and we'll use them in Taipan. 

Motivating the player is the key to any good game. You 
don't have to possess a degree in psychology to know some 
of the things which motivate people. The desire for power, a 
lust for money, the drive for gaining respect, the pleasure of 
accomplishing something difficult — all these are common 
motivations. In Taipan, we are going tp motivate the player 
with a combination of greed and pride. 

Greed is vital, because only with this can the player fit into 
the role of a taipan. That's what the player will be, a taipan. 
You may wonder how real greed could be generated in a 
mere game — after all, there's no real money involved. If 
you're thinking this, then just try to remember the last time 
you played Monopoly. After playing for a few minutes, 



SOFTWARE 
PRODUCTS FOR THE 
TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 



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SAVES YOU TIME! 



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You will appreciate The absolute ease at which this 
Full-Screen Editor allows you to INPUT, EDIT, and DEBUG 
your BASIC programs. EDITTRON performs these functions: 

CURSOR-CONTROL SCREEN-EDITING 

• Directional Movement • Change Characters 

• Screen Scrolling • Extend a Line 

• Home the Cursor • Kill a Line 

• Limit the Cursor • Insert Characters 

• Down Page • Delete Characters 

• Up Page • Move a Line 

• Search a Line • Split a Line 

• Call a Line • Copy a Line 

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VIDTRON _£t 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 23 



didn't you get just a little greedy? If not, you're the excep- 
tion, and maybe you didn't have much fun! 

But there's a vital factor here that can't be overlooked by 
any game designer: in a game (and maybe in life?), wealth, 
power, or any other reward, doesn't taste so sweet unless 
there was a struggle to gain it. What would be the purpose of 
playing Solitaire with all the cards in the deck face up? There 
has to be uncertainty, conflict, and obstacles to overcome 
for any reward to actually feel like a reward. 

So, in our game, we've got to make the player struggle to 
satisfy greed. That struggle, if successfully carried out, will 
result in pride of accomplishment. 

Difficulty 

The degree of difficulty is perhaps the most troublesome 
factor of all. A game designer has to get it just right. Too 
hard to play, and everyone hates the game. Too easy, and 
people despise it for being trivial. And everyone has differ- 
ent standards! It looks as though any game, at best, would 
appeal only to a certain segment, doesn't it? Not necessarily; 
by using the principle of trade-offs properly, a single game 
can be a sort of "one-size-fits-all" proposition. 

Tai-pan is a game anyone who can read and understand 
words and numbers, and can poke keys on a CoCo, has a 
good chance to win. It is also a game in which a Ph.D. with 
degrees in Asian studies, computer science, and accounting 
— will stand a chance of losing. 

Copyright® 1984 by DragonQuest, P.O. Box 310, Menlo Park, CA 94026. 



About Your Subscription 

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PEW COmPUCEtt 



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COLOR ACCESSORIES 



26-2226 RS-232 Program Pak $ 

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OUR 
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PEHRY COMPUTERS * DEPT. NO. A1 • 137 NORTH MAIN STREET • PERRY, Ml 48872 



24 THE RAINBOW September 1984 












By Joseph S, Pkmvati 












Living in a digital world can have 
some disadvantages. For in- 
stance, some children can have 
trouble telling time on a good old- 
fashioned round clock. This was the 
case with my young daughter, and so 
the Clock was born. 

Clock begins with a title page and 
after some instructions, the clock is 
drawn on the screen with a background 
of random colors. The time is shown 
and you must type in the correct time. 
For instance, if the time is five minutes 
after five, you type in 5:05 (do not forget 
the colon). 

If you get the correct time, another 
time will be shown. If you type the 
wrong time, the computer will not show 
another time but will give you a chance 
to study your mistake. You then hit any 
key to continue. After 10 tries the com- 



puter displays your score and you can 
then continue. 

Clock is very colorful and it is enjoy- 
able to watch the computer draw the 
program. As it is written, the program 
needs 32K ECB memory. If the title 
page is removed and REM lines deleted 
I believe it will run on 16K ECB. 

At first my daughter was only getting 
two or three out of 10 right. Now she 
usually gets eight to 10 right. I hope you 
find the Clock useful and enjoyable. 

(Joseph S. Paravati, now retired, was an 
electronics troubles/rooter for the New 
York City Bus Company. He is a self- 
taught computer hobbyist who started 
programming in December 1981 in 
order to occupy his spare time and give 
his three children a head start with 
computers.) 



September I3S^ THE RAINBOW 25 



The affordable step up in home computing. 




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Y 70 


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5100 , 


5 


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5290 . , 


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640 


235 


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The listing: ' 

10 * »T I ME /OLD FASHIONED CLOCK* 
BY JOSEPH S. PARAVATI JR.& SR. 
8/83 

20 'GOSUB TO CHAR. GEN. SUBROUTINE 
30 GOSUB 5000:GOSUB5640:R=RND(-T 
IMER) 

40 * INITIAL SET UP 
50 CLS: PRINT " *TIME ON AN OLD FA 
SHIONED CLOCK*"; : PRINT STRING* (3 
2, "*") ; 

60 PRINT "THIS PROGRAM WILL HELP 

YOU TO LEARN TO TELL TIME ON 
A REGULAR, ROUND TYPE CLOCK. WHEN 

YOU HEAR THE CLOCK'S 'TIC TDC 
YOU TYPE IN THE TIME." 
70 PR I NT "TYPE IN AND <ENTER> YOU 
R ANSWERSAS ON A NEW TYPE CLOCK. 

IF THE TIME IS 12 O'CLOCK YOU 
WOULD TYPE 12:00. 5 AFTER 5 W 
OULD BE 5:05. YOU CAN CHANGE YO 
UR ANSWERBEFORE PRESSING < ENTER > 



, JUST PRESS THE '<-' (BACK-AR 
ROW) . " 

80 PRINT @489, "< PRESS ANY KEY>"; 
90 IF INKEY*=" " THEN 90 
100 CLS: PR I NT "AS YOU TYPE EACH N 
UMBER < DON'T FORGET THE ':') WA 
IT FOR A TONE TELLING YOU THE CO 
MPUTER HAS RECEIVED YOUR NUMB 
ER. IF YOU GETTHE TIME RIGHT THE 
COMPUTER W I LL AUTOMAT I CALLY GIVE 
YOU ANOTHER TIME TO FIGURE OUT 

II 

■ 

110 PRINT" IF YOU GIVE A WRONG AN 
SWER YOU WILL HAVE TIME TO STUD 
Y THE CLOCK TO SEE WHERE YOU 

WENT WRONG. PRESS < ANY KEY> 

TO GET ANOTHER TIME. AFTER EV 
ERY TEN TRIES A SCORE FOR THE 
TEN TRIES WILL BE SHOWN."; 
120 PRINT" TO END PROGRAM PRES 
S <SHIFT> AND < CLEAR >. " 
130 PRINT 8489, "< PRESS ANY KEY>" 
? 

140 IF INKEY*="" THEN 140 

150 CLS: PRINT @232, "WHAT'S YOUR 

NAME?": PRINT" (NO MORE THEN 7 

LETTERS) " : INPUT NA* 
160 IF LEN(NA*)>7 THEN 150 
170 IF LEN(NA*)=0 THEN NA*="???? 



^|4^ For Your TRS-80 Color Computer 



320 Full-time Audio Talk/Tutor Programs! 



Ymi bo 




to 


r«<fut:« qour 








km: 








rag ii i 










Urn 


one 




■ ■■ l 


i it iii 


y .V J|£pjl 






\m 


y tin t tor 












We're Your Educational 
Software Source 

Course No. of Programs 

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(Spelling) 16 Programs 

Reading 64 Programs 

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Effective Writing 16 Programs 

History 32 Programs 



0ii« -s«i I Kittle? apfjNttiliMf UmI 



Utllt:h Iblf o»w? sh 1 lati I*?'* 
O U: H 



In Color, with Pictures and Text! 

All of our TRS-80 Color programs have easy to understand profes- 
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VISA* 



28 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



180 PMODE 3: PCLS5: SCREEN 1,1: COL 
OR 6 

190 » MINUTE MARKS 

200 X=12S: Y=80: R=80 

210 FOR D-0 TO 360 STEP 6 

220 A= ( 270+D )/ 57 . 2957795 1 

230 Q=INT(R*C0S(A)+128.5) 

240 W=INT<R*SIN<A>+80.5> 

250 IF D/30-INT<D/30) THEN COLOR 

8 ELSE COLOR 6 
260 LINE(X, Y)-<Q,W) ,PSET 
270 NEXT D 




090 

480 A*="9":B*= ,, BM54,86":80SUB 50 
90 

490 A*= ,, 10 ,, :B*="BM66,52 ,, :BOSUB 5 
090 

500 A*="11":B*="BM86,32":60SUB 5 
090 

510 ' CHANGE TO SPECIAL COLORS 
520 PMODE4 : SCREEN 1, 1 
530 PM0DE3 

540 ' GRAPHIC PRINTING 

550 A** " WHAT " : B*= " C8BM 1 0 „ 20 " : 60S 

UB 5090 

560 A*= " T I ME " : B*= " BM200 , 20 " : GOSU 
B 5090 

570 A*="IS":B*="BM14 ) 140":GOSUB 
5090 

580 A*="IT ?":B*="BM200, 140":GOS 
UB 5090 :A*="" 

590 IF CL=5 THEN C0L0R5: LINE <0, 1 
56>-<255, 191) ,PSET,BF 
600 ■ START OF HANDS ROUTINE 
610 L=RND<360> : IF L/6<>INT<L/6) 
THEN 610 

*20 S=RND<360> : IF S/ 1SOINT <S/ 15 



AUTOSTART. PROTECT 
& PROFESSIONALIZE 
YOUR PROGRAMS 

with 

HIDE-A-BASIC 1.1 



280 * CLOCK OUTLINE & BACKROUND 
290 C*= " R80F40D60G40L80H40U60E40 

II 

300 DRAW "C7BM88, 10"+C* 

310 CL=RND<7):IF CL<6 THEN 310 

320 R=RND<100> 

330 PAINT ( 128, 188) , CL, 7: IF R>50 
THEN PAINT (128, 188) ,5,7: CL=5 ELS 
E 340 

340 CIRCLE ( 128, 80) , 76, 7,-9 
350 PAINT (128, 80) ,5,7 
360 CIRCLE (128, 80) ,76,5, -9 
370 * NUMBER SET UP 
380 COLOR 7 

390 A*= "12": B*= "BMl 18, 26" : GOSUB 
5090 

400 A*= ,, 1":B*="BM154,32 ,, :Q0SUB 5 
090 

410 A*="2":B*=*"BM1S0,52":6OSUB 5 
090 

420 A*="3 ,, :B*="BM194,86 ,, :G0SUB 5 
090 

430 A*= " 4 " : B*» "BM182, 1 20 " : QOSUB 
5090 

440 a*= " 5 " : B*= " BM 1 54 , 1 38 " : GOSUB 
5090 

450 A*= " 6 " : B*=* "BM124, 1 46 " : GOSUB 
5090 

460 A*="7":B*="BM96, 136": GOSUB 5 
090 

470 A*="8":B*="BM68, 118": GOSUB 5 



AT LAST! A program that combines autostart with 
complete protection of your valuable basic programs. 
IMPORTANT FEATURES: 



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- A ML program that modifies your program and MOT just 
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-Disables LIST, LLIST, EDIT, DEL, TRON, TROFF, CSAVE(M), 

CLOAD(M). 

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entry' to your program. 

- Disables disk functions to avoid access thru Disk System. 

- Creates an 'ONERR GOTO' routine to trap errors. 

- Your Basic program is loaded as a ML program - with 
CLOADM. 

- Full documentation. 

WITH HIDE A BASIC 1.1 THERE IS PRACTICALLY NO 
WAY ANYONE CAN 'GET INTO' YOUR PROGRAM. 

Buy Now 6f Protect your Profits. For 16K ECB Cassette 
System. Tape - Only $24.95. 

To Order: VISA, MC, Check, MO, COD ($2.50). Please add 
$2.00 shipping and handling. NYS Residents, please add 
Sales Tax. Immediate Shipment. 



MJr, 




MICROCOM SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 214, FAIRPORT, N.Y. 14450 

(716) 223-1477 
(9AM-9PM Mon-Sat) 
Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 29 



) THEN 620 

630 IF L=360 AND S/30OINT (S/30) 

THEN S=S-15 
640 IF LO360 AND S=L THEN S=S-1 
2: GOTO 680 

650 IF LO360 AND L>300 AND S/30 

<>INT<S/30) THEN S=S+39 ELSE IF 

LO360 AND L>300 AND S/30=INT<S/ 

30) THEN S=S-6:60T0 680 

660 IF LO360 AND L>174 AND S/30 

»INT is/30) THEN S*S-15 

670 IF S/30OINTXS/30) AND L<>36 

0 AND L>0 AND L<96 THEN S=S-15 

680 SOUND 30, 2: SOUND 150,3 

690 X=128: Y=80:R=*50:Ri=30 

700 CIRCLE <X,Y) ,2,S, .9 

710 A= < 270+D/57. 2957795 1:B=< 270 

+S)/ 57. 29577951 

720 Q=INT<R*C0S<A)+128.5) 

730 Q1=*INT<R1*C0S<B)+128.5) 

740 W=INT<R*SIN<A)+80.5) 

750 Wl=INT<Rl#SIN<B)+80.5) 

760 PM0DE4: SCREEN 1, 1:LINE<X, Y)-< 

Q,W) ,PSET 

770 LINE<X,Y)-<Q1,W1) ,PSET 
780 PM0DE3 

790 S1=INT <S/30) : IF S1=0 THEN SI 
=12 

800 S*=MID*<STR*<S1) ,2) 



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w/o boxes Q&fcfc,. 
Includes edge labels ^3^^>\ 
and index card iCf^L^^* 


g^^X TRACTOR FEED • DIE-CUT 
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tS^^WHITE $3 00/100 120 00/1000 

^ COLORED LABELS • Pastels - 
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ORDER FORM ' 



ITEM 


1 DOZEN 


2 DOZEN 


T OTAL 


C-05 


□ \W 


□ 13.00 




C-06 


□ 


□ 13.00 




C-10 


Q 7.50 


□ 14.00 




C-12 


□ 7.50 


□ 14-00 




C-20 


□ 8.75 


□ 16,50 




C-24 


□ 9.00 


□ 17.00 




C-32 


□ 11.00 


□ 21.00 




Hard Box 


□ 2.50 


□ 4.00 




WW Labels 


□ 3.00/100 


□ 20.00/1000 




Color Labels 
Color 


□ 4.00/100 


□ 30.00/1000 




Storage CacWv j ? ^ l-j uiv 




SUBTOTAL 




Cahl residents add sales tar 




Snipping/handling 


3.50 


Outside 44 Continental Stales — Additional $1 
per caddy, per doz cassettes or boxes 




TOTAL 





9525 Vassar Ave. #R1 
Chatsworth, CA 91311 

™ ™#Rl" 

Each cassette includes 2 labels only. Boxes sold separate* 
ly. In Continental U.S. shipment by U.P.S. If Parcel Post 
preferred, check here. □ 

Check or M O. enclosed □ Send Quantity Discounts □ 
Charge to credit card: VISA □ MASTERCARD □ 



Card No. . 



. Exp.. 



City 



, State/Zip . 



Signature _____ Phone 

Ask about our DUPLICATING SERVICE 



810 Ll=L/6: IF LI =60 THEN L1=0 
820 L*=MID*<STR*<L1) ,2) 
830 IF LK10 THEN L*="0"+L* 
840 COLORS: LINE <90, 190)- < 166, 174 
) ,PSET,BF:C0L0R8 

850 U*=S*+ " : " +L* : B*= " BM96 , 1 88 " : D 
RAW B* 

860 IF V*="" THEN SOUND90, 1 : FOR 
T=l TO 460: NEXT: SOUND 70,1: FOR T 
=1 TO 460: NEXT 

870 K*=INKEY*:IF K*-"" THEN 860 
880 IF K*=CHR*<92) THEN 1160 
890 IF K*=CHR*<8) THEN V*« n,, :COL 
OR 5:LINE<90, 190) -< 166, 174) ,PSET 
,BF:C0L0R8:S0T0 850 
900 IF K*OCHR*<13) THEN A*=K*:V 
*=V*+K*: B*="BM+0, +0" : SOUND200, 2: 
60SUB 5090 

910 IF K*=CHR*<13) THEN 920 ELSE 
870 

920 IF V*=U* THEN RT=RT+1 ELSE W 
G=WB+1 

930 IF V*=U* THEN A*="GOOD WORK 
"+NA*+" ! ":SOUND150,5:B*= ,, BM8, 170 
":SOSUB 5090 ELSE A*=" SORRY! THE 
TIME IS":S0UND1,4:B*="BM6, 170": 
80SUB 5090:COLOR 5: LINE <90* 190) - 
< 1 66 , 1 74 ) , PSET , BF : COLORS : A*=U* : B 
*="BM96, 188":GOSUB5090 
940 IF U*OV* THEN K*=INKEY*: IF 
K*="" THEN 940 

950 IF K*=CHR*<92) THEN 1160 
960 IF U*=V* THEN FORT=l TO 500: 
NEXTT 

970 COLOR CL: LINE <4, 156)- (254, 19 
0) ,PSET,BF 
980 PM0DE4 

990 COLOR0:LlNE<X,Y)-(Q,W) , PSET 
1000 LINE <X,Y)-<Q1,W1) ,PSET 
1010 COLORS 
1020 V*="" 
1030 ZZ=ZZ+1 

1040 IF ZZ=10 THEN GOSUB 1060: ZZ 

■0:rt-0:wg»0 

1050 60T0 610 

1060 * SCORE ROUTINE 

1070 PMODE 3 

1080 A*="YOUR SCORE IS: " : B*="6M8 
, 170":BOSUB 5090 

1090 A*=STR*<RT)+" RIGHT "+STR*< 
WG ) + " WRONG " : B*= " BM0 , 1 90 " : GOSUB 
5090 

1100 K*=INKEY*: IF K*="" THEN 110 
0 

1110 IF CL=5 THEN CL=6 ELSE IF C 
L=6 THEN CL=7 ELSE IF CL=7 THEN 
CL=5 

1120 IF K*=CHR*t92) THEN 1160 
1130 COLOR CL: LINE <0, 156) -(255, 1 



30 



THE RAINBOW September 1984 



?i) ,PSET,BF 
1140 RETURN 
1150 * END 

1160 CLS: PRINT ©230, "GOOD BYE "N 

A*" •": print: print: print: end 

5000 * #**CHRACTER SEN.<2>**» 
**SUBROUTINE*»* 

5010 * 

5020 ' SUBROUTINE MAIN PROGRAM 
BY J.S.PARAVATI DATA FROM 

TRS-80 NEWS 4/82 
5030 » 

5040 DIM X*<48) ,Y*<48) 

5050 FOR N=l TO 48 

5060 READ X*<N>,Y*<N> 

5070 NEXT N 

5080 RETURN 

5090 DRAW "S8"+B* 

5100 FOR J=l TO LEN(A*> 

5110 FOR Z=l TO 48 

5120 IF MID* < A*, J , 1 > - X$ < Z ) THEN 

DRAW Y*<Z):GOTO 5140 

5130 NEXT Z 

5140 NEXT J 

5150 RETURN 

5160 DATA " "j"BM+7,0" 

5 1 70 DATA "A" , " U4E2F2D2NL4D2 ; BM+ 

3,0" 

5180 DATA "B", "U6R3F1D1G1NL3F1D1 
GlL3;BM+7,0" 

5190 DATA "C", "BM+1,-05H1U4E1R2F 

1 ; BM+0, +45 G1L2; BM+6, 0" 

5200 DATA "D" , " U6R3F 1D4G1L3; BM+7 

,0" 

52 1 0 DATA "E" , " NR4U3NR2U3R4 J BM+3 
,+6" 

5220 DATA "F" , "U3NR2U3R4; BM+3, +6 

II 

5230 DATA "G" , " BM+ 1 , -0 J H 1 U4E 1 R2F 
1 ; BM+0 , +2 ; NL 1 D2G 1 L2 ; BM+6 , 0 ■ 
5240 DATA "H" , "U3NU3R4NU3D3? BM+3 
,0" 

5250 DATA " I " , "BM+1 , 0; R1NR1U6NL.1 
Rl;BM+4,+6" 

5260 DATA " J " , "BM+0, -1 S F1R1E1U5N 
LlRUBM+3,6" 

5270 DATA "K" , "U3NU3R1NE3F3; BM+3 
,0" 

5280 DATA " L " , " NU6R4U 1 $ BM+3 , + 1 " 
5290 DATA "M" , " U6F2ND 1 E2D6 j BM+3 , 
0" 

5300 DATA "N", "U6F1D1F2D1F1NU65B 
M+3,0" 

5310 DATA "O", "BM+1,0SH1U4E1R2F1 
D4GlL2;BM+6,0" 

5320 DATA " P " , " U6R3F 1D1G1L3; BM+7 

3 ii 

5330 DATA "Q", "BM+1 , 0» H1U4E1R2F1 
D3G1NH1NF1G1L1 ; BM+6, 0" 



5340 DATA "R" , "U6R3F1D1G1L2NL1F3 
;BM+3,0" 

5350 DATA "S" , "BM+0, -1 J F1R2E1U1H 

1L2H1U1E1R2F1 ? BM+3, +5" 

5360 DATA " T " , " BM+2 , +0 J U6NL2R2 ; B 

M+3,+6" 

5370 DATA " U " , " BM+0 , - 1 ; NU5F 1 R2E 1 
U5;BM+3,6" 

5380 DATA "V", "BM+0, -6? D2F1D1F1N 

D1E1U1E1U2; BM+3, +6" 

5390 DATA "W" , " NU6E2NU 1 F2U6 5 BM+3 

,6" 

5400 DATA "X", "U1E4U1;BM-4,0;D1F 
4Dl;BM+3,0" 

54 1 0 DATA "Y" , " BM+0 , -6 ; D2F2ND2E2 
U2;BM+3,6" 

5420 DATA " Z " , "NR4U1E4U1L4; BM+7, 
6" 

5430 DATA " 1 " , "BM+1 , 0; R1NR1U6G1 ; 
BM+6, +5" 

5440 DATA "2" , "NR4U1E1R1E2U1H1L2 
GljBM+7,+5" 

5450 DATA " 3 " , " BM+0 , - 1 ; F 1 R2E 1 H2E 
2HlL3jBM+7,6" 

5460 DATA "4", "BM+3, 0; U2NR1L3U1E 
3D3;BM+4,3" 

5470 DATA " 5 " , " BM+0 , - 1 ? F 1 R2E 1 U2H 
lL3U2R4;BM+3,+6" 

5480 DATA " 6 " , " BM+4 , -5 ; H 1 L2G 1 D4F 



Plain Wrap' 
59* 

ea. 



• Certified 100% Error-free • 
5 YEAR WARRANTY 



BASF $2H * \Q Dyson $2f a s 



69* 



qualirtietric * 



5V4" SSDD. Soft sector, jirce per disk, 100 pal*. 



^T^5 DISKETTE LABELS 2 EA 

I7t6x5 n 1000 QUANT 

Call: 818/700-0330 



FOR IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 
on Credit Card Orders 




FLIP "N" FILE -is C795 
for 5 1 /T Diskettes 

"25," $21.95 "56," $31.95 

ORDER NOW . . . MAIL TO - 



YORK IO 95 ' 



Chatsworth, CA 91311 



PLEASE INDICATE QUANTITIES DESIRED . 


SIZE 


Plain Wrap 


BASF 


Oyaan 


TOTAL 


All Diskettes are soft sectored, unformatted. #H1 ■ 
In Continental U.S., shipments by U P S. | 
It Parcel Post preferred, check here Q 
Check or M.O. enclosed □ Send Quantity Discounts □ ■ 
Charge to credit card: VISA Q MASTERCARD □ 

Harrt Nft Exp. ■ 


SV»" SSDD 


io 17.90 
100)59.00 


m 24.90 

.» 2)9.00 


29 90 




5V«" DSDD 


.o 20.70 

i»)82O0 


i° 33 90 
100298 00 


_» 41.30 
ioo363 00 




SV«" DS96tpi 




.o 4790 
i»42) 00 


— mi 52 50 
•oo461 00 




a" ssdd 




,o 3090 
_ 274.00 


t» 35.70 

ioo314.00 




a DSDD 




.o 38 60 

m 339 00 


>o 41.30 
. ice 363 00 




Name : -1 


DISKETTE LABELS. □ S3 00/100 □ $20 00/1.000 




Address . — J 


FLIP N' FILE 5V«" 15, $7 95 qty ; 

• 25.' $21 95 qty_ .. "SO,' S3) 95 qty 




SUB TOTAL 




Qty State/Zip , - 






Shipping handling {any quantity) 


3 50 


Signature Phone . * 


Oulvoe 48 Connnanal Slatsi Mdihonal $1 par ID pak pof lile 




TOTAL 











September 1984 THE RAINBOW 31 



1R2E1U1H1L3; BM+7, +3" 

5490 DATA "7" , "U1E4U1L4; BM+7, +6" 

5500 DATA "8", "BM+l , -0; H1U1E1H1U 

1E1R2F1D1G1NL2F1D1G1L2; BM+6, 0" 

5510 DATA "9", "BM+0, -1 ; F1R2E1U4H 

lL2GlDlFlR2;BM+4,+3" 

5520 DATA "0" , "BM+l , 0; H1U4E1R2F1 

D4GlL2;BM+6,0" 

5530 DATA , "U1E4U1 ; BM+3, 6" 

5540 DATA "?" , "BM+0, -5; E1R2F1D1G 

2? BM+0, +1 5 Dl ; BM+5, +0" 

5550 DATA " ! " , "BM+2, +1 ; Ul ; BM+0, - 

2;U5jBM+5,7" 

5560 DATA " . " , "BM+2, 0; Ul 5 BM+5, +1 

II 

5570 DATA " : " , "BM+2, -1 ; Ul 5 BM+0, - 
2;ui; BM+5, +5" 

5580 DATA " 5 " , "BM+l , 0; E1U1 ; BM+0, 
-l;Ul;BM+5,+4" 

5590 DATA " , " , " BM+2 , 0; NU1G1 ; BM+6 
,"1" 

5600 DATA , " BM+ 1 , -5 ; E2 ; BM+4 , + 

7" 

5610 DATA "BM+0, -3; R4; BM+3, + 

3" 

5620 DATA " + " , " BM+2 , - 1 ; U2NU2NL2R 
2; BM+3, +3" 

5630 DATA "=" , "BM+l , -2? R3; BM-3, - 
2; R3; BM+4, +4" 




CANCOCO SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 2914, 
Medley, Alberta 
Canada TOA 2M0 



SKEET 



A 5 color game that teaches the 
location of keys. Thirteen levels 
of difficulty and four speeds 
...mow challenge both beginner and 
* ly,y!:) expert typists. Although not a 

tutorial, if you can master the highest level and speed, you 
. can type. 

An educational program that 
Qpfifhf + uses 'handwriting' to improve 

spelling for grades 3 - 8. Words 
$17 95 B^m« can have upto 16 letters, including 
special characters, accentuated 
vowels and diagraphs. Input your lessons from the keyboard 
or cassette, and output results to cassette and/or printer. 

is a unique half-hour board game 
for 2-4 players aged 8-80, 
with very few rules but requiring 
concentration and strategy to 
convert your chances to victory. 
Use ]oystick(s) and/or optional 
keyboard. To Stomp or not to Stomp...? A very entertaining 
family game! 

All programs are on cassette, documented, and use 32K ECB 
PMODE 3 graphics. Reviews have been or will be published 
in this magazine. 

UNDER DEVELOPMENT: GOLF-NET, GOLF-CAP, 
COCO-CPM and, for model train buffs, SKEDULER. 



Stomp 

$24.95 



5640 » TITLE PAGE-DATA FROM 

DRAWING HELPER BY J.S.PARAVATI 
5650 DATA 080,072,176,072,060,18 
6, 176, 186, 176, 072, 172, 087, 172, 08 
7, 136, 120, 136, 120, 136, 132, 176, 18 
6, 172, 168, 172, 168, 136, 132,012,00 
9,056,009 

5660 DATA 068,009,108,009,120,00 
9, 128,009, 120,009, 120,048, 128,00 
9, 148,036, 148,036, 168,009, 168,00 
9, 176,009, 188,009,228,009, 188,00 
9, 188,048 

5670 DATA 188,048,228,048,216,03 
0, 200, 030, 216, 030, 216, 024, 216, 02 

4, 200, 024, 200, 015, 200, 024, 200, 01 

5, 228, 015, 228, 015, 228, 009, 200, 03 
0,200,042 

5680 DATA 200,042,228,042,228,04 
2,228,048, 176,009, 176,048, 176,04 
8, 168, 048, 168, 048, 168, 021 , 168, 02 
1, 148,045, 148,045, 128, 021 , 128, 02 
1, 128,048 

5690 DATA 1 28 , 048 , 1 20 , 048 , 068 , 00 
9, 068, 015, 068, 015, 084, 015, 092, 01 
5, 108,015, 108,015, 108,009, 108,04 
8,068,048, 108,048, 108,042, 108,04 
2,092,042 

5700 DATA 084,042,068,042,068,04 
2, 068, 048, 084, 042, 084, 015, 092, 01 
5, 092, 042, 056, 009, 056, 015, 012, 00 
9,012,015,012,015,029,015,056,01 
5,040,015 

5710 DATA 029,015,029,048,029,04 
8,040,048,040,048,040,015, 120, 12 
0, 120, 132,080,072,084,084,084,08 
4, 120, 120,080, 186,084, 168,084, 16 
8, 120, 132 

5720 DATA 084,084,172,084,084,17 
1, 172, 171, 120, 120, 124, 123, 136, 12 
0, 132, 123, 120, 132, 124, 129, 136, 13 
2, 132, 129, 132, 129, 132, 123, 124, 12 
3, 124, 129 
5740 N=64 

5750 PM0DE4 : PCLS : SCREEN 1 , 1 : PMOD 
E 3:C0L0R7 

5760 FOR X=l TO N: READ C,D,E,F:L 
INE(C,D>-(E,F> ,PSET:NEXT X 
5770 PAINT<32,42> , 7 , 7: PAINT (88, 4 
2> ,7, 7: PAINT (148, 39) ,7, 7: PAINT <1 
92,30) ,7,7 

5780 LINE (124, 123) -(132, 123) , PSE 
T 

5790 PAINT (124, 87) ,6,7 

5800 FOR T=l TO 25: SOUND T*7,1:N 

EXT T 

5810 PAINT(128, 126) , 6, 7: PAINT ( 12 
4, 120) ,5,7 

5820 FOR T=l TO 1000: NEXT 
5830 RETURN 



32 THE RAINBOW September 1984 





By Bill Dunlevy & Doug Frayer 

Exploding with color, racing with 
fast animation, and roaring with 
sound, this great non-violent game 
is destined to be a classic! The 
review in February's issue of RAIN- 
BOW says this: "A Fun Investment" "it 
is totally unique" "I found it very tough 
to tear myself away from playing the 
game long enough to write about it! In 
short, CASHMAN is one fun game.^ 
Buy it." 




Dozens of levels and screens (more 
than FORTY!) offer anyone, from be- 
ginner to expert, as much good clean 
fun as they want! Higher levels in- 
clude special Mystery Pieces and Ex- 
pert Puzzle Pieces and Expert Puzzle 
Screens. Play alone or go for the 
ultimate challenge of two-player si- 
multaneous competition. Run along 
the colorful girders, jump across the 
tremendous chasms, climb the ropes 
and ladders, or grab a BYRD and fly to 
get the loot before your opponent 
does, but watch out! The KATS are on 
the prowl and your opponent is toss- 
ing eggs! Run, jump, climb, or fly to 
your nearest Color Computer and 
play CASHMAN! 

32 K- Tape $27.95 
Disk $29.95 



By Jeffery Sorenson 
& Phillip MacKenzie 

All alone in the silence of space, you 
switch on the viewport to look at the 
brilliant stars. And then you see TH EM: 
a massive hoard of bat-like aliens, 
swarming towards you! The shiptrem- 
bles under the distant explosions of 
enemyfire. You have only one chance 
for survival - Fight! As you attempt to 
defeat each new wave of enemy ships, 
they only get stronger and faster! If by 
some miracle you survive the first 
assault, you find yourself pitted against 
enemies so swift, powerful, and out- 
right evil that only one name fits them 
- DEMONS! And if that's not enough, 
they bring out the heavy artillery- the 
Mother Ship! Engaging in battle, you 
see a dark cloud against the stars: 
another invasion fleet! 





Created in the same spirit of the 
classic arcades games like Phoenix 
and Galaga, DEMON SEED is a great 
package of arcade fun and action. 
Different screens of bats, demons, 
and special challenge rounds 
keep the excitement high and 
e competition stiff! 

32K-Tape $27.95 
Disk $29.95 



VMS 

By Bill Dunlevy & Harry Lafnear 

Tired of games that only have a few 
screens or force you to follow strict 
levels? In TIME BANDIT, you virtually 
create your own game! You can 
choose from more than TWENTY 
places through-out the game, with 
more than 1 5 distinct variations and 
levels of difficulty in each place; this 
means over 300 variations! 



HWE 127f3 93 




Use the TIMEGATES to travel to the 
three different Worlds of Time, each 
containing a multitude of colorful 
and unique adventuring areas. Visit 
the medieval dungeons of FANTASY 
WORLD, recapture the days of yes- 
teryear in WESTERN WORLD, and 
reach for the stars in FUTURE 
WORLD. Fight the Evil Guardians: 
the Looking Lurker, Angry Elmo, Killer 
Smurphs, and more! Find the Keys 
and escape with the treasures of time. 
But hurry - your power is fleeting! 
Crisp Supergraphics, colorful scroll- 
ing landscapes, full animation of a 
multitude of characters, great sound, 
and over THREE HUNDRED 
SCREENS-it'sallhere! The 
conquest of time and space 
awaits! 




6655 Highland Road 
Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Orders & Info: (313) 666-4802 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Add $3.00 for 
shipping in the U.S.A.- $5.00 in Canada. Dealer 
inquires invited. 



see us a 



182,582 BYTES FREE* 




DD~1 DISK 



CONTROLLERS 



DC-1 
$134 



VC-1 
$24.45 



VC-2 
$26.45 

VC-3 
$39.45 



ROM disk controller reads & 
writes to 35 and 40 track single 
and double sided drives with all 
models of the color computer 

(J&M) ($2 shipping) 

Video interface mounts inside 
color computer by piggybacking 
IC on top of interface-no solder- 
ing and no trace cuts {$2 sbpg) 

for color computer 2 - 
monochrome only ($2 shpg) 

for color computer 2 - color and 
monochrome ($2 shpg) 



. , . with the Howard 
DRIVE 0 PACKAGE 

• Double-sided Half- 
height Drive-3 59,424 
Bytes 

• J&M Controller 

• Gold-plated Cable 

COMPLETE PACKAGE 
$395 $7 shipping 

1.56;672fl 349.95 = 447 7 byfes-'t x $395 m 
176,8421 - 359,25i« m$$2 bytes free 



$16.25 
SURGE 
SUPPRESSOR 



SS-1 
$16.25 

Reg. 

$48 

value 

($2shpg) 




GEMINI-10X 

$318 120 cps, 10" wide fric- 
qj tion & pin-feed printer, 
includes internal Gemini 
jSr serial interface and color 
jfv computer to Gemini cable. 
($6 shipping) 

8 



Our Unmatched Guarantee 

We offer a 30-day, full-refund guarantee 
that is unmatched in the business. In addi- 
tion, all products are covered by manufac- 
turer warranty, and our Howard stands 
are warranted for 1 year, 




n n I Howard Medical Computers 
ITU- 



Box 2, Chicago, IL 60690 

Cat. Mo, Number Desc. (inc. color) 



Telephone (312)944-2444 



Unit cost 



Shpg, 



Cost 
I 



□ My check or money order Is enclosed, □ Bill (circle one) MC VISA AE 

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□ SendC.O.D. 

Name . 

Address , 



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Total Cost ; ., _ 
Shipping _ 
III. res. add 8% 
COD (add 1,65) _ 
Total order % 



MONITORS 

122 Zenith 12" Amber screen, 640 X 
$134 250 dots, 15 MHz resolution. 

($6 shpg) 

123 Zenith 12" green screen, 640 X 
$98 250 dots, 15 MHz resolution. 

($6 shpg) 

131 Zenith 13" Color Monitor with 
$334 speaker, 390 X 200 dots, 2.5 
MHz resolution. ($9 shpg) 

SK-1 Sakata 12" Color Monitor, 400 X 
$269 200 dots, 15 MHz resolution. 
($6 shpg) 

All Monitors need video controller 



TV STANDS 







COCO 2 


TS-1 


15Wx 11Dx4H 


TS-2 


$29.50 


for 1 3 " screen 


$29.50 


TS-4 


24W x 1.1 D x 4H 


TS-3 


$39.50 


|or D 9 " screen 


$39.50 


PS-1 


18W x 15D x 2V2H 




$19.95 


for all popular printers 






add $5 for bottom feed slot 



TV stands come with ROM pack cut-out. 
Specify Ivory or Smoked Gray. Shipping 
$2.75 for each stand. 



New! 

Call our color 
computer bulletin 
board . . . 
(312) 278-9513 



SPECIAL VALUES!! 



We at Michtron were astonished by the response we received from our readers in regards to our 
Grand Opening sale. Business has been so brisk that we have decided to offer another special sale. 
This will give all our valued customers another chance to cash in on some super savings! 



SUPER SALE OH SLIMLINE DRIVERS 

Disk Drive and Controller are only $329,95, This may 
not be the lowest price you will find in the Rainbow, but 
we can guarantee It will be the best disk drive you can 
buy. Most special prices are for big, old, outdated full 
size drives. We are offering you the newest design. Slim 
Line fEAC disk drives. These are exceptional quality 40 
track disk drives. They are guaranteed for 6 months, 
twice as long as mast disk drives, For a controller, we 
Offer the J & M with gold plated contacts. As a special 
bonus wrth each disk drive, we will include a dual power 
aUpnly and case. New or at a later date, you can add a 
second disk drive for very little money, 

1 TEAC 40 Track Slim Line 

Disk Drive and Controller ti9 i ,$31*9,95 

2 TEAC 40 Track Slim Line 

Disk Drives and Controller... $479.95 

DISKS 

We buy approximately 5,000 disks a month tor resale To 
our customers and for our own use as a software 
publisher* We buy only premium quality SENTINEL 
diskettes, We buy them in bulk (no labels, no boxes) to 
■save money, We, In turn, pass these savings to our 
customers. These diskettes are unconditionally guar- 
anteed tobethetinest you have used or we will promptly 
refund your money. The diskettes are guaranteed by 
botJi Sentinel and MichTron for LIFE; If they ever cease 



10 DEsks with Tyvek Sleeves-Si 9.95 
10 Disks with Vinyl Sleeves-221,95 
10 COLORED Disks with Sentinel 5leev65~S24,95 



i 



WONDER PHONE WITH BUILT IM MODEM 

his amazing new product combines a phone and 
modem together for easy, low-cost operation. U'ni- 
tech's (tm) Data Phone can do it all* tt has pulse or lone 
dialing! adjustable ringer volume, mute key, and radial 
Key* Frequently used numbers can be stored and 
recalled at tt>e touch of a button. It even has a 'Hands 
Free' mode with a speaker which lets you talk from any 
part of your room, The most exciting feature Is the built- 
in, -300 baud modem! One connection from your com- 
puter and personal communication reaches a new 
height. So why on ly buy a modem, when you can gat a 
(uihfeature pnene (or free< 

1 Unltecft Data Phone with Modem , . T . . . 5 1 09.95 
1 Color Computer Connecting Cable ♦ 39.95 




GRAPHICOM 

A constant hit at computer shows, GRAPHICOM is the 
best grapnlcs program ever written for the COCOI 
GRAPHICOM was three years In the making, and ycu 
can see every minute in Its quality and ease of use 
GRAPHICOM has features that you would expect ft om 
systems costing hundreds of times more, 

"Powerful drawing tools; "rubber band" drawing; 
"stamps"; rotating pictures; mirrored, masked, and 
reversed images, and much more' 

**Easy to use: uses two joysticks, or one joystick 
and koala pad; operated by a large, simple picture- 
based menu. 

incredible output capacity: Transmit pictures 
over modems or amateur radiol GRAPHICOM 
even has a screen dump function thet works with 
over 20 different printersl 

GRAPHICOM is simple enough that anyone can 
use rt fc yeHt'sso powerful that a seasoned artist can 
achieve new frontiers of creativity* 

Requires 64 K and disk drive. Only $29, 95 

GRAPHICOM PICTURE DISKS 

Marvel aL Ihe wonders of computer aided art with Ihd 
amazing gallery o) picture disks for use with GRAPH* 
ICOM: 

Picture Disk #1 -Features drawings and tutorials foi 
GRAPHICOM, 

Dtsk #2-Presents Elvira, mistress of the dark and her 
(hands (great drawings and digitized photos), 

Disk #3-Excellent drawings and more examples o? 
using a digitizer 

Disk #4 -Electronic circuits and symbols, 

GRAPhfSET-More man 16 font screens; Roman. Greek, 
Cursive, special symbols and morel 

Disk #6-A multitude of brilliant color patterns that 
allows personal use as well as learning* 

Disk #7-lncludes varying shapes and sizes of qeo> 
metric figures. 

Disk rtB-Another disk filled with font characters - in- 
eluding OJde English, and LCD typeout, 

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TUTORIAL 



The second in a five part series on . . . 



Everything 

You Always 

Wanted To Know 



About The Color Computer 

But Radio Shack Didn't Tell You 



By Andy Kluck 



Here is the second installment of 
my compilation of old and new 
information and techniques in- 
volving the Color Computer. This 
month's article features a method of 
speeding up tape I/O to about 2700 
Baud and one more way to merge 
cassette programs. 

The Memory Almost Full Condition 

When BASIC'S available free memory 
is almost used up, a strange condition 
sometimes occurs. It can occur acci- 
dently, such as inside a program, while 
entering program lines, or on purpose, 
by: 

CLEAR 0:CLEAR MEM-50 

When this happens, there is not 
enough stack space for BASIC to think 
straight, and any statement that requires 
evaluation of a numeric or string expres- 
sion gives an OM Error. This prevents 
SA VE 3 CSA VE t CLEAR 0, PC LEAR 7, 
and just about anything else that could 
restore control of the system short of 
NEW, from working. If it happens 
inside a program which uses one too 
many variables, a simple CLEAR may 



(Andy Kluck is an electrical engineering 
student at the University of Texas at 
Austin.) 



free up enough space to allow a CLEAR 
10:(C)SAVE "HELP!" Otherwise, if 
you don't have the program CSA VEd, 
just about the only way out is to LIST or 
LLIST one line (or more if necessary), 
delete it, make more space (i.e. CLE A R 
10) and retype the line. To prevent this 
problem in the first place, it is helpful to 
monitor the value of MEM during a test 
run of the program and do whatever is 
necessary (reserve less string space in 
CLEA R, PC LEA R fewer pages, crunch 
the program, etc.) to keep it above 
200. 

RENUM 

When using RENUM, there are sev- 
eral good reasons for saving the pro- 
gram on tape or disk first in case of 
problems during renumbering, as there 
are at least two different possible sourc- 
es of trouble. First of all, RENUM 
without a liberal amount of free mem- 
ory can cause a wrecked program or 
system crash, so a CLEA R 10;PMODE 
OJ.PCLEAR 1 is recommended first 
with long programs. There is also the 
case of illegal line numbers as in this 
example: 

1 GOTO 2 

2 GOTO 3 

3 GOTO 64000 

Running this program results in an 



36 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



SN Error in 30, since line numbers 
greater than 63999 are not accepted by 
BASIC. Attempting to RENUMbcr with 
this program also causes an SN Error 
(without printing the line number since 
the error occurs in direct mode) and 
makes the program disappear — just 
list it. But there may be a way to recover. 
Saving and reloading the program, or 
just fixing its line pointers and doing a 
CLEAR, by: 

EXEC &HACEF:CLEAR 

at this point will often bring all of it 
back except some of the line numbers, 
which afe still replaced by internal codes. 
Now, if you fix the illegal line number 
and RENUM again, the program may 
be completely restored, if you're lucky. 

Adjustments For High Speed Mode 

To speed up execution of BASIC pro- 
grams, it has been suggested that the 
SAM chip may be set to its Address 
Dependent mode by POKE65495,0 and 
set back to normal speed by POKE 
65494,0 or pressing Reset. Note that not 
all Color Computers will work in this 
mode, so it should not be used (or at 
least be a user option) in programs to be 
distributed to others. It appears, how- 
ever, that most of them will work at the 



high speed if certain modifications are 
made as described oh Page 78 of the 
January 1983 RAINBOW. Some modifi- 
cations are almost always necessary to 
get systems with the disk interface in- 
stalled to work at the high speed. Also, 
normal low speed should always be 
selected during disk access to prevent 
strange problems that can otherwise 
occur. In the high speed mode, the pro- 
cessor runs at twice its normal speed 
when accessing ROM. Since BASIC ac- 
cesses RAM as it runs, the actual mea- 
sured speed is less than twice normal, 
depending oh the program. The printer 
output routine runs mostly in ROM, so 
the time constants for the Baud rate and 
carriage return delay generally need, to 
be doubled. Cassette tapes made at the 
high speed have a data rate of about 
2,700 Baud, almost twice the normal 
rate and five times as fast as the Model I; 
however, they usually do not load nor- 
mally even at the high speed because the 
tape read routine accesses RAM more 
often than the write routine and, there- 
fore, runs slower and gets out of sync 
with the tape. But by changing the bytes 
that control the reading of tapes, it is 
possible to read tapes made at both 
speeds at either speed: 



To read normal tapes at low speed 
POKE 143,18:POKE 144,24:POKE 
145,10 

(These are the normal values,) 

To read normal tapes at high speed 
POKE 143,29:POKE l44,30:POKE 
145,15 

To read 2,700 Baud tapes at Jow speed 
POKE 143,8:POKE 144,24:POKE 
145,4 

To read 2,700 Baud tapes at high speed 
POKE 143,13:POKE 144,24:POKE 
145,6 

Tapes made at the high speed may not 
be readable on all systems, but 1 have 
had good luck at a volume level of about 
eight with the standard recorder. Re- 
cently it was suggested that tapes made 
in the high speed mode could be loaded 
by using POKE 65497,0 and no adjust- 
ments to locations 143 to 145, but 1 have 
found this method less reliable; besides, 
this disables the dynamic RAM's refresh 
cycles, sometimes resulting in RAM 
cells "forgetting" at random. Remember 
that pressing Reset sets the SAM to 
its normal speed but does not reset the 
tape read parameters; this can cause 
confusion when you reset the computer 



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and forget to adjust these values and all 
the tapes stop working. 

Tape Filenames 

Whenever an empty string ("") is used 
as the tape filename for an input opera- 
tion, BASIC acts as if no filename was 
specified and uses the next file on the 
tape. This is useful with the OPEN 
statement when the name of the file is 
unknown, and also with CLOADM to 
load a file Using an offset without typing 
the filename. 

CSA VEM, CLOADM And Offsets 

The index of at least some versions of 
the cbasic manual lists a command 
called CSA VEM, which supposedly will 
"write out a machine language file" and 
has the syntax: CSA VEM X,4E,6F,5F. 

But don't believe them. First of all, 
Color BASicdoesn't have a CSAVEM; 
it's an Extended BASIC command. The 
Extended BASIC manual says the same 
thing, but the command as given still 
doesn't work because all four of the 
arguments given are incorrect. For a 
while it was assumed that Extended 
BASIC didn't have a CSAVEM either, 
but eventually the correct syntax was 
discovered, either through experimen- 
tation or disassembly of the ROM: 

CSA VEM "filename", start address, 
end address, exec address 

The Disk BASIC manual carries on the 
great tradition by giving an incorrect 
example for the SA VEM command. At 
least now they use a string for the file- 
name. The arguments for CSA VEM are 
not hexadecimal numbers; they are stand- 
ard numerical expressions. Of course, if 
you only know the addresses in Hex, 
you can use the &H prefix, which evalu- 
ates to such an expression. To load one 
of these files at a different address than 
it was made at, an offset is used, and the 
file is loaded at its original address plus 
the offset. To load a file at an address 
greater than the address it was made at: 

(C)LOADM "filename", new address 
old address 

To load a file at an address lower than 
the original, a wrap-around effect is 
used: , 

(C)LOADM "filename",new address- 
old address+65536 

and $10000 is subtracted from the ad- 
dress; i.e., an offset of $F00O causes the 
file to be loaded $ 1 000 below its original 
address. 

EXEC 

When a file is CLOADMed or 



LOADMed, the exec address from the 
file plus the offset is stored in the exec 
pointer at $9D. When EXEC is used 
without an argument, the routine ad- 
dressed by the pointer is called as a sub- 
routine. If EXEC is used with an ar- 
gument, the argument is stored in the 
exec pointer for use by the next EXEC. 
When making a machine language file 
which is not to be executed, such as a 
block of data or a saved picture, an exec 
address of SB44A may be used, since 
this is the address that the pointer is set 
to when BASIC is started and is the 
address of BASIC'S FC Error routine. 

ASCII Files And The Cassette Merge 

The SA VE and CSA VE commands 
support two formats for the output file. 
The tokenized or compressed form is 
the most common. It consists of an 
exact dump of BASIC'S program area, 
and since command words and func- 
tions are replaced by one Or two byte 
tokens, it usually produces shorter files. 
The ASCII or listed format is invoked 
by commands of the form: (C)SAVE 
"filename", A. 

Since ASCII files are made by simply 
opening the output file and listing the 
program into it, they can be accessed 
from basic as data files or read directly 
into any text editor that doesn't use its 
own file format. The LOAD and CLOAD 
routines test the input file for which type 
it is and act accordingly. Tokenized files 
are read back into the program area, the 
proper pointers are set, and the pro- 
gram's line pointers are fixed according 
to its new position in memory. The 
ASCII file loader does a NEW, opens 
the file for input, and jumps to the same 
"idle loop" that normally inputs lines 
from the keyboard. Often it is helpful to 
be able to combine lines from two pro- 
grams. Disk BASIC provides this utility 
with the MERGE command, which 
operates similarly to LOAD except it 
only accepts ASCII files and doesn't call 
NEW first. Several methods have been 
suggested for merging two cassette pro- 
grams together, often by setting the 
"start of program" pointer to the end of 
the first program to load the second; 
however, most of these require several 
POKEs and PEEKs or a machine lan- 
guage routine, and part of the proce- 
dure has been omitted in some accounts 
so that if the end of the first program 
happens to fall on a page boundary, the 
user is required to POKE a. -2 into the 
"start of program" pointer. Besides, this 
process requires that the line numbers 
of the first program be lower than those 
of the second . By emulating the MERGE 



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command in cassette BASIC, these prob- 
lems are solved. The process of opening 
the file, setting thfc device number to - 1 , 
and calling the idle loop can be accomp- 
lished in one line: OPEN 'T'-l/'file- 
name":POKElll,255:EXEC 44156 for 
the program "filename", or OPEN "I" 
-L"":POKE 111,255:EXEC 44156 for 
the next file on the tape. Remember that 
this only works with an ASCII file. If 
any line numbers exist in both pro- 
grams, the lines in the file will replace 
those in RAM. 

SKIPF 

According to the Color basic man- 
ual, SKIPF \s used to position the tape 
to the end of the last program. I havfc 
found it just as useful as a method of 
verifying that a file has been written 
without errors. Since the tape read rou- 
tines Used by SKlPFtest the checksums 
of each data block, attempting to SKIPF 
a bad file will cause an 1 / O Error. In the 
case of a BASIC or machine language 
program, the user can then rewrite the 
file. SKIPF is more versatile than the 
Level II equivalent "CLOAD?", which 
only works with BASIC files of which an 
identical copy is still in RAM. 

READ and INPUT 

Data to be read or inputted may not 
be a variable or arithmetic expression, 
but it may be a Hex or Octal constant in 
Extended BASIC. Strings to be read or 
input may be enclosed in quotation 
marks, which allow leading and trailing 
blanks, commas, and colons to be in- 
cluded in the string: 

10 READ A,A$:DATA &H3FF," 
COMMA, COLON: u 

There are several standard methods 
of speeding up Microsoft BASIC pro- 
grams. First of all, GOTOs and GOS- 
UBs work faster if the line referenced is 
either near the beginning of the pro- 
gram or immediately after the line with 
the GOTO or GOSUB. Hex and Octal 
constants are evaluated much faster 
than decimal ones. Programs will run 
faster if the most often used variables 
are created first. Also, every time a sim- 
ple variabie is created, all the arrays are 
moved to make room for it, so if large 
arrays are used, all simple variables 
should be declared before the arrays are 
dimensioned. Finally, Color BASIC 1.2 
and Disk BASIC 1 . 1 have a new interpret 
loop that only scans the keyboard before 
each statement if at least one key is 
down. With either of these ROMs or the 
equivalent in RAM, execution is speeded 
up by varying amounts depending on 
program content. 



DIM 

Besides dimensioning arrays, DIM 
may be used to create a list of simple 
variables. A program that declares all of 
its variables and then dimensions its 
arrays with a statement like DIM 
A, B, C,I,X, Y.AS, B$,A(l600 ), B$(50 ) will 
run faster than one that doesn't. 

Relational and Logical Operators and 
IF/THEN 

The Color BASIC manual gives a list 
of BASIC operators on Page 306 but 
doesn't define most of them. The rela- 
tional operators ("=", ">", "<", ">-", 
etc.) with numeric operands give a value 
of-1 if the expressibnis true, or 0 if it is 
false. For example, PRINT B>=C gives 
- 1 if B is greater than or equal to C, Or 0 
if B is less than C. Relational operators 
used With string operands compare them 
alphabetically. AND and OR convert 
each expression to a 16-bit integer and 
do the correct logical operation to get 
the result. For example, a binary 01 1 1 
ANDed with 1 1 10 equals binary 01 10; 

PRINT 7 AND 14 

gives 6= 01 10 binary. The NOT opera- 
tor has one bperand and simply com- 
plements each bit. This has the effect of 
turning a -1 into a 0 or a 0 into a -1. 
According to the Color, BASIC manual, 
IF/ THEN "tests the relationship" and 
acts accordingly. Actually, IF simply 
evaluates a numerical expression and 
takes 0 as false and anything else as true. 
Therefore, X= A=l AND B>6: IF X 
THEN PRINT B is the same as IF A=l 
AND B>6 THEN PRINT B and IF Y 
THEN 300 may be substituted for IF 
YO0 THEN 300. 

NEXT 

Like most Microsoft BASICS, Color 
BASIC allows NEXT without a variable 
to close the last loop entered. Also, 
statements of the form NEXT X,Y,Z 
may be used to close multiple loops. 

INKEYS 

IN KEYS does not simply return the 
key being pressed $t the instant it is 
executed. Before each BASIC statement 
is executed, the keyboard is tested and if 
a new key is pressed (other than SHIFT 
@ or break) its value is stored at $87. 
INKEYS tests this address, and if a key 
has been pressed, it returns a string with 
that character and stores a 0 in $87. 
Otherwise, IN KEYS scans the keyboard 
again and if a new key is pressed, it uses 
it for the string. This sometimes causes 
INKEYS to eat a BREAK character and 
return a CHRS(3). If you want to have a 
program stop and wait for the User to 



press a key, it is best to use a routine 
like: 

60000 1N$=INKEY$ 

60010 IN$=INKEY$: IF IN$="" 

THEN 60010 

60020 IF IN$=CHR$(3)THEN STOP 
60030 RETURN 

Where the first INKEYS clears out 
any key that rnay have been previously 
pressed, and Line 60020 tests for the 
BREAK key. 

Joystick Buttons 

According to the manual, PEEK 
(65280) returns 255 or 127 if neither 
joystick button is pressed, 126 or 254 if 
the right button is pressed, or 125 or 253 
if the left button is pressed. Obviously 
this cannot be correct when both but- 
tons are pressed at once. To separate the 
button bits from each other as well as 
from the keyboard scan inputs which 
appear in the same byte, it is much bet- 
ter to use the AND operator with lines 
like: 

10 IF (PEEK(65280) AND 1)=0 

THEN ? "RIGHT BUTTON" 

20 IF (PEEK(65280) AND 2)=0 

THEN ? "LEFT BUTTON" 

30 GOTO 10 

RND 

According to the Color BASIC man- 
ual, RND returns a random integer 
between one and its argument, which is 
supposed to be greater than one. This 
works fine; however, it is not the only 
way to use RND. For arguments in the 
range between zero and one, RND 
returns one. But RND(0) returns a 
number in the range of 0<= X< 1. This 
is the way "standard" BASIC defines 
RND(0). For arguments less than zero, 
RND returns a value which is not ran- 
dom but actually is dependent only on 
the argument. More importantly, using 
RND with a negative argument sets 
Color Basic's random seed Value at 
$ 1 1 6-$ 1 1 9 according to the argument. A 
statement like X=RND(- TIMER) In 
Extended BASIC randomizes the ran- 
dom number generator much as the 
Level II RANDOM statement does. 
Note that Radio Shack's newsletter once 
recommended A—RND(TIMER) to do 
this, but this positive argument does not 
randomize anything. This feature can 
also be used to "unrandomize"the seed: 
X-RND(-6) 'or any negative constant 
executed at the beginning of a program 
or routine using RND will cause the 
same "random" number sequence each 
time the program or routine is run. 



40 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



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Cqfor Oumpurer. The design of the program is excellent; t he. prugram mrng 
If ffawfosi October 1983 "Rainbow" 

"drnang word processors for the CoCo, VIP Writer stands ahue as the 
most veraifiie, most professional program available. "May Tfttt "Computer 
User" 

"Word processing with VIP Writer is like driving a high-prrformante 
vehicle . . . This Ferarri of a package has more features than tefawritzr, fey- 
writer (for the IBM PC), or Applewriter," October 1983 "Hoi CoCo" 

The Writer will work with you and your printer to do things you 
always wanted to do. Every feature of your printer can be put to use, 
every character set, every graphics capability at any baud rate, EVEN 
PROPORTIONAL SPACING. All this with simplicity and elegant. You 
can even automatically print multiple copies. 

Although all versions feature tape save and load, the oisli version 
provides the Mini Disk Operating System common to the whol*> 
Library, plus disk file linking for continous printing. 

Professional features of particular note: 

■ Memory-Sense with BANK SWITCHING to fully utilize 64K r grving not 
just 24 or 30K, but up to53K of workspace with the tape version and 50K 
with the disk version. 

■ TRUE FORMAT WINDOW allowing you to preview the printed page 
ON THE SCREEN BEFORE PRINTING, showing centered Pines, headers, 
FOOTNOTES, page breaks, page numbers, & margins in line lengths of 
up to 240 characters. It makes HYPHENATION a snap. 

■ A TRUE EDITING WINDOW in all 9 display modes Tor those exlra 
wide reports and graphs (up to 240 columns!). 

■ FREEDOM to imbed any number of PRINTER COMROL CODES 
anywhere, EVEN WITHIN JUSTIFIED TEXT. 

■ Full 4-way cursor control, sophisticated edit commands, ihc ability 
to edit any BASIC program or ASCII textfile, SEVEN DELETE 
FUNCTIONS, UNI INSERT, LOCATE AND CHANGE, wild card locate, 
up to TEN SIMULTANEOUS block manipulations, word wrap around, 
programmable tabs, display memory used and left, non -breakable 
space, and headers, footers and FOOTNOTES. 

■ Automatic justification, automatic pagination, ju turn aire- -ceiniering, 
automatic flush right, underlining, superscripts, subscript, pause 
print, single-shet:[ pause, and print comments. 

■ Type-ahead, typamatic key repeat and key beep for the pros, ERROR 
DETECTION and UNDO MISTAKE features, 3 PROGRAMMABLE func- 
tions, aurp column creation, and an instant on-screen HHP TABLE. 

Radio Shack Catalog No. 90-0141 [ 
32K (Comes with tape & disk) $69.95 

VIP Speller™ 

WITH A 50,000 WORD INDEXED DICTIONARY! 

By Bill Argyros 

Cone are the eyestrain, boredom and fatigue from endless prouf- 
reading, VIP Speller™ is the fastest and most user-friendly ipfiller for 
your CoCo, It can be used to correct any ASCII file — including VIP 
Library'* files and files from Scripsit™ and Telewriter 1 " It autornalkally 
chirks file* for words to be corrected, marked for special attention or 
even added to the dictionary. You can even view the word in cuniexL, 
with upper and lowercase. VIP Speller™ comes with a spatially edifed 
50,000 word dictionary which, unlike other spellers for Ihw C.oO?, is 
indexed for the greatest speed. The shorter your MI&, Ihe qujrfcer (he 
checking time. And words can be added to or defied from the 
dictionary or you can create one of your own. VIP Speller 1 " also coirif-^ 
with the Library's mini disk operating system. 

Radio Shack Catalog No. 90-0142 
32K DISK ONLY $49.95 

Lowercase displays not available with this program. 



VIP 



VIP Calc 



By Kevin Herrboldt 

You can forget the other toy calcs — The real thing is here! No other 
spreadsheet for the Color Computer gives you: 

• 20 ROWS BY 9 COLUMNS ON THE SCREEN AT ONCE 

• LOWERCASE LETTERS WITH DESCENDERS 

• UP TO 16 CONCURRENT DISPLAY WINDOWS 

• FLOATING-POINT MATH 

• CHOICE OF SINGLE AND DOUBLE PRECISION 

• WORKS WITH BASE 2, 10, AND 16 NUMBERS 

• UP TO 512 COLUMNS BY 1024 ROWS 

• USER DEFINABLE WORKSHEET SIZE FOR MORE MEMORY 

• LOCATE FUNCTION TO FIND CHECK NUMBERS, NAMES, ETC. 

• COLUMN/ROW MULTIPLE SORTS 

• PROGRAMMABLE FUNCTIONS 

• IMBCDDAGLE PRINTER CONTROL CODES 

• 21 ALTERABLE PRINT FORMAT PARAMETERS 

• ON-LINE HELP TABLES 

• DOES NOT REQUIRE FLEX OR BASIC 

VIP Calc™ is truly the finest and easily the most powerful electronic 
worksheet and financial modeling program available for the Color 
Computer. Now every Color Computer owner has access to a 
calculating and planning tool better than VisiCalc™, containing all its 
features and commands and then some, WITH USABLE DISPLAYS. Use 
Visicalc templates with VIP Calc™! 

There's nothing left out of VIP Calc™ Every feature you've come to 
rely on with VisiCalc™ is there, and then some. You get up to 5 TIMES 
the screen display area of other spreadsheets for the Color Computer 
and Memory-Sense with BANK SWITCHING to give not just 24, or 30, 
but UP TO 33KOF WORKSPACE IN MKIF7 This display and memory 
allow you the FULL SIZE, USABLE WORKSHEETS you require. You also 
get: User definable worksheet size, up to 512 columns by 1024 rows! * 
Up to SIXTEEN VIDEO DISPLAY WINDOWS* to compare and contrast 
results of changes * 16 DIGIT PRECISION * Sine, Cosine and other 
(rigonometric functions, Averaging, Exponents, Algebraic functions, 
□ rid BASE 2, 8, 10 or 16 entry * Column and Row, Ascending and 
Descending SORTS for comparison of results * LOCATE FORMULAS 
OR TITLES IN CELLS * Easy entry, replication and block' moving of 
frames * (ilnh^l or Local column width control up to 78 characters 
width per cell * Create titles of up to 255 characters per cell * Limitless 
programmable functions * Typamatic Key Repeat * Key Beep * 
Typeahead * Print up to 255 column worksheet * Prints at any baud rate 
from 110 to 9600 * Print formats savable along with worksheet * Enter 
PRINTER CONTROL CODES for customized printing with letter quality 
or dot matrix printer * Combine spreadsheet tables with VIP Writer™ 
documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical and financial reports 
and budgets. Both versions feature Tape save and load, but the disk version 
also has the Mini Disk Operating System of the entire Library. 

Radio Shack Catalog No. 90-0143 
32K (Conies with tape & disk) $69.95 

32K does not have hi-res displays, sort or edit. 



Check These 
Library Features: 

■ Fully CoCo 2 Compatible 

■ Nine Display Formats: 32 by 16, 
51,64,85 by 21 or 24 

■ True Lowercase & Descenders 

■ Four Different Display Colors 

■ 32 & 64K Compatible 

■ Memory Sense - Bank Switching 

■ Up to51K Disk,53K Tape 

■ Mini Disk Operating System 

■ Cloth Binders With Slipcases 

VIP Terminal™ 

RATED BEST IN JANUARY 1984 "RAINBOW" 

By Dan Nelson 

From your home or office you can join the communication 
revolution. The VIP Terminal™ opens the world to you. You can 
monitor your investments with the Dow Jones Information Service, or 
broaden your horizons with The Source of CompuServe, bulletin 
boards, other computers, even the mainframe at work. 

For your important communication needs you've got to go 
beyond software that only lets you chat. You need a smart termnal so 
that you can send and receive programs, messages, even other VIP 
Library™ files. VIP Terminal™ has "more features than communications 
software for CP/M, IBM and CP/M 86 computers." Herb Friedman, 
Radio Electronics, February 1984. 

FEATURES: Choice of 8 hi-res lowercase diplays * Memory-Sense with 
BANK SWITCHING for full use of workspace * Selectively print data at 
baud rates from 110 to 9600 * Full 128 character ASCII keyboard * 
Automatic graphic mode * Word mode (word wrap) for unbroken 
words * Send and receive Library files, Machine Language & BASIC 
programs * Set communications baud rate from 110 to 9600, Duplex: 
Half/Full/Echo, Word length: 7 or 8, Parity: Odd/Even or None, Stop 
Bits: 1-9* Local linefeeds to screen* Save and load ASCII files, Machine 
Code & BASIC programs * Lowercase masking * 10 Keystroke 
Multiplier (MACRO) buffers to perform repetitive pre-entry log-on 
tasks and send short messages * Programmable prompt or delay for 
send next line * Selectable character trapping * Send up to ten short 
messages (KSMs), each up to 255 characters long, automatically, to save 
money when calling long distance. 

All versions allow tape load and save of filesand KSMs, but the disk 
version also has the Mini Disk Operating System. 

Radio Shack Catalog No. 90-0139 
32K (Comes with tape & disk) $49.95 

(Tape comes in 16K but without hi-res displays) 

Now Available 
By Express Order 
At Your Local 

Radio /haek 



Store! 



Radio Shack is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation, 



VIP Database™ 

"ONE OF TM£ BEST* JULY 1984 "RAINBOW** 

By Tim Nelson 

This high speed MACHINE LANGUAGE program fills ail your 
information management needs, be they for your business or home. 
And it does so better than any other database program for the Color 
Computer, featuring machine code, lowercase screens and mailmerge 
capabilities.. Inventory, accounts, mailing lists, family histories, you 
name U, the VIP Database™ will keep track of all your data, and it will 
merge VIP Writer™ files. 

The VIP Database™ features the Library Memory Sense wilh HANK 
SWITCHING and selectable lowercase displays for maximum utility. It 
will handle as many records as fit on your disk or disks. It isstructurecl in 
a simple and easy to understand menu system with full prompting for 
easy operation. Your data is stored in records of your own design. All 
files are fully indexed for speed and efficiency. Full sort of records is 
provided for easy listing of names, figures, addresses, etc., in ascending 
or descending alphabetic or numeric order. Records can be searched 
for specific entries, using multiple search criteria. With database form 
merge you may also combine files, sort and print mailing lists, print 
"boiler plate" documents, address envelopes - the list is cmdlgsi.. The 
math package even performs arithmetic operations and update* other 
fields. Create files compatible with the VIP Writer™and VIP Terminal™. 
Unlimited print format and report generation with the ability to imbed 
control codes for use with all printers. 

As with all other Library programs, the Database features the 
powerful Mini Disk Operating System, 

Radio Shack Catalog No. 90-0140 
32k DISK $59.95 

64K Required for math package & mail merge 

VIP Disk-ZAP™ 

RAVED ABOUT IN THE APRIL 1983 "RAINBOWI" 

By Tim Nelson 

Your database file disk, form letter disk, or BASIC program disk 
goes bad. An I/O error stops loading, or even backing up of the disk. 
Weeks, even months of work sit on the disk, irretrievable. Now 
catastrophic disk errors are repairable, quickly and with CQrtfidfcrtce, 
using the VIP Disk-ZAP™. It is the ultimate repair utility for simple and 
quick repair of all disk errors. Designed with the non-programmer, in 
mind, the VIP Disk-ZAP™ will let you retrieve all types of bashed files, 
BASIC and Machine Code programs. 

This high-speed machine code disk utility has a special dual cursor 
screen display to look at the data on your disk. You are able to: Verify or 
modify disk sectors at will * Type right onto the disk to change 
unwanted program names or prompts * Send sector contents to the 
printer * Search the entire disk for any grouping of characters * Copy 
sectors * Backup tracks or entire disks * Repair directory tracks and 
smashed disks * Full prompting to help you every step of the way * 50- 
plus page Operators Manual which teaches disk structure and repair. 

Radio Shack Catalog No. 90-0144 

UK DISK $49.95 
Lowercase displays not available with this program. 

i«SBS To ° rder Direct ' IT 
1-800-328-2737 

Order Status and Software Questions call 1 -805-968-4364 
MAILORDERS: $3.00 U.S. Shipping per product ($5.00 CANADA; $10.00 
OVERSEAS). Personal checks allow 3 weeks. 



132 Aero Camlno 1-805-968-4364 
Goleta, California 93117 U.S.A. 



TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. VisiCalc is a trademark of VisiCorp. 

©1983 by Soft law Corporation 




Play Together, 
Learn Together 



Alas, home is where homework must be done. Even 
the name of the activity undermines the process of 
learning. It is called work and not discovery or learning 
or fun. Therefore, the extension of school into home 
becomes negative reinforcement. Homework is some- 
thing undesired but endured by the kid, enforced by 
the parent because someone says it must be done. 
Frequently, homework is used as punishment. 

— Laran Stardrake 



"School Is In The Heart of a Child" is for parents of quite young 
children. We want to help you work and play with your three- to 
eight-year-old child and learn to use computers as a joyful family 
experience. We want to suggest ways to incorporate the home compu- 
ter as another means to encourage your child's independence* growth, 
and control over his own life. See the pride on her face as she directs the 
computer to do what she with deliberation selects. See her head gears 
switch to "on" as she progresses step-by-step with your presence and 
caring direction. 

We will explore (we hope, with your help ) the following: 

• Specific "teaching" techniques so that the discovery can be the 
child's own. 

• Critical evaluation of software based on extensive playtesting in 
family and related environments. 

• Additional resources to consult: books, magazines, software pub- 
lishers, networks, etc, 

• Suggestions for interludes and fun times away from the computer 
(a must): call the librarian for specific information; watch a TV 
program together and discuss it; work together as volunteers in a 
community project; take a spring (or fall or winter or summer) 
awareness walk . , . 

• Whatever we learn from families we work with in Menlo Park or 
from you, our readers. Let's pool our knowledge. Let's share our 
experiences as we all learn from our children. 

We also provide small programs you can type in and use right now. 

Copyright© 1984 by DragonQuest, P.O. Box 310, Menlo Park, CA 
94026. 



(Well-known author Bob Albrecht also writes the 
"Game Master 's Apprentice "feature for The Rainbow 
each month. Ramon Zamora is author and co-author 
of several books, co-founder of ComputerTown 
USA!, and currently designing computer games for 
kids at Child Ware Corp. in Menlo Park, Calif) 



By Bob Albrecht and Bamon Zamora 
Bainbow Contributing Editors 



We were pleasantly surprised to find a new version 
of the game Reverse, by Donald Clerc, in the July 
1984 issue of THE rainbow. Reverse, invented by 
Peter Lynn Sessions, was first published in People s Com- 
puter Company, volume 1, number 5, May 1973. PCC was 
the first periodical devoted entirely to personal access to 
computers. People's Computer Center, where Reverse was 
invented, was the first storefront, open-to-the-public com- 
puter center, way back in 1972. 

To play Reverse, you begin with a scrambled list of 
numbers and try to put them in order with the smallest 
number on the left and the largest on the right. For example, 
start with this list: 

2 5 14 3 

We want to put the list in the following order. 
1 2 3 4 5 

Each turn, you can reverse the first two numbers, or the 
first three numbers, or the first four numbers, or all five 
numbers. Let's reverse the first three numb ers.^ 

Original List: 2 5 1 4 3 y<^r ^ 
Reverse 3:1 5 2 4 3 / <e ^V° e J 

Well, that put one in the first position but, alas, the rest of 
the list is still scrambled. What to do? Just for fun, let's 
reverse all five numbers. 

3 4 2 5 1 



44 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Hmmmm . . . that didn't help much. Oh well, let's reverse 
two. 

4 3 2 5 1 

That's better! Carry on, please. Can you complete the task 
with three more reversals? Remember, you can reverse 
numbers only frqm the left end. You can reverse two 
numbers, or three numbers, or four numbers, or five 
numbers. Okay, you can also reverse one number, but that 
doesn't change anything! 

Now try some of these. In each case, we tell you how many 
reversals you can do it in. 

1) 5 43 2 1 One reversal. 

2) 4 5 3 2 1 Two reversals. 

3) 2 1 4 5 3 Three reversals. 

4) 3 2 5 4 1 We did this one in six reversals, then we 

tried another way and did it in only four 
reversals. 

Yes, Reverse is a great game! We encourage you to play 
paper-and-pencil Reverse with your kids. It's OK to start 
with real easy lists such as 321 or 231 or (surprise!) 123. 

"Mariko, suppose we start with 12 3. How many should 
we reverse?" 

Mariko looks askance and huffs, "Robert, those numbers 
are already in their proper place!" 

The Reverse universe is expanding. Thanks, Donald 
Clerc, for showing us a hew variation in the July issue of THE 
RAINBOW. We suggest more variations. 

1) The original game; Numbers 1 to N (N = 9). 

2) Other numbers: N numbers from a given set of 

numbers. For example, up to nine numbers in the 
range 1 to 20. 

3) Alphabet Reverse: Put letters in order. 

4) Shape Reverse: Put shapes in order. For example, 

scramble these shapes: . 







5) Color tones. Associate a tone with something visual 

and put the tones (scale of C?) in ascending order. 
Then think about double Reverse. Start with rows and 
columns of numbers. 



Put the numbers in order, as follows. 

1 2 3 
4 5 6 
7 8 9 

You can reverse two or three numbers from the left in any 
row or from the top in any column. More about this next 
time. 

If all the above and a little bit more came on one cassette 
or one disk for a 16K CoCo, we would sure be inclined to 
like it! 

Thanks, Peter Lynn Sessions, wherever you are, for 
inventing a great game. 



Guess My Word 

We have several simple word games in mind to give to 
you. We'll begin with a game to guess a three-letter word. 
Here are the words. 



30000 


REM**WQRD LIST 






30100 


r\ATA 
UH I H 


AT\r\ Arc 
mDU , Rise. 9 


A T D 

Hir\, 


ALL, 


AND 


30110 


UM 1 tt 


AkIT AK1V 

hN 1 y HNY 9 


ADC 

ttKfc 9 


ARM, 


ASK 


30200 


nATA 
UH 1 H 


OAn DAR 

DHU 9 dhu 9 


RAT 
OH 1 9 


BED 9 


BEE 


30210 


nATA 
UH 1 H 




DUa 9 


BOY, 


BUS 


30220 


rjAJA 
UH 1 H 


m it m iv 

DU 1 9 OUT 








30300 


UH 1 H 


pAM PAD 

LrHN 9 UrHr 9 


PAD 

UHr\ 9 


CAT, 


COW 


30310 


HATA 

UH 1 H 




01 IT 






30400 


r\ATA 
UH 1 H 


n av n T c 
UHY yLlitp 


n t R 
UX 13 9 


DOG, 


DOT 


30410 


UH 1 H 


npv ni in 

UrC Y 9 ULJI3 








30500 


UH 1 H 


CAR FAT 
trln 9 tn 1. 9 


pen 

Cww 9 


END, 


EYE 


30600 


HAT £k 
UH 1 H 


PAN PAR 

i MP! 9 1 Mr\ 9 


PAT 
1 M 1 9 


FEW, 


FIT 


30610 


nATA 
17" 1 M 


p t y v 


1 VJ A 9 


FUN, 


FUR 


30700 


UH 1 H 


RAC RpC 


RPT 
uL 1 , 


GNU, 


GOT 


30800 


UH 1 H 


UIAT UIAV 
nn 1 9 rlH Y 9 


UCKI 
rlCiM , 


HER, 


HIM 


30810 


HAT A 
UH 1 H 


UTP UTC 
nlr p rt X s 9 


UTT 
ni 1 j 


HOP, 


HOT 


30820 


DATA 


Mhbl HI \R 
nuvv 9 nuu 








30900 


nATA 


T rF T MP 


T Nkf 

X Imps. , 


ITS 




31000 


nATA 
l/r-s 1 ri 


.1AM .1AR 

u Mil 9 iJ Mn 9 


.1PT 


JOB, 


JOG 


31100 


nATA 
UH 1 H 


1S.C. T 9 IS. X U 








31200 


nATA 
UH 1 H 


1 AV 1 PR 
LH Y 9 LCu 9 


1 PT 


LID, 


LIE 


31210 


nATA 
UH 1 H 


1 riT 1 nu 

l_U 1 9 Luff 9 


L.UU 






31300 


nATA 


MAn MAN 

■ IMU 9 f iFllM 9 


MAP 
1 iPir 9 


MAY, 


MIX 


31310 


nATA 


MRP Ml IR 
1 ILji 9 1 IVJw 








31400 


nATA 


NAP NFT 

IMnr 9 IMC 1 9 


NPUI 


NOD, 


NOT 


31410 


nATA 
UH 1 H 


NDIil NI IT 








31500 


nATA 
UH 1 H 


nnn npp 

u is is 9 urr 9 


ni n 

UL.U 9 


ONE, 


OUR 


31510 


nATA 
UH 1 H 


ni IT nuiN 








31600 


nATA 

UM 1 M 


PAI PAN 
rnt. 9 rnn 9 


PAT 

1 M 1 9 


PAY 9 


PEA 


31610 


nATA 

UM 1 M 


PPN PPT 

1 CpM 9 rt 1 y 


PIP 


PIG, 


PIN 


31620 


nATA 

UM 1 M 


PHT PI IT 
"U 1 9 1 U 1 








31800 


nATA 
UH 1 M 


RAN RAT 
rVMlM 9 nn 1 9 


r\nn 9 


RED, 


RUB 


31810 


nATA 
UH 1 H 


RI in RI IN 
r\UV3 9 r\LJr4 








31900 


nATA 
UH 1 H 


OAn GAT 
SHU 9 On 1 9 


CAM 

□HW 9 


SAY, 


SEA 


31910 


UH 1 H 


ecc opt 

□ tt 9 DL 1 9 


OCT lil 

□tW 9 


SHE, 


SIP 


31920 


DATA 


SIT, SIX, 


SKY 9 


SON, 


SUN 


32000 


DATA 


TAG TAN 

1 nu 9 1 mi 9 


TAP, 


TAX, 


TEA 


32010 


DATA 


TEN, THE, 


TIE, 


TOE, 


TOO 


32020 


DATA 


TOP, TOY, 


TRY, 


TUG, 


TWO 


32100 


DATA 


UFO, USE 








32200 


DATA 


VAN, VOW 








32300 


DATA 


WAG 9 WAS, 


WAY, 


WEB, 


WET 


32310 


DATA 


WHO, WHY, 


WIN, 


WON 




32500 


DATA 


YAK, YAP, 


YES, 


YOU 




32600 


DATA 


ZAP, ZEN, 


ZOO 






32700 


DATA 


*** 









Look at the list. You will see that the A's begin at Line 
30100, the Bps at Line 30200, the Cs at Line 30300, and so 
on. The Z's begin at Line 32600 and Line 32700 contains an 
end-of-data flag, ***. There is plenty of room for you to add 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 45 



additional words, perhaps from a book you and your child 
like to read together. 

We encourage you to put this word list on a tape cassette 
or disk. We will use it again in future games. We'll describe 
the rest of the game a block at a time. First, we want to 
reserve memory space for strings and for a string array to 
hold up to 200 words. Our list has 1 79 words, including ***. 
If you add a lot of new words, you may have to change Line 
110. 



100 REM**GUESS MY WORD SCH 8-1 

110 CLEAR 2000: DIM WORD* (200) 
120 CLS 

130 PRINT "GUESS MY WORD GAME " 
140 PRINT 

150 PRINT "I'M MEMORIZING WORDS, 
■i 



Next, we want the CoCo to read the words from the 
DA TA statements, store them in the array WORDS, and 
count the words as they are stored. 

200 REM**READ & COUNT WORDS 

210 NW = 0 

220 NW - NW + 1 

230 READ WORD«<NW> 

240 IF WORD* (NW> <>"***" THEN 220 
250 NW = NW - 1 



Look at the word list. The first word (ADD) is stored in 
WORD$(l), the second word (AGE) is stored in 
WORD$(2), and so on. ZOO is put into WORDSfl 78) and 
*** goes into WORD$(179). Since *** is not really a word, 
Line 250 subtracts one from N W to make it 1 78, the number 
of actual words in the DA TA statements. 

The CoCo is ready to play, so let's tell people how to play. 



Think of a mountain with AAA at the bottom and ZZZ at 
the top. If the CoCo's secret word is FUN and you guess 
CAT, it will tell you to try a higher word. If you guess SKY, 
it will tell you to try a lower word. 

What about Lines 370 and 380? They "spin" the random 
number wheel until you press a key. Thus, you will probably 



46 THE RAINBOW September 1984 





start with a different word each time you enter and run the 
program. 

The CoCo now picks a secret word at random from the list 
stored in WORDS. Then it asks for your guess. 



400 


REM*#PICK A RANDOM 


WORD 


410 


RW = RND(NW) : W* - 


WORD*<RW> 


499 


* 




500 


REM**6ET GUESS 




510 


PRINT: INPUT "YOUR 


GUESS" ; G* 



The CoCo's secret word is called W$ and your guess is 
called G$. If you didn't guess the word, block 600 gives you a 
hint and goes back for another guess. 



600 REM** IF INCORRECT, GIVE CLUE 
610 IF G*<W* THEN PRINT "TRY A H 
IGHER WORD": GOTO 510 
620 IF G*>W* THEN PRINT "TRY A L 
OWER WORD": GOTO 510 



If you guess the word, the CoCo goes on to block 700 and 
gives you your reward. 



700 REM**W INNER • 
710 CLS 

720 PRINT "THAT'S IT! YOU GUESSE 

D MY WORD. " 

730 FOR K=l TO 50 

740 : SP - RND<507> 

750 : TN - RND<255) 

760 : PRINT ©SP, w*; 

770 : SOUND TN, 1 

7B0 NEXT K 



Finally, your always-ready, ever-patient CoCo tells you 
how to play again. 

800 REM**TELL HOW TO PLAY AGAIN 

810 PRINT @448, CHR*<30> 

820 PRINT @480, "TO PLAY AGAIN, 

PRESS SPACE" CHR*<30); 

830 K*=INKEY*:IF K*="" THEN 830 

840 IF K*=" " THEN 310 ELSE 830 



Enter the program, including our word list or one of your 
choosing, and play. Here is a game we played. 




WORD. MY WORD IS BETWEEN 
AAA AND ZZZ. 

MY LOWEST 'WORD' IS AAA. 
MY HIGHEST 'WORD' IS ZZZ. 

YOUR GUESS? ■ 



300 REM**TELL HOW TO PLAY 
310 CLS 

320 PRINT "I'LL THINK OF A 3-LET 
TER WORD. " 

330 PRINT "MY WORD IS BETWEEN AA 
A AND ZZZ. " 
340 PRINT 

350 PRINT "MY LOWEST 'WORD' IS A 
AA. " 

360 PRINT "MY HIGHEST 'WORD' IS 
ZZZ. " 

370 PR I NT ".PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY A 
ND WE'LL PLAY"; 

380 XX ■ RND (NW) : IF INKEY*="" 
THEN 380 
390 PRINT 



What word shall we guess? Let's try CAT. We typed CAT 
and pressed the ENTER key. 

YOUR GUESS? CAT 
TRY A HIGHER WORD 

YOUR GUESS? ■ 

Higher word? Oh, "higher in the alphabet" or "up the 
mountain towards ZZZ." So next we tried SKY. 

YOUR GUESS? SKY 
TRY A LOWER WORD 

YOUR GUESS? ■ 




Hmmmm. What would happen if . . . well, let's try it. We 
typed just the letter M. 

YOUR GUESS? M 
TRY A HIGHER WORD 

YOUR GUESS? ■ 



Okay! We now know the CoCo's word is higher than M 
and lower than SKY. How about PET? 

YOUR GUESS? PET 
TRY A LOWER WORD 

YOUR GUESS? ■ 

In three more guesses, we guessed the CoCo's secret word, 
which was PAL. Wow! The CoCo put PAL all over the 
spreen and made all kinds of crazy sounds (see block 700). 
Then it told us how to play again. 




We hope you and a child try this game. It's okay to let the 



BASEBALL 
FANS !! 

COLOR-STAT 
STRATEGY 
BASEBALL GAME 

fS*- 27.95 



32 K DISK 
EXT BASIC 

COLOR COMPUTER 



& 2.50 postage 
and handling 



Replay Any Season 
YOU ARE THE MANAGER 

BRETT & DAWSON AARON & PALMER 

YOU SET THE TEAMS — 

- SOLITAIRE OR HEAD TO HEAD- 





SEND CHECK 
I OR MONEY ORDER 



TO: PINTO PRODUCTS 

718 Fiji Circle 
Santa Ana, CA 92704 




PARENTS! t 

GET A KID t 

HOOKED \ 

ON COMPUTERS ♦ 

Send for our unique LOGO STARTER program. Use it with 
your 16K Color Computer and Color LOGO from Radio Shack 
(Cat. No. 26-2722). 

Teachers agree: LOGO is the best way to introduce children 
to computers. Now, with LOGO STARTER you won't have to 
read a book or instruction manual. Just load the LOGO 
STARTER tape. 

Your child will draw exciting designs right from thestart. You 
won't waste your time on a lot of tedious typing. And yourchild 
will be on the way to computer literacy. $13 95 

SPEED READING 

Busy executives! Students! Increase 
your reading speed dramatically. 

Best available speed reading program 
for the CoCo. Reading material appears 

on the TV screen at the speed you select, training you to read 
faster. You can even change the speed while reading. 

Complete with 6 different text selections. Plus a drill to 
improve visual span and perception. $-| y gg 

WILD PARTY 

A naughty, sexy computer game for 2 to 6 couples. RAINBOW: 
"Would definitely liven up most parties." $27 95 

All programs on cassette tape for 16K Color Computer. Ext'd 
BASIC not required. Prices include postage (PA resid. add 6%). 
Send check to Dept. R, P.O. Box 210, Jenk/ntown, PA 19046. 




♦ 
♦ 
♦ 

: ♦ 
♦ 



b & b software 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 47 




ar. 



ftware 



Sweeten Your School Year 



FOR THE PRESCHOOLER 

Practice reading skills with 

PreReader 




$19.95 - Tape 
$24.95 - Disk 
32K ECB 



Your young learner will earn three separate re- 
ward$ for each correct answer. Graphics and mu- 
sic make learning drills for colors, shapes, num- 
bers, capital and small letters and sounding out 
words fun! 



IS SOCIAL STUDIES 
ON YOUR SCHEDULE? 



The 
Great 
USA 



16K and 32K ECB versions 
on the same Tape - $19.95 
32K Disk - $24.95 

An entertaining alternative to memorizing those 
states and capitals. Really learn them! Also, 
abbreviations and nicknames. More on 32K ver- 
sion. 




tat II PRINCETON 



FOR THE CHILD WHO 
BRINGS HOME 
SPELLING LISTS 

Learn your spelling, vocabulary, even foreign lan- 
guage words with 



GALACTIC HANGMAN 

16K and 32K ECB versions 
on the same Tape - $17.95 



The 
Presidents 
of the 
United States 




t 



/ — 



700 words 
included. 

I hN FREE 

..inning ripe 

Graphics, 
animation, and 
sound effects 
combine for 
a great reward! 




16K and 32K versions 
on the same Tape - $24.95 
32K Disk - $29.95 

A study mode and two separate games will help 
you learn about each of our Presidents. Which one 
strove for a Great Society? Who was impeached? 
Who was assassinated? 

• 100% Machine Language 

• Menu-oriented 

• User modifiable (this could very important after 
November 4). 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 
2153 Leah Lane 
Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068 

Phone (614) 861-0565 for same day service. 



: 










VISA' 



Add $1 .00 per tape for postage 
and handling. Ohioans add 5.5% 
sales tax. COD. orders are wel- 
come. CIS. orders EMAIL to 
70405, 1374. Dealer inquiries in- 
vited. 




ftware 



. With A Little Sugar 



DOES GRAMMAR 
MAKE YOU GROAN? 

Now it will make you grin! 
Master the parts of speech with 



FOR THE TEACHER 




Bus lists? 
Class lists? 
Honor roll? 
Absentee reports? 




Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, even gerunds 
will be a snap for you as you create silly stories. 

1 6K ECB Tape with 2 stories - $1 9.95 
32K Disk with 2 stories - $24.95 
32K Disk with all 62 stories - $49.95 



database 
management 
system 



I 

see us at If PRINCETON 



Just enter the information for each student once! 
Using the powerful sort, search and print utilities, 
print the exact information you want in the exact 
order you need it! Great for coaches, scout lead- 
ers, collectors and small businesses, too! 

16K required; 
idu! 32K recommended; 

Disk compatible. $24.95 



ADVANCED MATH? 
CHEMISTRY? PHYSICS? 

THEN YOU MAY NEED 
THE REGRESSION ANALYSIS 
AND GRAPH PLOTTING 
CAPABILITIES OF STATGRAF 
IN ORDER TO DO YOUR WORK 



DO YOU LIKE 

FANCY LETTERS TO MAKE 
YOUR REPORT COVERS, 
TITLES, OR YOUR 
CLASS SCHEDULE? 



Try 




Calltgrapljer 



Requires a Bit mode print- 
er. Works with most Epson, 
Okidata, Gemini 10X, R.S. 
Line Printer VII, DMP 100. 



32K ECB Tape - $24.95 
32K Disk - $29.95 

• Plot up to 250 pairs of x,y data on one graph 

• Plot multiple data sets 

• Transform data: logs, square root, 

inverse, exponential, additive codes 

• Powerful data editor 

• Calculate, display, and plot residuals 



32K ECB 
Tape $24.95 
Disk - $29.95 



CBEFGH1 ^®1D1E3B 
TOPQBST £tfiM»3ri&9 
ElFgM jllkri w Habcdefglti 

• Three different type styles 

• Upper and lower case T4JYWX*jtZ 

• Save and retrieve data 



A complete catalog of other sweet Sugar Software products is available. 
Dealer inquiries invited. No refunds or exchanges. 



RETIRE EARLY? 
WHY NOT! 

HOW? PRACTICE THRIFT AND 
PLAN WISELY. THE THRIFT IS UP TO 
YOU, BUT FOR PLANNING . . . 

YOU NEED THE 

RETIREMENT PLANNING 

MODEL 
********* 

ABOUT RETIREMENT PLANNING 

By the year 2010, today's $8800 auto will cost 
$40,000 if inflation averages 6%. Inflation makes 
retirement planning essential. Proper retirement 
planning requires a complex year-by-year analysis 
which must consider these factors: 

* Your investment program * Inflation 

* Tax-deferred savings * Pension 

* Social Security * Taxes 

START NOW 

Start your planning now. Try different retirement ages 
and vary your investment program goals. The 
objective is to develop a plan for early retirement 
which eases doubt regarding your future financial 
security. 

WHAT THE MODEL DOES 

First, the model helps you organize your present 
assets. The model then projects these assets, along 
with estimated pension and social security, to the 
retirement age you select. Based on this projection, a 
detailed cash flow analysis is conducted for each 
year of your retirement. 

The factors listed above are considered in all 
calculations. Each analysis stops when your funds 
deplete or when the analysis carries to the age of 
100. The model is designed for "what if" analysis and 
optional printer output. 

AN •ESSENTIAL TOOL FOR COMPREHENSIVE 
RETIREMENT PLANNING 



FULLY DOCUMENTED 
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 

From the author of "Real Estate Investment," "Bond 
Analysis," "Owner Financed Real Estate" and "Homeowner 
Selling Analysis" as featured by Petrocci Freelance 
Associates. 



REQUIRES 16K EXTENDED 
COLOR BASIC 

ILL. RESIDENTS ADD 
8% SALES TAX 

SEE RAINBOW REVIEW 
JULY 1984 

"... RPM does exactly what it 
says it will do in fine style." 



TAPE $34.95 
DISK $39.95 

A&P SOFTWARE 
P.O. Box 202 
Glenview, IL 
60025 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



young player look at the word list before playing or even 
while playing. Keep a children's dictionary handy in case the 
CoCo's word is new to the child. Play together, learn 
together! Invent some strategies for guessing the CoCo's 
word in the fewest guesses. Next time, we will suggest some 
strategies. 

PlayTest Impressions 

Sheri Bakun reports on Mr. Cocohead from Computer 
Island. 

Using Mr. Cocohead, the pre-schooler can create a great 
variety of faces on the computer screen. Even very young 
children (ages three and four) can create faces with this 
game. To draw a face, the child chooses from a selection of 
head shapes, noses, eyes, mouths, ears, hair, and even 
glasses. The selection of each facial feature involves merely 
pressing the key designated for that attribute. For example, 
each time the letter 'E' is pressed a new pair of eyes appears. 
Other keys cause the face to wink one eye and to "speak" by 
printing a message using the child's name. 

A feature of Mr. Cocohead that was greatly enjoyed by 
our playtesters is the ability to add to a picture by placing 
any number of large colored S shapes anywhere on the 
screen. Five-year-old Rob delighted in using the S's to add 
gigantic ears to one face he designed, and a neck and 
shoulders to another. When the S's are moved over areas of 
the screen that have drawing on them this drawing is erased, 
thus giving the young artist even more control in creating the 
picture. However, this ability to erase makes this feature 
difficult for younger children. 



"Using Mr. Cocohead, the pre- 
schooler can create a great variety of 
faces on the computer screen. Even very- 
young children (ages three and four) 
can create faces with this game. 99 



We recommend Mr. Cocohead for the pre-school child. It 
teaches keyboard familiarity, is easy to use, and most of all 
it's fun to play. 

(Mr. Cocohead from Computer Island, 227 Hampton 
Green, Staten Island, NY 10312. 16K Extended Color 
BASIC cassette for $16.95. Backup copy on reverse side of 
cassette. Loading time 1 minute 15 seconds.) 



Help! 

If your home has a kid, three to eight years old, and a 
CoCo, please share your experiences in using your CoCo 
with your child. If you write to us, please tell us if it is okay to 
print all or part of your letter in this column. ComputerKid, 
P.O. Box 310, Menlo Park, CA 94026. 



50 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



FINANCE 



16K 
ECB 



RAINBOW 

-]■■ - ; S j 



LiFOle 

Interest 
Monitor 



By Francis S. Kalinowski 




Have you noticed the many HI' ole persons in teller 
lines at banks, savings and loan associations, and 
credit unions? They smile while visualizing little 
goldpiles stashed away in various accounts. They are the 
prudent ones who moved their savings to insured money 
market certificates and other higher interest bearing ac- 
counts. They smile in anticipation, awaiting each monthly 
statement to see how their goldpiles have grown. 

If you are smiling for the same reason, key in and run LiV 
Ole Person's Goldpile. This program will broaden your grin 
with a detailed printout and/ or display of how your stashed 
accounts are growing. 

(Francis Kalinowski is retired after 28 years in the U.S. 
Air Force service in aircraft and radar maintenance, 
followed by 20 years of technical writing on commer- 
cial digital electronics equipment and systems. He 
spends most of his free time developing printer color 
art programs on three different computers.) 



LiV Ole Persons Goldpile runs in a 16K CoCo with 
Extended Color BASIC. It uses 4821 memory bytes with 
REMs and 3344 bytes without them. All REMs may be 
removed without affecting program operation. 

The program accepts user inputs for up to 11 money 
accounts and their interest rates. If a printout is requested, 
the program calculates and prints accounts and earnings 
information for each day of a selected compounding period. 
Incrementing day, daily and total interest, and grand total 
counters appear on the monitor during printout and display 
only runs. 

The program is arranged to minimize RAM space 
requirements and search time. User input and one-time 
functions are placed in the last two-thirds of the program. 
The main operating loop, located in the program's first 
one-third, is preceded only by frequently GOSUBed rou- 
tines. FOR/ TO loops initially build and subsequently 
update all account variable arrays. 



Figure 1. Normal character printout (up to 5 accounts) 

LIL* OLE PERSON'S GOLDPILE 
PRINTED FOR COCO 04/15/83. 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 



NO. 


ACCNT 1 


ACCNT 2 


ACCNT 3 


ACCNT 4 


TODAY'S 


ACCUMLTD 


GRAND 




DAYS 


-055 V. 


.063 7. 


.075 •/. 


.098 '/. 


INTEREST 


INTEREST 


TOTAL 






















START 


1000.00 


2000. 00 


3000. 00 


4000.00 


0.0000 


0.00 


10000. 


00 


1 


1000. 15 


2000.35 


3000.62 


4001 .07 


2. 1863 


2. 19 


10002. 


19 


2 


1000.30 


2000.69 


3001.23 


4002. 15 


2. 1868 


4.37 


10004. 


37 


3 


1000.45 


2001.04 


3001.85 


4003.22 


2. 1873 


6.56 


10006. 


56 


4 


1000.60 


2001.38 


3002.47 


4004.30 


2. 1878 


8.75 


10008. 


75 


5 


1000.75 


2001.73 


3003.08 


4005.37 


2. 1883 


10.94 


10010. 


94 





















THIS WAY LIL' OLE COCO CAN EARN *10.94 
AND END UP WITH *10010.94 IN JUST 5 DAYS. 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 51 



Figure 2. Compressed character printout (6-11 accounts) 

L1L' OLE PERSON'S GOLDPILE 
PRINTED FOR COCO 04/15/83. 

mtmmtmtmmt$mm$tmmtmtmmtttmmttmtmtt$mtttttttmttmtt(mtttmttttmmmt 

NO. ACCNT 1 ACCNT 2 ACCNT 3 ACCNT 4 ACCNT 5 ACCNT 4 ACCNT 7 ACCNT 8 ACCNT 9 TODAY'S ACCUHLTD GRAND 
DAYS .055 Z .04 1 .07 2 .08 1 .09 1 .IX .105 2 .094 2 .085 2 INTEREST INTEREST TOTAL 





«S5S3=== 










SS3ZSSSXS 








START 1000.00 


2000.00 


3000.00 


4000.00 


5000.00 4000.00 


7000.00 


8000.00 


9000.00 


0.0000 


0.00 


45000.00 


1 1000.15 


2000.33 


3000.58 


4000. B8 


5001.23 4001.44 


7002.01 


8002.10 


9002.10 


11.0219 


11.02 


45011.02 


2 1000.30 


2000.44 


3001.15 


4001.75 


5002.47 4003.29 


7004.03 


8004.21 


9004.19 


11.0247 


22.05 


45022.05 


3 1000.45 


2000.99 


3001.73 


4002.43 


5003.70 4004.93 


7004.04 


8004.31 


9004.29 


11.0274 


33.07 


45033.07 


4 1000.40 


2001.32 


3002.30 


4003.51 


5004.93 4004.58 


7008.04 


8008.42 


9008.39 


11.0302 


44.10 


45044.10 


5 1000.75 


2001.44 


3002.88 


4004.39 


5004.17 4008.22 


7010.07 


8010.53 


9010.48 


11.0329 


55.14 


45055.14 






















xexssssis 








THIS NAY LIL' OLE COCO CAN EARN 


$55.14 











AND END UP WITH $45055.14 IN JUST 5 DAYS. 



REMs describe functions performed by the various 
statements and statement groups. Table 1 lists the program's 
variables. 

Statement 640 provides automatic character width switch- 
ing for printers with normal and compressed character 
capabilities. This statement's MX-80 compressed character 
ON/ OFF codes CH R$( 1 5) and CH R$( 1 8) must be changed 
to your printer's compressed/ normal character codes. For 
example, use CHR$(29) and CHR$(30) when running a 
Microline 80 or 82A printer. 

Delete statement 640 if your printer is limited to 80 or 
fewer characters. Also delete the 11 MAX FOR 132 
COLUMNS half of statement 480. When applicable, change 
statement 480's first half to 3 MAX for a 64-column printer 
or 1 MAX for a 40-column printer. 

PRINT#-2, USING commands provide columnar print- 
outs of account amounts with decimal points aligned verti- 
cally. PRlNTtt-2, USING it tf#tt#tt.#tt";GT in statement 150 
ensures to-the-penny printouts of grand totals up to 
$99999.99. 

Program Operation 

The program starts with a graphic title that includes print- 
er power and start-when-ready prompts. Pressing the space- 
bar clears the screen and begins a series of prompts for: 

Starting date (if printout selected) 
Account owner's name 
Number of accounts 
Number of compounding days 
Account amounts (up to 1 1) 
Account interest rates (up to 1 1) 

Entering the last interest rate changes the screen to the 
program's operating display. The new display has day, daily 
interest, total interest, and grand total counters plus a graph- 
ic goldpile within a vault outline. 

At this point, statement 640 checks the number of 
accounts entered (variable Y) and sets the printer's character 
width, as needed. The program also computes a title center- 
ing print tab value (PT, statement 650) before starting an 
accounts printout. 

Printouts include a starting message, column headings, 
starting amounts (first line), and updated amounts for each 
day of the selected compounding period. Printouts are in 



normal character width (Fig. 1) for up to five accounts and 
compressed character width (Fig. 2) for six to 1 1 accounts. 
Statement 640 may be deleted for normal character width 
printouts of up to 1 1 accounts on 132-column printers using 
15-inch paper. 

The program loops through statements 80-180 for daily 
recalculation and printout of all account amounts. The daily 
calculations also update the displayed day, interest, and 
grand total counters. 

Statement 100 in the loop monitors total interest accumu- 
lation. Upon detecting an increase above a predetermined 
ratio (variable I, statement 760), statement 100 diverts con- 
trol through grow-pile routine 40-70. This routine adds two 
gold bricks to the displayed goldpile. In extended runs, the 





Table 1. Program Variables 




STRING VARIABLES 


A$ 


Account owner's name 


B$ 


Starting date 


S$ 


Option select 


z$ 


"VAULT" color POKE code 




NUMERIC VARIABLES 


AA(x) 


Account amounts (11) 


AN(x) 


Account numbers (11) 


C 


STRING$ character code 


D 


Incremented day 


DD 


Days in compounding period 


Dl 


Daily interest total 


DR(x) 


Daily interest rates (11) 


FL 


First line flag 


GT 


Grand total 


IE(x) 


Daily interest amounts (11) 


IR(x) 


Annual interest rates (11) 


P 


Title PRINT® positions 


PT 


Message printout tab value 


T 


Item printout tab value 


TI 


Total interest earned 


X 


FOR/TO loop integer 


BEILQ 


Grow-pile routine 


RUVWZ 


Parameters 



52 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



1983 unit sales Jan Feb Har Apr Hay Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total Average Best Uorst 



Bach 

Chalone 

Dolan 

Feagan 

Grahan 

Harpel 

Jordan 

Latour 

Luc i do 

Phelps 

Prats 

Schaeferle 

Taylor 

Torres 

Turner 

Uehlen 



134 


13? 


119 


161 


4 1A 

120 


170 


152 


170 


4 on 

188 


157 


103 


112 


(AC 

10S 


ft M 


127 


115 


135 


135 


183 


116 


134 


102 


190 


161 


105 


109 


188 


17J 


112 


126 


124 


J20 


158 


no 







130 104 
182 102 



180 85 
120 



84 121 95 115 



89 157 162 

99 145 145 

61 132 H3 

86 149 



129 
103 



75 161 
64 158 




145 190 

0\*j>~ H20 135 177 105 
- no lios \"a ion 75 

60 



1635 
1495 



136 190 
125 154 



2312 2166 2387 2321 2401 1699 1439 2276 2242 2011 1318 2631 25203 2100 



THE BEST OF BOTH WOBLDS! 



avai I ab I e from 




VISA 



COMPUTER SYSTEMS CENTER 
13461 01 ive Blvd. 
Chesterfield, MO 63017 USA 
(314) 576-5020 



Plain 
Cheese 



or your local DYNACALC dealer 

NOW ONL Y $99.95 >^ y 

Pr ice ,S4-5rtr~postpa i d in US & Canada. rainbow \ 

..... , , _ , + - _ CERTIFICATION' '. 

Outside North America add $10 postage. 
DYNACALC Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. 





2.991521895 



I S/ 

now with 
/» GRAPHICS! 

Jan ""'Feb flar 'fipr "hay '. Jun' Jul hug §ep dc t Nov Ben 



CANADA 

RGS MICRO INC. 
759, VICTORIA SQUARE 405 
MONTREAL H2Y 2J3 
TEL:(514) 287-1563 
ORDER LINE ONLY * * ★ 
QUEBEC - ONTARIO - MARITIMES 

800-361-5338 
WESTERN CANADA 800-361-5155 



grow-pile routine fills the vault then prints, "THE REST 
GOES TO FT KNOX." 

Accounts printout and displayed counter updates con- 
tinue to the last day of the selected compounding period. An 
ending message with earned and total amounts follows the 
last day's accounts printout line. A similar message appears 
on the monitor. 

A display-only run operates similarly, except without the 
printout calculations and functions. Do a display-only run 
when you don't have a printer or just can't wait for a print- 
out. The display run is ideal for previews of single or multi- 
ple account growth over short or long periods. Seeing even 
small amounts grow may convince you to stick your extra 
pennies into an interest bearing account instead of a sock or 
a cookie jar. 



W 80 



195 

180 28 

300 80 

440 178 

570 20 

679 160 

END .... 204 



L 



The listing: 
O 

O '* LIL OLE PERSON'S GOLDPILE * 
O '* FOR 16K COCO WITH ECB * 
O '* (0 1983 BY: F. KALINOWSKI * 
O '* 16 N. ALDER DRIVE * 

O '* ORLANDO, FL 32807 * 

O 

9 'Initialize and jump to title 

routine. 

1 0 CLS : CLE AR300 : 60T0330 

19 'Add accounts for day's total 

20 GT=0:FORX=OT010:BT=ST+AA<X) :N 
EXT: RETURN 

29 'Print line of symbols across 

printout if PS flag is set. 

30 IFPS=0THENRETURNELSEPRINT#-2, 
STRING* ( < Y*9) +32, C) : RETURN 

39 'Make goldpile grow. 

40 I FE >52THEN70ELSE IF (V<8) OR (P<0 
) THEN60 

50 SET(L-P, V,2> :SET<R+P, V,2> :P=P 
-l: V=V-l: RETURN 

60 E=E+ 1 : P=E : V=3 1 : I FE >29THENP=29 
: W=W+1 : V=31-W: RETURNELSERETURN 
70 PR I NTS 163, "OOPS! THIS VAULT 
IS FULL. "; :PRINT@195, "THE REST 6 
OES TO FT KNOX . " ; : RETURN 

79 'Update interest earned and 

account amount variables. 

80 FORX=OTOY-l: IE < X > =DR < X ) *AA ( X) 
: AA(X)=AA<X) +IE(X) :NEXT 

89 'Update day's interest. 

90 DI=0:FORX=OT010:DI=DI+IE(X> :N 
EXT 

99 'Update total interest. 

100 TI=TI+DI : BOSUB20: IF TIM THE 



NG0SUB40: I=I+U 

109 'Check printout flag. 

110 IFPS-0THEN160 

119 'Print START on first line. 

1 20 X =0 : I FFL=0THENPR I NT#-2 , " STAR 

T" ; : fl=i : x=o: elseprint#-2, using" 

### "|D| 

129 'Update printout's account 

amounts. 

130 PR I NT#-2, USING "#####.## " ; AA 

<x> ; 

140 X=X+l:IFX<Y THEN 130 

149 'Update interest today and 

accumulated and grand total 

150 PRINT#-2,USING" ##.*### ";DI 

; : PR I nt#-2, using "#####.## ";ti; 

: PR I NT#-2 , US I NG " ##### . ## " ; GT 

159 'Update displayed interest, 

total *, and day counters. 

1 60 PR I NT@464 , D ; : PR I NTS394 , US I NG 
"**#####. ##";GT; 

170 PRINT@64,USING"**#.###";DI; : 
PR I NT079 , US I NG " **#### . ## " ; T I ; 

179 'Test for last day of the 

accounting period. 

1 80 D=D+ l:IFD<DD+l THEN80ELSED=D— 
1 

189 'Shift printing tab if only 

one account. 

190 IFPT<8THENPT=8 
200 C=61:G0SUB30:CLS 

209 'Display ending message. 

210 PRINTS68, "THIS WAY, LIL' OLE 
"A*; :PRINT@135, "CAN EARN"; :PRIN 

TS144, USING"**###. ##" ; TI ; 

219 'Check printout flag. 

220 IFPS=0THEN250 

229 'Print ending message. 

230 PR I NT#-2 , TAB <PT-8) "THIS WAY 
LIL' OLE "A*" CAN EARN ";:PRINT# 
-2 , US I NG " **### . ##" ; TI 

240 PRINT#— 2, TAB <PT— 8) "AND END U 
P WITH "; :PRINT#-2,USING"**####. 
##";GT; :PRINT#-2, " IN JUST"D"DAY 
S. 

250 PR I NTS 196, "AND END UP WITH A 
T LEAST " : PR I NT6266 , US I NG " **##### 
.##";GT:PRINT@328, "IN JUST "D" DAY 
S. 

260 C=36:G0SUB30: IFPS=0THEN280 

269 'Linefeed paper four lines. 

270 F0RX=lT04:PRINT#-2, " " : NEXT 

279 'Display options prompt. 

280 PRINT@448, "WANT TO RUN MORE 
ACCOUNTS (Y/N)?"; 

290 S*= I NKE Y* : I FS*= " Y " THEN3 1 OELS 
E I FS*< >"N" THEN290 

299 'Exit program. 

300 CLS : END 

309 'Zero all array variables. 



54 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



+ COLOR COMPUTER WORKSHEET * 



* COLOR COMPUTER WORD PROCESSOR * 



EliteCalc 



Elite-Word 

Also Available On OS-9 



ELITEeCALC is a powerful, full featured worksheet calcu- 
lator designed especially for the Color Computer. Answer 
"what if" questions, prepare reports, maintain records and 
perform other tasks that, until now, required sophisticated 
business computers. ELITE*CALC is a serious tool for those 
who want to do more than play games. 
MAJOR features include; 

Ease of use • Individual cell formulas • Copy Blocks of 
cells •Full cell-edit capability • Easy 132 column page 
width • Changeable Baud rates • Graph format for bar 
charts • Sort (ascending or descending) • Sample work- 
sheets included. 

Single character commands «Help displays • 255 maximum rows • 
255 maximum columns • Available memory always displayed • 
Insert, Delete, Move entire rows or columns • Replicate one cell to 
fill a row or column with selectable formula adjustment • All machine 
language for speed • Extended BASIC required for ROM routine 
calls • Automatic memory size detection for 16K, 32K, or 64K • 
>20K bytes storage available in 32K systems • • Math operators: 
+ , -, x, /, !,(,)• Relation operators: =,>,<,<=,>=,<>• Logic 
Operations: AND, OR, NOT • Conditional Formula: IF, THEN, ELSE • 
Trig Functions: SIN, COS, TAN, ATN • Log Functions: LOG, EXP, 
SQR • Misc. Functions: INT, FX, ABS, SGN, RND • Range Functions: 
SUM, AVERAGE, COUNT, MIN, MAX, LOOKUP • Definable constant 
table • User definable printer set-up commands • Individual column 
width settingf • Left and Right cell contents justification • Full page 
formatting • Output ASCII file for word processor input capability • 
Memory resident code ... no repeated disk calls. 

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THE SECOND GENERATION WORD PROCESSOR IS HERE! 
ELITE^WORD has many features not found in other word 
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machine language, high performance, Full Screen Editor 
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ELITE^WORD also offers a printed output flexibility that can 
handle your sophisticated home and business applications. 
MAJOR features include: 

Very easy to use • HELP display/Command prompts • 
Excellent for BOTH program editing and word processing 
• TWO text entry modes; Insert or Exchange • Auto Key- 
Repeat • Smooth display scroll for easier proof reading • 
True Upper/Lower case display with lower case descen- 
ders • Hi -Res text "View" mode displays text as it will be 
printed • Variable Text (Mail Merge) capability included 
free. 

32K RAM, Extended Basic required for ROM routine calls • Variable 
TAB stops • User definable Headers and Footers • Page Forward or 
Backward through text • Automatic text centering • Word-Wrap • 
True Block text Move, Delete, or Copy •Delete entire screen line • 
Back space and Delete • Delete character at cursor • Find or Re- 
place a string • Two Hi-Res screen displays; 32 x 19 for text entry/ 
editing, 64 x 1 9 for formatted text viewing • Over 22K file size in 64K 
machines • Easy generation of ASCII files • All I/O errors trapped 
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spacing, Top and Bottom Margin, Right-Side text Justification, Page 
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OS-9 is a trademark of Microware and Motorola. 



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THIS IS IT! ELITE^F1LE Is the Data Base Manager that Color 
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ELITE*FILE is a full-featured relational Data Base Manager 
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Color Computer. 
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All machine language for speed • Flexible, user defined, 
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flies can be open at the same time for Information pro- 
cessing • Edit, Scan, Sort, Select Record Information; all 
done FAST • Output reports to Screen, Printer, or ASCII 
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Text anywhere on the printed page • Perform math oper- 
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310 F0RX=0T010: AA(X)=0: AN(X)=0: I 
E(X)=0: IR(X)=0:NEXT 
320 D^o: ti=o: di=o: ie=o: fl=o: C=22 
: W=0: CLS1 : G0T0460 

329 'Display title with printout 

and start prompts. 

330 P«50:X=27:PRINT@0,STRING*(46 
, 159) 

340 PRINTSP, STRING* (X, 159) ; :P=P+ 
33: X=X-2: IFX>6THEN340 
350 PRINTSP, STRING* (35, 159) ;: PRI 
NTS172, "LIL' OLE" ; 

360 PR I NT6236 , " PERSON ' S" ; : PRINTS 
300, "GOLDPILE", 

370 PRINTS449, "DO YOU WANT A PRI 
NTOUT (Y/N) ? 

380 S*=INKEY*: IFS*="N"THEN400ELS 
E I FS*< >"Y" THEN380 

390 PS=l:PRINT@449, " TURN PRI 
NTER POWER ON- ";:G0T0410 
400 PS=0:PRINT@449,STRING*(30,32 
) 

410 PRINTS483, "PRESS < SPACEBAR > 
TO START. "5 

420 S*=INKEY*:PRINT@RND(26)+386, 
" * " ? : I FS* <> " " THEN420 

429 'Display printout specifica- 

tion prompts. 

430 CLS1 : PRINTS3, "LIL* OLE PERSO 
N * S GOLDP I LE " : PR I NTSTR I NG* ( 32 , 36 
) 

440 IFPS=0THEN460 
450 INPUT "WHAT'S THE START DATE 
<MM/DD/YY) ";B* 

460 INPUT "WHAT IS THE ACCOUNT OW 
NERS NAME " ; A* 

470 PR I NT "HOW MANY ACCOUNTS FOR 
PROCESSING"; 

480 PRINT" (5 MAX FOR 80-COLUMN 
PRINTER; ": PRINT" 11 MAX FOR 132- 
COLUMN PRINTER) OR FOR DISPLAY 
ONLY. ) "; 
490 INPUT" ";Y 

500 INPUT "HOW MANY COMPOUNDING D 
AYS";DD 

509 'Display account amount and 

interest rate promts. 

510 clsi:forx=itoy 

520 print"accnt"x "starting amoun 

T <*)? 

530 INPUT""; AA<X-1) 

540 PRINT"ACCNT"X" INTEREST RATE 

(.00)? 

550 INPUT""; IR<X-1) 

559 'Set growpile working limits 

560 NEXT:CLS0:PRINTSTRING*<96, 14 

3) ; :v=31:l«31:r=32:E=22:p=22:res 

TORE 

569 'Display interest, grand 
total, and day counters. 



570 PRINTS3, "LIL' OLE PERSON'S G 
OLDP I LE " ; : PR I NTS40 , " < WATCH I T GR 
OW! ) 

580 PRI NTS66, "0.00 '/.TODAY *0 
0.00 XTOTAL"; 

589 'Print 'VAULT'. 

590 F0RX=1261T01266:READZ*:P0KEX 
, VAL < Z*) : NEXT 

599 'Draw vault outline. 

600 F0RX=0T063:SET<X,7,8) :NEXT:F 
0RX=8T031 : SET (O, X , 8) : SET (63, X , 8) 
: SET < 1 , X, 8) : SET (62, X, 8) : NEXT 

609 'Draw goldpile. 

610 F0RX=1T0199:NEXT:C=20:F0RX=4 
85T0206STEP-3 1 : PR I NT@X , CHR* (151) 
; STRING* (C, 159) ; CHR* (155) ; :C=C-2 
:NEXT 

620 PR!NT@175,CHR*(15i) ; CHR* (155 
) ; :PRINT@394, " *0000.00 ";:pri 
NTS459, " DAYS 00 " ; 
630 IFPS=0THEN750 

639 'Switch printer's character 

width mode, as needed. 

640 IFY>5THENPRINT#-2,CHR*(15)EL 
SEPR I NT#-2 , CHR* ( 1 8 ) : ' < M X 80 CODES 

(Change CHR* (15) and CHR* (18) 
to your printer's compressed 
character ON/OFF codes. ) 

649 'Compute tab value to center 

the printout's title. 

650 PT=INT( (Y*9)+6) /2 

659 'Print account listing title 

660 PRINT#-2, TAB (PT— 1 ) "LIL' OLE 
PERSON ' S GOLDP I LE 

670 PRINT#-2, TAB (PT) "PRINTED FOR 
"A*" "B*". 

679 'Print column headings. 

680 C=36 : G0SUB30 : PR I NT#-2 , " NO . " 
; : X=l : FORT=6T0Y*9STEP9 

690 PRINT#-2,TAB(T) "ACCNT"X; : X=X 
+l:NEXT 

700 PR I NT#-2 , TAB (T) " TODAY ' S " ; TAB 
(T+9) " ACCUMLTD" ; TAB (T+19) "GRAND 
710 PR I NT#-2 , " DAYS " ; : X=0 : F0RT=5T 
0Y*9STEP9 

720 PRINT#-2,TAB(T) IR(X) "7."; :X=X 
+l:NEXT 

730 PR I NT#-2 , TAB (T+l ) " I NTEREST I 
NTEREST" ; TAB (T+20) "TOTAL 
740 C=61:G0SUB30 

749 'Compute daily interest rate 

array variables. 

750 F0RX=0T0Y-l:DR(X)=IR(X)/365: 
NEXT:G0SUB20 

759 'Compute growpile ratio. 

760 U=INT (GT/4400) : IFU< 1THEN U=l 
770 I=U:G0T0110 

779 'Z* data for POKEs in 590. 

780 DATA 22,1,21,12,20,58 



56 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Multiple Choice 
Test Generator 

By Gary Kinney 



The multiple choice test generator 
is not new, but this one allows the 
easy use of subscripts and super- 
scripts. Science and math require the 
extensive use of these. The printing pro- 
gram for the LP VII will print subscripts 
and superscripts of the numerals zero to 
nine, 4- and The printing program for 
the Gemini 1 0 will print any character as 
a subscript or superscript. 

The test generator consists of two 
programs. The first program generates 
a file, allows loading or saving the file 
(tape or disk), adding to the file, editing 
the file, or deleting from the file. The 
second program formats the file for 
printing and prints the tests. 

To create a file, load the program 
MCQUIZ. If you have Extended BASIC, 
the fiTSt time a program is run, you will 
have to type PMODE 0: PC LEAR I 
before running or run the program 
twice. When the menu appears choose 
option two to create a new file. The 
screen will clear and you may begin typ- 
ing in the questions. The computer will 
not allow input when executing the 
garbage routine, so you have to wait 
during this period. This will occur more 
often as the buffer becomes full so check 



(Gary Kinney, a chemistry and physics 
teacher at Whitesboro Central High, 
has a master *s degree in science. He also 
teaches computer programming to 
adults.) 



the screen for loss of the cursor. If an 
error occurs, you can usually recover 
the file, if you immediately GOTO 40. 
Save the file before proceeding and then 
go ahead with option two. The maxi- 
mum number of questions is set by the 
value of NQ in Line 25, the clear in Line 
20, and RAM size. The questions may 
be up to 256 characters long including 
formatting. Therefore, you should limit 
questions to seven screen lines (224 
characters). To get a subscript, press the 
down arrow key then the first character 
of the subscript. When the down arrow 
key is pressed, an arrow pointing to the 
left will be printed on the screen to indi- 
cate a subscript. For multiple subscripts 
you must do this for each character of 
the subscript. For superscripts the same 
procedure is used except you use the 
up-arrow key and an arrow pointing up 
is printed on the screen. When you fin- 
ish the question, press the ENTER key 
and type in the answers to the question. 
The answers should not be more than 
two screen lines long to avoid problems 
during printing or editing. At the end of 
each answer press ENTER. If you have 
fewer than four answers just press ENTER 
for a blank answer. When all answers 
are completed you then press the num- 
ber of the correct answer. A prompt will 
appear on the screen; to continue enter- 
ing questions press any key except 'M' 
or k E* . 'M' will return you to the main 
menu and 'E' will place you into the edit 
mode. 



Once in the edit mode, the cursor can 
be moved by using the arrow keys. 
Holding the key down will move the 
cursor repeatedly. The character under 
the cursor may be changed by typing the 
new character. The character to the left 
of the cursor may be deleted by using 
the SHIFT left arrow combination. A 
character may be added to the left of the 
cursor by pressing CLEAR, then pressing 
the character to be added. Changes in 
superscripts and subscripts can be made 
in the above manner except for the 
arrow characters. The arrow characters 
can only be added by using the insert 
mode. Once all changes have been made 
press ENTER. The answers will appear 
one at a time for editing in the same 
manner as the questions. When finished 
with each answer, press the enter key. 
After the last answer you will be re- 
turned to the main menu. 

When the question file is complete, 
return to the main menu and SA VE 
using option four. You will be given the 
choice of saving the file to either tape or 
disk. The saved file can be loaded back 
in using option one and edited(option 
six), added to (option two) or deleted 
from (option five). The delete routine 
uses the high speed POKE, if this does 
not work on your computer, delete 
Lines 1450 and 1490. 

The second program will print the 
multiple choice tests. Load the program 
PRTGEM or PRT VII and run. If you 
have the 1 .0 BASIC ROM, you must load 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 57 



the eight-bit driver program before run- 
ning PRTVII. To load from tape, 
change the OPEN"I",#l,N$ in Line 230 
to OPEN' ( r,#-l,N$, all INPUWl in 
Line 240 to 290 to INPUTtt-l and 
CLOSEttl in Line 310 to CLOSER- L 
The program uses the high speed POKE 
during formatting. If this does not work 
on your computer, remove the follow- 
ing lines: PRTGEM 320,500;PRTVII 
140,170, 320,500. You will be asked to 
enter the name of the question file. The 
computer will then load the file, format 
the questions to prevent word splitting 
and insert the codes for the superscripts 
and subscripts. When formatting is 
complete you will enter the number of 
questions on the test. The computer will 
then randomly select the questions, 
randomize its answers and print the 
questions 1 0 to a page. When printing is 
complete, you are given the option of 
printing another test. If you choose to 
print another test, you may print another 



test from the same file or add questions 
from another file to the questions al- 
ready printed. Because of this last 
option, you may print a test of any 
length (maximum is value of TQ in Line 
120) from several different files. The 
answers to the test will be printed on the 
next page at the end of each test. 

These programs will work without 
Extended BASIC with the following 
changes: 

MCQU1Z: for 16K change CLEAR 
(Line 20) to 6000 and NQ (Line 25) to 
30. 

Delete Lines 10, 780-810, 900-970, 
990-1020, 1160-1290. 
Change LINEINPUT to INPUT in 
Line 770 and 980. 

PRTGEM or PRTVII: Make changes 

for tape input, for 16K 

RAM adjust NQ (Line 120) to 30 and 

CLEAR 



(Line 110) to 6000. 
Delete Line 100. 
Add 120XX=RND(0):NQ=60: 
TQ=99 
1080 FOR SS=B TO 

LEN(QQS) 
1085 1FM1D$(QQ$,SS,!)= 

CHR$(94)THEN1100 
1090 NEXT SS:RETURN 
1170 FOR SS=B TO LEN 

(QQ$) 

1175 1FM1D$(QQ&,SS,1) 
=CHR$ (95)THEN1190 
1180 NEXT SS:RETURN 

1 have question files for high school 
chemistry and physics. Each file con- 
tains 25 questions and there are 20 files 
for each subject. If you would like either 
of these question files with these pro- 
grams, send $ 1 5, type of printer(Gemini 
10 or LPVI1), type of medium(tape or 
disk), whether you have Extended BASIC, 
and RAM size. 



Line Description 
LPV1I 



MCQUIZ 



10-130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180-310 
320 

330-410 
420-490 
500 

510-720 

730-820 

830-890 

900-970 

980-1030 

1040-1060 

1070-1150 

1160-1220 

1230-1330 

1340-1380 

1390-1460 

1470-1480 

PRTGEM 

10-160 

180-310 

320 

330-410 
420-490 
500 

510-720 

730-820 

830-890 

900-970 

1040-1060 

1070-1150 

1160-1220 

1230-1330 

1340-1380 



SET UP 

HIGH SPEED POKE 

READ SUPERSCRIPTS 

READ SUBSCRIPTS 

SLOW SPEED POKE 

READ FILE 

HIGH SPEED POKE 

FORMAT FILE 

RANDOMIZE QUESTIONS 

SLOW SPEED POKE 

PRINT QUESTIONS 

CHOICE OF CONTINUING 

RANDOMIZE ANSWERS 

PRINT CORRECT ANSWERS 

SKIP TO NEXT PAGE 

SAVE CORRECT RANDOM ANSWER 

CODE SUPERSCRIPTS 

CODE SUBSCRIPTS 

FORMAT QUESTION LINE LENGTH 

ANSWER PRINTING FORMAT 

DATA FOR SUPERSCRIPTS AND 

SUBSCRIPTS 

NAME PRINTING ROUTINE 



SET UP 
INPUT FILE 
HIGH SPEED POKE 
FORMAT FILE 

RANDOMIZE THE QUESTIONS 

SLOW SPEED POKE 

PRINTING TESTS 

CHOICES OF CONTINUING 

RANDOMIZE ANSWERS 

PRINT CORRECT ANSWERS 

SAVE CORRECT RANDOM ANSWER 

CODE SUPERSCRIPTS 

CODE SUBSCRIPTS 

FORMAT LINE LENGTH 

ANSWER PRINTING FORMAT 



1-40 


SET UP 


50-140 


MAIN MENU 


160-430 


INPUT ROUTINE 


440-750 


EDITOR 


760-970 


FILE INPUT 


980-1290 


FILE OUTPUT 


1300-1370 


INPUT THE CORRECT ANSWERS 


1380-1495 


DELETE ROUTINE 


1450 


HIGH SPEED POKE 


1490 


SLOW SPEED POKE 


1500-1840 


REPEATING CURSOR ROUTINES 


Variables List 


PRTGEM 




Q$ 


Questions 


AN$ 


Answers 


RN 


Random question 


RA 


Random answer 


A 


Answer printing format 


CA 


Correct answer 


CB 


Correct answer of random question 


HT$ 


Horizontal tab 


UL$ 


Start underline 


UO$ 


Stop underline 


DW$ 


Double width print on 


DOS 


Double width print off 


NA$ 


Prints name and line 


NQ 


Maximum number of questions in file 


TQ 


Maximum number of questions on test 


M 


Number of questions in file 


PRTVII 




Q$ 


Questions 


AN$ 


Answers 


RN 


Random question 


RA 


Random answer 


A 


Answer printing format 



58 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



CA Correct answer 

CB Correct random answer 

SU$ Codes for superscript 

SD$ Codes for subscripts 

NQ Maximum number of questions in file 

TQ Maximum number of questions on test 

M Number of questions in file 



MCQUIZ 

NQ 
BS 
AN$ 
CA 

N 



Number of questions in file 

Questions 

Answers 

Correct answers 

Number of questions 



160. 
390. 
590. 
760. 



231 


990... 


19 


165 


1240 .. 


. 71 


167 


1470 .. 


.. 179 


183 




.. 215 



Listing 1: 

1 » It**************************** 

2 '# MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST # 
OCTOBER 1983 * 
GARY KINNEY * 



10 WHITFORD AVENUE * 
WHITESBORO, NEW YORK 13492* 



3 
4 
5 
6 

7 * ##**#####*####**#*##*#**#*### 

10 pmode0:pcleari 

20 CLEAR 19500 
25 NGN60 

30 DIM AN*(NQ,4> ,B*(NQ> ,CA(NQ> 
40 SL-1055 
50 CLS:PRINT@64, 
LE" 

60 PRINT: PRINT" 
LE" 

70 PRINT: PRINT" (3) END" 

80 PRINT: PRINT" (4) SAVE FILE 



(1) LOAD FI 



<2> ADD TO FI 



(5) DELETE FR 
(6) EDIT FIL 



90 PR I NT: PR I NT" 
OM FILE" 
100 PRINT: PRINT" 
E" 

110 Z*»INKEY*:IF Z*="" THEN 110 
120 Z-VAL(Z*):IF Z<1 OR Z>6 THEN 
110 

130 IF N=0 AND Z>3 THEN 110 

140 ON Z GOTO 760,160,150,980,13 

80,440 

150 cls:end 



160 CLS: N-N+l : B* <N> = " " : PR I NT "QUE 
STION";N 

165 N»N+1:B*(N>= PR I NT "QUEST IO 

N";N 

170 PRINT CHR*(142>; 
180 A*=INKEY*:IF A*=" "THEN 180 
190 IF A*=CHR*(13> THEN 260 
210 IF A*=CHR*(8> THEN B*(N)=LEF 
T*(B*(N> ,LEN(B*(N) > -1 >. : GOTO240 
220 IF A*=CHR*(10> THEN A*=CHR* < 
95) 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
275 
280 
290 
300 
310 



B*(N)=B*(N)+A* 
PRINTCHR*<8) ;A*iCHR*(142) ; 
GOTO 180 
CLS 

FOR 1=1 TO 4 
AN* (N, I > =" " 
PR I NT : PR I NT " ANSWER " 3 I 
PRINTCHR* ( 141 > J 
A*= I NKE Y* : I F A*= " " THEN300 
IF A*=CHR*(13> THEN PRINTCHR 
*<8> :GOTO380 

320 IF A*-»CHR*(8> THEN AN*(N,I>» 
LEFT* (AN* (N, I ) , LEN (AN* (N, I > ) -1 ) : 
GOTO 360 

340 IF A*=CHR*(10) THEN A*=CHR* ( 
95) 
350 
360 
370 
380 
390 
400 



AN* (N, I > =AN* (N, I > +A* 
PRINTCHR* (8) ;A*?CHR*(141> S 
GOTO 300 
NEXT I 
GOSUB 1300 

CLS: PR I NTS 128, "PRESS M TO 
RETURN TO MENU E TO 

EDIT ANY K 

EY TO CONTINUE" 



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September 1984 THE RAINBOW 59 



410 Z*«INKEY*:IF Z*«""THEN 410 
420 IF Z*-"M" OR Z*-"m" THEN 50 
425 IF Z*-"E" OR Z*-"e" THEN M» 
N:SOTO 460 
430 GOTO 160 

440 CLS: PR I NTS64, "QUESTION TO ED 
IT FROM 1 TO"»N 

450 INPUT M:IF M<1 OR M>N THEN 4 
40 

460 CLS : LB*- " QUEST I ON ": PR I NTLB* ? 
M 

470 PR I NTB* < M ) : B*=B* < M ) : LN=0 : SOS 

UB 550:B*<M)-B* 

4S0 CLS : LB*- " ANSWER " : X =0 : LN-0 

490 FOR 1-1 TO 4 

500 PR I NTSLN , LB* ; I 

510 PRINTAN* <M, I > : B*-AN* <M, I ) : 80 

SUB550: AN* <M, I ) »B* 

520 LN-LN+ 1 28 : SL-SL+ 1 28 : X -0 

530 NEXT I 

540 SL« 1055: SOTO 50 

550 IF X<1 THEN X-l : P-PEEK <SL+X ) 

560 Z*=I NKEY* I POKE ( SL+ X ) , P 

570 IF Z*=CHR*<9) AND X<LEN<B*)+ 

1 THEN 60SUB 1500:GOTO560 

580 IF Z*=CHR*(94) AND X>32 THEN 

8OSUB1600: 8OTO560 
590 IF Z*=CHR*<12) THEN GOSUB680 
:X=X+l:8OTO550 

600 IF Z*=CHR*<10) AND X<LEN<B*> 
-32 THEN GOSUB1800:8OTO560 
610 IF Z*=CHR*<13) THEN RETURN 
620 IF Z*=CHR*<8) AND XMTHEN SO 
SUB1700:6OTO560 

630 IF Z*=CHR*<21) AND X>1THEN B 
♦-LEFT* < B* , X -2 ) +R I SHT* < B* , LEN < B* 
)-X+l) :PRINT@LN+32,B«: X-X-1:80T0 
550 

640 IF Z*<>"" AND LEN<B*)=>X AND 
Z*OCHR*<12) AND Z*OCHR*<8) AN 
D Z*OCHR*<21) AND Z*OCHR*(10)A 
NDZ*OCHR*<94) THEN 80SUB 720: X 
-X+l : P-PEEK <SL+X ) : SOTO550 
650 POKESL+X, 207 
660 FOR TD=1T015:NEXT 
670 80TO 560 

680 i*=inkey*:pokesl+x,p:fortd=i 

T015: NEXT: POKESL+X , 207 : I F I *= " " TH 
EN680 

700 IF I*=CHR*<10) THEN I*=CHR*< 

95) . 

710 B*=LEFT*<B*,X-1)+I*+RI6HT*<B 
* , LEN ( B* ) -X + 1 ) : PR I NT8LN+32 , B* : RE 
TURN 

720 B*-LEFT*<B«, X-l ) +Z*+RISHT* <B 
*,LEN(B*)-X) :SC=ASC<Z*> 
730 IF PEEK < 282)0255 THEN 750 
740 IF SC>63 AND SC<97 THEN POKE 
SL+X,SC: RETURN ELSE POKESL+X, SC+ 



64: RETURN 

750 IF SC>63 AND SC<97 THEN POKE 
SL+X , SC: RETURN ELSE IF SC>31 AND 

SC<64 THEN POKESL+X, (SC+64) : RET 
URN ELSE POKESL+X, <SC-96) : RETURN 
760 CLS: PRINT: PRINT 
770 LINE INPUT "NAME OF FILE "»N* 
780 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" <1) DISK 

OR <2) TAPE" 
790 Z *- 1 NKEY* : I F Z *- " " THEN790 
800 Z*VAL<Z*):IF Z<1 OR Z>2 THEN 

790 

810 IF Z-l THEN 900 

820 CLS : PR I NT8228 , " READ I NG TAPE 

II 

830 0PEN"I",#-1,N*: INPUT#-1,N 

840 FOR I-1T0N 

850 INPUT#-1,B*(I) ,CA(I) 

S60 F0RJ ! =1T04: INPUT*— 1 , AN* < I , J) : 

NEXT J 

870 NEXT I 
880 CL0SE#-1 
890 SOTO40 

900 CLS:PRINTS228, " RE AD INS DISK 

II 

910 M*=LEFT*<N*,8) 

920 0PEN"I",#1,M*: INPUT#1,N 

930 F0RI=1T0 N 

940 INPUT#1,B*(I) ,CA<I) 

950 FOR J-1T0 4: INPUTttl , AN* ( I , J) 

:NEXT J 

960 NEXT I 

970 CLOSE#l:SOTO40 

980 CLS: LINE INPUT" NAME OF FILE " 

|N« 

990 PRINTS128, " <1) DISK OR <2) 
TAPE" 

1000 Z*-INKEY»: IFZ*-""THEN1000 
1010 Z=VAL<Z*):IF Z<1 0RZ>2 THEN 
1000 

1020 IF Z-l THEN 1160 

1030 CLS: PR I NTS 128, "INSERT TAPE, 

PRESS PLAY AND RECORD" 
1040 PRINT: PR I NT "PRESS ENTER WHE 
N READY" 

1050 Z*=INKEY*: IFZ*=""THEN 1050 
1060 IF Z*OCHR*(13) THEN 1050 
1070 CLS:PRINT©224, " LOADING TO 

TAPE" 
1080 0PEN"0",#-1,N* 
1090 PRINT#-1,N 
1100 F0RI-1T0N 
1110 PRINT#-1,B*<I) ,CA<I) 
1120 FOR J=1T04:PRINT#-1, AN* < I , 
J) : NEXT J 
1130 NEXT I 
1140 CL0SE#-1 
1150 GOTO40 

1160 CLS: PR I NTS 128, "INSERT DISK, 



60 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



PRESS ENTER WHEN READY" 

1170 Z*=INKEY»: IFZ*-""THEN1170 

1180 IF Z*OCHR*<13> THEN 1170 

1190 CLS:PRINT@223, " SAVINS DAT 

A TO DISK" 

1200 VERIFY ON 

1210 M*=LEFT*<N*,B> 

1220 OPEN"0",#l,M* 

1230 WRITE#1,N 

1240 FOR I-1TON 

1250 WRITE#1,B*(I) ,CA<I) 

1260 F0RJ=1T04: WRITE* 1 , AN* < I , J) : 

NEXT J 

1270 NEXT I 
1280 CLOSE* 1 
1290 SOTO 40 
1300 CL8 
1310 F0RI-1T04 

1320 PRINT" ("I I ") "SAN*(N, I) 
1330 NEXT I 

1340 PR I NT: PR I NT "TYPE NUMBER OF 
CORRECT ANSWER " 

1350 Z*=INKEY*:IF Z*=""THEN 1350 
1360 Z=VAL<Z*):IF Z<1 OR Z>4 THE 
N 1350 

1370 CA<N)«Z: RETURN 

13S0 CLS: PR I NTS64, "QUESTION TO D 

ELETE FROM 1 TO";N 

1390 INPUT M:IFM<0 OR M>N THEN 1 



380 

1400 CLS:PRINT"QUESTION"|M 
1410 PRINTS* <M> 

1420 PRINTa448, "IS THIS THE CORR 
ECT QUESTION?" 

1430 Y*-INKEY*:IF Y*«""THEN 1430 
1440 IF Y*<>"Y" AND Y*<>"y" THEN 
40 

1445 IF M=NQ THEN 1490 

1450 POKE65495,0 

1455 FOR D=M TO N-l 

1460 B*<D>=B*(D+1) :CA(D)=CA(D+1) 

1470 FOR E=l TO 4: AN* (D, E) =AN* (D 

+1,E):NEXT E 

1480 NEXT D 

1490 POKE65494,0 

1495 N=N-l:SOTO40 

1500 fortd=it025:nexttd:x=x+i:p= 
peek < sl+x ) : pokesl+x , 207 
1510 if peek (344)0247 or x>len< 
b*) then return 

1520 POKESL+X, p:x=x+i:p=peek<sl+ 

X ) : POKESL+X , 207 

1530 FORTD=1TO10:NEXT TD 

1540 POKESL+X, P: SOTO 1510 

1600 F0RTD*iT025:NEXTTD:X-X-32:P 

=PEEK ( SL+X ) : POKESL+X , 207 

1610 IF PEEK (341 )<>247 OR X<32 T 

HEN RETURN 



€Y-lt»ltNI?T-l€S 



Specialist in educational software for your CoCo. Developed by educators to be teacher and student friendly. 
Special features include AUTO RUN, MENU DRIVEN, TALKING AND NON TALKING VERSIONS, and REWARDS. 
All programs are 16K Extended BASIC unless otherwise noted. 



ADDITION 

Preschool - 5th 
8 Levels 

(C) $29.95 (D) $32.95 

MULTIPLICATION 

2nd grade - H.S. 
6 Levels 

(C) $15.95 (D) $18.95 

BEAT-THE-COMPUTER 
MULTIPLICATION 

3rd grade - ADULT 
Timed game vs. computer 
whiie practicing multiplication. 

(C) $15.95 (D) $18.95 

BEFORE/BETWEEN/AFTER 
NUMBER DRILL 

Preschool - 5th 
(RAINBOW Review May '84) 

(C) $29.95 (D) $32.95 

NUMBER READINESS 

Preschool - 1st 
Matching numbers with 
graphic display. 
32K Extended Basic. 

(C) $24.95 (D) $27.95 



ALPHABET* 

Preschool - 1st 
(RAINBOW Review Dec. '83) 

6 Levels 

(C) $29.95 (D) $32.95* 

CLOCK ARITHMETIC* 

7 Levels 

Kindergarten - 3rd 
(RAINBOW Review Feb. '84) 
32K Extended Basic. 

(C) $29.95 (D) $32.95 



PRIMARY NUMBER SKILLS THE VOICE" 

Preschool - 2nd 
1 1 Levels 

32K Extended Basic 

(C) $29.95 (D) $32.95 



NUMBER/COLOR WORD* 

Preschool - 2nd 
8 Levels 

32K Extended Basic 

(C) $29.95 (D) $32.95 



SUBTRACTION 

Kindergarten - 5th 
13 Levels 

32K Extended Basic 

(C) $29.95 (D) $32.95 
WIZARD! 

Readable, elegant new 
character set for your 
Telewriter-64* word processor. 
Crisp, calligraphic-style 
characters with true lower- 
case descenders install 
quickly in any CoCo system. 

(C)$ 16.95 

*Televvriter-64 is a trademark of Cognitec 



Make our programs talk by 
purchasing THE VOICE" 
hardware speech synthesizer. 
Just plug into your ROM port 
and you're ready. 

'THE VOICE" $79.95 (cass. or disk) 

Connect your Disk Drives 

and THE VOICE" with Y CABLE. 

Y CABLE $29.95 

*Please add $5.00 for talking 
version of program. Both 
voice and non-voice versions 
provided with each talking 
program you order. 



COLOR MAILBAG 

Creates mailing list and 
address labels. 

(C) $29.95 (D) $32.95 

SINGLE DRIVE DISK BACKUP 

Copy a complete disk in 
3 passes or fewer. See you at 

64K Disk Basic (D) $32.95 RAINBOWFEST/ Princeton" 

Send self-addressed, stamped envelope for free catalog. 
Board of Education requisitions honored. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 

Add $1.50 per program shipping and handling; 
Tennessee residents add 7% sales tax. 
Mail check or money order to: 
CY-BURNET-ICS 

5705 Chesswood Drive, Knoxville, TN 37912 
Phone 615-688-4865 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 61 



5: 



THE QUIZ MAKER 

for Students and Teachers 
by David Stanley 

Now be able to create a test for any pur- 
pose. You choose the subject area and 
control the format. The many options of 
this program make studying interesting 
rattier than tedious. You may have a ques- 
tion presented and you must type in the 
answer. You may have the answer flash 
on the screen, and you must type in the 
question. You may have a mixture of the 
above two formats. You may choose the 
flashcard feature that allows you to study 
before taking the test. You may add or 
change questions and answers. You may 
use short answer, fill-in, true/false, or 
multiple choice test. You may change the 
time limit for questions. Many more 
features, too. The printing command 
allows you to obtain hard copy of the entire 
test, or questions only, with space allowed 
for manual fill-in of the answer. This 
feature permits teachers to create exams 
or homework assignments. All tests may 
be saved and reloaded for future use. A 
program that does it all! Available in 32K 
E.B. $27.95 disk or $24.9.5 cassette. 



The Factory : ™* sunburst 
Strategies in Problem Solving 

Grades 4-adult. Winner 1983 Learning 
Software Award. Recommended in 
Classroom Computer Learning, 
Courseware Report Card and Electronic 
learning Unique three-level program 
challenges students to create geometric 
"products" on a simulated machine 
assembly line which the student designs, 
In the first part of the program, students 
learn how the available machines work. In 
the second part, they design their own 
assembly lines. In the third part, the 
cpmputer challenges students to design 
an assembly line that will produce the pro- 
duct displayed on the screen. Three levels 
of difficulty develop inductive thinking, in- 
tegrate skills such as visual discrimination 
and spatial perception, and promote an 
understanding of sequence, logic and effi- 
ciency. Diskette for 32K TRS-80 Color 
Computer with Extended Color BASIC. 
$39.95 




•Leisure: 



Computem 



(212)948-2748 




KING AUTHOR'S TALES 
by Steve Blyn 

The creative writing tool you've been 
waiting for! This innovative program 
allows children in grades 2 to 6 to write 
compositions, book reports, or short 
stories and save them to files. The 
material can be reviewed, corrected, 
rewritten, saved, and reloaded at any 
time. It can then be changed over and over 
again, if desired. Included,. as well, is a 
question and answer optional feature. The 
user may write a question and answer for 
each page of text. When the story is run, 
the question will appear after each page. 
The user types in the answer and the pro- 
gram responds, "Correct" or 
''Incorrect". Teachers may use this 
feature to create reading comprehension 
material for their classes. The child also 
has the option of creating a title page pic- 
ture on the screen for each story. The 
drawing section has automatic key repeat 
for line drawing and allows for change of 
line colors. Pictures may also be saved. 
We have included a selection of stories 
and pictures with each program. King 
Author's Tales is available in 32K E.B, 
disk or 16 K E.B. cassette at $29.95 for 
either version. Printer is optional, but 
recommended. 

Now available — Talking King Author, a 
version made especially to work with 
Spectrum's and Speech Systems Voice 
Pak. You'll hear your story, too! Same 
great features at the same price. 



At te st 




see us at II PRINCETON 



MATH TUTOR SERIES 
DIAGNOSTIC DISKS NEU 
By Ed Guy 

These disks contain program series to 
give students practice in various 
mathematical operations and to give the 
teacher feedback on their progress. The 
feedback will give a "number right" 
report and also a diagnostic listing of 
where the student made an error, and how 
many times he used the "HELP" com- 
mand featured in each program. Each stu- 
dent may do up to 10 examples, with at 
least 30 class sesesions per disk. A 
password system prevents students from 
seeing the reports of others in the class. 
Results may be printed out on screen or 
line printer. The Arithmetic Diagnostic 
Disk provides practice in division, 
multiplication, factor operations and 
algebraic evaluation (primarily intended to 
teach the hierarchy of operations). The 
Fractions Diagnostic Disk provides prac- 
tice in addition, subtraction, multiplica- 
tion, and division of fractions. Ail pro- 
blems lead students step by step through 
examples and contain many "HELP" 
commands. ARITHMETIC DIAGNOSTIC 
DISK - 32K E.B. $49.95. FRACTIONS 
DIAGNOSTIC DISK - 32K E.B. - $49.95 
DISK ONLY. : 




The Pond: from sunburst 
Strategies in Problem Solving 

Grades 2-adult. Winner 1983 Learning 
Software Award. Recommended in 
Classroom Computer tearing, A small 
green frog, lost in a pond of lily pads, 
helps students recognize and articulate 
patterns, generalize from raw data and 
think logically In the practice option, 
students choose from six levels of- 
difficulty, in which Ifly pads are displayed 
in increasingly complex patterns. The stu- 
dent must determine a pattern that will get 
the frog across the pond. In the game, 
students collect points by directing their 
frogs through as many ponds as possible 
in the fewest number of moves. Diskette 
for 32K TRS-80 Color Computer with Ex- 
tended Color BASIC. $39.95 



The best in software for kids! 



THE MONET SERIES 

BY STEVE BLYN 

DOLLARS I SENSE 1BKECB * 14 - 95 

Player butf familiar items using dollars 
and coins to practice using money correctly. 

McCODO i MENU UK ECB 

Learn to buy and add up your pur- 
chases from a typical fast-food 
restaurant menu. 

MONET-PAX 32K ECB $22.95 

A combined and menu driven version 
of the above programs. Includes play 
money. Reviewed - Rainbow 7/83 

CROCODILE MATH 1 BR ECB 
EB. 517,95 

An animated math game using hi- 
res graphics. A tish containing a 
problem moves toward a crocodile 
containing a possible answer. If 
the answer is true, open the 
crocodile's mouth with the joystick 
to eat the fish. If false, keep his 
mouth closed, Addition, subtrac- 
tion, and multiplication examples 
on 3 levels, 3 speeds. Tape only. 
By Art Provost 

COLOR GRADE 32KECB $29,95 

A great aid to teachers. Records and 
calculates grades for up to 6 classes of 
up to 40 students each. Uses number 
or letter grades, named or numerical 
periods and gives a weighted average. 
Easy to use. Full directions. DISK 
ONLY. By David Lengyel. 





BEYOND WORDS 32K ECB $1 9,96 Each 

These Language Arts programs cover 
common misspellings, and synonyms/- 
antonyms on each level. Additionally, 
Level 1 tests contractions and abbrevia- 
tions, Level 2 tests homonyms, and Level 
3 tests analogies. Each program has 3 
parts and contains over 400 questions 
and uses over 800 words. All tests are 
grade appropriate. User modifiable 
(directions included). Printer option. 

Level 1 Grades 3 5 

Level 2 Grades 6-8 

Level 3 Grades 9-12 

DISK VERSION Each $23.95 



THE MATH TUTOR SERIES 16K Ex1. 

These tutorials fake the child through 
each step of the example. All programs 
include HELP tables, cursor and 
graphic aids. All allow user to create 
the example, or let the computer 
choose. Multi-level. Great teaching pro- 
grams. By Ed Guy. 

LONG DIVISION TUTOR $14.95 
MULTIPLICATION TUTOR $14.95 
FACTORS TUTOR $19,95 
FRACTIONS TUTOR (Addition) $19.95 
FRACTIONS TUTOR (Subtraction) $19.95 
FRACTIONS TUTOR (Multiplicatiort)$19.95 

Any 2 FRACTIONS programs $29.95 
EQUATIONS TUT0R32K EB519.95 




WW 




TREASURE HUNT by Art Provost 
16KE.B. Tape Only $19.95 

Find you way to the treasure 
through a maze filled with objects 
to collect , warriors f theives, secret 
passages, dark caves, hidden 
clues. Its alt there for you to enjoy, 
includes graphic jllustation, 
animation, various levels of play 
for ages 6- 12 . Joystick req u i red . 
tape only. 



FIRST GAMES by Penny Bryan 
32KEB. tape $24.95 disk $27.95 

First Games contains 6 menu- 
driven programs to- delight and 
teach your early learners (ages 
3-6). These games enrich the lear- 
ning of colors, numbers, lower- 
case letters, shapes, memory r 
visual discrimination and coun- 
ting. 

MATH INVADERS by David Steele 
16KE8 $17.95 

A multi- level 'Space Invaders' 
type game to reinforce the 4 basic 
math operations (addition, sub- 
traction, multiplication and divi- 
sion). Problems become more dif- 
ficult as you progress. Hi-res. 
graphics, joystick required. 

TAPE ONLY 



MORE LEARNINGWARE 

(ALL PROGRAMS IN 16-K EXTENDED EXCEPT WHERE NOTED) 



Multiple choice reading 



CONTEXT CLUES - by Steve Blyn 

programs. Specify grade 4,5,6 or 7. each $17.95 

VOCABULARY BUILDERS - 32K Great for test preparations. 
200 questions, multiple choice, modifiable, printer option. 
I (grades 3-5). II (6-8) or III (9-12) each $19.95 

READING AIDS 4-PAK - Child creates own reading material. $19.95 
GRAPH-IT - by D.Steele - Graph sets of algebraic equations. $14.95 
HISTORY GAME-32K by I. Keeling"Jeopardy" type US facts game $14.95 
KNOW YOUR STATES-32K by J.Keeling-Name all hi res, states $19.95 
MUSIC DRILL - by D.Steele • identify notes of many scales. $19.95 

GRAPH TUTOR - 32K - by C; Phillips - Create, use line, bar, pie 

pictographs. Hi-res $19.95 

PRESCHOOL SERIES - By J. Kotar. each 33 J M 

Pre. l*Counting, number recognition; Fae. I ■ Simple Addition; 
Pre. 3 - Alphabet Recognition. 



FRENCH OR SPANISH BASEBALL - By S. Blyn each $11.95 

Vocabulary practice. 200 words. Modifiable. Specify language. 
Also In 32K (500 words) $19.95 

HEBREW BULLETIN BOARD-by J.Kolar-utiiity to print words. $15.95 

HEBREW ALPHABET - learn the letters of this alphabet. $11.95 

***A BYTE OF COLOR BASIC - Beginner's manual & exercises $ 4.95 

FUN and GAMES 

(ALL PROGRAMS IN 16-K EXTENDED EXCEPT WHERE NOTED) 

CIRCUS ADVENTURE-by Steve Blyn 16K-Kids adventure game. $11.95 

SCHOOL MAZE - by Steve Blyn 16K • Kids graphic adventure. $11.95 

HAMSTER HUNT - by LAD Weston 32K - Beautiful graphics in 

this charming new kids adventure game. $19.95 

MR. COCOHEAD • by Steve Blyn -Create over 10,000 funny faces. 
Surprise commands. Very creative. $16.95 

NAME THAT SONG I - 72 kid's songs to guess. $14.95 
NAME THAT SONG II - 72 adult hits from the past 30 years. $14.95 

HORSERACE - by RftP Armstrong - Hi-res. race for all ages. $11.95 




ALL PAYMENTS IN U.S. FUNDS OVERSEAS ORDERS PLEASE ADD $5.00 FOR SHIPPING 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

Dealers inquiries Invited. 



CornputerTrlsland 



SOFTWARE NOW AVAILABLE IN AUSTRALIA FROM 
SOFTWARE SPECTRUM, GPO BOX 2101, ADELAIDE, SA 5001 

FOR YOUR CONVENIENCE 

Blank Cassettes with Labels 3 For $ 2.00 

Popular Brand Diskettes 3 For $10.00 

Disk Head Cleaner Kit each $25.00 

Looseleaf Diskette File (hold 4) 2 For $ 3.00 



■h (212) 948-2748 

wjSim Dept. R 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 

Send for catalog with complete descriptions. 
Please add $1 .00 per order for postage. N.Y. residents, please add proper tax. FREE set of BINARY DICE, including full directions, with orders of 2 or more items 
Authors: We are seeking quality children's software tor leisure or learning. Write for details. Top Royalties. 
TRS-80 Color Computer. TDpSystem 100. 



1620 POKESL+X, P:X«X-32:P»PEEK(SL 

+x): pokesl+x, 207 

1630 fortd-1to10inext td 

1640 pokesl+x, p: 80t0 16 10 

1700 fortd-ito25:nexttd:x-x-i:p- 

peek (sl+x ) : pokesl+x , 207 

1710 IF PEEK (343)0247 OR X<2 TH 
EN RETURN 

1720 POKESL+X, P:X»X-l:P=PEEK(SL+ 

X) : POKESL+X , 207 

1730 FORTD-1TO10:NEXT TD 

1740 POKESL+X, P:BOTO1710 

1800 F0RTD«1T025:NEXTTD:X»X+32:P 

"PEEK (SL+X ) : POKESL+X , 207 

1810 IF PEEK (342)0247 OR X>LEN( 

B*)-32 THEN RETURN 

1820 POKESL+X, P:X=X+32:P=PEEK(SL 

+X) : POKESL+X, 207 

1830 FORTD=1TO10:NEXT TD 

1840 POKESL+X, P: GOTO 18 10 



¥ 200.... 


175 


460.... 


60 


700.... 


, ... 1 


950.... 


...89 


1210 .. 


.. 163 


END .. 


201 



Listing 2: 
10 * 

20 PRINTING TEST LPVII » 
30 *♦ OCTOBER 1983 ♦ 
40 ** GARY KINNEY * 
50 ** 10 WHITFORD AVENUE * 
60 ** WHITESBORO,NEW YORK 13492* 
70 * 

100 PMODE0:PCLEAR1 
110 CLEAR 19500 

120 XX=RND (TIMER) :NQ=60:TQ=99:CL 
S 

130 DIM Q*(NQ) ,AN*(NQ,4) ,RA(NQ) , 
RN(NQ) ,A(NQ) , CA (NQ) , CB (TQ) , SU* ( 1 
1) ,SD*(10) 
140 POKE65495,0 

150 FOR I=0TO11:SU*(I)=CHR*(18) : 
FORJ= 1 T05 : READS : SU* ( I ) -SU* ( I ) +CH 
R* (S) : NEXT J : SU* ( I ) =SU* ( I ) +CHR* ( 1 
28) +CHR* (30) : NEXTI 
160 FOR 1=0 TO 9:SD*(I)=CHR*(18) 
: F0RJ=1T05: READS: SD* ( I ) =SD* ( I ) +C 
HR* (S) : NEXT J : SD* ( I ) =SD* ( I ) +CHR* ( 
128) +CHR* (30) : NEXTI 
170 POKE65494,0 

180 CLS: PR I NT "READ DATA DISK": PR 
INT 

190 PRINT" INSERT DISK": PRINT 
200 PR I NT "PRESS ENTER WHEN READY 
": PRINT 



210 A*=INKEY*:IF A*OCHR*(13) TH 
EN 210 

220 PRINT: INPUT "NAME OF DATA FIL 
E"SN*: PRINT 

230 CLS:PRINT@226, "DATA FILE BE I 

NG READ":0PEN"I",#1,N* 

240 INPUT#1,M 

250 FOR 1-1 TO M 

260 INPUT#1,Q*(I) 

270 INPUT#1,CA(I) 

280 FOR J»l TO 4 

290 I NPUT# 1 , AN* ( I , J ) 

300 NEXT J , I 

310 CL0SE#1 

320 POKE65495,0 

330 CLS: PR I NTS 137, "FORMATING DAT 
A" 

340 PRINTS262, "QUESTION NUMBER" 
350 FOR 1=1 TO M 
360 GOSUB 1230 

370 QQ*=Q* ( I ) : GOSUB 1070:GO8UB 1 

160:Q*(I)=QQ* 

3G0 GOSUB 1340 

390 FOR F-l TO 4: QQ*»AN* ( I , F) : GO 
SUB 1 070 : GOSUB 1 1 60 : AN* ( I , F ) — QQ* 
400 NEXT F 
410 NEXT I 

420 CLS: PRINTS226, "NUMBER OF QUE 

STIONS UP TO";M; 

430 INPUT N 

440 FOR 1=1 TO N 

450 RN ( I ) =RND (M) 

460 FOR J=l TO (1-1) 

470 IF 1=1 THEN 490 

480 IF RN(I)=RN(J) THEN 450 

490 NEXTJ,I 

500 POKE65494,0 

510 CLS: PRINTS229, "PLEASE WAIT P 
RINTING" 

520 IF SF=0 THEN GOSUB 1470 

530 FOR 1=1 TO N 

540 PRINT#-2:PL=PL+1 

550 PRINT#-2,CHR*(1G) ;CHR*(28) ;C 

HR*(30) ;CHR*(192) \ 

560 PRINT#-2,CHR*(31) ; I+SF;CHR*( 
30) ;CHR*(16) ; "14";Q*(RN(D ) 
570 PL=PL+INT(LEN(Q*(RN(I) ) )/66) 
+ 1 

580 CB(I+SF)=CA(RN(I) ) 

590 GOSUB 830 

600 GOSUB 1040 

610 IF A(RN(I))=2 THEN 650 

620 PRINT#-2," (1) "!AN*(RN( 

I) ,RA(1) ) JCHR*(16) ; "45" 5 " (2) " ; AN 

* (RN ( I ) , RA (2) ) : PL=PL+1 

630 PRINT#-2, " (3)";AN*(RN( 

I) ,RA(3) ) ;CHR*(16) ; "45" 5 " (4) "i AN 

*(RN(I) ,RA(4> ) :PL=PL+1 

640 GOTO 600 



64 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



i J ; " > " ; an* 



650 FOR J=l TO 4 
660 PRINT#-2, " <";, 
<RN(I) ,RA(J) ) :PL=PL+1 
670 NEXT J 

680 TEN=(I+SF>/10-INT( <I+SF) /10) 
690 IF TEN=0 THEN GOSUB 980 
700 IF TEN=0 AND INT < < I+SF> / 10) = 
<N+SF>/10 THEN G=l ELSE 8=2 
710 NEXT I 
720 CL0SE#-2 

730 CLS:PRINT@226, "WOULD YOU LIK 
E ANOTHER RUN" 

740 PR INT "TYPE Y < YES) OR N(NO>" 
750 Z*=INKEY*:IF 2*="" THEN 750 
760 IF 2*<>"Y" THEN 810 
770 PR I NT : PR I NT " ( S ) SAME FILE OR 
<N> NEW FILE" 

; IF F%~"" THEN 780 
THEN GOSUB 900: SF= 



then sf=sf+n:goto: 



780 F*=INKEY*: 
790 IF F*="S" 
0:GOTO 420 
800 IF F*="N" 
20 ELSE 780 

810 IF Z*<>"N" THEN 750 

820 CLS : GOSUB900 : PR I NTS230 , " PR I N 

TING COMPLETE"; : END 

830 FOR K=l TO 4 

840 RA(K)=RND<4> 

850 FOR L=l TO (K-l> 

860 IF K=l THEN 880 

870 IF RA (K) =RA <L) THEN 840 

880 NEXT L,K 

890 RETURN 

900 IF G-2 THEN GOSUB 980 

910 FOR K=l TO 5:PRINT#-2:NEXT K 

: PL=PL+5 

920 PR I NT#— 2 , CHR* < 3 1 > J " ANSWERS T 
O QUEST I ONS " ; CHR* ( 30 > : PL=PL+ 1 
930 FOR 1=1 TO N+SF 

PRINT#-2, I ; " ) "CB ( I ) : PL=PL+1 
NEXT I 

PR I NT#-2 : PL=PL+ 1 : GOSUB 980 
RETURN 

IF PL>=66 THEN 1030 
PN=71-PL 
FOR K=i TO PN 
PRINT#-2 
NEXT K 
PL=5: RETURN 
FOR J=l TO 4 

IF AN*(RN(I> ,CB<I+SF> >=AN*( 
RN<I),RA<J>> THEN CB < I+SF) =J : RET 
URN 

NEXT J 

B=l:PRINT@279, I 
SS=INSTR(B,QQ*,CHR*(94) > 
IF SS=0 THEN RETURN 
SS*=MID*(QQ*,SS+1, 1) 
IF SS*="+" THEN C*=SU*(10>: 



940 

950 

960 

970 

980 

990 

1000 

1010 

1020 

1030 

1040 

1050 



1060 
1070 
1080 
1090 
1100 
1110 



GOTO 1140 



RAINBOW 




RAINBOW 

Ct»T*««TiO*i 



PAL CREATIONS 

Specializing in 32K ECB Text Adventures 
And Simulations On Cassette 



*SAC For those against nuclear disarmament - pilot a B52 to any 
one of the 36 Soviet cities, destroy it with a nuclear bomb, and 
make it back to the base. 9 difficulty levels. You can use keyboard 
or joystick or both. This simulation takes a lot of pre-planning and 
fast thinking $19.95 

* HERE COME DE PREZ Are you fed up with the State of 
the Union? If so, run for president in this 1 or 2 player simulation 
complete with scandals, national disasters, and debates . . . $14.95 

* PRIVATE INVESTIGATOR Murder! Could Sherlock Holmes 

have solved this whodunit adventure simulation? $14.95 

ISLE OF FORTUNE You are a fisherman in a waterfront bar. 
The old salt just told you a tale of treasure on an island, before 

the poison dart struck Sail your ship to dangerous adventure 

awaiting you on the Isle of Fortune $19.95 

SCAVANGE HUNT Find the items on the list and return them 
to Hickory Ridge to free your niece Rebecca from the hermit 
of Medicine Tree County $15.95 

* BOMB SCARE A terrorist group has planted 8 bombs in a city. 
Your mission: locate and disarm all 8 before time runs out. 
1 is The Big One $14.95 

* DARK CASTLE Monsters-magic-myths. King Lothar of 
Rom has been abducted by the evil wizard. Destroy the wizard and 

return Lothar to his throne $14.95 

MANSION OF DOOM Destroy the Vampire, rescue Princess 
Marlena. . , $14.95 

* WITCHES KNIGHT Back to the days of old, where knights 
were bold and magic ruled the land. Many enchanted surprises 
await you on your quest to free Sir Noble from the witches 

evil spell $15.95 

BEACON Can you signal the ship before it runs aground? . $14.95 

* SPACE ESCAPE Explore a death-ridden alien spacecraft in 

search of a way back to Earth $14.95 

STALAG Escape the German prison camp before its 
bombed $14.95 

* EVASION Sequel to STALAG! Get out of Germany 
alive $19.95 

* FUNHOUSE Work your way through this unique 
Funhouse searching for the way out $14.95 

* SCATTERBRAIN Help wanted: Put Commodore Winslow's 
85-room mansion in order in this graphic adventure $14.95 



Buy any 1 of the programs above and get 
any of the bonus programs below FREE! 



*SKI LODGE Times are tough, weather is bad. Manage a Vermont 
ski lodge successfully to win this 1-4 player simulation. 
MOTHER LODE You just inherited your great-grandfather's 
goldmine. Did he die penniless? 

ENO You inherited a million dollars. Just one catch — first 
you have to find it! 

BETTER A better betting game for 1-4 players. You choose 
the winning criteria. 

MATCH— IT A challenging word game in which you identify 
your opponent's 5-letter word using deduction. 1-4 players. 

* DIFFERENT EVERY TIME 

Send check or money order to: 

PAL CREATIONS 
10456 Amantha Ave., San Diego, CA 92126 

Calif, residents add 6% sales tax. 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 65 



Custom Software Engineering, Inc 

807 Minutemen Causeway (D-2), Cocoa Beach, Florida 32931 

/QnC\ 7QQ H AQO For information or technical support, please 
\OUO) / OO" I UOO call between 5:30 and 8:30 P.M. Eastern time. 



DISK DATA HANDLER - 64K 

Provides the growth capability needed for your increasingly sophisti- 
cated applications. 

■ Designed to use the full 64K RAM . . . may also be configured for 
32K. 

■ Uses standard ROM's ... No special operating system required! 

■ Allows you to design disk data files for your specific needs. You 
define a basic record of up to 14 fields and 246 characters. 

■ Provides fast selection and sorting based on any field or combi- 
nation of fields in this record. 

■ Powerful in-screen input and update. 

■ User defined output of reports to screen, printer, or disk files 
which may be read by your BASIC programs for any computational 
or special formatting requirements. 

■ Printer reports allow headings, page breaks and page numbering, 
and let you pass control codes to drive your printer's special 
features. 

■ Maximum number of records you may work with at one time will 
depend on RAM conf iguration and record size . . . 64K (32 K) 1 850 
(500) - 21 char records ... 1 79 (49) -246 char records. 

■ An optional Extended record linked to the basic record may also 
be defined. Size of this Extended record is not a factor in 
determining maximum number of records. 

■ NOW . . . also includes DDH DIRECTORY FILE BUILDER ... a 
listing of a short program to read directory information from your 
disks and produce a combined file index. 

$64.95 in BASIC with Machine Language subroutines. 



That's INTEREST-ing 

Let your computer do some REAL computation! 

■ Helps you solve problems dealing with time, money, and INTEREST! 

■ Amortization tables any way YOU want them . . , even lets you 
change any terms mid-schedule! 

■ Calculates Present Value, Future Value, Capital Recovery for any 
combination of payments you specify. 

■ Rate of Return computation predicts how hard your money will be 
working for you! 

■ Computes Bond yields . . . current and to redemption. 

■ All answers available on screen or printer. 
$29.95 in BASIC 



MATH TUTOR 

5 programs in 1 

■ Step by step approach . . . error correction. 

■ Goes from basic fact drill (+, — x, /) to full addition, subtraction, 
multiplication, division. 

■ Four levels of difficulty. 
$13.95 in BASIC 

★★★★★★★★★ 

SPELLING TEACHER 

Teaches YOUR word lists . . . suitable for any level from kindergarten 
to college! 

■ Words presented in FOUR different modes . . . study, scrambled 
word game, trial test, and final test. 

■ Misspelled words are retaught to reinforce correct spelling. 

■ Tape or disk files store up to 200 words. 
$12.95 in BASIC 



RAINBOW 

CtRTIRCATK)* 
SEAL 

ALL LISTED 
PROGRAMS 



ALL PROGRAMS require Extended Color Basic 
and are delivered on cassette. All, except 
Tape Date-O-Base Calendar, are DISK System 
compatible. 

U.S. and CANADA add $1.00 per order for 
shipping. Overseas $2.50 per order. All prices 
in U.S. dollars. Florida residents add 5% sales 
tax. Return within two weeks if not completely 
satisfied. 



DISK DOUBLE ENTRY 

// you ha ve spent hours trying to balance your Debits and Credits, this 
program is for you! 

■ Designed for small business, club and personal use. 

■ Enter transactions in a journal type format Program will maintain 
current account balances, produce Trial Balance, Income, and 
Balance Sheet reports and complete Account Ledgers. 

■ Will handle up to 300 accounts including report headings and 
totals. 

■ Up to 1400 average transactions on a diskette. 

■ Summary reports and four levels of subtotals available. 

■ Requires 32 K and an understanding of standard double entry 
accounting concepts. 

$44.96 in BASIC with Machine Language subroutines. 

★*★★★★★★★ 

STATEMENT WRITER 

For use with (and requires) Disk Double Entry 

■ Produces statements suitable for billing from your Receivables 
accounts. 

■ Provides mailing labels to use with your statements and account 
summaries. 

■ Designed and documented to allow you to change formats to 
accommodate your own special needs. 

$34.95 



COMMAND STREAM PROCESSOR 

Powerful, versatile utility adds a new dimension to your Color 
Computer. 

■ A program to run your other programs! 

■ Will allow you to prepackage a stream of direct system commands 
as well as INPUT and LINE INPUT to your BASIC program. This 
results in a totally automated stream of activity. 

■ If you understand your computer and the flow of activity required 
for your total operation, you are ready for the power of COM MAN D 
STREAM PROCESSOR! 

$19.95 Completely relocatable . . . Machine Language 



GRAPHIC SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM 

Works in all PMODES and lets you shift screen image anywhere on 
the printed page. 

■ Relocatable code lets you use all of your 16K or32K machine. 

■ Available for Color Basic 1 .0 and 1.1/1 .2. Use EXEC41 1 75 to see 
which you have and SPECIFY WITH ORDER. 

■ SPECIFY PRINTER TYPE ... in Machine Language 
$7.95 - TRS-80* LP-VII/VIII & DM P 100/200/400/420 

$9.95- Epson GRAFTRAX*. NEC* PC 8023 A-C, I DS 440/445, Paper 
Tiger* 460/560, M icro Prism* 480, Prism* 80/1 32 (with dot plotting), 
TRS-80* DMP-120, TDP-1, PROWRITER* Centronics 739, Micro- 
line* 82A/83A (with Okigraph 1) /84/92/93, Star Micronics, Inc. 
GEMINI 10/10X/15 and Gorilla Banana. 

(Trademarks of Tandy Corp., Epson America, Inc., C-ltoh, NEC 
America, Okidata Corp., Integral Data Systems, Inc.) 

★★★★★★★★★ 

ALPHA-DRAW 

Works great with GRAPHIC SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM! 

■ Subroutine designed to let you add any keyboard character to 
your graphic displays. 

■ You define X and Y coordinates and a string variable of one or 
more characters . . . ALPHA- DRAW does the rest! 

■ BONUS - includes instructions for a true line-numbered merge of 
tape files. 

$8.96 in BASIC 



V.i ,'i ■• C ' I'M 



For VISA and Master Card orders: 
Include type, account number, expiration 
date, signature and phone number. 
Sorry! No COD's. 




1120 IF SS*="-" THEN C*=SU* ( 1 1 ) : 
G0T01 140 

1 1 30 S V= V AL < SS* ) : C*=SU* ( S V ) 

1140 QQ*=LEFT*(QQ*,SS-1)+C*+MID* 

(QQ*,SS+2) 

1150 B=SS+2:BOT0 1080 
1160 B=l 

1170 SS«INSTR(B,QQ*,CHR*(95) ) 

1180 IF SS=0 THEN RETURN 

1190 SS*=MID*(QQ*,SS+1, 1) 

1 200 SV=VAL ( SS* ) : C*=SD* ( S V > 

1210 QQ*=LEFT* < QQ* , SS- 1 ) +C*+M I D* 

(QQ*,SS+2) 

1220 B=SS+2: GOTO 1170 

1 230 Q*=Q* (I) " E*= " " : LN=0 

1240 IF LEN(Q*)< (67+LN) THEN Q* ( 

I >=E*+Q*: RETURN 

1250 A*=LEFT*(Q*, (66+LN) ) 

1260 FOR L= (66+LN) TO 1 STEP -1 

1270 C*=MID*(A*,L, 1) 

1280 IF C*=" " THEN 1300 

1290 NEXT L 

1 300 D*=LEFT* < A* , L) +CHR* < 1 3 ) +CHR 
*(16)+"06" 

1310 Q*=RIGHT*(Q*,LEN(Q*)-L) : IF 

LN=0 THEN LN=3 

1320 E*=E*+D* 

1330 BOTO 1240 

1340 FOR K=l TO 4 

1 350 AL=LEN ( AN* ( I , K ) ) 

1360 IF AL >30 THEN A < I ) =2 

1370 NEXT K 

1380 RETURN 

1390 DATA 128,142,145,145,142,12 
8, 128, 146, 159, 144, 128, 146, 153, 15 

1, 144 

1400 DATA 128,145,149,149,155,12 

8, 135, 132, 159, 132, 128, 151, 149, 14 

9, 137 

1410 DATA 128,142,149,149,136,12 
8, 131, 129, 157, 131, 128, 138, 149, 14 
9, 138 

1420 DATA 128,130,149,149,142,12 
8, 128, 132, 142, 132, 128, 128, 132, 13 

2, 132 

1430 DATA 128,184,196,196,184,12 
8, 128, 200, 252, 192, 128, 200, 228, 22 
0, 192 

1440 DATA 128,196,212,212,236,12 
8, 156, 144, 252, 144, 128, 220, 212, 21 
2, 164 

1450 DATA 128,184,212,212,160,12 
8, 140, 132,244, 140, 128, 168,212, 21 
2, 168 

1460 DATA 128,136,212,212,184 
1470 FOR K=l TO 4:PRINT#-2:NEXTK 
1 480 PR I NT#-2 , CHR* 43 1 ) ; " NAME " ; C 
HR* < 18) ; CHR* (28) ; CHR* (255) ; CHR* ( 
1 92 ) ; CHR* ( 30 ) : RETURN 



230 221 

480 151 

710 189 

1050 .... 136 
END .... 201 



Listing 3: 

10 '♦#»*#**#******#**##****■***## 

20 PRINTING TEST GEMINI 10 # 
30 '* OCTOBER 1983 # 
40 '* GARY KINNEY # 
50 '# 10 WHITFORD AVENUE # 
60 '# WHITESBORO,NEW YORK 13492* 
70 * *******####****###*##*##***# 
100 PMODE0:PCLEAR1 

110 CLEAR 20000 : POKE 1 50 , 1 : PR I NT# 

-2, CHR* (27) ; "@"; 

120 XX=RND (TIMER) :NQ=60:TQ=99 

130 DIM Q* (NQ) , AN* (NQ, 4) , RA (NQ) , 

RN (NQ) , A <NQ) , CA (NQ) , CB (TQ) 

1 40 HT*=CHR* ( 9 ) : UL*=CHR* ( 27 ) + " - " 

+CHR* ( 1 ) : UO*=CHR* ( 27 ) + " - " +CHR* ( 0 

) : DW*=CHR* ( 14) : DO*=CHR* (20) 

150 NA*=DW*+ " NAME "+DO*+UL*+" 

"+UO* 

160 PRINT#-2, CHR* (27) ; "D" ; CHR* (6 
) ; CHR* (45) ; CHR* (0) 5 CHR* (27) ; CHR* 
(82) ; CHR* (3) ; 

1B0 CLS: PR I NT "READ DATA DISK": PR 
INT 

190 PRINT" INSERT DISK": PRINT 
200 PR I NT "PRESS ENTER WHEN READY 
": PRINT 

210 A*=INKEY*:IF A*OCHR*(13) TH 
EN 210 

220 PRINT: INPUT "NAME OF DATA FIL 
E" 5 N*: PRINT 

230 CLS:PRINT@226, "DATA FILE BE I 

NB READ":OPEN"I",#l,N* 

240 INPUT#1,M 

250 FOR 1=1 TO M 

260 INPUT#1,Q*(I) 

270 INPUT#1,CA(I) 

280 FOR J=l TO 4 

290 INPUT#1, AN* (I, 3) 

300 NEXT J, I 

310 CLOSE* 1 

320 POKE65495,0 

330 CLS : PR I NT@ 1 37 , " FORMAT I NB DAT 
A" 

340 PR I NTS262, "QUESTION NUMBER" 
350 FOR 1=1 TO M 
360 GOSUB 1230 

370 QQ*=Q* ( I ) : 60SUB 1070:BOSUB11 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 67 




Heat Up Your COCO 

With I&M'S Hot Disk Controller 



Upgrade your COCO by adding JDOS advanced disk operating ■" 
system, top quality disk drive, and VIP- Writer*, a powerful word 
processor. 

J&M Systems offers this package for a remarkably low price 
that gives you a plug-compatible disk drive for both the original 
COCO and the COC02. 

Gold contacts assure reliability, built-in digital phase locked 
loop means NO adjustments, and disc operations are supported by 
JDOS. The controller also supports RS DOS, FLEX* , and OS/9 ' . 

JDOS implements all RS DOS Basic commands, plus many 
more, including Auto line numbering, DOS to boot OS/9, and 
RUNM to load and run machine language programs. 

You may also choose to format disks 40 track (single or double 
side) as well as 35 track RS compatible. Up and Down arrow keys 
support scrolling: a feature everyone wants! 

VIP-Writer, gold-edged JFD DISK CONTROLLER card, 
JDOS in ROM, complete drive, cable, and Manuals; all for 
only $379. 

J&M SYSTEMS: 

The Driving Force For Your Color Computer! 

• VIP-Wter Is a registered trademark of Soft Law 
'FLEX Is a registered trademark of Technical Systems Consultants, Inc. 
*OS/9 is a registered trademark of Microware, Inc. 



To Order Fill Out This Coupon or Call 505/265-1501 

I'd like more information on these products: 

PLEASE SEND ME: A top-quality complete SSDD 180K disk drive 

with cable, a gold-edged JFD Disk Controller card (JDOS in ROM), VIP- WRITER 
word processing program, and manuals all for only $379. 

Name 

Address 

City/State/Zip 

- I WANT TO USE VISA* OR MASTERCARD® 

Card # Exp. Date 

Signature • 
Enclosed is my check or money order. 

i//A 

J&M SYSTEMS, LTD. 
137 UTAH NE • ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. 87108 • 505/265-1501 



60:Q*(I)=QQ* 


810 IF Z*<> ,, N" THEN 750 


380 GOSUB1340 


820 CLS : GOSUB900 : PR I NT8230 , " PR I N 


390 FORF= 1 T04 : QQ*= AN* ( I , F > : OOSUB 


TING COMPLETE " \ Z END 


1070: eosuBi 160: an* < i , f> »qq* 


830 FOR K=l TO 4 


400 NEXT F 


840 RA(K)»RND(4) 


410 NEXT I 


850 FOR L»l TO (K-l) 


420 CLS: PRINT8226, "NUMBER OF DUE 


860 IF K=l THEN 880 


ST IONS UP TO ";M? 


870 IF RA(K)=RA(L) THEN 840 


430 INPUT N 


880 NEXT L,K 


440 FOR 1=1 TO N 


890 RETURN 


450 RN(I)»RND(M) 


900 IF G=2 THEN PRINT#-2, CHR* ( 12 


460 FOR J=l TO (1-1) 


) ; 


470 IF 1*1 THEN 490 


920 PRINT#-2,DW*J "ANSWERS TO QUE 


480 IF RN<I)=RN(J) THEN 450 


ST IONS" 


490 NEXT J , I 


930 FOR 1=1 TO N+SF 


500 PQKE65494,0 


940 PRINT#-2, II ") "CB<D 


510 CLS:PRINTa229, "PLEASE WAIT P 


950 NEXT I 


RINTINO" 


960 PR I NT#-2 P CHR* < 1 2 ) I 


520 IF 5F=0 THEN PR I NT#-2 , NA* : PR 


970 RETURN 


INT#-2 


1040 FOR J=l TO 4 


530 FOR 1=1 TO N 


1050 IF AN*<RN<I) ,CB(I+SF) )=AN*< 


540 PRINT#-2 


RN<I) ,RA(J) ) THEN CB < I+SF) =J : RET 


550 PR I NT#-2 9 UL* 5 " " ; UO* $ 


URN 


560 PRINT#-2,DW*; I+SF; DO*; Q* (RN ( 


1060 NEXT J 


I) ) 


1 070 B= 1 : PR I NT8279 , I 


580 CB(I+SF)=CA(RN(I) ) 


1080 SS=INSTR(B,QQ*,CHR*(94) ) 


590 QOSUB 830 


1090 IF SS=0 THEN RETURN 


600 GOSUB 1040 


1100 C*=MID*(QQ*,SS+1, 1) 


610 IF A<RN(I))=2 THEM 650 


1140 QQ*=LEFT* ( QQ* , SS- 1 ) +CHR* ( 27 


620 PRINT#-2," ( 1 ) " ; AN* ( RN ( 


) + » S " +CHR* < 0 ) +C*+CHR* < 27 ) + " T " +CH 


I > , RA < 1 ) ) ; HT*$ " (2) " ; AN* (RN ( I ) , RA 


R* < 27 ) + " H " +M I D* ( QQ* , SS+2 > 


(2>) 


1150 B=SS+2: GOTO 1080 


630 PRINT#-2," (3)"JAN*(RN( 


1160 B=l 


I) , RAO) ) SHT*S " (4) "; AN*(RN(I) , RA 


1170 SS=INSTR(B,QQ*,CHR* (95) ) 


(4) ) 


1180 IF SS=0 THEN RETURN 


640 GOTO 680 


1190 C*=MID*(QQ*,SS+1, 1) 


650 FOR J=l TO 4 


1210 QQ*=LEFT*(QQ*,SS-1)+CHR*(27 


660 PRINT#-2, " < " ; J ; " ) " J AN* 


) +»s»+» i "+C4+CHR* (27) + "T' , +CHR* (2 


(RN(I) ,RA(J) ) 


7) + "H"+MID* <QQ*, SS+2) 


670 NEXT J 


1220 B=SS+2: GOTO 1170 


680 TEN=(I+SF)/10-INT( (I+SF)/ 10) 


1 230 Q*=Q* ( I ) : E*= " " : LN=0 


690 IF TEN"0 THEN PR I NT#-2 9 CHR* < 


1240 IF LEN(Q*)< (67+LN) THEN Q* < 


12) J 


I ) =E*+Q* : RETURN 


700 IF TEN=0 AND ( I+SF) /10=INT <N 


1250 A*=LEFT*(Q*, (66+LN) ) 


+SF)/10 THEN G=l ELSE G=2 


1260 FOR L= (66+LN) TO 1 STEP -1 


710 NEXT I 


1270 C*=MID*(A*,L, 1) 


720 CL0SE#-2 


1280 IF C*=" " THEN 1300 


730 CLS : PR I NT8226 , " WOULD YOU LIK 


1290 NEXT L 


E ANOTHER RUN" 


1300 D*=LEFT*(A*,L)+CHR*(13)+CHR 


740 PRINT"TYPE Y(YES) OR N(NO>" 


*(9) 


750 Z*=INKEY*:IF Z*=" "THEN 750 


1310 Q*=MID*(Q*,L+1) : IF LN=0 THE 


760 IF Z*<>"Y" THEN 810 


N LN=3 


770 PRINT: PRINT" (S) SAME FILE OR 


1320 E*=E*+D* 


<N)NEW FILE" 


1330 GOTO 1240 


780 F*»INKEY«: IFF*=" "THEN 780 


1340 FOR K=l TO 4 


790 IF F*="S" THEN GOSUB900: SF=0 


1350 AL=LEN (AN* ( I s K) ) 


:GOTO420 


1360 IF AL >30 THEN A(I)=2 


800 IF F*«"N" THEN SF=SF+N:GOTO 


1370 NEXT K 


220 ELSE 780 


1380 RETURN 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 69 




SR-71 

SB-71 is a fast action game In which you are the pilot on a mission to take 
photographs of missile sites in Russia and deliver them to our processing 
laboratory in Japan, So real you will feel as If you are in the cockpit on a real spy 
mission. Elude Russian missiles as well as their detection devices. Another 
Tom Mix exclusive. A must for the adventurous. Fantastic graphics, color and 
sound. 32K Ext. Basic TAPE $28.95 DISK $31.95 



SKRAMBLE 

Your misilon \b to panelrats 
iTie enemy scramble sy-siem find 
deetrpy |!hel T headquarters. You 
ibili start w n tforea of our lalast 
spacer lghie r s equipped with 
repeating ca.nnon and i win 
bomb launchar. 11 you auCcead 
in evading the elaborate ground 
defenses, you will anrl^ at the 
Gsvb wtiern Hying be co rnea 
more difficult. In tne cava afa 
UFOs, altar wtmich you must avoid a hall of malaorltea. Va-y lew pilots 
succeed tnls far, but if you do, ihen you mu^t enter ihe Fortress, lol low- 
ed toy Erie Maze. One or two plays* E^eme. Machine Langnefle, ral □ h speea, 
Arcania action. Full color graphics vt~\lf\ sound. Keyboard DTjflymich cnn- 
trol. 

16* MACHINE LANGUAGE TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.95 




GRABBER 

A pac type game. Two complete mazes 
jump from one to the other. Probably the 
most outstanding sound you have ever 
heard. Arcade Action. Method of play, you 
are the Grabber. The object Is to grab the 8 
treasures and store them in the center 
boxes. You start with 3 Grabbers and get 
extra ones at 20,000 points. Watch out for 
the googiies! Super high resolution 
graphics. 

32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




CUMBER 



Approaches the excitement and challenges 
ot any Video Arcade. The hazards of 
CU*BER are many. Help CU*BER 
change the colors on the pyramid while 
avoiding many of the dangers always pre- 
sent. Vipers, the Nurd, the Dork, bonus 
points all add up to another exciting 
release from Tom Mix Software. 

32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




AIR TRAFFIC 
CONTROLLER 

Air Traffic Controller is a computer 
model of an air traffic control situation 
for the TRS-80 Color Computer. Remote- 
ly Piloted Vehicles (RPV's) are operated 
by the controller in a situation similar to 
that of a commercial airline in that you 
must regulate landings and takeoffs of 
the vehicles. 

32K EXT. BASIC 
TAPE $28.95 DISK $31.95 



KATER PILLAR II 

The color computer has needed a 
perfect centipede type game since 
day one. You will throw all imita- 
tions aside when you see this. So 
close to the arcade you will start 
digging for quarters. Grapic to equal 
"The King" and "Buzzard Bait." 
Joysticks required. 

16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.95 




TRAPFALL 

The "Pitfalls" in this game are 
many. Hidden treasures, jump over 
the pits, swing on the vine, watch 
out for alligators, beware of the 
scorpion. Another game for the Col- 
or Computer with the same high 
resolution graphics as "The King." 
16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




******** **m$i 

_j* - 

m 

rm m 

m 

im tm 




WW Tmmm 



Mi 



FANGMAN 

Fangman is a high-resolution graphics arcade- 
type game based on the Dracula legend. Plot 
of Game: You're Dracula in your castle, stalk- 
ing through a labrynth of passages in search 
of invading villagers seeking to destroy you 
by blocking your every path with deadly 
crosses. Their ally the Sun also wanders your 
halls, trying to touch you and turn you to bones 
and dust. Fortunately, you have allies of your 
own, the vampire bats who cahse down the 
villagers, holding them till you arive. Joysticks 
required. 16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.95 



BUZZARD BAIT 

We've done it again. You thought The King 
was great? Wait til you see thist! Outstanding 
high resolution graphics, tremendous sound 
make this "joust" type game a must for your 
software collection. As you fly from cloud to 
cloud you will enjoy sky high excitement deal- 
ing with the challenges presented to you by 
this newest release by Tom Mix Software. 
Joysticks required. 

32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE Prints contents of your graphic screen to an 
Epson, Microline or Radio Shack DMP Printers. Prints positive or reverse 
format. Horizontal or vertical, small and large printout. Print left, right or 
center of page. Specify printer when ordering. TAPE $19.95 DISK $21.95 
TAPE TO DISK New version works on both 1.0 and 1.1 DOS. Load the 
contents of most tape to disk automatically. Machine Language 
TAPE $17.95 DISK $21.95 



UTILITIES 



COLOR MONITOR Written in position independent code. (May be 
located In any free memory). Very compact. Only occupies 1 174 bytes of 
memory. Full featured, includes Break-Pointing of machine language 
programs, register display and modify, memory display and modify, and 
block memory move commands. Displays memory in hex and ascfi for- 
mat on one line 8 bytes long. Machine Language 
TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.95 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

4285 BRADFORD N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 



•ADD $2.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING'TOP ROYALTIES PAID 

•MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX* 
, LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE . 

gffl ARCADE ACTION GAMES Eg 

(616) 957-0444 



Tom Mix Software Now Offers 



The Complete VIP Library System 



VIP Writer" 

RATED TOPS IN RAINBOW, HOT 
COCO, COLOR COMPUTER 
MAGAZINE & COLOR COM- 
PUTER WEEKLY 
32K (Comes with tape & disk) 
$59.95 (Includes VIP Speller) 

VIP Spellei™ 

WITH A 60,000 WORD INDEXED 
DICTIONARY! It can be used to 
correct any ASCII file— including 
VIP Library™ files and files from 
Scripsit™ and Telewriter™. 32K 
DISK ONLY $39.95 



VIP CalCTM 

You can forget the other toy 
calcs^— The real thing is here! No 
other spreadsheet for the Color 
Computer gives you so many 
features! 32K (Comes with tape & 
disk) $59.95 32K does have hi-res 
displays, sort or edit. 

VIP Terminal™ 

RATED BEST IN JANUARY 1984 
"RAINBOW" Choice of 8 hi-res 
lowercase displays * Memory- 
Sense with BANK SWITCHING for 
full use of workspace. 32K (Comes 



VIP 

LIBRARY 



with tape & disk) $49.95 (Tape 
comes in 16K but without hi-res 
displays) 

VIP Database™ 
INCLUDES MAIL MERGE 
CAPABILITIES TOO! 32K DISK 

$59.95 64K Required for JTiath 
package & mail merge. 

VIP Disk-ZAPTM 

Repairs crashed disks. 
16K DISK $49.95 Lowercase 
displays not available with this 
program. 




ELECTRON 



Electron is composed of four subgames. You must complete one level In order to ad- 
vance to the next. Supplied with four men, you are subjected to more difficult games 
as you move ahead. Beam Buggy, Prachnids, Force Fields and a Mazel 
JOYSTICKS REQUIRED, 16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.93 




THE KING 



This game contains all 4 full graphic screens like the popular arcade game. Exciting 
sound and realistic graphics. Never before has the color computer seen a game like 
this. Early reviews say simply outstanding. JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 
32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $26.95 DISK $29.95 




THE FROG 

This one will give you hours of exciting play. 
Cross the busy highway to the safety of the 
median and rest awhile before you set out 
across the swollen river teaming with hidden 
hazards. Outstanding sound and graphics. Piay 
from keyboard or joysticks. 

16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




KING TUT 

Journey through the caverns of King Tut's 
tomb. You are on a quest to find treasures hid- 
den in the cavrns below. You light your way 
with only a small candle that grows dimmer as 
time passes. Watch out for the snakes and the 
ghost of King Tut himself. Five screens 
challenge your abilities every step of the way. 
Joysticks required. 

16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




THE TOUCHSTONE 

You are one of many priests of Ra who has ac- 
cepted the challenge of the touchstone. The 
challenge is a way for any of Ra's followers to 
become a favored high priest. Given limited 
use of Ra's powers, you will battle hidden 
dangers. Entering the mazes, you must be 
ready for anything. 

32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




SPACE SHUTTLE 

This program gives you the real feel- 
ing of flight. Full instrumentation 
complete to the max. Radar, 
altimeter, air speed, artificial 
horizon, fuel gauge, a mission 
status panel and much more. Actual 
simulation of space flight, weather 
conditions must be considered. 

JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 

32K EXTENDED BASIC 

TAPE $28.95 DISK $31 .95 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

4285 BRADFORD N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 

•ADD $2.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING'TOP ROYALTIES PAID* 

•MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX* 

LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE . . 

R3 ARCADE ACTION GAMES MM 

(616) 957-0444 






DRACONIAN 

You brace yourself as your ship materializes in the enemy 
sector. Your engine roars to life, and you consult the long- 
range scanner for the position of the nearest enemy base. As 
you head for the base, blasting asteroids and space-mines in 
your path, you suddenly notice a monstrous space-dragon 
looming before you. Reacting quickly, you dodge his deadly 
fire-breath and blast him out of existence. 

Finally, the enemy base comes into view. Avoiding the 
enemy fire, you destroy the gun turrets one by one with your 
rapid-fire torpedoes. Then, with the explosions still echoing 
around you, you rescue the astronaut who was being held 
prisoner by the enemy. Your mission is far from over, however, 
as there are more bases to destroy and more astronauts to 
rescue before the sector will be secured. And all must be done 
quickly; if you are too slow, the invincible DRACONIAN will 
surely seek you out as its next victim. 

This is it — the single most impressive, awe-inspiring arcade 
game you can buy for your Color Computer. High-resolution 
graphics, awesome sound effects, four-voice music, and quali- 
ty you have to see to believe! Experience the realism of 
DRACONIAN today! 

JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 
32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27,95 DISK $30.95 






CRASH 



This game is a high resolution Machine 
Language program with outstanding Arcade 
type graphics. The game consists of 4 
screens. Fly the airplane over and through 
obstacles. Piloted by "Mario" who also ap- 
peard in "The King". The object is to conquer 
orie screen after another but don't "Crash", 
Great fun for the whole family. For 1 or 2 
players. Uses joysticks. 

32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.95 



CHAMBERS 

Exciting high resolution graphics gams. Multi- 
ple screens. Outstanding sound, Chambers 
is loosely based on Cosmic Chasm. The ob- 
ject in each level is to destroy all of the evil 
creatures in each room and then go into the 
main reactor room and blow up the base. 
JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 
32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.95 




Nil* i#Ff&f v . 



^ — " — 

.. : ,"■! i :• rjYi 








! 


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WAREHOUSE 
MUTANTS 

Journey through the warehouse seek- 
ing out the Mutants who are out to 
destroy you. WATCH OUT! They will 
push crates trying to crush you I 
Outstanding realism— high resolu- 
tion graphics— multiple screens. 
JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 

16K MACH. LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 
DISK $27.95 



QUIX 

This one is after a popular ar- 
cade game with a similar name. 
Simply frustrating— you'll love 
It. Done in high resolution 
graphics with Super Sound. 

JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 

32K MACH. LANGUAGE 

TAPE $24.95 

DISK $27.95 




MS. MAZE 

MS. MAZE is remarkable in that it combines 
brilliant color, high resolution, detailed 
graphics, add music with a very playable 
game. Anything that could be done to make 
the Color Computer look and play like the ar- 
cade version has been done. MS. MAZE is 
without question the closest thing to the ar- 
cade Pac games that I have seen for the Coco. 
JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 
32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.95 



PAK-PANIC 

Pakman is steered thru a maze eating dots 
and powerpiils. Pakman is pursued by four 
monsters who try to catch and kill him. If 
Pakman eats a powerpill he becomes power- 
ful and can eat monsters. Monsters try to 
avoid a powerful Pakman. As monsters are 
eaten their ghosts appear on the top of the 
screen. When seven ghosts have appeared 
one will fly across the screen or they will link 
together forming a centipede that wit! travel 
thru the maze. Pakman has no power against 
ghosts and centipedes and must avoid them 
or be killed. JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 
32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.95 




PAK TWINS BOTH MS. MAZE & PAK PANIC FOR ONLY 



44.90 TAPE 
50.90 DISK 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

4285 BRADFORD N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 



•ADD $2.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING-TOP ROYALTIES PAID* 
•MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX* 

LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE . . 

ARCADE ACTION GAMES 

(616) 957-0444 



EDUCATIONAL 

VOCABULARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

16K Extended baslc/32K for printer output TAPE $39.95 DISK $42.95 

The Vocabulary Management System (VMS) is a series of programs designed to aid a parent or teacher in help- 
ing children to learn and practice using vocabulary and spelling words. The 9 programs that comprise the VMS in- 
clude a full feature data entry/edit program, three printer output programs and 5 vocabulary/spelling game pro- 
grams. The system's many outstanding features include: 



-As many as 300 vocabulary words 

and definitions may be in 

the computer's memory at one time. 
-Words and definitions may be 

saved on disk or tape. 
-Remarks and/or comments can 

be saved with word files. 
-A disk loading menu allows 

students to load disk files without 

typing file names. 



—Word lists may be quickly alphabetized 
—The three printer segments allow 

you to create and print Individualized 

tests, puzzles, word-searches and 

worksheets. 
—Answer keys may be printed 

for all worksheets and puzzles. 



—The printer segments allow 
fuli use of your printer's 
special features. 

—The 5 game programs are based 
on sound educational principles 
and provide practice In identifying 
words and matching them with 
their definitions in a fast-paced 
set of activities. 



STORY PROBLEMS 



STORY PROBLEMS is a program that is designed to give practice in 
solving story problems (sometimes caiied statement thought or word 
problems) on the Coior Computer, it is suitable for use in either a home 
or school environment, it is also a tool that will allow you to create new 
story problems to suit your children's needs and ability levels. It has 



many features that make it particularly attractive: 

• Story problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, divi- 
sion or a combination of the four are presented to the student by 
slowly scrolling each letter of each problem onto the screen. 

• Up to 5 students may use the program at the same time. 

• There are 4, user modifiable, skill levels. 

16K EXT, BASIC TAPE $19.95 DISK $22.95 



MATH DRILL 

MATH DRILL is a program designed to help children to practice addi- 
tion, subtraction, multiplication and division skills on the Coior Com- 
puter. It has several features that make Its use particularly attractive; 

• Up to 6 students may use the program at the same time. 

• Answers for addition, subtraction and multiplication are entered 
from right to left, Just as they are written on paper. 

• Commas may be included in the answers. 

• Partial products for the multiplication problems may be computed 
on the screen. 

• Division answers that have a remainder are entered as a whole 
number followed by the letter "R" and the remainder. 

• The are ten, user modifiable, skill levels. 

• A "SMILEY FACE" Is used for motivation and reward. Its size In- 
creases relative to the skill level. 

• Skill levels automatically adjust to the student's ability. 

• A timer measures the time used to answer each problem and the 
total time used for a series of problems. 

• After a problem has been answered Incorrectly the correct answer 
appears under (above in division) the incorrect answer. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC 
TAPE $19.95 DISK $22.95 



ESTIMATE 

ESTIMATE is a program designed to help children to practice estimating 
the answers to addition, subtraction, multiplication and division pro- 
blems on the Color Computer. It has many features that make its use 
particularly attractive: 

• Up to 5 students may use the program at the same time. 

• There are 5, user modifiable, skill levels. 

• The acceptable percent error may be changed as a student's skill Im- 
proves. 

• A timer measures the number of seconds used to answer each pro- 
blem and the total time used for a series of problems. 

• If a problem has been answered Incorrectly, the student is told the 
percent error and asked to try again. 

• if a problem is answered incorrectly a second time, the student is 
told the correct answer and the range of acceptable answers is 
displayed. 

• A report Is given at the end of each set of problems that includes the 
number of problems done, the number of problems answered cor- 
rectly on the first try and the average percent error. 

• The (BREAK) key has been disabled so that a child will not In- 
advertently stop The program from running. Kj& 

REQURIES 16K EXT. BASIC 
TAPE $19.95 DISK $22.95 



TEACHER'S DATABASE 

TEACHER'S DATABASE Is a program designed to allow a teacher to 
keep a computerized file of information about his/her students. There 
are many features that make this program particularly attractive: 

• Information on as many as 100 students (or more) may be in the com- 
puter at one time. 

• Each student may have as many as 20 (or more) individual items of 
data In his/her record. 

• The program will run from cassette or disk. 

• Cassette and disk files are completely compatible. 

• The program is menu drlvsn. 

• Records may be easily changed, deleted, combined or added. 

• Information about students may be numerical or text. 

• Records may be quickly alphabetized. 

• Records may be sorted by various criteria. 

• Records may be reordered (ranked) based on test scores or other 
data. 

• Data displayed during a sort may be printed on a printer or saved on 
disk or cassette as a new fife. 

• A fuli statistical analysis of data may be done and sent to the printer. 

• Student test scores may be weighted. 

REQURES 32K EXT. BASIC 
TAPE $39.95 DISK $42.95 



PRE-ALGEBRA I INTEGERS 

INTEGERS is a series of four programs designed to give students prac- 
tice In working with addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and 
the comparison of integers. It has many features that make a very 
valuable tool for introducing and/or maintaining skills: 

• Up to 4 students may use the program at the same time. 

• Tnere are 9, user modifiable, skill levels. 

• Students are given two opportunities to answer a problem. 

• A detailed report of student performance, including number correct 
on first try, number wrong, total time used and percentage score, is 

Presented at the end of a series of problems, 
he programs will run on a 16K TRS-80 Color Computer with or 
without disk drive. 

Four distinct problem formats are presented. The first presents pro- 
blems In this format: - 12 + ~9 = ?. The second program presents a 
problem with missing numerals in this format: -7 - ? = 18. The third 
program presents a problem with a missing sign: 8 - ?6 = 14. The last 
program asks the student to determine the relationship (=, or ) bet- 
ween two statments 3-9 (??) -4-5. 



TAPE $29.95 



DISK $32.95 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

4285 BRADFORD N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 



•ADD $2.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING'TOP ROYALTIES PAID* 
•MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX» 
. LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE . . 

HI ARCADE ACTION GAMES M±m\ 

| M " I (616) 957-0444 






MMsk^ ■ ' ■ ' \ ' * • •'■• • >" " 




PART III 



Having built the utensils, we now 
start on the recipe to enhance 
CoCo's Disk Operating System. 



W! 



By Colin J, Stearman 

Editor's Note: 

Due to the considerable interest in this article from users 
of the new Disk BASIC Ll 9 Colin Stearman has done some 
more "cooking" and has come up with the patch addresses 
needed. You will find this month's listing indicates the lines 
which are unique to each revision. The actual assembly 
shown is for version 1.0, so if you have LI your assembly 
will look a little different. Next month, the author will 
explain the differences for you LI owners. (This month's 
RAINBOW ON TAPE has the patch programs for both LO and 
LL) 

A lso t the patched "DIR "command as it stands at the end 
of this month's revision will give some "garbage" on the 
screen. This is normal and the real file creation date will 
appear after Part 5 of this series. 



e are now at the point where we can start in 
earnest modifying CoCo's disk operating system 
(DOS). We have the capability of saving to disk 
and reloading a modified DOS (on a 64K CoCo) and we can 
also save it in an EPROM. Starting this month and for the 
remainder of this series, I will be presenting an assembly 
language program to modify or "patch" the DOS to add the 
desired features described earlier. 

The Ground Rules 

Before 1 start on this month's details I think we had better 
discuss the rules for building each layer of the assembly 
language "cake." This may be a little tedious but if we all 
understand the approach now, it'll stop problems from 
cropping up later. 

At the end of the series you will have a complete patch 
program called DOSPA TCH which will add all the com- 
mands and functions. This program generates a binary file 
which overlays Disk BASIC, modifying what is already there 
and adding new code. This month we will develop the foun- 
dation of this program and each month add a new section 
until it is complete. Each month you will be able to assemble 
the composition so far and use it to patch the DOS to check 

(Colin J. Stearman is an electronics engineer educated 
in the V. K. He has worked with all kinds of computers 
and has been a CoCo enthusiast for over two years.) 



74 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



the functions implemented. 

However, it is inevitable that each month we will add 
some code which is not fully functional because it requires 
code not destined to be added until a future installment. 
When this happens we will use a technique called "comment- 
ing out," which makes a "comment" of the line of code which 
cannot yet be made functional. Then later, when the 
required code is there, we can remove the comment and 
reassemble to fu\\y activate the feature. In assembly lan- 
guage an asterisk at the start of the line signifies a comment 
line and the assembler simply ignores the entire line, no 
matter what its contents. 

As you look through Listing 1 you will see lines marked 
with a reference number in square brackets (for example, 
[REF 12]), Later in the series we will make some modifica- 
tion to the associated line (most likely remove the asterisk) 
and I will refer to it by the reference number. 

So the best approach is to use your editor to enter the 
listing exactly as shown. Then each month add the new 
listing to it, modify the reference lines as described in the text 
of the article, and reassemble. 

The Parallel Port 

A final "housekeeping" note before we begin. In a later 
installment I will be describing a "Centronics" parallel 
printer port. This month's code contains lines for this pur- 
pose. My assembler (MACRO by Computerware) allows 
conditional assembly. This simply means that I can control 
which lines get assembled and which do not. I use this 
feature to control the assembly of all the code associated 
with the parallel port. You will notice a section of code 
bounded by the following assembler directive lines: 

IFDF PARPRT 



(lines of code) 
ENDC 

This simply means that if a label called PARPRT has 
been defined, then assemble all the bounded lines; other- 
wise, do not. At the very beginning of the listing the variable 
PARPRTis equated to one, thus defining it and causing the 
lines to be assembled . If this line were "commented out," the 
label would not be defined and the lines would not be 
assembled. If your assembler does not have this feature and 
you will be building the parallel port, type in the bounded 
lines of code and leave out the"IFDF"and "ENDClines. If 
you do not intend building it, leave the whole lot out. 

Enough of all this mundane detail and on to the assembly 
language program. 

A Strong Foundation 

Listing I is the base we will build on over the months. It 
consists of these primary parts: 

1) Equates to memory locations and BASIC routines 

2) Overlay lines to "hook in" the new code 

3) Revisions to existing commands 

4) New commands and functions look-up table 

5) Installation code for the new commands 

6) Parallel port initialization 

7) Automatic file startup 

8) Dummy commands and functions 



Overlays 

By using the ORG (origin) statement in this section of the 
code 1 have patched in various jumps and subroutine calls 
right into the existing DOS code. This is one of the main 
techniques for modifying existing commands. The call 
jumps to our new code and this usually completes the opera- 
tion replaced by the jump code, then performs the revisions 
and returns to the original code. 

You will also notice two small patches to DSKIS and 
DSKO$. These allow a track value up to 40 instead of 35, for 
use with the revised functions below. 

Revisions to Existing Commands 

I am sure you have encountered the "bug" in the 
PCLEAR command when used in a program. Maybe you 
have not come across a similar one in the FILES command. 
Each stem from the same type of error. Both commands 
have to relocate the BASIC program in memory but they 
forget to update the parse pointer so that BASIC can continue 
interpreting your program. The parse pointer points to the 
next item in your program to be interpreted by BASIC. 

The revised code for these functions partly replaces the 
original code, duplicating much of it. At the crucial point the 
new pointer is calculated and stored at $A6. Then the old 
code is used to complete the command. As an added bonus, 
the revisions to PCLEAR allow values of up to 1 6 instead of 
the customary eight. No changes have been made to the 
operation of FILES command. 

OPEN 

The five lines at the label FILDA T complete what was 
happening before the jump and then add the value in the 
DATES variable to the directory entry. This results in a 
creation date being stored in the directory every time a new 
file is created. The date is stored in the first two bytes of the 
directory entry reserved for future use by Radio Shack. 
These are bytes 16 and 17, counting from zero. The date is 
compressed into two bytes by a particular coding method as 
follows: 

! FIRST BYTE ! SECOND BYTE ! 
0123456701234567 
!<— YEAR — >!<MONTH>!<-DAY->! 



The year value is stored as the last two digits only. Besides 
the obvious advantage of saving storage space, this com- 
pression technique allows the resulting 16-bit word to be 
sorted correctly, if this is desired. 

When the directory command revisions are complete, the 
directory will show the creation date along with the usual 
information. It is very useful to know when a file was 
created, especially if you have the same file on another disk. 
Which is the most recent? This modification will tell you. 

DIR 

There are two revisions to this command. First, the crea- 
tion date of each file is now displayed and second, the listing 
pauses after each screen is full, giving time to read it. 

The date is displayed as MM/DD/YY as part of the 
directory line. At this time the date will not be displayed 
correctly because of a missing subroutine called DATOUT 
The call to it has been commented out in line [REF 5]. 

When the screen is full the display will halt and wait for 
any key press. All keys will continue the display, except 

September 1984 THE RAINBOW 75 



BREAK, which will terminate the command immediately. 
The pause will only occur if the output is to the screen. The 
new LDIR command (described in a future installment) uses 
the DIR command but redirects it to the printer. As a result, 
no pause occurs. 

DSKINI 

Many of you have disk drives capable of accessing 40 
tracks. Even the 35-track Radio Shack drives can usually 
access 37 tracks. Although the DOS cannot use the tracks 
above 35, basic could make use of them via the DSKI$ and 
DSKOS commands (suitably modified, of course). 

However, to do this, the extra tracks must be formatted 
and thus the revisions to DSKINI. The syntax of the com- 
mand is now: 

DSKINI drive, number of tracks, skip factor 

"Drive" is the drive number as usual. "Number of tracks" 
is any value from 35 to 40. If no value is given, 35 is assumed. 
"Skip factor" is as described in the DOS manual. If omitted, 
a skip factor of four is used. Because of the slight revision to 
this command, if you specify a skip factor you must also 
specify the number of tracks. 

Some acceptable calls include: 



DSKINI 1 — A normal initialization 

DSK1N10,37 —Initialize 37 tracks with skip = 4 
DSK1NI3,40,2 —Initialize 40 tracks with skip = 2 

BACKUP 

Similarly, the BACKUP command has been modified to 
include any of the additional tracks from 36 to 40. The new 
syntax is: 

BACKUP source drive [TO destination drive], [tracks] 

Therefore, acceptable commands include: 

BACKUPO — backup to a second disk in 0, 35 

tracks 

BACKUP0,40 -ditto, but all 40 tracks 
BACKUP1TOO,37 — backup disk in 1 to disk in 
0, 37 tracks 

The only requirement for backing up more than 35 tracks 
is that both disks be previously initialized for at least the 
number of tracks specified in the command. 

KILL 

The final command revision is to the file KILL command. 
If this is issued as a direct command then CoCo will check 
that you are sure you wish to erase it. An uppercase 'Y * is the 
only response which will result in the file being deleted. All 
others will cancel the kill. If the disk should have a write 
protect tab on it, this command will indicate the file was 
deleted and then return a "Write Protected" error (?WP). 
The file will still be there. 

If the KILL command is used from within a BASIC pro- 
gram then no verification is performed. The assumption is 
that you have thoroughly debugged your program first! 

New Commands and Functions 

Next comes the command table and its dispatch address 



table. You will find all the new commands here. These tables 
are in standard basic format with the last character of each 
command having bit seven set to indicate its end. It is 
important that the order of the command words and the 
dispatch table be the same, otherwise you will issue one 
command and get another! The first command (COLD) is 
tokenized as $E1 with the remainder sequentially from 
there. The PARALLEL command is last because some of 
you will not need it and this keeps the tokens for all other 
commands consistent. 

Immediately following the command tables are those for 
the new functions. These start at $A8 and when tokenized 
are preceded by $FF. 

Because all the new functions and commands are estab- 
lished here but the code has not yet been implemented, I 
have put dummy calls at the end of the listing for each. As a 
result, BASIC will accept the new words but do nothing. This 
way you can check the operation of the tables and installing 
code. When each function is added, these dummy calls will 
be deleted. 

Installation Code 

The section of code starting at the label ADDCOM is run 
whenever the CoCo does a cold start (described in a future 
installment). This code sets up a table in low memory which 
is used to search for each basic command and function as 
the interpreter encounters them. Microsoft (who wrote this 
basic) kindly set things up so one more table can be added 
above and beyond the Disk basic commands. 

At the end of this section is a revision to the "hook" in 
memory which gets taken when an error is encountered. For 
now this revision has been "commented out," but later it will 
allow us to both trap errors and prevent BASIC from halting 
program execution and also return more meaningful error 
messages. 

Parallel Port Initialization 

Continuing the code, which is executed during a cold 
start, we encounter the parallel port "hook" patch and the 
initialization routine for the new peripheral interface adap- 
ter (PIA) which will run it. If you are not going to use the 
parallel port, leave this entire section out. 

Auto File Execution 

Just prior to this, I have put a small reminder indicating 
who brought you these useful revisions. Then comes a fea- 
ture which is more powerful than you might at first imagine. 

Before completing start-up and giving you the OK 
prompt, the revised BASIC tries to find and run a BASIC file 
called A UTOEXECBAS on drive 0. If successful, this pro- 
gram is automatically run. If a disk is present but with no 
such file on it, then an NF Error is returned. If no disk is in 
the drive then an I/O Error results. 

The power of this feature lies in the fact that you write the 
AUTOEXEC BAS file and you can put in it anything you 
want. For example, it could simply be line calling for the 
running of some other program on the disk. Or perhaps an 
automatic backup scheme. Listing 2 is designed to request 
the date and store it in the new memory location for this 
purpose. 1 suggest that at the very least you have such a file 
on your disks. 

The power up sequence I have used successfully is: 

1) Power up the video monitor 

2) Power the Multi-Pak Interface, if you have one 



76 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



3) Then switch on each disk drive 

4) Load the disk with the A UTOEXECBAS file in 
drive 0 

5) Power up CoCo 

I have used this hundreds of times with no problem. After 
a few seconds the banner will display and drive 0 will turn 
on. If the file exists it will automatically run. 

Now you can get your favorite program running without 
even touching the keyboard! 

The Final Odds and Ends 

The code at COMCOD and FUNCOD is executed during 
BASIC interpretation to get the address of the code needed to 
execute the command or function. Then immediately fol- 
lowing you will see the dummy calls mentioned earlier. 

Testing The Program 

64K COMPUTER OWNERS 

Testing is very easy for these people. If you did as I 
suggested last month, you should have a bootable disk with 
unmodified disk BASIC on it. If so, load it and start. 

Once you have BASIC running in the all RAM mode, the 
procedure is to disable the interrupts, then overlay the patch 
file and cold start the new BASIC As all interrupts are 
generated through one of the PIAs, they can be simply 
disabled by disabling the PI A. The steps are as follows, once 
the all RAM BASIC is running. 

1) POKE &HFF03,&H34: , stop interrupts 

2) LOADM"DOSPATCH":POKE&H71,0: 



EXEC&HA027 

These two lines should be entered as direct commands to 
BASIC. When complete, a new start-up banner with the 
revisions copyright notice should be displayed. You should 
now be able to test all the revised commands implemented so 
far. Also, all the new commands and functions should be 
acceptable to BASIC (no SN Error), but of course, they will 
do nothing. 

You could save the revised DOS back to disk, but I 
recommend you save this until all revisions are completed. 

NON-64K COMPUTER OWNERS 

For you the testing is a little more difficult. We really do 
not want to go replacing the DOS ROM (Read only 
memory) in the disk controller cartridge quite yet. We can 
however, put the revised code in an EPROM and load it into 
the socket on the EPROM programmer addressed at $C000. 

If you have the Multi-Pak Interface you can fully test the 
result; if not, then basic functionality can be tested by plug- 
ging the EPROM programmer with programmed EPROM 
inserted into the expansion socket and then trying the com- 
mands. Of course, those accessing the disk drives will not 
work because the controller is not plugged in. 

Without the Multi-Pak 

From last month, you should already have Disk BASIC 
saved on tape under filename DBASIC. With the disk sys- 
tem operational, do this: 

CLEAR 200,&H3FFF 




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PARTS LIST 
Ul SN74LSQ4 PIN 1 0V, 14 + 5V 

RELAY RADIO SHACK #275-215 
LED RADIO SHACK #276-041 
PROGRAMMING SOCKET Zero 

Insertion Force Type 
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ZENER gl 9.1V RS #27 6-56 2 
ZEHER #2 12V RS #276-563 



(Drawn with GRAPH icom 



CDJLDJR COMPUTER 

EPRCH PRQgRftHHER 



FIGURE 1 



Ca I in 5. 



Editors Note: 

Because of an error in production, two figures were left 
out of the last installment of "Cooking With CoCo. "Here 
they are. 



?4LS04 



: Q H HECT Q P H U H B E R I H i: 



78 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



CLOADM"DBASIC",&H4000-&HC000+65536 

LOADM"DOSPATCH",&H4000-&HC000+65536 

CSAVEM"DBASIC#r\&H4000,&H5FFF,&HA027 

Then power down, plug in the EPROM programmer, and 
do this: 

CLEAR 200,&H3FFF 
CLOADM"DBASIC#l" 
CLOADNTEPROM" 
EXEC 

Then transfer the memory contents from $4000 to S5FFF 
to a completely erased EPROM. 

With Multi-Pak 

Program the EPROM following the steps given last 
month under the subtitle "Using the Programmer with the 
Disk," but just before doing the EXEC, enter: 

LOADM"DOSPATCH , \&H4000-&HC000+65536 

To test, use the procedure in the same section. But after 
doing the POKE65407J also enter POKE&H71,0 and 
EXEC&HA027. This will cold start the new system and 
allow you to see the automatic file execution feature. 

Next Month 

We will fill in some of the code for those commands and 
functions we just added. Also we will add FLEXIKEY. This 



is a keyboard utility which is so useful (even though I say it 
myself!) that you'll wonder how you ever survived without 
it! 

Finally, if you would like the entire DOS PATCH pro- 
gram source (with all future installments), along with binary 
files with and without the parallel port driver, just send me a 
disk (no cassettes please) along with $6 and a stamped, 
addressed disk mailer. 1 will load the disk and return it to 
you promptly. 

Address this request or any questions to Colin Stearman, 
143 Ash Street, Hopkinton, MA 01748. 

Looking forward to your company next month. 
Listing 1: 

DOSPATCH - PATCHMI1 OPT MlPUTERHARE MACRO ASSEMBLER PAGE 1 

Pitch to RSDOS Wf2tffttiiH**t#tttHMOT*l* 3. (0 1984 C.J.STEARttAN 
Mil M03 REV ECU f 

1014 t Set REV > 0 for DOS l.f, =1 for DOS 1.1 

10*5 MmtmiMmtmmmmttttitttmttMttM 

0006 I RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTER DOS i 

0007 * IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS « 
000B t i 

0009 * (01984 COLIN J. STEARMAN t 

0010 t«titttitiH»«tittmtffii«««iHtt«ttt»itiffit«i 

0011 t Patch II 

0012 OPT N06 

0013 ttmttttmittmit 

1014 i COMMENT OUT THE NEXT LINE FOR A SERIAL PORT VERSION 
0013 t (Control i conditional isieibly) 
0001 0014 PARPRT EDO 1 

0017 tttttmmmmm 

0018 ttttDOS 1.0 PATCH ADDRESSES""*" 
0000 0019 1FEQ REV 

C028 0020 A001 ECU «C02B 

C0D1 0021 A0001 EflU IC0D1 

C108 0022 A0002 EQU $009 



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September 1984 THE RAINBOW 79 



CUB 


1123 A#M3 


ECU 


IC118 


M6B A0M5 


EBU 


IC190 


C124 


M24 AM 14 


EBU 


♦CI 24 


•IIS IJIII 

H4t A00I6 


EflU 


$C39D 


C17D 


1123 AMI5 


EQU 


IC17D 


§97§ AMI7 


EBU 


tr*i9 


C57I 


If 24 AMU 


EflU 


IC57B 


1171 AIIIB 


EBU 


irmr 

fLDBL 


C573 


1127 Afff7 


EQU 


$C575 


M72 AIIIt 


EQU 


trior 


C58F 


ff2fl AllfB 


EBU 


$C58F 


•173 AM 11 


EQU 


$C6E3 


CA5F 


•129 Afff9 


EQU 


IC45F 


••74 AM11 


EQU 


IC4FB 


C6B8 


1131 Afflf 


EBU 


$C6BB 


1171 ii|(fi 

M75 AM 12 


EflU 


$CAFC 


C6CB 


If 31 Affll 


EQU 


IC6CB 


••76 AM13 


EflU 


ICA3E 


C6CF 


•#32 AMI 2 


E(IU 


ICiCF 


M77 AMI 4 


EQU 


$CAE9 


cw# 


#IJJ Ml J J 


EBU 


IC99I 


■•70 All 14 




•CC1C 


CA3B 


M34 AMM 


EBU 


$CA3B 


1170 A11U 

win nvwlo 


con 




CB4A 


••35 AMIS 


EflU 


ICB4A 


•IB! AVI 1 7 


EflU 


tCCAF 


CBCF 


••36 AMU 


EflU 


ICBCF 


1181 AII18 


EBU 


ICD00 


CBDS 


••37 AMI 7 


EflU 


$CBD5 


MB2 AM19 


EflU 


ICD1B 


CC2A 


M3B AM IB 


EflU 


$CC26 


M83 AM193 EBU 


9CD1E 


CC41 


••39 AM 19 


EBU 


$CC41 


MB4 AM2I 


EflU 


ICF0A 


CC44 


1041 AMI 95 


EBU 


ICC44 


0185 AM21 


EBU 


ICFC1 


CE2E 


••41 AM2# 


EflU 


ICE2E 


MB6 AM22 


EQU 


ID236 


CEE5 


M42 AM21 


EflU 


ICEE5 


MB7 AM23 


EflU 


$D26F 


DU9 


••43 AM22 


EQU 


ID169 


00B6 AM24 


EflU 


ID27B 


D1B2 


M44 AM23 


EBU 


$DIB2 


0069 A0025 


EBU 


ID29C 


D1BE 


••45 AM24 


EQU 


$D18E 


0090 AM26 


EQU 


$D2D2 


D1AF 


•144 AM23 


EflU 


•D)AF 


••91 AM27 


EQU 


in*ti 


DIES 


••47 AM2& 


EQU 


$D1E5 


0092 A002B 


EQU 


ID599 


D444 


#048 AM27 


EQU 


$D446 


0093 A0029 


EflU 


ID5A0 


D4AB 


••49 AM2B 


EQU 


ID4AB 


0094 A0030 


EQU 


$D65E 


S4B2 


M3f AM29 


EBU 


$D4B2 


0095 A0031 


EBU 


ID681 


D371 


M51 AM3I 


EflU 


ID371 


0096 A0032 


EBU 


ID741 


9594 


••52 AM31 


EBU 


$D594 


0097 A0033 


EflU 


$D7C8 


D&7I 


••33 AII32 


EQU 


ID67I 


009B A0034 


EBU 


IDB14 


D6CD 


••34 AM33 


EQU 


$D6CD 


0099 A0033 


EflU 


IDBD0 


D723 


••33 AM34 


EQU 


$D723 


0100 HI TOM EBU 


tEl 


D7DD 


••36 AM35 


EQU 


tKtntt 
IV/ vu 


0101 » Highlit coiiand 


ffEf 


M57 HITQKN EflU 


IEI 


0102 


ENDC 





0038 t Highest comnd token in DOS 1.0 
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•IDA 
•280 
01D7 
•1D8 
•1D9 
•893 

0096 

•1D1 
• 1D3 
•1D3 



•149 
•MA 
•ME 



Ci70 
C17D •• 



Pl#3 tmmmffttftmt 
0104 t 

•105 CHRVCT EDU A0008 
11*6 NT RACK EBU $80 
0107 tttffflHtftHltfftfltf 
010B t USES UNUSED!?) LOW RAH LOCATIONS 



OLD VECTOR JUMP 
USE CASSETTE TEMP STORE 



•109 EL1NE EBU $76 
0110 JUNE EBU $DC 
•111 ECODE EDU I3A 
•112 timtmimtiinifti 
•113 ZERO EBU $BA 
•1M DATA EQU $FF26 
•113 BETKEY EBU $A1B1 
•116 RETURN EBU $B93B 
•117 SPACE EBU AM19 
01 IB CHRQUT EBU $A282 

0119 STROUT EQU $B9A2 

0120 I 

•121 DEVNUff EflU 
•122 HLDBFR EDU 
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• 12B # 

•129 BAUDRT EBU 



$6F 

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LINE t CAUSING ERROR 
LINE TO JUhlP TO ON ERROR 
ERROR CODE 

ZERO CONSTANT 16 BITS 
PIA DATA REGISTER 
BASIC'S CURSOR/KEY ROUTINE 
OUTPUTS A CARRIAGE RETURN 
OUTPUT A SPACE 
OUTPUTS CHARACTER IN A 
BASICS STRINB OUTPUT X POINTS 
TO STRINB, B HAB CHAR COUNT 



$96 



OUTPUT DEVICE NUMBER 
CASSETTE BUFFER FOR HOLD 
BASIC BUFFER 

IN CASSETTE FILE NAME BFR 
DITTO 
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BAUD RATE LOCATION USED AS 
SERIAL/PARALLEL FLAG 

NORHAL SERIAL BAUD RATE LSB 

0130 t NEXT 3 WORDS ARE IN CASSETTE FILE NAME 

0131 LINNUM EBU $1D1 AUTO CURRENT LINE NUMBER 

0132 INCNUK EBU $1D3 AUTO LINE INCREMENT 

0133 LCOUNT EflU $1D3 USED IN DIR DELAY 

0134 i then irt 4 tipty rn locations in tht couand 

0135 tditpitch tibli tiriinitor, they in $M9/4A and 

0136 t $ME/F. 

0137 AUTOFB EBU $149 

•13B INTFLG EBU $MA RAH FLAB FOR REISSUED LINE 

0139 DATUM EflU $14E USES TWO BYTES TO STORE DATE 

0140 t 

•Ml » Thii fiction contiini tht ovtriiyi to pitch in 
•142 t thi him coitsnds, functions ind revisions 

0143 t 

0144 i REMOVE <CR> AFTER BANNER 
0M3 ORG A0003 

•Me FCB 0 

0147 t 

•MB PCLEAR PATCH **•» 



C028 


0149 


ORG A001 


SETS TABLE TO A0020 ORIGINALLY 


C02B CCD7DD 


0130 


LOD IPCLEAR 


REPOINT TO NEW ROUTINE 




0151 f 






0000 


0132 


IFEB REV 


DOS LI 




0153 mt FILES PATCH »»# 




D0E4 


0154 


ORG $D0E4 


PATCH OVER EXISTING CODE 


D0E4 7EDB24 


0155 


JHP FILES 


DO EXTRA CODE 




0156 


ENDC 






0157 t 







015B »» PATCH FOR NEW KEYBOARD ROUTINE m# 



80 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



CUB 



CW1 

C0D1 7ED991 



C124 



CHS 



CBD5 

CBDS BDDB84 
CC26 

CC26 BDD849 



C57» 

C37« 7E083C 



DS71 

0571 ?lfi# 



D594 

0594 9181 



D446 
D446 27 



D4AB 

04AB 16I3DE 



DIB2 

D1B2 7ED8AC 



D1AF 

D1AF 9600 



C6CB 

C6CB 7EDBD4 



D7DD 



1159 ORG A0M2 SETUP FOR JNP AT tUA 

#161 t FDB KEYBRD GOES TO NEW KEYBOARD RTN EREF 1] 

1161 # [REF li Uncontnt whin FLEX IKEY codi ii i nit ill id] 

1162 * DID HAVE AI008, JUHP TO THIS IF DEV CODE 00 

0163 t 

0164 #tt# ADD COMMANDS PATCH tut 



0165 
0166 
0167 • 
016B 
0169 t 



ORG 
JHP 



A0001 

ADDCOtt 



DR6 A0004 

FDB ERCNCL [REF 23 

0170 i [REF 2! Uncoiunt when ERRORS code is instilled] 

0171 tPATCH INTO RUN COWHAND TO CANCEL ERROR JUMP 

0172 *A0004 0RI6INALLY HAD A0013 

0173 •#§§•« 

0174 tPATCH IN FOR AUTO INPUT 

0175 0R6 A0003 

0176 t FDB INPUT [REF 3] 

0177 i [REF 3: Uncontnt (thin AUTO codi is instil lid] 

0178 «A0003 DID HAVE IC6B7 WHICH JUST RETURNED 

0179 mfitmtititfmtmt 

0180 it DO A PAUSE AFTER EACH 15 LINES IN DIR 

0181 ORB A0017 

0182 t INITIALIZE COUNTER 

0183 JSR NOTBRK 

0184 t 

0185 ORG A0018 

0186 t DO PAUSE IN DIR 

0187 JSR LINHLD 
01BB t 

01B9 i 

0190 tlttlMllllttllllttlllllHIitlffll 

0191 # PATCH TO ADO DATE TO FILE WHEN OPENING 

0192 ORG A0006 

0193 JNP FILDAT PUT DATE INTO FILE 

0194 mini 

0195 » PATCH FOR DSKINI EXTRA TRACKS 

0196 IHlflliilitHftHtttti itfH 

ORG A0030 

CHPA < NT RACK 



0197 
0198 
0199 i 
0200 
0201 
0202 « 
0203 



ORG 
C«PA 



A0031 

<NTRACK 



0R6 A0027 



0204 # FIX DSKII/DSKOI TO ALL OH UP TO 40 TRACKS 



TOP TRACK NUMBER 

FIRST LINE OF DSKINI 
SOTO NEW CODE 



BACKUP PATCH 



0205 FCB 39 

0206 i 

0207 ORS A0028 
020B LBRA DSKINI 

0209 t DID HAVE LBEO IA61F 

0210 t 

0211 tPATCH BACKUP 
#212 ORG A0023 

0213 JHP BCKPAT 

0214 i RETURN TO A0024 

0215 t 

0216 t THIS PATCHES BACKUP SYNTAX CHAN6ES 

0217 i MAKE TRACK COUNT A VARIABLE 

0218 ORB A0025 

0219 LDA <NTRACK HAS LDA 123 

0220 i 

0221 i THIS PATCHES KILL TO CHECK FDR ERASING FILE 

0222 0R6 A0011 

0223 JMP KILLCK DO KILL CHECK CODE 

0224 i 

0225 HitiFonoHing pitches set the drive step rite 

0226 *Affect5 ill drives, select rite of slowest drive 

RESTORE step rite 
•20tS{3»30lSll»t2iSl0*6iS 

SEEK step rate 

•20iS;ll7*30iSi$!5*12iSifi4=6iS 

0233 mtt«»mm#»tt**H«tt»»mt»tti»t*tt#»t 

0234 # Pitch code to existing comnds 

0235 * 

0236 • ALL NEH CODE RESIDES IN THE UPPER 

0237 t AREA OF DISK ROM NOT USEO 
023S t BY DISK BASIC, STARTING AT 

0239 # A0035. 

0240 0R6 A0035 

0241 # 

0242 t 

0243 fttfflf#*ii«t«i|#iutif 

0244 « PATCH FIXES THE BUG IN PCLEAR 

0245 t 

0246 t 

0247 * 

024B t DO ROUTINE, FIX IS TO REVISE PARSER POINTER 
0249 t AT *A6 FOR CHANGE IN LOCATION 





0227 t 






D6CD 


022B 


ORG 


A0033 


D6CD 02 


0229 


FCB 


2 




0230 






D723 


0231 


ORG 


A0034 


D723 16 


0232 


FCB 


$16 




32Ktapel21.95 



100% machine language fast action game. As a sol- 
dier/monkey you must save the forest of Ledonia from 
the evil mammoth spiders; avoid' the. failing coconuts, 
save the sacred birds and recover Ledonia s treasure. 
Megamunk has 1 1 different screens with multiple col- 
ors and "four voice' music. A REAL challenge. (Joy- 
stick required). 




ICE SI7.SC 



A numeric keypad for your COCO for only SI 7.95? Im- 
possible? tQKEY js 100% position independent machine 
language software that turns a portion of your keyboard 
into a numeric keypad 10KEY is useful when typing in 
those iong DATA statements with lots of numbers or when- 
entering numeric data with any BASIC program. (Note: 
10KEY does not function with IN KEYS statements); The 
10KEY package contains the following: MOKEY a ma- 
chine language program that loads at .the top. of 16K. 
2.- GEN a program to generate your own custom version 
of 10KEY, 3-DEMO a simple graphing program vvilh 
^which to practice with the 1 OKEY program 

ORDERING INFO 

• Add $2 for shipping and handling 

• Utah residents add 5 75% sales lax 

• We accept checks, money orders, VISA and 
MASTER CHARGE. Order by phone 801-671-5023 
(call 6 30 to 10 pm MOT for technical info ) 

•. We carry many other fine programs, please calf or 
write for our flyer. 



RAINBOW 




1060 Buddlea Drive 
Sandy, Utah 84070 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 81 



DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES O 

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PRICE BREAKTHROUGH 

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Introducing 

MEGADISK 

5 to 20 Megabyte, ready to run on the TRS 
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DRIVE A HARD BARGAIN ™ Complete Systems Starting at $999.95 % 

Call Toll Free Ordering 1- 800-343-8841 





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High Quality Lowest Price 

Drive 0, 1, 2, 3 

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Color Computer 

Starting at $199.95 

SOFTWARE SUPPORT, INC. 



Disk Drive Upgrade 

for model III/IV easy to install system 
Starting at $369^5 
Call for new lower price 



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One Edgell Road, Framingham, MA 01701 (617) 872-9090 

Hours: Mon. thru Fri. 9:30 am to 5:30 (E.S.T.) Sat. 10 am to 4:30 pm 

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Shipping: Please call for amount. 
Not responsible for typographical errors. 



CANADA 
MICRO R.G.S. INC. 

751, CARRE VICTORIA, SUITE 403 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, H2Y 2J3 

Regular Tel. (514) 845-1534 
Canadian Toll Free 800-361-5155 



Service! 



All in stock products are shipped 
within 24 hours of order. 
Repair/Warranty service is perform- 
ed within 24 hours of receipt unless 
otherwise noted. We accept C.O.D., 
foreign and APO orders. School 
and D&B corporate P.O.s accepted. 



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Disk Drives (0123) TRS/80-IBM-Apple - TI Franklin-Max/80-LNW ^ 

Model I/III/IV Upgrade (Disk Drives - Memory) M CA^ L 

Printers — Daisywheel/Dot Matrix ^ 



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Percom Double Density Controller (Model I) 

Color Computer Printer Interfaces „ 

Disk Drive Operating Systems 

Repair Services Now Offered — FAST Turn-a-Round . 

Apple/Franklin Compatible Add-On Drives with Case & Cable 

Diskettes in Library Cases m 

DISK DRIVE CASES AND POWER SUPPLIES * 

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SOFTWARE SUPPORT, INC. 



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One Edgell Road, Framingham, MA 01701 (617) 872-9090 

Hours: Mon. thru Fri. 9;30 am to 5:30 (E.S.T.) Sat. 10 am to 4:30 pm 

Service! 

> DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 
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TERMS: 

M.C./Visa/Amex and personal 
checks accepted at no extra charge. 
C.O.D., please add $3.00. 
Shipping: Please call for amount. 
Not responsible for typographical errors. 



CANADA 
MICRO R.G.S. INC. 

751, CARRE VICTORIA, SUITE 403 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, H2Y 2J3 

Regular Tel. (514) 845-1534 
Canadian Toll Free 800-361-5155 



Service! 



All in stock products are shipped 
within 24 hours of order. 
Repair /Warranty service is perform- 
ed within 24 hours of receipt unless 
otherwise noted. We accept C.O.D., 
foreign and APO orders. School 
and D&B corporate P.O.s accepted. 



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TRS/80 Registered Trademark Tandy Corp. IBM-PC Registered IBM Corp. Apple Registered Trademark App/e Computer Corp. 
Franklin Registered Trademark Franklin Corp. Max/80 Registered Trademark Lobo Int. 

DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES DISK DRIVES 





0250 i OF BASIC 






DB28 8DF1 




B25! t 








D82A 2706 


D7DD BICf 


0232 PCLEAR CMPA 


IIC0 


IS IT PCLEAR? 


D82C ECE4 


D?DF I026F64B 


0253 


LBNE 


A0020 


NO, EXIT TO PREVIOUS HOOK 


DB2E D3A6 


D7E3 9D9F 


0234 


JSR 


I9F 


PAR9E OVER PCLEAR TOKEN 


D830 DDA6 


D7ES mm 


0233 


JSR 


IB70B 


6ET fc EVAL. 1ST AR6. 


DB32 3506 


D7E8 3D 


0236 


TSTB 




IS IT ZERO? 


D834 D319 


D7E9 274E 


0257 


BEQ 


FCERR 


YES, 9D ERROR 


DB36 7ED0E8 


D7EB CUi 


025B 


CHPB 


117 


IT 19 )16? 




D7ED 244A 


0259 


BHS 


FCERR 


YES, ERROR 




D7EF 9616 


0260 


LDA 


16 


MULTIPLY BY 1536U SCREEN) 


0639 7EB44A 


D7F1 3D 


0261 


HUL 




6*236-1536 




D7F2 DBBC 


0262 


ADDB 


•BO 


ADD ID START DF 




D7F4 1F9B 


0263 


TFR 


M 


19RT 8RAPHIC SCREEN 




D7F6 C601 


0264 


LDB 


•i 




D83C B70976 


D7F8 1F02 


0263 


TFR 


D,Y 


COPY THIS*! TO Y 


DB3F A742 


D7FA 1093B7 


0266 


CNPD 


•87 


19 TH19 PAGE RESERVED? 


D841 FC014E 


D7FD 253A 


1267 


BLO 


FCERR 


YES, SO ERROR 


D844 ED43 


D7FF 931? 


0268 


SUBD 


•19 


SUB. START OF BASIC 


D846 7EC575 


DBI1 IFI3 


0269 


TFR 


D,U 


SAVE VALUE TEHP0RAR1LY 




D803 D31B 


0270 


ADDD 


111 


ADD END DF BASIC 




DBI5 IF01 


0271 


TFR 


1,1 


SAVE NEN END ADDRESS 




D807 C3MC8 


0272 


ADDD 


1200 


STACK SIZE 




DB0A 9321 


•273 


SUBD 


$21 


STACK TOP ADDRESS 




DBBC 242B 


0274 


BHS 


FCERR 


ND ROOM, ERROR 




DBfE BDfB 


0275 


BSR 


DIRECT 


CHECK IF DIRECT 


D849 3404 


DBif 2716 


0276 


BEO 


LI 


YES SO DIRECT NO FIX 


D848 BDBDCC 


DB12 IF30 


0277 


TFR 


U,D 


RECOVER OFFSET 


D84E BDCC41 


D814 D3A6 


027B 


ADDD 


«A6 


REVISE PARSER POINTER 


DB51 3504 


D816 DDA6 


0279 


STD 


tA6 


AND SAVE IT 


D853 C109 


D818 7E96B4 


02B0 LI 
B2B1 I 


JHP 


I96B4 


CONTINUE PCLEAR ROUTINE 


D855 2203 
D857 BDCC41 




02B2 »THIS CHECKS IF IN DIRECT MODE, Z«l IF 90 


DB5A AE62 


DB1B 3410 


0283 DIRECT PSHS 


X 


PRESERVE A AND B 


D85C ECB810 


D81D 9E68 


0284 


LDX 


I6B 


BET LINE NUMBER 


D85F 3406 


58] F 3001 


02B3 


LEAK 




IS IT IFFFF? 


D861 C60B 


DB21 3511 


02B6 


PULS 


t 


RECOVER D 


D863 BDB50F 


0B23 39 


02B7 


RTS 






DB66 3506 


B0B0 


1289 


IFEO 


REV 


OOS 1.0 






0290 i 


PATCH FIXES A SIMILAR BUG 


DB6B C6FB 




0291 i 


IN THE FILES COMMAND 




DB6A A6B5 


D624 93 IB 


0292 FILES SUBD 


<I1B 


END OF BASIC ADDRESS 


UDOt OUnlui 




0293 # D HAS OFFSET DUE TO HOVE OF BASIC 


DB6F 5C 


D826 3416 


0294 


PSHS 


A,B 


SAVE RESULTS 


DB70 26FB 




— The 
Incredible New 
Football Simulation 
for the Color Computer! 

* Pass, Run, or Kick — You call the Play s! 

* Compete with friends or challenge the computer. 

* Contains extended basic and non-extended basic 
versions for 16K cassette color computers. 

Send $16.95 (check or money order) for each game (Colorado 
residents add 3 1 /2% sales tax). Allow four weeks for delivery. 



Big B Software 

P. O. Box 91 

Broomfield, Colorado 80020 



Please send me 
Name 



. game(s) @ $16.95 each. 



Address 



\ City, State. Zip 



CHECK IF DIRECT RODE 
YES SO DIRECT COMMAND 
BET D OFF STACK FIX OFFSET 
ADD TO PARSER POINTER 
SAVE IT 
RECOVER OFFSET 
ADD BASIC START ADDRESS 
CONTINUE FILES CODE 



?FC ERROR 



0295 BSR DIRECT 

0296 BEG SKIP 

0297 LDD ,S 

0298 ADDD $A6 

0299 STD IA6 

0300 9KIP PULS A, 5 

0301 ADDD <$19 

0302 JHP tDBEB 

0303 ENDC 

0304 i 

0305 FCERR JHP I844A 

0306 # 

0307 Mfimi#####miffi##HM 
030B iFILE DATE TO DIRECTORY 

0309 FILDAT STA 1976 FINISH WHAT WAS DOINB 

0310 STA 2,U OITTO 

0311 LDD DATUM BET DATE 

0312 STD 5 f U PUT INTO BUFFER 

0313 JHP A0007 CONTINUE 0PENIN6 FILE 

0314 tttttttltffttttifttttuii 

0315 » DIR conand rvvisioni 

0316 • 

0317 t 

031B ■i*tff#Hfitfl||it##Mtitt#fit#*titi*tffiftt# 

0319 « directory output of ft la criition d»tt 

0320 LINHLD PSHS B SAVE GRANULE COUNT 

0321 JSR tBDCC OUTPUT IT TO SCREEN 

0322 JSR SPACE OUTPUT 1 SPACE 

0323 PULS B RECOVER GRANULE COUNT 

0324 CHPB 19 HON MANY DIBITS? 

0325 BH1 ATCLH DONT NEED EXTRA SPACE 

0326 JSR SPACE OUTPUT A SPACE 

0327 ATCLH LDX 2,S BET DIRECTORY PNTR 
032B LDD 16,X SET DATE FROM DIRECTORY 

0329 PSHS D SAVE VALUE 

0330 LDB IB SEE IF ROOM FOR STRIN6 

0331 JSR IB50F NONT RETURN IF NOT 

0332 *X POINTS TO STRIN6 SPACE 

0333 PULS D 6ET DATE AGAIN 

0334 t JSR DATOUT PUT DATE IN IT tREF 51 



0335 LDB 

0336 OUTCHR LDA 

0337 JSR 

0338 INCB 

0339 BNE 



l-B 

B,X 

CHROUT 



OUTCHR 

0340 Hftttttittmtfittttttttttmttf 

0341 * DIRECTORY PAUSE TO SCREEN ONLY 

0342 t 



CHARACTERS TO FIX 
BET CHARACTER 
OUTPUT IT 
REDUCE COUNTER 
DO SOME MORE 



D672 0D6F 


0343 


TST 


DEVNUH 


CHECK IF TO SCREEN 


DB74 2615 


0344 


BNE 


CR 


DON'T PAUSE IF DIR NOT TO SCREEN 


D876 7A01D5 


0345 


DEC 


LCOUNT 


DECREASE CURRENT LINE COUNT 


D879 2610 


0346 


BNE 


CR 


OUTPUT NEXT LINE 


D87B BDA1B1 


0347 WAIT 


JSR 


SETKEY 


6ET KEYBOARD ENTRY 


DB7E 27FB 


034B 


BEO 


WAIT 


IF NONE YET 




0349 • 








DBB0 8103 


0350 


CHPA 


13 


IS IT BREAK? 


D882 2602 


0351 


BNE 


NOTBRK 


NO 


DBB4 3264 


0352 


LEAS 


4,S 


REMOVE OLD RETURN 




0353 t AND 


X LEFT ON STACK 






0354 t 








D886 C610 


0335 NOTBRK LDB 


116 


REST LCOUNT 


D88B F701D5 


0356 


STB 


LCOUNT 




D8BB 39 


0357 CR 


RTS 

















0359 »t PATCH DSKINJI TO FORHAT UP TO 40 TRACKS 

0360 H SYNTAX IS DSKINI dhve.nuiber of tricks, ikip factor 

0361 h NUMBER OF TRACKS IS 35 - 40, DEFAULTS TO 35 



DBBC 1027CDBF 


0362 DSKINI 


LBEQ 


IA61F 


DN ERROR 


DB90 BDD169 


0363 


JSR 


A0022 


CHECK FOR 0-3 DEVICE 1 


DB93 C623 


0364 


LDB 


•35 


DEFAULT t OF TRACKS 


D895 9DA5 


0365 


JSR 


tA5 


ANY HORE ON INPUT LINE? 


D897 2703 


0366 


BEQ 


NOVALS 


NO MORE VALUES 


DB99 BDB73B 


0367 


JSR 


IB73B 


GET TRACK VALUE 


DB9C BD03 


0368 NOVALS 


BSR 


TRKCHK 


CHECK FOR VALID DRIVE • 




0369 ff 








DB9E 7ED4B2 


0370 


JHP 


A0029 


RETURN TD REGULAR CODE 




0371 # 








D8A1 C123 


0372 TRKCHK 


CMPB 


•35 


LOWEST LEGAL VALUE 


DBA3 2594 


0373 


BLO 


FCERR 


?FC ERROR 


D8A5 C12B 


0374 


CHPB 


•40 


HIGHEST LEGAL VALUE 


DBA7 2290 


0375 


BHI 


FCERR 


?FC ERROR 


DBA9 D7B0 


0376 


STB 


NTRACK 


SAVE IN TEMP BUFFER 


DBAB 39 


0377 


RTS 








037B t 




















03B0 «•# PATCH TD BACKUP fttti 




0381 * 








D8AC 3404 


0382 BCKPAT PSHS 


B 


SAVE SOURCE DRIVE NO. 


DBAE C623 


0383 


LDB 


135 


DEFAULT TRACKS 


D8B0 0780 


0384 


STB 


NTRACK 


SAVE DEFAULT VALUE 


DBB2 3504 


0385 


PULS 


B 


RECOVER SOURCE DRIVE NO 



84 



THE RAINBOW September 1984 



From the programmer that brought ZAXXON 
to the Color Computer/* 
Moreton Bay Software proudly presents 

BJORK BLOCKS. see us at II PRINCETON 

An incredible graphic utility! Now you can design grapics just like the masters. You can even animate! User friend- 
ly. Precision drawing. Precision color selection. Fully menu driven. Only one joystick needed for menu selection 
and graphic creation. Compressed data storage or load and save 6K binary files. Almost impossible to crash. 
Create your own graphic adventure screens. Limitless applications in communication, education and program 
development, 




Picture created with BJORK BLOCKS 



Requires 32K Extended Basic 
(64K for animation) 

$34.95 Tape or Disk 



GRAPHICOM 

The perfect line drawing companion to BJORK BLOCKS. 

You must see this program to believe it! Create pictures 
and text on the same screen. Now you can create pictures 
as good as any graphic you have seen on the color com- 
puter. Write graphic adventures or educational programs. 
Requires 64K EXB, Disk Drive and Joy Sticks $29.95 

SPECIAL: Bjork Blocks and Graphicom $55.00 



MORE BUSINESS -Ver 3.12 The preferred business 
package. Completely interactive. General Ledger. 
Accounts Receivable. Accounts Payable. Customer 
Statements. Mailing Labels. Profit/Loss. Balance Sheet 
Statements. Our most powerful business package. Buy 
the best! 

32K Disk R/S DOS $99.95 



DOUBLE DRIVER 

The BEST monitor driver available, unlike some monitor 
drivers the Double Driver provides TRUE monochrome 
and color composite output. Audio Output. Solderless 
installation. $24.95 




64K UPGRADES 

Instantly access 64K via M/L Totally solderless kit to 
upgrade E Boards. Kit includes eight 4164 prime chips 
and chips U29 and U11 already soldered. E Board Kit 
$69.95 

Color Computer II kit requires soldering. $64.95 



MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Bay Laboratory 

316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA, 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

Ordering information 

Add $2.00 shipping and handling per order. We ship within 24 hours 
on receipt of order. Blue Label Service available. California residents 
add 6% sales tax. 




TRIVIA AND SOME SIGNIFICA 

Get 40% more question at 66% the cost! 

Great family or party game. More than 1900 questions in 
nine cataegories. 

HISTORY ENTERTAINMENT ANIMALS 

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 
SPORTS AND GAMES ART AND MUSIC 
LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE 
POLITICS AND PLACES 
MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTERS 

Challenging, educational and even funny at times. Best 
of all, you get the utility the programmer used to create 
these questions. All ready for you to create your own 
challenges. Make up questions about family history, high 
school basketball scores or your favorite TV series. 
Parents and teachers can use this to develop their own 
educational files. 

16K EXTENDED BASIC CASSETTE $19.95 
32K EXTENDED BASIC DISK $21.95 



*Zaxxon Reg TM Sega Corp. 
** Color Computer Reg TM Tandy Corp. 





DYNAMITB+ 



"THE CODE BUSTER" 

disassembles any 6809 or 6800 
machine code program into beautiful source 



• Learn to program like the experts! 

• Adapt existing programs to your needs! 

• Convert your 6800 programs to 6809! W^vu 

• Automatic LABEL generation. rainbow 

CERTIFICATION 

• Allows specifying FCB's, FCCs, FDB's, etc. SEAL 

• Constants input from DISK or CONSOLE. 

• Automatically uses system variable NAMES. 

• Output to console, printer, or disk file. 

• Available for all popular 6809 operating systems. 

FLEX™ $100 per copy; specify 5" or 8" diskette. 
OS-9™ $150 per copy; specify 5" or 8" diskette. 
UnlFLEX™ $300 per copy; 8" diskette on|y. 

For a free sample disassembly that'll convince 
you DYNAMITE + is the world's best disassembler, 
send us your name, address, and the name of 
your operating system. 



CoCo 

0S9 
VERSION 



$59.95 



DISASSEMBLES OS-9, FLEX, DOS FILES 

Order your DYNAMITE+ today! 

See your local dynamite + dealer, or order di- 
rectly from CSC at the address below, we accept 
telephone orders from 10 am to 6 pm, Monday 
through Friday, Call us at 314-576-5020. Your VISA 
or Mastercard is welcome. Orders outside North 
America add S5 per copy. Please specify diskette 
size for FLEX or OS-9 versions. 



computer Systems center 
13461 Olive Blvd. 
Chesterfield, mo 63017 

(314) 576-5020 



UniFLEX software prices include maintenance 
for the first year. 
dynamite + is a trademark of computer Systems Center. 

FLEX and UnlFLEX are trademarks of TSC. 



OS-9 is a trademark of Microware and Motorola. 

Dealer Inquiries welcome. 



DBD4 BDC65F 
DBD7 BDC6BG 

DGDA 3416 
DBDC BDDBIB 
DGDF 263B 
DBEl C60A 
DBE3 BEDBFD 
D8E4 BDB9A2 
DBE9 BDAIBI 
DBEC BDA2B2 
DBEF 3402 
D8F1 BDB95B 
DBF4 35*2 
DBF 6 B159 
DBFB 2714 
D8FA 351 6 
DBFC 39 
DSFD 53 
D907 44 

D90E BED907 

D9ll C607 

D913 BDB9A2 

D914 BDB95B 

D919 3516 

D91B 7EC6CF 



AMY HORE ON LINE? 
NO SO EXIT 
LOOK FOR A COMA 
YES SO BET NO OF TRACKS 

•TO' TOKEN 

CHECK FOR IT SN ERROR IF NOT 
get second drive and check it 

0394 t now mb hive second drive in b 

0395 tttmtmmtttttmtftt 

0396 i NDM GET NO OF TRACKS 



nam onAi 

HOB 4 tUH J 


•ooo 


u on 






03B7 


BED 


pupniiT 


nans, at *>r 

(JOBS Oi£L 


0388 


CMPA 


■ r 


no OA 97flQ 

man ilvu 


0389 


BEQ 


flTTDk* 
0 t 1 nK 




0390 t LOOK FDR 




DBBC C6A5 


0391 


LDB 


IIA5 


DB8E BDB26F 


0392 


JSR 


♦B26F 


DBCl BDD169 


0393 


JSR 


A0022 



DBC4 3404 


0397 STTRK 


PSHS 


B 


PRESERVE SECOND DRIVE 1 


D8C6 9DA5 


039B 


JSR 


»A5 


ANY HORE ON LINE? 


DBCB 2705 


0399 


BEQ 


BUPEXT 


NO SO CONTINUE OLD CODE 


S8CA BDB738 


0400 


JSR 


IB73B 


PARSE , SET VALUE 


DBCD BDD2 


0401 


BSR 


TRKCHK 


FOR VALID DRIVE 0 


DBCF 3504 


0402 BUPEXT PULS 


B 


RECOVER SECDND DRIVE VALUE 


DBD1 7ED18E 


0403 BUPOUT JHP 


A0024 


CONTINUE OLD CODE 



9494 ittitt*tfftifftftf»#itffi 

0405 • REVISE KILL ROUTINE TO CHECK FOR ERASURE 

0406 t 

0407 KILLCK JSR A0009 CHECK FOR FILE 

0408 JSR A0010 OID HE GET A NATCH? 

0409 t WON'T RETURN HERE IF ME DIDN'T 



0410 

0411 
0412 
0413 
0414 
0415 
04U 
0417 
0418 
0419 
0420 
0421 
0422 
0423 
0424 



PSHS 

JSR 

BNE 

LDB 

LDX 

JSR 

JSR 

JSR 

PSHS 

JSR 

PULS 

CMPA 

BEO 

PULS 

RTS 



Jf,A,B SAVE REGISTERS 

DIRECT only confiri in direct lode 

NDCNF Dont confiri delete 

110 CHARACTER COUNT 

ICHKNSG POINT TO MESSAGE 

STROUT OUTPUT THIS 

6ETKEY GET ANSWER 

CHROUT OUTPUT IT 

A SAVE IT 

RETURN OUTPUT A CR 

A 6ET RESPONSE 

I'Y IS IT YES 

CONFRM CONFIRM DELETION 

X,A,B 



EXIT AND DON'T DELETE 



0425 CHKNS6 FCC 

0426 CNFNSG FCC 

0427 t 

042B CONFRN LDX 



7.SURE(Y/N)?X 
/DELETED/ 



POINT TO CONFIRM MESSAGE 
CHARS IN IT 
OUTPUT THIS 
PLUS A CR 
RECOVER REGS 
CONTINUE KILL COMMAND 



ICNFNSG 

0429 LDB 17 

0430 JSR STROUT 

0431 JSR RETURN 

0432 NOCNF PULS X,A,B 

0433 JNP A0012 

0434 tttttiMif itmmtf t»tf f tttttitmm 

0435 i COMMAND TABLE AND JUMP CODE 

0436 » 

0437 • 

0438 i»«»ttH»»t»ti»ttttt»»ttmmHtfttti*f»ttt 

0439 t ADDED BASIC COMMANDS AND FUNCTIONS # 

0440 HHttffittf t»<ttf ftitf itftifttittf »#t«m»ttt» 

0441 t 

0442 t 





0443 t 


COMMAND TABLE 




0444 * 






D91E 43 


1445 COMTBL FCC 


/COL/ 


D921 C4 


0446 


FCB 


'D+12B 


D922 57 


0447 


FCC 


/NPOK/ 


D926 C5 


0448 


FCB 


'Efl2B 


D927 46 


0449 


FCC 


/FAS/ 


D92A D4 


0450 


FCB 


»M2B 


W2B 53 


0451 


FCC 


/SLO/ 


D92E D7 


0452 


FCB 


♦N+128 


D92F 58 


0453 


FCC 


tw 


D931 Dl 


0454 


FCB 


'Q+12B 


D932 41 


0455 


FCC 


/AUT/ 


D935 CF 


0456 


FCB 


'0+128 


D936 53 


0457 


FCC 


/SNA/ 


D939 D0 


0458 


FCB 


'P+128 


D93A 45 


0459 


FCC 


/ERROR/ 


D93F D3 


0460 


FCB 


'S+12S 


D940 42 


0461 


FCC 


/BAD/ 


D943 C4 


0462 


FCB 


*Dt!28 


D944 4C 


#463 


FCC 


/LD1/ 


D947 D2 


0464 


FCB 


•R+12B 




0465 t 








0466 


IFDF 


PARPRT 



ASSEMBLE FOR PARALLEL PORT 
0467 tKEEP THIS LAST IN LIST FOR TOKEN CONPATABILITY 
D948 50 0468 FCC /PARALLE/ £REF 6) 

D94F CC 0469 FCB 'L+128 IREF 7] 

0470 ENDC 

0471 * IREF 6 I 7: If no conditional assembler and 

0472 t parallel port is used, delete IFDF and ENDC 

0473 t lines. If not used, delete all 4 lines.] 

0474 * 

0475 *m# 

0476 t COMMAND JUMP TABLE 



86 THE RAINBOW September 1984 





•477 • HUST BE IN SANE ORDER AS COMMANDS 


D9B9 DA59 


•922 


FUNDSP FDB 


SCAN 






•478 * 






D9B7 DA9A 


•923 


FDB 


DATE 




Dttf 


1479 CTABLE EQU 


i TABLE START 


D9B9 DA5B 


•524 


FDB 


ERRLIN 




D9M DA4E 


MB! C0HD9P FDB 


COLD COLO RESTART 


D98B DA9C 


•325 


FDB 


FRRrno 




D9S2 DA4P 


•481 


FDB 


HPQKE 


Hff 


1524 


I FEB 


REV 




D954 DASf 


•4B2 


FDB 


FAST 


D98D DA9D 


•527 


FDB 


ERNAHE 




D954 DM1 


1483 


FDB 


SLON 




0528 


ENDC 






D95B DA52 


•4B4 


FDB 


XED 


D98F 


•529 


AR8NRK ECU 


t 




D93A DA53 


•489 


FDB 


AUTO 




1531 


a put all functions without an arguient above 


DWC DAS5 


•466 


FDB 


SNAP 




•531 


t this equate 




W3E DA94 


•487 


FDB 


ERRCND 


D98F DA9E 


•932 


FDB 


NPEEK 




W4I DA96 


•48B 


FDB 


BAUD 


D991 


•933 


NTBLEX EQU 


a 


TABLE END 


WA2 DA57 


•4B9 


FDB 


LDIR PRINT DIRECTORY 




•934 


ttiptiff 








•491 t 






•fie 


•939 


NUHFUN EQU 


(NTBLEX-NTABLE)/2 NO. OF FUNCTS 




•491 tKEEP THIS LAST IN LIST FOR TOKEN CONPATABIL1TY 




•936 


tftmtmtmtmmtmttttmmmufttt 




•492 


IFDF 


PARPRT ASSEMBLE FOR PARALLEL PORT 




•937 


» THIS IS EXECUTED DURIN8 STARTUP 


D944 DA98 


1493 


FDB 


PARA [REF 81 




0938 


* 








•494 


ENDC 






•539 


* Output reviiion banner 






049S i CREF 8: H no conditional atieibler and 


D991 BEDA1P 


Mil 


ADDCOM IDX 


0BANNER-1 


POINT TO BEFORE BANNER 




•49s t 


parallel port is used, delete IFDF and ENDC 


D994 8DB99C 


•541 


JSR 


IB99C 


USE BASIC'S OUTPUT ROUTINE 




•497 t 


Unci. If not uaed, delete all 3 line!.]* 




•542 








•49B CTBLEX EflU 


t TABLE END 


D997 7Ff 149 


•543 


CLR 


AUTOFB 


SET UP FOR NO AUTO 




•499 **##§ 




D99A 7F014A 


•544 


CLR 


INTFL8 


OLD LINE REPEAT FLA6 


1MB 


MM NUMCMD ECU 


(CTBLEX-CTABLE) /2 NO. OF CUDS 


D99D BED91E 


•545 


LDX 


ICONTBL 


POINT X TO COWHAND TABLE 




•Sil tm#t#ttt»t*fm»tttitmm»tt*t»t#tMtm 


D9A0 CEI13E 


•546 


LDU 


M13E 


START OF COMMAND VECTOR TABLE 




•502 t 


FUNCTION TABLE 


D9A3 AF41 


0547 


STX 


1,11 


SAVE COMMAND TABLE ADDRESS 


D966 S3 


1513 t 






D9A9 8MB 


054B 


LDA 


INURCND 


SET NUMBER OF COMMANDS 


•9B4 FUNTBL FCC 


/SCAN/ 


D9A7 A7C4 


0549 


STA 


,u 


SET IT IN TABLE 


D96A A4 


•9H 


FCB 


'•♦128 


D9A9 BFDA7R 


0550 


LDX 


ICONCOD 


COMMAND CODE 


D96B 44 


HI* 


FCC 


/DATE/ 


D9AC AF43 


•551 


STX 


3,11 




D96F A4 


mi 


FCB 


'1+128 




•552 


tttttttattffi 






D97f 49 


0598 


FCC 


/EL IN/ 


D9AE 86 16 


0553 


LDA 


1 NUHFUN 


8ET NUMBER OF FUNCTIONS 


D974 C9 


HI9 


FCB 


'E+128 


D9B0 A749 


0554 


STA 


3,U 


SAVE IT IN TABLE 


D979 49 


131* 


FCC 


/ECOD/ 


D982 BED946 


0555 


LDX 


IFUNTBL 


GET FUNCTION TABLE ADDRESS 


D979 C9 


•911 


FCB 


'E+128 


D9B5 AF4A 


0556 


STX 


6,1) 


SAVE IT IN TABLE 


INI 


•912 


IFEB 


REV 


D9B7 BEDA37 


0557 


LDX 


•FUNCOD 


BET FUNCTION CODE ADDRESS 


D97A 49 


•313 


FCC 


/ENANE/ 


D9BA AF48 


0558 


STX 


8,U 




D97F A4 


•914 


FCB 


'I+12B 


D9BC 6F4A 


0539 


CLR 


10,U 


SET END OF TABLES FLA8 




•315 


ENDC 




D98E 8EB277 


0560 


LDX 


MB277 


?SN ERROR 


D98! 57 


•916 


FCC 


/NPEE/ 


D9C1 AFCB12 


0561 


STX 


18,U 


STORE IN NEXT HOOK SLOTS 


D9B4 C8 


•517 


FCB 


'KM28 


D9C4 AF4D 


0562 


STX 


13, U 


FOR CONS i FUNCT, 




•318 »tttt 




D9C6 6F4F 


0563 


CLR 


13, U 


SET TOKEN 6R0UP TO ZERO 




•919 t 


FUNCTION JUMP TABLE 


D9C8 9EBA 


0564 


LDX 


ZERO 






•52f • 






D9CA AFCB1B 


0565 


STX 


16, U 


CLEAR DATUM 


D9B3 


0521 NT ABLE EflU 


i FUNCTION TABLE START 




0566 


» JSR RESET ERROR TRAP VALUES [REF 9-1] 



Forget Those Point Spread Blues! 




With Pigskin Predictions! 

Pigskin Predictions, the best-selling NFL Handicapper 
from Rainbow Connection Software, is now part of our 
library. And we're absolutely delighted! Why wrestle 
with those Sunday point spreads? Let your Color Com- 
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• Menu-driven selection of schedules, ratings, divi- 
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Seven different reports to screen or printer! 

• Easy onece-a-week entry of scores — no complex, 
meaningless stats! 

• Predicts scores of all games for remainder of sea- 
son each week! 

• Calculates projected won-lost records for all 
weeks. 

• Maintains home field advantage and power ratings 
for all teams! 

• 1984 schedule data file included free. Or enter the 
schdule yourself. 

• 32K enhanced version features dazzling Rainbow 
Writer screen display! Seeing is believing. 16K 
abridged version included too. 

If you're a football fan, you'll be absolutely amazed 
at the power of this program. 16/32K Extended Basic 
required. Only $35.95 on tape or disk. 1 984 data tape or 
disk for previous owners only $13.95. 



Federal Hill Software 825 William SI. Baltimore, Md. 21230 301-685-6254 VISA/MC Welcome 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 87 



D9CD CCDA5F 
MDf FDN6B 



1967 • REDIRECT ERRORS TO ERRTRP BY CHAN8INB JUMP ADDRESS 
•369 tAT tlBF 

1369 t LDD IERRTRP tREF 9-2] 

857* t STD I1BF tREF 9-31 

#971 i [REF 9: Uncoeaont tthtn ERRORS cods ii installed] 

•372 

•373 t 

•374 IFDF PARPRT DO FOR PARALLEL [REF if] 

•573 t [REF If t US If no conditional asseibler end 

•376 f parallel port is used, delete IFDF and ENDC 

1377 t lines. If not uiid, diltti thin and 

•578 t ill riflii in between.] 

•379 i REDIRECT CALLS FOR OUTPUT VIA [A8021 A2B2 

•588 t TO ALLOW PARALLEL PORT OPERATION. 

•381 LDD IPAROUT PARALLEL PORT ROUTINE 

•382 STD 1168 

•583 • NEW INITIALIZE PARALLEL PORT 

1584 ••••iimt.litf#itM#t#t#titttt4t#ifi#ti!f#ift 

1585 t BASIC PATCH FOR PARALLEL OUTPUT 

•586 tt#t«tt»#»«fit»tHititi»##tti#ttttfwitt#t 
•587 * 
•58B t 

•589 • THE UART BAUD RATE MSB (*95> 19 SET TO I TO 
•59f # ACTIVATE THE PARALLEL INTERFACE. SET TO ZERO 
•591 t FOR THE SERIAL OUTPUT. THIS MEANS 30f BAUD AND 
1592 t HI8HER NILL ACTIVATE THE SERIAL PORT, 110 OR LONER 
•593 # HILL ACTIVATE THE PARALLEL PORT. 
1594 » THIS IS THE DEFAULT CONDITION. 
•595 #»»»*m»»i»*ft*»i»*»i»t*m#t#ftmtt*t#ti 
•596 t P1A LAYOUT 



•597 t 




BIT 0 UNUSED INPUT 


•598 t 




BIT 1 UNUSED INPUT 


1599 f 




BIT 2 UNUSED INPUT 


I6M ♦ 


FF24 


BIT 3 UNUSED INPUT 


14*1 t 




BIT 4 UNUSED INPUT 


•6*2 • 




BIT 5 UNUSED INPUT 


•6*3 # 




BIT 6 UNUSED INPUT 


•614 • 




BIT 7 PRINTER BUSY*1 


•6*5 






•686 t 


FF25 


SET TO 14 FOR ALL INPUTS 


•617 






•6«B t 




BIT 0 PARALLEL OUTPUT 


•689 t 




BIT 1 PARALLEL OUTPUT 


•618 i 




BIT 2 PARALLEL OUTPUT 


Mil ♦ 


FF26 


BIT 3 PARALLEL OUTPUT 


1612 • 




BIT 4 PARALLEL OUTPUT 


•613 • 




BIT 5 PARALLEL OUTPUT 


•614 t 




BIT 6 PARALLEL OUTPUT 


•615 t 




BIT 7 PARALLEL OUTPUT 


•616 






•617 i 


FF27 


SET TO f2C FOR OUTPUTS t CB2 


•61B 







•619 tBUSY IS ALSO CONNECTED TP CB1 BUT NOT USED 
•620 tPIA DETECTS BUSY TD NDT BUSY. TRANSITION 
•621 » 

•622 » SET UP PIA FOR PARALLEL PORT 



0635 

•636 HtMtmitttfMMtlfM 

•637 'RUN AUTOEXEC FILE 
•638 t 



D9E7 8EDAI2 


•639 


LDX 


1 AUTFIL 


POINT X TO COMMAND LINE 


Mtt CEUDD 


8648 


LDU 


•I2DD 


BASIC INPUT BUFFER 


D9CD C6K 


•641 


LDB 


•FILEND-AUTFIL NUMBER OF CHARACTERS 


D9EF 3444 


•642 


PSHB 


B,U 


8AVE COUNT AND BUFFER PNTR 


D9F1 BDA59A 


•643 


m 


IA59A 


HOVE X TO U B BYTES 


D9f 4 8653 




LDA 


•155 


HARM FLA8 


MP* 9771 


•645 


8TA 


♦71 


BET IT 


D9F8 BDI95C 


8646 


JSR 


♦B95C 


SET D/P PARAMETERS 


D9FI 3514 


•647 


PULS 


8,1 


CHAR COUNT 1 BUFR PTR IN X 


WFD 3#1F 


•648 


LEAX 


-1,1 


BACK OFF POINTER 


D9FF 7EAC7F 


8649 


JHP 


•AC7F 


STARTUP BASIC 




•65* 


•RETURN TO 


BASIC RON 




M82 52 


•651 


AUTFIL FCS 


/RUVAUTOEKECV • BYTE ENDED 


DAM 


•652 


FREW) ECU 


l 




DAM 52 


8653 


BANNER FCS 


/REVI01984 C.STEARHAN<»><»>/ 




8654 










•655 


t COMMAND 


CODE 





•656 t-TMi li executed during tokin intirprttition 
•657 ft to juip to corrtct codt 



DA28 B1EB 
DA2A 2383 

DA2C 7EB277 

DA2F BED9M 
DA32 88E1 

DA34 7EADD4 



DA37 C15A 
DA3? 22F1 
DA3B C«8 
DA3D C188 



DA3F 2F87 



DA41 3484 
DA43 BDB262 
DA46 3584 
DA48 8ED985 
DA4B 7EB2CE 

DA4E 39 
DA4F 39 
DA50 3? 
DA51 39 
DA52 39 
DA53 39 
DA54 39 
DA55 39 
DA56 39 
DA57 39 
DA5B 39 
DAS9 39 
DA3A 39 
DA5B 39 
DA5C 39 
DA5D 39 
DA5E 39 
DA5F 39 



•658 • 

8659 CONCOD CHPA 
8668 BLS 
•661 » 

8662 SNERR JHP 

8663 t 

8664 600DVL LDX 

8665 SUBA 



•HITOKN+NUMCHD HI6HEST LEGAL CODE 



600DVL 



>«277 



BOT A I 



> VALUE 



?9N ERROR JUMP 



POINT TO DISPATCH TABLE 
IHlTOKNtl LOWEST TOKEN IN RnNBE 

8666 » MAKES A HAVE OFFSET INTO DISPATCH TABLE 

8667 JHP NADD4 CALCULATE AW EXECUTE IT 

8668 tftt»ft*t*tfft«ittttttfftfffffftttfttffttffff*ttfttttH 

8669 * FUNCTION CODE 

8678 ftThii ii executed during token interpretation 

8671 ft to juap to cornet code 

8672 « 

8673 FUNCOD CHPB tt4E*(2»NUHFUN) 

8674 BHI SNERR BAD CODE 

8675 SUBB 8150 LOWEST FUNCTION NUMBER 
•676 CHPB 8ARBHRK-HTABLE-2 Nuabir of functions not 
•677 » requiring in irguunt, X 2 +2 

•67B t 

•679 ftACTUAL TOKEN IS 5*/2 ♦ 88 ■ A8 

8688 BLE N0AR8 F1R9T FUNCTIONS HAVE 

8681 t NO ARGUMENT 

8682 » ALL OTHERS DO AND ITS OBTAINED 
•683 » FIRST HERE 

B SAVE TOKEN OFFSET 

IB262 EVAL BRACKETTES ARGUMENT 
RESTORE OFFSET 

POINT TO FUNCT. DISPATCH TABLE 
80 LOOKUP AND JUMP 



PBHB 

JSR 

PULS 

LDX 

JHP 



IFUNDSP 
IB2CE 



DA5F 



8684 
0685 
8686 

•687 NDAR6 
•688 

8689 ftftftftfti 
8698 COLD 

8691 NPOKE 

8692 FAST 
•693 SLOW 
0694 XEQ 
8695 AUTO 
•696 ERRCMD RTS 

8697 SNAP RTS 

8698 BAUD 
0699 LDIR 
•788 PARA 

8781 SCAN 

8782 DATE 
0783 ERRL2N RTS 
•784 ERRCOD RT9 

8785 ERNAME RTS 

8786 HPEEK RTS 
#717 PAROUT RTS 
•708 
07*9 
0710 

0711 ZZLAST ECU *-l 

0712 ft 

0713 « ZZLAST auit not be greater than IDFFF for 



RTS 
RTS 
RTS 
RTS 
RTS 
RTS 



RTS 
RTS 
RTS 
RTS 
RTS 



[REF 121 

[REF 131 
[REF 141 
IREF 15) 
[REF 161 
[REF 173 

[REF 181 
[REF 193 
[REF 2«] 
[REF 21] 
[REF 221 
[REF 23] 
[REF 24] 

[REF 253 

[REF 261 

[REF 27] 
[REF 283 

[REF 29] 



last used address value 



D9D3 BEFF26 


0623 


LDX' IDATA 


POINT X TO PIA 


0714 « DOS 1.0 and IDEFF for DOS 1.1. The latter 


D9D6 86FF 


•624 


IDA ItFF 




0715 * has the OS-9 Boot prograa and SHI set routines 


D9D8 A784 


0625 


STA ,X 


SET DATA DIRECTION REG TO IFF 


0716 t froe IDF08 to IDF4C 


D9DA B62C 


162b 


LDA II2C 


SET FOR AUTO STROBE 


0717 » 


D9DC A701 


0627 


STA 1,X 


CONTROL REBISTER 


•71B # 


D9DE B6»4 


•628 


LDA 114 


SET UP BUSY PIA 


•727 OPT LIS 


D9Ef A71F 


•629 


STA -1,1 


POINT FF24 TO DATA RE6 


D991 072B END ADDCON 




•630 • 


SET UP OF PIA COMPLETE 




NO ERROR(S) DETECTED 


D9E2 CC01CA 


•631 * 


SET UP DEFAULT BAUD RATE 


Listing 2: 


•632 


LDD MICA 


BASICS 120 BAUD 


D9E5 DD95 


•633 


STD BDFLAG 


SET VALUE 






1634 


ENDC 


END CONDITIONAL [REF 11] 





10 'DATE LOADER 

11 DIM DAYS (13) 

12 DATA 31, £8, 31, 30, 31,30,31,31,30,31,30,31 

13 FDR I~l TD IS 

14 READ DAYSU) 

15 NEXT 

30 INPUT n DATE (MM, DD, YY) " ;M, D, Y 
50 IF M<0 OR M>1£ THEN 1000 
70 IF Y<0 THEN 1000 
80 IF D(l THEN 1000 
90 IF M=E THEN 1£0 

100 IF D> DAYS <M> THEN 1000 ELSE 150 
110 ' DO FEBRUARY 

1£0 IF < INT ( Y/4) <> Y/4 > AND (D> DAYS (M> > THEN 1000 

130 » LEAP YEAR 

140 IF D>£9 THEN 1000 

150 DATE =(Y*INT(£^9) ) + (M*I NT (£^5) ) +D 
160 WPOKE &H14E, DATE 
170 END 

1000 PRINT"ERROR" :GOTO30 



88 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



E 

federal Hill Software ■ 

FINE PRODUCTS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER, DRAGON AND MC-10 I 



Mon CoCo Parle Francais! 
Mi Coco Habla Espanol! 



These delightful 16K Extended Basic pro- 
grams will teach your youngsters a basic 
French or Spanish vocabulary. Each Ian- ^ 
guage package contains two programs ^ 
with a total of 1 ,000 words in a colorful 
game format that teaches children to think as well 
as memorize. They'll have great fun as they watch 
the letters hop across the screen and slip into 
place. Perfect for home or classroom. We include 
a list of the vocabulary words for study guides or 
lesson plans. Spanish or french, only $24.95 on 
tape, $27.95 on disk. Both languages only 
$39.95, tape or disk. 



The Handicapper 




Tax Relief! 



Were your taxes a hassle this year? Then 
you need Coco- Accountant II. This 32/64K 
home and small business accounting pro- 
gram is everything you need to keep track of 
your finances and make income tax time a 
breeze. Use your canceled checks, credit 
card receipts, payroll and bank stubs. Coco-Ac- 
countant II will list and total expenditures by year, 
month, account and payee or income source. It 
tracks tax deductible expenses and payments 
subjects to sales tax. It even calculates the sales 
tax you paid. 

The program offsets income and expenditures to 
produce net cash flow reports. It prints out a 
spreadsheet showing your year at a glance, 
balances your checkbook and prints a monthly 
reconciliation statement. The 32 K version handles 
450 entries in RAM. The 32 K disk version stores 
500, while the 64K tape and disk versions store 
an amazing 900 entries. State memory size when 
ordering. Only $27.95, tape or disk. 




Play Blackjaq! 



Use the power of your computer to improve your 
performance at the track! Separate programs for 
harness and thoroughbred horses make it a snap 
to rank the horses in each race! Using information 
readily available from the thoroughbred Racing 
Form or harness track program, you can handicap 
a race in five minutes and a whole card in less 
than an hour! We even provide diagrams showing 
where to get the information you need. 

Factors include speed, class, post position, past 
performance, jockey or driver's record, weight, 
parked out signs, beaten favorite and other 
attributes. Complete instructions and betting 
guide. Versions for all Color Computers, MC-10's 
and Model 100's. State computer type and 
memory when ordering. Harness or thoroughbred, 
$27.95 each, tape or disk. 

NEW GREYHOUND HANDICAPPER! Now use 
your Color Computer for greyhounds, too! This fine 
handicapping program, written by a successful 
greyhound trainer, does it all. Using speed, 
breaking ability, favorite box, kennel performance, 
and other factors, it ranks the dogs in each race 
and recommends quinnella, trifecta and exacta 
bets. For Color Computer only, $27.95 tape or 
disk. 

SPECIAL! Any two handicappers, only $39.95. 
All three only $54.95. 



This lightning fast, full casino Black- 
jack simulation will boggle your 
mind! Up to 5 players and 9 decks. 
The computer deals and plays vacant hands by 
card-counting rules! Blackjaq keeps track of win- 
nings and losings, displays two card-counting 
alogrithms and card distribution, and can even 
print out the results of each hand. Requires 1 6K 
EXT. Only $27.95, tape or disk. 

Use All 64K! 

Did you feel gypped when you found out your 
64K computer had only 32K of memory in BASIC? 
We sure did. So we invented HID 'N RAM, the 
most powerful 64K programming tool on the 
market. With HID 'N RAM you can access that 
hidden 32K of memory from a BASIC program and 
use it to store and sort your data. Write a 28 K 
program and still have more than 3 OK left to store 
numbers, names, addresses or other data. It even 
has a machine language sort routine! The package 
includes complete instructions and a demonstra- 
tion program-a mailing list that holds 450 names 
and addresses IN RAM! Only $27.95, tape or disk. 



federal Hill Software 

FINE PRODUCTS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER, DRAGON AND MC 10 



825 William St. Baltimore, Md. 21230 301-685-6254 



We accept checks, money orders, Visa and 
Master Card. Add $1.50 for shipping and 
handling of software, $5.00 for disk drives. 
Credit Card orders should include card num- 
ber, exp. date and signature. 



ME 



It's A 



Mystery is a learning game 
designed to test (and exercise) 
the user's general knowledge 
of various countries from around the 
world. The program randomly selects a 
set of clues relating to the size, major 
products, demography, topography, etc. 
of one of five countries. The user must 
guess the name of the country, and the 
fewer clues needed, the higher the user 
scores on that round. After 10 written 
clues have been presented the map of 
the country is shown as the final clue. 

The program features a partial high- 
resolution character generator and Hi- 
Res (PMODE4) maps. The user may try 
PMODE3 and the high-speed poke 
(65495,0) to modify the graphics dis- 
play. 

To use Mystery, just run it. The direc- 
tions are part of the program start-up. 
Once the clues are displayed on the 
screen, enter 'C to make a guess at the 
country's name or k N' for the next clue. 
At the end of each round the start-up 
prompts are recycled to allow every new 
player to read the directions. The origi- 
nal version of this program has five 
additional countries/ clue sets. This ver- 
sion is available for $5 from: Tony 
Hallen, 316 S. Jackson St., Rushville, 
IL 62681. 




90 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



32K 
ECB 



nqb — 
RAINBOW I 




By Tony Hallen 



22.... 
39 ... . 
1040 . 
2010 . 
2230 . 



145 
. 12 
. 27 
145 
176 



2515 .... 236 
3025 .... 221 
3060 .... 226 
3085 .... 178 

4010 72 

END .... 123 



T 



The listing: 

1 CLS: PR I NT6235, "WORKING. . . 

3 PCLEAR4 : PM0DE4 , 1 : CLE AR5000 

4 GOSUB 4000 

5 DIM CLUE*<4,9>, MAP*<4,2>, MAR 
KER (4) , ANS*<4> 

7 NO I SE*= "LI 00AEFDCGEBAFEGDAO2 " : 
Nl*= "LI 00O+DEF ADECC ADEGDAECFF " : 
N2*= "LI 000- AGCED AQFEADGCDEGF02 " 
10 MAP* (0, 0) »"BM174,64M+2, 0M-14, 
+18M+6, 8D4M-6, 3M-6, 12M-6, 2M-6, 9L 
24M-14, 7M-6, 3M-4, -8L2E5L4M-6, -4L 
4U6E8H4U3E4H8R4U6M+6 , - 1 4E4U3L2U3 
L16U4L8 

1 2 MAP* < 0 , 1 > m " U2M+2 , -7L4U2H3E6R4 
E5R6D2M+26 , 4R12D1 R8M+ 1 2 , 2D2M+22 , 
6U2M+6 , 1 F3M+ 1 4 , 2M+4 , -4M+4 , 7M-2 , + 
5M-12,8M-10,5 

14 MAP*<0,2)»"BM84, 133M-4, 3D1L2M 
+2, -3L10M+2, -9U9H2U2R2U2L6U2M+10 
,-22U8M74,66 

20 MAP*<l,0)-"BM138,27M+8, 11G5M1 
44 , 42F5M-2 , 6M+& , -5M+ 1 2 , 6D3M 1 72 , S 
6M+20, 8F9R6D5M210, 82M-4, 8M-8, 6G8 
Ml 86, 1 12D6M-6, 10M-6, 1 1M-24, 6G8D6 
M-8 , 9M-4 , 7M-6 , 2M 1 1 8 , 1 80M-2 , -5M- 1 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 91 



0, -9L4E 1 3U 1 2M-4 , - 1 
22 MAP* < 1 , 1 ) ="M102, 132U7M+4, -9M- 
4 , -9L8M-2 , - 1 2L6H2M72 , 90U 1 0M- 1 2 , 4 
L8M-2 , -4L6H5M34 , 70M+6 , -9M+ 1 0 , -5U 
6M52, 44U4R6U2M-4, 2U4R6M+4, -1M+10 
, 5M+8, -4M78, 24M+6, 2M+12, -4R2M+2, 
4L2D8F2R 1 4M+4 , -3M 1 26 , 35M 1 38 , 27 

29 * AUSTRALIA 

30 MAP* ( 2 , 0 ) = " BM 1 62 , 40R2M+2 , 6D6F 
M+2 , 2R4D 1 M+6 , 1 7R4M+6 , 3D2M 1 88 , 86E 
3M+4 , 9F8D 1 2M-4 , 8D3M- 10,1 2D282D6M 




-10, 3D2L8U1H262M152, 148U3L4M-2, - 
962U6G3H2R2U7G8M 1 34 , 1 28H4U4L6U2L 
10M-10, 4H1M94, 126L10M-10, SM-10, - 
3H2E4UBM-4 , - 1 2H4R2L2M52 , 96 
32 MAP* (2,1)=" R4M-2 , -7U6M+B , -7M+ 
1 6 , -2E4M+4 , -9D2R4U3F2M94 , 53M+ 1 0 , 
-5D2F4R4D2R2D2R4H4M1 16, 45R6U2L2U 
2M+ 1 8 , 6E2D2M-4 , 7F2M+ 1 2 , 6D2R6M 1 62 
,40 

35 'CHINA 

36 MAP* < 3 , 0 ) ■ " BM236 , 32D9M-2 , 6B3D 
10G6L4D3L2M-8, 10L464H2U7M188, 84L 
4D3M+6 , 3D 1 R4U2R8D2F 1 M-6 , 2G7M204 , 
1 19D4L4D2R1F2D4M-B, 16F2L2D1M-18, 
1 4D4H4G2H2D4M 1 56 , 1 73D2G2H4U2L8H 1 
0M-16,3M112, 171H2L2U1H1U1L2U2E2H 



3U4H2B2L2M+6, -8U1 1L4U2L4E1U3M92, 
128 

38 MAP*(3, 1)="G2M-14,4M-12,3G4U4 
M-6 , -4M- 1 0 , -3M24 , 1 03U3E2U6R 1 E4U4 
H2L2M-2, -7M-4, -1 1L2U2E3M+8, 2E2R1 
0M+4 , -2U3R2U 1 0M+ 1 0 , 2H2U2R2E4M+ 1 0 
, 1U1H2E3M78, 30M+8, 9D1 1M+14, 8M+4, 
5F2M+24, 6R4M156, 67E6U5R8M+12, -8R 
6E1H4L4G2H3E1UGM+4, 2M+6, -3U3E2U4 
E1U1L2U3M194, 15 

39 MAP*(3,2)«"M+10,2M+10, 13R4F6M 
236,33 

40 'CHILE 

4 1 MAP* (4,0) ="BM120, 7U1 E2U2D 1 F2D 
5F2DD2R2G4D3R2M+4, 1 1R4D5G6M130, 5 
1 M-6 , 1 3D 1 4R2DGG2D4F2D3G2D 1 1 G2D 1 1 
F2D 1 2F4D 1 L2D5F2M 1 24 , 1 56M-2 , 4M+B , 
1 0E2F2E2M+4 , 2M 1 44 , 1 G 1 R2F2D 1 L 1 Q2L 
4M- 1 2 , -7H6U5H2U3E2U2G4U5G2U6E2U3 
M 1 1 2 , 1 44U2E2U 1 E2U6D6R2U 1 9L4D9M 1 1 
4, 106 

42 MAP* (4,1)=" H2U3H2E2M 1 1 6 , 79M-2 
, -13R2U5L2M+2, -17E2U3H2U2QM120, 7 
1000 'BEGIN LOADING ARRAY 

1 020 HEADER*- " **c 1 ues** " : T I TLE*- 
"mystery country" : FOOTER*=" (N=NE 
XT CLUE, G=READY TO GUESS) 

1025 FOR t=0TO4: fors=0TO9: re ADO- 
us* (T,S) :nexts: read ans*<T):next 

T 

1030 IF CNTER=5 THEN RUN ELSE CL 
S:PRINT@64, "DO YOU WANT "TAB (64) " 
INSTRUCTIONS (Y/N)? 
1035 A*=INKEY*: IF A*<>"Y" AND A 
*<>"N" THEN 1035 ELSE IF A*="N" 
THEN 1100 

1040 CLS: PRINTSS, TITLE*; TAB (64) ; 
"THIS PROGRAM WILL PRESENT "TAB (3 
2) "YOU WITH FACTS OR 'CLUES' "TAB 
(32) "CONCERNING A 'MYSTERY COUNT 
RY. ' 

1045 PRINT: PRINT"YOUR JOB IS TO 
GUESS THE NAME " TAB ( 32 ) " OF THIS C 
OUNTR Y . YOUR SCORE " TAB ( 32 ) " W I LL 
BE LOWER FOR EACH CLUE "TAB (32) " 
THAT YOU NEED TO SOLVE THE "TAB (3 
2) "'MYSTERY. ' 
1050 GOSUB2400 

1 055 PR I NT@6 , T I TLE* : PR I NT : PR I NT " 
AFTER EACH CLUE YOU MAY ASK " TAB ( 
32) "FOR ANOTHER CLUE BY PRESSING 
"TAB(32)"'N' FOR 'NEXT CLUE,' OR 

YOU "TAB (32) "MAY TRY TO GUESS TH 
E COUNTRY'S" TAB (32) "NAME BY PRES 
SING 'G' FOR"TAB (32) "'GUESS. ' 
1060 PRINT: PR I NT "THE FINAL CLUE 
WILL BE AN 0UT-"TAB(32) "LINE MAP 

OF THE COUNTRY. "TAB (64) "GOOD LU 
CK ": GOSUB 2400 



92 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



1100 FLAG=0: CNTER= e CNTER+ 1 * KEEP 

TRACK OF # OF GAMES 
1110 CLS : PR I NT6 10, HEADER* : PR I NTS 
32 , STR I NG* < 32 , 45 ) ; : PR I NT@480 , FOO 
TER*; 

1115 COUNTR Y=RND (5)— 1:IF MARKER < 
CO)=l THEN 1115 ELSE MARKER (CO) ■ 
1 

1120 FOR CT«0 TO 9: PLAY "0"+STR* 

<RND (4) +1 ) : PLAY NOISE*: PRINT© <CT 

+3 > #32 , CLUE* <CO,CT) 

1125 A*= I NKEY* : I F A*<> " N " ANDA* <> " 

G"THEN1125 

1130 IF A*="N"THEN NEXTCT: GOSUB2 



1140 GOSUB2200 : GOTO 1 1 25 

2000 'BEGIN MAP, WRITE MESSAGES 

BRANCH TO GUESS INPUT 

20 1 0 COLOR0 , 1 : PCLS : SCREEN 1 , 1 

20 1 5 A A*= " THE LAST " : DRAW "BM4, 10 

" : GOSUB 4 1 00 : AA*= " CLUE : " : DRAW " B 

M4,20":GOSUB4100 

2020 FOR T=*0 TO 2: DRAW MAP* (CO, T 
>:NEXT T 

2025 GOSUB 2500 'PAINT MAP 

2026 IF FLAG=2 THEN AA*= " THAT * S " 
: DRAW " S4BM4 ,10": G0SUB4 1 00 : AA*= " I 
T ! ! " : DRAW " BM8 , 20 " : GOSUB4 1 00 : RETU 
RN 



2030 FLAG=1:FORT=1TO3000:NEXTT * 

FLAGYL AST CLUE INDICATOR 

2050 GOSUB 2200: RETURN 'INPUT GU 

ESS, RETURN 

2100 'GIVE ANSWER 

2110 CLS:PRINTS64, "SORRY — THE A 
NSWER IS"; TAB (64) ;ANS*(CO) J " . " : 
PRINT: PRINT 
2120 GOTO 2320 
2200 ' INPUT GUESS 

2205 CLS: PRINT632, "CAREFULLY TY 

PE COUNTRY ' S NAME " ; TAB ( 32 ) ; " ( SPE 

LLING MUST BE EXACT). 

22 1 0 PR I NT : PR I NT : I NPUT GUESS* 

2215 IF GUESS*-ANS*(CO) THEN 230 

0 

2217 
DD02 
2220 
2225 



PLAY " O 1 L30ECDEEDCCDEDDECCE 



IF FLAG=1 THEN 2100 
PR I NT: PR I NT "NOPE. TRY AGAIN 
."; TAB (64) ;" (PRESS ANY KEY TO RE 
TURN) 

2230 IF INKEY*=""THEN2230 

2235 CLS: PR I NTS 10, HEADER*: PRINT© 

32, STRING* (32, 45) ; : PR I NT ©480, FOO 

TER*; 

2245 FOR T=0TOCT : PR I NT632* ( T+3 ) , 
CLUE* (CO, T) :NEXTT 
2250 RETURN 




AUTOTERM 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLD'S 
SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING 



EASY TO USE 

ON-SCREEN EDITING via cursor. 
Full prompting and error checking. 
Key Beep and Error Beebop. Scroll 
bkwd/fwd while on line. Save/load 
files while on line. Maintain a disk 
copy of session. Automatic graph- 
ics. True lower case. Screen widths 
of 32, 40, 42, 50, 64. No split words 
on screen/printer. Print all or part of 
text. Search for strings. Well written 
manual goes step-by-step and has 
many KSM examples. Back cover is 
a cheat sheet. 

RECOMMEND 32K to 64K 
EASY UPGRADE 

Price Difference +$13 



PLEASANTLY POWERFUL 

Total communications ability, 128 
ASCII chars, 1200 baud, etc. Send 
text, graphics, BASIC, ML. Scan/ 
Edit current data while receiving 
more data. Any modem. Fully 
supports D.C. Hayes and others. 
Any printer, page size, margins, 
etc. Override narrow text width of 
received data. Examine/change 
parameters, KSMs and disk direc- 
tories at any time. Handles files 
which are larger than memory. 

CASSETTE $39.95 
DISKETTE $49.95 

Add $3 shipping and handling 

MC/VISA/C.O.D. 



TRULY AUTOMATIC 

Create, edit, print, save and load 
Keystroke Multipliers (KSMs). 
KSMs automate almost any activ- 
ity. Dial via modem, sign-on, 
interact, sign-off. Perform entire 
session. Act as a message taker. 
KSM may include parameter 
changes, disk operations, editing, 
time delays, looping, execution of 
other KSMs, waiting for part- 
specified responses, branching 
based upon responses. 

PXE Computing 
11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson, Texas 75060 
214/699-7273 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 93 



2300 * SCOREBOARD FOR CORRECT ANS 
HER 

2302 FL AG«2 : COLOR0 , 1 : PCLS : SCREEN 
l,l:60SUB 2020 

2304 FOR T*l TO 2: SCREEN 1,0: PL 
AY N 1 SE* : SCREEN 1, l: PL AY N2SE*:NE 
XTT 

2310 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" YOU G 
UESSED I N " CT+ 1 " CLUES " 5 TAB (64) ; "F 

OR A SCORE OF"; 100-CT*3; " ";T 

AB(64)5"GOOD JOB! 

2320 PR I NT: PR I NT "TRY ANOTHER GA 
ME <Y/N>?" 

2330 Z*=INKEY*: IF Z*="Y" THEN 1 
030 ELSE IF Z*="N" THEN PRINT: PR 
I NT " BYE-BYE . " : PR I NT : END ELSE GOT 
O 2330 

2400 * PROMPT FOR TURNING PAGE 

2410 PR I NT: PR I NT "PRESS < ENTER > 

TO GO ON. . . ":LINEINPUT Z* 

2420 CLS 

2430 RETURN 

2500 'PAINT ROUTINE 

2510 IF C0O5 THENPAINT< 122,92) , 

0,0 

2515 IF C0=4 THEN PAINT < 132, 176) 
,0,0 

2520 IF C0=5 THEN PAINT < 152, 72) , 
0,0: PAINT (128, 100) ,0,0: PAINT (132 



*** NEW *** 

Formalf er 2.0 

the fastest, most complete 
office package yet! 

Totally Menu Driven 
Customize with company information & printer 
Complete "on screen" instructions 

FORMS STORES FIGURES 

letter complete forms quantity 

invoice item list list 

quote subquotes net 

purchase order letters discount 

mail order footnotes subtotals 

confirm order customer info tax 

receipt freight, etc. 



SEPARATE CONFIGURE 
PROGRAM 

for company info 
printer options 
quote &inv. # 
w/auto sequencing 
auto date 

Challenger Software 

3703 1 31 st Ave N 
Clearwater, FL 33520 
or Call (813)577-3998 



PRINTS 

form feed 
letterhead 
envelope 
multiple copy 
emphasized 

SAO 32l <disc 

VISA/MC 

send for more information 
and catalog of other 
fine software 



,35) ,0,0 

2525 IF C0=7 THEN PAINT ( 144, 87) , 
0, 0: PAINT (148, 90) , 0, 0: PAINT (47, 9 
2) ,0,0 
2530 RETURN 

3000 DATA "SIZE OF COLORADO + WYO 
MING", "1,300 MILES OF COASTLINE" 
, "AVG. RAINFALL LESS THAN 20 IN. 
","417. OF LAND USED FOR FARMING" 
, " MUCH IRRIGATION USED 
3005 DATA "PR I NCI PAL PRODUCTS: WI 
NE, OLIVES" , " VEGETABLES, CIT 
RUS FRUIT"," TEXTILES, FOOT 
WEAR" 

3010 DATA "RELIGION: MOSTLY ROMAN 

CATHOLIC", "3RD LARGEST EUROPEAN 

COUNTRY", SPA IN 
3015 DATA "POPULATION: 124,700,0 
00"," 637. LIVE IN CITIES", "ETH 
N I CS : PORUGUESE , AFR I CAN " , " REL I G 
ION: 90*/. ROMAN CATHOLIC" , "LARGER 

THAN CONTINENTAL U.S","4,603 MI 
LES OF COASTLINE", "CLIMATE: TROP 
I C AL / SEM I -TROP I CAL " 
3020 DATA "PORTUGUESE IS OFFICIA 
L LANGUAGE", "WORLD LEADER IN COF 
FEE EXPORTS", "LARGEST COUNTRY IN 

S. AMERICA", BRAZIL 
3025 DATA "POPULATION: 14,926,80 
0"," 60"/. LIVE IN CITIES", "ABOU 
T THE SIZE OF CONT. U.S.","MUCH 
DESERT AND ARID LAND" , "OFFICIAL 
LANGUAGE: ENGLISH" , "957. OF POP. 
IS ENGLISH 

3030 DATA "IS A STRONG U.S. ALLY 
"," YOUNGER THAN U.S. AS A NATION 
", "PRODUCES MUCH WOOL & MUTTON", 
"LOCATED IN SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE" 
, AUSTRALIA 

3035 DATA "POPULATION: 1,004,000 
, 000" , "MOST LIVE ON FARMS", "REL I 
G I ON : BUDDH I SM , CONFUC I AN I SM " , " 

1/10 OF LAND IS CULTIVATED", "2 
/3 OF LAND DESERT OR MOUNTAINS", 
"HAS HIGHEST SPOT IN WORLD "," 707. 

LITERACY RATE" 
3040 DATA "COMMUNIST GOVT.","KNO 
WN FOR TEA & SILK PROD. "," 2ND LA 
RGEST COUNTRY IN WORLD", CHINA 
3045 DATA " POPUL AT I ON : 1 1 , 1 00 , 00 
0"," 807. LIVE IN CITIES", "SLIG 
HTLY LARGER THAN TEXAS" , "2, 650 M 
I LES OF COASTLINE" , "VERY MOUNTAI 
NOUS " , " OFF I C I AL LANGUAGE : SPAN I S 
H", "RELIGION: ROMAN CATHOLIC", "P 
RESIDENT IS HEAD OF GOVT. " 
3050 DATA "EXPORTS 107. OF WORLD" 
S COPPER", "LOCATED IN WESTERN HE 
MI SPHERE", CHILE 



94 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



3055 DATA "POPULATION: 3,100,000 
"," 837. LIVE IN CITIES" , "SIZE 
OF COLORADO", "HILLY AND MOUNTAIN 
OUS", "OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: ENGLISH 
","84y. OF POPULATION IS ENGLISH" 
,"99% LITERACY RATE", "CHIEF PROD 
UCTS: GRAIN, TEXTILES", "QUEEN IS 

TITULAR HEAD OF STATE" 
3060 DATA "LOCATED IN SOUTHERN H 
EM I SPHERE " , NEW ZEALAND 
3065 DATA "POPULATION: 6,343,000 
" , " LANGUAGES : GERMAN , FRENCH " , " R 
ELIGION: ROM. CATH. , PROTESTANT" 
,"99X LITERACY RATE", "2 TIMES TH 
E SIZE OF MASS. ", "MOUNTAINS COVE 
R 707. OF LAND", "PRESIDENT IS HE A 
D OF STATE", "PRODUCTS: INSTRUMEN 
TS, WATCHES" 

3070 DATA" CHOCOLATE, 
CHEESE " , " BANK I NG " , SW I T 

ZERLAND 

3075 DATA "POPULATION 10,000,000 
"," 347. WORK ON FARMS" , "OFF ICI 
AL LANGUAGE : SPAN I SH " , " ETHN ICS: 
NEGRO , SPAN I SH " , " 967. L I TERAC Y " , " 
SLIGHTLY SMALLER THAN PENN.","2, 
500 MILES OF COASTLINE", "COMMUN I 
ST D I CTATORSH IP"," PRODUCTS : SUGA 
R, TOBACCO" 

3080 DATA "A CARIBBEAN COUNTRY", 
CUBA 

3085 DATA "POPULATION: 700,000,0 

00"," 227. LIVE IN CITIES", "367. 
LITERACY RATE", "1/3 THE SIZE OF 
TOTAL U.S.", "HAS HIGHEST MOUNT. 
RANGE", "VERY DENSELY POPULATED" 

," PRESIDENT IS HEAD OF STATE","P 

ARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT" 

3090 DATA "PRODUCTS: TEXTILES, S 

TEEL"," RICE, GRAIN 

S", INDIA 

3095 DATA "POPULATION: 69,400,00 
0"," 657. LIVE IN CITIES", "747. 
LITERACY RATE", "OFFICIAL LANGUAG 
E: SPANISH", "3 TIMES THE SIZE OF 
TEXAS", "457. OF LAND IS ARID", "A 
VERAGE ALTITUDE: 3,000 FT." 
3100 DATA "PRESIDENT IS HEAD OF 
GOVT. ", "PRODUCTS: COTTON, SUGAR 
CANE"," COFFEE, RUBBER" 

, MEXICO 

4000 'CHARACTER DATA 

4001 DIM CC*(12) 

4002 CC* < 0 ) = " U4 5 E2 ; F2 ; D2 ; NL4 ; D2 ; 
BM+3,0" »A 

4003 CC* < 1 ) ="BM+1 , -0; HI ; U4; El ; R2 
;Fl;BM+0,4;Gl;L2;BM+6,0" 'C 

4004 CC* < 2 ) = " NR4 5 U3 ; NR2 ; U3 ; R4 ; BM 
+3, +6" 'E 



4005 CC* ( 3 ) - " U3 ; NU3 ; R4 ; NU3 ; D3 ? BM 
+3,0" »H 

4006 CC* <4> = "BM+1 , 0; Rl ; NR1 ; U6; NL 
l;Rl;BM+4,+6" * I 

4007 CC* (5) ="NU6; R4; Ul ; BM+3, +1 " 
*L 

4008 CC*(6)="BM+0,-l;Fl;R2;El;Ul 
; HI ; L2; HI s Ul ; El ; R2; Fl ; BM+3, +5" ' 
s 

4009 CC* < 7 ) - " BM+2 , +0 ; U6 ; NL2 5 R2 ; B 
M+3,+6" »T 

4010 CC* <8)="BM+0, -l;NU5;Fl;R2; 
El; US; BM+3, 6" *U 

401 1 CC* <9> ="BM+2, +1 ; Ul ; BM+0, -2; 
U5;BM+5,7" * ! 

4012 CC* ( 10) ="BM+2, -1 ; Ul ; BM+0, -2 
;Ul;BM+5,+5" ' : 

4013 CC* ( 1 1 ) ="BM+1 , -5; E2; BM+4, +7 

II * 

4014 CC*(12) = "BM+6,0 1 

4015 RETURN 
4100 'WRITE 'EM 

4110 FOR XX=1 TO LEN <AA*) 

4120 X*=MID*<AA«, XX, 1) 

4130 CC= I NSTR < 1, "ACEH I LSTU! : ' " , X 

*>-l: IF CC<0 THEN CC=12 'MAKES 

BLANKS FROM UNKNOWN CHARS 

4140 DRAW CC*<CC) 

4150 NEXTXX: RETURN ^ 



THE BURNER + 

EPROM Programming and Reading 
Device 




With THE BURNER + , 
programming and 
using EPROMs 
becomes simplicity 
itself . 



Features : .^^a^m 

• The best place for utility programs 

• Completely compatible with disk system 

• Gold edge connector 

• Both 50 ms and high speed 2ms modes 

• Change EPROMs without turning computer off 

• Software (not essential) included on a chip 

• EPROM is mapped between 49152 and 65279 

• Will directly program: 2716 /32/ 32A/64/ 128 

adapters avoidable for 68766 and others 

ac adapter also available (9V baft, clips incl.) 

Full Warranty $157 CDN (incl. P+H) 

(currently $119 US ) 

POLLAK ELECTRONICS 
13761 Grosvenor Road 
Surrey , B.C. Canada 
V3R 5E5 

Tel.: (604) 585 2108 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 95 




With school getting underway, it 's time to make 
a date for learning — and let the kids help 



Create A Calendar 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



September is back to school time. 
Unlike the usually sluggish end of 
the school year, children are quite 
motivated to learn at this time. Although 
few will admit it, children often get 
bored by the end of the summer vaca- 
tion and are glad to return to school. 

It's a good idea to seize this moment 
of enthusiasm before it fades. One Way 
is to explain some of the exciting up- 
coming events that you have planned 
for your children or students. 

To help you accomplish this, we will 
illustrate a September calendar on your 
CoCo. We also will show a way to print 
a blank calendar form for any month on 
a printer. 

Our program will draw an outline of 
the calendar for September on Lines 30 
to 250. When you run this program you 
will notice several space size limitations 
on this calendar. These are due to the 
limitations of the screen size of our 
computer. There are, of course, no 



(Steve Blyn teaches both excep- 
tional and gifted children* holds 
two master's degrees and has won 
awards for the design of programs 
to aid the handicapped. He and 
his wife, Cheryl, own Computer 
Island.) 



space limitations on the printer portion 
of the program. 

Having only 32 spaces across hori- 
zontally and 16 vertical lines presents 
some space problems. Although some 
months have parts of six weeks, we 
could only fit five weeks on the screen. 
We had to include Sept. 1 above Sept, 8 
in the line with the name of the month. 
The names of the days of the week also 
were compromised by being placed at 
the bottom of the screen. Please keep in 
mind that the other popular competitive 
computers currently sold would all 
present similar screen limitations. 



"It's a good idea to 
seize this moment of 
enthusiasm before it 
fades." 



Here are some of the ways that we 
have used the screen calendar portion of 
this program with children: 



1) Review the September holidays. 
What are their dates? What days of the 
week are these? 

2) Review any student birthdays or 
any class trips for the month. 

3) How many Mondays or Wednes- 
days are there in this month? Are there 
more of a certain day than another? For 
example, are there more Wednesdays or 
Saturdays? 

4) Which date is 10 days after Sept. 
8? Which is 1 1 days after Sept. 4? Which 
date is 12 days before Sept. 29? 

5) What day of the week was the last 
day in August? What day of the Week 
will the first day in October be? 

6) Which date is the fourth Thursday 
in September? Which is the third Mon- 
day? 

7) How many more days is it until 
Freddy's birthday on§ept. 1 2 or Cheryl's 
on Sept. 26? 

After the calendar appears on the 
screen, you may press 'E' to end the 
program or k P' to printout a blank 
calendar form on your printer. This 
choice appears on Lines 260-270. 

The remainder of the program is the 
printer routine. This appears on Lines 
280-390. If you do not have a printer, 
the program need not be keyed in 
beyond Line 250. 



96 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



PRO-COLOR-SERIES 

©1984 BY DERRINGER SOFTWARE, INC. 

M©l©OY s - BUT M©B©DY UAB &©ME DT LOIMQEIR AIMO (BETTER THAN USS 
A fully integrated series of programs that offers a full range of information tracking capability. 



PRO-COLOR-FILE *Enhanced* $79.95 

This is the main link in the series. With PRO-COLOR-FILE, you can 
design a full featured database that is custom tailored to your needs. 
Its ability to allow the user to custom define formats is unmatched by 
anything else on the market. A full range of features for information 
handling is available for any application you might have: 

* 60 Data Fields for storing data 

* 1020 bytes capacity per record 

* Variable record length capability 

* Multi-drive drive ability 

* Allows maximum system storage 

* 4 Custom designed screen formats 

* 28 Equation lines (+-*/) 

* 8 Custom designed report formats 

* Send reports to printer or screen 

* Summarize file by groups of records 

* Column totals and averages 

* Posting routine performs file wide calculations and updates fields 

* 6 Custom designed mailing label formats 

* Custom designed menus for selection of reports and label formats 

* Selectable password protection for data entry screens and reports 

* Sort any size file 

* 3 level sort capability 

* Select options for sorting or reporting sub-sets of a file 

* Duplicate records and fields 

* Cursor controlled text editing 

* Fast record selection via indexing 

* Global file searching 

As a database is created, ail of the formats are stored in a file which 
means you won't have to enter it each time you want to print a report or 
label. Once your database is up and running, you can install a limited 
menu that will lead even the most timid user through the program. 
Since menu selection of report formats are custom made, you'll know 
exactly which format does what. 

PRO-COLOR-FILE is also supported by a NATIONAL USERS' group. 
Their quarterly newsletter is packed with ideas for using PRO- 
COLOR-FILE to its fullest. A listing of database programs that have 
already been created is also provided for comparing notes with other 
users. Useful database information such as magazine articles are 
available on a data disk for use on your own system. 

Think about it, how can a program exist for over a year and a half, be 
sold in every state and overseas, and have the support of a national 
users' group? Simple, it's that good! 



PRO-COLOR-FORMS** $39.95 

This is the second link in the series. PRO-COLOR-FORMS offers the 
ability to merge data files with text files. Just imagine being able to 
place the data you enter with PRO-COLOR-FILEanywhereon a sheet 
of paper, either by itself or within an external source of text, then you'll 
have the picture. This means you could write a general lettertoalistof 
people but have each one custom printed with their name and 
address. You can pre-enter checks into a data base and then have the 
checks printed on form-feed checks. You might even use form-feed 
statements for sending out to customers at the end of each month. All 
of the parameters can be modified to indicate just what size "page" 
you need for any application: 

* 6 Menu Selectable formats 

* Page width from 40 to 133 characters 

* Lines per page from 7 to 66 

* Supports printer control codes 

* Converts any ASCII file for use 

* Prints multiple copies 

* Interfaces with PRO-COLOR-FILE 

* Password protection 

If you need to generate forms from your data files then chances are 
you can do just that with PRO-COLOR-FORMS. Form letters, billing 
statements, index cards, or even post cards can be used easily. 

PRO-COLOR-DIR** $24.95 

The latest addition to the series is a utility for organizing disk direct- 
ories into one nice listing. PRO-COLOR-DIR reads the directory of a 
diskette and then stores valuable information about each program 
into a master data file. This data file can then be accessed by PRO- 
COLOR-FILE for sorting, searching and reporting. PRO-COLOR-DIR 
will create a record for each filename on a diskette and store the 
following information about each one: 

* Diskette ID name 

* Date diskette was created 

* Last date diskette was updated 

* Filename and extension 

* File type (BASIC, ML, Text, Data) 

* Number of Grans allocated 

* Number of sectors allocated and used 

* Machine Language program addresses 

PRO-COLOR-DIR allows for hardcopies of a single diskette's files and 
has a versatile label printing routine. A global replace function can 
re-store a diskette's files with deleted files being removed or new ones 
appended automatically. 



'PRO-COLOR-FORMS & PRO-COLOR-DIR Require PRO-COLOR-FILE to be used' 

*Requires 32K Disk Basic * 



Give your Color Computer 
a Masters Degree in Business. 

SALE 



see us at II PRINCETON 




Ch sck s 

PRO-COLOR-FILE *Enhanced* $79.95 Money order 

PRO-COLOR-FORMS $39.95 _ 

_ ^ _ _ ^ . ^ *k a .- Master oard 

PRO-COLOR-DIR $24.95 cod 

ALL THREE PROGRAMS $124.95 (Best Value) Add $3.00 for 

Shipping & Handling 
Over seas add $15.00 

Derringer Software Inc., P.O. Box 5300, Florence, S.C. 29502 — (803) 665-5676 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. 



Note: All of our programs have registration cards - If you've purchased one from another dealer, then you should be registered 
with us. If not, send your name, program ID#and where the program was purchased. We want to keep you informed about changes. 



new 



MUSICA 2™ 



Join our MUSICA 
USER'S GROUP 



The best just got better. 

• Dump music to any dot matrix graphics printer. (Epson, 
Okidata, Gemini, 10X, R.S. printers, etc.) 

• Repeat any portion of music using repeat bars. 

• 4 Voices produced simultaneously. 

• Input notes from the keyboard or joystick. 

• Develop your own timbres by specifying 9 harmonics. 

• Change tempo at any point in the music any number of times. 

• Save or load music from tape or disk. 

• Music may be played from BASIC. 

• Music produced in stereo when used with the STEREO PAK. 

• 100% machine code so it is fast, no wait times. 

• Volume of each of the voices may be specified separately. 
•Available memory is constantly shown on screen. 

• Vibrato effect possible. 

• Waveshapes may be switched as the music plays. 

•A 30 page manual completely describes its operation. 

• Powerful music editing capabilities. 

• Double bar repeat, block move and title lines supported. 

Tape (32K) $34.95 Disk (32K) $39.95 





4*V8]€£ 




1 



STEREO PAK 



Plug this gem into your computer, connect to your home stereo 
system and sit back and enjoy music realism. The STEREO PAK 
is a hardware music synthesizerthat plays our MUSIC LIBRARY 
and MUSICA 2 music in stereo. Because it was designed 
specifically with music reproduction in mind, the sound is 
superb. The highs are crisp and clear while the bass notes will 
rattle your walls. 

The STEREO PAK is all hardware. It is intended as an 
enhancement for MUSICA 2 and our MUSIC LIBRARY. Disk 
owners may use the STEREO PAK with the R.S. Multi-Pak or our 
Y-CABLE. ($29.95). 




NEW! 



MUSIC LIBRARY™ 100 



You get over 1 00 four voice songs with a combined playing time 
of 3 hours. That's right, 3 hours of music. You won't believe your 
CoCo could sound so good. To fit over 1 00 songs required both 
sides of 5 C-20 tapes and the disk version uses 5 f u II d isks (that's 
a half box of disks). 

A JUKEBOX selection program is included to allow you to select 
specific songs or automatically play each. These songs are 
ready to go, you don't need MUSICA 2 or a knowledge of music. 

These songs were developed using the best music program 
available for the CoCo; MUSICA 2. The tunes may be used as 
source files for MUSICA 2 and changed by the user. When 
coupled with the STEREO PAK the songs are reproduced in 
stereo with unsurpassed realism. 



MUSIC LIBRARY 100 categories: 



Stage, Screen, and TV 
Music of the 70's 
Music of the 60's 
Music of the 50's 
Old Time Favorites 



Classical 

Christmas (popular) 
Christmas (traditional) 
Patriotic 
Polka Party 



MUSIC LIBRARY 200 

Our second set of 100 tunes, 3 1 /2 hours of music. 
MUSIC LIBRARY 300 

Our third set of 100 tunes, 3 more hours of music. 

MUSIC LIBRARY (All Versions) . . . (32K Tape) $34.95 

(32K Disk) $39.95 



VISA* 



see us at 




Dealer Inquiries 
Invited 



If your dealer doesn't stock our 
products, ask for them. 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA, and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6Va% sales tax for the STEREO PAK. 



Speech Systems 

38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BAT AV I A, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (VOICE) 
(312) 879-6811 (24 HR. BBS) 

CALL ANY DAY, ANYTIME TO ORDER. ALSO ORDER BY MAIL OR BBS. 
WE SHIP FROM STOCK WITHIN 48 HOURS. 



We have included no printer control 
codes. This is because there is such a 
wide variety of printers that are used 
with CoCos. Eacrrprinter has its own 
accompanying control codes. We sug- 
gest that you first select the elongated 
mode on whichever printer you use. 
You will then get the largest calendar 
possible. This will fill up most of an 8 by 
1 1 sheet of paper. 

The blank form has no month indi- 
cated nor has it anydays indicated. This 



is done to enable you to use it for any or 
all months. Filling in the dates is, of 
course, one of the child's activities. 

Each month, a new form could be 
handed out to your child or students. If 
you have a large amount of students, it 
is best to have copies of an original 
made rather than to run off too many 
copies on your printer. Most of our 
printers are not really made for the 
heavy use of multiple copies. 

Once the dates are filled in on the 



calendar, it is time to indicate the special 
events and birthdays of that month. 
September is a good example of a 
month with many special days. Among 
others, they include Labor Day, the 
beginning of Autumn, Rosh Hashana, 
and RAINBOWfest, Princeton, New 
Jersey! 

We hope you and your children enjoy 
using these calendars. We, at Computer 
Island, would of course enjoy hearing of 
any other ways you can think of to use 
the calendar. 




The listing: 

10 REM "STEVE BLYN" 

20 REM " COMPUTER ISLAND, NY, 1984 

30 CLS 

40 a««" ,, +STRIN0*<30,207> 

50 B*=" ****** 

* *" 

60 FOR T= 1 TO 5 

70 PR I NT A*: PRINTS*: PRINTB* 

80 NEXTT 

90 PRINTS27, " 1 " | 

100 PRINTS11, "September"; 

110 FOR T=2 TO B:PRINT@34+N,T; :N 

=N+4:NEXT 

120 N=0 

130 FOR T=10 TO 15:PRINT@133+N," 
*";t; :N=N+4:NEXT 

140 PRINT@131, "9"; 
150 PRINT@157, "*"; 
160 N=0 

170 FOR T=17 TO 22: PRINT8229+N, " 

*";t; :n=n+4:next 

180 PRINT9227, "16"; 
190 PRINTS253, "*"; 
200 N»0 

210 for t=24 to 29: prints325+n, " 
*";t:n«n+4:next t 

220 PRINTe323,"23"; 

230 PRINT6349, "*"; 

240 PRINTS419, "30"; 

250 PRINT@480," SUN MON TUE WED 

THU FRI SAT "; 
260 EN*=INKEY* 

270 IF EN*«"E" THEN 390 ELSE IF 

EN*="P" THEN 280 ELS^ 260 

280 CLS : PR I NT " WHAT IS THE NAME O 

F THIS MONTH": INPUT M* 

290 PRINT#-2,TAB<5> "CALENDAR FO 



R ";M* 

300 A*=" "+STRING*<29, "#") 
310 PRINT#-2, " " 
320 PRINT#-2,A* 

330 PRINT#-2, " SUN MON TUE WED 

THU FRI SAT" 

340 FOR A= 1 TO 6 

350 PRINT#-2,A* 

360 FOR B= 1 TO 4: FRINT#-2, B*: NE 
XT B 

370 NEXT A 

380 PRINT#-2,A* 

390 CLS: END ^ 





w Software 

^KEEP— TRAK^ 

"DOUBLE-ENTRY" General Ledger Accounting System 

Reg.^9^5 - — ONLY $14.95 

"Double-Entry" General Ledger Accounting System for home or business: 16k. 32k. 64k 
user-friendly menu driven. Program features: balance sheet, income & expense statement 
(current & 'YTD'), journal, ledger. 899 accounts & 2400 entries on 32k & 64k (74b accounts 
& entries on 16k) disk only. 

"OMEGA FILE" Reg. Jfi0r95r— ONLY $14.95 

Filing data base. File any information with Omega File. Records can have up to 16 fields with 
255 characters per field (4080 characters /record}. Sort, match & print any field. User- 
friendly menu driven. Manual included (32k/64k disk only). 

"GRADE EASY" Reg. $GM5 ONLY $29.95 

Grade Easy is simply the best educators data base available! Keep complete student pro- 
files (l.D. no., name, address, telephone, age. birthday and S.S. no.) Grade Easy allows for 
weighted grades or true grades. Fully menu driven, very simple to use. (32k/64 - disk only) 

The One and Only "A M V Reg. $29t93-— ONLY $14.95 

AMT starts where everyone else ends. AMT calculates almost any sales or purchase out- 
come. Total interest, total principle, total payment are all figured. AMT is not just an 
amortization scheduling program, but a cost forcasting and prediction program. Useful to 
anyone who plans to sell or. buy something with interest. (Disk Only) 

"PI FILE" — Personal Information File $14.95 

This program stores names, addresses, phone numbers and brief notes. PI File is for 
client lists, church groups. Scouting, clubs, user groups or any other similar use. Prints 
mailing labels. Sorts on any field. (Disk Only) 

"Home Inventory" $14.95 - "Memo File" $14.95 - "Billing File" $14.95 



FLIP & FILE 50 $19.95 
FUJI-MAXELL-VERBATIN $19.50 
DATA DEFENDER 70w/lock $21.95 



VOLKS MODEM $59.95 

RITEMAN PLASPRINTERS $275.00 

RITEMAN 15" $549.00 

GENERIC DISKS $17.95 



COMPARE FEATURES AND PRICE, then buy 
"THE OTHER GUY S SOFTware!" 

(add $1 ,50 for postage and handling) 

Send check or money order, US funds to: 

THE OTHER GUY'S SOFTware • 875 S. Main • Logan, UT 84321 

PHONE (801) 753-7620 or WRITE for a FREE CATALOG 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 99 



COCO GRAPHICS 



16K 

ECB 



5 



Build A 

Honeycomb From BASIC 



By Don Inman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Review of LOGO Honeycombs 

Last month a group of simple Color LOGO procedures was 
developed to draw a honeycomb of hexagons. The proce- 
dures and final results are repeated here so that you can 
compare them to the BASIC program presented in this issue. 

Figure 1: 




TO BEE 
CLEAR 

HEX HEX6 HEX 12 
END 

TO HEX 

REPEAT 6(FD 15 RT 60) 
END 



main procedure 



center hexagon 



(Don Inman is the acknowledged master of micro- 
computer graphics and the author of a large number of 
books. He has been working with Color LOGO since it 
was introduced. His column concerns a blend of 
graphics produced by both Color LOGO and Extended 
Color BASIC J 



TO HEX6 — central ring 

PU RT 120 FD 15 LT 60 
FD 15 LT60 PD 
REPEAT 6(HEX FD 15 LT 60) 
END 

TO HEX 12 - outer ring 

PU RT 120 FD 15 LT 60 
FD 15 LT60 PD 

REPEAT 6 (HEX FD 1 5 LT 60 HEX FD 1 5 RT 60 FD 1 5 
LT 60) 
END 

BASIC Honeycombs 

Color LOGO can easily draw a wide variety of geometric 
figures due to its ability to turn any angle before drawing a 
line. Extended Coior BASIC has the DRA W command to 
draw in a similar manner. However, DRA W is limited to 
angle changes that are' multiples of 45 degrees. 

Figure 2 




100 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



HARD DISK 

5 meg $1295 



for the co co 
10 meg $1595 



-- COMPLETE SYSTEM JUST PLUG IN 



HARD DISK - OPERATING SYSTEM features 

•FULLY INTEGRATED INTO COLOR DISK BASIC 
•TAPE TO HARD DISK 
•DISK TO HARD DISK 
•HARD DISK TO TAPE 
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•DU PLICATE 

• COLD START f 
•M-RUN 

• ALL EXTENDED DISK BASIC COMMANDS 




without hard drive 

INTERFACE CARD & H-DOS 



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BOOT STRAPS OS-9 OR flex, mdir (master directory) 



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INCREASE YOUR 64 K Co-Co OR Co-Co II TO 128 K RAM 

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USA 

RCS MICRO INC. 
MAIN STREET 
DERBY LINE, VERMONT 
ZIP 05830 
TEL: 802-873-3386 
ORDER LINE 800-361-4970 




CANADA 

RCS MICRO INC. 

759, VICTORIA SQUARE 405 
MONTREAL H2Y 2J3 
TEL:(514) 287-1563 
ORDER LINE ONLY ★ ★ ★ 
QUEBEC - ONTARIO - MARITIMES 

800-361-5338 
WESTERN CANADA 800-361-5155 



TERMS: VISA - MASTER CARD - AMERICAN EXPRESS 



HOURS: MONDAY - SATURDAY 10:00 AM - 6:00 PM 



A hexagon is made of six sides with interior angles of 120 
degrees. Thus, each succeeding side must be rotated 60 
degrees from the direction at which the last side was drawn. 
The DRA ^command of BASIC cannot be used in this case. 

Figure 3 



60° 




120° 



A knowledge of trigonometric functions can come to the 
aid of BASIC. However, the subject of trigonometry is not 
introduced until late in the high school curriculum. Due to 
the unpopularity of trigonometry and other math courses, 
many students are never exposed to its magical ratios. Sine 
and cosine functions can be used to calculate the end points 
of sides necessary for drawing a hexagon. Let's take a look at 
how a hexagon is drawn to see how to use some trigonometry. 

I) First side: select an arbitrary starting point, say X= 1 15 
and Y = 90. If we draw the first side straight up (an angle 
of 0 degrees), only the Y value will change. 



Figure 4 



(115,75) 



Change 
in Y = -15 



(115,90) 



2) Second side: now use the end point of the first side 
(1 15,75) as the starting point of the second side. 

Figure 5 



AX= change in X 
AY= change in Y 
L= length of side = 15 




The sine of an angle is the ratio of the side opposite the 
angle to the hypotenuse, and the cosine of an angle is the 
ratio of the side adjacent to the angle to the hypotenuse. In 
this case, 



S1N(60) = ^ 
From these ratios, it follows that: 



Ay 

and COS(60) = -^ JL 



X = L*SIN(60) 
Y = L*COS(60) 
Therefore, 



values may be found in 
standard trig tables 



NEW X = 1 15 + (15*.866) or about J28 
NEW Y = 75 - ( 15*.500) or about 82.5 

It would be rather tedious to calculate all the necessary 
endpoints when BASIC has built-in SIN and COS functions 
that will do all the work for us. However, BASIC requires that 
the values of the angles be given in radians rather than 
degrees. There are 27r radians in a circle corresponding to 
the 360 degrees in a circle. A ir is approximately equal to 
3.1416. Therefore, 60 degrees is approximately equal to 
27r/6 or about 1.0472 radians. 

3) The third side is drawn by turning 60 more degrees or 
120 degrees from the original direction. 

Figure 6 




In other words, considering the original direction as zero 
degrees, we see that we have turned an additional 60 degrees 
for each side. Therefore, a regular pattern seems to be devel- 
oping that may be duplicated by a simple program. From 
each new point, the SIN and COS functions can be used to 
calculate the next point. This seems like an ideal use for the 
LINE command. 

LINE(OLDX,OLDY) — (NEWX,NEWY),PSET 

A simple FOR-NEXT loop duplicates the pattern. 



(115,90) 



FOR Z = 0 TO 5 

A =Z* 1.0472 

XA = X+15*SIN(A) 

YA = Y-15*COS(A) 

LINE(X,Y)-(XA,YA),PSET 

X=XA: Y=YA 
NEXT Z 



*- angle increases 
*- X end point 
Y end point 
*- draw line 
*- end point becomes new 
start point 



102 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



16 K DOS CARD 

□ PLUGS INTO YOUR J-M DISK CONTROLLER AND 
ALLOWS YOU TO MAP ON AN EXTRA 8 K E-PROM 
ABOVE DOS. 

□ USE YOUR OWN 24 PIN, 8 K DOS AND ONE 2764 
E-PROM OR TWO 2764 E-PROMS. 

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RGS DUAL DOS CARD 

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□ THE SWITCH ALLOWS YOU TO HARD SELECT ANY 
ONE OF THE TWO DOS SYSTEMS OF YOUR CHOICE. 

□ IN CENTER POSITION, THE SWITCH DISCONNECTS 
FROM THE DOS AND BRINGS YOU BACK TO BASIC. 

□ DESIGNED FOR ONE 24 PIN ROM AND A 28 PIN 
E-PROM OR TWO 28 PIN E-PROM CONFIGURATION. 

□ EASILY MODIFIED BY CUTTING TWO TRACES ON 
THE BACK OF THE BOARD. 



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(Board with switch only) 




VIDEO PAL 



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USA 

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DERBY LINE, VERMONT 
ZIP 05830 
TEL: 802-873-3386 
ORDER LINE 800-361-4970 




Kim@0K](So 



CANADA 

RGS MICRO INC. 

759, VICTORIA SQUARE 405 
MONTREAL H2Y 2J3 
TEL.:(514) 287-1563 
ORDER LINE ONLY ★ * * 
QUEBEC - ONTARIO - MARITIMES 

800-361-5338 
WESTERN CANADA 800-361-5155 



TERMS: VISA - MASTER CARD - AMERICAN EXPRESS 



HOURS: MONDAY - SATURDAY 10:00 AM - 6:00 PM 



This hexagon draw routine can be used over and over 
again as long as the original X,Y values are supplied. There- 
fore, it seems logical to place it in a subroutine. 

Before going further, let's stop and think about how the 
program will be developed. A simple block diagram of the 
honeycomb problem with a central hexagon and one ring of 
hexagons follows. 

Figure 7 



Graph paper with hexagonal elements rather than square 
elements is a great aid in planning the necessary moves 
between drawings. The move from the center hexagon ( 1 ) to 
the first hexagon in the next ring (2) is calculated as follows: 

X = X + 15*COS(.5236) 
AX 

Y = Y+15+15*S1N(.5236) 
A Y 



SET UP GRAPHICS 
SCREEN 



SET ORIGINAL 
X,Y VALUES 



GO 



RETURN 



HEX SUBROUTINE 



DRAW 6 HEXAGONS 
AROUND ORIGINAL 



BACK AND FORTH 
TO HEX SUBROUTINE 
6 TIMES 



Once the hexagon subroutine is finished, it can be used to 
draw encircling hexagons by merely calculating the begin- 
ning point for each new hexagon. Note that the sides of all 
hexagons are drawn in the same relative order. Also notice 
that each drawing ends at its original starting point. 

Figure 8 



0 









Figure 9 



15* COS(.5236) 





5236) 



AY 



Moves to other hexagons in the outer ring are calculated 
in a similar way. There are many ways that these moves may 
be incorporated into the program. The method demon- 
strated here uses five distinct moves (one is repeated). How- 
ever, considering the addition of more rings to those that 
now exist, it appears that the moves will be repeated in the 
future. Therefore, each move is put into its own subroutine. 



200 ' SET UP SCREEN 
210 PMODE 4 
220 PCLS 
230 SCREEN 1,0 
299 * 
300 
310 




— center hexagon 



' DRAW FIRST HEXAGON 
X-115: Y-96 
320 GOSUB 1010 

399 * 

400 ' DRAW HEXRING 1 

410 FOR Q=l TO 6 -6 hexagons 

420 ON Q GOSUB 2010,2110,2210,23 
10,2410,2010 — get start points 

430 GOSUB 1010 — draw hexagon 

440 NEXT Q 
499 ' 

900 * LOOP HERE 

910 GOTO 910 — look at result here 

999 " 



104 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



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MONTREAL H2Y 2J3 
TEL.:(514) 287-1563 
ORDER LINE ONLY + * * 
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800-361-5338 
WESTERN CANADA .800-361-5155 



TERMS: VI5A - MASTER CARD - AMERICAN EXPRESS 



HOURS: MONDAY - SATURDAY 10:00 AM - 6:00 PM 



The Subroutines 

1000 * DRAW HEXAGON SUBROUTINE 

1010 FOR Z=0 TO 5 

1020 A-Z# 1.0472 

1030 XA»X+15*SIN(A) 

1040 YA=Y-15*C0S(A) 

1050 LINE<X,Y>-<XA,YA) ,PSET 

1060 x=xa: Y=YA 

1070 NEXT Z 

1080 RETURN 

1999 * 

2000 ' CALCULATE START POINTS 
2010 X»X+15*C0S<.5236> : Y=Y+15+1 
5*SIN(.5236) 

2020 RETURN 
2100 ' 

2110 X=X+15*C0S(.5236> : Y=Y-15-1 
5*SIN(.5236> 
2120 RETURN 
2200 ' 

2210 X=X-15*C0S<.5236) : Y=Y-15-1 
5*SIN(.5236> 
2220 RETURN 
2300 * 

2310 X=X-30*COS<.5236> 
2320 RETURN 
2400 * 



2410 X»X-15*C0S<.5236> : Y=Y+15+1 

5*SIN<.5236> 

2420 RETURN 

2500 

Adding more Hex rings should now be simple. Previous 
starting point moves can be used. 

Figure 10 




To complete this outer ring we need to add a section to the 
main program and one new move subroutine. 

Add to main program: 

500 ' DRAW HEXRING 2 
510 FOR Q=l TO 12 

520 ON Q GOSUB 2010,2510,2110,21 

10,2210,2210,2310,2310,2410,2410 

,2010,2010 

530 GOSUB 1010 

540 NEXT Q 

Add this subroutine: 

2510 X-X+30*COS<.5236> 
2520 RETURN 

How about tryinganother Hex ring? Your turn! Then try 
filling the whole screen. 



Hint . . . 



Is Your Printer On Line? 

The CoCo is able to tell when the printer is on line and 
when it is off line. Here's a program to determine which state 
the printer is in. 

10 I=PEEK<65330) 
20 W=PEEK (65334) 
30 U=PEEK (65318) 

40 IF LNI AND U=W AND I=W THEN 5 
0 ELSE 10 
50 PRINT I 
60 GOTO 10 

If, J, U and W have the same value then the number 
displayed will be the number that determines whether the 
printer is on or off line. 

To determine what the "on-line" number will be, run the 
program and put the printer on line. To get the "off-line" 
number, run the program with the printer off-line. 

Richard Gain 
Tyler, TX 



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106 THE RAINBOW September 1984 




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TAKING BASIC TRAINING 



Practicing LINE 
And DRA W — 
Without Drudgery 



By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Like they say, "if it isn't interest- 
ing, it's just a lot of drudgery." 
That holds for programming! 
Boring tasks are likely to be shunted 
aside and perhaps, never pursued. The 
only solution is to make "if'challenging 
so it becomes a fun project. 

"It" is the graphics capability of the 
Color Computer. Lurking in Extended 
Color BASIC, awaitingyour bidding, are 
the powerful LINE and DRA W state- 
ments. They lie at the heart of CoCo's 
awesome graphics capability. Simply 
put, it is the ability to draw a line, in any 
available color, beginning at any prede- 
termined location and proceeding to 
any other designated location on the 
screen. 

Since it is useful to become familiar 
with the elements of these statements, 
let us manipulate these valuable tools. 
Let us practice using them; observe the 
results; enjoy the experience. 

By now, you must have noted the 
tendency to overwork the words "fun" 
and "create." Each session at the com- 
puter, for the newcomer, should be an 



(Joseph Kolar is a free-lance writer and 
programmer dedicated to proselytizing 
for computers in general, and the Co Co 
specifically.) 



adventure that is fun and becomes a 
creative experience. 

Need 1 remind you to look through 
your manual, if you want to brush up on 
LINE and DRAW! 

Copy the following lines: 

10 PMODE 4,1:PCLS:SCREEN1,1 

:COLOR3 

100 GOTO 100 

Add the following program lines, one 
at a time, RUN each one in turn and 
observe each result. 

20 L1NE(I28,0)-(I28,76),PSET 

21 LINE-(255,96),PSET,B 

22 LINE-(128,128),PSET,B 

23 LINE-(255,155),PSET,B 

24 LINE-(0,20),PSET,B 

Why didn't we need [,B] at the end of 
Line 20? 

Can you see what you have done? 
Change PMODE 4,1 to PMODE 3 J in 
Line 10, and RUN. If you are doubtful 
about what you have wrought, place a 
REM in front of Lines 21 through 24. 
RUN and compare with the results of 
the last REMark uncovered. Remove 
each REM (or ') in turn, RUN, and 
observe what each succeeding line added 
to the program. 

Now that you have studied your crea- 



tion and understand what each line 
created, place a REM or single quote 
mark in front of Lines 20 through 24. 
Rather than delete these lines and hav- 
ing to retype them later, we are putting 
them into cold storage, ready to be re- 
introduced into the program, at our 
pleasure, by editing out the REM 
markers. 

For newcomers who are unfamiliar 
with inserting or deleting a REM mark- 
er, here is one way to do it: EDIT2I and 
ENTER. Using the Space Bar, space over 
until you are underneath 'L' in LINE. 
Press T, press SHIFT '7' at the same 
time, and ENTER. LIST 21. It is now 
inserted and the program line is in cold 
storage. To delete it, EDIT21 and space 
over with the Space Bar underneath the 
single quote. Press 'D', ENTER and Line 
2 1 is thawed out and part of the program. 

Review how the DRA W statement 
works in your manual. Pay particular 
attention to the commands, U, D, R, L, 
N, and B. RUN to make sure the screen 
is blank. 

Here is the puzzle: 

Using the DRA ^statement, begin at 
program Line 30 (30 DRA W U C4BM 
128,0), which is the starting point in 
Line 20, recreating the contents of Lines 
20 through 24, using U, A L, R, N, 
and£. 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 109 



Note: You may separate each direc- 
tion command as you add it to the pro- 
gram line, with a semicolon and space; 
only a semicolon; or only a space, or just 
bunch them all together without any 
spaces. For example: 

DRAW"BM 128,96; R5; D5; L5; U5;" 
DRAW"BM I28,96;R5;D5;L5;U5;" 
DRAW"BM 128,96 R5 D5 L5 U5" 
DRAW"BM 128,96R5D5L5U5" 

As usual, there is more than one way 
to recreate the "design" in Lines 20 
through 24. You may follow the direc- 
tions in Lines 20 through 24 faithfully or 
strike off on some other pathway. It 
doesn't matter how you do it. It is the 
result that counts. 

When you have finished and checked 
out your work to your satisfaction, 
prove to yourself that it is identical to 
the shape in the cold storage Lines 20 
through 24. 

EDIT the REM marker f) from 
Lines 20 through 24, effectively taking 
them off ice and reintroducing them to 
an active roll in the program. RUN. If 
all of your lines are in C4, red, con- 
gratulations! 

If it isn't correct, you will find at least 
one COLOR 3, blue line, and perhaps 
unwanted or mislocated lines. 

Back to the drawing board! Correct 
Line 30 until it is completely superim- 
posed over Lines 20 through 24. 

If you get a bit confused and are not 
sure of the design in Lines 20 through 
24, add Line 25: 

25 FOR Z - 1 TO 2000: NEXT 

If you fail to find a good solution, 
drop me a card (c/ othe rainbow) and 
I'll send you one. But, make it a point to 
work out your own solution because 
becoming familiar with the DRA W 
statements should be priority one and 
will prove invaluable. The DRA ^state- 
ment is very versatile and affords you 
innumerable solutions for a single 
problem. 

When you have successfully solved 
this puzzle, you will have gained experi- 
ence in manipulating and creating lines 
that accomplish the same mission using 
either the LINE or DRA W statements. 
Which do you prefer? 

If you are adventurous, you can fool 
around and make a combination Line 
30, using some LINE and some DRA W 
statements. 

Remember, there is no rule that states 
you must use any particular routine 



because it is shorter. Use whichever you 
prefer. 

Here is another problem. Delete Lines 
20 through 30 (DEL20-30). Type in the 
following lines: 

20 LINE-(128,96)-(78,46),PSET 

21 LINE-(178,146),PSET 

22 LINE-(128,96),PSET 

23 LINE-(178,46),PSET 

24 LINE~(78,146),PSET 

RUN. It displays a blue X on the 
screen. 

Note: The X could have been created 
using three program lines. Using the 
information in Lines 20 through 24, 
make the X using only three lines. 

Here is the answer: 

20 L1NE(78,46)-(178,146),PSET 

21 LINE-(178,46),PRESET 
22L1NE-(78,146),PSET 

Back to your manual. Review the 
DRA W statement paying particular at- 
tention to E, F t G, and //options. 

The B option in the DRA W state- 
ment is similar to PRESET'm the LINE 
statement; movement to a new location 
without revealing the pathway on the 
display screen. 

Delete Lines 20 through 22 if you 
made the X in the three-line way and 
retype the original Tines — Lines 20 
through 24 — as REM lines. If you 
didn't bother making the three-liner, 
put a single quote in front of Lines 20 
through 24. RUN. Make sure the screen 
is blank. Insert Line 30. Begin the line, 
30 DRA W"C4BM78,46. Using the E, 
F, G, and H commands create an X 
exactly the same size and locate it so it is 
identical to Lines 20 through 24. 

Use the same procedure you used 
previously to see if you superimposed it 
over the original X. (Delete the REM 
markers from Lines 20 through 24.) 

Below are some alternate routes you 
may have taken to get a good solution, 
using the same point of origin. 

30 DRAW"C4BM78,46;F50;E50; 

ND100;H50;G50" 

30 DRAW"C4BM78,46;F100;H50; 

E50;G100" 

30 DRAW"C4BM78,46;F50;NE50; 
NF50;G50" 

30 DRAW U C4BM78,46;F100; 
BU100;GIOO" 

30 DRAW"C4BM78,46F100BL100 
El 00" 

Note: The first three solutions are 
based on the five-line routine and the 
last two are based on the three-line rou- 



tine. Did we say there was more than 
one way to skin a cat? 

Using any of these five algorithms, or 
others you may have discovered, can 
you add a shape to the X shape to 
create an eight-pointed star, by continu- 
ing Line 30 and using the appropriate U, 
D, L, and R options? Sure, you can! 

These small programs afford you lots 
of practice fooling around with both the 
LINE and DRA ^statements. There is 
method to this madness. 

The idea is for the the beginner to get 
friendly with these two statements, so 
that in a future article we can tackle 
more complex graphics problems. Let 
this session be a dry run. 

Here is a problem that will give you 
further practice. Imagine that you are 
using a pencil on a piece of paper, going 
from point to point, without lifting the 
pencil from the paper, and without 
crossing any line or back-tracking over 
any line, create the house in the problem 
below. 

Here is the house, but not the solution, 

10PMODE4,1:PCLS:SCREEN 1,0 
20 DRAW"S32BM !00,126NR6NE6 
U6NF6NE3R6NH3D6" 
100 GOTO 100 

Note that the middle line was crossed, 
NF6. A mistake! Now that you know 
the problem, delete all the lines with 
NEW. 

Use C2 for the first three lines of the 
house; C3 for the next three lines; C4 for 
the balance. 

Use the following format: 

10PMODE3,1:PCLS:SCREEN 1,1 
20 DRA W"C2S32BM 120,96 (Insert 
first three lines)" 

30 DRAW"C3 (Insert next three 
lines)" 

40 DRAW"C4 (Insert rest of the 
lines)" 

100 GOTO 100 

The lines inserted after the incom- 
plete lines (20, 30 and 40) must be done 
using any of the eight DRA ^directions 
and N. B is not allowed because all lines 
must be visible and continued from the 
point where the previous line ended. 
You may change the starting location, 
BM120.96. 

To create a properly proportioned 
house, the length of the lines should be 
three or six. 

Remember! Don't cross or go over 
any lines. You should have a lot of fun 
doing this problem. 



110 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



DISK TUTORIAL 



32K 
Disk 



n'llErfP 
RAINBOW 
'- •■" 1 



This is the third installment of a six-part series on 
creating a disk mailing list program 

Developing A Database 
Manager — Part 3 



By Bill Nolan 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



This article is the third in a six part 
series about direct access disk 
files and their use in database 
manager programs. A database man- 
ager program is a program designed to 
help you keep track of some related piec- 
es of information, and the program we 
will be writing in this column is a spe- 
cific type of database manager — a 
mailing list program. The principles and 
programming methods used to manage 
a mailing list can be easily applied to 
any type of database manager. 

When complete, our mailing list will 
be pretty nice, having the ability to 
search or sort on any field. The sort 
method will be a fast one using a tem- 
porary directory, and the program will 
handle about 400 names. 

The program listing included with 
this article will allow you to type in your 
names, store them on disk, and print 
them on the screen or printer in several 
formats. As will be obvious, 1 have writ- 
ten the entire program, so you can type 
in this part now and add the rest later 
without concern that this part will 
undergo any big changes. The menu in 
this program lists search and sort as 
options, but those sections will be added 



(Bill Nolan, who teaches "Programming 
In BASIC" at the college level, owns 
Prickly-Pear Software Co. and has 
written several commercially successful 
software packages.) 



later, so don't select those options yet, 
or you will get a UL Error. 

What we will do now is go through 
the listing one line at a time, with an 



"The principles and pro- 
gramming methods used 
to manage a mailing list 
can be easily applied to 
any type of database 
manager " 



explanation of each line. The program 
is written in sections, or modules, and 
we will look at each module as a unit. 

The first module starts on Line 1 0 and 
goes through Line 70. Line 10 clears the 
screen and jumps to the very end of the 
program, at Line 11000. Line 11000 
does a PCLEAR I and jumps all the 
way back to Line 20. This may seem a 
little strange, but there is a good reason 
for this. When you turn on your compu- 
ter, it clears space for four pages of gra- 
phics, and this uses about 6000 bytes of 
memory. In our mailing list program we 
don't use any graphics, so we want to 
tell the computer to set aside only one 
page of graphics storage. (We don't 
need any, but there is no PCLEAR0 



command on the CoCo.) Graphics pages 
are located low in memory, below the 
BASIC program storage area, so when 
we start with four pages allocated and 
change it to one page, the entire BASIC 
program is relocated to a different part 
of memory. Some CoCos will get lost 
during this operation and crash out of 
the program. If you find that you some- 
times have to type RUN twice with cer- 
tain programs, then you have this bug. 
We have found that if you make the 
PCLEAR 1 the last line in your pro- 
gram, this problem will not occur. (If we 
had wanted to PCLEAR more than 
four pages, we would have done it in the 
first line of the program.) 

Line 20 clears (reserves) 15000 bytes 
of memory space for storage of 
strings. (A string is a group of alphanu- 
meric characters, like a name or ad- 
dress.) Line 30 sets up three arrays for 
use by the program. The two big ones, 
ST$ and ST, will be used during the 
sort, and the other one will be used a lot 
in all parts of the program. 

Line 40 does a lot of things. First, it 
asks for the name of the file you are 
going to be working with, and you can 
use any name you like within certain 
limits. The name cannot exceed eight 
characters in length, must start with a 
letter, and cannot have an extension. 
The only name you can't use is "TEMP, " 
because this name will be used for a 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 111 



Good News for CoCo Users 

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temporary file during the sort. You can 
maintain more than one mailing list file 
on the same disk if you want to, as long 
as each has a different name. 

After you enter the name, Line 40 
goes to a subroutine at line 5500. Line 
5500 opens a direct file to the disk using 
buffer #1, uses the name you entered 
(F$), and tells the computer that each 
record will be 99 characters long. Line 
5510 is a field statement that tells the 
computer how the 99 characters are 
divided up. We have allocated 30 char- 
acters for the name, 30 for the address, 
1 5 for the city, two for the state, nine for 
the ZIP code, and 13 for the phone 
number. Line 5520 uses the LOF func- 
tion to find out how many records are in 
the file. When you open a direct access 
file, the computer looks on the disk in 
the drive to see if a file with that name 
exists. If it does, fine, but if there is no 
file by that name, the computer simply 
creates one, and in that case you will 
have a file on the disk with zero records 
in it. (Sort of like ah empty drawer in a 
file cabinet.) After the computer finds 
out how many records are in the file, it 
RETURNS to the place where it was 
when the subroutine was called — in 
this case line 40. 

Line 40 then closes the file access 
channel that was created in Line 5500. 
Remember this subroutine (at 5500), 
because we will be calling to it often. 

Line 50 checks the value of LR (the 
number of records in the file), and tells 
you if it is a new (empty) file. The sub- 
routine called at the end of Line 50 (at 
7000) is another one you will see called 
fairly often. It prints the message "press 
any key to continue" on the screen and 
waits for a key to be pressed before 
returning. The extra INKEYS function 
cal| in Line 7000 is there to clear the 
keyboard buffer. 

Line 60 checks to see how you want 
labels printed. This is necessary because 
we use only one field for the first and 
last names, and we want the sort to put 
people in alphabetical order by their last 
names. Because of this, you must enter 
names in the following format. 

Contrary, Mary 

Doe, Jack A. 

Smith M.D., Dr. Richard M. 
Anderson's Radio Shack 

As you can see, the names are typed 
in with the last name (and any 
degrees, etc.) first, followed by a comma, 
and then the first and middle names. 
Business names are entered without any 
commas in them. This will result in the 
proper alphabetical order, but we want 



Aunt Mary's Christmas card to be ad- 
dressed to Mary Contrary, not Con- 
trary, Mary, so Lines 60 and 70 find out 
how you want the labels printed (last 
name first or first name first) and sets 
the variable LC to be equal to 1) if you 
want last name first and 2) if you want 
first name first. As in all cases like this in 
the program, the computer checks to see 
if you pressed one of the proper keys 
and ignores improper responses. 

The next main section of the program 
is located starting at Line 500 and run- 
ning to Line 580. This section prints a 
menu on the screen and gets the user's 
choice from the five options. Line 580 



then branches to one of the five subsec- 
tions of the program. These are located 
starting at Line 1000 (add a record), 
Line 2000 (sort records), Line 3000 
(search records), Line 4000 (print 
records), and Line 10000 (end program). 

The end-the-program section at Line 
1 0000 is the shortest, so let's look at that 
first. This clears the screen, does an 
unload command, and ends. The unload 
is a command that closes all open files to 
prevent data loss and possible disk 
problems. 

The sections at Lines 2000 and 3000 
are not yet included in the program. 
They will be covered in future articles in 
this series. Until then, be patient. 

The section from Line 1000 to 1220 
lets you add people to your file. Line 
1000 finds out how many people are in 
the file now (what the number of the last 
record is), and adds one to this for the 
record we are going to enter. The vari- 
able LR is the number of the last record 
now in the file, and the variable CR 
(current record) is the number of the 
record we are about to add. Lines 1020 
to 1060 get the information for the new 
record and store it in the array named 
R$. 

Line 1070 is more complex. First it 
goes to our old friend 5500 to open the 
file. Then it does two other GOSUBs to 
7 1 00 and 7200. Let's look at these one at 
a time. Line 7100 LSETs the informa- 
tion stored in the array R$, using the 
variable names specified in the FIELD 



statements in Line 55 10. This makes the 
information fit the specified format. If it 
is too long, it will be chopped off, and if 
it is too short, spaces will be added to 
the end to make it long enough. Line 
7200 is the opposite. It takes the infor- 
mation, which has been LSET, and puts 
it back into the array R$ so we can look 
at it easily to see if it has been cut. This 
subroutine must be used while the file is 
open, because the information stored in 
the LSET variables disappears when 
you close the file. 

Lines 1080 to 1110 print the LSET 
information back on the screen so you 
can check it, and asks you to press ' Y' or 



*N' to indicate whether or not it is cor- 
rect. The subroutine at 7020 gets the yes 
or no answer. If the information is cor- 
rect, Line 1 120 sends you ahead to Line 
1200. Otherwise, Lines 1130 and 1140 
let you change one field of your record. 
The subroutine at 6500 is used to select 
the field you want to change. When you 
have entered the new information, go 
back to Line 1070 to verify the informa- 
tion again. If it is still not correct, you 
can change another field (or the same 
field again). Eventually, the informa- 
tion will be correct and you will go on to 
1200, where the PUT command is used 
to PUTthe new record on the disk. You 
will then (in Lines 1210 and 1220) be 
asked if you have more to add, and will 
be sent either to the beginning of the add 
section at 1000, or to the main menu at 
500, depending upon your answer. 

The section of the program located at 
Line 4000 is used to print the records. 
This section is there for you to use now 
if you want to start typing in names, and 
we will go over it line by line next month 
in installment four. Then, in installment 
five we will add the search, and in install- 
ment six we will add the sort to com- 
plete the program. In these we will also 
show you where to make modifications 
to the program if you need to do so to fit 
your needs. Once you know how to . . . 
[make modifications]. . .you should be 
able to write a database manager to 
store any kind of data you like. See you 
next month. 



"Once you know how to . . . [make modifications] 
. . .you should be able to write a data-base manager to 
store any kind of data you like." 



114 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



THE COLORSOFT™ BUSINESS SYSTEM 

INTEGRATED BUSINESS SOFTWARE DESIGNED FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 
WRITTEN FOR USE BY THE NON-ACCOUNTING ORIENTED BUSINESSMAN 
CONCISE USERS MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS TUTORIAL 
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HIGHLY USER FRIENDLY AND MENU DRIVEN 
AFTER THE SALE SUPPORT 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING (Version 2.0) This sales-based 

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ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE (Version 2.0) t M . package is designed to meet 

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each customer, prepares invoices and monthly statements, mailing labels, aging lists, and an alphabetized 
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. % . 69 



10 CLS: GOTO 11000 
20 CLEAR 15000 

30 DIM ST*<400> ,ST<400> ,R*<6) 
40 PRINT: PRINT" WORK ON WHICH FI 
LE?" : INPUT F*:QOSUB 5500: CLOSE # 
1 

50 IF LR<1 THEN PRINT: PRINT" THI 
S IS A NEW FILE": PRINT: PLAY" AB": 
GOSUB 7000 

e»0 CLS: PR I NT: PR I NT "DO YOU WANT L 
BELS PRINTED: ": PRINT: PRINT" 1. L 
AST NAME FIRST": PRINT" 2. FIRST 
NAME FIRST": PR I NT: PR I NT "PLEASE S 
ELECT 1 OR 2":K*=INKEY* 
70 K*-!NKEY*:LC=VAL<K*>: IF LC<1 
OR LC>2 THEN 70 ELSE SOUND 150,1 
500 CLS 

510 PRINT: PRINT" MAIN 



MENU": PR I NT: PR I NT" 1. ADD RECOR 
DS" 

520 PR I NT: PR I NT" 2. SORT RECORD 

S" 

530 PRINT: PRINT" 3. SEARCH RECO 
RDS" 

540 PRINT: PRINT" 4. PRINT RECOR 
DS" 

550 PRINT: PRINT" 5. END PROGRAM 

II 

560 PR I NT: PR I NT" PLEASE ENTER YO 
UR CHOICE <l-5> ":K**INKEY* 
570 K*=INKEY*:K=VAL<K*>:IF K<1 O 
R K>5 THEN 570 ELSE SOUND 150,1 
5S0 ON K GOTO 1000,2000,3000,400 
0, 10000 

1000 CLS: GOSUB 5500: CLOSE #l:CR= 
LR+l: PRINT" YOU ARE ADDING RECO 
RD #";CR: PRINT" TO THE FILE ";F 
* 

1010 PRINT: PRINT "NAME <LAST NAME 
, FIRST NAME)?": LINE INPUT R*<1> 
1 020 PRINT: PR INT" ADDRESS? " : L I NE 
INPUT R*(2> 

1030 PRINT: INPUT"CITY? ";R*<3> 
1040 PRINT: INPUT "STATE CODE? " 




The HJL K*ybnard is generally perferred by 
many touchi i>iii'.: in that it feels like many 
electric typBM/rllar keyboards, it does require 
the cutting of one plastic post for installation 
but mounts in a nice recessed position. This is 
Jeff's favorite Keyboard. Please specifiy 
board revision on this model, or call us to help 
you determine it S79.95 



The MKEtran Premium Keyboard is perferred 
by many programmers because it uses the 
Alps keys as used in the Model IV, as well as 
many other computers. This is Al's favorite 
keyboard because of that. This model requires 
no post cutting but the board revision should 
be known $79.95 



a Serial/ Parallel Interface for the 
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Our interface allows your CoCo 
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such features os: 
Q Switch selectable baud rates 

from 300 to 9600 
Q Switch selectable printer or 

modem operations. 

Q Elimination of recabieing It 
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ond Modem Ato "Centronics" 
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□ Self contained Power Supply 
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Seriol/ Parol Id 
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The KBf-lrMJt Keyboard is the newest 
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64K Upgrade Kll with instructions for all boards $62.95 

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Verbatim Diskettes SS/DD Vwex (box of 10) . , $19.95 

PBH Serial to Parallel Adapter $74.95 




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COMPUKIT CORPORATION 



116 



Ordering Information 

Use our Watts Une to place your ordw Via Visa, MasterCard, or Wire Transfer. Or Mail your payment directly to us. Any non-certified 
funds a/e held until proper clearance is made. C.O.TJ orders are accepted, as wall as purchase orders Irom government agencies. 
Most itema are shipped oft the shelf, witn the exception of Hard Drive products which are custom built. UPS ground is our st 
means of shipping unless otherwise specified. Shipping costs are available upon request. 

THE RAINBOW September 1984 



1-713-480-6000 Order Line 1-800-231-6671 
16206D Hickory Knoll, Houston, Texas 77059 



;r*<4> 

1050 print: input" zip code? ";r 

*<5> 

1060 PRINT: INPUT "PHONE #? ";R* 
<A> 

1070 GOSUB 5500: GOSUB 7 100: GOSUB 
7200 

1080 CLS:FOR X=l TO 6 

1090 PRINT: PRINTR*<X) 

1100 NEXT X 

1110 PR I NT: GOSUB 7020 

1120 IF K«="Y" THEN 1200 

1130 CLOSE *l:CLS: PRINT: PRINT" F 

I ELD TO CHANGE?": GOSUB 6500 

1140 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" OLD DATA I 

s: ":printr»(CF> : print: print" ent 
er new data:": line input r»<cf>: 

GOTO 1070 

1200 PUT #i,cr: close #i:cls 
1210 print: print" want to add mo 
re? <y/n> m :k«-inkey«:gosub 7030 

1220 if k*="y" then 1000 else 50 

0 

4000 CLS: PR I NT: PR I NT" PRINT ALL 
RECORDS SECTION" 

4010 PRINT: PRINT" 1. PRINT ON S 
CREEN": PRINT" 2. PRINT ON PRINT 



ER": PRINT" 3. PRINT ON LABELS": 
PRINT" 4. PRINT PHONE # LIST":P 
RINT" 5. RETURN TO MAIN MENU":P 
R I NT: PR I NT" PRESS A NUMBER (1-5 
) ":K*=INKEY* 

4020 K*= I NKEY* : PO= VAL < K* ) : I F PO< 
1 OR P0>5 THEN 4020 ELSE SOUND 1 
50, 1 

4030 ON PO GOTO 4100,4200,4100,4 
300, 500 

4100 GOSUB 5500: CLS: IF P0=3 THEN 
PLAY "CDEF":PRINT" MAKE SURE PR 
INTER AND LABELS ARE SET UP A 
ND ON LINE": GOSUB 7050 
4110 FOR X=l TO LR:GET #l,X:GOSU 
B 7200 

4120 IF PO=l THEN GOSUB 5300 ELS 
E GOSUB 5000 
4130 NEXT X 

4140 CLOSE #l:GOTO 4000 
4200 GOSUB 5500:PLAY"CDEF":PRINT 
" MAKE SURE PRINTER IS ON LINE": 
GOSUB 7050 

4210 FOR X=l TO lr:get #l,X:GOSU 
B 7200 

4220 PRINT#-2,R*<1>J " ";R*<2):P 
RINT#-2,R*(3) 5 " ";R»<4>;" "JR« 



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Cold Start Reset 


YES 


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Gold Socket Connectors 


YES 


NO 


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Socketed Integrated Circuits 


YES 


NO 


■ 


Manual Cartridge Selector 


Pushbutton 


Slide §witch 


• 


Keyboard/Program Selection 


YES 


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Cartridge ON Indicator 


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Extension Cable 


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Warranty 


180 days 


90 days 


• 


User's Manual w/schematics, 








parts layouts and parts lists 


YES 


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Also for the Color Computer: 
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September 1984 THE RAINBOW 117 



<5); n ";R*<6> :print#-2, "" 

4230 NEXT X 

4240 CLOSE #l:SOTO 4000 
4300 GOSUB 5500:PLAY H CDEF":PRINT 
" MAKE SURE PRINTER IS ON LINE": 
GOSUB 7050 

4310 FOR X=l TO LR: GET #l,X:GOSU 
B 7200 

4320 PRINT#-2,R*<1) ; " ";R*<6> 
4330 NEXT X 

4340 CLOSE #l:GOTO 4000 

5000 FL»l:IF L02 THEN GOSUB 510 

0 

5010 FOR Y=LEN<R*<3)) TO 1 STEP 
-1 

5020 IF MID*<R*<3> ,Y, DO" " THE 
N 5040 
5030 NEXT Y 

5040 R*<3>=LEFT*<R*(3) , Y) 
5050 PRINT#-2,R*<1) :PRINT#-2,R*< 
2) :PRINT#-2,R*<3> ; ", ";R*<4> ? " 
"?R*<5) 

5060 FOR Y=l TO 3:PRINT#-2, NE 

XT Y: RETURN 

5100 P=INSTR<1,R*<1) ,",">: IF P-0 

THEN RETURN 
5110 N1*=RIGHT*<R*<1) ,30-<P+l) ) : 
N2*=LEFT* <R* < 1 > , P-l ) 
5120 FOR Y=LEN(N1«) TO 1 STEP -1 
5130 IF MID*<N1*,Y, DO" " THEN 
5150 

5140 NEXT Y 

5150 N1*=LEFT*<N1*, Y) :R*<D=N1*+ 
" " +N2* : RETURN 

5300 CLS: PR I NT: PR I NT" RECORD #" 
;X: PRINT: FOR Y=l TO 6:PRINTR*<Y) 



:NEXT Y: PR I NT: GOSUB 7000: RETURN 

5400 FL»l:FOR Y»l TO 6: PRINT R*< 

Y) :NEXT Y: PR I NT: RETURN 

5500 0PEN"D",#1,F*,99 

5510 FIELD #1,30 AS N*,30 AS A*, 

15 AS C*,2 AS S*,9 AS Z*, 13 AS P 

* 

5520 LR=LOF < 1) : RETURN 
6500 PRINT: PRINT" 1. NAME": PRINT 
" 2. ADDRESS": PRINT" 3. CITY": PR 
INT" 4. STATE": PR I NT" 5. ZIP COD 
E": PRINT" 6. PHONE #": PRINT 
6510 PRINT" PRESS A NUMBER <l-6) 

":k*=inkey* 

6520 k*=inkey*:cf=val<k*) : if cf< 
1 or cf>6 then 6520 else sound 1 

50, 1: RETURN 

7000 K*=INKEY*:PRINT" PRESS AN 
Y KEY TO CONTINUE" 

7010 IF INKEY*="" THEN 7010 ELSE 

SOUND 1 50 , 1 : RETURN 
7020 PRINT" IS THIS CORRECT? (Y/ 
N) ":K*=INKEY* 

7030 K*=INKEY*:IF K*0"Y" AND K* 
<>"N" THEN 7030 ELSE SOUND 150,1 
: RETURN 

7050 FOR X=l TO 2000: NEXT X:RETU 
RN 

7100 lset n*=r*<1):lset a*=r*(2> 
:lset c*=r*<3) :lset s*=r*<4>:lse 
t z *=r* < 5 ) : lset p*=r* < 6 ) : return 
7200 r*<1)=n*:r*<2)=a*:r*<3)=c*: 
R* ( 4 ) =S* : R* ( 5 ) = Z* : R* < 6 > =P* : RETUR 
N 

10000 CLS: UNLOAD: END 

11000 PCLEARDGOTO 20 ^ 



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118 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



EDUCATION OVERVIEW 



"For every action there is an equal and opposite 
reaction 99 — a statement of Newton 9 s Third Law 
of Motion 

Opposing Views On 
Computers In 
Education 

By Michael Plog, Ph.D. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Remember the old physics class, 
where they explained action and 
reaction? Well, reaction applies 
to social situations also. For those of us 
old enough to remember the 1960s, we 
lived through the reaction to the Viet- 
nam War. Most politicians are elected 
as a result of a reaction against some 
policy or image of policy. There are 
reactions against computers also. 

1 should make the standard editorial 
disclaimer right now. THE RAINBOW 
allows me to write what 1 want. My 
comments are my own, and do not 
necessarily reflect the views of the mag- 
azine. On a more personal note, let me 
emphasize that no one on THE RAINBOW 
staff has ever tried to control what 1 
write, or even make changes in my copy 
beyond normal proofing and editing. 
So, as you read the rest of this article, 
remember that the thoughts are mine; 
not necessarily THE rainbow's. 

A particular reaction against comput- 
ers in education has come to my atten- 
tion lately. There is an organization 



(Michael Plog received his Ph. D. degree 
from the University of Illinois. He has 
taught social studies in high school, 
worked in a central office of a school 
district, and currently is employed at the 
Illinois State Board of Education.) 



called the "National Anti-Drug Coali- 
tion." This group says computers are 
turning students into "zombies." They 
also claim computerization in schools 
will result in teacher layoffs, deperson- 
alization of schools, and a teaching style 
of "drill and grill." 



"It is true that the role of 
the teacher may* change in 
the future. That should 
not be surprising/ 9 



A few years ago, this group report- 
edly tried to stop the Baltimore city 
schools from instituting a computer 
plan in the city's 1 40 elementary schools, 
27 junior high schools, and 20 high 
schools. The Anti-Drug Coalition said 
computers would dehumanize teaching 
and turn the children of Baltimore into 
robots. The thwarting efforts were un- 
successful; Baltimore now has 400 micro- 
computers for its 120,000 students. 

There may be other cities and school 
districts where the Anti-Drug Coalition 
is working. If so, I can only sympathize 
with the school officials. It is not easy to 



put up with people who use emotion 
instead of reason; prefer witch hunts to 
quests for enlightenment. 

Now just who is this coalition? The 
organization was founded in 1976 by 
Lyndon LaRouche. 1 have had the 
opportunity to see Mr. LaRouche on 
television. Late one night, a strange 
advertisement came on. This was La- 
Rouche, running for president. In the 
past, he has run for president on the 
U.S. Labor Party ticket, and this year is 
running as a Democrat. At the time I 
first saw the advertisement, 1 considered 
his view of the Soviet Union to be child- 
ish and his interpretation of factual 
material to be distorted. Thus, even 
before I ever heard of this coalition, 1 
knew I had a philosophical difference 
with the coalition founder. 

I am sure Mr. LaRouche feels himself 
to be sincere. He probably is a kind 
husband and parent, and maybe owns a 
loyal pet. But his perception of reality 
differs greatly from mine. And even 
though he may be extreme in his views, 
and just wild enough to get into con- 
troversy with his lack of information, 
there are other people who also ques- 
tion the use of computers in schools. 
Well, let's consider some of the argu- 
ments against the use of computers in 
education. 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 119 



The concept of turning students into 
zombies and robots is difficult to argue 
against. The statement has metaphysi- 
cal tones, not factual. The concept of 
turning students into mindless actors in 
a play, written by evil scientists, is like 
telling a Christian that Judas was the 
only good disciple. Some statements are 
simply outside the mental framework 
we use to filter information about the 
world. There may be more here than 
meets the eye, however. 

I have heard of (but not examined) 
some research that shows a drop in crea- 
tivity when students are working on 
computers. Assume for a moment that a 
competent research study actually de- 
termined that. There are a host of ques- 
tions, such as how creativity was meas- 
ured, etc. Even beyond that, let's accept 
the finding as legitimate. Given the state 
of the art of educational software, 1 can 
easily accept that drill and practice pro- 
grams lessen creativity. Drill and prac- 
tice in any form will not inspire stu- 
dents. Such activities are necessary in 
schooling, but are not sufficient as the 
total outcome of education. 

If, instead of drill and practice, stu- 
dents are assigned a problem to solve, 
and given a computer as one of the tools 
available to them, I would be surprised 
if a measure of creativity did not in- 
crease. For example, students can learn 
how to use a spreadsheet package, and 
then be given a problem to solve. Part of 
the solution will involve calculations on 
the spreadsheet. This is a type of activity 
that can stimulate creativity on the part 
of the student. (And possibly on the part 
of the teacher as well.) 

Next, consider that computerization 
will eliminate the need for teachers. Past 
articles have mentioned this position, so 
there will not be much time spent on it 
here. Education (of anyone, not just 
children) requires judgments by some- 
one. A computer cannot make judg- 
ments. The act of forming a judgment 
involves a value position. Computers 
are logical, they are not reasonable. 
Training for a specific skill, such as typ- 
ing, disk repair, or using a band saw, 
can be accomplished with a computer. 
Education is more than training. The 
lower level thought processes are neces- 
sary to education, but are not sufficient. 
Higher level mental activities, such as 
analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, are 
also necessary for education. 

It is true that the role of the teacher 
may change in the future. That should 
not be surprising; the role of the teacher 



has changed significantly in the past 50 
years. The next 50 years will see even 
greater changes. The technology of micro- 
computers will see even greater changes. 
The technology of microcomputers will 
contribute only a small amount of that 
change. 

What about depersonalization of 
schools'? There are many people — 
including educators — that claim schools 
are already depersonalized* Arguments 
are made every day that schools do not 
meet the need's of students or society. 
The computer is an easy scapegoat for 
this argument. Frankly, I find it hard to 
believe that a student working on a 
microcomputer will be less involved 
with humans. First, students have to 



"The crux of the whole 
matter is that computers 
should be used as one tool 
available to teachers." 



share time on computers. Beyond that, 
computer use in schools causes ques- 
tions for students. The first question is 
naturally, "How do 1 turn on this thing?" 
The questions get more complicated. By 
peer interaction, as well as teacher inter- 
action, students will be dealing with 
humans to solve problems. (That sounds 
like education to me.) 

The term "drill and grill" is cute. 
Stupid, but cute. It is true that much of 
educational software is drill and prac- 
tice. It is unfortunate, but some people 
believe that such software is the maxi- 
mum capability of computers. Such a 
view is extremely shortsighted. Every- 
thing evolves, including curriculum and 
skills of programs. During the early 
phases of educational computing, it is 
expected that software be crude and 
elementary. With the growth of the 
field, the sophistication of programs 
will increase. This sophistication means 
more than flashy software. Other skills 
(such as explanation) can be taught with 
the help of a computer. We have already 
seen a tremendous growth in educa- 
tional software; future growth is almost 
certain. 

The crux of the whole matter is that 
computers should be used as one tool 
available to teachers. The microcompu- 
ter cannot become the only tool; indeed 



it is not the most important tool. The 
computer is only one of many tools 
teachers should use to educate children. 

Let us back up for a moment, and 
consider why we should even talk about 
the arguments of Mr. LaRoucjie. After 
all, it is easy to shoot holes in positions 
of people who have failed to consider all 
the important elements of a position. Is 
it not a cheap shot and waste of time to 
deal with the coalition? Not entirely. If 
we are capable of responding to the 
extreme fringe, we will be capable of 
responding to intelligent, real arguments. 
These concerns are shared by well- 
meaning, reasonable people, who can 
express their views in more realistic 
terms. It is understood that anyone 
reading this magazine is already "sold" 
on computers. Other people, however, 
do not share our enthusiasm. They are 
not all vicious or stupid; they simply 
have not experienced the benefits of 
computers in the educational process. 
Their questions are legitimate and de- 
serve responses. 

There is not time to go into all the 
arguments against computers and ques- 
tions about their use, but one position 
deserves mention. There is a concept of 
"readiness" in education. In essence, 
this means that children will learn more 
efficiently if they are ready for the mate- 
rial. This involves two components. The 
first is enough background knowledge. 
(We should not expect children to read, 
for example, until they know the letters 
of the alphabet.) The second compo- 
nent is a state of mind. Learning will be 
more efficient once the need for knowl- 
edge is experienced. The concept of 
readiness can also apply to institutions 
and societies. Schools and school peo- 
ple may lack some of the background 
knowledge and mental attitudes to effi- 
ciently use computers in education. 
Allow me to give you a personal exam- 
ple of readiness. I came home from 
work recently, and my wife jokingly 
informed me she was mad at me. She 
wanted to know why I had not taught 
her to use the word processor on our 
Color Computer. She has achieved read- 
iness! Well, school people will need to 
achieve readiness about computers also. 
By having the machines available, read- 
iness will not have to wait on purchase 
orders and delays of bureaucratic de- 
cisions. 

That is all for this month. I welcome 
any comments you may have. My ad- 
dress is 829 Evergreen, Chatham, IL 
62629. 

^ 



120 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



First, eat all your binary peas, then you'll get 
a 6 most significant byte' of assembly language 
meat 



School Days, School Days 



By R. Bartly Betts 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 
with Programs by Chris Bone 



I'll bet you thought that writing in 
assembly was going to be fun. In- 
stead you have been doing so many 
base conversions that you now eat your 
peas in binary and use 16 dollar bills to 
buy computer parts. 

Well, take heart. Your perseverance 
is going to be rewarded. You'll get your 
teeth into some assembly language meat 
today. You'll be taking a "most signifi- 
cant byte," you might say. Before this 
column is over, you will be writing your 
first assembly language program, if you 
haven't already tried. 1 hope that you 
have your editor/ assembler and are all 
ready to go. 



(Bartly Betts is a former reporter and 
magazine editor now operating a retail 
store and custom leather shop in Brooks, 
Alberta, Canada. He has owned and 
operated a Color Computer for over 
three years and is presently taking an 
electronics and computer course by cor- 
respondence, Chris Bone is a college 
computer science major and has been 
programming for more than three years. 
He averages between six and nine hours 
a day on the Co Co.) 



Reading And 'Riting And . . . 

The first thing to learn is how to read 
assembly language source listings. Al- 
though you will soon be learning to 
write your own, it is extremely helpful 
to be able to study the work of others. I 
remember when I first became inter- 
ested and searched long and hard just to 
find out what to do with the source list- 
ings. I didn't have an editor/assembler 
program and didn't know 1 needed one. 

A source listing in assembly language 
is much the same as a BASIC program 
listing. It is simply the step-by-step 
procedure for accomplishing a task on 
your computer. In itself, it would mean 
nothing to your computer's central pro- 
cessing unit (CPU). The source code 
must be assembled and turned into 
machine language instructions. That 
machine language, to a CPU, is like 
honey to the black bear's nose. (It gets 
the beast running.) 

Although the purpose of a source list- 
ing is similar to a BASIC listing, there are 
also several differences. For one thing, a 
source listing may or may not have line 
numbers. They will be used on 
EDTASM+ for your convenience but 
line numbers have no bearing on the 
actual program. 



A source listing will include only one 
instruction per line. In BASIC you may 



"Before this column is 
over, you will be writing 
your first assembly lan- 
guage program, if you 
haven 9 1 already tried." 



enter PRINT "HELLO", but in assem- 
bly language you may have to clear a 
register, load a series of memory loca- 
tions with the numeric codes for 
H,E,L,L, and O. Then you will load the 
register one letter code at a time and 
store the code in the text screen memory. 
As you can see, when I say one step at a 
time, I mean one step at a time. The 
reason for this is that the machine lan- 
guage code for printing to the screen is 
already built into your BASIC ROM. In 
assembly language you have to build 
each routine to suit your specific pur- 
pose. (In some cases, you can use ROM 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 121 



routines, but we will deal with that in 
another column.) Assembly language 
listings are also set up in columns. The 
number of columns can differ however, 
as some are essential to the assembler 
and others are not. The possible columns 
are: Memory Location, Object Code, 
Line Numbers, Label Field, Operation 
Code, Operand or Address Field, and 
the Comment Field. Although the list- 
ings do not have to be organized this 
way, it is the standard. The listing below 
is organized under all the possible 
columns. It is a short program that will 
quickly reverse all the characters on the 
text screen. 



You will note that I have put (XX), 
for optional, under those columns that 
need not be included in a source listing. 
They are the columns that are for your 
reference and are not needed by the 
assembler. When you see listings in 
books and magazines, you may see any 
or all of these (XX) columns left out. 
Also, a listing seldom includes column 
headings, but you will soon learn to rec- 
ognize which column is which. 



Dig Right In 

Now for some practical experience. 
As the honey bee said to the black bear, 
"you'll get the point quicker if you dig 
right in." First, plug in your EDTASM+ 
cartridge or load the program from 
disk. If you're using a different editor/ as- 
sembler, I'm afraid you'll have to study 
the manual and adapt your procedure ac- 
cordingly. 

When the program is up and running 
you will see a "*" on the screen. Press I 
and ENTER. The I is for input and tells 
EDTASM+ that you are ready to type 
in a listing. The program provides auto 
line numbering for reference and editing 
convenience. You will see 00100 on the 



left of the screen, followed by a blinking 
cursor. Column positioning is critical in 
assembly language programs, but 
EDTASM+ will automatically handle 
that problem. As there is no label entry 
in the first line, simply press the right 
arrow key. The cursor will jump to the 
next column. There type in ORG. Press 
the right arrow again. Now type in 
$3FF0. You do not need to type in the 
comment field but let's do it for expe- 
rience. Press the right arrow again and 
type in the comment BEGIN LOG OF 
PROG. Now just press ENTER. Your 
line number is automatically incre- 
mented and you are ready to start on the 



second line. You will note that we have 
done nothing with the first two columns 
of the sample listing. The first column, 
the memory addresses, will relate to the 
value given to ORG in Line 00100. In 
the case above, the program will begin 
loading at Hex 3FF0 and will increment 
from there. The object code is the actual 
machine language that will be produced 
when the program is assembled. It can't 
become a part of the listing until assem- 
bly takes place. 

Now, type in the remaining lines as 
per the above procedure. If you want to 
skip the comment field, press ENTER 
instead of the right arow when finished 
in the Operand or Address Field. 

Will The Assembly Come To Order 

When you have finished the last line, 
press the BREAK key to return to the 
command mode. Again you will be 
presented with "*". Type in P#and press 
ENTER. This will take you back to the 
top of the listing. Now press the down 
arrow to see each line in order. Check it 
carefully. If there is any error, type in 4 E' 
followed by the line number. This will 
put you into the Edit mode and you can 
make changes the same as in BASIC. 



Press ENTER when finished and use the 
down arrow to continue your check. If 
you are having any trouble, refer to 
your editor/ assembler manual. 

The first thing to do when your pro- 
gram is completed is to save it on disk or 
tape. This is a precaution in case some- 
thing should go dreadfully wrong in 
future stages. In the command mode 
press 4 W' and enter. You will be asked 
for a filename. Type REVERSE/ SOR 
for disk EDTASM+ or REVERSE 'for 
the cartridge version and press ENTER. 

Until now you have been doing most 
of the work. It is time for the computer 
to do its share. To assemble the pro- 
gram in memory, type AjlMj WE/ AO 
and press ENTER. The listing will slide 
by on the screen. If there are any errors 
that the computer can catch, however, it 
will stop at the line which contains the 
error. Make a note of the line number 
and press ENTER. When the assembly is 
completed, you can go back and edit the 
line. Then repeat the assembly proce- 
dure. If you make changes, be sure to 
save the source code again. 

When there are no errors, save the 
machine language program to tape or 
disk. To do this you will actually assem- 
ble it a second time to tape or disk stor- 
age. Type A I AO and press enter. You 
will be asked for a filename. Type 
REVERSE/ BIN or REVERSE '"and 
press ENTER. When the new assembly is 
complete, type fc Q'and enter to exit the 
editor/assembler. 

Better Than A Kiss 

Listing I is a simple BASIC program 
that will demonstrate your new machine 
language program. Type in the BASIC 
program, then W ADM" REVERSE". 
Type RUN and press ENTER. Use the 
clear key tq toggle your reverse pro- 
gram. That's better than your first kiss, 
right? Perhaps, you would like to com- 
pare the result with a BASIC program, 
just to see if you have acccomplished 
anything. Type in Listing 2 and RUNh. 
It does the same job, only in BASIC. If 
you don't see the difference, then try 
and forget about that first kiss and look 
again. 

Homework 

Your assignment for next month. In 
order to move along, you are going to 
have to do some homework. Hopefully 
you are enthused enough that you want 
to do homework. Listing 3 is a neat 
routine that hooks into your computer's 
BASIC ROM and adds three slick fea- 
tures. Enter and assemble Listing 3 as 



MEMORY 


OBJECT 


LINE 


LABEL 


OP CODE OR 


OPERAND OR 


COMMENT 


LOC. 


CODE 


rs 


FIELD 


MNEMONIC 


ADDRESS 


FIELD 


(XX) 


(XX) 


(XX) 




FIELD 


FIELD 


(XX) 


3FF0 




00100 




ORG 


*3FF0 


BEGIN LOC OF PROG 


3FF0 


BE 0400 


00110 


START 


LDX 


1*400 


FIRST TEXT SCRN LOC 


3FF3 


A6 84 


00120 


LOOP 


LDA 




LOAD FIRST BYTE 


3FF5 


88 40 


00130 




EORA 


#$40 


REVERSE BYTE 


3FF7 


A7 80 


00140 




STA 


,X+ 


RETURN BYTE TO SCRN 


3FF9 


BC 0600 


00150 




CMPX 


1*600 


IS IT END OF SCRN? 


3FFC 


26 F5 


00160 




BNE 


LOOP 


NO? GET NEXT BYTE 


3FFE 


3? 


00170 




RTS 




RETURN TO CALL PROG 




000 






END 




THAT'S ALL 



122 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



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we have already discussed. When you 
have the machine language code saved 
to tape or disk, load it into the computer 
memory and type EXEC &HE00 and 
press ENTER. You will see no change on 
the screen but the "OK" prompt should 
reappear along with the blinking cursor. 
Do not EX EC mort than once. The fea- 
tures you have added to your ROM are 
a "clear to end of line," "clear to end of 
screen," and "clear screen. "Here is what 
they do: 

1) Clear to end of line: Often in a 
BASIC program I want to have several 
inputs take place in the same video line. 
I do this with a PRINT@ command, 
followed by a semicolon and then the 
input command. Sometimes old text is 
left as garbage on the screen. With this 
new feature you could program a line 
like 100 PRINT@65,CHR$(31);: 
INPUT A$. CHR$(31)@ will clear the 
video line frorri location 65 to the right 
edge of the screen, location 96, but will 
leave the rest of the screen alone. 



2) Clear to end of screen: This func- 
tion works the same as the one above 
except that the screen would be cleared 
from the PRINT@ location to the bot- 
tom of the video screen. 

3) Clear entire screen: This function 
works the same as the CLS command 
except it allows you to add the com- 
mand to a string. An example would be 
100 A$=CHR$(29yc"HELLO":PRINT 
AS. In this example, CHR$(29) would 
be tacked onto the front of AS. Every- 
time you PRINT A$, the screen will be 
totally cleared and "HELLO" will be 
printed at the top, left hand corner. You 
could also use the PRINT@ command 
to position the text. 

Your second assignment is to study 
your editor/assembler manual. Al- 
though we went through the entering of 
an assembly language program step by 
step, in the future 1 will assume that you 
know how to make it work so we can 
spend our time learning assembly lan- 
guage programming. 



Thus far I have told you little about 
how assembly language programs work. 
That will start next month. You now 
know what an assembly language listing 
looks like, what it is for and what you 
can do with it. You have had practice 
writing them and assembling them. Now 
you will be ready to begin understand- 
ing them. Listing 3 is provided to give 
you a taste of some of the features that 
will be built into the program I prom- 
ised in the first column ... a program 
that will give you a 51 -character by 24- 
line screen. It will also include the func- 
tions provided in Listing 3. In a few 
months, you will not only have a super 
machine language program to give you 
more BASIC functions and a reasonably 
formatted video screen, but you will 
understand how it works. 

Chris Bone can be reached by writing 
to: Chris Bone, 1 1 Blazier Park Street, 
Brooks, Alberta, Canada TOJ 0J0, 
phone (403) 362-5650. (No collect calls 
please.) 



Listing 1: 

Use with sample program to reverse screen by pressing the CLEAR key. 

10 DEFUSRMH3FF0 

20 IFINKEY$CCHR$(i2)THEN20 

30 A=USR0(0) 

40 6OTO20 

Listing 2: 

BASiC version of screen reverse program. Use CLEAR key to reverse screen. 

10 FDRX=SfH400 T0M5FF 
20 A=PEEK(X) 

30 !FA>63THENA*A-64ELSEA=A+64 
40 PtiKEX, A:NEXT 
Listing 3: 

Add three CHRS controls for video screen handling. 

CHR$(29) clears screen, CHR$(30) clears from cursor to end of screen, CHR$(30 clears from cursor to end of video 



00010 


ORG 


$6000 




00200 


PSHS 


u 


♦SAVE X AND B 


00020 START 


LDX 


$168 


♦GET RAM PRINT HOOK 


00210 


LDX 


$88 


♦$88=CURRENT CURSOR LOC 


00030 


LDD 


#60 


♦GET OUR NEW ROUTINE ADDRESS 


00220 


LDB 


l$60 


♦CODE FOR SPACE 


00040 


STD 


$168 


♦LINK IT TO THE PRINT HOOK 


00230 


JSR 


$A92F 


♦PORTION OF CLS IN ROM 


00050 


STX 


RETURNS 


♦PUT OLD HOOK AT END OF OUR NEW ROUTINE 


00240 


PULS 


M 


♦GET SAVED X AND B 


00060 


RTS 




♦GO BACK TO BASIC 


00250 


BRA 


RETURN 


♦JUMP TO OLD HOOK 


00070 60 


PSHS 


X 


♦SAVE X 


00260 


NOCLSE CMPA 


M1F 


♦CHR$(3D? 


00080 


LDX 


$68 


♦SET CURRENT LINE 1 


00270 


BNE 


RETURN 


♦IF NOT WE ARE DONE 


00090 


CHPX 


i$FFFF 


♦IF LINE=FFFF WE ARE IN IMMEDIATE MODE 


00280 


PSHS 


X,B,A 


♦SAVE X,B AND A 


00100 


PULS 


X 


♦GET OLD X (CC PRESERVED) 


00290 


LDD 


$88 


♦GET CURRENT CURSOR LOC 


00110 


BEQ 


RETURN 


♦ IF IT WAS IMMEDIATE 60TO OLD HOOK 


00300 


ORB 


H1F 


♦CALCULATE END OF LINE 


00120 


CHPA 


I$1D 


♦CHR$(29>? 


00310 


TFR 


D,X 


♦PUT END OF LINE-=>X 


00130 


BNE 


NQTCLS 


*IF NOT GOTO NEXT TEST 


00320 


LEAX 


1,X 


♦POINT TO START OF NEXT LINE 


00140 


PSHS 


X,8 


♦SAVE X AND B 


00330 


LDB 


t$60 


♦CODE FOR SPACE 


00150 


JSR 


$A928 


♦GOTO ROM CLS 


00340 


LOOP STB 




♦X=X-1 THEN POKE X,.B 


00160 


PULS 


X ? B 


♦GET SAVED X AND B 


00350 


CMPX 


$88 


♦ARE WE § THE CURSOR 


00170 


BRA 


RETURN 


♦JUMP TO OLD HOOK 


00360 


BNE 


LOOP 


♦IF NOT POKE AGAIN 


00180 NQTCLS CNPA 


I$1E 


♦CHR$(30)? 


00370 


PULS 


A,B,X 


♦GET OLD X,B, AND A 


00190 


BNE 


NOCLSE 


♦IF NOT GOTO NEXT TEST 


00380 RETURN JNP 


$1000 


♦RETURN TO NORMAL PRINT ROUTINE 










00390 


END 







124 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



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BITS AND BYTES OF BASIC 



Creating the 
Rainbow Checkbook 



Here's both the beginning of a checkbook balancer 
and a glimpse into how program logic evolves into 
working software 



My left ear itched the other day. That means some- 
one else had started to write the world's most 
prolific program, one to balance a checkbook. 
Now my left ear hasn't itched for three days. Does this mean 
we have enough programs to balance a checkbook? No way! 
The world's greatest checkbook program has not yet been 
written. Even the one 1 use does not come close. 1 can see a 
stack of five bank statements on the table that have not been 
reconciled to my checkbook balance. But 1 did not write my 
program to do that. Perhaps a little rewriting is in order. 

The first thing was to get a listing and refresh my memory 
on how the program was written. The program was written 
three years ago when 1 was still struggling to learn BASIC 
without a printer. This was the program that was to be well 
organized. It was — sort of. At least it was mostly top-down. 
But, 1 started the file routines at Line 850 and once they were 
written, 1 started the edit routine at 700. The edit routine 
turned into a monster and 1 reached Line 800 only about half 
done. The only choice was to come to a somewhat logical 
break in the code and GOTO 1020 to finish it. 

The program did the job 1 wanted in spite of a few annoy- 
ances which I learned to live with. When the disk drive 
arrived, 1 changed the file statements to put the files to disk 
rather than tape and continued. It's a little quicker to LOAD 
and RUN, but it never was a serious pain on tape. 

So, now in mid- 1984 what should 1 do? Start over? 1 
probably won't salvage much code from the old program, 
but it will influence the new program. Those features 1 like 



(Richard White has a long background with micro- 
computers and specializes in BASIC programming. 
With Don Dollberg, he is the author of the Tl M S data 
base management program.) 



By Richard White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



will be kept and maybe improved. The things I miss will be 
added. The things that are awkward will be redone. 1 will 
write a blow-by-blow account for you to outline the steps 
one poor soul goes through to write a finished BASIC pro- 
gram. Of course, you will get some explained examples of 
BASIC code. But more important should be a glimpse or 
more into how program logic is evolved and converted into a 
running program. 

It all starts with some thinking and some pencil work. 
Those who have followed me for a while know 1 put great 
value in dividing a program into functional modules and 
assigning each module a block of line numbers starting at an 
even hundred preferably. Subroutines that are frequently 
used go at the front of the program, while others go at the 
end of their functional number block or at the very end of 
the program. The main menu goes at Line 100 or 1000 so we 
can easily remember which line to GOTO to resume in event 
of a BREAK or ERROR. This is valuable while writing a 
program particularly during testing and trouble shooting. 

The important thing in starting a program is to plan it well 
enough so you can define modules and assign space. If the 
subroutines are placed in the front of the program using line 
spacing of two or even one after revisions, you can count on 
keeping your modules to 100 line blocks. Line spacing of 10 
goes out with the dishwater in some cases. 

The first thing to do is to put some ideas down on paper or 
into your word processor where you can easily change 
things. At this point we are trying to build concepts that can 
trigger other ideas. Try designing some menus. This makes 
you think about what needs to be on a menu. It helps 
organize thoughts. One thought that occurred to me was, 
why have a main menu for this program? Menus are but one 
way to make a program go. If needed prompts can be 



126 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



included on the work screen, so much the better. But, if there 
is no main menu, where does one GOTO to resume the 
program without data loss if the program is broken. It is 
particularly handy to be able to do this during debugging or 
if the BREAK or CLEAR key is hit in error. If there is no main 
menu, then there needs to be a main work screen that will 
serve the same purpose, a design detail to keep in mind for 
later. 

After a week or two of cogitating and penciling around, 
there comes the time when the first cut program objectives 
or functional specification can be written. These will provide 
some clear direction even if it is back to thedrawing boards. 
Below is the second cut at functional specifications for 
Rainbow Checkbook. There may be a third, but I feel pretty 
good about these now. Partly, this is because I have written 
part of the program and see more clearly how these specs 
will be satisfied. 

Rainbow Checkbook 

Functional Specifications 

1) Be able to enter, edit and save checkbook entries. 

2) Be able to scroll up or down through the file using the 
arrow keys. 

3) Make needed functions available from the approp- 
riate work screen without exiting to a menu. 

4) Be able to edit a record, delete it or insert a new record. 

5) Have a routine to start a new file from scratch. 

6) Be able to strip cleared items from the current file to an 
archive file after reconciliation with the bank statement. 

7) Calculate a bank balance based on cleared items only 
for comparision with the balance on the bank statement. 
Corrections to cleared items must update the calculated 
bank balance. The calculated balance should duplicate that 
on the bank statement when all items are correctly entered 
and cleared. 

8) Print a hardcopy report showing all cleared transac- 
tions and a bank balance reconciliation. This will include 
summations of deposits, adjustments and checks. Adjust- 
ments will include all non-deposit and non-check transac- 
tions, including account charges, interest earned and check 
charges. 

9) Support cassette and disk files. 

10) Operate in a 16K Extended or Disk BASIC machine. 

A few refinements of your functional specification and 
you will be ready to outline the basic structure of the pro- 
gram. Generally you will be able to fit the code you need 
within blocks of 100 lines, but perhaps not with line spacing 
of 10. You won't need to if you use a full-screen editing 
program like Colorkit from Prickly Pear Software that lets 
you copy a line to another place in the program and then 
either keep or delete the original. I use it more for copying 
and editing a line that is to be used again elsewhere with only 
minor changes. I could use it for reorganizing lines in a 
module if space got tight. Another use is to work-up and 
debug lines in the module being developed and then move 
these lines intact into the subroutine area for use by other 
modules. Sure you could leave such lines in one module and 
call them from another. But, it is much easier to remember 
where they are or where to start looking if all subroutines 
used by more than one module are together. 

Lines Function 

1-9 Most frequently used subroutines 



10-99 


Other subroutines 


100-199 


Enter items 


200-299 


Edit records and update balances 


jl f\ f\ A r\r\ 

400-499 


Strip cleared items to make updated cur- 




rent file 


600-699 


Print report 


900-999 


Tape and disk I/O 


2000-2099 


Initialization 


2100-2199 


Make new file 


10000 


Save program routine 


10100 


PC LEAR 1 routine 



When you start a program, you don't really know what 
the finished product will be. A case in point is the new file 
routine starting at 2100. Will this be substantially different 
than the code to enter new items in an existing file starting at 
100? On the basis that each file had to have started from 
scratch at some time, 1 wrote this section and its subroutines 
first. I expected that the subroutines would be used for the 
100 block code as well. The real question is, will the 2100 
block code end up as only a limited version of the 100 block 
code? If so then it will go and not be missed. Since it served 
as a test bed for developing all the subroutines developed to 
date, effort spent on it has not been wasted. 

First we must get the program initialized before we can 
think about generating a file. 

0 GOTOI0100 
10100 PCLEARl:GOTO2000 
2000 CLE AR3763 : Dl M A$( 1 42), A( 1 42, 1 ) 
2050 RC$="RAlNBOW CHECKBOOK":SS$="##,### 
.##": 

SN$=% % NOTE:":CR=l:LR=l: 
1S$="DAVCESLNB+CHR$( 10):S4$="% 
CS$="OUTSTD":A$(0)=" $ $ SFIRST ENTRY 
BELOW" 

Above we see the lines of the program in the order they 
execute when the program is RUN, thanks to the Telewriter. 
Line 10100 is the last line of the program and contains the 
PCLEAR 1 beating a bug in the Extended BASIC 1 .0 ROM. 
In Line 2000, we clear 3763 bytes for string space and 
dimension a string array, A$(142), and a two dimension 
numeric array, A(142,l) to hold data for 142 entries. And 
how did I arrive at those numbers? Magic, maybe? Perhaps 
they were in the second sealed envelope in the bird house 
behind the post office in Prospect, Ky. Fortunately, there is 
a bit of logic involved. 

The program is to run in a worst case machine, a 16K 
model with a disk drive. The end of the lower RAM used by 
the disk is 3584. There are 1536 bytes used by one page of 
graphics memory, so the first 5 1 20 bytes are allocated . Since 
we only have 16383 bytes of RAM, this leaves 1 1263 bytes 
free. 1 assumed the program would run 5000 bytes and 
allowed 363 bytes for the stack and general variable tables to 
leave 5900 bytes for string memory and the array variable 
tables. The question is how best to allocate this. 

The next assumption is that each record will average 25 
bytes in the stringarray member, use 10 bytes in the numeric 
array and have a five-byte entry in the string variable table 
for a total of 40 bytes per item. Now I want to leave 200 bytes 
in string space for general program operation, which leaves 
5700 bytes to allocate. The amount in string space must be 
5700*(25/40) which equals 3563. Add the 200 to this and we 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 127 



need to CLEAR 3763. The number, 3563/25 gives the 
amount of records this will support, 142. That would cover 
four months of check writing for me. If you have a 32K or 
64K machine, recalculate assuming 32K total RAM space in 
BASIC. Even better would be to write a routine to automati- 
cally apportion memory based on available machine 
memory. Maybe later if 1 can keep the length of the program 
near the 5000-byte mark. 

In Line 2050 we initialize various variables and define 
strings for PRINTUSING and headings. This line will grow 
some as the rest of the program is written. 

2100 CLS:PR1NT@8,RC$:PRINT@42,"R1CHARD 
WH1TE":PRINT@76,"(C) 1984":PRINT@200,"lOAD 
FILE":PRlNT@264,"nEW FILE":PR1NT@328,"";:G0 
SUB1 

2110 IF1$="L'THEN950ELSEIFI$<C>"N'THEN21 10 

Line 2 1 00 prints the entry menu with options to load a file 
or start a new file. I expect the computer to be in the 
uppercase mode, but use a reverse video or lowercase T and 
V to signal the keystroke to choose between options. The 
program accepts only an 'L' or 'N\ Otherwise, it returns to 
2110 avoiding a possible error. An INKEY$ routine, 
GOSUB1, is used to get that keystroke. 

1 PRlNTCHR$(19l);:I$=INKEY$:IF$="'THENFOR 
X=0TO5: 

NEXT:PRINTCHR$(8);:GOT01ELSEPRlNTCHR$(8) 
-RETURN 

Normally, there is no cursor while IN KEYS is waiting for 
an input. This is no problem on a simple choice screen like 
IOAD or nEW. It did however give a problem on the work- 
screen and I did want to use INKEYS. So, in Line 1 , we print 
a red block, CHR$(191) and then look for a keystroke. If 
there is none, the FORX=0TO5: NEXT gives a little delay 
before the backspace character, CHR$(8), is printed. The 
program loops back to one to print the red block again and 
look for a character. If a key is stroked, the backspace is 
printed and we return to the calling routine with the charac- 
ter in 1$. 

This is a destructive cursor, so you need to see that it 
operates on a white space on the screen. The 
PRINT@328, " "; in Line 2 1 00 defines the cursor position on 
the screen and the location that any future printing will start. 

The next step was to develop the new file module and its 
associated subroutines. Some fundamental decisions were 
needed. In my old checkbook program new entries were 
written towards the bottom of the screen and the previous 
entries were scrolled up the screen. A heading was rewritten 
each time at the top of the screen. To speed things up, 1 
decided to keep only two entries on the screen at a time, the 
current one and the previous or last one. The screen heading 
and function prompts at the bottom will not be erased since 
information will be written to specific screen locations and 
the screen will not be scrolled. This does not say that the 
records themselves will not be scrolled since we can do this 
without scrolling the entire screen. 

One primary printing tool will be PRINT@XXX, which 
allows us to specify at which of the 51 1 possible printing 
position we want printing to start. The other will be PRINT 
USING X$; which formats the way data will be printed 
according to a specification string. For example, we want to 



print money amounts in the form ##,###.##. In the initializa- 
tion section a string "##,###.##" is assigned to variable SS$. 
The statement PRINT USING SS$;3456 causes the number 
to print in the format 3,456.00. From the subroutine in Line 
37 we have the code PRINT@247,USINGSS$,CB;. This 
causes the number CB, balance in the current record, to be 
printed in the nine-character space starting at location 247. 
The number will be formatted and justified on the decimal 
point. Since the last character is on the last position on the 
line, BASIC will always send a carriage return, so the semi- 
colon is added to suppress a second return and keep the print 
position at the beginning of the next line on the screen. 

Before we can print anything, we need to decide whether 
that which is to be printed is in string or numeric form and 
how many characters will be involved. Anything can be put 
into characters in a string. In my old program, I put all data 
relative to each transaction into a single string. Now, being 
older and wiser, 1 decided to do things a little differently. 

Let's start with the check number field. Most of the time it 
is a number, but sometimes it must hold DEP for deposit or 
ADJ for adjustment. A string is needed. The date in the form 
7/3 needs a string variable. Since I do not expect to enter the 
year, five characters will suffice. For example, 12/20. Now 
the amount of the transaction and the resulting balance 
might go either way. If these were put into strings, then they 
would need to be converted back to numeric variables for 
math operations. In a numeric array it takes five bytes to 
store a number. Storing a number like 1 2.42 takes five bytes 
in a string plus another byte for the field separator we will 
discuss in a bit. So suddenly the decision is simple, put the 
amount and the balance in a numeric variable. 

The other two pieces of data go into string variables. They 
are an O or C for outstanding or cleared and the contents of 
the note field. 

Earlier I dimensioned a string array and a two dimension 
numeric array for data storage. Now we can look at what 
goes into these arrays. Since we need to keep track of our 
position in the array, I set up the variable CR to keep the 
number of the current record being entered or showing in 
the lower position on the work screen during record reviews. 
Then, A(CR,0) keeps the amount of the transaction for CR 
and A(CRJ) holds the balance. All the other data is com- 
bined into one string and put into A$(CR). 

Let's assume some data. The transaction is a deposit made 
on June 25 for $250 causing a new balance of $1034.27. 
Since we have not gotten our bank statement showing this as 
cleared, it is outstanding and the note says HORSE 
RACES, The data string will contain the characters in each 
field separated by $'s. It will look like this — A$(CR)="DEP 
$6/25$0$HORSE RACES". That's 22 characters and we 
estimate an average of 25 for each string when we dimensi- 
oned the arrays and CLEARed string space. Line 38 is the 
one that assembles the string from working variables and 
loads the numeric array. 

38 A$(CR)-CC$+ l T'+CD$+"$''+LEFT$(CS$,l )+"$"+ 
CN$: 

A(CR,0)=CA: A(CR, 1 )=CB: RETU RN 

There are two sets of working variables, those for the 
current record and those for the previous or last record. 

Purpose Current Last 

Check # CCS LC$ 



128 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Date 


CDS 


LDS 


Amount 


CA 


LA 


Ra lance 


CB 


LB 


Status 


CSS 


LSS Cleared or Outstanding 


Note 


CN$ 


LN$ 


Current Record Number CR 



Last Record in File LR 
Last Bank Balance BB 

At this point I admit to confusion in how the term last is 
used. The working variables LC$, LD$, etc. refer to the 
record just before the current one. However, LR is the last 
record in the total file. I understand it so 1 won't change it 
now, but this points up how easy little things that may 
confuse others can slip through. ^ 

Design of the working screen was at least a five-sheet 
effort to finalize what would be on it and where. Even then 1 
made some small changes after I had the first cut running. 

2120 CLS:GOSUB50:PRINT:PRINT: 
PRINT"ENTER LAST BANK STATEMENT 
BALANCE ";: 

LINEINPUTI$:BB=VAL(I$):PRINT@128,STRING$ 
(64,32): 

GOSUB52:GOSUB54:GOSUB58 

Line 2 1 20 clears the screen and then goes to subroutine 50 
to print the heading. Next it asks for the last bank statement 
balance. Remember that we are starting a new file at this 
point. Here and later I use LINElNPUTto avoid the ques- 
tion mark that INPUT prints. However, UN EIN PUT only 
accepts strings and we need to use BB=VAL(\$) to convert 
to a numeric variable. Throughout the program, 1 use 1$ as a 
temporary input variable whose value, if it is to be kept, will 
be permanently stored in some other variable. Once the 
balance is entered, PRINT@128,STRING$(64,32) erases 
the question. Finally, the prompt texts at the bottom of the 
screen are printed using subroutines 52, 54 and 58. 

50 PRINT@8,RC$,"ITEM DATE AMOUNT 
BALANCE":RETURN 

52 PR1NT@352,"LAST BANK BALANCE ";: 

PR INTUSINGSS$;BB: RETURN 

54 PR1NT@384,"<ENTER> =NEXT CH ECK 1 ST 

DIGIT STARTS NEW # SERIES": RETURN 

56 PR1NT@448 DEPOSIT aDJUSTMENT vOlD 

CLEARED eDlT sAVE 10AD nEW MONTH "CHR$ 

(94) U 'S";:RETURN 

58 PRINT@448,"dEPOSlT aDJUSTMENT 
vOIDVeDIT sAVE "CHR$(94)"'S";:RETURN 

The title Rainbow Checkbook was put into RCS in Line 
2050. Now, in Line 50, it is printed centered on the top line. 
The comma causes the cursor position to advance to the 
beginning of the second line where the column headings are 
printed. The last bank balance, formatted using ##,###.##, is 
printed on Line 12 of the screen by subroutine 52. The text 
printed by Line 54 prompts the two ways to enter a check 
number. If only an ENTER is keyed the last check number is 
incremented by one to be the new check number. Otherwise, 
if any numeric digit is keyed, it becomes the first digit in a 
new cheek sequence. Line 56 prints all the other functions 
that will be available from input mode. H owever, not all are 



appropriate when creating a new file. All items will be 
outstanding, the user will already have decided not to load a 
file nor is the new month function to pull out cleared items to 
an archive file appropriate. Line 58 is a shortened version 
used in the new file routine. 

2130 PRINT@320,"ENTER OUTSTANDING ITEMS 
";:PO=224 

Line 1 1 starting at PRINT@, position 320 is reserved for 
messages to the user. In Line 2130 the message ENTER 
OUTSTANDING ITEMS is printed and then the position 
variable PO is set to 224, the position where date enter 
begi^. 

This is a good break point for this month. We have 
covered a lot of the early work that goes into a program, but 
have not shown much BASIC code. The more time you spend 
early in program designing, the less total time you will spend 
writing the program. But we do have one last item to cover. 
Remember the old admonition to save early and often? 
Below are a couple of lines to make saving easy. 

10000 SAVE "RNBWCKBK" 

10000 INPUT"WANTTO RUN PAST LEADER";I$: 
IFl$="Y'THEN MOTORON:FORX=lTO6000:NEXT 
10010 FORC=lT02:CSAVE"RNBWCKBK'':MOTOR 
ON:FORX=lTO600:NEXT:NEXT:MOTOROFF 

RUN or GOTO 10000 will automatically make your save 
using the right name. The cassette routine also asks if you 
want to run past the leader and if so runs the recorder for 
about 15 seconds before making two saves with space 
between each save. Making things easier is what computing 
is all about. 

Next month we will pick up with the data entry routines 
and scrolling backwards and forwards through the file. We 
should also be able to cover the Input, Edit, New Month and 
I/O modules. 



Ed to Earth , . . 



The Video Connection 

If you want to record your CoCo's pictures and sound 
using a VCR, the easiest way to connect the two is to feed the 
CoCo's RF output to the VHF input on the VCR tuner. 
Instead of using the TV/computer switch, get an adapter 
(such as Radio Shack's 278-255) to mate the CoCo's cable to 
the antenna input. Leave the TV or monitor connected to 
the VCR in the usual way. Just tune the VCR to channel 3 or 
4 (whichever you usually use). 

An alternative is to modify the CoCo for direct video and 
audio output; a number of kits are available to do this. With 
the mod installed, just connect the CoCo to the video and 
audio input jacks on the VCR and switch from the TUNER 
input position to the LINE input (marked CAMERA on a 
number of units). With a few portable VCRs you will need to 
buy an adapter to connect the video and audio lines to the 
VCR's camera jack; on certain others you plug the lines into 
the tuner/ timer instead of the recorder. 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 129 



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EDUCATION 
































1 A 4 K Color BASIC program that really does 


something 






i 












iWORD 









SCRAMBLER 



FOR 



As a somewhat novice program- 
mer, I've found that Word 
Scrambler for Spelling Lists has 
not only been a fun exercise in some 
Color BASIC programming, but also a 
very interesting application of the RND 
(random number function). The result 
is a very useful and entertaining educa- 
tional program that provides drill and 
practice of assigned spelling words in a 
challenging "scrambled word" format. 
In addition to providing me with a 
chance to practice and improve my own 
programming skills and use the TRS- 
80C, Word Scrambler has given my 
third-grade son a chance to use the 
computer for more than just games. He 
is actually building language arts, logic 
and computer skills all at the same time. 

The programming task was to use the 
RND function to select words from a 
weekly assignment list of 15 words 
contained in DA TA statements, making 
sure that each word in that list is chosen 
only once. When the word is selected 
from the appropriate list, the letters are 
then scrambled and displayed on the 
screen in random order. The child is 
then asked to unscramble the letters and 
type in the correct spelling of that word. 

Sound provides either positive pr 
negative reinforcement, and if the answer 
is incorrect, the correct spelling is given. 
A running score is displayed, which 



SPELLING 



LISTS 



By John F. Wilfore 



TT1 I TT 

includes the child's name. To insure self- 
pacing, the student is asked to "press 
any key" to continue. At the conclusion 
of the lesson, a grade score is also given. 

Interacting with the keyboard, selec- 
tion of various weekly assignments and 
a personal touch by using an individu- 
al's name, provide for an entertaining 
and meaningful experience for younger 
students just being introduced to com- 
puters. 



Now that we know all of the wonder- 
ful things that the program can do for 
the student, let's take a look at how the 
program works — basically with the 
RND function. The first task at Line 
320 was FOR K-l to 15 to select 15 
different words from a given list. Setting 
variable X=RND(15) gave a random 
number, and if X was unique (hadn't 
been used before), it was sequentially 
inserted into array Rl. If not, a new X 
would be generated until it was unique. 
Each time a new X was generated, Rl 
was tested to determine if X had been 
generated previously. 

Once a unique word was selected — 
A$(X) — the next task was to scramble 
its letters. First, the length of the word 
was determined at Line 440 using 
L—LEN (A$(X)). Next, variable Y= 
RND(L) generated another random 
number, and if Y was unique, it was 
inserted into R2 array. Each time a new 
Y was generated, R2 array was tested to 

(John Wilfore, a manager for 
General Electric, uses his CoCo's 
word processing and spreadsheet 
capabilities for both home and 
"homework" applications. His 
nine-year-old son, Jason, also en- 
joys the CoCo for games, graphics 
and educational programs, mostly 
from RAINBOW.) 

September 1984 THE RAINBOW 131 



determine if that Y had been generated 
previously. 

In Line 570, using FOR 1=1 TO £, for 
L number of letters and using MID$ of 
A$(X), one letter at a time, the scrambled 
set of letters from A$(X) could easily be 
generated and displayed to the student. 
A comparison between the original word, 
A$(X), and the answer input by the stu- 
dent, D$, is then done, confirmation 
given, and the next random word is 
selected, till done. While the looping 
portion of the program is a little com- 
plex, the remainder of the coding is 
rather straightforward. 

In summary, the program itself was 
an excellent programming exercise in 
the use of loops, arrays, input and out- 
put and text screen formatting. A sub- 
routine at Line 1020 is even accessed 
using the variable AT to indicate the 



desired PRINT @ location of a set of 
graphics characters, used to enhance the 
text screen. Written exclusively in Color 
BASIC, the program should run in 4K by 
simply removing the REM statements. 

The unique combination of being 
very useful and an interesting program- 
ming exercise might stimulate others to 
modify the program. I'm sure that extra 
graphics and perhaps even a "hint" 
function would further enhance the pro- 
gram. The following list of variables will 
be useful: 

STRING VARIABLES 

A$(15) — array for selected word list 
C$ — single random letter, from 
MID$ 

D$ — student word, compared to 

A$(X) 
N$ — student name 



NUMERIC VARIABLES 

RI(15) — array for word pointers, init. 
to 0 

R2(I0) — array for letter pointers, init. 
to 0 

AT — variable for PRINT @ sub- 
routine 

C — counter for correct responses 

1 — index for loop 

J — index for loop 

K — index for loop to select 15 

random words 
L — length of random word 
N — random numbers for letters in 

R2 

W — week of spelling list assign- 
ments 

X — random number for word 
index 

Y — random number for letter 
index 



f 

390... 


. 143 


720.... 


95 


1040 . . 


164 


END 


59 



The listing: 



10 
20 '* 
30 '» 
40 ** 
50 "# 
60 '* 
70 '* 
80 ** 



K=l TO 
X=RND(15) 

'*#» CHECK TO SEE IF WORD U9 



WORD SCRAMBLER 
FOR 

SPELLING LISTS 



COPYRIGHT 1983 BY 
JOHN F. WILFORE 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
90 * ♦##**#♦####**#*♦#*#*#***#**♦ 
100 DIM A*<15>, RK15), R2(10> 
110 RESTORE 
120 C»0 
130 CLS(3> 

140 AT=96:80SUB 1020 
150 PRINT S 128, "WELCOME TO YOUR 
SPELLING LESSON" 
160 AT=160:GOSUB 1020 
170 PRINT @ 260, "WHAT'S YOUR NA 
ME"; 

1S0 INPUT N* 

190 PRINT @ 356, "WEEK 1 THRU 5"S 
200 INPUT W 

210 '*** READ IN PROPER WORD LIS 
T *** 

220 FOR 1=1 TO W 
230 FOR J-l TO 15 
240 READ A* (J) 
250 NEXT J 



260 NEXT I 

270 **** INITIALIZE WORD ARRAY T 

O ZEROS *** 

280 FOR 1=1 TO 15 

290 Rl (I)=0 

300 NEXT 

310 '»** GENERATE RANDOM WORDS * 
## 

320 FOR K-l TO 15 
330 
340 

ED PREVIOUSLY *** 

350 FOR 1=1 TO 15 

360 IF RKD-X THEN GO TO 330 

370 NEXT 

380 Rl <K)=X 

390 »**» INITIAL LETTER ARRAY TO 

ZEROS **# 
400 FOR 1=1 TO 10 
410 R2(I)=0 
420 NEXT 

430 RANDOMIZE LETTERS *** 

440 L=LEN(A*(X>> 
450 FOR 1=1 TO L 
460 Y=RND(L) 

470 CHECK IF LETTER USED PR 

EVIOUSLY *** 

480 FOR J=l TO 10 

490 IF R2(J)=Y THEN GO TO 460 

500 NEXT J 

510 R2(I)=Y 

520 NEXT 

530 SCRAMBLE & TEST *** 

540 CLS(3> 

550 PRINT @ 68, "UNSCRAMBLE THES 

E LETTERS"; 

560 PRINT @ 128," "; 

570 FOR 1=1 TO L 



132 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



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ML 


24.95 


SOUNDSOURCE (SOUND ANALYZER) 




ML 




14.95 


WHIRLYBIRD RUN (SCRAMBLE) 




ML 


24.95 


COMPUVOICE 










CU BIX (Q* BERT) 


32K 


ML 


24.95 


(SOFTWARE VOICE SYNTHERSIZER) 






EB 


24.95 


GALAX ATTAX (GALAXIANS) 




ML 


24.95 


GRAPHICS 'N TEXT 










COLOR PANIC (SPACE PANIC) 


32K 


ML 


21.95 


(SOFTWARE LOWER CASE) 




ML 




9.95 


COSMIC INVADERS (SPACE INVADERS) 




ML 


21.95 


DISASSEMBLER (CRACK YOUR ROMs) 






EB 


14.95 


PENGON (PENGO) 




ML 


24.95 


GRAPHICOM 










DEVIOUS (XEVIOUS) 


32K 


ML 


21.95 


(GRAPHICS DEVELOPMENT TOOL) 


64 K 


ML 


D 


24.95 


FROGG1E (FROGGER) 


32K 


ML 


24.95 


PLATINUM WORKSAVER 










OIKS (QIX) 


32K 


ML 


24.95 


(BASIC ENHANCEMENT) 




ML 




29.95 


STORM ARROWS (TARG) 




ML 


21.95 


DATA PACK 2 (TERMINAL PACKAGE) 




ML 




44.95) 34.95 


ANDROID ATTACK (BERZERK) 




ML 


24.95 


CORES (TAPE EDITOR/ASSEMBLER & 










DEFENSE (MISSILE COMMAND) 




ML 


24.95 


DEBUG MONITOR) 




ML 




34.95 


GHOST GOBBLER (PAC MAN) 




ML 


21.95 


TEXTPRO III (WORDPROCESSOR) 




ML 


(D = 


59.95) 44.95 


SPACE RACE (OMEGA RACE) 




ML 


24.95 


HI RES II (HI-RES SCREEN UTILITY) 




ML 




24.95 


CRYSTAL CASTLES (ICE CASTLES) 


32K 


ML 


24.95 


FLEX+ (DISK OPERATING SYSTEM) 


64K 


ML 


D 


59.95 


COLOR ZAP (SPACE ZAP) 




ML 


14.95 


with EDITOR/ASSEMBLER 








89.95 


SPACE SENTRY (STAR TREK) 




ML 


21.95 












STAR SPORES (FIGHT ALIEN INVADERS) 


32K 


ML 


21.95 












BEAM RIDER (ORIGINAL STRATEGY GAME) 




ML 


24.95 


ADVENTURE GAMES 






SPACE WAR (INTERPLANETARY COMBAT) 




ML 


21.95 













EDUCATION 



GEOGRAPHY PAK 

(FIVE DIFFERENT STUDIES) 
ALPHA SEARCH (ALPHABET TUTOR) 
QUIZSPIN (JOKER IS WILD) 
HORSEPLAY (VOCABULARY BUILDERS) 
PICKWHICH (SHAPE RECOGNITION) 
SPELLING MASTER (SPELLING TUTOR) 
SPANISH FOOTBALL (SPANISH TUTOR) 
TYPE ASSAULT (GRAPHIC TYPING) 
INTEGER MATH (MATH TUROR) 
TYPING TUTOR (TOUCH TYPING) 
DOLLARS & SENSE (MONEY TEACHER) 
SCHOOL MAZE (SCHOOL ADVENTURE) 



32K 
32 K 



ML 



ML 



EB 
EB 



EB 
EB 



EB 
EB 



29.95 
14.95 
19.95 
19.95 
9.95 
14.95 
14.95 
19.95 
14.95 
19.95 
11.95 
11.95 



32K 



KEYS OF THE WIZARD 

(ADVANCE ADVENTURE) 
SYZYGY (3D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE) 
PRISON CITY 

(BASIC GRAPHIC ADVENTURE) 
CAVERNS OF DOOM 

(DUNGEON ADVENTURE) 
PIRATES AHOY (PIRATE ADVENTURE) 
MAZE ESCAPE (3D GRAPHIC MAZE GAME) 
NAUGUS (GRAPHIC/ARCADE) 
"ORIGINAL" ADVENTURE GAME 



MISCELLANEOUS 

LEMANS (GRAPHIC RACE GAME) 

GAMBLIN GAMES (3 CASINO GAMES) 32K 

TREASURY PAK (30 GAMES!!!) 32K 



ML 
ML 



ML 



ML 
ML 



ML 
ML 
ML 



EB 



EB 
EB 
FLEX + 



EB 
EB 



19.95 
24.95 

9.95 

19.95 
9.95 
14.95 
19.95 
19.95 



14.95 
19.95 
29.95 



SPECTRAL 

ASSOCIATES 

3418 SOUTH 90th STREET TACOMA, WA 98409 

ORDERS ONLY 800 426 1830 
ORDER PROCESSING AND INFORMATION 206 581 6938 

LOOK FOR THE FOLLOWING SPECTRAL 
ASSOCIATES GAMES AT YOUR LOCAL 
RADIO SHACK STORE: 

• MADNESS AND THE MINOTAUR 

• SLAY THE NEREIS 

• MICROBES 

• DOWN LAND 

INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTORS: 

KELLY SOFTWARE, EDMONTON, ALBERTA 
SECTOR SOFTWARE, DARTMOUTH, NOVA SCOTIA 
SPECTRUM SOFTWARE, ADELAIDE, AUSTRALIA 



D = DISK ONLY EB = EXT BASIC REQD 
ML = MACHINE LANGUAGE 

ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED 

EXPRESS 

ORDER! 

ORDER BY VISA OR MASTERCARD AND 
YOUR ORDER WILL BE SHIPPED WITHIN 
ONE BUSINESS DAY — GUARANTEED OR 
YOU GET THE GAME FREE!! HARDWARE 
ITEMS SUBJECT TO MANUFACTURERS 
AVAILABILITY. 

TOLL FREE ORDER LINE 



TOO 

[MottafCOTd) 



NO COD ORDERS 
SHIPPING AND HANDLING 
ADD 3% , $2.00 minimum 
CANADA ADD 6%, $3.00 minimum 
FOREIGN ADD 15%, $5.00 minimum 
WA residents add 7.8% tax 



580 N-R2<I> 

590 B«-A*(X> 

600 C*-MID*<B*,N,1> 

610 PRINT C*; 

620 NEXT 

630 INPUT D* 

640 **** CONFIRMATION SECTION ** 
# 

650 IF D*=A*<X> THEN C-C+l ELSE 
GO TO 750 

660 SOUND 130, 3: SOUND 199,5 

670 AT=224:G0SUB 1020 

680 PRINTS256, "CORRECT ! YOU NOW 

HAVE "J 
690 PRINT C? 
700 PRINT "RIGHT" 

710 PRINT @ 288, " NICE GOI 

NG "; 

720 PRINT N* 

730 AT=320:GOSUB 1020 

740 GO TO 810 

750 SOUND 20, 3: SOUND 5,3 

760 AT=224:G0SUB 1020 

770 PRINT @ 256, " "J 

780 PRINT A*<X> 

790 PRINT @ 2B8j " WAS THE CORR 
ECT WORD" 

800 AT=320:GOSUB 1020 

810 PRINTS419, "PRESS ANY KEY TO 



Meet the direct-con nect 
Signalman MODEM 

Meel the direct -connect SIGNALMAN MODEM designed lot use 
with RS-232C type Interface ... the smallest, lightest, most com- 
pact modem available today Its long hie 9-volt internal battery 
and exclusive audible Carrier Delect Signal allow you to install 
the SIGNALMAN anywhere , out ot Ihe way. and but of sight 
Now. there's no need tor messy cables, and no need to look at 
a LED to verify corrier. 

Anchor's SIGNALMAN is designed lo operate only with modular 
telephones having plug-in handsels. Be« TRIMLINE"" type tele- 
phones which combine handsel and dial are not suitable 
Your SIGNALMAN transmits both voice and ddto over all com- 
mon telephone lines, and is fully compatible with Bell 103 
modems - putting your computer in instont commur^cotions 
wilh thousands of other computers And when you're in the 
data position your SIGNALMAN automatically changes from 
ORIGINATE to ANSWER and back again as the need arises - 
ending all that confusion 

Anchor Automation has taken the fuss out of commur«colions 
For business or fun SIGNALMAN Is the ideal modem 



$59.95 



A. C. Adapter 
$8.95 



smart Terminal package 

• Corre*»t» UDfcaod Ond Downkxxj SuopOfl 

• Or*r» Cau*n*JO»k Rtoai orxJ wnte» 

• 110. XO 600 .a 1300 Bdud 

• MorHotDuptoi 

• P»»»nl«i Data bolarm Co*ng (Scn«i SS s) 

• Cmn* ana OnAn« Scroflng 

• ROM Rack or Din 

• Automate Capture of Ftlai 

• iarxJ AJ 177 ASCI Cnooeien From K*>too<a 

• Word Moo* Eamna lei if>'l Wordi 

• 7 or 8 Ooia 5 H (mcmana Cvophci Sccooi) 

• EfTcionl Oof a SloKua S-i i+t< h-e-iMwTuv 

• 1CD\Carnpott*w/i>3rto-C<ywlcri6eSi) 

• 0»VervrX>^KoyxJi«<^«r^^nO«OvO*orito( 

COLORCOM/S $49.95 



FREE... 

with each modem 

$100. VALUE 

Subscription to 
The SOURCE + 
One Hour Hook-Up 
Time. 



COLOR TERM + PLUS + 

129.05 Now mort 'PLUS* f«e«ur*» ih«n b»for»'!t ' 
I * ArtjAn frtlelligem Terminal Progrim For The. Color 



Computer or TDP 100. 



SOFTWARE PLUS 



620 1.C Greenback Lane 
Citrus Heights. CA 95610 



Phone 

26-879^ 



CONTINUE" I 
820 K««INKEY*:IF K*«""THEN GO TO 

B20 
830 NEXT K 

840 "*## TEST IS DONE. LAST SCRE 
EN *#* 
850 CLS(3) 
860 AT=0:GOSUB 1020 
870 PRINT @ 64, "CONGRATULATIONS 
"i 

880 PRINT N* 

890 SC»INT<C/ 15*100 + .5) 

900 PRINT @ 128, "YOUR GRADE WAS 

■ I . 

910 PRINT SC; 
920 PRINT " Y." 

930 PRtNT @l92, "FOR WEEK NO. "? 

940 PRINT W 

950 AT=256:B0SUB 1020 

960 PRINT @ 320, "DO YOU WANT AN 

OTHER TEST Y OR N"» 

970 INPUT T* 

980 IF T*="Y" THEN GO TO 110 
990 PRINT 6 416, "COME BACK AND 
SEE ME AGAIN SOON,"; 
1000 END 

1010 '»** PRINT S SUBROUTINE *** 
1020 FOR I- AT TO AT +31: PRINT @ 
I, CHR*(182>; 
1030 NEXT 
1040 RETURN 

1050 WEEK 1 - CONSONANTS 

1060 DATA FLAG, FED, HID, DOT, HUNT, 
APPLE, BRING 

1070 DATA CLUB, ELSE, HAPPY, PEN, R I 

VER , ROCK , SHALL , SUNNY 

1080 »#** WEEK 2 - DOUBLE LETTER 

S 

1090 DATA ADD, CLIFF, DRILL, ILL, KI 
SS, LESS, MESS 

1100 DATA ODD, ROLL, SHELL, SMELL, S 

PELL , SP I LL , STUFF , UNLESS 

1110 **** WEEK 3 - USING VERBS 

1120 DATA BAT, CHOP, CLAP, DROP, NAP 

, P I N , STEP , SK I NNED , STOPPED 

1130 DATA TRAPPED, TRIPPED, TAGG IN 

G , PLANN I NG , WAGG I NG , T APP I NG 

1140 **** WEEK 4 - CONSONANT CLU 

STERS 

1150 DATA SNOW, STAR, STATE, STICK, 

TR I CK , STR I NG , SPRAY , SPR I NG 

1160 DATA CLEAR, CLOSE, DRAWER, DR I 

VE, FLAT, FLOOR, PRINT 

1170 **** WEEK 5 - MORE CONSONAN 

T CLUSTERS 

1160 DATA ACT, DUST, EAST, TEST, WES 
T, LIFT, BEND, GRAND 

1190 DATA GROUND, WIND, BUILD, CHIL 
D, WILD, MILK, BUMP A 



134 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



3 



COLOR 
PERIPHERALS 



BOOKS 

COLOR BASIC UNRAVELLED 

EXTENDED BASIC UNRAVELLED 

DISK BASIC UNRAVELLED 

SET OF 3 UNRAVELLED BOOKS 

The Unravelled series is the ONLY, complete, 

TOTALLY commented and explained disassembly 

of COLOR BASIC. Complete memory map in each book. 

FACTS (Hardware Manual) 

6809 Assembly Language Programming 

Color Computer Songbook 

101 Color Computer Tips & Tricks 

55 Color Computer Programs 

55 More Color Computer Programs 

Color Computer Graphics 

6809 Programmers Reference Card 

MODEMS 

HAYES SMARTMODEM 300 

(300 BAUD, auto dial/auto answer) 

US ROBOTICS PASSWORD 300 
(300 BAUD) 

US ROBOTICS PASSWORD 

(1200 BAUD, auto dial/auto answer) 

DISK DRiVES 

TANDON Single Sided, DD 

TANDON Double Sided, DD 

includes software to convert to two 

single sided drives 



PRINTERS 



CHIPS 



4164 RAM 
6809ECPU 
6883 SAM 

6821 PIA 

6822 PIA 
6847 VDG 



MISCELLANEOUS 



CCI MONITOR ADAPTER 
CCII MONITOR ADAPTER 
RS232 3 WAY SWITCH BOX 
C-10 CASSETTES 
DISKETTE SSDD 

Box of 10 
BLANK ROM PAK PROJECT BOX 
The ANSWER (Disk Expander, Parallel 

interface, TERM program) 
64K RAM EXPANSION KIT 
DISK (40 PIN)"Y" CONNECTOR 



19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
49.95 



14.95 
19.95 
7.95 
7.95 
9.95 
9.95 
9.95 
1.95 



160.00 



350.00 



199.95 
279.95 



6.00 
19.95 
24.95 

8.00 
13.00 
14.95 



24.95 
34.95 
29.95 
.59 

2.49 
19.95 

3.95 



49.95 
29.95 




GEMINI 10X 
GEMINI 15X 
RS232 Card 
RS232 W/4K Buffer 

LEGEND 800(80 cps) 
LEGEND 1000(100 cps) 
LEGEND 1200 (120 cps) 
LEGEND 1500 (150 cps) 
RS232 Card 

OKIDATAML82A(120cps) 
(built inRS 232 interface) 

MONITORS 

AMDEK COLOR 1 

(CCI VIDEO DRIVER -$20- W/purchase) 

JOYSTICKS 

WICO JOYSTICK ADAPTER 
ATARI JOYSTICK 
WICO "RED BALL" 



$315.00 
430.00 
55.00 
80.00 

295:00 
325.00 
370.00 
390.00 
100.00 

335.00 



19.95 
12.95 
29.95 



UTILITIES 








ULTRA 80C (EDITOR-ASSEMBLER) 




ML 


D 


49.95 


DISK EDITOR (FIX & ALTER DISK DATA) 






D 


24.95 


BUGOUT (POWERFUL MONITOR) 




ML 




14.95 


ORACLE (GRAPHICS MONITOR) 


32K 


ML 




24.95 


SOUNDSOURCE (SOUND ANALYZER) 




ML 




14.95 


COMPUVOICE 










(SOFTWARE VOICE SYNTHERSIZER) 






EB 


24.95 


GRAPHICS 'N TEXT 










(SOFTWARE LOWER CASE) 




ML 




9.95 


DISASSEMBLER (CRACK YOUR ROMs) 






EB 


14.95 


GRAPHICOM 










(GRAPHICS DEVELOPMENT TOOL) 


64K 


ML 


D 


24.95 


PLATINUM WORKSAVER 










(BASIC ENHANCEMENT) 




ML 




29.95 


DATA PACK 2 (TERMINAL PACKAGE) 




ML 


(D = 


44.95) 34.95 


CORES (TAPE EDITOR/ASSEMBLER & 










DEBUG MONITOR) 




ML 




34.95 


TEXTPRO III (WORDPROCESSOR) 




ML 


<D = 


59.95) 44.95 


HI-RES II (HI-RES SCREEN UTILITY) 




ML 




24.95 


FLEX + (DISK OPERATING SYSTEM) 


64K 


ML 


D 


59.95 


with EDITOR/ASSEMBLER - 








89.95 


D=DISK ONLY EB = EXT BASIC REQD 








ML= MACHINE LANGUAGE 










ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED 



LOOK FOR THE FOLLOWING SPECTRAL 
ASSOCIATES GAMES AT YOUR LOCAL 
RADIO SHACK STORE: 

• MADNESS AND THE MINOTAUR 

• SLAY THE NEREIS 

• MICROBES 

• DOWN LAND 



INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTORS: 

KELLY SOFTWARE, EDMONTON, ALBERTA 
SECTOR SOFTWARE, DARTMOUTH, NOVA SCOTIA 
SPECTRUM SOFTWARE, ADELAIDE, AUSTRALIA 



NO COD ORDERS 

ADD 3% SHIPPING AND HANDLING, $2.00 minimum 
CANADA ADD 6%, $3.00 minimum 
FOREIGN ADD 15%, $5.00 minimum 
WA residents add 7.8% tax 



EXPRESS 

ORDER!! 

ORDER BY VISA OR MASTERCARD AND 
YOUR ORDER WILL BE SHIPPED WITHIN 
ONE BUSINESS DAY — GUARANTEED OR 
YOU GET THE GAME FREE!! HARDWARE 
ITEMS SUBJECT TO MANUFACTURERS 
AVAILABILITY. 

TOLL FREE ORDER LINE 

ORDERS ONLY 800 426 1830 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

ORDER PROCESSING 206 581 6938 3418 SOUTH 90th STREET 

AND INFORMATION TACOMA, WA 98409 




A NEW PRESIDENT has been named 
at Radio Shack. Mr. Bernard Appel has 
been named to replace Jon Roach, who 
has relenquished that title but remains 
as chairman of the board. Appel has 
been the senior vice president to whom 
the people who run the computer mer- 
chandising operation have reported, so 
he is well-grounded in the computer 
sales operation at Radio Shack. The 
move could be seen as a further com- 
mitment of Radio Shack to its comput- 
er sales and marketing. 

Speaking of sales and marketing, 
there is a new company under the Tandy 
umbrella — Tandy Home Education 
Systems. The purpose of the new firm is 
to market Color Computers through 
home sales — using qualified leads just 
like high-class encyclopedias. No, it is 
not a door-to-door operation — Tandy 
has made that very clear. But, Tandy 
Home Education Systems is, in reality, 
the first step in bringing computers 
directly to people's homes. It seems to 
be a brilliant marketing move. 

* * * 

A NEW BUNCH of programs will be 
coming up in the CoCo market in the 
next six months. One of the least talked 
about is something that is new on the 
computer front — an information pro- 
cessor. Essentially, this is an outline- 
creation program that lets someone 
organize things into logical thoughts 
and order. Such programs, of which 
there are only a very few, are on the 
drawing boards of at least one software 
firm. Sometimes they are called "thought 
processors." 

* * * 

ALSO COMING UP are new programs 
that do new things, particularly in the 
game area. One of the nice trends that 
we hear about is original game pro- 
grams — new ideas and concepts. And, 
also on this general subject, expect to 
see more "thinking games" in the future. 

* * * 

ONE MORE AREA we keep hearing 
about is specific programs for specific 
tasks. Probably the best example of this 
type of thing is an Amway program that 
allows someone to run an Amway busi- 
ness with a CoCo. But these vertical- 



type markets are an important one and, 
while they do not have wide popular 
appeal, industry people say they have a 
definite market potential. 

* * * 

PLANS ARE AFOOT for RAIN BO W- 
fest's program to take a new form — 
with information on the type of mer- 
chandise to be found in specific booths 
and special information on new product 
introductions. With more than 50 booths 
at the shows, we're looking for a better 
way to help you get around and see 
everything. 

* * * 

A LIVELY DEBATE was part of the 
last RAINBOWfest on advanced oper- 
ating systems. With all the attention 
given to FLEX and OS-9, Peter Stark, 
developer of STAR-DOS voiced the 
opinion that he felt he might be getting 
overlooked. We understand that Stark 
and STAR-DOS have a new marketing 
approach and that you'll be hearing 
more about this system in the future. 

* * * 

SILICON VALLEY? Valley Micro Sys- 
tems has just announced the acquisition 
of Silicon Rainbow Products. As of 
May 5, 1 984, Valley Micro has obtained 
exclusive distribution rights to the entire 
Silicon Rainbow Products' line of soft- 
ware, including Jeff Francis' Color-80 
BBS and the latest version of Disutility, 
version 2.1. 

All future orders for products pre- 
viously distributed by Silicon Rainbow 
Products should now be directed to Val- 
ley Micro Systems, 801 W. Roseburg 
Ave., Suite #200, Modesto, CA 95350; 
voice (209) 529-4343, BBS (209) 
526-2030. 

* * * 

RADIO SHACK has penned an agree- 
ment with the Softlaw Corporation to 
market the complete VIP Library 
through its Express Order Software 
program. The VIP Library is comprised 
of the four most popular business soft- 
ware programs: VIP Writer, VIP Calc, 
VIP Database and VIP Terminal, along 
with VIP Speller and VIP Disk-ZAP. 

With the Express Order Software 
program, customers may go to their 



local Radio Shack stores, have any of 
the programs demonstrated, order the 
program desired and expect delivery in 
between one and four days. Warranty, 
maintenance and support will still be 
provided by Softlaw. 

VIP Calc and Writer sell for $69.95; 
VIP Database sells for $59.95; and VIP 
Terminal, Speller and Disk-ZAP all sell 
for $49.95. For more information, con- 
tact Softlaw Corporation, 9072 Lyndale 
Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55420, 
or visit your local Radio Shack store. 

* * * 

SPEAK UP ONCE AGAIN! Classical 
Computing has introduced a revision of 
their Speak Up! voice synthesizer pro- 
gram for the Color Computer. Speak 
Up! 2.0 is identical to the original pro- 
gram except that the voice is a little 
clearer and a bug which caused a printer 
to print garbage has been fixed. Any 
program using the old Speak Up! will 
work with the new version without 
modification. The price is still $29.95, 
postage paid. 

The company has announced that 
anyone who sends in their copy of 
Speak Up! will receive the new version 
free. Write to Classical Computing, 
Inc., Box 3318, Chapel Hill, NC 27515. 

* * * 

AN EDUCATIONAL BBS has been 
placed on-line by the Color Computer 
Club of Youngstown Ohio for its educa- 
tional activities. The educational bul- 
letin board system, along with the club's 
main BBS, is free and open to all callers, 
with public domain programs available 
for downloading. Both educators and 
students have been invited to call and 
lend a hand. 

The new Computer Aided Instruc- 
tion System educational BBS can be 
accessed at any time except between 
4:00 and 5:00 a.m. at (412) 662-2247; 
David and Amy Martin, SySops. 

* * * 

THE PRESSES KEEP ROLLIN\ Fal- 
soft, Inc., parent company of FPSS, 
Ag. Publishing Enterprises* Inc., has 
introduced another in its growing line of 
system-specific computer magazines. 
With the premiere of SOFT SECTOR in 
July, the owners of Sanyo 550/555 ser- 
ies computers now have an invaluable 
source of up-to-date information and 
programs for their machines. 

Now, owners of the Sanyo 550/555 
can expect the kind of support that THE 
rainbow has been offering for the 
Color Computer for more than three 



136 THE RAINBOW September 1984 




CLIP, MAIL AND SAVE 10°/o OIM SOFT 

AND HARD WARES OR COLORFUL 
UTILITY ORDERS FROM ANY OF OUR 
ADS SENT TO OUR NEW LOCATION IN 
SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA ! 




OFFER EXPIRES AUG. 31, 1984 
ORDERS SENT TO CALIFORNIA 
NO OTHER DISCOUNTS APPLY 
ON RETAIL PRICES ONLY 



MMiiiMmmMlm 





SPECIAL EDITION 

The Rainbow Book 
and 

Tape of Adventures 

$14.95 $3 S/H Sales Tax 



1D% DISCOUNT 



OFFER EXPIRES AUG. 31, 1984 
ORDERS SENT TO CALIFORNIA 
NO OTHER DISCOUNTS APPLY 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 
COLORFUL COMPUTING 



SPREADSHEET 



ELITE CALC - 255 Rows, 255 
Columns, Help Displays, Repeat 
Text Entries, Insert, Delete, 
Move Entire Rows, Selectable 
Auto Cursor Movement, Formulas 
255 chars. Disk/Tape $59.95 
(see Aug '83 Rainbow Review) 




DISK DRIVES 



I- 

NN; 3" Disl< 
DI.SK C 



DRIVE 0 System - 40 trks, Gold 
Platted Connectors - $299.95 
AWDEK System - 624K Bytes with 
3" Disk Cartridge - $499.00 
DJiSK CONTRO LLER - $139.95 
TSystems include controller) 
DISK Drive 1 , 2 or 3 - $1.69.95 
Single Drive PS i CASE - $59.95 



UTILITIES (DISK) 



1. FHL O-PAK $34.95 

2. Adventure Generator. .$39.95 

3. Super Forth ...$39.95 

4. Super Screen Machine. $49. 95 

5. OS-9 $69.95 

6. FHL Flex $69.95 

7. DEFT Pascal $79.95 

B. flicroWorks WACR0-80C.$99.95 



SAVE $40 ! 



DATA BASE MANAGER 




PR0 z CQL0R FJ.LE - 6 0 Data 
Fields, 8 Report Formats, 1020 
bytes/record, Sorts 3 Fields, 
Screen and Summary Reports, 
Duplicate Records and Fields, 
Page Titles - Disk $79.95 
(see June ! 83 Rainbow Review) 



i 



i 



GAME CONTROLLERS 



WICQ Command Adaptor - Hookup 
2 Atari type joysticks- $19.95 
With 2 Atari joysticks- $39.95 
MACH 12 Joystick - Beats the 
competition! 360 Degree control 
with spring or positive true 
positioning and electrical trim 
adjustment on both axes- $39.95 




NEW PRODUCTS 

vmy////////////// / , 

POKES & PEEKS manual $7.95 

YETTOU! Plail Labels (1K) .$14.95 
Disk Drive Cleaning Kit .$24.95 
CoCo 4DPin Project Board. $29. 95 
6 Outlet Surge Protector $59.95 
Bare Disk Drive" ....... .$129.00 

CoCo Koala Pad $139.95 

64K to 128K Upgrade ....$149.95 



I 



WEST DIVISION 



Spectrum Projects 

PO Box 9866 

San Jose, CA 95157-0866 



Add $3.00 S/H 
NY Res Add Tax 



EAST DIVISION 



Spectrum Projects 

PO Box 21272 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 
COLORFUL COMPUTING 



COMMUNICATION 



C0LDRC0P1/E - A complete smart 
terminal package! Upload, 
Download, Hi-Res (51X24) 
screen, 3D0/12DD Baud, Offline 
Printing and much more. Rompak 
or Disk - $49.95 
(see Feb '84 Rainbow Review) 



1 




WORD PROCESSING 



TELEWRITER-64 - Top CoCo Word 
Processor for 2 years! Three 
Hi-Res screens, true lowercase 
characters, right justifica- 
tion, full screen editor. 
Tape $49.95 Disk $59.95 
(see June '83 Rainbow Review) 



wm mm m 




1 



MODEMS 



niJ\[l- P1DDE PI - 300 Baud, 
Originate/Answer, Full Duplex, 
Direct Connect - $79.95 
J - C A T Plodem - Lowest priced 
auto/answer modem - $129.95 
HAYES Auto Dial/Answer $239.95 
ANCHOR - 300 /1200 Baud $299.95 
Prices include Modem cable. 



KEYBOARDS 



SUPER-PRO (Mark Data) $59.95 
PREMIUM (Nicronix) $69.95* 
HJL57 PROFESSIONAL $79. 95* 
KEYTRONICS Keyboard - $89.95* 
* - Includes free software for 
function keys. Specify Model/ 
Revision Board. Computers made 
after 0CT ! B2 please add $5. 




PRINTERS 



GEMINI 10X* 



120 cps, 9X9 dot fcvv 
tractor/friction feed $299.95 j\V 
EPSON RX-80 * - Faster than the 
MX-80 plus Graftrax! - $349.95 
* Parallel interface required. 
PBH Parallel Interface - Save 
$40 if ordered with above 



printers ! - $49.95 (Reg. $89. 95) 



MONITORS 



for above monitors - 
CoCo II (Monochrome) 
CoCo II (Color) Version 



MONOCHROME Monitors - 80X24 
screans plus Hi-Res w/AUDIO! 
Green - $99.95 Amber - $119.95 
BMC Color Monitor - $269.95 
UIDE0 PLUS - Video Interface 

$24.95 
$29.95 
$39.95 




art 



,\o< 



GO' 



TUTORIAL 



Teachers Need 
Spirit Masters 



By Valerie Rhead 



There was a time when teachers 
could be distinguished by the pat- 
ina of chalk dust that clung to 
their clothing, Nowadays, they are most 
easily identified by their purple finger- 
tips. Educators of students in all subject 
areas and at all grade levels have an 
insatiable need for printed classroom 
materials, such as tests and worksheets. 
Usually the most convenient and eco- 
nomical means of providing these is 
with spirit masters (which often come in 



a highly visible shade of purple). I rou- 
tinely use my Color Computer for creat- 
ing these stencils. 

The computer's editing features and 
memory make it a superb tool for this 
purpose. Gone forever are the double- 
edged razor blades that threatened mor- 
tal injury as you laboriously scraped off 
errors sculpted in carbon. Also a relic of 
the past is the necessity of typing each 
test or assignment from scratch. 

I store all the things that I use repeat- 
edly on disk. For example, a standard 
exam cover page can be loaded into the 
computer. I don't have to recalculate all 





the spacing each time so that it is attrac- 
tively centered. Standard test questions 
also can be saved and retrieved as 
needed. Not only does this save time, 
but it is more accurate. It's very easy to 
omit an essential instruction when you're 
rushing to make up a test. You can save 
yourself the aggravation of little hands 
popping up asking you something that 
should have been clearly stated. 

If the original "ditto" becomes ex- 
hausted, it's easy to print another one 
from the disk. If I had used a typewriter, 
I'd be faced with the futile task of trying 



(Valerie Rhead is a teacher of data processing, word 
processing and typing. She uses her Color Computer 
extensively for producing classroom materials, and for 
writing.) 



140 



THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Special price good with purchase of any Talking Software below! 
Offer expires Aug 31, 1984. All PAKs work w/$29.95 Disk *Y" cable! 



TALKING SOFTWARE 



Talking CoCo BINGO - Same as the popular game of BINGO but this one talks! 
Contains 20 Bingo player cards, 200 markers with complete documentation. 
Additional features: Color Graphics, 3 timing levels, ball count and pause 
control plus Disk compatible. 32K EXT $24.95 

Talking Final Countdown - You must stop the mad general from launching a 
missle at the Russians and causing WW III ! Has multiple voices for added 
realism. 32K EXT $24.95 

Educational Software - Computer Island ! s educational programs turn your CoCo 
into a true teaching machine. Reinforce basic lessions with the aid of voice. 
Three/pak special includes Math Drill, Spelling Tester and Foreign Languages. 
16K EXT $24.95 

Talking Score E-Z - An excellent adaptation of a Yahtzee type program with 
added speech. Up to 6 players compete at a time, and all scoring and record 
keeping is done by the computer. 32K EXT $24.95 (see June'84 Rainbow Review) 

Term Talk - A speaking smart terminal program for your CoCo. It contains all 
the features of an intelligent communications package, plus it talks! (Shades 
of War Games) 16K EXT Tape $39.95 Disk $49.95 (see Mar'84 Rainbow Review) 



All orders plus $3.00 S/H - NY Residents add sales tax 
SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

WEST DIVISION : EAST DIVISION : 

PO BOX 9866 PO BOX 21272 

SAN JOSE, CA 95157-0866 WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 

ORDER HOT LINES : 408-243-4558 & 212-441-2807 




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SPECTRUM DOS - Add M, NEW Disk cmds with 2 Hi~Res screens! Support 35-80 trks w/atitq 
disk seafce© 6ms. -30ms. & " EPROMABLE ". 64K DISK $49.95 (see Aug' 84 Rainbow Review): 



MULTI^RAIC CRAK - Safce; ROMPAKs to your 64K Disk system;: using the RS Multi~Pak 
Interface* ETimi na tfei constant plugging in of ROMPAKs now by keeping all your PAK 
software on disk. Includes POKEs for "PROBLEM" ROMPAKs. DISK $24.95 



TAPE OMNI CLONE - Easily handles programs with auto loaders, no headers, no EOF 
markers, unusual size blocks and more! Now is the time to get your tape spftware 
collection protected against loss. TAPE $24.95 

DISK OMNI -CLONE - Back everythi ng up ! This amazing program handles n non standard" 
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too! 32K DISK $29.95 




CO SCREEN DUMP - The best screen dump program for the Epson & Gemini printers ever! 
Have the option :af standard or reverse images w/regular or double sized pictures. 
600-9600 Baud tool A must for Graphicom and Bjork block users. 1 6K TAPE/DISK $19.95 



DISK UTIL - A jriuJti-f eatured enhancement that makes disk handling USER FRIENDLY. 
Utilize a directory Window to sort, move 'and copy file entries backup by file or by 
track, interrogate disk sectors or the GAT table, single command execution of both 
BASIC and ML programs plus much more! 64K DISK $24.95 (see May '84 Rainbow Review) 



MASTER DESIGN - A fce-xt. 'designer / e d i tor to generate graph i cs mode l etteri ng with 
multiple- font seizes., textures, shadowing and thicknesses, plus special patterns for 
creative backgrounds. Comes with a screen print routine and Letter Head Utility that 
interfaces with TeTewri ter-64 and BASIC . DISK $34.95 (see July l 84 Rainbow Review) 



BASIC COMPILER ~ Convert your BASIC programs into fast efficient machine language. 
Produces code more compact and up to 50Xs faster than original BASIC. Integer 
compiler with no Extended BASIC needed. 16K-64K versions included. TAPE $39.95 



SCHEMATIC DRAFTING - Save hours of work and design professional look i n.g e 1 e c t froji i c 
diagrams; using a 480X540 pixel worksheet with 6 viewing windows. Over 30 electronic 
symbols witf lO .user definable symbols are provided. Dump hard copy to the printer 
and save the created schematics to disk. 6.4 K DISK $49.95 .( see dm ! 84 Rainbow Review)' 



COLORAMA - A first-class Bulletin Board package... especially geared towards CoCo 
users... has an ordering section for those who want to run a mail-order business... 
supports CoToH Graphics.-. . one nice piece of work. 64K DISK $99.95 July '84 Rainbow 



MASTER MAIL - Quite easy to use... Capable of handling 1000 -addresses on a single 
d'i.s k . * . -F-0'RM LilTER .allows you to produce multiple letters from the address 
database... A' program flor serious applications. 32K DISK $49.95 Jan '84 Rainbow 

ccsr ccy ccsr 

DEALER/CLUB INQUIRIES INVITED 
SOFTWARE SUBMISSIONS WELCOMED 




IN CANADA CALL 



TOLL FREE 

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COLORFUL UTILITIES 

it************************************ 

FAST DUPE II - The ( IMPROVED) fastest Disk copier ever! Win format and backup a 
diskette in only one pass and can make up to 4 Disk copies at once! The must utility 
for every Disk owner. 64 K DISK $19.95 (see May '84 Rainbow Review) 



HIDDEN BASIC - Protect your BASIC programs. Mask your code so CLOAD, CSAVE, LIST, 
EDIT, DEL and LLIST will not function. TAPE $19.95 (see Sept '83 Rainbow Review) 



64 COL MOD I/III EMULATOR - Give CoCo a 64X16 screen. Run Model 1/I1I graphics code 
without retyping the BASIC statements. 64K DISK $19.95 (see May '84 Rainbow Review) 



64K DISK UTILITY PACKAGE - Take advantage of an expanded 6-4 K machine. Make an 
additional 8K of RAM available. Copy ROM cartridges to disk and create a 32K SPOOL 
buffer for printing. DISK $21.95 (see July '83' Rainbow Review) 



TAPE/DISK UTILITY - A powerful package that transfers tape to disk and disk to tape 
automatically,. Does an automatic copy of an entire disk of programs to tape. Ideal 
for Rainbow On Tape to disk. TAPE/DISK $24.95 (see Sept '83 Rainbow Review) 



E-X-T-E-N-D-E-D DISK BASIC - Add new powerful commands to your 64K Disk system. 
Inverse Video (GREAT for monitors! ), Wild Card Directory, Double POKE and PEEK, 
NSAVE, NLOAD, LDlR, OLD and TYPE. DISK $24.95 (see April '84 Rainbow Review) 



GRAPH I COM - The ultimate CoCo graphics development tool with sophisticated editing, 
previ ew animation, telecommunications and printer support. Hi -Res graphics for only 
$24.95. W/Spectrum's Menu Foot Switch $34.95. 64K DISK (see April '84 Rainbow Review) 



EZ BASE - A trul y user f r i end 1y data base program at an affordable price. Maintain 
inventories, hobby collections, recipes, greeting card 1 ists and much, much more! Hi- 
Res screen , up io 500 records with 1_5 fields , record or field search, and a Ma i 1 ing 
Label s option- 32K : DISK $24.95 (see July '84 Rainbow Review) 



BLACKJACK ROYALE - A H i - Re s graphics £|tsino. bl ackjack simulation and card counti ng 
tutor. Fully real i sti c play includes: double down, splits:, surrender, insurance bets, 

shuffle frequency and more! n This fine program is a must for 
' (Aug '83 Rainbow Review) 32K TAPE/DISK $24.95 



1-8 decks, burnt cards, 
the CoCo B1 ackjack player. 



SHIPPING S3.00 - IMY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

WEST DIVISION EAST DIVISION 

PO BOX 9866 PO BOX 21272 

SAN JOSE, CA 95157-0866 WDODHAVEN, NY 11421 

408-243-4558 212-441-2807 



to make an acceptable photostat of the 
J /2th, very faded copy of a spirit mas- 
ter. If that didn't work, I'd be stuck with 
the boring job of retyping the whole 
thing. How did I ever manage to get 
along before 1 had a computer? 

Know Your Printer 

The key to producing a good spirit 
master is the printer. When we first got 
our Radio Shack LP VIII, I was disap- 
pointed that it didn't print a good ditto. 
1 quickly found though, that it did a 
very acceptable job when the ribbon 
was removed. As the ribbon is in a car- 
tridge, it's quite simple to remove and 
reinsert it. 

When you type without a ribbon, 
proofreading your work is more diffi- 
cult. It can be accomplished (with only a 
slight bit of eyestrain) by reading the 
imprint on the carbon. I did notice, 
however, that I allowed more errors to 
slip by doing it this way. This is particu- 
larly embarrassing for a typing teacher. 

Another problem I encountered with 
the LP VIII was that ttie paper-out 
switch would activate and stop printing 
about two-thirds of th§ way down the 
sheet. This was unacceptable. 1 solved 
the problem by feeding in a small piece 
of paper at the left-hand end of the 
platen, and taping it in place so it 
wouldn't advance. This temporarily de- 
pressed the switch and 1 was then able to 
print to the end of the page. It is impor- 
tant that, when the switch is deacti- 
vated, you make sure that you don't 
print off the end of the sheet. Particu- 
larly when printing without a ribbon, 
this could damage the platen, and they're 
expensive to replace. 

Awhile ago, we acquired a Gemini 
10X printer. The LP VI 1 1 has graduated 
and gone to college with our daughter. 1 
am happy to report that the Gemini 1 OX 
allows you to physically turn off the 
paper-out switch. This can also be done, 
according to the manual, under soft- 
ware control. 

1 was delighted to discover that the 
new printer will produce a very good 
spirit master with the ribbon in place, 
which is achieved by using the emphas- 
ized print mode. This has cut down on 
my proofreading errors substantially, 
and I can once again look my students 
in the eye. 

Making "Dittos" More Interesting 

1 often decorate my spirit masters 
with computer generated pictures and 
designs. As a kid, I was committed to 
outlining my artistic creations in black 
and then filling in the interior with 
color. Unfortunately, my teacher be- 



longed to a different school, so my mas- 
terpieces were routinely returned with a 
grade of 'D.' 

When we got our first computer, I 
was thrilled to discover that even I was 
now capable of true artistry. Sometimes 
I draw pictures of realistic scenes, such 
as a rocket ship taking off through a 
star-laden sky. I also like to create the 
kind of abstract patterns that use lots of 
FOR . . .NEXT loops. I usually invent 
my own designs, but sometimes I '11 use a 
graphics program from a magazine. 

I use a screen print program and print 
my creations at the top of a spirit mas- 
ter. Sometimes 1 attain interesting effects 
by running the same spirit master through 
the printer more than once with differ- 
ent colored carbons. The remaining 
space on the stencil is then used for test 
questions, or worksheet problems for 
my students to complete. 

I sometimes use Telewriter 64 to 
create artistic borders for the stencils. I 
define some of the graphics codes, and 
then combine them into attractive de- 
signs. The possibilities are endless. 

Recently, I've started to use Michael 
Himowitz's Big Print program that was 
in the December 1983 RAINBOW. I can 
print a message or title in large letters of 
up to nine characters per line. Right 
after 1 got this program, my first mes- 
sage at the top of a short exercise I had 
prepared for my class was appropriately 
"Merry Xmas." 

Although producing these designs is 
time consuming, I usually decorate a 
large number of sheets at a time, when- 
ever 1 feel in a creative mood. I then 
have a stockpile of attractive spirit mas- 
ters on hand for later use, when I'm 
rushing to produce a test for tomor- 
row's class. 



The graphics make life a little more 
interesting for my students, because 
they don't get the same boring looking 
sheets to work from every day. It also 
provides my data processing class with a 
practical demonstration of one of a 
computer's capabilities. 

They're sometimes useful, too, as a 
classroom management device. "Class, 
you should have three sheets: one that 
says 'Computers are Fun'at the top; one 
that has a picture of a rocket ship; and 
another with a border made up of 
circles." 

It simplifies life if the students are 
returning the sheets. You don't have 105 
copies of three different sheets all mixed 
up together. Kids will try to put paper in 
the correct pile, if it's sufficiently obvious 
that they can do it without breaking 
stride as they head out the door for 
lunch. 

1 hope some of these suggestions will 
assist you in using your Color Comput- 
er to make spirit masters for your 
classes. 1 have access to dedicated word 
processors and more expensive brands 
of microcomputers at school. Now that 
I have mastered the idiosyncrasies of my 
TRS-80 system, I find that the Color 
Computer does everything I want. In 
some cases, it out-performs the school's 
more costly equipment. Having a com- 
puter at home offers one big advantage. 
When I arrive back at school with the 
tennis team at 5:30, 1 don't have to stay 
at school over the dinner hour to work 
on the word processor in order to pre- 
pare tomorrow's assignments. 

Your imagination is the only limit 
when creating borders for spirit masters 
using Telewriter 64. 



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rs rs rs rs rs rs rs rs rs rsrsrsrsrsrsrs 

7^ 



144 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



:l— I HUIVI HHUJ 

SHOPPING LIS 



A CHIP OFF THE OLD... 

6821 Standard PIA ....... $9.95 

6822 Industrial Grade PIA ...$14.95 

6847 VDG Chip ...... ... ...$17.95 

68764 (Fits Ext Basic Skt) Eprom .$24.95 
16K-32K-64K RAM Checker (KONPAK) .$24.95 

16K-32K Upgrade Kit* .$25.95 

6883 SAM Chip w/heat sink ...$29.95 

6809E CPU Chip $29.95 

Basic ROM 1.-2 Chip (30% FASTER) ..$39.95 
Disk ROM 1.1 (New: DOS Command) .. .$39. 95 
Ext Basic 1.1 ROM - NEW LOW PRICE $49.95 
CoCo First Aid Kit (Be Prepared). 

(2 6821 's, 6809E & 6883) $69.95 

Intronics Eprom Programmer- 15 seconds 
for a 68764 ! All popular EPROM' s $139.95 
* NOT compatible with CoCo II 

COCO LIBRARY... 

Color Computer Tech Manual ........ $7. 95 

The World Connection - All about 
Bulletin Boards, Modems" & Sysops ,.$9.95 

CoCo Memory Map $12.00 

CoCo Secrets Revealed . . .,. ..... ... . $14.95 

Color Computer Interfacing ....... $14.95 

Basic 09 Tour Guide . . .... ......... $18. 95 

Disk Basic (1 .0/1 .1) Unraveled ....$19.95 

CoCoINDX (1, 800 articles) .$19.95 

Newl CoCo II Service Manual .$19.95 

MORE GOOD STUFF... 

Spectrum Light Pen w/6 programs . $24. 95 
CoCo Voice Chip - Votrax SCO! A .. .$34,95 
PBH Para 1 l ei Int erface - Beats Botek! 
300-9600 baud w7ptr-modem switch ,$69.95 
The Spectrum Switcher - Have ypy^ $ i s k & 
Cartridge too! Dual Sloifc Systent $69.95 
Disk Interface ( Spectrum Special )$1 39. 95 
PBJ WORD-PAK 80X24 Video Board ..$139.95 
Microfazer SER/PAR print buffer .$179.95 
Sanyo MB C 5 50 - 16 bit 8088 MS-DOS system 
128K, 1 drive, 640X200 graphics .$895.00 
W/Bi-Res green screen monitor . ..$995.00 



ALL ORDERS PLUS $3.00 S/H 
NY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 



COCO CABLES AND... 

Extension - 15 feet. Move your printer or 
modem to another loqation. ......... $14.95 

Tired of plugging and unplugging devices 
from the RS2 32 port? Make your life 
easier. Try our RS232 ?¥"' f cable ..$19.95 
0S-9 Null Modem Cable - Now timeshare 

with another CoCo or MC-10 $19.95 

Disk I nterface/Rom Pak Extender - Move 
your disks and ROM Paks where you Want 

thfern 1 3 feet) .... . . . .. . . , . - - . $29. .95 

Triple RS232 Switcher - Now select one 
of any three RS232 peripherals ...$29.95 
40 Pin Dual "Y" Cable - Hook up a Disk 
w/Voice or Word Pak, X-Pad, etc .,$29.95 



OTHER GOOD STUFF... 

C-TO tapes in any quantity . . . . .49 
1 / 4 Pi skettes in any quantity . . 



5 



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Joysti ck plug . ... . . . 

64 K RAM Button: 

GEMINI 1 OX Ribbon ....... 

Arridek 3 n diskettes in any quantity 
Epson MX/RX 80 Cartridge 
Rompak w/Blank PC Board 
RS Disk Controller Case .......... 

The Disk Doubler - Doubles ide your 
diskettes . . . . ■ ■ ■ ■ . > . . .... 

Video Clear - CI eanup TV I ! ! 
The Magi c Box - load Mod 
program tapes into the CoCo ...... 

DOS Sw itcher - select any DOS (Di 
1.1, JD0S) inside J&M controller . 
CoCo Cooler (D & E Rev. boards): . ." 
New! CoCo Cooler II (CoCo II) .... 

CoCo Stereo Mus i c~S"ynthesizer 



eents 
. $1.99 
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5 1/4 
$14.95 
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Basic 
$24.95 
sk 1.0 
$24.95 
$49.95 
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$69.95 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

EAST DIVISION : 

PO BOX 21272 
WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 

WEST DIVISION : 

PO BOX 9866 

SAN JOSE, CA 95157-0666 



★★★★**★★★★ SELECTED SOFTWARE 

FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



UPGRADE YOUR 
COLOR COMPUTER! 

Complete solderless kits with easy-to- 
follow instructions. 

4K-1BK FOR ALL BOARDS .... . $19.95 

4K-32K FDR ALL BOARDS $54.95 

16K-32K FOR ALL BOARDS .... $39.95 

B4K For E & F BOARDS 

& COCO 2 $59.95 

VF POSSIBLE, PLEASE SPECIFY 
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NOTE: All ICs used in our kits are first 
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★★★*★★★★★★* 

SPECJAL OF THE MONTH 

JUNIOR'S REVENGE (32K) 
TAPE ONLY $21 .50 



THE HJL-57 KEYBOARD 

WITH FREE SOFTWARE 
FOR FOUR FUNCTION KEYS. 

$79.95 

• Please specify model 
(original, F version or COCO 2} 



VOLKSMODEM 

300 baud, direct connect, orig/answer 
automatically selected. Comes with all 
COCO cables and battery. 

$74.95 



DISKETTE CAROUSEL 

• Precision Rotary 

• With 72 color-coded envelopes. 

$29.95 



BOOKS 

Color Basic Unravelled $19.95 

Extended Basic Unravelled .... $ 1 9.95 

Disk Basic Unravelled $19.95 

ALL 3 BOOKS ONLY $49.95 



MONITORS AND INTERFACE 



Zenith ZVM-123 Green $129.95 
Zenith ZVM-1 22 Amber $149.95 
BMC 9191 U + medium res. 
w/sound $289.95 
$5 OFF Monitor with Video Plus purchased. 



VIDEO PLUS Color or monochrome 

for COCO $24.95 

VIDEO PLUS II C 

Color for COCO 2 $39.95 

VIDEO PLUS II M 

Monochrome for COCO 2 . , . . $26.95 



REAL TALKER' 

With enhanced software on Tape and 
User's Manual 

Cartridge $59.95 

'REAL TALKER II' 

Same as above for COCO 2 

$69.95 
Y-BRANCHING CABLE 

For Disk Systems $29.95 



STAR PRINTERS 



Gemini 10X 


1 20 cps 


$279 


Gemini 1 5X 


$399 


Delta 10 


160 cps & 


$415 


Delta 1 5 


8K buffer 


$549 


Radix 10 


200 cps & 


$615 


Radix 1 5 


16K buffer 


$715 


PowerType 


DaisyWheel 


$399 



PBH Serial to Parallel switch selectable 
printer and modem interface $79.95 

Purchased with Printer $59.95 



TAKE 20% OFF ANY SOFTWARE ORDER 

All games are in 16K machine language unless noted. 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

* DRACONIAN (32K) Will you be the next victim? 
44 SKRAMBLE Challenging destroy mission. 

* CRASH (32K) Mario is back again! 

* WORLDS OF FLIGHT (32K) Super realistic. 

* SR-71 (32K Ext. Basic) A must for the adventurous. 

* TOUCHSTONE (32K) Excellent graphics. 

* BUZZARD BAIT (32K) Just outstanding! 

* TRAP FALL Just like Pitfalls. 

* THE KING (32K) Just outstanding! 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 
4 GALAGON (32K) Truly state-of-the-art. 

* COLOR PANIC (32K) Excellent. 

* CUBIX {32K} Outstanding with 16 skill levels. 
** FROGGIE (32K) The best of its type. 

4 LUNAR-ROVER PATROL (32K) Just outstanding. 
GEOGRAPHY PAC Excellent learning tool with 4 
color hi res, maps. Extended Basic required. 

* LANCER (32K) Excellent Joust-type game. 

* MS. GOBBLER (32K) Outstanding with 4 different 
mazes and 1 6 skill levels. 

* WHIRLYBIRD RUN Excellent. 

* GHOST GOBBLER Highly rated Pac Man-type with 
1 6 skill levels and lots of action. 

INTRACOLOR 
44 INTRACDLOR GRAND PRIX Exciting racing game. 

44 WILLY'S WAREHOUSE (32K) Excellent graphics 
& sound. 

44 CANDY CO. (32K} Can you save Q.P. Doll? 

Over 1000 frames. 
44 COLORPEDE Just like the arcade. 
4 ROBOTTACK Just like the arcade. 

DATA SOFT 
4 ZAXXON (32K) Sega's official version. 
44 POOYAN (32K) Konami's official version. 

Tape & disk included. 
44 MOON SHUTTLE Nichibutsu's official version. 
TaDe and disk included. 



TAPE 


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COMPUTERWARE 



4 JUNIOR'S REVENGE (32K) Exciting! 
4 GRAN PRIX (32K) Challenging race. 
4 DOODLE BUG Just like Ladybug. 

ANTECO SOFTWARE 

ROMPAK ONLY 
4 8 BALL For the pool-table lover. 
4 GHOST GOBBLER by Spectral Associates 
4 WHIRLYBIRD RUN by Spectral Associates 



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unique adventure ever. 

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EARTHQUAKE You will fear for more than your $24.95 
own life. 

' SEA DRAGON (32K) Outstanding underwater thrills $34.95 
and chills. 



UTILITIES AND APPLICATIONS 




RAINBOW SCREEN MACHINE 


$29.95 


$32.95 


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$44.95 


$47.95 


TELEWRITER-64 


$49.95 


$59.95 


MASTER DESIGN 




$34.95 


PRO-COLOR-FILE 'ENHANCED 4 




$79.95 


COLORCOM/E Rompak or Disk 


$49.95 


CCEAD 


$ 6.95 




64K DISK UTILITY 




$21.95 


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$24.95 


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* Requires Joystick 



4 Joystick Optional 



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s^dto: SELECTED SOFTWARE, P.O. Box 32228. Frtdlay, MN 55432 



24 HOUR ORDER LINE 
(612) 757-2439 



GAME 



Why do we call this exercise in math and logical thinking the Mad 
Adder? We//, how much are two ducks to the base 10? 

The Mad Adder 



By Larry K. Gage 



The Mad Adder is a mathematical 
logic-type game. The object of 
the game is to figure out the 
proper number replacements for each 
symbol so that the problem is a math- 
ematically correct addition problem. 
An addition problem will be shown with 
the numerals replaced by graphics sym- 
bols. Each symbol shown represents 
one (and only one) number and likewise 
a number is represented by only one 
symbol. 

To play Mad Adder, insert the cas- 
sette and type CLOA D"MA DA D DER " 
and ENTER. The program uses the high- 
est resolution graphics (PMODE4) and 
four colors, and requires 32K memory 
to run. Type RUN and program execu- 
tion will begin. A simple explanation of 
the game's object will be given and then 
followed after an interval by an example 
problem. The time interval is used by 
CoCo for drawing, coloring, and get- 
ting the symbols into arrays. 

After the example problem is com- 
pleted you continue program execution 
by pressing any key. CoCo will then 
respond by asking you to enter the diffi- 
culty level (one, two or three) that you 
wish to try. Level one is the easiest 
(numbers between one and 199) and 
level three, the most difficult (numbers 
between one and 19,999). 

The graphics addition problem will 
be drawn and you will be asked your 
guess for the numeric value of the 
upper-right symbol. Respond by press- 
ing a number key from zero through 



(Larry Gage is a civil engineer employed 
by the State of California- Department 
of Water Resources. He is interested in 
educational applications and graphics 
with the Color Computer.) 




September 1984 THE RAINBOW 147 




Peripherals 
Corporation 



THE 
INTRONICS 
EPROM 
PROGRAMMER 

Price: $140. 




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□ Plugs into ROM pack port. 

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□ On board firmware included. 

□ No personality modules required. 

□ Will program most EPROM's. 

□ High quality zero insertion force EPROM socket. 

Enclosed in 
Molded Plastic Case 



69.95 



Peripherals SPLC"1 LOWCf CZcISC FULLY ASSEMBLED, TESTED 

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□ TRUE LOWER CASE CHARACTERS □ NO CUTTING OR SOLDERING □ FULLY COMPATIBLE WITH 
ALL TRS-80C (SPECIFY REVISION BOARD) [NOT COMPATIBLE WITH COCO 2] □ INVERTED VIDEO 
AT A FLIP OF A SWITCH 



NEW SOFTWARE 



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COLOR 
COMPUTER 

• DRIVE 0 FOR COCO $329 

• DRIVE 1 FOR COCO $198 

^GUARANTEED FOR ONE FULL YEAR 

• DISK CONTROLLER. FOR COCO $139 

• RS-232 PORT EXPANDER $ 30 

• POWER-ON LED. KIT $ 6 

•FRONT RESET SWITCH KIT $ 7 

• LIBRARY CASE HOLDS 70 DISKS $ 23 

•NEW MULTI-COLOR RAINBOW DISKS ..$25 

•ELEPHANT DISKS SSDD $ 23 

•8 PRIME 64K RAM-CHIPS $ 50 

•GEMINI 10X PRINTER $299 

• HAYES SMART MODEM 300 $215 

F-A-S-T- UPGRADE SERVICES $CALL! 





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• MINIMUM $2.00 SHIPPING & HANDLING 

• NYS RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX. 

• ALL OTHER ORDERS ADD 4% SHIPPING. 



*OS-9 IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF M1CROWARE. INC. 



OS-9BBS $89.95 

□ MULTI-USER CAPACITY □ FASTER THAN MOST BBS's 

□ MULTI-TASKING (NO LONGER COMPLETELY TIES UP 
YOUR COCO) □ REQUIRES OS-9 AND BASIC 09 

OS-9 40Track 
Program $24.95 

□ NOW OPERATE 35/40/S0 DOUBLE SIDE, DOUBLE DENSITY 
DRIVES UNDER OS-9 

64K Terminal 
Package $19.95 

□ AFFORDABLE □ REQUIRES 64K MEMORY □ GIVES YOU 
52-58K BUFFER □ WRITES TO DISC □ READS IN FROM 
DISC □ STANDARD DISPLAY 



Peripherals 
Corporation 

62 COMMERCE DRIVE 
FARMINGDALE , NY 11735 

(516) 249-3388 

Formerly Saturn Electronics Company Inc. 



nine. Your entry will be inserted into the 
appropriate spots in the numeric solu- 
tion area of the screen and you will be 
asked for your guess for the next sym- 
bol. The program does not allow you to 
enter the same number for two different 
symbols. 

After you have made a guess for each 
symbol, CoCo will inform you if your 
guesses result in a mathematically cor- 
rect addition problem or not. If it is 
correct, the screen will show "good solu- 
tion" and then tell you the length of time 
you required to solve the problem, as 



well as the number of clues given. It then 
re-initializes as necessary and asks you 
to enter the difficulty level for another 
problem. If your guesses did not result 
in a mathematically correct addition 
problem, your incorrect solution will be 
erased and the number of tries you have 
attempted will be shown. If you want a 
clue, press s C f when asked for a guess. If 
CoCo responds "you already guessed 
that" when you press *C\ then you have 
already made an erroneous guess. (At 
that point you may want to start over on 



the same problem — which can be done 
by pressing fc S\) 

Important Notes 

1) You are only allowed nine tries to 
solve any problem. 

2) If a problem appears too difficult, 
simply press 'Q' when you are asked 
to guess the value of a symbol, enter 
the difficulty level you desire, and a 
new problem will be generated. 

3) If you discover you have "messed 
up" and want to start over on the 
same problem simply press *S\ 





. . . . 80 


1000 .. 


.. 146 


225, 


. ... 70 


1150 .. 


.. 179 


350 


192 


1300 .. 


...65 


600 


. . . 190 


1550 .. 


...17 


790... 


. . . 225 


END .. 


.. 193 



The listing: 

5 * MADADDER VI. 9 11/08/83 
10 CLS0: PRINT842, "the" ; Z PRINTS46 
, "mad"; :PRINT@50, "adder ";: PRINTS 
64, "1 "; :PRINT@66, "k"; :PRINT@68, " 
gage"; :PRINT@83, "copyright" ;: POK 
El 1 16, 49: POKE1 117, 57: POKE1 1 18, 56 
: POKE 1119,51: X=RND < T I MER ) : * V 1.1 

15 FORI=1024 TO 1 055 : POKE 1,1 82 : N 
EXTI 

16 FORI=1504TO1535:POKEI,246:NEX 
T 

20 PR I NTS 160, " THE OBJECT OF THI 
S GAME IS TO SOLVE A MATHEMATIC 
WHICH THE NUMBERS 
BEEN REPLACED BY U 
"5 

POKE 1 78 , 0 : GOSUB 1 570 
PCLEAR4 : PM0DE4, 1 : COLOR0, 1 : PCL 



AL PROBLEM IN 
0 THRU 9 HAVE 
NIQUE SYMBOLS 
25 
30 



S 

40 DIM Nl (15) ,N3<15) ,N4<15) ,N8<1 
5) ,N9<15) ,N0<15) , AN<3) , AR<13) , AA 
(13) , Z*(10) , J (10) ,M1 (15) ,M2(15) , 
M3(15) ,M4(15) 

45 PRINTS420, "BE PATIENT — I'M DR 
AWING"; 

46 GOSUB 1590 

50 FORI-1TO10: J(I)=I:NEXTI 

55 GOSUB 1 580 :PCLS 

60 SA=0:GOSUB1330:LX=*24:LY=24 

70 XX=10:YY=10:LINE(9,9)-(35,35) 

, PSET , B : DRAW " BM22 , 33E 1 0UEU6HUH2L 

5G3H3L5G2DGD6FDF 10": POKE 1 78 , 1 3 : P 

AINTdl, 11) , ,0 

80 GET (10, 10) -(34, 34) ,N1,G 

85 POKE 178,0 

120 X=72:Z=0:CL=0:NT=l: GOSUB 1570 



125 GOSUB 1580 

130 POKE 178, 1 : F0RY=2ST034: FORQ=X 
-Z TO X+Z STEP2:LINE(Q, Y)—(Q, Y) , 

pset:nextq: z=z+2:nexty:line(72, l 

8 ) - ( 72 , 28 ) , PSET : FORY= 1 0TO 1 8 : FORX 
=62T082STEP2 :LINE(X,Y)-(X,Y), PSE 
T:NEXTX, Y:P0KE178, 157 

140 8ET(60, 10)-(84,34) ,N4,G 
145 POKE178,0 

191 CIRCLE (22, 52) , 12, , .7: CIRCLE ( 
22,52) , 10, , .8: CIRCLE (22, 52) ,8, , , 
7:P0KE178, 130: PAINT (22, 52) , ,0:PO 
KE178,0:PAINT(31,52) , ,0 

192 GET(10,40)-(34,64) ,N3,G 
195 GOSUB 1580 

210 PR I NT@4 1 6 , " A SAMPLE PROBLEM 
IS C0MIN8 UP. . PRESS ANY KEY AFT 
ER SAMPLE PROB "; 

220 DRAW " BM 1 97 , 1 0M+4 , +8M209 , 22M- 

8 , +4M 1 97 , 34M-4 , -8M 1 85 , 22M+8 , -4M 1 
97, 10": CIRCLE (197, 22) ,6, , .9: PAIN 
T (200, 20), 4 'STAR 

225 6OSUB1570 

230 GET (185, 10) -(209, 34) ,N8,G 
240 YY=100:XX=100:LX=8:LY=24:GOS 
UB320: XX=1 16: GOSUB320: XX=101 : YY= 
100: LY=S: LX=24: GOSUB320: YY=1 16: G 
OSUB320:GET(100, 100) -(124, 124) ,N 

9, G:LY=24 

250 X X =2 1 9 : Y Y= 1 0 : GOSUB320 

255 P0KE178, 31 : PRINTS326, "G O O 

D LUCK"; 

260 LINE (219, 22) -(237, 34) , PSET, B 
F: LINE (224, 10) - (241 , 22) , PSET, BF 
265 POKE178,0:LINE(216,36)-(244, 

9) ,PSET 

270 GET(218, 10)-(242,34) ,N0,G:PO 

KE178,0 

280 GOSUB 1460 

285 GOSUB 1580 

290 I FSA=0THENDL= 1 : NT=9 : G0T03 1 0 
300 GOSUB 1 460 : GOSUB 1 480 
310 PCLS:CLS0:8OTO340 
315 GOSUB 1580 

320 FORM=YY TOYY+LY: FORN=XX TO X 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 149 



x+lx step2:line<n,M)-<n,m> ,pset: 
nextn,m: return 

330 ' set up valid problem — 

340 x=rnd < 9899) : an (1 ) =rnd (x) +100 

: AN <2) -RND <9899) +100 

350 Z=-l*< DL=3 ) - 1 0» < DL=2 ) - 1 00* < D 

L-l> 

360 F0RI=1T02:AN<I)=INT<AN<I)/Z) 
: I FAN < I )< 1THENAN ( I ) =1 
370 NEXT I 

380 AN<3)»AN<1)+AN<2) 
385 GO8UB1580 

390 ' SHUFFLE SYMBOLS 

400 FORI=1TO20: X=RND(10) :Y=RND<1 
0):IFX»Y THEN420 

410 z=j<X):J(X)=j<y>:J<Y)=z 

420 NEXT I 

430 ■ — SET PROB ARRAY LOCS NEB 
440 F0RI=1T013:AR(I)=»-1:NEXTI:NM 
=0 

450 F0RI=1T03:NM=NM+1:Z<I)=INT<A 

N(I)/10) : AR<NM)=AN(I)-10»Z <I) 

460 NEXTI:GOSUB1580 

470 FORI=lTO 3:F0RJ=1T03 

480 NM=NM+ 1 : IFZ (J) =0THEN490ELSE A 

R(NM)=Z<J)-INT<Z<J)/10)*10:Z<J)= 

INT<Z<J)/10) 

490 NEXT J 



500 NEXT I 

510 IFAN<3) >9999THENAR < 13) -1 
520 LY-132 

530 F0RI=1T013:Z=AR<I) :LX=118 
540 IFI >3THENLX=90: IFI >6THENLX»6 
2: IFI>9THENLX=34: IFI=13THENLX=6 
: LY-132: 8OTO580 

550 I FL Y» 1 32THENL Y=70 : GOTO580 
560 IFLY-100THENLY-132 
570 I FL Y=70THENL Y= 1 00 
580 GOSUB630:NEXTI 

590 LINE (0,95) -(12, 95) ,PSET: LINE 
<0, 94) - < 12, 94) , PSET: LINE <6, 89) - < 
6, 101) , PSET: LINE <7, 89) -<7, 101) ,P 
SET » + SIGN 

600 LINE < 12, 127)- < 144, 128) , PSET, 
B 

620 GOTO800 

630 Y=Z: IFZ=0THENY=10 

640 IFY<0THEN RETURN 

650 FORM= 1TO10:IFY=J<M) THEN660EL 

SENEXTM 

660 XL=LX+24: YL=LY+24 

670 ON M GOTO 690,700,710,720,73 

0 , 740 , 750 , 760 , 770 , 680 

680 PUT <LX , LY) — <XL, YD , N0, PSET:R 

ETURN 

690 PUT<LX,LY)-<XL,YL) ,N1,PSET:R 
ETURN 

700 PUT<LX,LY)-<XL,YL) , Ml, PSET: R 
ETURN 

710 PUT<LX,LY)-<XL, YD ,M2,PSET:R 
ETURN 

720 PUT<LX,LY)-<XL,YL) ,M3,PSET:R 
ETURN 

730 PUT<LX,LY)-(XL,YL) ,M4,PSET:R 
ETURN 

740 PUT<LX,LY)-<XL,YL) ,N3,PSET:R 
ETURN 

750 PUT<LX,LY)-<XL,YL) ,N4,PSET:R 
ETURN 

760 PUT<LX,LY)-<XL,YL) ,N8,PSET:R 
ETURN 

770 PUT<LX,LY)-<XL, YD ,N9,PSET:R 
ETURN 

780 RETURN 

790 GN=AR ( I ) : CL=CL+1 : GOTO960 
800 DRAW " S4BM 10, 1 0D5R3U2D2R3U5BM 
+3 , +5U 1 0D5R3D5BR3U4ER3D5UGLLBR6U 
1 0D5L2R3BM+6 , +5R4L4U5R4U5D 1 0BR3U 
5R4D5L4BR 1 0U5D5R4U5D9LBM+5 , -4U5R 
4D5L4BR7U5D5R4U5 " 

810 DRAW " BM+6 , +5R4L4U5R4D9LBM+4 , 
-4U5D5R4U5BR3R3FDL4U2D4FRREBR3FR 
REUHLLHUERRFBM+3 , +4FRREUHLLHUERR 
FBR 1 0D5BM+3 , - 1 FRREUHLLHUERRFBM+8 
, +4U8D3L2R4BM+3, +5U8D4R3FD3BM+3 , 
-3ERRFDL4U2D4FRRE " 



6809 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT 




EXPANSION HARDWARE FOR 
THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 



XPNDRl™ 

CoCo Expander Card 

Gold edge connector plugs into 
the CoCo cartridge connector. 
Signals are labeled on the bot- 
tom (wire side) with ground and 
power buses; plated through 
holes. The 4.3 * 6.2 inch glass/ 
epoxy card is drilled for ICs and 
components. The finest bare 
breadboard for your CoCo. In- 
c I udes 8 pa ge Application Notes 
to help you get started. 



$19.95 each or 2 for $36 box 30807 Seattle, wa 98103 



SuperGuide™ 

Precision molded plastic insert 
designed specifically to align 
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guide. Patent Pending. 

$3.95 each 

«pu.«S_r I RAINBOW 

Available now from: 



ROBOTIC 



MICROSYSTEMS 



150 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



820 DRAW "BM10, 30D3F2RE2U3BM+3, +5 
U4ER3D5UFL3BR7US8R3BD3D4FRRRU5BM 
+3 , +2UERRFDL4U2D4FRREBR7U3ERRFD3 
GLLHBM+7, + 1 U7FERLGDDL2R4 " 
830 DRAW " BM+9 , +4U8D3L3R4BM+3 , +5U 
8D3R3FD4BM+3, +0U5BM+0, -2UBM+7, +3 
HLLGDFRRFDGLLHBM+ i 0 , +0FRREUHLLHU 
ERRFBM+3, -1D4FR3U5D8GBM+4, -4U5DE 
RFD4U4ERFD4BM+3 , +0U8D3R3FDDGL3BM 
+8, +0HUUERRFDDGLLBM+8, +0LU8" 
840 DRAW " BM+6 , + 1 ERRFDDLGDBD2D " 
850 TIMER=0 

860 NM=1 :NE=0: LINE < 158, 130)- <256 
, 131) ,PSET,B 

870 SCREEN 1 , 1 : F0RI-1TQ13: IFAR<I) 

<0THEN1020 

880 IFI«1 THEN910 

890 F0RJ=1 TO I-l: IFAR<I)=AR<J)T 
HEN 1020 

900 NEXTJ:NE=NE+1 

910 Z=AR<I) :LX=152:LY=21:LINE<18 
0 , 20 ) - < 240 , 45 > , PRESET , BF : G0SUB63 
0 

920 GOSUB1450: IFSA=0 THENGN=AR < I 

) : Q*=STR* (GN> : GOTO960 

930 GOSUB 1 520 : FORW= 1 T09 ; I FVAL < Q* 

)=W THEN950ELSENE X T W 

940 I FQ*= " Q " THEN 1 540ELSE I FQ*= " S " 

THEN 11 32 

945 I FQ*= " C " THEN790ELSE I FQ*< > " 0 " 
THEN920 

950 GN=VAL < Q* ) : N=GN+ 1 : Q*= " V30 ; 04 

;L20; "+str*(N) :play"XQ*; " 

960 DRAW"S3BM200,45"+Z*<GN) 
970 IFI=1THEN1000 

980 F0RIA=1 TO I-l : IFGN=AA < I A) TH 
ENGOSUB 1 280 : GOTO920 
990 NEXT I A 

1000 FORIA=I TO 13: IFAR<IA)=AR(I 
)THENGOSUB1210 
1010 NEXTIA 
1020 NEXTI 

1030 F0RZ = 1T013: IFAA < Z ) <0THENAA < 
Z) =0 

1040 NEXTZ 

1050 A1=AA(1)+AA<4)*10+AA<7)*100 
+AA<10)*1000 

1060 A2=AA<2)+AA<5)*10+AA<8)*100 
+AA(11)*1000 

1070 A3=AA(3)+AA(6)*10+AA(9)*100 

+AA < 12) *1000+AA < 13) *10000 

1080 GOSUB 1470: IF A1+A20A3 THEN 

1140 

1090 DRAW "S7BM 150, 186U3R3D3L3R3D 
3LBM+3 , — 3U3R3D3L3BR5U3R3D3L3BR8L 
3U3R3U3D6BR6R3U3L3U3R3BD6BR2U3R3 
D3L3BR6U6D6BR3U3D3R3U3D3BR3U6D3L 
2R4BD3BR2U3D3BR2U3R3D3L3BR5U3DER 




2FD3" 

1 1 00 SCREEN 1,1: GOSUB 1 460 

1110 I FSA=0THENS A= 1 : GOSUB 1 520 : GO 

TO1130 

1120 GOSUB1560:CLS3:T=TIMER:PRIN 
T@ 133, "YOUR SOLUTION TIME WAS"; : 
PRINT@170, INT(T/3600) ; "MIN" ; INT< 
INT <T/6— INT <T/3600) *600+. 5) / 10) ; 
" SEC " ; : PR I NTS229 , " AT D I FF I CULT Y 
LEVEL " ; DL ; : PR I NTS295 , " W I TH ONLY 
" ; CL ,* " CLUES " ; : GOSUB 1 460 : SCREEN 
1,1 

1130 GOSUB1480:PCLS:TIMER=0:NM=1 
: NT=0: CL=0: GOTO340 

1 1 32 SOUNDS , 1 : DRAW " S8BM 1 65 , 1 83L3 
DR3D2L3BR5U4DLR2BR2BDGDREDU2LBRB 
D2RBR2U3DEGDDU2BR3RRLU2D4BR8EUHL 
GDFRBR4HU2BR3DGGBR5HUEFDL2FREBR2 
BDU3DE " : GOSUB 1 460 : GOTO 1 1 60 
1140 'BAD SOLUTION 

1 1 50 S0UND2 , 4 : DRAW " S8BM 180,1 83D3 
RU2D2RU3BR2D3U3R2FGL2R2FBR2BU3R3 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 151 



D3L3U3BR5D3U3F3U3BR5L3D3R3UL " : GO 

SUB 1460 

1160 SCREEN 1,1 

1 1 70 NT=NT+ 1 : NM- 1 : 1 FNT >9THENS0SU 
B1550:GOTO1130 

1180 SCREEN1, 1: IA=NT:BN=AR(IA) :D 

RAW "BM14, 64S6DU4L2R4BR2R3FDGF2H2 

L3U3D4BR6U4BR6L4D2R3L3D2R4BR2R3E 

UHL2HER3BR3R4BD2L4 11 

1190 LINE (65, 50) - (88, 66) , PRESET, 

BF : DRAW " S2BM66 , 65 " + Z * (NT) 

1200 GOSUB1530:GOTO860 

1210 X*-"236" : Y*="96" : IFI A>3THEN 

X*-"216": IFIA>6THENX*«"196": IFIA 

>9THENX*="176" 

1 220 I F I A= 1 3THEN X*« " 1 56 " : Y*« " 1 54 

II 

1230 IFIA-3»INT(IA/3)=0 THENY*=" 
154" 

1240 IF(IA+l)-3*INT((IA+l)/3>»0 

THEN Y*=" 126" 

1250 Q*="BM ,, +X*+", "+Y* 

1260 DRAW Q*+Z*(GN) 

1270 AA(IA)-GN: RETURN 

1 280 DRAW " S8BM 10,1 80D3R3U3D6U3BR 

2U3R3D3L3BR5U3D3R3U3BR5BDD2U2ER3 

D3UGL2BR6U6D6BR3U3DERBD3BR5LHUER 

FL3FREBR3BD2U2ER2D3U6L2BR8L3U3R3 

U3D6BR2U3D3R3U3D6 " 

1 290 DRAW " BR7U6L3D3R3BR2U3D3R3U3 

BR3BURFDL3EGDFREBR2BDR3U2L3UR3BR 

5L3DR3D2L3BR7EGLHUR3HLGDBR8BU2L3 

D3R3U6BR7D6U3L2R4BR2R3D3BL2U6D6B 

R4U2ER2D3UGL2BR6U6D3L2R4 " 

1300 GOSUB1460:LINE(10, 170)-(256 

,191), PRESET, BF 

1310 RETURN 

1 320 SCREEN 1,1: GOTO 1 320 
1330 'NOS DEFINED 

1 340 Z * ( 0 ) = " S3BR2H4U 1 4E4R8F4D 1 4G 
4L8" 

1 350 Z * ( 1 ) - " BR9R6L3U2 1 G6 " 

1 360 Z » ( 2 ) - " BR 1 8L 1 4U4E4R6E4U4H4L 

806" 

1370 Z* (3) ""BE4F4R6E4U4H3L4R4E3U 
4H3L6G4" 

1 380 Z* ( 4 ) - 11 BR 1 0U24BL2D2M-8 , + 1 4R 
16" 

1390 Z* (5) ="BR2R4E10U2H3L9U8R14" 
1 400 Z* ( 6 ) = " BR3BE3F3R6E4U6H4L8D8 
U16E3R6" 

1410 Z*(7)="BR7M+11,-23L14" 

1 420 Z* ( 8 ) - " BR6H2U8E2R 1 4F2D8G2L 1 

4BU 1 2R2H2U8E2R 1 0F2D8G2 " 

1430 Z*(9)«"BR10M+B, -12U9H3L9G3D 

9F3R12" 

1440 RETURN 

1450 LINE (179, 25) -(220, 45) ,PRESE 



T,BF: RETURN 

1 460 FORMM= 1 TO 1 000 : NE X TMM : RETURN 
1470 F0RMM=1T013:AA(MM)=-1:NEXTM 
M: RETURN 

1480 PRINTS352, " ENTER DIFFICULT 
Y LEVEL (1,2,3) ";:SA=1 
1 490 Q*=I NKE Y* : I FQ*= " " THEN 1 490EL 
SEDL— VAL ( Q* ) 

1500 IFDL<1 OR DL>3THEN1490 

1510 PR I NTS432 , DL | S RETURN 

1 520 Q*=I NKE Y* : I FQ*= " " THEN 1 520EL 

SERETURN 

1530 LINE (154, 70) -(256, 191) ,PRES 
ET,BF: RETURN 

1 540 CLS4 : GOSUB 1 580 : PR I NTS 128," 

MAYBE THAT WAS TOO HARD, * 
#*###*LET*S TRY AGAIN. **»##***" 
: GOTO 1130 

1 550 CLS7 : GOSUB 1 570 : PR I NTS 1 33 , " I 
ONLY ALLOW 9 TRIES. ";: PR I NTS 197 
," BETTER LUCK NEXT TIME. " ; :RETUR 
N 

1 560 FORMM= 1 T03 : PLAY " 04 ; L255 ; V3 1 
; l; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8,-9? 10; ll; 12? ll;9 
i 7; 5j 3; l " : nextmm: return 

1570 PLAY"L255;055V31; 12; 11; 10; 9 
; 8; 7; 6; 5; 4; 3; 2; l; 02; 12; 11; 10; 9; 8 
; 7; 6; 5; 4; 3; 2; l " : RETURN 

1 580 FORMM= 1 T03 : MK=RND ( 255 ) : SOUN 
DMK, 1 : NEXTMM: RETURN 
1590 PCLS 

1600 CIRCLE (12, 12) , 1 1 : CIRCLE ( 12, 
12) ,6,0, .9, . 1, .35:DRAW"BM9,8D2LU 
2RBR6D2RU2L " 

1610 GET (0,0) -(24, 24) , Ml, G 

1620 PUT (100, 100) -(124, 124) , Ml, 

PSET 

1 630 DRAW " BM25 , 23M32 , 9M40 , 1 6M25 , 
23BM2B, 22U7R12L4D3U7L6BM32, 9D1 1L 
6BM30 , 1 2HUUEUERRERRFRRF4D5GDDGDU 
3":P0KE178, 13: PAINT (32, 8) , ,0:POK 
E178,0 

1635 GET (25, l)-(49,25) ,M2,8 

1 640 DRAW " BM57 , 25E2U2H3U2HU2EU2E 

U4F2EURER5FRF2D4R4ERFG5L7E5U3HL2 

GD6U5HL2GD76DHFR 1 0E4UBM66 , 25H3U2 

E3BL5BGH2U2E2BR6UBR4U " 

1642 P0KE178, 154: PAINT (73, 12) , ,0 

:POKE178,0 

1645 GET (53, l)-<77,25) ,M3,G 

1646 PUT (140, 101)- (163, 124),M3,P 
SET 

1 650 DRAW " BM 1 1 3 , 8RE2R3F3DF2D4GDG 
2DGL4HGL4HUH2UHU4EUE3R3F2RM— 3 , -6 
L2M+5, +6BH3HL3G3LHDF4RE3U" : P0KE1 
78, 17: PAINT (113, 18) , , 0: P0KE178, 0 
1655 GET (101, 1)-(125,25) ,M4,G 
2000 RETURN 



152 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



TALK 




FOR THE 
'REAL TALKER'l 



"Way beyond anything you 
have ever seen for the CoCo" 

That's a strong statement we know. But wait untrl you see 'TALKHEAD'! It's a 
dazzling creation— easily the most impressive display of CoCo graphics you can buy! 

If you have a 'REAL TALKER' voice synthesizer, DO NOT deprive yourself of this 
absolutely incredible Talking Head simulation program! TALKHEAD uses the 'Real 
Talker' and extremely high speed/high resolution machine language to create an 
audio-visual simulation that clearly goes way, way beyond anything that you have 
ever seen on ANY home computer! 

TALKHEAD's fast, smooth-talking animation is so stunningly life-like that it resembles 
a movie more than a cartoon! This page shows some still shots of the actual moving 
image as it will appear on your TV screen. 

And, TALKHEAD is a real snap to use in Basic, thanks to a new command that we 
give you: SAY. Type SAY "ANYTHING YOU WANT'and Talkhead instantly 
appears and speaks ANY text— it has an unlimited vocabulary! 

The most impressive CoCo program you can buy . . . 

'TALKHEAD' is available on cassette or disk (please specify) for only $29.95. The 
cassette version can be transferred to disk in case you ever upgrade. TALKHEAD 
requires 64K of memory and a Colorware 'REAL TALKER' voice pak. 




PROGRAM BY TIM JENISON 



SPEECH PROGRAMMING BY H. PUNYON 



ONLY <k r >Q95 FROM 

COLORWARE 




'TALKHEAD's eyes, mouth and jaw move, reaiiiliciily animating his speech. The effect is amazing! 



[MORE SOFTWARE FOR THE 'REAL TALKER' VOICE PAKl 



STELLAR 
SEARCH 
ADVENTURE 



If you ever had an urge to command the USS 
Enterprise, this talking version of 'STELLAR 
SEARCH' from Owl-Ware is for you! It 
uniquely combines the best aspects of 
'adventure' and graphic 'action' type games 
and puts the 'Real Talker' voice pak to good 
use. You'll find graphics galore in this 
exciting package containing more than 86K 
of action adventure. Requires 32K and a 
'Real Talker' voice pak. Cassette.... $24.95. 
Disk.. ..$26.95 



TALKING 
EDUCATIONAL 
SOFTWARE 



SOFTWARE FOR CHILDREN 
FROM COMPUTER ISLAND 

Math Drill $ 9.95 

Foreign Languages $ 9.95 

Spelling Tester $ 9.95 

All 3 for Only $24.95 

Requires 16K and a Colorware 
'Real Talker' voice pak. 



ADVENTURE 

STARTER 



The popular 'ADVENTURE STARTER' from 
Owl's Nest Software is now available in a 
speaking version for the 'Real Talker' voice 
tynthesizer. Adventure Starter is a painless 
and enjoyable way to learn about computer 
adventure games. Included are two 
adventures. The first is "MYHOUSE", an 
easy game with plenty of help and hints. A 
second adventure, 'PIRATES', is more 
challenging. Both are great fun for the 
adventure minded. This is the only way to 
get into CoCo adventuring! Requires 16K 
Extended Basic and a 'REAL TALKER' voice 
pak. Cassette, only $17,95. 



[COLORWARE 



COLORWARE INC. 
78-03 Jamaica Ave. 
WoodhavenNY 11421 
(212)647-2864 



VISA 



★ ★ ★ ORDERING INFORMATION ★ ★ ★ 



I ^ J 



ADD $2.00 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING & HANDLING. 

C.O.D. 'S: ADD $3.00 EXTRA. 

SHIPPING & HANDLING FOR CANADA IS $4.00 

m ACCEPT VISA, MASTER CARD, M.O.'S, CHECKS. 

N.Y. RESIDENTS MUST ADD SALES TAX. 

AH JOfrWXW CPfe Jf4i$ FAGt ftfQWIttSA 

COlQRWA&f 'A£Al TtLKfSrvOiCEfAK. 



QQQ5QQ 



THE TOP 4 COCO GAMES... 

ZAKSUND 



TARGET C k Jt '^ 



SflSM 



CUBIX 

By Spectral Associates. Very 
much like the arcade smash! 
Jump little Cubix around the 3D 
maze trying to change the color 
of all the squares. With Death 
Globes, Discs, Snakes, etc. 32K 
Tape: $24.95 



From Elite Software comes this 
fantastic arcade style space 
action game with 3 different 
stages of moving 3-D graphics. 
You've never seen anything like 
this on your CoCo! Great sound 
too! 32KTape: $24.95 




COLORCADE 

SUPER IOYSTICK MODULE 



Y$19.95 



IOYSTICK INTERFACE/RAPID FIRE/6 FT. EXTENDER ALL IN ONE! The 

Colorcade allows connection of any Atari type joystick to your CoCo 
(including the Wico Red Ball). These switch type sticks are extremely 
rugged and have a taster and more positive response. They will improve the 
play of almost any action game. 

An adjustable speed rapid fire circuit is built in. Press your fire button and 
get a great burst of fire instead of just a single shot! You get a real advantage 
in shooting games that do not have repeat fire. 





THE KING 

Previously called 'Donkey King', 
you simply cannot buy a more 
impressive game for your CoCo. 
With 4 different screens and 
loads of fun! From Tom Mix Soft- 
ware. 32KTape: $25.95 



ATARI JOYSTICK 
ONLY I 



THE BEST YOU 

CAN BUY 
WICO #15-9730 

$29.95 

WICO FAMOUS 
"RED BALL" 




GHOST GOBBLER 

From Spectral Assoc. This 
"PAC" theme game has been 
improved several times. It is 
definitely the best of its type. Bril- 
liant color, action and sound, 
just like an arcade. 16K Tape: 
S24.95 




ROM/ PROJECT/ 
PRODUCT CASE 




Give a professional look to your project 
or product! High quality 3 piece injection 
molded plastic with spring loaded door. 
Designed especially for the CoCo ROM 
slot. 

2-4 pes $5.50 Ea. 

5-9pcs $3.50 Ea. 

10-99 pes $2.75 Ea. 

100 & UP CallUs. 

P.C. board for 27XX EPROMS. . . $4.00 Ea. 



COLORWARE 
LIGH T PEN 

ONLY$19.95 




WITH SIX FREE 
PROGRAMS ON 
CASSETTE! 



The Colorware Light Pen plugs directly into your joystick port and 
comes with six fun & useful programs on cassette. Easy instruc- 
tions show how to use it with Basic and it's compatible with light 
pen software such as Computer Island's "Fun Pack." Order yours 
today. Only $1 9.95 complete. 



TELEWRITER-64 



L 



^ umMtTi E R - Ti ^^"^ 
This is an achat urrrtajctod ^oroidptotoof a 



hw there fs^lo^n* loMertawi not the reverse 
upper case Tetters that «erelv represent lower 
case characters in other Color lumsiw prolans. 

Teletriter-64 i s tnjl y the Host powerful and 
sophisticated nord trocejawryou can buy for your 
Color CoMTuter or llP-ipO. IF you own apnnter 
or are thinkin* of *tttiw one» you really should 
not be without this frwm. Tel ear iter can be 
used nith my ltti 3« or 6« systeM and With any 
Color CoHPuttr toHrarlble printer. 

ABCIEFGHIJKLlliOPQItSTuv-UXf 

Z1234567890l"MZs , O* = r3' 

Jbtdehhl JnliiHMf itHun 

>i./|<)i>l'lf!t'()ili-l 



DISK $59.95 

CASSETTE. .. $49.95 



Colorware researched the word 
processors available for the Color 
Computer. This is the best. Tele- 
writer-64 is a truly sophisticated sys- 
tem that is marvelously easy to use. 
It works with any 16K, 32K or 64K 
system and any CoCo compatible 
printer. 



TOP-RATED COCO 
WORD PROCESSOR 





3 


TOLL FREE ORDERING 

800-221-0916 

nODFDC tlKII V U V JC ISJPfl fill fkAT.tOfkA 


• 





'REAL TALKER' 

HARDWARE Voice Synthesizer 

NEW from 

COLORWARE.. 
only... $59.95 

THINKING OF BUYING A 
COCO VOICE SYNTHESIZER? 



READ THIS.... 

Making your computer talk couldn't be any easier! 
'Real Talker' is a full featured, ready to use, HARDWARE 
voice synthesizer system in a cartridge pak. It uses the 
Votrax SC-01 phoneme synthesizer chip to produce a 
clear, crisp voice. 

FREE TEXT-TO-SPEECH 

Included free with 'Real Talker' is Colorware's 
remarkable Text-to-Speech program. This is a truly 
powerful machine language utility. What it does is 
automatically convert plain English to speech. And it has 
an unlimited vocabulary! For example, use it in the direct 
mode: Type in a sentence or a paragraph, even mix in 
numbers, dollar signs, etc., then press enter. The text is 
spoken. At the same time a phoneme string is generated 
which can be saved to cassette or disk, modified or used 
in a Basic program. 

We originally planned to sell this major piece of 
programming for about $40.00 but decided it was so 
useful that no 'Real Talker' user should be without it. 
Besides, it really shows off the capability of 'Real Talker'. 

Also included with 'Real Talker' is our unique Phoneme 
Editor program. It allows you to explore and create 
artificial speech at the phoneme level. Phenomes are the 
fundimental sounds or building blocks of word 
pronunciation. There are 64 different phenomes, as well 
as 4 inflection levels at your disposal. Creating and 
modifying speech at the phenome level is both fascinating 
and educational. The Phenome Editor may also be used to 
customize the pronunciation of speech produced by the 
Text-to-Speech program. 




You don't have to use any of our utility programs 
though. If you write your own Basic Programs, you will 
find the pocket sized Votrax Dictionary (included free) is 
all you need to make your own Basic programs talk. This 
dictionary gives you quick access to the phenome 
sequences used to create approximately 1 400 of the most 
used words in the English language. 

How about compatibility? 'Real Talker' is compatible 
with any 16K, 32K, 64K, Extended or non-extended Color 
Computer. It works with any cassette or disk based 
system, with or without the Radio Shack Multi-slot 
expander. No other synthesizer under $100 can make this 
claim. Most other CoCo voice synthesizers require an 
expensive Multi-slot expander in order to work with the 
disk system. 'Real Talker' requires only an inexpensive Y- 
adapter. This is an important consideration if you plan on 
adding a disk or have one already. 

'Real Talker' comes completely assembled, tested and 
ready to use. It is powered by the CoCo and talks through 
yourT.V. speaker so there is nothing else to add. Price 
includes Text-to-Speech and other programs on cassette 
(may be transferred to disk), User Manual and Votrax 
Dictionary. ONLY , $59.95 

'Y-BRANCHING CABLE' For disk systems. This 40-pin, 3 
connector cable allows 'Real Talker' to be used with any 
disk system $29.95 

YOU DECIDE.... 

Order yours today on ourToll-Free Order Line. If you are 
not delighted with your 'Real Talker' system, simply 
return it within 30 days for a prompt, courteous refund. 



[COLORWARE 



COLORWARE INC. 
78-03F Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(212) 647-2864 





1 




n 77^ 



★ ★ ★ ORDERING INFORMATION ★ * ★ 

ADD $2.00 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING & HANDLING. 
C.O.D.'S: ADD $3.00 EXTRA. 
SHIPPING & HANDLING FOR CANADA IS $4.00 
WE ACCEPT VISA, MASTER CARD, M.O.'S, CHECKS. 
N.Y. RESIDENTS MUST ADD SALES TAX. 



EDUCATION 



16K 

ECB 



RAINBOW 

L i.. XC L 



The 





When 1 purchased my Color Computer, one of the 
major uses I envisioned was as a learning tool for 
my pre-school son. So, as soon as I learned the 
rudiments of graphics programming on the CoCo, I set 
out to teach it to my child. This program is a result of 
that effort. 

The general idea behind the program is an interac- 
tive early reader. A picture of an object is displayed 
with its name written beneath. At the bottom of the 
screen is a pair of spectacles, and in the left lens of the 
spectacles appears the first letter of the name of the object 
The child simply has to match the letter in the left lens. A 
correct response is rewarded with two measures of the "ABC 
Song." An incorrect response gets "the raspberries/ 1 

Program execution is relatively straightforward. Variables are 
initialized, and the controlling array is loaded from data. The array is 
two dimensional It represents a table which is 26 rows long, the alphabet, 
and four columns wide. The four parts are: The string, which is used by the 
BASIC DRA W command to draw the letter; the string used by the 
DRA W command to draw the corresponding picture; a string of 
numbers which represents the letters in the word; and a one- 
character flag, which denotes whether the particular letter has 
been previously used. 

The title screen is then displayed with the entire alphabet for 
an ABC Song sing-along, and the program then moves 
directly into the main interactive routines. The letter to be 
displayed is chosen in Lines 145 to 153. To prevent the 




(James'Tayior is a warrant officer 
in the U.S. Coast Guard and is 
currently working to implement 
the Coast Guard's automated pay 
system at their new Pay and Per- 
sonnel Center in Topeka, Kan. He 
previously managed Wang word 
processing! office automation sys- 
tems for the Seventh Coast Guard 
District in Miami, Fla.) 




Game 



By James F. Taylor 



156 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



game from getting repetitive, all letters 
must be used once before any are re- 
peated. A random number is generated 
to point to the subscript with the appro- 
priate data. If the fourth data element 
indicates that the letter is free (F), it is 
marked used (U) and control is returned 
to the display. If the letter is found to 
have been used, the list is scanned ft om 
the top for the first available letter. If 
none are found free, the list is re- 
initialized to free (F) and the random 
number generated is returned to the 
display routine. 



The display routine uses the data 
elements to determine the length and 
letters in the word, and centers and 
draws the word on the screen. It then 
draws the picture and the letter in the 
spectacles. The display is erased by 
simply redrawing everything in the back- 
ground color. 

If your child tires of the content of the 
program, you can replace the picture 
and word elements of the data state- 
ments with your own. Each letter of the 
word is represented as a two digit 
number. For example, "FROG" would 



be represented as "06181 507" with "06" 
representing the sixth letter of the 
alphabet, F. 

Well, I hope this program helps your 
kid(s) as much as it has mine. Not only 
can my son quickly identify (and write) 
all the letters, but he has also learned to 
spell most of the words in the program. 
Also, he has learned how to run the 
program, and he is now a pre-school 
touch-typist. I think I might be exag- 
gerating just a little. 




1 

2 
3 

4 '* 

5 '* 

6 '* 

7 '* 

8 '* 
9 
10 



***************************** 



ABC GAME * 

<C> 1983 * 

BY * 

JAMES F. TAYLOR * 

P. O. BOX 208 * 

MERIDEN, KS 66512 * 

PH: <913) 484-2778 * 
***************************** 

9 



90 CLEAR 500 

100 Q1»= ,, 70":Q2*="125" 

110 Al*="166": A2*="125" 

120 P1»= ,, 60":P2*="40" 

130 RN=RND( -TIMER) 

140 DIM D*(26,4) 

145 * 

150 *#»****#*##*###**»»********* 
160 ** Load controlling array * 
170 '* -from data statements * 
180 **###****#***********»##**** 
185 ' 
190 CLS3 

200 FOR 1=1 TO 26 

210 FOR J=l TO 4 

220 READ D*(I,J) 

230 PRINT@RND<500> , "ABCSAME"? 

240 NEXT J 

250 NEXT I 

260 QOSUB 690' Draw title screen 
270 GOSUB 850' Play ABC Song 
275 ' 

280 ' *##*#*»******************** 



'* Draw Playing Screen * 



290 
300 
305 ' 

310 PM0DE4 , 1 : COLORS , 0 : PCLS : SCREE 
Nl, 1 

320 FOR 1=30 TO 40 STEP 10 
330 CIRCLE (80, 140) , I 
340 CIRCLE (176, 140) , I 
350 NEXT I 

360 PAINT (115, 140) ,5,5 
370 PAINT (211, 140) ,5,5 
380 DRAW "BM 120, 140E5R7F5" 
390 DRAW "BM 120, 145E5R7F5" 
400 PAINT(128, 138) ,5,5 

410 GOSUB 920' Get letter 

411 ' »♦***#♦#**»****##***•»****** 

412 '* Determine draw position * 

413 ' * o-f current word in play * 

414 '* and draw on screen * 

415 '**#*#»****»**#*♦***#***##**■ 
420 WL»LEN(D*(RN,3) ) /2:PW=WL*14: 
PS*=STR* ( 154-PW) 

430 DRAW " C5S6BM " +PS*+ " , 70 " 

440 FOR 1=1 TO WL*2 STEP 2 

450 L=VAL(MID*(D*(RN,3) , 1,2) ) :DR 

AW D*(L,1) 

460 NEXT I 

» ***##»*♦#*##*#*##**#***#### 

'* Draw picture 8c first * 
** Letter o-f word * 
' ♦**♦##*####*#*####**#***#*# 
DRAW"S8BM"+Q1*+" , "+Q2»+D* (RN 



461 
462 
463 
464 
470 

,D 
480 

) 

481 
482 
483 
490 
500 
510 



DRAW " BM " +P 1 *+ " , " +P2*+D* ( RN , 2 



* *************************** 
'* Get response and verify * 
* ###*##***#******#***##***#* 
IN=0 

A*= I NKE Y« : I F A»= " " THEN500 
IN=INSTR(1, "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP 
QRSTUVWXYZ", A*) 

520 IF IN THEN DRAW "C5S8BM"+A1* 

+" , " +A2*+D* ( I N, 1 ) : GOTO 560 

530 IN=INSTR(1, "abcdef ghi jklmnop 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 157 



qrstuvwx yz " , AS) 


780 


NEXT I 


540 IF IN THEN DRAW " C5S8BM" +A 1 * 


790 


FOR I=43TO208 STEP 15 


+", "+A2*+D*(IN, 1) :GOTO 560 


800 


CIRCLE (I, 135) , 15, 1, .3: PAINT 


550 GOTO 500 


(1+10, 135) ,2, 1 


560 IF IN=RN THEN 600 


810 


NEXT I 


561 * *************************** 


820 


CIRCLE (190,40) , 15, 2: PAINT <1 


562 ** Process incorrect re- * 


90,40) ,2,2 


563 ** with 'Raspberrys St erase* 


830 


DRAW " BM 1 90 , 40 J NU2 1 NE25NR2 1 N 


564 * *************************** 


F25ND2 1 NG25NL2 1 NH25 " 


565 * 


840 


RETURN 


570 PLAY " 02L 1 00FFFFFFFO 1 A A A AAA A 


841 


> 


02FFFFFFF" 


842 




580 DRAW " C0BM "+A1S+" , " +A2S+D* < I 


843 


• * Play opening ABC song * 


N, 1 ) 


844 


* *************************** 


590 GOTO 490 


845 




59i * 


850 


PLAY " L4CCGG03AAL2GP255 " 


592 ' *************************** 


860 


PLAY " L403FFEEL8DDDDL2CP255 " 


593 * * Process correct response* 


870 


PLAY " L403GGFFEEL2DP255 " 


594 '* St erase all * 


880 


PLAY " L803GGL3GP255L2FL4EEL2D 


595 * *************************** 


P255" 


596 ' 


890 


PLAY " P255L403CCGG03 AAL2GP255 


600 PLAY " 03L4CCGGAAL2G " 


II 




6 1 0 DRAW " S8C0BM " +Q 1 *+ " , " +Q2*+D* ( 


900 


PLAY " P255L403FFEEL2DDC " 


RN, 1 > 


910 


RETURN 


620 DRAW " C0BM " +P 1 *+ " , " +P2*+D* ( RN 


911 


■ *************************** 


»2) 


912 


** Generate next letter & * 


630 DRAW " C0S8BM " + A 1 *+ " , " +A2S+D* < 


913 


** prevent repeats * 


IN, 1) 


914 


* *************************** 


640 DRAW " S6C0BM " +PS*+ " , 70 " 


915 


9 


650 FOR 1=1 TO WL*2 STEP 2 


920 


RN=RND (26) 


660 L=VAL(MID*(D*(RN,3) , 1,2) ) :DR 


930 


IF D*(RN,4)="U" THEN 950 


AW D*(L, 1) 


940 


GOTO 990 


670 NEXT I 


950 


FOR 1=1 TO 26 


680 GOTO 410 


960 


I FD* ( I , 4) ="F" THENRN= I : G0T099 


681 ' 


0 




682 * *************************** 


970 


NEXT I 


683 '* Draw title screen * 


980 


FOR 1=1 TO 26:D*(I,4)="F":NE 


684 * *************************** 


XT 




685 ' 


990 


D*(RN,4)="U" 


690 PM0DE3 , 1 : C0L0R2 , 3 : PCLS : SCREE 


1000 RETURN 


N1,0 


1001 ' 


700 DRAW " BM 1 0 , 1 0 5 ND 1 72R234D 1 72L2 


1002 * ************************** 


34BG» 1 0U 1 9 1 R255D 191 L255 " 


1003 '* DATA * 


710 PAINT(115,5) ,4,2 


1004 '* Elements are: * 


720 DRAW"C1S10BM44, 30"+D* ( 1 , 1 > +D 


1005 '* LETTER DRAW STRING * 


*(2, 1)+D*(3, 1) 

73fi> DRAW"BM78,75"+D*(7, 1)+D*(1, 1 


1006 '* PICTURE DRAW STRING * 


1007 '* LETTERS IN WORD < 1-26) * 


)+D*(13, 1)+D*(5, 1> 




* INITIAL 'FREE' FLAG * 


732 DRAW " BM82 , 1 1 5 " + " S4 " + " BR4G4D6 


1008 * ************************** 


F4BR5BU14"+D* <3, 1 ) +"F4D6G4BR9BU1 


1009 ' 


4'» 


1010 DATA " BD 1 4U8NR 1 0U2E4R2F4ND 1 


733 DRAW " S4BR5NG3D 1 4NL2R2BR3BU4 ; 


0BU4BR4 " , " S5R20E 1 0R70D 1 0E 1 2H 1 2D 1 


F4R2E4U6H4L2G4F4R2E4 5 BR5F3NR2G3F 


0L70H10L20F12G12" , "01 18181523" , " 


4R2E4H3E3H4L2G4BR 1 5BD 1 0BU7NU7R8N 


F" 




R2NU7D7" 


1020 DATA " ND 1 4R8F2D2G2NL8F2D4G2 


740 DRAW " C2S4BH37 , 145" 


NL8BU14BR6 " , "S3BR55BD20R50U50L50 


750 FOR I=1T026 


ND50E20R50NG20D50B20 " , " 02 1 2 1 503 1 


760 DRAW DS (1,1) 


1% 


II p II 


770 IF 1=13 THEN DRAW"BM37, 165" 


1030 DATA " BR 1 0BD4U2H2L662D 1 0F2R 



158 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



6E2U2BU 1 0BR4 " , " S4R50E 1 5R40D 1 5R20 
F5D15L1 0H5L 1 0G5F7R5E7BL20L6SH5L 1 
0B5F7R5E7BL20L3H5U 1 0H5BR55E 1 2R32 
D12L42" , "0301 18" , "F" 
1 040 DATA " D 1 4R6E4U6H4L6BR 1 4 " , " S 
3BR35R50E5R30F5R 1 5D2L 1 5Q5L30H5L5 
0U2BR5U20R20F20BD2G20L20U20" , "04 
011820", "F" 

1050 DATA " NR 1 0D7NR6D7R 1 0BU 1 4BR4 
" , "S4BR60BU30ND50R30D50NR10L40BR 
6U54R38D54BL 1 4BU35U 1 0L 1 0D 1 0R 1 0BD 
10E2F2G2H2", "05240920" , "F" 
1060 DATA " NR 1 0D7NR6D7BU 1 4BR 14", 
"S4BR50BU25U2R3U7L7D7R3D50R2U50R 
20D 1 5L20BD 1 5R50U5NL50U5NL50U5NL3 
0U5NL30U5NL30U5NL50 " ,"061201 07 " , 

•I p- II 

1070 DATA " BR 1 0BD2H2L6G2D 1 0F2R6E 
2U2NL4BU 1 0BR4 " , "S6BR10BD10E20U3E 
3H5E3F5NG3R5E3R20F3R20E5F5NL 1 0D5 
L30D4G4D4G5L 1 0H5U4NR20BR3D3F4R6E 
4U3L20BR10D4R2U4L12D16L27" , "0721 
14" , "F" 

1080 DATA "D8ND6R10ND6U8BR4", "S4 
BR55BU30ND50R30D50R 1 0D4L50U4R40B 
U5L30" , "080120" , "F" 
1090 DATA " BR2R6L3D 1 4L3R6BU 1 4BR6 
" , "82BR120BU50D10F5D15F5D30F5ND5 
E5U15E5U1 0E5U30R30D90L80U90R70BU 
1 0R20D 1 1 0L 1 05U 1 1 0R85 " , " 09030903 1 
205", "F" 

1 1 00 DATA " BD 1 0D2F2R6E2U 1 2BR4 " , " 
S3BR70BU20R30H30R20F30R20F7NR 1 5B 
L70U2L 1 5D4R 1 5U2BR40D4R20U8L20D4B 
R30G7L20G30L20E30L30G 1 5L 1 3E 1 5NL2 
0U3NL30U3NL35U3NL30U3NL20U3H 1 5R 1 
3F15", "100520", "F" 

1110 DATA " D 1 4U8R4E6G6F6D2BU 1 4BR 
4" , "S3BR50BU10E40ND80F40NL80G40H 
40L 1 0E5L 1 0F 1 0L 1 0E5L20E5L 1 0F 1 0L 1 0 
E5L20E5L 1 0F 1 0L 1 0E5L20 ","11 092005 

It II p- II 

1 1 20 DATA " D 1 4R 1 0BU 1 4BR4 " , " S4BR5 
9BU25D50R5U 1 0R 1 0BU3L 1 0U 1 0R 1 0BU3L 
1 0U 1 0R 1 0BU3L 1 0U 1 0R 1 0BU3L 1 0U 1 0L5N 
D20BR 1 5D 1 0BD3D 1 0BD3D 1 0BD3D 1 0BD3D 
10R5U62L5" , " 120104040518" , "F" 
1130 DATA "ND14F5E5ND14BR4", "S3B 
R80BU30NR40D60R40U60BD 1 0R20D40L2 
0BU7R13U26L10", "132107", "F" 
1140 DATA "ND14D2F10D2U14BR4", "S 
3BR70BU40D 1 0F50D7G5L20H5L 1 0G5NR2 
0L5H5U10E5", "14151905", "F" 
1150 DATA "BD2D10F2R6E2U10H2L6G2 
BU2BR 14" , "S4BR60BU30D5L5D40R40U4 
0L5NL30U5L30BD 1 0D20R29U20L29BR5B 
D5D 1 0R 1 9U 1 0L 1 9BU 1 5D3BR5U3BR5D3BR 
5U3BR5D3BD10BL5L10" , " 15220514" , " 
F" 



1160 DATA " ND 1 4R8F2D4G2L8BU8BR 1 4 
" , " S3BD30BR 1 00L4 1 H 1 0U30E 1 0H5G5H3 
E5R55G8F8D30G 1 0BE 1 0R 1 7U30L 17BD4R 
1 1 D22L 1 1 " , " 1 60920030805 18" , "F" 
1170 DATA " BR2NR6G2D 1 0F2R6E 1 NF 1 N 
H2E 1 U 1 0H2BR6 " , " S4BR30BD20R20E20N 
U5E3NU7E3NU9E3NU 1 0E3NU 1 0E3NU 1 0E3 
NU8E3NU6E3NU3E3F2G3NR3G3NR6G3NR8 
G3NR 1 0G3NR 1 0G3NR 1 0G3NR9G3NR7G3NR 
5G10D5L7G3", "1721091212", "F" 
1180 DATA " D 1 4BR 1 0U6H2NL8E2U2H2N 
L8BR6" , "S2BR20NR150U5R150BE30ND1 
5G7ND 1 5G 1 0ND 1 5G7ND 1 5G 1 0ND 1 5G7ND 1 
5G10ND15G7ND15", "18011105", "F" 
1190 DATA " BD 1 2F2R6E2U3H2L6H2U3E 
2R6F2BU2BR4 " , "S2BR120BU55R40F30D 
30G30L40H30U30E30BF5R35F26D27G27 
L35H27U27E26BD35BD 1 2BL 1 5S3F2R6E2 
U3H2L6H2U3E2R6F2BU2BR4R5ND 1 2R5BR 
4BD2D 1 0F2R6E2U 1 0H2L6G2BU2BR 1 2ND 1 
2R8F2D4G2L8 " , " 1 90907 14" , "F " 
1200 DATA "R5ND14R5BR4", "S3BR50B 
D20R60U20H 1 0L5U5L5D5L25U5L5D5L5G 
1 0D20BU20BL5NL20U 1 2R 1 7BR7R22BR7R 
1 8D 1 2R20U 1 0H 1 0L93G 1 0D 1 0 " , " 2005 1 2 
051608151405", "F" 

1210 DATA " D 1 2F2R6E2U 1 2BR4 " , " S4B 
R80BU20D40L40U 1 0NH 1 0R 1 0NH 1 0U 1 0NH 
10R10NH10U10NH10R10NH10U10NH10R1 
0H10L10D10L10D10L10D10L10D10F10B 
H25E20NL10ND10", "2116", "F" 
1 220 DATA " D9F5E5U9BR4 " , " S4BR 110 
BU20NF 1 5D5F 1 0R5D20L 1 0H5L 1 0G5L40H 
5L 1 0G5L 1 0U30E5R80BG5F 1 0L25U 1 0R 1 5 
BL25D 1 0L20U 1 0R20BL25D 1 0L20U 1 0R20 
BD30BL20F5R10E5BR40F5R10E5" , "220 
114", "F" 

1 230 DATA " D 1 4E5F5U 1 4BR4 " , " S5BR4 
0BD15U1 5NR 1 0BU3NR 1 0U 1 5R 1 0ND 1 5BR4 
ND 1 5R 1 0D 1 5NL 1 0BD3NL 1 0D 1 5L 1 0NU 1 5B 
L4NU15L10BG5U40R33D40L33" , "23091 
4041523", "F" 

1240 DATA "D2F10D2BL10U2E10U2BR4 
" , "S4BR60BU30ND50R30D50NR10L40BR 
6U54R38D54BL 1 4BU35U 1 0L 1 0D 1 0R 1 0BD 
10E2F2G2H2", "05240920" , "F" 
1250 DATA "F5ND9E5BR4", "S4BR110D 
20L70H20R90BL20H 1 0L30G 1 0BR8BU3NE 
5R30U5L25BU2E5NE5R 1 5F5BD 1 2BL40S3 
F5NE3NG3F 1 0E5H3BF3G8H3 " , "2501030 
820", "F" 

1260 DATA " BD 1 4NR 1 0U2E 1 0U2NL 1 0BR 
4" , " S3BR65BU40F5NG5F5NG5F5NG5F5N 
G5F5NG5F5 5 LSD 1 5R 1 0U 1 5L5BD 1 2BL3U5 
R6D5L6BR3BD3 5 NL5NR5D5NL5NR5D5NL5 
NR5D5NR5NL5D5NL5NR5D5NL5NR5D5NL5 
NR5D5NL5NR5 ; BU45E5NF5E5NF5E5NF 5E 
5NF5E5NF5E5NF5" , "260916160518" , " 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 159 




liffll iiui lici liS iffillifflllSlliBl 



SlHliiiiiliiiiilSl^ 

*4agiGrafh 

iminnfuwin/iAnjuuuuuviAnjvuyin/uuuu 



NEW GOOD STUFF 
FOR EVERY COLOR COMPUTER 



Turn your Color Computer into a graphic design center with the ease of a 
keystroke! MagiGraph makes it simple to create highly detailed figures up to 
and including an entire high-resolution screen. Designed for those with some 
experience in Basic and Assembly Language programming, MagiGraph 
includes lots of special features: 

• A full set of logical and pixel manipulation functions simplifies the 
development of complex figures. , 

• An editor lets you zoom in and work on every detail of your design. 
Toggle between the "macro" and "micro" screens for perspective on 
your creations. 

• Nine animation buffers allow you to preview each sequence to ensure 
continuity and smooth flow. 

• Versatile I/O routines store a graphic screen on cassette or floppy disk; 
recall it later for use by another program or revise it with MagiGraph. 

II you're looking for the finest graphic development utility available for your 
Color Computer, THIS IS IT. Maximize your machine's potential, while you 
push your imagination to the limit — with MagiGraph! 

By Kevin Dooley. Cassette $34.95 (16K required); Disk $39.95 (32K Ex- 
tended Color BASIC required); Amdisk cartridge $44.95. 



CSPOOL 
Color Computer Print Spooler 



Stop Waiting Around for the Printer! CSPOOL allows you to use your printer 
and computer concurrently, takes only 26 bytes of Color Basic's memory, and 
gives you 32K of print buffer. It's like having two computers in one! By 
intercepting characters sent to the printer and storing them in the upper 32K of 
RAM, CSPOOL allows you to run other programs while your printer is doing its 
job. CSPOOL is FREE with the purchase of a 64K RAM UPGRADE KIT from The 
Micro Works, or it may be purchased separately on cassette or diskette for 
$19.95. Requires 64K; not for FLEX or 0S9. 

64K MEMORY UPGRADE KIT: For Rev. levels E, ET, NC, TDP-100s, and Color 
Computer II. Eight prime 64K RAM chips, instructions, and CSPOOL: $64.95. 



SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 



MACR0-80C: DISK-BASED EDITOR, 
ASSEMBLER AND MONITOR— With all the 
features the serious programmer wants, this 
package includes a powerful 2-pass macro 
assembler with conditional assembly, local labels, 
include files and cross referenced symbol tables. 
MACR0-80C supports the complete Motorola 6809 
instruction set in standard source format. Incorpo- 
rating all the features of our Rompack-based 
assembler (SDS-80C), MACR0-80C contains many 
more useful instructions and pseudo-ops which aid 
the programmer and add power and flexibility. The 
screen-oriented editor is designed for efficient and 
easy editing of assembly language programs. 
MACR0-80C allows global changes and moving/ 
copying blocks of text. You can edit lines of 
assembly source which exceed 32 characters. 
DCBUG is a machine language monitor which allows 
examining and altering of memory, setting break 
points, etc. 

Editor, assembler and monitor— along with 
sample programs— come on one Radio Shack com- 
patible disk. Extensive documentation included. By 
Andy Phelps. $99.95 

SDS-80C: SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT 
SYSTEM— Our famous editor, assembler and 
monitor in Rompack. Like MACR0-80C, it allows 
the user to write, assemble and debug assembly 
language programs with no reloading, object patch- 
ing or other hassles. Supports full 6809 instruction 
set. Complete manual included. $89.95 

MICROTEXT: COMMUNICATIONS VIA 
YOUR MODEM! Now you can use your printer 
with your modem! Your computer can be an intelli- 
gent printing terminal. Talk to timeshare services or 
to other personal computers; print simultaneously, 
through a second printer port; and re-display text 
stored in memory. Download text to Basic pro- 
grams; dump to a cassette tape, or printer, or both. 
Microtext can be used with any printer or no printer 
at all. It features user-configurable duplex/parity 
for special applications, and can send any ASCII 
character, You'll find many uses for this general 
purpose module! ROMPACK includes additional 
serial pod for printer. $59.95 



MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH 

• Faster to program in than Basic 

• Easier to learn than Assembly Language 

• Executes in less time than Basic 

The MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH is a Rompack 
containing everything you need to run Forth on your 
Color Computer. COLOR FORTH consists of the 
standard Forth Interest Group (FIG) implementation 
of the language plus most of FORTH-79. It has a 
super screen editor with split screen display. Mass 
storage is on cassette. COLOR FORTH also contains 
a decompiler and other aids for learning the inner 
workings of this fascinating language. It will run on 
4K, 16K, and 32K computers. And COLOR FORTH 
contains 10K of ROM, leaving your RAM for your 
programs! There are simple words to effectively use 
the Hi-Res Color Computer graphics, joysticks, and 
sound. 

Includes a 112-page manual with a glossary of 
the system-specific words, a full standard FIG 
glossary and complete source listing. 

MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH ... THE BEST! 
From the leader in FORTH, Talbot Microsystems. 
$109.95 

MACHINE LANGUAGE 

MONITOR TAPE: A cassette tape which allows 
you to directly access memory, I/O and registers 
with a formatted hex display. Great for machine lan- 
guage programming, debugging and learning. It 
can also send/receive RS232 at up to 9600 baud, 
including host system download/upload. 19 com- 
mands in all. Relocatable and reentrant. CBUG 
TAPE: $29.95 

MONITOR ROM: The same program as above, 
supplied in 2716 EPROM. This allows you to use 
the entire RAM space. And you don't need to re- 
load the monitor each time you use it. The EPROM 
plugs into the Extended Basic ROM Socket or the 
Romless Pack I. CBUG ROM: $39.95 

SOURCE GENERATOR: This package is a disas- 
sembler which runs on the Color Computer and 
generates your own source listing of the BASIC 
interpreter ROM. Also included is a documentation 
package which gives useful ROM entry points, 
complete memory map, I/O hardware details and 
more. A 16K system is required for the use of this 
cassette. 80C Disassembler: $49.95 



HARDWARE 



PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE— Serial to parallel 
converter allows use of all standard parallel 
printers. PI80C plugs into the serial output port, 
leaving your Rompack slot free. You supply the 
printer cable. PI80C: $59.95 
SUPER-PRO KEYBOARD— $69.95 (For computers 
manufactured after Oct. 1982, add $4.95) 
ROMLESS PACKS for your custom EPROMS — call 
or write for information. 



BOOKS 



6809 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING, by 

Lance Leventhal, $18.95 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS, by Don 
Inman, $14.95 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS FOR THE 
TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER, by Don Inman, $14.95 
STARTING FORTH, by L Brodie, $17.95 



GAMES 



ZAXXON— The real thing. Excellent. What more can 
we say? Cassette requires 32K. $39.95 
STAR BLASTER— Blast your way through an 
asteroid field in this action-packed Hi-Res graphics 
game. Available in ROMPACK; requires 16K. 
$39.95 

PAC ATTACK— Try your hand at this challenging 
game by Computerware, with fantastic graphics, 
sound and action! Cassette requires 16K. $24.95 
HAYWIRE— Have fun zapping robots with this Hi- 
Res game by Mark Data Products. Cassette 
requires 16K. $24.95 

ADVENTURE— Black Sanctum and Calixto Island by 
Mark Data Products. Each cassette requires 16K. 
$19.95 each. 

CAVE HUNTER— Experience vivid colors, bizarre 
sounds and eerie creatures as you wind your way 
through a cave maze in search of gold treasures. 
This exciting Hi-Res game by Mark Data Products 
requires 16K lor cassette version. $24.95 



"MlfiDA P.O. BOX 111 0-A 
£?* Del Mar, CA 9201 4 

WORKj [619] 942-2400 

California Residents Master Charge/Visa and 

add 6% Tax COO Accepted 




EDUCATION 



ECB 



nub |P 1 



lne LxxjO 
School Marm 



r^rt 




By Judy M. Daeus 
and 

David M Dacus 





1 he need for the 
series of programs 
we describe here 
and next month 
occurred to us when our 
youngest daughter was hav- 
ing difficulty with spelling in 
grade school and wanted something to help her 
study. We had a series of spelling practice programs 
from such sources as Chromasette and other soft- 
ware sources, but these programs all took the "mul- 
tiple guess" approach to practice — "One of the 
above words is spelled incorrectly. Can you guess 
which one and spell it correctly?" That technique provides 
some practice in spelling, but is nothing like the way 
spelling tests are presented in school. It seemed that 
there were few ways to present words to the child 
without cueing as to the spelling. It then 
occurred to us that the best way of presenta- 
tion of the spelling words is the one that 
has been used in the schools for well 
over a hundred years — pronounce 
the word, use it in a sentence, and 
pronounce the word again. 
Since speech synthesis is 
expensive and somewhat 
difficult to use, we con- 
centrated on an acces- 
sory we already had 
for the CoCo, the 
tape recorder. 
These pro- 

(Judy Dacus has a Ph.D. in curriculum 
and instruction and her specialties are curriculum devel- 
opment and science education. She is currently math, science, and 
computer science instructor for Mesilla Valley Christian Schools. Mike Dacus is an 
operations research analyst for The U.S. Army Training And Doctrine Command Systems Analysis 
Activity (TRASANA ) at White Sands Missile Range, N.M. Both have a strong interest in computers in education.) 

September i«$4 THE RAINBOW 161 





rincdon 



Show Schedule: 

Friday evening — Exhibit Hall 
open from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. 
Saturday — Breakfast at 8 a.m. 
Exhibit Hall opens at 10 a.m. 
and closes at 6 p.m. 
Sunday — Exhibit HaM open from 
11 a.m. to 4 p.m. 



The fun and excitement of RAINBOWfest 
is coming your way . . . and now there will 
be a RAINBOWfest near youi 

For the 1984-85 season, we've scheduled 
three RAINBOWfests in three parts of the 
couptry. Each one will offer fun, excitement, 
new products, seminars and information for 
your CoCo! And for those who (perish the 
thought) don't like CoCo as much as you, 
we've scheduled each RAINBOWfest in an 
area that will provide fun and enjoyment for 
the whole family. 

Our Princeton, New Jersey, show is being 
held at the Hyatt Regency Princeton, which 
offers special rates for RAINBOWfest. The 
show opens Friday evening with a 7 p.m. to 
10 p.m. session. It's a daytime-only show 
Saturday — the CoCo Community Breakfast 



RAINBOWfest-Princeton, New Jersey 
Date: September 28-30, 1984 
Hotel: Hyatt Regency Princeton 
Rooms: $64 per night, single or double 
ij (Special Rate Deadline, 

September 7) 
Advance Ticket Deadline: 
September 21, 1984 



is at 8 a.m., then the exhibit hall opens 
promptly at 10 a.m. and runs continuously 
until 6 p.m. There will be no exhibition 
hours or seminars Saturday evening. On 
Sunday, the exhibit hall opens at 11 a.m. 
and closes at 4 p.m. 

Our highly popular CoCo Community 
Breakfast will again feature a well-known 
figure from the Color Computer Commun- 
ity. And the exhibition will be interspaced 
with a number of seminar sessions on ail 
aspects of CoCo — from writing in machine 
language to making your basic work better. 

But most of all, there will be exhibitors. 
Lots of them. All ready to demonstrate pro- 
ducts of every kind. Some with special pro- 
grams and hardware items to introduce. 
Others with show specials. 



RAINBOWfest-lrvlne, California 

(L.A. area) 
Date: February 15-17, 1985 
Hotel: The Marriott Inn 
Rooms: Price To Be Announced 
Advance Ticket Deadline: 
February-8, 1985 



Tickets can be secured directly from the 
rainbow, We'll also send you a special 
reservation form so you can get your spe- 
cial room rate. 

Come to RAINBOWfest . . . help us all 
celebrate CoCo Community at its finest. 

United Airlines and the rainbow have 
joined together to offer a special discounted 
fare to those attending RAINBOWfest- 
Princeton. Simply by calling United at the 
toll free number listed below and identifying 
our meeting, with account number 481-1, 
you will be eligible for a 20 percent discount 
on the Easy Saver Fare. The only require- 
ment is a Saturday night stay. 

(800) 521-4041 
Account Number 481-1 



RAINBOWfest-Chicago, Illinois 
Date: May 17-19, 1985 
Hotel: Hyatt Regency Woodfield 
Rooms: $49 per night, single or double 
Advance Ticket Deadline: 
May 10, 1985 



RAIN BO Wf est 
Princeton 

Seminar Program And Speakers 



• Frank Hogg Advanced Operating Systems 

Frank is the president of Frank Hogg Laboratory and a forerunner in FLEX and OS-9 systems. 

• Jim Reed Writing For RAINBOW 

Jim, managing editor of the rainbow, will talk about how you can submit programs and 
articles to magazines for fun and profit. He is also senior editor of pcm — and editorial 
director of soft sector (for the Sanyo). 

• Dale Puckett Beginner's Tour Of OS-9 

Beginner's Tour o1 BASIC09 

A free-lance writer and programmer, Dale has worked with microprocessors since 1976 and 
has just completed his first book, The Official basico9 Tour Guide. Dale will be available to 
sign copies of his book at RAINBOWfest. 

• Dan Downard Machine Language For The Beginner 

Dan Downard is the technical editor forTHE rainbow and an electrical engineer. He has been 
involved in electronics for 24 years through ham radio (K4KWT). His interest in computers 
began about five years ago and he has built several 68XX systems. 

• Paul Hoffman Inside CoCo Graphics 

Paul Hoffman is an independent designer/artist and Color Computer programmer. He is the 
author of Computerware's Semi Draw and a number of X-Pad programs. 

• Peter Stark Advanced Operating Systems II 

Peter is a professor of electrical and computer engineering technology in the City University 
of New York and is president of Star-Kits Software Systems Corp. 

PLUS . . . Additional seminars are planned as well. 

There is no charge for admission to seminars. See registration form for admission prices to 
exhibit area and breakfast. 



FREE Rainbow poster 

for first 500 tickets ordered. 

FREE T-Shirt to first five people 
from each state who buy tickets. 



Make checks payable to: 
THE RAINBOW 



MAIL TO: 

RAINBOWfest 
P.O. BOX 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 
(502) 228-4492 



YES, I'm coming to RAINBOWfest! I want to save by buying tickets now at the special 
advance sale price. Send me tickets for (check one): 



Princeton, New Jersey 



Please send me: 



□ 



rvine, California 



□ 



Chicago, Illinois 



three day tickets at $9 each 

one day tickets at $7 each 

Circle one: Friday / Saturday / Sunday 
Saturday breakfast tickets at $12 each 

Handling Charge $1 

TOTAL ENCLOSED (U.S. FUNDS ONLY, PLEASE) 

Also send me a hotel reservation card for Princeton 



NAME (please print) - 
STREET & NUMBER . 

CITY & STATE 

TELEPHONE 

COMPANY 



total . 
total . 



total . 



ZIP CODE. 



Orders received less than two weeks prior to show opening will be held for you at the door. 
VISA, MasterCharge, American Express accepted. 

My Account # Ex. Date: 

Signature — — 



grams use the tape recorder to produce 
the necessary pronunciation and use of 
the words in sentences. The sound tape 
is controlled by the computer so that the 
tape pauses for student responses after 
each word. We have used block graph- 
ics to increase the ergonomic nature of 
the screen display. The instructions are 
presented in small digestible chunks, 
each delineated by a band of color. This 
will facilitate understanding, particular- 
ly for younger children. 

The Spelling Practice System is de- 
signed to be used as a stand alone sys- 
tem for practice of the week's spelling 
words at home. When used in conjunc- 
tion with the Spelling Test System, 
which we will present in next month's 
article, it becomes a comprehensive auto- 
mated spelling practice and examina- 
tion system for an elementary or secon- 
dary class. The spelling practice system 
consists of two programs, Word Load 
and AudioSpell. Word Load does dou- 
ble duty in that it produces data tapes 
that are interchangeable between the 
practice and testing programs. Audio- 
Spell is the program that leads the child 
through spelling practice sessions step 
by step. 

The Audio Spelling System is designed 
to operate on the 16K Extended Color 
BASIC Radio Shack Color Computer 
with nothing more than a tape recorder 
and color television. Routines are pro- 
vided for the use of a line printer if it is 
available. Modifications for non-Ex- 
tended BASIC are given later in this 
article. 

AudioSpell 

a) Materials 

Program Tape or Disk — Program 

Name "AUDIOSPL" 

Spelling Words Tape (to be made 

using Word Load program) 

Color Computer, Television, and 

Tape Recorder 

Line Printer or student-provided 
pencil and paper. 

b) Instructions 

AudioSpell is self instructing. The stu- 
dent should be familiar with the opera- 
tion of the Color Computer, and with 
loading programs from cassette tape. 
Alternatively, the program can be loaded 
and run, and the Spelling Words tape 
inserted in the recorder before the stu- 
dent is given control of the computer. If 
your television has an earphone jack 
you may wish to provide a set of ear- 
phones so that the sound of the spelling 
words does not disturb other learning 
activities in the class. Do not attempt to 
plug earphones into the earphone jack 
of the tape recorder. The program will 

164 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



not function properly if all connections 
to the computer are not intact. Be sure 
that the volume of the sound on the 
television is adjusted to a comfortable 
level for the student. If you have a line 
printer, be sure that it is properly at- 
tached and turned on. The program will 
provide a list of words missed for further 
study. If you do not have a printer, the 
student will need a pencil and paper to 
copy the list of misspelled words for 
further study. 

Word Load 

a) Materials 

Program Tape or Disk — Program 
Name "WORDLOAD" 
Blank Cassette Tape, labeled "Spell- 
ing Words" 

Color Computer, Television, and 
Tape Recorder 

b) Instructions 

The Word Load program is self instruct- 
ing. You should have prepared a list of 
spelling words and a short sentence 
using each word before operating the 
program. Word Load allows five sec- 
onds to pronounce each word, use it in a 
sentence, and pronounce it again. After 
using the program, if you find that five 
seconds is too long or too short, you 
may modify the available time accord- 
ing to the modification instructions be- 
low. To preclude inadvertent erasure of 
the spelling words tape, you should 
break out the record-enable tab on the 
back of the tape after you have com- 
pleted recording. The tape may be re- 
used for the following week's words, if 
desired, by placing a piece of tape over 
the tab hole while recording. In order to 
prevent words from a longer list from 
spilling over into a shorter list, the pre- 
vious spelling word list should be erased 
before recording a new list. Spelling 
words can be recorded for several levels 
of learning by using a separate cassette 
tape for each word list. 

Modifications 

Recording Time. Five seconds re- 
cording time was selected as optimum 
for the average user. To change record- 
ing time, it is necessary to change only 
one value in each of the programs. The 
Color Computer requires one second to 
count to 460 in a FOR - NEXT loop, 
such as the one found in Line 280 of the 
Word Load program. To change the 
length of time allowed to pronounce the 
word and use it in a sentence, you must 
multiply the number of seconds desired 
times 460 and place the resulting value 
in Line 280 of the Word Load program, 
and Line 290 of the AudioSpell pro- 
gram in place of the value 2300. Both 



programs must contain the same value 
in the timing loop for the tapes to be 
read correctly. 

Praise Statements. The reinforcement 
expressions for correct answers in the 
AudioSpell program are located in 
Lines 610 to 700. If you wish to replace 
one of the praise statements with a 
statement of your own, you may do so 
by replacing the expression enclosed in 
quotation marks with your own expres- 
sion. If you want to add more praise 
statements, you must modify Lines 580 
and 590. To add more expressions, add 
lines after Line 700 using the same 
PRINT" ".RETURN format found in 
the original print statements. You must 
then increase the value 10 in the expres- 
sion B = RND(IO) in Line 580 by the 
number of lines you added, and add a 
comma and the line number of each line 
you added after number 700 in Line 590. 

Using Programs With No Printer 
A vailable. If you do not have access to a 
printer, you may want to eliminate the 
student input regarding the printer. If 
you have a printer and always intend to 
have misspelled words printed rather 
than displayed on the TV screen, you 
may wish to eliminate the choice of TV 
display. To eliminate choice of the prin- 
ter, change the expression "Do you have 
a printer (yes or no)" in Line 450 of 
AudioSpell to "Press ENTER to con- 
tinue," and eliminate everything after 
the variable A$ in Line 450. Next, elim- 
inate program Lines 520 through 560. 
To eliminate the choice of printing the 
list to the TV, modify Line 450 exactly 
as above, and eliminate program Lines 
460 through 510. 

Changing Printer Codes. The print- 
ing algorithms of these programs are 
written using ASCII codes for an Epson 
MX-80 printer. This printer uses 
CHR$(14) to print double-width char- 
acters and CHR$(10) as a line feed 
command. If your printer does not use 
these two codes you must substitute 
your printer code for CHR$(14) in Line 
530 of AudioSpell, and substitute your 
printer's equivalent of CHR$(10) in 
Lines 530, 540, 550, and 560 of Audio- 
Spell. 

Modification To Run On A Non- 
Extended CoCo. As the programs are 
listed, they are for use on an Extended 
Color BASIC machine. To use these pro- 
grams on a level 1 machine requires only 
removal or replacement of two reserved 
Extended words. The screens are for- 
matted with the reserved word 
STRINGS. This command prints a 
string of N copies of the ASCII charac- 
ter X as in PRINT @ 0, STRINGS 



(N.X). To substitute for the STRINGS 
command using level I BASIC, you can 
substitute the algorithm: 

1 5 FOR 1 = 1 TO 32, : SC$ = SC$ + 
CHR$(169): NEXT I 

You will need one line and one vari- 
able for each different color band you 
wish to print. After you have inserted 
the variable at the front of the program, 
you may then substitute the command, 
PRINT SCS in place of each PRINT 
STRINGS command in the program. 
The other Extended BASIC command, B 
- RND(- TIMER), occurs in Line 580 of 
AudioSpell. The purpose of this com- 
mand is to randomize the selection of 
random numbers. This command can 



be deleted and the only result will be 
that the praise statements will be printed 
in the same pattern every time the 
machine is turned on. 

THE ASCII SYMBOL. In Line 1 10 
of AudioSpell, the listing shows an 
underscore character in parentheses in 
the instructions to be printed to the 
screen. This is shown as a back arrow on 
the computer screen, and is made by 
entering a shifted up arrow on the 
keyboard. 

Coming Attractions 

Next month we will present the pro- 
grams designed to allow the student to 
be examined in precisely the same man- 
ner as he or she prepared for the test. 
For those who have disk systems, we 



have developed a version of all pro- 
grams modified for the Disk Extended 
Color Computer. Using the system on 
disk will allow automated recording of 
grades in a grade file without teacher 
intervention. It will also expedite and 
facilitate student use of the spelling pro- 
grams. The complete set of four pro- 
grams for the disk version is available 
on cassette tape for $10. Our address is 
206 Capri Road, Las Cruces, NM 88005. 
If you have problems with your entered 
version of these programs, be sure you 
have thoroughly proofread your code 
before writing or calling. Please send a 
self-addressed stamped envelope with 
your request for help or you can call us 
at (505) 524-3389. Please call between 5 
and 10 p.m. Mountain Time. 




Listing 1: 



10 ' SPELLING DRILL AND PRACTICE 
20 'COPYRIGHT 1982 BY JUDY M. AN 
D DAVID M. DACUS, 206 CAPRI, LAS 

CRUCES, NM 88001 
30 CLEAR 2000: NW = 50: DIM WRD*(N 
W) 

40 CLS: PRINTS0, STRING* (32, 169) ; : 

PR I NT842 , " AUD I O SPELL " 

50 PRINTS64, STRING* (32, 169) ; "HI ! 

MY NAME IS COCO THE COLOR COM 
PUTER. CALL ME COCO. THAT'SWHA 
T ALL MY FRIENDS CALL ME. " 
60 PRINT8192, STRING* (32, 169) J : IN 
PUT "WHAT IS YOUR NAME"; NAM* 
70 PRINTS256, STRING* <32, 169) ; "TH 
AT'S A NICE NAME - "NAM*" . " : PRIN 
TS320, STRING* (32, 169) ; 
80 PR I NTS 352, "DO YOU KNOW HOW I 
WORK? (TYPE NOAND I WILL TELL YO 
U WHAT TO DO) PLEASE TYPE YES OR 

NO AND PUSH < ENTER >" 

90 INPUT A*: IF LEFT* (A*, 1) - "Y" 

THEN 140 
100 CLS: PRINTS0, STRING* (32, 169) | 
"I WILL SAY THE WORD, I WILL USE 

THE WORD IN A SENTENCE, AND THE 
NSAY THE WORD AGAIN. WHEN I 

FINISH THE WORD I WILL ASK YOU 

TO SPELL IT. ":PRINTS192, STRING* 
(32, 169) ; 

110 PRINT" IF YOU MAKE A MISTAKE 



USE THE BACK ARROW (_) TO ERAS 
E. ":PRINTe288, STRING* (32, 169) ; : I 
NPUT"PUSH < ENTER > TO CONTINUE"; A 
* 

120 CLS: PRINTS0, STRING* (32, 169) ; 

"WHEN YOU THINK YOU HAVE SPELLED 
THE WORD CORRECTLY, PRESS < ENTER 

>. I WILL TELL YOU IF YOU HAVE 
SPELLED THE WORD CORRECTLY. IF 
YOU DIDN'T, YOU WILL HAVE 
ANOTHER CHANCE TO SPELL THE WOR 

D. ":PRINT@256,STRING*(32, 169) 

130 INPUT "PUSH < ENTER > TO CONTIN 

UE " f A* 

140 CLS: PRINT4S0, STRING* (32, 169) ; 
"NOW WE ARE READY TO START 

SPELLING THIS WEEK'S WORDS." 
150 PRINTS96, STRING* (32, 169) ; "PL 
EASE CHECK TO SEE THAT THE TA 
PE MARKED - SPELLING WORDS - IS 

IN THE TAPE RECORDER, THE TA 
PE IS REWOUND, AND THE RE 
CORDER IS ON PLAY." 
160 PRINTS2B8, STRING* (32, 169) ; 
170 INPUT "WHEN YOU HAVE CHECKED 
ALL THIS, PUSH MY < ENTER > BUTTON 

AND I'LL MOVE THE TAPE TO GET R 
E AD Y . " ; A* : CLS : PR I NT 11328 , " OOH ! T 
HAT TICKLES! • ":PRINTSTRING*(32, 1 
69); "I AM LOADING THE WORDS FROM 

TAPE" 

180 I - 0:W = 0:wi = 0:W2 - 0:w* 
= "":W1* = "":W2* - "" 
190 OPEN "I", #-1, "WORDS" 
200 IF EOF (-1) THEN 250 
210 1=1+1 
220 INPUT #-1, W* 
230 WRD*(I) - W* 
240 GOTO 200 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 165 



250 CLOSE #-1 
260 NW - I 

270 CLS: PRINT60, STRING* (32, 169) I 
: INPUT "WHEN YOU ARE READY FOR YO 
UR FIRST WORD PUSH MY < ENTER 

> BUTTON . " S A* : CLS : PR I NT©0 , S 

TRING*(224, 169) | " LISTEN 
CAREFULLY. " 
'280 FOR I - 1 TO NW 

-290 audio on:motoron:for V - 1 T 

O 2300: NEXT V: AUDIO OFF : MOTOROFF 
-300 SKIPF "MARKER":CLS:PRINT«0,S 
TRING*(224, 169) % 

310 INPUT "PLEASE SPELL THE WORD 
YOU JUST HEARD. "; ANS* 
320 IF ANSI - WRD*(I) THEN R - R 
+ l:QOTO 580 ELSE W = W + 1 : W* < 
W) - WRD*(I) 

330 CLS : PR I NT@0, STRING* <224, 246) 
j:INPUT"I»M SORRY THAT IS NOT CO 
RRECT. PLEASE TRY AGAIN. " ; ANS* 
340 IF ANS* = WRD*(I) THEN 580 E 
LSE Wl = Wl + l:Wl*(Wl) = WRD*(I 
) 

350 CLS : PR I NT80, STRING* (224, 246) 
; "THE CORRECT SPELLING IS:",WRD* 
(I) 

360 PRINTS320, STRING* (32* 169) I : I 
NPUT" PLEASE TRY AGAIN TO SPELL I 
T " ; ANS* 

370 IF ANS* - WRD*(I) THEN 580 E 
LSE W2 - W2 + l:W2*(W2) = WRD* ( I 

) 

380 CLS : PRINTS0, STR I NG* ( 224 , 246 ) 
;"YOU MISSED THE WORD WITH IT 
WRITTEN ON THE SCREEN IN FRONT 
OF YOU. PLEASE BE MORE CAREFU 
L. " 

390 I NPUT "READY FOR THE NEXT WOR 
D " 5 A* : CLS : PR I NTS0 , STR I NG* ( 224 , 1 6 
9)5" LISTEN CAREFULLY" 

400 NEXT I 

410 CLS: AUDIO OFF: PR I NT@0, STRING 
*(32, 175) ; "YOU ATTEMPTED TO SPEL 
L ";NWJ" WORDS. ":G - (R 

/(W+R) )*100 

420 PR I NT "YOU MISSPELLED "JWJ" W 
GRDS OUT OF ";W+R;" ATTEMPTS FOR 

A SCORE OF ";G; "X. " 

430 IF Wl > 0 THEN PRINT"YOU ALS 
O M I SSPELLED " } Wl I " WORDS AT LEAS 
T TWICE";: IF W2 > 0 THEN PRINT", 

AND "; W2J " WORDS THREE T I MES . " E 
LSE PRINT "." 

440 IF W - 0 THEN PRINTS 192, STR 
ING*(32, 175) ; "WOW, YOU DID A TER 
RIFIC JOB. PRESS < ENTER > TO C 

ONTINUE. ": INPUT A*: GOTO 560 
450 PRINT9288, STRING* (32, 175) }SJ 



NPUT "DO YOU HAVE A PRINTER (YES O 
R NO) "I A*: IF LEFT*(A*,1) - "Y" T 
HEN 520 

460 CLS: PRINT "THESE ARE THE WOR 
DS MISSED AT LEAST ONCE": FOR I 
- 1 TO W 

470 PRINT W*(I),:NEXT I:PRINT:IN 
PUT "WHEN YOU HAVE COPIED THESE 
WORDSON A PIECE OF PAPER PUSH <E 
NTER>";A*:CLS 

480 IF Wl > 0 THEN PR I NT "THESE A 
RE THE WORDS MISSED AT LEAST T 
WICE":FOR I = 1 TO Wl ELSE GOTO 
570 

490 PRINT W1*(I),:NEXT I: PRINT: I 
NPUT "PUT A CHECK MARK BY THESE 
WORDS ON THE LIST YOU JUST MADE 
THEN PUSH ENTER"; A*: CLS 
500 IF W2 > 0 THEN PRINT "THESE 
ARE THE WORDS MISSED THREE TIMES 
":FOR I - 1 TO W2 ELSE GOTO 570 
510 PRINT W2*(X),:NEXT I:PRINT:I 
NPUT "YOU MISSPELLED THESE WORDS 
EVEN AFTER THEY WERE PRINTED ON 
THE SCREEN. PUSH < ENTER > TO 
CONT I NUE ."HA*: GOTO 570 
520 CLS: PR I NT@0, STRING* (224, 175) 
i "PRINTING ALL MISSPELLED WORDS" 
530 PR I NT#-2 , CHR* (14)J" SPELL I NG 
STUDY LIST FOR " ; NAM* ; CHR* (10) ; C 
HR*(10) 

540 print#-2, "list of words miss 
pelled at least one time";chr*(1 
0); chr* (10) :for i - 1 to w: print 
#-2, w*(d:next i 

550 IF Wl > 0 THEN PRINT#-2, CHR* 

(10) ; chr* (10) ; "list of words mis 
sed at least two times" ; chr* ( 10) 
; chr* (10) :for i = i to wi:print# 

-2, W1*(I):NEXT I 

560 IF W2 > 0 THEN PR I NT#-2 , CHR* 
(10) ; CHR* (10) ; "LIST OF WORDS MIS 
SED THREE TIMES": FOR I = 1 TO W2 
:PRINT#-2, W2*(I):NEXT I 
570 CLS : PR I NT80 , STR I NG* ( 224 ,169) 
; "THANK YOU FOR PRACTICING YOUR 
SPELLING WORDS WITH ME. LET'S 
WORK TOGETHER AGAIN SOON. ": END 
580 B = RND (-TIMER) :B = RNDU0): 
CLS : PR I NT80, STRING* (224, 175) ; 
590 ON B GOSUB 610,620,630,640,6 
50, 660, 670, 680, 690, 700: PRINT8288 
, STRING* (32, 175) ; 
600 GOTO 390 

610 PR I NT "YOU* RE A REGULAR SPELL 
I NG WHIZ ! CONOR ATUL AT I ONS ! " : RETU 
RN 

620 PRINT "WOW ! THAT WAS GOOD.": 
RETURN 



166 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



SUPER SCREEN 




• A big 51 character by 24 line screen. 

• Full upper and lower case characters. 

• Easily combine text with hi-res 
graphics. 

• PRINT @ is completely functional on 
the big screen. 

• The powerful ON ERROR GOTO is 
fully implemented. 



• Auto-key repeat for greater keyboard 
convenience. 

• Control codes foradditionatfunctions. 

• Works with 16K, 32K or 64K com- 
puters. 

• Available on disc or cassette. 

• Works' with extended and/or disc 
BASIC. 



51 CHARACTERS BY 24 LINE DISPLAY 

Super Screen is a powerful, machine language program that significantly upgrades 
the performance and usefulness of 16K or greater, Extended and Disc Basic Color 
Computers. The standard Color Computer display screen is totally inadequate for 
serious, personal or business applications so Super Screen replaces it with a brand 
new, 51 character wide by 24 line screen including full upper and lower case 
characters. Instead of a confusing checkerboard appearance, you now have true 
lower case letters along with a screen that is capable of displaying 1224 characters. 
The difference is startling! Your computer takes on new dimensions and can easily 
handle lines of text that were simply too long and complex to display on the old 
screen. 

COMBINE TEXT WITH HI-RES GRAPHICS 

You can now write truly professional looking programs that combine text with hi-res 
graphics. Super Screen allows you to create graphics displays with the Basic LINE, 
DRAW and CIRCLE statements and then notate the graphics with descriptive text. 
You can even use PRINT @ if you wish for greater programming convenience. Super 
Screen's versatility will amaze you. 

PRINT @ IS FULLY IMPLEMENTED 

The PRINT @ statement is a valuable asset to the programmer wheri formatting text 
on the screen. The standard Color Computer will report an error if you specify a 
location higher than 511 but Super Screen allows locations all the way to 1223! You 
get a big screen and a powerful formatting tool as well. Of course, Super Screen also 
supports the CLS command allowing you to clear the big screen using standard 
Basic syntax. 

ON ERROR GOTO 

That's right! Super Screen gives you a full implementation of ON ERROR GOTO 
including the ERR and ERL functions. Now you can trap errors and take corrective 
action to prevent crashed programs and lost data using the same standard syntax as 
other computers. The ON ERROR GOTO capability overcomes a serious deficiency 
of Color Computer Basic and greatly imprdves your capability to handle 
sophisticated tasks. All well written, 'user friendly' prbgrams use error trapping 
techniques and yours can too! Now that's power! 

AUTO KEY REPEAT 

No more frustration as you edit a long line in your Basic program; just hold the space 
bar down and automatically step to the desired position in the line. Need a line of 
asterisks? Hold the key down and auto repeat will give them to you. Those of you who 
spend many hours at your keyboard will appreciate this outstanding addition to Super 
Screen's long list of impressive capabilities. 

CONTROL CODES FOR ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS 

Super Screeh recognizes several special control code characters that allow selection 
of block or underline, solid or blinking cursor and other functions. You can 'Home Up,' 
the cursor or you may erase from the cursor to the end of a line or to the end of the 
screen just like many other computers. These special codes give you an extra 
dimension of versatility and convenience that put Super Screen in a class by itself. 

AND MORE GOOD NEWS.,. 

Super Screen comes with complete, well detailed instructions and is available on 
cassette or disc. It adjusts automatically to any 16K or greater, Extended or Pise Basic 
Color Computer or TDP-100 and uses only 2K of memory in addition to the screen 
memory reserved during power up. Guaranteed to be the most frequently used 
program in your software library. . .once you use it, you won't be without it! Super 
Screen's low price will really please you; only $29.95 on cassette or $32.95 on disc! 




^SUPERBUG 



Mark Data Products SUPER BUG is a powerful, relocatable machine code monitor 
program for your Coco. If you are a beginner, the program and documentation are an 
indispensable training aid, helping you to gain a better understanding of your Color 
Computer and machine code programming. If you are an accomplished computerist, 
SUPER BUG'S capabilities, versatility and convenience will prove invaluable during 
programming and debugging. 

SUPER BUG offers so many outstanding features that we are unable to list them all in 
this limited space, hex and alpha numeric memory display, modify, search and test; full 
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and extensive documentation. Only $29.95 on cassette or $32.95 on disc. 



ORDER ENTRY SYSTEM 

The Mark Data Products sales order processing system will give a fast, efficient means 
to enter orders, print shipping papers and invoices, prepare sales reprots, and monitor 
receivables. The system automatically enhances the monitor screen to a 51 character 
by 24 line display. 32K of memory is required along with an 80-columri printer, and 
one or more disc drives, 

The MDP order entry system is a family of programs which operate interactively by 
means of a "menu" selection scheme. Up to 900 products may be defined and a single 
disc system can hold over 600 transactions. When the operator selects a task to be 
performed, the computer loads a program designed to handle that task from the 
system disc. The system disc contains all of the programs required to create, update 
and maintain data files and prepare the necessary paperwork including shipping and 
invoice forms, daily sales reports, a monthly (or other period) sales report and a 
receivables report. 

The MDP system: 

• Is accurate, user friendly and simple to use. 

• Is easy to customize for specific user requirements. 

• Produces a traceable invoice. 

• Handles receivables as well as closed orders. 

• In capable of future expandability. 

This accounting software equals or exceeds higher priced packages for other 
computers and includes a detailed operating manual. For just $99.95. 



ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 

The Mark Data Products accounting system is ideal for the small businessman 
needing a fast, efficient means to process income and expenses, prepare detailed 
reports and maintain most of the information required at tax time. The system is a 
family of programs which operate by means of a "menu" selection scheme. When the 
operator selects a task to perform, the computer loads a program designed to handle 
that task from the system disc. The system disc contains all of the programs required 
to create, update and maintain data files and prepare the necessary accounting 
reports including a transaction journal, a P&L or income report, an interim or trial 
balance and a balance sheet. 

Up to 255 separate accounts may be defined and a single disc system can hold over 
1,400 transactions. This system automatically enhances the monitor screen to a 51 
character by 24 line display. 32K of memory is required along with an 80-column 
printer and one or more disc drives. 

The MDP system: 

• Is accurate, user friendly and simple to use. 

• Is easy to customize for specific user requirements. 

• Immediately updates the chart of accounts. 

• Provides an audit trail, 

• Includes end of period procedures. 

• Is capable of future expandability. 

This order entry software equals or exceeds higher priced packages for other 
computers and includes a detailed operating manual. For just $99.95. 



IMPORTANT NEW BOOKS 

"Your Color Computer" by Doug Mosher. Over 300 pages of detailed information— 
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64K Memory Expansion Kit 

Alt parts and complete instructions 




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24001 ALICIA PKWY., NO. 207 • MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 



All Orders: Please add $2.00 shipping and handling in the continental U.S. All others, add air shipping and $3.00 handling. California residents add 6% sales tax. Foreign .orders 
please remit U.S. funds. Software authors— Contact us for exciting program marketing details. We accept MasterCard and VISA. Distributed in Canada by Kelly Software 



630 PRINT "TERRIFIC! KEEP ON SPEL 
LING. " : RETURN 

640 PR I NT " OUTST AND I NB ! ! I * LL BE 
T YOUR MAMA WAS A DICTIONARY. 
" : RETURN 

650 PR I NT "WONDERFUL! KEEP GO I NO 
. " : RETURN 

660 PR I NT "GREAT SPELLING! WISH 
I WERE THAT GOOD .": RETURN 
670 PRINT"600D JOB ! YOU'RE DOIN 
G IT NOW. ": RETURN 

6S0 PR I NT "SUPER! YOU'RE A GOOD S 
PELLER. ": RETURN 

690 PR I NT "THAT'S GREAT! EVERYON 
E WILL BE PROUD OF YOU. ": RETURN 
700 PR INT "BEAUTIFUL! KEEP UP TH 
E GOOD WORK . " : RETURN 



Listing 2: 



90 
240 .. 
END. 



. 23 
254 
. 58 



10 REM WORD LOADING PROGRAM 

20 'COPYRIGHT 1982 BY JUDY M. AN 

D DAVID M. DACUS, 206 CAPRI, LAS 

CRUCES, NM 88001 
30 CLEAR 2000: Z* = "MARKER": DIM 
WRD*(50) 

40 CLS: PRINTS0, STRING* (32, 185) ; " 
WE ARE NOW READY TO ENTER THE 
SPELLING WORDS." 

50 PRINTS96, STRING* <32, 185) $ "FIR 
ST, I WILL ASK YOU TO ENTER THE 
CORRECT SPELLING OF EACH WOR 
D AT THE KEYBOARD . " : PR I NT8224 , ST 
RING* (32, 185) ; 

60 PR I NT "AFTER WE HAVE RECORDED 
THE CORRECT SPELLING OF THE 

WORDS, WE WILL RECORD YOU PRON 
OUNCING EACH WORD. " 
70 PRINTS384, STRING* (32, 185) $: IN 
PUT "PRESS < ENTER > TO CONTINUE"! 
A* 

80 CLS: PRINTS0, STRING* (64, 185) J " 
PLACE YOUR TAPE IN THE RECORDER, 
REWIND IT, AND push the play and 

record buttons. " 
90 PRINTS160, STRING* (32, 185) ;: IN 
PUT "HOW MANY WORDS ARE TO BE 
RECORDED" ;NW 

100 I = 0:motoron:for z - l to 2 

300: NEXT z:motoroff 

110 OPEN "0",#-l, "WORDS" 

120 1*1+1 

130 CLS: PRINTS128, STRING* (32, 185 
) ; : INPUT "PLEASE ENTER THE NEXT 



SPELL I NG WORD " $ W* 

140 PRINT#-1,W* 

150 WRD*(I) - W* 

160 IF I - NW THEN 180 

170 GOTO 120 

180 CLOSE #-1 

190 CLS: PRINTS0, STRING* (64, 185) ; 
"NOW WE ARE READY TO RECORD YOUR 

PRONUNCIATION OF EACH WORD." 
200 PRINTQ128, STRING* (32, 185) ; "T 
HE WORDS WILL APPEAR ONE AT A T 
I ME. PRONOUNCE THE WORD, FOLLOWW 
ITH A SHORT SENTENCE USING THE W 
ORD, AND PRONOUNCE THE WORD A 
GAIN. YOU WILL HAVE 5 SECONDS T 
O SAY THE WORD AND SENTENCE B 
EFORE THE TONE SOUNDS. 
210 PRINTQ384, STRING* (32, 185) f : I 
NPUT "PRESS < ENTER > TO CONTINUE" 
; A* 

220 CLS: PR I NT@0, STRING* (64, 185) I 
"YOU WILL HAVE TO UNPLUG AND PLU 
GIN THE AUX PLUG FOR EACH WORD, 

BUT YOU WILL BE PROMPTED BY THE 

PROGRAM EACH TIME." 
230 PRINTQ192, STRING* (32, 185) $ : I 
NPUT "IF THE TAPE RECORDER IS ST 
ILL ONRECORD AND YOU ARE READY P 
RESS < ENTER >" \ A* 
240 FOR I ■ 1 TO NW 
250 CLS: PRINTS0, STRING* (128, 185) 
5 "*****UNPLUG THE AUX PLUG****** 
*#" ; 

260 PRINTS160, STRING* (32, 185) $ "t 
he word is "WRD*(D 
270 PRINTS256, STRING* (32, 185) ; "P 
RESS < ENTER > AND START TALKING A 
FTER THE FIRST TONE SOUNDS.";: IN 
PUT A* 

280 MOTORON: SOUND 40, 5: FOR V - 1 
TO 2300: NEXT V : MOTOROFF : SOUND 4 
0,5 

290 CLS: PRINTS0, STRING* (128, 185) 
;"*##***PLUG IN THE AUX PLUG**** 
**" 

300 PRINTS192, STRING* (32, 185) % "P 
RESS < ENTER > WHEN RE AD Y " ; : I NPUT 
A* 

310 CLS: PRINTS192, "ADDING A SYNC 
MARKER" 

320 OPEN "O", #-1, "MARKER": PR IN 
T#-l, Z*: CLOSE #-1 
330 NEXT I 

340 CLS : PR I NT80 , STR I NG* ( 224 , 1 69 ) 
; "THE TAPE IS NOW COMPLETE. IT 
MAY NOW BE REWOUND AND USED 
WITH EITHER THE AUDIO SPELLING 
PRACTICE OR SPELLING TEST 
PROGRAMS. " a 



168 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



WHERE'S-IT 

by C.E. Laldlaw 

What programs are on this disk? Which 
disk is my WIDGET program? 
WHERE'S-IT will answer these questions 
for you and maintain disk directory index 
files with up to 972 programs in each. 
Completely user-friendly, just run 
WHERE'S-IT and follow the prompts to: 
Create index files holding up to 972 
programs 
Load or save existing index files 
Add, delete or update index files for a 

specific disk 
Sort index files alphabetically with a 
machine language sort 
List index files to screen 
Print index out with 1 62 programs to the 
page 

Disk only $19.95 

(32K Extended Color BASIC) 



We are also a dealer for 
the following companies: 

Moreton Bay Software 
Computerware 
Spectrum Projects 
Mark Data, Amdek, Epson 
Pal Creations, Tom Mix 
PBH Computer, Inc. 
Spectral Associates, 
Cognitec, Elite Software 
Prickly Pear, Botek 
Cobra Software 
and many more fine companies. 



JARB 



SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



1636 D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 92050 
After hours: 
BBS 619-474-8981 
prderllne: 
619-474-8982 



T.A.G 

THE 
ADVENTURE 
GENERATOR 




JARS) SOFTWARE 



Cassette $34.95 

Disk/Amdisk. k ..,.$39.95 



FEATURES 

Creates stand-alone programs 
Up to 100 rooms. 60 objects, 30 command words, and 9 conditional flags 

Supports tape and disk output 
Optional printer output of important sections during creation of ADVENTURE 
Complete documentation 
Includes sample ADVENTURE 
Works with all models of the CoCo except MC-10 
Requires 32K Extended Color BASIC 



GRAY LADY 



by Terry A, Steen 

Control your submarine in its efforts to destroy the enemy fleet. You 
must launch your sub to surface missiles while avoiding the depth 
charges. Five different types, hi-res graphics and spectacular 
sounds. Also a talking version included at no extra charge for those 
who have an SC01 based voice pack. Four screens and progressive 
difficulty make this all machine language program a real bargain. 



Cassette; $19.95 



Disk/Amdisk: $24.95 



U.S. COD orders accepted, no charge cards please. 
Shipping and handling $3.00 
California residents please add 6°/o sales tax 



★★^★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^^ 

RAINBOW 

Give us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists In showing the Color Computer world your 
high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in the rainbow's 
Scoreboard column. All entries must be received by the first of the month to be eligible for the following 
month's Scoreboard. They must include your full name, address, game title, company name and, of course, 
your high score. Each individual is limited to three score entries per month. Send your entries to Scoreboard, 

C/O THE RAINBOW. 

★ New Number One • Last Month's Number One 



ANDRONE (Radio Shack) 

18,290 *Bill Sain, Charlotte, NC 
27,805 John Marcogtiese, Eastchester, NY 
ANNIHILATOR (Chromasette) 

1,000 WMatthew Kromeke, Albuquerque, NM 
ASSAULT (MichTron) 

5,980 *Kevin Marsh, Bokeelia. FL 
BAG-IT-MAN (Aardvark) 

418,790 ^Cornelius Caesar, Hofheim, 

West Germany 
101,400 •Daniel Belisle, Montreal, Quebec 
BASEBALL (Radio Shack) 

460-0 ^Walter Trainlips, Janesville, Wl 
324-0 Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 
223-0 Chris Young, Ft. Worth, TX 
169-0 •Rene Belisle, Montreal, Quebec 
153-0 Bryan Bienvenu, New Iberia, LA 
152-0 Dean Patrick Preising, I, 

Scottsdale, AZ 
136-0 Rob McDonald, Fond du Lac, Wl 
134-0 Robert Harmon, Virginia Beach, VA 
131-0 David Mierzwa, Utica, NY 
118-0 Jerry Morgan, Independence, MO 
108-0 Kevin Sobiski, Dyer, IN 
107-0 Glenn Wesson, Castleton, NY 
101-0 David Iverson, Dorval, Quebec 
100-0 Glen Giacomelli, Woodbridge, Ontario 
85-1 Jeff Luster, Fairview Park, OH 
82-0 Andy Larson, Omaha, NE 
56-0 Mike Scharf, Fremont, OH 
55-0 Alan David Heckler, Hartselle, AL 
54-0 Bill Sain, Charlotte, NC 
50-0 Kevin T. Cornell, Greentown, IN 
21-2 Adam Jensen, Racine, Wl 
BATS AND BUGS (THE RAINBOW; 

2,750 WAnthony Schmuck, Wellsville, PA 
BLACKJACK (Radio Shack) 

39,450 *Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 
11,820 Woody Farmer, Acme, Alberta 
BLACK SANCTUM (Mark Data) 

132 'A' Jeff Alien, Montrose, CO 
BLOC HEAD (Computerware) 
1,218,325 *Brian Spek, Keswick, Ontario 
•Lindi Wolf, Fairbanks, AK 
Keith Denhoed, Coalhurst, Alberta 
Joe Golkosky, Portage, Ml 
Jeff Roberg, Winfield, KS 
BUSTOUT (Radio Shack) 

42,000 ^Derrick Kardos, Colonia, NJ 
*Martin Klein, Skokie, IL 
Sara Hennessey, Golden Valley, MN 
Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 
Mike Wells, Pittsburgh, PA 
Tommy Parker, Talladega, AL 



1,006,200 
819,425 
781,350 
395,175 



42,000 
34,700 
28.720 
27,880 
19,630 



BUZZARD BAIT (Tom Mix) 

6,447,950 *Jon Griffith 
5,488,250 Jim Kennett 

2,902,700 •Michael Popovich, Nashua. NH 
2,087,650 Edmund Greene, Nashua, NH 
1 ,134,600 Richard Buttermore, Grand Rapids, Ml 
917,450 James Whitt, Gonzales, TX 
569,350 Mike Scharf, Fremont, OH 
498,350 Jon Carmichael, Ogden, UT 
453,800 Jeff Andreessen, New Lisbon, Wl 
CANDY CO. (Intracolor) 

416,325 ^Randall Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
CANYON CLIMBER (Radio Shack) 

8,990,000 *Glen Giacomelli, Woodbridge, Ontario 
1,603,400 Shen Manseli, Calgary. Alberta 
1,571,300 Jeff Weaver, Gordonville, PA 
1,426,600 Sean Whitley, Arvada. CO 
1,400,200 James Stevenson, Marshall, TX 
1,215,800 Jay Pribble, Davenport, IA 
315,400 Tommy Parker, Talladega, AL 



CASHMAN (MichTron) 

$23,320 w Jeff Allen, Montrose, CO 
$22,310 Pete Olah, Garfield Hts.. OH 
$19,650 •Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 
$16,000 Scott Oberholtzer, Lexington, MA 
$11,130 Ricky Susfalk, Grand Island, NY 
CAVERN COPTER (THE RAINBOW; 

747 *Susan Bellinger, Uxbridge, Ontario 
CHOPPER STRIKE (MichTron) 

72,100 *Lisa Siclari, Staten Island, NY 
67,900 •Matt McCann, Louisville, KY 
63,000 Andrew Figel, Sardis, OH 
47,400 David Figel, Sardis, OH 
CLOWNS A BALLOONS (Radio Shack) 
1 16,470 WColin Kerridge, Ladysmith. 

British Columbia 
110,475 ^Andrew Truesdale, Ferguson, MO 
104,270 Ken Bird, Delaware, OH 
92,480 Martin Careau, Quebec City, Quebec 
89,430 Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 
COCO TREK (Chromaaatta) 
2,500,000 *Ted Warren, Morgan, ID 
COLORPEDE (intracolor) 
10,001,051 *Merk Smith, Santa Ana, CA 
3,355,248 Scott Drake, Pine City, NY 
2,614,230 Jerry Petkash, Warren, Ml 

2.547.299 Rich McGervey, Morgantown, WV 
2,471,342 Vincent Lok, Ontario, Canada 

999,374 Mark Day, Ft. Worth, TX 
651,226 Melissa Levin, Skokie, IL 
227,914 Keith Marsh, Bokeelia, FL 
99,874 David Byers, Stone Mountain, GA 
COSMIC CLONES (Mark Data) 

6,050 WStephane Asselin, Hauterive, Quebec 
CU*BER from Mix) 

204,575 *Martin C. Klein, Skokie, IL 
201,190 Jay Pribble, Davenport, IA 
196,090 •Randall F. Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
94,940 Martin C. Klein, Skokie, IL 
49,510 Doug Kleir, Grand Rapids, Ml 
DANGER RANGER (Mad Systems Software) 

1 ,962 ^Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 
1,890 Fred Thompson, Saugus, MA 
DEFEN8E (Spectral Associates) 

115,335 * Patricia Bostedor, Jackson, Ml 
103,660 *Mary A. Brickies, Allen Park, Ml 
DESERT GOLF (Spectral Associates) 

28 "fcCraig Vodnik, Bensenville, IL 
31 •Kenton Fifield, Fort Francis, Ontario 
DESERT PATROL 

310,100 "drStephane Asselin, Hauterive, Quebec 
DEVIL ASSAULT ( Tom Mix) 
1 ,762,980 "^Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 

1.294.300 John Statham, Strathroy, Ontario 
625,000 Simon Dickson, Bangor, N. Ireland 
318,550 Kanti Dinda, Kingston, Ontario 
294,300 Chip Lilley, Finleyville, PA 

78,500 Stephana Asselin, Hauterive, Quebec 
DOODLE BUG (Computerware) 
3,149,330 *Eiko Cary, National City, CA 
2,577,515 Tim Brown, Clio, Ml 
1,767,630 Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 
448,890 Ellen Bellinger, Uxbridge, Ontario 
109,860 Byron Albertson, Williams Lake, 
British Columbia 
DOUBLE BACK (Radio Shack) 
1,125,000 *Mark Hurst, Sheridan, OR 
1,080,000 Phillipe Dupianties, St. Jerome, 
Quebec 

639,210 Paul Baker, Pittsburgh, PA 
605,890 Peter Sherburne, Highland, CA 
474,040 Paul Moritz, Butte, MT 
304,910 Alfredo Santos, New York, NY 
142,150 Pamela Santos. New York, NY 
64,170 Curtis Frazier, Jr., Enterprise, AL 



41.750 
22,990 
19,500 
11,020 



28,910 
20,110 
16,670 
4,880 



DRACONIAN (Tom Mix) 

86,600 *James Toth, Punxsutawney, PA 
71,930 •Michael Corman, W. Lafayette, IN 
47,670 Dan Neuman, Wauwatosa, Wl 
DUNKEY MUNKEY (Intetlactronics) 
1,244,400 WJack Baran, Bensalem, PA 
1,015,000 •Kyle Keller, Overland Park, KS 
ELECTRON (Tom Mix) 

45,510 *John Sandberg, Concord, CA 

Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 
Alan Morris, Chicopee, MA 
Robby Presson, Florissant, MO 
Alfredo Santos, New York, NY 
FIRE COPTER (Adventure International) 
97,390 ifrSam Hughes, Colton, CA 
78,860 Woody Farmer, Acme, Alberta 
53,280 Kevin Marsh, Bokeelia, FL 
FLYBY (Chromasette) 

104,980 "ArDavid Finberg, Annandale, VA 

Ron Suedersky, Universal City, TX 
Rick Manseli, Calgary, Alberta 
Michael Rhattigan, Cory, NC 
Shen Manseli, Calgary, Alberta 
FOOTBALL (Radio Shack) 

256-0 "frMike Garozzo, Morrisville, PA 
217-0 ©Glen Giacomelli, Woodbridge, Ontario 
161-0 David Hart, Salt Lake City, UT 
FROGGIE (Spectral Associates) 

86,010 *David Garozzo, Morrisville, PA 
84,440 •Bill Ide, Newark, DE 
74,050 Mike Garozzo, Morrisville, PA 
FURY (Computer Shack) 

78,200 wJon Jenkins, Milner, GA 
GALAGON (Spectral Associates) 

647,230 *Jack A. Tindle, Soquel, CA 

Robert Ahlgrim, Hutchinson, KS 
•Rod Moore, Fork Union, VA 
Daryl Judd, Nampa, ID 
Lori Heape, Hutchinson, KS 
Mike Ashworth, Huntington, WV 
GALACTIC ATTACK (Radio Shack) 

48,520 WPaul Sanecki 
GALAX ATT AX (Spectral Associates) 

253,900 *Shawn McAipin, Louisville, KY 
Darrin Filand, WA 
Mitch Hayden, Univ. of Minn. 
Steve Hargis, Tucson, AZ 
John Gosseiln, Campbell River, 

British Columbia 
Kevin Marsh, Bokeelia, FL 
GHOST GOBBLER (Spectral Associetes) 
1,007,430 "ATodd Brannam. Charleston Hts.. SC 
Randy Gerber, Wilmette, IL 
Rich McGervey, Morgantown, WV 
John Osborne, Kincardine, Ontario 
Patricia Lau, York, PA 
David Iverson, Dorval, Quebec 
Jeff Andreessen, New Lisbon, Wl 
GLAXXONS (Mark Data) 

18,984 *Luc Poliquin, Montreal, Quebec 
GLOMMER (THE RAINBOW; 

154 "frSusan Ballinger, Uxbridge, Ontario 
GRABBER ( Tom Mix) 

129,100 wBlossom Mayor, E. Greenbush, NY 
70,600 Michael Corman, Lafayette, IN 
27,750 Ellen Ballinger, Uxbridge, Ontario 
10,050 Anthony Schmuck, Wellsville, PA 
GREY LADY (Jarb Software) 

58.300 WBertha Jeffries, San Bernardino, CA 
HEIST {THE RAINBOW,) 

1,500 *Andy Dater. Medford, OR 
1.500 *Jeff Roberg, Winfield, KS 
1,300 Richard King, Houston, TX 
JUNIOR'S REVENGE (Computerware) 
3,007,000 "*HTim Brown, Clio, Ml 



386,950 
286,741 
188.130 
183,180 
136,510 



113.650 
104,550 
82,650 
74,550 

23,500 



825,250 
423,390 
255.000 
228,290 
120,400 
69,900 



'★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^ 



170 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



'★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^ 

SCOREBOARD 



2,154,900 Scott Kubota, Whitby, Ontario 
2,099,300 Shawn McAlpin, Louisville, KY 
1,220,000 Edwin Prather, Oxnard, CA 
1,115,300 Ryan Van Manen, Grand Rapids, Ml 
KATERPILLAR ATTACK (Tom Mix) 

31,672 *Scott Fairfield, Willlamstown, MA 
25,949 James A. Lafare, Williamstown, MA 
18,949 Vadim Gotovsky, Toronto, Ontario 
15,821 Alex Gotovsky, Toronto, Ontario 
5,426 Russ Rosen, Cardiff, CA 
KEYS OF THE WIZARD (Spectral Associates) 

662 T^Susan Bellinger, Uxbridge, Ontario 
662 *Pegi Tindle, Soquel, CA 
662 'A'Ellen Ballinger, Uxbridge, Ontario 
KING TUT (Tom Mix) 

130,200 "^Alan Higgs, Calgary, Alberta 
THE KING (Tom Mix) 

10.000,100 *Mark Smith, Santa Ana, CA 
4,040,300 Andy Truesdale, Ferguson, MO 
3,343,000 Corey Friedman, Minnetonka, MN 
2,410,200 Candy Harden, Birmingham, AL 
2,367,900 Richard Lacharite, Sherbrooke, 
Quebec 

545,700 Tim Magnusen, Lafayette, TN 
148,200 Chris Cope, Central, SC 
KLENDATHU ( Radio Shack) 
1,962,741 *Jay Pribble, Davenport, IA 
1 ,245,821 •John Sandberg, Concord, CA 
1,193,350 Tommy Parker, Talladega, AL 
1,182,685 David L. Ferris, Shickshinny, PA 
LANCER (Spectral Associates) 
2,797,450 *Randall Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
2,354,000 Alex State, Las Vegas, NV 
875,150 Larry Capen, Folsom, CA 
736,250 Sharon Casten, Folsom, CA 
617.500 Donna Willoughby, Brookfield, IL 
124,200 Curtis Frazier, Jr., Enterprise, AL 
LASERWORM & FIREFLY (THE RAINBOW) 
94,748 *Brian Chafin, Weyers Cave, VA 
54,672 Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 
43,420 Eric Morrell, Sayreville, PA 
37,250 Rene Belisle, Montreal, Quebec 
29,672 Theodore Latham Jr., Rich Square, NC 
LUNAR ROVER PATROL (Spectral Associates) 
162,100 *Sara Aliff, Northeast, MD 
154,650 Tom Aliff Jr., Northeast, MD 
66,900 Wayne Johansen, Rocanville, 

Saskatchewan 
66,650 Randall Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
47,250 Curtis Frazier, Jr., Enterprise, AL 
36,300 Jeff Luster, Fairview Park, OH 
MAZELAND (Chromasette) 

3,050 *Mark Kromeke, Albuquerque, NM 
MAZE PANIC (New Horizons Group) 

12,080 *Paul Sanecki 
MARATHON (THE RAINBOW) 

109,330 *Jimmy Morse, St. John, WA 
101,520 •David Dean, West Mansfield, OH 
71,550 Larry Evans, Elk Grove Village, IL 
MEGA-BUG (Radio Shack) 

60,000 ^Robin Worthem, Milwaukee, Wl 
18,902 John Tiffany, Washington, DC 
15,999 Ed Mitchell, Ragged Mountain, CO 
14,297 Aleisha Hemphill, Los Angeles, CA 
11,894 Paschal Wilson, Kentwood, LA 
METEORS (Spectral Associates) 

26,580 *Kevin Endlich, Perry Hall, MD 
16,870 Keith Marsh, Bokeelia, FL 
14,200 Craig Dutton, Goose Bay, Labrador 
MONSTER MAZE (Radio Shack) 

650,530 ikrBruce March, Barrie, Ontario 
533,450 John Hankerd, Gaines, Ml 
495,850 Andrew Mitchell, Melbourne, Australia 
300,000 James Stevenson, Marshall, TX 
MOON HOPPER (Computerware) 

114,540 l^TSusan Ballinger, Uxbridge, Ontario 
53,570 Robert Harmon, Virginia Beach, VA 
MISS GOBBLER (Procolour Qroup) 

59,900 *Cathy Anderson, Carnegie, OK 
MR DIG (Computerware) 
2,301,000 Jeff Roberg, Winfield, KS 
1,976,500 Tim Magnusen, Lafayette, TN 
522,150 Dwight Elliott, Pompton Lakes, NJ 
486,750 Jason Graff, So. Charleston, WV 



470,000 Ryan Sambrook, Miami Lake, FL 
412,000 •Tommy Wald, Minneapolis, MN 
211,450 Catherine Henry, Boca Raton, FL 
MUDPIES (MichTron) 

185,200 If Bertha Jeffries, San Bernardino, CA 
156,800 •Glenn Wasson, Castleton, NY 
147,400 Chris Hafey, Auburn, CA 
124,400 Bernd Pruetting, Scheibenhardt, 

West Germany 
79,900 Kevin Marsh, Bokeelia, FL 
18,500 Steve Springer, Louisville, KY 
NINJA WARRIOR (Programmer's Guild) 

151,100 ^Douglas Rodger, Harvard, MA 
106,300 •Bud Seibel, Tumbler Ridge, 

British Columbia 
102,400 Christopher Gelowltz, Claresholm, 
Alberta 

86,100 Ryan Sambrook, Miami Lake, FL 
75,300 Brad Gaucher, Hinton, Alberta 
49,000 Susan Ballinger, Uxbridge, Ontario 
35,800 Kelly Anderson, Carnegie, OK 
17,400 Lisa Ballinger, Uxbridge, Ontario 
OFFENDER (American Business Computers) 
113,000 "frKevin Marsh, Bokeelia, FL 
OUTHOUSE (MichTron) 

530,751 *Rosalle Siciari, Staten Island, NY 
528,694 •Benjamin Hebb, Bridgewater, 

Nova Scotia 
160,200 David Lazar, Englishtown, NJ 
101,650 Davey Devlin, Clyde, NC 
69,848 Phillip Laurell, Lansing, Ml 
6,412 Kevin T. Cornell, Greenlown, IN 
6,022 Steve Springer, Louisville, KY 
PAC 'EM (THE RAINBOW) 

2,080 "^Stephanie Gregory, 

Coco Solo, Panama 
1,999 Kevin R. Hubbard, Huntington, WV 
1,951 *Dr. James Peterson, Radcliff, KY 
1,870 Steve Olson, Calgary, Alberta 
1 ,631 Raymond R. Hubbard, Huntington, WV 
1,572 Kenneth Bergenham, Lawton, Ml 
PARA-JUMPER (THE RAINBOW) 

822 ^TPeter MacLeod, Montague, 
Prince Edward Island 
PHANTOM SLAYER (Med Systems Software) 

2,668 ^Michael Brooks, Glade Spring, VA 
2,488 Troy Messer, Joplin, MO 
1,852 Curtis Boyle, Saskatoon, 

Saskatchewan 
1,306 Marc Hassler, Gainesville, FL 
1,126 Gille Giroux, North Bay, Ontario 
PICTURE PUZZLE (DSL Products) 

30,126 iTVIcki Ineson, Westiand, Ml 
PINBALL (Radio Shack) 

12,000,000 *Gerry Farmer, Calgary, Alberta 
2,800,090 •Glen Ewing, Brooklin, Ontario 
PLANET INVASION (Spectral Associates) 
177,900 *Russ Rosen, Cardiff, CA 
POLARIS (Radio Shack) 

231,296 *Nico Swinkels, Boxtel, Netherlands 
63,053 •Paschal Wilson, Kentwood, LA 
POLTERGEIST (Radio Shack) 

6,600 *Ray Suplee 
POOYAN (Datasoft) 
1,138,500 * Linda Cote, Montreal, Quebec 
890,850 •Jerry Morgan, Independence, MO 
480,450 Bernd Pruetting, Scheibenhardt, 

West Germany 
279,450 Chip Lilley, Finleyville, PA 
273,450 Davey Devlin, Clyde, NC 
249,900 Erika Oldale, Athabasca, Alberta 
207,950 Jeff Allen, Montrose, CA 
145,150 Lori Heape, Hutchinson, KS 
B6.600 Robert Harmon, Virginia Beach, VA 
41,800 Pat Hice, Newton, NC 
38,900 Stevie Hice, Newton, NC 
POPCORN (Radio Shack) 

48,930 WPaul Baker, Pittsburgh, PA 
43,970 *Jeff Weaver, Gordonville, PA 
39,590 Jeanie Roberts, Watertown, NY 
39,470 Nicole Freedman, Wellesley, MA 
38,310 Bertha Jeffries, San Bernardino, CA 
37,910 Wenlock Burton, Melbourne, Australia 
34,910 Elten Ballinger, Uxbridge, Ontario 



31,000 Alfredo Santos, New York, NY 
29,780 Sandy Burton, Melbourne, Australia 
21,110 James L Cunrod, Bonaire, GA 
PROJECT NEBULA (Radio Shack) 

1,145 'A'Barry Logan, Pinckneyville, IL 
1,120 •John Hopkins, Greenville, SC 
1,065 William Daley, Biloxl, MS 
1,065 Dan Heater, Cortland, OH 
995 Dan Bovey, Wheaton, IL 
PYRAMID (Radio Shack) 

220/137 *Chris Cope, Central, SC 
220/147 •Ssg. Danial Pierce, APO San 

Francisco, CA 
220/224 Tony & Hazel Rye, Ingleslde, Ontario 
220/236 Pat McWhinney, Key Largo, FL 
220/289 Douglas G. Oxenreider, 

Montevideo, MN 
220/ Jerome Galba Jr., Rochester, Ml 

210/ Chris Young, Ft. Worth, TX 

Q-NERD (THE RAINBOW) 
6,512,020 *Ray Ravalitera, Bethune, France 
184,780 Ray Suplee 
181,920 Susan Bennington, Pensacoia, FL 
27,800 •Richard King, Houston, TX 
10,300 Bill Sain, Charlotte, NC 
QUASAR COMMANDER (Radio Shack) 

114 wPaul Sanecki 
RAAKA-TU (fladf'o Shack) 

25 *Brian Sobolewski, Orange Park, FL 
40 •David Joyner, Raleigh, NC 
RAINBOW ROACH (THE RAINBOW) 

124,800 iTCheryl Endlich, Perry Hall, MD 
122,700 Peter MacLeod, Montague, 

Prince Edward Island 
113,500 Andrew Smith, Columbia, SC 
102,000 John Statham, Strathroy, Ontario 
69,600 Bill Grubbs, Columbus, IN 
20,000 Wenlock Burton, Melbourne, Australia 
REACTOIDS (Radio Shack) 

931,395 *Linda Mobbs, PL Huron, Ml 
203,800 Andrew Lehtola, Mound, MN 
88,615 Robbie Anderson, Monrovia, CA 
41,100 Jeff Loeb, Mobile, AL 
ROBOTTACK (intracolor) 
2,437,000 *Mike Scharf, Fremont, OH 
2,216,950 *Randy Hankins, Tabor, IA 
1,922,200 Erik Merz, Noblesv/lle, IN 
1,512,200 Robert Kiser, Monticello, MS 
1,424,300 John Osborne, Kincardine, Ontario 
SCARFMAN (Cornsoft) 

412,050 ^Michael Cerami, Springfield, VA 
357,190 Jeremy Schild, Clinton, UT 
261,850 Kristin McGahee, Pembroke Pines, FL 
253,920 Scott Boulanger, Columbus, OH 
SHOOTING GALLERY (Radio Shack) 

120,640 ^Robert J. Wallace, Waldorf, MD 
67,700 Vernell Peterson, Radcliff, KY 
44,670 Mark Nichols, Birsay, Saskatchewan 
44,480 R. Duguay, St. Bruno, Quebec 
31,340 Martin Peterson, Lynchburg, VA 
SKIING (Radio Shack) 

05.85 "frJohn Hokpins, Greenville, SC 
12.08 •Kelly Kerr, Wentzviile, MO 
13.73 Janell Stroshane, Ashland, Wl 
21.35 Jean-Claude Taliana, Brossard, 
Canada 

29.52 Andrew Truesdale, Ferguson, MO 
44.02 Brad Gaucher, Hinton, Alberta 
SLAY THE NEREIS (Radio Shack) 

32B.521 "ArEdward Meyer, Vancouver, 

British Columbia 
1 16,588 Peter MacLeod, Montague, 
Prince Edward Island 
SNAKER (THE RAINBOW) 

1:26 irDan Sobczak, Mesa, AZ 
SOLO POKER (Datasoft) 

980 WCarol Dawn Staker, Moscow, ID 
850 Granville Bonyata, Tallahasse, FL 
740 Allan Mercurio, Portsmouth, Rl 
450 Kevin Marsh, Bokeelia, FL 
SPACE SHUTTLE (Tom Mix) 

595 'A'Steve Schweitzer, Sewell, NJ 

585 Kenton Fifield, Fort Francis, Ontario 

585 Randall F. Edwards, Dunlap, KS 



★^★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^^ 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 171 




576 


David J. Banks, Greendale, 


33,454 


Kenneth Bergenham, Lawton, Ml 


WHIRLYBIRD RUN (Spectral Associates) 




British Columbia 


26,640 


Dr. James Peterson, Radciiff, KY 


516,450 


*Dan Shargel, Arroyo Grande, CA 


575 


Fred Weissman, Brookline, MA 


24,415 


Kenton Fifield, Fort Frances, Ontario 


283,100 


Nathan Russell. Mtnco. OK 


STORM ARROWS (Spectral Associates) 


19,820 


Dan Sobczak, Mesa, AZ 


157,000 


Hughens Bien-A'tme, Montreal, 


168,000 


*Steven Ohsie, Deer Park, TX 


TRAPFALL (Tom Mix) 




Quebec 


136,650 


Brian Specht, Rochester, NY 


120,406 


♦Keith Marsh, Bokeelia, FL 


103,900 


Dann Fabian, Crestview, FL 


68,400 


Jim Irvine. Sudbury, Ontario 


114,322 


•David Joyner, Raleigh, NC 


98.400 


Dave Lubnow, Sussex, NJ 


STRATEGY FOOTBALL (THE RAINBOW; 


113,408 


Rich Trawick, N, Adams, Ml 


ZAXXON (Datasoft) 


201-0 


*Dan Sobczak, Mesa, AZ 


112,596 


Kanti Dinda, Kingston, Ontario 


1.510,000 


XJames Quadrelia, Brooklyn, NY 


TIME BANDIT (MichTron) 


112,404 


Russ Rosen, Cardiff, CA 


666,000 


Andy Green, Whitehall, PA 


243,620 


wMark Wooge, Omaha, NE 


108,000 


Sandy Burton, Melbourne, Australia 


401 ,900 


Mike Hughey, King George, VA 


214.850 


Sally Naumann, Hailey, ID 


55,568 


Adam Jensen, Racine, Wl 


370,400 


Chris Coyle, Selden, NY 


129,240 


Brian Larrson, Fridley, MN 


TUTS TOMB (Mark Data) 


260,600 


Roger Buzard, Lima, OH 


106,720 


Glen Heidebrecht, Topeka, KS 


158,000 


irChris Russo, Miami, FL 


127,300 


David Iverson, Dorval, Quebec 


66,700 


Fred Naumann, Hailey, ID 


121,240 


Mickey McCafferty, Oceanside, CA 


121,800 


Geoff Reber, Clinton, IA 


46,330 


Rosa Maria Paparis, Williamsburg, VA 


106,460 


Eileen Kaakee, Royal Oak, Ml 


110,900 


Donna Siclari, Staten Island, NY 


28,890 


Alfredo Santos, New York, NY 


104,360 


Gary Marshall, Layton, UT 


106,600 


Dan Thomas, Hanover, PA 


25.610 


Pamela Santos, New York, NY 


98,600 


George Kaakee, Royal Oak, Ml 


94,400 


Ronald Jay Gates, Grand Rapids, Ml 


TOUCHSTONE (Tom Mix) 


61,100 


Heidi MacPherson, Pennsville, NJ 


81,000 


Chris Young, Ft. Worth, TX 


65.520 


wKevin Marsh. Bokeelia, FL 


WACKY FOOD (Arcade Animation) 


78,700 


Paul Harper, Rimersburg, PA 


TRAILIN' TAIL (THE RAINBOW; 


227,900 


wJon Jenkins, Milner, GA 


76,300 


Brant Putnam, Tucson, AZ 


76.275 


*Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 


105,100 


•Stephane Asselin, Hauterive, Quebec 


68,200 


James Toth, Punxsutawney, PA 










64,800 


Jeff Luster, Fairview Park, OH 



— Kevin Nichols 




In conjunction with the rainbow's Scoreboard, we offer this column of 
pointers for our game-playing readers' benefit. If you have some interest- 
ing hints and tips, we encourage you to share them by sending them to 
the Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. 



THANK YOU, TU 

Scoreboard: 

First of all, 1 would just like to say thanks 
to all the people who helped me on Raaka- 
Tu. I still need help, though, with Bedlam 
and Madness and the Minotaur. Please 
write to me at 230 Yarmouth Rd., 60007. 

Larry Evans 
Elk Grove Village, IL 



GHOST BUSTERS 

Scoreboard: 

I've found that in the game Ghost Gobbler 
(at least in the old version), &H2FFE con- 
trols the appearance of the bonus food in 
screen one, &H2FFFdoes so for screen two, 
and so on through screen eight. POKEing 
values from eight to 90 into these areas 
causes interesting bonuses to appear! 

Also, you can POKE &H2700,0 to remove 
the teleporter or &H2700J to make it work 
every time. 

Steve Clark 
Bethlehem, PA 



LIFE'S LITTLE PROBLEMS 

Scoreboard: 

1 have a problem concerning Tom Fagan's 
letter entitled "Life Everlasting" (July '84 
rainbow). 1 tried his POKE for Zaxxon, but 
it didn't work. The problem I had was simply 
not knowing what to type and when to type 
it. Could you please help me? 

Ronald Gates 
Grand Rapids, MI 

Editor's Note: To use the "immortal- 
ity" POKEs, you must first LOADM 
the game (the given POKE is for the 
disk version of Zaxxon only). Then, 
before EXECuting it, type POKE 
&H6418,x (where V is any number 
between 1 and 255) and enter. Then 
type EXEC and enter. For games 
that EXECute automatically, you may 
be able to hit the Reset button and 
then enter the POKE, 



CAVERN COPTER REVISITED 

Scoreboard: 

I read the letter in the July '84 issue about 
Cavern Copter (Feb. '84 rainbow). I think it 
works very well and I have a way to make it a 
little better. 



In order to get as many lasers as you want, 
EDIT Line 752 (IF F=3) and change the 
three to any number you want. [Then] EDIT 
Line 235 [and] change the three to whatever 
number you picked: 

235 DATA "You have three lasers for the 
entire mission, but you can't use any in 
the last cavern." 

1 think this [makes it] a little easier to get 
past the creatures, [since] you don't run out 
of lasers at the wrong time! 

Dan Sobczak 
Mesa, AZ 



BUSTINOUT 

Scoreboard: 

For those of you having trouble with Bed- 
lam, listen up. You go into the room that has 
the window hook and get the red key by just 
typing in GET RED KEY WITH HOOK. 
To get the green key, stand outside the shock 
room and GET GREEN KEY WITH 
HOOK. (If the doctor injects you, just type 
PLUGH and you'll be cured.) Open all 
doors until you come to the hallway which 
leads into the next section. Then, find the 
refrigerator, PUT PILL IN HAMBURGER, 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★*★★★★★★★★ 




172 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



and give it to the dog. If the dog croaks, go 
out the door. When the guards put you in a 
room, OPEN GREEN DOOR WITH 
GREEN KEY and youVe free. 

1 n Raaka- Tu t you can kill the gargoyle by 
lighting the green candle in the room. Also, 
be careful of the teleportation rooms. Drop 
the ring once and pick it up again. 

If anyone can figure out Karrak (Feb. "84 
rainbow), please let me know. 1 — like 
everyone else — am stuck at the pit and slot. 

Peter Mc In tyre 
Agana, Guam 



KARRAK THE INVINCIBLE 

Scoreboard: 

1 am having a lot of trouble with The 
Amazing Adventures of Karrak (Feb. ^84 
rainbow). 1 can't get past the pit in the first 
game. If anyone has any answers to this 
game^please send them to 1 1654 Plaza Dr., 
Apt. 5, 48420. 

Daniel Bee 
Clio, MI 



Scoreboard: 

Great news for all you worn out Adven- 
turers! I have answers to some of the most 
popular Adventures out today. They include 
Raaka- Tu, Pyramid, Sands of Egypt, Bed- 
lams Tower of Fear, Black Sanctum, She- 
nanigans, Seaquest, and any of the Adven- 
tures published in THE rainbow. 1 should 
also have Madness and the Minotaur and 
Alice in Wonderland solved by the time this 
is printed. For $1,1 will send a folder with 
step-by-step answers to the Adventure re- 
quested. Write to me at 2402 Pretty Bayou 
Dr., 32405. 

If you send me an Adventure that I cannot 
solvel will pay SlOfor thesolution(must be 
a legitimate Adventure with a solution). 1 am 
quite sure this will please any Adventurer. 

Also, if there are any CoCoers in the 
Panama City area, give me a call at (904) 
763-1606. 1 have a few Adventures of my 
own. 

Ryan Elam 
Panama City, FL 



BULLHEADED PROBLEM SOLVERS 

Scoreboard: 

1 am having a difficult time with Madness 
and the Minotaur. 1 would like to hear from 
anyone who can give me a map or can tell 
me: 1) how to get out of the maze, 2) how to 
get a shield, 3) how to get rid of the monsters, 
or4) how to score all the points. Write to me 
at Box 111, 55016. 

Dan Johnson 
Cottage Grove, MN 



Scoreboard: 

Vm a real fan of Adventure games and 
now 1 need some help. If anyone can help me 
in getting spells in Madness and the Mino- 
taur, write to me at Rt, 4 Wardsville Rd., 
65101. 

Kevin Green 
Jefferson City, MO 



LIFE IN THE DUNGEONS 

Scoreboard: 

1 have the cartridge of Dungeons ofDag- 
gorath and have been great so far. But on the 
third level I come to the wizards image and 
he kills, me after I get one shot in. 

What 1 would like to know is how to kill 
that sucker? If you can help, write to me at 
SS#3 East Beaverly Rd., V2N 2S7. 

Mike Schneider 
Prince George, British Columbia 



Scoreboard: 

1 need help with the Radio Shack Adven- 
ture Dungeons of Daggorath. What 1 need is 
a list of the rings and the words to incant 
them. Also, if possible, maps of the different 
levels. If anyone can help me, please write to 
P.O. Box 555, 78040. 

Fred Turner 
Laredo, TX 



Scoreboard: 

Tve talked to many CoCo users who have 
played the Dungeons of Daggorath Adven- 
ture game. All say the wizard can't be slain. 
Well, 1 have slain the wizard twice, first in 30 
hours and then in 14 — and on the original 
CoCo tablet keyboard. Typing speed and 
accuracy, sequencing creature destruction, 
husbanding limited resources, and plotting 
logical strategies are the keys to getting all 
five levels cleared. (Hint: You need a good 
dictionary to incant the last ring.) 

I caution the user that this Adventure is 
very stressful and frustrating. You must 
make many saves ("ZS"). Split-second co- 
ordination is mandatory. Expect to "ZS" at 
least 150 times the first time around and 
about 30 times the second. 

The third level is the most difficult, fol- 
lowed by the fourth, second, fifth and first in 
that order. YouVe really accomplished a 
masterful milestone when you see the last 
message: "Behold! Destiny . . (It's not 
cricket to give all the secrets away.) The new 
wizard sports a new model scepter, too! 

L. Grant Shideler 
Lakewood, CO 



NEVER ENOUGH MONEY 

Scoreboard: 

I am having trouble with Raaka-Tu. How 
are you able to get 50 points when you must 
get rid of the coin (five points) so as to not 
get shot by the statue? It's the sarne with 
Pyramid; how do 1 get points for the coins 
when, almost every game, 1 have to get new 
batteries. Also, Madness and the Minotaur 
has me completely stumped. 

If you can help me through these prob- 
lems, please send the answers to 1 84-D Main 
St., 06786. 

Kenny Neill 
Terryville, CT 



Scoreboard: 

I have solved the following Adventures: 
Bedlam, Pyramid, Raaka-Tu, Black Sanc- 
tum, Calixto Island, Shenanigans, and Ghost 
Town. If anyone needs help, send an SASE 
to 57 Cardinal Dr., 11576. 

i Mike Sitzer 
Roslyn, NY 



THE WRATH OF RAAKA-TU 

Scoreboard: 

I have some clues for Raaka-Tu, To get 
out (from the idol room), type GO UNDER 
ALTAR. Also, you can use the candle to kill 
the gargoyle, 

I need help finding the last treasure in 
Raaka- Tu and 1 need help with everything in 
Sands of Egypt. Write to me at 914 Albany 
Ct., 27609. 

David Joyner 
Raleigh, NC 



Scoreboard: 

1 would like to know how to get across the 
rug in Raaka-Tu. I also would like to know 
where the potion is (I have done some pro- 
grams published in THE RAINBOW that reveal 
the objects in the game). Please help me! 
Write to me at Box 1 16, 72843. 

Chuck Poynter 
Hector, AR 



Scoreboard: 

In the May '84 issue of THE RAINBOW there 
was a letter that revealed the answer to my 
favorite Adventure game, Raaka-Tu. When 
I saw that answer 1 could have died, because 
1 had spent hours sitting there staring at my 
monitor trying to think of a command that 
would get me over the pit and through the 
wooden door. The end to that Adventure 
was a giant let-down. It was like the author 
couldn't think of anything else, so he just did 
that. 

Mike Sengs tock 
Meriden, CT 



*★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 




September 1984 THE RAINBOW 173 



TURN OF THE SCREW 



The Halt Pin 
And Its Function 



By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Awhile ago 1 wrote about the 
pins' functions on the cartridge 
connector of your computer. One 
of the pins was the "HALT" pin, which 
is the center of discussion for this month. 

The HALT pin is not one of the most 
popular pins. Certainly not as popular 
as, let's say, an address line or a data 
line. Address and data lines are used 
continuously while the HALT line can 
sit idly forever. In fact, if you don't have 
a disk controller or anything else plugged 
in the cartridge slot, the HALT line will 
not be used. The disk drive controller 
always uses the HALT line to do its I/O. 

What does the HALT line do? It does 
what it says it does — halt. When this 
line is logically high (five volts), it is 
inactive. But once the HALT line goes 
low, at zero volts, many things start 
happening. The CPU will stop. First of 
all, the CPU will finish its current 
instruction, which takes between two to 
15 clock cycles, depending on what 
instruction the CPU was executing. 
Then the CPU will tristate the address 
bus and the data bus, which means the 
CPU will neither input nor output — it 

(Tony DiStefano is well known as an 
early specialist in Color Computer 
hardware projects. He is one of the 
acknowledged experts on the t( insides" 
of Co Co.) 



is inactive. Everything stops, however, 
nothing is lost. When halted, the BA 
(Bus Available) and tfie BS (Bus Status) 
lines will go high. This indicates that the 
CPU is in the halt state. You don't have 
to worry about these lines; Radio Shack 
chose not to use them by not bringing 
them to the cartridge connector. The 
CPU registers are all preserved and the 
RAM (random access rqemory) is still 
refreshed. That's the SAM chip's job. 

Everything will stay halted until the 
H ALTline returns to a high state. Then 



"The HALT line has a 
multitude of uses. The 
most useful and practical 
is to slow down a BASIC 
listing." 



the CPU will continue just as before. 
While halted, the CPU will not respond 
to external real-time requests such as 
the Interrupt Request or the Fast Inter- 
rupt Request. The Non-Maskable Inter- 



rupt and the Reset will be latched for 
later request. Stopping the CPU will 
usually npt cause any problems, but 
under certain conditions, problems can 
occur. This is when the CPU is involved 
in critical timing. Examples are cassette 
or disk I/O; timekeeping or serial I/O 
like printer; or modem I/O. If the CPU 
is H ALTed during these and other tim- 
ing conditions, loss of data or complete 
scrambling of data is eminent. Timing 
lpops can be thrown off, so stay away 
from the halt ljne when doing I/O or 
timing. 

What could one use the HAJ^T line 
for if one had control of it? Well, there 
are a multitude of uses. The most useful 
and practical is to slow down a BASIC 
listing. You know, when you do a LIST 
and a long flash of text just streams by? 
Well, you could slow that down to a 
reasonable speed using the halt line. 
Another use is to study, step by step, 
how the CPU draws graphics. You 
study the different techniques program- 
mers use to draw arid move objects on 
the Hi-Res graphics screen. A third use 
is to study how basic commands func- 
tion such as PRINT and SET and 
RESET. 

Now that you know all about the 
HALT line and what useful things you 
can do with it, let me show you how to 
put together a small circuit that will let 



174 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



you control the HALT line. First you 
will need parts, which are listed in Table 
I. You will also need the standard "tool 
kit" fpr assembling. It is not a very diffi- 
cult circuit to put together, just the 
usual parts. Follow the diagram in Fig- 
ure 1, and put the circuit together. Use 
the socket for the IC. When you are 
finished plug the board into the ROM 
Pak of the CoCo or any one of the slots 
of the Multi-Pak Interface. It will also 
work with the CoCo 2. You might want 
to put the switches and the pot on 
another small board with remote wires 
so that it would be more accessible when 
using it. Also if the rapid fire mode is 
too fast or slow, try changing the value 
of C2. The lower the value, the faster it 
will go and vice versa. Try a .00 1 to a .0 1 



capacitor. 

With switches 1 and 2 off, turn on the 
computer. Everything should work 
normally. Now turn switch 1 on. The 
cursor should stop. Press the push- 
button several times. The cursor will 
flash occasionally. Turn on switch 2. 
When you push the button, the cursor 
should start to flash slowly. Turn the 
potentiometer from one end to the 
other. The cursor should speed up and 
slow down. That is your speed control 
when switch 2 is on. When switch 2 is 
off, the push button acts like a single 
stepper. When it is op, it is rapid fire. 
When switch I is off, the whole thing is 
disabled. The ta^k is complete. I'm sure 
that you will find many uses for the 
HALT line. 



Figure 1 



Table 1 





T» A T% TO T WOT 

rAK IS LIST 


in 
ID 


LIlLaCKjF 1 IUN 


K i ,Z,3 


IK (JHMS /2 WA I 1 


V I 


jUUK OHMS POTENTIO- 




Mb 1 LK 


C 1 

C I 


1 f A DIT IA I /f~\ t TC 


Cz 


AAC H/C 1A A //"\ I TO 

.UUj Mr 10 VOLTS 


CX A 


.1 Mr 1U VOL 1 S 




*7A 1 Clio 

/4LSIZ3 


Tl 
1 1 




S1,S2 


SPST SWITCH 


S3' 


MOMENTARY PUSH ON 




SWITCH 


PCB 


PROTO-BOARD (RGS 




MICRO) 




16 PIN SOpKET 



W — r- 



Xr.- 



~t ¥ T ¥ ¥~ 



R-l > 



S-l 



g. 1 



m H „. 

C-3 



0 1 



1 1 



THE ROMPACK COPIER 

• Copy and run rompacks from cassette or disk. 

• Works even on so called "problem packs'* 

64K required. cassette $16.95 



TRIVIAL CHASE 

This is the one! The game that has become a cult phenomena 
finally comes to the Co Co. The board you play on is represented 
by graphics. 2000 trivia questions included. Not an imitation! 
ECB req. 16,32,64K all included. cassette $24.95 



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(213) 483-8388 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 175 



Saguaro 
Software 

Kidstuf 

Picture, Letter, or Number Association. 
Play an old-time tune with correct 
answer (7 songs), buzzes when wrong 
& waits for correct choice. 8 screens. 



Tape 
Disk- 



$19.95 
$24.95 



Amdek Color I Plus 
Color Monitor 



$299 



Video Driver - $20 W/Purchase 




Amdisk 3 
Amdek Dual 3 Disk Drive 

New Low Price 



$450 



Includes 2 Diskettes 
And 2 Drive Cables 

(One Amdek, One 5Va") 
First Box Of Diskettes - $45.00 (Reg. $55) 
R.S. Controller - $135 With Amdisk 3 



GAMES 

PRICKLY-PEAR 

* Travelin' Toad 32K 18.75 
♦Ockywoky 32K 18.75 

* Light Runner 18.75 

* Jumbo Jet 18.75 

* Color Disk Trivia 22.75 

* 'Question Disk 14.75 
» With Color Trivia 7.50 
Adventure in Wonderland 32K 18.75 
Decipher 18.75 
ERLAND 32K 18.75 
Flight 14.75 
Football 14.75 
Gangbusters 14.75 
Great Word Game 14.75 
Monsters & Magic 32K 14.75 
Naked Gamer 16.75 
Teeeofff 18.75 
Viking! 14.75 

TOM MIX 

'World of Flight 32K 23.75 

"Chambers 32K 19.75 

"Warehouse Mutants 19.75 

"Draconian 32K 21.75 

"Quix 32K 19.75 

"Elec * Tron 19.75 

Junior's Revenge 32K 22.75 

Space Shuttle 32K 22.75 

SR-71 32K 22.75 

PFA 

•Guillotine 7.75 

♦Flasher 14.75 

Dunk-a-Duck Tape 14.75 

I n spector C I uesea u 14.75 

Patti Pak 16.75 

Stagecoach 14.75 
TYCOON Tape-32K 14.75 

SUGAR 

Flying Tigers 16K 19.75 

Syntax Stories 8.75 

Silly Syntax 16.75 

3" Diskettes 10 for $55 

Paper - 3,000 Sheets 32.75 

Blank C-15 Tapes -75 

100% Tested Disk SSDD 5 1/2" Box of 10 $20 

10 Year Guarantee 

RS. Disk Manual $17 

* Denotes New Programs 



EDUCATION 
PRICKLY PEAR 

Music Reader 26.75 

Phonics 1 or 2 (tape only) 18.75 

Prereader 1.2 & 3 18.75 

Spelling 37.75 

PFA 

"Alphabet 8.75 

Chalkboard Math 15.75 
Ed. Pack 123's, ABC's. Big-Bigger 

Biggest, Shapes 18.75 

Heart-Lung-Circulatory 26.75 

Med ica I Termi nology 1 4. 75 

SUGAR 

Bible Stories 21.75 

Great U.SA 15.75 

Prereader 15.75 

Presidents of the U.S. 16K 19.75 

APPLICATIONS 
PRICKLY PEAR 

Family Income Organizer (disk) 22.75 

"Colorcal 18.75 

Satellite Tracker 59.75 

Super Astrology 32K 1 8.75 

PFA 

"Family 11.75 

"Little Leaguer 32K 18.75 

Stock Manager 31.75 

Super Bowling Secretary 32K 19.75 

Hurricane Tracker 1 1 .75 

Stress Evaluator 18.75 

SUGAR 

Co-Co Calligrapher 32K 19.75 

UTILITY 

Filmastr 23.75 

PRICKLY PEAR 

Clone Master 
Color Kit 

Tape Omni Clone (tape) 
Super Scroll 
Rom Free 
Modern Master 

PFA 

"Text Master Graphics 
Super Disk Utility (disk) 
"Master Graphics Tool Kit 

SAGUARO 

Move- it! 



Tape-32K 29.75 
26.75 
22.75 
64K 18.75 
64K 18.75 
16K 18.75 



32K 11.95 
35.75 
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SUGAR 

Auto Run 15.75 
Semigraf 32K 15.75 



Tim's 

Tim's Mail 



15.95 



20.75 
15.75 



Add $3.00 For Disk, $6.00 For Amdisk 



NEW FROM 
SAGUARO SOFTWARE 

Treasure Hunt 

A graphics text adventure. You walk with our 
graphics character through desert, moun- 
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gold. Super graphics with a person who 
walks with you at each turn. 64K. Tape- 
$24.95, Disk-$29.95. 



Co-Co Receivables 

Keep track of all those accounts with current 
list of accounts, statement printing, last ac- 
tivity date, and current month's transactions, 
debits & credits. Disk storage of data. 32K 
disk. $29.95. 



Ultimate Bingo 
& Jackpot 

Do you want the ultimate in bingo? Use your 
LP7 or 8 to print the number of cards you de- 
sire. You can choose from 3 speeds & even 
pause the game to check the winner 

Jackpot 

Pull the one arm bandit's arm & see if you 
can beat the odds. Both only: tape- $19.95, 
Disk-$24.95, Amdek-$29.95. 



NNFUSICOO 
CONFUSION 

3 modes of play. 3-4/5-6/7 letter words. You 
select time to govern how long (30 or 60 se- 
conds) to unscramble the words First person 
with ten correct wins. 1-4 can play. Tape- 
Si 9.95, Disk-324.95, Amdek-$29.95. 



Co-Co Keno 

Bring Las Vegas' Keno game home with Co- 
Co Keno. Bet $1, $3 or $5 & mark off 1 to 15 
spots...can you beat the odds & win 
$50,000? 16K high resolution screen. Keno 
chart print included. Tape-$24.95, Disk- 
$29.95, Amdek-$34.95. 



Loveiess Manor 

Trapped in a bedroom by your evil aunt, 
you've admired Queen Cinderella's castle in 
the distance.. .and you've just discovered 
she's a distant cousin. Can you escape to her 
protection? 32K. Great Word Adventure. 
Tape-$19.95, Disk-$24.95, Amdek-$29.95. 



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earning the 50 states and their capitals was 
always a challenging part of geography 
(class. Memorizing the names of all those 
cities was not any easy task. Here is a program 
that can be used to help you put those cities with 
the right state. MAP, which requires 32K ECB, is 
a game as well as a learning tool. After CLOAD- 
ing and RUNing, you are given instructions and 
then presented with a blue map of the United 
States. 

Each state will be randomly highlighted in red. 
You must type in the name of that state (spelling 
counts!) and push ENTER. For each correct answer 
you score 10 points. If you make a mistake, you 
will be given the correct answer. Next, a tiny white 
Program by Joseph S. Paravati flashing dot will appear wher? the capital of that 

September 1984 THE RAINBOW 177 



COLOR TERM + PLUS + 



If you're looking for the finest terminal software you can buy, look no further! And now we've added a high-res screen display that 
gives you 32 by 16, 42, 51 , or 64 by 24 lines. * And you can switch between the high-res screen and the normal screen without destroying 
what you have in the buffer! + PLUS + we have a buffer editor, complete up and down load support, on-line cassette or disk reads and 
writes, off-line and on-line scrolling, pre-entry of data before calling, word wrap, buffer printing, selective printing, change any 
parameter so you can communicate with any other computer. You can send and receive Basic programs, ASCII file, as well as machine 
code, +PLUS+ you can save your buffer to tape (Tape or Rom version) or disk (Disk version). You can communicate with the local 
BBS, Compuserve™, The Source™, the main frame at work or school, other color computers, Apples, IBM PC'S, TRS-80 Model I, II, 
III, IV, 12, 16, 100, or any other computer via RS-232. 
Compare these features with any other terminal program: 
32x16, 42, 51, 6x24 Screen 
Communications BAUD Rate: 110-19200 
Printer Baud Rate: 600-9600 
Select Half or Full Duplex. 
Select Odd, Even, or no Parity. 
Select 7 or 8 Bit Words. 
Send Control Characters. 
Send a True Line Break. 
Separate Keys for Escape and Rubout. 
Sekcc All Caps If Needed. 
Word Wrap - Eliminate Split Words. 

(32 Character Mode) 
Selectable Reverse or Normal Video. 
(32 Character Mode) 

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BBS 817-387-8381 




Scroll Protect Up to 9 Lines. 

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Has Programmable Prompt for "Send Next Line!!" 
Buffer Size Indicator. 
Complete Up and Down Load Support. 
Improved Buffer Editor. 
On/Off Line Scrolling of Buffer. 
On/Off Cassette or Disk Reads and Writes. 
Pre-Enter Data Before Going On-Line. 
Save/Load Machine Code, Basic Programs or Files. 
Select Printer Line Feeds If Needed or Ignore All Line Feeds 

in Buffer. 

$39.95 (ROM PACK) $39.95 (DISK) 



HARDWARE 

SUPER PRO KEYBOARD — Mark Data replacement. . $64.95 
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parts, and a new great looking yellow face plate $29.95 

DOUBLE SWITCH II — Same as the above switch box, but we 
have added three RCA jacks, and a switch which allows you to 
switch between your 80 column board output, and your com- 
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VIDEO SWITCH — Switch between your 80 column board, 
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device ! $19.95 

DOUBLE CABLE — If you don't have a lot of money to spend, 
you can hook a modem and a printer up at the same time using 

this Y-Cable. Works with most printers $14.95 

WORD PAK (80 Column Board) - This is one of the finest 
pieces of hardware to come along since the CoCo. Allows you 
to display a real 80 column screen, not the graphics that are 
sometimes difficult to read. Comes with a software driver that 
will interface basic into the 80 column board ........ . $139.95 

Y-CABLE — Used with the WORD PAK when disk drives are 
being used. Not needed if you own some type of multi-port 

device, the Multi-Pak interface for instance $29.95 

DOUBLE DRIVER — Best video driver available for the Color 
Computer. Made by our friends at Moreton Bay Software. 

Specify regular CoCo or CoCo II $24.95 

DOUBLE SPEAKER — This plug-in device gives you sound 

with a monitor. Plugs right in, nothing to solder $19.95 

HARD DISK DRIVE FOR THE CoCo WITH CONTROLLER: 

5 MEG HARD DISK DRIVE $1299.95 

10 MEG HARD DISK DRIVE $1599.95 

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Mastercard and VISA accepted. Texas residents add 5% sales tax. Allow 
two weeks for personal checks. 
Send 20 cent stamp for free catalog. 

Double Density Software 





920 Baldwin Street 
Denton, Texas 76205 
Phone 817/566-2004 




DOUBLE DOS U 
NEW AND IMPROVED!! Double Dos II is an enhanced version 
of our original DOUBLE DOS program. The original Double 
Dos was so well received that we decided to add even more 
capabilities, and fix some of the limitations in the original pro- 
gram. With Double Dos you can use 35, 40 or 80 track (double 
and single sided) drives all on one system, all at the same time. 
(The use of double sided drives will limit you to three drives.) 
Works with all types of b l A or 3 inch drive systems and All com- 
mands are supported in Double Dos! Double Dos is totally 
transparent to your basic programs! If your system selection is 
80 tracks, a FREE command will return 158 granules! Compare 
this to the 68 granules your system now returns. You get 78 
granules with a 40 track drive, 10 more than the 35 track 
system. EVERY command in basic is supported by Double Dos. 
There is only one limitation, you can only open any number of 
files to one drive at a time, otherwise everything else is the 
same. Plus you get some great new commands!! Look at what 
Double Dos will allow as new disk basic commands: 
BAUD 1-6 ... change the BAUD rate with a command, no 
pokes! 

TRACK 35,36,40,80 ... change the number of tracks. 
DOUBLE ... enable the double sided option. 
PDIR ... print your directory to the printer. 
DUMP ON/OFF ... send a basic program to a friend without us- 
ing a terminal program! 

RATE 6,35 ... change the head stepping rate. 

VIDEO ON/OFF ... will give you a reverse screen without a 

hardware modification. 

SCROLL 1-255 ... change the screen scrolling speed. 
COMMAND ... will list all new commands. 
DUPE 0-2 ... will allow copy & backup from one side of a disk 
to the other side on double sided systems! 
DATE ... you can enter the month, day, and year which will be 
stored in the directory of your disk each time you save a pro- 
gram or file, and you can see it when you use the DIR com- 
mand! Very useful when looking for the most current file or 
program! 

AND, all commands can be used inside basic programs because 
they have been added to disk basics list of commands! You also 
get full reset protection, which means that you will stay in the 
64K mode until you power-down. 
PRICE: $29.95 (DISK ONLY) 64K Required 




REAL EIGHTY-COLUMN DISPLA Y! 



ULTRA TERM + # 

PROFESSIONAL PROFESSIONAL PROFESSIONAL PROFESSIONAL 



This program is the ultimate in coco 
communicating!! Ultra Term + is used 
with a plug-in 80 column board* that 
gives you True 80 columns, not the 
graphics display that is unreadable at 80 
columns. This is truly a Professional 
Package that is so easy to use that once 
you have used it, you'll wonder why 
other packages are so difficult to use, (ex- 
cept for Color Term + Plus + that is!) 
After using a terminal program that can- 
not give you True mainframe terminal 
emulation, you will find Ultra Term + 
indispensable! Ultra Term + even has a 
host mode that allows you to echo 
characters like full duplex mainframes 
do! There are also 10 macro keys which 
will allow you to save passwords, phone 
numbers, modem programming informa- 
tion, etc. + PLUS .+ you can save them to 
disk. Also, like all Professional terminal 
programs you can save your current pa- 
rameters. This saves you set up time when 
moving from one system to another. 
+ Plus+ when used with the parallel 
printer port* * you can print what is com- 
ing in. And what about documentation? 
Every feature is explained in detail and 
indexed for fast look up! There is also a 
comprehensive help section to aid those 
unfamiliar with telecommunications. 
Although this program was designed for 
the Professional a total novice can use it 
with ease. Check all the features listed 
below and then you decide who has the 
world's smartest terminal! 
Baud Rates: 1 10-4800 (communicate) 

600-9600 (printer). 
Screen Format: 80 x 25 w true upper & 

lower case. 
Select half, full duplex or echo. 
Select odd, even, mark, space or no parity. 



Send all 128 characters from keyboard. 

Select 7 or 8 bit words. 

Select 1 or 2 stop bits. 

Send a true line break. 

Select all caps if needed. 

Automatic capture of incoming files. 

X on/X off capabilities. 

Merge text or programs in buffer. 

53,000 character buffer (64K). 

Send and receive BASIC, FILES and 

machine code. 

10 macro keys. 

Four buffer send modes (dump, 

prompted, manual & time delay). 
Buffer size indicators (bytes used & 

bytes remaining). 
Buffer editor w/auto key repeat. 
Scroll forward & reverse to view buffer 

& print viewed screen option. 
Selectable printer formats (line feeds, 

etc.). 

Selectable trapping of incoming 

characters. 
Print while receiving data*. 
Buffer editor has these features: 
Move forward and reverse through 
buffer. Insert, type over, delete lines 
or characters. 

Block deletion or start to end of buffer 

delete. 
Save and load macros. 
Save and load parameters. 
Use 1-4 disk drive (w/SAVE, LOAD. DIR. 

& granule display). 
Easy to use MENU driven format. 
Comprehensive users manual. 
Works with ALL Radio Shack™ Disk 

Systems and all models of color 

computers. 

Still not convinced? How about a 15 
day, money back guarantee? If you don't 
like the package for any reason, we will 



refund your money upon return of a like 
new package.! Who out there is offering 
you this kind of deal? And customer sup- 
port was never better. Simply fill out your 
registration card and send it back to us 
and you will be notified when new 
features, improvements, etc. become 
available because all registered owners 
will receive Free upgrades for a $5:00 
shipping and handling fee). 
•As with all good Professional programs, 
Ultra Term + is all machine code. This 
program has been tested by those both 
familiar and unfamiliar with communica- 
tions programs. And when you call for 
some technical support, you won't get an 
answering machine during our business 
hours (10-5 CST M-Sat.) under normal cir- 
cumstances. Technical help is usually 
availahle all day. 

PRICE: Ultra Term + - $55.95 (Disk) 

Word-Pak (80-column board; in- 
cludes a software driver so you 
can use your basic programs 
with no modification in most 
cases!). . . .$139.95 + $3.00 S&H 

Y-Cable $29.95 (Required if 
expansion port not used with 
disk drives) 
Complete Package Ultra Term + , 
Word-Pak & Y Cable [subtract $20.00 if 
not needed] is only $210.00 

'Ultra Term + supports the 80 column 
board made by PB.I, Inc. If you already 
have the board, simply order the pro- 
gram, but those of you who don't can get 
a good deal. 

••Parallel Printer Port from PRJ, Inc. 
tLess $10.00 restocking charge. 



DOUBLE SPOOLER 

Tired of waiting for your listings? print- 
outs? etc.? This is THE Spooling Program!! 
No need to save your programs in ASCII. 
You can also spool your files and you can 
spool ANYTHING you print on the screen 
while a program is running! Requires a 
minimum of 32K AND the 64K computer 
can spool really LARGE files!! Plus more!! 
PRICE: $19.95 (Tape) $21.95 (Disk) 

DOUBLE MAILER 

At last a powerful, easy to use, mailing 
list program for a reasonable price. Up to 
200 names can be held in memory for you 
to change, modify, search or print as you 
like. Plus, you can print out up to 1800 
names without touching the keyboard. 
Save thousands of names on each disk. 
The machine language sort routine will 
sort 200 names in as little as 6 seconds! 
Supports single or double wide labels, 
Three and four line labels can be inter 
mixed without leaving gaps in your 
listings! All menu driven, and easy to use. 
Printer support gives 600-9600 BAUD 
selection, and different print sizes if you 
wish. 16K Extended 



# Double 80 Plus %k 

Announcing a BREAK-THROUGH! Now you can own an 80 column board for $99.95. 
And you can choose the software you want to buy instead of being charged for 
something you don't want. Y-Cable available for use with disk drives. Look at these 
features and compare: 
TRUE 80 COLUMN OUTPUT 

BUILT IN SWITCH FOR COCO OR DOUBLE 80 PLUS 

ADJUSTABLE VIDEO OUTPUT 

GOLD PLATED EDGE CONNECTOR 

DRIVERS AVAILABLE FOR BASIC, OS9 and FLEX 

DISPLAY ALL ASCII CHARACTERS 

ALTERNATE CHARACTER SETS AVAILABLE 

METAL CASE (not cheap plastic) 

ULTRA TERM + available for this board 

BACKED BY A 90 DAY PARTS AND LABOR WARRANTY 

PRICES: DOUBLE 80 PLUS (80 column board) $99.95 

Y-CABLE 29.95 

BASIC DRIVER 12.95 

OS9 DRIVER 12.95 

FLEX DRIVER (available soon) 12.95 

ULTRA TERM + (disk only) 55.95 



state is located. Again, type in the correct name 
and your score will be given. So, get out your 
Atlas or your old geography book and study those 
states. IcouldVesworn that Miami was the capital 
of Florida. 

— Noreen Morrison 



(Joseph Paravati, now retired, was an electronics 
troubleshooter for the New York City Bus Company. 
He is a self-taught computer hobbyist who started 
programming in December 1981 in order to occupy his 
spare time and give his three children a head start with 
computers.) 





217 


1580 


1 


170. ... 


16 


1920 .. 


.. 229 


280 


97 


2170 .. 


194 


63d . . 


242 


5160 .. 


121 


960, . . . 


85 


5360 .. 


.. 204 


1280 .. 


.. 226 


END .. 


.. 182 



I 



The listing: 

10 * ***GEOGRAPHY LESSON**» 3/83 

BY J. S. PARAVATI 
20 R=RND ( -TIMER) : NU=0 
30 CLS0 : PR I NTS234 , " GEOGRAPHY GAM 
E";: PRINT @480, "BY J. S. PARAVATI 
3/83"; 

40 DIM X<50) ,Y(50) ,S*<50> ,P*<50> 

50 FOR N=l TO 50 

60 READ X(N) ,Y<N) :NEXT N 

70 DATA 16,63,16,39,20,27,38,39, 

28, 60, 48, 57, 44, 87, 68, 81 , 76, 60, 72 

,51,60,24,96,27,96,40, 124,51, 124 

,66, 116,81, 124, 100, 140,36, 140,48 

, 148,66, 148,84, 156, 108, 160,36, 16 

4,57, 188,69 

80 DATA 212,69,208,81,172,81,168 
, 99, 184, 99, 200, 93, 192, 108, 216, 90 
, 184, 54, 196, 54, 206, 62, 216, 60, 222 
, 62, 224, 54, 216, 51 , 188, 33, 224, 33, 
232, 45, 242, 42, 236, 38, 232, 30, 238, 
30,240, 18,44, 156,88, 144 
90 FOR N=l TO 50: READ S*(N),P*(N 

>:next N 

100 DATA CALIFORNIA, SACRAMENTO, O 
REGON, SALEM, WASHINGTON, OLYMPIA, I 
DAHO , BO I SE , NEVADA , CARSON C I TY , UT 
AH, SALT LAKE CITY, ARI ZONA, PHOENI 
X,NEW MEXICO, SANTA FE, COLORADO, D 
ENVER, WYOMING, CHEYENNE 
110 DATA MONTANA, HELENA, NORTH DA 
KOTA , B I SMARCK , SOUTH DAKOTA , P I ERR 
E, NEBRASKA, LINCOLN, KANSAS, TOPEKA 



, OKLAHOMA, OKLAHOMA CITY, TEXAS, AU 
STIN, MINNESOTA, SAINT PAUL, IOWA, D 
ES MOINES, MISSOURI, JEFFERSON CIT 
Y, ARKANSAS, LITTLE ROCK, LOUISIANA 
, BATON ROUGE 

120 DATA WISCONSIN, MADISON, ILLIN 
O I S , SPR I NGF I ELD , KENTUCKY , FRANKFO 
RT, VIRGINIA, RICHMOND, NORTH CAROL 
I NA , RALE I GH , TENNESSEE , NASH V I LLE , 
MISSISSIPPI , JACKSON, ALABAMA, MONT 
GOMER Y , GEORG I A , ATLANTA , FLOR I DA , T 
ALLAHASSEE , SOUTH CAROL I NA , COLUMB 
IA 

130 DATA INDIANA, INDIANAPOLIS, OH 
I O , COLUMBUS , WEST V I RG I NI A , CHARLE 
STON, MARYLAND, ANNAPOLIS, DELAWARE 
, DOVER , NEW JERSEY , TRENTON , PENNSY 
L VAN I A , HARR I SBURG , M I CH I GAN , LANS I 
NG , NEW YORK , ALBANY , CONNECT I CUT , H 
ARTFORD 

140 DATA RHODE ISLAND, PROVIDENCE 
, MASSACHUSETTS, BOSTON, VERMONT, MO 
NTPEL I ER , NEW HAMPSH I RE , CONCORD , M 
AINE, AUGUSTA, ALASKA, JUNEAU, HAWAI 
I , HONOLULU 
150 GOSUB 5000 

160 CLS: PRINT @4, "***STATES AND 
CAP I TALS*** " : PR I NT STR I NG* ( 32 , " * 

") 

170 PRINT "TYPE IN AND < ENTER > C 
ORRECT STATE WHICH IS SHOWN 

ON MAP. 10 POINTS FOR CORRECT 

ANSWER -10FOR WRONG ANSWER. THE 
N TYPE AND < ENTER > CORRECT CAP IT 
AL FOR SAMESTATE. CAPITAL FLASHE 
S ON AND OFF WHEN IT IS TIME T 
O TYPE IN CAPITAL." 
1B0 PRINT "20 POINTS FOR CORRECT 

ANSWER, -20 FOR WRONG ONE. " 
190 PRINT 3482, "< PRESS ANY KEY T 
O CONTINUED'; 

200 K*=INKEY*:IF K*="" THEN 200 
210 S=l 

220 CLS: PR I NT "MAP SHOULD BE BLU 
E. IF NOT THEN USE < RESET BUTTON 
> AND RE-RUN. DO THIS AS MANY T 
IMES AS NEEDED UNTIL MAP IS BLUE 

230 PR I NT: PR I NT "DURING GAME YOU 
MAY PRESS <DOWN ARROW > KEY TO G 
ET A BLACK ON GREEN COLOR SET 
. ": PRINT: PRINT "IF YOU TYPE IN W 
RONG ANSWER OR SPELLING IS WRON 
G THE COMPUTER WILL GIVE RIGHT 
ANSWER. " 

240 PRINT 6485, "< PRESS ANY KEY T 
O START >"; 

250 K*=INKEY*:IF K*="" THEN 250 
260 PM0DE4 , 1 : PCLS0 : SCREEN 1 , S 



180 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



270 


PM0DE3 




550 


LINE- (212, 108) , PSET 


280 


COLOR 8 




560 


LINE- (230, 76) , PSET 


290 


* UNITED STATES MAP 




570 


LINE- (224, 74) , PSET 


300 


CIRCLE (90, 15) , 72, , . 08, 0, . 


5 


580 


LINE- (228, 48) , PSET 


310 


CIRCLE < 18, 52) , 12, ,3, .25, . 


75 


590 


LINE- (244, 44) , PSET 


320 


LINE < 18, 88)- (30,88) ,PSET 




600 


LINE- (240, 30) , PSET 


330 


LINE- (48, 98) ,PSET 




610 


LINE- (252, 15) , PSET 


340 


LINE- (64, 98) ,PSET 




620 


LINE- (248, 12) , PSET 


350 


LINE- (64, 94) ,PSET 




630 


LINE- (244, 3) , PSET 


360 


LINE- (76, 94) ,PSET 




640 


LINE- (242, 3) , PSET 


370 


LINE- (84, 99) ,PSET 




650 


LINE- (232, 18) , PSET 


380 


LINE- (84, 108) ,PSET 




660 


LINE- (216, 20) , PSET 


390 


LINE-^ (96, 1 17) , PSET 




670 


LINE- (206, 43) ,PSET 


400 


LINE- (98, 117) ,PSET 




680 


LINE- (196, 45) , PSET 


410 


LINE- (104, 108) ,PSET 




690 


LINE- (195, 45) , PSET 


420 


LINE- (112, 108) , PSET 




700 


LINE- (196, 24) , PSET 


430 


LINE- (132, 132) , PSET 




710 


LINE- (192, 12) , PSET 


440 


LINE- ( 140, 134) , PSET 




720 


LINE- (184, 14) , PSET 


450 


LINE- ( 138, 123) , PSET 




730 


LINE- (180, 21 ), PSET 


460 


LINE- (144, 114) , PSET 




740 


LINE- (184, 45) , PSET 


470 


LINE- ( 156, 1 14) , PSET 




750 


LINE(172,45)-(168,24) , PSET 


480 


LINE-( 160, 111) , PSET 




760 


LINE- (164, 15) , PSET 


490 


LINE- (172, 109) ,PSET 




770 


LINE (172, 45) -(184, 45) , PSET 


500 


LINE- (188, 111) ,PSET 




780 


PAINT (128, 96) ,6,8 


510 


LINE- (200, 120) ,PSET 




790 


* WW*****-**-*-*-*****-***-* 


520 


LINE- (208, 141) , PSET 




800 


■ STATES 


530 


LINE- (212, 143) , PSET 




810 


LINE (30, 88) -(34, 84) , PSET 


540 


LINE- (216, 138) , PSET 




820 


LINE- (20, 60) , PSET 



One Stop Shopping For The Color Computer 



Reitz Super Disk Charger 

Now you can run R.S. DOS at up to 6 times the speed of normal DOS. 
Diskcharger will work with single or double sided disk drives at step rates up to 
6 ms. and in both DOS 1.0 and 1.1 with no equipment modification. Step up to 
first class color computer operation today with the Reitz Super Disk Charger, 
64K COLOR COMPUTER $21 95 



New From Reitz 

Reitz Serial to Parallel Interface '59.95 

Three WAy RS-232 Switcher with power light *34.95 

Serial to Parallel Interface/Switcher with indicator lights '79.95 

New From Sugar Software 

COCO CALLIGRAPHER... Prints Old English, Gay Nineties, and 
Cartoon fonts on your EPSON, GEMINI, OKIDA TA, 
LPVII, OR D MP- 100 PRINTER. 

32KECB...TAPE...$24.95 DISK...$29.95 




FLIPIT! 

Punch 
your 
Disks 

for 
double 

the 
storage 

$ 9b 95 



1 — (419) — 537-9533 



1-(419)-537-8937 (Computer Order Line) 



REITl 

COMPUTER CENTER 



3170 W. Central 
Westgate Meadows Shopping Center 
Toledo, Ohio 43606 
1-419-537-1432 

Please include phone niimber with all orders. Include $5.00 for ail hardware orders and $2.00 for 
ail software orders. Ohio residents please add 6% state sales tax. 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 181 



830 LINE-<20,48) ,PSET 

840 LINE- <8, 48) , PSET 

850 LINE <58, 98) -(58,74) ,PSET 

860 LINE- (38, 74), PSET 

870 LINE- <38, 78) , PSET 

880 LINE- <35, 78), PSET 

890 LINE- (33, 80) , PSET 

900 LINE (38, 74) -(38, 48) , PSET 

910 LINE- (20, 48) , PSET 

920 LINE (58, 74) -(58, 54) , PSET 

930 LINE- (52, 54) , PSET 

940 LINE- (52, 48) , PSET 

950 LINE- (38, 48) , PSET 

960 LINE (52, 54) -(78, 37) , PSET, B 

970 LINE- (78, 20) , PSET 

980 LINE (10, 32) -(32, 32) , PSET 

990 LINE- (32, 48) , PSET 

1000 LINE (32, 18) -(32,48) , PSET 

1010 LINE (40, 18) -(52,39) , PSET 

1020 LINE (58, 54) -(92, 75) , PSET, B 

1030 LINE (86, 75) -(86, 92) , PSET 

1040 LINE- (74, 92) , PSET 

1050 LINE- (76, 93) , PSET 

1060 LINE (88, 75) -(140, 75) , PSET 

1070 LINE- (140, 88) , PSET 

1080 LINE- ( 105, 86) , PSET 

1090 LINE- (105, 80) , PSET 

1100 LINE- (88, 80) , PSET 




SGS ) SEMIGRAPHICS SYSTEM FOR 
EXTENDED COLOR BASIC USERS 



POWERFUL, VET EASY TO USE UTILITY TO PERFORM GRAPHIC 
FUNCTIONS IN THOSE SOIICRAPHIC HODES UHICH ARE NOT 
SUPPORTED BY EXTENDED COLOR BASIC. USE EIGHT COLORS 
ON BLACK BACKGROUND. UP TO A MAXIMUM RESOLUTION OF 
64 x 192 POINTS . COIBINE TEXT AND CRAPHICS. 



GRAPHICS UTILITY FUNCTIONS 
SET /TEST POINT DRAW LINE DRAW /FILL RECTANGLE 
DgftU CIRCLE PAINT AREA TRANSFORM COORDINATES 

PAGE ALLOCATION IN ggj COPY PAGES/SELECTED AREAS 
SELECT WOOES/COLORS PACE PANNINC/SCROLLIHC 
SAVE /LOAD PI ACE ON TAPE /DISK DISPLAY /CLEAR PACE 

OTHER FEATURES: USER CREATED SOUNDS, ERROR CODES, 
COMPREHENSIVE USERS HAM UAL, AND DEMO PROCRfll. 



SGS is a 5.5K, position-independent Machine Language 
systen that can bo accessed fron Extended Color Basic 
while using the standard graphics connands. 

CASSETTE $29.95 Diskette $34.95 

Send Check or Money Order to: 

MICRO COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
1404 SUNSET DRIVE 
FRIENDSWOOO, TX 77546 



1110 

1120 

1130 

1140 

1150 

1160 

1170 

1180 

1190 

1200 

1210 

1220 

1230 

1240 

1250 

1260 

6,51) 

1270 

1280 

1290 

1300 

1310 

1320 

1330 

1340 

1350 

1360 

1370 

1380 

1390 

1400 

1410 

1420 

1430 

T 

1440 
1450 
1460 
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1490 
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1670 



LINE(140,88)-( 
LINE- (146, 96) 
LINE- (150, 102 
LINE-(148, 114 
LINE (92, 58) -( 
LINE(78,20)-( 
LINE(78,45)-( 
LINE (150, 42) - 
LINE- (126, 45) 
LINE-(132,51) 
LINE- (138, 57) 
LINE (150, 30) - 
LINE- (148, 36) 
LINE- (152, 42) 
LINE-(152,45) 
LINE- (156, 48) 
,PSET 

LINE- (152, 54) 
LINE- (136, 54) 
LINE (140, 76) - 
LINE- (156, 93) 
LINE- (148, 93) 
LINE (160, 86)- 
LINE-(176, 108 
LINE (156, 93)- 
LINE- (160, 105 
LINE- (168, 105 
LINE- (168, 110 
LINE (176, 86)- 
LINE-(196, 102 
LINE- (196, 106 
LINE- (180, 106 
LINE- (180, 110 
LINE (196, 106) 



LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 



(192,86)- 
-(216, 102 
(208,86)- 
-(224,87) 
(160,76)- 
(192,86)- 
(152,54)- 
-(180,63) 
-(184,66) 
-(190,66) 
-(198,68) 
-(192,75) 
(190,65)- 
-(176,45) 
-(176,51) 
-(171,67) 
(152,45)- 
(192,45)- 
-(204,57) 
-(198,68) 
-(208,66) 
-(216,63) 
-(224,69) 
(204,57)- 



146,90) , PSET 

PSET 

,PSET 

,PSET 

38, 75), PSET, B 

14,33) , PSET, B 

14,33) ,PSET,B 

115,42) , PSET 

PSET 

PSET 

PSET 

152, 17) , PSET 

PSET 

PSET 

PSET 

PSET: LINE- (15 

PSET 
PSET 

160,76) , PSET 

PSET 

PSET 

176,86) , PSET 
,PSET 

160,96) , PSET 
,PSET 
,PSET 
,PSET 

192,86) , PSET 

,PSET 

,PSET 

,PSET 

,PSET 

(212, 106) ,PSE 



208,86) 

,PSET 

216,84) 

PSET 

228,76) 

196,77) 

160,75) 

PSET 

PSET 

PSET 

PSET 

PSET 

190,45) 

PSET 

PSET 

PSET 

176,45) 

204,45) 

PSET 

PSET 

PSET 

PSET 

PSET 

216,63) 



,PSET 

,PSET 

,PSET 
,PSET 
,PSET 



,PSET 



,PSET 
,PSET 



,PSET 



182 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



1680 LINE (204, 45) -(220, 45) ,PSET 

1690 LINE-<222,51) ,PSET 

1700 L I NE-< 220,54), PSET 

1710 LINE-<222,57),PSET 

1720 LINE-<204,57),PSET 

1730 LINE <220, 57) - (220, 66), PSET 

1740 LINE (226, 60) -(220, 57) , PSET 

1750 LINE (222, 45) -(228, 51 ), PSET 

1760 LINE- (228, 20), PSET 

1770 LINE (228, 42) -(238, 40) , PSET 

1780 LINE- (240, 45), PSET 

1790 LINE (238, 40) -(242, 38) , PSET 

1800 LINE (228, 36) -(240, 34) ,PSET 

1810 LINE (232, 18) -(234, 34) , PSET 

1820 LINE (236, 15) -(240, 30), PSET 

1830 LINE (2, 130) -(124, 176) , PSET, 

B 

1840 PAINT (92, 156), 6, 8 

1850 LINE (48, 134) -(52, 165) , PSET 

1860 LINE- (44, 162), PSET 

1870 LINE- (36, 168) , PSET 

1880 LINE- (12, 174), PSET 

1890 LINE- (28, 165), PSET 

1900 LINE- (20, 162), PSET 

1910 LINE- (16, 153) , PSET 

1920 LINE- (20, 144) , PSET 

1930 LINE- (16, 138), PSET 

1940 LINE- (24, 132) , PSET 

1950 LINE- (48, 134) , PSET 

1960 LINE (64, 130)-(64, 176) , PSET 

1970 CIRCLE (72, 138) ,5, , .5 

1980 CIRCLE (88, 144) ,4, , .8 

1990 CIRCLE (100, 150) ,4, , .4 

2000 CIRCLE (104, 156) ,4, , .5 

2010 CIRCLE (108, 168) ,6, , 1.3 

2020 LINE (128, 150) -(250, 170) ,PSE 

T,BF 

2030 A*= " SCORE " : DRAW " S8C6BM 1 30 , 1 
68":G0SUB 5080 

2040 NU=NU+l:IF NU*=1 THEN R=RND ( 

50) ELSE NU=0 

2050 C*= " " : DRAW " BM50 , 1 90 " 

2060 PAINT(X(R),Y(R)),7,8 

2070 IF R=50 THEN PAINT ( 108, 168) 

,7,8 

2080 IF NU=1 THEN 2110 

2090 CIRCLE(X(R),Y(R)),1,8,.9 

2100 CIRCLE(X(R),Y(R)),1,7,.9 

2110 Z*=INKEY*:IF Z*="" THEN 206 

0 

2 1 20 A*=Z * : DRAW " S8C7BM+0 , 0 " : GOSU 

B 5080: IF A*=>" " AND A*=< M Z M TH 

EN C*=C*+A*: SOUND 5»R,2 

2130 IF Z*=CHR*(13) THEN A*=C*:G 

OSUB 2230: GOTO 2040 

2150 IF Z*=CHR*(10) THEN 2160 EL 

SE 2060 

2160 S=NOT S AND 1 OR 0 

2170 PMODE4, l: SCREEN 1,S:PM0DE3 



w 

Owls nest 

w SOFTWARE 

' WE GIVE A HOOT ' 

NEW TALKING ADVENTURE! 

Can you imagine playing an adventure that talks? Well, our 
popular ADVENTURE STARTER comes in a talking ver- 
sion that is designed to operate with the Colorware Real 
Talker® - AND - at no increase in price! With Adventure 
Starter you can learn to play those adventures the painless 
way. Adventure Starter consists of two separate and com- 
lete adventures. The first called "MY HOUSE" is a simple 
adventure with help available if you need it. The second 
adventure called "PI RATES" is a hard adventure but some 
help is available. When you finish your adventure duo 
you will be ready for the real toughies. We a/so include 
hints and tips on adventuring in general. 
Adventure Starter requires 16K EXT and comes on cassette. 
Please specify version on your order. 
TALKING ADVENTURE STARTER OR STANDARD 
ADVENTURE STARTER - $ 17.95 POSTPAID. 

FILE CABINET - Data Management System 
With FILE CABINET you can create and maintain re- 
»\Cbo» cords on anything you choose. Recipes, coupons, house- 
* hold inventory, financial records - you name it. You create 
records containing up to five fields you define. You can 
search, sort, modify, delete, save on tape and display on 
the screen or send to the printer. The program is user 
friendly and user proof. Error trapping and prompting 
are extensive. A comparable program would cost you much 
more. Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $19.95 

LABELIII (Reviewed in Nov. 83 Rainbow) 
^ With LABELIII you can develop and maintain a mailing 
Jamo* ,lst ' Djs P ,a y on screen or printer. Print lists or labels in 
....«.•,. your choice of 1, 2, or 3 wide. Supports 3 or 4 line ad- 
dresses with phone optional. Fast machine language sort 
on last name, first name, or zip code. 
Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $19.95 

ESPIONAGE ISLAND (Reviewed in June 84 Rainbow) 
Your have been dropped off on a deserted island by a sub- 
fuinbow marine. You must recover a top secret microfilm and signal 
" the sub to pick you up. Problems abound in this 32K text 
adventure. 

32K EXT POSTPAID DISK $20.95 - TAPE $17.95 

$100.00 FREE SOFTWARE 

We are looking for the shortest solution to BASH AN! 
We want to find the shortest solution to BASHAN and 
are offering $100.00 in free software to the person wno 
sends us the solution taking the least number of turns. 
Entries must be postmarked not later than October 30, 
1984. All submissions must contain the number of turns, 
your name, address and phone, and your step by step 
route. We will award duplicate prizes in the event of ties 
so if you fjnd the shortest route you must be a winner. 
All awards and copies of the shortest route will be mailed 
by November 30th, 1984. If you enjoy adventures this is 
your chance to get $100.00 in free software and have 
fun doing it. 



KINGDOM OF BASHAN 

Our most involved adventure to date. Bashan has a large vo- 
h»!nbow cabulary and some unique problems to solve. You must enter 
" " Bashan (not easy) collect the ten treasures of the kingdom 
while staying alive (even harder) and then return to the start- 
ing point with the treasures (even harder). If you can get the 
maximum 200 points in this you are an expert! 
32K EXT POSTPAID DISK $20.95 - TAPE $17.95 
*C.O.D. orders please add $1.50 
*No delay for personal checks 







VISA' 









OWLS NEST SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 579, OOLTEWAH, TN 37363 




September 1984 THE RAINBOW 183 



£. X OU7 CPU IU x£ X X x7 


1 ; BM+0, +2; NL1D2G1L2; BM+6, 0" 


f f TTrTrTrTrirTrirTrTrirTririrTrirwirTrw r w 


5240 DATA "H", 


"U3NU3R4NU3D3; BM+3 


997fl tc Ml Is 1 TUPM T F r«=Q4 f R ) TM 


,0" 






5250 DATA "I", 


"BM+1,0;R1NR1U6NL1 




Rl;BM+4,+6" 






5260 DATA "J", 


"BM+0, -1 ; F1R1E1U5N 


upm Qr-Qr+9fl < Qni iwn 1 30$ 3* Qni iwn 1 

ntPi OL—OLT^iKi ■ OUUPIJL/ Xv>x7p v> * oUUfNU 1 


LlRllBM+3,6" 




90 3 FLSF QC=QC— 5*9 ■ <nOUND 5 5 


5270 DATA "K" , 


" U3NU3R 1 NE3F3 ; BM+3 


7745 TP SP=>1000 THFN 5C=SC— 1000 
■* 1 ir ju ^ xxrXfXf i ntii dU"*uu x x»x/x/ 


,0" 




55S0 A*=QTR A ( QP ) ■ PHI OR 8M TNFM9 


5280 DATA "L", 


,, NU6R4Ul;BM+3,+l" 


7 170) — (550 150) PQFT RF"DRAU"C7 

/ p x / f / \ p x wx/ /pi uu i p or ■ unnn w / 


5290 DATA "M" , 


" U6F2ND 1 E2D6 ; BM+3 , 


RM 1 94 1 AR 11 ■ RHQI IR 50R0 


0n 




55 A0 TP NLh=i THEN TP C4<>S4(R) T 


5300 DATA "N" , 


"U6F1D1F2D1F1NU6;B 


HEN PAINT(i0 188) 5 8:DRAW"SSC7B 

ntli 1 n A 11 I \ A f p X / p w p W ■ A#l MiTt www f u 


M+3,0" 




M50 190 11 ■ A*= c i* (R) ■ RDQUR 5080" FOR 
i iwc p x / f ■ n v — o -p \r\/ ■ uuwuu uvov ■ i un 


5310 DATA "0", 


"BM+l , 0; H1U4E1R2F1 


T= i TO 400-NFXT T 


D461L2|BM+6,0" 




5570 TP NU^ >1 THFN TP C*^>P*(R) 

aiai / X/ x i iiu\ /"a I nun xi w >i ft ▼ m » / 


5320 DATA "P", 


" U6R3F 1 D 1 G 1 L3 ; BM+7 


THPN PAINT (10 188) 5 8"DRAW M 58C7 

i nuii 1 n i ii i % x xj p ioo / p wp Jt/r\nff www/ 


,3" 




RM50 1 90" ■ A*=P* ( R) ■ RQQL IR 50R0" Pfl 
oi iwx/ p x tXf m n v i ■#» \ r\ / • uuuuc jvop • ru 


5330 DATA "Q" , 


"BM+l , 01 H1U4E1R2F1 


R T=1 Tfl 400»NFXT T 

r\ I X 1 w "T XfW m liLA 1 1 


D3G1NH1NF1G1L1 


;BM+6,0" 


5580 PAINT (10 188) 5 8 

■&~jm.\jXf rniii i \ x xp p iuw/ p wp w 


5340 DATA "R", 


" U6R3F 1 D 1 G 1 L2NL 1 F3 


5590 IF NUOi THFN PAINT (X(R) Y( 


;BM+3,0" 




R) ) A 8* IF R=50 THFN PAINT (108 1 

■a/ / p wp w ■ xi r\ wx* i riwi i n ill i \ x x/q p x 


5350 DATA "S", 


"BM+0,-l;FlR2ElUlH 


AR) A fl 

OO / p O p o 


1L2H1U1E1R2F1; 


BM+3, +5" 


5300 RFTURN 


5360 DATA "T", 


" BM+2 , +0 J U6NL2R2 ; B 


5000 ' #**CHRACTFR GEN.<5>*** 


M+3,+6" 




***SUR— ROUT T NF#** 


5370 DATA "U", 


" BM+0 , - 1 ; NU5F 1R2E1 


5010 ' 


U5;BM+3,6" 




5050 'SURRQIJTTNF MAIN PRflSRAM RV 

w vmp wUwiauu i x iiu i in x 1 1 i nuunm ■ o i 


5380 DATA "V", 


"BM+0, -6; D2F1D1F1N 


J S PAR A VAT T DATA FROM TRQ— R0 
w ■ w ■ rnr\nvri i x i i~i i rMJi ■ 1 no oc 


D1E1U1E1U2; BM+3, +6" 


NFUS 4/85 R VAN DYkTF 

iiunu ~ / ox r\ ■ v nil u i i\t 


5390 DATA "W", 


" NU6E2NU 1 F2U6 ; BM+3 


5030 * 


,6" 




5040 DIM X*(38) Y*(38) 

w X/ All #\ l» \ ww / p I V 1 wW / 


5400 DATA "X", 


"U1E4U1;BM-4,0;D1F 


5050 FOR N=l TO 38 


4Dl;BM+3,0" 




50A0 RFAD X*(N) Y*(N) 

wvwv nun*/ /\ v > fi / p i ^» % ii / 


5410 DATA "Y", 


"BM+0, -6; D2F2ND2E2 


5070 WFYT N 

\-rxJ / XJ IlLA 1 Ii 


U2;BM+3,6" 




5080 ' 


5420 DATA "Z", 


" NR4U 1 E4U 1 L4 ; BM+7 , 


5090 DRAW R* 


6" 




5100 FOR J=l TO LEN<A*) 


5430 DATA "1", 


"BM+1,0;R1NR1U6G1; 


5110 FOR L=l TO 38 

w A A Ks I V#r\ A 1 w Ww 


BM+6, +5" 




5120 IF MID* (A*. J- 1 ) =X* (L) THEN 


5440 DATA "2", 


"NR4U1E1R1E2U1H1L2 


DRAW Y* ( L) : B0T05 1 40 

JL/I MITT 1 TT > / • WW I WW X 1 W 


Gl;BM+7,+5" 




5130 NEXT L 


5450 DATA "3", 


"BM+0, -1 ; F1R2E1H2E 


5140 NEXT J 

wA ><v llU A 1 w 


2HlL3?BM+7,6" 




5150 RETURN 

fcJ X W*^ I 1 Wl »1 1 


5460 DATA "4", 


" BM+3 , 0 ; U2NR 1L3U1E 


51A0 DATA 11 11 "RM+7 0 11 
w X OK/ un in p Drl' / p If 


3D3;BM+4,3" 




"5170 DATA "A" 11 1 IAF'?P'?n'?MI AH9!PM4 
»JX/JC JL/n 1 n n p U 4 tC^rxuxPiL J TUx9 DrlT 


5470 DATA "5", 


" BM+0 , - 1 ; F 1 R2E 1 U2H 


3 0" 
w p K/ 


lL3U2R4;BM+3,+6" 


5180 DATA "R" H IJAR3F1D1G1NL 3F1D1 

w a wx/ */n i n X? p uor\ wi a *j a w a nuor a %j a 


5480 DATA "6", 


" BM+4 , -5 ; HI L2G 1 D4F 


G1L3S RM+7. 0 M 

U A fc» w p API 1 * / p X/ 


1R2E1U1H1L3;BM+7 s +3" 


5190 DATA "C" , "BM+1,-0;H1U4E1R2F 


5490 DATA "7", 


" U 1 E4U 1 L4 ; BM+7 , +6 " 


1 S BM+0. +4; G1L2; BM+A 0" 

A p I 1 Xr p " p i—l A UiA p API I 1 U ■ X/ 


5500 DATA "8". 


"BM+1,-0;H1U1E1H1U 


5500 DATA " D " - " U AR3F 1 D4G 1 1_3 : BM+7 

waw i/n i n a/ p uur\jr A a/~u a uw J ju*i i 1 / 


1E1R2F1D181NL2F1D161L2; BM+6, 0" 


0" 


5510 DATA "9", 


"BM+0, -1 ! F1R2E1U4H 


5510 DATA "F" "NR4U3NR5LI3R4: RM+3 

ua a x/ Ufi 1 n c p nmu%jiir\AUwm p api i » w 


!L2GlDlFlR2;BM+4,+3" 


, +6" 


5520 DATA "0", 


"BM+l , 05 H1U4E1R2F1 


5220 DATA "F" , " U3NR2U3R4 ; BM+3 , +6 


D4GlL25BM+6,0" 




II 


5530 DATA 


"BM+2, -3; R2; BM+3, + 


5230 DATA "6" , "BM+l , -0? H1U4E1R2F 


3" 





184 THE RAINBOW September 1984 




The Joystick that sets you free! 



The one-hand operation of this fantastic new 
joystick will truly set you free and increase the 
pleasure of playing your favorite video games. 
The smoothness and responsiveness of this 
unique joystick that operates completely 



without a base is something to be experienc- 
ed. Available direct from us or from your inde- 
pendent computer retail store. (See below) 



$49.95 



suggested retail 



STOP changing Printer and Modem cables! Our 
Parallel Printer interface provides Switch Sel- 
ectable Printer or Modem operations for both 
coco and MC10. It features switchable baud rates 
from 300 to 9600. It comes complete with power 
supply, modem cable and "Centronics" type print- 
er cable. For Basic 1.1 and later revisions. 

Available direct from us or from your independent 
computer retail store. (See below) 




Only $89.95 



suggested retail 



Computer P. o. Drawer 55868 
|#WI1 Products, Inc. Houston/Texas 77055 

713/956-0207 
When ordering direct from PBH please enclose 
$3.00 per item for shipping. 



CoCo 
Serial /Parallel 
Interface 




24QO 



Compukit 
Houston, TX. 77059 



Stocking Distributors 



Spectrum Projects 
Woodhaven, N.Y. 11421 



Authorized Dealers 



Endicott Computer 
Software & Accessories 
Huntsville, AL. 35801 
The Computer Store 
Jasper, IN. 47456 
The Software Connection 
Ft. Lauderdale, FL. 33319 

Colorware, Inc. 
Woodhaven, N.Y. 1 1421 



TRSTECH 
Computer Sen/ices 
Houston, TX. 77033 
Computers & More 
Huntsville, TX. 77340 
The Photo Shop Radio Shack 
Wilmar, MN. 56201 
Patterson Electronics 
Mountain View, AR. 72560 



Computers, Etc. 
Austin, TX. 78745 



Cinsoft 
Cincinnati, OH. 45237 

EDC Industries 
Los Angeles, CA. 90042 
Sound Center Radio Shack 
Whiterock, N.M. 87644 
& Los Alamos, N.M. 87544 



Chips, Incorporated 
Atlanta, GA. 30340 

Computer Associates 
West Fargo, N.Dak. 58078 
Computer Pfus, fnc. 
Littleton, MA. 01460 
Turtle Micro Ware 
East Lime, CT. 06333 



CONNECT W ITH CONFIDENCE 




COMPLETE 
SYSTEM 

NOTHING MORE TO BUY 



GEMINI-10X 

COMPLETE SYSTEM 



PRINT SPEED— 120 cps, Bidirectional Logic Seeking 
PRINT SIZE— 10, 12, 17, 5, 6, 8.5 cpi 
NUMBER OF COLUMNS-80, 96, 136, (40, 48, 68 in 
Double Wide) 

CHARACTER MATRIX-9 x 9 Standard, with True 
Descenders • 18 x 9 Emphasized • 18 x 18 Double 
Strike • 6 x 6 Block Graphics • 60 x 72 Low Resolu- 
tion, Bit Image Graphics • 120 x 144 Hi Resolution, 
Bit Image Graphics • 240 x 144 Ultra Hi Resolution, 
Bit Image Graphics 

CHARACTER SETS-96 Standard ASCII Charac- 
ters • 96 Italics • 64 Special Characters • 32 Block 
Graphic Characters • 96 Downloadable Charac- 
ters • Super and Sub Script 
LINE SPACING-Programmable by n/ 144" 

PAPER HANDLING— Roll Paper • Cut Sheet • 
Tractor Fanfold • Copies: 3 Carbonless Sheets 



• 180 DAY WARRANTY 

• BLUE STREAK INTERFACE 

• SCREEN DUMP SOFTWARE 



$10 Shipping 
and Insurance 
15X System 439 95 



BLUE STREAK 

SERIAL TO PARALLEL INTERFACE 



• RUN COCO I or II to PARALLEL PRINTER 

• 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 SWITCH ABLE BAUD RATES 

• AC POWER OPTIONAL-NOT NEEDED WITH GEMINI OR OLIVETTI PRINTER 

• COMPLETE WITH ALL CABLES AND CONNECTORS 

• 180 DAY WARRANTY 

^ ZA9S SHIPPING 
PAID! 





COMPLETE DATA 
COMMUNICATIONS PACKAGE 



VOLKSMODEM™— Connects Directly to Wall Phone Jack • Telephone Jack 
with Voice/Data Switch • 300 Baud (bits per second) • Originate/Answer 
Mode Automatically Selected • Battery Powered, Low Drain for Long Life 
(batteries included) • Lifetime Warranty • Includes All Cables for COCO 

YOUR CHOICE OF SOFTWARE! 
TSP (Terminal Software Package)— 51 x 24 Hi-Res Display • Buffer Auto 
Adjusts for 16K to 64K • Permits Communication to Virtually All BBS and 
Networks 

AUTOTERM™— World's Smartest Terminal Program 



INCLUDES 
SL BsTHIPTION 
TO TEIF. SOURCE 
LIMIT ED TIME OFFER 
MAY S"OT HE \\.\\ I .AH U : . 



$7Q95 + $2.00 Shipping $QQ95+ $2.00 Shipping 
/ y with TSP yy with AUTOTERM™ 



0 



DAYTON ASSOCIATES, INC. 

OHIO CHARTER CORPORATION • DUN & BRADSTREE T LISTED 

7201 CLAIRCREST BLDG. C • DAYTON, OHIO 45424 
(513) 236-1454 
OHIO RESIDENTS ADD h c /< SALES TAX 
CO D, ADD $2.00 



Free Limited Time Offer 

Over $100 In 
Discount Coupons 
On Software 
And Supplies 

With Purchase Of Complete System 



Address One 

Address Mailing Labels/WesfQay Company 
Car Manager 

For When You're On The Road Again/80 Custom Software 
Cassette Label 

A Few Mods Make It Great/Metric Industries 

Chambers 

A High Level Action Game/ Tom Mix Software 

Church Time 

Is Fun Time/OCS ... 

Color Disk EDTASM 

A High Quality Programming Tool/ Radio ShMck 
Colormind 

A Nice Adaption, But . , . /Aurora Computing 

DO-FILE/FIX-FILE 

A Good Memory Database/So//c/ Software ...... 

Dynacalc 

Breakthrough With Bonuses/Computer Systems Center , 
EDITRON 

Full-Screen Text Editing/Wcftron , . . . 

Ernie's Magic Shapes 

Makes Learning Enjoyable/flatf/o Shack ,,...**■.<>. 
File Cabinet 

Cassette Database Made Easy/Ow/s Nest Software 
Graph It 

C0G0 Plotted Coordinates/Compufer Island ,-. 
Intercept 4 

Blasts Those Aliens/M/c/7 Tron ~j, 

Keep-Trak 

An Organized Accounting System/THE OTHER GUY'S SOFTware 
Locking Diskette Storage System 

A Gremlin-Proof Storage Box/ Disk-Haven Products , . 
Monitor Stands 

Useful To Some/tfowartf Medical ... 

Music $tringer 

You 'Write the SongsVCreaf/Ve Technical Consultants 
OS-9 Sourcerer 

Can Undo Machine Language Magic/ Compute rware . 
Presidents Of The United States 

Wins In A Close Race/Sugar Software ...... .... 

Subtraction Drill 

Without AihtWOY-BURNET-tCS ♦ « 

Super Bug 

A Powerful Debugger/Mar/c Qatn Products ^ ...... 

SuperForth 

Goes Forth/Spe<tf/um ProjWfs. .. .*« . . 

System Secrets 

A Guide To PEEKs And POKEs/flC Creations 

Travelin' Toad 

Take A Fun Tr\p/ Prickly-Pear Software , - r ...... . 

Type Trek 

Typing Can Be Fun/CoCo Chips. , 

Whirlybird Run 

Watch Ydtir 'Copters/Specf/^/ dssoc/ates 




1 



218 

... 211 
... 210 
. , > 205 
..,209 
.... 192 
. . 1 97 
. . . 201 



219 

4rt 



214 
198 

... 200 
... 208 
. . . 222 
. . . 209 
.... 199 
...213 
, . . 204 
2:21 
... 215 
. . , 203 
. . . 216 
. . . 207 

...196 
. . . 200 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 187 



RECEIVED & CERTIFIED 



The following products recently have been received 
by the rainbow, examined by our magazine staff and 
approved for the Rainbow Seal of Certification, your 
assurance that we have seen the product and have 
ascertained that it is what it purports to be. 
This month the Seal of Certification has been 
issued to: 



LOGO Starter, a tutoring program requir- 
ing 16K for use in conjunction with Radio 
Shack's Color LOGO language Program Pak. 
The program introduces children to comput- 
ers through the LOGO language without the 
need for learning the language or typing 
program lines. B&B Software, P.O. Box 
210, Jenkintown, PA 19046, cassette $13.95 

Speak Up! 2.0, an ML voice, synthesizer 
program requiring at least 16K of RAM. 
The program converts text to speech and can 
be used to make basic programs talk. Ver* 
sion 2.0 is identical to the original Speak Up! 
except that the voice is somewhat clearer 
and a bug that caused a printer to print 
randomly has been fixed. Classical Comput- 
ing, Inc., Box 3318, Chapel Hill, NC 27515, 
16K/32K cassette $29.95 postage paid 

Number And Color Words, an educational 
program requiring 32K ECB and designed 
for preschool children through the second 
grade. The program aids in the recognition 
and spelling of the number words zero 
through nineteen and color words red, green, 
yellow, orange and white. Large graphic let- 
ters are featured, musical rewards are pro- 
vided for each correct answer, and the talk- 
ing version utilizes speech synthesis when 
used ii$ conjunction with The Voice speech 
synthesizer. CY-BURNET-1CS, 5705 Chess- 
wood Dr^ Knoxville, TN 37912, cassette 
$29.95, disk $32.95, talking version cassette 
$34.95, disk $37.95, plus $1.50 S/H 

Disk Master, a disk utility package incorpo- 
rating the Swiss Army Knife program with 
several other disk Utilities. Included ^are 
capabilities to alphabetize directories, con- 
vert programs to auto-start, inspect any gran- 
ule or change any byte.^ A "disk verify" fea- 
ture and a 64K boot with Reset protection 
are also included, as well as output to either 
screen or printer. Dataman International, 
420 Ferguson Ave. N., Hamilton, Ontario, 
Canada L8L4Y9, or 125 S. Fifth St., Lewis- 
ton, NY 14092, disk $31.95 U.S., $39.95 
Can., plus 3 percent S/H ($2.50 min.) 

RAMDOS, a utility program requiring at 
least 16K of RAM that allows the user to 
store several basic programs in the upper 
portion of memory using it as a virtual disk. 
basic programs are loaded into the lower 
section of memory in the usual manner, then 
RAMDOS is called from high memory to 
move the basic program in behind itself. A 
directory can be called of the files currently 
in the virtual disk area. In a 64K system, only 
the lower 32K is used. Dataman Interna- 
tional, 420 Ferguson Ave. N., Hamilton, 
Ontario, Canada L8L 4Y9, or 125 S. Fifth 



St., Lewiston, NY 14092, cassette $25.95 
U.S M| $29.95 Can., disk $29.95 U.S., $33.95 
Can., 1 plus 3 percent S/H ($2,50 min.) 

Screen+, an ML screen utility requiring at 
least 1 6K of R AM . The program automatic- 
ally configures itself to the memory resident 
in the machine and allows loading with an 
address offset. Featured is a toggle for light 
characters on a dark background and vice 
versa, black or colored background selec- 
tion, and green or orange character selec- 
tion. Each mode can also be software selected 
by PRINT CHRS commands. Also featured 
are an automatic line numbering command, 
a line-by-line LIST command, and a text 
screen dump. The program can be used with 
the EDTASM+ editor/ assembler, Dataman 
International, 420 Ferguson Ave. N., Ham- 
ilton, Ontario, Canada L8L 4Y9, or 125 S. 
Fifth St., Lewiston, NY 14092, cassette 
$16.95 U.S., $19.95 Can., disk $20.95 U.S., 
$23.95 Can., plus 3 percent S/H ($2.50 min.) 

Calorie Counter — Weight Analyzer, a 

home utility requiring 32K that enables you 
to find your ideal weight range by inputting 
height, present weight, sex, frame size, hours 
spent sleeping, and activity. It will show how 
many calories are needed to maintain pres- 
ent weight and daily intake is calculated 
through a menu of 412 foods and multiple 
servings of each. Printer options are given 
for monitoring progress. Draco Software, 
22 Lassell Street, Portland, ME 04102, cas- 
sette $29.95 

Full Screen Editor, a utility program with 
both 16K and 64K versions. The program is 
invisible to all BASIC programs and includes 
the following features: automatic line num- 
bering, global search and replace with a wild 
card function, forward and backward LIST 
function, and a directory feature that will 
display all files beginning with an input let- 
ter. DSL Computet Products Inc., P.O. Box 
1 176, Dearborn, Ml 48 1 21 ^disk $ 1 9.95 plus 
$2 S/H 

High Resolution Picture Puzzle, a puzzle 
program requiring 32K ECB that will load a 
graphics picture and then scramble it into 48 
blocks. With the arrow keys, you must cor- 
rectly rearrange the picture within five min- 
utes as timed by the computer. Each time a 
puzzle is solved, it is scrambled even more 
and returned. The scores are displayed, and 
on the disk version, the top 10 are saved to 
disk. DSL Computer Products Inc., P.O. 
Box 1176, Dearborn, Ml 48121, cassette 
$9.95, disk $12.95, plus $2 S/H 



Super Disk/Tape Utility, a utility program 
that will transfer programs from tape to disk 
and from disk to tape. When transferring to 
disk, if a machine language program has a 
load address below $0E00, the program will 
automatically move the program above the 
disk I/O buffers and append a short reloca- 
tion routine that will disable the disk ROM 
and move the program back to its original 
location when EXECed. DSL Computer 
Products Inc., P.O.. Box 1176, Dearborn, 
MI 48121, cassette $19.95 plus $2 S/H 

Super Disk Utility, a program that allows 
the user to format any track, modify any 
track or sector, and copy by file or track/ sec- 
tor. The program is menu driven and com- 
patible with multiple drives. DSL Computer 
Products Inc;, P.O. Box 1176, Dearborn, 
Ml 48121, disk $19.95 plus $2 S/H 

64K Spooler, an ML printer utility requiring 
64K of RAM that stores a printer dump in a 
buffer and returns the computer to basic, 
therefore freeing the computer for other 
tasks. The program is compatible with Disk 
basic and transferable to disk. DSL Com- 
puter Products Inc., P.O. Box 1176, Dear- 
born, MI 48121, cassette $9.95 plus $2 S/H 

Crypton, an M L cipher and file readeppib- 
gram that will encrypt filers so that they are 
unreadable to anyone without the proper 
key-phrase with which to decipher them. 
The key-phrase of up to 256 characters is 
selected by the user and entered on the key- 
board; the identical key-phrase must be used 
to decrypt it. First Coast Systems, Box 5396, 
Jacksonville, FL 32207, disk $24.95 

Video Programming Form, a programming 
form for 32-column formats that aids in 
formatting video screen printouts and serves 
as a listing form for program statements and 
commands. Long text can be right- and left- 
justified, words hyphenated and the maxi- 
mum string length delineated. PRINT @, 
PRINT TAB, and PRINT USING formats 
can be readily determined. GILENGCO, 
2801 Sergeant St., Joplin, MO 64801, six 
sample sheets $ 1 , 50-sheet pad $6 

Graphics Compression Utility (GCU), a 
disk-based utility program requiring 32K 
Disk Extended basic that compresses binary 
graphics pictures so that they consume the 
least possible amount of memory. Then, 
using the accompanying Graphics Reloca- 
tion Utility, the compressed graphics pic- 
tures may be relocated anywhere in RAM. 
The package also includes the Graphics 
Decompression Utility (GDU), a position 
independent machine language subroutine 
that can be called from basic or another 
machine language program to decompress 
the graphics from anywhere in memory and 
relocate them to anywhere in memory (GDU 
runs on any RAM size and non-ECB). LP 
Seymour Services, 937 Fairwood Ave., Sun- 
nyvale, CA 94089, disk $27.95 plus $3 S/H 

Hide-A-BASic 1.1, an enhanced version of 
the original M L utility program requiring at 



188 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



least I6K. ECB that helps to copy-protect 
basic programs. It will auto-start basic 
programs and disable the break, clear, 
and Reset keys. The program also will dis- 
able various basic commands, such as LIST, 
LUST, EDIT, DEL, PEEK, POKE, EXEC, 
CSA VE(M), CLOAD(M) and all disk com- 
mands and functions. Further, it creates an 
"ONERR GOTO" routine to trap errors. 
Since all disk commands are disabled, the 
program is compatible with cassette format- 
ted programs only. Microcom Software, 
P.O. Box 214, Fairport, NY 14450, Cassette 
$24.95 plus $1.50 S/ H 

Chambers, an ML Hi-Res graphics arcade- 
type game requiring 321C of RAM and at 
least one joystick. Loosely based on the 
arcade game Cosmic Chasm, the object is to 
destroy all the evil: creatures in each room 
and then, enter the main reactor room and 
blow up the base. Tom Mix Software, 4285 
Bradford N.E., Grand Rapids, MI 49506, 
cassette $24.95. disk $27.95, plus $2 S/H 

Crash, an ML Hi-Res graphics arcade-type 
game requiring 32K of RAM and at least 
one joystick. The game Consists of four 
screens which must be navigated by the air- 
plane being piloted by Mario, of The King 
fame. The plane must be flown over and 
through all of the obstacles without crash- 
ing. Tom Mix Software, 4285 Bradford 
N.E., Grand Rapids, MI 49506, cassette 
$24.95, disk $27.95, plus $2 S/H 

Draconian, an ML Hi-Res graphics arcade- 
type game requiring 32K of RAM and at 
least one joystick. In control of a spaceship 
capable of maneuvering in eight directions, 
you must destroy each of the enemy bases in 
order to rescue the astronauts being held 
captive there. But if you are not quick, the 
invincible Draconian will appear to teach 
you the folly of moving too slowly. Tom Mix 
Software, 4285 Bradford N.E., Grand Rap- 
ids, MI 49506, cassette $27.95, disk $30.95, 
plus $2 S/H 

elec*TRON, an M L H i-Res graphics arcade- 
type game requiring 16K of RAM and at 
least one joystick. Composed of four sub- 
games, you must successfully complete each 
before advancing to the next level. Similar to 
the popular arcade version. Tom Mix Soft- 
ware, 4285 Bradford N.E., Grand Rapids, 
Ml 49506, cassette $24.95, disk $27.95, plus 
$2 S/H 

Fangman, an ML Hi-Res graphics arcade- 
type game requiring 16K of RAM and at 
least one joystick. Based on the Dracula 
legend, you, as Dracula, chase the invading 
villagers through the passages of your castle, 
turning them into vampire bats upon catch- 
ing them. But the villagers can trap you by 
placing crosses in your path and the sun, as 
well, seeks your destruction. Tom Mix Soft- 
ware, 4285 Bradford N.E., Grand Rapids, 
MI 49506, cassette $24.95, disk $27.95, plus 
$2 S/H 

Ms. Maze, an ML Hi-Res graphics arcade- 
type game requiring 32K. of RAM and at 



least one joystick. Based on the arcade "Pac" 
games, this one is random enough that 
memorizing a series of moves will not assure 
success — it takes imagination instead. Tom 
Mix Software, 4285 Bradford N.E., Grand 
Rapids, Ml 49506, cassette $24.95, disk 
$27.95, plus $2 S/H 

The Touchstone, an ML Hi-Res graphics 
arcade-type game requiring 32K of RAM 
and at least one joystick. In order to become 
the favored high priest of Ra, you must enter 
his temple in search of the touchstone, While 
inside, Ra will bestow limited use of his 
powers with which to vanquish your ene- 
mies. But, beware! The powers are only 
temporary and the perils are great. Tom M ix 
Software, 4285 Bradford N.E., Grand Rap- 
ids, M I 49506, cassette $27.95, disk $30.95, 
plus $2 S/ H 

Bjork Blocks, a graphics Utility requiring 
32K ECB and one joystick or mouse. The 
program features precision drawing and 
color selection, compressed data storage, 
and animation (for 64K computers only). 
Two public domain screen dump programs 
are supplied for the Radio Shack DM P- 1 1 5 
and 220 printers. Moreton Bay Software, 
316 Castillo Street, Santa Barbara, CA 
93101, cassette $34.95 plus $2 S/H 

LOTTO, a basic program requiring 16K of 
RAM. The program selects six random 
numbers for use in playing state lotteries and 
is adaptable to lottery rules in effect in dif- 
ferent states. RAM Publications, 1088 Pop- 
lar Tree Drive v Annapolis, M D 2 140 1 , cas- 
sette $5.95 

MUSICA II, a music composer program 
requiring 32K ECB and compatible with all 
disk ROM versions. The program is the 
sarrie as the earlier M USICA, but now has a 
screen print output fomhe Gemini 10X and 
Epson printers for making hard copies of the 
music. All notes are displayed on standard 
treble and bass staffs and the pitch of each 
note is controlled by moving the cursor up 
-and down with the arrow keys or joystick, 
Reitz Computers and Electronics, 3 170 W. 
Central Avenue, Toledo, OH 43606, cassette 
$34.95, disk $39.95, plus $2 S/H 

. 

ROM Runner, a utility program requiring 
64K of RAM and a cassette tape drive. The 
program allows the transfer of ROM car- 
tridge programs to tape, which can then be 



moved to disk if desired. This cuts down on 
wear to the disk controller and allows ROM 
pack programs to be used with a disk system. 
Sadare Software, P.O. Box 3891, Gaithers- 
burg, MD 20878, cassette $7.95 

The Spreadsheet Zapper, a graphing assist- 
ance program requiring 32K of RAM. The 
program takes the spreadsheet data gener- 
ated by the Radio Shack Spectacular or pro- 
gram (either ROM Pak or disk versions) and 
converts the files for use with the Bar 
Zapped Graph Zapper, and Pie Zapper 
graphing programs. This allows the genera- 
tion of high resolution graphs and charts 
from Speciaculator files. Southern Software 
Systems, 485 South Tropical Trail, Suite 
109, Merritt Island, FL 32952, cassette 
$17.95, disk $25.95, plus $1 S/ H 

Color basic Unravelled, Extended basic 
Unravelled and Disk basic Unravelled, three 
individual soft-bound books containing de- 
tailed, commented source listings of Color 
Basic, Extended Color basic and Disk 
Extended basic. The books assume the user 
is experienced in machine language pro- 
gramming and understands 6809 assembly 
language. Spectral Associates, 3416 S. 90th, 
Tacoma, WA 98409, $19.95 each plus $2.50 
S/H, $49.95 plus $3.50 S/H for all three 

RAM Checker, a ROM pack diagnostic util- 
ity that requires at least 16K of RAM. The 
program checks all memory locations in 
RAM, displays the page number and loca- 
tion being checked, and halts execution 
when a bad location is encountered. The 
address information can then be used to 
determine which chip is not good. Spectrum 
Projects, P.O. Box 21272, Woodhaven, NY 
11421, or P.O. Box 9866, San Jose, CA 
95 1 57-0866, ROM pack $24.95 plus $3 S / H 

Happy Birthday, Mr. Gift, an educational 
vowel discrimination drill program requir- 
ing 16K of RAM. The program is designed 
for initial reading instruction (kindergarten 
through the second grade). Children unwrap 
presents and unlock words, discriminating 
betweenpairs of one-syllable words with dif- 
ferent vowels. Featured are spoken mes- 
sages, graphics, timed levels, music and a 
scoring machine. TEKSYM Corporation, 
14504 County Rd. 15, Minneapolis, MN 
55441, cassette $14.95 plus $2 S/H 



The Seal of Certification program is open to 
all manufacturers of products for the TRS-80 
Color Computer, the TDP-100, or the Dragon-32, 
regardless of whether they advertise in the rainbow. 

By awarding a Seal, the magazine certifies the 
program does exist, but this does not constitute any 
guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these 
hardware or software items will be forwarded to 
the rainbow's reviewers for evaluation. 

— Kevin Nickols 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 189 



The HJL-57 Keyboard 





Compare it with the rest. 
Then, buy the best. 



If youve bean thinking about 
spending good money on a new 
ke y board for you r Color Com p u ter, 
why not get a good keyboard for 
your money? 

Designed f rom scratch, the 
HJL-57 Professional Keyboard 
is built to unlock ALL the 
potent I a J performance of your 
Color Computer, Now, you can 
do real word processing and sail 
through lengthy II sting s, + < with 
maximum speed; minimum errors. 

At S79J5 P the HJL-57 is reason- 
ably priced, but you can find 
other CoCo keyboards for a few 
do! lars leas, So, before you buy, 
we suggest that you compare, 

Compare Design, 

The e rgo n o m ical ly-su perlor 
HJL-57 has sculptured, low 
profile keycaps; and the tfaree- 
coior layout Is Identical to 
the original CoGo keyboard. 

Compare Construction. 

The HJL-57 haa a rigid bed 
aluminum baseplate for solid 3 
n o-flex mou nti ng . S wl tchco ni acts 
are rated for 100 m IN Ion cycles 
minimum, and covered by a &p Hi- 
proof membrane, 



Compare Performance, 

Offering more than full -travel t 
bounce-proof key switches r the 
HJL-57 haa RFi/EMI shielding that 
eliminates Irritating noise on 
displays; and four uaer-de tin able 
function keys {one tatc ha b le), 
specially-positioned to avoid 
inadvertent actuation. 



Free Function Key Program 

Your HJL-57 kit Includes usage 
Instructions and decimal codes 
produced by the function keys, 
plus a free sample program 
that defines the function 
keys as follows: F1 - Screen 
dump to printer. F2 « Repeat 
key (latching). Fa = Lower case 
uppercase flip (if you have 
lower case capability), F4 — 
Control key; subtracts 64 from 
the ASCII value of any key 
pressed. Runs on disc or tape; 
extended or standard Basic, 



Compare Installation. 

Carefully engineered for easy 
installation, the HJL-57 require* 
no ao!derlng P drilling or gluing. 
Simply plug It in and drop It 
right on the original CoCo 
mounting posts. Kit Includes a 



OnJ&Tlns Information: Specify model (Original, F^rarafcm, tw CoCo 2). Psymeni by C.O.D., check, 
was^rCF.rc pf VIsb . Credit card customer include cDniptetti caid numrj^r and wfplrafl&n dale. Add 
iS.OOfgr shipping (^3.50 Tot Canatiai. Nw*t York stale- reeltfsno add 7 % wile-sta*- 
DflptHf Inquiries InvltatiL For dealer Information in Eastern U.S. and Canada, can onitact: 
C1 7-50^76 W r Advancod: Cornpuler SftrvlGfla {distributor}, 74 Plain Streat, Brockton, MA Q24Q1, 



new bezel for a totally finished 
conversion. 

Compare Warranties, 

The HJL-57 Is built so well, it 
carries a full, one year warranty. 
And, it is sold with an exclusive 
15-day money-back guarantee. 

Compare Value. 

You know that a bargain is s 
bargain only so long as it lasts. 
It you s hop c aref u ify, we think 
you will agree,, .The HJL-57 Is 
the last keyboard your CoCo wil l 
ever need. And that's real value. 

Order Today. 

Only 178,95, the HJL-57 is 
available for immediate shipment 
for either the original Color 
Computer (sold prior to October, 
1962) or the F-verston and TDP-1 00 
(introduced in October, 19B2), 
and the newB4KCoCo, N&waleo 
available forCoCo2. 

Call Toll Free 

1-800-828-6968 

in Naif York 1-800-462-4091 



111 

PRODUCTS 

Div. uf Touchscnne Technology Inc. 
955 0 Jttald Road ■ P.O. Box 
Rochester, flevu York 

Telephone: {Ttfij 



reviewing MBmrn* 



MORSE CODE TEACHER 
AND 

MORSE CODE TUTOR 

Editor: 

We wish to express our appreciation to 
THE rainbow for reviewing our programs, 
Morse Code Teacher and Morse Code Tutor, 
in the June 1984 issue. As noted by your 
reviewer, these programs from our Amateur 
Radio Series are intended primarily to help 
prepare for the Federal Communications 
Commission code exams which are required 
to obtain or upgrade a ham license. In addi- 
tion, they would be helpful to a ScoUt trying 
to earn a merit badge in international Morse 
code. There are several points, however, 
which we feel do require clarification. 

In Morse Code Tutor, the three V's that 
the program sends at the beginning of each 
one-to-five minute practice session are the 
"ready" signal; no additional auditory 
prompt follows. Instead, immediately after 
the three V's come the characters to be 
copied on paper and then checked against 
the characters that appear on the screen at 
the end of the session. 

A more serious inaccuracy is Mr. Gra- 
ham's statement that the characters in each 
practice session are sent in groups of five at a 
time. While Morse code can be sent in 
groups of five characters, this is usually 
practiced only with enciphered messages, 
such as the cryptogrammatical codes used 
by the military during wartime. In the random- 
practice sections of both Morse Code teach- 
er and Morse Code Tutor, characters are 
sent individually and continuously, one after 
another, with equal spacing between. 1 sus- 
pect that Mr. Graham's confusion stems 
partly from the fact that when the characters 
appear on the screen for checking, they are 
arranged in five-character groups, which is 
much easier to read than a screen full of 
continuous, uniformly spaced characters. 

Cynwyn's Amateur Radio Series, which 
includes both code and applications pro- 
grams, are written by hams, for hams — and 
we feel that it is a disservice to your readers 
to present reviews of this type of software by 
someone who admittedly has no understand- 
ing or appreciation of the subject matter. 

Both Teacher and Tutor require 16K 
ECB. Disk versions will be available in the 
near future. Morse Code Teacher is also 
available for the MC-10 with 4K RAM. 

Cyndi Rannels KA3LLX 
Cynwyn 



SUBTRACTION DRILL 

Editor: 

As author of Subtraction Drill, I wish to 
respond to Mr. Stephan Brown's review in 
the September 1984 Rainbow. 1 feel Mr. 
Brown's review is incomplete in that he tells 
nothing about the meat of the program. He 
vaguely states that it offers a "varied selec- 
tion of subtraction problems. " Nowhere 
does he state that it is an all-inclusive pro- 
gram with 13 levels of instruction. These 
levels were outlined by primary school 
teachers to correlate with the Knox County 
Schools Math Curriculum. 

The beginning levels include sequential 
and random facts; whereas the more ad- 
vanced levels include borrowing a 10, bor- 
rowing a 100, and borrowing both 10s and 
100s with a tutor for help which Mr, Brown 
failed to mention. 

Mr. Brown's suggestion that a laminated 
copy of the "Control Key" page be provided 
is unwarranted. Both the documentation 
and the program clearly indicate that, at any 
time, the student may press the k K' key for a 
display of the control keys. 1 consider that to 
be a superior feature to any plastic card 
which normally tends to get misplaced, 
especially in a public school. 

Mr. Brown spends a great deal of time in 
the review criticizing the graphics and re- 
ward routines. He states that the graphics 
"reward" is done in non-Extended basic 
which is incorrect. He also states that the 
music melodies are "uninspiring." Since 
when, Mr. Brown, are patriotic songs such 
as the Star Spangled Banner and America 
"uninspiring and worn out?" 

Mr. Brown^ you totally missed the boat in 
your review when the major portion of your 
review dwells on graphics and rewards rather 
than the program as an educational tool. 

I can understand why your fourth grade 
daughter became bored with the program as 
she has evidently mastered all subtraction 
skills. The documentation states that the 
program is for preschool through the fifth 
grade. Most elementary school educators 
would understand that subtraction skills will 
be mastered by the end of the third grade. 
Above that level, the program would nor- 
mally be used for remediation. 1 also imagine 
that no parent of a fourth or fifth grader 
would order the program unless the child 
was needing special help. 

Like the reviewer, I also have questioned 
the slowness of the clearing of the screen at 
particular times during the program. Per- 



haps most adults and children who have 
mastered these skills would find this process 
tedious. During extensive field testing, the 
slow screen has not been an issue. In writing 
programs which deal with mastering skills, 
we must remember to look through the eyes 
of the learner and not through the eyes of the 
proficient. 

CY-BURNET-ICS is committed to the 
production of superior educational software. 
We welcome constructive criticism and spe- 
cific suggestions for revisions and improve- 
ments to any program. 

Ben Burnette 
CY-BURNET-ICS 



T.UTIL 

Editor: 

We would like to thank A. Buddy Hogan 
for his fine review of T UTIL that appeared 
on Page 269 of the June 1984 issue. Praise 
such as, "I haven't seen any tape utility that 
can compare to T UTIL" is certainly gratify- 
ing to us. We hope to use the phrase he 
coined, "Tape Tamer," in our future adver- 
tising. 

The article does need clarification in two 
small points. Mr, Hogan's discussion of the 
APPEND command is correct but may 
leave the impression that this command is 
only for appending BASIC program files. 
APPEND can be used on data files and 
machine language files. In fact, the graphics 
screen at the beginning of T UTIL was at- 
tached to the main program with APPEND. 
The restrictions that a file be in ASCII and in 
line number sequence only apply to BASIC 
program files. 

The other point of clarification is between 
EXEC&H65H and EXEC. After the pro- 
gram has been terminated by the use of the 
EXIT command, it may be rerun with 
EXEC. If the program has been terminated 
by pressing the Reset button, EXEC&H65B 
will return you to the command prompt. 
These were reversed in the article. 

Once again, we would like to thank Mr. 
Hogan for his fair treatment of a new pro- 
duct in the CoCo marketplace. 

Craig Hunt 
Sadare Software 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 191 



Software Review*— 

Color Disk EDTASM — 
A High Quality 
Programming Tool 

By Roger Schrag 

Radio Shack has been making their EDTASM editor/ 
assembler program for the Color Computer for several years 
now. An editor/ assembler is a programming tool that lets 
you write programs in assembly language for the Color 
Computer. Until very recently, EDTASM was only avail- 
able as a Program Pak ROM cartridge. This left users with 
disk drives out in the cold. 

Now there is Color Disk EDTASM, a disk version of the 
popular editor/ assembler package. The package consists of 
a large three-ring binder which contains the manual and one 
diskette. 

Although the manual is quite large, over 120 pages, it 
makes no attempt to teach assembly language to the 
beginner. The manual will only teach you how to use the 
Color Disk EDTASM package. However, the manual does 
give some recommendations of additional books to help out 
those new to assembly language. 

This manual is very similar to the manual provided with 
Radio Shack's EDTASM Program Pak. Of course, new 
sections have been added to explain the new additional 
features of the disk version. Also, some omissions and in- 
accuracies in the original manual have been corrected. The 
manual contains reference sections which are excellent for 
experienced assembly language programmers who need to 
check something here or there. However, this setup makes 
the purchase of an additional text almost mandatory for the 
computerist who is new to assembly language programming. 

Color Disk EDTASM requires a 16K Color Computer 
with at least one disk drive. Although a second disk drive 
really isn't necessary, 32K of memory is very strongly 
recommended. You won't be able to do very much serious 
programming on a 1 6K system. 1 will come back to this later. 

The diskette supplied in the package contains five pro- 
grams. DOS/BAS and DOS/ BIN contain a miniature disk 
operating system. Color Disk ED TASM uses this mini-DOS 
to load and save your programs on diskette. Therefore, it is 
necessary for you to load in the mini-DOS before you can 
use Color Disk EDTASM. The manual provides a great 
deal of technical information about this mini-DOS so that 
you may write programs of your own which use this mini- 
DOS for loading and saving data on diskette. 

When you turn on your computer and type in R UN" DOS " 
the mini-DOS initializes itself. A title screen appears, along 
with a menu of functions you may perform from the mini- 
DOS. You may load a machine language program, do a disk 
directory, see how much space is free on a diskette, copy a 
file from one diskette to another, or turn on an on-screen 
clock display. 

As you might notice, most of these functions can be 
performed from basic very easily. For example, it is a lot 
easier to type in COPY "FILE! " TO "FILE2" from BASIC 
than it is to type RUN"DOS'\ wait 10 seconds for the 
mini-DOS to initialize, select menu option five, wait another 



five seconds as the file copier gets ready, and answer seven 
questions about the file to be copied. 

To use Color Disk EDTASM, you put the program 
diskette in drive zero and type RUN"DOS". When you get 
the menu, you select option two, load and execute a machine 
language program. Now you type in EDTASM and press 
ENTER. Color Disk EDTASM now loads in and executes 
automatically. 

Color Disk EDTASM's editor is almost identical to that 
of the original EDTASM Program Pak. You can insert new 
lines, delete old lines, renumber, copy lines to another part 
of the program, print lines up on the screen or printer, or edit 
* lines in a fashion similar to the J^DiTcommand of Extended 
Color BASIC. 

Of course, you may also load and save your source code. 
A major feature of Color Disk EDTASM is that you may 
load or save on diskette or tape. So, if you have an old 
project that you started before you got your disk drive, you 
' may load your code from tape, edit it a little, and then save it 
to diskette. 

There are a few areas in which Color Disk EDTASM has 
been greatly enhanced. One of these areas is that of printing 
up listings on a printer. A new S command lets you set how 
many lines your printer puts on a page, and how many 
characters on a line. Color Disk EDTASM will then format 
all printouts so that there will be a blank area at the top and 
bottom of each page of printout. This avoids printing on the 
perforations when using fanfold paper, a great convenience. 
Also, printouts done when assembling a program have an 
optional title printed at the top of each page, along with a 
page number. 

The assembler itself has been enhanced to allow macros, 
an INCLUDE command, and conditional assembly. Macros 
and conditional assembly are simply convenience features 
that many programmers can live without. The INCLUDE 
command, however, may be a necessity if you plan to write 
extremely long programs. The INCLUDE command lets 
you break your long program into several shorter ones, all 
contained on the same diskette. The assembler then reads in 
all of the smaller parts and reconnects them into one large 
program. 

Color Disk EDTASM also comes with ZBUG. This is a 
little debugger that lets you run your assembly language 
program step by step and continuously monitor its opera- 
tion and use of memory and CPU registers. This is an 
excellent aid for finding bugs in your programs (unless, of 
course, your programs never ever have bugs). 

Color Disk EDTASM is a lot like the original Program 
Pak version of ED TA SM except that bugs in the original 
have been corrected, and some great new features have been 
added. But you pay a price for such a feature-packed pro- 
gramming tool. Color Disk EDTASM lakes up lots of your 
computer's memory. It takes up so much space that the 
standard version won't even fit on a 16K Color Computer. 

A special version of Color Disk EDTASM is provided for 
16K users. (This rounds out the five programs on the 
^included diskette.) This special version conserves memory 
by only having part of the program in memory at any one 
moment. This means that there always has to be a diskette in 
drive zero containing the special version of Color Disk 
EDTASM. Occasionally, the computer will pause for a few 
seconds as it accesses part of this program on drive zero. The 
setup is very reasonable; the pauses are very smooth and not 
disturbing. However, this special method of conserving 
memory still only leaves the 16K user about 2200 bytes for 



192 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



s Battle the 
st of Disk Drives 




Un-DISK Drives $49.95? 



You Bet! There are empty spaces in your 32K 
and 64K CoCo. The Preble VDOS Un-DISK 
helps you fill them up with PROGRAMS 



Un-DISK uses your computer's extra 
memory like a fast disk drive. 

Un-DISK can store BASIC and MACHINE 
LANGUAGE programs. 

• Un-DISK is INVISIBLE. Yup! Un-DISK 
does not interfere with normal Color Com- 
puter Operation. 

• Un-DISK appears only when you type the 
magic word VDOS. 

• Un-DISK comes with comprehensive in- 
structions which you may not need be- 
cause: 

• Un-DISK is self-prompting and easy to 
use! 

• Un-DISK is provided on cassette. 

• Un-DISK is faster than a slow clumsy 
DISK DRIVE and best of all . . . 

• Un-DISK is CHEAPER than a DISK DRIVE! 

• Un-DISK will work even if you already own 
a disk but WHY BUY A DISK AT ALL? 

• Un-DISK should be in the library of every 
serious CoCo user even if you own a disk 
says Frank J. Esser, independent reviewer 
for rainbow Magazine! 



OK sure, disk drives ARE NICE. I own one. 
But if your finances are limited, the Un-DISK 
can give you much of the power of the 
mechanical drive. Even if you already own a 
disk the Un-DISK can work like a super fast 
extra disk. 

EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . EXTRA > . . 
Additional Power For $14.95 

Only with VDUMP for the Un-DISK! 

• VDUMP lets you make a cassette backup 
copy of everything stored in the Un-DISK. 

• VDUMP lets you save 5, 10, 15 or more 
programs on a single cassette tape file. 

• VDUMP lets you switch Un-DISKs. With a 
single load operation replace a group of 
financial programs with a set of children's 
programs. (The new VDUMP tape over- 
writes the old.) 

• VDUMP can allow you to save a whole lot 
of rainbow on tape in a SINGLE file. 

• VDUMP is the perfect companion to the 
Preble VDOS Un-DISK. 

Available from Doctor Preble's Programs, 
naturally! Bringing you fine Color Computer 
Products Since 1983! 



The Preble VDOS Un-DISK $49.95 

The Preble VDUMP $14.95 

Shipping & handling 

U.S. and Canada $1.50 

or $5.00 to other foreign points 

VISA and MasterCard accepted 

Order From: 
Dr. Preble's Programs 

6540 Outer Loop 
Louisville, KY 40228 
(502) 966-8281 
Canadians may order from Kelly Software 



HARDWARE & PROGRAMS 



MONITORS 

BMC MEDIUM-RES COLOR 

13" BMC w/ sound $303.95 

14" USI w/ sound . . 324.95 

l2"Taxon Composite & RGB. .... 335.95 

COMREX HI RES 
MONOCHROME 

\T % Amber or Green. i 40.95 

9" Amber or Green 125.95 

Sorry, no CO.D. on monitors. 

COMPOSITE MONITOR 

INTERFACES 

Double Driver ,. , 24.95 

Video Pius . 24.95 

Both work great with color 
or monochrome on CoCo X 

Coco Double Driver ¥ , . , . 28.95 

Video PIusUM ,.. , >,...►,,.., 26.95 

Video Plus IIC. ...39.95 

For CoCo I) Only 



JARB DISK OOUBLER 

Why spend twice as much as. you need to 
for double sided diskette!)? With our 
doubter, you can make your own and pay 
for it with the first box you double. A 
must for disk drive users. 
5 V*" size only , .... , ... 12.95 

BASF DATA CASSETTES 
C-OS C-IO 

1-10 .60 ea. .65 ea. 

11-20 .55 ea. .60 ea. 

Soft Poly Cases , Ea. $.20 

Hard Shelled Cases , ....... t Ea. $.22 

Cassette Labels (12) Sh.$.36 

Cassette Labels Tractor (1000) . . . $21 .95 

MEMORY UPGRADE 
KITS 

I6K RAM CHIPS 1 .50 ca. 

5V,CoCoIIl6K 1.95 ea. 

**4K RAM CHIPS 

Eight 200 NS Factory Prime 64K RAM 
Chips. Allows you to upgrade 4 all' board 
easily. No soldering needed. ..... , $52.50 

*16K/32K 

Eight 200 NS Factory Prime Chips with 
Piggy Backed Sockets, Sam Socket, Bus 
Wire. Cdmprehensive Instructions. 
Recommended for "D" or earlier, but may 
be used on 4 *E M . Only 9 simple solder con- 
nections to kit. None to computer. $25.95 
NOT FOR CoCo 2 




THE GUNFIGHTER 

BY Terry A, Sleen 

An excellent hi-res, arcade quality game 
program for two players, Joysticks and 
32K are required in this all machine 
language program. 

Cassette .$19.95 Disk/Amdisk . $24.95 

JUNGLE TREK 

Lost in a jungle with wild animals lurking; 
your only survival is to find a safe com- 
pound before you are lunch for lions; 
high resolution; multi-color. 
16KEXT $14.95 

BIORHYTHM PSYCHIC APT. 

1) Prints biorhythm charts of nearly 
unlimited length; attractively formatted 
for use on most printers. 1 6K 

2) Your psychic ability is determined 
through questions evaluating your psychic 
experiences 

16K Ext « Both for $15.95 



PROGRAMS FOR THE 
SPECTRUM PROJECTS 
VOICE-PAK 
OR 

SPEECH SYSTEMS VOICE 

TALKING 
FINAL COUNTDOWN 

(by Bill Cook) 

For32K EXT .,,$19.95 

Standard cassette 

RNAL COUNTDOWN $14.95 



TALKING 
SPELL-A-TRON 

The program allows the user to build a 
dictionary of words. During testing, the 
words arc spoken. If an incorrect 
response is given, the word is spoken 
again and spelled. Tape(32K EXT) $22.95 



TALKING 
SCORE E-Z 

A yahtzec type program. Up to six players 
can compete. AH scoring and record keep- 
ing is done by the computer. Tape (32K 

EXT) >, ......$19.95 

Standard SCORE E-Z $15.95 



TALKING 
COLOR MATH 

The perfect educational game to aid the 
student in learning addition, subtraction, 
multiplication and division. Allows one to 
specify difficulty level. 
Tape ( 32K EXT) ..... ? ... . $22.95 



TALKING 
SHIP HUNT 

by Cobra Software 

Play Battleship against your computer. 
32K w/ joystick needed. Graphics and 
sound. Can be played without voice. 
Cassette .... .....$10.95 



SCHEMATIC DRAFTING PROCESSOR 
(disk) can draw large scale schematics in 
hi-res (has six overlapping screens) and 
then print them out to any of several 
popular printers, fast!! A must for serious 
hardware computerist. 
Now only. $49.95 

CoCo Chip* 

Sam, Pia, CPU, Ext, Basic 

We carry products 
from many manufacturers. 
If you don't see it, ask. 



JARB 

1636 D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 92050 



SOFrWARE 



HARDWARE 



Order Line 

COD orders accepted, no charge cards please. (619) 474-8982 
Shipping and handling $3.00 Aff „ Mc 

California residents please add 6% sales tax (619) 474^981 



his program. This is why I say that a 32K system is really 
needed for any serious programming applications. 

the DOS/BAS and DOS/ BIN -programs-may be Used 
directly by any programs you write in orderto make loading 
and saving of data files on diskette very-easy. A large part of 
the manual explains how to use routines in the DOS pro- 
gram. In fact, there is a complete, commented source code 
listing of the entire DOS/ BIN program included. That's 
over 25 pages front' and back of source code! Actually, 
looking at parts of this listing may offer examples of pro- 
gramming style and technique for those new to assembly 
language. But be careful because Radio Shack wrote the 
DOS/ BIN program on a more sophisticated system than 
Color Disk EDTASM, so there are some special commands 
in the listing that Color Disk EDTASM does not recognize. 
This may cause some confusion. 

Unfortunately, the fact that thfe DOS /BIN program is 
copyrighted causes some problems. For example, if you 
would like to write a program that you intend to market 
commercially, your program should riot use the DOS/ BIN 
program. If it does, then nobody will be able to use your 
program unless they own a copy of Radio Shack's Color 
Disk EDTASM. This cuts your potential market size down 
considerably. So the only time that the technical informa- 
tion presented in the manual will really come into use is 
when you plan to write a program requiring disk I/O for 
your personal use. 

Color Disk EDTASMdoesn't seem to have any real bugs. 
That is to say, 1 couldn't find any situations in which the 
assembler would destroy your program or the mini-DOS 
would render a diskette unusable. (Incidentally, a very obs- 
cure bug in the original EDTASM Program Pak pertaining 
to the error message MULTIPLY DEFINED, SYMBOL 
has been fixed.) However, the DOS/ BIN program is very 
poorly written in some respects. For example, if you try to 
load a source code file from a diskette with a write^protect 
tab on it, your disk-drive will go wacko for a few seconds and 
then the error message DISK WRITE PROtECTED will 
appear on the screen. This is an unnecessary irritation to 
many programmers like myself who like to write-protect 
their diskettes to prevent accidental erasure. 

Also, the mini-DOS performs most disk operations much 
more slowly than necessary. Another disk editor/ assembler 
program on the market, for example, will load and save 
source code files in under 65 percent of the time it takes 
Color Disk EDTASM. 

If this review seems long to you, consider that an editor/ 
assembler is a very complex programming tool. Radio 
Shack's original EDTASM Program Pak was probably the 
first such program on the market for the Color Computer. 
But when it comes to purchasing an editor/ assembler which 
works with disk drives today, you have quite a choice. It 
might pay to examine the alternatives carefully before you 
buy. 

Although the Radio Shack offering is quite,good, there 
are a few features 1 would like to see added. The DOS/ BIN 
program needs some cleaning up. The assembler doesn't 
allow multiple FCB statements on one line, nor does it allow 
binary constants. Also, if you forget a file's name or don't 
know which diskette has enough space on it, there is no way 
to see a diskette directory while in ED TASM without losing 
your program. 

Another feature that would be njce is support for Color 
Computers with 64K. By using all of the memory in a 64K 
Color Computer, you would be able to write longer pro- 



grams without having to break them up and use the 
INCLUDE command. 

I have a final wish on my list: Radio Shack should put the 
DOS/ BIN program in the public domain so that everyone 
could have a copy and software vendors could use it in their 
programs. Then there would be no more incompatibility 
problems with disk-based software not working on the 
Color Computer 2* and so on. Vendors would no longer 
have to market separate versions of their software for the 
Color Computer and Color Computer 2. Also, users 
wouldn't have to worry about buying a program and finding 
that it doesn't work on their machine. 

In short, Color Disk EDTASM is a high quality pr6- 
gramming tool that will help you write programs in assem- 
bly language for your Color Computer. The manual in a 
very clear and friendly manner helps you learn how to use 
this programming tool, but does nothing to teach you 
assembly language. You will need to get a separate text to 
read if assembly language is new to you. Although Color 
Disk EDTASM has some irritating shortcomings, it also 
sports some very sophisticated features as well. 

If you have specific questions, please Write to me at 2054 
Manning Avenue, Los Angeles, CA, 90025. Please include a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope. 

(Radio Shack stores nationwide, Cat. No. 26-3254, disk 
$59.95) 




SonbdRst Soft wane 

233 S.E. ROGUE RIVER HWY. ' * 
GRANTS PASS, OR 97527 t -503-476-5977 

We are proud to onnounce our hew utilities for 
the 64K Disk Color Computer, featuring : . 

• Full use of 64K RAM • 100% Machine Language 

• Parameters easily changeable in basic loader 

• No ROM calls • "Cold start" exit to basic 

• Easy-to-read, informative documentation • Keyklik 

• Selectable drive stepping rate * Support 1-4 drives 

• Eosy to use, with menu selected functions 

To make life with your disks easier, may we suggest . . * 

1. The Sector Inspector — Alphabetize, backup, and printout 
directory; repair crashes, LUST basic programs, name 

disks, read in and edit 23-|- grans, 3-swap backups, and more. 
Has 35-page manual and gran table print program • ; . $29.95 

2. The Deputy Inspector — Alphabetize, re-sort, and backup 
directory; fast 3-swap backups, copy files or programs 

to same or other disks, can auto-reallocate granules 

during backup for faster loading, and more $21.95 

3. The Archivist — Make long-lasting tape backups ot your 
valuable disks, erase and format disks $14.95 

4. The Chief Inspector — $ave 10% ! Order all 3 $59.95 

5. EOT — effortless full (51 x24) screen editing w/2 way cursdr, 
disk commands allow easy save /backup /append. Text files 
to 48 K+. Copy, save, move, delete or print blocks. Much 
more. Normally $39:95, now only $35.95 (10% OFF) 

• Phase add $1.50 for shipping, $2.50 for C.O.D. 

RAINBOW 

THIS MONTH: TEACHERS - FREE SHIPPING 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 195 



Software Review! 



Typing Can Be Fun With 
Type Trek 

Learning how to type can certainly be boring. Improving 
your typing skills can be worse, because there is ho better 
way to improve skills than by continuous practice. Type 
Trek, by CoCo Chips, takes an otherwise dull activity arid 
changes it into fun. 

Type Trek is actually three games in one, each game 
providing drills to improve typing skills. There is a letter 
game, a word game and a sentence game, all providing an 
outer space scenario. 

The program requires at least 16K Extended BASIC and 
1 6K users will have to POKE25, 6:NEW before CLOA Ding. 
After RUNning the program, the user is asked to input the 
number of players (one or two), the players' names and rank. 
The rank is the skill level depending on which keys you want 
to work on. For example, Level 1, Cadet, works on keys 
ASDF and each additional level adds more keys. The user 
can begin in any level and work his way up through the 
ranks. The program does not deal with numbers and most 
special characters because, according to the author, these 
keys may vary in placement from keyboard to keyboard. A 
cumulative score is kept as well as a percentage of accuracy. 
In order to go on to the next level, an accuracy rating of 95 
percent is needed. The typing is not timed, but bonus points 
are added for fast typing. 

Type Trek is a low resolution graphics game. The charac- 



ters and symbols used are neat, clear and fun to watch. 
During the word game, letters appear and the user must type 
the letters after they disappear from the screen. In the word 
game, a word appears and you must copy it accurately. The 
sentence game has a sentence shown on the screen, and again 
the user must copy it. Each game makes up a wave and the 
user is given the choice of having the game be three, six or 
nine waves long. 

The documentation is well written and very complete. It is 
easy to follow and tries to anticipate every situation that 
could possibly arise. The booklet is written in such a way as 
not to be overwhelming in its technical explanations. 
Anyone should be able to understand the documentation 
and enjoy using the program. The documentation even 
includes a rather large section on learning how to type. If the 
user finds that a 95 percent accuracy rate is too high (or too 
low), easy to follow instructions are given for changing this. 

This tutorial could easily be used in the schools and at 
home. It's written to appeal more to children than adults, 
but I see no reason for adults not to have fun also. K nowing 
how to type well does not seem to be important to most 
children, but as they progress in their education, they will 
discover what a necessary skill typing is. Type Trek can help 
you and your children better your typing ability in a painless 
and fun way. 



(CoCo Chips, 92 Acorn Circle, Oxford, OH 45056, tape 
$19.95, disk $22.95) 



— Stephanie Snyder 




SALES OR CLIENT PROFILE 



INVENTORIES 



MAILING LISTS 



LEOGERS 



STUDENT OR PERSONNEL 
RECORDS 



~ AP POINTMENT SCHEDULES 

ORDER 

REAL^ 1 ^^^^ ENTRY 
^*SkJ ESTATE 
PROPERTY^V,^ LISTINGS ^"""■""^ 
RENTALS ^ 



CAN YOUR DATA BASE 
REMEMBER HOW YOU DID IT 
LAST TIME? 



CAN YOUR SECRETARY RUN 
REPORTS AND POST 
TRANSACTIONS USING YOUR 
DATABASE? 



THE 



CAN YOU DEFINE AND SAVE 
REPORTS AND CALCULAtiOKjS 
WITH RECORD SELECTION & 
SORT PARAMETERS'? 



\ 

DATABASE SYSTEM 
DESIGNED 
FOR 

BUSINESS 



IS YOUR DATABASE ALL-IN-ONE 
INTEGRATED PACKAGE? 



CAN YOU PRINT INVOICES AND 
STATEMENTS? 



CAN YOU PRINT TRANSACTION 
SUMMARIES BY ACCOUNT 7 



CAN YOU SELECT, SORT. & PRINT 
FORM LETTERS & LABELS IN ONE 
OPERATION 9 



NEW?! FROM THE CREATORS OF HOMEBASE!! 

ALL-IN-ONE INTEGRATED PACKAGE: DATABASE, SPREADSHEET, WORD PROCESSING & MAILMERGE 
INTRODUCTORY PRICES: WORKBASE I $64.95 400 RECORDS WORKBASE II $79.95 1200 RECORDS 

CALL TOLL FREE: 1-800-334-0854 (EXT 887) WORKBASE DATA SYSTEMS 

OR SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: P.O. BOX 3448, DURHAM, NC 27702 



196 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Software Review! 



Colormind: A Nice Adaptation, 
But . . . 

Colormind, by Aurora Computing, is another computer 
adaptation of the popular board game "Mastermind." The 
idea of the game is to correctly solve the computer-generated 
code of four colors within 10 guesses. Upon choosing your 
guess from a choice of six colors, the computer will print 'A's 
and 'B's. An 'A 5 signifies the color is correct in the right place 
while a 4 B' indicates a correct color but in the wrong place. If 
you guess the correct code within the 10 tries the computer 
prints a congratulatory message, but, if you fail, the com- 
puter will reveal the correct code. This is all done in low 
resolution graphics with a few beeps here and there for 
sound. 

An interesting feature of Colormind is the method of 
giving the player instructions. The computer asks if you wish 
to have instructions. If you reply "yes," it gives you the 
complete rules in an attractive format and even shows an 
example of game play. The brief documentation, therefore, 
is more than adequate as all the information needed is 
included in the program. Colormind's program length is 
only about 4.5K, a good portion of which is used for the 
instructions. 

There are a few quirks which irritated me about Color- 
mind. One, if a person accidentally enters a non-acceptable 
value (a number greater than six or a letter of the alphabet), 



the computer prints a question mark and a turn is wasted. 
Also, the instructions included as documentation say that 
two people can play, but unless they alternate playing 
games, I don't know how they would do it. Neither the 
instructions nor the written documentation supply this 
information. 

If you hate typing in program listings and don't mind 
paying $ 1 0.95 for a program that is similar to those found in 
Color Computer magazines, Colormind is worth your money 
as it is a good adaptation of "Mastermind." 

(Aurora Computing, 49 Brookland Ave., Aurora, Ontario, 
L4G 2H6, $10.95 on tape) 

— Ken Coleman 



16K ADVENTURE GENERATOR TAPE $19.95 

Create your own adventure with this program. Should be 
familiar with proper basic syntax to use. Writes adven- 
ture game directly to tape. 

16K ADVENTURE STARTER PACKAGE ... TAPE $14.95 
Three graduated adventure games designed to guide 
^you from beginner to tackling the expert level adventure 
games with confidence. 

SOFTECH 
P.O. BOX 3330 
Cheyenne, WY 82003 



COLORFORTH FORTH COMPILER 

THERE IS LIFE AFTER BASIC! COLORFORTH is a f igFORTH language compiler designed for use on the Color 
Computer. COLORFORTH Version Z.O is available now with all these features and more: 

Can access ALL available RAM from 16K through 64K and will work with any current ROM 
Executes 10 to 25 times faster than BASIC and can be programmed much faster 
30 additional commands are included beside the standard figFORTH commands 

You get BOTH cassette and R5/D05 versions, PLUS a resident figEDITOR, and an 82 page manual 
A special command that allows you to copy your program so that it can be run on a CoCo without 
first loading COLORFORTH 

ALL OF THE ABOVE FOR ONLY $49.95 



DECISION MAKER ™ 

IF YOU HAVE EVER HAD TROUBLE MAKING UP YOUR 

MIND, THEN THIS PROGRAM IS FOR YOU! 
DECISION MAKER is a new concept in programs for 
the Color Computer. 
DECISION MAKER is . . . 

* A step by step, interactive program to help 

you solve any problem 

* Designed using standard analytic techniques j ^^K , 

* A learning tool to discover the exact /r^\^ 

processes used in reaching a decision RAINBOW 

* A valuable asset for anyone certification 
DECISION MAKER requires 32K and Ext. Basic 
Complete with 16 page manual, only $24.95 



BIO- PS YCHOME TER tm 

NOW YOU CAN INVESTIGATE THE HIDDEN REALMS OF THE 
HUMAN MIND! 

BI0-PSYCH0METER is an authentic Bio-feedback 
device complete with software 
BIO-PSYCHOMETER includes: 

* Bio-feedback graphing, Stress Reduction, and 

Memory Improvement modes 

* Machine Language, high speed graphics 

* Very sensitive hardware for optimum results 

* Printed manual with instructions and 

suggestions for use 
BIO-PSYCHOMETER requires 32K and Ext. Basic 
Complete, with manual, only $39.95 



We accept U.S. funds drawn on U.S. banks, VISA & MASTER CARD, & UPS C.O.D.s 
Add $2.30 shipping & handling 
Texas residents add 5% 



ARMADILLO INT'L SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 9351 
AUSTIN, TEXAS 78766 






PHONE (512)835-1088 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 197 



Software Revlewi 



on the screen. You can then continue the search or return to 
the main menu. 



Cassette Database Made 
Easy With File Cabinet 



File Cabinet is a database program written for the 16K 
ECB Color Computer. It is a neat little program that will 
allow you to perform some of the simple functions normally 
associated with database programs. That is, it will let you 
input, locate, modify, delete and sort data. You can also 
save/ load data to/ from tape and print records on the screen 
or your printer. The program is very user-friendly. It comes 
with three sheets of documentation and is written quite well 
in a logical order. You really don't need any more documen- 
tation because the program is simple to use by just following 
the on-screen prompts. The software automatically adjusts 
to the amount of memory of your machine. With a 16K 
CoCo you can operate with up to 50 records in memory and 
with 32K you can have up to 200 records. This assumes that 
you average around 100 characters per record. If you will 
need more characters per record (up to 250), then this will 
reduce the number of records you can have. 

File Cabinet is error-trapped quite well, but if you do 
crash the program by hitting the BREAK key, etc., you will 
not lose the data you have entered. Simple instructions are 
given on how to recover. If for some reason you run out of 
string space (when inputting data from the keyboard or 
appending from tape), further inputting is stopped but the 
data is not lost. This is particularly useful when appending 
data from tape to a file residing in memory. 

One complaint I have is that only one copy of the File 
Cabinet exists on the tape. I think any program sold on tape 
should have a backup included. There are instructions on 
how to make your own backup, but since you lose some of 
the features of this program when you make the copy, your 
backup isn't a real backup. Owls Nest will provide you 
another copy to use as a backup for $5. I found that the 
backup copy I made would not work properly with my disk 
drive hoo ked up to the computer although the original copy 
worked fine. This shouldn't be a problem though, because I 
would not recommend this program for anyone with a disk 
system. Now I will describe each of the functions available 
with File Cabinet. 

INPUT DATA — When you initially set up a file you are 
asked to input the names of each field that you desire (up to 
five). Once you have defined these fields you are then 
prompted to start entering data. As you finish entering data 
for each record you are given three choices: continue on to 
the next record, modify the current record, or return to the 
main menu. Modifying the data is quite easy as you are 
presented each field for the record and asked if you want to 
change it or not. If you do, then just type in the correct data 
and the change is made. 

LOCATE DATA — This is a handy feature that will 
allow you to search a field for data. After selecting the field 
you want to search, just type in the string you want to search 
for and, when it is found, the entire record will be presented 



MODIFY DATA — Modifying data is easy. All you have 
to do is enter the record number and each field of the record 
will be presented to you. You can then modify all the fields 
or just a single field. 

DELETE DATA — In this mode you can either delete all 
data or single records. In either case you are given ample 
warning of what you are about to do and have to verify your 
instruction before the deletion actually takes place. 

SORT DATA — You may sort on any or all of the first 
three fields. This is where the program really shines. The sort 
is a machine language sort that is really fast. I entered a 200 
record file that consisted of articles, program listings, and 
reviews from the rainbow. I then had the program sort on 
three fields. The sort took a little longer than the documen- 
tation said it would, but who's going to complain about 27 
seconds? When I sorted the same 200 records on a single 
field it only took 3.7 seconds. 

SAVE ON TAPE — Once you decide to save your data to 
tape the software will automatically make two copies. In 
addition to this you are given the option of verifying that the 
first save is a good one by rewinding the tape and pressing 
ENTER and Play. As I said earlier, this program is very 
user-friendly and you really have a lot of features to make 
sure you don't lose several hours worth of work. 

LOAD FROM TAPE — This option is used to load data 
from tape. The nicest part of this option is the ability to 
append a tape file to one residing in memory. 

SHOW ON SCREEN — With this option the records will 
be displayed on the screen one at a time. You can select any 
of five scanning speeds. You can either look at all records or 
single records. The only way to look at a series of records in a 
certain category would be to sort on that field first. This 
would group like records together, You could then have all 
records displayed on the screen one at a time. The records 
you are looking for would then eventually appear in 
sequence. You have the option of printing these records on 
your printer if you desire. 

SEND TO PRINTER — In this mode you can print 
individual records or all records on your printer. If you want 
to print them individually you must know the record 
number you want printed. There is a lot of paper wasted 
when you print records, but considering the memory limita- 
tions and the very reasonable price of this program, that is 
something you will have to live with. 

1 recommend File Cabinet for anyone wanting to get 
started in using databases with a cassette recorder. If you 
plan to move up to a disk system in the near future then I 
would not recommend it. You are limited in what you can do 
with File Cabinet, not because of the program itself, but the 
limitations a cassette-based system places on you. 

(Owls Nest Software, P.O. Box 579, Ooltewah, TN 37363, 
cassette $19.95 postpaid) 

Michael Hunt 



198 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Hardware Review! 



TfTS 



*********** 



Stands Monitor 
Useful To Some 

A lot of people (myself included) think that the best place 
to put a computer's monitor is on top of the computer. With 
the CoCo this is not a good idea, because the computer's top 
is rather small and the plastic case just won't support a heavy 
item. As with any design flaw (real or imagined) in a popular 
computer, there have been a number of attempts to cure the 
problem. Howard Medical's TV stands are designed to hold 
a TV or monitor above the CoCo so that the set's weight 
doesn't rest on the computer; this goal is met, but there are 
other problems. 

The Howard Medical stands are made from !/2-inch plas- 
tic sheet (either Plexiglas or Lexan — 1 don't know which) 
bent to fit over the CoCo. A series of holes are drilled in the 
stand near the sides of the computer to provide ventilation, 
and a slot is cut in the right side for ROM packs or other 
cartridges. The 13-inch model (really for anything up to the 
new 14-inch sets) fits over the CoCo and has the same width 
on the inside as the CoCo's case; the 19-inch model (for sets 
from 15-inch to the new 20-inch) has space for a cassette 
recorder to the left of the computer. Each model is available 
in either a smoke gray (transparent) or ivory color (opaque). 

A possible problem with the stand is that it is somewhat 
flexible; if the TV or monitor is very heavy, part of the 
weight may rest on the CoCo. This is more likely to be a 
problem with the 19-inch version, since it is nine inches 
wider and the larger flat surface is less rigid. We tried the 
stands with three color TV sets, a 1 0-inch, a 13-inch and a 
19-inch; while the 13-inch version held up well, the 19-inch 
version bent to some degree under the load. (My tests were 
done with solid-state sets; an old tube TV would be much 
heavier, and 1 doubt that either stand could support one.) 

The stands' other problem is their depth. Both stands are 
1 1 -inches deep, and since the front of the stand is behind the 
keyboard, the stand extends for about six inches behind the 
computer. This makes it very difficult to reach the power 
and Reset buttons from the front of the computer. 

Howard Medical has a good idea here, but its execution is 
somewhat awkward. 

(Howard Medical, Box 2, Chicago, IL 60690; 13-inch ver- 
sion $29.50, 19-inch version $39.50, specify for regular CoCo 
or CoCo 2) 

— Ed Ellers 



LET 



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GRAFX 



f 

If PRINCE! 



see us at II PRINCETON 



The first graphics disk magazine for the color 
color computer. Full of great works of art by famous 
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September 1984 THE RAINBOW 199 



Software Review^ S^SSSSTT^N Software ReviewSSSSSSSS^SSSS^\ 



CoCo Plotted Coordinates 
Courtesy of Graph It 

Tired of getting out your pad of graph paper to plot out 
your equations? Why not let your Color Computer handle 
the chores involved with plotting your coordinates? Graph 
It does a nice job of doing just that and with a minimum of 
fuss and muss (and no graph paper!). 

The program, in Hi-Res, graphs a set of equations in the 
form of Y-Function(X) onto X-Y axes. You can graph as 
many equations as you want on the same set of axes. 

The program has instructions, if necessary, and gives 
examples of the following math functions: division, sine, 
absolute value, square root, natural logarithm. Sample 
equations are given, such as: 

Y = X A 2 + .5*X-10 
and 

Y = 1 - COS(X) 

Individual points (as pixels) can be plotted up to 10. Pairs 
of coordinates are entered as "X,Y." 

You are then prompted "How many equations do you 
want graphed?" 1 entered several different combinations to 
try out the program. You must enter the lower and upper 
limits for X and Y. Minimums are given by the program. 

The first time around, the program displayed the graph, 
immediately cleared and printed that my equation was not 
in the proper form and that 1 had to redo it. 1 corrected the 
error and the graph came up with X,Y axes marked accord- 
ing to specifications. You also have the option of marking 
special locations to determine if your equations will fit 
within these special delimiters. 

The program does a nice job of what it is designed to do 
and I feel it is worth the price. 

(Computer Island, Dept. R, 227 Hampton Green, Staten 
Island, NY 10312, 16K-EXT, $14.95) 



Watch Your 'Copters In 
Whirlybird Run 

Whirlybird Run by Spectral Associates is a good attempt 
at making a home version of Scramble. You begin the game 
with four helicopters. The helicopters can be lost by crashing 
into enemy ships, the ground, or running out of fuel. Refuel- 
ing can be accomplished by destroying the enemy craft with 
an *F' on them. It isn't as easy as it seems to dodge the 
ground, since mountains constantly pop up in front of your 
'copter. In the first screen, the only flying hazard is the 
enemy missiles. The second screen adds the bouncing sauc- 
ers, and later screens, the arrows must be avoided. Shooting 
at these arrows does no good since they are indestructible. 
Finally, you enter the "Cavern of Doom. " About this obsta- 
cle I can't say much, because the only time I got there I lost 
my one remaining 'copter before I could get very far. 

The helicopters are very well drawn, especially the rotat- 
ing blades. The sound effects in the game are good, particu- 
larly the sound of the helicopters. The other graphics, such 
as the mountains, are well drawn. Whirlybird Run is more 
than sufficiently challenging. The animation is smooth. 

In my opinion, the game could stand some improvements, 
like adding the sounds of explosions, saucers, and rockets, 
for example. A more serious problem is the inability to 
pause the game; it just keeps on running. Finally, the green 
sky is not up to par with most of today's CoCo software. 

As a point of interest to those of us with shaky drives 
and/ or tape recorders, this is a copy-protected game. Copies 
which fail to load will be replaced by Spectral Associates for 
reasonable prices. Finally, Whirlybird Run is a good game, 
but it is just not all it could be. 



(Spectral Associates, 3416 South 90th Street, Tacoma, WA 
98409, tape $24.95, disk $28.95) 

— Joe O'Connor 



— Michael F. Garozzo 




LOCKING DISKETTE STORAGE SYSTEM 

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200 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Software Review ^ m ^ m ^ mmmmmmmmmmm ^ ^ 

DO-FILE/FIX-FILE — A 
Good Memory Database 

By Frank J. Esser 

There are a number of database programs out for the 
Color Computer. Most of them are disk oriented arid a few 
are designed to function on cassette based systems. DO- 
FILE is a database that is unique in that it is a third form, a 
memory database. Since it is a memory database, the 
amount of data that can be stored at any one time is limited. 
The manual states that the maximum storage is 16,480 
characters. How this translates into records is dependent 
upon the size of each record. If, for instance, a record is 55 
bytes long, then the database will hold a maximum of 299 
records. Although the manual does not state it as such, I 
doubt that the DO-FILE will run on a 1 6K Color Computer. 
DO-FILE has the ability to load and save files to disk or 
cassette. However, upon initialization you are asked if disk 
or cassette is being used. If you load a file from cassette, all 
files must be saved to cassette also. If you desire, the variable 
used to indicate if cassette or disk is being used can be 
changed at midstream and the file saved to disk. 1 tried it and 
it works well. 

DO^FILE comes on a cassette along with its companion 
program FIX-FILE. Also included is a 32-page instruction 
manual. The manual is well-written arid quite easy to follow. 
It is broken down into three distinct sections. The first is the 
introduction section. It is here that the author gives a brief 
overview of what to expect from DO-FlLE. Also, the 
memory restrictions are listed and explained. Next the pro- 
gram loading instructions are given. To get maximum 
memory, a few pokes are required to set the computer up. 
Once this is done DO-FILE can be loaded and run. The 
program initialization takes you through a series of steps, 
required to match DO-FILE for your particular set-up. 
These steps are: 

1) Printer Speed 

Set your printer Baud rate to 300, 600, 1200, 2400 or 
4800. 

2) Printer line width 
Adjustable from 0 to i32 

3) Header/ Footer spaces 

Number of blank lines to leave at top and bottom of 
each page 

4) High Speed 

Will set your clock speed to high if so desired 

5) Input/ Output Device 

Cassette or disk used for input/ output device 

After all these prompts are answered, the main menu 
appears. It is here that I feel one of the program's short- 
comings shows up. The main menu is a complete screen full 
of data that is in a very cramped style. It is hard to read and 
the cramped style does not help. The main menu presents 1 2 
options or commands. Here is an explanation of each. 



NEW is the command used to create a new database. 
Through this command you can define your file contents in 
terms of fields each record will contain and its length. 

The CREATE/ CHANGE allows you to add data to the 
database or change data already in the database. If you wish 
DO-FILE to find the first open record for you, all you have 
to do is enter a + in response to RECORD NO — a very nice 
feature. If you wish to change a record, all you have to do is 
enter the number of the record you wish to change. 

The RECORD command will display any record for you 
on the screen. If the requested record does not exist you are 
so informed. 

The DELETE command does just that. It will delete 
records for you from ihe database. You are asked for the 
number of the record to delete. If that record does not exist, 
you are so informed. If the record does exist, you are asked 
again if you want to delete this record. Sort of a secondary 
check, like "ARE YOU SURE(Y/N)?" 

The L/Srcommand will dump the database to either the 
screen or printer. Using the Space Bar, the printing of data 
can be halted. Once the listing is halted it can be either 
continued or aborted. If the printer is not on-line, you are 
requested to either put it on-line or abort the print process. 

The MAINTENANCE command lets you load and save 
files. If you specified, during initialization, that you would 
be loading from cassette, then all saves and loads will be 
attempted from the cassette recorder. The same is true if you 
specified a disk as the input/ output device. If you attempt to 
load a file while one is already in memory, a message will be 
displayed warning you that a file is already in memory and 
must be saved or DO-FILE must be rerun before the desired 
file can be loaded. You have the option, during file save, to 
save the file in its normal order or its sorted order. 

The S'O.Rrcommand allows you to sort the file on any of 
the fields. As a matter of fact, you can sort on any three fields 
selectively. That is, you have the ability to sort on the first 
field, than sort within that field limits based on the second 
field and on to the third field. The sorts can be either 
ascending or descending. 

The ORDERED/ LIST command will display or print 
the results of a SOR T command. When the records within 
the file are sorted their order is not changed. What happens 
is, an index is built that lists the present record numbers in 
their sorted order. Thus, all ORDERED / LIS T has to do is 
read this index and display the records in the indicated 
order. 

The TOTAL command lets you specify a column of 
numbers to be added up. The numbers to be totaled need not 
be right justified in the field that is to be totaled, they just 
have to be within the field boundaries. 

The FIND command will permit a string search of up to 
three fields. The search function will perform match that is 
independent of the string location within the field or fields 
being searched. 

The HELP command will display the command menu 
and return you to where you came from upon pressing any 
key. 

The EXIT command terminates the DO-FILE program 
and returns you to the BASIC interpreter. 

Also included is a utility program called FIX-FILE. FIX- 
FILE gives you the ability to either enlarge any of the 
previously defined fields or to add a new field. FIX-FILE 
thus gives you the ability to modify the structure of the 
database file without having to dump and reload it after the 
modifications have been made. 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 201 



DO-FILE performs all the functions it is documented to 
have and performs exactly as described in the documenta- 
tion. DO-FILE is a memory database and for that reason is 
limited in the atnount of data that can be stored in any one 
database. However, if the number of bytes you would want 
to store does not exceed 16.5k bytes, then DO- FILE should 
work for you. For example, I built a test file with the 
following fields defined. The file was to hold my Christmas 
card list. The fields are defined as follows: 





30 bytes 




30 bytes 


City 




State 


2 bytes 








12 bytes 


Total 





With each record being 104 bytes long, 1 would be able to 
stoffe 1 58 different names and addresses in DO-FILE^ which 
is more than enough for this application. The sort routine is 
fairly fast and appears to be a Shell-Metzner sort routine. A 
real plus for DO-FILE is that its print and display routines 
can be interrupted and stopped without exiting the pro- 
gram. Also, during the running of the sort routine, periods 
are periodically written to the screen indicating that indeed 
something is going on. 1 think the main menu is too cramped 
and hard to read, but it is functional. You are asked to insert 



either a cassette or diskette, depending upon Whether you 
specified disk or cassette as the I/O device. You are then 
asked for the filename. 

I think the first prompt and required reply is unnecessary 
as I feel it is safe to assume that if you are about to read or 
write a file that the appropriate media be in place before the 
I/O operation is started. The place for these types of 
prompts is where I/O operations are not dependent upon 
responses from the keyboard. 

In summary, DO-FILE does everything it is documented 
to do and does provide all the functions necessary to setup 
and maintain a small memory resident database. Also 
included is a utility program, which allows the user to 
enlarge and add fields to an existing database without 
dumping the file to a hard copy device and then re-entering 
the data after the file parameters have been redefined. A 
sample file is included which is used throughout the manual 
as the basis for the various commands examples. 1 received 
an updated version which corrected the errors in the original 
version. However, I still had a syntax error on Line 182. I 
corrected that problem by listing Line 1 82 and re-entering it. 
I then saved the file and the syntax error went away. 1 could 
not find anything wrong with the original line as entered. 

1 like DO-FILE. It has its limitations, but as long as they 
are understood, I think has its merits. Error checking is 
performed to such a degree that I could riot crash the pro- 
gram during a run while staying within reasonable bounds. 

(Solid Software, P.O. Box 712, Levittown, PA 19058, $29.95 
plus $2 S/H) 



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First Impressions 




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202 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Software Review! 



Super Bug — 
A Powerful Debugger 

Super Bug is a powerful machine language monitor for 
the Color Computer. Monitor programs aid you in debug- 
ging and modifying machine language programs. They 
allow you to examine and modify memory and registers, as 
well as execute programs step by step. Super Bug is not as 
powerful as the ZBUG monitor built into Radio Shack's 
EDTASM+, but it is more flexible. 

Super Bug offers most of the needed features of a machine 
language monitor. It displays Hex or ASCII codes of data in 
memory. The display is well formatted for screen or printed 
output. The program also shows the internal registers of the 
microprocessor. Both memory and registers can be modified 
to contain new values. Super Bug will work with a 64K 
system, automatically switching over to 64K mode and cop- 
ying the BASIC ROMs to RAM. 

The program operates from two main menus accessed by 
the CLEAR and BREAK keys. A third sub-menu enables many 
of the displays tp be printed. Besides displaying and modify- 
ing memory, you can search, compare, and duplicate blocks 
of memory. You can jump to subroutines and set break- 
points to halt execution at specific points. This allows you to 
step through a program and examine the results of each 
section. 

Super Bug contains a mini-disassembler, which breaks 
Hex codes into blocks that represent machine instructions. 
The 6809 microprocessor in the Color Computer has 
instructions from one to four bytes in length. The mini-disassembler 
separates these codes into correctly spaced blocks to facili- 
tate looking up the mnemonics in a book or programmer's 
reference card. 

The program can load or save machine language pro- 
grams using cassette tape. However, it does not provide the 
same functions with disk. You will have to exit to BASIC and 
use the LOADM and SA VEM commands. This is a small 
inconvenience, but it does mean switching back and forth 
between Super Bug and BASIC for the disk user. 

The 22-page manual begins with a command summary. A 
detailed description of each command and option follows. 
Finally, a tutorial gives you a look at each function while 
working through some simple examples. The tutorial pro- 
vides an introduction for using a monitor to debug machine 
language programs. It explains the use of breakpoints and 
stepping through programs while watching register values 
change. 

Super Bug has a number of useful, well-designed features 
that make it a pleasure to use. The displays are carefully 
designed to utilize the CoCo's limited screen. You can select 
either Hex or ASCII display formats. In the ASCII mode, 
you can choose to display values larger than 127 as colored 
graphic blocks (the Color Computer's normal text graphic 
mode). Printed output gives both Hex and ASCII in 16-byte 
lines, using thp full 80-column output. 

The program determines its own location in memory and 
protects those addresses from being altered. This makes 
Super Bug very resistant to accidental modification. You 
can purposely alter the program by moving a copy to an 
unprotected area of memory. 

Another friendly aspect of Super Bug's operation is its use 
of default address values. If you want to repeat similar 



E.T.T. 

ELECTRONIC 
TYPING 
TEACHER 

by 

CHERRYSoft 




Learning to type the right way can save you hours of tedious work when 
entering programs into your CoCo, and this is just what ETT was designed 
to do. Devote a littje time every day practicing with ETT and before you 
know it you will be typing with confidence. Entering those programs wilf 
no longer be the chore it used to be. 

ETT's video keyboard lets you practice with all the keys labeled, all the 
keys blank or only the "home" keys labeled. The visual cues guide you while 
you learn to type without watching your fingers. ETT shows your 
accuracy, response time, and words per minute. You will quickly see that 
you are improving with practice. 

With the sentences provided by ETT learning to type can be fun. Over 
1 000 variations chosen because they include every letter in the alphabet. 
You can also create your own practice sets. This outstanding program 
was written by a certified teacher and professional programmer and 
comes with a ten page student manual-study guide. Requires 16K 
Extended Basic. 



Cassette 



$21.95 



ETT NOW AVAILABLE FOR COMMODORE 64 



CASSETTE $24.95 



DISK $29.95 



00^ 



MASTER 
CONTROL II 



The best doesn't always cost more and MASTER CONTROL Ij is a good 
example. What would you be willing to pay for a program that would cut 
your typing time by more than 50°/o and eliminate hours of debugging 
because you misspelled a comma.nd word? For example the command 
STRINGS (requires nine strokes) with MASTER CONTROL l| you only 
require two strokes, just hit the down arrow key twice and it's done, and 
no mistakes. That is just one of the 50 pre-programmed commands 
available to you. If that isn't enough you alsp have the ability to customize 
your own key to enter a statement or command correctly, automatically 
every time. But that's not all, how about automatic line numbering. Just 
enter the starting number and the increment you want and MASTER 
CONTROL II will do it for you. Yqu also have direct control of MOTOR, 
AUDIO and TRACE plus a direct RUN key. Sounds great? Well, 
thousands of color computer owners have been enjoying these features 
for years. But now the new MASTER CONTROL II also has the following 
features: 

-IrNew plastic overlay that can be removed when you are not using 
MASTER CONTROL II. 

•"■New documentation, to help you get the most from the program. 
-"-New repeating keyboard. 



Cassette 



$21.95 



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Warehouse CA ™ LOG 

Where Shopping By Mail is "USER FRIENDLY" DEALER 
500 N. DOBSON - WESTLAND, MI 48185 INQUIRIES 
Phone (313) 722-7957 INVITED 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 203 



operations, the start, end, or execute addresses may remain 
the same. You simply press ENTER to get the previous value. 
The fill command is also well suited to repeated patterns. It 
will replicate a string of bytes throughout a range of 
memory. This suggests an easy way to enter low resolution 
graphics patterns. 

There are also a few negative aspects to Super Bug. The 
quick, mini-disassembler is much less useful than a full 
fledged disassembler. Yqu will learn a lot about machine 
instructions from looking up the instruction codes in a 
book, but a full disassembly is a must for serious work on 
large programs. The disassembler built into Radio Shack's 
EDTASM+ also allows the labels used in the assembly 
language program to be displayed as addresses. This sym- 
bolic reference is not available to a stand-alone monitor. 
You must be content with absolute Hex addresses. 

The display of registers could be improved by giving the 
bit for bit display of the condition code register. This would 
allow you to easily see which condition codes are set by 
particular instructions. 

Super Bug is a fine machine language monitor for debug- 
ging programs. It has the flexibility to serve a variety of 
needs. It will work on a minimal system, yet is powerful 
enough to aid advanced machine language programmers. 
Combined with an editor/assembler and a disk file editor it 
would serve the machine language student well. 

(Mark Data Products, 24001 Alicia Parkway, No. 207, Mis- 
sion Yiejo, CA 92691, 16K to 64K tape $29.95, disk $32.95) 

— Stuart Hawkinson 




Software P ^ ,W ^ ,J/ — — ->»^ 

The Sourcerer Can Undo 
Machine Language Magic 

One of the ways to sharpen up your BASIC programming 
skills is to pick apart a BASIC program that was written by 
someone else. This can either be a program published in THE 
rainbow or one that you have purchased. If you are into 
assembly language programming, however, there is no easy 
way to do this since you cannot just LIST a machine lan- 
guage program. 

The Sourcerer, an OS-9-based disassembler, is a utility 
program that will help you to pick apart those machine 
language programs. It does this, in effect, by translating the 
machine language object code into assembly language 
source code. There are three different disassembly modes 
available with this program and the output can be sent to 
either the screen, printer or a disk file. 

The ZAP mode of operation is the one that you will 
probably use first. In this mode, you can identify the ASCII 
strings and / or data tables in the program. This information 
is later used in the other modes in order to get a clean 
assembly listing. There are also two submodes available 
here. The first is the Alpha rnode, which will display an 
ASCII dump of the program. The other one, Numeric 
mode, displays a hexadecimal dump of the program. By 
combining the use of these two modes you should be able to 
identify most, if not all, of the data areas in the program. 

The LONG mode of operation will produce output that 
resembles a regular assembly output listing. It includes a line 
number (optional), the address, machine code, mnemonic 
code and the operands. Before the output is displayed you 
can enter the address ranges of the data areas of the program 
that you found by using the ZAP mode. Up to 32 different 
data areas can be defined, and you can also decide if you 
want to see FCCs, FCBs, or FDBs. 

The SYMBOLIC mode of operation is the one that you 
will use when you are ready to try to modify and/ or re- 
assemble the program that you are working on. By directing 
the output to disk, you can then read it in using OS-9's editor 
to make changes to it or input it to OS-9's assembler to 
create a new program or just to get an assembly listing that 
you can then study. 

Several control functions are also available in all of the 
modes when sending your output to the screen. These 
include pausing the output, changing the speed of the dis- 
play, jumping from one address to another and back again, 
and of course, quitting the disassembly. There are also two 
versions of the program. One of them is a standard version 
and the other is designed for use with FHL's O-PAK to take 
advantage of its 51 by 24-character screen display. 

The Sourcerer is an excellent OS-9 disassembler that 
provides all of the flexibility you need in order to get the job 
done. The documentation is clear and describes the various 
modes of operation. It does, however, assume that you 
essentially know what you are doing in the first place, so not 
a lot of detailed information is provided for the beginner. If 
you are looking to get into the innards of OS-9, The Sour- 
cerer would be a good starting point. 

(Computerware, 4403 Manchester Ave., Suite 102, Box 668, 
Encinitas, CA 92024, 64K/OS-9 disk $39.95) 

— Gerry Schechter 



204 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Software Re vie w^ mmmmmmmmmm ^~~~Z!Z/r?\ 

Chambers Is A High Level 
Action Game 

Just when you think Tom Mix Software is ready to rest on 
its laurels with its many successful adaptations of video 
games, the company comes up with another that builds 
upon the firm's reputation as among the more innovative 
suppliers for the Color Computer. 

Chambers is the latest program, loosely based upon Cos- 
mic Chasm. It features 20 levels of difficulty, with 20 to 35 
rooms on each level, 50 different kinds of creatures, and 75 
different patterns that the creatures follow. 

The graphics are superior, the sound effects are excellent, 
and the degree of challenge on all levels is tremendous, even 
for the more seasoned computer game buffs. 

As the hero in this fast-paced game — which also resem- 
bles Berserk but is not anywhere near as predictable — you 
must battle all kinds of weird and evil characters in each 
room on that level before blowing up the main reactor room. 

There is a map for each level of difficulty in the upper 
right-hand corner of the screen. As you survive one room 
and go to the next, your progress is shown on the map. 

Be aware, however, that getting out of any of the rooms is 
a feat because, in addition to the creatures, there are radia- 
tion balls at the base in the center of the room that fire at you 
at irregular intervals. If you get past those, there are human- 
seeking energy balls that can only be destroyed by position- 
ing yourself so they will run into the base. 

Each room includes four or five exits— depending upon 
the room's position in the maze — but the doors are locked 
until you eliminate the creatures. You can return to a room 
that you have survived, but the energy balls are reactivated 
and the challenge is renewed. 

It probably will take you several days and many, many 
games to get all the way to the first reactor room, so be 
prepared for a long siege. 

When you finally do get to the reactor room, you cannot 
exit through the doors because there is no key available. 
(Yes, you also need a key in each room except this one.) 
Also, in this room the energy balls will not blow up by 
running into the base. You must explode the reactor base by 
shooting it 20 times. 

You have eight men when the game begins and a score- 
board in the upper left-hand corner of the screen keeps track 
of your turns. It also includes the current score, as well as the 
high game in the present series of games. 



^mon/i Computing 

49 Brookland Ave., Aurora, Ontario Canada L4G 2H6 

PRESENTS: TEACHER'S PET - A must for every teacher. The 
features include: 40 students per file, 4 terms with up to 9 tests 
per term, alphabetical order, letter grades, numeric grades, 
averaging and weighting, class lists, term and year end 
reports, search, delete, add, screen and printer output, enter 
classes and grades anytime of year, disk 1/0, and more in fast 
Machine Language. 32K Disk System. 
$34.95 



As for scoring, you get 100 points for killing a creature, 
10,000 points for destroying the base in the reactor room., 
and 50,000 points for passing level 20, which is nearly 
impossible. 

Pressing 'P' will freeze the game, while ENTER will resume 
action. If you want to change the color mode, just press k M\ 
and SHIFT CLEAR will alter the game action and go back to 
the title screen. 

When the title screen is displayed, you may select levels 
one to 10 by using the right joystick. You can earn a new 
man when you earn 10,000 points. 

I found Chambers to be a continuous challenge and the 
graphics fascinating. One set of creatures actually lines up in 
an 'MIX 1 formation. You never really know what kind of 
creatures you will be squaring off against or in what kind of 
pattern they will be. 

The level of difficulty involved and the diversity of gra- 
phics and sound effects, and the levels of challenge, assures 
that Chambers will have a long lifespan. 

(Tom Mix Software, 2485 Bradford N.E., Grand Rapids, 
MI 49506, $24.95 tape, $27.95 disk) 

— Charles Springer 



WANTED! 

Young men and women seeking adven- 
ture, excitement and thrill-a-minute ac- 
tion. No experience necessary— just you 
and your Color Computer. See below: 



FOR THE 32K THRILLSEEKER 





TITLE 


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MR. DIG 


$27.95 


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ICE HOCKEY 




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ZAXXON 


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PROTECTOR II 




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DESERT PATROL 




21.95 




ICEMASTER 




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FOODWAR 




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WACKY FOOD 




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CASHMAN 




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CHOPPER STRIKE 




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TIME BANDIT 




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LOTS OF PLAY FOR 16K 






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Interested applicants send check or m/o to: 

OELRICH PUBLICATIONS, INC. 
4040 N. NASHVILLE 
CHICAGO, IL 60634 

Credit card orders call: 800-621-0105 
(In Illinois call: 312-545-9286) 
NO SHIPPING CHARGES!!! 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 205 



Software Review! 



Take A Fun Trip 
With T ravelin 9 Toad 

At last, a game that makes sense! Ever since the game 
Frogger appeared on the scene, I could never understand 
why a frog falling into the water would drown. Through the 
years, frogs have acquired the reputation of being compe- 
tent swimmers. Even the Navy credits their skills by calling 
their highly trained swimmers "frogmen. "Now from Prickly- 
Pear Software we have the Traveliri Toad game, a Frogger 
clone that makes sense. 

The object of the game is to guide the toad from his 
starting position on the shoulder of a very busy highway to 
his hole along the river bank. First, the highway must be 
crossed. This is no easy task in itself because multiple lanes 
of traffic keep zooming by somewhat like an Interstate 
highway at the start of a holiday weekend. Once safely 
across the road, the toad must cross the river to its hole. 
Unfortunately, toads can't swim. Fortunately though for the 
toad, this is a rather busy river. There are logs and sunning 
turtles floating along the river and with some skillful jump- 
ing, the toad can leap from one to the next until he reaches 
his hole on the opposite side. Of course, if he misses, he 
drowns. This is where Frogger never made sense to me 
—frogs can swim. 

There are a few additional hazards to the player of Tra- 
velin' Toad — it is a hot sunny day and toads cant handle 
blazing sun very well. So if the toad doesn't get across to its 



hole in a rather brief time limit it shrivels up and dies. When 
crossing the river, the turtles may sometimes decide to sub- 
merge, carrying the poor toad to its doom. Later screens add 
more hazards such as hungry snakes and alligators to 
imperil our little traveler. 

Travelin* Toad is a well done game. It runs in 32K and 
uses the arrow keys to direct the toad. A two-page set of 
instructions come with the game and these are adequate for 
any user. As usual when I review a game, I submit it to the 
critical scrutiny of a panel of experts made up of my three 
teen-age sons and their friends. They agreed that Travelin f 
Toad was well done, fun-to-play and gave it their "seal of 
approval." 

(Prickly-Pear Software 8532 E. 24th Street, Tucson, AZ 
85710 Tape $24.95, Disk $29.95) 

— James G. Kriz 



f— ) COLOR CABLES c~\ 



* NEW LOW PRICES * 



$12.75 



RS-232 4-Pin DIN Printer Cables 1 0 ft 

3 ft Disk cables 
1 -drive $23.75 2-drives 

3-drives $34.80 4-drives 
Disk or Game Cartridge Ext., 3 ft 
Gold Plated Disk l/F solder plug 

Custom Cables upon request 
Extra length of any cables at $1 .00/ft 
Add $1.75 for shipping and handling 
Kansas residents add 3% tax 



$29.75 
$39.00 
$23.75 
$9.00 



C & C Engineering 
Wichita, Ks 67208 



P.O. Box 8320 
Ph. (31 6) 685-4561 



A QUICK COURSE 
IN ECONOMICS. 



/o 

OFF RETAIL 

Games by : 
Computerware 

Colorquest 
Spectral 
Tom Mix 

Prickley Pear 
Michtron 



/O 
OFF RETAIL 

All utilities 
All programming aids 
All business programs 
SOFTWARE LIBRARIES 

VIP library $210.00 
VIP business library $139.95 
Elite library $150.00 



Class Dismissed 



Price and availability subject to change without notice 
Prices effective through September 15, 1984. 
Please note new address and phone number 



m/IffM DISCOUNT SOFTWARE 

310 EAST DUNLAP #103 • PHOENIX, ARIZONA 85020 



To Order: 

\Ws accept Master Charge and Visa. Money 
Orders and personal checks welcome. 
No delay. Continental U.S. orders please 
include $2.00 postage and handling 
except VIP software orders which are 
S2.00 per piece. All international orders 
add 10% shipping and handling fee. 
Arizona residents add 6% sales tax. 



24 Hour Order Line 
(Orders Only) 
800-221-9280 Ext. 988 

Inquiries, Arizona Orders 
(602) 943-2602 

Phone answered personally 
9:00 A.M.To1:00 RM. MST 



206 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Book Review! 



System Secrets — A 
Guide To PEEKs And POKEs 



In past issues of rainbow and the other CoCo oriented 
magazines, several readers have asked for information on all 
these "mysterious" PEEKs and POKEs that "everyone" 
seems to be using these days. The question seems to be, 
"Where do I find this information and how do I use it once 
I've found it?" Well, if you are a faithful subscriber to 
RAINBOW and save all your back issues, you already have 99 
percent of the information you seek. Of course, unless you 
have taken the advice of someone such as Mr. Joseph Kolar, 
in his "Taking basic Training" column, and made notes on 
important information, you may have a slight problem find- 
ing anything when you really need it. 

Into this realm of confusion rides a booklet entitled 
System Secrets, by Raymond Coit (mounted on a white 
charger, of course!). This booklet is, in Mr. Coifs own 
words, "A comprehensive guide to PEEKs, POKEs and 
EXECs for the Extended BASIC and Color BASIC Color 
Computers. "The booklet contains 20 mimeographed 8 l A by 
1 1 pages and covers topics such as; text and graphics on the 
text screen, sounds, keyboard and joystick input, program 
protection and manipulation and much more. 

Although much of its contents has been already printed in 
one form or another, having it together in one neat bundle 
makes finding what you need much easier. For experienced 
CoCo users, this is a good reference guide. For the inexpe- 
rienced users, this is like letting a little kid loose in a candy 
shop. There are many interesting items such as the PEEKs 
for the start and end addresses of both BASIC and ML 
programs, how to PCLEARO, the POKE for creating multi- 
colored patterns in PMODE 4, the high speed poke and 
others. Unfortunately, there is also a great deal of CoCo 
"trivia." Items like a PEEK that returns the last octave used 
in a PLA Y command; an EXEC that does a CLSO; an 
EXEC that prints a single space and others that seem to 
serve no real purpose. The other point I should mention is 
that most of the information contained in this booklet is 
only as good as the programmer who uses it. In other words, 
don't expect miracles; knowing what a PEEK or POKE does 
and using the result in a meaningful manner are two differ- 
ent things. Don't take this as a negative note, I just don't 
want the more inexperienced user to be disappointed. If you 
have any doubts then perhaps you should examine the 
"memory map" printed in earlier issues of RAINBOW. While 
System Secrets is much easier to comprehend, both sources 
contain a great deal of the same information. 

Finally, if you believe you have enough programming 
experience to use this information or, on the other hand, 
want to experiment and learn by doing, then System Secrets 
should provide you with sufficient data to provide quite a 
challenge. 

(RC Creations, 17251 Palatine N., Seattle, W A 98133, $5.95 
plus $1.50 S/H) 

— Ken Boyle 



What Does 
Dugger's Growing 
Systems Grow? 



we grow c Compilers ($120 value) 
generate fast, efficient code 
longs, floats, most operators 
FLEX* $75.00 
ne W OS-9* $59.95 

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Post Office Box 305 
Solana Beach, Calif. 92075 
(619) 755-4373 

Technical information 6 am to 8 am PDT only 
Dealer inquiries welcome 

* Flex— trademark of TSC, OS-9 trademark of Microware 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 207 



Software Review ZZ TZS 

Blast Those Aliens 
With Intercept 4 

I was pleasantly surprised when I opened the envelope 
containing the 32K arcade-type game, Intercept 4 from 
MichTron. Not only did they have their own custom- 
designed diskette jacket, they also had a very classy docu- 
mentation booklet made of a thick, almost like cardboard, 
gray patterned paper, which makes reading the black type a 
joy. The documentation gives a brief description of the 
scenario, how to play the three different "sections" of the 
game, completion of a planetary system, entering high 
scores, loading instructions, and finally, a more detailed 
explanation of the scenario. 

The purpose of Intercept 4 is to protect colonized planets 
on the edge of your sector from hostile alien attacks. On the 
planet are eight colonies, each with the name of a Greek 
letter, and each having 125 members. Your job is to keep 
these little guys alive so "the Federation may gain a foothold 
in this section of the galaxy/' 

When the game is played, there are three main sections: 
above the planet, on the planet, and in the mother ship. 
When above the planet, try to stop the aliens from landing. 
You do this by shooting the fighters before they land. At this 
time, you have to use both joysticks; one to aim your wea- 
pons, and the other to determine the distance from your ship 



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at which the shot will effect. This makes it much harder to hit 
the aliens, since you have to think in three dimensions. 

If the alien fighters get past you above the planet, you will 
have to go down to the individual colonies in your Intercept 
shuttle to further protect the colonists. When there, the left 
joystick moves your shuttle above the colony and the right 
joystick aims your shuttle's weapons. Now the aliens will 
begin killing your colonists, so you must act quickly or you 
will be defending a dead planet. 

The instructions say that when the mother ship appears 
you will have to destroy fighters protecting it. I refer to the 
instructions because I have never gotten to fight the mother 
ship. After you destroy all of the guardian fighters, you will 
have to travel through a tunnel to the reactor core. (Didn't I 
see this in a movie?) There will be nine ventilation ports in 
the core which open one at a time in a particular order. Your 
job will be to shoot each one in the order in which it opens. 

When you hit all of the ports in the correct order, you 
must leave the mother ship. Then you will fly back into space 
and see if the mother ship self-destructs or destroys the 
planet. 

When the entire system is completed, you get a bonus of 
the population left alive, up to 100 times the number of 
planets in the system. 

At various times during play you have to make sure you 
don't expend all your energy. There is a scale at the bottom 
of the screen to show how much you have left at all times. 
When above the planet, shots (from huge weaponry) expend 
quite a bit of energy, which returns rather slowly, so you 
must be extremely careful. On the planet's surface, the shut- 
tle uses a smaller amount of energy, but it has no power 
source, making the energy loss permanent (until you return 
to your orbiting battleship). In reference to energy, the 
reactor core in the mother ship acts the same as on the 
planet's surface. Energy is important because, not only is it 
needed to run the ships, it is also used in absorbing shots 
fired at you by the fighters while orbiting the planet. 

I think this is a very good game, but it is not as exciting as 
many games. There are delays in the game, such as waiting 
for your battleship to pick you up from the planet, but they 
are minor ones (i.e., less than 30 seconds). 

The graphics are well done, using PMODE4 and making 
use of artifact colors. With the disk version you have the 
ability to save the top eight scores. 

(MichTron, 6655 Highland Road, Pontiac, MI 48054, 
$27.95 cassette, $29.95 disk) 

— James C. Sewell 



DISK-O-TIER great for dally use! $ 7.00 + $3.00 S/H 
DATA DEFENDER (smoke or red) $21.00 + $3.00 S/H 
PRINTER STAND 20ga. steel, felt pads, wht. pebbled 
finish, w. paper slot: good TV/CRT stand, too. 
PS#920 5H"x2\h"xl3" $39.00 + $5.00 S/H 

PS4910 5V-X15" xl3" $34.00 + $5.00 S/H 

w. purchase of one of above-BUY: 
NASHUA disks, 5V'. ss-dd $ 1.69 each 

or *Hmit 20 tapes/disks* 

BASF-LHD, C-ia/YORK-lO" tapes $ .50 each 
and w. any purchase-BUY: 
2-SIDE-IT, disk doubler kit $ 5.00 each 

Check or M.0.-U.S. Funds-OHIO residents add 6% tax 
Bulk discounts and outside U.S. S/H-send S.A.S.E. - 




EVANS ENTERPRISES 609 APPLEHILL DR. RAINBOW 

(513) 859-3529 W . CARR0LLT0N , OH 45449 certificate 



Teachers: Have you written the "ultimate" pro- 
gram? We'd like to take a look . . . 



208 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Hardware Review! 



Software Review! 



A Gremlin-Proof 
Storage Box 

Once upon a time, in a far away place known as Prospect, 
Kentucky, there was a bewildered RAINBOW word process- 
ing manager who could not understand what was happening 
to the information recorded on her mini diskettes. Little did 
she know that every night when the lights were out and 
everyone had gone home, gremlins were invading her 
diskette storage box. They caused all kinds of problems. For 
example, at times, the entire cjiskette was damaged, thus 
causing the loss of all of her work. Sometimes diskettes were 
just filed in inappropriate places. 

One lucky day, Disk-Haven Products submitted a Lock- 
ing Diskette Storage System for review and, lo and behold, 
her troubles were over. This locking storage box, which 
holds 70 5^-inch diskettes, contains dividers for separating 
the diskettes into specific categories, and it locks\ Since the 
box is made of heavy-duty plastic (and locks), the gremlins 
are unable to get into it and, thus cannot damage any more 
diskettes. 

The Locking Diskette Storage System is lightweight and 
has handles, so it can be easily moved to any area for easy 
access. And, at a cost of only $18.99, it's considerably less 
expensive than some other models. 

Well, everyone knows that gremlins cannot unlock a 
locked box, and they certainly cannot run off with the whole 
thing (can they?), so it seems that my problems are over! 
Now if I could just figure out who keeps leaving the water on 
and the refrigerator door open! 

(Disk-Haven Products, P.O. Box 443, Cockeysville, MD 
21030, $18.99) 

— Lynda Wilson 



Submitting Material 
To the Rainbow 

Contributions to THE RMN30W are welcome from every- 
one. We like to run a variety of programs which will be 
useful/ helpful/ fun for other C0C0 owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and it is best 
to make several saves, at least one of them in ASCII format. 
We're sorry, but we dp not have time to key in programs. All 
programs should be supported by some editorial commen- 
tary, explaining how the program works. We're much mpre 
interested in how your submission works and runs than how 
you developed it. Programs should be learning experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of criteria. 
Those wishing remuneration should so state when making 
submissions. 

For the benefit of those wjio wish more detailed infor- 
mation on making submissions, please send a SASE to: 
Submissions Editor, THE RAINBOW, P.O. Box 385, Pros- 
pect, KY 40059. We will send you some more comprehensive 
guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently sub- 
mitted to another publication. 



Church Time Is Fun Time 

Church Time is a fast-paced 32K text Adventure with a 
humorous twist. The story line requires you to find your 
Bible and escape from a locked house. You must do this in 
less than 16 minutes or you will be late for church and lose 
the game. Play is fast paced and simple enough for 
beginners. The humorous touches brighten the game in the 
absence of graphics. 

The title screen asks if instructions are required and on 
command will present a review of the rules and a small hint. 
As usual in this type of program you must discover the 
capabilities and limits by experimentation. The 16-minute 
time limit keeps games from dragging on and lets other 
players have a chance. Because of this, there is no need to 
save a game in progress so this feature is not missed. 

Documentation consists of a single sheet inside a title 
sheet. For a program of this sort it is adequate without being 
fancy. The program is written in BASIC and supplied on a 
high quality cassette with no attempt at copy protection.' 

(QCS, P.O. Box 1899, Duncan, OK 73533, tape $10.99) 

— Charles Bream 



j*\uwia Computing 

49 Brookland Ave., Aurora, Ontario Canada L4G 2H6 
FAMILY GAMES 

The popular STOCKBROKER and CRfBBAGE 32K 

.... $14.95 each. 

ADVENTURE GAMES: Sea Quest and Shenanigans from 
MARK DATA only $24.95(C); $27 .95(D) each 

From BRANTEX, PIRATE TREASURE 16K $13.95 

SCAVENGER HUNT 16K $18.95 

EDUCATIONAL GAMES 

COLORMIND, CONCEN - improve your memory and logical 
thinking - 16K $10.95 each 

• • • 

Also from BRANTEX 

EDU-COMBO (Math Derby, Peek 'N* Spell Metric Converter) 
16K only $29.95 

BUSINESS: HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE MANAGER 16K$19.95 

LOAN ANALYSIS 16K $20.95 

• • • 

NEW from MARK DATA 

The amazing TIME FIGHTER 16K $24.95(C) 

32K $27.95(D) 

Also the ever popular GLAXXONS 16K $24.95(C) 

32K $27.95(D) 

• • • 

UTILITIES: ROMDISK: Run your rom pack games from a disk! 
64K $15.95 

MR. COPY - make up to 99 copies of one program at once! 
16K $15.95 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 209 



Software Review! 



A Few Mods Make 
Cassette Label Great 

When I first purchased my CoCo I had no trouble organ- 
izing my five or 10 cassettes. Unfortunately (or fortunately, 
depending on how you look at it), my library now numbers 
close to 100 cassettes and keeping things neatly labeled is a 
definite chore. Enter Cassette Label by Metric Industries, or 
so I thought. 

The Cassette Label program arrives on cassette, natu^ 
r§illy, and requires a minimum of 16K and Extended Color 
BASIC. The package contains one sheet of very welf written 
instructions and 24 blank, pin feed labels to get you started. 
The program itself is written in Extended BASIC and pre- 
ceded by Sugar Software's Auto Run loader. This, as many 
of you already know, requires you to CLOA Z)Af whereupon 
the program is loaded and automatically RUN. 

The program will print five lines on each label consisting 
of two lines above the center hole in the label, two very short 
lines (words) on either side of the hole and one line at the 
bottom. Depending on the capabilities of your printer, you 
can choose combinations of standard, expanded and con- 
densed characters as well as select the required Baud rate. 
The number of characters per line, is, of course, directly 
dependent on the print type selected and the program will 
automatically center any text you enter. The program 



ENHANCED 1248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER 

Directly compatible with EPROMs 2508, 2716. 2532, 2732, 68732-0-1, 68764 & 
64766. No personality modules required. Adapter extends capability for 2564. 
Menu driven,' the 1248-EP is suitable for both experienced and novice operators. 

Functions include: 1) ERASURE VERIFICATION; 2) CQMPARE EPROM TO 
REFERENCE; 3) BLOCK PROGRAMMING; 4) BYTE PROGRAMMING; 5) DUMP 
EPROM TO RAM; 6) JUMP; 7) RETURN TO EPROM MENU. 

Other features: 1) Error detection & location; 2) Intelligent algorithm reduces 
programming time; 3) Textool ZIF socket; 4) On-board programming supply; 
5) Extra PIA port supports parallel communications with handshake; 6) Firmware 
in on-board EPROM. 

Comes with complete documentation. 

Price ft $129.95 



A/D-80C ANALOG TO DIGITAL 
CONVERTER 



• 16 A/D channels. 

• 8 or 10 bit resolution. 

• 9K conversions/second. 

• Auto-ranging or sample/hold. 

• Large wirewrap area for custom 
signal conditioning & growth. 

• On-board PIA provides user control 
of stimulus. 

• On-board EPROM location for user 
software. 

• Documentation includes: data 
1 sheets, on key parts, BASIC and 

machine language programming 
examples, and signal conditioning 
circuit diagrams. 



Price it $149.95 



2-PORT EXPANSION INTERFACE 

• Buffered expansion interface. 

• Splits *FF40- $ FF5F area in half. 

• Disc port uses S FF40- , FF4F. 

• Second port uses *FF50- , FF5F. 

• Enables simualtaneous use of disc & 
other devices, e.g., the 1248-EP or 
the A/D-80C. 



Price It $89.95 



ORDERING INFORMATION 

U.S. residents add $3.00, Canadians 

add $10.00 for shipping/handling. 
Arizona residents add 5% sales tax. 
Make checks/money orders payable to 
COMPUTER ACCESSORIES 
OF ARIZONA 
5801 E. VOLTAIRE DRIVE 
SCOTTSDALE, ARIZONA 85254 
(602) 996-7569 



prompts you for all this information in a very user-friendly 
manner. 

Now comes the somewhat bad news. The program is 
designed to handle control characters for three specific types 
of printers along with a general, catch-all option for others. 
The three specified are Radio Shack DMP-lOO, the Gemini 
10X and the Gorilla Banana. As you can see, this does not 
exactly cover the world of printers, but then, that is what the 
general option is used for. I have a Radio Shack DMP-120 
and when I tried to use the general option I had no success 
whatsoever. Even though I have expanded and condensed 
capabilities, I could not get them to work with this program. 
The problem lies in the fact that the program requests a 
single CHRSQ control character for beginning and ending 
expanded and condensed characters. The author has failed 
to take into consideration that many popular printers 
require an ESC character, normally a CHR$(27), to precede 
certain control characters. Although I can still print stand- 
ard characters, most of the program's options are worthless 
for my printer. 

Well, I said to myself, the program, after all, is written in 
BASIC and I should be able to make a few simple changes to 
rectify the problem. Unfortunately, J hadn't counted on 
Metric Industries' attempt to protect their program. I say 
attempt because, although it was relatively easy to make a 
backup copy, it was exceedingly difficult to modify the 
program. The first thing the program does is to disable the 
LIST command via a special poke, hence the auto-loader. 
Well, no problem there, simply SKIPF the auto-loader and 
CLOAD the program manually. Now comes the interesting 
problem! Metric Industries has managed to cram more 
characters per line than is normally supported by the BASIC 
L/STand £"D/rcommands. Well, I don't give up easily and 
armed with my trusty Colorkit from Prickly Pear Software, 
I examined memory directly to determine what certain lines 
really contained. Following are the corrections necessary to 
make this program work with printers requiring an escape 
character. I must caution you, however, that these correc- 
tions apply to Version l .0 of Cassette Label and, should you 
liave a different version, l cannot guarantee they will work. 

The first modification I would suggest is to remove the 
LIST disable poke from Line 3. To do this replace Line 3 
with the following two lines: 

3 CLEAR700:DIMA$(40):DIMB$(40):DlMC$(lO):DIM 
D$(lO):DlME$(lO):DIMF$(lO):DlMG$(l60):DlMP$ 
(5):DIMR$(5):DIMY$(5):DIMH$(lO):DIMI$(lO):DlM 
J$(l0):DIMX$(5):DIMAS$(l5Q): Q=0:KK=00:CC=l28 
+ I6*(4-I)+ 15:DD=128 +I6*(l-1)+15:ZZ=3:CLSZZ 
5 PRINT@l28 "********************************" 

The next change actually sets the control codes. If your 
printer doesn't require an ESC character to precede every 
control code, simply remove the unnecessary CHR$(27) 
from the following line: HH$ = begin expanded, 11$ = end 
expanded, JJ$ — begin condensed, KK$ = end condensed. 

59 CLS:HH$=CHR$(27)+CHR$(H):II$=CHR$(27)+ 
CHR$ (I);JJ$=CHR$(27)+CHR$(J):KK$= CHR$(27) 
+CH R$(K):LL$=CH R$(0) 

Now comes the modification of the printing routine. I 
rewrote this routine to use less code and therefore you must 
first delete several lines before adding the new code: DEL 
5040-6500 and DEL 2030-2060. 



210 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



5040 A 1 $=LL$: A2$=LL$:C 1S=LL$:G 1 $=LL$:G2$=LL$ 

:TDF=3I:KK=0 

5050 IFY$= 4 TTHEN6000 

5060 A1$=HH$:A2$=II$ 

5070 IFY$="2'THEN6000 

5080 IFYS= u 3 , THENGl$=HH$:G2$=II$:GOTO6000 

5090 TDF=51:C1$=JJ$:G2$=KK$:KK=1 

6000 CLS:PRINT@233, U — PRINTING— " 

60 1 0 PR INT#-2, A 1 $;TAB(3+ A); A$; A2$ 

6020 PRINT#-2,TAB(2+B);B$:PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2 

6030PRINT#-2,C1$;TAB(3+C);C$;TAB(TDF+D);D$ 

6040 PR1NT#-2,C1$;TAB(3+E);E$;TAB(TDF+F);F$ 

:PRINT#-2:PR1NT#~2 

6050 PRINT#-2,G1$;TAB(3+G+KK);G$;G2$:PRINT# 
-2:PRINT#-2 
6060 GOTO 14000 
20030 GOTO6000 

With these changes you can select the OTH ER option for 
your printer type and enter the correct control codes and 
everything should work satisfactorily. However, if you wish, 
you may customize the program to automatically use your 
specific control codes by entering the following line where; 
H = begin expanded, I = end expanded, J = begin condensed 
and K = end condensed. The line is currently set up for my 
Radio Shack DM P- 120. 

7000 H=14:I=15:J=20:K=19:RETURN 

Cassette Label is basically a well-written program that 
does the job of printing cassette labels with style. Its major 
limitation can be overcome with the changes I have provided 
and its relatively small price tag makes it a worthwhile utility 
for the cassette user. 

(Metric Industries, P.O. Box 42396, Cincinnati, OH 45242, 
cassette $6.95) 

— Ken Boyle 

Editor's Note: 

Metric Industries informs us that Cassette Label is 
now at version 1.1 and the above mentioned mods are 
not necessary. The OTHER option now permits ESC 
characters to be entered along with one or two CHR$ 
control characters for each special printer function. 
This version of Cassette Label now supports virtually 
all printers. 



Software ReviewSSSSSES^^SSES5G2\ 

Car Manager For When 
YouVe On The Road Again 

Car Manager, a personal record keeper for summarizing 
your automobile operation and maintenance expenses, has 
a very limited use for the average auto owner. The informa- 
tion needed to input to the program is everything in that 
little dog-eared notebook in the glove compartment. To use 
the program, you must have all the information from your 
little book or other bits and scraps of paper. 

The BASIC program is neatly done in its use of color and 
sound for the different screen displays and the program will 
run equally well from tape or disk. The author has used 
menu screens that simply require a single keystroke to select 
the Various functions, a nice feature. 

Despite the pleasant displays, the program has serious 
function deficiencies, even considering the low cost. 1 can see 
me now, after faithfully entering my gas cost, gallons and 
mileage for months, entering an incorrect value. All is lost; 
there is no editing of any entry. 1 feel the section for record- 
ing parts and repairs should include a date and a description 
of the expenditure. Currently, you can only enter a specific 
dollar amount. 

The program offers a display of the summary on either the 
screen or the printer; however, when I selected the printer 
option, the "PRINTER NOT ON" message started flashing 
on my screen. (But it really was.) 

If you assume the printer bug is corrected on future 
releases, the user must determine if this program will satisfy 
his needs for keeping records of the auto expenses any better 
than the little notebook in the glove compartment. 

Editor's Note: 80 Custom Software advises us that the prin- 
ter detection routine in Car Manager has been corrected to 
detect all makes of printers. 

(80 Custom Software, 5720 Brooke Lane, Sylvania, OH 
43560, cassette $12.95, disk $15.95, 16K Extended) 

— Ed Sehlhorst 



OS9 - QUIZZER 

Have your own private tutor with QUIZZER. Ask Multiple 
Choice, True/False, Fill-in and K-type questions. QUIZZER 
includes several features such as "almost" correct 
answers, speech option, select by keywords, and much 
more. . . Only $29.95, check or money order. 

Write or call for a complete description pf QUIZZER and 
our other CoCo/OS9 products today! 




P.O. Box 21007, Columbus, Ohio 43221 
614-846-0902 





FLORIDA 
ICB^ SEARCH NO LONGER! 

ITln £r Tr| e Sottware Connection ot 

Fort Lauderdale is your one stop source 
gg^jia for your Color Computer Software, 
^Mlrp^ Peripherals, Books, Magazines & Repairs 


I 




\ THE SOFTWARE 

1 ramECTiQN, ran 

4301 N. State Rd. 7 
Ei \ Lauderdale Lakes, FL 33319 
_J (305)484-7547 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 211 



Software ftewetv— — — — T/ft\ 

Full-Screen Text Editing 
With EDITTRON 

EDITTRON is a machine language program that enables 
you to perform fuil-screen text editing of your basic pro- 
grams. This is the first line of the manual supplied with the 
program. 1 would like to emphasize the words "text editing," 
because my definition of a full-screen editor is slightly dif- 
ferent. EDITTRON is based upon cursor-controlled ancj 
screen-editing functions, EDITTROWs cursor control allows 
you to move the cursor freely within the text of the screen 
and manipulate whichever portion of the BASIC program 
that is viewed on the screen, meaning the program can be 
scrolled through from beginning to end in various ways — 
one line at a time or one screen full of the program at a time. 
The cursor can also be controlled to jump to the beginning 
of the program, jump to the end of the program, jump to the 
beginning of a line, or jump to the end of a line. 

My definition of a full-screen editor is being able to posi- 
tion the cursor over any part of the screen and directly 
over-type on the screen. This would also include the line 
number, which EDITTRON does not allow in the cursor- 
controlled functions, but does allow for manipulation of the 
line number in the screen-editing functions. 

EDITTROWs cursor-controlled functions are very easy 
to understand and a quick reading of the manual is all that is 
needed. Make sure your joysticks are unplugged, as EDIT- 



TRONmW do strange things with the cursor if they are not. 
This is a slight omission in the manual, but anyone using any 
type pf machine language utility should know this already! 

Other cursor-controlled functions include searching the 
line for a character; searching the program for a line 
number; searching the program for a string of up to eight 
alphanumeric characters, which also includes the use of wild 
card characters; and repeating the find of a search for the 
next occurrence in the program. 

Screen-editing functions include some commands Ex- 
tended BASIC users will be familiar with. The program 
requires Extended BASIC to run, as it uses routines already 
built into the Extended BASIC ROM to perform some of its 
functions. Screen editing functions can be aborted by the use 
of the BREAK key. They include changing characters, insert- 
ing characters, deleting characters, extending a line, killing a 
line, and moving a line. These functions require only one key 
to initiate them and ENTER to complete them. The rest of the 
functions require the use of a control key prior to the partic- 
ular function key. They include splitting a line into two 
consecutively numbered program lines, copying a line to 
another program line number, merging two program lines 
into one, and initiating auto-line numbering for entering 
more program lines. 

EDITTRON also includes the option of a key-beep; 
which can be turned on or off. The program is hard to crash 
and can be restarted by simply re-execing it. The manual is 
well written and easy to understand, with instructions given 
on how to load EDITTRON into any size Color Computer. 
The disk version 1 received had many copies of the program 
on it to ensure a good copy could be loaded. I am not sure if 
they will continue this or if it was just for their review copy, 
but it is a good idea anyway. 

EDITTRON is mainly for editing an existing program, as 
it will not work unless a program (any length) is already in 
memory. The manual does show, however, how to start a 
new program under control of EDITTRON. This program 
can be loaded before or after the BASIC program is in 
memory, but will not work at its normal load address if 
graphics are being used. An offset load must be used as 
explained in the manual. 

Since EDITTRON uses direct jumps into the ROMs, 1 am 
not sure if it will work with all versions of the ROMs (1 have 
basic 1.1 and Extended BASIC 1.0). A disassembled listing 
of the program would have been nice, but any good disas- 
sembler should accomplish this. Vidtron seems to be a sin- 
cere company and 1 am impressed with their product, 
although, 1 personally feel it is slightly overpriced, consider- 
ing the current market situation for the Color Computer. 

(Vidtron, 4418 E. Chapman Ave., Suite 284, Orange, CA 
92669, cassette $30 U.S., disk $35 U.S.) 

— Eldon Doucet 



Hint.. A Q ukk Cure RF j 

If you're having a problem with RF1 from your CoCo 
getting into the TV set you're using as a display, try forming 
a coil about one inch in diameter with 10 turns or so of the 
TV output cable at one end. Tape the coil to hold it together, 
then plug the coil end of the cable into the computer and the 
other end into the TV /computer switch. 

Ed Ellers 




FLY at MACH 21 

Instrument Flight Simulator 

Don't chug around at 90 knots 
with other simulators. f-16 flys 
mach 2.6, is fully aerobatic, very 
realistic $21.95 

DESCENDERS 

100% ml for Radio Shack® LPVII, DMP100, 
TDP-X, and Gorilla® Banana $17.95 

TSPOOL 

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The best CoCo word processor available today! 
Tape , $49.95 Disk $59.95 

We now handle all CoCoData Ent. programs: 

Graphics Program Generator II $16.95 

Electricity Consumption Monitor $10.95 

Household Budget Worksheet $ 6.95 

LLIST-RITE , $ 5.95 

Call (813) 321-2840 for more information. 



KRT Software, Inc. 

P. O. Box 41395 

St. Petersburg, Florida 33743 



212 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Software Review! 



You Write the Songs' 
With Music $tringer 

Music Stringer, by Creative Technical Consultants, is a 
recently released utility for the purpose of creating musical 
strings with the Extended BASIC PLA Fstatement. The pro- 
gram is for 16K, Extended Color BASIC and comes only on 
tape but will work with a disk system. The program turns the 
computer keyboard into a piano keyboard. Tunes and mel- 
odies can be created from the keyboard and saved into a 
PLA Y statement that you can see on the monitor screen. 
When you have the music the way you want it, you save the 
string to tape. Then you can append the PLA ^statement to 
any BASIC program. Full and complete instructions are 
included. 

The program is written in BASIC and thus can easily be 
modified. It also has no copy-protection added. Another 
nice feature is that the instructions for using the program are 
included in the program. Instructions for inserting the music 
strings into BASIC programs are found in the six half-pages 
of documentation. 

Music Stringer gives you complete control of the PLA Y 
command in BASIC, including note length, octave, tempo, 
volume, pauses, and exits to other substrings. The capacity 
of the program is 10 completed strings. You can recall any of 
the 10 stored strings at any time. 

Once you LOAD and R UN the program, you are promp- 
ted for the tempo (suggest T2 or T3) and the starting octave 



Metric Industries 



For the color computer and TDP100 
Model 101 Interface $54.9 5 

• Serial to Parallel Interface 

• Works with any Centronics Compatible 
Printer including Radio Shack, TDP, 
Gemini, Epson, Gorillia and 
many others 

• Six switch selectable baud rates (300 
to 9600) 

• 90 day warranty 

• Power Supply included 

Model 102 RS-232-C Switcher 

• Switches all three data lines $35 ® ® 

• Indicator lights let you know computer 
is on 

• 3 position switch has silver plated 
contacts for high reliability 

• Color coded lights indicate switch "JVSSSH 
position 

• Color coded labels for your printer, 
modem etc., supplied 

Cassette Label Program $6> 95 



(suggest 03). All of this can be changed at any time. The 
tempo you select will control how short or how long the 
notes will sound while you are hunting and pecking for the 
right notes. There are five different octaves that can be 
chosen with Ol as the lowest and 05 as the highest. Now you 
are ready to compose (or decompose!). Start playing notes 
and when youVe found the right one, hit ENTER and the note 
will be stored in the string. The capacity of any one string is 
255 characters. 

To change tempo, note length, volume, or pause, press T 
and you will be given instructions for adding a substring. 
This is very easy to do, but quite cumbersome. Being a 
musician myself, using rests (pauses) is just as important as 
usipg notes (sounds). I think that a key could have been 
designated for pauses so that you would not have to go to a 
substring for this common use. By pressing T\ you can hear 
what your creation sounds like, for everything in the string 
up to that point will be played. 

But what about mistakes? No need to worry. Use the fc E' 
command and now you are into Extented Basic's editor and 
use the editor commands for inserting, deleting, skipping, 
etc.; whatever you need. 

This program was designed as a utility, but I feel children 
would have a lot of fun with this one. The program has a lot 
of applications and I am sure that many computer users will 
find value in this program. The price is very reasonable! 

Get Music Stringer and you can be like Barry Manilow 
and sing, "I Write the Songs." 

(Creative Technical Consultants, P.O. Box 652, Cedar 
Crest, NM 87008, 16K ECB, tape $12.95 plus $2 S/H) 

— J.D. Ray 





Prints five lines of information on pin- 
feed cassette labels 



Menu driven — easy to use 




• Uses special features of your printer for 
standard, expanded and condensed 
characters 

• 24 free labels included with program 

• Auto centering features for each line of 
text 

• 16K ECB required 

General Items 

• Gemini 10X Printer $319.00 

• Special Save — Printer & Interface 
$360.00 

• C-10 Cassettes $7.50/dozen 

• Hard plastic boxes $2.50/dozen 

• Pin-feed Cassette labels $3.00 per 100 

• Free shipping on all orders over $50.00 

• Add $3.00 for shipping on orders under 
$50.00 

• Ohio residents add 5.5% sales tax 

• Phone order line for VISA and 
MASTERCARD, orders accepted 24 
hrs. a day, call 513-677-0796 

or send check or money order to: 

Metric Industries 
Department R 
P.O. Box 42396 
Cincinnati, OH 45242 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 213 



Software R e vie tv^T"'"™' — 

Children Enjoy Learning With 
Ernie 's Magic Shapes 

It's every preschooler's old buddy Ernie and he's back this 
time as a magician in Ernie's Magic Shapes. Watch Ernie's 
magic wand transform shapes and colors into "shape pic- 
tures" that appear and disappear above his head. Then his 
wand makes a shape appear on his table. Now tell Ernie if 
the shape on the table is the same shape, size and color as one 
of the shapes above his head. 

Children's Computer Workshop (an activity of Children's 
Television Workshop) has developed three educational se- 
ries of games targeted for three age groups ( three through 
six, seven through 10, and older than 10 ) combining fun 
with education. Ernie's Magic Shapes is targeted for ages 
three through six and is the first program in any series that 
we have used in our family. It is part of the "BASIC Pre- 
School Skills Series." In the two weeks I have watched my 
children use this program, I can see where Ernie's Magic 
Shapes will improve a child's recognition of shapes, size, 
color, similarities and differences, embedded figures, and 
whole structures from the various groupings of shapes and 
colors presented. All this while the children are having fun 
and enjoying every minute! Ernie's Magic Shapes is 
CLOADed and runs from a BASIC preloader or driver. 
Machine language programs are loaded from the BASIC 
program. While these programs are loading, in what seems 



like a very long time for 1 6K programs, the waiting is broken 
up by the magical and very delightful appearance of Ernie, 
getting ready for his magic show no doubt. Following this 
screen a brief four-line poem appears which really summar- 
izes the whole game: 

Abracadabra! Ernie's here! 

Poof! His magic shapes appear, 

Match the shapes — and colors, too, 

And choose the game that 's right for you! 

Finally, Ernie and the poem disappear and a menu 
appears. The menu gives you seven options, an instruction 
mode and six game levels to choose from. The documenta- 
tion urges you and the children to begin from the top start- 
ing with one, as each level is more difficult than the last. 
When you master each level, or tire of playing that level, you 
may return to the menu at any time by pressing CLEAR. The 
child is free to explore, play, and advance at his own pace. 

The instruction mode, option number one, is very well 
done and gives you the actual Hi-Res screen used in the 
game. As shapes appear above Ernie's head and on the table 
a few words of instructions appear telling you what to do. 
This continues with different combinations of shapes and 
colors until you choose to leave the instruction mode. 

Game levels one and two work with recognition of single 
shapes and combination of shapes using just one color for all 
the shapes. In game levels three and four multiple shapes 
combine in the same colors, or multiple shapes of various 
colors combine to form the "shape pictures." Levels five and 
six use complex arrangements of smaller, different colored 
shapes to create whole figures commonly recognized by 
kids, such as boats, wagons, airplanes, and trucks. 

Essentially there are only two keys that the children use, 
the up-arrow and the down-arrow. They are appropriately 
used to put the shape on the table up above Ernie's head if it 
matches and to send the shape away if you don't think it 
matches. The only other keys used in the game are the 
CLEAR key (to return to the menu) and the numbers one 
through seven (to choose your game level options). Ernie 
watches for the children's input and you can see him loo*k up 
at the figure and look to the side at the shape on the table. If 
you're right he nods his head. If you're wrong he shakes his 
head no. After you've matched all the shapes in the figure 
Ernie's magic rabbit pops onto the screen and hops onto his 
wand in rhythm to the music. Ernie then waves the pictures 
away and brings in another set. That's the program. 

Children's Computer Workshop maintains Radio Shack's 
traditional easy to read and easy to understand documenta- 
tion. The little 5" x 8" booklet that comes with the program is 
a nice size for kids to handle and could almost be considered 
an "Easy Reader" book. Perhaps some people would think 
the documentation is too simple and wastes a lot of time 
with the very basics, but I would think it would be better to 
be basic and complete than to be skimpy. As well as being 
very supportive and thorough, the documentation also has 
additional notes highlighted in red to help parents guide the 
kids and provide additional information. At the very end of 
the book there are activities such as cutting, pasting, draw- 
ing, and coloring. 

I personally have not seen the other Children's Computer 
Workshop programs, but Ernie 's Magic Shapes seems to be 
well worth the investment. 

(Radio Shack Stores nationwide, 16K ECB, tape $19.95) 



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The Disk File Duplicator ; This disk utility will make 
copying files from one disk to any number of other disks 
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The Disk Utility ; This package contains three 
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The Directory Alphabetizes Alphabetize disks which 
have hard-to-follow directories. 16K........ $15.95 disk 

Lettering Services ; This banner generator allows 
stretching of letters, printing both across and down the 
paper. Any printer. 32K....... .$17.95 cass / $20.95 disk 

Shandria and Peradicadia ; This adventure is for one who 
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First in a trilogy. 32K........ $14.95 cass / $17.95 disk 

The Uaxen Furnace ; A multi-scene, high-res graphics 
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Ue accept personal checks and money orders. Foreign 
orders must be in US funds. Dealer and author inquiries 
invited. Catalog for $1.50, deductible from next 
purchase, Send orders to HARVARD DESIGN, P.O. Box 40, 
Harvard, ttt, 01451 

***************************************** 



— Kenneth D. Peters 



214 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Software Review! 



Subtraction Drill 
Without A Thrill 

"Drill" is defined in the dictionary as "a specific task or 
exercise designed to develop a skill or familiarity with a 
procedure." This is what Subtraction Drill, from CY- 
BURNET-ICS is about. This reviewer has seen many of 
these programs, some fantastic, some ordinary, some very 
dull. 

Subtraction Drill provides the user with a varied selection 
of subtraction problems. Correct and incorrect answers are 
annotated with a short musical tone. Upon completing 10 
correct problems, a rather uninteresting graphics display 
and "worn out" musical melody (one of four) is presented. 

The documentation provided is well presented and very 
informative. The tape format provided has a speed-up 
POKE on one side and a "no speed-up POKE" on the other 
side of the tape. The program loaded from both sides of the 
tape without difficulty, and has an Auto Run feature with 
graphics display while loading. 

The introduction to the documentation explains that the 
program "may be used with children in kindergarten 
through fifth grade." I feel that, though the drill is standard, 
the graphics and musical routines can cause the user (a child) 
to become bored. This, when added to the slow screen 
changing routine after an answer is entered, is quite tedious. 
My fourth grade daughter asked me if the "action" could be 
speeded up after an answer was entered, as the delay was 
causing her to lose interest. 



The graphics in this program could certainly be improved. 
The program was written for 32K Extended BASIC, so why 
the numbers that are used are so crudely "drawn," and why 
the graphics "reward" screen is done in non-Extended BASIC 
graphics is hard to explain. And the musical melodies are 
really uninspiring. While this program may be appropriate 
for beginners in math, it may prove to be a hardship for 
older children to accept in terms of a comfortable math 
training program. 

In conclusion, the content is adequate to teach subtrac- 
tion, however the format is lacking. While this program may 
be appropriate in a classroom environment (1 suggest per- 
haps a plastic coated card with the "control keys" be 
included), it may not be an appropriate investment for home 
use. 

(CY-BURNET-ICS, 5705 Chesswood Dr., Knoxville, TN 
37912, $24.95 tape, $29.95 disk) 

— Stephan A. Brown 



^CANADIAN PA YROLL* UlZh^Zl 

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Parents! 

Want to stimulate your child's learning? 
Let T.C.E. show you how! 



FRIEND OR FOE MATH 

READY FOR THE CHALLENGE? 



As a radar operator, your job is to decide which planes 
are friend or foe. The code (math problem) is your only 
clue. All you have to do is match the number on the 
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Color Computer 16K Ext Basic 
Atari 4D0/BO0 16K 



Tape $19.95 




SPELL BOMBER ™ 

A NEW TWIST ON HANGMAN! 

As captain of your ship you must destroy the enemy 
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P.O. Box 2477 Gaithersburg, Maryland 20879 (301 ) 963-3848 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 215 



Software ReviewSSSSSSS^^SSSS^\ 

Go Forth 
With SuperForth 

By Laurence D. Preble 

What's faster than a speeding FOR-NEXT loop? More 
powerful than an interpreter? Able to leap complex algo- 
rithms with a speedy bound? It's the SuperForth compiler! 
Some of you may have read my previous RAINBOW review of 
two versions of FORTH for the TRS-80 Color Computer. I 
have excerpted and rewritten some of the introductory 
material here for those who know little about the FORTH 
language. 

SuperForth is yet another language for the TRS-80 Color 
Computer. Some of you may just be beginning to explore 
the capabilities of Extended Color BASIC. Nonetheless, you 
may already have discovered some situations where BASIC is 
less than adequate. 

Extended Color BASIC is a powerful programming lan- 
guage. It is easy to learn and comes with the computer. But, 
it is slow. Most of the really great commercial software is 
written in Assembler code. Any interpreter is slow because 
of the way it works — each program statement is interpreted 
and executed each time it is encountered. A single command 
may cause dozens of machine codes (the native language of 
the computer) to execute. 

Assembler is fast, compact and very powerful. However, 
it is hard to learn and use. Even those who know and love 
Assembler, will tell you that it takes many times longer to 
write a complex Assembly Language program than to write 
a comparable program in BASIC. Assembler is fast because 
each command translates directly into a single machine 
code. There is a one-to-one correspondence. Working with 
the native language of the computer means that very effi- 
cient use of the machine is possible, hence the speed and 
small memory requirements. 

The difficulty is that every type of computer has a totally 
different native language. Also, Assembly Language is even 
more basic than BASIC. If you want to print the word 
"HELLO" in BASIC, you can simply tell the computer 
PRINT "HELLO'* and it does it. An equivalent in Assem- 
bly Language might go something like this: 

LEAX H1STR,PCR 
LBSR PDATA 
JMP CONTROL 
HISTR FCC 'HELLO 
FCB $D,$A,$4 

Despite the complexity and effort required, Assembly 
Language is by far the best way to go when it is necessary to 
squeeze every bit of performance out of a microprocessor. 

Enter the happy medium: the compiler. A compiler shares 
the high level ease of programming like BASIC and much of 
the execution speed of Assembly Language. A compiler 
translates a programming command only once. Native 
machine code is generated and stored for future use. Hence a 
compiler has much of the ease of programming of any high 
level language, but also much of the execution speed of 
Assembly Language. 

It is possible to make a compiler for any language. There 
are BASIC, FORTRAN, ALGOL, PASCAL and many other lan- 



guages implemented as compilers. FORTH is a relatively new 
entry. It was designed by an astronomer, Charles H. Moore, 
in 1969. In 1973, commercial distribution and support was 
begun by FORTH, Inc. FIG (FORTH Interest Group) 
formed in 1978 to promote the use and development of the 
new language. 

FORTH (and therefore SuperForth) is best described as a 
combination of interpreter and compiler. Commands can be 
translated and executed in one step. Commands can also be 
stored and recalled in their compiled form without further 
interpretation. That is why FORTH is fast when compared to 
BASIC. 

Newcomers to FORTH will find the language syntax a bit 
odd. FORTH was designed to take maximum advantage of a 
computer's internal registers and stack(s). Because of this, it 
uses a method of data entry known as Reverse Polish Nota- 
tion, RPN for short. Some hand calculators, like those made 
by Hewlett Packard, also use RPN. Our most familiar nota- 
tion allows us to add numbers like this: 2 + 3 + 7 = 12. In 
BASIC we would say: PRINT 2 + 5 + 7 (enter) the computer 
does the addition with the resultant answer: 12. Reverse 
Polish Notation requires data entry like this: 2 5 7 + + 
(enter). FORTH 's rough equivalent of BASIC'S PRINT'is the . 
or period. So in FORTH we would say: 25 7 + + . (enter) and 
the answer is calculated: 12. 

RPN is a little odd at first glance; but that is just because 
we are not used to it. Practice makes RPN second nature. 

The basic unit of action in FORTH is a WORD. There are 
no line numbers to demarcate computer instructions. 
Instead, programming consists of defining words to be used 
by FORTH. Once a word is defined, it is yours forever (or at 
least until you tell FORTH to FORGET it). 

Let's define a word that will multiply any number by two 
and then print the result: .TIMESTWO 2 * . ; The colon 
signifies the beginning of a definition. TIMESTWO is the 
word we are defining. 2 * does the actual multiplication. The 
, does the printout. The semicolon signifies the end of the 
definition. 

Now we enter: 7 TIMESTWO (enter) and we get: 14. 

Once a FORTH WORD is defined, it can be used in the 
definitions of more FORTH WORDs. Programming begins 
with simple definitions and evolves into the more complex. 
A highly complex program could be embodied in a single 
FORTH WORD. To invoke a program, its FORTH WORD is 
simply typed in on the terminal, and execution begins. 

If you only want to invoke a subroutine, you could just 
type the name of the word which embodies the subroutine. 
For example, the SuperForth package includes a Breakout 
type game. The game requires some coordination and is fun 
to play. As a novice to the game, 1 tend to run out of balls 
before finishing the task of demolishing the computer 
generated wall. To get around this problem, I wrote the 
following one liner: 

:BMORE BREAKOUT 10 0 DO MAIN LOOP ; 

BMORE becomes my new command. BMORE first invokes 
Breakout. Breakout is then followed by a DO LOOP (just 
like a FOR . . . NEXT loop in BASIC). The DO LOOP 
repeatedly executes the Breakout subroutine called MAIN. 
This has the effect of giving me 10 more balls. 

FORTH, by nature, is a language that is never completely 
defined or finished. That is because new WORDs can con- 
tinually be defined; once defined, they become part of the 
language. At present, there are several hundred FORTH 



216 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



WORDs that are considered standard. Nonetheless, FORTH 
novices are usually surprised by the seeming lack of some of 
their favorite functions. No problem, if a function is missing, 
it can nearly always be constructed from the existing FORTH 
vopabulary. If super high exepution speed is required, 
SuperForih even has a provision for patching in Machine 
Language code. Unfortunately, this version of FORTH 
requires that machine code be loaded in as a separate entity. 
Some versions of FORTH allow new FORTH WQRDs to be 
defined from Assembly Code or Machine Code, better inte- 
gration into the system is the result. 

1 should mention here that INTEGER arithmetic only, is 
considered standard with Super Forth as with all versions of 
FORTH. Surprised? Remember, if you really need floating 
point functions, there are available methods for making 
them. Anyway, floating poirit operations are inherently 
much slower than integer operations. Also, SuperForih 
does have built in provisions for double precision integers. 
Most experienced forth programmers find that they can 
do without floating point. 

Disk usage by most implementations of FORTH is a little 
different from Disk Extended BASIC. Most FORTH imple- 
mentations divide their data blocks into Screens instead of 
the more familiar file structure. A Screen is simply all the 
data that will fit on your television screen at one time. Each 
Screen of data or FORTH definitions is given a number and 
stored sequentially on disk. Each Screen may contain 
numerous FORTH WORDs. When a Screen is LOADed, all 
the vocabulary contained on the Screen becomes part of the 
system's current vocabulary. 

SuperForih does not follow this tradition of Screen file 
structure, which is fine with me. The Screen format method 
is incompatible with Radio Shack disk format. That makes 
it kind of tough tp edit your data unless you write your 
editor in FORTH. 

Super Forth, on the other hand, is totally compatible with 
Radio Shack disk format. That means you can use Tele- 
writer-64 or any disk oriented editor you please. You could 
even use Computerware's BASIC compiler for part of your 
program and interface the compiled output to SuperForih. 



Installation 

SuperForih is supplied on disk or tape. The installation of 
SuperForih is quite straightforward. First, make a backup 
copy of the supplied disk using Basic's standard BACKUP 
command. This is hot strictly required, but definitely a good 
idea with any new software. Put away the supplied disk in a 
nice safe place in case something terrible should ever happen 
to your new copy. Put your new disk into drive zero and type 
in: LOA DM "SuperForih " $nd press the ENTER key. When 
your computer says "OK," type EXEC and press the ENTER 
key. 

Extra SuperForih vocabulary can be loaded from tape or 
disk as desired. 



Documentation 

The package supplied will not teach you the FORTH lan- 
guage if you are a novice. The implementation of FORTH 
itself is excellent and has sorpe unique features; however, the 
documentation supplied assumes you either already know FORTH 
or are willing to purchase one of the introductory books 
available. I would suggest contacting the FORTH Interest 
Group and receiving their magazine: FORTH Dimensions. 
The documentation supplied for SuperForih describes 



mainly the differences and enhancements of SuperForih by 
comparison to the standard FIG-FORTH. 

Enhancements 

SuperForih is supplied with considerable enhancements 
over the accepted standard FORTH. Enhancements consist 
of extra vocabulary. WORDs uniquely useful to the control 
of the Color Computer's graphics capabilities are included. 
FORTH WORDs for the composition of computer music and 
arcade sounds are another enhancement. Also, since Super- 
Forth follows the Radio Shack file structure format, vocab- 
ulary is included to manipulate both disk and cassette files. 
The following words are unique to Super Forth and do not 
appear in the Fig-FORTH standard: 



#IN CCLOSE COLOR DFVNLLi 

*Q CLEAR CONS FILES 

*S CLOAD COPEN 1CLS 

BASIC CLOSE CREAD JOY 

B1P CLS CWRITE KEY* 



E RND 
LOAD PCLST §QRT 
OPEN PTC VARBL 
PAGE READ VERIFY 
PIXEL RESET 



Speed Demon 

Earlier, we mentioned speed. We know a compiler is 
supposed to be fast, so how fast is it? It is so fast that 
SuperForih DO LOOPS can be used to generate arcade- 
type sounds. For example, enter the following definition: 

SPORT : NOISE 5000 0 DO RND BIP LOOP ; 

This sends a random number to the sound port each time 
the loop executes. The result is a white noise generator. 
Delays can be added to create explosions, gun shots and jet 
plane-type effects. If you try something similar with a BASIC 
statement, all you will get is a slow buzzing sound. BASIC just 
is not fast enough to do the job. 

Why Go FORTH? 

Some of you may feel that it is not worth the effort to learn 
a totally new computer language. After all, considerable 
effort is required to learn FORTH. However, if speed is your 
main requirement!, or if laboratory systems control is your 
aiin, or if code compactness is required, then FORTH is an 
excellent alternative to BASIC or Assembly Language. 

(Spectrum Projects, P.O. Box 9866, San Jose, CA 95157- 
0866, or P.O. Box 21272, Wood* Haven, NY 11421, disk 
$39.95 plus $3 S/H) 



THE CALORIE COUNTER 
WEIGHT ANALYZER 

FIND YOUR IDEAL WEIGHT USING YOUR 
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September 1984 THE RAINBOW 217 



Software ReWeiv^SSSSSSSSSS^ 

Address Some Labels 
With Address One 

Do you maintain a member list or send out bills on a 
regular basis? How about a CJiristmas care} list or invitations 
for the annual apple pie contest? Whatever your mailing 
needs, Address One will help you in thjs chore by addressing 
your labels on standard one-up, 3V2 f long by l5 /i6" wide 
blank labels. 

The version I received for review was disk-based, and can 
run in any 16K Extended BASIC CoCq, 

The main menu of Address One offers the following 
options: Open New File, Add a Record, Complete Label 
Set, Selected Label Set, Edit a Record, Exit to BASIC, and 
Help and Info. 

Upon loading and running the program, the first thing to 
do is choose item I. This will open a data file on your disk 
with the name ADDRFILE/ DAT, which will be used to 
store your information. Yqu may then enter your records 
with item 2. 

When you want to add a record, the screen will reveal a 
blank form, clearly showing where each field should be 
entered. Separate categories are provided for first and last 
names, address, city, state and ZIP. An extra field called 
"Code" is provided for the grouping of records together. For 
instance, a Coding system can be used for each state; then if 
you want to print labels for those records that fall into the 



Maryland category, simply choose the selected label set. It is 
a good idea to use the Code field if you plan to print selected 
labels any time in the future. There is also a field for com- 
ments which may or may not be printed as you wish. 

The Edit function will allow you to correct or modify any 
informatiori contained in any of your records. There are also 
provisions to search for any particular string of data and 
view your records on the screen without printing them. 

Address One stores all information on disk and allows for 
a maximum of 600 records per file. If you have a need for 
more records, you may use another disk. The program 
allows the definition of only one disk file. It woujd have been 
nice to be able to define anofher disk file (although this is 
easily modifiable seeing that the program is in BASIC). The 
select option will let you print only those labels that you 
want- 

A few features that would have been useful in this type of 
program would have been to provide a field for the name of 
a business. As it stands, there is no way to print an address 
that includes the name of a business unless you put them on 
the same line. A delete record function could have saved 
some time also. The way you must do it is to blank out each 
field that you have entered or substitute those field contents 
with new information. A sort function would also have been 
ha.ndy. Also, a provision for two across, or at least a func- 
tion to define other kinds of stock labels would have been 
convenient. 

All in all, keeping in mind that Address One is not a 
database, but a means to address your mailing labels, I feel 
that it is a good program and a great buy at the price. 

(West Bay Company, Route 1, Box 666, Whkestone, VA 
22578, $20 tape/disk) 

— Steven Schechter 



Hint . . . 

Cold POKE 

Here is a reader tip that you may be able to use, as I have 
not seen it published yet. For a cold start, type POKE 
llifiiEXEC 40999, This can be implemented into a pro- 
gram or simply to clear the RAM without having to turn the 
machine off. 

Warren M. Salisbury 
Lockport, NY 



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21 8 'THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Software Review SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS^t^ 

Updated Dynacalc: 
Breakthrough With Bonuses 

Good computer programs get better with age. Dynacalc, 
which was first reviewed in THE RAINBOW, in August 1983 
has now been adapted to operate under Radio Shack Disk 
BASIC. Formerly, the premier spread sheet for the CoCo was 
available orily for FLEX, but now it is within the reach of 
anyone with a 64K CoCo and a disk drive. While this is a 
breakthrough in high-level software for CoCo users, Com- 
puter Systems Center npt only lowered the price, but also 
added several new features. 

Dynacalc is a second generation VisiCalcAfitLt spreadsheet 
program. In addition to a remarkably similar command set, 
several advanced features have been added, such assorting, 
a keystroke memory and graphics. If you are at all familiar 
with VisiCalc y a minimal amount of time will be spent 
learning the new system. For those of you just learning, 
typing a simple "?" at any prompt will fill your screen with an 
outstanding help screen explaining the alternatives at your 
command. A 57-page users manual is well-written and carl 
be used for command references as well as some helpful 
operating tips. 

Plenty of Reference Material 

Have you ever looked at the bookshelves in your local 
computer store? Literally dozens of books have been written. 



on the uses of VisiCalc. These programs, sometimes called 
templates or shells due to fact that they overlay information 
on a blank worksheet, will all work with Dynacalc. No more 
having to re-invent the wheel. 

System requirements 

As previously mentioned, Dynacalc will work with any 
Disk Extended Color BASIC 64K CoCo. The built-in ROM 
software is totally disabled so it will work equally well on 
any combination of ROM versions. The disk supplied can- 
not be copied using the BACKUP command, but the 
authors have included a unique way of permitting working 
copies to be made while still protecting their product. Every 
master is given a serial number. By running a program called 
CREATE you can make as many bootable copies as you 
desire, but you can't duplicate the master. CREATE cus- 
tomizes the program allowing the use of various disk drives 
(including 6 ms. drives) and printer configurations. Any 
ASCII printer will work for normal spreadsheets, but dot- 
addressable graphics are necessary to print high-resolution 
screens. Standard printers such as Radio Shack* Epson, 
Gemini, Okidata, NEC and C. Itoh are on the menu of 
printer choices. Computer Systems Center will help with 
other printers. 

What is a Spreadsheet? 

For newcomers, a brief explanation of spreadsheet basics 
is in order. Dynacalc is nothing more than a blank 256 x 
256-cell accounting worksheet, each row identified with a 
letter, each column identified with a number. The top-left 
cell of the sheet would have the notation "A 1 Any cell can 
contain a number, a string or a formula. 1 guess a good 



GRAFPLOT 

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* Universal Scr»»nprint Loader for non-Radio Shack printers. 

* Full ASCII upper and loner case in 4 on-screen labels. 

* 9 graphing symbols with unlimited overlay of data. 

4c Full function data editing: add, change, delete and sort. 

J|t Graphs and data output to screen, printer, tape or disk. 

Ht Calculates user — defined functions, moving averages (binomial 

smoothing), cumulative totals and integrals (areas). 

J|t Saves completed graphs for instant reloading. 

«t Works with all CoCo models - requires Extended BASIC. 

* Disk Only: display or print directory, kill or rename files. 

16K TAPE - *35.00, 32K TAPE - *40.00, 32K DISK - *45.00 <US) 

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September 1984 THE hAINBOW 219 



THE SOFT SHOP 

' Tor all your personal computer needs 1 ' 

64K Ram Chip Set $ 55.95 

Super Pro Keyboard Kit , 65.95 

Prowriter Printer (851 OA) i 365.95 

Drive #0 359.95 

- ARCADE ACTION 

TAPE DISK 

Zaxxon (Datasoft) (32K) 29.95 32.95 

Pooyan (Datasoft) : ■ . . (32K) 27.95 30.95 

CU*BER (Tom Mix) 32K 26.95 29.95 

Color OUthouse (Computer Shack)(32K) 26.95 29.95 

Calixto Island (Mark Data) (32K) 23.95 26.95 

* summer Special * free shipping on any game * 

** For the serious Coco user ** 

TAPE DISK 

Basic09 (Req. OS-9) . , 8 . .(64K) - 89.95 

Dynastar/Dynaform (Req. OS-9) . 64K) ~ 95.99 

VIP Writer (Softlaw Corp.) 32K) ** 55.95 

VIPTerminal (Softlaw Corp.) . . . . 16K ** 45.95 

VIP CALC (Softlaw Corp.) (32K) ** 55.95 

**Tape Version Included ** 
Call or write for a catalog 
Call our BBS on-line from 10 p.m. to 7 a.m. EDT! 
Phone (803) 288-0613 
Terms: Money Orders and Personal checks welcome (Please allow an 

additional 2 weeks for personal checks). 
Shipping: $3.00 for Software, 3% for Hardware. 
C.O.D.: Please add $3.00, Blue label add $3.00 - S.C. residents add 
4% sales tax. 

Handling: Handling Charges will be added to orders outside the 
continental U.S. 

VISA and MASTERCARD ACCEPTED. 

THE SOFT SHOP 

P.O. Box 878 Mauldin, S.C. 29662 
10 a.m. (803) 297^1067 8 p.m. 



example would be a yearly budget. Each column would 
correspond to a month. Each row Would correspond to an 
income, or expense, category. Strings would be located in 
Row A and Column 1 to identify the cell values. Formulas 
would be used at the end of each row and column for the 
summation of these values. After setting up the worksheet, 
all that it takes is the positioning of the cursor and the right 
values to instantly tell if ends meet. 1 use Dyriacalc in my 
business to estimate jobs. Both material and labor rates are 
extended just by inputting a quantity. Dynacalc allows 33K 
of worksheet memory, or room for about 2750 numeric 
cells. 

Use Your Joysticks 

One nice added feature of the new version is the availabil- 
ity of joystick or Mouse positioning of the cursor. After 
giving your CoCo the magic command RUN"DYNA 
CALC\ a white background 5 1 x 24 screen appears with the 
introductory logo and serial number. A simple touch of the 
fire button on your joystick gives you an alternative to the 
normal arrow keys used to place yourseif in any cell of the 
256 x 256 matrix. 

I also noticed the improved screen response over the 
FLEX version. 1 was told that the previously sluggish screen 
updating was a funtion of FLEX I/O. The present quick 
rewrite of the screen is a welcome relief. A cursor has also 
been added so that visual indication of the "cell in use" is 
available. 

Keysaver 

Dynacalc's Keysaver feature permits multiple execution 



of typed commands. Suggested uses include setting column 
formats, deleting rows or columns and blanking ranges of 
cells. 

Graphics 

One totally new feature provides the ability to graph data 
in the form of a line, bar or pie chart. Several nice features 
are added to make the graphs attractive and functional. One 
important, and user friendly, function is the Caption mode. 
Text may be added to your charts for truly professional 
presentations for business, etc. Scaling and Averaging are 
implemented. Charts may be saved to a disk file for future 
reference, or printed if you so desire. 

Comments 

A full summary of the commands and functions was 
included in the review of the previous version. Logical func- 
tions have been added such as AND, OR, NOT, etc. A 
Locate Label command has been added in addition to those 
already discussed. Error trapping is implemented, .Ob- 
viously, Dynacalc is my choice for a CoCo spreadsheet. 
Scott Schaeferle, and Joe Turner of Computer Systems 
Center, are to be congratulated for a job well done. 

1 wonder what's going to be ih.the next version? Maybe a 
version for CoCo OS-9. We'll see! 

(Computer Systems Center, 13461 Olive Blvd., Chesterfield, 
MO 63017, $99.95 disk only) 

— Dari Downard 



FIVE NEW 
EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS! 

FROM 

CREATIVE TECHNICAL CONSULTANTS 
AN ESTABLISHED LEADER IN 

• EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AND GAMES 

• PROGRAMMING AND CLASSROOM UTILITIES 

• CABLES AND JOYSTICK HARDWARE 



SUPER SPELLER. Students learn by playing spelling games with their own lists of spelling 
words and definitions, synonyms or antonyms. Grades 1*9. 

MATH FLASH CARDS. A computer version of the time-proven Oas heard technique for learn- 
ing sums, differences, products and quotients. Grades 1-6. 

MATH WORD PROBLEMS. Generate and solve unique word problems from your own list of 
subjects and objects. Menu offers choice of weights and measures, D = RxT, money or time. 
Grades 3-1Z 

METRIC MIND. A drill program in metric/English conversion with five skill levels. Grades 
3-12. 

ROMAN NUMERALS. A drill program in Roman/Arabic numeral conversion with five skill 
levels. Grades 3-12. 

OTHER BEST-SELLERS FROM CREATIVE TECHNICAL CONSULTANTS 



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COLOR MATH QUIZ 
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ALL OF THE ABOVE PROGRAMS ARE AVAILABLE ON TAPE FOR THE COLOR COM- 
PUTER WITH 16 K EXTENDED BASIC THE PRICE IS $15.96 EACH OR $41.96 FOR ANY 
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ONLY). SEND FOR FREE CATALOG WITH COMPLETE PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS. 

CraaTive 

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No Disk? No Printer? 

- YOU CAN STILL HAVE A CUSTOM-BUILT FILING SYSTEM! 

DISK & PRINTER ARE OPTIONAL IN THE SUPER-FRIENDLY 
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ALL WORK DONE IN MEMORY. NO PROGRAMMING REQUIRED 
TO BUILD HOUSEHOLD INVENTORY, WINE LIST, ANY LIST. 
YOU DESIGN YOUR OWN RECORDS. AND - YOU DON'T HAVE 
TO GET IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME . EXPAND ANY FIELD, 
ADD NEW FIELDS - WITHOUT LOSING ANY EXISTING DATA. 
CREATE . REMOVE AND CHANGE RECORDS - SEARCH . SORT . 
LISI AND TOTAL THEM ~ UAD AND J5AYE FILES USING 
CASSETTE OR DISK (OR BOTHL DISPLAY YOUR RECORDS 
ON THE SCREEN AND/OR PRINTER IN ORIGINAL OR SORTED 
SEQUENCE (OR BOTH). SELECT AND SpRT (ASCENDING OR 
DESCENDING) RECORDS ON UP TO 3 FIELDS . YOUR FILES 
CAN BE AS BIG AS 16.500 CHARACTERS. DO -FILE HAS 
EASY, ONE-KEY COMMANDS AND A HELP MENU, TOO, IT IS 
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DO-FILE IS EDUCATIONAL - YOU LEARN FILE MANAGEMENT 
USING A 35-PAGE TUTORIAL GUIDE & SAMPLE DATA FILE I 

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P.O. BOX 712 LEVITTOWN, PA ZIPC0CE 19058 



220 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



Software p — — —pT^. 

Presidents Wins 
In A Close Race! 

In a year that includes a presidential election, it seems 
appropriate that a program called Presidents of the United 
States would appear on the scene. The tape includes a 16K 
version on one side and a 32K version on the other. There 
are different loading instructions for Extended BASIC and 
non-Extended BASIC, and these are explained in the very 
complete and well-written documentation. 

The program offers three modes. In one, the user can pick 
a president of the United States and study certain pertinent 
facts about him. Facts appear on the screen and allow the 
"player" to study at his leisure. I found the facts to be written 
in a brief manner like someone taking rapid copious notes in 
an American history lecture hall. It brought back memories 
of when I wished I had taken better notes to study. The other 
two modes are "game" formats. The first is a rather interest- 
ing game in which up to five clues are given, one at a time. 
The player must guess what president the clues describe. The 
faster the player identifies the correct president, the higher 
the score earned. 

The other game mode is multiple choice. The name of the 
president in question is given and three facts are presented. 



The player must choose the fact that correctly corresponds 
to that president. The players' (up to eight) scores are kept 
and a scoreboard appears at the end of the game. I found the 
multiple choice game to be considerably easier than the 
other, but both were very enjoyable. 

Actually, when I received this program from rainbow, I 
was less than enthusiastic. History was never one of my 
strong points. Being a professional, I knew 1 had to be as 
objective as possible, but I thought that would be difficult. I 
was wrong. I really enjoyed this program and found it to be 
much more interesting than I had anticipated. It is also 
rather easy to keep the program current and/ or to modify it. 
Full instructions are given in the documentation. There was, 
however, one thing I found particularly confusing. The 
author has chosen to use the BREAK key to advance the 
program rather than the ENTER key. Each time I typed an 
answer, I would automatically press ENTER. That would 
void my answer and I would have to retype my answer and 
press BREAK. However, this was explained quite clearly in 
the documentation. All in all, I think the positives of the 
program outweigh the negatives. Ill cast my vote in favor of 
this president. Now who will I vote for in November? 



(Sugar Software, 2153 Leah Lane, Reynoldsburg, OH 
43068, 16K/32K tape $24.95, 32K disk $29.95) 

— Stephanie Snyder 















A ' 1 1 













\ 




To make the'most of your new Dragon microcomputer from Dragon-Tano, you need Dragon User 
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September 1984 THE RAINBOW 221 



Software Review! 



Keep-Trak Is An 
Organized Accounting System 



Keep-Trak is the first software offering from a newly 
developed software firm called THE OTHER GUY'S 
SOFTware, located in Logan, Utah. Joseph Nielsen and 
Curtis Wood are the "other guys" and 1 feel they will defi- 
nitely make a mark on the Color Computer software 
market. Keep-Trak is a double-entry accounting system 
which boasts a 2400 record capacity with over 900 accounts. 
Also, this package comes at the low price of $ 1 4.95. Here is 
what you get! 

Keep-Trak is a general ledger, double-entry accounting 
system. Double-entry means that you enter every item twice 
in order to balance the system. There are shortcuts to this 
type system and they are explained in the manual This is a 
disk-based system only. It will not work with a cassette 
system. Memory requirements are not stated, but since the 
system uses direct access disk files, it should work rather well 
on a 16K system. 

The disk comes with 14 programs. The initialization pro- 
grams are written in BASIC, while the financial programs are 
written in binary or machine language. This financial pack- 



TRS-80+ MOD I, III, COCO, T»9/4a €^ 
TIMEX 1000, OSBORNE, others 

GOLD PLUG - 80 

Eliminate disk reboots and data loss due to oxi- 
dized contacts at the card edge connectors. 
GOLD PLUG 80 solders to the board edge con- 
nector. Use your existing cables, (if gold plated) 




COCO Disk Module (2) 
Ground tab extensions 
Disk Drives (all R.S.) 
Gold Disk Cable 2 Drive 
Four Drive Cable 



***** 



$16.95 

INCL 

$7.95 
29.95 
39.95 



USA shipping $1 .45 Can/Mex $4. 

Foreign $7 Don't wait any longer TEXAS 5% TAX 

Available at your favorite dealer or order direct from 

E.A.P. CO. 

P.O. BOX 14 
KELLER, TEXAS 76248 
(817)498-4242 MC/VISA 
+ trademark Tandy Corp 



E3 



age maintains account categories tor assets, liabilities, 
income and expenses. Transactions are entered into the 
program as a journal entry. These transactions are compiled 
by the various options and the user then has access to a 
balance sheet, an income statement, general journal or 
ledger and a trial balance. Monthly totals are retained by the 
system for yearly summaries. 

The documentation for Keep-Trak is adequate for using 
this package of programs. It comes in a 5 l A by SV2 size 
manual. I am sure that accounting practices and procedures 
will not come easily to every person. The manual assumes 
that you have some working knowledge of accounting prac- 
tices. The material provides sample printouts, and a com- 
plete table of contents for reference. As with any software, 
one must read the manuals to fully understand how the 
program will work. Keep- Trak has a few "importants" in the 
system, and one should know where these are so as not to 
cause severe problems in using the software. For example, in 
using the trial balance program, you are asked, "Is this a 
final balance?" If you respond with a "yes," then the com- 
puter will consolidate the records and the old fiJe will be 
deleted. This is necessary, but one should use caution at this 
point or you will lose important information. The manual 
gives full instructions. 

The only fault I can find with Keep-Trak is the fact that 
this system is completely printer-oriented. After the initial 
data has been entered, all financial reports are printed only 
to a printer. Now, I know it would be foolish for anyone to 
think that they could operate any intelligent financial soft- 
ware without the aid of a printer. However, having the 
information on the screen for reference would be nice. 
Because the financial statement programs are generated 
from machine language programs, they cannot be altered 
easily. 

THE OTHER GUY'S SOFTware plans to release other 
packages to go along with Keep-Trak, An accounts receiva- 
ble and accounts payable package is on the way! 

Who can use Keep-Trak'! Well, any small business or 
home accountant could. A printer and disk system are 
required. 



(THE OTHER GUY'S SOFTware, 875 South Main, Logan, 
UT 84321, $14.95 disk only) 



— J.D. Ray 



SI I D \ / p A I O A versatile tool 
Ur\V""\^ALL/ for land surveyors, 
realtors, land title companies, land owners. 
SURV-CALC can calculate land areas, latitudes 
& departures, missing lines, extensive curve 
data lists, unknowns in triangles, adds and 
subtracts angles, determines closure accuracy. 
SURV-CALC draws traverse on screen w/North 
arrow. Includes 2 versions, screen version and 
printer output version. Also includes screen 
dump program for LP VII & DMP-100 printers. 
Requires 32K ECB C0C0. TAPE $20.00 DISK $23.00 
GARLAND SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 23043, St. Louis, Mo., 63156 



222 THE RAINBOW September 1984 




Because of the immense popularity of Simulations and the superior quality of the programs submitted in 
last year's competition, the rainbow has announced plans for the Second Anpual Simulation Contest. 

Last year, our contest judges relived the Civil War, traveled to the moon, to Mars and beyond, went bankrupt 
running a restaurant, made a million bucks as a manufacturer, survived a flood, lobbied for bills in Congress, 
assumed responsibility for mid-air collisions as an air-traffic controller, drowned while learning to sail, 
experienced the thrill of victory in the seventh game of baseball's World Series, and made it big with our own 
software business (Many of the entries in the 1983 contest are featured in a book on Simulations, which the 
rainbow plans to publish in early fall.) 

We're looking for an even greater variety of situations this year and expecting to see great improvements in 
graphics presentations because of the advancements in programming tools and knowledge since the first 
contest. 

Many of the rainbow's generous advertisers will be donating some exciting prizes as they did last year (and 
in our recent Adventure contest) when our winners carted off Radio Shack disk drives, an Epson printer, and 
dozens of other prizes that included a wide variety of peripherals and high quality software. Among those 
companies donating prizes: 



Cancoco Software 
CoCo Indx 
Cognitec 

Color Connection Software 

D. P. Johnson 

DSL Computer Products 
Dugger's Growing Systems 
DYMAX 

E. D.C. Industries 
Elite Software 



Emerald Computer Services 
EVS Engineering 

Great Plains Computer Company, Inc. 
Hawkes Research Services 
Kage Engineering 
Lloyd I/O 

Mark Data Products 
Merrick & Co. 
Metro Electronics 
Tom Mix Software 



REM Industries 

Robotic Microsystems 

SOFTECH 

Sonburst Software 

Speech Systems 

Sugar Software 

Syntactics 

Vidtron 

Wasatchware 

York-10 



Contest submissions must be on tape or disk and it is best to make several saves, at least one of them in 
ASCI I format. We really do not have the time to key in programs, obviously. All entries should be supported by 
some editorial commentary, explaining how the program works and loads. Please do not submit entries that 
are currently submitted to another publication. 

Your entry must be received by the rainbow no later than September 1, 1984, to be eligible for the 
competition. 

This promises to be the the rainbow's most exciting contest yet, and, as usual, the winning entries will be 
published when we announce the results in an upcoming issue. 



RULES: All programs must be original works, no "conversions." 
Entries must be postmarked by September 1 , 1 984, and become the property of Falsoft, Inc., 
publisher of the rainbow. Decision of the judges is final. Duplicate prizes will beawarded in 
the case of ties. Winning programs to be featured in a special rainbow Simulation issue. 
Mark entries "Simulation Contest Editor" and send toTHE rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, 
KY 40059. 



£1Vf)IC0TT 



seeuS a,Y/W™ COMPUTER SOFTWARE AND ACCESSORIES 




see us at II PRINCETON KJ? 



PRINTERS 

(SEE PRINTER INTERFACE BELOW) 

SPIRIT (SAME AS MX80) $319.00 

OKIDATA 92P(160CPS) $445.00 

CORRESPONDENCE QUALITY! 

* NEWI * NEW! * 

ABATI LQ-20P (PARALLEL) , $389.00 

18 CPS-DAISY WHEEL-LETTER QUALITY 
TRACTOR FEED $79.00 



MONITORS 

(SEE MONITOR INTERFACE BELOW) 
ALL WITH NONGLARE SCREEN. 

"NEW PRICE** BY AMDEK 

COLOR 1 + (INCLUDES HEAD PHONES). . . $299.00 

VIDEO 300(G) .. . . .$149.00 

VIDEO 300(A) $164.00 

GORILLA (GREEN). . . $ 99 00 

GORILLA (AMBER). $109.00 



ENDICOTT JOYSTICK 



$19.95 EACH 

ANALOG TYPE - 



$37.95 FOR TWO 

PLUGS RIGHT IN! 



"In use, we found the ENDICOTT JOYSTICK to be smooth 
and responsive. ...built to last, the Endicott model is a 
solid buy" the RAINBOW, October 1982 

"...provided the best feel of all the joysticks tested. 
...(a) rugged unit at an affordable price." 
-80 micro, March 1983 



"NEW**" PRICES** 

PRINTER INTERFACE 

pbh SERIAL/ PARALLEL 

SWITCHABLE: 300 TO 9600 BAUD. 
PRINTER AND MODEM CONNECTIONS. 
NOTHING ELSE REQUIRED. 

ja&95~ $74.95 
PURCHASED WITH PRINTER . . . $64.00 



MONITOR INTERFACE 

VIDEO PLUS * $24 95 

(COLOR OR MONOCHROME) 
PURCHASED WITH MONITOR $20.95 

VIDEO PLUS MM $26.95 

(MONOCHROME FOR COLOR II) 
PURCHASED WITH MONITOR . $22.95 

VIDEO PLUS IIC $39.95 

(COLOR FOR COLOR II) 
PURCHASED WITH MONITOR . . .$33.95 



-NEW- BLANK MEDIA -prices- 
elephant SSSD $20.95 

ELEPHANT SSDD $22.95 

ELEPHANT DSDD $26.95 

BASF QUALIMETRIC SSDD $23.95 

BASF QUALIMETRIC DSDD $28.95 

C-10 CASSETTES (ONE PQZ.fr ...$7.50 



WICO 

ATARI JOYSTICK ADAPTER 
$17.95 



MEDIA STORAGE 
TAPE 

TAPE CAROUSEL (HOLDS 25) . . .$13.00 



DISKETTE 

FLIP'N'FILE 10 $5.45 

FLIP'N'FILE 25. . . k $24.95 

FLIP'N'FILE 50 $33.95 



SUPER-PRO KEYBOARD 



■NEW** | 



BY: MARK DATA 



"PRICES* 1 



ADAPTER REQUIRED ON 
COMPUTER BOUGHT AFTER 10/82. 
KEYBOARD J6*35~" $56.95 ADPT $4.95 



VOLKSMODEM 

BY: ANCHOR AUTOMATION 
300 BAUD. DIRECT CONNECT 
MANUAL ANSWER, MANUAL DIAL 

INCLUDES CABLE $74.95 



WICO JOYSTICK 

BIG BAT HANDLE 
SPRING RETURN OR FREE FLOAT 
ANALOG TYPE - PLUGS RIGHT IN! 
$38.95 EACH 



Look at These Discounts and Compare...Remember WE PAY SHIPPING! 

SOFTWARE PRICES SHOWN ARE 20% OFF LIST PRICE! 



SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

T 0 

> GALGON $19.95 $23.15 

> PENGON $19.95 $23.15 

> COLOR PANIC $19.95 $23.15 

> CUBIX ....$19.95 $23.15 

> LANCER , . . . .$19.95 $23. 1 5 

MS GOBBLER $19.95 $23 15 

WHIRLYBIRD RUN $19.95 $23.15 

STORM ARROWS $19.95 $23.15 

LUNAR ROVER PATROL ..$19.95 $23.15 

COMPUTERWARE 

T 0 

> MR. DIG $22.35 $24.75 

> JUNIOR S REVENGE $23.15 $25.55 

RANDOM BASIC (OS-9) .$60.00 

> COLOR BASIC COMPILER $31 .95 

64K SCREEN EXPANDER (64K) $19.95 $22.35 

* THE SOURCERER {R DOS} $27.95 $31 .95 

THE SOURCERER (OS-9) $31.95 

> MACRO ASSEMBLER & XREF (R DOS) $39.95 

MACRO ASSEMBLER & XREF (OS-9) $39.95 

>COLOR EDITOR , $19.95 $23.95 

>COLOR MONITOR $19.95 $22.35 

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BLOC HEAD (CUBE R TYPE) $21.55 $23.95 

DOODLE BUG (LADY BUG) $19.95 $22.35 

SOFT LAW 

TAD INCLUDED 

OVIP WRITER (INC. SPELLER!) $47.95 

D VIP SPELLER $31.95 

DVIPCALC $47.95 

□ VIP TERMINAL $39.95 

□ VIP DATA BASE $47.95 (DISK) 

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WRITER/SPELLER-CALC- 

DATABASE $139.00 

ENTIRE LIBRARY $210.00 



ELITE SOFTWARE 

T D 

□ ELITE-WORD $47.95 $47.95 

□ ELITE-CALC $47.95 $47.95 

□ ELITE -FILE $59.60 

ENTIRE LIBRARY (DISK). , . $145.00 

PROGRAMMERS INSTITUTE 

> COMPLETE PERSONAL T 0 

ACCOUNTANT - (1.2.&3) $59.95 $63.95 



SPECIAL SALE! 
30% OFF 

PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

T D 

> MUSIC READER.. $24.45 $27.95 

* ERLAND $17.45 $20.95 

> TRAVELINTOAD $17.45 $20.95 

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> ADVENTURE IN WONDERLAND $17.45 $20.95 

THE DISK MANAGER $20.95 

THE DISK MASTER $17.45 

* VIKING $13.95 $17.45 

* GANGBUSTERS $13.95 $17.45 

COLORKIT $24.45 $27.95 

FLIGHT $13.95 $17.45 



COGNITEC 

T D 

□ TELEWRITER 64 $39.95 $47.95 



TOM MIX 

T D 

> QUIX $19.95 $22.35 

elec'TRON $19.95 $22.35 

> WORLDS OF FLIGHT $23.95 $26.35 

SKRAMBLE $19.95 $22.35 

> SR-71 $23.15 $25 55 

>CU*BER $22.35 $24.75 

> BUZZARD BAIT $22.35 $24.75 

> AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER $23.15 $25.55 

> SPACE SHUTTLE $23.15 $25.55 

> THE KING $21.55 $23.95 

> COLOR GOLF $14.35 

TAPE TO DISK $14.35 

DISK TO TAPE $14.35 

SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE $15.95 $17.55 



ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

T D 

* FIRE COPTER $19.95 

* SAIGON: THE FINAL DAYS $19.95 

* EARTHQUAKE $19.95 

* AIRLINE $19.95 

> SEA DRAGON $27.95 

> TRIAD $27.95 

> DISKEY (Disk Access & Repair Kit and 

Computer Diagnostics) $39.95 



B5 SOFTWARE 

T 

MONEY $15.95 

BORROW $15.95 

CARRY $15.95 

MATH FACT $13.55 

ABC'S $ 7.95 

ALL $64.00 



NOTE: ALL SALES FINAL NO RETURNS UNLESS DEFECTIVE. ADDITIONAL LISTINGS IN OUR FREE CATALOG - CALL OR WRITE. 

♦Requires 16K Ext. Basic Minimum. ^Requires 32K Ext. Basic Minimum. DWe Recommend 32K or 64K. Others 16K Ext. Std. Basic Minimum. 



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RAINBOW WISHING WELL 



16K 
ECB 



RAINBOW 



Strike educational paydirt with . . . 

The Multi Math 
Driller 



By Fred B. Scerbo 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



(Editor s Note: If you have an idea for a 
useful program, educational or other- 
wise, which you would like to see writ- 
ten for the Co Co, submit your wish to 
Fred, c/o THE rainbow. We don't 
promise that any given wish will be 
granted, but if the idea looks especially 
challenging, Fred might be able to grant 
your wish in an upcoming column. 
Please remember to be specific in your 
wishes and remember that this is BASIC! 
All programs listed in the "Wishing 
Well" are for your own use, but remain 
the property of the author.) 



Here we are ready to start another 
school year and already the air 
is buzzing with educational 
catchwords such as "computer aided 
instruction" or "computer literacy." 
Give a teacher a computer, and often he 
or she will find a way to incorporate it 
into the classroom structure. Give one 

(Fred Scerbo is a special needs instruc- 
tor for the North Adams Public 
Schools. He holds a masters in educa- 
tion and published some of the first 
software available for the Color Com- 
puter through his software firm, Illus- 
trated Memory Banks.) 



to ah administrator, and the buzzwords 
start flying. "We need CAI !" "Let's get 
in-service workshops for our staff!" 
"The public demands it !" 

For those who face such pressures 
and fbr those who just want to help their 
youngsters develop some basic math 
skills, this month's "Wishing Well" is 
for you. Many of the wishes I have 
received recently have had a common 
thread. It seems that there are still a 
large number of people who have not 
made the upgrade from Color BASIC to 
Extended. If all you have is a Color 
BASIC CoCo or MC-IO, then past pro- 
grams such as Rockfest and Baseball 
Fever are of little use to you. Since some 
of your requests have specifically asked 
for something graphic for those without 
Extended Color BASIC, I decided to pol- 
ish up a program I use almost daily. The 
program is Multi Math Driller. 

In order to make this program fully 
functional in both Color BASIC and 
MC-IO BASIC, a little surgery was 
necessary. First, neither language has 
Extended Basic's command STRINGS. 
For those not familiar with this com- 
mand, STRINGS lets you print a con- 
tinuous string of a specific CHR$ (char- 
acter string). Thus, the command 
STRING$(128>65) would print a string 



of 1 28 A's on the screen, since CHR$(65) 
is the letter 4 A\ This problem can be 
solved in Color and MC-IO basic by 
using a loop and a PRINT@ statement. 
This is slightly slower than using 
STRINGS, but this way the results are 
perfectly workable in all three versions 
of the language. 



"Give a teacher a com- 
puter, and often he or she 
will find a way to incor- 
porate it into the classroom 
structure " 



Another such command which is 
missing from MC-IO BASIC, but not 
Color BASIC, is the use of ELSE in an 
IF.,... 77/£Wstatement. ^LS^ 1 is a much 
more efficient command to use when 
comparing statements in BASIC, but you 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 225 



would be amazed to know that not even 
an Apple He has an ELSE command. 
The solution to lacking ELSE is simply 
to use more than one IF..,.. THEN 
statement. This once again works with 
all three BASICS. I wanted to make a 
point of this distinction since some of 
you might wonder why I omitted the 
ELSE which is one of the CoCo's grea- 
test strengths. 

One command I do not use too fre- 
quently is the POKE command, since 
many times, the same results can be 
obtained by other means. This is not the 
case, however, if we wish to use inverse 
numbers on our text screen. You will 
notice from the listing that some of the 
credits are printed in lowercase inverse 
on a black, CLSO screen. I often find 
this much more attractive when using 
the CoCo's low-resolution CHR$ 
graphics on a black background. How- 
ever, there are no CHR$s which gener- 
ate an inverse number, so we do have to 
POKE them to the text screen. 

This causes two immediate problems 
for us. First, it requires that the person 
typing in the program not make any 
mistakes in the POKE numbers when 



keying in the listing. Use the wrong 
POKE and you might lock-up the com- 
puter, losing everything you have typed 
in. Therefore, take great care when typ- 
ing in all POKES. 

Secondly, while the commands in 
Color BASIC, Extended Color BASIC, 
and MC-10 BASIC which overlap are 
the same, this is not true of the Memory 
Map, especially when we are dealing 
with POKES. The text screen on the 
CoCo begins at memory location 1056, 
while the text screen for the MC-10 
begins at location 16384. Therefore, a 
POKE for one machine would cause 
numerous problems with the other 
machine, not to mention not doing the 
task intended. Hence, to make this pro- 
gram appear as one listing and not two, 
I have included a variable MC at the 
beginning of the listing (Line 130) and 
identified it with a REM statement in 
the line before. If you are typing this 
listing into a CoCo, the value for MC 
will be zero. If you type this into the 
MC-10, then change the value of MC to 
equal 15360 as indicated in the REM 
statement. You will notice that ail 
POKEs in the program have included a 



value plus MC. Thus, if MOO, then the 
program will POKE the value to the 
location required for our CoCo. Use the 
higher value and the POKE will be 
offset to the correct value for the MC- 
10. This appeared to be the easiest way 
to insure that the listing would work 
with a minimum amount of modifica- 
tion since it is easier to change one vari- 
able than it is to change a couple dozen 
POKE statements. 

Since this program is designed to use 
either a joystick or the space bar on the 
keyboard, you may wish to delete the 
PEEK commands which are identified 
in the REM statements as not belonging 
in the MC-10 version (Lines 700 and 
1 380). Since the MC-IO has no joystick, 
you must use the space bar. 

Another command 1 deliberately left 
out of this listing was the speed-up 
command of POKE 65495,0. There were 
two reasons for this. First, the MC-IO 
does not have this POKE. In fact, it 
does not need it since it runs slightly 
faster than the CoCo. Secondly, the 
program really does not need the speed- 
up since 1 have included a speed selec- 
tion at the beginning of the program to 



ARE YOUR WALKING FINGERS GETTING FOOTSORE? 

Tired of typing in those long, but wonderful, programs from issues of the rainbow? Now, 
you can get rainbow on tape and give those tired fingers a rest. With rainbow on tape, 
you'll be able to spend your time enjoying programs instead of just typing . . . typing . . . 
typing them! All you need to do ever agairi is pop a rainbow on tape cassette into your 
recorder, CLOAD and RUN any one you want. 

Think of it! Not 10 or a dozen — but between 20 and 30 — programs every month from 
rainbow on tape. All the really good programs from the rainbow! All the long ones ... so 
you don't have to type them in. Just CLOAD and RUN\ 



the 

ID 

RAINBOW 



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US FUNDS ONLY PLEASE 

VISA, MasterCARD and American Express accepted. All subscriptions begin with the current issue and back issues are 
available beginning with April, 1982. Tapes are sent first class mail to arrive approximately the same time as your current 
issue of THE RAINBOW. 



191 

RAINBOW 



ORDER RAINBOW ON TAPE TODAY! 

HANDY ORDER CARD BETWEEN PAGES 34 & 35 



226 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



help slow it down. If you really want the 
program to run faster on the CoCo, 
then include the POKE 65495,0 near the 
start of the listing. Just be sure to POKE 
65494,0 before trying to save the pro- 
gram to cassette or disk or you will see 
your efforts quickly slip into the twilight 
zone, never to return. 

One final warning, you will notice 
there are a large number of DA TA state- 
ments at the end of the program. Take 
care to type these exactly or you may get 
some strange results. Recently, 1 have 
received letters from people who have 
done nothing more than type the DA TA 
statements incorrectly. Take your time 
and you will avoid this problem. 

Now that we have dealt with all the 
technical parts, let's see what this pro- 
gram and wish are all about. 

The Driller 

The original idea for Multi Math 
Driller came from several math teachers 
I have known. They seemed to think 
that if the student could "shoot" the 
correct answer to a math problem, then 
the learning process would be much 
more fun. 



Since everyone has a u shoot-em up" 
game, (and some of my original submis- 
sions to rainbow such as Zelda's Bat 
Bottle, Oh Gob!, Alpine Aliens, and 
Snail Invaders were criticized for being 
all "shoot-em ups"), 1 decided to take a 
different approach to this problem. 
Since there is very little that can be done 
with the low resolution graphics in the 
text mode, 1 figured that 1 could at least 
draw an oil rig in several colors and 
have it look like an oil rig. This way 
students could DRILL for the correct 
answer rather than SHOOT at it. Thus, 
with a little time and care, I was able to 
combine the necessary CHRSs to create 
my oil rig. 

The next problem would be how to 
make the answers scroll across the screen 
from right to left. Top to bottom scrol- 
ling is easy, but this posed a more diffi- 
cult problem. The solution had several 
steps. First, after selecting a problem, 
the correct answer would be calculated 
and thrown into a pool of answers. 
Dummy answers would also be gener- 
ated. These numbers would then be 
translated to STRING information 
using the STRS command. The pro- 



gram would then tie these strings to- 
gether, with spaces in between, until I 
had a string exactly 32 characters long: 
the width of my screen. 

Therefore, to get the right to left 
scrolling, 1 developed several lines that 
would use the LEFTS and RIGHTS 
commands to take the first character of 
this string and then tack it on to the end 
of the string. This is done in Lines 640 
through 660. Each time these lines are 
passed the first character is passed to the 
end of the string, and the string is 
reprinted in the same location. This 
gives the illusion of it actually scrolling 
from right to left. 

With this scrolling technique in effect, 
at some point, the correct answer will 
eventually run by the bottom of the rig. 
Therefore, what we next need is a rou- 
tine to allow the student to signify when 
the correct answer goes by. If the stu- 
dent presses the space bar at that given 
moment, then a drill will go down to the 
answer. The same is achieved with the 
CoCo version by using the right joystick 
fire button. The program recognizes the 
value of the numbers below it by use of 



The KEV— 2 S 4 K is here!! 

DO YOU ttWE A 64K SYSTEM (OR 32K WITH 64K MEMORY CHIPS) ?? ARE YOU BEING TOLD YOU CAN ONLY USE 32K FROM BASIC ?? 

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*** Works with CASSETTE based systems! *** *** Worfts with DISK based systems! *** 

The KEY-264 K divides the 64K ram memory into two 32K banks or sides, each of which can be utilized independently 
by the BASIC interpreter, with the ability to switch instantly from one side to the other, IT'S LIKE HAWING TWO 
COMPUTERS IN ONE!! Have your BASIC program on one side and keep your variables on the other side, or have your 
main program on one side arid your subroutines on the other side, or have your program on one side and use the 
other side for 4 additional HI-RES pages, or any combination you like. The possibilities are endless because the 
KEY-264K allows full coiwiwnication between sides plus the ability to switch back and forth at will, all from 
within BASIC. You could also have different programs in each side and switch back and forth between them using 
simple keystrokes, even while the programs are running!! Or run them both at the same time in the 
FOREGROUND/BACKGROUND MULTI-TASKING mode. Don't buy that printer buffer yet! With the KEY-264K you can be 
printing in the background side while utilirinq your computer normally in the foreground side AT THE SAME TIME!!! 
Debugging a program? Use either a BASIC commander simple keystrokes to instantly duplicate your program, in it's 
present status, on the opposite side. Switch to the opposite side later and pick up exactly where you were before! 

For DISK users, the KEY-264K allows you to alternate between DISK and EXTENDED BASIC on the same side with 
simple keystrokes. No need "to pull your controller or power down. You can be in EXTENDED BASIC on one side and in 
DISK BASIC on the other side and still switch back and forth and have full communications between the two sides. 

The KEY-264K does this and MORE thru extensions to BASIC. No need to learn a new language! The KEY-264K adds 
15 NEfTCCRRBRDS and 1 function to BASIC, including powerful new BLOCK MEMORY MOVE and GRAPHICS VIEWING commands. 

The KEY-264K works on the 64K COCO or 64K COCQ-2 and on older 32K systems with 'F 1 , or even modified , D* 
boards and requires EXTENDED or DISK BASIC with GOOD 64K MEMORY CHIPS! 

ORDER YOUR KEY-264K TODAY by sending check or money order for $39.95 (cassette) or $44.95 (disk) plus 
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CALL (61?) 773-5034 HARVARD, MA. 01451 



September 1984 THE RAINBOW 227 



the MID$ function which takes out the 
middle of the string for our use. 

If the answer is wrong, the screen 
printsTRY AGAIN, and waits until the 
correct answer is selected. If the answer 
is correct, the screen prints a very color- 
ful changing display of CORRECT. 
(Here is one of your Low-Res graphic 
rewards.) If all 20 problems are 
answered without an error, the oil well 
will erupt with a golden gusher accom- 
panied by a sound display. The number 
of MISSES is later displayed. The pro- 
gram can be restarted by pressing 
ENTER. If you wish to have more prob- 
lems displayed, change the value of YS 
in Line 1 10. 

The program also includes several 
other features. You may select a multi- 
plication table from one to nine. You 
may also select whether the problems 
will be assorted with problems from a 
lower multiplication table. (DO YOU 
WANT THE TABLES ASSORTED Y 
OR N ?) You may also control the speed 
at which the answers run by the bottom 
of the well by selecting the speed at the 



beginning of the RUN. After a problem 
has been completed, you may either 
wait a few more seconds, or move on to 
the next problem by pressing any key or 
pressing the fire button. This prevents 
the screens from running by a slower 
reading student too quickly. 

The Colorful Screen 

One of the best things about this pro- 
gram is the colorful, large graphics 
characters that print out on the screen. 
The CHR$ numbers for these letters are 
included in the DATA statements, and 
are part of a larger subroutine 1 have 
used in many other programs. 1 think 
you will find these characters very effec- 
tive, but they remain under the copy- 
right for this program, which means 
that you cannot remove them and use 
the routines in any other program. 
While 1 am happy to share them in this 
program, they do represent a slightly 
different way of displaying colorful text 
and, therefore, remain subroutines I 
plan to use time and time again in my 
own software. (In fact, several other 



rainbow programs have recently had 
this same stipulation tied to them.) Still, 
the subroutines may give you a better 
insight into how problems like this can 
be solved. 

Conclusion 

Once you have successfully keyed in 
this program, I think you will find that it 
is a very effective way of reviewing mul- 
tiplication tables. With a little modifica- 
tion, 1 am sure that we can come up with 
some other variations on this theme to 
teach and review other skills. Send me 
some wishes and ideas and who knows 
what we might be able to come up with. 
Just keep those ideas coming. 

Coming Attractions 

As 1 mentioned last month, shortly 1 
will be sharing the pairing programs 
which can be used for any type of com- 
petitions, sports or otherwise. Also still 
in the works are Rockfest II, a quick 
way to prepare resumes and a few other 
secrets that will soon be in your hands. 
Keep watching. The best is yet to come. 



220 204 

400 185 

580 216 

800 82 

930 51 

1160 .... 149 
1360 .... 209 
2140 .... 135 
END .... 212 



The listing: 



10 REM************************* 
20 REM* MULT I MATH DRILLER * 
30 REM* BY FRED B.SCERBO * 
40 REM* COPYRIGHT <C) 1983 * 
50 REM* BY 1MB AND THE * 
60 REM* PROGRAMMERS' GUILD * 
70 REM************************* 
80 CLS0 
90 CLEAR500 

100 FOR ZZ=1T096:BB*=BB*+CHR*<12 

8) :nextzz 

110 BR=30:YS=20 

120 REM IF MC-10 THEN MC= 15360 
130 MO0 

140 DIM A<45,9) ,B<4, 12) 

150 F0RI«=2T011:F0RY=1T09:READ A< 

I,Y):NEXTY, I 

160 F0RI=19T044:F0RY=1T09 



170 READ A<I,Y) 
180 NEXTY, I 

190 F0RI=1T04:F0RY=1T012:READ B< 
I, Y) : NEXTY, I 

200 FOR ZZ=0TO31:PRINT@ZZ,CHR*<1 
88);: NEXT ZZ:FOR ZZ=320TO351:PRI 
NTSZZ, CHR*< 179) NEXT ZZ:FORI=0T 
021 : SET <0, 1,4): SET <63, 1,4): NEXT 
210 W*= " MULT I " : C=32 : L=38 : GOSUB 1 0 
80 : W*= " MATH " : C= 1 6 : L= 1 36 : GOSUB 1 08 
0 : W*= " DR I LLER " : C=64 : L=227 : GOSUB 1 
080 

220 REM <SHIFT><0> FOR LOWERCASE 
230 R*=CHR* ( 1 28 ) : PR I NT@4 1 7 , " by " + 
R*+ " f red " +R*+ " seer bo " +R*+R*+ "cop 
yright"; 

240 POKE1467+MC,49:POKE1468+MC,5 

7 : POKE 1 469+MC , 56 : POKE 1 470+MC , 5 1 

250 PRINT@452, "the"+R*+"programm 

ers"+R*+R*+"guild"; 

260 POKE 1 49 1+MC, 39: GOSUB 1360: FOR 

I=417TO480:PRINT@I,CHR*(128) ; : NE 

XTI 

270 PR I NTS353 , " se 1 ec t " R* " sp eed " R 
*"f rom"R*"f ast"R*"to"R*"slow"; :6 
OSUB290 
280 6OTO300 

290 W*="l TO 9":C=1 12:L=422:G0SU 
B 1 080 : RETURN 

300 X*=INKEY*: IFX*=""THEN300 
310 X=ASC<X*) : IFX<49THEN300 
320 IFX>57THEN300 



228 . THE RAINBOW September 1984 



MTMLM 





Across Hie Rubicon 


II 





K AM! KA££ BOMBER COMMAND 



WE CHALLENGE YOU! 




WAR WAR WAR WAR 
GAMES ! GAMES ! GAMES ! GAMES ! 



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JACTA 
ALEA 
EST! 



CLASSICAL AGE EUROPE. . . 

The Winds of War are blowing across the northern frontier, 
the Emperor issues orders to his field commanders, who 
little realize the doubts tormenting their leader! There is too 
little in the treasury, too little known of the enemy, and too 
vulnerable are the imperial cities and their precious farm 
lands to pilliage and capture. And if this is not enough, his 
armies are green as May grass. But ... JACTA ALEA EST! 
The die is cast. The campaign must begin... Printer 
recommended. 







BATTLE. FOR TUNIS 




A 1 or 2 player game that places you In North Africa in 
1943. Patton has just been recalled to Europe to help plan 
the Invasion of Sicily; Rommel is in Berlin. You have the 
opportunity to replace two of history's greatest generals In 
this challenge for control of Tunisia. Each player controls 
the actual ground forces present at the time. 

In the one player, game, you control the Axis forces and 
try to do what Rommel's veterans couldn't: Hold Tunis! 

Play Is on a battle screen with an overall strategy map 
available for general reconnaissance. Intelligence and sta- 
tus reports, as well as air power, are also available. 



GUADALCANAL 







3* 









AMERICA STRIKES BACK! 

August. 1942. The Marines have landed in America s first offen- 
sive af WWII and the Stage is set With captured food and equip- 
ment and virtually no chance of resupply. the Marines must ei- 
pand their perimeter, complete Henderson Field, seek out an 
illusive and insidious enemy, and put up with the incessant daily 
bombing Nat to mention the spine shattering cry of BANZAI His- 
tonal, except that this time YOU command the 1st Marines. Send 
patrols into a teeming ,ungle capture Japanese camps, some air 
cover, interdiction and search, pray for that supply ship Go lor it. 
Leatherneck. SEMPER TV 



WATERLOO 32k 

CASSETTE.... $24.95 

KAMIKAZE 32k 

CASSETTE.... $24.95 

ACROSS THE RUBICON 

CASSETTE.... $24.95 32k 
GUADALCANAL 32k EXT 

CASSETTE.... $24.95 

BOMBER COMMAND 

CASSETTE.... $22.95 
16k EXT 

P. 0. Box 14806 
Jacksonville, FL 32238 
904-786-8603 



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OTHER ARK ROYAL GAMES... 

STARBLAZER — 32K 17.95 

KAMIKAZE — 16K 14.95 

ACROSS THE RUBICON — 16K 14.95 



Prices on All games 
include shipping. Florida 
Resident add 5% tax. 



All Programs require Color 
Computer™ (Tandy Corp) or 
TDP System 100 Computed 
(RCA) 



We pay shipping on all prepaid orders to 
USA and CANADA. 
Foreign orders add 10%. 



330 K=VAL(X*):DL=K*8 

340 CLS0: W*="SELECT" : C=32: L»4: GO 

SUB 1 080 : W*= " DES I RED " : C=48 : L=98 : G 

OSUB1080 

350 W*= " TABLES " : C=* 1 6 : L» 1 96 : SOSUB 
1 080 : W*= " FROM " : C=64 : L=296 : GOSUB 1 
080:GOSUB290 

360 X*=INKEY*: IFX*=""THEN360 
370 X=ASC(X*> : IFX<49THEN360 
380 IFX>57THEN360 
390 K=VAL(X«) 

400 CLS0:W*="DO YOU":C=80:l_=5:GO 
SUB 1 080 : W*= " WANT THE " : C= 1 1 2 : L»96 
: GOSUB 1 080 : W*= " TABLES " : L= 1 96 : C=6 
4: GOSUB 1080 

410 W*= " ASSORTED " : C=32 : L=288 : GOS 
UB 1 080 : W*= " Y " : C= 1 6 : L=386 : GOSUB 1 

080 : w*= " OR " : c=0 : gosub l 080 : w*= " n 

" : C— 1 6 : GOSUB 1 080 
420 PRINTSL+1,CHR*(190) ;CHR*(188 
)CHR*(191) ; :PRINT@L+33,CHR*(128) 
CHR*(188)CHR*(188) 5 : SET <54, 28, 4) 
430 X*=INKEY*: IFX*="Y"THEN460 
440 IFX*="N"THEN470 
450 GOTO430 
460 AJ=l:GOTO470 
470 CLS0:GOSUB490 
480 GOTO500 

490 W*="WHAT IS" :C=16:L=3: GOSUB 1 
080: RETURN 

500 FOR ZZ=416T0447:PRINT@ZZ,CHR 
9(188);: NEXT ZZ:FOR ZZ=480TO510: 
PRINTSZZ, CHR*( 179) ;: NEXT ZZ 
510 P0KE1535+MC, 179 
520 E=29 : F=34 : FORG= 1 0TO24STEP2 
530 FORI=E TO F: SET ( I , G, 5) : NEXTI 
540 SET<E-1,G+1,6) : SET (F+l , G+l , 6 
) 

550 e=e-i:f=f+i:nextg 

560 fori=12t026:set<31, 1,3) :set< 

32, 1,3) : NEXTI 

570 PRINTS109, "times"; : FOR TP=1T 

O YS:NP=0:IF TR=>BR THEN970 

580 F=RND(9):IF F=LN THEN580 

590 IF AJ=0 THEN E=K 

600 IF AJ=1 THEN E=RND(K) 

610 LN=F: I=E+2: L=135: C=l 12: GOSUB 

1260: I=F+2:L=151: GOSUB 1260 

620 AN=E*F:F*=STR*<AN) 

630 F0RI=1T06:G=RND<9) :H=RND<9) : 

H*=STR* <6*H) : F*=F*+" "+H*: NEX 

TI 

640 J*=LEFT*(F*,32) 
650 PRINT@448, J*; 

660 L*=RIGHT*<J*,31> :M*=LEFT*<J* 
, 1 ) : J*=L*+M* 

670 FORP=lTO DL:NEXTP: IFTR sa >BR T 
HEN970 



680 I F I NKE Y*=CHR* < 32 ) THEN750 
690 REM IF MC-10 DELETE LINE700 
700 IFPEEK(339)»254THEN750 
710 NP=NP+ 1 : I FNP= 1 50THEN730 
720 GOTO650 

730 PR I NT@0 , BB* ; : W*= " TH INK" : C=64 
: L=6 : GOSUB 1 080 : SOUND 1,2: SOUND 1 , 2 
: SOUND 1,2 
740 GOTO650 

750 TR=TR+l:PRINT@431,CHR*<186)C 
HR*(181) ; :PRINT@463,CHR*(138)CHR 

*<133) ; 

760 IF AN=VAL (MID* < J*, 15,4) ) THEN 
780 

770 GOTO840 

780 PRINT@0,BB«; 

790 FORC= 1 6T0 1 1 2STEP32 : W*= " CORRE 
CT " : L=3 : GOSUB 1 080 : SOUNDC+ 1 , 1 : NEX 
TC 

800 PR I NT@0 , BB* ; : I =E+2 : L=0 : C=48 : 
GOSUB1260: I=4:C=32:GOSUB1310: I»F 
+2 : C=48 : GOSUB 1 260 

810 w*=" is":c=16:gosubi080: w*=s 

TR* ( AN ) : C=32 : GOSUB 1 080 

820 GOSUB 1 360 : PR I NT@0 , BB* ; : GOSUB 

490: CR=CR+l: NEXT TP 

830 GOTO880 

840 PR I NT@0 , BB* ; : W*= " WRONG " : C=64 
: L=6 : GOSUB 1 080 : SOUND20 , 1 : S0UND2 , 
1 : SOUND20, 1 : S0UND2, 1 
850 WR=WR+ 1 : PR I NT@0 , BB* ; : W*= " TRY 
" : C=32 : L= 1 0 : GOSUB 1 080 : FOR 1=1 TO30 
0: NEXT: PRINTS0, BB*; : W*=" AGAIN" 
860 C=96:L=6:GOSUB1080:FORI=1TO3 

00:next:print@0,bb*; :gosub490: if 
np>100then np=0 

870 GOTO650 

880 IFTROYS THEN970 

890 PRINT@0,BB*; :FOR JJ=448T0479 

:PRINT@JJ,CHR*(159) ; :NEXTJJ 

900 FORI=28TO10STEP-l:SET(31, 1,2 

) : SET (32, 1,2): SOUND230, 1 : NEXTI : F 

0RI=1T07: SET (30-1*2, 10-1,2) 

910 SET (33+1*2, 10-1,2) :SOUND230, 

l: NEXTI: SET (30-1*2, 1 1-1 , 2) : SET (3 

3+1*2, 11-1,2) 

920 F0RI=1T012: SET (13-1, 2+1*2, 2) 
: SET (50+1, 2+1*2, 2) :SOUND230, 1 : NE 
XTI:FORI=1TO20:SOUNDRND(230> , l:N 
EXT 

930 CLS0:W*="YOU HIT":C=32:L=2: 
GOSUB 1 080 : W*= " PAYD I RT " : C=64 : L=98 
: GOSUB 1080 

940 W*="WITH A":C=48:L=196:G0SUB 
1 080 : W*= " PERFECT " : C= 1 6 : L=290 : GOS 
UB1080 

950 W*= " SCORE ":C=112:L=390:GOSUB 
1080 



230 THE RAINBOW September 1984 



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