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The 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

3 i 




S A 



Our Birthday 
Special . . . 

,A New Dimension — 
Scratch and Sniff 
Adventure 



Contest Kickoff! 
tirNl Annual 



Simulation 



Competition 



RainbowTech 
Department 
On PASCAL 
And 

A Comprehensive, 
Three- Year Index 
to the Rainbow 

J 




"44254"0000r 



9.7 PIUS 



.-3 



GAMES, GRAPHICS, UTILITIES, COMMENTARY™ . w 
TUTORIALS AND MORE THAN THREE DOZEN 
PRODUCTS REVIEWED 



WORLDS OF FLIGHT (WOF) is a "view" 
oriented flight simulation for the TRS-80 
Color Computer, written entirely in 
Machine Language. "View" oriented 
means that the pilot may determine his or 
her position by actually viewing the sur- 
rounding landmarks as opposed to using 
instruments whfch sense navigational 
references. This is a major departure from 
"instrument only" simulations which can 
be achieved through BASIC programs. 
Most instrument maneuvers and pro* 
cedures may be practiced. The craft is a 
hght-weighl, single-engine airplane with 
low wings. A nose wheel which is both 
sieerable and retractable is also modeled. 
Some aerobatics are possible including 
sustained inverted flight, aileron rolls, 
spins and stalls. 

JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 
32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $29.95 DISK $3Z95 




The Experts Say: 



C.L. — "As a pilot I found "Flight" to 
be an outstanding simulation. 

M. H. — Wo one has created a more 
realistic flight simulator for the Color 
Computer, " 

D. HOOPER, pilot for major airline 
"An outstanding flying experience. 
Very realistic." 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

4285 BRADFORD N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 



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COMPUTERS 

Model 4 Portable 

64K w/2 Drives 1525 

Model 2000 2Dr 2299 

Model 12 1 Drive 2360 

Model 16B 1Dr 256K 3965 
MODEMS 

Hayes Smartmodem II 225 

AC-3 129 

DC Modem I 89 

DC Modem II 160 
PRINTERS 

Silver Reed EXP500 D.W. Ser. 455 
Silver Reed EXP550 D.W. Par. 525 

CGP115 159 

CGP220 Ink Jet 545 

DMP110 305 

DMP420 735 
Toshiba 1340 (24 wire head) 779 

Gemini 10X 289 

Gemini 15X 409 

CITOH Prowriter 359 

Okidata CALL 

Epson CALL 



ETC. 

Disk Drive Controller 139 

Extended Basic Kit 39.95 

PBH Ser/Par Conv. 69 

64K Ram Chips 62.95 

Deluxe Keyboard 35.95 

Superpro Keyboard 69.95 

HJL Keyboard 79.95 

CCR-81 Recorder 52 

Deluxe Joystick (each) 35.95 

Joysticks (pair) 22 

Video Plus (monitor adapter) 24.95 

Video Plus IIC 39.95 

Amdek Color 1 + Monitor 299 

BMC Color Monitor 255 
BMC Green Monochrome Monitor 99 

Taxan Green Mono. Monitor 130 

Taxam Amber Mono. Monitor 139 



SOFTWARE 

Zaxxon 
The King 
Trap Fall 
Buzzard Bait 
Devil Assault 



(Tape Version) 
34.95 
26,95 
27.95 
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27.95 



Colorpede 29.95 

Juniors Revenge 28.95 

Pac Attack 24.95 

Block Head 26.95 

Froggie 24.95 

Lunar Rover Patrol 24.95 

Lancer 24.95 

Typing Tutor 23.95 

Galagon 24.95 

Scott Adams Adventures 19.95 

Sea Dragon 34.95 

Colorcome 49.95 

Telewriter 64 49.95 

O-Pak (disk) 34.95 

Key-264K 39.95 

Elite-Calc 59.95 

VIP Writer 59.95 

VIP Calc 59.95 

VIP Terminal 49.95 

VIP Database (disk) 59.95 

Order any 2 software pieces listed 
and take 10% off their listed price. 
All Radio Shack software 10% off list. 
Send for complete list. 



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IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TRS-80 1» a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 



Under the Rainbow 




FEATURE ARTICLES 




90 



-J 




I — I The small cassette tape 
symbols beside features 
and regular columns indicate 
that the program listings with 
those articles are on this month's 
rainbow on tape, ready to 
CLOAD and RUN. For full 
details, check our rainbow on 
tape ad on Page 223. 



|~J Grandma's Favorite Recipe/ Colin J. Stearman 18 

Expanding BASIC A series on using the proper 

ingredients to enhance your disk system 
[»J Rags And Riches/ Gene Meador 26 

Simulation Dealing with tenants and the Last 

National Bank 

Give Me Your Tired, Your Poor . . . I Brad Tobias 61 

Printer Graphics Creating America's symbol of freedom 
and liberty 

Database Delight/ Bill Nolan 64 

Disk Tutorial The first of a six-part series on developing a 

database manager program 
Putting It In Order/ Donald R. Clerc 67 

Game Going to great lengths to be logical 
[g«j YouH Get A Bang OUt Of Thisl/ Peter Stumpf 74 

Holiday Special A Fourth of July celebration with music 

and graphics 

It Cuts Like A Knife/ David Bailey 84 

Printer Utility Distinguishing your CTs from zeros with a 
slash 

[~] A Whiff Of Danger /Eric Tilenius 90 

Feature Game Assist the international police in your role 
as a 'private nose* 

The Curse Of The Caverns/ Bill Franks 132 

Game This obstacle course will drive you batty 
Building An I/O Board/ T Whit Athey 138 

Hardware Tutorial Interfacing your CoCo with your 

own projects 

This Keyboard Will Give You A Good Feeling/£tf Ellers 149 

Hardware A look at the new CoCo 2 keyboard 
Attention Please!/ Charles Springer 156 

Contest Making way for the second annual Simulation 

contest 

[ST] A Fitting Label/ < Brad Scoffin 174 

Printer Utility Cleaning up the appearance of your 
cassette case 

[^1 A 'Simulating' Lesson/ Robert K. Tyson, Ph.D 186 

Simulation Tutorial On creating Simulations 

Three Years Of RAINBOW/ Leslie A. Foster 259 

I ndex An index to the articles, reviews and authors in our 
first three years 



RAINBOWTECH 

Downloads/ Dan Downard 276 

Answers to your technical questions 
Random Basics/ Paul Sear by 279 

Another point of view on operating systems 
KISSable OS-9/ Dale L. Puckett 291 

A technical potpourri 
Personable pascal/ Daniel A. Eastham 284 

A new column on the language of PASCAL 



v 



THE RAINBOW July 1984 



DEPARTMENTS 



Advertiser Index * > 304 

Back Issue Information ; , 293 

BASIC Twining/ Joseph Kolar * . » . 114 

TLAY'ing with the CoCo 
Bits And Bytes Of basic/ Richard White 128 

Revisiting variable land 
Building July's RAlNBOW/7/m Reed ; , 16 

A many-hued preview to this month's issue 
CoCb Graphics/ Don Inmart 122 

Examining the features of BASIC and LOGO 

Corrections : i . . 189 

Earth To Ed/ Ed Etlers * ; 190 

A trek into the technical world of rainbow's resident 

hacker 

Education Notes/5/eve Blyn . . : 150 

Learning a bit of the CoCo Hex 
Education Overview/ Dr. Michael Plog ; ;48 

Examining the classroom with CoCo as teacher 
Greetings From Uncle Bert/ Dale Peterson ; , 117 

Itching to learn about fleas 

Letters To RAINBOW/Owr Readers ; ; . . . ; 4 .6 

The Pipeline/ Staff , 152 

PRINT #-2 ,/ Lawrence G Folk 14 

Editor's Notes 

Received And Certified ; > 194 

Reviewing Reviews 198 

School Is In The Heart Of A ChM/Fran Saito, Bob Albrecht ;52 

Programs to count on 

Scoreboard ; . .178 

Scoreboard Pointers ; 180 

Game clues and questions 

Submitting Material To rainbow a 245 

Subscription Information 228 

These Fine Stores ; 302 

Turn Of The Screw/ Tony DiStefano ; 176 

A dualing cassettes project 
Wishing We\\/Fred Scetbo ; . . 162 

Granting three wishes 





Advanced Editor . 202 

Adventure Generator 231 

Blue Streak . . 211 

Colorama BBS 235 

Dyna-Spell 220 

Dyha Star/Dvna Form ... 220 

E.T.T 210 

E-Z Base 255 

Everyone's Guide to 

bask 243 

Froggie 254 

Funhouse And Ski 

Lodge . . . . 238 

Gold Plug 80 233 



Length, Area, Volume 

And Capacity 216 

MSI-Disk Util 229 

Master Design « . , 204 

Memo Minder 222 

Micro Checkers 225 

Micro Games 225 

More Beef 214 

Mul-T-Screen 240 

Programmer's 

Sketch Pad 213 

Real Talker 205 

Remote Terminal 

Driver 219 



Retirement Planning 

Model . . ; 239 

Scatterbrain 

And Better : . . . . 226 

Semigraf 237 

Shaft. . ....... i 223 

Speed Math 228 

Super Edit . . ; i 224 

Time Bandit . . . . < 201 

Triple Transfer Utility 

(TTU) 227 

Tut'sTomb 258 

VIP Database 245 

The Voice 241 



NEXT MONTH: Our games issue! And do we have some goodies, including a whole new genre of game — an 
arcade-like, joystick-controlled Adventure, a Roy G- Biv Award winner, (Who is he, anyway?) August is the 
month we begin our neW assembly language column for beginners and a special aeries on "Everything You 
Always Wanted To Know About CoCo." We'll even have a graphics salute to the Olympics, plus, of course, 
games, games, games. 

As always, there'll be dozens of articles, departments and product reviews — more information on your Color 
Computer than is available anywhere else. 



] 4 - 



Vol. ill No. 12 



Editor and Publisher 

Lawrence <X Falk 

Managing Editor James E. Reed 
Senior Editor Courtney, Noe 
Technical Editor Dan Downard 
Copy Cditor Susan Remlni 
Submissions Editor J utta Kapf hammer 
Editorial Assistants Valerie Edwards, 

Wendy Falk, Suzanne Kurowsky, 

Lynn Miller, Shirley Morgan, 

Noreen Morrison, Kevin Njckots 
Technical Assistant Ed Eflers 
Contributing Editors Bbt> Albrecht, Steve Blyn, 

Tony DiStefano, Dan Eastham, Frank Hogg, Don 

Inman, Joseph Kolar, Dale Peterson, Michael 

Plog, Date Puckett, Fran Saito, Pauf Searby, Fred 

Seer bo, Richard White 
Art Director Sally Nichols 
Assistant Art Director Jerry McKiernah 
Designers Peggy Henry, Neal C, Lau roh 
Advertising Manager Charlotte Ford 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 

(502) 228*4492 
General Manager Patricia H. Hirsch 
Asst. general Manager for Finance Donna Shuck 
Bookkeeper . Diane Moore 
Advertising Accounts Doris Taylor 
Dealer Accounts Judy Quash nock 
Administrative Assistant to Ihe Publisher 

Marianne Booth 
RAINBOWfest Site Management WHIo Falk 
Director of Fulfilment Services Bonnie Shepard 
Asst. Customer Service Manager Deidra Henry 
Customer Service Representative Sandy Apple 
Word Processor Manager Lynda Wilson 
rainbow ON tape Subscriptions Monica Wheat 
Research Assistants Laurie Falk, 

Wanda Perry, Loretta Varda, Kara Voit 
Dispatch Mark Herndon 
Production Assistant Melba Smith 



Advertising and Marketing Office fdr tte Western stfltftt and 
provinces: Cindy Shacklelord, director, 12110 Meridian Smith, 
Suite 8, P.O, Box 73-578, Puyatlup, WA 96373-0578. Phonei (206) 
648-7766. Territories included; AK. AZ, CA, CO, Hi, ID, MT, N V, 
NM, on, UT, WA, WY, Canadian Provincot of Alberta, British 
Columbia, Saskatchewan. 



THE RAINBOW Is represented In the Eastern United States by 
Garland Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 314, S.H.S., DuxburV, MA 
02331, (617) 934-6464 or 934*6646, Advertisers oast of the Missis* 
sippl may contact them tor further Information, Territories 
Included: At, CT, OE, DC, FL V OA, IL, IN, K Y, ME, MO, MA, Ml, MS, 
NC, NH, NJ,NY,6h,PA, RI;SC*TN, VA, VTiWV, Wl, Canadian Pro*- 
inces of Ontario, Quebec. 



the rainbow is published every month of the year by 
FALSOFT, Inc., .9529 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 209, 
Prospect, KY, 40059. Phone (502) 228-4492. THE RAIN- 
BOW and the rainbow logotypes are ® trademarks of 
FALSOFT, Inc. . 

Second class postage paid Prospect, KY and addi- 
tibnar offices, USPS N. 705-050 {ISSN No. 074^4797). 
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to the rainbow, 
P.O. Box 209, Prospect; KY 40059. forwarding Postage 
Guaranteed. Authorized as second class postage paid 
from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontar- 
io, Canada\ 

Entire contents * by FALSOFT, Inc., 1964. THE RAIN- 
BOW is intended for the private Use and pleasure of its 
subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by any 
means is prohibited. Use of information herein is for the 
sihgte end use of purchasers and any other use is 
expressly prohibited. All programs herein are distrib- 
uted in an "as is" basis, without warranty of any Kind 
whatsoever. 

TRS-80, Color BAStc, Extended CotorSASic, Scripsit 
and Program Pak are ® trademarks of the Tandy Corp. 
CompuServe is a * trademark of CompuServe Ina 

Subscriptions to THE Rainbow are $28 per year in the 
United States. Canadian and Mexican rates are U.S. $35. 
Surface maii to other countries is U.S. $66, aif mail U.S. 
$100. Ail subscriptions begin with next available issue. 
, Limited back issues are available. Please see notice 
for issues which are in print and costs. Payment 
accepted by VISA, MasterCard, American Express, 
Cash, Check or Money Order in U.S. currency only. 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 5 



RAINBOW 



ARTS AND LETTERS 




Envelope Of The Month Eric M. White 



IT'S IN COLOR 



Editor: 

1 would like to bring something to every- 
one's attention concerning books that have 
been published for the CoCo. 1 have been in 
several bookstores now and found that each 
orie consistently misfiles these books. Any 
book that has "Color Computer" as part of 
its title without "TRS-8CF is apparently 
thought to be a book covering the general 
topic of all non-black-and-white computers. 
1 came across this problem while comparing 
the number of titles available for the differ- 
ent models. It is not uncommon to find as 
many misfiled as filed CoCo books. 

Bookstore personnel have generally been 
polite, but uninterested. (You know, the old 
"Aren't they all the same?" look.) At the very 
least, both CoCo owners and authors should 
be made aware that several books may seem 
unavailable or not selling as well as expected 
because they're misfiled. Publishers should 
do something about making their distribu- 
tors aware of where these books should be 
located. In the meantime, if you're perusing 
the computer books at your favorite book- 
store, make sure to thoroughly search each 



Longwood, FL 

model's section looking for the key phrase 
"Color Computer." 

£>.£. Isom 
Marina, CA 



HINTS & TIPS 

Editor: 

After many failures by both Radio Shack 
in Texas and me to place -upc in the startup 
file [for OS-9], 1 received a call from them 
which seems to do the trick. However, 1 
don't know why. Add this to the startup file: 
tmode(space). I (spacej-upc. So far, no prob- 
lems have occurred. 

Herman R. Isaacs, M.D. 

Cincinnati, OH 

STOPPING HUNGRY DATA 

Editor: 

Mike Fahy's "Boltype" (May 1984 RAlN^ 
bow Page 64) was very good. 1 like dot graph- 
ics and play around with it a lot. Although 
the program was written for a 32K CoCo, it 
will run nicely on a 16K machine. Change 
Line 40 to: 40 GOTO 1850, Add 1850: 1850 
PC LEA R 2.GOTO 50. 

Dot graphics do not use the graphics 
pages of memory and as many (or as few, 



depending on how you look at it) as are 
necessary can be PCLEARed. 

Another way of saving memory when 
using RS printers is to subtract 128 from the 
sum of each column total in the DATA 
statements, then add it back in the ?#-2 
command. Where C is the READ: PRINT 
#-2, CHR$(C+128);, 

DA TA statements eat up memory and it is 
sometimes necessary to get a little u tricky" 
with the computer. 

Travis Ait on 
Azle, TX 

Editor: 

Those who have upgraded their E version 
CoCos to 64K might want to knbw that the 
mod does not bring these older machines 
quite completely up to look exactly like the 
newer A computers. The problem showed 
up when an associate of mine tried to run 
Radio Shack's latest diagnostic ROM pack 
on his upgraded E board and found that the 
memory portion of the test did not recognize 
his computer as having 64K (showed to test 
only 32K). The problem is the E board uses 
PB7 of PI A U8 to output a test of jumpers 
for 32/64K, whereas the newer A board uses 
PB6 of the same PI A (which is called U 1 8 on 
this board). 

A simple cut and add to the RAM size 
jumpers changing PB7 to be PB6 cures the 
problem, and the new diagnostic ROM pack 
will now recognize the upgraded E bo^rd as 
having a full 64K. This is the only condition 
Where 1 have fouild this difference to be a 
problem (Color basic sets several of the PB 
lines, both PB6 and PB7 included, when it 
tests for memory availability, so it sees no 
difference between the two revisions). 1 
would like to know if anyone else has found 
any other variations in functional layout 
between the two versions. 

Richard C. Lawrence 
Austin, TX 

MAKING THE PROPER CONNECTION 

Editor: 

Thank you for a fine magazine. 1 espe- 
cially like to read the "Letters to rainbow' 4 
column. 

In installing a Deluxe Keyboard from 
Radio Shack in my 64K CoCo E board, 1 
found that the connector supplied with the 
adaptor kit, if installed according to the pin 
markings on it and the main logic board, will 
cause improper operation. The connector 
must be installed with the pin numbers re- 
versed and the electronic parts on top. This 



6 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Publisher's 
Clearance! 



letter is testimony that this works as it was 
done on the CbCo in question. 

I hope, that this bit of information will 
save some poor soul all the grief I suffered 
due to trying to install the connector "proper- 

By the way, the new keyboard is a vast 
improvement over the original. Even my 
wife, who can type 90 wpm, likes it (all she 
could get out of the old one was 70 wpm). 

Thanks again for an outstanding maga- 
zine, rainbow is far above the rest. 

Tom Locke 
Beaufort, SC 

A CHARMING TIP 

Editor: 

First, 1 would like to compliment you on 
your informative and well-published maga- 
zine^ 

At the time of this writing, 1 have had my 
new CoCo 2 for about one week. What a fine 
computer! 

The following has worked extremely well 
for me. Type in and enter LOAD 
"FILENA ME'\ R. Your program will load 
from disk and RUN automatically. You can 
also use this command in program lines to 
set up a directory file that will control several 
selections from one menu. 

If you then enter routines in each of these 
programs to call back a LOAD of the main 
directory program, you will have quite an 
effective way of working within a group of 
programs on each disk. 

1 am presently using this system on several 
disks controlling numerous programs oh 
each disk, and it works like the proverbial 
"charm. M Keep up the good work rainbow! 

A.L. Johnson 
Georgetown, CO 

Editor: 

1 would like to thank Steve Good for his 
fine program called Spooler which was pub- 
lished in the June 1983 rainbow, Page 246. 
The modifications to enable the program to 
run on the new 1.1. Disk ROM can be found 
in Jacques Labonte's letter in the April 1984 
issue (Page 8). An important point about 
this software spooler is that it not only saves 
time at the keyboard, but also may resolve 
an incompatibility between the CoCo and 
the DMP-120, which causes the printer to 
occasionally drop the first character of a 
printed line. In my situation, 1 had written a 
BASIC program to produce my multiple- 
choice tests and had employed a MID- 
STRING statement embedded in a FOR/ 
NEXTloop to send characters to the printer 
one at a time. Even with the.l . 1 basic ROM 
and the POKE 151, 255 that Radio Shack 
suggested, 1 was getting about one line in six 
misprinted, but with Spooler added to my 
test-making program my questions have 
been perfectly readable, if not answerable. 

Ted Jaeger, Ph.D. 
Fayetteville, NC 

A MEMORY FINDER 

Editor: 

1 read Steve Abram's letter in the May 
1984 (Page 7) rainbow about disabling the 



Reset key. The jump vector for the Reset key 
is located in memory locations 1 14 and 115. 
That means that whenever the Reset key is 
pressed, the computer will go to a machine 
language routine whose address is contained 
in locations 1 14 and 1 f5. The routine must 
start with a NOP or the computer will 
cold-start. 

Doug Snyder 
Mansfield, CT 

CHILLY COCO 

Editor: 

This is an answer to the letter Marc Labbe 
wrote in the April 1984 (Page 6) "Letters to 
rainbow," 

The cold room should not affect the CoCo 
at all as long as it doesn't become extremely 
cold. But the major problem will be humid- 
ity. Most cold basements are also very 
humid due to the fact that cold air does not 
hold as much moisture as warm air. This 
makes the moisture condense out oh room 
objects such as Walls, which are cooler than 
the air temperature. 

This extra moisture in the air can also rust 
metal objects. I am talking from experience. 
Having kept my CoCo downstairs for over a 
year, I discovered that the metal screws hold- 
ing together the disk controller had rusted 
badly inside the controller, but the other 
components still looked good. 1 was prob- 
ably lucky, and 1 moved my computer back 
upstairs as soon as 1 saw the problem. 

Steven Ostrom 
Minnetonka, MN 



CALL TO ASSEMBLY 

Editor: 

\ am the proud owner of a 64K CoCo and 
have enjoyed your magazine for almost a 
year. One of my favorite departments has 
been "Assembly Corner" but 1 have not seen 
it recently. I think that you have a tremen- 
dous magazine and 1 hope that you continue 
your super service. 

Bill Melton 
Oklahoma City, OK 

Editor's Note: Due to other pressing 
commitments, Dennis Lewandowski 
is unable to continue his "Assembly 
Corner" column. We are grateful for 
his sharing his expertise with us for so 
long and wish him well. Beginning 
with our August issue, we will have a 
new columnist and we have asked him 
to concentrate on getting started in 
assembly language. 



KUDOS 



Editor: 

1 welcome the type of article published by 
Torn Nelson, which appeared in your May 

RAINBOW. 

Having recently been initiated to micro- 
computers and printers, 1 appreciate and 
need this type of article, "A Primer on Prints 
ers," whidh explains, in ways not encounter- 
ed in most factory manuals, the basic, yet 



Official Version 

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Pac Man® 
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Robot Attack 
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July 1984 THE RAINBOW 7 



fundamental mechanisms of printer tech- 
nology. 

1 look forward to reading more of Mr. 
Nelson's articles in future issues, and hope 
that others with equal knowledge and op- 
portunity will see fit to communicate their 
skills to newcomers such as 1. Keep it simple 
and comin\ 

Richard Dallaire 
Ottawa, Ontario 

Editor s Note: We like Tom Nelson's 
writing style, too, Richard. But, like 
Mr. Lewandowski, Tom has informed 
Us that other commitments preclude 
his continuing his rainbow column. 
We appreciate Tom's serving a "hitch" 
as a regular columnist and hope that 
both Tom and Dennis will appear on 
these pages again from time to time. 

Editor: 

Another thousands of kudos: Your solid, 
broad coverage of the CoCo scene can't be 
beat, and gets better each issue. 1 suggest you 
haVe a special contest corner for beginner/ 
youngster input to encourage fresh blood. 
"Letters," "basic Training," "Reviews," 
"Downloads" and "Rainbowtech" are solid 
regulars; and theme issues is a powerful 
concept. 

rainbow is a major resource, so press on! 

George Huntley 
Ozark, AL 

Editor: 

Yours [RAINBOW] is still the most excep- 
tional publication 1 have ever seen for the 



Color Computer and its owners. 

Paul M. Filch, Jr. 
APO, NY 

Editor: 

May 1 say how much 1 enjoy your maga- 
zine and your attempts to cover equitably all 
segments of CoCo ownership. 1 purchased 
my CoCo 19 months ago because of the 
good magazine support from the rainbow. 
Thanks to all those CoCo software suppliers 
who use your magazine. 

J.B. Garner 
Halifax, Nova Scotia 



CLUBS, CLUBS, CLUBS 

Editor: 

1 am trying to form a Color Computer 
Club in the Mount Vernori-Evansville, lnd., 
area. Anyone interested please contact me at 
(812) 874-2210, Box 462. 

Brian Broyles 
Poseyville, IN 

Editor: 

I am interested in joining or forming a 
Color Computer Club in the Southbury, 
Conn., area. If you have information about 
a club or would like to form one, please 
contact me at 209 Carriage Drive, 06488, or 
call (203) 264-6357. 

Rob Johnson 
Southbury, CT 

Editor: 

I would like to announce the Davis CoCo- 
Nuts, a Color Computer Club for fourth- to 



sixth-graders in Davis, Calif* Interest- 
ed people can contact me at 1818 Haussler 
Dr., 95616. 

Adam Sherman 
Davis, CA 

Editor: 

A new CoCo users group has been formed 
in West Virginia. The West Virginia Color 
Computer Club meets the second arid fourth 
Wednesday of each month at 7 p.m. We have 
a newsletter, a private BBS, "Co-Co-Nut" 
T-shirts, and members get discounts at some 
local computer stores. Anyone interested in 
becoming a member of our Club should con- 
tact me at 949 Baier Street, 25177. 

Will MuckloW 
St. Albans, WV 

Editor: 

We are pleased to announce the estab- 
lishment of the Personal Computer User's 
Society in the metropolitan city of Barcelona- 
Puerto La Cruz, Venezuela. This users group 
seeks to promote interest in computer science, 
to increase understanding of the uses of per- 
sonal computers and their application in 
various activities, to promote relevant re- 
search in this field and to establish a com- 
munication link between all the members, 

At the present time, our society has 42 
members including college professors and 
students as well as technical and profes- 
sional people. Our members own several 
brands of computers. 

We are planning a monthly newsletter 
with articles written by our members and transla- 
tions of magazine articles. We meet every 



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Model III Disk 



4005 West Sixty-Fifth Street 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55435 



Please rush me Early Games for Young Children 



\ 
\ 



Color Computer Disk Model I 
Color Computer Cassette 



I Cassette 



Phone Orders: 800-328-1225 
Minnesota: 612-926-7888 

Educators Endorse: "Early Games can help children 
learn new concepts, information and skills, and 
also introduces them to thejoys and benefits of 
home computers." 

Peter Clark, faculty 
Institute of Child Development 
University of Minnesota 

ho adult supervision required. The Picture Menu 
gives children control. They carl: 



\ 



flame 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



□ My check for $29.95 is enclosed (Minnesota residents add 6% sales tan). 

□ Charge to VISA □ Charge to Mastercard 



Acct. Ho. 



Expi ration Date 



\ 
I 



Match numbers 
Count Colorful 
Blocks 

■ Add Stacks of 
Blocks 

• Subtract Stacks 
of Blocks 
Draw and 
Save 
Colorful 
Pictures 



• Match Letters 
■ Learn the Alphabet 

• Spell their Mames 

• Compare Shapes 




8 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Color Power 1 1 

Expands Your CoCo to CP/M 



•1 ttt ACTUAL COLOR POVER I! DISPLAY t t * 

12 

tt COLOR POVER II GIVES YOU MORE — INCLUDING: 

14 POWERFUL FOUR KHz Z-88A 

OS 

96 H0T0R0LA 6845 WHICH GENERATES A HIGH QUALITY 88 COLUMN BY 24 LINE 1ISPLAY 

07 KITH UPPER and loyer case characters on uour composite video ionUor, 

08 INSTRUCTIONS INCLUDED ON USING 6845 DIRECTLY FRON YOUR CoCo 
09 

11 USES CoCo COMMANDS; NO NEU OPERATING SYSTEM TO LEARN SUCH AS OS-9 OR FLEX 

12 ABSOLUTELY NO 64K CoCo or CoCo II HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS NEEDED 
13 

14 RUNS THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS OF CP/N PROGRAMS 
15 

16 SUPPORTS DOUBLE-DENSITY CoCo DISK FORMAT FOR MAXIMUM STORAGE CAPACITY 
17 

18 INCLUBES POWER SUPPLY 
19 

21 CHARACTER SET INCLUDES UPPER CASE, lower case yith descenders <«ip«>r 

aHBB--!i-H..()() , Ma! =□ *rv m (total of 128) 

22 

MMtMMtllU1111122222222223333333333444444444455555555S5666€6€€6€67^^77778 
12345«7«Hl2345678981234567898i234567890123456789«i234567890t234567890123456789l 



Plug Color Power M into the expansion port of your 64K 
CoCo or CoCo 2, plug your disk controller into Color Power 
II, and insert our disk into your drive. You are now ready 
to run thousands of CP/M programs such as WordStar® , 
Mai I Merge® , SpellStar,™ and Starlndex.™ It's that simple! 

You now have have a fully professional CP/M compatible 
computer that generates an 80 column by 24 line display on 
your 80 column monitor with upper and lower case 
characters and works with your CoCo commands. 



Introductory Prices: 

Color Power II $299.00 

Color Power II plus WordStar® &MailMerge® $469.00 
Add SpellStar™ and Starlndex™ for only.... $ 79.00 



Call or send check, money order, Visa or MasterCard 
number with expiration date to the address below. 
N.J. residents add 6% sales tax. 



vPU) Color Power Unlimited, Inc. 

1260 Springfield Ave., P.O. Box 606-D, New Providence, N.J. 07974 (201) 665-9646 



CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc., WordStar, MailMerge, SpellStar, and Starlndex are trademarks of MicroPro International Corp. 



TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 



Save $ 250 



Reg. 349.95 USE YOUR 




Get This TRS-80 
Graphics Input Tablet 
at Our Lowest Price Ever! 

■ Get Instant Graphics at the Touch of a Pen 

■ Easily Transfers Your Own Drawn or Traced 
Designs into Your Color Computer 

■ Ideal for Medical, Architectural, Educational, 
Business and Other Graphics Applications 

■ Tablet Surface is Scaled to be Directly 
Compatible with Display Screen Size 

■ Compatible with Machine Language 
Routines for High-Speed Drawing 

■ Hurry— Sale Ends July 23, 1984 



GT-116 "X-Pad". A multi-purpose input device 
that's a breeze to use! It's easily accessed by 
Extended BASIC graphics commands, and in- 
cludes software that simplifies data input. An in- 
teractive menu for all drawing routines plus user- 
defined menu functions minimize keyboarding. 
You can even print your screen designs on bit- 
image printers. Comes with a pen equipped with 
a pressurized, leakproof standard ink cartridge 
that is easily changed with a stylus for tracing. 
Tablet contains all necessary electronics. Plugs 
into Program Pak™ slot (Color Computer 2 re- 
quires Multi-Pak Interface). 26-1196 



Save Even More With Our X-Pad "Package Deal" 




Reg. Separate 
Items 529.90 



22995 



AS LOW AS 
'25 PER 
MONTH 



We've combined the GT-116 X-Pad with our 
Multi-Pak Interface for the ultimate in conven- 
ience and value! Easily switch from Program 
Paks to the X-Pad and other peripherals— just 
move the Interface's selector switch, or change 
between the four slots under program control. 
Add a disk drive, and you can save and load 
screen images created with the X-Pad to and 
from disk for quick and easy access. Sale ends 
July 23, 1984. UL listed. 26-1196/26-3024 



GRAPHICS EXTRAVAGANZA ! 



I 



NEW! 

Low-Cost, 
91/2" Wide 
Printer 



399 95 




■ An Ideal Dot-Matrix Printer for Home or for 
the Small-Business on a Budget 

■ "Triple-Mode" Punch— Hl-Res Graphics, 
Correspondence and Data Processing 

■ Includes New Cursive and Mlcrofont Styles 

■ All Type Fonts Can Be Elongated 

■ Prints 50 Characters Per Second in the Data 
Processing Mode 

■ Features Color Computer Compatible Serial 
and Parallel Interfaces 



DMP-110. High-performance printing has never 
been this affordable! Bit-image graphics mode 
is perfect for use with the TRS-80 X-Pad t and is 
compatible with Color Computer screen print 
routines (26-312, $9.95). The high-resolution 
mode features 960 dot-addressable, 16-dot 
columns for detailed pictures and charts. Print 
impressive-looking reports with proportionally- 
spaced or correspondence-quality characters at 
up to 25 cps. Use super, subscripts and under- 
lines. Prints standard, elite or condensed charac- 
ters for easy4o-read program listings. Use single 
sheets or fanfold paper. 26-1271 




Radio Shaek 

The Technology Store™ 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



Seven-Color Ink-Jet Printer 

CGP-220. A super quiet, drop-on-demand 
graphics/text printer! Screen print utility (26-3121) 
provides spectacular Color Computer displays. 
Prints 2600 dots/second in graphics mode with 
a resolution of 560 dots/line in one color and 
640 dots/line in multicolor mode. 26-1268 



Send me a free 
TRS-80 catafog. 

Mail to: Radio Shack 

Dept. 85-A-016 
300 One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, Texas 76102 



NAME. 



ADDRESS . 



CITY. 



STATE . 



.ZIP- 



TELEPHONE . 



Prices apply at participating Radio Shack stores and dealers. 



It's easy for 
the novice — 
sophisticated 
enough for the 
expert! 



SPECIAL 
OFFER! 

SAVE $5.00 
See offer 



below. 



The power of the 

TRS-80 

color computer 



This illustrated book is compiled with 29 
NEW programs for fun and education. A 
guide to programming the full-range of 
color computer capabilities, it helps users 
write intelligent and well thought out 
programs. 

The program listings in the book are 
exactly as you would see them on the 
screen. Inside the book you'll find: How 
to Use This Book - 10 Games and Puz- 
zles • 8 Graphics Programs ■ 4 Busi- 
ness & Financial Programs • 7 Utilities 
■ So You're Program Doesn't Work ■ 
Adding Two Programs Together 

The structure of each program contains 
the program type, objective, background, 
summary, graphic explanation, program 
structure, taking it further, and suggested 
hints to expand to other applications. 

Only $14.95. Money back guaran- 
tee. We accept Master Card, Visa, check 
or money order. Add 5% Mass. sales tax 
if you're a resident of Massachusetts. 

These programs are also available on 
floppy disk or cassette for the special 
price of $14.95. These NEW items are all 
available NOW! 

Send for information on 2 new software pack- 
ages. SPECIAL OFFER: 2 new disk utilities 
for the color computer— DM AGIC & PRO- 
LOC. $14.95 each, regularly $1 9.95. 



Please send me: 

TRS-80 Book (a $14.95 

TRS-80 Floppy Disk (a $14.95 

TRS-80 Cassette (a $14.95 

DMAGIC (a $14.95 /f^\ 

PRO-LOC (a $14.95 "™ 

Add 5% sales tax if a resident of 
Massachusetts 

. TOTAL 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CREDIT CARD NUMflEH 



EXPIRATION DATE 



DORISON HOUSE PUBLISHERS, INC. 

824 Park Square Building 
Boston, Massachusetts 0211 6 



12 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



other Saturday at 10 a.m. 

Osvaldo Briceno, President 
Barcelona, Venezuela 

Editor: 

1 am forming a CoCo Club in the Indi- 
anapolis-Noblesville area. Anyone interest- 
ed, please write to me at 310 Appletree Dr., 
46060 or call (317) 842- 1340. 

Erik Merz 
Noblesville, IN 

Editor: 

Td like to announce a Color Computer 
Club (6809 , ers) in the western Massachu- 
setts area. We meet once a month. Anyone 
interested please contact me at (413) 732- 
6633 or write to: 93 Grockmal Ave., 01 151. 

Paris Nepus 
Springfield, MA 

Editor: 

This letter is to all the Color Computer 
enthusiasts on Long Island. We are pleased 
to announce the formation of the Local 
CoCo Club. 

For further information call The Color 
Channel BBS, (516) 783-7582, or write the 
Local CoCo, P.O. Box 901, 11710. 

Chuck Martin 
Bellmore, NY 



BOUQUETS & BRICKBATS 

Editor: 

1 would like to publicly thank Software 
Support, Inc., for their honesty and respon- 
siveness in handling my disk drive order and 
the ROM change that was needed on it. 
"S U PPORT" is, in fact, their middle name. I 
hope all CoCo product companies follow 
their example. 

Robert Shepard 
Versailles, KY 

Editor: 

I recently ordered a program tape called 
Custom Flashcards from one of your adver- 
tisers, Creative Technical Consultants. After 
it arrived, I found that it took two or three 
tries to get past an I/O Error and get it 
loaded. 1 wrote the company and within two 
weeks 1 received a new Custom Flashcards 
tape, along with a 50 percent discount cou- 
pon "by way of apology for any inconven- 
ience the defective tape may have caused M 
me. The new tape works fine and the pro- 
gram is just great. 1 used the coupon to order 
another one of their programs called Alpha- 
bet Soup, and it worked perfectly too. (Now 
if 1 can just get the kids to quit playing 
Alphabet Soup long enough for me to study 
my Flashcards . . .). Anyway, it's great to 
deal with a company that cares about their 
product and my "inconvenience. " 

J. W. Abel 
Denver, CO 



HAND ASSEMBLY 

Editor: 

Several months ago, the rainbow altered 
the manner in which it published programs 



written in assembly language. What you see 
published in the magazine is not the actual 
complete listing. [This is because the rain- 
bow uses a short utility written by Mr. 
Schrag to delete the lengthy FCC instruc- 
tions which add little information, but take 
up valuable magazine space.] 

This omitting of portions of the listing 
does not affect Color Computerists who 
type the program in using an editor/ assem- 
bler. 

Unfortunately, readers who "hand assem- 
ble" or POKE assembly language programs 
into memory using short basic drivers will 
often find that the program does not work. 
This is because part of the program has been 
cut out to conserve magazine space. 

My point to you is this: If you are using a 
hand-assembly scheme, avoid keying in pro- 
grams that involve FCC statements. These 
programs usually will not work when hand- 
assembled because what you see in the mag- 
azine is not the entire program. 

The FCC instruction's output is an unfor- 
tunate evil. FCC lines take up so much mag- 
azine space that it simply is not economical 
or efficient to print the entire listing. 

Roger Schrag 
Los Angeles, CA 



BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS 

Editor: 

1 would like to announce the operation of 
a BBS in the M ontreal region, Color 80 #7. It 
has been in operation for a year and is open 
to all. It is run on a 64K CoCo and the 
software is a slightly modified version of the 
Silicon Rainbow Products board. The oper- 
ating hours are from 1 1 p.m. to 6 a.m. Mon- 
treal time, seven days a week. The phone 
number is (514) 658-3087. 

Pierre Berthiaume 
Chambly, PQ. 

Editor: 

I would like to announce a new BBS called 
Color Pacific Bulletin Board, which is total- 
ly dedicated to the TRS-80 CoCo. It sup- 
ports uploading, downloading, games and 
graphics. Readers may call the BBS anytime 
at (604) 738-2773. 

Debbie Cooper 
Vancouver, B.C. 

Editor: 

We would like to announce Time-Link 
Color-80 BBS #77, operating from 6 p.m. to 
6 a.m. everyday in Layton, Utah. Features 
include uploading, downloading, message 
base, electronic shopping, text files, and pic- 
tures. Give us a call at (801) 544-3423. 

Sheldon Malone 
Layton, UT 

Editor: 

We are pleased to announce the North- 
west Data Bulletin Board. It features E- 
Mail, upload, download, online games, club 
sections and an electronic joke book! 

Hours are from 6 p.m. to6 a.m. daily. The 
number is (509) 489-5133. 

Terry Thompson 
Spokane, WA 



Give up on Word Processors for 
Fosf Letter Writin g G Moiling lobels 



Instead use the new 64K 

DATABASE/MAILER 64 

& 

LETTER WRITER 64 

for FAST single page letters or 
1000's of personalized form letters and labels 




plus 
shipping 
& handling 



See excellent reviews of DBM/LW in "Rainbow" magazine 1 2/83 and 
'Things tp do with your Color Computer " in paperback by Dilithium Press. SSStSSSS 



NONE BETTER 
for ALL Revision Boards! 
FULLY compatible with COC02! 
THE MOST COMPLETE PACKAGE AVAILABLE! 



NO WORD PROCESSING EXPERIENCE NECESSARY 



ACCOUNTS • INSURANCE • PROPOSALS • BULK MAIL • DENTAL RECALL • CHRISTMAS LISTS 

Won't "Hangup" your System - BIG SYSTEM FEATURES - 



CHURCHES • CLUBS • REALTORS « SALES 
Full Memory Sense 



• Active menus ggide you to valid operations. 

• 16K System allows 1 1 to 82 records per file. 

• 32K system allows 66 to 440 records per file. 

• 64K system allows $1 to 610 records per file. 

• 4 - 10 fields, 5-27 field widths, 20 - 270 char/record. 

• All user definable with default values - simple. 

• Sort any field alpha/numeric, full or partial. 

• Adjusts for empty address lines - no, gaps. 



• Up to 9 line lapels with up to 500 copies each. 

• Master two column printout with field names. 

• Master printout includes date, paging & filename. 

• Selective printing by any field or field range. 

• Accepts alpha or numeric zip codes up to 1 0 digits. 

• Partial or whole item search by any chosen field.' 

• Single screen 1 0 record display by any field. 

• Sipgle key entry for hard copy of screen data. 



• Fast single page letter writing with wordwrap, 

• Embedded commands center, tab and line skip. 

• Full screen edit allows delete, insert & change. 

• Headings and closings are tabbed, spaced and printed - all automatically. 

• No "Database Adventure" - over 40 page manual. 

• Manual includes program operation flowcharts. 

• Not needed, but included is user modification section. 

• Access up to 4 drives in disk version. 



— FEATURES — 



FILE MANAGER 64 

A utility program custom designed 
for QATABASE/MAILER tiles only 
(1 6K, 32K, 64K, Tape or Disk) 



• Create new files from all or part of old file. 

• Auto select "special" records, for saving to new file. 

• Change lengths, add or delete fields of existing files. 

• Auto copy identical data to all records in file. 

• Combine unfilled files to create new file from old. 

• Full memory sense adjusts to your system. 



$3995 



We ship 1st Class Mail within 48 hours 



When ordering please provide: 
NAME 
ADDRESS 
CITY/STATE 
ZIP CODE 
PHONE 
TAPE or DISK 
CREDIT CARD NO. 
EXP. DATE 

Master Card holders — 
include interbank no. 




Call our 24 hour orderline 

619-695-1385 



or 61 9-566-601 3,9 — 5 p.m. PST weekdays 
or send check or money order to: 

EUS ENGINEERING 

9528 Suite 35, Miramar Road 
San Diego, CA 92126 

"Serving the Defense and Space Industry since 1 979" 



Please, include the following: 
S3 postage and handling 
U.S. funds only 
CA residents add 6% tax 
COD orders add S2 
Amdek disk add $4 

Dealer inquiries invited 

Personal checks - OK 
we won t make you wait. 




print n-i 



L 




i 



MHpr' rWlhis month's issue of THE RAINBOW marks our third 

~~ % I anniversary issue. And what an issue it is! We have 
M JL. something a little special that will, we hope, bring a 

P^^PWI^ new dimension to your CoCo — a Scraich And Sniff 

jfSfcw ^M^i^., Adventure. 

I feel sure we're the first computer publication ever to use 
the popular Scratch And Sniff technology. As most of you 
know, youngsters really like these things. So, we thought 
we'd take the Scratch And Sniff concept and apply it to 
something CoCo could use. 

As with anything we do, we would really appreciate your 
reaction to the Scratch And Sniff Adventure. It is something 
I've been vyanting to do for almost a year now and, despite 
the fact that it is a little "off the wall," I think (and hope) you 
will be interested in playing the Scratch And Sniff Adventure. 

One of the reasons! have been interested in Scratch And 
Sniff is based on something my old sixth grade teacher told 
me one time. Her name was Helen Dierking and one of the 
things Mrs. Dierking was really interested in doing was 
teaching younger children how to write in a creative manner. 
So, Mrs. Dierking encouraged us to write stories and 
other things. And she gave us a lot of helpful tips along the way. One of them was that the more senses 
we were able to appeal to, the more successful our writing would be. 

As an example, M rs. Dierking told us it was good literary style to characterize the sun as a "tangy 
yellow lemon hanging in a sea-blue sky" than to just say "the sun shone in the sky." The "tangy 
lemon" gave the reader an image relating to the sense of taste; "sea-blue" made you smell the salt air. 

So, while we have been considering the Scratch And Sniff Adventure for about six months, the 
concept was really born a few decades ago in North Glendale School in St. Louis, Mo. I think that by 
combining the sense of smell (from the Scratch And Sniff), the sense of sight from your CoCo screen 
and the "sense" of imagination that inflicts every Adventurer, we may just have a winning idea. I do 
hope you'll like our Third Anniversary present to you. 

There's another "present" in these pages, too. A full three-year index to THE RAINBQW. It amazes 
me to see that there are over 1 ,500 articles indexed and more than 700 products reviewed ! By the way, 
there are extra copies of the index available at $2.50 each, plus 50 cents for postage and handling — 
just in case you want a separate copy or don't want to cut THE RAINBOW up. 

I suppose you mix a little good with the bad. Chromasette Magazine and Dave Lagerquist were 
among the first members of the CoCo Community; one of the driving forces in the early days of the 
Color Computer. Chromasette, I am sad to report, is no more — a victim of changing times and other 
forces in the marketplace. But there is some good news, too. All Chromasette subscribers will have 
their subscriptions fulfilled by our tape service, RAINBOW ON tape. For every issue of Chromasette 
that was due, each subscriber will get an issue of RAINBOW ON TAPE, 

What is important about this is not that RAINBOW ON TAPE grows to a total monthly subscription 
number of something close to 8,000, but the character of Dave Lagerquist. Because his firm is 
bankrupt, Dave could easily have not bothered with seeking a way to compensate his subscribers. 
Instead, he chose the more difficult road and worked hard to make this work for everyone. Pave 
Lagerquist exemplifies many of the ideals of the CoCo Community. 

And, of course, we welcome all our new RAINBOW ON TAPE subscribers to our tape service — which 
has been praised as the best available, 

An anniversary — or birthday, if you will — is really a special occasion. And, one of the special 
things about it is the ability to share it with the thousands of you. This year's anniversary is especially 
meaningful, because it also marks the birthday year of THE rainbow's first "in-family" birth. 

Gracing the spot where my picture usually appears with CoCo is "our" first baby, Lauren Shuck. 
She's the daughter of Donna and Bill Shuck, and we — or, at least some of us, call her the 
"Rainbpwette." Donna is our assistant general manager for finance and the picture was taken one 
day when Donna and the Rainbowette came by for a visit. 

I suppose there will be other "children" in our family — especially since three of our staff plan 
marriages in the next six months or so — - but Lauren is the first. Happy birthday to her. 

(continued on Page 175) 



14 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Telewriter-64 

the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 
True lower case characters 
User -friendly full -screen 
editor 

Right justification 
Easy hyphenation 
Drives any printer 
Embedded format and 
control codes 
Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 
Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 
The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model lit 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is neyer limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriler-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows'* that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/VIII, DMP-100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 
Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 
Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and /or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 



...truly a state of the art word processor... 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 > 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 
704 Nob Street 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM -4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add $2 for shipping. Calif or nians add 6% state tax. Allow 2 
weeks for personal checks. Send self-addressed stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from CCN. RAINBOW, 
80-Micro, 80-U.S. Telewriter owners: send SASE or call for 
information on upgrading to Telewriter-64. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell 'n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Colorcom/E) also available. Call or write for more 
infqrmation.) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



BUILDING JULY'S RAINBOW 

Our Third Anniversary Edition . . . 
With Happy Birthday Presents . . . 
And, Some Statistical Fun . . . 

You know how writers often try to conceptualize massive numbers, such as "If 
the $94 billion Federal deficit were a stack of one dollar bills, it would reach 
all the way to Neptune." Well, I toyed around a bit with some rainbow 
statistics, and surprised even myself. For instance, if the LLISTings in the past year's 
rainbow were printed out on one continuous fan-fold sheet, you could attach it to 
the big toe of the Statue of Liberty, wrap it around "her seven or eight times, touch it 
to the tip of the torch, and there would still be enough (eft over to reach the ground 
again! Along the same line, if all of last year's artiples were linked in one continuous 
half-page wide column, our usual format, it would reach all the way to the top of the 
Eiffel Tower and back down to earth. 

Well, if you're a new reader and don't know about the origins of our homemade 
magazine, which began three years ago this month as a four-page newsletter (two %Vi 
x 1 1 sheets of paper, photocopied on both sides), perhaps ypu don't fully appreciate 
how proud we are on the occasion of rainbow's third birthday. But do give us a 
moment to strut a bit; after all, it is our birthday. 

In keeping with the birthday spirit, we have a couple of special presents, one in a 
light-hearted vein, and the other all business. The first has been kept under wraps; the 
other is in response to high demand. 1 know it's a breach of etiquette ("tacky," is the 
term we use in these parts), to leave the price tag on gifts, but they both cost a bundle 
so, as we've all heard our parents say, take care of them and don't lose thejn. 

1 feel I'm on solid ground in saying that never before in the history of humankind 
has there been an Olfactory Computer Adventure. Yes, our first present is a Scratch 
And Sniff Adventure Game. Off the wall? Yep. As I recall, the idea was born in a staff 
meeting as a facetious comment, but ideas belong to those who nurture them and, in 
this case, that person is Lonnie Falk, RAINBOW editor and publisher, a man with a 
pungent sense of humor and the offbeat. He's been as excited as a coon hound on a 
fresh line ever since. I never thought he'd convert me, but he did. It takes some getting 
used to; but it is a fun game, once the "hokey" wears off. So, roll your eyes into the 
back of your head as Eric Tilenius did when we gave him four whole weeks to write 
the Original Odoriferous Adventure, but then give The Arconiqx Assignment a 
whirl, . . . er whiff. 

The Arconiax Assignment has complete listings for both 16K and 32K users 
because we want as many people as possible to be abje^to try this breakthrough in 
technological eccentricity. Toward that same end, 1 want to announce that rainbow 
on tape programs are now available on CompuServe. While the CompuServe 
Soft ex section fee of $3.50 per program might seem high compared to getting two 
dozen or more programs on a given month's rainbow on tape for just $8, we're 
talking about instant gratification: If you have THE rainbow in hand and want to 
order a gjven program and have it delivered right over the telephone, ready to run 
just minutes later. CompuServe's Softex is your answer. We think it's an important 
new service for pur readers. By the time you read this, programs from March through 
July 1984 issues of THE rainbow should be ready for downloading. 

Our "serious present' 1 is a complete index to the first three years of the rainbow, 
1 6 pages of fine print, 1 ,528 articles painstakingly indexed and cross-referenced into 
one comprehensive compilation by Leslie Foster. It's reproduced in its entirety in 
this issue but, if you want extra copies, they're available in a stiff cover for $2.50 plus 
50 cents postage and handling per order. We hope it's helpful. Certainly, we've had 
many requests for such an index. 

In this anniversary issue, we're pleased to introduce a brand new columnist. Dap 
Eastham, of DEFT Systems, whose "Personable PASCAL" column is a welcome 
addition to RAINBOWtech. Also, our Second Annual Simulation Contest is under 
way with a deadline of Sept. 1 . The official announcement, sample Simulations and a 
tutorial appear in this issue as well as our usual blend of something for everyone. 
Finally, ending as we began, with a statistical "picture," there will be enough copies 
sold of this third birthday issue to make two stacks of magazines, both higher than 
the Empire State Building. That's a tall monthly serving, but we'll gladly add your 
name in short order to our "carry out" subscription list. To receive more than 2.25 
million words — not even including advertising — this coming year, just give us the 
word. 

— Jim Reed 



16 



THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Enter CompuServe's 
Electronic Mall M 
and shop at your 
convenience in these 
exciting departments. 

The Micro Mart 
The General Store 
The Travel Agent 
The Book Bazaar 
The Record Emporium 
The Photo Booth 
The Software Shop 
The Financial Market 
The Magazine Kiosk 
The Gardening Shed 
The Newsstand 

A sample of the 
companies participating 
in CompuServe's 
Electronic Mall "includes: 

Amdek 

American Airlines 
American Express 
AST Research 
Bank of America 
Bantam 

Big T Automotive 
Buick 

CBS Publishing 
CDEX 

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Commodore 
Computer World 
Digital Equipment 
dinthium Press 
800 Software 
47th Street photo 
Grolier 

Harvard Business Review 
Heath 

Heinold Commodities 
Hertz 

E.F. Hutton 
Inmac 

Innovative Software 
Knapp Press 
Magazine Entree 
Magazine Supply House 
Manufacturer's Hanover Trust 
Max Ule 
McGraw-Hill 
Metropolitan Life 
Microsoft 

Miracle Computing 
Misco 
Newsnet 
Novation 

Official Airline Guide 
Pan American Electronics 
Peachtree Software 
Practical Peripherals 
Program Store 
Professional Color Labs 
RCA Record Clubs 
Record World 
Sears 

Select Information Exchange 

Sim Computer Products 

Simon and Schuster 

Small Computer Book Club 

Software Advisor 

Stark Brothers 

Supersoft 

Vanguard 

VisiCorp 

Waldenbooks 

Woman's Day Books 

Ziff-Davis 

Merchants and manufacturers who want 
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f the 




EXPANDING BASIC 


Disk \ 


RAINBOW 

J- -L 


r 




& 





PARTI 

In which we gather together the ingre- 
dients and utensils and explore the 
possibilities of CoCo's Disk Opera- 
ting System. 



By Colin J. Stearman 



y 

Iknow 1 do not need to tell you that CoCo is a powerful 
computer. You have probably spent as much time as 1 
arguing its merits over those "fruity" and "big blue" 
machines. So while we are in agreement thus far, you'll 
surely also agree that even the "best" can be improved. 

In this series of articles over the next few months we will 
explore how to incorporate many improvements, some of 
which are often only found on systems costing 10 times as 
much. I hasten to add that these improvements will be 
completely incorporated into the operating system and will 
be there when you want them. There have been other articles 
detailing enhancements, but they always involve loading 
programs into memory and they never seem to be there 
when you need them. Not so with the enhancements we are 
going to cook up here! 

What exactly are we going to enhance and what is it going 
to take to do it? These articles are aimed at the standard 32K 
Disk CoCo system running with version 1 . 1 of Color BASIC, 
1.0 of Extended Color BASIC and 1.0 of Disk Extended 
Color basic. The earlier 1.0 version of Color BASIC will 
probably work also, but the 1.1 version of Disk BASIC will 
not without modifying the programs presented here. 

(Colin J. Stearman is an electronics engineer educated 
in the U. K. He has worked with all kinds of computers 
and has been a CoCo enthusiast for over two years.) 



18 



THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Although 1 will give you every assistance, it is going to 
take some skill on your part. Even the best written recipe 
requires the cook to add his skill. Some of the enhancements 
require hardware construction and some electronic con- 
struction skills. Others will involve the assembly of machine 
language programs. But none of it is really difficult and if 
you have a 64K system you can have almost all of the 
enhancements without even lifting a screwdriver. 

Required Utensils 

If you're going to attempt the hardware projects, you will 
need the normal set of screwdrivers, pliers, cutters and a 
soldering iron. If you are about to embark on a "hardware 
hacking" career, your local Radio Shack can accommodate 
you. 

The assembly language programs will require an assem- 
bler. EDTASM+ will do the job, but 1 much prefer MAC 
from Computerware. This is what I use and I will attempt to 
point out the differences when necessary. For typing in the 
scource code, a good editor is a must. 

The Glossy Photo 

Every good cookery book has glossy photos of the fin- 
ished dish to whet your appetite. Our photo is by way of a list 
of the more tasty features: 
♦FAST and SLOW to control CoCo's clock speed 
♦XEQM to load and execute a machine code program 
♦DATES to return a string containing the date 
♦Directory pause 

♦File creation date in the directory 
♦Confirmation of the Kill request 
♦WPEEK/ WPOKE 16-bit word PEEK and POKE 
♦Error trapping in basic programs 
♦Error code, error line and error name functions 
♦Auto execution of a BASIC file on start-up 
*AUTO line numbering, with start line and increment 
♦Flexible keyboard entry (FLEXIKEY) 
♦Fully spelled-out error messages 
♦SCANS, "1NKEYS" with built-in wait for key press 
♦40-track versions of DSKINI, BACKUP and DSKI$/ 
DSKOS 

♦Fixes to the FILES and PC LEAR bugs 
♦Up to PCLEAR 16 allowed 
*BA UD command to set Baud rate 
♦Parallel printer port 

*LDIR to send the directory to the printer 
♦And more . . . 

By now your mouth should be thoroughly watering so 
let's start cooking! 

Underlying Principles 

When Microsoft wrote the basic operating system for 
Radio Shack they planned ahead and left numerous "hooks" 
in the code to allow modifications and changes. These hooks 
take the form of jump instructions located in the lower 
RAM (random access memory) area of the map. Many of 
the useful subroutines in basic first jump to these hooks, 
making it very easy to intercept their function and modify or 
completely change. 

Fortunately for us, when Microsoft was contracted to 
write Disk Extended Color BASIC (DECB), something odd 
happened. Color basic (CB) and Extended Color basic 
(ECB) fully occupied their 8K ROMs (read only memory). 
But DECB did not come close to filling the 8K. In fact, some 
2000 or so bytes were unused. Maybe money or time ran out, 
but this available space can be put to good use for all those 



added functions mentioned earlier. The only requirement is 
to come up with a way to permanently insert the new instruc- 
tions in this available place. 

There are two ways to do this. We can either replace the 
ROM with a similar EPROM (Eraseable Programmable 
ROM) containing our additional code, or we can make use 
of the 64K RAM capability of our CoCo (if we have it). The 
EPROM approach requires the design of an EPROM pro- 
grammer and that will be the subject for next month. But the 
64K method requires no hardware and does nearly as good a 
job, so for the remainder of this installment 1 '11 detail what 1 
mean. 

Disk Resident DOS 

If you have installed 64K memory chips and the now 
famous "Frank Hogg Modification," you know that CoCo 
can run in an "all RAM" mode in which the three BASIC 
ROMs play no part. Using this technique it is possible to 
store the entire BASIC operating system on a specially pre- 
pared disk and then boot it into the all RAM system and 
start it up. In fact, for many computers (the IBM PC, for 
example) this is the only way of loading the DOS (disk 
operating system) and is the normal procedure for getting 
things started at turn on. 

If we give CoCo the ability to boot or load its DOS from 
disk, there is nothing to say that we cannot modify the 
contents as we desire. As a result we can have the original 
DOS in the internal ROMs and our enhanced DOS on a 
special "system disk." 

1 said this approach is nearly as good as "burning" 
EPROMs with the modified code. There are some limita- 
tions. If you press the Reset button while running the disk- 
resident DOS, you will be summarily returned to the ROM 
version. Also, if you run some application programs which 
make use of CoCo's 64K capabilities, you will probably be 
returned to the ROM DOS when you exit them. But disk- 
resident DOS (let's call it DRDOS) can be booted and 
running in about 10 seconds, so this is not much of a 
penalty. Further, there are not just 2,000 or so bytes availa- 
ble for enhancements, but using all the address space from 
SD7DD to SFFEF, there are some 10,000 bytes. This is 
because we are not limited to the 8K increments and socket 
space of the ROMs. 

Two machine code programs are needed here — one to get 
DRDOS saved onto disk and the other to retrieve it and 
start it up. The first 1 called SYSSAVE and the second 
S YSTEM. As a result, the currently running DOS, modified 
as desired, can be saved to disk by SYSSA VEand recovered 
by SYSTEM. 

Running BASIC In RAM 

BASIC cannot run in a 64K RAM environment without 
two slight modifications. When it goes through its start-up 
procedure it switches back to the regular RAM / ROM con- 
figuration and we would rather it did not. Second, it goes 
through a sizing procedure to find out exactly how much 
RAM is available (remember the days of 4K and 1 6K?). This 
testing plays havoc in the 64K RAM mode and must be 
removed. We already know that BASIC has 32K to work 
with, so we can skip the testing and report this number 
immediately. This savings in bytes provides just the room we 
need to fix the first problem. 

So, the first thing we must do is copy an image of BASIC 
from the three ROMs into the RAM, slightly modify it and 
then start it up. This is done by a program called BAS- 
LOA D, shown in Listing 1 . This is entirely a BASIC program, 

July 1984 THE RAINBOW 19 



but it does load a simple machine code routine and the 
source for this I have included as REM statements at the 
end. The program is singularly anticlimatic! After a few 
seconds a tone sounds and the start-up credits are issued. 
Nothing seems to have changed. But, in fact, you are in a 
64K RAM environment. Don't believe me? Try 
POKE&HE000.55 and then PRINT PEEK (&HE000). 
You'll get the 55 back because RAM is at $E000. In the 
ROM system you will POKE to no avail. 

By the way, I'll be using the assembler convention 
throughout these articles which says that a in front of a 
number says it's hexadecimal; a "%" means binary and 
nothing in front means it's decimal. But in BASIC statements 
I will use "$H" to signify hexadecimal. 

Type in the program in Listing 1, save it to a convenient 
disk and then run it. If you get the tone and new credits 
everything ran fine and we're ready to save the slightly 
modified system to a disk. To make absolutely sure your 
RAM version is okay, type POKE113,0:EXEC$HA027. 
This will do a cold start of the BASIC in RAM and should 
clear the screen and display the credits. After you're sure it 
works, get back to the ROM version by typing POKE113,0 
and then pressing Reset. I'll hang around here till you get 
back! 

Saving DOS To Disk 

The currently running operating system is saved to disk 
with a program called SYSSA VE.B1N. Once the assembler 
has created the binary file it is just run by the LOA DM and 
EXEC commands. 

SYSSA VE will request which drive (0 or 1) you wish to 
save the system to. This drive should contain a blank, for- 
matted disk. The program will then save the contents of 
memory from $8000 where ECB starts, up to $FF00. This is 
one more than the highest useable memory. From here to 
SFFFF are system addresses and vectors. It does not matter 
whether you have anything in the saved range, it just stores 
what is there on the disk. As DECB starts at SC000 we could 
extend it up to $FFEF and be able to run the system in 
RAM. (That would be a lot of capability, as all the 
enhancements I listed earlier will fit into the 8K space allot- 
ted to the DECB ROM from SC000 to $DFFF. 

The bytes are stored on disk on tracks 0 through 6, plus 
the first sector of track 7. This means that granules 0 through 
14 are used an unavailable to BASIC. The granule map on 
track 1 7 sector 2 is modified to reflect this. Therefore, once a 
system has been saved to a new disk, the FREE function will 
return a value of 53, even though the directory shows no 
files. 

Sector 1 on track 1 7 is not used by BASIC, so the first byte 
is set to $55 to indicate that this is a system disk. When 
SYSSA VE\s run it first checks that this $55 is there. If it is, 
then a system can safely be stored on the disk. If not, then 
this disk has never had a system saved on it before. In this 
case, SYSSA VE checks that the first 15 granules are free. If 
so, the system can be saved. If not, a "DISK NOT FREE 
FOR SYSTEM STORAGE" message is returned and SYS- 
SA VE gives up. As a result it should not be possible for 
SYSSA VE to overwrite valuable data on a disk. 

To run SYSSA VE it must first be entered as shown in 
Listing 2 and then assembled. If you're using EDTASM+, 
leave out the lines with mnemonics "NAM" and "OPT" in 
them; these are just directives to my MAC assembler. This 
will be true for all future assembly language programs. 
Another mnemonic MAC has which must be converted for 



EDTASM+ is the FCS instruction. This forms a constant 
string and allows embedded hexadecimal control codes and 
automatically adds a terminating zero byte. So the line in 
SYSSA VE which 1 have as: 

FCS / <0D>DRIVE NUMBER (0 OR 1) ? / 
would become: 

FCB $0D A CARRIAGE RETURN 

FCC /DRIVE NUMBER (0 OR 1) ? / 

FCB 0 TERMINATING ZERO 

You can convert all other FCS instructions into these 
groupings and EDTASM+ will like them just fine. 

When the code assembles correctly and you have checked 
it carefully, the only thing left is to try and run it! The best 
technique is to first load and run BASLOAD. This gets the 
system running in RAM and suitably modified for this 
environment. Now LOA DM "S YSSA VE"but don't execute 



"If yo u 'y€ go i ng t o < 

hardware pmjecUy you will net 




pMers, cutters and a^i 
If you a r e abo u t to embark an a ~ 



^liardware hackif i^career, your 



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yuu:" — 



it yet. Then remove all important disks from all your drives 
as chaos may be about to reign. Load a blank, formatted 
disk in drive 0 and type in EXEC 

The screen will clear and a request will appear asking 
which drive to save to. Enter a zero. Drive 0 should whir for 
a few moments and the OK prompt appear. If not, it's back 
to the editor and look for that inevitable typo! 

The system has now been saved to disk. A couple of 
checks will help confirm this. Type in PRINT FREE(0) and 
a value of 53 should be returned. Another check would be to 
type the following commands: 

CLEAR 500 

DSK1$0,17,1,A$,B$ 

PRINT HEX$(ASC(A$)) 

This last line should print the value 55. But the ultimate 
test is to try to retrieve and run the saved system. 

Booting From Disk 

If you study the code of SYSTEM you will find it very 
similar to SYSSAVE, and it is hardly surprising. Type in 
and assemble the program in Listing 3. When you've 
thoroughly checked it for typing errors and are certain it is 
right, put a write-protect tab on your system disk anyway. 
Then when the impossible happens, your saved system won't 
be erased. 

Now LOA DM the binary file called SYSTEM, remove 
the disk and place the system disk in drive 0. SYSTEM 



|0 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



always boots from drive 0. Then EXEC the program. Once 
again the screen will clear and a message will announce what 
is happening, prive 0 will run and you will hear the head 
moving. When it is finished you will be requested to input 
which ■■flavor" of BASIC you want, CB, ECB or DECB. 
Pressing the appropriate letter will cold start that version. 
This feature is a convenient way of disabling DECB should 
you want to run one of the other configurations. 

If everything worked as expected, you can copy the SYS- 
$A K£and SYSTEM source and machine code files to your 
system disk. Then they will all be in the right place. I also 
wrote a simple 3ASIC program to start up S YS TEM which 
you might want to include. Then, if you call it BASIC you can 
just type RUN BASIC. It is: 

10 'DISK OPERATING SYSTEM LOADER 

20 LOADM"SYSTEM v 

30 EXEC 

To remove the system from a system disk and make the 
full 68 granules available, the simplest way is to reformat 
with the DSKINI command. Don't have anything else valu- 
able on the disk though, as it will be erased. 

Wrapping It Up 

You now have the first tool to be used later in the DOS 
enhancements. When these have been installed and saved to 
a system disk, they can be booted at power-up and all the 
features will be there without absorbing any RAM space. 
Even if you intend taking the EPROM route, it's still a good 
idea to have these programs as it makes testing quicker and 
easier. 

Which brings me to next month. Putting the enhanced 
version of the DOS in an EPROM is certainly a nice way to 
go. Then everything is there just as soon as the power is 
turned on. So, next month we will start the EPROM pro- 
grammer. This is a very simple hardware project using only 
three chips! Most of the work is done by the software. So, if 
you've ever had a soldering irpn in your hand, give it a try. 

Throughout this series I wjll be happy to try to answer 
related questions which might arise. Please address them to 
me at 1 43 Ash Street, Hopkinton, Mass. 0 1 748 and enclose a 
S. A.S.E. Be as precise as you c$n and give me a few weeks to 
get back to you. You can also send me EMAIL on Compu- 
Serve to 71036,256. 

See you next month! 



Listing 1 

SYSSAVE COHPUTERWARE MACRO ASSEMBLER 

COOKING WITH COCO PART 1/USTIN6 2 (01964 COLIN J. 5TEARMAN 



0004 OPT NOP, LIS 

0005 * < 

0006 * THIS LOADS BASIC FROM 18000 

0007 * UP TO IFF00 ONTO A BLANK 
0006 # FOWWTTEP DISK. IT USES 

0009 'THE FIRST 15 GRANULES. 

0010 * 14 gran t 9 sectors * 256 bytes = 32256 

0011 t plus 

0012 * 1 sector « 32512 byte which cover froe 

0013 # 16000 to IFF00. All of accessible upper 

0014 * eeiory 

0015 t 

0016 tetMetemtfeHttettetteu 

0017 *S0HE EQUATES 



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certification 
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July 1984 THE RAINBOW 21 



cm 




0016 RETURN 


ECU 


SC002 




0E36 A722 


0053 


STA 


■2> 




B000 




001? BASIC 


EQU 


$8000 




0E38 8601 


0054 


LDA 


•1 


SECTOR 


C004 




0020 DSKCON 


EQU 


IC004 




0E3A A723 


0055 


STA 


3,Y 




C006 




0021 DCOPC 


EQU 


IC006 




0E3C CC0F19 


0056 


LDD 


•BUFFER 




A002 




0022 CHROUT 


EQU 


IA002 




0E3F ED24 


0037 


STD 


M 




A000 




0023 POLCAT 


EQU 


IA000 




0E41 6602 


005B 


LDA 


•2 


READ CODE 


A928 




0024 CLEAR 


EQU 


♦A928 


DIRECT JUMP TO CLEAR ROUTINE 


0E43 A7A4 


0059 


STA 


,Y 








002S t 








0E45 AD9FC004 


0060 


JSR 


[DSKCON] 




0E00 




0026 


ORG 


IE00 




0E49 &D26 


0061 


TST 


M 


ERRORS? 






0027 # 








0E4B 10260091 


0062 


LBNE 


ERRORS 




0E00 


7F0F17 


0028 SYSSAV 


CLR 


TRACK 


RESET TRACK POINTER 


0E4F F60F19 


0063 


LDB 


BUFFER 


TEST FOR t55 


0E03 


7F0F18 


0029 


CLR 


SECTOR 


CLEAR SECTOR POINTER 




0064 *BET 


EIISTIN8 DISK HAP 


INTO BUFFER 


0E06 


7C0F18 


0030 


INC 


SECTOR 


SET T0 1 




0065 I 












0031 * 








0E52 1700A6 


0066 


LBSR 


8ETHAP 




0E09 


BDA928 


0032 


JSR 


CLEAR 


CLEAR SCREEN 


0E55 6D26 


0067 


T9T 


M 


ANY ERRORS 


0E0C 


30BD0209 


0033 


LEAK 


TITLE. PCR 


LOAD TITLE MESSAGE POINTER INTO X 


0E57 10260085 


006B 


LBNE 


ERRORS 




0E10 


1700E3 


0034 


LBSR 


DISPLY 


DISPLAY IT 


0E5B C155 


0069 


CHPB 


1135 








0035 * 








0E5D 2605 


0070 


BNE 


NENSYS 




0E13 


308D0224 


0036 ASK D NO 


LEAK 


DRIVNO,PCR 


ASK FOR DRIVE NUMBER 


0E3F 8E0F2B 


0071 


LDI 


IBUFFERM5 




0E17 


1700DC 


0037 


LBSR 


DISPLY 




0E62 200E 


0072 


BRA 


OUTHAP 




0EJA 


AD9FA000 


0038 REPET 


JSR 


tPQLCAT] 


GET DRIVE NUMBER 




0073 t 








0E1E 


27FA 


0039 


BED 


REPET 






0074 tCHECK FOR 255 IN FIRST 15 BYTES 


0E20 


AD9FA002 


0040 


JSR 


[CHROUT] 


ECHO ENTRY 




0075 f IF NOT ALL 


255 THEN DISK NOT AVAILABLE. 


0E24 


8130 


0041 


CHPA 


t'0 


IS IT LOWER THAN ASCII ZERO' 




0076 t 








0E26 


2SE8 


0042 


BLO 


ASKDNO 


YES 


0E64 8E0F1? 


0077 NENSYS LDI 


•BUFFER 


POINT I TO BUFFER 


0E28 


8131 


0043 


CHPA 


t'l 


IS IT HIGHER THAN ASCII 1? 


0E67 A680 


0078 NITBYT LDA 




6ET BYTE 


0E2A 


22E7 


0044 


BHI 


ASKDNO 


YES 


0E69 BIFF 


0079 


CHPA 


♦IFF 


IS IT 253? 


0E2C 


10BEC006 


0045 


LDY 


DCOPC 


POINT Y AT PARAMETERS 


0E6B 267A 


0080 


BNE 


NOTAV 


OUTPUT NOT AVAILABLE HESSA6E 


0E30 


8030 


0046 


SUBA 


10 


REDUCE TO A NUMBER 


0E6D 8C0F28 


0081 


CHPX 


•BUFFERH5 


DONE ALL 13? 


0E32 


A721 


0047 


STA 


1,Y 


SELECT DRIVE 


0E70 25F5 


0082 


BLO 


NITBYT 





0E34 8611 



0048 » 
004? t 

0050 #6ET SECTOR! 

0051 ♦THIS HAS A 

0052 LDA 



TRACK 17 TO 
SYSTEM DISK 
•17' 



SEE IF 
TRACK 




HARDWARE 
PRODUCTS FOR THE 
TRS 80 COLOR COMPUTER 



3 Ports ."30" 

Add '5** for Pilot Llghi 



SERIAL SWITCHERS 

These Oi -directional switchers allow you to expand your serial 
port to two or three peripherals or to connect one peripheral to 
two or three computers.. They are a campgci 2 x 3 x 1Vi 

inches and are gyqalarji e with □ mounted pi 1 of 1 llflhl. 

2 Ports 1 2 B" ^ ii^^^^^^^ 

64K FOR *75°° 

Price includes expert installation, 
a 64K RAM Button, 64K Software 
(Specify disk or cass.), a 64K User 

Sheet, Return Shipping, and a 
90-DAY UNCONDITIONAL WARRANTY. 
Requires 1.1 or newer BASIC ROM. 
Send your operating 285 (F) Series 
Color Computer, TDP-100, or Color 
Computer 2 with a Cashier's Check 
or Money Order for fastest return. 
For D, or E Series boards, add $ 20°°. 
If necessary, add *35°° for new ROM. 



ROMs 

BASIC ROM 1.1 ...**B 
BASIC ROM 1.2 

E.C.B.ROM1.1 

D.E.C.B. ROM 1.1... W 
RAMs 

4164-64K RAM •S" 

Set of Eight 

4116-16KRAM M 1 

Set of Eight •S* 

D.C.S 
6809E-1 MHz MPU . . •as' 
68B09E-2 MHz MPU.^O' 

6821- 1 MHzPIA ....•8' 
68B21-2 MHz PI A.. MO' 

6883-SAM »26' 

6847-VDG . , 20« 

1 MHz Set of Four . 

2 MHz Set of Four .. J Tff 

6822- H.D. PIA •IS* - 



MISC 

VT-8302 Pilot Light Kit •? 

VT-8401 Cooling Fan Kit *25 ( 

6' T.V. Cable w/ R.F.I. Filter •IS' 

40-Pin, Clip-on Heatsink *T 

16K, 32K, or 64K RAM Button »3' 

16 to 24 Pin I.C. Extractor •3 , ° 

4, 5, or 6 Pin, M or F, Cable DIN .... M ■ 
4, 5, or 6 Pin, F, Chassis DIN »2' 



TERMS; Cashier's checks and money orders for immedtole 
delivery • Persor*ai checks allow 2 weeks • Orders £.100 to &199 
e 10% • £200 and over save 15% • California rendenis add 
6% • Ortfef* under $25 add $2 shipping • CO D. add $4 



save 



4418 E. Chapman Ave., Suite 
Orange, CA 92669 
(714) 639-4070 



284 



VIDTRON 



0E72 86C6 
0E74 A792 
0E76 860F 
0E78 4A 
0E79 A7B2 
0E78 BCIF19 
0E7E 22F9 



0EB0 17007E 

0E83 6D26 
0E85 10260057 



0083 * 

0084 tSET UP MAP AND WRITE OUT 

0085 1 

0086 OUTHAP LDA ttC6 LAST 6RANULE POINTER 

0087 STA 

0088 LDA #15 15 AT 14 ETC. 

0089 DONE IT DECA 

0090 STA ,-X 

0091 CHPX IBUFFER DONE ALL 15? 

0092 BHI DONEXT 

0093 t 

0094 #PUT IT ONTO DISK 

0095 LBSR PUTHAP 

0096 TST 6,Y ANY ERRORS? 

0097 LBNE ERRORS 

0098 HHf 

0099 »HARK DISK AS A SYSTEH DISK BY 

0100 tSETTING BYTE 1 IN SECTOR 1 TO 155 IN TRACK 17 



0E89 8601 


0101 


LDA 


11 


SECTOR 


0EBB A723 


0102 


STA 


3,Y 






0103 *SET UP DRIVE OP CODE 




0E8D 8655 


0104 


LDA 


1155 


HARKER 


0E8F B70F19 


0105 


STA 


BUFFER 




0E92 AD9FC004 


0106 


JSR 


[DSKCON] 




0E96 6D26 


0107 


TST 


6,Y 




0E98 2646 


0108 


BNE 


ERRORS 






0109 tttmttt 






0E9A 8603 


0110 


LDA 


13 


WRITE CODE 


0E9C A7A4 


0111 


STA 


iV 






0112 tPOINT X AT START OF BASIC 


0E9E 8E8000 


0113 


LDX 


♦BASIC 






0114 t 










0115 » START TRANSFER 






0116 * 








0EA1 B60F17 


0117 NXTSCT LDA 


TRACK 


8E{ TRACK NUMBER 


0EA4 A722 


0118 


STA 


M 


0EA6 B60F18 


0119 


LDA 


SECTOR 


8ET SECTOR NUHBER 


0EA9 A723 


0120 


STA 


3,Y 




0EA8 AF24 


0121 


STX 


W 


BUFFER ADDRESS 




0122 # 








0EAD AD9FC004 


0123 


JSR 


IDSKCONl 


WRITE BLOCK 


0EB1 6D26 


0124 


TST 


M 


CHECK FOR ERRQRS 


0EB3 262B 


0125 


BNE 


ERR0R5 


REPORT THEH 




0126 * 










0127 *INCREH£NT VALUES 




0EB5 30^90100 


0128 


LEAI 


256, X 


HOVE BUFFER POINT 


0EB? B60F17' 


0129 


LDA 


TRACK 


IS IT LAST TRACK? 


0EBC 8106 


0130 


CHPA 


16 




0EBE 2509 


0131 


BLO 


NOTLST 





22 THE RAINBOW July 1984 





0132 


ME SOT HERE BECAUSE THIS IS THE LAST TRACK <7) 


lECf 86IF1B 


0133 


LDA SECTOR 


0EC3 6102 


0134 


CHPA #2 LAST SECTOR IN TRACK 


•EC5 2727 


0135 


BEG CLOSE 


•EC7 2H7 


1134 


BRA INCHT 60 TO INCREMENT 




0137 


i 


•EC9 B60F19 


0138 


N0TL9T LDA SECTOR 


IECC 81 12 


0139 


CHPA 118 


IECE 2)0? 


0140 


BEG NXTTRK 




0141 


•SET HERE BECAUSE NOT ALL SECTORS DONE YET 


0ED0 7C0F18 


0142 


INCHT INC 9ECT0R 


0ED3 20CC 


0143 


BRA NXT5CT DO NEXT SECTOR 




0144 


1 




0145 


#80T HERE BECAUSE LAST SECTOR 


0ED5 7F0F18 


0146 


NXTTRK CLR SECTOR 


0ED8 7C0F18 


0147 


INC SECTOR 


0EDB 7C0F17 


0148 


INC TRACK 


0EDE 20C1 


0149 


BRA NXTSCT 




0150 


mtttfttrntim 


0EE0 308D0170 


0151 


ERRORS LEAX ERR,PCR 


0EE4 8D10 


0152 


BSR D19PLY 


0E£6 39 


0153 


RT9 




0154 


ttt#tt*fftt»ttt*t 


0EE7 308D017D 


0155 


NOTAV LEAX NTAV,PCR 


0EE8 8D09 


0156 


BSR DISPLY 


0EED 39 


•157 


RTS 




0158 


ttmmttttmtt 


0EEE 7FFF40 


0159 


CLOSE CLR «FF40 TURN OFF MOTOR 


0EF1 39 


0160 


RTS 



Listing 2 



SYSTEM COKPUTERHARE MACRO ASSEMBLER 

COOKING WITH COCO PART 1/LISTIN6 3 ( 0 1964 COLIN J. STEARMAN 



PAGE 1 



0161 mtttmtmttH 

0162 * 



0EF2 


AD9FA002 


0163 


DISPL1 


4SR 


CCHR0UT1 


DISPLAY ON SCREEN 


0EF6 


A680 


0164 


DISPLY 


LDA 




SET CHARACTER 


0EF8 


26F6 


0165 




BNE 


DISPL1 




0EFA 


39 


0166 
0167 


t 


RTS 






0EFB 


6602 


0166 


8ETMAP 


LDA 


12 


READ OP CODE 


0EFD 


A7A4 


0169 


STORE 


9TA 


,v 




0EFF 


2004 


0170 




BRA 


CONT 




0F01 


6603 


0171 


PUTHAP 


LDA 


13 


WRITE OPCODE 


0F03 


20F8 


0172 




BRA 


STORE 




0F05 


6611 


0173 


CONT 


LDA 


#17 


SELECT TRACK 


0F07 


A722 


0174 




9TA 


M 




0F09 


6602 


0175 




LDA 


12 


SELECT SECTOR 


0F0B 


A723 


0176 




STA 


3,Y 




0F0D 


8E0F19 


0177 




LDX 


•BUFFER 


BUFFER ADDRESSS 


0F10 


AF24 


0178 




STX 


4,Y 




0F12 


AD9FC004 


0179 




JSR 


[DSKCON] 




0F16 


39 


0180 




RTS 









••04 


OPT 


NOG, LIS 




0005 


t 






0006 


•THIS WILL LOAD A SYSTEM DISK 




0007 


♦ IN DRIVE 0 !{JTO 64K RAM AND 




0008 


*§TART IT UP 






0009 


•THE SYSTEM SHOULD HAVE BEEN SAVED 




•010 


»BY "SYSSAVEi AND OCCUPY THE FIRST 15 




0011 


•GRANULES ON THE DISK, A FLA6 IN THE 




0012 


•FIRST BYTE OF TRACK 17 SECTOR 1 TELLS 




0013 


•IF THE DISK CONTAINS A SYSTEM 




•014 


•THIS HILL RESTORE FROM 18000 TO IFF00 




0015 


Hmtmitmtf mttttmtft 




•016 


i 






•017 


t 




0E00 


0018 


ORG 


UN 




•01? 


t 






0020 


•SOME EQUATES 


A002 


0021 


CHROUT EQU 


IA002 


A000 


0022 


POLCAT EQU 


mm 


8000 


••23 


BASIC EQU 


•8000 


C004 


0024 


DSKCON EQU 


SC004 


C006 


0025 


DCOPC EQU 


«C006 


A928 


0026 


CLEAR EQU 


IA928 DIRECT JUMP TO 


FFDE 


0027 


ROM EQU 


•FFDE 


FFDF 


0026 


RAM EQU 


•FFDF 



0181 MHttttttfffttffttfftft 

0182 » 

0183 • VARIABLES AND STRIN6S 



0F17 
0F1B 
0F19 
1019 20 
103B 0D 
1054 0D 
1068 fD 

0E00 



0184 
0165 
0186 
•187 
0188 
0189 
0190 
0191 
• 192 
NO ERROR (S) 



TRACK RMB 
SECTOR RMB 
BUFFER RMB 
TITLE FCS 
DRIVNO FCS 
ERR FCS 
NTAV FCS 
• 

END 
DETECTED 



1 

1 

256 

/ BASIC TO D1SK<0D> STORAGE PROGRAMED ><0D>/ 
/(0D>DR1VE NUMBER (0 OR II? / 
•<0DX0D>READ/NRITE ERROR<0D» 
/<0D>D1SK NOT FREE FOR SYSTEM STORA6E<0D>/ 

SYSSAV 



SYMBOL TABLE: 

ASKDNO 0E13 
CLEAR A928 
DISPL1 0EF2 
DSKCON C004 
INCHT 0ED0 
NOTLST 0EC9 
NXTTRK 0ED5 
REPET 0E1A 
SYSSAV 0E00 

CHD-SYSSAVE /P 



BASIC 8000 
CLOSE 0EEE 
DISPLY 0EF6 
ERR 1054 
NAR6 0000 
NTAV 106| 
OUTMAP 0E72 
RETURN C002 
TITLE 1019 



BUFFER 0F19 
CONT 0F05 
DONE IT 0E78 
ERRORS 0EE0 
NENSYS 0E64 
NXTBYT 0E67 
POLCAT A000 
SECTOR 0F18 
TRACK 0F17 



CHROUT A002 
DCOPC C006 
DRIVNO 103B 
SETHAP 0EFB 
NOTAV 0EE7 
NXTSCT 0EA1 
PUTMAP 0F01 
STORE 0EFD 



SOFTWARE 
PRODUCTS FOR THE 
TRS 80 COLOR COMPUTER 



EDITTRON 

Full-Screen BASIC Program Editor 
SAVES YOU TIME! 



Let EDITTRON cut your programming tirpe in half! 
You will appreciate the absolute ease at which this 
Full-Screen Editor allows you to INPUT, EDIT, and DEBUG 
your BASIC programs. EDITTRON performs these functions.- 



CURSOR-CONTROL 

Directional Movement 
Screen Scrolling 
Home the Cursor 
Limit the Cursor 
Down Page 
Up Page 
Search a Line 
Call a Line 
Find a String 
Repeat Find 



SCREEN-EDITING 

Change Characters 
Extend a Line 
Kill a Line 
Insert Characters 
Delete Characters 
Move a Line 
Split a Line 
Copy a Line 
Merge Two Lines 
Auto-Numbering 



Other features include; Auto-Repeating keys, Key Tone, 
useM rier*dfy Ptompis and Error Messages, and 24 pages 
of comprehensive, easy-to-read Documentation. 



EDITTRON is a 3K, fully position-independent Machine 
Language program that requires a minirhum 16K of RAM, 
and Extended Color BASIC. 

CASSETTE.., . 35 DISKETTE -„■$ 4Q 




4418 E. Chapman Ave., Suite 284 
Orange, CA 92669 
(714) 639-4070 



VIDTRON 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 23 



A027 


0029 


COLD ECU 


0A027 






0030 


» 








0031 


•BET yP FOR DRIVE I 




0E00 10BEC006 


0032 


SY9TEN LDY 


DCOPC 




#Ei4 6F21 


0033 


' CLR 


ur 


DRIVE NUMBER 




1034 


* 








0035 


•CLEAR SCREEN 




0E06 BDA929 


0036 


JSR 


CLEAR 






0037 


1 








0038 


•PUT UP TITLE 




0E09 BE 1I#D 


0039 


LDX 


•TITLE 




0E0C 170060 


0040 


L8SR 


DISPLY 






0041 


t 








0042 


t 








0043 


•CHECK FOR SYSTEM DISK 




0E0F 8D3D 


0044 


BSR 


SYSCHK 






0045 


•RETURN' "A 1 


AS 155 IF SYSTEM DISK 


IE 11 8155 


0046 


CNPA 


M55 




0E13 2717 


'0047 


BEG 


DI9KOK 




0E15 8E0FEE 


0048 


LDX 


IN08YS 


POINT X TO NO SY8TEM DISK 


IE 19 160054 


0049 


LBRA 


DISPLY 


OUTPUT IT 


0E1B 39 


0050 


RTS 








0051 


t 






0E1C 8Q56 


0052 


DISK OK BSR 


8ETSYS 






0053 


i 






•E1E 7FFF40 


0054 


CLR 


IFF40 


TURN OFF DRIVE 


0E21 B7FFDF 


0055 


BTA 


RAN 


SNITCH TO RAM 


0E24 0F71 


0056 


CLR 


♦71 


CLEAR TO" COLD START 




0057 


•A9K FOR HHJCH SYSTEM TO BOOT 


0E26 8E1022 


0058 


LDX 


•BOOT 




0E29 170043 


0059 


LBSR 


DIBPLY 




0E2C AO9FA000 


0060 


P0LA8N JSR 


IP0LCAT3 


BET RESPONSE 


0E30 27FA 


0061 


BEO 


P0LA8N 


NONE YET? 


0E32 8142 


0062 


CRPA 


t'B 


IS IT BASIC? 


0E34 2606 


0063 


BNE 


EORD 




0E36 7F8000 


0064 


CLR 


19000 


SET UP COLOR BASIC 


0E39 7EA027 


0065 


Iff 


COLD 


60 TO IT 


0E3C 9145 


0066 


EDRD CHPA 


#'E 


IS IT EXTENDED BASIC 


0E3E 2606 


0067 


BNE 


ISITD 




0E40 7FC000 


0068 


CLR 


IC000 


SET UP FOR EXTENDED BASIC 


0E43 7EA027 


0069 


JNP 


COLD 


60 TO IT ' 


0E46 9144 


0070 


ISITD CHPA 


I'D 




0E48 102791DB 


0071 


LBEQ 


COLD 


6Q TO DISK BASIC 


0E4C 20DE 


0072 


BRA 


POLA6N 






0073 


ftttHmmimmitHHMtf 




0074 


♦SYSTEH DISK 


CHECK 




0E4E 86 U 


0075 


SYSCHK LDA 


117 ' 


TRACK 


0E50 A722 


0076 


STA 


2.Y 




0E52 8601 


0077 


LDA 


II 


SECTOR 


0E54 A723 


0079 


STA 


3,Y 




0E36 CC0ED8 


0079 


LDD 


•BUFFf.* 




0E59 ED24 


0080 


STD 


4.Y / 




0E5B 8602 


0081 


LDA 


12 


READ OPCODE 


0E5D A7A4 


0082 


STA 


,Y 




0E5F AD9FC004 


0083 


JSR 


[DSKCON3 




0E63 6D26 


0084 


TST 


6,Y 




0E65 2653 


0085 


BNE 


ERRORS 






0086 


♦SEE IF FIRST BYTE IS 


155 


0E67 B60ED8 


0087 


LDA 


BUFFER 




0E6A 39 


0088 


RTS 







0E6B AD9FA002 
0E6F A680 
0E71 26F8 
0E73 39 



0E74 8E8000 

0E77 7F0FD8 
0E7A 7F0FD9 
0E7D 7C0FD9 



0E80 B60FD8 
0E83 A722 
0EB5 B60FD9 



0089 ••ffmtmttHfmmmH 

0090 *DISPLAY 'ROUTINE 

0091 DISPL1 JSR CCHRQUT] 

0092 DISPLY LDA ,X+ 

0093 BNE DISPL1 

0094 . RT9 

0095 •♦•lti#li*it##fft#f»Mtf## 

0096 # SYSTEM LOAD ROUTINE 

0097 BETSyS LDX IBASIC 

0098 «SET UP DRIVE 



POINT X AS START OF BASIC 



0099 
0100 
0101 
0102 

0103 • 

0104 DOTFR 
0105 

0106 



CLR 
CLR 
INC 



LDA 
STA 
LDA 



TRACK 
SECTOR 
SECTOR 



TRACK 
SECTOR 



TO SECTOR 1 

SET UP TRftpK 
SET T(| SJCTOR 



•PAP A79T 


0107 


STA 3,Y 






0108 ♦BEAD SECTOR 




0E8A AD9FCII4 


0109 


JSR tDSKCON] 


0ESE 6D26 


0110 


TST 6,Y 




0E90 2629 


0111 


BNE ERRORS 






1112 t 








0113 #MOVE BUFFER INTO RAM AREA 


0E92 8D2C 

Vb'4 UV*W 


0114 


BSR BUFH&V 






0115 ♦ 








0116 (INCREMENT VALUES 




0E94 860FD8 


0117 ' 


LDA TRACK 


T<? IT 1 MT TRAP*"? 


0E97 8106 


0118 


CMPA 16 * 


HtflHFfiT PHI 1 TRAP* 

money i ruLL irrlk 


0E99 2508 


0119 


BLO NOTLST 






0120 ftME fl 


OT HERE BECAUSE 


THIS IS ON TRACK 7 


*CTD DOfrUT 


0121 


LDA SECTOR 


LAST SECTOR 


0E9E 8102 


0122 


CMpA 12 


ONLY NEED ONE SECTOR QN TRACK 7 


0EA0 2608 


0123 


BNE INCMT 


80 TO INCREMENT 


0EA2 39 


0124 


RTS 






0125 * 






ff A3 B60FD9 


0126 NQTLBT LDA SECTOR 


LAST SECTOR IN OTHER TRACKS? 


0EA6 8112 


0127 


CMPA 118 




0EA8 2705 


0128 


BEO NXTTRK 






0129 ♦ 







0EAA 7C0FD9 
fEAD 20D1 



0EAF 7F0FD9 
0EB2 7C0FD9 
0EB5 7C0FDB 
0EB8 20C6 

0EBA 8E0FDA 
0EBD 8DB0 
0EBF 39 



0130 ♦SOT HERE BECAUSE NQT ALL SECTORS READ YET 
#131 INCMT INC SECTOR ' 

0132 BRA DOTFR CONTINUE TRANSFER 

0133 ♦ 

0134 ♦SOT HERE BECAUSE LAST SECTOR 

0135 NXTTRK CLR SECTOR 

0136 INC SECTOR 

0137 INC TRACK 

0138 BRA DOTFR CONTINUE TRANSFER 

0139 ♦♦•♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 
'0140 ERRORS' LDX IERR 

0141 BSR DISPLY 

0142 RTS 

0143 ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦••♦ 

0144 ♦ THIS MOVES 256 BYTES FROM BUFFER 

0145 #T0 LOCATION POINTED TO BY REB I 



0EC0 CE0ED8 


0146 BUFMOV LDU 


•BUFFER 


POINT U TO BUFFER 


0EC3 1A50 


0147 


ORCC 


•150 


DISABLE INTERRUPTS 


0EC5 B7FFDF 


0148 


STA 


RAM 


SNITCH TO RAM 


0EC8 A6C0 


0149 STORE 


LDA 


,u+ 


BET BYTE AND INCR U 


0ECA A780 


0150 


STA 




STORE t INCR X 


0ECC UB30FD8 


0151 


CMPU 


•BUFFER+256 


ALL DONE 


0ED0 26F6 


0152 


BNE 


STORE 


CONTINUE M0VIN6 


0ED2 B7FFDE 


0153 


STA 


ROM ' 


SNITCH BACK TO ROM 


0ED5 1CAF 


0154 


ANDCC 


IIAF 


ENABLE INTERUPTS 


0ED7 39 


0155 


RTS 







0156 ••♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦!♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

0157 ♦ST0RA6E 
0ED8 0158 BUFFER RMB 
0FD8 0159 TRACK RMB 
0FD9 0160 SECTOR RMB 
0FDA 0D 0161 ERR FCS 
0FEE 0D 0162 NOSYS FCS 
100D 20 0163 TITLE FCS 
1022 42 0164 BOOT FCS 

0165 t 

0E00 0166 END SYSTEM 

NO ERROR '<S) DETECTED 



256 

1 
1 

•<0D>READ/NRITE ERROR<0D><0D>» 
/<0D>NO SYSTEM ON DISK IN DRIVE 0<0D>/ 
/ DISK BASIC LOADER<0DX0B)/ 
/BASIC, EXTENDED OR PISK(B,E,D)?/ 



SYMBOL TABLE: 

BASIC 8000 
CHROUT A002 
DISKOK 0E1C 
DSKCON C004 
6ET3YS 0E74. 
NOSYS 0FEE 
POLCAT A|00 

STORE 0ECB 
TRACK 0FD8 

CHD*SYSTEM /P 



BOOT 1022 
CLEAR A928 
DISPL1 0E6B 
EORD 0E3C 
INCNT 0EAA 
NOTLST 0EA3 
RAM FFDF 



BUFFER 0ED8 
COLD A027 
DISPLY 0E6F 
ERR 0FDA 
ISITD 0E46 
NXTTRK 0F.AF 
ROM FFDE 



BUFMOV 0EC0 
DCOPC C006 
DQTFR 0E90 
ERRORS 0EBA 
NAR6 0*00 
P0LA6N 0E2C 
Stf TOR 0FD9 



SYSCHK 0E4E SYSTEH 0E00 TITLE 100D 



24 THE RAINBOW July 1984 




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SIMULATION 



If you 're gonna play the game 



TO GOTTA 
PAY THE RENT! 



By Gene Meador 



Zandlord is a 1 6K non-Extended BASIC game for two 
or more players. Its distant cousin is Monopoly, but 
1 think you'll find that with so many changes, it is 
now a unique game. 
Each player begins Landlord ' with $10,000. You 
will invest this money by buying properties and 
building apartment complexes. By collecting rent 
from other players unfortunate enough to land on 
those properties, you try to gather enough wealth to 
win the game. There are actually two ways to win this game; by forcing all 
the other players to go bankrupt, or by reaching a money limit in cash and 
assets. The money limit is set by the players before the game begins. 

If you'll look at Figure 1, you'll see the "board" used by the computer 
during the game. The computer will keep track of everything and will keep 
each player informed, so the board is not actually used or even needed. It's 
shown here to give you a mental picture of the game for a few turns until you 
get the hang of the game. The lot prices shown are the beginning prices only 
and are subject to change during the game. 

Before the game begins, you will need to tell the computer the players' 
names. Next, you will be asked to put in the money limit that each player is 
playing for. Since each player starts the game with $ 1 0,000, the limit should 
be higher than that; a $35,000 limit makes about a two-hour game, $50,000 
is about four to five hours of wheeling and dealing! 

Everyone begins the game on payday and movement is clockwise around 
the board. At the beginning of each player's turn, his die roll is rapidly 
changing at the bottom of the screen. 

The computer stops by hitting a number key, and if the number the player 
hits matches the number the computer was on at the time, the player 
receives an extra $1,000 paycheck. Next, the computer will tell the player 
where he has landed, cash level, etc. 

Good News and Bad News squares are just what they say they are. Beware 



26 THE RAINBOW July 1984 




of the Income Tax square; landing there will cost you 10 
percent of your cash on hand. 

Your CoCo will be the Bank and it will also keep track of 
each player's position on the board, his properties and hold- 
ings, cash, rolling the dice, issuing paychecks to the players 
(for passing payday), and, of course, making sure everyone 
plays by the rules. 

As the Bank, CoCo can do two important things. The 
Bank can loan money to the players. A player can borrow 
money whenever he wants. Of course, there are some 
catches! A player may only borrow up to his credit limit, 
which is a percentage of his assets (less any existing loans he 
already has). The more property you own, the more credit 
you have. As you might have guessed, the Bank charges 
interest on its loans. That interest rate depends on the Eco- 
nomic I ndex at the time. Every so often there will be a "news 
flash" announcing the new Economic Index and the new 
interest rate on loans. (Interest rates will never go below five 



percent, but there is no upper limit!) A player taking out a 
loan has his loan balance spread out over 10 equal pay- 
ments. A payment will be taken out of the player's cash each 
time he passes on or lands on the Loan Payment Due square. 
A player has the option to make additional payments when- 
ever he wants to, but they only reduce the number of pay- 
ments, not the payment amount. It's a good idea to keep 
enough cash on hand to make your loan payments. Other- 
wise, you might have to go to the In-The-Hole square. 

The In-The-Hole square is something like Monopoly's In 
Jail square, however it really doesn't come into play until a 
player tries to end his turn with a negative cash balance. If 



( Gene Meador does accounts payable for Ryder Truck 
Rental. He enjoys adapting board and war games to 
play on his CoCo and would like to hear from others 
working on similar projects.) 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 27 




Peripherals 
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Lakeview 
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Park 
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BAD 
NEWS 








Landlord 
Figure J 








BAD 
NEWS 


Lij, Tn | 

wood 
$1500 
















1 /"""f^i irVli-Lr 

uauniry 
Club Or, 
S40D0 


cheslftr 
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Within? 
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Man- 

chesi&r 
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way 
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THE 
HOLE 


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$ft00 


saoo 


Walnul 
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NEWS 


Prexel 

$500 


Black- 
W&ider 
$500 


Agnew 
$500 


Payday 



that happens, the player is given the following options: 
1 ) get a loan from the Bank; 2) sell some property to another 
player; 3) go to the In-The-Hole square; 4) repossession of 
some of hi* properties by the Bank; and 5) quit the game. 

If a player decides to go to the In-The-Hole, he may stay 
there for no more than three turns. If he still has a negative 
cash balance on his third turn, the option to stay there is 
deleted and the player has the other four options. la other 
words, once you go to the In-The-Hole square, the only way 
off of it is to get a positive cash balance within three turns or 
quit the game. (Paying $50 won't save you in this. game!) 

Payday is, as mentioned earlier, the square all the players 
start the game on. Each time a player lands on or passes 
payday, he receives a paycheck from the Bank for 10 percent 
of the value of his holdings or $2,000, whichever is higher. 

Ali the other squares bn the board are the Lots of the 
Landlord. They are spaced evenly around the board in eight 
groups of three lots each. A player must land on a lot in 
order to buy.it from the Bank. If he wishes to do so, he need 
only use the "Buy" option and the computer will handle the 
transaction for him. The "Recap" option is very handy, It 
gives ydu a complete rundown of your cash, position on the 



board, loan balances and payments left, credit limit, a com- 
plete rundown of all the properties, who owns them, and the 
number of apartments on each lot. 

As you might have guessed, you must own all three lots of 
a group before you may build any apartment complexes on 
them. You may put up to 50 apartments on each lot. Each 
apartment will cost you 10 percent of the current lot price to 
build, which is quite a sizable investment for 50! Except for 
paychecks, and an occasional Good News once in a while, 
the rent collected from the other players who land on these 
improved lots will be ydur only income! Bare lots don't 
collect any rent. (The actual rent collecting is taken care of 
for you by the computer as its first order of business each 
turn.) Tenants are moving in and out of these apartments 
constantly, so the exact amount of rent that a player will 
receive depends on how many apartments on that lot are 
occupied at the time. (Don't worry, at least 60 percent will 
be*) In other words; just because a player has, say, 10 apart- 
ments on a lot doesn't mean that he will collect the rent for 
all 10 apartments each tirne someone lands on them. (Is 
nothing sacred in this game?) 

When a player is In-The-Hole, the Bank has the ability to 
repossess a player's properties. (There is no mortgaging lot 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 29 



or apartments in this game. The Bank just takes possession.) 
Here's what happens when a player chooses that option: the 
Bank will begin at Payday and go clockwise around the 
board repossessing the player's holdings, lot by lot, while 
giving him one-half the current value for them until he either 
has a positive^ cash balance or he has no more property! 
Those repossessed properties may then be bought from the 
Bank by any player who lands on them. 

Apartments, once built, can never be taken off that lot for 
the rest of the game. The lot and its apartments are sold or 
traded as a package deal, so don't forget to value them as 
such. Buyers should remember that they don't have to own 
all the lots of a group in order to collect rent from that lot, 
but they do if they wish to build any additional apartments 
on that lot. 

Let me mention some fine points of the game and you 
should be ready to play: 

1) If a player quits, the Bank will take over his holdings, 

2) The Bank will collect rent from a player if you land on 
one of its improved lots. You may then buy it from the 
Bank if you'd like (and can still afford it!). 

3) As protection to the players, you can't buy another 
player's property during your turn, but he can sell it to 
you during his turn. 

4) Remember that even though you can win the game by 
bankrupting the other players, someone will usually 
win by reaching the money limit first. The key to 
winning this game is to make as much money as fast as 
possible. 



OS-9™ SOFTWARE 
FOR COCO 

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with CoCo OS-9 plus you gain the ability to 
read/write/format the standard OS-9 single and 
double density disk formats used on other OS-9 
systems. $29.95 

BOOTFIX — To make bootable double-sided disks 
$9.95 

SDISK + BOOTFIX — when ordered together $35.95 

FILTER KIT #1 — Eleven utilities used as filters (with 
pipes) to give you "wild card" directory lists, copies, 
deletes, moves, lists, pagination, etc. $29.95 

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dump/fill utilities allow you to disassemble OS-9 
assembly code from disk or memory. $24.95 

Send SASE for current catalog. 

Terms: Prepaid check, MO, Visa, Mastercard or COD. 

Add $1 S&H, (COD $3 extra). 

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Portland, OR 97223 (503) 244-8152 

(We appreciate your calling between 9-11 AM Pacific Time.) 

OS-9 is a trademark of Microware and Motorola Inc. 



The Program 

Ihad several objectives when I wrote this program: to fit it 
into a 16K non-Extended Color Computer, write it as 
simply as 1 could so that beginning programmers coiild go 
through it and understand it, and finally, write some kind of 
game besides a space shoot-'em-up that the whole family 
could enjoy. 

The program is simple; don't let the size intimidate you. 
By using the program outline and the variables list you can 
go through the listing and see that it's just a lot of /F- THEN- 
GOTO programming. I've compressed the program lines to 
save mernory, but I've used a lot of lines to spread it out so 
you could understand it easier. 

I didn't use any special programming tricks, but there is 
one tip I'd like to pass on: if there is more than one of 
something, put them in an array. You can save yourself 
many program lines if you do. For instance, if P is the 
number of players and P1$,P2$,P3$, etc. are the player's 
names, then to print out the player's names for turn identifi- 
cation you'd have to add something like this: 

10 ON P GOTO 20,30,40,50 
20 PRINT Pl$;"'s turn":GOTO_ 
30 PRINT P2$;"'s turn":GOTO_ 
40 PRINT P3$;"'s turn":GOTO_ 

Now if you put that into an array, P$( ), you'll only need 
one line to take care of any number of players: 10 PRINT 
P$(X); u 's turn Now that's *a pretty simplistic example but 
the point is that if you find yourself typing in several almost 
identical lines in your next program, take a close look at it. 
You might be able to use an array and shorten it. 

After typing in the program and checking for mistakes, 
CSAVE it to tape. Then either PC LEAR 0 or POKE 
25,6:NEWand reload the game. Use the POKE or PCLEAR 
each time before you load it. As the game goes on, all those 
arrays get filled with information and you'll need all the 
memory you can get to keep from getting an OM? Error. 

After hours of playtesting with my friends and family, it 
was decided not to display the board. It's just not needed to 
play the game and only served as a time-consuming distrac- 
tion once you get into the game. 



Program Lines: 




10-160 


Setup and credits 


160-300 


Players' names and continue setup 


310-380 


Get game limit and start game 


410-420 


Start of turn, get next player 


450-480 


Die roll 


520-560 


Check for passing payday 


590-630 


Income Tax 


640-650 


Loan Payment 


660-810 


Good News 


820-960 


Bad News 


970-1080 


Landed on lot; check out owner 


1090-1130 


Take rent out of player's cash 


1140-1350 


Main menu 


1230-1350 


Secondary menu 


1360-1420 


Buying property 


1430-1600 


Selling property 


1610-1S20 


Trading property 


1830-2090 


Building apartments 



30 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



GRAPHICOM 

The hit of the Pasadena Color Expo, GRAPH ICOM 
is the best graphics program ever written for the 
COCO! GRAPHICOM was three years in the mak- 
ing, and you can see every minute in its quality and 
ease of use. GRAPH ICOM has features you wouid 
expect from systems costing hundreds of times 
more! 

**Powerful drawing tools: "rubber band" graphics, 
"stamps", rotating pictures, mirrored, masked, and 
reversed images, and lots more! 

**Easy to use: Uses two joysticks, or one joystick 
and koala pad, to operate a big, simple picture- 
based menu. 

**lncredible output capacity: Transmit pictures 
over modems or ameteur radio! GRAPHICOM 
even has a screen dump function that works with 
over 20 different printers! 

GRAPHICOM is simple enough that anyone can 
use it, yet it's so powerful that a seasoned artist 
can use it to explore new frontiers of creativity. 

Requires 64K and disk drive Only $29.95 

ART MAN: THE POOR MAN'S GRAPHICOM? 

ART MAN has a remarkable resembience to 
GRAPHICOM; they're almost the same! The big- 
gest difference is that ART MAN will run on a 32K 
system! Tape or Disk $29.95 



GRAPHICOM PICTURE DISKS 

Marvel at the wonders of computer aided art with 
the amazing gallery of picture disks for use with 
GRAPHICOM: 

Picture Disk #1 : Features drawings, and tutorials 
for GRAPHICOM. 

Disk #2: Features Elvira, mistress of the dark, and 
friends (great drawings and digitized photos). 

Disk #3: Excellent drawings, tutorials, and ex- 
amples of use of the "X-PAD". 

Disk #4: Electronic circuits and symbols. 

GRAPHISET - More than 1 6 font screens: Roman, 
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Picture Disks are $19.95 for one, and $10.00 for 
each additional disk, or $39.95 for all five. 



NEWBASIC 

This impressive package will save you hundreds of 
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mands to regular BASIC: expanded directory, text 
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on or off, underline, word "wrap'*, ten definable 
function keys, ON ERROR GOTO,\text screen 
dump, a function to help you type in programs from 
RAINBOW magazine, and MUCH, MUCH MORE! 

Requires 64K and disk drive $49.95 



INTERCEPT 4 

By J. Weaver, Jr. 



Yourshipandthe planet are under attack 
Hostile alien craft whip around the ship, 
releasing flamming bolts of energy upon 
the hull of the INTERCEPT. Immediately 
your own guns come alive, warding off 
the sudden attackers, but will it be 
enough? Already many of the fighters 
have escaped past your ship toward the 
defenseless colonies below. Once the 
air battle is over, you must transport 
down to the planet, try to find the alien 
foe, and destroy them. Then, the hardest 
task awaits: using the full power of the 
INTERCEPT, you must battle and destroy the mother 
ship!! Three separate screens or levels of play. Each 
screen scrolls in ail four directions. A fantastic new 
game by the author of Outhouse. Requires two joy- 
sticks. 

32K $27.95/29.95 








■Od 0 □ 

^fl FT ■f-L. 1—* 1—1 


I 


L 





—■□HI .4?, HHH 

GRAPHICOM MENU 





FROM PICTURE DISK #1 FROM PICTURE DISK #2 

□ 

A 5S £ 2) 8 3 $ 
X? f XXMJC 
€ 9 2.31$ 3 U 

v-wxy 3 

It* 

FROM GRAPHISET 



FROM PICTURE DISK #3 



$10 



COUPON 



$10 



This coupon is good 
for $10 off any order 
that is for morfe than 
$35.00 (Note: only 
one discount per 
order) 



$10 




This coupon is good 
on mail order or phone 
in orders. But you 
must ask for discount 
at time or order. 



$10 




6655 Highland Road • Pontiac, Ml 48054 
Orders & Information (31 3) 666-4802 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Add $3.00 for 
shipping in the USA - $5.00 in Canada. 
Dealer inquires invited. 



2100-2360 Getting a loan 

2370-2530 Recap and rundown of properties 

2540 Check player's cash level 

2550-2860 Deficient cash options 

2860-2950 End of game 

2980-3040 Payday 

3050-3130 Economic Index 

3140-3220 Rundown of properties 

Variables List: 

A$( ) Square Hames 

P$( ) Players' names 

S Square used during the turn 

F( ) Lot price 

LB( ) Loan balance 

LP( ) Loan payment 

Al( ) Used to check assets 

A2( ) Lot group number 

P Number of players 

H( ) Number of apartments on a lot 

P( ) Flayers position on the board 

HI( ) Number of times In-The-Hole 

T Turn number 

LI Game limit 

I Interest rate 

M( ) Player's cash 

Q( ) Used to identify players that have quit 

For those of you who hate typing as much as I dp, the 
program is on this month's rainbow on TAPE, or I will send 
you a copy of Landlord on tape for $5. Send a S ASE to Gene 



FREE OFFER! 



FREE 

"World Capitals Game Cassette" 
with each order of 
20 Cassettes or 10 Diskettes. 

Specify TRS-80 Color Computer, MC-10, TI-99/4A 
VlC-20 or Commodore 64 



C-10 CASSETTES 

580 

• C-10 Length/Free Labels 

• Storage Box add 1 2$ each 



SS/SD DISKETTES 

$1.58 

• Sentinel or Elephant Brand 

• Free Labels/Protect Tabs 



• $2.00 shipping eng. - any quantity • NJ Residents add 6% sales tax 
Canadian orders $6.00 shipping • Limit 1 Free game per order 

• Lifetime money back guarantee 

• Send check or money order to: 



PARALLEL SYSTEMS 

Box 112 - Dept. R 
/fj?^ Blackwood, N J 0801 2 
rainbow 609- 2 2 7 -9634 



Meador, 850 \ S. Brookline Ave,, Oklahoma City, Okla., 
73159. 

For the more advanced programmers with 32K, here's a 
challenge: I've shown you the basics of how to write a 
program of this type, so why don't you create a program that 
plays Monopoly! 



The listing: 



3l0 233 2100 113 

550 33 2290 35 

1000 32 2450 149 

1340 113 2670 181 

1540 .232 2900 167 

1710 155 3170 87 

1920 241 END...... 111 



10 CLS:CLEAR200 

20 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 

30 PR I NT© 105, "COLOR COMPUTER " : PR 

INT@140, "PRESENTS" 

40 PRINT@201, "L A N D L O R D" 

50 PR INTQ261, "WRITTEN BY GENE ME 

ADOR" 

60 GOSUB2960:GOSUB2960:DIM A* (32 

) ,P*(10) ,S(32) ,F(32) 

70 DIMLB<10) , LP (10) ,A1 (32) ,A2(32 

) *P(10) ,H(32) ,Q(10) ,H1 (10) 

80 FORX=lT032:READA*(X) :next 

90 data payday, agnew, blackwelder 
, drexel, good news! 
100 data walnut, eastern, classen, 
in-the-hole ! , manchester 
110 data westchester, hazelwood^b 
ad news !, patterson 
120 data ann arbor , rockwell , loa 
n payment due !, may ave. 
130 data lansbrook, portland, good 
news! , robinson 

140 Data mac Arthur, regency blvd, 

income tax, bella vista 

150 data lake view, park manor, bad 

news ! , country club 

160 data w i lsh i re blvd, broadway 

170 cls(1 > : print: input"how many 

are playing" ;p 

180 forx=ltop:print"player #"x"» 

S NAME" i 

190 INPUTP*(X) :M(X> =10000: P(X)=1 

:q(X)=0:next 

200 pr i nt: pr i nt" i'll keep trac 

K OF EVERYTHING", "FOR YOU, SO LE 
T'S PLAY! " 

210 GOSUB2960:M(0>=0 

220 F0RX=1T032:READF(X) :NEXT 

230 DATA 0,500,500,500,0,800,800 

,800,0 

240 DATA 1500,1500,1500,0,1800,1 
800, 1800,0 

250 DATA 2500,2500,2500,0,3000,3 



32 THE RAINBOW July 1984 





By BithDunievy drDoug Frayer 

Exploding with color, racing with 
fast animation, and roaring with 
sound, this great non-violent game 
is destined to be a classic! The 
review in Februarys issue of RAIN- 
BOW says this: "A Fun Investment" "it 
is totally unique" M l found it very tough 
to tear myself away from playing the 
game long enough to write about it! In 
short, CASH MAN is one fun game.j 
Buy it * 




Dozens of levels and screens (more 
than FORTY!) offer anyone, from be- 
ginner to expert, as much good clean 
fun as they want! Higher levels in- 
clude special Mystery Pieces and Ex- 
pert Puzzle Pieces and Expert Puzzle 
Screens. Play alone or go for the 
ultimate challenge of two-player si- 
multaneous competition. Run along 
the colorful girders, jump across the 
tremendous chasms, climb the ropes 
and ladders, or grab a BYRD and fly to 
get the loot before your opponent 
does, but watch out! The KATS are on 
the prowl and your opponent is toss- 
ing eggs! Run, jump, climb, or fly to 
your nearest Color Computer and 
play CASHMAN! 

32K-Tape $27.95 
Disk $29.95 




By Jeffery Sorenson 
& Phillip MacKenzie 

All alone in the silence of space, you 
switch on the viewrport to look at the 
brilliant stars. And then you see THEM: 
a massive hoard of bat-like aliens, 
swarming towards you! The ship trem- 
bles under the distant explosions of 
enemy fire. You have only one chance 
for survival - Fight! As you attempt to 
defeat each new wave of enemy ships, 
they only get stronger and faster! If by 
some miracle you survive the first 
assaull, you find yourself pitted against 
en-emi&s so swift, powerful, and out- 
right evil that only one name fits them 
- DEMONS! And if that's not enough, 
they bring out the heavy artillery - the 
Mother Ship! Engaging in battle, you 
see a dark cloud against the stars: 
another invasion fleet! 




Created in the same spirit of the 
classic arcades games like Phoenix 
land Galaga, DEMON SEED is a great 
i package of arcade fun and action. 
|Oifterenr screens of bats, demons, 
and special challenge rounds 
keep the excitement high and 
J-he competition stiff! 

32K-Tape $27.95 
Disk $29.95 



By Bill Dunlevy & Harry Lafnear 

Tired of games that only have a few 
screens or force you to follow strict 
levels? In TIME BANDIT, you virtually 
create your own game! You can 
choose from more than TWENTY 
places through-out the game, with 
more than 1 5 distinct variations and 
levels of difficulty in each place; this 
means over 300 variations! 




Use the TIMEGATES to travel to the 
three different Worlds of Time, each 
containing a multitude of colorful 
and unique adventuring areas. Visit 
the medieval dungeons of FANTASY 
WORLD, recapture the days of yes- 
teryear in WESTERN WORLD, and 
reach for the stars in FUTURE 
WORLD. Fight the Evil Guardians: 
the Looking Lurker, Angry Elmo, Killer 
Smurphs, and more! Find the Keys 
and escape with the treasures of time. 
But hurry - your power is fleeting! 
Crisp Supergraphics, colorful scroll- 
ing landscapes, full animation of a 
multitude of characters, great sound, 
and over THREE HUNDRED 
SCREENS- it's all here! The 
duest of time and space 
awaits! 




6655 Highland Road 
Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Orders & Info: (313) 666-4802 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Add $3.00 for 
shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 in Canada. Dealer 
inquires invited. 



UCHICAGO 




^SKTN EXTRA 

J* Jk Jl ^ \ 



$144, 

*tt Mlon 



^23 Monitor 



V\deo 



CONTROLLERS 

DC-1 ROM disk controller reads & 
$1 34 writes to 35 and 40 track single 
and double sided drives with all 
models of the color computer 
(J&M) 

VC-1 Video interface mounts inside 
$24.45 color computer by piggybacking 
IC on top of interface-no solder- 
ing and no trace cuts 

VC-2 for color computer 2 - 
$26.45 monochrome only 

VC-3 for color computer 2 - color and 
$39.45 monochrome 





DISKS 


DD-1 


% height PA" 40 Track SSDD 


$269 


179,712 bytes available 


DD-2 


V2 height 5%* 40 Track DSDD 


$319 


359,424 bytes available 


DD-3 


Dual 3" 40 Track SSDD. 


$449 


359,424 bytes available (Amdek) 


CA-1 


Cable to connect disk to con- 


$24.44 


troller ' 


Drive 0 needs controller DC-1 above 



$44.44 

MORE 



*The Howard drive 0 package gives 
359,424 bytes of available storage for 
$444.39 using our double sided, double 
density disk and 40 track controller. The 
regular 35 track drive 0 gives 156,672 
bytes for $399.95. The Howard package 
gives an extra 202,752 bytes for $44.44 
more. 




MEMORY 

64K Upgrades 
64-E1 for E Boards. Remove old Chips 
68.45 and replace with this preassem- 

bled package * No soldering or 

trace cuts 
64-F1 for F Board Preassembfed with 
64.45 no soldering. Capacitor leads 

must be cut 
64-2 for color computer 2, Kit requires 
69.45 soldering, no traces to cut. 

PRINTER 

RX-80 Epson printer needs RX-100 
$299 parallel interface below $585 
Botek Serial to parallel interface comes 
$68.45 with all necessary cables. 



Any product may be returned within 30 
days for refund if not satisfied. 
We handle all warranty & repair work 
thru our direct contact with the manu- 
facturer, 

Shipping - $2 for controllers; $5 for 
disks; $7 for printers, monitors & 'pack* 
ages'; $2.75 for stands, 
Canadian orders slightly higher- 




Howard Medical 

Box 2, Chicago, 60690 

31 2 944-2444 



MONITORS 

122 Zenith 12" Amber gives excel- 
$1 34 lent resolution and is easy on the 

eyes 

123 New Zenith green screen for 
$114 serious programmers and word 

processing 

131 13" Color monitor with 
$334 speaker, composite, and RGB 
jack (Zenith) 

Ail Monitors need video controller 



TV STANDS 







COCO 2 


TS-1 


15Wx 11D x4H 


TS-2 


$29.50 


for 13" screen 


$29.50 


TS-4 


24Wx 11Dx4H 


TS-3 


$39.50 


for 19" screen 


$39.50 


PS-1 


18Wx 15Dx2VaH 




$19.95 


for all popular printers 






add $5 for bottom feed slot 



TV stands come with ROM pack cut-out. 
Specify ivory or smoked grey. 



please send me the following 



Name 

Address . 



City, State Zip 

Cat # Description 



Cost 



Include card # or check, shipping 

iiL 1,1 • residents add 8 0/0 tax 

RAINBOW** 



Total 



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Get Your Very Own Pot O' Gold! 

Here's your chance to have a Pot O' Gold full of programs, articles and information about C0C0 
every month of the year! A subscription to the Rainbow is only $28* and you won't miss a single 
chock-full issue. 

As the premier magazine for the TRS-80 Color, TDP-1 00 and Dragon-32 and -64 computers, the 
Rainbow has more of everything — and greater variety, too. Do yourself and your C0C0 a favor 
and subscribe to the Rainbow today! 

We accept VISA, MasterCard and American Express. Non-U. S. rates higher. U.S. currency only, please. 

YES! Sign me up for a year (12 issues) of the Rainbow. 



□ NEW 
Name _ 



□ RENEW (Attach Label) 



Address 

City 

□ Payment Enclosed 
Charge □ VISA 

Account Number 

Signature 



State 



ZIP- 



□ MasterCard 



□ American Express 



Card Expiration Date. 



'Subscriptions to the Rainbow are S28 a year in the United States. Canadian and 
Mexican rate is $35 U.S. funds. Surface rate elsewhere is S65 U.S. funds. Air mail is 
S100 dollars U.S. funds. All Subscriptions begin with the current issue. Please 
allow 5-6 weeks for the first copy. 



VISA' 



Rainbow On Tape Tops Typing 

Tired of spending all your valuable computertime typing in those long, but wonderful, Rainbow 
programs each month? Now there is Rainbow On Tape to help ease the pain. 

Each month ail the lengthy programs (over 20 lines) in the Rainbow can come to you ready-to- 
run, thanks to Rainbow On Tape. More than 20 programs every month in all! At $70* per year — or 
$8 a tape** — it is the biggest bargain going. 

Back issues are available beginning with April, 1982 (except May 1983). Each month's tape will 
arrive approximately the same time as your current month's issue of the Rainbow. 

YES! Sign me up for the biggest bargain going . . . Rainbow On Tape! 

□ NEW □ RENEW (Attach Label) 

□ A Full Year □ A Month (Specify Month & Year ) 

Name 

Address 

City State ZIP 



□ Payment Enclosed 
Charge □ VISA 

Account Number 

Signature 



□ MasterCard 



□ American Express 



Card Expiration Date_ 



'Subscriptions to Rainbow On Tape are S70 in the United States, S80 U.S. funds in 
Canada and Mexico and $95 U.S. funds in all other countries 

"Back issues of the tapes are $8 in the United Staes, $10 U.S. funds for Canada, 
Mexico and all other countries. 















VISA' 


I 




What goes well with 
the Rainbow? 




Rainbow On Tape! 

We call it the other side of the Rainbow, and we may have 
to raise the price just to call your attention to it. With more 
than two dozen programs every month, Rainbow On Tape is 
a luxury service at a bargain basement price. At $6.50 for a 
single copy, that's only 270 a program. And, with a full year's 
subscription, for $60, we're practically giving it away. 

What is it? Rainbow On Tape is a monthly, cassette tape 
adjunct to the Rainbow and it's brimming with all the pro- 
grams (those over 20 lines long) that fill the pages of the 
magazine. All you do is pop the cassette in your tape 
recorder and they're ready to run. No more lost weekends 
—or weeknights — typing, typing, typing. With Rainbow On 
Tape, you must read the article in the magazine then, in 
seconds, you load it up and run it. 

Yes, Rainbow On Tape is brimming with the programs that 
fill the Rainbow's pages each month. And, yes, you could 
type them in yourself, as many people do. But all of them? 
Every month? There simply isn't enough time. 

Isn't it time your CoCo became a fulltime computer instead 
of a typewriter. Think how your software library will grow. 
With your first year's subscription, you'll get almost 300 new 
programs: games, utilities, business programs, home appli- 
cations — the full spectrum of the Rainbow's offerings with- 
out the specter of keying in page after page and then 
debugging. 

Rainbow On Tape — the "meat" of the Rainbow at a price 
that's "small potatoes." Food for thought. To get your first 
heaping helping, just fill out and return the attached reply 
card. No postage necessary. 

Discover the other side of the Rainbow. It's not only a 
time-saver, it's the key to a whole new outlook! 



000,3000,0 

260 DATA 3500,3500,3500,0,4000,4 
000, 4000 

270 F0RX=1T032:READA2<X> 
280 NEXT: P»<0>«"BANK": 1-15 
290 DATA0, 1, 1, 1,0,2,2,2,0,3,3,3, 
0 4,4,4 

300 DATA0, 5, 5, 5, 0,6, 6, 6, 0,7, 7, 7, 
0,8,8,8 

310 CLS(5) : PRINT: PRINT"HOW MUCH 
IN CASH AND ASSETS DO" , "ALL OF) Y 
OU WISH TO PLAY TO?" 1 
320 PRINT" <*50, 000 IS AVERAGE)'." 
: INPUTL1 

350 CLS<5>:PRINT832,"0K! THE FIR 
ST PLAYER TO REACH" , "*"L1 " IN CAS 
H AND ASSETS" 

360 PRINT"WILL WIN THE 8AME!!":P 
RINT 

370 PR I NT "THE OBJECT OF THE GAME 
IS TO ", "FIGURE OUT HOW TO WIN! 

II 

380 PRINT: PRINT"LOTZA LUCK! <YOU 

*LL NEED IT!>" 

390 GOSUB2960:GOSUB2960 

400 M(0>=0 

410 CLS<5):S0UND 180,3: IF RND(20 



)>18 THEN GOSUB 3050 

420 T=T+l:IF T>P THEN T-l 

430 IFQ<T>>0 THEN 420 

440 PRINTe32,P*(T> "'S TURN":M<T) 

- 1 NT < M < T ) ) : GOSUB2970 

450 PRINT"PICK YOUR DIE ROLL:" 

460 A=RND<ll>+l:PRINT@98,A:R*=IN 

KEY*:IFR*-"» THEN 460 

470 IF VAL<R*)OA THEN PRINT"MIS 

SED AGAIN!" 

480 PR I NT "YOUR CASH ON HAND IS * 
"M<T> 

490 QOSUB2970: PRINT 

500 IFVAL(R*)-A THEN PR I NT "EXTRA 

PAYDAY ! ! ! " : XX- 1000: GOSUB3030 
510 IF M<T)<-0 THEN 570 
520 IF<P<T)+A>17)AND<P(TX17)THE 
N530 ELSE540 

530 PR I NT "PASSED LOAN PAYMENT DU 

E!":IFLB<T)>0 THEN GOSUB3240 

540 P<T)-P<T)+A: IFP<T> >32 THEN P 

< T ) -P < T ) -32 : GOSUB2980 

550 S-P<T):IF S<>9 THEN590 

560 IFS-1 THEN 2540 

570 IFM(T)>0 THEN HI <T>=0:PRINT" 

YOU'RE AT "A*(S> : GOTO 1150 

580 HI <T)—H1 <T) +1 : SOUND1 , 30: GOTO 



GRAPHICOM has established itself as the premium graphics program 
for the color computer. One of the outstanding features of this 
program is its ability to use a picture disk with lots of designs 
on it, to incorporate these pictures into other designs such as 
greeting cards, business announcements, school projects, elec- 
tronics, etc. 

At the last two Rainbowf ests , demand for the picture disks has 
been overwhelming. We at MichTron are now going to come out with 
a new picture disk every month. If you would like to subscribe to 
this service for a year, it will be at a substantial savings. 
Picture disks are normally $19.95 each, plus $3.00 shipping and 
handling. One years subscription is only $199.95. You can save 
over 100 dollars by subscribing now! 



Join now, and you can pick any TWO disks from our ad on Page 31 
for your first months subscription! 




inquires invited. 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 35 




BOMBER COMMAND 16K EXT CASSETTE $22.95 



ARK RQYAL provides three types of game: The Strategy Wargame, Strategy Arcade and Arcade games. 
DEALER DISCOUNT AND COLOR DISPLAY PACKAGING AVAILABLE. WE CARRY UTILITY SOFTWARE, TOO! 



OTHER ARK ROYAL GAMES... 

GALACTIC TAIPAN 32K EXT Battle storms, 
pirates and high taxes in hopes of making a 
profit in the galaxy. CASSETTE. ..$24.95. 

MISSION EMPIRE 32K EXT cass or disk. 
Starting with one planet, incomplete intelli- 
gence and limited resources, you must form 
alliances, build armies and conquer the 
galaxy. Game save. Cass or Disk version on 
Cassette. ..$24.95. ) 

STARBLAZER 32K EXT During your ab- 
sence, the SPECTRUM galaxy has been over- 
run by the draconic xyclons. Now you com- 
mand the only Starship left to retaliate. 
CASSETTE.. .$24.95. 



LASER SUBS 16K (Suited for kids, 12 and 
under). Hi-res graphics. Lots of fun — kids 
love it! Your destroyer discovers a fleet of 
enemy's laser-firing subs heading towards 
the surface. Destroy them with depth charges 
before they blast you apart. Joysticks. 
CASSETTE (SPECIAL) $10.00 

CRYSLON — 32K 3-D graphics, joysticks. 
Player commands the remote-controlled de- 
fense missiles of the planet Cryslon. Your 
mission — defend the planet's cities from in- 
vading aliens with powerful lasers. 
CASSETTE (SPECIAL) $10.00 

P. O. Box 14806 Prices on All games 

Jacksonville, FL 32238 include shipping. Florida 
904 777-1543 Resident add 5% tax. 



Orders are shipped the day they are received regardless of check or mdney order. Send no cash, 
please. We pay shipping on all prepaid orders. On CCD 's, customer pays charges No bankcard 
sales. We have enough paperwork already. 

All games strategy oriented, graphically portrayed and guaranteed from defect and boredom. For 
DISK version add $3.00. No mail delays with personal checks. State system with order. 



All Programs require Color 
ComPuter™ (Tandy Corp) or 
TDP System 100 Computer™ 
(RCA) 



2540 

590 IF S<>25 THEN 640 

600 SOUND 1 , 30 : PR I NT : PR I NT " OH , OH ! 

INCOME TAX TIME!" 
610 PR I NT "YOU OWE 10'/. OF YOUR CA 
SH ON" , "HAND. YOUR CASH IS *"M<T 
) " 

620 PRINT"SO YOU OWE *"M(T>*. 1"! 

i 

630 r1<T>-M<T>-<M<T>*. 1) :M<T)-INT 

<M<T> ) :QOTO1140 

640 IF SO 17 THEN 660 

650 PR I NT "YOU LANDED ON LOAN PAY 

MENT ! " : GOSUB3240: GOTOl 160 

660 IF SOS AND S<>21 THEN820 

670 FORZ=200TO225: SOUNDZ , 1 : NEXT 

680 X=RND<5) : PR I NT "GOOD NEWS!!!" 

: PRINT 

690 ON X SOTO 700,720,760,780,80 
0 

700 XX»RND<35>*. l: I-I-XX: I»INT<I 
>:IFI<5 THEN 1-5 

710 PR I NT "BANK INTREST RATES HAV 
E DROPPED " , " TO " I " % ! " : 8OTO750 
720 PR I NT "PROPERTY VALUES JUST W 
ENT UP", "107. ON ALL YOUR PROPERT 
IES! " 

730 FORX=lT032: IFAKX)=T THEN F< 
X)«INT<F<X)+<F<X>*. 1) ) 
740 NEXT:GOTO750 

750 GOSUB2970 : S=P < T > : PR I NT : GOTO 1 
160 

760 PRINT" INCOME TAX REFUND!" 
770 X=RND<500)+300:PRINT"YOU GET 

BACK *"X:M<T)»M<T)+X:GOTO750 
780 PR I NT "EVERYONE PAYS YOU *100 
0 ! " 

790 FORX»1TOP:M<X)=M<X)-1000:M<T 
)=M<T) +1000: NEXT: GOTO750 
800 PR I NT "YOU GET GO TO PAYDAY!" 
: GOSUB2970 

810 P<T)-l:GOSUB2980:6OTO1160 
820 IF SO 13 AND S<>29 THEN 970 
830 SOUND 1,40: PR I NT: PR I NT "BAD NE 

WS " : GOSUB2970: PRINT 

840 X=RND(6):0N X GOTO 845,850,8 
80,910,930,950 

845 PR I NT "EVERYONE VOTED YOU *LE 
AST " , "LIKELY TO WIN* ! ! " : GOTO750 
850 XX=RND<35>#. l: I=I+XX: I«INT<I 
) 

860 PR I NT "BANK INTREST RATES HAV 

E BONE UP" , "TO" I "7. ! " 

870 GOSUB2960: GOTOl 160 

880 PR I NT "ALL YOUR PROPERTY VALU 

ES HAVE" , "DROPPED 107. ! " 

890 F0RX»1T032: IFAKX>=T THEN F< 

X>=F<X>-<F<X>#. 1> 



900 NEXT:8OTOQ70 

910 PR I NT "YOU PAY EVERYONE *1000 
i •■ 

920 FORX»1TOP:M(T)»M<T)-1000:M(X 
> -M < X > + 1 000 : NEXT : GOTO870 
930 PRINT" IT'S INCOME TAX TIME A 
GAIN! ", " (AND NO PASSING PAYDAY!) 

II 

940 GOSUB2960 : P < T ) =25 : GOTO550 
950 PR I NT "OH NO! LOAN PAYMENT DU 
EM": GOSUB2960 

960 IFLB(T)>0 THEN: GOSUB3240: GOT 
01140 

970 PRINT"YOU*RE NOW AT "A*<S):M 

<T)=INT<M<T> ) 

980 IFA2<S)=0 THEN 1000 

990 PRINT"OWNER: "P* <A1 <S) ) : PRIN 

T 

1000 IFA1(S)»T ORA2<S>«0 THEN 11 
60 

1010 IF H(S)>0 THEN 1090 
1020 IFAKS)>0 THEN 1160 
1030 6OSUB2960 

1040 CLS: PRINT: PRINT"LOTS OF THI 
S GROUP : " : PR I NT : FORX* 1 T032 
1050 IFA2(X)=A2<S) THEN PRINT A*< 
X) "-"P*<A1 <X) ) '"S-APTS. : "H<S> 



CHEAPEST PRICES 
ON 

COLOR COMPUTERS 

16KStd 109.95 

16KExt. Basic 155.95 

64K Ext. Basic 199.95 

Special 2 Joysticks and a Bustout game 
Reg. 49.90 18.95 

Over 125 Color Computer Programs 
in Stock 




The System 100 from Tandy 

THE COMPUTER CENTER 

5512 Poplar, Memphis, TN 38119 
901-685-0009 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 37 



1060 NEXT: PRINT: PRINT A* <S) " IS * 

"F(S>+(H(S>*F(S>*. 1> 

1070 PRINT" (YOUR CASH IS *"M(T>" 

)" 

1080 PR I NT "BUILDING COSTS: *"F(S 

)#. 1"PER UNIT" : GOTOl 160 

1090 D=RND(40>+60: IFH<S)O0 THEN 

1160 

1 1 00 PR I NT " OF " H < S ) " APARTMENTS , " I 
NT(H(S)»D*.01)"ARE FILLED" 
1110 RD«INT(H(S)*D*.01«F(S>». 125 
) : PR I NT "RENT DUE IS *"RD 
1120 M(AKS) >-M(Al(S> )+RD 
1130 M(T>*M(T>-RD:RD=0: PRINT" YOU 
R CASH IS NOW *"M<T) 
1140 6OSUB2960 
1 1 50 QOSUB2960 : CLS : S»P ( T ) 
1160 PRINT"WOULD YOU LIKE TO:" 
1170 PRINT" B)BUY, P)PASS, R) SEE 
A RECAP,"," OR 0>SEE OTHER OPT I 
ONS?" 

1180 R*-INKEY*: IFR*«"" THEN 1180 

1190 IFR*«"B" THEN 1360 

1200 IFR«="P" THEN 2540 

1210 IFR*="R" THEN 2370 

1220 IFR*="0" THEN 1230ELSE1180 

1230 CLS : PR I NT@32 , " YOU HAVE THE 

FOLLOWING OPT I ONS : " : PR I NT 

1240 PR INT "S) SELL SOME PROPERTY 

","T> TRADE PROPERTIES" 

1250 PRINT"A> BUILD MORE APARTME 

NTS","L> GET A LOAN" 

1260 PR I NT "R) REDUCE YOUR LOAN B 

ALANCE" 

1270 PRINT"M) GO BACK TO MAIN ME 
NU","Q) QUIT": PRINT: PRINT" YOUR C 
HO ICE?" 

1280 R*-INKEY*: IFR*="" THEN 1280 
1290 IFR*-"R" AND LB<T)>0 THEN 2 
290 

1300 IFR««"S" THEN 1430 

1310 IFR*-"M" THEN 1160 

1320 IFR*»"T" THEN1610 

1330 IFR*-"A" THEN 1830 

1340 IFR*="L" THEN2100 

1350 IFR*-"Q" THEN2790ELSE1280 

1360 IFA2(S>=0 THEN PR I NT "YOU CA 

N'T BUY "A«(S> " ! ": GOTOl 150 

1370 IF M<T) >F(S)*(F(8)#. 1*H<S) ) 

THEN 1390 
1380 PR I NT "SORRY, YOU DON'T HAVE 

ENOUGH", "CASH TO BUY IT!":GOT01 
150 

1390 IFA1(S>«T THEN PRINT"YOU AL 

READY OWN IT !": GOTOl 150 

1400 IFAKS)<>0 THEN PRINTP*<A1< 

S)>" OWNS IT!":GOTO1150 

1410 PRINT "TITLE DEED RECORDED" 



1420 M(T>«M(T>-(F(S>+(F(S>*. 1*H( 

S) ) ) : Al <S)-T: GOTO 1600 

1430 CLS:GOSUB3140: INPUT"LOT NO. 

YOU'RE SELLING" ;S 
1440 IFSO0 THEN 1470 
1450 CLS: G0SUB3 190: INPUT" LOT NO 
. YOU'RE SELLING" ;S 
1460 IFS-0 THEN 1150 
1470 IFS<0 OR S>32 THEN 1490 
1480 IFA1(S)«T AND A2(S><>0 THEN 
1500 

1490 PR I NT "SUPER BOO-BOO! TRY AG 

AIN ! " : GOTOl 150 

1500 CLS: GOSUB3230 

1510 INPUT"# OF PLAYER YOU'RE SE 

LLING T0"JY 

1520 IFY-T 0RY<1 OR Y>P THEN PR I 
NT "OOPS ! " : GOTOl 150 
1530 INPUT "HOW MUCH ARE YOU GETT 
ING"J XX:XX»INT(XX> 

1540 PR I NT " SELL I NG "A*(S>" TO "P 
*(Y>,"FOR *"XX", CORRECT?" 
1550 R*=INKEY*: IFR*="" THEN 1550 
1560 IFR*<>"Y" THEN PR I NT "HUMANS 
! ": GOTO 11 50 

1570 IFXX>M(Y) THEN PR I NT "WRONG- 
HE HASN'T ENOUGH ***!": GOTOl 150 
1580 M(T)-M(T)+XX:M<Y)»M(Y)-XX:A 
1 (S)»Y 

1590 PR I NT "TRANSACT I ON COMPLETE. 

":S=P(T> 

1600 PR I NT "YOUR CASH IS NOW *"M< 
T) : GOTOl 150 

1610 CLS : PR I NT632 , " YOU MAY ONLY 

TRADE 1 FOR 1.": PR I NT 

1620 PRINT" (IF YOU'RE TRADING 2 

OR MORE, ", "'SELL' THOSE LOTS)" 

1 630 6OSUB2960 : GOSUB2960 : CLS : 60S 

UB3230 

1640 INPUT"# OF PLAYER YOU'RE TR 
ADING WITH" I Y 

1650 IFY<10RY>P ORY«T THEN PRINT 
"OOPS !":GOTO 1150 

1660 CLS: G0SUB3 140: INPUT "YOUR LO 

T NO. (IF ANY)"JS 

1670 IFSO0 THEN 1690 

1 6G0 CLS : G0SUB3 1 90 : I NPUT " YOUR LO 

T NO. (IF ANY)"SS 

1690 IFSO0 0RS>32 THEN 1490 

1700 IF A2(S)=0 THENPR I NT " CAN ' T 

TRADE "A* (S) : GOTOl 150 

1710 IFAKS)OT THENPR I NT" I NEED 

YOUR LOT NO. ": GOTO 1660 
1720 CLS: PR I NT "NOW CHOOSE "P»(Y) 
"'S LOT: " 

1730 GOSUB3140: I NPUT "LOT #";SS:I 

F SSO0 THEN 1750 

1 740 CLS : G0SUB3 1 90: I NPUT " LOT # " ; 



38 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 



DOUBLE DRIVER 

The BEST monitor driver available, unlike some monitor 
drivers the Double Driver provides TRUE monochrome 
and color composite output. Audio Output. Solderless 
installation. $24.95 




RESET YOUR COMPUTER 

A REAL Improvement 
Move the power switch and reset where they belong. An 
LED power on light too! High quality parts. Totally 
solderless kit. 

CoCo I $24.95 
CoCo II $27.95 





64K UPGRADES 

Instantly access 64K via M/L Totally solderless kit to 
upgrade E Boards. Kit includes eight 4164 prime chips 
and chips U29 and U11 already soldered. E Board Kit 
$69.95 

Color Computer II kit requires soldering. $64.95 




GRAPHICOM 

The Ultimate Graphic Utility 
You must see this program to believe it! Create pictures 
and text on the same screen. Now you can create pictures 
as good as any graphic you have seen on the color com- 
puter. Write graphic adventures or educational programs. 
Requires 64K EXB, Disk Drive and Joy Sticks $29,95 

MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Bay Laboratory 



316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA, 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 



Ordering Information 

Add $2.00 shipping and handling per order. We ship within 
24 hours on receipt of order. Blue Label Service available. 
California residents add 6% sales tax. 




BUSINESS UTILITIES 

MORE BUSINESS -Ver 3.12 The preferred business 
package. Completely interactive. General Ledger. 
Accounts Receivable. Accounts Payable. Customer 
Statements. Mailing Labels. Profit/Loss. Balance Sheet 
Statements. Our most powerful business package. Buy 
the best! 

32K Disk R/S DOS $99.95 

MORE INVENTORY - Maintain an inventory of more than 
1000 items. Know when to order, what has been ordered, 
quantity and value of any item. Calculate inventory value 
with single keystroke. 

32K Disk R/S DOS $44.95 

UTILITIES FOR EVERYONE 

COCOWRITER II — Powerful and full featured. An 
excellent word processor at an affordable price. 32, 51, 
64 or 85 characters per line, justify right, left, center, insert, 
delete, move blocks. Menu driven printing and formatting. 
Tabs, etc. One of the best values in word processing 
today! 

16 K EXB Cassette $34.95, 16K EXB Disk $44.95 

THINKING GAMES 

TRIVIA — THE EINSTEIN EDITION - A one to four player 
trivia game. More than 1900 challenging questions. Great 
for parties or family fun. 

16K Non Extended $19.95 Cassette, $21.95 Disk 



CUT-N-GLUE 

A Companion to the Coco-Writer II 
Super User Friendly 100% Machine Language 

Graphic windows and icons guide you every step of the 
way. Small pictures show you what exactly is happening, 
or what steps you can do next. Up to seven text windows 
on the same screen! 

You can now have a filing cabinet in the computer's 
memory with up to six file folders. Each folder can contain 
a word processor document or part of a document. The 
document(s) being edited can be cut up, glued together 
in any way you wish, swapped between folders and the 
edit memory and ultimately saved. You will now have 
17,664 characters of edit memory and 29,183 characters 
of file cabinet memory (for the six folders). More than 46K 
of document space! 

Requires: 64K Extended and the CoCo Writer II. A disk 
drive is strongly recommended but not essential. 

CUT-N-GLUE Disk $26.95, Tape $24.95 

What shall I do with the docwient in ntmry 



February 25. 1^ 
Hi Oave! 

I have been Mat 
seen any yet. 
probably nay. 



FZa Use<and>to select file. 
Kg! use* and A tc select action, 
'- JoT Then 'press enter. 



78* 
free 



-CD 



February 25, 
Hi Dave; 



I have been tint 



^j£=a m lines 



^New>ry : i2H lines 



February 25, l c 
Hi Dave? 



I have been tot 



a 



ici> 



FILE THSH CUT BLUE TVPE DISK QUIT 



ss 

1750 IFSS<=0 OR SS>32 THEN 1490 
1760 IFAKSSX>Y THEN1490 
1770 cls:print h if YOU ARE ALSO R 
ECEIVING CASH, ", "INPUT THAT NOW. 

II 

1780 PRINT" IF YOU PAY, INPUT A NE 
SATIVE", "FIGURE. <IF NO CASH IS 
INVOLVED" 

1790 PRINT" JUST HIT 'ENTER')." 
1800 INPUTYYUF YY<M<Y) THEN 182 
0 

1810 PRINT "DEAL* S OFF- NOT ENOUG 
H CASH! ! ":GOTO1150 

1820 m<t>=m<t>+yy:m<Y)=m<y>-yy:a 
1 <s)=y:a1 (ss)=t: goto 1590 
1830 cls:g0sub3 140: input "lot no. 
(if none hit 'enter* )";s 

1840 IFSO0 THEN 1860 

1 850 CLS : G0SUB3 1 90 : I NPUT " LOT NO . 

<IF NONE, HIT ' ENTER' ) " 5 S 
1860 IFS<=0 0RS>32 THEN 1490 
1870 IFAKS)OT THEN1490 
1880 IFH<S)>0 THEN 1920 
1890 XX»0:FORX=1TO32: IFA2<X)»A2< 
S> AND AKX)»T THEN XX-XX+1 
1900 NEXT:IFXX=3 THEN1920 



1910 PRINT "SORRY, YOU DON'T OWN 
ALL OF", "THAT GROUP OF LOTS!": GO 
TO1140 

1920 CLS <5) : PRINT: PRINTA*<S) " HA 

S"H <S) "APARTMENTS" 

1930 PRINT"ON IT NOW. EACH APT. 

IS *"INT<F(S)». 1) , "APIECE. ":PRIN 

T 

1940 PRINT" (YOUR CASH IS *"M(T)" 
> " 

1950 I NPUT "HOW MANY DO YOU WISH 
TO ADD"; XX 

1960 IFXX<=0 THEN 1150 

1970 IF(XX*F(S>*. 1)<M(T) THEN 1 99 

0 

1980 PR I NT "SORRY, YOU ONLY HAVE 

THE CASH", "TO BUILD" INT (M (T) / (F ( 

S>*. 1) ) : GOTO 11 40 

1990 IFH(S)+XX<=50 THEN 2010 

2000 PR I NT "SORRY, NO MORE THAN 5 

0 APTS.","PER LOT ALLOWED .": GOTO 

1150 

2010 PRINTXX"UNITS AT *"INT(F(S) 
*. 1) "IS *"F(S)*XX*. 1 
2020 PR I NT "IS THAT OK WITH YOU?" 
2030 R*-INKEY*: IFR«-"" THEN2030 
2040 IFR*<>"Y" THEN 1160 



Setting The Standards 



Graphics and sound effects like never before on the CoCo An ex- 
_ citing original arcade action game Control your hero through a 
maze of moving conveyor belts Outsmart bad guys and save Q P 
Doll. Over 1.000 frames of increasing difficulty. 
100% ML. original title screen music. I or 2 players, colorful Hi 
Res graphics, exciting sound effects, joystick or keyboard input, 
pause feature. 8 digit scores and high score name entry. For 32K 
CoCo and TDP-100 

Cassette-34.95 Disk-34.95 



Strap yourself into the ultra responsive Formula I car and rev the 
throttle to fire 500 screaming horses to life. Your heart pounds in 
anticipation of the race. The green flag drops and you are slammed 
back into your seat as the field thunders off in a deafening roar 
An exciting racing game in colorful Hi Res graphics with realistic 
sound effects Joystick or keyboard input Joystick input is com- 
patible with all joysticks. Many different tracks to choose from For 
32K CoCo and TDP-100. 

Cas$ette-34.95 Disk-34.95 



colorp€D(l RQEOTTflCH 



this truly outstanding engineer designed, 100% ML game with 
multi-colored Hi Res characters and fast action will challenge the 
most avid arcade buff. 1 or 2 players with joysticks or keyboard 
COLQRPEOE slithers through the toad stools. Demonstration mode 
with top 5 scores. Pause feature. For 16K CoCo and TDP-100. 
Casssette-29.95 Disk-34.95 
" . forefront of the pack RAINBOW. Dec '82 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



You are the super human who must fight off the attacking robots 
and save the remaining humans from destruction You have super 
human powers, can shoot in any direction and move anywhere on 
the screen to accomplish your vital mission 
Engineer designed. 1 or 2 players and top 5 scores displayed 
Pause feature For 16K CoCo and TDP-100 with joysticks. 
Cassette-24,95 Disk-27.95 




AT YOUR DEALERS NOW. 

From INTRAC0L0R: VISA. MASTERCARD Money Order Please 
allow 2 weeks for checks Add 1.50 for shipping. 3.00 outside 
U S 4% tax in Ml ^nw^B 



"imracolor 

I P.O. Box 1035. East Lansing. Ml 48823 (817) 381-8837 



QUALITY PROGRAMS SOLICITED 



40 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



2050 H(S>-H(S)+XX:M(T)-M<T)-(F<S 

)*xx*. i) 

2060 PR I NT "OK, THEY'RE BUILT. " 
PR I NT "WANT TO BUILD SOME 



2070 
RE?" 
2080 
2090 
2100 
RINT 
2110 



MO 



R*-INKEY«: IFR»""" THEN 2080 
IFR*»"Y" THEN 1830ELSE 1590 
6OSUB3340:CLS(5) :XX«XX».5:P 
IFXXM0000 THEN XX«10000 
PRINT: PRINT"YOUR CREDIT LIM 
IT IS *"XX-LB(T) ZPRINT 
2120 INPUT "HOW MUCH DO YOU WANT 
TO BORROW" $ Y 

2130 IFY>XX-LB(T) THEN 2360 
2140 PR I NT "LOAN TERMS:" 
2150 PR I NT "LOANS ARE FOR 10 TRIP 
S AROUND", "THE BOARD. NEW LOANS 
ARE CON-" 

2160 PR I NT "SOL I DATED WITH EXISTI 
NG LOANS." 

2170 PRINT" (SIMPLE INTEREST IS U 
SED, THE", "RATE NOW IS"I"X. )" 
2 1 80 GOSUB2960 : 6OSUB2970 : CLS < 5 ) 
2190 PR I NT: PR I NT "LOAN BALANCE NO 
W IS *"LB<T> 

2200 PRINT" (INTREST CHARGES ARE 
*"Y*I/100") 



2210 PR I NT "NEW BALANCE WILL BE * 
"LB (T) +Y+ ( Y*I/ 100) 

2220 PR I NT "NEW PAYMENTS: *" (LB (T) 
+Y+(Y*I/100))/10 

2230 PRINT: PRINT" IS THIS OK WITH 
YOU?" 

2240 R*=INKEY«: IFR*="" THEN 2240 

2250 IFR*<>"Y" THEN 1160 

2260 LB(T)«LB(T)+Y+<Y»I/100) :LP( 

T)*LB<T>/10 

2270 LB(T)=INT(LB<T) ) :LP(T)=INT< 

LP(T) ) :Y=INT<Y) 

2280 M(T)»M<T)+Y?GOTO1590 

2290 CLS:PRINT@32, "YOUR LOAN BAL 

ANCE IS *"LB(T) : PRINT" YOUR CASH 

IS *"M(T) 

2300 : PR I NT: INPUT "HOW MUCH WOULD 

YOU LIKE TO PAY ";X 
2310 IFX=0 THEN1160 
2320 IFX<0 ORX>M<T) ORX>LB<T) TH 
ENPRINT"OOPS ! ! " i GOTO! 160 
2330 M(T)»M<T)-X:LB<T)=LB(T)-X 
2340 IFLB(T)<»5 THEN LB(T)»0:LP( 
T)=0 

2350 GOTO 1590 

2360 PR I NT "SORRY, YOUR LOAN IS D 
EN I ED DUE", "TO LACK OF ASSETS.": 




AUTOTERM 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 



WORLD'S 
SMARTEST TERMINAL! 



fab 



YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING 



EASY TO USE 

ON-SCREEN EDITING via cursor. 
Full prompting and error checking. 
Key Beep and Error Beebop. Scroll 
bkwd/fwd while on line. Save/load 
files while on fine. Maintain a disk 
copy of session. Automatic graph- 
ics. True lower case. Screen widths 
of 32, 40, 42, 50, 64. No split words 
on screen/printer. Print all or part of 
text. Search for strings. Well written 
manual goes step-by- step and has 
many KSM examples. Back cover is 
a cheat sheet. 

RECOMMEND 32K to 64K 
EASY UPGRADE 
Price Difference +$13 



PLEASANTLY POWERFUL 

Total communications ability, 128 
ASCII chars, 1200 baud, etc. Send 
text, graphics, BASIC, ML. Scan/ 
Edit current data while receiving 
more data. Any modem. Fully 
supports D.C. Hayes and others. 
Any printer, page size, margins, 
etc. Override narrow text width of 
received data. Examine/change 
parameters, KSMs and disk direc- 
tories at any time. Handles files 
which are larger than memory. 

CASSETTE $39.95 
DISKETTE $49.95 

Add $3 shipping and handling 
MC/V1SA/C.O.D. 



TRULY AUTOMATIC 

Create, edit, print, save and load 
Keystroke Multipliers (KSMs). 
KSMs automate almost any activ- 
ity. Dial via modem, sign-on, 
interact, sign-off. Perform entire 
session. Act as a message taker. 
KSM may include parameter 
changes, disk operations, editing, 
time delays, looping, execution of 
other KSMs, waiting for part- 
specified responses, branching 
based upon responses. 

PXE Computing 
11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson, Texas 75080 
214/699-7273 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 41 



6OTO1150 

2370 CLS: PRINT: PRINTP* <T> " , YOU* 
RE ON "A*<S> 

2380 PRINT"YOUR CASH IS «"M<T> 
2390 PR I NT "YOUR LOAN BALANCE IS 
*"LB<T> 

2400 IFLB<T)<-0 THEN2430 

2410 PR I NT "LOAN PAYMENTS ARE *"L 

P<T) 

2420 PR I NT "PAYMENTS LEFT »"INT<L 
B<T)/LP<T) ) 

2430 BOSUB3340:PRINT"CREDIT AVAI 
LABLE IS *"« 
2435 XX«XX*.5 

2440 IFXX>10000 THEN XX-10000 
2450 IFXX-LB<T)<0 THEN PRINT"0"E 
LSEPRINTXX-LB <T) 

2460 PR I NT: PR I NT "WOULD YOU LIKE 
TO SEE A RUNDOWN", "OF ALL THE PR 
OPERTIES?" 

2470 R***INKEY«: IFR*«"" THEN 2470 

2480 IFR«<>"Y" THEN 1160 

2490 CLS:BOSUB3140:PRINT"HIT ANY 

KEY FOR THE REST." 
2500 R*-INKEY*: IFR*-"" THEN 2500 
2510 CLS:BOSUB3190:PRINT"REPEAT 



POKES, PEEKS 'N EXECS 

Here is the exhaustive file YOU HAVE BEEN WAITING 
FOR! Contains OVER 150 Pokes, Peeks & Execs with full 
explaination on use for each. BREAK-KEY disable, Reset 
Disables, LIST, LLIST & DIR disables. Commands for 
Cassette, Disk & Printer and MUCH MUCH MOREI 
BONUS: A Tape-To-Disk copy program . . ONLY $6.00 



HIDE-A-BASIC 

A perfect utility to protect your basic programs with 4 ML 
routines to disable LIST, BREAK-KEY, RESET and create 
an ONERR GOTO routine. 16K EXT. BASIC TAPE-$16.95 



ALPHA-DIR 

Arrange your DISK directory in alphabetical order. 
16K ECB. TAPE $6.95 DISK- $14.95 

COLOR PAD 

Enhance your artistic capabilities. Draw anything from 
planes to landscapes. Create dazzling patterns. Edit, paint, 
erase & save to tape or disk. BONUS: Airplanes Color 
Sketch Book Program. 16K ECB. No Joystks req. 
TAPE -$16.95 DISK -$19.95 



ORDER TODAY! Check, MO, COD ($2.50). Add $1 .50 for 
S & H. NYS res. please add sales tax. 



'MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 214, FAIRPORT, N.Y. 14450 
(716) 425-1824 
Dealers Inquiries invited 



DISPLAY?" 

2320 R*-INKEY»: IFR*-"" THEN2S20 
2530 IFR*="Y" THEN 2490ELSEU60 
2540 IFM<T)>0 THEN HI <T> -0: B0T02 
830 

2550 CLS:PRINT696, "OH, OH! YOU'RE 

BROKE! <*"M<T> ") " 
2560 PRINT" (TIME NO. "HI <T> " ! ! > " 
2570 IFHMT>=3 THEN PR I NT "LAST T 
IME ! " 

2580 PR I NT "YOU HAVE SEVERAL OPT I 
ONS: " 

2590 PRINT"L) GET A LOAN" 

2600 PR I NT "S) SELL SOME PROPERTY 

II 

2610 IF HMTX-3 THEN PRINT" I) 6 
O * IN-THE-HOLE" " 

2620 PR I NT "R) LET THE BANK REPOS 
/SES ENOUGH" , " PROPERTY TO GET 
YOU AHEAD" 

2630 PRINT" <AT 1/2 IT'S VALUE 
)" 

2640 PRINT "Q) (GULP!) QUIT!" 
2650 PR I NT "WHAT DO YOU WANT TO D 

O?" 

.2660 R*-INKEY*: IFR*-"" THEN 2660 

2670 IFR*-"S" THEN 1430 

2680 IFR*»"R" THEN2730 

2690 IFR*="L" THEN2100 

2700 IFR*="Q" THEN2790 

2710 IFR*-"I" AND HKTX4 THEN 2 

720ELSE2660 

2720 P(T)-9:GOTO410 

2730 CLS: PRINT: F0RX=1T032: IFM<T) 

>0 ORAKX)OT THEN 2760 

2740 M<T)=M(T)+<F(X)+<H(X)*F<X>* 

. 1) )/2:Al <X)«0 

2750 PRINT"REPOSSED "A*<X>" W/"H 
<X) "APTS. " 
2760 NEXTX 

2770 PR I NT: PR I NT "YOU RECEIVED 1/ 
2 THE VALUE OF", "THE ABOVE PROPE 
RTIES. " 

2780 GOSUB2960 : GOSUB2960 : GOTO 1 59 
0 

2790 CLS: PR I NT: PR I NT "WELL, YOU T 
R I ED ANYWAY • " : Q < T > - 1 : GOSUB2970 
2800 F0RX-1T032: IFA1 <X)-T THEN M 
<T)-M(T) + (F(X> + (H<X)*<F(X)*. 1) > > 
2810 IFAMX)-T THEN AKX)-0 
2820 NEXT 

2830 XX»0:FORX»1TOP: IFQ(X) >0 THE 

NXX-XX+1 

2840 NEXT 

2850 IFXX»>P-1 THEN 2870 

2860 GOSUB3340: IFM (T) +XX-LB <T) X. 

1 THEN 2870ELSE410 

2870 CLS : PR I NT @6 4, " END OF GAME! 



42 THE RAINBOW July 1984 




NEW GOOD STUFF 
! FOR EVERY COLOR COMPUTER 



Turn your Color Computer into a graphic design center with the ease of a 
keystroke! MagiGraph makes it simple to create highly detailed figures up to 
and including an entire high-resolution screen. Designed for those with some 
experience in Basic and Assembly Language programming, MagiGraph 
Includes lots of special features: 

• A full set of logical and pixel manipulation functions simplifies the 
development of complex figures. 

• An editor lets you zoom in and work on every detail of your design. 
Toggle between the "macro" and "micro" screens for perspective on 
your creations. 

• Nine animation buffers allow you to preview each sequence to ensure 
continuity and smooth flow. 

• Versatile I/O routines store a graphic screen on cassette or floppy disk; 
recall it later for use by another program or revise it with MagiGraph. 

If you're looking for the finest graphic development utility available for your 
Color Computer, THIS IS IT. Maximize your machine's potential, while you 
push your imagination to the limit — with MagiGraph! 

By Kevin Dooley. Cassette $34.95 (16K required); Disk $39.95 (32K Ex- 
tended Color BASIC required); Amdisk cartridge $44.95. 



CSPOOL 
Color Computer Print Spooler 



Stop Waiting Around for the Printer! CSPOOL allows you to use your printer 
and computer concurrently, takes only 26 bytes of Color Basic's memory, and 
gives you 32K of print buffer. It's like having two computers in one! By 
intercepting characters sent to the printer and storing them in the upper 32K of 
RAM, CSPOOL allows you to run other programs while your printer is doing its 
job. CSPOOL is FREE with the purchase of a 64K RAM UPGRADE KIT from The 
Micro Works, or it may be purchased separately on cassette or diskette for 
$19.95. Requires 64K; not for FLEX or 0S9. 

64K MEMORY UPGRADE KIT: For Rev. levels E, ET, NC, TDP-100s, and Color 
Computer II. Eight prime 64K RAM chips, instructions, and CSPOOL: $64.95. 



SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 



MACR0-80C: DISK-BASED EDITOR, 
ASSEMBLER AND MONITOR-With all the 

features the serious programmer wants, this 
package includes a powerful 2-pass macro 
assembler with conditional assembly, local labels, 
include files and cross referenced symbol tables. 
MACR0-80C supports the complete Motorola 6809 
instruction set in standard source format. Incorpo- 
rating all the features of our Rompack-based 
assembler (SDS-80C), MACR0-80C contains many 
more useful instructions and pseudo-ops which aid 
the programmer and add power and flexibility. The 
screen-oriented editor is designed for efficient and 
easy editing of assembly language programs. 
MACR0-80C allows global changes and moving/ 
copying blocks of text. You can edit lines of 
assembly source which exceed 32 characters. 
DCBUG is a machine language monitor which allows 
examining and altering of memory, setting break 
points, etc. 

Editor, assembler and monitor— along with 
sample programs— come on one Radio Shack com- 
patible disk. Extensive documentation included. By 
Andy Phelps. $99.95 

SDS-80C: SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT 
SYSTEM— Our famous editor, assembler and 
monitor in Rompack. Like MACR0-80C, it allows 
the user to write, assemble and debug assembly 
language programs with no reloading, object patch- 
ing or other hassles.' Supports full 6809 instruction 
set. Complete manual included. $89.95 

MICROTEXT: COMMUNICATIONS VIA 
YOUR MODEM! Now you can use your printer 
with your modem! Your computer can be an intelli- 
gent printing terminal. Talk to timeshare services or 
to other personal computers; print simultaneously 
through a second printer port; and re-display text 
stored in memory. Download text to Basic pro- 
grams; dump to a cassette tape, or printer, or both. 
Microtext can be used with any printer or no printer 
at all. It features user-configurable duplex/parity 
for special applications, and can send any ASCII 
character. You'll find many uses for this general 
purpose module! ROMPACK includes additional 
serial port for printer. $59.95 



MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH 

• Faster to program in than Basic 

• Easier to learn than Assembly Language 

• Executes in less time than Basic 

The MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH is a Rompack 
containing everything you need to run Forth on your 
Color Computer. COLOR FORTH consists of the 
standard Forth Interest Group (FIG) implementation 
of the language plus most of FORTH-79. It has a 
super screen editor with split screen display. Mass 
storage is on cassette. COLOR FORTH also contains 
a decompiler and other aids for learning the inner 
workings of this fascinating language. It will run on 
4K, 16K, and 32K computers. And COLOR FORTH 
contains 10K of ROM, leaving your RAM for your 
programs! There are simple words to effectively use 
the Hi-Res Color Computer graphics, joysticks, and 
sound. 

Includes a 112-page manual with a glossary of 
the system-specific words, a full standard FIG 
glossary and complete source listing. 

MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH ... THE BEST! 
From the leader in FORTH, Talbot Microsystems. 
$109.95 

MACHINE LANGUAGE 

MONITOR TAPE: A cassette tape which allows 
you to directly access memory, I/O and registers 
with a formatted hex display. Great for machine lan- 
guage programming, debugging and learning. It 
can also send/receive RS232 at up to 9600 baud, 
including host system download/upload. 19 com- 
mands in all. Relocatable and reentrant. CBU6 
TAPE: $29.95 

MONITOR ROM: The same program as above, 
supplied in 2716 EPROM. This allows you to use 
the entire RAM space. And you don't need to re- 
load the monitor each time you use it. The EPROM 
plugs into the Extended Basic ROM Socket or the 
Romless Pack I. CBUG ROM: $39.95 

SOURCE GENERATOR: This package is a disas- 
sembler which runs on the Color Computer and 
generates your own source listing of the BASIC 
interpreter ROM. Also included is a documentation 
package which gives useful ROM entry points, 
complete memory map, I/O hardware details and 
more. A 16K system is required for the use of this 
cassette. 80C Ois assembler: $49.95 



HARDWARE 



PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE — Serial to parallel 
converter allows use of all standard parallel 
printers. PI80C plugs into the serial output port, 
leaving your Rompack slot free. You supply the 
printer cable. PI80C: $59.95 
SUPER-PRO KEYB0AR0-$69.95 (For computers 
manufactured after Oct. 1982, add $4.95) 
ROMLESS PACKS for your custom EPROMS — call 
or write for information. 



BOOKS 



6809 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING, by 

Lance Leventhal, $18.95 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS, by Don 
Inman, $14.95 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS FOR THE 
TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER, by Don Inman, $14.95 
STARTING FORTH, by L. Brodie, $17.95 



GAMES 



ZAXXON— The real thing. Excellent. What more can 
we say? Cassette requires 32K. $39.95 
STAR BLASTER — Blast your way through an 
asteroid field in this action-packed Hi-Res graphics 
game. Available in ROMPACK; requires 16K. 
$39.95 

PAC ATTACK— Try your hand at this challenging 
game by Computerware, with fantastic graphics, 
sound and action! Cassette requires 16K. $24.95 
HAYWIRE— Have fun zapping robots with this Hi- 
Res game by Mark Data Products. Cassette 
requires 16K. $24.95 

ADVENTURE— Black Sanctum and Calixto Island by 
Mark Data Products. Each cassette requires 16K. 
$19.95 each. 

CAVE HUNTER— Experience vivid colors, bizarre 
sounds and eerie creatures as you wind your way 
through a cave maze in search of gold treasures. 
This exciting Hi-Res game by Mark Data Products 
requires 16K for cassette version. $24.95 



"MlfiDA PO. BOX 111 0-A 

EliytFliL. Del Mar. CA 9201 4 

WORK* [619)942-2400 

California Residents Master Charpe/Visa and 

add 6% Tax COO Accepted 



2880 PR I NT "HERE'S THE STANDINGS 
IN TOTAL", "ASSETS, LESS ANY LOAN 
s: ": PRINT 
2890 F0RX=1T032 

2900 IFAKX)>0 THEN M<AKX))»M(A 
1 <X) )+F(X)+<H<X>»F<X)*. 1) 
2910 NEXT 

2920 z*i:forx=itop:printp»<x> 
"m<x)-lb<x) :m<x)-m(x)-lb(x) 
2930 ifm(x)>m<z> then z=x 
2940 next: print: print" "p*<z> 

" WON !!!!•" 

2950 PR I NT : PR I NT : PR I NT " HOPE YOU 

HAD FUN!": END 

2960 FORZ=1TO2000:NEXT 

2970 FORZ=1TO2000: NEXT: SOUND 190, 

1 : RETURN 

2980 CLS: F0RZ=1T025: SOUND Z , 1 : PR I 

NT8RND(400> , "*":NEXT 

2990 PRINT© 107, "PAYDAY ! " 

3000 PR I NT : PR I NT6224 , " YOU RECEIV 

E A PAYCHECK EQUAL", "TO 107. OF Y 

OU HOLDINGS OR" 

3010 PRINT"*2000, WHICH EVER IS 
HIGHER. " : GOSUB3340 
3020 XX=INT<XX*. 1) : IFXX<2000 THE 
N XX =2000 



3030 PRINT: PR I NT "YOUR PAYCHECK I 
S *"XX 

3035 PR I NT "YOU NOW HAVE *"M<T)+X 
X 

3040 M<T)=M<T)+XX:GQSUB2960:RETU 
RN 

3050 X«RND<40> 
3060 PR I NT "NEWS FLASH: " 
3070 FORZ— 1 T07 : SOUND 200, 2: NEXT 
3080 PR I NT "ECONOMIC INDEX CHANGE 
OF"; 

3090 IFRND(20)>11 THEN X=-X 
3100 PRINTINT(X*2) : I=I+<X*. 1) : 1= 
INT<I) 

3110 IFK5 THEN I -5 

3120 PR I NT "LOAN INTEREST IS NOW" 

I"7.l " 

3 1 30 GOSUB2960 : CLS : RETURN 
3140 PR I NT "LOT GROUP NAME 
OWNER APTS" 
3150 PRINT 

3160 F0RX=1T016: IFA2<X)=0 THEN31 
80 

3170 PRINTX"-"?TAB(5) ; A2(X) ;TAB< 

6) 5 A*<X) STAB (21) ;P*<A1 (X) ) ;TAB<2 

7) ;H(X) 

3180 NEXTX : SOUND 1 80, I*. RETURN 
3190 PR I NT "LOT GROUP NAME 

OWNER APTS" 
3200 FORX=17TO32:IFA2(X)=0 THEN3 
220 

3210 PRINTX"-"STAB<5> i A2 < X ) ; TAB ( 

6) ;A*<X) ; TAB (21) ;P*(A1 <X) ) ;TAB<2 

7) ;H(X) 

3220 NEXTX: SOUND180, 1 : RETURN 
3230 FORX«lTOP:PRINTX"-"P*(X) :ne 
XT: RETURN 

3240 LB<T)=LB(T)-LP(T) : IFLB(T><5 

THENLB ( T ) =0 : LP ( T ) »0 
3250 M<T)=M(T)-LP<T) 
3260 S0UND32 ,10: S0UND32 ,10: SOUND 
32, 5: S0UND32, 10: S0UND69, 10: SOUND 
58,5:S0UND58, 10 

3270 S0UND32 , 5 : S0UND32 ,10: SOUND 1 
9,5:S0UND32, 10 

3280 PR I NT: PR I NT "PAYMENT DUE:*"L 
P(T) 

3290 PR I NT "NEW BALANCE=*"LB <T) 
3300 IFLB<T)<«0 OR LP(T)<»0 THEN 
3330 

3310 PR I NT "LOAN PAYMENTS LEFT: "I 
NT(LB<T)/LP(T) ) 

3320 PRINT"CASH IS NOW *"M(T):GO 
SUB2960 

3330 GOSUB2960 : CLS : RETURN 
3340 XX=0:FORX=2TO32: IFAKX)=T T 
HEN XX=XX+F<X>+<H<X)*F(X>*. 1) 
3350 next:xx=int<xx) :RETURN JLL 



**★ NEW *** 



Formaker 2.0 

the fastest, most complete 
office package yet! 

Totally Menu Driven 
Customize with company information & printer 
Complete "on screen" instructions 

FIGURES 

quantity 



FORMS STORES 

letter complete forms 

Invoice item list 

quote subquotes 
purchase order letters 
mail order footnotes 
confirm order customer info 

receipt 

SEPARATE CONFIGURE 
PROGRAM 

for company info 
printer options 
quote & inv. # 
w/auto sequencing 
auto date 

Challenger Software 

3703 131st Ave N 
Clearwater, FL 33520 
or Call (81 3| 577-3998 



list 
net 

discount 
subtotals 
tax 

freight, etc. 

PRINTS 

formfeed 
letterhead 
envelope 
multiple copy 
emphasized 

SAO 32K disc 

^ VISA/MC 

send for more information 
and catalog of other 
fine software 



44 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



VIP 



The Library Concept 

State of the Art, Quality, Integrity, 
Compatibility and Affordability. Five 
things good software must possess. 
Five things that epitomize the VIP 
Library™. Each program is the 
diamond of its class, true excellence. 
These programs are first in features, 
first in power, first in memory, and 
all are affordably priced. And for 
your convenience all disk programs 
can be backed up. 

State Of The Art 

All Library programs are written in 
machine code specifically for the 
Color Computer, to work without 
the interference of a separate 
operating system such as FLEX. From 
this comes speed and more work- 
space for you. Unlike other programs 
for the Color Computer which are 
said to be 64K compatible, VIP 
Library™ programs are not limited to 
between 24 and 30K of workspace in 
64K. Library programs have Memory 
Sense with BANK SWITCHING to 
fully use all 64K, thus giving up to 
51 K with a disk version and up to 
53K with a tape version. 

Easy To Use 

Each Library program was carefully 
designed to be extremely easy to 
use. Built-in on-screen help tables 
are at your fingertips, as are menus 
of all kinds. Every effort is made to 
use logical, intuitive and easy-to- 
remember commands. The manuals 
have been thoughtfully prepared to 
cover every aspect of the program, 
and they have complete tutorials to 
get you going right away. We set the 
standard! 



Personal 
Productivity 
Tools for 
Modern 
Times ^ 



Lowercase Displays 

State-of-the-Art graphics allow 
instant use of four display colors, and 
eight lowercase displays featuring 
descending lowercase letters. You 
can select from 51, 64 or 85 columns 
by 21 or 24 lines per screen, with 
wide or narrow characters in the 64 
display. These screens provide a 
pleasant and relaxing way to perform 
your tasks, with as much text on the 



. . PICTURE getting your 
instantaneous 'mvettmznt report 
over the phone, using it in your 
spreadsheet calculation, 
generating a report, and writing 
a memo including thai report 
and data from your database with 
your word processor, and all this 
with VIP Library™ programs 



screen as is possible, Each program is 
easy to learn and a joy to use. We 
take pride in the stringent testing 
done to make these programs per- 
form flawlessly. Every feature, every 
convenience, sleek, simple and 
elegant. 

Total Compatibility 

All Library programs are 
compatible. Transfer and use of files 
between programs is easy and 
carefree. What's better, when you 
have learned one program the others 
will come easy. And every program is 
the best of its kind available- 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

The Library Programs 

For your writing needs is the VIP 
Writer 7 ", and its spelling checker, the 
VIP Speller 1- . For financial planning 
and mathematical calculations you 
can use the VIP Calc™. To manage 
your information and send multiple 
mailings there is the VIP Database'". 
For sending all these files to and 
from home or the office and for 
talking to your friends you can have 
the VIP Terminal™. Finally, to fix 
disks to keep all your Library files in 
good repair we offer the VIP Disk- 
ZAP™. 

Mini Disk Operating System 

The Disk versions each have a Mini 
Disk Operating System which will 
masterfully handle from 1 to 4 drives. 
It offers smooth operation for such 
features as the ability to read a 
directory, display free space on the 
disk, kill files, save and automatically 
verify files, and load, rename and 
append files. Library programs simply 
do not have the limitations of BASIC. 

Professionalism 

The Library will grace your work 
area with the professionalism it 
deserves. Welcome the VIP Library™ 
into your home and office. 



See our line of fine products at the Tom Mix Software booth 



RAINBOW H 

©1983 by Softlaw Corporation 

at RAINBOWfest Chicago. 



VIP Writer™/^ 

(Formerly Super "Color" Writer II) \ 3c/r#,V { 

By Tim Nelson V r ° J 

RATED TOPS IN RAINBOW, HOT COCO, COL6R X *2££/£ 
COMPUTER MAGAZINE & COLOR COMPUTER WEEKLY 
The most powerful and easy-to-use word processor is available in the 
showpiece and workhorse of the Library: The VIP Writer™. Because of its 
undisputed superiority over all Color Computer word processors, it was 
selected by Dragon Data Ltd. of England and TANOin the U.S., to be the 
Official Word Processor for their line of Dragon microcomputers. 

The result of two years of research, the VIP Writer™ offers every 
feature you could desire from a word processor. It is the most 
powerful, fastest, most dependable and most versatile. With the hi-res 
display, workspace and compatibility features built into the Library the 
Writer is also the most usable. 

". . . Nearly every feature and option possible to implement on the 
Color Computer. The design of the program is excellent; the 
programming is flawless . . . Features for the professional, yet it is easy 
enough for newcomers to master . . . Certainly one of the best word 
processors available for any computer . . ." October 1983 "Rainbow" 

"Word processing with VIP Writer is like driving a high-performance 
vehicle . . . This Ferarri of a package has more features than Telewriter, 
Easywriter (for the IBM PC), or Applewriter." October 1983 "Hot CoCo" 

The Writer will work with you and your printer to do things you 
always wanted to do. Every feature of your printer can be put to use, 
every character set, every graphics capability at any baud rate, EVEN 
PROPORTIONAL SPACING. All this with simplicity and elegance. You 
can even automatically print multiple copies. 

Although all versions feature tape save and load, the disk version 
provides the Mini Disk Operating System common to the whole 
Library, plus disk file linking for continous printing. 

Professional features of particular note: 

■ Memory-Sense with BANK SWITCHING to fully utilize 64K, giving 
not just 24 or 30K, but up to 61 K of workspace with the rompak version 
and 50K with the disk version. 

■ TRUE FORMAT WINDOW allowing you to preview the printed page 
ON THE SCREEN BEFORE PRINTING, showing centered lines, headers, 
FOOTNOTES, page breaks, page numbers, & margins in line lengthsof 
up to 240 characters. It makes HYPHENATION a snap. 

■ A TRUE EDITING WINDOW in all 9 display modes for those extra 
wide reports and graphs (up to 240 columns!). 

■ FREEDOM to imbed any number of PRINTER CONTROL CODES 
anywhere, EVEN WITHIN JUSTIFIED TEXT. 

■ Full 4-way cursor control, sophisticated edit commands, the ability 
to edit any BASIC program or ASCII textfile, SEVEN DELETE 
FUNCTIONS, LINE INSERT, LOCATE AND CHANGE, wild card locate, 
up to TEN SIMULTANEOUS block manipulations, word wrap around, 
programmable tabs, display memory used and left, non-breakable 
space, and headers, footers and FOOTNOTES. 

■ Automatic justification, automatic pagination, automatic centering, 
automatic flush right, underlining, superscripts, subscripts, pause 
print, single-sheet pause, and print comments. 

■ Type-ahead, typamatic key repeat and key beep for the pros, ERROR 
DETECTION and UNDO MISTAKE features, 3 PROGRAMMABLE func- 
tions, auto column creation, and an instant on-screen HELP TABLE. 

32K (Comes with tape & disk) $59.95 



RAINBOW 

CEP'lFtCA* ON 



(Includes VIP Speller) 



VIP Speller 



TIM 

RAINBOW 



WITH A 50,000 WORD INDEXED DICTIONARY! RAINBOW 

By Bill Argyros *" 
Gone are the eyestrain, boredom and fatigue from endless proof- 
reading. VIP Speller™ is the fastest and most user-friendly speller for 
your CoCo. It can be used to correct any ASCII file — including VIP 
Library™ files and files from Scripsit™ and Telewriter™ It automatically 
checks files for words to be corrected, marked for special attention or 
even added to the dictionary. You can even view the word in context, 
with upper and lowercase. VIP Speller™ comes with a specially edited 
50,000 word dictionary which, unlike other spellers for the CoCo, is 
indexed for the greatest speed. The shorter your f^e, the quicker the 
checking time. And words can be added to or deleted from the 
dictionary or you can create one of your own. VIP Speller™ also comes 
with the Library's mini disk operating system for easy disk 
manipulation. 

32K DISK ONLY $39.95 

Lowercase displays not available with this program. 



VIP 



VIP Calc™** 

formerly super "Color" Calc) RAINBOW 

7 r CEHIIHCAT.ON 

By Kevin Herrboldt slAl 

You can forget the other toy calcs — The real thing is here! Noother 
spreadsheet for the Color Computer gives you: 

• 20 ROWS BY 9 COLUMNS ON THE SCREEN AT ONCE 

• LOWERCASE LETTERS WITH DESCENDERS 

• UP TO 16 CONCURRENT DISPLAY WINDOWS 

• FLOATING-POINT MATH 

• CHOICE OF SINGLE AND DOUBLE PRECISION 

• WORKS WITH BASE 2, 10, AND 16 NUMBERS 

• UP TO 512 COLUMNS BY 1024 ROWS 

• USER DEFINABLE WORKSHEET SIZE FOR MORE MEMORY 

• LOCATE FUNCTION TO FIND CHECK NUMBERS, NAMES, ETC. 

• COLUMN/ROW MULTIPLE SORTS 

• PROGRAMMABLE FUNCTIONS 

• IMBEDDABLE PRINTER CONTROL CODES 

• 21 ALTERABLE PRINT FORMAT PARAMETERS 

• ON-LINE HELP TABLES 

• DOES NOT REQUIRE FLEX OR BASIC 

VIP Calc™ is truly the finest and easily the most powerful electronic 
worksheet and financial modeling program available for the Color 
Computer. Now every Color Computer owner has access to a 
calculating and planning tool better than VisiCalc™, containing all its 
features and commands and then some, WITH USABLE DISPLAYS. Use 
Visicalc templates with VIP Calc™! 

There's nothing left out of VIP Calc™. Every feature you've come to 
rely on with VisiCalc™ is there, and then some. You get up to 5 TIMES 
the screen display area of other spreadsheets for the Color Computer 
and Memory-Sense with BANK SWITCHING to give not just 24, or 30, 
but UP TO 33 K OF WORKSPACE IN 64K!!! This display and memory 
allow you the FULL SIZE, USABLE WORKSHEETS you require. You also 
get: User definable wurksh^pi size, up to 512 columns by 1024 rows! * 
Up to SIXTEEN VIDEO DISPLAY WINDOWS to compare and contrast 
results of changes * 16 DIGIT PRECISION * Sine, Cosine and other 
trigonometric fund ions, Averaging, Exponents, Algebraic functions, 
and BASE 2, 8, 10 or 16 entry * Column and Row, Ascending and 
Descending SORTS for comparison of results * LOCATE FORMULAS 
OR TITLES IN CELLS * Easy entry, replication and block moving of 
frames * Global or Local column width control up to 78 characters 
width per cell * Create titles of up to 255 characters per cell * Limitless 
programmable functions * Typamatic Key Repeat * Key Beep * 
Typeahead * Print up to 255 column worksheet * Prints at any baud rate 
from 110 to 9600 * Print formats savable along with worksheet * Enter 
PRINTER CONTROL CODES for customized printing with letter quality 
or dot matrix printer * Combine spreadsheet tables with VIP Writer™ 
documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical and financial 
reports and budgets. 

Both versions feature Tape save and load, but the disk version also 
has the Mini Disk Operating System of the entire Library. 

32K (Comes with tape & disk) $59-95 

32K has no hi-res displays, sort or edit. 



Check These 
Library Prices: 

■ Fully CoCo 2 Compatible 

■ Nine Display Formats: 32 by 16 

51,64,85 by 21 or 24 

■ True Lowercase & Descenders 

■ Four Different Display Colors 

■ 32 & 64K Compatible 

■ Memory Sense - Bank Switching 

■ Up to 51 K Disk, 53K Tape 

■ Mini Disk Operating System 

■ Compatible With All Printers 

VIP Terminal 7 ^ 

(Formerly Super "Color" Terminal) tfm ift 

RATED BEST IN JANUARY 1984 "RAINBOW" RAINBOW 

By Dan Nelson «btj».c«.on 

From your home or office you can join the communication 
revolution. The VIP Terminal™ opens the world to you. You can 
monitor your investments with the Dow jones Information Service, or 
broaden your horizons with The Source or Compuserve, bulletin 
boards, other computers, even the mainframe at work. 

For your important communication needs you've got to go 
beyond software that only lets you chat. You need a smart termnal so 
that you can send and receive programs, messages, even other VIP 
Library™ files. VIP Terminal™ has "I III] II! futures than communications 
software for CP/M, IBM and CP/M 86 computers/' Herb Friedman, 
Radio Electronics, February 1984. 

FEATURES: Choice of 8 hi-res lowercase diplays * Memory-Sense with 
BANK SWITCHING for full use of workspace * Selectively print data at 
baud rates from 110 to 9600 * Full 128 character ASCII keyboard * 
Automatic graphic mode * Word mode (word wrap) for unbroken 
words * Send and receive Library files, Machine Language & BASIC 
programs * Set communications baud rate from 110 to 9600, Duplex: 
Half/Full/Echo, Word length: 7 or 8, Parity: Odd/Even or None, Stop 
Bits: 1-9 * Local linefeeds to screen * Save and load ASCII files, Machine 
Code & BASIC programs * Lowercase masking * 10 Keystroke 
Multiplier (MACRO) buffers to perform repetitive pre-entry log-on 
tasks and send short messages * Programmable prompt or delay for 
send next line * Selectable character trapping * Send up to ten short 
messages (KSMs), each up to 255 characters long, automatically, tosave 
money when calling long distance. 

All versions allow tape load and save of files and KSMs, but the disk 
version also has the Mini Disk Operating System common to the 
Library. 

32K (Comes with tape & disk) $49.95 

(Tape comes in 16K but without hi-res displays) 



9072 Lyndale Avenue So. 612/661-2777 



Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 U. S. A. 



TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. VisiCalc is a trademark of VisiCorp. 



VIP Database™ 

(Formerly Super "Color" Database) 
INCLUDES MAIL MERGE CAPABILITIES TOO! 

By Tim Nelson 

This high speed MACHINE LANGUAGE program fills ail your 
i nl a r rm* ion management needs, be they for your business or home. 
And it does so better than any other database program for the Color 
Compuier, featuring machine code, lowercase screens and mailmerge 
r..jpdbi]itteH. Inventory, accounts, mailing lists, family histories, you 
name it, the VIP Database™ will keep track of all your data, and it will 
merge VIP Writer™ files. 

The VIP Database™ features the Library Memory Sense with BANK 
SWIICHINC and selectable lowercase displays for maximum utility. It 
wi]\ handle as many records as fit on your disk or disks. It is structured in 
.i simple and easy to understand menu system with full prompting for 
easy operation. Your data is stored in records of your own design. All 
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EDUCATION OVERVIEW 



The Computer 
As Teacher 



By Michael Plog, Ph.D. 
RAINBOW Contributing Editor 



Well, it has finally happened. I heard a rumor that 
the first college credit course is going to be offered 
via microcomputer and modem. 1 cannot give you 
any more details, except that the course is being offered 
through some college in New York, and the student also 
lives in New York. 

This is an exciting event, and if any of you have any more 
information about it, please contact me. Send any informa- 
tion you have to my address below. 

This type of instruction can be considered "remote." The 
student and teacher are separated by distance (possibly time 
as well). Actually, remote education has been around for a 
while. The first major attempts at remote education were 
done using television broadcasts. The teacher was in a studio 
(sometimes with a class present) and the remote students 
were in another classroom, or even at home. Lectures were 
taped and played several times to different sets of students. 
Of course, if you missed something important, you could 
always watch the tape again. 

Most television instruction died out in the early 1970s. It 
seems the interest was not powerful enough. There are still a 
few cases of remote television instruction around. Mostly, 
this type of instruction is used with adults, not elementary or 
secondary students. I know of one example, being con- 
ducted even as you read this, of adult learners watching a 
television tape, and then completing laboratory exercises. 
The subject matter of the remote teaching is microcomputers. 
The lack of immediate feedback is one major feature 



(Michael Plog received his Ph.D. degree from the 
University of Illinois. He has taught social studies in 
high school, worked in a central office of a school 
district, and currently is employed at the Illinois State 
Board of Education.) 



tending to make this form of instruction less powerful for 
younger learners. Also, motivation is generally accepted as 
higher in adult learners than in younger ones. It takes a high 
degree of motivation to struggle through a lecture without 
being able to have questions answered. 

There is an example of remote education being used with 
high school students, which attempts to avoid the problem 
of lack of immediate feedback. The teacher is in one loca- 
tion, with a television camera. Students are in other loca- 
tions, but also with a television camera. Students can see the 
teacher, and the teacher can see the students. When a stu- 
dent raises a question, the teacher can see a hand in the air 
and hear the question. Four small high schools have formed 
a consortium to offer courses which would otherwise not be 
available to students. The success of this experimental pro- 
gram is not known at this time. It may be a flop; it may be the 
best thing since sliced bread. 

Now, how can microcomputers fit with this concept of 
remote education? Just redefine remote a little bit, to mean a 
student working on something without a teacher present or 
helping. Students are working with a machine, following 
instructions given by the machine. Correct answers are 
rewarded; incorrect answers are caught immediately. When 
finished, the student turns off the computer and puts the 
diskette away. 

Why should the student be in a classroom for this? Why 
couldn't the student work at home? The answer is that the 
student could work at home very easily, and has no need to 
be in a school building. With a modem attached to a home 
computer, lessons could be delivered each day and student 
work returned to the school. A single teacher could deal with 
many more students, since the time for each student would 
be reduced dramatically. In fact, the same instructions could 
be delivered to all students. Teachers would only have to 



48 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



The HJL-57 Keyboard 





Compare it with the rest. 
Then, buy the best. 



If you've been thinking about 
spending good money on a new 
keyboard for your Color Computer, 
why not get a good keyboard for 
your money? 

Designed from scratch, the 
HJL-57 Professional Keyboard 
Is built to unlock ALL the 
potential performance of your 
Color Computer. Now, you can 
do real word processing and sail 
through lengthy llstlngs...wlth 
maximum speed; minimum errors. 

At $79.95, the HJL-57 is reason- 
ably priced, but you can find 
other CoCo keyboards for a few 
dollars less. So, before you buy, 
we suggest that you compare. 

Compare Design. 

The ergonomlcally-superlor 
HJL-57 has sculptured, low 
profile keycaps; and the three- 
color layout is Identical to 
the original CoCo keyboard. 

Compare Construction. 

The HJL-57 has a rigidlzed 
aluminum baseplate for solid, 
no-flex mounting. Switch contacts 
are rated for 100 million cycles 
minimum, and covered by a spill- 
proof membrane. 



Compare Performance. 

Offering more than full-travel, 
bounce-proof keyswltches, the 
HJL-57 has RFI/EMI shielding that 
eliminates irritating noise on 
displays; and four user-def inable 
function keys (one latchable), 
specially-positioned to avoid 
Inadvertent actuation. 



Free Function Key Program 

Your HJL-57 kit includes usage 
instructions and decimal codes 
produced by the f unction keys, 
plus a free sample program 
that defines the function 
keys as follows: F1 = Screen 
dump to printer, F2 = Repeat 
key (latching). F3= Lower case 
upper case flip (if you have 
lower case capability). F4 *= 
Control key; subtracts 64 from 
the ASCII value of any key 
pressed. Runs on disc or tape; 
extended or standard Basic. 



Compare Installation. 

Carefully engineered for easy 
Installation, the HJL-57 requires 
no soldering, drilling or gluing. 
Simply plug it In and drop It 
right on the original CoCo 



Ordering Information: Specify model (Original, F-version, or CoCo 2). Payment by C.O.D., check, 
MasterCard or Visa . Credit card customers include complete card number and expiration date. Add 
$2.00 tor shipping ($3.50 for Canada). New York state residents add 7% saies tax. 
Dealer Inquiries invited. For dealer information in Eastern U.S. and Canada, call collect; 
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mounting posts. Kit Includes a 
new bezel for a totally finished 
conversion. 

Compare Warranties. 

The HJL-57 is built so well.lt 
carries a full, one-year warranty. 
And, It is sold with an exclusive 
15-day money-back guarantee. 

Compare Value. 

You know that a bargain Is a 
bargain only so long as It lasts. 
If you shop carefully, we think 
you will agree...The HJL-57 is 
the last keyboard your CoCo will 
ever need. And that's real value. 

Order Today. 

Only $79.95, the HJL-57 is 
available for immediate shipment 
for either the original Color 
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spend time on the instructions for the day and problem 
students. 

This exact situation has been predicted for education in 
the future. Students will be working at home, with only 
occasional visits to a school building. Many science fiction 
stories have been written using this theme. Serious futurists 
have discussed such a possibility as tomorrow's educational 
reality. 

If applied to an entire school, the possibilities can stagger 
the imagination. Instead of one teacher for less than 30 
students, a single teacher can "process" possibly a hundred 
students. There will be no need for principals at all. Teachers 
can work at home also — they have no real need to be in a 
school building any more than students. Teachers can 
attend a curriculum conference at the same time they are 
collecting test results from students. 

On the other hand, the future may not look like this at all. 
My personal belief is that future schools will not be con- 
ducted entirely via modems and computers. Some people 
disregard all uses of computers for education; they are 
wrong. Wrong also are those that think the computer can 
replace teachers and school buildings. 

So far, all past attempts at remote education on a large 
scale (classroom or building) have failed. The failure has not 
been the fault of technology. It is simply that such a view of 
schooling disregards two things — human behavior and an 



"Some people disregard all uses of 
computers for education; they are 
wrong. Wrong also are those that think 
the computer can replace teachers and 
school buildings" 



understanding of education. Let's take the easiest one first, 
an understanding of education. 

There are different types of learning. Some learning is 
simple knowledge acquisition. An example of this type of 
learning is the date the Constitution was written, or how to 
save a program on tape using commands on the Color 
Computer. Much of the "drill and practice" programs sold 
for educational use represent simple acquisition of knowl- 
edge. Here, the use of a computer for education really 
shines. Students learn facts from a computer as well (or 



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maybe even better) as from a human teacher. 

There are other types of learning, however. In addition to 
learning that Jefferson was the major author of the Consti- 
tution, we also want students to learn the use of the concept 
of democracy. This is a "higher level" of learning; one that 
involves a synthesis (or putting together) of many facts and 
applying them within a framework of a philosophy. 

The computer is not a good tool for learning the principles 
of how things operate. The computer is an extremely useful 
educational tool for learning how things operate, but not 
very good for learning why things operate as they do. A 
human needs to monitor higher level learning and explain 
the "why" of things — from social systems to electronic 
components of the computer. 

Consider for a moment what psychologists term the "Ah 
response. "You have experienced this, but perhaps forgotten 
the last time. Maybe you have seen it work in others, espe- 
cially children. The "Ah" response is a simple way of 
expressing a mental click that happens when understanding 
is achieved. The eyes open larger, the mouth typically opens, 
eyebrows go up, there is an intake of breath, and posture 
changes. The typical verbal response is "Ah" or "Ooooh." 
The learner has "got it." 

Teachers see this response often. A computer cannot 
determine if the student has conquered (there is no better 
term) a concept. 

Earlier, the term human behavior was used as a reason 
why computers will never totally replace teachers. The 
major part of the complexity of human behavior that safe- 
guards the teaching profession is that humans are gregar- 
ious; we need the social contact of other humans. Part of 
schooling is learning social skills — which can only be 
practiced with other humans around. 

Humans take different routes to get to the same learning. 
At present, no one knows enough to account for the differ- 
ent questions students ask about a single topic. A human 
teacher can use reason to determine the best way to take a 
student from one point to another. A computer can only use 
logic, which is often inadequate. (That seems to be the major 
difference between organic intelligence and metallic intelli- 
gence — computers are logical, but not reasonable.) 

Lest you get the wrong impression from my words, let me 
state that computers have many roles to play in schooling of 
the future. Computers now play a limited role, which should 
be expanded. Still, the computer will never replace the need 
for a human teacher in classrooms. 

Computers should be used differently at different levels of 
learning. For simple acquisition of factual knowledge, com- 
puters can be used in a direct manner. For more complicated 
learnings (i.e., synthesis or analysis), computers should be 
used to create simulations and more fully cement the 
concepts. 

The thoughts expressed here are mine, and I have no 
copyright on truth. If you want to comment on anything 1 
have said, please write me at 829 Evergreen, Chatham, 111., 
62629. 1 would enjoy hearing from you. Also, I will be part 
of a forum coordinated by Dr. Charles Santee at the Chi- 
cago RAlNBOWfest. I hope to see you there, to discuss 
these and other ideas. 

We have just begun with computer applications in educa- 
tion. There is a long way to go. As a humanist, 1 believe we 
have the capability to get there, but also believe the journey 
is as important as the destination. Keep going. ill 

inffldMBr 



50 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Your College Future 
Starts Today 




X 



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create and maintain program object 
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Here's what Frank Esser of The RAINBOW Magazine says of DEFT Version 2 Software: 

"l am totally impressed with the professional quality of both the programs and the documentation." 
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All DEFT software and programs developed with DEFT software are BASIC ROM independent and use all of the memory in your Color 
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Putting Things 
In Order 

* 



Why do we stop teaching our children when they start 
school? It 's usually gradual; it 's mostly unconscious, 
but by the time our kids are snuggly settled in the 
primary grades, we turn over the "teaching" to the 
teachers, and expect that the chore of learning will only 
occupy the school day. 

— Laran Stardrake 



"School Is In The Heart of a Child"- is Tor parents of quite young 
children. We want to help you work and play with your three- to 
eight-year-old child and team to use computers as a joyful family 
experience. We want to suggest ways to incorporate the home compu- 
ter as another means to encourage your child's independence, growth, 
and control over his own life. See the pride on her face as she directs the 
computer to do what she with deliberation selects. See her head gears 
switch to *On" as she progresses step-by-step with your presence and 
caring direction. 

We will explore (we hope, with your help ) the following: 

• Specific "teaching" techniques so that the discovery can be the 
child's own. 

• Critical evaluation of software based on extensive playtesting in 
family and related enviroments. 

• Additional resources to consult: books, magazines, software pub- 
lishers, networks, etc, 

• Suggestions for interludes and fun times away from the computer 
(a must): call the librarian for specific information; watch a TV 
program together and discuss it; work together as volunteers in a 
community project; take a spring (or fall or winter or summer) 
awareness walk , . * 

• Whatever we learn from families we work with in Menlo Park or 
from you, our readers. Let's pool our knowledge. Let's share our 
experiences as we all learn from our children, 

We also provide small programs you can type in and use right now. 

Copyright© 1984 by DragonQuest, P.O: Box 310, Menlo Park, CA 
94026 



(Fran Saito holds a degree in education from the Uni- 
versity of Hawaii and has taught preschool and ele- 
mentary students. She feels her inspiration comes 
from Mariko, her five-year-old daughter. Well-known 
author Bob Albrecht also writes the " Game Master s 
Apprentice" feature for THE RAINBOW each month.) 



By Fran Saito & Bob Albrecht 
RAINBOW Contributing Editors 



We Love The Letters! 
Thanks again, people, for sending us letters about 
your experiences with your kids and your CoCo. 
More, please. If it is okay for us to reprint all or part of your 
letter, please include permission when you write to us. 

Here is a letter from Carol A. Callaghan, 2806 Richdale 
Road, Wilmington, DE 19810. 

Dear Fran and Bob: 

Your column in THE RAINBOW is great! I have a nine- 
year-old daughter who is just getting interested in our 
Color Computer. My husband is a management consul- 
tant specializing in information systems, and I have two 
teenagers ( 1 4-year-old boy, 1 6-year-old girl) who are tak- 
ing computer courses in high school. Naturally, the main 
users of the computer are my son and my husband, but 
the rest of us are managing to get some "computer time," 
too. 

My daughter became interested in computers because 
her fourth-grade class has a TRS-80 Model I ? but no one 
knew what to do withit. I hated to see the computer in the 
class going to waste, so I started working with the class 
one day a week. I recognized the name, Bob Albrecht, 
from the book I'm using to help me with some of my 
lessons, TRS-80 Level II BASIC. It is a bit beyond the kids, 
so I water it down and also use the Radio Shack book 
from their first course, Introduction to BASIC. 

I started with a vocabulary session — explaining the 
need to know the "language" (input, output, and memory) 
before they can do anything. 1 gradually added to this list 
over a two-month period and have covered about four 
chapters in TRS-80 Level II BASIC and about six chapters 
in the Radio Shack Introduction to BASIC. 



52 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Since this is a gifted class, I also did a bit with binary 
for them, taking the first part of my information from a 
six-grade math book, and the rest from the "Girl Scout 
Badge Book." 

I feel very much alone as I approach the class, little 
support from the teacher or school (they are deeply into 
Apples in our school district), and, of course, this is all 
pretty new to me, too. So your column is great. 1 do enjoy 
working with the class, and several of the boys are very 
interested. One got a TI for Christmas, and he felt very 
comfortable trying things his father was not sure of — he 
said his father asked "How do you know all these things?" 
and that made my whole "program" worthwhile! 

Now to get back to the CoCo and how my daughter 
and I have used it at home. She had a real problem with 
spelling, and since I felt that was really important, we 
ended up arguing instead of working constructively. 
Finally, I gave up trying to help and ordered a spelling 
program, Spelling Teacher, from Custom Software En- 
gineering, Inc., 807 Minuteman Causeway (D-2), Cocoa 
Beach, FL 32931, (305) 783-1083. It was advertised in 
December RAINBOW, and when I called and ordered it, it 
came within two or three days. It was only $12.95 for 
tape, but it was easily copied onto disk. The ad in the 
magazine said "Up to 200 of their spelling words stored 
on tape or disk are presented in four lively study modes 
including a scrambled word game." 

Colleen's book has 32 lessons with 20 words each, and I 
keyed all of them in one night, calling them SPELL1, 
SPELL2, SPELL3, etc. My son copied all of that onto a 
backup diskette for me, and we have had no problems 
with the program. It has several screens (one to build the 
lessons, and one to work with individual lessons in a 
variety of formats), and to my surprise the format the 
children like best is "scrambled word." The program first 
displays the word and lets you key it in, with the word 
displayed for you. It flashes the word for maybe 10-15 
seconds, then says "You try it" and the word disappears. 
The next time the word flashes only two-five seconds and 
you try it again. Then it shows the word with the letters 
scrambled, and you have to try to spell the word cor- 
rectly. I think it beeps if you misspell the word as you are 
going along. It does the usual grading. Colleen loves to 
get all 20 correct, and her spelling scores have improved 
in school. A plus was that my son, who is a freshman in 
high school, also uses the program. We are now looking 
for a vocabulary program for both English and foreign 
language lists! Any suggestions? I have also ordered an 
SAT program from Emmons Software in New Hamp- 
shire, but that hasn't come yet. I figure that if the children 
think of using the computer as fun, they may spend more 
time going over lists of spelling or vocabulary words or 
perhaps working on review for the SAT (my oldest 
daughter is a junior in high school). 
Sincerely, 

Carol A. Callaghan 

Thanks, Carol. We will send you a small stuffed dragon and 
a copy of Bob's book, TRS-80 Color basic. 

Storyboarding 

We will storyboard ideas for programs for you to write. If 
you write these programs and try them with kids, please 
share your experiences with us and with other rainbow 
readers. 



How about some "putting things in order" games? First, a 
game in which you put number blocks in order with the 
smallest number on top and the largest on the bottom. It 
might begin like this. 



cyan screen? 



S 
H 
□ 

ra 

H 
E 
0 
3E 



. Black numbers 
on green boxes. 



Use the keyboard arrows keys [fl— *-] to move the on- 
screen arrow (->) to the block you want to move to the top. 
Let's move it to the block with the number one. First, use the 
arrow key to move it up until it is on the same line. 



□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 



Now move it right until it "thunks" into the block. Use the 
keyboard right arrow key to do this. 



E 

a 
s 



H 
E 
E 
E 



thunk! 



Use the left arrow key to move the screen arrow and the 
block to the left. When you do this, all the blocks above the 
one block fall down one place: 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 53 



E 
H 
□ 
H 
H 
0 
0 



There is now room 
at the top. 



Move block one up the top and then right into position. 



0 
0 



] 0 

0 
0 



Continue moving blocks to the top until they are in order, 
one to eight. Then give a nice reward. 



Variations 

• Instead of the numbers one to eight, use a selection of 
eight numbers from a larger set: one to 1 2; or one to 20; or 
one to 99; or whatever set you choose. 

• Instead of numbers, select eight letters of the alphabet 
or eight three-letter words. 

• Put these shapes in order according to the number of 
sides: triangle, rectangle, pentagon, hexagon, octagon. 

• Instead of the screen arrow, use a solid graphics char- 
acter as a "magnet" that attaches to the number or letter 
to be moved. 



It looks like we need a way to tell the screen arrow to "let Stop On A Number 
go." What key shall we use? L for "let go?" We choose the Okay everyone, try our reaction time games. Here is the 

Space Bar. Press it and the screen arrow lets go and backs up first one. 
one space. 

100 REM**RE ACT I ON TIME SCH 6-1 



i 





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54 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



200 REM**TELL HOW TO PLAY 
2V0 CLS 

220 PRINT "HOW FAST ARE YOU? " 
225 PRINT 

230 PRINT "WHEN I START COUNTING 



235 PRINT 
240 PRINT 



"PRESS SPACE TO STOP M 



PRESS ANY KEY." 

520 IF INKEY*="" TuEN 520 ELSE 2 
10 

900 REM**TIME DELAY SUBROUTINE 
910 FOR ZZ=1 TO TD: NEXT 
920 RETURN 

ENTER and RUN the program. It begins like this. 



245 PRINT: PRINT 

250 PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY AND I'L 
L BEGIN. 11 

260 IF INKEY*="" THEN 260 

300 REM**CLEAR SCREEN, RND DELAY 

310 CLS 8 

320 TD - RND < 1000) + 1000 
330 GOSUB 910 
340 K* ■ INKEY* 

400 REM**COUNT, SPACE STOPS IT 

410 N ■ 0 

420 N ■ N + 1 

430 PRINT @239, N; 

440 TD = 1 

450 GOSUB 910 

460 IF INKEY*<>" " THEN 420 
500 REM**TELL HOW TO PLAY AGAIN 
510 PRINT @448, "TO PLAY AGAIN, 



HOW FAST ARE YOU? 
WHEN I START COUNTING, 
PRESS SPACE TO STOP ME. 
PRESS ANY KEY AND I'LL BEGIN. 



Of course, read the words on the screen slowly and care- 
fully and point out the Space Bar. Go ahead, press a key 
— any key except break or shift by itself. 

Flash! For a little while, the screen is orange and empty. 
Then suddenly, numbers appear near the center of the 
screen: one, two, three, four and so on. Press the Space Bar 
to stop the computer. 

What number did you stop on? On a slow day, here is 
what we saw. 



PEW COmPUiEtt 



COLOR COMPUTERS 



CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-248-3823 



COLOR COMPUTER, DISK DRIVE AND PRINTERS 



COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 



26-3027 16K Color Computer 2 $ 

26-31 27 64K Color Computer 2 $ 

26-3029 Disk Drive 0 $ 

26-3023 Disk Drive 1 , 2, 3 $ 

26-1271 DMP-110 $ 

26-1255 DMP-1 20 $ 

26-1254 DMP-200 $ 

26-1257 DWP-210 $ 



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OUR 
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220.00 
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Telewriter 64 Tape $ 

Telewriter 64 Disk $ 

VIP Writer $ 

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VIP Database. $ 

RADIO SHACK Software 15% Off 

TOM MIX Software $ CALL 

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49.95 
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OTHER PRINTERS AND ACCESSORIES 






MONITORS 








OUR 










PRICE 






EPSON Printer 




CALL 


COMREX 12" Monitor 


$ 


OKIDATA Printer 


$ 


CALL 

300.00 
465.00 
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COMREX 13" Color Monitor t 


$ 


STAR GEMIN1 1 0X Printer 


$ 


AMDEK 300A Monitor 


$ 


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AMDEK Color I Plus 


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.$ 


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OUR 
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95.00 
285.00 
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CALL 
85.00 



COLOR ACCESSORIES 

LIST OUR 
PRICE PRICE 

26-2226 RS- 232 Program Pak $ 79.95 $ 68.00 

26-3012 Deluxe Joystick (EACH) $ 39.00 $ 34.00 

26-3017 64K RAM Kit $ 69.95 $ 59.00 

26-3025 Color Mouse $ 49.95 $ 42.50 

26-1173 Modem II $ 199.95 $ 169.00 



26-3008 Joysticks $ 

26-3016 Keyboard Kit $ 

26-3018 Ext. BASIC Kit $ 

26-1175 Modem I $ 

Hayes Modems 



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24.95 $ 

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$ 



OUR 
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21.00 
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CALL 



AH prices and otfers may be changed or wiirtdrawn without 
notice. Advertised prices are cash prices., (installation and 
shipping are noi included in price.) 

PERRY COMPUTERS • DEPT. NO, A1 ■ 137 NORTH MAIN STREET - PERRY, Ml 4BS72 



Visa, MasterGharge, and American Express welcome. 
Please call (517} &25^416t for free price list or information. 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 55 



black numerals 
on a green t?o* 



0 



TO PLAY AGAIN, PRESS ANY KEY. 



I 



orange screen 



black letters on a green stripe 



Press a key and play again. Can you stop the .computer on 
10? On seven? What is the lowest number on which you can 
stop the computer? 

Well, that's one game. Now change the time delay in Line 
440. Make it quite big. 

440 TD = 500 

Play again. But this time, first choose a number to stop 
on. Put your fingers near the Space Bar. When you see your 
number, press it fast! Stop on seven, eight, or nine. Then try 
some bigger numers: 12, 15, or 21. 

When you can stop on your number every time, reduce the 
time delay. 

440 TD = 300 




Software 



HAVE YOU HEARD OF US? 

Every advertiser compares their product to "THE OTHER GUY'S." WHY IS THAT? It's 
because we make the best product for the best price. Other companies claim their general 
ledgers will handle at least 500 accounts and 1000 data entries on a 64k system." Look and 
compare "KEEP-TRAK" with it's 16k version which holds 740 entries. Our 32k version 
handles 900 accounts with over 2400 entries. (Disk Only) 

THEIR PRICE $79 and UP - OUR PRICE $14.95 
NEW THIS MONTH "OMEGA FILE" 

Omega File is a vary fine, simple to use, data base for anything and everything. "OMEGA 
FILE" is limited only by your disk storage space. You may define any number of fields up to 
16. with field length being up to 255 characters. (Total record length, if you wish, of 4080 
characters) Sort, match, and print any field. (Disk Only) 

THEIR PRICE $69 and UP - OUR PRICE $14.95 

ALSO NEW THIS MONTH — "GRADE EASY" 

Grade Easy is simply the best educators data base available! Keep complete student pro- 
files (I.D. no., name, address, telephone, age, birthday and S S no.) Grade Easy allows for 
weighted grades or true grades. Fully menu driven, very simple to use. (Disk Only) 
A BARGAIN AT $70 — NOW ONLY $29.95 
THE ONE AND ONLY "A M T" 

AMT starts where everyone else ends. AMT calculates almost any sales or purchase out- 
come. Total interest, total principle, total payment are all figured. AMT is not just an 
amortization scheduling program, but a cost forcasting and prediction program. Useful to 
anyone who plans to sell or buy something with interest. (Disk Only) — $14.95 

"PI FILE" — Personal Information File $14.95 

This program stores names, addresses, phone numbers and brief notes. PI File is for 
client lists, church groups, Scouting, clubs, user groups or any other similar use. Prints 
mailing labels. Sorts on any field. (Disk Only) 

"Home Inventory" $14.95 - "Memo File" $14.95 - "Billing File" $14.95 
COMPARE FEATURES AND PRICE, then buy 
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Phone:(801)753-7620 



Play again. When you can stop on your number every 
time, reduce the time delay again, etc. How small ca<h you 
make TD and still stop on your number every time? How 
small can you make TD and still stop on your number about 
half the time? 

Stop On A Letter 

Tired of numbers? Try stopping on a letter. 

100 REM**STOP ON LETTER 5CH 6-2 
200 REM**TELL HOW TO PLAY 
210 CLS 

220 PRINT "WHEN I DO MY ABC'S," 
225 PRINT 

230 PRINT "PRESS SPACE TO STOP M 



PRINT 

'PRESS ANY KEY AND 



I'L 



235 PRINT: 
240 PRINT 
L BEGIN." 

250 IF INKEY*=" " THEN 250 

300 REM**CLEAR SCREEN, RND DELAY 

310 CLS 8 

320 TD = RND < 1000) + 1000 
330 GOSUB 910 
340 k* - INKEY* 

400 REM**ABC*S, SPACE STOPS IT 

410 FLAG = 0 

420 FOR LC=65 TO 90 

430 : PRINT @239, CHR*<LC>; 

440 : TD = 1 

450 : GOSUB 910 

460 : IF INKEY*=" " THEN LC=90: 

FLAG=1 

470 NEXT LC 

480 IF FLAG«0 THEN 420 
500 REM**TELL HOW TO PLAY AGAIN 
510 PRINT 6448, "TO PLAY AGAIN, 
PRESS ANY KEY." 

520 IF INKEY*=" " THEN 520 ELSE 2 
10 

900 REM**TIME DELAY SUBROUTINE 
910 FOR ZZ=1 TO TD: NEXT 
920 RETURN 



How early in the alphabet (close to A) can you stop? You 
will see that the CoCo flashes letters more rapidly than it 
flashed numbers. When it gets to Z, it starts over at A. 

Now change the time delay (TD) in Line 440. Make it 
quite big. 

440 TD = 500 

Play again and pick a letter to stop on. When you see it, 
press the Space Bar so the CoCo stops on your letter. 

We suspect lots of kids will sing the alphabet song as the 
CoCo flashes the letters. All together now, "A, B, C, D, . . ." 

Koala Krusade 

We have received several letters from people who would 
like a CoCo version of the Koala Pad. Thanks — we need 



56 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



lots more letters to take to the Koala people to convince 
them there is a CoCo market. We are convinced that touch 
pads such as the Koala Pad are a major breakthrough in 
using computers — especially for younger kids. Send more 
letters to: 

■ Koala Krusade, P.O. Box 310, Menlo Park, CA 94026. If 
you want to contact Koala directly, write to: 

■ Koala Technologies Corporation, 3100 Patrick Henry 
Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95050. 

Playtesting Impressions 

When we first began this project, the first software we 
received for playtesting was Early Games from Counter- 
point Software. We have watched several kids play with 
these games. Here are some comments by one of our playtest 
supervisors, Sheri Bakun. 

Early Games is an excellent introduction to the computer 
for the pre-school child. It provides practice in learning 
skills in an environment in which the child is in control. 

There are nine activities including matching numbers and 
letters; simple addition and subtraction; counting, and 
drawing. Each activity is represented by a picture on the 
screen. These pictures are shown one after another until the 
child selects one by pressing the longest key on the keyboard 
(the Space Bar), while the picture of the chosen activity is on 
the screen. Switching to a different activity is easy. First, 
press the red BREAK key. The current activity ends and 
pictures of the choices are shown until the child selects 
another. 

When playing for the first time, the children all smiled 
with delight each time they pressed the red key. The sense of 
power they felt at being able to control their choices so easily 
and quickly was clearly evident. 



"Early Games is an excellent 
introduction to the computer for the 
pre-school child. It provides practice in 
learning skills in an environment in 
which the child is in control." 



Early Games includes several matching games. In one the 
child matches the very large uppercase letter shown on the 
screen by typing the corresponding key on the keyboard. 
Another requires matching the numbers zero through nine. 
In the shape matching game, the child types the number of 
the one different shape out of the four shown. Kids who 
watch "Sesame Street" know the song to sing with this 
activity! 

For the child learning to count and to recognize numbers, 
there is a counting game in which one to nine colored blocks 
are shown. Most pre-schoolers will want to touch the screen 
when counting the larger numbers in this game and also in 
the addition game. The addition and subtraction games also 
use colored blocks and will interest the older pre-schoolers. 

The alphabet game and another game, in which an adult 
types in a name for the child to reproduce, are the weakest 



parts of Early Games. The name game does not provide help 
for wrong answers and can be frustrating. 

The ABC game did not interest the children I observed; 
not one continued beyond the letter "F." The children all 
know the ABC song but would have to sing it each time to 
find the next letter. They often passed the one they needed 
and then would need to start over. Letter recognition has 
obvious value but sequencing is probably a little advanced 
for the younger pre-schoolers. 

Children playing the math games need to be able to point 
closely to or touch the screen. The drawing game interested 
the children. It appears to have magical qualities for it is not 
easy for the child (or an adult for that matter) to anticipate 
which key will draw where. A keyboard template, use of the 
joystick, or at least some written documentation would help 
this game immensely, since the idea is a good one. 

Early Games looks very good. We will continue to use it in 
order to find out if it has "staying power." Early Games is 
available on cassette or disk for a 16K CoCo with Color 
basic. Please note that Extended Color BASIC is not 
required. It costs $29.95 for either version, cassette or disk, 
from Counterpoint Software, Inc., Suite 218, 4005 West 
Sixty-fifth Street, Minneapolis, MN 55435. 

DragonSmoke 

We recommend a new magazine: 

Family Learning, 19 Davis Drive, Belmont, CA 94002. 
Phone (415) 592-7810. Regular subscription $18/year (6 
issues). Charter subscription $9.95/ year (6 issues). 

This is not a computer magazine — don't confuse it with 
Family Computing. The first issue includes an insert called 
"The Family Learning Guide: Home Computing." Interest- 
ing stuff, although we completely disagree with the article 
called "The Best Buy." When you read it, you will see why. 

We also recommend a book: Buy A School For Your 
Home — Judy Lower, Ed Neil, and Tim Finger. From 
Reston Publishing Company, 11480 Sunset Hills Road, 
Reston, VA 22090. 

Although this book focuses on software for Atari compu- 
ters, we strongly recommend it to anyone who wants to learn 
about using computers with kids, three to 1 3 years old. Part 
1(112 pages) has information useful to CoCo users. Here are 
the chapter titles: 

1) Increase Your Learning Power 

2) The ComputerKid Project 

3) Buyer's Guide 

4) Learning Basics with the Computer: Preschool 

5) Learning Basics with the Computer: Grades one-three 

6) Learning Basics with the Computer: Grades four-six 

7) Inside Arcade Games 

8) Adventuring on the Home Computer 

9) More Adventuring at Home 

10) The Family That Plays Together, Learns Together 
Part II has evaluations of more than 100 pieces of educa- 
tional and recreational software for Atari computers. Some 
of this software is also available for the CoCo. 

HELP! 

If your home has a kid, three- to eight-years-old, and a 
CoCo, please share your experiences in using your CoCo 
with your child. If you write to us, please tell us if it is okay to 
print all or part of your letter in this column. Mail to P.O. 
Box 310, Menlo Park, CA 94026. ij j 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 57 




ware 





Sugar Software 



is pleased 
to announce 
the adoption of 




RAINBOW SCREEN MACHINE 

and 

SUPER SCREEN MACHINE 

from RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE 

In their new home, these fantastic graphic/text screen en- 
hancers will continue to receive prompt and courteous deliv- 
ery, complete and attractive documentation, strong support 
and state-of-the-art upgrades! 



Help us welcome 
Rainbow Screen Machine 
and Super Screen Machine 

Into their new home by 
welcoming them into your home 
at 1 0% off their regular price. 

This offer expires July 31, 1984. 



tware 



Sugar Software 



RAINBOW 
SCREEN MACHINE 






SUPER 
SCREEN MACHINE 



# The Rolls Royce of graphics/text screen enhancers 
— more features than all others combined! 

# Add these features to your computer/program: ML ex- 
tension of Basic loads on top of 1 6, 32, or 64K machines 
to enable easy mixture of hi-res graphics and text in 
your programs. Dense text or large lettering for children, 
visually impaired or VCR title screens with no pro- 
gramming! 

# User definable 224 character set featuring lower case 
descenders, Greek, cars, tank, planes, etc., completely 
interfaced with all keys, commands, and PMODES. 1 2 
sizes (most colored) from 16 x 8 to 64 x 24. PRINT @, 
TAB and comma fields are fully supported. 

m 2 distinct character sets automatically switch for 
sharpest lettering featuring underline, subscript, su- 
perscript, reverse video, top and bottom scroll pro- 
tect, double width, colored characters in PMODE 4, 
and help screen. 

m Simple 2-letter abbreviated commands inside your pro- 
gram or control key entry from keyboard, even during 
program execution! 

m Includes demo program, character generator program 
and manual. 16K Ext. Basic required — 32K recom- 
mended. $29.95 Tape; $32.95 Disk. 



Screen Machine can be used in games, word processors, 
utilities, etc. In addition, the custom graphics characters can 
be used to develop easy, effective hi-res character-graphics 
programs. The potential is truly unlimited. 

Screen Machine can be used to directly create video recorder 
title screens or large lettering for children or the visually im- 
paired simply by typing. 



m Revolutionary — heralded as the most useful, 
powerful and versatile state-of-the-art utility ever 
developed for the Color Computer! 

• All of the features of Screen Machine and more: 

• Variable SMOOTH Scroll for professional displays, list- 
ings, business use. 

• Variable volume KEY Click (tactile feedback). 

A EDTASM + command for instant compatibility with 
•disk EDTASM. 

m Superpatch+ command for instant compatibility with 

• disk EDTASM. 

• True Break key disable and recognition. 

• 10 User Definable commands used to activate your 
special drivers or subroutine. 

• Dynamic Screen Dump command for use with Custom 
Software Engineering's Graphic Screen Print program 
for simple printer "Snapshots" of your screen even 
during program execution! 

• The new standard — Upgradeable at any time from 
previous Rainbow-Writer or Screen Machine purchase. 
Return old program, manual, plus cost difference and 
$7.00 shipping and handling. 

• Super Screen Machine $44.95 Tape; $47.95 Disk. 



Screen Machine is fully interfaced with all keys and com- 
mands. Although some basic programming knowledge is rec- 
ommended just a few minutes spent studying and referencing 
your computer's Basic manuals will turn you on to the power of 
computing with Screen Machine. 



Sugar Software v 

Gift Certificate 



A complete catalog of other sweet Sugar Software products is available. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 
2153 Leah Lane 
Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068 
(614) 861-0565 









MmHrCdrd 




VISA 



Add $1.00 per tape for postage 
and handling. Ohtoans add 5.5% 
sales tax, GOD orders are wel- 
come, CIS orders EMAIL to 
70405, 1374. Dealer inquiries in- 
vrted 



V 



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INTERFACE CARD & H-DOS operating system $425 00 



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BOOT STRAPS QS-9, FLEX. MDIR (master directory) - 



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PARALLEL INTERFACE 

for the GEMINI printer 

300 to 9600 baud $ 5 4 95 
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PROJECT BOARDS 

GOLD PLATED EDGE CONNECTOR 
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64K Memory Expansion Kit 4000 

All parts and complete instructions — 



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128K MEMORY board 
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COLOR 



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multipak interface compatible 
auto answr, auto dial, re-dial, search, 
full audio line monitoring 
full duplex, 300 baud $139 95 



SOFTWARE 



SOFT LAW ROM b 

VIP WRITER $59.95 $59.95 

VP SPELLER " $49.95 

VIPCALC $59.95 $59.95 

VIP TERMINAL $49.95 $49.95 

VIP DATA BASE - $59.95 

VIP DISK-ZAP - $49.95 



COM PUT-E KWARE T D 

♦ JUNIOR'S REVENGE $28.95 $31.95 

♦ TIME PATROL $24.95 $29.95 

♦ HYPER ZONE $26.95 $29.95 

♦ COLOR BASIC COMPILER .- $39.95 

84K SCREEN EXPANDER (64 K) $24.95 $27.95 

"THE SOURCERER $34.95 $39.95 

♦ DISK MACRO ASSEMBLER A XREP $49.95 

♦ COLOR EDITOR $24.95 $29.95 

♦ COLOR MONITOR $24.95 $27.95 



ELITE SOFTWARE T D 

ELITE-WORD $59.95 $39.95 

ELITE-CALC $59.95 $59.95 

COGNITEC t 0 

TELEWRITER 64 $49.95 $$9.93 

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ADVENTURE IN WONDERLAND $24.95 $29.95 

THE OISK MANAGER $29.95 

THE OISK U*5T£^ _ uh t:, 



USA 

MICRO R.G.S. INC. 

30 CANUSA STREET 
BEEBE PLAIN, VERMONT 
05823, USA 
US Toll free line 800 '3 61-^ 970 



CANADA 
MICRO R.G.S. INC. 

751, CARRE VICTORIA, SUITE 403 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, H2Y 2J3 

Regular Tel. (514)287-1563 
Canadian Toll Free 800 361-5155 



CANADA 
New! TORONTO OFFICE 
696 Yonge St., #704 
Tel: (416) 967-1730 

Canadian Toll Free 800-361-5155 



PRINTER GRAPHICS 



16K 
ECB 



f 



Q^Qtad TaJiiah. 



Our school system is small but seven of the 30 faculty 
members now have Color Computers at home. I 
have been the instructor for the teacher in-service 
computer class this year and have had a great time, I'm 
proud to have introduced the CoCo to our school. 

1 was asked by one of our third-grade teachers to do 
something with the computer to help her in her fund raising 
efforts for the Statue of Liberty. 

1 decided to print a picture of Miss Liberty using the 
Printer Art program from the November 1983 issue of THE 
RAINBOW. I got out my graph paper and quickly realized 
that this is no easy task. Bless you Mr. Himowitz! More than 
20 hours later 1 finished writing the code. I decided to enter 
the code using my VIP Writer word processor. My first copy 
was a shock. Miss Liberty had a mustache! Making the 
necessary changes took several more hours but at last 1 was 
pleased. 

The third-grade teacher was pleased and requested 30 
copies to be placed throughout the buildings. 1 like to think 
that this project is helping our school reach the $ 1 ,000 goal. 

The following changes were made in the format para- 
meters of the VIP Writer to properly print the picture using 
either the DMP-200 or CGP-115: TM1, PL200, LM4, 
RM80, FLO, BM190. Be sure the CGP-1 15 is in the 80- 
character mode. 1 selected green and am most happy with 
the results. 

The enclosed code will work well with any word processor 
or, a standard typewriter providing the paper is long enough. 

Perhaps other schools or groups can use this picture to 
help raise funds for the restoration of America's best known 
symbol of freedom and liberty. 



(Bradley Tobias, an elementary school teacher at Mt. 
Arlington, N.J., is also the instructor of the teacher 
in-service classes on the Color Computer, He finds the 
Co Co an exciting educational tool and an invaluable 
aid in record keeping* ) 



To create the drawing below, run the Printer Artist 
program (from the November 1983 RAINBOW) and 
type in the characters as you see them listed here, one 
line at a time. For example, if a line reads "23sp 16M 
14:" you should strike the space bar 23 times, strike the 
'M' key 16 times and strike the colon key 14 times. 



LINE: 

1. 23sp, lx 

2. 22sp, lx 

3. 19sp, lx, lsp, 2x 

4. 17sp, 5x 

5. 14sp, lx, lsp, lx, 4sp, lx 

6. 14sp, lx, lsp, lx, 3sp, lx 

7. 13sp, lx, lsp, lx, 3sp, lx, lsp, lx 

8. 12sp, lx, 6sp, 2x 

9. lisp, lx, 8sp, lx 

10. lisp, lx, 8sp, lx, lisp, 5x, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 
4sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx 

11. lisp, lx,7sp, lx, 14sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 3sp, lx, lsp, 
lx, 3sp, 2x, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx 

12. lisp, lx, 7sp, lx, 14sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, 
lx, 2sp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx,2sp, 3x 

13. 1 lsp, lx, 6sp, lx, 15sp, lx, 4sp, 5x, 2sp, 5x, 2sp, lx, 2sp, 
2x, 2sp, lx, lsp, lx 

14. 8sp, 13x, 13sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, 
lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx 

15. 8sp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, 
lx, 13sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 
3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx \ 

16. 7sp, 15x 

17. 7sp, 2x,2sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 2sp, lx, lsp, lx 

18. 5sp, 2x, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, 2x, lOsp, 
lx, 3sp, lx, 3sp, 3x, 3sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx 

19. 4sp, 2x, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, tx-, 3sp, lx, 2sp, 2x, lOsp, 
lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx, $sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx 

20. 5sp, 3x, 3sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 3sp, 3x, 12sp, lx, lsp, lx, 3$p, 
lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx * 

21. 8sp, 3x, 6sp, 3x, 16sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, 
lx, 2sp, lx 

22. lisp, 6x, 19sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 61 



23. lisp, lx, 3sp, lx 9 20sp, lx, 5sp, 3x, 4sp, 3x, 3sp, lx 

24. 12sp, lx, lsp, lx 

25. 12sp, lx, lsp, 2x 

26. lisp, 2x, lsp, lx, lsp, lx 

27. lisp, 2x, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx 

28. lOsp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, 3sp, lx 

29. lOsp, 3x, lsp, lx, 3sp, lx 

30. lOsp, lx, lsp, 3x, 3sp, lx 

31. lOsp, 2x, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx 

32. lOsp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx 

33. lOsp, 2x, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx 

34. lOsp, 2x, 3sp, lx, lsp, lx 

35. lisp, lx, 3sp, lx, lsp, lx 

36. lOsp, lx, 4sp, lx, lsp, lx 

37. lOsp, lx, 4sp, lx, lsp, lx, 21sp, lx 

38. lOsp, lx, 4sp, lx, lsp, lx, 21sp, lx 
39i lisp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 21sp, lx 

40. lOsp, lx, lsp, 2x, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, 21sp, 2x 

41. lOsp, lx, 4sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2 lsp, 2x 

42. lisp, 4x, 2sp, lx, 9sp, lx, lisp, lx, lsp, lx, 15sp, lx 

43. lisp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 9sp, 2x, 9sp, lx, lsp, lx, 13sp, 
2x 

44. 12sp, 2x, 4sp, lx, 9sp, lx, lsp, lx, 8sp, lx, 2sp, 
lx, lisp, 2x 

45. lisp, 2x, 4sp, lx, lOsp, lx, lsp, 2x, 6sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 
lOsp, 3x 

46. lisp, lx, 6sp, lx, lOsp, lx, 2sp, lx, 5sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 7sp, 
2x, 2sp, lx 

47. lisp, lx,6sp, lx, lOsp, lx,3sp, lx,4sp, lx,3sp, lx,6sp, 
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48. lisp, lx, 7sp, lx, lOsp, lx,3sp, lx,3sp, lx,4sp, lx,3sp, 
2x, 4sp, lx 

49. lisp, lx, 6sp, lx, lisp, lx, 3sp, 2x, lsp, 9x, 5sp, lx 

50. lisp, lx, 8sp, lx, lOsp, lx, 4sp, 3x, 2sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, 
3x, 3sp, lx 

51. 12sp, lx, 7sp,lx, lsp, 2x, 8sp, lx, 2sp, 2x, lsp, lx, 2sp, 
lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, 3sp, 3x 

52. 13sp, lx, 7sp, lx, 2sp, 4x, 5sp, lx, lsp, 2x, 3sp, lx, lsp, 
lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, 15x 

53. 13sp, lx, 8sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, 2x, 4sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, 
6x, 2sp, lx, 2sp, 3x, 10sp,lx 

54. 13sp, lx, 8sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 3sp, 2x, lsp, 2x, 3sp, 2x, 6sp, 
2a, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 7sp, 3x 

55. 13sp, lx, 8sp, lx, 4sp, 2x, 3sp, 2x, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, 7sp, 
lx, 2sp, 2x, 2sp, 2x, 4sp, 3x 

56. 13sp, lx, 9sp, lx, 5sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 7sp, 2x, 4sp, 
2x, lsp, lx, 2sp, 2x 

57. 13sp, lx, 9sp, lx, 6sp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, 2x, 7sp, lx, lsp, 
lx, 5sp, lx, lsp, 3x 

58. 13sp, lx, 9sp,lx, 3sp, 6x, lsp, lx, 6sp, 2x, 2sp, lx, 5sp, 
2x, lsp, 2x 

59. 14sp, lx, 8sp, 4x, 5sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, 4x, 4sp, lx, 6sp, 
3x, lsp, 5x 

60. 14sp, lx, 8sp, lx, 2sp, 3x, 4sp, lx, lsp, 2x, 9sp, lx, 5sp, 
lx, lsp, lx, 6sp, 4x 

61. 14sp, lx, 8sp, lx, 5sp, 3x, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, lOsp, 2x, 2sp, 
lx, lsp, 2x, lOsp, 4x 

62. 14sp, lx, 9sp, lx, 7sp, 2x, 2sp, lx, 4/, 2sp, lx, lsp, 4/, 
2x, 2sp, 2x, 6sp, 4x 

63. 15sp, lx, 9sp, lx, 7sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 4sp, 1/, 2sp, 1/, 5sp, 
lx, 2sp, 8x 

64. 15sp, lx, 8sp, 2x, 7sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3ooo, 2sp, lx, 2sp, 
3ooo, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx 

65. 14sp, lx, 9sp, 2x, 7sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 6sp, 2x, 3sp, 
lx 

66. 14sp, lx, lsp, lx, 7sp, lx, lsp, lx, 6sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 4sp, 
lx, 7sp, 2x, 2sp, lx 

67. 14sp, lx, lsp, lx, 6sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 2sp, 2x, 3sp, 
l/,7sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx 

68. 14sp, lx, lsp, lx, 5sp, lx, 5sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, lsp, 
lx, 2sp, 3///, 5sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, 

69. 12sp, lx, lsp, 2x, 3sp, 2x, 7sp, lx, 2sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, 
lx, 5sp, lx, 4sp, 2x, 3sp, lx 

70. 12sp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, 3x, 9sp,lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, 
lx, 3sp, 5-, 2sp, 2x, 3sp, 2x 

71. 13sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 13sp, lx, 2sp, 2x, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, 
4-, 2sp, lx, lsp, 2x, 2sp, 2x 

72. 13sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 4sp, 2x, 7sp, 2x, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 8sp, 
lx, lsp, 2x, 2sp, lx, lsp, lx 

73. 13sp, lx, 4sp, 4x, 9sp, lx, lsp, 2x, 4sp, lx, 6sp, 2x, lsp, 
2x, 3sp, lx, lsp, lx 

74. 14sp, lx, lisp, lx, 4sp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, 4sp, 6x, lsp, 
lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, lsp, lx 

75. 14sp, lx, lOsp, lx, 5sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, lisp, 2x, 
lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, lsp, lx 

76. 14sp, 2x, 9sp, lx, 5sp, lx, lsp, lx, 3sp, lx, lOsp, 3x, lsp, 
3x, 2sp, lx 

77. 14sp, lx, lsp, lx, 7sp, lx, 5sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, lsp, 
lx, 9sp, lx, lsp, 2x, 3sp, lx, lsp, lx 

78. 15sp, lx, lsp, lx, 5sp, 2x, 5sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx, lsp, 
lx, 7sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 5sp, 2x 

79. 16sp, lx, lsp, 5x, lsp, lx, 5sp, lx, 3sp, lx, lsp, 2x, 2sp, 
lx, 5sp, 2x, lsp, lx, 4sp, 4x 

80. 16sp, lx, 6sp, lx, 4sp, 2x, 4sp, lx, lsp, 2x, 2sp, lx, 3sp, 



62 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



2x, lsp, lx, 9sp, 2x 

81. 16sp, lx, 6sp, lx, 2sp, 2x, lsp, lx, 4sp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, 
lx, 2sp, 3x, 3sp, lx, 7sp, 2x, 2sp, 2x 

82. 16sp, 1 x, 5sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 4sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, 
lx, 2sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 13sp, lx 

83. 17sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 3sp, lx, lsp, lx, 6sp, lx, lsp, lx, 4sp, 
lx, 4sp, lx, 14sp, lx 

84. 18sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 6sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, 
lx, 6sp, lx, 5sp, 5x, 3sp, lx 

85. 19sp, 3x, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 9sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 3sp, 
5x, 2sp, lx, lsp, 5x 

86. 20sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 2sp, lx, lisp, lx, 2sp, 2x, lsp, lx, 8sp, 
lx, 4sp, lx, lsp, lx, 

87. 19sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 2sp, 2x, lOsp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 9sp, 
lx, 4sp, lx, 2sp, lx 

88. 18sp, lx, 5sp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, lOsp, lx, 2sp, lx, lsp, 
lx, lOsp, lx, 5sp, lx 

89. 17sp, lx, 6sp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, lOsp, lx, 3sp, lx, 
lisp, lx, 6sp, lx 

90. 17sp, lx, 5sp, lx, 2sp, lx, lsp, lx, 9sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 9sp, 
lx, lsp, lx, 6s p, lx 

91. 17sp, lx, 4sp, 2x, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, 9sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 3sp, 
lx, 5sp, lx, lsp, lx, 7sp, lx 

92. 17sp, lx, 3sp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, 3sp, lx, 7sp, lx, 4sp, 
lx, 4sp, lx, 5sp, lx, lsp, lx, 7sp, lx, 

93. 17sp, lx, 2sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 6sp, lx, 4sp, 
lx, 4sp, lx, 6sp, lx, lsp, lx, 7sp, lx 

94. 17sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 9sp, lx, 5sp, lx, 4sp, 
lx, 6sp, lx, lsp, lx, 7sp, lx 

95. 17sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 8sp, lx, 5sp, lx, 4sp, 
lx, 3sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 6sp, lx, 3sp, 3x 



96. 17sp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, 4sp, lx, 6sp, lx, 6sp, lx, 4sp, 
lx, 3sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 7sp, lx, lsp, lx, lsp, lx, 
lsp, lx 

97. 18sp, lx, lsp, lx, 5sp, lx, 4sp, 2x, 6sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 4sp, 
lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 7sp, 2x, 2sp, lx, lsp, lx 

98. 19sp, lx, 6sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 7sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 5sp, lx, 2sp, 
lx, 3sp, lx, 7sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 2sp, lx 

99. 19sp, lx, 7sp, lx, lsp, lx, 7sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 4sp, lx, lsp, 
lx, 2sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 5sp, lx, 5sp, lx, lsp, lx 

100. 19sp, lx, 8sp, lx, 6sp, 2x, 4sp, lx, 5sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, 
lx, 4sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 6sp, lx, lsp, lx 

101. 19sp, lx, 6sp, 2x, 6sp, lx, 6sp, lx, 4sp, lx, lsp, lx, 3sp, 
lx, 3sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 7sp, lx, 2sp, lx 

102. 18sp, lx, 6sp, lx, 6sp, 2x, 6sp, lx, 5sp, lx, lsp, lx, 3sp, 
lx, 3sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 9sp, lx, lsp, lx 

103. 18sp, lx, 4sp, 2x, 5sp, 2x, 7sp, lx, 6sp, lx, lsp, lx, 3sp, 
lx, 3sp, lx, lsp, 2x, lOsp, lx, lsp, lx 

104. 18sp, lx, 3sp, lx, 5sp, 2x, 8sp, lx, 7sp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, 
lx, 4sp, 2x, 12sp, lx, 2sp, lx 

105. 19sp, 3x, 5sp, lx, 8sp, 2x, 7sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 4sp, 
lx, 14sp, lx, lsp, lx 

106. 19sp, lx, 5sp, 2x, 7sp, 2x, 9sp, lx, lsp, lx, 3sp, lx, 3sp, 
lx, 15sp, lx, lsp, lx 

107. 18sp, lx, 4sp, 2x, 6sp, 3x, lisp, lx, lsp, lx, 2sp, lx, 5sp, 
lx, 14sp, lx, 2sp, lx 

108. 17sp, lx, 4sp, lx, 7sp, lx, 13sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 2sp, lx, 5sp, 
lx, 15sp, lx, lsp, lx 

109. 16sp, lx, 27sp, lx, lsp, lx, 3sp, lx, 5sp, lx, 15sp, lx, 
lsp, lx 

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DISK TUTORIAL 



This is the first installment of a six-part series on 
creating a disk mailing list program 

Developing A Database 
Manager — Part 1 

By Bill Nolan 
rainbow Contributing Editor 



This is the first column in a series of six that will show 
you how to develop a database manager (DBM) pro- 
gram. The articles will have an instructional format, 
and we will also be working on a mailing list program which 
will be presented in its complete form in the last column. A 
mailing list is just a special case of a DBM program, so when 
we are finished you will have a very complete mailing list and 
also you will have the knowlege to change the program into 
whatever kind of database you need. 

Let's start by deciding what is needed in a DBM program. 
To use the example of the mailing list, you need to be able to 
store the names and addresses, print them out on labels, sort 
them into alphabetical (or other) order, search through the 
file looking for people fitting certain search criteria, and 
easily add to, delete from, or modify the list of names. 

In this program we are going to be storing our names and 
addresses on the disk, using direct access disk files, so this 
program we will be writing will be usable only on disk 
systems. It will run on a machine with 16K of memory or 
more. In this first article we will concentrate on a function 
which few people use, and which we will need when we write 
our search section of the program, and then in the upcoming 
articles we will develop a new section each time. 

First, then, we are going to examine the INSTR function, 
looking at both some possible uses and how the function is 
actually used. Before we start this, however, we need to 
discuss just what we are talking about when we say 
"function." 

A function is like a little built-in program that is supplied 
when you buy the computer. Color Computer BASIC has a 
lot of functions included with it, and all of them work in 
essentially the same way. All functions do what is called 
"returning a value." This means that when you call up the 



(Bill Nolan, who teaches "Programming In BASIC" at 
the college level, owns Prickly -Pear Software Co. and 
has written several commercially successful software 
packages.) 



function, it will do its job and then give the results of that job 
back to you. Because of this, you must decide ahead of time 
what you want to do with the results of a function. Usually 
you will either PRINT out the results right away, compare 
the results to something using an IF. . . THEN statement, 
or store the results in a variable. Functions can be recog- 
nized easily because they will start with "PRINT function", 
or "X=function", or "/Ffunction = argument THEN . . .". 

Functions are divided into two types, depending upon the 
characteristics of the value they return. If the result of the 
function is a "string" of alphanumeric characters, then it is a 
string function, but if the result is a number, then it is a 
numeric function. INSTR is a numeric function, although it 
is applied to strings, because the result returned is a number. 

The "syntax" or correct form of the INSTR function is: 

X = INSTR (start position, search string, target string) 

The X at the beginning can be any valid numeric variable 
name. This is the variable we must provide so the computer 
will have a place to store the results of the function. The 
word INSTR is the name of the function, so that's how the 
computer will know what we are wanting it to do. The 
information contained inside the parentheses is called the 
argument of the function, and we will be looking at that in 
detail in a moment. 

The purpose of the INSTR function is to look through a 
string and find out whether another string is contained 
inside. For instance, if we have a string "John Smithson," we 
may want to look through it to see if it contains the smaller 
string "Smith." Without the INSTR function this would be a 
tough job, but with this function it's a breeze. The syntax for 
this is: 

X=INSTR( l ,"John Smithson ""Smith") 

Again, the X is where the answer will be stored. The one is 
the start position. Since we have used a one, the computer 
knows we want it to start looking at the first character in the 



64 THE RAINBOW July 1964 



search string, so it will start at the "J" in John and compare 
the target string (that's the string we are trying to match) 
with all of the possible little strings inside "John Smithson." 
It always compares strings of equal length, so first it will 
compare "John " to "Smith" and see if they are the same. 
Since they aren't, it will go on and compare "ohn S" to 
"Smith," and then "hn Sm" to "Smith." It will continue like 
this until it gets to the "Smith" in "Smithson," and then it 
will be comparing one "Smith" to another "Smith," which is 
a match. 

If it finds a match, it will return the number of the first 
character in the match. In this case, the "S" in the beginning 
of the word "Smith" inside the string "John Smithson" is the 
sixth character. Count them . . . "J" is one, "o" is two, "h" is 
three, and so on. The result of this is that X will be equal to 
six. Try typing in this little program and running it. 

30 X=INSTR(l,"John Smithson","Smith") 
40 PRINT X 

In actual use, you won't actually use the real words inside 
the parentheses, you will use variable names instead, like 
this: 

10 A$="John Smithson" 
20 B$="Smith" 
30 X=1NSTR(1,A$,B$) 
40 PRINT X 

So, now that we know how to use the function, let's look 
at some practical uses for this very powerful function. The 
most common use is in database or mailing list programs, as 
part of a search section of the program. Try this short 
program. 

I0CLS 
20 PRINT 

30 INPUT "ENTER THE STRING YOU WANT TO 
SEARCH FOR";T$ 
40 FOR X=l TO 15 
50 READ M$ 

60 IF INSTR(1,M$,T$) THEN PRINT M$ 
70 NEXT X 

100 DATA JOHN SMITH SON, MIKE RODGERS, 
BILL NOLAN,JANE SMITH,NOLAN RYAN 
110 DATA MARY JANE DOE,DONALD JOHN, 
RODGER JONES,PAUL FREDRICKS,JIM JONES 
120 DATA FRED RODGERS, PAULETTE SMITH, 
BETH JOHNSON, BILLY CARTER, DON DOE 

When you RUN this you will get some interesting results. 
Try answering the question with JOHN, SMITH, ROD- 
GER, SON, BILL, or FRED. The program will search out 
all the names with those words anywhere in them and print 
them out. Try answering the question with a single letter! 

Now let's go through the program one line at a time to see 
how it works. Line 10 clears the screen. Line 20 prints a 
blank line on the screen (I find the first line harder to read 
than the others). Line 30 asks you for a string to search for, 
and when you enter it, it stores it in the variable T$, A note is 
in order here. The computer thinks that capital letters and 
lowercase letters are unrelated. In other words, it doesn't 
think that "SMITH" and "smith" are the same thing at all, 
so since all of my DATA is in capital letters, the target 



strings you input must be in uppercase also, or no match will 
be found. 

Line 40 sets up a loop to read and compare the data. Why 
15? 1 have 15 pieces of data in Lines 100-120. Line 50 reads a 
name out of the data, and Line 60 is why we wrote this 
program. This line checks to see if a match is found. When 
you use the IF like this without a logical argument, the 
computer will check the function to see if it returned a zero 
or not. (INSTR returns a zero when no match is found.) 

In this case then, since if a match is found, the computer 
will return a number indicating where it starts, the name will 
be printed if your targQt occurs anywhere inside it, while if 
no match is found, the computer will just go on to the next 
name. When it has checked all the names, the program will 
end. If you want to try a different target, just run it again. 

Another common use for INSTR is with menus. A menu 
is just a list of choices, like this: 

10CLS 
20 PRINT 

30 PRINT "(A)DD A NAME" 

40 PRINT "(D)ELETE A NAME" 

50 PRINT "(S)EARCH FOR A NAME" 

60 PRINT "(E)ND THE PROGRAM" 

70 PRINT"PRESSTHELETTEROF YOUR CHOICE" 

80 K$=INKEY$: IF K$="" THEN 80 

Now we've printed a menu on the screen and asked the 
user of the program to press 'A', *D\ 'S\ or 'E\ Line 80 will 
strobe the keyboard until they press a key. Without INSTR 
we would now need something like this: 

90 IF K$="A"THEN GOTO . . . 
100 IF K$="D" THEN GOTO . . . 
1 10 IF K$="S" THEN GOTO . . . 
120 IF K$="E"THEN GOTO . . . 
130 GOTO 80 

Line 130 is there in case you pushed the wrong key. This 
isn't too bad for a short menu, but if there are 1 2 choices then 
you will need 12 IF . . . THEN statements, and IF . . . 
THENs are slow. Try adding these lines instead. 

90 M$-"ADSE" 

100 X=INSTR(1,M$,K$) 

1 10 ON X GOTO LINE, LINE,LINE, LINE 

120 GOTO 80 

Not only is this already shorter and faster, but if you 
expand the menu to 1 2 items, all you have to do is make M$ 
longer and add some more line numbers to line 1 10. You 
won't need any more lines at all (except to print the menu on 
the screen). 

In our final mailing list program, we will be Using the 
INSTR function both for searches and menus. Next month 
we will look into the characteristics of direct access disk files, 
and we will write a program that will let you type in names 
and addresses and store them on the disk in a direct access 
file. Then, each month, we will write another section of the 
program, with full explanation of how it works. Before we 
know it, we will find that we have written the whole program 
one section at a time, in what is called a "modular" fashion, 
and all we will have to do is put the pieces together. See you 
next month. 




y . - 1 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 65 



PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE 



WORKS WITH ALL STANDARD modem-hunter 

SWITCH 

PARALLEL PRINTERS 



$ 



59.95 



MODEL 1 
(with modem connector 
and switch) 

without powtr modul •-----$ 54.95 



$ 49. 95 



MODEL 2 
(without modem connector 
and switch) 

without power module----*$45.95 



Built-in 

Modem Connector 
same plnout oi 
Color Computer 
••rial I/O port 



SWITCH SELECTABLE 
BAUD RATES FROM 
300 TO 9600 




COMPUTER 
CONNECTOR 



Power Supply 

not needed with 
Gemini and C-ttoh 
printers 



Printer Connector 
highest quality 
with metal shell 
and gold contacts 



PRINTERS 



• C-ITOH 8510AP PROWRITER— — - -$329 
10" carriage 



• C-ITOH 1550P PROWRITER 2- 
15" carriage 



• C-ITOH 8510BPI— — 

• witch selectable between 
IBM compatible or Prowrlter 
compatible 



-$510 
-$389 



• C-ITOH 8510SP 

newl I 180 cps. 



* C-ITOH 8510SCP — — — — — — — 

newl I 180 cps. color printer 



-$435 
-$499 



• GEMINI tex™ ^27$ 

• GEMINI 1SX*™ i- -$399 

• DELTA 10X $415 

SPECIAL SYSTEM PRICE I I 

When a printer and the TRI-TECH 
Interface are purchased at the some 
time you may deduct $10 from the 
system price* 



SPECIAL OF 
THE MONTH 

COMPLETE DRIVE 0 SYSTEM 

* TEAC FD54A DISK DRIVE 

* DUAL DRIVE CASE AND 

POWER SUPPLY 

* JAM DISK CONTROLLER 

(JDOS or RSDOS) 

* DUAL DRIVE CABLE 

* COMPREHENSIVE USERS MANUAL 



299 



WITH 2 DRIVES: 

$ 409 

effective thru July 31,1984 



DISK DRIVES 

TEAC FD54A DISK DRIVE $119 

single sided, half hetaht, 
40 track, 180K bytes. 

TEAC FD55B DISK DRIVE-— $189 

double sided, half height, 
40 track. 360K bytes. 

TEAC FD55F DISK DRIVE $239 

double sided, half height, 
80 track, 720K bytes. 

TANDON TM100-1 DISK DRIVE — — $175 
single tided, full ilxt, 
40 track, 180K bytes. 

TANDON TM100-2 DISK DRIVE— —$209 
double sided, full ttse, 
40 track, 360K bytes. 

JAM DISK CONTROLLER —$129 

your choice: JDOS or RSDOS ROM 
(totally Radio Shack compatible 
with RSDOS ROM) 

DUAL DRIVE CASE AND 

POWER SUPPLY ™$59 

DUAL DRIVE CABLE——- — $23 



TRI-TECH ELECTRONICS 

P.O. BOX 8100 ROCHESTER, ML 48308 

313 254-4242 





I first saw this game in a very old issue of Personal 
Computing in the days when there were rumors about 
"microcomputers," and all games were played on huge 
mainframes. In the original game of Reverse, the player 
would arrange a list of numbers in ascending order from left 
to right. Since the CoCo has such excellent graphics, I 
modified the game so you reverse different lengths of 
colored bars to an ascending order from top (smallest) to 
bottom (largest). To move, you tell the computer how many 
bars (counting from the top) you want to reverse. Here is an 
example that may help my explanation. The numbers 
represent colored bars and are arranged from left to right. 

2345617890 

If you reverse five numbers, the result will be: 



6 5 4 3 2 1 7 8 
(first 5 numbers reversed) 



9 0 

(remainder stays the same) 



Now, if you reverse six numbers, you win! 

1234567890 
(first 6 numbers reversed) 



(Donald Clerc is a Radio Shack Computer Center 
instructor. He and his wife are expecting their first 
child in August and he anticipates enrolling their child 
in his computer camps this Christmas.) 




PETROCCI FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 




Maintains data on 255 people in first eight genera- 
tions of your family tree. Prints 3 charts; 5 generation 
pedigree - graphic display of lineage; Family group 
charts; ancestors by reference number. Easy to use. 
32K EXT 14.95 




• INSPECTOR CLUESEAU 

The No. 1 Murder Mystery for the CoCo! 
(Every game is different.) 32K EXT 19.95 



See Special 
Prices Below 



INVESTMENT SPECIALS 

SAVE 30% 



Good Through 
July 31, 1984 



• REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT 

Provides "What If" analysis 

of rental investments 

16K EXT 



• OWNER FINANCED REAL ESTATE 

Evaluate offers, prepare counter 
offers with this handy program 
16K EXT 



17.45 



17.45 



• HOMEOWNER SELLING ANALYSIS 

Select best price/best time to sell 

16K EXT 17.45 

• STOCK MANAGER 

Disk based - graphically plots data 

Portfolio value update, Printer output 

32K EXT DISK 27.95 

• BOND ANALYSIS 

Helps you select the best buy 

16K EXT 13.95 



BOWLING SECRETARY 

(New Super Second Edition) 

Now includes handicap routines for both men and 
women, pin spotting, selection of up to 15 players 
per team, plus the standard team standings, indivi- 
dual average, high and total pins, team won/lost, 
high series, cumulative total team points. 

Printer Output & Screen Display 
32K EXT - 24.95 Std. 16K Version Still Available 




LITTLE LEAGUER 

Does all the record keeping for you. Excel- 
lent printout Allows mid season entry. 
Keeps 19 different statistics and individual 
as well as team statistics. 
Easy screen editing features - allows edit- 
ing of single player data. Saves to tape or 
disk. 

32K EXT 24.95 



SlttltHtftl Arl-ityftl* 
32K EXT 2 Programs for 34.95 
Stress Evaluator 

16K EXT 24.95 

Medical Terminology 

32K EXT 19.95 

Heart Lung Circulatory 

32K EXT 34.95 

Weather Forecaster 

32K EXT DISK 19.95 

Weather Watch 

16K EXT 24.95 

Hurricane Tracker 

16K EXT 15.95 

Print Spooler 
64K 11.95 



Hatter Graphic* Tool KH 

32K EXT 39 95 



Text Master Graphic? 

32K EXT 19.95 



All Programs 16K Tape 
Unless Otherwise Specified 
All Programs Available on Disk - Add $5.00 _ 

Special Sale Prices - Retail Only RAINBOW ^ 



aJHBSf 



Include* $1.50 for handling for oach program 
Arizona residents add 7% sales tax. 
Quantity Discounts to Dealers 




R0CC1 FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 

651 N.I 

KRv^ TuC3C 

- » fir» 



I. Houghton Rd 
^Tucson, AZ 85748(3 
602-296-1041 IS 



Super Diak Uliffiy 

32K EXT DISK 44.95 

Real Estate Investment 

16KEXT 24.95 

Homeowner Selling 
Analysis 

16K EXT 24.95 

Owner Financed 
Real Estate 

16K EXT 24.95 

KIDS KORNER 
Preschool Package, ABCs, 
123s, Shapes, Big-Bigger 

All Four 24.95 

Guillotine Spelling 

Game 16K EXT 9.95 

Alphabet Song 
16KEXT 11.95 



Playing strategies 

There are two main strategies in playing the game, using 
either an algorithmic or a heuristic approach. An algorith- 
mic approach uses a specific pattern and guarantees a 
solution in a predictable number of moves. For example, an 
algorithmic approach to playing this version of Reverse 
would be to move the longest colored bar to the top, then 
move it down to the bottom. Then move the next longest bar 
to the top, and move it down to just above the bottom. This 
method guarantees a solution in 2N-3 moves, where N is the 
number of bars in the list. In this game using 1 0 colored bars, 
it would take you no more than 17 moves to win. A 
computer can easily play this type of strategy. 

On the other hand, a heuristic approach to solving 
problems can be thought of as a rule of thumb. Some rules of 
thumb are very good and lead to good solutions, while 
others are not so good. Consequently, using a heuristic 
approach does not guarantee the best possible solution, but 
for very complex problems (and even some simple ones) it 
may be more efficient than the algorithmic approach. 

Reverse lends itself very well to this heuristic approach. 
There are many possible solutions to each game. One is best, 
but the mathematics to determine that solution are quite 
complex. The simpler algorithmic approach does guarantee 
a solution, but it is far from efficient (and it gets boring after 
a while). A good heuristic approach, which takes advantage 
of "partial orderings^ in the list, generally yields a solution 
within 10 to 20 percent (one or two moves) of perfection. 

When using a heuristic approach, your next move is 
dependent upon the way the list currently appears. No 
solution is guaranteed in a predictable number of moves, but 
if you are clever (and sometimes lucky!) you should come 
out ahead of the simpler algorithmic approach. A good 
heuristic approach should solve this game in 10 moves or 
less. 

Good luck! 



270-290 Check to see if in numerical order 
300-370 Display score and ask to play again 
380-410 Subroutine for printing bars on screen 



Variables Used in the Program 

A Array to hold current sequence of numbers 
B$ IN KEYS to record your response 
C Color of bars 

D Used in FOR NEXT loop to randomize 
numbers 

E Random number used to randomize list 
J Used in array A to check for repeated numbers 
K Used in array A to generate and keep track of 
number list 

M$ Message at end of game; based on total score 

R$ String input from IN KEYS for move 

R Numeric value for move; derived from R$ 

S Used to produce ascending sounds 

T Current number of turns (moves) 

W Numbers (1-0) printed on screen 

X X-coordinate to print bars on screen 

Y Used for Y -coordinate to SET colored bars 

Z Used in array A to reverse positions of numbers 



Program Line Description 

10-160 Initialization and instructions 
170-210 Randomizing numbers 
220-260 Input move and reverse bars 




The listing: 

10 REM ADAPTED BY DONALD CLERC 

LOUISVILLE, KY 
20 CLS: PRINT: PRINT 11 r«vers» 

— A GAME OF SKILL": PRINT 
30 POKE 63495,0: FOR 9-1 TO 30: 
SOUND S*5+100, l: NEXT 
40 PRINT "DO YOU WANT THE RULES 
<Y/N>? "| 

50 B*»INKEY«: IF &*«"" THEN 60 E 
LSE IF B*«"N" THEN PRINT B*: GOT 
O 170 

60 CLS: SOUND 100,2: PRINT: PRINT 
"THIS IS THE GAME OF 'REVERSE* • 
TO WIN, ALL YOU HAVE TO DO IS" 
70 PRINT "ARRANGE A RANDOM LIST 
OF TEN COLORED BARS < NUMBERED 
FROM 1 THROUGH 0) IN ASCEND IN 
G ORDER FROM TOP (SMALLEST) TO 

BOTTOM (LARGEST) * M 
G0 PRINT: PRINT "TO MOVE, YOU TE 
LL ME HOW MANY BARS (COUNTING 
FROM THE TOP) YOU WANT ME TO 
REVERSE. " 

90 PRINT @ 483, "PRESS ANY KEY t 
O CONTINUE"; 

100 B**INKEY*S IF B*«"" THEN 100 
110 CLS5 SOUND 100, 2S PRINT "FOR 
EXAMPLE, IF A LIST OF NUM 
BERS IS: 2 

3 4 5 6 1 7 8 9 0* 
120 PRINT "AND YOU REVERSE FIVE 
NUMBERS, THE RESULT WILL BE: 

6 5 4 3 2 1 7 

S 9 <0" 

130 PRINT "NOW, IF YOU REVERSE 6 
, YOU WIN! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 0" 

140 PRINT: PRINT "NO DOUBT YOU W 
ILL LIKE THIS GAMEQF SKILL, BUT 
IF YOU WANT TO STOP, PRESS <Q 
> TO QUIT, 11 

150 PRINT @ 4S3, "PRESS ANY KEY 
TO CONTINUE "f 

160 B*»INKEY*2 IF B*«"" THEN 160 
170 SOUND 150,2: PRINT 8 480, " 
THANK YOU ONE MOMENT PLEASE "I 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 69 



L ear ntng*Lei sure: 



THE QUIZ MAKER 

for Students and Teachers 
by David Stanley 

Now be atote to create a test for any pur* 
pose. You choose the subject area and 
control the format; The many options of 
this program make studying interesting 
rather than tedious. You may have a ques- 
tion presented and you must type in the 
answer. You may have the answer flash 
on the screen, and you must type in the 
question. You may have a mixture of the 
above two formats. You may choose the 
flashcard feature that allows you to study 
before taking the test. You may add or 
change questions and answers. You may 
use short answer, fill-in, true/false, or 
multiple choice test. You may change the 
time limit for questions. Many more 
features, too. The printing command 
allows you to obtain hard copy of the entire 
test, or questions only, with space allowed 
for manual flH-in of the answer. This 
feature permits teachers to create exams 
or homework assignments. All tests may 
be saved and reloaded for future use A 
program that does it all! Available In 32K 
E&, $27,95 disk or $24.95 cassette. 



J 



HlllllHIIllHIHillllHl/P 



Nry 



the Factory: f*o*sum»*et 
Strategies In Problem Solving 

Grades 4-adull. Winner 1983 Learning 
Software Award. Recommended in 
Classroom Computer Learning, 
Courseware Report Card and Electronic 
Learning Unique three-level program 
challenges students to create geometric 
"products" on a simulated machine 
assembly line which the student designs, 
in the first part of the program, students 
learn how the available machines work, in 
the second part, they design their own 
assembly lines. In the third part, the 
computer challenges students to design 
an assembly line that will produce the pro- 
duct displayed on the screen. Three levels 
of difficulty develop inductive thinking. In- 
tegrate skills such as visual discrimination 
and spatial perception, and promote an 
understanding of sequence, logic and effi- 
ciency. Diskette tor 32K TRS-60 Color 
Computer with Extended Color BASIC. 
$39.95 



I 



(212)948-2748 





K1NQ AUTHOR'S TALES 
by Steve Blyn 

The creative writing tool you've been 
waiting for! This innovative program 
allows children in grades 2 to 6 to write 
Compositions, book reports, or short 
stories and save them to files. The 
material can be reviewed, corrected, 
rewritten, saved, and reloaded at any 
time. It can then be changed over and over 
again, if desired. Included, as well, is a 
question and answer optional feature. The 
user may write a question and answer for 
each page of text. When the story is run, 
the question will appear after each page. 
The user types in the answer and the pro- 
gram responds, "Correct" or 
"Incorrect". Teachers may use this 
feature to create reading comprehension 
material for their classes. The child also 
has the option of creating a title page pic- 
ture on the screen for each story. The 
drawing section has automatic key repeat 
for line drawing and allows for change of 
line colors. Pictures may also be saved. 
We have included a selection of stories 
and pictures with each program. King 
Author's Tales Is available in 32K E.8. 
disk or 16 K LB. cassette at $29.95 for 
either version. Printer Is optional, but 
recommended. 

Now available - Talking King Author, a 
version made especially to work with 
Spectrum's and Speech Systems Voice 
Pak. You'll hear your story, too! Same 
great features at the same price. 



Ed; Programs For 
Til SPECTRUM SPEAKER 
TURIN! hat* WILL 

talrim $mim mm 

T1UIR8 FOftElflN UttUm* 

mute mm tmm 

TIUIBI WOW STGRT MAKER 

$9JS «ch, any 3 for $24.15 



MATH TUTOR SERIES 
DIAGNOSTIC DISKS HEU 
By Ed Guy 

These disks contain program series to 
give students practice in various 
mathematical operations and to give the 
teacher feedback on their progress. The 
feedback will give a "number right" 
report and also a diagnostic listing of 
where the student made an error, and how 
many times he used the "HELP" com- 
mand featured in each program. Each stu- 
dent may do up to 10 examples, with at 
least 30 class sesesions per disk. A 
password system prevents students from 
seeing the reports of others in the class. 
Results may be printed out on screen or 
line primer. The Arithmetic Diagnostic 
Disk provides practice In division, 
multiplication, factor operations and 
algebraic evaluation (primarily intended to 
teach the hierarchy of operations). The 
Fractions Diagnostic Disk provides prac- 
tice in addition, subtraction, multiplica- 
tion, and division of fractions. All pro- 
blems lead students step by step through 
examples and contain many "HELP" 
commands. ARITHMETIC DIAGNOSTIC 
DISK « 32K E.B. - $49 .95. FRACTIONS 
DIAGNOSTIC DISK - 32K E.B, - $49.95 
DISK ONLY. 



A | A 



RAINBOW ^ 



NEW 



The Pond: sunburst 
Strategies In Problem Solving 

Grades 2-adult. Winner 1983 Learning 
Software Award. Recommended in 
Classroom Computer Leatfnjj. A small 
green frog, lost in a pond of lily pads, 
helps students recognize and articulate 
patterns, generalize from raw data and 
think logically. In the practice option, 
students choose from six levels oK 
difficulty, In which lily pads are displayed 
in increasingly complex patterns. The stu- 
dent must determine a pattern that will get 
the frog across the pond, in the game, 
students collect points by directing their 
frogs through as many ponds as possible. 
In the fewest number of moves. Diskette 
for 32K TRS*80 Color Computer with Ex- 
tended Color BASIC. $39.95 



The best in software for kids! 



THE MONET SERIES 

IT ffifE tt.fi 
DOLLARS! SEISE 1HEC8 514.95 
Player buys familiar items using defers 
and coins to practice using money correctly. 

■oCflCO'tWIU 161 EOI $1^5 
Learn to boy and add up your par* 
chases from a typical fast-food 
restaurant menu. 

MONET-fAE mm UtM 

A combined and menu driven version 
of tiie above programs, includes play 
money. Reviewed - Rainbow 7/83 




CROCODILE MATH 

6.B. 



mm 

$17,95 



An animated math game using hi- 
res graphics. A fish containing a 
problem moves toward a crocodile 
containing a possible answer, if 
the answer Is true, open the 
crocodile's mouth with the joystick 
to eat the fish. If false, keep his 
mouth closed. Addition, subtrac- 
tion, and multiplication examples 
on 3 levels, 3 speeds. Tape only. 
By Art Provost 



lew 



32KECB $29,95 

ft great aid to teachers. Records and 
calculates fades for up to 6 classes of 
up to 40 students each, Uses number 
or letter grades, named or numerical 
periods and gives a weighted average. 
Easy to use. Foil directions. DISK 
OHLY. By David UngftL 



RAINBOW ^% 



SETOOB WQMS 121 SOB I19J6 Each 

These language Arts programs cover 
common misspellings, and synonyms/* 
antonyms on each level. Additional, 
Level t tests contractions and abbrevuh 
tions, Level 2 tests homonyms, and Level 
3 tests analogies. Each program has 3 
parts and contains over 400 questions 
and uses over 800 words. Ail tests are 
grade appropriate. User modifiable 
{directions included). Printer option. 

Level t Grades 3-5 

Level! Grades M 

Level 3 Grades 9-12 

DISK VERSION Each $23.95 



THE KITH TUTOR SERIES UK lit. 

These tutorials take the child through 
each step of the example, Ml programs 
include HELP tables, cursor arid 
graphic aids. AH allow user to create 
the example, or let the computer 
choose. Multi level. Great teaching pro- 
gram By Ed Guy. 

LONG DIVISION TUTOR ' $14.95 

MULTIPLICATION TUTOR $14.95 

FACTORS TUTOR $19.95 

FRACTIONS TUTOR (Addition) $1195 
FRACTIONS TUTOR (Subtraction) $1935 
FRACTIONS TUTOR (Muhjplicatkjn)$19.95 

Any 2 FRACTIONS programs $29.95 
EQUATIONS TUTOR J2K EB$ 19.95 




NEW 




ARROW GAMES ^ftairylffBw 
3tKtt.tBf*$21JS mWM 

Six menu driven game for young 
children (ages 3-6) to teach direc- 
tions. AR games Involve using the 
arrow keys. Games include 
UUJYBU6, BUT1WLY, APWW 
MATCH, KALEIDOSCOPE, RAB- 
BIT, and DOODLE. Cotorfol 
graphics* 



FI RST GAMES try Penny Bryan 
32KEB. tape $24 95 disk $27.95 

First Games contains 6 menu- 
driven programs to delight and 
teach your early learners (ages 
3-6). These games enrich the lear- 
ning of colors, numbers, low- 
case letters, shapes, memory, 
visual discrimination and coun- 
ting. 

MATH INVADERS by David Steele 
16KEB. $17.95 

A multi-level 'Space Invaders* 
type game to reinforce the 4 basic 
math operations (addition, sub- 
traction, multiplication and divi- 
sion). Problems become more dif- 
ficult as you progress. Hl-reS. 
graphics, joystick required. 

TAPE ONLY 



MORE LEARNINGWARE 

(ALL PROGRAMS IN 154 EXTENDED EXCEPT WHERE NOTED) 

66NTEIT CLUES • by Steve Blyn . Multiple choke reading 

programs. Specify grade 4,5,6 or 7. each $17.95 

VMUULARY SUIUERS - 32K - Great for test preparations. 
200 questions, multiple choice, modifiable, printer option. 
1 (grades 3*5), 11(54) « III (9-12) each $19.95 

REARING AIDS 4-PAK - Child creates own reading material $19.95 

GRAPH-IT - by D.Steele- Graph sets of algebraic equations. $14.95 

HISTORY eUMll-32Mij J.^^ $14.95 

KNOW YOUR STATE$-32Kby iJieefinfrHameall hi-res. states $19.9$ 

MBSIC MILL - by D.Steele - Identity notes of many scales. $19.95 

GRAPH TUTOR - 32K by C PhHUps * Create, use fine, bar, pie 

Dictographs. Hires $19.95 

PRESCHOOL SERIES - By J. Solar. each $11.95 

Pre. 1-Counting, number recognition; Pre. 2 * Simple Addition; 
Pre. 3 ♦ Alphabet Recognition. 



FRENCH OR SPANISH BASEBALL • By S. Blyn each $1 1.95 
Vocabulary practice. 200 words. Notifiable. Specify language. 
Atom 32ft (500 words) S19J5 

MilfllW BULLETIN SOARD-by LKoia^tHity to print words. $15.95 

HEBREW ALPHABET • Learn Ihe letters of this alphabet $11.95 

* • * A BYTE OF COLOR BASIC - Beginner's manual A exercises $ 495 

FUN and GAMES 

(ALL PROGRAMS IN 114 EXTENDED EXCEPT WHERE NOTED) 

OIROHS ADVEHTORE-lry Steve Bfvn 15K KifcaoVerrluregame. $11.95 

SCHOOL MAZE - by Steve Blyn IBK -Kids graphic adventurt. $11.95 

HAMSTER HINT - by UD Weston 32K * Beautiful graphics in 

tills charming new kids adventure game. $19.95 

MR, OICOHEAO - by Stew ffiyn - Create over 10,000 funny faces. 
Surprise commands. Very creative. $1&95 

NAME THAT SONS I • 72 Wd*s songs to gum $14.15 

NAME THAT SONS II ^nmmm^^V^ $1495 

$1L95 




ALL PAYT1ENTS IN U.S. FUNDS. OVERSEAS ORDERS PLEASE ADD es.00 FOR SHIPPING 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
8EAL 

Dealers Inquiries invited. 




SOFTWARE NOW AVAILABLE IN AUSTRALIA FROM 
SOFTWARE SPECTRUM, GPO BOX 2101 , AOELAIOE»SA 5001 

FOR YOUR CONVENIENCE 

Blank Cassettes with Labels 3 For $ 2.00 

Popular Brand Diskettes 3 For $10.00 

Disk Head Cleaner Kit each $25.00 

Looseleat Diskette File (hold 4) 2 For $ 3.00 



(212)948-2748 r^Sl 
Dept. R 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 WW 
Send for catalog with complete descriptions. 
Please add $1 .00 per order for postage. N.Y. residents, please add proper tax. FREE set of BINARY MCE, Including furl directions, with orders of 2 or mora Hems 
Authors: We are seeking quality children's software tor leisure or learning. Write for details. Top Royalties. 
TRS-80 Color Computer. TDpSystem 100. 



* * 

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+ § 



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+4 



NEW 

Parents! 
Teachers! 




WANT TO GET A KID 
HOOKED ON COMPUTERS? 

Send for our LOGO STARTER program. 
Use it with your 16K Color Computer and 
Color LOGO from Radio Shack (Cat. No. 
26-2722). 

LOGO is the best way to introduce chil- 
dren to computers. With LOGO STARTER 
you won't have to read a book or instruction 
manual. Just load the LOGO STARTER 

tape. 

Your child will draw exciting designs right 
from the start. You won't waste your time on 
a lot of tedious typing. And your child will be 
on the way to computer literacy. 

Only *13.95 



4 
4 
* 
* 
4 
4 
* 
+ 

* 

4 

* 
4 
4 



* 
* 
4 
4 




RAINBOW 



4 
4 



READING 

Busy executives! Students! Increase your 
reading speed dramatically. 

Best available speed reading program for 
the CoCo. Reading material appears on the 
TV screen at the speed you select, training 
you to read faster. You can even change the 
speed while reading. 

Complete with 6 different text selections. 
Plus a drill to improve visual span and 
perception. 

$4 7 QC RAINBOW 

WW CERTIFICATION 



WILD PARTY : 

A naughty, sexy computer game for 2 to 6 ♦ 
couples. RAINBOW: "Would definitely liven * 
up most parties." * 

i3&retr *$27.95 



All programs on cassette tape for 16K Color Computer. 
Extended BASIC not required. Send SASE for FREE copy of 
instructions for any program. Prices include postage (PA 
resid. add 6%). Send check to P.O. Box 210, Jenkintown, PA 
19046. 

b&b software 



180 REM RANDOMIZING LIST 
190 FOR D-l TO RND (TIMER/ 100) : E 
=RND<10): NEXT D: FOR K-l TO 10 
200 A (K) -RND (10) : IF K=l THEN NE 
XT ELSE FOR J-l TO K-l: IF A<K>» 
A (J) THEN 200 ELSE NEXT J,K 
210 T-0: GOSUB 390: REM GOTO PR I 
NTING ROUTINE 

220 PRINT @ 0, " HOW MANY SHALL 
I REVERSE? 

230 R*=INKEY«: IF R*="" THEN 230 
ELSE R«VAL(R*):IF R=0 THEN R»10 

240 IF R*="Q" THEN 370 ELSE IF R 

*<"0" OR R*>"9 n THEN SOUND 1,10: 
PRINT & 448, "PLEASE INPUT ONLY 
A NUMBER FROM 0 TO 9."!: GOTO 2 

20 ELSE T«T+1 

250 REM REVERSING BARS 

260 FOR K=l TO INT(R/2): Z«A(K): 
A(K>=A(R-K+1) : A<R-K+1>-Z: NEXT 
K: GOSUB 390: REM GOTO PRINTING 
ROUTINE 

270 REM CHECK TO SEE IF IN 
NUMERICAL ORDER 

280 FOR K«l TO 10: IF A<K)OK TH 

EN 220 ELSE NEXT K 

290 PRINT @ 0, " YOU WON IN ONLY 

"T "MOVES. "5 

300 REM DETERMINE RESPONSE BASED 

ON NUMBER OF MOVES 
310 IF M*(l)«"" THEN FOR M-l TO 
6: READ M*<M>: NEXT 
320 DATA " WOW! ! THAT'S F ANT AST I 
CM "," EXCELLENT SCORE! ! "," VE 
RY GOOD SCORE! %" THAT'S NOT A 
BAD SCORE. u ," THAT'S OK, BUT YD 
U CAN IMPROVE."," TRY TO DO BETT 
ER NEXT TIME. " 

330 IF T<8 THEN M-l ELSE IF T>15 

THEN M-6 ELSE M-INT(T/2-2) 
340 PRINT @ 32* M*<M>s: FOR S-10 
0 TO 235 STEP 5: SOUND S,l: NEXT 
350 PRINT @ 448, " TRY AGAIN (Y/ 
N>? "; 

360 B*— INKEY*: IF B*-"" THEN 360 
ELSE IF B»-"Y" THEN PRINT B*" " 
;: GOTO 170 

370 PRINT @ 416, "THANK YOU. I 
HOPE YOU HAD FUN ! ! " J : POKE 65494 
,0: END 

380 REM SUBROUTINE FOR PRINTING 

BARS ON SCREEN 
390 CLS<0>: FOR Y-l TO 10: IF Y« 
10 THEN W-0 ELSE W-Y 
400 PRINT 8 <Y+2)*32, W; : IF A (Y 
)>8 THEN C»A(Y)-8 ELSE C-A(Y) 
410 SOUND 200-10#A<Y> , 1: FOR X-l 
0 TO 10+5*A(Y): SET(X,Y#2+4,C>: 
NEXT X,Y: RETURN til 

■onlaMDr 



72 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



HARDWARE & PROGRAMS 



MONITORS 

BMC MEDIUM-RES COLOR 

13" BMC w/ sound . . . $303.95 

14" USI w/ sound . , , 324.95 

12" Taxon Composite & RGB. . . 335.95 

COMREX HI-RES 
MONOCHROME 

12" Amber or Green _ . , 140.95 

9" Amber or Green. 125.95 
Sorry, no CO.D. on monitors. 

COMPOSITE MONITOR 

INTERFACES 

Double Driver. 24.95 

Video Plus. . ♦ , . . 24.95 

Both work great with color 
or monochrome on CoCo I. 

Coco Double Driver 28.95 

Video Plus II M 26.95 

Video Plus IIC................ 39,95 

For CoCo 11 Only 



JARB DISK DOUBLER 

Why spend twice as much as. you need to 
for double sided diskettes? With our 
doubler, you can make your own and pay 
for it with the first box you double. A 
must for disk drive users. 
5W n size only ..... 12.95 

BASF DATA CASSETTES 
C-OS C-IO 

1-10 .60 ea. .65 ea. 

11-20 .55 ea. .60 ea. 

Soft Poly Cases Ea. $.20 

Hard Shelled Cases, . Ea, $.22 

Cassette Labels (12) , . . , Sh. $.36 

Cassette Labels Tractor (1000) » ... $2 1 .95 

MEMORY UPGRADE 
KITS 

I6K RAM CHIPS 1 .50 ea. ■ 

*V,CoCoIII6K 1.95 *a. 

*64K RAM CHIPS 

Eight 200 NS Factory Prime 64K RAM 
Chips. Allows you to upgrade 'all* board 
easily. No soldering needed. $52.50 

'16K/32K 

Eight 200 NS Factory Prime Chips with 
Piggy Backed Sockets, Sam Socket, Bus 
Wire. Comprehensive Instructions. 
Recommended for "D" or earlier, but may 
be used on "E". Only 9 simple solder con- 
nections to kit. None to computer. $25.95 
NOT FOR CoCo 2 




THE GV NFIOHTER 

H Y Terry ''A* Steen 

An excellent hi-rex* arcade quality game 
program for two players. Joysticks and 
32.K are required in this all machine 
language program. 

Cassette ,$19.95 Pisk/Amdisk $24.95 

JUNGLE TREK 

Lost in a jungle with wild animals lurking; 
your only survival is to find a safe -com- 
pound before you are lunch for Hons; 
high resolution; multi-color. 
16K EXT., .$14,95 

BIORHYTHM PSYCHIC APT. 

1) Prints biorhythm charts of nearly 
unlimited length; attractively formatted 
for use on most printers. I6K 

2) Your psychic ability is determined 
through questions evaluating your psychic 
experiences 

16K Ext .... Both for $15,95 



PROGRAMS FOR THE 
SPECTRUM PROJECTS 
VOICE-PAK 
OR 

SPEECH SYSTEMS VOICE 

TALKING 
FINAL COUNTDOWN 

(by Bill Cook) 

>ot32K EXT ...,...,.$19.95 

Standard cassette 

HNAL COUNTDOWN $14.95 



TALKING 
SPELL- A-TRON 

The program allows the user to build a 
dictionary of words. During testing, the 
words arc spoken. If an incorrect 
response is given, the word is spoken 
again and spelled. Tape(32K EXT) $22.95 



TALKING 
SCORE E-Z 

A yahuec type program. Up to six players 
can compete, AH scoring and record keep- 
ing is done by the computer. Tape (32K 

EXT) , ...,.......,.$19.95 

Standard SCORE E-Z .$15.95 



TALKING 
COLOR MATH 

The perfect educational game to aid the 
student in learning addition, subtraction, 
multiplication and division. Allows one to 
specify difficulty level. 
Tape 02K EXT) $22.95 



TALKING 
SHIP HUNT 

by Cobra Software 

Play Battleship against your computer. 
32K w/ joystick needed. Graphics and 
sound. Can be played without voice. 
Cassette . ..$10.95 



SCHEMATIC DRAFTING PROCESSOR 
(disk) can draw large scale schematics in 
hi~ros (has six overlapping screens) and 
then prim them out to any of several 
popular printers, fast!! A must for serious 
hardware eomputerist, 
Now only ., $49.95 

CoCo Chips 

Sam, Pia, CPU, Ext, Basic 

We carry products 
from many manufacturers. 
If you don't see it, ask. 



JARB 

1636 D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 92050 



SOFfWARE 



HARDWARE 



Order Line 

COD orders accepted, no charge cards please. (619) 474-8982 
Shipping and hand.in 0 $3.00 After Hour$ 

(619) 474-8981 



California residents please add 6% sales tax 




HOLIDAY SPEC IAL 



A Fourth of July Celebration 



By Peter Stumpf 



Here is a program to help you celebrate the 
Fourth of July. It is called American Patrol, 
featuring music and graphics appropriate for 
a Fourth of July celebration. This program plays "The 
American Patrol," "America The Beautiful," "Ameri- 
ca," and "The Star Spangled Banner." Accompanying 
each are colorful Hi-Res graphics. (See Figures 1 and 

Patrol requires 32K and Extended BASIC. 



AMERICA 

THE 




B 
E 
A 
U 
T 
I 
F 
U 
L 



Figure lb 




THE 

AMERICAN PATROL 

Figure la 



9 //> " 



Peter Stumpf, a high school freshman, has owned a 
CoCo for two and a half years and has written numer- 
ous programs for various computer publications. He is 
a self taught programmer and especially enjoys writ- 
ing graphics program. 




Figure 2 



7/ 350, . , , 


22 


2140 


, . 17 


1020 


.. 135 


2310 .. 


.. 197 


1170 .. 


142 


2510 


.. 153 


1310 


. 45 


2680 


. 81 


1610 .. 


137 


2970 .. 


152 


1810 


, 61 


3240 


42 


1980 . . 


160 


END .. 


...92 



The listing: 

1 0 * **************************** 
20 **** THE AMERICAN PATROL *** 
30 AND OTHER SONGS *** 

40 ARRANGED FOR THE *** 

50 '*** COLOR COMPUTER BY *** 
60 **** PETER STUMPF *** 

70 '*** 1508 APPALOOSA TRAIL *** 
80 '*** MC HENRY, IL 60050 *** 
90 * **************************** 



110 



100 'THIS PROGRAM USES letters 
AS A SUBROUTINE. letters 
IS A PROGRAM WRITTEN BY ME 
AND PUBLISHED IN color 
mi cro j ournal . 
'THESE 2 LINES MUST BE LEFT 
IN THIS PROGRAM TO AVOID 
INFRINGING ON COPYRIGHT 
LAWS. 
120 CLEAR 5000 
130 DIM N*<15> 
140 GOSUB 2S90 

150 '*************************** 
*** TITLE PAGE *** 

*************************** 

160 CLS 

170 PCLS : PM0DE4 , 1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 
1S0 DRAW "BM 100, 25S8"+TT»+HH*+EE* 
190 DRAW"BM101,26"+TT*+HH*+EE* 
200 DRAW"BM102,27 M +TT*+HH*+EE* 
210 DRAW "BM18, 50S8 " +AA*+MM*+EE*+ 
RR*+ I I*+CC*+AA*+NN*+SP*+PP*+AA«+ 
TT»+RR*+00*+LL* 

220 DRAW"BM19, 51 "+AA*+MM*+EE*+RR 
*+II*+CC*+AA*+NN*+SP*+PP*+AA*+TT 
*+RR*+00*+LL* 

230 DRAW " BM20 , 52 " + AA*+MM*+EE*+RR 
«+II*+CC*+AA»+NN»+SP*+PP*+AA*+TT 
*+RR«+00»+LL* 

240 DRAW " BM87 , 70S4 " +AA»+NN*+DD«+ 
SP*+00»+TT*+HH*+EE»+RR* 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 75 



250 DRAW * BM100, 89 ■ +SS*+00*+NN*+B 
G*+SS* 

260 DRAW "BM18, 1 1 0S4 " +AA*+RR*+RR* 
+AA*+NN*+6G*+EE*+DD»+SP*+FF*+00* 
+RR*+SP* 

270 DRAWBM110, 1 10S4"+TT*+HH*+EE 

*+SP*+CC*+00*+LL*+00*+RR* 

280 DRAW " BM 1 78 ,11 084 " +CC* +00* +MM 

*+PP*+UU*+TT*+EE*+RR* 

290 DRAW " BM 1 1 0 , 1 28S4 " +BB*+ Y Y* 

300 DRAWBM35, i50S8"+PP*+EE*+TT* 

+EE*+RR*+SP*+SS*+TT*+UU*+MM*+PP* 

+FF* 

310 DRAWBM36, 151 "+PP*+EE*+TT*+E 
E«+RR*+SP*+SS*+TT*+UU«+MM*+PP*+F 
F* 

320 DRAWBM37, 152"+PP*+EE*+TT*+E 
E*+RR* +SP* +SS*+TT*+UU* +MM*+PP*+F 
F*+"S4" 

330 DRAW" BM44, 179"+HH*+I I*+TT*+S 
P*+AA*+NN*+YY*+SP*+KK*+EE*+YY*+S 
P*+TT*+00* 

340 DRAW "BM 144, 17? ,, +CC*+QQ*+NN*+ 

TT*+I I»+NN*+UU*+EE» 

350 I F I NKE Y*» " " THEN350 

360 ' *************************** 
*** SONG MENU *** 

*************************** 



370 PCLS: PM0DE4: SCREEN 1 , 1 

380 DRAW " BM78 , 30S 12" +MM*+EE*+NN* 

+UU* 

390 DRAW " BM79 ,31" +MM*+EE*+NN*+UU 
* 

400 DRAW " BM80 , 32 " +MM*+EE*+NN*+UU 
* 

410 DRAW " BM 1 0 , 60S4 " +N* < 1 ) +PE*+SP 
*+TT*+HH*+EE*+SP*+AA*+MM*+EE*+RR 
*+I I*+CC*+AA*+NN* 

420 DRAW "BM 124, 60"+PP*+AA*+TT*+R 
R*+00*+LL* 

430 DRAW " BM 1 0 , 80 " +N* ( 2 ) +PE*+SP*+ 

AA*+MM*+EE*+RR*+I I*+CC*+AA* 

440 DRAW " BM 1 0 , 1 00 " +N* ( 3 ) +PE*+SP* 

+AA*+MM*+EE*+RR*+II*+CC*+AA*+SP* 

+TT*+HH*+EE* 

450 DRAW " BM 1 1 4 , 1 00 " +BB*+EE*+AA* + 

UU*+TT*+1 I*+FF*+UU*+LL* 

460 DRAW "BM 10, 120"+N* (4) +PE*+SP* 

+TT*+HH*+EE*+SP*+SS*+TT*+AA*+RR* 

470 DRAW"BM92, 1 20 " +SS*+PP»+AA*+N 

N*+GG*+LL*+EE*+DD* 

480 DRAW " BM 1 54 , 1 20 " +BB*+A A*+NN* + 

NN*+EE«+RR* 

490 DRAW " BM 1 0 , 1 40 " +N* ( 5 > +PE*+SP* 

+EE*+NN*+DD* 

500 Z*=INKEY* 



For Your TRS-80 Color Computer 

320 Full-time Audio Talk/Tutor Programs! 



Vim i nrvt Im-s att I c t<» 



i«H 

hum <*<t lt*«| 




We're Your Educational 
Software Source 



Course 

Language Arts 

(Spelling) 
Reading 
Comprehension 
Phonics 

English as a Second 

Language 
Mathematics 
Basic Algebra 
Physics 

Effective Writing 
History 



No. of Programs 

16 Programs 
64 Programs 
32 Programs 
32 Programs 

32 Programs 
64 Programs 
16 Programs 
16 Programs 
16 Programs 
32 Programs 



In Color, with Pictures and Text! 

All of our TRS-80 Color programs have easy to understand profes- 
sional announcer narration, not synthesized, robotic voices. All text 
is displayed in easy to read upper- and lower-case characters. Video 
clearly illustrates key concepts in each frame of the program. 

Only $4.40 per program ($8.80 for 2, one on each side of a half-hour 
cassette). $59.90 for 16 programs (8 cassettes) in an album. Send for 
catalog of over 1000 programs for Atari, TRS-80, Apple, etc. 

Dealer inquiries welcome 
For more information, or to order call: 

TOLL FREE 1 800 654-3871 

IN OKLAHOMA CALL (405) 288-2301 

rg)DORSETT 

mammr Educational Systems, Inc. 

Box 1226, Norman, OK 73070 



f 



76 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Bid 




8AGL4FAGDEFL2 . G 




I PZ" 1 THENGOSUB390 I BOTU3/0 


1 000 V* ( 3 ) = " L403F04DC03B-AGFEFGL 


Dot) 


IP Z— 2 T HENSUoUBl 100! GUTU370 


8AB-L4AGL2. FP6" 


D*tw 


1 r Z — 0 1 HcNbUbUhJ 1 320 ■ uuTuo70 


1010 PLAY V* ( 1 ) +V* (2) +V* ( 1 ) +v* (3 




lr Z = 4 1 ncNbUbUoZDzl? ■ UUTU3/0 


) 


fit 

560 


I r Z =5 T HENCLo I END 


1 020 V* ( 4 ) = " T3L403CL4B-B-B-B-L8B 




UU 1 U ZJxrw 


— U3AL2B— L4B04CP255CLoC03B— AB— D4L 


Jqi' 


irir 11 frit n w n it h h ir 11 11 Rirn w n r it it it it it it it 


2. CP6 




aj.aj.jjl TUC AMCDTTAKI DATDHI aval At 


1 030 v* ( 5 ) m 04L4C#DDFDCCL8C03B— A 




MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM^tM^MMMItM 

WTrwTriririririrTWWWirwifirT~irirTiritiririr 


B— p— 5 EB— AALSABL4F5 U4DDPDCCL8C03B 




dpi e ■ DMnncA ■ cpdccmi 1 


— L4 AB— B— EGL2FP6 




I T KIP I Id JLOL \ { OA ?a \ pQFT 


1 040 V* ( 0 ) 38 U3L8AP255 AL4P255 AP25 


A 1 01 

oils' 


1 T KIC / *3*JI Atff \ / Qi, AC \ DCCT 

1— 1 Nt \ jljD , **Y) t \ DO , 43 / , rot 1 


5AP255A ; 04L8P255CP255CL4P255CP25 




O T On C /DL C A \ A 4 T OA ~7~T 

LlKLLHoo, j4) ,4, l.o y .20, ■ /3 


5CL2P255C 5 04L8P255EP255EL4P255EP 


00» 


PTDpi e 1 / 4 <5I # "> VI 431 \ T/H A ^ 4 

Lr I KLLh \ 1 02 9 40 / , 30 M .4, , / , . 1 


255EP255E ; L8GP255GL4P255GP255GL2 


AAA 


L- 1 KLLt \ 1 2o j j / / .Oj 9 2 , • 2 , • / 


y_ 11 

. CP6 


oDe> 


Lr 1 KLLt \ 1 20 9 OO / , OK> y p ily ■ / f ■ 1 


4 rfCC/SC Dl WW I IV> / j| \ ■ 1 ij> / J| \ -i-l 1V> V ■ \ 

1 050 PLAY V* ( 4 ) +V* ( 4 ) ( 5 ) 


AAA 


T DPI C / 4 AC CC \ * ry as 7 


4 /X V_ rfX Dl WW Il4k / J_ \ 

1060 PLAY Vf (6/ 


e>70 


LINE \ 122, 60) — \ 1/0 1 48) , PScT 


1 070 FORP= 1 TO500 : NE X T 


680 


O T Dn C / 4 JLO CT \ O jL T O 

Lr I KLLt \ 1 07 , Jo /,o,,.o,./,.2 


1080 RETURN 


690 


CIRCLE < 165, 54) ,3 


4 iMfti-l P JU M JjJjL _w u t> M _tjj_ 4hJ M %J _fjj ju_ U_ JjJ M M U U W M_ V Jrf .fjJ 

10"0 **##**w##*w*#w######*w*ww* 


700 


DRAW ■» BM173, 49R4UR4UR6DR3DR3D 


# ### AnERICA ## 


RDRD2L3UL3UL2DL2DL2DL2DL2DL3DL3D 




2R2UR4UR4UR4DLDLDL3DL4DL4UD 




710 


LINE < 178, 60) - ( 168, 67) , PSET 


1 1 00 PCLS 


720 


LINE- < 140, 78) ,P9ET 


4 4 4 1M1 nDAM if cu/je /j 011 j_AAV2_i_kik4Vj_t_pp 

1 1 10 DRAW BM45, 40S12* +AA*+nn*+EE 


730 


LINE < 153, 73) - < 158, 68) , PSET 


*+RR*+I I*+CC*+AA* 


740 


LINE- < 151, 68) , PSET 


1 1 20 DRAW BM 1 , 80S4 +Mn»+Y Y$+SPf + 


750 


LINE- < 155, 65) , PSET 


CC$+uu*+UUf»+NN*+TT*+RR*+YY*+SPf»+ 


760 


LINE- < 150, 64), PSET 


ADA ■ TTNt ■ if TAxCQA 


770 


LINE- < 154, 61 ), PSET 


4 4 *7V3I nDAM II QM 1 AO mail ■ nnA ■ 1—1— a lBP* - 

1 130 DRAW Bn 109, 80 +Ou*+FFS+oP*+ 


780 


LINE- < 149, 60) , PSET 


TTVj i i ii u» « fr** . cgjj ■ r>nj> . fmjj ■ ppa , lima , 


790 


LINE- < 153, 58) , PSET 


rc* accaaTTA 
EE*+EE*+TT* 


800 


LINE- < 149, 56) , PSET 


4 4 JI JSC HDAM IIOUnAiL Q4 II * 1 1 A t A A A i hha » 

1 1 40 DRAW BM206 ,81 +LL*+AA*+NN*+ 


810 


LINE- < 153, 53) , PSET 


r\T\4te ■ €7P<ti i r>f^J* ■ rrA 


820 


PAINT (160, 60) ,1,1 


4 4 Cffl T\DAlilll DM1 4 13IV3I ll _i_l 1 AaT TAaDDAxC 

1150 DRAW Bnl , 100 +LL*+I IS+BB^+E 


830 


LINE < 140, 78) - <77, 96) , PSET 


FA aBD* aTT A a WUA xm* Af^Dir A II HI 14 II aHH A 

E$+RRS+TTl»+Y Y*+COi»+SP*+ BU 1 


840 


LINE <86, 67) - (70, 78) , PSET 


-t-FF*+SP* 


850 


LINE (70, 78) - (59, 88) , PSET 


4 4 J_ J5I nDAI.III CUOA 4 JMJM II ■ V^h^k i 1 II ijfc ■ PPA | 

1 1 60 DRAW BM80 , 1 00 +TT*+HH*+EE*+ 


860 


CIRCLE (70, 88) , 12, , .99, 1- 13, . 




5 






870 


LINE (86, 67) - (25, 86) , PSET 


It 70 DRAW BM 1 65 , 1 00 " +LL*+AA* +NN* 


880 


LINE (25, 86) -(52, 120) , PSET 


+DD*+SPS+WW*+HH*+EE$+RRf»+EES+oP* 


890 


LINE (52, 120) -(80, 96) ,PSET 


aMMAaWV/a 

"»"rln*"rYY^ 


900 


LINE (30, 93) - (72, 76) , PSET 


4 4 nB AI.I II Dki 4 4 OAll aITITAaAAVj • TTjVaU 

1 1 80 DRAW BM 1,1 20 +FFS+AA»+TT*+H 


910 


LINE (36, 100) -(61, 86) , PSET 


H*+EE* , T'RR*+SS*+oP*+DP*+ 1 1 *+EE*+D 


920 


LINE (41, 106) -(60,93) , PSET 


nA j_r~VA 

D*+EX* 


930 


LINE (46, 114) -(65, 99 ),PSET 


4 4 B/31 TNBAI.I II BUB A 4 >^J3i II • 1 1 Mr m AAA Ak.lk.IA « 

1 1 90 DRAW BM94 , 1 20 +LLf»+AA*+NN*+ 


940 


DRAW " BM 1 00 , 89 5 6 1 4E4R2DR2DR2D 


DD*+SP*+00*+FF*+SP*+TT*+HH*+EE* 


R2DD2L 1 U2L2UL2UL2UL264L2E 1 4 


1200 DRAW"BM172, 120"-l»PP*+I I*+LL* 


950 


DRAW " BM90 , 92 5 8 1 4E4R2DR2DR2DR 


. f^- f\ . nnA < T T A * kAlkJJA ■ J"^i"^A • AI>tA 

+GG*-*-RR*+I I*-«-Mhl*+SS*+AP* 


2DD2L 1 U2L2UL2UL2UL264L2E 1 4 


4 H /3C nDAIilllDUl 4 |g| II ■ BPA ■ r>^A ■ T T A « T%, 

1210 DRAW BM 1,1 40 +PPS+RR$+ I I *+D 


960 


DRAW"BM98, 140S8"+TT*+HH*+EE* 




970 


DRAW"BM20, 170"+AA*+MM*+EE*+R 


4 nQAi.l II nUQA 4 /J JMll ■ f l~A hill IA ■ B»?A ■ 

1220 DRAW BM80, 140 4»EES+VVS+EE*+ 


R*+ I I *+CC*+AA*+NN*+SP*+PP*+AA*+T 


QGi A aV \/ A aOD A aUUA aHHA aI 11 |A i klklA • TTAa 

RR*+YY*+3P*+MM*+00*+UU*+NN»+TT^+ 


T*+RR*+00*+LL* 


AAA * T T A * it lit. 1 A 

AA*+I If»+NNf» 


980 


V* ( 1 ) » " L4T303CFFL8FEFGL4 A AL8 


1 230 DRAW " BM 1 76 , 1 40 11 +SS*+ 1 1 *+DD* 


AS#AB-04L4CCL8C03B04CFL2. C" 


+EE*+C0*+SP*+ ,, BU1"+LL*+EE*+TT* 


990 


V* ( 2 ) « " T303L4 AB— L8B- AL4GB-AL 


1240 DRAW"BM1, 160"+FF*+RR*+EE*+E 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 77 



E*+DD*+00*+MM*+SP*+RR*+I I *+NN*+G 
G*+EX* 

1 250 PLAY " T203L4GP255QAL4 . F#L6GL 
4ABP255B04C03L4. BL6AL4GAGF*L2 . GP 
6" 

I 260 PLAY " 04L4DP255DP255DL4 . DL6C 
03L4B" 

1 270 PLAY " 04L4CP255CP255CP255L4 . 
GL603BL4A" 

1 200 PLAY " 03L4BLQ04C03BAGL4 . BL50 
4CDP255L8ECL403BAL4 . G" 
1290 FORP=1TO1000:NEXT 
1300 RETURN 

1310 * *##*##**♦♦*#*♦**###*#*##»# 

•♦♦AMERICA THE BEAUT I FUL**^ 
***♦*******#**#**»##♦♦♦**## 
1320 PCLS 

1 330 DRAW "BM10, 308 12" +AA*+MM*+EE 
*+RR*+I I«+CC*+AA* 

1 340 DRAW " BM 1 40 , 50S8 " +TT*+HH*+EE 
* 

1350 DRAW"BM190,60"+BB* 
1 360 DRAW " BM 1 90 , 75 " +EE* 
1370 DRAW"BM190,90"+AA* 
1380 DRAW "BM 190, 105"+UU* 
1 390 DRAW " BM 1 90 , 1 20 " +TT* 
1400 DRAWBM190, 135"+II* 
1410 DRAW "BM 190, 150"+FF* 
1420 DRAW "BM 190, 165"+UU* 
1 430 DRAW " BM 1 90 , 1 80 " +LL* 
1440 LINE <40, 110) - <40, 112), PSET 
1450 LINE < 40, 112)- <33, 129) , PSET 
1460 LINE <33, 129) -(35, 132) , PSET 
1470 LINE (35, 132)- (33, 133) , PSET 
1480 LINE (33, 133)- <33, 137) , PSET 
1490 LINE (34, 137) -(36, 140) , PSET 
1500 LINE (36, 140) -(36, 145) , PSET 
1510 LINE (36, 146) -(37, 149) , PSET 
1520 LINE (38, 149) -(38, 151) , PSET 
1530 LINE (38, 151) -(41, 152) , PSET 
1540 LINE (40, 151) -(42, 153) , PSET 
1550 LINE (43, 154) -(44, 154) , PSET 
1560 LINE (44, 154) -(46, 160) , PSET 
1570 LINE (46, 160) -(52, 160) , PSET 
1580 LINE (53, 161) -(65, 168) , PSET 
1590 LINE (66, 168) -(71, 168) , PSET 
1600 LINE (71, 168) -(71, 166) , PSET 
1610 LINE (71, 165) -(79, 169) , PSET 
1620 LINE (79, 169) -(83, 176) , PSET 
1630 LINE (83, 176) -(90, 175) , PSET 
1640 LINE (90, 175) -(96, 182) , PSET 
1650 LINE (96, 182) -(96, 184) , PSET 
1660 LINE (95, 185) -(98, 187) , PSET 
1670 LINE (98, 188) -(101, 189) , PSET 
1680 LINE (101, 188) -(104, 189) ,PSE 
T 

1690 LINE (104, 188) -(110, 175) ,PSE 
T 

1700 LINE (110, 175) -(116, 175), PSE 



T 

1710 LINE (116, 175) -(117, 174) ,PSE 
T 

1720 LINE (117, 174) -(119, 176) ,PSE 
T 

1730 LINE (119, 176) -(125, 176) , PSE 
T 

1740 LINE (125, 176) -(123, 174) , PSE 
T 

1750 LINE (123, 174) -(126, 172) , PSE 
T 

1760 LINEU26, 172)-(133, 173) ,PSE 
T 

1770 LINE (133, 174) -(134, 174) , PSE 
T 

1780 LINE (135, 174) -(141, 174), PSE 
T 

1790 LINE (141, 174) -(144, 175) , PSE 
T 

1800 LINE (144, 175) -(144, 177) , PSE 
T 

1810 LINE (144, 177) -(149, 186) , PSE 
T 

1820 LINE (149, 186) -(152, 187) , PSE 
T 

1830 LINE (152, 187) -(154, 185) , PSE 
T 

1840 LINE (154, 185) -(153, 181) , PSE 
T 

1850 LINE (151, 181) -(151, 179) ,PSE 
T 

1860 LINE (151, 179) "(150, 174) , PSE 
T 

1870 LINE (150, 174) -(152, 164) , PSE 
T 

1880 LINE (152, 164) -(152, 160) , PSE 
T 

1890 LINE (152, 160) -(158, 151) , PSE 
T 

1900 LINE (158, 151) -(158, 147) ,PSE 
T 

1910 LINE (158, 147)-(155, 141) ,PSE 
T 

1920 LINE(156, 141)-(158, 141) ,PSE 
T 

1930 LINE (159, 141) -(161, 146) , PSE 
T 

1940 LINE (162, 146) -(162, 140) , PSE 
T 

1950 LINE (162, 140) -(155, 135) , PSE 
T 

1960 LINE (155, 135) -(161, 135) , PSE 
T 

1970 LINE (161 j 135) -(160, 131) ,PSE 
T 

1980 LINE (160, 131)-(163, 130) ,PSE 
T 

1990 LINE (163, 130) -(162, 130) , PSE 
T 



78 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



THE COLORSOFT™ BUSINESS SYSTEM 

INTEGRATED BUSINESS SOFTWARE DESIGNED FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 
WRITTEN FOR USE BY THE NON-ACCOUNTING ORIENTED BUSINESSMAN 
CONCISE USERS MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS TUTORIAL 
PROFESSIONALLY WRITTEN AND FULLY TESTED 
HIGHLY USER FRIENDLY AND MENU DRIVEN 
AFTER THE SALE SUPPORT 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING (Version 2.0) This sales-based 

accounting package is designed for the non-accounting oriented businessman. It also contains the flexibility for 
the accounting oriented user to set up a double entry Journal with an almost unlimited chart of accounts. This 
package includes Sales Entry, transaction driven Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable, Journal Entry, 
Payroll Disbursement, and Record Maintenance programs. Screen and hardcopy system outputs include 
Balance Sheet, Income Statement, Customer and Vendor Status Reports, Accounts Receivable and Payable 
Aging Reports, Check Register, Sales Reports, Account Status Lists, and a Journal Posting List. The number of 
accounts is limited only by the number of disk drives $89.95 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE (Version 2.0) This package is designed to meet 
the requirements of most small business users. The system includes detailed audit trails and history reports for 
each customer, prepares invoices and monthly statements, mailing labels, aging lists, and an alphabetized 
customer listing. The user can define net terms for commercial accounts or finance charges for revolving 
accounts. This package functions as a standalone A/R system or integrates with the Small Busi ness Accounting 
package to build a complete accounting/receivables system $59.95 



PAYROLL (Version 2.0) This integratable package is designed for maintaining personnel and 
payroll data for up to 200 hourly and salaried employees with 8 deductions each. This system calculates payroll 
and tax amounts, prints checks and maintains year-to-date totals. These amounts can be automatically trans- 
ferred to the SBA package for financial reporting. It computes each pay period's totals for straight time, overtime, 
and bonus pay and determines taxes to be withheld. Additional outputs include mailing list, listing of employees, 
year-to-date federal and/or state tax listing, and a listing of current misc. deductions. This system is suited for use 
in all states except Oklahoma and Delaware $69.95 



All programs require a minimum of 32K and 1 disk drive but will take advantage of 64K and 
multiple drives. Each package features a hi-res 51 x 24 black on green screen. 16K versions 
available without hi-res screen. Specify 16K or 32K versions when ordering. Future inte- 
grated packages will include: Inventory Control, Sales Analysis, Accounts Payable. 



INCLUDE $5.00 Shipping/Handling Per Order 



Write for Free Catalog 



BRANTEX, INC. 

COLOR SOFTWARE SERVICES DIV. 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE GROUP 
P.O. BOX 1708 

GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 



TELEPHONE ORDERS 
(214) 454-3674 
COD/VISA/MASTERCARD 



ATTENTION DEALERS: WE OFFER THE BEST DEALER PLANS AVAILABLE 



2000 LINE (162, 130) -(168, 126) ,PSE 
T 

2010 LINE (168, 126) -(165, 123) ,PSE 
T 

2020 LINE (165, 123) -(166, 120) , PSE 
T 

2030 LINE (166, 120) -(172, 113) , PSE 
T 

2040 LINE (172, 113) -(169, 110) , PSE 
T 

2050 LINE (169, 110) -(168, 107) , PSE 
T 

2060 LINE (168, 107) -(166, 106) , PSE 
T 

2070 LINE (166, 106) -(163, 109) , PSE 
T 

2080 LINE (163, 109) -( 164, 1 13) , PSE 
T 

2090 LINE (164, 113) -(154, 119) , PSE 
T 

2100 LINEU54, 119)-(146, 122) ,PSE 
T 

2110 LINE (146, 122) -(146, 127) , PSE 
T 

2120 LINE (146, 127) -(143, 132) ,PSE 
T 

2130 LINE (143, 132) -(138, 133) , PSE 
T 

2140 LINE (138, 133) -(136, 128) , PSE 
T 

2150 LINE(136,128)-(137,126),PSE 
T 

2160 LINE (137, 126) -(134, 124) , PSE 

T ' 

2170 LINE (134, 124) -(133, 121) , PSE 
T 

2180 LINE (133, 121) -(130, 125) , PSE 
T 

2190 LINE (129, 125) -(129, 131) , PSE 
T 

2200 LINE (129, 131) -(128, 133) ,PSE 
T 

2210 LINE (128, 133) -(126, 133) , PSE 
T 

2220 LINE (126, 133) -(125, 126) , PSE 
T 

2230 LINE (125, 126) -(127, 123) , PSE 
T 

2240 LINE (127, 123) -(123, 125) , PSE 
T 

2250 LINE (123, 125) -(130, 121) , PSE 
T 

2260 LINE (130, 121) -(123, 120) , PSE 
T 

2270 LINE (123, 120) -(116, 124) ,PSE 
T 

2280 LINE (116, 124) -(115, 121) , PSE 
T 

2290 LINE (115, 121) -(125, 112) , PSE 



T 

2300 LINE (125, 112) -(127, 113) , PSE 
T 

2310 LINE (127, 113) -(130, 114) , PSE 
T 

2320 LINE (130, 114) -(130, 116) , PSE 
T 

2330 LINE (130, 116) -(134, 118) , PSE 
T 

2340 LINE (134, 118) -(139, 119) , PSE 
T 

2350 LINE (139, 119) -(140, 120) , PSE 
T 

2360 LINE (140, 120) -(141, 128) , PSE 
T 

2370 LINE (141, 128) -(145, 127), PSE 
T 

2380 LINE (123, 114) -(101, 112) , PSE 
T 

2390 LINE (101, 112) -(78, 112) ,PSET 
2400 LINE (78, 112) -(61, 108) ,PSET 
2410 LINE (61, 108) -(46, 106) ,PSET 
2420 LINE(46, 106)-(46, 109) ,PSET 
2430 LINE (46, 109) -(40, 109), PSET 
2440 PSET (152, 182) 

2450 V« ( 1 ) - " T303L4QP255L4 . BL5EP2 
55L4EL48P255L4. 8L5DL4D" 
2460 V* ( 2 ) - " L4038L4 . 04EP255L5EL4 
DCL4. C03L4BB04CD03BA804L2. CP6 
2470 V* ( 3 ) - » T3L4CL4 . CQ3L5AL4 A04C 
L4 . CL503SL466A04C03604DL2 . C " 
2480 PLAY V«(1)+ ,, EF8ABL2.8P6 , ':PL 
AY V* ( 1 ) + " 04L4DC#DE03AL2 . 04D ■ : PL 
AYV»(2):PLAY V»(3> 
2490 FORP-1TO1000:NEXT 
2500 RETURN 

2510 * ♦#*#*♦*##»♦*#»***#***#*♦## 
*** THE STAR SPANGLED *#* 
*** BANNER #»* 

#****####*#*****##*******# 
2520 V* < 1 ) = " 03L86EL4CE604L2CL8ED 
L4C03EF#L2GL8P255L8BP255GL4 . 04EL 
8DL4C03L2BL8 AB04L4CP255C03GEC " 
2530 V* ( 2 ) - " T204L8EP255EL4EFGL2G 
P255L8FEL4DEFL2P255FP6L4P255FL4. 
EL8DL4C03L2BL8ABL404C03EF#L2GP6" 
2540 V* ( 3 ) ~ " L403G04CP255CP255L8C 
03BL4AP255AP255A04DL8FEDCP255L4C 
03BP6" 

2550 V« ( 4 ) = ■ L8GP255GL4 . 04CL6DL7E 
FL2GP6L7CDL4. EL5FL4DL2C" 
2560 PCLS:PMODE 3,1: SCREEN1 , 0 
2570 COLOR 3 

2580 DRAW " BM4 , 1 0S8 " +TT*+HH*+EE*+ 

SP«+SS*+TT*+AA*+RR« 

2590 DRAW "BM126, 11" +SS*+PP*+AA*+ 

NN*+GG*+LL*+EE*+DD* 

2600 DRAW " BM8 1 , 30 " +BB*+AA*+NN*+N 

N*+EE*+RR* 



80 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



★ COLOR COMPUTER DATA BASE MANAGER * 



Elite 




THIS IS IT! ELITE^FILE is the full featured, all machine 
language, Data Base Manager, that Color Computer 
users have been waiting for. From the same author that 
brought yoii ELITE*CALC, ELITE*FILE is for everyone who 
needs to store and recall information. You specify what to 
store, and what to retrieve. ELITE*FILE gives you total 
flexibility. ELITE»FILE is a relational Data Base Manager 



with all the editing and repeat formatting features that 
are typically found only on much larger computer 
systems, but priced for Color Computer users. It's "user 
friendly" command structure makes it simple to use even 
for those who don't write computer programs. ELITE* FILE 
is waiting to work for you. 



Features include: 

■ Compatible with ELITE»CALC and 
ELITE»WORD ASCII files 

■ User friendly combination of Menu 
driven input and single key commands 

■ Up to 255 named fields per record 

■ Up to 255 characters per field 

■ Up to 2000 characters per record 

■ Up to 4000 records per file 

■ Supports multiple drives 

■ Nested subfield definitions 

■ Up to eight fields in primary key 

■ Copy record definition from file to file 

■ View record definition 

■ Input records with easy to use field 
name format display 

■ Edit records with full screen "type over" 
editor 

■ Copy records to repeat identical data 

■ Scan mode for quick data retrieval 

■ Locate any record by field contents 

■ Load ELITE^CALC spread sheets into 
random access data files 

■ User setable print formats 

■ TAB, VTAB, CR, PAGE, text, hex print 
controls 

■ Join up to four subfile records to extend 
data record for print 

■ Create "Variable Text Insert" files for 
ELITE'WORD 

■ Produce repetitive reports with Retrieval 
Programs written on ELITE»WORD 

■ Refile data into new record structures 



Ulite ^o^t urate 



★ ALL MACHINE LANGUAGE 

★ FLEXIBLE, USER DEFINED DATA 
RECORD STRUCTURES 

★ 1 6 FILES CAN BE HANDLED AT THE 
SAME TIME FOR 64K RECORD 
CAPACITY! 

★ EDIT, SCAN, SORT, SELECT 
RECORDS 

★ OUTPUT REPORTS TO SCREEN, 
PRINTER, OR ASCII DISK FILE 

★ PLACE DATA BY FIELD NAME, WITH 
CUSTOM TEXT, ANYWHERE ON THE 
PRINTED PAGE 

★ COMPATIBLE WITH ALL PRINTERS 

★ COMPREHENSIVE MANUAL 

★ HANDSOME VINYL BINDER 

THE BEST FOR ONLY 



m 



so 



Disk Only 

Shipping NOW 
i Add $2.50 Shipping 
i PA residents add 6% sales tax 
> Dealer inquiries invited 



Thousands of applications: 

— Mailing List 

— Inventory 

— Record Collection Index 
—Phone Number Reference 
—Order Entry/Invoice 
—Expense Records 

— Recipe Files 

— Study Note Retrieval 
—Customer Files 
—Check Book Register 
—Library Catalog 
—Appointment Calendar 
—Yours 

Data, field definitions, indices stored on 
a single file 

List disk directories, change default 
drive and "kill" files without leaving 
ELITE»FILE 

Memory resident, no program overlays 
from disk 

Minimum 32K, Disk Basic required 
Single program performs all features 
Data files accessible from BASIC 
programs 

" Project any subset of fields in any order 

for the printed output 
i Select specific records by field content 

with full logic combination capabilities 
i Sort records in ascending or descending 

order by any field 
i Calculate values from combinations of 

field contents 
i Math operators: +, -, *, /, (, ) 
i Display or print column totals 




CHICAGO 



Box 11 224 • Pittsburgh, PA 15238 • (412)795-8492 



■ 



From the creators of zaksund • color rexrser / • color textset 

GALACTIC FORCE • TEXT EDITOR • PARTY PAK • COLOR MONITOR • TREK 16 
DISK 4 TAPE COPY • ANIMALS • BODYPARTS • TAfE COPY and many other fine programs 




2610 


LINE (15. 50) — (235. 180) .PSET 


31 10 


UU*— " BR3 BU6D5FR2EU5BD A " 


B 




3120 


W*= M BR3BU6D2FD2FEIJ2ELI2BnA 11 


2620 


LINE < 15. 50) -< 105. 120) .PSET- 


3130 


m BR3BU6D6E2F2U6BD6 11 

tttt T IWWWWWWIkU &WWUMU 


B 




3140 


XX**" BR3UE4UBL4DF4D " 


2630 


PAINT<16.51> .3,3 

• • ■ mm * ^ ■ » m\ W ■ lav A # ■ N^" ■ 


3150 


YY*= " BR3BU5UDF2E2UD62D3BR " 


2640 


FOR XX =55 TO 120 STEP 15 


3160 


Z Z*= " BR3BU6R4DG4D 1 R4 

mm mm m w m M\*mF • % wir W Wl » ■ if Hf m mmv mm 1 * v 


2650 


FOR ZZ»24 TO 100 STEP 14 


3170 


PLUS*» " BR5BUU4D2L2R4BRBD3 " 


2660 


CIRCLE <ZZ. XX) .2.2 


3180 


M I NUS*= 11 BR5BU3R4BD3 


2670 


NEXT: NEXT 


3190 


MULT*« " BR5BUE3BL3F3BLBDBR2 " 


2680 


FOR XX=62 TO 120 STEP 15 

> wl % f\ f\ U A. I w A A>V W I W» A 


3200 


D I V I *» " BR5BU3R4L2BUUBD3DBR2 


2690 


FOR 77=32 TO 100 STFP 14 

» wn A. Mm OA. 1 U a vv w 1 C.i X *T 


BD1 " 




2700 


CIRCLE (ZZ- XX) 2 2 

W A 1 \Wkah* \ Am Am J f\ f\ I £ A. J| A. 


3210 


EQU AL*= 11 BR5BU3R4BUL 4R4BD A 11 


2710 


NEXT: NEXT 


3220 


EXCLA I M*« M BR3BR2UBU2U4BR2BD 


2720 


FOR ZZ=60 TO 120 STEP 10 

■ Wl » mm mm wftr ff mmf mm mMmmmr W ■ m*m 1 mm V 


7" 




2730 


LINE (105, ZZ>-<235. ZZ) .PSET 

****** • ™ » mm *r w ■ «h # » n>wW ■ ato Mm* w ■ 1 W«« ■ 


3230 


QUOTE** " BR3BRBU4U2BR2D2BR2B 


2740 


NEXT 


D6" 




2750 


FORZZ»130 TO 180 STEP 10 


3240 


NUMBER*- " BR3BU2U4BR2D4URL4B 


2760 


LINE ( 15. ZZ>-<235. ZZ) . PSET 


U2R4BD5BR2" 


2770 


NEXT 


3250 


DOLLAR*- " BRBU2R4U2L4 U2R4L2U 


2780 


FOR ZZ=51 TO 180 STEP 20 

■ wr\ Am Am w A 1 w A WV w 1 Ul m WB 


D6BR3BD" 


2790 


PAINT (233. ZZ) .4.3 


3260 


PRCENT*- " BR3BU6DRUBR365BR3U 


2800 


NEXT 


RDBRBD" 


2810 


FOR ZZ«61 TO 170 STEP 20 

■ Wl \ Am Am W A 1 W A f W W 1 Wl A W F 


3270 


AP0S*= " BR3BRBU6UDBBR3BD5 " 


2820 


PAINT < 233 77) 2 3 

rn*n i \ aw w y Mm Mm / 9 a. p w 


3280 


LPAREN*— " BR5BUHU4EBR2BD6 


2830 


NEXT 


3290 


RPAREN*- " BR5EU4HBR2BD6 


2840 


PLAY "T2 


3300 


DASH*- " BR3BU3R4BD3 " 


2850 


PLAYV* ( 1 ) +V* ( 1 ) +V* (2) 


3310 


COMMA*— " BR3BRUDBBR3 " 


2860 


PLAYV* (3) +V* (4) 


3320 


PER I 0D*- " BR3UDBR4 " 


2870 


FORP»1TO500: NEXT 

I »t A I WWW 1 1 f\ 1 


3330 


SLASH*- " BR3UEU2EUBD6 


2880 


RETURN 


3340 


LTHAN*- " BR3BU3F3H3E3BD6BR " 


2890 


9 ########################## 


3350 


8THAN*- " BR3BR4BU383E3H3BD6B 




##*INITILIZE LETTERS & #*# 

****** i 11 i | A mmm A Am k_ 1 1 W W " »» W 


R4" 






#*# OTHER SYMBOLS *** 


3360 


CLON*- 11 BR3BRBUUBUUBD4BR2 11 




##**#*#**##**######*♦*#♦## 


3370 


SEM I*-" BR3EUBU2UBD5BR2 " 


2900 


8P*- ,, BR6" 


3380 


QMARK*- " BR3BR2UBUU2REUHL26B 


2910 


AA«» " BR3U4E2F2D2L4R4D2 " 


D5BR4" 


2920 
R" 


BB*= " BR3R3L3U6R3FD6L3R3FD6B 


3390 
2" 


ARROW*- " BR3BR2U682R4H2BD6BR 


2930 


CC*= " BR3BUFR3L3HU4ER3BD6 " 


3400 


UL I NE*= " BR0BD 1 R8BU 1 


2940 


DD*= 11 BR3R3L3U6R3FD4BBR " 


3410 


N* < 1 ) — " BR3BR2R4L2U662BD4BR3 


2950 


EE*» " BR3R4L4U3R3L3U3R4BD6 B 


II 




2960 


FF*- " BR3U3R3L3U3R4BD6BL " 


3420 


N* < 2 ) - " BR3R4L4U2E 1 R2E 1 U 1 H 1 L 


2970 


86*- " BR3BUFR2EUHLBL2D2U4ER3 


2G1BD5BR4 " 


BRBD6" 


3430 


N* <3> -"BR3BU1F1R2E1U1H1L1R1 


2980 


HH*- " BR3U6D3R4U3D6 ■ 


E1U1H1L281BD5BR4" 


2990 


I I*-"BR3R4L2U6L2R4BD6" 


3440 


N* <4> — " BR6U6G3R4BD3 " 


3000 


JJ*»" BR3BUFR2EU5BD6 " 


3450 


N*<5)-"BR3BU1F1R2E1U1H1L2H1 


3010 


KK«- " BR3U6D 3RE3Q3F3 " 


U2R4BD6" 


3020 


LL*« " BR3BU6D6R4BL " 


3460 


N* ( 6 ) - " BR2BUFR2EUHL28DU4ER2 


3030 


MM*- " BR3U6F2E2D6 " 


FBD5 


II 


3040 


NN*- " BR3U6DF2F2DU6BD6 * 


3470 


N* < 7 ) - ■ BR3U 1 E3U2L4D 1 BD5BR3 


3050 


00*- " BR3BUU4ER2FD4BL2HFBR3 " 


3480 


N*<8>-"BR3BR1R2E1U1H1L261D1 


3060 


PP*- " BR3U6R3FDGL2BD3BR3 " 


F1H1U1E1H1U1E1R2F1D161F1D1BD1" 


3070 


QQ*- 11 BR3BUU4ER2FD46L2HFR2EH 


3490 


N* (9) -"BR3BU1F1R2E1U4H1L281 


F2BL 


II 


D1F1R3BD3" 


3080 


RR*- " BR3U6R3FDQL3R2F2D " 


3500 


N* <0) - " BR3BUFR2EU4HL28D4E4B 


3090 


S8«- " BR3BUFR2EUHL2HUER2FBD5 


D5 




II 




3510 


RETURN m 


3100 


TT*- " BR3BU6R4L2D6BR2 




■Mb 



82 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



* COLOR COMPUTER WORKSHEET ★ 



EliteCalc 



I'M 



NOW . . . The worksheet calculator program you've 
been waiting for is waiting to work for you. 
ELITE* CALC is a powerful, full featured worksheet 
calculator designed especially for the Color Com- 
puter. Answer "what if" questions, prepare reports, 



maintain records and perform other tasks that, until 
now, required sophisticated business computers. 
ELITE* CALC is a serious tool for those who want to 
do more than play games with their Color Computer. 



( 



Features include: 

• Single character commands 

■ Help Displays 

■ Enter text or formulas to 255 
characters long 

■ Repeat text entries 

■ 255 maximum rows 

■ 255 maximum columns 

■ Available memory always displayed 

■ Rapid Entry modes for text and 
data 

■ Selectable Automatic Cursor 
movement 

■ Insert, Delete, Move entire rows or 
columns 

■ Replicate one ceil to fill a row or 
column with selectable formula 
adjustment 

■ All machine language for speed 

■ Extended BASIC required for ROM 
routine calls 

• Automatic memory size detection 
for 16K, 32K or 64K 

■ > 20K bytes, storage available in 
32K systems 

• BASIC style formulas 

■ Math Operators: +.-.X./,J,U.- 

• Relation Operators: 
*,>,<,< -=,> «,< > 

■ Logic Operations: AND, OR, NOT 

■ Conditional Formula: IF . . . 
THEN . . . ELSE 

■ Trig Functions: SIN, COS, TAN, 
ATN 



£lhe Saturate 



• EASY TO USE 

• INDIVIDUAL CELL FORMULAS 

• COPY BLOCKS OF CELLS 

• FULL CELL-EDIT CAPABILITY 

• COMPATIBLE WITH ALL PRINTERS 

• EASY 132 COLUMN PAGE WIDTH 

• CHANGEABLE BAUD RATES 

• GRAPH FORMAT FOR BAR CHARTS 

• SORT IN ASCENDING OR DESCENDING 
ORDER 

• COMPREHENSIVE MANUAL INCLUDED 

• NATIONWIDE USER GROUP 

• HANDSOME VINYL BINDER 

THE BEST FOR ONLY 

$5995 

spec/fy: Disk or Tape 

- Shipping from stock NOW 

— Dealer Inquiries Invited. 
Add $2 Postage & Handling 
PA residents add 6% sales tax 



Log Functions: LOG, EXP, SQR. 
Misc. Functions: INT, FX, ABS, 
SGN. 

Range Functions: SUM, AVERAGE, 
COUNT, MIN, MAX, LOOKUP 
Nine digit precision 
Definable constant table 
User definable printer set-up 
commands 

Individual column width settings 
Adjustable row height to insert 
blank lines without wasting 
memory 

Hide columns or rows 

Alternate print font selectable on 

cell by oell basis 

Display/Print formats set by cell, 

row, or column 

Dollar format, comma grouping; 

prefix or postfix sign 

Scientific notation, fixed point and 

integer formats 

Left and Right cell contents 

justification 

Full page formatting 

All formats stored with worksheet 

on disk(tape) 

Save & Load Disk(tape) files in 
compact memory form 
Scan disk directories 
Output ASCII file for word 
Drocessor input compatibility 
Memory resident code ... no 
repeated disk calls 

Sample worksheets included 



Box 11224 • Pittsburgh, PA 15238 • (412) 795-8492 



"Elite * Cak is a great spread- 
sheet program ! This profes- 
sional quality program has the 
performance required for seri- 
ous home applications as well 
as small businesses. " 

Stuart Hawkinson, Rainbow 



'Truly one of the best 
programs I have seen. " 

John Steiner, Micro 



"'Elite* Cak is an ex- 
tremely powerful work- 
sheet . . , " 

Jack Lane, Color Micro Journal 



"Bruce Cook's Elite* Cak 
is a very fine program in 
deed; potenthiHy one of 
the ffr&ff Color Computet 
Programs. " " . . a v^ry 
impressive product " 

Scott L. Norma!), Hot Ci 



PRINTFR IITIT.ITY 



16K 



RAINBOW 



Zero Tte Sl^kr 



Distinguish your Os from zeros with a single slash! 




The short program which accompanies this article will 
make your CoCo slash the zeros when outputting to 
the printer. The program will work with any printer, 
because the routine is contained entirely within the comput- 
er. It is coded in machine language and is entirely user 
transparent — to use it, just load and EXEC, and all pro- 
gram listings, program outputs, etc., will have the zeros 
slashed. 

The advantage of having a slashed zero is that you can 
more easily distinguish it from the letter fc O\ This is espe- 
cially important in program listings where the variable 4 0' is 
used. Typing an 'O' instead of a *0\ or vice versa, can crash 
an entire program, and is very difficult to debug. Slashed 
zeros are also useful for spreadsheets and other printouts of 
computations. The reason that many printers do not have a 
slashed zero built into their character sets is because the 



(David Bailey, a sophomore at Cranston High School 
East in Cranston, R.I., and a member of the schools 
computer team, has been programming on the CoCo 
for IV2 years. He is also the newsletter editor for the 
New England CoCoNuts Color Computer Club.) 



slash is not very formal, and is not desired on reports, 
documents, or other word processing tasks. If a printer was 
designed to be used with a word processor to create such 
text, it probably will not have the sla&h. For this reason, I 
have made my program flexible — Jyfrng EXEC toggles the 
slash "on" and "off," so a BASIC program can use it only at 
certain times by having EXECs within the program. 

To use the utility program, you must type in one of the 
following programs. If you have Color basic, very carefully 
type in Listing 1 (the BASIC program) and save it. When you 
want to use the program, CLOAD, type RUN and when it is 
done, type NEW and you are ready. 

If you have Extended BASIC, but do not have an 
assembler, you also must type in the BASIC program and 
save it. However, to make it simpler to use, you can RUN it, 
then type: 

16K: CSAVEM "SLASH", 16000,16063,16000 
32K: CSAVEM "SLASH", 32000,32063,32000 

If you have disk, change CSA VEM to just SA VEM. Now, 
whenever you want the program, just CLEAR 200,16000 : 
(C)LOADM "SLASH": EXEC. (If you have 32K, change 



84 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



* COLOR COMPUTER WORD PROCESSOR * 



Elite-Word 

Also Available On OS-9 



TM 



THE SECOND GENERATION WORD PROCESSOR 
IS NOW . . . ELITE* WORD has many new features 
not found in other word processors for the Color 
Computer. ELITE'WORD is an all machine 
language, high performance, Full Screen Editor 

MAJOR Features include: 

• ALL Machine Language for speed 

• Handsome Vinyl Binder 

• Comprehensive Manual Included 

• User Friendly (really) 

• Top screen line reserved for 
command prompts, HELP 
messages, and status information 

• Two text entry modes: Insert and 
Exchange 

■ Edit 2 files simultaneously (OS-9 Only) 

■ Delete character under cursor 

■ Backspace and delete one 
character 

■ Delete entire screen line 

■ Rewrite entire screen 

■ Page Forward through text 

■ Page Backward through text 

■ Mark present Ijne for automatic 
centering on output 

■ Insert new text (Insert mode) 

■ Type over old text (Exchange mode) 

■ Screen Display is 32x19 In normal 
text editing modes 

■ Screen Display is High-Res 64x19 
when used to display final text; 
including page breaks and 
justification 

■ Screen Display in all modes is true 
Upper/Lower case characters with 
descenders 

■ Over 1 3.5K file size in 32K 
machines 

■ Continuous memory display 

■ Save text file (disk or tape) 

■ Load text file (disk or tape) 

■ All I/O errors trapped and 
recoverable 

» Jump to beginning or end of text 

■ Find sny string of characters in text 

■ Global replacement of one string in 
text for another 



which offers an ease of use that is simply incredi- 
ble. ELITE*WORD also offers a printed output flex- 
ibility that can handle your sophisticated home 
and business applications. ELITE*WORD is wait- 
ing to work for you. 



True block-text Move command 
Smooth cursor movement over 
text in any direction (including 
vertical) 

Smooth screen scroll for easier 
proof reading 

Auto Key-Repeat will auto- 
matically repeat any key that is 
held down 

Easy generation of ASCII files 
VIEW function permits high-res 
screen display of final text before 
it's printed; including right-side 
justification and page breaks 
VARIABLE TEXT MERGE allows 
for generation of standard form 
type letters that appear to be 
personally prepared for each 
reader 

INCLUDE feature (disk only) 
permits the inclusion of many 
other files within one large 
document. Total document will 
have sequential page numbering 

EXCELLENT FOR PROGRAM EDITING 
AND WORD PROCESSING. 



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Type ahead keyboard buffer 
NEVER misses a character 
Optional screen display of all 
carriage returns <cr> 
Fast Disk I/O . . . No loading of 
overlay files to slow program 
operation 

User HELP display available 
Automatic screen Word-Wrap; 
even while inserting new text 

Block-text move, copy or delete 
Display/Change default disk drive 
number (disk only) 
Display disk directory (disk only) 
Display-Free disk space available 
Software remembers last file name 
Saved or Loaded and will write to 
that file by default if desired 
Dynamic margin changes within text 
Select Top margin, Bottom margin, 
and Page length 

Choose number of duplicate copies 
Page Pause, for single sheet users, 
if desired 

Optional page numbering begins 
with any selected page number 
Printer Font codes are user 
definable 

All printer format options may be 
changed dynamically within text 
Any string of HEX characters may 
be imbedded within text to send any 
special control codes to your 
printer 

An Eject (top of form) command 
may be inserted within text 
Variable Text Merge symbols may 
be inserted anywhere within text 
1 All machine language; 32K and 
Extended Basic required for ROM- 
call routines 

OS-9 is a trademark of Mlcroware and Motorola. 



Box 11 224 • Pittsburgh, PA 15238 • (412) 795-8492 



"I w« more than satisfied with Elite* Word Before I started the review, I thought that it would be just another 
program that would copy most of what others had dona and add a few whistles and bells. After the review, I 
would not hesitate to compare it with the two best sailing CoCo word processors. And my comparison places it 
at the top of the list." . A. Buddy Hogan, Rainbow 



the CLEAR statement to read CLEAR 200,32000.) If you 
had a BASIC program already in memory, it would not be 
erased by loading "Slash." 

If you have an assembler, you can follow the preceding 
directions, or type in the source code directly. 1 used 
EDTASM+ to create it. If you have this assembler, save the 
source code by typing "W SLASH", then assemble it with A 
SLASH I AO I WE. If you have a different assembler, use the 
equivalent commands to save source code and object code to 
tape or disk. Now, to load it, follow the instructions for 
Extended BASIC after the CSA VEM instructions. 

Regardless of your system and method of loading, all 
printouts you make at this point will have slashed zeros. If 
you want to shut it off, type EXEC. It can be re-initialized by 
another EXEC, arid so forth as many times as you wish. 

The BASIC program in Listing 1 was created translating 
the machine code produced by Listing 2 into decimal, and 
making a few other adjustments needed because of the lack 
of an assembler. Therefore, I will explain the machine lan- 
guage program, Listing 2. 

The routine to make the slash is really very short. If you 
delete the remarks, it shouldn't take you more than 10 
minutes to type it in, and I suggest you do so if yqu have an 
assembler for the learning experience. First of all, we locate 
the program in high memory (at 16000 for 16K, or 32000 for 
32K). The positions I chose waste some memory above the 
program, but I wanted the even-starting locations for the 
ease of loading and saving. 

Lines 240 to 380 have nothing to do with the slashed zero 
— their only function is to allow the slash to be toggled on 
and off by typing EXEC. First the routine checks what is in 



address 360-361, which is the "hook" for BASIC'S printing 
routine. If the contents have already been changed (so that 
when printing occurs, it will check with the slash routine 
first), then execution jumps to INJT1, where the toggling 
effect occurs. To toggle, we check the contents of address 
359 (Lines 300-3 1 0). If it is a 1 26, then the diversion we put in 
addressses 360-36 1 is working, and we want to shut it off. To 
do this, we put a 57 in location 359 (Lines 330-340). Con- 
versely, if address 359 contains a 57, then the routine has 
already been toggled off, and we want to turn it on by 
putting a 126 in that location (Lines 360-370). If addresses 
360-361 have not been altered yet (only when the routine is 
executed the first time), then (Lines 270-280) it is changed to 
match the starting address of the slash routine. At the end of 
all three of these possible routines, the program branches to 
INIT3, which returns to BASIC. 

The real routine starts at line 430. When the slash is 
toggled on, the BASIC interpreter automatically jumps 
to this routine before printing any character, to any device. 
First, in Lines 430-450, it checks to see if the output device to 
be used is the printer. This information is contained in 
location $6F (a -2 represents the printer, 0 is the screen, 
etc.). If the device is not the printer, then we branch to 
RETURN, which lets BASIC print whatever character it was 
going to, and continue on its way. If the device was the 
printer, then we check the character to be printed (it is held 
in the A register) in Lines 460-470. If it is not a zero, then we 
also branch to RETURN. 

N o w, if the device was the printer, and the character was a 
zero, then the routine must be performed. This happens in 
Lines 510-540. First of all, understand how the slashed zero 



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86 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



is constructed: a slash is printed (the character next to the 
right shift key), the printer backspaces one, then prints the 
regular zero. Line 510 loads the A register with the slash 
(remember the A register holds the character to be printed) 
then jumps to the ROM subroutine to print a character (the 
address of this routine is held in another address, $A002 
— this is called "indirect addressing"). We then repeat that 
procedure, only the character we load A with is going to be 
the backspace — the #$08 in Line 530. The printer back- 
spaces, then flows to the RETURN routine. There, Line 6 1 0 
automatically returns the zero into the A register, and this 
zero will be printed over the slash when we tell BASIC to 
continue on its way in Line 620 with an R TS. 

This program was written with flexibility in mind. You 
can create any other character you like if it is formed by 
overlapping two already existing characters. Just put the 
character you want to change after the apostrophe in Line 
460, then put the character you want to overlap it with after 
the apostrophe in Line 510. For example, to change the 
minus sign into the standard division symbol (the bar with a 
dot above and beneath it) you could put the dash (minus) 
character in Line 460, and put the colon in Line 510. Please 
note that when you do this, all minus signs will be printed as 
division signs when the routine is toggled on. Since you 
cannot change the toggle in the middle of a LLIST, for 
example, you would not want to list a program that had 
minuses am/divisions in it because the minuses would come 
out like divisions even if you didn't want them to. The 
routine was originally intended only for redefining charac- 
ters, and that is the way that it is most useful. 



END .... 232 



Listing 1: 
10 



20 * SLASHED ZERO 

30 • SLASHES THE ZEROES ON 
40 'PRINTERS WHICH DO NOT HAVE 
50 * THEM BUILT IN 

60 * 

70 ' <C> 1983 BY DAVID BAILEY 

Q0 9 9 9 V 9 9 9 9 9 W 9 9 99 9- 9 9 9 9 

90 ' 

100 CLS:PRINT"DO YOU HAVE:":PRIN 
T" 1) 16K": INPUT" 2) 32K"; 
A 

110 IFA=1THENM=16000 ELSE I FA=2TH 

ENM=32000 ELSE 100 

120 POKE 1000, M/ 1000 

130 CLEAR200,M:M-PEEK< 1000) #1000 

140 FOR X«M TO M+63: READ YlPOKE 

X,Y:NEXT X 

150 DATA190, 1, 104, 140, 125,36,39, 
8, 142, 125,36, 191 , 1 , 104, 32, 19, 182 
, 1, 103, 129 

160 DATA126,38,7, 134,57, 183, 1, 10 
3,32,5, 134, 126, 183, 1 , 103, 57, 52, 1 
19,246,0, 111 



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July 1984 THE RAINBOW 87 



MASTER DESIGN 

CO 1984 By Derriftfer Software. Inc. 



DOES MORE THAN JUST DRAW PICTURES 
IT'S A TEXT DESIGNER 

Master Design has the ability to generate lettering in the graphics mode from 
sizes 2 to 32 and In a wide range of styles. Size 2 offers a 42 x 22 line format 
while size 32 creates letters that take up over half the screen. Lettering can be 
skinny, bold, textured, tall, drop shadow, raised shadow and in different 
thickness. There's nine different settings for thickness and nine different set- 
tings for creating open lettering. 

IT'S A GRAPHICS EDITOR 

Take full advantage of hi-res commands including GET. PUT. CIRCLE. PCOPV. 
PMODE. LINE. BOX. BOX FILL. PAINT and other special features available only 
with Master Design. Master Design utilizes a "two cursor" concept to allow 
quick formatting of boxes, lines and special patterns such as dot patterns for 
shading and diagonal, vertical or horizontal lines for creative backgrounds. You 
can create designs and use the TEXT designer to label areas or Place titles. You 
can also create mirror images of the display. 

COMES WITH A SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE 

Master Design comes with a ? bit and 8 bit version of a hl-res screen print 
routine so no matter what your printer is, we have it covered. Works In any 
pmode and can print normal or reversed images. 

DISK and CASSETTE I/O 

Save and load your creations to and from disk or cassette. You can even load 
hi res displays created by other programs to make changes. 

INTERFACES WITH TELEWRITER 64 

Wouldn't it be nice if you could design your own letter head in hi-res graphics 
and then print it out while using Telewriter -64? Master Design offers Just that 
capability! The Letter Head Utility will let you convert any hi-res display so that 
It can be accessed while using Tdewriter-64! The BASIC program modules are 
provided with step by step instructions. These BASIC modules can also be used 
in your own BASIC programs for printing displays without having to use the 
graphic pages. You can have upto 88 pages of graphics linked together for 
printing! 

THIS IS A 
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OF WHAT YOU 
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' CHICAGO RAINBOW ^ 

Uisa/MC customers can call: (803J 665-5676 - 9:00 - 5:00 edt 

Requires 32K with at least one disk drive 
(Include $2.00 for shipping and handling) 

Telewrifer-64 fCJ 1983 by Cognifec 



170 DAT A 193, 254, 38, 16, 129,48,38, 
12, 134,47, 173, 159, 160,2, 134,8, 17 
3, 159, 160,2,53, 119,57 
200 Sl=M+36:S2«INT(M/256) :S3=S1- 
(S2*256) 

210 POKE M+4,S2:P0KE M+5,S3:P0KE 

M+9,S2:P0KE M+10,S3 
220 EXEC M 



Listing 2: 



3E8I 



3EA4 34 77 



3EA6 F6 
3EA9 CI 
3EAB 26 
3EAD 81 
3EAF 26 



3EB1 86 
3EB3 AS 
3EI7 86 
3EB9 AO 



•••II *mtmtmmtttttttt«t 
••111 ♦ SLASHED ZERO • 
•••21 • t 
IM3! » SLASHES THE ZEROES ON ♦ 
•M4I # PRINTERS WHICH DO NOT t 
#1151 i HAVE THEN BUILT IN t 
HI 61 » * 
MI7! t PR06RAH <C) 1983 BY: ♦ 
•118! i DAVID BAILEY » 
ffMf I IS COLONIAL AVE. • 
II1M t CRANSTON, RI I29lf* 
Hill »•#♦•♦»•#•#♦#♦♦•##♦##*#♦♦ 
1112! t 

1113! tLOCATE PRQ8RAH IN HI8H RAH 

••141 t"CLEM2M,16fff" OR K CLEAR2ll,32«H a 

11151 > BEFORE LOADING. 

•116! #»ft#CH00SE HE OF THE FOLLOW LINES 

•117! ttft«ACC0RDIN6 TO YOUR NEWJRY SIZE 

11181 ORB 16IM 

11191 * 0R6 32H* 

1121! ft 

11211 UNITIALIZE THE PR06RAH (CHAN6E 

1122! ftBASIC HOOKS TO USE ROUTINE) 

11231 *AN *EXEC a TURNS THE SLASH ON AND OFF 



3E8! BE 


1168 


1124! IN1T 


LDX 


>36l 


3E83 8C 


3EA4 


1123! 


CHPX 


ISTART 


3E86 27 


IB 


•126! 


BE 6 


INITI 


3E88 8E 


3EA4 


11271 


LDX 


•START 


3E8B BF 


1168 


••28! 


STX 


>36! 


3E8E 2! 


13 


•129! 


BRA 


IMT3 


3E9! 66 


1167 


mn initi 


LDA 


>359 


3E93 81 


7E 


11311 


CHPA 


• 126 


3E93 26 


•7 


0132! 


BNE 


1NIT2 


3E97 86 


39 


1133! 


LDA 


•57 


3E99 B7 


1167 


•134! 


STA 


>359 


3E9C 2! 


IS 


•1331 


BRA 


INIT3 


3E9E 86 


7E 


•136! INIT2 


LDA 


• 126 


3EAI B7 


1167 


•137! 


STA 


>359 


3EA3 39 




1138! INIT3 


RTS 





1139! ft 

••4M ftNAIN BODY OF PRQ8RA* 



H6F 

FE 

If 

31 

•C 



2F 

9F AN 2 
•8 

9F AM2 



A,B,X,Y.CC,U SAVE ALL REG'S 
!' 60ING TO PRINTER 
>I6F DEVICE • 
•-2 PRINTER? 
RETURN NO, SO BACK TO BASIC 
rf IS CHAR A ZERO? 
RETURN NO, SO BACK TO BASIC 



3EBD 35 77 
3EBF 39 

3E8f 

MM! TOTAL ERRORS 



••41! START PSHS 
•1421 »CHECK FOR A 
1143! LDB 
11441 CftPB 
••451 BNE 
N46I CHPA 
1147! BNE 
1148! « 

•149! ftTHE CHARACTER IS A ZERO 80IN6 TO 
II5N *THE PRINTER, SO PERFORM ROUTINE 
M5II LDA •'/ READY FOR V 

••32! JSR [IAM2] PRINT IT TO PRINTER 

•1331 LDA #IM BACKSPACE PRINTER 

•154! JSR [*AH23 FOR THE ZERO TO 

•135! « OVERLAP THE SLASH 

1156! ft 

H57I »RETURN TO BASIC: U RESTORE RE6ISTERS 

0138! ft 2>»RINT CHARACTER THAT NAS 

#1391 ft INTENDED, ZERO OR NOT Z) CONTINUE 

•I6H * EXECUTION OF PROORAH, LIST, ETC. 

II61I RETURN PULS A.B,K,Y,CC,U 6ET RE6'S BACK 

11621 RTS PRINT CHAR I CONT. 

1163! END WIT jjl 

Buftfuw 



88 THE RAINBOW July 1984 




Explore the ancient, mystical tomb of the great Pharoah. Find the magical keys which lead you to unbelievable 
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TIME FIGHTER 



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RAINBOW ^ 



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Software Distributors. SOFTWARE AUTHORS: Contact us for exciting marketing details. 



FEATURE GAME 



Computer games are about to enter a 
new dimension. Now, not only will 
you be able to hear and see the game 
you are about to play, but thanks to 
THE RAINBOW, you will also be able to 
smell the program. Interested? Then 
read on, and prepare yourself for this 
"scentuous" experience. 




BY EMC W. TI1BIHS 




(Eric W. Tilenius is a 
sophomore at Walt Whitman 
High School in Huntington, 
Long Island, N. Y. and has 
been programming and 
working with computers for 
several years.) 



or as long as you could remember, 
life had been dull and boring. 
Somehow you had imagined that 
once you took a job with the 
international police you would be 
plunged into action packed, death 
defying, bone chilling, brain wrack- 
ing international crimes. You 
would be the super crime fighter 
you had always wanted to be- 
come! But, NO! What do you do 
to earn your paycheck? Answer 
telephones. Indeed, life with the 
international police is anything 
but exciting. You are sheltered in a little office with 
a phone on your desk and a guard outside the door. 
You can't even leave the office to go out for pizza. 
"This is the international police, kid. We have to 
keep a low profile, 11 your boss always tells you. Not 
surprisingly, you feel like giving your boss a low 
profile, to say nothing, of what you feel like doing to 
your little telephone. 

Yes, life with the international police is certainly 
everything but what you yearn for in life. Until 
yesterday. 

Yesterday, your boss called you into his office. 
"Hey kid," he said, "get over here." So you go into 
his office, wishing you could wrap a phone cord 
around his stubby little neck. "Kid, I have some- 
thing I want you to do," he spits out between big 
puffs on his cigar. 

"Kid, huh?" you think. "I'll show him who's a 
kid." Yet, there is something in the way he speaks 
which causes you to retain control of yourself. 

"For eight years now, kid," he begins, "we have 
been tracking down a ruthless band of terrorists 
and thieves. Now, however," he continues with a 
great wave of his hand, "it looks like we got 'em. 



They've finally pulled off a stunt that was just too big for 
them. Are you familiar with the world's largest diamond?" 

Wanting to impress your boss that you have more knowl- 
edge than just the number of Anthony's Pizza, you eagerly 
reply "Certainly, sir." (Somehow the word "sir" just doesn't 
seem to fit your boss.) "The Cullinan Diamond, mined in the 
Premier Mine in South Africa in 1905. It is a 3601 carat gem 
weighing one and a third pounds and . . 

"Wrong!", your boss answers with glee. "That is, wrong 
since a week ago. Just a week ago, the Arconiax Diamond 
was found. A nice 3937 carat gem, too." (Pausing for a 
moment, the boss thinks how his girlfriend would simply 
adore a 3937 carat diamond.) Clearing his throat, he con- 
tinues, "But before the diamond could be safely locked 
away, the terrorists got their grubby paws on it." 

Putting on the most sincere voice you can muster, you 
politely inquire, "But what does this have to do with me?" 

"You, kid," he replies, "are inauspicious."( Your boss just 
loves using big words — even when they don't fit.) "They 
won't suspect you. You are to go to the house of one of the 
leaders of the group. It's not 
that far from here. I want you 
to see if you can get any clues 
as to the diamond's where- 
abouts." 

"Me? Me? Me! ME!" 

"Yes, you. Here's the ad- 
dress. Sneak in, search the 
place, and then report to me 
on what you find. And, by the 
way, try to calm down." 

"You know something, boss 



"1 know every thingV\ he 
replies, and dismisses you with 
a wave of his hand. 

You tear back to your of- 
fice, take one last look at your 
James Bond 007 picture, and 
dash off on your assignment. 

Unfortunately, the terror- 
ists are as usual, one step 
ahead of your "most knowl- 
edgeable" boss. As you enter 
the house, two of the gangsters 
are close behind on your heels. 
And the excitement is only 
just beginning . . . 




these boxes, you will notice that it has a distinct fragrance to 
it. 

At certain points during the game, the computer may tell 
you, "I found something! (Scratch box number 1)." At this 
point you must use your keen sense of smell to determine 
what it is that the computer found. Let's say, for example, 
that you think box number one smells like peanuts. You 
could then tell the computer to "Take Peanuts" or "Eat 
Peanuts." (You tell the computer what you want to do by 
using one- or two-word commands. I'll go into this more 
later.) All of the scented items play a part in the Adventure. 
Don't give up if you can't figure out a particular scent at 
first. You may get more clues as to what it is as the Adven- 
ture goes on, or, at any rate, you can always ask your friends 
for their opinions. I don't think that you should have much 
trouble, though, as all of the scents are quite distinctive. 

To play The Arconiax Assignment, you need, at least, a 
1 6K Extended BASIC Color Computer. There are two differ- 
ent versions of the game — one for 16K and the other for 
32K. 

The 16K Version 



This version is in the typ- 
ical Adventure game 
format. You are told 
where you are, the objects you 
see, and the obvious exits. 
You are then asked for your 
command. Use a verb alone, 
such as LOOK, or a verb and 
a noun, such as LOOK BOT- 
TLE. Type PCLEAR1 before 
loading the program. When 
the program is RUN, a title 
message is displayed while the 
program initializes DATA. 
The program then begins. A 
SA VE feature is built in, as is 
a game LOAD command. To 
save a game, type SA VE and 
to LOAD a game back in, 
type LOAD. 

If you have 32Kor 64K, 
you're in for a real treat! 
this version has a moving 
title display, instructions, 
special "window formatting," 
full paragraph descriptions of 



The Game 



This is the situation you find yourself in at the 
beginning of The Arconiax Assignment. Your main 
goal is to successfully track down the Arconiax Dia- 
mond, if you can. But don't forget, while you're at it, about 
your secondary (?!) goal — to stay alive, and in one piece. 
That may be hard enough, And, in addition, you had better 
find something to EAT during the game — you are so 
excited that you left your office without having lunch. 

The Arconiax Assignment is an Adventure game, but, as I 
mentioned before, it is unique in that it lets you experience 
the game with more than just your sense of sight and sound. 
It lets you smell the game! As you have probably noticed by 
now, there is a "Scent Sheet" bound into this month's RAIN- 
BOW. It consists of six numbered boxes. If you scratch one of 



your location, VERB and HELP commands, colorful and 
humorous descriptions of objects that you LOOK at, and 
more! 

First, type in the 32K program listing. (If you are over- 
whelmed just looking at the listing, there is a great alterna- 
tive — RAINBOW ON TAPE. Next, save the program either to 
tape or disk and then type RUN. You will be greeted with a 
moving title display and then asked if you would like 
instructions. If it is your first time playing, I suggest you 
answer "Yes" to this question. 

The game will then start. On the top portion of your 
screen will be a description of where you are. This is in full 
paragraph form — not just a skimpy word or two. For 
example, instead of just seeing "YOU ARE IN A SMALL 
HOUSE," the computer will tell you, "YOU ARE IN THE 
LIVING ROOM OF A COMFORTABLE, SMALL 
HOUSE. SUNLIGHT FILTERS GENTLY THROUGH 



92 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



1983 unit silts Jan Feb Kir Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total Avenge Best Uorst 



Jin 


Feb 


Kir 


Apr 


1 Oi 

136 


1 oo 


1 1 o 

119 


161 


1 OA 

uO 


1 OA 
1/0 


1 CO 

152 


1 OA 

170 


100 


ID/ 


1 AO 

103 


110 

We 


1 AC 

105 


OA 


i 00 

127 


1 1 c 

115 


IOC 

135 


135 


183 


4 4 1 

116 


134 


4 AO 

102 


4 an 


4 J 4 

161 


JOS 


109 


188 


171 


112 


128 


124 


12» 


158 


no 








2312 2166 2387 2321 2401 1699 1439 2276 2242 2011 1318 2631 



THE BEST OF BOTH WORLDS! 



4T 

JCHICAGO 




avai I able from 




COMPUTER SYSTEMS CENTER 
13461 01 ive Blvd. 
Chesterfield, MO 63017 USA 
(314) 576-5020 

or your local DYNACALC dealer 



Price $150 postpaid in US & Canada. rainbow \ 

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Outside North America add $10 postage. 



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Jan iFeb flar 'flpr hav ' Jun 'Jul hu-3 Sf? dct Nov Lee 



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MICRO R.G.S. INC. 

751, CARRE VICTORIA, SUITE 403 
MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, H2Y 2J3 

Regular Tti. (514)287-1563 
Canadian Toll Free 800-361-5155 



THE WINDOW PANES. A CLOCK SLOWLY TICKS 
OUT THE TIME. IT IS A WARM, SUNNY AUTUMN 
AFTERNOON AND THE WHOLE HOUSE FEELS 
COZY AND SECURE." I think you will agree that this 
method produces much more of a "flavor" in the Adventure. 

In the middle of the screen, the computer will tell you 
what "VISIBLE OBJECTS" you see. These are objects that 
are not fixed in the surroundings. They can be taken (usu- 
ally). The computer will next give you all the obvious exits 
from that room. Be careful, some exits might not be so 
obvious. The computer will then ask for "YOUR COM- 
MAND." Type a verb, or a verb and a noun, to tell the 



computer what you wish to do. If you have trouble, a list of 
verbs is available by typing "VERB" and clues are available 
by typing "HELP." 

The game has a game save feature. Type SA VEto use it. 
To load back in a game, type LOAD. 

If you have 32K, this version is well worth the extra typing 
time! 

I hope that you enjoy The Arconiax Assignment. It is a 
novel concept in computer games,so, have fun, and may you 
successfully "scent out" the hidden location of The Arconiax 
Diamond. 

Scent card is located between Pages 98 and 99. 



26 15 170 . 

48 18 190 

62 196 240 

72 ........ 136 270 

80 148 306 

106 115 324 

124 177 346 

134 250 370 

148 40 



.12 402 60 

158 420 252 

.87 452 208 

.37 492 92 

.50 520 164 

142 532 9 

.48 556 150 

107 600 181 

END 229 



Listing 1 (32K Version): 
0 GOTO 662 

2 9 Tti BE USED IN CONJUNCTION 

WITH THE JULY, 1984 RAINBOW 

4 * 




Sonbuust Softwaue 

233 S.E. ROGUE RIVER HWY. 
— Gfi A NTS PASS, OR 97527 1 -503-476-5977 

We are proud to announce our new utilities for 
the 64K Disk Color Computer, featuring 

• Full use of 64K RAM • 100% Machine Language 

• Parameters easily changeable in basic loader 

• No ROM calls • "Cold start" exit to basic 

• Easy-to-read, informative documentation • Keyklik 

• Selectable drive stepping rate • Support 1-4 drives 

• Easy to use, with menu selected functions /f^^ji 

DlHMrllll 

To make life with your disks easier, may we suggest . . 



1. The Sector Inspector — Alphabetize, backup, and printout 
directory; repair crashes, LLIST basic programs, name 
disks, read in and edit 23+ - grans, 3-swop backups, and more. 
Has 35-page manual and gran table print program . . . $29.95 

2. The Deputy Inspector — Alphabetize, re-sort, and backup 
directory; fast 3-swap backups, copy files or programs 

to same or other disks, can auto-reallocate granules 

during backup for faster loading, and more ......... $21.95 

3. The Archivist — Make long-losting tape backups of your 
valuable disks, erase and format disks $14.95 

4. The Chief Inspector — $ave 10% I Order all 3 $59.95 

5. Coming soon! An effortless, 21 gran editor/assembler. 
Call or write for special pre-introduction offer and $ave. 

A. Now available: Screen sized (12%"xl3V4") graphics 

layout sheets. Used by top programmers .... 50 Sheets/$5.00 

e Please add $1.50 for shipping, $2.50 for COO. 

THIS MONTH: VIETNAM VETS — FREE SHIPPING 



♦♦♦♦COPYRIGHT <C> 1984***** 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦BY************* 

ERIC W. TILENIUS 

♦♦♦♦♦ALL RIGHTS RESERVED^^ 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

6 * 32K VERSION 

i&K USERS, USE THE 16K VERSION 

8 ■ — THE ARCONIAX ASSIGNMENT — 

10 CLEAR 2900 
12 SP*=CHR*<128) 
14 X=RND< -TIMER) 

1 6 PR*= " t he " +SP*+ " r a i nbow " +SP*+ " 
presents"+SP*:M=i:GOSUB 582 
1 8 PLAY " L7 ; 02 j EB ABGBF#BL3E " 
20 PR*= "an" +SP*+ "eric " +SP*+ "tile 
nius" +SP*+ " product i on " +SP* : GOSUB 
582 

22 PLAY " L7 ; 02 ; D AG AF# AE AL3D " 

24 DATA 67, 72, 79, 67, 79, 76, 65, 84* 

69,71,85,77,80,73,67,75,76,69,83 

, 80, 69, 80, 80, 69, 82, 77, 73, 78, 84, 8 

0, 73, 78, 69, 77, 79, 84, 72, 66,65, 76, 

76,83 

26 FORC=l TO 9: READ X:SC*<1)=3C* 

<d+chr*<X) :next:for c*=i to 3:re 

AD X: SC* <2) =SC* <2) +-CHR* <X) : NEXT: 
FOR C=l TO 7: READ X: SC* <3) =SC* <3 

)+chr*<x) :next:forc=itoi0:read x 
: sc* < 4 ) »sc* < 4 ) +chr* < x ) : ne x t : forc 
=1t04:read x:sc*<5)-sc*<5)+chr*< 

X) : NEXT 

28 PR*« " get " +SP*+ " r eady " +SP*+ " f o 
r"+SP»: GOSUB 582 

30 PLAY " L8 ; 02 ; EB AB6BF#BD AG AF# AE A 

C6FGEGDGDAGAF# AEAL2D " 

32 PR*» " t he" +SP*+" arconiax "+SP*+ 

"assi gnment " +SP*I GOSUB 582 

34 PLAY "01 L2 $ GEFFL 1 C " 

36 L- 1 : CM*-STR» < RND < 30 ) ) + " - ■ +STR 

*<RND<30> )+"-"+STR*<RND<30> ) :CM* 

=MID*<CM*,2) 

38 RM- 1 9 : VB=29 : OC-36 : DR-0 : LK-0 : D 



94 THE RAINBOW July 19B4 



6=0: hc=80: 01=13: sz=i 

40 DIM L*<20) ,O*<40) ,O<40) ,V<31) 
,V*(31) ,HP*<21) ,T(20,7) ,LI (39) ,D 
«(40) 

42 CLS:PRINT" THE ARC0NIAX ASSIG 
NMENT. " : PRINT: PRINT" A 'SCENTUOU 
S* ADVENTURE GAME 'SPRINT" BY 
ERIC W. TILENIUS. " 

44 SC*<5)=SC*<5)+" BRANCH" : FORC= 
1 TO 9: READ X:SC*(6)=SC*<6)+CHR* 
(X) :next 

46 PRINT: PR I NT "WOULD YOU LIKE IN 
STRUCTIONS ( Y/N) " ; : INPUT I* 
48 IF LEFT* (I*, 1)<>"Y" THEN 64 
50 CL3:PR*="THIS SAME IS TO BE U 
SED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE * SCR 
ATCH AND SNIFF* BOXES WHICH APPE 
AR IN THE RAINBOW (JULY, 1984). 
AT CERTAIN POINTS DURING THE ADV 
ENTURE, YOU WILL BE INSTRUCTED T 
0 'SCRATCH BOX # 1 ■ OR SOME OTHE 
R BOX.":GOSUB 632 
52 FOR C=l TO 4500: NEXT 
54 PR»-"AT THAT TIME, SCRATCH TH 
E SPECIFIED BOX. YOU MUST DETERM 
INE WHAT IT IS THAT YOU SMELL AN 
D USE IT ACCORDINGLY IN THE GAME 
. YOU TELL THE COMPUTER WHAT YOU 
WANT TO DO BY USING TWO WORD CO 
MMANDS. " : GOSUB 632 
56 FOR C=l TO 4500: NEXT C 
58 PR*="FOR EXAMPLE, YOU MIGHT T 
YPE 'LOOK BOTTLE* OR 'GO EAST*. 
ALL VERBS MAY BE SHORTENED TO TH 
E FIRST TWO LETTERS AND ALL NOUN 
S TO THE FIRST 3. FOR INSTANCE ' 
LO BOT' WOULD ACHIEVE THE SAME E 
FFECT AS 'LOOK BOTTLE *.": GOSUB 6 

32: PLAY"Pl ; Pi | Pi ; Pi " 

60 PR*="IF YOU HAVE TROUBLE, YOU 
MAY OBTAIN A LIST OF VERBS BY T 
YPING * VERB* . YOU MAY ALSO GET A 
LITTLE HELP BY TYPING 'HELP*. I 
F YOU WANT TO SAVE A GAME TYPE ' 
SAVE'. TO LOAD AN OLD GAME TYPE 
' LOAD' . " : GOSUB 632: PLAY"P1 J PI J PI 
;P1" 

62 PR*- "YOUR MISSION IS TO RECAP 
TURE THE ARCONIAX DIAMOND WHICH 
WAS STOLEN BY AN INTERNATIONAL T 
ERROR I ST GROUP. GOOD LUCK!":GOSU 
B 632:PLAY"P1*P1;P1?P1" 
64 PR*="I AM INITALIZING THE GAM 
E DATA* STAND BY AND PREPARE YOU 
RSELF FOR THIS ADVENTURE !": GOSUB 
632 

66 DATA "YOU ARE IN THE LIVING RO 
OM OF A COMFORTABLE , SMALL HOUSE 
. SUNLIGHT FILTERS GENTLY THROUG 



What Does 
Dugger's Growing 
Systems Grow? 



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symbols up to 32 characters 
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we grow Orchids 

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Foreign orders add 15% 
California orders add 6% 



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Solana Beach, Calif. 92075 
(619) 755-4373 

Technical information 6 am to 8 am PDT only 
Dealer inquiries welcome 

* Flex— trademark of TSC, OS-9 trademark of Microware 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 



H THE WINDOW PANES. A CLOCK SLOW 
LY TICKS OUT THE TIME. IT IS A W 
ARM, SUNNY , AUTUMN AFTERNOON AND 

THE WHOLE HOUSE FEELS COZY AND 
SECURE. " 

68 DATA" YOU FIND YOURSELF IN A R 
ICHLY DECORATED BEDROOM. THERE I 

5 AN ANTIQUE BUREAU HERE. ON ONE 
SIDE OF THE ROOM IS A FRESHLY P 

AINTED WINDOW. IT IS VERY COMFOR 
TABLE HERE, BUT YOU HAVE A NAGS I 
NG FEELING THAT SOMEONE IS WATCH 
ING YOU." 

70 DATA "YOU ARE IN A LOVELY VICT 
OR I AN GARDEN. THERE ARE MANY FLO 
WERS HERE. A SOFT BREEZE IS BLOW 
ING. A TRELLIS RUNS UP THE SIDE 
OF THE BUILDING. THERE IS A SPAR 
KLING FOUNTAIN HERE IN THE CENTE 
R OF THE GARDEN. " 

72 DATA "THIS IS A SECLUDED SIDE 
STREET. YOU SEEM ISOLATED FROM E 
VERYONE AND EVERYTHING. THERE AR 
E LOW-HANGING TREES HERE WHICH C 
UT YOU OFF FROM THE SUN. YOU SUD 
DENLY WISH YOU WERE BACK IN THE 
NICE BEDROOM. " 

74 DATA "YOU ARE IN A GRASSY MEAD 
OW. A BIG BLACK CAT IS HERE, PRO 
BABLY LOOKING FOR SOME JUICY MIC 
E. HE WATCHES YOU WITH BIG BLACK 
EYES. OUT IN THE OPEN, THE WIND 
HAS INCREASED AND IS NOW BLOW IN 

6 QUITE FORCEFULLY." 

76 DATA "YOU ARE ON THE ROOF OF T 
HE HOUSE. IT IS AN INDUSTRI AL-TY 
PE ROOF, WITH GRAVEL SCATTERED A 
LL AROUND. FROM HERE YOU CAN GET 

A CLEAR VIEW OF WHERE YOU WERE 
AND IT LOOKS LIKE A MANSION. NO 
OTHER BUILDINGS ARE IN SIGHT." 
78 DATA "YOU ARE STANDING IN FRON 
T OF AN OLD TOOL SHED WHICH WAS U 
SED TO STORE GARDEN TOOLS. THERE 
IS A DOOR ON THE SHED. NEAR THE 
SHED, YOU SEE A SMALL MOUSEHOLE 
. A SIGN OVER THE SHED SAYS 'EXT 
ERMINATOR: GET RID OF THE MICE!! 

» II 
■ 

80 DATA "YOU ARE INSIDE THE TOOLS 
HED. IT IS DAMP IN HERE AND THE 
WHOLE PLACE HAS A MUSTY SMELL. T 
HE WALLS ARE ROTTING. MOST OF TH 
E GARDEN TOOLS HAVE BEEN REMOVED 
A LONG TIME AGO. IT LOOKS AS IF 
THE PLACE USED TO BE INFESTED B 
Y RATS." 

82 DATA "THIS IS A NEW, MODERN-LO 



OK ING STOREHOUSE USED TO KEEP LA 
RGE QUANTITIES OF MEAT. A COMB IN 
AT I ON LOCK HANGS ON THE DOOR WHE 
RE THE MEAT IS STORED. I DON'T T 
HINK you WOULD LIKE THE RAW MEAT 
, ANYWAY." 

84 DATA "THIS PLACE CERTAINLY LOO 
KS LIKE A HOME FOR MICE. CRUMBS 
ARE ALL OVER THE FLOOR, ALONG WI 
TH OTHER GARBAGE. IT SMELLS IN H 
ERE. " 

86 DATA "YOU ARE ON A RUSTIC COUN 
TRY STREET A SHORT DISTANCE FROM 

THE BUILDING YOU ESCAPED FROM. 
EVERYTHING IS STRANGELY QUIET. T 
HE STREET IS FILLED WITH POTHOLE 
S. " 

88 DATA "THIS IS A SMALL HIDDEN R 
OOM. LIGHT SEEMS TO BE COMING FR 
OM NO WHERE, BUT THE WHOLE ROOM 
IS BLINDINGLY BRIGHT." 
90 DATA "THIS IS ANOTHER RUSTIC C 
OUNTRY STREET. THIS STREET, HOWE 
VER, HAS BEEN RECENTLY RESURFACE 
D AND A SEWER HAS BEEN ADDED TO 
HELP DRAINAGE. " 

92 DATA "YOU ARE ON A RUSTIC COUN 
TRY ROAD. THERE IS A MAN HERE. H 
E HAS AN UNLIT CIGARETTE HANGING 

OUT OF ONE CORNER OF HIS MOUTH. 

HE SAYS, ' GOT A LIGHT?'" 
94 DATA "THIS IS THE NORTH END OF 

MAIN STREET. THE TOWN IS BUSTLI 
NG WITH ACTIVITY. THERE SEEMS TO 

BE A CROWD EVERWHERE YOU LOOK. " 
96 DATA "YOU ARE IN FRONT OF LENN 
Y'S ARCADE. LENNY, A VERY FRINDL 
Y MAN, WAVES 'HI'. HE COMES OVER 

TO YOU AND ASKS, 'GOT ANYTHING 
TO EAT?'" 

98 DATA "YOU ARE AT THE ENTRANCE 
TO A BUILDING. THE NAME OVER THE 

BUILDING IDENTIFIES IT AS THE ' 
SSB BUILDING' (WHATEVER THAT IS) 
. A GUARD IS HERE. HE SAYS, 'SHOW 

SOME I.D.'" 
100 DATA "YOU ARE AT GEORGE GILLE 
R'S HARDWARE STORE. GEORGE, A GR 
UMPY OLD SHOPKEEPER, SHOUTS AT Y 
OU 'EITHER BUY SOMTHIN OR GIT OU 
T! NO LOITERS ROUND HERE!'. HE L 
OOKS MAD ! ! ! " 

102 DATA "YOU ARE IN A FABULOUS T 
REASURE VAULT! THE ARCONIAX DIAM 
OND IS HERE, BUT SO IS A GIGANTI 
C MOTH! IT HOVERS OVER THE TREAS 
URE, KEEPING WATCH OVER IT!" 
104 * OBJECTS 



96 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



I federal Hill Software ■ 

I FINE PRODUCTS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER, DRAGON AND MC-10 I 



Mon CoCo Parle Francais! 
Mi Coco Habla Espanol! 

These delightful 16K Extended Basic pro- 
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lesson plans. Spanish or trench, only $24.95 on 
tape, $27.95 on disk. Both languages only 
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The Handicapper 



Use the power of your computer to improve your 
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Factors include speed, class, post position, past 
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NEW GREYHOUND HANDICAPPER! Now use 
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Baseball Statpak^g 



Whether you're in little league. Pony 
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Keep track of 180 hitters-AB, Hits, Avg., RBI, 
HR, SO, Walks and lots more. Pitching records 
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Credit Card orders should include card num- 
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PRO-COLOR-SERIES 



©1984 BY DERRINGER SOFTWARE, INC, 



DOME DT IONK3ER AMD SETTER TUM 
A fully intergrated series of programs that offers a full range of information tracking capability. 



PRO-COLOR-FILE 'Enhanced* 



$79.95 



PRO-COLOR-FORMS** 



$39.95 



This is the main link in the series. With PRO-COLOR-FILE, you can 
design a full featured database that is custom tailored to your needs. 
Its ability to allow the user to custom define formats is unmatched by 
anything else on the market. A full range of features for information 
handling is available for any application you might have: 

* 60 Data Fields for storing data 

* 1020 bytes capacity per record 

* Variable record length capability 

* Multi-drive drive ability 

* Allows maximum system storage 

* 4 Custom designed screen formats 

* 28 Equation lines (+-*/) 

* 8 Custom designed report formats 
" Send reports to printer or screen 

* Summarize file by groups of records 

* Column totals and averages 

* Posting routine performs file wide calculations and updates fields 

* 6 Custom designed mailing label formats 

* Custom designed menus for selection of reports and label formats 

* Selectable password protection for data entry screens and reports 

* Sort any size file 

* 3 level sort capability 

* Select options for sorting or reporting sub-sets of a file 

* Duplicate records and fields 

* Cursor controlled text editing 

* Fast record selection via indexing 

* Global file searching 

As a database is created, all of the formats are stored in a file which 
means you won't have to enter it each time you want to print a report or 
label. Once your database is up and running, you can install a limited 
menu that will lead even the most timid user through the program. 
Since menu selection of report formats are custom made, you'll know 
exactly which format does what. 

PRO-COLOR-FILE is also supported by a NATIONAL USERS' group. 
Their quarterly newsletter is packed with ideas for using PRO- 
COLOR-FILE to its fullest. A listing of database programs that have 
already been created is also provided for comparing notes with other 
users. Useful database information such as magazine articles are 
available on a data disk for use on your own system. 

Think about it, how can a program exist for over a year and a half, be 
sold in every state and overseas, and have the support of a national 
users' group? Simple, it's that good! 



This is the second link in the series. PRO-COLOR-FORMS offers the 
ability to merge data files with text files. Just imagine being able to 
place the data you enter with PRO-COLOR-FILE anywhere on a sheet 
of paper, either by itself or within an external source of text, then you'll 
have the picture. This means you could write a general letter to a list of 
people but have each one custom printed with their name and 
address. You can pre-enter checks into a data base and then have the 
checks printed on form-feed checks. You might even use form-feed 
statements for sending out to customers at the end of each month. All 
of the parameters can be modified to indicate just what size "page" 
you need for any application: 

* 6 Menu Selectable formats 

* Page width from 40 to 133 characters 

* Lines per page from 7 to 66 

* Supports printer control codes 

* Converts any ASCII file for use 

* Prints multiple copies 

* Interfaces with PRO-COLOR-FILE 

* Password protection 

If you need to generate forms from your data files then chances are 
you can do just that with PRO-COLOR-FORMS. Form letters, billing 
statements, index cards, or even post cards can be used easily. 



PRO-COLOR-DIR* 



$24.95 



The latest addition to the series is a utility for organizing disk direct- 
ories into one nice listing. PRO-COLOR-DIR reads the directory of a 
diskette and then stores valuable information about each program 
into a master data file. This data file can then be accessed by PRO- 
COLOR-FILE for sorting, searching and reporting. PRO-COLOR-DIR 
will create a record for each filename on a diskette and store the 
following information about each one: 

* Diskette ID name 

* Date diskette was created 

* Last date diskette was updated 

* Filename and extension 

* File type (BASIC, ML, Text, Data) 

* Number of Grans allocated 

* Number of sectors allocated and used 

* Machine Language program addresses 

PRO-COLOR-DIR allows for hardcopies of a single diskette's files and 
has a versatile label printing routine. A global replace function can 
re-store a diskette's files with deleted files being removed or new ones 
appended automatically. 



BtRfHDJDr 



"PRO-COLOR-FORMS & PRO-COLOR-DIR Require PRO-COLOR-FILE to be used" 

'Requires 32K Disk Basic* 

* RAINBOWFEST SPECIAL * 



rainbow^ ■ « ■ iw w «w ■ mm mm ■ w ■ mm w ■ mm %l CHICAGO 

Take advantage of this special offer NOW to get the best database series on the market at a super price! 



PRO-COLOR-FILE 'Enhanced* 
PRO-COLOR-FORMS 
PRO-COLOR-DIR 
"ALL THREE** 



SALE 

$59.95 Save $20 
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S^le Ends July 15, 1984 

Derringer Software Inc., P.O. Box 5300, Florence, S.C. 29502 — (803) 665-5676 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. 

Note: All of our programs have registration cards - If you've purchased one from another dealer, then you should be registered 
with us. If not, send your name, program ID#and where the program was purchased. We want to keep you informed about changes. 



This sheet contains six different scents to be used in 
the Adventure game called Arconiax Assignment. 
For instructions on the use of this page, please refer 
to the article. Just scratch a number and sniff. 




July 1984 THE RAINBOW 



106 DATA HANDWRITTEN NOTE,2,*,0, 
*,0,*,0,*,0, GRAVEL, 6, AN OLD RUST 
Y KEY, 0, A BOTTLE, 5, *,0,*,0, RAW M 
EAT,0,*,0,#,0,A SOLID IRON CROWB 

AR,8,A SCRAP OF PAPER, 10 

,,,,,,, A PIECE OF SOMETHING 
(SCRATCH BOX #1 ) , 10, », 0, *, 0, A SO 
GGY NEWSPAPER, 4 

108 DATA A VICIOUS GUARD D0G,4,M 
ATCHES, 0, HMM. . . (SCRATCH #5) , 12, S 
OMETHING STUCK TO YOUR SHOE <SC 
RATCH BOX #2) , 11, , , MONEY, 0, A JAR 
OF SOMETHING (SCRATCH BOX #3) 
,15, A STICK OF SOMETHING (SCRATC 
H #4) ,3, SOMETHING FOR SALE (SCRA 
TCH #6) , 18 

110 DATA ***THE ARCONIAX DIAMOND 
*#*, 19 
112 * VERBS 

114 DATA GET, 1, TAKE, 1, LOOK, 2, GO, 
3, EAT, 4, BUY, 5, NORTH, 3, SOUTH, 3, EA 
ST, 3, WEST, 3, UP, 3, DOWN, 3, HELP, 6, , 
7, ,8, VERB, 9, PUSH, 10, PULL, 10, OPEN 
, 11, MOVE, 10, CLIMB, 12, GIVE, 13,DRI 
NK,4 

116 DATA JUMP, 14, UNLOCK, 15, BREAK 
, 16, DIAL, 15, DROP, 13, FILL, 17 
118 'DESCRIPTIONS 

120 DATA" IT SAYS 'YOU ARE OUR PR 
ISONER HERE. FEEL FREE TO ROAM T 
HE PREMISES, BUT ANY ATTEMPT TO 
ESCAPE WILL RESULT IN YOUR death 
. YOU WILL BE NOTIFIED WHEN WE H 
AVE FURTHER NEED OF YOU. (SIGNED 
, > THE SECRET SOCIETY. " 
122 DATA "AH HA! ONE OF THE DRAWE 
RS IF FILLED WITH TONS OF MATCHE 
S. THE GUY WHO LIVED HERE MUST H 
AVE REALLY BEEN A PYROMANIAC. " 
124 DATA" IT'S FRESHLY PAINTED AN 
D NO MATTER HOW HARD YOU TRY, YO 
U CAN'T OPEN IT. THERE IS AN ALA 
RM CONNECTED TO IT, BUT I CAN'T 
FIGURE OUT HOW TO DEACTIVATE IT. 

II 

126 DATA "THE FOUNTAIN HAS A STAT 
UE OF A DWARF IN THE CENTER, SPO 
UTING WATER FROM HIS MOUTH. THE 
WATER SPARKLES AND LOOKS INVITIN 
GLY WET. SUDDENLY YOU FEEL THIRS 
TY. " 

128 DATA" IT LOOKS FAIRLY STURDY. 

THERE ARE ROSES GROWING ON IT. 
IT LOOKS LIKE IT KEEPS GOING UP 
FOREVER. " 

130 DATA" IT'S GRAVEL, WHAT DID Y 
OU EXPECT?? WAIT A MINUTE ! ! WHAT 
'S THIS?!?" 



132 DATA" IT'S AN OLD RUSTY KEY. 
IT WOULD PROBABLY FIT IN A RUSTY 

LOCK, BUT I DON'T EVEN SEE ANY 
REASON WHY ANYTHING AROUND HERE 
WOULD BE LOCKED, EVERYTHING IS W 
IRED WITH ALARMS." 
134 DATA" IT'S A PEPSI BOTTLE. TH 
E LABEL ON THE SIDE READS 'DRINK 

PEPSI - THE SODA OF MICHAEL JAC 
KSON'. SORRY, THIS TIME YOU HAVE 

NO CHOICE (NO TASTE TESTS.) ANY 
WAY, ITS EMPTY." 

136 DATA "THE CAT HAS BIG, WATCHF 
UL BLACK EYES. A TAG AROUND ITS 
NECK BEARS THE NAME ' EX TERM I NATO 
R'. IT LOOKS AS THOUGH IT WANTS 
TO EAT YOU. FORTUNATELY, (OR UNF 
ORTUNATELY FOR THE CAT) YOU ARE 
TOO BIG TO BE ITS DINNER!!" 
138 DATA" IT REQUIRES 3 NUMBERS T 
O OPEN. NO AMOUNT OF PRYING WILL 

EVER FORCE THIS ONE OPEN! IT'S 
MADE OF 1 INCH THICK STEEL!! EIT 
HER YOU HAVE THE COMBINATION OR 
YOU'RE OUT OF LUCK." 
140 DATA "THE MEAT IS RAW AND LOO 
KS LIKE IT WAS MADE FROM ALL THE 

RATS AROUND THIS PLACE. IF I WE 
RE YOU, I WOULDN'T TRUST IT." 
142 DATA" IT'S SMALL ENOUGH FOR A 

MOUSE. OTHER THAN THAT, WHAT CA 
N YOU SAY ABOUT A MOUSEHOLE?" 
144 DATA "THE DOOR IS THE ONLY ST 
URDY THING ABOUT THE SHED. IT IS 

MADE OF SOLID STEEL. FUNNY, THQ 
UGH, THE KEYHOLE IS RUSTY, BUT N 
OTHING ELSE ON THE DOOR IS." 
146 DATA "THE CROWBAR IS MADE OF 
IRON. ON IT ARE THE WORDS 'NO PA 
IN, NO GAIN'. IT MUST HAVE BELON 
GED TO ONE OF THOSE PEOPLE WHO L 
OVE TO INFLICT PAIN ON THEMSELVE 
S. REMIND ME NOT TO RUN INTO ONE 

OF THOSE GUYS, WILL YA?!?" 
148 DATA "THE SCRAP OF PAPER HAS 
A COMBINATION ON IT." 
150 DATA" I CAN'T SEE THAT FAR" 
152 DAT A "YOU'LL HAVE TO GO THERE 

YOURSELF. " 
154 DATA "THE ATLANTIC OCEAN IS T 
HAT WAY, BUT I DON'T THINK IT'S 
WITHIN WALKING DISTANCE." 
156 DATA "ARE YOUR FEET TIRED BY 
ANY CHANCE??" 

158 DATA" THE SKY IS BLUE. THAT'S 
ABOUT ALL THAT YOU CAN SEE UP T 
HERE. " 

160 DATA "THE GROUND IS DOWN, WHA 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 99 



T DID YOU EXPECT TO SEE, HADES?? 

II 

162 DATA "THE SHED IS OLD AND FAL 
LING APART. THE TIMBERS ARE ROTT 
ING, BUT THE DOOR IS STILL STAND 
ING AND IS MADE OF STEEL. IT LOO 
KS LIKE IT USED TO BE USED FOR T 
OOLS, BUT NOW IT'S DESERTED." 
164 DATA "SCRATCH BOX NUMBER ONE 
TO SEE WHAT IT IS." 
166 DATA "THE WATER LOOKS DELIGHT 
FUL. AREN'T YOU THIRSTY???" 
168 DATA "THE FLOWERS SMELL DELIG 
HTFUL . THERE ARE ROSES AND MUMS 
AND ABOUT A HUNDRED OTHER TYPES 
OF FLOWERS HERE. I WOULDN'T ADVI 
SE PICKING THEM THOUGH, SOMEONE 
MIGHT GET MAD*" 

170 DATA" IT'S TODAY'S EDITION OF 
'USA YESTERDAY'. THE FRONT PAGE 
STORY IS ALL ABOUT THIS GUY WHO 
GOT KIDNAPPED BY THESE TERROR IS 

TS WHO HAVE BEEN ELUDING INTERNA 

TIONAL POLICE FOR 8 YEARS. HEY! 

THAT'S YOU THEY'RE TALKING ABOUT 

172 DATA "THE DOG LOOKS REALLY VI 
CIOUS. HE WON'T LET YOU PASS. TH 



E LOOK IN HIS EYES TELLS YOU HE' 
S REALLY LOOKING FOR A 'LEG DINN 
ER', AND IT LOOKS LIKE HE IS EYE 
ING your LEG!" 

174 DATA "THEY ALL SAY 'LENNY'S V 
I DEO ARCADE' ON THEM. THEY CAN B 
E USED TO LIGHT THINGS." 
176 DATA" IT IS A LONG, THIN STIC 
K. MAYBE ONE OF THE KIDNAPPERS U 
SES IT TO BEAT HIS KIDS. ANYWAY, 
I HOPE YOU CAN FIND A BETTER US 
E FOR IT." 

178 DATA" IT' S STICKY." 

180 DATA "HOW ABOUT THAT! THERE'S 
MONEY DOWN THERE, BUT YOU CAN'T 
REACH IT WITH YOUR HAND." 

182 DATA" IT'S FIFTY CENTS." 

184 DATA "THEY ARE GREEN AND SMEL 

L OF BRINE." 

186 DATA "YUM, THEY REALLY LOOK D 
ELICIOUS! ! ! " 

188 DATA "<<COUGH»<< COUGH » THEY 
REALLY SMELL BAD. BE GLAD YOU'R 
E A HUMAN, THOUGH. 11 
190 DATA "THE FAMED TREASURE AT L 
AST ! " 

192 'TRAVEL TABLE 

194 T* < 1 )«=" NORTH" : T* <2) SOUTH" : 



COL OR FOR TH tm FORTH COMPILER 

THERE IS LIFE AFTER BASIC! COLORFORTH is a figFORTH language compiler designed for use on the Color 
Computer. COLORFORTH Version 2.0 is available now with all these features and more: 

Can access ALL available RAM from 16K through 64K and will work with any current ROM 
Executes 10 to 25 times faster than BASIC and can be programmed much faster 
50 additional commands are included beside the standard figFORTH commands 

You get BOTH cassette and RS/DOS versions, PLUS a resident figEDITOR* and an 82 page manual 
A special command that allows you to copy your program so that it can be run on a CoCo without 
first loadinq COLORFORTH 

ALL OF THE ABOVE FOR ONLY $49.95 



DECISION MAKER™ 

IF YOU HAVE EVER HAD TROUBLE MAKING UP YOUR 

MIND, TKEnHTHIS PROGRAM IS FOR YOU! 
DECISION MAKER is a new concept in programs for 
the Color Computer. 
DECISION MAKER is . . . 

* A step by step, interactive program to help 

you solve any problem 

* Designed using standard analytic techniques j^^, 

* A learning tool to discover the exact utx\ 

processes used reaching a decision RAINBOW 

* A valuable asset for anyone certification 
DECISION MAKER requires 32K and Ext. Basic 
Complete with 16 page manual, only $24.95 



BIO- PS YD HOME TER 



tm 



NOW YOU CAN INVESTIGATE THE HIDDEN REALMS Of THE 
HUMAN MIND! 

BIO-PSYCHOMETER is an authentic Bio-feedback 
device complete with software 
B 1 0-PS YCHOME TER includes: 

* Bio-feedback graphing, Stress Reduction, and 

Memory Improvement modes 

* Machine Language, high speed graphics 

* Very sensitive hardware for optimum results 

* Printed manual with instructions and 

suggestions for use 
BI 0-PS YCHOMETER requires 32K and Ext. Basic 
Complete, with manual, only $39.95 



We accept U.S. funds drawn on U.S. banks, VISA & MASTER CARD, & UPS C.O.D.s 
Add $2.50 shipping & handling 
Texas residents add 5SS 



ARMADILLO INTL SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 9351 
AUSTIN, TEXAS 78766 




Jk 




PHONE (512)836-1088 



100 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



T*<3) = M EAST" : T* <4> ="WEST" : T* (5) = 

• , UP":T»<6>" ,, D0WN" 

196 DATA 0,0,0, 1, 1,0 

198 DATA 0,3,0,0,0,0 

200 DATA 2,5,0,0,0,0 

202 DATA 0,2,0,0,0,0 

204 DATA 3,0,9,7,0,0 

206 DATA 0,6,6,0,0,3 

208 DATA 0,0,5,0,0,0 

210 DATA 0,7,0,0,0,0 

212 DATA 0,0,0,5,0,0 

214 DATA 7,0,0,0,0,0 

216 DATA 0,13,0,4,0,0 

218 DATA 0,0,2,0,0,0 

220 DATA 11,14,0,0,0,0 

222 DATA 13,0,0,0,0,0 

224 DATA 15,17,18,16,0,0 

226 DATA 0,0,15,0,0,0 

228 DATA 15,0,0,0,0 15 1 

7,, 0,0 
230 'LIST# 

232 DATA 1,2,2,2,2,1,1,1,2,2,1,2 
,2,1,1,3,3,3,3,3,3,2,2,2,2,1,2,1 
,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2 
234 * HELP 

236 DATA "THIS IS YOUR HOME. YOU 

SHOULDN'T NEED HELP HERE!" 

238 DATA "TRY LOOKING AT THINGS. " 



240 DATA "THIS RHYME MIGHT HELP: 

WHEN IN NEED OF A CHANG 
E OF VIEW JUST LOOK AT THE THING 
S TO GIVE A CLUE. IF IT'S TOO SO 
ON, NEVER GO ON, BUT JUST TRY TO 

SIP FROM A WHITE GLOVED SONG." 
242 DATA"HMM. . .MAYBE 'ROVER* WOU 
LD LIKE A STEAK. " 

244 DATA" NO FIELD MICE AROUND HE 
RE. MAYBE LATER ON YOU'LL FIND S 
OME. (IF THIS CLUE DOESN'T MAKE 

SENSE AT FIRST, KEEP TRYING.)" 
246 DATA" JUST DON'T JUMP!" 
248 DATA "YOU NEED 2 DIFFERENT TH 
INGS HERE FOR 2 DIFFERENT PURPOS 
ES. " 

250 DATA" IT'S 5:00P.M. DID YOU B 

EAT YOUR HOUSE TODAY???" 

252 DATA "MAYBE THEY HID THE COMB 

I NAT I ON SOMEWHERE . " 

254 DATA "DON'T PIG OUT IN HERE." 

256 DATA "SCRATCH BOX#2 TO SEE WH 

AT IS ON YOUR SHOE. " 

258 DATA" I HOPE THIS ROOM ISN'T 

A GARBAGE COMPACTOR. . . " 

260 DATA "THAT SEWER LOOKS INTERE 

STING. . . " 

262 DATA "GIVE THE MAN A LIGHT, A 



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Two Drive Cable $24.95 



"1 



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COMING SOONl 



a Serial/Parallel interface for the 
Radio Shock" Color Computer 
Our Interface allows your CoCo 
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such features as 
1 ' Switch selectable boud rates 
from 300 to 9600. 
Switch selectable printer or 
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orderllne local orders and shipping info 

1-800-231-6671 1-713-480-6000 


16206D Hickory Knoll Houston, Texas 77059 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 101 



LREADY ! " 

264 DATA "ALWAYS LOOK AT EVERTHIN 
G. ■ 

266 DAT A "LENNY'S IRISH." 

268 DATA "LENNY MIGHT BE ABLE TO 

HELP. " 

270 DATA" BUY SOMETHING" , "THIS ON 
E I'LL LEAVE UP TO YOU" 
272 'READ DATA 

274 FOR C-l TO RM: READ L*(C):NEX 
T 

276 FOR Ol TO OC: READ 0*<C),0(C 
) : NEXT 

278 FOR C-l TO VB: READ V*(C),V<C 

> :next 

280 FOR Ol TO OC: READ D*(C):NEX 
T 

282 FOR C-l TO RMlFOR Cl=l TO 6: 

READ T(C,C1):NEXT C1,C 

284 FOR C-l TO OC: READ LI(C):NEX 

T 

286 FOR C=l TO RM: READ HP*<C>:NE 
XT 

288 V*= " GET ALOGOE ABUNOSOE AWEUPDO 
HESALOVEPUPUOPMOCLG I DR JUUNBRDI DR 
FI" 

290 0*» " NOTBURW I NFOUTREGRAKE YBOT 

CATLOCMEAMOUDOOCROPAPNORSOUEASWE 

SUP DOWSHECHOWATFLONEWDOGMATPING 

UMSEWMONP I CPEPMOTD I A " 

292 'START OF GAME 

294 PR*=L*<L> : GOSUB 632 

296 FL-0 

298 print"visible objects are: " 
;:for c=i to oc: if o<c>-l then p 

RINTO*<C>»" "j:FL-FL-t-l 
300 NEXT 

302 IF FL-0 THEN PR I NT "NOTHING" 
304 PRINT 

306 IF L-19 AND 0(35)01000 THEN 
PLAY"P1;P1":PR*="THE MOTH SPOTS 
YOU, HOMES IN ON YOU AND. . . AAA 

AAAARRRRRGGG ! YOU'RE D-E-A-D. DO 
TRY AGAIN, THOUGH. ": GOSUB 632: P 

LAY"P1 ; PI | PI " : CLEAR: END 

308 PR I NT "OBVIOUS EXITS LEAD:";: 

FOR C-l TO 6: IF T<L,C)>0 THEN PR 

INTT*<C>»" "; 

310 NEXT 

312 IF L-5 AND SZ-0 THEN PR*-"TH 
E BIG BLACK CAT SUDDENLY POUNCES 
! IN ONE FELL SWOOP, YOU ARE DEV 
ORED. Y-O-U A-R-E D-E-A-D. BUT 
DON'T FEEL BAD, THE CAT THOUGHT 
YOU WERE A VERY TASTY LITTLE MO 
USE . " : PLAY " P 1 P 1 " : GOSUB 632 : PLAY " 
P it P 1 S P 1 " : CLEAR : END 
314 PRINTS32*15, J 



316 PRINT" YOUR COMMAND: ";: LINE I 
NPUT A* 

310 IF A*="PET DOG" THEN A*="TAK 
E DOG" 

320 IF L-l THEN PR*- " SUDDENLY TW 
0 MEN WITH GUNS BURST THROUGH YO 
UR DOOR, SHATTERING THE SILENCE. 

ONE OF THEM HITS YOU ON THE HEA 
D AND YOU FALL TO THE GROUND, UN 
CONSC I OUS . " : GOSUB 632 : PLAY " P 1 ; P 1 
;P1":L«2:G0T0 294 

322 VS-0 : SP- I NSTR < A* , " " ) : PV*=LE 
FT* (A*, 2) :PN*-MID*(A*,SP+1,3> :V1 
♦-LEFT* (A*, 1 ) : VK*=LEFT* (A*, 3) 
324 IF PV*="" THEN PRINTfe32*14, J 
:GOTO 316 ELSE IF PV*=LEFT* <PN*, 
2) THEN PN*="":VS-1 
326 IF VK*«"EAT" THEN PV*-"EAB" 
ELSE IF PV*="E" THEN PV*-"EAW" E 
LSE IF VK*="LOA" THEN PV*«"LOV" 
ELSE IF PN*-"BUB" THEN PN*-SC*<2 
) 

328 IF PV*-"UN" THEN PV*-"UNB" E 
LSE IF VK*»"DRO"THEN PV*-"DRF" 
330 IF PV*-"RE" THEN PV*-"LO" EL 
SE IF VI*-" I" THEN 572 
332 VN-(INSTR(V*,PV*)+l>/2 

336 IF VN-0 OR VNOINT(VN) THEN 
PR I NT "I DON'T UNDERSTAND THE VER 
B. ":GOTO 316 

337 I FNN— 1 3ANDL— 9THEN NN-10 

338 NN=<INSTR(0*,PN*)+2)/3: IF VS 
-1 THEN 346 

340 IF NN-0 OR NNOINT(NN) THEN 
PR I NT "I DONT KNOW HOW TO ";A*;". 
":GOTO 316 

342 IF V<VN)=1 AND NN-24 THEN A* 
-"FILL BOTTLE": GOTO 322 
344 HC-HC-l:IF HC<20 THEN PRINT" 
YOU ARE VERY HUNGRY. " ELSE IF HC 
<5 THEN PR I NT "YOU ARE ABOUT TO S 
TARVE!" ELSE IF HC-<0 THEN PRINT 
"YOU HAVE JUST DIED OF HUNGER! 

T-H-E E-N-D ! " : CLEAR : END 
346 ON V(VN> GOTO 350,374,392,40 
8, 426, 434, 438, 458, 478, 482, 488, 50 
8,514,534,540,560,566 
348 PR I NT "YOU DON'T REALLY WANT 
TO DO THAT, DO YOU??": GOTO 3 

16 

350 'TAKE 
352 FL-0 

354 if 0(nn)-l and li <nn) -1 then 
O(NN)-1000:printo*<nn> " taken. " 

:FL=4 

356 IF 0<27)-4 AND L-4 AND NN-27 
THEN PR I NT "THE DOG JUST BIT YOU 
R LEG OFF. YOUR SCREAMS ALERT T 



102 THE RAINBOW July 1984 




HI-RES SCREEN UTILITY 
p"tur i M» H o u b I e Height Char ^ tpr ' 



Bell Char 
Suit chab I e F 
Tru 



Pro^raHabl * I i 



creen Reverse Uideo 
LoMer case character set 

'"RBiniiniiiii-H 

len-sths Fron 2S to 255 characters - 



28 Characters 
32 Characters 
36 Characters 



12 Characters 
51 Characters 

M Crwr acters per I ine 



rer tin 
per line 
per line 
per line 
I i ne 



PI I f unc Y i ^i,> .li *■ *-^pt- i I 



• FULLY BASIC COMPATIBLE 

• DISPLAY FORMATS OF 28 to 255 

CHARACTERS PER LINE 

• FULL 96 UPPER LOWER CASE CHARACTERS 

• MIXED GRAPHICS & TEXT OR SEPARATE 

GRAPHIC & TEXT SCREENS 

• INDIVIDUAL CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING 

• REVERSE CHARACTER HIGHLIGHT MODE 

• WRITTEN IN FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE 

• AUTOMATIC RELOCATES TO TOP OF 16 32K 

• AUTOMATICALLY SUPPORTS 64K ol RAM 

WITH RESET CONTROL 

• REVERSE SCREEN 

• ON SCREEN UNDERLINE 



• DOUBLE SIZE CHARACTERS 

• ERASE TO END OF LINE 

• ERASE TO END OF SCREEN 

• HOME CURSOR 

• BELL TONE CHARACTER 

• HOME CURSOR & CLEAR SCREEN 

• REQUIRES ONLY 2K OF RAM 

• COMPATIBLE WITH ALL TAPE & 

DISK SYSTEMS 

$19.95 



INTRODUCING 

TEXTPRO III 

The Professionals" Word Processing System 



• 9 HMtosolntlon Display Formats: from 
28 to 255 Columns by 24 lines 

• True Upper /Lower Case Display 

• Three Programmable Headers 

• Programmable Footer 

• Automatic Footnote System 

• Automatic Memory Sense 16-64K 

• Up to 48K of Workspace on 64K 

• 10 Programmable Tab Stops 

• 7 Tab Function Commands 

• Automatic Justification 

• On Screen Underlining and Double 
Size Characters 

• Change Formatting at Any Time 

• Edit Files Larger Than Memory 

• Compatible wHh All Printers 

• Easily Imbed Any Number of Format 
and Control Codes 

• Typist Friendly Line and Command 
Format Entry 

• Automatic Key Repeat 

TEXTPRO III is the most advanced Text Editing and 
Word Processing System available for the Color Com- 
puter. One of the reasons for this is, Textpro works in a 
totally different way than the other Color Computer 
Word Processing programs. It uses simple 2 character 
abbreviations of words or phrases for commands. These 
commands are used at the beginning of a line and are 
preceeded by a period. Several commands can be 
chained together on the same line for ease of use. Thru 
these commands you tell the Word Processor how you 
want the margins set, line length, indenting information, 
and so on. You can change the way you want a docu- 
ment formatted at any point in the document. You also 
have the freedom to write without worrying about how 
long the line is or where the margins are and so on. The 
Word Processor automatically takes words from one line 
to the next and Alls out the printed line to the desired 
length. You can even use the command to Input Text 
from the Keyboard while a document is being processed, 
and use that information to change the formatting or 
enter any other valid text Processor command. With this 
kind of flexibility and an extensive set of commands and 
functions available, its no wonder that TEXTPRO 111 is 
the most advanced Word Processing System. 



5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las vegas, Nevada 891 10 



Screen Formatting 

Textpro III has 9 Hi-Resolution Upper /Lower case 
display formats available, from 28 to 255 characters per 
line by 24 lines. You also have advanced screen com- 
mands such as double size characters and on screen 
underlining. You can also use the standard 32 by 16 
display for systems having lower case hardware kits in- 
stalled. The display defaults to a 51 by 24 format that is 
easily switched to any other format available. Along with 
the Hi-Resolution screen we added automatic repeating 
keys Typomatic." The rate is fully adjustable from ultra 
fast to super slow or can be turned off entirely for your 
convenience. 

64K Support 

Textpro HI fully supports the use of 64 K on the Color 
Computer. It has fast automatic memory sensing and 
configures itself accordingly. Textpro HI does not require 
Extended Basic or Flex to take full advantage of a 64K 
RAM system. On a 64K Disk System there is over 64K of 
workspace available and files larger than memory are 
fully supported. Tape based systems have up to 48K 
available for workspace. 

Text Editor 

Textpro HI has a full featured, line oriented screen editor; 
It supports single or multiple line copy and move, global 
or local search and replace of any character string, 
character insert and delete, block delete, adjustable 
speed automatic key repeat, single and automatic line 
edit, programmable underline and double width control 
coded, change screen background color and line 
lengths, automatic line numbering, line resequencer, 
and insert and delete line numbers. 

Disk A Tape 1/0 

Textpro HI uses fully compatible ASCII formatted files 
that do not have to be converted like some of the other 
Word Processing Systems. It will load, save and verify 
basic ASCII formatted tape files. The disk version sup- 
ports Load, Save, Directory, Kill, Append, Text Process 
file from Disk, Roll part of file to disk and get next portion 
of file from disk. 

DISK $59.95 TAPE $49.95 




(702) 452-0632 



Standard Command* 

Textpro HI features a whole host of Document Format- 
ting commands. The setup command section includes: 
Line Length, Top, Left, and Bottom Margins, Page 
Length, Page Numbering on /off and Automatic Word 
Fill and Justification on /off. 

Some of the vertical control features include: test for 
number of lines left on the page, skip to next page, set 
page number, wait at top of page, single and multi line 
spacing, and skip blank lines. 

Textpro III features 3 programmable header lines that 
can be centered, left or right justified. It also has one pro- 
grammable footer line. 3 commands for continues, 
single and paragraph indenting, center text, underline 
and double width print commands. 

Footnotes and Special Commands 

Some of the special features allow imbedded control 
codes to access intelligent printer features like; 
superscript, subscript, change type font and even 
graphics. You can even imbed control codes within 
justified text. There is a command that automatically 
places footnotes at the bottom of the page, which can be 
very handy for term papers, etc. Another command 
allows you to display a message on the screen and input 
text from the keyboard. This text is then printed as if it 
has been part of the original text, thus you can produce 
things like a personalized form letter. There is also a 
repeat command that allows you to repeat an entire 
document or a part of one as many times as needed up to 
255 times. This can be used to produce mailing labels or 
combined with the previous command to produce a 
selected number of personalized form letters. 

Tab Functions 

Textpro Hi features an "elaborate system of tab com- 
mands for complete control over column formatting. 
There are 10 programmable tab stops that can be de- 
fined or re-defined at any time in the text file. They can be 
used with the following tab commands; Center Over Tab 
Column, Right Justify to Tab Column, Decimal Align 
Over Tab Column, Left Justify to Tab Column (Normal 
Tab) and Horizontal Tab. Tab functions may also be 
used with a numeric tab column position for maximum 
flexibility. You can also define the Tab Fill Character to 
any printable character to fill in the blanks with dots, 
dashes, etc. 



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Add $2.50 Postage 



HE KIDNAPPERS, WHO COME. UNFORTU 
NATELY, THEY DIDN'T COME TO HELP 
YOU . YOU * RE D-E-A-D . " : CLEAR : END 
358 IF NN=23 AND 0(23)=L THEN PR 
INTSC* ( 1 ) " TAKEN. " : 0* (23) =SC* < 1 > 
: 0(23) =1000: FL=4 

360 IF NN=30 AND O(30)=L THEN PR 
INTSC* (2) " TAKEN. " : O* (30) =SC* (2) 
: 0(30) =1000: FL=4 

362 IF NN=32 AND L=13 AND LI (32) 
-2 THEN 624 

364 IF NN-33 AND L-15 AND LI (33) 
-2 THEN LI (33) =1 : O (33) =1000: PRIN 
TSC*(3) " TAKEN. " : O* (33) =SC* (3) : F 
L=4 

366 IF NN=29 AND L=12 AND LI (29) 
=2 THEN LI (29)=l:0*(29)=SC*(5) :0 
(29)=1000:PRINTO*(29) " TAKEN" : FL 
=4 

368 IF NN=34 AND L=3 AND LI (34)= 
2 THEN LI (34)=l:0*(34)=SC*(4) :0( 
34 ) » 1 000 : PR I NTO* ( 34 ) " TAKEN " : FL= 
4 

370 IF FL<>4 THEN PR I NT "CAN'T TA 
KE THAT ■ ! " 
372 GOTO 316 

374 "LOOK 

375 FL=0 



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376 IF PN*="" THEN 294 

378 IF 0(NN)=L OR O(NN)=1000 OR 

LI(NN)=2 OR LI(NN)=3 THEN PR*=D* 

(NN):G0SUB 632:FL=1 

380 IF FLOl THEN PRINT" I DON'T 

SEE THAT HERE.": GOTO 316 

382 IF NN=6 AND O(7)=0 THEN 0(7) 

=6 

384 IF NN=2 AND O(28)=0 THEN 0(2 
8) =2 

386 IF NN=15 AND (L=10 OR 0(15)= 

1000) THEN CR=l:PRINTCM* 

388 IF NN=31 AND L=13 AND 0(32)= 

0 THEN 0(32)=13:D*(31)="ALL I SE 

E IS MUD." 

390 GOTO 316 

392 * GO 

394 IF VN<>4 THEN D=VN-6 ELSE D= 
NN-15 

396 IF D<1 OR D>6 THEN 400 
398 IF T(L,D)>0 THEN L=T(L,D):GO 
TO 294 ELSE PRINT" I CAN'T GO THA 
T WAY. ":GOTO 316 

400 IF NN=22 AND DR=2 AND L=7 T 
HEN L=8:G0T0 294 ELSE IF NN=22 
THEN PR I NT "THE DOOR IS IN THE WA 
Y.":GOTO 316 

402 IF NN=5 AND L=3 THEN L=6:GOT 
O 294 ELSE IF NN-5 THEN PRINT" I 
DON'T SEE IT HERE. ": GOTO 316 
404 IF NN=12 AND L=7 AND SZ=0 TH 
EN L=10:GOTO 294 ELSE IF NN=12 T 
HEN PR I NT "YOU ARE TOO BIG!":GOTO 
316 

406 PRINT" I CAN'T GO THERE.": GOT 
O 316 

408 'EAT & DRINK 

410 IF NN-11 AND O(ll)=1000 AND 

L=4 THEN PR I NT "THROW IT, DON'T D 

RINK IT! ! ":GOTO 316 

412 IF NN=11 AND O(ll)=1000 THEN 
O(11)=2000:PRINT"YUCK! RAW MEAT 
TASTES HORR I BLE • " : HC=HC+30 : GOTO 
316 

414 IF (NN=24 OR NN=8 OR NN=4) A 
ND (L=3 OR BT=1) THEN SZ»0: PRINT 
"YOU HAVE S-H-R-U-N-K ! YOU ARE N 
OW THE SIZE OF A MOUSE !!": 80T0 3 
16 

416 IF NN=23 AND (0(23)»L OR 0(2 
3) =1000) THEN SZ=1 :0 (23) =0: PRINT 
"YOU SUDDENLY G-R-E-WM YOU ARE 

NOW BACK TO NORMAL SIZE. ":FL=-5 
6: IF L=10 THEN PRINT"TOO BAD, TH 
OUGH, YOU ARE NOW TOOLARGE TO GE 
T OUT AND THE E X TERM- 1 N ATOR IS H 
ERE. . . ": CLEAR: END 

418 IF NN=33 AND 0(33) =1000 THEN 
O ( 33 ) =2000 : HC=HC+40 : PR I NT " < < H I C 



104 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



K»":FL=-56 

420 IF NN-34 AND <0<34>"L OR 0(3 

4) =1000) THEN O(34)=0:PRINT"<<YU 

M»" : HC=HC+50: FL— 56 

422 IF FL=-56 THEN 316 

424 PR I NT "YOU CAN'T EAT OR DRINK 

THAT ! " : GOTO 316 
426 * BUY 

428 IF 0(32)01000 THEN PRINT" YO 
U HAVE NO MONEY. ": GOTO 316 
430 IF NN=35 AND L=18 AND LI (35) 
«2 THEN LI (35) =1:0* (35) -SC* (6) :0 
(35)=1000:PRINTO*(35) " BOUGHT. ": 
GOTO 316 

432 PR I NT "YOU CAN'T BUY THAT ! " : G 
OTO 316 
434 'HELP 

436 PR*=HP*(L> :GOSUB 632: GOTO 31 
6 

43G 'SAVE 

440 CLS : PR I NT " GAME SAVE FEATURE 
REQUESTED . " : PR I NT : I NPUT " TAPE OR 
DISK";DV* 

442 IF LEFT* (DV*, 1 ) ="D" THEN DV= 

1 ELSE DV=-1 

444 I NPUT " F I LENAME " » FL* 

446 MOTORON : AUD I OON : PR I NT " READY 

DEVICE AND HIT ENTER .": I NPUT Q9* 

448 OPEN"0",DV,FL* 

450 FOR C=l TO OC:PRINT#DV,0(C) : 

NEXT 

452 FOR C=l TO RM: FOR Cl=l TO 6: 
PRINT#DV, T (C, CI ) : NEXT C1,C 
454 PRINT#DV,L,HC,DR,LK,SZ 
456 CLOSE#DV: PRINT "FILE "FL*" IS 
NOW SAVED . " : AUD I OOFF : MOTOROFF : G 
OTO 316 
456 'LOAD 

460 CLS: I NPUT "TAPE OR DISK";DV* 
462 IF LEFT* (DV*, 1 ) ="D" THEN DV= 
1 ELSE DV=-1 

464 INPUT "FILENAME" ?FL* 

466 MOTORON : AUD I OON : I NPUT " READY 

DEVICE AND HIT ENTER. " S Q9* 

466 OPEN"I",DV,FL* 

470 FOR C=l TO OC: INPUT#DV,0(C) : 

NEXT 

472 FOR C=l TO RM: FOR Cl=l TO 6: 
INPUT #DV,T(C,C1) :NEXT C1,C 
474 INPUT #DV,L,HC,DR,LK,SZ 
476 CLOSEttDV : AUD I OOFF : MOTOROFF : 6 
OTO 294 
478 'VERB 

480 CLS: FOR C=l TO VB:PRINTV*(C) 
, : NEXT: PRINT" INVENTORY" , : GOTO 31 
6 

482 'PUSH, PULL, OPEN 

484 IF NN-2 AND L=2 THEN PR I NT "I 

T MOVES, REVEALING A HIDDEN P 



ASSAGE TO THE WEST" : T (2, 4) =12: GO 
TO 316 

486 PR I NT "PUSHING AGAINST THAT D 
OES YOU NOGOOD. IT WON'T OPEN.": 
GOTO 316 
488 'OPEN 

490 IF NN=2 THEN A*="LOOK BUREAU 
":GOTO 322 

492 IF NN=3 THEN PR I NT "YOU CAN'T 
. IT'S STUCK. ":GOTO 316 
494 IF NN=10 THEN A*="DIAL LOCK" 
:60T0 322 

496 IF NN=22 THEN NN=13 

498 IF NN<>13 THEN PR I NT "YOU CAN 

*T OPEN IT.": GOTO 316 

500 IF DR=1 AND L=7 THEN PR I NT "C 

-R-E-A-K. THE DOOR SWINGS OPEN." 

: T (7, 1 ) =8: PLAY"P1 " : GOTO 294ELSEI 

FDR= 1 THENPR I NT " CAN ' T " 

502 IF DR=2 THEN PRINT" IT'S ALRE 

ADY OPEN." 

504 IF DR=0 THEN PRINT" IT'S LOCK 
ED. " 

506 GOTO 316 
508 'CLIMB 

510 IF NN=5 AND L=3 THEN L=6:G0T 
0 294 

512 PR INT "CLIMBING THAT IS LIKE 



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Functions include: 1) ERASURE VERIFICATION; 2) COMPARE EPROM TO 
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EPROM TO RAM; 6) JUMP; 7) RETURN TO EPROM MENU. 

Other features: 1) Error detection & location; 2} Intelligent algorithm reduces 
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A/D-80C ANALOG TO DIGITAL 
CONVERTER 

• 16 A/D channels. 

• 8 or 10 bit resolution. 

• 9K conversions/second. 

• Auto-ranging or sample/hold. 

• Large wirewrap area for custom 
signal conditioning & growth. 

• On-board PI A provides user control 
of stimulus. 

• On-board EPROM location for user 
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July 1984 THE RAINBOW 105 



TRYING TO CLIMB A WALL OF GLASS 
- IT'S POSSIBLE, BUT STUPID." 
ZGOTO 316 
514 * DROP 

516 IF O<NN)=1000 THEN 0<NN)=L:P 

R I NTO* <NN) " DROPPED . " : FL=3 

518 IF FL»3 AND 0<11)=4 AND L=4 

THEN PR I NT "THE DOG TAKES YOUR GI 

FT AND HURRIES OFF. " : T <4, 3) - 

ll:O<ll)»2000:O<27)=2000:GOTO 31 

6 

520 IF FL=3 AND L=14 AND NN=2S T 
HEN O<28)=2000:L=15:PR*="THE MAN 

THANKS YOU AND GIVES YOU A RIDE 

INTO THE NEARBY TOWN IN HIS TRU 
CK. AS YOU LEAVE, HE WHISPERS 'G 
IVE LENNY THE GREEN'. HE THEN DR 
IVES AWAY.":GOSUB 632: GOTO 316 
522 IF FL»3 AND L=16 AND NN=33 T 
HEN 0< 33) =0:PR*="' THANKS, ' SAID 
LENNY, 'I'LL TELL YA WHAT. BECAU 
SE I LIKE YOU, I'LL GIVE YA SOME 

INFO. THE CODE TO GET IN THE SS 
B IS "+0*<6)+". GIVE IT TO THE D 
OORMAN . " : GOSUB 632 : FL=3 
524 IF FL=3 AND L-17 AND NN=6 TH 
EN O<6)=0:PR*="'O.K. , ' SAYS THE 
GUARD, 'YOU'RE O.K. THE VAULT IS 

TO THE WEST. O.K.?? <THE GUARD 
MUST REALLY LIKE THE WORD 'O.K.' 
)":GOSUB 632:FL=3:T<17,4)=19 
526 IF NN=35 AND L=19 AND 0<35)= 
L THEN PR*="THE MOTH WITHERS AWA 
Y AND DIES. THE TREASURE IS AT L 
AST YOURS! YOU PICK UP THE SPARK 
LING GEM AND HEAD FOR HOME. CONG 
RATUL AT I ONS ! YOUR BOSS EVEN RAIS 
ED YOU TO HEAD TELEPHONE OPERATO 
R. YOU WON! ":FL=3 
528 IF FL<>3 THEN PR I NT "YOU ARE 
NOT CARRYING THAT.": GOTO 316 
530 IF FL=3 AND L=19 AND NN=35 T 
HEN GOSUB 632: CLEAR: PL AY" VI 202; " 
: A*="EBABGBF#BE" : B*="DAGAF#AEAD" 
:C*="CGFGEGDGC":PLAY"L10; XA*! XB* 
SXC*; XB*; XA*; LIE": END 
532 GOTO 316 
534 ' JUMP 

536 IF L=6 THEN PRINT"C-R-A-S-H « 
! YOU HAVE JUST JUMPED I NTO A PIL 
E OF JUNK. UNFORTUNATELY, YOUR K 
I DNAPPERS HEARD THE CLATTER, T 
00. bang! YOU'RE DEAD. DO TRY AGA 
IN - UNLESS YOU'RE CHICKEN.": 
CLEAR: END 

538 PRINT"YOU JUST JUMPED UP AND 
DOWN. W-O-W! HAVING FUN????" 
:GOTO 316 
540 'UNLOCK 



542 if <nn=22 or nn=13) and 0(7) 
=1000 and l=7 and dr=0 then dr=»1 
:print m c-l-i-c-k. the door unloc 

KS. ":GOTO 316 

544 IF <NN=22 OR NN=13) AND <DR= 

1 OR DR=2) THEN PRINT" IT'S ALREA 

DY UNLOCKED. ": GOTO 316 

546 IF NN=10 THEN 552 

548 IF O<7)<>1000 THEN PRINT" YOU 

DON'T HAVE A KEY. " 
550 GOTO 316 

552 IF L=9 AND CR=1 THEN INPUT"W 
HAT'S THE COMBINATION"; CO*: IF CO 
*=CM* THEN 0<ll)=9:LK»l:G0T0 294 
554 IF L<>9 THEN PR I NT "SORRY, WR 
ONG ROOM. " ELSE IF L=9 THEN PR IN 
T"NOPE. YOU CAN'T OPEN IT" 
556 IF CR=1 AND L*9 THEN PR I NT "W 
ATCH YOUR SPACING. YOU MUST BE E 
XACT. " 

558 GOTO 316 
560 'BREAK 

562 IF NN=3 AND 0< 14) =1000 THEN 
PRINT" IT SHATTERS INTO A MILLION 

PIECES" : T <2, 1) =4: GOTO 316 
564 PR I NT "WHAT'S THE POINT OF VA 
NDALIZING THINGS???": GOTO 316 
566 'FILL 

568 IF L=3 AND O<8)=1000 THEN BT 
=1 :PRINT"FILLED WITH WATER. ":MID 
*<D*<8) ,LEN<D*<8) )-5, 17)="FILLED 
":D*<8)=D*<8)+» WITH WATER.": GOT 
O 316 

570 PRINT"YOU ARE QUITE UNABLE T 
O FILL IT. ": GOTO 316 
572 ' INVENTORY 

574 CLS:FOR C»l TO OC: IF O<C)=10 
00 THEN PRINTO*(C) 
576 NEXT 
578 GOTO 316 
580 END 

582 'SCREEN TITLE SUBROUTINE 
584 LS= I NT < LEN ( PR* ) / 2 ) : RS=LEN ( PR 
*)-LS 

586 CLS<CL) 
588 GOTO 600 

590 F0RC=1 TO 80 : NEXT: FOR C=l T 
0 80 :SCREEN0, 1:SCREEN0,0:NEXT 
592 X=15!Y=0 

594 PRINT@7*32+<X-Y) ,SP«; : IF Y>« 
0 THEN Y=Y+1 

596 Y=-Y:IF Y<15 THEN GOTO 594 
598 RETURN 

600 X1=15-LS:X2=16+RS:Y1=0:Y2=14 
602 FOR C=4 TO 7 
604 CLS0 

606 FOR X3=2 TO LEN<PR*)-1 STEP 
2 

608 PRINTS<Y1+C)*32+X1+X3,MID*(P 



106 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



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R*,X3, 1); 
610 NEXT X3 

612 FOR X3=l TO LEN (PR*) STEP 2 
614 PRINTS (Y2-C)*32+X1+X3, MID* (P 
R*,X3, 1) ; 
616 NEXT 

618 FOR X=l TO 50:NEXT:PLAY"O2L2 
55; CDEDCDEDCEG03C" 
620 NEXT 
622 GOTO 590 

624 INPUT"WITH WHAT" ; Tl*: INPUT "A 
ND WHAT ELSE";T2* 

626 T 1 *=LEFT* ( T 1 * , 3 ) : T2*=LEFT* < T 
2*, 3) 

628 IF ((T1*=SC*(2) AND T2*=LEFT 
*(0*(29),3>) OR (T1*=LEFT*(0*(29 
),3) AND T2*=SC*(2))) AND 0(29)= 
1000 AND 0(30) =1000 THEN PRINT"Y 
OU HAVE TAKEN IT. ": O (32) =1000: LI 
(32) =1: GOTO 316 

630 PR I NT "SORRY, CAN'T TAKE IT W 
ITH THAT.":BOTO 316 
632 CX*=CHR*(32) :LL=31 
634 C0=RND(8) 
636 CLS(CO) 

638 PRINT632, 5 : PRINT TAB (1)5 

640 IF LEN (PR*) <LL THEN 652 

642 FOR CX=LL TO 1 STEP -1 

644 IF MD*(PR*,CX, 1)=CX* THEN C 

C=CX:GOTO 648 

646 NEXT CX:SOTO 652 

648 PRINT LEFT*(PR*,CC-1) ; :PR*=M 

ID* (PR*, CC+1 ) : PRINT: PR I NTT AB ( 1 ) ; 

650 IF LEN (PR*) >LL THEN 642 

652 PRINTPR* 

654 BL=143 

656 BL=BL+(16*(C0-1) ) 

658 FOR C=0 TO 9 : PR I NT@32*C , CHR* 

(BL) ; :PRINTS32*C+31,CHR*(BL) ; : NE 

XT 

660 RETURN 

662 PCLEAR 1:G0T0 10 



90 
150 
200 
350. 
470 
610 . 
680 . 



75 


840 


60 


201 


910 


76 


244 


1090 


106 


105 


1230 


242 


52 


1322 


214 


. 8 


1440 


65 


169 


END 


. 45 



T 



Listing 2 (16K Version): 
10 GOTO 1590 

20 * THE ARCONIAX ASSIGNMENT 
COPYRIGHT (C) 1984 
BY ERIC W. TILENIUS 

16K VERSION 

FOLLOW ALL INSTRUCTIONS IN THE 
JULY '84 RAINBOW 



30 ' 32K USERS, PLEASE TYPE IN 

THE 32K VERSION. 
40 CLEAR 1500 

50 DATA 67,72,79,67,79,76,65,84, 
69, 71 , 85, 77, 80, 73, 67, 75, 76, 69, 83 
, 80, 69, 80, 80, 69, 82, 77, 73, 78, 84, 8 
0, 73, 78, 69, 77, 79, 84, 72, 66, 65, 76, 
76,83 

60 FORC=l TO 9: READ X:SC*(1)=SC* 
(1)+CHR*(X) : NEXT: FOR C=l TO 3: RE 
AD X:SC*(2)=SC*(2)+CHR*(X) :NEXT: 
FOR C=l TO 7: READ X: SC* (3) =SC* (3 
) +CHR* ( X ) : NEXT : FORC= 1 TO 1 0 : READX : 
SC*(4)«SC*(4)+CHR*(X) :next 
62 FORC= 1 T04 : READX : SC* ( 5 ) =SC* ( 5 ) 
+CHR*(X) :NEXT:SC*(5)=SC*(5)+" BR 
ANCH " : FORC= 1 T09 : READ X : SC* ( 6 ) =SC* 
(6)+CHR*(X) :NEXT 

70 L= 1 : CM*=STR* ( RND ( 30 ) ) + " - " +STR 
*(RND(30) )+"-"+STR*(RND(30) ) :CM* 
=MID*(CM*,2) 

80 RM=19:VB=29:OC=36:DR=0:LK=0:D 

G=0: HC=90: 01=13: SZ=l 
90 DIM L*(20) ,O*(40) ,0(40) ,V(31) 
,T(20,7) ,LI (39) ,D*(40) 
100 CLS ; PR I NT " THE ARCONIAX ASSIG 
NMENT. ": PRINT" 16K VERSION. ": PRIN 
T"BY ERIC W. TILENIUS" 
110 DATA IN A TERRORIST'S HOUSE, 
IN A RICHLY DECORATED BEDROOM, 
IN A VICTORIAN GARDEN, ON A SECL 
UDED SIDE STREET, IN A GRASSY MEA 
DOW, ON THE ROOF OF A HOUSE, IN FR 
ONT OF AN OLD TOOLSHED, INS I 

DE A TOOLSHED, BY A STOREHOUSE, IN 
SIDE A MOUSEHOLE 

120 DATA ON A COUNTRY STREET, IN 
A HIDDEN ROOM, ON A COUNTRY STREE 
T,ON A COUNTRY STREET - A MAN HE 
RE SAYS 'GOT A LIGHT?', ON MAIN S 
TREET , BY LENNY'S ARCADE. LENNY I 
S HUNGRY, IN FRONT OF THE SSB BUI 
LDING - A GUARD SAYS 'SHOW I.D. ' 
122 DATA BY A STORE, IN THE TREAS 
URE VAULT - A GIANT MOTH GUARDS 
THE DIAMOND! 

130 DATA A NOTE, 2, BUREAU, 2, W I NDO 
W, 2, FOUNTAIN, 3, TRELLIS, 3, GRAVEL, 
6 , KEY , 0 , BOTTLE , 5 , CAT , 5 , COMB I NAT I 
ON LOCK , 9 , ME AT , 9 , MOUSEHOLE , 7 , DOO 
R, 7, CROWBAR, 8, SCRAP OF PAPER, 10, 
NORTH, 0, SOUTH, 0, EAST, 0, WEST, 0, UP 
, 0 , DOWN , 0 , TOOLSHED , 7 
140 DATA A PIECE OF SOMETHING (S 
CRATCH BOX #1), 10, WATER (IN FOUN 
T A I N ) , 3 , FLOWERS , 3 , NEWSPAPER , 4 , GU 
ARD DOG , 4 , MATCHES , 0 , HMM . . . ( SCRAT 
CH #5), 12 

150 DATA SOMETHING STUCK TO MY S 



108 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



HOE < SCRATCH BOX #2) , 1 1, SEWER, 13 
, MONEY, 0, A JAR OF SOMETHING (SCR 
ATCH BOX #3), 15, A STICK OF SOMET 
HI NO (SCRATCH BOX #4) , 3, SOMETHIN 
S FOR SALE (SCRATCH #6),1S,**THE 

ARCONIAX DIAMOND**, 19 
160 DATA 1,1,2,3,4,5,3,3,3,3,3,3 
,6,7,8,9, 10, 10, 11, 10, 12, 13,4, 14, 
15, 16, 15, 13, 17 

170 DATA IT SAYS 'YOU ARE A PR IS 
ONER HERE. TRY TO ESCAPE AND YOU 

DIE!', IT'S FILLED WITH MATCHES, 
IT'S STUCK, THERE IS A STATUE OF 
A DWARF IN THE CENTER, IT'S STURD 
Y , HEY ! WHAT'S THIS??, IT'S RUSTY, 
IT'S EMPTY, IT'S LOOKING FOR MICE 
, NEEDS A COMBINATION 
180 DATA IT'S RAW, IT'S SMALL, IT' 
S METAL, MADE OF IRON, HAS A COMB I 
NATION ON IT, ?,?,?,?,?,?, USED TO 

BE USED FOR TOOLS, ?,?, THEY SMEL 
L NICE, YOU' RE ON THE FRONT PAGE, 
HE'S VICIOUS,?,?, IT'S STICKY, I S 
EE MONEY DOWN THERE - BUT IT'S O 
UT OF REACH 

190 DATA FIFTY CENTS, THEY' RE GRE 
EN, LOOKS TASTY, SMELLS AWFUL, IT'S 

BEAUTIFUL 
200 T* ( 1 ) -"NORTH" : T* (2) ="SOUTH" : 
T* (3) -"EAST" : T* (4) -"WEST" : T* (5) - 
"UP" :T* (6) -"DOWN" 

210 DATA 0, , , 1, 1, , ,3, , , , ,2,5, , , , 
j »2, , , , ,3, ,9,7, , , ,6,6, , ,3, , ,5, , , 
,,,5, ,,7,, ,,,,,13, ,4,0,0 
220 DATA 0,0,2, , , , 11, 14, , , , , 13, , 
» » » » IS, 17, 18, 16, , , , , 15, , , , 15, , , , 

230 DATA 1,2,2,2,2,1,1,1,2,2,1,2 
,2,1,1,3,3,3,3,3,3,2,2,2,2,1,2,1 
,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2 

240 FOR C-l TO RM:READ L*(C):NEX 
T 

250 FOR C-l TO OC : READ 0*(C),0(C 
> : NEXT 

260 FOR C«l TO VB:READ V(C):NEXT 
270 FOR C-l TO OCIREAD D*(C):IF 
D*(C)="?" THEN D*(C) -"NOTHING SP 
ECIAL" 
280 NEXT 

290 FOR C-l TO RMZFOR Cl-1 TO 6: 

READ T(C,C1):NEXT C1,C 

300 FOR C-l TO OC: READ LI(C):NEX 

T 

310 V*= " GETALOGOEABUNOSOEAWEUPDO 
HESALOVEPUPUOPMOCLG I DR JUUNBRD I DR 
FI" 

320 0*= " NOTBURW I NFOUTREGRAKEYBOT 
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disassembles any 6809 or 6800 
machine code program into beautiful source 

• Learn to program like the experts! 

• Adapt existing programs to your needs! 

• Convert your 6800 programs to 6809! 

• Automatic LABEL generation. 

• Allows specifying FCB's, FCC's, FDB's, etc. 

• Constants input from DISK or CONSOLE. 

• Automatically uses system variable NAMES. 

• Output to console, printer, or disk file. 

• Available for all popular 6809 operating systems. 

flex™ $100 per copy; specify 5" or 8" diskette. 
os-9™ $150 per copy; specify 5" or 8" diskette. 
UniFLEX™ $300 per copy; 8" diskette only. 

For a free sample disassembly that'll convince 
you DYNAMITE + is the world's best disassembler, 
send us your name, address, and the name of 
your operating system. 



GoGo 

0S9 
VERSION 



$59.95 



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See your local dynamite + dealer, or order di- 
rectly from CSC at the address below, we accept 
telephone orders from 10 am to 6 pm, Monday 
through Friday. Call us at 314-576-5020. Your VISA 
or MasterCard is welcome. Orders outside North 
America add $5 per copy. Please specify diskette 
size for flex or OS-9 versions. 



Computer Systems Center 

13461 Olive Blvd. 
Chesterfield, MO 63017 
(314) 576-5020 



UniFLEX software prices include maintenance 
for the first year. 
DYNAMITE + is a trademark of Computer Systems Center. 



^3 5^ 



FLEX and UniFLEX are trademarks of TSC. 
OS-9 is a trademark of Microware and Motorola. 

Dealer Inquiries welcome. 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 109 



UMSEWMONP I CPEPMOTD I A " 

330 * START OF GAME 

340 CLSRND(9)-1:PRINT"Y0U ARE "; 

L*(L) 

350 FL=0 

360 PRINT"VISIBLE OBJECTS ARE: " 
:FOR C-l TO OCIIF 0(C)=L THEN PR 
INTO*(C) :FL=FL+1 
370 NEXT 

380 IF FL=0 THEN PR I NT "NOTHING" 
390 PRINT 

400 PRINT"OBVIOUS EXITS LEAD:";: 
FOR C=l TO 6: IF T(L,C)>0 THEN PR 

INTT*<C>;" "; 
410 NEXT 

41S IF L-19 AND 0(35)01000 THEN 
PR I NT "THE KILLER MOTH SLOWLY CR 
USHES YOU. A A ARB ! " : CLEAR: END 
420 IF L=5 AND SZ-0 THEN PR*="TH 
E CAT SUDDENLY POUNCES! IN ONE F 
ELL SWOOP, YOU ARE DEVORED. YOU 
ARE DEAD . " : PLAY " P 1 P 1 " : GOSUB 1 580 
: PLAY " P 1 ; P 1 I P 1 " : CLEAR : END 
430 PRINT@32*15, J 

440 PR I NT "YOUR COMMAND: ";: LINE I 
NPUT A* 

450 IF A*="PET DOG" THEN A*="TAK 
E DOG" 

460 IF L»i THEN PR*=" SUDDENLY TW 
O MEN WITH GUNS BURSTTHROUGH THE 

DOOR, SHATTERING THE SILENCE. O 
NE OF THEM HITS YOU ON THE HEAD 

AND YOU FALL TO THE GROUND, UNC 
ONSC I OUS . " : GOSUB 1 580 : PLAY " P 1 f P 1 

;pi h :l«2:goto 340 

470 VS=0 : SP= I NSTR < A* , " " ) : PV*=LE 

ft*(A*,2) :pn*=mid*(A*,sp+i,3) :vi 

♦—LEFT* ( A* , 1 ) : VK*=LEFT* < A* , 3 ) 
480 IF PV*="" THEN PRINT@32*14, ? 
:GOTO 440 ELSE IF PV*=LEFT* (PN*, 
2) THEN PN*»"":VS=1 
490 IF VK*="EAT" THEN PV*="EAB" 
ELSE IF PV*="E" THEN PV*="EAW" E 
LSE IF VK*="LOA" THEN PV*="LOV" 
500 IF PV*="UN" THEN PV*="UNB" E 
LSE IF VK*="DRO"THEN PV*»"DRF" 
510 IF PV*="RE" THEN PV*="LO" EL 
SE IF VI*-" I" THEN 1490 
520 VN»(INSTR(V*,PV*)+i)/2 
540 IF VN=0 OR VNOINT(VN) THEN 
PRINT" I DON'T UNDERSTAND THE VER 
B. ":GOTO 440 

550 NN=(INSTR(0*,PN*)+2)/3: IF VS 
=1 THEN 590 

560 IF NN=0 OR NNOINT (NN) THEN 
PR I NT "I DONT KNOW HOW TO ";A*;". 
":GOTO 440 

570 IF V(VN)=1 AND NN-24 THEN A* 
="FILL BOTTLE": GOTO 470 



580 HC=HC-l:IF HC<20 THEN PRINT" 
YOU ARE VERY HUNGRY. " ELSE IF HC 
<5 THEN PR I NT "YOU ARE ABOUT TO S 
TARVE!" ELSE IF HC=<0 THEN PRINT 
"YOU HAVE JUST DIED OF HUNGER! 

T-H-E E-N-D ! " : CLEAR : END 
590 ON V<VN) GOTO 610,700,780,85 
0, 920, 950, 960, 1050, 1 140, 1 150, 1 17 
0, 1260, 1280, 1350, 1360, 1450, 1470 
600 PR I NT "YOU DON'T REALLY WAN'T 

TO DO THAT, DO YOU??": SOTO 4 
40 

610 FL=0 

620 if 0<nn)=l and li (nn) =1 then 
o<nn)-1000:printo*(nn> " has bee 
n taken. ":fl«4 

630 if 0(27) =4 and l=4 and nn=27 
then pr i nt "the dog just bit you 
r leg off. your screams alert t 
he kidnappers, who come. unfortu 
nately, they didn't come to help 
you . you ' re d-e- a-d . " : clear : end 
640 if nn=23 and 0(23)=l then pr 
intsc* < 1 ) " taken. " : 0* <23) =sc* ( 1 ) 

: 0(23) =1000: FL»4 

650 IF NN=30 AND O(30)=L THEN PR 
INTSC* (2) " TAKEN. " : O* (30) =SC* (2) 
: 0(30) =1000: FL=4 

660 IF NN=32 AND L=13 AND LI (32) 
=2 THEN 1540 

670 IF NN=33 AND L=15 AND LI (33) 
=2 THEN LI (33)=l:O(33)=1000:PRIN 
TSC*(3) " TAKEN. " : O* (33) =SC* (3) : F 
L=4 

672 IF NN=34 AND L-3 AND LI (34)= 
2 THEN LI (34) =l:0 (34) =1000: PRINT 
SC*(4) " TAKEN.":0*(34)=SC*(4) : FL 
=4 

674 IF NN=29 AND L»12 AND LI (29) 
=2 THEN LI (29)=l:O(29)=1000:PRIN 
TSC*(5) " TAKEN. " : O* (29) =SC* (5) :F 
L=4 

680 IF FL<>4 THEN PR I NT "CAN'T TA 

KE THAT ! ! " 

690 GOTO 440 

700 IF PN*="" THEN 340 

705 FL=0 

710 IF 0(NN)=L OR O(NN)=1000 THE 

N PR*=D*(NN) : GOSUB 1580:FL=1 

720 IF FLOl THEN PRINT" I DON'T 

SEE THAT HERE. ": GOTO 440 

730 IF NN=6 AND O(7)=0 THEN 0(7) 

=6 

740 IF NN=2 AND O(28)=0 THEN 0(2 
8) =2 

750 IF NN=15 AND (L=10 OR 0(15)= 
1000) THEN CR=l:PRINTCM* 
760 IF NN=31 AND L=13 AND 0(32)= 
0 THEN O (32) =13: D* (31)=" ALL I SE 



110 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



E IS MUD. " 
770 GOTO 440 

780 IF VN<>4 THEN D=VN-6 ELSE D= 
NN-15 

790 IF D<1 OR D>6 THEN 810 
800 IF T<L,D)>0 THEN L=T<L,D):QO 
TO 340 ELSE PRINT" I CAN'T GO THA 
T WAY.": GOTO 440 

810 IF NN=22 AND DR=2 AND L»7 T 
HEN L=8:G0T0 340 ELSE IF NN-22 
THEN PR I NT "THE DOOR IS IN THE WA 
Y.":GOTO 440 

820 IF NN=5 AND L=3 THEN l_»6:G0T 
O 340 ELSE IF NN=5 THEN PR I NT "I 
DON'T SEE IT HERE. ": GOTO 440 
830 IF NN=12 AND L=7 AND SZ«0 TH 
EN L=10:GOTO 340 ELSE IF NN=12 T 
HEN PR I NT "YOU ARE TOO BIG!":GOTO 
440 

840 PR I NT "I CAN'T GO THERE.": GOT 
O 440 

850 IF NN=11 AND 0(11) =1000 AND 

L-A THEN PR I NT "THROW IT, DON'T D 

RINK IT! ! ":GOTO 440 

860 IF NN=11 AND O(ll>=1000 THEN 
O(11)=2000:PRINT"YUCK! RAW MEAT 
TASTES HORRIBLE ! " : HC=HC+30: GOTO 
440 



870 IF <NN=24 OR NN=8 OR NN=4) A 
ND <L=3 OR BT=1) THEN SZ=0: PRINT 
"YOU HAVE S-H-R-U-N-K! YOU ARE N 
OW THE SIZE OF A MOUSE ! ! " : GOTO 4 
40 

880 IF NN=23 AND <0<23>=L OR 0(2 
3) =1000) THEN SZ=1 :0 (23) =0: PRINT 
"YOU SUDDENLY G-R-E-W!! YOU ARE 

NOW BACK TO NORMAL SIZE. ":FL=-5 
6: IF L»10 THEN PRINT"TOO BAD, TH 
OUGH, YOU ARE NOW TOOLARGE TO GE 
T OUT AND THE EXTERM-INATOR IS H 
ERE. . . ": CLEAR: END 

890 IF NN-33 AND 0(33) =1000 THEN 
0(33) -2000: HC=HC+40:PRINT"<<HIC 
K»":FL=-56 

892 IF NN=34 AND 0(34) =1000 THEN 
O ( 34 ) =2000 : HC=HC+40 : PR I NT " < YUM > 
" : FL=-56 

900 IF FL=-56 THEN 440 

910 PRINT"YOU CAN'T EAT OR DRINK 

THAT!":GOTO 440 
920 ' BUY 

930 IF 0(32)01000 THEN PRINT" YO 
U HAVE NO MONEY. ": GOTO 440 
932 IF L=18 AND NN=35 AND LI (35) 
=2 THEN LI (35) =1:0 (35) =1000:0* (3 
5)=SC*(6) :PRINT0*(35) " BOUGHT" : G 



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July 1984 THE RAINBOW 111 



OTO 440 

940 PR I NT "YOU CAN'T BUY THAT ! " : G 
OTO 440 

950 PR I NT "NOT AVAILABLE IN 16K": 
GOTO 440 

960 CLS: PR I NT "GAME SAVE FEATURE 
REQUESTED . " : PR I NT : I NPUT " TAPE OR 
DISK";DV* 

970 IF LEFT* (DV*, 1 ) ="D" THEN DV= 

1 ELSE DV=-1 

980 I NPUT " F I LEN AME " ; FL* 

990 MOTORON : AUD I OON : PR I NT " READY 

DEVICE AND HIT ENTER .": I NPUT Q9* 

1000 OPEN"0",DV,FL* 

1010 FOR C=l TO OC:PRINT#DV,0<C) 

:next 

1020 FOR C=l TO RM:FOR Cl=l TO 6 

:print#dv,t(c,ci> :next ci,c 
1030 print#dv,l,hc,dr,lk,sz 
1040 close#dv:print"file "fl*" i 
s now saved. ": audi ooff : motoroff : 

GOTO 440 

1050 CLS: I NPUT "TAPE OR DISK";DV* 

1060 IF LEFT*(DV*, 1>="D" THEN DV 

=1 ELSE DV=-1 

1070 INPUT "FILENAME" S FL* 

1 080 MOTORON : AUD I OON : I NPUT " READY 

DEVICE AND HIT ENTER." J Q9* 
1090 OPEN"I",DV,FL* 
1100 FOR C=l TO OC: INPUT#DV,0(C) 
ZNEXT 

1110 FOR C=l TO RM:FOR Cl=l TO 6 

: input #dv,t<c,ci):next ci,c 

1120 INPUT #DV,L,HC,DR,LK,SZ 

1 1 30 CLOSE#DV : AUD I OOFF : MOTOROFF : 

GOTO 340 

1140 PRINT "NOT AVAILABLE IN 16K" 
:GOTO 440 

1150 IF NN=2 AND L=2 THEN PRINT" 
IT MOVES, REVEALING A HIDDEN 
PASSAGE TO THE WEST" : T (2, 4) =12: G 
OTO 440 

1160 PR I NT "PUSHING AGAINST THAT 
DOES YOU NOGOOD. IT WON'T OPEN." 
:GOTO 440 

1170 IF NN=2 THEN A*="LOOK BUREA 
U":GOTO 470 

1180 IF NN=3 THEN PR I NT "YOU CAN' 
T. IT'S STUCK.": GOTO 440 
1190 IF NN=10 THEN A*="DIAL LOCK 
":GOTO 470 

1200 IF NN=22 THEN NN=13 

1210 IF NN013 THEN PRINT" YOU CA 

N'T OPEN IT.": GOTO 440 

1220 IF DR=1 AND L-7 THEN PRINT" 

C-R-E-A-K. THE DOOR SWINGS OPEN. 

":T(7, 1>=8:PLAY"P1":G0T0 340ELSE 

IF DR«1 THEN PRINT"CAN'T" 
1230 IF DR=2 THEN PRINT" IT'S ALR 



EADY OPEN." 

1240 IF DR=0 THEN PRINT" IT'S LOC 
KED. " 

1250 GOTO 440 

1260 IF NN=5 AND L=3 THEN L=6:G0 
TO 340 

1270 PRINT "CLIMBING THAT IS LIKE 
TRUING TO CLIMB A WALL OF GLASS 
- IT'S POSSIBLE, BUT STUPID. 

":GOTO 440 

1280 IF O(NN)=1000 THEN 0(NN)=L: 
PR I NTO* ( NN ) " DROPPED . " : FL=3 
1290 IF FL=3 AND 0(11>=4 AND L=4 
THEN PR I NT "THE DOG TAKES YOUR G 
I FT AND HURRIES OFF. " : T <4, 3) 

=ll:O(ll)=2000:O(27)=2000:GOTO 4 
40 

1300 IF FL=3 AND L=14 AND NN=28 
THEN O(28)=2000:L=15:PR*="THE MA 
N THANKS YOU AND GIVES YOU A RID 
E INTO THE NEARBY TOWN IN HIS TR 
UCK. AS YOU LEAVE, HE WHISPERS ' 
GIVE LENNY THE GREEN'. HE THEN D 
RIVES AWAY.":GOSUB 1580: GOTO 440 
1310 IF FL-3 AND L=16 AND NN=33 
THEN 0 ( 33 ) =0 : PR*= " ' THANKS , ' SA I D 

LENNY, 'I'LL TELL YA WHAT. BECA 
USE I LIKE YOU, I'LL GIVE YA SOM 
E INFO. THE CODE TO GET IN THE S 
SB IS "+0*(6>+". GIVE IT TO THE 
DOORMAN . " : GOSUB 1 580 : FL=3 
1320 IF FL=3 AND L=17 AND NN=6 T 
HEN O(6)=0:PR*="'O.K. , ' SAYS THE 

GUARD, 'YOU'RE O.K. THE VAULT I 
S TO THE WEST. O.K.?? (THE GUARD 

MUST REALLY LIKE THE WORD 'O.K. 
')": GOSUB 1580: FL=3:T( 17,4) =19 
1322 IF FL=3 AND NN=35 AND L=19 
THEN 2000 

1330 IF FL<>3 THEN PR I NT "YOU ARE 

NOT CARRYING THAT.": GOTO 440 
1340 GOTO 440 

1350 PRINT"CAN'T":GOTO 440 
1360 IF (NN=22 OR NN=13) AND 0(7 
)=1000 AND L=7 AND DR=0 THEN DR= 
l:PRINT"C-L-I-C-K. THE DOOR UNLO 
CKS.":GOTO 440 

1370 IF (NN=22 OR NN=13) AND (DR 

=1 OR DR=2) THEN PRINT" IT'S ALRE 

ADY UNLOCKED. ": GOTO 440 

1380 IF NN=10 THEN 1410 

1390 IF 0(7)01000 THEN PRINT" YO 

U DON'T HAVE A KEY." 

1400 GOTO 440 

1410 IF L«9 AND CR=1 THEN INPUT" 
WHAT'S THE COMBINATION" ; CO*: IF C 
0*=CM* THEN 0(ll)=9:LK=l:GOTO 34 
0 

1420 IF L<>9 THEN PR I NT "SORRY, W 



112 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



RONG ROOM. " ELSE IF L=9 THEN PR I 
NT "NOPE. YOU CAN'T OPEN IT" 
1430 IF CR=1 AND L=9 THEN PRINT" 
WATCH YOUR SPACINB. YOU MUST BE 
EXACT. " 
1440 GOTO 440 

1450 IF NN=3 AND 0< 14) =1000 THEN 
PRINT" IT SHATTERS INTO A MILLON 
PIECES" : T (2, 1 ) =4: GOTO 440 
1460 PRINT"WHAT'S THE POINT OF V 
ANDALIZ ING TH I NGS??? " : GOTO 440 
1470 IF L=3 AND O<8)=1000 THEN B 
T=l: PR I NT "FILLED WITH WATER . " : D* 
(8)="FILLED WITH WATER .": GOTO 44 
0 

1480 PRINT "CAN'T. ":G0TO 440 
1490 ' INVENTORY 

1500 CLSIFOR Ol TO OC: IF 0<C)=1 
000 THEN PRINTO*<C) 
1510 NEXT 
1520 GOTO 440 
1530 END 

1540 INPUT"WITH WHAT" ; Tl*: INPUT" 

AND WHAT ELSE"5T2* 

1 550 T 1 *=LEFT* < T 1 * , 3 ) : T2*=|_EFT* ( 

T2*,3) 

1560 IF <<T1*=SC*(2) AND T2*=LEF 



T*<0*(29) ,3) ) OR <T1*=LEFT$<0*<2 
9), 3) AND T2»=*SC*<2> > > AND 0(29) 
=1000 AND O<30)=1000 THEN PRINT" 
YOU HAVE TAKEN IT. " : O (32) =1000: L 
I (32) =l: GOTO 440 

1570 PR I NT "SORRY, CAN'T TAKE IT 

WITH THAT.": GOTO 440 

1580 CLSRND(9)-l:PRINTPR*:PRINT: 

RETURN 

1590 PCLEARKGOTO 40 
2000 IF L=19 AND 0(35) =19 THEN C 
LS3:PRINT"THE MOTH SLOWLY WITHER 
S. . . AT LAST, THE DIAMOND I 

S YOURS ! YOU HAVE WON ! ! ! " : FL=2 
2010 IF FL=2 THEN CLEAR: FL=3 
2012 IF FL=3 THEN FOR C=l TO 5:P 
LAY"L30» 02? CGCACBC03C02CBCACGCFC 
FCGCGCL4EC" : NEXT: PLAY" L2GCC" 
2014 END 



RAINBOW ^ 




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July 1984 THE RAINBOW 113 




Try Corresponding With 
'Talking' Computer Tapes 



By Joseph Kolar 
RAINBOW Contributing Editor 



You never know when an idea will strike. By now, you 
realize that these fleeting ideas can translate into 
some creative experiences. Often, they lead to a dead 
end and deserve an undignified burial. Nevertheless, all 
ideas demand a newcomer's attention. To a newcomer, 
everything about the CoCo and its capabilities is grist for his 
mill. At best, the idea might be the kernel of an exciting 
learning experience. At worst, the newcomer will amuse 
himself. 

The Color Computer is very versatile. One feature on the 
cassette-based system is under-utilized by the inhabitants of 
CoColand. It is the fact that the CTR-80A, or its linear 
descendant, the CCR-81, can be used in the conventional, 
npneomputer use. 

Rather than use the expensive telephone or the mundane 
and time-consuming letter, you might consider correspond- 
ing via cassette tape recordings. 

Here is one method. A cheap, fresh 60-minute cassette 
tape is labeled side one and dated, popped into the recorder, 
rewound, set to 000 and fast-forwarded to about 010 to get 
beyond the leader. The recorder is disconnected from the 
computer by pulling out the three plugs on the side of the 
recorder. 

Depress play, record and start emoting. This side of the 
tape is used for general conversation and news. Since I plan 
to put a demo computer program on the second side of the 
tape, 1 give a warning of coming attractions on the flip side. 

After the first side is finished, eject the tape and mark the 
flip side, PROGRAM S or some suitable message. Re-insert 
the tape on the second side; rewind to 000, reset counter and 



(Joseph Kolar is a free-lance writer and programmer 
dedicated to proselytizing for computers in general, 
and the CoCo specifically.) 



advance past the leader to about 0 1 0; reconnect the comput- 
er to the recorder by replacing the plugs. Now, you are on 
familiar ground! Copy your programs, being sure to leave 
spaces between copies and making at least two copies of 
each program. 

Now, you have a combination letter/ computer program 
tape. An observation: Often, upon receiving a correspon- 
dent's combo-tape, it is difficult to wait for the chatter to 
end, and the program to begin. To combat this tendency, 
consider rewinding to the second side and load the first 
program into the computer. Then rewind back to the first 
side, pull the connecting plugs and press PLAY to listen to the 
message. You do know that you can run the program and 
independently listen to the recording at the same time. This 
is a good way to check out a program that is annotated with 
voice comments on side one. Sort of like show and tell. 

You CoConauts who correspond with each other might 
consider using this method. Here is the nitty-gritty on post- 
ing the cassette. Use a Radio Shack cardboard cassette 
mailer (Cat. No. 44-632), six for 79 cents. Note the hub 
holder. Rip it off and fold both ends to a 90 degree angle. 
Stick each end into a hole in the cassette to lock the tape in 
position and avoid unwinding the tape during shipment. 

Address the face of the mailer; insert the cassette; insert a 
note giving the name and starting and ending numbers of all 
the program listings; close ends of.container and, if desired, 
seal with scotch tape. A 37-cent stamp is all the postage 
required to mail a 60-minute tape. Yes, the post office sells 
37-cent stamps. Yes, you can use a 20-cent stamp and a 
17-ceht stamp. Yes, the post office sells 17-cent stamps. The 
big spender may stick on two 20-cent stamps. 

In a pinch, you can always re-use a cassette mailer by 
gluing a standard mailing sticker over the face of the 
container. 



114 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Free 




SPELL 'N FIX II 

SPELL 'N FIX II is not just for spelling mistakes — it catches 
typos too. Regardles$ of whose text processor you use, let 
SPELL 'N FIX II find and fix your spelling and typing 
mistakes, and your word processing output will look 
professional and be perfect. It finds mistakes even 
experienced proofreaders often miss. 
SPELL 'N FIX II is easy to use. As it proofreads your text file, 
it displays it (in full upper and lower case) right on the screen 
for you to see. It looks up each word in the text in its own 
computerized dictionary file (which is compressed and 
indexed to save space on the disk and make access super 
fast) and tells you whenever it finds a word which is not in 
the dictionary. At this point, you have several options - let it 
be (if it's OK), add it to the dictionary (if it's a word you 
expect to use often), or change it (if it's wrong). If you decide 
to change it, then SPELL 'N FIX II even Helps you find the 
correct spelling in the computerized dictionary, or you can 
use an entirely new word or phrase. If you make a change, 
SPELL 'N FIX II will look it up in the dictionary one more 
time to check up on your typing. Once you make a change, 
SPELL 'N FIX II will then remind you about it the next time it 
sees the same wrong word in your text. 
Since the computerized dictionary is expandable, you can 
customize it with your own pet words or technical terms, 
and can even develop specialized dictionaries for special 
uses or foreign languages. 

SPELL *N FIX II is part of our Pass-the-Hat (tm) program. If 
you send us a disk and stamped mailer for it, we will send 
you a copy of SPELL 'N FIX II with a request that you send 
us a fair contribution after you have had a chance to 
evaluate the program. 

SPELL 'N FIX II is available on disk only. For tape systems, 
order SPELL 'N FIX I at $49.39; CoCo version for Flex or 
STAR-DOS disk operating systems costs $89.29. 

I EARN $1 ... IF YOU CAN! 

What do Absorbancy, Accidently, Solicarity, Pickpicketing, 
Technacalities, and Reprhasing have in common? They are 
all misspelled words in our competitors' dictionaries! 
We've taken great pains to make sure the dictionary file of 
SPELL 'N FIX II has no mistakes. We're so confident about 
it that we will pay you $1 for every misspelled word you can 
find in it. I don't expect this offer to cost us a cent, but in case 
V several people find the same word, the earliest postmark 
^wins. 

^Star-Kits — 

SOFTWARE SYSTEMS CORPORATION 



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input programs and data into memory, list memqry 
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memory, start and stop programs, upload and download, 
save to tape, connect the Color Computer to a terminal, 
printer, or remote computer, and more. HUMBUG on disk 
or cassette costs just $39.95, special 64K version for FLEX 
or STAR-DOS 64 costs $59.95, MC-1Q version $29.95. 

STAR-DOS 

A Disk Operating System specially designed for the Color 
Computer, STAR-DOS is fully compatible with your 
present Color Computer disk format — it reads disks 
written by Extended Disk Basic and vice versa. STAR- DOS 
for 16K through 64K systems costs $49.90. STAR— DOS 
Level I for 6809 SS-50 systems costs $75. 

ALL-IN-ONE 

Text editor, processor, an?] mailing list program combines 
three most used functions in one program. Requires STAR- 
DOS or FLEX. $50. 

CHECK 'N TAX 

Home accounting package combines checkbook mainte- 
nance and income tax data collection. Written in Basic for 
either RS Disk or Flex, $50. 

REMOTERM 

REMOTERM — makes your CoCo into a host computer, 
operated from a remote terminal. $19.95, disk or cassette. 

COMMTERM 

A terminal program for your CoCo or MC-10. Part of our 
Pass-the-Hat software program. Send a cassette and 
stamped envelope for your free copy. 

NEWTALK 

NEWTALK — a memory examine utility for machine 
language programmers which reads out memory contents 
through the TV set speaker. $20, disk or cassette. 

SHRINK 

SHRINK — our version of Eliza, in machine language and 
extremely fast. $15, disk or cassette. 

EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 

Introduction to Numerical Methods — college level course 
on computer math, $75.00, disk or cassette. 

DOUBLE SIDED DISK SYSTEM 

Complete disk system with double-sided drive, cabinet, 
power supply, cable, and controller, $400. A half-height 
drive in full size cabinet (has room for a second drive for 
future expansion) costs $25 extra. Either way, you get 
double the storage capacity • 320K on one disk. 

We accept cash, check, COD, Visa, or Master Card. NY 
State residents please add appropriate sales tax. Add $3 to 
above price for AMDEK 3" disk versions. 
(FLEX is a trademark of Technical Systems Consultants, 
Inc. Everything else in this ad is a trademark of Star-Kits.) 



P.O. BOX 209 R MT KISCO. NY 10549 (914) 241-0287 



If you plan to send programs back to your correspondent, 
it is wise to erase the flip side past the counter number of the 
end of the last program. Do this before you CSA VE over 
previous programs. 

Here is an effective way to erase unwanted programs 
using the dummy jack. With the CoCo turned on, rewind the 
flip (program) side to 000 and reset the counter. Insert the 
dummy plug into the MIC jack. Set the recorder to record, 
play/ record. CLOAD ENTER and when it gets past the 
ending counter number of the last program, stop the 
recorder and press the Reset button on the computer. 
Rewind the tape to the beginning. Using this system, you 
may erase a tape or program without disturbing a program 
that may be resident in memory. More important, there 
won't be any sound pick-up from MIC. 

Back to the idea to which I was alluding at the beginning 
of this article. Refer to our article that appeared in the May 
1984 issue. 

CLOAD either of the two listings. Turn up the sound. 
RUN, L/STand on Lines 35, 37, 39, insert P2 in front of the 
closing quote. This causes a pause between lines. On Line 39, 
insert L2 in front of C. This lengthens the final note. Put a 
single quote mark in front of Line 217 and if you are using 
Listing 2, put a REM marker, single quote mark, in front of 
Line 31. 

RUN a few times and sing along with the tune. When you 
think you have it down reasonably well, pop in a fresh 
cassette; prepare to record; pull out the three jacks to sever 
the umbilical cord to the CoCo; break, RUN; type in the 
name. As soon as you press ENTER when you input your age, 
start singing. As soon as you finish your rendition, stop the 
cassette and BREAK on the computer. Rewind the tape and 
listen to a real recording artist. 

You have created a combo voice/ computer music hit 
song. When you send it off as a greeting to someone, they 
should be pleasantly impressed, if not with your basso pro- 
fundo, at least with the concept. 

This may give you food for thought. You can see the 
possibilities this amusing idea suggests. Perhaps, you can 
create a composition of your own. You can be assured that 
your correspondent will be intrigued. 

Need 1 remind you to reconnect the computer to the 
recorder when you are finished? 

Musically inclined CoConauts, who can read musical 
notation, using the powerful play capability of CoCo, can 
copy any music score and sing along. Give a concert accom- 
panied by the CoCo! 

You could create your own composition; write some lyr- 
ics; accompany yourself and save the results to tape. There is 
nothing like a little CoCo-generated music to soothe the 
soul. 

Here is some information that may prove valuable to a 
reader who ships copies of cassettes through the U.S. mail. 
You may purchase self-sealing mailers at your local post 
office. The small, 6" x 9" mailer, ideal for shipping a single 
cassette, costs 30 cents. 

A plastic-boxed, 60-minute cassette with an index card 
plus three sheets of 8" x lO 1 /^' typewriter paper, costs 54 
cents to mail first class. No, the post office doesn't have 
54-cent stamps. Use some combination of 17, 20, 37 cents 
stamps. 

These envelope mailers have printed FROM and TO 



areas but it is a good idea to endorse the mailer FIRST 
CLASS MAIL. 

Note that you were asked to alter a listing so you could use 
it rather than having a shortened listing included with this 
article. This was deliberately done to get you accustomed to 
modifying programs. It is a good learning experience. 

Always keep the back issues of THE rainbow. You never 
know when you might want to refer to something. 

With this article you no longer are confined to singing in 
the shower. Faithful CoCo is there to assist you whenever 
you have the urge to sing. 

It is hoped that you owners of Extended Color basic are 
encouraged to investigate the play capability of CoCo. Sing, 
play and have fun! 

Finally, the following listing is a little graphics program I 
created in honor of this third Anniversary issue of THE 
rainbow! It's a fireworks display, so you might want to 
incorporate it into your Fourth of July festivities, too. 



The listing* 



10 * PAEAN OF JOY ON THE 4TH OF 
JULY CREATED ESPECIALLY IN SAL- 
UTE TO THE 3RD ANNIVERSARY ISSUE 
OF THE 'RAINBOW BY J. KOLAR 
30 PM0DE3:PCLS:PM0DE4 
40 A»126:B-90:R=72:P-1.70 
50 DIM S<13> 

60 DRAW ,I BM8,4L4NL4NG3ND4NH3NU4NE 

3F3BF9D4NE3NR4NF3ND4NG3NL4H3 " 

70 GET<0,0)-<20 f 24>,S,6 

80 PCLS: SCREEN! , 1 

90 FOR Q=15 TO 3 STEP-3 

100 FORZ=1TO2880 STEPQ:C«Z 

110 C=90+C*P/180 

120 X-INT < A-6+R*C0S (C) ) : Y=INT <B- 
8+R*5IN<C> ) 

130 PUT(X-40 f Y)~<X-20 ? Y+24) P S,PS 
ET 

140 X=INT<A-6+R*SIN(C> >:Y=INT(B- 
8+R*C0S(C> ) 

150 PUT<X+30 f Y)~<X+50 ! ,Y+24> 5l S ? PS 
ET 

160 NEXT Z,Q:GOTO90 
170 RETURN 

180 THIS GRAPHIC WILL TAKE 

ABOUT 10 MINUTES TO RECYCLE TO 
THE BEGINNING. 




11f THE RAINBOW July 1984 




Greetings! 



Summer has begun, as always, with the annual religious 
pilgrimage of the fleas. Apparently my farm is a "Holy Site" 
for fleas of a certain persuasion, and it seems that the pig 
barn remains their holiest shrine. Strange as it may seem, the 
earliest indications that the pilgrimage has begun appear not 
in the pig barn itself, but on the very personnage of the 
primary guardian of that shrine, namely Ben. 

It begins innocently enough with a few gloomy, hang-dog 
expressions and gestures. Ben begins finding excuses to be 
alone, to slink off into corners, to curl up under beds and 
tables, to lower himself with a groan to his favorite corner of 
a room. Then, when he thinks no one is looking or listening, 
the scratching and chewing begin. The scratching becomes 
violent — if Ben is next to a wall or piece of furniture, one 
hears a thump-thump-thump of hock against block. The 
chewing becomes obsessive — quiet at first, but soon 
accompanied by agonized snuffles and snorts. Within a few 
days, Ben has managed to produce bald patches on his back 
and haunches. One quick look at the bald spots will confirm 
the annual flea pilgrimage has begun. 

Fleas love other animals — dogs and pigs and parrots and 
such — but they don't seem to like each other very much, 
IVe noticed. Generally, here is what happens when one flea 
meets another: 

TO FLEA1 

IF NEAR 2<50 (RT 90 FD 8) 

END 
TO FLEA2 

IF NEAR K50 (RT 90 FD 8) 

END 

In spite of their typical avoidance of one another, how- 
ever, somehow they manage to crawl all over the place and 
replicate rapidly. 

TO FLEAS 

HATCH 1 MOVE 4 96 90 
HATCH 2 MOVE 128 0 0 
VANISH 
END 

TO MOVE :X :Y :H 
PU 

SX :X SY :Y SH :H 

REPEAT 150 (FD 8 IF ME=1 (FLEAI) 



ELSE (FLEA2)) 

FLEAS 

END 

Well, that's more or less what the fleas look like when they 
finally appear, either on Ben's bald spots or on the pigs 
themselves. And you may have noticed that in the TO 
MOVE procedure I introduced yet another control state- 
ment — ELSE. The ELSE statement actually works only in 
conjunction with an IF statement. As I have demonstrated 
in some of my past letters, IF can be used by itself, and 
generally it says to the computer, "If such-and-such is true, 
do a certain action." The ELSE statement expands that 
instruction so that it reads: "If such-and-such is true, do a 
certain action, otherwise do another certain action." Since 
there are only two basic turtles (fleas) at work, I might have 
simply used two IF statements, like so: 

IF ME=1 (FLEAI) IF ME=2 (FLEA2) 

But the nice thing about ELSE is that it refers to every- 
thing else not carried out by the IF. Thus, if I had had five 
hatched turtles in the TO FLEAS procedure, turtle one 
would be instructed to carry out FLEAI, but turtles two 
through five would then be instructed to carry out FLEA2. 
Try it and see. 



Now the fleas don't know this, and if they did they 
wouldn't care — but what is a religious pilgrimage to them is 
an invasion and an annual big nuisance to everyone else. Ben 
becomes so busy scratching and chewing himself he's not 
good for much else. Similarly, the pigs become so involved 
with the fleas crawling all over them that they stop playing, 
stop eating, and stop just about everything else that's useful. 
Clearly, we must terminally discourage those fleas. One 
possible way is to use flea poison. I don't like that because 1 
don't like to use poison in the vicinity of farm animals. Also, 
the poison seems merely to slow down the fleas a little, but it 
doesn't really kill them. Let me show you: 

TO POISON 
PU 

MAKE :X 0 SY 90 SH 90 
WHILE :X<64 
(SLOW 4 FLEA) 
WHILE :X<128 
(SLOW 8 FLEA) 
WHILE :X<I92 
(SLOW 16 FLEA) 
WHILE :X<244 
(SLOW 32 FLEA) 
END 

TO FLEA 

MAKE :X :X+5 

SX :X 

END 

By the way, the WHILE statement I just used is very much 
like the IF statement. IF tests to see if something is true; if it 
is true, then a certain action (in parentheses) is carried out. 
Likewise, WHILE tests to see if something is true; if it is true 
a certain action (in parentheses) is carried out. The 
difference is that IF tests once, and WHILE tests continu- 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 117 



ally. As long as the condition is true, WHILE will continue 
to carry out again and again the specified action. For exam- 
ple, in the POISON procedure above, WHILE tests contin- 
ually for the location of the turtle's X coordinate. While the 
value of X continues to be less than 64, the computer will 
continue to carry out the action of SLOW 4 FLEA. 

Since WHILE tests continually for a certain condition 
and causes a specified action to happen continually as long 
as the condition is true, we can use WHILE to make an 
action continue forever, merely by specifying a condition 
that will always be true. 

TO FLEABITE 
WHILE ME=0 
(SX RANDOM 230 
SY RANDOM 170 
REPEAT 1000 () 
PRINT ".") 
END 

In the above FLEABITE procedure, M E is always 0, since 
there are no hatched turtles. Thus, the WHILE statement 
forces the procedure to repeat itself indefinitely. Of course, 
we could have the same effect by turning FLEABITE into a 
simple recursion, like so: 

TO FLEABITE2 
SX RANDOM 230 
SY RANDOM 170 
REPEAT 1000 () 
PRINT V 
FLEABITE 
END 

But the WHILE statement potentially can give us at least 
one advantage in this kind of use.* Normally, in an indefi- 
nitely repeating procedure such as FLEABITE2, there is no 
way to stop the procedure except by hitting the BREAK key, 
at which time the procedure stops — but at the same time we 
go into the BREAK corridor, and lose our picture. What if we 
are creating constantly changing pictures with an indefi- 
nitely repeating procedure, but we want to be able to stop 
and look at any of the pictures? Is there any way of stopping 
without hitting BREAK? Yes, we can combine the WHILE 
statement with the KEY function. 

The KEY function asks the computer to tell us the secret 
computer code (called the ASCII code) number for what- 
ever key has been pressed on the keyboard. If no key has 
been pressed, the KEY function yields the value of 0. Thus, 
with a WHILE KEY=0 we can make a procedure repeat 
itself indefinitely until we press any standard key on the 
keyboard. Pressing a standard key on the keyboard means 
that KEY is no longer 0; the procedure stops; but we can still 
remain in the RUN room, and thus can still see the RUN 
screen. Why don't you try it with the FLEABITE pro- 
cedure? 

TO FLEABITE3 
WHILE KEY=0 
(SX RANDOM 230 
SY RANDOM 170 
REPEAT 1000 () 

* A second advantage is that WHILE does not use up as 
much memory as a recursion does. 



PRINT " " 
END 



Let me be the first to admit that some people may not be 
very interested in stopping the FLEABITE procedure to 
examine a pattern. But what if you're working with real art? 
For instance, remember the KLEE procedure I described a 
while back? Wouldn't it be nice to have a KLEE perma- 
nently on your screen? You could hang the TV on your living 
room wall. 

Anyhow, fleabites are terrible. They itch, and modern 
science so far has not come up with the perfect cure for them. 
That's why poor Ben and the pigs are forced to waste so 
much time and energy scratching and chewing. I have an 
idea, however. I propose that we combine the latest in 
computer technology and lasers to locate and surgically 
remove the little bites. Locating them is easy since Color 
LOGO includes the XLOC and YLOC functions for calling 
up X and Y locations of any turtle (in this case, turtle 
number 0, the mother turtle). 

TO LOCATE 

PU SX :X-24 SY :Y-20 SH 90 

PRINT XLOC 0 FD 32 PRINT YLOC 0 

END 

And using a laser to remove the bites shouldn't be so 
difficult either. 

TO LASER 
CLEAR 
END 

In short, applying modern technology to the age old 
problem of fleabites may be a perfect solution. 

TO BITECUREMACHINE 
WHILE KEY=0 

(HT MAKE :X RANDOM 210+20 

MAKE :Y RANDOM 150+20 

SX:XSY:Y 

PRINT V 

REPEAT 1000 () 

HATCH 1 LOCATE 

REPEAT 1000 () 

LASER) 

END 

I've used WHILE KEY=0 to make the BITECUREMA- 
CHINE repeat indefinitely, until 1 press any standard key on 
the keyboard. I might also use WHILE KEY=0 to build a 
human-operated pause device, by using WHILE to make a 
meaningless action continue until I press a key. Like so: 

TO MACHINE 

HT MAKE :X RANDOM 120+20 

MAKE :Y RANDOM 150+20 

SX :X SY :Y 

PRINT"." 

WHILE KEY=0 

(PU) 

HATCH 1 LOCATE 
REPEAT 1000 () 
LASER 



118 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



COMPUTER SOFTWARE AND ACCESSORIES 



RAINBOW A 



PRINTERS 

(SEE PRINTER INTERFACE BELOW) 

SPIRIT (SAME AS MX80) $339.00 

OKIDATA 92P ( 1 60 CPS) $445.00 

CORRESPONDENCE QUALITY! 

NEW! NEW! 

ABATI LQ-20P (PARALLEL) $389.00 

18 CPS-DAISY WHEEL-LETTER QUALITY 
TRACTOR FEED $79.00 



MONITORS 

(SEE MONITOR INTERFACE BELOW) 
ALL WITH NONGLARE SCREEN 
SVAMDEK 

COLOR 1 + (INCLUDES HEAD PHONES) $315 00 

VIDEO 300(G) $150 00 

VIDEO 300(A) $165.00 

GORILLA (GREEN) $ 99.00 

GORILLA (AMBER) $ 1 14 00 



EN DICOTT JOYSTICK 

$19.95 EACH $37.95 FOR TWO 

ANALOG TYPE -PLUGS RIGHT IN! 
In use. we found the ENDICOTT JOYSTICK to be smooth 
and responsive. ...built to last, the Endicott model is a 
solid buy", the RAINBOW, October 1982 

. provided the best feel of all the joysticks tested. 
...(a) rugged unit at an affordable price." 
-80 micro, March 1983 



PRINTER INTERFACE 

pbh SERIAL/ PARALLEL 

SWITCHABLE: 300 TO 9600 BAUO. 
PRINTER AND MODEM CONNECTIONS. 
NOTHING ELSE REQUIRED 



J 80« " $79.95 
PURCHASED WITH PRINTER . . 



$64.00 



MONITOR INTERFACE 

VIDEO PLUS $24.95 

(COLOR OR MONOCHROME) 
PURCHASED WITH MONITOR . . $20.95 

VIDEO PLUS MM $26.95 

{MONOCHROME FOR COLOR II) 
PURCHASED WITH MONITOR $22.95 

VIDEO PLUS IIC $39.95 

(COLOR FOR COLOR II) 
PURCHASED WITH MONITOR . . $33 95 



BLANK MEDIA 

ELEPHANT SSSD 

ELEPHANT SSDD 

ELEPHANT DSDD 

C- 10 CASSETTES (ONE DOZ ). . 



. $20.95 
$23.95 
$28.95 

. .$ 7.50 



WICO 

ATARI JOYSTICK 
ADAPTER 

$17.95 



MEDIA STORAGE 
TAPE 

TAPE CAROUSEL (HOLDS 25) . $13.00 



DISKETTE 

FLIPNFILE 10 $5.46 

FLIP'N'FILE 25 $24.95 

FLIPN FILE 50 $33.95 



•NEW" 



SUPER-PRO KEYBOARD 

BY: MARK DATA 



PRICES" I 



ADAPTER REQUIRED ON 
COMPUTER BOUGHT AFTER 10/82. 
KEYBOARD J&+95~ $56 95 ADPT $4.95 



VOLKSMODEM 

BY: ANCHOR AUTOMATION 
300 BAUD, DIRECT CONNECT 
MANUAL ANSWER, MANUAL DIAL 

INCLUDES CABLE $74.95 



WICO JOYSTICK 

BIG BAT HANDLE 
SPRING RETURN OR FREE FLOAT 
ANALOG TYPE - PLUGS RIGHT IN! 
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Look at These Discounts and Compare. .Remember WE PAY SHIPPINGl 

SOFTWARE PRICES SHOWN ARE 20% OFF LIST PRICE! 



SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

T D 

> GALGON $19.95 $23.15 

> PENGON $19.95 $23.15 

> COLOR PANIC $19.95 $23.15 

>CUBIX $19.95 $23.15 

t> LANCER $19.95 $23.15 

t> MS GOBBLER $19.95 $23.15 

WHIRLYBIRD RUN $19.95 $23 15 

STORM ARROWS $19.95 $23.15 

LUNAR ROVER PATROL $19.95 $23 15 

COMPUTERWARE 

T D 

> MR. DIG $22.35 $24 75 

> JUNIOR S REVENGE $23 15 $25.55 

RANDOM BASIC (OS-9) $60.00 

> COLOR BASIC COMPILER $31 .95 

64K SCREEN EXPANDER (64K) $19.95 $22 35 

♦ THE SOURCERER (R DOS) $27.95 $3195 

THE SOURCERER (OS-9) $31.95 

> MACRO ASSEMBLER & XREF (R DOS) $39 95 

MACRO ASSEMBLER & XREF (OS-9) $39.95 

>COLOR EDITOR $ 1 9 95 $23 95 

> COLOR MONITOR .....$19.95 $22.35 

>MOON HOPPER $19.95 $22.35 

BLOC HEAD (CUBE R TYPE) $2155 $23 95 

DOODLE BUG (LADY BUG) $19.95 $22.35 



SOFT LAW 

T * D INCLUDED 

□ VIP WRITER (INC. SPELLER!) $47.95 

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T D 

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T D 

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T D 

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T D 

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TOM MIX T 

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elec*TRON $19.95 

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SKRAMBLE $19.95 

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TAPE TO DISK $14.35 

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SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE $15 95 



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T D 

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Computer Diagnostics) $39.95 



B5 SOFTWARE 

T 

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BORROW $15.95 

CARRY ■. $15.95 

MATH FACT $13.55 

ABC S $ 7.95 



NOTE: ALL SALES FINAL. NO RETURNS UNLEJ 

♦ Requires 16K Ext. Basic Minimum. >Req 


>s defective ADDITIONAL LISTINGS IN OUR 

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K. Others 16K Ext. Std. Basic Minimum. 


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MACHINE 
END 



Of course, some destructive personage might try to steal 
the laser from my bite-cure machine and use it as a weapon 
against fleas. What would happen? We can only speculate, 
but knowing how tough fleas are, 1 would guess that a minor 
microsurgery laser might do nothing but disorient them for 
a while. 



TO FLEA1NJURE 
PU 

MAKE :N 2 

SX 40 SY 90 SH 90 

WHILE XLOC 0<64 

(SP1RAL1) 

WHILE XLOC (X128 

(SPIRAL2) 

WHILE XLOC 0<192 

(SP1RAL3) 

WHILE XLOC0<244 

(SPIRAL4) 

FLEAINJURE 

END 

TOSP1RAL1 
FD :N RT 60 
MAKE :N :N+1 
END 

TO SP1RAL2 
FD :N LT 60 
MAKE :N :N+1 
END 

TO SPIRAL3 
SLOW 10 

FD :N RT 360 LT 360 
RT 60 

MAKE :N :N+1 
END 

TO SPIRAL4 
SLOW 20 
REPEAT 4 
(REPEAT 12(RT45) 
FD 12 REPEAT 48 (LT 45) 
FD 10) 
END 



I think that is a reasonable demonstration of a flea in deep 
trouble. However, I had hoped (with the extra FLEAIN- 
JURE at the bottom of the TO FLEAINJURE procedure) 
that the flea would recycle through the entire sequence. It 
didn't. I tried to figure out why, and then realized that my 
last WHILE statement — WHILE XLOC 0<244 — re- 
mained permanently true, thus keeping the moving turtle 
locked into that part of the overall procedure. So, I changed 
the last WHILE statement to an IF statement, assuring that 
the procedure would recycle itself. Another thing I found: 
when the turtle (flea?) did finally recycle it was still carrying 
the SLOW 20 command from SPIRAL4. So I put a SLOW 
0 command at the beginning of SPIRAL 1 to cancel out the 



SLOW 20. Make sense? 

All 1 can say is we better do something about these fleas. 
Otherwise: 

TO INFEST 
MAKE :X 20 
SX :X SY 20 
HATCH 1 CRAWL 
SET 

HATCH 2 CRAWL 
SET 

HATCH 3 CRAWL 
SET 

HATCH 4 CRAWL 
SET 

HATCH 5 CRAWL 
SET 

HATCH 6 CRAWL 
SET 

HATCH 7 CRAWL 
SET 

HATCH 8 CRAWL 
SET 

CRAWL 
END 



TO CRAWL 
PU 

SLOW 5 
RT 30 FD 10 
REPEAT 6 (RT 60) 
REPEAT 6 (LT 60) 
LT60 FD 10 
RT 30 
CRAWL 
END 

TO SET 

SX XLOC ME + 25 
END 

Do you have the feeling you've seen more of fleas than you 
ever wanted to? So do I! So does Ben! So does Bertha! Ditto 
the pigs! So does everyone down here! I remain, 

— Uncle Bert 

P.S. You can send your cards and letters to me in care of my 
good friend Dale Peterson. Just address them like this: 

Uncle Bert Woofensburger 

c/o Dale Peterson 

THE RAINBOW 

9529 U.S. Highway 42 

P.O. Box 209 

Prospect, KY 40059 



© copyright 1984 
By W. Bert Woofensburger 
and 
Dale Peterson 




120 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



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DELKER ELECTRONICS, INC. 
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Exploring The Angles Of 
BASIC And LOGO 



By Don Inman 
RAINBOW Contributing Editor 



LOGO and BASIC were created for very different 
purposes. Therefore, comparisons, such as 1 have 
made in the May and June issues of THE rainbow, 
mean little in determing which is the best language. 1 have 
not been trying to point out the superiority of one or the 
other. 

When you are learning something new, it is quite often 
helpful to relate it to experiences that you have had in the 
past. BASIC has been around for a long time. LOGO, the new 
kid on the block, retains some of the features of basic but 
also has its own features. The purpose of this series of 
articles is to introduce some of these features using BASIC as 
a reference. 

The rectangle is used in many ways when creating a graph- 
ics display. This month's article explores BASIC and LOGO 
graphics using the rectangle for comparison. 

A BASIC Rectangle 

There are several ways to draw a rectangle using BASIC. 
You may "turn on" each point with PSET commands: 



10 PMODE 3: PCLS: SCREEN 
20 Y=10 

30 FOR X=10TO60 

40 PSET (X,Y): PSET (X,Y+20) 

50 NEXT X 

60 X=10 

70 FOR Y=10TO20 



1,0 



setY 



-top & bottom 



setx 



80 PSET (X,Y): PSET (X+50,Y) 
90 NEXT Y 
100 GOTO 100 



sides 



You may draw a rectangle using the DRA W command: 
10 PMODE 3: PCLS: SCREEN 1,0 
20 DRAW"BM 10,10; R50 D10 L50 U10" 
30 GOTO 30 | | | It ^ 

start right down left up 

You may also use the LINE command with the box (B) 
option: 

10 PMODE 3: PCLS: SCREEN 1,0 
20 LINE(10,10)-(60,20),PSET,B 
30 GOTO 30 



upper lower make a 
left right box 



All three of these methods draw the same rectangle. 




(Don Inman is a co-author pf a series of booklets for 
Radio Shack titled Color M}GO Guide for Teachers. 
He is a former teacher and is presently a full-time 
author with the DYMAX bunch.) 



A LOGO Rectangle 

The turtle drawings of LOGO most closely resemble the 
BASIC method that uses the DRA W command. A turtle 
procedure that draws a similar rectangle could be: 



122 THE RAINBOW July 1964 



TO RECTANGLE 

CLEAR PU HT <4 lift pen, hide turtle 

SX10SY180 ~« -setXahdY 

RT 90 PD turn right, lower pen 

REPEAT 2(FD 50 RT 90 FD 10 RT 90)«*draw rectangle 

END 

The resulting rectangle would look like those drawn in 
BASIC. However, note that the LOGO screen begins with Y = 
0 at the bottom of the screen. 

BASIC SCREEN LOGO SCREEN 




Color-filled Rectangles 

Rectangles can be filled with color by Extended Color 
BASIC very easily by using the Fill option with the LINE 
command or by using the PAINT command in conjunction 
with any rectangle drawing method. LOGO does not have any 
easy way to fill an enclosed figure with color. However, it 
can be done by coloring each line inside the rectangle. 



BASIC: 

20 LINE( 10,10) — (60,20),PSET,BF 
or 

20 DRAW"BM10,10;R50D10L50U10" 
30 PA1NT(I5,15),4,4 

LOGO: 
PC 2 SX 10 SY 180 
REPEAT 4(FD 50 RT 90 

FD 1 RT 90 FD 50 LT 90 

FD 1 LT 90) 
FD 50 

BASIC and LOGO produce similar rectangles. However, the 
colors produced are not the same. 




A Practical Program 

The following BASIC program and LOGO procedures show 
the use of rectangles in producing a bar graph. Notice that 
BASIC uses subroutines in a similar way that LOGO uses 
subprocedures. The main program, or procedure, in each 
language is written as a series of subroutines, or subpro- 
grams, so that you can easily compare how the two lan- 
guages produce similar results for each part of the program. 



BAK GRAPH 



BASIC PROGRAM 



LOGO PROGRAM 



100 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 



REM * 
PMODE 
CLEAR 
GOSUB 
60SUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOTO 



MAIN PROGRAM * 

3: PCLS: SCREEN 1,0 

1000: DIM L*<21> 

1000 

2000 

3000 * DRAW BOTTOM 
4000 * DRAW TITLE 
5000 'DRAW SIDES 
6000 * DRAW BARS 
190 



TO GRAPH 
CLEAR 
RECT 
BOTTOM 
TITLE 
SIDES 
BARS 

END 



HT 



1000 REM * ASSIGN LETTERS * 
1010 L*<1>="R8U4L8U4R8BD8BR8" '£ 
OR 5 

1020 L*(2)="U4NR8U4R8D8BR8" 'A 

1030 L*(3)="NU8R8BR8" 'L 

1 040 L* ( 4 ) = " NR8U4NR8U4R8BD8BR8 " 

*E 

1050 L*(5)="U8F4E4D8BR8" 'M 
1060 L*<6)= ,, U8F8NU8BR8" 'N 
1070 L*(7)="U8R8D4L4NL4F4BR8" * F 
1080 L*(8)="NR8U8R8BD8BR8" "C 
1090 L*<9)="NR8U8R8D8BR8" »0 OR 
0 

1 1 00 L* ( 1 0 ) = " NR6U8R8F2D4G2BR 10" 
'D 

1110 L*(ll) = 



'"NU2R8NU8BR8" * J 



logo can mix text and graphics. 
Therefore, no LOGO 
commands here. 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 123 



1120 
1130 
1140 
1150 
1160 
■ '3 
1170 
BR8" 
1180 

'6 
1190 
1200 
1210 
1220 



L*<12)= 
L*<13)= 
L*<14)= 
L*(15)= 
L*<16)= 

L*<17)= 
*4 

L*<18)= 

L*<19)= 
L*<20)= 
L*(21)= 
RETURN 



'"NU8R8NU8BR8" 'U 

> " U4NU4R8NU4D4BR8 " * H 

: " BR4NU8BR 12" * 1 

! " BU8R6D2G6R8BR8 " *2 

' " NR8BU4NR8BU4R8D8BR8 

= " BU4NU4R4NU4ND4R4BD4 

* " NR8U8R8BD4NL8D4BR8 " 

="BU4NE4F4BR12" *< 
*"BR4BU8F4G4BR12" '> 
« " BU4R8BD4BR8 " 



2000 REM * DRAW RECTANGLE * 
2010 LINE <80, 148) -(249* 10),PSET, 
B 

2020 RETURN 



TO RECT 

SX 80 SY 42 
REPEAT 2(FD 138 RT 90 
FD 166 RT 90) 

END 



3000 REM * BOTTOM * 

3010 DRAW "BM96, 160; S2"+L* ( 14) +"B 

R48 " +L* < 1 5 ) + " BR48 " +L* ( 1 6 ) + " BR48 " 

+L* ( 17) +"BR48"+L* ( 1 ) 

3020 DRAW " BM96 , 1 72 J " +L* < 1 > + " BR22 

" +L* ( 2 ) + " BR22 " +L* < 3 ) + " BR22 " +L* < 4 

) +"BR22"+L* ( 1 ) +"BR22"+L* (5) +"BR2 

2"+L* <2) +"BR22"+L* <6) 

3030 RETURN 



TO BOTTOM 

SX 99 8Y 32 SH 90 

PRINT" 1 2 3 4! 

SX 10:8 SY 20 

PRINT"S A L E S M A N" 
END 



4000 REM * TITLE * 

4010 DRAW"BM96,22? "+L* ( 1 1 ) +L* ( 12 

)+L*(6)+L*(4)+"BR20"+L*(l)+L*(2) 

+L* (3) +L* (4) +L* ( 1 ) +"BR20" 

4020 DRAW L*<7>+L*<4)+L*<8)+L*<9 

)+L*(7)+L*(10) 

A030 RETURN 



TO TITLE 

SX 94 SY 164 

PRINT" JUNE SALES RECORDS" 
END 



5000 REM * SIDES * 

5010 DRAW "BM56, 132 * "+L* < 14) +L* <9 

)+L*<21) 

5020 DRAWBM56, i 16; "+L* < 15) +L« <9 
>+L*<21) 

5030 DRAW " BM56 , 1 00 ; " +L* < 1 6 ) +L* < 9 
)+L*<21) 

5040 DRAW " BM56 , 84 ; " +L* ( 1 7 ) +L» < 9 ) 
+L*<21) 

5050 DRAW " BM56 , 68 1 " +L* < 1 ) +L* ( 9 ) + 
L*(21) 

5060 DRAW " BM56 , 52 ; " +L* ( 1 8 ) +L* < 9 ) 
+L*(21) 

5070 DRAW " BM8 , 80 ; " +L* < 1 ) +L* < 2 ) +L 
*(3)+L*<4)+L*<l) 

5080 DRAW"BM8,92; "+L« < 19) +L* < 13) 
+L* (6) +L* ( 10) +L* <20) 
5090 RETURN 



TO SIDES 
SX 56 
SY 76 
SY 92 
SY 108 
SY 124 
SY 140 
SX 8 
SY 108 

END 



SY 60 PRINT" 10-" 
PR I NT "20-" 
PR I NT "30—" 
PR I NT "40-" 
PR I NT "50-" 
PR I NT "60-" 
SY 120 PR I NT " SALES " 
PRINT" <HND) " 



124 THE RAINBOW July 1984 




THE VOICE 

You get CoCo's best hardware speech synthesizer using 
the VOTRAX SC-01 , THE VOICE (was $1 19.95). 

Included is a text to speech ML program FREE to allow 
any BASIC program to speak in minutes (was 
$29.95). 

You also get 6 education and fun programs FREE (a 
$34.95 value). 

You will have access to an ever growing library of 
software. 

Disk owners don't despair, THE VOICE works in all 
multi-pac units including our own Y-CABLE. 

You can find speech units for less and a lot for more, but 

you won't find any better. 
All hardware and software (tape or disk) $79.95 




Speech thru TV speaker 
Speech thru external speaker 
Volume control 
Pitch control adjustment 
Demo Programs 
Phoneme Editor 
Text-to-Speech program 
Documentation 
Software 
IC count 
Case material 
Case size 
CoCo 2 version 

Expansion Unit Compatibility 

RS Multi-pak 
BT-1000 

Spectrum Switcher 
Y-Pak 
Y-Cable 

NOTE: All software (except Termtalk) will work on either unit, so you can buy our software and 
their hardware or vice versa. 



Speech Systems 
The Original 
VOICE 

Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Outside 
5 
Yes 
Yes 
30 pages 
2 tapes 
6 

Aluminum 

15 /ie x 5V2 x AVa 
Yes 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 



i 8 ^ a 



4=vaicr 



(Actual 
Photo) 



MUSICA 

4 Notes produced simultaneously. 
Input notes from keyboard or joystick. 
Develop your own unique sounding instruments. 
Vary tempo as music plays. 
Save or load music from tape or disk. 
Call music from your own BASIC program. 
Music produced in stereo when used with the STEREO 
COMPOSER. 

All features are fast because it's all machine language. 

It doesn't get any better than this. 

Tape $34.95 (1 6K) (32K) Disk $39.95 

MUSIC LIBRARY 

Play these 4 part music selections without any 
additional software, or use as source for Musica. Over 
100 tunes. Comes on tape, may be copied to disk. Ten or 
more tunes on each tape. 
32K Ext 

• Music from Stage, Screen and 
Television 

• Pop Songs of the 70 s 

• Pop Songs of the 60 s 

• Pop Songs of the 50 s 

STEREO COMPOSER 

CoCo's one and only stereo music synthesizer. Plug it 
into the cartridge slot, connect to external speakers or 
your home stereo and you're ready for music realism. 
Comes with the COMPOSER 4 voice software. Separate 
left and right channel volume controls. Two 8 bit D to A's 
— for perfect reproduction. May be used with our best 
software "MUSICA.'' Disk owners may use any expan- 
sion unit or our Y-CABLE. 
Tape or Disk $69.95 



Each $9.95 

• Old Time Favorites 

• Classical 

• Christmas Music (Sacred) 

• Christmas Music (Popular) 

• Patriotic 



Dealer Inquiries 
Invited 



If your dealer doesn't stock 
our products, ask for them. 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA, and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $2.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6 1 /4% sales tax for the STEREO COMPOSER or THE VOICE. 

^Speech Systems 

38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (24 HR. VOICE) 
(312) 879-6811 (24 HR. BBS) 

CALL ANY DAY, ANYTIME TO ORDER. ALSO ORDER BY MAIL OR BBS. 
WE SHIP FROM STOCK WITHIN 48 HOURS. 



6000 
6010 
6020 
BF 

6030 

6040 

» BF 

6050 

6060 

,BF 

6070 

6080 

,BF 

6090 

6100 

T, BF 

6110 



REM * BARS * 
COLOR 2, 1 

LINE (94, 147) -< 102,92) ,PSET, 
COLOR 3, 1 

LINE (124, 147) -(132, 72) ,PSET 
COLOR 4, 1 

LINE (158, 147) -(166, 83) ,PSET 
COLOR 2, 1 

LINE (188, 147) -(196, 80) ,PSET 
COLOR 3,1 

LINE (218, 147) -(226, 102) , PSE 
RETURN 



TO BARS 








cv 

OA 


94 SY 42 


SH 


0 


rL 


1 MA|/C 

1 riHlNt 


■ ET 

■ r 


52 


RPT 


ev 

OA 


Ijlj oY 










jl rlRKt 


■ ET 

. r 


76 


RPT 


C V 
OA 


156 SY 


42 






PC 


3 MAKE 


:F 


66 


RPT 


sx 


190 SY 


42 






PC 


1 MAKE 


:F 


70 


RPT 


sx 


220 SY 


42 






PC 


2 MAKE 


:F 


50 


RPT 



END 

TO RPT 

REPEAT 6(FD :F 
FD 1 RT 90 
LT 90 FD 1 
FD :F 
END 



RT 90 
FD :F 
LT 90) 



A summary of LOGO abbreviations used: 

HT = HIDE TURTLE 

SX = SET X (coordinate of turtle) 

SY = SET Y (coordinate of turtle) 

FD = FORWARD (move) 

RT = RIGHT (turn) 



TRS-80+ MOD I, III, COCO, TI99/4a 
TIMEX 1000, OSBORNE, others 



CERTIFICATION 



GOLD PLUG - 80 

Eliminate disk reboots and data loss due to oxi- 
dized contacts at the card edge connectors. 
GOLD PLUG 80 solders to the board edge con- 
nector. Use your existing cables, (if gold plated) 




COCO Disk Module (2) 
Ground tab extensions 
Disk Drives (all R.S.) 
Gold Disk Cable 2 Drive 
Four Drive Cable 



$16.95 
INCL 

$7.95 
29.95 
39.95 



USA shipping $1.45 Can/Mex $4. 

Foreign $7 Don't wan any longer TEXAS 5% TAX 

Available at your favorite dealer or order direct from 



n; E.A.p.co. 
mm p.o. box 14 

KELLER, TEXAS 76248 
(817) 498-4242 

+ trademark Tandy Corp 



MC/VISA 



SH = SET HEADING (of turtle) 
PC = PEN COLOR 
LT - LEFT (turn) 
:F = a variable 

RPT= a subprocedure called by BARS 



NOTE: The heading must be set to 90 for PRINT com- 
mands in LOGO in order to print from left to. right. (See the 
BOTTOM procedure) 

The Graph 




color 1 
color 2 
color 3 



126 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Saguaro 
Software 

Kldstuf 

Picture, Letter, or Number Association 
Play an old-time tune with correct 
answer (7 songs), buzzes when wrong 
& waits for correct choice. 8 screens. 

Tape- $19.95 
Disk - $24.95 



Amdek Color I Plus 



$299 



Video Driver - $20 W/Purchase 




Amdisk 3 
Amdek Dual 3 Disk Drive 

New Low Price 



$450 



Includes 2 Diskettes 
And 2 Drive Cables 
(One Amdek, One 5 1 /<") 
First Box Of Diskettes - $45.00 (Reg. $55) 
R.S. Controller - $135 With Amdisk 3 



GAMES 



PRICKLY-PEAR 

• Travelin' Toad 

• Ockywoky 

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• Jumbo Jet 

• Color Disk Trivia 

• Question Disk 

• With Color Trivia 
Adventure in Wonderland 
Decipher 

ERLAND 

Flight 

Football 

Gang busters 

Great Word Game 

Monsters & Magic 

Naked Gamer 

Teeeofff 

Viking! 

TOM MIX 

• SR-71 

• The King 
♦Touchstone 
•Junior's Revenge 

Air Traffic Controller 

Cu'ber 

Space Shuttle 

PFA 

• Guillotine 

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Dunk-a-Duck 
inspector Clueseau 
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TYCOON 

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Syntax Stories 

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' Denotes New Programs 



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Music Reader 

Phonics 1 or 2 (tape only) 

Prereader 1,2, &3 

Spelling 

PFA 

Ed. Pack 123's, ABC.s, Big-Bigger 
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Heart-Lung-Circulatory 
Medical Terminology 

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Bible Stories 
Great U.S.A 
Prereader 

Presidents Of The U.S. 



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Stress Evaluate* 



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Filmastr 



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Clone Master 
Color Kit 

Tape Omni Clone (tape) 
Super Scroll 
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Tim's 2075 
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Add S3,DD For Disk $6.00 For Amdisk 



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Ultimate Bingo 
& Jackpot 

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NNFUSICOO 
CONFUSION 

3 modes of play. 3-4/5-6/ 7 letter words. You 
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rrH 7331 E. Beverly - Tucson, AZ 85710 - (602) 885-6508 



VISA 



BITS AND BYTES OF BASIC 



Variables Revisited 



By Richard White 
RAINBOW Contributing Editor 



Well, another Anniversary Issue is here and we stop 
to think how far we have come and maybe where 
the future may lead. Back when Lonnie Falk 
started THE RAINBOW we were all quite new at computing 
and any sources of information or programs were viewed 
with delight. Reading articles on how to program in BASIC 
on the Model 1 helped, but there were things in CoCo BASIC 
that no one else had and things that CoCo BASIC did not 
have. Study the manuals and experiment was the usual 
course. 

Maybe life is somewhat easier for newcomers now. Per- 
haps there is too much information for one to digest, and 
much of it is too technical for the beginner. So, let's take one 
of our occasional trips back to basics and look at variables in 
detail to bring our new programmers on board. 

In a high level language like BASIC, variables reference 
and organize the data used in the program. A variable is 
simply a name given to a piece of data. Think of data being 
assigned to a variable and not of the variable equalling the 
data. Early versions of basic sought to reinforce the 
assignment idea by making one write LET X— 10 rather than 
X=10. LETis in Extended Color BASIC but is virtually never 
used. 

Color BASIC supports two types of variables — string, 
which holds a string of characters, and real or numeric. 
basic constructs variable tables to keep data about active 
variables and an analysis of the variable table will help you 
understand how variables work. The variable table starts at 



(Richard White has a long background with micro- 
computers and specializes in BASIC programming. 
With Don Dollberg, he is the author of the TIMS data 
base management program.) 



the end of your BASIC program and extends upward into 
memory. The first table entries are real variables, each 
occupying seven bytes. The first two bytes for each entry are 
the ASCII values of the first two letters in the variable name. 
Note that Extended BASIC lets you use variable names 
longer than two letters, but only the first two are used in the 
variable table and hence have any meaning. The following 
five bytes carry the value of the variable in a form readable 
by Basic's floating point decimal routines. The CoCo is 
much more adept at reading these bytes than I am, so let's let 
it do its thing and not try to guess what it is doing. 

However, it might prove interesting to look at the variable 
table entries. Following is a short program that does just 
that. 

5 A=0:B=0:AB$=" 1 (XT: AB= 10000 

10 B=VARPTR(AB):FORA=B-2 TO B+4 

:PR1NTPEEK(A);CHR$(PEEK(A));:NEXT 

In Line 10, VARPTR(AB) returns the address of the first 
data byte associated with variable AB. When the program is 
run, the following is printed on the screen. 

65 A 66 B 142 64 @ 28 0 0 

There will be a graphics character after 142 which 1 have 
omitted and will omit when they occur later. The ASCII 
codes for A and B show up and then three numbers which 
are all that BASIC needs to store 10000. If you change the 
value assigned to AB in Line 5 and rerun the program, you 
can see how the stored values change. Here are some sam- 
ples to get you started: 

5 A=0:B=0:AB$="100":AB=100000 
65 A 66 B 145 67 C 80 P 0 0 



128 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



5 A=0:B=0:AB$= U 100":AB=123456000000 
65 A 66 B 165 101 e 244 104 h 128 
5 A=0:B=0:AB$="100":AB=2E37 
65 A 66 B 252 1 12 p 189 194 30 

Strings are stored from the top of RAM down within the 
string space you define with CLEAR. CLEAR 1000 will 
reserve 1000 bytes for string storage. Each string is listed in 
the variable table. We can change our program to look at the 
table entry for string AB$ by listing that variable in the 
brackets after VARPTR. 

5 A=0:B=0:AB$="100":AB=10000 

10 B=VARPTR(AB$):FORA=B-2 TO B+4 

:PRINTPEEK(A);CHR$(PEEK(A));:NEXT 

When we RUN the program, we get the following on the 
screen. Again, any graphics characters printed are not 
shown below. 

65 A 194 3 0 38 & 18 0 

The 65 for A is there but not 66 for B. Instead, we see 194, 
which is the ASCII value for B plus 128. This flags basic 
that the listing is for a string-type variable. Next is a three, 
which is the number of characters — our string was 100. The 
second byte is not used and is set to zero. The third and 
fourth bytes are the high and low bytes of the address of the 
beginning of the string. The fifth byte is not used and is set to 
0. This is all BASIC needs to find the string and read it. 

If we had another line like 75 AB$-'NEW DATA", 
BASIC would write NEW DATA to an unused part of the 
string space and put the new length and address data under 
the AB$ listing in the variable table. The old AB$ string is 
still in the string space, but reference to it in the variable 
table is gone. After a while, new string entries will fill up 
string space, even though it contains some "lost" strings. At 
that point, CoCo stops to "collect the garbage." Strings 
listed in the variable table are rewritten over unlisted space 
moving the free space to the end of string space. This may 
take a few seconds during which the computer seems to go 
dead, but it is only cleaning house. 

Let's come back for a moment to variable names. In Color 
BASIC you may use any one- or two-letter combination for a 
variable except reserved words. What is a reserved word? It 
is one that is also a BASIC statement or function command. 
ON, TO, GO and FN are examples. When the computer 
encounters an ON, it starts looking for a variable represent- 
ing a number to use in a following GOSUB or (70 TO action. 
If your statement had been ON— 20, no variable comes next, 
the computer gets confused and registers a complaint as a 
Syntax Error. 

Extended Color BASIC allows you to use whole words as 
variables, but we now know how the variable table works 
and that only the first two letters are used. The objective is to 
allow writing clearer programs, but there are drawbacks 
that keep people from using the capability. First, there is the 
added memory used, one byte for each added letter each 
time the variable is used. Secondly, the number of reserved 
words (BASIC commands, remember?) become much more 
numerous. Last is the trouble in devising meaningful words 
which always are different from any other in the first two 



letters. If I had two FOR TO NEXT loops, one within the 
other, I might like to name the variable in the outer loop 
COUNTONE and the inner loop variable COUNTTWO. 
Since the first two letters are the same the computer cannot 
tell the difference and the loops won't work the way you 
expect. So, we will try ONECOUNT and TWOCOUNT 
instead. The first two letters are different, but ONECOUNT 
contains ON, a reserved word, and SN Error results. 
Another loser is TWO-COUNT. The computer sees it as 
TW-CO without a variable to assign the result or the equal 
sign — SN Error. 

Real variables represent numbers, and are used directly in 
equations making calculations resulting in some number. 
Some BASIC dialects let you define whether a variable will be 
an integer, a single-precision, floating decimal number or a 
double-precision decimal number. The higher the precision, 
the more memory that is necessary to store the number. 
CoCo will accept positive or negative numbers up to 10 to 
the 37th power and will display nine significant digits. This is 
fine for nearly all programming you are likely to do. 1 miss 



"Real variables represent numbers, and 
are used directly in equations making 
calculations resulting in some number. 
Some BASIC dialects let you define 
whether a variable will be an integer, a 
single-precision, floating decimal 
number or a double-precision decimal 
number " 



the ability to define integer variables and benefit from the 
memory saving the results. Simple counting and other 
integer number operations are encountered all the time! 
Where a wealth of integer data is to be used, it can be put 
into strings and recovered using methods we have discussed 
in previous columns and will discuss in the future. 

A string variable references a string of characters. In the 
assignment statement for a string variable, characters must 
be between quotes or defined using CHR$(XX) or STR$(Y). 
Here XX is the ASCII number for the character. Y is a real 
variable that is converted to a string having a leading space. 
Examples are A$ * " THIS IS AN example", B$= 
CHR$(19l), which is a solid red block and N$ = STR$(20). 

Strings can be added to each other in a process called 
concatonation. C$ = AS + " FOR THE ARTICLE ON 
VARIABLES" Now C$ represents "THIS IS AN example 
FOR THE ARTICLE ON VARIABLES" If we concate- 
nate C$ with B$ like this D$ = C$ + B$ we would get the 
same string as before but with a red block after the period. 
Enter this program and run it. 

10 A$ = "CHARACTERS" 

20 FOR X=l TO 10 : AS = A$ + CHR$(8) : NEXT 
30 PRINT A$ 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 12§ 



We know there are characters in A$, but they don't print. 
The trick is that CHR$(8) is the backspace or left arrow 
character. As soon as "CHARACTERS" was printed, 10 
backspaces were printed which erased "CHARACTERS. " 
This may not be good for much, but it does give food for 
thought. There is a watch-out here in that you can add non 
printing characters to strings that give unexpected results. 
Also note the A$= Z A$+ CHR$(8). A$ appears on both sides 
of the equality. We can also write A = A+. 10. This comes 
back to the assignment idea. The right side is evaluated and 
the result is assigned to the variable on the left. The 
computer finishes its work on the right portion using 
whatever A or A$ represent initially before it redefines them. 

Both real and string variables can be viewed as either 
global or local. Actually BASIC variables are always global 
since they can be used anywhere in a BASIC program. In 
languages like PASCAL, c and BASIC09, variables have a 
value only in the particular subroutines or procedures where 
ihey are declared. Further, the variable X in one procedure 
is a different variable from the variable X in a different 
procedure. We cannot define our variables like this in BASIC, 
but we can view how we use them as local or global. 



. "Actually BASIC variables are always 
global since they can be used anywhere 
in a BASIC program. In languages like 
PASCAL, C andBASIC09, variables 
have a value only in the particular 
subroutines or procedures where they 
are declared." 



In a file program, the Variables that refer to the data records 
are Used as globfcl in that thfey are defined in the input 
section, changed in the editor saved in another section to 
tape or disk, used in search and sort sections and in various 
subroutihes. A variable used in a FOR- TO-NEXT\oop in a 
subroutine meahs nothing when you exit that subroutine 
and may be re-used elsewhere. 

There is a savings of memory if certain variable names are 
prechoseli and used only for local purposes. They can be 
redefined and used again and again in other parts of the 
program. This serves to help clarify the program if it is 
known that J and K are always used locally, generally serve 
counting purposes and never have meaning once the using 
routine is left. This will work well with some careful disci- 
pline and I think is much better than trying to find an unused 
variable each tirne a short loor) is needed. You should also 
define string variables and other real variables for local 
temporary dkta holding purposes. Just make sure all local 
variables are defined when they are first used in the routine 
and do not contain data needed elsewhere when the routihe 
is exited. 

Numbers and strings may also be kept in subscripted or 
array variables. Here one array name is used to refer to a 
series of data items. For example A(l)=23, A(2)f=45 . . 
A(20^14. BASIC then sets up a separate portion of the 
variable table above regular variables in memory for array 



variable entries. An array variable table for A$(10) looks 
like the following. 



The array for A(N) is similar except the value for each 
member of the array is in each five-byte block. When a 
subscripted variable is first used, an eleven entry block is 
established in the variable table for that variable. Note that 
A$(0) is a member of the array. If you need more entries, you 
must dimension the variable, e.g., DIM A$(100) or DIM 
A$(X). Vou can also have multi-dimensioned arrays in 
Extended BASIC. A$ could be dimensioned DIM A$(50,10). 
Note that such arrays use memory space. A$(50, 10) requires 
7 + 50*5* 10 or 2507 bytes of memory for the variable table 
alone. Filially, if you know you are only going to use a few 
rhembers of an array, say four or five, then dimension the 
array, say DIM A$(5) to keep memory use to only what you 
really need. 

Arrays are most useful where the program itself must 
choose which data item to use. You are permitted and even 
encouraged to use a variable within the parentheses ( A$(X)) 
so that a number determined by the program selects the 
desired array member. Some good examples of array usage 
have appeared in recent issues of THE RAINBOW. »jj 



-7 






-6 


NAME 


128 


-5 


DISPLACEMENT 


VX 


-4 


TO NEXT ARRAY 


YZ 


-3 


# OF DIMENSIONS 


1 


-2 


NUMBER OF 


00 


■ 1 


ENTRIES 


11 



VARPTR(A$(0))?> A$(0) LENGTH \ : 

0 

A$(0) . 
ADDRESS ~" 

: 0 

VARPTR(A$(1))5> A$( I) LENGTH 

0 

_A$(1) ~ 
ADDRESS 

~0 



VARPTR(AS(10))> A$(10) LENGTH 

J '~" ". r '< - Q 

_____ __ 

ADDRESS 



130 THE RAINBOW July 1984 





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THE 

GWERNS 
OF 

DEATH 



Bv Bill Franks 



Long ago during the age of magic and sorcery, there 
existed a set of caverns so deadly, so terrifying they 
were known simply as The Caverns of Death. Nothing 
that entered these caverns had ever returned alive. There was 
a curse on the caves so that once you entered you couldn't 
turn back. You had to go deeper and deeper until one of the 
perils in the caves killed you. Due to an error in a time 
machine, you were sent back to this age in the form of a bat. 

One day while flying around, you unwittingly flew into 
these caves. At first it was easy, with plenty of room to fly 
between the stalactites and stalagmites and eat the plentiful 
bugs. As you went deeper, however, there became less and 
less room. 

You must fly carefully to stay alive. How long will you 
last? Will you find another exit or will you perish like the 
others before you? Only time can tell! 

The object of Bats And Bugs is to accumulate as many 
points as possible before the caves take their toll. Points are 
obtained by eating the bugs flying toward you. For each red 
or blue bug you devour, you will receive 50 points. Avoid the 



(Bill Franks is a self-taught programmer who has 
owned a Co Co for two years. When he isn 7 program- 
ming, he attends Thomas Jefferson High School in 
Alexandria, Va., where he is a member of both the 
varsity track and soccer teams.) 




yellow bug — it's poisonous and will kill you if you eat it! 
Many times the yellow bug will be in your passageway or 
will jump in front of you, making death inevitable. Every 
time you gain a multiple of 400 points, you will increase a 
skill level to a harder cave. After completing level eight, each 
level thereafter will be of the same difficulty. 

There will be times (particularly in the higher levels) when 
the caves look nearly impossible to navigate. However, there 
are no impossible caves. In this type of cave, you can let your 
back hit the protrusions just enough to knock off their 
points. Hitting the stalactites or stalagmites with your front 
always causes death, but if you aim your course correctly, 
your back can hit them safely. 

You have three lives. Each time you die, a new cave of the 
same level is drawn. Before you begin each cave, your bat 
will be moving down the screen. When he gets to the height 
where you want to start flying, press any key or the fire 
button to begin play. To reset the game at the end, also press 
any key or the fire button. 

You are given the choice of using a joystick or the Space 
Bar. Simply move the joystick up and down, or press the 
Space Bar to climb or don't press it and you will descend. 

If the speed up poke (POKE 65495,0) doesn't work on 
your computer then just delete it. 

Finally, if you don't feel like typing in the game and would 
like a copy on tape, send me $4 and I will galdly send you a 
copy. My address is 4939 Tunlaw St., Alexandria, VA 
22312. 



132 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Custom Software Engineering, Inc. 

RAINBOW ^ 



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Provides the growth capability needed for your increasingly sophisti- 
cated applications. 

■ Designed to use the full 64K RAM . . . may also be configured for 
32K. 

■ Uses standard ROM's ... No special operating system required! 

■ Allows you to design disk data files for your specific needs. You 
define a basic record of up to 1 4 fields and 246 characters. 

■ Provides fast selection and sorting based on any field or combi- 
nation of fields in this record. 

■ Powerful in-screen input and update. 

■ User defined output of reports to screen, printer, or disk files 
which may be read by your BASIC programsfor any computational 
or special formatting requirements 

■ Printer reports allow headings, page breaks and page numbering, 
and let you pass control codes to drive your printer's special 
features. 

■ Maximum number of records you may work with at one time will 
depend on RAM configuration and record size . . . 64K (32 K) 1 850 
(500) - 21 char records ... 1 79 (49) -246 char records. 

■ An optional Extended record linked to the basic record may also 
be defined. Size of this Extended record is not a factor in 
determining maximum number of records. 

■ NOW . . . also includes DDH DIRECTORY FILE BUILDER ... a 
listing of a short program to read directory information from your 
disks and produce a combined file index. 

$64.96 in BASIC with Machine Language subroutines. 



That's INTEREST-ing 

Let your computer do some REAL computation! 

■ Helps you solve problems dealing with time, money, and INTEREST! 

■ Amortization tables any way YOU Want them . . . even lets you 
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■ Calculates Present Value, Future Value, Capital Recovery for any 
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■ All answers available on screen or printer. 
920.66 in BASIC 



DATE O BASE CALENDAR 

Puts YOU in charge of your schedule! 

■ Graphically displays any monthly calendar between 1700 and 
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■ Use for appointments or a log of past activity. 

■ Search capability allows you to list or print all memos between 
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■ Date computation shows elapsed time between two dates in 
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■ Requires 32K in BASIC 

TAPE DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - $1 6.06 (max. 400 memos/tape 
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GRAPHIC SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM 

Works in all PMODES and lets you shift screen image anywhere on 
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ALPHA-DRAW 

Works great with GRAPHIC SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM! 

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■ You define X and Y coordinates and a string variable of one or 
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Program Description 

Line 0 sets up the arrays. 

Line 1 puts the computer in the graphics mode. 

Line 2 draws and gets the bat. 

Lines 3 and 4 draw the cave. 

Lines 5 and 6 draw, get the bugs and pick starting places. 
Line 8 moves the bat down screen at start of each cave. 
Lines 10 to 20 are the main loop moving you and bugs 

after making sure you haven't gone off board or died. 
Lines 23 to 56 are subroutines used by the main loop. 
Lines 100 to 107 are the death routine. 
Lines 200 to 219 are the score drawing routine. 
Lines 220 and 221 are the completed level routine. 
Lines 300 to 302 get the level and way of movement you 

wish to start with. 
Lines 400 to 410 draw the title page. 




The listing: 

0 POKE65495,0:DIMA<1> ,B<1> ,C<1> , 
D ( 1 ) , E < 1 > : A*« ,, T255V30O5CDEFGAB' , : 
GOSUB400 

1 GOSUB300 : PMODE 1,1: PCLS : SCREEN 1 

, 0: pmode l , 3: pcls: screen l , 0 



2 DRAW "BM101 , 1 00C3E4F4E4F4BM 1 20 , 
100F4E4F4E4" : GET ( 100, 101 > - ( 1 17, 0 
95) , A, G: GET (120, 100) -(137, 106) ,B 
, G: G0SUB5: PCLS: G0SUB3: G0T07 

3 FORI=0TO220STEP20:H=RND(3)+1:C 
OLORH, 1 

4 SOUNDRND (255) , 1 : F=RND (LE) +5: G- 
190- ( (LE+5)-F)-5:F*F+15:LINE(I, 1 
5)-(I+10,F) ,PSET:LINE(I, 15) -(1+2 
0, 15) ,PSET:LINE(I+10,F)-(I+20, 15 
),PSET:LINE(I, 190) -( 1+10, G) ,PSET 
:LINE(I+10,G)-(I+20, 190) ,pset:pa 

int (1+5, 17) ,h,h: paint (1+5, 189) ,h 
, h: next: a=10: b=100: return 

5 pcls: c0l0r2, 1 : line ( 100, 100) - ( 1 

03, 103) ,PSET,BF:GET(100, 100) -(10 
7, 103) ,C,G:C0L0R3, 1: LINE (120, 100 
)-(123, 103) ,PSET,BF:GET(120, 100) 
- ( 127, 103) , D, G: C0L0R4, 1 : LINE ( 130 
, 100) -(133, 103) ,PSET,BF:GET(130, 
100)-(137, 103) ,E,G 

6 Ml=RND(50)+200: : M2=RND (70) +60: 
M3=RND (100) +50: M4=RND (70) +60: M5= 
RND (50) +100: M6=RND (70) +60: RETURN 

7 G0SUB9 : PCOP Y3TO 1 : PCOP Y4TD2 

8 COLOR 1,1: FORB=50TO 1 50STEP5 : GOS 
UB41 : FORI=1TO50: NEXT: LINE (A, B-6) 
-(A+17,B) ,PSET,BF:P=PEEK (65280) : 
I *= I NKE Y* : I F I *<> " " ORP= 1 260RP=254 




Educed 





134 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



THEN 10ELSENEXT: LINE (A, B-5) - < A+17 
, B+7 ) , PSET , BF : G0T08 

9 DRAW"BM210,0C3R10D14L10U14":LI 

»3: sc=0: : GOSUB200: pmodei , 3: draw 

BM10, 10C3E4F4E4F4BM35, 10E4F4E4F4 
BM60, 10E4F4E4F4" : COLOR 1 , 1 : PMODEI 
, 1 : SCREEN 1 , 0: RETURN 

10 IFKE=1THENP=PEEK (345) ELSE J * JO 
YSTK <0) : K=JOYSTK < 1 ) : IFK<33THENP= 
247ELSEP=1 

111 FP=247THENA= A+5 : B=B-5 : PU= 1 

12 1 FP< >247THENA=A+5 : B=B+5 : PU*2 

1 3 G0SUB23 : I FA >230THENCOLOR 1 , 1 : L 
INE (A-3, B-6) - (A+17, B+12) , PSET, BF 
: A= 1 0 : GOTO 1 5ELSEG0T0 1 5 

14 IFPP0INT(A+8,B-4)O10RPP0INT( 
A+8, B+8) < >10RPP0INT (A+20, B-2) < >1 
ORPPOINT (A+20, B+8) < MORPPOINT ( A+ 
2, B-4X >10RPPOINT ( A+2, B+6 )< 1 THE 
NGOTO 1 00ELSERETURN 

15 M1=M1—15: M3=M3— 15; M5=M5— 15: IF 
Ml< 5THEN50ELSE I FM3< 5THEN5 1 ELSE I F 
M5<5THEN52 

16 COLOR1, l: LINE (A-5, B-6)- (A+15, 
B+12) , PSET, BF: ONPU GOSUB40 ,41: PC 
0PY3T01 : PC0PY4T02: PMODEI , 1 : GOSUB 
39 

17 IFA>M1-17ANDA<M1+4ANDB>M2-6AN 



DB< M2+5THENPLA YA* : GOTO 1 00ELSE I FA 
>M3- 1 7ANDA< M3+4ANDB >M4-6ANDB< M4+ 
5THENPL A Y A* : G0T055ELSE I FA >M5- 1 7 A 
NDA< M5+4ANDB >M6-6 ANDB< M6+5THENPL 
AYA$:G0T056 

18 PMODEI, 3 

19 GOSUB 14 

20 GOTO 10 

23 I FB< 1 2THEN 1 00ELSE I FB > 1 80THENB 
= 1 80 : GOTO 1 00ELSERETURN 

37 I FM 1 < 0THENM 1 =0ELSE I FM3< 0THENM 
3=0ELSE I FM5< 0THENM5=0 

38 RETURN 

39 G0SUB37:PUT(Ml,M2)-(Ml+7,M2+3 
) ,C, PSET: PUT (M3,M4)-(M3+7,M4+3) , 
D, PSET: PUT (M5, M6) - (M5+7, M6+3) , E, 
PSET: RETURN 

40 PUT (A, B)- (A+17, B+6) , A, PSET: RE 
TURN 

41 PUT (A, B)- (A+17, B+6) ,B, PSET: RE 
TURN 

50 M 1 =240 : M2=RND ( 70 ) +60 : GOTO 1 6 

51 M3=240:M4=RND(70)+60:GOTO16 

52 M5=240 : M6=RND ( 70 ) +60 : GOTO 1 6 

55 SC=SC+50 : GOSUB200 : G0T05 1 

56 SC=SC+50 : GOSUB200 : G0T052 

1 00 PMODE 1,1: PLAY "01 V30T7CFCFCFC 
FCFCFCF " : I FB< 1 2THENB= 1 2 



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DATA-COMP s FLEX9 Conversion for the TRS-80C Color Computer was designed for the 
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July 1984 THE RAINBOW 135 



101 C0L0R1, l:SO«(180-B)/3+5:FORI 
=B TO180STEP10 

102 B=I : GOSUB41 : LINE <A, B-l 1 ) - ( A+ 
17,B-3> , PSET, BF: FOR J«1T03 : SO-SO 
-1 : SOUNDSO, 1 : NEXT: NEXT 

103 PMODE 1,3: COLOR 1, 1 : LI=LI-1 : LI 
NE(10+(LI*25) ,0)-(26+(LI»25) , 10) 
, PSET , BF : I FL I =0THEN 1 05 

104 G0T0221 

105 PMODElp l:SCREENl, l:COLORl, l: 
LINE (10,0) -(28, 10) ,PSET,BF 

106 FORI=1TO500:NEXT: I*=INKEY* 

1 07 P=PEEK < 65280 ) : I *= I NKE Y* : I F I * 
<> " " ORP- 1 260RP*254THEN 1 ELSE 1 07 

200 PMODE i , 3: SC*=STR* (SO : I FSC >9 
9950THENSC-0000: GOTO200 

20 1 I FLEN ( SC* ) < 6THENSC*= " 0 " +SC* : 
BOTO201 

202 B1=VAL(MID*(SC*,3, 1) ) : :B2=VA 
L(MID*(SC*,4, 1) ) :B3=VAL(MID*(SC* 
,5, 1) ) :B5=VAL(MID*(SC*,2, 1) ) 

203 COLOR1, 1: LINE (90,0) -(230, 15) 
, PSET , BF : C0L0R3 , 1 : DRAW " BM2 1 0 , 0R 1 
0D14L10U14" : DRAW "BM 120, 0" : B4=B1 : 
GOSUB206 : DRAW "BM150, 0" : B4=B2: SOS 
UB206: DRAW "BM 180, 0" : B4=B3: B0SUB2 
06: DRAWBM90, 0" : B4=B5: 8OSUB206: I 




paw* 0 * 



an 




So**** *°* 



FSC/400-INT (SC/400) ANDSO0THEN22 
0ELSEPMODE 1 , 1 : RETURN 
206 0NB4+1 GOSUB210, 21 1,212, 213, 
214, 215, 216, 217 j 218, 219: RETURN 

210 DRAW"R10D15L10U15": RETURN 

211 DRAW" D15": RETURN 

212 DRAW " R 1 0D7L 1 0D7R 10": RETURN 

213 DRAW " R 1 0D7L 1 0R 1 0D7L 10": RETUR 
N 

214 DRAW "D7R1 0U7D 14": RETURN 

215 DRAW " R 1 0L 1 0D7R 1 0D7L 10": RETUR 
N 

216 DRAW "R10L10D14R1 0U7L 10": RETU 
RN 

217 DRAWR10M-10, +14": RETURN 

218 DRAW"D14R10U14L10D7R10" : RETU 
RN 

2 1 9 DRAW " R 1 0D7L 1 0U7D7R 1 0D7L 1 0 " : R 
ETURN 

220 SCREEN 1 , 0: F0RI-1T015: PLAY"T2 
55V30O4CDEFBAB":NEXT: :LE»LE+5: IF 
LE >85THENLE=85 

221 COLOR1, l:LINE(0, 16) -(256, 191 
) j PSET, BF: PM0DE1 , 3: SCREEN 1 , 0: : 80 
SUB3 : A= 1 0 : B= 1 00 : PMODE 1,1: PC0PY3T 
01 : PC0PY4T02: SCREEN 1 , 0: I**INKEY* 

: : 80T08 

300 CLSRNDO) :PRINT@226, "ON WHAT 
LEVEL DO YOU WANT" ; : PRINTS261 , " 

TO START? ( 1-8) " ? : INPUTLE: : IFLE>8 
ORLE< 1THEN300ELSELE=45+ (5»LE) 

301 CLSRND(8) :PRINT@256, "JOYSTIC 
K OR SPACEBAR? (J OR S)";:INPUTKE 
* : I FKE*= " J " THENKE=2ELSE I FKE*= " S " 
THENKE=1ELSE301 

302 RETURN 

400 GOSUB420 : LE=75 : PMODE 1,1: PCLS 
: SCREEN 1,0: G0SUB3 

401 DRAW " BM 1 60 , 90C3D20R 1 5U 1 0L 1 5R 
1 0U 1 0L 1 0BM 1 80 , 90D20R 1 5U20BM200 , 9 
0R 1 5L 1 5D20R 1 5U 1 0L5BM220 , 90R 1 5L 1 5 
D10R15D10L15" 

402 DRAW " BM 1 05 , 1 00R5BM 1 1 5 * 90D20U 
20F20U20BM140, 100R6" 

403 DRAW " BM 1 0 , 90D20R 1 5U 1 0L 1 5R 1 0U 
1 0L 1 0BM30 , 90D20U 1 0R 1 5D 1 0U20L 1 5BM 
50 , 90R 1 6LSD20BM70 , 90R 1 5L 1 5D 1 0R 1 5 
D10L15" 

410 FORI=1TO3000: NEXT: RETURN 

420 CLS : PR I NT© 1 04 , " BATS -N- BUBS 

II 

421 PRINTS172, "BY" 

422 PRINTQ232, "BILL FRANKS" 

423 PRINTS296, "4939 TUNLAW ST. " 

424 FRINT@360, "ALEXANDRIA, VA. " 

425 PRINT0424, "22312" 

426 FORI=1TO2000: NEXT: RETURN 



RAINBOWS 



136 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



. SENSATIONAL! ^ 
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TUTORIAL 



Interface Your 



By T. Whit Athey 

While the majority of Color Computer owners are 
probably making their peace with at least some 
aspects of programming, not too many are all that 
comfortable with the guts of the gadget — the hardware, the 
digital circuitry. However, for anyone who has been secretly 
wishing that he/she knew a lot more about digital circuits 
and the operation of the Color Computer, 1 want to con- 
vince you that now is the time to learn. While it isn't exactly 
easy to understand digital circuits, it isn't any more difficult 
than programming, and in fact, is very similar to program- 
ming in many ways. Besides, it's great fun. 

In this article I would like to entice you into building an 
I/O board which can interface between the Color Computer 
and your own projects. By taking the plunge and "getting 
your feet wet" with a real hardware project, you can learn 
much more than by just reading about it. Also, this is a very 
practical way to begin because the project is straightforward 
and leads naturally to further work on your own. I will also 
discuss some of the possible applications of the board. 

I should begin by giving a large measure of credit for my 
interest in circuits to William Barden. His article, "A 
General-Purpose I/O Board for the Color Computer," 1 
appeared in the June 1982 issue of Byte Magazine. He has an 
excellent discussion on the way the Color Computer does 
I/O, both internally (to and from memory) and externally 
(to and from peripherals), and 1 would recommend that you 
look it up. The only problem is that Mr. Barden's design for 
an I/O board doesn't work on all Color Computers. 

The Cartridge Connector 

First of all, 1 am sure that everyone knows that the Color 
Computer has a slot on the right side where the game car- 
tridges plug in. If you have a game cartridge lying around, 
turn it over and slide back the spring-loaded cover from the 
business end of it. Inside you can see the end of a printed 
circuit (PC) board and an edge connector with 40 pins (20 on 
top, 20 on bottom). So, there's nothing more inside that little 
black box than a PC board with assorted components 
(components not visible without taking the cartridge com- 
pletely apart). 

Figure 1 shows the computer's cartridge connector and 
the mating PC board connector. Those 40 lines give us 
access to nearly every signal of importance which is gener- 



(Whii A they is a physicist with the federal government 
at Rockville, Md.) 



Own Circuits 



Table 1 
Cartridge Connector Signals 

Pin No. Signal Name Description 



1 


-12 V 


-12 volts (100 mAI 


2 


+12 V 


M2 volts (300 mA) 


3 


HALT 


Halt input to the CPU 


4 


NM1 


Non-maskable interrupt 


s 


RESET 


Reset and power-up signal 


6 


E 


Main CPU clock sienal 


7 


Q 


Clock Signal which leads E 


g 


CART 


Interrupt for cartridge detect 


9 


+5 V 


+5 volts (300 mA) 


10 


DO 


CPU bit 0 


11 


Dl 


CPU bit 1 


12 


D2 


CPU bit 2 


13 


D3 


CPU bit 3 


14 


D4 


CPU bit 4 


15 


D5 


CPU bit 5 


16 


D6 


CPU bit 6 


17 


D7 


CPU bit 7 


18 


R/W 


Read /write signal from CPU 


19 


AO 


CPU Address bit 0 


20 


Al 


CPU Address bit 1 


21 


A2 


CPU Address bit 2 


22 


A3 


CPU Address bit 3 


23 


A4 


CPU Address bit 4 


24 


A5 


CPU Address bit 5 


25 


A6 


CPU Address bit 6 


26 


A7 


CPU Address bit 7 


2? 


A8 


CPU Address bit 8 


28 


A9 


CPU Address bit 9 


29 


A10 


CPU Address bit 10 


30 


All 


CPU Address bit 11 


31 


A12 


CPU Address bit 12 


32 


CTS 


Cartridge select signal 


33 


GND 


Ground 


34 


GND 


Ground 


35 


SND 


Sound input 


36 


SCS 


Spare select signal 


37 


A13 


CPU Address bit 13 


38 


A14 


CPU Address bit 14 


39 


A15 


CPU Address bit 15 


40 


SLENB 


Disable device selection 



138 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



To The Color Computer 



Figure 1 Cartridge-connector pins 



37 3» 



31 29 



2T 



ft 23 



19 W;. 1« 13 



Looking in 
to connector 



"a — n — or 



-a — a — n — n — a — a — a — a — a — a — a — o — □ — nr 



J2 □ □ □ n n a □ n □ n n a □ n n n n n n 



3o 2a 



t 3 5 7 9 *1 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 

Looking in nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn n,,,n, „n ,. 

to b0BRj 'uuu uuuu uuuuu uuuu uuu u 1 

2 4 6 6 10 12 14 16 16 20 22 24 26 29 30 32 34 39 39 40 



39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 fl 9 7 5 3 1 

Top side of Board 



ated inside the Color Computer. Anyone who has a little 
soldering experience can put together his/ her own PC board 
(with or without a cover) which plugs into the cartridge slot 
and interacts with the computer. The board design that I will 
discuss can provide the first stage, the interface, for your 
own designs, or for some examples I will present. 

The Color Computer's I/O Structure 

Figure 2 shows the block diagram of the Color Computer 
I/O and the lines which come out to the cartridge slot. Table 
l lists these lines with their names and functions. Many of 
the lines are connected directly to the heart of the computer, 
the Motorola 6809E microprocessor. Also of fundamental 
importance is the Motorola 6883 synchronous address mul- 
tiplexer (SAM). In fact, the Color Computer is made up 
almost entirely of Motorola integrated circuits ("chips"). 

The 6809E is the real brains of the outfit, controlling the 
whole operation, but it farms out many important tasks to 
other large scale chips like the SAM. The 6809 E is mostly an 
8-bit microprocessor, but with some 1 6-bit capability, and it 
is probably the most powerful 8-bit microprocessor around. 
There are 16 address lines designated AO (least significant 
bit) to A 15 (most significant bit) which allow unique 
addressing of up to 2 16 = 65536 ("64K") memory locations. 



The address lines are used whenever the 6809E fetches a byte 
(8 bits) of data or an operation code from memory, or writes 
a byte to memory or to other internal devices. The data is 
transmitted over eight data lines designated D0-D7. 

The SAM chip handles several routine functions for the 
6809E. It provides two clock signals (just an oscillating 
square-wave signal), called E and Q to the microprocessor to 
permit all operations to have the proper timing. The SAM 
also controls and decodes the memory mapping of the sys- 
tem. The computer must know not only the exact address in 
an operation, but also what area of memory is being 
addressed. Since some memory areas are dedicated to spe- 
cific tasks, the SAM feeds three signals to a 74LS134 de- 
coder chip which, in turn, provides an output which depends 
on the area of memory being addressed. Only one of the 
eight output lines of the 74LS134 are active (low, or zero 
voltage) at any one time. When addresses in the range 0- 
7FFF are being addressed, Y0 will be active, indicating 
RAM (random access memory) addresses. Yl and Y2 indi- 
cate that the ROM (read only memory) areas at 8000-9FFF 
or A000-BFFF are being addressed, and Y3 points to car- 
tridge ROM at C000-DFFF. When Y4 is active the PIA 
(peripheral interface adaptor) addresses at FF00-FF1F are 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 139 



Figure 2 — Color Computer I/O Block Diagram 



POWER ON, 
Reset 



TO MEMORY AND 
INTERNAL I/O 



FIRQ • 



IRQ. 



6809E 
Reset 



FIRQ 



IRQ 



NMI 



Ein 
Qin 

R/W 



HALT 



RESET 



A 
NMI 



16 



ADDRESS LINES A0-A15 



HALT 




DATA LINES D0-D7 



3 



6883 52 
(SAM) 51 

50 



R/W 



r- O 

k Q 



Y0 
II 
IS. 
Y3 

H 
Y5 
Y6 
W 



3 



OTHER 
FUNCTIONS 



Cartridge 
Connector 



R/W 



SCS CTS 



being addressed, and Y5 similarly selects the second PI A at 
FF20-FF3F (actually each PI A uses only four addresses in 
these ranges). 

If Y6 is low, locations FF40-FF5F are being addressed. 
There is nothing in the Color Computer at these addresses, 
but Y6 could be used to select a third PI A, for example. Or, 
since Y6 is available at the cartridge slot (as the line labeled 
SCS), it can select a device plugged into the cartridge slot. 
We will make use of that fact in the interface circuit to be 
outlined here. 

Note that when the microprocessor calls for a memory 
location, it can only put out the address on the address lines 
(to which the SAM/74LS134 adds the map signal, Yn) and 
"listen" for a response. It does not "know" what device is 
actually responding. It is only important that the device 
recognize that it is being addressed, and become active only 
when it is being addressed. 

A more detailed discussion of the workings of the Color 
Computer is given in the Color Computer Technical Refer- 
ence Manual, 2 available at Radio Shack. 

I/O Operations 

Input/ output operations in the Color Computer are said 
to be "memory mapped," which means that the micropro- 
cessor is tricked into thinking that I/O devices or peripheral 
controllers are just another part of memory. All that is 
required to carry out I/O operations is the execution of an 
instruction like LD A (6809 operation to load the A register) 
or STA (store contents of A register) to the address of the 
device. This can even be done from BASIC with PEEK or 
POKE commands. 

In the Color Computer, locations FF00-FF3F are used 
for I/O through the peripheral interface adaptors (PI As). 
For example, FF00-FF03 are used to read the keyboard and 



joysticks through PIA U8. Locations FF20-FF23 are used 
for controlling several functions through PIA U4, including 
cassette I/O, serial I/O, and graphics modes. One must 
know the proper byte to write to these locations in order to 
obtain the desired effect, but the bottom line is that the byte 
can get to the proper place from a simple STA or POKE. 

The PIA can determine when it's being addressed by the 
state of the memory map signals, Y0-Y6, which were dis- 
cussed above. Recall that only one of these is active (low) at 
any time, and that addresses in the range FF00-FF1 F result 
in Y4 going low. Thus Y4 can be used as a "chip select" signal 
for the PIA U8, and similarly for Y5 for PIA U4. By using 
only two of the 16 address lines, namely AO and Al, along 



Figure 3 Color Computer Timing Diagram 



jT 



J 



^1] 



J* 



140 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



with the chip select signal, the PIA U8 can distinguish its 
four addresses, FF00-FF03, and will only respond to 
addresses in this range. The fact that Y4 is low means that 
the 16 address lines carry the values 1111 1111 0000 00- 
(FF0- in Hex), and only the last two lines, AO and A 1, need 
to be checked, and that is all that the PIA does check. 

Figure 3 shows the timing for the read and write cycle of 
the 6809E. For example the LDA read cycle begins with the 
clock signal E going low. Within 100-200 ns (1 ns = 10- 9 
seconds) the R/ W line has gone high (indicating read) and 
the address lines and Y0-Y6 have assumed their appropriate 
values. After E returns high the data lines will contain the 
byte being read and the 6809E "strobes" in the data. 

The write cycle, for example during the execution of a 
STA instruction, proceeds in a similar fashion. In this case 
the R/ W signal goes low to indicate a write. The data from 
the 6809E is put out on the data bus as E goes high and 
remains valid until the end of the E cycle. During this "data 
valid" period it may be "picked off or "strobed in" by 
another device. 

"With [modes 1 and 2 J you can get . . . 
fancy. . . but here we will concentrate on 
the mode 0 1/ O for which programming 
and interfacing is very easy. " 

The I/O Interface Board 

An interface board could be designed around another 
Motorola PIA chip which would insure compatibility with 
the rest of the Motorola system. However, the PIA is rather 
cumbersome to control (program), and it has only two 8-bit 
I/O ports. On the other hand, the analogous chip made by 
Intel, the 8255A PPI (programmable peripheral interface) 
chip is very easy to control, has three I / O ports and has more 
than enough flexibility for most applications. The only 
potential problem is that the Color Computer timing signals 
don't quite meet the specifications for the 8255A. 

The Intel 8255A is a 40-pin large-scale integrated-circuit 
(LSI) chip. It has four 8-bit registers, three of which are 
bidirectional I/O ports, designated A, B, and C and the 
fourth is a control register which is used to set the operating 
mode of the chip's three ports under program control. 

There are three modes under which the 8255A can be 
operated. The simplest mode, and the mode which will be 
discussed here, is modeO, basic input and output. Mode 1 is 
for strobed input and strobed output, and mode 2 is for 
strobed bidirectional I/O. Modes 1 and 2 use lines from the 
C port as control lines for the other two I/O ports. With 
these last two modes you can get about as fancy as you like, 
but here we will concentrate on the mode 0 I/O for which 
programming and interfacing is very easy. Later, after build- 
ing your interface and gaining experience with it, you can 
always use modes 1 and 2 with only software changes. These 
modes are discussed in detail in Paul Goldsbrough's book in 
the Blacksburg Continuing Education Series, Microcompu- 
ter Interfacing with the 8255 A PPI Chip*. 

Under any of the modes the chip functions can be config- 
ured under program control by POKEing the proper byte 
into the control register (location FF43 in this design). Ports 
A, B and C can be either input or output ports, or any 
combination thereof. Port C can even be split into two 4-bit 
ports so that four lines are for input and four are for output. 
Table 2 shows the values for control words which select the 
various combinations. 



Table! 

Control Words for 8255 A Mode 0 Input/ Output 

Control Word Port Function 

(hexadecimal) (I— input, 0— output) 

Port A Port B C0-C3 C4-C7 



80 


Q 


o 


o 


: o 


81 


0 


o 


I 


{} 


82 


0 


I 


0 


o 


83 


o 


I 


[ 


o 


88 


0 


0 


0 


1 


89 


0 


0 


I 


I 


8A 


0 


I 


0 


I 




0 


I 


I 


1 


: m:' 


I 


0 


0 


0 


91 


1 


0 


. I . 


0 


92 


J 


I 


0 


0 


93 


I 


I 


•-rt;. 


0 


98 






0 




99 




• 0 


■$ ■ 


1 


■"9Av: 






Q 




9B t 











The three I/O ports each consist of an internal 8-bit data 
register and eight I/O lines coming out to the pins of the 
chip. Whenever a port is programmed as an output, the 
contents of the internal data register will appear continu- 
ously on the I/O port pins (5 volts for ones and 0 volts for 
zeros) until the contents of the register are overwritten. 

As an example, 111 show how an alternating pattern of 
ones and zeros can be written to the A register of the 8255 A. 
The hexadecimal number A A has the bit pattern 10101010. 
From Table II we can set all the registers for output with the 
control word 80 (also in Hex). Assuming that we have 
completed the interface and have it plugged into the compu- 
ter we would first set the control register with POKE&HFF43 
&H80 and then POKE &HFF40, &HAA. Then if we test the 
pins for port A (more on how to do that later), we should 
find the alternating pattern we wanted. The control register 
would only have to be set once at the beginning of a 
program. 

There is only enough current capacity on these output 
pins to drive other integrated circuits. However, by feeding 
the lines through a line driver/ buffer chip, small relays can 
be controlled. This will be discussed further in the section on 
applications. 

Figure 4 shows the pin diagram of the 8255 A. Most of the 
pins are I/O lines and have been discussed already. The 
function of the others is listed below: 

CS (Chip Select) A low on this input pin enables the 
chip. When the input is high the chip 
will not respond to any other signals. 
A low on this input enables the 8255A 
to put data on the data lines for the 
microprocessor to read. 
A low on this input pin enables the 
microprocessor to write data or a 
control word to the 8255A. 
These input signals control the selec- 
tion of one of the four registers of the 
8255 A (00 selects port A, 01 selects 
port B, 10 selects port C, and 1 1 selects 
the control register). 



RD(Read) 



WR (Write) 



AO and Al 

(Address 

lines) 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 141 



Figure 4 8255A Pin Diagram 



PA3 C 
PA2 C 
PA1 E 
PAOC 

rdC 
gndC 

A1C 
AOC 
PC7(I 
PC6C 

PC5C 
PC4£ 

pcoC 

PClC 
PC2C 
PC3C 
PBOC 

pbaC 

PB2T 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



8255 



40 

39 
38 
37 
36 
35 
34 
33 
32 
31 
30 
29 
28 
27 
26 
25 
24 
23 
22 
21 



□ PA4 
3 PA5 

□ PA6 

□ PA7 
P WR 

3 RESET 
3 0, 

3 d. 
3 02 

Do. 
3o, 

□ * 

3o 7 
3 v. 

□ PB7 

□ PB6 

□ PBS 
3 P84 
3 PB3 



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RESET A high on this input clears all internal 

registers. 

These input signal requirements are mostly, but not com- 
pletely, compatible with the Color Computer signals avail- 
able at the cartridge connector. The two address lines can be 
connected directly to the two lowest order bits of the Color 
Computer address lines. We can use Y6 (SCS) directly for 
the chip select (CS) input. However, the Color Computer's 
reset signal is low when active instead of high as required by 
the 8255A. This signal will have to be inverted. Also, the 
Color Computer has only one line for both read and write, 
while the 8255A requires separate signals with both being 
active when low. 

The modification of these latter signals requires a slight 
detour into the field of logic gates. Logic gates have two 
inputs and one output. For example, and OR gate will have 
a high output when either of the inputs is high. The AND 
gate has a high output only when both of the inputs is high. 
The NOR and NAND gates are just OR and AND gates 
with an added inverter on the output (compliment of the OR 
and AND operations). For example, the NAND gate has a 
low output when both inputs are high, and has a high output 
otherwise. A good (and cheap!) reference for logic gates and 
their applications (and which covers many other common 
integrated circuits) is the Radio Shack Engineer's Notebook 
II 4 . It is available at under S3 at Radio Shack. 

A logic signal can be inverted by feeding it into both 
inputs of a NAND gate. The output will be high if the inputs 
are low, and low if the inputs are high. Nearly all digital 
circuits have several logic gates, which usually come as four 
gates on a 14-pin chip, and we will make use of NAND gates 
on our I/O board. 

Therefore, the Color Computer's RESET signal will be 
first fed to both inputs of a NAND gate on a 74LS00 chip, 
and the gate output will be connected to the 8255A RESET 
pin. The R/W signal requires a little more work to get 
acceptable 8255A READ and WRITE signals. On some 
Color Computers you caii use the R/W signal directly for 
the 8255 A WRITE signal (and the inverted R/W signal for 
REAd), but mine wouldn't, and neither would half of those 
I tested. I recommend that the READ and WRITE signals 
be generated as described next. 

The 8255A READ and WRITE signals must go high 
again during their operation before the CS, AO or A 1 lines 
change. In fact, the WRITE must return high at least 20 
nanoseconds before the lines change. So, what is needed is 
WRITE pulses and READ pulses which only go low 100- 
200 nanoseconds after SCS (chip select), and return high 
100-200 nanoseconds before SCS does. 

The solution is a 74LS123 "one-shot" chip, and a couple 
more NAND gates (which you already have on the 74LS00 
chip). The schematic diagram of this part of the circuit is 
shown in Figure 5. The 74LS123 is described on Page 52 of 
the Radio Shack Engineer's Notebook IP, but note that the 
pin diagram on Page 52 has the labels for pins 9 and 10 
reversed. This chip has two independent sections, each of 
which allow you to trigger on the state of two inputs, and the 
pulse length is controlled by the value of an external capaci- 
tor. I used the first section to trigger a short pulse 200 
nanoseconds (ns) when SCS goes low. The trailing edge of 
this short pulse is then used to trigger the second section of 
the 74LS123 for a final output pulse of about 500 ns. 

This resulting pulse is shaped and timed perfectly relative 
to the SCS (chip select) signal to be a READ or WRITE 
pulse. Note also that we only need this special READ/ 



142 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Figure 5 Creation of READ and WRITE signals 
with a 74LS123 



\\ f yA y C 



Ji 



V.74LS123 



f- 

ir 6.8 pF 



% WW 



22K 




'A74LS123 

J) © 

5 



22K 



47 pF 





WRITE signal on our board when, in fact, the chip is 
selected. Therefore, we can use the R/ W and inverted R/ W 
signals to gate on (with a NAND gate) this new specially 
designed pulse to produce perfect READ and WRITE 
pulses, just when we need them. 

Since the two address lines of the 8255 A are connected to 



AO and A 1 of the Color Computer address bus, and the chip 
select is connected to SCS, we can use the addresses FF40- 
FF43 for the four registers of the 8255A. These locations can 
be treated just as any other memory locations. Note that the 
four registers do not have unique addresses since FF50- 
FF53 (or even FF44-FF47 — only the FF and the last two 
bits matter) will also address the registers. With further 
address decoding (using address lines besides AO and Al) 
you could even add more PPIs to the board, each separately 
addressable. 

Building The Interface 

Assuming that I have you sufficiently hooked on the idea, 
the next step is to build the 1/ O board. I must confess that I 
had a little help in building the board — my 12-year-old 
daughter did most of the work. 

I am aware of no widely available, reasonably priced PC 
board which is specifically designed for the Color Compu- 
ter, but there are several which will work with a little modifi- 
cation. The main requirement is that the board have an edge 
connector with at least 40 pins (20 on each side) with 0. 1 
inch spacing. Radio Shack sells a board, catalog number 
276-165 which is my first choice. It is large enough to 
accommodate future additions, already has the right num- 
ber of pins, and has edge connectors at both ends (the second 
one might be useful to connect a cable for a future applica- 
tion). It also costs less than the others 1 considered. Radio 
Shack also sells a board about half the size of the recom- 
mended one. It has plenty of room for the 1 / O interface, but 
not much room for anything else that you might want to add 
later. You will be better off with the flexibility of the larger 
board. 



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P.O. Box 42396 
Cincinnati, OH 45242 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 143 



Figure 6 Preparation of the PC board 
showing socket locations 



4V." After Cut 



i 

5 

& 30 

•3 

3 

35 
40 



15 i 
20 
25 




T 

After 
Cut 



Bteck 
Rectenfllei 



Whatever board you use, it must be cut down to fit the 
cartridge slot. Figure 6 shows the finished dimensions for 
the part which is plugged into the cartridge slot (the rest of 
the board can be any size). If your board has more than 20 
pins on each side of its connector, the others must be cut off 
in getting down to the required dimensions. Keep the middle 
20 pins and cut down the center of the pins on either side of 
the middle 20. After making these cuts, strip off the remain- 
ing half of the pin conductor material of the pins which were 
cut (leaving intact the board underneath). This narrow 
board area left at the edges of the connector will serve to 
guide the pins to their proper mating pins in the cartridge 
slot. 

If you are using the Radio Shack board, the connector is 
okay as it is. However, the edges of the board near the 
connector must be trimmed because it is too wide for the 
cartridge slot. Draw a line along the outermost row of holes 
On each edge of the board and extend it to the end of the 
board (the end with the low-numbered rows). Cut along the 
line up to the fourteenth row of holes using a nibbling tool, 
jigsaw, or small hacksaw. Repeat on the other side. 

The board and other parts you will need are shown in 
Table 3, along with some suggestions for sources. Where 
more than one source is listed, my personal preference is 
listed first. In case you can't find some of the parts locally, I 
have arranged for HIB Associates, 3505 Hutch Place, Chevy 
Chase, Md,, 208 15, to handle mail orders at the prices listed 
in the table. Or, if you prefer, you can get all the parts listed 
from H I B for $27 (include $2 for postage and handling on all 
orders for parts). 

Now take a good look at the board. The side with the 
copper pads is the wiring side and will be the bottom side as 
the board is inserted' into the cartridge slot. The side with the 
black rectangles is the component (top) side where the chips 
will be mounted. Note that the two halves of the board are 
not exactly alike, and that the instructions here assume that 



the end with the low-numbered rows is used for the 
interface. 

Place a 14-pin socket on the component side of the board 
with the pins sticking through the holes on rows 6-12 as 
shown in Figure 6. This socket will fit exactly on the black 
lines at the end of the black rectangle. Make sure that the 
pins are inside the rectangle, and then bend the four corner 
pins outward and over onto the copper pad to keep the 
socket from falling off. Looking at the board from the 
bottom, there should be a two-hole-wide copper strip run- 
ning down between the pins, but not touching the pins. Now 
solder the four bent pins to their copper pads. By first 
pressing the bent pins flat on the pads with the soldering iron 
for 2-3 seconds, soldering will be facilitated. 

On the same black rectangle mount the 40-pin socket, 
leaving two rows of holes separating the two sockets. The 
40-pin socket is wider, but its pins should come through 
onto the same kind of copper pads as those of the first 
socket. Again, bend and solder the corner pins, plus two 
more around the middle of the socket. This socket is placed 
here rather than closer to the connector so that all of its pins 
will be accessible for testing without removing the computer 
cover. 

You will need a 1 6-pin socket for the 74LS 1 23. M ount this 
socket on the middle black rectangle between rows 6 and 13, 
using the same procedure as for the other sockets (there will 
be one black rectangle between the two we are using). For 
this socket it will be more convenient to make many of the 
connections to the pads rather than the pins. Therefore, 
bend and solder to the pads the pins 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 1 1 , 14, 1 5 
and 16 (the pins do not contact the pads unless they are 
soldered). Then any wires to be connected to these pins 
(most of the connections will be jumpers from one of the 
buses) can be made to the corresponding pads. 

Before starting to run the wires, I found it helpful to label 
the connector pins with numbers with a felt-tip pen for at 
least pins 1 and 39 on the top (component) side of the board, 
and 2 and 40 on the bottom (wiring) side of the board. Refer 
to Figure 1 to make sure you label the pins properly. When 
wires must be soldered to the top connector pins, the wire 



Table 3 

Parts List and Approximate Prices 





Item 


Sources 


1. 


PC Board, 276-165 


Radio Shack ($10) 


2. 


40-pin socket 


Heathkit, Radio Shack ($1) 


3. 


16^pin socket 


Heathkit, Radio Shack (50c) 


4. 


14-pin socket 


Heathkit, Radio Shack (50c) 


5. 


Intel 8255A 


Heathkit ($11) 


6. 


74LS00 


Heathkit, Radio Shack ($1) 


7. 


74LS123 


Heathkit ($2) 


8. 


Capacitors, AfxF (3) 


Radio Shack (75c?) 


9. 


Capacitor, 47 pF 


Heathkit, Radio Shack (15*.) 


10. 


Capacitor, 6.8 pF 


Heathkit (15c) 


1L 


Resistors (2), 22K ohm 


Radio Shack (20c) 


12. 


Resistor, 330 ohm 


Radio Shack (30c) 


13. 


LED 


Radio Shack, Heathkit (50c) 



Items 1-13 above available from H 1 8 (see text). Prices listed 
are approximate for Radio Shack and Heathkit. (Heathkit 
parts are not listed in their catalog, bill are carried by 
Heathkit Electronic Centers in some major cities.) 



144 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



should pass through the holes in the small rectangle in front 
of the pins and be bent over to contact the proper connector 
pin. Then the wires can be soldered to the pins. 

It is also helpful to label the four corners of each socket 
with the corresponding pin numbers. For each 1C socket, 
pin 1 should be at the upper left corner when looking at the 
component side of the board as shown in Figure 6. Turn the 
board over and label the socket pins (pin 1 will now be at the 
upper right) by writing the numbers on the board next to the 
pins. 

The two-hole-wide copper strips which run along each 
side of the sockets on the wiring side can be used to supply 
+5 volts (V cc ). These strips will be referred to as the V cc 
"bus." Similarly, the strips which run directly under the 





Table 4 






Wiring List 




From 


To 


Signal 


CC-9 


V« Bus 


+5 V (V re ) 


CC-33 


GND Bus 


Ground 


74LS00-7 


GND Bus 


Ground 


8255A-7 


GND Bus 


Ground 


74LS 123-8 


GND Bus 


Ground 


74LS00-14 


Vcc Bus 


Vcc 


8255A-26 


Vcc Bus 


V 

— cc 


74LS 123-2 


V« Bus 


Vcc 


74LS 123-3 


V« Bus 


Vcc 


74LS 123-10 


V M Bus 


Vcc 


74LS123-11 


V« Bus 


Vcc 


74LS123-16 


V cc Bus 


V cc 


22K resistor between V K and 74LS 123-7 


22K resistor between V cc and 74LS123-15 


6.7 pF capacitor betweeen 74LS 123-14 and 


74LS123-15 






47 pF capacitor between 74LS 123-6 and 74LS 123-7 


CC-18 


74LS00-1 


R/W 


74LS00-1 


74LS00-2 


R/W 


74LS00-2 


74LS00-13 


R/W 


74LS00-3 


74LS00-10 


R/W compliment 


CC-5 


74LS00-4 


RESET 


74LS00-4 


74LS0O-5 


RESET 


74LS0O-6 


8255A-35 


RESET 


74LS 123-5 


74LS00-9 


Output of 74LSI23 


74LS00-9 


74LS00-12 


Output of 74LS123 


74LS00-1 1 


8255A-5 


READ 


74LS00-8 


8255A-36 


WRITE 


74LS 123-9 


74LS123-13 200 ns delay pulse 


CC-36 


74LS 123-1 


SCS/CS 


CC-36 


8255A-6 


SCS/CS 


CC-19 


8255A-9 


AO 


CC-20 


8255A-8 


Al 


CC-17 


8255A-27 


D7 


CC-16 


8255A-28 


D6 


CC-15 


8255A-29 


D5 


CC-14 


8255A-30 


D4 


CC-13 


8255 A-31 


D3 


CC-12 


8255A-32 


D2 


CC-11 


8255A-33 


Dl 


CC-10 


8255A-34 


DO 


. 1 /nF capacitors between 


and ground near each 


chip's V cc pin. 







sockets can be connected to ground and will be called the 
ground bus. 

Follow the wiring list in Table 4. Use #30 wire for all logic 
signals (address and data lines, control signals, etc.) and 
regular (single-conductor) hookup wire for the power and 
ground connections. Do not insert the IC chips into the 
sockets until all wiring has been completed. Because it is 
easy to make a mistake on the connections on the 16-pin 
socket, Figure 6 shows these connections from a wiring side 
view. 

The computer should be turned off when inserting or 
removing a cartridge or PC board from the cartridge slot. 
Failure to do so can result in damage to the computer. Radio 
Shack has built in a measure of protection for their car- 
tridges by trimming about a millimeter off the leading edge 
of pin 9 (+5 volt pin) of their cartridge connectors. If a Radio 
Shack cartridge is accidentally removed or inserted with the 
power on, it probably won't be fatal (but don't press your 
luck). We can give ourselves that same measure of protec- 
tion by trimming back pin 9 on our I/O board. Use a sharp 
knife or razor to cut through the metal strip about one mm 
back from the ends of the other pins. Then peel the cut-off 
strip from the board, leaving pin 9 a little snorter than the 
others. Since it is very easy to have a board come out of the 
cartridge slot by accident when you are testing or using it, be 
sure to give yourself this little safety factor. 

After completing the wiring (and before the ICs are 
inserted) use a continuity checker if you have one to test all 
connections. If you don't have one, carefully examine all 
solder points, and then check the board against the wiring 
list one more time. Check especially the wiring of the 
74LS123 against Figure 7, and for any stray bits of solder 
between the pads. Warning: You can destroy the micropro- 
cessor and SAM chips with improper connections. 

When you have satisfied yourself that all is well, insert the 
chips into the sockets. If you are doing this for the first time, 
be extremely careful. You will probably have to bend the 
chip leads slightly in toward the chip to get them lined up 
with the socket holes. Once everything is lined up, apply 
pressure to start the insertion. Once it starts in, stop and 
check all leads to make sure none are being bent. Press down 



Figure 7 Pin connections for 74LS123 (wiring side) 



v 

But 



16 



INC 12 1 a\ 



10 I o 

r - 



9 I 









SCS 






\t> j l 





|D I 3 



1» 4 NC| 



E 



E3" 



4J-J 



GND 




July 1984 THE RAINBOW 145 



THE TOP 4 COCO GAMES... 



-2G503 



TRRDET - ^ jJl" "J. 



^5 



CUBIX 

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jump iittle Cubix around the 3D 
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Tape: y 4 .95 



ZAKSUND 

From Elite Software comes this 
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You've never seen anything like 
this on your CoCo! Great sound 
too! 32KTape: $24.95 



ffTrrrn 





THE KING 

Previously called 'Donkey King', 
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With 4 different screens and 
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GHOST GOBBLER 

From Spectral Assoc. This 
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improved several times. It is 
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now Hw« if iIl, .. 

umr ci* fttttri ttat »p«lv r»r«Mnt 
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CASSETTE... $49.95 



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it works with any 16K, 32K or 64K 
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Making your computer talk couldn't be any easier! 
'Real Talker' is a full featured, ready to use, HARDWARE 
voice synthesizer system in a cartridge pak. It uses the 
Votrax SC-01 phoneme synthesizer chip to produce a 
clear, crisp voice. 

FREE TEXT-TO-SPEECH 

Included free with 'Real Talker' is Colorware's 
remarkable Text-to-Speech program. This is a truly 
powerful machine language utility. What it does is 
automatically convert plain English to speech. And it has 
an unlimited vocabulary! For example, use it in the direct 
mode: Type in a sentence or a paragraph, even mix in 
numbers, dollar signs, etc., then press enter. The text is 
spoken. At the same time a phoneme string is generated 
which can be saved to cassette or disk, modified or used 
in a Basic program. 

We originally planned to sell this major piece of 
programming for about $40.00 but decided it was so 
useful that no 'Real Talker' user should be without it. 
Besides, it really shows off the capability of 'Real Talker'. 

Also included with 'Real Talker' is our unique Phoneme 
Editor program. It allows you to explore and create 
artificial speech at the phoneme level. Phenomes are the 
fundimental sounds or building blocks of word 
pronunciation. There are 64 different phenomes, as well 
as 4 inflection levels at your disposal. Creating and 
modifyirtg speech at the phenome level is both fascinating 
and educational. The Phenome Editor may also be used to 
customize the pronunciation of speech produced by the 
Text-to-Speech program. 




You don't have to use any of our utility programs 
though. If you write your own Basic Programs, you will 
find the pocket sized Votrax Dictionary (included free) is 
all you need to make your own Basic programs talk. This 
dictionary gives you quick access to the phenome 
sequences used to create approximately 1400 of the most 
used words in the English language. 

How about compatibility? 'Real Talker' is compatible 
with any 16K, 32K, 64K, Extended or non-extended Color 
Computer. It works with any cassette or disk based 
system, with or without the Radio Shack Multi-slot 
expander. No other synthesizer under $100 can make this 
claim. Most other CoCo voice synthesizers require an 
expensive Multi-slot expander in order to work with the 
disk system. 'Real Talker' requires only an inexpensive Y- 
adapter. This is an important consideration if you plan on 
adding a disk or have one already. 

'Real Talker' comes completely assembled, tested and 
ready to use. It is powered by the CoCo and talks through 
your T.V. speaker so there is nothing else to add. Price 
includes Text-to-Speech and other programs on cassette 
(may be transferred to disk), User Manual and Votrax 
Dictionary. ONLY , $59.95 

'Y-BRANCHING CABLE' For disk systems. This 40-pin, 3 
connector cable allows 'Real Talker' to be used with any 
disk system $29.95 

YOU DECIDE.... 

Order yours today on our Toll-Free Order Line. If you are 
not delighted with your 'Real Talker' system, simply 
return it within 30 days for a prompt, courteous refund. 



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ADD $2.00 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING & HANDLING. 
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WE ACCEPT VISA, MASTER CARD, M.O.'S, CHECKS. 
N. Y. RESIDENTS MUST ADD SALES TAX. 



until the chip is almost seated. You might want to leave it out 
slightly the first time in case you have to remove it later (use 
a tiny screwdriver to carefully pry it out if that becomes 
necessary). 

For testing the board you need a logic probe. For about $ 1 
you can make yourself a perfectly good one: Cut off a 
pencil-sized piece of small wooden dowel (or just use a 
pencil) and sharpen it in a pencil sharpener. Solder a 270-350 
ohm resistor to the cathode lead of an LED (light emitting 
diode). Then solder a two-foot piece of flexible (insulated) 
wire to the other side of the resistor and attach an alligator 
clip to the free end of the wire. Or, buy a wire with alligator 
clips at each end, cut one clip off, and solder the wire to the 
resistor. Stretch out the leads of the LED/ resistor/ wire to 
make one straight line as shown in Figure 8, and tape them 



Figure 8 Construction of Logic Probe 




Alligator clip 
with insulation 



to the dowel with about inch of the anode lead of the 
LED extending beyond the point. Tape beside the LED, but 
don't cover it — we have to see it when it lights up. 

When the alligator clip is connected to ground, the LED 
will light up if the probe tip is touched against something at 
+5 volts. You may want to pass a half-inch piece of stiff wire 
from the component side of the board through to the ground 
bus and solder it so you will have a convenient point to 
connect the alligator clip of the logic probe while testing. 

Now we're ready for the big moment! Turn the computer 
off, insert the board (you may need to support the end of it), 
and then turn the computer on again. Connect the alligator 
clip of the probe to ground, and test the probe by touching 
pin 26 (V cc ) of the 8255 A (do this from the component side of 
the board). If you have wired the pin correctly, the LED will 
light up brightly indicating the presence of +5 volts. Now try 
the next pin, number 27. This time the probe should light up, 
but only dimly. Pin 27 is a data line and its state (+5 volts or 
ground) is changing at almost a million times per second. 
The LED just indicates an average reading. Test the READ, 
WRITE, and chip select input pins. They should glow 
almost as brightly as with V cc since they are normally high. 
Check pin 35 (RESET) — it should always be low (LED not 
illuminated) except when you press the Color Computer 
RESET button (try it). Test all the data lines (pins 27-34) 
and the address lines (pins 8 and 9) to make sure that the 
probe gives at least a dim glow. If any of the above tests 
indicate a problem, turn off the computer, remove the board 
(while holding up the cartridge slot with your fingers) and 
check your wiring. 

If everything seems to be in order, let's see if we can 
communicate with the 8255 A. Set all ports for output with 



POKE &HFF43,&H80. Test pins 1-4 and 37-40 (the eight 
lines of port A) and you should now find all zeros (no 
illumination). Now POKE &HFF40,&HFF (Hex number 
FF is 11111111 in binary) and if it's working, you should 
now find that all of the port A pins have ones and will light 
the logic probe. POKE &HFF40.0 to set port A back to all 
zeros and test again. You might also try an alternating bit 
pattern like &H AA or &H55. Test the other ports in similar 
manner (refer to the pin diagram to find ports B and C). Port 
B is at address FF41 and port C is at FF42. 

Try writing something to the A register and then reading it 
back with a PRINT HEX$(PEEK(&HFF40)). You won't 
have to change the control word for this kind of "internal 
read." Reading from the outside will have to wait until you 
have something connected to the 1/ O ports. If you try it now 
you will just get whatever noise is around. 

Applications 

I hope that you already have some ideas for some ways to 
use the 1/ O board besides lighting up a logic probe. Clearly 
it can be used to check on the status of switches (the switches 
might be the detectors of a security system, for example) or 
to control read relays (these applications are discussed in the 
article by William Barden). However, one of the objects of 
this article was to get you interested in digital circuits, so in 
the next article I will give an example of how the I/O 
interface can be used to control another large scale inte- 
grated circuit. The chip I will use is a General Instruments 
Sound Generator Chip (AY-3-8910). It has three independ- 
ent tone channels, a noise channel, envelope control and 
even two more I/O ports (so you don't really "lose" an 
8255 A I/O port by connecting it to the AY-3-8910). 

References 

1 Barden, William. "A General-Purpose I/O Board for the 
Color Computer." Byte, June 1982, p. 261. 

2 Color Computer Technical Reference Manual, Radio 
Shack Cat, No. 26-3193. 

3 Goldsbrough, Paul F. Microcomputer Interfacing With 
The 8255 PPI Chip. Howard W. Sams & Co., Indianapolis, 
Indiana, 1979. 

4 Mims, Forest M. Engineer's Notebook II: A Handbook 
Of Integrated Circuit Applications. Radio Shack Cat. No. 
276-5002, 1982. 

List of Figures 

Figure I. Cartridge-connector pins. 

Figure 2. Color Computer I/O block diagram. 

Figure 3. Color Computer timing diagram. 

Figure 4. 8255A pin diagram. 

Figure 5. Creation of READ and WRITE 

signals with a 74LS123. 
Figure 6. Preparation of the PC board and socket locations. 
Figure 7. Pin connections for the 74LS 123 (wiring side). 
Figure 8. Construction of a logic probe. 

List of Tables 

Table 1. Cartridge connector signals. 

Table 2. Control words for 8255A mode 0 input/ output. 

Table 3. Parts list and approximate prices. 

Table 4. Wiring list. Jtlfaa 

RAINBOW 



148 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



. J 1, 1 - 



Surprise! A New 
Keyboard For 
The CoCo 




After three and a half years of selling the Color 
Computer with keyboards that some consider less 
than perfect, Radio Shack has finally put full-size 
keys on the CoCo 2 keyboard. As you can see in the photo, 
they are very much like the keycaps used on the 1 BM PC and 
other popular "high-end" computers; the labels on the keys 
are set in the upper left of center, which seems to be the 
fashion nowadays, and the whole thing gives a very modern 
look to the CoCo. 

The actual mechanism appears to be the same as that of 
the "old"CoCo 2 keyboard but with the new, taller keytops. 
A spot check at a local Radio Shack store indicates that 
computers manufactured since April (coded *'4A4" on the 
box) have the new keyboard. Another bit of good news is 



that the new keyboard comes at no increase in price. If you 
want this keyboard for your present CoCo, the upgrade 
price is still $49 plus installation; Radio Shack also tells us 
that their upgrade kits are only available installed by the 
service center. 

Our brief typing tests showed that the new keyboard has a 
good feel and is better for fast typing than the previous 
keyboards. The keys still don't go down as far as those on 
other computers with "full-travel" keyboards (such as Radio 
Shack's Model 4), but this doesn't seem to have much ill 
effect on "type-ability." The keyboard compares closely 
with that of the new Apple lie which, like the CoCo, has a 
slim keyboard assembly. All in all, this is a very welcome 
surprise for CoCo enthusiasts. — Ed Ellers 



The Companion 

Expansion Interface Units 

Basic Technology offers you 
the most features and best 
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Compare these features: 







BT 


TRS-80 






COMPANION 


Multi-Pak 


• 


Power ON Indicator Light 


YES 


NO 


• 


Cold Start Reset 


YES 


NO 


• 


Gold Socket Connectors 


YES 


NO 


• 


Socketed Integrated Circuits 


YES 


NO 


• 


Manual Cartridge Selector 


Pushbutton 


Slide Switch 


• 


Keyboard/Program Selection 


YES 


NO 


• 


Cartridge ON Indicator 


YES 


NO 


• 


Extension Cable 


YES 


NO 


• 


Warranty 


180 days 


90 days 


• 


User's Manual w/schematics, 








parts layouts and parts lists 


YES 


NO 





Also for the Color Computer: 
BT-1010 Parallel Printer Interface ... $ 79.95 
BT-1020 Real Time Clock/Calendar . $109.00 
BT-1030 Versatile Interface Port $ 69.95 

Add $5 shipping and handling. Check, money order, VISA, 
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IECHNOLOGY 



Dept. Q 



P.O. Box 511 



Ortonville, Ml 48452 



(313) 627-6146 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 149 





16K ■ 

ECB 


the 


EDUCATIC 


>N NOTES 


RAINBOW 

J- -L 



E 



Hexadecimal Happiness 



By Steve Blyn 
RAINBOW Contributing Editor 



The number system that we are accustomed to is called 
the decimal or base 10 system. Many people believe 
that it is difficult enough to learn all of the rules and 
uses of our own system without introducing other systems. 
We will try to make this introduction somewhat easier in this 
article. 

Computers mainly use three base systems — the binary, 
the decimal, and the hexadecimal base system. They repre- 
sent base 2, 10, and 16. 

Most people readily accept the fact that each bit can either 
be turned on or off (0 or 1). This is the justification for 
computers using the binary or base 2 system. It really is the 
mother or native tongue of all microprocessors. 

The decimal or base 10 system is also easilyjustified as it is 
the normal way that we use numbers. We have no problem 
understanding that the number 279 refers to two hundreds, 
seven tens, and nine ones. 

It would seem that these two base systems would be 
enough for anyone. Why then do computers also need a 
hexadecimal or base 16 system? Since computers often deal 
in large numbers and often do many mathematical calcula- 
tions, the base 1 6 system is more convenient and faster for a 
microprocessor to use. 

Our computer stores information in bytes which consist 
of eight bits. Often, two bytes or 1 6 bits must be addressed at 
the same time. This is the other reason for learning the Hex 
system. 

Other bases are really not that difficult to understand and 
work with. The trick is to first deal with circumstances in our 
everyday lives where we naturally deal with other base 
systems. If we can relate other bases to things we are all 



(Steve Blyn teaches both exceptional and gifted child- 
ren, holds two master's degrees and has won awards 
for the design of programs to aid the handicapped. He 
and his wife, Cheryl, own Computer Island.) 



familiar with, then we can expect less student resistance to 
learning about other bases. 

As any intelligent person knows, bases refer to baseball. 
Well, that's not far from the point. Baseball deals with a base 
4 system to a small extent. A team does not get 10 base hits 
before it gets a run in any inning it gets four. The fourth 
hit causes the man on third to come home and score a run. It 
is as if there is no fourth base, only first, second, and third. 
When a player advances to base 4, he really has scored a run. 
This is a simple approach to base 4. 

Base 5 also has an analogy in our everyday lives. Think of 
pennies, nickels, and a quarter. If one were collecting 
pennies, he would likely want to trade every five pennies in 
for a nickel. If you had nine cents, it would be more 
convenient to have one nickel and four pennies. This could 
be represented as 14 in base 5. 

Similarly, every time you got up to five nickels, it would 
be better to trade them in for a quarter. Thus, if you had 37 
cents, it would be more convenient to have one quarter, two 
nickles and two pennies. A base 10 number of 37 is, there- 
fore, represented as 122 in base 5. 

Hexadecimal, unfortunately, is not so easy to explain as 
the other bases were. There are no ready instances of using 
16s in everyday life. If we were dealing in eights, we could 
discuss pizza pies and slices. 

Base 16 is further confounded by the fact that we have no 
numerals past nine. Since the amount of 15 can fit into any 
place value in base 16, we need six items to be representa- 
tives of the amounts 1 0 through 15. These are represented by 
the letters A,B,C,D,E, and F. An A is, therefore, worth a 10, 
Ban 11, C a 12, Da 13, E a 14, apd finally F is a 15. 

The Hex number 1 234 represents four ones, three 1 6s, two 
256s and one 4096. This adds up to the regular base 10 
decimal number 4660. Check on the chart below. 

4096 256 16 1 

1 2 3 4 



150 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Here is the computation for the numbers. 

4*1= 4 
3*16= 48 
2*256= 512 
1*4096=4096 



Decimal 4660 equals Hex 1234. 

Hex is often abbreviated by &H or sometimes $. In our 
previous example, we could say 4660=&H 1234. 
Here are some examples to get you started. 



Base 10 


Base 16 


Decimal # = 


Hex # 


14 


E 


20 


14 


100 


64 


812 


32C 


2748 


ABC 


49152 


cooo 



Take heart, it is not really endless. The highest number 
our computer uses is 65535 and this converts to Hex FFFF. 
As the numbers get larger, the Hex numbers really are easier 
to deal with. 

Our program lets you practice these conversions. Lines 50 
through 90 set up the menu. Line 100 lets you choose to 
practice Hex to decimal or decimal to Hex or to quit. Don't 
quit too soon, though. You'll get the idea sooner or later. 

Lines 120 through 270 let you input any integer up to 
65535. Then try to convert it to its Hex equivalent. The 
program will tell you if you are right or wrong and will print 
out the correct answer. 

Lines 290 through 430 will do the same procedure in 
reverse. You may type in a Hex number and try to convert it 
to the regular base 10 equivalent. 

After each group of five examples, you will receive your 
score and be able to return to the menu. Keep going until 
you have mastered this skill. 




The listing: 



10 REM " < C >STEVE BLYN , COMPUTER IS 
LAND, NY, 1984 

20 REM "HEXADECIMAL HAPPINESS" 
30 CLS8 

40 PR I NT@5, "hexadecimal happines 
s H ; 

50 PR I NTG77 , " MENU " 5 
60 PRINTS134, "1. DECIMAL TO HEX"* 
70 PRINTS19S, "2. HEX TO DECIMAL"; 
80 PRINTQ262, "3. END THE PROGRAM" 



90 PRINTS357, "CHOOSE A NUMBER";: 
INPUT N 

100 IF N=l THEN 120 ELSE IF N=2 
THEN 290 ELSE IF N=3 THEN 110 EL 
SE 90 

110 CLS: END 

120 CLB7:PRINT864 f "" 

130 CT=CT+l:'THE COUNTER 

140 PRINTS64, "TYPE A DECIMAL # " 

■ 

9 

150 LINE INPUT A* 
160 A=VAL<A*> 

170 IF VAL (A*) >65535 THEN PRINTS 
96," SORRY, 65535 IS THE LARGEST 
# THAT THE COLOR COMPUTER USE 
S . " : SOUND200 , 30 : GOTO 1 20 
180 PRINT© 128, "ANSWER IN HEX...& 
H"; 

190 LINEINPUT B« 
200 H*=HEX*(A) 

210 IF B*=H* THEN PRINTS200, "COR 
RECT" ? : SOUND230, 3: RT=RT+1 
220 IF B*OH* THEN PRINT6200, "SO 
RRY"; : SOUND 100, 1 

230 PRINT6256, "THE HEX # IS . . . 
H";HEX*(A) 

240 IF CT=5 THEN PRINTQ386, "YOU 

GOT";RT;"OUT OF 5 CORRECT."! 

250 PRINT@453, "PRESS ENTER TO GO 

ON"; 
260 AN*=INKEY* 

270 IF AN*="" THEN 260 ELSE IF C 

T=5THEN RUN ELSE 120 

280 * ****** SECOND PART ******" 

290 CLS6:PRINT@64, " " 

300 CT=CT+1 

310 PRINTS64, "TYPE A HEX #. . . &H 

II ■ 

I 

320 LINEINPUT C* 

330 J*="8cH" 

340 AN=VAL<J*+C*> 

350 PR I NTS 128, "ANSWER IN DECIMAL 
— " ; : LINE INPUT D* 
360 D=VAL(D*> 

370 IF D=AN THEN PRINT@200, "CORR 
ECT" ; : SOUND200, 3: RT=RT+1 
380 IF DOAN THEN PRINT@200, "SOR 
RY" ; : SOUND 100, 1 

390 IF CT=5 THEN PRINT@386, "YOU 
GOT ";RT;"OUT OF 5 CORRECT."? 
400 PRINT@453, "PRESS ENTER TO GO 
ON"; 

410 PRINT@256, "THE DECIMAL # IS 
"; AN 

420 AN*=INKEY* 

430 IF AN*=" "THEN 420 ELSE IF CT 
=5 THEN RUN ELSE 290 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 151 




we welcome you to a vast new resource 
for your Color Computer. 

To Dave and the rest of the staff at 
Chromasette: We at THE RAINBOW will 
miss your presence in the marketplace. 



FINALLY, A NEW KEYBOARD. Yes, 
at long last Radio Shack has decided to 
put a greatly improved keyboard on the 
CoCo 2. The somewhat less than desir- 
able previous models have long been a 
point of departure for most users in 
their praise of the Color Computer. But 
now, a keyboard modification doesn't 
have to be the first thing on your wish 
list after you purchase one. 

The new keyboard has a fine, sleek 
profile; full-size keys with a very nice 
touch after you r*et accustomed to them; 
and it speeds typing in programs or text 
tremendously (this very column was 
keyed in on it at near-light speed, I 
assure you). It is a welcome addition to 
a machine that is becoming harder and 
harder to fault in any way. 

On the down side, however, all of you 
who would like one of the new key- 
boards on your present CoCo will have 
to pay Radio Shack $49.95 plus installa- 
tion charges for the upgrade. But, of 
course, you can't expect hardware up- 
grades to be retroactive, can you? 

For a look at the new keyboard, see 
the photo on Page 149. 



SOME CHANGES are coming at Radio 
Shack, and one of them involves a well- 
known name — Ed Juge. Juge, who is to 
be the keynote speaker at RA1NBO W- 
fest in Chicago, has been named to be 
Director of Market Planning. This new 
position involves working on various 
projects, but especially with the news 
media. Juge has had long experience in 
this particular phase and has probably 
been best known for his long-running 
"Tandy Topics" column in Basic Com- 
puting (formerly 80- U.S. Journal), 
which recently went out of business. 
Juge was in charge of the business end 
of Computer Merchandising before this 
new move from the 15th to the 17th 
floor of One Tandy Center. 

Moving in to take Juge's place in 
Computer Merchandising is Van Chand- 
ler, who was director of applications 
software. Chandler brought some very 
positive and unique innovations to 
Radio Shack's software program and is 
expected to do some great things in his 
new position. Chandler's move puts the 
computer merchandising effort at Radio 
Shack in his hands and those of Mark 
Yamagata, who is responsible for the 



Color and Portable computers. And, of 
note, a change has been made in the 
Portable Computer line as well, where 
Stuart Weinstock has replaced Bill Wal- 
ters as product line manager. 

We see these moves as positive ones 
for Tandy. Close to home, it keeps the 
Color Computer marketing team intact 
(Yamagata and product line manager 
Barry Thompson), reflecting, we believe, 
confidence in that leadership's excellent 
work with CoCo. Juge's move to Market 
Planning brings a person exceedingly 
knowledgeable into the media area — 
one which Radio Shack seems to be 
seeing as more important each day. And 
Chandler's promotion brings a "star" 
from another Tandy area into the com- 
puter merchandising lineup. 



IF YOU DONT already know, Radio 
Shack's Microcomputer News will cease 
to exist after its July issue. The "news- 
letter" which Radio Shack started in 
support of the Model 1 and expanded 
into a well-done piece will not longer be 
available. Editor Bruce Elliott, who did 
an excellent job with Microcomputer 
News, has been reassigned to other 
areas. How will Radio Shack honor its 
subscriptions to Microcomputer News 

— by offering readers an opportunity to 
receive subscriptions to eight other com- 
puter magazines for the duration of the 
subscription term. Those magazines, of 
course, include the rainbow and PCM 

— our sister publication which covers 
both the Model 100 Portable Computer 
and the Tandy TRS-80 2000. 



EULOGY ON TAPE. We deeply regret 
having to pass along the news that 
Chromasette Magazine is going out of 
business. Since its first issue, Chroma- 
sette has done an outstanding job of 
supporting the Color Computer and 
supplying pertinent software at a reason- 
able price. 

An agreement has been reached be- 
tween Chromasette and THE rainbow 
to fulfill their subscription obligations 
with copies of RAINBOW ON TAPE. We 
feel confident that all of Chromasette's 
subscribers will be satisfied with the 
arrangement and, for those new recip- 
ients unfamiliar with rainbow ontape, 



A NEW SERVICE is being offered by 
Newsoft — a news service — and they 
use the Color Computer exclusively 
throughout the operation. Newsoft 
News Service (NNS) is designed specific- 
ally to bring daily news and information 
to local bulletin board systems. It oper- 
ates much like any wire service and is 
available to BBSs on a subscription 
basis for rates ranging from $8.50 a 
month for a BBS with "network status" 
to $24.95 for a one time, one month 
subscription. 

Some of the regular columns being 
offered are a daily computer news col- 
umn, a hardcore hackers' technical col- 
umn, history, trivia, science, and a 
"women and computers" column. 

For more information, contact New- 
soft Inc. Computer Services, 2704 NE 
Everett St., Portland, OR 97232 or 
place a voice call to (503) 238-0741. 
Also, NNS has a free sample download 
available at 300 Baud on (503) 235-5 1 14. 

* * * 

HOW ABOUT 128K? Yes, a line of 
1 28K memory expanders has been intro- 
duced for the Color Computer by Dy- 
namic Electronics Inc. These expanders 
mount inside the computer and are 
compatible with all existing software. 
The memories consist of two 64K mem- 
ory banks which can be selected by 
either a miniature three-position switch 
or by software. Since each bank is 
totally independent, separate programs 
can be loaded and run in either bank. 
When banks are switched, the unselect- 
ed bank is placed into the power-down 
mode with all variables and vectors 
being preserved. Control can be passed 
from one bank to the other by poking 
two values into a memory location. 

The expanders consist of a control 
curcuit mounted in modules that plug 
into a PI A socket and the SAM socket, 
two banks of 64K RAM, and a three 
position toggle switch for either hard- 
ware or software selection of the banks. 
Three models are available: ME-128D 
forupgrading"D"and"E"boards($269), 
ME-128F for upgrading "285" boards 
($259), and ME- 128-64 for upgrading 
all 64K computers to 128K ($199). 

For more information, contact Dy- 
namic Electronics Inc., P.O. Box 896, 
Hartselle, AL 35640; (205) 773- 2758. 



152 THE RAINBOW July 1984 




CLIP, MAIL AND SAVE 10°/o ON SOFT 

AND HARD WARES OR COLORFUL 
UTILITY ORDERS FROM ANY OF OUR 
ADS SENT TO OUR NEW LOCATION IN 
SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA ! 




OFFER EXPIRES AUG. 31, 1984 
ORDERS SENT TO CALIFORNIA 
NO OTHER DISCOUNTS APPLY 
ON RETAIL PRICES ONLY 





SPECIAL EDITION 

The Rainbow Book 
and 

j Tape of Adventures 

$14.95 $3 S/H Sales Tax 




SPECTRUM 




CELEBRATION 
10% DISCOUNT 

OFFER EXPIRES AUG. 31. 1984 
ORDERS SENT TO CALIFORNIA 
NO OTHER DISCOUNTS APPLY 
ON RETAIL PRICES ONLY 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 
COLORFUL COMPUTING 




SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 
COLORFUL COMPUTING 



SPREADSHEET 



ELITE CALC - 255 Rows, 255 
Columns, Help Displays, Repeat 
Text Entries, Insert, Delete, 
Move Entire Rows, Selectable 
Auto Cursor Movement, Formulas 
255 chars. Disk/Tape $59.95 
(see Aug *83 Rainbow Review) 



DISK DRIVES 



DRIVE 0 System - 40 trks, Gold 
Platted Connectors - $349.95 
AW.DEK System - 624K Bytes with 
3" Disk Cartridge - $599.00 
DISK CONTRO LLER - $139.95 
TSystems include controller) 
DISK Drive 1 (DNE) $199.95 



UTILITIES (DISK) 



1 . FHL 0-PAK $34.95 

2. Disk Doctor $39.95 

3. Super Forth ...$39.95 

4. Super Screen Clachine.$49.95 

5. OS-9 $69.95 

6. FHL Flex $69.95 

7. flicroWorks EDTASR ..$99.95 



SAVE $40 ! 



DATA BASE MANAGER 




EM "COLOR FILE - 60 Data 
Fields, 8 Report Formats, 1020 
bytes/record, Sorts 3 Fields, 
Screen and Summary Reports, 
Duplicate Records and Fields, 
Page Titles - Disk $79.95 
(see June '83 Rainbow Review) 



GAME CONTROLLERS 



MICD Command Adaptor - Hookup 
2 Atari type joysticks- $19.95 
With 2 Atari joysticks- $39.95 
OTACH II Joystick - Beats the 
competition! 360 Degree control 
with spring or positive true 
positioning and electrical trim 
adjustment on both axes- $39.95 



EW PRODUCTS 

^ 

POKES & PEEKS Manual $7.95 

YELLOW Hail Labels (1K) .$14.95 
Disk Head Cleaning Kit ..$24.95 
6 Outlet Surge Protector $59.95 
Green monitor w /Audio TT$1 19.95 

Bare Disk Drive $129.00 

Amber Monitor w/Audio ..$139.95 
CoCo Koala Pad $139.95 



WEST DIVISION 



Spectrum Projects 

PO Box 9866 

San Jose, CA 95157-0866 



Add $3.00 S/H 
NY Res Add Tax 



EAST DIVISION 



Spectrum Projects 

PO Box 21272 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 



hnauncim 



CONTEST 






anfare, please! Because of the immense popularity of 
I Simulations and the superior quality of the programs 
_J submitted in last year's competition, THE RAINBOW 
has announced plans for the Second Annual Simulation 
Contest. 

Frankly, THE rainbow staff enjoys these contests as 
much as the participants because the competitive atmos- 
phere seems to be a catalyst for new breakthroughs in pro- 
gramming, challenging you to discover heretofore unex- 
plored regions of CoCo's potential. 

The winning entries in our 1983 competition — Election 
'84 and WarGame — were comparable in quality and execu- 
tion to many commercial programs on the market, better in 
many cases. And we Ye not just referring to CoCo's market. 

Last year, remember, we relived the Civil War, traveled to 
the moon, to Mars and beyond, went bankrupt running a 
restaurant, made a million bucks as a manufacturer, sur- 
vived a flood, lobbied for bills in Congress, assumed respon- 
sibility for mid-air collisions as an air-traffic controller, 
drowned while learning to sail, experienced the thrill of 
victory in the seventh game of baseball's World Series, and 
made it big with our own software business. 

(Many of the entries in the 1983 contest are featured in a 
book on Simulations, which THE RAINBOW plans to publish 
in early fall.) 

We're looking for an even greater variety of situations this 
year and expecting to see great improvements in graphics 
presentations because of the many advancements in pro- 




156 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



THE SPECTRUM VOICE PAK 



$49.95 
SPECIAL 

$69.95 
CoCo I 

$79.95 
CoCo II 




Price good with purchase of 
any Talking Software below ! 
Offer expires July 25, 1984 




i 



New Features ! Single key 
echo and phoneme printouts ! 
Works w/$29.95 Disk"Y" cable! 




i 



Includes adapter to work on 
16K-64K CoCo IPs. Same 
features as CoCo I. In stock! 



TALKING SOFTWARE 



I 




Talking Final Countdown - You must stop the mad general from 
launching a missle at the Russians and causing WW ill ! Has multiple 
voices for added realism. 32K EXT $24.95 

Educational Software - Computer Island's educational programs turn 
your CoCo into a true teaching machine. Reinforce basic lessions with 
the aid of voice. Three/pak special includes Math Drill, Spelling Tester 
and Foreign Languages. 16K EXT $24.95 

Talking Score E-Z - An excellent adaptation of a Yahtzee type program 
with added speech. Up to 6 players can compete at a time, and all 
scoring and record keeping is done by the computer. 32K EXT $24.95 

Term Talk - A speaking smart terminal program for your CoCo. It 
contains all the features of an intelligent communications package, plus 
it talks! (Shades of War Games) 16K EXT Tape $39.95 Disk $49.95 



All orders plus $3.00 S/H - NY Residents add sales tax 
SPECTRUM PROJECTS 



WEST DIVISION : 
PO BOX 9866 

SAN JOSE, CA 95157-0866 

(212) 441-2807 



EAST DIVISION : 

PO BOX 21272 
WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 



COLORFUL UTILITIES 



**************************** 

DOUBLE DOS - Now access TO more granules from your 40 track drive ^nd. still be 
compatible with RS DOS! Also works with double-sided and 80 track drives! DISK $24.95 



MULTI-PAK CRAK - Save ROMPAKs 16 your 64 K Disk system using the RS Multi-Fak 
Interface. Eliminate constant plugging *n of ROMPAKs now by keeping all your PAK 
software on disk. DISK $24,95 



TAPE OMNI CLONE - Easily handles programs with iuto loaders, no headers, no gOf 
markers, unusual size blocks and more! Now is the E|ime to get your tape Software 
collection protected against loss. TAPE $24,95 



DISK OMNI CLONE - Back everything up! This amazing program handles w non s^nda^d 11 
disks with Qase. We haven't found any disk yet that it c&rt't handle. Lowest price 
too! 32K DISK $29.95 



DISK MANAGER - Rescue crashed disks, date files on the disk directory* print a Super 
directory with ML addresses, maintain and sort a catalog Of up to 300 files from a 
collection of disks! 16K DISK $29,95 



DISK UTIL - A multi-featured enhancement that makss disk handling USER FRIENDLY. 
Utilize a directory wiftdow to sort aqd move file entries, backup by file or by track, 
interrogate disk sectors or the GAT table, single command execution of both BASIC and 
ML programs p^us much, much more! 64K DISK $24.95 (see-May '84 Rainbow Review) 



MASTER DESIGN - A text designer/editor to generate graphics mode lettering with 
multiple font sizes, textures, shadowing and thicknesses, plus special patterns for 
creative backrounds.. % Comes with a screen print routine and a Letter Head Utility that 
interfaces with Telewriter-64 and BASIC . DISK $34.95 



BASIC COMPILER - Convert your BASIC programs into fast efficient machine fartguag^k 
Produces code more compact and up to 50Xs fasted ihan original BASICJ. Itytegfer 
compiler with no Extended BASIC needed. 16K-64K versions "included* TAPE $39.95 



SCHEMATIC DRAFTING - Save hours of work and desigft professional looking electronic 
diagrams using a 480X540 pixel worksheet With 6 viewing windows. Over 30 electronic 
symbols with 10 user definable symbols are provided. Dump hard copy to the printer 
and save the created schematics to disk. 64K DISK $49.95 (see Jan *84 Rainbow Review) 



PRITTY PRINTER - An excellent utility... The breakdown of lines is much neater and 
easier to read than an LLIST printout... Allows for notes, comments and corrections 
to be easily and prominently placed. TAPE/DISK $19.95 Mai*ch f 84 Rainbow 



MASTER MAIL - Quite easy to use... Capable of handling 1000 addresses on a Single 
disk... FORM LETTER allows you to produce multiple letters from the address 
database... A program for serious applications. 32K DISK $49*95 Jan 1 84 Rainbow 




COLORFUL UTILITIES 

************************************* 

FAST DUPE - The fastest Disk copier ever! Will format and backup a diskette 1n only 
one pass and can make up to 4 Disk copies at once! The must utility for every Disk 
owner. 64K DISK $19.95 (see May '84 Rainbow Review) 



HIDDEN BASIC - Protect your BASIC programs. Mask your code so CLOAD, CSAVE, LIST, 
EDIT, DEL and LUST will not function. TAPE $19.95 (see Sept '83 Rainbow Review) 



64 COL MOD I/I 1 1 EMULATOR - Give CoCo a 64X16 screen. Run Model I/I 1 1 graphics code 
without retyping the BASIC statements. 64K DISK $19.95 (see May '84 Rainbow Review) 



64K DISK UTILITY PACKAGE - Take advantage of an expanded 64K machine. Make ah 
additional 8K of RAM available. Copy ROM cartridges to disk and create a 32k SPOOL 
buffer for printing. DISK $21.95 (see July '83 Rainbow Review) 



TAPE UTILITY - A powerful package that transfers tape to disk and disk to tape 
automatically. Does an automatic copy of an entire disk of programs and data to tape. 
TAPE/DISK $24.95 (see Sept '83 Rainbow Review) 



E-X-T-E-N-D-E-D DISK BASIC - Add new powerful commands to your 64K Disk system. 
Inverse Video (GREAT for monitors!). Wild Card Directory, Double POKE and PEEK, 
NSAVE, NLOAD, LDI.R, OLD and TYPE. DISK $24.95 (see April '84 Rainbow Review) 



GRAPHICOM - The ultimate CoCo graphics development tool j*4th sophisticated editing, 
preview animation, telecommunications and printer support. Hi-Res graphics for only 
$24.95. W/Spectrum's Menu Foot Switch $34.95. 64K DISK (see April '84 Rainbow Review) 



EZ BASE - A truly user f ri errdly data base program at an affordable price. Maintain 
inventories, hobby collections, recipes, greeting card lists and much, much more! Hi- 
Res screen, up to 500 records with 15 fields , record or field search, and a Mai 1 ing 
Labels option. 32K DISK $24.95 (SEE REVIEW IN THIS ISSUE!) 



4* 



SHIPPING S3.QO - NY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 



BLACKJACK ROYALE - A Hi -Res graphics casino blackjack simulation and caH counting 
tutor . Fully realistic play includes: double down, splits, surrender, insurance bets, 
1-8 decks, burnt cards, shuffle frequency and more) "This fine program is a must for 
the CoCo Blackjack player.' 1 (Aug '83 Rainbow Review) 32K TAPE/DISK $24.95 

Wl 
PC 

•' 



ST DIVISION EAST DIVISION 



IOX 9866 PO BOX SI 278 

I JOSE, CA 95157-0866 WOODHAVEN, NY 11481 

S12-441-2BD7 



gramming tools and knowledge since the first contest. 

That should be a clue that originality will be high on the 
judges' list when reviewing the submissions. Judges, espe- 
cially, get weary of seeing the same kind of situations. Do we 
have to specifically mention outer space, for example? We 
enjoy the old standbys as much as the next person and don"t 
let us deter you if you have a Simulation that you know will 
set the CoCo world on its ear, but variety is, indeed, the spice 
of life. 

We offer some suggestions, just to get your creative juices 
flowing: The situations confronting the mayor of a large 
city, the decisions of a newspaper editor, the traffic con- 
troller of a metropolitan transit system, the dispatcher of a 
taxi-cab company, the state commissioner of highways, the 
head of a day care center, etc. The decisions people make in 
these kinds of situations are numerous and require careful 
evalution. 

Use your own situation! You know better than anyone 
else what kind of decisions are required, the sweet taste of 
success, and the perils of failure. And you know that each 
situation has its own degree of excitement. We're not solicit- 
ing the ideas mentioned above because that would contra- 
dict our desire for originality. However, feel free to submit 
one of the situations mentioned above if you've had such an 
idea in the works for several months already. 

While Simulations do contain some adventurous aspects, 
there is a big difference between Simulations and Adventure 
games. Simulations contain rational decision processes in 
realistic situations based upon one's normal preparation for 
a particular challenge, situation or job, taking into consid- 
eration the available options a person could reasonably 
assume to be a normal part of that experience. Adventure 



COLOR 

COMPUTER 
Buyers Club 



• Members enjoy a 25-40% savings on software! 

• Over 500 programs from 38 companies to 
choose from! 

• More software constantly being added! 

• Hardware & accessories at substantial savings! 

• Special order service for members! 

• No service charge for VISA or MC! 

• Your savings can far exceed your dues! 

Join Today and Start Saving! 

Dues are $24.50 - We accept 
Personal Checks, M.O. or Charge It! 

NAME 



ADDRESS 
CITY 



.STATE. 



.ZIP. 



□ VISA □ MC _ 

Exp. Date 

Mail to: Color Computer Buyers Club 



Bank # 



(MC only) 



P.O. Box 241 

Eaton Rapids, Ml 48827 



games, on the other hand, usually involve make-believe 
situations involving fantasy characters, escape situations, 
and treasure hunts. Simulations would not involve a map or 
sorting through a lot of geographic directions unless, of 
course, you are a traffic cop. While Simulations and Adven- 
ture games differ in their nature, the rewards of a successful 
conclusion in either case can be just as great. 

Our desire for fairness dictates that we establish a uniform 
set of guidelines by which each submission will be judged. 
We've already mentioned originality, of course. The other 
considerations include: 2) clarity of instructions, 3) ease of 
loading, 4) vocabulary, 5) grammar, 6) creativity, 7) realism, 
8) resolution, 9) use of color, 10) responsiveness, 11) level of 
challenge, and, most importantly, 12) enjoyment. 

M ost of these elements are those that you probably would 
build into a Simulation anyway, but we're emphasizing 
them because we want you to be aware of the ingredients 
necessary for a successful experience. Besides, you may want 
to try to market one of your creations commercially some- 
day and you'll find that the general buying public's demands 
will be even more difficult to satisfy. We also will be paying 
close attention to spelling because if CoCo programs are to 
be taken seriously as educational tools for our youngsters, it 
is an absolute necessity. Historical accuracy is important for 
the same reasons. 

If you need an introduction to, or refresher course on, 
Simulations, you should refer to last year's top contest 
winners: WarGamebnd Election '84. Both were published in 
our November 1 983 issue along with a wrap-up of last year's 
contest, including the judges' comments on many entries. 
One of last year's winners, Dr. Bob Tyson, also had an 
excellent Simulation, Strategy Football, in our August 1983 
issue and has a Simulation tutorial elsewhere in this issue. 
Another Sports Simulation is Basketball by Gary Carter 
and appeared in the February 1984 RAINBOW. Both Iowa 
Lemonade and Micro- Meltdown, an excellent graphics 
Simulation, are in our April 1983 issue. Finally, of course, 
check out Landlord, also in this issue. 

Now that we've shaken you up a bit, the good news is that 
many of TH E rainbow's generous advertisers will be donat- 
ing some wonderful prizes as they did last year (and in our 
recent Adventure contest) when our winners carted off 
Radio Shack disk drives, an Epson printer, and dozens of 
other prizes that included a wide variety of peripherals and 
high quality software. 

Contest submissions must be on tape or disk and it is best 
to make several saves, at least one of them in ASCI I format. 
We really do not have the time , to key in programs, 
obviously. All entries should be supported by some editorial 
commentary, explaining how the program works and loads. 
Please do not submit entries that are currently submitted to 
another publication. 

Your entry must be received by THE RAINBOW no later 
than September 1 , 1984, to be eligible for the competition. 

This promises to be THE RAINBOW 's most exciting contest 
yet, and, as usual, the winning entries will be published when 
we announce the results in an upcoming issue. 

RULES: All programs must be original works, no "conversions." Entries must 
be postmarked by September 1, 1984, and become the property of Falsoft, Inc., 
publisher of the rainbow. Decision of the judges is final. Duplicate prizes will 
be awarded in the case of ties. Winning programs to be featured in a special 
rainbow Simulation issue. Mark entries "Simulation Contest Editor" and send 
to the rainbow, P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. 



160 THE RAINBOW July 1984 




SHOPPING LIST 




A CHIP OFF THE OLD... 

6821 Standard PIA $9.95 

6822 Industrial Grade PIA $14.95 

6847 VDG Chip $17.95 

68764 (Fits Ext Basic Skt) Eprom .$24.95 

64K RAM Checker (ROMPAK) $24.95 

16K-32K Upgrade Kit* $25.95 

6883 SAM Chip w/heat sink $29.95 

6809E CPU Chip $29.95 

Basic ROM 1.2 Chip $39.95 

Disk ROM 1.1 (New OOS Command) ..$39.95 

Extended Basic 1.1 ROM $69.95 

CoCo First Aid Kit (Be Prepared) 

(2 6821's, 6809E & 6883) $69.95 

Intronics Eprom Programmer- 15 seconds 
for a 68764 ! All popular EPROM 's $139.95 
* NOT compatible with CoCo II 



Color Computer Tech Manual $7.95 

WorJ_d Connection - All about 
Bulletin Boards, Modems and the World's 

Most Famous Sysop (Bob Rosen)! $9.95 

CoCo Memory Map $12.00 

CoCo Secrets Revealed $14.95 

Color Computer Interfacing $14.95 

Basic 09 Tour Guide $18.95 

CoCoINDX (1,800 articles) $19.95 

New! CoCo U Service Manual $19.95 

MORE GOOD STUFF... 



PBH Parallel 



Int erface - Beats Botek i 
,$69.95 



300-9600 baud w/ptr-modem switch 
The Spectrum Switcher - Have your Disk & 
Cartridge too! Dual Slot System $69.95 
Colorama - The BEST CoCo BBS! ....$99.95 
Disk Interface ( Spectrum Specia1 )$139.95 

PBJ 80X24 Video Board ...$139.95 

64K CoCo II (NO DISCOUNTS ) $239.95 

Banana Printer w/CoCo Interface .$259.95 
Sanyo MBC550 - 16 bit 8088 MS-DOS system 
128K, 1 drive, 640X200 graphics .$895.00 
W/Hi-Res green screen monitor ...$995.00 

ALL ORDERS PLUS $3.00 S/H 
NY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 



COCO CABLES AND... 

E2M!i_£iii_Mili_ i 2_E2Hi~£in_££!Ml£ 

Extension - 15 feet. Move your printer or 
modem to another location. ....... .$14.95 

Tired of plugging and unplugging devices 
from the RS232 port? Make your life 
easier. Try our RS232 "Y" cable ..$19.95 
0S-9 Nul l Modem Cable - Now timeshare 

with another CoCo or MC-10 $19.95 

Spectrum Light Pen $19.95 

Disk I nterface/Rom Pak Extender - Move 
your disks and ROM Paks where you want 

them (3 feet) ...$29.95 

Triple RS232 Switcher - Now select one 
of any three RS232 peripherals ...$29.95 
40 Pin Dual "Y" Cable $29.95 

IOD STUFF... 

C-10 tapes in any quantity 49 cents 

5 1/4 Diskettes in any quantity ...$1.99 

Joystick plug $3.99 

64K RAM Button $4.99 

GEMINI 10X Ribbon $4.99 

Amdek 3" diskettes in any quantity. $5. 99 

Epson MX/RX 80 Cartridge $6.99 

Rompak w/Blank PC Board $9.95 

RS Disk Controller Case $9.95 

The Disk Doubler - Doubles ide your 5 1/4 

diskettes $14.95 

Video Clear - Cleanup TVI !! $19.95 

Cassette Recorder Stand- Put your CTR80 

CCR81 at a 45 degree angle $19.95 

The Data Defender - Store 70 diskettes in 
a hard plastic case w/key lock. . . . $29. 95 
CoCo Cooler (D & E Rev. boards) ..$49.95 
New! CoCo Cooler II (CoCo II) ....$49.95 
CoCo SterecTMusi c" l>ynthesi zer ....$69.95 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

EAST DIVISION : 

PO BOX 21272 
WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 

WEST DIVISION : 

PO BOX 9866 

SAN JOSE, CA 95157-0866 



212-441-2807 



Add even more educational flexibility to your CoCo with . . . 



Three Trips 
To The Well 



By Fred B. Scerbo 
RAINBOW Contributing Editor 



Editor's Note: Do you have a special program you would 
like solved in BASIC for your Color Computer but don't 
know how to go about writing the program. Submit your 
wish to Fred, cfo "Wishing Well, "the rainbow. We can't 
promise anything, but if your wish looks challenging 
enough, Fred may write a program to solve your problem. 
Remember, all programs resulting from your wishes are for 
your use, but remain the property of the author. 

As you may have noticed, the last few installments of 
"Wishing Well" have been quite lengthy, includ- 
ing the programs which have often required at least 
32K to run in their entire form. I will always try to offer ways 
in which those of you with only 16K can get something from 
"Wishing Well," since there are still a great number of you 
who have not gone the upgrade route yet. Therefore, this 
month's installment will include three more educational 
programs, all of which will fit in 16K. In fact, two of the 
programs will even work in standard Color BASIC for a 
non-Extended 16K machine as well as the MO10 with the 
memory expansion. (The 4K version has too little working 
space for these listings so you may need the 16K expansion 
for theMC-IO.) 

The Wishes 

Requests have continued to come in, not only c/o THE 
RAINBOW but in person and by phone. It seems quite a few 

(Fred Scerbo is a special needs instructor for the North 
Adams Public Schools, He holds a masters in educa- 
tion and published some of the first software available 
for the Color Computer through his software firm, 
Illustrated Memory Banks.) 



d 

; 

ie 



educators have really enjoyed the flexible programs 1 listed 
several months ago as "the screen quiz programs." Sinc< 
educational software is not only expensive but rarely deal 
with precisely the material you are teaching in class at an 
given point, many teachers have liked the idea of these 
"shell" programs which allow you to enter your own infor 
mation and let the program create the test or quiz for you. 
This proves very handy for parents as well, especially whe 
they want to have their kids reinforce their learning with thi 
help of the family CoCo, (Many students 1 know also usi 
these shells to create their own study materials to review fo 
tests.) 

Since there have already been requests for more, 1 have 
taken this month to print three more flexible programs 
which can be filled with your own material and will not only 
review material, but will help instruct as well, (It also gives 
me a little breather since in coming months 1 hope to offer 
Rockfest II and Fever II, Believe me, those take time to 
write!) 

The first listing is called GRPH-T&F and is a graphic 
version of the true and false quiz which 1 introduced at th 
first RAINBOWfest last year in Woodfield, 111. While th. 
screen quiz programs from several months ago were multi- 
ple choice in nature, the true and false quiz is exactly what i 
says, You supply the statements and indicate whether the 
statement is true or false (with a T* or *F), Since this 
information is placed in DATA statements at the end of the 
program, you can add up to 50 statements, save the program 
to tape or disk under a new name (i e,, HIST-T&F or 
MATH-T&F), and then reload the whole program when 
you wish to use it. As I have mentioned before, this method 
is much simpler than using text files which must be reloaded 



162 



THE RAINBOW July 1984 



after the host program is loaded and run. This way, you load 
once, and the program is ready to run. 

The original version shown out at RAINBOWfest was 
rather straightforward. A statement would appear on the 
screen and the student would simply press T* or *F\ The 
computer would respond as to whether or not the answer 
was correct, and then give a score at the end of the quiz. 

Many of the teachers I have shared this with have come up 
with another wish. They wished to know if there would be 
some way the computer could indicate why the statement 
was true or false. 

Therefore, Listing 1 has this feature included. There is one 
catch, however. You must include the statement which 
explains the reason why the first statement is true or false. 
With this feature included, the program becomes instruc- 
tional, as well as a review tool since it can be used to explain 
concepts in greater depth. Listing 2 contains the original text 
version which will work in 16K Color BASIC. 



5 the follDHlng TRUE or FALSE 



h Hhen plugging Tn a ROM cart, Tt Ts 
always hTsb to TURH OFF thE Color 
CoMputEf first, and then slDHLy 
Insert the cartridge. DtherHlse, you 
Hay dflMage the CDHputer. 

- VDU ftRE CORRECT ! 

filHays turn off the Computer First!! 



DRUE OF: (F)ftLSE OF: (S)TOP 



Using The True-False Quiz Programs 

Although both listings do nearly the same thing, they 
operate in a very different manner. When you type in Listing 
1 (the graphics version), you will notice many DA TA state- 
ments at the beginning of the program. These contain the 
graphic characters in upper- and lowercase, which were 
written for my word processor, Wordclone, and which 
appeared in the graphic multiple choice screen quiz* Take 
great care to type these lines in exactly! When you come to 
the DA TA at the end, be sure to SHIFT *(T so as to get into 
lowercase when typing on your text screen. Even though the 
letters will be reverse video, they will appear in lowercase 
with descenders when the program is RUN, 

The information in the program starts with DA TA Line 
1000, and is set up in the following fashion: 

1000 DATA "Statement.", T, "Reason or explanation/' 

As you can see, we have three pieces of information. The 
first is the statement which appears on the screen. You 
should open and close this statement with quotation marks, 



since it is very likely that you will use commas in your 
statement. Remember, when we use a DATA statement, a 
comma indicates the end of the body of information. There- 
fore, use quotes around the first statement. 

The next piece of information is either a T' or fc F' to 
indicate true or false. This need not appear in quotes, but 
you must include this since the computer has no way of 
telling if the statement is true or false. You have to tell it. 

Next is your explanation of why the statement is true or 
false. This, too, must be surrounded by quotes in case you 
use commas in your punctuation. Notice that the three 
pieces of information are separated by commas. Therefore, 
there should be only two commas per DATA line, outside 
the quotes. It is wise, also, to use only one DA TA line for all 
three pieces of information. This insures that your graphics 
text will not exceed what the screen can handle in the 
reserved space. Upon running the program, you will find 
that the screen is very readable in upper- and lowercase, and 
is suitable for rather lengthy sentences which might clutter 
the text screen. 

Line 600 has been reserved for a graphics reward, as used 
in the other screen programs. You could use graphics from 
Rock/est or Fever L Simply renumber the lines so they fall 
between 600 and 989, making sure that the last line is a 
RETURN statement. (Refer to our previous articles for 
more details on how to do this.) 

This graphics version also contains the option of stopping 
the quiz by pressing *S\ This will proceed to the score card 
and give the option of rerunning the program, As always, 
each time you R UN the quiz, the order of the statements will 
be different, allowing endless uses of the program with the 
same information. 

Be sure that the last statement in the program reads; 5000 
DATA END, Program Title, END t inserting the title you 
wish to use for this version, such as History Quiz One, and so 
on. 

Let's take a look at Listing 2 for a moment. As I men- 
tioned earlier, this is the text version in its earlier form. The 
program contains routines which will prevent word break- 
up or wrap-around. However, it will only print the state- 
ment and allow the student to answer *T' or *F (no 4 S' for 
stop}* Also, no explanation is printed on the screen. 

Why use Listing 2 (TEXT-T&F)? First, it will work in 
standard Color BASIC, Be sure to change the [*] to REM 
statements since Color BASIC does not recognize the single 
quote mark abbreviation for REM , The same would apply if 
you were using Micro Color BASIC on the MC-10. If typing 
this into the MC-10, be sure to change any TIMER state- 
ments to the number-9999, since the MC-10 does not have a 
timer. You will also notice that 1 have not used ELSE'm the 
IF. . . THEN statements since MC-10 does not have ELSE. 
In this way, the program will work with both machines, and 
could be translated to an Apple lie or some other computer 
that doesn't perform as many functions as a CoCo, 

Another reason you may wish to use this version is that it 
is faster than the graphics version. Also, with younger stu- 
dents, you may wish to have less writing on the screen, and 
the larger letters might be more readable to them. 

Unlike Listing 1 , you need only two pieces of information 
with Listing 2: 

1000 DATA "Statement" T 

You do not include a reason after the T 1 or *F\ You may 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 163 



also prefer to use all. uppercase so as to avoid the reverse 
video of the CoCo's text screen. 

Your last statement should be, of course: 

5000 DATA END,Program title 

In either program, if you get an ?OD Error, it means you 
have either forgotten Line 5000, have included an extra 
comma, or have forgotten one somewhere. Check your 
DA TA statements to be sure. 

The Verb Quiz 

Listing 3 is very different from the first two listings 
because it is designed to quiz a student on the three tenses of 
irregular verbs. This wish resulted from the needs of a 
number of high school teachers in western Massachusetts 
who wanted a way to review these tenses on the computer. 

The advantage to this program is that it will jumble the 
order of the three words forming the present, past, and past 
participle tenses. These three words would be displayed on 
the screen. The screen next tells the student which tense is to 
be used, and a sentence with a blank space is displayed at the 
bottom of the screen. For example, if the verb is SING, then 
the three choices would be: 

SING 

SANG 

SUNG 

The first blank sentence would read: 

Today I it. 

Therefore, for the present tense for this verb, the sentence 
should read: 

Today I SING it. 
The past tense would read: 

Yesterday I SANG it. 
The past participle would read: 

I have SUNG it before. 

Therefore, to make this program work, you may use any 
sets of irregular verbs (maximum 49). Ten sets are included 
for you. Each verb must have all three tenses, so each DA TA 
line would read 1000 DATA DO, DID, DONE in order of 
present, past, past participle. Your final line should read: 

5000 DATA END,Quiz Title,END 

Like the other programs, you must take great care with 
the use of commas. Also, if you are typing this into an 
MC-I0, be sure to change all single quote marks to REM 
and the command TIMER to the number -9999. Like the 
other programs, a score appears at the end, and each time it 
is run, the program order is different. 

I think you will find the flashing words to be particularly 
effective, especially when the correct word is substituted in 
the sentence. 

As you can imagine, there are many other English skills 
we could review with our CoCo. In coming weeks, we will 
explore more of them. If any of you have ideas on grammar 
skills which could benefit from a CoCo BASIC program, 
drop me a line and let me know. 



Listing 1: 



* 110, , 


. . 196 


220. , . . 


... 72 


400 


. . 168 




. . 199 


1030 .. 


. . 199 


END 


. 31 



50> :cls0:d=i:y=8 

80 FORI=0TO250STEP6:K=K+l:X(K)=I 
: NEXT: FORP= 1 TO90 : RE ADC* : AA* <P> =C 
*:NEXT:GOTO150 

90 DATA BR2UBU2U2,BU5NDBR3D,BRUN 
LU3NLNURNUNRD3NLNRD , BRUNLREHL2UR 
NUR2, BR3NUBL3UE3UBL3D, BRNHRU3FND 
2HLNGHERFG , BU5BRRDG , BR2HU3E, BREU 



120 DATA BRU5LR3,NU5R3U5,BU5D3FD 
RUEU3 , NU5EU2RD2FU5 , UE2H2BR3DGNLF 
D2,BU5D2FRD2NLU2EU2,NR3UE3UL3, , , 
, , , ,U2R3U2NL2D4L3,NU5R3U4L3,NR2U 
4R2, R3NU5U4L3D4, U4R3D2L3D2R3, BRU 
2NLNR2U2ER, U4R3D4NL3D2L2, U4NUR2F 
D3,BR2U3BU2RL2 

130 DATA BR2U3BU2UBD4D2GL,NU5U3N 
R2F3 , RU5NLD5R2 , U4FDRUED4, U4DERFD 
3, U4R3D4L3, U4R3D4L3D2 , U4R3D4NL3D 
2, BRU4D2ER, R3U2L3U2R3, BRNR2U4NR2 
NLU, NU4R3U4 , BU4D2FDRUEU2 , NU4EURD 
FU4, UEHUBR3DGNLFD, BU4D3FR2NU4DGL 
, NR3UE3L3 

1 40 SL=LEN < W* ) : FOR 1 = 1 TOSL : B*=M I D 
* ( W* , 1 , 1 ) : C= ASC < B* ) —32 : DRAW CC*+ 
"S4BM"+STR*(X (I) >+", "i-STR*<Y>+AA 
*(C> : NEXT I: RETURN 



164 



THE RAINBOW July 1984 





SEND 
FOR FREE 
CATALOG 




Dealer 
inquiries 
invited 














. TM 




ABC'S IN COLOR | 


P SPELL BOMBER 





In the ABC program, all 26 letters spring up in 
color to the familiar ABC tune. Then, colorful 
detailed pictures depicting each individual letter 
of the alphabet appear one by one. Your child's 
fascination will mount as he or she correctly 
presses the letter on the keyboard and is 
rewarded with a musical tune before the next 
detailed picture is drawn line by line onto the 
screen: AIRPLANE for A, BUS for B, CLOWN 
for C and so on to ZEBRA for Z. Truly a must 
program for the preschool to first grade age' 
group! 

CoCo 16K ECB Tape: $19.95 Disk: $25.95 



CRISS-CROSS MATH 




As the program begins, your child is presented with a nine square 
playing board. It is your choice as to which square you choose. After a 
choice is made, a MATH PROBLEM appears in the square. You score 
your first X by answering the problem correctly. If ybur answer is 
incorrect, the square clears and your opponent is allowed his choice of 
squares. The game is over when three squares vertically, horizontally, or 
diagonally are won by the same player. When playing against the 
computer, every answer you get wrong is won by the computer. Multi- 
level ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION program. 

C0C0I6K Tape: $12.95 



FRACTIONS 



SIDE ONE: Fraction Lessons, explains fractions with the aid of graphics. 
Child studies the different ways fractions can be represented. Lessons 
include: 

improper fractions 
mixed fractions 
Proper fractions 

Many educators have praised the use of motion and color to display the 
fractional equivalents. 

SIDE TWO: Fraction practice, offers a random computer generated quiz. 

Atari16k Tape: $19.95 

CoCo16k Tape: $19.95 



JOYSTICK DRAW 



Joystick Draw is the simpie way to explore your artistic talents! Program 
operation is easy enough for a child to use, but effective enough that 
TCE uses it to design many sophisticated high-resolution graphic 
screens. Joystick Draw's design allows you or your child to save those 
masterpieces for future revisions or for use in other programs 
(instructions included). Your child will spend many hours enjoying this 
program and at the same time improving his or her eye hand 
coordination! You wiil find Joystick Draw to be an easy way to design 
those more sophisticated graphics for your own programs! 
C0C0I6 ECB Tape: $16.95 



As captain of your ship, you must destroy the enemy bomber by spelling 
the mystery word. In this exciting and educational game the bomber gets 
closer with each inaccurate letter You have only EIGHT tries to guess 
the mystery word or your ship will be bombed! If you guess the word 
correctly, GENERAL QUARTERS will sound and your ship will fire a 
missile to destroy the bomber, Three levels are available: EASY, 
MEDIUM, and HARD. Challenging for all ages! 

Atari16K Tape: $18.95 

CoCo 16k ECB ; Tape: $1 8.95 Disk: $22.95 

Vic 20 13k Tape: $18.95 



SPELLING BEE 



The word is pronounced vocally and it is up to you to type in the correct 
spelling. If wrong, the computer will be your friend and flash the word on 
the screen for just an instant. OK! Try typing the word in again. STILL 
WRONG! The computer wants success and allows you to see the word 
again this time a little longer. If you just can't spell the word; the 
computer realizes you need to learn to spell the word and leaves the 
word on the screen for you to copy. Try your best and the computer has 
a surprise for your reward! 

SPELLING BEE I . . . GRADE 1 & 2 SPELLING BEE III . . . GRADE 5 & 6 
SPELLING BEE II . . GRADE 3 & 4 SPELLING BEE IV . . .GRADE 7 £f 8 
CoCo 1 6k ECB TAPE: $1 6.95 Each 



TC— INVENTORY 



Many insurance companies offer a discount for policy holders which 
have complete inventories on file. TC — Inventory is designed to help 
you organize, maintain, and Compile the personal belongings of your 
home. Program is user friendly and menu driven. TC — Inventory allows 
input for location of item, price of item, serial number of item, date of 
purchase, and a text written description of the item. Don't put off 
recording your personal belongings until its too late. Requires printer for 
hard copy. 

CoCo 32k ECB Tape: $16.95 



TEACHING CLOCK 



Torn between teaching time on a digital or a 
conventional {face and hands) clock? Well, this 
program combines the two using high 
resolution graphics and prompts! Your child Will 
learn to tell time with the aid of a specially 
designed CLOCK! Child enters the time, if 
wrong, the center of the clock displays a 
graphic aid. If the child is correct a musical 
reward is heard. Program offers three levels: 
hours, quarter hours, and five minute intervals. 

Apple 48k Disk: $19.95 

Atari 32k Tape: $16.95 

CoCo 16k ECB ... . Disk: $19.95 Tape: $16.95 




Additional Educational Software available 

for Color Computer, TDf> 100, Atari ®, 
Apple ® , Commodore 64 ®, and VIC 20 ®. 



Jtttt&r 

BUHHunr 



P.O. Box 2477 Gaithersburg, Maryland 20879 (301) 963-3848 



150 PMODE 4, 1:COLOR0, i:PCLS 

160 FORJ=1TO40:READ A*(J),B$(J), 

C*(J):IF A*(J)="END" THEN 180 

170 NEXTJ:SOSUB190:GOTO200 

180 8OSUB190:GOTO200 

190 COLOR0, l:LINE(0,0)-(256,32) , 

PSET,BF:LINE(2,2)-(253,30) ,PRESE 

t , b : screen 1,0: cc*= " c 1 " : return 
200 w*=" true and false quiz on 
: ": y=12:bosubi40 
210 w*=" "+b*<j> :y=*24: gosub 140: 

CC*="C0" 

220 W*=" SHELL PROGRAM BY FRED B 
. SCERBO (C) 1 984 ":Y«50: GOSUB 140 
230 W*=" PRESS < ENTER > TO BEGIN 

TAKING THE QUIZ " : Y=70: GOSUB140 
240 X*= I NKE Y* : KW=RND < -T I MER ) : I F X 
*=CHR* ( 13) THEN250ELSE240 
250 LINE (0,44) -(255, 80) , PRESET, B 
F 

260 J-J-l 

270 FORI=l TO J 

280 AO(I)=RND(J) 

290 FORK=I-l TO 0STEP-1 :IFAO(I) 

=AO(K)THEN280 

300 NEXTK: NEXTI 

310 FOR Y=lTOl000:NEXTY 

320 COLOR0, l: LINE (4, 4) -(252, 28) , 

pset,bf:cc*="ci» 

330 W*=" Is the following T 

RUE or FALSE ?" : Y=18: GOSUB140: CO 
LOR1,0:LINE(0, 162) -(256, 180) , PRE 
SET, BF: LINE (2, 164) -(253, 178) ,PSE 
T,B:W*~" PRESS (T) RUE OR (F) 

ALSE OR (S)TOP. ": Y= 174: GOSUB 140: 
CC*="C0" 

340 MS*=" ":FORP=lTOJ: IFP>9TH 

ENMS*=" 

350 JK*«STR*(P)+". "+A*(AO(P) ) :Y 

■34 : GOSUB360 : G0T04 1 0 

360 IF LEN(JK*X=42THEN400 

370 FOR T-42TO0STEP-1: IF MID*(JK 

*,T,1)=" "THEN390 

380 NEXT T:GOTO400 

390 L*=LEFT* ( JK* , T ) : W*=L* : Y=Y+ 1 2 

: GOSUB 1 40 : JK*=MS*+RI GHT* (JK*, (LE 

N(JK*) )-T) :GOTO360 

400 W*=JK«: Y=Y+12:GOSUB140:RETUR 

N 

410 G*= I NKE Y* : I FG*= " " THEN4 1 0 
420 I FG*= " S " THEN540ELSE I FG** " T " T 
HEN430ELSE I FG*= " F " THEN430ELSE4 1 0 
430 IF G*=B* ( AO ( P ) ) THEN 460 
440 GOTO480 

450 IF C(F(G) )<>AO(P) THEN480 

460 W*=" YOU ARE COR 

RECT! " 



470 CR=CR+l:GOTO520 

480 W*=" WRONG! THE STATEME 

NT IS " 

490 IF B*(AO(P) )»"F" THEN W*=W*+ 
" FALSE. " 

500 IF B*(AO(P) )="T" THEN W*=W*+ 

"TRUE. " 

510 IR=IR+1 

520 Y=Y+16: GOSUB 140: JK*«MS*+C* (A 
0 ( P ) ) : GOSUB360 : FOR Y* 1 TO2500 : NEX 
TY: COLOR1 ,0: LINE (0, 34) - (256, 160) 
,PSET,BF 
530 NEX TP 

540 SCREEN0,0:CLS:PRINT:PRINT 

550 IF CR-J THEN GOSUB650 

560 PRINT" NUMBER CORRECT - » 

CR 

570 PRINT 

580 PRINT" NUMBER WRONG = " 

IR:J*P-l:IF J=0 THEN J=l 

590 PRINT: PRINT" STUDENT SCOR 

E = "; INT(CR*100/J) ) "7." 

600 PRINT: PRINT" ANOTHER TRY 

(Y/N) "; 

6 1 0 W*= I NKE Y* : I FW*= " " THEN6 1 0 

620 IF W*="Y" THEN RUN 

630 IF W*«"N" THEN END 

640 GOTO610 

650 REM GRAPHIC REWARD 

660 RETURN 

990 REM ENTER DATA AT LINE 1000 
1000 DATA One of the most import 
ant parts of your Color Computer 
is the CPU - which in plain Eng 
lish stands for Computer Person 
User., F, "NO. CPU stands for CENT 
RAL PROCESSING UNIT, NOT Compute 
r Person User." 

1010 DATA "The RAINBOW is not on 
ly the largest Color Computer mo 
nthly magazine around - it is th 
e finest one that money can buy 
as wel 1 .", T, "There are other Col 
or Computer Magazines, but none 
are as fine as The RAINBOW." 
1020 DATA "When plugging in a RO 
M cart, it is always wise to TUR 
N OFF the Color Computer first, 
and then slowly insert the cartr 
idge. Otherwise, you may damage 
the computer. ",T, "Always turn of 
f the Computer First!!!" 
1030 DATA "Turning off the power 
on your Color Computer will not 
affect the memory you have in R 
AM, but may affect the memory yo 
u have in ROM. ",F, "ROM remains u 



166 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



naffectedj, but our RAM is lost t> 
n POWER-OFF. " 

1040 DATA "The SERIAL port of yo 
ur Color Computer is used to dum 
p information to a line printer, 

and does so much faster than a 
PARALLEL connection would. " , F, "A 

PARALLEL is much faster than a 
SERIAL port." 

1050 DATA "The RENUM command is 
used when you wish to change the 
line numbers of your BASIC prog 
ram without losing the routes ac 
cessed by GOTO or GOSUB statemen 
ts. " , T, "RENUM does in fact work 
in this WAy. " 

1060 DATA "A disk drive is faste 
r than a cassette recorder becau 
se the disk cable transmits BYTE 
S while the cassette transmits b 
y BITS. " , T ? "A BYTE contains eigh 
t BITS, so a disk would be faste 
r. " 

1070 DATA "BASIC is a slow, low 

1 evel progr ammi ng 1 anguage. " , F, " 

BASIC is actually a HIGH LEVEL 1 

anguage which is further removed 

from the computer's CPU since i 

t must use the BASIC INTERPRETER 
ii 

1080 DATA "There is no way that 

two different brands of computer 

can communicate with each other 

since each might use a differen 

t CPU. ",F, "Two different compute 

rs can communicate if you use a 

MODEM and transmit in ASCII code 
ii 

1090 DATA "A 64K Color Computer 
does not really have 64,000 byte 
s of RAM. ",F, "There is actually 
64,000 bytes. Only 32,000 is ava 
ilable for BASIC, but the rest c 
an be used with OS-9 or some mac 
hine language programs. " 
5000 DATA END, Sample Test of Col 
or Computer info, END 



Listing 2: 



240 


. 33 


510 


160 


END . . 


. . 206 



10 '#♦♦*#♦***♦♦#*#*#»*•♦####*•♦#♦ 
20 '* TEXT VERS. TRUE & FALSE * 
30 ** BY FRED B.SCERBO * 
40 COPYRIGHT <C> 1984 * 




WLS NEST 

SOFTWARE 

' WE GIVE A HOOT ' 



FILE CABINET - Data Management System 
N \\ With FILE CABINET you can create and maintain re- 
^C*** cords on anything you choose, ftecipes, coupons, house- 
hold inventory, financial records - you name it. You create 
records containing up to five fields you define. You can 
search, sort, modify, delete, save on tape and display on 
the screen or send to the printer. The program is user 
friendly and user proof. Error trapping and prompting 
are extensive. A comparable program would cost you much 
more. Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $19.95 

LABELIM {Reviewed in Nov. 83 Rainbow) 
With LABELIM you can develop and maintain a mailing 
list. Display on screen or printer. Print lists or labels in 
your choice of 1, 2, or 3 wide. Supports 3 or 4 line ad- 
dresses with phone optional. Fast machine language sort 
on last name, first name, or zip code. 
Cassette 16k EXT - Postpaid $19.95 

ATLANTIS ADVENTURE 

This one is tough! We challenge you to complete this in 
30 days. If you can we will send you any cassette program 
we sell at no charge. (We will even pay the postage.) You 
start on a disabled sub, near the lost city of Atlantis. Your 
object is to get the sub and yourself safely to the surface. 
Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $21.95 

ADVENTURE STARTER (Reviewed in Feb. 84 Rainbow) 
Learn to play those adventures the painless way. You start 
with a simple advehture and then move into art intermediate. 
We also Include hints and tips on adventuring. Your 16K 
EXT cassette includes both "MYHOUSE" and "PIRATES" 
adventures. Finish this and you are ready for "ATLANTIS." 
Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $17.95 

FOUR MILE ISLAND ADVENTURE 
You are trapped inside a disabled nuclear Power Plant. The 
reactor is running away. You must bring the reactor to a 
cold shutdown and prevent the "China Syndrome." Can 
you save the plant (and yourself)? It's hot easy! 
Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $17.95 



RAINBOW 



ESPIONAGE ISLAND ADVENTURE 
You have been dropped off on a deserted island by a sub- 
marine. You must recover a top secret microfilm and signal 
the sub to pick you up. Problems abound in this 32K text 
adventu re. 

Cassette 32K EXT - Postpaid $17.95 



PROGRAM FILE (Reviewed in Oct. 83 Rainbow) 
//J^M Organize your cassette programs. Let your computer find 
that program for you. Create and maintain a four field file. 
You can search, sort, modify, delete and display on screen 
or printer. Sorting may be done by name, type or location. 
Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $14.95 



GRENADA INVASION 

As an 82nd airborne trooper you must get to Grenada, rescue 
' Americans, local citizens and recover enemy arms. You will 
have to deal with hostile enemy troops and avoid many pit- 
falls to accomplish your mission. 

Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $14.95 
KINGDOM OF BASHAN 

Our most involved adventure to date. Bashah has a large vo- 
cabulary and some unique problems to solve. You must enter 
Bashan (not easy) collect the ten treasures of the kingdom 
while staying alive (even harder) and then return to the start- 
ing point with the treasures (even harder). If you can get the 
maximum 200 points in this you are an expert! 
Cassette 32K EXT - Postpaid $1 7.95 

*C.O.D. orders please add $1.50 

*No delay for personal checks 

IN A HURRY? CALL OUR HOOT LINE: (615) 238-9458 R * WMK * 



OWLS NEST SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 579, OOLTEWAH, TN 37363 




July 1984 THE RAINBOW 167 



50 ' ********«*****#*«-«*-»«-*«**** 
60 CLEAR 2000 

70 DIM AO (50) ,A*(50> ,B*<50> 
80 CLS0 

90 SW=30:KZ=RND (-TIMER) 
100 FORJ=1TO40 

110 READ A* (J) ,B*<J) : IF A*(J)="E 

ND" THEN 130 

120 NEXT J 

130 PRINT@32, n "i 

140 F0RI = 1T064:PRINTCHR*( 191) ; :N 
EXT 

150 PRINT: PRINT" TRUE AND FA 

LSE QUIZ on: h 

160 PRINT: PRINT: WW*INT <31-LEN (B* 

<J) ) ) :printtab<ww/2) ;b*<j) : print 

170 PRINT: PRINT" BY FRED B. SC 

ERBO (C) 1984": PRINT: PRINT 

180 F0RI=1T064:PRINTCHR*(191) ; :n 

EXT 

190 FOR WW=1TO2000:NEXTWW 

200 J=J-1 

210 FORI=l TO J 

220 AO(I)=RND<J) 

230 FORK=I-l TO 0STEP-1 :IFAO<I) 
=AO<K)THEN220 



240 NEXTK:NEXTI 

250 FOR Y=1TO1000:NEXTY 

260 CLS 

270 FOR P=1T0J 

280 CLS: PR I NT "STATEMENT NUMBER"; 
p.. m » 

290 PRINT 

300 PRINT" IS THE FOLLOWING TRUE 

OR FALSE?": PRINT 

310 JK*=A*<AO<P) ) 

320 IF LEN<JK*X=SW THEN 360 

330 FOR T= SW TO 0STEP-1:IF MID* 

<JK*,T, 1>=" " THEN350 

340 NEXT T:GOTO360 

350 L*=LEFT*<JK*,T) : PRINT" ";L*: 

JK*=RI6HT*<JK*, <LEN(JK*) )-T) :80T 

0320 

360 PRINt" "SJK* 
370 PRINT 

380 PRINT" T) RUE OR" 

390 PRINT" F) ALSE. " 

400 PRINT 

410 G*=INKEY*:IF G*=""THEN410 
420 IF G*="T"THEN450 
430 IF G*="F"THEN450 
440 GOTO410 



PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE 



FOR THE RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTER 

Rons any parallel printer from the Color Computer serial I/O port. 

No hardware modifications or software patches needed. Works 
with all standard Color Computer commands including graphics. 

Switch selectable baud rates from 300 to 9600. 

All cables and connectors included. 

Most printers supply power at the parallel port. With these 
printers you may order your interface without the power module. 
Printers that require the power module are: Epson, Panasonic, 
Smith-Corona TP1, Centronics, and Mannesman Tally. 

Modem users I You may order your Botek interface with a modem 
cable and switch to select between your printer and modem . 
Several modem connectors are available, so please tell us what 
modem you have. 

Price: Model CCP-1 $ 69. 

Model CCP-2 -with modem cablfe and switch — $ 84. 
Either model without power module deduct - — $ 3. 
Shipping costs included in price. 
Michigan residents add 4% sales tax. 
1 year warranty. 



RT 




We carry the finest disk drfve system that you can 
use with your Color Com purer. The system includes: 
TEAC double sided disk drive, drive enclosure and 
power supply, J & M disk controller, and cable. 
We configure the TEAC drive so that it can be used 
as two single sided drives or as d double sided 
drive. The J & M disk controller is Radio Shack 
compatible $ 425. 



* PRINTER SPECIALS * 

C-itoh Prowriter plus CCP-1 

Gemini IOX plus CCP-1 — — 



$ 389. 
■$339. 



Ord*r ham: 



BOTEK INSTRUMENTS .J^ 



313 739-2910 



4949 HAMPSHIRE, UTICA, MICH., 48087 



RAINBOW ^ 

Dealer inquiries invited 



168 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



450 IF G*=B* (AO <P) ) THEN 480 
460 BOTO500 

470 IF C<F<6) )<>AO(P> THEN500 
480 PRINT: PRINT "YOU ARE CORRECT! 

II 

490 CR=CR+1:GOTO540 

500 PR I NT! PR I NT "WRONG! THE STATE 

MENT IS "; 

510 IF B*(AO(P) )="F" THEN PRINT" 
FALSE. " 

520 IF B*(AO(P) )="T" THEN PRINT" 

TRUE. " 

530 IR=IR+1 

540 FOR Y=1TO1000:NEXTY 
550 NEXTP 

560 CLS: PRINT: PRINT 

570 PRINT" NUMBER CORRECT = " 

CR 

580 PRINT 

590 PRINT" NUMBER WRONG - " 
IR 

600 PR I NT: PR I NT" STUDENT SCOR 
E - "J INT(CR*100/J) J "*/." 
610 PR I NT: PR I NT" ANOTHER TRY 
(Y/N) "; 

620 W*=INKEY*:IF W*=""THEN620 
630 IF W*="Y" THEN RUN 
640 IF W*="N" THEN CLS: END 
650 GOTO620 

990 REM ENTER DATA AT LINE 1000 
1000 DATA "THE EARTH ROTATES ON 
ITS AXIS ONCE EVERY TWENTY FOUR 
HOURS. ",T 

1010 DATA "THE AIR WE BREATHE IS 
MADE UP MOSTLY OF CARBON. ",F 
1020 DATA "THERE ARE SIXTY MI NUT 
ES IN ONE HOUR. ",T 
1030 DATA "COLUMBUS SAILED ON TH 
E A SHIP CALLED THE MAYFLOWER.", 
F 

1040 DATA "THE MOON HAS ITS OWN 
SOURCE OF LIGHT AND OXYGEN. ",F 
1050 DATA "THE SUM OF 127 AND 14 

IS 141", T 
1060 DATA "GEORGE WASHINGTON WAS 

THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE UNIT 
ED STATES. ",T 

1070 DATA "THERE ARE FIVE QUARTE 
RS IN A DOLLAR. ",F 
1080 DATA "IF YOU BUY ITEMS TOTA 
LLING *6.49, YOUR CHANGE FROM TE 
N DOLLARS SHOULD BE 43.51 !",T 
1090 DATA "ALASKA WAS THE LAST S 
TATE TO ENTER THE UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA. ",F 

5000 DATA END, SAMPLE TEST OF ASS 
ORTED DATA 



210 241 



450.. 
720.. 
END 



. 82 
191 
. 64 



Listing 3: 

10 '#***#**#*********#********* 
20 '* ENGLISH VERBS QUIZ 
30 '* BY FRED B.SCERBO 

40 '# COPYRIGHT <C> 1984 
50 * **#**#************#***#*#** 
60 CLS0:KW=RND (-TIMER) 
70 CLEAR 1000 

80 DIM AO (50) ,A*(50) ,B*(50) ,C*(5 
0) ,NP(50) 

90 REM SET SENTENCE STRINGS 

100 FT*(1)="FIRST WE WILL FIND T 

HE PRESENT TENSE." 

110 FT*(2)="N0W LET'S SEE IF YOU 

CAN FIND THE PAST TENSE." 
120 FT*(3)*"0KAY. NEXT LET'S SEE 

IF YOU CAN FIND THE PAST PART I C 
IPLE. " 

130 REM SET BLANK SENTENCES 

140 ST*(l)="TODAY I IT." 

150 L*(l)="TODAY I ":R*(1)=" IT. 



160 ST* (2)=" YESTERDAY I 



THE SOFT SHOP 

"For all your personal computer needs" 

64K Ram Chip Set $ 55.95 

Super Pro Keyboard Kit 65.95 

Botek Interface 65.95 

Prowriter Printer (8510A) 379.95 

Drive #0 359.95 

-- ARCADE ACTION -- 

TAPE DISK 

Zaxxon (Datasoft) (32K) 29.95 32.95 

CU*BER (Tom Mix) (32K) 26.95 29.95 

Junior's Revenge (Computerware)(32K) 26.95 29.95 

Calixto Island (Mark Data) (32K) 23.95 26.95 

** For the serious Coco user ** 

TAPE DISK 

0S-9 Operating Sys (64K) -- 65.95 

Basic09 (Req. OS-9) (64K) -- 89.95 

Dynastar/Dynaform(Req. 0S-9) .(64K) -- 95.99 

VIP Writer (Softlaw Corp.) (32K) ** 55.95 

VIP Database (Softlaw Corp.) . . . .(32K) -- 55.95 

VIP CALC (Softlaw Corp.) (32K) ** 55.95 

**Tape Version Included ** 

Call or write for a catalog 
Be sure to call our BBS on-line from 10 p.m. to 7 a.m.! 

Terms: Money Orders and Personal checks welcome (Please allow an 
additional 2 weeks for personal checks). 

Shipping: $3.00 for Software, 3% for Hardware. 

C.O.D.: Please add $3.00. Blue label add $3.00 - S.C. residents add 
4% sales tax. 

Handling: Handling Charges will be added to orders outside the 
continental U.S. 

VISA and MASTERCARD ACCEPTED. 

THE SOFT SHOP 

P.O. Box 878 Mauldin, S.C. 29662 
10 a.m. (803) 288-6983 8 p.m. 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 169 



r JML REAL EIGHTY-COLUMN DISPLAY! 

ULTRA TERM +* 

PROFESSIONAL PROFESSIONAL PROFESSIONAL PROFESSIONAL 



This program is the ultimate in coco 
communicating!! Ultra Term + is used 
with a plug-in 80 column board* that 
gives you True 80 columns, not the 
graphics display that is unreadable at 80 
columns. This is truly a Professional 
Package that is so easy to use that once 
you have used it, you'll wonder why 
other packages are so difficult to use, (ex- 
cept for Color Term + Plus + that is!) 
After using a terminal program that can- 
not give you True mainframe terminal 
emulation, you will find Ultra Term + 
indispensable! Ultra Term + even has a 
host mode that allows you to echo 
characters like full duplex mainframes 
do! There are also 10 macro keys which 
will allow you to save passwords, phone 
numbers, modem programming informa- 
tion, etc. + PLUS + you can save them to 
disk. Also, like all Professional terminal 
programs you can save your current pa- 
rameters. This saves you set up time when 
moving from one system to another. 
+ Plus+ when used with the parallel 
printer port* * you can print what is com- 
ing in. And what about documentation? 
Every feature is explained in detail and 
indexed for fast look up! There is also a 
comprehensive help section to aid those 
unfamiliar with telecommunications. 
Although this program was designed for 
the Professional a total novice can use it 
with ease. Check all the features listed 
below and then you decide who has the 
world's smartest terminal! 
Baud Rates. 1 10-4800 (communicate) 

600-9600 (printer). 
Screen Format: 80 x 25 w/true upper & 

lower case. 
Select half, full duplex or echo. 
Select odd, even, mark, space or no parity. 



Send all 128 characters from keyboard. 
Select 7 or 8 bit words. 
Select 1 or 2 stop bits. 
Send a true line break. 
Select all caps if needed. 
Automatic capture of incoming files. 
X on/X off capabilities. 
Merge text or programs in buffer. 
53,000 character buffer (64K). 
Send and receive BASIC, FILES and 
machine code. 
10 macro keys. 

Four buffer send modes (dump, 

prompted, manual & time delay). 
Buffer size indicators (bytes used & 

bytes remaining). 
Buffer editor w/auto key repeat. 
Scroll forward & reverse to view buffer 

& print viewed screen option. 
Selectable printer formats (line feeds, 

etc.). 

Selectable trapping of incoming 

characters. 
Print while receiving data'. 
Buffer editor has these features: 
Move forward and reverse through 
buffer. Insert, type over, delete lines 
or characters. 

Block deletion or start to end of buffer 

delete. 
Save and load macros. 
Save and load parameters. 
Use 1-4 disk drive (w/SAVE, LOAD, DIR. 

& granule display). 
Easy to use MENU driven format. 
Comprehensive users manual. 
Works with ALL Radio Shack™ Disk 

Systems and all models of color 

computers. 

Still not convinced? How about a 15 
day, money back guarantee? If you don't 
like the package for any reason, we will 



refund your money upon return of a like- 
new package. f Who out there is offering 
you this kind of deal? And customer sup- 
port was never better. Simply fill out your 
registration card and send it back to us 
and you will be notified when new 
features, improvements, etc. become 
available because all registered owners 
will receive Free upgrades for a $5;00 
shipping and handling fee). 

As with all good Professional programs, 
Ultra Term + is all machine code. This 
program has been tested by those both 
familiar and unfamiliar with communica- 
tions programs. And when you call for 
some technical support, you won't get an 
answering machine during our business 
hours (10-5 CST M-Sat.) under normal cir- 
cumstances. Technical help is usually 
available all day. 

PRICE: Ultra Term + - $55.95 (Disk) 
Word'Pak (80-column board; in 
eludes a software driver so you 
can use your basic programs 
with no modification in most 
cases!). . . .$139.95 + $3.00 S&H 

Y-Cable . $29.95 (Required if 
expansion port not used with 
disk drives) 
Complete Package Ultra Term + , 
Word Pak & Y Cable (subtract $20.00 if 
not neededl is only $210.00 

* Ultra Term + supports the 80 column 
board made by PBJ, Inc. If you already 
have the board, simply order the pro- 
gram, but those of you who don't can get 
a good deal. 

• 'Parallel Printer Port from PBJ, Inc. 
fLess $10.00 restocking charge. 



DOUBLE SPOOLER 

Tired of waiting for your listings? print- 
outs? etc.? This is THE Spooling Program!! 
No need to save your programs in ASCII. 
You can also spool your files and you can 
spool ANYTHING you print on the screen 
while a program is running! Requires a 
minimum of 32K AND the 64K computer 
can spool really LARGE files!! Plus more!! 
PRICE: $19.95 (Tape) $21.95 (Disk) 

DOUBLE SWITCH 
Now you can switch between two dif- 
ferent devices AND you get an on/off in- 
dicator at the same time. Switch your 
Modem & Printer or two printers, etc. 
PRICE: $29.95 

DOUBLE CABLE 
Tired of switching cables everytime you 
use your modem and printer? This is the 
fix!! Hook your modem and printer up at 
the same time! No more switching. 
PRICE: $14.95 

COLOR DISK SAVER 
Disk bombed again? Can't really afford 
those expensive programs that might fix 
your disk? Anyone can afford the price of 
this program. COLOR DISK SAVER will 



save your sanity, as well as your disk. 
Don't wait until it is too late, or spend 
hours trying to fix the disk! COLOR DISK 
SAVER will save your disk to tape, reload 
the tape to disk if you ever need to 
restore the disk. It also has a tape verify 
command! Don't delay! 32K Required 
PRICE: $12.95 (Tape) 

AUTOLOAD 
AUTOLOAD II will load most any tape 
program, machine code or basic, and put 
it on disk for you automatically!! 
AUTOLOAD II will skip programs with 
errors and go on to the next program, 
either automatically or it will stop and 
wait for instructions. AUTOLOAD II will 
also allow you to fix machine language 
programs that crash when used with a 
disk. You will no longer have to remove 
the disk controller before playing a game. 
Everything is done while you watch. 



Works great on RAINBOW on tape, and 
other similar items. Requires 16K 
minimum systems. 
PRICE: $12.95 (Tape) 

DOUBLE MAILER 
At last a powerful, easy to use, mailing 
list program for a reasonable price. Up to 
200 names can be held in memory for you 
to change, modify, search or print as you 
like. Plus, you can print out up to 1800 
names without touching the keyboard. 
Save thousands of names on each disk. 
The machine language sort routine will 
sort 200 names in as little as 6 seconds! 
Supports single or double wide labels. 
Three and four line labels can be inter- 
mixed without leaving gaps in your 
listings! All menu driven, and easy to use. 
Printer support gives 600-9600 BAUD 
selection, and different print sizes if you 
wish. 16K Extended 



Dou ble Density Softw are 

» 920 Baldwin Street HEHfil 
Denton, Texas 76205 | VfSA \ 
Phone 817/566-2004 l^MMM 



$2.00 shipping and handling on all orders. $3.00 charge on C.O.D. orders. 



COLOR TERM + PLUS + 



If you're looking for the finest terminal software you can buy, look no further! And now we've added a high-res screen display that 
gives you 32 by 16, 42, 51, or 64 by 24 lines.* And you can switch between the high-res screen and the normal screen without destroying 
what you have in the buffer! + PLUS + we have a buffer editor, complete up and down load support, on-line cassette or disk reads and 
writes, off-line and on-line scrolling, pre-entry of data before calling, word wrap, buffer printing, selective printing, change any 
parameter so you can communicate with any other computer. You can send and receive Basic programs, ASCII file, as well as machine 
code, +PLUS+ you can save your buffer to tape (Tape or Rom version) or disk (Disk version). You can communicate with the local 
BBS, Compuserve™, The Source™, the main frame at work or school, other color computers, Apples, IBM PC'S, TRS-80 Model I, II, 
III, IV, 12, 16, 100, or any other computer via RS-232. 
Compare these features with any other terminal program: 
32x16, 42, 51, 6x24 Screen 
Communications BAUD Rate: 110-19200 
Printer Baud Rate: 600-9600 
Select Half or Full Duplex. 
Select Odd, Even, or no Parity. 
Select 7 or 8 Bit Words. 
Send Control Characters. 
Send a True Line Break. 
Separate Keys for Escape and Rubout. 
Select All Caps If Needed. 
Word Wrap — Eliminate Split Words. 

(32 Character Mode) 
Selectable Reverse or Normal Video. 

(32 Character Mode) 
♦Disk and Rom Pack only (not on tape). PRICE: $29.95 (TAPE) 




Scroll Protect Up to 9 Lines. 

Automatic Capture of Incoming Files, Send One Line At a 

Time From Your Buffer. 
Has Programmable Prompt for ' Send Next Line!!" 
Buffer Size Indicator. 
Complete Up and Down Load Support. 
Improved Buffer Editor. 
On/Off Line Scrolling of Buffer. 
On/Off Cassette or Disk Reads and Writes. 
Pre-Enter Data Before Going On-Line. 
Save/Load Machine Code, Basic Programs or Files. 
Select Printer Line Feeds If Needed or Ignore All Line Feeds 

in Buffer. 

$39.95 (ROM PACK) $39.95 (DISK) 



BBS 817-387-8381 



HARDWARE 

SUPER PRO KEYBOARD — Mark Data replacement. .$64.95 
DOUBLE SWITCH I — This is our original switch box. Two 
LEDs show you which port is being used, 1 or 2. High quality 

parts, and a new great looking yellow face plate $29.95 

DOUBLE SWITCH II — Same as the above switch box, but we 
have added three RCA jacks, and a switch which allows you to 
switch between your 80 column board output, and your com- 
puter output at a touch instead of unplugging $39.95 

VIDEO SWITCH — Switch between your 80 column board, 
and your computer's output. Two LEDs display the 

device '. $19.95 

DOUBLE CABLE — If you don't have a lot of money to spend, 
you can hook a modem and a printer up at the same time using 

this Y-Cable. Works with most printers $14.95 

WORD PAK (80 Column Board) — This is one of the finest 
pieces of hardware to come along since the CoCo. Allows you 
to display a real 80 column screen, not the graphics that are 
sometimes difficult to read. Comes with a software driver that 

will interface basic into the 80 column board $ 139.95 

Y-CABLE — Used with the WORD PAK when disk drives are 
being used. Not needed if you own some type of multi-port 

device, the Multi-Pak interface for instance $29.95 

DOUBLE DRIVER — Best video driver available for the Color 
Computer. Made by our friends at Moreton Bay Software. 

Specify regular CoCo or CoCo II $24.95 

DOUBLE SPEAKER — This plug-in device gives you sound 

with a monitor. Plugs right in, nothing to solder $19,95 

HARD DISK DRIVE FOR THE CoCo WITH CONTROLLER: 

5 MEG HARD DISK DRIVE. $1299.95 

10 MEG HARD DISK DRIVE $ 1599.95 

$2.00 shipping and handling on all orders. $3.00 charge on C.O.D. orders, 
Mastercard and VISA accepted. Texas residents add 5% sales tax. Allow 
two weeks for personal checks. 
Send 20 cent stamp for free catalog. 

Double Density Software 

920 Baldwin Street 
Denton, Texas 76205 
Phone 817/666 2004 






DOUBLE DOS II 
NEW AND IMPROVED!! Double Dos II is an enhanced version 
of our original DOUBLE DOS program. The original Double 
Dos was so well received that we decided to add even more 
capabilities, and fix some of the limitations in the original pro- 
gram. With Double Dos you can use 35, 40 or 80 track (double 
and single sided) drives all on one system, all at the same time. 
(The use of double sided drives will limit you to three drives.) 
Works with all types of 5V4 or 3 inch drive systems and All com- 
mands are supported in Double Dos! Double Dos is totally 
transparent to your basic programs! If your system selection is 
80 tracks, a FREE command will return 158 granules! Compare 
this to the 68 granules your system now returns. You get 78 
granules with a 40 track drive, 10 more than the 35 track 
system. EVERY command in basic is supported by Double Dos. 
There is only one limitation, you can only open any number of 
files to one drive at a time, otherwise everything else is the 
same. Plus you get some great new commands!! Look at what 
Double Dos will allow as new disk basic commands: 
BAUD 1-6 ... change the BAUD rate with a command, no 
pokes! 

TRACK 35,36,40,80 ... change the number of tracks. 
DOUBLE ... enable the double sided option. 
PDIR ... print your directory to the printer. 
DUMP ON/OFF ... send a basic program to a friend without us- 
ing a terminal program! 

RATE 6,35 ... change the head stepping rate. 

VIDEO ON/OFF ... will give you a reverse screen without a 

hardware modification. 

SCROLL 1-255 ... change the screen scrolling speed. 
COMMAND ... will list all new commands. 
DUPE 0-2 ... will allow copy & backup from one side of a disk 
to the other side on double sided systems! 
DATE ... you can enter the month, day, and year which will be 
stored in the directory of your disk each time you save a pro- 
gram or file, and you can see it when you use the DIR com- 
mand! Very useful when looking for the most current file or 
program! 

AND, all commands can be used inside basic programs because 
they have been added to disk basics list of commands! You also 
get full reset protection, which means that you will stay in the 
64K mode until you power-down. 
PRICE: $29.95 (DISK ONLY) 64K Required 



v Help jfe Battle the 

iMBKL* °* OUk Drives 




Un-DISK Drives $49.95? 



You Bet! There are empty spaces in your 32K 
and 64K CoCo. The Preble VDOS Un-DISK 
helps you fill them up with PROGRAMS! 



• Un-DISK uses your computer's extra 
memory like a fast disk drive. 

• Un-DISK can store BASIC and MACHINE 
LANGUAGE programs. 

• Un-DISK is INVISIBLE. Yup! Un-DISK 
does not interfere with normal Color Com- 
puter Operation. 

• Un-DISK appears only when you type the 
magic word VDOS. 

• Un-DISK comes with comprehensive in- 
structions which you may not need be- 
cause: 

• Un-DISK is self-prompting and easy to 
use! 

• Un-DISK is provided on cassette. 

• Un-DISK is faster than a slow clumsy 
DISK DRIVE and best of all . . . 

• Un-DISK is CHEAPER than a DISK DRIVE! 

• Un-DISK will work even if you already own 
a disk but WHY BUY A DISK AT ALL? 

• Un-DISK should be in the library of every 
serious CoCo user even if you own a disk 
says Frank J. Esser, independent reviewer 
for rainbow Magazine! 



OK sure, disk drives ARE NICE. I own one. 
But if your finances are limited, the Un-DISK 
can give you much of the power of the 
mechanical drive. Even if you already own a 
disk the Un-DISK can work like a super fast 
extra disk. 

EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . EXTRA . . . 
Additional Power For $14.95 

Only with VDUMP for the Un-DISK! 

• VDUMP lets you make a cassette backup 
copy of everything stored in the Un-DISK. 

• VDUMP lets you save 5, 10, 15 or more 
programs on a single cassette tape file. 

• VDUMP lets you switch Un-DISKs. With a 
single load operation replace a group of 
financial programs with a set of children's 
programs. (The new VDUMP tape over- 
writes the old.) 

• VDUMP can allow you to save a whole lot 
of rainbow on tape in a SINGLE file. 

• VDUMP is the perfect companion to the 
Preble VDOS Un-DISK. 

Available from Doctor Preble's Programs, 
naturally! Bringing you fine Color Computer 
Products Since 1983! 



The Preble VDOS Un-DISK $49.95 

The Preble VDUMP $14.95 

Shipping & handling 

U.S. and Canada $1.50 

or $5.00 to other foreign points 

VISA and MasterCard accepted 




Order From: 
Dr. Preble's Programs 

6540 Outer Loop 
Louisville, KY 40228 
(502) 966-8281 
Canadians may order from Kelly Software 



IT. " 

170 L»< 2)=" YESTERDAY I ":R*<2)=" 
IT. " 

180 ST*<3)»"I HAVE IT BE 

FORE. " 

190 L*<3)="I HAVE ":R*(3)=" IT 8 
EFORE. " 

200 REM READ DATA 
210 FORJ=1TO50 

220 READ A*<J) ,B*<J) ,C*<J) : IF A* 

<J)«"END" THEN240 

230 NEXT J 

240 PRINTQ32, ""; 

250 FOR I = 1 T064 : PR I NTCHR* < 255 ) » : N 
EXT 

260 PRINT: PRINT" ENGLISH GRAM 
MAR QUIZ ON:" 

270 PR I NT : PR I NTT AB (8) " I RREGULAR 

VERBS " : PR I NT : WW= I NT < 3 1 -LEN (B* (J) 

) ) :PRINTTAB(WW/2) ;B*(J) 

280 PRINT: PRINT" BY FRED B. SC 

ERBQ (C) 1984": PRINT 

290 F0RI = 1T064:PRINTCHR*<255) ; :N 

EXT 

300 FOR WW=1TO2000:NEXTWW 
310 J=J-1 

320 REM RESORT ORDER OF DATA 

330 FORI=l TO J 

340 AO(I)=RND<J) 

350 IF NP(AO(I))=l THEN 340 

360 NP(AO<I) )=l:NEXT I 

370 FOR Y=1TO2000:NEXTY:GOTO390 

380 REM START WORKING LOOP 

390 FOR P=1T0J 

400 CLS 

410 REM SORT VERBS 
420 FOR E=1T03 
430 F<E)=RND<3) 

440 FOR K=E-1 TO 0 STEP-l:IF F <K 

)=F(E) THEN430 

450 NEXTK: NEXTE 

460 GOSUB470:GOTO560 

470 CLS: PR I NT "HERE ARE YOUR THRE 

E CHOICES: ": PRINT 

480 G*(F(1) )=A*<AO<P) ) 

490 G*(F(2) )=B*(AO(P) ) 

500 G*<F(3) )=C*(AO(P) ) 

510 PR I NTT AB ( 4 ) " A ) ";G*<1> 

520 PRINTTAB<4) "B> ";G*(2) 

530 PRINTTAB<4) "O ";G*(3> 

540 RETURN 

550 REM TRY ALL THREE VERBS 
560 FOR TV«1T03:PRINT 
570 PRINTS192,FT*<TV> 
580 PRINT 

590 PR I NT "WHICH LETTER WILL CORR 
ECTLY COMPLETE THIS SENTENCE 



600 PRINT: PRINT ST*<TV) 

610 FL*= FL=LEN<G*<F<TV) ) ) :FOR 

W=1T0 FL:Q=ASC(MID*<G*<F(TV) ) ,W 
, 1 ) ) +32: FL*= t FL*+CHR* <Q) : NEXT W 
620 G*= I NKE Y* : I FG*= " " THEN620 
630 IF ASC<G*)=64+F<TV)THEN680 
640 IF ASC(G*X65THEN620 
650 IF ASC<G*> >67THEN620 
660 GOTO730 

670 REM CORRECT SECTION 

680 CR=CR+l:PRINT:PRINT"THAT IS 

CORRECT ! " 

690 FOR YY=1 TO 20: PRINTS384, L* < 
TV) ; G* <F <TV) ) ; R* (TV) : FOR WA=1T01 
00: NEXT WA 

700 PRINTe384,L*(TV) ;FL*;R*<TV) : 

FOR WA=1TO100:NEXT WA: NEXT YY 

710 GOTO750 

720 REM WRONG SECTION 

730 R=ASC(G*)-64: IF G*(F(TV))=G* 

(R) THEN680 

740 IR=IR+l: PRINT: PRINT" WRONG! Y 
OU PICKED CHOICE " ; G*5 " . " : G0TO69 



0 






750 


IF TV=3 


THEN 770 


760 


GOSUB470 


770 


NEXT TV: 


NEXT P 


780 


REM SCORING SECTION 


790 


CLS: PRINT: PRINT 


800 


PRINT" 


NUMBER CORRECT = " 


CR 






810 


PRINT 




820 


PRINT" 


NUMBER WRONG = " 


IR 






830 


J=CR+IR 




840 


PRINT: PRINT" STUDENT SCOR 



E = "; INT(CR*100/J) ; "•/." 

850 PR I NT: PR I NT" ANOTHER TRY 

(Y/N) "i 

860 W*= I NKEY* : I FW*= " " THEN860 
870 IF W*="Y" THEN RUN 
880 IF W*="N" THEN 900 
890 GOTO860 
900 CLS: END 

990 REM ENTER DATA AT LINE 1000 
1000 DATA DO, DID, DONE 
1010 DATA EAT, ATE, EATEN 
1020 DATA SING, SANG, SUNG 
1030 DATA BRING, BROUGHT, BROUGHT 
1040 DATA CHOOSE, CHOSE, CHOSEN 
1050 DATA KNOW, KNEW, KNOWN 
1060 DATA THROW, THREW, THROWN 
1070 DATA WEAR, WORE, WORN 
1080 DATA WRITE, WROTE, WRITTEN 
1090 DATA SPRING, SPRANG, SPRUNG 
5000 DATA END, SECTION ONE, END JjL 

RAINBOW A 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 173 



V 




CASS LAB L: 
A Music Tape Organizer 

By Brad Scoffin 



This is a short 25-line program I wrote one morning 
after I had cleaned out my desk and decided to 
re-organize my music cassettes. The program requires 
I6K ECB and the Radio Shack Line Printer VII, DMP-100 
and TDP line Printer I. 

CASSLABL starts off by asking for the name of the 
group or singer, the name of the album, and the names of the 
songs on side A and B. The length of each song title must not 
exceed 19 characters. 

The program then prints out a label for the cassette, which 
must be cut and folded to fit between the old card and the 



The Who 

It's Hard 



SIDE fl 



'SIDE B 



Rth*n* 

It' ft Your Turn 
Cook* County 
rtft Hard 
Dari9ffrous 
Eminence Front 



: I ' ve Known No War 
{ One Life's Enou9h 
'One fit fl Time 
'Why Did I Fall For 
'fl Man Is fl Man 
'Cry If You Want 



cassette case. To make the label fit, cut the paper just above 
the first line and just below the last line. Trim the sides so it 
fits in the case and fold it so that the name of the group 
shows on the side of your cassette. 

I hope this program is as useful to you as it was to me; it 
has really cleaned up the appearance of my cassette case. To 
make duplicate copies of a label, change Line 25 from RUN 
to read GOTO 17. 

Editor's Note: To use other printers, substitute your 
printer's codes for double-width printing in place of 
the CHR$(31) (on) and CHR$(30) (off) in Line 19. 




The listing; 

1 CLEAR500: DJ MA* ( 12) , B* 1 12) : CLS 

2 INPUT "GROUP NAME (MAX 19 CHARS 
• ) M |BP*: IFLEN(SP«) >19THEN0 
P*~LEFT*(GP* f 19) 

3 JNPUT-ALBUM NAME (MAX 38 CHARS 
. ) »S AN*: IFL(EN(AN*> >38THENA 
N**LEFT*(AN*»3B) 

4 CLS: PRINT610* "SIDE A' 1 

5 FOR I~1TO10 

6 PRINTI$:INPUTA*(I) 

7 IF A*II>=""THEN8ELSENEXTI 

8 CLSSPRINTai0, "SIDE B" 

9 F0RI»1T012 

1# PRINTI 5 : INPUJB* ( I ) 

1 1 IF B* ( I ) «" " THEN 1 2EL SENE X T I 

12 CLSS PRINTS10, BP* S PR I NTQ42 » AN* 



174 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



: PRINT: PRINT'SIDE A'V'SIDE B" 

13 F0RI-1T012 

14 IF LEN<A*(I) ) >15THENPA*-LEFT* 
< A* < I ) , 15) ELSEPA*-A* ( I ) 

15 IF LEN<B*<I))>15THENPB*»LEFT* 
(B* ( I ) , 15) ELSEPB*=B* ( I ) 

16 PRINTPA*,PBt:NEXTI 

17 INPUT" PRESS ENTER TO PRINT A 
LABEL" |N 

18 PRINT#-2, STRING* <40, :FPRI 
= 1 T05 : PR I NT#-2 : NEXT I 

1 9 PR I NT#-2 , STR I NB* < 40 ,"-"): PR I N 
T#-2, CHR* <31 ) ; TAB ( INT ( (20-LEN (BP 
*) ) /2) ) * BP*: PRINT#-2, CHR* (30) ? TA 
B ( INT ( (40-LEN (AN*) ) /2) ) I AN*: PRIN 
T#-2 , STR I NB* ( 40 , * ~ « ) 

22 PRINT*— 2, "SIDE A"f TAB (19) 5 W :S 
IDE B":PRINT#-2, STRING* (40, "-") 

23 FQRI-1T012:PRINT#-2,A*(I)|TAB 

(19)»":"ib*(I):nexti 

24 PRINT#-2,STRINS*(40, ,, - B ) 




PRINT #-2. (continued from Page 14) 

Anniversaries also mark a turning point, of sorts, for 
anyone or thing, and THE RAINBOW is certainly no excep- 
tion. Some of the changes you will see in this month's issue, 
while others will be cropping up in the months ahead. We 
hope that you will be pleased with what you see and that they 
will make your reading of what many of you tell us in the 
Number One CoCo magazine more enjoyable. 

Though Bill Nolan has ended his "Dragon's Byte" 
column, he begins a new series on direct access disk files this 
month. Tom Nelson, he and we feel, has pretty much 
covered the waterfront on the subject of law and computers 
and, thus, ended his "CoCo Counsel" column last month, 
but we hope to have more from him on these pages. 

You will note, though, that we add a column on pascal 
by Dan Eastham. Next to BASIC, pascal is probably the 
most widely-used microcomputer language and we believe it 
is time that we gave it some support. Dan has written a 
PASCAL implementation for CoCo and is abundantly quali- 
fied to explain it all to all of us. 

I also call your attention to "Earth To Ed," our new 
question-and-answer column by Ed Ellers. And Fred Seer- 
bo's "Rainbow Wishing Well" is, indeed, the only feature 1 
know of in any magazine where you can write in and have a 
program written especially for your request. 

Other changes that you will be seeing involve more fea- 
tures, additional typography implementations that should 
make the magazine even more easy to read and some other 
things. We believe here that the world of the CoCo is virtu- 
ally unlimited, and we are always looking for ways to serve 
you better — be it something off the wall like Scratch And 
Sniff Adventure or practical, such as a column on PASCAL. 

As always, we would like to have your suggestions and 
your support. THE rainbow was the first Color Computer 
monthly magazine {Color Computer News was initially a 
bimonthly.). Also, THE RAINBOW is by far the largest and 
most comprehensive; and we can only continue to be the 
resource we have been with your help and support. So, 



please, let us know what you think about anything (or 
everything) we are doing. And thank you for all the support 
you've given us the past year. If you will continue — by 
mentioning our name when you order products from adver- 
tisers, by telling your friends about us, by sending us your 
submissions and contest entries — we will do our best to 
continue to provide you with the kind of magazine you 
want. 

After all, this whole enterprise began as a method to 
exchange ideas and that is how we want it to continue. 1 
know I talk a great deal on these pages about "CoCo Com- 
munity," but I happen to believe it is a real force and that the 
Color Computer is special. So are the people who own and 
use it — and I believe you deserve our best efforts all of the 
time. 

So, as this publishing year ends and a new one begins, 1 
thank each of you for your support of THE RAINBOW this 
past year. It has been the single most reason that we have 
been able to be as successful as we have. Let me know any 
time we can help in any way. WeYe here to do whatever we 
can to make the concept of CoCo Community a reality. 

It would be totally unfitting were 1 to close this anniver- 
sary column without saying thank you to a number of 
individuals who have been an important part of the CoCo 
Community this past year. Some of them contributed as 
sounding boards, others as idea-people, others as critics. 
For whatever reason, it is, appropriate for me to say thank 
you to Bob Rosen, Gordon Monnier, Arnie Weiss, Susan 
and Gary Davis, Dick White, Paul and Sue Searby, Barry 
Thompson, Ron and Mona Krebs, Joe $nd Barbara Ben- 
nett, Tom "that's my real name" Mix, Dennis Derringer, 
John Burnam, Mark Yamagata, Steve and Cheryl Blyn, 
Dave Lagerquist, John Ross, John Waclo, Bob Amos, Guy 
and Pat Endicott, Richard and Arlene Don, Frank Hogg, 
Tom Kelly, Linda and John Nielsen, Ken and Jeanne 
Kaplan, Susan and Paul Petrocci, Larry and Margaret Pre- 
ble, Ed Juge, Van Chandler, Larry Reitz, Carl Shell, Terry 
Haas, Tom and Dan Nelson, Pete Stark, John Boals, Ted 
Hasenstaub, Tom Scott, Paul Nanos, Wayne Diercks, Jan 
Zucker, Don Dollberg, Eric Tiienius, H. Allen Curtis, Fred 
Scerbo, Paul Hoffman, Mike Himowitz, Jorge Mir, Larry 
Konecky, Bob Russell, Sandy Trevor, John "Crazy" Fraysse, 
Thomas Szlucha, Bob Albrecht, Tony DiStefano, Don 
Inman, Joseph Kolar, Dennis and Rosanne Lewandowski, 
Bill and Sara Nolan, Dale Peterson, Michael Plog, Fred 
Crawford, Charles Roslund, Robert Frowenfeld, Sherry 
Zuehlke, Rich Parry, Roger Schrag, Dan Burress, Bob Del- 
bourgo and his family, Frank Brandon, Amy Arutt, Jack 
Knott, Jack Torres, Melvin Hefter, Geoff Wells, Tom 
Delker, Tom Rosenbaum, Gerry Alexander, Pat Jones, 
Doris and Bill Vergona, Russell Roberts, and Howard 
Cohen. 

And yes, the entire staff at THE RAINBOW. It wouldn't be 
fair to forget any one of them. They are the people who get 
your subscriptions in the mail, who edit the articles and 
check the listings, who do the artwork, make sure the bills 
are paid and plan the RAIN BOWfests. I won't take up space 
here by mentioning them all, but I thank them all for helping 
me every day of the last year. 

But, as I said earlier, the real thanks goes to you. Thank 
you for your help, support and all that goes along with it. We 
simply want to publish a magazine of which you can be 
proud. 

I think we do and you are. 

— Lonnie Falk 

July 1984 THE RAINBOW 175 



TURN OF THE SCREW 



Dualing Cassettes 



"W'got the idea for this month's article from someone who 
I gave me a call on a Monday night. He was working on a 
JLproject that would control the motors of two cassette 
players and was having some problems with it. We spoke for 
a while, but I could not figure out what his problem was over 
the phone, I told him that I would put together one and 
present it in one of my articles. There is one thing — 1 cannot 
for the life of me remember his name. You know who you 
are, so give me a call and 111 give you credit for this idea. 

First we must describe what this project is and what it 
does. It is what I call a Dual Cassette Controller, which fits 
in a small ROM pack, and plugs into the CoCo or CoCo 2 
expansion port. It has three DIN connectors. One plug fits 
into your cassette connector in the back of the computer. 
The other two connectors connect to two tape recorders. 
This Dual Cassette Controller will enable the user to 
transfer files from one cassette to another. This could be 
useful in making backup copies of your software a lot easier 
than with one cassette. With the proper software, it could 
allow you to ipake complete backups of everything on one 
cassette to another. It could also be useful when sorting or 
changing ASCII text files. An example would be if you have 
a telephone list, and someone changed his or her address or 
telephone number, it would be easier with two cassette 
recorders to update the file. The next few paragraphs will 
show you how to build and operate the Dual Cassette 
Controller. 

The first thing to do in this project is to get the parts and 



(Tony DiStefano is well known as an early specialist in 
Color Computer hardware projects. He is one of the 
acknowledged experts on the "insides"of CoCo.) 



By Tony DiStefano 
RAINBOW Contributing Editor 



tools necessary to construct the Controller. You will find a 
parts list later on in this article. The tools you will need this 
time are the "standard tool kit," drill, round file and a sharp 
knife. 

This project is just as much electronic as it is mechanic. It 
involves cutting, drilling and filing things into shape. It is up 
to you to make it as nice as you can or want. Halfway into 
building it I thought of mounting the whole thing inside the 
computer. Then 1 thought there are always many ways of 
modifing your computer to suit your needs. Do it the way 
you please. I included a few photos to show you how I built 
my proto-type. You can do it the same way or come up with 
your own design. However the mechanics are done, the 
electronics are the same. 

Following the schematic, solder all the components 
together. If you want the thing to fit in a ROM pack case, 
place the components as shown in the photos. Also, do not 
use sockets for the relays, it won't fit in the case. From past 
experiences, there seems to be a difference in Radio Shack 
part numbers in Canada and the U.S. Some numbers do not 
always match, so be careful. When you are not sure, use the 
description to get the part. Use at least a 24-gauge wire for 
the connections to and from the relays that connect to the 
motor connections on all the connectors. There are no sur- 
prises in the circuit, it is quite simple, only the regular care 
for static sensitive IC's will do. Remember to clean the PCB 
when you are finished. 

In the "Turn Of The Screw" column by Tony DiStefano 
in our June 1984 issue, we stated that the schematic of 
the Spectrum Voice Pak was supplied courtesy of 
Spectrum Projects. We should add that the schematic 
i$ copyrighted by John Kelty of Kelty Engineering. 



176 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



DUAL CASSETTE CONTROLLER 




+5V < f09l 




Mount the three connectors on the end of the case. Drill, 
cut and file the plastic case until they fit. Then cut the PCB 
until it fits in the case. Make sure that no wires touch 
together and all solder joints are solid. Use my photos as a 
guide. 

To try out the controller, follow these simple steps. Turn 
off the computer. Plug the controller into the computer slot. 
Plug one end of the DIN to DIN wire into the computer's 
cassette port. Connect the other end into the controller's 
input and connect the two cassette recorders into the proper 
connectors on the controller. Next, turn on the computer. In 
order to test the relays, type this in: 

MOTOR ON ENTER 

The internal relay should click on. 
POKE 65344,1 enter 

Parts List 



Relay number 1 should click on. 

POKE 65344,0 ENTER 
Relay number 1 should click off. 

POKE 65344,2 ENTER 
Relay number 2 should click on. 

POKE 65344,3 ENTER 

Both relays should be on. If all this works then the relays 
work okay. Now try to CSAVE and CLOAD to each 
cassette. To access the first cassette you must first: 

POKE 65344,1 ENTER 

Then all I/O will be through cassette number one. 
want to access cassette number two you must first: 



If you 



POKE 65344,2 ENTER 



ID # 


Description 


RS Part # 


Ul 


74LS175 


N/A 


RI,R2 


470 ohm ! /iw 


271-1317 


J1,J2,J3 


5-Pin DIN Female 


274-005 


Q!,Q2 


2N3904 


276-2016 


K1,K2 


5V Relay DPDT 


271-215 


D1,D2 


1N4004 


276-1103 


CI 


.luf 10V 


272-111 


MISC 


Proto-board 


N/A 




Case 


N/A 




16-Pin Socket 


276-1998 




5-Pin to 5-Pin wire 


42-2151 



That will give you access to the second cassette. CSAVEs 
and CLOADs will be done through this cassette. There is 
one more interesting thing with this controller. If you POKE 
65344 J and enter, you will be able to CSAVE to both 
cassettes. Since both motors are on and the output goes to 
both recorders, you will get two copies of whatever you 
CSA VEd or CSA VEMd. This will not, however work with 
CLOADs because the inputs are switched. With some good 
machine language code, a user could open two cassette files 
say, OPEN "O", #-5, "FILENAME". If you want to know 
where I got that proto-board and case, it was from Micro 
R.G.S. It is a great proto-board and suits CoCo projects 
quite well. 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 177 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★l 



RAINBOW 

Give us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists in showing the Color Computer world your 
high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in the rainbow's 
Scoreboard column. All entries must be received by the first of the month to be eligible for the following 
month's Scoreboard. They must include your full name, address, game title, company name and, of course, 
your high score. Each individual is limited to three score entries per month. Send your entries to Scoreboard, 

C/O THE RAINBOW. 

★ New Number One • Last Month's Number One 



ADVENTURE (Flex) 

65 ^Bryan Teel, Martintown, Ontario 
ALCATRAZ II (Spectral Associates) 

16,230 *Steve Manderschied, Cincinnati, OH 
ASSAULT (MichTron) 

2,520 *Laura Sandman, Louisville, KY 
ASTRO BLAST (Mark Data) 

158,000 ^TLarry Plaxton, Medley, Alberta 
157,000 Scott Drake, Pine City, NY 
104,464 Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
98,000 Tim Warr, Bellingham, WA 
97,000 Bernard Parent, Ste-Foy, Quebec 
BAG-IT-MAN (Aardvark) 

101,400 *Daniel Belisle, Montreal, Quebec 
BASEBALL (Radio Shack) 

169-0 *Rene Belisle, Montreal, Quebec 
107-0 •Glenn Wasson, Castleton, NY 
100-0 Glen Giacomelli, Woodbridge, Ontario 
89-0 Michael White, Hemet, CA 
89-0 Daniel Belisie, Montreal, Quebec 
83-0 Douglas Theiler, Dix Hills, NY 
75-0 Wayne Shepherd, Louisville, KY 
64-0 Danny McMahon, Louisville, KY 
54-0 Salvatore Siclari, Staten Island, NY 
43-2 Robert Harmon, Virginia Beach, VA 
37-0 John Bena, Brookpark, OH 
36-2 Bobby Hoffman, Clinton, NJ 
BEAM RIDER (Spectral Associates) 

178,270 *David Lazar, Englishtown, NJ 
BERSERK (Mark Data) 

24,600 *Chip Lilley, Finleyville, PA 
8,500 Mark Wooge, Omaha, NE 
7,900 Martin Careau, Quebec City, Quebec 
7,650 David Garozzo, Morrisville, PA 
7,100 Scott Calberg, Hilton, NY 
BLACKJACK (Radio Shack) 

11,820 *Woody Farmer, Acme, Alberta 
BLOC HEAD (Computerware) 
1,006,200 *Lindi Wolf, Fairbanks, AK 
999,825 Brian Spek, Keswick, Ontario 
819,425 Keith Denhoed, Coalhurst, Alberta 
781,350 Joe Golkosky, Portage, Ml 
395,175 Jeff Roberg, Winfield, KS 
BUSTOUT (Radio Shack) 

42,000 *Derrick Kardos, Colonia, NJ 
42,000 *Martin Klein, Skokie, IL 
34,700 Sara Hennessey, Golden Valley, MN 
28,720 Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 
27,880 Mike Wells, Pittsburgh, PA 
BUZZARD BAIT |Tom Mix) 
2,902,700 *Michael Popovich, Nashua, NH 
2,087,650 Edmund Greene, Nashua, NH 
1,134,600 Richard Buttermore, Grand Rapids, Ml 
756,550 Andrew Truesdale, Ferguson, MO 
688,550 David Casterson, Livermore, CA 
507,300 Brian Manderschied, Cincinnati, OH 
417,700 Steve Manderschied, Cincinnati, OH 
CANYON CLIMBER (Radio Shack) 
8.990,000 *Glen Giacomelli, Woodbridge, Ontario 
1,571,300 •Jeff Weaver, Gordonville, PA 
1,400,200 James Stevenson, Marshall, TX 
999.900 Andre Wagner, Bangor, PA 
615,500 Randy Hankins, Tabor, FL 
CASHMAN (MichTron) 

$19,650 *Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 
$16,000 Scott Oberholtzer 
$11,130 Ricky Susfalk. Grand Island, NY 
$10,000 Tim Brown, Clio. Ml 
CHAMELEON (Computerware) 

15,100 *Janell Stroshane, Ashland, Wl 
CHOPPER STRIKE (MichTron) 

67,900 *Matt McCann, Louisville, KY 
63.000 ^Andrew Ftgel, Sardis, OH 
47,400 David Figel, Sardis, OH 
42,100 Brian Peterson, Muskegon, Ml 



CLOWNS & BALLOONS (Radio Shack) 

110,475 ^Andrew Truesdale, Ferguson, MO 
92,480 Martin Careau, Quebec City, Quebec 
89,430 Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 
88,900 Cheryl Pratt, Moab, UT 
85,680 Teresa Stutsman, N. Little Rock, AR 
COLOR OUTHOUSE (MichTron) 

528,694 *Benjamin Hebb, Bridgewater, 

Nova Scotia 
160,200 *David Lazar, Englishtown, NJ 
101,650 Davey Devlin, Clyde, NC 
69,848 Phillip Laurell, Lansing, Ml 
48,663 Bruce March, Barrie, Ontario 
COLORPEDE (Intracolor) 
10,001,051 *Mark Smith, Santa Ana, CA 
3,355,248 Scott Drake, Pine City, NY 
2,614,230 Jerry Petkash, Warren, Ml 

2.547.299 Rich McGervey, Morgantown, WV 
2,471,342 Vincent Lok, Ontario, Canada 

195,027 Shane McClure, Omaha, NE 
CRASH (Tom Mix) 

155,000 *David Lazar, Englishtown, NJ 
CU*BER(Tom Mix) 

196,090 *Randall F. Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
94,940 Martin C. Klein, Skokie, IL 
49,510 Doug Kleir, Grand Rapids, Ml 
42,850 Mike Schwartz, Otsego, Ml 
38,180 Kevin Schwartz, Otsego, Ml 
CUBIX (Spectral Associates) 

67,400 *Patricia Lau, York, PA 
45,056 •Bonnie Kretschmer, Oxford, OH 
38,500 Randall Edwards. Dunlap, KS 
28,760 Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 
27,780 Britt Landrum, Pensacola, FL 
DEFENSE (Spectral Associates) 

103,660 *Mary A. Brickies, Allen Park, Ml 
DESERT GOLF (Spectral Associates) 

31 wKenton Fifield. Fort Francis, Ontario 
DEVIL ASSAULT (Tom Mix) 

1.294.300 *John Statham, Strathroy, Ontario 
294,300 Chip Lilley, Finleyville, PA 
289,300 Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 
271,106 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

47,500 Jeffrey M. Siebert, Palm Bay, FL 
DOODLE BUG (Compuferware; 
2,577,515 XTim Brown, Clio, Ml 
1,767,630 •Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 
1,180,340 Eiko Cary, National City, CA 
109,660 Byron Albertson, Williams Lake, 
British Columbia 
DOUBLE BACK (Radio Shack) 
1,125,000 *Mark Hurst, Sheridan, OR 
1,080,000 Phillipe Duplanties, St. Jerome, 
Quebec 

605,890 Peter Sherburne, Highland, CA 
474,040 Paul Moritz, Butte, MT 
435,570 Phillippe Morsan, St. Jerome, Quebec 
DUNKEY MUNKEY (Intellectronics) 

1,015,000 *Kyle Keller, Overland Park, KS 
EL BANDITO (Mark Data) 

955 "^Michael Rosenburg, Prestonsburg, KY 
ELECTRON (Tom Mix) 

45,510 *John Sandberg, Concord, CA 
41 ,750 Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 
22,990 Alan Morris, Chicopee, MA 
19,500 Robby Presson, Florissant, MO 
FIRE COPTER (Adventure International) 

78,860 *Woody Farmer, Acme, Alberta 
FLYBY fCnromaserfe; 

104,980 *David Finberg, Annandale, VA 
28,910 Ron Suedersky, Universal City, TX 
20,110 Rick Manscll, Calgary, Alberta 
16,670 Michael Rhattigan, Cory, NC 
4,830 Jeff Roberg, Winfield, KS 
FOOTBALL (Radio Shack) 

217-0 *Glen Giacomelli, Woodbridge, Ontario 



THE FROG (Tom Mix) 

452,800 *James Baker, Salt Lake City, UT 
118,200 Ray Boyko, Whitby, Ontario 
109.500 •Pat Craddick, Janesviile, Wl 
95,790 Eileen Kaakee, Royal Oak, Ml 
68,850 Scott Kubota, Whitby, Ontario 
FROGGIE (Spectral Associates) 

84,440 *Bill Ide, Newark, DE 

74,050 •Mike Garozzo, Morrisville, PA 

68,680 Carmen Thew, Surrey. 

British Columbia 
GALAGON (Spectral Associates) 

286.741 *Rod Moore, Fork Union, VA 
188.130 Daryl Judd, Nampa, ID 
136.510 Mike Ashworth, Huntington, WV 
113,900 Graham Baird, York Haven, PA 
95,600 Kyle Keller, Overland Park, KS 
GALAX ATTAX (Spectral Associates) 

253,900 *Shawn McAlpin, Louisville, KY 
113,650 Darrin Filand, WA 
104,550 Mitch Hayden, Univ. of MN 
82,650 Steve Hargis, Tucson, AZ 
74,550 John Gosselin, Campbell River, 
British Columbia 
GHOST GOBBLER (Spectral Associates) 
1.007,430 ATodd Brannam, Charleston Hts., SC 
825,250 Randy Gerber, Wilmette, IL 
423,390 Rich McGervey, Morgantown, WV 
255,000 John Osborne, Kincardine, Ontario 
228,290 Patricia Lau, York, PA 
GONE FISHING (THE RAINBOW,) 

8 ^-Jeffrey Kocks, Grove City, OH 
HEIST (THE RAINBOW; 

1,300 "ARichard King, Houston, TX 
INTERGALACTIC FORCE (Microdeal) 

254,650 ^Christopher T. Grey, Hollywood, CA 
113,600 Alex Taylor, Manchester, England 
JUNIOR'S REVENGE (Computerware) 
3,007,000 ATim Brown, Clio, Ml 
2,154,900 Scott Kubota, Whitby, Ontario 
2,099,300 •Shawn McAlpin, Louisville, KY 
1,115,300 Ryan Van Manen, Grand Rapids, Ml 
1,081,700 Bruce March, Barrie, Ontario 
KATERPILLAR ATTACK (Tom Mix) 

31,672 *Scott Fairfield, Williamstown, MA 
25,949 James A. Lafare, Williamstown, MA 
18,949 Vadim Gotovsky, Toronto, Ontario 
15,821 Alex Gotovsky, Toronto, Ontario 
KEYS OF THE WIZARD (Spectral Associates) 

662 *Susan Ballinger, Uxbridge, Ontario 
662 *Pegi Tindle, Soquel, CA 
THE KING (Tom Mix) 

10,000,100 *Mark Smith, Santa Ana. CA 
4,040,300 Andy Truesdale, Ferguson, MO 
3,343,000 Corey Friedman, Minnetonka, MN 
2,410,200 Candy Harden, Birmingham, AL 
2,367,900 Richard Lacharite, Sherbrooke, 
Quebec 

436,200 Paul Rumrill, Gales Ferry, CT 
310,700 Javier Cacho, Ft. Knox, KY 
KLENDATHU (Radio Shack) 
1,245,821 *John Sandberg, Concord, CA 
1,182,685 David L. Ferris, Shickshinny, PA 
KRON ( Oregon Color Computers) 

224,080 *Steve & Scott Schneider, OR 
73,530 •Christopher Porter, Naranja Lakes, FL 
LADY BUGGY 

36,980 "ATony Curnmings, Abington, MA 
LANCER (Spectral Associates) 
2.797,450 *Randall Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
2,354,000 Alex State, Las Vegas, NV 
875,150 Larry Copen, Folsom, CA 
736,250 Sharon Casten, Folsom, CA 
617,500 Donna Willoughby, Brookfield, IL 
LASERWORM & FIREFLY (THE RAINBOW; 

54,672 *Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^ 



178 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★*★★★★★★★★★★*★★★★★★★★★ 

COREBOARD 




37,250 Rene Beltsle, Montreal, Quebec 
29.872 Theodore Latham Jr., Rich Square, NC 
24,338 Matthew Wilityer, Jackson. NJ 
19,402 D. Seibet, Tumbler Ridge, 
British Columbia 
LUNAR ROVER PATROL (Spectral Associates) 
162,100 *Sara Aliff, Northeast, MD 
154.650 Tom Aliff Jr., Northeast, MD 
98,500 Ima Wong, Williamstown, WV 
66,900 Wayne Johansen, Rocanville, 

Saskatchewan 
66,850 Randall Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
46,400 Joe Sannucci, Elizabeth, NJ 
MADNESS & THE MINOTAUR (Radio Shack) 

240 *Pegi Tindle, Soquel, CA 
MARATHON (THE RAINBOW; 

101,520 *David Dean, West Mansfield, OH 
71,550 Larry Evans, Elk Grove Village. IL 
55,110 Michael Rhattigan, Cory, NC 
MEGA-BUG (Radio Shack) 

60,000 *Robin Worthem, Milwaukee, Wl 
18,902 John Tiffany, Washington. DC 
15,999 Ed Mitchell, Ragged Mountain, CO 
14,297 Aleisha Hemphill, Los Angeles, CA 
11,894 Paschal Wilson, Kentwood, LA 
9,180 Brian Schwartz, Otsego, Ml 
MEGAPEDE (Computerware) 

72,937 *Joe Sannucci, Elizabeth, NJ 
METEORS (Spectral Associates) 

26,580 *Kevin Endlich. Perry Hall, MD 
14,200 •Craig Dutton, Goose Bay, Labrador 
MONSTER MAZE (Radio Shack) 

650,530 ^Bruce March, Barrie, Ontario 
533,450 John Hankerd, Gaines, Ml 
300.000 James Stevenson, Marshall, TX 
60,120 Steve Thomas, Ogdensburg, NY 
MOON SHUTTLE (Datasoft) 

113,642 *Rod Moore, Fork Union, VA 
MR. DIG (Computerware) 

223,600 *Tommy Wald. Minneapolis, MN 
207,800 •Phillip Laurell, Lansing, Ml 
40,350 Barney A. Sadler, Northwood, ND 
MS. GOBBLER (Spectral Associates) 

22,680 WOliver Banta, Lincoln, NE 
MUOPIES (MichTron) 

156,800 *Glenn Wasson, Castleton, NY 
147,400 Chris Hafey, Auburn, CA 
18,500 Steve Springer. Louisville, KY 
NINJA WARRIOR (Programmer's Guild) 
106.300 *Bud Seibel, Tumbler Ridge, 

British Columbia 
102,400 Christopher Gelowitz, Claresholm, 
Alberta 

75,300 Brad Gaucher, Hinton. Alberta 
46.400 Daniel Milbrath, Ann Arbor, Ml 
36,800 Greg Lowry, Davisburg, Ml 
PAC-ATTACK II (Computerware) 

214,210 *Ray Boyko, Whitby, Ontario 
189,350 Scott Kubota. Whitby, Ontario 
56,014 •Lisa Welte, Baxter, TN 
30.150 Jeff Weaver. Gordonville, PA 
PAC 'EM (THE RAINBOW; 

1,934 *Dr. James Peterson, Radcliff, KY 
1,870 Steve Olson, Calgary, Alberta 
1,572 *Kenneth Bergenham, Lawton, Ml 
1.556 Rupert Young, Sheffield, MA 
371 Victor Prescott, Edinburg, TX 
215 Jose Cacho, Ft. Knox, KY 
142 Jeffrey Kocks. Grove City, OH 
PAC-TAC (Tom Mix) 

129,770 *Andrew Lehtola. Mound. MN 
100,630 •David Dean, West Mansfield, OH 
61,025 John Tyson, Superior, Wl 
PHANTOM SLAYER (Med Systems Software) 

2,668 *Michael Brooks, Glade Spring, VA 
2,488 *Troy Messer, Joplin, MO 
1 .852 Curtis Boyle, Saskatoon, 

Saskatchewan 
1,306 Marc Hassler 
PINBALL 

2,800,090 *Glen Ewing, Brooklin, Ontario 



PIPELINE (THE RAINBOW) 

1,110 *Roger Buzard, Lima, OH 
1,062 Kent Prehn, Carol Stream, IL 
1,030 Anita Howe, Jackson, NJ 
838 Johnny Fritsch, Whitehall, PA 
793 Bill Fritsch, Whitehall, PA 
POLARIS (Radio Shack) 

63,053 *Paschal Wilson, Kentwood, LA 
POOYAN (Datasoft) 

279,450 *Chip Lilley, Finleyville, PA 
273.450 Davey Devlin, Clyde, NC 
220,950 Daniel Belisle, Montreal, Quebec 
181,350 Ronny Qng, Arlington, TX 
165,150 Wib Merrithew. Oshawa, Ontario 
155,850 Gary Meier, Marshfietd, Wl 
111,300 Nathan Russell, Minco, OK 
POPCORN (Radio Shack) 

43,970 *Jeff Weaver, Gordonville, PA 
39,470 Nicole Freedman, Wellesley, MA 
36,210 Brad Gray, Olive Branch, MS 
33,910 Wendy Weinschenk, Wickenburg, AZ 
32,000 Lisa Welte, Baxter, TN 
PROJECT NEBULA (Radio Shack) 

1,120 *John Hopkins, Greenville, SC 
1,065 William Daley, Biloxi, MS 
1,065 Dan Heater, Cortland, OH 
995 Dan Bovey, Wheaton, IL 
960 Ian Clark, Albion, Ml 
PYRAMID (flaoVo Shack) 

220/147 *Ssg. Danial Pierce, APO San 

Francisco. CA 
220/224 Tony & Hazel Rye, Ingleside, Ontario 
220/289 Douglas G. Oxenreider, 
Montevideo, MN 
220 Steve Olson, Calgary, Alberta 
220 Nathan Russell, Minco, OK 
200 Jerome Galba, Rochester, Ml 
Q-NERD (THE RAINBOWJ 

27,800 *Richard King, Houston, TX 
3,740 Theodore Latham Jr., Rich Square, NC 
RAINBOW ROACH (THE RAINBOWJ 

124,800 *Cheryl Endlich, Perry Hall, MD 
113,500 Andrew Smith, Columbia, SC 
102,000 •John Statham, Strathroy, Ontario 
69,600 Bill Grubbs, Columbus, IN 
49,000 CatherineCollingwood, Greenville, SC 
REACTOIDS (Radio Shack) 

931,395 *Linda Mobbs, Pt. Huron, Ml 
203,800 Andrew Lehtola, Mound, MN 
88,615 •Robbie Anderson, Monrovia, CA 
36,320 Roger Rothove, Warrensburg, MO 
RETURN OF THE JET-I (ThunderVision) 
372,782 *Roger Buzard, Lima, OH 
148,112 Matt Griffiths, Stilwell, KS 
135,306 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
ROBOTTACK (Intracolor) 
2,216,950 ^Randy Hankins, Tabor, IA 
1,922,200 Erik Merz, Noblesville, IN 
1,512,200 Robert Kiser, Monticello, MS 
1,424,300 John Osborne, Kincardine, Ontario 
1,219,810 Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 
565,800 Gary Meier, Marshfietd, Wl 
497,450 Brian Schwartz, Otsego, Ml 
479,850 Mike Schwartz, Otsego, Ml 
SANDS OF EGYPT (Radio Shack) 

82 *Shawn Hobbs, Hutchinson. KS 
82 *John Allocca, Yonkers, NY 
87 Kim Van Camp, State Center, IA 
106 Sean Haynes, Naples, ME 
SCARFMAN (Cornsoft) 

253,920 *Scott Boulanger, Columbus, OH 
SEA DRAGON (Adventure International) 

430,200 wDavid Lazar, Englishtown, NJ 
137,500 •Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
75,750 Steve Schweitzer, Sewell, NJ 
60,430 Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 
56,760 Alan Morris, Chicopee, MA 
SEA QUEST (Mark Data) 

140 *Shawn Hobbs, Hutchinson, KS 
230 Casey Stein, Binghamton, NY 



SHARK TREASURE (Computerware) 

245,000 *Manon Bertrand, Hauterive, Quebec 
175,000 Maurice Boyle, Saskatoon, 
Saskatchewan 
SHOOTING GALLERY (RaoVo Shack) 

120,640 *Robert J. Wallace, Waldorf, MD 
59,520 Vernell Peterson, Radcliff, KY 
44,870 Mark Nichols. Birsay, Saskatchewan 
44,480 R. Duguay, St. Bruno, Quebec 
31,340 Martin Peterson, Lynchburg, VA 
SKIING (Radio Shack) 

12.08 *Kelly Kerr, Wentzville, MO 
13.73 Janell Stroshane, Ashland, Wl 
21.35 Jean-Claude Taliana, Brossard, 
Canada 

29.52 Andrew Truesdale, Ferguson, MO 
44.02 Brad Gaucher, Hinton, Alberta 
SLAY THE NEREIS (Radio Shack) 

328,521 *Edward Meyer, Vancouver, 
British Columbia 
SNAIL'S REVENGE (THE RAINBOW; 

34,860 ^Michael Rosenburg, Prestonsburg, KY 
11,380 Varunee Turner, Kamloops, 

British Columbia 
9,230 Jose Cacho, Ft. Knox, KY 
6,880 Rupert Young, Sheffield, MA 
6,150 Alan Sadler, Northwood, ND 
SOLO POKER (Radio Shack) 

910 *Carol D. Fitzgerald, Moscow, ID 
850 •Granville Bonyata, Tallahasse, FL 
740 Allan Mercuric 7 , Portsmouth, Rl 
SPACE ASSAULT (Radio Shack) 
1 ,632,450 *Walter Brokx, Granisle, 
British Columbia 
537,200 Martin Careau, Quebec City, Quebec 
358,660 Mike Snelgrove, Oshawa, Ontario 
354,860 Bruce Madariaga, College Park, MD 
238,580 John Cole, King City, Ontario 
SPACE INVADERS (Spectral Associates) 
4,862,040 *F.U. Ingham, Clyde, Wl 

36,960 Sean Dutton, Goose Bay, Labrador 
12,760 John McJilton, Houston, TX 
SPACE RACE (Spectral Associates) 

60,125 *Mark Nelson, Kent, WA 
37,600 Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 
SPACE SHUTTLE (Tom Mix) 

595 *Steve Schweitzer, Sewell, NJ 
585 Kenton Fifield, Fort Francis, Ontario 
585 Randall F. Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
575 David J. Banks, Greendale, 

British Columbia 
575 Fred Weissman, Brookline, MA 
SPACE WAR (Spectral Associates) 

400,190 irMark Felps, Bedford, TX 
365.550 Randall Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
116,000 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
52,380 Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
15,420 Mark Nelson. Kent, WA 
SR-71 (Tom Mix) 

4,443 *Jay Johnson, Puyallup, WA 
2,570 •Dominique Hall, Williamstown, WV 
STAR BLAZE (Radio Shack) 

10,000 *Dan Burner, Fowler, IL 
9,050 •Judith Simon, Warrendale, PA 
8,000 Lee Van Dyke, Lansing, Ml 
7,350 James Hawerbier, Elmhurst, IL 
6,850 Jonathan Judge, Oconto, Wl 
6,250 Mark Welte, Baxter, TN 
STAR TREK (Adventure International) 

95 ^Granville Bonyata, Tallahassee, FL 
94 John Brackett, Chicago, IL 
STORM ARROWS (Spectral Associates) 

168,000 *Steven Ohsie, Deer Park, TX 
68,400 Jim Irvine, Sudbury, Ontario 
TIME BANDIT (MichTron) 

129,240 *Brian Larrson. Fridley, MN 
109,170 Mark Wooge, Omaha, NE 
106,720 Glen Heidebrecht, Topeka, KS 
92,620 Lix Noel Flores, Vatlejo, CA 
75,640 Sally Naumann, Hailey, ID 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 




July 1984 THE RAINBOW 179 




meows 





TRAILIN' TAIL (THE RAINBOWj 

76,275 ^Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 
33,454 •Kenneth Bergenham, Lawton, Ml 
24,415 Kentong Fifield, Fort Frances, Ontario 
THAPFALL (Tom Mix) 

113,408 *Rich Trawick, N. Adams, Ml 
104,456 Robert Cattral, Ottawa, Ontario 
104.424 Brennan Baybeck, Traverse City, MI 
104,368 John Osborne, Kincardine, Ontario 
98.588 Dan Burch, Louisville, KY 
TRIPLE YAHTZEE (Software Factory) 

2,319 *Betty Gable. Poulsbo, WA 
TUBE FRENZY (Aardvark) 

544,560 wPerry Denton, New Baden. IL 
240.060 Randall Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
230,000 Ken Felix, Crystal Lake, IL 
101.650 Lloyd Albertson, Williams Lake, 
British Columbia 
TUTS TOMB (Mark Data) 

158,000 *Chris Russo, Miami, FL 
104,360 Gary Marshall, Layton, UT 
84.420 Oliver Banta, Lincoln, NE 
78,280 Richard Shelton. Bakersfteld, CA 
71,160 Paul Rumrill, Gales Ferry, CT 



62,660 Sander Valyocsik, Yardley. PA 
45,900 Joe Sannucci, Elizabeth, NJ 
53,520 •Bill Sanders, San Diego, CA 
VENTURER (Aardvark) 
6,718,200 *Kyle Keller, Overland Park, KS 
4,126,200 Greg Scott, Orlando, FL 
2,291.100 Mike Sitzer, Roslyn, NY 
2,657.350 Brian Panepinto, Spencerport, NY 
1,769,400 Todd Hauschildt, Red Wing, MN 
WACKY FOOD (Arcade Animation) 

105.100 ^Stephane Asselin, Hauterive, Quebec 
WHIRLYBIRD RUN (Spectral Associates) 

516,450 *Dan Shargel, Arroyo Grande, CA 
283,100 Nathan Russell, Minco, OK 
157,000 Hughens Bien-Aime, Montreal, 
Quebec 

103,900 Dann Fabian, Crestview, FL 
98.400 Dave Lubnow, Sussex, NJ 
WILDCATTING (Radio Shack) 

110,579 ^Nicholas Siclari, Staten Island, NY 
63,723 •Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 
48,682 David Rodgers, Carbondale, IL 
38,318 Ellen Balltnger, Uxbridge, Ontario 
34,828 Kerri Dutton, Goose Bay, Labrador 



ZAKSUND (Elite Software) 
1,256,000 ^Robert Conyer, Willingboro, NJ 

Richard Minton, West Frankfort, IL 
Andy Mickelson, Granville, OH 
Michael Rothman, Solon, OH 
Steve Schweitzer, Sewell, NJ 
ZAXXON (Datasoft) 
1,510,000 *James Quadrella. Brooklyn, NY 
Mike Hughey, King George, VA 
Chris Coyle, Selden, NY 
Roger Buzard, Lima, OH 
Rich McGervey, Morgantown, WV 
Steve Manderschied, Cincinnati, OH 
Gary Meier, Marshfield, Wl 
Richie Peters, Ringgold, GA 
Craig Hess, Topeka, KS 
Brian Manderschied, Cincinnati, OH 
Jeremy Saks, Ridgefield, CT 
Theodore Latham Jr., Rich Square, NC 
ZEUS (Aardvark) 

89,100 *Mike Schwartz, Otsego, Ml 
69,900 Kevin Schwartz, Otsego, Ml 
62,800 Brian Schwartz, Otsego, Ml 



1,128.050 
1,008,100 
950,500 
910,000 



401,900 
370,400 
260,600 
235,200 
125,600 
111,100 
98,100 
89,900 
89,500 
82,900 
67,900 



— Kevin Nichols 



0REB0ARD POINTERS 

I n conjunction with the rainbow's Scoreboard, we offer this column of 
pointers for our game-playing readers' benefit. If you have some interest- 
ing hints and tips, we encourage you to share them by sending them to 
the Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. 



TAMING CANYON CLIMBER 

Scoreboard: 

My most frequently used and favorite car- 
tridge is Canyon Climber. I taped over the 
number 8 pin with clear adhesive tape so that 
I can program with the cartridge in the com- 
puter. When I want to play a few games, I 
simply type EXEC 49152. 

For those of you that have this game and 
aren't too successful at it, 1 have a hint. 
Personally, I think five lives aren't enough 
when you reach the more difficult levels, so 
simply type EXEC 49222. The score at the 
bottom will display 800,600. If the screen is 
blurred, hit the Reset button. Now you have 
an almost unlimited amount of lives. Also, 
for an unusual sight, type EXEC 49232 to set 
the cartridge in PMODE L 

D. Craig McCormick 
Vienna, VA 



Scoreboard: 

\ am looking for some help with the 
Chromasette program Williamsburg Adven- 
ture. I can't get out of the tavern after paying 
for the meal. After 1 am served my meal, 
there isn't anywhere that I can go. Write to 
me at R.R. 1, Box T-7, 56383. 



Here's a hint for those of you who are 
trying to write scrolling games in BASIC. Use 
Lo-Res graphics and PRINT@ 511, to 
scroll the screen up one line. 

Rogers George IV 
Terrace, MN 



Doubleback 



LIFE EVERLASTING 

Scoreboard: 

To all those game addicts out there who 
are having difficulty getting past a certain 
point in an arcade-type game, don't despair! 
The following is a list of pokes to aid you by 
increasing the number of allotted players. 

In the list, x is any number between 1 and 
&HFF(255), numbers in the parentheses are 
decimal values, and numbers between the 
asterisks are the beginning addresses of the 
programs. 



Astro Blast 

Berserk 

(Haywire) 
Colorpede 



Dunkey Munkev 



&HI90F, x(6415) 

* &H 1648(5704) 
&H16F0, x(5872) 

* &H 1648(5704) 
Speed up 7690,88 
Slow down 7689,0 

* &H 1648(5704) 
&H3B11, x( 15 121 ) 

* &H3A00( 14848) 



&H10E9, x(4329) 

* &H 1000(4096) * 
&H367F, x( 13951) 

* &H 3300(13056) * 
&H2373, x(9075) 
SHIFT @, when 
prompted at "name?" 
gives high speed 

* &H2222(8738) * 
&H1DFA, x(7674) 
&HIDD7,255 

* &H1C00(7I68) * 
&H29F3, x( 10739) 

* &H 2900(10496) * 
&H3272, x(12914) 

non-practice mode &H3259, # (12889) 
Level #= 2 for elevators 
10 for rivits 
18 for conveyor belts 

* &H 3203(12803) * 
&H52A3, x(21I15) 

* &H5151(20817) * 
Push X for 1 joystick 
&H1EF4,100 

* &H1CIC(7196) * 
&H2331, x(9009) 

* &H2000(8192) * 
&H28F9, x(I0489) 
13579,90 (I joystick) 

* &H2200(8704) * 



Fury 

Ghost Gobbler 



Space Invaders 
fewer bombs 

Katerpillar 

The King 



Ms. Ghost 

Meteors 
shield 

PacTac 

PacTac 2 
Protectors 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 



180 



THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Space Race 


ocHzyeh, x(iUojo) 




¥ &H2oOO( 10240) * 


ifie trog 


& M 1 fc, fcz, X( t zUU/J 




* &H2C00(1 1264) * 


1 rupjuii 






* &H1EOO(7680) * 


Electron 


&H36C3, x( 14019) 




* &H 1600(5632) * 


Whirlybird 


&H2078, x(83!2) 




* &H1E0G(7680) * 


Zaxxon 


&H6418, x(25624) 




* &H3C90H5504) * 



Tom Fagan 
Tucson, AZ 

Editor^ Note: We thank Tom for such 
a comprehensive list of game pokes 
and we decided to pass them on to the 
readers, but please resist using such 
tips as these when submitting entries 
to the Scoreboard. 



COPTER CONTROL 

Scoreboard: 

Jason Nannen's Cavern Copter (Feb. *84 
rainbow) is a good game and the following 
addition and change makes it dramatically 
better. These lines give you full control —up, 
down, forward, reverse and hover *-* of the 
'copter. Such maneuvering gives time for 
more creatures to appear also. 

660J=JOYSTK(O)~31 

665 X=X+J:IFX<OTHENX^OELSE1F 

X>236THEN400 

Jim La Lone 
Ooltewah, TN 



DOWN AND OUT IN 
FORSAKEN GULCtf 

Scoreboard: 

I bought Adventure Trilogy ''back in 
March, 1983, and I\e been working on it 
ever since, I've gone ail the way down to 
the Forsaken Gulch and been stuck there, 
baffled. If anyone comes up with an 
answer, would you please send it to me at 
350 Union St., 92024. I'm willing to con- 
verse with anyone who takes an interest 
in the Color Computer and look forward 
to a response. 

Richard Coleman 
Leucadia, CA 



Scoreboard: 

1 love Adventures and 1 loved your 
tutorial on making Adventures in BASIC 
(Feb. $4 RAINBOW). My main problem 
now is trying to think up "logic traps'* like 
the serpent in Pyramid ' or the rug in 
Raaka-Tu (which I still haven't figured 
out). Also, I have been attempting to 
make an Adventure in assembly language. 
I tried disassembling Pyramid and man- 
aged to find the memory locations of the 
commands and objects, but I can't find 
where the room descriptions are located. 

If anyone would like to give me a few 
hints on logic traps or programming 
Adventures in assembly language, write 
to me at 1450 Picad illy St., 23513. 

Harry Perkins III 
Norfolk, VA 



ROLL ME OVER IN THE CLOVER 

Scoreboard: 

I have had Shenanigans for about two 
months and 1 can't get by the lady in the 
clover patch or past the snake. If any- 
body could give me some help, please 
send it to 4345 Still Meadow Lane, 
48033. Also, 1 would like a list of good 
32K graphics Adventures. 

George Mueller 
West Bloomfield, Ml 



Scoreboard: 

Help! Pve been playing The Amazing 
Adventures of Karrak (Feb. ^ rain- 
bow) ever since February and I'm stuck 
on the beginning of the fourth game. 1 
can't get out of the cell. Jf anyone can tell 
me what to do, please write to me at 216 
Cardinal Ct„ 55318. 

Tina Hermanek 
Chaska, MN 





SR-71 

SR-71 Is a fast action game in which you are the pilot on a mission to take 
photographs of missile sites in Russia and deliver them to our processing 
laboratory in Japan. So real you will feei as if you are in the cockpit on a reai spy 
mission. Elude Russian missiles as well as their detection devices. Another 
Tom Mix exclusive. A must for the adventurous. Fantastic graphics, color and 
sound. 32K Ext. Basic TAPE $20.95 DISK $31.95 




SKR AMBLE 

Your mission is to palatial* 

Itie enemy skramtrie syslem and 

destroy their hsadqu&rters. You 
Willi etflii with three of our lalegT 
3P»ce'lQhters equipped with 
reueaMng cannon antf )w\n 
bomb ifuncher. If you succeed 
In evadln-g the a legale ground 
delertfi&e, you will arrive at Hie 
Cave where Ti^na bec&mes 
mom ditPicult. In Ine qave are 
UFO*, liter which you must avoid a hall ol meleorMea. Vary few pilots 
R,Li^naek1 iar, bul H VOij do, then you rnual enter ma ^or-Lr^as, iuf I ow- 
ed by ihfl r>aze. Qm o# Iwo player game. Machine Language, hip; n $purj J 
Aftade ectlofi. Full color graphics with sound, Ksyfcoaftf or Joystick coci- 
trfll 

16K MACHINE LANGUAGE TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.95 




GRABBER 

A pac type game. Two complete mazes 
jump from one to the other. Probably the 
most outstanding sound you have ever 
heard. Arcade Action. Method of play, you 
are the Grabber. The object is to grab the 8 
treasures and store them in the center 
boxes. You start with 3 Grabbers and get 
extra ones at 20,000 points. Watch out for 
the googlies! Super high resolution 
graphics. 

32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




CU*BER 

Approaches the excitement and challenges 
of any Video Arcade. The hazards of 
CU*BER are many. Help CU*BER 
change the colors on the pyramid while 
avoiding many of the dangers always pre- 
sent. Vipers, the Nurd, the Dork, bonus 
points all add up to another exciting 
release from Tom Mix Software. 

32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




AIR TRAFFIC 
CONTROLLER 

Atr Traffic Controller is a computer 
model of an air traffic control situation 
for the TRS-80 Color Computer. Remote- 
iy Piloted Vehicles (RPV's) are operated 
by the controller in a situation similar to 
that of a commercial airline in that you 
must regulate landings and takeoffs of 
the vehicles. 

32K EXT. BASIC 
TAPE $28.95 DISK $31.95 



(CATERPILLAR It 

The color computer has needed a 
perfect centipede type game since 
day one. You will throw ati imita- 
tions aside when you see this. So 
close to the arcade you will start 
digging for quarters. Grapic to equal 
"me King" and "Buzzard Bait." 
Joysticks required. 

16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.95 




TRAPFALL 

The "Pitfalls" in this game are 
many. Hidden treasures, jump over 
the pits, swing on the vine, watch 
out for alligators, beware of the 
scorpion. Another game for the Col- 
or Computer with the same high 
resolution graphics as "The King." 
16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




sw Tm « § 

R|_HI idfl&INRMN 1 | 



FANGMAN 

Fangman is a high-resolution graphics arcade- 
type game based on the Dracuta legend. Plot 
of Game: You're Dracuia in your castle, stalk- 
ing through a labrynth of passages in search 
of invading viilagers seeking to destroy you 
by blocking your every path with deadfy 
crosses. Their alfy the Sun also wanders your 
halts, trying to touch you and turn you to bones 
and dust. Fortunately, you have allies of your 
own, the vampire bats who cahse down the 
villagers, holding them till you arive. Joysticks 
required. 16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 



BUZZARD BAIT 

We've done it again. You thought The King 
was great? Wait til you see this! I Outstanding 
high resolution graphics, tremendous sound 
make this "ioust" type game a must for your 
software collection. As you fly from cloud to 
cloud you will enjoy sky high excitement deal- 
ing with the challenges presented to you by 
this newest release by Tpm Mix Software. 
Joysticks required. 

32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 



TAPE $24.95 



DISK $27.95 



TAPE $27.95 



DISK $30.95 




UTILITIES 

SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE Prints contents of your graphic screen to an COLOR MONITOR Written In position Independent code. (May be 

Epson, Mlcroline or Radio Shack OMP Printers. Prints positive or reverse located In any free memory). Very compact. Only occupies 1174 bytes of 

format. Horizontal or vertical, small and large printout. Print left, right or memory. Full featured, Includes Break»Pointing of machine language 

center of page. Specify printer when ordering. TAPE $19.95 DISK $21.95 programs, register display and modify, memory display and modify, and 

TAPE TO DISK New version works on both 1.0 and 1.1 OOS. Load the block memory move commands. Displays memory In hex and ascii for- 

contents of most tape to disk automatically. Machine Language mat on one line 8 bytes long. Machine Language 

TAPE $17.95 DISK $21 .95 TAPE $24,95 DISK $27.95 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

4285 BRADFORD N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 



•ADD $2.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING-TOP ROYALTIES PAID* 
•MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX* 
. LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE —- - 

S ARCADE ACTION GAMES bg| 

' (616) 957-0444 




mmm ,. 




DRACONIAN 

You brace yourself as your ship materializes In the enemy 
sector. Your engine roars to life, and you consult the long* 
range scanner for the position of the nearest enemy base. As 
you head for the base, blasting asteroids and space-mines in 
your path, you suddenly notice a monstrous space-dragon 
looming before you. Reacting quickly, you dodge his deadly 
fire-breath and blast him out of existence. 

Finally, the enemy base comes into view. Avoiding the 
enemy fire, you destroy the gun turrets one by one with your 
rapid-fire torpedoes. Then, with the explosions still echoing 
around you, you rescue the astronaut who was being held 
prisoner by the enemy. Your mission is far from over, however, 
as there are more bases to destroy and more astronauts to 
rescue before the sector will be secured. And ail must be done 
quickly; if you are too slow, the invincible DRACONIAN will 
surely seek you out as its next victim. 

This is It — the single most impressive, awe-inspiring arcade 
game you can buy for your Color Computer. Hiqh-resolution 
graphics, awesome sound effects, four-voice music, and quali- 
ty you have to see to believe! Experience the realism of 
DRACONIAN today! 

JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 
32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 






CRASH 

This game is a high resolution Machine 
Language program with outstanding Arcade 
type graphics. The game consists of 4 
screens. Fly the airplane over and through 
obstacles. Piloted by "Mario" who also ap- 
peard in "The King". The object is to conquer 
one screen after another but don't "Crash". 
Great fun for the whole family. For i or 2 
players. Uses joysticks , 

32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 DISK $27,95 



CHAMBERS 

Exciting high resolution graphics game. Multi- 
ple screens. Outstanding sound, Chambers 
is loosely based on Cosmic Chasm. The ob- 
ject in each level is to destroy all of the evil 
creatures in each room and then go into the 
main reactor room and blow up the base. 
JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 
32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 DtSK $27.95 




4* *. 



WAREHOUSE 
MUTANTS 

Journey through the warehouse seek- 
ing out the Mutants who are out to 
destroy you. WATCH OUT! They will 
push crates trying to crush you! 
Outstanding realism— high resolu- 
tion graphics— ^multiple screens. 
JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 

16K MACH, LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 
DISK $27.95 



QUIX 

This one is after a popular ar- 
cade game with a similar name. 
Simply frustrating— you'll love 
it. Done In high resolution 
graphics with Super Sound. 

JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 

32K MACH. LANGUAGE 

TAPE $24.95 

DISK $27.95 





MS. MAZE 

MS. MAZE is remarkable in that it combines 
brilliant color, high resolution, detailed 
graphics, and music with a very playable 
game. Anything that coutd be done to make 
the Color Computer look and play like the ar- 
cade version has been done. MS. MA2E is 
without question the closest thing to the ar- 
cade Pac games that I have seen tor the Coco. 
JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 
32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.9$ DISK $27.95 



PAK-PANIC 

Pakman is steered thru a maze eating dots 
and powerpills. Pakman is pursued by four 
monsters who try to catch and kill him. If 
Pakman eats a powerpill he becomes power- 
ful and can eat monsters. Monsters try tq 
avoid a powerful Pakman. As monsters are 
eaten their ghosts appear on the top of the 
screen. When seven ghosts have appeared 
one will fly across the screen or they will link 
together forming a centipede that will travel 
thru the maze. Pakman has no power against 
ghosts and centipedes and must avoid them 
or be kilted. JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 
32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24,95 DISK $27.95 




PAK TWINS BOTH MS. MAZE £ PAK PAMIC FOR ONLY 



44.90 TAPE 
50.90 DISK 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

4285 BRADFORD N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 



ADD $2.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING»TOP ROYALTIES PAID* 
• MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX* 

LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE , 

£ ARCADE ACTION GAMES ^g) 

(616)957-0444 



™ Tom Mix Software Now Offers ™ 
The Complete VIP Library System 



VIP Writer™ 

RATED TOPS IN RAINBOW, HOT 
COCO, COLOR COMPUTER 
MAGAZINE & COLOR COM- 
PUTER WEEKLY 
32K (Comes with tape & disk) 
$59.95 (Includes VIP Speller) 

VIP Speller" 

WITH A 60,000 WORD INDEXED 
DICTIONARY! It can be used to 
correct any ASCII file— including 
VIP Library™ files and files from 
Scrlpsit™ and Telewriter™. 32K 
DISK ONLY $39 95 



VIP Calc™ 

You can forget the other toy 
calcs— The real thing is here! No 
other spreadsheet for the Color 
Computer gives you so many 
features! 32K (Comes with tape & 
disk) $59.95 32K does have hi-res 
displays, sort or edit. 

VIP Terminal™ 

RATED BEST IN JANUARY 1984 
"RAINBOW" Choice of 8 hi-res 
lowercase displays * Memory- 
Sense with BANK SWITCHING for 
full use of workspace. 32K (Comes 



VIP 

LIBRARY 



with tape & disk) $49.95 (Tape 
comes in 16K but without hi-res 
displays) 

VIP Database™ 
INCLUDES MAIL MERGE 
CAPABILITIES TOO! 32K DISK 

$59.95 64K Required for math 
package & mail merge. 

VIP Disk-ZAPTM 

Repairs crashed disks. 
16K DISK $49.95 Lowercase 
displays not available with M$ 
program. 




ELECTRON 



Electron is composed of four subgsmes. Ypu must complete one level In order to ad- 
vance to the next. Supplied with four men, yog are subjected to more difficult games 
as you move ahead. Beam Buggy, Prachnlds, Force Fields and a Maze! 
JOYSTICKS REQUIRED, 16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $24.95 DISK $27.95 




THE KING 



This game contains aH 4 full graphic screens like the popular arcade game. Exciting 
sound and realistic graphics. Never before has the color computer seen a game like 
this. Early reviews say simply outstanding. JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 
32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $26.95 DISK $29.95 




THE FROG 

This one will give you hours of exciting play. 
Cross the busy highway to the safety of the 
median and rest awhile before you set out 
across the swollen river teaming with hidden 
hazards. Outstanding sound and graphics. Play 
from keyboard or joysticks. 

16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




KING fUT 

Journey through the caverns of King Tut's 
tomb. You are on a quest to find treasures hid* 
den in the cavrns beiow. You light your way 
with only a small candle that grows dimmer as 
time passes. Watch out for the snakes and the 
ghost of King Tut himself. Five screens 
challenge your abilities every step of the way. 
Joysticks required. 

16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




You are one of many priests of Ra who has ac- 
cepted the challenge of the touchstone. The 
challenge is a way for any of Ra's followers to 
become a favored high priest. Given limited 
use of Ra's powers, you will battle hidden 
dangers. Entering the mazes, you must be 
ready for anything. 

32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 DISK $30.95 




SPACE SHUTTLE 

This program gives you the real feel- 
ing of flight. Full instrumentation 
complete to the max. Radar, 
altimeter, air speed, artificial 
horizon, fuel gauge, a mission 
status panel and much more. Actual 
simulation of space flight, weather 
conditions must be considered. 

JOYSTICKS REQUIRED 

32K EXTENDED BASIC 

TAPE $28.95 DISK $31.95 




TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

4285 BRADFORD N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS. Ml 49506 



•ADD $2.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING*TOP ROYALTIES PAID* 

•MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX* 
. LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 

53 ARCADE ACTION GAMES 111 

(616) 957-0444 



EDUCATIONAL 

VOCABULARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

16K Extended baslc/32K for printer output TAPE $39.95 DISK $42.95 

The Vocabulary Management System (VMS) is a series of programs designed to aid a parent or teacher in help- 
ing children to learn and practice using vocabulary an£ spelling words. The 9 programs that comprise the VMS in- 
clude a full feature data entry/edit program, three printer output programs and 5 vocabulary/spelling game pro- 
grams. The system's many outstanding features include: 



-As many as 300 vocabulary words 

and definitions may be in 

the computer's memory at one time. 
-Words and definitions may be 

saved on disk or tape. 
-Remarks and/or comments can 

be saved with word files. 
-A disk loading menu allows 

students to load disk files without 

typing file names. 



—Word lists may be quickly alphabetized 
—The three printer segments allow 

you to create and print individualized 

tests, puzzles, word-searches and 

worksheets. 
—Answer keys may be printed 

for ail worksheets and puzzles. 



—The printer segments allow 
full use of your printer's 
special features. 

r-Tne 5 game programs are based 
on sound educational principles 
and provide practice in identifying 
words and matching them with 
their definitions in a fast-paced 
set of activities. 



STORY PROBLEMS 

STORY PROBLEMS is a program that is designed to give practice in 
solving story problems (sometimes called statement thought or word 
problems) on the Color Computer. It is suitable for use in either a home 
or school environment. It is also a tool that will allow you to create new 
story problems to suit your children's needs and ability levels. It has 



many features that make it particularly attractive: 

• story problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, divi- 
sion or a combination of the four are presented to tne student by 
slowly scrolling each letter of each problem onto the screen. 

• Up to 5 students may use the program at the same time, 

• There are 4, user modifiable, SKilMeveis. 

16K EXT. BASIC TAPE $19.95 DISK S2Z95 



MATH DRILL 

MATH DRILL Is a program designed to help children to practice addi- 
tion, subtraction, multiplication and division skills on the Color Com- 
puter. It has several features that make its use particularly attractive: 

• Up to 6 students may use the program at the same time. 

• Answers for addition, subtraction and multiplication are entered 
from right to left, just as they are written on paper. 

• Commas may be included in the answers. 

• Partial products for the multiplication problems may be computed 
on the screen. 

• Division answers that have a remainder are entered as a whole 
number followed by the letter "R" and the remainder. 

• The are ten, user modifiable, skill levels. 

• A "SMILEY FACE" is used for motivation and reward, its size In- 
creases relative to the skit I level. 

• Skill levels automatically adjust to the student's ability, 

• A timer measures the time used to answer each problem and the 
total time used for a series of problems. 

• After a problem has been answered incorrectly the correct answer 
appears under (above in division) the incorrect answer. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC 
TAPE $19.95 DISK $22.95 



ESTIMATE 

ESTIMATE is a program designed to help children to practice estimating 
the answers to addition, subtraction, multiplication and division pro- 
blems on the Color Computer. It has many features that make its use 
particularly attractive: 

• Up to 5 students may use the program at tne same Ume» 

• There are 5, user modifiable, ekiiHevels. 

• The acceptable percent error may be changed as a student's skill Im- 
proves. 

• A timer measures the number of seconds used to answer each pro- 
blem and the total time used for a series of problems. 

• If a problem has been answered incorrectly, the student Is told the 
percent error and asked to try again. 

• If a problem is answered incorrectly a second time, the student is 
told the correct answer and the range of acceptable answers is 
displayed. 

• A report Is given at the end of each set of problems that includes the 
number of problems done, the number of problems answered cor- 
rectly on the first try and the average percent error. 

• The (BREAK) key has been disabled so that a child will rwt ifr 
advertently stop the program from running. 

REQUHlES 16K EXT. BASIC 
TAPE $19.95 DISK $22.95 



TEACHER'S DATABASE 

TEACHER'S DATABASE is a program designed to allow a teacher to 
keep a computerized file of information about his/her students. There 
are many features that make this program particularly attractive: 

• Information on as many as 100 students (or more) may be In the com- 
puter at one time, 

*■ Each student may have as many as 20 (or more) individual Heme of 
data in his/her record. » s<* - . , 

• The program will run from cassette or disk. 

m Cassette and disk files are completely compatible. 

• The program is menu driven. 

• Records may be easily changed, deleted, combined or added. 

• Information about students may be numerical or text. 

• Records may be quickly alphabetized. 

• Records may be sorted by various criteria, 

• Records may be reordered (ranked) based on test scores or other 
data. 

• Data displayed during a sort may be printed on a printer or saved on 
disk or cassette as a new file. 

• A full statistical analysis of data may be done and sent to the printer. 

• Student test scores may be weighted. 

REQURES 32K EXT. BASIC 
TAPE $39.95 DISK $42.95 



PRE ALGEBRA f INTEGERS 

INTEGERS is a series of four programs designed to give students prac- 
tice in working with addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and 
the comparison of integers. It has many features that make a very 
valuable tool for Introducing and/or maintaining skills: 

• Up to 4 students may use the program at the same time. 

• There are 9, user modifiable, skill levels. 

» Students are given two opportunities to answer a problem. 

• A detailed report of student performance, including number correct 
on first try, number wrong, total time used and percentage score, Is 
presented at the end of a series of problems. 

• the programs will run on a 16K TRS-80 Color Computer with or 
without disk drive. 

Four distinct problem formats are presented. The first presents pro- 
blems in this format: — 12 + -9 = 7. The second program presents a 
problem with missing numerals in this format: -7 -? * 18. The third 
program presents a problem with a missing sign: 8 - ?6 - 14, The last 
program asks the student to determine the relationship ( = , or ) bet* 
ween two statments 3 -9 (??) -4 -5. 



TAPE $29.95 



DISK $32.95 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

4285 BRADFORD N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 



•ADD $2.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING*TOP ROYALTIES PAID* 

• MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX* 
= _ LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE . 

3H ARCADE ACTION GAMES Egg 

(616) 957-0444 




SIMULATION TUTORIAL 



16K ■ 


the 1 


ECB J 


•«■•; 

RAINBOW 
J- -\_ 



E 



77ns ft the first installment of a series on 
creating Simulations for the Color Computer. 



Computer Simulations 
For Fun And Profit 



By Robert K. Tyson, Ph.D. 



Prophecy by computer is an art form and it is a science. 
Computer Simulations are used for examining events 
which can or will be duplicated in the real world. So 
far, computers have been used to simulate traffic patterns, 
human population changes, molecular chemistry, the 
weather, and countless other things. Computers have even 
been used to simulate other computers to determine data 
rates, I/O throughput, computational speed, and debugging 
techniques. Since many phenomena that we can observe are 
governed by a mathematical formula, a computer Simula- 
tion can be used to expand our window into the world. 
When random occurrences determine the outcome of a ser- 
ies of events, a computer Simulation is particularly useful 
since it can simulate literally thousands or millions of events. 
An investigator can then determine probable outcomes. 

Of course, many situations that we wish to simulate are 
not determined by formulae or probability but are con- 
trolled by a logical human thought process. These "heuris- 
tic" Simulations are often the most useful and the most fun. 
For instance Strategy Football (THE rainbow, August 
1983) is a heuristic Simulation with formulae and random 
occurrences taking a back seat. The NASA computer Simu- 
lations which determine the best time to launch, to fire 
boosters, etc. are almost entirely formula driven with little 
or no human tampering. A Simulation of roulette (Gerry 
Schechter, THE RAINBOW, April 1984) is based on random 
motions of the ball and wheel while the betting payoffs are 
strictly formula derived. The human interaction is used only 
for changing the initial conditions. These three methods of 
prophesy; formulae, random (probability), and human, all 
coupled through logic, form the basis for all computer 
Simulations. 

What is the difference between a computer Simulation 

(Dr. Bob Tyson is a senior systems engineer at United 
Technologies Research Center, where he designs and 
analyzes high energy laser systems using computer 
simulations. His CoCo Simulations include Strategy 
TrootbnU [August 1983 issue] and Election '^[Novem- 
ber J 983 issue].) 



and a computer Model? Actually, very little. The difference 
is about the same as the difference between human anatomy 
and human physiology. One is the structure of the object 
while the other is the function of it. A M odel is nothing more 
than a scaled-down replica of an object so it can be studied 
more easily, cheaply, or safely than studying the real object. 
A computer Model is a computer-scale replica of an object 
or a process. A computer Simulation is the function of the 
computer Model. The Model is the "program;" the Simula- 
tion is "running the program. "To have a successful Simula- 
tion one must begin by building a reasonable Model of it. 
You must determine what you want it to do, then, limited by 
your resources, you write a program to do it. 

This article is the first of a series discussing the makeup of 
a computer Simulation, how to implement the idea into a 
usable computer program, and how to use its results. I will 
discuss the fundamentals showing you how they can be used 
in a scientific Simulation of orbital motion. The next article 
in the series will emphasize human thought by the "investor" 
in a realistic simulation of the stock market, 1 will also 
discuss some special hints for simulating war (strategic con- 
flict and tactical conflict), simulating sports events and, a 
brief word about human thought Simulations (artificial 
intelligence). 

Once the idea or problem is formulated (in this case, 
orbital motion) 1 must define a "universe."This term sounds 
more alarming than it really is. The universe simply provides 
me with the boundaries in which to work. For instance, shall 
1 simulate the entire solor system (a problem with 10 or more 
independent objects), or the entire Milky Way galaxy (bil- 
lions of variables)? No, for purposes of illustration, 1 will 
choose a simple planet/satellite system and allow myself to 
vary the laws which govern the force between the two 
bodies. For fun, I want to be able to alter the motion of the 
satellite during the course of the Simulation. 1 will also add 
some random processes later to simulate "random" meteor- 
ites, etc. 

Defining the universe is just the first step of placing con- 
straints on the Simulation. Thorough knowledge of your 
computer is required to really form the basis for the Simula- 
tion. Remember, the CoCo uses five bytes for each variable 



186 



THE RAINBOW July 1984 



PROGRAMMER'S 





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This offer expires August 5 f 1984 



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so storing the position, the velocity, and the acceleration (all 
in three dimensions), requires 45 bytes for each body in 
motion. This may not be a problem for a simple solar system 
Simulation where we only worry about the major planets 
and their motion, but it becomes formidable when we start 
to include the dozens of moons and hundreds of asteroids, 
not to mention keeping track of the rotations, magnetic 
fields, etc., of each. Pretty soon the biggest constraint to the 
Simulation universe becomes the computer itself. 

For sake of simplicity and illustration my universe con- 
tains one planet, with a mass much larger than the satellite 
(so it doesn't move), and I will restrict motion to two dimen- 
sions rather than three. This is actually pretty reasonable 
since two bodies in space will only move in a two- 
dimensional plane anyway. This also allows me to watch the 
motion in graphics form rather than just stare at a stream of 
numbers. 

Now that 1 know my universe, I must give it a start. I must 
define my "initial boundary conditions/' The "final condi- 
tions" are not defined for this Simulation, but in many cases 
we may want to know them, e.g. the state of the satellite after 
two hours. In that case the Simulation will halt after the final 
conditions are met. Computer Simulations are equally use- 
ful and valid in either case. A spreadsheet calculation from 
EIite*Calc is nothing more than a Simulation with open 
final boundary conditions. 

The set-up clearly defines the universe while the number 
entry inputs the initial boundary conditions. For my Simu- 
lation, I will put the planet in the center of the solar system 
(on the graphics screen) and place the satellite close to it. The 
computer can then prompt me for an initial velocity and 
direction of the satellite. I will then be able to observe its 
trajectory (orbit). 1 may want to see what a satellite with 
random initial direction will do. The Simulation will let me 
select random initial conditions. I also want to be able to 
alter the velocity of the satellite by "human interaction." 
That is accomplished by scanning the keyboard during the 
course of the Simulation to search for an arrow-key press. 
The right arrow speeds up the satellite while the left-arrow 
slows it down. This could be used to simulate an OMS 
(orbital maneuvering system) burn of the space shuttle. 
With this set of conditions and a universe you're ready to key 
in the program listed and begin the Simulation. 

Begin by choosing "deterministic" starting conditions. 
When the Simulation asks for a velocity, enter T. (Don't 
type the quotes). For the angle, try 4 90\ The orbit should be a 
nice ellipse, just like Kepler predicted. Hit BREAK and re- 
start. Try velocity=2, angle=90. To get a circular orbit, try 
velocity= 1 .3, angle=90. Now go ahead and play with it. You 
will see all three of Kepler's laws demonstrated. Some of the 
orbits will not be closed, that is the satellite will go screaming 
off the screen. These are parabolas and hyperbolas. If your 
satellite goes near the planet, you will see the famous "sling- 
shot" effect. The dots plotted are equal timesteps so notice 
how the satellite speeds up near the planet. This acceleration 
has been used successfully to send probes to the outer 
planets as well as men to the moon. If you measure the area 
of the triangle formed by any other two adjacent dots and 
the planet, it will be the same area as the triangle formed by 
any other two adjacent dots and the planet. Kepler thought 
of this one, too. (Note to science students: Don't be too 
picky; I know that the equal area law is not made up of 
t riangles, but it uses areas of sectors of the ellipses. If you can 
figure an easy way to measure the areas on the non-square 
video display, you'll be accurate enough.) 

188 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



While you're at it, try "driving" the satellite around using 
the left- and right-arrow keys. It's an art to get used to 
exploiting the laws of orbital mechanics, but it's like riding a 
bike; once you have it, you have it forever. If you don't want 
to plot the entire trajectory but just want to see the satellite 
and the planet, change the MODE in Line 10 to MODE^O. 

There is one other neat change you can make. Remember, 
I said that 1 wanted to be able to vary the force between the 
two bodies? Well, now's your chance to be Isaac Newton. 
The law of universal gravitation states that the force 
between two bodies is proportional to the square of the 
inverse of the distance between them. If that got by you, 
don't worry. It just means that the exponent in the denomi- 
nator of the equation that calculates the force is 2. If the 
exponent is bigger the force would be less; if smaller than 2, 
the force would be greater. Kepler (him again) showed that 
only the exponent 2 would give you closed orbits — ones 
that come back to where they started and repeat. 1 wanted to 
see if he was right. 

To change the exponent, just retype Line 20 with N equal 
to anything you like. Try 20 N=1.5. Now RUN the Simula- 
tion and enter the initial conditions that gave you an ellipse, 
velocity=l, angle=90. Let it go. Watch the orbit of the 
satellite now that the force law is changed. Boy, am I glad we 
don't live in a universe like that; the moon would be full for a 
few days, then it would come ripping by, creating tides you 
wouldn't believe. Then it would go away and take longer to 
come back. Every month would be longer until the moon 
just went away. 

This simple, short, but powerful computer Simulation 
allowed us to prophesy the end of the world as we know it 
just by altering the laws of motion (no simple task). Compu- 
ter Simulations don't have to be long, complicated, number- 
crunching beasts. Just create your universe and give it a 
push. 




80 48 

END .... 103 



The listing: 

5 * SIMULATION OF ORBITAL MOTION 

BY DR. BOB TYSON - 19S4 
10 PCLEAR 4:ZX=12S:ZY=96:PX=128: 
PY=32:M0DE=l:CLS 

20 N=2.0 * N=EXPONENT OF THE FORC 
E LAW 

30 V=RND (TIMER) 

40 CLS: PR I NT "ORB IT INVESTIGATION 
S": PR I NT: PR I NT "SELECT STARTING C 
OND I T I ONS : R=R ANDOM 

D=DETERM INI ST I C " 
50 K*=INKEY*:IF K$= " " THEN 50 ELS 
E IF K*="R" THEN 60 ELSE IF K*=" 
D" THEN 70 ELSE 50 

60 v=rnd<5) :a=rnd<360) : cls: print 
"velocity*"; v: pr i nt "angle of en 
try=";as" deg.":for 1=1 to 1500: 

NEXT: GOTO 90 

70 PRINT: INPUT "SATELLITE VELOCIT 



Y 0-8";V:IF V<0 OR V>8 THEN 70 
80 PRINT: INPUT "ANGLE OF VELOCITY 

0-360 CLOCKWISE FROM 12 

O'CLOCK POSIT. " ; A 
90 VX=V»SIN (A#. 0174532) :VY=-V*CO 
S<A». 0174532) * VELOCITY COMPONE 
NTS 

100 M=100:PMODE 4,1: SCREEN 1,0: P 
CLS 

110 60SUB 160 

120 R=SQR( <PX-ZX>"2+<PY-ZY>~2) :A 
X= <M/R~IM> * ( ZX-PX) /R: AY= <M/R~N> # < 
ZY-PY) /R: VX=AX+VX : VY=AY+VY: PX=PX 
+VX:PY=PY+VY * VELOCITY AND POSI 
TION CALCULATIONS 
130 K*=INKEY»:IF K*=" M THEN 110 
ELSE IF K*=CHR*(9) THEN U=l ELSE 
IF K*=CHR*(8) THEN U~-l ELSE EN 

D 

140 V=SQR(VX*VX+VY*VY) : VX=VX+U*V 
X/V: VY=VY+U*VY/V 
150 GOTO 110 

160 IF MODEOl THEN PRESET <QX,QY 
> 

170 CIRCLE<ZX, ZY) ,2: IF PX<0 OR P 
X>255 OR PY<0 OR PY>191 THEN 190 
180 PSET<PX,PY, 1) :QX=PX:QY=PY 
190 RETURN 



Adventure Contest Update 



In case some of you chronic procrastinators and 
hurit~and~peck programmers haven't noticed yet, the 
deadline for the Second Annual rainbow Adventure 
Contest has long since passed and the judging is under 
way. Entries have poured into the Rainbow's offices 
from nearly every corner of the Eafth. From the Aus- 
tralian Outback to the Soviet-patrolled shores of Fin- 
land. From the tropical climes of Mexico to the frozen 
tundra of Canada. And from nearly every state in the 
Union, One thing is certain: Adventure and the CoCo 
are international pursuits. 

Without exception, the entries in this year's contest 
are more sophisticated and more mind-boggling than 
those in the last. Already, some of the judges are 
showing signs of wear-and-tear from so many encount- 
ers with death. Last year we were lucky — this year, 
some may not survive. 

But seriously, the competition is, indeed, impres- 
sive. When the winningentries are announced this fall, 
1 think you 11 agree. And when the winners are com- 
piled into the Second RAIN BOW Book Of Adventures, I 
think we can promise you the finest collection of 
Adventures ever assembled. 

— Kevin Nickols 



Corrections 



A portion of the text for "Bandy, A Challenging Word 
Game" (June 1984) was left out on Page 142. Part of the 
paragraph under Table 1 was cut off. The last sentence 
should read: 

To free the 919-byte RAM area you must do the 
following; just after you have turned on your CoCo, 
carefully type POKE 27,3+PEEK(27):POKE28, 154 
and press ENTER. 



In Tony DiStefano's "Turn Of The Screw" column in the 
April 1984 issue, a portion of a paragraph was left out. Here 
is the missing text: 

In order to test the power supply, you will have to 
beg, borrow or steal a voltmeter (unless you have one 
already). Okay, unplug your CoCo 2. (If you don't, 
many sparks will fly.) Solder the two wires that go to 
the primary side of the transformer . . . 

The schematic is not clear on the connections of Rl; the 
end that has a plus symbol next to it should go to +5V. Rl, 
R2 and R5 are listed as 4.7 ohms (Radio Shack Cat. No. 
271-8019); they should actually be 470 ohms (271-019). 
Finally, R3 and R4 (two 1 5K resistors) are listed as Cat. No. 
271-8036; they should be 271-036. 



In the "RAM/ ROM Upgrade Roundup" (May 1984, 
Page 49), we stated that Radio Shack's Extended Color 
BASIC upgrade kit was available by special order and did not 
have to be installed by a Radio Shack service center. Radio 
Shack tells us upgrades are only available installed by a 
service center. We apologize for any inconvenience that this 
error may have caused. 



See you at 

RAINBOWfest Chicago 

June 22-24 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 189 



In Search Of Artifacts 



By Ed Ellers 
RAINBOW Technical Writer 



• / have a 16 K CoCo to which I have added 
the "Monitor Mod" by Richard Kottke 
(January 1984), The audio and video out- 
puts go to a Zenith ZVM-J3J 13" medium- 
resolution color monitor. 

I am very happy with this setup, which 
gives good color and resolution on the 
Radio Shack Baseball and Tennis games 
and the like, but my trouble is with PM ODE 
4. I'm working through Going Ahead with 
Extended Color basic and, when in PMODE 
4, all horizontal lines are a nice crisp buff on 
black, but the vertical lines (or vertical sec- 
tions of a circle ) are alternating blue and red 
lines. Thinking the trouble is in the monitor, 
I tried it out with my 19" Mitsubishi TV. 
Same results, except pink and green rather 
than red and blue. Doing color adjustments 
to either set makes no difference (except in 
the hue of the colors). 

Could the problem be in the computer? 
Any suggestions? 

Art Jones 
Cherry HUI, NJ 



The colors you're getting are often called 
"artifacts. "They are caused by a quirk of the 
NTSC color TV system. Since the dots in 
PMODE4 graphics are generated by a mas- 



(Ed Ellers, a RAINBOW and PCM staff 
member, is a self-confessed electronics 
fanatic whose other interests include 
science fiction.) 



ter timing circuit, they are locked in step 
with the reference burst signal that your set 
uses to lock in a color signal. The dots are at 
the right frequency to pass into the color 
decoding circuits in your TV, and the de- 
coder confuses them with the genuine color 
signal and thinks that they are supposed to 
be red and blue. (You may have seen this 
effect on regular TV signals, where some- 
one's jacket may take on some very strange 
colors.) Many newer sets (though not you 
19" Mitsubishi) have a comb filter which is 
intended to separate the color and lumi- 
nance (the black-and-white portion of the 
TV signal) more effectively, but these cir- 
cuits don't work on the non-standard signal 
produced by the CoCo. 

There is really no solution to this problem 
as yet, other than turning down the color 
control to remove all color from the picture 
or using an RGB monitor (which would be 
very difficult to do on the CoCo). 



Crunching Words 

• / am looking for a good word processing 
program for my Co Co. What do you suggest? 

Laura Morse 
American Fork, UT 

There are quite a few word processors out 
for the CoCo; the three that I'm familiar 
with are Color Scripsit, Cognitec's Tele- 
writ er-64 and Soft law's VIP Writer. Color 
Scripsit has an advantage in that it's sold and 
supported by Radio Shack; the cassette ver- 



sion is sold as a cartridge which means that 
you won't have to load it from tape each 
time. Telewriter-64 runs in any CoCo from 
16K. to 64K (with or without Extended 
basic) and uses all the available RAM in 
your machine; it has true upper- and lower- 
case display in all systems. VIP Writer, while 
somewhat more difficult to master than the 
others, has an incredible list of special for- 
matting and printing features. Which one is 
best is a difficult call; my suggestion is to 
look at all three if you can, and others such 
as Elite Software's Elite* Word, CerComp's 
Textpro III, and Moreton Bay's CoCo Wri- 
ter //as well, to see what each can do for you. 



Getting Your Head Straightened 

• In your March 1984 issue you responded 
to a letter regarding I/O Errors on disk 
drives. You recommended that the first 
thing to check was the drive speed calibra- 
tion, and if that didn V work to try a head 
alignment kit. Where can I obtain one of the 
head alignment kits that you mentioned? 

R.E. Kelley 
Denver, CO 

Aligning a disk drive head is much more 
difficult than aligning the record/ play head 
on a tape recorder, and I don't recommend it 
to the novice. But, if you must, check our 
"Downloads" column in this issue on where 
to get a head alignment disk. 



190 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



How Many K? 

• / have an E board computer that I pur^ 
chased with 16 K. About five months ago I 
had it upgraded to 64 K by Radio Shack. 
Since the upgrade, I have not been able to 
make the 64K basic (October 1983) or 
FORTY K (January 1984) work. The dealer 
gave me a copy of the test program issued by 
Radio Shack (memorandum 0571,81 ). When 
I ran the program it told me that I only had 
32 K. Again I challenged the dealer. He 
checked with someone in the Radio Shack 
organization and has since told me that the 
only way these programs will work is with a 
disk drive and OS-9. 

Ken Stuparyk 
Grande Prairie, Alberta 

The test program (which can be found on 
Page 10 of the May 1984 rainbow) checks 
for a wiring change that is made when Radio 
Shack upgrades a CoCo to 64K. It is mainly 
intended to see if a particular computer was 
upgraded to 32K (using "half-good" RAMs) 
or to a full 64K, and to check that the correct 
upgrade procedure was used. It will not tell 
you what kind of RAM chips are in your 
computer, or if they are good or bad, (If you 
upgrade a C, D or E board unit to 64K 
instead of having Radio Shack do it, the 
program will probably read 32K because the 
wiring change is generally not done by do-it- 
yourselfers. Later CoCos and TDP System 
100s have this wiring change built in, so the 
program will give a result of 64K on them.) 
It's possible that they left out this jumper 
(which does not affect normal operation), 
but since you say programs that use a full 
64K don't work, I think that they may have 
left out the addressing modification that 
allows all 64K to be selected. Ask the service 
center to open the unit up and examine the 
wiring. (If you would like to make this 
change yourself, see my article on upgrades 
on Page 49 of the May 1984 issue.) 



The White and the Gray 

• / just purchased a Radio Shack disk drive 
(white case). The dealer told me that it would 
work on the gray Color Computer. It worked 
fine for a few days, then it stopped. I then 
took it to a Radio Shack service center, and 
they said that a white drive wouldn V work 
on the gray Co Co. 

Dan Schoenbaum 
Hollywood, FL 

If you are talking about the disk drive and 
controller package, then the white version 
will work on all Color Computers. The older 
model in a gray case won't work on the 
Color Computer 2 without modification, or 
addition of a Multi-Pak Interface, because it 
requires a +12 volt power supply that the 
CoCo 2 doesn't have. If you are talking 
about the drives themselves, the white drives 
should be used only with a new controller 
and the gray drives with an old controller. 
(TDP drives and controllers were the same 



as the older Radio Shack products.) The 
new drives are made by a different supplier, 
and the two have different connections. 



Upgrading In The U.K. 

• lam an American serviceman stationed in 
England. Spectrum Projects recently sent 
me instructions for upgrading D and E 
boards which do not jive with the contents of 
my computer. It is an English version, cus- 
tom manufactured by Tandy for use here 
(model 26-3004 A ). Basically, the trouble is 
that the numbers don V match at the sockets 
where the 64 K chips go. Mine says U25-U32 
instead of U20- U27. Besides that, there is no 
number on the board whatsoever to tell me 
which revision I have. 

Dale Jones 

RA F Greenham Common, England 

The A in the model number indicates that 
you have an NC board (also known as ET, 
for External Transformer). This board is 
sometimes called the F board, because it 
came after the C, D and E boards. You 
might try the instructions given for the NC 
board in my article in May, Page 49. (By the 
way, "custom manufactured" is simply the 
term preferred by Tandy; every Radio Shack 
product, wherever it's sold, is "custom 
manufactured" by or for Radio Shack.) 



Big Blue Hand-Me-Down 

• My uncle has recently upgraded his IBM 
PC for use with a color monitor. He has 
given me his IBM Monochrome Display. Is 
there any way I might be able to interface 
this to my CoCo? 

J. Callahan 
Lincoln, NE 

It will be very difficult to make the 
Monochrome Display work with anything 
other than an IBM PC, since it requires sev- 
eral different signals from the computer 
(even IBM's new PCjr won't drive it). 



Monitors on the CoCo 2 

• When I opened my Color Computer 2 to 
install a video output modification for my 
Gorilla monitor, I found that the modulator 
was oriented from front to back instead of 
from side to side as depicted in the article I 
was working from. The four terminals I 
expected to find on the side are nowhere to 
be found. Help! 

Robert E. McCoy 
Mason City, I A 

The CoCo 2 has a completely different RF 
modulator circuit. For a monochrome mon- 
itor you can use the circuit described in Tony 
DiStefano's "Turn Of The Screw"column in 
May 1984(Page 188). Using a color monitor 
will be more difficult, because the CoCo 2 
feeds the Y, R-Y and B-Y signals produced 



by the 6847 video generator directly to the 
modulator (using the 1 372 encoder/ modula- 
tor chip), which produces the channel 3 or 4 
RF signal; the composite signal for a color 
monitor is not available off the chip. Com- 
puterware and Midwest CoCo Systems now 
have color monitor adapters for the CoCo 2. 



Two For The MC-10 

• / would like to know if the MC-IO's inter- 
nal board can be upgraded to 32 K or 64 K. I 
would also like to know if there are any 
books or articles about the MC-IO's 6803 
microprocessor. 

Gaston V. Webb 
Las Vegas, NV 

I don't see any way that the MC-10 can be 
upgraded internally, since the RAM chips it 
uses are not a normal type like the ones used 
in the CoCo. As for the 6803, the only book 1 
know of is the programming manual put out 
by Motorola Semiconductor in Phoenix. 



Finding a Map 

• / was wondering if in previous issues you 
had a complete memory map for the CoCo. 

Joshua Redstone 
Hadley, MA 

There was, indeed! It was run in four parts 
in the July, August, September and De- 
cember 1983 issues of the rainbow. 



Transferring Programs to Disk . . . Easily 

• Is there a way to transfer ML programs 
from tape to disk? 

Mike Gibson 
Fenton, MO 

If you know what the starting, ending and 
execution addresses are, in many cases you 
can just CLOADM the program (don't 
EXEC it) and then SA VEM it to disk. Two 
transfer programs 1 know of are the Tape 
Utility from Spectrum Projects and Tom 
Mix Tape To Disk. There's another aspect 
to this question, though, read oh. 

Transferring Programs to Disk Legally 

• Is it legal to transfer copyrighted programs 
from tape to disk? 

Roger A. Page 
Elida, OH 

As far as I know, it's a generally accepted 
practice to make a backup copy of programs 
you have bought for use on the same ma- 
chine you bought the program for (but not 
to give out to others). 1 don't know that any 
software company objects to this practice. 
Of course, this question might be better 
answered by a lawyer. 




July 1984 THE RAINBOW 191 



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Double Wide) 

CHARACTER MATRIX-9 x 9 Standard, with True 
Descenders • 18 x 9 Emphasized • T8 x 18 Double 
Strike • 6 x 6 Block Graphics • 60 x 72 Low Resolu- 
tion, Bit Image Graphics • 120 x 144 Hi Resolution, 
Bit Image Graphics • 240 x 144 Ultra Hi Resolution, 
Bit Image Graphics 

CHARACTER SETS— 96 Standard ASCII Charac- 
ters • 96 Italics • 64 Special Characters • 32 Block 
Graphic Characters • 96 Downloadable Charac- 
ters • Super and Sub Script 
LINE SPACING-Programmable by n/144" 

PAPER HANDLING— Roll Paper • Cut Sheet • 
Tractor Fanfold • Copies: 3 Carbonless Sheets 



180 DAY WARRANTY 
BLUE STREAK INTERFACE 
SCREEN DUMP SOFTWARE 



/ 11Q95+ $10 Shipping 
^J-^ and Insurance 
15X System 439* 



BLUE STREAK 

SERIAL TO PARALLEL INTERFACE 



• RUN COCO I or II to PARALLEL PRINTER 

• 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 SWITCHABLE BAUD RATES 

• AC POWER OPTIONAL-NOT NEEDED WITH GEMINI PRINTER 

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Free Limited Time Offer 

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RAINBOW REVIEWS^ 



Advanced Editor 

A Fun, Handy OS-9 Program/ 'Computet ware « , , Jafjjjg 

Adventure Generator 

An Adventure In Creativity /Jarb Software . . , * . ♦ , . . ,£31 

Blue Streak 

Printer Interface Gives More Freedom of Choice/Dayton Associates * 21,1 

Colorama BBS 

A First-Class Bulletin Board Package/Specfrum Projects ♦ ..„.* .23$ 

Oynastar/E 

A Natural Companion For A Word Processor/Fran* Hogg Laboratory . . , . 220 

DynaStar/DynaForm 

A Separate, But integrated Package/ Frank Hogg Laboratory v2?0 

E.TX 

Makes Learning To Type Fun/CoCo Warehouse r .210 

E-Z Base 

A Simple Database Program/Spec/rum Projects . . .* 25$ 

Everyone's Guide to basic 

A Supplement to Your CoCo?/Consumer Guide Publications , . . , « .243 

Froggie 

Really Keeps You Hopping/SpecfraMsSOc/ates , *♦•>•*•*, 

Funhouse And Ski Lodge 

A Non-Violent Adventure With A Bonus/Pa/ Creations , . . .2§jf 

Gold Plug 80 1 ; 

Makes Solid Connections/EA.P. Company . , .233 

Length, Area, Volume And Capacity 

Conversion Aids Helpful, But An Ounce Short/Shamrock Software . . , » .216 

MSI-Disk Util 

For Better Disk Organ ization/De/frer Electronics , , . r . , .229 

Master Design 

There's More Than Meets The Eye/ Derringer Software . — > . 204 

Memo Minder 

A Record Maker/Merr/cfc & Company .... » < , , , 

Micro Checkers 

For The Beginner And MC~1Q/Radio Shack . — , ^ , . , , ,225 

Micro Games 

A Potpourri Of Games For The MC-W Radio Shack , , -225 

More Beef 

Where's The Pork, Lam b?/M oreton Bay Software . . . - . 214 

Mul-T-Screen 

A Colorful Character GeneratorZ/nce/tf/Ve Software , i ,240 

Programmer's Sketch Pad 

Easy Text Screen Codmg/Syntacf/cs , *> , .213 

Real Talker 

A Pronounced Success/Co/orware Inc ...... h2Q§ 

Remote Terminal Driver 

A Good BBS Adjunct/SWcon Rainbow Products 

Retirement Planning Model 

Passes The Tme/A&P Software < ,i.2B9 

Scatterforain And Better 

Two Games For The Price/Pa; Creations . . ♦ \%2j$. 

Semigraf 

A Colorful Graphics Editor For The Doodler/Soflfaf Software ;W 

Shaft 

A Challenge To Your Reflexes/Pr/cfr/y~Pear Software-. ... . ... 223 

Speed Math 

An Educational Math Drill/Wesf Bay Company , . « » 22tf 

Super Edit 

A Step Up From 4 Extended Basic's &$tor?The Dataman ; . . , ^ . * 224 

Time Bandit 

Will Steal Your He^rUUiChTron . , ... 201 

Triple Transfer Utility (TTU) 

No More Tape To Dis* Incom pat i bi I i ty/Cqmpttf&fc inc. . . , , 227 

Tut's Tomb 

A Captivating&rcade OuesV Mark products- , > *v ... - ,258 

VIP Database 

A Very Interesting Program/Safl/aw CGrptimUon . 245 

The Voice k 

Lets CoCo Talk &ack/Spees&$y$ems * .241' 



LB 



July 1984. THE RAINBOW 



1 



RECEIVED & CERTIFIED 



The following products recently have been received 
by the rainbow, examined by our magazine staff and 
approved for the Rainbow Seal of Certification, your 
assurance that we have seen the product and have 
ascertained that it is what it purports to be. 
This month the Seal of Certification has been 
issued to: 



Castle Alkenshire. a graphics and text Ad- 
venture game that requires 32K ECB uod 
one disk drive. As you search for the Moot- 
gondel that lives beneath the 1 ip-e mourn lj in, 
you must gain strength tind rfioney for wea- 
pons by defeating the soldiers acid ctefllurt-s 
that he sends to stop you, Acesoft Computer 
Products, 1680 North Page Dr., DlIu™, 
FL 32725, disk S2$S$ 

CO LOR FORTH V. 2.ft\ a new vision of 
COLOR WRTffn a FOftni U riguage com- 
piler. The program &pzn\w under all cur- 
rent ROMs, I6K trough MK RAM, and 
t'MtirnLfd MblC h not required with the 
LasMiLru version. Fcimircs include a ru^er 
L/ST I unci ion „ t h,^ ability lo create and use 
vectored Words, the i^c ofSd words in uddi- 
tion tflthe.stapdj.rd li^FORTH VLxabtifaiy, 
and a resident fi&E -.EDITOR. Amiikkllo lrti'1 
SoflUMT^-PJJ. Uox 7(5*1 *-Ab!.[iii,TX 78712, 
£4^95 pruaS2.5(J S/H 

ArtcelTot^ a disk-hMd gu ne:j 1 1 igkai pro- 
gram" avaiftibk' m both 3oK and 32K wr- 
v.-nns. Thd program usesdi rcc' access files to 
create, modify and display up to 500 genea- 
logical records: each record containing 22 
fields of data including birth, marriage, 
death and burial, occupation, military, reli- 
gion yjid resident inhmoaHOP. Awumn 
C'iiLai Software, 4132 Lay Si., Pes Moines, 
1A *KH7, diskSJ9,95 



Poker, a loK BCB$\^. muchim-- style p;:k.iT 
game. Five cards arc deu(h the player 
cards duvc he daps poi tfant and replace 
merits*!* dealt for discards. A toUtd c:" 

two plff or bclterTvin^^iye Geo^F 14^^ 
Dawson Road, Kendall Park, NJ 0*824, 
cassette $6.95 



SF-l Serial 1 til efface, a serial-io-nurallel 
interface Tor all Epson primers in ihc MX, 

RX arid FX series. Tt ts made to be posi- 
tioned inside the printer and requires no 
additional power supply or connections. It 
has selectapk) Baud rate* Iran 3(K) lo 19,200, 
allow* for seven- or dghl-bil ASCII code 
with any number of stop tails, and comes 
complete mih n 6-fooT cord and instillation 
inurt^licms. CNR Engineering, PX>. Box 
492. Piscataway, NJ 08854, $49.95; 554.^5 
with an external switch for ailauin^ use of 
the punter 1 * parallel port without remount 
:Iil in jet tact board; and 559.95 fur a Iruc 

Colorfrade, a 32K ECB disk-based program 
thai allows teachers to keep track of their 
fludtfiiii' grades on the Color Computer. H 
supports up to six different class lists, allows 
entry of individualized grading scales, and 
will correlate the students' grades in several 
different manners. Computer Island, 227 
Hampton Green, Staten Island, NY 10312, 
disk $29.95 

King Author's Tales, an ECB program de- 
signed mainly as a creative writing tool for 
students. They can create original short sto- 
ries, design their own title pajji- piv: ir and 
correct *nd updaif tiieir stories ai h later 
[iniu, Sion-^ imd pictufes arc saved in tilej 
<n viewing aver and over again. TflaeJicrs 
on also she program io write fe^diog 
comprehension short stories through the 
jrc'usion i^fa quest .on and answer feature, 

IConjJjfliler KJand, 227 Ha rapt on GrcenL 
Si:. i en bland. NY 103-11 IflK etascttc or 
32K disk $29.95 





PO-CHEK, a 

assists poker 
knowledgea 
the selection 
and then runs 

while giving a breakdown oTwinning hands. 
Then the hand can be run again using differ- 
ent discards, allowing for a card selection 
strategy to be developed. Bye George, 14 
Dawson Road, Kendall Park, NJ 08824, 
cassette $6.95 

Scribe Editor CC9, a text editor for use with 
OS-9. It is used for editing source program 
files in BASIC09 or other OS-9 languages as 
well as normal text files. Computerware, 
Box 668, 4403 Manchester Ave., Suite 102, 
Encinitas, CA 92024, $39 




Math Invaders, a 1 6K ECB math program in 
a game format. Any of the four basic math 
,ons can be chosen .-on on< 
nd the probiemlare solved ). 
ith a descending^ ace shipjfe 
" 221 Hamf 
; 3lf cassetffSl 

Arithmetic Tutor, a 32K disk-based math 
prog ram that allows students to practice 
nnmipkicLiiioru Ion(i division, laeios opera- 
tions and algebraic evaluation {p:muir:.k 
intended Jo teach <hc hierarchy of opera- 
tic mst Tlx: pro era m includes, a feaiujc that 
allows the teacher to monitor the stud urn's 
progress, not only with a "number right" 
report, but also with a diagnostic listing 
indicating both the problems that the stu- 
dent answered incorrectly and those that 



he/she asked the program for help on. 
Computer Island, 227 Hampton Green, 
Staten Island, NY 10312, disk $49.95 

Graphs Tutor, a 32K ECB Hi-Res program 
with which students can learn about bar, pie, 
line and pictographs. Examples and expla- 
nations of each type of graph are included 
and original graphs can be created. Also, a 
test mode is included for self study. Compu- 
ter Island, 227 Hampton Green, Staten 
1 sland, N Y 1 03 1 2, cassette $ 1 9.95, disk $22.95 

Quiz Maker, a 32K ECB program that ena- 
bles the construction of many types of 
quizzes: fill io the blank, true or false, multi- 
ple choice, lUc The questions may be for- 
Tmmcd in whatever manner best suits the 
type of rnalcrial lhat th being covered. Com- 
F '.jut Hand. 227 Hampton Green, Staten 
Is ia ad. NY 10112, cassette . 95 1 disk $27.95 

First Chines, a 32K ECB pro-am of games 
designed for children ages ihre^ to six. Six 
menu driven- uamus are included- Color 
Numbers, Meir:^:> S'*iapc, Color House, 
A in babel Shapes (limrrcasft^ Which is Dif- 
iu\::u. i:nd Counti^ Rkute. Gunputcr 1s- 
latixL 227 Hampton Green. Siaicn Island. 
NY 103 1 2, cavils $24 .95. d isk $27 .95 

'['ext MahiLT, n Hi-Rts text uiiHty sport- nji 
ihree diaraaer louts ami 24 printing si/e> 
f six for the H i - Re* set e en. ).Ch;i raeter for t s . 
keyboard and cursor are all usar definable 
li nd ihe pvo^i jj^ offer* pnjptiriioiril apw;- 
.iii2. fully functional FRfNT& . underlining 
on a key CIS. ynd ■inp^r-and subHSriptt. It .> 
disk compatible and requires 64K RAM. 
The Dataman, 420 Ferguson Ave. N., Hamil- 
ton, Ontario, Canada L8L 4Y9, cassette 
£2^95 C tin. . U.S.. plu^ 3 pu ccm S/ H 

(£2.50 rain, i ft jft 

In Assembly Larj^unge, an i nlrocl lilliui: to 
h 5: stm bly Ji nonage: on i h& Co lor C ' o m p in e r . 
This baoli b wiritlf i? foi the begin ski and is 
full ol titsnmplea. Cohered are keyboard 
naiitfe ! O, s LiUHd fx nc rat io n . string com- 
mands. nruiti-i asking, and even how to 
make threaded code. Included with the 
binder-style book is a tape of examples and 
useful subroutines. The Dataman, 420 Fer- 
guson A re._N_- Hamilton, Ontario, Canada 
1 Rl 839,95 Can,. 522 ^5 U.S. plus 3 
pe:-e«n S/M <&S>50 min.j 

Graphic Masier, d. graphics s _i l LI i c % requiring 
j2K R AM H!id compatLhle with Text Mas- 
ter. It functions solely with the Hi-Res 
screen and adds 32 new graphics commands. 
The program includes movable video win- 
dows, artifact "DYE," vertical scroll, soft- 
ware sprights with collision testing, a polygon 
function and three draw modes. And. it fully 
supports dual page flipping with four flip 
modes. The Dataman, 420 Ferguson Ave. 
N., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8L 4Y9, 
$49.95 Can., $39.95 U.S. plus 3 percent S/ H 
($2.50 min.) 



194 



THE RAINBOW July 1964 



Miner, a 16K ML arcade-type game utilizing 
the keyboard for play and movement. Work- 
ing below the ground, you must direct Sid, 
the miner, as he blasts _the coal seams and 
collects the scattered lumps. The Dataman, 
420 Ferguson Ave. N., Hamilton, Ontario, 
Canada L8L 4Y9, cassette $14.95 Can., 
$12.95 U.S. plus 3 percent S/ H ($2.50 min.) 

Screen, a 16K ML utility program that fea- 
tures: automatic line numbering; line by line 
program listing; motor on/ off from the key- 
board; and a choice of light or dark orange 
or green characters on a light or dark 
orange, green or black screen. The Data- 
man, 420 Ferguson Ave. N., Hamilton, 
Ontario, Canada L8L 4 Y9^ cassette $12.95 
Can., $10.95 U.S. plus 3 percent S/H ($2.50 
min.) 

DEFT pascal Workbench, a package com- 
prised of: DEFT PASCAL, a language com- 
piler that generates native machine language 
programs fop; high-level pascaL program 
statements and; DEFT Bench^ which in- 
cludes a full screen edit or jit macro as- 
sembler, a?i object file linkage editor, and a 
symbolic online ML debugging aid. DEFT 
Systems Inc.* Suiic 4 Damascus Centre* 
Damascus MD 20872, disk $199.95 

PRO-LOC, a disk-based basic utility pro- 
gram designed to limit access to a pro-am 
or data file stored on disk. In order to load a 
protected program or file, a six character 
password iifust be entered. Dorison House 
Publishers, Inc., 824 Park Square BIdg., 
Boston, MA 021 16, $15.95 

Disk-O-Tier, a thermoplastic diskette or- 
ganizer that takes Up minimum desk space, 
holds the disks upright, and keeps the labels 
clearly visible for easy access. It is designed 
for both -5%* and 8-inch diskettes. Evans 
Enterprises. 609 Applehill Dr., W. Carrol- 
Iton, OH 45449, $9 plus $3 S/H 

10KEY. an ML program thai turns a por- 
tion of the keyboard into a numeric keypad 
for faster data entry. Also provided are 
GEN, a BASIC program supplied for custom- 
izing the 10 KEY program, and DEMO, a 
short program for use in practicing with the 
numeric keypad. HARMONYCS, 1747 
Patricia Way. Salt Lake Cily, Ul Ml 16,. 
cassette $14.95 

Golf Handicapper, a |M ECB program 
designed to compute and print golf handi- 
caps for either individuals or teams. A com- 
pact printout includes gross and net scores 
for last play, handicap, last five adjusted 
scores, and team standings. Don Hug, 1111 
Terra Way, Roseville. CA 95678, cassette 
$35 

Willy's Warehouse, an original arcade action 
ML game requiring 32K for one or two play- 
ers and featuring a demonstration mode, 
selectable difficulty, and joystick or key- 
board control. Help Willie stock the ware- 
house while keeping up with incoming or- 
ders. Intracolor, P.O, Box 1035, East Lan- 



sing, MI 48823, disk or cassette $34.95 plus 
$1.50 S/H 

CoCo Solver, an educational program re- 
quiring at least 16K RAM that can set up a 
model of a problem for quick analysis. Also, 
it is useful in understanding how computers 
work and basic computer programming tech- 
niques. JTJ Enterprises, Grant's Chapel 
Rd., Route 1, Adams, TN 37010, cassete 
$79.95 

Aldaroti, a 32K Adventure game in which 
the Adventurer must rescue the elven prince, 
Aldaron, from ah evil necromancer who has 
abducted him. His father, the king, has 
promised treasures beyond belief to the mor- 
tal who returns his son to safety, but many 
have tried before and all have failed. Jade 
Products. 519 N. Scott, Wheaton, 1L 60187, 
cassette $25.95 t> 

Grey Lady, a Hi-Res arcade-type game pro* 
gram requiring 32K ECB and one joystick. 
When u sed with A voice pack u si ng t he 
Votrax SC-01 synthesizer* ,chip and Del 
Software's Translate program, the game 
becomes a talking program as you command 
a submarine and try to keep the sea line of 
Communications open for friendly shipping. 
JARB Software, 1636 D Ave., Suite O 
National City, CA 92050, cassette $19.95, 
disk/Amdisk $24.95 plus $3 S/H 

Flight Simulator, a 16K simulation program 
that turns the CoCo into a small aircraft. 
Featured are 10 instrumentation displays 
and full keyboard control of the plane. 
Majestic Software, P.O. Box 91, Westland, 
Ml 48185, cassette $15 plus $2 S/H 

Color Stronghold, a 32K arcade-style game 
for one or two players. The shield that keeps 
the atmospheric radioactive debris Irom des- 
troying your city is failing, and you must 
command the mobile energy catapult to stop 
the debris from breaching the barrier, 
MichTfon, 1691 Eason, Pontiac, Ml 48054 

Intercept 4, an arcade-type game requiring 
32 K and two joysticks. If features three 
separate screens that each scroll in all four 
directions. Defending your planet from an 
alien attack, you must destroy their space- 
craft, transport to the planet's surface to 
destroy the aliens there, and then go up 
against the.mother ship in your own vessel, 
the intercept. MfchTron, 6655 Highland 
Rd., Pontiac, MI 48054, cassette $27.95, 
disk $29.95 

Worlds of Flight, an ML "view" oriented 
flight simulation requiring 32K and two 
joysticks. Tl# pilot's position cjui be deter- 
mined by viewing surrounding landmarks 
rather than by instrument display alone, 
although instrument procedures may be 
practiced as well. Torn Mix Software", 4285 
Bradford N.E., Grand Rapids, MI 49506, 
cassette $29.95, disk $32.95 plus $1.50 S/H 
KEEP-Track, a general ledger accounting 
system that can fulfill the accounting needs 
of the small business or the home. The sys- 



tem uses the "double entry" accounting 
method and allows the operator to create 
account categories for assets, liabilities, in- 
come, and expenses, then supports printouts 
for a balance sheet, an income statement, 
general journal, general ledger, and trial 
balance. The Other Guy's Software, 875 
South Main, Logan, UT 84321, disk $14.95 

AMT, a program that Will test different 
types of loans, their outcomes pertaining to 
total cash out, and tjie breakdowns of the 
payments (interest, principal, balance, total 
interest to date, total principal to date and 
tptai payment to date). It is accurate to nine 
digits, including the cents column, and will 
also compute negative amortizations and 
balloon payments. The Other Guy's Soft- 
ware, 875 South Wain, Logan, UT 84321, 
disk or cassette $14.95 

Kingdom of Bashan, an Adventure game 
requiring 32K RAM and ECB. The object is 
to enter the kingdom, gather 10 treasures 
and return to the starting point. A tipsheet is 
included. Owls Nest Software, P.O. Box 
579, Ooltewah, TN 37363, cassette $17.95 

Pilgrim's Progress, a Christian Adventure 
game requiring 16K ECB in which the 
Adventurer's progress is directed away from 
the city of destruction and toward the Celes- 
tial Cily. Important Biblical doctrines are 
examined as the-pli^ef proceed; Quality 
Christian Software, P.O. Box t£#; Dun- 
can. OK 73533, cassette $17.99 

Church Time, a light hearted, non-theo- 
logical Adventure game requiring 32K ECB. 
You're almost late for church and, to top it 
off, you forgot your Bible. Rushing back to 
your house you find that the front door has 
bolted behind you, but you must get inside 
before the church bell tolls. Quality Chris- 
tian Software, P.O. Box 1899. Duncan, OK 
73533, cassette $10.99 

3Game iPack #3, a 16K ECU program con- 
taining three multiple choice Bible-based 
games and quizes: Sword Drill#2, a game in 
which* given scriptures are matched to the 
correct Bible passage; Who Did That #2, a 
game in which a Bible character is matched 
to descriptions of his deeds; and Bible Quotes 
a quiz in which the proper character is 
matched to a quotation frorn the scriptures. 
Quality Christian Software, P.O. Box 1899, 
Dunean, 0K 73533, cassette $10.99 

Christmas Quiz, a 16K true/ false, multiple 
choice question and answer game based on 
the Gospel's account of the birth of Jesus 
Christ. After each question is answered, the 
program will give the correct answer and the 
proper scripture references. Quality Chris- 
tian Software, P.O. Box 1899, Duncan, OK 
73533, cassette $9.99 

TRS-80 Color Computer & MC-10 Pro- 
grams, by William Barden Jr., a book con- 
taining everything from tutorial programs 
for young readers to financial programs for 
businessmen. Each program also includes a 

July 1984 THE RAINBOW 195 




CONNECTION 
SOFTWARE 

1060 BuddlM Dr., Sandy, Utah 84070 (801) 571-5023 
★ ★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 

MEGAMUNK 

A fantastic strategic arcade 
game with animated move- 
ment! As a soldier/monkey 
of fortune you must save 
the forest of Ledonia from 
the evil mammoth spiders. Megamunk has 
several enjoyable musical selections, and 
11 different hi-res screens with artifacted 
color! A real challenge! (Joystick required) 
32K cas $21 .95 32K disk $23.95 




m 



COLOR DESIGNER 

Use Color Designer and your 
CoCo to create amazing hi- 
res color pictures or graphic 
characters. Many features 
available for your use in- 
cluding fill command with over 1000 dif- 
ferent color/texture combinations. April 84 
Rainbow, "... I would not hesitate to 
recommend [Color Designer] to someone in 
the market for a graphics editor." 

16/32K cas $26.95 disk $28.95 



QUIZ ALL 



gram. /^^^C^^t 
Great for individual study or? ^'rl^ 
creation of a quiz for a 35fi&» as*, 
group. Quiz can be taken on 
the computer or printed for 
others. Even has an option for the com 
puter to generate multiple choice answers! 
cas $18.95 disk $20.95 

OKI DUMP 

An excellent hi-res screen 
dump for the Okidata 80 , 
series without Okigraph. 
Printed pictures aren't 
miniatures! They nearly fill a 
full sheet of paper! Manual includes hints 
on printing game screens; The King, by 
Tom Mix, is the example. Amazing low 
price 

16K cas $8.95 16K disk $10.95 

COMPU SCRIBE B.S.A. 

A helpful program that keeps tabs on troop 
members' progress toward Eagle. Can 
generate a hardcopy of every Scout's 
achievements, alphabetically or by rank, 
available only on disk, $26.95 



Cull or wrif for our free newsletter. 

All cassette orders include disk version on cassette with 
instructions to transfer to disk. Unless otherwise 
specified, programs require 16K extended for cassette 
or 32K extended for disk. Add $2.00 shipping. Utah 
residents add 5 3/4% sales tax. Orders paid by personal 
check allow 1-2 weeks; all others sent within 48 hours. 
COD add $2.00. 

To order, call 24 hours a day or write 
COLOR CONNECTION SOFTWARE 

1060 Buddlea Drive, Sandy, Utah 84070 
(801)571-5023 
For Information: 

l C all weekdays between 6:30 pm and 10 pm MT a 
196 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



brief description and step-by-step instruc- 
tions. Radio Shack Stores nationwide, Cat. 
No. 26-3195,55.95 

Androne, a 16K arcade-style game in which 
your computer is being invaded by Data 
Bugs.which are feeding on its memory cells. 
If the bugs are not destroyed immediately, 
your computer will lose its entire memory 
bank. To debug your computer, you must 
employ the services of Androne, a user- 
controlled robot, to search each memory cell 
and destroy the bugs. Radio Shack Stores 
nationwide, Cat. No. 26-3096, ROM Pak 
$19.95 

The Adventurer's Handbook, a guide to 
role-playing games by Bob Albrecht and 
Greg Stafford. This book takes you into the 
fantasy world of role-playing games in which 
the players create and control characters 
who live their imaginary lives in a specially 
created game land. You can base your games 
on such well-known fantasies as TolkebTs 
Middle Earth, Ursula Leguin s Earthsea or 
Moorcock's Young Kingdoms, or you can 
make your own heroes. The handbook cov- 
ers creating a character, getting to kn&w 
your character and things your character 
can do as well a£ games and sipiircfe Reston 
Publishing Company, Tr«L, 1 1480 Sunset 
Hills Rd„ Reston,.^ 32090, $14.?5; 

XPNDR1, a CoCo expander card with a 
gold edge connector that plugs into the 
CoCb cartridge connector. Signals are lo- 
cated on the bottom. The4;3 x 6.2-inch glass/ 
epoxy card is drilled for ICs and compo- 
nents. Robotic Microsystems, Box 30807, 
Seattle, WA£g'lfB , $ 1 9 95 each or two for $36 

The Presidents of the United States, an ML 

educational program for grades five and up. 
It includes a study mode, a multiple choice 
game, and an "identify the Presidents" game 
for high school students and older. Sugar 
Software, 2153 Leah Lane, Reynoldsburg, 
OH 43068, 16K/32K cassette $24.95, 32K 
disk $29.95 

The CoCo Calligrapher, a special purpose 
text processor requiring 32K ECB and a bit 
mode printer. It allows 11 lines of editable 
text before being output to the printer in one 
of three print styles Old English, Gay ^Os 
or Cartoon. The letters are variably spaced 
and can range up to a 36 point size (I/2 inch). 
Sugar Software, 2153 Leah Lane, Reynolds- 
burg, OH 43068, cassette or disk, $24.95 

Flying Tigers, an ML arcade-type game 
requiring one joystick and featuring Hi-Res 
graphics and five levels of difficulty. After 
being ambushed by alien fighters, all ten of 
your squadron members were shot down 
and ejected onto a small asteroid. To defend 
them, you must destroy the attackers that 
are closing in. Sugar Software, 2153 Leah 



Lane, Reynoldsburg, OH 43068, 16K cassette 
$24.95, 32K disk $27.95 

DO-FILE, a program for building and main- 
taining files of the user's own design. It 
allows the construction of files as tables of 
horizontal rows and vertical columns with as 
many as 255 characters in each record and 
300 records in any one file. Files can be 
sorted, specific items can be searched for, 
and storage can h£ accomplished on either 
tape or disk. Also included are FIX-FILE, a 
companion utility for expanding fields or 
adding new fields to existing files, and TRY- 
FILE, a sample data file for learning the 
procedures. Solid Software, P.O. Box 712, 
Levittown, PA 19058, cassette $19.95 plus 
$2S/H 

The Sector Inspector, a disk "zap" utility 
requiring 64K RAM and Disk Extended 
basic. The program can alphabetize, backup 
and print out directories; repair crashes; 
LUSTBA&lC programs; name disks; read in 
and edit 23+ grans; three-swap backups and 
more. Sonburst Software, 233 S.E. Rogue 
River Hwy., Grants Pass, OR 97527, disk 
$29.95 

The Factory: Explorations in Problem Solv- 
ing, a new educational program offered* f or 
the 31tk Color Computer with one disk 
drive. Designed for ages nine to adult, the 
program helps children learn how to break 
down a problem into its parts and then solve 
each part . . . step by step. Designing an 
assembly line to solve the problems develops 
their ability to plan ahead and to reason 
visually. Sunburst Communications Inc., 
Pleasantville, NY 10570, disk $39.95 

Teasers by Tobbs: Puzzles and Problem 
Solving, a program of math puzzles for ages 
eight to adult. The program aids in practic- 
ing math problems while developing the 
ability to break the problem into its compo- 
nents, select the part to solve first, and then 
find the solution. Sunburst Communica- 
tions Inc., Pleasantville, NY 10570, disk 
$39.95 

The Pond: Strategies in Problem Solving, a 

program designed for children above seven 
to teach about experimentation. Playing the 
game, they gather information, make and 
test assumptions, and learn to recognize 
patterns and reason visually. Sunburst 
%>rnihunications Inc., Pleasantville, NY 
1^%$sk $39.95 

Phantom Memory, a 64K ML program to 
access the "phantom" 32K RAM for basic 
programs. The program also establishes a 
new type of dimension and variable that util- 
izes the additional storage space. Trillium 
Systems, 67 King St. East, Oshawa, Ontario, 
Canada L1H IB4 



The Seal of Certification program is open to 
all manufacturers of products for the TRS-80 
Color Computer, the TDP-100, or the Dragon-32, 
regardless of whether they advertise in the rainbow. 

By awarding a Seal, the magazine certifies the 
program does exist, but this does not constitute any 
guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these 
hardware or software items will be forwarded to 
the rainbow's reviewers for evaluation. 

— Kevin Nickols 



SHELL 

software 




LUNAR LANDER 16K EXT It s up to you commander, your space craft is damag- 
ed and your losing oxygen. You must land to repair. You have a choice of 4 dif- 
ferent planets to land on. 

32K LUNAR LANDER works with SPECTRUM PROJECT S Voice Pak. $15.95 



CHAMP 
JOYSTICK 
$19.95 ea. 
$34.95 pr. 



LARGEST 
SUPPLIER 
IN THE 

SOUTHS 




QUICK SHOT 

■♦19.95 ea. 
'34.95 pr. 




JOYSTICK - 
•49.95 ea 



FAMOUS RED BALL 
JOYSTICK $34.95 ea. 




8301 Sarnovy Dr./Orlando, FL 32807 



reviewing. 



REVIEWS 



RETIREMENT PLANNING MODEL 

Editor: 

As author of the Retirement Planning 
Model (A&P Software), I wish to thank Mr. 
Howard Ball for his review (July 1984 rain- 
bow). While the review was generally favor- 
able, Mr. Ball felt rather strongly that the 
model is overpriced. As an author/ vendor, 1 
would like to share a couple of my views 
regarding software pricing. 

First, we made the decision to market the 
model realizing that we were offering a fairly 
specialized product which automatically 
limits the potential sales volume. Software 
pricing decisions must consider the mathe- 
matics of potential volume, advertising and 
production costs, and some compensation 
for a considerable time investment. When all 
of these factors are considered, the low- 
volume specialty product must be priced 
somewhat higher to provide a reasonable 
profit. 1 would like to think that there is a 
genuine need for special interest programs, 
but there must be an economic incentive to 
bring them to the market. 

My final point is the relationship between 
value and cost. A planning tool such as the 
Retirement Planning Model 'will not provide 
hours of entertainment while moving the 
frog across the busy highway and the treach- 
erous stream, nor will it print the mailing list 
for your club newsletter. It can, however, 
provide valuable guidance toward planning 
a properly funded retirement. If the Retire- 
ment Planning Model helps insure its pur- 
chaser of making the proper retirement 
planning decisions, its potential value makes 
the cost trivial. While cost is always a factor 
in making purchase decisions, the ultimate 
test should be the potential value of a 
product. 

Independent authors with specialized 
knowledge have much to offer in the realm 
of analytical software. But there must be an 
incentive. Until recently, a lack of business 
software has been one of CoCo's short- 
comings. This gap will continue to disappear 
if the market understands the basic econom- 
ics of limited volume products and recog- 
nizes the concept of value/cost relationships. 

Paul G. Parker 
A&P Software 



THE ANSWER 

Editor: 

I first want to thank you for reviewing our 
product, The Answer, which was reviewed 
April 1 984, Page 260, and 1 want to correct a 
few inaccuracies. 

The major mistake the reviewer made was 
stating that all machine language programs 
must be patched to work with The Answer. 
This is simply not true! The only programs 
that need to be patched are those with their 
own output to printer routines. Any machine 
language program that uses Basic's printer 
routine will work without modification. 

A good example of this is Elite* Word. 
This fine word processor uses Basic's output 
character routine, and works nicely with 77?^ 
Answer! It is really nice to see the program 
dump the text to the printer at the printer's 
fastest speed using parallel, rather than 
serial (or converted serial) transmission. 

My next disagreement is with his criticism 
of The Answer default rate in the terminal 
software. Our default value works with all 
the BBS systems that we know of, as well as 
the Source and CompuServe. In any event, 
the default value is easily reset. Our main 
reason for including terminal software was 
to provide the means for printing while 
online. There is no other system that will 
allow you to print online, and allow you to 
use your disk drives! 

With the CoCo-Term, you can save and 
load to disk or tape! You can grow into our 
system, instead of out of it. 

Now for some comments about our new 
version of The Answer which features a 
short ribbon cable connection to the ROM 
pack port. This not only solves the problem 
of stability, but it allows The Answer and the 
disk controller to lie flat on the table parallel 
to the CoCo. This will take up much less 
space. 

The 1 2 volt pilot light will be replaced so it 
will work with the CoCo 2. (There was no 
CoCo 2 when The Answer was originally 
designed!) 

We are also considering a provision for a 
larger ROM chip, which would allow us (or 
the end user) to place an often used program 
in the ROM. You would be able to toggle 
between our software (CoCo-Term, the 
Monitor, and print driver routines), and the 



print driver routines and a word processor 
or spreadsheet, etc. 

While The Answer won't win any beauty 
contests, you will be hard pressed to find a 
hardware/ software combination that pro- 
vides as many useful functions in one device 
at any price. 

John Ross 
MCSI, Inc. 



COLORTAC 



Editor: 

I havejust finished reading the April 1984 
issue of the rainbow and as usual you have 
an excellent magazine. I must disagree with 
the review (Page 236) of Colortac written by 
A. Buddy Hogan. I have a copy of this pro- 
gram and the program Menu that Mr. 
Hogan also mentioned and I have found 
them both to be excellent as well as being 
well worth the price. I also am the owner of 
BASF 6106 drives. Most of the people 1 
know who have Radio Shack drives have 
had speed problems with them. 

It is very unfortunate that Mr. Hogan did 
not receive the documentation to accom- 
pany Menu, as this is really quite a program, 
1 do not know what revision Mr. Hogan 
received, as 1 have revision 2.0. This pro- 
gram is designed to be a disk management 
tool for those of us whodo not have the total 
contents of each of our disks memorized. I 
have found this program to be very useful. It 
is the easiest method of checking each disk 
for that program that you know you have 
but can't remember where it is. Yes, there are 
a few of us sane people here who run other 
programs from Menu! I have a copy of 
Menu on each disk that 1 own and use it for 
this purpose quite often. 

The documentation for both programs is 
short but well written. 1 feel that both of 
these utility programs are a welcome ad- 
dition to any disk library and would recom- 
mend them to anyone. 

J. Wright 
APO, S.F 



198 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



BUSINESS MANAGER 

Editor: 

I have received the draft copy of a review 
of my product Business Manager. [The 
review of Business Manager appears in this 
issue of the rainbow.] As taken in its 
entirety, 1 thought the review was favorable, 
but 1 also thought the reviewer, Mr. James 
F. Taylor, missed the whole point of the 
product. 

Business Manager was developed by me 
as a tool for a small business. It can be used 
with a tape system or a disk system, and with 
an optional printer. The user can use Busi- 
ness Manager wit ha minimum system, then 
as the user adds disk drives and printers the 
program will still be usable without modi- 
fications. 

The statement I take issue with is that Mr. 
Taylor does not recommend Business Man- 
ager with a disk system because the transac- 
tions are lost when you move your accumu- 
lators to the yearly statement. 

1) Before moving the accumulators to the 
yearly statement, the user could print out a 
list of all the transactions and, therefore, 
have a hardcopy of all transactions. 

2) The transactions could also be printed 
out by account classification. 

3) Before moving the accumulators to the 
yearly statement, the user could save the 
month transactions to tape for future use. 

Business Manager was designed to save 
data on disk or tape so the disk user could 
save past data on tape instead of disk for 
storage. 

The printouts are simple, but adequate to 
save memory. The printouts use the screen 
format for the hardcopy. 

As stated by Mr. Taylor, this program is 
about 10. 5K. in length and, therefore, it was 
not possible to get fancy because of memory 
considerations. 

Lastly, I would again like to say the review 
was somewhat satisfactory. Mr. Taylor called 
it like he saw it, only in some sections of the 
program he and 1 saw it differently. Business 
Manager is a program designed to help a 
small business and as such the program is 
simple, but it also contains everything needed 
to keep track of income and expenses. 

John Nyitray 
80 Custom Software 



Editor: 

The only real issue brought out in Mr. 
Nyitray's rebuttal is that he does not agree 
with my opinion that the program is not 
convenient for disk system owners. How- 
ever, he does deem it necessary to devote 
one-third of his rebuttal to defining the ways 
he has perceived to get around the very weak- 
ness which I mentioned in my review. Has 
the concept of a user without a cassette ever 
occurred to him? He states right in the rebut- 
tal that he planned the product for a cassette 
system which may be upgraded with a disk 
and printer. 

1 can see no real point in Mr. Nyitray's 
rebuttal letter, given the favorable nature of 



my review, except to announce that he has 
fixed the real "bugs" in the program which 1 
apparently pointed out to him in my review, 
and which any good programmer would 
have found with minimal testing. 

J. F. Taylor 
Meriden, KS 



EVERYONE'S GUIDE TO basic 

Editor: 

To us, the most striking thing about the 
review of Everyone's Guide To BASIC is that 
it does not discuss the book itself, but 
instead addresses the question of whether 
programming should be taught as a machine- 
specific process or as a generic process. The 
writer's obvious opinion is that program- 
ming is always machine-specific. This is a 
valid opinion, but it seems misplaced in a 
product review. It would seem more appro- 
priate to point out the book's approach and 
then let the reader decide if this is the type of 
book he or she wants to use. 

Everyone's Guide To basic is intended to 
be a simple introduction to what BASIC pro- 
gramming is and how it works. It is not 
intended to deal with "subtleties." If any- 
thing, it is meant to offer an even simpler, 
clearer, more understandable explanation of 
basic than is provided in many computer 
user guides. 

Altogether, this review doesn't provide 
the type of information a potential buyer 
might want. The book's intended audience is 
novice computer owners (and users) who 
would like to learn how to write simple pro- 
grams in basic, and these people would 
probably like to know whether or not the 
book adequately covers the BASIC language, 
whether or not the presentation is clear 
enough for novices, whether or not the book 
is logically organized, and how the book 
compares to other basic primers. None of 
this information is provided in the review, 
having been pre-empted by the writer's opin- 
ions about programming books in general. 

We feel that Everyone 's Guide To BASIC is 
a good book for anyone who would like to 
learn the basics of programming and write 
simple programs in basic. 

Estelle Weber 
Consumer Guide Publications 



t fc 4 



RAINBOW/^ 



REAL 
TIME 
CLOCK 



RTC-10 



Full featured, yet very easy to use, 
RTC-10 is a quartz-based. Time/Date 
clock contained in a compact ROM case. 
RTC-10 makes it simple to access the 
time and date with just a few Basic 
PEEKS. A 2-year + replaceable battery 
(included) keeps time accurate when the 
computer is off and even when the 
cartridge is unplugged. 




ONLY $89.00 

Compatible with any 16K or greater, 
Extended or non-extended Color 
Computer, RTC-10 may be used with or 
without a Radio Shack or any other Multi- 
Slot unit. To use it with a disk, without a 
Multi-Slot, order the Y-cable below. 

Completely assembled, tested and ready 
to plug-in and use, with programs 
included for clock setting and for 
continuosly displaying the Time/Date in 
the upper right corner of the video 
screen. ONLY $89.00 



COCO CABLES 

Top quality cable and connectors with 
all gold plated contacts 



Y-CABLE- 40 conductor, 1 ft. long, 1 
Male, 2 Females. Allows you to connect 
your disk controller pack and the RTC-10 
Clock or most voice synthesizers, etc. 
ONLY $29.95 

DISK PACK EXTENDER CABLE 40 

Conducter, 2 ft. long, 1 Male, 1 Female. 
Lets you place your disk controller pack 
where you want it, out of your way. 
ONLY $22,95 

CUSTOM FLAT CABLES- Call-in or send 
us your requirement. We will quote a 
reasonable price for the cable you need. 



Custom Computer Products 

6 Dogwood Court 
Goshen, NY 10924 
(914) 469-9780 



ccp 



ADD $3.00 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING & HANDLING 
FOR C.O.D.. INCLUDE AN ADDITIONAL $3.00 
NY RESIDENTS MUST INCLUDE SALES TAX. 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 199 



********* 



SELECTED SOFTWARE 

FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



********* mAUt 

RAINBOW J^t, 



UPGRADE YOUR 
COLOR COMPUTER! 

COMPLETE SOLDERLESS KITS 
WITH EASY-TO-FOLLOW 
INSTRUCTIONS. 



;K-16K FOR ALL BOARDS $19.95 

* 4K-32K FOR ALL BOARDS $54.95 

16K-32K FOR ALL BOARDS $39.95 

64K For E & F BOARDS 

& COCO 2 $59.95 

VF POSSIBLE, PLEASE SPECIFY 
BOARD REVISION WITH ORDER. 

NOTE: All ICs used in our kits are first 
quality 200NS Prime Chips and carry 
one full year warranty. 



EXTENDED 
BASIC KIT 



$59.95 



THE HJL-57 KEYBOARD 

with free software 
for four function keys. 

reg. $79.95 sale $74.95 

•Please specify mode! 
{original. F version or COCO 2) 



DISKETTE CAROUSEL 

with 72 color-coded 
envelopes. 

reg. $29.95 sale $24.95 



VOLKSMODEM 

300 BAUD, DIRECT CONNECT. 

ORIG/ANSWER 
AUTOMATICALLY SELECTED. 
COMES WITH ALL COCO CABLES 
AND BATTERY. 

$74.95 



BOOKS 

COLOR BASIC 

UNRAVELLED $19.95 

EXTENDED 

BASIC UNRAVELLED $19.95 

DISK BASIC UNRAVELLED . . $19.95 
ALL 3 BOOKS ONLY $49.95 



MONITORS 

BMC Hi-Res Green or Amber, 
without sound 

$134.95 

BMC Medium Res Color, with sound 

$289.95 



MONITOR INTERFACE 

20% OFF WITH MONITOR PURCHASED 



$24.95 



VIDEO PLUS Color or 
monochrome for COCO . 
VIDEO PLUS II C 

Color for COCO 2 $39.95 

VIDEO PLUS II M 

Monochrome for COCO 2 . 



$26.95 



'REAL TALKER' 

WITH ENHANCED SOFTWARE 
ON TAPE AND USER'S MANUAL 

Cartridge $59.95 



'REAL TALKER II' 

SAME AS ABOVE FOR COCO 2 

$69.95 

Y BRANCHING CABLE 

FOR DISK SYSTEMS $29.95 



PRINTER 

GEMINI 10X $289.95 

PBH SERIAL TO PARALLEL SWITCH 
SELECTABLE PRINTER AND 
MODEM INTERFACE 

(Reg. 89.95) SALE $79.95 

URCHASE. WITH P Rl NTER $ 64.95 



TAKE 20% OFF 
ANY SOFTWARE ORDER! 



All games are in 16K 
machine language unless noted. 




Ci 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

T D 

DRACONIAN (32K) $27.95 $30.95 

SKRAMBLE $24.95 $27.95 

CRASH (32K) $24.95 $27.95 

WORLDS OF FLIGHT (32K) $29.95 $31.95 

SR-71 (32K Ext. Basic) $28.95 $31.95 

TOUCHSTONE (32K) $27.95 $30.95 

KINGTUT $27.95 $30.95 

BUZZARD BAIT (32K) $27.95 $30.95 

TRAP FALL $27.95 $30.95 

DONKEY KING (32K) $26.95 - 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

T D 

GALAGON (32K) $24.95 $28.95 

COLOR PANIC (32K) $24.95 $28.95 

CUBIX(32K) $24.95 $28.95 

FROGGIE (32K) . . $24.95 $28.95 

LUNAR ROVER PATROL (32K) .. $24.95 $28.95 

LANCER (32K) $24.95 $28.95 

* ANDROID ATTACK (16K&32K) .. $24.95 — 

* MS. GOBBLER (32K) $24.95 $28.95 

* WHIRLYBIRD RUN $24.95 $28.95 

* STORM ARROW $24.95 — 

* DEFENSE $24.95 — 

GALAX ATT AX $24.95 — 

/ PLANET INVASION $24.95 — 

*■ SPACE WAR $24.95 — 

■ GHOST GOBBLER $21.95 — 

GEOGRAPHIC PAC (Ext. Basic) . $29.95 — 

INTRACOLOR 

T D 

• • COLORPEDE $29.95 $34.95 

* ROBOTTACK $24.95 $27.95 

CANDY CO. (32K) $34.95 $34.95 

7" WILLY S WAREHOUSE (32K) . .. . $34.95 $34.95 
INTRACOLOR GRAND PRIX 

(32K) $34.95 $34.95 



UTILITIES AND APPLICATIONS 

T D 

TELEWRITER-64 $49.95 $59.95 

MASTER DESIGN — $34 95 

PRO-COLOR-FILE 'ENHANCED* — $79.95 

COLORCOM/E Rompak or Disk . . $49.95 

CCEAD $ 6.95 — 

64K DISK UTILITY — $21.95 

TAPE UTILITY $24.95 $24.95 

MULTIPAK CRACK — $24.95 



SPECIALS 
UP TO 50% OFF 



TAPE 

' FROGGER $12.95 

' ZAKSUND(32K) $13.50 

'ASTRO BLAST $12.95 

' COLOR HAYWIRE $12.95 

'CAVE HUNTER $12.95 

' PACDROIDS $ 9.95 

' THE SPIDER $ 9.95 

' DUNKEY MONKEY (32K) $11.95 

' SPACE INVADERS $ 9.95 

' KATERPILLAR $11.95 

' PROTECTORS (32K) $12.50 

1 COLOR ZAP $ 7.95 

1 COLOR OUT $ 7.95 

COLOR GRAPHIC ANIMATOR .. $ 7.95 

COLOR GRAPHIC EDITOR $9.95 

INVADER'S REVENGE $ 9.95 

PHANTOM SLAYER $ 9.95 

TIMS $14.95 

AUTO RUN $ 9.95 

SILLY SYNTAX 4 $ 9.95 



RAINBOW 
CONNECTION SOFTWARE 

T D 

RAINBOW SCREEN MACHINE 

(Ext. Basic Req.) $29.95 $32.95 

SUPER SCREEN MACHINE 
(Ext. Basic Req.) $44.95 $47 95 

DATA SOFT 

T D 

• ZAXXON (32K) $39.95 $39.95 

• MOON SHUTTLE (Tape & Disk 

Included) $29.95 $2995 

' POOYAN (32K — Tape & Disk 

Included) $29.95 $29.95 

COMPUTERWARE 

T D 

• JUNIOR'S REVENGE (32K) $28.95 $3195 

' GRAN PRIX (32K) $21.95 $24.95 

' DOODLE BUG $24.95 - 

ANTECO SOFTWARE 

ROMPAK ONLY 

' 8-BALL $29.95 

' WHIRLYBIRD RUN 

by Spectral Associates $26.95 

' GHOST GOBBLER 

by Spectral Associates $26.95 

ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

T D 

SAIGON: THE FINAL DAYS $24.95 — 

ADVENTURELAND $19.95 - 

EARTHQUAKE $24.95 - 

' SEA DRAGON (32 K) $34.95 — 

'Requires Joystick * 'Joystick Optional 



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Overseas please add $3.00. (MN Residents add 6% sales tax.) 
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only for foreign orders. C.O.D. please add $2.00. 



SEND TO: 



SELECTED SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 32228 
Fridley, MN 55432 



Software Review^SSS^SSSSSSSSSSSSSTf^ 

Time Bandit Will Steal 
Your Heart 

A cowboy pulls his gun on a dinosaur out of the past. This 
is the first of many strange things you will find in Time 
Bandit, and this is only the cover. The program is written by 
Bill Dunlevy, author of Dungeon Escape, Clash, Cyborg, 
and Jovian with assistance from Harry Lafnear. A very 
sincere letter from the author is included in the package. 

"All Of Space Is Your Garden, And All Of Time 
Is Yours In Which To Harvest It. 
You Are The Time Bandit!" 

This is the code of the Time Bandit and it is found at the 
beginning of the excellent documentation, tips, and loading 
instructions. Time Bandit boasts more than 20 different 
locations each with 16 of their own unique playing levels. 

Time Bandit includes three major areas; Western World, 
Fantasy World, and Space World. Travel begins every time 
in what is called the Timegates. You must acquire a key to 
unlock the door to Western, Space, arid Fantasy World so 
that you can reach one of the more than 20 play areas. 

Your movement is controlled by the joystick or the key- 
board, the joystick being easiest for me. In the Timegates 
you can fight off monsters, get treasure, get your key and 
escape to freedom. There are three monsters in the Time- 
gates — a blue mutated sloth, something that looks like a 
land-born jellyfish, and a giant crab. If any of these touch 
you, you'll lose five of your 100 power points. Next to 
Timegates' name you will see * 1 A' in blue letters. This means 
you are in the first phase of the Timegates, skill level one. 
The next time you are at the Timegates it will be first phase, 
skill level two. There are four phases and four skill levels of 
the Timegates. Each phase has a different map of the Time- 
gates and they are all progressively harder. After leaving the 
Timegates you can enter the realm of medieval battle in one 
of seven different locations in Fantasy World. If you wish 
you can go to any of seven different locations in the realm of 
ghost towns and gunslihgers in Western World. You still 
have seven choices remaining in Space World, the realm of 
terrible mutated space creatures and supratcchnology. 

In Fantasy World you can choose from seven different 
places. You can go through a castle, a ruin, a maze, an arena 
and others. There are three major monsters in Fantasy 
World. First there are these colorful, swirling entities, then 
there are these ominous, blinking, red, omniscient eyeballs 
that even have moving pupils that look left and right to see 
which way to go, and lastly there are the Killer Smurphs. 
They look exactly like the Smurfs we see on TV except they 
have tiny little malicious grins on their faces. 1 enjoy 
smurphing them. 

Western World has an array of places you can go, ranging 
from a ghost town to a jail. You have three major types of 
monster in Western World. First, you have these cute little 
ghosts that fly around. Second, there are outlaws (or maybe 
they are sheriffs and you are the outlaw) who walk along 
arms akimbo. Thirdly, there are the red scorpions. 



In Space World — from the Enterprise to the 
insidious grid — you combat three types of mutated space 
monsters who I won't try to describe. 

When traveling from screen to screen I explained earlier 
that you must have a key to unlock the gates. Well, some 
screens have two keys and two locks. You must get one key 
and Open one lock before you can get the second key — you 
can't carry two keys at once. 

The Time Bandit s life relies on regeneration of the power 
points he loses when assaulted. You regenerate one point of 
power per 100 points of score, to a maximum of 100 ppyve^ 
points at a time. The easiest way to renew your power t& * 
grab treasures. The first in each screen is worth 100 points, 
the second is worth 200 and the third is worth 300 points. If 
your power runs below zero, you die. Because of the nature 
of the time travel you do as a time bandit you can only stay in 
one place for a certain length of time. When that time runs 
out your power gauge drops like a rock! 

When playing Time Bandit, you can use either the arrow 
keys, or the joystick. Either way you should re member, that 
the 4 P' key pauses action until you hit enter to resume play. 

Time Bandit is by far the best game on the Coior Comput- 
er I've ever seen and it is sure to be the biggest thing to hit the 
CoCo since AC power. I look forward to future programs by 
Mr. Bill Dunlevy. 

(MichTron, 1691 Eason, Pontiac, MI 48054, $27.95 tape, 
$29.95 disk) 

— Scott Sehlhorst 




FLY at MACH 2! 

F-16 Instrument Flight Simulator 

Don't chug around at 90 knots 
with other simulators. f-16 flys 
mach 2.6, is fully aerobatic, very * 
realistic $21.95 

DESCENDERS 

100% ml for Radio Shack® LPVII, DMP100" 
TDP-1, and Gorilla® Banana $17.9ST 

TSPOOL 

100% ML SOFTWARE SPOOLER FOR TELEWRITER-64® 
ONLY $24.95 

TELE WRITER - 64 

The best CoCo word processor available today!; 
Tape $49.95 Disk $59.95 

We now handle all CoCoData EnU programs: 

Graphics Program Generator II $16.95 

Electricity Consumption Monitor $10.95 

Household Budget Worksheet $ 6.95 

LUST-RITE $ 5.95;. 

Call (813) 321-2840 for more information. 

KRT Software, Inc. 
P. O. Box 41395 
St. Petersburg, Florida 33743 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 201 



Software Review— 

A dvanced Editor 
A Fun, Handy OS-9 Program 

By Dale Puckett 

A lot of programmers would rather work with a line- 
oriented editor than a screen editor. If you fall in this cate- 
gory, you'li want to take a serious look at Computerware 's 
Advanced Editor, the company's OS-9 version of Scribe. It 
works a lot like the editor from Technical Systems Consul- 
tants (TSC) that many of us cut our teeth on and is a big 
improvement over the editor supplied with OS-9. It is very 
handy for writing BASIC programs, assembly language pro- 
grams and can also be Used for writing short letters or 
documentation. [Computerware recommends using this 
programming editor with FHL's O-Pak, and Advanced Edi- 
tor will auto-load O^Pak.] 

Although it is line-oriented, Advanced Editor lets you 
manipulate characters in a special edit mode. You can insert 
characters, delete characters, type over characters and even 
break or join lines. It is very easy to use and I was able to do 
some rather complicated editing after working with Ad- 
vanced Editor for only an hour. 

Advanced Editor has three modes: Input, Command and 
Edit, You use the Input mode to enter your text. You may 
type up to 250 characters on a line arid enter as rhany lines as 
you like. You may also edit characters within the line using 



Hint . . . 



Negative Offsets 

You can load machine language programs from 
tape or disk with an effective negative offset, that is, to 
an area of memory lower than the specified starting 
address. The snytax for loading with offset is LOA DM 
"TITLE'\XXXX (or CLOA DM), where XXXX is the 
offset. Negative numbers won't work for XXXX, but 
offsets that appear to place the program beyond the 
end of memory (65535) will "wrap around" so that 
65536 is rriemory location zero, 66636 is 1000, etc. 

Example: A machine language program on tape has 
a starting address of 16000. To offset load it so that it 
starts at address 10000, calculate the offset as follows: 

1. Find the negative offset. 

NEGATIVE OFFSET^NEW ADDRESS- 
ORIGINAL ADDRESS 
NEGATIVE OFFS ET= 1 0000- 1 6000=-6000 

2. Add 65536 to the negative offset. 

OFFSET=NEGATIVE OFFSET+65536 
OFFSET=-6000+65536=59536 

3. Load the program with the calculated offset. 

CLOADM 4 TITLE , \59536 

The program will offset load 6000 bytes lower than 
the address specified on the tape. 

Barry E. Becker 
Smithtown, N. Y. 



special control character commands while entering text. 
You return to the command mode by hitting the Escape key 
or the Rubout key. 

You get to the line Edit mode by typing the letter *E' while 
in the command mode. Here is a listing of the special control 
commands. Remember, they only have an effect on the text 
in one line. 

CONTROL E — insert characters 
CONTROL S — delete characters 
CONTROL B — break a line into two or more lines 
CONTROL F append two lines together 
CONTROL A — copy the remainder of "old" line 
CONTROL X — ignore previous edits and start over 
CONTROL V— backspace a word 
CONTROL H — backspace one character 
CONTROL 1 copy one character from "old" to 
"new" 

Advanced Editors line editing functions are easier to use 
than they are to explain. To use them, you move to the line 
you want to edit while still in the command mode and then 
type fc E\ Advanced Editor will then print the line on your 
terminal and move the cursor to the front of the next line 
below it on the screen. You then strike the [CONTROL] [1] or 
right arrow key and you'll see the characters from the origi- 
nal line reappear on the new line. You strike this key until 
you get to the point you want to make a change and then use 
one of the other control keys. It's kind of fun to watch it 
work once you get used to the idea it is not a screen editor. 

From Advanced Editor's command mode, you can jump 
to the top or the bottom of your text, move through the text 
a line at a time, go directly to the desired line by typing a 
number, or go to a line that contains a target string. We 
won't detail their operation here, but disk-oriented com- 
mands available from the command mode include: 

LOAD SAVE WRITE READ LOG 
DOS MORE DO 

Advanced Editor s DO command is of special interest 
because it lets you call OS-9's Shell and execute another 
utility while you are editing a text file. For example, you 
may be writing a story and want to watch a utility perform 
just before you describe it. WRITE is also handy because it 
lets you write a specified number of lines to a disk file. It 
would be handy for creating boilerplates which can be 
inserted in other files later with the READ command. 

Personally, I've been spoiled by working with a screen 
editor for several years. But, Advanced Editor brings back 
fond memories of those early days with TSC's editor on the 
SWTPC 6800 box. Advanced Editor is a fun editor to use. 

(Computerware, Box 668, 4403 Manchester Ave., Suite 102, 
Encinitas, CA 92024, $39) 



See you at 

RAINBOWfest Chicago 

June 22-24 



202 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



SUPER SCREEN" 




A big 51 character by 24 line screen. 
Full upper and lower case characters. 
Easily combine text with hi-res 
graphics. 

PRINT @ is completely functional on 
the big screen. 

The powerful ON ERROR GOTO is 
fully implemented. 



• Auto-key repeat for greater keyboard 
convenience. 

• Controlcodesforadditional functions. 

• Works with 16K, 32 K of 64 K com- 
puters. 

• Available on disc or cassette. 

• Works with extended and/or disc 
BASIC. 



51 CHARACTERS BY 24 LINE DISPLAY 

Super Screen is a powerful, machine language program that significantly upgrades 
the performance and usefulness of 16K or greater, Extended and Disc Basic Color 
Computers. The standard Color Computer display screen is totally inadequate for 
serious, personal or business applications so Super Screen replaces it with a brand 
new, 51 character wide by 24 line screen including full upper and lower case 
characters. Instead of a confusing checkerboard appearance, you now have true 
lower case letters along with a screen that is capable of displaying 1224 characters. 
The difference is startling! Your computer takes on new dimensions and can easily 
handle lines of text that were simply too long and complex to display on the old 
screen. 

COMBINE TEXT WITH HI-RES GRAPHICS 

You can now write truly professional looking programs that combine text with hi-res 
graphics. Super Screen allows you to create graphics displays with the Basic LINE, 
DRAW and CIRCLE statements and then notate the graphics with descriptive text. 
You can even use PRINT @ if you wish for greater programming convenience. Super 
Screen's versatility will amaze you. 

PRINT @ IS FULLY IMPLEMENTED 

The PRINT @ statement is a valuable asset to the programmer when formatting text 
on the screen. The standard Color Computer will report an error if you specify a 
location higher than 511 but Super Screen allows locations all the way to 1223! You 
get a big screen and a powerful formatting tool as well. Of course, Super Screen also 
supports the CLS command allowing you to clear the big screen using standard 
Basic syntax. 

ON ERROR GOTO 

That's right! Super Screen gives you a full implementation of ON ERROR GOTO 
including the ERR and ERL functions. Now you can trap errors and take corrective 
action to prevent crashed programs and lost data using the same standard syntax as 
other computers. The ON ERROR GOTO capability overcomes a serious deficiency 
of Color Computer Basic and greatly improves your capability to handle 
sophisticated tasks. All well written, 'user friendly' programs use error trapping 
techniques and yours can too! Now that's power! 

AUTO KEY REPEAT 

No more frustration as you edit a long line in your Basic program; just hold the space 
bar down and automatically step to the desired position in the line. Need a line of 
asterisks? Hold the key down and auto repeat will give them to you. Those of you who 
spend many hours at your keyboard will appreciate this outstanding addition to Super 
Screen's long list of impressive capabilities. 

CONTROL CODES FOR ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS 

Super Screen recognizes several special control code characters that allow selection 
of block or underline, solid or blinking cursor and other functions. You can 'Home Up' 
the cursor or you may erase from the cursor to the end of a line or to the end of the 
screen just like many other computers. These special codes give you an extra 
dimension of versatility and convenience that put Super Screen ip a class by itself. 

AND MORE GOOD NEWS... 

Super Screen comes with complete, well detailed instructions and is available on 
cassette or disc. It adjusts automatically to any 16K or greater, Extended or Disc Basic 
Color Computer or TDP-100 and uses only 2K of memory in addition to the screen 
memory reserved during power up. Guaranteed to be the most frequently used 
program in your software library. . once you use it, you won't be without it! Super 
Screen's low price will really please you; only $29 95 on cassette or $32.95 on disc! 




4& SUPER BUG 



Mark Data Products SUPER BUG is a powerful, relocatable machine code monitor 
program for your Coco. If you are a beginner, the program and documentation are an 
indispensable training aid, helping you to gain a better understanding of your Color 
Computer and machine code programming. If you are an accomplished computerisi, 
SUPER BUG'S capabilities, versatility and convenience will prove invaluable during 
programming and debugging. 

SUPER BUG offers so many outstanding features that we are unable to list them all in 
this limited space, hex and alpha numeric memory display, modify, search and test; full 
printer support with baud rate and line feed select; up to 220 breakpoints; mini object 
code disassembler; 64K mode setup; decimal, hex and ascii code conversion routines 
and extensive documentation. Only $29.95 on cassette or $32.95 on disc. 



ORDER ENTRY SYSTEM 

The Mark Dataproducts sales order processing system will give a fast, efficient means 
to enter orders, print shipping papers and invoices, prepare sales reprots.and monitor 
receivables. The system automatically enhances the monitor screen toa 51 character 
by 24 line display. 32K of memory is required along with an 80-column printer, and 
one or more disc drives. 

The MDP order entry system is a family ot programs which operate interactively by 
means of a "menu'' selection scheme. Up to 900 products may be defined and a single 
disc system can hold over 600 transactions. When the operator selects a task to be 
performed, the computer loads a. progmm designed to handle that task from the 
system disc. The system disc contains ail of the programs required to create, update 
and maintain data files and prepare the necessary paperwork including shipping and 
invoice forms, daily sales reports, a monthly (or other period) sales report and a 
receivables report. 

The MDP sy?tem: 

• Is accurate, user friendly and simple to use. 

• Is easy to customize for specific user requirements. 

• Produces a traceable invoice. 

• Handles receivables as well as closed orders. 

• In capable of future expandability. 

This accounting software equals or exceeds higher priced packages for other 
computers and includes a detailed operating manual. For just $99.95. 



ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 

The Mark Data Products accounting system is ideal for the small businessman 
needing a fast, efficient means to process income and expenses, prepare detailed 
reports and maintain most of the information required at tax time. The system is a 
family of programs which operate by means of a "menu" selection scheme. When the 
operator selects a task to perform, the computer loads a program designed to handle 
tfiat task from the system disc. The system disc contains all of the programs required 
to create, update and maintain data files and prepare the necessary accounting 
reports including a transaction journal, a P&L or income report, an interim or trial 
balance and a balance sheet. 

Up to 255 separate accounts may be defined and a single disc system can hold over 
1,400 transactions. This system automatically enhances the monitor screen to a 51 
character by 24 line display. 32K of memory is required along with an 80-column 
printer and one or more disc drives. 

The MDP system: 

• Is accurate, user friendly and simple to use. 

• Is easy to customize for specific user requirements. 

• Immediately updates the chart of accounts. 

• Provides an audit trail. 

• Includes end of period procedures. 

• is capable of future expandability. 

This order entry software equals or exceeds higher priced packages for other 
computers and includes a detailed operating manual For just $99.95. 



IMPORTANT NEW BOOKS 

"Your Color Computer" by Doug Mosher. Over 300 pages of detailed information— 
A CoCo encyclopedia. $16.95 

"Programming the 6809' by Rodnay Zaks and William Labiak. One of the best 6809 
machine language texts available— required reference material. $15.95. 



64K Memory Expansion Kit 

All parts and complete instructions 
$64.95 



i * * 



RAINBOW ^ 




WE STOCK SOFTLAW PRODUCTS 

The VIP WRITER Text Processor is rated tops by Rainbow, Hot CoCo and Color 
Computer Magazine. After evaluation we rate it tops too. Disc $59.95. 



Mark Data Products 



24001 ALICIA PKWY., ISTO/207 • MfSSION VIEJO, CA 9269] • 1714) 768-1551 



Artist 




CHICAGO 



i 



AM Orders: Please add $2.00 shipping and handling in the continental U.S. All others, add air shipping and $3.00 handling. California residents add 6% sales tax. Foreign .orders 
please remit U.S. funds. Software authors— Contact us for exciting program marketing details We accept MasterCard and VISA. Distributed in Canada by Kelly Software 



Software Review! 



^There's More Than Meets 
The Eye With Master Design 

By J. Michael Nowicki 

Now here's a unique idea for those of you who do a lot of 
letter writing and would like to add that personal touch of a 
custom designed letterhead. This package is, in essence, a 
graphics screen editor but with an interesting feature that 
allows you to access and print your graphics letterhead from 
within the Telewhter-64 word processing program or from 
within a BASIC program. 

System requirements include a 32K CoCo, one disk and a 
dot matrix printer with graphics capabilities. The documen- 
tation consists of a 17-page manual in a simple and easy to 
format. The program is not copy protected and the very 
first user instruction is to make a backup disk for actual use 
and store the original for safe keeping. 

First you have to configure the main program to work 
with your dot matrix printer because not all printers with 
graphics functions use exactly the same control codes. The 
default codes are set up to work with just about any Radio 
Shack printer and specific instructions are given for Oki- 
data, Epson, C. Itoh and suggestions on how to interface 
other models. I had no trouble at all in getting the program 
tp work with a Radio Shack LP VII, DMP-200 and a 



STOCK & FUND INVESTING 

with the 

TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER 

USE FUNDGRAF AND FUNDFILE 

FUNDGRAF is a stock market analysis program that not only graphs and 
analyzes funds or stocks, but also makes decisions on when to BUY and SELL. 
Improve market timing using your 00C0. 

GRAPHS fund's progress (up to 200 ^ 
weeks). SUPERIMPOSES for comparison: 
„a line of constant percent growth or a 
graph of any other fund (or stock). 
CALCULATES over any time span: the 
percent price change and the moving 
average (any span). INDICATES BUY 
and SELL signals. FUNDGRAF requires 
16 K ECB min. 

16/32 K Tape $49.95 

16/32 K 5 in. Disk $69.95 

ADD $2 handling on all orders. 



T 



I 1 I 1 I 



FUNDGRAF— A STOCK 

MARKET ANALYSIS 
PROGRAM FOR 16K EX 
TRS-80 COLOR COMf'tJTER > 




TWS-HifiDiDPiipuivrEH TwfJWOTcanr 



FUNDFILE is a portfolio and account management program for securities. 
Manage single or multiple portfolios of stocks, mutual funds, bonds, money 
market funds, etc. FUNDFILE allows easy maintenance of all your records for 
accurate portfolio evaluation. NEW 32 K VERSION of FUNDFILE summarizes 
all transactions (dividends, interest, purchases and sales) between any two 
dates of your choice - weekly, yearly, etc. Categorizes interest and dividends paid 
as to tax liability (tax free, etc.) and capital gains as long or short term. Great for 
tax reports. 

FUNDFILE REQUIRES 16 K ECB min. and 80-COL PRINTER 

5-in. Diskette only for 16 K ECB $27.95 

£p Diskette only for 32 K ECB $37.95 

ADD $2 handling on all orders. 

Write for free brochure for details. Dealer inquiries invited. 

PARSONS SOFTWARE, DEPT. G 
118 WOODSHIRE DRIVE 
PARKERSBURG, WV 26101 




Gemini- 1 OX. Changes in printer codes are made by changing 
variables within BASIC lines and you then save the revised 
program to disk as your standard. RUN MENU and ENTER 
to run the boot program that accesses the Master Design 
and Letterhead Utility program. 

Within Master Design, which is the main program of this 
software package, there are two main modes of operation: 
the editor mode for placing text characters on the screen 
using the keyboard, and graphics mode to overlay graphics 
designs using Extended BASIC commands called up by sim- 
ple keyboard commands. All PMODEs are available using 
any color set but for letterheads and graphics design, 
PMODE4 offers the highest resolution and best results 
when the finished product is dumped to your printer. 

The editor is like a mini word processor in that you can 
enter text on the graphics screen using any or all of 30 sizes 
of characters. There is one base character set that can be 
customized to achieve effects like three-dimensional block 
letters, shading, background patterns and much more. 
Exploring all the combinations in various modes will give 
varied and impressive results but they are still all based upon 
the one and only one base character set. There appears to be 
no means of designing and calling up your own base charac- 
ter set from the keyboard. Inclusion of this function would 
have magnified the power and usefulness considerably, but 
it is possible to use the graphics editor to create your own 
font styles and assemble them into words using the GET/ 
PUT function keys. 

From both modes you have a variety of command keys to 
change PMODEs, modify font size and style, load and save 
graphics screens to disk, change the starting graphics page 
and several other functions. The keyboard response is a little 
sluggish when you use larger or more detailed fonts because 
BASIC is used. You have quite a bit of control over exact 
placement of the text cursor which consists of a flashing 
underline. You need this fine control when you switch back 
and forth between font sizes and getting them right on the 
money can be a little tricky. 

In the graphics mode you have two cursors controlled by 
the arrow keys. Which cursor is being moved at the time 
depends on which was selected with the 4 X' key. In case the 
eyes get tired and you lose place of where the cursors are, 
you press *0\ which reveals a semi-graphics screen with big 
blocks to indicate the cursor locations. When you release the 
key, the graphics screen switches back with your eyes still on 
the marked areas. Nice feature. You can create boxes, lines, 
circles, shaded areas, paint them and even have fine cursor 
control over individual pixels. Anything you have done with 
the draw command can easily be undone with the erase 
command. 

Work sheet screens can be saved to disk or tape for future 
use. Each screen file can be given a name and saved in binary 
format and disk directories may be viewed before loading. 

Using all these features combined, you can create a pretty 
good looking letterhead in about an hour or less once you 
get the hang of using the program. The next step is to 
convert the letterhead to a format that can be interfaced with 
Telewriter-64. You are instructed to load in from disk one 
utility program and MERGEit with another short program 
called SUB I MRG and SA VEthe revision to the program 
disk. The next step is to add one BASIC program line to the 
Telewriter-64 binary file program called SI XXX and save 
the modification to disk. Now, whenever you are working 
with Telewriter-64 and wish to print out a letter with your 
custom letterhead you can easily do so by pressing 'V from 
the binary disk file menu. Even with the text buffer packed 



204 



THE RAINBOW July 1984 



to its limit the letterhead utility worked without a flaw and 
returns to Telewriter-64 without disturbing the text buffer 
contents. Another series of options lets you do the same 
thing from within a BASIC program using a similar transfer 
process, but again you have to resave the utility in ASCII 
format so it can be merged. 

Master Design is not limited to just letterhead design even 
though no other possible application for it is mentioned in 
the manual. Since you have full control over PMODEs and 
color sets (but not artifact graphics) you could also use it for 
designing Adventure game screens that can be displayed 
using BASIC by LOADing in the graphics file while in the 
appropriate graphics mode. The program also lends itself to 
CAD (computer aided design/ drafting) in being able to 
quickly draw basic geometric shapes and label dimensions 
with the editor and graphics modes. It took me about 30 
minutes to design and draw a plan for a new computer desk 
complete with dimensions, center lines, screwholes and 
notes. 

Nothing is perfect and this program does have a few 
minor shortcomings. Since most of the programs are written 
in BASIC, response from the keyboard translated into graph- 
ics screen output can be slow. Cursor response in the graph- 
ics mode using PMODE4 can be touchy with the cursor not 
always moving one pixel with each press of the arrow keys. 
A machine language subroutine for all keyboard input 
would improve the response a lot. 

Another shortcoming is found in the editor mode when 
you are entering lines of text. It's easy to flush lines left, but 
to center or flush lines right with each other you will have to 
do quite a bit of trial and error to get it right. The inclusion 
of a command such as "center line" or "flush right" or to be 
able to enter and delete spaces on a line like a text processor 
would make life much easier. Master Design could use a few 
more idiot traps to avoid having the program break if you 
enter a wrong command or syntax, but even if you do make 
a mistake, nothing in graphics memory is lost; you just RUN 
it and your design will still be there. 

Being familiar with your printer is essential in getting the 
most from this program. Normal, compressed and elon- 
gated printer modes allow you to get a wide variety of 
effects, contrasts and line widths. Using a regular width will 
print the screen with a horizontal width of AVi inches while 
an elongated set stretches it out to 7 inches across. 

Master Design does everything it claims to do and its 
usefulness in a variety of other applications makes it worth 
considering as an addition to your program library. 

(Derringer Software, Inc., P.O. Box 5300, Florence, SC 
29502, $34.95) 



Hardware Review! 




FINITI 



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P.O. BOX 3010, LAKEVOOS, tt. 90711-3010 




Real Talker M 
A Pronounced Success 

By Kenneth D. Peters 

Every CoCo in the world can be a real talker with a voice 
that speaks clearly and very understandably, like mine, The 
only thing you need is a ROM pack with a Votrax StjfHV 
synthesizer chip. My particular CoCo has the ROM puck 
from Colorware. They call it Real Talker. 

1 remember the day the synthesizer arrived. My kids were? 
all present at the door when 1 accepted the one small box 
from the UPS driver. "That's it!" screamed my oldest child, 
"Where are the rest of the boxes?" My kids watch "Whiz 
Kids" on TV and apparently envisioned a talking computer 
as a room-full of equipment. Needless to say, my kids left rq^^ 
alone immediately when, upon opening the small box, 
was only a smaller item, the ROM pack, and a cassette tajfll^ 

Moments later my CoCo suddenly said, "Hi there. : 
name is Ralph." That was the last I saw of my computer 
(though I heard him off and on for quite some time). All the 
kids scrambled to their feet, hands flying and fighting to type 
in words from their various vocabularies. Later that night, 
and from time to time over the next couple of weeks, I finally 
got to analyze my CoCo's new hardware speech. The rest of 
this article is what I discovered about Colorware's Real 
Talker. 

How do you use CoCo's new hardware speech synthe- 
sizer? Very easy! Plug the standard ROM pack containing 
the synthesizer unit into the cartridge port, turn on the 
computer, and CLOAD and RUN the speech software sup- 
plied — 16K programs on one side and 32K programs on the 
other. 

The first program loaded is a BASIC program which, when 
run, will load and execute a machine language program 
giving you a text-to-speech routine and a speech editor. Disk 
users have to create a Real Talker program disk before 
experiencing the new voice, but the couple of minutes to 
create it are well spent and give the disk user additional, 
advantages, over tape users, to using the Real Talker. *ln^ 
addition, disk users don't have to use a multipack inte|fac^ 
to use both the disk and the ROM pack at the same timd ^ 
Y adapter ($29.95) works fine; a multi-slot expander can r Be* 
used if you have one. I will discuss use of the disk version 
later. 

The easiest way to get to know Real Talker and its capa- 
bilities is to use the Text-to-Speech program. After loading 
and running the BASIC program mentioned earlier, a menu, 
appears giving you three options: 1) Text-to-Speech^ 2)1 
Phoneme Editor, and 3) Help. Entering 1 1 ' puts you intoitlie 
Text-to-Speech mode. This is an automatic text-to-speec& 
conversion program. After you are in this mode you are 
prompted to enter some words, phrases or sentences. 

Pressing ENTER the first time is very impressive; actually, 
pretty neat! 1 would guess that when using this mod^ 
Real Talker pronounces any words you type in with I 
than 90 percent accuracy. I was quite satisfied and imp! 
with its accuracy and clear pronunciation of most word 
course, some words in the English language are pronounc? 
according to their use in the sentence (e.g. lead and wind). It 
these cases and where words don't follow pronunciation 
rules, you have to deliberately misspell the word or use the 




July 1984 THE RAINBOW 205 



phoneme editor (speech editor) to correct the pronuncia- 
tion. The ability of the program to convert text-to-speech is 
based on a long set of pronunciation rules and exceptions, or 
algorithm table. The program takes almost 6K of memory 
the way it is and a 64K computer probably would have a 
hard time handling all the exceptions in the English 
language! 

In the Text-to-Speech program, your text remains in a 
buffer and you can hear your text spoken again by simply 
pressing ENTER again. You may also add to or delete from 
the text by using the arrow or SHIFT arrow keys. The maxi- 
mum length of a phrase or sentence you can type in this 
mode is 128 characters; however, under program control, 
your CoCo could speak as much text as your memory or 
tape or disk can hold! 

1 was amazed at some of the things the machine language 
Text-to-Speech is capable of. For example, it understands, 
and pronounces correctly, numbers up to 1 5 digits left of the 
decimal point, or 999 trillion, 999 billion, . . . and any 
number of digits to the right of the decimal point. Typing in 
the number 512,433.8457 is spoken as "five hundred twelve 
thousand, four hundred thirty-three point eight four five 
seven." In addition to understanding numbers, Real Talker 
— with the ML software — handles letters of the alphabet 
and arithmetic operators: e.g. 4x3 /2 + 10- 1 = 15 is spoken as 
"four times three divided by two plus ten minus one equals 
fifteen." 

The period is only pronounced "point" when used with 
decimal fractions of numbers. Otherwise, the period is 
understood when used for abbreviations such as Mr. and 
Mrs. and is silently skipped over. Spaces cause a pause in 
speech. So putting in many spaces will give a long pause. 

The capabilities of Real Talker and M L software convert- 
ing text to speech are considerable and exciting! My primary 
interest in the speech synthesizer is for use in educational 
programs for my children and speech therapy/ exercise., for 
my younger daughter. But other uses are limited only by the 
imagination. I can imagine Hi-Res graphic Adventures talk- 
ing to you as well as arcade and other games. Together with 
the speech editor, foreign languages may be programmed 
and learned using the correct pronunciation. Imagine what a 
computer and hardware speech synthesizer could mean to 
people that cannot talk ! They could now talk over the phone 
simply by typing what they want to say. 

After "mastering" Text-to-Speech, I decided to go on to 
the Phoneme Editor by entering fc 2' in response to the initial 
menu. You can also toggle back and forth between the 
Speech Editor and Text-to-Speech by simply hitting the 
clear key. 

All of the speech heard when using Text-U -Speech is 
converted to phonemes automatically. Using the Phoneme 
Editor, you can modify the speech, or customize it, at a very 
basic level. There are 64 possible phonemes with four pitch 
levels giving a total combination of 256. The phonemes are 
the "building blocks" of sound as we hear it. The Phoneme 
Editor has its own set of one-letter commands which allow 
manipulation of phonemes, including commands for mov- 
ing the cursor around a full screen of phonemes, changing, 
deleting, or inserting any phoneme within the current 
sequence, changing the pitch (emphasis or de-emphasis to 
words), saving and loading phonemes to or from tape or 
disk, and printing the phoneme list and the decimal values 
representing the phonemes to a printer. The pitch inflection 
can give added realism to your speech; for example, giving 
the intonation quality of a question being asked. 



One of the advantages of using the Phoneme Editor, 
besides modifying speech generated by Text-to-Speech and 
creating speech from scratch, is the generation of decimal 
codes for each phoneme. These decimal codes can be used to 
duplicate speech directly using Real Talker without the 
Text-to-Speech ML program. First type the text you want 
to say, using Text-to-Speech. After pressing ENTER to hear 
your text, toggle to the Phoneme Editor. This gives you the 
phoneme sequences that make up the text you entered and 
gives you a chance to modify the speech if desired. Saving 
the phonemes to the printer at this point using the phoneme 
command T' will print the original English text then print a 
list of the corresponding decimal values representing each 
phoneme used in the editor buffer to create that text speech. 
The advantage of the decimal codes comes from not having 
to load or use the Text-to-Speech program to make Real 
Talker speak once youVe obtained the equivalent sequence 
of decimal values. Simply having the ROM pack in the 
cartridge port and POKEing the decimal values into loca- 
tion 65440, in sequence, will duplicate the speech exactly as 
it was generated originally in the ML software (assuming 
you also turn on the audio pathway to the TV speaker by the 
use of three pokes). This might be quite useful for programs 
using the same speech each time you use the program, and 
therefore you would not need to toad or wait for the ML to 
load. 

Now that you know about the Real Talker and its soft- 
ware, how do you really use it? I mean, if you're like me, you 
want to be able to use a voice synthesizer for practical 
purposes like using it with your own educational, utility, or 
game programs. 

If you want to use Text-to-Speech (referred to as ML) 
with your BASIC program, you must load the ML in one of 
two ways: CLOAD and RUN the BASIC program supplied 
with Real Talker, which loads and executes the ML. Then 
BREAK and return to BASIC where you CLOAD your pro- 
gram, leaving the M L intact. Then all you have to do in your 
program is use X = USR (A$) wherever you want the te, t 
spoken that is in string A$. Or CLOAD the ML direcfjy 
from your program. A simple program might look some- 
thing like this for a 32K sys>em: 



10 CLEAR 2000,26879 

20 CLOADM "VOTOLD32" 

30 DEFUSR = 26880 

40 A$ = "THIS IS AN EXAM- 
PLE OF YOU R REAL TALK- 
ER VOICE" 
50 X = USR (A$) 

60 INPUT "ENTER ANY- 
THING YOU WOULD LIKE 
ME TO SAY";A$ 
70 GOTO 50 



(Reserve upper RAM 
fo the ML) 
(Load the ML, assum- 
ing it is stored after your 
program) 

(Tell BASIC where ML 
entry point is) 



(Execute ML and say 
the text) 



(Insert text and execute 
speech routine) 



That's it! Now you can create any basic program with 
speech. Yc u are free to use any valid string instead of A$ and 
you can input the string anv way you ordinarily would, 
through DA TA statements, A {RA YS, or prompting through 
the keyboard. It took me only a few minutes to modify a 



206 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDF-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 1 6K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32 K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 




Adventure in 
Wonderland 

Simply the best adventure 
ever written for the color computer. 
This adventure puts you in the character of 
Alice as you roam through the many puzzles and perils of 
Wonderland. To win you must become a queen on the 
chessboard, eliminate the menace of the Snark, and 
escape from Wonderland. The program uses a full in- 
telligence simulator so you can enter commands and 
questions as whole sentences, not a stingy word or two. 
Also, there are at least three ways out of every trap. (You 
may think there is no way out at all, but there are always 
three ways!) Some people have so much fun talking to the 
various inhabitants of wonderland that they forget about 
solving the adventure completely. With a vocabulary of 
hundreds and hundreds of words you will never run out of 
topics of conversation. If you want to try your hand at the 
best of adventures, this is it. 100% ML Needs 32K of 
memory. Tape — $24.95; Disk — $29.95 



Colorkit 

What can we say about the absolute best state-of-the-art 
programmer's utility. This program adds 35 commands to 
BASIC that should have been there all along and no short 
description will do it justice. Summary - light or dark 
screen, keyclick, screen editor, 
programmable keys, a super 
memory tool, variable listing, echo 
to printer, BREAK disable, con- 
vert machine language to DATA, 
global search, single step thru 
program run, double space print- 
outs of program listings - that's 
less than half of what it will do. It 
takes about 6K of space, and if 
you have 64K you can put it up 
high and lose no BASIC space at 
all. 100% ML. Fully relocatable. 
See the great reviews in Nov. '83 
issues of Hot Cocoa and Color 
Computer magazine. Tape — 
$34.95; Disk — $39.95 





Clone Master 

This is the ultimate disk backup utility, and who else but 
Prickly-Pear, originators of Omni-Clone, could bring it to 
you. If you are tired of waiting for your BACKUP command 
to finish, you'll like the speed of CLONE MASTER. This 
program checks the computer memory size, and if you 
have a 64K machine it will do a backup on a full disk in 
about 7 minutes — including formatting the destination 
disk — with only THREE swaps, not the seven you are used 
to, and if you are running multiple dirves, CLONE-MASTER 
will handle up to 4 double-sided drives. In addition, al- 
though we can't guarantee thatCLONE MASTER will back 
up any disk, it can handle backups of most non-standard 
(protected) disks we have seen — not only on the Color 
Computer, but on Model III and IV, IBM PC, Kaypro, 
and Osborne. It handles up to 256 tracks, single and 
double density — even on the same track, CRC errors, and 
lots more. It even checks the speed of your drives for you! If 
you are using a disk drive, you know how disks will crash, 
so don't leave your valuable software unprotected any 
longer. Back it up or lose it! CLON E MASTER will adjust to 
any memory size and works with any version of the ROM's 
— including the JVC controller. $39.95 



Your personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping free 
on $50.00 or larger orders). AZ residents add 7% sales 
tax. Orders shipped within two days. 



Tape Omni Clone 



In the tradition of our famous Omni Clone for disk, we are 
proud to offer the fantastic Omni Clone for TAPE. As you 
know, good computer practice requires the making of 
backup copies of software to prevent loss. In the past that 
has often been difficult or impossible to. do, even using 
some of the other tape backup programs available. This 
easy to use backup utility is suitable for any size Coco from 
1 6 to 64K, and it automatically adjusts to the size memory 
you have. On a 64K system you can load about 62,500 
bytes of various programs (about 6 to 8 average programs) 
before dumping them to a new tape. It easily handles 
programs with auto loaders, no headers, no EOF markers, 
unusual size data blocks, and many other unusual situa- 
tions. As with our diskOmni Clone, we can't guarantee that 
this will back up any tape, but we haven't found many it 
won't handle, and we've tried dozens, including the tough- 
est ones we could find. If you have any tapes in your 
collection you haven't backed up, now is the time to get 
your software collection protected — against loss. On 
tape, but works on disk systems — $29.95 



Dealer and author inquiries are always welcome. 
Canadian dealers should contact Kelly Software 
Distributors, Ltd., P. O. Box 1 1 932, Edmonton, Alberta 
T5J-3L1 (403) 421-8003 



Stocked by Quality Dealers, or 

Send Order To: PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

8532 E. 24th Street 
Tucson, Arizona 85710 
(602) 886-1505 



RAINBOW ^ 



spelling program I had written for my children to use Real 
Talker. 

Up to now all commands and Real Talker functions have 
been the same whether using the cassette or disk version. 
Disk users will find an additional advantage in creating 
talking BASIC programs that is not available for tape sys- 
tems. After creating a Real Talker program disk, taking only 
a couple minutes to CLOAD(M) and SAVE(M) two pro- 
grams, disk users can create, with the greatest of ease, stand 
alone BASIC subroutines that speak. 

How do you make these subroutines? Type in your text 
you want to speak using the Text-to-Speech program. Then 
press CLEAR which transfers you to the editor. Modify your 
speech if desired (usually not necessary) then press to 
save. Answer the prompt with for disk save and enter a 
filename and a line number to store the subroutine. That's it! 
Saving to disk not only saves the phonemes, but actually 
creates a talking subroutine with an assigned line number. 
Fast and simple. In a matter of minutes you can create 
dozens of talking subroutines. Then, using the disk BASIC 
MERGE command, you can incorporate any combination 
of the newly created speech from your "library" of talking 
subroutines into a new or pre-existing program just as fast. 
Once the talking subroutines are created you no longer need 
the software utility programs (Text-to-Speech and Pho- 
neme Editor) to use Real Talker. Simply plug in the voice 
ROM pack and CLOAD or LOAD your BASIC program 
containing the talking subroutines, and call the subroutines 
as you would any other subroutines using the GOSVB 
statement. 

I had the opportunity to use the Real Talker with both 




(C) 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 



No more fighting over who gets to play next! Double 
Buster lets two play this classic game at the same 
time. Players compete against each other and against 
the clock. Single player action is also available. Four 
levels of play allows beginners to have iun at slow 
speed and the more advanced players at high speed! 
Score is based on the amount oi "bustin' out" you can 
accomplish within the allocated time. Scores kept for 
singles and doubles game in all levels. 




DOUBLES rainbows SINGLES 



Requires joysticks and can be played on 16K Extended 
tape or disk systems! Please indicate tape or disk 
when you order. Send check or money order to: Der- 
ringer Software, Inc. P. O. Box 5300, Florence, S.C. 
29502 2300. Visa or Master Card customers can call 
(803) 665-5676 9:00am to 5:00pm Mon-Fri. Please in- 
clude $2.00 for shipping and handling - No COD'S. 
★ See the ad for AT WITS END also ★ 



cassette- and disk-based 32K systems and 1 was impressed 
above expectations with both. The quality of the voice 
spoken was quite clear and understandable and Text-to- 
Speech seemed to pronounce most words with surprising 
accuracy, especially considering the English language with 
its ambiguities and exceptions to the rules. 

The only thing 1 found lacking in the whole package was a 
clear description of how to use the ML Text-to-Speech 
program with your BASIC program. All the information was 
given, either in the manual or the BASIC program that came 
with the Real Talker. And there was even a section in the 
documentation on the ML program and a short paragraph 
describing "in order to use the ML." However, everything 
was not totally clear. 1 think some beginners and medium 
experience users probably would not be able to jump in and 
have their program talk on the first try. Vm not a beginner 
and Tm not an advanced programmer. Pve never used the 
VSR routines in writing my own programs and 1 believe not 
being familiar with VSR programming is where some of the 
initial confusion came in while putting together my program 
with Real Talker. I think it would be good for the manual to 
actually spell out an example. 1 was able to piece things 
together by looking at the documentation and the BASIC 
program Colorware had written to load and execute the 
ML. Tve talked with Colorware about the problem and was 
assured that a clearer documentation is in the making. By 
the time this review goes to press it should be inserted into 
the manual. With that addition to the documentation 1 don't 
think anyone would have any problem using this voice 
synthesizer. In the meantime, you should find my example 
helpful. If you need help or further information 1 think you 
will find a phone call or letter promptly answered. My 
experience with Colorware has been very satisfactory. They 
do seem to support their products, as their ads say. 1 appre- 
ciate being able to talk to someone over the phone, whether 
just looking for information or needing technical help. 

Real Talker is compatible with any 16, 32, or 64K 
Extended or non-Extended CoCo, disk or cassette, or TDP 
System 100. It is also available for the CoCo 2, which 
requires a power supply modification for the Real Talker. 
Therefore, CoCo 2 users will need the Real Talker 2 version 
which costs $10 more, but well worth the price. 

Voice synthesizers have become much more affordable in 
recent months. 1 think you'll find Real Talker will literally be 
a "real talker" and you will be impressed and satisfied with 
the results. When combined with the Text-to-Speech pack- 
age, Real Talker is a very capable, flexible, and easy to use 
speech synthesizer system at a reasonably affordable price. 1 
may sound positive about Real Talker, but you don't have to 
take my word for it. Real Talker comes with a 30-day return 
policy if not satisfied, for any reason. 



(Colorware Inc., 78-03 Jamaica Avenue, Woodhaven, NY 
1 1421, $59 ROM pack and tape, $69 for CoCo 2 version) 



See you at 

RAINBOWfest Chicago 

June 22-24 



208 THE RAINBOW July 1984 




Does backing-up your 
hard disk make you feel 

° LIKE 

THIS? 




For answers to this and other problems, call 

The OS9* Solution Team 




© 



JBM'S MIDWARE 



For more information or to place an order, contact 
Dept. RB 9 
The JBM Group, Inc. 
Continental Business Center 
Front & Ford Streets * hp 
Bridgeport, PA USA 19405 K 
TEL: 215-337-3138 ft, 
TWX: 510-660-3999 L_ 



□ 



w 



group 



VISA/MASTERCHARGE accepted. PA res. add 6% sales tax. 
US orders, add $5.Q0 postage and handling. 



rainbow * OS9 is a registered trademark of Microware Corp. 



Software Review S^SSSS^SSSSSSSSSSTf!^\ 



E.T.T. Makes Learning 
To Type Fun 

If you Ye among the growing throng of people who are 
taking twice as long to learn how to use your Color Comput- 
er because you never learned to type, you should be about 
ready for E.T.T., the electronic typing teacher. 

After all, typing with eight fingers ought to be about eight 
times as fast as the one-finger, hunt-and-peck approach, 
right? All of us know at least one person, however, who 
seems to have done okay using the index finger and wouldn't 
change. But did you ever wonder how long it took that 
person to reach that point? He probably still looks at the 
keys, doesn't he? 

Would you believe that after about 10 hours of proper 
instruction, you can become a touch typist? All it takes is 
concentration, and practice, practice, practice . . . and a 
good program like E.T.T. 

Developed by CoCo Warehouse in Westland, Mich., 
E.T.T. reflects a lot of hard work and loving care, plus much 
attention to the basics and careful planning to make the 
process of learning to type much easier for you. 

The program comes with a 12-page instructional booklet 
that takes you step-by-step through the process, starting 
with such necessities as preparing your work area and 
assuming the correct posture. The creators also have added 
the extras that make this a fun experience, accompanied by 
some nice graphic elements. 

The first thing you need to know is the location ot the 
"home" keys. Your left four fingers (no thumbs, please) rest 
op the A-S-D-F keys and your right four fingers are on the 
J-K-L-; keys. These keys are always highlighted on the 
screen, so you shouldn't have any trouble remembering 
tliem. 

E.T.T. 's finger exercises take you through every key using 
finger-letter combinations. Throughout the process, you are 
expected to keep your eyes on the screen — instead of the 
keyboard. 

The program comes with 19 different lessons, believe it or 
not, adding up to an incredible value for only $19.95 since it 
also includes hundreds of practice sentences. 

Lessons one through nine are essentially basic instruc- 
tional programs. Variety is heightened with Lesson IQ as 
you get into such literary compositions as "Jack's Journals," 
"My Shadow," "Happy Homonyms," "Ben Franklin," and 
"Father William." 

The documentation notes that over 50 percent of all typ- 
ing consists of 50 common words, noting that you can breeze 
through more than half of any typing chore by mastering 
these words. Lessons 7, 8 and 9 contain practice sessions on 
common words. 

' There also are tips to improve speed and accuracy, as well 
as an option that allows you to remove the highlighting of 
the horne keys. 

Actually, you may or may not have an advantage using a 
monitor, because in typewriter classes students are taught 
without having any reminder in front of them, except for a 



teacher who is keeping her eyes open for "cheaters." In other 
words, they are not allowed to look at the keys. The jury is 
still out on whether the use of a monitor results in a better 
typist. 

There's also an E.T.T. Talk feature. Every time you RUN 
the program, there is a delay at the beginning because the 
computer is busy creating 30 fresh sentences. The computer 
can create 1,000 such sentences, giving you a different set 
every time. 

You also may create your own exercises, with up to 30 
sentences, and save them on tape for use later on self-tests. 
Results are given after every test. Any error, no matter how 
small, will cause E.T.T. to score that exercise not right. Poor 
old E.T.T. can only count "exactly rights" so be sure to do 
your spacing correctly, too. 

You will be given your words-per-minute count, too. 
Words are considered five characters long. In this mode, 
E.T.T. does not deduct for mistakes, which most formal 
systems do. 

It's fairly obvious to someone with a couple of decades of 
typing experience that a professional instructor was in- 
strumental in setting up this sophisticated program. It is a 
serious program for the person who wants to learn to type. It 
is not a game, by any means, but it does make learning fun. 



(CoCo Warehouse, 500 North Dobson, Westland, MI, 
$19.95 tape only) 

— Charles Springer 



Hint . . . 

A Timely Fix 

1 see again that someone is having a problem with the 
untimed stop bit using Color Disk Scriptsit. The following is 
a patch that will take care of the problem and also one that 
will allow you to use 4800 or 96Q0 Baud. 

Load DOS (don't run) and list line 101-102. This will give 
you the Rev. Number and date. Mine was 1 .2 and 12/07 81 . 

Insert line 15 to fix the untimed stop bit problem and lines 
16 and 17 for the printer Baud rate fix. 

15 POKE 3772 f &HBD : POKE3773 , 6 : POK 
E 3774, &H12 1 FIX FOR UNTIMED ST 
OP BIT PROBLEM 

16 'BAUD RATE PATCH OVER RIDES T 
HE BAUD RATE SET BY THE PROGRAM , 

17 POKE 3783,&H3E:POKE 3784, 0:PO 
KE 3785,7 'CHANGE THE POKE TO 3 
785 TO A 7 FOR 96Q0 BAUD OR 18 F 
OR 4800 BAUD 

Line 15 forces the DOS print routine to jump to the same 
bit timing routine for the stop bit as it docs for the other bits. 
Line 17 changes a Ldx from H623 (where the program gets 
it's delay value instead of 1 50) to a Ldx with a constant value 
(either 7 or 18). 

Resave the DOS program and the patches will be applied 
every time the program is run. If someone has a different 
version of DOS (if there was one), 1 would be happy to lend 
them a hand patching their version. 

Jim Kushman 
Norwood, OH 



210 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Hardware Review! 



Blue Streak Printer Interface 
Gives More Freedom 
Of Choice 

When the Color Computer was introduced, Radio Shack 
broke with its own tradition by using an RS-232 serial port 
for the printer instead of the Centronics-type parallel port 
that their other computers used. This saved quite a bit of 
money by using one port for both the printer and a modem, 
but it also meant that the existing Radio Shack printers 
(except for the Quick Printer II) didn't work on the CoCo. 
Starting with the Line Printer VII, Radio Shack put a serial 
interface on those printers that were expected to appeal to 
home users, but they normally worked only at 600 and 1 200 
Baud (the CGP-220 ink-jet printer will run at 2400), and the 
CoCo still was unable to drive the many non-Tandy parallel 
printers on the market like Epson, Gemini, Okidata and 
others. A serial/ parallel interface such as the Blue Streak 
solves this problem very nicely by converting the CoCo's 
serial data signal to parallel form; it is, in effect, simply a 
printer cable that connects the CoCo to a parallel printer. 

The Blue Streak is a blue box with a switch and two 
cables; one plugs into the CoCo and the other plugs into the 
printer. It should work with any printer that has a Cen- 
tronics-type interface (the Centronics 730, 737 and 739 and 
Radio Shack's Line Printer II and IV won't work because 
they take an edge connector instead of the 36-pin Amphenol 
connector used by other printers). The interface is normally 
powered by the printer; the Centronics standard calls for a 
+5-volt power source on the connector, and most printers 
have this. A notable exception is Epson, which doesn't have 
a +5V source on any of its printers; I'm told it can be 
modified, but this sort of thing sounds to me like the muffler 
commercial where the mechanic tells the customer, "1*11 
make it fit!" If your printer doesn't provide power, you can 
add an AC adapter to run the Blue Streak; Dayton Asso- 
ciates specifies the Radio Shack 273-1431 A, which they will 
sell you for $4.95 plus shipping (in case you can't find one at 
Radio Shack). One note is that the manual for Panasonic's 
KX-P1090 printer says that +5V is available, but that it 
should not be used to power any external devices. The Blue 
Streak uses four integrated circuits; three are CMOS devices 
(which draw very little current) and the fourth is a low- 
power TTL chip, so the load should be negligible. 

The Blue Streak is ready to go right out of the box in most 
cases. If you need to use an AC adapter, you have to remove 
a jumper plug inside the unit; if your CoCo has the 1 .0 Color 
BASIC ROM (if you have Extended BASIC, type EXEC 41 175 




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ENTER to find out), you will have to change another jumper. 
The instructions cover this in detail, and no additional parts 
are needed. 

The interface works quite well indeed. I have tried it on a 
Gemini-lOX and a Radio Shack Line Printer VII, and it 
runs fine at speeds up to 9600 Baud (the upper limit). The 
only reason 1 can see to run at a speed less than 9600 is if your 
program locks in a Baud rate of 600 (or whatever) and 
doesn't permit changing it. A 9600 Baud rate (960 characters 
per second) is almost as fast as most parallel primers can 
handle, so the use of serial output instead of a true parallel 
port doesn't slow things down appreciably. You may now be 
asking why you need such a high Baud rate when your 
printer only runs at 80 or 120 characters per second or 
whatever. The thing that most people forget is that nearly all 
dot-matrix printers receive a whole line of characters and 
store it in a buffer before printing the line. If you are running 
a 120 cps printer at 600 Baud, a full 80-character line will 
take one and one-third seconds to fill the line buffer and half 
a second to print; at 9600 Baud, the line will take .08 seconds 
to transmit and half a second to print. This translates to an 
increase in "throughput" of over 200 percent! 

If you are eyeing a parallel printer and want a neat and 
easy way to make it work on the CoCo, the Blue Streak is a 
good bet. 

(Dayton Associates, 7201 Claircrest, Building C, Dayton, 
OH 45424, $54.95 plus $2 S/H) 

— Ed Ellers 



NOW COMPLETE 
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PA. Res. Include 6%Tax 
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July 1984 THE RAINBOW 211 



ADVERTISEMENT 



THE 

PHANTOM 




MEMORY 



THAT LOST 32K 



It is surprising how soon the error message "0M" appears 
when 1 write a program which handles a significant amount of 
data. The use of PCLEAR1 only temporarily clears the 
problem and I have to break up the program or store the data 
in direct access files on the disk. I like to keep the data in RAM 
to speed up processing and minimize disk accesses. I find this 
frustrating as I know that with the 64K RAM there is a 
PHANTOM 32K which 1 cannot get at. 

Programs such as FLEX and OS-9 use all of this RAM, but 
consume much of it for the operating system. For a while 1 used 
a simple machine language program to access this memory, but 
it tended to be too inconvenient. The solution was to design a 
program which integrates with COCO's BASIC. The result was 
the PHANTOM MEMORY program. 

The PHANTOM MEMORY package adds a new type of 
array which is indicated by preceding the variable name with P 
and an exclamation (P!) symbol. There are 32767 memory 
bytes available for these arrays, enough for 32767 characters, 
6460 numbers, or any combination thereof. 

All of these PHANTOM array variables can be used in the 
same way as the regular array variables in a BASIC program, 
(program 1). 

Notice the new command PDIM, and the new variable 
P!A(15). PDIM declares the array in the same way as the 
normal DIM statement. In program I it is used to define two 
arrays P!A(300). a 300 element numerical array, and P!B$,a40 
element string array with strings of maximum length 16 
characters. These PHANTOM variables are then used in the 
following statements exactly as though they were normal 
arrays. 

The statement PDIM 0 in line 5 is used to reset the 
PHANTOM array. If this is not used at the beginning of a 
program all of the PHANTOM variables defined in the 
previous program become available to the next program. This 
adds the ability to chain programs, each program loading the 
next as in programs 2 & 3. Thus it is possible to have one 
program generate data which is then processed by a second 
etc. 

The PHANTOM MEMORY program is written in machine 
language and costs little in speed. It can be added to your 
system simply by using the LOADM orCLOADM command 
at the start of each session or by using the command at the 
start of the program. 

The PHANTOM MEMORY program is available on disk 
and tape for $29.95 and a cartridge version will be announced 
soon. It requires EXTENDED BASIC and, of course, 64K of 
RAM. 

Order from: TRILLIUM SYSTEMS 
67 King St. East 

OSHAWA, ONTARIO ^^s^. 
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1 ' PROGRAM #1 
5 PDIM 0 

10 PDIM A(30) ,B*(40, 16) 
20 P!A<15)=355/113 

30 P!B*(10)="STRING"-»-STRING*(5, " 
#") 

40 X=14*P!A(15)+9.3 

50 PRINT "A= ";X 

60 PRINT "B*= ";P!B*(10) 



10 ' PROGRAM # 2 

20 * PROGRAM TO GENERATE DATA 

25 CLEAR 500 

30 PDIM 0 

40 PDIM DAT1 (2500) ,SDAT*< 120, 150 
) 

50 FOR 1=2000 TO 2400 
60 PIDAT1 (I)=SQR(I) 
65 PRINT @455, I 
70 NEXT I 

80 FOR I=&H41 TO &H70 

90 P ! SDAT* ( I ) =STRING* ( 150, I ) 

100 NEXTI 

110 RUN "PR0G3" 



10 'PROGRAM #3 

20 'PROGRAM TO RETRIEVE DATA 
25 PR I NT "NOW IN PROGRAM #3" 
30 PR I NT "ROOT 2200" ; P ! DAT 1 (2200) 
40 PR I NT "STRING # &H66 " ; P ! SDAT* ( 
&H66) 



Hardware Review! 



Programmer's Sketch Pad 
Easy Text Screen Coding 

When I first began programming my CoCo, I found 
myself constantly referring to the PRINT@ screen location 
layout in the back of the Radio Shack basic manual. 
Finally, in a burst of creativity, I created a reusable form by 
carefully removing the layout from the manual and covering 
it with a self-adhesive plastic sheet from my local office 
supply store. This worked fairly well although the plastic 
was not designed for heavy-duty use, and the layout itself 
still required counting from right to left to find the actual 
location. Well, I knew if I waited long enough someone 
would dream up a much more professional version of my 
do-it-yourself project. 

Just recently released by Syntactics of Redcrest, Calif., is 
a programmer's aid package entitled the Programmer's 
Sketch Pad. The package consists of two high quality sketch 
pads covered in plastic, a felt marking pen and a very well- 
written "idea" booklet. Before going into more detail, I must 
mention that these pads (screen layouts, if you prefer) are 
designed for use with Color Basic's PRINT@, SET and 
^£££7 commands. If you are looking for Extended basic 
high resolution graphics layouts I would suggest self- 
adhesive plastic and the layouts in your Extended BASIC 
manual. 

First, let me cover the pads themselves. As I mentioned 
earlier, you receive two duplicate pads. Each pad is a two- 
sided 8'/ 2 x 1 1-inch sheet covered in heavy duty plastic. On 
the first side is a 32 x 1 6 PRINT@ location layout with each 
and every location clearly marked. In addition, the various 
graphics characters are pictured with their corresponding 
CHR$ values and specific information on how to create the 
characters in any of the eight possible colors. The second 
side contains a 64 x 32 layout representing the locations for 
the S£Tand RESET commands. Again, each location is 
clearly marked, although this time both the horizontal and 
vertical coordinates are provided for every location. This 
side also contains a sample of the S£Tcommand and a list of 
the numeric values associated with each of the eight possible 
colors. All in all, just about everything you need for coding 
on the text screen is provided. The only minor problem I can 
find is that the locations are indicated by very dark numbers 
and the grid itself is very lightly drawn. This makes it some- 
what difficult to write on, and hard to read what you have 
written. The problem can be alleviated by using a bold point 



16K ADVENTURE GENERATOR TAPE $19 95 

Create your own adventure with this program. Should be 
familiar with proper basic syntax to use. Writes adven- 
ture game directly to tape. 

16K ADVENTURE STARTER PACKAGE ... TAPE $1495 
Three graduated adventure games designed to guide 
you from beginner to tackling the expert level adventure 
games with confidence. 

SOFTECH 
P.O. BOX 3330 
Cheyenne, WY 82003 



felt marker, but I would have preferred the contrasts to be 
reversed. 

Also included in this package is a fine point marking pen 
(a bold point would have been better) and a 1 2-page "idea" 
booklet. I call it an idea booklet because it is oriented toward 
the beginning programmer and is filled with ideas and pro- 
gramming tips on using the Sketch Pads. This booklet takes 
up where the Radio Shack manuals leave off in discussing 
the PRINT® and SET commands. Part of the booklet is 
devoted to a sample budget and a sample graphics program. 
These programs are then dissected line by line and all the 
coding explained in detail. This booklet only serves to 
further enhance an otherwise very professionally prepared 
programmer's aid. 

That's about it. The only thing left to mention is the price. 
I don't normally discuss prices in my reviews because I think 
all prices are really relative. This package sells for $12 and 1 
know many people, including myself, who would hesitate to 
pay that much for two plastic-coated sheets, a marking pen 
and a short booklet. After seeing the product and realizing 
the time and effort it will save me, 1 definitely feel its worth 
to me equals or exceeds the price being asked. You, of 
course, will have to decide for yourself but I have easily paid 
three times as much for a fancy utility that I use about 
one-tenth as much as the Programmer's Sketch Pad. 

(Syntactics, P.O. Box 257, Redcrest, CA 95569, $12 postage 
paid) 

— Ken Boyle 



( ©ualitp Christian i§>of ttoare ^ 



MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 



If for any reason you are not fully satisfied with any program you 
purchase from Quality Christian Software just return the original 
program (Cassette or Diskette) and we will refund the purchase price 
of the program. 



★ * ★ ★ ★ 4 NEW PROGRAMS * ★ ★ ★ ★ 



PILGRIM'S PROGRESS: An interactive adaptation of Pilgrim's Progress 
in the form of an adventure game. Your progress is directed away 
from the city of destruction and towards the Celestial City, 
Important Biblical Doctrines are grasped as the player proceeds. 
Requires 16k E.C.B. - $17.99 Cassette. 

CHURCH TIME: A light hearted non-theological adventure for the 
whole family. You're almost late for church and to top it off you 
forgot your Bible. Rushing back into your house you find that the 
sticky front door has bolted behind you. The object is to find your 
Bible and get outside so that you won't be late for church. 32k 
E.C.B. -$10.99 Cassette. 

BIBLE REFERENCE PROGRAM: Topographical Bible Reference Pro- 
gram covering 27 Topics with 60 Biblical References. 16k E.C.B. not 
required— $10.99 Cassette. 

3-GAME PACK #3: Reversed Sword Drill game #2. "Who Did That" 
Game #2 & "Who Said That" Bible Quote game #2.— 16k E.C.B.— 
$10.99 Cassette. 



JUDE: A full text commentary and reference study on the Epistle of St. 

Jude. See the review in the December 1983 Issue of RAINBOW. Page 

286. Requires 32k E.C.B. Cassette $13.99 Disk $16.99 
3-GAME PACK #1: Books of the Bible Game, Bible Character Word 

Scramble game & "Who Said That" Bible quote game Requires 16k 

E.C.B. - Cassette $10.99 
3-GAME PACK #2: Reversed Sword Drill game, "Who Did That" game & 

Bible PlacesWord Scramble game. Req. 16k E.C.B— Cassette Version 

$10.99. 

QCS ^ 

P.O. Box 1899 24 Hour 
Duncan, OK 73534 Phone wuNttw 
405/25M696 Seivice ™ 



Please Add $2.00 

for freight 
C.O.D.'s add $4.00 
Overseas add $6.00 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 213 



Software Review! 



Here's The 'Beef 
Where's The Pork, Lamb? 



More Beef is a program with a functional approach to 
aid many farmers, feed lots, feed mills and other such per- 
sons with interest in the beef or farming industries. It will 
provide a cost per pound value based on analysis of avail- 
able feed rations. The program is provided on tape complete 
with instructions for loading to disk. It does require 16K 
Extended BASIC and is advertised to work on the TDP-I00 
and the Dragon computers. 

First of all, let's establish a scenario. A feed lot operation 
has 200 head of 375-pound steers with a limited amount of 
their usual feed source available. The operator of the feed 
lot, being the aggressive, up-to-date person that he is, has his 
very own CoCo for multiple uses around the business. More 
Beef is one of the "CoCo jewels" available to our man. 
Geographic location is no problem as both metric and 
standard American measures are supported, by different 
versions of the program, both on the same tape. 

The dilemma our man has to confront is that he has 
planned poorly and somehow has allowed his supply of feed 
to be less than required to support the operation. His ability 
to support the herd to full market weight is greatly impaired 
unless he can make the right decision. 



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He ponders frantically at what can be done to save face 
before he loses money or, worse yet, his herd. Several 
thoughts cross his mind. "I can sell the herd at feeder prices, 
if I'm lucky I can at least break even, and start over again 
next year." He begins to see his world crumble, and another 
idea develops. "I should have bought more hay, but the price 
per bale was so high this year. That drought last summer is 
what really ruined me." H is mind is in such a turmoil that he 
can't think straight. "I would find another source for feed 
but what should I purchase?" 

Tah-Daa! More Beef to the rescue! He turns on his CoCo 
and loads the More Beef program. Knowing the size of his 
herd and their feeding requirements, he uses the program 
and soon determines not only the most fitting feed source, 
but additional supplemental requirements and cost per head 
(excluding supplements) as well. With a great sigh of relief 
he gently slumps down into his chair as he praises the 
development of such business aids as More Beef 

The scenario could have happened anywhere in the world. 
At least anywhere that cattle are fed and anywhere that the 
CoCo is available. ( It would be tough to raise a herd in either 
of the pole regions and a few other out-of-the-way places.) 
The important thing is that More Beef is a quality piece of 
software that provides a maximum level of flexibility and 
with a medium amount of effort will provide the desired 
results. 

The program can't do it all. Using More Beef does require 
some knowledge about the environment you're working in. 
You would be required to supply or verify the following: 

What kinds of feed sources are available. 
What the herd requirements are thought to be. 
Units of measure (bales, pounds, grams, etc.). 
Approximate cost per defined unit (should be really close 
if not exact). 

More Beef allows the user to control and edit all the data 
contained within the file which you develop using the pro- 
gram. The documentation was plentiful and used frequently 
in the beginning. As 1 became more proficient at using the 
program, the documentation was still helpful as a reference. 
Using the program on a tape system can be cumbersome, as 
the file needs to be reloaded each time you desire to process a 
request for different functions. On a disk-based system this 
would not be noticeable at all. 

All in all, 1 really struggled trying to find something about 
the program I didn't like. Having been a part-time voca- 
tional school instructor I'm convinced that if I look hard and 
long enough, 1 can find something that could be better. Well, 
I finally saw something that could cause confusion, but by 
no means disrupts the function of the program. On the menu 
screen, when choices for action are listed, the first line shows 
the function followed by the selection number. On the 
second line these are reversed, showing the selection number 
then the function supported. (Or was it the other way 
around?) 

I have one question for the source of this program and I 
haven't asked them yet but maybe they'll see this review and 
get the hint: Where's the "More Pork," the "More Lamb," 
the "More Chicken," etc.? 

(Moreton Bay Software, 316 Castillo St., Santa Barbara, 
CA 93101, $49.95, provided on tape with instructions for 
loading to disk) 

— A.R. Compton 



214 THE RAINBOW July 1964 



"Quality . . . works well. . . fine product.. . great feel. . . pleased with it... 
excellent piece of hardware . . . it's outstanding . . • feel and appearance 
are great. . . love everything" 

Macrotron** 

Proudly Introduces Our New 

"Premium" Keyboard — The Best 
For Your Color Computer 

The Best Keyboard 

All the features of our popular PROFESSIONAL KEYBOARD: 
No gluing, soldering, or cutting— plugs right in. 
High quality construction assures years of trouble-free operation. 

PLUS 

Attractive low profile 
Extended Radio Shack layout 
Silk-Smooth feel 

The Best Software — uses ALPS keyswitches 

| Our Versakey Software enhances 
the keyboard's utility: 

* Auto-repeat, n-key rollover and type-ahead 
*** m * F-l becomes DEFINE, 

F-4 becomes CTRL 
' j : l I i. -I *i "f Y% r J iii | * May define up to 128 keys 

Vi # # 1 1 1 *ffl*mBm 4 (including SHIFT, CTRL, and 

SHIFT-CTRL combinations) as 
strings of up to 80 characters each. 

* Supplied on cassette, may be copied to disk. 

The Best Manual 

"Have Josie ship yours today!" * Very complete documentation (including 

plenty of figures to illustrate the keyboard's 
installation and versatility). 

The Best Prices 

The ^Premium" Keyboard (including software) $79.95 

The "Professional" Keyboard (including software) $59.95 

The "Versakey Software" $ 9.95 

Please specify your computer's PC board type if known. Otherwise, specify the complete catalog 
number and serial number. 

**MicroiHx Systems is a subdivision of Macrotron Systems Corporation. 

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Shipping Charges: U.S. FREE, Canada $2.00, COD $5.00 (No COD's to Canada). 



Software Review* 



The measurement conversions tested by each program 
are: 



Conversion Aids Helpful 
But An Ounce Short 

As the amount of educational software for the CoCo 
continues to expand, more programs are being released 
which deal with more than the basic three R's. 

Shamrock Software has released a series of programs 
designed to assist a student in reviewing his knowledge of 
converting one unit of weight and measure to other units. 

These programs are not the standard educational pro- 
gram designed to be used by a student interacting with the 
computer. These programs, instead of reviewing and cor- 
recting on the screen, generate a printed worksheet for the 
teacher to use as a test paper or a review drill paper. 

The four programs are titled: Length, Area, Volume, and 
Capacity (Liquid and Dry). Each is written in BASIC and is 
provided on cassette. They do not contain the elaborate bells 
and whistles (sound, color, and graphics) necessary with an 
on-screen program. The user is asked the date to be printed 
on the sheet, the number of drill questions desired, the 
number of different quiz sheets desired and then away it 
goes. While the program is running, no data appears on the 
screen. The quiz sheet is just printed by the printer. 

The printed format of the quizzes is a blank line for the 
student's name printed first, followed by the date entered. A 
line is skipped and then the quiz questions are numbered and 
printed. A space is left for the answer followed by the answer 
being printed at the far right of the page. 

An example of a quiz line is: 

I. Change 323 feet to inches 1 1. 3876 in. 

Using this formatting, the answers can be cut off for use 
later as an answer key or just folded under to allow the 
student to check his own work. 

If multiple quiz sheets are desired, the program assumes 
66 lines per page, advances to the next page and prints the 
next sheet. Each worksheet is different. 



See you at 

RAINBOWfest Chicago 

June 22-24 



Length: 

Feet to Inches 

Inches to Feet 

Yards to Feet 

Feet to Yards 

Yards to Inches 

Inches to Yards 

Rods to Feet 

Rods to Yards 

Yards to Rods 

Miles to Feet 

Feet to Miles 

Miles to Yards 

Yards to Miles 

Miles to Rods 

Rods to Miles 

Nautical Miles to Feet 

Feet to Nautical Miles 

Nautical Miles to Statute Miles 

Fathoms to Feet 

Feet to Fathoms 

Perimeter of a Rectangle 

Perimeter of a Square 

Perimeter of a Triangle 

Circumference of a Circle using Radius 

Circumference of a Circle using Diameter 

Area: 

Square Feet to Square Inches 
Square Inches to Square Feet 
Square Yards to Square Feet 
Square Feet to Square Yards 
Square Rods to Square Yards 
Square Yards to Square Rods 
Square Rods to Acres 
Acres to Square Rods 
Square Yards to Acres 
Acres to Square Feet 

Volume: 

Cubic Feet to Cubic Inches 
Cubic Inches to Cubic Feet 
Cubic Feet to Cubic Yards 
Cubic Yards to Cubic Inches 
Cubic Inches to Cubic Yards 
Volume of a Rectangular Solid 
Volume of a Cube 

Volume of a Right Circular Cylinder using Radius 
Volume of a Right Circular Cylinder using Diameter 
Volume of a Cone using Radius 
Volume of a Cone using Diameter 
Volume of a Sphere using Diameter 
Volume of a Pyramid 

Capacity — Liquid: 

Ounces to Cups 
Cups to Ounces 
Cups to Pints 
Pints to Cups 
Ounces to Pints 



216 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Pints to Quarts 
Pints to Gallons 
Quarts to Gallons 
Quarts to Pints 
Gallons to Pints 
Gallons to Quarts 

Capacity — Dry: 

Quarts to Pints 
Pints to Quarts 
Pecks to Quarts 
Quarts to Pecks 
Bushels to Pecks 
Pecks to Bushels 
Barrels to Quarts 
Quarts to Barrels 

Capacity (Liquid and Dry) are two separate programs 
sold as one on opposite sides of the cassette. 

The user is given the opportunity to choose any or all of 
the conversions contained in the program. Instructions are 
included in the documentation on how to choose or delete 
the various measurements. This is done by modifying lines 
in the BASIC statements rather than choosing from a screen 
menu. 

This works out well if the user has mastered the basics of 
programming in BASIC, however a screen menu would be 
more desirable. 

Diverting from the review for a minute: A word of praise 
to Tandy for its continuing program of offering free classes 
to teachers at their computer centers. The ability to program 



and edit is most valuable in circumstances such as this one 
where some knowledge of programming is required. 

No printer specifications are given. The programs worked 
well on my DMP 100 without modification. As it is written, 
any 600 Baud, 80-column printer should be able to handle 
the printing of the worksheets. 

Did I love the programs "a bushel and a peck**? Nope, 
about an ounce short. In my opinion, the programs have one 
major shortcoming. They don't allow the user the option to 
input his own quiz values. The measurements to be con- 
verted are only randomly generated. This results in some 
wild numbers and changes in levels of difficulty between 
quiz sheets generated by the same program. 

Another enhancement 1 would like to sec added to the 
program is the option to print the conversion formulas at the 
bottom of the worksheet similar to the way answers are 
printed at the right of the worksheet. They could be removed 
or folded at the teacher's option. 

In summary, these programs offer the ability to easily 
print measurement conversion work or quiz sheets. If you 
have a need for them, the prices are reasonable and the 
features which are lacking can be easily added if the user is 
capable of doing some basic programming. 

Shamrock also offers similar programs for whole 
numbers, fractions, decimals, percentages, weight, time and 
speed. 

(Shamrock Software, 4382 Norton Road, Radnor, OH 
43066, $9.95 each,) 

— Bruce Rothermel 



\ 




To make the'most of your new Dragon microcomputer from Dragon-Tano, you need Dragon User 
— the international, independent magazine for Dragon owners. 



Each issue of Dragon User contains: 

• reviews of the latest software 

• programming advice for beginners 

• hardware projects 



The Dragon microcomputer was launched in the UK 
last year. Since then we have developed a knowledge 
and mastery of the machine's abilities. You can 
benefit from our experience by subscribing to 
Dragon User, which is expanding its coverage to include 
all US developments. 

To make sure that you receive a copy of Dragon User 
regularly, subscribe direct to us. This costs only $29.95 
for 12 issues airspeeded to you — or take advantage of 
our special offer to long-term subscribers. Individual 
copies of the magazine can be obtained from your 
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# program listings covering games and utilities 

• reviews of Dragon peripherals and add-ons 

# technical advisory service 

• programming articles for users 



r 

■ 31 



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July 1984 THE RAINBOW 217 



NEW 

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Software ReviewJESSE^SZES^SSSTrTZi 



Remote Terminal Driver 
A Good BBS Adjunct 



Remote Terminal Driver (RTD) Version 3.0 is one of 
several remote terminal programs available for the TRS-80 
Color Computer (CoCo). It was written in position- 
independent machine code by Ed March Jr. and marketed 
by Silicon Rainbow Products. 

RTD is supplied on disk with a 5 ! / 2 by 8|/2-inch manual. A 
minimum of 16K RAM is assumed. A CLEAR command 
should be entered in the direct command mode (CLEAR 
XXX,&H39FE) prior to loading RTD. This is to protect 
RTD from BASIC and to move the system stack. RTD loads 
from S3A00 through S3F52 (14848-16210). You may offset 
load RTD in a 32K memory CoCo by first entering the 
appropriate CLEAR command preceding your offset load. 
The CLE A R command must precede the loading of RTD or 
the loading will overwrite the system stack, causing the 
computer to lock up! 

The program is well-written and seems to be bug free. 
RTD has a lot of nice features that other remote terminal 
programs do not offer. 

Carrier Detect (CD) 

BREAK Key Detection 

BkEAK Key Disable 

User Time Out 

Control Character Detection 

Password Protection 

Lowercase Conversion 

The manual has one page of instructions, which is not 
adequate for even the average user! There is even one glaring 
mistake: It says that you can load the program, then perform 
the CLEAR command , but the CLEA R command must be 
performed first, then load RTD. Six more pages of partial 
source listing provide the bulk of the information contained 
in the manual. This information is about the program usage 
area. The information provided here does not give a step-by- 
step guide to interface R TD with your programs or applica- 
tion. You are left up to your own wit and resources to figure 
out the proper, best, and most effective way to interface 
RTD with whatever program or purpose you intend to use it 
for. 

The novice user will find R TD is not a "load and go" type 
of program. A more advanced user and / or programmer will 
probably find the features of RTD very nice once he or she 
has taken the necessary time to become intimately familiar 
with the program and its operation. With the lack of detailed 
instructions this type of familiarization will be required to 
obtain optimum results in utilizing all or even some of the 
unique features of RTD. 

To use RTD as a terminal driver, a modem will provide 
the CD signal required, or the terminal being used will 
provide the CD signal direct. If the terminal being used is 
not capable of providing the CD signal, then the program 
must be modified so as not to look for the CD signal, or the 
CD line of the RS-232 port must be pulled TRUE after RTD 
is installed and operating. 



Using RTD as a bulletin board system driver (BBS) will 
require an auto answer modem which should supply the CD 
signal and a BBS program. The BBS program in the 
November issue of THE RAINBOW magazine should work, 
but it must be modified to use the buffer area provided by 
RTD. A BBS program already tailored to run with RTD is 
available from Silicon Rainbow Products. Use of the buffer 
area in RTD should be done very carefully to obtain best 
results. When done properly, this is where RTD really 
shines! RTD overcomes most of the limitations in CoCo's 
BASIC, providing a well-rounded system, with the break 
key disabled, lowercase conversion and password protec- 
tion to protect the BBS system and allow only proper access 
to the system operations. 

Overall, RTD is a good program. If you are thinking of 
getting a remote terminal program for a bulletin board, 
R TD should be considered as one of the leaders. The lack of 
instructions can be overcome with careful study of the pro- 
gram, or by purchasing the entire BBS package. If what you 
need is just a driver for a local terminal, then probably your 
needs can best be filled by one of the terminal dmers pub- 
lished in the CoCo magazines. 

(Silicon Rainbow Products, 1 1 1 1 W. El Camino Real, Suite 
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July 1984 THE RAINBOW 219 



Software Review— T/X\ 

The CoCo Word Processing 
'Dynamic Duo' 

By Dan Downard 

Most of you remember the Dynamic Duo, Batman and 
Robin. Whadda ya mean? Never heard of them? Well, 1 
guess at 40 I'm not only an old timer at computers, but TV as 
well. We had better forget about the Dynamic Duo for now, 
or maybe give the name a new significance. DynaStarj 
DynaForm and DynaSpell, in my opinion, rightfully deserve 
the name "The Dynamic Duo" of word processing software 
for the CoCo. 

DynaStar has been around since 1982 for OS-9 systems, 
an old timer by computer standards. Frank Hogg Labs 
recently re-feleased this program for use with their O-Pak 
screen package for use on the CoCo. At the same time 
DynaSpellwas rewritten for the CoCo and is advertised as a 
separate, but integrated, package. 

Let's get our terminology straight. DynaStar is the actual 
word processing program. DynaForm is a companion pro- 
gram that actually formats the text file for printing pur- 
poses. DynaForm interprets the commands that were input 
using the DynaStar screen editor. For this reason, we will 
refer to both programs as DynaStar. 

DynaSpell is a spelling checker that is sold as a separate 
package. It is a natural companion for a word processor, but 
can be used for any type of text files. 



This package requires a 64K CoCo, OS-9, one but prefer- 
rably two disk drives, and a CoCo compatible printer. I 
guess you could consider the printer optional, but what 
good is a word processor without a printer? A special ver- 
sion of O-Pak is used for this program. Two of the graphic 
characters are redefined for use as text and cursor markers. 
The new version of O-Pak is on the disk. DynaStar automat- 
ically adjusts to the character set in use, whether it be 5 1 X 24 
or64X 19. 

DynaStar 

What makes DynaStar so different? 1 like it for two 
reasons. First, the cursor controls. Figure 1 shows the most 
commonly used cursor control keys. As you can see they are 
arranged in a symmetrical pattern known as a "Control 
Diamond." CLEAR is the control key as in all other OS-9 
software. For example, if you wish to move the cursor one 
word to the right, you would type CLEAR F. After about 15 
minutes of use, these commands become second nature. 

The second outstanding feature is the help screen, or 
screens. At the user's option, the top seven lines of a normal 
screen display the status of certain functions and a menu of 
the most commonly used cursor, scroll and delete com- 
mands. In addition to the help menu, a ruler line separates 
the menu from the text, providing you with a constant 
reminder of the location of your margins and tabs. More on 
that later. 

The Files Menu And MACROS 

There are six different menus to guide you through your 
task. The first menu is called the files menu. It appears as 
soon as you run the program. The main purpose of this 
menu is file management. In addition to naming the file, or 
opening an old file for editing, you have the option of 
executing SHELL commands, changing the working direc- 
tory, or displaying a directory. 

An important feature of this menu is MACROS. By 
pressing the escape key clear break and a control charac- 
ter you can define any number of commonly used phrases 
invokable by a two-stroke command. Up to 400 characters 
can be stored as MACROS. This feature is especially nice 
for program generation or editing. Remember, in OS-9, 
BASIC09, C, etc. DynaStar can, and should, be used to 
input your programs. ALL MACROS can be displayed 
from the files menu by use of the L command. One more 
comment about the files menu. After you become proficient 
at the different commands you can turn off the help menu if 
you wish. I haven't reached that point yet! 

Other Menus 

In addition to the main menu that is displayed during all 
editing, there are four supplementary menus for different 
types of commands. In addition to more cursor commands 
the menu contains the necessary help for global string 
searches with replacement if desired. 

Screen Width And Windows 

The 4 K' menu toggles the status of different features such 
as wordwrap, or whether you want the insert or overtype 
mode. In addition, this is the menu for setting tabs and the 
right margin. The margin, or display width, can be set at any 
value up to 255 characters. If you are using a width greater 
than 64, a moving window concept is used to horizontally 
scroll the display eight characters at a time. Keep in mind 
that the ruler line between the text and the menu always 
shows you where you are in relation to the left margin. It 



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220 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



works flawlessly and is far superior to another word proces- 
sor I have used with the same scheme. 

Another welcome relief of this feature is the ability to 
justify text on the screen. No longer do you have to print out 
the text to see what it's going to look like. Tabs can be set, 
cleared or purged at any location between margins. No 
mention is made of the maximum number of tabs, so I 
assume 255 are possible. The tab settings cannot be saved. 
This would be a nice feature. 



Figure 1 



A 
/ \ 
/ \ 



I 



W 
line 
up 



E 
char 
up 



R 

screen 
up 



I 



A 
word 
left 



-7-T- 

/ 5 

( char 
\ left 



I 



z 

line 
down 



\ 



\ 



X 
char 
down 



char / 
right / 



F 

word 
right 



/ 



C 

screen 
down 



I 



\ / 

\/ 
1 



Block Commands 

The 4 B' menu is called for any block commands. Block 
makers identify the beginning and end of the text in ques- 
tion. After marking the block you can copy it, move it, kill it, 
write it to a disk file, or insert a disk file into the block. That 
should cover anything you want to move, or add. Only one 
block can be moved at a time. A warning is given regarding 
editing while the block markers are set. If you try, an error 
message will be displayed. 

Printer And Dot Commands 

The T 1 menu is actually the only way of using the Dyna- 
Form print formatter mentioned earlier. There are three 
basic commands in this menu including boldface, double- 
strike and underline. The fourth command is the most 
important. After entering the *P' menu, typing a period will 
display yet another menu, the "DOT" commands. Dot 
commands actually format your document. By inserting 
these commands in your text you can add headers and 
footers, paginate (number pages), etc. I would venture to say 
that any formatting you desire is available with these com- 
mands. A summary of these commands is listed in Table 1. 

Table 1 

Summary of DynaForm Dot Commands 



.BP n 


Begin Page #n 


.CPn 


Conditional Page 


.PN n 


set Page Number 


.PLn 


set Page Length [66] 


AG 


Ignore to next 'dot' 




Comment line 


.HE text 


Header 


.FO text 


Footer 


.MTn 


Margin at Top [3] 


.HM n 


Header Margin [2] 


.MB n 


Margin at Bottom [8] 


.FM n 


Footer Margin [2] 


.POn 


Page Offset [8] 



.ss 

.MS n 
.SP n 
OPn 

.FI pathlist 
.MA xx 
.ME 
XX 

.DM text 
.IFE yy 
.1FO yy 
.DXt text 
.XAtn 
.XNt n 

.SV name,text 
.PV name, message 
.DF pathlist 
.RV namel,name2,.. 



set Single Space 
Multiple Space [2] 
blank Space n lines 
OverPrint next n lines 
File Insert 
start Macro xx 
End Macro 
do macro xx 
Display Message 
If Even page do .yy 
If Odd page do .yy 
inDeX entry (t=tag) 
print indeX Alpha for tag t 
print indeX Numeric for tag t 
Set Variable <name> to 'text' 
Prompt for Variable <name> 
open Data File for mail-merge 
. Read Variables <namel>, 
<name2>, etc. 



Without explaining each dot command, a few are very 
important, and probably the reason this program is excep- 
tional. The .SV, .PV, .DF and .RV commands are all a part 
of a mail-merge system for generating form letters. Not only 
can you mass produce letters from an address file, but you 
can customize them by either defining part of the text as 
variable, or prompting the user for a custom response. 
Examples are given in the manual for a custom form letter, 
explaining the system in great detail. I think one other word 
processor for the C0C0 offers this feature, but you must buy 
two programs before it will work. 

DynaSpell 

The natural companion to any word processor is a spell- 
ing checker. DynaSpell, written by Dale Puckett, is an excel- 
lent choice for this task. This review was written with 
DynaStar and checked with DynaSpell The system re- 
quirements are the same for both programs, and to repeat 
our earlier evaluation, they form the Dynamic Duo. 

After creating your document all you do is type "SPELL" 
and you're on your way. The first decision you are faced with 
is which mode of operation you desire. You can select nor- 
mal, auto print, or auto spool. Normal refers to the interac- 
tive, or terminal mode. Auto print lists each word not found 
in the 22,000 word dictionary to the printer. Each suspect 
word is flagged with back arrows and line feeds for recogni- 
tion. The auto spool mode sends the output to a disk file for 
later printing or examination. 

1 selected the normal mode. Almost immediately I was 
prompted for the file to check, or offered the option of 
changing directories. I typed REVIEW and that was it. 
Meticulously, a status line in the center of the screen started 
counting from zero to 22,000 in 100-character blocks. Each 
word of my text was either identified as common or unique. 
A three-dictionary concept is used. A 1000-word common 
dictionary is used to speed up the process. After your text is 
compared to the common words, the remaining unique 
words are compared to the master dictionary. An additional 
MYWORDS dictionary is created by the user and is used 
also. DynaSpell identified nearly 300 unique words in this 
review so the checking process took about 10 minutes. I 
consider that very acceptable since, if you notice, there are 
quite a few "buzz" words in this article. 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 221 



After the spelling checker is finished you are presented 
with the following menu: 

Table 2 
DynaSpell Commands 

P = Print suspect words 

R = Read a DynaStar file 

U = Use additional dictionary 

W = Write corrected file 

A = pick Alternate directory 

S= call OS-9's Shell 

C = Check words individually 

F = Formatted read of Stylo file 

B = Build alternate dictionary 

N — check spelling in New file 

D = list current Directory 

0 = return to Operating System 

1 think this list is self-explanatory. After selecting your 
command you are asked if the output is to be routed to the 
printer or the terminal. I decided to check each suspect 
individually. One by one, the words appeared on the screen. 

1 was prompted to (A)ccept, (L)ookup, (R)eplace, (S)ave, 
(U)ndecided, or (Q)uit. If you find a mistake you just type 
( R) and retype the word with its correct spelling. After going 
through the words you return to the previous menu and save 
the file. That's about it. One feature that could improve 
future releases is spelling out the editing commands instead 
of using one letter prompts. It would make it a little easier to 
remember. 

Another nice feature of DynaSpell is the LOOKUP com- 
mand. This is a new addition to the spelling checker, but can 
be used as an independent program. All you have to do is 
type LK and part of a word and it will print all of the similar 
words in the dictionary. Wild card characters are recognized 
by their absence. It is a unique feature of any spelling 
checker 1 have used. 

Conclusion 

The documentation for these programs is above average. 
DynaStar is so well prompted that you really don't need a 
manual. The only time 1 used the manual was for dot com- 
mands and the mail-merge features. DynaSpell is a little 
more complicated and 1 think the manual could be im- 
proved. All of the information is there, but an example 
would be helpful. 

Okay, Robin get out the Bat-computer and write a letter 
to the Mayor of Gotham City! 

(Frank Hogg Laboratory, The Regency Tower, Suite 215, 
770 James Street, Syracuse, NY 13203. DynaStar, $49.95; 
DynaForm, $49.95; DynaStar/ DynaForm package, $99.90; 
DynaSpell, $59.95) 



Hints . . . 

BASIC09 Problems? 

If you are having trouble getting BASIC09 to work cor- 
rectly, try the following on a two-drive system: 

DEL DIR DEFS 

COPY /DI/BAS1C09 / D0/CMDS/BASIC09 

Do this for all the programs you intend to use on your 
BASIC09 disk (replacing "BAS1C09" with the name of the 
new file). 



Software fteWeiv— ?a\ 

Memo Minder 
Is A Record-Maker 



As a writer I have a ridiculous pile of notes in a waste 
basket that I jokingly call my file system. Someday, 1 con- 
tinually tell myself, 1 am going to organize all those news 
clips, quotes, notes and numbers. 

Because of a little program called Memo Minder by Mer- 
rick & Co., someday is at hand. 

1 call it a little program because it is simple, straight- 
forward and totally without hype. Memo Minder keeps 
notes in an unstructured file of up to 1 60 characters per item. 
The whole file will hold 200 individual records or 8,000 
characters. 

Searching for a particular file is as easy as remembering 
how you write notes. One file that I constructed has a list of 
public meetings for the year so if 1 want to know what day in 
July the school board meets, I call "Search For A Record" 
from the main menu. The screen prompt requests Target 1 
— I enter "School Board. "The next prompt requests Target 
2 — an ENTER here would give me every record with "School 
Board" but by entering "July" I get only the July School 
Board memo. 

Another main menu option will scroll the entire file for 
you. There is no sort routine so the records will be displayed 
in the order that you entered them. That's a problem, but it is 
one that 1 am willing to live with. Another aspect of the 
scroll feature is that it gives you a choice of three speeds at 
which the pages will be displayed. Three is the slowest and 
about the only one I can use (perhaps because I write long 
notes). Speed 1 rather zooms through the file. 

The documentation is minimal by developing standards, 
but it covers everything you need to know. 1 like user- 
friendly software and this one really qualifies — it almost 
works itself. 

I sat down the other day and made a list of things 1 could 
organize with Memo Minder and decided that anything that 
has to be stored and retrieved is a candidate for a Memo 
Minder file — it is that versatile. But remember, it will not 
sort your data nor will it print anything — it is a Memo 
Minder/]ust what the name implies. 

Merrick provides both a tape and disk version. The doc- 
umentation tells you how to set it up, in under 10 minutes. 
You also must have at least 16K Extended Color BASIC. 
Since it is not copy protected, 1 plan to get inside mine and 
try to increase its storage capacity to fully use my 64K 
that s one refinement 1 could use. 

I also plan to set up a file consisting of a story, one line per 
record, and use the scroll function to teach my kids speed 
reading. The uses for Memo Minder are limited only by the 
depth of your imagination. 

(Merrick & Co., P.O. Box 73, Conifer, CO 80433, $9.95) 

— Glenn B. Knight 



222 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Software Pn,/;n,,/J "* Ml ^™ M ' M —* rs 



Shaft Is A Challenge 
To Your Reflexes 



As Monty Python says, "and now for something com- 
pletely different" . . . there is a game from Prickly-Pear 
Software called Shaft. 1 1 is like no other game on the market 
that 1 know of and presents a formidable challenge to your 
reflexes. 

The two title screens on Shaft are beautiful graphics draw- 
ings. The first scrolls by with the words "Shaft" moving 
horizontally and changing colors. When you hit the joystick 
button the second screen appears showing drawings of two 
people and asks you on which level you would like to start; 
easy or hard. The choice is made simply by moving the 
joystick to the left or right and again pressing the button. 

When you start you will find yourself at the bottom of an 
"elevator shaft"and you must make your way across and up 
to the top. The descending elevators (eight of them) ran- 
domly go up and down on the screen. They are represented 
only as hollow boxes. If you are going across and the eleva- 
tor comes down on you while you are under it, you will lose 
that man. If you make it to the opposite horizontal end, the 
service elevator (as I call it) will come get you, and bring you 
up one vertical level where you must go back in the opposite 
direction. 



This is the method of play in Shaft. There are no strategies 
to think out and no decisions to be made. The whole game is 
a question of timing. No bonus men are given out, either. 

At the lowest level of play, it is quite difficult to get past 
more than three of the five vertical rows and 1 would think 
children would find it impossible to play. Also, at times, the 
random patterns in which the elevators move may impede 
your progress after the lift takes you up a level, making it 
impossible to continue without getting killed. 

Although Shaft is written in machine language and will 
run on a 1 6K machine, 1 have come to expect better offerings 
these days. The graphics are not spectacular by any means 
(except the title screens which are very nice) and the game 
play leaves something to be desired. It is, however, unlike 
any other game on the market and should be credited for 
being an original work in its own right and not a copy of 
something else. 

(Prickly-Pear Software, 9234 E. 24th St., Tucson, AZ 85710, 
$24.95 tape, $29.95 disk) 

— Steve Schechter 



See you at 
RAINBOWfest Chicago 

June 22-24 



ARE YOUR WALKING FINGERS GETTING FOOTSORE? 

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Now, you can get RAINBOW ON TAPE and give those tired fingers a rest. With RAIN- 
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July 1984 THE RAINBOW 223 



Software Revie w„ r7^\ 

Super Edit — A Step Up 
From Extended BASIC'S Editor 

For those of you without Extended BASIC, you're missing 
one of Extended's most powerful features — an editor. For 
those of you with Extended BASIC, you have a good editor, 
but some things could be better. 

Super Edit from The Dataman offers a step up from 
Extended Basic's editor and, most of all, offers non- 
Extended users an editor without the need of Extended 
BASIC. 

Super Edit is a line-oriented editor for use in editing BASIC 
programs on the Color Computer. It is written in indepen- 
dent machine language code and instructions are given in 
the manual on how to load it into any system from 16K to 
64K. The manual recommends that it be loaded into as high 
a memory location as possible in order to leave the maxi- 
mum amount of room for your BASIC program. With 64K, 
of course, this program does not interfere at all! 

Super Edit can be used to initially write a program or a 
current BASIC program can be loaded in, then Super Edit 
can be EX ECuted and edit work on the program can begin. 
It is an easy chore to go back and forth from Super Edit to 
BASIC by simply "Quitting" Super Edit. When you are fin- 
ished with any BASIC commands, simply type EXEC and 
you are back into Super Edit. 

If you have ever used EDTASM+ from Radio Shack, 
then using Super Edit will require almost no instruction 
since it is almost identical to EDTASM+*s editor. Most of 
the commands have been preserved from EDTASM+: 
'PYint (to screen), k D'elete, 'Find, Tnsert, 'C'opy, 4 N/Tove, 
'Replace, and 'Q'uit. The syntax for these commands is 
slightly different, so have a quick look at the manual. 

One of the new commands introduced by Super Edit is 
\Toin. The Join command is used to join two lines into one 
and can be continued indefinitely, thereby creating lines 
longer than 250 characters. The program will prompt the 
user if joined lines will come out longer than 250 characters 
as a safety feature; once two lines are joined, they cannot be 
separated. 

Among the features of the commands; Tnsert allows 
automatic line numbering while "inserting" text. A BASIC 
program can be typed in this way very easily. Upon each 
carriage return, a new line will appear on the screen waiting 
for more data to be typed. The starting line as well as the 
increment can be set up by the user. Lines can also be 
inserted between other lines, although there must be enough 
room for the line number to fit; i.e., you can't insert a 
line between Lines 0002 and 0003. TYint displays a line or a 
range of lines on the screen. Paging through a program is 
also possible as the command defaults to 13 lines of text to 
print on the screen if no line number or range of line 
numbers is specified. The 'D'elete command allows a line 
number or a range of line numbers to be deleted. The 'Find 
command is used to search for sub-strings of up to 30 
characters in length within lines of text, star ting with the last 
line printed on the screen. It allows you to continue search- 
ing after one has been found. It will not, however, search 
past 250 characters in any one line of text. Therefore, if lines 
have been "joined" together, any characters after 250 will 



not be searched. The 'Copy command copies a line or a 
range of lines to a new line number(s), leaving the original 
text intact. 'NTove moves a line or lines to a new line 
number(s) deleting the original line numbers. Replace 
deletes lines first and then leaves you in the "insert" mode to 
allow you to type new information where the old was. 
(Delete and Insert would do the same thing.) 'Q'uit returns 
you to the BASIC operating system, leaving your program 
intact. 

I've always liked the editor in EDTASM+ and, since this 
one is almost identical, I give it full marks. There is only one 
type of editor which 1 feel more comfortable with and that's 
a screen-oriented editor. For those of you with EDTASM+, 
well, maybe the Join command will appeal to you. And 
don't forget, you can't do disk I/O with the cartridge 
EDTASM+, whereas Super Edit allows you to go back to 
whatever version of BASIC you have. 

(The Dataman, 420 Ferguson Ave. N., Hamilton, Ont., 
Canada L8L 4Y9, $16.95 U.S., $19.95 Can.) 

— Eldon Doucet 



Program Quickie . . . 

Finding Those 
Bad Sectors 

By Paul Gani 

I have seen dozens of programs to find bad sectors and 
then isolate them from BASIC. Yet, all use DSKI$ and thus, 
you always get I/O Errors and have to manually continue 
the program to find other bad sectors. Below is a short 
program to find all bad sectors with no interruptions. Just 
enter it and type RUN. The program will look for bad 
sectors (if any) and if it finds one, the program will say so 
and then continue. Then you can use one of the dozens of 
programs already published to isolate that area. 



The listing: 

1 0 DEFUSR0«PEEK < &HC004 ) *256+PEEK 
(&HC005) 

20 FOR T=0 TO 34: FOR S=l TO 18 

30 POKE 234,2:' SET TO READ 

40 POKE 235,0:' DRIVE NUMBER 

50 POKE 236, T:' TRACK 

60 POKE 237, S:' SECTOR 

70 POKE 238,14:' DUMP TO THE 

80 POKE 239,00:' GRAPHICS AREA 

90 Y=USR0 ( 0 ) : P=PEEK ( 240 > 

100 IF PO0 THEN PRINT "ERROR IN 

TRACK " ; T ; " - SECTOR " ; S 
110 NEXT S:NEXT T 



224 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Software Review! 



A Potpourri Of Games 
For The MC-10 



I was beginning to wonder if the MC-10 is called a 
"Micro" Color Computer because of its size or because of 
the limited amount of software available for it. Fortunately, 
this is a review about two software game packages, Micro- 
Games and Micro-Checkers, now available from Radio 
Shack. Hopefully much more is on the way. 

Micro-Games is a potpourri of games for the MC-10. It 
includes familiar titles like Pong and Breakout. You will 
also recognize Lander, a lunar lander style game. Also 
included is Eggs, a cute, original, catch-the-falling-egg 
game; and Horse, a horse race-style game. All the games are 
written in basic and utilize the low resolution graphics 
capability of the MC-10. Movement, if required, is achieved 
from keyboard input since there is no joystick port on this 
little computer. 

For the most part, these games are well-written and exe- 
cute surprisingly fast for BASIC. For instance, in Pong, the 
ball moves swiftly enough to be a challenge. 1 have seen 
versions of Pong written for the Color Computer and the 
ball moves so slowly that you could fall asleep between 
volleys. Part of the explanation for the speed achieved is that 
Micro Color BASIC executes about 15 percent faster than 
CoCo basic. I'm sure that in addition some of the speed 
comes from good programming skills as well. 

Unfortunately, while studying and playing the games 
included in Micro-Games, I discovered a few "Micro-Bugs" 
which detract from the payability of two of the games. In 
Pong, if one player holds down one of his movement keys, 
the other player can't move his paddle. In Lander, an occa- 
sional FC Error occurs because the "sound" command is 
being sent a value higher than 255: (By the way, if you have 
bought this game, this problem can be fixed by adding the 
following to Line 30, : IF V (-500 THEN V ' = -500). 

Micro-Checkers, another program available from Radio 
Shack, is also written in BASIC and works with a 4K Micro 
Color Computer. It is you against the MC-10 in the 
traditional game of checkers and the computer is good at 
checkers. You move your pieces by inputting the coordi- 
nates of the current position and the coordinates of the 



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destination. Unfortunately, since the board's coordinates 
are not labeled on the screen, you must refer to a diagram in 
the instruction manual. If you legally jump an opponent, the 
piece is automatically removed from the board. In addition, 
the computer keeps track of all legal moves and awards 
"kings" as required. It should be noted that the board is 
drawn in low resolution graphics. The colors used to display 
the pieces has created a potentially fatal flaw. On a black and 
white TV, the pieces for both sides look the same, you 
cannot tell your piece from the computer's. It's okay on a 
color TV, but if you are considering the program for 
exclusive use on a black and white set, forget it. Other than 
this problem, and the rather inconvenient entry required to 
move the pieces, Micro-Checkers appears to play correctly 
and reasonably quickly. 

In summary, these two software game offerings wiil most 
likely appeal to the beginner looking for games to play on 
the MC-10. Keep in mind that these are relatively simple 
games, and as noted contain a few "bugs. "These problems, 
except for the black and white display problem with Micro- 
Checkers, are relatively minor and might be tolerated by a 
"software-hungry" MC-10 owner. These games obviously 
do not match up to the sophisticated arcade style games 
available for big brother CoCo, but the price does not match 
up, either. 

(Radio Shack stores nationwide, Micro-Games Cat. No. 
26-3360, Micro-Checkers Cat. No. 26-3361, $9.95 each on 
tape) 

— Tom Szlucha 



The 

ORACLE II Wfc 

The Ultimate CoCo Monitor. ^^^TJ 

The ORACLE II is not a rehashed monitor program 
adapted to the CoCo, but a state of the art monitor 
designed to compliment the CoCo and its unique 
abilities. 

Compare some of our features: 

• 64K Compatible - the ORACLE II can relocate it- 
self and its monitor screen above disk basic. 

• Single Stepper - a single variable speed stepper 
that allows you to step both rom and ram. 

• Disassembler - 

• Graphics Support - allows you to step a program 
while watching any graphic screen, in any graphic 
mode, and toggle between the monitor screen and 
back, with one key. 

• ASCII/hex search-up to a 10 byte search. 

• Full screen display and editing of memory. 

• Over 40 commands. 

CoCo disk or tape (both versions included) $35.95 
Spectral or FHL Flex version 45.95 
( + $2.00 shipping and handling) 

RAINBOW 

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P.O. BOX 142, SUMNER, WA 98390 
(206) 863-8762 
(24 Hours) 




July 1984 THE RAINBOW 225 



E.T.T. 

ELECTRONIC 
TYPING 
TEACHER 

by 

CHERRYSoft 




Learning to type the right way can save you hours of tedious work when 
entering programs into your CoCo, and this is just what ETT was designed 
to do. Devote a little time every day practicing with ETT and before you 
know it you will be typing with confidence. Entering those programs will 
no longer be the chore it used to be. 

ETT's video keyboard lets you practice with all the keys labeled, all the 
keys blank or only the "home" keys labeled The visual cues guide you while 
you learn to type without watching your fingers. ETT shows your 
accuracy, response time, and words per minute. You will quickly see that 
you are improving with practice. 

W'th the sentences provided by ETT learning to type can be fun. Over 
1 000 variations chosen because they include every letter in the alphabet. 
You can also create your own practice sets. This outstanding program 
was written by a certified teacher and professional programmer and 
comes with a ten page student manual-study guide. Requires 16K 
Extended Basic. 

$91 95 

Cassette £. I • 

ETT NOW AVAILABLE FOR COMMODORE 64 



CASSETTE S24.95 



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MASTER 
CONTROL II 



The best doesn't always cost more and MASTER CONTROL II is a good 
example. What would you be willing to pay for a program that would cut 
tour typing time by more than 50°/o and eliminate hours of debugging 
because you misspelled a command word? For example the command 
STRINGS (requires nine strokes) with MASTER CONTROL II you only 
require two strokes, just hit the down arrow key twice and it's done, and 
no mistakes. That is just one of the 50 pre-programmed commands 
available to you. If that isn't enough you also have the ability to customize 
your own key to enter a statement or command correctly, automatically 
every time. But that's not all, how about automatic line numbering. Just 
enter the starting number and the increment you want and MASTER 
CONTROL II will do it for you. You also have direct control of MOTOR. 
AUDIO and TRACE plus a direct RUN key. Sounds great? Well, 
thousands of color computer owners have been enjoying these features 
for years. But now the new MASTER CONTROL II also has the following 
features: 

-it-New plastic overlay that can be removed when you are not using 
MASTER CONTROL II. 

#New documentation, to help you get the most from the program. 
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Scatterbrain And Better — 
Two Good Games For The Price 

Are you the type of person who loves to clean up the 
house, putting things in their proper places? That's the basis 
for Scatterbrain, a 32K ECB graphic text Adventure on 
tape. I had heard that graphics were starting to be used with 
tape-based Adventures and I was anxious to see how Scat- 
terbrain stacked up. Unfortunately, 1 could not at first get 
the program to run properly. Investigating further, I discov- 
ered this program uses the famous speed-up POKE 'm Lines 
1 and 150. 1 happen to own a CoCo that will not accept the 
speed-up and 1 think its rather rude of a company to sell such 
software without including the simple option of whether or 
not to use the speed-up POKE. After editing out the pokes, I 
proceeded to try out the game. 

In Scatterbrain, you have been hired to put an 85-room 
mansion in order. There are 60 objects scattered through the 
house and you have to figure out where each one belongs. 
Some objects are fairly simple to place such as putting the 
Color Computer in the computer room. Other objects are a 
little more tricky. The objects are scattered randomly each 
time you start the game although the arrangement of rooms 
remains the same. This allows you to start with a new puzzle 
each time you run the game. However, since there is no 
provision for saving a game in progress, you must finish the 
game in one sitting. This is quite a task and could take hours 
if you don't already have the rooms mapped out. 

The graphics were somewhat of a disappointment for a 
game that is advertised as a graphics Adventure. There are 
no 3-D views, no drawings of objects, in fact, there are no 
Hi-Res graphics at all. The graphics in Scatterbrain consist 
of Lo-Res text screen block graphics. These are used to draw 
a rectangle on the screen representing the room outline. 
Exits are indicated by holes left in the appropriate walls. 
Objects that are in the room are listed within the outline but 
are not graphics at all. 

This is a fun game to play the first time through but is not 
for advanced Adventure players. Actually, Scatterbrain is 
not a true Adventure but more of a puzzle. You cannot 
manipulate the environment or objects other than to get or 
to drop things. There are only four verbs used; Get, Drop, 
Look, and Inventory. There are no dangers, no hidden 
passages, no traps, none of the action that is in the typical 
Adventure. At the same time, you don't have to worry about 
getting killed. 

When you purchase a game from Pal Creations, you also 
receive a free game. The free game I received is Better. This is 
a gambling game for one to four players. The computer 
randomly picks a number between 1 and 20. Using imagin- 
ary money, the players place bets in various catagories such 
as "odd or even." The computer tabulates the results and 
determines when someone has won the game. 

Both the Scatterbrain and Better games are entertaining 
and fun to play although neither is outstanding nor ex- 
ceptional. 

(Pal Creations, 10456 Amantha Ave., San Diego, CA 92126, 
32K ECB tape, $14.95) 

— James Ventling 



226 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Software p *" w — 

No More Tape To Disk 
Incompatibility With 
Triple Transfer Utility 

V Adding a disk drive to your Color Computer can be very 
exciting. In fact, a friend of mine claims that he was more 
edited the day he bought his first disk drive than the day he 
was^narried. Talk about your typical hacker. Seriously, 
adding a disk drive has mixed blessings. With a new drive 
comes new tasks and responsibilities. For example, if you 
have lived without one for some time, you probably have 
many files that you will want to move to disk. In addition, 
some of your programs may need to be reworked because 
the engineers at Radio Shack, in their ultimate wisdom, pu 
the disk operating system buffer space in lower memory, 
right smack in the middle of everything. Machine language 
programs, if they use or load into this space, will not work 
correctly. 

Along with the task of making these changes, the addition 
of a drive means backing up the information placed on the 
disks. This often is done by saving a spare copy of the disk 
files on cassette tape. If you value your time and data, this 
task must be done regularly. Murphy's Law works flawlessly 
with disk media. The minute that you let down your guard 
and skip a backup — zap — a non-recoverable disk error 
occurs. 

This discussion wasn't meant to discourage any potential 
disk users but 1 want to make a point about the amount of 
work associated with converting and maintaining disk files. 
This work does not need to be time consuming because there 
are software tools available which are desighed to aid jn 
these tasks. This is a review about one such tool, a utility 
called Triple Transfer Utility, which can make tape and disk 
file transfers easier. T-T-U is designed to ease the chores of 
disk maintenance by providing several very useful functions. 
It moves programs from tape to disk and disk to tape. 
Nothing new here folks — utilities like this have been 
around a long time. What is unique and potentially very 
useful is that during the tape to disk transfer, machine 
language programs which load in the lower memory used by 
the disk operating system are fixed to run with the drive 
plugged in. This means that programs made incompatible 
by the addition of a disk drive can be fixed to work correctly. 

T- T- U works in a straightforward fashion. When run, you 
are quizzed in menu fashion for the drive number and if you 
Want a tape to disk transfer or vice versa. You then input 
whether it is a bulk transfer of all the programs on the media 
or if you want to be -cued for each individual file encount- 
ered. The process of modifying an incompatible machine 
language file being transferred to disk is handled automatic- 
ally. When a machine language program is encountered, its 
load addresses are displayed on the screen and T- T- U recog : 
nizes if a conflict exists with the disk work space. If there is a 
problem with the load address, the disk save is made by 
adding an offset to the normal addresses and a short routine 
is appended to the program to relocate it to its proper 
location when it is executed. The disk drive is also disabled 
in the process. All this is automatic with no user interven- 
tion. You are notified on the screen that the modification 
was made. 



1 tested T-T-U on several "disk incompatible" cassette 
programsfrom my library and T-T-U works as described. It 
helps in many, but not all, cases of incompatibility. The 
programs that can be fixed are those that load directly in the 
region of 0600 Hex, the disk work space. This is a majority 
of the problem programs. Those that are not fixable by 
T- T-Uare programs that load in high memory but use lower 
memory (0600 Hex) as work space. This is an important 
distinction between disk incompatible programs. It should 
also be noted that this software is not intended to move 
copy-protected and auto-loading programs, although it may 
work with some copy protection schemes. 

T-T-U gets excellent marks for documentation. For a 
"simple" utility, the six pages of detailed instructions leaves 
nothing to the imagination. More companies should follow 
this example. Misunderstood software of this type is frus- 
trating and potentially dangerous if you are counting on a 
backup and it's not there. 

T-T-U is a useful utility that can save time in tape to disk 
and disk to tape transfers. It can help alleviate the most 
common tape to disk incompatibility — programs that load 
into disk operating space. This is a valuable feature that 
makes this program different from other tape/ disk transfer 
utilities. You could say that T-T-U is "30 percent more 
useful" than most transfer programs. If you need the help of 
this type of utility, T-T-U would be an excellent choice. 

(Compuiize Inc., P.O. Box 207, Langhorne, PA 19047, 
cassette $19.95, disk $24.95) 

— Tom Szlucha 



* RADIO SHACK ru COLOR COMPUTER 

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ENGINEERS • PHYSICISTS • STUDENTS 

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July 1984 THE RAINBOW 227 



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228 THE RAINBOW July 1984 



Speed Math — An 
Educational Math Drill 

Speed Math is an educational "game," furnished on 
cassette which requires 16K Extended Color BASIC. This 
"g^me" is a mathematics drill designed for children of grades/ 
two through 12 in which a student/ player attempts 
answer a number of arithmetic problems in a limited tjrfre. 
The number of problems, and the type (addition, subtrac- 
tion, multiplication, division, or mixed) are selected by the 
player via menus. Time remaining in the game can be shown 
on either of two timers — a bar graph and a digital display 
—or "ticked off" on an audible timer. Or all three timers can 
be selected from a menu at the beginning of the game. At the 
conclusion of the drill, the player is rated on a six-step scale, 
ranging from "beginner" to "super whiz." 

The instruction sheet is generally well-written. It describes 
the "game" and explains the choices the student / player must 
make from the program menus. The instructions were defi- 
cient only in that they did not tell how to load the program 
(use CLOAD, not CLOADM). 

My two older children (in third and sixth grades) and I 
enjoyed this "game." The instructions, though generally 
well-written, were not really necessary because the program 
itself uses menus and one-line prompts to guide the player. 

In summary, Speed Math is a good educational program, 
using simple but effective graphics (the timers) and a highly 
interactive format to encourage student/ player participation. 

(West Bay Company, Route I, Box 666, White Stone, VA 
22578, $8 tape) 

— Jerry Oefelein 



About Your Subscription 

Your copy of THE RAINBOW is sent second class mail 
and, for subscribers in the United States, the date of 
mailing is printed on the label. If you do not receive 
your copy by the 25th of any month, send us a card and 
we will mail another immediately via first class mail. 

You must notify us of a new address when you 
move. Notification should reach us no later than the 
15th of the month prior to the month in which you 
change your address. Sorry, we cannot be responsible 
for sending another copy when you fail to notify us. 

Your mailing label also shows an "account number" 
and the subscription expiration date. Please indicate 
this account number when renewing or corresponding 
with us. It will help us help you better and faster. 

For Canadian and other non-U .S. subscribers, there 
may be a mailing address shown that is different from 
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pondence to that mailing address. Send it to our edi- 
torial offices at P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. 
This applies to everyone except those whose subscrip- 
tions are through our distributor in Australia. 



Software Review! 



MSI-Disk Util — 
For Better Disk Organization 

Micro Services Inc. has designed an interesting program 
for the CoCo disk systems. MSI— Disk Util requires a 32K 
disk system and accommodates one to four disk drives. With 
it you can print out a directory of the diskette one at a time 
or combine them all into an alphabetical listing of each 
program or data file, store and restore the directory, and 
even assign a user-selected serial number to each disk. 

The display screen is pleasing to the eye, as it is a 42 x 
32-character screen display done in Hi-Res graphics. The 
multiple print command provides very nice printouts, com- 
plete with headers, diskette serial number, file type (BASIC 
program, data file, or machine language program), file for- 
mat (binary or ASCII) and date last backed up. If the Print 
Single Diskette Directory command is used, the program 
provides you with the filename, format, grans allocated, 
bytes available (in the given number of granules), the 
number of bytes actually used, the number of bytes left 
unused, the percentage used of the allocated granules, and 
the start and end track/ sector of the program. 

Now for the improvements 1 feel that Micro Services 
should implement. First of all, when the program backs up a 
directory, it copies it to track 0. If track 0 is in use, the 
documentation tells you to use the display directory com- 
mand to find out which file resides in that space and copy 
that file to another disk. It seems that the program could be 
made to do that for the user since that is a lot of trouble for 
the user to go to. Also, there seems to be a problem with the 
memory usage. Apparently some commands allocate varia- 
ble space and do not "de-allocate" it when the command is 
finished. At any rate, there sometimes occurs an ?OM Error. 

Also, the user cannot change the drive in use without 
restarting the program. That is to say, when the program 
starts, the user is asked for the drive number. After this 
number is entered, the only way to change the drive to be 
used is to end and restart the program, which requires 
reloading it. Another small change that could be made is to 
give a file count for the combined print command. When 
compiling the list for the combined print, the user has no 
way of telling the number of files already in the list and thus 
it is easy to add too many programs. This causes a loss of the 
entire list which the user will have to reload. 

In general, if you are willing to work your way through 
these shortcomings, MSI-Disk Util can be very helpful in 
keeping track of all of your programs on all of your disks. 
Hopefully, Micro Services will offer a revision of their pro- 
gram. 1 feel that if they do, they will have a quality program 
well worth the $19.95 price tag. 

By the way, all of the software pirates should beware; the 
program is very skillfully protected with a "personal identi- 
fication plug" to be plugged into the left joystick port. The 
documentation states that MSI-Disk Util will not run with- 
out this plug. This will guard against unauthorized access to 
your files. 

(Delker Electronics, P.O. Box 897, Smyrna, TN 37167, disk 
$19.95) 

— Jim Sewell 



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Red, Blue, Green, Yellow, Lavender 
$4.00/100 $30.00/1000 



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Holds 12 cassettes *o qc 

w/o boxes 
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Computer make & model Disk? (y/n) . 



July 1984 THE RAINBOW 229 



• A COMPUTE DISK ZAP. 

• MODIFY ANY 9ECTOB. 

• FORMAT AWY TRACK. 

• VERIFY DIRK FOR ERRORS. 

• BACKUP DISK IN 1 PASS. 

• COPY BY FILE BACKUP. 



SUPER DISK UTILITY 

THE COMPLETE DISK UTILITY. 

• COMPLETE MASTER DIRECTORY 
HOLDS SEVERAL THOUSAND FILES. 

• FUNCTION TO NAME THE DISK. 

• EVERYTHING A DISK UTILITY 
CAN HE tnt 

• MULTIPLE DRIVE COMPATIBLE. 



FOR ANY COCO/TDP WITH 32K flNI V tQQ QS 
MINIMUM AND A DISK DRIVE. 



DSL S GREATEST HITS 

• GODFATHER 
THEME 

• ML RABBIT 

• BUG CHASE 

• AUTO LINE 

• CLOSE TO YOU 



• ESCAPE 

• TUBECUBE 

• SPELLER 

• HARDCOPY 

• MIMIC 

• SO-l-SEZ 

ALL 20 PROGRAMS 
$19.95 TAPE $29.95 DISK 



• GEO STUDIES 
(5 STUDIES) 

• WORD CC 7 

• PACKMAZE 

• POKING AROUND 

• COCO SAFARI 



GAMES 




CANDY CO. 34.95 (C/D) 


TRAPFALL 


27.95 (C) 


AIR TRAFFIC 




CONTROLLER 


2S.95 (C) 


GRABBER 


27.95(C) 


WORLDS OF FUGHT 


29.95(C) 


DEVIL ASSAULT 


27.95 (C) 


BUZZARD BAIT 


27.95 (C) 


THE KING 


26.95 (C) 


DOODLEBUG 


24.95 (C) 


DEATH PLANET 




ADVENTURE 


19.95 (C) 


ROBOTTACK 


24.94 (C) 


THE FROG 30.95 (D) 27.95 (C) 


COLORPEDE 


29.95 (C) 


BIRD ATTACK 


21.95 (C) 


STELLAR SEARCH 


24.95 (C) 


STELLAR SEARCH 


27.95 (D) 


AIRLINE 


24.95 (C) 


STORM 


24.95 (C) 


INATAK 


24.95 


CASHMAN 


27.95 (C) 


OUTHOUSE 


27.95 (C) 


AREX 


34.95 (C) 


ZAXXON 


39.95 (C) 


MOON SHUTTLE 29.95 (C/D) 


CHOPPER STRIKE 


27.95 (C) 


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27.95 (C) 


ELECSTRON 


24.95 (C) 


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MARK VII 


159.00 


SATURN LOWER CASE 


59.95 


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88.00 


CASSETTE RECORDER 


49.95 


GEMNI 10X 


299.00 


DELUXE JOYSTICKS 


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349.00 


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14.95 



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9.95 


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19.95 (C) 


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29.95 (C) 


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9.95 (C) 


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9.95 (C) 


LP VII/RS 


7.95(C) 


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49.95(B) 


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14.95 (C) 


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17.95 (C) 


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69.95 


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39.95 


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(REQUIRES VOICE PAK) 


24.95 (C) 


TALKING 




FOREIGN LANGUAGE 


24.95 (C) 


ELITE-FILE 


74..50 


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59.95 


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59.95 


VIP SPELLER 


39.95 


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49.95 


VIP DISK ZAP 


39.95 


SPELL N FIX 


59.29 


DISK MAILER 


24.95 


TELEWRITER TAPE 49.95 


TELEWRITER DISK 59.95 


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59.95 


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59.95 


ELITE-CALC 


59.95 


VIP CALC 


59.95 


ULTRA-CONTESTOR 


39.95 (C) 


COLOR FINANCE 


59.95 (D) 




HI - RES ADVENTURES 


SHENANIGANS 


24.94 


CALIXTO ISLAND 


24.95 


BLACK SANCTUM 


24.95 


TOUCHSTONE 


27.95 


TIME BANDIT 


27.95 


KING TUT 


29.95 


SEA QUEST 


24.95 



ACCESSORIES 

/lVvbvvvlllLiv 




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7.49 


GEMINI RIBBONS 


2.95 


DISK MAILERS 


.95 


10 PACK 


8.95 


LP VII. DMP100 RIBBONS 


4.95 


DISKS 




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19.95 


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22.95 


VERBATIM 


34.95 


GRAND SLAM 64K KIT 


75.00 


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49.95 


2 WAY R8 232 SWITCHER 


29.95 


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39.95 


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2.95 


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59.95 


FOR EPSON 


69.95 


HJL-57 KEYBOARD 


79.95 


MARK DATA KEYBOARD 


69.95 



$9.95 RACK 

BUSTOUT (R) 
PROJECT NEBULA (R) 
PERSONAL FINANCE (R) 
POLARIS (R) 
SPACE ASSAULT (R) 
SHOOTING GALLERY (R) 
MICROBES (R) 
DEATH TRAP (C) 
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TYPING TEACHER (C) 
COLOR GRAPHICS (C) 
LOGICAL DISK COPY 
DATA BASE (TAPE OR DISK) 



HALF-OFF RACK 



ASTRO BLAST 
DOODLE BUG 
SPACE RAIDERS 
STARBLASTER 
HAPPY HURDLER 
STORM 



12.50 
12.50 (C) 
12.50 
19.95 
6.50 
12.50 



LIMITED QUANT1ES 



Software p ^" —— 

Adventure Generator — 
An Adventure In Creativity 

By Ken Boyle 

Hear Ye! Hear Ye! Step right up! Do I hear you say you're 
tired of being pushed around in someone else's Adventure? 
Are you constantly being frustrated by vain attempts to 
solve puzzles created by the devious minds of certain other 
programmers? Do you want revenge? Do you want to be in 
control of yourself for a change? Then read on, Jarb Soft- 
ware and author Bill Cook may have just the thing you're 
looking for. 

All kidding aside, if you have ever wished you could write 
your own Adventure but didn't know where to start, Jarb 
Software has just released a new program for our favorite 
computer that will actually write a BASIC text Adventure 
program for you. Adventure Generator is written in Ex- 
tended BASIC and requires 32K. However, before you get 
too excited, let me discuss a few prerequisites. 

First of all, Adventure Generator can only write a BASIC 
program (no small feat) from your input. This means all the 
creativity necessary to develop the Adventure story-line and 
puzzle logic must come from you f This is in no way a 
limitation, but you must realize this piece of software is not 
going to automatically create Adventures for you to play. In 
fact, just the opposite is true; Adventure Generator will 
allow you to program Adventures for other people to play. 

The second prerequisite is a knowledge of BASIC pro- 
gramming. Although 70 to 90 percent of the actual code is 
generated in response to simple questions, the remaining 10 
to 30 percent requires you have at least an average pro- 
gramming ability. What does average mean? Well, you 
should be able to understand the coding of IF. . . THEN 
statements including the use of the conditionals AND and 
OR. Also, you must know simple syntax rules such as when 
a colon is required to separate BASIC statements and when it 
is not. And finally, you should have an understanding of the 
structure and use of arrays, both single and multi-dimen- 
sioned. 

Obviously, the more complete your programming knowl- 
edge is, the better your chances ate of generating a successful 
Adventure. And while it is true that even someone with 
minimal skill could generate an Adventure using this pro- 
gram, should that person make a subtle mistake in answer- 
ing the questions, it might be impossible for them to find the 
actual bug in the generated code. 

Adventure Generator is available on cassette or disk with 
a sample Adventure and 31 pages of documentation. The 
Extended BASIC program is preceded by a machine language 
auto-start program and, hence, requires a CLOADM for 
cassette loading. 

Perhaps the thing that impressed me most is the profes- 
sionalism which has gone into the development of this soft- 
ware package. This is evident in the extremely thorough 
documentation and the genuine user-friendliness of the pro- 
gram itself. 

The documentation contains instructions on the use of 
Adventure Generator, as well as two helpful appendices- 
Appendix A contains detailed step-by-step instructions on 
the creation of the sample Adventure provided, including a 
map of the Adventure and a discussion of how to go about 
creating a similar map of your own Adventures. The second 



appendix carries the detailing of the sample Adventure one 
step further by providing a commented source listing. This 
appendix will give you much of the knowledge necessary to 
make your own personalized enhancements to any Adven- 
tures you may generate, as well as provide you with an 
invaluable debugging tool. As many of you may have 
already experienced, documentation can usually make or 
break a good program. Other companies would do well to 
follow the example set forth by Jarb Software and author 
Bill Cook in this package. 

Now let me discuss the program itself. Many reviewers 
have been accused of presenting too rosy a picture of soft- 
ware reviewed and 1 try to keep this in mind at all times. This 
program, like most others, has a few limitations which 1 will 
discuss later, however I must congratulate Bill Cook on 
writing a very professional user-friendly program. The 
screen displays for data entry are very well done and most 
entries provide a mask indicating just how many characters 
are permitted. Being a professional programmer, 1 can 
appreciate the extra effort necessary to turn a good program 
into something even better. 

The program is divided into five sections; 1 ) room descrip- 
tions, 2) verb input, 3) object descriptions, 4) object place- 
ment and 5) conditional input. The first section allows you 
to enter up to 100 room descriptions and the entrance/ exit 
relationships between rooms. Section 2 allows entering of a 
maximum of 30 action verbs. Several of the verbs have been 
preprogrammed for all Adventures such as INVENTORY, 
SCORE, QUIT, HELP and LOOK. In section 3 you can 
enter descriptions for up to 60 objects. Each description 
must include a single keyword to be used with the verbs by 
the Adventure player. Also, after each of the first three 
sections is complete, you may request a printout of your 
entries, (provided, of course, you have a printer on your 
system.) 

Since there really isn't enough room in a 32K machine for 
Adventure Generator and the generated Adventure, the 
program writes to either your cassette recorder or disk drive 
continually during the entire generation process. This 
approach seems better suited to disk users than to us, less 
fortunate, cassette users. For the record, 1 used a Radio 
Shack CTR-80A recorder and a good quality tape and had 
no problems whatsoever. However, if you have been having 
any 1/ O problems while doing normal CLOADs, etc., with 
your current recorder, you could be in for some headaches. 
To spend two or more hours entering an Adventure, only to 
have some form of 1/ O problem when you're finished, is not 
my idea of how to spend an enjoyable evening. Unfortu- 
nately, at that point there is no way to recover any of your 
work and you will have to repeat the entire process. At least 
with normal programming you can do a SKIPF to verify 
your save. This is part of what I consider to be the one 
serious limitation of this well done program when used on a 
cassette based system. Another part of the problem is that 
you must complete the entire data entry process at one 
sitting. There is no way to spread the generation over several 
sessions. If you begin with a very well planned Adventure 
(this is a necessity) you could complete a rather short pro- 
gram in under an hour, however for longer Adventures 
several hours could easily be the norm. Of course, as you 
gain experience using the program your actual data entry 
time may decrease. Nevertheless, I prefer to create my pro- 
grams in modules, testing each section before continuing on 
to the next. Adventure Generator forces me to take a differ- 
ent approach and old habits die hard. Also, after generating 
the Adventure, should you decide you need another verb, 

July 1984 THE RAINBOW 231 



object or some other change, you will have to manually code 
it into the program. There is no way to use this program to 
update a previously generated Adventure. Let me stress, 
however, that these are not necessarily problems or faults 
with the program, only limitations which should be consid- 
ered in your purchasing decision. 

To continue on with the actual generating procedure, 
once you complete entering rooms, verbs and objects, you 
must tie them all together. Section 4 (object placement) 
allows you to specify in which room each object will be 
placed at the beginning of your Adventure. Now we come to 
the final section, conditional input. Inputting data to this 
section requires probably 80 percent of the total time 
involved in using this program. This section will prompt you 
with each verb and allow you to enter any associated objects. 
You may then select from several conditions for the verb/ 
object combination to be successful. Conditions such as the 
object must be in the current room or in your inventory, a 
conditional flag must be set or even a random factor are 
some of the possible choices. After the conditions are 
selected, a menu of results is displayed. You may then 
choose such results as "object disappears," "place object in 
room, M "set or turn off conditional flag,""print a response," 
etc. Just about every imaginable option is included. Also the 
BASIC code being generated is displayed on the screen, 
allowing you to manually edit the line if required. You are 
allowed up to nine conditional flags (switches). These may 
be used for special situations to trigger responses to a com- 
bination of actions. 

Now, you might wonder just what the final result is after 
all this data entry. Well, the actual program generated is 
very well done and the code is fairly easy to follow. The 
content of the Adventure is, of course, exactly what you 



AT WITS END 

(C) 1984 by Derringer Software, Inc. 

You may lose your sanity while playing this new game from Derringer 
Software! As the resident caretaker at the local "Home for burned- 
out programmers", your job is to keep the public safe by keeping the 
patients within the confines of the central compound. But, every now 
and then the somewhat erratic patients start running about and you find 
yourself having to open and close doors to get them to safety. Of 
course as one gets in, another may jump out! Three separate display 
screens with nine levels of play for each. Play against the clock for the 
best time. Score kept for each game and level. 




CRAZY MAZE 



SPIRALMANIA 



BEGINNER'S BOX 



The CRAZY MAZE is completely different each time you play, 
SPIRALMANIA will be a true test of mental strength. 
The BEGINNER'S BOX is for those short on patience! 



$ 24 9S 



RAINBOW ^ 



Requires joysticks and can be played on I6K Extended tape or disk 
systems! Please indicate tape or disk when you order. Send check or 
money order to: Derringer Software, Inc. P. O. Box 5300, Florence, 
S.C. 29502-2300. Visa or Master Card customers can call (803) 
665-5676 9:00am to 5:00pm Mon-Fri. Please include $2.00 for ship- 
ping and handling — No COD's. 

★ See the ad for Double Buster also * 



entered, no better no worse. It seems to me the Adventure 
screen displays lack some of the sophistication apparent in 
the generator program itself. There are no fancy split 
screens. The information simply scrolls off the screen in the 
normal manner. Unfortunately, you are not given obvious 
directions for each room, nor are you allowed to save a game 
in progress. Of course, you can add these things yourself but 
it would have been nice if they had been included. 

All in all, Mr. Cook and Jarb Software have done an 
admirable job of creating an Adventure Generator and 1 can 
honestly recommend it to anyone interested. Of course, the 
program may not be perfect for everyone and 1 hope my 
comments give you the additional information you need in 
deciding to purchase this program or not. 

As a final note, 1 would like to add that Adventure Gener- 
ator could be very successful when used as an educational 
tool. The amount of creativity and logical approach neces- 
sary for developing an Adventure would undoubtedly 
benefit students in all areas of interest. But primarily, for a 
student interested in programming, developing an Adven- 
ture and writing a computer program have a great many 
similarities. Also, once the program is generated, the student 
could then experiment with changing codes to enhance the 
program and gain programming experience at the same 
time. I'm sure an experienced teacher could envision even 
more possibilities! Now if someone would only create a 
review generator. 

(Jarb Software, 1636 D Avenue, Suite C, National City, CA 
92050, cassette $34.95, disk/Amdisk $39.95) 



Aumw Computus 

49 Brookland Ave., Aurora, Ontario Canada L4G 2H6 

FAMILY GAMES 

The popular STOCKBROKER and CRIBBAGE 32K 

$14.95 each. 

ADVENTURE GAMES: Sea Quest and Shenanigans from 
MARK DATA only $24.95(C); $27 .95(D) each 

From BRANTEX, PIRATE TREASURE 16K $13.95 

SCAVENGER HUNT 16K $18.95 

EDUCATIONAL GAMES 

COLORMIND, CONCEN - improve your memory and logical 
thinking - 16K $10.95 each 

• • • 

Also from BRANTEX 

EDU-COMBO (Math Derby, Peek 'N' Spell Metric Converter) 
16K only $29.95 

BUSINESS: HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE MANAGER 16K$19.95 

LOAN ANALYSIS 16K $20.95 

• • • 

NEW from MARK DATA 

The amazing TIME FIGHTER 16K $24.95(C) 

32K $27.95(D) 

Also the ever popular GLAXXONS 16K $24.95(C) 

32K $27.95(D) 

• • • 

UTILITIES: ROMDISK: Run your rom pack gamesf rom a disk! 
64K $15.95 

MR. COPY - make up to 99 copies of one program at once! 
16K $15.95 



232 THE RAINBOW July 1964 



Hardware Review! 



Gold Plug 80 Makes 
Solid Connections 

One problem that TRS-80 users have often noticed (not 
only on the CoCo, but with the Model 1 , 1 1 1 and 4 as well) is 
that the connections to disk drives and other peripherals are 
often poor. Radio Shack's computer products (except for 
disk drives) have had the card edges tinned with solder, 
while the connectors that fit on the edges are often gold- 
plated. The chemical reaction between gold on one side and 
tin on the other often causes oxidation on the solder side. 
Some people have had a jeweler electroplate gold or silver 
on the card edges of a board, while others have used silver 
solder to coat the pins; one neat trick that one of my friends 
did was to put a large glob of solder on each pin, so that the 
connector pins were under tension and made a better 
connection. 

E.A.P. Company's solution to the connector problem is 
to replace the card edge with a gold-plated connector 
designed to mate with standard edge connectors. The Gold 
Plugs, which are available in several sizes for different appli- 
cations, are soldered onto the existing card edge. This gives 
you a true gold-to-gold connection (or, at the very least, a 
good connection between different metals). They have sev- 
eral different connector kits, with the appropriate connec- 
tors for various computers; the kit 1 tested is the one for the 
CoCo's disk controller pack. This has one 40-pin connector 
(computer side) and one 34-pin (drive side). This particular 
kit also has extension tabs for the grounding pins on the 



sides of the 40-pin card edge; the grounding pins provide a 
better ground connection from the controller and drives to 
the computer, and help keep RF interference down. (Incid- 
entally, every other wire in the CoCo's drive cable is 
grounded at both ends; this reduces noise and makes disk 
operation more reliable.) 

After I soldered the pins on the top of the controller, I 
pulled it out, took the board out of the case and soldered the 
other side. The drive end is easier because it doesn't have to 
be at a particular angle; mine ended up tilted about five 
degrees, which doesn't help the appearance but doesn't 
affect the system's operation. 

The ground extender tabs were more difficult; four tabs 
are provided, and they go on both sides of each of the two 
ground pins in such a way that they just fit into the ground 
clips on the computer when the controller is plugged in. If 
the tabs are too far out, the controller won't go in all the way. 
The instructions are complete and easily understood. 

As for the improvement that the Gold Plugs achieve, I 
installed the kit on a controller that was working normally 
and I can only say that the controller works fine with the 
Gold Plugs, with no intermittents (loose connections) or 
other problems. One of the disk controllers at the Rainbow 
office has been rather flaky, though, and since the trouble 
was cured (for the moment) by a good cleaning, the Gold 
Plugs may well help on it. If you are having this kind of 
trouble, the Gold Plug 80 kit is definitely a good solution. 

(E.A.P. Co., P.O. Box 14, Keller, TX 76248, $16.95 plus 
$1.45 S/H) 

- Ed Ellers 



Computer Servo Controlled Robot Arm 




Call or Write for Free Catalog 

Analog micro Systems 

5660 Valmont Road . Boulder, Colorado 80301 ■ Tel: (303) 444-6809 



RobotH 

Keyboard or Joystick Control 

Remembers Everything It Did 
& does it again 

Typical System Includes: 

. Robot- 1 & Cables 

. 6 Channel Servo Controller 

. Power Supply 

. All Software with source code 
Modular Robotic Accessories: 

• Mobile Cart for Traveling 
Robot 

. Radio Links between all 

Functions 
. Robot-mounted MicronEye 
. Ultrasonic Range Finder 

Robot-1 Series 

s