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Full text of "The Rainbow Vol. 01 No 1 - Vol 8 No 11"

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January 1984 



$3.95 ij.K.£2.55 



The 



u 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHIY MACAZHE 



BEGINNERS 

ISSUE 



ERROR MESSAGES 
SPELLED OUT 

LEA 
BIMA 
AND HE 

mmm 



STARTING MACHINE 
LANGUAGE 

WELCOME 

mm® 

AM 8K 

m mm 

FREE 




UPGRADE 
YOUR COCO 2 
T0 64K 



;, 44254 M 0000r 



0 1 



PLUS 

A TYPING TEACHER MESSAGE MOVER FACE MAKER 
HOME CHECK RECORD AND MORE THAN 
30 PRODUCT REVIEWS! 







32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 
DISK $30.95 



By Rugby Circle 



We've done it again! You thought The 
King was great? Wait 'til you see this!! 
Outstanding high resolution graphics, 
tremendous sound make this "Joust" 
type game a must for your software col- 
lection. As you fly from cloud to cloud 
you will enjoy sky high excitement deal- 
ing with the challenges presented to you 
by this newest release by Tom Mix Soft- 
ware. 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

3424 COLLEGE N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS. Ml 49505 



To Order Call 364-4791 
To Place Orders After 5:00 P.M. 
Call Our BBS At 
(616)364-8217 



•ADD $1.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING-TOP ROYALTIES PAID* 
•MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX- 
LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 

ARCADE ACTION GAMES 



From Computer Plus to YOU . . . 
PLUS after PLUS after PLUS 



J 




ModeMOQ 8KS679 
ModeMOO 24K$835 




Color Computer II 16K $145 
w/16KExt. Basic $210 







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Model 4 16K $849 




Model 4 64K , 


2 Disk & RS232 $1699 






DMP120 $395 
DMP200 $520 




CoCo Drive 0 $329 
CoCo Drive 1 $235 




BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



COMPUTERS 

Model 4 Portable 

64K w/2 Drives 
Color Computer 

64K ext. basic 
Pocket Computer 2 
Model 12 1 Drive 
Model 16B 1Dr 256K 
MODEMS 

Hayes Smartmodem II 
R.S. AC-3 
R.S. Modem I 
R.S. Modem II 
PRINTERS 

Silver Reed EXP500 D.W. Ser. 

Silver Reed EXP550 D.W. Ser. 

CGP115 

CGP220 Ink Jet 

DMP100 

DMP420 

Gemini 10X 

Delta-10 

Gemini 15X 

CITOH Prowriter 





CITOH Prowriter II 


649 




Okidata 


CALL 


1525 


Epson 


CALL 


305 


ETC. 




Disk Drive Controller 


139 


165 


Extended Basic Kit 


69 


2699 


Botek Ser/Par Conv. 


69 


4249 


64K Ram Chips 


75 




R.S. Deluxe Keyboard 


35.95 


235 


Superpro Keyboard 


69.95 


129 


CCR-81 Recorder 


52 


89 


R.S. Deluxe Joystick (each) 


35.95 


160 


R.S. Joysticks (pair) 


22 




Video Plus (monitor adapter) 


24.95 


455 


Amdek Color 1 + Monitor 


299 


665 


SOFTWARE (Tape Version) 


159 


Zaxxon 


39.95 


545 


The King 


26.95 


315 


Trap Fall 


27.95 


735 


Screen Print 


19.95 


315 


Buzzard Bait 


27.95 


515 


Devil Assault 


27.95 


399 


Colorpede 


29.95 


375 


Juniors Revenge 


28.95 



Pac Attack 24.95 

Block Head 26.95 

Froggie 24.95 

Lunar Rover Patrol 24.95 

Lancer 21.95 

Color Zap 9.95 

Typing Tutor 19.95 

Galagon 24.95 

Scott Adams Adventures . 19.95 

Sea Dragon 34.95 

Colorcome 49.95 

Telewriter 64 49.95 

FHL Flex (disk) 69.95 

O-Pak (disk) 34.95 

Key-264K 35.95 

Elite-Calc 59.95 

VIP Writer 59.95 

VIP Calc 59.95 

VIP Terminal 49.95 

VIP Database (disk) 59.95 

Order any 2 software pieces listed 
and take 10% off their listed price. 
All R.S. software 10% off list. 
Send for complete list. 



CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES $TAFF 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 

• SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 



com 




P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TRS-80 is a registered trademark ot Tandy Corp. 



Under the Rainbow 



Feature Articles 

Rainbowfest Report/ Staff 18 

Special Celebrating CoCo in Tandy town 
Tandy Tour/ Jim Reed 22 

Special Open house serves up hospitality and insights 
Auto- Artiste/ Davitf C. Wilson 24 

Graphics A short program for "art lovers" 
The Talking Dealer/ Barry R. Furman 26 

Game A card game that "speaks" to the gambler in us all 
Manhattan Transfer/ Roger Schrag 48 

Utility An uptown tape-to-disk transfer utility 
Start The Machine/ Dan Downard 56 

Tutorial A beginning lesson in machine language 
Pac'Em Up/ Martin S. Monies 70 

Game Your fuelish escapades are catching up with you 
What'd He Say? Forty K?/ Ray Guavreau 74 

Utility Here's eight more K of RAM for 64K computers 
Color-Eyed-O-Scope/ Terrel Touchstone 80 

Graphics Kaleidoscopic patterns for the fun of it 
The Wizard's Tale/ David Sligar 84 

Graphics A story told in Hi-Res animation 
Face Maker/ John W. Kozubal 89 

Graphics Combining components creates craziness 

Message Mover/ Oleg Boyarsky 96 

Programming Utility Move messages across the text screen 

What's The Question?/ tfiWi Dersheimer 98 

Education Math quiz with a reverse twist 
Typing Teacher/ Leonard Hyre 106 

Typing Aid Practice for the beginner or the more advanced 
The Memory Game/ Michael Popovich 116 

Game Look behind the squares for matching letters 
Printing Colorful Graphics/ Thomas Szlucha .120 

Printer Graphics A look at the CGP-1 15 
Check This Out/ Sid Brooks ; 124 

Household Utility A monthly checking account record 
A By-The-Numbers Quiz/ Susan and Gary Davis 140 

Quiz Learn hexadecimal and binary number systems 
More Printer Mysteries/ Michael Himowitz 144 

Printer Graphics/Game Print it to find the answer 
CSAVE With Confidence/ Jorge Mir 146 

Utility Protect your cassette saves from I/O errors 
Holiday Greetings, Earthlings!/£w^w Vasconi 150 

Graphics A friendly communication from space 
Gone Fishing Norman Matice 158 

Game Got the line, pole and boat, but where 's the bait? 
Our Own Devices/ Donald D. Dollberg 163 

Tutorial Directing I/O with device numbers 
Spell It Out/ Richard Smrcina 169 

Utility On-screen error messages spelled out 
Give A Snake A Break/ Gary Ritchie 173 

Game Help! You're a snake on a 30-lane highway 
Mon Mod/ Richard Kottke 179 

Hardware Modify CoCo for use with a monitor 
Pix 'N' Puzzles/ Stephen Lai 184 

Game Rearrange the sticks and create pictures 
Pie Graph Supreme/ Dave Clements 189 

Graphics A well-done, menu-driven pie graph routine 
Bridging The Gap/ Gregory Clark 202 

Programming Utility Twenty screen routines 
Four For Fun/ Paul Wesley Myers 210 

Education Learning fun for young children 
The Captain's Magic Machine/ Bob Liddil 218 

Captain Eighty Being downloaded is unsettling to humans 
MC-10 Memory Map/ Allen Curtis 309 

Special Reading little brother's mind 





COVER art © 1983 by Fred Crawford 



Departments 

Advertiser Index 321 

Assembly Corner/ Dennis Lewandowski ; 222 

A lesson on assembly language 

Back Issue Information 224 

Basic Training/ Joseph Kolar \ 62 

Learning to append your programs 
Bits And Bytes Of Basic/ Richard White 215 

A beginner's welcome to basic 
Building January's Rainbow/ Jim Reed 16 

A many-hued preview to this month's issue 
CoCo Counsel/ Tom Nelson 166 

A guide to better hardware and software purchases 

Corrections 317 

The Dragon's Byte/ Bill Nolan : 34 

Fantasy games — imagination and role playing 
Education Notes/ Steve Blyn 87 

A little letter writing lesson 

Education Overview/ Dr. Michael Plog 68 

_ A value of traditional educational skills 

Game Master's Apprentice/ Bob Albrecht 110 

A beginner's lesson on cassette filing 
Greetings From Uncle Bert/ Dale Peterson 302 

Imitating the pigs and mice with circles 
KISSable OS-9/ Dale L. Puckett 132 

Nostalgia and notes 

Letters To Rainbow/ Our Readers 6 

The Pipeline/ Staff ; 162 

PRINT U-2J Lawrence C. Folk 13 

Editor's Notes 

RAINBOW Info 320 

Rainbow Scoreboard . . . ; 306 

Received And Certified ; ; .298 

Reviewing Reviews 226 

Submitting Material To Rainbow 261 

Subscription Information 72 

Turn Of The Screw/ Tony DiStefano 130 

A guide to upgrading the CoCo 2 
Using Graphics/ Don Inman 152 

Prompting your programs 



Product Reviews 

Airline 260 

Balloon Attack 274 

Body Parts 276 

Bomber Command < 256 

Buzzard Bait 278 

Cassette Controller 252 

Colour Software Workbench 290 

Command Stream Processor 286 

Comp-U-Trace 287 

Data Doctor 270 

Dragonfly Fan 264 

DYFIN 268 

Early Games 280 

Fembot's Revenge 237 

Flashcards ; . . 258 

Glaxxons 265 

Guess The Animal 276 

Instrument Flight Simulator 232 




Isle Of Fortune 262 

Jail ; 261 

junior's Revenge 240 

Light Pen ..; : 242 

Mastermail 266 

Money Manager 272 

Panic Button 230 

Peanut Butter Panic 254 

Prereader 288 

Programmer's Toolkit 228 

Rainbow's Corner 246 

SPLC-1 296 

Schematic Drafting Processor 282 

Snoopy And The Red Baron 234 

Stellar Search 251 

VIP Terminal 229 

Zeus 294 



NEXT MONTH: February is our Adventures issue, the kickoff of our Adventure game contest. We'll announce the rules and 
deadlinesand offer some expert advice to get you started. In addition to three new columns we'll be adding in February, we are 
also starting a new technical section of the magazine complete with a regular feature to answer your technical questions. 

Asulways. well havca full mix of CoCo games, home help programs, utilities and tutorials, dozens and dozens of new product 
announcements and more than 30 hardware and software reviews. 

Look for the February Rainbow for more on the Color Computer than is available from any other source. 



Editor and Publisher 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor James E. Reed 

Senior Editor Courtney Noe 

Technical Editor Dan Downard 

Copy Editor Susan A. Remini 

Submissions Editor Jutta Kapf hammer 

Editorial Assistants Vaiarie Edwards, 
Wendy Falk, Kevin Nickols 
Noreen Morrison, Joyce Palgy 

Contributing Editors Bob Albrecht, Steve 
Blyn, Tony DiStefano, Don Inman, Joseph 
Kolar, Dennis Lewandowski, Tom Nelson, 
Bill Nolan, Dale Peterson, Michael Plog, 
Dale Puckett, Charles Rosfurid, Richard 
White 

Art Director Sally Nichols 
Assistant Art Director Jerry McKiernan 
Designers Peggy Henry, Neal C. Lauron 
Advertising Manager Charlotte Ford 
Advertising Assistant Lynda Wilson 

(502)228-4492 
General Manager Patricia H's Hirsch 
Assistant General Manager for Finance 

Donna Shuck 
Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Administrative Assistant To The Publisher 

Marianne Booth 
Customer Service Manager Suzanne 

Kurowsky 
Assistant Customer Service Manager 

Deidra Henry 
Rainbow On Tape Subscriptions 

Monica Wheat 
Research Assistants Laurie Falk, 

Wanda Perry 
Dispatch Mark Herndpn 



Garland Associates, inc. is the advertising repre- 
sentative for The RAINBOW In the eastern United 
States. Advertisers east of the Mississippi may con- 
tact them lor further information. Garland Asso- 
ciates, Inc., P.O. Box 314, S.H.S., Duxbury, MA 
02331, (617) 934-6464 or 934-6546. 



The RAINBOW is published every month of the 
year by FALSOFT, INC., 9529 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. 
Box 209, Prospect, KY, 40059. Phone (502) 228- 
4492. The RAINBOWand The RAINBOW logotypes 
are ® Trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. 

Second class postage pending at Louisville, KY. 
POSTMASTER; Send address changes to The 
RAINBOW P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. For- 
warding Postage Guaranteed. Authorized as 
second class postage paid from Hamilton, Ontario 
by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 

Entire contents ® by FALSOFT, Inc., 1983. The 
RAINBOW is intended for the private use and plea- 
sure of its subscribers and purchasers and repro- 
duction by any means is prohibited. Use of informa- 
tion herein is for the single end use of purchasers 
and any other use is expressly prohibited. AH pro- 
grams herein are distributed in an "as is" basis, 
without warranty of any kind whatsoever. 

TRS-80, Color Basic, Extended Basic. Scripsit 
and Program Pak are $> trademarks of the Tandy 
Corp. CompuServe is a ®. Trademark of Compu- 
Serve inc. 

Subscriptions to The RAINBOW are $22 per year 
($28 after Jan. 1, 1984) in the United States. Cana- 
dian and Mexican rates are U.S. $29 ($35 after Jan. 
1, 1984); Surface mail to other countries is U.S. $57 
($65 after Jan. 1. 1984), air mail U.S. $85 ($10D after 
Jan. 1, 1984). All subscriptions begin with the next 
available issue. 



Limited back issues are available. Please see notice 
for issues which are in print and costs. Payment 
accepted by VIS A» MasterCard, American. Express, 
Cash, Check or Money Order in U.S. currency only. 



letters to — 

RAINBOW 



SWEET PRAISE 

Editor: 

\ can't tell you how much 1 look forward 
to the Rainbow. I'm like a kid in a candy 
shop. You writers have a real flair for being 
concise. Top notch! All that praise, and for a 
magazine that doesn't even have a center- 
fold. Keep up the good work! 

Robert A. Walker 
Crewe, VA 

Editor's Note: 

Check our January 1983 issue. It does 
have a foldout! 



HELPFUL HINTS 

Editor: 

I have seen requests for locating the 5-pin 
joystick plugs for the CoCo. They are avail- 
able with the cable attached as part number 
AW-2894. I paid $1.62 for the plug with 
cable in July 1983. 

The 4-pin plugs for serial I/O should also 
be available via the same route, but I don't 
have a part number for them. Just ask for a 
replacement connector for the 26-3020 cable, 
or buy the 26-3020 cable which has two of 
the 4-pin connectors on it. 

I have been a CoCo "nut" since June of 
this year, and have found the Rainbow to be 
the best buy in CoCo magazines (I'm a sub- 
scriber, but the newsstand price isn't bad for 
the amount of info you get in each issue). 

John E. Carter 
Smyrna, GA 



RECIPES FOR COLD POKE 

Editor: 

In your November 1983 issue, you printed 
the cold poke, POKE 113,0: EX EC 40999, 
and asked for any handy uses for this poke. 

What 1 use this poke for is to cold start the 
CoCo when using my disk drive, without 
having to extract the disk. Since the restart is 
done from software and not hardware, there 
is no flashing the head of the disk resulting in 
crashed disks. 

Also, for what it's worth, if you EXEC 
40999 without the poke, you can get a reset. 

I use the cold start poke in a small pro- 
gram that includes the unload command fol- 
lowed by the poke. 

David E. Fultz, Jr. 
Marion, OH 

Editor: 

In the November issue, you requested a 
reply from those who use the POKE 113,0: 
EXEC 40999. 1 use this poke quite often but 
with a slight modification, that is POKE 



1 13,3: EXEC 40999. What ihis poke does is 
to reinitilaize the computer to its normal 
condition as when you first put it ON. It does 
.this without shutting it down. 

Each time I have entered and executed a 
ML routine, be it a small utility, a game or 
whatever, I always use this poke before load- 
ing in another ML routine. 

If, by mistake, I have the computer bug- 
ging, and it seems to be okay after having 
pushed the [RESET] button, I always do 
this poke to make sure that the computer is 
in normal working condition again. I like 
your magazine a lot. 

Alain Dussault 
Quebec, Canada 



TO A BETTER SKETCH 

Editor: 

Since the printing of my program Color 
Sketch in October's Rainbow, I have had 
several calls about running the program on a 
16K machine as the article says can be done. 
Though it is true that the program can be run 
on a 16K machine, 1 failed to include the 
necessary modifications to do this. This let- 
ter will correct this oversight. 

In order to run the program on a 16K 
machine, the following lines must be 
changed: 

Line 5 change to . . . 
CLEAR 1200,&H3EFF 

Line 6 change to . , . 
DEF USR=&H3F00 

Line 1 1 change to . . . 
FOR MM=&H3F00 TO&H3F1B 

These changes should allow 16K users 
to run the program with no problems. 
Thanks to Rainbow and all who have called 
and complimented the program. 

Darryl Kotcher 
Canton, MI 



INFORMATION PLEASE 

Editor: 

Do any of your readers use a Japusa 
MQS-80 printer with their CoCo (also 
known as a Tec-Writer I). I am happy with 
the way it works and find the text very clear 
considering it only has a 7-wire print head 
and is cheaper then a DM P 100. However, 1 
would like to know if there is a screen-print 
program for it, or will most screen-print 
programs work? Anyone interested in shar- 
ing notes may contact meat 273 Park St. N., 
Peterborough, K9J-3W3. 

Over the last year and a half my CoCo has 
grown from 4K to its present 64K ECB with 
direct audio and composite video out, and 



the Super-Pro keyboard. In the same time I 
have watched the Rainbow grow from a few 
pages to its present colossus, and somehow it 
just gets better and better. I enjoy them both 
immensely. They make a perfect team. Keep 
up the excellent work. 

Hubert Wren 
Ontario, Canada 

Editor: 

1 would like to know how some of the 
readers come up with these poke statements 
for the various marketed games. How these 
users arrived at these specific pokes is un- 
known to me. Does it require a special soft- 
ware pack or can it be done by anybody? 
Also, is there anyone who knows how to get 
out of Ray Sato's Dungeon of the Godsl I 
have tried in vain to find the way out. It 
seems to have no exit. 

David Ravn 
Jacksonville, IL 

Editor: 

I need a program that can permit creation 
of say, 20 different symbols and then will 
recall any of these from memory and draw 
them on the screen at cursor location. One 
should then be able to correct these (pipe 
fitting) symbols by 'pipe lines' to show a pipe 
diagram or small system. A screen dump to 
printer (Gemini 10X) would be required 
plus, if possible, an ability to add dimen- 
sions. 

A table, listing material type and quanti- 
ties should also be 'generatable'to add to the 
pipe sheet — a 8!^ by II inch printout. I'm 
ready to pay for a good solution if the 
response is rapid. Thanks Rainbow, for a 
super magazine. My son and 1 almost fight 
over who gets it first! 

Mike Waters 
Tracy, P.Q., Canada 



GAMES, GAMES, GAMES 

Editor: 

If someone in Cocoland has some answers 
to Sands of Egypt, preferably how to finish 
or get in the pyramid, 1 would appreciate it. 
Send all clues and solutions to me at 2830 
Riverside Dr., Apt. 105 B, 33065. 

Mike Rothman 
Coral Springs, FL 



Editor: 

I need help on the games Beyond the 
Cimmeon Moon and Poltergeist. If anyone 
knows any clues, please write me at Box 275 
R.R. #1 CIark41653. My main problemsare 
finding things that are hid'den on Cimmeon 
Moon, and getting past the third screen on 
Poltergeist. 

Michael Rosenberg 
Prestonburg, KY 



6 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Editor: 

1 have helpful hints to solving Pyramid. I 
have answers to questions such as "How do 
you cross the bottomless pit which is too 
wide to jump?"; "How do you open the sar- 
cophagus?"; "How do you kill the serpent?"; 
"How do you get to the hole above the east 
pit in the two-pit room?"; and "How do you 
get fresh batteries for your lamp?" If you 
need help in Pyramid, just send a self 
addressed stamped envelope to 1450 Pica- 
dilly St., 23513. 

Harrv L. Perkins, III 
Norfolk, VA 



PEN PALS 

Editor: 

I am starting a CoCo pen pal service. If 
there is anyone interested, please send a let- 
ter to me at 29 Eagle Rd., 07746. With your 
letter include your name, address, what kind 
of things you like to do with your computer, 
and 25c. This is to provide for envelopes and 
stamps. I think your magazine is. great. Keep 
up the good work!! 

Michael Holzer 
Marlboro, NJ 



KUDOS 

Editor: 

The Rainbow deserves a great deal of 
credit for the fine job it has done in bringing 
to light the many applications, ins and outs, 
intricacies, updates — in short — the word 



of the Color Computer to the general public 
in a package that is not only relevant to the 
experienced computer operator, but to the 
novice as well. As computers become more 
and more a way of life, surely one day a 
person without knowledge of computers will 
be deemed "illiterate." That future may be 
much closer than any of us expect, and it is a 
comfort to know that magazines like yours 
are there to push us along. Keep up the good 
work! 

William F. Jourdain 
Macon, GA 

Editor: 

1 picked up my first copy of Rainbow in 
December of 82. I've loved every issue since 
then. Your graphics issue was spectacular. 

I was astounded at Rainbow Roach. Then 
when Marathon hit the screen I just looked 
at it with awe! It took some debugging but I 
regret that somebody wouldn't type in that 
game. 

Keep up the good work. Can't wait 'til 
next month, and the next, and the next . . . 

Brian S. Graham 
Cleveland, TN 

Editor: 

This is my first letter to any magazine. 
You have a fine little magazine compared to 
others that I receive. One CoCo magazine 
I've read is poorly written, printed some- 
times illegibly, and full of grammatical er- 
rors. Another one, although it sometimes 



has good information, is so arrogant, 1 get 
turned off. 

Robert L Cheney 
Rio Piedras, PR 



BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS 

Editor: 

I am proud to announce a new CoCo Bul- 
letin Board. The Seven Hills Hillbilly Board 
of Forest, Virginia supports uploading and 
downloading, and has many sections. They 
include anything from graphics to an elec- 
tronic magazine. We also have electronic 
mail, and a disk full of downloads. We are 
devoted to CoCbs, but all types of compu- 
ters are welcome. Currently we have Apples, 
Model 100s, and Commodores. We are run- 
ning the most efficient software available, 
and it is ideal for long-distance callers. 
Access us at 804-525-0312. 

Charles E. Moore 
Forest, VA 

Editor: 

I am the Sysop of the Colour 80 Bulletin 
Board, and it is open 24 hrs. It is a highly 
modified version of the Lee Blitch CoCo 
Board II. It uses Pete Lyall's new driver, 
along with a lot of my own modifications, to 
make it one of the best and fastest CoCo 
Bulletin Boards in the nation. It features five 
online games including Star Trek and Eliza, 
a message file called Free Forum, and a huge 
download section. 

The phone number of the Board is (904) 



F0ft Y0M**<- r 




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Phone Orders: 800-328-1223 
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Educators Endorse: "Early Games can help children 
learn new concepts, information and skills, and 
also introduces them to thejoys and benefits of 
home computers," 

Peter Clark, Faculty 
Institute of Child Development 
University of Minnesota 

Mo adult supervision required. The Picture Menu 
gives children control. They can: 



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Match Numbers 
Count Colorful 
Blocks 

• Add Stacks of 
Blocks 

• Subtract 5tacks 
of Blocks 

Draw and 
5ave 
Colorful 
Pictures 



• Match Letters 

■ Learn the Alphabet 

• 5pell their Marries 

• Compare Shapes 




January 1984 the RAINBOW 7 



264-0335. Because of a local crank caller, 
new users must call me voice first for a pass- 
word. My number is (904) 269-5383, 1 1 
a.m.— 1 1 p.m. eastern time. 

Wizard Pendleton 
Orange Park, FL 



A TIMELY CORRECTION 

Editor: 

In reference to my program Appointment 
Book, which appeared in the November 
Rainbow. My accompanying article was left 
out of the magazine, and for those of you 
who are interested in the program; First, 
many instructions were in the original article 
and not present in the write-up. For 
instance, items can be deleted from the 
appointment book as they are displayed to 
the screed (not during input, during display). 
Pressing D will delete the appropriate item. 
Second, in response to requests, a newer 
version displays a calendar graphically on 
the screen and prints out data one month at a 
time. Third, copies of the new version with 
full documentation are available from me at 
the address 6609 Westmoreland Ave., 
20912, for $9.50, and I am also available to 
give advice and assistance. 

Bill Bruck 
Takoma Park, MD 



AN EXCEPTIONAL CONTRIBUTION 

Editor: 

My wife and 1 have left the ranks of public 
school teachers to form a private school 
which is oriented in basic academics and 
specializing in the exceptional child. 

Currently, as we struggle financially to 
stay in existence, we. are using our Personal 
Color Computer with both gifted and learn- 
ing disabled students. 

We wouid be most grateful for any type of 
hardware or software to be used with our 
CoCo. We are a not-for-profit corporation* 
and all donations are tax deductible. In 
addition, we will write all contributors, tell- 
ing them how their gift will be used with our 
students. Please send contributions to: Chil- 
licbthe Alternative School, Inc., 1515 North 
Second 61523. 

Richard D. Gordley 
Chillkothe, IL 



BOUQUETS AND BRICKBATS 

Editor: 

I am writing this letter using the VIP Wri- 
ter and am having a wonderful time doing it. 
This is an amazing'product. However, my 
real reason for writing this letter is to let your 
readers know of the company and product 
that has allowed me to upgrade my CoCo so 
as to be able to use the Writer to its fullest 
advantage. 1 used the Skyline 64K Memory 
Upgrade Kit to improve my tfc D" board 16K 
Extended CoCo to its full potential. Since 1 
get three of the four CoCo oriented maga- 
zines and borrow the fourth from a friend, I 
have seen all of the published 64K upgrade 
methods. None was as simple as the one 
provided by Skyline with its memory chips. 
This upgrade used wirewrapping, not solder- 
ing, and required no cutting of capacitors. It 

8 the RAINBOW January 1984 



also has chip sockets so that it is removable 
at will. I am a physician, not an electrician, 
but still had the upgrade up and running in 
half an hour and that was only because of my 
need to undo and fix some of my work while 
learning from experience. 

I hope that passing on my experience can 
be helpful to others who also wish to upgrade 
their computers but are afraid to play around 
in its innards. 

Howard A. Glick, MD 
Lees burg, VA 

FAST SERVICE 

Editor: 

We just got an Olivetti Praxis 4 1 typewrit- 
ten printer, its Baud rate is 96, and we need 
to know how to POKE96 Baud into CoCo's 
RAM. 

I would also like to commend Petrocci 
Freelance Associates for their fast service. 
We ordered their Bowling Secretary pro- 
gram by mail on a Friday and received the 
program the following Tuesday. 

I would also like to commend the Rain- 
bow on its wonderful service and the Rain- 
bow soundsheet. This just proves that your 
magazine and the CoCo are the best in their 
fields. 

Paul Wylie 
Scottsdale, AZ 

Editor: 

Last year l took a friend's advice and 
instead of buying lntellivision for my son's 
birthday, I bought a Color Computer. He 
also suggested I subscribe to the Rainbow. 

As so often stated in your magazine, 1 
received a great deal more than 1 could have 
ever imagined in the computer and 1 can say 
the same for your magazine. Without your 
magazine, 1 would not have access to all the 
fine programs, knowledge, reviews and infor- 
mation that makes the CoCo the powerful 
instrument it is. 

1 have ordered a goodly amount of soft- 
ware from your advertisers, and while 1 have 
had my problems (some quite exasperating) 
1 would especially like to commend one that 
has been of tremendous help to me and has 
gone far beyond what anyone could expect 
in the way of service. 

The company is Transformation Tech- 
nologies and 1 wholeheartedly recommend 
their programs for those like myself who 
have absolutely no computer training. With 
Transformation Technologies' help, I have 
ah up and running word processor, data- 
base, mailing list and merger for under $75. 

The ads and prices may be small but the 
product is big in quality and service. If you 
are looking for programs that are easy to 
use, 1 highly recommend Transformation 
Technologies. 

Jack Thompson 
Gaithersburg, MD 



AN UPLIFTED UPGRADER 

Editor: 

1 recently did the 64K upgrade offered by 
"Selected Software" on my I6K "F" board. I 
found it very easy to do and it works per- 
fectly. I'm one of these guys that's all thumbs 
and my prior electrical experience was re- 



pairing electrical cords and the like. I would 
like to encourage all of your readers to 
upgrade their CoCos themselves. 

F. M. Logullo 
Hockessin, DE 



CLUBS AND MORE CLUBS 

Editor: 

1 would like to inform your readers of the 
Peoria Color Computer Club for the Color 
Computer users in Peoria, 111. and the sur- 
rounding area. We meet on the second and 
fourth Saturdays of each month at 10 a.m. at 
the Germantown Hills Fire Station in Ger- 
mantown Hills. For further information 
please contact me at 102 Twin Oaks Ct, 
61611 or call (309)694-4703. 

Harold E. Brazee 
East Peoria, IL 

Editor: 

I am writing to announce the formation of 
a new international Adventurer's club forall 
CoCo users interested in playing or writing 
adventure programs. Members will main- 
tain contact through a monthly newsletter. 

For more information contact me at 84 
Camberley Cres., Brampton, L6V 3L4, 
phone (416) 451-9452. 

Maurice Dow, Ph,D. 
Ontario, Canada 

Editor: 

On behalf of other CoCo enthusiasts, I 
would like to invite groups and individuals, 
in the U.S. to correspond with fellow users in 
Australia. 

We read with envy each month about the 
enormous amount of software and hardware 
available to your readers in the States. By 
communicating with interested people, we 
may find ways to overcome some of the 
problems in getting that great suff out Here. 

Thus, by creating this "bridge" between 
our countries, we hope to obtain and ex- 
change information and ideas on the fantas- 
tic Color Computer. 

Any initial contact can be made c/ o Pen- 
rith Users Group, 1 6 Tent St., 2750 N.S. W. 

David Cunningham 
Kingswood, Australia 

Editor: 

Anyone in the Athens, Georgia area who 
is interested in visiting or joining a Color 
Computer Club, there is a group that meets 
the first and third Tuesday at 7:30 p.m. in 
Room 38 1 of the Science Library at the Uni- 
versity of Georgia. If you need more, infor- 
mation, write to me at Route 2, Box 165-A, 
or simpiy come to the meetings. 

Robert Hendrix 
Watkinsville, GA 

Editor: 

I would like to announce to all your read- 
ers the formation of the Greater Toledo 
Color Computer Club. The club meets the 
first Thursday of the month at the Wernert 
Civic Building on Douglas , north of Laskey, 
in Toledo. The meeting time is 7:30 p.m. For 
more information, call 478-696 1 or 537-1432. 

John Nyitray 
Sylvania, OH 



Give up on Word Processors for 
Fosf Letter Writing 6 Mailing, Labels 



Instead use the 



DATABASE/ MAILER 2.0 

& 

LETTER WRITER 2.0 



BOTH FOR 



$4Q95> 



for FAST single page letters or 
1000's of form letters and labels 

SEE REVIEW DECEMBER ISSUE 



plus shipping 
ftr^m and handling 



RAINBOW 



See Rainbow's 
Coupon Page 

in this issue for 
additional savings! 



NO WORD PROCESSING EXPERIENCE NECESSARY 



CC-DBM2/LW2 USES- 



Accounts 
Insurance 
Proposals 
Bulk Mail 



• Dental Recall 

• Lost Card Reporting 

• Change of Address 

• Christmas Lists/Labels 

- BIG SYSTEM FEATURES 



Churches 
Club Membership 
Realtor Listings 
Sales Records 



• Active menus guide you to valid operations. 

• 32K system allows 68 to 454 records per file. 

• 1 6K system allows 1 3 to 95 records per file. 

• 4 - 1 0 fields, 5 - 27 field widths, 20 - 270 char/record. 

• All user definable with default values - simple. 

• Memory sense adjusts files to system size. 

• FAST key index sort by any field you choose. 

• Adjusts for empty address lines • no gaps. 



• Up to 9 line labels with up to 500 copies each. 

• Master two column printout with field names. 

• Master printout Includes date, paging & filename. 

• Selective printing by any field or field range. 

• Accepts alpha or numeric zip codes up to 9 digits. 

• Partial or whole item search by any chosen field. 

• Single screen 1 0 record display by any field 

• Single key entry for hard copy of screen data. 



• Fast single page letter writing with wordwrap. 

• Embedded commands center, tab and line skip. 

• Full screen edit allows delete, insert & change. 

• Headings and closings are tabbed, spaced and printed • all automatically. 

• No "Database Adventure" - over 40 page manual. 

• Manual includes program operation flowcharts 

• Not needed, but included is user modification section. 

• And many more features - too numerous to list 



When ordering please provide: 
NAME 
ADDRESS 
CITY/STATE 
ZIP CODE 
PHONE 
TAPE or DISK 
CREDIT CARD NO. 
EXP. DATE 

Master Card holders — 
include interbank no. 



rn 

L £ J 



We ship within 24 hours 



Call our 24 hour orderline 

619-695-1385 



or 61 9-566-601 3, 9 — 5 p.m. PST weekdays 
or send check or money order to: 

EUS ENGINEERING 

9528 Suite 35, Miramar Road 
San Diego. CA 921 26 

"Sewing the Defense and Space Industry since 1979" 



Please include the following: 
$2 postage and handling 
U.S. funds only 
CA residents add 6% tax 
COD orders add $2 

Dealer inquiries invited 

Personal checks - OK 
we won't make you wait. 



THE TOP 4 COCO GAMES... 

ZAKSUND 




CUBIX 

By Spectral Associates. Very 
much like the arcade smash! 
Jump little Cubix around the 3D 
maze trying to change the color 
of all the squares. With Death 
Globes, Discs, Snakes, etc. 32K 
Tape; 524,95 



From Elite Software comes this 
fantastic arcade style space 
action game with 3 different 
stages of moving 3-D graphics. 
You've never seen anything like 
this on your CoCo! Great sound 
too! 32K Tape: $24.95 

nrrmi 





THE KING 

Previously called 'Donkey King', 
you simply cannot buy a more 
impressive game for your CoCo. 
With 4 different screens and 
loads of fun! From Tom Mix Soft- 
ware. 32KTape: $25.95 



GHOST GOBBLER 



From Spectral Assoc. This 
"PAC" theme game has been 
improved several times. It is 
definitely the best of its type. Bril- 
liant color, action and sound, 
just like an arcade. 16K Tape: 




COLORCADE 

SUPERIOYSTICK MODULE 

3 RAPID 




Y $19.95 



IOYSTICK INTERFACE/RAPID FIRE/6 FT. EXTENDER ALL IN ONE! The 

Colorcade allows connection of any Atari type joystick to your CoCo 
(including the Wico Red Ball). These switch type sticks are extremely 
rugged and have a faster and more positive response. They will improve the 
play of almost any action game. 

An adjustable speed rapid fire circuit is built in. Press your fire button and 
get a great burst of fire instead of just a single shot! You get a real advantage 
in shooting games that do not have repeat fire. 



ATARI JOYSTICK 

9 NLY *0 X 
$8.50 JPjg fr. 



THE BEST YOU 

CAN BUY 
WICO #15-9730 




$29.95 

WICO FAMOUS 
"RED BALL" 



ROM/ PROJECT/ 
PRODUCT CASE 




Give a professional look to your project 
I or product! High quality 3 piece injection 
I molded plastic with spring loaded door. 
I Designed especially for .the CoCo ROM 

slot. 

2 -4 pes $5.50 Ea. 

5- 9 pes $3.50 Ea. 

10-99 pes $2.75 Ea. 

100 & UP Call Us. 

P.C. board for 27XX EPROMS. . . S4.UU Efc 



COLORWARE 
LIGHT PEN 




ONLY $19.95 

WITH SIX FREE 
PROGRAMS ON 
CASSETTE! 



The Colorware Light Pen plugs directly into your joystick port and 
comes with six fun & useful programs on cassette. Easy instruc- 
tions show how to use it with Basic and it's compatible with light 
pen software such as Computer Island's "Fun Pack." Order yours 



L 



TELEWRITER-64 



7ELEUGITFR-64 



1 



„ ^•letecf-W. Ilotite 
. .. lower taw> not the reverse 
upper case Tetters that nerely rep resent lower 



how there is also i . 
upper case letters that Merely r_... 
case characters In other Co for Counter program. 



Tele* 



: i " . 

uter compatible printer, 



rou can bw For your 
1 you nm a printer 
ii you really should 
Telewriter cm be 
sysreM and m th any 



,„ ,.er-61 Is truly the m 

or are thtttint of lettint a 
rut be without " ' 
used with ■ ' 
Color Cowui 

ABClEFGHlJKLHtlDPQRSTUVUXV 
Z 1 £ 3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 0 I "»«:&•<) K « t 3 I 
a b t d e P i h 1 J k I d dsm rs t u » n n 
n,/|<>?HMMr()«i«-l 



J 



DISK $59.95 

CASSETTE... $49.95 



Colorware researched the word 
processors available for the Color 
Computer. This is the best. Tele- 
writer-64 is a truly sophisticated sys- 
tem that is marvelously easy to use. 
It works with any 16K, 32K or 64K 
system and any CoCo compatible 
printer. 



TOP-RATED COCO 
WORD PROCESSOR 









TOLL FREE ORDERING 

800-221 -097 6 

ORDERS ONL Y. N. Y. & INFO CALl (212) M7-2RM 


(colSrware 




¥ ™ ^1 

M.i'.1ct( .nil 





'REAL TALKER 

HARDWARE Voice Synthesizer 

NEW from 
COLORWARE.. 
only... $59.95 

THINKING OF BUYING A 
COCO VOICE SYNTHESIZER? 

READ THIS.... 




Making your computer talk couldn't be any easier! 
'Real Talker' is a full featured, ready to use, HARDWARE 
voice synthesizer system in a cartridge pak. It uses the 
Votrax SC-01 phoneme synthesizer chip to produce a 
clear, crisp voice. 

FREE TEXT-TO-SPEECH 

Included free with 'Real Talker' is Colorware's 
remarkable Text-to-Speech program. This is a truly 
powerful machine language utility. What it does is 
automatically convert plain English to speech. And it has 
an unlimited vocabulary! For example, use it in the direct 
mode: Type in a sentence or a paragraph, even mix in 
numbers, dollar signs, etc., then press enter. The text is 
spoken. At the same time a phoneme string is generated 
which can be saved to cassette or disk, modified or used 
in a Basic program. 

We originally planned to sell this major piece of 
programming for about $40.00 but decided it was so 
useful that no 'Real Talker' user should be without it. 
Besides, it really shows off the capability of 'Real Talker'. 

Also included with 'Real Talker' is our unique Phoneme 
Editor program. It allows you to explore and create 
artificial speech at the phoneme level. Phenomes are the 
fundimental sounds or building blocks of word 
pronunciation. There are 64 different phenomes, as well 
as 4 inflection levels at your disposal. Creating and 
modifyirtg speech at the phenome level is both fascinating 
and educational. The Phenome Editor may also be used to 
customize the pronunciation of speech produced by the 
Text-to-Speech program. 



You don't have to use any of our utility programs 
though. If you write your own Basic Programs, you will 
find the pocket sized Votrax Dictionary (included free) is 
all you need to make your own Basic programs talk. This 
dictionary gives you quick access to the phenome 
sequences used to create approximately 1400 of the most 
used words in the English language. 

How about compatibility? 'Real Talker' is compatible 
with any 16K, 32K, 64K, Extended or non-extended Color 
Computer. It works with any cassette or disk based 
system, with or without the Radio Shack Multi-slot 
expander. No other synthesizer under $1 00 can make this 
claim, Most other CoCo voice synthesizers require an 
expensive Multi-slot expander in order to work with the 
disk system. 'Real Talker' requires only an inexpensive Y- 
adapter. This is an important consideration if you plan on 
adding a disk or have one already. 

'Real Talker' comes completely assembled, tested and 
ready to use. It is powered by the CoCo and talks through 
your T.V. speaker so there is nothing else to add. Price 
includes Text-to-Speech and other programs on cassette 
(may be transferred to disk), User Manual and Votrax 
Dictionary. ONLY , $59.95 

'Y-BRANCHING CABLE' For disk systems. This 40-pin, 3 
connector cable allows 'Real Talker' to be used with any 
disk system $29.95 

YOU DECIDE.... 

Order yours today on ourToll-Free Order Line. If you are 
not delighted with your 'Real Talker' system, simply 
return it within 30 days for a prompt, courteous refund. 



Five Easy Ways 
To Clean Up Your Finances. 




Chart of Accounts 
"Checkbook Maintenance 
Check Search 
Prints Checks 



* Detail Budget Analysis 
Summary Budget 

Analysis 
Income/Expense 

Statements 
Net Worth Statement 



actual screen display 'Indicates function being shown 

Appointments Calendar 
Payments Calendar 
* Color Chart Package 
Mailing List 



Spreadsheet 
Compatible with 
Finance 1, 2 and 5 



'Income Tax 
Prints forms 
Most schedules 
Uses Finance 1, 2 and 4 



^ Complete Personal Accountant 




Whether you're cleaning up at home or around the of- 
fice, there's NOW a COMPLETE line of money manage- 
ment software that will attend to all the details, while 
letting you see the whole financial picture. The Com- 
plete Personal Accountant's exclusive combination of 
easy to use programs give the wise investor a quick and 
dependable way to control finances and plan for the 
future. 



FINANCE 1 gets you organized with a standard chart of 
accounts adaptable to any situation. The Checkbook 
Maintenance program with full screen editing and special 
'Help' commands let you find any check by any field. 
You can flag tax deductibles, reconcile your bank 
statement, print checks and more. 

FINANCE 2 tells you where your money is, 
where it's going and where it's coming 
from. The Detail and Summary Budget pro- 
grams show exactly where you're spending 
your money. The Income/Expense and Net 
Worth programs provide professional- 
looking statements that can be printed 
with any 80 column printer. 

FINANCE 3 separates the CPA from the 
competition. No other finance package for 
the home or small business gives you Ap- 




pointments and Payments Calendars for scheduling your time and money. 
Few packages offer the ability to chart each account in color. And only the 
CPA includes a mailing list with a 1200 name capacity*. All reports are print- 
able with an 80 column printer. 

FINANCE 4 lets you determine the "what it's" of your financial future. With 
this easy to learn spreadsheet you'll spend more time making decisions and 
less time crunching numbers. 

FINANCE 5, The Tax Handler™, uses your files from Finance 1, 2 and 4 to com- 
plete your taxes in a fraction of the normal time. 

The Complete Personal Accountant™ line of money manage- 
ment software is simply the most comprehensive, easy to 
use financial software available anywhere. 



Disk 
39.95 
29.95 
29.95 
29.95 
59.95 



Cassette 
34.95 
24.95 
24.95 
24.95 
54.95 



Finance 1 
Finance 2 
Finance 3 
Finance 4 
Finance 5 
SAVE when you 
purchase Finance 1, 2 

and 3 as a set 79.95 74.95 

Available for Atari 400/800/1200™, Commodore 64™, 
IBM PC™ TRS 80 Color™ and Vic 20™ 

Prices subject to change without notice. Add $3.00 
for postage and handling. . 

Ask you local deal to see a running demo or call 
1-800-334-SOFT to order direct. 

'Varies according to computer. 



a division of 

p.o. box 3470, department rr, chapel hill, north Carolina 27514 



ifuturehouse 



PRINT #-2, 



Well, it is 1984 and we have some really exciting news to 
kick off the new year. Frankly, the biggest problem 
that I have is in deciding which of the pieces of news is 
the most exciting. To my mind, the best way to resolve that 
question is simply to address which of them you will have to make 
plans for the most — and since one of them will be coming your 
way no matter what you do, well start with the one that requires 
some action on your part. 

What I'm talking about is the second RAINBOWfest of the 
season, to beheld in Long Beach, Calif., on Feb. 17-19, 1 984. This 
promises to be one of the biggest events of the year. 

We choose to go to beautiful, sunny Southern California in the 
dead of winter because we figured it might be just the thing for a 
mid-winter vacation. And, now here's a bonus! The weekend is the 
one during whiph Washington's Birthday will be observed, so that 
means most of you (and your kids) will have an "extra" day of 
vacation. It is one of those long weekends the "Monday Holiday" 
concept has given us. 

So, for RAINBOWfest — Long Beach, you have an extra day 
to enjoy the sun and warm weather of Southern California. And 
what an opportunity for enjoyment. The Hyatt-Regency Long Beach (our convention hotel, and brand 
new, 1 might add) is just 20 minutes away from Disneyland, 20 minutes from Marineland, 25 minutes from 
Knott's Berry Farm and about 20 minutes from Universal Studios, which has one of the most unique tours 
I've ever seen. And, a big bonus: The hotel is also just five minutes by water taxi from the Queen Mary, 
which is moored in Long Beach Harbor. Howard Hughes'"Spruce Goose, "the world's largest airplane, is 
also in the Harbor. And, yes, you can watch the sun set over the balmy blue Pacific right from your hotel 
room. 

What I'm trying to get across is that here is a chance for a really great family vacation. There's a great 
recreation area right across from the hotel, too, so for the non-computer people in your family, there will 
be plenty to do while the computer people spend time at RAINBOWfest itself. There are special room rates 
at the Hyatt (just mention RAINBOWfest) and the hotel is one of the most beautiful we've seen. 

More important, there's a lot of talk in the industry about this particular show simply because of the 
time qf the year we're having it. It is a chance for the exhibitors to get away from the cold, too. And early 
indications are that a lot of people will be taking advantage of that opportunity! So, RAINBOWfest in 
Long Beach promises to be one of the bigger shows we will have this year! 

With all the talk of Disneyland , sun, balmy skies and the Queen Mary, let's not forget that we have a 
couple of special things lined up that will make this show something extra. 

For one thing, we have plans for a couple of programs on Women and Computers — working from both 
sides of the fence. Plans are for some of the women who are active in the computer industry to be talking 
about computers and computing. Here is an opportunity for women to meet women who have a common 
interest in an area which (we believe wrongly) too many seem to take for granted as a "man's world." 

But for those of you who are "unreconstructed" and just hate CoCo (what!), another session is planned 
as well. Here, we're interested in helping you air your gripes about computing with others who have the 
same ideas. And, while we are billing this as a "woman's" session, men who feel "left out" are cordially 
invited to attend as well. 

Also on the seminar schedule, a special session with Phil Kitchen of Radio Shack. Phil is in charge of 
the Third Party Software Support program for Tandy and will be meeting with those who are interested in 
marketing programs. If you've ever thought about selling software, here's a great opportunity to get some 
inside information and help. 

Let's not forget our "CoCo Community Breakfast.'' Bob Albrecht, one of the foremost authors in the 
computer world and a Rainbow columnist, will be the keynote speaker. Don Inman, one of Bob's cohorts 
and another columnist, will be giving a seminar on LOGO especially aimed at educators and young people. 
And, we're also trying something new in the seminar field this time: Members of the Dyrriax Team, 
working under the name of the "Dragons Of Menlo Park," will be hosting an open-ended seminar on any 
CoCo topics you want to discuss. These, plus a host of other seminars and workshops, add up to a very 
interesting program in addition to the exhibits. 

And speaking of the exhibits, this RAINBOWfest comes at the very height of the post-Christmas 
season. With hundreds of thousands of new CoCos expected to be sold, software and hardware vendors 
will be introducing a wealth of new merchandise at the show. And remember, one ticket gets you admission 
to the show floor and all the programs (except the breakfast, which is extra). 




January 1984 the RAINBOW 13 



And we have two extra-special incentives for you. The 
first 500 ticket orders will receive a free Rainbow poster, a 
handsome full-color reproduction of our January, 1983, 
cover. Plus, the first five ticket orders from each state and 
province will receive one of our new RAINBOWfest tee 
shirts. This is a special design for the Long Beach show, 
featuring our logo of a CoCo and a palm tree. And, yes, you 
can buy others at the show! 

Most of all, RAINBOWfest will be fun! So, plan to be 
with us in Long Beach in February. There is a ticket order 
blank on Page 190 of this issue. 

We're just as excited about the second piece of news that 
we have to announce this month — the inauguration in 
February of a technical section of the Rainbow. 

Dale Puckett, our OS-9 columnist, will be one of the 
featured writers in the new Technical Section, but he will be 
joined by at least two top-notch people with years of expe- 
rience in the 6809 field. 

One of these new people is Frank Hogg, president of 
Frank Hogg Laboratory. The other is Paul Searby, owner of 
Computerware and a long-time dealer, programmer and 
technical whiz with 6809 systems. 

In addition to these new members of the staff, we encour- 
age you to contribute material for the Technical Section, 
which will be incorporated as a special part of the Rainbow. 
As such, it will be easy to find and will, We believe, provide a 
wealth of detail and information on more sophisticated uses 
of the Color Computer and 6809 programming. 

I felt extremely fortunate to have Dale join us several 
months ago and 1 feel just as proud that Frank and Paul will 



be with us beginning next month. You've already read some 
of the nice things I've had to say about Dale, but let me add 
that Frank is a unique individual who has provided excellent 
insight into technical aspects and advanced operating sys- 
tems of the Coco several years now while Paul has been a 
part of personal computers from the days you had to build 
your own — and he did. 

You might ask whether we are planning to turn the Rain- 
bow into a high-tech magazine. The answer is no. We will 
continue to offer a large number of games, hints and tips, 
practical uses, graphics, utilities and just-for-fun programs 
as we have done before. 

However, we believe there is a growing segment of CoCo 
owners who want to delve more deeply into programming 
and some of the technical aspects of the 6809, This natural 
growth of the market (as evidenced, we believe, by Radio 
Shack's marketing of OS-9) will be addressed through our 
new section while not stinting on all the less technical things 
which have made the Rainbow so popular to tens of thou- 
sands of you every month. 

We're fortunate, 1 believe, that through our two and a half 
years of publishing we have had your support which has 
allowed us to grow as large as we are. Because of that, we 
believe there is room to address additional aspects of the 
CoCo world without taking anything away from what we do 
now. 

As always, I look forward to your comments on this move 
and encourage you to let us know what you think about it. 

Finally, one of the questions I get asked the most these 
days concerns the demise of the Atari and Texas Instru- 
ments computers and how I believe they will affect the Color 
Computer. 

You have seen me write several times about my admira- 
tion for the people at Radio Shack who do the planning for 
CoCo and it is significant to me, at any rate, to say that 1 fee) 
that admiration seems to be hanging out there for all to see 
in light of the TI and Atari news. 

While these two firms are the first victims of the "sha- 
keout" that industry-watchers have been predicting for 
some time, 1 think it is instructive to note that Tandy pro- 
duced a 24 percent increase in profit during its last fiscal 
year. Sure, Tandy sells more than computers, but it is my 
understanding that computers in general, and CoCo in par- 
ticular, had a lot to do with that increase. 

So, my answer is that I believe the "shakeout" won't do 
anything but help our favorite computer. When you can buy 
a computer as complete as CoCo for as little as it sells for 
today, and get the widest range of additional equipment 
available on the market at prices as reasonable as they are, 
you can only expect that the future looks rosy indeed from 
Tandy Towers. 

And that's good for us, too. Because it means that there 
will be more and more people seeing what so many of us 
have seen for so long, that we have the best computer 
available for the best price anywhere. That will only swell 
our ranks as CoCo owners, bring about even more products 
and help CoCo expand even more. 

Tell a friend about your Color Computer. You'll be doing 
him or her a big favor! 

(And while you're at it, tell them about us, too. OK?) 

— Lonnie Falk 



POKES, PEEKS & EXECS FILE 

Get complete Color Computer power with this 
exhaustive file containing over 100 pokes, peeks 
& exec commands with full comments for each. 
Hi-speed pokes, break disables, list disables and 
much more! We will even give you a bonus - Tape- 
to-Disk copy program. All this for only $5.00 
(Postpaid). File on Tape $7.50, File on Disk $9.50 
(Postpaid). 

Recent Supplement to Pokes, Peeks & Execs file 
with 50 additional pokes, peeks & execs, only 
$3.00 (Postpaid). 

HIDE-A-BASIC 
A perfect utility to protect your programs with 4 
self-executing ML routines to disable list, break- 
key, reset and create an error skip routine. 16K 
Ext. Basic. Cassette $16.95. 

CARTRIDGE DUMP 
Transfer most Rompaks to tape or disk. No need 
to take out the disk controller. 16K or 32K Ext. 
Basic Cassette $14.95. 
ORDER TODAY! 

Send cash, check orMO, We payshipping &Han- 
dling. NYS Residents please add Sales Tax. 
MICROCOM SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 214 
Fairport, NY 14450 
(716) 425-1824 



14 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Telewriter-64 

the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns X 24 lines 
True lower case characters 
User-friendly full -screen 
editor 

Right justification 
Easy hyphenation 
Drives any printer 
Embedded format and 
control codes 
Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 
Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 
The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 
Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter, Not just bells' and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 X 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get/' This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/VI11, DMP-1 00/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. ltoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable /disable justification. 
Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 
Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the' screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 



...truly a state of the art word processor... 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



RAINBOW 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 
704 Nob Street 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM -4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add $2 for shipping. Californians add 6°/o state tax. Allow 2 
weeks for personal checks. Send self-addressed stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from CCN, RAINBOW, 
80-Micro, 80-U.S. Telewriter owners: send SASE or call for 
information on upgrading to Telewriter-64. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell 'n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Colorcom/E) also available. Call or write for more 
information.) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 




CONNECTION 
SOFTWARE 

1060 Buddlu Of., Sandy, Utah 84070 (801) 571*5023 
★ ★★★*★*★★★★★ 

COLOR DESIGNER 

The ultimate Hi-Res Graphics Pro- 
cessor!!! Great for doodling, sketching, 
and most of all, creating entire graphics 
screens. Options include; 8 key cursor 
control with key repeat, Draw command 
that follows your cursor, FILL command 
that "PAINTS" the screen with more than 
1000 different color/texture combinations, 
and much much more ! ! >^^v 

16/32K cas $26.95 disk $28.95. //TVft 

RAINBOW 

cmiiHCAtiON 

QUIZ ALL 

A versatile quiz program. Has study and 
test formats and allows printing of quiz. 
Even includes an option for the computer 
to generate multiple choice answers! 

cas $18.95 disk $20.95 

COMPU SCRIBE B.S.A. 

Got a headache keeping track of merit 
badges, rank advancements, etc. Compu 
Scribe keeps tabs on the whole troop and 
creates printouts by scout, by rank, or 
alphabetically. Requires a printer with 132 
character mode. 

Available on disk only • $26.95. 

OKI DUMP 

Eight bit screen dump from CoCo to an 
Okidata printer without dot addressable 
graphics! Includes hints on printing pic- 
tures of game screens, etc. ("The King" 
by Tom Mix, is the example) a steal at 

1 6K cas $8.95 1 6K disk $1 0.95 



Hot Dog! 
A Brand New Year. 




QVc ixdo/tr* to 



izxuc you 

£t7£/l 



RAINBOW 

CE«T*.«T,ON htUlf 



Call or write for our free newsletter. 
All cassette oraers include disK version cn 
cassette with instructions to transfer to disK. 
Unless otherwise specified programs require 
16 K extended for cassette, or 32K extended 
for disk. Add S2.00 snipping and handling. 
Utah residents add 5V«% sales tax. 
Orders paid' by personal cneck allow 1*2 
weeks ail others shipped m 24 hours. No 
COD. 

To order call 24 hours a day or write 
COLOR Connection Software 
1060 Buddlea Drive, Sandy, Utah 84070 
(801)571-5023 



3S 



For information: 



C3 



Call weekoavs oetween 6:30 cm and 1 0 om MST 



BUILDING JANUARY S RA INBOW 

Getting Started Special . . . 
New Beginnings Edition . . . 
And No End In Sight . . . 



Welcome to our Beginner's Issue! If you've just purchased a Color 
Computer, received one for Christmas, or just discovered the Rain- 
bow, I think you'll enjoy this beginner's special. And, if you're one of 
our regulars, it's an odds-on bet that you'll find something special, too. 

You see, in the CoCo Community, we're all beginners of one type or another. 
Most of us, no matter how long we've been around — and nobody's been around 
very long in this field — still get a kick out of a short program listing that does 
something novel. And, regardless of what level of competence we have achieved 
in personal computing, we all are beginners at something. 

Even if you know BASIC as well as the Rainbow's BASIC Guru, Dick White, 
you'll still learn a trick or two in his "Welcome To BASIC" piece this month. 
Maybe you know BASIC but are beginning M/L. Many of you have been asking 
for articles similar to those by Contributing Editor Dennis Lewandowski and 
Technical Editor Dan Downard to get started in assembly language. 

If you're an M/L whiz, how much do you know about the new OS-9? Does the 
new four-volume documentation for OS-9 looks formidable; Dale Puckett 
serves up OS-9 in byte-sized chunks. 

Game Master Bob Albrecht, has set aside this month to talk about cassette 
files, offering the sage advice: "You can't record on leader." Hey, somebody !sgot 
to tell you the first time. And Dragon Master Bill Nolan has called time out to 
introduce newcomers to the world of fantasy role playing and to announce a 
contest. 

So you're an old hand at memory upgrades. Well, Tony DiStefano^ takes a 
look at upgrading the CoCo 2 — and who isn't a beginner at that? 

If your own beginning centers around the MC-10 mini-micro, old hand H. 
Allen Curtis follows lip Bob Russell's CoCo memory map this month with an 
MC-10 memory map. 

A word here about the other side of the Rainbow. If you're just getting to 
know us, let me remind you about our Rainbow On Tape. The Rainbow is 
simply too big for you to type in all the program listings we have, so you may 
want to try our tape cassette "magazine" which has all the longer listings that 
appear in the Rainbow each month. They're ready to load in and run — saving 
you hours of typing and debugging — and you may want to begin this service 
right now, because the price is going up. Check our tear-out reply card for 
details. 

So, whatever you're beginning, there is something for you in this issue of the 
Rainbow. And, if you've just discovered the Rainbow, there may still be time to 
begin a subscription before the new rates begin on January 1 . Join us, won't you, 
as we work to make every month of 1984 one of new beginnings: 

—Jim Reed 



16 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Computerware® Hit Parade... 




Poor Jr must overcome four 
screens to rescue The King from 
Luigi. Traverse the jungle & 
swamp, climb vines, avoid vine 
gators, dodge Zuzu birds, open 
locks, & conquer Luigi's hideout. 

32K C $28.95 32K D $31.95 




Use speed, skill,. & concentration to 
race your car over the track, dodge 
competitors, & beat the clock. Taste 
the road dust, smell burning 
rubber, feel the press of speed on 
your chestl 

32K C $21 .95 32K D $24.95 




Big league graphics! Two players 
against each other or one can prac- 
tice offense against the computer. 
7 defensive & 8 offensive plays 
plus many formations. 

32KC $26.95 32KD $29.95 



Tfe Soureerer 




This menu driven symbolic 6809 
disassembler produces symbolic 
source code that can be assembled. 
Automatic equate generation. FCC, 
FCB, & FDB generation, Written in 
position independent code, it is 
relocatable to any memory area. 
User defined symbol /label area. 
Produces files with or without line 
numbers. Can symbolize all extend- 
ed addresses if desired. Written in 
assembly language for extreme 
speed. Disassemble to disk or 
cassette, printer, or screen. 

1 6K C $ 34.95 16K D $ 39.95 




A serious health aid for biofeed- 
back training & a fun family game 
for "truth detection"! Real silver 
velcro finger grips attach to the 
detector box that plugs into the 
joystick slot. Now watch & listen to 
the galvanic skin response being 
graphed on the screen. An impres- 
sive experience for a friend who 
asks "what does your computer 
do?" All hardware, Bio Feedback 
program & Anxiety Attack game 
included. (Results not admissable in 
court!) (Req. I6K) 

$34.95 




From the cockpit of your ship, see 
the real 3-D field of hyper space. 
Dodge oncoming space debris & 
destroy attackers as they whiz past. 
A new dimension in space games! 

32K C $26.95 32K D $29.95 




Travel through different time 
zones, fending off attacking craft 
from each period with a full 360 
degree firing range. See blimps, 
helicopters, & all kinds of space 
vehicles. 

32KC $26.95 32K D $29.95 




He jumps across pyramids of 
brightly colored cubes, dodges 
springs & bad eggs, using elevator 
squares, & gaining points as he 
clears the cubes towards the next 
screen. 

32KC $26.95 32K D $29.95 




I Fllei 



Comprehensive & flexible data 
base manager. Collect up to 35 
fields with up to 240 characters 
per record using your own names & 
format. With logical operators 
select any subset of records using up 
to 36 different criteria. Sort all or 
any subset of records in ascending 
or descending order on any of the 
35 fields, with a fast assembly 
language sort. Design customized 
labels & reports with automatic 
page numbers, page headings, & 
totals of numeric fields. 
32K D $64.95 




Your landing craft rolls over the 
surface with its tractors, hops over 
craters & rocks, & phasers attacking 
aliens to get to home base. Super 
graphics & soundl 

32K C $24.96 32K D $27.95 

Color Basic 
Compiler 

For programmers who want the 
speed of assembly language & the 
ease of BASIC. 48 commands & 
functions, most a subset of Ex- 
tended BASIC. Generates position 
independent code so a compiled 
program can reside anywhere in 
memory. When the compiler con- 
verts your BASIC program into 
machine language, it will run an 
average of 40 times faster! 

32K D $39.95 




Prog 



ram 



Authors who want 
to turn software 
into cash & see their 
work on 6809 com- 
puters all over the 
world should apply 
for our attractive 
Authorship 
Pro gram I 



Add shipping off $2 surface or $5 
air/Canada. Visa & MasterCard accepted. 
Dealer Inquiries Invited. Computerware® 
Is a trademark off Computerware® . 



COMPUTERWARE 



P.O. Box 668 
Enclnltas, CA 92024 
(619) 436-3512 







RAINBOWfest 
Report 



Tom Nelson of Softtaw listens to a buyer 
sporting a RAINBOWfest hat. 




Surely the nicest thing about RAIN- 
BOWfest is the people. For the 
first of the Rainbow's regional 
shows this year, they came from as close 
as Fort Worth itself and as far away as 
Canada and California — all looking to 
sample a big helping of "CoCo Com- 
munity" at the Hyatt-Regency Fort 
, Worth. 

The city's mayor was there to present 
publisher Lonnie Falk with a proclama- 
tion that it was, indeed, "Color Compu- 
ter Weekend" in Fort Worth, "a div- 
ision of Tandy Corp." CoCo celebrities 
abounded and thousands of users spent 
up to three days viewing exhibits, at- 
tending seminars and meeting all those 
people who were just names on maga- 
zine pages or voices on the telephone. 



Vern Epps, who came all the way from Canada to Texas to attend RAINBOWfest, stops 
by the Radio Shack booth to ask some questions about OS-9. 





Dennis Lewandowski listens to a question 
from a RAINBOWfest attendee. 



Dave Lagerquist of Chromasette and Sil- 
verware explains his tape magazine to a 
receptive audience. 



No one can ever say there isn't a lot of 
variety at RAINBOWfest, as the Endicott 
Software booth attests. 



18 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Although attendance wasn*t as large 
as the first RAlNBOWfest in Chicago 
last spring (4,100 compared to better 
than 10,000), the CoCo world was out in 
force and everyone had a grand time. 
The smaller crowds made it easier for 
everyone to get additional information 
about products and programs on display. 

Talk of the show was OS-9, Radio 
Shack's new multi-user, multi-tasking 
operating system. In fact, Tandy sold 
every single copy of OS-9 that was to be 
found in the Fort Worth area and 
orders were taken by both Radio Shack 
and Jack Torres of Computer Plus for 
many, many more. 

New games from a number of vendors, 
new utilities from others and some 
spiffy new business programs dominated 
interest. And, for many, it was a first 



chance to see products they had been 
considering. Some early Christmas shop- 
ping was very much in order. 

The seminar sessions were a big hit, 
Frank Hogg ventured out of his labora- 
tory and attracted a bring-extra-chairs- 
from-down-the-hall, standing-room-on- 
ly crowd to his talk on advanced operat- 
ing systems. Steve Blyn waded ashore 
from Computer Island to talk about 
educational programming and was the 
object of turn-about that would have 
made any kid's heart glad: Signing 
attendance notes for teachers to take 
back to school with them. 

Yes, the graphics master, Don Inman, 
was on the program, too, as were pro- 
gram authors John Gabbard (Keys to 
the Wizard and Android Attack) and 
Tim Purves (Fury) of Spectral Asso- 




Frank Brandon of Brantex set up his own 'Texas Store" to explain his new business 
program packages. 





Who else but Bob Rosen of Spectrum 
Projects would have one of those power 
microphones that also plays more than 
100 ear-shattering tunes? And who else 
but Rainbow's Jim Reed would try to 
play them all? Would Bob (Captain 
Eighty) Liddil lose all his magic powers 
if he took off his trusty leather hat? 
Where else could you get 64K chips for 
$39.95 and have them installed while- 
you-wait? Or log on to CompuServe for 
free as Sandy Trevor and Bill Louden 
watched? 




The game was the thing at the Computer 
Shack booth. 




Mike Anderson of Pyramid edits copy 
while Armadillo Software's Jerry Alexander 
explains his monitor program. 




Games and utilities were a big hit at the 
show. 



Jack Torres of Computer Plus demon- 
strates a printer to a group of buyers. 



Ron Krebs of Mark Data Products explains 
his new graphic Adventure games. 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 19 



BLACKJACKPRO 



Read about BLACKJACKPRO on page ]»5 

BLACKJACKPRO is a trademark of SkillwareCorporation 



SKILLWARE 




Radio Shack's Mark Yamagala is awarded a plaque by Rainbow publisher Lonnie Falk 
for being keynote speaker at the CoCo Community Breakfast Saturday. 





dates and Computer Shack. 

Frank Brandon and Dennis Mitchell 
of Brandtex were there to talk about 
business systems; Dungeon Master Bill 
Nolan of Prickly-Pear was on hand; 
Tom Nelson of Softlaw and Andy Lar- 
son of Follett Library Book Company 
were also part of the learning sessions. 

But best of all, RAINBOWfest goers 
were able to learn something about eve- 
ryone. For instance, Tom Nelson has a 
master's degree in Chinese — no wonder 
he's so good at writing documentation 
for brother Dan's machine language 
programs. 

You may know that Andy Larson 
was instrumental in getting Learning 
Company software for the CoCo, but 
were you aware that he designed and 
built his own house (as did Sue and Paul 
Searby of Computerware) and that he 
likes to hang by his feet in the hallway 
for relaxation? 

Yes. Contrary to what you might 
think, everyone in the CoCo world 
doesn't spend all his time in front of a 
monitor screen. On the other hand, 
there's Steve Bjork. On a side trip to 
Billy Bob's, billed as the world's largest 
honky tonk, Steve was seen pouring 
quarters into an arcade game while 
most everyone else was whooping it up 
to Tanya Tucker. 

Speaking of trips, the tour of the 
CoCo plant — the first time an outside 
group has ever been allowed into Tan- 
dy's manufacturing facilities — was voted 
by all as a major highlight of the week- 
end. And, when RAINBOWfest goers 
were not computer-watching, they were 
people-watching. 




Playing a Tom Mix Software game was 
one of the highlights of the show. 



At RAINBOWfest, you didn't need Bob 
Hope to say "Thanks For The Memories." 



Spectral Associates' Cindy Shackleford 
explains how FLEX+DOS works to a 
RAINBOWfest-goer. 



20 the RAINBOW January 1984 



As in Chicago, the "CoCo Commun- 
ity Breakfast" was a sellout, this time to 
hear Radio Shack's new director of 
computer merchandising for personal 
computer products, Mark Yamagata, 
give some excellent insight into the 
future of Tandy marketing and advertis- 
ing efforts. In fact, Tandy-ites were out 
in force. Microcomputer News editor 
Bruce Elliott even won a door prize. 

R AINBO Wfest in Tandy town. Down 
the street from One Tandy Center and a 
short bus ride from Kenji Nishikawa's 
plant tour. Ed Juge, director of compu- 
ter merchandising for business prod ucts, 
joined us for breakfast as did Barry 
Thompson, CoCo Line Manager; Bill 
Walters, who manages the Model 100 
products; Roy Irvine, who handles all 
the peripherals; Phil Kitchens, who is in 
charge of third party support and Bill 
Gattis, VP in charge of the Education 
Division. A whole host of others, from 
publicity, advertising, technical support, 
software buying and quality control 
were in attendance, too: 

John Ross brought The Answer and 
Ron and Don Garrett added an Interna- 
tional (Color Computer Club) flavor. 



John and Linda Nielson had MOREton 
business programs while John Waclo of 
Elite Software, Joe Bennett of JARB, 
Cindy Shackleford of Spectral and Bill 
Ginn of Computer House added to the 
fun. We were pleased to welcome some 
other magazines as exhibitors, too. The 
Wayne Green (Hot CoCo) crowd was 
there as was the Tennessee Gentleman, 
Larry Williams of 68 Micro Journal and 
Color Micro Journal. 

Others brought others. Dennis Lew- 
andowski brought his father while Rosie 
stayed home. But Giesel Mix, Sara 
Nolan, Margaret Preble and Mona 
Krebs brought their husbands Tom, 
Bill, Larry and Ron. 

Yes, most of all it was fun. And, while 
there were fewer people at Fort Worth 
than had been at Chicago, we expect 
that the concept of Regional RAIN- 
BO Wfests might have had something to 
do with that. We'll see you all — and 
many of you again in Long Beach, 
Calif., February 17-19; New Brunswick, 
N.J., March 30-April I; and Chicago 
June 22-24! 

A good time was had by all. And 
more good times are coming! 




CompuServe's Sandy Trevor direct con- 
nects with a user. 




Ed Juge of Radio Shack and Frank Hogg 
share some thoughts at the CoCo Com- 
munity Breakfast. 




Just about everyone had a good time at 
RAINBOWfest. 




January 1984 the RAINBOW 21 



Cookies and CoCo 

The Tandy Home Computers Tour 



By Jim Reed 

Rainbow Managing Editor 




Each assembler handles one part to stuff on each board during a given cycle, a 
unique system here in the U.S. 



As we began the descent into the 
Dallas-Fort Worth airport, I 
hoped the flight was on schedule 
and that the airport limo wouldn't be 
late — otherwise, I might miss the bus. 
And, I didn't want to miss this bus; I 
might not get another chance if 1 didn't 
go early to beat the crowd. 

1 was making a pilgrimage of sorts; I 
was bound and determined — bound for 
the source and determined to see this 
Adventure through. 

The Fort Worth RAINBOWfest pro- 
vided a unique opportunity in that 
Tandy arranged a special open house at 
Tandy Home Computers just for the 
occasion. This 1 wanted to see! 

No, they weren't handing out free 
chips, but Tandy did provide coffee, 
cola and cookies as busload after bus- 
load arrived at CoCo's birthplace to see 
the facility. All day Friday and Satur- 
day, groups left the Hyatt Regency, 
downtown, at 45-minute intervals for 
the short ride out to Northway Drive 
where CoCos were being produced at 
the rate of one every five seconds. 
Texas hospitality was at its finest as 



the management staff at Tandy Home 
Computers laid out the red carpet to 
RAINBOWfest attendees. Kenji Nishi- 
kawa, the general manager, greeted us 
in the cafeteria and even came along as 
we broke into smaller groups and toured 
the plant. Afterwards, he and other top 
management people were on hand to 
answer our questions. 

The tour itself lasted perhaps 30 
minutes — which, like Baby Bear's por- 
ridge, was "just right" — and took us 
step by step from incoming Quality 
Control assembly to shipping. 

With the predominance of white — 
white walls, white packing and white 
CoCos — along with much stainless steel 
and conveyor belts throughout the facil- 
ity, it felt a bit like touring a big dough- 
nut bakery. 

The main manufacturing area, which 
consists of sub-assembly to final assem- 
bly, Quality Control, Quality Assur- 
ance, and on to shipping, is a remarka- 
bly quiet place, considering all the activ- 
ity going on. The pace is an unhurried, 
but steady beat. 

Our tour guides told us that the 




General Manager Kenji Nishikawa took 
a very active role in the tour. 

printed circuit boards are auto-stuffed 
at Tandy Instruments, a sister division, 
and then delivered to any of three 
carousel lines. Workers on these three 
lines stuff all components in the P. C. 
board — capacitors, sockets, 1. C.'s, etc., 
prior to wave soldering. 

According to Tandy, the One Piece 
Insertion Assembly Technique is uni- 
que to the United States. It surprised 
many of us to observe that each assem- 
bler only handles one part to stuff on 
each board until all boards are stuffed 
and complete one cycle, whereupon the 
assemblers then start on the next com- 
ponent. Much more hand work than 
you might have anticipated. 

After all components are inserted by 
the stuffing department, each logic board 
is fed into the wave solder machine. 




22 the RAINBOW January 1984 




First, the board passes across the flux in 
order to prepare for better solder activa- 
tion, then the machine solders eveything 
in one, 700-degree pass. Radio Shack's 1 
CoCo operation solders at a rate of 
5,000 logic boards daily. 

After soldering, the board is put 
through a water base washing process to 
remove the flux. Interestingly, a com- 
mercial dishwasher has been modified 
specifically for board washing. The 
boards are then air dried and sent to the 
lead trim process where blades operat- 
ing at speeds of 4,000 RPM add a finish- 
ing touch by clipping off any excess 
wire. 

After clock frequency adjustment, 
the first diagnostic test station is Func- 
tional Test. In this stage, the logic board 
first comes to life and is treated as an 
independent computer by using its own 
memory to store diagnostic software — 
then CoCo diagnoses itself! 



Amazingly, 1,7 million transistors 
function at the first power up. Some 20 
functions are tested and, provided CoCo 
passes, it's then on to burn-in. 

In a brief visit to the burn-in depart- 
ment, we learned that this is probably 
the most important step in maintaining 
the highest reliability of the product. 
This process is to weed out all "infant 
mortality" of the semi-conductor in the 
integrated circuit. Even though all of 
Tandy's semi-conductor suppliers have 
a similar piece by piece burn-in process 
in their manufacturing, the CoCo plant 
repeats the process at the computer 
manufacturing level. 

All sub-assembled, functionally tested 
P.C. boards are loaded into one of 10 
oven chambers for pre-burn-in and then 
the actual burn-in. During burn-in, 
boards are kept at both high and low 
temperatures for 20 hours. After com- 
pletion of burn-in, every logic board is 



carefully diagnosed while still heated. 
We were told that statistics indicate an 
expected life span of 1 1 years for the 
semi-conductors after these conditions 
in burn-in. 

In final assembly, workers combine 
the logic board, keyboard and power 
supply and place them inside the case. 
At this point, each unit is carefully 
tested for dielectric leakage. 

In Quality Control, we are told that 
the management philosophy is "Do it 
right the first time," that is, quality can- 
not be added in Quality Control, but 
must be installed in the production pro- 
cess. By the time each CoCo reaches this 
point, it has gone through diagnostic/- 
functional tests 1 3 times and has passed 
25 detailed inspection gates. But there's 
more. 




Prior to packing and shipping, the 
Quality Assurance department audits 
on a random sample basis and measures 
against the Radio Shack acceptance 
criteria. Because of these many check- 
points, the return ratio of defective units 
from the field is said to be negligible. 

Our last tour stop, naturally enough, 
was packing and shipping. Packing up 
Color Computers at a rate of 12 per 
minute, this department loads the fin- 
ished product into empty trailers for 
distribution to Radio Shack warehouses 
in the U.S., Canada and overseas. 

The Tandy Home Computers tour: a 
RAINBOWfest highlight for all of us 
who attended, a chance to see what goes 
inside the Color Computer without even 
voiding the warranty — a peek and poke 
Adventure in real time, and real life.^. 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 23 




V 





16K 


1 


the 
RAINBOW 






ECB 















Genius 



/ \ 



\ 



At 



\ 



By David C. Wilson 



N 



WORK 



N 



I suppose that all of us have wondered what goes on in 
an artist's mind when he creates a piece of modern art. 
Well, I've found out how they do it. They all own a 
Color Computer and use this little program. 

The program generates random lines, boxes, triangles, 
and circles or elipses. Sometimes they are painted and some- 
times not. Each time the program is started (after the first 
few seconds) it generates a new work of (whew!) art. Also, 
the music will make a few music masters roll over in their 
graves. 

But, it's fun to watch, and it made my kids. giggle a bit 

listening to it. So sit back, relax, and enjoy a little of what 

goes on in the mind of a genius. , 

/\ / 
\ / 

S. / 

/ 

The listing: 

10 PCLEAR8 
20 PCLS 
30 G=255:H=191 
40 A=RND(G) :B=RND(6) :C=RND<G) :D= 
RND<H) :E=RND(H) :F=RND<H) 
50 L=RND<1> :C0=RND<8> :CL=RND<8> : v 
C0L=RND<8> :P=RND<4> \ 
60 PMODEP, L: SCREEN 1 , CO \ 

(David Wilson is a sheet metal worker and computer 
hobbyist in Louisville, Ky. He is very interested in 
computers in education.) 




/ 

70 COLORCO,CL 

80 LINE<A,D>-<B,F> ,PSET,B 

90 SOUND A, 1 

100 COLORCL,CO 

110 LINE<C,F>-<A,D> , PSET: LINE- <B 

,E> ,pset:line-<c,f> ,pset 

120 IFP=2THEN230 
SOUNDB, 1 

A=RND < A ) : D=RND < D ) 
CIRCLE ( A, E) , D, COL, CO/3 
I FP >OTHENPA I NT ( A , E > , P+l , COL 
SOUNDC, 1 
IFP=1THEN200 
I FP=3THEN200ELSE220 
LINE <B, F> - <C, D> , PSET, BF: GOTO 



130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
270 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 



SOUNDD, 1 

LINE (B, F) - <C, D) , PSET: G0T0260 
SOUNDE, 1 

PCOPY< COL) TO (CD s 
G0T030 

FORG= 1 TO < A ) STEP20 : SOUNDG , 1 : N 
EXT:G0T0280 

270 FORG= < C ) TO 1 STEP-20 : SOUNDG , 1 : 
NEXT 

280 G0T030 



N 



S 



S 



SHAMROCK SOFTWARE PRESENTS 

WORD SEARCH PUZZLE MAKER WITH DEFINITIONS - Enter a word and 
its definition. The puzzle contains the words, but only prints 
out tha definition. In order to solve the puzzle* the correct 
words for the definitions given must be determined. •9.93 
VOLUME WORKSHEET MAKER - Prints out worksheets containing 
problems in changing from one volume measurement to a different 
volume measurement and/or finding the volume of common geometric 
solids. S9.95 
16K EXT. COLOR BASIC I PRINTER REQUIRED - OTHER WORKSHEET MAKERS AVAILABLE - OHIO RES. ADO 5.3% SALES TAX 

SHAMROCK SOFTWARE 4382 NORTON ROAD RADNOR, OHIO 43066 614-494-2277 



24 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Have you heard about our new 

EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 
LICENSE PLAN 

for 

public and private schools? 

Max Jerman 

The complete set of quality instructional software that was formerly avail- 
able only at retail prices is now available to schools at less than 5% of its current 
retail price. 

This award- winning software is either now or soon will be running on Apple, 
Atari, Commodore 64, IBM-PC, TRS-80, and TRS-80 Color Computers. 

Over 250 disks containing more than 1200 lessons for grades K-9 in reading, 
spelling, language arts, math, problem solving, math games, reading games, and 
programs for young learners are included in the plan. 

THE PLAN ^Schools join together to form a cost-saving consortium of 50 or 
more members. One school or eductional agency acts as Host. The Host will 
receive a master set of program disks and manuals. The consortium will be 
licensed to make as many copies of the masters as member schools need for their 
various computers. 




THE BENEFITS ■"Consortium schools will automatically receive updates 
and new program releases at no increase in membership fee. There will be no 
shortage of quality software for the most popular computers. 

THE COST ^Only $250 per school per year. There is an additional start-up 
cost of $250 per school to cover initial expenses. Licenses for specific computers 
are available to large consortia or states at reduced cost. 



BERTAMAX INC. 

Max Jerman, Ph.D., 
President 




BERTAMAX INC. 



ACT NOW ^Form your own consor- 
tium and contact us. Contact us directly for 
the names of interested schools in your area. 

At Last — A Software Solution 



©1983, Bertamax, Inc. • 3647 Stone Way North • Seattle, WA 98103 • (206)547-4056 



GAME 




HI There! tm Vour 
Friendly Acey 
Deucey Deafer 



I 



By Barry R. Furmaii 



^^*? l <0^^jEWiafc^(( :ls^-:iSH3ri3. game .-T -prOgrAfiimecl for the 16K 
Color Computer without Extended basic. It uses the SET 
CHti$/md SOUND commands generously. 

A unique part of the game is the talking Acey Deucey 
dealer. The starting graphics showing the dealer is right 
from Radio Shack's "Getting Started With Color basic/* 
(Remember, "Talking Teacher"?) 

Since the dealer talks, it's necessary for you to record his 
repertoire on the tape immediately following the CSA VE. 

First, CSAVE "ACEYDUCY," 

Next, place a microphone in the recorder's MIC recepta- 
cle (or use condensor mike if included). 
Third, type MOTORON and press [ENTER], 
Immediately, narrate the fallowing to be recorded on the 
tape: 

HI, THERE* I'M YOUR FRIENDLY ACEY DEUCEY 
DEALER! ACEY DEUCEY IS PLAYED IN f HE FOL- 
LOWING MANNER . . . I WILL DEAL TWO CARDS 
FACE UP, YOU H AVE THE OPTION TO BET OR NOT 
TO BET, DEPENDING ON WHETHER OR NOT YOU 
FEEL THE NEXT CARD WILL HAVE A VALUE 
BETWEEN THE FIRST TWO CARDS. IF YOU DONT 
WANT TO BET, JUST FNPUT A ZERO. WHY DONT 
YOU PRESS THE LETTER 4 C FOR 'CHICKEN' TO 
HEAR THE NOISE YOU'RE GOING TO HEAR . , , 

(FIVE. SECOND PAUSE) 

NOW, IF YOU'RE GOING TO WIN THE ROUND, AND 
I CERTAINLY DOUBT IT, YOU'LL HEAR THIS NOISE 
. ..PRESS *W' FOR 'WIN'.. . 



(Barry Furman is a banking assistant vice president 
who writes programs on his Co Co as a hobby. He 
plans to start his own software business.) 



(FIVE-SECOND PAUSE) 

IF YOU LOSE, AND I CERTAINLY HOPE YOU DO, 
YOU'LL HEAR THIS NOISE . . . JUST PRESS *L r FOR 
'LOSE* .. 

(FIVE SECOND PAUSE) 

OKAY, NOW WE'RE READY TO PLAY THE GAME, 
CHECK HOW MUCH MONEY YOU HAVE IN YOUR 
WALLET OR PURSE, AND PLUG IT IN. JUST PRESS 
4 B' TO BEGIN AND ENTER THE AMOUNT , , , 

(THREE-SECOND PAUSE) 

SO, YOU WANT TO PLAY ANOTHER GAME AAINST 
ME, HUH? OK, YOU KNOW WHAT TO DO, JUST 
PRESS 'BVTO BEGIN AND ENTER HOW MUCH 
MONEY YOU WANT TO START WITH. 

(THREE-SECOND PA USE) 

SO, YOU LOST AGAIN, HUH? . . . AND YOU STILL 
WANT TO PLAY A THIRD GAME! WELL, OK. JUST 
PRESS 4 B' AND THE AMOUNT OF MONEY YOU 
WANT TO PLAY WITH. 

(THREE SECOND PAUSE) 

HEY, I'VE BEATEN YOU THREE TIMES ALREADY! 
DO YOU STILL WANT TO PLAY? WELL, IF YOU DO, 
J UST PRESS 'B' AND TH EN ENTER THE AMOUNT 
OF MON EY YO U WANT TO PLAY WITH . 

(THREE SECOND PAUSE) 

NOW LOOJC, I'M GETTING TIRED! THIS IS THE 
LAST GAME KM GOtNG TO PROM PT YOU ON . , , SO 
PRESS 4 B' AND THE AMOUNT OF MONEY, BUT I'M 
WARNING YOU , . . NEXT TIME IF YOU WANT TO 
PLAY, YOU'RE GOING TO HAVE A SILENT PART- 
NER. JUST KEEP REMEMBERING TO PRESS l B.' 



26 



the RAINBOW Jiinua ry 4984 



■ 



16 K 



the ; 
RAINBOW 



When finished, rewind the tape and CLOAD the program. 
The Acey Deucey dealer appears, and the tape recorder 
plays back his voice. It is imperative that you keep the 
passsette recorder's [PLA Y] key depressed throughout the 
game. After giving you instructions, the dealer asks you to 
press "B" to begin and enter your amount of money. 

The screen changes to the card table showing three cards 
face down and your pack of money (with its value). The 
screen says: "Here's the shuffle," and then you'll hear a 
card-shuffling sound. Two of the three cards "turn over" to 
show their faces, The suits of these cards will always be club 
and spade, but the number values change, (In Color basic 
graphics, it was not possible to make red suits on the buff 
(white) card face without introducing black in the design. 
This is because a single quarter of a SET mark cannot be 
independently Jit.) 

The card values are determined randomly, but for simpli- 
city, I designed it so the first card would always have the 
lower value of the two, and the two cards would not have the 
Same value, or succeeding values. In a game using actual 
cards, this would not be the case. 

The idea of the game is to bet (whatever amount you 
want) that the value of the still unturned card fells between 
the two cards showing. (You may bet up to the value of your 
current pack of "dough".) 

The third card now turns over, showing its face value. The 
screen also indicates whether you won, lost, bet zero 
("chicken!"), bet too much, or lost all your money. Accom- 
panying this will bean appropriate sound. The value of your 
pack of money is updated accordingly. 

If you lose your money, and answer "Y" to the "Play 
again?" prompt, you'll again be facing the dealer who will 
have "another conversation with you. 

The dealer is drawn in Lines 80-390, The POKE 65495,0 
in Line 70 is used to speed up the graphics and accompany- 
ing sound, If your computer won't accept this poke, delete 
that line; 

The body of the program (Lines 400-1710) concern the 
choosing of random numbers, and printing of text on the 
screen. 

The card backs are drawn in Lines 1800-2130. They are 
turned over in Lines 2140-2410. The third (dealer's) card is 
turned over in Lines 2420-2770. 

Anyone who wishes a copy of this program on tape may 
send $5 to Barry Furman, 2 1 Sunset Lane, Levittown, N.Y. 
1 1756. I'll also include an enhanced version of Radio 
Shack-s Blackjack program listed in "Getting Started With 
Color BASIC" 



0193 1530 . . OAEA 

420 0375 1790 ...0D17 

790. ... 0604 2100 ... 0F45 
1210 . . . 08A6 2480 . . . 1187 
END . . . 1336 



The listing: 

10 'acey ducy 
20 * BY BARRY FURMAN 
30 '21 SUNSET LANE 
40 ' LEVITTOWN, N.Y. 11756 
50 'TEL: (516) 796-5040 
60 * 

70 P0KE65495,0 

so cl so : n= 1 00 : a»o:b=o:c=o: d«o:e= 
0: b=0: H«o: l=o: J=0: K=o: L=o: M=0: 0> 
o: P-0: Q-OI R-O: S-b: T»0: u»0: v»0: W- 
o:X=0: Y=o: z=6 

90 F0RH»16T047 
100 F0RV-4T023 
110 SET (H, V, 2) 
120 NEXTV, H 
130 F0RH=0T063STEP4 
140 F0RV=24T031 
150 SET(H, V,8) :SET<H+1,V,B) 
160 SET <H+2, V, 7) : SET(H+3,V,7> 
170 NEXTV, H 
180 F0RH-26T035 
190 F0RV=16T021 
200 SET<H,V,4) 
210 NEXTV, H 
220 FORV=10T011 
230 SET (24, V, 3) : SET <25, V, 3) 
240 SET (36, V, 3) : SET (37 , V, 3) 
250 NEXTV 

260 PRINTS5, "THE ACEY— DUCEY DEAL 
ER"; 

270 I FF >4THENPR 1 NT@304 , " REMEMBER 
. . . " ; : PRINT@338," PRESS *B' "* 
280 I FF >4THEN300 
290 MOTORON: AUDI DON 
300 0*=INKEY* 

310 IF0»«"W"THENM0T0R0FFlG0SUB26 
60 

320 I F0*= " L "THENMOTOROFF: Q0SUB27 
00 

330 I F0*= " C " THENMOTOROFF : GOSUB27 
40 

340 I F0*= " B " THENMOTOROFF 
350 I F0*= " B "THENF«F+ 1 
360 IFO*=" "THEN400 

370 I FO* 8 * " B " THENPR I NTS480 , " HOW M 
UCH MONEY DO YOU HAVE"; : INPUTQ 
380 I FQ >OTHENMOTOROFF : 60T0430 
390 IF0«="B"ANDQ=0THENM0T0R0FF: 8 
0T0430 

400 RESET (30 , 18) ! RESET ( 30 , 1 9 ) 
410 IFRND (4)=4THENSET (24, 10, 2) : S 
ET (37, 10,2) 
420 GOTO 180 
430 N=lO0 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 



440 CLSO 

450 IFQ-0THENQ=100 

460 K=K+ 1 : I FKO i THEN540 

470 PRINTS224, "YOU ARE STARTING 

WITH"Q ,, BUCKS"; :60T0590 

480 F0RX-64T095 

490 PRINT@X,CHR*<128> ; 

500 NEXTX 

510 F0RX=64T095 

520 PRINT6X, CHR* < 128) S 

530 NEXTX 

540 f0rx=64t095: printsx , chr* < 128 
) ; :nextx:print@68, "you now have" 
q" dollars. "j 

550 pr i nts459 , " * " ; : pr i nts460 , q i 

560 F0RX=1T01100 

570 NEXTX 

580 IFKO1THEN610 

590 FOR J = 1 TO 900 

600 NEXTJ 

610 G0T0660 

620 Q=Q+M 

630 80T0460 

640 Q=Q-M 

650 G0T0460 

660 L=L+ 1 : I FL > 1 THENN*= " NE X T " ELSE 

N*= "FIRST" : 60SUB 1 690 

670 IFLMTHENPRINTS16, "NEXT TWO 

CARDS: "; 

680 A=RND<13> 

690 B-RNDU3) 

700 IF A >= B THEN 680 

710 IFB-A-1THEN680 

720 G0T0740 

730 B0T0640 

740 RESTORE 

750 DATA1,A,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6, 
7,7,8,8,9,9, 10, 10, 11, J, 12, Q, 13, K 
,14 

760 READG: IFG=14THEN800 
770 READC* 

780 IF A - G THEN L* - C* 
790 G0T0760 
800 RESTORE 

810 READ G: IFG=14THEN850 
820 READC* 

830 IF G - B THEN V* = C* 
840 G0T0810 
850 G0SUB1800 
860 G0T0870 

870 PRINTS288, "WHAT IS YOUR BET" 
; : INPUTM 

880 F0RX=310T0319 

890 PRINT@X,CHR*<128) ; 

900 NEXTX 

910 IFMO0THEN1010 

920 PRINTS437, "CHICKEN! ! ! " ; 

930 S0UND2 1,8: SOUND 16,18 

940 F0RX=288T0319 

950 PRINTSX, CHR* < 128); 



960 NEXTX 

970 F0RX=437T0447 

980 PRINTSX, CHR* < 128) ; 

990 NEXTX 

1000 G0T0660 

1010 IF M <« Q THEN 1140 
1020 T=339:PRINTST, "SORRY BUT YO 
U"; :PRINTST+32, "BET TOO MUCH 
1030 PRINTST+64, "YOU HAVE ONLY"; 
: PR I NTST+96 , Q " DOLLARS " ; : PR I NTST 
+131, "TO BET. "J 

1040 PRINTST+161, " BET AGAIN "J 

1050 F0RD=1T01750 

1060 NEXTD 

1070 F0RX=299T0319 

1080 PRINTSX, CHR* ( 128) % : NEXTX 

1090 F0RG=39T063 

1100 F0RJ=18T031 

1110 RESET <G, J) 

1120 NEXTJ , G 

1130 G0T0860 

1140 C=RND(13> 

1150 RESTORE 

1160 READG 

1170 IFG-14THEN960 

1180 READC* 

1190 IF G - C THEN D* = C« 

1200 G0SUB2420 

1210 G0T01220 

1220 IF C > A THEN 1240 

1230 G0T01410 

1240 IF C >= B THEN 1410 

1250 F0RY=1T08 

1260 PRINT8405, "YOU WIN!!!"; 

1270 S0UND225,5 

1280 PRINTS405, CHR* < 12B) ;: PRINTS 
406, CHR* < 128) ; : PRINT8407, CHR* ( 12 
8> ; :PRINT@408,CHR*<128> ; :PRINT@4 
09, CHR* < 128) 5 : PRINT@410, CHR* ( 128 
) ; : PRINTS41 1 , CHR* < 128) ; : PRINT@41 
2, CHR* < 128) ; 

1290 PRINTS413, CHR* ( 128) ;: PRINTS 

414, CHR* (128) ; 

1300 NEXTY 

1310 F0RP=300T0319 

1320 PRINT@P,CHR*(128) ; 

1330 NEXTP 

1340 F0RZ=288T0319 

1350 PRINTSZ,CHR*(128) ; 

1360 NEXTZ 

1370 F0RX=405T0415 

1380 PRINTSX, CHR* < 128) ; 

1390 NEXTX 

1400 G0T0620 

1410 PR I NTS438 , " SORRY , " ; : PR I NTS4 

69, "YOU LOSE!"; 

1420 S0UND13,17 

1430 F0RX=1T01010 

1440 NEXTX 

1450 F0RY-288T0319 



28 the RAINBOW January 1984 



JANUARY SUPER SPECIALS 

64K RAMS 44-95 

W/PURCHASE OF TELEWRITER OR ANY VIP PROGRAMS 39.95 

HAYS SMARTMODEM 235.00 

SMARTODEM W/VIP TERMINAL DISK OR ROM 275.00 

LCA 47 LOWER CASE ADAPTER 59.95 



TOM MIX 

TAPE DISK 

ELECTRON 19.95* NA 

SR 71 22.35* NA 

BUZZARD BAIT , 22.35* NA 

CU*BER 22.35* NA 

DEVIL'S ASSAULT 22.35 NA 

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL 22.35* NA 

JOURNEY TO MT. DOOM NA 22.35* 

THE KING 21.55* NA 

COMPUTERWARE 

JR S REVENGE 23.15* NA 

BLOC HEAD 21.55 NA 

MOON HOPPER 19.95* NA 

TIME PATROL 21.55* NA 

HYPER ZONE 21.55* NA 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

LANCER 19.95*23.15* 

WHIRLYBIRO RUN 19.95*23.15* 

GALAGON 19.95*23.15* 

FROGGIE 19.95*23.15* 

LUNAR ROVER PATROL 19.95*23.15* 

CUBIX 19.95*23.15* 

MS GOBBLER 19.95*23.15* 

COLORQUEST 

FYR-DRACA 19.95*23.15* 

FEMBDT'S REVENGE 19.95*23.15* 

XfGOID v 15.95 19.95* 

BEYOND THE CIMEEON MOON 19.95*23.15* 

ADVENTURE TRILOGY 19.95 23.15* 

MS HIBBLER 15.95 19.95 

INTERCEPTOR 15.95*19.95* 

KQMET-KAZE 15.95* 24.95 

*32K 



BUSINESS & UTILITIES 



PRICKLY PEAR 

TAPE DISK 

OMNI CLONE 23.95 29.95* 

COLORKIT , . 29.70 33.95* 

MAILING LIST NA 39.95* 

DISK ZAPPER NA 27.95* 

DISK MASTER NA 19.95* 

DISK MANAGER NA 23.95* 

For AMDEX Disks add 5.00 
ELITE 

TAPE DISK 

ELITE'CALC 50.95 50.95 

ELITE* WORD 47.95 47.95 

E LITE a F I LE -i uGltid 93. Mull Merge!! . NA 50.95 
ALL THREE ELITE PROGRAMS 144.95 
SOFTLAW CORP 

ROMPK DISK 

VIP WRITER 47.95 47.95 

VIP CALC 5D.95 50.95 

VIP DATABASE NA 50.95 

VIP TERMINAL 42.45 42.45 

VIP SPELLER NA 42.45 

VIP DISK ZAP NA 42.15 

THE WHOLE LIBRARY (DISK) 250.00 
THE BUSINESS LIBRARY 184.95 
(Writer, Cilc, Database, Speller on DISK) 

COQNITEC TAPE DISK 

TELEWRITER 64 42.45 50.95 

RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE 
SUPER SCREEN MACHINE TAPE DISK 

(The Best Screen Utility around) 38.20 40.75 




GREAT VALUES1IIIII 
MICRO WORKS 

TAPE DISK 
MACRO 80C Disk Only NA 84.95 

TOM MIX 
SCREEN PRINT-EPSON 14.35 
SCREEN PRINT-0K1.. 15.95 



THESE SPECIAL PRICES 
Good Through Jan. 15, 
1984 



DEALERS!! 

For Complete COCO Support call: 

DAVID COFFMAN 


AVAILABILITY SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 

TO ORDER: 

WE ACCEPT VISA, MASTERCARD, PERSONAL CHECKS (2 WEEKS 
CLEARANCE TIME PLEASE), MONEY ORDERS, AND COD. INCLUDE 
$2.00 FOR POSTAGE AND HANDLING. COD IS AN ADDITIONAL 
$3.00. ARIZONA RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX. 




800-2 


24 HOUR ORDER LINE 

S21-9280 EXT. 988 






(ORDERS ONLY PLEASE) MSB 


RoadRunner computer products 




VISA | 

INQUIRIES. ARIZONA ORDERS ■■■■■■■■ 


3908 E. Willow, Phoenix, AZ, 1*602-971-9131 


(602) 839-8233 



1460 PRINTSY, CHR* < 128) * 

1470 NEXT Y 

1480 F0RX=438T0447 

1490 PRINTSX, CHR* < 128) ; 

1500 PRINT8X+30,CHR*(128) ; 

1510 NEXTX 

1520 IF M < Q THEN640 
1530 PRiNT 

1 540 V=307 : PR I NTS V , " SORRY FR I END 
, " ; : PRINTSV+34, "YOU LOST" ;: PRINT 
SV+65, "YOUR D0U8H"; 
1550 PRINT8436, "WANT TO TRY" J : PR 
INTS468, "A8AIN(Y/N) "; :PRINTS505, 



""; : INPUTA* 



1560 F0RX=478T0483 

1570 PRINTSX , CHR* < 128) ; 

1580 NEXTX 

1590 IFA*-"Y"THEN80 

1600 PRINTS484, "O.K. HOPE YOU H 

AD FUN ! ! " ; 

1610 F0RX=508T0510 

1620 PRINTSX , CHR* < 128) ; 

1630 NEXTX 

1640 80T01640 

1650 CLSO 

1660 F0RH=11T021 

1670 F0RV=5T013 

1680 SET(H,V,5) 

1690 CLSO: PRINTS2, "HERE ARE YOUR 



The 

ORACLE 

The Ultimate CoCo Monitor. 



ii jjjflft 



The ORACLE II is not a rehashed monitor program 
adapted to the CoCo, but a state of the art monitor 
designed to compliment the CoCo and its unique 
abilities. 

Compare some of our features: 

• 64K Compatible - the ORACLE II can relocate it- 
self and its monitor screen above disk basic. 

• Single Stepper - a single variable speed stepper 
that allows you to step both rom and ram. 

• Disassembler - 

• Graphics Support - allows you to step a program 
while watching any graphic screen, in any graphic 
mode, and toggle between the monitor screen and 
back, with one key. 

• ASCII/hex search-up to a 10 byte search. 

• Full screen display and editing of memory. 

• Over 40 commands. 

CoCo disk or tape (both versions included) $35.95 
Spectral or FHL Flex version 45.95 
(+ $2.00 shipping and handling) 

RAINBOW | 

MICRO MAGIC 

P.O. BOX 142, SUMNER, WA 98390 | 
(206) 863-8762 
(24 Hours) 



"N* " TWO CARDS"; 
1700 PRINTS288, "NEXT CARD"; 
1710 * ***GREEN PILE OF DOUGH*** 
1720 PRINTS361 , "YOUR DOUGH"; 
1730 F0RX=425T0434 
1740 PR I NTSX , CHR* < 1 43+80 ) ; 
1 750 PR I NTS X +32 , CHR* < 1 43+80 ) ; 
1 760 PR I NTS X +64 , CHR* ( 1 43+80 ) ; 
1770 NEXTX 

1780 PRINT6459, "*" ; : PRINTS460, Q« 
1790 RETURN 

1800 * #*****BACK OF CARD******* 

1810 F0RX=64T096 

1820 PRINTSX, CHR* (128) ; 

1830 NEXTX 

1840 F0RH-10T021 

1850 F0RV=7T015 

1860 PRINTS288, "NEXT CARD"; 

1870 PRINT869, "HERE'S THE SHUFFL 

Ell ■ 
m m m 9 

1880 SET(H,V,4) 

1890 SET ( 10, V, 5) : SET (21, V, 5) 

1900 SET(H+32,V+1,4) 

1910 '*** 

1920 SET(H-6,V+15,4) 

1930 SET(42,V+i,5) : SET (52, V+l , 5) 

1940 0=0+1 

1 950 * *** 

1960 SET(4,V+15,5) : SET ( 14, V+15, 5 
) 

1970 NEXTV, H 

1 980 PP=PP+ 1 : 1 FPP >20THEN20 1 0 

1990 SOUND 190+PP, 1 

2000 GOTO 1980 

2010 PP=0:F0RX=101T0106 

2020 PR I NT@X , CHR* < 1 3 1 +64 ) ; 

2030 * *** 

2040 PR I NT@X +22 1 , CHR* (131 +64 ) ; 
2050 PRINTSX +160, CHR* ( 140+64) ; 
2060 * *** 

2070 PRINT6X+381 , CHR* ( 140+64) ; 

20SO PRINTSX+16, CHR* (131+64) ; 

2090 PRINTSX +176, CHR* ( 140+64) ; 

2100 '*** 

21 lO NEXTX 

2120 F0RT=1T01500 

2130 NEXTT 

2140 F0RH-12T021 

2150 F0RV=6T013 

2160 PRINT@65, "NOW I'LL TURN THE 

CARDS OVER..."; 
2170 SET(H,V+2,5) :SET(H+32, V+2,5 
) 

2180 NEXTV 
2190 NEXTH 
2200 FORV=7T012 
2210 SET(11,V,5) 
2220 SET (21, V, 5) 
2230 NEXTV 

2240 PRINTS200, CHR* (132+64) ; 



30 the RAINBOW January 1984 



THE COCO WRITER 
JUST GOT BETTER 



New Features 
Four Screen Formats 
32, 51, 64 or 85 characters per line 
True upper and lower case on screen 
Tab settings 
Printing pause for keyboard input 
Menu driven formatting 
Enhanced disk and tape file 
management 

To upgrade your old COCO WRITER 
contact us. 

still the best deal in word processing! 
16K EXB Tape $34.95 
16K EXB Disk $44.95 

add $2.00 shipping & handling 




MORE BUSINESS ffb 

THE MODERN SOLUTION CI ~ 
FOR SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 



The CoCo Writer 




General Ledger 
Accounts Payable 
Accounts Receivable 
Mailing Lists 

Up to 400 Accounts Payable 
Up to 400 Accounts Receivable 
More than 800 General Ledger Accounts 

Print Invoices 
Print Profit and Loss Statements 
Print Balance Sheet 

130 Page manual containing 
complete index and glossary. 
Bookkeeping tutorial 

Single disk drive R/S DOS 
32K EXTENDED BASIC 
$99.95 

Add $2.00 shipping & handling to all orders 

MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Bay Laboratory 



316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA, 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 



California Residents, Add 6% Sales Tax to Orders 




buy a Tandon disk 



drive for your COCO 




40 track fully compatible 

drive 0 Includes a single sided Tandon disk, 

case and power supply, drive cable, 
and a Radio Shack' drive controller board. 

DRIVE 0 $449. DRIVE 1 $249. 



DOUBLE HEADED DRIVES 

runs like two drives 

DRIVE 0 $549 DRIVE 1 $349 



x TANDON TH INLINE 

& drive 0 $399. 

V SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY OFFER 



64K UPGRADE KIT 

$62.95 



C.ltoh PROWRITTER $425. 

EPSON RX-80 $399. 

Botek Printer adapter $69. 
Use our watts line for a quote 

• TU Tandy Corp 



COMPUKIT 



2250 PR I NTS i 99 , CHR* < 1 42+64 ) ; 
2260 PR I NTS232 , CHR* < 1 35+64 ) ? 
2270 PRINT@215,CHR*<128); 
2280 PRINT@216,CHR*C128) ; 
2290 PRINTS217, CHR* < 133+64) ; 
2300 PR I NTS248 , CHR* < 1 35+64 ) t 
2310 PR 1 NTS 1 84 , CHR* < 1 40+64 ) 5 
2320 PR I NTS 1 83 , CHR* ( 1 42+64 ) I 
2330 PRINT@134,L*; 
2340 SOUND90,2 
2350 F0RJ-1T01000 
2360 NEXT J 
2370 PR I NTS 1 50, V*? 
2380 S0UND110, 1 
2390 F0RX=1T01600 
NEXTX 
RETURN 

***TURN OVER DEALER'S CARD* 



2400 
2410 
2420 

2430 
2440 
2450 
2460 
2470 



2500 
2510 
2520 
2530 



corp 



1-713-480-6000 order line 1-600-231-6671 
16206D Hickory Knoll , Houston , Texas 77666 

ordering Information 

We accept Visa, Mastercard. Wire Transfers, and Certified Checks for quickest 
shipping. Orders received on personal checks are held for clearance. 



F0RX=1T01000 
NEXTX 

F0RH=4T014 
F0RV=23T030 
SET(H,V,5) 
2480 NEXTV, H 

2490 PR I NTS420 , CHR* < 1 28 ) ? 
PRINTS421 , CHR* ( 128) ; 
PR I NT@422 , CHR* ( 1 33+64 ) ; 
PRINT6388, CHR* ( 142+64) ; 
PR I NTS389 , CHR* ( 140+64) « 
2540 PR I NT@453 , CHR* < 1 35+64 ) ; 
2550 RESTORE 
2560 READG 
2570 IFG=14THEN2610 
2580 READC* 

2590 IF G = C THEN D* = C* 

2600 G0T02560 

2610 F0RX=1T0300 

2620 NEXTX 

2630 PRINT@355,D*; 

2640 RETURN 

2650 G0T02650 

2660 F0RX-1T04 

2670 SOUND 225,5 

2680 NEXTX 

2690 RETURN 

2700 F0RX=1T08 

2710 NEXTX 

2720 SOUND 13, 17 

2730 RETURN 

2740 F0RX=1T08 

2750 NEXTX 

2760 S0UND2 1,8: SOUND 16,18 

2770 RETURN 

2780 * ************ 

2790 LINE INPUT A* 

2800 PRINT#-2,A* 

28 1 0 A*- I NKEY* : I F A*= " " THEN28 1 OEL 
SEHOTOROFF: G0T02790 



32 



the RAINBOW January 1984 




New 

3" di*J* 
cartridge 



(Including 2 Diskettes) 



J 



AMDISK YOUR 
COLOR COMPUTER® 



Get 31 2 Kbytes* of on-line, formatted storage capacity for your Color Computer 
with the Amdisk-lll. The Amdisk-lll is a disk drive system that combines the capacity 
and compatibility of 5V* " floppies with the convenient size and ruggedness of the 
state-of-the-art in technology — the 3 " microfloppy cartridge. 

Join the move to maximize your Color Computer's power and "Amdisk" it. Many 
software vendors have joined, and will be providing software on Amdek's 3" car- 
tridge upon request. These software suppliers are: Cognitec; Computerware; Frank 
Hogg Laboratories; The MicroWorks; Tom Mix Software; Moreton Bay Software; 
Nelson Software Systems; Petrocci Freelance Associates; Prickly Pear Software; 
Saguaro Software; Skyline Marketing; The Software Station; Spectrum Projects; 
Star-Kits and Sugar Software. 



You can purchase the Amdisk-lll from 
any of these fine dealers: 
Computerware: (619) 436-351 2 
Delker Electronics: (61 5) 459-2636 
Emerald Computer: (800) 468-4606 
Saguaro Software: (602) 885-6508 
Skyline Marketing: (31 2) 286-0762 
Spectrum Projects: (21 2) 441-2807 
The Software Station: (313) 532-2550 
or ask for the Amdisk-lll at your local 
computer dealer. 



* An additional 31 2 Kbytes may be accessed by manually flipping the media over. 
® Color Computer is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation. 



2201 Lively Blvd. • Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 
(312)364-1180 TLX: 25-4786 



REGIONAL OFFICES: 



Southern Calif , (714)662 -3949 • Texas (817) 498-2334 
Northern Calif, (408)370-9370 • Denver (303) 794-1497 



The Benefits 
Of Role Playing 
Are No Fantasy 



By Bill Nolan 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 





We recently returned from Rainbowfest in Ft. 
Worth, Texas, and all of the computer users 1 
spoke with really enjoyed the show. While there, I 
had the privilege of doing a seminar on the uses of a compu- 
ter for fantasy gaming, and from the questions and com- 
ments I received I think many fantasy game players may be 
receiving criticism from several quarters concerning their 
play of the game. 

With that in mind, I would like to talk about fantasy 
gaming, and particularly the benefits of fantasy gaming. 
Fantasy games are role playing games. In these games the 
participants act out the roles of one or more characters in an 
effort to solve various problems or mysteries. In order to 
play these games properly, all of the people involved must 
exercise a great deal of imagination and ingenuity, and this 
increased imagination is sure to carry over into other areas 
of life. 

Some say that the imagination is being used to escape 
from reality, and 1 cannot disagree with this. However, 1 
would like to point out that we are escaping from our reality 
every time we watch a drama or comedy on television, and 
every time we sit down to read a good novel. The essence of 
the writer's art is to be able to take the reader or watcher out 
of themselves for a while and allow them to identify with a 
different reality. When you finish your book, you can return 
to your everyday reality refreshed and with a new per- 
spective. 

In addition to this, fantasy role playing is not a passive 
activity, like reading a book or watching a television drama. 
The participants are creating the story as they go along. It's 
kind of like deciding you want to read a book — and then 
writing one so you have one to read. 

Another nice thing is the difference between fantasy role 
playing games and most other games. Nearly all games 
(whether they are card games like hearts, poker, and old 
maid; board games like Monopoly, Clue, or Scrabble; com- 
puter games like Viking! or Gangbusters; or athletic games 
like tennis and football) are contests in which players com- 
pete against each other. At the end of the game there will be 
one person or team which wins, and one or several who lose. 
The lesson of these games is clear: to get ahead you must 
beat somebody else. To win you must take victory away 



( Bill Nolan teaches computer science at a local college, 
referees a weekly fantasy game, and operates Prickly- 
Pear Software with his wife, Sara.) 



from other people. ^ 

In fantasy role playing games, however, you have a group 
of players working together toward a common goal. In 
nearly all cases, you must help your friends to win in order to 
win yourself, because, in most cases, the entire party of 
players will win or lose together. The spirit of cooperation 
fostered by this cannot fail to make the point that in real life 
it works the same way. If we all pull together toward a 
common goal, we can all win, but if we work at cross 
purposes we may all lose. 

Aside from these philosophical considerations, there are 
many practical skills gained while playing fantasy games. 
First of all, there are many complex records to be main- 
tained, and this skill can be used whenever records are 
needed. Second, money is always a problem in the game, as 
in real life, and a player must carefully budget the limited 
funds so as to cover all expenses. Also, the game will usually 
involve planning for trips and other operations spanning 
long periods of time, and supplies such as food must be 
planned in advance. How much food will you eat in the next 
month? How will you carry it? If you put it on a pack horse, 
then how much will the pack horse eat? You get the idea. 

The educators I have spoken with tell me that, in most 
cases, the young people interested in fantasy gaming are 
among the brightest and best students. They are also far 
more likely to be interested in computers, and not just so 
they can play Adventure in Wonderland. They really use the 
electronic whiz boxes. So, the next time someone gets on 
your case for wasting your time playing fantasy games, whip 
out this article and lay it on 'em! 

Remember our contest? Last month a contest was an- 
nounced with two categories. You may remember that we 
are designing a new fantasy gaming system in this column, 
and the contest is to design either an original spell or an 
original monster for the new game. First place in each 
category will win a $50 gift certificate from Prickly-Pear 
Software and a $50 gift certificate from Sahuaro Software. 
Second place in each category will win a $50 gift certificate 
from Prickly-Pear Software. In addition, each person sub- 
mitting an entry used in the column will receive a four-color 
screened Prickly-Pear dragon T-shirt worth $9.95. All 
entries should be sent to Contest, c/o Bill Nolan, 9234 E, 
30th Street, Tucson, Az., 85710. All entries must be received 
by January 20, 1984, to be eligible, and winners will be 
announced in the April issue of Rainbow. All entries 
become the property of Bill Nolan. 



34 the RAINBOW January 1984 




MUDPIES 

by Jeff Sorenson & Philip McKenzie 
THE KID IS IN TROUBLE!!! Arnold 
went to see the circus. It was great! 
Full of acrobats, animals, side show 
acts, and as always... CLOWNS! 
The kid is surrounded by clowns, and 
picking up some Mudpies he starts 
throwing them ait the clowns. But the 
clowns get mad and start throwing 
things back at Arnold! Can you help 
Arnold make it to safety? As you avoid 
the mad clowns, throwing mudpies at 
them, you might make it to the exit . . 
only to find more rooms filled with 
more clowns. Will Arnold ever make it 
home? 

Mudpies is great it is totally random 
with many different screens, it will be 
different every time you play. Guar- 
anteed hours and hours of fun. 
Tape 27.95 Disk 29.95 



TIME BANDIT 

by Bill Dunlevy 

FANTASTIC ADVENTURES AND UN- 
LIMITED RICHES ABOUND WHEN 
ONE TRAVELS THROUGH TIME - 
YOU ARE THE TIME BANDIT! 

Thanks to Bill Dunlevy and Harry 
Lafnear, you can transform your Color 
Computer into the ultimate arcade 
experience. 32K has never looked or 
played better! 

Tired of games that have only a few 
screens or force you to follow a strict 
order of levels? In TIME BANDIT, you 
virtually create you own game! You 
can choose from more than TWENTY 
places during the entire game, and 
each place has more than 15 distinct 
variations and levels of difficulty; this means over 300 variations in all! You can use the Tl MEGATES to travel to three different Worlds of 
Time, each one containing a multitude of colorful and unique adventuring areas. Visit FANTASY WORLD, WESTERN WORLD, or 
SPACE WORLD. Avoid or destroy the Evil Guardians: the Watching Lurker, Angry Elmo, Killer Smurphs, and lots more! Find the keys 
which remove various locks preventing your escape. But hurry Bandit— your power is dwindling and time is fleeting! This new machine 
language game is so exciting, challenging, and fun that you need never leave your home to find an arcade again! Ultra crisp Super- 
graphics that include colorful scrolling landscapes and full animation of a multitude of characters, amazing sound, and literally 
HUNDREDS of screens - ifs all here! The conquest of time and space awaits you . 

STRONGHOLD 

The war was short! Missies were launched, bombs exploded, and civilization § m 
was almost entirely whiped out. Only a handful of men remained to help ^» 
rebuild what was lost These handful seperated into fourdifferent civilizations, P*^ ^^^| H 

each building their own cityand shielding it from the radioactive debris that fill "I J 

the atmosphere. Now the debris has threatened to break up the shielding and | | 

destroy civilizations last remainents. 

One or two player action with sound and split second graphics Thats 
STRONGHOLD, try it and you'll enjoy it! 




FANTASY WORLO: Conquer 
the halls of Doom, the 
Mystic Maze, the Under- 
world Arena, and other 
medieval places. 



WESTERN WORLO: Visit the 
Lost Maverick Mine, Dead 
Man's Pass, (Visit? 
Escape!) Tombstone Jail, 
and many more! 





SPACE WORLO: Explore 
Hyperspace, the bizarre 
Light Barriers, the Insid- 
ious Grid, Gamma Station, 
the Enterprise and others! 





1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 

Info: (313)673-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 392-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for 
Canada 

Dealers Inquires Invited. 



For spells you should specify the 
name of the spell, materials and time 
needed to cast it, range, area or number 
of people affected, effect of the spell, 
whether saving throws are allow, and 
what happens if the saving throw is 
made. 

For monsters we need a complete 
description with a sketch if possible, 
and the usual stats such as speed, size, 
attack method, number of attacks, intel- 
ligence, special attacks or defenses, and 
the damage multiplier. As you will 
recall, the damage multiplier is used to 
compute damage on our new computer 
combat system, and for reference a fist 
is .5 and a long sword is 1 . 

For both the spells and monsters, the 
more detailed and original your entry, 
the better your chance to win. Yes, you 
can enter in both categories, and yes, 
more than one entry per category is 
permitted. 

The program I am presenting this 
month is by popular demand. Several 
months ago, I did a column about how 
to do maps of various rooms on the 
screen in Hi-Res graphics, so when the 
players enter a room, all you have to do 
is press the correct number and the 
appropriate room map is displayed on 
the screen. I included a few rooms to get 
you started and suggested that you 
could put 99 rooms into the program 
easily in a 16K machine. Well, a lot of 
people thought I must have already 
done this and have written asking me to 
publish all 99 of my rooms, so here they 
are! 

The way you use the program is sim- 
ple. After typing it in (or loading Rain- 
bow on Tape), you can select the room 
you want by typing the number. You 
must always type a two digit number, so 
you would type a 7 as "07." When you 
type the number, the room map will 
appear on the screen. The first thing you 
should do is go through the program 
looking at each room and drawing a 
map of it with its number indicated. 
Then you can create dungeons, castles, 
towers, and other structures using the 
rooms from the program. Simply indi- 
cate on your dungeon map or key what 
the program room number is, and you 
will be able to call it up whenever the 
players enter the room. 

That way, instead of wasting valuable 
game time describing a complex room, 
the players will see a map right on the 
TV screen. Don't limit yourself by as- 
suming that north is always at the top, 
either. You can simply say "north is at 
the left" or whatever and use each room 
in four different orientations. By com- 
bining these rooms in various ways, you 
can create thousands of different maps. 

36 the RAINBOW January 1984 




MichTron is our new corporate identity. Computer 
Shack is being sued by Tandy. Tandy has a trade- 
mark on the words "The Shack" and they say that, 
Computer Shack cannot use the word Shack in its 
name. The way it looks right now is that Computer 
Shack simply doesn't have enough money to de- 
fend itself against the Tandy Corporation, and will 
have to change it's name. 

Since Computer Shack is getting an excellent reputation for fast delivery and 
excellent quality software for the Color Computer we decided to form a new 
company to market Computer Shacks COCO software. MichTron is it. 
Computer Shack will continue to publish software for the Model l/IM/4. 

Sometimes being an independent dealer has its advantages. We look at all 
the programs on the market and after talking to many people we pick the 
best. We at MichTron feel the TELEWRITER 64 is the best word processor, 
ELITE CALC is the best Calc sheet, and Spectrum's COLOR COM E is the 
best smart terminal. Therefore this is what we carry and recommend. We 
want nothing but the best for our customers. 

20% Discount. . . 

Also as a special Christmas bonus we will give 
you an additional discount for any software 
ordered. 1 0% if. you order 2 programs, 1 5% if you 
order 3 programs and 20% if you order4 or more 
programs. (Only one discount per order and 
YOU MUST ASK for the discount when placing the order!) 

TOP TEN FOR THE MONTH OF DECEMBER 




#1 CASHMAN Computer Shack 

A great original game for the COCO! A 
combination of Jumpman and Bagman 
with many totally original concepts spec- 
ially designed for the COCO. Excellent 
one player game. Unbelievably fun td 
play with 2 players simultaneously. 
TAPE/DISK $27.95/29.95^ 

#2 DEMON SEED Comp Shack 

Somewhat like the game Phoenix 3 dif- 
ferent waves of demons and bats attack 
you. Plus you have challenge rounds! 
Great graphics and fast action. 
TAPE/DISK. (27.95/29.95) 

#3 TIME BANDIT Comp Shack 

Another game written for the COCO this 
is an original game. The closest arcade 
game is Tutenkham to which it has a very 
loose resemblance. Great color and 
super fun to play. ($27.95/29.95) 

# 4 LUNAR PATROL Spectral 

This is an exact copy of the arcade game 
Moon Patrol. Excellent graphics. 
TAPE/DISK $24.95/28.95) 

# 5 LANCER Spectral 

This is a copy of the arcade game Joust. 
Excellent graphics and payability. 
TAPE/DISK ($24.95/28.95) 



# 6 FURY r Computer Shack 

A very loose copy of the arcade game 
Time Pilot. Excellent color, very fast. 
TAPE/DISK $27.95/29.95 

# 7 OUTHOUSE Computer Shack 

A totally rjew outrageously funny game 
only available oh the COCO. 
TAPE/DISK $27.95/29.95 

# 8 CHOPPER STRIKE C.S. 

A combination of Scramble, Whirlybird 
Run and Chopper. Great action and 
graphics. 

TAPE/DISK $27.95/29.95 

#9 THE KING Tom Mix 

Acopy of the arcade game Donkey Kong. 
Very good graphics. ($26.95/29.95) 

# 10 MUDPIES Computer Shack 

An original game by the authors of 
Demon Seed. Excellent graphics and its 
super fun to play. One of our favorites! 
($27.95/29.95) 





1691 Eason, Pontiac, Michigan 48054 

Information:- (313) 673-1205 
Ordering: (800)392-8881 

Master-Charge and Visa OK. Please add 
$3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for 
Canada. Dealer inquires invited. 



BOOK SALE! 

ALL BOOKS 10% OFF 
BUY 2 BOOKS SAVE 20% 

Each book is $13.25 for December and 
January. If you purchase two or more 
books you only pay $1 1 .96 for each book 
Special prices for Rainbow readers only 
you must ask for special price when order- 
ing. 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS FOR 
THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

ByDonlnman $14.95 
Written specifically for the TRS-80 Color Com- 
puter, this book uses sound and graphics to 
show how 6809 assembly lang uage can be used 
to perform tasks that would be difficult or impos- 
sible with BASIC. All of the explanations are 
hands-on, so that the manual can serve as a 
tutorial. 

PROGRAMMING THE 6809 

By Zaks & Labiak $1 4.95 

This book explains how to program the 6809 in 
assembly language, covering all aspects pre 
gressivelyand systematically. Beg Imng with- 
basics of programming, Program m i ng th& 6509 
goes on to explain registers and fcaisa^ sub- 
routines, the 6809 instruction get, adtfressfog 
modes, I/O techniques arid devices, and finally, 
data structures 




cm 



This program lets you copy a Color Com- 
puter disk file (any file: basic, text or 
machine language) to a Model l/lll or 4 
disk or from a Model l/lll or 4 to a Color 
Computer disk. This program does no 
conversions but it will transfer any file to 
or from a disk You must have a Model 
l/lll or 4 with 2 disk drives (Model I must 
be double density). Compatible with most 
Model l/lll operating systema 

Price is $24.95 for the Model l/lll or 4 disk. 



Double Density Disks Only $1,75@ 

At Computer Shack we buy thousands of 
disks a month for our own use, We ha^e 
found that we can save considerable sums 
of mansy by buying disks in built That is 
<0O disks In a box with no sieves, no 
labels etc. We can pur disks Fn tflny^ 
sleeves and a plastic box for less money 
than we can buy the sairie disks we buy In 
■bulk in a paper box! So we do th is and pass 
the savings on to you. 

We buy Sentenal Disks, They are gue- 
sts ndingi We unconditionally guarantee 
fhem for |he life of your computer. If you 
ever have a problem with them return, 
llteifl ! □ us an d we whig i ve you a ref u nd or 
exchange them for new mm within 24 



hours, 

1 OQ disks with lyvgk sleeves . ± . £1 75.00 

10 disk? wilh tyvefc sleeves $1 9,95 

10 disks with vfnyl sleeves - £21,95 

Disks wlttl vinyl; sleeves and a plastic 
library box- $23&5 

SMALL BUSINESS BILLING SYSTEM 



THE FACTS 

By Spectral Associates 51 4.95 

The facts is a compendium of data designed to 
explain in detail the internal workings ni 1he 
Color Computer. A must for any machine, lan- 
guage or basic programmer. 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS 

ByDonlnman £f 4, 95 

■Explore the creative an d imagiruMive blend ing □! 
computers and color u-shg Color Computer 
Graphics This book will 6/i&bl£ vchj to explore all 
the graphics capabilities of Extended Bs&ic. The 
book also provides application pfogf&rns and 

useful subroutines 303 pa^ |mag jne hav . mg &|| ^ Customera at yoMf 

PASCAL* A Problem Solving approach finger tips with the ability 1o print invoices 
By Elliot Koffman $14.95 or monthly bills easily and quickly. Now 
Here is everything you need to know about imagine being abla to. keep a running total 
problem solving and structured programming in of a |, customer accounts without having to 
Pascal " even pick up a calculator. Its all automatic, 
INTRODUCTION TO PASCAL just say so and it performs, you can access 
By Rodney Zaks $1 4.95 a customer file, print a invoice, add sales 
Without question the best organized and the tax, shipping cost, interest, and even ser- 
most clearly written of the many introductory vice charges with the simple ease of push- 
Pascal books. jng a button A || at once you .|| have tjme t0 

get the important things done instead of 
constantly worrying about customer ac 
BLANK COMPUTER TAPES counts. That's what you get with a BILLI NG 
a „ A __ w a SYSTEM. Computer Shack's Small Bus- 

Same high quality AMPEX tape we use for jness Bj||jng System not an elaborate 

our own products. accounts receivable program, but a simple 

1 0 min 50 and effective way of keeping track of people 

20 min 60 who owe you money. 

30 min 65 DISK OR TAPE $29.95 




SUPERZAP 



An amazing new program for the serious 
Color Computer disk user. This program 
allows the user full access to all of the 
inftjrmstion on any disk. With 17 menu 
options, this user-friendly program takes 
you step by step through the functions it 
performs. 

SUPEFI2AP has a main screen menu that 
tells you all the options and their cor- 
responding keys. All you do is decide what 
you need done and the program does the 
rest. Disk backups, copy sectors, erase 
tracks, granule maps, kill and list files, 
modify sectors in HEX or ASCII, and more! 

No more lost time because of disk prob- 
lems. SUPERZAP can do it! The ultimate in 
disk repair and information retieval. No 
color computer disk operator should be 
without it. 

DISK ONLY $29.95 



64K UPGRADE 

Complete kit of 64K chips with instruc- 
tions for their use. Now only $44.95. 




1691'Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 

Info: (313) 673-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 392-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for 
Canada 

Dealers Inquires Invited. 



Next month we will get back to the new game, so keep 
those entries coming in, and watch out for dragons! 




The listing: 



70 021 A 650. 



1261 



150 04A5 730 1560 

280 07E3 810 1791 

360 0A7F 900 1A79 

450 0D42 980.... 1CA8 

550 1002 END . . . 1F61 



10 MC)1982 PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWAR 
E 

20 l»» "L1U1 0R3D 1 0L2BU 10": R«= "U1R 
1 0D3L 1 0U2BR 1 0 " : D*= " L 1 D 1 0R3U 1 0L2B 
DIO": L*= " D2L 1 0U3R 10D1BL10" 
30 CLS3 : PR I NT898 , " H I T THE DESIRE 
D ROOM NUMBER"* : PR I NT© 165, "< FROM 

*01* TO '99')"; 
40 X«-INKEY«:IF X*-"" THEN G0T04 
O ELSE SOUND 150, 1 

50 XXS-INKEY*: IF XX««"" THEN GOT 
050 ELSE X*-X»+XX»:S0UND150, 1 
60 X=VAL(X*) :G0SUB90: IF X>50 the 
N X=X-50: B0T080 

70 ON X QOSUBllO, 120, 130, 140,150 
, 160, 170, 180, 190,200,210,220,230 
, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 310 
, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390 
, 400,410, 420, 430, 440, 450, 460, 470 



VAL 

SYSTEMS 



At Last! 
YOU CAN SORT LARGE FILES 



— PRESENTING 



VSDSORT 

VSDSORT IS AN EASY TO USE DISK SORT 
UTILITY THAT WILL ALLOW YOU TO SEQUENCE 
LARGE DISK FILES AS YOU WISH. 



• UP TO FIVE KEYS 

• FULL RECORD OR 
TAG OUTPUT 



• MANUAL OR PROGRAM 
CALLA8LE/RETURNABLE 

• SINGLE OR MULTI DISK 



EXT. DISK BASIC REQUIRED 

SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER FOR 
$49.95 + 3.00 SHIP/HANDLING TO: 



VAL 

SYSTEMS 



DEPT. 125 

VAL SYSTEMS 

15 E. MOUNTAIN AVENUE 

PEN ARGYL, PA 18072 

(215) 863-9167 



NAME- 



ADDRESS . 
CITY 



-STATE . 



_ZIP. 



PA. RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX 



, 480, 490, 500, 510, 520, 530, 540, 550 
, 560, 570, 580, 590, 600: B0T030 
80 ON X G0SUB610, 620,630, 640, 650 
, 660 , 670 , 680 , 690 , 700 ,710, 720 , 730 
, 740, 750, 760, 770, 780, 790, 800, 810 
, 820, 830, 840, 850, 860, 870, 880, 890 
, 900, 920, 930, 940, 950, 960, 970, 980 
,990, 1000, 1010,1020, 1030, 1040, 10 
50, 1060, 1070, 1080, 1090, 1 100: 80T0 
30 

90 PM0DE3 , 1 : PCLS : SCREEN 1 , O : COLOR 
6, 5: RETURN 

100 K«-INKEY*:IF K* 8 *"" THENIOO E 

LSE SOUND 1 50, l: RETURN 

110 DRAW"BM128,96U70R40XD*;D60L4 

O" : PAINT < 130, 90) , 7,6: 80T0100 

120 DRAW"BM128,96U60R30D20XD*|D3 

0L10XL*; L10": PAINT (130, 90) ,7,6: G 

0T0100 

1 30 DRAW " BM60 , 1 30U30XU* ? U20R50NR 
50D2OR20NR 1 OD4NR 1 OD4R 1 0U8R20U20R 
50D20XD*! D30L20XL*! L35XL*| XL* I L3 
5XL*; L20" : PAINT (65, 125) , 8, 6: PAIN 
T(128,86) ,7,6:G0T0100 
1 40 DRAW " BM128, 96U30XU* ? U20R50D4 
0R40D20L50XL«| L30" : PAINT < 130, 90) 
,7,6:S0T0100 

1 50 DRAW " Bit 128, 96U40XU* * R40D50L4 

O": PAINT (130, 90), 7, 6: BOTOIOO 

1 60 DRAW " BM128, 96U30R20XR* 5 R20D3 

0L50" : PAINT < 130, 90) , 8, 6: 80T0100 

1 70 DRAW "BM12S, 96U50R30D 1 20L30U6 

OXU*; ": PAINT < 130, 90) ,8,6: B0T0100 

180 DRAW"BM128,96U10R10D10XL*| ": 

PAINT (131, 93) ,7,6: 80T0100 

190 DRAW"BM128, 1 14L35XL*; L25U90R 

40D40R 10XR4; U60R60D 1 70L50U60" : PA 

INT < 130, 90) ,8,6:B0T0100 

200 DRAW "BM 128, 96U60R30D60L10XL* 

; LIO" : PAINT < 130, 90) ,7,6: 80T0100 

210 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96U 1 5 X U* ; U 1 5R30D4 

0L30 " : P A I NT < 1 30 , 90 ) , 7 , 6 : BOTO 1 OO 

220 DRAW"BM128,96U10XR*9D10XL«; " 

: PAINT (131, 91) ,8,6: G0T0100 

230 DRAW"BM128, 96U30R50D10XD*; Dl 

0L50" : PAINT ( 130, 90) ,7,6: BOTOIOO 

240 DRAW "BM 128, 96U40R25XR*; R35D1 

10L30XL*; L30U40R50U10XU*; UIOLSO" 

: PAINT ( 130, 90) , 8, 6: BOTOIOO 

250 DRAW " BM60 , 1 20U2 1 NR 1 0C8U2R 1 OD 

3C6R10NR20U50R60D50L20D20L60" : CI 

RCLE (95, 67) ,8: CIRCLE (125, 87) ,8: P 

AINT (62, 118), 8, 6: PAINT (95, 67) ,7, 

6: PAINT (125, 87) ,7, 6: BOTOIOO 

260 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96U35R30D80L30U35 

XU*; ": PAINT (130, 90) ,8, 6: BOTOIOO 

270 DRAW "BM 128, 96U30R5XR*; XR*; R5 

D30L30" : PAINT ( 130, 90) , 8, 6: 60T010 

O 

280 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96U20R20D20L5XL* » 



38 the RAINBOW January 1984 



CASH MAN 

By Doug Frayer and Bill Dunlevy 

The screen is exploding with colorful, 
fast moving animation like you've never 
seen. The speaker is alive with every kink 
of sound imaginable! Best of all, the 
players eyes are glowing with fascina- 
tion and wonder of this classic creation. 
THE GAME??? CASHMAN! So colorful, 
so imaginative, so all out fun, that you'll 
wonder why you ever settled for any- 
thing less!. 

Dozens of levels and screens (more than FORTY!) let anyone from beginner to expert have as much 
excitement, challenge, and good clean fun as they can stand! Even the least adept player can have the time 
of their life with CASHMAN, yet with the increased excitement of special MYSTERY PIECES and EXPERT 
PUZZLE screens, the most experienced arcade addict is guaranteed to never stop playing!!! 





Play by yourself or invite the ultimate 
hallenge of simultaneous two player 
competition! Run along the colorful 
girders, jump across the tremendous 
chasms, climb the wobbly ladders, or 
grab a BYRD and fly to get the loot 
before your opponent does! Be care- 
ful though, KATS are on the prowl 
and wrestling with them can be a 
challenge. 




CASH MAN's classical play is the or- 
iginality and the fun that no arcader 
whether a veteran or a rookie can 
afford to pass up. So run, jump, climb, 
or fly to the nearest color computer 
and play the ultimate. . . . CASHMAN! 



32K COLOR COMPUTER 

TAPE $27.95 DISK $29.95 



All software in stock will be shipped within 24 hours. Plus we will give 
you 20% OFF if you grder4 or more software packages. 1 5% OFF on 3 
and 10% discount on 2 software packages. 



Listed below is a partial list of the programs we carry. We carry only what we think is the best 
available software. Prices are listed (tape/Glisk). We guarantee satisfaction. If any product does 
not perform as advertised return it, and we will gladly exchange it for you. Please note that we 
carry some item%$0|*>n this price list 



Astro Blast (Mark Data) 17.47/20.97 

Balloon Attack (Computer Shack), ..... 21.05/23,05 
Bloc Head (Computerware) ........... 26.95/29.95 

Cashman (Computer Shack) 27,06/29.95 

Catalyst (Computer Shack) 21.95/23.95 

Chopper Strike (Computer Shack) 27.95/20.05 

Color Demon Seed (Computer Shack), . .27.95/29.05 
Color DFT (Computer Shack) .......... 25,05/25.05 

Color Fury (Computer Shack) , . . 27.05/29.98 

Coforcom/E (Spectrum). . , 44.95/44,05 

Colorpede (Intracolor). 29.95/34.05 

Color Graphics Editor (Softsector) . 9.98 

Color Time Bandit (Computer Shack). . . 27.95/29.95 
Color Stronghold (Computer Shack) . . . 27.95/29.95 

Color Billing System (Computer Shack) 29.95 

Composer (Speech Systems).... 19.95/25.95 

Cosmic Clones (Mark Data) . .......... 19.95/24.95 

Cubix (Spectral Associates) 24.98/28.98 



Devil Assault (Tom Mix) 27.05/30.95 

0iSk To (Tom Mix) .................. « 1 7.95 

Doodle Bug (Computerware) 26.95/29.95 

Ounkey Monkey (Inleiltronlcs) , 9.95/12.95 
Editor Assembler (Micro Works) ... 89.95/90.95 
Elite Calft (Elite Software) 49.75/49:75 
Frog (Tom Mix) ....... . « .,..> 27.95/30.95 

Galagon (Spectral) . . . . 24*95/28.95 

Ghost GObftler (Spectral) . . 24.95/28.95 

Glaxxons (Mark Data) 17.47/20.97 

Intercept 4 (Computer Shack) . ..27.95/29.95 

Invaders Revenge (Med Systems) .......... .11.97 

Junior's Revenge (Computerware) 28.95/31.95 

King (Tom MIX) .... 26.05/29.05 

Lancer (Spectral Assoc.) 24.05/28.05 

Lunar Hover Patrol (Spectrel Assoc.). . . 24.95/2B.05 
Monkey Kong (Med Systems) . ..11.97 



Moon Shuttle (Datasott) 31.95 

Ms. Gobbler (Spectral) 24.95/28.95 

IffUdpies (Computer Shack) 27.95/29.95 

Ninja Warrior (Programmers Guild) 14.08 

Omni Clone (Prickly Pear) 20.05 

Outhouse (Computer Shack) 27.95/20.95 

Pacdroids (Programmers Guild) 9.98 

Phantom Slayer (Med Systems) 11.07 

Planet Invasion (Spectal Assoc.) 24.05/28.05 

Pooyan (Datasoft) 26.2D 

Robottack (Intracolor) 24.05/27.05 

Shark Treasure (Computerwere) 17.95/22.95 

Speak Up (Classical) 19.05 

Tape To Disk (Tom Mix) 17.05 

Telewriter 64 (Cognitec) 44.05/40.05 

traptall (Tom Mix) 27.05/30.95 

Zap (Computer Shack) 29.95 

Zaxxon (Data Soft) 39.95/39.95 




1691 EaSftn P Pontiac, Michigan 48054 

Info: (313) 673-6700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 392-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for 
Canada. 

Dealers Inquires Invited. 



L5" : PAINT (131,91), 8, 6: 00T0100 
290 DRAW " BM60 , 1 00U20R30XR* f R30D 1 
0R50D10L70XL*; XL*JL30": PAINT (62, 
97), 7, 6: GOTOIOO 

300 DRAWBM60, 100U90R30XR*! XR»» R 
70D90L 1 20 " : C I RCLE ( 1 30 , 60 ) , 35 : P A I 
NT (62, 98) , 8, 6: PAINT (130, 60) , 7, 6: 
G0T0100 

310 DRAW"BM128,96D10L10NU10L4NU1 
0L4NU 1 0L4NU 1 0L4NU 1 0L4U 1 0NR20U 1 OR 
1 0U20XR* I D20BL 1 OXR» » R 1 OD 1 OXL* » " : 
GOTO 100 

320 DRAW "BM AO, 100U10NU30R10U30L1 
OU 1 0R40ND50R5ND50R5ND50RSND50R5N 
D50R5ND50R5ND50R120D20XD*| D20L55 
XL* | L25XL* | XL*; L80 " : PA I NT ( 62 , 98 ) 
, 7, 6: PAINT (62, 80) , 8, 6: PAINT ( 160, 
62) ,7,6:60T0100 

330 DRAW"BM128,96U20XU*;U20R50D5 
0L20XL*; L20" : PAINT ( 130, 90) ,8,6:8 
0T0100 

340 DRAW " BM60 , 1 40U 1 OXU* I U 1 0R50U6 

0R80D 1 OXD* | D 1 0L50D60L80 11 : PA I NT ( 6 

5, 135),7,6:80T0100 

350 DRAW"BM128, 96U70R25XR*| R25D7 

0L25 X L* 9 L25 " : PA I NT ( 1 30 , 90 ) , 7 , 6 : 8 

0T0100 

360 DRAW "BM 128, 96U70R40XR* J R20D7 
0L70" : PAINT ( 130, 90) , 8, 6: 80T0100 



TDP System 10(T 
Color Computer II ® 
TRS-80 Color Comput 




SQLDERLESS MEMORY UPGRADES 
4K-16K W • 16K-32K '40°° • 4K-32K '50°° 

Installs in 15 minutes without removing SAM chip. Includes Easy-to- 
follow instructions, IC extractor, RAM button, and 90-day 
unconditional warranty. Please specify board series. These 
upgrades are not compatible with the Color Cortipuler II. 



SERIAL SWITCHER 

Bi-directional Switcher allows you to expand your serial port to 
two or three peripherals or to conned one peripheral to two or 

three cornpyleri. % Ports f 2S flfl 3 Peril , . , s 30 00 

Available wil h mounted Pii^l iighi— Add 5 5 flfl 



I.C.s 




Basic ROM 1.2 


s 35°° 


E.C.B. ROM 1.1... 


MOO 00 


D.E.C.B. ROM 1.1 . 


. . s 35 00 


6809E-CPU 


*25 0D 


6883-SAM 


$ 25°° 


6847-VDG 


*20 00 


6821 -PIA 


$gOD 


All four, only 


«65 00 


4164-64K RAM 


9£0D 


Set of eiqht 


. . s 45 00 


4116-16K RAM 


$^10 


Set of eight 


SQOO 



64K FOR >75 00 -%fr 

^This price includes expert 
installation, a 64K RAM Burton, 64K 
Software (specify disk or cassette), 
a 64K User Sheet, Return Shipping, 

and a 90-DAY UNCONDITIONAL 
WARRANTY. Requires 1.1 or newer 
Basic ROM and an operating 285 

(F) Series Color Computer (D or E 
Series boards add S 20 00 )JDP-100, 

or Color Computer II. For fastest 
response, pay by Cashier's Check 
or Money Order. 



TERMS: Cashier's checks and money orders for immediate 
delivery • Personal checks allow 2 weeks • Orders $100 to $199 
save 10% • $200 and over save 15% • California residents add 
^6% • Orders under $25 add $2 shipping • C.O.D. add $2 

4418 E. Chapman Ave., Suite 284 * 



Orange, CA 92669 
[714) 639-4070 



VIDTRON 



it 




370 DRAW "Bill 28, 96U60R25XR* J R25D6 
0L15XL*! L35" : PAINT (130, 90) ,7,6:8 
0T0100 

380 DRAWBM40, 160U150R1 10D150L50 
XL*| L50" : PAINT < 128, 96) , 8, 6: 80T01 
00 

390 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96L5ND 1 OLSND 1 OLSN 
D 1 OLSND 1 OLSND 1 OLSND 1 OXL* I BD 1 0NR4 
0U15XU*| U5R10XR*! XR*J R10D5XD*; Dl 
5" : GOTO 100 

400 DRAW " BM60 , 1 30U 1 20R 1 5XR* | R 1 5D 
90R50D70XL*! U60L50D20L30" : PAINT < 
62, 110) ,7,6:G0T0100 
4 1 O DRAW " BM60 , 1 20U9SR70XR* I D95L8 
OU 1 OR70U70L40NL30BD 10L20D50R50US 
0L30BD 1 OL 1 0D30R30U30L20BD 1 OD 1 OR 1 
0U10L10": PAINT (62, 118) ,8,6:PAINT 
(62, 102) ,6, 6: PAINT (72, 93) ,7, 6: PA 
INT (82, 82) ,6, 6: PAINT (92, 72) ,7,6: 
GOTO 100 

420 DRAW"BM128, 96U60R40D20XD*? D3 
0L40" : PAINT (130, 90) , 8, 6: 80T0100 
430 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96U3SXU* % U35R40D8 
0L15XL*| LIS": PAINT (130, 90) ,8,6: G 
OTOIOO 

440 DRAW " BM 1 26 , 96U20R30U20R50D60 
L50U20L30 " : PA I NT ( 1 30 , 90 ) , 7 , 6 : GOT 
0100 

450 DRAW " BM 1 26 , 96US5R30D20R50XR* 
; D35L90" : PAINT ( 130, 90) ,8,6: G0T01 
00 

460 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96U25XU* f U25R25XR 
*} R25D2SXD»J D25L60" : PAINT ( 130, 90 
) ,8,6:G0T0100 

470 DRAW " BMG8 , 1 S6U 1 OOR 1 00D40XD* ? 
D30L100": PAINT (94, 146) , 7, 6: G0T01 
00 

4G0 DRAW "BM 100, 120U60R60D60L25XL 
•I L25": PAINT (112, 110) ,7,6: GOTOIO 

o 

490 DRAW " BM60 , 96U50R 1 OOD 100L50U 1 
OXU* | U30L50" : PAINT (63, 92) , G, 6: GO 
TO 100 

500 DRAW " BM 1 30 , 1 00U40R20 X R* I R 1 OD 
50L50U 1 OR 1 0 " : P A I NT ( 1 33 , 1 02 ) , 7 , 6 : 
GOTO 100 

510 DRAW"BM60, 150XU*|U90R50D50R5 
OU20XU* | U 1 XU» 5 U9R50D 1 OOL 1 50U1 " : P 
AINT(67, 140) ,8,6:60T0100 
520 DRAW " BM 1 20 , 96U 1 OBU 1 OU 1 0R30D2 
OXD*» D10L40U10L20U20R30" : PAINT ( 1 
27, 90) , 8, 6: GOTOIOO 

530 draw " bm 1 00 , 1 1 6u20xu* i u20r 1 ox 
r*;rioxr*$riodioxd**dioxd*idioli 
oxl*; l10xl*;l10": paint (102, 113) , 

7, 6: GOTOIOO 

540 DRAW"BM100,96U20XU*|U10R10XR 
*| R10D10XD*; D20R10D10L20XL*f L10U 
10": PAINT (102, 90) ,6, 6: GOTOIOO 
550 DRAW " BM 1 26 , 96U20R5XR* I R5D20L 



40 the RAINBOW January 1984 



CHOPPER STRIKE 

The patter of the blades, the roar of the engine, and the scream of the wind 
against the glass can be heard as you slowly move your chopper toward 
enemy terrain. Your mission — SEARCH AND DESTROY. Find enemy 
outpost, missle site, gun turrets, and oil tanks and then, using your own guns, 
destroy them. Help to rescue your own men, trapped behind enemy lines. 
Most of all, SURVIVE against fantastic odds. 

Below are your targets! Look over there! An enemy oil tank, filled with fuel. 
Take the chopper low, watch your gun sights, as the tank comes into view, 
FIRE! In a blaze of color, the tank errupts upon the screen! But watch out, 
right over the cliff is an enamy gun turret just waiting for you to pass. Jam the 
stick inotthe upper corner and avoid its deadly barrage. Line it up in your gun 
sights and return the blast. Got it! But next time will you be so lucky? Ground 
missies, ICBM's, and unstopable heat seeker's are just a few of the obstacles 
you'll encounter. Survival won't be easy, but then, nothing worth while ever is! 

Two great fast moving, machine language versions: 32K COLOR COMPUTER, with over 1 80 different screens and 1 6K COLOR 
COM PUTER with all the thrills, color and excitment of the 32 K verison, but with fewer screens. (Both versions are included in each 
package). CHOPPER STRIKE, you'll have to experience it, to believe it! TAPE $27.95 DISK $29.95 




t 7J. ( V 

A 





DEMON 




By Jeffrey Sorensen and Philip MacKenzie 

The end is near; the demonic forces have invaded our galaxy. It is 
up to you to defend the galaxy from destruction. At your command 
is a powerful star cruiser equipped with high-energy missiles and 
defensive shields. Only with practice and patience will you be 
able to defeat the many waves of demon attacks and reach the 
three special challenge levels that will test your mental and 
physical dexterity. 

DEMON SEED (32K) $27.95/$29.95 





COLOR 
FURY 

by Tim Purves 

The skys the limit in this 
action packed, airborne, 
dog fight simulation. All 
alone, you're surrounded 
by enemy fighters. Dodge 
behind a cloud and come 
out shooting! You'll be passed by paratroopers and tri- 
fighter forces. Destroy'em all, and don't spare the ammo. 
This is a life and death stuggle with only one victor!!! 

The battle takes place in the air! The enemy attacks with 
everything they've got, airplanes, helicopters, hot air bal- 
loons, paratroopers and magnetic air mines. 

COLOR FURY has the action and all out fun that you've 
come to expect from the industries leading TRS-80 soft- 
ware publisher. 1 6K or 32K 

TAPE/DISK $27.95/$29.95 




COLOR 
OUTHOUSE 

Computer Shack pre- 
sents the wildest, fun- 
niest, all out originalist 
niest, all out originalest 
game ever published for 
the TRS-80 Color Com- 
puter, Color Outhouse. In 
this filled arcade game you 
must guard your outhouse 
against a band of 
notorious toilet paper thieves. And if that isn't enough, 
we've got some of the craziest vandals you've ever seep. 
Bright colorful graphics, wonderful sound (very descriptive), 
and most of all, a lot of fast and furious fun. This will most 
definitely be one to show your friends!!! 

32K TAPE/DISK $27.95/$29.95 




1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 

Info: (313) 673-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 392-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for 
Canada 

Dealers Inquires Invited 



5XL«5 L5" : PAINT < 131 ,91 ) , 7, 6: G0T01 
00 

560 DRAW'BMIOO, 120U25XU*; U25F30G 
30" : PAINT (102, 110) ,8,6: 60T0100 
570 DRAW " BM60 , 96U30XU* J U30R20F70 
L90": PAINT <67, 90) ,8,6:G0T0100 
580 DRAW " BM 1 20 , 96E25F25L20 X L* J L2 
0" : PAINT < 124, 94) , 7, 6: S0T0100 
590 DRAW "BM 120, 96U10XU*; U10F60L1 
OXL*J L10H30" : PAINT (122, 90) ,7,6:8 
0T0100 

600 DRAW"BM120,96U10R30H10L10U5R 
40D20XD*; D5L50XU*; " : PAINT ( 122, 93 
) ,8,6:80T0100 

610 DRAW "BM 120, 96U10XU*; U10R20F2 
0R10XR*; D10L60" : PAINT (122, 90) , 7, 
6: GOTO 100 

620 DRAW " BM 1 1 0 , 1 48U45XU* J U45E30R 
10XR*J D120R10F10L70" : PAINT (112,5 
O) ,7,6:G0T0100 

630 DRAW "BM 130, 120U25XU*; XU*; U25 
G36F35" : PAINT < 128, 116) * 8,6: G0T01 
00 

640 DRAW" BM1 10, 96U15XU** U15R60D1 
OXD*; D20L60" : PAINT ( 1 12, 90) , 7, 6: 8 
OTOIOO 

650 DRAW "BM 120, 96U10XU*; U30F60L2 
5XL*; L25U10": PAINT ( 122, 90) ,8,6:8 
OTOIOO 



660 DRAW " BM 1 20 , 96U50R20F50L30X L» 
; L30" : PAINT ( 122, 90) , 7, 6: GOTOIOO 
670 DRAW "BM 120, 120U15XU*? XU*;U15 
R50D50L50" : PAINT < 126, 118) ,8,6:60 
T0100 

680 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96U 10XU»jU10R10XR 
*J R10D10XD* J D10L10XL*? L10" : PAINT 
(135,92) ,7, 6: GOTOIOO 
690 DRAW "BM 1 28 , 96U20XU* ; U20R 1 OXR 
*;R10XR*;R10D39XD*;XD*;040L80XL* 
; L10U60R10XR*; R10D10R20" : CIRCLE ( 
153, 121) , 15: CIRCLE (153, 71) ,15: CI 
RCLE(103, 121), 15: PAINT (135, 90) ,8 
,6: PAINT ( 153, 121 ) , 7, 6: PAINT ( 153, 
71) ,7, 6: PAINT (103, 121 > , 7, 6:G0T01 
00 

700 DRAW"BM12Q,96U75R30D150L30U6 
5L 1 0D50L1 OXL* ; L 1 0U90R 1 OXR* I R 1 0D3 
0R10" : PAINT ( 135, 90) , 6, 6: GOTOIOO 
710 DRAW "BM 128, 96U30XR*; R20D40XL 
*;U10L20" : PAINT ( 135, 90) , 7, 6: GOTO 
100 

720 DRAWBM60, 100U50R100D40XD*; X 
D* ; D40L 1 00U50 " : F0RB=70T0 1 508TEP2 
0 : FOR O 1 40T060STEP-20 : C I RCLE ( B , 
C), 5: NEXT C:NEXT B: PAINT (65, 95) , 
6,6: GOTOIOO 

730 DRAW " BM60 , 146U50XU*; XU»; U40R 
30U20R10XR*;R10D50R30U20R10XR*;R 



PARALLEL 
PRINTER 

INTERFACE 

FOR THE RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTER 
AND THE TDP 100 

* RUN ANY STANDARD PARALLEL PRINTER 
FROM THE SERIAL \/0 PORT 

* WORKS WITH: EPSON, NEC, CENTRONICS, 
C-itoh, SMITH CORONA, RADIO SHACK, 
GEMINI, OR ANY STANDARD PARALUiL PRINTER 

* SWITCH SELECTABLE BAUD RATES FROM 300 to 9600 

* COMPLETE - ALL CABLES AND CONNECTORS 
INCLUDED 

* PRICE: $69 plus $3 for shipping and handling. 
Canadian orders add $5 for shipping. Michigan 
residents add 4% sales tax. 




PRINTERS 



C-itoh PROWRITER 
GEMINI 10X 



$345 
$285 



Plus shipping 



CALL FOR PRICES ON OTHER MODELS FROM 
THE ABOVE PRINTER MANUFACTURERS 



BOTEK INSTRUMENTS 



313-739-2910 



Dealer inquiries invited 



4949 HAMPSHIRE 

UTICA, MICHIGAN 48087 



42 the RAINBOW January 1984 



10D50L30U20L30D70L60" : CIRCLE < 90, 
116), 20: PAINT <65, 140) , 8, A: PAINT ( 
90, 1 16) ,7,6: GOTOIOO 
740 DRAW " BM60 , 96U30R 1 0U30F50R20U 
40R60D80L25XL*; L25U30L5XL*? L5D40 
L60U10XU*; U20" : CIRCLE (88, 96) , 10, 
6, 2: PAINT <88, 96) ,7, 6: PAINT (63, 96 
), 8, 6: GOTOIOO 

750 DRAW"BM118, 106U30R10XR*; R10D 
30L10XL* JL10" : PAINT < 124, 96) , 7, 6: 
GOTOIOO 

760 DRAWBM108, 1 16U15XU*? U15R15X 
R*; R15D15XD*J D15L15XL*; LIS" : PAIN 
T(H2, 106) ,8, 6: GOTOIOO 
770 DRAW"BM108, 1 16U40R15XR*? R15D 
40L15XL*; L15" : PAINT ( 1 12, 106) ,7,6 
: GOTO 100 

780 DRAW "BM 108, 1 16U15XU*; U15R40D 
40L40": PAINT (112, 106) ,8,6:G0T010 

O 

790 DRAW "BM 100, 120U50R20XR*; R20D 
50L20XL*; L20" : PAINT (110,1 10) , 7, 6 
: GOTOIOO 

800 DRAW 11 BM 100, 120U50R50D50L20XL 
*; L20": PAINT (t 10, HO) ,8,6:G0T010 
O 

810 CIRCLE (128, 96) , 15: DRAWBM123 
, llOXR*;": PAINT (128, 96) ,7, 6: GOTO 
100 



820 CIRCLE ( 128, 96) , 50: DRAW "BM 123 
, 145XR*; " : PAINT ( 128, 96) , 8, 6: GOTO 
100 

830 CIRCLE ( 128, 96) , 30: DRAW "BM 123 
, 125XR*; ": PAINT (128, 96) ,7, 6: GOTO 
100 

840 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,25: CIRCLE (128 
,96) ,50:DRAW"BM123, 145XR*5 ":PAIN 
T( 128, 96) ,7, 6: PAINT (128, 140) ,8,6 
: GOTO 100 

850 DRAWBM80, 1 10U10XU* J U10E30R1 
0XR*;R10F30D10XD*JD10G30L10XL*JL 
10H30": PAINT (128, 96) ,7, 6: GOTOIOO 
860 DRAW " BM80 , 1 1 OU 1 OXU* ? U 1 0E30R3 
OF30D30G30L30H30" : PAINT ( 128, 96) , 
8, 6: GOTOIOO 

870 DRAW " BM 1 1 4 , 1 20U50R30D50L30 " : 
PAINT (128, 96) ,7, 6: GOTOIOO 
880 DRAW" BM128, 140H30U10XU*; UlOE 
30F30D10XD* J D10G30" : PAINT ( 128, 96 
), 8, 6: GOTOIOO 

890 DRAW " BM80 , 146U45XU*; U45R100D 
45XD*; D45L40XL*; XL*i L40" : PAINT ( 1 
28,96) ,7, 6: GOTOIOO 
900 DRAW"BM50, 160U20NR160U20NR16 
0U20NR 1 60U20NR 1 60U20NR 1 6OU20NR 1 6 
0U20NR 1 60U20R20ND 1 60R20ND 1 60R20N 
D 1 60R 1 OX R* | ND 1 60XR* J R 1 OND 1 60R20N 
D160R20ND160R20D160L70XL*? XL*; L7 



YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST EARNED A MATH DEGREE! 




MATHMENU 

Developed by an engineer, Mathmenu is a 
powerful menu-driven system to turn your 
Color Computer into an intelligent, flexible 
tool for mathematics and engineering. 
Mathmenu takes the tedium out of math, 
leaving your full brain power to attack the 
"meat" of your problems. By rapidly mani- 
pulating matrices and vectors, performing 
integration and differentiation, solving 
quadratic equations, plotting user defined 
functions and much more, Mathmenu can 
help simplify the most complex problems. 
Whether you are a student or a professional, 
if you use math, you need Mathmenu. 



FEATURING: 

• 3D SURFACE PLOTTING — Plots a user defined equation on an 
X,Y,Z coordinate system in the High- Res graphics mode. Planes, 
surfaces of revolution, statistical surfaces, etc. can be easily plotted. 
Surfaces may be saved to disk or tape. We believe this is the only program 
of its kind commercially available for the Color Computer. 



PLUS: 

• Complete MATRIX Operations 
(up to 8 x 8) 

• Complete VECTOR Operations 

• Numerical Differentiation 

• Numerical Integration 

• Least Squares Curve Fitting 

• Binomial Expansion 

• Prime Number Verification 

• Main Menu with Single-key Selection 



2D Function Plotting 
Rectangular to Polar Conversions 
Base Conversions 
Large Number Addition and 
Multiplication 

Reverse Polish Logic Calculator 
with Hexadecimal 
Quadratic Equation Roots 
and Return (Disk Only) 



Complete documentation of all functions is included. 

EjSSSt^:::::::: $£5 

Documentation only $5.00 (refundable with purchase) 

Or write for free brochure. 

New York residents add 7% sales tax 



Inter <y> (^Action 



31 Rose Court • Dept. R • Amherst, NY 14226 • (716) 839-0943 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 43 




GRADE 
DATA TRAC 

BLANK CASSETTES 



C-05, C-06, C-10, C-12, C-20, C-24, C-30 

From the leading supplier of Computer Cassettes, 
new, longer length C-12's (6 minutes per side) provide 
the extra few feet needed for some 16K programs. 

BASF-LHD (DPS) world standard tape. 
Premium 5 screw shell with leader. 

Internationally acclaimed. 
\^ Thousands of repeat users. 

<^£> Error Free • Money back guarantee. 



^fc, 500 C-12's or C-10's — 38* each 

(w /labels, add 40 • Shipping S17./500 
500 Boxes 130 ea. • Shipping $10./500 


CASSETTE STORAGE CADDY 

Holds 12 cassettes $2 95 
w/o boxes C£>^ * 
Includes edge labels ^^>f^>>^ 
and index card f|Qj?iL^^u 


TRACTOR FEED • DIE-CUT 
BLANK CASSETTE LABELS 

tTO^ay WHITE: $3.00/100 $20.00/1000 
COLORED LABELS • Pastels - 
mEV^ Red - B,ue ' Green ' Ye,low - Lavender 
^ $4.00/100 $30.00/1000 


FREE 

1 CADDY WITH EVERY^^ 
4 DDZ. CASSETTES PURCHASED 



Call: 



ORDER 
NOW.. 



0 



213/700-0330 ,or '"mediate SHIPMENT 

on Cred|t Card 0rders 



MAIL 
TO . . 



YORK IO 

■ ORDER FORM - 



9525 Vassar Ave.#R1 
Chatsworth, CA 91311 



ITEM 


1 DOZEN 


2 DOZEN 


TOTAL 


C-05 


□ 7.00 


□ 13.00 




C-06 


□ 7.00 


□ 13.00 




C-10 


□ 7.50 


□ 14.00 




C-12 


□ 7.50 


□ 14.00 




C-20 


□ 9.0Q 


n 17.00 




C-24 


□ 9.00 


□ 17.00 




C-32 


□ 11.00 


□ 21.00 




Hard Box 


□ 2.50 


□ 4.00 




White Labels 


n 3.00/100 


□ 20.00/1000 




Colored Labels 
Color 


□ 4.00/100 


□ 30.00/1000 




desch;?T)On 


PfllCE 


QUANTITY 




Storage Caddy 


2.95 


















SUB TOTAL 




Calif, residents add sales tax 




Shipping /handling (any quantity — using prices above) 


3.50. 


Outside 48 Continental States — Additional S1 per 
caddy; per doz. cassettes or boxes, 




TOTAL 





Each cassette 
includes two YORK 10 
labels only. Boxes are 
sold separately. We 
prefer to ship by UPS 
as being the fastest and 
safest. If you need ship- 
ment by Parcel Post, 
check here Q 

NOTE: Additional 
charges outside 48 
Continental States. 
Shipments to AK. HI. 
and USA possessions 
go by Priority Mail; 
Canada & Mexico- 
Airmail: 

All others— Sea Mail. 



CHECK OR M.O. Charge to 

ENCLOSED □ Credit Card: VISA □ MASTERCARD □ 
Q PLEASE SEND QUANTITY DISCOUNTS 

Card No 



Ask about our 
DUPLICATING 
SERVICE 



Exp. . 



Name 

Address 

City 



. State/Zip . 



Signature Phone 

Computer make & model Disk? (y/n) 



0":FOR X=60T0180STEP40:F0R Y-30T 
0150STEP40: PAINT (X, Y) ,8, 6: NEXT Y 
: NEXT X 

910 FOR X=80T0200STEP40:F0R Y=50 
TO 170STEP40: PAINT (X, Y) ,8, 6: NEXT 
Y.NEXT X:FOR X=60T0180STEP40:FOR 
Y=50T01 70STEP40I PAINT < X , Y) , 7, 6: N 
EXT Y:NEXT X:F0R X=80T0200STEP40 
: FOR Y=30T0 1 50STEP40 : PA I NT < X , Y ) , 

7, A: next y:next x:gotoioo 

920 DRAWBM90, 140U55XU*; U55F120L 
55XL*; L55" : PAINT < 1 IO, 100) , 7,6: GO 
TO 100 

930 DRAW "BM 128, 96H30R60F30L25XL* 
; L25" : PAINT < 132, 92) , 8, 6: 60T0100 
940 DRAW " BM90 , 1 20E60R35XR* S R35G6 
0L35XL*; L35" : PAINT (128, 96) ,8,6:6 
OTOIOO 

950 DRAW"BM60, 120E60R55XR*; R5566 
0L55XL*; L55" : PAINT < 128, 96) , 7, 6: G 
OTOIOO 

960 DRAW"BM70, 120E40R60F40L60XL* 
; XL*; L60" : PAINT < 128, 96) , 8, 6: GOTO 
lOO 

970 DRAW"BM30, 120E70R20XR*; R20F7 
0L190" : PAINT < 128, 96) ,7,6: GOTOIOO 
980 DRAW "BM80, 1 16E40R5XR*» R5F40L 
100": PAINT (128, 96) ,8, 6: GOTOIOO 
990 DRAW "BM 128, 96U30R20D30L5XL*; 
L5" : PAINT < 131 , 92) , 7, 6: BOTOIOO 
1000 DRAW "BM 128, 96U10XU*; U10R20D 
30L20" : PAINT ( 131 , 92) , 8, 6: GOTOIOO 
1010 DRAW"BMU8, 1 16U40R20D40L5XL 
*S L5" : PAINT (128, 96) , 8, 6: GOTOIOO 
1020 DRAWBM118, 1 16U15XU*; U15R20 
D40L20" : PAINT (128, 96) , 7, 6: GOTOIO 
O 

1030 DRAW'BMl 18, 1 16U15XU*; U15R20 
D40L5XL*; L5" : PAINT ( 128, 96) , 7, 6: G 
OTOIOO 

1040 CIRCLE (128, 120) ,50,6, 1, .5, 1 
: DR A W " BM78 , 1 20R45 XR*;R45":PAINT( 
128, 96) , 8, 6: BOTOIOO 
1050 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,70,6, .5: DRAW 
"BM123,60XR*; ": PAINT ( 128, 96) , 7, 6 
: BOTOIOO 

1060 DRAW"BM128, 96U20F20L5XL*; L5 
" : PAINT ( 131 , 93) , 8,6: BOTOIOO 
1070 DRAW"BM128, 96U5XU*; U15F30L3 
0": PAINT (131, 93) ,7, 6: BOTOIOO 
1080 DRAWBM90, 1 16U15XU*; U15R40F 
40L35XL*; L35" : PAINT ( 128, 96) , 8, 6: 
BOTOIOO 

1 090 DRAW " BM90 , 76U5XU* ; U5R80D80L 
5XL*; L5U60L60" : PAINT (98, 70) , 7, 6: 
BOTOIOO 

1 1 00 DRAW " BM70 , 60R 1 OXR* 5 R 1 0F30E3 
OR 1 O X R* ; R 1 0660H60 " : PAINT (80, 65) , 
8, 6: BOTOIOO 



44 the RAINBOW January 1984 



VIP 



ANNOUNCING 

The VIP Library™ 
With a Terrific Sale! 



Nelson Software Systems is now Softlaw Corporation, under 
new management. Our Super "Color" Library programs have 
also undergone a name change. All programs are the same 
unbeatable Super "Color" Library programs you've heard so 
much about, but with new VIP names. To introduce our VIP 
Library we are having a special sale on the following pages. Our 
low prices for such high quality can't be beat so get started today! 

CoCo 2 Compatible 



'Diamonds in the mud puddle of Color Computer software!' 



The Library Concept 

State of the Art, Quality, Integrity, 
Compatibility and Affordability. Five 
things good software must possess. 
Five things that epitomize the VIP 
Library™. Each program is the 
diamond of its class, true excellence. 
These programs are first in features, 
first in power, first in memory, and 
all are affordabiy priced. 



State Of The Art 

All Library programs are written in 
machine code specifically for the 
Color Computer, to work without 
the interference of a separate 
operating system such as FLEX. From 
this comes speed and more work- 
space for you. Library programs work 
perfectly with every Color 
Computer, from 16 to 64K. The most 
advanced hardware and software 
techniques are used to place 
programs in rompak cartridges for 
instant loading and total workspace 
with any Color Computer. 



Lowercase Displays 

State-of-the-Art graphics allow 
instant use of four display colors, and 
eight lowercase displays featuring 
descending lowercase letters. You 
can select from 51, 64 or 85 columns 
by 21 or 24 lines per screen, with 
wide or narrow characters in the 64 
display. These screens provide a 
pleasant and relaxing way to perform 
your tasks, with as much text on the 



". . . PICTURE getting your 
instantaneous investment report 
over the phone, using it in your 
spreadsheet calculation, 
generating a report, and writing 
a memo including that report 
and data from your database with 
your word processor, and all this 
with VIP Library™ programs 



The Library Programs 

For your writing needs is the VIP 
Writer™, and its spelling checker, the 
VIP Speller™. For financial planning 
and mathematical calculations you 
can use the VIP Calc™. To manage 
your information and send multiple 
mailings there is the VIP Database™. 
For sending all these files to and 
from home or the office and for 
talking to your friends you can have 
the VIP Terminal™. Finally, to fix 
disks to keep all your Library files in 
good repair we offer the VIP Disk- 
ZAP™. 

Mini Disk Operating System 

The Disk versions each have a Mini 
Disk Operating System which will 
masterfully handle from 1 to 4 drives. 
It offers smooth operation for such 
features as the ability to read a 
directory, display free space on the 
disk, kill files, save and automatically 
verify files, and load, rename and 
append files. Library programs simply 
do not have the limitations of BASIC. 



Perfection With 16, 32 or 64K 

The programs do not depend on 
BASIC, and so allow total compati- 
bility and workspace with any size 
Color Computer, even 64K. Unlike 
other programs for the Color 
Computer which are said to be 64K 
compatible, VIP Library™ programs 
are not limited to between 24 and 
30K of workspace in 64K. Library 
programs have Memory Sense with 
BANK SWITCHING to fully use all 
64K, thus giving an astounding 61K 
of workspace with the rompak cart- 
ridge, and up to 51 K with a disk 
version! 



screen as is possible. Each program is 
easy to learn and a joy to use. We 
take pride in the stringent testing 
done to make these programs per- 
form flawlessly. Every feature, every 
convenience, sleek, simple and 
elegant. 

Total Compatibility 

All Library programs are 
compatible. Transfer and use of files 
between programs is easy and 
carefree. What's better, when you 
have learned one program the others 
will come easy. And every program is 
the best of its kind available. 



Professionalism 

The Library comes handsomely 
bound in gold-embossed, padded 
leatherette binders to grace your 
work area with the professionalism it 
deserves. Welcome the VIP Library™ 
into your home and office. 

A description of each of the 
Library programs, with the 
special sale price, is contained 
in the following pages. Please 
indulge! 

©1983 by Softlaw Corporation 



VIP Writer™ 



(Formerly Super "Color" Writer II) 
By Tim Nelson 
RATED TOPS IN RAINBOW, HOT COCO, 
COLOR COMPUTER MAGAZINE AND BASIC COMtHiTlNG 
The Official Dragon Microcomputer Word Processorf 

The most powerful and easy-to-use word processor is available in 
the showpiece and workhorse oUhv. Library: The VIP Wrii«f r * fletJu!^ 
of its undisputed superiority overaM Color Com purer word processors, 
it was selected by Dragon Data Ltd. of England to be the Official Word 
Processor for its line of Dragon microcomputers. 

The result of two years of research, the VIP Writer™ offers every 
feature you could desire from a word processor. It is the mast 
powerful, fastest, most dependable and most versatile. With the 
display, workspace and compatibility features built into the Library I be 
Writer is also the most usable. 

. . Nearly every feature and option powihie t.o 
implement on the Color Computer. The design ohhe pros*r%m 
is excellent; the programming is flawless , , . Features for fhu 
professional, yet it is easy enough for newcomers to master . T . 
Certainly one of the best word processors available for any 
computer . , /' October 1983 "Rainbow" 

The Writer will work with you and your printer to do things you 
always wanted to do. Every feature of your printer can be put to use, 
every character set, every graphics capability at any baud rate, EVEN 
PROPORTIONAL SPACING. All this with simplify and elegance. 

Although all versions feature tape save and load, the disk version 
provides the Mini Disk Operating System caimrnon to the whole 
Library, plus disk file linking for continous printing. 

Professional features of particular note: 

■ Memory-Sense with BANK SWITCHING to fully utilize 64K, giving 
not just 24 or 30K, but up to 61 K of workspace with the rompak version 
and 50K with the disk version. 

■ TRUE FORMAT WINDOW to EXACTLY replicate the printed page 
ON THE SCREEN BEFORE PRINTING, showing centered line headers, 
FOOTNOTES, page breaks, page numbers, & margins in line lengths of 
up to 240 characters! It makes HYPHENATION a snap. 

■ A TRUE EDITING WINDOW in all 9 display modes for those entra 
wide reports and graphs (up to 240 columns!). 

■ FREEDOM to imbed any number of PRINTER CONTROL COp£S 
anywhere, EVEN WITHIN JUSTIFIED TEXT. 

■ Full 4-way cursor control, sophisticated edit commands, the ability 
to edit any BASIC program or ASCII textfile, SEVEN DELETE 
FUNCTIONS, LINE INSERT, LOCATE AND CHANGE, wild card locate, 
up to TEN SIMULTANEOUS block manipulations, word wrap] around, 
programmable tabs, display memory used and left, non-breskaote 
space, and headers, foolers and FOOTNOTES. 

■ The ability to control ANY PRINTER, using dynamic text Itirm&lting 
with 27 comprehensive format parameters. 

■ Automatic justification, automatic pagination, automatic centering, 
automatic flush right, underlining, superscripts, subscripts, pause 
print, single-sheet pause, and print comments. 

■ Type-ahead, typamatic key repeat and key beep for ihe pros, ERROR 
DETECTION and UNDO MISTAKE features, 3 PROGRAMMABLE 
functions, auto phrase insert, column creation, an instant HELP TABLE, 
and a 110 page, fully indexed tutorial. 

16K ROMPAK $59.95 32K DISK $59,95 

tSold as the Dragon Writer 1 " ONLY by Dragon Data Ltd. and its dbtrlbuiani 

Super Color "Writer" II in Tape 
While They Last $49.95 

VIP Speller™ 



' {Formerly Super "Color" Speller) 
THE WRITER'S ESSENTIAL COMPANION 

Spelling checkers are an invaluable aid to ^vdry writer, Habitual 
misspellings and typos can be found without tpt? gyt£iraKn r brjr^dom 
and fatigue associated with endles* proofreading, Th& VI* Speller 1- ia a 
fast, machine-code proofreading pro-gram to correct any VIP Library" 
or other ASCII file. 1 t automatic* I ly proofreads your documents against 
a 20,000 word stock dictionary, plu-& your own customized dictionary 
and corrects typos or marks them for special attention. 



VIR 



Library 



Calc™ 

iuper "CoIqt^ Calcl 
CALC™ KOV/BI3 



VIP 



Lowercase displays mot available with this program. 



(Formerly Super "Color" C 
TRUE VISICALC* POl 
By Kevin Herrboldt 



* UP TO 5 TIMES THE SCREEN DISPLAY AREA OF OTHER 
SPREADSHEETS! 

* STATE OF THE ART LOWERCASE DISPLAYS 

* MEMORY SENSE WITH BANK SWITCHING 

* EXCLUSIVE VIDEO DISPLAY WINDOWS — EVEN UP TO 16! 

* USER-DEFINABLE WORKSHEET — UP TO 512 COLUMNS BY 
1024 ROWS 

* WORKS WITH ANY PRINTER, EVEN LETTER QUALITY! 

* LOCATE COMMAND TO FIND SPECIFIC NUMBERS, LABELS OR 
FORMULAS 

* 16 DIGIT PRECISION FOR THOSE SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC USES 

* ALMOST UNLIMITED PROGRAMMABLE FUNCTIONS 

VIP Calc T * is truly the finest and easily the most powerful electronic 
worksheet and financial modeling program available for the Color 
Computer, from 16 to 64K. Now every Color Computer owner has 
access to a calculating and planning tool better than VisiCalc™, 
containing all its features and commands and then some, WITH 
USABLE DISPLAYS. Use Visicalc templates with VIP Calc™! 

There's nothing left out of VIP Calc™. Every feature you've come to 
rely on with VisiCalc 1 " is there, and then some. You get up to 5 TIMES 
the aereen display area of other spreadsheets for the Color Computer 
and Memory-Sense with BANK SWITCHING to give not just 24, or 30, 
but UP TO 61 K OF WORKSPACE IN 64K!!! This display and memory 
allow you the f UU SIZE, USABLE WORK-SHEETS you require. You also 
get: User definable worksheet size, up to 512 columns by 1024 rowsl * 
Up to SIXTEEN VIDEO DISPLAY WINDOWS to Lorrrparq and contrast 
results of changes * 16 DIGIT PRECISION * Sine, Cosine and other 
trigonometric functions, Averaging, Exponents, Algebraic functions, 
and BASE 2, 8, 10 or 16 entry * Multi-layered Column and Row, 
Ascending and Descending SORTS" for comparison of results * LOCATE 
FORMULAS OR TITLES IN CELLS * Easy entry, replication and block 
moving of frames * Global or Local column width control up to 81 
characters- width per eel! * Create titles of up to 255 characters per cell * 
Limit less progiammable functions * Typamatic Key Repeat * Key Beep 

* Typeariead * Print up to 255 cloumn worksheet * Prints at any baud 
rate fiorn 110 to 9600 * Print formats savable along with worksheet * 
Enter PRINTER CONTROL CODES for customized printing with letter 
quality or dot matrix printer * Combine spreadsheet (ables with VIP 
Writer™ documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical and 
financial reports and budgets. 

Both versions feature Tape save and load, but the disk version also 
has the Mini Disk Operating System of the entire Library. 

32K (comes with tape and disk) $59.95 



NEW SALE PRICES! VIP Database™ 



Nine Display Formats: 32 by 16 
51, 64, 85 by 21 or 24 
True Lowercase & Descenders 
Four Different Display Colors 
16, 32 & 64K Compatible 
Memory Sense - Bank Switching 
Up to 51 K Disk, 61 K Rompak 
Mini Disk Operating System 
Compatible With All Printers 

Fully Compatible With 
CoCo 2 



VIP Terminal™ 

(formerly Super "Color" Terminal) 
THE FINEST TERMINAL PROGRAM ANYWHERE! 

By Dan Nelson 

From your home or office you can join the communication 
revolution. The VIP Terminal™ opens the world to you. You can 
monitor your investments with the Dow Jones Information Service, or 
broaden your horizons with The Source or Compuserve, bulletin 
boards, other computers, even the mainframe at work. 

Picture getting your instantaneous invenmens report, incor- 
porating it in your spreadsheet calculation, generaiing a report, and 
writing a memo incorporating that report and data from your database, 
all with Library programs. Then you can trans mil the report r« ivnrk, or 
wherever, long distance. The VIP Terminal 111 will become the hub of 
your Library. 

FEATURES: Memory-Sense with BANK SWITCHING for full use of 
workspace, from 16 to 64K * Selectively print data at baud rates from 
110 to 9600 * Full 128 character ASCII keyboard * Automatic graphic 
mode * Word mode (word wrap) for unbroken words * Send and 
receive Library files, Machine Lanuage & BASIC programs * Set 
communications baud rate from 110 to 9600, Duplex: Half/ Full/Echo, 
Word length: 7 or 8, Parity: Odd/Even or None r Stop Bits: 1-9 * Local 
linefeeds to screen * Save and load ASCII files, Machine Code & BASIC 
programs * Lowercase masking * 10 Keystroke MuJiipttar (MACRO) 
buffers to perform repetitive pre-entry log-on tasks and send short 
messages * Programmable prompt or delay for send next line * 
Selectable character trapping * Send up to ten short messages (KSMs), 
each up to 255 characters long, automatically, to save money when 
calling long distance. 

All versions allow tape load and save of files and KSMs, but the disk 
version also has the Mini Disk Operating System common to the 
Library. 

16K ROMPAK $49.95 16K DISK $49.95 

Disk version requires 32K for lowercase displays. 

BUY THE ENTIRE LIBRARY FOR ONLY 



$300.00 



f A 9072 Lyndale Avenue So. 61 2/881 -2777 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 U. S. A. 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. VisiCalc Is a trademark of VisiCorp! 

AUTHOR'S SUBMISSIONS 
ARE ENCOURAGED. 



(Formerly Super "Color" Database) 
INCLUDES MAIL MERGE CAPABILITIES TOO! 

By Tim Nelson 

This high speed MACHINE LANGUAGE program fills all your 
information management needs, be they for your business or home. 
And it due* so better than any other database program for the Color 
Compute^ featuring machine code, lowercase screens and mailmerge 
capabilities, fnvenfory; accounts, mailing lists, family histories, you 
name it, the VIP Database™ will keep track of all your data, and it will 
sort and merge VIP Writer™ files. 

The VIP Database™ features the Library Memory Sense with BANK 
SWITCHING and selectable lowercase displays for maximum utility. It 
will handle as many recordsas fit on your disk ordisks. It is structured in 
a simple and easy to understand menu system with full prompting for 
easy operation. Your data is stored in records of your own design, each 
divided Into up to 255 fields. Each field will hold up to 255 characters. 
AJI fj Fes are fully indexed for speed and efficiency. Full sort of records is 
provided for easy listing of names, figures, addresses, etc., in ascending 
or descending alphabetic or numeric order. You may also combine 
files, sort and print mailing liiti r print "boiler plate" documents, 
Ejutomiii really insert text in standardized forms, address envelopes - the 
U endless. The math package even performs arithmetic operations 
and Updates other fields. Create files compatible with the VIP 
Wrrler™arid VIP Terminal™. Up to five different print formats are 
availably and control codes may be imbedded for use with all printers. 

As with all other Library programs, the Database features the 
powerful Mini Disk Operating System. 

32K DISK $59.95 




VIP Disk-ZAP™ 

(Formerly Super "Color" Disk-ZAP) 
RAVED ABOUT IN THE APRIL 1983 "RAINBOW!" 
By Tim Nelson 

Your database file disk, form letter disk, or BASIC program disk 
goes bad. An I/O error stops loading, or even backing up of the disk. 
Weeks, even months of work sit on the disk, irretrievable. Now 
catastrophic disk errors are repairable, quickly and with confidence, 
using the VIP Disk-ZAP™. It is the ultimate repair utility for simple and 
quick repair of all disk errors. Designed with the non-programmer in 
mind, the VIP Disk-ZAP™ will let you retrieve all types of bashed files, 
BASIC and Machine Code programs. 

This high-speed machine code disk utility has a special dual cursor 
screen display to (ook at ihe data on your disk. You are able to: Verify or 
modify disk sectors at will * Type right onto the disk to change 
unwanted program names or prompts * Send sector contents to the 
printer * Search the entire disk for any grouping of characters * Copy 
sectors * Backup tracks or entire disks * Repair directory tracks and 
smashed disks * Full prompting to help you every step of the way * 50- 
plus page Operators Manual which teaches disk structure and repair. 

16K DISK $49.95 

Lowercase displays not available with this program. 

For Orders ONLY Mfcl 
^™ — Call Toll Free — 

1-800-328-2737 



Order Status and Software Support call (612) 881-2777 

Available at Dealers everywhere. 
If your Dealer is out of stock ORDER DIRECT! 

In Canada distributed by Kelly Software Distributing, LTD. 
MAIL ORDERS: $3.00 U.S. Shipping ($5.00 CANADA; $10.00 OVER- 
SEAS). Personal checks allow 3 weeks. 

All Disk Programs are also available on 3" Diskettes for the 
Amdek Color AMDISK-III Micro-Floppy Disk System for an 



additional $3.00 each. 



©1983 by Softlaw Corporation 



16K 
DISK 
BASIC 



the 



RAINBOW 



DISK UTILITY 



The Limousine Utility: 
A Tape To Disk Transfer Vehicle 

By Roger Schrag 



When lots of folks first get a Color Computer, they 
hook up a cassette recorder to save their programs 
on, figuring they will get a disk drive later on. By 
the time they do get a disk drive, they have accumulated a 
large library of program and data files on tape. 

It then becomes something of a chore to transfer all of 
those files from tape to disk. A basic program needs to be 
CLOADed from tape and SA VEd to disk. A machine lan- 
guage program needs to be C LOAD Med from tape, ana- 
lyzed so that the addresses may be found, and finally 
SA VEMed to disk. Transferring data files, meanwhile, can 
often be a total nightmare. 

What 1 would like to present here is a simple tape to disk 
file transferring utility. The source code is shown in the 
program listing, and may be keyed in and assembled with 
most any Editor/ Assembler in a straightforward manner. 

In short, this utility will readjust about any standard tape 
file and transfer it to disk. The disk file will have the exact 
same attributes (BASIC or machine language, ASCII or 
binary, etc.) as the tape file, and the disk file will be fully 
loadable and operational. 

To transfer a file from tape to disk, load the assembled 
program and execute it. The screen will clear and you will be 
prompted to prepare the cassette containing the file to be 
transferred and to press [ENTER]. Cue the tape to the 
beginning of the file and press [ENTER], The tape's sound 
will be played over the TV's speaker to aid you in locating 
the recording on the cassette. If you cue the tape badly and 
the tape starts out in the middle of the file, don't worry; 
simply reposition the tape to the beginning. The transfer 
utility will sift patiently through the middle of a file, or even 
through garbage, until it finds what it's looking for. 

When the transfer utility does find the beginning of a file, 
it will stop the recorder and print the file's name and type. 
You will be asked if you wish to transfer this file. If you do, 
press the Y key. Otherwise press the N key. You will be 
prompted to prepare the cassette again. 

As the file loads in, a block will blink in the upper left 
corner of the screen. If there isn't enough memory to hold 



(Roger Schrag, currently studying computer science at 
the University of California at Berkeley, enjoys work- 
ing with Co Co and writing articles for the Rainbow. 
He also designs and translates programs for Adven- 
ture International) 

48 the RAINBOW January 1984 



the whole file, or if there is an I/O error, a message will be 
printed and the transfer terminated. You will then be invited 
to start the transfer utility over again or return to BASIC. 

BASIC programs saved in non-ASCII form and machine 
language programs saved with the CSA VEM command are 
organized differently on disk than on tape. So when the tape 
file is fully loaded into memory, the transfer utility will 
automatically reformat the data as needed so that it will 
work correctly on disk, (basic programs saved in ASCII 
form, data files, and machine language programs created by 
EDTASM+ don't need any modifying.) 

When the tape file is finished loading and reformatting is 
complete, a message to this effect will appear on the screen. 
You will now be asked for the name you wish to give to the 
disk file. Enter any filespec that is valid in BASIC but don't 
enclose it in quotes. If you don't specify an extension, none 
will be used, and if you don't specify a drive number, the 
default will be used. 

The transfer utility will next save the file onto disk. If an 
error occurs anywhere along the way, a message will be 
printed and you will be prompted again to enter the name 
for the disk file. So, if an error occurs while saving to disk, 
you won't have to reload the tape file all over again. 

When the file has been successfully saved on disk, you will 
be asked if you would like to start the transfer utility anew. If 
you have more tape files to transfer, then press the Y key. 
Pressing the N key will return you to BASIC. 

At any time the transfer utility is waiting for keyboard 
input, you may press [BREAK] to cancel the transfer in 
progress. You will then be asked if you would like to start 
over again or return to BASIC. 

This utility will transfer any basic program, BASIC pro- 
gram saved in ASCII, machine language program created 
by CSA VEM, machine language program created by 
EDTASM+, or just about any data file to disk easily and 
accurately. It very well may not transfer protected programs 
or automatic execute loaders. 

One interesting note: On cassette, there is no distinction 
between data files and BASIC programs saved in ASCII. 
That is, there is no way to tell whether a file was created with 
the command 0P£yV"O'',-rNAME" or with the command 
CSA F£"NAME",A. What does this mean? If you use the 
utility to transfer a basic program saved in ASCII, you will 
be told that the file is a data file, even though it is actually a 
BASIC program. There is no harm in this, however, because 



the disk file created will load correctly with the LOAD 
command, in spite of being labeled as a data file. 

All files created by the Color Computer start out with a 
1 5-byte block of data called a Header. The Header contains 
the filename, the file's type, whether it is in ASCII or binary, 
and whether the tape recorder must be turned off and back 
on between loading each block of code. This leaves four 
bytes which are usually unused. The one exception is in 
machine language programs saved by the CSA VEM com- 
mand. Here, the last four bytes contain the program's start 
and execute addresses. The transfer utility uses all of the 
information in a file's header to load it properly and refor- 
mat it if necessary. Some of this information is then trans- 
ferred into the disk directory. 

This utility uses three undocumented routines in the disk 
ROM. It checks to see which version of the disk ROM you 
have, and then branches to the appropriate address. 

That about rounds out The Tape to Disk File Transfer 
Utility. If you have any questions or comments, feel free to 
drop me a line. If you'd like, you may purchase the source 
code on cassette for $5. My address appears at the top of the 
program listing. 



The listing: 



00001 mmttHtttmmttftfftmt 

00002 # TAPE TO DISK FILE TRANSFER t 

00003 ffttttmtftfffftftttfftHtttttt 

00004 t 

00005 »0yl * 

00006 » Rogtr Schrag 

00007 t 2054 fanning Avtnue 
00006 i Los Angeles, CA 90025 

00009 » 

00010 t 



BEAR 
ONI 



1000 




AAA! 1 

won 


0R8 


11000 


Low arei of eeeory 


1000 10CE 1000 


00012 START 


LD9 


ill 000 


Set up stack 


1004 86 


7E 


00013 


LDA 


t!7E 


Opcode for JHP nn 


1006 8E 


11B2 


00014 


LDX 


IERR0R 


Address to JRP to 


1 AAA M 

1009 B7 


018E 


00015 


STA 


USE 


Patch into Basic's 


100C Bf 


018F 


00016 


ST! 


I18F 


Error victor 


100F 0E 


1460 


AAA«7 
WVlf 


LDX 


•BUFFER Stirt of free eeeory 


1012 A6 


84 


AAA 1 B Ml IIIW 

0001 B nLOOP 


LM 


,* 


Read a byte 


1014 43 




00019 


CDHA 




Coepleeent register 


1015 hZ 


84 


00020 


CON 


,1 


Coeplieent RAH 


1017 Al 


84 


00021 


MPA 


ft 


Is the RAR good? 


1019 26 


04 


00022 


BHE 


BOTHEH 


If not, stop the test 


1018 o3 


80 


00023 


COR 




Restori byte and go 


101D 20 


F3 


00024 


BRA 


HL00P 


Check sore bytes 


101F 30 


89 FF00 


00025 BOTHER 


LEAX 


-1100,1 


Loeer pointer soee 


1023 BF 


143C 


00026 


STX 


T0PHEH 


Set top of eeeory 


1026 10CE 


1000 


00027 BEBItt 


LDS 


••1000 


Reset stack pointer 


102A 86 


60 


00028 


LDA 


4«60 


Blank on the screen 


102C BE 


0400 


AAA1A 

00029 


LDX 


••400 


Top of screen 


102F 9F 


88 


00030 


STX 


•88 


Place cursor there 


1031 A7 


80 


00031 CLS 


STA 


,*> 


Clear the screen 


1033 BC 


0600 


00032 


CRPX 


••600 


One byte at a tiee 


1036 25 


F9 


00033 


BL0 


CLS 


1038 5F 




AAA* | 

00034 


CLRB 




Use R0R routine to 


1039 BD 


A99D 


00033 


JSR 


•A99D 


Activate tape AUDIO 


103C BE 


12BF 


00036 


LDX 


•TITLE 


Title in sags 


103F BD 


11F1 


00037 


JSR 


PRINTR 


Print the eessage 


1042 BD 


11F9 


00038 


JSR 


INPUT 


Halt for Enter key 


1045 7F 


0985 


00039 


CLR 


•983 


Shut off drives so 


1048 7F 


09B6 


00040 


CLR 


•986 


They eon' t run endlessly 


104B 7F 


FF40 


00041 


CLR 


•FF40 


During cassette 1/0 


104E AD 


9F A004 


AAA JH nPTIIPft 

00042 BETHED 


JSR 


UA004] 


Locate nee ricording 


1052 8E 


1450 


00043 


LDX 


•HEADER 


Tell RDR to read data 


1055 9F 


7E 


00044 


STX 


♦7E 


Into HEADER buffer 


1057 AD 


9F A006 


00045 


JSR 


E9A006] 


Read soee data 


105B 0D 


7C 


00046 


TST 


•7C 


has it a file header? 


105D 26 


EF 


00047 


BHE 


GETHED 


Try again if not 


10SF 0D 


81 


00048 


T9T 


•81 


Has there an 10 error? 


1061 26 


EB 


00049 


BNE 


BETHED 


Try again if so 


1063 BD 


11DE 


00030 


JSR 


NTR0FF 


Shut off tape eotor 



gf!, ES COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 



BEAR 
ONES 




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"SOFT"-WARE for 
SOMEONE SPECIAL 



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TITLES AVAILABLE: 

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Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



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2 Kits Ordered) 



TOTAL: $ . 
Mich. Res. Add 4% Tax . 
TOTAL ORDER: $ . 



H2H2ZZE 



SHIP TO: 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 49 



1066 BE 


04A© 


00031 


LDI 


114 AO Sftt cur tor DOiitin 


1069 9F 


88 


00032 


STI 


IBS At lid icrtM 

»OU nw 111) SWT mail 


1/Ufi OF 

j voa oc 


I7P1 


00033 


LDI 


ITNAHE "Filanaaa it...* 


1AJLC Bit 
1V0C on 


UP! 

t tr i 




jgf) 


PRINTH Print tha miiiul 
rninin rrint tna awsaaya 


Ivr I BC 


HOV 


00033 




•HEADER Paint to Hltnia* 
vncni/cn ruint tu Tiivmaw 


1071 r-A 


OS 


00056 


LDB 

LVD 


148 ft rharartari lana 
■»o D l n sr at ill | I wn*j 


1076 A6 


80 


00057 PttftME 


LDA 


.If fiat tharactar 


1078 BD 

IVfO all 


11E7 


00050 


JSR 


VIDEO Print on icritn 


(ATI «A 
IV/ I JH 




00059 

VVVJ7 


nrro 

VELD 


AsrrMaftf r rum 


tn7P 9 A 


pfl 
re 


A AAA/) 
vWOv 


BUT 

DRC 


OUAUC Print' uKnla mu 


(Alt PC 




vvVOl 


1 Al 

LUA 


•TTVPF "It in n " 

tf I TrC It IB f • 


t All Rn 


I f CI 
iirl 


A AAA? 


.19ft 

II On 


PftTNTN Print tha ■••■an* 
mini™ rnni tnf ■visaoo 


1084 8E 


1287 


OO0A3 

WVOJ 


LDI 
Lv* 


ITTVPPS Table n( tvnni 


IAB7 RA 

1 VO » DO 


1458 

MJO 


ft MAI 


1 OA 
LUn 


UFAnFO+ft Aat lili't tuna 
nCHUCn'P Of 1 Tllff ■ typi 


I0RA 01 

IVDH 01 


0? 


000A5 


PUPA 


IT& 18 II 100,11 : 


I VOL *w 


0? 


000AA 
VWOO 


Al 9 
DL3 


flk'TVPF 9bin ahaail 11 tn 
UM TrC OKip ill fig 1 T ID 


108F fin 
1VOC OD 


OS 


00067 


LDA 


Ii3 It'a B Unn ■taitriirrl 1 


1090 49 

1VTV *0 




O0OAR flifTYPF 

VVVOO Uf\ | Tit 


LOLH 


Twna tiaaa fun 
1 Yuf vilfl vnu 


1091 AE 


66 


00069 


LDI 

LUA 


A I B#t addr'aH tahln 
n|A oei aoor ott lauiv 


1093 BD 


11F1 


00070 


JSR 


PRINTH Print thn unioi 

rrvin'" n tiiL in« ■waaaya 


1096 8E 


133D 


00071 


LDI 


IKFER1T 'Tranirir it?" 

lArbnl 1 ITaHBTBT l|l 


1099 BD 


1224 


00072 


JSR 


VF9KO Sat vaa nr nn 
icgnv qw\ yta or no 


109C ?A 


88 

00 


00071 


RMF 
One 


RPflIM Tl nn trw anain 

ocoin it nO| try iqiin 


109F ftp 

1VTC DC 


MAO 

laOV 


00074 


LDI 


IBIIFFPR 9tart n# aaanr v 
lourrcn atirt ot ■ini y 


IftAl 70 


05 

vo 


0A075 


RRa 

Dnn 


QVHT .Inan intn InaH Innn 
3 inv uunp into loio loop 


10A3 7D 


145A 


0007A TL0AD 


T8T 


HEADERtlOA Mt*d ta raivncranixa? 
ncn»r6n~fvn nan to raiynLronicar 


10A6 27 


OB 


00077 


BED 


MflBVMC Skin r out inn if not 
nuoinv 3KIB rout 1 no it not 


10A8 34 


10 


00078 SYNC 


PSHS 


A OavE A 


10AA BD 


11DE 


00079 


JSR 


MTBflFF Turn nit tana antnr 
niniirr iurn ott tavv avtur 


10AD AD 


9F A004 


00060 


JSR 


riA0041 Raawnrrnniva 


10B1 35 


10 


00081 


PUL8 


I Rett or a i 


j oj3 op 


7E 


00082 NQSVIIC 
vvvo* nuw i nv 


STI 


I7F Tnll RAM Hhara tn nut data 
*fc iwii nun nnffa to put oata 


10B5 AD 


9F A006 


00083 


JSR 

won 


riAOOAl Load aann data 
Lfnwoj Loao tuaf oata 


10B9 Co 


01 


00084 


LDB 


111 Hadn far 1/0 FRROR 
tvi luuv tot i/ti ennufi 


10BB 0D 

1V00 vy 


81 


00085 

vvvUJ 


TST 


ifll Uaa thera an ID? 

vol Pal tiler c an 1U: 


10BD 1026 

1 V WW IV£U 


00F1 


OOOflA 


LBNE 


ERROR Branch if ca 
cnni/n Dranwn it io 


10C1 96 


7C 


00067 


LDA 


I7C Chick black'a tvna 

Wf\t wflVLI tflULK 9 type 


10C3 81 


FF 


00086 


CHPA 


MFF End af thn filn? 
"fi r cno ot tnv Tiivr 


10C5 27 


OF 


00089 


BEQ 


TAPEND Skin ahnad if to 

inrtnv 0Hi|i ■iiaau it III 


10C7 4A 




00090 


DECA 


Valid data black'' 
vano oata diki: 


10CB J0?a 


00E6 


00091 


LB UP 
Lone 


FRROR T in FRROR 1 t nnt 

ennun i/u Cnntln IT not 


10CC BC 


143C 


00092 


CHP1 


TnPNPM Out nf hiifiar anara? 
lOrrrcn out OT DVTTIT ipatf r 


10CF 23 


D2 


00093 


BLO 


Tl AAA Innn hark it nnt 
ILUnlf LDOO DatK IT nDl 


10D1 C6 


FF 


00094 


LDB 


IIFF Tmia f nr RJiFFFR Pill 1 
vvrr loo* tot ourrcn "ull 


10D3 7E 


UB2 


00095 


JHP 


FRROR Tanas tha arrnr 


10D6 BF 


143E 


00096 TAPEMD 

v vv 7 y i nr t nw 


STI 


FflP 9ava tha ftla'e anH 
cur oava tnv tiiv 1 fno 


10D9 BD 


UDE 


00097 


JSR 


NTR0PF Shut aff tana aatftr 
ninurr snut ott tapv autor 


10DC B6 


1456 


00098 


LDA 


HEADPRtfl Rat fila'a tvna 
ntnwcn T o oat nil s typo 


10DF 81 


02 


00099 


CHPA 


H2 Hai it h.L, progrii? 


10E1 26 


2F 


00100 


m 


NOTHL Skip ihiid if not 


10E3 7D 


MSA 


00101 


TST 


HEADERtlOA In CSAVEH fori? 


10E6 26 


2A 


00102 


m 


NOTNL Skip ihfid if not 



00103 tTapi flits crtatid by CSAVEH tuit bi edlttd 

00104 tbifort thiy Mill load properly froi dlik 



10E8 30 


OA 


00105 


LEA} 


*0A,X Changt EOF to ukt 


10EA BF 


143E 


00106 


STI 


EOF File 10 bytti lonntr 


10ED FC 


1451 


00107 


LDD 


HEADERtfOB Bit EXEC iddrm 


10F0 ED 


83 


00108 


STD 


I Put it at very end 


10F2 AF 


82 


001 09 


CLR 


Prectid EXEC addrtti 


10F4 6F 


82 


00110 


CLR 


,-I By tito zeroes 


10F6 80 


FF 


00111 


LDA 


MFF Prtcted all that by 


tOFB A7 


82 


00112 


STA 


An IFF 


10FA A6 


1A 


00113 Fill 


LDA 


-6,1 Hove thi mtin fill 


10FC A7 


82 


00114 


STA 


Ovtr five bytes. This 


10FE 8C 


1465 


00115 


CNPI 


IBUFFER+5 Leaves five bytes 


1101 22 


F7 


00116 


BHI 


Fill At the vtry beginning 


1103 FC 


145D 


00117 


LDD 


KEADERtlOD Set START address 


1106 ED 


83 


00118 


STD 


,--X Add it into file 


HOB FC 


143E 


00119 


LDD 


EOF Bet length of file 


1108 83 


146A 


00120 


SUBD 


«BUFFER+t0A Minus 10 


110E ED 


83 


00121 


STD 


Add this into fill 


1110 6F 


82 


00122 


CLR 


Nike first byte zero 


1112 7D 


1458 


00123 NOTHL 


TST 


HEADER+S Is it Basic prograt? 


1115 26 


ID 


00124 


BNE 


WTBAS Skip ahead if not 






00125 tNon ASCII Bnic promt also aust bt tdittd 


1117 BE 


143E 


00126 


LDI 


EOF Change end of fill 


111A 30 


03 


00127 


LEAI 


3,1 To text thi fill 


1UC BF 


143E 


00120 


sn 


EOF Thru bytes longer 


11 IF A6 


1C 


00129 FIX2 


LDA 


-4,1 Hove nitire fill 


1121 A7 


82 


00130 


STA 


,-X Dvir three bytes, so 



50 the RAINBOW January 1984 



1123 8C 


1463 


00131 


CNPI 


IBUFFER+3 The thru extra bytn 


1126 22 


F7 


00132 


BHI 


FIX2 


Are at the beginning 


1128 FC 


143E 


00133 


LDD 


EOF 


6tt length of fill 


112B 83 


1463 


00134 


SDN 


•BUFFER+3 Hinus three 


U2E ED 


83 


00135 


STD 


f"» 


Add it into fill 


1130 86 


FF 


00136 


LDA 


•IFF 


Hake very firtt byte 


1132 A7 


82 


00137 


STA 


r* 


Of fill an IFF 


1134 8E 


0520 


00138 N0TBAS 


LDX 


11520 


Sit cursor position 


1137 9F 


88 


00139 


STI 


188 


At lid screen 


1139 8E 


1353 


00140 


LDI 


tLDCOHP 


"Load is coeolite' 


U3C BD 


11F1 


00141 


JSR 


PRINTH 


Print thi atssagi 


113F 8E 


1368 


00142 RETRY 


LDI 


IDNAHE 


'Disk filenaie?' 


1142 BD 


11H 


00143 


JSR 


PRINTH 


Print the ttisagt 


1145 BD 


11F9 


00144 


JSR 


INPUT 


8it thi filenan 


1148 BE 


1456 


00145 


LDI 


HEADER +6 6et file's typt 


1MB BF 


0957 


00146 


STI 


1957 


Store it 


114E B6 


095A 


00147 


LDA 


t95A 


Set default drive 1 


1151 97 


ED 


00148 


STA 


(ED 


Store it 


1153 BE 


094C 


00149 


LDI 


II94C 


Clear out the 


1156 86 


20 


00150 


LDA 


1120 


Filenan ttoragi 


1158 A7 


80 


00151 BLANK 


STA 




Arts 


115A 8C 


0957 


00152 


CNPI 


M957 


... 


USD 25 


F9 


00153 


BLO 


BLANK 


... 


115F 8E 


1440 


00154 


LDI 


IINKEY 


Nan person entered 


1162 C6 


FF 


00155 


LDB 


MFF 


Prepare 8 


1164 5C 




00156 6ETLEN 


INC8 




Set the length of 


1165 6D 


85 


00157 


T8T 


D,I 


The per ton's entry 


1167 26 


FB 


00156 


BNE 


6ETLEN 


Into B 


1169 CE 


1176 


00159 


LWJ 


•BACK 


Put return addrost 


116C 34 


40 


00160 


P8N8 


U 


Onto ttack 


116E 6F 


E2 


00161 


CLR 


,-8 


Hakt tpact on ttack 


1170 CE 


127B 


00162 


LDU 


IDFNANE 


Ust RON routine to 


1173 7E 


126D 


00163 


JNP 


U8ER0H 


Prepare the filenaie 


1176 86 


4F 


00164 BACK 


LDA 


M4F 


ASCII 0 for Output 


1178 C6 


01 


00165 


LDI 


111 


Ute device 11 (disk) 


117A CE 


127F 


00166 


LDU 


ID0PEN 


Use RON routine to 


117D BD 


126D 


00167 


JSR 


USERDH 


Open the file 


1 180 8E 


1460 


00168 


LDI 


IBUFFER 


Start of uiory 


11B3 86 


01 


00169 


LDA 


111 


Select output device 


1185 97 


6F 


00170 


STA 


I6F 


•1 (the disk file) 


1187 A6 


80 


AAi«j| « taax a vf 

00171 DNRITE 


LDA 




8it a byte 


1189 34 


10 


00172 


PSHS 


I 


Save I 


1 IBB AD 


9F A002 


00173 


JSR 


[IA002J 


Write it to file 


118F 35 


10 


00174 


PolS 


I 


Rittori I 


1191 BC 


143E 


00175 


CNPI 


EOF 


Hon to write? 


1194 25 


Fl 


00176 


B10 


DNRITE 


Skip back if to 


1196 CE 


1283 


00177 


LDU 


IDCLDSE 


Use RDH routioe to 


1199 BD 


126D 


001 7B 


JSR 


USERDH 


Close the ditk file 


H9C 8E 


1379 


00179 


LDI 


IALDDNE 


"Transfer coeplete' 


U9F BD 


11F1 


00180 FINISH 


JSR 


PRINTH 


Print thi itssagi 


11A2 8E 


13C4 


00181 


LDI 


IA6A1N 


"Start prograi anei?" 


UA5 BD 


1224 


00182 


JSR 


YESN0 


Set yes or no 


a a avn 1 Ant 

11AB 1027 


FE7A 


00183 


LBEQ 


BE6IN 


Restart if yis 


11AC OF 


71 


00184 


CLR 


•71 


Naki it a cold start 


UAE 6E 


9F FFFE 


00185 


JNP 


[IFFFEJ 


Reinitialize systee 






00186 iContrpl gots to ERROR nheo any error occur a 


11B2 34 


04 


00167 ERROR 


PSHS 


B 


Save error code 


11B4 CE 


1283 


00108 


LDU 


IDCLDSE Ust RON routini to 


11B7 BD 


126D 


001B9 


JSR 


USERDH 


Close the disk file 


11BA 8D 


22 


00190 


B8R 


HTR0FF 


Shut off tape tot or 


11BC E6 


E4 


00191 


LDB 


,s 


Set error code 


It BE CE 


13D9 


00192 


LDU 


•ERRS 


Table of error codes 


UCi AE 


Ci 


00193 SETERR 


LDX 


,Uft 


Bet addr of eessage 


UC3 El 


C4 


00194 


CHPB 


.U 


Jpjpjre codes 


UC5 27 


04 


00195 


BEQ 


B0TERR 


Alp ahead if tatch 


UC7 6D 


CO 


00196 


T8T 


,Ut 


End of table? 


11C? 26 


F6 


00197 


BNE 


BETERR 


Skip back if not 


11CB BD 


11F1 


00198 60TERR 


JSR 


PRINTH 


Print error aessage 


liCE 35 


04 


00199 


PULS 


B 


Restore error code 


UD0 BE 


1399 


00200 


LDX 


(CANCEL 


"Function cancelled" 


11D3 CI 


01 


00201 


CHPB 


111 


Cancel procedun if 


UD5 27 


C8 


00202 


BED 


FINISH 


Error occurred Millie 


11D7 CI 


FF 


00203 


CHPB 


•IFF 


Loading the tape file 


11D9 27 


C4 


00204 


BEQ 


FINISH 


But if file loaded OK, 


HOB 7E 


113F 


00205 


JHP 


RETRY 


Then ask again for filenan 


UDE B6 


FF21 


00206 HTRDFF 


LDA 


IFF21 


Shut off tape lotor 


1IE1 84 


F7 


00207 


ANDA 


IIF7 


Reset the bit in PIA 


11E3 B7 


FF21 


00208 


STA 


IFF21 


Store it in PIA 


UE6 39 




00209 RETURN 


RT3 




Return 


11 E7 34 


!* 


00210 VIDEO 


PSHS 


M 


Save X and D 



If You Pay Taxes 

You Need Coco-Accountant II 



Tax Relief! 



If you pay taxes, you pan't afford to be without Coco- 
Accountant II! This 32K home and small business ac- 
counting program has everything you need to keep 
track of your finances and make income tax time a 
breeze. Spend a few minutes with your canceled 
checks, credit card bills, cash receipts and payroll 
stubs. When you're through, Coco-Accountant II will 
list and total expenditures and income by month, 
account or payee, provide a year-to-date summary by 
3CCOunt and figure your net cash flow. Better yet, it 
provides a printed spreadsheet showing your year at a 
glance. 

The program sorts entries by date, lists most func- 
tions to screen or printer and saves your files to tape or 
disk. A special feature flags tax deductible expenses 
and expenses subject to state sales tax. It even com- 
putes the sales tax you paid! In addition, COCO- 
ACCOUNTANT II includes a separate program to bal- 
ance your checkbook and print a reconciliation state- 
ment. Upto 450 entries perfile on 32K tape version, 5P0 
on 32K disk and 700 on 64K disk version. Easy to use, 
menu-driven, complete documentation. Only $24.95 
on tape, $27.95 on disk. 




Federal Hill Software 

825 William St. 
Baltimore, MD 21230 



Unleash The Power of Vour CoCo 

Z^zi^l^ .~. Coco-Accountant II 





JAN 


FEB 


MAR 


APR 


MAY 


JUN 


JUL 


AUG 


SEP 


OCT 


NOV 


DEC 


AU 


19 


90 


13 


0 


IB 


97 


0 


6 


0 


0 


0 


0 


BU 


230 


0 


167 


496 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


CC 


249 


200 


2B0 


240 


330 


310 


300 


339 


323 


233 


373 


113 


CI 


23B 


227 


0 


0 


0 


242 


0 


227 


0 


0 


0 


0 


CL 


141 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


CO 


27 


0 


23 


0 


0 


0 


0 


40 


13 


0 


0 


0 


CP 


O 


0 


0 


0 


0 


ISO 


26 


3 


17B 


0 


0 


0 


CR 


614 


699 


337 


332 


439 


1011 


2037 


361 


1322 


493 


1086 


0 


cs 


110 


190 


0 


30 


200 


1BO 


160 


60 


320 


390 


130 


0 


FD 


240 


203 


93 


113 


101 


384 


128 


134 


202 


0 


38? 


33 


FH 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


14 


0 


6 


0 


0 


0 


0 


HI 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


67 


0 


0 


0 


0 


67 


0 


HO 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


1300 


1066 


791 


LI 


147 


0 


218 


0 


0 


440 


1SB 


128 


0 


0 


0 


0 


md 


14 


9Q 


1 


139 


0 


60 


0 


330 


61 


181 


0 


0 


MG 


490 


430 


490 


BOO 


0 


900 


430 


980 


473 


473 


0 


0 


MI 


67 


48 


90 


228 


26 


167 


88 


18 


14 


281 


23 


80 


nz 


0 


0 


49 


11 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


30 


13 


0 


PH 


94 


IB 


197 


0 


34 


66 


67 


149 


0 


9B 


38 


0 


TR 


0 


0 


0 


v? 


200 


279 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


UT 


178 


21B 


199 


199 


100 


74 


98 


149 


103 


97 


96 


6 


XI 


0 


0 


0 


399 


0 


0 


403 


0 


0 


0 


0 


399 


XS 


2933 


3418 


3883 


2583 


4199 


6321 


33BB 


3119 


2999 


6096 


3001 


2777 


ZCS 


309 


0 


33 


0 


7S6 


0 


0 


0 


394 


0 


0 


210 


EXP 


2798 


2276 


2102 


2925 


1487 


4396 


3332 


2337 


3017 


35B1 


32BB 


1039 


INC 


2933 


3418 


3BB3 


29B3 


4199 


6321 


3793 


3113 


2999 


6^096 


3001 


3177 


NET 


137 


1143 


1782 


138 


2712 


1923 


261 


99B 


-17 


2473 


-2B6 


2138 



TOTAL EXPENSES 32996 
TOTAL INCOME 45392 
NET 1 2983 



THESE ARE VOUR ACCOUNTS 

AUTO AU BUSINESS BU CHlLDCARE CC CAR INS CI 

CLOTHING CL CONTRIB CO COMPUTER CP CREDCARO CR 

CASH CS FOOD FD FH3 FH HEALTH IN HI 

HOME I MP HO LIFEINS LI MEDICAL MD MORTGAGE MG 

MISC MI MAGAZINE MZ PHONE PH TRAVEL TR 

UTILITIES UT INTEREST XI SALARY XS ME MO ACT ZC 



Look At These Features *o 

• Handles all financial transactions 

• Quick data entry 

• List and total entries by month 

• List and total entries by account 

• List and total entries by-payee/source 

• Offsets income and expenditures 

• Year-to-date summary by account 

• Printed spreadsheet 

• Flags deductible expenses 

• Flags payments subject to sales tax 

• Computes the sales tax paid 

• User-defined accounts 

• Sorts entries by date 

• Store data on tape or disk 



Send check or money order to FEDERAL HILL SOFT- 
WARE, 825 William St., Baltimore, MD 21230. Your per- 
sonal check is welcome — no delays. Add $1.50 per 
order for postage and handling. 



11E9 OF 


6F 


00211 


CLR 


•6F 


Device 10 (screen) 


11EB AD 


9F A002 


00212 


JSR 


[•A002J Print character 


11EF 39 


96 


00213 


PUL8 


D,I, PC 


Restore and return 


11FI A6 


80 


00214 PRINTN 


LDA 


il* 


8et a byte of aeissge 


11F3 27 


Fl 


00215 


BED 


RETURN 


All done if a zero 


UFS 8D 


FO 


00216 


B3R 


VIDEO 


Otherwise print it 


UF7 20 


F8 


00217 


BRA 


PRINTN 


Loop back for tore 


11F9 BE 


1440 


00218 INPUT 


LDI 


IINKEY 


Start of inkey buffer 


MFC 8D 


42 


00219 INI 


BSR 


8ETKEY 


Bet a key 


11FE 81 


OD 


00220 


CKPA 


MOD 


Enter key? 


1200 26 


04 


00221 


BNE 


IN2 


Skip ahead if not 


1202 6F 


84 


00222 


CLR 


,x 


Put 0 at end of data 


1204 20 


El 


00223 


BRA 


VIDEO 


Print CR and return 


1206 81 


08 


00224 IN2 


CNPA 


118 


Backspace? 


1208 26 


OB 


00225 


BNE 


IN3 


Skip ahead if not 


120A ac 


1440 


00226 


CttPX 


fINKEY 


Anything to backspace over? 


120D 27 


ED 


00227 


BEO 


INI 


Ignore it if not 


120F 6F 


82 


0022B 


CLR 


»-* 


Erase char froe buffer 


1211 8D 


D4 


00229 


BSR 


VIDEO 


Erase it froe screen 


1213 20 


E7 


00230 


BRA 


INI 


Branch back for eore 


1215 81 


20 


00231 1N3 


CNPA 


1(20 


Non-alphanueeric? 


1217 25 


E3 


00232 


BLD 


INI 


Ignore it if so 


1219 8C 


144F 


00233 


CNPX 


UNKEY+tOF Is buffer full? 


121C 27 


DE 


00234 


BEQ 


1N1 


Ignore it if so 


121 E A7 


80 


00235 


STA 


i** 


Put char in buffer 


1220 8D 


C5 


00236 


BSR 


VIDEO 


Print it on screen 


1222 20 


D8 


00237 


BRA 


1N1 


Branch back for lore 


1224 BD 


11F1 


00238 YESND 


JSR 


PRINTN 


Print proapt 


1227 8D 


17 


00239 YN1 


BSR 


BETKEY 


Bet key 


1229 81 


4E 


00240 


CNPA 


H4E 


Is it "N B ? 


122B 26 


08 


00241 


BNE 


YN2 


Skip ahead if not 


122D 8E 


1438 


00242 


LDX 


•NO 


•No" 


1230 8D 


BF 


00243 


BSR 


PRINTN 


Print the eessige 


1232 8A 


FF 


00244 


DRA 


•IFF 


Reset equal flag 


1234 39 




00243 


RTS 




Return 


1235 81 


59 


00246 YN2 


CNPA 


••59 


Is it T? 


1237 26 


EE 


00247 


BNE 


YN1 


Branch back if not 


1239 8E 


1433 


00248 


LDX 


•YES 


■Yes- 


123C 8D 


B3 


00249 


BSR 


PRINTN 


Print the eessage 


123E 4F 




00250 


CLRA 




Set equal flag 


123F 39 




00251 


RTS 




Return 


1240 34 


14 


00252 6ETKEY 


PSH8 


M 


Save B and X 


1242 A6 


9F 0088 


00253 KEY1 


LDA 


[188] 


Bet cursor character 


1246 8B 


10 


00294 


ADDA 


MtO 


Blink it 


1248 8A 


8F 


00255 


ORA 


M8F 


Hake it araphic 


124A A7 


9F 008B 


00296 


STA 


[188] 


Print nan cursor 


124E 8E 


0080 


00257 


LDX 


M80 


Loop counter 


1251 30 


IF 


00258 KEY2 


LEAX 


-1,1 


Decrement counter 


1253 27 


ED 


00259 


BEQ 


KEY1 


Blink cursor if tiee 


1255 AD 


9F AOOO 


00260 


JSR 


[IA0001 


Scan keyboard 


1259 4D 




00261 


TSTA 




Mas key pressed? 


125A 27 


F5 


00262 


BEO 


KEY2 


Branch back if not 


125C 8E 


13BB 


00263 


LDX 


•BREAK 


'< BREAK >' 


125F 81 


03 


00264 


CNPA 


••3 


Has it Break key? 


1261 1027 


FF3A 


00263 


LBEQ 


FINISH 


Break out if so 


1265 C6 


60 


00266 


LDB 


••60 


Blank character 


1267 E7 


9F 0088 


00267 


STB 


[•88] 


Erase cursor 


126B 35 


94 


00268 


PULS 


X.B.PC 


Restore and return 






00269 tRoutint below calls on • routint lit tht 






00270 fDiik RON. It account i for the differences 






00271 ♦between Disk Extended Color Basic 1.0 and 1.1 


126D 34 


02 


00272 U8ER0H 


PSH8 


A 


Save A 


126F B6 


COOS 


00273 


LDA 


•COOS 


Check which version RON 


1272 84 


01 


00274 


ANDA 


Hi 


ZeroM.G One" 1.1 


1274 48 




00275 


LSLA 




Zero* 1.0 Two« 1.1 


1275 33 


C6 


00276 


LEAU 


M 


Increeent U if RON 1.1 


1277 35 


02 


00277 


PULS 


A 


Restore A 


1279 6E 


D4 


00278 


JNP 


l,UJ 


Use RON routine 


127B 


C8A4 


00279 DFNANE 


FDB 


•C8A4 


1.0 Process filenaee 


127D 


C952 


00280 


FDB 


•C952 


1.1 Process filenaee 


127F 


C468 


00281 DOPE* 


FDB 


•C468 


1.0 Open disk file 


1281 


C48D 


00282 


FDB 


•C48D 


1.1 Open disk file 


1283 


CA3B 


00283 DCLOSE 


FDB 


•CA3B 


1.0 Close disk file 


1285 


CAE9 


00284 


FDB 


•CAE9 


1.1 Close disk file 






00285 »Tape file types 




1287 


12FC 


00286 TTYPES 


FDB 


TYPE! 


Basic prograe 


1289 


130C 


00287 


FDB 


TYPE2 


Data file 


128B 


1318 


00288 


FDB 


TYPE3 


N.L. prograe 


128D 


132B 


00289 


FDB 


TYPE4 


Non standard 



00290 • 







00291 i 










00292 tftessages and proepts 






00293 e 










00294 t 




■ TAPE TO DISK FILE TRANSFER" 


128F 


20 


00295 TITLE 


FCC 


12AA 


OD 


00296 


FCB 


•OD 


12AB 


20 


00297 


FCC 




12C6 


ODOD 


00298 


FDB 


•ODOD 


12C8 


52 


00299 


FCC 


'READY TAPE 1 HIT ENTER? ' 


12E0 


00 


00300 


FCB 


•0 


12E1 


54 


00301 TNANE 


FCC 


■THE FILE IS NAKED ' 


12F3 


00 


00302 


FCB 


•0 


12F4 


OD 


00303 TTYPE 


FCB 


•OD 


12F5 


49 


00304 


FCC 


■IT IS ■ 


12FB 


00 


00305 


FCB 


•0 


12FC 


41 


00306 TYPE1 


FCC 


a A BASIC PR06RAN' 


130B 


00 


00307 


FCB 


•0 


130C 


41 


00308 TYPE2 


FCC 


•A DATA FILE" 


1317 


00 


00309 


FCB 


•0 


1318 


41 


00310 TYPE3 


FCC 


'AN N.L. PROBRAH" 


1327 


00 


00311 


FCB 


•0 


1328 


49 


00312 TYPE4 


FCC 


MN NON STANDARD FORM" 


133C 


00 


00313 


FCB 


•0 


133D 


OD 


00314 XFERIT 


FCB 


•OD 


133E 


54 


00315 


FCC 


■TRANSFER THIS FILE? * 


1352 


00 


00316 


FCB 


•0 


1353 


54 


00317 LDCONP 


FCC 


■THE LOAD IS COMPLETE" 


1367 


00 


00318 


FCB 


•0 


1368 


OD 


00319 DNANE 


FCB 


•OD 


1369 


44 


00320 


FCC 


■DISK FILENAME? ' 


1378 


00 


00321 


FCB 


•0 


1379 


OD 


00322 ALDOME 


FCB 


•OD 


137A 


54 


00323 


FCC 


■THE FILE TRANSFER IS COMPLETE" 


1397 


0D00 


00324 


FDB 


•ODOO 


1399 


OD 


00325 CANCEL 


FCB 


•OD 


139A 


54 


00326 


FCC 


■THE PROCEDURE HAS BEEN CANCELLED* 


13BA 


00 


00327 


FCB 


•0 


13BB 


3C 


00326 BREAK 


FCC 


■<BREAK>' 


13C2 


0D00 


00329 


FDB 


•ODOO 


13C4 


53 


00330 A6AIN 


FCC 


■START PROGRAM ANEN? " 


13D8 


00 


00331 


FCB 


•0 


13D9 


13E8 


00332 ERRS 


FDB 


El 


13DB 


38 


00333 


FCB 


•38 


13DC 


13FB 


00334 


FDB 


E2 


13DE 


30 


00335 


FCB 


•3C 


13DF 


1410 


00336 


FDB 


E3 


13E1 


3E 


00337 


FCB 


•3E 


13E2 


141D 


00338 


FDB 


E4 


13E4 


FF 


00339 


FCB 


♦FF 


13E5 


1429 


00340 


FDB 


E5 


13E7 


00 


00341 


FCB 


•00 


13E8 


44 


00342 El 


FCC 


■ At DV BBAPC Fill 1 • 

'DISK SPACE FULL" 


13F7 


00 


00343 


FCB 


•0 


13F8 


44 


00344 E2 


FCC 


■ IVfOV TO UCTTC BOflTCPTCM 

DISK 18 eHITc rmJTeCTcO 


140F 


00 


00343 


FCB 


•0 


1410 


42 


Uvj40 to 


err 
rib 


■ AAA CTI CUAMCi 


141C 


00 


00347 


FCB 


•0 


MID 


42 


00348 E4 


FCC 


"BUFFER FULL" 


1428 


00 


00349 


FCB 


•0 


1429 


49 


VVJJV CJ 


trr 
rti 


■t/n CD DAB* 

ifU tnnuK 


1432 


00 


00351 


FCB 


•0 


MM 


vo 

□7 


00352 YES 


FCC 


■YES" 


1436 


ODOO 


00353 


FDB 


•ODOO 


1438 


4E 


00334 NO 


FCC 


■NO" 


143A 


4F 

ODOO 


00355 


FDB 


•ODOO 






00356 t 










00357 » 










00358 tVar tables and pointers 






00359 * 










00360 # 






143C 


0000 


00361 TOPHEN 


FDB 


•0 End of systee's eeeory 


143E 


0000 


00362 EOF 


FDB 


•0 End of tape file 


1440 




00363 INKEY 


RHB 


•10 Space for input buffer 


1450 




00364 HEADER 


RHI 


•10 Space for tape file header 


1460 




00365 BUFFER 


•All of 


the rest is for the BUFFER 




1000 


00366 


END 


START Execution begins at START 


00000 TOTAL ERRORS 









52 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Federal Hill Software 

FINE PRODUCTS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER, DRAGON AND MC-10 



Play Blackjaq! 

This is as close as you can come to the real thing 
without losing your shirt! Afull casino simulation, with 
up to 5 players and 9 decks. Play with friends, play all 
five hands you rself, or let the computer play the vacant 
hands. But watch out! It plays by card counting rules! 
There's even a joystick option for two players. Blackjaq 
keeps track of everybody's winnings and losings, dis- 
plays two card-counting algorithms and even prints 
out the results of every hand if a printer is on line! 
Nothing else like this available in 16k. Great for the 
beginner or experienced player. Use it at home for fun 
or brush up your technique before hitting Atlantic City 
or Vegas. Requires 16K Ext. Bas. Only $19.95 on tape, 
$24.95 on disk. 

"Blackjaq is an excellent program which should be bought by all players 
who plan to go to a casino or who wish to know how we counters work our 
game" 

Rainbow, Nov. 1983 




64K Breakthrough! 

Did you feel gypped when you found out your "64K" 
computer still had the same old 32K in Basic? We sure 
did. So we've developed HID 'N RAM, a program that 
will access that "hidden" 32K from Basic and use it for 
data storage. Imagine writing a 28K data handling pro- 
gram with every bell and whistle you can think up and 
still having 32K left for the names, numbers and ad- 
dresses you're crunching! HID 'N RAM is a brief ML 
driver embedded in a Basic demonstration program — 
a mailing list that puts 500 entries in RAM. This shows 
you how to store your data in the "other" 32K and 
access it using regular Basic commands. When you see 
how it works, you can delete our program and write 
your own. The ML driver stays with the program ! Use it 
from tape or disk. Of course, you must have a 64K 
computer. Comes with complete documentation. HID 
'N RAM is only $24.95 on tape, $27.95 on disk. 



*K The Handicapper ^ 

NEW! Now available for the MC-10! Use the power of 
you Color Computer or MC-10 to improve your per- 
formance at the track! The Handicapper is two separate 
programs for thoroughbred and harness horses which 
apply sound handicapping techniques to produce 
rankings for the horses in each race. Factors include 
speed, distance, track condition, post position, past 
performance, jockey or driver's record and other attri- 
butes. With a little practice, you can handicap an entire 
race in a few minutes and a whole card in less than an 
hour! Easy enough for the beginner, sophisticated 
enough for the veteran horseplayer. Will run on any 
16K CoCo or 4K MC-10. Includes complete documenta- 
tion and betting guide. State computer type when 
ordering. Thoroughghred or Harness Handicapper, 
$24.95 each on tape. $29.95 disk. Both programs only 
$39.95 tape or disk. 



Coco Handyman 

NEW! If you've ever tackled a home improvement 
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make it a snap to use. Lists estimates to screen or 
printer! Requires 32K Ext. Only $19.95 on tape, $24.95 
,on disk. 



Send check or money order to FEDERAL HILL SOFT- 
WARE, 825 William St., Baltimore, MD 21230. Your 
personal check is welcome— no delays. Add $1.50 per 
order for postage and handling. 



Turn Your Printer \ 
Into An Artist! Jk 

This unique printer utility introduces the Color Com- , 1 

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file of printer art and save it to tape or disk. Complete Sr"""""' ! 1 
documentation. Fun for home or classroom. Only 

$21.95 on tape, $24.95 on disk. Requires Ext. Bas. :::!:;:;:::::::;!:::::::!::::: 



The world's largest 
manufacturer of software 

• presents 



"OS -9 is a registered trademark ol Mlcroware Inc. and 
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for OS-9 

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flays, tietw.eeri FHL FLEX, RS QS-9 and 
Radio Shack DOS, For UaQo QS-B - £34.95 
INCLUDE $3.50 SHIPPING & HANDLING 




m 



HOGG 
LABORA 



IE REGENCY TOWER - SUITE 21 S * 770 JAMES ST. ♦ SYRACUSE. NY 1 32Q3 
PHONE (3 1 5)474-7858 » TELEX 6467 AO 




LANGUAGES 



A/BASIC COMPILER for OS9 and FLEX 

Produce fast, compact, ROMable object code from easy to write 
BASIC source code. 



OS9 or FLEX Object only: $75.00 



Available for CoCo 



DYNASOFT PASCAL for OS9 and FLEX 

This remarkable Pascal Subset is a p-code implementation that 
only requires 12K of RAM! 

OS9: FLEX: 

Object only: $69.95 Object only: $59.95 

With Source: $99.95 With Source: $89.95 

Available for Color Computer 

NEW! DYNA-C for OS9 and FLEX 

This new n C" subset runs circles around any others in its price 
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OS9: FLEX: 
with Source: $109.95 with Source: 
Available for Color Computer 



$99.95 



INTROL-C COMPILER for OS9 and FLEX 

A complete, efficient, fast C compiler which includes a Macro 
Relocating Assembler/Linking Loader, Runtime Library, and 
Library Manager. 

OS9 or FLEX Object only: $375.00 
Available for Color Computer 

COMPUTERWARE'S RANDOM BASIC 

11 Digits of precision. Conforms closely to the ANS1I standard. 
OS9: $195.00 
FLEX: $100.00 
CoCo FLEX Version: $ 75.00 



APPLICATION 
SOFTWARE 

DYNAST AH SCREEN EDITOR / 

WORD PROCESSOR for OS9 or FLEX 

This extremely powerful, menu-driven Word Processing system is composed of 
Dynestar, the Text Generator end Dynaform, the Text Formatter/Mail Merge 
program. 

Color Computer Versions! 

DYNASTARi 

for OSS or FLEX: $14M5 $49.95 

DYNAFORM t 

for OS9 or FLEXt $14M5 $49.95 

Purchased together! $lTt*M $99.90 

DYNASPELL SpeJlii* Checker 

Dynaspeil Is the most versatile 66XX Spelling Checker available. Use it with 
Dynastsr or Stylograph for a complete word processing system. Now with neW 
LOOKUP command! 

FLEX or OS-9 $199.00 
CoCo Version $ 59.95 

DO - JOB CONTROL LANGUAGE for OS9 

This easy to use, "BASIC-Uke" Job Control Language Is great for Batch processing. 
CoCo OSS version! $4MQ General OSS versiom $tMI 

RMS RECORD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

RMS is a complete Database Management package made up of five machine language 
programs. One of the most powerful and versatile on the market! 

OSS Object only* $250 FLEX Object onlyt $10 • 



SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS 



OSM - A 6809 MACRO ASSEMBLER for OS9 and FLEX 

This is an extended Macro Assembler with conditonal directives 
which will generate OS9 or FLEX binary files. 
OS9 or FLEX Object only: $99.00 
Available for Color Computer 

CRASMB - MACRO CROSS ASSEMBLER FOR OS9 and FLEX 

Use the Macro Cross-Assembler and any of the following CPU 
Personality Modules (CPVPs) to assemble that CPU's Source code 
into OS9, FLEX, Motorola S1-S9 or INTEL-HEX formatted Object 
code files. Available CPIVPs: Motorola 6800-2-8, 6801-3, 6805, 
6809, Mostek 6502, RCA 1802, INTEL 8080-5, ZILOG Z-80. 
OS9 or FLEX: 

CRASMB Object only: $200.00 
CPM's Object only: $ 35.00 each 
CPM's with Source: $ 70.00 each 
Available for Color Computer 

* SPECIAL * Purchase CRASMB with all modules (Source 
included) for $499.00 

CROSS ASSEMBLER MACROS 

Use the appropriate MACRO with a standard Assembler to 
assemble Source code into Object code for any of the following 
CPU's: 6800/1, 6805, 6502, 8080/5, and Z-80. 
Object only MACROS: 

OS9: $55.00 each or 3/$110.00 

FLEX: $50.00 each or 3/$100.00 

Available for Color Computer 



Z-80 SUPER SLEUTH 

Functions the same as the above SLEUTH though this 

analyzes Z-80, 8080, 8085 object programs. 

Same prices as Super Sleuth. Not available for RS DOS. 

DYNAMITE + 

Easy to use disassembler complete with cross-reference 
generator, and label files maintained in text form only. 

OS9: FLEX: 

Object only: $150.00 Object only: $100.00 

Available for Color Computer 

6800 - 6809 and 68U9 PIC/PID TRANSLATORS 

Convert 6800/1 assembly language programs to 6809 assembly 

language programs, and 6809 Assembly code to position- 

independant code and data. 

OS9 Object only: $75.00 

FLEX Object only: $50.00 

UniFLEX Object only: $75.00 

Available for Color Computer 

EDIT / ASSEMBLE for OS9 

Editor with "Screen-like" line editing capabilities and a 
Conditional Macro Assembler. Both much more powerful than 
those inclusive with the Color Computer. 
CoCo OS9 Object only: $69.95 



SUPER SLEUTH 

Examine and modify or disassemble binary program files into 
source code format. Object code for 6800, 01, 02, 03, 05, 08, 
09, or 6502 may be processed. 



Object only: 
CoCo OS9 
CoCo FLEX 
RS DOS 



$49.95 
$50.00 
$49.00 



With Source: 
OS9 
FLEX 
UniFLEX 



$ 99.00 
$ 99.00 
$100.00 



FRANK 

HOGG 

LABORATORY 



THE REGENCY TOWER • SUITE 2 18 • 770 JAMES ST. • SYRACUSE. NY 1 3203 
PHONE (3 18)474-7888 • TELEX 04S74O 



BEGINNER'S SPECIAL 



16K 
ECB 



Betting Started With 

Machine Language 



By Dan Downard 
Rainbow Technics! Editor 



How many of you have noticed the assembly listings 
in the Rainbow and just gone to another article, 
since *Tm not interested in that anyway," or "I don't 
know how to input that program into my CoCo." If you 
answered yes to the "not interested" comment, go to the next 
article. If you want to input one of these listings, read on and 
we guarantee you will be an expert in one quick lesson. In 
this article, we will give you a machine language program, 
show you three different ways to input it into the CoCo, and 
how to save it on tape for future use. 

For this exercise you will need an understanding of hexa- 
decimal numbers, a CoCo with at least 16K of memory 
(Non-Extended is fine) and a monitor such as C-Bug, 
HUMBUG or ZBUG. As you probably know, ZBUG is the 
Radio Shack monitor for all of the examples. Other moni- 
tors will work fine, but we have to start somewhere. 

The Program "LF" 

Listing 1 is a short machine language program that should 
be of interest to all of you using non-Radio Shack printers. 
It adds a line of feed after carriage return for those printers 
that require line feeds to be added by the computer. Don't 
give up if you have a Radio Shack printer. The program will 
still work, but you will notice double spacing. After all, our 
interest here is in just getting the program to run. 

Notice Listing 1 is divided into eight different columns of 
information. For this discussion, a column may be more 
than one digit long. For example, the fourth column is the 
line number as we are accustomed to seeing in BASIC pro- 
grams. This particular program starts with Line 00100 or 
1 00. We will refer to the line number several times, so be sure 
you can identify it. 

Remember, in BASIC, how a REM or ['] command was 



(Dan Downard is an electrical engineer and has been 
involved in electronics for 24 years through ham radio 
(K4KWT). His interest in computers began about five 
years ago and he has built several 68XX systems.) 



ignored by the actual program, but inserted in programs for 
reference. The equivalent instruction in the assembly listing 
is [*], When a [*] is encountered in a program, all of the line 
that follows can be considered a remark and inputting is 
optional. That means, in Listing 1, Lines 100 through 150 
are for reference only and just explain what the program is 
all about. 

What is all the rest of that garbage? Well, to jump ahead a 
litue bit, all of the information to the right side of the line 
number, including the line number itself, is what we call the 
assembly text file. All of the information to the left of the 
line number is the actual machine language program in 
hexadecimal form. Depending on which method we use to 
input our program we will use part of this information to 
perform the chore. 

Method #1 "Using and Assembler 

An assembler is a program that converts mnemonic 
instructions into actual machine code. We do not have to 
u; lerstand how the actual program works to use the 
assembler. Again, just picture the assembler as a language 
< : ke BASIC. If we input a program and save it, all we have to 
do to run it again is type CLOADM and EXEC. 

Back to Listing 1. Columns 4 thru 7 contain all of the 
information necessary to input a machine language program 
using an assembler. A short explanation of each column of 
text is in order. Let's u°e Line 190 as an example: 

Column 4-00190 — The line number 
Column 5-START — Symbol 
Column 6-LDX — Command (or Mnemonic) 
Column 7-1+HOOK — Operand 

Column 8 is not used in this particular program, but is an 
optional comment field. Again, inputting any comments can 
be left up to the user. In the actual operation of EDTASM+, 
these columns are called fields and seperated by inputting a 
right arrow. 

The first thing we must do is plug in our EDTASM+ 
cartridge. Be sure the CoCo is turned off. After seeing the 



56 the RAINBOW January 1984 



logo and the [*] prompt we are ready to go. Type [I] and then 
hit the [ENTER] key and 00100 should appear. This gives 
you auto line numbering starting at 100, incrementing each 
line number by 10. Sounds good already, doesn't it? Using 
[R A] for the right-arrow key and [E] for enter we would use 
the following keystrokes to input the program: 

00100 *LF-RAINBOW JAN 1984[E] 



00160 HOOK[RA]EQU[RA]$0167[E] 
00170 PRTOUT[RA]EQU[RA]$A2BF[E] 
00180 [RA]ORG[RA]$3F00[E] 
00190 START[RA]LDX[RA]l+HOOK[E] 
00200 [RA]STX[RA]l+OUT2,PCR[E] 



00360 [RA]END[RA]START[E] 
00370 [BREAK] 

A few comments are in order. First, auto line numbering 
does not have to be used. If a listing is not in a logical 
sequence, just hit [BREAK] and [1] and the next line 
number, Second, always make sure your text is in the proper 
field (column). Some fields will be empty, but don't worry 
about it. 

When all of the text is entered prepare your tape recorder 
and type A LF[ENTER]. This will "assemble" your text file 
into a machine language program and store it on cassette. If 
it is a long program it is usually a good idea to save the text 
file for future reference using the " W" command. 

Turn off the computer, remove the EDTASM+ cartridge, 
turn it back on and type CLOA DAaPLF' and EXEC. You're 
in business. Any printer output will now contain line feeds. 

Method #2— Using a Monitor 

If you don't want to type in the assembly text, there's an 
easier way. Just input the machine language program 
directly into memory with a monitor such as ZBUG. In 
Listing 1, the first three columns are the actual machine 
language program in hexadecimal form. 

The first column is the address. The next two columns are 
the hex numbers that you will put at each respective address. 
The reason that two columns are displayed is that the second 
column always contains the op-code, or operational code, 
recognized as an instruction by the microprocessor. This 
op-code corresponds to the mnemonic instruction we refer- 
red to earlier in the assembly text file. 

Let's input our program using ZBUG. First, we turn on 
the computer after the EDTASM+ cartridge has been 
inserted. Type Z and ENTER and you see a different 
prompt, a [#]. ZBUG is now waiting for your command. 
Since, we wish to input hexadecimal bytes we type [B] 
[ENTER] to enter the Byte M ode. From this point, the only 
problem is knowing where to start. 

If you examine Listing 1 , you will notice that the first line 
that has anything in Column 2 is Line 190. Aha! This must 
be the start of the program at address $3F00. Very good. 
Just as a side remark, the data to the left of the line numbers 
in Lines 160 and 170 are just constants for program defini- 
tion. Always start when you see data in the second column. 

Notice that immediately following the address, 1 put an 
FF in the second column. This can be any value and is 
generated by ZBUG. It is the present value of data at that 
address before you change it. 

Using [DA] for down arrow (enter data and advance 
address in ZBUG) and [E] for [ENTER], a session with 
ZBUG would go like this. 

First, you see the [#] prompt already on the screen. So, 



type 3F00 and a [/] slash mark. On hitting the slash mark, 
the value of the existing byte will appear and a flashing 
cursor will appear several spaces to the right. Okay? 

Now, type BE and hit the down arrow. You will observe 
that the next address will be displayed, as well as its value. 
So, to continue, you enter the next hexadecimal byte, 
namely 0 1 and press the down arrow. If you accidentally hit 
[ENTER], simply pressing the slash mark will return you to 
the same address. If you enter an incorrect value, you can 
step back to a previous address by hitting the up-arrow key. 

#3F00/ FF BE[DA] 
#3F01 FF 01 [DA] 
#3F02 FF 68[DA] 
#3F03 FF AF[DA] 
#3F04 FF 8D[DA] 
#3F05 FF 00[DA] 
#3F06 FF 21 [DA] 
#3F07 FF 86[DA] 



#3F27 FF 7E[DA] 
#3F28 FF 82[DA] 
#3F29 FF 73[DA] 
#3F2A FF [E] 

After you have input the program type 3F00/ and keep 
hitting the [DA] key. You will see the program you have just 
input. 

The only other problem we may encounter is the starting 
address of the program. The EXEC address of this particu- 
lar program is S3F00, but that may not always be the case. 
Read the accompanying article or the comments in the given 
listing you want to assemble to find the proper starting 
address. 

After the program is in memory and you are still in 
ZBUG, type P LF 3F00 3F29 3F00 to save the program to 
tape. From now on, a CLOA DM and EXEC will execute 
the program from BASIC. 

Method #3— BASIC 

Listing 2 is a short BASIC program that will allow you to 
input a machine language program into memory. Type in 
and RUN this listing. After entering the starting address at 
the prompt, you enter the same data as in Method #2. 
Instead of the down-arrow key, hit [ENTER] indicated by 
[E], after every byte something like this: 

STARTING ADDRESS? 3F00[E] 
3F00? BE[E] 
3F01? 01[E] 



3F29? 73[E] 
3F2A? [BREAK] 

After the program is in memory, you can save it by 
CSA F£A/"LF",&H3F00,&H3F29,&H3F00. Be careful, as 
there is no way of checking for mistakes other than taking 
your time. 

This method requires Extended BASIC, but no Monitor or 
Assembler. It is crude, but it works and can be used if you 
are desperate. 

Summary 

1 hope you will try the different methods described and 
pick one that you are comfortable using; that's the real secret 
of success anyway. The next time one of your friends asks 
where you got that fantastic graphics program you can say, 
"I put it in myself from the Rainbow!" 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 57 



Editor's Note: For another look at getting started in 
machine language, refer to this month's "Assembly Corner" 
by Dennis Lewandowski. 



Listing 1: 

00100 tLF-RAINBOM JAN 1984 
00110 #REV 0-DAN D0WNARD 
00120 tTHIS PR06RAH MILL ADO 
00130 #A LINE FEED EACH TINE 
00140 tfl CARRIAGE RETURN IS 
00150 *0UTPUT TO THE PRINTER 





0167 


00160 HOOK 


EQU 


$0167 




A2BF 


00170 PRT0UT 


EQU 


(A2BF 


3F00 




00180 


0R6 


♦3F00 


3F00 DE 


0168 


00190 START 


LDX 


1+H00K 


3F03 AF 


8D 0021 


00200 


STX 


1+0UT2.PCR 


3F07 86 


7E 


00210 


LDA 


M7E 


3F0? B7 


0167 


00220 


STA 


HOOK 


3F0C 30 


8D 0004 


00230 


LEAK 


0UT.PCR 


3F10 BF 


0168 


00240 


STX 


1+H00K 


3F13 39 




00250 


RTS 




3F14 34 


OS 


00260 OUT 


PSHS 


B,CC 


3F16 D6 


6F 


00270 


LDB 


<t6F 


3F18 CI 


FE 


00280 


CNPB 


ItFE 


3F1A 26 


09 


00290 


BNE 


0UT1 


3F1C 81 


0D 


00300 


CHPA 


MOD 



3rlc lb 


AC 

V3 


AA71A 


PUP 
DHL 


niiT f 

UUI 1 


icia on 


A 1 ) DC 




Jan 


PPTMIT 


Di 


AA 


AA^^A 


1 Tih 
Llro 


iiAA 


3F25 35 


AC 

05 




Dill C 


d rr 


3F27 7E 


8273 


00350 0UT2 


JHP 


$8273 




3F00 


00360 


END 


START 



00000 TOTAL ERRORS 

HOOK 0167 
OUT 3F14 
0UT1 3F25 
0UT2 3F27 
PRT0UT A2BF 
START 3F00 

Listing 2: 

10 'ML— RAINBOW JAN 1984 

20 'REVO DAN DOWNARD 

30 'THIS PROGRAM WILL ALLOW 

40 'YOU TO INPUT MACHINE 

50 ' LANGUAGE PROGRAMS USING 

60 'EXTENDED BASIC— HIT break 

70 'WHEN YOU ARE FINISHED 

80 INPUT "STARTING ADDRESS" $ S% 

90 I=VAL( H &H"+S») 

100 PRINTHEX*(I> J : INPUT B* 

110 POKEI, VAL<"«tH"+B*> 

120 I=I+l:G0T0100 _ 



ATTENTION, CoCo OWNERS! 

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INTERFACE provides SWITCH SELECT- 
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T 



58 the RAINBOW January 1984 



The HJL-57 Keyboard 




Compare it with the rest. 
Then, buy the best . 



if you've been thinking about 
spending good money on a new 
keyboard for you r Co I or Co mpute r, 
why not get a good keyboard for 
your money? 

Designed from scratch, the 
HJL-57 Professional Keyboard 
is built to unlock ALL the 
potential performance of your 
Color Computer. Now, you can 
do real word processing and sail 
through lengthy listings. ..with 
maximum speed; minimum errors. 

At $79.95, the HJL-57 is reason- 
ably priced, but you can find 
other CoCo keyboards for a few 
dollars less. So, before you buy 
we suggest that you compare. 

Compare Design. 

The ergonomically-superior 
HJL-57 has sculptured, low- 
profile keycaps; and the three- 
color layout is identical to 
the original CoCo keyboard. 

Compare Construction. 

The H J L-57 has a rig i dized 
aluminum baseplate for solid, 
no-flex mounting. Switch contacts 
are rated for 100 million cycles 
minimum, a nd cove red by a s p i II- 
proof membrane. 



Compare Performance. 

Offering more than full-travel, 
bounce-proof keyswltches, the 
HJL-57 has RFI/EMI shielding that 
eliminates irritating noise on 
displays; and four user-definable 
function keys (one latchable), 
specially-positioned to avoid 
inadvertent actuation. 



Free Function Key Program 

Your H JL-57 kit includes usage 
instructions and decimal codes 
produced by the function keys, 
plus a free sample program 
that defines the function 
keys as follows: Fi =: Screen 
dump to printer. F2 = Repeat 
key (latching). F3 = Lower case 
upper case flip (if you have 
lower case capability). F4 = 
Control key; subtracts 64 from 
the ASCII value of any key 
pressed. Runs on disc or tape; 
extended or standard Basic. 



Compare installation. 

Carefully engineered for easy 
installation, the H JL-57 requires 
no soldering, drilling or gluing. 
Simply plug it in and drop it 
right on the original CoCo 



mounting posts. Kit includes a 
new bezel for a totally finished 
conversion. 

Compare Warranties* 

The HJL-57 is built so well, it 
carries a full, one-year warranty. 
And, it is sold with an exclusive 
15-day money-back guarantee. 

Compare Value. 

You know that a bargain is a 
bargain only as long as it lasts. 
If you shop carefully, we think 
you will agree.. .the HJL-57 is 
the last keyboard your CoCo will 
ever need. And that's real value. 

Order Today. 

Only $79.95, the HJL-57 is 
available for immediate shipment 
for either the original Color 
Computer (sold prior to October, 
1982) or the F-versidn and TDP-100 
(introduced in October, 1982). 

Order by Phone Anytime 
716-235-8358 

24 hours, 7 days a week 




Ordering Information: Specify model (Original or F-version). Payment by C.O.D., cheek, 
MasterCard or Visa. Credit card customers include complete card number and expiration date. 
Add $2.00 for shipping. New York state residents add 7% sales tax. Dealer inquiries invited. 



PRODUCTS INC. 

955 Buffalo Road • P.O. Bo* 24954 
Rochester, New York 14624 



Computer Software 
and Accessories 

Great Holiday Gifts For The Computer Users On Your List 




TAPE CAROUSEL 

Holds up to 25 cassettes in individual 
compartments. Units are stackable 
and revolve for easy access. Clear 
plastic sliding covers keep tapes dust- 
free (tapes not included). Great for 
your stereo too! 

Jtf-&rOfJEACH $1 3.00 EACH 



JOYSTICK 



$19.95 
EACH 




SUPER-PRO KEYBOARD 

by MARK DATA PRODUCTS 



FLIP'N'FILE 

by Innovative Concepts 
Holds 10 

Diskettes %^%*T~ $ 5.45 

Holds 15 

Diskettes $>W $ 8.95 

Holds 25 Diskettes 

With Lock $£9*95** $24.95 

Holds 50 Diskettes 

With Lock $39*93" $33.95 




$37.95 
FOR TWO 

"In use, we found the ENDICOTT 
\ JOYSTICK to be smooth and re- 
> sponsive. ...built to last, the Endi- 
I cott model is a solid buy". 

I the RAINBOW, October 1982 

..provided the best feel of all the 

I joysticks tested (a) rugged unit at 

{ an affordable price." 

-80 micro, March 1983 




Smooth profes- 
sional touch. Iden- 
tical keyboard layout 
eliminates relearning 
key locations. Simple installation! No 
soldering or wiring. Professional ap- 
pearing installation. Computers made 
after or about Oct. 1982 require adap- 
ter. 

KEYBOARD: $69.95 

SPECIAL! $64.95 

ADAPTER: $4.95 




VIDEO 300 

by Amdek 

VIDEO 300 (Green): 13" Non-glare screen. 
With Video Plus 

(See Below) $190.00 

W/O Video Plus $170.00 

VIDEO 300 (Amber): 1 3" Non-glare screen. 

With Video Plus (See Below) $205.00 

W/0 Video Plus $185.00 



COLOR 1 + 

by Amdek 

COLOR 1 +: 1 3" Composite Color Monitor with 
new non-glare screen, built in audio circuit, 
speaker, and plug-in adjustable head set. 

WITH VIDEO PLUS 

(SEE BELOW) $360.00 

W/O VIDEO PLUS $340.00 





OKI DATA 82 A 

A heavy duty printer that can run all day. It has 
friction and pin feed with rear or bottom paper 
feed. 

W/CoCo Serial/Parallel 

Interface (See Below) $490.00 

W/O Interface $430.00 



pbh CoCo Serial/Parallel 
Interface 

• Switch Selectable Baud Rates From 300 
to 9600 

• Switch Selectable Printer or Modem 
Operation (Connections Provided for 
BOTH). 

• Self Contained Power Supply 

• Nothing Else Needed £24~&5r~ $69.96 





SPIRIT 

by Mannesmann Tally 

A new top quality printer with the same com- 
mands as Epson including graphics at a 
reasonable price. Friction and adjustable 
sprocket feed included. 

With CoCo Serial/Parallel 

Interface (See Below) $425.00 

W/O Interface $365.00 

VIDEO PLUS 

by Computer-ware 

Composite video monitor interface. Allows 
use of composite color or monochrome 
monitors. Easy to install, no soldering, case 
must be opened. Does not disable your TV 
interface. Works with all CoCos. 

Fully Assembled and Tested $24.95 



GORILLA/BANANA 

Comparable to the DMP100 Printer. Built in 
serial interface. Includes special cable for 
CoCo. Nothing else to buy. 

With cable $265.00 

Parallel Printer with CoCo 
Serial/Parallel Interface 

(See Below) .....$305.00 

Just Printer (Specify Parallel 

or Serial) $245.00 

PANAMAX 
SURGE SUPPRESSOR 

Fastest Response Time Available 

Includes 6 Outlets, Fused Circuit, and 6 Ft 
Line Cord $87.95 



J 



" - WE PAY SHIPPING! N 

Other companies ask you to ADD $1 , $2, $3 or more for shipping 

WE NEVER DO to S.A., CANADA, MEXICO. 
Add $2.00 C.O.D. (U.S.A. 0 . Allow 2 weeks for check to clear. 
No P.O. Boxes please! V*<* must have your street address. 
SHIPPING-ALL OTHER COUNTRIES: Add $2.00 for each software item and each joystick. 
Add $5.00 for all other items (no monitors or printers shipped outside U.S.A.). Items will be shipped air mail 
Prices apply to mail orders only - All sales final - No returns unless defective. 

Look at These Discounts and Compare.. .Remember WE PAY SHIPPING! 

«• cn/ r\r-n list price of one, o/w nr-e- list price 

lOvOvJrr TWO OR THREE ZUvO U I" 1" OF FOUR OR MORE 



CUSTOM SOFTWARE ENGINEERING 



★ DISK DATA HANDLER. $54.95 

(SUPPLIED ON TAPE. 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES T D 

★CUBIX $24.95 $28.95 

★ LANCER $24.95 $28.95 

★MS GOBBLER $24.95 $28.95 

WHIRLYBIRD RUN $24.95 $28.95 

STORM ARROWS $24.95 $28.95 

LUNAR ROVER PATROL $24.95 $28.95 

SPACE SENTRY $18.95 $22.95 

PLANET INVASION $24.95 $28.95 

ALPHA SEARCH $24.95 $28.95 

COMPUTERWARE T D 

★ JUNIOR'S REVENGE $28.95 $31.95 

★TIME PATROL $24.95 $2r 95 

★ HYPER ZONE $26.95 $2b.95 

★COLOR BASIC COMPILER - $39.95 

64K SCREEN EXPANDER (64K) $24.95 $27.95 

*THE SOURCERER $34.95 $39.95 

★ DISK MACRO ASSEMBLER & XREF - $49.95 

★COLOR EDITOR $24.95 $29.95 

★COLOR MONITOR $24.95 $27.95 

★ MOON HOPPER $24.95 $29.95 

BLOC HEAD $26.95 $29.95 

ELITE SOFTWARE T D 

ELITE-WORD $59.95 $59.95 

ELITE-CALC $59.95 $59.95 

COGNITEC T D 

TELEWRITER 64 $49.95 $59.95 

ANTECO SOFTWARE T ROM PK 

8-BALL(POOL) - $29.95 

PINBALL $24.95 $29.95 

DATASOFT t D 

ZAXXON - $39.95 



PROGRAMMERS INSTITUTE t D 



★ COLOR ACCOUNTANT $74.95 $79.95 

PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE j o 

ADVENTURE IN WONDERLAND $24.95 $29.95 

THE DISK MANAGER - $29.95 

THE DISK MASTER $24.95 

*VIKING $19.95 $24.95 

*GANGBUSTERS $19.95 $24.95 

COLORKIT $29.95 $34.95 

TOM MIX T D 

★ CU*BER $27.95 $30.95 

★ BUZZARD BAIT $27.95 $30.95 

★ AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER $28.95 $31.95 

THE FROG $27.95 $30.95 

★ SPACE SHUTTLE $28.95 

★ DONKEY KING $26.95 $29.95 

★ COLOR GOLF $17.95 

TRAP FALL $27.95 $30.95 

SOFT LAW ROM D 

VIP WRITER $59.95 $59.95 

VP SPELLER $49.95 

VIPCALC $59.95 $59.95 

VIP TERMINAL $49.95 $49.95 

VIP DATA BASE - $59.95 

VIP DISK-ZAP - $49.95 

ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

T D 

*FIRE COPTER $24.95 

*SAIGON: THE FINAL DAYS $24.95 

♦EARTHQUAKE $24.95 

♦AIRLINE $24.95 

★ SEA DRAGON $34.95 

★TRIAD (Avail. Jan) $34.95 

★ DISKEY (Disk Access & Repair Kit and - $49.95 

Computer Diagnostics) 



Additional listings in our free catalog - call or write. 

'Requires 1 6K Ext. Basic Minimum -A- Requires 32K Ext. Basic Minimum. 
Others 1 6K Std. Basic Minimum. 



GRAND OPENING/ 

Come visit our new store 
in Huntsville, Alabama 

We also support: 

TRS-80 (Mod 1 , 3 & 4) Com mod ore 64 
Apple Vic 20 

Franklin Atari 



BOB WALLACE 



ENDICOTT 



Computers available for 
software demonstration. 





X 







DRAKE AVENUE 




Computer Software 
and Accessories 



2806-A S. Memorial Parkway 
Huntsvil \L 35801 
(205) 5^6-4400 ■■■ 



LI A 



Phone Open 7 Days a Week 



TAKING BASIC TRAINING 



4K 



the 
RAINBOW 



For That Added Touch 
You Need Append 



By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



How many times have you wanted to add a nifty 
routine or an entire program to one that you have 
just created? How you wished you wouldn't have to 
go through the drudgery of keying it into your program! 

There is a technique that can make your wish come true. It 
is called Append. For our purposes, it means, "to add one 
program to another and by linking them together, to create 
an improved, expanded and enhanced program." 

It is not necessary to append an entire program. Selected 
routines may be extracted, renumbered and appended. 

Imagine that you created KOLARDES, (see Listing 1), a 
graphic program. You decide to dress it up by adding a nice 
title card. You have this program, + TITLE, (see Listing 2), 
that you would like to tack onto the front of your program. 

+7Y7Xls can be used over and over again. You will want 
to change lines 10060 and 10070 and put in your name and 
address. All that is needed is a neat name for your program. 

+ TITLE was made to give you practice following instruc- 
tions. No doubt, you can make better title cards. You would 
be advised to make a copy of -\-TITLE after you are finished 
keying it in. Make sure you do this before following instruc- 
tions in line 10300. This program sort of self-destructs and 
what you have when you finish is not what you started out 
with. 

KOLARDES uses sound to enhance the random designs 
and to act as a counter. If the sounds bug you, feel free to 
change them. If they still bug you, turn the sound down. I 
think you will find the ever-changing designs amusing. 

Before we begin, get a piece of 3 x 5 paper from the pad 
you keep on top of the monitor. With a red, felt-tipped pen, 
on top of the long side, print APPEND PROGRAM. Then 
with a black, felt-tipped pen, print below the title, the 
following: 

f. CLOAD low numbered lines 

2. POKE 25 9 PEEK(21) [ENTER] 

3. POKE 26,PEEK{2%)-2 [ENTER] 



(Joseph Kolar is a free-lance writer and programmer 
dedicated to proselytizing for computers in general 
and the Co Co specifically.) 



4. CLOAD high numbered lines 

5. (If you have Color BASIC,) POKE25,6[ENTER] 

6. (If you have Extended BASIC,) POKE25,30 [ENTER] 

7. POKE 26,1 [ENTER] 

Consider this card a training aid and keep.it in a handy 
location. Store it on top of the TV set next to the dispenser 
mentioned in the first article (December 1982). When 
appending a program, place the card on top of the compu- 
ter, between the air vents for easy reference. 

Note: If you have ECB and start up the computer, it will 
automatically PCLEAR4. If you are using a PCLEAR 
other than PCLEAR4, to find the correct number for line 5, 
(above), PRINT PEEK(25), before you CLOAD in the 
second program. 

As usual, there is more than one way to do anything. You 
could CLOAD "+TITLE" and RUN and, following the 
instructions in +TITLE, complete the title card; CSA VE \t\ 
NEW CLCUZTKOLARDES," follow the instructions on 
your reference card; CL<X4Z)"+TITLE" (which you final- 
ized) and then finish appending. But, for the purpose of the 
demonstration, do not use the perfectly acceptable proce- 
dure above. 

First, CL0/1 J D"KOLARDES" per instructions from your 
handy reference card. Make sure it works properly. Make a 
note of the last line number in the listing. If you make a long 
spread-out, numbered listing, you may want to make it more 
compact by renumbering it. RENUM 10,10,10. The first 
"10" means that you want the new listing to start with Line 
number 10. The second "10" means that you want the 
renumbering operation to start with Line 10 of the original 
program. (This number could be any number.) The third 
"10" signifies that you want to increment each line number 
by 10. (10;20;30; etc.) 

Look at Line 2 of the reference card. Carefully key it in. 
Do the same at Line 3. 

CLOAD"+T\7LE" and RUN LIST to find the lowest 
line number in the program. This number must be greater 
than the last number of the first program. 

It is good practice to renumber the appended program at 
this time. RENUM 10000,10,10 and [ENTER] usually is 
sufficient unless the highest number in the first program is 



62 the RAINBOW January 1984 




Systems, Inc. 
Colour Software Workbench™ 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 



The Colour Software Workbench (CSW) is a system of machine language programs that run on a 32K or 64K TRS-80 Color Computer Extended 
Disk Basic System. It lets you develop machine language programs in a combination of Pascal and 6809 Assembler source languages. The 240 + 
page CSW User's Guide that is included explains the fundamentals of the languages as well as how to use the package. 

Part TWO of the CSW User's Guide provides you with the 
background information needed to write programs using the Colour 
Software Workbench. 




Part ONE of the 
CSW User's Guide 
tells you how to use 
all of the programs 
in the Workbench. 
This first part 
contains one section 
for each program. 



TEXT EDITOR 

• Screen Mode Editing 

• Entering Text 

• Finding Strings 

• Changing Multiple String Occurrences 

• Moving, Copying and Deleting Blocks of Text 

• Reading, Writing and Merging Files From Tape and Disk 

PASCAL COMPILER 

• Specifying: 

o Source from Tape, Disk or Keyboard 

o Object and Listing to Tape, Disk, Screen or Printer 

• Optional Symbol Table in the Object File for use by the Symbolic 
Debugger 

• Explanation of Source Listing Format 

MACRO ASSEMBLER 

• Specifying: 

o Source from Tape or Disk 

o Object and Listing to Tape, Disk, Screen or Printer 

• Explanation of Source Listing Format 

OBJECT LINKER 

• Specifying: 

o The Machine Language ORIGIN 

o Listing to Tape, Disk, Screen or Printer 

o Binary File on Disk 

o Whether to use Pascal Runtime Library 

o Whether to use Symbolic Debugger 

SYMBOLIC DEBUGGER 

• Setting and Clearing Breakpoints 

• Displaying and Modifying 6809 and Graphics Registers 

• Displaying and Modifying Memory 

• Using Pascal Symbols 

• Tracing Pascal Procedure Activations 

• Viewing the User's (Graphic) Screen 

• Using Symbols, Registers & Constants in Expressions 




$150.00 



3% Shipping & Handling, 5% Maryland Sales Tax 

To order, send Name and Address and check or money order to: 

DEFT Systems, Inc. 
P.O. BOX 359 

DAMASCUS, MARYLAND 20872 

or CALL TOLL FREE: 1-800-368-3238 Operator 8 

(in Virginia) 1-800-542-2224 Operator 8 

Shipped UPS as soon as your check clears, sooner if you charge, 
MasterCard and VISA accepted. 

"TRS-80" and "Color Computer" are Trademarks of TANDY Corporation 



LEARNING EXERCISE 

• Complete Pascal and Assembler Language Source 

• Uses All Parts Of the Workbench 

• Resulting Program is a Text Processor 

PASCAL 

• Describes Standard Language Elements Supported 

• Constants Include Decimal and Hexadecimal Integers, ASCII 
characters and strings 

• Types Include: 

o Integer, Char, Boolean, Enumerated, Subrange 
o Multi-Dimensioned Arrays 
o Records and Variant Records 
o Sets of Up to 256 Elements 
o Files 

• PROCEDURES and FUNCTIONS with FORWARD 

• Variables and LABELS 

• Arithmetic, Boolean, and Set Expressions 

• Statements: IF, WHILE, REPEAT, CASE, GOTO, EXIT, FOR, 

BEGIN, assignment (: = ) 

• Input/Output: RESET, REWRITE, READLN, EOF, WRITE, 

WRITELN, CLOSE, PAGE 

• Built-in Functions and Procedures: ABS, CHR, CURSOR, ODD, 

ORD, PRED, SUCC 

ADVANCED PASCAL 

• Strings Support: Assignment, Comparing, Concatenation 

• String Procedures and Functions: STRINGCOPY, STRINGDELETE, 
STRINGINSERT, STRINGPOS, HEX, ENCODE, DECODE 

• Type Extensions for Structured Type Breaking 

• Absolute Memory Access via Built-in WORD and BYTE Arrays 

• ROM Routine Access via CALL Built-in Function 

• Static and Public Variable Allocation 

• Separate Compilation and Assembler Interface via INTERFACE, 
EXTERNAL, and PUBLIC 

• Listing and Multiple Source File Directives 

• Explanation of Error Messages 

6809 MACRO ASSEMBLER 

• Motorola Compatible Source Conventions 

• Macro Facility With up to 9 Macro Parameters 

• Separate Compilation and Pascal Interface via PUBLIC and EXT 
Directives 

• Listing Control Directives 

• Explanation of Error Messages 

TECHNICAL NOTES 

• CoCo ROM Compatibility 

• Pascal Runtime Library Assembler Interface 

• CSW Object File Format 




Hi-resolution and 3-di- 
mensional skeletal 
graphics packages in- 
cluded. This includes full 
Pascal & Assembler 
source code. Includes: 
HIRESCLEAR, 
HIRESLINE, 
GRAPHDISPLAY, 
MOVESKELETON, 
SHOWSKELETON 



DEFT and "Colour Software Workbench" are Trademarks of DEFT Systems, Inc. 



greater than 10000. 

It is also good practice to keep all your appending pro- 
grams on one cassette tape; to put a in front of the 
program name; and to renumber all append programs so 
their starting Line number is 10000. You will know that any 
program with in front of the title will begin with Line 
number 10000 and is for appending purposes. 

Did you remember to change Lines 10060 and 10070? 

When the +TITLE program is renumbered, RUN and 
follow the screen commands. Pick out a nice title for your 
main program. Note: You can copy the three inputs down, 
but once you get the hang of it, you should have no trouble 
keeping it in your head. After the "red title" appears, note 
the centering. If it looks right, [ENTER] and follow instruc- 
tions. If you made a boo-boo [BREAK], and do it over. 

Carefully retype Lines 10000—10020, making sure you 
put double quotation marks (") around the name of the title. 
Then £>£L10300- and RUN Your second program is now 
completed. Note: Even though KOLARDES is in memory, 
it is not disturbed when you RUN, LIST, RENUM the 
+TITLE program. 

Now key in the appropriate Line 5 from your reference 
card. [ENTER]. Key in Line 6. [ENTER] and LIST. As the 
listing fast scrolls up you should be able to spot line numbers 
from both the main and the appended program and end with 
Line 10080. 

Both programs are now combined, but not quite inte- 
grated to work as one unit. 

The title of this program should appear first. Both pro- 
grams have to be linked together. In this case, key in: 

10 GOTO 10000 

10100 GOTO 100 



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IN CANADA 




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MARK DATA KEYBOARD KITS 
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WRITE OR PHONE FOR A FREE CATALOGUE 

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COMPUTER SERVICES LTD. 

10447 - 124 STREET 
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T5N 1R7 
PHONE 403 - 488-7109 

•TRS-80 IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP. 



You can see that we send the program to the title and after 
the title is created and displayed, we return to CLSand begin 
the main program. 

RUN It will work, but not as before! Can you figure out 
what is different? 

When you ran KOLARDES by itself, after about 20 
beeps Line 1 50 recycled to a random color. After appending 
the +TITLE program and linking them both together, Line 
150 became inoperative and did not recycle after 20 beeps. 
Can you determine why? 

Variables are the culprits. When the same variable is used 
in both programs, they may often be responsible for faulty 
operation. 

Looking over the two listings, we see that the variables 
"T"and "Z M are used in both programs. Changing the varia- 
ble "T" to "G" in Lines 10020 and 10050 did not correct the 
problem. Changing the variable "Z" to "H" in Line 10080 
solved the problem. 

The variable "T"did have a minor but unimportant effect. 
(Line 150). "R"from Line 145 could have been used in Line 
150 to replace Why? 

Now, you can add informational or instructional lines to 
the title; hold it with /ATP t/r Tress [ENTER] ";01 or send it 
to Line 100 after a few seconds with Line 10080. 

Your program should be complete and work fine. You 
can use +TITLE with any program to add a title. 

Be careful not to have the same line number in both 
programs. For instance, you can't have two Line 100s or you 
will drive the computer nuts. 

Let's say for argument's sake that when you appended 
+TITLE that you inadvertently had Line numbers 100; 1 10 
and 120 at the beginning of +TITLE. You did not notice this 
until you completed the appending procedure and listed it. 

To get rid of the three unwanted lines that lie in the 
sequence: 

200 NEXT K,J,: FOR P=l TO 1000:NEXT: GOTO 120 
100 'LEFT IN BY MISTAKE 
110 'Print 
120 'Print 

10000 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:INPUT "YOUR TITLE"; 
Al$ 

1. Copy down the last line of the first program, (Line 
210) 

2. Copy down the first line of the second program which 
you want to keep. (Line 10000) 

3. <DEL210-10000> 

4. Retype Lines 210 and 10000 

The unwanted lines have gone bye-bye! 

You've covered a lot of ground and added a new tool to 
your repertoire. You should be proud because you came a 
long way. 



^^^^10080.. 



Listing 1 



0123 
END . . . 02C1 



iOOOO PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: INPUT" 
YOUR TITLE" SA1* 

10010 PRINT: INPUT" COUNT ALL LE 
TTERS AND SPACES IN THE TITLE. 

(IF RESULT IS AN ODD NUMBER, AD 
D +1. DIVIDE THE RESULT BY 2. 



64 the RAINBOW January 1984 



♦ 
* 

i 

+ 
* 
+ 



+ 
♦ 
+ 
* 
+ 

♦ 
* 
♦ 
* 




THE VOICE and THE COMPOSER $79.95 

(Over a $200 value, offer expires 1/31/84) 

You get CoCo's best hardware speech synthesizer using 
the VOTRAX SC-01 , THE VOICE (was $1 1 9.95) plus 
thegiftof music, THE COMPOSER (a $24.95 value). 

Included is a text to speech ML program FREE to allow 
any BASIC program to speak in minutes (was 
$29.95). 

You also get 6 education and fun programs FREE (a 
$34.95 value). 

You will have access to an ever growing library of 
software. The programs below are just a partial list. 

Disk owners don't despair, THE VOICE works in all 
multi-pac units including our own Y-CABLE. 

You can find speech units for less and a lot for more, but 
you won't find any better. Compare these features: 

Speaks thru TV or external speaker Gold finger contacts 

Pitch and volume controls 1 yr. warranty 

Filter for high intelligibility 50 page manual 

Metal case prevents TV interference Works with disks 

64 phonemes 4 inflections 



2 tapes, full of programs 




A speaker cable 

TERMTALK 

The first smart talking ter- 
minal program. All the 
features of an intelligent 
telecommunications pro- 
gram plus what appears on 
the TV is spoken just like in 
the movie WAR GAMES. 
Tape $39.95 Disk $49.95 



ESTHER 

Meet Esther the talking 
psychoanalyst. An excel- 
lent example of artificial 
intelligence. She may not 
solve all your problems, but 
her insight will amaze you. 
Tape or Disk $24.95 

Write for detailed information on these and many other talking programs. 

Final Countdown (A Talking Adventure) $24.95 

Spell-A*Tron (Spelling Teacher) _ , $28.95 

Score E-Z (A Yahtzee-like Game) $24.95 

Color MATH (Math Teacher) $28.95 

Education 1 (Alphabet, Numbers, Colors) $24.95 

Education 2 (Hangman, Spelling, Calendar) $24.95 

Education 3 (States, Capitals, Presidents) $24.95 

and much more. 





MUSICA 

4 Notes produced simultaneously. 
Input notes from keyboard or joystick. 
Develop your own unique sounding instruments. 
Vary tempo as music plays. 
Save or load music from tape or disk. 
Call music from your own BASIC program. 
Music produced in stereo when used with the STEREO 
COMPOSER. 

All features are fast because it's all machine language. 

It doesn't get any better than this. 

Tape $34.95 Disk $39.95 

STEREO COMPOSER 

CoCo's one and only stereo music synthesizer. Plug it 
into the cartridge slot, connect to external speakers or 
your home stereo and you're ready for music realism. 
Comes with the COMPOSER 4 voice software. Separate 
left and right channel volume controls. Two8 bit D to A's 
— for perfect reproduction. May be used with our best, 
software "MUSICA." Disk owners may use any expan- 
sion unit or our Y-CABLE. 
Tape or Disk $69.95 

THE COMPOSER 

A 4 voice music program with 7 octave range. Plays 
music in any octave or key. Change tempo as music 
plays. Most of the features of MUSICA. 
Tape (16K or 32K) $24.95 Disk (32K) $29.95 

THE Y-CABLE 

Disk owners why pay $100 to $300 for a multi- 
pac unit. With our Y-CABLE you can connect 
your disk in one connector and the VOICE or 
STEREO COMPOSER in the other. $29.95 

We accept CASH, CHECK, COD. VISA, and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $2.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge , $2.00 

Illinois residents add 5 1 /4% sales tax for the STEREO COMPOSER or THE VOICE. 

Speech Systems 

38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 
(312) 879-6880 (24 HR. VOICE) 
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WE SHIP FROM STOCK WITHIN 48 HOURS. 



t 



♦ 
♦ 
♦ 
+ 



♦ 



J 



L-"»L 

10020 PRINT: INPUT" 16-L-";T 
10030 CL9 

10040 FOR I- 1 TO 6:print:next 
10050 PRINT TAB<T)A1* 
10060 PRINT TAB (10) "JOSEPH KOLAR 
10070 PRINT TAB <7) " INVERNESS, FL 
OR I DA 

10080 SCREEN 0,1: FOR Z=l TO 1500 
:NEXT 

10300 PRINTS416," IF YOU ARE SA 
TISFIED WITH THE TITLE, PRESS <E 
NTER> ELSE PRESS < BREAK X RUN > AN 
D TRY AGAIN. ";: INPUT 01 
10310 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" RE 
TYPE LINES 10000 TO 10020. REME 
MBER TO PLACE QUOTE MARKS AROU 
ND YOUR TITLE IN LINE 10000. 
10320 PRINT: PRINT" 10000 Ai*«(YO 
UR TITLE) 10010 L»<LENG 

TH/2) 10020 T=16-L. 

10330 PRINT: PRINT" DELETE LINES 
10300-10330 AND APPEND THIS TO 
YOUR MAIN PRO- ORAM. DON'T F 
ORGET TO LINK IT UP! 



40 024A 

90.....03CD 
END... 05FC 




162 0123 

END... 022B 



Listing 2 
100 CLS 

110 J=0:K=OiZZ=0 
120 A=RND<63)-1: AA=RND<15)+1 
130 B=RND<3i)-l:BB=RND<31) 
140 X»RND<8): Y=RND<4) 

145 R=RND<8) 

146 M=R+4 

150 Z = Z+l : IF Z = 20 THEN Z=0: 
CLS<T): GOTO 120 

155 T— RND <8) 

156 IF T=8 THEN SOUND 89, M 

157 IF T=7 THEN SOUND 108, M 

158 IF T=6 THEN SOUND 125, M 

159 IF T=5 THEN SOUND 133, M 

160 ZZ*Z-INT(Z/2)»2 

162 IF T=3 THEN SOUND 147, M 

163 IF T=2 THEN SOUND 159, M 

164 IF T=l THEN SOUND 170, M 

166 IF T =4 THEN PRINT @ 8," KOL 
AR'S DESIGNS ";:SOUND 176, M 

167 FOR S - 1 TO 400: NEXT S 
170 FOR J = A TO B STEP < < A>B) *2+ 
1)*X 

180 FOR K=AA TO BB STEP < <AA>BB) 
*2+l)*Y 

190 ON ZZ GOTO 200: RESET<J,K):G 

OTO 210 

200 RESETCJ jK) 

205 SET ( J , K, Y) 

210 NEXT K,J: FOR P=l TO 1000:NE 
XT: GOTO 120 



Listing 3 L 

10 '**#SEE TAKING * BASIC , SEPT. 
'83. THIS INFO WAS OMITTED AND 
ADDED TO GIVE YOU SOME PRACTICE 
IN COPYING LISTINGS EXACTLY AND 
TO HAVE A LITTLE FUN ADDING AN- 
OTHER BIT OF INFO TO YOUR EX- 
PANDING ARSENAL OF KNOWLEDGE. 
20 CLS 

30 PRINT@34,"T0 UTILIZE THE * IMA 
G I NARY VERTICAL LINE* CONCEP 

T TO NEATLYALLIGN THE ROWS IN A 
PARAGRAPH, WHEN USING < PR I NTS > S 
TATEMENTS, DO THE FOLLOWING:" 
40 PRINT@226> "IT IS ASSUMED YOU 
WILL USE TWOSPACES TO INDENT THE 
FIRST WORD OF THE SENTENCE OR P 
ARAGRAPH. LINE LOCATION IS FOU 
ND BY ADDING+2 TO THE FIRST PR IN 
T@ SCREEN ROW LOCATION. <2ND R 
0W=32+2) . 

50 PRINT: INPUT" TO CONTINUE, PRE 
SS <ENTER>";01 

60 CLS: PRINT664+2, "YOU MAY USE < 
PRINT@32+2,> OR YOU MAY USE <P 
RINT@34, >. 

70 PR I NTS 162, "DO NOT INCLUDE ANY 
SPACES BE- TWEEN THE FIRST QUOT 
E MARK AND THE FIRST LETTER OF 
THE SENTENCEOR PARAGRAPH." 
80 PRINT: PRINT: INPUT" TO CONTIN 
UE PRESS <ENTER<";01 
90 CLS: PRINTS34, "THE IMAGINARY L 
INE WILL BE UN-DER THE <,>. ALL 

FURTHER LINES IN THE PARAGRAPH 
WILL FALL UNDERTHE <,>. 
100 PRINTS192+2, "REMEMBER, THE 0 
NLY LOCATION NUMBERS YOU WILL 
USE TO FORMAT THE SENTENCE OR P 
ARAGRAPH WITH ATWO SPACE INDENTA 
TION WILL BE: 2; 34; 66; 98; 13 
o; 162; 194; 226; 258; 290; 32 
2; 354; 386; 418; 450; 482; " 
110 PRINT: INPUT" TO CONTINUE PR 
ESS <ENTER>"; Ai 

120 CLS:PRINT@66, "NEARLY ALL THE 
PROGRAM LINES IN THIS TUTORIAL 
USE <PRINTG>. YOU MAY COMPARE 

THE LINES IN THELISTING WITH THE 
DISPLAY. 

130 PRINT8226,"! THINK THAT I SH 
ALL NEVER SEEA POEM LOVELY AS A 
TREE OR A MAGAZINE AS GOOD AS 

'THE RAIN- BOW' TO KEEP MY INT 
EREST IN THE COLOR COMPUTER FROM 

FLAGGING! " 



66 the RAINBOW January 1984 




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HE 



EDUCATION OVERVIEW; 



Of What Value Are Traditional 

Skills In A Rapidly 

Changing Culture? 



By Michael Plog, Ph.D. 

Rainbow 
Contributing Editor 



I 




The January issue! 1 know you will get this magazine 
before the end of December, so please let me take this 
opportunity to say Merry Christmas and Happy New 
Year. If you did not get something special for your Color 
Computer for Christmas, why not buy yourself a present? 
Now, let's get to a thought for this month's article. 

Anytime a new technology is used in an educational set- 
ting, familiar arguments are pulled from ancient storage 
locations. When writing was first invented, many com- 
plained that it would ruin the memory of youth. With the 
advent of the typewriter, complaints about the loss of the art 
of penmanship were heard. Of course, the arguments were 
presented from the other side, also. What use is crowding the 
mind with all that information that can be written and 
reviewed anytime? What is the value of penmanship, espe- 
cially if all that is needed is a signature at the bottom of a 
letter? 

In modern times, the calculator has probably caused the 
greatest revival of this old argument, and the microcompu- 
ter will be next. One side will note the declining skills; the 
other side will ask the relevance of those skills. 

This article is a response to a letter I received from Max 
James, whose questions are used throughout. I am indebted 



(Michael Plog received his Ph.D. degree from the 
University of Illinois, the M.S. from Memphis State 
University, and the B.S.from the University of Ten- 
nessee. For his foreign /research language option 
required for the doctorate, he naturally selected com- 
puter language. Michael currently works for the Illi- 
nois State Board of Education as a research and eva- 
luation specialist.) 



to Mr, James for causing me to think hard about topics that 
can frankly be uncomfortable. 

Mr. James asked for my comments to a few questions: If 
pocket calculators can perform all arithmetical operations, 
Why should students spend time learning arithmetical skills? 
If an inexpensive microcomputer can solve algebra prob- 
lems, why learn paper and pencil algebraic procedures? Is 
there any justification for continuing to teach archaic sub- 
jects, such as Roman numerals; square and cube root extrac- 
tions; slide rule procedures; use of logarithms for multiply- 
ing, dividing, raising to powers, etc. 

Now do not misjudge Mr. James. Max is not a simple 
malcontent. The man majored in math, minored in educa- 
tion, obtained a M.A. degree, and made a living as an 
electronics engineer and computer expert. The questions are 
important, and will be addressed in and out pf the educa- 
tional community for months to come. Mr. James only got 
to these questions before others did. 

I must admit that my major was not math; I know a little 
about the subject, but am far from an expert, 1 think, how- 
ever, the basic questions can be asked for any field of study, 
not simply mathematics. 

For some questions discussed here, there is no justifica- 
tion, but a possible explanation. Teachers tend to teach 
what they know, and further, teach it the way they were 
taught. This causes a certain amount of inertia in curricu- 
lum, I will say that it is to the credit of American public 
schools that this inertia is not greater than it is. Some 
subjects (penmanship being one example) gradually fall 
from use and gently disappear. My aunts write beautifully; 
they had to pass penmanship when they were in school. My 
handwriting (we do not even call it penmanship anymore) is 
horrible; I used a typewriter in high school. 



68 the RAINBOW January 1964 



J imagine that some subjects, such as the use of a slide rule 
and cube root extractions, will follow the same path as 
penmanship, and gradually disappear from schools, except 
for those classes in the theory and history of mathematics. 

There is more to this debate and sincere questioning, 
however, than inertia. The definition of "education" is based 
on expectations of society. Our current society places no 
value on ability to form tools from pieces of flint. Yet ? in 
Neanderthal society, and even before, a young person's 
education would be incomplete without this skill. I can 
imagine an old stone knapper saying to a young, clumsy 
pupil, "Well, it may be functional. You tan cut with it, but 
your lines show a lack of grace!" Yes, the stone tools were 
artistic as well as Useful. Sort of like a teacher today telling a 
student, "Your program Will do the job, but it could be done 
with greater ease (and, yes, beauty) if you used a FORI 
NEXT loop here." 

We likewise have no need of recognizing poison plants, 
like some cultures today making a living by hunting and 
gathering. We simply have little need in our world of know- 
ing such things. 

But, knowledge of some information is expected, and 
considered necessary by the majority of members of our 
society, to operating within the cultural structure. For 
example, arithmetic skills fall in this category. In some 
societies, of course, addition (which is really nothing more 
than counting) is not important. Number systems go some- 
thing like, "One, two, three, many." Another example of 
knowledge considered essential in our society is elementary 
facts about an internal combustion engine. Even people who 
never drive know that a car needs gas and oil, and cannot be 
driven on a flat tire. 

Every society I know of includes history as one of the 
major things to know. A sense of belonging to some larger 
structure (country, philosophy) may not be restricted to the 
human species, but is certainly present in the entire range of 
social structures on the planet today. 

There are other "expected" skills and knowledge that 
must be mastered before members of a culture are willing to 
admit the young to adult status. We will not discuss all of 
them here. 

In the future, computer skills may be just as accepted and 
expected as rriath skills are now. At the moment, however, 
we are in transition. And societal transition takes a long 
time. The transition takes two forms. One group will speak 
of important things that are missing (but should not be) 
from schools. We are now seeing a wide range of people- 
not just computer nuts — discussing seriously the need for 
knowledge about computers for tomorrow's citizens. The 
second group of people are represented by the questions 
asked by Mr. James: Why are archaic topics so heavily 
present in schools? 

Expectations of society is not totally the answer, but is the 
most powerful explanation I can offer. A person without the 
minimum elements of expected knowledge is hampered in 
almost all communication with other members of the cul- 
ture. Naturally, in a pluralistic society such as ours, the 
expectations vary not only from one group to another, but 
among members of the same group. Schools have to fit the 
expectations of the major forces in the society, and please 
important minorities. At this particular time, the computer 
evangelist (I admit I fit this category) may be in a minority, 
but certainly growing in importance. 

1 rriay not have provided a justification for the questions 
asked by Mr. James. The explanation may be all there is; 
perhaps there is no reasonablejustificaiton. As an educator, 



I accept certain principles as assumptions. In mathematics, 
there are several assumptions that cannot be proved, but 
have to be accepted in order for the entire field of study to 
work properly. Well, in a similar manner, I have certain 
assumptions about education. 

An educated person is one who knows why things work. 
We (as a culture) need some people who know why arith- 
metic works, so the rest of us can use it. We need some 
people who know why computers work, so the rest of us can 
enjoy the use of our electronic tools. The more areas I know 
how things work, the less ignorant I am. It is the job of 
education (another assumption on my part) to reduce ignor- 
ance in as many areas as possible. 

M r. James, I hope this response at least partially addresses 
your questions. You have provided me with something to 
think about, and made me wonder and work a little. Thank 
you for helping my education. 

On to another topic, we owe congratulations to William 
Gattis. He has recently been promoted to Vice President, 
Radio Shack Education Division. Mr. Gattis helped imple- 
ment the Tandy Educational Grants program (which has 
awarded about $600,000 worth of products to non-profit 
institutions). He also designed and introduced the Tandy 
program offering BASIC and general introduction courses 
provided free to educators. Good job, Bill. 

See you next month. Until then, keep on thinking about 
education. 



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January 1984 the RAINBOW 69 



Losing This Action 'Pac'ed' 
Game Is A Real 'Pill' 



By Martin S. Montes 




C^ l hort and sweet" is the old adage describing quick 
action with good results. Such is the case with this 
k-Jpill-swallowing game called Pac Em. The pro- 
gram is short and the game play is oh so sweet. 

When typed in the 80C and RUN, the game provides you 
with a delectable platter of fuel pills. You are the large empty 
circle on the screen and your adversary is the large solid dot 
on the screen. Your objective is to eat all the pills on the 
screen by moving yourself over them using the four direction 
arrows. Avoid your adversary though, his only intent is to 
swallow you whole and end the game. 

If you maneuver carefully and swallow all your pills, you 
get a fresh but larger screen of pills. As you eat the pills your 
fuel increases. The solid pills contain extra fuel but be sure 
you get to them before your foe does to enjoy their full 
potential. Your fuel is gauged by the solid bar on the bottom 
of the screen. Moving in any direction uses fuel. Running 
out of fuel ends the game. 

If your enemy gets wise to your gobble pattern, leave some 
"nuke-poo" in his path to slow him down. The more nuke- 
poo you leave for him, the longer he stays paralyzed when he 



(Martin S. Montes is a civil engineer working for the 
Army Corps of Engineers in Fort Worth. He currently 
heads a company called Assembly Lines Inc., a Dal- 
las/ Fort Worth firm that teaches individuals, in their 
own home or business, how to custom program their 
computers in BASIC .) 



eats it. To dispense nuke-poo, merely press the space bar. 
Note — leaving nuke-poo decreases your fuel. 




The listing: 



10 CLS:PMODE 4,1: PCLS: SCREEN 1,1 
20 CLEAR: DIM P(20,20),K«(4),B(20 
,20): POKE 65495, O 
30 K*(1)=CHR*(9) :K*(2)=CHR*(94) : 
K* <3> =CHR* (8) : K* (4) =CHR* < 10) 
40 X=8: Y=6:F=50 

50 PCL9:lX-INT<256/(X+i)):lY-INT 

(182/ (Y+l) ) 

60 LINE <3,3)-<252,3),PSET:LINE 

-(252, 178) ,PSET: LINE - (3,178), PS 

ET:LINE -<3,3) P PSET 

70 LINE (20, 182)-(20, 190) ,PSET:L 

INE -<F, 190) ,PSET:LINE -<F,1S2), 

PSET:LINE -(20, 182) ,PSET: PAINT < 

21, 185) , 1 

80 DZ=2+(X+Y)/10 

90 N=X*Y 

10O FOR 1=1 TO X:FOR J=l TO Y:CI 
RCLE < IX*I , IY*J) , 3: B ( I , J ) =0: IF R 



70 the RAINBOW January 1984 



LINE DESCRIPTION 

10 Set up the high resolution mode 

20 K$ array holds 4 arrow keys P matrix 

holds fuel units gained for landing on 

that spot. 

B matrix holds "nuke-poo" units dis- 
pensed at that spot. 

30 Assign your arrow keys 

40 Start with an 8 by 6 matrix & 50 fuel 

units. 

50 Find out the pixel spacing between pills, 

(X & Y) 

60 Draw screen border. 

70 Draw fuel gauge strip. 

80 Set dizziness factor for your opponent, 

higher the DZ, the faster he moves. 

90 Find the starting number of pills. 

100 Draw a fresh screen of pills and give 

some pills bonus fuel potential by let- 
ting P matrix equal RND(23). 

120 Starting direction of yoiir travel. 

130 Starting location of you (X0 & Y0) and 

your opponent (XI & Yl). 
140 Make sure the starting distance between 

you and your opponent is not too close. 
150 Draw both you and your opponent on 

the screen, paint your opponent a solid 

white. 

160 Check if any fuel was gained on your 

last jump. 

170 Increase fuel amount by number 

of fuel units in that pill, see if all pills 
have been eaten. 

180 Assign present location (in pixels) to 

variables A & B. 

190 Erase that fuel pill by painting it black. 



200 Eat all that pill's fuel, decrease fuel 

gauge line by subroutine 210. 

230 Get a key from the keyboard, if a space 

bar then leave "nuke-pbo" at your pres- 
ent location (Increment B matrix). 

240-270 Find out which arrow key was pressed. 

280-310 Change present coordinates of yourself 
and check for possible wraparound. 

320 Erase and redraw yourself at a new 

location. 

330 Assign new pixel coordinate for enemy. 

340 See if had any fuel under enemy (P 

Matrix) 

350 Find direction (+, - or 0) of enemy, rela- 

tive to your position on the screen. 

360 See if your enemy swallowed too much 

"nuke-poo" and cannot move (GOTO 
400) 

370 See if enemy moves towards you in the 

X direction. 
380 Or in the Y direction 

390 Give enemy his new pixel coordinates. 

400 Draw the enemy on the screen, fill him 

with white. 

410 If any bonus fuel was under the enemy, 

reduce it to 1 fuel unit, 

420 If your coordinates and your enemy's 

are the same, then you have been eaten. 

430 See if enemy landed on some "nuke- 

poo", if so then decrease variable DZ, 
making him less active. 

440 Make enemy a little more active, 

helps him recover from eating "nuke- 
poo." 

450 Start next move. 

460 End the game and score. 



ND<X+Y>=1 THEN P < I , J) =RND (23) : PA 
INT <IX*I P IY*J>,l:SOUND P<I S J)*1 
O f lELSE P<I,J>=1: PLAY"L220; A" 
HO NEXtJ,I 
120 DX«0:DY=0 

130 xo=rnd<x):yo=rnd<y):xi~rnd<x 
) :yi=rnd<y> 

140 IF AB9<X0-X1)<4 OR ABS<YO-Yl 
><4 THEN 130 

150 CIRCLE <XO#IX,YO#IY) ,6:CIRCL 
E <X1*IX, Y1*IY) ,7:PAINT <Xl*IX+4 
,Y1*IY> p l:PAINT <X1*IX+4,Y1*IY> , 
O 

160 if p(xo,yo>=0 then 180 

170 for i«l to p(xo,yo) :play "li 

70» "+str* < int < 1/2*1) ) :f»f+1:line 

(f, 182) -<f,190),pset: next i : t=t+ 

p(xo,yo):n=n-l:if n=0 then x=x+1 

:y»y+i:goto so 

180 a=xo*ix:b=yo*iy 

190 IF P<XO,YO>00 THEN PAINT (A 
,B),l: PAINT <A,B),0 



200 P<XO,YO)=0:GOSUB 210:G0T0220 
210 LINE <F, 182) -<F, 190), PRESET: 
F«F-l:PLAY"L150jC": IF F«19 THEN 
PR I NTS 170* "OUT OF FUEL":80T0 460 

ELSE RETURN 
220 REM 

230 A*=INKEY*:IF A*=" " THEN B<X 
O, YO) *B < XO, YO) +3: PLAY" V30; L200| O 

i ; e " : pse t < a+rnd < 5 ) -3 , b+rnd < 5 ) -3 > 

:GOSUB 210: GOTO 230 else IF A*=" 
" THEN 280 

240 IF A*=K*<1) THEN DX=l:DY-0:G 
OTO 280 

250 IF A*«K1K2) THEN DY«-1:DX«0: 
GOTO 2SO 



260 IF A*-K*<3) 

GOTO 280 

270 IF A*»K*<4) 



THEN DX«-i:DY«0: 



THEN DY-l:DX-0 



280 XO=XO+DX:IF XO=0 THEN XO=X 
290 IF XO>X THEN XO»l 
300 YO=YO+DY: IF YO=0 THEN YO«Y 
310 IF YO>Y THEN YO=l 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 71 



320 CIRCLE (A, B) ,6,0: CIRCLE <X0* 
IX,Y0*IY),6 

330 A=X 1*1 X:B=Y1*IY: PAINT (A+4^ B 
),0 

340 IF P(X1,Y1X>0 THEN CIRCLE ( 
A, B) , 3 

350 EX=SGN<X0-X1> : EY=SGN < YO-Y 1 > 
360 IF RND < DZ >< = 1 THEN 400 
370 IF RND(2>=1 THEN IF X1+EX>0 
AND XH-EX<=X THEN X1=X1+EX:B0T0 
390 

380 IF Y1+EY>0 AND Y1+EY<=Y THEN 

Y1-Y1-HEY 
390 A=X1*IX:B=Y1#IY 
400 CIRCLE <A,B) ,7: PAINT (A+4,B) 

»i 

410 IF P<X1,Y1>>0 THEN P<X1,Y1)= 
1 

420 IF X1=X0 AND Y1=Y0 THEN FOR 
1-1 TO lOOOiNEXT I : PRINT9266, "SO 

rry . " : sound 1,30: goto 460 

430 if b(x1,y1)<>0 then for 1-1 
to b ( xi , yl ) *4: play"l200; a" : nexti 
:dz»dz/B(xi,yi):b<xi,yi)»o 

440 DZ=DZ+.l 
450 GOTO 160 

460 PRINTS325, "YOU SCORE "T" POINT 



About Your Subscription 



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72 the RAINBOW January 1984 



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Replacement Keyboard from Key 
Tronic . . . the world's leading 
keyboard manufacturer for 
computer terminals. 

FEATURES 

• 15-20% higher data input rate compared 
to standard color computer keyboard. 

• User programmable function key. 

• Familiar typewriter layout. 

• Complete legend description. 

• High reliability -keys do not stick or jam. 



Additional features include — high spring 
force on "clear" and "break" keys to 
prevent entry errors, full sculptured keytop 
array with low profile keytops, and 
locating "pips" on home row keys. 

ORDERING INFO: 

Suggested Retail Price: $89.95, includes 
plug adapter, part #500c, for models 
produced after Oct. '82 (Rev F and 
later). To order Model KB-500 call Toll Free: 
1-800-262-6006 for the retailer closest to 
you (7 am- 3pm Pacific Time). Warranty 
information may be obtained free of charge by 
writing to the address below. 





i 1BK 

HAM 




key tronic 



'Radio Shack is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp, 

|A key tronic 

■^■^ THE RESPONSIVE KEYBOARD COMPANY Dept. E2-P.O. Box 14687- Spokane, Washington 9921 4 USA 
RETAILERS: For the Distributor in your area, call Toll Free 1-800-262-6006 Dept. D (7. am— 3 pm Pacific Time) 



UTILITY 



A Bigger Byte 

By Ray 



Would you like another 8K of memory available 
from Extended BASIC? This machine language 
utility program relocates BASIC and Extended 
basic into the 64K RAM chips. Once this is done you have 
the choice of regular 32K or 40K RAM, Map 1. 

This program will only work on a computer with the 
completed 64K upgrade and I don't think it will work with a 
disk system. The famous speed up {POKE 65495,0) will not 
work. 

All BASIC and Extended BASIC commands will function 
normally; however, some machine language programs may 
crash. The only way to tell is to try them. 

32K Extended BASIC Mode 

If you choose the 32K mode, all basic and most, if not all, 
machine language programs will run as normal. Since the 
ROMs are now in RAM they can be altered. As an example, 
try POKEing different values into memory location 41384. 
This has an effect on the cursor. You might also try POKE- 
ing values into 41805 and then listing a program. You will 
find the screen scroll has been altered. Some commands 
have already been changed by the utility, more on this later. 
The 32K mode can be useful for making backup copies of 
ROM Packs since this area is also copied to the 64K chips. 

40K Extended basic Mode 

When this option is chosen, Extended basic is moved to 
high RAM starting at 57088 and ending at 65279. This still 
leaves the memory from 49152 to 57087 free for your own 
machine language utility use. BASIC RAM work-space now 
ends at 40960. This utility program changes all of the ROM 's 
long branches, jumps, and tables to correspond to its new 
location. When you PRINT MEM, you will get a value of 
33063, and after a PCLEAR 1 command you should have 
37671 bytes available. These values are 8192 bytes larger 
than normal, reflecting the new basic RAM work space. 
Some BASIC programs will have to be modified to utilize this 

(For the past 17 years, Ray has been involved in the 
performing and visual arts as a professional musician 
and a studio potter. Three years ago he caught the 
computer bug and is now taking a computer engineer- 
ing course at Sault College.) 



additional memory, this usually means changing the CLEAR 
command by 8192. 

Command Changes 

The utility is set up to make three changes to the BASIC 
ROM routines. The first allows you to use the PCLEAR 0 
command. This keeps the basic program buffer intact and 
causes free memory to increase to 39207. If you then 
CLEAR 0 you get another 200 bytes for a total of 39407, 
almost 40K. It should be noted that with the first graphics 
page now available for program storage, a PCLS statement, 
or for that matter any Hi-Res graphics command, will des- 
troy your BASIC program. For this reason, this statement is 
most useful for database and non-hi-resolution graphic pro- 
grams. The CLOAD command has been altered slightly. 
When an I/O error is encountered, the audio is no longer 
turned off automatically. This is to allow easier tape 
searches. The last change made to BASIC is in the working of 
the trace function, TRON. I have replaced the square 
brackets "[ ]" with minus signs This change makes the 
reading of a trace much easier. 
Machine Language Utility 

This program was written using Radio Shack's excellent 
EDTASM+ ROM Pak. You should be able to enter the 
code (Listing 1 ) with other editor/ assemblers as long as they 
use standard 6809 mnemonics and assembler directives. The 
program originates at 3 1 744, but can be re-assembled to any 
location that you wish. This code is not position independ- 
ent, Save the source code for further reference and the 
assembled code for immediate use. Be sure there are no 
errors or omissions. A small error could go unnoticed and 
cause problems later. For those without assemblers, enter 
the BASIC code (Listing 2) and run it. Follow the instructions 
for saving the completed ML code. This is what you will 
later CLOADM and EXEC When the utility is executed, 
any BASIC programs in memory are deleted, as this is the 
same as a cold start power up. 

Listing 1: 

7C0O 00100 0R6 I7C00 

7C00 BD A928 00200 CLS JSR «A?2B 



74 the RAINBOW January 1984 



For Basic 

G a u v r e a u 









00300 *R0H TO RAH HOVE 


7C49 


27 


06 


04100 


BEQ BETA 








00400 




7C4B 


AD 


9F A002 


04200 


JSP, [*A002] 


7C03 

/ wvv 


1A 

* H 


50 


00500 


ORCC 1150 


7C4F 


20 


F6 


04300 


BRA PQUE 


I WVJ 




y vvv 


00600 


LDX 118000 


7C51 


AD 


9F AOOO 


04400 


6ETA JSR [IA0001 


7PAR 






00700 R0HV 


LDD ,X 


7C55 


27 


FA 


04500 


BEQ 6ETA 


/tvn 


B7 


FFDF 


00800 


STA I0FFDF 


7C57 


BD 


A928 


04600 


JSR IA928 


/LUU 


ED 


81 


00900 


STD ,X+J" 


7C5A 


81 


31 


04700 


CHPA 1131 


/Lvr 


B7 


FFDE 


01000 


STA tOFFDE 


7C5C 


27 


OC 


04800 


BEQ FKRAM 


7P1 D 
/LIZ 


BC 


FEFE 


01100 


CHPX WFEFE 


7C5E 


61 


32 


04900 


CHPA #132 

win n ?i f tfi> 


/LID 


26 


Fl 


01200 


BNE ROHV 


7C60 


26 


pi 


05000 

V w v V V 


BNE RAHRAH 


/LI/ 


B7 


FFDF 


01300 


STA *0FFDF 








05100 


*32K JUMP 








01400 *SET TO ALLOW PCLEARO 








05200 










01500 




7C62 


BE 


0000 


05300 




/win 


CC 


1212 


01600 


LDD 1(1212 


7C65 


1C 


AF 


05400 


ANDCC #*AF 


7C1D 


FD 


968F 


01700 


STD $968F 


7C67 


7E 


8002 


O5500 


JHP $8002 


7C20 


FD 


96A3 


01800 


STD *96A3 








05600 


t40K LOOP TO RELOCATE RAH 


7C23 


FD 


96A5 


01900 


STD *96A5 


7C6A 


8E 


3430 


05700 


FKRAM LDX 4*3430 








02000 'DISABLE AUDIOOFF ON ERR 


7C6D 


BF 


80EB 


05800 


STX *80E8 








02100 




7C70 


8E 


8000 


05900 


LDX 1*8000 


7C26 


FD 


AC4F 


02200 


STD *AC4F 


7C73 


10BE 


DFOO 


06000 


LDY l*DF00 


7C2? 


B7 


AC51 


02300 


STA *AC51 


7C77 


EC 


84 


06100 


HLOOP LDD ,X 








02400 tCHANSE 


TRON [] TO - 


7C79 


6F 


81 


06200 


CLR ,X++ 








02500 




7C7B 


ED 


Al 


06300 


STD ,Y++ 


7C2C 


86 


2D 


02600 


LDA t$2D 


7C7D 


8C 


AOOO 


06400 


CHPX t*A000 


7C2E 


B7 


82E3 


02700 


STA $82E3 


7C80 


26 


F5 


06500 


BNE HLOOP 


7C31 


B7 


82ED 


02800 

02900 tCHANGE 


STA *82ED 
EX-BASIC HEADING 








06600 
06700 


♦RESET 2 DISPATCH TABLES 








03000 




7C82 


8E 


EOFO 


06800 


DISPT1 LDX H0E0FO 


7C34 


8E 


7DD7 


03100 


LDX IHESSG 


7C85 


A6 


84 


06900 


DLO0P1 LDA ,X 


7C37 


108E 80E9 


03200 


LDY M80E8 


7C87 


8B 


5F 


07000 


ADDA »*5F 


7C3B 


A6 


80 


03300 CHEAD 


LDA ,X+ 


7C89 


A7 


81 


07100 


STA ,X++ 


7C3D 


27 


04 


03400 


BEQ RAHRAH 


7C8B 


8C 


El IE 


07200 


CMPX #*0E11E 


7C3F 


A7 


AO 


03500 


STA ,Y+ 


7C8E 


26 


F5 


07300 


BNE DL00P1 


7C4 1 


20 


F8 


03600 


BRA CHEAD 


7C90 


8E 


E157 


07400 


DISPT2 LDX IJ0E157 








03700 * DEC IDE 


ON 32K OR 40K 


7C93 


A6 


84 


07500 


DL00P2 LDA ,X 








03800 




7C95 


8B 


5F 


07600 


ADDA t(5F 


7C43 


108E 7E2A 


03900 RAHRAH 


LDY tOUEST 


7C97 


A7 


81 


07700 


STA ,X++ 


7C47 


A4 


AO 


04000 PQUE 


LDA ,Y+ 


7C99 


8C 


E173 


07800 


CHPX H0E173 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 75 



1VIJV $$$ in the 
Junior's Revenge Playoff!! 






COLORBOWL 
FOOTBALL 



Big League graphics! 2 
players challenge each 
other or 1 can practice 
offense against the 
computer. 7 defensive & 8 
offensive plays plus many 
formations. 

32KCass $ 26 95 
32K Disk 429*' 



AND MORE; Mark Data, Tom Mix, Frank Hogg, 
Botek, Kraft. WICO, Star Kits, Dugger's Growing 
System, Amdek, Signalman, C. Itoh, Compu- 
Serve, Comrex, Taxan, Gorilla & More! Books 
Galore! Largest selection of CoCo Products 
from One Company! 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

Computerware is a federally registered trademark of Computerware. 



Contest Rules 



To enter, send the following to Computerware^ Junior's 
Revenge Playoff, Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024. Entries must 
be postmarked on or before February 28, 1984>; 

A photograph of Junior' s Revenge high score screen. 
A copy of your receipt for Junior's Revenge from Com- 
puterware or an authorized Computerware dealer, The 
name on the receipt must be the same as the entrant 
or the entry will be disqualified. 
Winners will be determined to be the three highest scores 
and will receive; 
1st Place (top score) . , > .$150 gift certificate 

for Computerware software 

2nd Place (second highest) r.., , .$100 gift certificate 

for Computerware software 

3rd Place (third highest) .....$ 50 gift certificate 

for Computerware software 
Winners will be notified by certified mail and announced in 
the May 1983 issue of Rainbow Magazine. 



VTERWARE' 



P.O, Box 668 • 
(619)436*3512 



Enclnttat, CA 02024 



Mall to: COMPUTERWARE' 

P.O. Box 666 • Dept. K2 
EncinlUa, CA 92024 • (619) 436-3512 



DESCRIPTION 



VISA □ MASTERCARD □ CHECK □ 



•SHIP. & TAX 
TOTAL 



CARD • _ 
NAME _ 
ADDRESS , 
CITY 



ZIP 



'Shipping: Under f 100 — add $2 surfaca, ti air/Canada 
Over liOO — add 2V. surfaca, 5% air'Canada 



calif, raaidanta add 6% aalaa tax. 



7nar 

fill 


Iq 


rD 


A70AA 




BNE DL00P2 








ABAAA 

08000 


tHAIN TO CHN6 ADDRESSES 








08100 






7C9E 


BE 


DFOO 


a nn a a 

08200 


CHN6 


LBX ttDFOO 


7CA1 


108E 7D33 


08300 




LDY ILIST 


7CA5 


A6 


80 


08400 


CLOP? 


LDA ,X+ 


7CA7 


81 


HP 

8E 


08500 




CHPA i*8E 


7CA9 


27 


IB 

2B 


08600 




npn t liit 

BEQ INIT 


/CAB 


81 


on 
BO 


08700 




CMPA IIOBD 


7CAD 


27 


IT 

27 


ABBA A 

08800 




BEQ INIT 


in fi p 

7CAF 


81 


rc 
Cc 


ABAAA 

08900 




PUPA ilAAPP 

CnPA tiOCE 


7CB1 


27 


23 


ABAAA 

09000 




BPB TklTT 

BEQ INIT 


7CB3 


01 


ft 


AB 1 AA 

09100 




CHPA f f/E 


7CB5 


27 


• p 
IP 


AOIAA 

09200 




ftp A TklTT 

BEQ INIT 


7CB7 


ol 

81 


11 


09300 




PUDA J. 4- 1 4 

CnPA till 


7CBt 


27 


15 


AB J AA 

09400 




BPB PDCP1 

BEQ SPECL 


inn* 

7CBB 


8C 


FcrF 


ABCA A 

09500 


rnuynu 

connoN 


pubv i*rcrr 

CnPX IfFEFF 


7CBE 


27 


0E 


AB /.AA 

09600 




BPB PktTVBBT 

BEQ ENDPRT 


7CC0 


AC 


A4 


09700 




CMPX ,Y 


7CC2 


24 


El 


A ABA A 

09800 




Bfcip ai Ann 

BNE CLOOP 


7CC4 


31 


22 


A Aft A A 

09900 




1 PAU 1 if 

LEAY 2,Y 


7CC6 


30 


B4 


10000 




LEAX [,¥} 


7CC8 


31 


ii 
22 


1 A 1 AA 

10100 




LEAY 2,Y 


7CCA 


30 


A 1 

01 


10200 




LEAX 1,X 


7CCC 


1A 

20 


TV "J 

D7 


10300 




BRA CLOOP 


7CCE 


HA 

20 


16 


10400 


ENDPRT 


BRA L0NBR 








1 ACAA 

10500 


•SPECIAL CASES 








1 A L AA 

10600 






7CD0 


A6 


OA 

80 


1 A*7AA 

10700 


SPECL 


LDA ,1* 


7CD2 


81 


0*7 

83 


i ABAA 

10800 




CNPA t*B3 


7CD4 


1 i. 

26 




10900 




BNE CONNON 


7CD6 


A6 


84 


11000 


Wit 


LDA ,X 


7CD8 


81 


BA 

80 


11100 




CHPA #$80 


7CDA 


ir 

25 


DF 


11200 




BL0 CONNON 


7CDC 


Q 1 

81 


oc 

7T 


1 1 1 AA 

11300 




CNPA H9F 


7CDE 


22 


no 
Do 


1 1 J AA 

11400 




BHI CONNON 


7CE0 


Ofi 

8B 


CP 

5F 


1 1 f AA 

11500 




ADDA t$5F 


7CE2 


A7 


Ol 

81 


11600 




STA ,X++ 


7CE4 


1A 

20 


D5 


11700 




BRA CONNON 








4 1 BAA 

11800 


♦CHNG LONG BR OFFSETS 








t 1 BAA 

11900 






7CE6 


BP 

8E 


7D59 


1 1AAA 

12000 


L0NBR 


LDX ILTABLE 


7CE9 


86 


5F 


| At AA 

12100 




LDA t*5F 


7CEB 


B7 


7D32 


12200 




STA TENP0 


7CEE 


70 


7D32 


12300 


NEG 


NEG TENP0 


7CF1 


A6 


94 


1 1 1 AA 

12400 


LBR00P 


LDA I,X1 


7CF3 


BB 


7D32 


12500 




ADDA TENP0 


7CF6 


A7 


94 


12600 




STA C,XJ 


7CF8 


30 


02 


12700 




LEAX 2,X 


7CFA 


8C 


7DA3 


12800 




CNPX 12+HIDTBL 


7CFD 


27 


EF 


12900 




BEQ NEG 


7CFF 


8C 


7DD7 


13000 




CNPX 12+ENDTBL 


7D02 


26 


ED 


13100 




BNE LBR0DP 








1 71AA 

13200 


»«0P UP A000 BASIC R0H 








13300 






7D04 


8E 


A0D1 


13400 




LDX «A0D1 


7D07 


86 


?E 


13500 




LDA t$7E 


7D09 


A7 


80 


13600 




STA ,X+ 


7D0B 


CC 


DF02 


13700 




LDD «$0DF02 


7D0E 


ED 


84 


13800 




STD ,X 



7D10 86 


9F 


13900 


LDA #$9F 


7DI2 B7 


BCB5 


14000 


STA 1BC85 


7D1S 8E 


A084 


14100 


LDX MA084 


7S1B CC 


8E9F 


14200 


LDD #$8E9F 


7D1B ED 


81 


14300 


STD ,X++ 


7D1D CC 


FE7E 


14400 


LDD «$FE7E 


7D20 ED 


81 


14500 


STD ,X++ 


7D22 CC 


A093 


14600 


LDD MA093 


7D25 ED 


84 


14700 


STD ,X 


7D27 4F 




14800 


CLRA 


7D28 97 


71 


14900 


STA |71 






15000 *40K JUMP 






15100 




7D2A 8E 


0000 


15200 


LDX tfO 


7D2D 1C 


AF 


15300 


ANDCC i$AF 


7D2F 7E 


A027 


15400 


JNP *A027 






15500 








15600 *HAIN PR06RAN END IS 






15700 




7D32 




15800 TENP0 


rnb m 






15900 *LIST OF AREAS TO SK 






16000 




7D33 


DFDA 


16100 LIST 


FDB tODFDA 


7D35 


E03B 


16200 


FDB J0E03B 


7D37 


E083 


16300 


FDB *0E083 


7D39 


E173 


16400 


FDB *0E173 


7D3B 


E2AB 


16500 


FDB *0E2AB 


7D3D 


E346 


16600 


FDB I0E346 


7D3F 


E3C4 


16700 


FDB *0E3C4 


7011 


E3F1 


16800 


FDB «0E3F1 



^flfeCOMPUTER 

CASSETTE 

DUPLICATING 



ALL COMPUTERS 

INCLUDING EPSON 
MICRO CASSETTES 

100% GUARANTEED 
CALL: 213/882-5210 



/Ibbey 
"ape Duplicators 

9525 Vassar Ave.#R1, 
Chatsworth, CA 91311 

January 1984 the RAINBOW 77 



7D43 


E80B 


16900 


FOB IOE80B 


7D45 


EBOF 

tovr 


17000 


FOB I0E80F 

1 WW f VkWVl 


7D47 

/ w~/ 


Finn 

r t vv 


17100 

i / 1 Vv 


FDB I0F1DD 

i ww f vi t ww 


7D49 


F1E5 


17200 


FDB I0F1E5 

1 WW ▼ V 1 tkW 


7D4B 


F606 


17300 


FDB I0F606 

1 W fVI wvw 


7D4D 


F60E 


17400 


FDB I0F60E 

1 WW ▼ V 1 wvw 


7D4F 

/ wTl 


FB5B 


17500 


FDB $0FB5B 

1 WW VVI www 


7D5I 

/ U J 1 


FBB6 


17600 


FDB I0FBB6 

1 WW f VI www 


7D53 

/ www 


FD79 

r v 1 7 


17700 


FDB I0FD79 

1 WW f VI VI / 


7D55 


FDAO 


17800 


FDB I0FDA0 


7D57 


FEFF 


17900 


FDB I0FEFF 






18000 (LIST OF LONG BRANC 






18100 






DFAE 


18200 LTABLE 


FDB IDFAE 


7D5B 


EOFA 


18300 


FDB IE0FA 


7D5D 


E220 


18400 


FDB IE220 


7D5F 


E232 


18500 


FDB $E232 


7D61 


E24F 


18600 


FDB IE24F 


7D63 


E29E 


1B700 


FDB IE29E 


7D65 


E34B 


18800 


FDB IE34B 


7D67 


E379 


18900 


FDB $E379 


7D69 


E3C1 


19000 


FDB IE3C1 


7DAB 


E441 


19100 


FDB IE441 


7D6D 


E4FC 


19200 


FDB IE4FC 


7D6F 


E704 


19300 


FDB *E704 


7D71 


E73A 


19400 


FDB IE73A 


7D73 


E7EA 


19500 


FDB $E7EA 


7D75 


E872 


19600 


FDB >E872 


7D77 


EB40 


19700 


FDB $EB40 


7D79 


EB6B 


19800 


FDB IEB68 


7D7B 


EB79 


19900 


FDB $EB79 


7D7D 

/ WV If 


EBAF 


20000 


FDB tEBAF 


7D7F 


EBE8 


20100 


FDB $EBE8 


7DB1 


ECBB 


20200 


FDB IEC8B 


7DB3 


EEA9 


20300 


FDB $EEA9 

1 WW Tkbn / 


7DB5 


F220 


20400 


FDB $F220 

1 WW f 1 


7DB7 


F293 


20500 


FDB *F293 


7DB9 


F2E4 


20600 


FDB IF2E4 


7D8B 


F314 


20700 


FDB »F314 


7DBD 


F31A 


20800 


FDB IF31A 


7D8F 


F35C 


20900 


FDB *F35C 


7D91 


F461 


21000 


FDB IF441 


7D93 


F7DB 


21100 


FDB IF7DB 


7D95 


F8C8 


21200 


FDB IF8C8 


7D97 


FBD5 


21300 


FDB *F8D5 


7D99 


F941 


21400 


FDB *F941 


7D9B 

/ w7» 


F9D8 
r 7wo 


21500 


FDB *F?DB 


7D9D 


FB45 


21600 


FDB *FB45 


7D9F 

I V 71 


FF03 

r bvw 


21700 


FDB IFE03 


7DA1 


FF3F 

r Cwr 


21800 HIDTBL 


FDB IFE3F 






21900 * THESE TO BE INCRE/ 






22000 




7DA3 


DFDF 


22100 


FDB I0DFDF 


7DA5 


DFE1 


22200 


FDB tODFEl 


7DA7 




22300 


FDB I0DFE& 


7DA9 

i un 7 


DFF4 

Ml CI 


22400 


FDB I0DFE4 


7DAB 


F19C 


22500 


FDB $0Fi9C 


7DAD 


F19E 


22600 


FDB I0F19E 


7DAF 


F1A0 


22700 


FDB I0F1A0 


7DBJ 


F1A2 


22800 


FDB *0F1A2 


78 


the RAINBOW 


January 1984 



7DB3 
7DB5 
7DB7 
7DB9 
7DBB 
7DBD 
7DBF 
7DC1 
7DC3 
7DC5 
7DC7 
7DC9 
7DCB 
7DCD 
7DCF 
7DD1 
7DD3 
7DD5 



7DD7 

7DE2 
7DE4 

7E04 
7E14 
7E15 
7E28 
7E29 
7E2A 

7E4A 



F1A4 
F38A 
F38C 
F38E 
F390 
F392 
E37B 
F739 
F73B 
F73E 
F740 
F743 
F745 
F748 
F74A 
F74D 
F74F 
FC11 



33 

0D0D 
56 

45 

0D 
4E 
0D 
00 
50 

00 

0000 



22900 
23000 
23100 
23200 
23300 
23400 
23500 
23600 
23700 
23800 
23900 
24000 
24100 
24200 
24300 
24400 
24500 
24600 
24700 
24800 
24900 

25000 
25100 



25200 
25300 
25400 
25500 
25600 

25700 QUEST 



FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 
FDB 

ENDTBL FDB 
•THINGS FOR 



$0F1A4 
I0F38A 
I0F38C 
♦0F38E 
I0F390 
♦0F392 
«0E37B 
♦0F739 
♦0F73B 
♦0F73E 
♦0F740 
$0F743 
*0F745 
♦0F748 
♦OF74A 
♦OF74D 
*0F74F 
♦0FC11 
THE SCREEN 



25800 FINS 
25900 



HESSB FCC /32K R0H-RAH/ 
FDB tODOD 

FCC /VERSION 1.1 1983 BY 

RAY GAUVREAU/ 
FCC /EXTENDED BASIC / 
FCB $0D 

FCC /NOW IN 64K RAH NODE/ 
FCB I0D 
FCB 10 

FCC /PRESS 1 FOR 40K 
2 FOR 32K/ 

FCB «0 




Listing 2: 

10 CLSIPRINT" ONE MOMENT PLEASE" 

20 FOR G=31744 TO 32330 

30 READ P*:P=VAL<"&H"+P*> 

32 PRINT@32,G,P* 

40 POKE G,P 

50 NEXT GICLS 

60 PR I NT "NOW TO SAVE THE PROGRAM 
TYPE" 

70 PR I NT " CSAVEM " ; CHR* < 34 ) ; " FORTY 
K";CHR*<34> ; ",31744,32330,31744" 
80 PRINT" TO RUN IT TYPE EXEC317 
44" 

90 'DATA IN HEX 

100 DATABD, A9,28, 1 A, 50, 8E, 90, 00, 
EC, 84, B7, FF, DF, ED, 81 , B7, FF, DE, SC 
,FE,FE,26,F1,B7,FF,DF,CC, 12, 12, F 
D,96,8F,FD,96, A3,FD,96, A5,FD,AC, 
4F, B7, AC, 51 , 86, 2D, B7, 82, E3, B7, 82 
, ED, 8E, 7D, D7, 10, 8E, 80, E8, A6, 80, 2 
7,04, A7,A0,20,F8, 10, 8E, 7E, 2A, A6, 
AO, 27, 06, AD, 9F, AO, 02, 20 
110 * 



HOMEBASE™ 

THE 
COMPLETE 
TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER 

DATABASE 



120 DATAF6,AD,9F,A0,00 J 27,FA,BD, 
A9, 28, 81 , 31 , 27, OC, 81 , 32, 26, El , 8E 
, 00, 00, 1C, AF, 7E, 80, 02, 8E, 34, 30, B 
F, 80, E8, 8E, 80, 00, 10, 8E, DF, 00, EC, 
84, 6F, 81 , ED, Al , 8C, AO, 00, 26, F5, 8E 
, EO, FO, A6, 84, 8B, 5F, A7, 81 , 8C, El , 1 

E, 26, F5, 8E, El , 57, A6, 84, 8B, 5F, A7, 
81 , 8C, El , 73, 26, F5, 8E, DF 

130 p 

140 DATAOO, 10, 8E, 7D, 33, A6, 80, 81 , 
8E, 27, 2B, 81 , BD, 27, 27, 81 , CE, 27, 23 
,81,7E,27, IF, 81, 11,27, 15,8C,FE,F 

F, 27,0E,AC,A4,26,E1,31,22,30,B4, 
31 , 22, 30, 01 , 20, D7, 20, 16, A6, 80, 81 
, 83, 26, E5, A6, 84, 81 , 80, 25, DF, 81 , 9 
F, 22, DB, 8B, 5F, A7, 81 , 20, D5, 8E, 7D, 
59, 86, 5F, B7, 7D, 32, 70, 7D 

150 9 

1 60 D AT A32 , A6 , 94 , BB , 7D , 32 , A7 , 94 , 
30, 02, 8C, 7D, A3, 27, EF, 8C, 7D, D7, 26 
, ED, 8E, AO, Dl , 86, 7E, A7, 80, CC, DF, O 
2,ED,84,86,9F,B7,BC,85,8E, AO, 84, 
CC, 8E, 9F, ED, 81 , CC, FE, 7E, ED, 81 , CC 
, AO, 93, ED, 84, 4F, 97, 71 , 8E, 00, 00, 1 
C, AF, 7E, AO, 27, 00, DF, DA, EO, 3B, EO, 
83, El , 73, E2, AB, E3, 46, E3 
170 • 

1 80 D AT AC4 , E3 , F 1 , EB , OB , E8 , OF , F 1 , 
DD, Fl , E5, F6, 06, F6, OE, FB, 5B, FB, B6 
, FD, 79, FD, AO, FE, FF, DF, AE, EO, FA, E 
2, 20, E2, 32, E2, 4F, E2, 9E, E3, 4B, E3, 
79, E3, CI , E4, 41 , E4, FC, E7, 04, E7, 3A 
, E7, EA, E8, 72, EB, 40, EB, 68, EB, 79, E 
B, AF, EB, E8, EC, 8B, EE, A9, F2, 20, F2, 
93, F2, E4, F3, 14, F3, 1 A, F3 
190 * 

200 DATA5C,F4,61,F7,DB,F8,C8,F8, 
D5, F9, 41 , F9, D8, FB, 45, FE, 03, FE, 3F 
,DF,DF,DF,E1,DF,E6,DF,E4,F1,9C,F 
1,9E,F1, A0,F1, A2,F1, A4,F3,8A,F3, 
8C,F3,8E,F3,90,F3,92,E3,7B,F7,39 
, F7, 3B, F7, 3E, F7, 40, F7, 43, F7, 45, F 
7, 48, F7, 4A, F7, 4D, F7, 4F, FC, 1 1 , 33, 
32, 4B, 20, 52, 4F, 4D, 2D, 52 
210 9 

220 DATA41,4D,0D,0D,56,45,52,53, 
49,4F,4E,20,31,2E,31,20,31,39,38 
,33,20,42,59,20,52,41,59,20,47,4 
1,55,56,52,45,41,55,45,58,54,45, 
4E, 44, 45, 44, 20, 42, 41 , 53, 49, 43, 20 
, 20, OD, 4E, 4F, 57, 20, 49, 4E, 20, 36, 3 
4, 4B, 20, 52, 41 , 4D, 20, 4D, 4F, 44, 45, 
OD, 00, 50, 52, 45, 53, 53, 20 
230 p 

240 DATA20, 20, 31, 20,20,46, 4F, 52, 
20, 34, 30, 4B, 20, 20, 20, 20, 32, 20, 20 
, 46 , 4F , 52 , 20 , 33 , 32 , 4B , 00 



HOMEBASE™ PROVIDES WORD PROCESSING, DATA- 
BASE MANAGEMENT, AND SPREAD SHEET CALCULA- 
TIONS, IN ONE EASY TO USE PACKAGE. SOME OF THE 
MANY USEFUL APPLICATIONS OF HOMEBASE™ INCLUDE: 

• Check book management • Ledgers • Grocery lists • 
Shopping lists • Article Indexing • Recipes * Disk directories 

• Notes • Memos • Letters • Phone lists • Customer lists • 
Business contact lists • Appointments • Mailing lists • Home 
Inventory Car maintenance scheduling • Income tax prepa- 
ration • Address lists • Charts • Newsletters • Athletic team 
records • Form letters • 

WORD PROCESSING FEATURES INCLUDE: 

— DEFINE 250 screens of text you can search, sort, display, 
or print using names you assign or using any word or 
phrase. 

— EDIT text by duplicating, moving, clearing, searching and 
replacing, deleting, or reordering entire records of text or 
any word or phrase. 

— FORMAT labels, memos, letters, and other documents for 
printing with embeded printer controls for paging, skip- 
ping lines, and changing character fonts. Program con- 
trols provide setting; right and left margins, lines per page, 
page width, horizontal tabs, and line spacing. 

DATA MANAGEMENT FEATURES INCLUDE: 

— DEFINE 50 data fields, including a comment field, in a 
single record. Dates, time of day, phone numbers and dol- 
lar amounts are automatically formatted. You may also 
define 24 scratchpad data fields. 

— REORGANIZE records by moving data fields within re- 
cords or by moving records within the file. You may sort 
records using names you assign or data. 

— MANAGE files by searching, deleting, clearing, duplicat- 
ing, and displaying any data field or record. Add, subtract, 
multiply, divide, or summarize any data field. Use any 
command on any selected group of data fields and/or 
records. 

— PRINT files using automatic formatting with options to 
print report titles, a report date, page numbers, record 
names, and data field names. Print all or selected data 
fields or records. Use standard or compressed print. Use a 
special print option to print the commentfield as a mailing 
label. 

UTILITIES FOR WORD PROCESSING AND DATA MAN- 
AGEMENT INCLUDE: 

• Generating new flies from old files • Merging files • Dup- 
licating flies • Moving data between files • Summarizing files 

• Moving files from diskette to diskette using one drive • 
Saving files to cassette and reloading from casette • File 
synchronizing • Print disk directory • 

HOMEBASE™ IS EASY TO USE: 

— NO PROGRAMMING REQUIRED. All options are dis- 
played in menus. HOMEBASE™ automatically requests all 
required data and edits every entry. 

— All commands are single key stroke. 

— FULL screen editing for text entry. 

— Complete cursor control for entering names, titles, notes, 
and comments. 

— 100 pages of instructions with complete descriptions of 
each command, and examples. 

— Requires 32K of memory, disk basic and only one disk 
drive. NO equipment modifications required. 

— All programs reside entirely in memory. 

— Fast response to all commands including search and sort. 

ORDER TOLL FREE 

Credit card holders call toll free: 800-334-0854 extension 887 
In North Carolina Call 800-672-0101 extension 887 

or send a check or money order for $75.00 plus $5.00 
for handling charges to: 
lQ| HOMEBASE™ COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
P.O. Box 3448 
Durham, N. C. 27702 
N.C. residents add 4% for sales tax. Allow 1 to 3 weeks for delivery. 

HOMEBASE'" is a trademark of HOMEBASE'* COMPUTER SYSTEMS, 
a subsidiary of Small Business Systems, Durham, N.C. (919) 544-5408. 
'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Radio Shack Inc. 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 79 



By Terrell Touchstone 



Were you as disappointed as I in the kaleidoscope 
program in Getting Started With Color BASIC? 
And in the other pattern programs that have 
appeared from time to time? Here is one that I think you will 
find more dynamically faithful to the ole' kaleidoscope. And 
while this endless display of colorful patterns demonstrates 
the Color Computer's capabilities, it can also be quite prac- 
tical. For one thing, the display is an excellent attention 
getter for store windows and selling booths. Secondly, if it is 
necessary for you to leave your monitor or TV set on and 
unattended for long periods of time, this program will be 
useful in preventing "burn-in" on your tube. 

The program is elementary. It uses the SET statement to 
randomly place a pair of mirror-image color blocks in each 
of four quadrants. What makes the patterns interesting to 
watch is the manner in which the RND function is orches- 
trated to select color, duration and foldback of the pattern 
streamers. You might try playing with the RND statements 
in Lines 100, 221 and 300 to get different dynamics. 

As it is, the code will run on any Color Computer begin- 
ning with 4K Color BASIC, and it is easily adapted to any 

(Terrell Touchstone has a Ph.D. in chemical engineer- 
ing and fifteen years of experience in the field of com- 
puter process control. He is currently employed with 
Chevron in Richmond, California) 

. E> X E> K E5 O F" T W fk Ft EI ! | 

■E MENU s DIR with 42 -filenames on »£ 

;» screen. Programs are selected by 5 

■J arrow keys. Functions include RUN? •£ 

$ COPY, RENAME? OFFSET? KILL? EXEC? > 

jP and ADDRESSES of ML PROGRAMS. $24.95 «.™ 

g CDLDRTAC = Disk TACHOMETER. 
> R.P.M. and lots of features. $14.95 > 
BOTH for $34.95. FAST SERVICE! n£ 

S™ S 
»S SUNSHINE SOFTWARE? P.O. BOX 15686 < 
:» PANAMA CITY? FL 32406 > 



other machine. To try it, simply type it in and RUN. To 
increase the speed, try the POKE65495.0- Don't fail to step 
back and view it from across the room. 

The listing: 

1 ' ### COLOR-EYED-O-SCOPE ### 

2 * BY TERRELL TOUCHSTONE 

3 ■ 

4 ■ INITIALIZE 

20 CLSO 

30 Di=0:D3=l:D4=l 

40 A=RND<4> :B=RND<10> 

50 G0T0225 

90 ' MAIN LOOP 

100 IF RND<0>>.6 GOTO 210 

208 DA=RND < 2 ) : DB=RND < 3 ) 

2 1 O A=A~DA+D3 : B=B-DB+D4 

221 IF RND<0)>.2 GOTO 230 

225 CD=RND<8) 

230 IF ABS<A)>15 OR ABS<B>>15 OR 
Di>8 GOTO 300 

232 IF ABS < A) <= 12 GOTO 235 

233 D3=-D3:D1=D1+1 

235 IF ABS<B> > 12 THEN D4=-D4 

250 SET <31+2*A, 15+B, CD 

255 SET < 3 1 +2*A , 1 5— B , Gl_ ) 

260 SET(31-2*A, 15-B,CL> 

265 SET<31-2*A, 15+B, CD 

270 SET(31+2*B, 15+A,CL> 

275 SET<31+2*B, 15-A,CD 

280 SET(31-2*B, 15-A,CD 

285 SET<31-2*B, 15+A,CL) 

290 GOTO 100 

300 IF RND<3>>1 GOTO 30 

320 FOR K=l TO 4000: NEXT K 

330 CLSO 

350 GOTO 30 



80 the RAINBOW January 1984 




PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 



Erland 



ERLAND 



FOUR GREAT NEW PROGRAMS 

Varalyzer 

A breakthrough in programming utilities from the author of 
Colorkit! You may need a little background for this pro- 
gram. The first time you mention a variable in a BASIC 
program, the computer assigns a space in the variable 
table in memory. It starts at the bottom of the table and 
works up to theiop, and the next time that variable is called 
in your program the computer goes to the variable table to 
look it up. The search starts at the bottom of the table and 
continues until the variable is located. This takes time, and 
the farther up the table the variable is located, the longer it 
takes. There is a BIG SPEED ADVANTAGE in having the 
most frequently called variable located first in the table, 
with the next most frequently called variable second, etc. 
This program simply examines your BASIC program while 
it is running and then actually modifies it to speed it up! 
Speed increase will be from 5% to 75%, depending upon 
the program, and we include a list of other tips to speed up 
execution even more. This program will also print a list of 
the variables used in the program and tell you how many 
times each is called. VARALYZER is 100% machine 
language and REQUIRES 64K to run. Works fine on either 
disk or tape systems. $24.95 





The most complex) 
simulation we have) 
ever seen, and 
you VIKING! fans 
will want to take 
note, This game 
has you running 
a small holding 

in old Ireland, You must manage your land, 
sheep, army, markets, fishing fleets, taxes, and" 
many other factors while you try to rise in rank to become 
king or Queen. You may attack — or be attacked — by the 
other players, and you will have to face the fact that there 
isn't enough land to go around, and you may have to take 
some away from someone else! This 32K game is con- 
siderably more complex and difficult than our super 
popular VIKING! Because of this, we have added a save- 
the-game feature. ERLAND is for 2 to 5 game lovers, and 
will warm the heart of anyone who liked VIKI NG!, Monopoly, 
or other classic strategy games. This game is a hybrid of 
Extended Basic and Machine language. The disk and tape 
versions are not interchangable. Tape — $24.95; Disk — 
$29.95 



Clone Master 

This is the ultimate disk backup utility, and who else but 
Prickly-Pear, originators of Omni-Clone, could bring it to 
you. If you are tired of waiting for your BACKUP command 
to finish, you'll like the speed of CLONE MASTER. This 
program checks the computer memory size, and if you 
have a 64K machine it will do a backup on a full disk in 
about 7 minutes — including formatting the destination 
disk— with only THREE swaps, not the seven you are used 
to, and if you are running multiple drives, CLONE MASTER 
will handle up to 4 double-sided drives. In addition, al- 
though we can't guarantee that CLONE MASTER will back 
up any disk, it can handle backups of any non-standard 
(protected) disk we have seen — not only on the Color 
Computer, but on Model III and IV, IBM PC, Kaypro, 
Osborne, and Atari. It handles up to 256 tracks, single and 
double density— even on the same track, CRC errors, and 
lots more. It even checks the speed of your drives for you! If 
you are using a disk drive, you know how disks will crash, 
so don't leave your valuable software unprotected any 
longer. Back it up or lose it! CLONE MASTER will adjust to 
any memory size and works with any version of the ROM's 
— including the JVC controller. $39.95 



Your personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping free 
on $50.00 or larger orders). AZ residents add 7% sales 
tax. Orders shipped within two days. 



Satellite 

Tracker 




Satellite Tracker 

If youare interested in reception of transmissions from the 
television satellites, you will need this program. It does all 
calculations associated with planning and setting up a 
satellite dish antenna. It figures antenna gain, signal to 
noise, aiming point for any geosyncronous satellite, effect 
of various quality amplifiers, and a lot more. The program 
will tell you whether a dish is practical in your location, how 
big it needs to be, and what kind of picture quality and 
signal strength you will achieve. If you are thinking of 
investing in a system, don't make a move until the results 
are in. Requires 32K extended BASIC and some (limited) 
knowledge of satellite terms and language. $79.95 



Dealer and author inquiries are always welcome, 
Canadian dealers should contact Kelly Software 
Distributors, Ltd., P.O. Box 1 1 932, Edmonton, Alberta 
T5J-3L1 (403) 421-8003 



Stocked by Quality Dealers, or 

Send Order To: PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

9234 E. 30th Street 
Tucson, Arizona 8571 0 
(602) 886-1505 



{MottwCoRi) 



Look at What's Available for 

Radio Shack Has a Printer for Every Budget 




light Printer for You. Whether you're look- CGP-115. This four-color printer lets you create a variety of 

.arm inrl i itilitw r\r nr\\nr nronhinc r»anahilitw nrar»hir» r\i i+m it f rr\m r^harto \r\ rnmni rror_nonoratarl "HnnHlac" 



We've Got the F 

ing for speed, all « 
Radio Shack has the printer you want. What's more, our 
products are backed by over 6600 Radio Shack outlets na- 
tionwide, so you can get your questions answered, a demon- 
stration or service when you need it. 

Sale! DMP-100. Our lowest price ever! Bit-image mode 
produces high-density black and white graphics printouts. 
Prints 80 upper and lower case dot-matrix characters on an 
8" line at up to 50 characters per second. 

New! DWP-210. An affordable, full-featured daisy wheel 
printer. Print letters and reports with electric typewriter quality 
at 200 words per minute (18 cps). Select 10 or 12 characters 
per inch, or proportional pitch. Includes forward and reverse 
paper feed and 1 /2-line feed, underline and programmable 
backspace. Uses interchangeable 100-character print wheels. 



Built-in commands simplify drawing and plotting. Text mode 
prints 40 or 80 characters per line at 12 cps. Measures just 
2 15 /ie x 8 1 /4 x 8V2" and weighs only 1 3 A pounds. Uses eas- 
ily replaceable ink cartridges. Prints on 4 1 /2"-wide paper. 

New! CGP-220. This whisper-quiet, drop-on-demand ink-jet 
printer produces text and high-resolution graphics in seven 
vivid colors. A screen print utility for the TRS-80 Color Com- 
puter allows multi-color printouts of screen displays produced 
from any graphics program. Prints 2600 dots per second 
with a resolution of up to 640 dots per line. Text mode prints 
37 characters per second. 

Available Nationwide. See the complete line of TRS-80 
printers and accessories at your nearby Radio Shack Com- 
puter Center, participating store or dealer today. 



Your TRS-80 Color Computer 

Educational Programs to Make Learning Fun! 




Taxi™.** Can you deliver all your 
passengers safely to their destina- 
tion? Drive in your choice of six dif- 
ferent cities— complete with maps! 
A cooperative strategy game for 
ages 7-up. #26-2509 



Peanut Butter Panic™.** Players 
work together to make peanut but- 
ter sandwiches and eat them. But 
watch out for the sandwich-stealing 
Snarf! A cooperative strategy game 
for ages 7-up. #26-2523 




From the Creators 
Of Sesame Street®! 



Requires Extended 
Color BASIC 



Exciting Game-Style Programs With 
Super Graphics, Animation and Sound! 

Grover's Number Rover™.* Grover is hav- 
ing trouble with his numbers. Can you help 
him? For ages 3-6. #26-2522 
Big Bird's Special Delivery™.* Help Big 
Bird deliver his packages to the correct des- 
tination. For ages 3-6. #26-2525 



i 



Ernie's Magic Shapes™.* Ernie 
the magician helps your child 
learn geometrical shapes. There's 
even a magic rabbit to reward cor- 
rect answers! A basic skills game 
for ages 3-6. #26-2524 



Star Trap™.* * Players race through 
mazes together to trap a slippery 
star before time runs out. Young- 
sters can even create their own 
maze. A cooperative strategy game 
forages 7-up. #26-2510 



Cookie Monster's Letter 
Crunch™.** Help the cookie mon- 
ster get a cookie by spelling a word 
correctly. Four skill levels, each with 
six different activities. For ages 3-6. 
#26-2526 




.«•♦ U* WMtfl tlUt* 

Rett mr.to. 
VtoMmi ft t 




Math Adventures With Mickey.* 

Everyone's favorite mouse teaches 
basic mathematics skills, including 
effective methods of problem- 
solving and the correct use of deci- 
mals. For ages 9-13. #26-2535 



Learn With (^Atf^tW^ 



Works With Any 16K 
TRS-80 Color Computer 



Telling Time With Donald.* For ages 5-8. 
#26-2530 

Problem Solving With Scrooge 
McDuck.* For ages 9-13. #26-2531 

Mickey's World of Writing.* For ages 8-11. 
#26-2532 

Goofy Covers Government.* For ages 
10-14. #26-2533 

Mickey's Alpine Adventure.* For ages 
7-9. #26-2534 



Space Probe: Math.** Ride on 
the rocket ship to a fascinating ad- 
venture into deep space! Young- 
sters solve basic problems and 
learn concepts of area and perime- 
ter. For ages 7-14. #26-2537 



* Requires cassette recorder. * * Requires cassette recorder and joysticks 

Radio /hack 

The biggest name in little computers® 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



ADDRESS, 
CITY 



Send me a free 1984 TRS-80 Catalog. 

Mail To: Radio Shack, Dept. 84-A-623 
300 One Tandy Center, Fort Worth, Texas 76102 



.ZIP. 



"~1 



TELEPHONE . 



Sale ends 12/31/83. Prices apply at participating Radio Shack stores and dealers. Muppet characters are trademarks of Muppets, Inc. Walt Disney characters are trademarks of Walt Disney, Inc. All rights reserved. 






P 


: BCB ■ 





o be it. The king had given his orders to the palace 
wizard. The king wanted a portable power device to 
maintain control over the peasants and to have his 
queen behave according to his desires. The penalty, if the 
wizard failed, was severe. Unrest of the peasants had been 
more intense lately, and the queen was said to have her mind 
on a stable boy. With his head hung low, the wizard made his 
way down the stone stairs, past the dungeon to his labora- 
tory in the back of the castle. 

It was damp, and the oil lamps cast an eerie glow on the 
cold stone walls. Muffled sounds could be heard from the 
dungeon. The wizard did not want that to be his fate. In a 
state of near despair, the wizard concluded that his only 
hope to accomplish the task by dawn was through the use of 
computer aided design (CAD). The wizard thus cranked up 
his CoCo and went to work. 

To know the end of this high resolution animated story 
you will have to enter and RUN the program! (Rainbow On 
Tape is another option.) I think you will enjoy it. The 
program runs about four minutes, generates a changing 
scale three-dimensional object, an explosive transforma- 
tion, the image of an impossible three-dimensional object 
(the ultimate power device), a three-dimensional sine wave 
emission, and I won't tell you any more lest I ruin the story 
line! 





LfflU 






iHfl 


E 


IPV;i]f!TW 






84 the RAINBOW January 19B4 



This program demonstrates the dramatic effects which 
can be achieved on the CoCo by rapid high resolution screen 
switching. The program utilizes the high speed POKE 
65495,0 and normal speed POKE 65494,0 to speed up the 
plotting of the 3-D sine wave. Let's take a look at how the 
program uses some of the CoCo's graphics commands. 

The PCLEAR8 statement in Line 730 reserves all eight of 
the 1 536-by te graphics memory pages. The placement of this 
statement at the end of the program may seem somewhat 
odd. The program runs from Line 60 to the PCLEAR8 in 
Line 730 and then back to Line 70 via GOTO statements. 
This odd arrangement is good programming practice due to 
an obscure error in the 1.0 Extended basic ROM. A valid 
P CLEAR statement placed in the early part of a program 
may produce an error message or program halt if your 
program exceeds a certain length. This erroneous error mes- 
sage is avoided by the above practice. The program graphics 
setup gets underway in Line 50 which specifies PMODE4,L 
This high resolution PMODE4 (256 x 192 graphics grid) 
requires four of the 1536-byte graphics memory pages for a 
full screen display. Thus with PCLEAR8 and PMODE4, 
you have two full screen displays available. The first screen 
starts on Page 1 (PMODE4J) and the second screen starts 
on Page 5 (PMODE4,5). Remember that the PMODE 
statement takes the form PMODE (resolution mode, start 
page). 

After you have set up your PMODE and set aside the 
needed number of graphics pages with P CLEAR, a PCLS 
statement (as in Line 70) will clear the screen of any garbage 
or unwanted graphics in the current screen video RAM 
pages. The SCREEN1J statement in Line 70 tells the com- 
puter you want to show a graphics screen rather than the 
prior text screen, and you want the screen to be black and 
buff. Remember that a SCREEN statement takes the form 
SCREEN (type, color set). 

At this point, we have set the stage, and the real program 
action begins. Lines 80 through 140 use the scale function 
available in the DRA ^statement to create a changing scale 
cube. Notice that the scale value must be converted from a 
numeric expression to a character string expression through 
the STR$ function in order to be accepted by the DRA W 
statement. The scale function in the DRA W statement will 
not affect or scale parts of graphics put on the screen 
through other graphics statements, such as LINE or CIR- 
CLE. 

Lines 160 through 240 open the cube. Lines 250 through 
290 create the explosive transformation. Lines 330 through 
410 create the ultimate power device (an illusion). Lines 420 
through 580 plot the 3-D sine wave. The most dramatic 
graphic effects of the program are created by the high speed 
screen.switching produced in Lines 660 through 700. Every- 
thing really comes apart! 

When you run this program, notice how various tech- 
niques to display the graphics are used. 

In some cases, the graphics are drawn on the screen while 
you are watching. In other cases, the graphics are drawn on 
pages not currently shown, and then brought to the screen 
after the graphics are complete. In the case of the 3-D sine 
wave, the first wave is plotted while the prior screen is 
displayed, but the remaining waves are plotted while you 

(David Sligqr has published a graphics program for a 
mainframe, but is presenty working on a financial 
analysis program for construction contractors for the 
CoCo. His hobbies include writing software.) 



watch. How and when your graphics are brought to the 
screen depends on your placement of PMODE and SCREEN 
statements within your programs. 

NOTE: If you add spaces when you type this program, it will 
not fit in 16K. 




The listing: 

10 CLS4: PR I NTS 128, "COLOR CAD " 

IS PRINT@224, "THE IMPOSSIBLE OBJ 

ECT" 

20 PRINTS320, "BY DAVID SLIGAR":F 
QRX=1T0999: NEXTX 

30 CLS3: PR I NTS 192., "GOOD THINGS., 
■i 

■ 

40 PRINTS256, "COME IN SMALL BOXE 

S " : FORX= i TQ999 : NEXTX 

50 PMODE 4, 1 

60 B0T0730 

70 PCLSO: SCREEN 1 , 1 

SO F0RZ=1T0B 

90 IF Z=S THEN FQRZ=8T04 STEP-1 
100 PCLSO 

110 S*="S"+STR*(Z>+"; " 

120 DRAW S*+";BM100, 100U30NR30E1 

5R30NG 1 5D30G 1 5NU30L30 " 

130 F0RX=1T0120: NEXTX 

140 NEXTZ 

150 FORX-1T0400: NEXTX 

1 60 PCLS : DRAW " BM 1 00 , 1 00U30NR30E2 

0R30Q20D30NL30F20L30H20 " 

170 LINE ( lOO, 100)-<70,95> , PSET 

180 LINE- (70, 65) , PSET 

190 LINE— ( 100, 70) , PSET 

200 LINE (70, 95)- (40, 65) , PSET, B 

210 LINE (130, 100) -(160, 95) , PSET 

220 LINE- (160,65), PSET 

230 LINE- (130, 70) , PSET 

240 F0RX=1T0600: NEXTX 

250 CLS8:PRINT@224, " KA 

-BOOM! ! ! ' , :F0RX=1T0200: NEXTX 

260 PCLSO : SCREEN 1; 1 

270 F0RN=1T0101 STEP5: CIRCLE ( 126 

,95) ,N:NEXTN 

280 FORN=101T01 STEP-5: CIRCLE ( 12 
6,95) ,N,0:NEXTN 

290 PCLS : FORN= 1 T050 : S=RND ( 255 ) : S 
OUNDS, l: LINE ( 126, 95) - (S, RND ( 195) 

) ,pset:nextn 

300 CLS0;PRINT@192, "AS THE DUST 
SETTLES, " 

310 PRINTS256, "THE WIZARD'S WORK 
IS REVEALED. " 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 85 



320 PRINTS320, "THE ULTIMATE POWE 

R DEVICE! ! !": F0RX-1T02000: NEXTX 

330 PCLS : DRAW "BM 55 , 1 56 5 R 1 50 ; U 1 0 

I BH40? BLiOl L140I D10| R125| F20J L12 

5;U10;R105;F10;BM 55, 156;UIO;R14 

OS BRIO* U78I DIOf BL10I D681 H40J U2B| 

D28; F40? BRIO; U68; BL10; " 

340 CIRCLE<55, 151), 3, 5,2 

350 CIRCLE (35, 131) ,3,5,2 

360 CIRCLE ( 15, 111) ,3,5,2 

370 DRAW'BM 55,78;R140;BR10;U10; 

H40SL150;D10sR125sF20iL125!U10SR 

105;F10»BM 55,78;U10;R150J »' 

380 DRAW'BM 205, 156? U40; CO? U10S C 

5?R20;H19;F19SU385R10;L10;H405D1 

8;U18;R10sF40;D90;L10;H19!F19;U4 

2;L20; " 

390 CIRCLE <55, 73) ,3, 5, 2 

400 CIRCLE (35, 53) ,3,5,2 

410 CIRCLEU5, 33) ,3,5,2 

420 SCREEN 1 , 1 : PM0DE4 , 5 : PCLSO 

430 P0KE65495,0 

440 PI=3. 14159: Q=l 

450 A«-4*PI:B=4*PI:N=360:R=20 

460 IF Q>=1 THEN R-R+Q 

470 X=(B-A)/N 

480 F-25S/(B-A) 

490 FOR I=A TO B STEP X 

500 X=I*F: Y=R*SIN < I+Q) 

510 PSET< (X+140) , (80+Y) ,1) 

520 NEXT I 

530 Q-Q+7 

540 CLSO:IF Q=8 THEN PRINTG224, " 



BEGIN WAVE FORM GENERATION" : FORX 

=1T0900:NEXTX 

550 SCREEN 1,1 

560 IF Q>56 G0T0580 

570 G0T0450 

580 P0KE65494,0 

590 CLSO : PR I NTS224 , " WARN I NG-EXCE 
SSIVE ENERGY LEVEL" : F0RX=1T0900: 
NEXTX 

600 CLS4:PRINT@96, " ALERT! 
ALERT ! " 

610 F0RX=1T05: SOUND 156 ,3: S0UND92 
2: NEXTX 

620 PR I NTS 128, "THERMAL RUNAWAY C 
ONDITIONS! " 

630 PR I NTS 192, "DEVICE OVERLOAD!! 

II 

640 PRINTS256, "SPONTANEOUS EMISS 
IONS EXPECTED!" 

650 PRINTS320, "DISINTEGRATION AL 
ERT! ! ! " I F0RX-1T02500: NEXTX 
660 F0RS=1T0100 

670 PM0DE4, lrSCREENl, I:F0RX-1T05 
0: NEXTX 

680 IF S-50 THEN PCLSO : G0SUB720 
690 PM0DE4, 5: SCREEN 1 , 1 :F0RX=1T05 
0: NEXTX 
700 NEXTS 
710 GOTO 10 

720 FORN» 1T091 STEPS: CIRCLE ( 1 26, 
95) , N: NEXTN: RETURN 
730 PCLEAR8:GOT070 



ARE YOUR WALKING FINGERS GETTING FOOTSORE ? 

Tired of typing in those long, but wonderful, programs from each issue of the RAINBOW? Now, you can get RAINBOW ON TAPE and give 
those tired fingers a rest. With RAINBOW ON TAPE, you'll beable to spend your time enjoying programs instead of just typing... typing.,. typing 
them! All you need to do ever again is pop a RAINBOW ON TAPE cassette into your recorder, CLOAD and RUN any one you want. 

RAINBOW on Tape single issue rate is: within the US, $6.60 ($8 after Jan. 1, 1984), Canadian and Mexican rate, $8.50 ($1 0 after Jan. 1, 
1984), all other countries $8.50' ($10.00 after Jan. 1, 1984). 

RAINBOW on Tape subscription rate is: within the US, $60 ($70 after Jan. 1 , 1 984) Canadian and Mexican rate, $70 ($80 after Jan. 1 , 1 984 ), 
all other countries $85 ($95 after Jan. 1, 1984). US FUNDS ONLY PLEASE 

VISA, MasterCard and American Express accepted. All subscriptions begin with the current issue and back issues are available 
beginning with April, 1982. Subscriptions are sent first class mall to coincide with the arrival of your current issue of the RAINBOW. 

Now . . . The Best Color Computer Magazine 

Offers The Best Tape Service 

Think of it! Not 10 or a dozen— but between 20 and 30— programs every month from 
Rainbow On Tape. All the really good programs from the Rainbow! All the long ones ... so 
you don't have to type them in. Just CLOAD and RUN! 

ORDER RAINBOW ON TAPE TODAY! 
HANDY ORDER CARD BETWEEN PAGES 34 and 35 



86 the RAINBOW January 1984 



EDUCATION NOTES 



16K 


1 


the 

mwmrn 


ECB 




RAINBOW 




J- -U 



Reviving A Nearly Lost Art 
With Little Letter Writer 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Letter writing is an often overlooked skill, not only in 
conjunction with computers but also in education in 
general. Letter writing was once the universal way of 
communicating with others that you could not visit. Now 
letter writing is becoming a lost art. The invention of the 
telephone and the recent rise of the use of modems has 
fostered a decrease in letter writing in our country. 

Letter writing remains an important skill to learn. Besides, 
it is fun. You can't yet easily- call a baseball player or a 
famous author on your modem. 

I always enjoy teaching units on letter writing. To make 
the teaching more enjoyable, I encourage the students to 
write practice letters to real personalities. Some ideas that 
we have used successfully are letters to famous people in the 
news, sports figures, show business personalities, authors of 
books that we have read and illustrators of children's books. 

It may be obvious, but please try to make certain that the 
people that the children write to are still alive. We often have 
the pleasure of receiving answers to our letters. Famous 
personalities often respond or have a secretary write a 
response for them. Some illustrators have sent sketches back 
to the children. 

There are many fine word processors on the CoCo market 
today. They may all be used to help create professional 
looking letters. I use two different ones in my classroom to 
acquaint the students with different styles of word processors. 
This month's article presents the Little Letter Writer. 

The Little Letter Writer's value is that it teaches the 
correct format of a friendly letter. Business letters are a more 
advanced form of letter writing and should be taught after 
the friendly letter is fully mastered. 

Friendly letters have a specific format to follow. The 
components are the Date, the Greeting or Salutation, the 
Body of the letter, and the Closing. Each part is taught to 
middle grade students and is reinforced by this program. 
The placement of the portions of the letter is correctly done 
by the program. 

The Salutation has lately become the most amusing por- 
tion to teach. Not too many years ago, it was proper to 
addresss most unknown recipients of letters as "Dear Sir, ... " 
Now, of course, there are so many women working that we 
often use "Dear Person, ..." In the near future, perhaps 
computers will read our mail. It is fun for kids to speculate 
on what the future common salutations will be. Will it be 
"Dear Machine, ..." or perhaps "Dear It, . . . " or perhaps 
"Dear RAM, ..." 
The program asks if you have a printer. If you answer yes, 

(Steve Blyn teaches both exceptional and gifted child- 
ren, holds two master's degrees and has won awards 
for the design of programs to aid the handicapped. He 
and his wife, Cheryl own Computer Island ) 



then Z will equal 1 and the letter will appear on the screen as 
well as on the printer. The program lines ending in the 
number five have information for the printer. You may omit 
these if you are not using a printer. 

Several special factors were taken into consideration 
while developing this short program. On an input for the 
date, a comma will give an Extra Ignored message and then 
will ignore the year after the comma. To solve this, Line 70 
will wipe out this message, and the comma and the year will 
automatically be inserted on Lines 130 and 135 in any case. 
Also, words may break up at the end of lines. This is unfor- 
tunate, but our aim was to show the parts of a friendly letter, 
rather than to create a word processor. The letter is also 
limited to about 250 characters. This should be sufficient for 
most early student purposes. 

There is no need to indent for the body of the letter. The 
correct tabs and margins have been pre-set by the program. 
A random selection of closings is included to show the 
student some of the possibilities. As soon as the [ENTER] 
key is pressed at the end of the body, the letter will be printed 
in correct form on the screen and on the optional printer. 
After the letter is printed, you may press any key to begin 
again. 

The Little Letter Writer can be used in several ways. 
Corrections can be made on the screen either before or after 
printing. Buddies may also correct each other's product. We 
hope your children or students use this program to write 
letters to real live people. The answers they receive are great 
Language Arts reinforcement. Perhaps they will even drop 
us a line at Computer Island. We will gladly respond. 



»/ on 



80 0178 

160 02D5 

END . . . 040F 

The listing: 

5 REM "A LITTLE LETTER WRITER BY 
STEVE BLYN, COMPUTER ISLAND, 1983" 

10 CLS 

20 L*»" LETTER WRITER" 

30 F0RT=1T013:PRINT@8+T,MID*<L*, 

T, 1) :next 

40 PRINTLINE INPUT "ARE YOU USIN 
S A PR INTER?"* PR* 

45 IF LEFT* <PR*, 1 ) ="Y" THEN Z«l 

SO PRINT@9, "LETTER WRITER" f 

60 S0UND200, l:PRINTe64, "the date 

": PR I NT "WHAT IS TODAY'S DATE?" : I 

NPUTD* 

70 PRINTS160, " " 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 87 



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* stacked in memory until the memory is -Filled. Jump * 

* from one program to another or compose new ones * 

* while retaining the old ones. Also included are * 

* tools for patching defective programs plus many * 
» other useful functions. Tape *14.95, Cart. S24.95 * 

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* * DISASSEMBLER-ASSEMBLER (DISASM) * * 

* Designed for CC Compatibility DISASM uses » 

* English Mnemonics b Decimal Locations rather than * 

* HEX and special symbols. Write Machine Language * 

* Programs or Subroutines with the Assembler. Dim- * 
» Assemble the CC ROMS or any other ML Program' with * 

* the Disassembler. Tape *19.95, Cart. 429.95 * 

* * 

* * TERMINAL PROGRAM (DYTERM) * 

* DYTERM converts a CC into a terminal. Receive and * 

* send data between 2 computers , another terminal or * 
» a MODEM. BASIC Program with ML subroutines. * 

* ' DYTERM Cassette S14.95, Cart. 424.95 * 

* * 

* * FINANCE PROGRAM (DYFIN) * new * 

* DYFIN quickly calculates loans, savings, annuities y * 

* Investments, Retirements, Interest on Loans, Pay- * 

* ments on loans* Check book Balance, 8c Return on * 

* money invested. A 500 year Calender is included. * 
» Extended Basic is required. DYFIN Tape 419.95 * 

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* Increase your computer's memory with the following * 

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* * 96K SYSTEM EXPANDER (96KX) * new * 

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•♦»##•*##♦#*»■«•#*##**##**#**♦#♦***♦♦#####*###*♦«♦#♦#*#♦ 



80 SOUND200, l:PRINT6192, "the gre 
eting or salutation":PRIMT M TO WH 
OM ARE YOU WRITING A LETTER" J : IN 
PUT W» 

90 S0UND200, 1 : PRINT: PR I NT "the cl 

osing or ending": PR I NT "WHAT IS Y 

OUR NAME?": INPUT H* 

100 S0UND200, 1 : PRINT: PRINT"the b 

ody or story - PRESS ENTER AND B 

EG IN YOUR MESSAGE"; : INPUT EN* 

110 CLS 

120 INPUT B* 

130 CLS:PRINTTAB(15)D»;",1984 
135 IF Z=l THEN PR I NT#— 2 , TAB < 40 ) 
D*J ",1984" 

140 PR I NT "DEAR ";W*;"," 

145 IF Z=l THEN PRINT#-2, "DEAR " 

;w*s ", " 

150 B*=" "+B* 

155 IF 2*1 THEN PRINT#-2, " 

■ 

$ 

160 PRINT:F0RT»1 TO LEN <B*> : PRIN 
TMID*(B*,T, 1) ; :SOUND175, l:NEXT:P 
RINT 

165 IF Z=1THEN PRINT#-2, " ":F0R 
T-1T0 LEN(B*> :PRINT#-2,MID*(B*,T 
,1>;:NEXT T:PRINT#-2, " " 
170 R=RND(4> 

180 IF R=l THEN R*=" YOURS TRULY, 

II 

190 IF R=2 THEN R*="L0VE, " 

200 IF R=3 THEN R*=" SINCERELY, M 

210 IF R=4 THEN R*« "FONDLY," 

220 PRINT" ":PRINTTAB<15)R* 

225 IF Z=l THEN PRINT#-2, " " : PRI 

NT#-2,TAB<40>R* 

230 PRINTTAB < 15) N* 

235 IF Z=l THEN PR I NT#— 2 , TAB ( 40 ) 

N* 

240 ABA I N*— I NKEY* 

250 IF ABAIN*=" " THEN 240 ELSE C 
LS: GOT 050 



UPGRADE YOUR COLOR COMPUTER MEMORY WITHOUT ANY 
SOLDERING. JUST FOLLOW tHE OETAILEO INSTRUCTIONS 
SUPPLIED. EACH KIT IS WARRANTED FOR ONE YEAR- ' 



* 4K TO 16K $11,95 



PRICES FOR KITS: 



16K TO 32K $31.95 



4K TO 32K $39.95 * 



HAIL OROER TERMS: SENO MONEY ORDER. CHECKS TAKE 10 DAYS* 
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ADD 4Z SALES TAX. SORR Y * NO CHARGE CARDS ACCEPTED* * 




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SOUTH LYONrMICHIGAN 48178 
PHONE: (313) 437 0457 



32K 



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UPGRADE 



UPGRADE 



88 the RAINBOW January 1984 




GRAPHICS 



16K 


1 


' the ] 




ECB 




RAINBOW 




m 


J.- 





FACE 




To 
Face 



To Face 




By John W. Kozubal 



This program makes a lot of faces at you — some 
happy, some sad; some glad, some mad. One even 
whistles. The program requires a 16K CoCo with 
Extended BASIC. No speed-up function is used. 

Have you ever seen those toys, or games, where you are 
supplied with several styles of noses, mouths, etc? Then you 
select those styles at random and place them on a featureless 
face to produce your own creation? (For instance, "Picture 
Your Face" in the October 1983 Rainbow.) It also selects 
different shaped heads at random. The selection of eyes, 
mouths, noses and eyebrows gives 2,200 faces. Couple those 
with several different heads and we get not 5,000, not 10,000, 
but 1 5,400 combinations. Couple this with the colors and we 
get 61,600 combinations. Each face is on the screen for 
about five seconds. With no repeats, it would take about 80 
hours for each of the combinations to appear on the screen. 

To get the show on the road, type, or load the program 
into the computer. Type RUN and press [ENTER]. Watch 
the screen for a while. See if you can spot the same face 
twice. 

You may want to try some of your own features. To do 
this, observe the program. Take eyes, for example. The 
RND statement in Line 180 selects a number from 1 to 8. 
Let's see what happens when the computer selects 5. We tell 
the computer what to do if E is equal to 5. In Line 230 the 
computer is sent to Line 1080. Starting at Line 1080, two 
eliptical circles are drawn. The .45 represents a height width 
ratio which is wider than high. Kind of a vertical elipse. 
After the two eliptical circles are drawn, the computer is 
returned to the line following the one that sent it there; Line 
240. Each feature is selected in a similar manner. Give it a 
try. You may create some interesting faces. 




T 

o 
F 

a 
c 
e 



(John W. Kozubal a disabled southern Calif ornian, is 
a former president of a TV sales and service company 
and former electro hydraulic engineer for General 
Electric.) 





January 1984 the RAINBOW 89 



SUPER PRO KEYBOARD 




• Only $69-95 

Original key layout. 
No special software required. 
Fast simple installation— no soldering. 
Individually boxed with full instructions. 
Professional, low profile, finished appearance 
U.S. made— high quality, quad gold contacts. 
Smooth "Touch Typist" feel— no sagging. 



Rainbow, April '83 

A fine piece of hardware from Mark Data Products. . .It is 
super and it is professional too... If you are searching 
for a replacement keyboard, it is an excellent buy. . . 

Hot CoCo, August '83 

Like putting leather upholstery in your Volkswagen. . .Very 
impressed with the appearance and performance. . .Could 
easily pass as original equipment. . .Installation is very 
simple. . . 

Color Computer Magazine, June '83 

The installation procedure is well detailed and quite 
simple. . .Has a professional feel, reacts well to the touch. . . 
has held up to some purposeful pounding. . . 

Color Computer News, June '83 

Mark Data Products is well known to us "longtimers". . . 
Every bit as finished as if Tandy had done it. ..The 
Mark Data Super-Pro is your best buy. ..The one that 
is in my CoCo to stay. . . 



Great Computer Software Also 

• Adventure Games • Arcade Games and Utility Software 



Mark Data Products 



24001 ALICIA PKWY., NO. 207 • MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 

All Orders: Please add $2.00 shipping and handling in the continental U.S. All others, add air shipping and $3.00 handling. California 
residents add 6% sales tax. Foreign orders please remit U.S. funds. Software authors— contact us for exciting program marketing details. 




the Color Computer Supercharger 




• A big 51 character by 24 line screen. • Auto-key repeat for greater keyboard convenience. 

• Full upper and lower case characters. • Control codes for additional functions. 

• Easily combine text with hi-res graphics. • Works with 16K, 32K or 64K computers. 

• PRINT @ is completely functional on the big screen. • Available on disc or cassette. 

• The powerful ON ERROR GOTO is fully implemented. 

51 CHARACTER BY 24 LINE DISPLAY 

Super Screen is a powerful, machine language program that significantly upgrades the performance and usefulness of 16K or greater, Extended 
and Disc Basic Color Computers. The standard Color Computer display screen is totally inadequate for serious, personal or business applications 
so Super Screen replaces it with a brand new, 51 character wide by 24 line screen including full upper and lower case characters. Instead of a 
confusing checkerboard appearance, you now have true lower case letters along with a screen that is capable of displaying 1224 characters. The 
difference is startling! Your computer takes on new dimensions and can easily handle lines of text that were simply too long and complexto display 
on the old screen. 

COMBINE TEXT WITH HI-RES GRAPHICS 

You can now write truly professional looking programs that combine text with hi-res graphics. Super Screen allows you to create graphics displays 
with the Basic LINE, DRAW and CIRCLE statements and then notate the graphics with descriptive text. You can even use PRINT @ if you wish for 
greater programming convenience. Super Screen's versatility will amaze you, 

PRINT @ IS FULLY IMPLEMENTED 

The PRINT ©statement is a valuable asset to the programmer when formatting text on the screen. The standard Color Computer will report an error 
if you specify a location higher than 51 1 but Super Screen allows locations all the way to 1 223! You get a big screen and a powerful formatting tool as 
well. Of course, Super Screen also supports the CLS command allowing you to clear the big screen using standard Basic syntax. 

ON ERROR GOTO 

That's right! Super Screen gives you a full implementation of ON ERROR GOTO including the ERR and ERL functions. Now you can trap errors and 
take corrective action to prevent crashed programs and lost data using the same standard syntax as other computers. The ON ERROR GOTO 
capability overcomes a serious deficiency of Color Computer Basic and greatly improves your capability to handle sophisticated tasks, All well 
written, 'user friendly' programs use error trapping techniques and yours can too! Now that's power! 

AUTO KEY REPEAT 

No more frustration as you edit a long line in your Basic program; just hold the space bar down and automatically step to the desired position inthe 
line. Need a line of asterisks? Hold the key down and auto repeat will give them to you. Those of you who spend many hours at your keyboard will 
appreciate this outstanding addition to Super Screen's long list of impressive capabilities. 

CONTROL CODES FOR ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS 

Super Screen recognizes several special control code characters that allow selection of block or underline, solid or blinking cursor and other 
functions. You can 'Home up' the cursor or you may erase from the cursor to the end of a line or to the end of the screen just like many other 
computers. These special codes give you an extra dimension of versatility and convenience that put Super Screen in a class by itself. 

AND MORE GOOD NEWS... 

Super Screen comes with complete, well detailed instructions and is available on cassette or disc. It adjusts automatically to any 16K or greater, 
Extended or Disc Basic Color Computer or TDP-100 and uses only 2K of memory in addition to the screen memory reserved during power up. 
Guaranteed to be the most frequently used program in your software library. . .once you use it, you won't be without it! Super Screen's low price will 
really please you; only $29.95 on cassette or $32.95 on disc! 




Mark Data Products 



24001 ALICIA PKWY., NO. 207 • MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 



All Orders: Please add $2.00 shipping and handling in the continental U.S. All others, add air shipping and $3.00 handling. California 
residents add 6% sales tax. Foreign orders please remit U.S. funds. Software authors— contact us for exciting program marketing details. 




SPACE RAIDERS— A sensational rendition of the arcade classic No collection is complete without this invaders type game. Great sounds and tense action. We think 
it's the best. Cassette— S24.95 / Disc S27.95. 

CAVE HUNTER— Maneuver your way to the bottom of a spooky old cave to retrieve the treasures. It's fun but not easyl Passages lead in all directions and angry 
cave creatures pursue you relentlessly. A fast placed arcade game. Cassette— S24. 95 / Disc S27.95. 

ASTRO BLAST— Wave after wave of alien attackers— each one different and unique. A great space "shoot-em-up" with hi-res graphics, lots of color and dramatic 
sound effects. A continuing best seller. Cassette— $24.95 / Disc $27.95. 

HAYWIRE— This challenging combination of angry robots and the evil menace will provide many hours of fun and excitement. Haywire is the best Color Computer 
version of the Berzerk arcade game you can get. Cassette— $24.95 / Disc $27.95. 

BLACK SANCTUM— If you enjoy suspense, you'll love this one. Encounter the forces of black magic as you roam around an old 18th century monastery. Watch out 
for the black hooded figures! Cassette— $19.95. 

CALIXTO ISLAND — A challenging puzzle with an occasional twist of humor. You'll visit a secret laboratory, a Mayan pyramid and you'll meet crazy Trader Jack who 
adds to the fun. Cassette— $19.95. 




i ^ 



Mark Data Products 



24001 ALICIA PKWY., NO. 207 • MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 

All Orders: Please add $2.00 shipping and handling in the continental U.S. All others, add air shipping and $3.00 handling. California 
residents add 6% sales tax. Foreign orders please remit U.S. funds. Software authors— contact us for exciting program marketing details. 



Y 180, 


01 8F 


590 


. . 0492 




ATOP 


1220 . 


09C4 


1540 . 


. 0C5B 


END . 


. . 0E82 



The listing: 



10 CLS4 
20 * 
30 * BY 



40 

50 



JOHN W. KOZUBAL 
10353 COMPTON BLVD. 
BELLFLdWER, CA 90706 



60 ' FOR USE ON 16K OR GREATER 

70 * MUST HAVE EXTEVDED BASIC 

80 ' NO SPEED-UR FUNCTION USED 

90 PRINT @ 236, "FACES"; 

100 PLAY "T25503CSCG05CG" 

110 A=A+l:IF A=20 THEN 120 ELSE 

100 

120 PCLS:P=RND(4) 
130 S=RND(2)-1 
140 PMODE P*l 
150 SCREEN 1,S 
160 PCLS 

170 FOR X=l TO 30:NEXT:PLAY"05T2 

S5CGCGCG 

180 E=RND<8> 

190 IF E-l GOSUB 860 

200 IF E=2 GOSUB 970 

2i0 IF E=3 GOSUB 1000 

220 IF E=4 GOSUB 1030 

230 IF E=5 GOSUB 1080 

240 IF E=6 GOSUB 1050 

250 IF E=7 GOSUB 910 

260 IF E=8 GOSUB 1110 

270 H=RND<7) ' HEAD 

280 IF H=l GOSUB 610 

290 IF H=2 GOSUB 670 

300 IF H=3 GOSUB 740 

310 IF H=4 GOSUB 720 

320 IF H=5 GOSUB 770 

330 IF H=6 GOSUB 790 

340 IF H=7 GOSUB 830 

350 M=RND(11)* MOUTH 

360 IF 11=1 GOSUB 1440 

370 IF M=2 GOSUB 1470 

380 IF M=3 GOSUB 1490 

390 IF M=4 GOSUB 1510 

400 IF M=5 GOSUB 1560 

410 IF M=6 GOSUB 1580 

420 IF M=7 GOSUB 1680 

430 IF M=8 GOSUB 1700 

440 IF M=9 GOSUB 1730 

450 IF M=10 GOSUB 1750 

460 IF M=ll GOSUB 1780 

470 N=RND<5>* NOSE 

480 IF N=l GOSUB 1320 



490 IF N=2 GOSUB 1350 

500 IF N=3 GOSUB 1370 

510 IF N=4 GOSUB 1390 

520 IF N=5 GOSUB 1410 

530 B=RND (5) ' BROW 

540 IF B»l GOSUB 1170 

550 IF B=2 GOSUB 1200 

560 IF B=3 GOSUB 1230 

570 IF B»4 GOSUB 1260 

580 IF B=5 GOSUB 1290 

590 FOR X=l TO 2000: NEXT XrGOTO 

120 

600 * *#**###**#HEAD********. #*** 
610 CIRCLE (128, 96), 80 'CIRCLE 
620 DRAW "BM49,86;L5D15R5" 
630 DRAW "BM207j86;R5D15L5" 
640 DRAW "BM168, 165JF10" 
650 DRAW "BM88, 165$ G 10" 
660 RETURN 

670 CIRCLE (128, 96) , 44. 44, ,1.8 * 

VERTICAL EL IPSE 
680 DRAW "BM128, 175; R30U5D5E5G5R 
5L5F5H5L30D 1 5U 1 5L30U5D5H5F5L5R5G 
5E5" 

690 RETURN 

700 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96 ; BL75E50R30F50 
710 RETURN 

720 DRAW "BM 128, 96; BL75E50R50F50G 
50L50H50U 1 0D20U 1 0F50R50E50U 1 OD20 
730 RETURN 



L * BERTO 

A 3-D CUBE GAME 

for TRS Color Computers 
TOP - System 100 & Dragon - 32 

TAPE $27.95 • DISK $30.95 



Operated 
Machine 
Language 
32 K 



Joy | *p | Score Points By 
Stick j^^j<^>| Making L* BERTO 




Jump From 
Cube To Cube 
To Escape 
Snake 
&K00I 



SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 

Phoenix Enterprises 

P.O. Box 76 
Oak Forest, Illinois 60452 

$1 . r >0 POSTAGH Ht HANDLING 
Bruits Residents Include 6% Sales T ox 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 93 



740 CIRCLE < 128, 96), 100, ,.5 " 

HORIZ EL IPSE 
750 DRAM "BM12B, 160* U15D15R30U2R 
2D4L2U2L60U2L2D4R2U2R30D7D 1 5F6H6 
G6E6" 

760 RETURN 

770 DRAW" BM 125, 96? BL50UB4R100D16 

8L100U84" 

780 RETURN 

790 CIRCLE < 128, 96) ,200, , .3 
800 * HOR EL IPSE, WIDE 

810 RETURN 

820 * VERT EL IPSE, HIGH 

830 CIRCLE < 128, 96) ,40, ,3.5 
840 RETURN 

850 * *##*#*#*#EYES************* 
860 CIRCLE < 100, 96), 3 
870 CIRCLE (156, 96) ,3 
880 CIRCLE < 156, 96) ,8, , 
890 CIRCLE <100, 96) ,8, , 
900 RETURN 

910 CIRCLE (100, 96) ,10 

920 CIRCLE (156, 96), 10 

930 DRAW " BM 1 00 , 96 ; BR8 5 R38 % U2 ; L38 

D2" 

940 CIRCLE (100, 96) , 1 
950 CIRCLE (156, 96), 1 
960 RETURN 
970 CIRCLE (100, 96) ,3 
980 CIRCLE (156, 96) ,3 



3 

,3 



Saguaro Software 

7331 E. Beverly Dr. 
Tucson, AZ 85710 

(602) 885-6508 



Business/Utilities 



Prickly-Pear Mailing Dst 

(Disk) New Ver. 
Real Estate Investment 
Statistical Analysis 
Statgraf 

Stress Evaluator 
Tims Mail 
Tims Database 
Bond Yield 

Co-Co Receivables (New) 
Eight-Bit Bartender 

(Office Parties!) 
Colorkit 
Disk Manager 
Disk Master (Disk) New Ver. 
Disk Zapper!!! 
Omni Clone (Lowest Price!) 
Super Disk Utility (Disk) 
Auto Run 
Semigraf 
Move-It! 

Automatic Tape To Disk 




PFA 
PFA 
Sugar 
PFA 
Sugar 
Sugar 
PFA 

Saguaro 
P.P. 

P.P. 

P.P. 

P.P. 

P.P. 

P.P. 

PFA 

Sugar 

Sugar 

Saguaro 



37.75 

18.75 
26.75 
20.75 
18.75 
15.75 
20.75 
17.75 
29.95 
14.75 

26.75 
18.75 
18.75 
26.75 
29.75 
35.75 
15.75 
15.75 
15.95 



Disk available • <aJJ 53.00/ piogram Amuck disk - 
add $6 OO/program. Add S 1 00 per item shipping 
($4 00 maximum) Az residents add 7% tax. 



SUPER WSK UTILITY 




*35 75 



OMNICLONE 

DONT BE FOOLED! We sell 
only genuine Radio Shack 
disk controllers and Amdek 
cables. 



We carry Prickly-Pear, Petrocci Freelance Associates, and 
Sugar Software. Authors... check with us about royalties^^ 

94 the RAINBOW January 1984 



.2 

,1.5 
,1.5 



990 RETURN 

1000 DRAW "BM100,96jH4F8H4E4G8" 
1010 CIRCLE < 100, 96) ,6 
1020 RETURN 
1030 CIRCLE < 100, 96) ,5, 
1040 RETURN 
1050 CIRCLE (156, 96) ,8, 
1060 CIRCLE < 100, 96) ,8, 
1070 RETURN 

1080 CIRCLE (100, 96) ,8, , .45 

1090 CIRCLE (156, 96) ,8, , .45 

liOO RETURN 

1110 CIRCLE (100, 96) ,8 

1120 CIRCLE (156, 96) ,8 

1130 DRAW"BM100,96;BD2SL3R7" 

1 1 40 DRAW " BM 1 56 , 96 ; BD2 ? L3R7 " 

1150 RETURN 

1160 * »*##*#*#*BROW************* 
1170 DRAW "BM100,86jL3BlElR3F3" 
1180 DRAW "BM156,86;L3G3E3R3F1" 
1190 RETURN 

1200 DRAW ,, BM100,86JL5R8F10" 
1210 DRAW "BM156,86$R5L8G10" 
1220 RETURN 

1230 DRAW "BM100,86;R10L20U1R20U 
1L20U1R20" 

1240 DRAW "BM156,86;L10R20U1L20U 

1R20U1L20" 

1250 RETURN 

DRAW "BM100,B2;B13H2" 
DRAW ,, BM156,82?F13E2" 
RETURN 

CIRCLE (100, 96) , 15, ,2, .6, .91 
CIRCLE ( 156, 109) , 13, , 2, . 6, . 9 



1260 
1270 
1280 
1290 
1300 
1 

1310 
1320 
1330 
1340 
1350 
1360 
1370 
1380 
1390 
1400 
1410 
1420 
1430 
1440 
1450 



RETURN 

' *#*****#**NOSE#*#********# 
DRAW "BM128,96;D10L3R6" 
RETURN 

DRAW "BM128, 100? G10E10F10" 
RETURN 

CIRCLE (128, 106) ,4, ,2 
RETURN 

CIRCLE (128, 106) ,2 
RETURN 

CIRCLE ( 128, 106) , 15, , . 2 
RETURN 

• #*»#»*#*MOUTH************* 
DRAW "BM110, 130;R46" 
DRAW "BM122,130;D6L3U6R2D6L 
2U6R1D6" 
1460 RETURN 

1470 CIRCLE (128, 136), 30,,. 25, .5 
1480 RETURN 

1490 CIRCLE (128, 136) ,20, , 1.2, .5 
1500 RETURN 

1510 CIRCLE (128, 136) ,9 

1520 CIRCLE (128, 136) ,7 

1530 SOUND 200, 2: SOUND 190, 2: SOU 

ND 200,3 



1540 PLAY "T1OO;CDEF0?O3;ABO4;CD 
EFGAB05; CDEFG" : SOUND 250, 2: FOR Y 
=1 TO 800: NEXT Y 
1550 RETURN 

1560 CIRCLE (128, 136) ,30, ,. 1, .5 
1570 RETURN 

1580 CIRCLE (128, 132) ,30, , .5 

1590 * HOR EL IPSE - FULL 

1600 DRAW "BM12S, 126; BR20U4L1D4B 

L5U6L 1D6BL6U7L 1 D7BL7U8L 1 D8BL6U7L 

1 D7BL6U5L 1 D5BL6U3L 1 D3 " 

1610 DRAW "BM128, 138; BR20D4L1U4B 

L6D6L5U6BL7D8L 1 U8BL5D7L 1 U7BL6D7L 

1 U7BL7D5L 1 U5BL4D3L 1 U3 " 

1620 SOUND 1,1 

1 630 PLAY " T255 ; 05CDEFG " 

1640 B-B+l 

1650 IF B-14 THEN 1670 
1660 GOTO 1620 
1670 RETURN 

1680 CIRCLE (128, 115) ,30, , .8, . 1, . 
4 

1690 RETURN 

1700 CIRCLE (128, 115) ,30, , .8, .95, 
.4 

1710 ' OFF CENTER SMILE 
1720 RETURN 

1730 DRAW "BM128, 135; H20E2G4E2F3 
0E2G4" 



1740 RETURN 

1750 CIRCLE (128, 115) ,30, ,.7,0,. 
5 

1760 'ON CENTER SMILE 
1770 RETURN 

1780 CIRCLE (128, 115) ,30, , .7, . 1, . 
55 

1790 RETURN 



Hint . 



Upside-Down Loading 



If you've been having problems with I/O Errors when 
loading programs from cassette, try reloading with the 
cassette recorder placed upside down. It may not be techni- 
cally refined, and it may not work, but when faced with the 
dreaded I/O it's worth a try. Besides, Rick Bullon, who 
suggested this method, says it works for him 90 percent of 
the time. 



OUR PROGRAMS AREN'T 
JUST FOR KIDS 

THIS CHRISTMAS, GIVE THE GIFT EVERYONE WILL LOVE! 

■ GOLF Tee-off to great tun with our golf game. One to four players can 
enjoy these 18 holes while your computer keeps track of players, scores, 
and delivers a scorecard at the end of each round. Use on Radio Shack 
Color Computer (16K Extended Color Basic). 

m FORGET-ME-NOT MAIL MYNDER Never forget a friend. With Mail 
Mynder you can update your mailing list quickly. You'll even be able to 
print a return address with each entry. Mail Mynder prints on two wide 
dry gum, or adhesive-backed mailing labels. Disk System allows maxi- 
mum storage capacity; Cassette System stores up to 75 addresses. Use 
on Radio Shack Color Computer (16K Extended Color Basic). 

□ YES!! Send me the programs I have checked below. I have enclosed a check or money order. 

□ Send me further information about great business end entertainment programs. 

HURRY! ORDER BEFORE DECEMBER 24th AND QUALIFY FOR A 25% DISCOUNT 
ON YOUR NEXT PROGRAM. 




f 


QTY. 




PRICE 
EACH 


EXTENDED 
PRICE 






GOLF 

Color Computer Cassette {No. REM1100C) 


$19.95 








Disk (No. REM1100D) 


$24.95 








FORGET-ME-NOT-MAIL MYNDER 

Color Computer Cassette (No. REM1310C) 


$9.95 








Disk (No. REM1310D) 


$12.95 




YOUR AOORESS: 


Sub Total 
(Shipping 
Included) 




Name 


Tax(NC 
Res. add 




Address 




4%) 










Total 




Ui\ 




State Zip 





Access Programs Marketing, Ltd. 
P.O. Box 23275 
Charlotte, NC 28212 



I 

Only | 




DON JUAN 
NEVER HAD IT SO EASY 
BUT YOU CAN 



RATE YOUR DATES BY PERSONALITY, 

SEX, LOOKS AND WEALTH ALSO ANY 

PERSONAL INFORMATION YOU MAY WANT 



ALL THIS INFORMATION AT THE TOUCH 
OF YOUR FINGERTIPS INSTANTLY 
(((WHILE YOU'RE ON THE PHONE))) 
AND MANY OTHER FEATURES 



LET YOUR COCO KEEP YOU ON TRACK 
WITH 

£S DATE MATE 

rV ; > DISK ONLY $14.95 




COCOHUT 
931 WALLING 
HOUSTON, TX 77009 



* PLEASE SPECIFY THE SIZE OF YOUR SYSTEM 



January 1964 the RAINBOW 95 



PROGRAMMING UTILITY 



16K 
ECB 




- ByVlegBoyarsky 



How many times have you seen your program lose its 
"touch" just when someone had to simply read the 
instructions? Well, now you can think about the 
reaction on your friend's face when he.sees all your messages 
"run"across the screen. That's right, the following program, 
even though it's very small, will move any message any place 
across the CoCo screen. While running it, you simply have 
to enter where the message is to appear (letter by letter), and 
where the message is to disappear (letter by letter). In case 
you have forgotten, all "PRINT @" locations are in the back 
of your CoCo manual. Think of the possibilities of moving 
your messages across the screen at an enormous speed. Best 
of $11, this program fits any size Color Computer, and it can 
be easily adapted to your own programs. This program is 
made to be used by itself, but if you want to adapt this 
"message mover" to your programs, simply delete Lines 
10-30, and upon entering the subroutine have S equal your 
finish PRINT @ position, P equal your start PRINT @ 
position and A$ equal your message. Also, change Line 70 
to read: 70 IF B$="'THEN RETURN ELSE40. If the 
message moves too fast for you, then enter the following 
lines into the program which will make the messages move 
faster or slower depending upon the ASCII number for that 
letter. (The ASCII numbers can be found at the end of the 
CoCo manual.) Okay, the lines are: 

52 C$=INKEY$:IF C$ <> "" THEN C=ASC(C$)*5 

54 FOR DE = 1 TO C: NEXT DE 

Also, if you want the program to start over after each 
message is written, then change Line 70 to read: 70 IF B$="" 
THEN 5 ELSE40. 

Now, here is the line by line explanation of the original 
program. 

Line 5 Clears the screen and plenty of string space for 
the program's use. 

Lines 10-20 Enter the start and stop information and 
check it at the same time to make sure that the values are 



(Oleg Boyarsky is currently a junior in high school. His 
main hobbies include electronics and computer pro- 
gramming. He and his brother have built a tremend- 
ous library of hardware and software for the Color 
Computer.) 



within the boundaries of the screen, and that the start is not 
less than finish. 

Line 30 Enters the message and puts it into the A$. This 
line also clears the screen. 

Line 40 The main use of this line is to create the initial 
effect when the message appears on the screen letter by 
letter. Simply, this line states: If B$ is the same as A$ 
(original message "holder") then don't do anything; if not, 
then take one letter or character from A$ and put it in a 
corresponding place in B$. 

Line 50 This line does just the opposite. It creates the 
disappearing effect. It simply states that: Reduce the 
printing position (P) by one only if it is hot equal to the stop 
position (remember, it's the one you entered in the begin- 
ning). If it is equai, then take the first character of the B$ 
(computer's message holder) and erase it. 

Line 60 This line prints the B$ and a space after it to 
create the disappearing effect. 

Line 70 This line checks to see if everything is finished; if 
not, then go back to Line 40. 

As you can see, the program is easy to change in order to 
fit into your own programs. Or, don't touch it at all, and 
simply use it as is. Anyway, the decision is yours, play 
around with it, I am sure that it will provide you hours of 
entertainment. 

The listing: 

5 CLS: CLEAR IOOO 

10 INPUT "PLEASE INPUT THE FINISH 

pos."»s:if s<o or s>5ii then io 

20 INPUT "PLEASE ENTER THE START 
POS"jP:IF P<0 OR P>510 OR P<S TH 
EN 20 

30 PRINT: LINE INPUT "PLEASE ENTER 

THE MESSAGE A*: CLS: IF 

A** ""THEN 30 

40 IF DOLENtA*) THEN D=D+l:B*=B 
♦+MID«<A*,D, 1) 

50 IF P=S THEN B*=RIBHT* (B«, LEN ( 

B*)-1)ELSE P=P-1 

60 PRINT@P,B*" "; 

70 IF B*«" "THEN END ELSE40 



96 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Br 

w 

W 



Box 11 224 • Pittsburgh, PA 15238 • (412) 795-8492 



* EXCITING NEW CONCEPT OFFERED EXCLUSIVELY BY ELITE. 



* YOUR COMPUTER LEARNS ! 

* IT MODELS HUMAN THINKING . . . 
BUILDING VOCABULARY AND DEVEL- 
OPING REASONING CAPABILITIES. 

* IT WILL ASK SOME OF THE MOST 
AMUSING QUESTIONS WHILE IT 
CREATES ITS OWN PERSONALITY. 




the cJlnimcd 



QUESS THE ANIMAL — A machine language, 
artificial intelligence program for the Color Com- 
puter You must play it to believe it. Think of an 
animal, and this software will try to guess it using 
your clues. Watch this program learn, and use your 
clues. See it respond with questions. The longer you 
play, the smarter this program becomes. 16K 
$ 19.95 Tape, or $22.95 Disk. (Both Animals and 
Body Parts $ 29.95 Tape, or $ 32.95 Disk.) 



UTILITIES 

DISK MANAGER— Copy any program (or file) to 
another disk with only two key strokes. Kill disk pro- 
grams with the same ease. All menu driven. A must 
for disk users. 1 6K $ 24.95 Disk only. 

TAPE DUB— Make personal copies of Basic and 
Machine Language tapes with ease. Completely au- 
tomatic, menu driven. All machine language. 16K 
$19.95 Tape, or $22.95 Disk. 

REPEAT KEY— Have your keyboard automatically 
repeat the key that was held down. It's great when 
you're typing programs! Position independent code. 
Machine language. Both 16K and 32K versions for 
$14.95 Tape, or $17.95 Disk. 

LUSTER— Would you tike to have program listings 
that "page break". How about program listings with 
nice margins? Works with any printer. Machine 
language. 1 6K $1 4.95 Tape, or $1 7.95 Disk. 



ARTIFICIAL 
INTELLIGENCE 




(Bawdy Parts) 



Have fun with artificial intelligence. This take-off on 
Animals is a riot. See if this program can guess the 
body-part you have in mind. The program learns, 
and responds with questions. If you aive it x-rated 
clues, it turns into Bawdy Parts. 16K $ 19.95 Tape, 
or $ 22.95 Disk. (Body Parts and Animals $ 29.95 
Tape, or $32.95 Disk.) 

5|C 3|c 3$C dj( 3|C 5jC 5|C J|C 3|C 3|C 3|C 5§C 3|C 3|C 3jC 3|C 3|C s|c 3|C 9|C 5§C 

OS9 Converter* 



The program you need with OS9 is here. 
Transfer your present disk files to OS9 format- 
ted disks. Works with single or multiple drive 
systems. Completely menu driven. ^4 gg 

^JLi ^JL^ m^fj* <fc^t tJL* <^^0 <^L* *\lf* *^b* *0L* *JL* 

"^^^ 



COLOR TUTOR— An exceptional program for 
Language, History, Math and Vocabulary drills. You 
enter questions and answers. Program randomizes, 
presents questions, keeps lesson score. Store 
lessons for future use. Excellent for you or your chil- 
dren. 16K Ext. Basic $19.95 Tape, or $22.95 Disk. 



• Shipping from stock NOW < 
• Dealer inquiries invited • 



• Add $1 Postage and Handling • 

• PA residents add 6% sales tax • 



EDUCATION 



16K 


■ 


f the 1 


ECB 




RAINBOW 






_J.« -.V 



Here's 1/ie /Inswer 
But What Was 
the Question? 




by Rich Dersheimer 



I've noticed that lately there has been a lot of edu- 
cational software for sale, and it seems that there are lot 
of programs for teaching kids the basics of math. It also 
seems that most of these math programs ask the student to 
give the answer to an equation or math problem. So, I 
thought it would be neat to write a program that gives the 
answer and asks for the equation. 

This turned out to be a tougher problem than I expected. I 
tried using the BASIC VAL statement, but it won't accept the 
operators (+-*/) as part of the variable. For a while I 
thought about digging into the ROM to find out how the 
CoCo interprets equations, but I don't know enough about 
assembly language for that. Then I remembered a letter to 
the editor that appeared in the June 1981 issue of the Rain- 
bow. A Mr. Poster of New Jersey had come up with a 
method for changing program lines while the program was 
running. If I could start with some kind of dummy equation, 
and then change it to match the player's input, I could let 
BASIC figure the equation. 

Since Coco doesn't compile the program, instead inter- 
preting each line as it comes to it, this technique works just 
fine. 

The Program 

Lines 30—70: This disables the break and [SHIFT] [@] keys 

(Rich Dersheimer is the graphics director at KVII-TV 
inAmarillo, Texas. He taught several classes for child- 
ren this summer, using JO TRS-80 Co Cos at the Don 
Harrington Discovery Center in Amarillo.) 



while the program is waiting for the equation input. (This 
routine was written by Charles Roslund and appeared in 
Color Computer News, Issue No. 6, February 1982) 
Line 80: Reseeds the random number generator. 
Line 1 10: Holds the equations. 
Line 120: Rounds off the answer to three places. 
Lines 140 — 170: Set up the game screen. 
Lines 180 — 210: Use the BASIC beginning of program poin- 
ter and PEEKS to find line 1 10. 

Lines 260 — 380: Build the computer's equation. At various 
levels of play the equation will include addition, subtraction, 
multiplication and division. 

Lines 410 — 540: More screen set up. Outputs the numbers 
and symbols used to form the equation. 
Lines 550 — 680: Get the input from the player. Checks for 
help wanted, quit the game, start the equation over, and 
check the equation. 

Line 690: Checks to see if all symbols have been used. 
Lines 690 — 750: Build the player's equation. 
Line 760: Incorrect routine. A tone is sounded and the 
computer's equation is shown. 

Lines 770 — 790: Correct equation. A tune is played and the 
computer's equation is shown. If the player gets three cor- 
rect in a row, the level of difficulty is raised. 
Lines 800 — 870: Run out of time routine. A tone is sounded. 
Lines 840 — 870: Display of computer's equation. 
Lines 900—920: Raise the difficulty one level. 
Lines 970 — 1160: Subroutine to solve the equation. The 
equation is POKED into Line 1 10, using ASCII values for 
numbers, and BASIC tokens for the operators. Then Line 1 10 



98 the RAINBOW January 1984 



is referenced to obtain the solution. 

Lines 1 170—1340: Displays the title page. 

Lines 1350—1510: Instructions. If no response is given on 

any instruction page, the program returns to the title page. 

That way if you go off and leave th'e program running, it 

doesn't just sit there. 

Lines 1 530— 1 600: Pick level. This returns to the title page if 
no response is given. 

Lines 1620 — 1990: Data for title page. Hex codes for the 

graphic blocks that make up the title. 

Line 2000: A reverse reference that PCLEARS one page of 

graphics. 

The program should be simple and easy to operate. If it 
should happen to bomb out, check to see that Line 1 10 is still 
as follows: 

. Mathgame will run on a 16 or 32K system, with or without 
disk. I have included several features in the program that I 
feel are useful in an educational program for young people. 

The [BREAK] key and the [SHIFT] [@] keys are both 
disabled. When looking at the instructions or picking a 
starting level, if the program is left unattended, it will cycle 
back through the title page, which will hopefully draw atten- 
tion of anyone nearby. When a correct equation is entered, 
the player is rewarded with a simple tune. If the equations 
get harder, another tune is heard. When an incorrect equa- 
tion is entered, a short tone is heard. This makes it more 
interesting to win than lose. The timer is displayed on the 
screen and by a short bleep, which adds lots of pressure to 
think quick. 

Before letting a young person run this program, try it 
yourself, but start at an easy level. Unless you're a math 
genius, the harder levels are just too frustrating! 



The Listing: 




10 CLSO 

20 GOTO 2000 

30 IF PEEK(&H3EB9)<> &H32 THEN C 
LEAR 700,&H3EB0:F0R I=&H82B9 TO 
&H83 1 E : POKE I -&H4400 , PEEK (I) :NEX 
T ELSE CLEAR 700: GOTO 70 
40 FOR 1=0 TO 2: POKE &H3EBD+I,18 
:NEXT: I=&H3F1E 

50 POKE I,&H26:P0KE 1+1,3: POKE I 

+2,&H7E:P0KE 1+3, MH83: POKE 1+4, 8c 

H22:P0KE I+5,&H7E 

60 POKE I +6 , &HA4 : POKE I+7,&H4C 

70 POKE . &H19B, &H3E 

80 R=RND (-TIMER) 

90 DIM EAU4) 

lOO GOTO 1170 

110 A=*************** 

120 A=INT(A*100O+.5)/10OO 

130 GOTO 1120 

140 CLS3:F0R X=33 TO 449 STEP 32 
: PRINTQX, STRING* (30, " ");:NEXT X 
:PRINT@66, "THE NUMBER IS"; 
150 PRINTS41B, STRING* (26, 191) ; 
160 PRINTS290, STRING* <26, 191) J 



170 FOR X=322 TO 386 STEP 32: PR I 
NT@X , CHR* < 191 ) ; : PRINTSX+25, CHR* < 
191)?:NEXT X 

1 80 ST=PEEK < 25 ) *256+PEEK < 26 ) 

190 IF PEEK <ST) =173 THEN 220 

200 ST=ST+1 

210 GOTO 190 

220 FOR X=l TO 14 

230 EA<X)=0 

240 NEXT X 

250 E*="" 

260 FOR X=l TO N 

270 R=RND < 9 ) : E*=E*+M I D* < STR* <R) , 
2,1) 

280 EA(R)=EA(R)+1 
290 IF X=N THEN 330 
300 IF EA<12)=0 AND (L5=4 OR L5« 
6) AND RND<3)=1 THEN E*=E*+"*" : E 
A<12)=EA<12)+l:G0T0 330 
310 IF EA<13)=0 AND <L5=5 OR L5= 
6) AND RND(3)=1 THEN E*=E*+"/" : E 
A<13)=EA(13)+l:G0T0 330 
320 IF RND<2>=1 THEN E*=E*+"+":E 
A(10)=EA<10)+1 ELSE E*=E*+"-" : EA 
<11)=EA<11)+1 
330 NEXT X 

340 IF EA<10)=0 OR EA<11)=0 THEN 
220 

350 IF L5=4 AND EA<12)=0 THEN 22 
O 

360 IF L5=5 AND EA<13)=0 THEN 22 
O 

370 IF L5=6 AND (EA(12)=0 OR EA( 

13) =0) THEN 220 

380 CE*=E* : A*=E* : L=LEN ( E* ) 

390 GOSUB 970 

400 E=A:A*="" 

410 PRINT<§80," "; 

420 PRINT@SO,E; 

430 FOR X=27 TO 4 STEP -1 

440 SET (58, X, 5) :SET<59,X,5) 

450 NEXT X 

460 T=4 

470 TIMER=0 

480 A*= " " : PR I NTS200 , STR I NG* ( LEN ( 
E* ),".");" ";:P=200 
490 PRINTS323, " " ; : FOR X=l TO 9:1 
F EA(X)=0 THEN NEXT X ELSE FOR Y 
=1 TO EA(X):PRINT X;:NEXT V:NEXT 
X 

500 PRINTS355, ""; : IF EA(10)=0 TH 
EN 510 ELSE FOR X=l TO EAdO):PR 
INT" + ";:NEXT X 

510 IF EA(11)=0 THEN 520 ELSE FO 
R X=l TO EA(ll) : PRINT" - ";:NEXT 
X 

520 IF EA(12)=0 THEN 530 ELSE FO 
R X»l TO EA ( 12) : PRINT" * "?:NEXT 
X 

530 IF EA(13)=0 THEN 540 ELSE FO 

January 1984 the RAINBOW 99 



R X=l TO EA< 13): PRINT" / ";:NEXT 
X 

540 PRINTS390, "USE THESE SYMBOLS 
it • 
t 

550 I*=INKEY* 

560 IF TIMER>N*25 THEN RESET < 58, 
T) : RESET (59, T) : TIMER-O: T-T+1 : SOU 
ND 200, 1 

570 IF T=2B THEN 800 
580 IF 1*="" THEN 550 
590 IF I*-"0" THEN CLS: END 
600 IF I»-"H" THEN 1380 
610 IF I*«CHR*<13> THEN 690 
620 IF I*»CHR*<12> THEN 480 
630 IF I*=" " THEN 550 
640 FOR W=1348 TO 1369 STEP 3: IF 
PEEK<W)=ASC<I*>+64 THEN POKE W, 
96:PRINTSP, I*; :P=P+l:80T0 550 
650 NEXT W 

660 FOR W=1380 TO 1398 STEP 3: IF 
PEEK<W>=ASC<I*>+64 THEN POKE W, 
96:PRINT@P, I*; :P=P+l:GOTO 550 
670 NEXT W 
680 GOTO 550 

690 FOR X=200 TO 200+LEN < E* > - 1 : I 
F PEEK (1024+X) =110 THEN PRINT845 
1,"Y0U MUST USE ALL SYMBOLS" ;: SO 
UND 1,20:PRINT@451, " 

";:GOTO 480 



TRS-80+ MOD I, III, COCO, TI99/4a 
TIM EX 1000, OSBORNE, others 

GOLD PLUG -80 

Eliminate disk reboots and data loss due to oxi- 
dized contacts at the card edge connectors. 
GOLD PLUG 80 solders to the board edge con- 
nector. Use your existing cables, (if gold plated) 



Unmiiiiimnuuifa f 



COCO Disk Module (2) 
Ground tab extensions 
Disk Drives (all R.S.) 
Gold Disk Cable 2 Drive 
Four Drive Cable 
USA shipping $1.45 



Jt*Mfc $16.95 

new incl 

$7.95 

JpjF 29.95 
* 4* 39.95 

Can/Mex $4. 



Foreign $7. Don't wait any longer TEXAS 5% TAX 

Available at your favorite dealer or order direct from 



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P.O. BOX 14 
KELLER, TEXAS 76248 
(817) 498-4242 

+ trademark Tandy Corp 



MC/VISA 



700 A*=A*+CHR* ( PEEK < 1 024+X ) -64 ) 
710 NEXT X 
720 L=LEN<A*) 
730 GOSUB 970 
740 S=A 

750 PRINTSP," =";S? 
760 IF EOS THEN NW=0: PR I NTS 164, 
" I NCORRECT EQUAT ION! "IS SOUND 1 , 1 
5: GOTO 810 

770 NW=NW+l:IF NW=3 THEN N=N+1:N 
W=0:WF=1 

780 IF N>8 THEN N»8 
790 PR I NTS 164, "YOU GOT IT RIGHT! 
" ; : PLAY " T202L4ABG01 L4G02L2D" : GOT 
O 810 

800 PR I NTS 164, "YOU RAN OUT OF TI 
ME!";:SOUND 1,15 
810 FOR X=323 TO 387 STEP 32 
820 PRINTOX , STRING* < 24, " ">; 
830 NEXT X 

840 PR I NT0324, "COMPUTER'S EQUAT I 
ON IS"; 

850 PRINT@362,CE*; 

860 FOR X=l TO 2500: NEXT X 

870 PR I NTS 164, " 

■• a 

9 

880 FOR X =323 TO 387 STEP 32: PR IN 
T@X, STRING* <24, " ");:NEXT X 
890 IF WF=0 OR N=8 THEN 960 
900 PRINTQ324, "LET'S MAKE THE GA 
ME"; 

910 PRINT8356, "A LITTLE HARDER, 

OK?"; 

920 PL A Y " T40 1 L8FFFL 1 DP2L8EEEL 1 C# 
PI" 

930 PRINTS324," 

II ■ 
9 

940 PRIIMTS356, M 

950 WF=0 

960 GOTO 180 

970 FOR X=l TO L 

980 A=ASC(MID*(A*,X, 1) ) 

990 IF A<58 AND A>47 THEN POKE S 

T,A 

1000 IF A»43 THEN POKE ST, 171 
1010 IF A=45 THEN POKE ST, 172 
1020 IF A=42 THEN POKE ST, 173 
1030 IF A=47 THEN POKE ST, 174 
1040 ST=ST+1 
1050 NEXT X 

1060 IF L=15 THEN 1110 
1070 FOR X=l TO 15-L 
1080 POKE ST, 32 
1090 ST=ST+1 
1100 NEXT X 
1110 GOTO 110 
1120 ST=ST-15 
1130 FOR X=0 TO 14 
1140 POKE ST+X, 173 



100 



the RAINBOW January 1984 



LOWEST 
RICES!' 



New Disk Drives 



par 



V 



AS LOW AS $159.00 

Plus 6 Month Warranty 
Even more savings!! all drives fully tested&warranteed 

Complete Disk Drive with PS&Case $195.00 

Two Drives in Dual Case & PS $359.00 

1/2 hts double sided double density Disk Drives $239.95 

1/2 hts double sided double density Disk Drives with ps&case $289.95 

Single ps&case $44.95 

Dual ps&case $74.95 

Color Computer Controller 

Supports double sided double density drives 

with 1 year warranty and manual $139.95 

Ask about our 3way Color Computer Drive Kits $329.95 

Diskettes starting at $19.95 

Head Cleaner Kits $Call 

Unadvertised Specials $Call 

Drives cleaned, aligned & tested $29.95 

TECHNICAL STAFF ON DUTY, PLEASE CALL FOR ASSISTANCE . 

(617)234-7047 



CALL US TODAY!! 



♦DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 



TRUE DATA PRODUCTS 



195 Llnwood Street, P.O. Box 546 
Linwood, Massachusetts 01525 
(617) 234-7047 



HOURS MON-SAT 9-6 (EST) 



We welcome 

•Visa/Master Charge 

• Checks (allow 2 weeks for clearing) 

• CAD. Add $2.00 



1150 NEXT X 
1160 RETURN 

1170 FOR X=l TO 19: READ D* 
1180 FOR Y=l TO 19 STEP 2 
1190 A=VAL("8cH"+MID*(D*,Y,2) ) 
1200 A1«=A1*+CHR*(A-16) 
1210 NEXT Y,X 

1220 FOR X-l TO 19: READ D* 
1230 FOR Y«l TO 19 STEP 2 
1240 A-VAL("8cH"+MID«(D*,Y,2)) 
1250 B1*=B1*+CHR*(A-16) 
1260 NEXT Y,X 
1270 CLS7 

1280 PLAY " 03T2L8CDEF8DEFECP4 " 
1 290 PR I NTS33 , A 1 * » : PLAY " T255CDEF 
6ABBBT4P4P4 " : PR I NTS257 , B 1 * i : PLAY 
" T255CDEFG ABBBT4P4P4 " : L*486 
1300 R*=" BY RICH DERSHEIMER " 
1310 FOR X=l TO LEN(R») :N=ASC(MI 
D*(R*,X, 1)> 

1320 IF N>64 AND N<91 THEN N-N-6 
4 

1330 POKE 1509+X,N: PLAY "T2550 ICC 
C" 

1340 NEXT X 

1350 FOR X-l TO 2000: NEXT X:CLS: 
PR I NT: PR I NT" DO YOU WANT INSTRUC 
TIONS?": PRINT: PRINT" PRESS Y O 
R N":TIMER=0 



CREATES THESE FORMS 

Invoice Overdue Notice 

Letter Receipt 
Purchase Order Job Quote 

Mail Order Order Conformation 
Payment Record 

and stores all the information on disk or tape 
for easy retrieval later. Figure list, net, discount, 
subtotals, freight, tax, etc. 
Extremely user friendly. 



32K Disk 



$29.00 



(Freight Included] 



Easily customize it with your name, address, 
credit card #, tax rate & number and more. 

Challenger Software 



53 



1729 Albemarle Rd. 
Clearwater, FL 33546 
or call (813) 531-7654 

Call Between 9 am - 9 pm EST 



We'll mail you more information and a sample invoice. 



1360 Q*=INKEY*:IF TIMERM200 THE 
N 1270 

1370 IF Q*=»" THEN 1360 ELSE IF 
Q*='»N" THEN 1530 ELSE IF Q*<>"Y" 

THEN 1360 
1380 CLS: PRINT: PRINTTAB( 12) ; "M A 

T H":PRINTTAB<12) J "Q A M E":PRI 
NT: PR I NT" IN * MATHBAME" THE C 
OMPUTER WILL PICK A NUMBER, AN 
D IT IS YOUR JOB TO BUILD AN E 
QUATION TO MATCH THAT NUMBER." 
1390 PRINT: PRINT" IF THE COMPUT 
ER PICKED 4 AS IT'S NUMBER, T 
HEN 1+1+2 WOULD BE A LEGAL EQU 
AT I ON. " : PRINTS452, " (PRESS P C» TO 

CONT I NUE ) " : T I MER-0 
1400 G»»INKEY*:IF TIMER>2400 THE 
N 1270 

1410 IF Q*<>"C" THEN 1400 
1420 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" BUT YOU W 
ON'T BE ABLE TO USE JUST ANY 
NUMBERS OR SYMBOLS. THE COMPUT 
ER WILL PICK WHICH NUMBERS AN 
D SYMBOLS YOU WILL BE ABLE T 
0 USE. EACH NUMBER AND OPERAT 
OR (+ - * /) THAT YOU MAY U 
SE WILL BE INSIDE A" 
1430 PRINT" RED BOX. EACH ONE CA 
N BE USED ONLY ONCE. TO USE A 
NUMBER OR SYMBOL, PRESS IT'S K 
EY ON THE KEYBOARD, AND IT WIL 
L GO FROM THE RED BOX TO THE E 
QUATION. " 

1440 PRINTS452, " (PRESS »C* TO CO 
NT I NUE) ":TIMER=0 

1450 Q*=INKEY*:IF TIMER>2400 THE 
N 1270 

1460 IF Q«<>"C" THEN 1450 

1470 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" IF YOU WAN 

T TO START OVER ON THE EQUATI 

ON, PRESS THE clear KEY. IF YO 

U ARE DONE WITH THE EQUATION, 

PRESS THE enter KEY TO SEE IF 

YOU GOT IT CORRECT. YOU WILL B 

E PLAYING MATHGAME AGAINST TH 

E CLOCK, AND WITH" 

14BO PRINT" PROBLEMS THAT GET 

HARDER AS THE GAME GOES ON. 

YOU MAY PRESS THE *H» KEY FO 
R HELP OR THE 'Q* KEY TO QUIT. 

II 

1490 PRINT&452, " (PRESS 'C TO CO 
NT I NUE) ":TIMER-0 

1500 Q*=INKEY*:IF TIMER>2400 THE 
N 1270 

1510 IF Q*<>"C" THEN 1500 
1520 NW=0 

1530 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" PICK YOUR 
STARTING LEVEL": PR I NT: PR I NT" 
ADD I T I ON/SUBTRACT I ON " : PR I NT " 1 ) 



102 



the RAINBOW January 1984 



EASY": PRINT" 2) MEDIUM" : PRINT" 
3) GETTING HARDER" : PRINT 
1540 PRINT" MULTIPLICATION/DI 
VISION": PRINT" 4> NOT SO BAD" : PR 
INT" S) THESE ARE TOUGH" : PRINT" 
6> FORGET IT!" 

1550 PRINTS452, " (PRESS 1-6 FOR L 
EVEL) ":TIMER=0 

1560 Q*=INKEY*:IF TIMER>2900 THE 
N 1270 

1570 IF Q*="" THEN 1560 

15S0 IF Q*<"1" OR Q*>"6" THEN 15 

60 

1590 N=VAL<Q*> :L5=N 

1600 IF N<4 THEN N=N*2+1 ELSE IF 

N<6 THEN N=4 ELSE N=5 
1610 CLS3:G0T0 140 
1620 DATA AFF5FFFFFFAFF5FFFFFF 
1630 DATA AFAFF5FFFFFFACACACAF 
1640 DATA ACACF5FFAFF5FFFFAFF5 
1650 DATA FFFFAFAFF5FFAFAFF5FF 
1660 DATA FFAFF 1 F3AFF5FFFFFFFF 
1670 DATA FFAFF5FFFFFFAFF5FFFF 
16S0 DATA AFF5FFFFAFF 1 AF AFF 1 AF 
1690 DATA F5FFAFF 1 F7FFF3AFF5FF 
1700 DATA FFFFFFAFF5FFFFFFAFF5 
1710 DATA FFFFAFF5FFFFAFF5F3F3 
1720 DATA F7AFF5FFAFACACACACAF 



1730 DATA F5FFFFFFFFAFF5FFFFFF 
1740 DATA AFACACACAFF5FFFFAFF5 
1750 DATA FFFFFFAFF5FFAFF5FFFF 
1760 DATA FFAFF5FFFFFFFFAFF5FF 
1770 DATA FFFFAFF5FFFFAFF5FFFF 
1780 DATA ACF5FFFFFFACF5FFACF5 
1790 DATA FFFFFFACF5FFFFFFFFAC 
1800 DATA F5FFFFFFACF5FFFFACF5 
1810 DATA AFACACACACACF5FFFFFF 
1820 DATA AFAFF5FFFFFFAFF5FFFF 
1830 DATA FFAFF5FFAFACACACACF5 
1840 DATA FFFFAFF5FFFFFFFFFFFF 
1850 DATA FFAFF 1F3AFF5FFFFAFAF 
1860 DATA F5FFAFAFF5FFAFF5FFFF 
1870 DATA FFFFFFFFAFF5FFFFFFFF 
1880 DATA FFFF AFF 1 F7FFF3 AFF5FF 
1890 DATA AFF 1 AF AFF 1 AFF5FFAFAC 
1900 DATA ACACF5FFFFFFAFF5FFAC 
1910 DATA ACAFF5FFAFACACACACAF 
1920 DATA F5FFAFF5F3F3F7AFF5FF 
1930 DATA AFF5FFFFFFFFFFFFAFF5 
1940 DATA FFFFFFAFF5FFAFF5FFFF 
1950 DATA FFAFF5FFAFF5FFFFFFAF 
1960 DATA F5FFAFF5FFFFFFFFFFFF 
1970 DATA ACACACACACACF5FFACF5 
1980 DATA FFFFFFACF5FFACF5FFFF 
1990 DATA FFACF5FFACACACACACF5 
2000 PMODEO:PCLEARl:GOTO 30 



TS MARKET CHARTER 

TS LOG 

TS DATA NETWORK 



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W 




IB 


7 

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II 1 M 1 1 1 1 ! 1 1 


m 


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PROFESSIONAL LEVEL INVESTMENT TOOLS NOW AVAILABLE FOR THE 
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SYSTEM COLOR COMPUTER 32K* 

REQUIREMENTS: 1 DISK DRIVE 

PRINTER (Optional) 
HAYES SMARTMODEM 
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PRICE: MTS MARKET CHARTER— $95.00 

MTS LOG & DATA NETWORK— $25.00 Per Month 
PRODUCT MANUAL— $25.00 If Purchased Separately 

MTS 

Market Timing Software, Inc. 

6912 N. Sheridan Rd. 
Chicago, IL 60626 



Send Order Or Inquiry To: 



► 



*ALSO AVAILABLE FOR TRS 80 MOD III, II, 12 AND 16; IBM-PC, APPLE II PLUS, ETC. 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 103 



iA TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

•FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP 100 • 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 (616) 364-4791* 



TELEX 
706139 



CU'BER 

32K Mach. Lang. 

$27.95 TAPE 

$30.95 DISK 

Approaches the excite- ^ w; Ad 
ment and challenges of jSp jk~P^ 
any Video Arcade. The JlJ i ® 
hazards of CU'BER are many. Help CU'BER 
change the colors on the pyramid while avoiding, 
many of the dangers always present. Vipers, the 
Nurd, the Dork, bonus points ail add up to another 
exciting release from Tom Mix Software. 




Arcade Action. Method of play you are the Grabber. 
The object is to grab the 6 treasures and store them 
in the center boxes. You start with 3 Grabbers and 
get extra ones at 20,000 points. Watch out for the 
googlies! Super high resolution graphics. 

32K Machine Language 
$27.95 TAPE $30.95 DISK 



AIR TRAFFIC , 
^CONTROLLER 

32K Ext. Basic 
$28.95 TAPE 
$31.95 DISK 



Air Traffic Controller is a computer model of an 
air traffic control situation in which Remotely | 
Piloted Vehicles (RPV's) are operated by the con- 
troller in landing on and taking off from | 
designated runways. 




DEVIL 
ASSAULT 
16K Machine 

Language 
$27.95 TAPE 
$30.95 DISK 



Devil Assault is a multi-level multi-screen game 
in which bird-like creatures, robots and the devil 
himself assault your home base which you must 
defend. 




BUZZARD BAIT 

By RUGBY CIRCLE 
32K Machine Language 

$27.95 Tape $30.95 Disk 

We've done it againl You 
thought the King was great? 
wait 'till you see this! I 
Outstanding high resolution graphics, tremendous 
sound make this "Joust" type game a must for 
your software collection. As you fly from cloud to 
cloud you will enjoy sky high excitement dealing 
with the challenges presented to you by this 
newest release by Tom Mix Software. 




"THE FROG" 

•••ARCADE ACTION*** 

This one will give you 
hours of exciting play. . . 
Cross the busy highway 
to the safety of the me- 
dian and rest awhile 
before you set out across 
the swollen river team- 
ing with hidden hazards. 
Outstanding sound and 
graphics. 




16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
$27.95 TAPE 
$30.95 DISK 




16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 
DISK $30.95 



"TRAPFALL" 

By KEN KALISH 

•••ARCADE ACTION*** 

The "Pitfalls" in this 
game are many. Hidden 
treasures, jump over the 
pits, swing on the vine, 
watch out for alligators, 
beware of the scorpion. 
Another game for the 
Color Computer with the 
same high resolution 
graphics as "The King." 




THE 
KING 



32K Machine Language 
$26.95 TAPE 
$29.95 DISK 



ARCADE ACTION • How high can you climb? Four full graphic screens. 
Exciting Sound • Realistic graphics. Never before has the color com- 
puter seen a game like this. Early reviews say: Just like the arcade 
Simply outstanding! 



Call our BBS Number 
616-364-8217 24 Hours a Day 



JOURNEY 

TO 
MT. DOOM 

32K Mach. Lang. 

$27.95 DISK ONLY 

The Necromancer is 
about to wage war on 
earth. He needs his lost gold ring to acquire the I 
power to do so. You must find the ring, take it to Mt.l 
Doom and destroy it in the flames from which it l 
came, thus eliminating the Necromancer's evil | 
powers. 




JUNIOR'S REVENGE 

Climb vines, avoid obstacles & creatures 
to save your father from Luigi. 

32K CASS $28.95 
32K DISK $31.95 





SHUTTLE 



Basic 



$28.95 TAPE 
$31.95 DISK 



program gives you the real feeling 
flight. Full instrumentation complete 
the max. Actual simulation of space | 
32K Extended Basic 



OTHER GREAT GAMES 

PROTECTORS • Exciting fast paced arcade game that looks and plays 
like the popular arcade game "DEFENDER". 

32K Machine Code Tape $24.95 Disk $27.95 
COLOR GOLF - Now sit at your computer and play nine or eighteen 
holes. Outstanding graphics in the fairway or on the green. Helps your 
game.32K Extended Basic $1 7.95 

4 YAAZEE" (C) 1983 - Yaazee is a 2 player game using five dice to get the 
best poker hand. After game is loaded flashing digit below player 
number determines which player rolls dice at the start of the game. 18K 
Machine Language Ext. Basic $1 9.95 

BIRD ATTACK • A fast paced machine language arcade game. Shoot the 
blrdmen before they descend upon you. Watch out for their bombs! 18K 
Machine Language $21.95 
MAZE RACE - Maze race is a one or two player game. Play either against 
the built in timer or against your favorite opponent. 16K Machine 
Code $17.95 



ADD $1.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX 



TOP ROYALTIES PAID 
LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE I 



ffc TOM MIX SOFTWARE 



TELEX 
706139 



FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP 100 • 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 (616) 364-4791* 



SR-71 



32K Extended Bask 
$28.95 TAPE $31.95 DISK 

SR-71 ts a fast action game in which you 
are the pilot on a mission to take 
photographs of missile sites in Russia and 
deliver them to our processing laboratory 
in Japan. 




THE KING 
T-SHIRTS 

Limited Edition 
Yellow Shirt with Blue Print 

ADULTS $7.95 
M - 15 to 15V2 L • 16 to 16y2 
CHILDREN $7.25 
S-6to8 M-10to12 L14to16 
$2.00 Postage & Handling per order 




UTILITIES 



COLOR MONITOR-Written in position independent code. (May 
be located in any free memory). Very compact. Only occupies 
1174 bytes of memory. Full Featured. Includes Break-Pointing 
of machine language programs, register display and modify, 
memory display and modify, and block memory move com- 
mands. Displays memory in hex and ascii format on one line 8 
bytes long. MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 

SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE-Screen Print Routine Prints con- 
tents of your screen to an Epson, Microline or Radio Shack 
DMP Printers. Prints positive or reverse format. Horizontal or 
vertical, small and large printout. Print left, right or center of 
page. $19.95 



DISK TO TAPE-Dump the contents of most disks to tape 
automatically. Machine Language. $17.95 

TAPE TO DISK - Load the contents of most tapes to disk 
automatically. Machine Language. $17.95 

MAIL LIST-Maintain a complete mailing list with phone 
numbers etc. Ext. Basic. DISK BASED $17.95 

PROGRAM PRINTER UTILITYThis program will list basic pro- 
grams to your printer in two column format. Saves paper and 
makes your listing look professional. Disk based. $17.95 



EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE For The Color Computer and TDP 100 



STORY PROBLEMS is a program that is designed to give practice In 
solving STORY PROBLEMS (sometimes called STATEMENT, THOUGHT 
or WORD PROBLEMS) on the COLOR COMPUTER. It is suitable for use 
in either a home or school environment. It is also a tool that will allow 
you to create new story problems to suit your children's needs and abili- 
ty levels. It has many features that make It particularly attractive: Story 
problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division or a 
combination of the four are presented to the student by slowly scrolling 
each tetter of each problem onto the screen. Up to 5 students may use 
the program at the same time. There are 4, user modlfiabale, skill levels. 
16K Ext. Basic TAPE $19.95 

SPELLING TEST is designed to give a standard oral spelling test using 
the audio track of the computer's tape recorder to dictate test words and 
sample sentences. Student responses are typed on the keyboard and 
checked by the computer. Results are displayed on the screen and (if 
connected) on a printer. REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

MATH DRILL is a program designed to help children to practice addi- 
tion, subtraction, multiplication, and division skills on the COLOR COM- 
PUTER. It has several features that make its use particularly attractive. 

•Up to 6 students may use the program at the same time. 

•Answers for addition, subtraction and multiplication are entered 
from right to left, just as they are written on paper. 

•Commas may be included In the answers. 

•Partial products for the multiplication problems may be com- 
puted on the screen. 

•Division answers that have a remainder are entered as a whole 
number followed by the letter "R" and the remainder. 
•There are ten, user modifiable, skill levels. 

•A "SMILEY FACE" is used for motivation and reward. Its size in- 
creases relative to the skill level. 

•Skill levels automatically adjust to the student's ability. 

•A timer measures the time used to answer each problem and the 
total time used for a series of problems. 

•After a problem has been answered incorrectly the correct answer 
appears under (above in division) the Incorrect answer. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT BASIC $19.95 



EDUCATIONAL PACKAGE — SPELLING TEST — 

WORD DRILL — MATH DRILL — ESTIMATE — 
ALL FOR — $69.95 



ESTIMATE is a program designed to help children to practice estimating 
the answers to addition, subtraction, multiplication and division 
problems on the COLOR COMPUTER. It has many features that make Its 
use particularly attractive: 

•Up to 5 students may use the program at the same time. 

•There are 5, user modifiable, skill levels. 

•The acceptable percent error may be changed as a student's skill 
improves. 

•A timer measures the number of seconds used to answer each 
problem and the total time used for a series of problems. 

•If a problem has been answered incorrectly, the student is told the 
percent error and asked to try again. 

• If a problem is answered incorrectly a second time, the student is 
told the correct answer and the range of acceptable answers is 
displayed. 

•A report is given at the end of each set of problems that includes the 
number of problems done, the number of problems answered cor* 
rectly on the first try and the average percent error. 

•The (BREAK) key has been disabled so that a child will not in* 
advertently stop the program from running. 

16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 



WORD DRILL is designed to give a multiple choice vocabulary quiz. 
Words and definitions are entered into the program from the keyboard or 
from a tape file. The computer displays a randomly chosen definition 
and eight word choices. The student must enter his response before a 
built In timer reaches zero. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 




TEACHERS' DATABASE is a program designed to allow a teacher to 
keep a computerized file of information about his/her students. There 
are many features that make this program particularly attractive. 

• Information on as many as 100 students (or more) may be in the 
computer at one time. 

• Each student may have as many as 20 (or more) individual 
items of data in his/her record. 

• The program will run from cassette or disk. 

• Cassette and disk files are completely compatable. 

• The program Is menu driven. 

• Records may be easily changed, deleted, combined or 
added. 

• Information about students may be numerical or text. 

• Records may be quickly alphabetized. 

• Records may be sorted by various criteria. 

• Records may be reordered (ranked) based on test scores or 
other data. 

• Data displayed during a. sort may be printed on a printer Or 
Saved on disk or cassette as a new file. 

• A full statistical analysis of data may be done and sent to the 
printer. 

• Student test scores may be weighted. 32K EXT BASIC TAPE $39.95 

Call our BBS Number 616-364-8217 24 Hours a Day D,SC U2M 

• A0P 51.00 POST AQE ft HANDLING • TOP ROYALTIES PAID • 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS AOD 4% SALES TAX • LOOKING FOB NEW SOFTWARE 



Let COCO TYPE Help You 
Tighten Up That Typing 



By Leonard Hyre 



How many'CoCo owners shudder with terror at the 
thought of attempting to enter a long 16K program 
one hunt and peck stroke at a time. Well, have no 
fear, Co Co Type is here! 

I wrote CoCoType primarily for my kids. It seemed the 
most frightening thing about a computer was not the pro- 
gramming, but rather the strange looking collection of 
numbers and letters. It didn't take long to find out I was 
more than a bit rusty myself; Soon we were sharing CoCo- 
Type with other families. They all seemed to be pleased with 
it, so I want to share it with all of you. 

When you run CoCo Type you are first treated to opening 
credits (after all I do have an ego to stroke) and then move 
on to a menu. The menu offers you a choice of 1) Beginner, 
2) Secondary or 3) Advanced. If 1 is chosen, the would-be 
typist is given a set of practice exercises, one at a time. 
Typing the exercise correctly four times gets you an appro- 
priate musical reward and a new exercise. The Secondary 
option is similar, except that we leave the home keys and get 
on with those tough ones. These are important, especially 
for computer lovers, since we use all those symbols and 
numbers. For the Advanced option, the typist is presented 
with full-line phrases. For typing 24 perfect phrases, the 
student is graduated with honors and given appropriate 
respect. 

Structure wise, I have kept CoCoType simple. I make 
liberal use of Extended Basic's PLA Y command to provide 
lots of whistles, along with musical interludes. The opening 
credits are controlled in Lines 1-5 and subroutine 6000. On 
return, we set a series of instructions and a menu. INKEYS 
selection at Line 21 and 22 send us to the various options. 
Lines 1000-1016 set up option 1 and then send the program 



(Leonard Hyre, a claims representative for the Social 
Security Administration, has two CoCo programs on 
commercial market Harness Handicapper and Tho- 
roughbred Handicapper with Federal Hill Software. 
He also has had a game published.) 



to subroutine 4000 which is shared by option 2. If option 2 is 
selected, Lines 2000-20 1 4 take over. The routine for option 3 
is independent of the others and is set tip and run within 
Lines 3000-3047. Lines 3055-3067 provide the "graduate" 
with an appropriate reward for his hard work. 

By the way, if you are the one needing the typing lessons 
and thus are intimidated by the length of this program, Hi be 
happy to send you a copy on tape for $6. Just send your 
request to me at: Leonard Hyre, P.O. Box 403, Cambridge, 
MD., 21613. 

If you like CoCoType, drop me a line. I promise my head 
won't swell beyond recognition. If you aren't thrilled and 
have ah improvement in mind, I can also take mild criticism 
if it is done gently. Thanks for youxinterest. Have fun! Now, 
where is that 32K Adventure program I want to type in? 




. . . 02A2 



1002 ...04A7 
2008 ...07FD 
3008 ...0B81 
3036 ...0E44 
3080 ...10B3 
END .. 12BC 

The listing: 

1 cls:dima*<18>,b*<2&>:printstri 

NB*<32 9 168)| 

2 PRINTSTRING«(10, 168)+" COCOTYP 
INS "+STRIN0*(1O, 168)|:PRINT8TRI 
NG*<32 9 168)| 

3 PRINT8TRINS«(8,207)+ M by fta +8TRIN 
B*(2, 128)+"l»on«rd ,, +CHR*(128)+ ,, h 
yr* M +STRING« (8,207) I :PRINTSTRINQ 
• < 32, 207) : PR I NT8TR I NO* (32, 17S) 

4 QO8UB60O0:PRINT9448, "♦♦♦PRESS 
ANY KEY TO CONTINUE*** 1 * f 

5 PLAY"TlS009V31GG69e" 



106 the RAINBOW January 1984 



6 I*-INKEY*: IFI*-""THEN6 

7 PLAY ,, T15O05V31GGGGG" 

10 CLS: PRINTSTRING* (32, 159)|:PRI 
NT-THI9 PROGRAM 18 DESIGNED TO G 
IVEYOU A NUMBER OF BASIC TYPING 

EXERCISES TO GET YOU STARTED 
ON THE HAY TO BECOMING A CAPABLE 
TYPIST. "J ' 

11 PRINT: PR INT "THE SECRET IS TO 
KEEP YOUR EYES ON THE SCREEN — NO 
T ON THE KEYS. KEEP YOUR FINGERS 

ON THE 'HOME KEYS'. THESE ARE — 
-ASDF(LEFT) Sc JKLl (RIGHT) I" 

13 PRINT8TRING*<32, 139)1 : PRINT"* 
•***PREGS ANY KEY TO START*****" 
f : PRINTSTRING* (32, 159) I 

14 I*«INKEY*:lFI*- h "THEN14 

1 5 CLS : PLAY " T200V3 1 OSFGGF M 

16 PRINTSTRING* (32, 175) : PRINT: PR 
INT: PRINTSTRING* <32, 207) f : PRINT" 
*#L E V E L SELECTIO N** 
"? : PRINTSTRING* (32, 207) : 

17 PRINTTAB (10) "1> BEGINNER" 
1G PRINTTAB < 10) "2> SECONDARY" 

19 PRINTTAB ( 10) "3> ADVANCED" 

20 PRINTTAB ( 10) "<CHOOSE l-3>" 

21 I*-INKEY*:IF I*-" "THEN 21 

22 IF I*-"l"THEN10OOELSEIFI*-"2" 
THEN2000EL8E I F I *- " 3 " THEN3000EL8E 
21 

23 END 

1000 CLS SPRINT "BELOW ARE SEVERAL 

EXERCISES TO GET YOU FAMILIAR 
WITH THE MOST COMMONLY USED KEY 
S. " 

1002 PR I NT "YOU WILL BE GIVEN THE 
M 1 AT A TIME. TO MOVE TO THE N 
EXT ONE YOUMUST TYPE THE CURRENT 

8ELECTI0N CORRECTLY 4 TIMES." 

1003 PRINTTAB (6) " 1 > ASDF" 

1004 PRINTTAB <6)"2> JKLJ " 

1005 PRINTTAB (6) "3> TGUH" 

1006 PRINTTAB (6) "4> QWEV" 

1007 PRINTTAB (6) "5> POIN" 

100G PRINTTAB <6)"6> BRNY" : PRINTT 
AB(6)"<PLUS 12 MORE>" 

1009 PRINT"****<PRESS ANY KEY TO 
START >***"! : PLAY " T 1 50V3 1 OSGGGG " 

1010 I*-INKEY*:IF I*-""THEN1010 

1011 PLAY "T150V31 OSGGGG" 

1012 A* < 1 ) -"SFAD" : A* (2) -"FADS" : A 
• (3) ="KJL| " : A* <4) -" J J LK" : A* (5) «" 
GHTU" : A« <6) «"U8HT" 

1013 A* (7) -"WEVN" : A* (6) -" VEWQ" : A 
* (9) INOP" : A* < 10) -"PINO" : A* < 1 1 ) 
-"XZTR":A*(12)-"BRNY" 

1014 A* (13)-" CLOD " : A* < 1 4 ) - " SEKP " 
: A* < 15) -"TYUI " : A* ( 16) -"REOP" : A* ( 
17)-" MVWH " : A* < 1 8 ) - " DALK " 

1015 FOR X-l TO 18:G0SUB4000:NEX 



TX 

1016 GOTO 15 

2000 CLS:PLAY"T150V3105GGGG":PRI 
NT "BELOW ARE SEVERAL INTERNED I AT 
E EXERCISES. AS IN THE BEGINNE 
R EXERCISES, THEY ARE BASICALLY 

FOR LEARNING KEY LOCATION. 

2001 PRINT: PRINT"EXERCISES INCLU 
DE:" 

2002 PRINTTAB <4> "1 > A1S2D3F4" 

2003 PRINTTAB (4) "2> T56Y7K86" 

2004 PRINTTAB (4) "3> R-/.K-O" 

2005 PRINTTAB<4)"4> CATJOBTIP" 

2006 PRINTTAB (4) "5> EXCLAIMIT" 

2007 PRINTTAB <4)"6> !WXV<)*'" 

2008 PRINTT AB<4) "-AND 12 MORE!" 

2009 PRINT: PR I NT "< PRESS ANY KEY 
TO START >" 

2010 I*-INKEY*:IF I*-""THEN2010 

2011 PLAY"T150V3105GGGG":A*(l)- n 
AIS2D3F4" : A* (2) -"T56Y7K86" : A* (3) 
-"R: /. K-O" : A* <4) -"CATJOBTIP" : A* ( 
5) -"EXCLAIMIT": A* <6)-"!W3tV <)*'": 
A*(7)-"A|8LDKFJ":A*(8)-"IEQUAY": 
A*(9)»"9ECLIDS" 

2012 A*(10)-"QPW0EI":A*<11)-"RAZ 
ELBOP" : A* ( 12) -"FELKROLO" : A* ( 13) - 
"KRIPNIC" : A* < 14) -"DANLOUP" : A* < 15 
) -"ARKNORP" : A* < 16) -"POINTER" : A* ( 
17) — "THRISG" : A* ( 18) -"FLIPGUT" 

2013 FOR X-l TO 18:Q0SUB 4000: NE 
XT X 

2014 G0T015 

3000 CLS : PLAY " T 1 50 V3 1 05GGGG " : PR I 
NT STRING* (32, 175) 5 

3001 PRINTSTRING* ( 12, 175) +"ADVAN 
CED"+STRIN8*( 12, 175) I 

3002 PR I NTSTR I N8* < 32 , 1 75 ) 

3004 PRINT"YOU WILL BE 8IVEN A S 
HORT PHRASEOR SENTENCE TO TYPE. T 
YPE AS FASTAS YOU CAN BUT TYPE A 
CCURATELY. " 

3005 PRINT: PRINTSTRING* (32, 128) I 

3006 PRINTCHR*(128)+"<PRESS ANY 
KEY FOR 1ST PHRASE >" +CHR* < 128) I : 
PRINTSTRIN8*<32, 128) I :PRINT"YOU 
MUST TYPE 24 PERFECT PHRASES" J :P 
R I NTSTR INS* (32, "*") I :PRINT"TIMER 

STARTS WHEN PHRASE APPEARS" I : PR 
I NTSTR INS* (32, "#") 

3007 TY-O: I*-INKEY«: IF I*- ""THEN 

3007 ELSE CLS: PLAY "T255V3105EFEF 
EF" 

3008 E*(1)-"N0W 18 THE TIME FOR 
ALL 800D MEN" 

3009 E* (2) -"EVERY GOOD BOY WILL 
HAVE HIS DAY" 

3010 E* (3) -"THERE IS NOTHING STO 
PPING ME NOW" 

3011 E* (4) -"ROSES ARE RED- VIOLET 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 107 



8 ARE VIOLET" 

3012 E*<5)- U MANY A GOOD MAN HAS 
GONE ASTRAY." 

3013 E*(6)- N I LOVE TO TYPE WITH 
MY OWN COCO" 

3014 E*(7>-"THE SLY FOX WILL SET 
THE CHICKEN" 

3015 E* (8) -"COMPUTERS ARE NOT AC 
TUALLY SMART" 

3020 FOR Z-l TO 3: FOR X-l TO 8 

3021 PRINT8TRING*(32 V 17S>| 

3022 PRINT"YOUR PHRASE IS-" 

3023 PRINT: PRINTED <X> 

3024 PLAY"T190V310560G8" 

3030 TIMER-0:LINE INPUT AN* 

3031 IF AN*— E* < X ) THEN PLAY"T403L 
1 9P2004CP2004CP20EP20L 1 2CP 1 0L24E 
P20L3G " : 80T03036 

3034 if an*< >e* < x ) then sound 1,4 
:print:print:print"##****##*»e r 

R O R !»•»#«*»##*#": 80T03040 
3036 PR I NT : PR I NT : PR I NT " ********* 
*C O R R E C T****»****"| :TY"TY+ 
1 : PRINT8420, "PERFECT PHRASES SO 
FAR- "TY:PRINT"**YOUR SPEED WAS 
" | F I X < 3600/T I MER ) *9 1 " WORDS/M I N" I 

3040 FOR DL-1 TO 1600: NEXT DL 

3041 CL8:IF TY-24 THEN 3035 

3045 NEXT X:NEXTZ 

3046 CLS 



3047 IF TY<24 THEN3006 
3050 END 

3055 CLS: PRINT: PRINTSTRING* (32, 1 
75) | : PRINT" IN HONOR OF YOUR COM 
PLETION OF ALL REQUIRED EXERCISE 
S YOU ARE HEREBY GRADUATED AND 
AWARDED A GOLD MEDAL ! ": PRINTSTR 
ING*<32, 159)1 : FOR DL-1 TO lOOOtN 
EXT DL 

3056 PMODE 1,1: SCREEN 1,0:PCL8 

3057 DRAW"C2BM96,96U20L7R15" 

3058 DRAW"C2BM1 16, 96| U20D10R10U1 
0D20" 

3059 DRAW"C2BM136,96|U20R10L10D1 
0R10L10D10R10" 

3060 DRAW"C2BM96, 126J U20R10L1OD1 
0R10L10D10R10" 

3061 DRAW"C2BM118, 126IU20F20U20" 

3062 DRAW " C2BM 1 46 , 1 26 I U20R7F5D 1 O 
G5L7" 

3063 CIRCLE (60, 100) , 25, 2 

3064 PAINT (60, 100) , 2, 2: CIRCLE (60 
, 100) ,20,3 

3065 DRAW " BM60 , 1 45 f G4BE4D40R4BRL 
4L4" 

3066 LINE (50, 140) -(70, 190), PSET, 
B 

3067 LINE (60, 140) -(60, 125), PSET 
3080 G0T03080 

4000 CLS:TI-0:PRINTSTRING*(32, "* 

") 

4001 PRINTG64, "HERE IS YOUR EXER 
CIBE: ":PRINTa96,CHR*(128)+A*(X)+ 
CNR* (128) 

4002 PRINT81 28, "TIMES PERFECT- "T 
I 

4005 PRINTS192, "TYPE: ": INPUT AN*: 
I FAN*- A* ( X ) THENT I -T I +1 

4006 IF AN*-A*(X)THENPRINT«128, " 
TIMES PERFECT- " I T I : SOUND 125,1 

4007 IF AN*OA*(X)THENS0UND 1,1 

4008 FOR DL-1 TO 20: NEXT DL 

4009 PRINTS192, " ":IF 
TK4 THEN 4005 

4010 IF TI-4 THEN PLAY"T203L16CP 
1 602L32GP32GP32LGAGP9L 1 6BP 1 603C " 
:IF TI-4 THEN RETURN 

5999 END 

6000 DATA A, ,B,E,G, I,N,N, I,N,G, , 
T,Y,P, I,N,G, ,P,R,0,G,R,A,M 
6002 PR-259 

6004 F0RX-1T026 
6006 READ B* 
600G PRINT8PR,B*| 
6010 PLAY"T255V3102EE" 
6012 FORDL- 1 T050 : NE X TDL 
6014 PR-PR-H 
6016 NEXTX 
60 1G RETURN 



CY-BURNET-ICS 

Specializing In Educational Software 
For TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

GRAPHIC ALPHABET— for preschool through first grade 
designed to be used individually or with large groups; large colorful block 
upper case letters displayed on the screen; auto run; menu consists of A, B, 
C's with voice, A, B, C's no voice, Next Letter, Random Alphabet, Random 
Next Letter, and Missing Letter; Quit Option returns to menu at any time; 
computer will advance only after student presses appropriate key repre- 
senting missing letter; musical tones provided. 

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS 16K EXTENDED BASIC $24.95 

Sn rwvfow of thlt program In Dec. '83 Rainbow, paga 259. fl? 
SUBTRACTION DRILL— for kindergarten through fourth grade 
designed to be used individually or with large groups; auto run and menu 
driven 10 levels: 1 ) sequential facts 0-0 through 5-5, 2) sequential facts 6-6 
through 10-10, 3) random facts 0-0 through 5-5, 4) random facts 6-6 
through 10-10, 5) minuend to 99 with no regrouping, 6) random facts 10 to 
18, 7) minuend to999 with no regrouping, B) minuend to 99 with borrowing 
A10 (carry aide tutor provided) , 9) minuend to 999 with borrowing A10, and 
10) minuend to 999 with borrowing 10's and 100's. Large colorful numerals 
presented in vertical columns with right to left progression. Computer 
displays correct answer after 2 misses. Erase and quit options. Rewards 



provided. 

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS 32K EXTENDED BASIC , $24.95 

ALSO AVAILABLE CASSETTE 

CLOCK ARITHMETIC/TUTOR 32KEB !f . 24.95 

NUMBER READINESS DRILL 32KEB ,...19.95 

NUMBER & COLOR WORD DRILL 32KEB 19.95 

NUMBERS BEFORE/BETWEEN/AFTER 16KEB 24.95 

ADDITION DRILL (7 LEVELS) 16KEB 24.95 

BEAT COMPUTER MULTIPLICATION AND 
MULTIPLICATION TABLES DRILL 16KEB ...Both for.... 19.95 
NEW PRIMARY NUMBER SKILLS DRILL 16KEB 24.95 



• Set our Ad In Sept., Oct., or Nov. Rainbow for description of CLOCK, 
BEAT COMPUTER, AND MULTIPLICATION TABLES DRILL. 

• All programs developed by educators and field tested. 

• Add $1 .00 per cassette for shipping and handling. Tennessee residents 
add 6% sales tax. Send self addressed stamped envelope for free catalog. 
Mail CHECK or MONEY ORDER to: 

CY-BURNET-ICS 

5705 Chetswood Drive, Knoxvllle, TN 37912 
Phone 615-688-4865 



108 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Ofi 




V^ckyFoOd 



Hamburgers, fries, drinks and other fastfoods are 
chased by chattering teeth. Can you stop them 
before you go.. .WACKO? Three levels of play from 
beginner to expert. This is number one for fun. 
32K Disk $24.95 32 K Cass. $21.95 




RAINBOW 



Push blocks of ice to crush giant mosquitos and 
avoid getting stung long enough to get them all 
Three levels with graphics so real you'll want your 
fly swatter. Don't miss this arcade classic. 
32K Disk $26.95 32K Cass. $24.95 




DIESIERT 
PATROL 



Armed with laser cannons guide your desert vehicle 
past obstacles while avoiding enemy fire. Watch out 
not to run out of fuel. Five levels of play. 
32K Disk $26.95 32K Cass. $24.95 




RAINBOW 



You are in a foodfight against the evil chefs. Can 
you eat the icecream cone before it melts? Fast 
paced arcade action and sound make this game 
unforgettable. Fifteen screens and ten levels of play. 
32 K Disk $27.95 32K Cass. $25.95 



All games 32K disk or cassette are written completely in machine language. Highest resolution arti- 
fact graphics and spectacular sound effects are just two of the exceptional features you will find. 
Each game records high score and multiple skill levels with play features comparable to current 
arcade games. 

Other works by this author Rainbow 7-83 

u Not only is the action portion.. .spectacular, but the game is a visual triumph as well. ..with color 
rivaling most coin-op video games." 

Order Line (201) 773-3474 - 24 Hours 
ORDERS SHIPPED WITHIN 24 HOURS BY FIRST CLASS MAIL, POSTAGE PAID. 



Order now and enjoy this new generation of video games for your Color Computer. 



9 




21 The Fairway • Upper Montclair, N.J. 07043 
* Dealers inquires Invited* 



(Mastercard) 



VISA* 



GameMaster's Apprentice 



A Beginner's Guide 
To Cassette Files 



By Bob Albrecht 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Fantasy Role Playing Games 

Millions of young people, and many not-so-young, are play- 
ing fantasy role playing games. A role playing game is a 
game in which one or moreplayers create and control char- 
acters (adventurers) who live their imaginary lives in a spe- 
cially made game world. The game world is created, man- 
aged, and operated by a GameMaster (GM) S also called a 
referee, adventure master, or dungeon master (DM). Most 
people who play role playing games use a formal rule sys- 
tem. Some of the best known are shown below. 

Champions. From Hero Games, 92 A 21st Avenue, 
San Mateo, C A 94402. 

Dungeons & Dragons (D&D). From TSR Hobbies, 
P.O. Box 756, Lake Geneva, WI 53147. 
RuneQuest (RQ). From Chaosium, P.O. Box 6302, 
Albany, CA 94706. 

Tunnels & Trolls (T&T). From Blade, Box 1467, 
Scott sdale, AZ 85252. 

Worlds of Wonder (WOW). From Chaosium, P.O. 
Box 6302, Albany, C A 94706. 

BEGINNERS BEWARE! The rule books are very difficult 
to understand. If you are a beginner, first try Worlds of 
Wonder or Tunnels & Trolls. Programs in "GameMaster's 
Apprentice "are based on the game system used in Worlds of 
Wonder and RuneQuest. For general information about 
fantasy role playing games* try the following book, excellent 
for beginners. 

Through Dungeons Deep by Robert Plamondon. 
From Rest on Publishing Company, 11400 Sunset 
Hills Road, Reston, VA 22090. 



Copyright (c) 1983 by DragonQuesU P.O. Box 310, Menlo 
Park, CA 94025. Portions of "GameMaster's Apprentice" 
are from a book-in-progress called Adventurer's Hand- 
book: A Beginner's Guide to Role Playing Games by Bob 
Albrecht and Greg Stafford. To be published January, 1984 
by Reston Publishing Company, 11400 Sunset Hills Road, 
Reston, VA 22090. 



Perhaps you have used the cassette recorder to load 
cassette programs into memory, using the CLOAD 
command. You may also have used the cassette 
recorder to CSA FZsyour own programs on cassette tapes or 
to make backup copies of cassette programs which you have 
purchased. It is okay to make copies of copyrighted software 
that you have purchased for your own use. It is not okay to 
make copies to sell or give to others. This is unfair to people 
who invest their time and money to provide good, inexpen- 
sive software and is illegal as well. 

• When you CSAVE a program, the CoCo records the 
program from its memory onto a cassette, using the cassette 
recorder. 

CSAVE: FROM MEMORY TO TAPE 
MEMORY 

• When you CLOAD a program, the CoCo reads the pro- 
gram from a cassette into its memory, again using the 
cassette recorder. 

CLOAD: FROM TAPE TO MEMORY 
MEMORY 

You can also use the cassette recorder to store data 
(information) on cassettes and read data from cassettes into 
the CoCo's memory. The data can consist of numbers or 
strings or a mixture of both. So, this information can be 



(Bob Albrecht and George Firedrake are two of the 
most prolific authors in the microcomputer world 
today. Specialists in writing for beginners, they are 
authors of numerous books, including TRS-80 Color 
BASIC.) 



110 



the RAINBOW 



January 1984 



CoIorQuesf Games as? 1-800-328-2737 

Fast Machine Code • Hi-res Color Graphics • Exciting Arcade Action and Sound 





Fembote' 
Revenge 

NEW 



3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

Shooting aliens on a flat screen is 
nothing like BEING THERE. In 
machine-code 3-D excitement, 
highest resolution graphics and 
sound, you are face to face with the 
Guardians: the ubiquitous Fembots, 
the powerful Arthroks and the 
omnipotent Optikon. Your lasgun 
blasting, you hear the explosion and 
the crunching metal; you feel the 
tension as you stalk your enemy, 
searching for the Destruct Button on 
your way to the Master Bay of the 
Mother Ship. Can you find the means 
to teleport to safety? 
32K Tape $24.95 32K Disk $29.95 



so on 

GO*"" 

THE 
SENTINEL 

3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

A dark, awful secret is hidden in the 
cavernous labyrinth. Beyond the 
chasms, the poisonous gasses, 
Tunnels of No Return and the 
relentless minions, the Sentinel 
hungrily awaits! Sorcerous magick 
and saintly swordplay are your best 
friends and worst enemies. You are 
no ordinary warrior in this ultra hi- 
res, 3-D medieval adventure! Can 
you su rvive to discover the secret - or 
is there a seat in the netherworld for 
you too? 

32K Tape $24.95 32K Disk $29.95 






Xygoid 



NEW 



Your ship is being enshrouded by the 
Xygoid Web. Certain death is 
minutes away! You must blast 
through the enveloping Web and 
destroy the Xygoid vessel before you 
are crushed. This is a multi-colored 
machine-code game in the highest 
resolution mode on a black 
background. Xygoid, from the 
galactic beginning! It will ensnare 
your mind! 

16K Tape $19.95 32K Disk $24.95 



Another arcade hit! The Asteroid Belt 
is crashing down on Earth. You are 
the first-line defense. You must 
destroy the blazing asteroids and the 
homing orbs with your disruptor, 
Machine-code speed, multi-colors 
on a black background - the crash 
and explosions of the asteroids rain 
on your senses! 

16K Tape $19.95 32K Disk $24.95 



JNTERCEPTQR 



Ever increasing Waves of Landers, Fighters, Air mines and Smartbombs help 
the enemy capture the Earthlings on the planet surface. Your phaser and 
photon bombs will be a solid defense. In multi-colored surroundings you do 
battle to maintain control of your homebase! 

32K Tape $19.95 32K Disk $24.95 

All Game Names are Trademarks of Softlaw Corp. 
CoiorQuest is a Division of Softlaw Corp. 

9072 Lyndale Ave. So., Minneapolis, MN 55420 

For Software Support and Customer Service Call 612-881-2777 
AUTHORS' SUBMISSIONS ARE ENCOURAGED 




?yr~Dracci 



NEW ARCADE GAME 

Fyr-Draca (Fire Dragons), from egg 
to the daemonic behemoth, greet 
you in five waves with nine colors on 
the screen at one time! This machine 
code game is going to sweep the 
Color Computer market. It is by far, 
the best game to come out for a long, 
long time. The real arcade look is 
here at last! 

Fire Dragons uses the nine color 
mode to create a screen of dazzling 
color with a black background and a 
black border. Dragons swoop from 
their stellar watch, singly, in groups 
and in squadron formation. First you 
face the single wyrms, then the 
squadron, next the twin giants, 
followed by the Battle Drake and its 
minions. Even with four star vessels 
and shields you will be hard put to 
survive their spitting fire and diving 
attacks! 

32K Tape $24.95 32K Disk $29.95 



Why fly to VEGAS when you can 
have a casino at home! The VEGAS 
GAMEPAK is five action packed 
games with great graphics & sound. 
SLOT MACHINE - BLACKJACK - UP 
AND DOWN THE RIVER - CRAPS & 
KENO. 

16K Tape $19.95 16K Disk $24.95 





■WIS. 

KIBBLER 

Ms. Nibbler is not just another pretty 
face with glossy red lips. She's a 
feisty lady, who moodily prowls her 
black maze. This game has the real 
arcade action and the real arcade 
look too! Your joystick will almost 
burn out as you try to keep up! 

16K Tape $19.95 16K Disk $24.95 




BEVOND THE 
CIMEEON MOON 



3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

A dead star ... A derlict vessel ... or is 
it? Trapped within you must venture 
the corridors; defend yourself 
against the merciless gauntlet of 
agents of the machine mind. A real- 
time, high-res, 3-D science fiction 
adventure game of mind-blowing 
magnitude. 

16K Tape $24.95 32K Disk $29.95 




flduenfure Crilogy 



3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

Clash steel with thy foe in the arena 
of gore. Proved worthy, go in quest of 
the elusive Eye of Dazmor. If ye 
findest the orb, hast ye the might to 
ward off skem and the fortitude to 
restore the Eye? The ultimate high- 
res, 3-D quest for even the most 
experienced adventurer! 
16K Tape $24.95 32K Disk $29.95 




THE 

■MBBLER 

The King of Pac games is here. This 
fast-paced maze-chase game will 
challenge the mostskilled. You guide 
The Nibbler through the maze, the 
portals, onward to the Energy Pills. 
Then the Ghouls, constantly at your 
heels, will end up in your belly! The 
better you get the better you have to 
become to master the blazing speed. 
You haven't pushed your skill until 
you've tried this one! 

16K Tape $19.95 16K Disk $24.95 



[Mculof Cord ) 



VFSA' 



If your Dealer is out of stock ORDER DIRECT! 
ORDERING 

Make checks or money orders payable to Softlaw Corp. Personal checks allow 
3 weeks. MAIL ORDERS: $2.00 U.S. Shipping ($4.00 CANADA $10 
OVERSEAS) NO C.O.D.'s Minn, residents add 6% sales tax. 

Distributed in CANADA by Kelley Distributing 



anything you wish to store. For example: 

•A personal telephone directory with people's names and 
their phone numbers. 

•A dictionary of three-letter words to be used in a compu- 
ter game. 

•An inventory of your record, coin, or stamp collection 
— or whatever you collect. 

•A list of your important personal property. Put this 
cassette in your bank deposit box. You might need it if your 
house burns down or you are burgled! 

•The first 500 prime numbers. 

•Your shopping list for next Christmas (add to it now and 
then). 

•People's birthdays, anniversaries, and other important 
dates. 

•Tax information so you and your friendly CoCo can go 
bravely into battle against the giant IRS monster. 

•Character records for characters in fantasy role playing 
games. 

•A history of a character's progress as she or he grows and 
learns while adventuring in the GameMaster's World. 

•Many names from which to choose the name of a new 
character you have created. 

•Descriptions of magical spells available in Dungeons & 
Dragons, RuneQuest, or the game system of your choice. 



•Specifications and prices of weapons, shields, armor, 
and other artifacts of conflict available in The Weapon Shop 
of Rehsu. 

•Information about prices, wages, inns, taverns, and 
other things important to a character entering the town of 
Myboro in Wundervale. 

•And so on — what do you want to store? 

Why put such information on tape cassettes? Because, 
once it is on cassettes, you can quickly read it into your 
CoCo and do things with it or to it, as the case may be. 
Information stored on cassette tape is "machine readable." 
The CoCo automatically reads it much faster (and with 
fewer errors) than you can type it in. So, save wear and tear 
on your fingers — learn how to put data on cassette tapes. 

It's Easy! 

Start with two short, simple programs. The first program 
lets you enter information from the keyboard and save it on 
tape. Of course, this information must first go into the 
memory of the CoCo. That's why we call this program 
KEYBOARD-MEMOR Y- TA PE. 

Our program helps you store names on a cassette tape. 
Well, if you want to store a string that is not a name, that's 
okay. The CoCo doesn't care. First, we clear the screen and 
tell the CoCo we want to OPEN a file for output ("O"). 
Output to where? To the cassette recorder (-1), of course. 
And what shall we call this file? We do believe an approp- 
riate name would be "NAMES." 

lOO REM**KEYBOARD— MEMORY— TAPE 
110 CLS 

120 OPEN "O", -1, "NAMES" 




a file named 



Line 120 is written for Extended Color BASIC. If you are 
using Color BASIC, write Line 120 as follows. 

120 OPEN "O", #-1, "NAMES" 




"Ah," purrs CoCo, "my esteemed human wants me to open a 
file drawer and call it NAMES. Perhaps she or he will then 
supply me with names to put into NAMES." 

( CoCo opening a file S 
( drawer in a file cabinet < 
( and labeling it NAMES / 

Indeed, CoCo, we will add to your program so your 
human can enter names from the keyboard and you can 
store them in your open file called NAMES. The next piece 
of our program prompts your human to enter a name. 

200 REM*#KEYBOARD TO MEMORY 
210 INPUT "NAME"; NAYM* 



KEEP TEXT II 

A SIMPLE, POWERFUL WORD PROCESSOR FOR CoCo 

-FULL SCREEN, "CUT ( PASTE" STYLE EDITOR. 
-DRIVES ANY PRINTER, VITH DYNAMIC CONTROL CODES. 
-RUNS IN 16K, 32K OR 64K. -53K AVAILABLE IN 64K. 
-WmW AND DOUBLE STRIKE ON ANY PRINTER. 
-MENU DRIVEN, WITH BUILT-IN TEACH SCREENS. 
-BOTH CASSETTE AND DISK I/O IN ONE PROGRAM. 
-SCREEN SIZE 15 STANDARD 32x16 FOR READING EASE. 
-BRIGHT CHARACTERS DISPLAYED ON BLACK BACKGROUND. 
-RAGGED OR FLUSH RIGHT, UNDER USER CONTROL. 
-GLOBAL SEARCH, WITH OPTIONAL CHANGE. 
-FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE. -BAUD RATES TO 9600. 
-SINGLE OR DOUBLE SPACE PRINT AT ANY TIME. 
-AUTOMATICALLY GENERATES ASCII FORMAT FILES. 
-CASSETTE MOTOR CONTROL FROM MAIN MENU. 
-MULTI-LINE PAGE HEADINGS AND FOOTERS. 
-COLUMNAR AND PARAGRAPH STYLE PRINTING. 
-AUTOMATIC KEY REPEAT. -AUTOMATIC LINE CENTERING. 
-ALL MARGINS AND PAGE LENGTH UNDER USER CONTROL. 
-AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL PAGINATION. 
-PAGE PAUSE, TO FEED SINGLE SHEETS, OPTIONAL. 
-AUTOMATIC PAGE NUMBERING. AT USER OPTION. 

THE "BASIC" VERSION OF KEEPTEXT WAS PUBLISHED BY 
CHROMASETTE IN JANUARY '83, THE NEW VERSION IS AN 
ENHANCED MACHINE LANGUAGE PROGRAM. THIS AD WAS 
PRODUCED BY KEEPTEXT II. THE PROGRAM COMES ON TAPE, 
BUT IS EASILY COPIED TO DISK. FOR QUICK DELIVERY, 
SEND 129, 95, CHECK OR MO TO: 

P i M SOFTWARE CO. W^W 
11600 S.W. FRWY, SUITE B-364 RAINBOW 
HOUSTON, TEXAS 77031 -m^™* 

#****#***«#**««* #**«**« **##**#**# 

12 the RAINBOW January 1984 



The CoCo waits patiently until its human types a name (or 
any string) and presses [ENTER], then it outputs (writes, 
records . . .) whatever was typed onto the cassette tape. 

300 REM**MEMORY TO TAPE 
310 PRINT #-1, NAYM* 

to cassette 



Print 



7 



the value of 



What next? We need a way to tell the CoCo that we are 
finished entering names and to please CLOSE the file and 
stop. 

400 REM**DO AGAIN IF NOT ENDFILE 
410 IF NA YM*< > M ENDF I LE M THEN 210 
420 CLOSE -1 
430 STOP 

If the value of NAYMS is not ENDFILE, the CoCo goes 
back to Line 210 and asks for another name. If you enter 
ENDFILE as the name, the CoCo puts it on the cassette tape 
then, thanks to Line 410, goes on to Line 420, closes the file, 
and stops. The last thing on the cassette will be ENDFILE, 
followed by an End-Of-File (EOF) mark. If you are using 
Color BASIC instead of Extended Color BASIC, change Line 
420 to: 420 CLOSE #-L 

100 REM*#KEYBOARD-MEMORY-TAPE 

110 CLS 

120 OPEN "O", -I, "NAMES" 

200 REM**KEYBOARD TO MEMORY 
210 INPUT "NAME"? NAYM* 



300 REM**MEMORY TO TAPE 
310 PRINT #-1, NAYM* 

400 REM**DQ AGAIN IF NOT ENDFILE 
410 IF NAYM*< > 11 ENDFILE" THEN 210 
420 CLOSE -1 
430 STOP 

Try The Program . . . Carefully! 

Enter the program and try it. Do this carefully. We wish 
you success on your very first try. S 1 o w is good. 

Start by finding a high quality, never-before-used tape 
cassette. Don't (repeat: DONT) use just any old cheap 
cassette. Treat your CoCo to the best, if you want the best 
from it. 

Next, examine the cassette. Most cassettes have lots of 
magnetic tape and . . . very important . . . a few inches of 
leader. Leader? Rewind the tape. The first few inches proba- 
bly consist of non-magnetic leader, usually clear plastic, or 
yellow, or red, or blue, or any color other than dull brown. 
Dull brown is the color of magnetic tape. 

| YOU CANT RECORD ON LEADER ] 

Is the program in memory? Yes? Good. Pop the cassette into 
the recorder. 

•Rewind the cassette. 

•Then, run it forward a few inches so magnetic tape, not 
leader, is in position to receive your data. 



BEAR 
ONI 



ONES COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 



BEAR 
ONES 



16KST. BASIC ★ NEW RELEASES* 14" EA. 
Tutor Tapes, Inc. presents "Tutee- Your Computer Tutor" 

Providing Practice for Your Child in the Basic Skills of 
Reading, Spelling, Grammar, Language, and Math (trs-sw-dp) 



LANGUAGE ARTS 



MATH 



Skill Grade Level 

-Sight Words K-1, 2,3 

- Rhyming Words K-1 

-Short Vowels K-1, 2 

- Long Vowels 2 

-Vowel Combinations 2, 3, 4, 5/6 

r Blends/Digraphs K-1, 2 

■ Contractions 2 

- Synonyms 3, 4, 5/6 

- Antonyms 3, 4, 5/6 

- Possessives 5/6 

- Plurals 3, 4 

- Pre-Fixes 4, 5/6 

-Suffixes ../. 4, 5/6 

- Syllables 3, 4, 5/6 

- Accents 5/6 

- Vocabulary , 5/6 



Skill Grade Level 

- Before & After 2 

- Math: K-6 

Addition 

Subtraction 

Multiplication 

• Division 4, 5/6 

- Roman Numerals 5/6 

l-C 

- Metrics 5/6 

* 20% DISCOUNT ON 
QUANTITY ORDERS 

Available Soon for 

Atari, Vic 20, Comm. 64 



ORDER FORM 



QTY. SKILL 

SIGHT WORDS 

RHYMING WORDS 
SHORT VOWELS 

LONG VOWELS 

VOWEL COMBO 

BLENDS/DIGRAPHS 

CONTRACTIONS 

SYNONYMS 

ANTONYMS 

POSSESSIVES 

PLURALS 

PRE FIXES 

SUFFIXES 

SYLLABLES 

ACCENTS 

SPELLING 

BEFORE Sl AFTER _ 

MATH 

DIVISION 

ROMAN NUMERALS _ 

METRICS 

TOTAL @ s 14 95 ea._ 

20% DISCOUNT If More 
Than 5 Programs 

ORDER TOTAL: $_ 
Mich; Res. Add 4% Tax_ 
TOTAL ENCLOSED: S 



SHIPPING FREE 



GRADE L. 



SHIP TO: 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY 



STATE 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 113 



MAIL TO: BEAR BONES SOFTWARE, INC. Enclose Check or Money Older 

G-3117 CORUNNA RD., SUITE 108 Dealer and School 
FLINT, MICHIGAN 48504 lnquiries Welcome 



•Press both [PLAY] and [RECORD] on the cassette 
recorder. Nothing should happen. If the tape starts to move, 
you probably don't have the recorder properly hooked up to 
theCoCo. 

•Set the volume control on the cassette recorder to 4 or 5 
or whatever works when you use CSAVE and CLOAD. 

•Type RUN and press [ENTER]. The record light will 
come on briefly on the recorder and the tape will move as the 
CoCo opens the file. Soon the screen looks like this. 

This is what you see: 



NAME I 



•Type a name and press [ENTER]. You can enter the 
name of your choice, then type ENDFILE as the last name. 
When you enter ENDFILE, the CoCo will write the names 
on the tape — you will see the record light come on and the 
tape move. Here is what happened when we entered names. 



NAME? 
NAME? 
NAME? 
NAME? 
NAME? 
NAME? 
NAME? 
NAME? 



ALOYSIOUS 

BAROSTAN 

BRIDLA 

DERNFARA 

JOLEEN 

ROKANA 

RURIK 

ENDFILE 



BREAK IN 420 
OK 



TAPE MEMORY TO SCREEN 

We also wrote a program to read the names from the 
cassette tape and put them on the screen. First, we OPEN a 
cassette file for input. 

500 REM**T APE-MEMORY— SCREEN 

510 CLS 



520 OPEN 
Open lor input* 



•IT" _ I 



'NAMES' 



/ / 

itte / 



from cassette 

a file named 

If you are using Color basic, change Line 520 to: 

520 OPEN T, #-1, "NAMES" 

Next, check for End-Of-File (EOF). If EOF has been 
reached, go to Line 9 10 and close the file. Otherwise, input a 
name from the cassette and store it as the value of N AYM$. 

600 REM**TAPE TO MEMORY 
610 IF EOF (-1) THEN 910 
620 INPUT #-1, NAYM* 

Print the name on the screen and go back for more. 
700 REM*»MEMORY TO SCREEN 
710 PRINT NAYM* 

SOO REM**SO FOR ANOTHER 
810 SOTO 610 



When the CoCo reads the End-Of-File mark, Line 610 sends 
it to Line 910. 

900 REM**CL0SE THE FILE 
910 CLOSE -1 
920 STOP 



For Color BASIC: 910 CLOSE #-1 
Here are both programs. 



100 REM#»KEYBOARD-MEMORY-TAPE 
110 CLS 

120 OPEN "0", -1, "NAMES" 

200 REM**KEYBOARD TO MEMORY 
21 O INPUT "NAME"; NAYM* 

300 REM**MEMORY TO TAPE 
310 PRINT #-1, NAYM* 

400 REM**DO ASA IN IF NOT ENDFILE 
410 IF NAYM*<>" ENDFILE" THEN 210 
420 CLOSE -1 
430 STOP 

500 REM*#TAPE— MEMORY— SCREEN 
SIO CLS 

520 OPEN "I", -1, "NAMES" 

600 REM**TAPE TO MEMORY 
610 IF EOF (-1) THEN 910 
620 INPUT #-1, NAYM* 

700 REM**MEMORY TO SCREEN 
710 PRINT NAYM* 

800 REM**GO FOR ANOTHER 
810 GOTO 610 

9O0 REM**CLOSE THE FILE 
910 CLOSE -1 
920 STOP 



To run KEYBOARD-MEMORY-TAPE 

•Position the cassette and set the volume. 
•Press [RECORD] and [PLAY] on the recorder. 
•Type RUN and press [ENTER]. 

To run TAPE-MEMORY-SCREEN 

•Position the cassette and set the volume. 
•Press [PLAY] on the recorder. 
•Type RUN 510 and press [ENTER]. 

Remember, Lines 120, 420, 520, and 910 work in Ex- 
tended Color BASIC. If you are using Color BASIC, put a 
number sign (#) in front of the device number (- 1 ) in each of 
these statements. 



114 the RAINBOW January 1984 




for your 
COLOR 
COMPUTER 



Switchable Expansion Is Here 



CoCo HAS A COMPANION!! 

GOOD NEWS Switch over to more versatility with the new 
BT-2000 COMPANION. Save CoCo's connector with the best 
COMPANION it will ever have. 

• Load 5 cartridges into the COMPANION and avoid the hassles 
while enjoying the benefits of push-button selection. 

• Push a Button or select from your keyboard to turn on one of your 
5 selections. Handy indicator lights let you know at a glance which 
cartridge is connected, 

• No More Turn-Offs. Just switch to the next cartridge in your 
COMPANION. Push a burton to Restart without turning off the 
power. 

• Plug-in. Fill one to five slots for flexible programming, game 
playing or both. Choose ROM Packs, serial ports, parallel ports, or 
disk drives. Then do what you like to do best. The most powerful 
and cost effective expansion you will find for just $225.00 

FOR THE ADVANCED USER OR 
EXPERIMENTER 

• The utmost in expansion power and versatility is the BT-1000 
Expansion Interface Unit. $250.00 

• Large Built-in power supply 

to power your peripherals rainbow 

* ' 1 1 CERTIFICATION 

and experimenter circuits. SEAL 

• Space for your ML utilities with optional 8K of RAM. $275.00 

ndSIC De P l Q P O - Box 511 Ortonville, Ml 48462 



TECHNOLOGY 



(313) 627-6146 



ALSO NEW FROM BASIC TECHNOLOGY!! 

• BT-1010 PPI Parallel Printer Interface. Free-up CoCo's seriaj 
port. Run your printer at top speed. Five foot cable with Centronics 
compatible connector and machine language printer driver are 
included. $79.95. 

• BT- 1020 Real Time Clock/Calendar. Let CoCo keep the time and 
date for your programs and files. Day-light savings time and leap 
year keep you on time. Save data or program memory even when 
power is off with 50 bytes of battery backed memory. Alarm 
capability to turn on the coffee pot. All for only $109.00. /f^h 

« * r * RAINBOW 

• BT-1030 VIP Versatile Interface Port. Connect CoCo to the 
outside world with two 8-bit parallel ports, two 16-bit 
timer/counters and a serial shift register. All user programmable. 
S69.95. 

• WRITE FOR FREE BROCHURE. 

For years of trouble-freeenjoyment all Basic Technology products use 
top quality components and are backed by a full 180 day parts and 
labor warranty. We service what we sell!!! 

Add S5 shipping &l handling for BT-L000, $2.50 for BT-L020. 
Michigan residents add A ( /( sales tax. Shipping & handling for 
residents of Canada, Hawaii, Alaska is $10. Overseas orders add 15%. 
Check, money order, VISA, MC (give account no., expiration date, 
phone no.). Personal checks allow 2-3 weeks to clear. COD charge $2 
(requires certified check or money order). 

"Watch for more peripherals from 
Basic Technology." 



IRE 




by Michael Popovich 



G1ME 



Have you ever played the popular concentration card 
game where, by placing 52 playing cards face down, 
you must try to match two cards at a time by turning 
them over simultaneously? Well, here's a fun game based on 
the same concept called The Memory Game, requiring two 
players. 

When the program is run, forty squares appear on the 
screen. The CoCo takes a few seconds to set up the grid, 
placing 20 matching letters randomly behind the 40 squares. 
When this is done, the screen will flash and a small verticle 
line will appear at the top of the screen. This signals player 
one. If player one gets a match, he/ she wins an extra turn 
and one vertical line will remain. If the player doesn't make a 
match, the squares will be covered and two verticle lines will 
appear signifying player two's turn. The score will be dis- 
played at the end of the game. 

The small red square, identifying the player's move, is 
placed inside the larger square in the upper left corner of the 
grid. It can be moved as follows: 

Q - Up 
A — Down 
P — Left 
@ — Right 

L — Look at what is behind the square. 



200 01 BA 

330 045B 

580 07B3 

END. . . 0B01 



The listing: 

1 • BY 
3 * 
5 * 
7 ' 

10 T-o:MM=l:Z=l 



MICHAEL POPOVICH 
6 ALEX CIRCLE 
NASHUA NH 03062 



(Michael Popovich is a student at Keene State College. 
This is his first publication and he hopes to have 
more.) 



20 DIM L<50),B*<25> 

30 PMODE 3, l:PCLS: SCREEN 1,0 

40 FOR A=0 TO 220 STEP 30 

50 FOR C=40 TO 160 STEP 30 

60 LINE <A,C)-<A+20,C+20> ,PSET,B 

70 PAINT <A+2,C+2) ,2,4 

80 LINE <8+A, 8+C) -< 13+A, 13+C) , PRE 

SET, BF 

90 NEXT C 

100 NEXT A 

110 LINE <8,48>-<13,53>,PSET,BF 
120 R=RND(40> 
130 T=T+1 

140 IF T=41 THEN 210 
150 L<T)«R 
160 IF T=l THEN 120 
170 FOR M-l TO T-l 

180 IF L<M)=R THEN T=T-1:G0T0 12 
O 

190 NEXT M 
200 GOTO 120 

210 PL=l: SOUND 50, 1: SCREEN 1,1 :F 

OR W«l TO 100: NEXT W: SCREEN i,o: 

DRAW "BM123,5;D10" 

220 A*=INKEY* 

230 IF A*="L" GOSUB 340 

240 IF A*="P" AND ZX«0 THEN LINE 

< 8+X , 48+Y > - < 1 3+X , 53+Y > , PRESET , BF 

:x=x-30:j=i:z=z-i:else if a*= h p 

" AND ZX*1 THEN X-X-30: J=l : Z=Z-1 
250 IF A*="a" AND ZX-0 THEN LINE 

< 8+X , 48+Y ) - < 1 3+X , 53+Y ) , PRESET , BF 

:x»x+3o: j«i:z«z+1:else IF A*-"e" 

AND ZX»1 THEN X-X+30: J»l : Z-Z+l 
260 IF A*-"A" AND ZX-0 THEN LINE 

< 8+X , 48+Y ) - < 1 3+X , 53+Y > , PRESET , BF 
:Y=Y+30:J=l:Z=Z+8:ELSE IF A*="A M 

AND ZX=1 THEN Y=Y+30: J=l : Z=Z+8 
270 IF Af-'-Q" AND ZX-0 THEN LINE 

< 8+X , 48+Y ) - < 1 3+X , 53+Y ) , PRESET , BF 
:Y-Y-30: J-l:Z-Z-8:ELSE IF A*- H 0" 



116 the RAINBOW January 1984 



n 



SPY MISSION 



for 

SR-71 



Air Speed • Fuel Gauge • Rate of Climb and Des- 
cent • Radar • Artificial Horizon • True Time Clock 
So real - you will feel as if you are in the cockpit on 
a real spy mission. Elude Russian missiles as well 
as their detection devices. Another Tom Mix exclu- 
sive. A must for the adventurous. Fantastic 
Graphics, color and sound. 





Missile Zones 



Expanded Map View 

SR-71 is a fast action game in 
which you are the pilot on a mis- 
sion to take photographs of 
missile sites in Russia and deliver 
them to our processing laboratory 
in Japan. 



TAPE $28.95 32K EXTENDED BASIC DISK $31.95 



#1 TOM MIX SOFTWARE 



TELEX 
706139 



•FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP 100 • 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 (616) 364-4791* 

Call direct 616-364-4791 or 24 hr. BBS 616-364-8217 



AND ZX=1 THEN Y=Y-30: J=l : Z-Z-8 
260 IF X<0 THEN X-O: Z-Z+l 
290 IF X>210 THEN X=210:Z=Z-1 
300 IF Y<0 THEN Y-0: Z-Z+B 
310 IF Y>120 THEN Y«120:Z=Z-B 
320 IF J-l THEN LINE <8+X,4B+Y)- 
<13+X,53+Y) ,PSET,BF:J=0:ZX=»0 
330 BOTO 220 
340 ZZ-L(Z) 

350 X*=STR* < X +6 ) : Y*=STR* < Y+45 ) 
360 Xl«-STR*<Xl+6> :Yl*«STR*<Yl+4 

5) 

370 IF ZZ>20 THEN ZZ=ZZ-20 
380 ON ZZ BOTO 390,400,410,420,4 
30, 440, 450, 460, 470, 480, 490, 500, 5 
10, 520, 530, 540, 550, 560, 570, 580 
390 B*= " BD3D 1 2U 1 2E3R4F3D 1 2U7L9 " : 
BOTO 590 

400 B«» " BR383D9F3R4E3U2H3L4R4E3U 
2H3L4":B0T0 590 

410 B*= " BR3B3D9F3R4E3BU9H3L3 " : 80 
TO 590 

420 B»="R7F3D9S3L7U14":B0T0 590 
430 B«- " R 1 OL 1 0D7R8L8D8R 1 O " : 80T0 
590 

440 B»-"R10L10D7R8L8D8":B0T0 590 

450 B*= " BR3S3D9F3R4E3U2L3R3BU7H3 
L4":80T0 590 

460 B*= ,, D15U8R10U7D15":80T0 590 
470 B*- H R9L5D15L4R9":80T0 590 



TS6551 

RS232 SERIAL I/O PACKAGE 

The TS6S51 Serial I/O Package uses the Rockwell 6551 ACIA 
to provide a programmable RS232 Interface with modems, 
printers, etc., at baud rates ranging from 50 to 19200. 
Contained in a cartridge pack the TS655 1 plugs into the 
Color Computer expansion port or the Multi-pack Interface. 
The TS6551 comes with a cable terminated by a RS232 DB25 
male connector. Included with the package is a terminal program 
(cass. or disk) that provides a 51 -column video display, and our 
user's manual that shows how to program the 6551, the best 
serial I/O device available for the Color Computer. 

Cost only $69.95 phis $3.00 shipping CA res. add 6% 

Please specify cassette or diskette when ordering. 

m T&S Electronics 6111 Romany Drive 
(619)286-0661 San Diego, CA 92120 



480 B*= ,, BD12F3R4E3U12":BOTO 590 

490 B«-"D15UBR2E7B7FB":S0T0 590 

500 B*="D15R10":80T0 590 

510 B*="D15U15R6D9U9R6D15":BOTO 

590 

520 B*-"D15U15F10U10D15":80T0 59 

0 

530 B*= ■ BR3B3D9F3R4E3U9H3L4 " : GOT 
□ 590 

540 B*« " BD3D 1 2U 1 2E3R4F3D2B3L4 " : 8 
OTO 590 

550 B*= " BD3D 1 2U 1 2E3R4F3D2G3L4F8 " 
ZGOTO 590 

560 B*="R9L5D15":G0T0 590 
570 B*="D13F2R6E2U13":B0T0 590 
580 B*= " D3F9D3U3H565D3U3E9U3 " : 60 
TO 590 

590 FOR 8=1 TO V 

600 IF B*=B*<8) THEN SOUND 1,1 :R 
ETURN 

610 NEXT 6 

620 LINE<8+X,48+Y)-<13+X,53+Y> ,P 

RESET, BF:ZX=1 

630 PAINT <B+X,48+Y) , 1,4 

640 DRAW "S3": DRAW "BM"+X*+" , "+Y 

*+"BDl":DRAW B* 

650 AA=AA+1 

660 IF AA=1 THEN C*=B«: X1=X: Y1=Y 
: RETURN 

670 IF AA-2 AND C*-B* AND X«X1 A 
ND Y=Y1 THEN SOUND 1 , 1 : AA=AA— 1 : R 
ETURN 

680 IF AA=2 AND C*=B* THEN PAINT 
<2+X,48+Y) ,2, 4: PAINT <2+X,48+Y) 
,l,l:PAINT <2+Xl,48+Yl) ,2,4:PAIN 
T <2+Xl,48+Yl) , 1, l:AA»0:V»V+l:B« 

<V)=b*:j=i:else 710 

690 IF PL«1 THEN P1=P1+1 : PL=2: DO 

NE=DONE+l:80TO 750 

700 IF PL=2 THEN P2=P2+1 : PL-1 : DO 

NE=D0NE+l:80T0 750 

710 FOR H=l TO 500: NEXT H 

720 DRAW "S3": DRAW "CI": DRAW "BM 

"+x*+", "+y*+"bdi h :draw b*:draw " 

BM"+X1*+", "+Y1*+"BD1":DRAW c*:dr 
AW "C4" 

730 PAINT <8+X,48+Y) ,2,4:PAINT < 
B+X1,48+Y1) ,2,4:AA=0 
740 LINE<8+X,48+Y)-<13+X,53+Y) ,P 
RESET, BF: LINE <8+Xl , 48+Y1 ) - < 13+X1 
, 53+Y1 ) , PRESET, BF: J=l 
750 IF PL=1 THEN PL=2:DRAW "BM12 
3,5; D10" : DRAW "BM133, 5; D14" : BOTO 
770 

760 IF PL=2 THEN PL=>1:DRAW "CI": 
DRAW "BM133,5|D14":DRAW "C4" 
770 IF D0NE=20 THEN CLS:PRINT @1 
92, "PLAYER 1 -"PI: PRINT 8256, "PL 
AYER 2 -"P2:END 

7B0 RETURN * 



118 the RAINBOW January 1984 



9 



The best in software for kids! 




THE MONET SERIES 

BY STEVE BUN 

DOLLARS A SENSE 16KECB $11.96 

Player buys familiar items using dollars 
and coins to practice using money correctly. 

McCOCO'i MENU 16KECB $11.96 

Learn to buy and add up your pur 
chases from a typical fast-food 
restaurant menu. 

MONEY PAK 32KECB $22.96 

A combined and menu driven version 
of the above programs. Includes play 
money. Reviewed • Rainbow 7/83 



COLQRGRADE 32KECB $29.96 

A great aid to teachers. Records and 
calculates grades for up to 6 classes of 
up to 40 students each. Uses number 
or letter grades, named or numerical 
periods and gives a weighted average. 
Easy to use. Full directions. DISK 
ONLY. By David Lengyel. 



BEYOND WORDS 32K ECB $19.96 Each 

These Language Arts programs cover 
common misspellings, and synonyms/- 
antonyms on each level. Additionally, 
Level 1 tests contractions and abbrevia- 
tions, Level 2 tests homonyms, and Level 
3 tests analogies. Each program has 3 
parts and contains over 400 questions 
and uses over 800 words. All tests are 
grade appropriate. User modifiable 
(directions included). Printer option. 

Level 1 Grades 3-5 

Level 2 Grades 6-8 

Level 3 Grades 912 

DISK VERSION Each $23.95 



Ed. Programs For 
THE SPECTRUM SPEAKER 
TALKING MATH DRILL 
TALKING SPELLING TESTER 
TALKING FOREIGN LANGUAGES 

TALKING POETRY CREATOR 
TALKING SHORT STORY MAKER 
$9.95 each, any 3 for $24.95 



GRAPH TUTOR 32KECB $19.96 

Line, bar, pie and pictographs are 
demonstrated. Learn to read and use 
these graphs. Test mode, Hi-res 
graphics throughout. By Chris Phillips, 



THE MATH TUTOR SERIES IBKErt. 

These tutorials take the child through 
each step of the example. All programs 
include HELP tables, cursor and 
graphic aids. All allow user to create 
the example, or let the computer 
choose. Mufti-level. Great teaching pro- 
grams. By Ed Guy. 

LONG DIVISION TUTOR $14.95 



MULTIPLICATION TUTOR 
FACTORS TUTOR 



$14.95 
$19.95 

FRACTIONS TUTOR (Addition} $19.95 
FRACTIONS TUTOR (Subtraction} $19.95 
FRACTIONS TUTOR (Multiplication) $19.95 

Any 2 FRACTIONS programs $29.95 




THE HISTORY GAME 32K ECB $14.96 

"Jeopardy" type game by James 
Keeling. 5 categories and 5 questions 
in each category. One or two player 
game checks your knowledge of 
American History. Different questions 
each round. Hi-res graphics. 



FUN and GAMES 

(ALL PROGRAMS IN 16 K EXTENDED EXCEPT WHERE NOTED} 

CIRCUS ADVENTURE by Steve Blyn 16K-Kids adventure game. $11.95 

SCHOOL MAZE -by Steve Blyn 16K - Kids graphic adventure. $11.95 

HAMSTER HUNT • by LAD Weston 32K . Beautiful graphics in 

this charming new kids adventure game. $19.95 

MR. COCOHEAD ■ by Steve Blyn • Create over 10,000 funny faces. 
Surprise commands. Very creative. $ 1 6.95 

TALKING WIZARD - voice by Classical Computing - Child-sized 

Eliza-Freud game. Computer speaks to you. $19.95 

PICNIC/TRICKASHAY * 2 Hi-res. ML arcade games for all ages. $1 1.95 

FUNPAK FOR SPECTRUM'S LIGHTPEN-3 exciting kid's games. $11.95 
* SPECIAL * UGHTPEN and FUNPAK $29.95 

HORSERACE - by RAP Armstrong - Hi-res. race for ail ages. $1 1.95 

COCOJOT - by IGreenberg - Multilevel lotto. Ages 8-adulL $11.95 

NAME THAT SONG I - 72 kid's songs to guess. $11.95 

NAME THAT SONG II - 72 adult hits from the past 30 years. $11.95 

HEBREW ALPHABET - Learn the letters of this alphabet. $11.95 



MORE LEARNINGWARE 

(ALL PROGRAMS IN 16 K EXTENDED EXCEPT WHERE NOTED) 

CONTEXT CLUES - by Steve Blyn - Multiple choice reading 

programs. Specify grade 4, 5,6 or 7. each $17.95 

VOCABULARY BUILDERS - 32K - Great for test preparations. 
200 questions, multiple choice, modifiable, printer option. 
I (grades 3-5), II (6-8) or III (9-12) each $19.95 

READING AIDS 4-PAK - Child creates own reading material. $19.95 

GRAPH-IT - by D.Steele • Graph sets of algebraic equations. $14.95 

KNOW TOUR STATES-32K by I.Keeling-Name all hi-res. states $19.95 

MUSIC DRILL ■ by D.Steele ■ Identify notes of many scales. $19.95 

FRENCH OR SPANISH BASEBALL » By S. Blyn each $11.95 
Vocabulary practice. 200 words, Modifiable. Specify language. 
Alto in 32K (500 words) $19.95 

PRESCHOOL SERIES - By J. Kolar. each $11.95 

Pre. 1-Counting, number recognition; Pre. 2 • Simple Addition; 
Pre. 3 - Alphabet Recognition. 

HEBREW BULLETIN BOARD-by J.KoIar-utiiity to print words. $15.95 
*B-5 Software; CLOCK $24.95 HAN6W0RD/SGR AMBLE $14.95 



I 




********* 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

Dealers inquiries invited. 



COMING SOON *** 
AN EDUCATIONAL BBS 
WATCH FOR DETAILS 



************ 



N ****** * 



(212) 948-2748 
Dept. R 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 
Send for catalog with complete descriptions. 
Please add $1 .00 per order for postage. N.Y. residents, please add proper tax. FREE set of BINARY DICE, including full directions, with orders of 2 opmore items 
Authors: We are seeking quality children's software for leisure or learning. Write for details. Top Royalties. 
TRS-80 Color Computer. TOP System 100. 



PRINTER GRAPHICS 



UK 


1 


f the ) 


ECB 




RAINBOW 


a 


-1" --\ 




i ic i- or i id 

OOINTCD. 
I I\IIIIL.I\ : 



'A Considerable Upgrade ' 

By Thomas Szlucha 



Ever since early man first sketched paintings on the 
walls of his caves, he has been recording his ideas, 
feelings and dreams in some permanent fashion for 
later use. Modern man, with his Color Computer, also has 
this need for permanent storage. This need for hard copy is 
so important that many experts differentiate "toy" compu- 
ters from "personal" computers by the availability of a 
printer on the system. 

Radio Shack's small printer/ plotter, the Color Graphics 
Printer (CGP-1 15), represents a considerable upgrade to the 
simple tools the cave man used for his work. Seriously, the 
CGP offers basic printing functions along with excellent 
graphics plotting. With the exception of serious word pro- 
cessing, this printer offers considerable performance in* a 
small package at an affordable price ($249 in the 1 983 Radio 
Shack Catalog — watch for sales). 

The CGP-1 1 5 is being marketed by Tandy to be used with 
their entire line of computers. It has a standard parallel as 
well as a four-pin serial interface, a la CoCo. Unpacking, 
interfacing and setting up the printer takes about three 
minutes if you are slow. There is a set of dip switches on the 
back panel that allows programming for the particular 
application. For the Color Computer, these switches are set 
for serial input, 40 or 80 column text character size, line feed 
with carriage return, and 7 bit ASCII code. 



(Thomas Szlucha, a project manager at Xerox Corp,, 
is a frequent contributor to the Rainbow* His hobbies 
include free-lance software writing.) 



The printer is small, about 8" x 8" x 3", using a A x /i wide 
roll of plain paper. Printed characters are formed by moving 
a small ballpoint pen in the horizontal direction while a 
roller platen moves the paper up and down vertically. The 
quality of the printing is excellent, in fact, the 80 column 
character set produces about 20 characters per inch which 
are very crisp and easy to read. The print quality by far 
exceeds that of the typical dot matrix printer, a definite plus 
for the CGP. Colors (black, red, green, blue) are provided by 
four pens built into a turret-like "print head." There are 
switches for power on, paper feed, color select, and pen 
change as well as a power on indicator light. At start-up, the 
printer goes through a routine of drawing four small 
squares, one with each pen, to verify that the ink is flowing 
properly. Holding the paper feed switch down during start- 
up results in a test printing of the character set. Figure 1 
shows a test printing of the character set in the 40 column 
mode. The normal ASCII character set is supported with 
lowercase having true descenders. 



2 " 1 C 3 * t , - . /0 1 23456789 : ; <=> ?@ABCDE 
FG HIJKLI1N0PQRSTUUUXY2CN]^_ c abcde f 9h I 
Jk Imno pqr stuuwxyz ( ! 

Figure 1 

The printer defaults to the text mode after start-up with 



120 the RAINBOW January 1984 



the character size determined by the position of the DIP 
switch on the back panel. The control codes which are 
available in this mode are shown in Table 1 . These are sent to 
the printer with the PRINT #-2, CHR$ (X) command in 
Color BASIC. Backspacing allows the capability of underlin- 
ing and overstriking; reverse feed allows superscripting. 
Print speed in the text mode is claimed to be 12 cps, very 
slow. This slowness definitely trades off against quietness. 
You can't find a printer much quieter than the CGP. 



Control Code 

CHR$ (08) 
CHR$ (10) 
CHR$ (11) 
CHR$ (13) 
CHR$ (17) 
CHR$ (18) 
CHR$ (29) 



Function 

Backspace 
Line 

Reverse linefeed 
Carriage return 
Set text mode 
Set graphics mode 
Change colors 



Table 1 

The most exciting part of this printer is the graphics 
mode. A graphics plotter such as this is expected to have a 
comprehensive set of plotting commands, which it does. 
Commands are provided which allow you to draw from one 
point to another based on a 480 x 480 step grid pattern. You 
are able to specify position either relative to the current pen 
location or from a previously specified origin. Lines can be 
solid or varying degrees qf "dashed." You can move the pen 
without drawing and change colors. There is also a com- 
mand that draws the axis of a graph including the little "tic" 
marks along the side. The printer is capable of .2mm/ step 
resolution (.0079"). This is so fine that closely drawn line 
patterns can exhibit moire patterns. 

Unlike Color Computer graphics, the text capability with 
the CGP in the graphics mode is actually an enhancement 
over the normal text mode. There are commands to specify 
the written text size from 80 to one character per line. You 
are also allowed to rotate the text, ie, it can be normal, going 
sideways-down the sheet, sideways-up the sheet and 
upside-down. 

The graphics functions used by the CGP are not identical 
to those provided by Extended Color basic. To draw a line 
on the screen with the Color Computer you can use the line 
command. 

LINE (X1,Y1)-(X2,Y2), PSET 



-move to X1,Y1 
-draw to X2,Y2 



The CGP equivalent would be: 

PRINT #-2, MX1,Y1" 
PRINT #-2, "DX1,Y1,X2,Y2" 

It takes some familiarity but once mastered, the results 
can be quite spectacular. 

The CGP comes with a 45-page operating manual that 
does a good job of explaining each command and gives 
many simple examples. Some previous knowledge of BASIC 
is assumed. If you decide to purchase the CGP, do pay 
attention to the technique described in the manual to change 
the pens. The printhead and surrounding mechanisms are 
somewhat delicate. I inadvertently bent a small, but impor- 
tant metal tab used to index the various pen colors with my 
fat thumb before realizing it. (These units are put together 
by people with very small hands,) 

I discovered a very useful trick not described in the operat- 
ing manual that I would like to share. It can be quite useful 



to run the graphics portion of the program in the text mode. 
In doing so, a line by line description of the graphics com- 
mands sent to the printer are listed on the printer along with 
the value of any associated variables. With this listing it can 
be relatively easy to spot mistakes, such as missing commas, 
which can wreak havoc with a piece of graphics art. 

I have experienced only a few minor irritations with the 
CGP. During the power-up routine the pen holder is driven 
to the left frame and continues to attempt to move. This 
results in a grinding noise. Consultation with the local 
Radio Shack computer center indicates that this is a process 
needed to register the pen servo. Radio Shack should have 
given a warning about this noise so that new owners would 
not think they had a lemon on their hands. Another minor 
complaint is the lack of a circle command. This can be 
gotten around with a considerable sacrifice in speed by using 
a subroutine which draws a circle from line segments. This 
could have been easily built in as a command. My final 
complaint is that the pens are too small to hold much ink, 
therefore frequent servicing is required. 

The attraction of color printing and plotting make the 
CGP-1 1 5 an ideal first printer for the CoCo owner in need of 
a hard copy device. If you have printer that you use for word 
processing and listings, you may be attracted to it as I was 
for its graphics capabilites. 

The program listing included with this review is entitled 
Doodler. It is a fun and perhaps useful program which 
exercises many of the functions which are available with the 
CGP- 115. The pen is moved around the plotting area with a 
joystick. Please note that the pen movement is not as fast as 
you can move the joystick. This may cause some frustration 
if you are trying to move to a specific location. The easiest 
way to position the pen is to use the coordinate positions 
printed on the screen as a guide. With this program, lines can 
be drawn as well as circles and boxes. Text of any size and 
orientation can be put where you position the pen, and of 
course, this can all be done in different colors. Have fun 
using your computer to design a micro-plotter collage. 



W 400 



The listing: 



400 0342 

870 068D 

END . . . 0970 



'COLOR GRAPHICS DOO 



10 CLS 

20 PR I NTS 197, 
DLER" 

40 FOR T=l TO lOOOrNEXT 
50 PRINT#-2,CHR*<18> 
55 PRINT#-2, "I" 
60 C=0 

70 Tl*=" CURRENT COLOR =":T2*="PE 

N POSITION ":T3*=" MOVE PEN WITH 

RIGHT JOYSTICK" 

100 CLS: * MAIN MENU 

105 H=J0YSTK<0>*7.62: V=-J0YSTK<1 

>*7.62 

110 GOSUB 350 

PRINT#-2, "C"C 

PRINTS5, "480 X 480 COORD I NAT 



120 
130 
ES" 
140 
160 



PRINT© 32,T1*;C* 
PRINT@12S,T3* 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 121 



170 PRINT© 192, "SELECTIONS" 

180 PRINT@224, "<D>RAW LINE" 

1 90 PR I NTS256 , " < C> I RCLE " 

200 PRINTS28B, "<B>OX" 

210 PRINTS320, "<P>RINT TEXT 

220 PRINTS352, "<N>EW COLOR" 

230 PRINTS384, "<Q>UIT" 

235 PRINTS 16, "SELECTION PLEASE: 

•I * 

240 K*=INKEY* 

2S0 IF K*-*D? THEN 400 

260 IF K*="C" THEN 600 

270 IF K*-"B" THEN 800 

280 IF K*="P" THEN 1000 

290 IF K*="N" THEN 1200 

300 IF K»="Q" THEN PRINT#-2, "A" 

:cls:end 

305 H=J0YSTK(0)*7.61:V=-J0YSTK<1 
)*7.61 

310 PRINTS64, T2*J "X=" ; INT (H) $ "Y- 
"5 INT(-V) 

320 PRINT*— 2, "M"H", "V 
330 GOTO 240 

350 IF C=0 THEN C*=" BLACK" 
360 IF Ol THEN C*="BLUE" 
370 IF C=2 THEN C*=" GREEN" 
380 IF 03 THEN C*="RED" 
390 RETURN 
400 CLS 

410 H=J0YSTK<0>*7.61:V=-J0YSTK<1 



)*7.61 

420 PRINTeO, "DRAW SUBROUTINE" 

430 PRINT«128,T3» 

450 PRINT@192, "<X> TO EXIT 

460 PRINT@32,T1*;C* 

470 PRINTS64,T2*; "X-" ; INT <H> \ "Yw 

"INT(~V> 

480 K*-INKEY* 

490 IF K«» ,, X ,, THEN 100 

500 IF K*="N" THEN 1200 

510 PRINT#-2, ,, D ,, H ,, , "V 

520 G0T0410 

600 CLS 

610 PRINTSO, "CIRCLE SUBROUTINE" 

620 PRINT@32,T1*;C* 

630 PRINT@64,T2«; "X="; INT<H> ; "Y= 

"INT(-V) 

640 PRINT© 128, "INPUT RADIUS (1-2 
40) ";: INPUT R 

650 IF R>5 THEN PR I NTS 160, "CIRCL 
ES ARE SLOW BUT WORTH IT" 
660 PR I NT#-2 , " M"H" , " V+R 
670 FOR Y=V+R TO V-R STEP -1 
X =H+SQR < R*R— < Y-V ) * < Y-V ) ) 
PRINT#-2,"D ,, X","Y 
700 NEXTY 

710 FOR Y=V-R TO V+R 

X=H-SQR ( R*R- ( Y-V ) * < Y-V ) > 
PRINT#-2, "D"X", "Y 



680 
690 



720 
730 



740 NEXTY 




ANALOG MICRO SYSTEMS 

5660 Valmont Road 
Boulder, Colorado 80301 
(303) 444-6809 



ROBOT- i 

Computer Servo 
Controlled Robot Arm 

Keyboard or Joystick 

Control; 
Plugs Into Your Co Co; 
Remembers Everything 

It Did- 
Does It Again! 

Includes AN Software: 
Includes Power Supply, 
6 Channel Servo 

Controller, 
Robot-1 and Cables 
Order Robot 1-C 

$395.00 

Also SS-50 Version 

Available 
Order Robot-1 S 

$395.00 

Free Catalog 



122 the RAINBOW January 1984 



750 GOTO 100 

800 cls:d-o:b«« mm 

810 PRINT60, "BOX SUBROUTINE" 

820 PRINT@32,T1*;C* 

830 H=INT<J0YSTK(0)*7.61):V=-INT 

<J0YSTK<1>*7.61> 

840 PRINT@64,T2*i "X="SHJ "Y="J-V 
850 IF D=0 THEN PRINTS 128, "POSIT 
ION PEN TO FIRST CORNER ANDPRESS 

<A> 

860 IF D=l THEN PR I NTS 128, "POSIT 
ION PEN TO DIAGONAL CORNER AND P 
RESS ,<Z>" 

870 PRINT#-2, "M"H", "V 

880 B*=INKEY* 

890 IF B*="Z" THEN 940 

900 IF B*="A" THEN 910 ELSE 830 

910 x1=h:yi=v:b«="":d=i 

920 PRINT#-2, "J1,0" 

930 GOTO 830 

940 X2=H: Y2=V:D=0 

950 GOTO 970 

960 PRINT#-2, "M"X1", Yl" 

970 PRINT#-2, "D B X2", "Yl", "XI", "Y 

1", "XI", "Y2", "X2", "Y2 

975 PRINT#-2, "M"H", "V 

980 GOTO 100 

1000 CLS: PRINT90, "PRINT SUBROUT 
INE":T*=" " 

1010 PRINT@32,T2*?C* 



1020 PRINTG64, T2*j "X=" ; INT <H> ; " 

Y="; INT<-V) 

1040 PRINTS96, " " 

1050 INPUT "SELECT CHARACTER SIZE 

<0-63>"?S 
1060 PRINTS160, "ORIENTATION: " 
1070 PR I NTS 192, "0= NORMAL 1 
- RIGHTS IDE " 

1080 PRINTS224* "2= UPSIDE DOWN 3 

=LEFTSIDE" 

1090 INPUT Q 

1095 PR iNT@288, "ENTER TEXT DESIR 
ED" 

1100 INPUT T« 
1110 PRINT#-2, "S"S 
il20 PRINT#-2, "Q"Q 
1130 T»="P"+T* 
1140 PRINT#-2,T* 
1150 GOTO 100 
1200 CLS: 

1210 PRINTSO, "COLOR CHANGE" 

1220 PRINT@32,T1*5C* 

1230 PRINT@96, "0=BLACK 1=BLUE 



1240 PRINTS128, "2=GREEN 



3=RED 



1250 PR I NTS 192, "COLOR DESIRED " 
1260 INPUT C 
1270 GOTO 100 



Talk is Cheap! 



You want your color computer to talk, 
but how much will it cost? 
$50... $100... $200... NO! 

HOW ABOUT $29"? 

SPEAK UP!™ is a machine language 
Voice Synthesizer program for your 
TRS-80 Color Computer/ It is 
100% software. Nothing else to buy. 
Best of all, YOU can make 
basic programs talk! 



16K and 32K versions on one cassette. 
Has text to speech capability. 



It's easy to use, and will say 
virtually anything! 

Talk really is cheap! 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Reviewed in the April issue of Rainbow. 

COD orders, checks accepted - NO DELAY 
WE PAY POSTAGE 
1-800-334-0854, ext. 890 
Except North Carolina 



VAS4 



*T.M. Taridy Corp. 



16k minimum 




(Plo&AiccU, (gamfiu&Hf. Inc. 

P.O. Box 3318 
Chapel Hill, NC 27515 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 123 



1 



1 T 1 1 I 







1 


the 

mwmm 

RAINBOW 
_J.- -A 


■ 




16K 





VISIBLE CHECK REGISTER 



By Sid Brooks 



Visible Check Register will provide you with a monthly 
record of your checking account and a summary by 
account number and dollar amount of where your 
money is being spent. All of this is easily saved and retrieved 
on tape. 

This is my first computer program and I hope you enjoy 
running and modifying it as much as I have. It started out as 
the checkbook program on Page 227 of the manual. 

After running that program as listed, I was disappointed 
to learn that the neat little table shown in the book never 
actually appeared on screen but was simply a table of the 
information being processed. The first step was to develop a 
display that looked as much as possible like my check book 
register, then, account totalizing, which is a very nice way to 
see where the family money is going. 

When CoCo was turned off, all of the input was lost, so, 
the next development was input and output to tape. You can 
imagine, I'm sure, typing in 20 or 30 entries to see if the 
display scrolls properly only to realize that the [BREAK] 
button would again have to be pressed and another brain- 
storm would have to manifest itself to correct this or that. By 
this time, there were enough facets to the program to war- 
rant a menu. Then came the edit feature and finally the 
jumping cursor. (No small feat). The listing represents 61 
major modifications and approximately five months of 
learning. 

1 plan to add a bar graph to represent the account totals as 
they relate to a budget. This could be entered from tape as 
are the account names. Finally, output to a printer, and then 
it will be possible to do the accounting of a family or even a 
small business in a very professional manner with monthly 
statements and all. 

If anyone would like a copy of this program on tape, 
please send $4 and a blank 30 minute cassette and Til 
CSA VE it five times and check it to be sure each loads 
properly and then mail it right back to you. 

To run the program, CL04D"CHECKS"and follow this 
guide. 

L Type RUN. 

2. Type Y or N for prior month review. 

A. IfY: load tape to be reviewed. Press play button on 



(Sid Brooks is a 1961 graduate of Miami, Florida's 
Coral Gables High School. He operates a computer- 
ized supply room for Loiiis Rich Foods in Newberry, 
SC by using IBM terminals hooked to a mainframe 
with Oscar-Mayer in Madison, WL) 



the recorder and [ENTER]. Previous listed ac- 
counts and entries will be available for all program 
functions. 

B. If N: You will be informed that 50 accounts are 
available and that you may use up to 14 spaces in 
their title. 

3. Type number of accounts required and [ENTER]. 

4. Type name of account and [ENTER]. Continue until 
all accounts requested have been named. 

5. The MENU should now appear. 

6. Press [ENTER] and type the date of 1st entry using 
four digits. Example: 1131 forNov. 31. Then, [ENTER]. 

7. Type three-digit number. Press [ENTER]. This number 
must be 1 1 1 to 999. 

8. If this is first entry for the period, it should be entered 
as a deposit. Type D. 

9. Type amount of the beginning balance using the 
decimal point in the normal fashion. Press [ENTER], 
Entry will appear on the screen very similar to the way 
it appears in a check register. 
Editing. 

A. If all looks correct press [ENTER] two times and 
continue. 

B. If a mistake has been made, press [DOWN 
ARROW] to activate the editing feature. The cur- 
sor will move to just below the last entry. Press the 
[UP ARROW] to position the cursor on the line 
needing correction. Now press [ENTER] two times 
and make the corrected entry. Press the [UP] and 
[DOWN ARROWS] to scroll. Press the [DOWN 
ARROW] until the cursor returns to the space just 
after the word POSITION at bottom of screen. 

12. Press [ENTER] one time to return to the MENU. 

13. It will save time to do the following: 

A. After typing names of accounts, insert a blank tape 
and press record and play buttons on the recorder 
and press 4. 

B. Label this tape for the family or business that it 
pertains to. Subsequent periods will not require 
typing in all the accounts if this tape is loaded in 
the same manner as a prior month review. 



10 



11 



170 025C 1090 ...0E03 

380 04C4 1281 10CA 

580 078A 1470 . . . 03F0 

830 0AF9 END ... 1628 



The listing: 

10 CLS: PRINTS (200) , "CHECK RESIST 



124 the RAINBOW January 1984 



ER 8. O.BROOKS 

NEWBERRY 8 

C" 

20 forj-itoiooo:nextj: j-o:cls 

30 dimf«(39):dima(6,50) 

40 dzmb<30):dzhc(30) 

30 n*-"date num « dep check 

BAL " 

60 PRINTS (196) , "PRIOR MONTH REVI 
EW (Y/N)" 
70 IS-INKEY* 

80 IFI»-"Y"THEN1650ELSE90 
90 IFI»-"N"THEN100ELSE70 
100 PRINTS (194), "YOU MAY USE UP 
TO 14 SPACES EACH TO NAME UP 

TO 50 ACCTS":F0RJ«1T02000:NEXTJ 
:J-0:CL8 

110 CLS: PRINTS ( 196) , "HOW MANY AC 
COUNTS DO YOU REQUIRE FOR 

THIS LISTINO": INPUT" 

";b 

120 IFB>99 THEN 110 
130 H-l 

140 CL8:00T01420 

130 cls:w-w+i 

160 IF B<1 THEN B=l 

170 PRINTS (19B),"DATE OF TRANS 

action": print: input" 
h ;a<i,W) 

180 IF A(1,W)<101 OR A(l f W)>1231 
THEN 170 
190 CLS 

200 PRINT 9(195) , "NUMBER OF DEPO 
SIT OR CHECK": PR I NT: INPUT" 
"I A (2, W) 

210 IF A<2,W)<111 OR A<2,W)>999 
THEN 200 
220 CLS 

230 PRINTS (197), "TYPE (D) FOR DE 
POSIT TYPE (C) FOR CH 

ECK 

240 IF A(4,W)>0 THEN 320 ELSE 25 
0 

250 IF A(5 f W)X> THEN 870 ELSE 26 
0 

260 Y*«INKEY* 

270 IF Y»<>"D" THEN 280 ELSE 320 
280 IF Y»<>"C" THEN 230 ELSE 870 
290 CLS 
300 GOTO 150 
310 END 

320 CLS: PRINT S ( 198) , "AMOUNT OF 
DEPOS I T " : PR I NT : I NPUT " 

"f A<4,W):SOUND225 y 2:CLS: IF A (4 
,W)<1 OR A(4,W)>9999.99 THEN 320 
330 A(6,W)«A(6, (W-l ) ) +A (4, W) 
340 IF W>9 THEN WW-9 
350 IF W<10 THEN M-W ELSE M"9 
360 IF CC**CHR*(94) THEN 380 EL8 
E 370 



370 CLSU) 

380 SET (8,0, 1) :SET(9,0, 1) :SET(8, 

1,1):8ET(9,1,1) 

390 PRINTS (O) ,N* 

400 S-l:G0T0420 

410 S-S+l 

420 IF W>9 THEN WW-WW- 1 

430 IF W>9 THEN SB-W-WW 

440 IF W<10 THEN SS-S 

450 IF A(1,SS)>0 THEN PRINTS <0+< 

8*32) ),USIN0"####",A(1,SS) f 

460 IF A(2,SS)>0 THEN PRINTS<4+< 

S*32) ) , USINO"##««" | A (2, 88) f 

470 IF A(3,SS)>0 THEN PRINT S<9+ 

(8*32) ) ,USIN8"##"| A (3,88) | 

480 IF A(3,SS)-0 THEN PRINTS (9+ ( 

S*32) > , " " 

490 IF A(4,SS)>0 THEN PRINT S(ll 
+(S*32) ) ,USINB"####.##",A(4,SS>| 
500 IF A(4,SS)«0 THEN PRINTS (11+ 
(8*32) ) , " " 

510 IF A(4,SS)>0 THEN A (6, 88) -A ( 

6, (SS-1) )+A(4,SS) ELSE 520 

520 IF A(5 f S8)>0 THEN PRINTS (17+ 

(8*32) ) ,USIN8"####.#S"»A(5,8S) I 
530 IF A(S,SS)«0 THEN PRINTS (18+ 

(S*32) ) , " 

540 IF A(5,SS)>0 THEN A(6,SS)-A( 

6 y (SS-1) )-A(5, SS) ELSE 550 

550 IF A(6pSS)<>0 THEN PRINTS (24 

+(S*32) ) ,USIN0"#tt##tt.«#"|A(6pSS) 

I 

555 IF A(6 f (W+l) )"A(6 P W) THEN 57 
0 ELSE 560 

560 IF 8>8 THEN 570 ELSE 410 
570 PRINTS (O) , N* 

580 ww»o:ss-o 

590 PRINTS (425) , "POSITION 

THEN PRESS < ENTER >" 
595 IF A(6, (W+l) )«0 THEN 610 ELS 
E 600 

600 IF TT-O THEN 610 ELSE 680 
610 FOR X»2 TO 8 

620 SET(44,26pX):SET(45p26 f X):8E 
T(44,27,X) : SET (45,27, X) 
630 CCC*-INKEY* 

640 IF CCC*=CHR*(94) THEN 6SX> EL 
SE 650 

650 IF CCC*-CHR*<13) THEN 1280 E 
L8E 660 

660 IF CCC*-CHR*(10) THEN 680 EL 
SE 670 

670 NEXT X:60T0610 
680 PRINTS (434)," 

690 IF W>8 THEN X-20 ELSE X«(W*2 
)+2 

700 IF CC*OCHR*(94) THEN 710 EL 
SE X«2 

710 FOR DD«2 TO 8 

720 SET(8,X,DD) :SET(9,X,DD) :SET( 

January 1984 the RAINBOW 125 



8, <X+1),DD):8ET<9, <X+1) ,DD) 
730 CC*«XNKEY* 

740 IF CC*-CHR*<94) AND X>1 THEN 

730 ELSE 790 
750 IF X>2 THEN 760 ELSE 770 
760 BET<8,X,1):SET<9,X,1):SET<8, 

<x+i),i):SET<9, <x+i),i):x-x-2 

770 W-W-l:TT-TT+l: IF X<2 THEN X- 

2 

780 IF X-2 THEN 340 ELSE 790 
790 IF CC*«CHR«<10) AND X<21 THE 
N 800 ELSE 840 

800 IF X<21 THEN 810 EL8E 820 
810 SET<8,X,1):SET<9,X,1):SET<8, 
<X+1),1):SET(9, (X+l), l):X-X+2 
820 W-W+l:TT"TT-l: IF X>20 THEN X 
•20 

830 IF W>TT THEN PRINTS <32) , N*:P 

RINTS(384) , PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: 

PRINTS < 425) , "POSSITION 

THEN PRESS <ENTER>":B- 

9:80T0410 

840 IF CC*-CHR*<13) THEN 860 ELS 
E 850 

850 NEXT DD:B0T0710 
860 GOTO 1280 

870 CLS : PR I NTS < 198), "ACCOUNT NUM 
BER": INPUT** "|A(3,W 

>:cls 



Color Graphic 

Printer 
Package 



S18 



A set of three useful programs for the 
CGP-11S. 

BAR GRAPH — Good looking, accur- 
ate graphs with automatic height ad- 
justment. 

PIE GRAPH — Any number of siloes, 
units ad|usted, easy labeling, screen or 
printer. 

COMMAND PROCESSOR — Lets you 
input, edit, list, and execute a list of 
CGP commands — A nacessity for CGP 
owners. It wes used to design this ad. 

DUNGEON MASTER $14 

A program for the DM of a D&D FRPG. 
Rolls characters, lets you draw maps, 
rolls dice, generates names. Keeps 12 
maps/characters or text screens in 
memory, saves anything to tape. 



GAME PACKAGE 2 $16 

A collection of fourteen original BASIC 
gamee. Titles include: Mastermind, 
Allen Defense, Spike, and MX Missile 
Peace K^npor Game. 



The 



Fan 



Mfd. by 
PIE20 
ELECTRIC 
PRODUCTS, INC. 



Only $18 

+ S1 shipping 



The blades of 
this fan vibrate 
like the wings of 
a dragonfly instead 
of spin, to produce 
extremely efficient 
cooling. 

MOUNTS EASILY Inside. No solder- 
ing. 

NO WEARING PARTS — virtually in- 
finite life expectancy. 
Low noise and no television inter- 
ference. 

INEXPENSIVE — Less than half the 
price of other fans, and well below 
the price of replacing overheated 
parts. 




ALL SOFTWARE: 
On cassette 

POST PAID. Requires 16K 
Ext. basic with joysticks RAINBOW 




DRAGONFLY SOFTWARE 
12503 Davan 
Colesville, MD 20904 



★ WRITE FOR DETAILS 

★ Send check or M.O. 

★ MD res. add 5% tax 

★ FREE BONUS PIN 
with first 100 orders 



880 IF A(3 V W)>B THEN 870 

890 IF A<3,W)<1 OR A<3,W)>99 THE 

N 870 

900 CLS 

910 PRINT 8 < 198) , "AMOUNT OF CHEC 
K" : INPUT" "|A<S,W> 

:cls 

920 SOUND225,2 

930 IF A<3,WK1 OR A<3,W>>9999. 
99 THEN 910 

940 A<6,W)«A<6, <W-1 > > -A<S,W> 
9S0 80T0 340 

960 CLS: S0UND22S, 2: IF A<6,WKO T 
HEN CLS4 : SOUND 100,10 
970 CLS 

980 p-o:t»o:r-o:d-o 

990 PRINT 8(2), 
"PERIOD "A<1,1)"THRU"A<1 
W) | 

1000 PRINTS <34) , 

"CHECKS "A<2, 1) "THRU"A( 

2,NM 

1010 FOR Q-ITOW'REM TOTALS DEP 
1020 P-P+A<4,Q) 
1030 NEXT Q 
1040 PRINT 8(66), 
"TOTAL DEPOSITS 
10S0 IF P<1000.00 THEN PRINT 8<8 
8),USIN8"####.##"|P ELSE PRINT 8 
<87) , USIN8"#####.##";P 
1060 FOR Q-1T0W 
1070 T»T+A<5,Q) 
108O NEXT Q 
1090 PRINTS <98), 
"TOTAL CHECKS 
1100 IF T<1000.00 THEN PRINT 8(1 
20) f USINQ"##«#.tt#"|T ELSE PRINT 
8<119) f USINQ"##tt#«.##"|T 
1110 FOR n=itob:r«o:q»o 
1120 FOR Q«1T0W 

1130 IF A<3,Q)-N THEN R-R+A(5,Q) 

1140 NEXT Q 

1190 IF RX> THEN D-D+l 

1160 IF D>7 THEN 1170 ELSE 1200 

1170 IF D-8 THEN PRINTS (418) , "TO 

CONTINUE PRESS < ENTER >" 
1180 BB*-INKEY*: IF BB*-CHR*<13) 
THEN 1190 EL8E 1180 
1190 D»l 

1200 IF R>0 THEN PRINT 8<98+<D#3 
2)) i USIN0"## ,, jN 

1210 IF R>0 THEN PRINT 8<101+<D» 
32)) f F*<N) 

1220 IF R>0 THEN PRINT «<116+(D# 
32) ) , "■" 

1230 IF R>0 THEN PRINT 8<119+<D» 
32) ) p US I NO "#####.##" ; R 
1240 NEXT N 

1230 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: PRI 



126 the RAINBOW January 1984 



STANDS 



10% 
DISCOUNT 



TS-1 Monitor stand for 13" TV. 
$29.50 15W x 11 D x 4H with cut-out for 
ROM pack and ventilation holes. 

PS-1 To elevate TV where computer 
$19.95 does not slide underneath. 

5W x 1 1 D x 2 1 / 2 H with no cut-out. 

Can also be used as a Epson 

printer stand. 

(not pictured) 

TS-5 TV stand for disk drive and color 
$39.50 computer enclosure. 

24W x 11 D x 5H with cut-out for 

ROM pack. 

TS-4 TV stand for 19" TV. 
$39.50 24W x 1 1 D x 4H with cut-out for 
ROM pack and ventilation holes. 

MH-1 Magazine holder with semi tubu- 
$25.00 lar riveted clip for large maga- 
zines. Reverse side has lip for sin- 
gle sheet. 
9 x 12 face. 

PS-3 Printer stand for DMP-200. 
$28.75 16W x 15D x 2 1 / 2 H (not pictured) 

PS-4 Same as above except with 1" 
$32.25 wide slot in middle for bottom 
feed printers. 

All stands available in smoked gray, ivory, 
or clear. 



SYSTEM PACKAGE DISCOUNT 

Deduct 10% for any 3 products that com- 
prise a system. 

WARRANTY 

All stands warranteed for 1 year 
Amdek Monitors for 2 years 

Disk for 90 days 
Zenith 131 for 90 days 

123 for 1 year 
J&M 90 days 



GUARANTEE 

Any product may be returned within 30 days g 
for refund if not satisfied. 




TS-1 & 300A 




MONITORS 

300A 12" amber screen. High re- 
$177 solution 18MHz bandwidth. 

Extra speaker needed for 

sound. (Amdek) 

123 12" green screen. High re- 
$123 solution 15MHz bandwidth. 

Extra speaker needed for 
sound. (Zenith not pictured) 

C-1 13" screen, color display. 

$354 Medium resolution 4MHz 
bandwidth. Speaker in- 
cluded. (Amdek) 

131 13" screen, color display. 

$379 Medium resolution 2.5MHz 
bandwidth. Green screen 
switch, speaker included. 
(Zenith not pictured) 

All monitors need video interface 
below. 



DISKS 



DD-3 
$499 



TS-5, C-1 & DD-3 

■mm 




TS-4 




MH-1 



Howard Medical Company 



Box 2, Chicago, Illinois 60690 
(312) 944-2444 




Dual 3" disk drives. 40 
track double density 368K 
bytes on-line. Can be used 
as stand alone system or 
with other drives. Built-in 
fan. Can record on both 
sides of diskette. Drive 
light changes color to 
indicate side. Amdek. 



CONTROLLERS 

VC-1 Video interface mounts 
$24.45 inside color computer by 
lifting IC and piggy backing 
it on top of interface. No 
soldering and no traces to 
cut. Gives video on one 
cable/sound on second 
cable. 

DC-1 ROM disk controller plugs 
$149 into ROM slot. Can mix 35 
& 40 track disks up to 3 
drives. Gives 184K/side or 
368K bytes on-line when 
used with DD-3. Compat- 
ible with disk BASIC FLEX 
& OS-9. Comes with 
complete manual (J&M). 

CA-1 Cable to connect disk to 
$27.50 controller. Call or describe 
your configuration for cor- 
rect cable. 



NT 

1260 PRINT* (418), "TO CONTINUE PR 
ESS < ENTER >" 

1270 L*»INKEY*:IF L*-CHR*(13) TH 
EN 1260 ELSE 1260 

1280 CLS: PRINT* < 143), "MENU" 

1281 PRINT* < 194), "CHECKS /DEPOSIT 
8 PRESS < ENTER > PRINT RE8I8TER 

PRESS <1> ADD ACCOUNTS 
PRESS <2> LIST ACCOUNTS 
PRESS <3> SAVE ON TAPE 
PRESS <4>" 
1290 Z*-INKEY* 

1300 IF Z*OCHR*(52) THEN 1310 E 
LSE 1460 

1310 IF Z*OCHR*<51> THEN 1320 E 
LSE 970 

1320 IF Z«OCHR*(13) THEN 1330 E 
LSE 290 

1330 IF Z«OCHR*(49) THEN 1340 E 
LSE 340 

1340 IF Z*OCHR*(50) THEN 1290 E 
LSE 1350 

1350 E«0:CLS:Y»99-B; PRINT 9(198) 
, "YOU HAVE" (Y) "ACCOUNTS. 

HOW MANY ARE REQUIRED": 
PRINT: INPUT" "JE 
1360 IF B+E>99 THEN 1370 ELSE 13 
90 

1370 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 9(68) 



CP/M 

FOR YOUR COLOR 
COMPUTER 

• Now have access to the largest library of 
programs available 

• CP/M is the recognized leader in professional 
and personal software 

• Adds the power of a 4 MHz, Z80A 

• CP/M 2.2 included 

• No modifications are necessary. Simply plug 
into the cartridge port and plug Radio Shack's 
disk controller into it. 

• Maintains full Radio Shack compatibility 

• Requires 64K memory and one or more disks 
with controller 

$250.00 
WAYNE TECHNOLOGY 

P.O. BOX 5196 • ANAHEIM, CA 92804-1196 
(714) 772-5757 

Radio Shack" Tandy/ Radio Shack Corp. I CPM™ Digital Research 



a "YOU AND I BOTH KNOW THAT 
YOU DON'T NEED ANY WHERE 
NEAR THAT MANY ACCOUNTS. 
COME BACK TO REALITY AND 
SELECT" <Y> "ACCOUNTS OR L 

ESS" 

1380 INPUT" "|E: IF B 

+E>99 THEN 1370 ELSE 1390 
1390 IF B+E>99 THEN 1370 

1400 cls:h-b+i 

1410 GOSUB 1 420 :W-W+l: GOTO 170 
1420 FOR C-H TO <B+E) 
1430 PRINT 9(193) , "TYPE NAME OF 
ACCOUNT NUMBER" I C: PRINT: INPUT" 
"|F*(C> 

1440 CLS 

1450 NEXT C:CLS:B«(B+E):G0T01280 
1460 PR INTO (389) , "PRESS PLAY AND 
RECORD < ENTER > 

M 

1470 EE«-INKEY«: IF EE*-CHR* ( 13) 
THEN 1480 ELSE 1470 
1480 CLS:G-W 

1490 OPEN "O", #-1, "CHECKS" 

1300 PRINT #-1,8 

1510 PRINT #-l,H,B,E 

1520 FOR 8=1 TO 8 

1530 FOR V-l TO 6 

1540 PRINT#-1,A(V,S) 

1550 NEXT V 

1560 NEXT 8 

1570 FOR C-H TO (B+E) 

1580 PRINT #-l f F«(C) 

1590 NEXT C 

1600 CLOSE #-1 

1610 SOTO 1280 

1620 NEXT S 

1630 CLOSE*- 1 

1640 GOTO 1280 

1650 CLS: PRINTS (192) , " TO REV IE 
W PRIOR MONTH REWIND TAPE DEP 
RESS PLAY BUTTON AND 

< ENTER >" 
1660 ZZ*-INKEY«: IF ZZ«-CHR*(13) 
THEN 1670 ELSE 1660 
1670 OPEN " I " , #-1 , "CHECKS" 
16SO INPUT #-1,8 
1690 INPUT *-l,H,B,E 
1700 FOR 8-1 TO 8 
1710 FOR V-l TO 6 
1720 INPUT #-l,A(V,S) 
1730 IF EOF(-l) THEN 1800 
1740 NEXT V 
1750 NEXT 8 
1760 FOR C-H TO (B+E) 
1770 INPUT #-l,F*(C) 
1780 NEXT C 

1790 IF EOF(-l) THEN 1800 
1800 CLOSE #-l:W-W+8:80T0340 



128 the RAINBOW January 1984 




HliillffllfflBlfflllBM 



BliiiTiIp^^ 

HagiGraph 

lniuumnnjuuuvijuuimyvvrinnn/vxrinnnnj 



NEW GOOD STUFF! 



Turn your Color Computer into a graphic design center with the ease of a 
keystroke! MagiGraph makes it simple to create highly detailed figures up to 
and including an entire high-resolution screen. Designed for those with some 
experience in Basic and Assembly Language programming, MagiGraph 
includes lots of special features: 

• A full set of logical and pixel manipulation functions simplifies the 
development of complex figures. 

• An editor lets you zoom in and work on every detail of your design. 
Toggle between the "macro" and "micro" screens for perspective on 
your creations. 

• Nine animation buffers allow you to preview each sequence to ensure 
continuity and smooth flow. 

• Versatile I/O routines store a graphic screen on cassette or floppy disk; 
recall it later for use by another program or revise it with MagiGraph. 

If yo.u're looking for the finest graphic development utility available for your 
Color Computer, THIS IS IT. Maximize your machine's potential, while you 
push your imagination to the limit — with MagiGraph! 

By Kevin Dooley. Cassette $34.95 (16K required); Disk $39.95 (32 Extended 
Color BASIC required); Amdisk cartridge $44.95. 



SAVE TIME! 

STOP WAITING AROUND 

FOR THE PRINTER! 

Use the Micro Works CSPOOL printer spooler. Say you've just finished 
editing a five-page letter to the IRS and you start printing it out. Now you need 
to run your personal finance program to find out if you'll be able io afford to eat 
next month, but you have to WAIT for the @#?!* PRINTER! CSPOOL will let you 
KEEP COMPUTING while your printer is PLODDING. CSPOOL uses only 20 bytes 
of Basic's memory yet gives you 32K of printer buffer. It's like having two 
computers for the price of one! Even better yet, CSPOOL can be yours for FREE! 
When you buy your 64k RAM UPGRADE KIT from The Micro Works, we'll GIVE 
you a copy of this great little program for FREE! Or we will sell it to you, on 
cassette or diskette, for only $19.95. Requires 64K. Not for FLEX or 0S9. 

64K MEMORY UPGRADE KIT: For Rev. levels E, ET, NC, and 

TDP-100s. Eight prime 64K RAM chips, instructions, and CSPOOL: 
$64.95 



SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 



MACR0-80C: DISK-BASED EDITOR, 
ASSEMBLER AND MONITOR— With all the 
features the serious programmer wants, this 
package includes a powerful 2-pass macro 
assembler with conditional assembly, local labels, 
include files and cross referenced symbol tables. 
MACR0-80C supports the complete Motorola 6809 
instruction set in standard source format. Incorpo- 
rating all the features of our Rompack-based 
assembler (SDS-80C), MACR0-80C contains many 
more useful instructions and pseudo-ops which aid 
the programmer and add power and flexibility. The 
screen-oriented editor is designed for efficient and 
easy editing of assembly language programs. 
MACR0-80C allows global changes and moving/ 
copying blocks of text. You can edit lines of 
assembly source which exceed 32 characters. 
DCBUG is a machine language monitor which allows 
examining and altering of memory, setting break 
points, etc. 

Editbr, assembler and monitor— along with 
sample programs— come on one Radio Shack com- 
patible disk. Extensive documentation included. By 
Andy Phelps. $99.95 

SDS-80C: SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT 
SYSTEM— Our famous editor, assembler and 
monitor in Rompack. Like MACR0-80C, it allows 
the user to write, assemble arid debug assembly 
language programs with no reloading, object patch- 
ing or other hassles. Supports full 6809 instruction 
set. Complete manual included. $89.95 

MICROTEXT: COMMUNICATIONS VIA 
YOUR MODEM! Now you can use your printer 
with your modem! Your computer can be an intelli- 
gent printing terminal. Talk to timeshare services or 
to other personal computers; print simultaneously 
through a second printer port; and re-display text 
stored in memory. Download text to Basic pro- 
grams; dump to a cassette tape, or printer, or both. 
Microtext can be used with any printer or no printer 
at all. It features user-configurable duplex/parity 
for special applications, and can send any ASCII 
character. You'll find many uses for this general 
purpose module! ROMPACK includes additional 
serial port for printer. $59.95 



MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH 

• Faster to program in than Basic 

• Easier to learn than Assembly Language 

• Executes in less time than Basic 

The MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH is a Rompack 
containing everything you need to run Forth on your 
Color Computer. COLOR FORTH consists of the 
standard Forth Interest Group (FIG) implementation 
of the language plus most of FORTH-79. It has a 
super screen editor with split screen display. Mass 
storage is on cassette. COLOR FORTH also contains 
a decompiler and other aids for learning the inner 
workings of this fascinating language. It will run on 
4K, 16K, and 32K computers. And COLOR FORTH 
contains 10K of ROM, leaving your RAM for your 
programs! There are simple words to effectively use 
the Hi-Res Color Computer graphics, joysticks, and 
sound. 

Includes a 112-page manual with a glossary of 
the system-specific words, a full, standard FIG 
glossary and complete source listing. 

MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH ... THE BEST! 
From the leader in FORTH, Talbot Microsystems. 
$109.95 

MACHINE LANGUAGE 

MONITOR TAPE: A cassette tape which allows 
you to directly access memory, I/O and registers 
with a formatted hex display. Great for machine lan- 
guage programming, debugging and learning. It 
can also send/receive RS232 at up to 9600 baud, 
including host system download/upload. 19 com- 
mands in all. Relocatable and reentrant. CBUG 
TAPE: $29.95 

MONITOR ROM: The same program as above, 
supplied in 2716 EPROM. This allows you to use 
the entire RAM space. And you don't need to re- 
load the monitor each time you use it. The EPROM 
plugs into the Extended Basic ROM Socket or the 
Romiess Pack i. CBUG ROM: $39.95 

SOURCE GENERATOR: This package is a disas- 
sembler which runs on the Color Computer and 
generates your own source listing of the BASIC 
interpreter ROM. Also included is a documentation 
package which gives useful ROM entry points, 
complete memory map, I/O hardware details and 
more. A 16K system is required for the use of this 
cassette. 80C Disassembler: $49.95 



HARDWARE 



PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE-Serial to parallel 
converter allows use of all standard parallel 
printers. PI80C plugs into the serial output port, 
leaving your Rompack slot free. You supply the 
printer cable. PI80C: $59.95 
SUPER-PRO KEYB0ARD-$69.95 (For computers 
manufactured after Oct. 1982, add $4.95) 
ROMLESS PACKS for your custom EPROMS - call 
or write for information. 



BOOKS 



6809 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING, by 

Lance Leventhal, $16.95 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS, by Don 
Inman, $14.95 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS FOR THE 
TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER, by Don Inman, $14.95 
STARTING FORTH, by L. Brodie, $17.95 



GAMES 



ZAXXON-~The real thing. Excellent. What more can 
we say? Cassette requires 32K. $39.95 
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TURN OF THE SCREW 

UPGRADING YOUR 
COOR COMPUTER 2 



By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow 

Contributing Editor 




Along, long, long, long, long time ago Radio Shack 
introduced a little gem called the Color Computer. It 
had a whopping 4K RAM memory. The first thing 
you knew, the hobbyists were able to expand this computer's 
memory to 16K, probably even before Radio Shack intro- 
duced its 16K. Then the hobbyists boosted the memory to 
32K by a method known as piggyback, again before Radio 
Shack. The hobbyists didn't stop there, 64K memory was 
next. But the 64K memory did not consist of piggybacking 
four sets of I6K chips, it was a different chip. All of the32K 
piggyback chips were put on the shelf or put in computers 
whose owners did not care for 64K. Where am 1 leading with 
all this, you may ask? Well, a few months ago Radio Shack 
released another little gem, the Color Computer 2. Only this 
time they started with i 6K memory and after looking inside 
one, I saw that it was very easy to upgrade to 64K. Most of 
the owners will be upgrading to 64K. This is part one of this 
month's article: How to upgrade from 16K to 6,4JC memory 
in the Color Computer 2. To upgrade your Col^r'Corriputer 
2 to 64K, you must first get a Color Computer 2. Ha ha, only 
kidding, but you will need some 64K memory chips. The 



(Tony DiStefano is well known as an early specialist in 
Color Computer hardware projects. He is one of the 
acknowledged experts on the "insides" of Co Co.) 



chips to get are #4 1 64, with an access time of 300ns or faster. 
There are many different suppliers for this chip, with many 
different numbers, but as long as they are 4164 compatible 
they will do. 

Open the CC-2 by removing all of the screws on the 
bottom. Remove the top cover. Carefully remove the key- 
board by pulling the ribbon wire out by the dark colored 
base. The eight identical chips along the bottom of the PCB 
are the old 16K chips. Using an 1C extractor or a small flat 
screwdriver, remove the eight chips. Put them aside for now. 
Insert the 4164 chips. Make sure that pin one on the chip 
goes in pin one in the socket. The only other thing you have 
to do is to make one solder joint. Look for a small "WT'in 
between the 6822 P1A and the SN74LS244 chip. Right 
above this W 1 mark are two solder points. Solder these two 
points together and voila, 64K memory. That's all there is to 
it! Now, if a whole lot of people convert to 64K, that will 
leave a iot of 16K chips sitting around doing nothing. 

This will be the second part of this month's article. Those 
I6K chips that are removed from the Color Computer 2 to 
make 64K can be used to give you 32K. Yes, it will be in the 
piggyback fashion. It is a little harder to do than a 64K 
upgrade, but nevertheless can be done in less than one hour. 
To upgrade a 1 6K Color Computer 2 to 32K you will need 
either a set of 1 6K chips removed from another Color Com- 



130 the RAINBOW January 1984 



puter 2 or buy a set of 16K chips. One important note to 
remember is these chips are not ordinary 16K chips. They 
are not the same chips that come from the regular Color 
Computer. The chips that come from the first CoCo are 
4116 chips. The 1 6K chips that go into the Color Computer 2 
are 21 18 chips. The main difference between a 41 16 and a 
2118 chip is that the older type 4116 needs three power 
supplies to run. It needs +5 volts, + 1 2 volts and -5 volts. The 
newer 21 18 needs only +5 volts to run. It is also more power 
efficient. 

If you piggyback 4 1 1 6 chips in the CC-2, it will not work, 
and might even do some damage, so don't put 4116 memory 
chips in the CC-2. Now that the warning has been said, it's 
time to continue. Remove the eight memory chips from the 
board. You should now have 16 memory chips, eight from 
your computer and eight from another source. Put half of 
them aside for now. Examine one of the chips carefully, 
notice the pins. When a pin comes out of the chip it is wide, 
then it becomes narrow. The narrow part of the pin is the 
part that goes into the socket. With a narrow pair of long- 
nose pliers (or a finger, if you have narrow fingers) grab the 
narrow part of pin 4. Bend the pin back and forth until it 
falls off. Be careful that you don't bend the wide part of the 
pin. That part of the pin should stay intact. Do this to seven 
more chips to give you a total of eight chips with the narrow 
part of pin 4 removed. Next take out the untouched chips. 
Mount the chips with the short pin on top of the chips with 
all the pins. The photo will help you determine how to 
position the chip. This photo was taken with a mirror, so 
that you can see both sides of the chip (there is only one chip 
in the photo). Before you start soldering, make sure that pin 



1 on the top chip is on top of pin one on the bottom chip. 
Leave a small gap in between the top and bottom chip. This 
is needed for ventilation. Next, solder all the pins together. 
All but pin 4 of course, it is now to short to reach anyway. 
Okay, now get a small piece of wire. Any thin wire will do, I 
used some Radio Shack wirewrap wire. Cut eight pieces 
about Vi f long. Strip off about of insulation off each end 
of each wire. Solder one end of this wire to pin 4 (the one 
with the short leg) of the chip-pak and the other end to pin 9 
(still on the top) on the chip. Do this to all eight chip-paks. 
After you are finished clean the chip-paks carefully with a 
resin remover. Radio Shack now carries resin remover. The 
part number is 64-2322. It is not of the best quality, but is 
good for small jobs like the chip-paks. After the chip-paks 
are clean, check them over for shorts or cold solder joints 
and repair them. When you are sure that they are all okay, 
plug the paks into main board. Again, make sure that pin 
one on the chip goes into pin one in the socket. When you are 
finished, turn the computer on and type in: 

PRINT MEM [ENTER] 

Without a disk drive plugged it, the amount of memory 
displayed should be 24871. With a drive plugged in, the 
value should be 22823. And finally without Extended BASIC 
it should be 3 1 0 1 5. If you get these values, all is okay and you 
can close up your CC-2. That's all there is to do to upgrade a 
CC-2 from I6K to 32K. If you have problems, chances are 
that you soldered one of the chips in backwards. 1 n that case 
you might as well throw the two chips away and start again. 
Well, that's all for this month. 

I hope you have lots of good memories. ^ 



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January 1984 the RAINBOW 131 



Nostalgia, Notes And 
Tools Of The Trade 

By Dale L. Puckett 
RAINBOW Contributing Editor 



Even Scrooge must get nostalgic this time of year. A 
new program or two under the Christmas tree — 
maybe you'll even get your first look at OS-9 that 
way — is bound to put you in the mood. Besides, as a CoCo 
owner you have every right to be nostalgic as you wind up 
1983 and move into the new year. You now own one of the 
best operating systems on a microcomputer today. 

I must confess, I got a head start on you. Just when I was 
preparing to write this month's column, — it's October 30 — 
Richard Don, the infamous vice president at GIMIX, called. 
He was excited because several large companies had just 
bought one of his GIMIX III systems with one million bytes 



PROCEDURE Boldface 

0000 
0001 

000D 
00 1 9 
001 A 
004B 
005A 
005B 
0068 
0071 
0099 
008D 
008E 
0090 
00 9 B 
00BC 
00C2 
00E5 
00F5 
010B 
010D 
0.118 
0 1 1 A ' 



(Dale L. Puckett is a freelance writer and programmer 
who has worked with the Motorola family of miropro- 
cessors since 1976. He just completed his first book, "A 
Complete Tour Guide to baisc09,"//?w summer. It is 
being published by Microware and will be available 



of RAM memory and 47 million bytes of online storage on a 
hard disk. Neither one of us could believe it. Little more than 
five years ago we had both started in this business with 
micros that had barely 4,000 bytes of RAM memory and no 
online storage. The sea stories started. 

It reminded me of the first six months I owned my 
SWTPC computer. 1 didn't have a teletype machine with a 
paper tape reader and cassette tape storage hadn't been 
invented for micros yet, so I left the computer turned on for 
several weeks at a time. After all, it took three or four hours 
to type in two or three thousand bytes of hex object code by 
hand — just to play tiotac-toe. There's nothing that can 



this fall He is the author of DynaSpell, Readiest, 
Esther and Help, which are available from Frank 
Hogg Laboratories. He serves on the Info World 
Software Review Board and is a Chief Warrant Officer 
in the U.S. Coast Guard.) 



DIM in:STRINBCS03 
DIM char : STRINBC 1 1 

PRINT "Type string you would like to see bold-face? 11 J 
in~ ,,M \a=0 

WH I LE char < >CHR» (13) DC) 
GET #0,char 
i n~-:L n+char \a-a+l 
END WHILE 

PRINT 

PR I NT CHRf < $ 1 B ) +CHR* (•51') 
PRINT "This is the boldface string M ; 
PRINT in? 

FOR i«l TO a \ PRINT CHR*(8)j \NEXT i 
PRINT CHR*<*1B)+CHR*(*49) ; in; 
PRINT » p did you like ft?" 
PRINT . 

PR I NT DHR* < * 1 B ) +CHR* < *7 1 ) 
END 



132 the RAINBOW January 1984 



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compare with being a pioneer. 

Which brings me to some good news. Richard went out to 
the RAlNBOWfest in Fort Worth to see what this CoCo 
OS-9 thing was all about. When he returned to Chicago, he 
was bursting with enthusiasm. In fact, he was so excited 
when I talked to him that he was thinking about offering a 
GIMIX III system as a grand prize for an OS-9 contest here 
at the Rainbow. That's a much better deal than those maga- 
zine sweepstakes. 

Richard's excitement peaked when he ran into an old 
friend who now works for Tandy. In fact, it seems he was 
one of the people responsible for bringing OS-9 to the Color 
Computer. But more important, he is still working hard to 
produce or procure a tremendous selection of new and 
powerful software to run on it. As it turns out, Richard's 



friend is also a pioneer and has been working with Motoro- 
la's 6800 chips as long as they have been manufactured. 

In Richard's words, "He came up through the ranks . . he's 
not a Z-80 retread. You couldn't find a more scrupulous 
person in this business. If a piece of software is good this guy 
will recognize it. Great things are going to happen to CoCo 
OS-9." 

I asked him if he heard anything specific and got some 
great news. A CoCo OS-9 version of Microware's "C" 
compiler — one of the best on any microcomputer — is in 
production now. In fact, it will probably be on the shelf by 
the time you read this. Better yet, scuttlebutt has it that the 
price will be somewhere in the $100 price range. Very 
impressive when you consider that it costs $400 on the larger 
6809 systems. 



PROCEDURE 


Under 1 ine 


0000 

000 1 

0020 
002JC 
004 F 
006E 
007A 
007C 


PRINT 11 This is an underlined word" 5 

PRINT CHR*<»tB)-+CHR»<»51) 5 

FOR itel TO 15 \ PRINT CHR*<8>5 \NEXT i 

PRINT " in a line. M 

PR I NT CHR* ( * 1 B ) +CHR* ( »71 > J 

PRINT 

END 


007E 
PROCEDURE 

0000 

i 000 1 
000D 


Ri si ngLi ne 

DIM char: STRING* 13 
DIM a$:STRINGC503 


00 19 
001 A 
00 2E 


PRINT "Input string ? "; 


00 3D 
003E 
00AB 
0054 
006C 


WHILE charOCHR*<13) DO 

GET 1*0, char 

a*=a*+char Xa^a* 1 
ENDWHILE 


0070 

0071 

0099 

00 AB 

00C2 
, 00CD 

00 F 5 

00F7 
; PROCEDURE 


FOR i-1 TO INT<a/4)-H \ PRINT \NEXT i 
FOR i*i TO a 

PRINT MD*<A« p .i , 1) i CHR*<*1B)+CHR*(*4B) ; 
NEXT i 

FOR i=l TO INT (a/4) + 1 \ PRINT \NEXT i 

END 

Ch ar ac t er Set s 


0000 

000D 
0019 


DIM a*: STRING [8011 

DIM c«rsT«rN©ri3 


00 1 A 

0028 


b* : =CHR* ( * 1 B ) +CHR* < *4 A ) 

fc*:«CHR* <*0D) ' 


003 1 
0{?32 
00 3F 
00 6F 
0091 
009F 


PRINT b*+"StdCS" 

PRINT "This is an example o-f the standard character" 
PRINT "set- It is easy to change to "; 
PRINT b*+"Std64 ,, S 
PUT #t,c* 



134 the RAINBOW January 1984 



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OS-09 Users Group News 

Here's an interesting note I pulled off our OS-9 Users 
Group Bulletin Board (312-397-8308— Type a Carriage 
Return and Line Feed, then answer the prompt with "HEL- 
G500 SJ 3[ENTER]" to get on line.): "The activity on the 
CoCo SIG on CompuServe with respect to OS-9 is really 
picking up. There are many technical messages, queries, 
observations, and complaints by users with every level of 
sophistication. It wont be long until we see some neat things 
from that group." 

* From the tone of that note, you can see that Users Group 
members are anxiously awaiting an active participation 
from CoCo OS-9 Users. In fact we are talking about putting 
a CoCo Help menu on our Bulletin Board. We'll let you 
know here when it is on the air. 

Frank Hogg has offered to distribute our Users Group 
software. This means our members will be able to get utili- 
ties and programs from our software exchange library for 
only $3. In fact, each new member will receive one disk of 
software FREE when he/she joins the Users Group. The 
first disk should be available by December 1. 

Our membership fee is $25. For information about our 
group and a sample copy of our newsletter, send a note to us 
at our new address: 

OS-9 Users Group 
Post Office Box 8027 
Des Moines, IA 50301 

The Toolbox Philosophy 

Since OS-9 is modeled after the UNIX system, it's only 
fitting that we should learn to think of individual programs 



and utilities as tools. We can run more than one process very 
easily with OS-9 and that's half the battle. Now, all we have 
to do is figure out how to use several of our small programs 
together to do a big job. 

Let's begin with a few examples. When I first ran OS-9, 1 
did everything the hard way. I typed out every pathlist. I just 
didn't trust the machine. I was as non-productive as you 
could be. One of my typical command lines might have 
looked like this: 

OS-9: /dO/cmds/ copy #16K /dO/cmds/greatbigprogram 
/ d 1 / cmds/ great bigprogram 

Talk about sore fingers! 

Then, I learned about the default directories. Life was 
much simpler: 

OS:9 chd /dO/cmds 

OS:9 copy #16K program /dl/cmds/program 

That was much better. But then every once in awhile, I 
found myself needing to copy a directory that contained 30 
or 40 files.! used the "Control A" key a lot. This saved about 
half the typing, but it was still a hassle. 

About six months later a utility called "dsave" was intro- 
duced. It was very useful for copying an entire directory — or 
even an entire disk. The commands went something like this: 

OS9: chd /dl/directorytocopy 

OS9: dsave /da >/d0/ copy-procedure-file 

OS9: chd /d0 

OS9: /d0/ copy-procedure-file 



00A8 
00BF 
00F9 
0106 
0113 
011C 
0134 
014E 
0156 
0164 
016D 
0197 
01AC 
01AE 
01B0 
PROCEDURE 
0000 
000 1 
0011 
0012 
00 IE 
0025 
0026 
0030 
0031 
004A 
0060 
0077 
0095 
00A2 



PRINT "a different set- In" 

PRINT "this case we are running 64 by 19 set. It is also easy" 
PRINT "to have "5 
PRINT b*+"Dwcs"; 
PUT #l,c* 

PRINT "a Double Width Char-" 
PRINT "acter set. However it " 
PRINT "is "; 
PRINT b$+"StdCS"; 
PUT #l ? c* 

PRINT "much easier to read the standard 51 by" 

PRINT "24 Character set." 

PRINT 

END 

Menu 

SHELL "tmode -pause" 

DIM char:STRINGC13 
DIM choice: INTEGER 

PRINT CHR*<*0C> \ PRINT \ PRINT 



PRINT "1. 

PRINT "2. 

PRINT "3. 

PRINT "4- 

PRINT "5. 
PRINT 



Rising Line test." 
Boldface test. " 
Underline test." 
Switch Character Sets. " 
Exit. " 



136 the RAINBOW January 1984 



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AMIRKAN 
EXPRESS* 




When 1 ran this sequence the machine did most of the 
typing. Dsave generated a file with a series of lines that 
looked similar to the first example above. Since I always 
re-directed them into a file, I then needed to run this proce- 
dure file. It was really slick to watch the computer do all the 
work by itself. 

Yet the process was still simpler when pipes became avail- 
able a year or so later. H ow would you like to trade the four 
lines of typing above in for two command lines — and the 
first line doesn't really count! Write them on a label and stick 
it to your keyboard. It will save you hours. 

OS-9: Chd /dl /directorytocopy 

OS-9: dsave / da ! (-x chd /dO/directory-to-copy-to) 

When you try this, you'll be using your first OS-9 "pipe." 
The magic is in the exclamation point — the symbol for an 
OS-9 pipe. Here's what happens when you run the command 
lines above. 

The first line sets your current data directory to /dl/ di- 
rectorytocopy. Dsave always saves the current data direc- 
tory. 

In the second line we used a pipe, "!", instead of redirec- 
tion, ">/d0/ copy-procedure." 

Since we didn't use redirection, OS-9's Shell would nor- 
mally have sent the output of dsave to the standard output 
device. Remember, this is normally your CoCo screen or 
terminal. But, since you typed the pipe symbol after the 
dsave command, the Shell will pipeline the data straight into 
the command on the second half of the line. 

In this case, the second half of the line tells the Shell not to 
abort on an error and to change the current data directory to 
/ dO/ directory-to-copy-to. After it does this, the Shell accepts 
the characters from dsave just as if they were coming from 



the keyboard. Each time the Shell finds a carriage return on 
the end of a line, it executes the commands on that line. 
When each of the lines generated by dsave has been exe- 
cuted, your new directory will be ready to run. 

More About Pipes, Filters and Other Tools 

Let's look at some more examples and introduce you to 
some new OS-9 tools. Microware released a package of 
utilities called "The OS-9 File Handler Tool Box" in August. 
I bought it while I was at the seminar and it seems that 1 am 
using it all the time. 

Microware designed the package so that most of the 
utilities could be used as filters. In other words, they would 
read data from standard input device, modify it in some 
manner, and then send it to the standard output device. 
Additionally, several of the programs in the package can 
take a list of filenames from your keyboard and perform the 
desired operation on all of them. 

The idea for this package came from the Addison-Wesley 
book Software Tools by Brian W. Kernighan and P. L 
Plaugher. All of them are popular on the UNIX operating 
system. The package includes: 



Code Display the hexadecimal equivalent of a key 

Count Character count, word count, line count 

Compress Compress a text file 

D Print directory listing 

Expand Expand a compressed file 

Grep Globally find Regular Expression and Print 

PR Print a file with formatting 

QSORT Quick in-memory sort 

Space Space and/ or indent a file 



00A4 






00A5 


LOOP 




00A7 


PRINT " Your choice "; 


00BE 


INPUT choice 




00C3 


EXITIF choice=5 THEN 


GOTO 100 


00D2 


ENDEXIT 




00D6 


PRINT 




00D8 


WHILE choice>0 AND 


choice< 6 DO 


00EB 






00EC 


IF choice=l THEN 


RUN RisingLine 


00FB 


END IF 




00FD 


IF choice=2 THEN 


RUN Bold-face 


010C 


END IF 




010E 


IF choice=3 THEN 


RUN Underline 


01 ID 


ENDIF 




01 IF 


IF choice=4 THEN 


RUN CharacterSets 


012E 


ENDIF 




0130 
0131 


PRINT "Type * ENTER' to continue ?" 


0150 


GET #0,char 




0159 






015A 


ENDWHILE 




015E 


ENDLOOP 




0162 






0163 100 


SHELL "tmode pause" 




0175 


END 




0177 







138 the RAINBOW January 1964 



Split Split a file into pieces 

TR Transliterate file contents 

Xmode Examine or change device descriptor (This 
one is standard with CoCo OS-9) 

Now, let's show you how you can use several of these 
small utilities on the same command line to do a big job. 

For example, when your directories get long — they really 
shouldn't with OS-9's hierarchical directory system — it is a 
hassle to look through a list of filenames in random order. 
Life would be much easier if you could look at a sorted list. 
Try this command line: 

d ! qsort ! pr >/p 

Amazing, isn't it? Now, imagine that you would like to 
know how many "C" source files you have in a directory. 
Let's count them: 

OS9:d *.c ! count -1 

This command line should do the job if your "C" source 
files are in your current data directory. 

Now imagine that you are an author and that you have 
just finished writing another chapter in the great American 
novel. You have full confidence in your abilities as a writer 
but you realize you have this bad habit: you keep using tacky 
words. Instead of writing "use," you write "utilize" by force 
of habit. This time, you remember the problem and want to 
make a quick check to make sure you didn't slip up. Try this: 

OS9: grep utilize Great. American.Novel.Chapt4 ! count -1 



In a few seconds you'll know how many times you used 
the word utilize. Slick, huh? By now you can see that with a 
full toolbox you can find out just about anything you want 
to know by using the proper OS-9 command line. 

Here's some better news. There are a lot of good UNIX 
textbooks out, several UNIX journals and a number of 
articles in the trade press about this operating system. All of 
these books and articles give good examples that show you 
how to exercise the UNIX toolbox for all it's worth. 

Harry Fair, a consultant out in Denver, has approached 
Frank Hogg Labs with a proposal to release an OS-9 tool- 
box that is UNIX compatible. All of the utilities will have 
UNIX names and their command line syntax will be just like 
the same utility on the UNIX system. I saw the proposal this 
month and it's a tremendous step in the right direction. In 
fact, I'm running the first 1 5 utilites in my OS-9 toolbox now 
and they are great. 

SOME MORE basic OS-9 DEMOS 

Last month we told you a lot about the Hi-Res screen in 
the O-PAK release from FHL. At that time we promised to 
show you more this month. The BASIC OS-9 utilities accom- 
panying this article exercise several of the capabilities built 
into Hi-Res. You'll see how to underline a word, boldface a 
word, or make a line run uphill. These sample precedures 
will give you another chance to study the structured pro- 
gramming techniques made possible by BASIC OS-9. 

As we close, I extend my best wishes to you and your 
families for the happiest 'of holiday seasons as well as an 
exciting and prosperous New Year. 



Interactive -C ™ p ack ag e 



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and you don't even need a disk drive or more than 16K of RAM. 

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Quite simply, with the exception of floats, IC™ supports THE 
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continue 

typedef 

conditionals 

functions 



while & for 
marcos (full) 
structures 
fields 



do-while 
initializers (full) 
signed / unsigned 

siz.cof 



break 
unions 
pointers 

multi-dimensional 
arrays 



IC includes a RESIDENT standard I/O library. IC compiles to an 
extremely efficient Z-Code™ that is more compact than machine 
code. 

Interactive— Edit 

IE T *is a high resolution screen oriented editor. Someof the features 
are: 64 char lines, block moves, search/replace, auto insert, and 
auto indent. 
Interactive— Debug 

ID™ is a screen oriented debugger. You can see the variable names 
and watch their values change as you single step. Function trace, 
and more . .'. 



Z-Pak T " 

This is an 8" x 4" cartridge, that plugs into the expansion port of the 
CC. Z-Pak is capable of holding up to 80K of EPROM (must be 
factory installed). THAT'S RIGHT as new firmware options become 
available and are ordered they become part of random access 
memory like IC, ID & IE ** ALL ONLINE AT THE SAME TIME ** 
Now lets do a little addition, if you have 64K of RAM and X-BASIC, 
then Z-Pak gives you the potential of having a 160K system 
someday , . . THAT'S APPROXIMATELY WHAT A DISK HOLDS!! 
Option #1 — Two parallel ports (additional $19.95) 
Includes a firmware routine and cable diagram for driving a MX-70 
on one of the ports. 

Option #2 — Disk Expansion Capability (additional $19.95) 
Includes the firmware and hardware necessary to allow the RS 
controller to 'piggy back' the Z-Pak. 

Option #3 — The C Programming Language Book (additional 
$19.95) 

Color Computer is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. MX-70 is a trademark of 
EPSON. Interactive— C, IC, Interative— Edit, IE, Interactive — Debug, ID, Z- 
Pak, Z-Code, &MTI are trademarks of Micro Tools, Inc. 



Micro Tools Inc. 

Prices subject Go cMng.e without notice. We reserve 
the right to'Jimfct quanSitieE. 



CALL DAYS OR EVENINGS 7 DAYS A WEEK: 
(718) 594-1088 
P.O. BOX 357 
NORTH CHILI, NEW YORK 14514 



Terms: FOB, add $4 shipping. 
New York residents add sales tax. 
We accept VISA, Master Card 
and Personal checks. 



January 1984 



the RAINBOW 139 



Try This Helpful Number-Base 

Conversion Quiz 



By Gary and Susan Davis 



When my husband first bought his Color Computer 
almost three years ago, I was faced with the newest dilemma 
of our marriage: Should I try to learn to use the blankety- 
blank thing or should I become a computer widow instead? 

Computer widowhood did not suit me at all, so I set up my 
plan of attack. I carefully went through the book "Getting 
Started with Color BASIC" and I enrolled in my first compu- 
ter course at Ohio State University. So far, so good. The 
BASIC seemed like English and the introductory course at 
OSU was in Fortran. 

The trouble started the next quarter when I enrolled in the 
next course at OSU. This time the language was COBOL and 
the assignments were much harder. 

The fact that there were different computer languages was 
not a problem for me. I was a linguistics major in college and 
have varying degrees of knowledge of English, Spanish, 
French, Italian, Yiddish and Hebrew. 

However, I found out that there are also different num- 
bering systems involved in programming. This was bad news 
for someone who has for years resisted learning the metric 
system. 

The teacher wanted us to take decimal numbers (the 
normal, regular, everyday numbers that you count with) and 
convert them to hexadecimal and binaryl 

Once I understood that the "l"s and "0"s of the binary 
system are treated like on or off switches by the computer, I 
felt more comfortable with it. Hex will always seem unnatu- 
ral to me. 

Gary wrote this program to help me learn to convert any 
decimal, hexadecimal or binary number to one of the other 
number bases. With practice, I was able to answer most of 
the questions correctly most of the time. Facility in all three 
number bases will help you program in both BASIC and 
machine language. 

The computer will randomly pick a number between 0 
and 255 (decimal) for you to convert. It will also choose one 
of the three number bases into which you will need to 
convert the original number. You get up to three chances to 
correctly answer (guess) the question. If you haven't the 
faintest idea what's going on, strike the question-mark key 
and [ENTER]. 



(Gary and Susan Davis are co-owners of Sugar Soft- 
ware in Reynoldsburg, Ohio. Susan is a novice and 
Gary has been professionally programming for nearly 
20 years.) 



There are 10 random problems in each quiz. When you 
are done, the computer will tell you how many you have 
answered correctly on the first try, how many you have 
answered correctly after a retry and how many were beyond 
you completely. 

I hope you will find this number base quiz as helpful as I 
did. 



The listing: 
10 * 



140.. 
300.. 
480. . 
END 



. 0109 
. 0237 
. 03F5 
05EB 



Ba 



Con ver- 



G2i 



<C) 1982 By Sugar Software 
Written by Gary Davis 
2153 Leah Lane 
Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068 
<614> 861-0565 



Number 

20 ' 
30 ' 
40 b 
50 s 
60 9 
70 3 
80 9 
90 1 
1O0 
HO 
120 ' 

130 FOR 1=1 TO lO 
140 CLS4 

ISO PRINT TAB <8> ; "PROBLEM NUMBER 
"5l:PRINT 

160 PRINT TAB (11); "WHAT IS. . .":P 
RINT 

170 FR0M=RND<3> 

180 T0-FRQM+RND<2> 

190 IF TO>3 THEN TO=TO-3 

200 NUMBER-RND<256>-1 

210 ON FROM GOSUB 470,500,530 

220 ON TO GOSUB 570,610,650 

230 FOR J=l TO 3 

240 PRINT N1*J" IN "|N2* 

250 INPUT A* 

260 IF A*= ANSWER* GOTO 360 
270 IF A*="?" GOTO 310 
280 PRINT "wrong" 
290 SOUND 5,2 
300 NEXT J 



140 the RAINBOW January 1984 



TDP SYSTEM 100* / QUALITY DISCOUNT PRODUCTS / COLOR COMPUTER* 
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Terms: Cash. Money Order, or your personal checks welcome. 
Please allow two weeks to clear your check. Shipping $2.50 on 
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Arizona residents please add 5% sales tax. All programs — 16K 
ext. exceptwhere noted. We reserve the right to change prices 
without notice. 



Warranty: All hardware products are warranted for a period of 
1 80 days from date of purchase. Software is warranted as per 
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A Machine Language Sort for quickly sorting single dimensioned Basic 
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WE PAY TOP $$$'S DROP US A NOTE! 



310 PRINT 6448, " THE CORRECT ANS 

WER IS " ; ANSWER* 

320 W2R0N8=W2R0NG-H 

330 PRINT 6484, "HIT enter TO CON 

TINUE " ; 

340 IF INKEY*=" " GOTO 340 
350 GOTO 400 

360 IF J=»l THEN R I GHT=R I QHT+ 1 EL 

SE PR I GHT=PR I GHT+ 1 

370 PRINT "VERY GOOD!" 

380 FOR K=l TO 500: NEXT 

390 SOUND ISO, 1 : SOUND 250,l:S0UN 

D 200, 1 

400 NEXT I 

410 CLS5 

420 PRINT "NUMBER COMPLETELY RIG 
HT: "; RIGHT 

430 PRINT "NUMBER RIGHT AFTER RE 
TRY: "JPRIGHT 

440 PRINT "NUMBER COMPLETELY WRO 
NG: ";W2R0NG 
450 END 

460 ' From T>&c± mal. 
470 N1*=STR* (NUMBER) +» (DECIMAL) 

II 

480 RETURN 

490 * From Hex 

500 N 1 *=R I GHT* ( " O " +HE X * ( NUMBER ) , 

2)+" (HEX)" 

510 RETURN 

520 ' From B± ns*r y 

530 GOSUB 710 

540 N1*=N*+" (BINARY) " 

550 RETURN 

560 ' To Decimal 

570 N2*=" DECIMAL" 

580 ANSWER* -M I D* ( STR* ( NUMBER ) , 2 ) 

590 RETURN 

600 ' To Heex 

610 N2*="HEX" 

620 ANSWER*-R I GHT* ( "0"+HEX* (NUMB 

ER) ,2) 

630 RETURN 

640 ' To Binary 
650 N2*="BINARY" 
660 GOSUB 710 
670 ANSWER*=N* 
680 RETURN 

690 ' Gonver-fc " IMLJM 

BER" 

700 * to binary and return 

710 'string in N* 

720 N*=" " 

730 N=NUMBER 

740 FOR K=l TO 8 

750 BIT=N AND 1 

760 N*»RIGHT*(STR*(BIT) , 1 ) +N* 
770 N=INT(N/2) 
780 NEXT K 

790 RETURN hf 



142 the RAINBOW January 1984 



4f 



CANADIANS 



P.O. BOX 513 
LASALLE, QUEBEC 
CANADA H8P3J4 



F & T SOFTWARE 



INQUIRIES & ORDERS 
CALL (514) 365-5392 
BETWEEN 9 & 5 P.M. 
E.S.T. 



Lowest Prices in Canada — Prompt Delivery — C.O.D. Accepted — Nous Parions Frangais 



GAMES 




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Can$ 


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33.00 


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27 50 


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C Planet Invasion 


29 00 




\j MOuOi tsanie 


29.00 


C Adventure Trilogy 


31.50 


C Spaca Invaders 




C Beyond The Cimeeori Moon 


31.50 




29.00 


C Fembots' Revenge 


37.50 


O opduy VVdl 




C Interceptor 


24.50 


w OIUFITI nl lUWb 


29 00 


C Vegas Gamepak 


24.50 


C Whirlybird Run 


29.00 


Computerware 




Tom Mix 




C Bloc Head 


33.00 


C Air Traffic Controller 


37,00 


C Color Pac Attack 


29.50 


C Color Golf 


24.00 


C Doodle Bug 


33.00 


C Devil Assault 


37,00 


C Hyper Zone 


33.00 


C Grabber 


37,00 


C Junior's Revenge 


35.00 


C Journey to Mount Doom 


37,00 


C Megapede 


29.00 


O Unfamiliar 
\j r\ct ioi tdf 


32.00 


C Moonhopper 


31.00 


C Moonlander 


23.00 


C Morocco Grand Prix 


29.00 


C Protectors 


32.00 


C Nerble Force 


31.00 


C Solo Pool 


25.00 


C Railrunner 


29.00 


C Space Shuttle 


39.00 


C Shark Treasure 


29.00 


C The Frog 


37.00 


C Space Ambush 


29.00 


C Trapfall 


37.00 


C Starshtp Chameleon 


29.00 


C War King 


27.00 


Data soft 




1 1 Til ITIFQ 
U 1 IL.I 1 ICO 




C Moon Shuttle 
D Zaxxon 


45.00 


Computerware 


Can $ 


C Zaxxon 


45.00 


D 64K Screen Expander 
C 64K Screen Expander 


40.50 
34.00 


Intracolor 




C Color Diagnostics 


23.00 


C Coiorpede 


35.00 


C Color Monitor 


31.00 


D Dynasoft Pascal 


79.50 


Mark Data 




C Dynasoft Pascal 
D The Sourcerer 


69.50 
50.00 


C Astro Blast 


31.00 


C The Sourcerer 


43.50 


C Black Sanctum 
C Bumpers 


25.00 
29.50 


If 1 wi Wlvl 1 UOJf 




C Calixto Island 


25.00 


C The Programmers Toolkit 


36.50 


C Cave Hunter 
C Cosmic Clones 


31.00 
29.50 


KJalenri Q/>ft Que 




C Ei Bandito 


29.50 


D Super 'Color' Disk-Zap 


62.50 


C Glaxxons 

C Haywire (Berserk) 


29.50 
31.00 


Spectral 




C Space Raiders 


31.00 


C Bugout (Monitor) 
C Dissassembler 


27.00 
21.00 


Moreton Bay 




C Graphics and Text 


30.00 


C Adventure in Tower Castle 


23.50 


C Magic Box 

C Master Control II 


33.00 
33.00 


C Cube Solver 


24.50 


D Oracle (Graphics Monitor) 


42.00 


Petrocci Ass. 




D Ultra 60CC Easm 


63.00 


C Inspector Clueseau 


26.00 


Tom Mix 




C Stagecoach 


26.00 


C Disk to Tape 


30.00 




C Screen Print Routine 


26.00 


Prickly Pear 




C Tape Dupe (Tape to Tape) 


26.00 




C Tape to Disk 


30.00 


C Adventure in Wonderland 


24.50 


C The Fixer 


26.00 


/-» r-_-t f ' - oil/ n 


en 










C Fantasy Gamer's Package 


27.50 


Modem Software 


C Fantasy Master's Secretary 
C Flight (Simulation) 


27.50 
27.50 


Computerware 


Can $ 


C Gangbusters 


27.50 


D The Color Connection 


53.00 


C Jungle 


27.50 


C The Color Connection 


40.00 


C Monsters and Magic 


27.50 


Nelson Soft. Sys. 




C Shaft 


25.00 




C Viking 


27.50 


D Super 'Color' Terminal 
C Super 'Color' Terminal 


87.50 
62.50 


PREPAID ORDERS 


C.O.D. ORDERS 


Send Money Order or 




SEND NO MONEY!! 




Personal Cheque covering 


When goods arrive 




only the Total 




you will pay total due 


+ 


There are NO SHIPPING & 


$1.59 C.O.D. charges to 


HANDLING CHARGES 


your local post office 




to be added 




(Not for U.S. Residents) 



BUSINESS 

Computerware Can$ 

D Flexi-Filer 87,50 

DSL Products 

C The General Ledger 49.95 

Moreton Bay 

C File Cabinet 37.50 

C Report 32.50 

D The Coco Writer 43.50 

C The Coco-Writer 43.50 

Nelson Soft. Sys. 

D Super 'Color' Calc 125.00 

D Super 'Color' Database 99.50 

D Super 'Color' Mailer 75,00 

C Super 'Color' Mailer 49.50 

D Super 'Color' Speller 87.50 

D Super 'Color' Writer II 125,00 

C Super 'Color' Writer II 87,50 

The Computer House 

D Filmaster 31,50 

C Filmaster 37.50 



Audio & Graphics 

Computerware 

C 3D Drawing Board 
C Foxygraph 
C Semi Draw 
C Synther 7 

Spectral 

C Compu-Volce 57.00 
C Soundsource W/ Cable 33.00 



Can $ 
31.00 
38.00 
29.00 
29.00 



General Interest 



Can $ 
44.00 



24.50 



49.50 
44.50 
27.50 



Computerware 

C Bio Detector 

Moreton Bay 

C Planetarium 

Prickly Pear 

C Ancient Wisdom Trilogy 
C Astrology 
C Household Helper 

HARDWARE 

H Kraft Joystick (1) 80.00 
H Coco Prof. Keyboard 99.50 
H 'F* Board Adapt, for Keyboard 6.50 
H Kit 8X64K 100% Good Rams 95.00 
(64K Upgrade Instructions incl.) 

B OOKS 

Arc soft 

B 101 Color Computer Programs 13.50 
B 55 Color Computer Programs 16.70 
B 55 More Col. Comp. Programs 16.70 
B Color Computer Graphics 16.70 
B Color Computer Songbook 13.50 

McGraw Hill 

B 6809 Assembly Lang. Prog. 

Motorola 

B 6809 Reference Card 



24.00 



2.50 



Spectral 

B The Facts 



Quebec Residents Only 

Add 9% Sales Tax 
to Hardware & Software 
No tax on Books 



LATEST 
ARRIVALS 

Pooyan $42 

Moon Shuttle $40 

Lunar Rover 
Patrol $29 

Cubix $32 
Rainbow Writer $37 



THE OLDEST MAILORDER COMPANY 
IN CANADA 

After only 2 years in business we have thousands of satisfied 
customers Canada-wide. 

As those of you who have been with us from the beginning 
know, we started with a limited, but quality selection of 2 
companies. Since then we have gone on to add 
manufacturers at the rate of about 1 a month. We now offer 
one of the widest ranges of software in North America!! 
Our large selection of titles has been built up on the basis of 
YOUR INQUIRIES. We encourage you to write or call us with 
comments and suggestions so that we may continue to 
improve our selection and service. 



Payment Policy 

Unlike most mailorder companies 

• We accept CCD. orders and we do not insist on a cash 
deposit. 

• We accept your personal cheques without making you 
wait the customary 2/3 weeks for clearance. 

• Our prices already include shipping, handling and insu- 
rance charges 

• At! softwere and hardware is shipped First Class and 
Insured (books are shipped Book Rate) 



Service 

OUR OFFICES ARE STAFFED 9 TO 5 MONDAY TO FRIDAY 
YEAR-ROUND. WE ARE ALWAYS PLEASED TO ACCEPT 
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$1.00. it will be refunded 
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FREE SHIPPING & HANDLING — FREE INSURANCE — NO HIDDEN CHARGES 




Printer Mystery 

By Michael J. Himowitz and Julius Nelson 

This is the third installment in a continuing series of short 'Printer Mysteries 9 

which began in November. 



Here's a little January printer mystery for those of you 
who have the Printer Artist program from the 
November issue of the Rainbow. To use it, RUN the 
program and enter the characters below, line by line. For 
example, 6X means strike the 4, X" key six times; 24sp means 
strike the space bar 24 times. Consult the instructions in the 
November issue. We won't tell you what this one is, because 
that would spoil the fun. The only clue is that you're more 
likely to see this fellow in Minnesota than in Florida. 

For those interested in sophisticated printer art develop- 
ment, a complete "Printer Artist" system is available from 
Federal Hill Software, 825 William St., Baltimore, Md., 
21230. 

LINE 

1 31sp 6X 

2 31sp 5X 




(gualttg 
(Eljrtsttatt 



Jude: A full text, commentary 
& Ref. study on the Epistle of 
St. Jude. Req. 32K E.C.B. 
Cassette $13.99 Disk $16.99 

Christmas Quiz : How much do your children 
really know about the 1st Christmas? 
Educational & Fun $9.99 Cassette Only 

3 -Game Pack 01 : Books of the Bible gumo, 
Bible Character Word Scramble game & 
"Who Said That" Bible quote game. 
Req. 16K E.C.B. Cassette $10.99 

3-Garne Pack tt2 : Reversed Sword Drill 
game, "Who Did That" game & Bible Places 
Word Scramble game. Req. 16K E.C.B. 
Cassette Only $10.99 

Romnn's in Review : Questions & Answers 
covering this very important New 
Testament Book. $8.99 Cassette Only 

We Buy Quality Christian 
Oriented Software. 

Ut-1 

For Line Printer VII & DMP 100 
A Compressed print utility that list: 
programs generating 125 characters bv 
90 lines. Req. 16K E.C.B. 
Cassette $14.99 Disk $17.99 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



We pay freight 
C.O.D. ADD $2.00 



24 Hour Phone Service 

Send sell-addrcsscd 
stamped envelope for 
full list of proyrams. 



Q C S 
P. O. Box 1899 
Duncan, OK 73533 
(405) 255-5696 



3 30sp 5X 20sp IX 2sp IX 2sp IX 

4 30sp 5X 19sp IX 2sp IX 2sp IX 2X lx 

5 17sp 2X lisp 4X 18sp 2X 2sp IX 2sp IX 2sp IX 

6 16sp 3X lisp 3X 17sp 7X lsp IX 2sp IX 

7 15sp 5X lOsp 3X 14sp 11X lsp 2X 

8 13sp 7X 4sp 2X 4sp 2X 12sp 15X 

9 lisp 10X 3sp 3X 3sp 3X 7sp 15X 

10 9sp 13X lsp 27X 

11 8sp 24X Ssp 8X 

12 7sp 24X 

13 8sp 23X 

14 8sp 21X 

15 9sp 18X 

16 13sp 20X 

17 14sp 3X 2sp 17X 

18 19sp 19X 

19 19sp 19X 

20 19sp 19X 

21 17sp 22X 

22 16sp 25X 

23 15sp 9X lsp 17X 

24 14sp 8X 4sp 16X 

25 13sp 5X 9sp 16X 

26 12sp 5X 6sp 21X 

27 lisp 5X 4sp 27X 

28 lOsp 5X 4sp 31X 

29 lOsp 4X 4sp 15X 3sp 16X 

30 lOsp 3X 5sp 11X 8sp 17X 

31 18sp 8X 18sp 14X 

32 18sp 8X 18sp 14X 

33 17sp 8X 22sp 11X 

34 16sp 9X 24sp 11X 

35 16sp 9X 28sp 9X 3sp 2X 

36 17sp 7X 29sp 13X 

37 17sp 6X 31sp 5X 3sp 2X 

38 16sp 7X 30sp 9X 

39 14sp 8X 32sp 2X 2sp 2X 

40 12sp 11X 31sp IX lsp 2X 

41 8sp IX lsp 2X 4sp IX 5sp IX 31sp 2X 

42 9sp 5X 2sp IX 6sp 3X 26sp 3X 

43 9sp 18X 

44 12X 2sp 15X 2sp 15X 2sp 14X 2sp 11X 



(Mike Himowitz is a Washington correspondent for 
the Baltimore Evening Sun and proprietor of Federal 
Hill Software. Julius Nelson is an educator, author of 
many typing textbooks and creator of the craft known 
as "Ar typing. ") 



144 



the RAINBOW January 1984 




COLORPCD1 



This truly outstanding engineer designed, 100% 
machine language game with multi-colored high 
resolution characters and fast action will chal- 
lenge the most avid arcade buff. Can be played 
by 1 or 2 players controlled with joy sticks or key 
board. Joy stick control is fast, smooth and ac- 
curate. As COLORPEDE slithers through the toad 
stools, you attempt to destroy the COLORPEDE, 
knock out the menacing Bouncing Bug and elim- 
inate toad stools while accumulating higher and 
higher scores. Demonstration mode with top 5 
scores. Pause feature, For 16K Color Computer 
and TDP-100. 

Cassette-$29.95 Disk-$34.95 



HOBurrficK 



Ultra fast arcade action with colorful high resolu- 
tion graphics, You are the super human who must 
fight off the attacking robots and save the remain- 
ing humans from destruction. You have super 
powers, can shoot in any direction and move 
anywhere on the screen to accomplish your vital 
mission. 

Engineer designed 100% machine language. 
Can be played by 1 or 2 players with joy stick con- 
trol. Top 5 scores displayed. Pause feature For 
16K Color Computer and TDP-100 with joy sticks, 

Cassette-$24.95 Disk-$27.95 



\ 
— < 



TO ORDER: 

VISA, MASTERCARD, Money Order. 
Please allow 2 weeks for checks. Add 
rainbow $1.50 for shipping, $3.00 outside U.S. 4% 
tax in Mich. 



intracolor 



P.O. Box 1035, East Lansing, Ml 48823 
(517) 351-8537 



COMMUNICATIONS 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



QUALITY PROGRAMS SOLICITED 





YOUR PROGRAMS 

Confidence 



By Jorge Mir 



How many times have you saved a program on 
cassette and encountered an "I/O ERROR" when 
you tried to load it back in? If you don't make more 
than one copy, well, you know very well what it means. 

You can now save programs to cassette with a lot more 
confidence. This is what Protect was mainly designed to do! 

Protect is a short BASIC subroutine to be added to pro- 
grams you are developing (or to any program for that mat- 
ter) in order to protect them from being "erased.*' 1 1 placed 
the word erased in quotes because your computer does not 
really erase any BASIC program, it just changes the pointers 
telling the computer where the program starts and ends and 
where the first step is. 

Append the Protect subroutine at the end of your pro- 
gram. Have the first step in your program indicate a 
"GOSUB 9000" statement to the subroutine and from then 
on you will have the program protected. 

IMPORTANT: Any time you add, delete or edit steps to 
your program, RUN it again to make sure the Protect 

(Jorge Mir is a certified public accountant and is cur- 
rently controller of a "Fortune 500" company. He 
publishes most of his original work on the Co Co 
through the Rainbow.) 

146 the RAINBOW January 1984 



subroutine keeps track of the new BASIC pointers. 

The Protect subroutine actually creates a short machine 
language program which, when executed, will reset the 
BASIC pointers so you can get back into the program. For 
example, you can actually type NEW [ENTER] which wipes 
out your program without losing it at all! All you have to do 
is type EXEQENTER] and presto you are back into your 
program. 

There is a CSA VE subroutine within Protect which will 
allow you to save programs to cassette and immediately 
reload them to make sure they were correctly copied. When 
you are ready to make a cassette copy of your program, just 
type GOTO 10000. The program will then ask for the file- 
name under which your program will be saved. It will save it 
to cassette and will then ask you to reload it immediately to 
check it out. 

If you encounter an I/O Error when loading the copy, 
don't worry. All you have to do is type EXEC [ENTER] and 
you are back into the original program which you can try to 
save again. It is just that simple! 

If for some reason the BASIC pointers are accidentally 
changed by either typing NEW or POKEing erroneously 
into the pointer locations in RAM, just follow the same 
procedure to recover the program. 



In some cases, you may not be able to follow this proce- 
dure to make sure your program has been copied correctly. 
For example, if your program is quite long, you might run 
out of memory when you are reloading the copy. What 
actually happens is that both programs (the original one 
plus the reloaded copy) must reside in memory. If both of 
them cannot fit in memory, you will get an O/ M Error. If 
that is the case, there is only one thing to do: Make several 
copies to make sure you get a good one! 

Protect will give you that added peace of mind against 
those monstrous words: "I/O Error." 




X GOSUB9000 

2 * *♦***»♦*»♦*#«♦*****»******* 

3 " 

4 ' TYPE YOUR PROGRAMS BETWEEN 

5 ' STEPS 10 AND 8999. 

h ' TO CSAVE, JUST TYPE: 

7 » BOTO 10000 < ENTER > 

8 ' 

9 * #*♦»♦*»#»#*♦*#»***#**»**•*» 

8999 END 

9000 '** PROTECT SUBROUTINE •* 
9010 '** BY: JORGE MIR *• 
9020 B-PEEK <25> *296+PEEK (26) 
9030 P-&H200 

9040 P0KE*H9D f 2:P0KE*cH9E,0:Y-0 

9050 Y-0:F0R X ■ 1 T038STEP2 

9060 POKEP+Y f VAL< ,, «* ,, +MID»< M BEOO 

009F 1 98E00009F 1 B8EOOOOBF00007EAE 

73" , X , 2) > : Y«Y+1 : NEXTX 

9070 POKEP+ 1 , PEEK ( 25 ) : POKEP+2 , PE 

EK<26> :P0KEP+A,PEEK<27) :POKEP+7, 

PEEK (28) 

9080 POKEP+1 1 , PEEK (B> : POKEP+12, P 
EEK(B-t-l) 

9090 P0KEP+14,PEEK(25> :POKEP*15, 
PEEK (26) 
9100 RETURN 

lOOOO '** CSAVE SUBROUTINE *• 
10010 GOSUB 9000 

10020 CL8: INPUT "PROGRAM NAME" 1 1* 
10030 CSAVE I* 

10040 CLS:PRINT:PRINT"O.K. , PROG 
RAM IS NOW SAVED." 

10O5O PRINT: PRINT"RENIND TAPE AN 
D * CLOAD* IT AT THIS TIME." 
10060 PRINT: PRINT" IF YOU GET AN 
'I/O ERROR', THEN TYPE 'EXEC, P 
RESS < ENTER > AND SAVE THE PROGR 
AM AGAIN. ": PRINT: PRINT 
1 0070 P0KE25 , PEEK ( 27 ) : P0XE26 , PEE 
K(20) :NEW 

10080 POKEP-H4 f PEEK<25):POKEP-HS 
p PEEK (26) 
10090 RETURN 




"AN ABSOLUTE JEWEL", "THE PERFECT DBM" 
"I USE C.C. WRITER FOR MY CORRESPONDENCE" 
"IMPRESSIVE", "JUST RIGHT", "PROFESSIONAL" 

Trans Tek Software 

has earned these words of praise from review- 
ers in The Rainbow, 80 Micro, Creative Com- 
puting, and other publications. Like our 
customers, you'll see why when you buy: 

C.C. Calc The Electronic Spreadsheet $34.95 

C.C. File The Micro Data Base Manager $12.95 

C.C. Writer Versatile Word Processing $29.95 

C.C. Mailer Mailing List/Letter Merge $29.95 



JUKI MODEL 6100 
LETTER QUALITY DAISYWHEEL PRINTER!! 

18 c.p.s. • 2K (expandable to 8K) Buffer • 
Optional Tractor Feed • Uses IBM Ribbons • Rugged 
Construction • Complete Kit, Ready to Plug In To 
Color Computer, Including Serial to Parallel Converter!! 

$689.00* 




Drop-in 100 
Character Printwheel 



Ordering Info on Next Page 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 147 




MYSTIC MANSION — New!! You'll be hearing lots about this incredible ALL GRAPHIC adventure. Explore the mansion andescapefrom 
the island, if you can! This one is tough to solve, but you'll have fun trying. For 32K Disk only. Disk $29.95 

SUPER STATS — New!! The most powerful statistics program available for the CoCo/TDP. Multiple linear regression, forecasting, mean, 
standard deviation, correlation coefficients, covariance, F and t tests. Powerful data editing and manipulation abilities such as trans- 
formation of variables including log, exponentiation, raise to a power and multiply by or add a constant. Data plotting, Student t tail 
areas, Gaussian cumulative probability distributions, and more. Flexible I/O (screen or printer, tape or disk). Very good documentation. 
16K Extended BASIC. Cassette $29.95 

SIMPLEX — New!! Linear programming by the "simplex" method now available for the Color Computer. This powerful decision making 
tool finds the optimum "mix" for a given set of constraints, Ideal for business students, teachers, and professionals. Dynamic model dimen- 
sioning, with maximum size approximately 45 constraints and 45 variables. Disk compatible. 16 page manual included. 16K Extended 
BASIC. Cassette $29.95 

PAGE PLUS — Attention BASIC programmers! Here is the software you've been waiting for! Up to 56K available from your BASIC 
programs. This utility, written by Chris Hawks, does the memory management necessary to utilize the two 32K banks of memory. Easy 
enough for any "intermediate" level BASIC programmer to use. Includes documentation and demo programs to show you how to use 
PAGE PLUS to get the most out of your computer. Works with 64K tape or disk systems. Cassette $27.95 Disk $29.95 

MDISK — Hal Snyder's latest breakthrough for the64K Color Computer! MDISK lets you use the upper 32K of memory for rapid storage 
and retrieval of programs and data. Whether you own an actual diskdriveor not, MDISK puts the "hidden" 32K to work foryou asa'Virtual 
disk," with capability to save and load up to 15 programs, view a directory of files stored in "page 1," kill unwanted page 1 files, execute 
BASIC or machine language directly from MDISK, chain to a BASiC program while preserving data already created, and more. These 
functions are available not only under manual keyboard control, but from programs in progress as well, permitting high-speed swapping 
of programs or data. Unlike many 64K utilities, MDISK doesn't copy BASIC to RAM. This greatly increases the amount of workspace 
available to you (by 22K in a disk system). MDISK is written in position independent code, and will work on disk or tape based 64K systems. 
Full documentation included. Cassette $27.95 Disk $29.95 

ROMBACK — Why pay more? The easiest to use ROM-pak dumping utility available! At the best price, too! Comes with full documentation, 
including detailed patching instructions to allow several popular "problem" cartridges to run from tape or disk. Stop plugging and 
unplugging your disk controller! Don't blow any more SAM chips or 6809Es! Use ROMBACK, and run those programs from tape or disk 
instead. Works with any 64K Extended BASIC system. Cassette $16.95 

QUICKSORT — A machine language sort routine specifically designed to be used by BASIC programmers. Speeds up those programs 
where a BASIC sort is just too slow. Great for mailing lists and databases. Can be incorporated into many existing programs as well. 
Written in position independent code, works on tape or disk systems. 16K required. Cassette $12.95 

64K BOOT/PAGER — The 64K Boot allows you to modify BASIC by moving it from ROM to RAM. The PAGER is a menu-driven utility 
allowing you to manually page between the 32K banks of memory, copying BASIC or data from one page to the other. The complete 
assembler source code for both programs is included. Both are written in position independent code and run on 64K tape or disk systems. 
Cassette $19.95 

STRUCTURED MACROS — An assembly language programming tool for users of the Macro-80C assembler, by the Micro Works. 
Structured macros come close to transforming your assembler into a high-level language. Your programs become more understandable 
and debugging is simplified. Commands include IF, ELS, ENDIF, IFTST, IFCC, WHILE, ENDWH, REPEAT, and UNTIL. Disk $19.95 

WIZARD 64 — If you've got 64K, then this one's for you! Uses both32K pages of memory for graphics and action— combines the features 
of Wizard's Tomb and Wizard's Tomb Part II into one great game. Chal len ging enough for adu Its, yet entertain i ng for you nger players too. 
64K Extended BASIC required. Cassette $21.95 Disk $23.95 16K version $12.95 32K version $15.95 



All Software Available on 3" AMDISK Cartridges— $4 additional 




ORDERING INFORMATION 
*$10 shipping, handling, & insurance on printers, 
Amdisk, and monitors. $5 on modems. $2 on all other orders. 
All prices U.S. funds. 



Dealer Inquiries Invited 



Skyline Marketing Corp. 
4510 W. Irving Park Rd. 
Chicago, IL 60641 
(312) 286-0762 



QUALITY SOFTWARE AND PERIPHERALS FOR YOUR COMPUTER 



AN ASTRONOMICAL ARRAY 
OF FEATURES 
FOR A DOWN-TO-EARTH PRICE 



MORE QUALITY: 120 cps • thruput time of 58 Ipm • high resolution 
(120x144) bit image & block (6x6) graphics • extra fast forms feed 
MORE FLEXIBILITY: super/sub script • underlining • backspacing 

• double strike mode • emphasized print mode • 816 character 
buffer • compatible with most software supporting leading printers 

• 10" carriage • 15" carriage Gemini-15 available 

MORE RELIABILITY: 180 day warranty (90 days for head & ribbon) 
• mtbf rate of more than 5 million lines • print head life of more than 
100 million characters 



THE GEMINI-10 X 



SAVE $100. 00 !!! 

Our incredible Gemini-10 package— a PRINTING SYSTEM ready to plug in to 
your Color Computer. NOTHING MORE TO BUY. Includes serial to parallel converter, 
graphic screen print software, deluxe user manual, and 5 minute setup instructions! A $479.00 value. Complete package 




NEW 
LOW PRICES! 



Wide carriage Gemini— 15 also available: 
Package ONLY $579* 
Printer only $499* 



ONLY $379* 

Order yours today! 
Parallel printer only, $299 




GET THE MOST FROM YOUR SYSTEM WITH AN NEC MONITOR PACKAGE! 

Without a monitor, you'll never know just how good your graphics are. Word processing 

becomes less fatiguing, programming more enjoyable. NEC is famous for excellent 

color reproduction and tack-sharp resolution. We take the work out of adding the monitor 

to your system by including a custom plug-in monitor driver (with color, monochrome, 

and audio outputs), any required cables, and easy setup instructions. Buy with 

confidence— we've done the "homework" for you! 

NEC 12" Color monitor (JC1212M) package ONLY $389* 

NEC 12" Green-screen (JB1260M) package ONLY $169* 

NEC 12" Amber screen (JB1205MA) package ONLY $219* 

True lower-case and inverse video— just plug in the LCA-47. Special price with 

monitor purchase $66. 




GET SMART!! GREAT DEAL ON HAYES SMARTMODEMS 

Hayes 300 baud Smartmodem— the amazing programmable auto-dial, auto-answer modem, now in a 
special package deal for your Color Computer. Buy the Hayes for list price, and at NO EXTRA 
CHARGE receive the Colorcom/E smart terminal program (cartridge or disk), an RS232 cable, and 
setup instructions! Act now! 

Hayes 300 baud Smartmodem package ONLY $289* 
Hayes modem with CC cable only, $249* 

Signalman Mark l modem, 300 baud direct connect, list $98, our price $86* 




The revolutionary 3" disk system! Two compatible 156K drives in a 
compact enclosure. Uses the rigid, protected 2-sided cartridge that 
ha made others obsolete. Our package includes the Amdisk 111, 
cable, disk controller, Disk BASIC manual, 12 cartridges, setup 
instructions, and a ML tape to disk program to help transfer your 
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Program by 
Eugene Vasconi 



How many times while watching a science fiction 
movie have you heard a voice from out of nowhere 
say "Greetings from outer space!" Well, this pro- 
gram entited Holiday gives us a painting of our planet earth 
with an animated satellite in the foreground. As the program 
runs, the satellite spins and moving beams transmit a famil- 
iar holiday song to the surface of the planet. Scattered stars 
twinkle as the audio plays at random intervals. 

Prior to CLOADing this program, it is necessary to 
PCLEAR8, and the length of the program dictates that 
nothing is added or an OM Error will occur. 

With the space age (and the computer age) upon us, you 
will enjoy both watching and listening to this little "Holi- 
day" animation. 

— Noreen Morrison 



The listing: 




0255 



10 CLEAR75:Q0T0680 520 04F0 

20 PM0DE3, 1 : SCREEN 1 ,1 END . . . 0790 

30 PCLS<3) : COLORS, 3 1 

40 CIRCLE (O, 196) , 175, 5, . 75, . 75, . 
5 

50 PAINT < 25, 150) ,2,5 

60 CIRCLE <200, 35) ,20,5, .25 

70 CIRCLE<200,70),20,5, .25, .0, .4 

5 

80 LINE (220, 35) -(220, 70), PSET: LI 

NE ( 180, 35) - ( 180, 70) , PSET : LINE ( 20 

3, 35) -(198, 20) , PSET, B 

90 PAINT (190, 35) ,5, 5: PAINT (190, 5 

0),4,5 

100 LINE- (180, 15) , PSET: LINE (198, 
20) - ( 180, 25) , PSET: LINE (198, 20) -( 
216, 25) , PSET: LINE ( 198, 20) - (216, 1 
5) , PSET: LINE (203, 73) - ( 198, 90) , PS 
ET,B 

110 PAINT (200, 85), 5, 5 

(Eugene Vasconi, a free-lance television producer, 
holds a M.A. in telecommunications. A self-taught 
CoCoer for two years, he sees the computer as the art 
form of the future in both graphics and music. His 
activities in Dallas involve television production and 
aviation.) 



120 F0RX=0T040STEP10 

130 LINE ( 180+X, 90) - ( 180, 97) , PSET 

,b:nextx 

140 PAINT (185, 94), 1,5: PAINT (195, 

94) , 2, 5: PAINT (205, 94) , 3, 5: PAINT ( 

215, 94), 4, 5 

150 F0RX-1T020 

1 60 R-RND ( 1 80) : S-RND ( 60 ) 

170 T-RND(70)+180:U-RND(90)+100 

180 PSET(R,S,5) :PSET(T,U,5) 

190 NEXTX 

200 CIRCLE (O, 176) ,68,5, 1.3, .75, . 
9 

210 CIRCLE (O, 104) , 60, 5, . 9, . 95, . 0 
8 

220 CIRCLE (O, 150) , 100, 5,. 8, .85, . 
05 

230 CIRCLE (110, 180), 22, 5,1,. 65, . 
9 

240 CIRCLE (115, 148) , 20, 5, 1 , .98, . 
17 

250 LINE (135, 146) -(143, 155) * PSET 

: LINE- (150, 142) , PSET 

260 CIRCLE(96, 168) ,62,5, .7, .92,. 

05 

270 LINE (155, 180) -(168, 168), PSET 

280 PAINT (10, 90) ,5,5 

290 CIRCLE (15, 195) ,20,5, 1.7, .6,0 

300 PAINT (15, 190), 5, 5 

320 F0RX-60T0192:PSET(0,X,2) :NEX 

TX:F0RX-0T0175:PSET(X, 191,2) :NEX 

T 

330 PM0DE3,5 
340 F0RX-lT04:Y-X+4 
350 PCOPY X TO Y 
360 NEXTX 

370 PMQDE3, l: COLORS, 3 

380 F0RX-10T0180STEP3 

390 Y-INT(100-(X/6) ) :Z-INT(140-( 

X/2.7)) 

400 PSET(X,Y,4):PSET(X,Z,4> 
410 NEXTX 

420 F0RX=80T0180STEP3 



150 the RAINBOW January 1984 



430 A=INT(260-(X/.97) ) 
440 PSET<X,A,4> 
450 NEXTX 

460 F0RX-0T030STEP10 

470 LINE<190+X,38>-<180+X,73) ,PS 

ET 

480 NEXTX 
490 F0RX-1T05 

500 R=RND ( 1 80 ) : S»RND < 60 ) : PSET ( R , 
8,4) 

510 T-RND<75)+180:U-RND<90)+100: 

PSET(T,U,4) 

520 NEXTX 

530 PM0DE3,5:C0L0R5,3 
540 F0RX-OTO2OSTEP1O 
550 SCREEN 1,1 

560 LINE<195+X,38)-<185+X,73) ,PS 
ET 

570 NEXTX 

580 LINE (215, 73) -(220, 56) , PSET 

590 F0RX-8T0178STEP3 

600 Y»INT(100-(X/6) ) :Z«INT(140-( 

X/2.7)) 

610 PSET(X,Y,4>:PSET(X,Z,4) 
620 NEXTX 

630 F0RX«78T0 1 7BSTEP3 

640 A-INT(260-(X/.97> ) :PSET(X,A, 

4): NEXTX 



650 F0RX»1T05 

660 R=RND ( 1 80 ) : S-RND ( 60) : PSET (R, 
9,4) 

670 T«RND(75)+180:U«RND(90)+100: 
PSET (T,U, 4) : NEXTX 
675 S0T0700 
680 DIMA*(63) 

690 F0RQ=1T063: READA* (Q) : NEXTQ 
695 G0T020 
700 Q-0 

710 FORX" 1 T08STEP4 

720 PM0DE3 , X : SCREEN 1,1 

730 IFQ-63THEN733ELSE747 

733 F0RAA ! =1T020: NEXTAA 

745 A-RND(IOO) : IFA-12THEN Q-OELS 

E760 

747 Q-Q+l 

750 PLAY"L40; 05| XA* (Q) ; " 
755 F0RP-1T010ZNEXTP 
760 NEXTX 
770 Q0T0710 

780 DATA E,E,E,8,E,E,E,8,E,e,C,D 
,E,E,E,E,F,F,F,F,F,E,E,E,E,D,D,E 
,D,8,F,D,E,E,E,8,E,E,E,8,E,G,C,D 
,E,E,E,E 

790 DATA F,F,F,F,F,E,E,E,8,8,F,D 

, c, c, c 



TrTeOriginal FLEX ™ for Color Computers 



* Upgrade to 64K 

* RS to FLEX, FLEX to RS file transfer ability 

* Create your own character set 

* Automatic recognition of single or double density and single or 
doubled sided 

* All features available for either single or multiple drive systems 

* Settable Disk Drive Seek Rates 

* Faster High Resolution Video Display with 5 different formats 

* Save RS Basic from RAM to Disk 

* Move RS Basic to RAM 

* Load and save function on FLEX disk 

* 24 Support Commands 1 2 with Source Text 

* External Terminal Program 

Languages Available 
Pascal, Fortran, RS Basic, RS Assembler, TSC Basic, TSC Assemb- 
ler, Relocating Assembler, Macro Assembler, Mumps 

If you are tired of playing games on your TRS-80C Color Computer, or find that you arc 
handicapped by the limitations of the RS BASIC in trying to write a Program that will allow you to 
actually USE the Color Computer as a COMPUTER. YOU ARE READY TO MOVE UP TO THE 
FLEX9 v Operating System. If you want to have REAL PROGRAMMING POWER, using an 
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COULD USE A COMPUTER IN YOUR BUSINESS, or begin to make your Computer start 
PAYING IT S OWN WAY by doing some Computer Work for the millions of small businesses 
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READY TO MOVE UP TO THE FLEX9 Operating System How'''' DATA-COMP has the way' 



DATA-COMP has everything you need to make your TRS-80C Color Computer WORK 
for YOU; from Parte and Pieces to Full, Ready To Use SYSTEMS. DATA-COMP designs, 
sells, services, and SUPPORTS Computer SYSTEMS, not just Software. CALL DATA- 
COMP TODAY to make your Computer WORK FOR YOU! 

System Requirements 

FLEX9 Special General Version x Editor & Assembler (which normally sell for S50.00 

ea.) St 50.00 

F-MATE(RS) FLEX9 Conversion Rout, for the RS Disk Controller 

when purchased with Special General FLEX9 Sys. $49.95 
when purchased without the General FLEX9 Sys. $59.95 
Set of Eight 64K RAM Chips w Mod. Instructions $59.95 



Color Computer with 64K RAM and EXT. BASIC 



SPECIAL SYSTEM PACKAGES 



$399 95 



DATA-COMP s FLEX9 Conversion for the TRS-BOC Color Computer was designed for the 
SERIOUS COMPUTER USER: with features like greatly increased Display Screens WITH 
Lower Case Letters, so you can put a FULL Menu on ONE Screen, or see SEVERAL Para- 
graphs at the same time: with features line providing a FULL Keyboard so you have FULL 
Control of your Computer AND it s Programs NATURALLY, without needing a chart to see what 
Key Combination will give you what function: with USER ORIENTED functions to make using 
the Operating System natural, like having the Computer AUTOMATICALLY determine what 
type of Disk is being used in what type of Disk Drive and working accordingly, rather that you 
have to specify each and everything font, or like having the Computer work with the Printer you 
have been using all along without you having to tell the new Operating System what is there, etc. . 

W FLEX is a trademark of Technical Systems Consultants 

P.O. Box 794 HIXSON, TN 37343 



64K Radio Shack COLOR COMPUTER. Radio Shack COLOR DISK CONTROLLER, a Disk 
Drive System. Special General Version of FLEX9 . F-MATE(RS) " and a Box of 10 
Double Density Diskettes; a COMPLETE, ready to run SYSTEM on your Color TV Set. 

$1079.95 

DISK DRIVE PACKAGES, etc. 

These PacKages include the Radio Shack Disk Controller. Disk Drives with Power Supply and 
Cabinet, and Disk Drive Cable: 
PAK #1 — 1 Single Sided. Double Density Sys. 
PAK #2-2 Single Sided. Double Density Sys. 
PAK #3 -1 Double Sided. Double Density Sys, 
PAK ttA - 2 Double Sided. Double Density Sys. 
PAK #5 — 2 Oume Thmline Double Sided Double Density Sys. 

PARTS AND PIECES 

Radio Shack Disk Controller 
1 Single Sided, Double Density Disk Drive Tandon 
1 Double Sided. Double Density Disk Drive Qume 
1 Oume Thmline Double Sided. Double Density 



Screen Clean — Clears Up Video Distortion On Your Color Computer 
Single Drive Cabinet with Power Supply 
Double Drive Cabinet with Power Supply 
Single Drive Disk Cable for RS Controller 
Double Drive Disk Cable for RS Controller 
Micro Tech. Prods.. Inc. LOWER CASE ROM Adapter 
Radio Shack BASIC Version 1.1 ROM 
Radio Shack Extended Basic ROM 



$489.95 
$749.95 
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$919.95 
$749.95 

$179.95 
$249.95 
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$39,95 

$89.95 
S 109.95 
S24.95 
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$89.95 



VtSA 



DATA-COMP 1-615-842-4601 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 151 



Prompted Graphics Program 

By Don Inman 



As you sit down at your Color Computer to enter what 
may turn out to be your favorite program, pause for 
a few moments for a little planning. Reflect upon the 
fact that you might want to save your program and use it 
again at some later date. When the time comes, will you 
remember what the program does and how to use it? Will 
you remember what values are to be entered for any varia- 
bles that you may have used? Maybe you'll want to show 
your program off to someone else. Will they know what 
should be entered from the keyboard? 

A well-documented program should not only have lots of 
meaningful REM statements that show up in a listing, but 
also lots of easy to read prompts and clear menus from 
which to make selections. I realize that most of my own 
programs do not measure up to this advice. However, I will 
promise to improve in this respect if you will also. 

A typical example would be an Extended Color basic 
graphics program. There is a certain amount of detail work 
that must be done before the desired graphics can be dis- 
played . The correct mode must be selected from a list of five: 
PMODE 0, PMODE 1, PMODE 2, PMODE 3, and 
PMODE 4. Each mode differs from the others in one or 
more of the following ways: 

1) the number of pixels (the smallest graphic element), 

2) the size of the pixels, and 

3) the number of colors available. Table 1 shows the 
variations possible. 



Table 1 - GRAPHIC MODES 



PMODE 


Row and Column 


Number of 


Pixel 




Size 


Colors 


Size 


PMODE 4 


256 by 192 


2 


□ 


PMODE 3 


128 by 192 


4 


CD 


PMODE 2 


128 by 92 


2 


CD 


PMODE 1 


128 by 96 


4 


ffl 


PMODE 0 


128 by 96 


2 


ffl 



Figure 1 — SCREEN NUMBERING 



columns 



^ 255 



rows 



191 



approximate 
center of the 
screen 



Figure l shows how graphic screen positions are num- 
bered for all PMODEs. It also shows a pixel at the approxi- 
mate center of the screen. Figure 2 shows the relative size 
and the X,Y positions occupied by one pixel (the shaded 
area) in each graphic mode. 



(Don Inman is the acknowledged master of micro- 
computer graphics and the author of a large number of 
books, including "TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics 
and Assembly Language Graphics for the TRS-80 
Color Computer " with Kurt Inman.) 



Figure 2 — Pixel Size 



PMODE 4 



m 









one X,Y 
position 



PMODE 3 PMODE 2 PMODE 1 



two X,Y 
positions 



two X,Y 
positions 



four X,Y 
positions 



PMODE 0 




four X,Y 
positions 



152 the RAINBOW January 1984 




TRS-80C®and TDP lOO SPECIALISTS 

COLORFORTH® 

IS THERE LIFE AFTER BASIC? Yes! with COLORFORTH, a new, high level language for the color computer. 
COLORFORTH, a figFORTH compiler, has an execution time as much as lO to 20 times faster than Basic, 
and can be programmed faster than Basic. COLORFORTH Is highly modular for easy testing and debug- 
ging. COLORFORTH has been specially customized for the color computer and requires only 16K. It does 
not require Extended Basic. When you purchase COLORFORTH.you receive both cassette and RS/DISK 
versions, the figEDITOR and an extensive instruction manual. Both versions and 75 page manual, all for 
only $49.95 

PCFORTH 

FORTH for the IBM PC®and Zenith Z-lOO® All the features of COLORFORTH, but customized for the IBM 
and Zenith Z-lOO personal computers. Requires 32K and MS/DOS or IBM/PCDOS. On 5-1/4" SSDD 
diskette, Complete with 75 page manual just $ 59,95 

^ V"f " MASTER MIXOLOGIST® 

^4 The Bartenders 1 Guide 

This disk based program for the color computer contains recipes for over 150 of your favorite bar drinks- 
both alcoholic and non-alcoholic. MASTER MIXOLOGIST is menu driven for ease of use. Requires 16K 
and one RS/DOS drive. Get this one today, it will be great for your next party $ 19.95 

ARMADILLO BUG® 
MACHINE LANGUAGE MONITOR 

More and more programs are appearing in magazines written in Machine Language. Now with AR- 
MADILLO BUG, you can easily enter. Machine Language programs without a lot of time consuming 
"pokes". ARMADILLO BUG is an excellent system for beginners to learn to write and debug their own 
Machine Language programs as well. This package includes: Memory examine and change; Move; 
Punch and Load; Fill commands; and more! Runs in 16K, and DOES NOT require Extended Basic, Com- 
plete on cassette with printed manual. Just . $ 14.95 

COLOR BIORHYTHMS 

This is a neat BIORHYTHMS program you can use to chart the future (or past). Includes High Resolution 
graphics without Extended Basic being required. Runs in 16K. On cassette, with instructions . . .$10.95 

OTHER ITEMS OF INTEREST 

"STARTING FORTH", a book by Leo Brodie. The best introductory Forth text available. 384 pages. 
Soft cover , $ 16.00 

figFORTH Installation Manual. Contains FORTH model, glossary, memory map, and 

instructions , $ 15.00 

figFORTH 6809 Source Listing. (NOTE: THIS IS NOT IDENTICAL TO COLORFORTH SOURCE). Requires in- 
stallation manual for implementation , $ 15.00 

BUY BOTH at the same time and SAVE!! Both for $ 25.00 

"Computers Piss Me Off". Wear the official programmers badge. Large 2-1/4" yellow button says it all I 

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Post paid, only , $1.50 

DEALER and AUTHOR INQUIRES INVITED 
Please add $ 2.00 shipping in U.S. Texas residents add 5 % 

Foreign orders must be in U.S. funds drawn on U.S. banks, or Mastercard and VISA 



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P.O. BOX 7661 

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MasterCard 








NOTE: The upper left corner is 128,96 
The lower left corner is 128,95. 
The lower right corner is 129,95. 
The upper right corner is 129,96. 

Since there is such a wide variety of options, it seems 
logical to allow for a choice each time a program is run. 
Otherwise, the program itself would have to be changed 
each time you want to change a value for a new run. We will 
start building a subroutine that can be saved for use with any 
graphic program that you might have. We can have the main 
program jump right to the subroutine, which uses the text 
screen to prompt for the choices. 

We know that the subroutine should let us choose the 
PMODE number. Then we can run the program with' any 
PMODE we choose. The INPUT prompts should name the 
INPUT and give a range of acceptable INPUTvalues. The 
main program and the subroutine might start like this. 

Main Program 

REM * SAMPLE PROGRAM * 



100 

no - 

1 20 GOSUB 10000 
130 PMODE PN 



go choose the options 
PN from line 10040 



Subroutine 

10000 REM * 
100010 REM 
10020 , 
10030 CLS 
I0040 INPUT 



SUBROUTINE FOR 
GRAPHIC OPTIONS * 

clear the text screen 

"PMODE NUMBER 0-4 "PN first input 



After the PMODE (the variable PN) is selected, you will 
probably want to clear the graphics screen. Extended Color 
BASIC allows you to clear the graphics screen to any one of 
four background colors in a four-color mode {PMODE 3 or 
PMODE 1). The screen may be cleared to one of two back- 
ground colors in a two-color mode (PMODE 4, PMODE 2, 
or PMODE 0). The statement for clearing the screen is: 

PCLSn * ! T 

n = color value chosen from Table 2 

There are two color sets that may be used (numbered 0 
and 1). The colors available in each set depend upon which 
PMODE is being used. The color set is selected by the 
SCREEN statement. 



n = 0 for text screen 
n = for graphics screen 



SCREEN n,m 
\ 



m = 0 selects color set 0 
m= 1 selects color set 1 



The color values of Table 2 are also used to select back- 
ground or foreground cqlors for . each of the five PMODEs. 
The desired color is selected from the appropriate color set. 

Table 2 — Graphic Colors 



PMODE 


COLORSET 


COLORS 


1 or 3 


0 


1 = green, 2— yellow 
3 =blue, 4= red 




1 


5 — buff, 6 = cyan, 

7 = magenta, 8 = orange 


0, 2, or 4 


0 


0 -black, I = green 




1 


0 = black, 5 = buff 



The screen and color selections are added to the subrou- 
tine and to the main program to give the following: 

Main Program 

10O REM *SAMPl_E PROGRAM* 
110 ' 

120 GOSUB 1O0O0 

130 PMODE PN — mode 

140 PCLS BK background 

150 SCREEN 1,SC— graphic color set 

160 * 

999 END 



separate end of program 
from subroutine 



Subroutine 



10OOO 
10010 
10020 
10030 
10040 
N 

10050 
10060 
C 

10O7O 
10080 
Q " J BK 
10090 
10200 



REM *SUBROUTINE FOR 
REM GRAPH I C OPT I ONS* 

9 

CLS 

INPUT "PMODE NUMBER 0-4 M ;P 

accept 0 through 4 

IF PN<0 OR PN>4 THEN 10040 < 
INPUT "COLOR SET O OR 1";S 

accept only 0 and 1 
IF SC<0 OR SOI THEN 10O6O * 
INPUT "BACKGROUND COLOR O- 

IF BK<1 OR BK>8 THEN 10080^. 
RETURN accept 0 through 8 



One other possible input choice would be the value of the 
foreground color to be used. This can be selected by the 
COLOR statement. 



COLOR n,m 



foreground value 



"background value 



The acceptable range of values for the foreground color 
are also dependent on the color set being used. Values from 
Table 2 are used. 

Add to the Main Program: 

160 COLOR FG,BR*-same background selected in Line 10080 
^ foreground selected by subroutine Line 10100 

Add to the SUBROUTINE: 

10100 INPUT "FOREGROUND COLOR 0-8";FG 
101 10 IF FG<0 OR FG>8 THEN 10100 

The complete subroutine is now: 

10000 REM *SUBROUTINE FOR 
100 10 REM GRAPHIC OPTIONS* 
10020 ' 
10030 CLS 

10040 INPUT "PMODE NUMBER 0-4";P 
N 

10050 IF PN<0 OR PN>4 THEN 10040 
10060 INPUT "COLOR SET O OR 1 M ;S 
C 

10070 IF SC<0 OR SOI THEN 10060 



154 the RAINBOW January 1984 



WE'VE DONE IT! 

. (DONE WHAT?) 

We brought you an outstanding game for your enjoyment 

(see the reviews on GUARDIAN) 

We brought the price of hard-working software down to everyone's reach 

(see the PRICE of SUPERFORTH!) 



r 



v. 



GUARDIAN 

Here are some excepts from two of the 
reviews: 

From "RAINBOW" 11-83 Issue: 

tt . . .Alas, I have found THE game that puts 
me in seventh heaven. . .or somewhere Jn 
a galaxy far, far away, called GUARDIAN, 
by QUASAR ANIMATIONS. I was very im- 
pressed the first time I played GUARDIAN, 
not only because of its similarity to DE- 
FENDER, one of my favorite arcade games, 
but because it provides more action than 
its counterpart!. . ." 



From "HOT COCO" 11-83 Issue: 

. .Of all the DEFENDER clones, GUARDIAN 
has them all beat. The sound effects ar£ of 
superb quality — sometimes I'd swear 
that I was at an arcade playing DEFENDER. 
. . .I have played two other DEFENDER 
clones that received good reviews, but 
they cannot come close to GUARDIAN'S 
standards. , ." 



$27.95 (tape) 
$29.95 (disk) 



SUPERFORTH 



Now you can get that speed and quality 
in your programming you're missing When 
you use BASIC. And you don't have to 
learn assembly language to do it! 

TheSUPERFORtH programming environ- 
ment is not d unique language but con- 
forms to fig-FORTH standards and provides 
34 additional words and commands that 
are similar to COLOR & EXTENDED COLOR 
BASIC making this Worthy of the name 
SUPERFORTH. 

Imagine 20 to 50 times the speed in 
your programs! We've provided two free 
programs written in SUPERFORTH to sh6w 
examples of the speed and quality as well 
as examples of the structure to get you 
started.. One is a BREAKOUT type of game 
and the other is a SCREEN EDITOR. You 
can use the EDITOR to "list" the BREAKOUT 
game to see its structure. 

You can use any word processor that 
write our ASC files (We use TELEWRITER to 
write our SUPERFORTH programs). Or you 
can use the provided EDITOR to write your 
program. 

$39.95 

(tape or disk) 




Add $2.00 per order for postage and handling. 

QUASAR ANIMATIONS 

1520 Pacific Beach Drive. 
San Diego, California, 92109 



10080 INPUT "BACKGROUND COLOR O- 
8",-BK 

10090 IF BK<1 OR BK>8 THEN 10080 
10100 INPUT "FOREGROUND COLOR O- 
8"|F6 

10110 IF FG<0 OR FG>8 THEN 10100 
10200 RETURN 



You may fill in whatever graphic design that you wish for 
program lines 160 through 999. Here is an example that 
draws 25 magenta blocks on an orange background at ran- 
dom positions on the screen. The inputs will produce these 
graphics values: 

PMODE 3 high resolution, 4 colors 

PCLS 8 -«- orange background 
SCREEN 1,1 color set 1 

COLOR 7 ,&«_magenta foreground on the orange background 



Main Program 

100 REM *SAMPLE PROGRAM* 
110 • 

120 GOSUB 10000 
130 PMODE PN 
140 PCLS BK 

ISO SCREEN 1,SC> ~" VariableS mpu, ' n subrou,lne 
160 COLOR FG,BK 



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BUSINESS FORMS 

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Regular letterhead, business forms and 
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Catalog also includes computer 
furniture. 

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P. O. Box 151 28 
Las Vegas, Nevada 891 1 4 



170 FOR N»l TO 25 

180 X"RND(240>: Y-RND(IBO) 

190 LINE<X,Y)-(X+10,Y+10) ,PSET,B 

F 

200 NEXT N 
210 * 

220 FOR WAIT=1 TO 1000: NEXT WAIT 
999 END 

Add the subroutine (as last shown) and run the program 
several times using different inputs each time. This will allow 
you to decide which values produce the best results. Here is 
how the input display looked before the graphics were 
drawn. 



f 'MODE NUMBER 0-4 ? 3 
I COLOR SET 0 OR 1 ?1 
I BACKGROUND COLOR 0-4 ? 8 
| FOREGROUND COLOR 0-8? 7 



flashing cursor 



The main program may be changed to display any screen 
design that you want. Next month we'll take a look at the use 
of menus. 



The listing: 



1000 ...OOEO 
END 01EB 



100 REM *SAMPLE PROGRAM* 
110 * 

120 GOSUB 10000 

130 PMODE PN 

140 PCLS BK 

150 SCREEN 1,SC 

160 COLOR FG.BK 

170 FOR N«=l TO 25 

180 X=RND<240>: Y=RND(180> 

190 LINE(X,Y)-(X+10,Y+10> ,PSET,B 

F 

200 NEXT N 
210 ' 

220 FOR WAIT=1 TO 1000: NEXT WAIT 
999 END 

10000 REM *SUBROUTINE FOR 
10010 REM GRAPHIC OPTIONS* 
10020 ' 
10030 CLS 
10040 
N 

10050 
10060 
C 

10070 
10080 
8";BK 
10090 
10100 
8"JFG 
10110 



INPUT "PMODE NUMBER 0-4" 5 P 

IF PN<0 OR PN>4 THEN 10040 
INPUT "COLOR SET O OR 1";S 

IF SC<0 OR SOI THEN 10060 
INPUT "BACKGROUND COLOR O- 

IF BK<1 OR BK>8 THEN 10080 
INPUT "FOREGROUND COLOR O- 



IF FG<0 OR FG>8 THEN 10100 



10200 RETURN 



156 the RAINBOW January 1984 




BUY TWO OR 

MORE ITEMS ^ 
TAKE A } 

15% 

DISCOUNT 



r 



SPECTRAL 
ASSOCIATES 



SPACE WAR-Fast action. You must break through enemy 
defenses of death star to win. Watch out for black holes. 16k 
& joystick required 

CASSETTE $21.95 

BATTLE FLEET-Traditional favorite. As Admiral-in- 
Command, you declare war against opponent or computer. 
Challenges your naval tactics. Extended basic required. 
CASSETTE $14,95 

SPACE TRADERS-Can you become the Horatio Alger of 
outer space? Become a millionaire if you make the right 
moves for 2 to 4 players. Extended Basic required. 
CASSETTE $14.95 

ROBOT BATTLE-Guide your human through an ever 
changing maze and never ending attacks of robot hordes. A 
berserk type game. 16k joysticks required. 
CASSETTE $21.95 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD-Super adventure game. Hundreds 
of rooms filled with treasures, magic spells, traps and 
puzzles. Save game in progress. 16k. 

CASSETTE $19.95 

GALAX ATTACK-lf you want a challenge, this is it! Pat- 
terned after Galaxians. An arcade quality game. 16k and 
joysticks required. 

CASSETTE $21.95 

SUB HUNT-As the commander of a destroyer, you must 
destroy as many enemy subs as you can before they destroy 
you. 16k extended basic. 

CASSETTE $14.95 

ALCATRAZ 11-No one escapes from Alcatraz 11, not even 
you! Think you can be the first? 16k extended basic. 
CASSETTE $8.95 

LASER COMMAND-Defend your cities and missle base 
from the deadly alien lasers. Multiple waves of attackers. 
16k extended basic and joystick required. 
CASSTETTE $10.95 

COSMIC SUPER BOWL-Fast action interstellar 
football. Five skill levels to provide a challenge. One or more 
players. 16k 

CASSETTE $14.95 

GHOST GOBBLER-Four relentless ghosts intent on your 
destruction. Chase your gobbler around this super maze. Best 
of the pac-man type games. 16k and joysticks 
required. 

CASSETTE $21.95 

LOTHAR'S LABYRINTH-An excellent version of the 
popular word search puzzle. The computer hides up to 46 
words on the screen in all directions. Use the computers 
words or your own. Extended basic. 

CASSETTE $14.95 

PLANET INVASION-If you enjoy Defender.you will love 
this one. Lots of fast action. 16k and joysticks 
required. 

CASSETTE $21.95 

SPACE RACE— Maneuver yourself around a race track in 
space, but beware of alien ships, the collectors, swarmers 
and bezerkers they are alt out to do you in. 
CASSETTE $21.95 

DEFENSE-lf you like Polaris and Missle Command this 
game is for you. A must for your collection, 16k and joystick 
required. 

CASSETTE. $21.95 

PIRATES AHOY-Find a sunken ship and treasures in this 

witty and numerous text adventure. 32k. 

CASSETTE $9.95 

ESCAPE FROM PRISON CITY-Explore the Prison City 
where your spacecraft has been shot down. You must Find a 
battery for your spacecraft in order to escape. 16k extended 
basic. 

CASSETTE . . \ $8.95 

COLOR ZAP-Super space game! Dodge incoming photon 
torpedos before they penetrate your defenses. 16k and 
joysticks required. 

CASSETTE $9.95 



WRITE FOR OUR 

FREE CATALOG 



nnmznz 



ARCADE GAMES 



IIIIITTII TT 



TOM MIX 
SOFTWARE 

BIRD ATTACK-Shoot the birdmen before they decend 
upon you. Watch out for their droppings. 16k extended 
basic. 

CASSETTE $21.95 

DONKEY KING-Exciting sound and graphics, four screens 
like the arcade game. Never before have you seen a game like 
this for your Color Computer. The best! Requires 32k. 
CASSETTE ....$24.95 DISK ....$27.95 

WAR KINGS-Shield your castle against cannonbali attack 
and deflect them towards your opponets castle. 16k extended 
basic and joysticks required. 

CASSETTE $19.95 

PROTECTORS-Enemy fighters drop bombs on your city. 
Destroy them before they destroy your city. Just like the 
Defenders arcade game. Requires 32k. 
CASSETTE $24.95 

KATERPILLAR ATTACK-A fast-paced arcade game. 
Rave revues by color computer magazines. 16k and joysticks 
required. 

CASSETTE $24.95 

COMPUTERWARE® 

STARSHIP CHAMELEON-You must defend your planet 
against attack. You have the ability to change color in order 
to destroy on-coming bombs and ami-matter. Nine levels of 
play. 

CASSETTE.... $24.95 

STORM-A real TEMPEST of a game. Exciting and colorful, 
15 battlefields, 9 levels of play. 

CASSETTE.... $24.95 DISK ....$29.95 

EL DIABLERO-You awake, dazed and confused, in the 
middle of the desert. You have been learning techniques of 
sorcery from an old man who lives in these parts. He told 
you of his enemy, an evil sorcerer, "Diabloero", now your 
teacher is missing and you are alone! Pure adventure. 
CASSETTE ....$19.95 

DOODLE BUG-Your lady bug hustles through an tntricale 
maze of barriers and turnstiles, eating dots, letters and 
hearts. Exquisite sound and graphics. 
CASSETTE ....$24.95 DISK ....$29.95 

RAIL RUNNER-Your engineer must scurry over the tracks 
of the busiest switch yard ever, to rescue the hobo's on the 
other side of the tracks. 
CASSETTE ....$21.95 

SHARK TREASURE- You must dive through shark infested 
waters to bring back treasures from the ocean floor. 
CASSETTE ....$21.95 

MEGAPEDE-A very fast version of the Oentepede type 
game. Not for the faint of heart. 
CASSETTE.... $2 1.95 




COLOR BONANZA 

50 Programs ■ 6 Cassettes 
Some 4K * Some 16K * Some 32K 
Games — Educational — Utilities 
FUN FOR THE WHOLE FAMILY 
Only $49.95 

Plus $2.50 Shipping 



msCoCo 
c Watehouse 

Where Shopping By Mail Is "USER FRIENDLY" 

500 N. DOBSON WESTLAND, MI 48185 
Phone (313) 722-7957 




SOFT SECTOR 
MARKETING 



DEATH TRAP-As a tank commander it's your job to find a 
safe passage through the maze of city streets that contain 
mines and other hazards. 

CASSETTE 4 $19.95 

OKI-PRINT-Is a basic language program that is designed to 
do high resolution screen dumps from the Radio Shack or 
TDP-IOO Color Computer, to an Okidata Microline 82A 
printer. OKI-PRINT wil dump any P MODE M, 
P(M = MODE, P = PACE), [f the P MODE is 1 or 3 (which 
are color modes) the printer will attempt to shade the dif- 
ferent colors in lighter and darker intensities of black in 
order to make them more recognizeable. Extended basic re- 
quired. 

CASSETTE $19.95 

DISASSEMBLER 6809-This is an interactive disassembler 
that allows you to call and examine subroutines or look at 
labels in an ASCI 1 mode without losing your place in the 
disassembly. It is primarily a SCREEN oriented 
disassembler, but does have printer output capability. 
CASSETTE $14.95 

ANIMATED HANGMAN-Playing hangman has never been 
so much fun. He winks. .he blinks. .he almost lives! An 
outstanding game for the whole family. Fun and educa- 
tional. 

CASSETTE $12.95 

CONCENTRATION/CONNECT UP 4-Concentration is a 
memory type game. You are trying to match up the screen 
displays. Connect up 4 is a game where you try to match 4 
dots of color in a row, but the person that you are playing 
with is trying to do the same thing. A game of strategy. 
CASSETTE $9.95 

HURDLERS- You are a hurdler running down the track try- 
ing to clear the jumps. If you miss, you fall flat on your face. 
Requires 16k extended basic. 

CASSETTE $14.95 



QUALITY SOFTWARE 

SHIPWRECK- Your stranded on a deserted island and your 
only hope for escape is your own wits and cunning. Can you 
find your way back to civilization? !6-32k. 
CASSETTE $14.95 

INTRACOLOR 

COEORPEDE-It's up to you to destroy the Colorpedc, 
knock out the bouncing bug and eliminate toad stools. Ex- 
cellent version of the Centepede game. 
CASSETTE ....$29.95 DISK ....$34.95 

MARK DATA 

HAYWIRE-An exciting combination of angry Robots and- 
the indestructable Menace will provide hours of challenge. 
The classic Bezerk type game. 16k. 

CASSETTE $24.95 

CALIXTO ISLAND- A challenging sometimes humerous ex- 
cursion to find stolen treasure. 

CASSETTE $19.95 

THE BLACK SANCTUM-You are pitted against the forces 
of Black Magic in this spooky adventure. 16k. 
CASSETTE $19.95 

CAVE HUNTER-Maneuver your way through a spooky 
cave to retrieve the treasures at the bottom. 16k and joystick 
required. 

CASSETTE $24.95 

ASTRO BLAST-Herc's the space shoot 'em up you've been 
asking for. 16k. 

CASSETTE $24.95 

SPACE RAIDERS-A sensational rendition of the arcade 

classic Invaders. Selectable skill levels. 16k. 

CASSETTE $24.95 

HOW TO ORDER BY MAIL: For prompt and courteous 
shipment, SEND MONEY ORDER. CERTIFIED CHECK, 
CASHIERS CHECK. MASTERCARD/VISA (include card 
number, inter-bank No., expiration date and signature). 
PERSONAL AND BUSINESS CHECKS MUST CLEAR 
OUR BANK BEFORE PROCESSING. Shipping and pack- 
aging charge of $2.50 minimum must be added to all 
orders in continental US (Canadian orders $5.00 mint- 
mum}. Michigan residents include 4% sales tax. 10% 
deposit required on CO.D. orders. 



By Norman Matice 



one Fishing is a high resolution game for a 1 6K ECB 
m _. Color Computer. The object of the game is to catch 
as many fish as you can before it's time to go home 
for dinner. You control the line with the right joystick. Push 
it forward to let more line out and pull it back to reel in your 
line. Unfortunately, someone forgot the bait, so you will 
have to hook the fish as they swim by. 

If a fish should swim across your line it will seem to 
disappear, because of the turbulence. Actually, redrawing 
the line would slow play down to an unacceptable level. If 
your machine can use the high speed poke (POKE 65495,0) 
then play is greatly enhanced. 

Lines 1-80 of the program do a general set up of the 
computer. They dimension arrays, initialize variables, and 
select resolution, graphic screen and color set. Lines 90-190 
draw the title. Lines 200-450 draw the hook, person in the 
boat, the boat, the pole and the fish. Lines 480 and 490 put 
the boat on the water. Line 500 randomly selects the end 
value for the outer loop of a nested FORI NEXT loop. Line 
510 then limits your time fishing to the number of passes by 
the fish as set up in Line 500. To increase the length of the 
game, add a larger number to IN in Line 500. Lines 520 and 
530 randomly pick the depth at which the fish will cross and 
make sure they stay on their part of the screen. 

The game starts at Line 540 where the inner FOR/ NEXT 
loop directs the motion of the fish. Lines 550-570 control the 
fishline and Lines 580 and 590 check the end of the hook. 
Lines 600-620 draw the hook and line on the screen. Lines 
630-670 draw the fish and move them across the screen. 
Lines 690-770 go to the text screen, print the score and ask if 
you would like to try again. From here the program either 
repeats or ends depending on the player's choice. 

The only thing left is the subroutine called in Line 590, if 

(Norman Matice is a junior at the University of 
Alabama — Huntsville, majoring in electrical engineer- 
ing.) 



you have hooked a fish. Lines 1000 and 1010 take the other 
fish off the screen. Line 1020 puts the fish you caught on 
your hook. Line 1030 provides a cranking noise for your 
reel. The rest of the program is relatively quiet, because 
fishing is a quiet sport. Lines 1 040- 1 070 control the reeling in 
of your catch. Lines 1090 and 1 100 automatically take the 
fish off your hook for you. Line 1110 keeps track of how 
many fish you have caught and of course Line 1 120 takes 
you back to the main program. 

Now, wet your line and have fun, but remember — don't 
stand up in the boat! 



f 200 . 


020D 


580.. 


... 059F 


END 


. . . 0867 



The listing: 

1 * "BONE FISHING" 

2 * by NORMAN MATICE 

3 'APRIL, 1983 

10 DIMA<50> ,B(50) ,C<50) ,G<lO0> ,M 
(10) ,N(50) ,S(50) 
20 T=0 
K»40 
PCLS 

PMODE 3,1 
SCREEN 1,0 
COLOR 2,3 
PCLS 



30 
40 
SO 
60 
70 
SO 
90 



DRAW " BM40 , 60 ; U8R8BD4L4BR4D4L8 



100 DRAW"BM55,60;U8R8D8L8" 

110 DRAW " BM70 , 60 ; U8F8U8BG8 11 

1 20 DRAW " BM85 , 60 ; U8R8BD4L8BR8BD4 

L8" 

130 DRAW " BM 1 1 5 , 60 J U8R8BD4BL4L4BD 
4" 



158 the RAINBOW January 1984 




FLOWCHART 



c 



START 



Dimension arrays 
Set graphic screen 
Initialize variables 



T 



Draw Title 
Draw Man & Boat 
Draw Fish 
Get Graphic 
Characters 



T 



Set up screen 
Position boat 



Set timing loop 
Fori to (5 to 15) 



End 
Loop 



Print Score 



Control Fishline 

With 
Right Joystick 
Animate Fish 



Yes 



Reel in fish 
Increment score 




1 40 DRAW " BM 1 30 , 60 ; BUBR8BL4D8BR4L 

B" 

1 50 DRAW "BM145, 60; BU4U4R8BD4L8BR 
BD4L8" 

1 60 DRAW " BM 1 60 , 60 ; U8BR8D8BU4L8BD 
4" 

1 70 DRAW "BM175, 60; BU8R8BL4D8BR4L 

B" 

180 DRAW"BM190,60;U8F8U8BG8" 

1 90 DRAW " BM205 , 60 ; U8R8BD4L4BR4D4 

LB" 

200 CIRCLE (128,96) ,8 

210 CIRCLE (130, 130) ,5, , 1.75,0, .5 

220 GET(125, 129) - ( 135, 135) , M, G 

230 PSET(126,94,2) : PSET ( 130, 94, 2 

) 

240 LINE (126, 97) -(130, 97) , PSET 
250 LINE (124, 86) -(132, 88) , PSET, B 
F 



260 LINE (120, 89) -(136, 89) , PSET 

270 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 1 04 ; NQ5ND5F5 " 

280 CIRCLE (128, 109) ,35, , .35,0, .5 

290 LINE (93, 109)-( 163, 109) , PSET 

300 PAINT (128, 111) ,4,2 

310 DRAW"BM125,109;H25D35" 

320 GET (93, 86) -(163, 120) ,6, G 

330 GET (0,0) -(34, 10) ,C,G 

340 CIRCLE (163, 130) , 10, , .5 

350 DRAWBM169, 135; E10D10H10" 

360 PSET ( 160, 130, 2) 

370 GET ( 154, 125) -(188, 135) , A, G 

380 CIRCLE (93, 130) , 10, , .5 

390 DRAW"BMS8, 135; HIODIOEIO" 

400 PSET (97, 130,2) 

410 GET (72, 125) -(106, 135) ,B,G 

420 CIRCLE (128, 150) ,8 

430 DRAW"BM128, 156; NG6F6L12" 

440 PSET (128, 148,2) 

January 1984 the RAINBOW 159 



COCOSLOTS 

Works like Vegas-insert coins, builds odds, wheels flash 
and you win or lose! A delightful game for all ages! 
Joysticks not used. Only $12pp 

REVERSI 

"OTHELLO" type game with 3 displays. Score and 
difficulty gage shows on the screen. Works with B&W or 
color TV. Play against the computer or a friend. 
Computer play is fast! Joysticks optional. Only $12pp 

DUAL CASSETTE COPY SYSTEM 

EMERALD SYSTEMS and PROGRAM PRODUCTS 
team up to produce the ultimate cassette copy system. 
Copies tapes without the frustration of changing cassettes 
after each program by using two tape recorders. Copy 
single file or all files. Start the copy with a specific file 
name. Make 1-9 copies of each program. Automatically 
adjusts to your CPU memory. Displays the remaining 
memory. Displays cassette directory with addresses. 
Includes machine language program on cassette, motor 
control adapter cable, and instructions. 
INTRODUCTORY SPECIAL ONLY $42pp 

DISPLAY NOISE ELIMINATOR 

Easy to install. Does not violate COCO waranty. $ 14pp 

SCRUNCH 

Removes spaces from basic programs. Saves memory 
and improves speed. Only 2.50 or FREE with any order. 

All programs written in machine language. Only 16K 
required. Extended basic NOT required. 

FREE CATALOG with order or send self addressed 
stamped envelope. 

Send check or money-order to: 

COCOPRO 
P.O. BOX 37022 
ST. LOUIS, MO 63141 

Postage paid on all pre-paid orders in U.S. 
Missouri residents add 5.625 percent sales tax. 

DEALER INQUIRES INVITED 



450 GET (120, 142) -(136, 168) ,N,G 
460 PLAY " 03L8GAL4BL2EG04L4CL2EL4 
DCCL2DC03L4 AL2G " 
470 PCLS 

480 LINE (0,40) -(255, 40) ,PSET 

490 PUT (140, 5) -(210, 40) ,G,PSET 

500 0=RND ( 10) : IN=0+5 

510 FOR V-l TO IN 

520 D=RND ( 1 20 ) : E=RND ( 1 20 ) 

530 Y=D+60:W=E+60 

540 FOR 1=5 TO 255 STEP 5 

550 H«JOYSTK(0) : J-JOYSTK(l) 

560 IF J<26 THEN K=K+1 : IF KM8B 

THEN K=188 
570 IF J>38 THEN K=K-1 : IFK<40 T 
HEN K=40 

580 P=PP0INT(140,K) 

590 IF P=2 THEN 60SUB 1000 

600 PSET(149,K,2) 

610 PUT(140,K+l)-(150,K+6) ,M,PSE 
T 

620 PRESET ( 146, K+7) 
630 X=I 
640 Z=255-X 

650 IF X<220 THEN PUT ( X , Y) - ( X+34 
,Y+10) ,B,PSET ELSE X=220 : PUT(X 
, Y)-(X+34,Y+10) ,C,PSET 
660 IF Z>35 THEN PUT ( Z-34, W-10) - 
(Z,W),A,PSET ELSE Z=35 : PUT(Z-3 
4,W-10)-(Z,W) ,C,PSET 
670 NEXT I 
680 NEXT V 
690 SCREEN O, 1 
700 CLS 

710 PRINTS172, "TIME IS UP!" 
720 PRINTQ231, "YOU CAUGHT "?T;" 
FISH! " 

730 PRINTS323, "WOULD YOU LIKE TO 

TRY AGAIN?" 
740 A*=INKEY* 
750 IF A*="Y" THEN RUN 
760 IF A*="" THEN 740 
770 CLS: END 

1000 PUT (X,Y)-( X+34, Y+10) ,C,PSET 
1010 PUT (Z-34, W-10) -( Z, W) ,C,PSET 
1020 PUT(141,K)-(157,K+24) ,N,PSE 
T 

1030 PLAY"05T150L4ADP4" 
1040 H=JOYSTK (O) : J=JOYSTK ( 1 ) 
1050 IF J<26 THEN K=K+1: IF K>18 
B THEN K=1B8 

1060 IF J>38 THEN K=K-1: IF K<40 

THEN K=40 
1070 IF K=42 THEN 1090 
1080 GOTO 1020 
1090 GET (0,0) -(16, 26) ,S,G 
1100 PUT (141, 41) -(157,67) ,S,PSET 
1110 T=T+1 
1120 RETURN 



160 the RAINBOW January 1984 



TURN 
THIS PAGE 

FOR 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

EXCITING 

NEW 

CATALOG 




1 




BEEN HEARING ALL those adver- 
tisements on the radio and TV for the 
CoCo2? Well, it is part of what we hear 
is the biggest advertising blitz that Radio 
Shack has ever launched for a single 
computer. And no wonder! After all, 
CoCo deserves it and there is little ques- 
tion that it is the leader in its field. What 
all this means is that there will be a 
whole bunch of new Color Computer 
owners by the time you read this . . . and 
even more of them on the way. Frankly, 
that is a big vote of confidence from 
Tandy Towers on our favorite com- 
puter — and its future. 

* * * 

WHAT'S THE EFFECT of the de- 
mise of Texas Instruments and Atari in 
the personal computer market? We hear 
that Tl will be doing what it can to 
dump its inventory at unheard-of prices. 
A good buy? We don't think so; after all, 
who wants a computer that will have 
almost no Support a month from now. 
The only effect it can have on the CoCo 
market is a good one: It proves what we 
have been saying in these pages for some 
time — that when the shakeout does 
come, our own CoCo will still be riding 
high. Well, the shakeout is here now and 
it looks iike CoCo, newly streamlined 
and all, is sitting high, wide, and hand- 
some. The proof of the pudding is, per- 
haps, in the bottom line: While Atari 
and Tl posted huge losses in their latest 
financial reports, Tandy closed off the 
year with a 24 percent increase in profits. 
You can bet a healthy percentage of that 
was in the computer field and an even 
higher percentage of the computer pro- 
fits crime from CoCo. Our hats off to the 
people who are responsible for this at 
Radio Shack. It's certainly an excellent 
indication of a good job weil done. 

* * * 

NOW WE FIND that you can receive 
Slow-Scan Television pictures by way 
of your CoCo with a new 16K machine 
language program authored by amateur 
radio operator Dick Kenny. Slo-Scan 
was developed for the Ham/ CoCo buff 
who isn't quite ready to invest a lot of 
money in a dedicated SSTV system. 

Anybody interested can probably find 
out more on the subject by reading A5 
ATV Magazine; it's published by QCD 
Publications, Inc. in Lowden, Iowa. 



PICTURE YOUR CRT. Really. Pho- 
tographically recording data from your 
monitor for reference or presentations 
has finally become a simple, exact proce- 
dure with the development of the DATA- 
CAM™ 1 and DATACAM™ 35, two 
color graphic recording cameras from 
Photographic Sciences Corp. The com- 
pany says all you have to do is place a 
DATACAM on any CRT monitor and 
press a button — no f-stop settings or 
shutter speeds to fiddle with. Now, we 
could handle that! You can use conven- 
tional film, but with a special film and 
an AutoPrbcessor, both available from 
Photographic Sciences, you can create 
mounted slides in minutes, working 
right at your desk. Both cameras come 
in sizes to fit almost every available 
monitor. You can write to them at P.O. 
Box 338, Webster, NY 14580 for further 
information. 

* * * 

AND SPEAKING of photography, shut- 
terbugs now have a friend in the soft- 
ware business since PfiK & Associates 
has released its new BWDEV Black/ 
White Developer. BWDEV is a 16K 
Non-Extended program that will calcu- 
late the variables of the development 
process and time each step of the way 
with audible tones. It seems like a good 
deal for $19.95. 

Why not write the company for more 
info at 5603 Linwood Court, Seabrook, 
MD (20706) and see what develops? 

Ugh. Negative humor. 

* * * 

AN ALARMING SITUATION is what 
SGM Corporation wants to prepare 
you for with a new security system the 
company is marketing. The SGM sys- 
tem is a plug-together, hard-wired alarm 
system which will provide electronic 
security for your CoCo, computer peri- 
pheralsj and even your stereo, TV or 
other valuable piece of personal equip- 
ment that might have a tendency to 
walk off when you're not watching, 
Fooling around with the security system 
sets off a local alarm; you can connect 
the sy|tem to other alarms, as well. 
SGM is at 6 West Main Street in Bound 
Brook, New Jersey. The systems can 
cost less than $50, or if you wish to 
secure a lot of valuable hardware you 
could spend several hundred dollars. 



KEYBOARD IN A NOTEBOOK? Yes, 
but don't try to "enter" anything you've 
keyed with this one. You won't even get 
an I/O Error. Computer Practice Key- 
board Co. of Union City, NJ, has 
brought out a line of "keyboards" printed 
on heavy, plastic laminated sheets, fol- 
lowing the layouts of the keyboards of 
the most popular personal computers, 
including TRS-80s. The 814 x 1 1 sheets 
are three-hole punched to fit in a stand- 
ard binder and could be handy for prac- 
ticing finger positions on a new key- 
board while away from the corppr. ^r^ 
or for studying the keyboard of&'flMtm 
puter you may be thinking^bout ■ 
ing. They're $3.95 (or two for S'^M 
plus $1 for postage. The compj 
address is 616 9th Street in Un-iarfl 

* * * 

AN ENHANCED VERSION of Der- 
ringer Software's popular Pro- Color- 
File is now on the market, the result of 
many comments and suggestions they 
received from users of the original ver- 
sions. This new database development 
package can define up to 60 data fields 
to be stored within each record. It also 
contains 28 math equations for making 
easy calculations as records are entered. 
There are additional report and label 
generating formats and record indexing 
capabilities. It even has a menu that can 
be tailored to an established database so 
that those not involved in setting up the 
program can use it. We're looking for a 
version that will eliminate the Federal 
deficit and organize our checkbook for 
a permanent positive balance. 

* * * 

ONE OF THE BEST innovations we've 
seen in an Adventure game is what 
Mark Data Products has done with a 
number of its former "word" Adven- 
tures, Black Sanctum and Calixto 
Island, plus a new one called Shenani- 
gans. These now combine the best gra- 
phics we Ve seen in an Adventure — real move- 
ment and actual scenes as to where you 
"are" that are a first in the CoCo (or 
any) marketplace. Best of all, they run 
from memory — so the cassette version 
is just as good as the one on disk. Our 
hat's off to Mark Data for these. 

* * * 

THE FIRST VERSION OF BASIC 

available for CoCo OS-9 systems has 
been released from Computerware. The 
utility is called Random Basic and is 
very much like the BASIC that Compu- 
terware made available for FLEX sys- 
tems under the same name. 



162 the RAINBOW January 1984 



TUTORIAL 



What Are Those 
Device Numbers For? 



Donald D. Dollberg 



Model I, III, 4 users often comment about the loss of 
the LPRlNT command (allows a BASIC program 
to send data to the printer) from CoCo's vocabu- 
lary. As you know, this function is performed by the com- 
mand PRINT #-2. This modification by Microsoft adds 
additional versatility to our friendly computer which is not 
possible with the Models I, HI, and 4, sad to say, the Micro 
Color Computer, MC-JO. Now youYe probably saying so 
what — a few extra characters to type. Let's examine what 
we mean by device numbers and 1 believe you will see the 
advantage. 

Device numbers allow the user to write a program inde- 
pendent of the source of input or output. For example, 
suppose you have a program which you Want to accept input 
from either tape, disk or the keyboard and want to give the 
user the option to choose the device he wants. That's where 
device numbers come in handy. Before we get much further 
along, the following table lists CoCo's device numbers: 



DEVICE USE 

-2 PRINTER 

-1 TAPE I/O 

0 KEYBOARD/ SCREEN 

+1 TO 15 DISK I/O 



Using these device numbers, we can control the source for 
INPUT or LINE INPUT Statements and the destination of 
PRINT and WRITE (disk) statements. For example: 

PRINT #0, u COLOR COMPUTER" 
PRINT #-2, 'pDLOR COMPUTER" 

The first statement prints to the screen while the second 
prints to the printer. Now we all know that no one uses 
device number 0 as.sfaown above, since the simple PRINT 
statement will produce the desired result. This is because the 
default device number for I/O is 0. 

(Don Dollberg, a commissioned officer with the U.S. Public 
Health Service, holds a PhD in inorganic chemistry. He has 
been involved with computers since the early 70s. With 
Richard White, he is co-author of the TIMS database man- 
agement program.) 



Now for the "magic." Did you know that the device 
number can be replaced with a variable! In so doing, the two 
PRINT statements above can be combined in one state- 
ment: 

PRINT #D, "COLOR COMPUTER" 

D can be set to -2 when printing to the printer or set to 0 
when printing to the screen. On the Model 1/ III/ 4 machines 
you would have io Use the following code in place of the 
simple statement above, for example: 

IF D=0 THEN PRINT "COLOR COMPUTER" ELSE 

IF D=-2 THEN LPRINT "COLOR COMPUTER" 

The use of the variable D can be expanded to include tape 
and disk. As an example, suppose we have a database man- 
agement program (DBM) which like any good DBM has the 



"[With] an appreciation of device 
numbers and their usage, you 
can very easily modify your favor- 
ite program . . ." 




capability to print reports in a variety of user selected for- 
mats. However, fio matter how good the DBM, there is 
always a report format that we would like which the DBM 
doesn't have. In this case we would like to incorporate the 
DBM output, say a table of data, into a previously prepared 
manuscript using our trusty word processor. 'By simply 
changing the device number, the output to the printer can be 
sent to tape or disk where it is stored as an ASCII file (data) 
and can be read by almost all word processors. The follow- 
ing code shows how simply and effectively this can be 

January 1984 the RAINBOW 163 



accomplished. 

10 CLS: PRINT "SEND REPORT TO:": PR1NT"<1> 
PRINTER": PRINT "<2>DISK": PRINT "<3> 
TAPE" 

20 Z$=INKEY$: IF Z$= u " THEN 20 ELSE Z=VAL 
(Z$) 

25 INPUT "ENTER FILE NAME";F$ 
30 ON 2 GOTO 40, 50, 60 
40 D=-2: GOTO 70 
50 D=+l: GOTO 70 
60 D=-I 

70 OPEN "0", #D, F$ 
80 PRINT #D,— 



200 CLOSE #D 

Let's look at this code in detail. Line 10 is obviously a very 
crude menu for selecting the output device. Line 20 is the 
usual INKEY routine to obtain a character from the key* 
board and convert that character to an integer. A good 
program would add code to check that only keys 1-3 are 
accepted. Line 25 simply requests the file name. Depending 
on which key was pressed, Line 30 selects the appropriate 
device definition (Lines 40-60). This leads to Line 70 where 
we open the file with name F$ and device D. Although the 
OPEN statement is not needed when printing to the screen 
or printer, it is, of course, needed for tape and disk file 1/0 
and causes no error when using screen or printer. 

After opening the file, the program can now continue with 



its printing task independent of device as long as each 
PRINT statement uses the variable D for device number. If 
you use the simple Pi^/A^rwithout a device number,the data 
will be printed to the screen. For input, one can do the same 
thing with INPUT or LINEINPUT statements in place of 
PRINT 

While all of this sounds' great, Murphy's laws do occa- 
sionally strike computers. Disk users are aware of the addi- 
tional output command WRITE, which functions differ- 
ently from PRINT WRITE accepts all device numbers that 
PRINT does and can be used in place of PRINT. However, 
WRITE and PRINT are not completely interchangeable so 
it is wise to understand the two before deciding which to use. 

Now that you have an appreciation of device numbers and 
their usage, you can very easily modify your favorite pro- 
gram so that you can examine a report on the screen before 
printing or save a report to tape or disk instead of printing. 
On input you can easily have data input from keyboard or 
from tape/ disk. All of this can be done by simply changing 
the value of a variable. Unfortunately, most programs don't 
incorporate a variable for device specification. With a good 
search program you can examine a program and replace all 
Ptf/jVTstatements with PRINTED and add code similar to 
that given above to select D. 

Software authors take note. You can add much more 
capability to your program (and make life easier for the 
user) by simply adding a variable for the device number and 
give the user the option of controlling the source and desti- 
nation of data. 

. 



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164 the RAINBOW January 1984 



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CoCo COUNSEL 

The Right To Know: 

It's Also An Obligation 

By Tom Nelson 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



ut in the regular world we're all pretty secure with 
■ ■ our purchases. We go into a supermarket, discount 
house or whatever and buy a product we can feel and 
see to be good. We also have some notion of what went into 
the product and some idea of the market for the product. 
This makes us feel secure that we are buying a quality 
product for a reasonable price. 

Buying computer software and hardware is just not the 
same. Consumers are adrift without much help or guidance. 
It is hard to know if the software or hardware is exactly what 
we want, even if we have it in our hands, much less when it is 
in a package. The average consumer does not know what it 
took to make the product or how many units will be sold. 
Thus, there is no way to know if the product is priced right or 
fairly. This ignorance is frustrating and can lead to poor 
decisions and resentment. 

Add to this several other factors and there can be a lot of 
misunderstanding and dissatisfaction. First, many of us buy 
through mail order, thus stopping us from seeing the pro- 
duct in advance. Furthermore, software, at least, can be 
volatile when on disk or tape, leading to insecurity about the 
product. Also, our expectations from other mature indus- 
tries are applied to the immature computer industry. When 
these expectations are inevitably not met, frustration ensues. 

Being a consumer in the Color Computer market is tough! 
In this article I hope to explain the Color Computer market 
and some industry practices and their reasons so that you 
the consumer will better be able to assess potential pur- 
chases. 

The cost of any product is directly related to how many 
units will be sold and how long it takes to develop the 
product. Obviously, if only one unit of a product will be sold 
and it takes two years to develop it, the product will be very 



(Tom Nelson was formerly a special assistant attorney 
general for the State of Minnesota. He currently is 
general counsel for Softlaw Corporation, makers of 
the VIP Library 1 ", and of ColorQuesf * games.) 



expensive. So let's look at the market and development costs 
for products for the Color Computer, 

For our example let's talk about marketing a board which 
turns the Color Computer into a Cray supercomputer. Due 
to a giant breakthrough a company has discovered that this 
board can be made in two years if two people work on it full 
time. So what is the market for this board? 

Well, first, how many Color Computers are there? Who 
knows? Let's say, just for argument, that there are 300,000. 
Okay, wow! There are potentially 300,000 people who will 
buy the card! But wait— how many people really want or can 
use the card? Well, the card requires 64K and Extended 
BASIC. That cuts out at least 50 percent of all Color Compu- 
ter owners, The card also requires a disk drive. There goes 
another 40 percent. Now we're down to at most 90,000 
people who might buy the card. 

So now we have to reach those 90,000. How do we do 
that? In the Color Computer market, primarily through 
magazine advertisements, and less so with dealers. Remem- 
ber that the manufacturer cannot just go to a Radio Shack 
store and sell his product. Back to that 300,000 figure for 
owners of Color Computers? Well, really, only about at 
most one-third, or 100,000 can be reached through maga- 
zines and dealers. This is according to the magazines' own 
claims that they have up to 100,000 circulation. Thus, of 
those 90,000 wejhave left who have the right size machine, 
only about 40 percent or so can be reached at all Now we're 
down to a market size of 36,000 folks who you are able to 
interest at all. Of those, 50 percent don't want a Cray card. 
Instead they want a Control Data card. Now you have 
18,000 potential customers. 

The whittling will continue until the company can expect 
sales of about 4,000 units over the product's lifetime. So 
what do they charge, if they decide to market the Cray card 
at all? Well, development takes two years for two persons, 
sales, the development cost goes to $20 per unit. In additiofi, 
full time. There's $80,000. Divided by the 4,000 expec^d 



166 the RAINBOW January 1984 



each unit will cost $50 to manufacture, another $10 to 
package, another $5 to distribute, $8 to process the order, $4 
to advertise, and so on. Now we have a Cray card costing 
about $60 to produce plus $40 to develop, for a total of $100 
per card. 

In order to continue to develop more products of equal 
high quality, the manufacturer needs to make a profit. The 
profit has to come after the sale, and don't forget that the 
distributor wants a 60 percent discount. So what price is 
charged? Well, the $100 plus the profit may only be 40 
percent of the final price. Assuming a profit of 20 percent, 
giving a distributor cost of $ 1 20, the final price must be $300 
retail, 

Oops, 1 forgot one thing. Once this board gets out there 
the manufacturer is going to have to give support. Even with 
the best of operation manuals there are going to be some 
questions and problems. And what of the returns and 
exchanges because of the bugs? A conservative cost for these 
would be $40 per unit to the manufacturer. Add another 
$100 to the retail price;$400. Of course, the manufacturer 
could refuse to give support and charge a lower price, but 
manufacturers have learned that the consumer will demand 
$40 of support even if they only paid $40 for the product. 
Thus, support may as well be given, and considered when 
determining the cost of the product. 

And what does the consumer get for that hard earned, top 
dollar $400? A thin little board with a few chips thrown on, 
and some weird wires, some photocopied sheets of paper 
and a phone number. What a rip off! Right? Not according 
to the facts. 

Well there aren't many $400 products selling for the Color 
Computer. Let's face it. If you only paid $400 for your 
computer you are unlikely to spend another $400 for some- 
thing as stupid as a board just to turn it into a Cray super- 
computer. After all, you'd rather pay the $ 10 million for the 
Cray in the first place. 

Still, you are going to buy very few products with such a 
price tag. In fact, 1 bet most of you would pay as much as 
$100 only for truly exceptional products, with $30 to $60 
products being your main purchases. What can you expect 
for your money? 

Have you ever wondered why Visicalc, Multiplan, Word- 
star, PFS File, dBase //and other well known products are 
available for other popular micros but are not available for 
the Color Computer? Have you ever wondered why the 
utility programs that Radio Shack sells for the Color Com- 
puter are relatively unsophisticated and inexpensive? The 
reason is the same. The Color Computer market does not 
justify the effort. 

One thing those companies have learned is that people 
want high quality, full-featured programs and total support 
no matter what they pay. People invariably expect a $60 
program for the Color Computer to perform as well as a 
$400 program for the IBM PC, and they expect an equal 
amount of support. All calc programs have to outperform 
Advanced Visicalc or Multiplan, the word processors have 
to equal Wordstar, and database programs have to be at 
least as good as dBase IL Those companies have decided 
that sales of such programs at such low prices are insuffi- 
cient in the Color Computer market to justify the extensive 
development work and after-sale support necessary. This is 
especially so when those companies look at other potential 
markets. Thus, only a very few companies have sought to 
produce high quality software for the Color Computer. 



Miraculously, despite such odds, many programs for the 
Color Computer available for about $60 outperform their 
more expensive counterparts for other computers. Just as 
miraculously, the companies selling the products stay in 
existence when the programmers and developers have to 
work hours in addition to their full time jobs as janitors and 
soda jerks. Anyone who thinks that software companies 
developing for the Color Computer are getting filthy rich is 
just not well informed. 

So once a company has put extensive development time 
into a product to give ultra high quality, has spend money on 
packaging, distribution, promotion, etc*, etc,, what's left of 
the $60 you are willing to pay— or the $25 to $30 that the 
manufacturer gets from the distributor? 



"Consumer rights are tied closely 
with consumer responsibilities/' 



Oh, I 've forgotten to mention some other costs. Originally 
there is theoretically a large market for the product, But 
since it is estimated that only 30 to 40 percent of all software 
in use has been legitimately obtained, that market has to be 
decreased by 50 percent, assuming a 50 percent theft factor. 
There go some more sales which will not help pay for the 
development of the product. 

Also, as the product develops, new versions may be pro- 
duced. Introduction of new hardware may also cause a 
substantial rewrite. These new versions and rewrites can be 
very expensive. Nevertheless, the owner of a previous ver- 
sion expects to obtain a sizable discount on the new version, 
if not get it for free. There's another part of development 
costs not covered fully. 

And while we're here, don't forget that it costs $3 just to 
answer a simple three minute WATS phone call, about $8 
just to process even the smallest order and lots of dough just 
to open the doors every day. That good old friend overhead 
must also be considered an added cost for the product, 

Well, where are we? We've just come home from a long 
week at the office. Time to live it up. Honey, get me a drink 
—no — let's go out tonight and have some fun, Dinner out, 
to the movie, to a night club afterwards for a night cap, sixty 
bucks gone for good, and well spent! 

Now it's Saturday morning in front of the computer for 
some hacking. Got to find that right program to do exactly 
what my mainframe at work does, but on my Color Compu- 
ter. Never mind that the mainframe program costs at least 
$10,000 and needs lots of support. The one for my Color 
Computer has to do the same thing, last a lifetime, be fully 
guaranteed to satisfy me, come with unending support and 
cost only $60. Oh, don't forget a full, glossy, four-color user 
friendly manual, and of course there can be no bugs at all! In 
fact, 1 might even need the source code in case I want tp 
modify the program for my special needs. All this for sixty 
bucks, the same sixty bucks that I frivolously spent last night 
on food and drink. 

Knowing the market is only one part of the problem, since 
it mostly only affects how we view the cost of the products. 
But what of how we view the products themselves and what 
they will do? 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 167 




ROAR! 



Do tricks with your computer without 
breaking your wallet's spiritl A subscrip- 
tion to Chromasette gets you a tape or 
disk full of quality programs delivered by 
First Class Mail every monthl Write for 
more information or, better yet, try a Back 
Issue. At S6.00 for 6 to 8 programs on 
tape (S II. 00 on disk), you'll see just how 
good and inexpensive Chromasette 
software is. 



The Bottom Line: Tape Disk 

1 year (12 issues) S50.00 $95.00 

6 months (6 issues) $30.00 $55.00 

Single Issues $6.00 $11.00 



Calif, residents add 6% to single issues. First Class postage to 
N. Amer. included. Overseas add $10 to subscriptions and J I to 
single Issues. Sent AO rate. All back Issues from July 1981 avail- 
able—ask for list. Programs are for the Extended BASC model 
and occasionally for disks. 




'GvcomabettE 

RO. Box 1087 Santa Barbara, CA 93102 
(805) 963-1066 



Consumers learn about products from 
ads, word of mouth and magazine arti- 
cles and reviews. The ads are self- 
serving. The consumer must read them 
carefully and be able to ask the right 
questions. Word of mouth depends on 
the credibility and knowledge of the 
speaker. Then what of the objective 
press? How many consumers are aware 
that most of the reviewers for Color 
Computer products only deign to use a 
Color Computer when reviewing a pro- 
duct, but own and use another compu- 
ter for their own purposes? This is very 
true, especially when dealing with the 
more sophisticated software. Consum- 
ers must question why they can trust the 
opinion of someone who refuses to use 
the Color Computer and its products 
except for the slight period necessary to 
make money reviewing a program. 

But then what of those reviewers 
devoted to the Color Computer who 
have used nothing else? They are hardly 
any better. They are often too inexpe- 
rienced to adequately assess the quality 
of a product. They have never used 
another similar program on another 
computer, and so have unrealistically 
low expectations of the program being 
reviewed. This leads to those glowing 
reviews which, when relied upon, lead 
to bad buying choices. 

The best way to take care of this prob- 
lem is to request that the credentials of 
the reviewer be displayed. What compu- 
ter do they use at home? How many 
computers and similar programs have 
they had experience with? The answers 
to these questions will better help the 
consumer decide if the reviewer has any 
credibility. 

This discussion points in one direc- 
tion. Perspective, we've got to have 
some perspective. Consumer rights are 
tied closely with consumer responsibili- 
ties. The consumer has the obligation to 
at least have a marginal understanding 
of the market to know what to expect, 
and to make sure the information re- 
ceived from the objective press be based 
on experience mixed with a total under- 
standing of the Color Computer. 

I hope that this discussion has helped 
give you a better grasp on the confusing 
and fluctuating Color Computer mar- 
ket. With some of these considerations 
in mind you are ready to objectively 
assess the value for your buck. Perhaps 
the phrase "ripoff" will be reserved for 
those truly rare occurrences, and the 
remedies at your disposal will be used 
for those instances where they really will 
do some good. 

0^ 




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168 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Your 



Spell Out 
Error Messages 



By Richard Smrcina 



One of the things that originally turned me off to 
Radio Shack computers was the way they decided to 
alert you of an error in your program. 1 admit that 
two character codes are easier to program than full-blown 
error messages, but we have to learn all those codes, and 
some of the Disk BASIC error codes are not much of an 
indication of the error at hand. The Atari computers (at least 
the 400 and 800) use numeric error codes which are even 
harder to understand. 

Which brings me to the programs that I developed. They 
are designed to provide the computer with full text error 
messages. They also work from inside basic programs to 
print error messages at a particular line number. 

I realize that all but beginners would have probably mem- 
orized most of the codes by now, but I wrote the routine 
anyway, to test my prowess at machine language. 

There are two programs — one is for Extended BASIC users 
and the other is for Disk Extended basic users. The differ- 
ence is the expanded error message table and the steps that 
are performed after an error has occurred. 

The first thing to do before one uses the program is to 
reserve enough memory for the routine. An easy way to 
accomplish this is with a BASIC boot-strap program. All this 
does is automatically clear memory, load the program, and 
execute it. The one that 1 use looks like this. 

10 CLEAR 779,31988 

20 LOADM "ERRMSG.BIN" 

30 EXEC 

40 NEW 

Save this program on disk and just RUN from BASIC and 
you do not have to worry about remembering the addresses 
every time you want to use the routine. For tape users, the 
bootstrap would look like this: 

10 CLEAR 519,&H7DF8 



20 CLOADM "ERRMSG" 
30 EXEC 
40 NEW 

All I6K users should note that the &H7 must be replaced 
by a &H3. Make sure that the machine language program 
follows the basic program on tape. 

Here is a description of how the routine works. The 
program first replaces the RAM hook for the error-handling 
routine with the address of the new routine (Lines 30-60). 
Then BASIC is given control. When an error is triggered, 
instead of going to the ROM Error message routine, my 
routine is encountered through the RAM hook. Lines 1 10- 
180 are Basic's clean-up routines. This closes files, resets 
devices, prints the familiar "?" before the error message, etc. 
Lines 240-260 obtain the address for the error message table 
and error message respectively. Line 270 jumps to a routine 
to print out the message. Line 280 gets the address of "Error" 
text, and again the print routine is called to print it out. Line 
300 returns to BASIC'S error handler which at that point 
checks if a program is currently running, if there is, it deter- 
mines at which line it crashed and prints the "IN XXXXX" 
message, where "XXXXX'* is the line number in which the 
BASIC program was terminated. Afterwards, the computer is 
returned to command mode. 

This outline follows the disk routine, but the cassette 
routine is very similar, it just uses some different clean-up 
routines. 

1 hope this is helpful. 



Listing 1: 

oooio t m mm 

00020 • ERROR HE93A6E ROUTINE FOR DISK BASIC USERS 
00030 I WRITTEN BY RICH SNRCINA, AUBUST, 1983 
7CF3 00040 0R8 I7CF3 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 169 





A002 


00030 PRTCHR 


EQU 


(A002 


7CF3 30 


8D 0004 


00060 START 


LEAX 


START 1,PCR LOAD ADDRESS OF HEN ERROR 






00070 t 




ROUTINE 


7CF7 8F 


0192 


00000 


STX 


$0192 REPLACE IN RAH ERROR HOOK 


39 




00090 


RTS 


BACK TO BASIC 






00100 f ENTRY POINT FOR ERROR ROUTINE 






00110 t FR0I1 HERE TO THE 'PRTHSS' LABEL 18 THE SERIES OF 






00120 i ROUTINES THAT BASIC USES PRIOR TO PAWING ERROR 






00130 § NESSABESi 


I.E. CLOSE FILES, CLEAN UP, PRINT '?'.,. 


7CFB 33 


20.. 


00140 START 1 


puts 


Y 


7CFD BD 


AD33 


00150 


JSR 


XAD33 


7900 BD 


D1E3 


00160 


JSR 


ND1E5 


7503 34 


24 


00170 


PSHS 


Y,B 


7D05 BD 


CA3B 


00180 


JSR 


>(CA3B 


71)08 30 


62 


00190 


LEAX 


2|5 


7D0A BD 


A7E9 


00200 


JSR 


NA7E9 


7D0D BD 


A974 


00210 


JSR 


>IA974 


7D10 OF 


6F 


00220 


CLR 


<(6F 


7D12 BD 


B95C 


00230 


JSR 


X895C 


7D15 BD 


89 AF 


00240 


JSR 


NB9AF 


7D1B 39 


04 


00290 


PUL9 


B RETRIEVE ERROR CODE 


7D1A 4F 




00260 


CLRA 




7D1B 31 


8D 02BE 


00270 PRTHSS 


LEAY 


ERRADR f PCR LOAD ADDRESS OF ERROR 






00280 t 




HESSAflE ADDRESS TABLE 


7D1F 30 


B5 


00290 


LEAX 


E8,Y] LOAD ADDRESS OF ERROR HESSA6E 


7D21 BD 


7D2E 


00300 


JSR 


PRTRTN PRINT HESSA8E AT ADR IN X 


7D24 30 


BD 0201 


00310 


LEAX 


ERRTXT,PCR LOAD ADDRESS OF 'ERROR* TEXT 


7D28 BD 


7D2E 


00320 


JSR 


PRTRTN PRINT HESSAflE AT ADR IN X 


7D2B 16 


2F3D 


00330 CLEANU 


L6RA 


(AC6B BACK TO BASICS ERROR HANDLER 


7D2E A4 


80 


00340 PRTRTN 


LDA 


SET CHAR. 


7D30 27 


04 


00350 


BED 


ENDPRT IF END RETURN 


7D32 AD 


9F A002 


00340 


JSR 


[PRTCHR 3 PRINT IT 


7D34 20 


F6 


00370 


BRA 


PRTRTN LOOP AGAIN 


7D38 39 




00380 ENDPRT 


RTS 








00390 • TABLE OF ERROR MESSAGES 


7139 


4E 


AAA AA UP 

00400 NF 


FCC 


/NEXT WITHOUT FOR/ 


7W9 


ODOO 


00410 


FDB 


(ODOO 


7MB 


33 


AA 4 »»A nU 

00420 SN 


FCC 


/SYNTAX/ 


7D31 


00 




rU 


AAA 


7D52 


52 


AAIIA DC 

UQMQ KB 


err 


/RETURN IITHOUT BOSUB/ 


7D64 


ODOO 


AA15A 


PIN) 


1AAAA 


7D68 


4F 


00460 OD 


FCC 


/OUT OF DATA/ 


7D73 


00 


00470 


FCB 


(00 


7D74 


46 


00480 FC 


FCC 


/FUNCTION CALL/ 


7081 


00 


00490 


FCB 


BOO 


7D82 


4F 


00300 OV 


FCC 


/OVERFLOW/ 


7DBA 


00 


00310 


FCB 


(00 


7D8B 


4F 


00520 OH 


FCC 


/OUT Of HENDRY/ 


7D98 


00 


00330 


FCB 


(00 


7D99 


33 


00340 UL 


FCC 


/UNDEFINED LINE/ 


7DA7 


to 


00990 


FCB 


(00 


7M8 


42 


00540 BS 


FCC 


/BAD SUBSCRIPT/ 


7DB5 


00 


00570 


FCB 


(00 


7DB6 


32 


00580 DD 


FCC 


/REDIHENSIQNED ARRAY/ 


7DC9 


ODOO 


00590 


FDB 


(ODOO 


7DCB 


44 


00400 DO 


FCC 


/DIVIDE BY ZERO/ 


7DD9 


00 


00610 


FCB 


100 


7DDA 


49 


00420 ID 


FCC 


/ILLEGAL DIRECT/ 


7DE8 


06 


00630 


FCB 


100 


7DE9 


94 


00440 TH 


FCC 


/TYPE HI SNATCH/ 


7DF6 


00 


00690 


FCB 


(00 


7DF7 


4F 


00440 OS 


FCC 


/OUT OF STRING SPACE/ 


7E0A 


ODOO 


00470 


FDB 


(ODOO 


7E0C 


33 


00680 LS 


FCC 


/STRING TOO LONG/ 


7E1B 


00 


00690 


FCB 


(00 


7E1C 


93 


00700 ST 


FCC 


/STRING TOO COMPLEX/ 


7E2E 


ODOO 


00710 


FDB 


(ODOO 


7E30 


43 


00720 CN 


FtC 


/CAN'T CONTINUE/ 


7E3E 


00 


00730 


FCB 


(00 


7E3F 


42 


00740 FD 


FCC 


/BAD FILE DATA/ 


7E4C 


00 


00730 


FCB 


(00 


7E4D 


41 


00760 AO 


FCC 


/ALREADY OPEN/ 


7E59 


00 


00770 


FCB 


(00 


7E5A 


44 


00780 ON 


FCC 


/Device mm/ 


7E67 


00 


00790 


FCB 


(00 


7E68 


49 


00800 10 


FCC 


/INPUT-OUTPUT/ 


7E74 


00 


00810 


FCB 


(00 


7E73 


42 


00820 FH 


FCC 


/BAD FILE NODE/ 


7EB2 


00 


00830 


FCB 


(00 


7EB3 


44 


00840 HO 


FCC 


/FILE NOT OPEN/ 



170 the RAINBOW January 1984 



7E90 


00 


00650 


FCB 


(00 


7E91 


49 


00840 IE 


FCC 


/INPUT PAST END OF FILE/ 


7EA7 


0100 


00B70 


FDB 


(ODOO 


7EA9 


44 


00880 OB 


FCC 


/DIRECT STATEHENT/ 


7FB9 

f EOT 


ODOO 


00890 


FDB 


(ODOO 


7E1B 




00900 UF 


FCC 


/UNDEFINED FUNCTION/ 


7ECD 


00 


00910 


FCB 


(00 


7ECE 


46 


00920 NE 


FCC 


/FILE NOT FOUND/ 


7EDC 


00 


00930 


FCB 


(00 


7EDD 


42 


00940 BR 


FCC 


/BAD RECORD NUMBER/ 


7EEE 


ODOO 


00950 


FDB 


(ODOO 


7EF0 


44 


00960 DF 

v v 7 u v yr 


FCC 


/DISK SPACE FULL/ 


7EFF 


00 


00970 


FCB 


(00 


7F00 


4F 


009BO OB 

VVIWV MO 


FCC 


/OUT DF BUFFER SPACE/ 

t uu i lit Vwl t *m Hi mkf 


7F13 


ODOO 


00990 


FDB 


(ODOO 


7F15 


57 


01000 HP 

VI WW WT 


FCC 


/HRITF PROTECT/ 


7F93 


19 


A1A9A EM 


err 


/BAA CTI CUAMC f 

/WD riltwmt/ 


7F2F 


00 


01030 


FCB 


(00 


7F30 


42 


01040 FS 


FCC 


/BAD FILE STRUCTURE/ 


7F42 


ODOO 


01050 


FDD 


(ODOO 


7F44 


46 


01060 AE 


FCC 


/FILE ALREADY EXISTS/ 


7F57 


ODOO 


01070 


FDB 


(ODOO 






AtARA FD 
vivOV rU 


FfT 


frltLV UVcnrLUB/ 


7F67 


00 


01090 


FCB 


(00 


7F68 


53 


01100 SE 


FCC 


/SET TO NON-FIELDED STRING/ 


7FB1 


ODOO 


oino 


FDB 


(ODOO 


7FB3 


56 


01120 VF 


FCC 


/VERIFY/ 


7F6? 


00 


01130 


FCB 


(00 


7F8A 


57 


01140 ER 


FCC 


/WRITE OR INPUT PAST/ 


7F9D 


OD 


01150 


FCB 


(OD 


7F9E 


20 


01160 


FCC 


/ END OF RECORD/ 


7FAC 


00 


01170 


FCB 


(00 






01180 t TABLE OF ERROR HESSA6E ADDRESSESS 


7FAD 


7D39 


01190 ERRA&R 


FDB 


NF 


7FAF 


7D4B 


01200 


FDB 


SN 


7F81 


7D52 


01210 


FDB 


R6 


7FB3 


7D68 


01220 


FDB 


OD 


7FB5 


7D74 


01230 


FDB 


FC 


7FB7 


7DB2 




FAB 

rUD 


All 

uv 


7FB9 


7D8B 


01250 


FDB 


OH 


7FBB 


7D99 


A19AA 

VltOV 


FAfi 


HI 


7FB0 


7DA6 


At 970 


FAR 


BC 


7FBF 


7DB6 




FAB 


AA 


7FC1 


7DCB 


01290 


FDB 


DO 


7FC3 


7DDA 


01300 


FDB 


ID 


7FC5 


7DE9 


01310 


FDB 


TH 


7FC7 


7DF7 


01320 


FDB 


OS 


7FC9 


7E0C 


01330 


FDB 


LS 


7FCB 


7E1C 


01340 


FDB 


ST 


7FCD 


7E30 


01350 


FDB 


CN 


7FCF 


7E3F 


01340 


FDB 


FD 


7FD1 


7E4D 


01370 


FDB 


AO 


7FD3 


7E5A 


01380 


FDB 


DN 


7FD5 


7E68 


01390 


FDB 


10 


7FD7 


7E73 


01400 


FDB 


FH 


7FD9 


7E83 


01410 


FDB 


NO 


7FDG 


7E91 


01420 


FDB 


IE 


7FDD 


7EA9 


01430 


FDB 


DS 


7FDF 


7E6B 


01440 


FDB 


UF 


7FE1 


7ECE 


01430 


FDB 


NE 


7FE3 


7EDD 


01460 


FDB 


BR 


7FE5 


7EF0 


01470 


FDB 


DF 


7FE7 


7F00 


01480 


FDB 


OB 


7FE9 


7F15 


01490 


FDB 


NP 


7FEB 


7F23 


01500 


FDB 


FN 


7FED 


7F30 


01510 


FDB 


FS 


7FEF 


7F44 


01320 


FDB 


AE 


7FF1 


7F59 


01530 


FDB 


FO 


7FF3 


7F68 


01540 


FDB 


SE 


7FF3 


7FB3 


01550 


FDB 


VF 


7FF7 


7F8A 


01560 


FDB 


ER 


7FF9 


20 


01570 ERRTKT 


FCC 


/ ERROR/ 




45 










32 










32 










4F 










52 








7FFF 


00 


01580 


FCB 


(00 




7CF3 


01590 


END 


START 



00000 TOTAL ERRORS 



DESERT SOFTWARE 

Quality Products at Prices You Can Afford 



PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE LIST D/S 
Omni Clone $39.95 $33.95 

This is a rngst program fqr anyone 
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or not. 

Prickly-Pear Mailing List* $49.95 $42.45 

Maintain up to 1£00 records on 
disk. Full upper and lowercase on 
yourchoice of green orwhite back- 
ground. *Disk and 32K req. 

Preread 1 , 2 & 3 $24.95 $21 .95 

Designed to meet the needs of 
parents having children just begin- 
ning to read. 

Music Box $24.95 $21.95 

A 1 00% machine language program 
that will allow yog to EASILY com- 
pose your favorite song in FOUR 
PART HARMONY. 

PETROCCI FREELANCE 
ASSOCIATES 

Forcaster & Weather Watch $49.95 $42.95 

This one's on disk and a real must 
if you're into forca$ting your own 
weather. Can be used by Science 
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Disk req. 

Heart-Lung & Circulatory Sys. $34.95 $29.95 

Another one for the class room. 
Teaches the student about various 
parts of the body. 

Pre-School Papk $24.95 $21.95 

This is a set of four programs de- 
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colors. 



KRT SOFTWARE LIST D/S 

F-1 6 Fighter $1 9.95 $1 6.95 

This is the best flight simulator 
we've seen yet. It comes in either 
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If you're a pilot you won't want to 
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ILLUME DESIGN 

Stars $14.95 $12.95 

See the night sky on yourTV. Stars, 
Constellation, and Planets. Educa- 
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Electronic Drafting Board $39.95 $33.95 

Create complex designs, label com- 
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64K and Disk req. 

Geneology $29,95 $25.95 

Perform geneologicai searches. 
Catagories: Family and given names 
date and place of birth, marriage 
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spouse references. Various print- 
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CLASSICAL COMPUTING, INC. 

Speak Up!! $29.95 $25.95 

This is a Voice Synthesizer that 
will knock you off your feet. Type 
in a word and CoCo will say it. At 
last a good way to generate speech 
without investing an arm and a leg. 



SKYLINE SOFTWARE 
MDISK 

This is the best program we've 
found to access the Upper 32K 
yyhen you have 64K RAMS installed. 



$27.95 $24.95 



WE'RE DEALERS ALSO FOR THE FOLLOWING COMPANIES: 

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Marketing DSL Software, Aardvark, Data Soft, Frank Hogg, and many more. 
WRITE FOR OUR FREE CATALOG LISTING 
All programs are 16K Extended except where noted, 
all programs are on cassette for Disk orders please add $5.00 extra 



Terms: Cash. Money Order, or your personal cheeks welcome. 
Please allow two weeks to clear your check. Shipping $2.50 on 
prepaid orders. 1 Please add $3 extra for hardware. 

Arizona residents please add 5% sales tax. All programs — 1 6K 
ext. except where noted. We reserve the right to change prices 
without notice. 



Warranty: All hardware products are warranted for a period of 
1 80 days from date of purchase. Software is warranted as. per 
its manufacturers warranty. We shall not be liable for loss or 
damage, alleged of caused indirectly or directly to hardware or 
software including interruption of service, business loss, loss of 
expected profits or any damage resulting from the use of 
hardware or software. 



DESERT SOFTWARE 

4321 W. Jupiter • Tucson, Arizona 85741 



(602) 744-1252 



Listing 2: 



7DF8 
7DFB 30 



00010 t NAN ERRHSC 

00020 i ERROR MESSAGE ROUTINE FOR NON-DISK USERS 

00030 i BY RICH SNRCINA, AUGUST, 1983 



A002 
80 0004 



7DFC BF 


0192 


7DFF 3? 




7F00 RD 

/CUV ou 


A7F9 

ff/E7 


7fai on 


HTM 


7FOA RD 


AD33 


7EA0 ftp 
/tVT vr 


AF 

or 


7FAR RD 

/LVD Ov 


07 JL 


7E0E BD 


B9AF 


7EU 4F 




/CIA 01 


on AIAF 


7F1A "TA 

/CIO OV 


CD 


7E18 BD 


7E25 


7E1B 30 


BD 01DA 


7E1F BD 


7E25 


7E22 16 


2146 


7E25 A6 


BO 


7E27 27 


06 


7E29 AD 


9F AD02 


7E2D 20 


F6 


7E2F 39 




7E30 


4E 


7E40 


0D00 


7E42 


53 



0R6 
EOU 
LEAX 

STX 
RTS 



00040 

00050 PRTCHR 
00060 START 
00070 f 
00080 
00090 
00100 » 
00110 ft 
00120 » 
00130 ft 

00140 START 1 JSR 

00150 JSR 

00160 JSR 

00170 CLR 

00180 JSR 

00190 JSR 

00200 CLRA 

00210 PRTHSS LEAY 
00220 ft 

00230 LEAX 

00240 JSR 

00250 LEAX 

00260 J8R 

00270 CLEANU LBRA 

00280 PRTRTN LDA 

00290 BEG 

00300 JSR 

00310 BRA 

00320 ENDPRT RTS 

00330 t TABLE OF ERROR NESSA6ES 

00340 NF FCC /NEXT MTHOUT FOR/ 

OO350 FDB IODO0 

00360 SN FCC /SYNTAX/ 



•7DF8 
IA002 

STARTt,PCR LOAD ADDRESS OF NEW ERROR 
ROUTINE 

$0192 REPLACE IN RAN ERROR HOOK 
BACK TO BASIC 
ENTRY POINT FOR ERROR ROUTINE 
FROM HERE TO THE ' PRTNSS ' LABEL 18 THE SERIES OF 
ROUTINES THAT BASIC USES PRIOR TO PRINTING ERROR 
NESS ABES, i.e. CLOSE FILES, CLEAN UP, PRINT '?'... 
>$A7E9 
>$A974 
>$AD33 
<$6F 
>$B95C 
>$B9AF 

ERRADR,PCR LOAD ADDRESS OF ERROR 

MESSAGE ADDRESS TABLE 
IB,Y] LOAD ADDRESS OF ERROR HESSA6E 
PRTRTN PRINT MESSAGE AT ADR IN X 
ERRTXT,PCR LOAD ADDRESS OF 'ERROR' TEXT 
PRTRTN PRINT NESSA8E AT ADR IN X 
IAC6B BACK TO BASICS ERROR HANDLER 
,Xt 6ET CHAR. 
ENDPRT IF END RETURN 
[PRTCHR} PRINT IT 
PRTRTN LOOP AGAIN 



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ALL TANDY DATA PRODUCTS ARE WHITE 
Over 100 Different CoCo Programs In Stock! 



(901)323-1183 
3422 Plaza 

MEMPHIS, TN 

38111 





7FIR 

f C^D 


AA 
VV 


AAT.7A 
VVjf V 


EPO 
PLB 


•AA 


f 6^7 


□* 


AA7QA DC 


EPP 


/BFTIIDU yiTuniiT GnCHB/ 
/nclUnn PilrtUU) DUsUB/ 


/E3D 


AfkAA 

0000 


003°0 


FDB 


I0D00 


7CCE 

/t3r 


4F 


aaiaa nn 
00400 00 


FCC 


/OUT Or DATA/ 


rCflff 


AO 

VV 


AAJ1A 

VV^ IV 




AAA 

?w 


/COB 


1A 


AAA7A FP 
Vv4aU rl# 


EPP 
rLL 


/EliyPTTAM PAI 1 / 


7C70 

7t78 


AA 


00430 


FCB 


100 


7E70 

ftn 


4p 


AAA! A AU 
00440 QV 


FCC 


/0VERFLW/ 


7CDI 

/col 


AA 


AA1VA 

00430 


FCB 


$00 


7EB2 


4r 


AA11A AH 

00460 on 


FCC 


/OUT OF HEHORV/ 


r COT 


AA 
Vv 


AA17A 
W4 /V 


EPO 
PLB 


AAA 
WW 


7FQA 
/C7V 


Kk 

93 


AAUA 111 
VV40V Ui. 


EPP 




7E0E 


AA 


AA1QA 
00470 


FCB 


$00 


7C0C 

ftir 


At 


AAKAA DC 


FCC 


/BAD SUBSCRIPT/ 


7CAr 

7EAC 


AA 
00 


AAtM A 

00510 


CPD 

FCB 


$00 


7car 


M3 

32 


U032V Vu 


CPP 

rLL 


/DEM MCM6I AMCn ADDAW / 

/RtDintttoIuNtD mnnif 


7epa 

/CLV 


AnAA 
VUOO 


AA47A 


CAD 

FUB 


Aahaa 
IO0OO 


7EP7 


44 


AAVAA l\A 

00340 I/O 


err 

FCC 


/mutne nv 7Cda/ 
/UI VI DE BY ItHUf 


1 CUV 


AA 
VV 


AAKKA 

VvJJV 


EPO 
PL0 


AAA 
100 


7FM 
fill i 


JQ 

47 


AAIAA in 


err 
rLL 


/II 1 CCAI TVTDCrT / 

/ILLtbnL ulKtLI/ 


7ERE 

ftUr 


AA 


AAV 7 A 

00370 


crD 
FCB 


$00 


7EEO 


■J 


005BO Tn 


FCC 


/TYPE HISMTCH/ 


7CCR 


AA 
00 


AAKOA 

005W 


crD 
FCB 


$00 


7EEE 
f ttt 


AC 

4r 


AAAAA MO 

ooooo ua 


err 

FCC 


/HUT AC DTDTUD en Arc / 

/OUT UF SIR I No SPACE/ 


f rsn 


AftAA 
VWV 


AAA1A 

vvoiv 


Eno 
PUB 


AADAA 


7F03 


53 


AAA9A IQ 

VVOAv L0 


FPP 

rbL 


/CTOTUA Tnn 1 HUB/ 
/SlnlRD IUU LUR0/ 


7F12 


00 


00630 


FCB 


AAA 
f W 


7F13 


53 


00A40 ST 


FCC 


/STRING TOO COMPLEX/ 

/ainilfw lull bUnTkCA/ 


7F25 


0000 


WOJV 


EAR 
rvo 


tAI\AA 
fVI/Ov 


7F27 


43 


AAAAA PH 


FCC 




7F35 


00 


00670 


FCB 


$00 


7F34 


42 


00680 FD 


FCC 


/BAD FILE DATA/ 


7F43 


00 


00690 


FCB 


$00 


7F44 


41 


00700 AO 


FCC 


/ALREADY OPEN/ 


7F50 


00 


00710 


FCB 


•AA 

?vv 


7F5I 


44 


00720 DN 


FCP 


/nEUTPE yiMDCD / 

/VtVlLt HURBtR/ 


IT 3t 


AA 
00 


AA77.A 
00 fW 


CPD 

rLo 


AAA 

fOO 


7F^C 

/r3r 


10 
47 


AA7AA Tfl 
00/40 1U 


CPP 

rLL 


/lUDIIT.nilTDIIT / 

/IHrUI-UUTrUF/ 


7F6C 


42 


00760 FH 

v v i wv r n 


FCC 


/BAD FILE MDF/ 


7F79 


00 


00770 


FCB 


$00 


7F7A 


46 


00780 NO 


FCC 


/FILE NOT OPEN/ 

till nui urEni 


7FP7 

trot 


AA 
vv 


AA70A 
W/7V 


EPO 
PLD 


AAA 


7F8R 

/TOO 


10 


A AAA A TF 

VVDVV IC 


FPP 

rLL 


/TypfiT paqt cyn nc cue/ 
/inrui rflai tnu Ur riLt/ 


7F9E 


ODOO 


00810 


FDB 


$0D00 


7FA0 


44 


00820 DS 


FCC 


/DIRECT STATEMENT/ 


7EOA 

frw 


AnAA 

ouoo 


00830 


FDB 


$0D00 


7CD7 

7FbZ 




00840 UF 


FCC 


/UNDEFINED FUNCTION/ 


7FC4 


00 


00850 


FCB 


$00 






00860 t TABLE OF ERROR HESSA8E ADDRESSESS 


7FC5 


7E30 


00870 ERRADR 


FDB 


NF 


7FC7 


7E42 


00880 


FDB 


SN 


7FPO 
r ru7 


7F10 
/C47 


00890 


FDB 


R6 


7FCB 


7C« 

/C Jr 


00900 


FDB 


QD 


7FCD 

IT liV 


7F&R 

/COD 


00910 


FDB 


FC 


7FCF 


7F70 

/C/7 


00920 


FDB 


OV 


7FD1 


7Ffl? 


00930 


FDB 


OH 


7Fm 


7FOA 

/C7V 


00940 


FDB 


UL 


7FM 


7FOF 
/E7r 


00950 


FDB 


BS 


7FA7 


7FAA 
/Cnv 


00960 


FDB 


DD 


7cno 


7eC2 


00970 


FDB 


DO 


7FDB 


7ED1 


00980 


FDB 


ID 


7 CAD. 

7FDv 


7EE0 


00990 


FDB 


TN 


7FDF 


7CCC 

7 ttt 


01000 


FDB 


OS 


7CC! 
/rtl 


7 CAT 

7F03 


01010 


FDB 


LS 


7CC7 


7CI7 


01020 


FDB 


ST 


7CC* 

7FE3 


7C77 

7P27 


01030 


FDB 


CN 


7FF7 
/rtf 


frit 


01040 


FDB 


FD 


/rcY 


7C1A 

7r44 


01050 


FDB 


AO 


7EFD 

/rtB 


7E^1 


01060 


FDB 


DN 


7EEn 
/rev 


7EU 


01070 


FDB 


10 


7FFF 

/rcr 


7EAP 
/rOL 


01080 


FDB 


FN 


7FFI 
ITT 1 


7E7A 


01090 


FDB 


NO 


7FFT 

/rro 


7EOA 

/roo 


01100 


FDB 


IE 


7FF1 

/rra 


7 FA A 
/THV 


oino 


FDB 


DS 


7FF7 

frr f 


7E09 

/ro2 


01120 


FDB 


UF 


7FF? 


20 


01130 ERRTXT 


FCC 


/ ERROR/ 


7FFF 


00 


01140 


FCB 


$00 




7DF8 


01150 


END 


START 


00000 


TOTAL ERRORS 









172 the RAINBOW January 1984 




■ 



by Gary Ritchie 




naker is a fast, 
colorful, Lo-Res action 
gamefora 16Kor32K 
Extended Color Computer. 
It requires two joysticks for 
controlling play. Although 
written in BASIC, the pro- 
gram has a lot of fast action 
and is difficult to master. 

The program is fairly sim- 
ple and uses a lot of REMs 
to make it easy to debug. 
Also note that there is a high 
speed poke {POKE 65495 a 0) 
in this game, so if your com- 
puter cannot use this poke, 
then you must make the 
change indicated in the last 
REMs in the program. 

Instructions: You are a some- 
what demented snake who 
has slithered onto a 30-lane 
freeway. The nearest exit is miles 
away, so you must slither 
down the highway as quickly 
as possible in order to escape. 
But horrors, it is rush hour, 
and there are hundreds of 
buses and trucks bearing 
down on you! (This snake 
better have a lot of life in- 
surance.) 

At the beginning of the 
game, your snake is a single 
graphics block at the top of 
the screen. Using the right 
joystick to move back and 
forth, and the left joystick to 
control the speed (push for- 
ward to go faster), try to 
avoid the oncoming vehicles. 
If you don't hit anything, 
your snake will become long- 
er and longer and will even- 
tually reach the bottom of 

the screen three times in or- 
der to win. Every time you 
crash, it will send you back 
up one block, and since this 
is a timed game, avoid those 
cars! Good luck! 





(Gary Ritchie, who is currents 
has been programming the Cj^ft^L 
a year. Upon finishing high s0f&$f% 
for a career in the computer jMtfy- 




fritter for about 
Wplans to study 



The listing: 
O 

i » 
2 

3 9 

4 p 
3 

6 9 

7 9 
8 




sn&ker 



BY J3ARY 



RITCHIE 
4983 



BOX 393 BELLEVUE ALBERTA 
CANADA TOK-OCO 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 173 




COLOR TERM + PLUS + 



If you're looking for the finest terminal software you can buy, look no further! And now we've added a high- 
res screen display that gives you 32 by 16, 42, 51, or 64 by 24 lines. * And you can switch between the high- 
res screen and the normal screen without destroying what you have in the buffer! + PLUS + we have a 
buffer editor, complete up and down load support, on-line cassette or disk reads and writes, off-line and on- 
line scrolling, pre-entry of data before calling, word wrap, buffer printing, selective printing, change any 
parameter so you can communicate with any other computer. You can send and receive Basic programs, 
ASCII file, as well as machine code, + PLUS + you can save your buffer to tape (Tape or Rom version) or 
disk (Disk version). You can communicate with the local BBS, Compuserve™, The Source™, the main 
frame at work or school, other color computers, Apples, IBM PC's, TRS-80 Model I, II, III, IV, 12, 16, 100, or 
any other computer via RS-232. J&^l 
Compare these features with any other terminal program: 5wnbow 

Scroll Protect Up to 9 Lines. CO "2£ T,OM 
Automatic Capture of Incoming Files, Send One 

Line At a Time From Your Buffer. 
Has Programmable Prompt for "Send Next Line!! 
Buffer Size Indicator. 
Complete Up and Down Load Support. 
Improved Buffer Editor. 
On/Off Line Scrolling of Buffer. 
On/Off Cassette or Disk Reads and Writes. 
Pre-Enter Data Before Going On-Line, 
Save/Load Machine Code, Basic Programs or Files. 
Select Printer Line Feeds If Needed or Ignore All 
Line Feeds in Buffer. 



32 x 16, 42, 51, 64 x 24 Screen 
Communications BAUD Rate: 110-19200 
Printer Baud Rate: 600-9600 
Select Half or Full Duplex. 
Select Odd, Even, or No Parity. 
Select 7 or 8 Bit Words. 
Send Control Characters. 
Send a True Line Break. 
Separate Keys for Escape and Rubout 
Select All Caps If Needed. 
Word Wrap — Eliminate Split Words. 

(32 Character Mode) 
Selectable Reverse or Normal Video. 
(32 Character Mode) 

*Disk and Rom Pack only (not on tape). PRICE: $29.95 (TAPE) $39.95 (ROM PACK) $39.95 (DISK) 




COLOR KEY COMMAND 

COLOR KEY COMMAND is a BASIC programming aid that 
will speed the entry of your programs. You can increase 
your programming speed by as much as 50%. Instead of 
having to type in all of the BASIC commands, you can 
simply press a control key, and then press one other key 
— the BASIC word is entered for you automatically! You 
can also activate the automatic line numbering mode, 
then every time you press enter a new line number is 
entered for you. You can select the start line and the in- 
crement. Ever wanted to copy lines you have already 
entered? Now you can. Simply type in the line number 
you want to copy, then type in the new line number. The 
new line is immediately displayed and you are put in Ex- 
tended Basic's EDIT Mode. Either edit the line, or press 
ENTER. (This command is not available to those with 
non-extended Basic users.) How about merging programs 
together from tape? Those with Extended Basic do not 
even have to worry about proper line numbering, COLOR 
KEY COMMAND will RENUMBER each program as it is 
loaded into memory! COLOR KEY COMMAND also has 
four custom programmable keys! Each key is capable of 
holding 64 characters each! How would you like one but- 
ton entry of 64 characters? What else will COLOR KEY 
COMMAND do? One button RUN, CLOAD, CLOADM, 
LLIST, LIST, RENUM, MOTORON, MOTOROFF, 
AUDIOON, AUDIOOFF, TRON, TROFF. Those with disk 
systems get one button BACKUP, DIR, FREE, and also 
you can print your directory to the printer with the touch 
of a button! You can turn off the program any time by 
pressing the CCMD OFF button. How can we offer so 
much for so little? We made templates that you can cut 
out yourself. You do about an hours work or less and save 



about $8.00. That is how much more we would have to 
charge if we did the work. You save in the process! You 
can also reprogram the prompt, no more "OK," and select 
the cursor color you want. 
16K or 32K Required PRICE: $18.95 (Tape) 



DOUBLE DOS BASIC 

364,000 BYTES! 

That's right! Using your 64K Color Computer, and an 80 
track drive, you too can have more than TWICE as much 
storage on your disk drive system. DOUBLE DOS BASIC 
allows you to use 35, 40 or 80 track (double or single sid- 
ed) drives all on one system, all at the same time! Your 
system could consist of a 35 track drive, a two drive 
AMDEK system, and an 80 track drive, all working, and 
hooked up to your system! (The AMDEK drives are 40 
track drives.) ALL commands are supported in DOUBLE 
DOS BASIC. The DOS is totally transparent to your 
BASIC programs! If your system selection is 80 tracks, a 
PRINT FREE command will return 158 granules! Com- 
pare this to the 68 granules your system now returns! The 
40 track drives would return 78 granules, 10 more than 
the 35 track system. EVERY command in BASIC is sup- 
ported by DOUBLE DOS BASIC. If you haven't already 
upgraded to 64K, now is the time! Use your system to its 
FULLEST! DOUBLE DOS BASIC also gives you RESET 
PROTECTION, unlike most of the other 64K programs. 
AND, used with our ROM MOVE program, you can also 
get another 8000 bytes of BASIC addressable memory! 
DOUBLE DOS BASIC - $24.95 
DOUBLE DOS & ROM MOVE - $29.95 



0®ylbll@ Oan/itu S@fSw@ir@ 



^^^^ 



DOUBLE MAILER 

At last a powerful, easy to use, mailing list program for a reasonable 
price. Up to 200 names can be held in memory for you to change or print 
as you like. Plus, you can print out up to 1800 names without touching 
the keyboard, The machine language sort routine will sort 200 names in as 
little as 6 seconds! Supports single or double labels. Three and four line 
labels can be intermixed at will, the print out will acUust accordingly. All 
this and much more! 
32K Required 

PRICE: Tape $19.95 Disk $21.95 

ROM MOVE 

Are you tired of having only 32K of memory when you have a 64K com- 
puter? ROM MOVE is just what you need! With ROM MOVE, you are given 
another 8000 bytes of room for your BASIC or Machine Language pro- 
grams! You can switch from BASIC to EXTENDED BASIC to DISK BASIC 
easily. 

Ask about our 48 K version; 64K Required 
PRICE: $12.95 (Tape) ROM SWITCH 

Change from BASIC to EXTENDED BASIC, to DISK BASIC and back again 
with ROM SWITCH! You can even press the RESET button, and with one 
POKE, restore the system! 
64K Required (Tape) 

PRICE: $9.95 COLOR BIORHYTHM 

Are you up or down today, yesterday, tomorrow or years from now? Find 

out with COLOR BIORHYTHM! Plot your biorhythm to the screen with 

high res color graphics, and use the printer to make a chart. 29 days can be 

displayed each time. 

16K or 32K Extended Basic Required 

PRICE: $14.95 (Tape) 

UNDERGROUND 

Tired of adventure games with limited descriptions of your surroundings? 
UNDERGROUND describes your surroundings in great detail just like a 
main frame computer adventure! How do you tame the guardian of Hell's 
gate? What does the mysterious machine do? Where is the famous golden 
apple? Find out in UNDERGROUND. 
32K Extended Basic Required 
PRICE: $26.95 (Disk Only) 

GALATIC MATH ^ 
GALACTIC MATH is not like any other math tutor program on the market 
for the Color Computer! This program has been written as an arcade 
game! The player becomes involved in playing the game and forgets that 
he/she is supposed to be learning! The student must enter the answer to a 
math question that is shown in the body of a flying saucer moving down 
from the top of the screen. There are four saucers moving down from the 
top toward the player. The player must maneuver his base under the 
saucer, enter the answer to the problem, press the spacebar to fire the 
laser. A new saucer with a new problem replaces the one just blasted. The 
score, time in play, number of hits, number of misses, and number of 
bases left to the player are displayed at the top of the screen. All of this is 
in high resolution graphics using the new 4 color mode on a black screen! 
There are four levels of difficulty, and you may select either addition or 
multiplication. Don't bore your kids with smiling clowns or happy faces! 
They want to play arcade games — let them play GALACTIC MATH and 
learn at the same time! 
16K or-32K Extended Basic Required 
PRICE: $15.95 (Tape) 

GOT A MODEM AND ALL THAT IT SEEMS TO DO IS GATHER DUST? 
FIND A FRIEND AND PLAY SOME GAMES OVER THE PHONE! EACH 
ORDER HAS TWO SETS OF INSTRUCTIONS, AND TWO TAPES. SHARE 
THE COST WITH A FRIEND! THREE GAMES TO CHOOSE FROM AND 
MORE ON THE WAY SOON. 

DOUBLE CABLE 

Tired of switching cables everytime you use your modem and printer? 
This is the fix!! Hook your modem and printer up at the same time! No 
more switching. 
PRICE: $14.95 

Buttons!! 

Rainbowfest buttons still available! 1\k inches in diameter, Various bright 
colors, yellow, green, red, blue, white & lavender, "Coco Widow," "Coco 
Kid," "6809 Power," "Coco Nut," "I Speak Basic," $1.00 each, six for 
$5.00; colorful rainbow design, $2.00 each. 



COUPON 

10% off when sent with order or mention this coupon when ordering 
by phone. 



MODEM IAGO 

We put our popular IAGO game (similar to Othello) in MODEM form. Now 
you can play it over the phone! Make your move, the pieces are flipped for 
you, select a message, press a button, and seconds later your opponents 
board is updated with your move. If you decide not to send the move you 
made, press a key and take it back. Super game! 
16K or 32K Extended Basic Required 
PRICE: $19.95 (Tape) 

MODEM CHECKERS 

Same fine features as the chess game. You can make multiple jumps! 
Crown pieces. Send messages. Everything is automatic! 
16K or 32K Extended Basic Required 
PRICE: $19.95 (Tape) 




MODEM CHESS 

You and a friend can play chess over the phone. The pieces are displayed 
on a high res graphics board. Move the pieces either with the joystick, or 
the keyboard. All moves are supported. Anything you can do on a regular 
chess board, you can do on this one. There is a message indicator which 
allows you to send messages each time you send a move. Make a move, 
select a message to send, press a button, and seconds later your 
opponent's board is updated. Has audio alerts; lets you know when a 
move is being made. 
16K or 32K Extended Basic Required 
PRICE: $19.95^Tape) 

COLOR DISK SAVER 

Disk bombed again? Can't really afford those expensive programs that 

might fix your disk? Anyone can afford the price of this program. COLOR 

DISK SAVER will save your sanity, as well as your disk. Don't wait until it 

is too late! COLOR DISK SAVER will save your disk to tape, reload the 

tape to disk if you ever need to restore the disk. Also has a tape verify 

command! Don't delay! 

32K Extended Basic Required 

PRICE. $12.95 (Tape) DD CLOCK 

A Real Time clock that shows hours, minutes and seconds. You can type in 
and run your programs just as you normally would, while DD CLOCK is 
ticking away in the top right corner of your screen. And just in case you 
forget to check up on the time, DD CLOCK will sound a tone every hour. 
This program does not interfere with programming! You will notice no dif- 
ference when running your programs. Many machine language programs 
are also compatible with DD CLOCK. This program uses one of the most 
powerful features of your 6809 microprocessor! 
16K or 32K Required 

PRICE: $9.95 (Tape) AUTOLOAD 

AUTOLOAD will load any tape program or file and put it on disk for you 
automatically! Autoload will skip programs with errors and go on to the 
next program, either automatically or it will stop and wait for you to tell it 
to go on. Autoload will also fix all of those machine language programs 
that load either down in the disk system area or lower. You will no longer 
have to remove the disk countroller before playing a game. Autoload will 
do all of the hard work for you, while you watch! All machine code pro- 
gram. Will not load copy protected programs. 
16K or 32K Extended Basic required. 
PRICE: $12.95 (Tape) 

COLOR COMPUTER/TDP-100 

SUPER-PRO 

REPLACEMENT KEYBOARD KIT *0<*.»0 
FREE PROGRAMS!! 

Get a FREE utility program when you buy a copy of COLOR KEY COM- 
MAND! Your choice of COLOR DISK SAVER, DD CLOCK, SUPER 
PEEKER, TAPE NAME, AUTOLOAD, or CURSOR II. Save up to $12.95! 
COLOR KEY COMMAND is only $18.95 (Tape) * D. 

* All machine code D Disk Compatible 
$2.00 shipping and handling on all orders. $3.00 charge on C.O.D. orders, 
Mastercard and VISA accepted. Texas residents add 5% sales tax. Allow 
two weeks for personal checks. 
Send 20 cent stamp for free catalog. 

Double Density Software 

920 Baldwin Street 
Denton, Texas 76201 
Phone 817/566-2004 
* Canadians* 
Kelly Software Distributors Ltd. 
P.O. Box 11932 
Edmonton, Alberta. 
(403) 421-8003 



Save;; 



I MasterCard] 

L dk <J 




CoCo HEADQUARTERS 

Looking to unlock the capacity of your Color Computer? 

Search no more; 



TOLL FREE 
1-800-251-5008 




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BUJi 




w0 









SPECIALS 










1*1 Extended Basic w/bk 


$ 


69.95 


26- 


3026 


Color Computer 2 16k 


$ 


149. 


95 


64k Memory Upgrade 


$ 


59.95 


26- 


3026E Extended CoCo 2 16k 


$ 


224. 


95 


RS 1.1 Disk Controller 


$ 


149.95 


26- 


3003 


64k Extended CoCo 


$ 


329. 


95 


1.2 Color Basic Rom 


$ 


29.95 


26- 


3011 


MC-10 CoCo 


$ 


CALL 


Amdek Disk Drives 


$ 


499.95 


26- 


1261 


TP-10 Thermal Printer 


$ 


89. 


95 


26-3022 CoCo Drive 0 


$ 


349.95 


26- 


1192 


CGP-115 Printer/Plotter 


$ 


179. 


95 


26-3029 CoCo 2 Drive 0 


$ 


349.95 


C. 


Itoh 


Banana Serial 50 cps 


$ 


249. 


95 


26-3023 Drive 1 


$ 


239.95 


C. 


Itoh 


Prowriter 8510 (par) 


$ 


399. 


95 


Super Pro Keyboard Kit 


$ 


64.95 


26- 


1268 


CGP-220 Color Jet Ptr. 


$ 


639. 


95 


26-3016 RS Keyboard kit 


$ 


34.95 


26- 


3024 


RS Multi-Pac Interface 


$ 


149. 


95 



ACCESSORIES 



RS D.C. Modem IB $ 89.95 

Novation J-Cat Modem $ 129.95 
RS D.C. Modem II $ 179.95 

Hayes SM 300 Modem $ 239.95 

USR Password 300/1200 $ 449.95 
Hayes/USR/Banana cables $ 19.95 



Elephant Disks ssdd 

Verbatim Disks ssdd 

Kraft Joystick 

CoCo Switcher 

26-3020 4 pin DIN cable 

Botek ser/par Interface 



22.95 
27.95 
39.95 
39.95 
5.29 
69.95 



SOFTWARE & BOOKS 



OS-9 (req. 64k) 


$ 


64. 


95 


(Disk) 


Color Computer Graphics 


$ 


5. 


95 






Basic-09 (req. OS-9) 


$ 


89. 


95 


(Disk) 


CoCo Assembly Prog. 


$ 


6. 


95 






Color Logo 


$ 


44. 


95 


(Rom) 


CoCo Programs 


$ 


9. 


95 






MSI Diskutil 


$ 


19. 


95 


(Disk) 


101 CoCo Programs 


$ 


9. 


95 






MSI Maillist 


$ 


24. 


95 


(Disk) 


Programming the 6809 


$ 


14. 


95 






MSI Color Finance 


$ 


49. 


95 


(Disk) 


Bas ic Faster and Bet ter 


$ 


29. 


95 






Elite-Calc 


$ 


44. 


95 


(C or 0 


Pooyan by Konami (32k) 


$ 


34. 


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(C 


& D) 


Colorcom/E 


$ 


49. 


95 


(Disk) 


Sea Dragon (32k) 


$ 


34. 


95 


(C 


or D) 



***************** ********************^ 
TOLL Call for prices and availability or your other favorite software TOLL 
p|^££ Al3 - advertised items subject to availability FREE 



TENNESSEE 
1-800-545-2502 



Prices do not include shipping & handling 



All of the above units covered by our 120 
day carry in warranty. 

TRS-80 Trademark Tandy Corporation. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 

Write for our FREE newsletter! 



FACTORY DIRECT 
PURE RADIO SHACK EQUIPMENT 
"THE COCO PROFESSIONALS" 




VISA 



1-800-251-5008 

DELKER ELECTRONICS, INC. 
P.O. BOX 897 DEPT D 
SMYRNA, TN 37167 
800-251-5008 
800-545-2502 (TENNESSEE) 
615-459-2636 TENNESSEE 
615-254-0088 (NASHVILLE 



10 POKE 69494,0 

20 L-1025:R-1054:P-1039:M*0:HT-0 

:q-o:bs-70ooo:soo:for pp-i to 5 
: read pl:c<pp>-pl:next pp 

30 DATA 139,191,207,239,233 

40 CLS RND<4)+1: PRINTS 192,3TRIN 

G*(32, "X M >|:PRINT«224,8TRIN8*(13 

,253) | :PRINT«237, "■n*k»r" I STRING 

* < 13, 233) | STRING* (32, "X" ) I 

30 PLAY "T4 03 V25 LB D 6 A L4 B 

L8 A G P8 04 D C# C 03 L4 B LB 
A 6 P8 D G B 04 L4 D L8 C# L4 D 
03 LB B A 8 L4... B L8 B 04 E Dtt 
L4 E 03 L8 B L4 04 C L8 03 B 04 
D C L4 03 B L8 A L4 8 LB B 04 D 
C 03 B P8 A L4 8 L8 A 6 F* E P8 
B P4 04 E" 'Bublitchki 
60 PRINTS 480, M «pr«BS ANY kmy T 
0 START»"|:IF INKEY*-"" THEN 60 
70 * 

80 's«tup 

90 BOSUB 840 

100 CLSSFOR PP-1024 TO 1304 STEP 
32: POKE PP, 173: PLAY "T235 04 A B 

":POKE FP+31,175:PU*Y"04 e m :next 
pp:tiner-o 

no » 

120 'main loop 

130 FOR QQ-1 TO 2: FOR N-148 TO 2 
44 STEP 16 

140 M»<J0YSTK<0><6) - (J0Y8TK(0) 
>57) 

150 SP-J0Y8TK<3) 

160 P-P+M:IF P<L THEN P-L ELSE I 
F P>R THEN P-R 
170 IF PEEK(P)<>96 THEN 320 
180 POKE P,N 

190 PLAY "02 T255 8 03 C" 

200 FOR PP-1 TO sp:next PP 

210 POKE RND (30) +1504, C (RND (5)) 

220 POKE RND (30) +1304,0 (RND (5) ) 

230 POKE 1304, 175: PRINTS 511, CHR 

*(173)| 

240 NEXT N,QQ 

250 * 

260 'advance snake 
270 L«L+32:R-R+32 

280 IF L-1441 THEN POKE P,148:P" 
P+32:P0KE P, 244: SOTO 3BO 
290 POKE P, 148: P-P+32: SOTO 130 
300 » 

310 'crash 

320 L-L-32:R»R-32: IF L<1025 THEN 

L-1023:R-R+32 
330 FOR PL-1 TO 2:PLAY U 02 T2 L8 
B":SCREENO, 1: PLAY" LB E": SCREEN O 
,0:NEXT PL 

340 POKE RND (29) +1305,0 (RND (5)) : 
POKE 1504, 175:P0KE 1535, 173: POKE 
P,96:P-P-32:P0KE P, 96: POKE P+l, 



96: POKE P-1,96:IF P<1025 THEN P= 
P+32 

350 GOTO 130 
360 * 

370 * reached bottom 

380 HT=TIMER:Q=Q+l: IF Q=3 THEN 4 

30 

390 FOR PP=1 TO 15:PLAY"04 T255 
A B E":POKE 1504, 175: PRINTS 511, 
CHR* ( 175) ;: NEXT PPrPOKE 1504,175 
:POKE 1535,175 

400 L=1025:R=1054:P=1039:M=0:TIM 

er=ht:goto 130 

410 * 
420 'win 

430 POKE 65494,0: CLS RND (8) :PLAY 
"V7 02 T2 LB F A 03 C L4 F L8 C 
L4. F":GOSUB 470 

440 CLS RND (8) : PLAY" V> 02 T2 L8 
A 03 C E L4 6 L8 E L4. G":GOSUB 
470 

450 CLS RND (8) :PLAY"V> 03 T2 L8 
C F A 04 L4 C 03 L8 A 04 L4. C": 
GOSUB 470 

460 PLAY"V15 M :G0T0 510 

470 PLAY "T255 OlEFGBCAED 
AGFCEDCBGEADDABC 
GEADGCAEFEBCEDGA 
EDBCDEDGBCEDC" 

480 RETURN 



32 Disk Basic 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE PROGRAM 

♦Accounts Receivable for large or 

small business 
*Menu driven 
*1 to 4 disk drives 
*100 to 400 accounts 
*5K to 20K transactions per month 
*Basic for easy editing 

$49.95 
Disk Only 



32K Disk Basic 

MASTER SAVE 

*Master directory, up to 35 disks 

on single disk 
♦Directory back-up on your disk if 

you lose the original directory 
*Hard print-out of directory 
♦Menu driven 

$19. 95* 
Disk Only 

LEADER SALES CORPORATION 

P. O. Box 1220 MC 
Henderson, Tx. 75653-1220 VISA 
+ plus shipping & handling 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 177 



490 * 

500 'acora 

510 CL8 RND (4) *U PRINTS 168, "YOU 

HADE IT IN: "I 
520 SOHT/60:M*~LEFT*<STR*UNT<8 
C/60)),3):IF VAL-ffttKl THEN H*-" 
00" 

530 IF LEN<H*>>2 THEN M*-RI6HT*( 
M*,2) 

540 S*-LEFT*<STR*<INT<SC-INT<SC/ 
60)*60)),3):IF LEN(8*)<3 THEN 8* 
-"O" + RI8HT*(8* P 1) ELSE S*»RIQH 
T«<8*,2> 

550 FOR PP-1312 TO 1343: POKE PP, 
33: NEXT PP 

560 PS»-H*+": "+8*:PRINT8 301, PS* 
I 

570 FOR 0-1 TO 5:F0R N-l TO 12?P 
LAY"T255 0"*8TR»<0H-"N"«8TR«<N>: 
NEXT N O 

380 FOR PP-1 TO 1600.NEXT PP 
990 IF HT<BS THEN 608UB 790 
600 9 

610 'mho* tommt «cor» 

620 CL80: PRINT* 10 9 M BE8T SCORE " I 

630 PRINTS 224, STRING* <32, 143)1 : 

PRINTS 192, STRING* < 32, 253) I : PR IN 

Jm 236, STRING* (32,233) I 

640 PRINT«224,N*| M ~ — ■ BS* 




• TANKS • SPIDERS •BLOCKS • CYCLES • 



Battle spiders! Blast your way through the descending blocks! Defeat the 
enemy tanks! Trap the menacing cyclesl Increasing levels of difficulty make 
each a real challenge! KRON is a fast ML program with multi-colorsj Hl-Res, 
and many great sounds. It displays the top five scores plus has a pause feature 
and display mode. 

32K STANDARD- JOYSTICK TAPE-DISK $26.95-529.95 



KING PEDE 

The ultimate pede game! You'll face up to eight different enemies including 
swarms of wasps. ML— multi-color. 

32K STANDARD-JOYSTICK TAPE-DISK $24.95$27.95 



MEM-OS64 

A 64K Menu Driven ML Utility which allows you to store multiple ML or Basic 
programs in the high 32K RAM then pull the desired program and Run/Exec it. It 
maintains a directory, displays the amount of free memory and length of pro- 
grams, has a Motor/Audjo On/Off command, a Load and Kill command, and 
allows the easy switching of programs with disk-like speed! With the Multiple 
Load feature, you can load several programs at once with ease! 
64K EXTENDED TAPE$15.95 



PEEKCOPY 

Copies tape-based software (even most autostarts), displays memory in Hex 
and ASCII, displays the Start, End, and Exec addresses of ML programs, allows 
the changing of memory, and more (ML)! 

16K STANDARD TAPE $11.95 



REDUCIT 

A ML program that makes your Basic programs use less memory and run more 
efficiently (faster) by combining lines and removing unnecessary spaces and 
remarks! 

16K STANDARD TAPE $9.95 



PLEASE ADD $2.00 EACH ORDER, POSTAGE/HANDLING 

OREGON COLOR COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

P.O. BOX 11468, EUGENE, OR 97440 



178 the RAINBOW January 1984 



I 

650 FOR 0-5 TO i STEP -ISFQR N-l 
2 TO 1 STEP -i:PLAY BI T235 0"+STR* 
<D)+»N"+STR*<N);NEXT N 9 0 
660 FOR PP-1 TO 1800: NEXT PP 
670 p 

680 9 pi my again 

690 SOUND 100 9 2 

700 CLS: PRINT- ANOTHER GAME <Y/N) 

710 Z*-INKEY*:IF Z*<>" H THEN 720 
ELSE 710 

720 IF Z«-"N" THEN PRINT"BE8T SC 
ORE; "IN*: PRINT: PRINT BS*: PRINT: 0 
OTO 8SO 

730 IF Z*<> H Y" THEN SOUND 25,1:6 
OTO 700 
740 ' 

790 'rmt and start 

760 0OSUB 840:L-1025:R-1054:P-10 

39:m-o:q-o:sc-o:boto ioo 

770 > 

780 'new bast scora 

790 bs»ht:ht-o:bs*-ps*:cls rnd<8 

>:PRINT"WHAT IS YOUR NAME" I :LINE 

INPUT" »»?" I N» 
800 RETURN 
810 * 

820 'high apaad 

830 'IF YOUR COMPUTER CANNOT 

TAKE THE HIGH SPEED POKE, 

THEN CHANGE THE FOLLOWING 

LINE TO: 

840 RETURN 
840 POKE 69495,0: RETURN 
8SO END 



Hint . . . 



Single Disk COPY 

Here's a feature which can be invaluable for users with a 
single disk drive. The Radio Shack Disk Manual mentions 
that use of the COPY Command requires two or more 
drives. This is not necessarily true. A single drive COPY can 
be made by doing the following: 

1) Insert disk with file to be copied into the drive 0. 

2) Type "COPY "FILENAME/ ext:0" and press 
<ENTER>. 

3) There will be one short beep and a notice will appear 
on the screen instructing the user to insert the desti- 
nation disk. 

4) Insert destination disk and press <ENTER>. 

5) Once completed there will be two copies of the pro- 
gram: one original and one on the destination disk. 

This method works' for all types of disk files including 
machine language programs. 



HARDWARE 



Monitor Mod 
For Your CoCo 



By Richard Kottke 



When was the last time you had to interrupt your 
word processing because your wife was busy food 
processing? Has your neighbor's electric garage 
door opener closed your CoCo? Do electric shavers, hair 
dryers and toasters make your TV picture do the hula? If so, 
then you are suffering from the television picture blues. 
There are many causes; line interference, bad cables, rotten 
old TV's, but only one good cure: buy a video monitor. 

Costing approximately $300, video monitors are quite 
competitive with their television cousins, with one catch: 
CoCo was intended for televisions only. In other words, if 
you ran a cable from the "TO TV'jack on your computer to 
a video monitor, all you'd get would be a blank screen. How 
depressing! Will CoCo be forever deprived of the high 
quality, razor-sharp picture of a video monitor? Will we all 
be condemned for life to staring at blurry, interference- 
laden, rotten, gosh-awful televisions while using one of the 
world's best computers? No! Something must be done! 

Well, if you're the adventurous sort, you can have that 
high-quality, razor-sharp monitor working on your CoCo 
for the price of some solder and a few feet of cable, with the 
added bonus of a professional quality sound output. How? 
Perhaps a little theory will illustrate. Video monitors and 
televisions are actually pretty much the same — with one 
exception: televisions get their picture from a radio fre- 
quency (R.F.) signal, and monitors use a voltage frequency 

(Richard Kottke, a native of Crivitz, WI, is a student at 
the University of Wisconsin — Madison under a Naval 
ROTC scholarship. He is majoring in electrical en- 
gineering.) 



IDEAL FOR SCHOOL P.A., POINT OF PURdHASE ■ SALES, TRADE SHOWS, 
LECTURE/DEMOS, SALES MESSAGES. ETC. 



LARGE 

3-D 
LETTER 
MESSAGE 
DISPLAYER 



- READABLE TO 50 FT. 

> Vh, 3, 4 INCH LETTERS (2B"tv) 

> 3-D LIKE SHADOWS 

• 3 LETTER STYLES • 4 COLORS 

> POP-OUT OR PREPRINTED MESSAGES 



• STORE & DISPLAY 100+ INDIVIDUALLY FORMATTED MESSAGES 

• USER SELELCTABLE: Spacing, Positioning, Size, Letter Styles, 

' Color Combinations, Shadowing, 

• FULL FEATURE EDITOR includes L oad, Save, Enter, Delete, change, 

Insert copy, Preview, Display 

• AUTOMATIC OR SWITCH ACTIVATED MESSAGE CHANGING 



urn* 



LARGE 3-D LETTER MESSAGE DISPLAYER (32ECB) Cassette $ 29.95 

HSAC SOFTWARE, 1 Fourth St., Farmingville, N.Y. 11738 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



(LF.) signal. Some computers, such as the Apple, were 
designed to be used with monitors, so their video output is 
an LF. signal. To be used with a TV, the Apple's LF. video 
signal must be run through an R.F. modulator, which is then 
hooked up to a standard TV set. Aha! The signal we want, 
then, must be an tmmodulated signal, one that has not been 
run through an R.F. modulator. 

As it turns out, CoCo has an R.F. modulator built into the 
circuit board. To use a monitor with our CoCo, we must 
intercept the video signal before it gets to the R.F. modula- 
tor, while it is still in the LF. form. At this point, you might 
as well open up your computer so you can see what I'm 
talking about. 

Turn the computer upside-down and look at the bottom. 
There are nine medium-sized holes in the case. Get a 
medium-sized Phillips screwdriver and try to unscrew a 
screw from each hole (some holes may not have screws — it 
depends on what revision board you have). The last screw is 
under the sticker that says ^'breaking this seal will void your 
warranty . . If you want to be sneaky, you can peel it off 
and glue it back on later. Once all of the screws are out, turn 
the computer right side up and remove the case top. Behold 
the naked CoCo! Touch not any chip, lest it mysteriously 
zonks out! Turn the case so that you are looking at the back 
of the computer. You shouldn't notice (see Figure 1) the 
R.F. modulator in front of you. One of the four leads going 
into this magic box contains that elusive LF. signal, which is 
what we want. Another one carries the sound signal, which 
we must also tap, because the monitor's LF. signal does not 
carry sound. 



Mission: DESTROY 



Agent File M7 



Your mission, should you choose to icctpt it 9 is to 
destroy tht 18 warhead nissile being engineered by 
Soviet scientists. The text screens and high-res 
graphics screens bring you the ultimate espionage 
adventure. Rtq. 32K extended basic $17,93 

Creations Unlinited 
TOP SECRET 2iTi1tonLane 

Andover, NA 11611 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 179 



Now, on with the mod. Get the following: 

1. A video monitor, preferably one with a built-in 
audio amp; 

2. Two shielded cables with "RCA" plugs (RS 
#42-2 #42-2371; 

3. Some shielded solder; 

4. A low watt soldering iron; and 

5. Some patience and a steady hand. 

First burn, cut, file, or drill a hole in the back of the upper 
case large enough for the two cables, then thread the cables 
through the hole. Now look at Figure 2. Solder the center 
lead from one of the cables to lead #1 from the modulator 
(this is the I.F. video). Solder the center lead from the other 
cable to lead #3 from trie modulator (this is the sound). Twist 
the copper shielding from both cables together, and solder it 
to the case of the modulator. Lastly, mark the video cable 
(from lead # 1 ) with a piece of tape. Now carefully replace the 
case top, turn the computer over, and replace the screws (the 
two small ones go up near the keyboard). If you did 
everything correctly, the back should look like Figure 3. 

To test the mod, plug the cable with the tape into the jack 
of your video monitor labled "VIDEO IN." Plug the 
unmarked cable into the jack marked "AUDIO IN," or plug 
it into your stereo system. When you turn everything on, the 
video monitor should show the familiar green screen with a 
black border. 

You will probably have to fiddle with the controls a bit to 
get a really good picture. If, no matter how much you fiddle, 
the picture looks washed out, reopen the computer and, 
while it is running, adjust the pot labeled "contrast" on the 
circuitboard. If you can't find the pot, it should be near the 
modulator. R pot is a sort of black, disk-like deal with an 



inset shaft that turns. Adjust this pot until you like what you 
see, and then reclose the case. 

I've had this mod installed for a month now with no 
problems, except that I had to readjust the contrast pot 
when switching from TV to monitor. Nothing I've seen can 
beat that clean, crisp video picture, and it sure cures those 
old television blues! 



Figure 1 



MODULATOR 



AUDIO 3i 1 

VIDEO 2 1 H 
1 i 1 i 


Figure 2 






U "' ' 




Flgurc3 -TV 


3 — 4i i i in n 


AUDIO * 


VIDEO 








112 W. WISCONSIN AV. 
KAUKAUNA, Wl 54130 
(414) 766-1851 
STOCK ITEMS SHIPPED SAME DAYI 



THE COMPLETE TRS-80® LINE 



E8 



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THE COSMOS 
CONNECTION IS 
A COMPLETE SERIAL 
TO PARALLEL INTERFACE 
FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER TO 
THE GEMINI — 10and15 
PRINTERS. 



• NO AC REQUIRED 
. SWITCHABLE 
BAUD RATE 
AT: 600 

1200 
2400 

. HIGH QUALITY 
CONSTRUCTION 

• COMPACT 
. 90 DAY 

WARRANTY 




GEMINI-10 
PACKAGE 

READY TO PLUG IN 
TO YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 
ONLY* ^4l/^4ll><^ 

jt $339.00 % 



COLOR COMPUTER 
MODEL 100 
MODEL 4 
MODEL 16 
MODEL 12 
ACCESSORIES 



THE 
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AND 
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IT'S A 
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CALL FOR THE BEST DISCOUNT PRICE 
ON TRS-80® FULLY WARRANTEED 
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'plus $10.00 Shipping and Handling 

PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE. 



GEMINI— 10X 
PACKAGE 




icronics 



i n c 



TRS-B0 IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP. 



THE POWER BEHIND THE PRINTED WORD. 



180 the RAINBOW January 1984 



* TALKING PROGRAMS 




The Final Countdown 




TALKING 
FINAL COUNTDOWN 

(by Bill Cook) 

Now speech has been added to the excite-* 
mem of this superb adventure. You must 
stop the mad general from launching a 
missile at Moscow and causing WWIII, 
Has multiple voices for added realism. 
For 32K EXT , , , . : :,, . r , M » . . f , . , , $24,95 
Standard cassette 

FINAL COUNTDOWN . , $14.95 



N EW spell- a tron 

This educational program will assist in 
teaching children how to spell. The pro- 
gram allows the user to build a dictionary 
of words, with proper pronunciation as 
well as spelling, and then the test mode 
can be entered for use by the child. The 
program will both spell the word and say 
the word if the child is not correct. Uses 
only positive reinforcement, and is very 
user friendly. For ANY age child or adult. 
With documentation. 32K EXT. , , $28.95 



TALKING 
SCORE E-Z 

An excellent adaptation of yahtzee type 
program with the addition of speech. Up 
to six players can compete at a time, and 
all scoring and record keeping is done by 
the computer. Requires the Spectrum 
Speaker, and 32K ext. basic. Let your 
computer talk to you for a change. On 

cassette for only , . . $24.95 

Standard SCORE E-Z . „ . ..$15.95 



* All JARB Software talking programs require the Spectrum Speaker to work. 

Look for more talking programs to come. 



UTILITIES 

From 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

64K UTILITY PACK (disk) includes 40K, 
Romcrack, and Spool 64 only. ; , . .$21.95 

40K on cassette (diskable) when used with 
a 64K computer will give you a 40K of 
user ram to be used as you wish. 
Only, $9,95 

TAPE UTILITY (disk) includes tape to 

disk, disk to tape, and more. 

Now only. $24.95 

SCHEMATIC DRAFTING PROCES- 
SOR (disk) can draw large scale 
schematics in hi*res (has six overlapping 
screens) and then print them out to any of 
several popular printers, fasti ! A must for 
serious hardware computerist. 
Nowpnlv,*... M , , $49.95 



******* 



JARBE 



SOFTWARE 
HARDWARE 



COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

1636 D Avexnie, Suite C 
National City, CA 92050 

BBS {f>W}W&mt 
VOICE (619) 474-8982 



ARCADE ACTION!!! 



JUNGLE TREK 



RAINBOW 

MM***!** 



lost in a jungle with wild animals lurking; 
your only survival is to find a safe com- 
pound before you are lunch for lions; 
high resolution 5 multi-color. 
16KEXT,....,.,.....,- ,.$L4.y5 



NEW 



SPECTRUM SPEAKER 

This excellent hardware/ software com- 
bination gives the best speech available to 
the color computer user. The hardware 
plugs into the ROM pack port, and uses 
the Votrax SC01 phoneme synthesizer for 
superior speech. The software consists of 
both BASIC and M/L programs to allow 
for text to speech conversion, pre- or user 
defined dictionary of words, and easy 
Interfacing to any basic program. Best of 
all, if you use the multipac interface by 
R/S you can use both the disk drives and 
the Spectrum Speaker at the same time. 
This opens up new worlds of use for the 
combination. Both 16K and 32K software 
are included, and the price is only . $69.95 

We carry products 
from many manufacturers. 
If you don't see it, ask. 



US FUNDS ONLY 

CO.D. ORDERS ACCEPTED 

NO CREDIT CARD ORDERS 



SHIPPING AND HANDLING: Unless 
otherwise specified, ail orders $3.00 per 
order. California Residents add 6% sales 
tax. 



COLORSOFT - APPLICATIONS 



COLORSOFT MANAGEMENT SKILLS 
SCRIES I: BEING BOSS 



BEING SOS6 ' U ■ coIIkIIqa el •)■ program* and It lha fir* I tr» an ongoing 
lariat ol compultr ittltltd minagtinanl dairalopmanl loot*. Thou who can 
banal II Include corporal* •tacutivti. manaoar*, haad* of laama, group laadar*. 
luparniiar*. faraman*. (tachari. and pirtntt. In lacl. anyoni who mual laka a 
laadarthip rof* can tt*n«fli from ihtta program* 

A. ACFLCCTIONS • a aatf araruaUon gutd* 

8. AtSEHTIVf NC9S - liking control ai a taadtf 

C. MANAQKMEMT STYLtS - now lo approach trt* laadarthlp rot* 

D. DECISION UAKING - horn lo handla d**l»ton making 

t COUNSELINO - twlptng orhara i<H»# ptraanai proUama 
F. STRESS CONTROL - taking cara ol youraatf 



Each program i* ir 



i. 



a multlpl* cholea quaaliofinalra format wtiar* lha uaar la 
. ont a to a tp«clllad management iiluation. Tutorlala halp lha 
laarn new minagamanl till)* and IniighU Tha program* Ineluoa votca 
annolallon from tha author. Ur. Tarry Barker. BCINQ BOSVll band In pah or) 
hit iorihcomlng maiiagemanl book* "BOSS TALK" and'THEOnv C." 
The itrlai. BEIHO BOSS .offer* lo tha uaar tha laleal In marvaoamenl *ktN 
dava lopmenl c one a pi i and thou Id prove to be an Invaluable TOOL lor anyone 
who wlahei lo raach Ihelr lull potential ai a leader. The author hat condenaed 
week long Inlentlve workthop malarial Into lhl» otilatendeig package. Tha 
accompanying uier a manual I* vary wall written and la eatlly underalood by 

Requires 16K Est BASIC and cassette. 
PRICE $69.95 



STOCK 



ANALYZER 



■HI, i£4i. 






HOUSEHOLD 
EXPENSE 
MANAGER 
MANAGER 
MANAGER 
MANAGER 
, MANAGER 
f HANAOER - 




Portfolio mgmt. and 
trend projections. 
16K Ext. BASIC $21.95 



Amortization schedules, 

auto loans, etc. 
16K Ext. BASIC $20.95 



30 expense categories 

with bar graphs. 
16K Ext. BASIC $19.95 



COLORSOFT "GAMES 




SCAVENGER 
HUNT 



Two player chase game. A 3-D Graphics 

Adventure. 

16K Ext. BASIC with joysticks 16K Ext. BASIC 
$12.95 $18.95 



Board game, 1 or 2 
players. 

16K Ext. BASIC 
$16.95 



Beginners Adventure 2 player adventure. 



16K Ext. BASIC 
$13.95 



16K Ext. BASIC 
$18.95 



GOLDLABEL 

BLANK CASSETTES 



PREMIUM 5 SCREW SHELL 
COMPUTER QUALITY 

| SATISFACTION GUARANTEED 

MADE IN U.S.A. 

SCHOOL/CLUB DISCOUNTS 



IF YOU ARE SERIOUS ABOUT SAVING PROGRAMS AND 
DATA ON TAPE, THEN "GO FOR THE GOLD" 

1 dozen C10 $ 8.50 + 5 2.50 shipping 

2 dozen C-10 $ 16.00 ♦ $ 3.50 shipping 

1 down C-30 $ 12.50 + S 2.50 shipping 

2 dozen C-30 $ 23.50 + $ 3.50 shipping 

INDIVIDUAL CASSETTE STORAGE BOXES (SOLD ONLY WITH CASSETTES) S2.40 PER DOZEN 



CASSETTE CADDY 



HOLDS 12 CASSETTES 
HINGED TOP 
STACKABLE 
EDGE LABELS INCLUDED 



S 3.95 + S 2.00 shipping 
i for $7.00 ♦ $ 2.50 shipping 
FREE SHIPPING WHEN PURCHASED WITH CASSETTES 



ATTENTION DISK USERS 

ARE YOU TIRED OF I/O ERRORS AND LOST DIRECTORY FAILURES 




I When these edge conne ctort are attached to tha Disk controllars, lha draadad I/O arror and lost directory | 
| failuras may be virtually eliminated. The installation of these connectors DOES NOT REQUIRE SOLDER* 
INQ. THESE GOLD CONNECTORS ARE SOLDERED DIRECTLY TO THE EDOE CONNECTORS OF THE I 
DISK CONTROLLER. INSTALLATION OF THESE CONNECTORS MA Y VOID THE WARRANTY ON THE | 
| DISK CONTROLLER. 

KIT INCLUDE8 TWO CONNECTORS AND COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS FOR EASY INSTALLATION. 
PRICE: $18.95'+ 1 1.00 shipping (Installation not Included) 
A8K YOUR DEALER ABOUT THEIR INSTALLATION 8ERVICES 
CU8TOM INSTALLATION (Includes connectors): $35.05 + $ 4.00 return shipping 
INSTALLATION AND UPS 2nd DAY SERVICE WITHIN 5 DAYS OF RECEIPT OF DISK CONTROLLER 



BRANTEX, INC. 

COLOR SOFTWARE SERVICES DtV. 
P.O. Bos 1708 
Greenville. Tesas 75401 



jrt- 

ATTENTION DEALERS: WE OFFER THE BEST GEALEfl PLANA AVAILABLE 



TELEPHONE ORDERS 
(214) 454-3674 
COD/VISA/MASTERCARD 
Include $2.25 Handling per order 
Write for Free Catalog 



OLORSOFT™ BUSINESS SOFTWARE 

AT LAST! BUSINESS SOFTWARE DESIGNED FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 
★ MAKE YOUR COLOR COMPUTER A WORKING BUSINESS PARTNER ★ 
★ ALL PROGRAMS ARE MENU DRIVEN AND USER FRIENDLY ★ 
★ PROFESSIONALLY WRITTEN AND FULLY TESTED ★ 
★ AFTER-THE-SALE SUPPORT ★ 



COLORSOFT tvn GENERAL LEDGER 

COLORSOFT tm General Ledger is Ideal lor the small business man who 
wants to take advantage ot the time saving benefits of computerized account- 
ing procedures. This package is designed for the businessman who is 
knowledgable of accounting principles and who wants a computerized 
accounting system with greater user control. The features and options of this 
package compare favorably to higher priced software. 

FEATURES 

"* USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN "* 
*" UP TO 96 USER DEFINABLE RECORD CATEGORIES *** 
*** USER FLEXIBILITY IN ACCOUNT DESIGN AND ENTRIES *" 
DETAILED USER'S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS "* 
*** APPROXIMATELY 800 ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE/PAYABLE FILES *** 
"•STYLED FOR THE ACCOUNTANT/BOOKKEEPING ORIENTED USER*** 

*** MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY, FAST, AND EFFICIENT *** 
COLORSOFT tm General Ledger Is an integrated, journal-type double entry 
accounting package for a small business that includes General Ledger, 
Accounts Payable, and Accounts Receivable programs. Outputs of the system 
include an income statement, balance sheet, accounts payable and receivable 
status lists, accounts payable and receivable aging reports, journal reports, 
account listing and a closing summary. During each user established account- 
ing period (monthly, quarterly, annually, etc.), it will handle accounts of up to 
$1,000,000.00 for approximately BOO accounts payable/receivable. Accounts 
are automatically numbered and each transaction is carried separately so that 
an account number will correspond to a specific purchase rather than a 
specific vendor/customer. 

Requires 16K and a Single Disk Drive. 
PRICE: $129.95 



COLORSOFT SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

The COLORSOFT tm Small Business Accounting package is Ideal for the 
. small businessman who wants to take advantage of the time saving benefits of 
computerized accounting procedures. This package Is designed with this 
person In mind and as such, extensive computer or accounting experience Is 
not required. The feature and options of this package are comparable to much 
j higher priced software. 

FEATURES 

••• USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN *** 
•** USER DOES NOT NEED TO BE AN ACCOUNTANT 
••• UP TO 32 USER DEFINABLE RECORD CATEGORIES *" 
*** DETAILED USER S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS *" 
* USER IS PROMPTED FOR COMPANION ENTRIES AS REQUIRED *** 
' APPROXIMATELY 800 ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE/PAYABLE FILES "* 
k * MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY, FAST, AND EFFICIENT "* 
COLORSOFT tm Small Business Accounting is an integrated, ledgerless 
accounting package tor a small business that Includes Accounts Payable, 
| Accounts Receivable, Sales, and Purchase Order programs. Outputs ol the 
system Include an income statement, balance sheet, check register, accounts 
payable and receivable status lists, and accounts payable and receivable 
aging reports. During each user established accounting period (monthly, 
quarterly, annually, etc.), it will handle sales of up to $1,000,000.00 and 
approximately BOO accounts payable/receivable. Accounts are automatically 
numbered and each transaction Is carried separately such that an account 
number will correspond to a specific purchase rather than a specilic 
| vendor/customer. 

Requires 16K and a Single Disk Drive. 
PRICE: $149.95 



COLORSOFT PAYROLL 

The COLORSOFT Payroll Is a stand-alone payroll system. It is also suited tor 
Integration into the COLORSOFT ,rn Small Business Accounting Package. Payroll is 
a highly user friendly system designed for regular use by the small businessman. 

FEATURES 

*«' SUPPORTS OVERTIME AND BONUS PAY ••• 
USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN *" 
••• HANDLESHOURLY AND SALARIED EMPLOYEES "* 
— MAINTAINS YEAR TO DATE TOTALS PER EMPLOYEE *** 
HANDLES FEDERAL. STATE, AND LOCAL INCOME TAXES 
DETAILED USER'S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS 
HANDLES OVER 200 EMPLOYEES WITH 8 DEDUCTIONS EACH " M 
MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY, FAST, AND EFFICIENT •** 

COLORSOFT lm Payroll is a complete stand-alone package (or maintaining 
personnel and payroll data on the employees ot a small business and lor calculating 
payroll and tax amounts and maintaining year-to-date totals for income tax 
reporting. This system will compute each pay period's totals based on hours 
worked, calculate taxes tobewithheld. allow tor specified deductions, compute net 
pay and prepare a mailing list. Additional reports that are produced include a listing 
of employees, a year to date federal and/or state tax listing, and a listing ot current 
miscellaneous deductions. This system is suited lor use in all states except 
Oklahoma and Delaware. 

Requires 16K and a Single Disk Drive. 
PRICE: S99.95 



COLORSOFT tvn ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

COLORSOFT tm Accounts Receivable is a full stand-alone accounts receiva- 
ble system. It Is also suited for integration Into the COLORSOFT tm Small 
Business Accounting package. Accounts Receivable does not require the user 
to be an accountant; In fact, this Is a highly user friendly system designed for 
daily use by the small businessman. The features and options of this system 
compare favorably with much higher priced software. 

FEATURES 
*•* PROVIDES ACCOUNT AUDIT TRAIL 
*** ACCOUNTS ARE CARRIED BY CUSTOMER "* 
USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN "* 
•■• PREPARES INVOICES AND MAILING LABELS *** 
USER DOES NOT NEED TO BE AN ACCOUNTANT *** 
DETAILED USER'S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS *+* 
*" MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY, FAST, AND EFFICIENT — 
COLORSOFT tm Accounts Receivable provides the user with detailed audit 
trails and history files on all transactions by a customer. It also prepares 
Invoices, mailing labels, aging lists, customer history reports, and an alphabet- 
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Puzzle 
Sticks 
and 
Picture 
Maker 



By Stephen Lai 





Millions of people have undertaken the rewarding, 
yet patience-testing challenge of jigsaw puzzles. 
Puzzle Sticks (Program Listing 1) is an entertain- 
ing game that requires you to rearrange pieces that consist of 
thin horizontal sticks, instead of the ordinary, irregularly- 
shaped pieces. 

Puzzle Sticks offers a wide range of pictures and difficul- 
ties. There are five preprogrammed pictures. The sixth one, 
Your Own Creation, lets you retrieve pictures from cassette. 
Picture Maker (Program Listing 2) provides simple com- 
mands for you to create original pictures and save them to 
cassette. 

You may select either 1 7 or 34 sticks. Seventeen sticks are 
wider and much easier to solve than 34 sticks. The sticks are 
randomly shuffled an amount of switches that you specify. 

The sticks are rearranged by exchanging two sticks at a 
time. Move the red and green pointers to the two sticks that 
you wish to be switched and press [ENTER]. The sticks 
trade positions using the GET/ PUT statements in lines 310 
and 320. The red pointer is moved up and down with the up 
arrow and down arrow keys. The green pointer is moved 
with the right arrow and [CLEAR] keys. A pointer may be 
moved from the top stick to the bottom stick by ordering it 
up, and vice versa. 



(Stephen Lai is a high school freshman in Palatine, III. 
He has enjoyed programming the CoCo for three 
years.) 



The blue number represents the number of switches that 
have been made. The red pointer represents the number of 
random computer shuffles that you specified. 

The first three pictures, Mr. Grouch, Happy Face, and 
Buggy, are suitable for younger children when 17 sticks are 
chosen. The next two pictures, Bouncing Boxes and Spiral- 
ing Lines, are much more difficult, especially when 34 sticks 
are chosen. 

Picture Maker lets you create pictures for Puzzle Sticks. 
In Puzzle Sticks the picture didn't take up the whole screen. 
Because of this, the cursor used in Picture Maker is limited 
to that same area. There are basically two types of com- 
mands, primary and secondary. The four letters in the 
upper-left of the screen indicate which primary command 
has been called. The secondary commands are to be used 
only when a primary command is in use. In other words, the 
secondary commands can only be used when one of the four 
graphic letters are blue. 

Secondary commands. 

1-4) These four number commands set the color of the 
primary graphics command. The box in the lower-left of the 
screen shows the current color. Next, are the eight keys 
surrounding the S key. These keys move the cursor two 
pixels in the direction that they are related to the S key. For 
example, W would move the cursor two pixels up and C 
would move the cursor two pixels down and to the right. 

The eight keys surrounding the K key move the cursor five 
pixels in the direction that they are related to the K key. 



184 the RAINBOW January 1964 



Primary commands 

5) The numeral 5 allows you to produce circles. The C on 
the graphics screen will turn blue when this command is in 
use. First move the cursor to the location of the circle's 
radius and press [ENTER]. Then move the cursor to a point 
on the circle's circumference and press [ENTER]. The circle 
will then be drawn. Don't worry if part of the circle extends 
beyond the picture's boundaries. 

6) The numeral 4 6' allows you to draw using the 1 6 secon- 
dary cursor-moving commands. The D on the graphics 
screen will turn blue wKen this command is in use. To escape 
from this command, press R. I have found this command to 
be the most useful. 

7) The 7 allows you to draw single lines. The L on the 
graphics screen will turn blue when this command is in use. 
Move the cursor to one end of the desired line and press 
[ENTER]. Then move the cursor to the other end of the line 
and press [ENTER]. A line will be drawn from one end to 
the other. 

8) This command allows you to print inside a one- 
colored border. The border has to be totally enclosed, or else 
the paint color will leak out and make a mess. The P on the 
graphics screen will turn blue when this command is in use. 
This command requires three steps. First, set the box in the 
lower left of the screen to the paint color and press 
[ENTER]. Then do the same thing for the border color. 
Lastly, move the cursor to a location inside the border and 
press [ENTER]. The bordered area will then be painted. 

9) The 9 allows you to save the screen to tape. All 
unneeded bordering graphics will be cleared away. The pic- 
ture's name is asked for. Type it in and press [ENTER]. 
Then position the tape and press [ENTER]. Lastly, press 
"play" and "record" on the tape recorder and hit [ENTER]. 

One important thing to remember when producing tjie 
pictures is to make sure that no two horizontal sticks are 
identical. This causes a mixup when the picture appears to 
be unscrambled while playing Puzzle Sticks, but two identi- 
cal sticks are actually in each other's position. 



Listing 1: 



'100. , . 


02BF 


270... 


061F 


380... 


. 09CA 


580... 


. 0D8D 


730.., 


..112E 


END . 


.. 148F 



1 * PUZZLE STICKS 

2 » BY STEPHEN LAI 

3 " (C) 1983 

10 PM0DE3:F=RND( -TIMER) :DIM0(34) 

,S1 (60) ,S2(60) ,BX (4) ,BY(4) :FORF= 

1T034:0(F)=F: NEXT: CLS: INPUT"DO y 

OU NEED INSTRUCTIONS (Y/N)";QU*: 

I FQU*= " Y " THEN60SUB720 

20 CLS: INPUT "34 OR 17 STICKS"? ST 

: IFST< >34ANDST< > 1 7THEN20ELSE I FST 

=34THEN I N=5 : P=8ELSE I N= 1 O : P=5 

30 INPUT "NUMBER OF SHUFFLES "; SH : 

IFSH<1THEN30 

40 G0SUB150 

SO DAT AR4D6L 4U6B0 1 0 , BDR2NUD5NL2R 
2BL4BD4, NDR4D3L4D3R4UBL4BD5, NDR4 



D3NL2D3L4NUBD4 , D3R4ND3U3BD 1 0BL4 
60 DATANR4D3R4D3L4NUR4BU5UBD1 OBL 
4 , NR4D3NR4D3R4U3BU2UBD 1 OBL4 , BD6E 
4U2NL4BD 10BL4 , NR4D3NR4D3R4U6BL4B 
D 1 0 , NR4D3R4D3L4NUR4U6BD 1 0BL4 
70 F0RF=0T09: READNU* <F> : NEXT 
80 DRAW " S8BM4 , 6C3 " +NU* ( O ) +NU* ( O ) 
+NU*(0) 
90 C0L0R4 

100 D1«=INT(SH/100) :D2=INT< (SH-D1 
*100) /10) :D3=SH-D1*100-D2*10:DRA 
W"BM4, 120"+NU* <D1 ) +NU* (D2) +NU* (D 
3) 

110 F0RF=0T08STEP4 : LINE (40-F, 9-F 
)-(246+F, 1B0+F) ,PSET,B:NEXTF 
120 C0L0R2:LINE(32, 10)- (40, 180) , 
PSET , BF : C0L0R4 : L I NE ( 32 , 9 ) - ( 40 , 9 ) 
, PSET: LINE (32, 180) -(40, 180) , PSET 
130 C0L0R3:F0RF=10T0180STEPIN:LI 
NE (28, F) - <32, F) , PSET: NEXT 
140 GOTO 170 

1 50 TT=0 : CLS : PR I NT : PR I NT " P I CTURE 
S: ": PRINT: PRINT" 1) MR. GROUCH": 
PRINT" 2) HAPPY F ACE " : PR I NT " 3) 
BUGGY": PRINT" 4) BOUNCING BOXES" 
: PRINT" 5) SPIRALING LINES" :PRIN 
T" 6) YOUR OWN CREATION" : PRINT: I 
NPUTA: IFA>6 THEN 1 50ELSEPCLS2 
160 ON A G0SUB340,510,590,430,65 
0,840: RETURN 
170 F0RF=1T0SH 

180 A=RND(ST) :B=RND(ST) :F3=0(A) : 
0(A)=0(B) :0(B)=F3 

190 A=10+(A-1)*IN:B=10+(B-1)»IN: 

GET (36, A) - (244, A+IN-1 ) , SI : GET (36 

,B)-(244,B+IN-1) ,S2 

200 PUT (36, A) -(244, A+IN-1) ,S2:PU 

T (36, B) - (244, B+IN-1 ) , SI 

210 NEXT: SCREEN 1,0 

220 F1=5:F2=10:E1=5:E2=10 

230 C0L0R2:LINE(25,El*IN+P)-(30, 

E1*IN+P-1 ) , PSET, B: LINE (25, E2*IN+ 

P)-(30,E2*IN+P-1) ,PSET,B 

240 El=Fl:E2=F2 

250 C0L0R4:LINE(25,Fl*IN+P)-(30, 
F1*IN+P-1) ,PSET,B 

260 LINE(25,F2*IN+P)-(30,F2*IN+P 
-1) , PRESET, B 

270 A*= I NKEY* : I F A*= * A " THENF 1=F1- 
1 ELSE I F A*=CHR* (10) THENF 1 «F 1 + 1 ELS 
E I F A*=CHR* ( 9 ) THENF2=F2- 1 ELSE I FA* 
=CHR* ( 12) THENF2=F2+1ELSEIFA*=CHR 
*(13)THEN310 

280 IFF1>ST THENF1=1ELSEIFF1<1 T 
HENF1»=ST 

290 IFF2>ST THENF2=1ELSEIFF2< 1 T 

HENF2=ST 

300 G0T0230 

310 TT=TT+l:Dl = INT(TT/100) :D2=»IN 
T( (TT-D1*100) /10) :D3=TT-D2*10-D1 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 185 



#100: C0L0R2: LINE (0, 0) - (20, 90) , PS 
ET , BF : DRAW " S8BM4 , 6C3 " +NL|* <D1 ) +NU 
*<D2)+NU*(D3) ;G1=10+(F1-1)*IN:G2 
=10+ (F2-1 ) *IN: GET (36, Gl ) - (244, Gl 
+IN-1 ) , SI : GET (36, G2> - (244, G2+IN- 
1),S2 

320 PUT(36,G1)-(244,G1+IN~1> ,S2: 
PUT (36, G2) - (244, G2+IN-1 ) , SI : PLAY 
■ T255L2504CDEFGABGEC " 
330 G3=0(F1):0(F1)«0(F2):0(F2)*G 
3SFPRF=1T0ST:IF0(F)«F THENNEXT:G 
0T0700: EL9EG0T0230 

340 DRAW M C4?BM42, 10$ S205 B; R6; N; R 

27;Gl$Dl;Gl;D3;Rl;Ei;R3;Fl$Ri$Ei 
s R2; F2; El ; Rl ; E2; F2; R2; E2; F2; Rl ; E 
2;F2;R2;E2;Ul?H3;Ll;BjM+3,5?D2jF 
i;D2;Fl;Dl;N;Dl;Rl;Fl;D7;Gl5L2;u 
7$N;El;Dl0;Gl;D2«Gl;Dl;Gl$Dl;Gl; 
Dl;L25sui;Hl;Ul;Hl;ul;Hl;U2?Hi5U 
3;N;U7;L2;Hi;U7;El$Rl;Dl;N;Fl 
350 DRAWU2 J El ; U2; El ? Ul " : PAINT ( 1 
50, 15) ,1,4 

360 DRAW" BM42, 10;B?M+7, 12;D2;F2j 

R5; E3; Ul s H2; Ll s L5; 62? b; R4; Dl ; R2; 
Ul;Hl;Gl»Dl":PAINT(102,70) ,3,4:P 
AINT(95,65) ,4,4 

370 draw"B;ri8;ui;R2$di;gi;hi;ui 
;b;U2$R4;F2;D2$G2;L4;H3;ui;E2;R2 

" : PAINT ( 190, 75) , 3, 4: PAINT (185, 72 
),4,4 




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Storm Arrow, Lancer (32K) 
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a 

a 

H 

EE 

5 
H 



380 CIRCLE (148, 100), 30, 4,. 8,. 86, 
.65 

390 DRAWC3; BM42, 10; B; M+l 1 , 30; E3 

;Rl;El;R9;Fl;Rl;F3;L2;Hl;Ll;Hl;L 

8;G1;L1;G1;L3;C4 

400 PAINT (140, 146) ,4,3 

410 DRAWBM42, 10; B; M+9, 8; Fl % R5; M 

+2, l;B;R9;M+2,-l;R5;El" 

420 RETURN 

430 X=RND (205) : Y^RND ( 168) : SX=RND 
(5) +5: SY=RND (5) +4: C=l 
440 F0RF=1T020: X=X+SX : Y-Y+SY: C=C 
+1: IFC=5THENC=1ELSEIFC=2THENC=3 
450 COLORC 

460 IFX>205THENX=205:SX=-SX:ELSE 

IFX<OTHENX=0: SX--SX 

470 I FY > 1 68THENY* 1 68 : SY=-SY : ELSE 

I F Y< OTHENY=0 : SY=-SY 

480 LINE(36+X, 10+Y)-(36+(205-X) , 

10+(170~Y> ) ,PSET,B 

490 NEXT 

500 RETURN 

510 DRAW"C3; BM42, 10$ S20; B; Rl 1 ; Nj 
M-9, +105 R14; M+8, 5; M+3, 5? M-18, -9; 
M-l6,+9;D3;Gl?D6;Fl;R2;U2;Hi;U4; 
Hi ; B; M+2, 8; F2; N; M+6, 10; M-6, +5; M+ 
6, 5; R26; M+8, -5; M-9, -4; N; M-5, +9; M 
+3,-4;R2;n;ei;L2;U2;e1;U4;ei;fi; 
N;D6;Hi;U2" 

520 DRAW'S; M-5, +2; Ul ; H2; L5; H2; Ul 

;B;L5;Dl;62;L5;62;Dl;B;F7;Dl;Fl; 

Rl;Fl;R3;El;Ri;Ei;Ul;Hl;Li;Hl;L3 

;Gl;Ll;Gi;B;H3;L2;Hi;Ul;E2;Ri;Ei 

;R2;F3;G2;L4;b;R17;L6;H2;E3;R2;f 

1 ; Rl ; F2; Dl ; Gl ; b; D3; M-7, +6; L5; M-8 

,-6; M+6, 10; R9; M+5, -10" 

530 CIRCLE < 110, 80), 8, 4: CIRCLE (16 

8,80) ,8,4 

540 PAINT (110, 80), 3, 4: PAINT (168, 

80), 3, 4: PAINT (100, 80) ,4, 3: PAINT ( 

178, 80), 4, 3 

550 PAINT (100, 50) , 1,3 

560 PAINT (140, 140) ,4,3 

570 RETURN 

580 PCLS2: SCREEN 1 

590 DRAW "CI BM42 , 10; S20; B; R19; M-4 

,6;n;m-3, i;m-6,-4;m-7,8;m+7,-5;m 
+3, 2; m-8, 5; d13; m+6, 2; n; m+io, 3; m+ 
4,6; Rl l ; M+5, -7; N; M-10, 4; M+6, -3; U 
12;m-io,-3;N;m-3,-2;E3;m+6,3;m-6 

,-6; M-6, 4; M-4, -6 

600 PAINT (80, 30) ,3, l: PAINT (180, 3 
O) ,3, 1 

610 DRAW"B;M+4, 10; M+5, 1;m+2,4;L4 
; M-3, -5; B; L7; M-4, 5; L4; M+2, -4; M+6 
, -1 ; b; D6; Fl ; Dl ; L2; Ul ; El ; B; R6; Fl ; 
Dl;L2;ui;Ei;B;Rlo;M-8,7;M-9,2;M- 

7,-4" 

620 PAINT ( lOO, 70) ,4, 1: PAINT (170, 
70), 4, 1 



186 the RAINBOW January 1984 



630 PAINT < 120, 95) * 1 , 1 : PAINT < 152, 
95) , 1 , 1 
640 RETURN 

650 PI=3. 1415926: F=RND<4) : IFF=2T 
HEN650ELSEC0L0RF : R 1 *40 : R2=85 : I A» 
RND(20)+30 

660 F0RF=-PI TOPI STEPPI /20: Rl-R 
l+l:Xl-SIN<F>*Rl:Yl=C0S(F)*Rl:X2 
»SIN (F-PI-IA) *R2: Y2=CDS (F-PI-IA) 
*R2 

670 LINE<Xl+140,Yi+95)-<X2+140,Y 
2+95) ,PSET 
680 NEXT 
690 RETURN 

700 PLAY " T 1 5L 1 505A04 A03A02A0 1 FCD 
EFGAB02CDEFGAB03CDEFBAB04CDEFGAB 
05CDEFGAB" 

710 A*= I NKEY* : I FA*= " " THEN7 1 OELSE 
RUN 

720 CLS: PRINT" INSTRUCT 

I ONS- — " S : PRINT: PRINT " 

IN THIS GAME, A PICTURE (CH 
OSEN BY YOU) WILL BE SHUF- FLE 
D UP INTO HORIZONTAL STICKS. YOU 
R GOAL IS TO REARRANGE THEM SO 
THAT THEY ARE ALL IN CORRECT ORD 
ER. " 

730 G0SUB820 

740 CLS: PR I NT: PR INT" YOU CAN 
CHOOSE BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT ST 
ICK AMOUNTS, 34 OR 17. IF YOU 
CHOOSE 34, THE STICKS WILL 

BE THINNER. ": PRINT: PRINT" TO 
MOVE THE STICKS, MOVE THERED AND 
GREEN POINTERS UP AND DOWN TO 
TWO STICK LOCATIONS AND "J 
750 PR I NT "PRESS < ENTER >. THE TW 
O STICKS WILL AUTOMATICALLY SWI 
TCH POSI- TIONS." 
760 G0SUB820 

770 CLS i PR I NT" TO MOVE THE RE 
D POINTER, USETHE UP AND DOWN AR 
ROW KEYS. ": PRINT" TO MOVE THE 
GREEN POINTER, USE THE RIGHT A 
RROW AND CLEAR KEYS. ": PRINT: PR 
INT" THE BLUE NUMBER REPRESEN 
TS THE NUMBER OF SWITCHES MADE 
AND " J 

780 PR I NT "THE RED NUMBER REPRESE 
NTS THE NUMBER OF COMPUTER SHU 
FFLES. " 

790 PR I NT: PR I NT" AFTER YOU HA 
VE COMPLETED THEPUZZLE, PRESS AN 
Y KEY TO PLAY A-GAlN. " 
800 G0SUB820 
810 RETURN 

820 PRINT6490, "HIT ANY KEY"; 
830 I F I NKE Y*= " " THEN830ELSERETURN 
840 CLS: PR I NT "WHAT IS THE PICTUR 
E * S NAME " i I NPUTNA* : PR I NT : PR I NTNA 



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*" IS NOW BEING LOADED. . . " : CLOAD 
MNA*Z PR I NT: PR I NT" LOADING COMP 
LETE . " : FORF= 1 T0460 : NEXT: RETURN 
850 RETURN 



Listing 2: 



100 01D3 

200. 03E9 

450 0546 

END ...076G 



1 * PICTURE MAKER 

2 ' BY STEPHEN LAI 

3 * <C> 1983 
10 X=50: Y=50:t>4 

20 PM0DE3 , 1 : PCLS2 : SCREEN 1 , O 

30 F0RF=10T0180STEP5:LINE(28,F)- 

(32, F) ,PSET:NEXT 

40 LINE <34, 9) -(246, 179), PRESET, B 
: LINE (2, 150)-<24, 180) , PRESET, BF: 
LINE<6, 154) -<20, 176) ,PSET,BF 
50 C*="BM10, 10;N;R10;D15;R10":D* 
= "BM10, 30; R6;F4; D7s G4; L6; U15" : L* 
="BM10, 50; D15;R10" : P*="BMiO, 70? R 

6;F4;D2;G4;L6;N;U10SD10" 

60 DRAWC* : DRAWD* : DRAWL* : DRAWP* 
70 A*- 1 NKEY*: IFA*<"5"0RA*> ,, 9 ,, THE 
N70 

80 A=VAL(A*) 

90 ON A-4 G0T0230, 330, 440,540, 66 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 187 



0 

10O Pl=PPOINT<X,Y) :P2=PP0INT<X,Y 
-1) 

110 A*=INKEY*:PSET<X,Y,5-P1) :pse 
T<X,Y-1,P2> 

120 PSET<X, Y,P1> :PSET<X, Y-1,P2) 
130 IFA*=""THEN110 
1 40 I FA*< " 5 " AND A* > H O " THENC= VAL ( A 
*>: COLORC: LINE (6, 154)-(20, 176) ,P 
SET , BF 

150 IFA*="Q"THENX=X-2: Y=Y-2ELSEI 

fa*» " a " Then x= x -2else i f a*= z ■ then 

X= X -2 : Y= Y+2ELSE I FA*= " X " THEN Y= Y+2 
ELSE I FA«= " C " THENX=X +2 : Y=Y+2ELSE I 
FA*= " D " THENX - X +2ELSE I F A*= " E " THEN 
X- X +2 : Y= Y -2ELSE I FA*™ " W " THENY= Y-2 
1 60 I F A*= " U " THEN X = X -5 : Y= Y-5ELSE I 
FA*= ■ J " THENX =X -5ELSE I F A*= " M " THEN 
X=X-5: Y=Y+5ELSEIFA*=" , "THENY=Y+5 
ELSE I FA*= " . " THENX= X +5 : Y= Y+5ELSE I 
F A*= " L " THEN X = X +5ELSE I F A*= " O " THEN 
X=X+5! Y=Y-5ELSE1FA*=" I "THENY»Y-5 
170 IFX<36THENX=36ELSEIFX>244THE 
NX=244 

1 80 I F Y< 1 OTHENY= 1 OELSE I F Y > 1 78THE 
NY=178 

190 IFA*="R"ANDA=6THEN420 

200 I F A=50R A >6THEN I F A*=CHR* ( 1 3 ) T 

HENS0UND100, 2: RETURN 



210 IFA=6THENRETURN 
220 GOTO 100 
230 DRAW"C3"+C* 
240 G0SUB100 
250 X1»X:Y1»Y 
260 PSET<X,Y,C2) 
270 G0SUB100 
280 X2=X:Y2=Y 
290 S0UND200,2 

300 R=SQR< <X2-X1) A 2+<Y2-Y1) A 2):C 

IRCLE(X1, YD , R,C 

310 DRAW"G4"+C* 

320 G0T070 

330 DRAW"C3"+D* 

340 LINE<X, Y)-<X, Y) ,PSET 

350 X1«X:Y1=Y 

360 G0SUB100 

370 X2=X:Y2=Y 

380 COLORC 

390 LINE<X1, Y1)-<X2, Y2) , PSET 
400 X1=X2:Y1=Y2 
410 G0T0360 

420 DRAW " C4 » +D* : S0UND50 , 2 

430 G0T070 

440 DRAW"C3"+L* 

450 G0SUB100 

460 X1=X: Y1=Y 

470 PSET<X,Y,C2) 

480 G0SUB100 

490 COLORC 

500 LINE<X, Y)-<X1,Y1) , PSET 

510 S0UND220,2 

520 DRAW"C4"+L* 

530 G0T070 

540 DRAW"C3"+P* 

550 G0SUB100 

560 CP=C 

570 G0SUB100 

580 CB=C 

590 G0SUB100 

600 C0L0RCB:LINE<34,9)-<246, 179) 
,PSET,B 

610 PAINT < X, Y) , CP, CB 

620 LINE <34, 9) -(246, 179) , PRESET, 

B 

630 S0UND25,2 
640 DRAW"C4"+P* 
650 G0T070 

660 C0L0R2:LINE(0,0)-<256,9) , PSE 
T,BF:LIN£<0,0)-<34, 192) , PSET, BF: 
LINE (256, 192) -(246,0) ,PSET,BF:LI 
NE(256, 192) -(O, 179) , PSET, BF 
670 CLS: PR I NT "WHAT IS THIS PICTU 
RE * S NAME " : I NPUTNA* : PR I NT : PR I NT " 
POSITION THE TAPE AND 
PRESS < ENTER >. "; :LINEINPUTX*:LIN 
E INPUT "PRESS PLAY AND RECORD ON 
YOUR TAPE RECORDER AND PRESS < 
ENTER > " J A* : CS AVEMNA* , 1 536 , 7679 , 0 



KEYBOARD "BEEPER" CARTRIDGE 

l> ON BOARD SPEAKER 

produces feedback, reducing entry errors 

[> "IN-UNIE" TRANSPARENT 

op*, fan does not "use up" expansion capability 

t> NO MODIFICATIONS 

(hardware or software) to install or use 

I> SWITCHED INTERRUPT LINE 

allows power up into BASIC or game pack 

l> POWER INDICATORS 

monitor 5V, 12V and -12 V supplies 

[> ACCESSIBLE RESET SWITCH 

ends "feeling around" behind computer 



ENG SYSTEMS 
LABORATORIES 

8203 SPRINGFIELD 
VILLAGE DRIVE 
SPRINGFIELD, VA 
22152 




MC 

COD 
VISA 

$59.95 

plus postage and handling 



(703) 569 8660 



SATISFACTION 
GUARANTEED 



188 the RAINBOW January 1984 






32K 


m 
1 






DISK 


IB 




MCM 




HAINBOW 






fi.m ■ b "\ 




No, Pie Are 
Round 



By Dave Clements 



. menu-driven BASIC program that plots a 
"graph on the PMODE4 screen. The program is 
designed for a 32K disk system and a C, Itoh (Prowri- 
ter) printer. It is a little over 8K in length, is small enough to 
fit into a 16K system, and can be easily modified to work 
with a cassette, with or without a printer. 
The program's salient features include: 

1) Three methods of data entry, all menu-driven. 

2) Option to save input data or plotted graph to disk (or 
tape with appropriate program changes). 

3) Prints title and/ or subtitle and input category labels on 
the display. The titles are automatically centered at the top 
of the display and the main title can be enlarged to double- 
sized print. 

4) Option to include amounts and computed percentages 
on the display. 

5) Option to highlight any pie section. 

6) Option of, print and screen backgrounds (dark print on 
light background or vice versa). 

The input routines available are Manual, Auto, and 
Saved Graph. The Manual mode is menu-driven and allows 
you to input up to nine categories or labels and an associated 



(Dave Clements has a master's degree in electronics 
engineering and is a commander in U.S. Coast Guard. 
He is presently chief of the Coast Guard's Loran-C 
Navigation Branch for the U.S. West Coast and 
Pacific Ocean areas. He and his family live in Novato, 
Calif) 



value or amount. For instance, following the data entry 
screen prompts, you could key in FOOD, 320.00, UTILITY, 
125.00, SAVINGS, 250.00, RENT, 465.00, etc. Each cate- 
gory label is suppressed to the left eight characters and each 
amount to six digits (including decimal) for screen printing. 
Data entry is completed by simply pressing "Q" and/ or 
[ENTER] anytime after the second label prompt. After the 
ninth entry, the program will automatically exit the data 
entry mode. Data correction and re-entry can be completed 
simply by answering the DATA OK (Y/N)? prompt with an 
"N." All prompt responses use zn INKEY$ subroutine so an 
[ENTER] is not required. The entered data can be saved if 
desired. If data is saved, it can be recalled by selecting the 
Auto data entry from the input menu. The Saved Graph 
routine allows you to recall a graph that was previously 
drawn and saved. 

After data has been entered and verified or saved, the 
program will query you about title size. After responding, 
you will be asked to enter a title and subtitle (only uppercase 
letters, numbers, %, / , and = are supported by the DRAW 
strings), and whether you want the amount and computed 
percentage to be included on the plot. The title and subtitle 
can be eliminated simply by pressing [ENTER] in response 
to these prompts. After all prompts are answered, sit back 
and watch the titles, labels, and graph being drawn on the 
Hi-Res screen. 

The pie sections are drawn in the same order as entered 
with the first sector labeled "1 ."The remaining sectors are in 
clockwise order. If you desire to have all sectors labeled; ie, 
1, 2, 3, 4, etc., simply delete Line 1300. Due to the design of 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 189 



The fun and excitement of RAINBOW- 
fesf is coming your way . . . and now there 
Will be a RAINBOWfest near you! 

For the 1983-84 season, we've scheduled 
four RAINBOWfests in four parts of the 
country. Each one will offer fun, excite- 
ment, new products, seminars and infor- 
mation for your CoCo! And for those who 
(perish the thought) don't like CoCo as 
much as you, we've scheduled each RAIN- 
BOWfest in an area that will provide fun 
and enjoyment for the whole family. 

Just look at this great lineup: 

Long Beach, California — February 1T- 
19. What a way to get away f rom the winter 
doldrums! And what better place than sun- 
ny Southern California with thousands of 
fellow CoGo owners! Fly with CoCo to the 
sun for the winter. Top flight seminars will 
draw on many local CoCo experts. 



It's a holiday weekend, too — so take Mon- 
day off and tour Disneyland, Universal 
Studios, Marineland, the Queen Mary and 
Hollywood! 

New Brunswick, New Jersey — March 30- 
Aprll 1 

RAINBOWfest comes to the populous north- 
east! It's a close drive from New York, Boston, 
Philadelphia,, Washington, Baltimore and 
Long Island. 

Chicago —June 22— 24. We'll play RAIN- 
BOWfest again, CoCo! This is the site of 
GoCo's very first show this spring. And 
right next to the world's largest indoor 
shopping mall. 

Every show will be held at a Hyatt- 
Regency Hotel and all will be offering spe- 
cial rates for RAINBOWfest. Every show 
will open at 7—10 p.m. Friday, run 10 



a.m.— 6 p.m. Saturday and close with an 11 
a.m.— 4 p.m. session Sunday. Each will 
have a CoCo Community Breakfast featur- 
ing an outstanding national speaker from 
the Color Computer World. And each exhi- 
bition will be interspaced with a number of 
seminar sessions on all aspects of CoCo 
—from writing in machine language to 
making your basic work better. 

But most of all, there will be exhibitors. 
Lots of them. All ready to demonstrate 
products of every kind. Some with special 
programs and hardware items to intro- 
duce. Others with show specials. 

Tickets can be secured directly from the 
Rainbow. We'll also send you a special res- 
ervation form so you can get your special 
room rate. 

Come to RAINBOWfest , . , help us all 
celebrate CoCo Community at its finest! 



MiNBOWfat— Long Beach 
DATES: Feb. 17—19, 1984 
HOTEL: Hyatt Regency, Long Beach 
ROOMS: $59 per night single/double 
KEYNOTE: gob Albrectit 

Advance Ticket Deadline: Feb. 13, 1984 
Walter Taxi service avail, from the hotel to 




RAINBOWfest- New Brunswick, N J. 
DATES: March 30-April 1 
HOTEL: Hyatt Regency New Brunswick 
ROOMS: $59 per night single/double 
KEYNOTE: To Be Announced 

Aovanne Ticket Deadline; March 23, 1984 
the Queen Mary. 



RAINBOWfest— Chicago 
DATES: June 22—24, 1 984 
HOTEL: Hyatt Regency Woodfieid 
ROOMS: $46 per night single/double 
KEYNOTE: To Be Announced 

Advance Ticket Deadline: June 18, 1984 



FREE RAINBOW 

POSTER For 

First 200 Tickets Ordered. 

Make checks payable to: 
the Rainbow 

MAIL TO: 
RAINBOWfest 
P.O. BOX 209 
Prospect, KY 40059 



YES, I'm coming to RAINBOWfest in 

□—Long Beach 

Please send me: 

; three day tickets at $8 each total _ 

one day tickets at $6 each total — 

breakfast tickets at $1 1 each total '__ 



□ — New Brunswick 



Chicago 



Handling Charge $1.00 

TOTAL ENCLOSED (U.S. FUNDS ONLY, PLEASE) $ 

r-Also send me a hotel reservation card for: 

□—Long Beach □ — New Brunswick □—Chicago 

NAME (please print) ; ,■ . .... „,, ,. 

STREET & NUMBER 

CITY & STATE , •■■ , -■ ; „-, ,, . ^ 

TELEPHONE : 

COMPANY , , 



-ZIP CODE- 



Orders sent less than two weeks prior to show opening will be held for you at the door 
VISA, MasterCharge, American Express accepted. 

My Account m _Ex. Date: ; • • 

Signal yre ■ . .■ , ■ . .■• ■• ;> ; 



RAINBOWfest Long Beach 

Seminar Program And Speakers 

Don Inman Using And Teaching LOGO 

Don is one of the most respected names in the Color Computer field 
and an expert on graphic techniques in both BASIC and assembly 
language. His Using Graphics column appears monthly in the 
Rainbow. 

Phil Kitchen Radio Shack Software Support 

Manager of Software Support for Radio Shack, Phil will explain how 
the Tandy third party software support program works and answer 
questions about how Radio Shack can be of assistance to authors. 

Paul Searby Software Theft 

Martin Goodman 

A panel discussion of one of the most important issues in the CoCo 
field with Mr. Searby of Computerware and Dr. Goodman of Cheshire 
Cat Software. 

Linda Nielsen Women's Programs 

Linda, of Moreton Bay Laboratory, and several others active in the 
CoCo area, will lead a discussion on women's involvement in com- 
puting in general and the Color Computer in particular. Theme of the 
program: It's Not A Man's World. 

For women and men who view computers mainly as an annoyance, a 
special seminar is planned on the general topic How To Live With A 
Computer At Home. 

Bill Nolan Fantasy Gaming And CoCo 

DungeonMaster, programmer and Rainbow Columnist, Bill has 
developed a complete Dungeons and Dragons program for CoCo. 

Tom Nelson Start Your Own Software Business 

Tom is a Rainbow columnist and one of the owners of Nelson Software 
Systems. 

The Dragons of Menlo Park Open Forum 

Members of the Dymax group— including Bob Albrecht, Don and Kurt 
Inman— and a host of others— will conduct a "laidback California" 
open discussion on software and book authorship. 

Jim Reed Writing For Rainbow 

Jim, Managing Editor of the Rainbow, will talk about how you can 
submit programs and articles to magazines for fun and profit. 

AND: A special session on assembly language programming . . . 
and more to be announced later. 

PLUS . - . RAINBOWfest's "CoCo Community" 
Breakfast featuring Bob Albrecht, Popular 
Author and RAINBOW columnist 

Additional seminars are planned as well. Admission to all seminars is at no charge. See registration form for 
admission prices to exhibit area and breakfast. 

COME TO RAINBOWfest LONG BEACH — IN SUNNY SOUTHERN 

CALIFORNIA 




HARDWARE & PROGRAMS 



We carry products 
from many manufacturers. 
If you don't see it, ask. 



Jf ARB! 



SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



1636 D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 92050 



BBS (6X9) 474*8981 VOICE (619) 474-8982 




SATURN 
SOFTWARE 

SPLC-1 

Lower Case For The 
COLOR COMPUTER and TDP-100 





RAINBOW 

CWTt*ic*no* 
SCit 



• True lower case characters. 

• Fully assembled, tested and 
guaranteed for 90 days 

• No cutting or soldering 

• The SPLC-1 is fully 
compatible with ail 
TRS-80C 

• Inverted video at a flip 
of a switch 

• Installation will void the Radio 
Shack warranty. 

$59.95 ^Hi 

RAINBOW 

C£*TlftC»TlON t CINT 

MAl * 

Lower case interpreter program allows in- 
put of lower case command words to be 
accepted. Also allows for one key pause 
features and single step through listings. 
With instructions and cassette, disk com- 
patible. ........... $10.95 



U.S FUNDS ONLY 

C.O.D. ORDERS ACCEPTED 

Sorry, no C.O.Z). on printers and 
monitors, 

NO CREDIT CARD ORDERS 



MONITORS 



BMC MEDIUM-RES 

12" Green Screen ♦,,..$ 89.95 
13" color w/ sound , . , M - $303.95 

COM REX HI RES 

12" Green Screen . . . . . 164.95 

12" Yellow Screen . , 169.95 

12" Amber Screen , 174.95 

VIDEO PLUS 

(by Computerware) 

This unit will allow you to bring the com- 
posite video signal out of the computer to 
any monitor, color or monochrome, 
Sound output is also provided. No solder- 
ing or holes to cut. Easy installation in- 
structions are provided., . . -, > . .... $24.95 

MEMORY UPGRADE KITS 




I6K RAM CHIPS , 



,.1.50ea. 



•I6K 32K 

Eight 200 NS Factory Prime Chips with 
Piggy Backed Sockets, Sam Socket, Bus 
Wire. Comprehensive Instructions. 
Recommended for "D" or earlier, but may 
be used on "E'\ Only 9 simple solder con- 
nections to kit. None to computer. $25.95 

*64K RAM CHIPS 

Eight 200 NS Factory Prime 64K RAM 
Chips. Allows you to upgrade "E" board 
easily, No soldering needed, ...... $69.95 

NOTE; 64K upgrade will NOT provide 
64K of user Ram, but allows later revision 
boards (E, ET) to run cooler and more ef- 
ficiently. 

^Installation of these items wilt void the 
Radio Shack warranty. Radio Shack is a 
trademark of the Tandy Corp. 

DATABASE / MAILER 
LETTER WRITER 

oyEVS 

Tape version doesn't require EXT. Baaic. 
CC-DBM/CC-LW , . . ... ... , , . . $40.85 



All programs warrantied 60 days 
from date of purchase to original 
purchaser. 



" 11 © JAMS foffwwi. tt&V 

A truly realistic and interesting golf 
simulation in hi-res graphics. Each game 
is different as the fairways are randomly 
generated. Up to four players can play at 
a time, and one joystick is required. RED- 
WOOD GOLF is an easy to learn, yet 
challenging simulation for all ages. On 
cassette for 32K EXT « $24.95 

JARB DISK DOUBLER 

Why spend twice as much as you need to 
for double sided diskettes? With our 
doubler, you can make your own and pay 
for it with the first box you double. A 
must for disk drive users, 
5 1 /«" size only ... 12.95 

BASF DATA CASSETTES 
COS C-IO 

1-10 .60 ea. .65 ea. 

11-20 .55 ea. .60 ea. 

Soft Poly Cases . . . ., Ea. $.20 

Hard Shelled Cases , , Ea. $.22 

Cassette Labels (12) Sh. $.36 

Cassette Labels Tractor ( 1 000) ,,..$: 21 ,95 

FOR SERIOUS APPUCATIONSs 

Telewriter-64 (Cognitec) 49.95 Cass. 59.93 Disk 
Coco-Writer (Moreton Bay) ........ , . , . 34,95 

File Cabnet (Moreton Bay) . . . , , . > , , . . ,,29.95 
Report (Moreton Bay) 24,95 
Color Diagnostic (Computerware) 17.95 
Programmers Toolkit (Moreton Bay). . . . 28.95 

PRINTERS AND 
ACCESSORIES 

EPSON RX-80 . $449.00 

EPSON RX-80-FT. . . . . . . . $525.00 

EPSON FX-80 $575.00 

COMREX COMRITER CR-1C. . $722.00 
BOTEK PARALLEL 

INTERFACE. t.r ....$ 69.95 

COCO 
PRINTER PACKAGES 

includes printer & Botek interface 

EPSON FX-80 . , . $635,00 

COMREX CR-1C $783.00 



4 



the characters you may have to change the radius value in 
the CIRCLE command in Line 1310 as this determines the 
starting screen position for each execution of the DRA W 
routine. Values between 50 and 60 will place the number 
inside the pie, whereas numbers greater than 78 will place 
them outside. Both locations create minor problems. "Inside" 
numbers could be erased by the highlighting option or con- 
flict with the sector plot on small sectors. "Outside" numbers 
may conflict with the labels or be near the edge, or off, the 
screen. 

After the graph is completed it will remain displayed until 
any key (except the [BREAK], [CLEAR], or [SHIFT]) is 
depressed. After depressing any key, you will be asked to 
respond to another series of options. These include high- 
lighting sections of the pie, saving the graph, and printing a 
hard copy on your printer. The screen print program I use, 
GSPRP, is an excellent one from Custom Software Engi- 
neering, Inc. that permits several options such as copy size 
and position on the paper. If you answer "Y" to the "WANT 
HARD COPY (Y/N)?" prompt you will be presented with 
questions peculiar to the GSPRP program. 

When the hard copy is completed, or after you answer "N" 
to the prompt, "FINISHED?" will appear on the text screen. 
A "Y" response will clear the screen and return the OK 
prompt and flashing cursor. An "N" response will display a 
reverse print and background question. Another "N" simply 
returns to the Data Input Menu, whereas a "Y" to this 
question will change future screen displays before returning 
you to the Data Input Menu. 

The program contains limited error trapping. All file 
names are suppressed to eight characters; pressing "Q" after 
entering the "Auto" data entry, "Save Data" or "Save 
Graph" routines will return you to the Data Entry Menu or 
to the next line in the program (as if you did not select that 
particular option). Program layout is shown below. 



Program Summary 

Lines 1-7 
Lines 10-70 

Line 40 
Lines 100-120 
Line 168 
Lines 190-200 
Lines 210-370 
Lines 400-500 
Lines 570-990 

Lines 1040-1120 

Lines 1150-1230 

Lines 1260-1340 

Lines 1370-1460 

Lines 1490-1510 
Line 1540 
Lines 1570-1680 
Line 1690 
Line 1700 



Program credits 
Opening logo, load ML screen 
dump, and D/Mension 
Hi-Res text drawing routine 
Auto data input 
Saved graph input 
Print and background selection 
Menu and Data input 
Pie graph plot routine 
DRA W strings for letters, num- 
bers and special characters 
Screen format prompts; title, 
subtitle and label printing 
Prompts for screen labels, 
amounts, and percentages 
Locates center of pie slices for 
highlighting routine 
Selection and painting of high- 
lighted sectors 
Data save routine 
Graph save routine 
Printer copy routines 
PCLEAR 

Data for opening logo border 



Lines 1570-1680 must be deleted or changed to accommo- 
date your printer and screen print routine. If these lines are 
deleted, you must also change GOTO50 to GOTO60 in Line 
30. 

For a 16K system, change & H7 in Lines 10, 50, and 1640 
to &H3 (or to memory locations for your particular screen 
print routine requirements). To conserve space, all lines that 
do not end in 5 or 0 can also be deleted. 

For a cassette system change: 



Lines 50, 160, 1610 
Lines 110, 1490 
Lines 120, 1510 

Lines 1500: 
Lines 1540: 



LOADM to CLOADM 
#1 to #-1 

#1 to #-1 and add #-1 after 
CLOSE 

WRITEX1 to PRINT#-1 
SAVEM to CSAVEM 



If you have the screen dump program GSPRP and 
cassette system, there is one instance where you would have 
to reload GSPRP. This occurs if you have printed a full- 
page (double-sized) hard copy then want a regular-sized 
print. When you do this, GSPRP is reloaded in Line 1610; 
therefore, your tape must be repositioned. Appropriate 
prompts should also be placed in the above lines to remind 
you to position the tape, press play and record, etc. Ill leave 
these to your preference. 

Drawing speed on the high resolution screen has been 
increased by the POKE 65495,0 command. If your system 
cannot operate in the fast mode then POKEs should be 
removed from Lines 410, 1090, and 1390. 

For those of you who want a copy of Piegraph and don't 
get Rainbow On Tape or don't want to key in the program, 
send me $5 and I will send a copy on disk (or tape if 
requested), less the screen print machine language program. 

I've enjoyed developing this program. It should be error- 
free, but if you have any problems or want to suggest 
improvements please contact me. Please feel free to experi- 
ment and modify the program for your specific needs. 




40 01CE 1038 ... 0F40 

200 0451 1148 ...11BE 

398 06B2 1369 ...141D 

569 08F5 1540 ...169C 

770 0C24 END ...196C 



3 
4 
S 
& 



DAVID CLEMENTS 
1099 ROSALIA DRIVE 
NOVATO, CA 94947 

<415> 897-8342 



Program changes to accommodate systems configured 
differently are described in the following paragraphs. 
If you do not have a C. Itoh printer, Lines 50, 520, and 



1 O CLEARSOO , &H7D65 : F0RKK-MH7D63 
TO &H7D8B: READXX : POKEKK, XX : NEXTK 
K: P0KE346, 201 : DEFUSR0-&H7D&5: GOT 
030 

20 IK*» I NKE Y* : I F I K*» " " THEN20ELSE 
RETURN 

30 CLS(3):PRINT«23S, "pl» graph"! 
: POKE 1 024-4-238 , 128: X J-USRO < X J ) : FO 
RZZ-1T0500: NEXT: G0T050 

38 ' 

39 'DRAW HI -RES TEXT 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 193 



* COLOR COMPUTER WORKSHEET * 



EliteCalc 



TM 



NOW . . . The worksheet calculator program you've 
been waiting for is waiting to work for you. 
ELITE*CALC ' is a powerful full featured worksheet 
calculator designed especially for the Cblor Com- 
puter. Answer "what if" questions, prepare reports, 



maintain records and perform other tasks that, until 
now, required sophisticated business computers. 
ELITE* CALC ' is a serious tool for those who want to 
do more than play games with their Color Computer. 



Features include: 

■ Single character commands 

■ Help Displays 

■ Enter text or formulas to 255 
characters long 

■ Repeat text entries 

■ 255 maximum rows 

■ 255 maximum columns 

■ Available memory always displayed 

■ Rapid Entry modes for text and 
data 

■ Selectable Automatic Cursor 
movement 

■ Insert, Delete, Move entire rows or 
columns 

■ Replicate one cell to fill a row or 
column with selectable formula 
adjustment 

• All machine language for speed 

■ Extended BASIC required for ROM 
routine calls 

■ Automatic memory size detection 
for 16K, 32K or 64K 

• >20K bytes, storage available in 
32K systems 

■ BASIC style formulas 

■ Math Operators: + ,-,X,/,|,(,),= 

■ Relation Operators: 
= ,>,<,< =,> =,< > 

■ Logic Operations: AND, OR, NOT 

■ Conditional Formula: IF . . . 
THEN ...ELSE 

■ Trig Functions: SIN, COS, TAN, 
ATN 



• EASY TO USE 

• INDIVIDUAL CELL FORMULAS 

• COPY BLOCKS OF CELLS 

• FULL CELL-EDIT CAPABILITY 

• COMPATIBLE WITH ALL PRINTERS 

• EASY 132 COLUMN PAGE WIDTH 

• CHANGEABLE BAUD RATES 

• GRAPH FORMAT FOR BAR CHARTS 

• SORT IN ASCENDING OR DESCENDING 
ORDER 

• COMPREHENSIVE MANUAL INCLUDED 

• NATIONWIDE USER GROUP 

• HANDSOME VINYL BINDER 

THE BEST FOR ONLY 

$5995 

specify: Disk or Tape 

— Shipping from stock NOW 
-pealer Inquiries Invited. 
Add $2 Postage & Handling 
PA residents add 6% sales tax 



| Log Functions: LOG, EXP, SQR. 
1 Misc. Functions: INT, FX, ABS, 
SGN. 

i Range Functions: SUM, AVERAGE, 
COUNT, MIN, MAX, LOOKUP 

1 Nine digit precision 

' Definable constant table 

1 User definable printer set-up 
commands 

Individual column width settings 
Adjustable row height to insert 
blank lines without wasting 
memory 

Hide columns or rows 

Alternate print font selectable On 

ceil by cell basis 

Display/Print formats set by cell, 

row, or column 

Dollar format, comma grouping; 

prefix or postfix sign 

Scientific notation, fixed point and 

integer formats 

Left and Right cell contents 

justification 

Full page formatting 

All formats stored with worksheet 

on disk(tape) 

Save & Load Disk(tape) files in 
compact memory form 
Scan disk directories 
Output ASCII file for word 
processor input compatibility 
Memory resident code ... no 
repeated disk calls 
Sample worksheets included 



Box 11224 • Pittsburgh, PA 15238 • (412) 795-8492 



E?3 



"Elite * Cah Is a great spread- 
sheet program I This profes- 
sional quality program has the 
performance required for seri- 
ous home applications as well 
as small businesses. " 

Stuart Hawkinson, Rainbow 



"Truly one of the best 
programs I have seen. " 

John Sterner, Micro 



"Elite* Ca/c is an ex- 
tremely powerful work- 
sheet . , , " 

Jack Lane, Color Micro Journal 



"Bruce Cook's Elite *Calc 
is a very fine program in- 
deed; potentially one of 
the great Color Computer 
Programs. " " . . . a very 
impressive product " 

Scott L Norman, Hot CoCo 



* COLOR COMPUTER WORD PROCESSOR * 



Elite-Word 



TM 



THE SECOND GENERATION WORD PROCESSOR 
IS NOW.. . ELITE % WORD has many new features 
not found in other word processors for the Color 
Computer. ELITE'WORD is an all machine 
language, high performance, Full Screen Editor 

MAJOR Features include: 

• ALL Machine Language for speed • 

• Handsome Vinyl Binder • 

• Comprehensive Manual Included 

• User Friendly (really) 

• Top screen line reserved for • 
command prompts, HELP 
messages, and status information • 

• Two text entry modes: Insert and 
Exchange 



which offers an ease of use that is simply incredi- 
ble. ELITE* WORD also offers a printed output flex- 
ibility that can handle your sophisticated home 
and business applications. ELITE m WORD is wait- 
ing to work for you. 



■ Delete character under cursor • 

■ Backspace and delete one 
character 

■ Delete entire screen line 

■ Rewrite entire screen • 

■ Page Forward through text 

■ Page Backward through text 

■ Mark present line for automatic 
centering on output # 

■ Insert new text (Insert mode) 

■ Type over old text (Exchange mode) 

■ Screen Display is 32x19 in normal 
text editing modes 

■ Screen Display is High-Rfcs 64x19 • 
when used to display final text; 
including page breaks and 
justification 

■ Screen Display in all modes is true 
Upper/Lower case characters with 
descenders 

■ Over 1 3.5K file size in 32K 
machines 

■ Continuous memory display 

■ Save text file (disk or tape) 

■ Load text file (disk or tape) 

■ All I/O errors trapped and 
recoverable 

■ Jump to beginning or end of text 

■ Find any string of characters in text 

■ Global replacement of one string in 
text for another 



True block-text Move command 
Smooth cursor movement over 
text in any direction (including 
vertical) 

Smooth screen scroll for easier 
proof reading 

Auto Key-Repeat will auto- 
matically repeat any key that is 
held down 
Easy generation of ASCII files 
VIEW function permits high-res 
screen display of final text before 
it's printed; including right-side 
justification and page breaks 
VARIABLE TEXT MERGE allows 
for generation of standard form 
type letters that appear to be 
personally prepared for each 
reader 

INCLUDE feature (disk only) 
permits the inclusion of many 
other files within one large 
document. Total document will 
have sequential page numbering 
From the same minds that brought 
you ELITE* CALC 

THE BEST FOR ONLY 

$5995 

Specify Disk or Tape 

- Shipping from stock NOW 

— Dealer Inquiries Invited. 
Add $2 Postage & Handling 
PA residents add 6% sales tax 



Type ahead keyboard buffer 
NEVER misses a character 
Optional screen display of all 
carriage returns; <cr> 
Fast Disk I/O ... No loading of 
overlay files to slow program 
operation 

User HELP display available 
Automatic screen Word-Wrap; 
even while inserting new text 

Block-text move, copy or delete 
Display/Change default disk drive 
number (disk only) 
Display disk directory (disk only) 
Display Free disk space available 
Software remembers last file name 
Saved or Loaded and will write to 
that file by default if desired 
Dynamic margin changes within text 
Select Top margin, Bottom margin, 
and Page length 

Choose number of duplicate copies 
Page Pause, for single sheet users, 
if desired 

Optional page numbering begins 
with any selected page number 
Printer Font codes are user 
definable 

All printer format options may be 
changed dynamically within text 
Any string of HEX characters may 
be imbedded within text to send any 
special control codes to your 
printer 

An Eject (top of form) command 
may be inserted within text 
Variable Text Merge symbols may 
be inserted anywhere within text 
All machine language; 32K and 
Extended Basic required for ROM- 
call routines 



Box 11224 • Pittsburgh, PA 15238 • (412) 795-8492 



From the creators of: zaksuno • color textset 1 • color textset 11 • inter- 

galactic FORCE • TEXT EDITOR • PARTY PAK • COLOR MONITOR • TREK-16 • WARKINGS • 
DISK&TAPECOPY • ANIMALS • BODYPARTS • TAPE COPY and many other tine programs 



40 FOR X1-1T0 len<x*):yi-asc<mid 
t <X«, X 1 , 1 ) ) -32: DRAW- XL* < Yi ) I " : NE 
XT: RETURN 

50 L0ADM"88PRP":0EFU8Rl-8cH7D90:D 

EFU8R2-*H7D92 

60 80T0 1690 

70 DIML»(60),F<10),A<10),B<10),P 

< 10) , pt < 10) : cc-o: gotos70 

98 » 

99 ' INPUT PREVIOUS SAVED DATA 

100 CLS: INPUT "DATA FILE NAME"|NF 
•: IFNF*»"Q"THEN210 ELSE NF*-LEFT 
*<NF*,8> 

110 OPEN H I H ,ttl,NF*: INPUT#1, I, SUM 
F 

120 FOR KK-1T0 1-1: INPUTtl ,F*<KK 
) , F (KK) : NEXT: CLOSE 
130 60T0340 

158 * 

159 'INPUT SAVED 8RAPH 

160 CLS: INPUT "GRAPH NAME"|FI«: IF 
FI*»"Q"THEN210 ELSE FI*-LEFT«(FI 
*, 8) : LOADMFI*: SCREEN 1 , 0: 808UB20: 
80T0520 

188 ' 

189 ' SCREEN BACKGROUND SELECT 10 
N 

190 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" DO Y 
OU WANT LI8HT PRINT ON 



DARK BACKGROUND OR 
DARK PRINT ON 
LIGHT BACKGROUND?": PRINT: PRINT" 
PRINT TYPE? <D>ARK OR <L>IGHT": 
SOUND 140, 1 : G0SUB20 
200 IFIK*-"D"THEN PR-0:BG-1 ELSE 

PR-l:BG-0 
210 CLS: PRINT»72, "DATA ENTRY MOD 
ES " : PR I NT : PR I NT : PR I NT : PR I NTTAB ( 1 
O) " < M > ANUAL " : PR I NTTAB < 1 0 ) "<AHITO 
":PRINTTAB<10> "<S>AVED GRAPH": 80 
UND140, l:808UB20 

220 IFIK*-"M"THENG0T0260EL8E IFI 
K*""A " THENGOTO 1 OOELGE IFIK*""S"T 
HENG0T0160 

230 CLS: PR I NT "MUST CHOOSE AVAILA 
BLE OPTION" : SOUNDS, 3: F0RZZ-1T080 
0:NEXT:80T0210 
25G ' 

259 'DATA INPUT 

260 CLS: I-0:SUMF-0 
270 I-I+l: IFI>9THEN340 

280 INPUT "DESIRED LABEL " I F* ( I ) 

290 F*(I)-LEFT*(F*(I) ,8) 

300 IFF«(I)-""ORF«(I)-"Q"AND I>1 

THEN340 

310 INPUT "AMOUNT/ VALUE "|F<D 
320 SUMF-SUMF+F ( I ) 
330 G0T0270 



FILMASTR 

The Color Computer has a powerful ally in FILMASTR. This is a DATA 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM that you can trust. FILMASTR combines 
the best features of the big systems to provide a combination of 
speed, power, and ease of operation that can't be beat. 
YOU are in complete control of this friendly program with no program- 
ming knowledge required. You design the data screen with up to 20 
fields by moving the cursor on screen with the arrow keys and typing 
in the field names. FILMASTR takes care of all of the rest. 
Enter data by just filling in the blanks. This form fill-in is easy and 
natural to use. You can even copy data from the previous record with 
one key-stroke. Add records, delete records, change records without 
fuss. 

Tell FILMASTR to sort your file on any field that you want or to re- 
trieve a particular record and the job is done with super-human 
machine language speed. FILMASTR will find a single record or a group 
of records that meet your request and will save those records as a 
separate file if you want to. 

Controlled printing formats? Of course! Tell FILMASTR which records 
to use, which fields to print and in what order. You can control the 
print location to any position on the page. Mailing labels? You bet! 
All commands are given to FILMASTR with single key strokes. Press 
the HELP key (BREAK), and the available commands are displayed. 
Make your choice from the menu and let FILMASTR do the work. 
FILMASTR can store up to 255 characters in each record and up to 
24,000 characters in each file. (9000 with 1 BK). 



FILMASTR 

RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



16K or 32K TAPE $29.95 

EXT BASIC DISK $34.95 

AMDISK $39.95 

Add $2.00 Postage & Handling 
C.O.D. $2.00 Additional 
PA Residents Add 6°/o Tax 




THE 
COM 
HOUSE 

Box 1051 • DuBois, PA* 15801 
Phone (814) 371-4658 



196 the RAINBOW January 1984 



340 CLS:F0RK-1T0 I-i:P(K>-F(K>/8 
UMF: PRINTF* <K) I TAB (iO)F(K) I TAB (2 
O) | : PRINTU8IN6" . |P<K) : NEXT 
350 PRINT: PRINT" DATA OK <Y/ 

N) ?" : SOUND 140, 1 : 80SUB20 
360 IFIK*-"N"THEN80T0260 
370 CL8: PRINT: PR I NTT ABO) "SAVE I 
NPUT DATA <Y/N)?":SOUND140, 1:908 
UB20: IFIK*-"Y"G0SUB1490 

398 » 

399 'PIEORAPH PLOT 

400 PN0DE4 pi: COLOR PR, BO: PCLS: GO 
SUB1040 

410 P0KEA5495,0:CP-0 

420 LINE (133, 1 IS) - <78, 1 13) , P8ET 

430 FORK-OTO 1-2 

440 CP-CP+P<K+1> 

443 IFK-I-2 AND ABS ( 1 . 0-CPX . 005 
THEN CP- 1.0 

450 CIRCLE <78, 113) ,75, PR, .93,0, C 

P: S-PEEK ( 190) : E-PEEK (192) 

460 LINE (8, E)- (78, 115),PSET 

470 NEXT 

480 P0KE65494,0 

490 008UB20:808UB1370 

500 screen 1,0: 008ub20 
510 cls: print: printtab( 7) "save 8 
raph?" : sound 1 40, l:80sub20: ifik*- 
" y " then60sub 1 540 

320 cls: print: pr i ntt ab (8) "want h 

ard copy? " : sound 140,1: 80sub20 : i f 

i k*= " y " then60sub 1 570 

530 cls: print: pr i ntt ab (11) "finis 

hed?" : s0und140, 1 : 80sub20: ifik*-" 

y m thencls:end 

540 cls: pr i nt "want to reverse pr 
int and back- bround (y/n)?":sou 
nd140, l:b0sub20: ifik*-"y"then te 

-PR:PR->BB:B8>TE:80T0210 else sot 
0210568 ' 

569 * LTRS Sc NUMBERS 

570 L* ( 33 ) ■ " BM+ 1 , 0U4E2R 1 F2D4BL3B 
U2R2BD2BR3 " 

580 L*(5)-"BM+1,0E6BL5D1R1U1L1BF 
5D1L1U1R1BD1BR3"'% 

590 L*(34)-"BM+2,0U6BL1R3F1D1G1L 

1R1F1D181L3BR7" 

600 L*(15)-"NE6BR7"'/ 

610 L*(35)-"BM+5,-5HlL281D4FlR2E 

1BD1BR3" 

620 L* ( 29 ) - " BM+ 1 , 0BU2R3BU2L3BD4B 
R7"'- 

630 L* ( 36 ) ■ " BM+ 1 , OU6R2F2D262L3BR 
7" 

640 L* ( 37 ) - » BM+5 , 0L4U6R4BD3BL2L 1 
BD3BR6" 

650 L* ( 38) - " BM+ 1 , OU6R4BD3BL2L 1 BD 
3BR6" 

660 L«(39)="BM+5,-5HlL281D4FlR3U 



GRAPHIC MATH 
ADVENTURE $21.95 



FASTER & BETTER 



Challenging Adventure! Fully player selectable up to 300 "room." Search for treasure on 
land, on river, and in the labyrinth of caves. Yoursearch is blocked by many obstacles which 
can be overcome by correctly answering math problems. Any one or all four functions (+,x, 
— , -r ) can be selected to add variety. 24 skill levels make the game challenging for all ages. 
32K EXT BASIC Required Version 1 .2 NOW AVAILABLE 

BACKUP MASTER/ 

GRAPHIC MONITOR $29.95 

SUPER powerful UTILITY allows backups to be made of most programs — 
cassette, disk, even ROM based!! 



• Over rides alt software autostart mechanisms 

• Fully relocatable — will not interfere with any program 

• Capable of reading many tapes which BASIC can't 

64K USERS have extra power 

• Modify BASIC to suit your needs 

• Save copies of BASIC, Ext BASIC. Disk BASIC, etc. 

• Run address dependent ROMS from RAM 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 



Also: 

SPELLING MASTER 



$14.95 MATH MASTER $14.95 



Conquer spelling. Learn the words you 
have trouble with User input unlimited 
number of words. Good for weekly spell- 
ing lists. SAMPLE list provided. 
16K EXT BASIC cassette 



for both 

Learn Basic Math Facts ( * . x. — , : ) and 
counting routines Math drill for speed 
Math tutor teaches with graphics 
MATH DRILL Non-EXT BASIC SB 95 
MATH TUTOR 16K EXT BASIC SB 95 



CONCENTRATION $6.95 

40 blocks hide 20 patterns. Pit your memory skills against your friends Two 
players. Non-EXT BASIC cassette. 

15% off 

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GAME PACK III 

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GRAPHICS 'N TEXT 
DISASSEMBLER 



JA9T 



15.25 
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Contains three hi-res gameboards: checkers, 
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(206) 377-1694 

Dealer & Author inquiries invited 



WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 
Add $3 Shipping — No COD 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 197 



2L 1 R3BR3BD2 " 

670 L*<40)-"BM+l,OU6BR4D6BL3BU3R 
3BR4BD3" 

680 L* < 4 1 > - " BM+5 , -6L4R2D6L2R4BR3 



690 L*<42>-"BM+1, 
BR3" 

700 L*<43>-"BM+1 
3" 

710 L*<44)-"BM+1 
720 L*<45>-"BM+1 
D6BR3" 

730 L*<46>-"BM+1 
D6BR3" 

740 L*<47>«"BM+5 
2BR4" 

730 L*<48>-"BM+1 
6BD3" 

760 L*<49>«"BM+5 

2F2BE2" 

770 L*<50>-"BM+1 
D1F2BR3" 

780 L«(Si)-"BM+l 
1BD5BR3" 

790 L*<52)-"BM+3 
BOO L*<53>-"BM+1 
BR3" 

810 L*<54>«"BM+1 

3" 

820 L*<55>«"BM+1 

1U6D6BR3" 

830 L*<56>-"BM+1 

1BR3" 

840 L*<57>»"BM+1 
D6BR2" 

830 L*<58)-"BM+1 



-2D 1 F 1 R2E 1 USBD6 

0U6D3R 1 E3B3F3BR 

-6D6R4BR3" 
0U6R1F2D1U1E2R1 

0U6R1D1F4D1R1U6 

-1U4H1L261D4F1R 

0U6R3F1D181L2BR 

-1U4H1L281D4F1R 

0U6R3F1D181L2R1 

-1F1R2E1H4E1R2F 

0U6L3R6BR2BD6 " 
-6D3F1R2E1USB06 

-6D4F2E2U4BD6BR 

-6D6R1E2U1D1F2R 

0U1E4U1BL4D1F4D 

-6D1F2D3U3E2U1B 

-6R4D164D1R4BR3 



860 L*<0>-"BM+1,0BR7" 

870 L*<14>«"BM+2,0R1BR2" 

880 L* < 1 7 ) - * BM+2 , -4E2D6BR4 H 

890 L*<18>«"BM+1,-5E1R2F1D1L183D 

1R4BR3" 

900 L*<19>-"BM+1,-1F1R2E1U1H1E1U 
1 H 1 L2B 1 BD5BR7 " 

910 L*<20)-"BM+4,0U6L1B2D1R5BD3B 
R3" 

920 L*<21>-"BM+1,-1F1R2E1U1H1L3U 
3R5BR3BD6" 

930 L*<22>-"BH+5,-6L3GlD4FlR2ElU 
1 H 1 L2BR6BD3 " 

940 L* < 23 > » " BM+ 1 , -6RSD284BR7 " 

930 L*<24>«"BM+1,-1U1E1R2E1U1H1L 

2B101F1R2F1D181L2BR6" 

960 L*<23)«"BH+1 P 0R3E1U4H1L2B1D1 

F1R2BD3BR4" 

970 L*<16>-"BM+6,-lU4HlL281D4FlR 
2BR4" 

980 L»<13>- H BM+2,-3R3BD3BR2" 
990 80T0190 
1038 ' 



1039 ' HIRES SCREEN FORMAT 

1040 CLS: PRINT" WANT LARGE TITLE 
PRINT <Y/N>?": PRINT" LARGE 
- 15 CHAR MAX": PRINT" STD 

- 30 CHAR MAX": SOUND 140, USOSU 
B20: IFIK»-"Y"THEN PRINT«33 V "»» 
" i ELSE PRINTG63, "»»"| 
1050 PRINTG96, "": INPUT" GRAPH TIT 
LE" » TI«: INPUT "SUBTITLE" » STI*: TP* 
-IK* 

1060 CLS: PRINT" WANT PERCENTAGES 
AND AMOUNTS ON BRAPH (Y/N 

) 7" : S0UND140, 1 : G0SUB20 
1070 LA*-IK*:SCREEN1 V 0 

1080 i ftp*- "y" then tc-16:ts*-"s8 
":tis*-"24":ti*-left*(TI* p 15) :xi 
*-"13" else tc»s:ts*-"s4":t1s*-" 
18":ti*-left*(TI*,30) :xi*-"9" 

1090 POKE 65495, 0:X*-TI*: IFTI*-" 
"THEN1110 

1100 P*«"BM"+STR*<128-INT<TC»<LE 
N<TI*> ) /2) )+", "+X1*+"| "+TS*+"| ": 
DRAWP*:80SUB40 

1110 X*— LEFT* < ST I * , 30 > : I FST I*—"" 
THEN 1150 

1 120 P*-"BM"+STR* < 12B-INT <8» (LEN 
<X*) )/2> >■•■", "+T1S*+"»S4» ":DRAWP* 
: 60SUB40 

1148 ' 

1149 ' PRINT LABELS? 

1150 FORK- 1 TO 1-1 

1 160 PL*-"BM155, "+STR* <20+18»K> + 

" ; 34; " 

1 1 70 ZL*- " BM 1 62 , " +STR* < 29+ 1 8»K > + 

II | II 

1180 PT<K)-100»P<K) 

1190 X*-STR*<K)+" "+F* <K) : DRAWPL 

*:80SUB40 

1200 IFLA*-"N"THEN1230 

1210 QQ*-STR* <PT (K) > : RR*— STR* <F ( 

K>> 

1220 X*-LEFT*<RR*,7)+LEFT*<QQ*,4 
) +"7.i " : DRAWZL*: 80SUB40 
1230 NEXT 

1258 ' 

1259 * SECTOR CENTER LOCATIONS 

1260 SUMF-O: PSUM-0 
1270 FORK-OTO 1-1 

1 280 SUMF-SUMF+P < K+ 1 > : PSUM-SUMF- 
P<K+l)/2 

1290 CIRCLE <78, 115), 70, BG, .93,0, 

PSUM:A(K)-PEEK<190) :B(K)-PEEK(19 

2>:IFK-0THEN B<K)-B<K)+3 

1300 IFK>0THEN1340 

1310 CIRCLE (76, 115) ,72, B8, .93,0, 

PSUM: S-PEEK < 190> : E»PEEK < 192) 

1 320 LL*- " BM " +STR* < S > + " , " +STR* < E 

) +" 5 " 

1 330 X*-STR* < K+ 1 ) : DRAWLL* : B08UB4 
0 



198 the RAINBOW Januai 



-y 1984 



YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST GOT WHEELS! 




REVOLUTION! 



You accelerate hard down a long straightaway, 
braking heavily at the end for a hard corner. 
You slice smoothly through the esses, and then 
boldly keep the power on for a fast sweeper. 
The Ferrari drifts dangerously near the edge, 
but you make a tiny correction in the steering, 
and you are through. 

The finish line flashes by, and suddenly you 
are in the pits. The car falls silent. You see your 
lap times being held up. Your final lap was a 
new lap record! At last, you permit yourself 
a small smile. 

You have mastered this powerful car on a 
difficult track, driving with the assurance and 
precision that comes only from long hours of 
practice. 

You are driving an authentic race car. You are 
playing Revolution! 

FANTASTIC ACTION 



Revolution uses high resolution, machine language graphics 
for action that is smooth and fast. The emphasis is on 
authenticity in the control and motion of your car. As in 
driving a real race car, accuracy and precision in your driving 
are what counts. Frills and non-essentials have been left out. 

PURE COMPETITION 



Like a real race driver in practice and qualifying sessions, you 
compete against the clock and against the existing lap record 
for that track. Revolution records the lap records and the 
name of the person who set the record, so you always know 
who reigns supreme on your favorite track! 

DESIGNED WITH YOU IN MIND 

Revolution is menu-driven, and self explanatory. Informa- 
tion screens tell you what you need to know. When you're 
ready to play, a menu of the names of all your tracks is 
displayed, along with the lap record for each track and the 
name of the person who set that lap record. You select a track 
with a single keystroke, and Revolution takes you there. 



A NEW CONCEPT 

Revolution is a unique game, because it allows you to create 
the most important part of any race game: the track itself. 

The first time you run Revolution, you will be able to choose 
from several tracks and cars which are included with the 
game. 

But, with Revolution, this is only the beginning! You can 
create as many tracks as you like. You can make each new 
track as difficult or as easy as you wish. You can make easy 
ones to begin with, and tougher ones as you become more 
skilled. You may find creating tracks to be almost as much 
fun as driving on them! 

You can save your favorite tracks to run on again whenever 
you wish. Revolution will automatically add these new tracks 
to the menu. And you can exchange your favorite tracks with 
other Revolution owners. 

Be careful, though, about letting your friends play this game. 
They may not want to let you have your computer back! 

THE EARLY REVOLUTION 



A prototype version of Revolution was published in the 
September, 1982 issue of Rainbow magazine, under the 
name The Track. The response to The Track has been terrific. 

Revolution has all the features that have made The Track a 
favorite, and Revolution's fast, high-resolution machine 
language graphics are dramatically improved over the 
prototype's. 

REVOLUTION NOW! 



The original Revolution for the TRS-80™ Color Computer 
requires 32K and one disk drive. A new cassette version has 
action just like the disk version, and similar track-saving 
features excluding a menu of available tracks. The cassette 
version will run on a32KColor Computer or TDP-100. You 
can upgrade to the disk version later, too, for a nominal fee. 



REVOLUTION 






For 32K Disk 


. $19.95 


Requires Joysticks 


For 32K Cassette.. 


. $16.95 


& Extended BASIC 



New York residents add 7% sales tax. 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. 



VISA' 



Inter <y> (^Action 

31 Rose Court • Dept. R • Amherst, NY 14226 • (716) 839-0943 



RAINBOW 



1340 NEXT: P0KE65494,0: RETURN 

1368 * 

1369 ' HI -LITE SECTORS 

1370 CLS: PRINT: PRINT- DO YOU N 
ANT TO HI-LITE ANY SEC 
TORS <Y/N>? N :80UND140 v l:008UB20 
1380 IFIK*-"N"THENRETURN 

1390 CLS: P0KE65495, O: PRINTS PRINT 
" WHICH SECTORS ?":F0RZ-1T0 

I-l:PRINT840+32»Z, Z| :PRINTTAB(10 
)F*<Z) I TAB <20)| : PRINT USING". ##" 
|P(Z>:NEXT 
1400 OQ-1 

1410 PRINT8455," »F» WHEN FINISH 
ED" I 

1420 808UB20 

1430 IFIK*-"F"THEN1460 

1440 Z-VAL ( IK«) : PRINT839+32*Z , " > 

"i:PAINT<A<Z-l>,B<Z-l>),PR,PR 

1450 QQ-QQ+l: IFQGKI THEN1420 

1460 P0KE65494, O: RETURN 

1488 ' 

1489 'DATA SAVE ROUTINE 

1490 CLS: INPUT "ENTER DATA FILE N 
AME " f NF* : I FNF*— " Q" THEN RETURN EL 
SE NF«-LEFT*<NF*,B>:0PEN"0 M ,»1,N 
F« 

1500 WRITE#1, I,3UMF 
1510 F0RKK-1T0 1-1 : WRITE#1 , Ft <KK 
) , F <KK) : NEXT: CLOSE: RETURN 
1538 ' 



3 VALHALLA 



VENTURE WITH YOUR LEGIONS INTO THE MYSTICAL LAND OF 
VALHALLA TO CONQUER ALL AND REIGN SUPREME IN THIS TOTALLY 
HI-RES, COMPLETELY JOYSTICK CONTROLLED, STRATEGY GAME. 
THE BEAUTIFULLY DETAILED TERRAIN MAP INCLUDES CASTLES, 
VILLAGES, ROADS, RIVERS, SWAMPS, LAKES, BAYS, AND MOUNTAINS. 
TWO TO FOUR PLAYERS CONTROL SIXTEEN ARMIES LED BY LORDS, 
GENERALS, OR CAPTAINS. EACH ARMY FEATURES HEAVY CALVARY, - 
LIGHT CALVARY, FOOT SOLDIERS, AND ARCHERS. 

A SUPERB GAME FOR ONLY $24.95. -rr 1 



CHECK OR MONEY 
ORDER ONLY 



AVAILABLE ONLY FROM P.O. BOX 15331 
*UVPI1MD* TULSA, OK 74 158 

nTllUlTlr (918)266-6452 
ALL ORDERS 1.50 SHIPPING. GAMES REQUIRE 32K, EXT. BASIC, AND 
DUE TO MEMORY REQUIREMENTS ARE AVAILABLE ONLY ON CASSETTE 



COLONIAL TRILOGY 




THE INCREDIBLE SAGA OF THE STRUGGLES 
BETWEEN TWO RACES AT THE EDGE OF OUR GALAXY 

COLONIAL WARS: ONE PLAYER COMMANDS THE COLONIAL 
HOMEWORLDS AND ALL THEIR FORCES WHILE THE OTHER PLAYER 
LEADS THE INVADING 2YRON EMPIRE. THE ULTIMATE IN TWO 
PLAYER STRATEGY GAMES WITH HYCOMP'S UNIQUE SPLIT SCREEN 
CONCEPT, GAME SAVE, AND 10 PAGE INSTRUCTION MANUAL(3-8hrs) 

ZYRON: THE SIEGE OVER ONE OF THE COLONIAL HOMEWORLDS 
AND THE ATTEMPT TO BREAK IT IS THE SETTING FOR THIS TWO 
PLAYER GAME. FEATURES INCLUDE CUSTOM BUILT FIGHTERS AND 
FREIGHTERS, 300 LOCATION HI-RES PLAYING GRID, SEVEN PAGE 
MANUAL, TWO SCENARIOS. AND PLAYING AID (2-4hrs) 

QUESTAR: one player explores over 30 planets on a 

DARING MISSION TO DESTROY A HIDDEN ZYRON BASE IN THIS 
EXCELLENT GRAPHICS ADVENTURE (60-90min) 



ONLY $19.95 EACH OR 
ALL THREE FOR $49.95! 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



1539 'GRAPH SAVE ROUTINE 

1540 CL8: INPUT-GRAPH NAME" |F I*: I 
FFI*--Q H THEN RETURNELSE F I •-LEFT 
* <FI* P 8) : 8CREEN1 , O: 8AVEHFI*, PEEK 
( 188) #256, PEEK ( 186) #256+6143, 380 
: RETURN 

1568 ' 

1569 'PRINTER ROUTINES 

1570 CLS: PRINT-HALF AND FULL WID 
TH PAGE COPY ARE AVAILABLE." 
1580 PRINT: PRINT-HALF PA8E COPY 
CAN BE LOCATED RIGHT, LEFT, OR 

CENTER. u 

1590 PRINT: PRINT-DO YOU WANT hAL 
F OR fULL PABE?-:S0UND140, l:0O8U 
B20 

1600 IFIK»-"F"ORIK*-"f "THEN GOTO 
1630 

1610 IFIK*-"H"ORIK*-"h"AND CC-OT 
HEN G08UB1650 ELSE LOADM " G8PRP " : 
CC-0:GO8UB1650 

1620 8CREEN1,0:IFPP0INT(5, 190)-1 
THEN P-U8R2(XP):60T0530 ELSE P-U 
SR1<XP):80T0530 
1630 I FCC- 1 THEN 1620 
1640 8-fcH7D90:P0KE8+37,2:P0KES+4 
3, 95: P0KE8+62, 4: POKES+67, 47: POKE 
S+197,4B:P0KES+277, 18: POKE 8 +279, 
18: CC-1 : XP— 125: B0T01620 
1650 CLS: PRINT-POSITION OF GRAPH 
(L/R/C) " : S0UND140, 1 S G0SUB20: XP* 
-IK* 

1660 IFXP*-"L"THEN XP— 160:RETUR 
N 

1670 IFXP*-"R"THEN XP— 125: RETURN 
1680 XP-O: RETURN 
1690 PCLEAR4:80T070 
1700 DATA 198,32,182,1,90,142,4, 
O, 167, 128, 140,4,31,38,249, 142,5, 
224, 167, 128, 140,6,0,38,249, 142,4 
, 32, 167, 132, 167, 31 , 58, 140, 6, O, 38 
,246,57 




X-MAS CASSETTE 

(FOR 16K - EXT. BASIC) 

INSTEAD OF X-MAS CARD 
WHY NOT SEND A X-MAS CASSETTE THIS YEAR? 

LET COCO PLAYS, PAINT YOUR GREETINGS! 

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#102 — JINGLE BELLS 
#104 — WE WISH YOU A MERRY X-MAS 



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ADD $2.o° EXTRA FOR C.O.D. 

(SEND CHECK, M/0 OR C.O.D. T0:\ 

KARR TECH 

BOX 6056 
KENT, WA. 98031 



200 the RAINBOW January 1984 





KEYBOARDS 

by Macrotron 

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Lower profile than the Professional 

* Extended Radio Shack layout 

* Silk-smooth feel — 
uses ALPS keyswitches 

Our Versakey software enhances 
the keyboard's utility 

* Auto-repeat, n-key rollover and 
type-ahead 

* Fl becomes DEFINE, 
F4 becomes CTRL 

* May define up to 128 keys (including 
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characters each. 

Supplied on cassette, may be copied to disk 



'Have Josie ship yours today! 39 



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Terms: Prepaid check or money order, Mastercard or Visa. 
Shipping Charges: U.S. $2.00, Canada $5.00, COD $3.50 (No COD's to Canada). 



PROGRAMMING UTILITY 



Twenty Odd-Ball 
Screen Routines 



By Gregory Clark 



16K 
ECB 



I 



the 

(+—♦) 

RAINBOW 



Have you ever been in the middle of writing a large 
program and realized that you needed something to 
fill in a small time delay or a visual gap in the 
on-screen proceedings? Now you have to put your main 
program on the back burner and come up with a small 
subroutine. Well, this has happened to me several times; 
some of the routines in this program are the result. Others I 
wrote just to come up with a round number. 

There are timers, counters, time-wasters, and one stolen 
in whole from a very early issue of the Rainbow. The timers 
in themselves are not accurate, it is up to you to provide the 
timing interval within your own program for that. 

They all have one thing in common — they cause some- 
thing visual to happen on the text screen. Since there is no 
one way to do things when writing a BASIC program, I 'rri not 
claiming that the methods used are the best. I have offered 
these routines as an example of several ways to accomplish 



time delays and counting. If you should happen to suddenly 
have an insight and come up with a better way, I will be 
rewarded in a small way by possibly having helped. 

Some of these routines require Extended basic. If you are 
not familiar with POKEing into the text screen, then I 
suggest starting with the last routine Strange Characters, as 
the CHRS and POKE values used in many of these routines 
are not the same. 

After writing the main program, I realized that there are 
actually 2 1 subroutines. The 2 1 st being the method I used to 
display the listing of the routines and POKE values in 
Strange Characters. 

If there are others out there with similar collections of 
odds and ends, think about putting them together and send- 
ing them in to the Rainbow. You do not have to come up 
with a major programming feat in order to help other pro- 
grammers, sometimes small tidbits are very welcome. 



The listing: 

1 CLEAR500 

2 Qi*<2>=" 

3 Q1*(3)= H 

4 Q1*(4)= H 
NGE COLOR 

5 Qi*(5)=" 

6 Ql*<6>=" 
R 

7 Ql*<7>=" 
-L 

8 Ql*<8>»" 

9 Qi*(9)= M 

10 Ql*UO> 
RS+MINUTES 



f 




12060 


.115B 


12 


01 E6 


13085 


. 1385 


191 


04D8 


13200 


. 15E9 


3040 . 


. 0777 


16010 


. 1816 


70 . 


09BE 


18030. 


1AC2 


9010 . 


0BD2 


20030 


. 1E40 


11050, 


0EEB 


END . 


. 2108 



: DIMQl* (20) : CLS: Ql=l : Q 
1/4 BLOCK-COLOR CHANGE 
2=3 INGLE DOT/L-R 
3=SINGLE BAR/L-R 
4=MULTIPLE POINTS-CHA 

5=RAND0M TIME WASTER 
6=MULTIPLE TIME WASTE 

7=D0UBLE BLOCKS/L-R+R 

8=C0UNTER/OTO99 
9=COUNTER/OT0999 
=" 10-12 HOUR CLOCK-HOU 



(Greg Clark works for New York Telephone Co. and 
in his spare time enjoys writing Adventure programs. 
His wife, Ruth, is quietly supportive of the time spent 
at his hobby.) 



13=CL0CK FACE TIMER 
14=4 BLOCK COLOR CHA 

15=0-9 NUMERIC-SHIFT 



11 Q1*<11>="11=24 HOUR CLOCK-HOU 
RS+MINUTES +SECONDS+COLOR CHANG 
E FOR PM 

12 Ql*(12)="12=COUNTDOWN DOUBLE 
BAR 

13 Ql*(13) = 

14 Ql*(14) = 
NGE 

15 Ql*(15) = 
CHANGE 

16 Ql* (16)=" 16=' TIMES SQUARE HEA 
DER" STOLEN FROM the RAINBOW VOL 
I N05 

17 Q1*(17)="17=C0UNTD0WN W/ TONES 

18 Q1*(18)="1S=ACR0SS BOTTOM DOU 
BLE BAR 

19 Ql*(19)="19=l BLOCK-CORNERS C 
HANGE 

20 Q1*(20)="20=HIDDEN CHARACTERS 

100 AA=l:AB=1024 

101 A«= " L 1 OO AP 1 O AP 1 ODP 1 OCCD " : B*= 
"L200A" 

110 CLS:PRINT@256, " TWENTY ODDBA 
LL SCREEN ROUTINES" : PRINTS465, "B 
Y greg clark":FORY=lT010:PLAYA«: 
NEXT 

120 CLS: PRINTS224, "CHANGE VALUE 



202 the RAINBOW January 1984 



OF Y IN LINE 200 TOSPEED UP OR S 
LOW DOWN EXECUTION OF E 

XAMPLES" : F0RY-1T03000: NEXT 

190 aa=0:AB=o:ac=02 ad=o: ae=o: af= 
o:az-o:forx-itoiooo:next:cls:pri 
nts256, "enter # of choice (99 fo 
r list) press <e> to exit during 

RUN":INPUTXX 

191 I FX X — 99THENB0T060000ELSE I F X X 
<0 OR XX>20THENPLAY"L10A":eOT019 
0 

193 PRINTe352,Ql*(XX) 
195 ON XX G0SUB1000, 2000, 3000, 40 
00, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000, 1000 
0, 1 lOOO, 12000, 13000, 14000, 15000, 
16000, 17000, 18000, 19000, 20000 
1 97 E*= I NKEY* : I FE*= " E " THEN 1 90 
200 FORY- 1 T0300: NEXT : SOTO 1 95 
205 GOTO 195 

1000 REM 1/4 BLOCK-COLOR CHANGE 

1005 IFAZ=0THENAA=136:AZ=1 

1010 PLAYB*: POKE 1 024, AA 

1 020 AA=AA+ 1 6 : I FAA >248THENAA= 1 36 

: AB=AB+ 1 : I FAB > 1 OTHEN 1 040 

1030 RETURN 

1 040 PLAYA* : CLS : GOTO 1 90 

2000 REM SINGLE DOT-MOVES ACROSS 
SCREEN 

2001 REM AA, AB 

2005 IFAZ-OTHENAA-l: AB-1024:AZ-1 
2010 PLAYB*: ON A A G0T02030, 2040 
2030 POKEAB- 1,143: POKEAB , 1 35 : AA- 
2: RETURN 

2040 POKEAB , 1 39 : AA= 1 : AB-AB-t- 1 
2050 I FAB > 1 055THEN2060ELSERETURN 
2060 PLAYA* : CLS : GOTO 1 90 

3000 REM SINGLE BAR 

3001 REM AA, AB 

3005 IFAZ=0THENAA=l:AB«1024:AZ=l 
3010 PLAYB*: ON AA G0T03020, 3030 
3020 POKEAB , 1 35 : AA=2 : RETURN 
3030 POKEAB ,131: AB=AB+ 1 : AA- 1 
3040 I FAB > 1 055THEN3050ELSERETURN 
3050 PLAYA* : CLS : GOTO 1 90 
4000 REM MULTIPLE POINTS-CHANGE 
COLOR 

4005 IFAZ=OTHENAA=l: AB=1532:AZ=1 
:FORX=1532T01535:POKEX, 191: NEXT 
4010 PLAYB* :AC=AC+l: ON AA G0T040 
20, 4030, 4030, 4030 

4020 POKE AB+3 ,191: POKEAB , 1 59 : AA= 

AA+1 : AB=AB+1 : RETURN 

4030 POKEAB- 1,191: POKEAB , 1 59 : AA- 

AA+1:AB-AB+1 

4040 I F AB- 1 536THENAB- 1 532 : AA= 1 
4045 IFAC-20THEN190 
4050 RETURN 

5000 REM RANDOM TIME WASTER 
5010 IFAZ-OTHENAA-RND (-TIMER) :AZ 
=1 



5020 PLAYB*: AA-RND ( 12G) : AA-AA+12 
7:P0KE1135,AA 

5030 AB=AB+ 1 : I FAB=20THEN 1 90 
5040 RETURN 

6000 REM MULTIPLE TIME WASTER 
60 1 O I FAZ-OTHENAA-RND ( -T I MER ) : AZ 
=1 

6020 A A-RND ( 1 28 ) + 1 27 : PLAYB* : AB- A 
B+l:ON AB G0T06030, 6040, 6050,606 
0 

6030 POKE 1 1 34 , AA : RETURN 
6040 POKE 1 1 35 , AA : RETURN 
6050 POKE 1 1 36 , AA : RETURN 
6060 AB=0: POKE 1 137, AA 
6070 AC-AC+1: IFAC-5THEN190 
60G0 RETURN 

7000 REM DOUBLE BLOCKS/L-R+R-L 
7010 IFAZ=0THENAA«l:AB-1504:AC»l 
535: AD=159: AF=1 : AZ-1 
7020 PLAY"L100 M +C*: POKEAB, AD: POK 
EAC, AD 

7030 AB-AB+1: AC=AC-1 

7040 I FAB- 1 520THENAD-AD+ 1 6 : AE=AE 

+1:AF-AF+1 

7050 I F AB= 1 536THENAB- 1 504 : AD-AD+ 

16 : AF— AF+ 1 : AC= 1 535 

7060 IFAD>252THENAD»159 

7065 I F AF=*GTHENAF= 1 

7070 IFAE>10THEN190 

7075 C*«STR* ( AF ) : C*« " J " +C* 

70G0 RETURN 

BOOO REM COUNTER / 0T099 
8010 IFAZ=OTHENFORX=112GTOH31:P 
OKEX , 239: NEXT: AA=48: AB=48: AZ*1 
80 1 5 PLAYB* : POKE 1 1 29 , AA : POKE 1 1 30 
, AB 

8020 AB=AB+ 1 : I FAB=58THENAB=48 : AA 
=AA+1 

8030 I F AA=58ANDAB=48THENPL AY A* : G 

0T0190 

G040 RETURN 

9000 REM C0UNTER/0T0999 

9010 IFAZ=OTHENPOKE 1086, 175: POKE 

1214, 175:AA=112: AB=1 12: AC=1 12: AZ 

=1 

9020 PLAYB* : POKE 1 1 1 8 , AA : POKE 1 1 50 
, AB: POKE1 182, AC 

9030 IFAA=121ANDAB=121ANDAC=121T 
HENPLAYA* : GOTO 1 O 

9040 AC=AC+ 1 : I F AC» 1 22THEN AC= 112: 
AB-AB+ 1 : I FAB- 1 22THENAB- 112: AA— AA 
+ 1 

9050 RETURN 

10000 REM 12 HOUR CLOCK-HOURS+MI 
NUTES 

10010 I FA Z —OTHENPOKE 1 484 , 1 59 : POK 

E1487, 122:P0KE1490, 159: AA-1 12: AB 

-112:AC-112:AD-112:AZ-1 

10020 PLAYB* : POKE 1 485, AA: POKE 148 

6 , AB : POKE 1 488 , AC : POKE 1 489 , AD 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 203 



1 0030 I FAA- 1 1 3ANDAB— 1 1 4THENPLAYA 
♦:SOT0190 

1 0040 AD= AD+ 1 : I FAD* 8 1 22THENAD- 112 
: AC- AC+ 1 : I FAC= 1 1 8THENAC- 112: AB=A 
B+l : IFAB-122THENAB-1 12: AA-AA+1 
10050 RETURN 

11000 REM 24 HOUR CLOCK-HOURS+MI 
NUTES+SECONDS+COLOR CHANGE FOR P 
M 

11010 IFAZ-OTHENPOKE1024,223:POK 
E1027, 122:P0KE1030, 122:P0KE1033, 
223: AA-1 12: AB=i 12: AC=1 12: AD-1 12: 
AE=1 12: AF-1 12: AZ=1 
11015 IFAB-1THEN11100 
1 1 020 POKE1 025, AA : POKE 1 026 , AB : PO 
KE 1 028 , AC : POKE 1029, AD: POKE 1031 , A 
E: POKE 1 032, AF 

1 1 030 I FAA- 1 1 3 ANDAB- 1 1 4THENA6- 1 : 
RETURN 

1 1 040 AF- AF+ 1 : I F AF= 1 22THENAF- 112 
: AE- AE+ 1 : I F AE= 1 1 8THEM AE= 112: AD=A 
D+l : IFAD-122THENAD-1 12: AC-AC+1 : I 
FAC-1 1BTHENAC-1 12: AB-AB+1 : IFAB-1 
22THEN AB= 112: AA+AA-* 1 
11050 RETURN 

111 00 I FAZ- 1 THENAA-49 : AB=50 : AC-4 
8: AD=48: AE=48: AF-49: POKE 1027, 58: 
POKE 1030, 58: AZ-2 

11110 POKE 1 025 , AA : POKE 1 026 , AB : PO 
KE 1 028 , AC : POKE 1 029 , AD : POKE 1 03 1 , A 



CPP 

Color Picture Plotter 

Capture that PMODE 3 picture on paper using the CGP-1 1 5 
Color Graphic Printer. Easy to use • High speed machine 
language • Auto start from cassette • Works with Micro 
Painter • Prints pictures from cassette or memory • In- 
cludes sample picture (American Flag). 

"CPP is a great utility ..." RAINBOW Ju/y 83 
//rNv\ p 05ta g e 

still |ust 1*1. yO + & handling 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 



Banners Banners Banners 

This program makes them on the CGP-1 1 5 Color Graphic 
Printer. Up to 250 letters per Bonner with variable sized 
letters in any of the 4 colors on the CGP. Change colors 
and size within the Banner. Great for parties, advertising 
or greeting cards. 

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RAINBOW 

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ALL-AMERICAN ULTRALIGHT IND. (AUI) 

1144 Kingston Ln. 
Ventura, CA 93001 
Please include $1 .50 for postage and handling 



E: POKE 1 032, AF 

1 1 1 20 I F A A-50ANDAB-52THENPL A Y A» : 
B0T0190 

1 1 1 30 AF- AF+ 1 : I F AF =58THEN AF-48 : A 
E«AE+1 : I FAE=54THENAE=48: AD=AD+1 : 
IFAD=58THENAD=48: AO=AC+l : IFAC-54 
THENAC=48: AB=AB+1 : I FAB=5BTHENAB= 
48: AA=AA+i 
11140 RETURN 

12000 REM COUNTDOWN DOUBLE BAR 
12010 IFAZ=0THENF0RX=1120T01151: 
POKEX , 179: NEXT: AA=1 151 : AB=1 131 : P 
□KE1151, 191: AZ-1 

1 2020 AE-PEEK (AA) : AA- AA- 1 : AC-PEE 
K (AA) 

1 2025 I F AA» 111 9THEN AD=PEEK ( 1 1 20 ) 
: IFAD»191THENAA=1151:P0KE1120, 17 
9:P0KEAB, 176:AB»AB-i:P0KEAA, 188: 
PLAYB*: RETURN 

1 2030 I FAC- 1 79THENP0KEAA , 1 9 1 : I FA 
E-188THENP0KEAA+1 , 1 76ELSEP0KEAA+ 
1, 179 

12040 I FAC— 1 76THENP0KE AA , 188: I FA 
E— 1 88THENP0KE A A+ 1 , 176ELSEP0KEAA+ 
1,179 

1 2050 I FA A- 1 1 20 ANDAC- 1 76THENP0KE 
1 1 20 , 1 76 : PLA YA* : BOTO 1 90 
12060 RETURN 

13000 REM CLOCK FACE TIMER 
13010 IFAZ-0THENF0RX-1024T01039: 
FOR Y-0T07: POKEX +(Y*32) , 128:NEXTY 
, X : AA-1032: AB=1 : AZ-1 : P0KE1 127, 22 
5: POKEl 128, 226: P0KE1 159, 228: POKE 
1160,232:P0KE1063, 172:P0KE1064, 1 
72 

13014 PLAYB* 

13015 ON AB BOTO 1 3020, 1304O, 1305 
0, 13060, 13070, 13080 

1 3020 POKE AA , 220 : POKEAA- 1 , 1 28 : AA 
=AA+1 

1 3025 I FAA— 1 040THENAB-2 : AA- 1 039 
13030 IFAA-1032THEN13090 
13035 RETURN 

1 3040 POKEAA ,211: AA- A A+32 : AB-3 
13045 RETURN 

1 305O POKEAA , 220 : POKE A A-32 , 1 28 : A 
B-2 

13055 I FAA— 1 263THENAB— 4 
13057 RETURN 

1 3060 POKEAA ,211:1 F AC-OTHENAB-4 : 
AA-AA- 1 : AC- 1 : ELSEPOKEAA+ 1 , 1 28 : AB 
=4: AA=AA-1 

1 3065 I FAA- 1 247THENAA= S 1 248 : AB-5 
13067 RETURN 

1 3070 POKEAA , 220 : AA=A A-32 : AB-6 
1 3072 I FAA— 992THENAA— 1 025 : AB- 1 
13075 RETURN 

1 3080 POKEAA ,211: POKEAA+32 , 1 28 : A 
B=5 

13085 RETURN 
13090 PLAY "L90D- 



204 the RAINBOW January 1984 



There ain't much more to know about your microcomputer when you own a NANOS SYSTEMS CARD. 



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NANOS SYSTEMS REFERENCE CARDS - QUICK REFERENCE FOR YOUR MICROCOMPUTER 

OVER 125,000 SOLD WORLD WIDE 

The most popular quick reference ever produced for microcomputers! 
This is the finest, most comprehensive, complete, and most truthful document you may ever find for your microcomputer 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



It is an accordion-fold document, printed on 80-lb Beckett cover stock lor durability, prepared by large-scale computer professionals who have over 20 years experience, and it is 
made the way they need it for their own usage 

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13100 AC=0:0N AD 80T0131 10, 13120 
, 13130, 13140, 13150, 13160, 13170, 1 
3180, 13190, 13200, 13210, 13220 
13110 POKE 1063, 128: POKE 1064, 128: 
P0KE1097, 172:P0KE1066, 163: AD=2:R 
ETURN 

13120 P0KE1097, 128:P0KE1066, 128: 
P0KE1131, 172:P0KE1100, 163:AD-3:R 
ETURN 

13130 P0KE1131, 128:P0KE1100, 128: 
P0KE1133, 163:P0KE1165, 172:AD=4:R 
ETURN 

13140 P0KE1133, 128: P0KE1 165, 128: 
P0KEU63, 163:P0KE1196, 172:AD=5:R 
ETURN 

13150 P0KE1163, 128: P0KE1 196, 128: 
P0KE1193, 163:P0KE1226, 172: AD=6:R 
ETURN 

13160 P0KE1193, 128: P0KE1226, 128: 
P0KE1223, 163:P0KE1224, 163: AD=7:R 
ETURN 

13170 P0KE1223, 128: POKE 1224 , 128: 
P0KE1190, 163:P0KE1221, 172:AD=8:R 
ETURN 

13180 P0KE1190, 128:P0KE1221, 128: 
POKE 1156, 163:P0KE1187, 172: AD=9:R 
ETURN 

13190 P0KE1 156, 128: POKE! 187, 128: 



E r d r r s 
a r li £j Ej o 

R GAMES, BUSINESS, HOME MANAGEMENT F 

IV COLOR OASIS T 

P.O. Box 178 ^ 
1122 12th Street Erie, IL 61250 ^ 

Please accept my application for trial-membership to COLOR 
OASIS & rush me my selection below at the get-to-know-us price 11 
of $19.95*, a 20% - 30% savings off current prices of $24.95 to 
$27.95. "P 

I understand I need buy only six more selections at which time 
my FREE selection of my choice will be sent, I will be receiving a 
complete listing every 6 to 8 weeks to choose from during the next 
two years. 

Specify □ Cassette □ Disk (Please add $3.50) 
□ Robottack □ Fury □ Tims 

by Jntracolor by Computer Shack by Sugar Software 

□ Danger Ranger □ Zaksund 

by Screenplay by Elite Software 

Please send check or M.O. 

Signature 

Name 



Address 
City 



PLEASE PRINT 



State . 



Zip. 



Please add $2.00 for shipping & handling. 



P0KE1 122, 163:P0KE1154, 172:AD=10: 
RETURN 

13200 P0KE1122, 128: P0KE1 134, 128: 
POKE 1 09 1 , 1 63 : POKE 1 1 24 , 1 72 : AD- 1 1 : 
RETURN 

13210 POKE 1091, 128: P0KE1 124, 128: 
P0KE1061 , 163: P0KE1094, 172: AD=12: 
RETURN 

13220 P0KE1061, 128". P0KE1094, 128: 
POKE 1063, 172: POKE 1064, 172: PL AY A* 
: GOTO 190 

14000 REM 4 BLOCK COLOR CHANGE 
14010 IFAZ-OTHENCLSO: POKE 1423, 13 
2:P0KE1424, 132:P0KE1425, 132: POKE 
1426, 132:AA«1423:AB=148:AZ=l:RET 
URN 

14015 PLAY B* 

1 4020 POKEAA , AB+ ( 1 6*AC ) : A A= A A+ 1 
1 4030 I FA A= 1 427THENAA- 1 423 : AC=AC 
+1 

1 4040 I FAC-7THENPLAY A* : GOTO 1 90 
14050 RETURN 

15000 REM 0-9 NUMERIC-SHIFT CHAN 
GE 

15010 IFAZ«OTHENFORX-OT09:POKE10 
35+X, 112+X:NEXT:AZ-l:AA-1035:P0K 
E 1 035 , 48 : AB- 112: AC-49 : RETURN 
15020 PL AYB* : POKEAA, AB: POKEAA+l , 
AC 

1 5030 AC- AC+ 1 : AB- AB+ 1 : AA-AA+ 1 

1 5040 I FAA- 1 044THENPLAYA* : GOTO 1 9 

0 

15050 RETURN 

16000 REM "TIMES SQUARE HEADER" 
16005 REM ENTER YOUR OWN TEXT IN 
PLACE OF RB* 
16010 CLSO 

16020 RB*-" 

— THIS PROGRAM APPEARED IN 'the 
RAINBOW* VOLUME I NO 5 (TOTAL PA 
GES-20 INCLUDING COVERS). I HAVE 
NEVER SEEN IT RE -PRINTED ANYWHE 
RE AND INCLUDE IT HERE FOR THE N 

EWER 'RAINBOW' READERS 

"+STRING*<16,32> 

16030 FORAA-1 TO LEN (RB*) -15: AB= 
AB+l:IFAB>4 THEN AB=1 : E=l 125: EE= 
1140 

16040 PRINT@328,MID*(RB*,AA, 15) ; 
16050 SOUND RND (240) , 1 : NEXTAA 
16060 GOTO 190 

17000 REM COUNTDOWN W/ TONES 
17010 I F AZ=OTHENFOR AD=1055T0153 
5STEP32 : POKE AD , 239 : NEX T AD : AA= 1 05 
5 : POKEAA , 227 : AB- 1 : SOUNDAB , 1 : AC- 1 
:AZ-l: RETURN 

17015 AB=AB+7: IFAA=1567 THENPLAY 
A*:G0T0190 

17020 ON AC GOTO 17030,17040 
17030 POKEAA, 140: SOUNDAB, 1 : AC=2: 



206 



the RAINBOW January 1984 



Introducing . . . 



New! From the Programmer's Guild 



TM 



The Ultimate Arcade Challenge! 



New from Arcade Master Charles Forsythe! 

The most original game ever produced! 

16 levels of breath taking action! 

Up to 6 players in competition! 

Keyboard or joystick control. 

Runs on any 16K TRS-80 color or TDP 100. 

Guide your Ninja through boulders, fire, pitfalls.flaming 
meteors, and Ninja masters to attain the ultimate /^^\ 
achievement in — NINJA GRANDMASTER! rainbow 




is the single most difficult arcade 
game ever written! 



Exciting— Frustrating— Difficult— Impossible — your skill will tell the tale. 




— for those who would face 

VI 

the ultimate arcade challenge— 



TO WIN OR DIE! 



$29.95 cassette 

Free Shipping 

VISA MASTERCARD 



r THE PROGRAMMER'S GUILD ' 
P.O. BOX 66 
PETERBOROUGH, NH 03458 
—or Call (603) 924-6065 for COD— ^ 



AND GET "FREE" SHIPPING ANYWHERE ON THE 
PLANET EARTH OR HER COLONIES 



AA-AA+32: RETURN 

1 7040 POKE A A , 227 : POKE A A-32 , 1 43 : S 

OUNDAB, 1 : AC-1 : RETURN 

18000 REM ACROSS BOTTOM-DOUBLE B 

AR/AC=1/AB=1504 

18010 IFAZ«0THENAOl:AB-1504:AZ- 
1 

18020 REM AA,AB,AC 

18030 IFAA=0THEN18100 

18040 PLAYB*:ON AC SOTO 18050, 180 

60, 18070, 18080 

18050 POKEAB, 247: AC-AC+l: RETURN 
18060 POKEAB, 245: AC=AC+1 : RETURN 
18070 POKEAB , 24 1 : AC=AC+ 1 : RETURN 
1 8080 POKEAB , 240 : AC= 1 : AB= AB+ 1 
1 8090 I F AB= 1 536THEN 1 8 1 1 OELSERETU 
RN 

18100 F0RX«1504T01535:P0KEX,255: 

NEXT: AA*1 : 60T018040 

18110 PLAY A* : CLS : SOTO 1 90 

19000 REM 1 BLOCK - CORNERS CHAN 

GE/AA=1 

19010 IFAZ=OTHENAA=l:AZ=l 

19020 PLAYB* : ON AA SOTO 19030, 190 

40, 19050, 19060 

19030 POKE 1024, 216: A A= A A+ 1 : RETUR 
N 

1 9040 POKE 1 024 , 228 : AA-AA+ 1 : RETUR 
N 



FLY t be F Hi 




Instrument 
Flight 
Simuiator 



Kxciting simulation of j«t flight 
Navigata a now course uch flight or 
do acrobatics. Instrument takaoffa 
And landings. Variabla control 
sensitivity for boginnar or export. 
Fully instrumented including *Baads Up" 
display, gpacify 16k or 32k ex. basic. 
Tap* $19.95 Direct aave to DISK 



RAINBOW 



I SPOOL 



Print while you're writing the next letter! 
A software spooler for Telewriter-64*users . 
Has graphic descenders for LPVII/OMP 100 users. 
Easy to use ml: a single CLOADM t EXEC. 
For sll 32K and 64K systems. Disk compatible. 
Tape $24.95. 

*MMflur* 44 fer CaMltac 



Add $1.00 for shipping to all orders. 

We accept COD orders 

KRT Software 
P O Box 41395 
St Petersburg, Fl 33743 

(813)321-2840 9am - 5pm EST 



1 9050 POKE 1 024 , 242 : AA=AA+ 1 : RETUR 
N 

1 9060 POKE 1 024 , 1 93 : AA- 1 : AB= AB+ 1 
19070 I FAB > 1 OTHEN 1 9080ELSERETURN 
1 9080 PL AY A* : CLS : SOTO 1 90 
20000 REM HIDDEN CHARACTERS 
20010 W 1 =0 : CLS : PR 1 NT@32 , " THERE A 
RE SOME INTEREST INS CHAR- ACTER 
S HIDDEN IN YOUR COCO" : F0RAA=1T0 
2000: NEXT: PRINTS128, "USIN6 THE C 
HR*< ) FORMAT YOU CANUSE THOSE C 
HARACTERS SHOWN IN THE RADIO S 
HACK MANUALS, BUT HAVE YOU SEEN TH 
ESE?" 

20020 AB=27:F0RX=144OTO1471:POKE 
X, AB: AB-AB+1 : NEXT: F0RX=1 T06000 : N 
EXT 

20030 CLS: PR I NTS 128, "THESE CHARA 
CTERS ARE AVAILABLE US INS POKES 
TO THE SCREEN MEMOR YLOCAT I ONS 1 
024-1 535 . PR I NTOO , " CHR« ( 34 ) " a " CH 
R*(34)"0R PRINT@0,CHR*<97> IS TH 
E SAME AS P0KE1024,1" 
20040 F0RX=1T06000: NEXT: CLS: PRIN 
T"THE FORMAT IS POKEXXX,YYY. XXX 
X=DIBIT BETWEEN 1024 AND 1535 AN 
D YYY=DIBIT BETWEEN O AND 255" 
20050 PR I NT "USE UP AND DOWN ARRO 
WS TO MOVE THE DISPLAY. ENTER < 
E> TO EXIT" 

20055 W 1 =0 : PR I NT@352 , " POKE 1 392 , " 
W1"=":P0KE1392,W1 

20060 W 1 *<= I NKE Y* : I FW 1 *= " " THEN200 
60 

20070 IFW1*="E"THEN190 

20075 IFW1*<>" A " AND Wl*OCHR*<l 

0) THENS0UND10, 1 : 60T020060 

20080 IFW1*= ,,A "THENW1=W1+1: IFW1> 

255THENW1=0 

20090 IFW1*=CHR*<10)THENW1=W1-1: 
I F W 1< OTHENW 1 =255 

20 1 00 PR I NTS352 , " POKE 1 392 , " W 1 " = " 
: POKE 1 392 , Wl : B0T020060 
20999 F0RX=1T02000: NEXT: SOTO 190 
60000 REM LIST 

60005 Ql=l:CLS:PRINT"USE UP AND 
DOWN ARROWS TO LOOK AT LIST-PRE 
SS <E> TO EXIT":PRINTQ1*(1) 
600 10 Q 1 *= I NKE Y* : I FQ 1 *= " " THEN600 
10 

60013 IFQ1*="E"THEN190 

60015 IFQ1*<> ,,A " AND Ql*OCHR*<l 

O > THENSOUND 10,1:S0T060010 

60020 IFQ1*=CHR*<10)THENQ1=Q1-1: 

I FQ 1< 1 THENQ 1 =20 

60030 I FQ 1 *= " A " THENQ 1 =Q 1 + 1 : I FQ 1 > 
20THENQ1=1 

60040 PR I NT : PR I NTQ 1 * < Q 1 ) : S0T0600 
10 





208 the RAINBOW January 1984 



UPGRADES!!! 



16K _ 32K 
STILL ONLY $25.95!!! 

64K CHIP SET 
STILL ONLY $49.95!!! 



Both kits include complete and easy 

instructions and 
carry a one year warranty!!! 

Please add $2.00 Postage and handling per total order. 
California residents add 6% for shipping. 




QUASAR ANIMATIONS 

1520 Pacific Beach Drive 
San Diego, California 
92109 



Four For Fun 



By Paul Wesley Myers 



Being the father of two pre-schoolers, one of the first 
undertakings I attempted on my 4K CoCo was to get 
the kids involved. After all, telling my wife it was for 
the kids was the only way I could justify its purchase in the 
first place. The first two programs listed here are written for 
the 4K, non-Extended BASIC CoCo. The third, a light enter- 
tainment program requires 16K, non-Extended BASIC. With 
some little work, it could be cut down to fit on a 4K machine 
also. The last program needs 16K Extended basic. Please 
forgive the rather rag-tag lettering used in it, it was my first 
attempt at high-resolution graphics. 

The first program, called Key-Fun, is just that. It is 
designed to be an ice-breaker to the computer. The program 
draws a clown's face on the screen, then puts a letter on the 
clown's nose. If the child presses the letter that matches it on 
the keyboard, the clown smiles and he/she hears ah assend- 
ing sound. Even for the child who doesn't know the alphabet 
yet, it's a chance to get in on the fun. 

The second program is a little more advanced, and 
requires the child to have a little knowledge of the alphabet. 
All of the letters are shown on the screen, and then one is 
"blacked out." If the child presses the correct "missing let- 
ter", a short rendition of "Pop Goes The Weasle" plays, and 
another letter is darkened. When my oldest daughter started 
to play with this one, and she didn't know the answer right 
off, she'd break into a chorus of "ABCD . . ." It works as a 
great reinforcer. 

The third program was written as a little entertainment 
break. Song-Time is a collection of four well-known child- 
ren's tunes. By pressing A, B, C or D, the child selects a song 
to be played. The program serves as a nice pause when the 
child begins to tire of the other programs. It's great fun. 
After all, he/she gets to make the music. 

The last program in the group, Shapes And Colors will 
require a little adult help at first. Four shapes of different 
colors will be drawn on the right of the screen. Then on the 
left of the screen, a question will be asked such as "Which is 
blue?" or "Which is a circle?" At first, an adult will be needed 
to read the question to the child. But don't fret too much 
over this. You will be very surprised at how fast the kids will 
learn to recognize these words. 

(Paul Myers is a programming analyst for Technicon 
Corporation. His eight years of data processing expe- 
rience include working with both large-scale and 
minicomputers.) 



All four of these programs use the keyboard as the input 
device. I've tried using the joysticks in some other programs, 
but have had only mixed success with them. What I'm really 
hoping to see on the market soon is a touch-sensitive overlay 
for a 13" screen that could be attached through one of the 
joystick ports. To all you designers out there, here's a great 
educational tool I hope you don't pass over. 



KEYBOARD FUN 
PAUL W. MYERS 
10/8/83 



Listing 1: 

10 
20 
30 

40 CLS5 
50 f DRAW NOSE 
60 FOR X«10 TO 15 
70 FOR Y=28 TO 33 
80 SET<Y,X,1) 
90 NEXT Y,X 
100 * DRAW MOUTH 
HO FOR X=20 TO 41 
120 FOR Y=20 TO 21 
130 SET<X,Y,4) 
140 NEXT Y,X 
150 9 DRAW RIGHT EYE 
160 FOR X=20 TO 23 
170 FOR Y«4 TO 7 
180 SET(X,Y,3) 
190 NEXT Y,X 
200 9 DRAW LEFT EYE 
210 FOR X=38 TO 41 
220 FOR Y^4 TO 7 
230 SET<X,Y,3) 
240 NEXT Y,X 
250 7 SELECT LETTER 
260 V«RND<26> 
270 L*«CHR*<V+64) 
280 " PRINT LETTER ON NOSE 
290 PRINT @ 207, L*5 
300 Z*=INKEY* 
310 IF Z*= ,,H THEN 300 
320 IF Z*<> L* THEN 570 
330 * RI6HT ANSWER 




210 the RAINBOW January 1984 



340 * DRAW SMILE 
350 FOR X-20 TO 21 
360 FOR Y=18 TO 19 
370 SET<X,Y,4) 
380 NEXT Y,X 
390 FOR X»40 TO 41 
400 FOR Y=18 TO 19 
410 SET<X,Y,4) 
420 NEXT Y,X 

430 FOR S= 100 TO 200 STEP 
440 SOUND S, 1ZNEXT S 
450 ' ERASE SMILE 
460 FOR X-20 TO 21 
470 FOR Y«18 TO 19 
480 SET(X,Y,5) 
490 NEXT Y,X 
500 FOR X=40 TO 41 
510 FOR Y-18 TO 19 
520 SET<X,Y,5) 
530 NEXT Y,X 
540 GOTO 260 
550 ' WRONG ANSWER 
560 ' DRAW FROWN 
570 FOR X«20 TO 21 
580 FOR Y=22 TO 23 
590 SET<X,Y,4) 
600 NEXT Y,X 
610 FOR X=40 TO 41 
620 FOR Y=22 TO 23 
630 SET<X,Y,4) 
640 NEXT Y,X 
650 FOR S=l TO 10 
660 SOUND 1,2 
670 FOR B=l TO 5 
680 NEXT B,S 
690 ' ERASE FROWN 
700 FOR X=20 TO 21 
710 FOR Y=22 TO 23 
720 SET<X,Y,5) 
730 NEXT Y,X 
740 FOR X=40 TO 41 
750 FOR Y»22 TO 23 
760 SET(X,Y,5) 
770 NEXT Y,X 
780 GOTO 300 



220 01 7C 

END . . . 0320 



Listing 2: 

10 
20 
30 
40 
50 



* MISSING LETTER 

* PAUL W. MYERS 

* 10/8/83 
CLS4 

PRINT 8 4," WHAT LETTER 
SINS ?"? 
60 DIM B(26) 

LETTERS 
70 ■ DRAW BOARD 
80 A=65 
90 Z=67 

100 FOR X=l TO 5 ' ROWS 



IS MIS 



' SAVES LOCATION OF 



110 FOR Y«l TO 6 ' COLUMNS 

120 A*oCHR*<A> 

130 PRINT 8 Z,A*S 

140 PRINT 8 Z+1,CHR*<138> I 

150 A»A+1 

160 OC+1 

170 B<C)-Z 

180 * FINISHED ? 

190 IF C»26 THEN 270 

200 * NEXT COLUMN 

210 Z-Z+5 

220 NEXT Y 

230 * NEXT ROW 

240 Z-Z+34 

250 NEXT X 

260 ' SELECT LETTER TO HIDE 
270 R«RND<26) 

280 PRINT a B<R>,CHR*<128>f 
290 PRINT 8 B (R)+1,CHR*< 133+48) ; 
300 PRINT 8 420, "PRESS THE MISSI 
NG LETTER" J 
310 L*=INKEY« 
320 IF L*="" THEN 310 
330 IF L*=CHR*<64+R> THEN 400 
340 ' WRONG ANSWER 
350 FOR X=l TO 3 
360 SOUND HO, 7: SOUND 1,7 
370 NEXT X 
380 GOTO 310 
390 ' RIGHT ANSWER 
400 PRINT 8 B<R),L«; 
410 PRINT 8 B<R)+1,CHR»(138) ; 
420 SOUND 147,5 
430 SOUND 108,4 
440 SOUND 133,1 
450 SOUND 125,5 
460 SOUND 89,5 
470 GOTO 270 



Listing 3: 
lO 
20 
30 




SONG-TIME 
PAUL W. MYERS 
10/8/83 
40 CLEAR 20 
50 CLS3 

60 DIM A (84) ,B<52) ,C(64) ,D(64) 

70 FOR X= 1 TO 84 

80 READ A (X): NEXT 

90 ' TWINKLE TWINKLE 

100 DATA 89,8,89,8,147,8,147,8,1 

59,8,159,8 

110 DATA 147,16,133,8,133,8,125, 

8, 125, 8, 108, 8, 108, 8 

120 DATA 89,16,147,8,147,8,133,8 

, 133,8, 125,8, 125,8 

130 DATA 108,16,147,8,147,8,133, 

8, 133,8, 125,8, 125,8 

140 DATA 108,16,89,8,89,8,147,8, 

147,8, 159,8, 159,8 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 211 



150 DATA 147,16,133,8,133,8,125, 

8, 125, 8, 108, 8, 108, 8 

160 DATA 89,16 

170 FOR X-l TO 52 

180 READ B<X):NEXT 

190 * JINGLE BELLS 

200 DATA 125,4,125,4,125,8,125,4 

,125,4,125,8 

210 DATA 125,4,147,4,89,6,108,2, 
125,8,255,8 

220 DATA 133,4,133,4,133,6,133,2 
,133,4, 125,4 

230 DATA 125,4,125,2,125,2,147,8 

,147,8,133,8 

240 DATA 108,8,89,32 

250 FOR X=l TO 64 

260 READ C(X):NEXT 

270 ' ARE YOU SLEEPING 

280 DATA 89,8,108,8,125,8,89,8,8 

9,8, 108,8, 125,8 

290 DATA 89,8,125,8,133,8,147,16 
,125,8, 133,8, 147, 16 
300 DATA 147,4,159,4,147,4,133,4 
, 125,8,89,8 

310 DATA 147,4,159,4,147,4,133,4 
, 125,8,89,8 

320 DATA 89,8,147,8,89,16,89,8,1 

47,8,89, 16 

330 FOR X=l TO 64 



SOFTWARE -HARDWARE 



FOR RADIO SHACK'S TRS-SO MODEL 1/3 
TRS-SO COLOR COMPUTER 



•SEND FOR FREE CATALOG* 



UTILITY PROGRAMS ON CASSETTE 

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TURN YOUR COMPUTER INTO A 

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RAM/ROM USER-PAK FOR TRS-80 COLOR $30 



•GAMES ALSO AVAILABLE* 



B.ERICKSON SOFTWARE - PO. BOX 1 1099- CHICAGO IL 60611 

CALL (312)276-9712^INF0RMATION 



340 READ D(X):NEXT 

350 ' THIS OLD MAN 

360 DATA 147,4,125,4,147,8,147,4 

, 125,4, 147,8 

370 DATA 159,4,147,4,133,4,125,4 
, 108,4, 125,4, 133,4 

380 DATA 125,2,133,2,147,4,89,4, 
89,2,89,2,89,4 

390 DATA 89,2,108,2,125,2,133,2, 
147,8 

400 DATA 147,4,108,4,108,4,133,4 
, 125,4, 108,4 
410 DATA 89,8 

420 PRINT @ 1,"WHAT SONG DO YOU 
WANT TO HEAR?"; 

430 PRINT @ 96, "A * TWINKLE TWIN 
KLE LITTLE STAR" 

440 PRINT @ 160, "B - JINGLE BELL 
S" 

450 PRINT @ 224, "C = ARE YOU SLE 
EPING" 

460 PRINT @ 2B8, "D = THIS OLD MA 
N" 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
560 
570 
580 
590 
600 
610 
620 
630 
640 
650 
660 
670 
680 
690 
700 
710 
720 
730 
740 
750 
760 
770 



X*=INKEY* 

IF X*="" THEN GOTO 470 
X*=»A" THEN GOTO 550 
THEN GOTO 610 
THEN GOTO 670 
THEN GOTO 730 



IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 



X*="B" 
X*="C" 
X*="D" 
GOTO 470 

* TWINKLE TWINKLE 
FOR X=l TO 84 STEP 
S=A<X) :D=A<X+1) 
SOUND S,D 

NEXT X 

GOTO 470 

' JINGLE BELLS 

FOR X=l TO 52 STEP 

S=B(X) :D=B(X+1) 

SOUND S,D 

NEXT X 

GOTO 470 

■ ARE YOU SLEEPING 
FOR X=l TO 64 STEP 
S=C(X) :D=C<X+1) 
SOUND S,D 
NEXT X 
GOTO 470 

* THIS OLD MAN 
FOR X«l TO 64 STEP 
S=D<X) :D=D(X+1) 
SOUND S,D 
NEXT X 
GOTO 470 



Listing 4: 

10 * SHAPES 
20 * PAUL W. 



450. 
640. . 
END 



016B 
0478 
066D 
09DB 



AND COLORS 
MYERS 



212 the RAINBOW January 1984 



30 * 10/8/83 
40 CLEAR 300 
50 DIM A* (8) 
60 GOSUB 610 
70 PMODE 3, 1 
80 SCREEN 1,0 
90 PCLSO 

100 9 DRAW GREEN CIRCLE 

110 CIRCLE <180,25) ,20, 1 

120 PAINT (180, 25), 1 

130 ' DRAW YELLOW SQUARE 

140 DRAW "BM163,55|C2;R35sD29fL3 

5;U29" 

150 PAINT (170,65), 2 

160 ' DRAW BLUE TRIANGLE 

170 DRAW "BM163, 120; C3; R36; H18; G 

18" 

180 PAINT (170, 119), 3 

190 ■ DRAW RECTANGLE 

200 DRAW "BM150, 138;Cl;R60;D30;L 

60;U30" 

210 * DRAW NUMBER ONE 

220 DRAW "BM235, 155D20" 

230 ' DRAW NUMBER TWO 

240 DRAW "BM230,60;R10;D10;L10;D 

10;R10" 

250 » DRAW NUMBER THREE 



260 DRAW "BM230, 100JR10JD10;NL5S 
DIOJLIO" 

270 * DRAW NUMBER FOUR 

280 DRAW "BM230, 145| D10J RIOlNUlO 

;D10" 

290 • "WHICH IS" 

300 DRAW "BM20,70;D10JE5JF5SU10; 

BR5; Dio; U5; R5; U5; DlO; BR5? U10J BR5 

;NR5;D10f R5»BR5;U105D5SR5;NU5JD5 

; BR15i U10J BR5; NR5; D5; R5; D5; L5" 

310 X=RND(8> 

320 IF X=Y THEN 310 

330 IF X>4 THEN DRAW "BM100,80;U 

8;E2;Ri;F2;D3;NL5;D5; " * "A" 

340 DRAW "BM20, 100; "+A*(X> 

350 DRAW "BM120, 100;Ul;BU3;U2;R2 

;U5;L5;D2; " 

360 B*=INKEY* 

370 IF B*="" THEN 360 

380 IF X»l AND B*="4" THEN 500 

390 IF X=2 AND B*="3" THEN 500 

400 IF X=3 AND B*="l" THEN 500 

410 IF X=4 AND B*="2" THEN 500 

420 IF X«5 AND B*="2" THEN 500 

430 IF X=6 AND B*="4" THEN 500 

440 IF X-7 AND B*="l" THEN 500 

450 IF X=8 AND B*="3" THEN 500 



Iffnr GUjrtatmaa 
(Stiir gaur rlftliren anm^tlftng permanent! 

Arcade games are fun for awhile, but have no lasting benefits (except perhaps a quick trigger 
finger). Educational programs improve learning skills that can affect a child's future-forever! 

Here is a word recognition and spelling game that has all the challenge and excitement of an ar- 
cade game plus the fun and competition of a board game. With room for up to five players and 
nine skill levels, ALPHABET SOUP is great family fun. It's so much fun, the children wont even 
notice that their word recognition, spelling, vocabulary, and typing skills are steadily improv- 
ing. 

ALPHABET SOUP $14.95 

These three math drill programs will improve math skills from the introductory level through 
high school. Each program features five skil levels, entertaining music and graphics, and per- 
sonalized prompts to keep the children interested and motivated. 

COLOR MATH QUIZ $14.95 

FRACTION MATH QUIZ $14.95 

DECIMAL MATH QUIZ $14.95 

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FOR ORDERS CALL 1 -800-248-3823 

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460 ' WRONG ANSWER 

470 SOUND 20,20 

480 GOTO 360 

490 ' RIGHT ANSWER 

500 FOR Z=150 TO 200 STEP 10 

510 SOUND 2,1 

520 NEXT Z 

530 ' DRAW SUBJECT 

540 DRAW "BM20, 100;C4; "+A*<X> 

550 ' DRAW QUESTION MARK 

560 DRAW "BM100,80;U8;E2;Rl;F2;D 

3;NL5;D5;" 

570 DRAW "Cl;" 

580 Y=X 

590 GOTO 310 

600 ' "PURPLE" 

610 A* < 1 ) = "U10; R5; D5; L5; BRIO? BUS 
; Dio; R5; U10; BR5; ND10; R5; D5; L5; F5 
; BR5; U10;R5? D5; L5; BRIO; BU5; DIO; R 
5 ; BR5 ; NR5 ; U5 ; NR5 ; U5 ; R5 " 
620 ' "BLUE" 

630 A* <2> ="UiO; R3; F2; D3; NL5; D3; G 
2;NL3;BR7;NUio;R5;BR5;NUiO;R5;ui 
0; BR5; NR5; D5; NR5; D5; R5" 
640 ■ "GREEN" 

650 A* <3> = "U10; R5; BD5; NL1 ; D5; NL5 
; BR5; U10; R5; D5; L5; F5; BR5; NR5; us; 
nr5; u5; r5; br5; nr5; d5;nr5; d5; r5; b 
R5;uio;fio;uio" 

660 * "YELLOW" 

670 A* (4) ="BU10; F5; NE5; D5; BR7; NR 
5; US; NR5; U5; R5; BR5; DIO; R5; BR5; NU 
10; R5; BR5; Uio; R5; DIO; NL5; BR5; NU1 
o;E5;F5;U10" 
680 * "SQUARE" 

670 A* (5) »"R5; U5; L5? U5; R5; BR5; ND 

io; R5; Dio; NL5; NH2; brs; nuioj rs; NU 
10; BR5; us; E2; Rl ; F2; D3; NL5; D5; BR5 
; uio; R5; D5; L5; F5; BR5; NR5; U5; NR5; 
U5;R5; " 

700 ' "RECTANGLE" 
710 A* <6) ="U10; R5; D5; L5; F5; BR5; N 
R5; U5; NR5; U5; R5; BR5; Dio; NR5; buio 
; R5; BR5; R5; BL3; DIO; BR8; U8; E2; Rl ; 
F2;D3;nl5;D5;br5;uio;fio;uio;br5 
; NR5; Dio; R5; NU5; BR5; NU10; R5; BR5; 
NR5; U5; NR5; U5; R5; " 
720 * "CIRCLE" 

730 A* (7) ="NR5; UIO; R5; BR5; DIO; BR 

5; Uio; R5; D5; L5; F5; BR5; NR5; UIO; R5 
; BR5; DIO; R5; BR5; NR5; U5; NR5; U5; R5 

• II 

» 

740 * "TRIAN6LE" 

750 A* (8) ="BU10; R5; BL3; DIO; BR8; U 
10; R5; D5; L5; F5; BR5; NU10; BR5; U8; E 
2;R1;F2;D3;NL5;D5;BR5;U10;F10;U1 
0; BR5; NR5; Dio; R5; NU5; BR5; NU10; R5 
; BR5; NR5; U5; NR5; U5; R5; " 
760 RETURN 



214 the RAINBOW January 1984 




UJatacnrifj to 

basis 

By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Okay, all of you who have been reading "Bits and 
Bytes" for three, six or even 12 months be advised 1 
am speaking to new owners in this issue. The Janu- 
ary Rainbow has, with good reason, been dubbed the 
beginner's issue. Computers sell as gift items at Christmas. 
We would hope that a few of these new owners will find the 
Rainbow on a newsstand and be reading this now. And with 
the warm weather over in the northern climates and school 
well underway everywhere, people move to indoor activities 
which may include purchase of a personal computer. So, 
better to include all who have had their CoCos only a few 
months in my target audience. 

Owning a complex machine like a computer is both an 
exciting and a frustrating experience. Even the simplest 
program that works gives the new owner a feeling of power 
and accomplishment. The frustration comes in trying to do 
something that you should be able to do if you only knew 
how. Of course, your way is easier than mine was three years 
ago in that you can shop through nearly two hundred pages 
of advertising in the Rainbow for programs and hardware. I 
had a 4Kmachine, a Radio Shack manual, and little else. 
And the manual was not complete. Information on data files 
and much of the machine language information in the cur- 
rent Color basic Manual was not included. Needless to say, 
I spent some time and gasoline to find some books and 
magazines that told me enough about other computers that I 
could make my CoCo do what I wanted. And I sat at the 
keyboard and tried things. 

When you or I type at the keyboard, we are trying to talk 
to our computer in a language call BASIC . A beginner trying 
to talk to a computer is like a baby trying to talk to its 
parents, yet different. The child makes sounds and looks for 
a response. You type characters and look for a response. If 
you type the wrong thing you will get an error response 
which is a colder thing than the child will get, but it still 
carries information that you will store away to use later. 
What is this language that you are trying to type? 

The BASIC language was devised as an instructional lan- 
guage at Dartmouth College in the mid '60s. It differed from 
other languages and still differs in that it is interpreted and 
uses memory in an economical manner. Education has never 
been rich and memory then was expensive. BASIC is what is 
called a high level language. In a high level language, you 

(Richard White has a long background with micro- 
computers and specializes in BASIC programming. 
With Don Dollberg, he is the author of the TIMS data 
base management program.) 



program using words and equations which are similar to the 
language you talk and write or were taught in math classes. 
Yes, there are differences from English or algebra and there 
are specific rules which will be new to you and which must be 
followed. Still, a high level language is much easier to learn 
and use than the numbers which the microprocessor under- 
stands. 

A programming language is a program that converts 
statements that people can understand to numbers that the 
microprocessor in the computer can understand. The lan- 
guage does other things for you like storing and recovering 
data. If you have a program to help balance your check- 
book, you probably enter the starting balance, check 
numbers, dates and amounts and the computer calculates 
your balance as you go. How does the computer keep track 
of all this information you have given it? It stores the data in 
memory either in an area called the variable table, if the data 
is a number, or in an area called string space, if the data is a 
series of characters like a name or a date. Each piece of data 
is assigned to a variable name by your BASIC program and 
the basic Interpreter program handles things from there. 

If BASIC is a high level language, what is a low level 
language? Your 6809 microprocessor understands numbers 
which tell it to do certain tasks. Two- and three-letter abbre- 
viations called mnemonics have been associated with these 
number commands. These can be used to write an "assembly 
language" program that is run through an assembler pro- 
gram to produce machine language, the numbers that the 
microprocessor understands. Assembly is a low-level lan- 
guage where the programmer tells the micro step by step 
what to do, like where to go to get data bytes, what to do to 
these bytes and what to do with the results. The assembly 
language programmer must know far more about his 
machine than does the basic programmer. A machine lan- 
guage program produces very fast operation coupled with 
economical memory usage. 

There are many high level languages other than BASIC. 
Typically these languages will "compile" the program to 
machine language. This process is similar to assembly, but is 
far more complex. In both cases the program text must be 
converted by another program before it can be run in the 
computer. 

Since you have BASIC in your CoCo, it is the natural first 
language to learn. The manuals that come with your 
machine are very good at teaching basic BASIC. This 
includes the syntax and a few uses for each of the statements, 
commands, functions, operators and special features of the 
language. But, manuals cannot teach all the ways BASIC can 

January 1984 the RAINBOW 215 



be used to solve programming problems. Unless execution 
speed is crucial, BASIC will handle a surprising number of 
your program needs. 

The techniques necessary to do some things are not 
always apparent. The beginner will quickly understand stor- 
ing numbers in variables. Storing numbers in strings of 
characters is not an immediately obvious thing to do, 
though major savings in memory space with only modest 
loss of speed can be realized. In most cases, techniques like 
this are not learned from manuals, but from study of pro- 
grams written by others. Typing programs in from the 
Rainbow is a fine way to learn these techniques and to 
become more comfortable with BASIC. You cannot type in a 
program without thinking about what you are typing and as 
you think, you learn. In articles like "Bits and Bytes, "writers 
seek to present approaches that they have found successful 
from their experiences. The focus is on ways to program 
rather than details of syntax though these will be covered in 
passing. Some of these ways are very personal in that the 
programmer has been comfortable with a particular ap- 
proach to a particular type of problem and will recommend 
that approach over others. A case in point is my dislike for 
DA TA statements where the data is going to be read into 
variables in the program. 

One of the first things to talk about is program organiza- 
tion. In the manuals and in many programs, the approach is 
very straightforward. Start with Line 10 and number lines at 
10-line intervals until you reach the end of the program. This 
is fine for simple, top to bottom programs like the simpler 
ones in the manuals. 

As you get into more complex programs with a number of 
functions and subroutines that you develop at different, 
times confusion can develop easily. Code may not work and 



need changing, added lines may need to be interspersed and 
that pretty 10-line spacing is lost. If you RENUMber, the 
code in higher line numbers is relocated and you have to 
search for it when you want to work on it again. There are 
better ways and I laid out my way a year ago when we started 
"Bits and Bytes." With so many new readers, I will give it 
again. 

Perhaps the secret to programming is to "divide and 
conquer." Perhaps? Nay, it's a certainty. If you think of your 
programs as functional little pieces you will do a lot better. 
Pascal, another programming language, was written for use 
in teaching programmers to structure their programs. In 
fact, you cannot write in Pascal without adhering to strict 
structural rules. In BASIC, you have a choice of writing free 
spirited spaghetti-like programs or relatively structured 
ones. 

Reading a "spaghetti" program is rather like reading an 
upside down roadmap under a new moon at midnight. New 
programmers seldom know where they are going with a 
program and, halfway through, may get bogged down figur- 
ing where they have been as well. Such is part of the learning 
process, so don't lose heart. 

Program structure means program organization. Some 
languages require that variables, files, data structures and 
other attributes be declared at the beginning. Generous use 
of REMarks is encouraged and specific indentation formats 
are strongly suggested. Structuring also deals with what 
should be in subroutines, what should be in the main pro- 
ceedure and how the procedures flow. Much of this is 
optional in BASIC; some is just good practice in any 
language. 

Clarity should be as important a goal in BASIC as it is in 
other languages. There are a number of ways to write clear 
programs. I use the procedures that follow and find them 
valuable. 

1) Define specific program functions and put the code for 
each function in its own module with introductory REMs. 
Assign a specific set of lines to a module. Blocks of 100 lines 
are convenient and will meet most needs. You will always 
know a module begins at an even hundred and can go right 
to the one you want. 

2) Minimize looping back. The procedure should flow from 
start to end and loop only to repeat the routine or a portion 
of it. 

3) Use IF . . . THEN . . . ELSE to minimize jumping 
forward. Many times all the code for the choices can be 
contained after THEN and ELSE on one line so that the 
procedure can continue on the next line. Some BASIC'S don't 
have ELSE. Apple doesn't, and Apple owners pay extra for 
the lack. To illustrate, which is clearer to you? 

10 IFX=0THENPRINT"FALSE":X=1 ELSE PRINT 

"TRUE" 
20 END 

or 

10 IF X=0 THEN 30 

20 PRINT'TRUE": X=l: GOTO40 

30 PRINT"FALSE" 

40 END 

4) Put all subroutines in one of two places. Frequently 
called subroutines which include those that affect program 
speed should be at the front of the program. I reserve Lines 5 
to 99 for these. These should not be more than three or four 
lines. Line number spacing of two is good. 



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216 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Putting these here serves two functions. First the compu- 
ter finds them quickly when speed counts. You also save 
bytes since the number in the GOSUB is only one or two 
bytes long. Infrequently called routines, particularly pro- 
gram initialization code should be at the end of the program. 
Each time a subroutine is called or the computer is sent to a 
specific line, it starts at the beginning of the program and 
searches until it finds that line. The fewer lines it passes to 
find the needed line the faster the search will be. 

It follows that speed is compromised if the computer is 
continually searching over code it has used and will not use 
again. Clarity comes from having only two places to look for 

"Owning a complex machine like 
a computer is both an exciting 
and a frustrating experience. Even 
the simplest program that works 
gives the new owner a feeling of 
power and accomplishment. " 

subroutines. The one exception that I make is to place a 
major subroutine at the end of the module that calls it when 
only that module uses it. 

5) The same reasoning used above also applies to the order- 
ing of main program modules provided they are called 
separately. Those used most frequently are put in front of 
the occasionally used ones. In a file program, the input 
module is used far more than the save to tape module and 
should come to the front. Modules that are used in order 



should be placed in order in the program. 
6) Menus should be placed where they are used in the 
program. A menu's text provides valuable information on 
the branching of the program that follows. If menu choices 
are numbered from one up in sequence, the ON I GOTO 
XXX,YYY,ZZZ or ON I GOSUB XXX,YYY,ZZZ com- 
mands can be used. It is easy to read a listing, see which 
number corresponds to the code block you want and then 
drop down to the ON I statement and count across to find 
the target line number. 

Memory conservation sometimes forces use of strings 
defined elsewhere in the program in menu text. When this is 
done the advantage of reading the menu code to know what 
options are there and where to go for their code is lost. 

Programming is a series of compromises. It is up to you to 
know what your options are and to make sure that your 
choices are educated ones and not guesses or blind repetition 
of past practices. 

Though I have discussed program structuring for pur- 
poses of easy trouble shooting and modification, the struc- 
ture proposed had program speed firmly in mind as well. 
Memory use was another consideration. Clarity, memory 
and speed are like three corners of a triangle. You cannot be 
at all three points at once. You can make choices that 
shorten the sides of the triangle and get close to where you 
want to be. It takes careful thought and planning at the start 
so you don't end up redoing too much. 

Don't be upset when you don't get what you want the first 
or second time. Remember all good commercial programs 
have version numbers and Version 1 .0 is the first one offered 
for sale, not the first one of the development process. 



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January 1984 the RAINBOW 217 



CAPTAIN EIGHTY 



The Magic 
Software Machine 



By Captain Eighty 
(a.k.a. Bob Liddil) 



In the wintertime, I like to sleep late. Max knows this and 
usually doesn't bother me. Max, for those of you who 
don't know, is a sentient computer program and the only 
one who knows how to use all the prototype gadgets that 
Professor Megabyte left in the attic lab of the house I live in. 
He left behind Max and a gadget called a DDS (short for 




The Perfect 
Companion 
For Your 
New Portable Computer 

There's a new and exciting computer on the block -- Radio Shack's 
TRS-80^ Model 100 Portable Computer. It promises to be one of the 
most significant advances in personal computing of the 1980's! 

And, now, there's a new and just-as-exciting magazine specifically 
devoted to your Portable Computer. It is called PCM— The Portable 
Computing Magazine, and it is published by the same people who bring 
you the most popular Color Computer magazine in. the world — the 
Rainbow. 

PCM— The Portable Computing Magazine sells for $3 per copy and 
$28 a year by subscription. If, after seeing your first issue, you find it is 
not for you, just let us know. We'll happily, cheerfully and immediately 
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> (502) 228-4492 



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Subscriptions to PCM— The Portable Computing Magazine are $28 a year in 1 
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$64 U.S. Air mail $85. U.S. All subscriptions begin with the current issue. Please 

allow 5-6 weeks tor first copy. j„."r,ij 



Dimensional Download System), which can download a 
human into the world of computer software. Personally, 1 
wish Max didn't know how to operate that thing. 

It is disconcerting to go to sleep in a nice, warm waterbed 
in winter-bound New Hampshire and wake up the next day 
in the Old Programs' home guestroom in Programworld. I 
recognized the room because I've been here before. 

Programworld is a dimensional subdivision where indi- 
vidual units of software are born, grow strong, grow old and 
retire. Old programs never die. They take their software 
social security and go to live in bulletin boards as downloads 
or they retire to the Old Programs' home. 

I dressed in the tuxedo provided in my wardrobe. 1 
learned long ago the futility of resisting my environment 
when downloaded. I had just put on my top hat and adjusted 
my tie when my escorts, two programs in training, arrived to 
take me to see the head honcho. 

My host turned out to be none other than Grandfather 
Adventure, the original collossal cave adventure, written lo 
these many years ago on the mainframes, and elected to be 
governor of Programworld two years previously. It seemed, 
they told me, that I'd been invited to a wedding. 

The bride was an unknown but brilliant arcade-style 
game. The groom was the very successful and popular 
Adventure game. It was like a scene from a bad movie with 
the friends and relatives of the bride, all popular or retired 
arcade games, sitting on one side of the room while friends 
and relatives of the groom, all traditional Adventure games, 
sat on the other. Each group glared at the other; there was 
much anger and hostility between them. 

I saw many programs I knew as I made my way down the 
center aisle to take my place next to Grandfather Adventure 
and Pong, senior arcade game in the community. These two 
old duffers seemed to be taking the event well, although no 
one else appeared too happy at all. 

The ceremony progressed speedily until they got to the 

(Bob Liddil Captain Eighty, is a well-known writer on 
Color Computer topics who has numerous columns 
and several books to his credit.) 



218 the RAINBOW January 1984 



INTERNATIONAL 
COLOR COMPUTER CLUB, INC. 



Main Office 
2101 E. Main St., Henderson, TX 75652 

Book & Program's Library 
119 County Fair, Houston, TX 77060 



Canadian Branch 
P.O. Box 7498, Saskatoon, SK S7K-4L4 

Parts Library 
P.O. Box 1220, Henderson, TX 75653 



Voice Line (214) 657-7834* BBS Line (214) 657-8147 

World's Largest Color Computer Club 



RAINBOW 

CfflTIFICATtOM 



Color 
Computer 



Congratulations on your success 
in putting together such a fine 
group as the 11 1 CCC, Inc." . . . 

Dal las R # Odx 



TJESTIOJVS 
Reviews 

Letters / 

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Programs 

Articles 

Answkrs 



TRS-8QC 



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To Become a member: Write to the club for an application or send 
in your complete name address, and phone # with the correct 
amount of dues listed below: 

USA MEMBERS $30.00 CANADA 8 MEXICO MEMBERS $40.00 OUTSIDE 
THE USA $50.00 (surface) $90-00 (Air Mail) ALL PRICES ARE IN 
U.S. Dollars. Non-U.S. funds will be rejected- Prices for year. 

Discounts offered are from 5% to 25% from Major companies such as 
DSL Computer Products, RAINBOW, PCLEAR-80, and much, much more... 

Our Library contains over 150 programs for CoCo, TDP-100, and MC- 
10 along with 20 (or more) R.S. ROMpacks and over 100 good books. 



Our Parts Library 
for your computer 
decide to buy the 
for $46). We also 
fee. 



can save you down time while waiting for a part 
and the price for parts is not that high if you 
part instead (eg. CoCo case $28.13 or 64K chips 
do upgrades to your computer for a small $15.00 



For more information or charge application over the phone you can 
call either the VOICE line (regular telephone line) at (214) 657- 
7834 or call the Bulletin Board System at (214) 657-8147. 

m Color Computer and MC-10 are Trademarks of the Tandy Corporation 
® TRS-80 Is a • Trademark of the Tandy Corporation 



part where the groom was instructed to "kiss the bride." At 
that point, things got weird. He took her into his arms and 
kissed her, whereupon they were both engulfed in a brilliant 
blue glow. The light grew brighter and the two programs 
within grew blurred and indistinct until I could not tell one 
from the other. When the light cleared and faded, there was 
only one program to be seen. 

"It is with great pleasure," said Grandfather Adventure, 
addressing the group, "I present to you, the best of our two 
families, molded together into a single superprogram." 

He paused dramatically, then gestured toward the new 
program still bathed in fading light. 

• "I give you the new Calixto Island!" He finished. The 
applause was thunderous. Programs began spilling out of 
their seats and into the aisles slapping each other on the 
backs and congratulating each other. 

The party that followed was a real blowout. 

Calixto Island (Illustrated) is indeed the wedding of two 
exciting and often clashing genres of commercial software. 
It combines the brainfare and verbal skills required of the 
Adventure player with the brilliant, often animation-quality 
graphics techniques found in the best arcade games. 

The beginning of the game finds us in a three-room 
scenario with an attic, a cellar and a living room depicted in 
complex high resolution compu-photographs. The swinging 
pendulum of the living room clock adds motion to what 
already is a stunningly detailed screen. There are tasks to 
perform, clues to decipher and the beginning of a puzzle sure 
to take anywhere from weeks to months to solve. 

Overall, I viewed many more locations and complexities 
than I can outline without giving away plot or vital clues. 
Rest assured that enough pure Adventure exists here side by 



side with brilliant graphic enhancement to convert even an 
ardent text-adventure fan like myself. I like this one a lot. 

Mark Data Products has always been a source of 
excellent computer software products, Calixto Island was a 
hit in its original form. Now, in its pictorial edition, this 
excellent Adventure joins the disk-based illustrated compu- 
novels which have already made a market splash and cover a 
unique segment of consumer computerists by being tape- 
based, wholly contained in memory. 

Retailers will appreciate the no-nonsense packaging of- 
fered here. It is a colorful blister pak, easy to store and 
display. The consumer, always well-treated by Mark Data, 
will appreciate the attention to detail, lavishly and lovingly 
supplied by both the story programmers and the illustrators. 

If this is an example of Mark Data products and their 
commercial philosophy, then strike up the band! They're 
giving more value than cash received. 

I slipped away from the party after about an hour and 
went to the conference room where I knew I would be most 
likely to be able to contact Max. I'd already given my best 
wishes to the new Adventure and thanks to my hosts. Now it 
was time to go. 

Sure enough, Max had been standing by waiting for rtie. 
The upload was painless and without incident. Hmmm, 
maybe he is getting the hang of this DDS stuff. 

Once back in the lab, I found a pleasant surprise. Calixto 
Island had been loaded into the Color Computer in my 
absence. I can see out the window that it is beginning to 
snow. What better way to spend the day than playing this 
new and interesting game. 

Sometimes having Max around is not so bad. 




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220 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Quality Software Is The 
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Telephone: { 31 3V 264 73 45 



Those 'Strange-Looking' 

Listings 

By D.S. Lewandowski 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



This month's issue is dedicated to the beginner. I'm 
sure we have a lot of new owners since the visit of the 
Red Elf. We would like to welcome them to fellow 
ownership of the finest home computer available. Since the 
main topic of this series is Assembly Language we will try to 
explain the strange looking listings you will find in mag- 
azines. 

As for you old timers (doesn't that sound nice!), I have to 
explain a little problem I have been trying to rectify. The 
final part of Text was indeed complete, however the files 
were destroyed. I had to wait for the Rainbow to come out to 
just catch up to the point where you are. Since you never 
write a program the same way twice I have been trying to 
finish it again since. As soon as I do, it shall be here, thanks 
for your patience. 

First off we should start by telling you that assembly 
language and machine language are different. Assembly 
language involves the use of an Editor/ Assembler. The Edi- 
tor is the means of entering text, similar to a word processor. 
The text is used by the Assembler to form a machine lan- 
guage program. The text used by an Assembler is called 
source code. The program formed by the Assembler is called 
either a machine language program, or binary code. 

You will hear some people say that they wrote a program 
in machine language, which could be true, however most of 
the time they wrote the program in assembly language. Now 
to confuse matters evem more, most Editor/ Assemblers 
have a monitor (which is nothing like a TV). A monitor is a 
machine language program provided to allow the user to 
debug, or at least look at, the machine language program 
once it is assembled. 

To write in assembly language you will need an Editor/ 
Assembler package. The two I prefer, and can recommend 
are: EDTASM+ by Microsoft, sold by Radio Shack; and 
SDS80C, or MACRO 80C (Disk version) sold by Micro 
Works. Both packages are well written, fairly easy to use, 
and almost totally debugged. Probably 99 percent of the 
time when you see a listing in source code it will have been 
written by one of these packages. There are a couple of 
minor differences between them, and both have one major 
drawback, which we shall attempt to rectify here. 

The drawback is that both packages "assume" that you 



(Dennis Lewandowski, one of the early authors active 
with the Color Computer, specializes in machine 
language programming. He and his wife, Rose, 
founded DSL Computer Products.) 



know how to operate them. The instruction manuals for 
both fall into the classification of "fair" reference material. 

There is a book available through Radio Shack called 
Color Computer Assembly Language Programming by W. 
Barden, Jr. It is very good, however it was written about two 
years ago, and certain examples won't work with the newer 
machines. (See, you were doing it right!) Don't blame Radio 
Shack, or the author, it was just a problem with publishers, 
and other technical things that go into getting a book on the 
shelves. I still strongly recommend it. 

Okay, enough background, let's get into how do I use this 
$50 up package? I'll assume your a complete novice. So 
insert your ROM pack, or load the program from disk. By 
the way never, never, insert a ROM pack with your compu- 
ter powered up. It will "kill" your computer, it says so in 
your owner's manual, and with every ROM pack you pur- 
chase. Okay, once the program is executed (which means 
running — you don't have to take the computer to the wall 
each time and offer a blindfold), you find yourself in the 
command mode, this means the program is waiting for a 
command from you. Since we just started there is no text in 
the computer, so we enter the command "1" for insert text. 
The EDTASM+ will give you a line number, SDS80C will . 
not, but will print LINE INSERT across the top of the 
screen. Easy young Jedi, let's explain that there are four 
columns availble to you at this point. Pressing the right 
arrow will move you into the second column. Each time you 
enter the insert mode, or press enter you will be in the first 
column. 

Each column has its own special function. The first 
column is for labels. These labels are used similar to line 
numbers in a BASIC program, don't confuse the line numbers 
in EDTASM+ with BASIC line numbers. These numbers are 
just for editing. The second column is for the instruction. 
The instruction, or action of the line, is also called the 
mnemonic, op-code, and operation code. No matter, they all 
refer to the same column. The third column is used for data, 
it can be a number, a register, a string of text, or blank, this 
depends on what is in the instruction column. The fourth 
column is used for comments, this column's use is optional. 
You would use comments to remind yourself, or tell another 
reading your code, what the line is doing. Again you press 
the right arrow key to get to the next column in each line. 
Once you have finished entering the text you complete the 
line by pressing [ENTER]. This automatically puts you into 
the next line of text, similar to automatic line numbering. To 
exit the insert mode you have to press [BREAK,] which will 
bring you back to command mode. 



222 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Okay, let's write a program, assemble it, and execute it. In 
this program you will see three instruction which are to aid 
you, they are [T], [E], [B]. [T] means tab, or press the right 
arrow key. [E] means press the [ENTER] key. [B] means 
press the [BREAK] key. Do not type in these instructions* 
which are indicated in brackets, as you type in the following: 



TT1 

L 1 J 


ORG [T] 


•KFflO TFT 


START IT1 


RSR IT! 


n SO TFl 

LLjW L J 


TOYSTK rn 


TQD TTl 
j o rv |_ i j 




L A J 


i da rn 


<C15A TFT 


L 1 J 


st a rn 


RT VAT TFT 


L 1 J 


i da rn 


$15R TF1 


FT1 
L 1 J 


ST a m 


TTDVAT rFI 

U A-/ V AL 1 J 


rn 

L 1 J 


LDA [T] 


SJFFOO rFi 


IT1 
L 1 J 


cm pa rn 


#S57F rFI 


rn 

L A J 


rfo rn 


pi cn TF1 


L 1 J 


lda rn 


TJDVAT rFI 


rn 


ASRA TF1 




rn 


ASRA rFI 




rn 

L A J 


LDB [T] 


#$20 rFi 

7TkJ>Z»W 1 XjJ 


[T] 

L J 


MUL [E] 




m 


ADDD [T] 


#$400 [E] 


m 


TFR [T] 


D,X [E] 


m 


LDB [T] 


RLVAL [E] 


m 


ASRA [E] 




[T] 


ABX [E] 




[T] 


LDA [T] 


#$FF [E] 


[T] 


CMPX [T] 


#$5FF [E] 


[T] 


BGT [T] 


FIXX [E] 


STORE [T] 


STA [T] 


,X [E] 



rTi 

L 1 J 


DD A TT1 


thvctv rci 
JUYolK [rj 


ct so rn 


T DV TT1 




rTi 

L 1 J 


T DA TT1 




t nop rn 


olA |_ 1 J 




rn 


v^IVlr^A L 1 J 


ff$oUU [r,J 


rTi 
L 1 J 


DXJE ttI 
DINli L 1 J 


LUUr [rij 




no a m 


JOYblK [EJ 


F1A.A. |_ X J 


t dy rn 




rn 


dd a rn 


CTAD I? rcl 

oIUKe [tij 


dt uai m 

jyLVAL |_ 1 J 


rCrJ [1J 


0 [E] 


tjdvat rn 


FPT4 TT1 


0 [bj 


m 


END [T] 


START [E] 


[B] 





If you typed in the above correctly, you are ready to 
Assemble the program. But, before we assemble it, let's save 
it on tape. If you have a disk system, read the instructions 
which came with your Editor/ Assembler to save your file 
except for MACRO-80C. To save the text, or source code, 
enter the command W JOYTEST (E) for EDTASM+. Press 
[W] then enter "JOYTEST" for SDS80C. To Assemble, you 
have to know how to get the assembler to operate. For 
EDTASM+ enter the following commands, A/ WE/ IM [E]. 
For SDS80C press the [@] amphere key, then press "M" [E]. 
For MACRO-80C press the [BREAK] key, it will ask if your 
done, answer "Y" for yes. Then save the text to Disk. The 
Assembler is a different program, so you have to RUN 
"ASSEM." 

Whichever of the three ways you do it you have assembled 
the text into a machine language progam. The program 
exists in two places, first in text in your Editor, second in 



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603-880-8169 Mon-Sat 10-10 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 223 



memory as a binary set of instructions. Hopefully you also 
have the text in a third place: tape or disk. If you got an error 
while assembler was working, it is a typing error. There is no 
possible way an assembler can check for programming 
errors, it will allow you to write anything as long as you 
follow its syntax. 

Okay, let's assume everything has gone fine. To execute 
the program do the following for your package. ED TASM+ 
type Z [E] then GSTART [E]. For SDS80C you will be in 
ABUG, just type G [E]. For the disk jockeys you have to 
LOADM "JOYTEST" then EXEC [E]. The program is 
simple enough just move the left joystick around, and the 
screen traces it in orange. Pressing the fire button clears the 
screen to black. The program is a loop, so you must press the 
reset button, on the back of your computer to exit. 

Finally, to make a machine language program, so you 
don't need to have the ROM pack in while running this 
program, follow these steps. EDTASM+ — type A JOY- 
TEST [E]. SDS80C press [@] then type T JOYTEST [E]. 
MACRO 80C creates the machine language file from the 
text file during assembly. Well that's all for this month, hope 
you enjoyed your little trip into assembly language. If you 
would like some more info, check Rainbow Technical Edi- 
tor Dan Downard's article in this issue and/ or send either a 
37c stamp, or two 20<p stamps to DSL Computer Products, 
P.O. Box 1113, Dearborn, Mich., 48 1 2 1 , for a booklet called 
Using An Editor / Assembler. 

The Listing: 

0E00 00100 0R6 (E00 WHERE PROGRAM 60ES IN HEHORY 

00110 (JOYSTICK TESTING PROGRAM 



0F00 BD 

vtvv uv 


34 


00120 START 


BSR 


CLS0 


TURN SCREEN BLACK 


AFA? An 


7r nVVn 


00130 J0YSTK 


JSR 


ItAOOA] SAMPLE JOYSTICK 






00140 lUSE SHIFT DOWN ARROW t SHIFT RIGHT ARROW FOR BRACKETS 


VCvC 00 


ft HA 




1 HA 


f 1 «JH 


BTAUT/I FFT UAI IIP 

njoni/Lcn vhluc 


0E09 67 


0E49 


00160 


STA 


RLVAL 


SAVE VALUE 


vWVw SO 


01SB 


00170 


LDA 


tlSB 


UP/D0KN VALUE 


060F B7 


0E4A 


00180 


STA 


UDVAL 


SAVE VALUE 


0E12 B6 


FFOO 


00190 


LDA 


♦FFOO 


CHECK FOR FIRE BUTTON 


0E15 61 


7E 


00200 


CHPA 


M7E 


PRESSED? 


AC 17 97 
vZl 1 LI 


in 


00210 


BEfi 


CLS0 


IF SO CLEAR SCREEN 






00220 #THI3 6ETS SCREEN LINE 1 THRU 16 


0E19 B6 


0E4A 


00230 


LDA 


UDVAL 


DCT UAI IIC 
DC 1 VHLUC 


0E1C 47 




00240 


ASRA 




niuinc dv 9 

UlVlUt DT L 


061D 47 




002S0 


ASRA 




UJVIUL Br L fltWlR 


0E1E C6 


20 


00260 


LDB 


1120 


DMT UCV OA 111 O 

rUI He a l\) In b 


0E2O 3D 




00270 


HUL 




Mill TTPI V a*B 
nULIirLT H*B 


0E21 C3 


0400 


00280 


ADDD 


♦MOO 


Ann orocckj nccccT 
flUU SLnttfl Urrbtl 






00290 #BY THE NAY A+B*D. A * 


TUP FT RCT UAI F D ■ QCmiin UAI F 


IP 

VC*^ ir 


A1 
VI 


00300 


TFR 


M 


OAUF TUF RFQill T TH V 
3HVC IRC nCSULI In A 


VtiO TO 




00310 


LDB 


RLVAL 


CCT UAI IIP 
DC 1 VHLUC 


(£2? 37 




00320 


ASRB 




mump dv o 


0E2A 3A 




00330 


ABJ 




Ann n th uai hp iu y 

HIFU D IU VHLUC In A 


0P?fi 8A 

VLIO OO 


FF 


00340 STORE 


LDA 


MFF 


F1RAMRF GRAPH TT 


0E2D BC 


OSFF 


00350 


CHPX 


M5FF 


crp ic OFF RPRFFM 
sec ir urr ounccn 


0E30 2E 


12 


00360 


BGT 


FIXX 


IF SO FII X 


0E32 A7 


Ol 


00370 


STA 




PUT ON SCREEN 


0E34 20 


CC 


003B0 


BRA 


J0YSTK 


DO IT AGAIN 


0E36 8E 


0400 


00390 CLS0 


LDX 


♦MOO 


START OF SCREEN 


0639 86 


80 


00400 


LDA 


♦♦80 


BLACK GRAPHIC 


0E3B A7 


80 


00410 LOOP 


STA 


»*♦ 


STORE CONTENTS OF A 


0E3D 8C 


0600 


00420 


CHPX 


♦♦600 


END OF SCREEN +1 


0E40 26 


F9 


00430 


BNE 


LOOP 


KEEP GOING TILL DONE 


0E42 20 


BE 


00440 


BRA 


J0YSTK 


BACK TO TEST 


0E44 BE 


OSFF 


00450 Fin 


LDX 


♦♦5FF 


BOTTOM OF SCREEN 


0E47 20 


E2 


00460 


BRA 


STORE 


BACK TO PROGRAM 


0E49 


00 


00470 RLVAL 


FCB 


0 




0E4A 


00 


00480 UDVAL 


FCB 


0 






0000 


00490 


END 







Back Issue Availability 

Back copies of many issues of the RAINBOW are stiil 
available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue cover price — which 
is $2 for copies of Volume 1, Numbers 1-8 (through Febru- 
ary, 1982), $2.50 for Volume 1, Numbers 9, 10 and 12 
(through June except May, 1982) and $2.95 for Volume II, 
Numbers 9, 10, 11, 12 (March, April, June and July 1983). 
Also $3.95 for Volume 111, Numbers 3—6 (October 1983 
through January 1984). In addition, there is a $3.50 charge 
per order for postage and handling if sent by United Parcel 
Service and $6 for orders sent U.S. Mail. UPS will not 
deliver to a post office box or to another country. This 
charge applies whether you want one back issue or all of 
them. 

Most back issues are available on white paper in a reprint 
form. Issues out of print include May, July, August, Sep- 
tember, October, November, and December, 1982 and Jan- 
uary, February, April, 1983. VISA, Master Card and Amer- 
ican Express accepted. Kentucky residents please add 5 
percent state sales tax. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you order back issues 
you want now while supplies last. 

In addition, copies of the cover only of the July, 1982, 
Anniversary Issue are available separately for $1 each, plus 
50 cents shipping and handling. These are suitable for 
framing. 



COLOR— FORTH 

Including SEMI GRAPH I C-8 EDITOR 
+ UTILITIES 

-Disk and Tape utilities 

-Boot from disk or tape 

-Graphics and Sound commands 

—Printer commands 

-Auto-repeat and Control keys 

—Fast task multiplexing 

-Unique TRACE function in kernal 

-Clean INTERRUPT handling 
in HIGH-LEVEL FORTH 

-CPU CARRY FLAG accessible 

-Game of LIFE demo 

-ULTRA FAST: written in assembler 

-Directions included for 
installing optional ROM in 
disk controller or cartridge 

-Free Basic game "RATHAZE" 

FORTH 

Hoyt Stearns Electronics 

4131 E. CANNON DR. PHOENIX, ARIZONA 85028 
602-996-1 71 7 



224 the RAINBOW January 1984 



RAINBOW REVIEWS 




Airline 

A High Flying Strategy Game/Adventure International 4 260 

Balloon Attack 

A Game . . . But A Better Learning Tool/Computer Shack 274 

Body Parts 

Demonstrates Artificial lntelligence/E//te Software 276 

Bomber Command 

Simulates History/^r/c Royal Games 256 

Buzzard Bait 

Tom Mix Flies Again/Tom Mix Software 278 

Cassette Controller 

Gives Total Control/ Vidtron , 252 

Colour Software Workbench 

A pascal Toolbox/Deft Systems Inc 290 

Command Stream Processor 

A Powerful Useful Utility/Custom Software Engineering * . < 286 

Comp-U-Trace 

Nice But Not Worth The Price/ All Event Video Productions 287 

Data Doctor 

Tableside Manner Unfriendly/Super/or Graphic Software * 270 

Dragonfly Fan 

Cooling Your Hot CoCo/ Dragon Software ■. 264 

DYFIN 

A Useful Financial Planning Package/ Dynamic Electronics r . . . .268 

Early Games 

This Head Start Program Rates Grade A/ Counter Point Software, Inc 280 

Fembot's Revenge 

An Exciting Space Adventure/Co/or Quest Games 237 

Flashcards 

Good Learning Tool For School And Job/Harmonycs 258 

Glaxxons 

Prepare For Tough Battle/Mar/c Data 265 

Guess The Animal 

Demonstrates Artificial lntelligence/E//te Software 276 

Instrument Flight Simulator 

Is The Right StuffVKflr Software ■. 232 

isle Of Fortune 

A Real Treasure/Pa/ Creations < 262 

Jail 

Spelling Is Fun/Mr. R's Software 261 

Junior's Revenge 

Tangling WithThe Vinegators/Co/77puterware 240 

Light Pen 

Mightier Than Stick/Co/orware Inc 242 

Mastermail 

Mailing List Program Is No Fly-By-Night/Speefri/m Projects ...... 266 

Money Manager 

Is ureditworthy/fle/fz Electronics , . ; * : 272 

Panic Button 

Ah, What Sweet Revenge/First Star Software, Inc >. 230 

Peanut Butter Panic 

Makes You Stick Together/ Radio Shack , . . , , ♦ ♦ , 254 

Prereader 

Provides Fun For Adults And Kltis/Sugar Software . , . . .288 

Programmer's Toolkit 

A Useful Assemblage/Morefon Bay Software * . ... . > .228 

Rainbow's Corner 

Educationally Enriching And Fun For Children/Ra/nbow's Corner * ,246 

SPLC-1 

Lowercase For The Color Computer/Satorn Software . . . . . , . * * 296 

Schematic Drafting Processor 

A Word Processor For D raw i ngs/Spectrum Projects , .282 

Snoopy And The Red Baron 

Give Him Room And He Really Flies/S & S Arcade Supplies > 234 

Stellar Search 

Keeps On T re king/O wM/Vare , , . .251 

VIP Terminal 

Still A Super "Color" Terminal/Soft/aw Corporation .229 

Zeus 

Electrifying, Action Packed Fun/Aardvark Limited 294 



reviewing. 



REVIEWS 



VOICE-PAK 

Editor; 

The November issue of the Rainbow con- 
tained one review and one article on the 
speech products from Spectrum Projects. 
Both were very favorable but both conveyed 
a rather large misconception io your reader- 
ship. 

1 am Frank Delargy, president of DEL 
Software and author of the speech programs 
that are sold with the Spectrum Voice-Pak 
and other speech synthesizers, including 
those from Speech Systems and Kelty 
Engineering. 

In his very favorable and much appre- 
ciated review of the Voice-Pak, Bruce 
Rothermel made a few statements that really 
should be explained more clearly. When 
Bruce wrote, "What makes the speech so 
understandable is a phonem dictionary . . . 
if a word is not in the dictionary, it reverts to 
the phonetic rules stored in the chip," a 
major error (from my point of view) was 
made. First, the Votrax chip has no rules 
whatsoever, stored in it. The sole function 
performed by the chip is to make a short 
noise when one of 64 codes is transmitted to 
it. It does not know how to pronounce any- 
thing. What really makes the computer pro- 
nounce words is about 5,000 bytes of 6809 
code contained in the program TRNSLA TE 
or TRNSLT16. There are over 500 separate 
rules and decisions that the program makes 
in order to translate English text into Votrax 
codes. These rules will accurately pronounce 
practically any word in the English lan- 
guage. When a word does not follow the 
rules it can be placed in the dictionary along 
with the proper pronunciation (in Votrax 
phonemes). The dictionary is, in essence, an 
exception table needed only for a very small 
percentage of the words you might wish to 
speak out. The word "one" is in the diction- 
ary because it does not Conform to the nor- 
mal rules of English language pronunciation. 

Frank Delargy 
DEL Software 

FUNDFILE 

Editor: 

After reading the review of Fundjile in the 
November issue of Rainbow magazine, 1 felt 
compelled to comment oh it. Fundfile is a 
computer program for use by investors for 
managing their stock and fund investments. 
The review of Fundfile by Ed Lowe appears 
to be a mismatch of reviewer and program. 
M r. Lowe states in the review that he doesn't 
"happen" to have a portfolio of stocks 
and/ or funds lying around" and he "thinks 



that money is safest under the mattress." He 
obviously doesn't need Fundfile to keep 
track of his investments. 

We feel Mr. Lowe's comments on "the 
difficult to follow documentation" may be 
partly due to his unfamiliarity with the 
investment field, but we also recognize that 
porgram documentation is important and 
can generally be improved. We are rewriting 
the documentation so that novice investors 
Will find it easier to follow and easier to use 
Fundfile (and its companion program, 
Fundgraf which was reviewed favorably in 
January '83 Rainbow). We expect to Com- 
plete the rewriting by December. 

R. E Parsons, President 
Parsons Software 



MOTORBIKE CHALLENGE 

Editor: 

After reading the software review of 
Motorbike Challenge by Pat Downard in 
the October issue of the Rainbow, I bought 
this game from Microcorri Software. 1 fully 
agree with the review that it is a thrilling 
game for motorbike adventure lovers. My 
younger brother and 1 play and enjoy it a lot! 
We know that we can count on your judg- 
ment and review. Thank you for recom- 
mending this game for CoCo users. Keep up 
the good work! 

Gary T. Jes 
Cincinnati, OH 

THAT'S INTEREST-ING 

Editor: 

Mr. Parks' review of our interest pro- 
grams (November ^3) described a minor 
bug in the program. Although his descrip- 
tion of the mechanism was quite inaccurate, 
we did find a problem which was triggered 
by an unexpected and unusual set of input 
parameters and did result in the indicated 
effect. Obviously, it has now been corrected. 

Melvin Hefter 
Custom Software Engineering, Inc. 

STATEMENT WRITER 

Editor: 

In Mr. Hogan's review of our Statement 
Writer program (December '83), he states, 
"The real power of both DDE[Double Disk 
Entry] and is the ability that has been 
designed into both programs for user modi- 
fication! !' Statement Writer has been de- 
signed and documented to allow for easy 
user modification. We came up with a rea- 
sonable statement format for general use on 



plain paper, but we also knew that many 
users would want to put in changes to 
accomodate preprinted forms or other spe- 
cial requirements. This was the reason for 
the "designed to change" concept. 

But DDEis different. It does have its high 
level code in basic and a user proficient in 
BASIC could change this code if he desired, 
but DDE was not designed or documented 
with user change in mind. The user does set 
up the account structure (without any change 
to the program code) and this does drive the 
format and content of the standard ac- 
counting reports DDE generates. The user 
does customize the total system for his 
needs, but this is usually done without any 
changes to the DDE program itself. 

Melvin Hefter 
Custom Software Engineering, Inc. 

MATH FACT 

Editor: 

I'm a third-grade teacher and have used 
B-5's Mathfact program (September 1983, 
Page 202) I felt Rick Cobello overlooked 
some of the strengths of the program in his 
recent review. 

First, the program contains a choice of 
addition, subtraction, multiplication and 
division facts, or a mixed presentation all in 
one program. This is a good value. This also 
allows the teacher/ parent a choice of how to 
present the material. 

Second, all the problems within the set are 
presented ensuring the student will receive 
practice on any problem with which he/she 
may need additional help. 1 have used pro- 
grams where the facts appeared randomly 
and the student has never encountered the 
particular fact he needed to work on. 

Third, the answer is not given if a fact is 
missed because the program branches back 
to the pictures of blocks. The students may 
count the blocks to determine the answer. 
Hopefully, this will help the student re- 
member the answer longer and reinforce the 
mathematical concepts behind each opera- 
tion. The next best thing to counting real 
blocks is counting a picture of blocks. Help- 
ing the child to discover the answer for him- 
self is more educationally sound than merely 
giving the answer. 

1 also feel M r, Cobello missed the point of 
the "Guess the Number" game at the end of 
the drill. The chance to play the game is the 
reward, not the winning of the game. Side- 
learning is an additional benefit from the 
game when the child uses ideas of greater 
than, less than, and when the child approxi- 
mates with reasoning to guess the number. 



226 the RAINBOW January 1984 



1 take exception to Mr.- Cobell's comment 
that drill and practice programs should be 
left to paper and pencil unless the presenta- 
tion is unique. 1 know-of no paper and pencil 
program which branches back to symbolic 
pictures as soon as a student gives an incor- 
rect response. Elementary students spend 
much of their time drilling and practicing. 
Why shouldn't they have the opportunity to 
enjoy practicing on a computer as well as 
paper and pencil? 

In conclusion 1 have found Mathfact to be 
a worthwhile program. I'm glad I've had the 
opportunity to use it. 

Mrs, M. J. Burger 
Vermilion, OH 

LOWRCASE 

Editor: 

By now you Ye probably aware of the great 
disservice done to your readers by Mr. Ed 
Lowe's review of our LOWRCASE pro- 
gram in the December issue of Rainbow. It 
would have been nice if he reviewed our 
program, but instead he reviewed the 
LPVI1/DMP100 printers. 

The reviewer first gave his opinion of the 
printer when he said he invested in a LPVlI 
to have "some means of listing programs . . ." 
His opinion when he needed better quality 
characters was: "1 simply saved my pennies" 
and bought a better printer. So why bother 
with the LPVI1/DMP100; it's "not worth 
the effort" — I can't believe he means this. 
There are many LPVlI owners that cannot 
afford to upgrade and would rather spend 
the $15.95 for our program. The reviewer 
calls our program "too expensive," yet the 
price of our program is much less than 
another $400 or so for a printer upgrade. 
So, instead of a quality review with con- 
structive criticism (there was none), the 
reviewer proceeds to give the mistaken 
impression to the readers that our program 
is no good. If this is the type of review that 
you approve of then we will not submit 
future programs for review, but will let them 
sell on their own merits. 

I. hope that interested readers will contact 
us directly for the correct information about 
the LO WRCA SE program; we would hate 
to see them do without true descenders 
because of this review. It is too late to fix the 
damage done by this review; but 1 will again 
ask for a review of our program, and not the 
LPVII/DMP100 printers. Thank you. 

Ken Elder 
KRT Software 

VOCABULARY BUILDER 

Editor: 

I would like to commend Slteve Blyn from 
Computer Island on the articles he has sub- 
mitted and the expressed care he has shown 
in preparing educational programs. I spent 
some time in preparing the review of the 
Vocabulary Builder program (September 
1983) and agonized greatly over the some- 
what negative tone which ;1 was sure the 
review would carry. However, in my opin- 
ion, the criticisms were appropriate. Al- 
though not stated in the review, 1 did indeed 



try the program with children. The opinions 
were, at best, mixed. In all fairness, the sam- 
ple of children was very small and hardly 
constituted a fair test of opinions that might 
be expected and certainly did not constitute 
an adequate test of the program's effective- 
ness. I, therefore, chose not to include those 
opinions. 

The main strength of the program would 
be the inclusion of a large amount of ques- 
tions, provided there was a probability that 
content of the program was fully covered. I 
am in favor of using "random order of pres- 
entation" of questions (which was used by 
this program) and go one step further by 
stating that the order in which answers are 
presented should be random. Although the 
order of answer presentation may have been 
initially randomized, each time the same 
question appeared the same order of answers 
appears with this program. However, I do 
not feel that once a good representation of 
content is chosen, that the selection of which 
content is presented should be a random 
process. Such a method (as was used in this 
program) has the following effect. 

1) There is a good probability that most, 
if not all, students will not receive full cover- 
age of the intended content. 

2) There is an even better probability that 
the coverage of content across individuals 
will be uneven. Some individuals will receive 
greater exposure to a smaller number of 
items. Other individuals will receive a lesser 
exposure to a greater number of items. 
There is no "guarantee" that a specified 
number of questions will be repeated an 
some questions will be new. In fact, it is 
possible (assuming an adequate randomiz- 
ing model is used) that some individuals 
could see only 50 items while others could 
see all 200 items. 

I used a statistical model and computer 
generation to determine the number of words 
that would be unused for any specified 
number of trials and the Vocabulary Builder 
program. The computer generation proce- 
dure duplicates the number of words that 
would be exposed to 100 individuals who 
were given 10 trials with the program. The 
results of both methods were nearly identi- 
cal. It would be expected that less than 75 
percent of the total available words would be 
used after four trials with Vocabulary Build- 
er. However, had the program been seg- 
mented into four equal parts of 50 words 
each, the entire content could be covered 
without a single repetition. 

If repetition is desirable, then the seg- 
mented method could be repeated again. 
After eight trials, each individual could be 
exposed twice to all of the content. How- 
ever, the method used by Vocabulary Builder 
does not guarantee this type of exposure. In 
eight trials (using the method employed in 
Vocabulary Builder), it is expected that less 
than 90 percent of the content would be 
covered for most individuals and certain 
individuals could be exposed to as little as 25 
percent of the total content. 

If 1 had considered this matter simply triv- 
ial, 1 would not have commented further on 
this review. 1 believe that several methods 



that would employ full coverage of the con- 
tent would offer a more efficient learning 
experience. Mr. Blyn has replied that memo- 
rizing of the position of an answer was a 
problem in field tests and, therefore, the 
method used was appropriate. However, the 
program does not randomize answer posi- 
tion across repetitions. Further, randomizing 
the order of question presentation (as well as 
answer position) is possible without sacrific- 
ing full coverage of content. 

Mr. Blyn takes issue with a suggestion 
that the possible reduction of the amount of 
memory is an appropriate criticism. If a sim- 
ilar program proves to be more effective or 
even only equally effective, then the less 
memory required the better. Schools or par- 
ents with limited budgets could utilize the 
program on less expensive equipment. Per- 
haps the reduction from 32K to 4K would 
sacrifice more advantages than would be 
gained. However, by breaking the program 
into four programs consisting of 50 items 
each is viable for a 16K machine and in my 
view advisable. 

I am not suggesting the inclusion of less 
vocabulary words in the total package, but 
rather that you consider alternative (perhaps 
less memory dependent) methods for pres- 
enting those words. Including four sets of 50 
words (four separate programs on one tape) 
is one of many methods that could be used. 

In relation to using an INPUT vs. ah 
IN KEY routine, Mr. Blyn offers some very 
valid arguments. I would still prefer the 
quicker pace that using a single key stroke 
would allow. Research appears to support 
quicker paced material over slower . paced 
presentation. However, I could not state for 
certain that his would lead to more effective 
learning for this particular program. On the 
other hand, an. INKEY routine does not 
negate the use of error correction. Consider 
the following routine: 
10 X$=INKEY$: IF X$=CHR$(8) THEN 
A$="":?@160," ":GOTO 10 ELSE IF A$= 
CHR$(13)THEN GOTO 20 ELSE IFX$= 
>" A" AND A$<"D" TH EN A$=X$:?@ 1 60, 
A$:GOTO 10 ELSE GOTO 10 
20 REM THE ROUTINE TO CHECK 
FOR CORRECT ANSWERS GOES HERE 

This routine allows for changing to an- 
other answer or erasing an answer. The 
INPUT routine used in the Vocabulary 
Builder program allowed the input of infor- 
mation beyond the space provided for that 
answer, thus a student could erase part of the 
existing screen before pressing [ENTER]. 
The Rainbow sends a set of instructions to 
its reviewers. Reviewers are told to offer 
suggestions about how a program can be 
improved. I feel that suggestions for im- 
provement for the Vocabulary Builder pro- 
gram are especially appropriate since the 
documentation invites the user to alter the 
program for their own uses. I think that, 
upon reflection, Mr. Blyn would agree that a 
discussion of programming techniques is 
appropriate for a review where such sugges- 
tions are aimed at improving the quality and 
usefulness of the product. 

Dr. Charles H. Santee 
Dqrien, IL 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 227 



Software Review! 



Programmer's Toolkit 
A Useful Assemblage 



I recently received a tape of programs collectively called 
The Programmer's Toolkit. The toolkit consists of a series 
of six machine language programs, each designed to aid in 
the programmer's work, Of the six* 1 quickly settled on two 
programs which I found to be most useful. 

The first is called CROSSREF. It is a cross-reference 
program which will go through a BASIC program and gener- 
ate two cross-reference listings. The first contains all the 
numeric variables followed by all the string variables in 
alphabetical order. The number of every line in which each 
variable is used is printed next to the variable. 

The second list contains all line numbers referenced by 
GOTO or GOSUB along with the number of each line 
containing the GOTO or GOSUB. 

A nice feature of this program is that it tests for a printer 
being connected and ready. If one is, the lists are printed; 
otherwise they are displayed on the screen. 

The first time I used this program, I thought something 
was wrong. When it began to EXECute, a sign-on message 
appeared and then the computer just sat there. As it turned 



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out, the program was generating the list and sorting it into 
sequence. Once that task was completed, the list printed at 
full printer speed. Actually, this program runs considerably 
faster than a similar program I saw on an IBM-PC! 

The next program that I find myself using heavily is the 
one called EDIT. It is an editor for BASIC lines that is 
considerably easier to use than CoCo's own editor. Al- 
though it is called a "full screen" editor, it works on only one 
line at a time. Its features include full cursor control using 
the arrow keys, a very nice insert function, character delete 
and non-destructive backspace. A feature I like is the ability 
to copy a line somewhere else in the program by changing 
the line number. There is also auto-repeat on all keys. 

EDIT also has a list feature that lists from some starting 
line number and fills one screen. To continue the listing 
simply hit [ENTER]. 

There are two weaknesses in EDIT. First, there is no enter 
mode as such. It can be used to enter a program but it was 
obviously not designed for it. The second weakness I con- 
sider to be a major deficiency — it will not add a line with a 
line number lower than the highest line number in the pro- 
gram. If you are editing a program and have to add an 
overlooked line of code you must exit EDIT, add the line 
through standard BASIC, and then return to EDIT. 

The other four programs in the toolkit are nice to have but 
used less frequently than CROSSREF and EDIT. 

The program called CMERGE merges two or more BASIC 
programs. The procedure uses a series of PEEKs and 
POKEs has been documented in these pages several times. 
In the toolkit we have a program to do all the work for us. 

CHAINRUN is a mixed BASIC and machine language 
ptogram that provides the capability of chaining from one 
program to the next— a feature of many disk systems but not 
previously available for CoCo cassette programs. 

HEXEDIT allows the user to view and modify any 
memory location. A nice feature of HEXEDIT as cbmpared 
td some other monitors I have seen is that it displays a block 
of locations in hex on the upper area of the display and the 
ASCII contents of those same locations in the lower half. 
This makes it particularly easy to pick out text-type data. 

Finally, DUMP is a subset of HEXEDIT that only dis- 
plays memory locations without any ability to change them. 

The Programmer's Toolkit requires at least 16K but 
Extended BASIC is not required. 

(Moreton Bay Software, 316 Castillo Street, Santa Barbara, 
CA 93101, $28.95) 

—James G. Kriz 



BIBLE BOOKS GAME 

An Educational Game For All Ages 
Home - Church - Bible School 
Learn the Books of the Bible the Easy Way 

Cassette - $14.95 16k 
******* 

BIBLE TIC TAC TOE 

A Fun Game for Two 
Cassette - $12.95 16k 

SUNRISE SOFTWARE SERVICES 
P. O. Box 1012 
Bradenton, Florida 33506 

Florida residents add 5% sales tax 



228 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Software fleWewrSSS™— "B 1 ^ 

The F/P: Still A Super 
"Color" Terminal 

By Jim Reed 

When Tom Nelson asked me a few weeks ago why the 
Rainbow had never reviewed VIP Terminal (formerly 
known as Super "Color" Terminal), I told him I was quite 
sure we had; he just must have missed it. After all, it is one of 
the Rainbow's work tools. We use it every day. 

On hanging up the phone I grabbed an index and 
searched; I couldn't find a review. Well, any of us here at the 
Rainbow could review this old friend. I suppose that omis- 
sion of a review on this first-rate piece of software is sort of 
like not seeing your glasses because you have them on. 
Anyway, this excellent utility deserves its due, so let's 
remedy that, pronto. 

The VIP Terminal. IVe gone through a lot of changes with 
this benchmark of terminal programs: introduced to it as a 
tape program, learned to trust it as a ROM pack, and grown 
to rely on it as my single, most often used disk utility. 

Tihe VIP Terminal is one of several "intelligent" terminal 
programs on the market. Intelligent terminal programs are 
those that have such features as uploading and download- 
ing, printing out the buffer, saving the buffer — that do what 
the "dumb" terminal you bought you know where won't do. 
If you have a modem and intend to communicate with other 
computers, you need an intelligent terminal program like 
VIP Terminal. 

VIP Terminal has all the features needed to engage in 
data communication. Yes, some other programs now on the 
market may have a bell or whistle that this veteran doesn't, 
but the VIP Terminal is loaded with features and has every- 
thing you need to communicate with most any computer or 
microcomputer with RS-232 capabilities. It can handle any 
type of text in any system. 

When you load in VIP Terminal from disk, it automati- 
cally checks to see how much memory your computer has 
and will allocate buffer space accordingly — up to 51 K (if 
you have 64K and don't use the Hi-Res format which 
requires 7K itself). Among its features, the VIP Terminal 
has: 

— Selectable screen formats, 32 by 16, and 51, 64 or 85 
columns by either 21 or 24 lines (for a total of nine display 
sizes). While several of my friends and associates prefer the 
51 by 24 display, 1 like the more familiar 32 by 16 because it 
scrolls more quickly (the extra processing time for the Hi- 
Res software routines makes them slower than the standard 
32 by 16 display that is built right into the CoCo's hardware) 
and the print is much larger. An added feature of any of the 
Hi-Res modes, though, is true lowercase instead of inverse 
video. Additionally, the 64-column mode offers a choice of 
wide or narrow character sets. One note: the 85-column 
mode is very hard to read and should be considered only a 
formatting screen, 

— Four display color choices (except in 1 6K). In the 32 by 
16 mode, you can have either a green or an orange back- 
ground. In the Hi-Res modes, your color options are black 
characters on either a green or a white background, or green 
or white characters on a dark background (inverse video). 

— Word wrap-around. If an entire word won't fit at the 
end of a given line, it is automatically moved down to the 



next line. Most of us take this feature for granted, but how 
primative it would feel now not to have it. 

— Graphics support. Yes, you can receive, and send, pic- 
tures as well as text. 

— Modified parameters. While, for many uses, you may 
not need to change the RS-232 protocol, there are many 
times you may require non-standard parameters — for in- 
stance, when I need to send something directly from the 
CoCo to the Rainbow's typesetting computer. On loading 
VIP Terminal, the parameters are initialized for the most 
common protocol and if you are in doubt when changing 
parameters, hitting [ENTER] usually will cause the pro- 
gram to default to the most often used value for that given 
parameter. 

— Buffer display and/ or printout. It's nice to be able to 
page through the buffer's contents, first to satisfy yourself 
that you have what you're after by actually seeing the con- 
tents on the display screen, and also to pass by any large 
blocks you don't want to print out. Since 1 frequently load 
substantial material into the buffer and usually only want to 
print out a small portion, this is useful. It would be even 
handier, though, if I could write to and edit the buffer 
without having to transfer the contents to a word-processing 
program. Maybe a primitive editor could be added. 

— Keystroke multipliers (KSMs). Keystroke multipliers — 
or should we call them keystroke reducers — allow you to 
create and edit up to 10 short messages which can then be 
sent with just two keystrokes. The messages can be as long as 
255 characters. Not only are these useful for repetitive 
phrases, but you feel more like you've harnessed a bit of 
computer power when you press, say, [CLEAR] [2] and 
your BBS LD. number slides onto the screen in answer to a 
host computer inquiry. Then [CLEAR] [3], and your pass- 
word is sent, too. 

— Disk commands. VIP Terminal allows you to load, 
save, rename, change default name, kill a file, and display 
disk directory. All of these commands are similar to those in 
the Radio Shack DOS, but VIP's directory command also 
shows the number of free granules available and an asterisk 
will denote any faulty disk that should not be written to. VIP 
Terminal's mini disk operating system is also used in other 
VIP Library programs. 

There are several other features, such as Xon/ Xoff, low- 
ercase masking and selectable trapping that make the VIP 
Terminal highly versatile, whether you are receiving infor- 
mation or transferring it to another computer, downloading 
or uploading BASIC programs, transmitting or receiving 
binary files, using intelligent modems, communicating be- 
tween two Color Computers, or even communicating with a 
dumb terminal. In my opinion, the 33-pages of instructions 
in the handsome binder is one of the best examples of good 
documentation you're likely to come across. 

The VIP Terminal. 1 recommend it without reservation as 
a quality product. In the times I've used it, I've had only one 
problem: 1 did encounter some trouble handling ASCII files 
when using an earlier version, but that problem has been 
solved with the latest version. 

VIP Terminal is both user-friendly and thoroughly pro- 
fessional. Dan Nelson is clearly a top-rate programmer and 
Tom Nelson's expertise also shines through the well-written 
operator's manual. The VIP Terminal is still a super color 
terminal. 

(Softlaw Corp., 9072 Lyndale Avenue South, Minneapolis, 
MN 55420, Disk or ROM pack, $49.95) 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 229 



Software ftev/ew£S55I^ESI^2E57^\ 

Panic Button — 
Ah, What Sweet Revenge 

It was finally my chance to do something I've always 
wanted to do to just about every boss I've ever had — throw a 
cake in his face. All that pent up aggression raced through 
my fingertips as I slung that messy cake . . . and he didn't 
even duck! He asked for it though, screaming at me to move 
quickly as I assembled robots, cakes, houses, televisions, 
lamps and telephones on his speedy conveyor belt. 

If you like a Hi-Res graphics game filled with race- 
against-the-clock action, Panic Button is for you. In this 
16K ECB game, your boss wants an order fully assembled 
and filled immediately or you are fired! In the beginning of 
the game, you choose which objects you wish to assemble, 
thus picking the desired skill level. The higher the skill level, 
the faster the conveyor belt moves. 

Each object is dropped onto a moving conveyor belt in 
three pieces. Using your joystick, you must manuever your 
worker next to each piece and, by pressing the button, pick 
up and drop the three pieces on top of one another in proper 
sequence to make a complete object. Each piece or complete 
object moves along the conveyor belt to the bottom of the 
screen. You will get credit for each completed object that 
exits the screen. 

To progress to the next skill/ object level, you must 
assemble at least as many as the order requires in two 
minutes. After successfully completing two consecutive lev- 
els, you are given the exciting and well deserved chance to 



throw a cake at the nasty boss' face. 

Sound easy? Precision, timing and dexterity are keys to 
the game. Once you break stride and the orders start passing 
you by, you quickly panic. Suddenly, pieces of unfinished 
objects fly around the screen, distracting you from com- 
pleting your task. Some pieces will hit you in the head, while 
others just interfere with the production process. When you 
feel the tension build, maneuver your worker up and down 
over the Panic Button on the screen while you push the 
joystick button. The conveyor belt will stop for a brief time 




so you can assemble incomplete objects. But, the conveyor 
belt will begin moving again and your ugly boss' face will 
appear, making an annoying, grumbling noise. No doubt, 
it's a warning to get your butt in gear. 



Panic Button provides colorful graphics, good sound and 
adequate instructions. The screen not only provides you 
with game play, but shows you how many orders you are 
required to complete, how many you have completed, the 
time and the Panic Button. At the bottom of the screen your 
score, skill level and highest score appear. The sound effects 
are a good adaptation of what each action really sounds like. 
For instance, when a piece of an object drops from the top of 
the screen onto the conveyor belt, a dropping "boop" sound 
is made. 

The hardest skill to master is maneuvering your worker 
next to a piece and placing it on another. You usually get 
cake toppings or robot feet on your head as you run up and 
down the conveyor belt. I'm sure that gives the boss a hearty 
laugh. 

One of the best features of Panic Button is that it is 
addictive. After the screen says "You are fired," you find 
yourself pushing the joystick button to play another round — 
especially if you have almost completed two rounds and 
have just missed the chance to throw that cake. The only 
aggravating part is, you must start from the beginning and, 
again, successfully complete two levels. 

I thoroughly enjoyed Panic Button and think it is well 
worth the price. 1 recommend it to anyone who enjoys 
action-packed fun and sweet revenge. 

(First Star Software, Inc., 22 East 41st St., New York, NY 
10017, tape $24.95, cartridge $39.95) 



FILEBOX/16 HOME FILING SYSTEM 

RID YOURSELF OF THOSE NUMEROUS PAPER FILES 
AROUND THE HOUSE. ENTER THE INFORMATION AGE 
WITH FILEBOX/16, THE HOME FILING SYSTEM FOR THE 16K 
COLOR COMPUTER. 

Create, change, update, delete, search, sort and list files you 
define. You don't have to be a programmer to use this system. 
For the TRS-80 Color Computer with 16K Extended BASIC and 
one disk drive. 

Applications are virtually unlimited. Use for address lists, car 
repair records, household inventories, book and record 
collections, tax records, etc. You can use FILEBOX/16 to print 
mailing labels. This use alone is worth your purchase price. 

Each file you create can contain any number of records. Each 
record can contain up to 10 fields and 256 characters. Print 
records to screen or printer. 

FILEBOX/16 IS EASY TO USE. This is NOT a system which 
requires that you learn special keys and operations, it is 
completely menu-driven. Has built-in lessons to supplement the 
20 page loose-leaf User Guide. 

FILEBOX/16 is written in BASIC with a machine language sort. 
It uses efficient formatted direct access file logic contained in 8 
programs you control from a menu. 

Only $39.90 plus $2.00 
shipping and handling. 

New Jersey residents please add $2.40 for sales tax. 

Mail check or money order to: 
CIRCLING STAR SOFTWARE CO. 
P.O. Box 1218 

Freehold, NJ 07728 RAINBOW 
Phone: (201) 431-3660 after 6 p.m. c 

FILEBOX/16 © 1983 by Luke Watson 
TRS-80 is a trademark of the Tandy Corp. 



tnc*nON 



—Susan Remini 



230 the RAINBOW January 1984 



FACTORY CLOSE OUT! 

abacus esses™ Iff 



Wholesale distributors of tandy ™ computer systems 

TANDY SYSTEM 100 
PERSONAL COMPUTER 

(8y The Makers Of Radio Shack™ Computers) 




16K EXTENDED COLOR BASIC $229.00 
16K COLOR BASIC $159.00 
64K UP-GRADE KIT $56.00 

Factory fresh with full factory warranty 
Limited supply — first come — first served 
Call or write for prices on software 

* PRINTERS $220.00 

* DISK DRIVES #0 $319.00 #1 $229.00 

* COMPUTER CASSETTE RECORDERS . .$49.00 

* MODEMS $89.00 

* COLOR GRAPHIC PRINTERS $139.00 



RAINBOW 



Send check, money order or — use your MasterCard, 
VISA or American Express. Add UPS charges to order. 

RADIO SHACK is a registered trademark of TANDY CORP. 



16012 South Cottage Grove Ave., South Holland, IL 60473 
Division of Union Electronics, Inc. 
312-339-2777 



Software Review! 



This Flight Simulator 
Is The Right Stuff 



As I lowered myself into the cockpit of the F-l 6 fighter my 
heart raced with excitement. A quick check of the instru- 
ments and 1 was ready. 1 slowly pushed the throttle forward 
and the nimble craft leapt down the runway and into the air. 
Gear up, flaps us and 1 was away, 1 pulled back on the stick 
gently and lifted the aircraft into a near vertical climb. But 
wait, what's that you say? You're not in the Air Force and 
the closest you've ever been to the cockpit of a jet aircraft is 
the first class lavatory on a 727? . . . Not to worry, because 
now you can fly to your heart's content while still comforta- 
bly seated at your 32K Color Computer with KRT Soft- 
ware's F-16 Instrument Flight Simulator. 

As an airline transport rated pilot, 1 have spent a consid- 
erable number of hours at the controls of jet aircraft and 1 
can tell you that this is a very realistic simulation of jet flight. 
It is by far the best flight simulator 1 have seen for CoCo. 
Pilots will recognize it as realistic and non-pilots will learn a 
lot about instrument flying in particular and flying in 
general from it. 

The graphics in this one are super. The instrument panel 
looks and functions like the instrument panel in a real 
airplane. 1 particularly like the attitude indicator, which to 
the uninitiated, will seen to be operating backwards when 
indicating a bank. This is not so. It functions exactly like the 
real thing, you just have to remember that you and the 
airplane are rotating around the horizon, not vice-versa. 
The panel is marked in blue and red and the sky outside the 
cockpit is blue. There is also a heads up display (HUD) that 
shows you where you are in relation to the runway and, once 
you are established on the instrument approach course, it 
becomes an 1LS indicator complete with localizer and glide 
slope. This is where there is one of the few faults in the 
program. The glide slope gives you true fly toward the 
needle indications but the localizer is backwards; that is, you 
must fly away from the needle in order to center it and thus 
be lined up with the runway center line during an instrument 
approach. I would very much like to see this corrected, for it 
would make this simulation a very effective tool for real 
flight instruction. 

One of the options this simulation provides is the ability 
to select elevator and aileron sensitivity so that you can 
tailor the aircraft's flight characteristics to your own skill 
level. At the higher levels the aircraft really becomes sensi- 
tive to small control inputs. You can also select a mode in 
which a closed triangular course is provided for you to 
navigate. There is also a a night flying option. 

You can perform aerobatic maneuvers but there is a quirk 
here. Whenever you perform a roll or a loop you must 
perform the maneuver completely through 360 degrees. If 
you half-loop and then roll back to level flight the controls 
will be crossed. A split S will produce the same result. While 
in inverted flight, however, the controls are reversed just as 
they are in real inverted flight. 



Gear and flaps function as in a real aircraft (be sure and 
power when you lower them because the aircraft will decel- 
erate rapidly with them extended) and are controlled 
through keyboard inputs. One thing I noticed here is that the 
documentation says to press the "G" key to lower the gear 
but actually you must press the "D" key for gear down. After 
a landing information is provided in text form about the 
quality of the landing. If you should crash the screen goes 
crazy and then provides flight recorder data about the crash. 

Two joysticks are required. I suggest the use of a spring 
center return joystick for the primary flight controls (aileron 
and elevator) as this gives some sensation of the liveliness of 
a real airplane's controls. A free-floating joystick should be 
used for the throttle so it can be positioned and left alone. 

Finally there is one weakness that I, as a pilot, would like 
to see improved. In a real airplane, landings and descents 
(not dives) are usually made in a slightly nose up attitude, 
controlling aircraft speed with pitch attitude and rate of 
descent with power. This may seem strange to you non- 
pilots, but it's the way it's done (especially on landing). In 
this simulation if you place the aircraft in a constant nose 
level of nose up attitude it will maintain altitude or climb 
regardless of power setting or airspeed (unless you are below 
stall speed, then you drop like a brick). This makes touch- 
downs unrealistically difficult because you must touchdown 
in a slightly nose down attitude. It's less of a problem during 
an instrument approach but still slightly unrealistic as you 
must execute a shallow dive down the approach course and 
the only way to control speed is to hang out gear and flaps 
and use power. If this were corrected and the localizer 
indication corrected you would probably need a pilot's 
license to run this one. 

Documentation is good and provides all the needed 
information to get you started on your flying career. The 
publishers also state that the program will be upgraded from 
time to time and that owners will be entitled to these 
upgrades at "little or no" cost. Let's see, if they added some 
visual (through the windshield) graphics and some combat 
features . . . Well, you could go on and on, but with the 
promise of future updates and the excellent program that 
already exists, this could only be called "the right stuff." 



(KRT Software, P.O. Box 41395, St. Petersburg, FL 33743, 
$19.95, cassette) 



—David Johnson 



UOCDHEAP 



cm a. a»k ecb 

J.J S3 IS: R FRIENDLY 



STOVE MONITOR SYSTEM 

* ALARM Z P /' L. U £ TJE M/* - S3 

ABOVE &£JL & M USER SET L.ZMZT& 

** **JLCr TSt GRAPH * EASY TO INS5TALI 

MS* 2 T T F. N ZN BASIC GN CASSETTE 



Z HCtU Z /*Z 



MOOD HEAT 

1 OSS "THIRD AVE « 

W w BELMAR IMvl 077 1< 

< 20 1 > 661-7-492 



232 the RAINBOW January 1984 



Ifsno job to give the perfect 
gift for this Christmas. 




Get the ball rolling and fill out 
the form above to give some- 
one a RAINBOW certificate in 
time for the holidays. 



Subscriptions to the Rainbow are $22 per year 
($28 after 1-1 -84), in the United States. Cana- 
dian and Mexican rate Is U.S. $29 ($35 after 
1-1-84). Surface rate to other countries is 
U.S. $57 ($65 after 1-1-84); air rate is 
U.S. $85 ($100 after 1 -1-84). All sub- 
scriptions begin with current issue. ^^Q^ *^ 
Please allow up to 5-6 weeks for jv!*Nk> 
«*.copy. 



Software Review— ST?^N 

Give Him Room And 
Snoopy Really Flies 

Snoopy And The Red Baron, by Bob Schmerling, is a 
good example of the power of the CoCo's Extended Color 
BASIC. The program is advertised as a I6K game, but the 
package 1 reviewed included both 16K and 32K versions. 
There's a lot of difference between the two versions, and, as 
might be expected, the 32K version is far superior to the 1 6K 
version. 

This two-player game comes nicely packaged in an attrac- 
tive plastic book-shaped box containing the cassette tape 
and instructions for the 1 6K version. The two game players 
portray the "World War 1 Flying Ace" and the infamous 
Red Baron. Since there are so many differences between the 
two versions, let's look at them individually. 

16K Version 

The premise of this game is quite simple and straightfor- 
ward. You select the approximate number of clouds you 
want scattered about the screen, grab a joystick and try to 
shoot your opponent out of the sky. The joystick can be used 
for both lateral and vertical movement. Any intervening 
clouds will block your shots, and if you run out of ammuni- 
tion, you must land at your base and get resupplied. When 
you are in ihis situation you are extremely vulnerable to 
your opponent's fire. Firing is controlled by the buttons on 
the joysticks. 



wild party 

A naughty, sexy computer game for 2 to 6 couples. 
Game varies. every time you play. 
All prompts from TV screen. 
RAINBOW: "would definitely liven up most parties" 
Send self-addressed stamped envelope for 
program description and instruction sheet. 
On cassette tape. For 16K Color Computer. 

Extended BASIC not required. y^S^y 
$35 00 ( PA resid. add $2.10) //TAV\ 

RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAt 



29 monsters 

You are trapped in the evil wizard's castle. To gain 
your freedom, you must pass through 29 rooms, 
each one guarded by a hideous monster who will 
only let you pass if you can devise the correct 
password based on the clues it gives you. If you are 
wrong, you will beset back along your escape route, 
and the same answers may not work a second time. 
This adventure game does not require you to guess 
words from its hidden collection. 

On cassette tape. For 16K Color Computer. 
Extended BASIC not required. 
$14 95 (PA resid. add $0.90) 
"**Sorry, there's nothing sexy about this game*** 



All prices include postage. Send check to 
P.O. Box 210, Jenkintown, PA 19046 

b Si b software 



The clouds also impede your movements; for example, 
you can't fly through them, but must maneuver around 
them. The graphics are clean and colorful and while the 
animation is somewhat simplistic, it is well done within the 
limitations of 16K. The need to conserve ammunition and 
figure a path through the clouds to get your opponent within 
your sights provides an adequate challenge to the younger 
child, say up to 12 years old. 

32K Version 

This version of the game offers better graphics and a 
greater challenge to the players. I can recommend this ver- 
sion for ages eight to 108. The instructions for this game are 
contained within the program and are nicely presented at 
your option at the beginning of the game. This version is an 
outstanding example of what a good programmer can do 
with Extended BASIC. 

The player has several options. You can use three prede- 
fined difficulty levels or you can define your own game 
parameters. For instance, number and location of clouds in 
the sky, range of fire, a jet stream in the upper limits of the 
screen (makes maneuvering more tricky). 

Player control and movement in this version is either in a 
straight line, or clockwise and counterclockwise loops. Pul- 
ling the joystick toward you causes you to loop in one 
direction, pushing it forward causes a loop in the other 
direction. When the joystick is centered, you fly in a straight 
line, tangent to the point in the loop at which the joystick as 
centered. It's a little hard to get used to the controls, but once 
you do, it really is a nice way of maneuvering your plane. 

You may fly through the clouds in this game. If you fly off 
either side of the screen, you come back into view on the 
opposite side. The ammunition supply is unlimited and the 
end of the game is predefined in the game parameters you 
select. When a plane is hit, it falls to the ground with some 
nice sound effects. The game gives a good simulation of a 
dog fight; Snoopy would really enjoy it! 

The graphics are colorful, the animation is smooth, and 
the sound effects throughout are first-rate. I really enjoyed 
this version, and so did the kids. 

If youVe got 32K then I can recommend this package. If 
you've got 16K and children under 12, 1 still recommend it. 
Chances are, by the time your kids outgrow the game, you 
will have expanded to 32K and it will be like having an 
entirely new game. . . free! 

(S&S Arcade Supplies, 8301 Sarnow Drive, Orlando FL 
32807, 16K ECB cassette, $18.95) 

-Randall Smith 



WANTED: 

USED CHRISTMAS TREES! 
TOP DOLLAR PAID. f 

CALL PAUL SEARBY & 
COMPUTERWARE ML 
(619)436-3512 gfifa 



234 the RAINBOW January 1984 



mmrti 




LOO 





Across Hie Rubicon 



KAMIKAZE BOMBER COMMAND 



WE CHALLENGE YOU! 




ARK ROYAL provides three types of game: The Strategy Wargame, Strategy Arcade and Arcade games. 



ACROSS THE RUBICON 16K EXT or NON 

EXT — The popular WWII wargame. Break 
thru the Huertgen Forrest using infantry, 
tanks, paratroops, air and artillery strikes and 
destroy Hitler's plans for the Battle of the 
Bulge, CASSETTE ...$19.95. 

ACROSS THE RUBICON 32K (formerly 
Rubicon II) EXT The wargamer's choice! Ev- 
erything ATR has and mortar units, patrols, 
German artillery, platoon movement, supply, 
intelligence, spotting rounds, unit merge, 
game save and much more! CASSETTE... 
$24.95. 

WATERLOO! 32K — Player tries to do what 
Napolean couldn't: defeat Wellington and 
move into Waterloo. French forces include 
cavalry, artillery, guards, infantry and squir- 
mishers. CASSETTE $24.95. 

MISSION EMPIRE 32K EXT cass or disk. 
Starting with one planet, incomplete intelli- 
gence and limited resources, you must form 
alliances, build armies and conquer the 
galaxy. Game save. Cass or Disk version on 
Cassette.. .$24.95. 

BOMBER COMMAND 16K EXT The air war 

over Germany, 1941-45. Player must destroy 
German industry while fighting off flak, the 
Luftwaffe and bad navigation. CASSETTE... 
$22.95. 



STARBLAZER 32K EXT During your ab- 
sence, the SPECTRUM galaxy has been over- 
run by the draconic xyclons. Now you com- 
mand the only Starship left to retaliate. 
CASSETTE.. .$24.95. 

GALACTIC TAIPAN 32K EXT Battle storms, 
pirates and high taxes in hopes of making a 
profit in the galaxy. CASSETTE. ..$24.95. 

KAMIKAZE 32K — Based on historical re- 
ports of the savage Kamikaze attacks at the 
end of WWII. Hi-res graphics include search, 
radar, air vs air, air vs ship, and the Kamikaze 
attack. Player may use joysticks or not. 
CASSETTE.. .$24.95. 

LASER SUBS 16K (Suited for kids, 12 and 
under). Hi-res graphics. Lots of fun — kids 
love it! Your destroyer discovers a fleet of 
enemy's laser-firing subs heading towards 
the surface. Destroy them with depth charges 
before they blast you apart. Joysticks. 
CASSETTE.. .$15.95. 

CRYSLON — 32K 3-D graphics, joysticks. 
Player commands the remote-controlled de- 
fense missiles of the planet Cryslon. Your 
mission — defend the planet's cities from in- 
vading aliens with powerful lasers. 
CASSETTE.. .$19.95. 



P-COPY 32K disk only. $19.95. Arrange or rearrange a single disk or four at a time with this menu-fed 
program. Copy, backup, kil!, direct, rename, print, read or whatever you need to do with disk files. 
Uses single key commands. A must for the disk owner who wants to organize. 

ROMPAC BACKUP 64K $15.95. Cassette only. Can't run your rompacs with your disk in or just want 
backup? Rompac Backup makes it easy. 

ALL GAMES ARE GRAPHICALLY PORTRAYED. None are word games. We guarantee that if you've 
ever dreamed of commanding an army then what we offer will please you. 

Orders are shipped the day they are received regardless of check or money order. Send no cash, 
please. We pay shipping On all prepaid orders. On C.O.D.'s, customer pays charges No bankcard 
sales. We have enough paperwork already. 

All games strategy oriented, graphically portrayed and guaranteed from defect and boredom. For 
DISK version add $3.00. No mail delays with personal checks. State system with order. 

DEALER DISCOUNT AND COLOR DISPLAY PACKAGING AVAILABLE. 



WE CARRY UTILITY SOFTWARE, TOO! 



All Programs require Color 
ComPuter™ (Tandy Corp) or 
TDP System 100 Computer™ 
(RCA) 




P. O. Box 14806 
Jacksonville, FL 32238 
904 777-1543 

Prices on All games 
include shipping. Florida 
Resident add 5% tax. 



The Color CoHput-si* HKVJ 



GRAPHICS EDITOR 

lS DRftU ftLflOST flMYTHIWS Si 



ODUPLICflTEO OPockPiclire 111 I and CSftVE it. O 
ODUrtPto R.S. 4 COLOR PRINTER O O FILL O 
OPHODES l,3,<md4. 2 colors or 4 O 
OSwap Colors*^ ttagnify Shrink O 
OFin* Joystick Cursor control O 



EMM 



OFl'U-PrtGE Dot- 
ttoti»i:< Print Ou-t ,- 



CUFFS f JISS* 




0- Letters 0 
0 Rotate O 

d $9 $ 

Grid O 



ACTUAL 
SCREEN 
PRINT ! 



UHflTCrtNVOU DRflU? 



T.V. GRAPHICS EDITOR 

TIREO OF PLAYING GAMES? The TV Graphics Editor 
allows you to expand your creativity. Simple 
joystick cursor control and powerful but easy to 
use keyboard commands allow you to create/ print/ 
save/ and use anything the screen win display. 
Become an artist/ make blueprints/ design grap- 
hics/ plan the terrain for Your next video game. 
TVG Editor makes it easy with great features: 

***!» or 2 color CGP-115 printer SCREEN PRINT. 

***Fu 1 1 page Radio Shack DMP SCREEN PRINTS. 
(DMP100, 200,400, LPVI I , V I I I ) 

♦♦♦HI-RES: PMODE 1 s one, three, and four. 

♦♦♦Draw dots, lines, arcs, ellipses & circles, 
letters. Magnify, duplicate, paint with amazing 
colors/ exchange colors/ etc./ etc. 

***Easy corrections/ if you draw something you 
don't 1 ike. 

♦♦♦CSAVEM picture to cassette for later use with 
BASIC or ML programs/ or for later editing. 

***TVG EDITOR is only $29.95 Cndn. or $24.75 U.S. 



INTERNATIONAL SOFTWARE 



IMC 



ORDERING INFORMATION 

All three programs are 100^ machine language and 
will run with any version of BASIC/ on any TRS-80 
Color Computer, including COCO 2 and 64K COCO. 

Quantity Discounts for your store, COCO club, or 
users group. Mix any of the three fine programs. 
5-9,30%: 10-19,35%: 20-29,40%. More, please call. 

Please send cheque, money order, or VISA number 
with expiry date and signature to: 

INTERNATIONAL SOFTWARE, INC. 
820 DUNSMUIR ROAD, 
VICTORIA, B.C., CANADA, V9A 5B7 

Or, Phone (604) 384-2626 

Please include $3 for handling and shipping. B.C. 
residents add sales tax. American customers may 
use U.S. funds for convenience, others please use 
Canadian funds. Please allow two weeks for per- 
sonal cheques to clear. 




LIST ff+f SCREEN TUOf+ff 

18 CIRCLE(126,*6) ,56,1 
20 PRINTQ12 # "fee+SCREEN THOffff j 
3d PRINTQ430, "Block or Uhi t e " } :PRI NTI2464 , " 
Background" ; 
40 P0KE32753 , 4 : P**l327547**v = PRI NTC480 , "Sol 
ect 32 to 05 letters per lihe, 1 to 27 I in 
es on scre«n./:P0KE32753,5:PoJ(E32754/51 
50 PRINfUorKs nornally nlth host BASIC pr 
ogransj Regplar, Extended, or\ Disk. 
60 P0KE3275f / 6:P0KE32754,42:PRtMr u REfiL I 
er case. Grlaphics a* mom Hatc/i 
OK 

RUN \ Block orAhite 

Background 
Select 32 U $5 Uttefi per lilt, 1 t« W'Mm om *creea. 
Uorks noma 1 1 y with Host BASIC prograMs; Regular/ 
Extended, or Disk. 

REAL lower case. Graphics as you uatch. 

OK 

I 



SCREEN TWO 
EXPANO YOUR DISPLAY! 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Does all your printing on the Hi-Res PMODE 4 
Graphics screen, in a manner compatable with 
COLOR, EXTENDED and DISK BASIC/ for 16 K or 32K. 
It's a vast improvement over the orlgional 
screen In virtually all respects. 



♦Line lengths from 

1 to 85. 
★True lower case 

with decenders. 
♦Position independent 

code. 

♦PMODE 4 Graphics on. 
screen w i th text. 



♦Lines on screen from 

1 to 27. 
♦Inverse video. 

♦Instructions for sav- 
ing to disk. 
♦Make text "window 11 



♦With Its condensed character sets, SCREEN TWO 
uses only 1-1/2K of your valuable system RAM. 

♦Just $14.95 Canadian or $12.50 U.S. 




PLANET CONQUEST 

Combines the SKILL of learning to pilot and land 
your spaceship as In a "LUNAR LANDER" with the 
THRILL of aerial dogfights with flying monsters 
that threaten the success of your mission., 

Oangerous landings and variable gravity add to the 
excitement. There are 3 "Lander" levels plus 6 
more with monsters. $19.95 Canadian or $16.50 U.S. 



Software Revie w^*"*""SS^S r /^\ 

Fembot's Revenge — An 
Exciting Space Adventure 



You've escaped the slave ship in Beyond the Cimeeon 
Moon and have taken the quest to return to the Mother Ship 
to destroy the Guardians, free your fellows, and return 
control of your civilization to sentient beings. You begin 
your adventure in the Mother Ship, your return is barred. 
You must kill or disable all Guardians on the Mother Ship, a 
task which could take years and require a whole army of 
your brethren. 

Does this sound like an exciting scenario for a good 
arcade game? Well, it is! But, it is more than just an arcade 
game. It is also an adventure game. 

I must admit, 1 do not like arcade games very much, 
because they never hold my interest for long. When 1 
received Fembot's Revenge for review, I said to myself, 
"Another arcade game! "To my surprise, 1 was wrong. True. 



it has some good shoot-em-up sequences, but the majority of 
the time, it's like an adventure game. 

You must travel through the ship finding discs, opening 
doors, and destroying the Guardians. When you have killed 
all of the Guardians on one level, you will be transported to 
the next level only to find yourself having to destroy more 
Guardians. 

One of the real challenges in this game is solving the riddle 
of the destruct button. If you find this button, you can 
instantly destroy all of the Guardians on the floor and 
advance to the next level. 

The following are some of the features worth noting in 
this game: 3-D graphics (the graphics are excellent and 
realistic), a "hyperspace" flash belt, a special geiger to find 
the destruct button (believe me, it doesn't make it that much 
easier to find it), variable placement of objects after each 
level, and a detailed inventory of the player's status. This 
game is played in "real time," so if you just stand there 
thinking, you will increase your fatigue level. All of this, and 
periodic battles with Guardians make this a very exciting 
game. 

(CoIorQuest Games, A Division of Softlaw Corp., 9072 
Lyndaie Ave So., Minneapolis, MN 55420, 16K tape $29.95, 
32K disk) 

—Paul Lee 



WORD PROCESSOR 

for your Color Computer 



Yes! That's right, because we want to create some excitement with 
an offer you can't pass up — a professional quality full screen 
oriented word processor that would be a bargain at $50. It's a good 
one too. Take a look at what you get. 

MASTER WRITER'S FULLSCREEN-ORIENTED EDITOR allows 
you to move the cursor anywhere in your text using the up, down, 
right and left arrows. Do this one character at a time or by line or 
page. Insert, delete or replace text at the cursor watching your 
changes as you make them. Delete or move blocks of text from one 
place to another. Merge in text from other files. 

AUTOMATIC CARRIAGE RETURN after last complete word on 
each line, with this and AUTOMATIC PAGE FEED you don't have to 
worry about where a line or page ends — just type! 

MASTER WRITER runs on a 16K, 32K, or 64K COLOR COM- 
PUTER, taking advantage of all available memory. Use it with DISK 
OR CASSETTE based systems. EXTENDED BASIC IS NOT 
REQUIRED. 

EASY TO UNDERSTAND MANUAL has you comfortably using 
MASTER WRITER in minutes. It is a USER-FRIENDLY MENU- 
DRIVEN SYSTEM with single letter commands. Check any com- 
mand without having to refer to the manual with the HELP 
SCREEN. 

1 0 PROGRAMMABLE FUNCTION KEYS allow easy insertion of 
frequently used words or phrases. 




WORKS WITH ANY PRINTER. Take full advantage of your 
printer's special functions such as variable charcter size and 
emphzsized characters with EASY EMBEDDING OF PRINTER 
CONTROL CODES. 

GLOBAL SEARCH function lets you quickly locate specific 
strings for replacement or deletion. 

Customize form letters or standard text with MASTER WRITER'S 
EMBEDDED PAUSE feature. Just "fill In the blanks" when your 
printer pauses for a personalized appearance. 

LIMITED MULTI-TASKING feature lets you print one file while 
editing another. 

In addition to regular text you can use MASTER WRITER to 
CREATE BASIC PROGRAMS with the convenience of full-screen 
editing. 

OTHER FEATURES include easy setting -of left, right, top and 
bottom margin, printer line width, and lines per page. Also auto 
repeat keys, auto line centering, auto page numbering and choice of 
display color formats. 

And, perhaps one of the best features, is MASTER WRITER'S 
SUPER LOW PRICE OF $1 4.95. At this price you can't go wrong. 
Buy it today! 

TO ORDER send $1 4.95 for cassette version or $1 9.95 for disk* 
version plus $2.50 shipping {Calif, residents add 6 % sales tax) to: 
PYRAMID DISTRIBUTORS, 527 HILLST., SANTA MONICA, CA 
90405 (213) 399-2222. 



MASTER WRITER 



$1 4.95 Cassette 
$19.95 Disk 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 237 




Christmas Sale (Until December 24, 1983) 



STAR-DOS 64 



SPELL 9 N FIX 



Reduced from $74.90 to $49.90 ($52.90 for the AMDEK 3" disk.) 
Get the 64K and 16K/32K versions for the price of the 16K/32K 
versions alone. Here is your chance to get this extraordinary, 
Disk Operating System for the Color Computer at a great price. 

Reduced from $69.29 to $59.29 for the CoCo disk or cassette 
version, and from $178.58 to $125 for the Flex disk version. (Add 
$3 for AMDEK 3" disks.) 



HUMBUG-64 



Reduced from $59.95 to $49.95. This version is specially 
configured for 64K disk systems using either Flex or STAR- 
DOS. (Add $3 for AMDEK 3" disks.) 



REBATE 

Buy your Star-Kits software from a dealer, and get an extra savings by sending us your 
registration form and a copy of your sales slip or invoice. The rebate is $10 on software 
priced over $50, and $5 for software under $50. The rebate is in effect until December 24, 
1983. 



ILLEGITIMACY PROGRAM 

If you have an illegitimate (ahem . . . pirated) copy of a Star-Kits program, we offer you an 
amnesty as part of our Illegitimacy Program. Send us (a) a working copy of the program, (b) 
details on where and from whom you got it (with adequate identification of the source), and 
(c) 25% of the current list price, and we will send you (a) the latest up-to-date copy of the 
program, (b) a complete and up-to-date manual, and (c) a sales slip welcoming you to the 
world of happy Star-Kits customers. A small price to pay for a clear conscience? 

MC-10 SPECIAL 

To celebrate Star-Kits' being first with MC-10 software, here's our MC-10 Triple-Pak: 
MC-10 HUMBUG (normally $29.95), MC-10 REMOTERM (normally $19.95), and MC-10 
COMMTERM (a brand new terminal communications program which sells separately for 
$19.95), a total value of $69.85, all for a special price of just $55. 



Star — Kits 



P.O. BOX 209 — R 
MT. KISCO, N.Y. 10549 
(914) 241-0287 



STAR — KIBBITS 

My dictionary defines 'deja vu' as the mistaken feeling that you've 
seen something before, when you really have not. But if you had the 
feeling last month that you had seen my Kibbits chat before, it 
wasn't deja vu! You really did see it — the month before that. As you 
can imagine, writing a new column each month can get somewhat 
hectic, especially as the deadline approaches... and passes. If this 
were just a plain article, the magazine could simply put in a note like 
"Mr. Stark's column will not appear in this issue, and will resume 
next month." But with an advertisement it's not that simple. I 
suppose we could have left this space empty... 

STAR-DOS PRICE REDUCTION 

Our STAR-DOS 64 has had such a good reception that we have 
decided to permanently drop the price. From now on, the regular 
STAR-DOS (for 16k and 32k systems) and STAR-DOS 64 (for 64k 
systems) are being bundled together into a single package which we 
will call STAR-DOS, and which will have the combined price of 
$49.90. 

Despite the release of OS-9 (a trademark of Microware Systems 
Corp.) and Flex (a trademark of Technical Systems Consultants) 
for the CoCo, we expect the popularity of STAR-DOS to keep 
rising for two very simple reasons. First, STAR-DOS is the only 
DOS which supports the standard Radio Shack CoCodisk format. 
Though we all hear about the large amount of software available for 
Flex and OS-9, the fact of the matter is that there are more 
programs available for the standard CoCo disk format than for OS- 
9 and Flex together. 

Second, since OS-9 and Flex are also incompatible with regular 
CoCo Disk Basic, you must buy another Basic to get their full 
benefits. Not so for STAR-DOS, which can read and write the same 
files a Disk Basic can. 

There is a good number of serious users of STAR-DOS among 
you; in fact, we have even licensed STAR-DOS to other software 
developers for inclusion in their own products. We're so 
enthusiastic about the future of STAR-DOS that we're willing to 
make you an offer you can't refuse: If you now have a DOS, any 
DOS for any machine, send it to us and we will trade you for a copy 
of STAR-DOS. Please — original documentation and disks only, 
and include $3 for shipping. 

To know STAR-DOS is to love it! 

COMMTERM IS NOW FREE! 

COMMTERM is our communications terminal program for the 
CoCo and MC-10. You can now get it FREE if you send us a 
cassette and a stamped self-addressed envelope (with three 
stamps). After you get it and use it, decide what it is worth to you, 
and then pay us whatever you like. You have our permision to copy 
the program and documentation as much as you want, and give it 
away to anyone you like, providing that you don't make any 
changes to it. It's a new marketing approach, and we're curious to 
see what happens. 

ARE YOU A PRIVATE PILOT? 

If so, then you may be interested in a VFR Flight Planning 
program for the CoCo, available for $24.95 for tape, or $29.95 for 
disk, from Frank Lombardi, P.O. Box 373, South Salem, NY 10590. 

That's it for now — see you next month. 



SPELL 'N FIX 

Regardless of whose text processor you use, let SPELL *N FIX find 
and fix your spelling and typing mistakes. It reads text faster than 
you can, and spots and corrects errors even experienced 
proofreaders miss. It is compatible with all Color Computer text 
processors. $69.29 in the Radio Shack disk or cassette versions; 
$178.58 in the Flex version. (20,000 word dictionary is standard; 
optional 75,000 word Super Dictionary costs $50 additional.) 

HUMBUG® — THE SUPER MONITOR 

A complete monitor and debugging system which lets you input 
programs and data into memory, list memory contents, insert 
multiple breakpoints, single-step, test, checksum, and compare 
memory contents, find data in memory, start and stop programs, 
upload and download, save to tape, connect the Color Computer to 
a terminal, printer, or remote computer, and more. HUMBUG on 
disk or cassette costs just $39.95, special 64K version for FLEX or 
STAR -DOS 64 costs $59.95, MC-10 version $29.95. 

STAR— DOS 
A Disk Operating System specially designed for the Color 
Computer, STAR-DOS is fully compatible with your present Color 
Computer disk format — it reads disks written by Extended Disk 
Basic and vice versa. STAR-DOS for 16K through 64K systems 
costs $49.90; STAR FLEX 

The best implementation of FLEX for the Color Computer. 
Complete with all utilities, text editor, macro assembler, and 
HUMBUG debug monitor, $225.00. 

ALL IN ONE — Editor Etc. 

Three programs in one — a full function Editor, a Text Processor 
and a Mailing List/Label program. All this for just $50. Requires 
STAR-DOS, or FLEX, specify which. 

DBLS for Data Bases 

DBLS stands for Data Base Lookup System. A super-fast system 
for searching for a selected record in a sequential disk file. Supplied 
with SPELL 'N FIX's 20,000 word dictionary as a sample data file — 
lets you look up the spelling of any word in under FOUR seconds. 
Priced at $29.95. Requires STAR-DOS. 

CHECK 'N TAX 

Home accounting package combines checkbook maintenance and 
income tax data collection. Written in Basic for either RS Disk or 
Flex, $50. REMOTERM 
REMOTERM — makes your CoCo into a host computer, operated 
from a remote terminal. $19.95, disk or cassette. 

NEWTALK 

NEWTALK — a memory examine utility for machine language 
programmers which reads out memory contents through, the TV 
set speaker. $20, disk or cassette. 

SHRINK 

SHRINK — our version of Eliza, in machine language and 
extremely fast. $15, disk or cassette. 

EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 

Introduction to Numerical Methods — college level course on 
computer math, $75.00, disk or casette. 

We accept cash, check, COD, Visa, or Master Card. NY State 
residents please add appropriate sales tax. Add $3 to above price 
for AMDEK 3" disk versions. 

(FLEX is a trademark of Technical Systems Consultants, Inc. 
Everything else in this ad is a trademark of Star-Kits.) 



Star-Kits 



SOFTWARE SYSTEMS CORP. 



P.O. BOX 209 — R 
MT. KISCO, N.Y. 10549 
(914) 241-0287 



Software Review — 

Monkeying Around With 
Junior's Revenge 

If you have ever played the popular arcade game, Donkey 
Kong, Jr., then you won't have any trouble playing Compu- 
terware's Junior's Revenge. The 32K machine language 
CoCo version contains all four graphic screens, like the 
original game. 

If you aren't familiar with the game at all, here is a brief 
background. Junior is a little gorilla, trying to save his father 
from the clutches of Luigi. Luigi is a little red-haired con- 
struction worker, who in an earlier version of the arcade 
game, saved his girlfriend from an unsavory ape, Junior's 
father, and locked him in a cage. Junior's Revenge now adds 
new challenges to the original concept. You are no longer at 
a construction site trying to save your girlfriend from a 
gorilla. Instead, as a monkey, and proud son of Kong, you 
are deep in the jungle attempting to rescue your encaged 
papa. 

There are four distinct boards of play: the Vine Screen; 
the Chain Screen; the Trampoline Screen; and Luigi's 
Hideout Screen, each appearing in a planned sequence. In 
the Vine Screen, your father is captive in his cage on top and 
you are ready to go at the bottom. You begin the game with 
four men and your objective is to swing from vine to vine, 
climb to the top, and get the key from Luigi and save your 
father. This would be a simple task except for the trained 
animals the revengeful Luigi has sent out to stop you — the 

49 BROOKLAND AVE. 
AURORA, ONTARIO 
CANADA L4G 2H6 

FAMILY GAMES 

FOR 16K AND 32K COLOR COMPUTER 

STOCKBROKER — Up to 6 players can play the stock 
market. For 16K or 32K ECB. The 32K is in High-Res 
Graphics. 

CRIBBAGE — For 2 or 4 players. In High-Res 
Graphics! (for 32K). 

BATTLE — Will you get bombed before you can find 
all the ships? An extremely entertaining game for the 
family. 

COLORMIND — Up to 4 players challenge for hidden- 
colors. 

REMREM— Challenge your friends. Who can remem- 
ber the longest color sequence? 
CONCEN — Challenge the computer or a friend to a 
good ol' game of concentration. 

ALL GAMES only $20.00 or ANY TWO for $35.00 

also from {JkuttoKa So^tuia/te" 

MR. COPY — A quality copier written in M.L. that will 
make backup tape copies. MR. COPY is capable of 
making up to 99 copies in one loading! $25.00 
ROMDISK — If you have a modified 32K C.C. machine 
ROMDISK will allow you to load your R.S. Rom Packs 
from a disk! $20.00 



"vinegators."They move up and down the vines seeking to 
kill, and any contact with them will destroy you. 

You control the movement with the right joystick and 
jump by pressing the joystick button. You can either 
shimmy on one vine, or climb by using two vines, one in each 
hand. I found that climbing two vines is the quickest method 
to go up, while sliding down with one vine in both hands is 
the fastest way to descend. 

Time is an important factor in this game because of the 
bonus timer in the upper right corner of the screen. If your 
bonus time runs out before you get the key from Luigi, you 
lose. Points are obtained by grabbing fruit from the vines 
along the way, or destroying the vinegators by patiently 
waiting until the vinegator is underneath the fruit and then 
nudging the fruit loose, causing it to fall and crush the 
vinegator. 

Timing is the key to successful fruit dropping and vinega- 
tor killing. It takes a lot of practice to do this successfully 
every time. After completion of this screen, the amount of 
points left on the bonus timer is added to your score and you 
will then be able to proceed to the Chain Screen. 

In this screen, your main objective is the same: to free your 
father. The Chain Screen is made up of eight long chains of 
equal length. At the end of six of them there is a key. You 
must push the keys up the chains and force them into locks 
while avoiding vinegators and trying to again destroy them 
with the fruit. Another enemy to watch out for is the ZuZu 
birds, which move horizontally across the screen descending 
in zigzag fashion. Any contact with the ZuZu's will cause 
them to peck you until you fall to your death. They also 
proceed to the bottom of the screen and if you jump over 
them you will receive extra points. When I got to this screen 
of play I had a lot of difficulty. I could not complete the 
screen without falling to my demise. 

In playing Junior's Revenge, it took a lot of practice in 
getting accustomed to the maneuverability of the joystick. I 
fell a number of times by not jumping just right or not 
having the joystick pointed in the proper direction. A nice 
feature of Junior's Revenge is its practice mode. By playing a 
practice game, you can figure out the manner in which the 
game is operating and learn the skills of the game without 
being destroyed by one of the creatures. You can only be 
destroyed by falling and your high scores are not kept in the 
top five. I found the practice mode to be a gratifying way to 
learn the game and its joystick movements. There's nothing I 
dislike more than finally getting the hang of a game and then 
being told: GAME OVER. 

The sound effects in Junior's Revenge are pleasing and the 
graphics are fantastic and full of color. Consider the excel- 
lent graphic quality of Junior's Revenge as an example of 
the Color Computer's capability. Junior's Revenge lays to 
rest many of the claims I've heard of Atari's graphics super- 
iority to the CoCo. 

The Trampoline Screen and Luigi's Hideout Screen are a 
mystery to me because I have not yet been able to success- 
fully reach them. I am sure that someday I will get to these 
screens and save my father from Luigi. I may have to read 
one of those booklets on how to beat computer games, but, 
the point is that Junior's Revenge is that challenging and 
that much fun to play. Several games that I have played were 
too easy, which caused me to lose interest after easily defeat- 
ing them. 

(Computerware, P.O. Box 668, Dept. F2, Encinitas, CA 
92024, 32K tape $28.95, 32K disk $31.95) 

— Jutta Kapfhammer 



240 the RAINBOW January 1984 



FINALLY! 



A REAL SPREAD-SHEET PROGRAM FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



Business people use spread-sheets to organize columns and rows of figures. 
DYNACALC simulates the operation of a spread-sheet without the mess of paper and 
pencil. Of course, corrections and changes are a snap. Changing any entered 
value causes the whole spread-sheet to be re-calculated based on the new 
constants. This means that you can play, 'what if? f to your heart's content. 

But DYNACALC isn't just for accountants. DYNACALC can be used for just 
about any type of job. Not only numbers, but alphanumeric messages can be 
handled. Engineers and other technical users will love DYNACALC's sixteen-d ig i t 
math and bin It- In scientific functions. There's even a built-in sort command, 
so you can use DYNACALC to manage small data bases - up to 256 records. 

DYNACALC will let your computer do just about anything you can imagine. 
Ask your friends who have VisiCalc, or a similar program, just how useful an 
electronic spread-sheet program can be for all types of household, business, 
engineering, and scientific applications. 

DYNACALC is designed to be used by non-programmers, but even a Ph.D. in 
Computer Science can und^rstand it. Built-in HELP messages are provided for 
quick reference to operating instructions. 

DYNACALC has a beautifully simple method of reading and writing FLEX data 
files, so you can communicate both ways with other programs on your system, such 
as the Text Editor, Text Processor, Sort/Merge, RMS data base system, or other 
programs written in BASIC, C, PASCAL, FORTRAN, and so on. 

Except for a few seldom-used commands, DYNACALC is memory-resident, so 
there is littje disk I/O to slow things down. The whole data array (worksheet) 
is in memory, so access to any point is instantaneous. DYNACALC is 100$ 6809 
machine code for blistering speed. 

Color Computer DYNACALC works with the FLEX operating system from Frank 
Hogg Laboratory (64k required). If you aren't already using this powerful 
operating system, we have a special deal for you: order DYNACALC (regularly 
$200)« and FHL Color FLEX (regularly $99) together for only $250. 

To order, see your local DYNACALC dealer, or order directly from CSC at the 
address below. We accept telephone orders from 10 am to 6 pm, Monday through 
Friday. Call us at 314-576-5020. Your VISA or MasterCard is welcome. Be sure 
to specify that you want the Color Computer version. 




TM 



ORDER YOUR DYNACALC TODAY! 



Computer Systems Center 
13461 Olive Blvd. 
Chesterfield, MO 63017 
(314) 576-5020 





Hardware R e vie w mmmmmmmm *^^~~77777T/7Z\ 

Here, A Pen Is 
Mightier Than Stick 

You will find that this product review is somewhat un- 
usual. For this review, I constructed a somewhat unique test 
program and a keyboard modification. Let me get the usual 
"what it does and how well" questions out of the way first. 
The Light Pen from Colorware is an alternate form of input 
that can be used with educational programs, games or experi- 
mentation. The Light Pen attaches to the joystick port and 
uses the digital-to-analog converter to change light intensity 
to a value that can be read by the "JO YSTK" command. The 
pen reads the intensity of light wherMouched to the video 
screen. 

The pen comes with sample programs and adequate doc- 
umentation to allow you to construct your own programs. 
To construct your own programs, you need some knowledge 
of BASIC but do not necessarily have to be an expert. When 
The Light Pen is used, a graphic block must be flashed when 
a location on the screen is being sensed. I would expect that 
this flashing graphic block may cause some problems for 
some individuals but found that this was not a particular 
problem for the severely handicapped students that I teach. 
The size of the flashing graphic block may vary according to 
the size and illumniation of the TV screen or monitor being 
used. In general, the block must be at least the size of a 
low-resolution graphic pixel. 




When I used The Light Pen with an educational program 
with handicapped students, I did note two problems. Some 
students moved the pen very slowly across the screen and 
would sometimes select a wrong answer by mistake while 
moving towards the correct answer. In other instances some 
students would leave the pen on one answer selected longer 
than required and the selection would be given again by 
mistake. Perhaps these problems could be overcome by 
more creative programming, but these types of selection 
errors are a consideration. The light in a well-lighted class- 
room could cause an unwanted reading if the pen is directed 
towards the light. 

On the positive side, there were several individuals that 
could correctly answer questions when using The Light Pen 
and could not answer correctly by other methods such as 
using the keyboard or a joystick. After ruling out these types 
of misreadings, 1 found that most, if not all students 
appeared to perform better with The Light Pen. There 
appears to be a more direct correlation between the action of 
selecting an answer and the position of the answer on the 
screen. 

In general, I feel that there are some excellent reasons for 
using a light pen with handicapped individuals or young 
children, as well as for those who simply like to experiment 
with an alternate form of input for the computer. The price 
of The Light Pen ($ 1 9.95) is very reasonable. I would suggest 
that The Light Pen is a "must have" tool for those who use 
computers with handicapped young children. The Light Pen 
does have some weaknesses but for the price it is difficult to 
pass up. 

★ ★ ★ 

Now, let's look at a unique test of The Light Pen. To 
thoroughly test it, 1 constructed a test program and some 
keyboard modifications (see Listing 1). The program pre- 
ents a key word framed in the center of the video screen. This 
word is selected at random from the. words, "TOP, BOT- 
TOM, LEFT, and RIGHT." Each of the words is then 
placed around the peripheral of the screen at the appropriate 
location. The task is to select the word that matches the 
word in the center frame. Students were given 20 trials each 
with five different methods of selecting the appropriate 
word. The methods tested three forms of input (ways the 
answer could be chosen) and two different screen formats 
(what appeared on the screen). These methods are described 
below: 

I) Light Pen — The student would select the answer by 
touching a flashing graphic box below the answer with the 
light pen. 



SELECT LEU EL 
1,2,0,4 




fl PROGRAM FOR TEACHING CHILDREN TO TELL TIME 



m 



SELECT H OR m 

TRS-80 Color Computer* 
Requires 16K Extended Basic 




10315 



APPEALING GRAPHICS, FUN REWARDS AND SOUND 
Used Successfully In Classrooms and In Homes 

Cassette $24.95 

ALSO AVAILABLE— CASSETTES 
Counting Money $19.95 Mgthfact $16.95 
Add-Carry $19.95 ABC's $ 9.95 

Subtract-Borrow $19.95 Spelling $16.95 

WRITE FOR FREE DESCRIPTIVE BROCHURE 

DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME >«v 

B5 SOFTWARE 

1024 Bainbridge PI. Columbus, OH 43228 



242 



the RAINBOW January 1984 




TM 



COLOR COMPUTER VOICE SYNTHESIZER 

UNLIMITED SPEECH! 

FEATURES SPIEAKS F©IR ITSELF! 

• A COMPLETE PHONEME BASED VOICE SYNTHESIZER IN A CARTRIDGE STYLE PAK 

• COLORSPEAK HAS ITS PROGRAM IN ROM, SO ITS INSTANTLY THERE ON TURN ON! 

• TEXT TO SPEECH MODE-CONVERTS PLAIN ENGLISH TEXT 10 SPEECH! 

• SPELLING MODE SPELLS TEXT AND PRONOUNCES MOST PUNCTUATION 

"SUPER! EASY TO USE" DC. MIAMI 

USER FRIENDLYICOLORSPEAK IS THE EASY TO USE VOICE SYNTHESIZER WITH 
ALL FEATURES EASILY ACCESSIBLE FROM BASIC. SIMPLY PUT THE WORD OR PHRASE 
TO SPEAK IN A STRING NAMED TALKS. THEN CALL THE USR ROUTINE TO SPEAK THE 
TEXT! ALL OF BASICS STRING MANIPULATIONS ARE APPLICABLE COLORSPEAK COMES 
WITH A DETAILED USER MANUAL , PHONEME DICTIONARY AND DEMO TAPE. PRICE $129 

NEW 
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$25 

ALL SOFTWARE VOICE SYNTHESIZER-TEXT TO SPEECH-SPELLING MOOES 

KJ% OFF TO SIGHT IMPAIRED 
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[SOIMisLEBEE SOFTWARE 

P090X2S447 CHICAGO It SOS2I TEL 312 275 4183 



ARCADE ACTION 

MIRES ©9L0IR M^eiKllIME LAWaOMs 

IMOVA-PIIMBALL. & 



FEATURE 



Arcade Action Graphics and Sound 
4 Players-Bonus Ball • Bonus Scores 
Liva Action Fltppara -Ball Kicker 
Action Bumpari and Thumpers $20 

WARS 0 

Your mission ts to destroy all robots and save the 
surviving humans Watch for the missle tiring BRAINS 
and the fatal touch of the HULKS* SIS 



DERBY 



.r 



Race around the track with a computer controlled 
car in pursuit Like the arcade, DODGE-EM! $14 

PAC MAC 

Great PAC- MAN action! $«5 

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Guide MOPPY safely home to his 
dock, travel across a highway and hop 
on LOGS A TURTLES to get there ! % 13 




PfflNHEALU 



DEALER AUTHOR INQUIRIES INVITED 



2) Modified Keyboard — I constructed a modified key- 
board by covering the keys with a piece of plexiglass with 
four selection keys. The student would select the answer by 
touching the key in the same relative position as the appro- 
priate answer on the screen (see picture). 

3) Joystick — The students would select an answer by mov- 
ing the joystick in the direction of the appropriate answer. 
The position of the joystick is shown by a red flashing block 
on the screen (under one of the answer words). 

4) M odif ied Keyboard with screen flash — This is the same 
as Method 2 except that the flashing white graphic block 
was shown under each answer. This was done to determine if 
the flashing block (which must be ysed with The Light Pen) 
has a distracting effect. 

5) " Joystick with screen flash — The method of selection was 
the same as for number 3 but a flashing white graphic block 
was added to the screen. 

The students using the program are "trainable or severely 
mentally handicapped students." Their average reading 
level is below second grade and some students neither read 
nor communicate verbally. Every student used all five of the 



250 



The Listing: 



1 
4 



CLS 

PRINT#-2, 



250.. 
540.. 
END 



02B8 
058B 
081 D 



:PRINT#-2, 



5 INPUT "WHAT IS THE NAME"; N*:PR 
INT#-2,N* 

6 PRINT #-2, " ■ 



lO L(1)=78:L(2)=227:L(3)=251:L(4 
)=430 

15 WS*(1)="A TOP ANSWER" :WS* (2)= 
"SOOD JOB" : WS* (3)="RIGHT ANSWER" 
:WS*<4)="THE BOTTOM LINE" 
20 W*(l)=" TOP ":W*(2>=" LEF 
T ":W*(3)=" RIGHT ":W*(4)=" BO 
TTOM " 

50 CLS: PR I NT "WORDS ? Y/N" 

60 Q*=INKEY*: IF <3*<>"Y" AND Q*<> 

"N" THEN 60 

lOO X=RND (-TIMER) 

110 FOR A=l TO 5:X(A)=A:NEXT 

120 FOR A=5 TO 2 STEP -1 

130 U=RND (A) 

140 T»X(A) :X(A)^X(U) :X(U)=T 

150 NEXT A 

200 FOR J=l TO 5 

205 X=X(J) 

210 CLS 

220 ON X GOSUB 240,250,270,260,2 
80 

225 PRINT: PR I NT "PRESS A WHEN REA 
DY" 

230 X*=INKEY*:IF X*<>" A " THEN 23 
O ELSE 300 

240 PR I NT6232 , " PEN " : PR I NT#-2 , " PE 
N": RETURN 

250 PRINT 6232, "KEY FLASH": PRINT 



methods. The order in which methods were presented was 
selected at random. 

On the average, students gave the most correct responses 
with the modified keyboard. The flashing of a graphic block 
had little effect. Students gave the least correct responses 
with the Joystick Method and again the flashing had little 
effect. Although The Light Pen was less effective than the 
modified keyboard for the average of the group, there were 
several individuals who could answer correctly with The 
Light Pen but were considerably less successful with any of 
the other methods. It appeared that most if not all individ- 
uals could best understand the method of selecting an 
answer when they were using a light pen. However, some 
students trailed over incorrect answers when selecting an 
answer and would leave The Light Pen on an answer long 
after the time required to make a selection. This would result 
in inadvertent selection of answers and lower scores than 
was obtained for the modified keyboard method. 

Students had the greatest difficulty with the joystick. 
Students tended to move in the general direction of the 
correct answer but were not precise enough to make a cor- 



#-2 , "KEY FLASH " : RETURN 

260 PRINT 6232, "KEY NOFLASH" : PR I 

NT#-2 , " KE Y NOFLASH " : RETURN 

270 PRINT 6232, "JOYSTICK FLASH": 

PR I NT#-2 , " JOYST I CK FLASH " : RETURN 

280 PRINT 6232, "JOYSTICK NOFLASH 

":PRINT#-2, "JOYSTICK NOFLASH": RE 

TURN 

300 CLS 

310 IF X<4 THEN W*-CHR* (207) +CHR 
* ( 207 ) : B*=CHR* ( 240 ) +CHR* ( 240 ) EL 
SE W*=CHR* ( 1 43 ) +CHR* (143): B*=W* 
320 IF Q*="Y" THEN PR I NT6L ( 1 ) -32 
, "T0P":PRINT6L(2)+30, "LEFT":PRIN 
T@L (3) +31 , "RIGHT" : PRINT6L (4) +31 , 
"BOTTOM" 

330 PRINT6171, STRING* (10, 175) J 
340 FQR A=l TO 3: PRINT6A*32+171 , 
CHR* ( 175) ; STRING* (8, 143);CHR*(17 
5);: NEXT A 

350 PRINT632#4+171 , STRING* (10, 17 
5); 

390 TIMER=0 

400 FOR Q=l TO 20 

410 W=RND(4) :PRINT6236,W*(W) ; 

500 FOR N=l TO 4 

505 K*-INKEY* 

510 PRINT6L (N) , W*; 

520 FOR D<=1 TO 10: NEXT D 

530 LP(N)=JOYSTK(0) 

535 IF J0YSTK(3) <20 THEN JS»1 E 

LSE IF J0YSTK(3)>40 THEN JS=4 EL 

SE IF J0YSTK(2)<20 THEN JS=2 ELS 

E IF J0YSTK(2)>40 THEN JS=3 

537 IF X=3 OR X=5 THEN PRINT@L(J 

S) , STRING* (2, 191) ? 

540 IF K*<>"" THEN K-INSTR ( "6DKB 
",K*):IF X=2 OR X=4 THEN 700 



244 the RAINBOW January 1984 



rect selection. They tended to ignore the information on the 
screen while they were making a selection. The program 
kept track of the total amount of time required to respond to 
20 questions. Students responded fastest with the light pen 
and slowest with the joystick. The joystick selection method 
was significantly slower for this group of individuals and the 
light pen was only slightly faster than the modified key- 
board. It might be expected that these results are only typi- 
cal for a handicapped population. 

As a result of this study, I believe that I can recommend 
The Light Pen as a method for handicapped students to 
select answers for educational software. Certain students 
were more successful with this method than with other 
methods. However, the modified keyboard appeared to 
provide the most reliable method for students to respond. 

(Colorware, 70-03 Jamaica Ave., Woodhaven, NY 11421, 
$19.95) 

— Dr, Charles H. Santee 



545 PK=PEEK< 65280) : IF <PK=125 OR 
PK=253> THEN IF X=3 OR X-5 THEN 
690 

550 PRINTQL <N> , B*? 
560 NEXT N 

570 AV=(LP<1>+LP<2)+LP<3)+LP<4) ) 
/4 

580 FOR N=l TO 4 

590 IF LP<N)>AV+3 THEN AV=LP(N): 
Z=N 

600 NEXT N 

610 IF Z=0 OR X<> 1 THEN 500 

620 LP=JOYSTK(0> 

630 PRINTGLCZ) ,W*J 

640 FOR D=l TO 10: NEXT D 

650 IF J0YSTK<0XLP+5 THEN 500 

680 GOTO 700 

690 PK=PEEK < 65280 >: IF PK=125 OR 
PK=253 THEN 690 

700 IF X=l THEN SL=Z ELSE IF <X= 
2 OR X=4> THEN SL=K ELSE SL=JS 
710 IF W=SL THEN RT=RT+1 : PRINT @ 
O, WS* < SL ) ; : SCREEN 0,1: PLAY » T4L80 
2CDEFGAB03CDEFGAB04CDEFGAB" : PR IN 
T SO, " 

730 IF WOSL THEN WR=WR+1 : PLAY"T 
4L403C01C" 

740 NEXT Q 

741 TI-TIMER/60 

745 PR I NT#-2, "PERCENT - ";100*<R 
T/20) ; "X":PRINT#-2 P " ";TI; "SE 
C0NDS":PRINT#-2 

746 RT=0 
750 NEXT J 
760 RUN 

1000 K*INSTR("6DKB",K*> : IF KOO 
THEN 700 
1010 GOTO 545 




CHROMA 



EUCHRE! 



A Hi-Res version of the card game. Your partner is 
the computer, the opponent team is played by the computer. Allows 
any of the four players to "GO" alone. 
(ECB, 32k) 

Cassette $19-95 J 




DSKMON! 



Examine and fix sector data, also includes disk read, 
write, file information display, and selective disk backup. 
(ML, 16k or 32k) 

L Disk (With Source) . . $24.95 



MORE CSG PROGRAMS! 



UTILITIES 

CCADS — A full 6809 machine language monitor with line assembler 
and disassembler All you need to debug machine language programs. 
(ML, 16k or 32k) ^ 
Cassette $19.95 or Disk (With Source) 'ass $23.95 

UNLOCK — A complete disk backup utility. Features included are 
initialization of any track; copy any track and correct I/O errors, or leave 
them intact: and verify any track. Track numbers up to track 80 may be used 
at any time. 

(ML, 16k or 32k) ^ 

Disk (With Source) toe $24.95 

CHROMA-KEYS — Define function keys and save them to disk or 
cassette. 

(ML, 16k or 32k) ^ 

Cassette $9.95 or Disk (With Source) ^ $13.95 

SPOOLER — Print ASCII files from disk without waiting. 
(ML, 16k, 32k, or 64k only) 

Cassette $11.95 or Disk (With Source) $15.95 

COMMAND — Add machine language programs as commands to 
BASIC 

(ML, 16k or 32k) 

Cassette $15.95 or Disk (With Source) $19.95 



GAMES 



f vaMivico x 

PROSPECTOR — An ECB Hi-Res graphics game. Can you get the gold 
out of the mine? 
(ECB, 16k or 32k) 

Cassette $7.95 

JUMP-A-PEG — A Hi-Res version of an ancient strategy game. 
(ECB, 16k or 32k) ^ 
\^ Cassette rr?. $7.95 



r 



MISCELLANEOUS 



CLOCK — A software real-time clock program for the CoCo. Warning; 
The clock will stop during tape I/O. 

(ML, 16k or 32k) ^ 

Cassette $9.95 or Disk (With Source) $13.95 

DARKROOM DATABASE — Throw away your Photo-Lab index. Let 
CoCo look up the facts. Darkroom Data-Base with timer. 
(Disk, 16k or 32k) 

Disk $19.95 



--50W^352^^MC-10 SOFTWARE! 



Write for more details. 



CHROMA- SYSTEMS GROUP 

P.O. Box 366 
Dayton. Ohio 45420 
Please include $1 for shipping and handling per item. Ohio residents please 
add 6% sales tax. 



January 1984 the RAINBOW 245 



Software Review! 



Rainbow's Corner Is 
Educationally Enriching And 
Fun For Children 

By Carol Kueppers 

Rainbow's Corner is the title of a group of learning pro- 
grams, as well as the title of one of the games. Two of the 
activities are designed for two or more players; one may be 
used either alone or with others; and four are for one person. 
These programs are primarily intended for use by children 
from five to 1 1 years old. Although older children will enjoy 
them, they will not be as challenged. Several of these activi- 
ties use the computer to help teach problem solving skills 
and are a welcome change from the now all-too-common 
drills. 

In the game Rainbow's Corner, the object is to find the 
gold located somewhere in the castle of the Blue Snorgle. At 
the start of the game, the player has five gold pieces and the 
castle is represented by a large rectangular grid, divided into 
rooms, with the X and Y coordinates given along the sides. 
The player specifies the room he wishes to enter by typing in 
the proper coordinates, separated by a comma. 

If he hears a sound the player is near the Gold-Gobbling- 
Grouch, and should seek elsewhere. If he enters the room of 



Coco Headquarters 



DELKER ELECTRONICSJNC 
P.O. BOX 897 DEPT D 
SMYRNA, TN 37167 
800-251-5008 
800-545-2502 (TENNESSEE' 
615-459-2636 (TENNESSEE 
615-254-0088 (NASHVILLE 




COCO 
UPGRADES, 



1.1 Extended Basic $ 69.95 

1.2 Color Basic Rom $ 29.95 
1.1 Disk Controller $ 29.95 
64k Upgrade Kit $ 59.95 
CoCo 2 16k Standard $149.95 

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TENNESSEE 
800-545-2502 
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Coco Headquarters 



the Grouch, he hears a high pitched sound and one of his 
gold pieces is taken. The Grouch then enters another room, 
one that the player has not yet entered. 

As rooms are entered, they are colored in. Further clues 
are given to the player as he progresses from room to room. 
The word Vikes on the screen indicates gold is near, while 
Ho-hum tells him that he is neither near the gold nor the 
Grouch. 

The game is very effective in teaching the use of coordi- 
nates to specify location, and helps develop problem-solving 
skills. Any child who has learned to read a few words can 
play, with its appeal greatest among the younger group. 
Once children have become used to this system through the 
game, parents and teachers can show children the use of 
coordinates on maps and graphs in the everyday world. 

I feel this game is excellent; however, because it is 
intended for use with children, I should like to suggest that 
the author correct some minor imperfections. Should a child 
inadvertently press [ENTER] before he has entered the 
coordinates separated by a comma, the screen scrolls. This 
places perhaps too great an emphasis on following the direc- 
tions exactly. Also, in the on-screen instructions, the word 
"it's" is used to denote possession. Any parent could easily 
correct the latter before making a back-up copy. 

Wraparound is a word game which can be successfully 
played by children from the time they have learned to read a 
few words. One child types in three words, each of which 
must have between four and 1 2 letters. His opponent is then 
shown the word "wrapped" on the screen in two rows of 
letters, with the initial letter somewhere in the group. The 
word is not scrambled, so that once the initial letter is found 
the player reads around and types out the rest of the word. 
He has three tries, and when successful, the letters are pulled 
from the block, and a colorful graphic display is shown. In 
addition to scoring points based on which try was successful, 
a bonus is given for speed. 

This game can be used successfully in the home between 
parent and child with new vocabulary and spelling words. 
However, when two children play together trying to trip 
each other up, the game takes on a whole new dimension. 
Then, each seeks out unusual words and the contest encour- 
ages the learning of new words. 

In Alien Codes, which is also for two or more players, one 
player types in a series of words — which can be random or 
part of a phrase — with a maximum total of 25 letters. These 
are then shown to his opponent in a box in the center of the 
screen, with no spaces between the letters, starting at a 
random location in one of the words. 

As in Wraparound, the words are not scrambled and the 
phrase proceeds in order. The game is to move the arrow 
keys over the initial letter of each word and press the space- 
bar. If the letter is the correct starting letter of a word, a 
black box remains there and the player seeks the initial letter 
of the next word. Should he want help, pressing H will tell 
him the number of words chosen by his opponent. Speed is 
important here as he has only a limited time to find all the 
words. 

The manual includes a story for the game, while the screen 
display shows the time remaining, score, and hints in the 
boxes, as an instrument display of the "spaceship." These 
graphics add to the fun of the game. Because this game deals 
in a group of words together, it is more difficult than Wrap- 
around. The child can graduate to Alien Codes. Again, a 
parent can enter the child's reading and spelling words, or 
key phrases, but when children play together, if they are like 



246 the RAINBOW January 1984 



QJU 




5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 

(702) a52-0632 



HI-RES SCREEN UTILITY 
F ** turin * : Double H e i 9 h t Ch ^ r ^ tgr - 

. On Screen UNJERLINIHfi 
Bel I Character tone Generator 
SHitchable Fu I I Screen Reverse Ui deo 
T rue Upper & L o Me r c a s e character set 

■annzwivnsiiffiiimiiiffn 

Prosranable line lensths ProM 28 to 255 i^ar-acters 

28 Characters per line 
32 Characters per line 
36 Characters per line 
42 Characters per line 
51 Characters per line 
iA Characters per I ine 

Line lengths oF 85*128 & 255 are unreadable 
but; can be very useFul For see ins display layouts 

Hi I Functions are easily prosranable thru BASIC 
Fully BhSIC COMPhT IBLF including CLS & PRINT 8. 



$19.95 



• FULLY BASIC COMPATIBLE 

• DISPLAY FORMATS OF 28 to 255 

CHARACTERS PER LINE 

• FULL 96 UPPER/LOWER CASE CHARACTERS 

• MIXED GRAPHICS & TEXT OR SEPARATE 

GRAPHIC & TEXT SCREENS 

• INDIVIDUAL CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING 

• REVERSE CHARACTER HIGHLIGHT MODE 

• WRITTEN IN FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE 

• AUTOMATIC RELOCATES TO TOP OF 16/32K 

• AUTOMATICALLY SUPPORTS 64K of RAM 

WITH RESET CONTROL 



REVERSE SCREEN 
ON SCREEN UNDERLINE 
DOUBLE SIZE CHARACTERS 
ERASE TO END OF LINE 
ERASE TO END OF SCREEN 
HOME CURSOR 
BELL TONE CHARACTER 
HOME CURSOR & CLEAR SCREEN 
REQUIRES ONLY 2K OF RAM 
COMPATIBLE WITH ALL TAPE & 
DISK SYSTEMS 



my testers, they will try to fool the others with unusual 
combinations. 

Gulp! is a terrific arcade-style game, which can only be 
played after successfully answering a simple addition prob- 
lem. The answer to the addition problem is given in a 
number line beneath the problem, so the child just learning 
to add can count the squares in the number line. 

After each correct answer, the answer is placed in a center 
box, and the player is given a chance to play Gulp! a Break- 
out style game, trying to get to the center square before the 
computer's "greedy gulp worm" gets to it. The player has a 
blue "mite" and is presented with a series of walls made of 
colored bricks. The mite moves up and down and breaks 
throuh a wall when the player presses the spacebar. 

Each brick color has a different score value, so that, for a 
maximum score, the player must wait until his mite is oppo- 
site the brick he wants to break through before pressing the 
spacebar. If he presses the spacebar while next to an orange 
brick, the computer's worm advances. When the mite is at 
the last wall, the worm continues his advance, so the player 
should have his mite lined up before he breaks through this 
final wall and must quickly press the spacebar to win. 

The game is challenging and a lot of fun for all ages, not 
only those who are learning the number line concept. To add 
to the educational value of this number line program, I wish 
the author had included a choice of arithmetic problems at 
different levels for different age groups. Among my testers, 
everyone loved the game, and it could easily have served as a 
reward for difficult problems for older children. 

Pears, Berries and Figs is a game which can be played 
either against the computer or with two or more players. 



One player types in a two-digit number for the other(s) to 
guess, or the computer chooses a number. The other play- 
ers) then type in a two-digit number. If neither digit is 
correct, two Ps, for pears, are shown in the column adjacent 
to the number selected, if one is correct, but in the wrong 
location a PB is shown for pear, berry. If one is correct and 
in the proper location, a PF would be shown, for pear, fig. 
Unlike Mastermind, the position of the F does not indicate 
that the digit which is correct is necessarily in that position, 
although it may be. All previous guesses are shown on the 
screen, with the result for each so that the correct answer can 
be deduced. 

The game fosters deductive reasoning in a way that is fun. 
Although, as a one-player game, Pears, Berries and Figs can 
only be played against the computer, once groups of child- 
ren have learned it, it can be played without the computer as 
a paper and pencil game on car trips. 

This tape also includes two "math utilities." These are 
intended as a means for kids to check their homework. One 
program is for addition and subtraction, the other for mul- 
tiplication and division. In the addition, subtraction and 
multiplication utilities, the problem is typed in followed by 
the answer the child obtained. If the answer is correct he is 
told that it is; if wrong, he is immediately shown the correct 
answer. In the division utility, if his answer is incorrect he is 
shown how the problem should have been solved by the 
usual long division method. Although some teachers and 
parents might like to have the children correct their home- 
work with this type of program, simply so that the children 
gain more experience using the computer with the exception 
of the division program the child learns nothing more than 
he would from using a calculator. To have real merit, the 
program would need to include teaching hints after the 
wrong answer is given. This would include, in an additional 
problem, for example, asking the child to think and add the 
right hand column again with the computer stating if the 
correct answer was achieved, then asking if a number needs 
to be carried, and so on. The potential to use the computer to 
help the child reach the correct answer is not utilized by 
these programs, so they are the weakest in the group from an 
educational standpoint. 

Parents are advised that they will want to make a back up 
tape, not only to preserve the original, but also because the 
programs are on the tape with only a miniscule gap between 
them. Thus, successfully locating the start of all but the first 
program without obtaining an I/O Error is more difficult 
than it should be. Children simply do not have the patience 
to wait for a whole tape to play in order to load the one 
program they want. 

The tape is accompanied by a spiral-bound manual which 
includes stories for the Rainbow's Corner, Gulp! and Alien 
Codes games, explicit instructions for use of all the pro- 
grams, as well as a section for teachers and parents. This is 
well thought out, complete, and shows the care taken with 
the programs. 

In the front of the manual is a page indicating that school 
children helped develop these programs, and I believe it. 
Children do have fun with all of them. Because 1 believe that 
only those educational activities which children enjoy will 
actually be used, these rate highly. In addition, their suitabil- 
ity for a broad age range makes this a tape which will be used 
over a long period of time. 

(Rainbow's Corner, 2901 Mirante Ct., Richmond, CA 
94803, tape $19.95) 



GRAFPLOT 

DRAWS PICTURE: WORTH lOOO WORDS 



User-Pet" i ried Functions: 



ine Waves 



"Very impressed. " 
"Eaually useful in the 

home and office." 
•"Meticulous, handhcild- 

i ng document ati on . " 
"Very easy to use. " 
- RAINBOW, July *83 



(Actual output) 
(Shown reduced) 




Horizon* a 1-X-flxi 



Time* Distance? etc. 



GRAFPLOT 1.1 includes everything you need to go e-f fortlessly 
from raw data to prof essi onal-qual i ty printed graphs in minutes. 
Perfect for business. personal, educational. scientific and 
engineering applications. Free screenprint for R/S printers. 

4c Automatically scales and draws graph for best appearance. 

* Full ASCII upper and lower case in 4 on-screen labels. 

* Two fully labeled Y-axes, 200 or more data points per axis. 
4c 9 graphing symbols with unlimited overlay of data. 

* Full function data editing: add, change, delete and sort. 

* Universal 8crt)»nprint Loader- Automatically interfaces 

ANY screenprint program for non-Radio Shack printers. 

* Graphs and data output to screen, printer, tape or disk. 

* Plots user — defined functions: projections, regressions, etc. 

* Calculates moving averages (binomial smoothing), cumulative 

totals and integrals of data or usei — defined functions. 

* Saves completed graphs for instant reloading. 

4c Menu driven with complete error trapping and auto-prompting. 
4c Comprehensive manual w/ tutorials and sample data. 
4c Disk Only: display or print directory, kill or rename files. 
4c Many other labor — saving and time-saving features. 

GRAFPLOT is available for 16K E.C.B. (S35.00) and 32K E.C.B. 
(*4O.O0> on cassette and for 32K disk <«45.00> (U.S.). Send 
check or money order to: HAWKES RESEARCH SERVICES, 1442 Sixth 
St